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The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 1821 as 
the "Philosophical Society of Australasia"; after an interval of 
inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; in 1866, by the sanction of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed its present title, 
and was incorporated 1 
Wales in 1881. 


The Honorary Secretaries request that authors of papers (to be 
read before the Royal Society of New South Wales) requiring 
illustration* hy photo-lithography, will, before preparing such 
drawings, make application to the Assistant Secretary for patterns 
of the standard sizes of diagrams <fec. to suit the Society's Journal. 


„ XVII. 
„ XIX. 
„ XXI. 
„ XXII. 
„ XXIV. 
„ XXV. 
„ XXVI. 
„ XXIX. 
„ XXX. 


Officers for 1896-97 ""*• 

List of Members, &c **• 

I.— President's Address. By Professor T. W. Edgeworth 

David, b.a., f.g.s. (Plates i. - iv.) 1 

. II.— On periodicity of good and bad seasons. By H. C. 

Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s. (Plate v.) 70 

. Ill,— The 'Mika' or 'Kulpi' operation of the Australian 
Aboriginals. By Professor T. P. Anderson Stuart, m.d., 

(Plate vi.) 115 

. IV.— Note on the absorption of water by the gluten of 

different wheats. By F. B. Guthrie, f.c.s 124 

V.— On Aromadendrin or Aromadendric acid from the 
turbid group of euclalyptus kinos. By H. G. Smith, f.c.s. 135 
VI.— On the cellular kite. By Lawrence Hargrave. (Plate 

VII.— Note on a method of separating colloids from crystal- 
loids by filtration. By C. J. Martin,, m.b 147 

. VIII.— An explanation of the marked difference in the effects 
produced by subcutaneous and intravenous injection of the 
venom of Australian snakes. By C. J. Martin, m.b. ... 150 

IX.— On the occurrence of a submerged forest, with remains 
of the Dugong, at Shea's Creek near Sydney. By R. 
Etheridge, Junr., Professor T. "W. Edgeworth David, b.a., 

xa, xi^xU) ... rimS .. W ' M .! MtCE •'• '••• I 58 

X.— Note on recent determinations of the viscosity of water 
by the efflux method. By G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., l.s. ... 186 
Xl.-On the constituents of the sap of the ' Silky Oak,' 
Grevillea robusta, RBr., and the presence of butyric acid 

therein. By Henry G. Smith, f.c.s i94 

XII.— Current Papers, No. 2. By H. C. Russell, b.a., 

c.m.o.,f.b.s. (Plate xii.) 202 

XIII.— Additional remarks concerning Aboriginal Bora 
held at Gundabloui in 1894. By R. H. Mathews, l.h. ... 211 
XIV.— On the occurrence of precious stones in New South 
Wales and the deposits in which they are found. By Rev. 
J. Milne Curran. ( Plates xiii. - xx.) 214 

t Professor T. W. Edgeworth I 

Andropogon annulatus, Forsk. By R. T. 
Henry G. Smith, f.c.s. (Plates xxi., xxi 
Aet. XVII.— The rigorous theory of the 
meridian line by altazimuth solar 


Art. XIX.— Annual Address to the Engineering Section. By 

Art. XX.— The machinery employed for artiadal refrigeration 

and ice making. By Norman Selfe, m. inst. c.e., m.i.m.e., &c. ... s 
Art. XXI. — Water conservation surveys of New South Wales. 

By H. Q. McKinney, m. iuat. c.e. l 

Abt. XXII.— Lift bridge over the Murray at Swan Hill. By 

Percy Allan, Assoc, m. m*. c.e., Assoc, m. a,*, soc. c.e. (Plates 1 - 4). 

Abt. XXIII.— Centrifugal pump dredging in N. S. Wales. By 

A. B. Portus, Assoc, m. mst c.e. (Plates 5 - 14) 

Abt. XXIV.— The present position of the theory of the steam 

engine. By S. H. Barraclough, b.e., m.m.e o 


Proceedings of the Engineering Section 

Pboceedings op the Medical Section 

Additions to the Library 

Index to Volume XXX 

Exchanges and Presentations made by the Royal Society 
or New South Wales, 1896. 



Peof. ANDERSON STUART, m.d. | Pbof. T. 

J. W. GRIMSHAW, M.Inst.C.E. 

G. H. KNIBBS, f 

Members of Council i 
C. W. DARLEY, M.Inst.C.E. 1 H. A. LENEHAN, 

HENRY DEANE,m.a.,M. Inst. C.E. 

C. J. MARTIN, as. 

W. H. GOODE, m.a., m.d. 


W. M. HAMLET, f.c.s., f.i.c. 



Prof. WARREN, M 


Members are particularly requested to communicate any 
change of address to the Hon. Secretaries, for which purpose 
this slip is inserted. 

Correct Address : 

Titles, &c. 

To the 


gopat ^ocietg of feto $out& Wales. 

; l.i 

■ M, , 

IS 7 7 


IS! Hi 





1 Si HI 



P 1 

18! l.l 









Abbott, The Hon. Sir Joseph 

Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, Castlereagh-street. 
Abbott, W. E., ' Abbotsford,' Wingea. 
a Beckett, M. E., 'Surbiton,' Holden-street, Ashfield. 
Adams, P. F., * Casula,' ] 

Bridges Branch, Public Works Department, Sydney, 
lworth, Joseph Witter, District Surveyor, East Maitland. 
nos, Robert, • Kinneil,' Elizabeth Bay. 
■i.l.T*.n. II. C. L., m.a, 

Roads and Bridges Office, Mudgee. 

Backhouse, Alfred P., m.a., District Court Judge, ' Melita/ 
Elizabeth Bay. 

; ill", i 

tBalsille, George, Sandymount, Dunedin, New Zealand. 
Kiin.-r.-.ft, T. L., m.b. Edin., Deception Bay, via Burpengary, 

Brisbane, Queensland. 
Barff, H.E., m.a., Registrar, Sydney University. 
Barraclough, S. H., b.k., m.m.e., Lecturer on Applied Physics, 

Technical College, p.r. 16 Toxteth Road, Glebe Point. 
Bassett, W. F., m.b.c.s. Eng., George-street, Bathurst. 
Baxter, Wi v. ,r Existing Lines Office, 

Railway Department, p.r. ' Hawerby/ Carrington Avenue, 

Bedford, Alfred Perceval, Manager Permanent Trustee Co. of 

N.S.W., 16 O'Connell-shv.'t.' 
Belfield, Algernon H., ' Eversleigh,' Dumaresq. 
Belisario, John, m.d., Lyons' Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Benbow, Clement A., 263 Elizabeth-street. 
Bensusan, S. L., 1 1 < >Vonni>H-stiv. -t. Box 111 G.P.O. 
Bensusan, A. J., a.b.s.m., i 

t.c.s. Eng., l.r.c.p. Lond., Hospital for 
Park, Balmain. 
JBlaxland, Walter, f.r.c.s. Eng., l.r.c.p. Lond., Broken Hill. 
Blomtield, Charles E.. b. c. e. Melb., Water Conservation 
Branch, Public Works Department, Hillston. 
„l. Albert. 131 Ball's Chambers, Pitt-street. 

Superintendent of Public Watering 

Places and Artesian Boring, Department 

' * Redmyre Road, Burwood. 

Bowman, Reginald, m .i:. ., u,. u. Ed in., Parramatta. 
I rew John, Lie. k. & q. con. phys. Irel., He. r. Co 
3 Lyons' Terrace, Hyde Park. 

Brennand, Henry J. W., b.a., Bank of New Sou 
Haymarket Branch, City. 

Bridge, John, Circular Quay. 

^Brooks, Joseph, f.r.g.s., f.r.a.s ., 'Hope Bank/ Nelson-street, 

Brown, Alexander, Newcastle. 

Broun, David, ' Kallara,' Bourke. 

Brown, Henry Joseph, Solicitor, Newcastle. 

Brownless, Anthony Colling, m.b., ch. b. Melb., 285 Elizabeth- 
street, Hyde Park. 

Bruce, John Leek, Technical College, Sydney. 

Bundock, W. C, ' Wyangarie,' Casino. 

Burge, Charles Ormsby, )i.i„»t.i'.n.. Engineer-in-Charge of 
Railway Surveys, ' Fitz Johns,' Alf red-st. N., North Sydney. 

Burne, Dr.' Alfred, Dentist, 1 Lyons' Terrace, Liverpool-st. 

Bush, Thomas James Engineer's Office, Australian Gas-Li ' 
Company, 163 Ktnt-street. 



. Sydney. 

Nicola's College, 
. Lond., 

Cadell, Alfn 

Cameron, Alex. Mackenzie. V\ ;ilgcti 

Campbell, George S. 

Campbell, John Honeyford, Royal Mil 

l,.V. Joseph, M.A., F.G.S.,F.< 

Campbell, W. Dugald, a»oc. m. m„t. c.i 

f.g.s , Post Office, Perth, W.A. 
Cape, Alfred J., m.a. Syd., ' Karoola,' Edgecliff Road. 
Carleton, Henry R, m.i.c.e., « Alameda,' Rirrell-st., Bondi. 
Carment, David, f.i.a. Gt. Brit. Sf Irel, f.f.a. Scot., Australian 

Mutual Provident Society, 87 Pitt-street. 
tChard, J. S., Licensed Surveyor, Armidale. 
Chisholm, Edwin, m.r.c.s. Eng., l.s.a. Lond., Burradoo. 
Chisholm, William, m.d. Load., 139 Macquarie-street, North. 
Clarke, Gaius, c.e., Borough Engineer, Town Hall, Rockdale. 
Clubbe, C. P. B., l.r.c.p. Lond., m.r.c.s. Eng., 195 Macquarie- 


Codrington, John Frederick, 


Summer Hill. 

Comrie, James,' ' Northfield/ Kurrajong Heights, via Eich- 
i Brewery, Bourke-st., Waterloo. 
•). Melb., ' Warminster/ Canter- 
r Tramways, p.r. * Glencoe,' 

Corn well, Samuel, Australia 
Cottee, W. Alfred, j.p., 135- 
Coutie, W. H., M. B Un 

d, Petersham. 
Cowdery, George E., Engin 

~ ngton Eoad, Strathfield. 

, Mudgee. 

Croudace, Thomas, Lambton. 

irran, Eev. J. Milne, Lecturer in Geology, Technical College, 
Sydney, p.r. 557 Elizabeth-street, City. 

Creed, The Hon. J. Mildred, I 

Dangar, Fred. H., c/o Messrs. Dangar, Gedye,&Co., Mercan- 
Dare, Henry Harvey, m.k. JL «. M ». Roads and Bridges 

Branch, Public Works Department. 

Darley, Cecil West, m. mst. as.. Engineer-in-Chief, Public Works 

Darle^ThTSon. Sir Frederick, Knt., b.a., Chief Justice, 

DavidfT.^V.^dgeworth, b.a., f.g.s., Professor of Geology 

and Physical Geography, Sydney University, Glebe. Fwe- 

President. . nrma 

Supervising Engineer, Sewerage 

"" eet, Box 409 G.P.O. 

■Chief for Eailways, 

Works Department, 

Eoad, Hunter's 

ie De' a*r 

Dean, Alexander, j.p., 42 Castlereagh 
Deane, Henry, ma., m. i U st.c.E., Engineer 
' " jr Construction Branch, * k ~ 1 - 
Wybal. ~ 


Deck^ Joh^Feild,' m'd. "un^SLAndZ^-C- 

Eng., Ashfield. 
De Salis, The Hon. Leopold Fane 

Dick, James Adam, b.a. 8yd., m. 

Belmore-road, Eandwick. 
, Dixon, W. . 

Chemistry, The Technical College Laboratory syoney. 
Dixson, Thomas,<*in.,Mast. Surg. Edin., 287 Elizabeth 

street, Hyde Park. „ . 

Docker, Wilfred L., ' Kyrambla/ Darlinghurst Eoad. 

a. 8yd., m.d., cm. Edin., ' Catfoss,' 
0™° Fellow and Member Institute of 

« u, ,,.,;,, ,.ml Ireland, Lecturer on 
Laboratory, Sydney. 

Docker, Ernest B., m.a. 8yd., District Court Judge, ' 

hull. 'ii.' Granville. 
Du Faur, E., f.r.g.s., Exchange Buildings, Pitt-street. 
Dunstan, Benjamin, f.g.s., Technical College, Sydney. 

Eddy, E. M. G., a 8 soc. in S t. c.e., Chief Commissioner of Eailways, 

' Colebrook,' Double Bay. 
Edgoll, Robert Gordon, Roads, Bridges, and Sewerage Branch, 

Public Works Department, Grafton. 
Edwards, George Rixon, Resident Engineer, Roads and 

Bridges Branch, Coonamble. 
Eichler, Cbarles F., m.d. Heidelberg, m.k.c.s. Eng., 56 Bridge-st. 
Elwell, Paul B., m. i»st. c.e.. m.i.e.e .. ., ., Australian Club. 
Etheridge, Robert junr., Curator, Australian Museum. 
Evans, George, Fitz Evan Chambers, Castlereagh-street. 
Evans, Thomas, m.r.c.s. Eng., 211 Macquarie-street, North. 
Everett, W. Frank, Roads and Bridges Office, 7 

Fairfax, Geoffrey E., S. M. Herald Office. Hunter-s 

, Farr, Joshua J., j.p., ' Cora Lynn,' Addison Rd., Marrickville. 
Fiaschi, Thos., mi., m.. i, Unir. I'lxa . L49 Macquarie-street. 
Firth, Thomas Rhodes, u. imtoiL. Principal Assistant Engineer 
Railway Construction Department, Sydney ; p.r. 'Glen- 
evin,' Arncliffe. 
Fitzgerald, Robert D., c.e., Roads and Bridges Branch, Depart- 
I ment of Public Works, Sydney; p.r. Alexandra-street, 
Hunter's Hill. 
Fitzhardinge, Grantly Hyde, m.a. Syd., District Court Judge, 

Fit/ Head, A. Churchill, Roads and Bridges Branch, Public 
Works Department, p.r. « Thaluya,' Carlton, N.S.W. 
;, Charles Alfred, m.a., King's School. Parramatta. 

^Foreman, Joseph, m.e.c.s. Eng., 
j street. 
Foster, The Hon. 

P 5 Fraser, John, b 
Alliance Sc 
I (Philosophical) Institute of C 

Freehill, Francis B , m.a. Syd, Solicitor, ' C 
j street, Burwood. 
; Furber, T. F., Surveyor General's Office, 2 

\ Victoria-street. 

8yd., Barncleuth i 

beth Bay Road. 
Garrett, Henry Edward, m.b.c.s. Eng., c/o Mess 

Russell, Solicitors, George-street. 
Gedye, Charles Townsend, c/o Messrs. Dangar, ( 

Mercantile Bank Chambers, Margaret-street. 
""" George-street. 

b, Sydney. 

Oipps, F. B., c.e., 'Elmly,' Mordialloc, Victoria. 
Goode, W. H., m.a., m.d., ch. m.. Diplomate in State Medici 
Dub. ; Surgeon Royal Navy j Corres. Mem. Royal Dub: 
Society; Mem. Brit. Med. Assoc. ; Lecturer on Medi< 
Jurisprudence, University of Sydney, 159 Macquarie-st 
Goodlet, John H., ' Canterbury House/ Ashfield. 
Iter J., ' Winslow,' Darling Point. 

a.Edin., m.l.a., 183 Li v. 


Neville, 369 George-s 

Gundlach, Louis Richard, 
Uuiversity, 149 
Guthrie, Frederick 


' Riversleigh/ Hunter's Hill. 

nankins, George Thomas, m.b.c.s. Eng., * St. Ronans/ Allison 

Road, Randwick. 
Hanly, Charles, l.s.. Resident Engineer, Roads and Bridges 

Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University, Sydne; 
p.r. St. Vigeans, Darling " '~ x 
y, Alea " 

Haycroft, James Isaac, m.e . 

/ Ocean-street, Woollahra. 

I..8., ' Fontenoy, 
Beaton, J. Hennikei 

:edley, Charles, f. 


3irst, George D., 377 George-street. 

Hinder, Henry Critchley, m.b., cm. Si/d.,Elizabeth-st. Ashneld. 
~ " Alexander Jarvie, m.b., Mast. Surg. Glas., 219 Mac- 

. larie-street, City. 
Hodgson, Charles George. 157 Macquarie-street. 
Holmes, Spencer Harrison, 'The Wilderness,' Allandale, 
Hunter Eiver. 
pughton, Thos. Harry, a.m.i.c.e., m.i.m.e., 12 Spring-street. 
\ n.lrew, b.a., m.b., cm. Edin., 47 Phillip-street, 
llnw, William F., m. imt. c.E., m. i. Mech. e.. wi, s,,, .Mutual Life 
Buildings, George-street, 
ime, J. K., ' Beulah.' Campbelltown. 

ant, Henry A., f. r. Met. Soc. Second Meteorological Assistant, 
Sydney Observatory. 
Hurst, George, m.a. Syd., m.b. Univ. Lond., m.b., cm. Univ. 

Edin., Bathurst. 
Hutchinson, W. A., Bond-street, p.r. 'Alston,' Glebe Point. 
Hutchinson, William, m. inst, c.e., Supervising Engineer, Kail- 
way Construction Branch, Public Works Department. 

Jacob, Albert Francis, a 

Bill, Newcastle. 
Jamieson, Sydney, b.a., m.b., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., 

' reet, Hyde Park. 
Jenkins, Edward Johnstone, m.a.,m.d. Oxon.,m 
s.a. Lond., 213 Macquarie-street, North. 

i The Terrace, Shepherd's 

i Chambers, Hm 

Jones, P. Sydney, m.d. Lond., f.b.c s. Eng., 16 College-s 
Hyde Park, p.r. ' Llandilo,' Boulevard, Strathfield. 

Jones, Richard Theophilus, m.d. Syd., 
Idris,' Ashfield. 
nes, Robert E., m. in. 

Josephson, J. Percy, 
Dulwich Hill. 

Joubert, Numa, Hunter's Hill. 

Kater, The Hon. 

' Tusculum,' Macleay-street, 

Keele, Thomas William, m. i M t. c.e.. Distri 
bours and Rivera Department, Balling 
Keep, John, Broughton Ha.:. 

K-M.hll. Theodore M., i 
College-street, Hyde 
Walter MacDonn 

..r.c.s. Edin., 

i.. 28 


Kent. Harry C, Bell's Chambers, 129 Pitt-street. 
Kiddle, Hugh Charles, f. r. Met. soc, Public School, Seven Oaks, 

Smithtown, Macleay River. 
King, Christopher Watkins, a.m.i.o.e., l s., Roads and Bridges 

Branch, Public Works Department, Sydney. 
BTing, The Hon. Philip G., m.l.c, ' Banksia,' William-street, 

Double Bay. 
King, Kelso, * Gleahurst,' Darling Point. 

David, Chief Traffic Manager, New South Wales 

Government Railways, Sydney. 
Knaggs, Samuel T., m.d. Aberdeen, f.r.c.s. Irel., 5 Lyons' 

Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Knibbs, G. H., f.r.a.s., l.s., Lecturer in Surveying, University 

of Sydney, p.r. 'Avoca House,' Denison Road, Petersham. 

Knox, Edward W., j.p., ' Rona,' Bellevue Hill, Double Bay. 
Knox, The Hon. Edward, m.l.c, O'Connell-street. 
Kopsch, G., 
Kyngdon, 5 

. Lond., Deanery Cottage, Bowral. 

Sch. Mines Lond. ; K.e.s . f..;.s., f.r.o.s. ; Fel. Inst. Chem. 
of Gt. Brit, and Irel. ; Hon. Fel. Roy. Historical Soc. Lond.; 
Mem. Phy. Soc. Lond.; Mineralogical Society, Lond.; 
Edin. Geol. Soc; Mineralogical Society, France; Cor. Mem. 
Edin. Geol Soc; Roy. Soc. Tas. ; Roy. Soc. Queensland; 
Senckenberg Institute. Frankfurt; Society d' Acclimat. 
Mauritius; H..n. Mem. H.»y. doc Vict.; N. Z. Institute; 
K. Leop. Carol. Acad. Halle als ; Professor of Chemistry 

" ?%& 

Lloyd, Lancelot T., ■ Eurotah,' William-street East. 
Lloyd, The Hon. George Alfred, m.l.c, f.r.g.s., ' Scottfort 
Elizabeth Bay. 
ir. Adrien. 

MacAllister, John F., m.b., b.s. 

Road, Stanmore. 
MacCarthy, Charles W., m.d., 

street, Hyde Park. 
MacCormick, Alexander, m.d., 

Macquarie-street North. 
MacCulloch, Stanhope H., m.b., 

., 223 Elizabeth- 
i.r.c.s. Eng., 125 
1 College-street. 

MacDonnell, Samuel, Cape's Chambers, 3 Bond-street. 
McDouall, Herbert Crichton, m.r.cs. Eng., l.e.c.p. Lond., 
Hospital for Insane, Gladesviile. 
cKay, Robert Thomas, l.s. 

sKay, William J. Stewart, b. sc. m.b., Ch. m.. ' Tara,' Edgeware 
Road, Enmore. 
Mackellar, The Hon. Charles Kinniard,M.L.c, m.b., cm. Glas., 

I Liverpool-street, Hyde Park. 
Mackenzie, John, f.g.s., Athenaeum Club, Sydney. 
Mackenzie, Eev. P. F., The Manse, Johnston-st., Annandale. 
M'Kinney, Hugh Giffin, m.e. Roy. Univ. Ird., mi - . v... Chief 
""* ' r Conservation, Athenaeum Club, Castle- 

. main., ll i-. I Macquarie-st. 

, William, m.l.a. ' St. Kilda,' Allison-st., Randwick. 
lans. F., 'Hesselmed House,' Queen-st., Newtown. 
Maiden, Joseph H., f.l.s., f.c.s., Corr. Memb. Pharm. Soc. 
Great Britain, and of Roy. Soc, S.A.; Hon Memb. Phila. 
Coll. of Pharm. and Royal Netherlands Soc., (Haarlem); 
Director, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. President. 
Maitland, Duncan Mearns, District Surveyor, Armidale. 
Makin, G. E., Market Square, Berrima. 
Manfred, Edmund C, Montague-street, Goulburn. 
Mann, John F., ' Kerepunu,' Neutral Bay. 

r, Frederic Norton, m.d Univ. St. And., m r.c.s. Eng., 
. Lond., Hunter's Hill. 

d, G. Allen, Martin Chambers, Moore-street. 
Marano, G. V., m.d, Univ. Naples, Clarendon Terrace, Eliza- 

street, Gundagai. 

Anthrop. Inst. 


Mathews, Robert Hamilton, 

; Cor. Mem. Roy. Geogi 

ron,' Hassall-street, Parramatta. 

Megginson, A. M., m.b., cm. Edin., 177a Liverpool- 

Millard, Reginald Jeffery, 

Callan Park, Bala "J 
iles, George E., l.b.c p. Lond., m.b.c.s. Eng., Hospital for 

Milford, F., m.d. Heidelberg, u 

)o Elizabeth-street. 
Milson, James, • Elamang,' North Shore. 

3 Clarendon Terrace, 

Noble, Ewald George, 60 Louisa Eoad, Longnose Point, 

Norton, The Hon. James, m.l.c, ll.d., Solicitor, 2 O'Connell- 

;reet, p.r. ' Ecclesbourne,' Double Bay. 

s, Edward, c.e., ' Waima,' Wentworth Eoad, Point Piper, 

n, Arthur I 

. Univ.Edw.,2131 

.. Irel, 574 

issoe. K.S.M., L.8.. Government Geologist, 

, Joseph, 133 Pitt-st., p.r. Kenneth-st„ Willoughby. 
»n, Hugh, 197 Liverpool-street, Hyde Park. 

Pedley, Perceval E., 227 Macqua ' ' 

Perkins, Henry A., ' Barangal 

Philip, Alex., l.k.q.c.p. Irel., 
Surry Hills. 

Pickburn, Thomas, m.d., c.i 

Pittman, Edward 
Department of ! 

Poate, Frederick, District Surveyor, Tamworth. 

Pockley, Francis Antill, m.b., M.Ch. Univ. Edin., m.b.c.s. Eng., 
227 Macquarie-street. 

Pockley, Thomas F. G., Commercial Bank, Singleton. 

Pollock, James Arthur, b.e. Eoy. Univ. Irel., b.s c . 8yd., Demon- 
strator in Physics, Sydney University. 

Poole, William Jr., a*,*.-, m. mst. c.k.. 87 Pitt-street, Eedfern. 

Pope, Eoland James, m.d., < mi., v.b.c.s. Edin., Ophthalmic 
Surgeon, 235 Macquarie-street. 

Porter, Donald A., Tamworth. 

"uperintendent of Dredges, 

Public Works Department. 

s,„i., < 



Reading, Richard Fairfax 

Eng., 151 I' 
Rennie, Edw; 


/:» : ;. l.'ii Mii.'<iuarie-atreet. 

~" -d H., m.a. 8yd., as.. Lon 
University, Adelaide. 
mi.'. «.. .i U ',. K., i:.\. .s'l/r/., m.d. Lond., 
College-street, Hyde Park. 

:, The Hon. Sir Arthur, m.l.c, b.a. Syd., m.d., f.r.c.s. 
. 896 Kliaabeth-street. 
Roberts, Sir Alfred, m.r.c.s. Eng., Hon. Mem. Zool. and Bot. 
125Macqu ■ 

dleston, John C, c.e., Harbours and Rivers Branch, Dept. 
of Public Works. 
Ronaldson, James Henry, Mining Engineer, 32 Macleay-st., 

ch, William, a««. m i>,*t. c.k.. Chief Draftsman, Harbours 
I Rivers Branch, Public Works Department. 

Vdin., Hospital for the 

, Herbert E., Consulting Mi 
, J. Grafton, O'Connell-stre. 
Rothe, W. H., Colonial S 

Rowney, George Henry, 
Board, 1 
Neutral Bay. 
Russell, Henry C, b.a. S% 
Hon. Memb. Roy. & 
, Sydney C 

Co., O'Connell-st., 

$ Pitt-street. 

Conservation Branch, Public 
Selfe, Norman, M. Inst, c.k., m. Inst. M.J 


Sellors, R. P. b.a. Syd., v 

Selman, D. Codrington, 

Victoria Chambers, 


Shellshear, Walter. 


tnst.CE., Divisional Engineer, Kail way 

Shepafd, A. D., Box 728 G.P.O. Sydney. 
Sheppard, Rev. G., b.a. Syd., Berrima. 
Shewen, Alfred, m.d. Univ. Lond., m.b.c.s. Eng., 6 Lyons' 

Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Simpson, Benjamin Crispin iip-street. 

; ■;.-, m.d., cm. Univ. Glas., Hospital for the Insane, 

mg Engineer, 97 Pitt-st. 
Robert Scot, m.b., cm. Edin., Elizabeth-street, 

Engineer, Metropolit 

Roads, Bridges and 
. Sydney, 
h, Public Works 

Smith, Walter Alexander, M.lnsi 
h, Public Worl 
Smyth, Se" 

Speak, P Sa 

Spencer. Walter, m.d. Brux., 13 Edgeware 1 

Spencer, Thomas William Loraine, Resident Engineer, Roads 

el, John, 

Lyons' Terrace, Hyde Park. 

Stephen, Arthur Winbourn, l.s., 

JStephen, The Hon. Septimus A., 

Strathroy,' East Orange. 


Stuart, T. ] 

ology, University of Sydney, p.r. 

Road, Double Bay. Vice-President. 
Sturt, Clifton, l.r.c p., l.r.cs. Edin., l.f.p 

Suttor, The Hon. W. H., m.i 

i.s. m., Government Metallurgist, 

Private Observatory, The Peninsula, 

1 Wales. 

., Solicitor for Railways, ' Camelot,* 

I Tebbutt, John, f.r 
Windsor, New 
Thom, James Campbell, 
Forest Road, Bexley. 
Thom, John Stuart, Solicitor, Athenaeum Chambers, 11 Castle- 
reagh-street ; p.r. ' Berowra,' Beaconsfield-street, Bexley. 
Thomas, F. J., Hunter River N.S.N. Co , Sussex-street. 
Thomson, Dugald, m.l.a., c/o Messrs. Thomson Bros., 9 Castle- 
i reagh-street. 
j Thompson, Joseph, 159 Brougham-street, Woolloomooloo. 

Eng., Health Department, Macquarie-street. 

1, Capt. A. J. Onslow, Camden Park, Menangle. 

;.M.E., Loeomotive Department 

I Thow, William, m. i 

P5 Threlfai; 

Cantab., Professor of Physics, Uni- 

•. Lond., 225 Macquarie- 

igh. M.K.r.s. En,/., Gunning. 
'Adderton,' Fullerton-street, Woollahra. 
h, M. <-])., d.i'.h., * Nugal Lodge,' Milford-st., 

Trebeck, Prosper '■ 

Club, Bent-street. 

Verdon, Arthur, Australian Club. 
Vicars, James, m.c.e., Assoc, m. Inst. C.E 
Yickery, George B., 78 Pitt-street. 

, Spezia, Italy 

, c/o Perpetual Trustee Company, 

! <)., Commercial Union Assurance Co., Pitt-street. 
Walsh, Henry Deane, b.k., t.c. Dub., m. inst.c.K., Supervising 
Engineer, Harbours and Rivers Department, Newcastle, 
alsh, C. R., Prothonotary, Supreme Court. 
Ward, James Wenman, 271 Bourke-street. 
Ward, Thomas William Chapman, b.a. b.c.k. Syd.,' Sainsbury,' 
The Avenue, Petersham. 

\ 'illiam Edward, b.a., m.d., m. Ch. Queen's University 
el.,K.D. Sy •, Sydney. 

Warren, W. H., Wh. Be. m. Inst, c.e„ Professc 
University of Sydney, 
atkins, John Leo, b.a. Cantab., m.a. Syd., Parliamentary 
Draftsman, Attorney General's Department, 5 Richmond 
Terrace, Domain, 
atson, C. Russell, m.r.c.s. Eng., ' Woodbine,' Erskineville 
Road, Newtown. 
Watt, Charles, Parramatta. 

Vaugh, Isaac, m.b., m.d. Dub., t.c.d., Parramatta. 
Pebb, Fredk. William, c.m.g., j.p., Clerk of the Legislative 

Assembly, ' Livadia,' Chandos-street, Ashfield. 
Vebster, A. S., c/o Permanent Trustee Co., 16 O'Connell-st. 
Webster, James Philip, Assoc. M. Inst. c.E., l.s, New Zealand 

Borough Engineer, Town Hall. Marriekville. 
Veigall, Albert Bythesea, b.a. Oxon., m.a. 8yd., Head Master, 
Sydney Grammar School, College-stiv.'t. 
JWesley, W. H. 

Westgarth, G. C, Bond-street, p.r. 59 Elizabeth Bay Road. 
tWhitfeld, Lewis, m.a. Syd., 'Oaklands,' Edgecliff Road. 
White, Harold Pogson, Assistant Assayer and Analyst, Dept. 

of Mines, p.r. 'Chester/ Station-street, Auburn. 
tWhite, Rev. W. Moore, a.m., ll.d., t.c.d. 
White, Rev. James S., m.a., t,l.d. Syd., ' Gowrie,' Singleton, 
hite, The Hon. Robert Hoddle Driberg, m.l.c, Union Club, 

p.r. 'Tahlee,' Port Stephens. 
r ilkinson, Rev. Samuel, 'Regent House,' Regent-street, 

Wil ££\°?' W " Camac ' M>D - Lond > M ' R - CP - Lond -> M - B - c - s - En 9; 

207 Macquane-street. 

lliams Percy Edward, The Department of Audit; p.r. 

'iiverley, Drummoyne-street, Hunter's Hill. 
Wilshire, James Thompson, f.l.s., f.b.h.s., j.p ,'Coolooli,' off 

Ranger's Road, Shell Cove, Neutral Bay. 
Wilshire, F. R., p.m., Penrith. 

ilson, Robert Archibald, m.d. Glas., Mast. Sunr. Glas.. 2 

Booth-street, Balmain. 
Wilson, James T., m.b., Mast, Surg. Univ. Edin., Professor of 

Anatomy, University of Sydney. 
Wood, Harrie, j.p., Waverley. 
Wood, Percy Moore, l.r.c.p. Lond., m.r.c.s. Eng., ' Redcliffe,' 

Lwerpool Road, Ashfield. 
Woolrych, F. B. W., 'Verner,' Grosvenor-street, Croydon. 
Wright, Frederick, m.p.s., c/o Messrs. Elliott Bros. 

O Connell-street, p.r. Harnett-street. 
Vnght, Horatio G. A., m.r.c.s. Eng., l.s.a. Lond., 4 Tork-st„ 

Wynyard Square. Hon. Treasurer. 
Wright, John, c.e., Toxteth-street, Glebe Point. 

Young, John, ' Kentville,' Johnston-street, Leichhardt. 

Bernays, Lewis A., c.M.G., f.l.s., Bi 

Bunsen, Professor Robert Wilhelm, 

Ellery, Robert L. J., f.r.s., f.r.a.s., 
mcr of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Foster, Michael, m.d., f. 
f Cambridge. 

Gregory, The Hon. Augustus Charles, c.m.g., m.l.c, f.r.g.s., 

Hector, Sir James, k.c.m.g., m.d., f.r.s., Director of the 
Colonial Museum and Geological Survey of New Zealand, 
jton, N.Z. 

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, k.c.s.i., m.d., c.b., f.e.s., &c, late 
Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Huggins, William, k.c.b., d.c.l., ll.d., f.r.s., &c, 90 Upper 
Tulse Hill, London, S.W. 

Hutton, Captain Frederick Wollaston, f.g.s., Curator, Canter- 
bury Museum, Christehurch, New Zealand. 

M'Coy, Frederick, c.m.g., d.Sc, f.r.s., f.g.s., Hon. m.c.p.s., 
c.m.-z.s., Professor of Natural Science in the Melbourne 
University, Government Palaeontologist, and Director of 
National Museum. Melbourne. 

Spencer, W. Baldwin, m.a., Professor of Biology, University 

., Professor of Natural Science, 

Wallace, Alfred Russel, d.c.l. Oxon., ll.d. Dvhlin, F.R.S. 

Parkstone, Dorset. 
Waterhouse, F. G., f.g.s., c.m.z.s., Adelaide, South 

Marcou, Professor Ju 

Cambridge, Mass., United 

Eldred, Capt. 
Hutchinson, \\ 
Lloyd, Hon. G 


Established in memory of 

The late Revd. W. B. CLARKE, m.a., f.r.s.. f.g.s., &c, 

Vice-President from 1866 to 1878. 

To be awarded from time to time for meritorious contributions to the 

Geology, Mineralogy, or Natural History of Australia. 

Professor Sir Richard Owen, k.c.b., f.r.s., Hampton Court. 

George Bentham, c.m.g., f e.s., The Royal Gardens, Kew. 
1880 Professor Huxley, f.r.s., The Royal School of Mines, London, 

4 Marlborough Place, 4bbey Road, N.W. 
'""" Professor F. M'Coy, f.r.s., f.g.s., The University of Melbourne. 

Professor James Dwight Dana, ll.d., Yale College, New Haven, 
Conn., United States of America. 

Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, k. c.m.g., m.d., ph.d., f.r.s., f.l.s., 
Government Botanist, Melbourne. 

Alfred R. C. Selwyn, ll.d., f.r.s., f.g.s., late Director of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Canada, Ottawa. 
1885 Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, k.c.s.i., c.b., m.d., d.c.l., ll.d., &c, 
late Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Professor L. G. De Koninck, m.d., University of Liege, Belgium. 

Sir James Hector, k. c.m.g., m.d,, f.r.s., Director of the Geological 
Survey of New Zealand, Wellington, N.Z. 

Rev. Julian E. Tenison-Woods, f.g.s., f.l.s., Sydney. 

Robert Lewis John Ellery, f.r.s., f. u. a. s., late Government Astrono- 
mer of Victoria, Melbourne. 

1890 George Bennett, m.d. Univ. Glas.,v.n.c.n. !■:»>,., f.l.s., f.z.s.. William 

Street, Sydney. 

1891 Captain Frederick Wollaston Hutton, f.r.s., f.g.s., Curator, Can- 

terbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

1892 Professor William Turner Thiselton Dyer, c.m.g., m.a.,, f.r.s., 
f.l.s., Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Professor Ralph Tate, f.l.s., f.g.s., University, Adelaide, S.A. 
1895 Robert Logan Jack, f.g.s., f.r.g.s., Government Geologist, Brisbane, 
895 Robert Etheridge, Junr., Government Palaeontologist, Curator of 
the Australian Museum, Sydney. 
3on. Augustus Charles Gregory, c.m.g., m.l.c, f.r.g.s., Brisbane. 


subjects published annually. 

Money Prize of £25. 
1882 John Fraser, b.a., West Maitland, for paper on 'The Aborigines 

of New South Wales.' 
1882 Andrew Ross, m.d., Molong. for paper on the ' Influence of the 


The Society's Bronze Medal and £2 
. E. Abbott, Wingen, for paper on * Water s 
of New South Wales.' 

New South Wales! 
lathan Seaver, f.g.s., 

occurrence of gold-bearing veins and of the associate 
r. J. E. Tenison- Woods, f.g.s. 

Anatomy and Life-history o 

f Port Jackson and Neigh- 

. Cox, f.g.s., F.c.8., Sydney, for paper on ' The Tin deposits of 
New South Wales. 
Jonathan Seaver, f.g.s., Sydney, for paper on ' Origin and mode of 
* ?old-bearing veins and of the ass ' ' 
i-Woods, f.g.s., f.l.s., Sydney, for paper o 
Life-history of Mollusca peculiar to Aust 
i Whitelegge, f.r.m.s., Sydney, I 

1889 Eev. John Mathew, m.a., Coburg, Victoria, for paper on 'The 

Eev. J. Milne Curran, f.g.s., Sydney, for paper on * The Microscopic 
Structure of Australian Eocks.' 
1892 Alexander G. Hamilton, Public School, Mount Kembla, for paper 
on 'The effect which settlement in Australia has produced 

Sydney, for paper on " The o 
New South Wales, with a description c 
hich they are found." 

Mingaye, John C. H, f.c.s., m.a.i.m.e., Assayer and Analyst 

to the Department of Mines, Sydney. 
Mollison, James Smith, M.lnst.c.E, Eoads, Bridges and Sewerage 

Branch, Department of Public Works, Sydney. 
Moore, Charles, f.l s , Australian Club, p.r. 4 Queen-street, 

i H, Ulawarra Coal Co., Gresham-street. 
M>ii\ .lames, 58 Margaret-street. 
Money, Angel, m.d , Lond., 75 Hunter-street. 

• William, Fel. Fan. Phys. and Surg. Glas., f.u.m.s. 
d., 5 Bligh-street. 
Moss. Sydney, ' Kaloola,' 

^Mullens, Jn.siali 
Mullii " ' 

Kiribilli Point, North J 
Tenilba/ Burwood. 
J i] i>. : is Lane, m. a. Syd., 'Killount 

llins, George Lane, m.a., m d. Trin. Coll. I Lond., Clarendon Terras. Klizai «,t 
nro, William John, m.b., cm. Edin., m.r 
(ilcbe Road, Glebe. 
Myles, Charles Henry, ' Dingadee,' Burwood. 

Louisa Road, Longnose Point, 

Norton, The Hon. James, m.l.c, ll.d., Solicitor, 2 O'Connell- 

stre.'t, p.r. ' Ec.desb .urne,' Double Bay. 
Noyes, Edward, c.B., « Waima,' Wentworth Eoad, Point Piper, 


Ogilvy, James L., Melbourne Club, Melbourne. 
O'Neill, G. Lamb, , i/abeth-street. 

Onslow, Major James William Macarthur, Camden Park, 

Oram, Arthur Murray, i 

d. Univ. Edin., 213 Macquarie-street, 
i.Ch., Q. Univ. Irel., m.b.c.s. Eng., 197 

Osborni', I'.i-n. 

Owen, Lieut 
Works, Au 

p., ' Hopewood,' Bowral. 
[. Inst. C.E., Eoads and Bridges Office, Co- 
Thomas, Assistant Engineer, Milii 

Palmer, J. H, 'Hinton,' Queen-street, Burwood. 

Palmer, Joseph, 133 Pitt-st., p.r. Kenneth-st., Willoughby. 

Paterson, Alexander, m.d., m.a. Edin., 146 Crystal-street, 

Paterson, Hugh, 197 Liverpool-street, Hyde Park. - ; 
Pedley, Perceval E., 227 Macquarie-street. 

. Univ Edin., m.r 

Pockley, Thomas 1 

k Villa,' Parramatta Road, I 

Quaife, Frederick 1 

l-street, Woollahra. 

. JRamsay, Edward P., 

. Fullerton-street, "V 

, 151 Macquarie-street. 

Renwick, The Hon. Sir Arthur, m.l.c, b„a. Syd., m.d., f.h 

"" abeth-street. 
Roberts, Sir Alfred, m.k.c.s. Eng., Hon. Mem. Zool. and ] 
Vienna, 125 Macquarie-street North. 

Rolleston, John 

of Public Works, 
•ssback, William, a»oc. m. m c.e., Chief 
and Risers Branch, Public Works Departmei 

-*' Hospital 

Public Works 

and Rivers Branch, Dept. 


Ross, Herbert E., Consi 

? Engineer, 121 Pitt-st. 

Rothe, W. H., Colonial Sugar Co., O'Connell-st., and Union 

>wney, George Henry, Assoc. M. lust. C.E., Water and Sewerage 

Board, Pitt-street, p.r. 12 Kellet-street, Darlinghurst. 
Russell, Henry C, b.a. Syd., c.m.g., f.r.s., f.r.a.s., f.k. Met. soc, 

Hon. Memb. Roy. Soc, South Australia, Government 

Schofield, James Alexander, f 
| Glebe. 
ItScott, Rev. Will 

s.m., Sydney University, 

Roy. Univ. Irel., Water 

aver, Thomas Whitchur 
Conservation Branch, 
Undercliffe-street, North Shore. 
If e, Norman, M. Inst. C.E., m. Inst, m.e., Victoria ( 

llors, R. P , b.a. Syd., 
Iman, D. Codrington, 

Shaw, Percy William, o.e., ' Leswell,' Torrington Road, Strath- 
shear, Walter, M. Inst. C.E., Divisional Engineer, Railway 
epartment, Goulburn. 
. ard, A. D., Box 728 G.P.O. Sydney. 
Sheppard, Rev. G., b.a. Syd., Berrima. 

Lifted, m.d. Univ. Lond., m.r.c s. Eng., 6 Lyons' 
Terrace, Hyde Park. 
Simpson, B.-iij ip-utreet. 

r the Insane, 


Smail, J. M., 

of Water Supply and Sewerage,' I 
°-ieeth, William Frederick, m.a., b.e., f.g.s., a.r.s.m., Demon- 
strator in Geology, Sydney University, p.r. 6 Arthur-st., 
North Shore 

my G.,F.c.s., Mineralogist, Technological Museum, 
nith, John McGarvie. Denison-street, Woollahra. 
lith, Robert, m.a. Syd., Marlborough Chambers, 2 O'Connell- 

c Consulting Engineer, 97 Pitt-st. 

, <\m. Edi.a , EUzibeth-street.Hyde 

Smith, Walter Alexander, M.inst.c.E., 
Sewerage Branch, Public Works De 
Smyth, Selwood, Harbours and Rivers Branch, Public 
>eak, Savannah J., a S! 
>encer, Walter, m.d. 1 

Roads, Bridges and 
s Department, N. Sydney. 

Spencer, Thomas William Loraine, Resident Engineer, Eoads 

and Bridges, Armidale. 
Spry, James Monsell, Union Club. 


street, Rockdale. " 
Statham, Hugh Worthingto 

Lyons' Terrace, Hyde Pari 
Stephen, Arthur Winbourn, l. 
^Stephen, The Hon. Septimus i 

, Roads Office, Blayney. 

i. Queen's Univ. Irel., 

Stuart, T. P. Anders 

m d. Univ. Edin., Professor of Physi- 
ology, University of Sydney, p.r. 'Lincluden,' Fairfax 
Road, Double Bay. Vice-President. 
Sturt, Clifton, l.r.c.p., l.b.c s. Edin., l.f.p.s. Glas., 'Wistari/ 

Sulman, John, f.r.i.b.a., 339 George-street. 

Suttor, The Hon. W. H., m.l.c, 3 Albert-street, Woollahra. 

fTavlor. James, b. &.. a.b.s.m., Government Metallurgist, 

y, The Peninsula, 

Solicitor for Railways, ' Camelot,' 

t Road, Dundas 

Tebbutt, John, 

Windsor, New South W;,l<-. 
Thorn, James Campbell 

Forest Road, Brxl.-y. 
Thorn, John Stuart, Solicitor, 

reagh-fltreet ; p.r. 'Berowra,' Beaconsfield-street, Bexley. 
Thomas, F. J., Hunter River N.S.N. Co., Sussex-street. 
Thomson, Dugald, m.l.a.,c/o Messrs. Thomson Bros., 9 Castle- 
Thompson, Joseph, 159 Brougham-street, Woolloomooloo. 
Thompson, Thomas James, Eldon Chambers, 92 Rtt-8treet 
Thompson, John Ashburton, m.d. Brux., Health Department, 

127 M -..iuarie-street. 
Thompson, Capt. A. J. Onslow, Camden Park, Menangle. 
Thow William, M.lnst.CE., Locomotive Department, Eveleigh. 

Richard, m.a. Cantal 
vt'rsitv of Sydney. Vice-Prt 
Thring, Edward T.,f r.c.s. Eng. 

Physics, Uni- 
5 Macquarie- 

Toohey, The Hon. J. T., m.l.c, 'Moira,' Burwood. 

'(',, .tli! All'ril Erasmus. Union Chambers, 68J Pitt-street. 

Tooth, Arthur W., Australian Club. Bent-street. 

Townsend, George W., c.e. 

Trebeck, Prosper N., j.p., 2 O'Connell-street. 

i. D. c/o Perpetual Trustee Co., 2 Spring-street. 

Verde, Capitaine Felice, Ing. 

(Diploma University Ghent), 
Edin., 'BayView House/ Tempe. 

Wan, Walter Hussev, Stock and Share Broker, ' The Chalet,' 

88, Houlton H., j.p.. c/o Perpetual Trustee Company, 2 



| Walsh, l 

j Ward, James Wenman, 271 Bourke-street. 

j Ward, R. D., m.b.c.s. Eng., West-street, St. Leonards. 

i Chapman, b.a., b.c.e. Syd., ' Sainsbury* 
[ The Avenue, Petersham. 
Waddell, W. W., f.r.i.b.a.. M.i„st.r.E., 'Upton Grange,' St. 
artvTi, William Edward, m.d., m. ch. Queen's University Irel., 

263 Elizabeth-street, Syduey. 
arren, W. H., \vh. *<•, m. ) : -t., I'roft-ssor of Engineering, 
University of Sydney ; p.r. ' Undoona,' Albert Road, 
Watkins, John Leo, b.a. Cantab., m.a. 8yd., Parliamentary 
Draftsman. Attorney Q [acq aarie-st. 

i, Sydney C, m.b.c.s. Eng., Manly. 

;,tsou, C. [;.]-!•!!. m.b.c.s. Eng., ' ' 
K .ad, Newtown. 
Watt, Charles, Parramatta. 



W r ebster, A. S., c/o Permanent Trustee Co., 16 O'Connell-st. 
ebster, James Philip, a. >,,■>. m. ins-, c.k., l.s ., New Zealand, 
Borough E ", arrickville. 

a. b.a. Oxon., m.a. 8yd., 11 
of the Sydney Grammar School, College-street. 
I Wesley. W. H. 

: Bay Road. 
uads,' EdgeoUff Boad. 
White, Harold Poison, Assistant Assayer and Analyst, Dept. 
of Mines, p.r. ' Chester,' Station-street, Auburn. 
v. W. Moore, a.m., ll.d., t.c.d. 
White, Rev. James S., m.a., ll.d. Syd., ' Gowrie,' Singleton, 
e, The Hon It. efi i! ddle I >n U>rg, m.l.c , Union Club, 
v. ' Tahlee,' Port Stephens. 
Wi- -sen.-r. 'I'. I'., :>.:\\. < i •,.,■-■ -st nvt. 
Wilkinson, Rev. Samuel, 'Regent House,' Regent-street, 

uson, W. Cauiac, m r>. Lond., m.k.c.p. Lond., m.b.c.s. Eng., 

Williams, Percy Edward, The Treasury, p.r. 'Labre: 

Wilshire, James Thompson, f.l.s., f.b.h.s., j.p., ' Coolooli/ 
Ranger's Road, Shell Cove, Neutral Bay. 

Wilshire, P. R , 

Wilson, Robert Archibald, m.d. Glas., ! 

Booth-street, Balmain. 
Wilson, James T., m.b., Mast. Surg. Uni\ 

Anatomy, University of Sydney. 
Wood, Harrie, j.p., ' Beverley/ 15 Mansfi 
Wood, Percy Moore, l.r.c.p. Lond , m.r.c 

Liverpool Road, Ashfield. 

Edin., Professor o 

Wright, Horatio G. A., m.e.c.s. Eng., l 
Wynyard Square. Hon T\ 

breet, Croydon. 
>tt Bros., Limited, 

Lond., 4 York-st., 

Glebe Point. 

| Young, John, ' Kentv: 

' Johnston-street, I., i -Iili 

Honorary Membi 

, Agnew, Sir James, m.d., Hon. Secretary, Royal Society of 

! Bernays, Lewis A., c.m.g., f.l.s., Brisbane. 
Bunsen, Professor Robert Wilhelm, For. Mem. R.S., Heidelberg. 
: : Ellery, Robert L .!., f.r.s., f.u.a.s., lite Government Astrono- 
mer of Victoria, Melbourne. 
Foster, Michael, m.d., f.r.s., Professor of Physiology, Uni- 
j versity of Cambridge. 
: | Gregory, The Hon. Augustus Charles, c.m.g., m.l.c, f.r.g.s., 

i Brisbane. 
1 Hector, Sir James, k.c.m.g., m.d., f.r.s., Director of the 
Colonial Museum and Geological Survey of New Zealand, 
I Wellington, N.Z. 
Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, k.c.s.i., m.d., c.b., f.r.s., &c, late 

Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Huggins, William, d.c.l., ll.d., f.r.s., &c, 90 Upper Tulse 
Hill, London, S.W. 
L Hutton, Captain Frederick Wollaston, f.g.s., Curator, Canter- 
bury Museum, Christehurch, New Zealand. 

c.M.z.s., Professor of Natural Science in the Melbourne 
University, Government Palaeontologist, and Director of 
National Museum, Melbourne. 
Spencer, W. Baldwin, m.a., Professor of Biology, University 

I Tate, Ralph, f.g.s., f.l.s., Professor of Natural Science, 
University, Adelaide, South Australia. 

allace, Alfred Russel, d.c.l. Oxon., ll.d. 
Parkstone, Dorset. 
Waterhouse, F. G., f.g.s., c.m.z.s., Adelaide, I 

Corresponding Members. 
Limited to Twenty-five, 
iov Jules, f.g.s., Cambridge, Mass., United 


i Eldred, Capt. \ 
, Sahl, Charles I 
I Styles, G. M. 

Established in memory of 
The late Revd. W. B. CLARKE, m.a., f.r.s.. f. 
Vice- President from 1866 to 1878. 
To be awarded from time to time for meritoi 
Geology, Mineralogy, or Natural History of Australia. 

1878 Professor Sir Richard Owen, k.c.b., f.r.s., Hampton Court. 

1879 George Bentham, c.m.g., f.r.s., The Royal Gardens, Kew. 

1880 Professor Huxley, f.r.s., The Royal School of Mines, London, 
> Marlborough Place, Abbey Road, N.W. 

3.8., The University of Melbourne. 
, Yale College, New Haven, 
uonn., united states ot America. 

1883 Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, k.c.m.g , m.d., ph.d., f.r.s., f.l.s., 

Government Botanist, Melbourne. 

1884 Alfred R. C. Selwyn, ll.d., f.r.s., f.g.s., Director of the Geological 

Survey of Canada, Ottawa. 

1885 Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, k.c.s.i., c.b., m.d., d.c.l., ll.d., &c , 
' » Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

, University of Liege, Belgium. 
j Geological 

1886 Professor L. G. De Koninck, m.e 

1887 Sir James Hector, k.c.m.g., m.d,, f.r.s., Director of t 
" " \Zealand, Wellington, N.Z. 

1889 Eobert Lewis John Ellery, f.b.s., F.R.A.s.,late Government Astrono- 

mer of Victoria, Melbourne. 

1890 George Bennett, m.d. Univ. Glas., f.k.c.s. Eng., f.l.s., f.z.s., William 

Street, Sydney. 

1891 Captain Fr.Ml.rirk \V-i! -! .n I i utton, f.b.s., f.g.s., Curator, Can- 

terbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand. 

1892 Professor William Tun; r This.-lton Dyer, c.m.g., m.a., b.Sc, f.b.s., 

Robert Logan Jack, f.g.s., f.r.g.s., Government Geologist, Brisbane, 

Eobert Etheridge, Junr., Government Paleontologist, Department 

of Mines, Sydney. 
Hon. Augustus Charles Gregory, c.m.g., m.l.c, f.r.g.s., Brisbane. 

The Royal Society of New South Wales offers its Medal and Mone 
Prize for the best communication (pro 

iubjects published a 

John Fraser, b.a... West Maitland, for paper on 'The Aborigines 

Andrew Eoss, m.d., Molong. for paper on the ' Influence of the 
Australian climate an Ipastui a upon the growth of wool.' 
The Society's Bronze Meild <nid £2o. 
W. E. Abbott, Wingen, for paper on « Water supply in the Interior 
of New South Wales.' 

s., Sydney, for paper on ' The Tin deposits of 

, W:,l„. 

Sydney, for paper on • Origin and mode 

occurrence of gold-bearing veins and of the associated Mi 
.888 Eev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, f.g.s., f.l.s., Sydney, for paper on 'The 
Anatomy and Life-history of Mollusc i p uhar t \ustrnlia.' 

LteLogge, f.b.m.s., Sydney, for ' List of the Marine and 
Fresh-water Invertebrate Fauna of Port Jackson and Neigh- 
.889 Eev. John Mathew, m.a., Coburg, Victoria, for paper on 'The 

.891 Eev. J. Milne Curran, f.g.s., Sydney, for paper on * The Microscopic 

Alexander G. Hamilton, Public School, Mount Kenibla, f\>r paper 
on 'The effect which settlement in Australia has produced 
upon Indigenous Vegetation.' 

f. v. be Coqi ■■. '■ N' « South Wale* 

[ paper on the ' Timbers of r 

' The Aboriginal Eock < 

of the Australian black snake {Pseudec 

Eev. J. Milne Curran, Sydney, for paper on "The occurrence 
Precious Stones in New South Wales, with a description oft 







By T. W. Edgeworth David, b.a., f.g.s., 

Professor of Geology in the University of Sydney. 

[With Plates I. -IV.] 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, May 20, 1896.'] 

The privilege having been accorded me by you of addressing you 

on this the Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the existence of our 

Society, I propose in conformity with a custom followed by many 

of my predecessors, to arrange my address under three heads : 

(1) Matters which have directly affected the Society during 

(2) Brief review of scientific, medical and engineering work 
in New South Wales, chiefly during the above period, etc., etc. 

(3) Summary of the present state of our knowledge as to the 
I origin of the Blue Mountains. 

I. The Royal Society of New South Wales. 

In the first place it is my pleasing duty to announce that His 
Excellency Viscount Hampden has graciously consented to accept 
the office of Patron of this Society, and has thereby signified his 
intention of taking that kindly interest in our welfare which has 
from time to time been shown by his Viceregal predecessors. 

It will doubtless be remembered that Prof. Threlfall in his 
Presidential Address last year, stated that the Society's present 
premises were becoming too small for the accommodation of the 
Library, and that, notwithstanding that temporary relief had 
been found in various ways, the time was not far distant when 
thf l'.uildinu: Fund would have to be expended in providing the 
actual space required. The Counoil have been so deeply con- 
vinced of the necessity of securing more space accommodation, that 

: : , . 

have designed and carried out the various additions and altera- 
tions which you see to-night, and I trust that the members will 
appreciate the efforts that have been made to increase their com- 
fort and convenience in the matter of enlarged rooms, lavatory, 
and out-buildings. 

Roll of Members.— The number of members on the roll on the 
30th April, 1895, was four hundred and twenty. Twelve new 
members have been elected, and one has been restored to the roll. 
The Society has lost by resignations fifteen members, through 
default in payment of subscriptions two, and by death seven, so 
that the total number on the roll on the 30th April, 1896, was 

Obituary. — The following is a list of the members who have 
died since our last annual meeting : — 

Honorary Members: 

Cockle, Sir James, f.r.s., Elected 1 


Huxley, Rt. Hon. Prof., p.c, f.r.s 

, Elected 1879. 

Pasteur, Louis, m.d., Elected 1879 

Corresponding Member : 
Clark, Hyde, V.P. Anthrop. Inst , Elected 18* 

Ordinary Members ; 
Campbell, Dr. Allan, Elected 1876. 
Dight, Arthur, Elected 1876. 
McGillivray, Dr. P. N., Elected 1882. 
Olliff, A. S., Elected 1890. 
Sager, E. E., Elected 1886. 
Sedgwick, Dr. W. G., Elected 1876. 
Sutherland, Dr. G. W., Elected 1891. 
The death of Thomas Henry Huxley has removed 
nost distinguished of modern biologists, one who yield 
ii literary and critical ability as a scientific writer. 

He was born at Ealing on- May 4th, 1825, and was 
ime educated at the school in his native place, wher< 
ras one of the masters. He then studied Genua] 

literature and medicine, reading privately. Subsequently he 
attended lectures at the Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital, 
taking his degree of M.B. in 1845 with honours in physiology. 

In 1846 he was appointed Assistant-Surgeon to H.M.S. 
" Victory," and a few months later he accepted the position 
of Assistant-Surgeon to H.M.S. " Rattlesnake." The voyage 
lasted from 1847 to 1850, during part of which time Huxley was 
stationed on the east coast of Australia, his ship being engaged 
in a survey of the passage between the Barrier Reef and the 
main land, and of the sea between the northern extremity of the 
Barrier Reef and New Guinea. It was here that he commenced 
that series of zoological studies which were soon destined to make 
him so famous. The results of his researches during this three 
years' voyage were published by the Linnean and Royal Societies, 
and a year after his return to England, in 1851, when he was 
barely twenty-six years of age, he was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society. 

In 1X54 he became Professor of Natural History including 
Paleontology at the Royal School of Mines, and Curator of the 
Fossil Collections at. the Museum of Geology at Jermyn-street, 
also Tullerian Professor of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy 
to the University of London. In 1858 he was appointed Croonian 
Lecturer to the Royal Society, when he delivered his celebrated 
address on " The Theory of the Vertebrate Skull." During 1860 
Huxley delivered his course of lectures on " The Relation of Man 
to the Lower Animals." In 1862, 1869, and 1870 he delivered 
three presidential addresses to the Geological Society of London. 
From 1863 to 1870 he was Hunterian Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy in the Royal College of Surgeons, and in ISl>'.>-70 was 
President of the Ethnological Society. 

He was Secretary to the Royal Society from 1871-1880, and 
President from 1883-85. Tn 1876 he delivered several lectures 
in America. Li ! v - >] led him to retire, and 

lie resigned all his appointments except that of Dean and Honorary 
Professor of Biology in the Royal College of Science, South Ken- 

, which appointment he held at the time of his death. He 
ide a member of the Privy Council in 1892. 
his published works, the following may be specially 
ned : — " Oceanic Hydrozoa," " Lessons in Elementary 
ntroduction to the Classification of Animals," 
"Lay Sermons, Addresses, and Reviews," "Anatomy of the 
Vertebrata," " Anatomy of the Invertebrata," " Practical 
Biology," " Man's Place in Nature," " The Crayfish," " Physio- 

Of the one hundred and fourty-four papers contributed by hioi, 
two relate specially to Australian subjects, viz. : — " On some 
Amphibian and Reptilian Remains from South Africa and 
Australia," 1 and " On the Premolar Teeth of Diprotodon." 2 In 
recognition of this work our Society conferred upon him the 
Clarke Memorial Medal in 1880. 

Memorable as have been the services which he has rendered to 
biology, he will perhaps be held in memory by the world at large 
as the man who taught the doctrine of Darwin in a tongue that 
: of English prose, unrivalled as 
>st in the pursuit of truth, he 
proved himself on all occasions a most formidable controversialist, 
but he did not forget while he warred down the proud to spare 
the vanquished, and consequently though many fought him it 
may be doubted whether he had any true foes. I trust I may 
be allowed to quote in conclusion the following from the Pall Mall 
Gazette :— " Four kings laboured to build a mighty hall, the Hall 
of a Hundred Columns at Karnak. In a century they built it, 
and they died ; but the hall remains. Four men (Darwin, Tyn- 
dall, Huxley, Spencer) more than all others have raised up 
within this century an edifice which is the crowning glory of 
British science, and before the century closes three of them are 
dead ; but the edifice stands and will stand, as a lasting monu- 
ment to the power of truth and fearless investigation." 

i Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 1859. 2 Q uar t. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1862. 

Dr. Louis Pasteur. — By the death of Pasteur not only has 
France lost the greatest of her citizens, but the world has lost 
one of its greatest scientific discoverers and benefactors. He 
died at his country house near St. Cloud, on September 29, 1895, 
at the age of seventy-three. He was born at Dole in the Jura. 
His father was a tanner, who in his earlier days had served with 
distinction as a soldier. 

Pasteur commenced his studies at the Communal College, and 
thence proceeded to the College of Besancon and to the Ecole 
Normale, studying specially chemistry and molecular physics, 
particularly in relation to the formation of crystals. In 1847 he 
took his degree of Doctor of Science, and later was appointed 
Professor of Chemical Physics in the University of Strassburg. 
In 1854 he was made Dean of the Faculty of Sciences at Lille and 
it was there that he commenced his celebrated researches on 
fermentation, which proved that fermentation and putrefaction 
were distinctly due to the action of micro-organisms on organic 
or inorganic compounds. These researches led him to investigate 
the diseases of the silk-worm. According to the account published 
in Nature, October 3rd, 1895, p. 551, "for four years he spent 
several months of each year in tracing the germs of the "febrine" 
disease through the various stages of development of the worm, 
egg, larva, chrysalis, and moth. He found what he described as 
"corpuscles," which he indicated were the contagious elements of 
the disease. These were taken up from the mulberry leaves on 
which they had previously been deposited by diseased moths j 
some of the worms died, but others went on to the chrysalis and 
even to the moth stage, still affected by these " corpuscles," and 
the eggs laid by these moths were also found to contain them. 
He was convinced that the only way was to breed from moths 
not affected by the disease and to this end he invented the plan 
which has been universally adopted, and has restored a source of 
wealth to the silk districts : each female moth, when ready to lay 
eggs, is placed on a separate piece of linen, on which it may lay 
them all ; after it has laid them and has died, it is dried and then 

pounded in water, and the water is then examined microscopically. 
If " corpuscles" are found in it, the whole of the eggs of this 
moth and the linen on which they are laid are burnt ; if no 
corpuscles are found, the eggs are kept to be, in due time, hatched 
and yield healthy silkworms." 

Later came Pasteur's great discovery, that a vaccinating virus 
could be formed by attenuating solutions containing specific 
bacilli. Thus a mild form of the disease being communicated to 
the animals vaccinated with such virus, they were rendered 
immune from the attacks of the non-attenuated organism. This 
method was subsequently proved by him to be a remedy for fowl 
cholera, swine erisipelas, and anthrax. It will be within the 
memory of most of us, that when the Government of New South 
Wales offered a prize of £25,000 for a satisfactory scheme for the 
extermination of the rabbit, Pasteur claimed that such an end 
might be gained by inoculating the rabbits with the microbes of 
fowl-cholera. Exhaustive experiments at Rodd Island conducted 
by Pasteur's pupil, Dr. Loir, and by Dr. Katz, seemed to show 
that the disease was not very infectious in the case of rabbits, 
and as it was uncertain that it was readily communicable from 
one rabbit to another, but certain that it would cause great 
mortality among the Australian birds Pasteur's proposal was not 
accepted. This country, however, together with the whole 
civilized world, owes Pasteur a deep debt of gratitude, not only 
for his own discoveries, brilliant and numerous as they have been, 
but also for those which have resulted directly from his teaching. 
Working on the same lines of research as those pursued by 
Pasteur, Hericourt and Richet made the very important discovery 
that the fluids and cells of animals which have been rendered 
immune by vaccination have themselves become vaccines and are 
capable of protecting also other animals. Serum-therapy is based 
on this principle, and Professor Anderson Stuart 1 estimates that 
the number of human lives saved in New South Wales alone by 

the use of the antitoxic serum for the cure of diphtheria, amounts 
to about two hundred per annum. In the days of ancient Rome 
one of the highest rewards a citizen could win was the crown with 
its glorious motto " Ob civem, servatum." Of all the citizens who 
have deserved such a crown there surely have been none better 
deserving than Pasteur. 

Of our ordinary members who died last year Mr. A. S. Ollipp 
was well known to many of us, and his death at the early age of 
thirty, has removed from our band of Australian scientific workers 
a young entomologist of much promise. He first came to Aus- 
tralia in 1885 to fill the appointment of Assistant Zoologist, in 
the Branch of Entomology at the Australian Museum. In 1890 
he received the appointment of Entomologist to the Department 
of Agriculture in New South Wales. He died on December 29th. 
His scientific papers relating chiefly to the Lepidoptera and 
Coleoptera were published for the most part in the Proceedings 
of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 

Dr. P. H. MacG-illivray of Victnri i, while practising his pro- 
fession found leisure to do a large amount of useful work on the 
Australian Polyzoa. Most of his work on the Polyzoa is to be 
found in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria, in the 
Decades of Sir Frederick McCoy, and in his own " Monograph on 
the tertiary Polyzoa of Victoria." 

Papers read in 1895. — During the past year the Society held 
eight meetings, at which the average attendance of members was 
thirty-eight, and of visitors 3-5, the following twenty-six papers 
were read : — 

1. "President's Address," by R. Threlfall, m.a., Professor of 
Physics in the University of Sydney. 

2. " A contribution to the Chemistry of Australian Myrtaceous 

Kinos," by J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., and H. G.- Smith. 

3. " Paper on Aeronautical Work," by Lawrence Hargrave. 

4. " Notes on two New Mineral Substances from the Australian 

Broken Hill Consols Mine," by E. F. Pittman, a.r.s.m., 
Government Geologist, Sydney. 

"The Cubic Parabola as applied to the Easing of Circular 
Curves on Railway Lines," by C. J. Merfield, (Communi- 
cated by Mr. G. H. Knibbs). 

" The History, Theory, and Determination of the Viscosity 
of Water by the Efflux Method," by G. H. Knibbs, Lecturer 
on Surveying, University of Sydney. 

" On the Physiological Action of the Venom of the Australian 
Black Snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), by C. J. Martin, 
b.Sc, MB., Land. 

" Considerations on the Surviving Refugees in Austral Lands 
of Ancient Antarctic Life," by C. Hedley, f.l.s., Assistant 
in Zoology to the Australian Museum. 

"Icebergs in the Southern Ocean," by H. C. Russell, b.a., 

" On some New South Wales and other Minerals, Note No. 7," 
by A. Liversidge, ma., f.r.s., Professor of Chemistry in the 
University of Sydney. 

" On a Natural Deposit of Aluminium Succinate in the 
Timber of Grevillea robusta, R. Br.," by J. H. Maiden and 
H. G. Smith. 

" On the amount of Gold and Silver in Sea- Water," by A. 
Liversidge, m.a., f.r.s., Professor of Chemistry in the Uni- 
versity of Sydney, New South Wales. 

" The removal of Silver and Gold from Sea-water by Muntz 
Metal Sheathing," by A. Liversidge, m.a., f.r.s., Professor 
of Chemistry, University of Sydney, N. S. Wales. 

" Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa," by John 

"Contributions to a knowledge of Australian Vegetable 
Exudations, No. 1," by J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., and Henry G. 

"Geological Laboratory Notes, (Note No. 1)," by the Rev. 
J. Milne Curran. 

" On the occurrence of Artesian water in rocks other than the 
Cretaceous," by E. F. Pittman, a.r.s.m. 

18. "Note on the Origin of Malachite ; observations made in an 
abandoned Copper Mine" by Edgar Hall. (Communicated 
by Professor Liversidge.) 

19. "A comparison of the Languages of Ponape and Hawaii," 
by the late Rev. E. T. Doane ; with additional notes and 
illustrations by Sidney H. Ray, Memb. Anthrop. Inst. Lond. 

20. '• The Tensile and Compressive Strength of Magnesium," by 
S. H. Barraclough, b.e., m.m.e. 

21. "Note on some products from the Fruit of Pittosporum 
undulatum and from the leaves of the Pepper Tree (Schinus 
molle), by R. Threlfall, m.a., Professor of Physics in the 
University of Sydney. 

22. " Notes on Antarctica Rocks collected by Mr. C. E. Borch- 
grevink," by Prof. T. W. E. David, b.a., f.g.s., W. F. 

SMEETH, M.A., A.R.S.M., and J. A. SCHOFIELD, F.C.S., A.R.S.M. 

23. "Notes on the Rainfall of the Southern Riverina, 1872 to 

1894," by H. C. Kiddle, F.R.Met.soc. 

24. "The Great Meteor of May 7th, 1895," by H. C. Russell, 

25. "The Climate of Lord Howe Island," by H. C. Russell, b.a., 

26. " Types of Australian Weather," by Henry A. Hunt, Second 
Meteorological Assistant, Sydney Observatory. 

Sectional Meetings. — The Engineering Section held eight meet- 
ings at which six papers were read and discussed, the average 
attendance of members and visitors being twenty-six. 

The Medical Section held three meetings, at which five papers 
were read and numerous exhibits shown. 

Financial Position. — From a perusal of the Hon. Treasurer's 
Financial Statement it will be seen that the Society has paid its 
way and carried forward a balance of £46 19s. 3d. 

The amount which stood to the credit of the Building and In- 
vestment Fund at the commencement of the year, viz., £1286 0s. 
Id., has been almost absorbed by the purchase of fourteen feet of 

land adjoining the Society's premises, having the same depth, 
viz., eighty feet eight inches. 

Clarke Memorial Fund.— The Clarke Memorial Fund amounts 
to £367 18s., which has been placed at fixed deposit. 

Abercromby Fund. — The Abercromby Fund is now closed. 

Library. — The amount expended upon the Library has been 
principally for the periodicals and magazines regularly subscribed 
to, but the following publications are also included:— "American 
Journal of Electrical Engineers," Vols. I - ix., "Annals of British 
Geology," Vols. I - iv. 

Exchanges. — Last year we exchanged our Journal with four 
hundred kindred Societies, receiving in return three hundred and 
seventeen volumes, one thousand five hundred and forty-six parts, 
ninety-seven reports, two hundred and six pamphlets, thirty-five 
hydrographic charts, nineteen meteorological charts, and one 
astronomical chart,— a total of two thousand two hundred and 
twenty-one publications. 

The following Institutions have been added to the exchange 
list : — Institution of Mechanical Engineers (London), American 
Society of Civil Engineers (New York), Royal Society of Sciences 
(Upsala), University of California (Berkeley), The Hawkesbury 
Agricultural College (Richmond), The Editor of the Revue de 
PAeronautique (Paris). The two first institutions have presented 
to the Library their publications from the year 1876 to date. 

Honorary Members.— At the General Monthly Meeting of the 
Society, held July 3 last, on the recommendation of the Council 
Prof. Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, For. Mem. R.S., Heidelberg, and 
Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace, f.r.s., &c, Parkstone, Dorset, were 
unanimously elected Honorary Members of the Society. 

Original Researches. — In response to the offer of the Society's 
medal and a grant of £25 for the best original paper on the fol- 
lowing subjects, viz. : — 

Series XIV.— To be sent in not later than May 1, 1895. 
No. 46— On the Silver Ore Deposits of New South Wales. 

No. 47 — On the Physiological Action of the Poison of any- 
Australian Snake, Spider, or Tick. 
No. 48— On the Chemistry of the Australian Gums and 

No paper was sent in on subject No. 46. One was sent in on 
No. 47 and one on No. 48. 

At the meeting held June 26, the Council awarded the prize of 
£25 and the Society's medal to the writer of the following paper : 
" On the physiological action of the venom of the Australian black- 
snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus)," by " Bedenke was, noch mehr 
bedenke wie," C. J. Martin, b.Sc, m.b. Xond., m.e.c.s. Loud. 
The list of subjects now offered for prizes is as follows : — 
The Royal Society of New South Wales offers its medal and 
£25 for the best communication (provided it be of sufficient 
merit) containing the results of original research or observation 
upon each of the subjects, Nos. 49 to 54 inclusive ; and for No. 
55 the Society offers its medal and ten guineas. 

Series XV.- To be sent in not later than May 1, 1896. 
No. 49— On the origin of Multiple Hydatids in Man. 
No. 50— On the occurrence of Precious Stones in New South 
Wales, with a description of the deposits in 
which they are found. 
No. 51 — On the effect of the Australian Climate on the 
Physical Development of the Australian-born 
Series XVI.— To be sent in not later than May 1, 1897. 

No. 52— On the Embryology and Development of the Echidna 

or Platypus. 
No. 53— The Chemical Composition of the Products from the 

so-called Kerosene Shale of New South Wales. 
No. 54 — On the Mode of Occurrence, Chemical Composition, 
and Origin of Artesian Water in New South 
Series XVII.— To be sent in not later than May 1, 1898. 
No. 55— On the Iron-ore deposits of New South Wales. 

II. Brief Review op Scientific, Medical and Engineering 
Work etc., done chiefly in New South Wales since 
the last Annual General Meeting. 

Agriculture. — Mr. F. B. Guthrie, f.c.s., has been engaged dur- 
ing the past twelve months at the laboratory of the Agricultural 
Department chiefly on the following work : — 

(a) Routine work.— Advice to farmers as to the best methods 
of treatment of their land, and the most suitable crops, based on 
analytical examination of the soil. Advice on all matters con- 
nected with agricultural chemistry, including analyses of fertilizers 
and farm and dairy produce generally. 

The results of the soil analyses of this and previous years are 
now being collected and arranged in such a form that the charac- 
teristics of soils from different localities may be studied. Such a 
compilation should be of value in enabling us to form a correct 
judgment as to the nature and peculiarities of the soil from differ- 
ent parts of the colony. 

In connection with the manure analyses, a pamphlet prepared 
in 1894 was revised and brought up to date in this year. This 
publication shows the composition and relative value of the various 
fertilizers offered for sale, affording farmers information as to the 
nature and value of any fertilizer they may desire to purchase. 
It also acts as a check upon the quality of the manures offered 
for sale. 

Analyses were also made of many products manufactured for 
private persons for their own use, as well as of ashes and waste- 
products of all descriptions, with a view to determining their 
economic value. Assistance was also afforded to exporters of 
agricultural produce in guaranteeing the purity of the articles, 
particularly honey and bees' wax. 

Analyses of sugar-beet, grown in different parts of the Colony, 
from seed supplied by the Department, were undertaken in order 
to judge of the fitness of different districts and of the different 
varieties for the production of sugar. 

RESS. 13 

(b) Special work. — An investigation was undertaken into the 
milling qualities of a number of the different varieties of pure 
wheats. This is the first time such work has been done, and its 
main object is to ascertain what are the best varieties for the 
farmer to produce, taking into account their suitability to different 
districts, the milling quality of the grain and the bread-making 
quality of the flour. The characteristics of the different varieties 
are thus established, and the results indicate the manner in which 
by proper selection or cross-breeding, an improvement may be 
effected in the quality of the wheats grown in the Colony. The 
results of the first batch of these experiments were publish' d in 
the Agricultural Gazette during 1895, and have been followed by 
a further batch during this year. 

This work has suggested a number of problems which require 
solution, of which one is the subject of an investigation now almost 
complete and ready for publication. This refers to the power 
possessed by flours from different grain of absorbing water. This 
property, of great importance to the bread-maker, is found to be 
due to the varying proportion of the soluble and insoluble proteids 
contained in the gluten. 

An investigation into the chemical nature of the wines produced 
in the Colony was commenced with the publication of the results 
of analysis of some wines, from the northern river vineyards. 
The results of a further batch of northern river wines will appear 
in the forthcoming number of the Gazette. In addition to the 
purely scientific interest attaching to this investigation, it affords 
a means of comparing our wines with those of other countries, 
and indicates in what direction improvements are possible. 

Samples of the different timbers of the Colony are being 
examined with a view to determining the nature and quantity of 
their mineral constituents. Analyses of the ash of various timbers 
grown in different parts of the Colony, systematically carried out 
should give us valuable information, firstly as to the nature 
(chemical) of the soil on which they grow, and also of their value 

as fertilizers. This work lias been commenced and a preliminary 
batch of results will shortly be ready for publication. 

Australian Museum. — During the past year little or no original 
research was conducted, but work was confined almost exclusively 
to a general renovation of existing collections, a weeding out of 
old specimens and duplicates, and their replacement by better, 
and previously unexhibited examples. By this means the whole 
of the Mammalia (skins) were reclassified, so far as the limited 
space available for this important class would allow, and it is 
much to be regretted that curtailment of an undoubtedly fine 
series was found necessary. 

Amongst the Birds, the Australian Psittaci were rearranged, 
and the Nest-group collection freely added to. 

Owing to the discovery of the " While ant " early in the year 
in that portion of the roof surmounting the Fish and Reptile 
Gallery, necessitating the entire removal of the collections, little 
work was attempted in these classes, with the exception of the 
preparation of additional models of snakes. 

In the Invertebrata, and Minerals, work was confined to 
amplifying the newly arranged specimens. The space assigned to 

found to be quite inadequate, and as in the case of the Mammalia 
only trivial additions can in the future be made to this section. 

In the Ethnological portion of the Museum good work was 
accomplished by the first attempt at a systematic arrangement of 
the Australian Stone-weapons and Implements, and general manu- 
factures of the Aborigines, together with a very fine set of carved 
tree trunks. Cases of North and South American Prehistoric 
Pottery were also arranged. The Australasian Invertebrate 
Fossils were wholly reprepared and systematically arranged in the 
new cases prepared for their reception. 

Board of Health— Laboratory.— This laboratory was definitely 
instituted by the Board in February, 1895. Its purpose is the in- 

animals which are liable to be transmitted to man, as well as 
experimental enquiries concerning all hygienic matters from a 
biological aspect. The need for biological investigation is im- 
perative owing to the giant growth of bacteriology, and its ever 
increasing importance in public health. The control which the 
Board exercises over milk and meat supplies, diseased animals, 
noxious trades, etc., renders such investigations indispensable to 
the Department. The following brief notes indicate the nature 
of the principal investigations undertaken during 1895. 

Tuberculosis — It is the custom of the veterinary staff to submit 
specimens for examination where suspicion of tuberculosis exists. 
Milk from diseased udders of cows, portions of carcases of animals, 
etc., in which the signs of disease are indefinite, are subjected to 
rigid microscopical scrutiny. The demonstration of Bacillus tuber- 
culosis in such specimens is followed by seizure and destruction, 
and a source of infection for human beings is thus removed. 

In connection with the work on tuberculosis, a series of examina- 
tions has been made of cattle which to all outward appearances, 
were in perfect health. When slaughtered the carcases presented 
every appearance of prime marketable beef. Signs of disease were 
only to be found in the internal organs, and in every case examined 
the disease proved to be tuberculosis. The results of the examina- 
tions show the insidious nature of the disease in animals. It may 
be present for years without presenting any external evidences of 
its existence. Experiments with I ulvrvulin as a diagnost ie agent 
for tuberculosis in cattle were attended with satisfactory results, 
and the conclusion was arrived at that this substance is capable 
of rendering valuable aid in the detection of the disease. 

Anthrax. — The work on this subject has consisted of the ex- 
amination of specimens forwarded by stock inspectors from various 
parts of the Colony in which this disease is prevalent amongst 
sheep. Where the first cases in a Hock an- not distinctive, the 
microscopic demonstration of the bacillus of anthrax renders im- 
portant service in giving certainty of diagnosis and precision in 
efforts to check the disease. 

16 T. W. E. DAVID. 

Diphtheria; its diagnosis and treatment. — One of the features 
of the past year was the general introduction into this Colony of 
the use of antitoxic serum for the cure of diphtheria. This 
material, the first of its kind which has acquired a definite place 
amongst therapeutic measures, consists of the serum separated 
from the blood of horses which have undergone special preparatory 
treatment before being bled. The preliminary treatment is such 
that the serum obtained becomes powerfully curative of diphtheria. 
The Health Department instituted and maintained during four 
months, the importation and gratuitous distribution of supplies of 
this serum to qualified medical practitioners applying for it. After 
that time local druggists being prepared to supply the remedy its 
importation by the Department was stopped. The results of the 
use of the serum supplied by the Health Department were embodied 
in a report presented to Parliament in A.ugust 1895. 1 

The data contained in the report show that the results of the 
treatment with antitoxin serum are highly satisfactory, "since 
they appear to show that the mortality has been much reduced, 
that the cases have been rendered milder in their course, and that 
no untoward effects have been developed as a result of any un- 
desired bye-action of the remedy. The estimated number of 
human lives saved in New South Wales would thus be about two 
hundred (200) per annum." 

Subsequent reports appearing in the medical journals of this 
Colony more than confirmed this opinion of the Board, and the 
most satisfactory results have been reported from the Sydney and 
Brisbane Children's Hospitals. Indeed the testimony from all 
parts of the world is so unanimous as to silence all dissent, and 
we may congratulate ourselves on the possession of a remedy 
which robs diphtheria of the major part of its terrors. In con- 
nection with the distribution of the serum, the Health Depart- 
ment undertook to examine specimens from the throats of persons 
suspected of having diphtheria. This disease in its severer forms 

,ESS. 17 

is readily enough recognised by physicians, but there exist very 
numerous mild cases in which the symptoms do not appreciably 
differ from those of ordinary sore throats. These mild cases can 
spread the disease and lead to serious ones, and indeed it is by 
such unsuspected cases that the disease is disseminated. It is 
consequently of the utmost importance to recognise them and the 
department made provision for the above mentioned examinations 
which had for their object the detection of the specific form of 
the disease, Bacillus diphtheriae. 

Leprosy. — A systematic enquiry into the histo-pathology of this 
disease has been initiated. During the past year four cases have 
been examined, and the extent of the disease in them ascertained. 
It is hoped that with the facilities we (unfortunately) possess for 
the study of this disease, we shall soon be in a position to make 
valuable contributions to the knowledge of this subject, and to 
add our mite to the ultimate object of such researches, viz., the 
cure of the disease. 

The effects of the liver puke.— This work consisted of an inves- 
tigation as to the pathological effects produced in the liver of 
sheep by the presence of the parasite, Fasciola (Distoma) hepatica. 
As yet only one stage of the disease has been investigated. 

During the year an epigootic disease amongst horses, character- 
ised by loss of sight, has occurred in the Darling River districts. 
Examinations made in the laboratory showed chronic inflammatory 
changes in the optic nerves. Various plants have been suspected 
of causing this condition, and one of these— the Darling River 
melon (Cucumis myriacarpusj — has been examined. Experi- 
mental animals (rabbits and guinea pigs) refused to eat the melon. 
Forcible feeding with extracts did not produce any injurious 
effect. The experiments tend to show that the melon does not 
possess poisonous properties. 

A disease met with in sheep, consisting of enlargement of 
lymphatic glands all over the body, giving rise to a condition 
resembling but distinct from tuberculosis, is the subject of an 
investigation at present in progress. 

18 T. W. E. DAVID. 

Another disease of unknown origin, consisting of ulceration of 
the cornea in cattle, which is believed to be epigootic, is also being 

Hetinomycosis, pleuro-pneumonia, " cancers," and other diseases 
in animals, have also received some attention. 

As instances of work of another character, I may mention the 
examination of niters and filtering materials as to their power of 
removing germs from drinking water, the testing of measures of 
disinfection, and a few other matters of general hygienic import- 
ance. These are, as yet, incomplete. It was also attempted to 
establish a systematic and regular examination of the Sydney 
water supply, but owing to the lack of accommodation and the 
numerous demands in other directions the examinations have 
perforce been irregular. As far as they go they indicate that 
the water is remarkably free from germs, and that those which 
occur are of a harmless nature, such as always exist in natural 

Botanic Gardens. — By the retirement of Mr. Charles Moore, 
f.l.s., the people of New South Wales lose the services of a 
veteran officer, who for no less than forty-eight years has acted in 
the capacity of Director of the Botanic Gardens. Mr. Moore 
was appointed in England in 1847 to the position of Botanist and 
Superintendent of the Botanical Gardens of New South Wales. 
He was recommended for this position by Professor Henslow, of 
Cambridge University, and by Lindley. On his arrival in New 
South Wales, his official title was changed to that of Director. 
Mr. Moore found at this time that there were only a few trees 
planted in the upper and lower gardens, and that the gardens 
were stuffed with duplicate plants, and that none of the plants 
were labelled. During his directorship Mr. Moore superintended 
the work of reclaiming the lower portion of the gardens between 
Cunningham's monument and the present wall around Farm 
Cove, and by dint of constant labour brought the gardens up to 
their present beautiful condition, which has made them famous 
throughout the world. Not only the Botanic Gardens, but the 

University Park, Wentworth Park, Victoria Park, and Centen- 
nial Park, were laid out by Mr. Moore. Through Mr. Moore a 
lecture hall was erected in the Botanic Gardens, and for many 
years he delivered series of popular lectures, which were well 
attended, the lectures being discontinued only when the subject 
of botany came to be taught at the University of Sydney. In 
1850 Mr. Moore made a voyage for botanic research purposes to 
the New Hebrides, Queen Charlotte Group, the Solomon Islands, 
and New Caledonia. In 1867 he went to the Paris Exhibition 
in the capacity of New South Wales Commissioner, and in 1874 
he was delegate for New South Wales at the Universal Botanical 
Conference at Florence. 

Mr. Moore's chief published works are " Woods of New South 
Wales," " Census of the Plants of New South Wales," and in 
collaboration with Mr. Betche " Flora of New South Wales." 
His good nature and courtesy are as well known to the public as 
to his colleagues on the Council of this Society and on the Board 
of Trustees of the Australian Museum. While Mr. Moore has 
merited the gratitude of the people of New South Wales for 
having added so much elegance and beauty to their capital city, 
he deserves the special thanks of this Society for his long and 
useful services on our Council. You will all, I know, unite with 
me in wishing Mr. Moore health and happiness in the future 
during his well earned rest from his official labours. 

And here I am reminded that among those who formerly 
attended Mr. Moore's lectures was our new President, and this is 
a fitting occasion, I venture to think, for us to wish Mr. Maiden 
every success in the administration of the important office to 
which he has been appointed, and for which his past training 
and experience should so eminently fit him. 

Geological Survey of New South Wales. — The most important 
work, economically at all events, accomplished lately by the 
Geological Survey has been the determination by Mr. Pittman of 
a great development of strata of Triassic Age holding artesian 
water in New South Wales. The probability that some of the 

water in the artesian beds was derived not from Cretaceous, but 
from Triassic rocks was definitely suggested, chiefly on litho- 
logical grounds, by the Rev. J. M. Curran. 1 Mr. R. L. Jack, the 
Government Geologist of Queensland, in his able paper to the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science at 
its Brisbane meeting, threw further light on this subject, and the 
Triassic Age of the strata penetrated in the Coonamble and Moree 
artesian bores was last year definitely proved by Mr. Pittman. The 
results of his important observations Mr. Pittman has already 
communicated to this Society, and he gives me to understand, 
that not only are the Coonamble and Moree bores drawing their 
supplies of water from the Triassic beds, but in all probability 
the Walgett bore also, in which the magnificent supply of from 
five to six million gallons of water per twenty-four hours has 
recently been struck. Mr. J. E. Carne, f.g.s., has likewise 
furnished important reports upon the lately discovered chromite 
deposits of the Gundagai-Tumut district, the newly discovered 
mercury deposits on Yuilgilbar Station, Clarence River, and on 
the auriferous beach sands containing platinum and iridium of 
the Richmond-Clarence district. 

Amongst the reports contributed by Mr. G. A. Stonier, f.g.s., 
those relating to the fossil if erous rocks near Crow Mountain and 
Somerton appear particularly interesting, as the fossils as deter- 
mined by Mr. R. Etheridge and Mr. W. S. Dun, confirm the 
previous opinion as to the extensive development in those areas 
of the Gympie beds. I should like to express my regret that my 
old colleague on the Geological Survey, last year resigned his 
position as Geological Surveyor, with a view of further prosecuting 
his geological studies in Europe. 

Mr. J. B. Jaquet's report on the "Platinum Deposits of Fifield" 
show the growing importance of that branch of the mining 
industry. About 1,200 ozs. of crude platinum are estimated to 

1 Daily Telegraph, January 20, 1894. 

The subjoined analysis by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, f.c.s., proves 
this platinum to be purer than any hitherto discovered in New 
South Wales :— 

Platinum 75-90 per cent. 


Mr. W. S. Dun, the Librarian and Assistant Palaeontologist 
has seen through the press amongst other important publications, 
Memoirs, Palaeontology, Part 3, " Contributions to a Catalogue 
of Works, Reports, and Papers on the Anthropology, Ethnology, 
and Geological History of the Australian and Tasmanian Abori- . 
gines, Part 3, by R. Etheridge, Junr.; and Memoirs Palaeontology 
No. IX." " The Fossil Fishes of the Talbragar Beds (Jurassic?)" 
by A. Smith Woodward, f.l.s., of the British Museum. 

Mr. G. W. Card, Assoc. K.S.M., f.g.s.. has contributed some inter- 
esting articles to the Records of the Geological Survey on rich 
antimonial silver ores near Armidale, and certain interesting 
igneous rocks such as norites and peridotites. 

Harbours and Rivers. — Nine harbours are in course of con- 
struction by the Harbours and Rivers Department at the present 
time :— Tweed, Richmond, Clarence River, Nambucca, Macleay, 
Trial Bay, Manning, and Newcastle. On those which are well 
advanced very favourable results are being obtained, and this 
justifies the Department in anticipating the success of those 
schemes which have more recently been undertaken. 

22 T. W, E. DAVID. 

During the year very large additions have been made to the 
wharfage and storage accommodation at Circular Quay, and other 
parts of Sydney Harbour. On the Richmond a scheme for reduc- 
ing the damage done by floods is now in course of construction, 
and extensive embankments for the protection of the town of 
Grafton were also completed. 

A dredging plant of forty dredges and twenty-nine steamers 
has been continuously at work during the year, and over six 
million tons of material have been lifted. 

Several water supply schemes for country towns are in hand 
or have been completed, one of the most important being at 
Junee, where a concrete dam over forty feet in height has been 

One of the principal works to engage the attention of this 
branch was the construction of the Naval Depot at Garden 
Island. A considerable portion of the island has been levelled 
down and the material used for its extension to give room for the 
necessary buildings. The barracks is a building of three floors, 
capable of accommodating officers and men, and is fitted on 
the most approved plan, the sanitary arrangements having 
received special attention. The workshops, two hundred and forty- 
eight feet by one hundred and thirty-two feet, include a machine 
shop, boiler shop, foundry for iron and brass, forge shop, tool and 
pattern shops, dynamo room, zincing room, engine room, boiler 
house, offices, etc., and have been fitted with machines capable of 
undertaking any naval work demanded of them. The naval and 
victualling store is a building two hundred and twelve feet by one 
hundred and twenty-eight feet. It has four floors, having a 
superficial area of ninety-four thousand feet, and is provided with 
five hoists and two lifts, with the necessary hydraulic plant. The 
coal store is capable of holding two thousand five hundred tons, 
and extensive coaling wharves have been provided to which all 
the stores are connected by lines of tramway. In addition to 
the main buildings, there are stores for inflammable materials, a 
saw mill, gun mounting shed, dining room for workmen, chain 

and anchor store, paint and oil store, timber storing shed, a 
receiving shed, two boatmen's shelters on the wharf, extensive 
offices, bath and dressing rooms, and five brick cottages for the 
accommodation of warrant officers and storemen. Six hundred 
and fifty feet of wharfage has also been provided, capable of 
berthing vessels drawing twenty-eight feet. The shear-legs for 
removing heavy machinery, guns, and plant, lift a working load 
of one hundred and sixty-tons, and have stood a successful test of 
two hundred tons. A six-inch water-main connects the Island 
with the Sydney water supply, and the offices are in telephonic 
communication with the city. A contract is now in hand for a 
complete electric lighting installation, and this with the addition 
of a boat repairing shop, will complete the works at present 

Works carried out by the Bridges Branch in 1895. — During 
1895 the Bridges Branch submitted for tenders one hundred and 
sixty-four works at an estimated cost of £95,000 and of a tota 1 
length of two and a-half miles. Included in these is a steel lift- 
bridge over the Murray River at Swan Hill, consisting of two 
timber truss side spans with a lifting span formed of steel girders 
carrying a timber deck, giving a clear opening between cylinders 
of forty -eight feet. The lift can be raised thirty feet clear of the 
highest flood by means of gearing placed on top of four wrought 
iron towers, one at each corner of the span, thus giving ample 
headway for river traffic at all stages of the river. 

At Wallis Creek, Maitland, a new bridge is in course of con- 
struction, designed to replace the old timber truss bridge, which 
after a life of forty-three years (during which the superstructure 
has been twice renewed) is now in an advanced state of decay. 
The new structure will consist of three spans formed of steel rolled 
girders, on rolled girder piers with concrete bases founded on piles, 
giving a deck thirty-five feet wide formed of tarred metal on 
buckled plates. 

The Kangaroo River Suspension Bridge, on the Moss Vale to 
Nowra Road, will when completed form a handsome example of 

24 T. W. E. DAVID. 

its type, on each side of the deep gorge through which the river 
flows at this point two masonry towers in the Tudor style, con- 
nected by a Tudor arch, will carry the cables of a suspension 
bridge of two hundred and fifty-two feet span, stiffened with a 
timber truss hinged at the centre and ends, this work is now in 

The economy of the use of timber in place of iron or steel for 
bridge trusses in this Colony finds an example in the new bridges 
recently erected over the Murrumbidgee River at Wagga Wagga, 
and over the Edwards River at Deniliquin. The former has been 
erected alongside of the old Company's bridge at Wagga Wagga, 
and reckoned by floor space per span, is by far the largest timber 
structure yet erected in the Colony. It consists of three one 
hundred and ten feet trusses on cylinder piers, with timber 
approach spans, the total length being six hundred and forty-five 
feet, and the carriage way twenty-four feet four inches, with one 
four feet six inches footway. The trusses and deck are of a novel 
design, and consist of timber for chords and braces throughout, 
with wrought iron suspension rods, the total quantity of timber 
used being about 25,000 cubic feet, obtained principally from 
Wyong and the North Coast. The completed cost of the work 
was £14,200. Deniliquin Bridge may be taken as a type of the 
many truss bridges which are erected every year by the depart- 
ment. It is formed of three ninety feet timber truss spans of the 
new standard type, on timber piers with timber approach spans, 
the width of roadway being twenty feet. 

Contracts have been let during the past twelve months for 
timber truss bridges over Namoi River at Walgett, Double Creek, 
at Brogo, Little Plains River near Bombala, Myrtle Creek near 
Casino, Cooradigbee River and Cudgegong Creek in addition to 
many beam bridges, both of high and low level types, in different 
parts of the Colony. 

Sydney Observatory — Star Photography. — During the year an 
unusual amount of dust-haze has interfered with the photographic 
work to some extent, but five hundred and fifteen star photo- 

graphs have been obtained; heretofore nearly all the photographs 
were taken with exposures of one or two minutes, but now that 
the plates are being worked at to make a chart of the heavens, the 
exposures have been from thirty to sixty minutes, and hence the 
number obtained is not so great as it has been. Thirty-nine 
plates were devoted to special work on star clusters and nebulae. 

Meridian Work— At the suggestion of Sir Charles Todd, 
Adelaide, Melbourne, and Sydney have made special observations 
for a new determination of Australian latitudes. One thousand 
and fifty observed transits have been taken, and seven hundred 
and sixty-four determinations of declination. ■ 

Magnetic Observations. — During the past year two French 
officers of the " Missions Magnetiques du Bureau des Longitudes 
Ocean Pacifique Ouest," came to the Observatory and made 
magnetic observations. It is remarkable how little variation 
there has been in the declination during the last thirty-seven 
years. In the early days of the Colony the lowest variation of 
the magnet was in 1818, viz., 8° 42' 0"; it then increased rapidly 
and during 1857-8 was 10° ; then it fell steadily until in 1873 it 
was 9° 32' 30" ; from that time to 1882 it varied from 9° 32' 0" 
to 9° 35' 47"; then fell to its minimum in 1893, 9° 28' 37" ; and 
then increased again until now, 1896, it is 9° 38' 0" 

Meteorology. — During the year the rainfall report of 1894 was 
In addition to the usual data about rain, rivers, and 
evaporation, it contains a map shewing for each square degree 
the percentage of rain above or below the average, another shew- 
ing temperature of every month of the year for each square 
degree, and a third map giving the mean, the highest, and the 
lowest recorded temperatures, and the average shade in each 
square degree. 

A special study of meteorological records has been made with 
a view to discovering any period or cycle in the weather, and the 
effort has been successful, and the result cannot fail to be of great 
use in pastoral and farming industries. 

A study has also been made of icebergs in the Southern Ocean, 
which shews a very unusual number of them in the tracks of 
vessels to and from Australia. The result has been published as 
a pamphlet. 

Railway Construction Branch — Railway Survey Work. — A 
branch, leaving the Molong-Parkes railway at Parkes, has been 
permanently staked as far as Condobolin, a distance of sixty-three 
miles, and a survey for extension of this line via Menindie to 
Broken Hill has been undertaken and is in progress. Between 
Moree and Inverell, a distance of one hundred and one miles, trial 
surveys have been made with a view to connect Inverell with the 
main railway system by the railway now under construction from 
Narrabri to Moree. The survey of a branch line from Tamworth 
to Manilla, leaving the main line at Tamworth has been completed. 
This branch is twenty-eight miles in length. A survey is in pro- 
gress for a railway from Singleton to Jerry's Plains, a distance of 
twenty-eight miles. 

For improving the grades and cutting out the Great Zig-zag on 
the Great Western Railway, a lar^e amount of survey work has 
been carried out, comprising surveys of over forty miles of rail- 
way, also other improvements on the "Western line and between 
Picton and Mittagong on the Southern, in order to reduce the 
heavy grades, a deviation extending over thirty-five miles has been 
surveyed. The connexion of Broken Hill with the railway system 
of the Colony via Condobolin and Menindie is under consideration 
of the Government, and a survey over the proposed route is in 

The following proposed lines have been recently inquired into 
by the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public works : 
Tamworth to Manilla, twenty-eight miles long ; Nevertire to 
Warren, twelve and a half miles long. 

Railway construction in progress — Narrabri to Moree, sixty- 
three miles nine chains in length, estimated cost £153,000; Parkes 
to Bogan Gate, twenty-three miles, thirty-eight chains in length, 

estimated cost £127,000 ; Jerilderie to Berrigan, twenty-one miles 
sixty-six chains in length, estimated cost £42,475. Tenders are 
about to be invited for a new line from Bogan Gate to Condobolin, 
forty miles in length. 

Tramway Work.— A proposal has been worked out involving 
detail surveys and estimates for an electric tramway from Circular 
Quay to Redfern Railway Station and Harris-street, Ultimo, a 
length of about three and a half miles of double line. This has 
been recently under the consideration of the Public Works Com- 
mittee. Also for an electric tramway to Mossman's Bay, one and 
a half miles, being an extension of the existing electric tramway 
along the Military Road. Also for a steam tramway to the 
Kensington Park and the Rifle Range, a distance of about three 

Trial surveys and estimates have been made for 
the Ocean-street tramway to Rose Bay, a distance of one and a 
half miles, by electric tram. A report has been submitted, by 
Mr. Deane, the Engineer-in-Chief for Railway Construction, dated 
September 9, 1895, on his proposed development of the tramway 
system in Sydney and suburbs, including recommendations for 
substituting electricity as the motive power on portions of the 
existing lines. This report was based on results of observations 
made by Mr. Deane during his late visit to Europe and America. 

Technological Museum. — Mr. Maiden and Mr. Baker during 
the past twelve months have described and figured many new 
phanerogamic species. Microf ungi have also received some atten- 
tion, and a number of new species have been added to science. 
Mr. Maiden has requested me to call particular attention to the 
microfungi of this Colony. He states that our floral collections 
in this particular branch of plants are poorer than those of any 
other colony, though the flora of New New South Wales will 
probably prove to be the richest in microfungi. Botanical identi- 
fication of native timber trees has claimed considerable attention, 
and is expected to yield important commercial results. Timber 
trally hesitate to invest money in timbers unless 

upplies of the same kind, a 
matter which must be settled primarily on botanical evidence. 

The experimental plant for the distillation of Eucalyptus oil is 
now in full working order. In the Chemical Laboratory Mr. 
Maiden and Mr. Smith have been working at a further classifica- 
tion of the Eucalyptus exudations known as kinos. The discovery 
of two new organic substances in those kinos belonging to the 
turbid group, viz., Eudesmin (C 26 H 30 8 ) and Aromadendrin, 
has advanced our knowledge considerably, and has opened out a 
way for their scientific classification and accurate arrangement. 
"Whether these new bodies are of therapeutic value has not yet 
been investigated. The discovery of Aluminium Succinate as 
an exudation of Grevillea robusta, R. Br., is of some importance, 
as both the acid and the base are of rare occurrence under these 
conditions, and a natural salt of this character has not previously 
been discovered. Part I. of original investigations on the un- 
described gums, resins, gum-resins and kinos of Australia was also 
submitted to this Society during the year, and is published in its 
proceedings, as is also the other chemical research work mentioned 

Mr. W. W. Froggatt, has arranged and set out a collection of 
white-ants (Termites), together with timbers attacked by them, and 
enlarged drawings showing the different forms of the workers, 
soldiers, queen and winged males and females. Several new type 
specimens have been added to the Australian collection, which 
now fills five wall cases. 

University Laboratories — Anatomy. — Professor Wilson and 
Mr. J. P. Hill have for the past eighteen months been engaged 
upon a research into the development of the teeth in marsupials, 
particularly in the genus Perameles. The results are nearly ready 
for publication. They believe that their conclusions will be found 
to be of interest and importance, more especially in regard to the 
problem of tooth succession, and diphyodontism not only in mar- 
supials but in mammalia generally. Their conclusions differ 
materially from those usually entertained at the present time. 

Biological Laboratory. — I now come to the subject of a very 
important discovery. Speaking of this discovery, a leading 
scientific man in London this year classed it with Rontgen's dis- 
covery of the X rays, as amongst the most sensational that had 
been made during the past twelve months, and one that would 
lead to serious modifications of the views generally held about the 
marsupialia. He was alluding to the discovery of a placenta in 
the bandicoot by Mr. J. P. Hill, the Demonstrator at the Uni- 
versity Biological Laboratory. This is perhaps one of the most 
important, if not the most important, scientific discovery as yet 
made in Australia. 

Mr. J. P. Hill has for some time past been engaged in studying 
the development of marsupials, especially with regard to the 
relations of the foetal membranes. The most important result 
yielded by this investigation is the discovery of a true allantoic . 
placental connection in the bandicoot, Perameles obesula. A 
short preliminary account of this connection was read before the 
Linnean Society in November of last year. It was there shown 
that not only does the vascular allantoic fuse with the serous 
membrane, but that the latter in the region of the fusion disappears 
as a distinct layer, and the allantoic capillaries become closely 
applied to the surface of the uterine mucosa, and indeed dip into 
the latter as irregular and short vascular processes. These pro- 
cesses come into very close relation with the maternal capillaries 
of the uterus, and in this way transfusion can readily take place 
between the two blood streams. A distinct connection is thus 
established between foetal and maternal tissues — a connection 
which not only allows the direct transmission of part of the nutrient 
material necessary for the growth of the embryo, but which also 
serves as a respiratory organ. Up to the discovery of this placental 
1 in the bandicoot, the absence of any such connection 
ersally regarded as one of the best established and most 
ures in the marsupial organisation. In the 
majority of marsupials indeed, no such placental connection is 
ever developed, but in view of the condition in the bandicoot we 

can no longer include the marsupialia as a whole under the name 

Any person residing in the country desirous of helping Mr. 
Hill in his interesting and important investigations, would render 
material assistance by placing themselves in communication with 
him at the Biological Laboratory of the University of Sydney, 
with a view to arranging for securing specimens of opossums, 
native cats, bandicoots, or any other kind of marsupial. This 
important discovery by Mr. Hill was not the result of chance, but 
the outcome of patient and systematic research, a fact which still 
further enhances its merit, and this Society will not hesitate, I 
am confident, to offer their warm congratulations to Mr. Hill. 

Professor Haswell has during the past year been engaged more 
or less continuously in completing and seeing through the press 
the fine and well illustrated textbook on biology, which he has 
written in collaboration with Professor Parker of Dunedin. This 
important work is expected to be published in the next few 
months. He has also contributed a few notes on the structure of 

Chemical Laboratory. — Professor Liversidge's recent researches 
such as those on the occurrence of gold in sea-water, the crystal- 
lization of gold etc., have already been published in our Proceed- 
ings. His demonstrator Mr. J. A. Schofield has collaborated 
with Mr. Smeeth and myself in our paper on the Antarctic rocks 
collected by Mr. C. E. Borchgrevink. 

Engineering Laboratory. — Owing to the absence of Professor 
Warren in Europe and America during a great portion of last 
year, little original work has been done, with the exception of 
testing concrete. The munificent bequest of Mr. P. N. Russell 
of £50,000 to the Engineering Department, promises a consider- 
able expansion of this School, and a widening of its field of use- 
fulness in the near future. 

Geological Laboratory. — Besides the paper above referred to, 
an important contribution to our knowledge of perlitic structure 

in lavas has been made by Mr. W. F. Smeeth, Lecturer in Metal- 
lurgy and Demonstrator in Geology. This paper has been favour- 
ably criticised in Nature, and in the Geological Magazine. A 
discovery likely to prove of importance has been made by my 
third year students and myself, of radiolarian jaspers in the 
Barraba and Bingara Districts of this Colony. Reference will be 
made to this later. 1 

Physics Laboratory. — Professor Threlfall has kindly furnished 
me with the following report as to recent research work in his 
laboratory :— " My time during the year 1895-6 has been occupied 
(1) In purifying selenium. In this I have succeeded as well, but 
I do not think better than Nilson and Petterson, who determined 
its atomic weight. The electrical properties of the purified sub- 
stance are now being examined. (2) Messrs. Farr and Allen 
spent a considerable time in endeavouring to complete a series of 
observations on the magnetic permeability of bismuth. The 
immediate object of the experiment was not attained, owing to a 
difficulty arising from a hitherto unsuspected cause. This matter 
still awaits investigation. (3) A fairly complete study of dielectric 
waste of energy in rotating fields has been carried out and is nearly 
ready for publication. (4) Considerable improvements have been 
made by Mr. Pollock in the gravity meter, and it is hoped that 
the present form of instrument will be of sufficient accuracy to 

Physiological Laboratory. — Dr. C. J. Martin, has lately been 
engaged chiefly in studying the following : — Physiological action 
of snake-poisons ; further observations on the venom of platypus; 
development of platypus ; experiments in the pharmacology of 
arsenic and strychnine (for the Dean Commission). You are all 
aware that Dr. Martin's essay on snake-poison was awarded the 
prize and medal by this Society, and it is satisfactory to note that 
his recent physiological researches have been very favourably 

tthe i 
bourhood of the Je: 

reviewed by one of the leading scientific journals of Europe, 
Science Progress. The idea of binding together with a view to 
distribution among scientific societies etc., the various papers 
representing the annual research work done at the University 
Laboratories, originated with Dr. Martin, and he is to be con- 
gratulated on having this year succeeded in carrying out this idea. 
The volume in question is before you to-night. 

Scientific Work outside Neto South Wales. — Professor Alexander 
Agassiz has lately been engaged in examining the Great Barrier 
Reef of Australia, and taking soundings across it. We may 
shortly look forward to a scientific report by one who has made a 
specialty of coral reefs, and who is acknowledged to be one of the 
greatest living authorities upon that subject. 

Expedition to bore the Coral Atoll of Funafuti in the Ellice 
Group. — Five years ago, Professor Anderson Stuart was consulted 
by a committee of the Royal Society as to the possibility of 
Sydney being the starting point for an expedition to bore one of 
the coral atolls of the Pacific. Professor Stuart consented to 
taking the administrative work in New South Wales, and he is 
to be congratulated upon the expedition having now become an 
accomplished fact, as the warship H.M.S. "Penguin," conveying 
the members of the expedition and the diamond drill plant sailed 
from Sydney on May 1st ult. The expedition is in charge of 
Professor Sollas, F.R.S., and Mr. Gardner as zoologist, represents 
the Balfour Research Fund of Cambridge, while Mr. Charles 
Hedley of the Australian Museum, goes as the representative of 
this Colony. The Government of New South Whales have con- 
tributed largely to the expedition by lending a complete diamond 
drill plant, making no charge for the use of the plant, but stipu- 
lating that the committee of the Royal Society of London shall 
make good any loss or damage to the plant. The results of this 
expedition will be awaited with the greatest interest all over the 
scientific world. It is hoped that by means of this expedition 
Darwin's earnest wish as expressed in the following letter to 
Agassiz will at last be realised : — " I wish that some doubly rich 

millionaire would take it into his head to have bonnes made 
some of the Pacific and Indian atolls, and bring home cores : 
slicing from a depth of five hundred to six hundred feet." 

New South Wal 

touched upon. 

Inferences by previous observer*. -The most important of these 

is probably that of ( 'barles Darwin. 1 My excuse for i n n; »; lucing 
a lengthy quotation from Darwin's work is that the passage is 
extivni"!y suggestive on many points of imp .rtancein the structure 
of the Blue .Mountains, which I propose to criticise. Af^r 
descrihingthe grear platform of sandstone which rising westwr.ids 

upper beds : I observed a similar circumstance in the grand sand- 
stone formation at the Cape of Good Hope. On the South 
American coast, where Tertiary and Supra-tertiary beds have 
been extensively elevated, I repeatedly noticed that, as the st* 
J>ecame shallower, the force of the waves or currents increased." 2 
* * * " I was surprised at observing that in some specimen 
(of sandstone.— T.W.E.D.) nearly all the grains of quartz were so 
perfectly crystallised with brilliant facets that they evidently had 
not in their present form been aggregated in any previously exist- 
ing rock." * * * « The strata of the Blue Mountains appear 

to the eye horizontal ; but they probably have a similar inclination 
with the surface of the platform, which slopes from the west 
towards the escarpment over the Nepean, at an angle of one 
degree or of one hundred feet in a mile. The strata of the 
escarpment dip almost conformably with its steeply inclined face, 
and with so much regularity that they appear as if thrown into 
their present position ; but on a more careful examination they 
are seen to thicken and to thin out, and in the upper part to be 
succeeded and almost capped by horizontal beds. These appear- 
ances render it probable, that we here see an original escarpment, 
not formed by the sea having eaten back into the strata, but by 
the strata having originally extended only thus far. Those who 
have been in the habit of examining accurate charts of sea coasts, 
where sediment is accumulating, will be aware that the surfaces 
of the banks thus formed, generally slope from the coast very 
gently towards a certain line in the offing, beyond which the 
depth in most cases suddenly becomes great. I may instance the 
geat banks of sediment within the West Indian Archipelago, 
which terminate in submarine slopes, inclined at angles of between 
thirty and forty degrees : every one knows how steep such a slope 
would appear on the land. Banks of this nature, if uplifted, 
would probably have nearly the same external form as the plat- 
form of the Blue Mountains, where it abruptly terminates over 
the Nepean." 1 

It is evident from the above passage, that Darwin regarded the 
eastern escarpment of the Blue Mountains as an original structure 
in the Blue Mountain-, formed, that is, contemporaneously with 
the deposition of the sandstone. 

Darwin states further, 2 "The strata of sandstone in the low 
coast country, and likewise on the Blue Mountains, are often 
divided by cross or current laminae, which dip in ditl'erent direc- 
tions, and frequently at an angle of forty-five degrees." Speaking 
of the grand valleys of the Blue Mountains, from 1,500 to 2,000 

2 Op. cit., pp. 149-160. 3 Op. eit., p. 160. 


feet deep, which terminate at their upper ends in vast amphi- 
theatrical depressions bounded by gigantic walls of sandstone, 
Darwin says, 1 " To attribute these hollows to alluvial action, 
would be preposterous. * * * Some of the inhabitants 
remarked to me, that they never viewed one of these bay-like 
recesses, with the headlands receding on both hands, without being 
st ruck with their resemblance to a bold sea coast. This is certainly 
the case. * * * But then immediately occurs the startling 
difficulty, why has the sea worn out these great, though circum- 
scribed, depressions on a wide platform, and left mere gorges, 
through which the whole vast amount of triturated matter must 
have been carried away 1 The only light I can throw on this 
enigma, is by showing that banks appear to be forming in some 
seas of the most irregular forms, and that the sides of such banks 
are so steep (as before stated) that a comparatively small amount 
of subsequent erosion would form them into cliffs ; that the waves 
have power to form high and precipitous cliffs, even in land-locked 
harbours, I have observed in many parts of South America. * * 
To apply these ideas to the sandstone platforms of New South 
Wales, I imagine that the strata might have been heaped on an 

undulations of an open sea : and that the valley like spaces thus 
left unfilled, might during a slow elevation of the land, have had 
their steeply sloping flanks worn into cliffs ; the worn down sand- 
stone being removed, either at the time when the narrow gorges 
were cut by the retreating sea, or subsequently by alluvial action." 2 
It is equally clear from the passages above quoted, that Darwin 
regarded the valleys of the Blue Mountains like the eastern 
escarpment, as original depressed areas in the region of sedimen- 

were being deposited. Later observers favoured, by far better 

evidence which proves that Darwin's views, for reasons which 

1 Op. tit., p. 153. 2 Op. cit., p. 154. 

The Rev. W. B. Clarke, f.r.s., ascribes a thickness of from 
eight hundred to one thousand feet to the Hawkesbury Sandstone, 
and states that on the summit of the Blue Mountains, and along 
the Grose River, the thickness of the series is very much greater 

The following statements by Mr. 0. S. Wilkinson, the late 
Government Geologist of New South Wales, 2 bear directly upon 
the subject under discussion : — " It would appear that the coal 
measures had been upheaved and partly denuded, and that in the 
shallow freshwater lakes which filled the depressions, the shale 

sea-level, and the area in which the Hawkesbury Sandstones were 

The current bedding dips in various directions, but it is chiefly 
co the north-north east, as though the prevailing currents came 
from the south-south-west. After the Hawkesbury deposits had 

presented land features from the Carboniferous peri-d o 

Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, also states in another plar-e, 3 "The 
ness of the depth and extent of the precipitous gorges and v.- 
of the Blue Mountains inspire one with fe-din^s of silent av.i 

der, and impress the mind 
near so frequently express- 

)RESS. 37 

the mountains must have required violent convulsions in the 
earth's crust for their formation. But if we examine the rocks 
on all sides of the valley, we see no breaks nor signs of violent 
disturbance as suggested. The various beds of rock in horizontal 
strata may be seen to continue uninterruptedly around the sides 
of the valley, and the succeeding layers of rock, as we descend 
one side of the ravin.-, gradually approach the corresponding layers 
on the other side, until at the bottom, in the bed of the water- 
course, we find that they actually join, which they would not do 
if the sides of the ravine had been violently torn asunder. We 
perceive, therefore, that the various outcropping strata must once 
have been continuous right across the valley or ravine, and that 
they have been removed by some agency without disturbance of 
the underlying beds. What then is this agency 1 Not vuh-mdc 
fire but running water" The above passage makes it clear that 
Mr. Wilkinson was of opinion that the valleys of the Blue Moun- 

as Darwin thought, original depressions, deeply indenting sub- 
precipitous, partly by marine, partly by fluviatile erosion. 

One of the most important statements about \\v < A >.-)logv of the 
Blue Mountains is the following by the same observer 1 : — " It will 
thus be seen that this locality (Port Hacking), is over a very deep 
portion of the coal basin. The eastern portion of this basin has 
been apparently faulted and thrown down beneath the waters of 
the Pacific Ocean, the precipitous coast, and a line about twenty 
miles east from it, marking approximately the lines of dislocation. 
The deep sounding.-, iuim. diata-ly b.-yond this would seem to favour 
this view, so that here the bed of the ocean probably consists of 
the old land surface which once formed a continuation of that 
upon which the city of Sydney now stands, and which has been 
faulted to a depth of over 12,000 feet j the length of the faulted 
area is not yet known, but it probably does not extend along the 
coast beyond, if so far as, the north and south limits of the Colony. 

l Mineral Products Ac. . By Authority, Sydney, 

1882, p. 52. (In Second Edition 1886, p. 70.) 

"The abrupt eastern margin of the Blue Mountains, up which 
the Great Western Railway Zig-zag ascends at Lapstone Hill, 
near Emu Plains, marks the line of a similar though not such an 
extensive fault, by which all the country between it and the coast 
was thrown down to its present level — the depression being so 

of which forms the heautiful harbour of Port Jackson. * * * 
We have evidence that these faultings probably took place towards 
the close of the Tertiary epoch ; for no marine Tertiary deposits 
are known along this portion of the coast of Australia, whereas 
in New Guinea on the north, and in Victoria on the south, the 
marine Miocene beds occur at elevations up to eight hundred feet 
above the sea. Had this low-lying country along the east coast 

Miocene sea, and doubtless .sonic traces of the marine strata of 
that period would have escaped denudation and remained as those 

have which are seen in 7 

Victoria and elsewhere ; but it is very 

probable that until or dv 

iring the Pliocene period it stood at a 

much higher level, and ext 

ended some distance beyond the present 

coast line. Then, again, t 

lie Tertiary deposits throughout East 

Australia show that the 

valleys draining the Great Dividing 

Range have been chiefly e 

roded since the Miocene period, for we 

find deep valleys and ravin 

es cutting through later Tertiary form- 

ations ; therefore the sinking of the land traversed by any of 
these valleys such as that of Port Jackson, evidently took place 
in comparatively recent geological times, and may have been con- 
temporaneous with the extensive volcanic eruptions of the Upper 
Pliocene Period, during which the southern portion of Victoria 
especially was the htcnlr, of great volcanic activity. How far this 

doubt future observations upon the distribution of the marine 

throw much more light upon the subject." 

In 1882, the Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods contributed an impor- 
tant paper on the Hawkesbury Sandstone, 1 reference to which and 
1 Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xvi., 1882, pp. 53 - 116. 

to the interesting discussion which followed is given below. He 
contended that the Hawkesbury Sandstone was of iEolian origin, 
and analogous to the recent and Pliocene blown sands of Double 
Island Point, one hundred miles north of Cape Moreton, and the 
Pliocene sands of the southern coast of Victoria and South Aus- 
tralia. In the Queensland example the iEolian sand rock is up 
to two hundred feet thick, and the angle of dip of the current- 
bedding is stated to be frequently as high as 30°. 

Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, however, in discussing this paper, stated 
that the highest angle of dip he had ever observed in the current- 
bedding of the Hawkesbury Sandstone was 261°, and that the 
prevailing angle of dip was only 20°. This, he considered, was a 
strong argument against the iEolian origin of the Hawkesbury 
Sandstone. Mr. Wilkinson also pointed out 2 that some of the 
pebbles in the Hawkesbury Sandstone were as much as six inches 
in diameter, and "may have been derived from the Hartley Ranges." 

The Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods considered that the rounded 

— « Win 

m seen 

under polarised light some of the lar< 

jnts (of 

quartz in 

i the Hawkesbury Sandstone.— T.W.E.] 


it their 

bedded in transparent silica could be mi 

He sul 


y gave up the theory as to the iEoli 

to some of the XarraU'cn beds in the llawkesl 

A short popular dcvi iption of the Blue M 

written by Dr. J. E. Taylor. Although main 

are open to question, the following passage 

being fairly accurate. 1 "But even supposing the Hawkesbury 
Sandstones were formed under terrestrial conditions, there must 
have been a subsequent depression. The sea came over their site, 
and covered them with the fine argillaceous sediment of the 
Wianamatta shales, as their enclosed fossil fishes indicate. 2 Then 
followed a slow and extensive upheaval during which the soft 
shales must have been greatly denuded. Afterwards succeeded 
the era when the great Nepean Fault commenced, and the country 
south (east— T.W.E.D.) began to sink, whilst perhaps that to the 
north (west— T.W.E.D.) was upheaved to form the region of the 
Blue Mountains. At length, with the exception of comparatively 
small patches, the Wianamatta shales were completely peeled 
off the Blue Mountains. The action of rain, running waters, 
frosts, snows, wind, and sun * * * began to eat into the 
harder Hawkesbury Sandstone rock beneath. It was merely a 
question of time. The work is still going on, and the total results 
are visible in the grand and awe-inspiring views presented at the 
Weatherboard (Wem worth Falls— T.W.E.D.), in the Grose Valley 

more than 2,000 feet, walled in by mural precipices with SOU or 

themselves, to be lost in gauzy mist before reaching the bottom. 
* * * From our giddy point of vantage, the arboreal vegeta- 
tion below looks like velvet pile. * * * The rich yellow walls 

pon with such awed delight, thi < l -cape stretches 

k vay and breaks up into dark cobalt blue hills, wherein is repeated 

>rief (1 

escription may n 

ow be introduced of the physical 

phy ai 

id geology, includ: 

ing the probable mode of origin, of 

ue Mo 

mitains as far as ( 

it present known. 

1. Physical Geography — A. Boundaries. — The geographical 
do not agree with the geological boundaries, the area to which the 
term P.lue Mountains is applied embracing only a small portion 
of t he geological formation of which the mountains are built. 
On the west the Blue Mountains are bounded by the well-marked 
escarpment over which the western railway runs at the (heat 
Zigzag above Lithgow ; on the east they are bounded by a well- 
marked monoclinal fold crossed by the western railway at Lapstone 
Hill at the Little Zigzag between Emu Plains and Glenbrook. 
"While the east and west boundaries are sharply defined at the 
aliove mentioned localities, they become less and less clear when 
traced respectively to the north and smith of the western railway 
line, and it is a matter of uncertainty as to where the exact 
boundary line of the Blue Mountains should he drawn on the 
south and on the north. The southern lioundary line is usually 
fixed at the valley of Cox's River and that of the Warra^amba 
River ; and the northern boundary at the Capertee valley and 
Colo valley. [See Plate i.] 

The geological boundaries, however, are co-terminous w ith those 
of the Hawkesbury series, and extend from the Cambewarri 
Ranges, near Xowia, on the South, to at leastasfar as the Liver- 
pool Ranges on the north; and from the head of the Talhragar 
River on the west, to probably the edge of the continental shelf, 
ah .in ! >.< euiy miles east of the present coast line, on the east, i.e., 
for a distant: • of about two hundred miles from north and south, 
and one hundred and fifty miles from east to west. 

B. Relief. — Geologically, as well as geographically, this larger 
area may be divided into three portions, (1) the plateau of the 

Blue Mountains proper with the elevated land to the north and 
south of them, as far east as the monoclinal fold at Lapstone Hill, 
(2) the plain between Lapstone Hill and the coast, (3) the con- 
tinental shelf. [See Plate 2, diagram 1.] 

(1.) The plateau of the Blue Mountains proper consists of a 
deeply eroded platform of Hawkesbury Sandstone. At the top 
of the fold at Lapstone Hill the platform attains an altitude of 
about six hundred feet above the sea, and from here it rises 
westwards at the rate of about one hundred and sixty feet to the 
mile. Its greatest elevation on the portion traversed by the 
western railway being 3,658 feet at Clarence Siding. The plateau 
rises in conspicuous peaks at Mount Tomah 3,276 feet, Mount 
Wilson, Mount King George 3,470 feet, and Mount Hay 3,270 
feet. The portion of the plateau which has suffered least from 
erosion, with the exception of the peaks just enumerated, is 
the ridge known as tin- Darling Causeway, which for a distance 

tributaries of Cox's River and of the Grose River. The course of 
the western railway line and of the main western road, almost 
exactly follow the trend of this causeway. Westwards the 
plateau terminates in sheer precipices of sandstone, from two 
hundred up to nearly 1,000 feet in height, of which Hassan's 
Walls may be taken as a type. The creeks which drain southerly 
from this water-parting into the Cox, and those which How 
northerly to join the Grose, within a few miles of their sources 
plunge over sandstone precipices, forming waterfalls of which 
Govett's Leap, Leura Falls, and Wentworth Falls may be taken 
as types. From the bases of these waterfalls the creeks find their 

valleys sloping gently eastwards. Tracd a few miles further 
east the rivers formed by the junction of these ero-'ks become 

gorges near the spots where the rivers break through tin' mono- 
clinal fold at the eastern margin of the plateau. This remarkable 
e valleys has been commented on by Darwin in 

the passages previously quoted, and is due to the geological struc- 
ture of the district, as will be presently shown. 

(2) The plain between Lapstone Hill and the coast consists for 
the most part of low undulating hills with smooth outlines, seldom 
attaining an elevation of five hundred feet above the sea, and 
chiefly composed of clay-shales with strips of alluvial ground. 
Near the coast, however, the physical features characteristic of 
the Blue Mountains reappear on a smaller scale, in the shape of 
bold cliffs and deeply eroded bays and estuaries. The cliffs attain 
an elevation of from one hundred to two hundred and fifty feet. 
The southern, western and northern portion of this area is drained 
by South Creek and the Nepean and llawke^hury Rivers, while 
the eastern is drained by George's River and the Parramatta 

(3) The continental shelf stretches from the coast eastwards to 
the one hundred fathom line in a tolerably uniform slope of about 
thirty feet to the mile. From the edge of the continental shelf 
the sea-bottom descends rapidly to a depth of I*, 300 fathoms. 
[See Plate 2, diagm. 1.] 

2. Geology — A. Formation^.-- (\) Sedimentary. — -a The 
Devonian. Rocks belonging to this formation are exposed at 
the base of the western escarpment of the Blue Mountains from 
Capertee to at least as far south as Hartley. They consist chiefly 
of quartzites, in which the brachiopods Spirifera disjuncta and 

Pittmani is not infrequent. The presence of Lepidodendron Aus- 
tmir in these rocks was proved by Mr. J. Clunies-Ross, B.Sc , and 
by Mr. Pittman and myself in 1894. 1 

These rocks graduate upwards into sandy argiliifes containing 

Btrongly intruded by granite, as is well shown on the section which 
accompanies Mr. C. S. Wilkinson's geological map issued by the 

Department of Mines in 1878 on the Bowenfels and Hartley 
district. Downwards this Upper Devonian, or Lower Carboni- 
ferous formation, is probably separated, by a strong unconformity, 
from the Upper Silurian formation, typically developed at the 
Jenolan Caves and at the Lime-kilns near Bathurst. It is at 
the former locality that mdiolarian jaspers have recently been 
discovered by me, not far from a well-marked limestone horizon 
of Upper Silurian Age containing an abundant marine fauna. 
Evidence for this unconformity has been quoted by Mr. J. Clunies- 
Ross, 1 and further evidence has been collected by Mr. W. F. 
Smeeth, some of my geological students and myself, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Jenolan Caves as shown on diagram 1, Plate 2 of 
this address. 

b. Permo-Carboniferous system. All the rocks of this system 
are separated from those of the preceding by a very strongly 
marked unconformity, gently inclined strata of Permo-Carboni- 
ferous being observable in many places, e.g., near Capertee and 
Rydal, reposing on vertical strata of the Upper Devonian series. 
Included pebbles of Upper Devonian quartzites, containing 
Spvrifera disjuncta, as well as of the granites which have intruded 
the Devonian rocks, are conspicuous in the basal conglomerates of 
the Permo-Carboniferous system. The unconformity is still 
further emphasized by an extensive over-lap of the Upper Marine 
series, which conceals from view both the Greta Coal-measures 
and the Lower Marine Series throughout the entire area of Permo- 
Carboniferous rocks exposed on the western escarpment of the 
Blue Mountains, as shewn on my section of this district already 

The six divisions of the Permo-Carboniferous system recog- 
nizable in the typc-di .ti-ici of Midland are in ascending order:— 

1. Lower Marine Series. 

2. Greta Coal-measures. 

3. Upper Marine Series. 

4. Tomagn (K,-, st M ait land) Series. 

5. Dempsey Beds. 

6. Newcastle Series. 

ly only two are represented in the sections exposed in the 
fountains, viz., the Upper Marine series and the Newcastle 
This is perhaps due to the fact that the Upper Marine 
bave overlapped, and so concealed from view, the Lower 
i series and the Greta Coal-measures, and the Newcastle 
las overlapped the Dempsey !>rds and d'omago series. The 
if the Upper Marine- series consist of basal conglomerates, 
>nes, and mmU(oii"s . ontaining marine Permo-Carboniferous 
and occasionally pyritous mudstones with large boulders 
'our feet in diameter. The line of junction between this 

is marked by a bed of grit and conglomerate about fifty 
ick, which may be termed the " Capertee grits,'' this has 
ef erred to by Professor Stephens. 1 Mr. J. E. Came, of the 
deal Survey of New South Wales has also referred to this 

ive-lil<e in .lows. <m the sides and lloors of which efflorescences 
in, salt, ensomite, etc., are frequently observed. 3 It forms 

Slue Mountains from Bowenfels to beyond Capertee. Im- 

itely overlying the Capertee Orit is the Lithgow Coal-seam, 
one to ten feet in thick m-.-s, forming the principal seam 

from a few inches to four feet in thickness, worked 
imically at Hartley Vale, Katoomba, and Capertee, from 
i it is separated by about forty to eighty feet of strata. The 

uthority, Sydney 1894. 

3 C. S. Wilkinson— Annual Eeport Department of Mines, 1877. Geol. 
[ap, Hartley Bowenfels District, Note 26. By Authority, Sydney 1878. 

character of these strata and the sequence and thickness of the 
remaining coal-seams is shown on Plate 3. 1 The strata are chiefly 
composed of clay-shales and soft sandstones with occasional bands 
of chert, they constitute the lower portions of the cliffs, and occupy 
considerable areas in the sides and bottoms of the valleys in the 
western portions of the Blue Mountains. The uppermost seam, 
formerly worked at Katoomba, is probably identical with the 
Bulli Coal seam in the Illawarra Coal-field and with the Wallarah 
seam in the Newcastle series of the Hunter River Coalfield. 
Glossopteris, Gangamopteris, Vertebraria, and Brachyphyllum 
predominate in the flora. 

Traced eastwards the seams of coal dip at the rate of about ninety 
feet per mile until they disappear at the bottoms of the valleys 
near the longitude of Lawson, and become covered by the lowest 
rocks of the overlying series, the Narrabeen beds, the inclination 
of the beds of the rivers in this portion of the Blue Mountains 
being less rapid than that of the strata, and in the same direction. 
The only spot where the coal is visible still further east, near the 
latitude of the western railway, in the Blue Mountains proper, is, 
as fur as I am aware, at Euroka Farm about ten miles south of 
Penrith, on the left bank of the Nepean River. At that locality, 
however, the coal has probably been forced up from a depth of 
over a thousand feet by the eruptive mass to which it is clinging, 
as will be described later on. Fragments of bright unaltered coal 
are also abundant in the Great Volcanic Pipe known as " The 
Valley," near Valley Heights, Springwood. The coal seams 
deteriorate somewhat in the direction of Woodford, "as proved by 
the Woodford diamond drill bores, sections of which are shown on 
Plate 3. These are the furthest bores to the east in the Blue 
Mountains, in which the coal-measures have been proved. Two 
bores have been made respectively at Breakfast Creek, fourteen 
miles, and at Euroka Creek, ten miles southerly from Penrith. 

1 See also "Mineral Products, etc., and Description of tin- Scams of 
Coal Worked in New South Wales," by John Mackenzie, pis. 20 and 22, 
plan 11. By Authority, Sydney, 1887. 

The respective depths of these bores being seven hundred and 
thirty seven feet and four hundred and thirty-four feet. 1 That 
the coal-measures improve in quality, at all events with respect 
to the top seam, is proved by the Liverpool Bore and by the Cre- 
morne Bores, 2 the latter on the shores of Port Jackson. {Plate 3.) 

The question here suggests itself, as the seams in the Cremorne 
Bores are dipping westerly, whereas the dip of the same seams in 
the Blue Mountains is easterly, so as to form a basin, ' where is 
the centre of the basin situated'? Probably, I think, in the 
neighbourhood of Parramatta. 

As the seams are rising seawards from the Cremorne Bores at 
the rate of one hundred and ten feet per mile (see diagram 1 of 
Plate 2), it is obvious that, if these dips continue for many miles 
seawards, the coal-seams must outcrop, unless covered unconform- 
ably by newer formations, in the continental shelf. Obviously, 
as the top coal-seam at Cremorne is about 2,850 feet below sea- 
level, and it is rising easterly at the rate of one hundred and ten 
feet per mile it should cut the surface of the sea, if its outcrop 
were produced, at a distance of twenty-five and three quarter miles 
east of the Cremorne Bore, [on the assumption that its inclination 
is uniform between these points] that is about twenty-three miles 
east of the entrance to Port Jackson. At this spot, however, 
according to the Challenger Reports, 3 the depth of the ocean is 
one hundred and twenty fathoms. This would therefore bring 
the outcrop six and a half miles nearer the coast, (if the depth at 
this second locality be the same as at the first), i.e., to sixteen and 
a half miles from the coast. The depth of the ocean, however, 

1 Annual Report Department of Mines, 1881, p. 180. By Authority, 
Sydney, 1885. Loc. cit., 1885, p. 1G5. 

2 For further description of the Cremorne Bore see Jotirn. Roy. Soc. 
N. S Wales, Vol. xxvn., 1893, " Notes on the Cremore Bore," by T. W. E. 
David and E. F. Pittman, pp. 443 - 465. Also see, Records Geol. Survey 
N. S. Wales, Vol. iv., pt. i., p. 1 - 7, by E. F. Pittman, Government 
Geologist and T. W. E. David. 

3 Challenger Reports— Narrative of the Cruise, Vol. 1., part 1, p. 463, 

at this spot, according to the Challenger Reports op. cit.,'\s eighty 
fathoms, which would throw the outcrop a little over two miles 
further eastward, that is to about eighteen miles from the coast, 
if the seam outcropped in the actual floor of the ocean. It is just 
possible that it may do so as "hard ground and shells" were 
reported near this spot by the Challenger, and this " hard ground" 
may represent an outcrop of the coal-measures. It is much more 
probable, however, that the outcrop is covered partly by recent, 
and partly by Tertiary, marine deposits. As Mr. C. S. Wilkinson 
has remarked, (op. cit. ) the absence of any marine Tertiary 
deposits along the costal area of New South Wales, is probably 
due to the ocean bed in which they were laid down having par- 
ticipated in the supposed subsidence of the coastal area between 
the Lapstone Hill monocline and the edge of the continental shelf. 


! Tertiary deposits, attainir 

>e and pari ly of Mio 

5 Of 


eloped in Victoria, Southern 

South Australia, and' 


sition ( 

if similar strata must have 

obtained in X. S. V 




the Tertiary era. The absei 

ice, therefore offerf,; 




hypothesis that they are no 

h Wales is only to be. 




s five hundred feet mi-ht 1 

>e assumed for these 




and to this might be added 

a further thickness o 

f peril 

a pa 

one to 

ad red feet for Post-Tertiary 

deposits. If this tin 


seam outcrops, be correct, it would 

follow that the con,. 

aled ( 

crop w< 

mid have to be located about 

live miles nearer 8yd 



the dial 

Lance above quoted, that is, 

it would have to be 


I at 

any increase in the angle of dip of the coal seam l>el 
and its concealed outcrop would have the effect c 
latter still nearer the shore line. It is improbable, 
the outcrop is nearer than ten miles, or further tha 
from the coast. 

The Hawkesbury Series can be separated into t 
rder are as follows :— 

1. Narrabeen Beds. 

2. Hawkesbury Sandstone. 

3. Wis 

This series is classed, provisionally, as Triassic, partly on 
account of its fossil flora in which Thimtfrldla, Touiopteris, and 
Phyllotheca predominate ; partly on account of its fossil fauna 
which numbers Cleithrolepis, Palceoniscus, etc., amongst its fish, 
and several species of Mastodonsaurus amongst the reptiles, while 
Estheria is very abundant chiefly in the Narrabeen Beds. For 
descriptions of the fossil flora and fauna the works mentioned 
below may be consulted. 1 

1. The Narrabeen Beds succeed the Permo-Carboniferous Coal- 
measures apparently without unconformity in the Blue Mountains; 
traced, however, to the Hunter River district a distinct uncon- 
formity may be observed, in the neighbourhood of the Pokolbin 
Hills. The existence of this unconformity might have been 
rred from the very strong break between the fossil flora and 
fauna of these Triassic rocks and those of the Permo-Carboniferous 
system. The Narrabeen Beds consist in their lower portions of 
sandstones and shales, and in their upper portions purplish-red 
shales are developed, which, although not more than ten feet or so 
hickness, in the western portion of the Blue Mountains, never- 
[ess form a conspicuous feature in the landscape. If the 
erver looks across one of the vast amphitheatrical depressions, 

m. Geol. Sur. N.S. Wales, Palaeontology No. 1— The Invertebrate 
of the Hawkesbury-Wianamatta Series, by Eobert Etheridge, 
By Authority, Sydney, 1888. 
Mem. Geol. Sur. N. S. Wales, Palaeontology, No. 3— Geological and 
Palieoutological Relations of the Coal and Plant-bearing Beds of Palreozoic 
and Mesozoic Age in Eastern Australia and Tasmania, by Ottokar Feist- 
mantel. By Authority, Sydney, 1890. 

Mem. Geol. Sur. N. S. Wales, Paleontology No. 4— The Fossil Fishes 
of the Hawkesbury Series at Gosford, by A. S. Woodward. By Authority 
Sydney, 1890. 

D-May 20. 1896. 

50 T. W. E. DAVID. 

so charcteristic of this portion of the mountains, the outcrop of 
this thin bed at once catches his eye in the face of the opposite 
cliff, shewing as a thin red horizontal line about halfway up the 
cliff face of yellow sandstone. Near the great Zig-zag, above 
Lithgow, the Narrabeen Beds have a total thickness of 357 feet; 
traced eastwards they thicken considerably, until at the Cremorne 
Bore their thickness amounts to 1,897 feet. The progressive 
thickening of these beds, especially of the chocolate shales, is 
shewn on diagram 1, Plate 2. Between Sydney and Bulli, about 
five hundred feet above the level of the Bulli seam, are some gritty 
and shaly beds, greenish-purple or reddish-purple, containing flakes 
and minute veins of metallic copper. These are known as the 
cupriferous tuffs and have been described by me elsewhere. 1 

There can be little doubt that these purple shales, as well as 
the chocolate shales, represent volcanic tuff deposited in water, 
and that the metallic copper is derived from the decomposition of 
basic minerals in the tuff beds. It may here be mentioned that 
metallic copper occurs in minute veins in a basic lava contempor- 
aneous with the Permo-Carboniferous system at Shoalhaven in the 
Illawarra district. Pebbles of quartz-felsite, quartzite, etc., from 
two to four inches in diameter may frequently be observed in these 
beds near the coast, probably derived from the continental shelf. 
Calcareous sandstones, shewing Fontainebleau sandstone structure 
may also be seen in these beds near the coast. 2 

2. The Hawkesbury Sandstone. This division appears to be 
conformable to the preceding in the Blue Mountains, though there 
is evidence of a certain amount of contemporaneous erosion along 
their junction to the north of the Hawkesbury River. Near 
Mount Victoria, in the western division of the Blue Mountains, 
the sandstones have a thickness of about two hundred and fifty 
feet, they are there capped by a bed of pale greenish-grey clay- 

1 Rep. Auatr. Assoc. Adv. Science, Sydney, 1887, Vol. I., pp. 275 - 290. 
—"Cupriferous Tuffs of the Passage Beds between the Triassic Hawkes- 
bury Series and the Permo-Carboniferous Coal-measures of N. S. Wales.' 

2 Journ. Boy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxvn., 1893. 


shale from which Mr. H. G. Rienitz has collected a great number of 
fossil plants, many of which belong to forms as yet undescribed. 
Eastwards the sandstones thicken to their maximum, as proved 
at the Cremorne Bore, of over 1,020 feet. The sandstone is thick 
bedded, massive in places, but more frequently shewing diagonal 
bedding. The angle of dip of the diagonal bedding, if the plane of 
the true bedding be taken as the datum horizon, seldom exceeds 
26°. Mr. C. S. Wilkinson has stated that the prevalent dip of 
the diagonal bedding is towards the north east. Beds of clay- 
shale are occasionally interstratified. One of the most persistent 
of these may be traced, at intervals, from near Blackheath to the 
monoclinal fold a distance of over twenty miles ; it is one to 
eight feet thick and twenty feet below the top of the Hawkesbury 
Sandstone. A good section of it is exposed in the railway cutting 
at the eastern approach to the tunnel, at the top of Lapstone Hill. 
A short distance east of the Katoomba railway station a large 
isolated fragment of clay-shale, apparently on the same horizon as 
the bed just referred to, is seen in the railway cutting, embedded 
in the sandstone in such a way as to prove that it was contem- 
poraneously tilted out of its original horizontal position. 1 The 
contemporaneous dislocation of this shale has been ascribed by 
Mr. C. S. Wilkinson to some kind of ice action. 2 In places, 
especially towards the upper portion of the bed, the sandstone is 
loosely aggregated; in the middle and lower portions, however, it 
is more or less firmly compacted. It is composed of grains of 
quartz, decomposed fragments of felspar, minute crystals of iron 
pyrites, and, as recently shown by Mr. H. G. Smith, of red garnets. 3 
Crystals and small veins of barytes may occasionally be noticed. 
Scales of graphite appear to be uniformly distributed in consider- 
able quantity throughout the whole mass of the sandstone ; no 
satisfactory explanation of their presence has as yet been offered. 

1 Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xiri., 1879, pp. 105-107. 

2 Contemporaneously contorted diagonal bedding, like that seen at 
Coogee, near Sydney, may be due to similar agency, as suggested by me 
elsewhere.— Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Vol. xliii., pp. 190-196. 

3 Journ Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxvm., 1894, pp. 47 - 50. 

52 T. W. E. DAVID. 

Both Darwin and the Rev. "W. B. Clarke comment upon the highly 
crystalline character of the sand grains in the Hawkesbury Sand- 
stone ; the individual grains are distinctly faceted, owing to the 
development of secondary quartz crystals, with brightly reflecting 
faces, around the original sand grains. Several bores for water in 
this sandstone prove it to be, generally, impervious. 

The Hawkesbury Sandstone is traversed by numerous joints. 
These are frequently infilled with hydrated peroxide of iron derived 
from the decomposition of the pyrites crystals, or from the 
alteration of protoxide of iron. The existence of the joints much 
facilitates the work of erosion of these sandstones, and accounts 
for the frequent smooth and vertical faces of rock in the cliff 
sections. Though whitish-grey at a depth, the sandstone weathers 
various shades of yellow and rusty to reddish-brown near the 
surface, the weathering frequently assuming the form of concentric 
shells stained different colours by iron oxides and producing very 
characteristic features in the superficial structure of the Blue 
Mountain plateau. 1 

The Hawkesbury Sandstone has yielded the following fossil 
plants, Thinnfeldia, Gleichenites, Phyllotheca, Ottelia(T),Equwetum 
etc. The fossil fauna includes a PoMeoniscus, which was found at 
Biloela at a depth of sixteen feet below the sea level ; close to the 
same spot were subsequently discovered the thoracic plate of a 
Mastodonsaurus, M. platyceps, W. Stephens, 2 and a Gasteropod, 
Tremanotus Maideni. The latter forms the only example of a 
marine fosil hitherto discovered in the Hawkesbury Sandstone, 
and is a remarkable instance of a survival in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, in Triassic time, of a form which had become extinct in 
the Northern Hemisphere, apparently at the close of the Silurian 

1 Mr. VV. A. Dixon informs me that he thinks it not improbable that 

present in the form of protoxide in combination with organic matter 
other than the graphite scales already referred to. 

2 Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. I., (Series 2nd) 1886, pp. 931, and 
1175 - 1192, pi. 22. 


period. Reference is given below to a description by R. Etheridge 
Junr., of this interesting fossil. 1 A fossil fish, Cleithrolepis, has 
been found in the Hawkesbury Sandstone at an altitude of 3,450 
feet near Katoomba (I). 2 

3. Wianamatta Shale. Of this formation, which probably at 
one time covered a considerable area on the Blue Mountains, only 
a small portion is left undenuded. The westernmost extension of 
these shales is probably at a point about halfway between 
Linden and Faulconbridge. At Springwood the shales attain a 
thickness of about eighty feet, and, further eastwards are com- 
pletely denuded away at intervals, until the monocline at the 
top of Lapstone Hill is reached. They form a thin capping near 
the top of the monocline and thicken out rapidly at its base in the 
valley of the Nepean. They occupy almost the whole of the 
surface area between Penrith and Sydney, and extend northwards 
at least as far as the Kurrajong Heights, and southwards beyond 
Sutton Forest. The Rev. W. B. Clarke estimated their maximum 
thickness at eight hundred feet; he called them Wianamatta 
Shales, from Wianamatta the native name for South Creek. The 
junction of these shales with the underlying Hawkesbury Sand- 
stone is frequently marked by contemporaneous erosion. The 
shales are dark grey to bluish-grey at a depth, owing to the 
presence of iron, probably as protoxide, and carbonaceous material. 
Near the surface where they have been weathered, they have 
become bleached through the aggregation of the iron into segre- 
gation-veins and nodules of hematite and limonite, and the removal 
of some of the carbonaceous material. Bands and nodules of clay 
ironstone occur on certain horizons, especially near the base of the 
Beries, and thin seams of coal have been described in the upper 
beds of these shales. Mr. Clarke states that one of these seams 
with its clay bands, at South Creek, has an aggregate thickness 
of four feet. 

1 Annual Rep. Dep. Mines, 1886, pp. 174 - 176, pi. appendix N., f. 1 -3. 

2 Remarks on the Sedimentary Formations of New South Wales. By 
Rev. W. B. Clarke, Fourth Edition, 1878, p. 70. 

54 T. W. E. DAVID. 

Mr. E. F. Pittman informs me that he has measured a seam of 
coal over nine inches in thickness in these shales at Bankstown. 
Lenticular beds of argillaceous limestone occur sparingly ; one of 
these has been worked for the manufacture of Portland Cement by 
Messrs. Goodlet and Smith near Granville j another, on a higher 
horizon forms the capping of a lofty ridge at Badgelly Trigono- 
metrical Station to the west of Campbelltown. Vanadic oxide 
has been recorded as occurring in these shales. 

In the railway sections between Penrith and Sydney the shales 
exhibit folding and faulting on a small scale, due, I think, rather 
to an expansion of the shales through weathering than to deep- 
seated disturbances. This is proved by the fact that these folds 
and faults may be observed to completely disappear downwards 
as they approach the surface of the underlying Hawkesbury 
Sandstone ; they are, in fact, what may be termed expansion folds 
and expansion faults. In their upper portions the Wianamatta 
Shales become arenaceous, and towards Mittagong assume a 
chocolate or reddish purple colour, which makes them (in hand 
specimens) almost indistinguishable from the chocolate shales of 
the Narrabeen Beds. Barytes [f. H. G. Smith] occurs in these 
shales as well as in the Hawkesbury Sandstone. 1 

Fossils are most abundant near the base of the Wianamatta 
Shales, where they are preserved in concretions of clay ironstone. 
Dwarfed types of the Unionidae are very abundant in places ; they 
have been collected chiefly by Mr. B. Dunstan, and have been 
referred by Mr. R. Etheridge Junr. to the following species : — TJ. 
Dunstani, U.(VjWianamattensis, Unionella Carnei. U. Bowralensis. 
A small Mastodonsaurus was discovered also by Mr. Dunstan, at 
the Gib Rock tunnel near Bowral; and lately a gigantic specimen, 
probably referable to the Mastodonsauridse, and measuring not 
less than ten feet, was found by him in a large ironstone concre- 
tion at the St. Peter's brickpits near Sydney. He has also, by 
systematic and industrious collecting, lately brought to light a 
large collection of fossil fish, as yet undescribed. The following 

1 Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, (Series 2nd) Vol. n.,pt. 2, pp. 131 - 132. 

fossil fish have already been described Palceoniscus, Cleithrolepis. 
Mr. John Mitchell of Karelian has recorded the occurrence of the 
elytron of a fossil Buprestid, from the Wianamatta Shales near 
Campbelltown. The Rev. W. B. Clarke states that Entomostraca 
are also met with in the shales. Fossil plants are tolerably abun- 
dant, and comprise chiefly the following forms: — Thitmfeldia 
odontopteroides, Macrotamiopteris Wianamattce, and Phyllotheca. 

d. Cretaceous or Tertiary (?). At the top of the monoclinal 
fold, between Lucasville and Glenbrook, a deposit of coarse river 
gravel rests on an eroded surface of Hawkesbury Sandstone, just 
below the horizon of the junction line of the Hawkesbury Sand- 
stone with the Wianamatta ShaR The position of this river 
gravi-1 i> shewn on a geological map by the Rev. W. B. Clarke at 
the commencement of the fourth edition of his work, "Sedimentary 
Formations etc. of N. S. Wales." Its trend follows approximately 
that of the modern valley of the Nepean, and it may probably be 
correlated with the somewhat similar gravel seen in the railway 
cutting east of and close to St. Mary's. This gravel deposit, 
together with the old river channel in which it is reposing, follows 
the bends of the monoclinal folds in such a way as to prove that 
the fold did not exist at the time when this gravel deposit was 
formed. This is a very significant fact in the history of the 
physiography of the Blue Mountains, inasmuch as it proves that 
at the time this river was flowing, the deep gorges, such as those 
of the Grose and Cox's Rivers, did not exist, as the surface of the 
Hawkesbury Sandstone at this time had been eroded to a depth 
of only a few feet. Had they existed, it would obviously have 
been impossible for such a river to have co-existed and crossed 
these gorges at right angles, at an altitude of over five hundred 
feet above their present beds. This single fact at once disposes 
of the surmise of Darwin, that the valleys of the Blue Mountains 
occupy the sites of original depressions in the sandstone platform. 
The river gravel, at the spot where the tunnel of the western 
railway runs beneath it, is about one hundred and fifty yards 
wide and fifteen to twenty feet thick ; the shingle varies from a 

few inches up to over a foot in diameter, and is composed of very 
much the same kind of rocks as those in the recent gravels of the 
Nepean. The sandy matrix in which they lie is compacted in 
places into a fairly coherent rock ; and I should think it probable 
that this river channel dates back at least to the Miocene or 
Eocene period. The determination of its exact geological age 
would be of great importance ; there can be little doubt that the 
river which formed it was an ancestor of the Nepean, and probably 
therefore the chief drainage channel of the Blue Mountains in 
that age. 

«?. Pleistocene (1). A formation, presumably of this age, is 
developed chiefly in the valley of the Nepean, between Mulgoa 
and Richmond ; and consists of a terrace of red sandy soil, over- 
lying gravels, the surface of which is about twenty feet above the 
level of the highest modern floods. (See diagram 2, Plate 2.) No 
determinable fossils have, so far as I am aware, been found in it. 
/ Recent Alluvial. Formations of this age are developed 
chiefly in the Nepean and Hawkesbury valleys, in the estuaries 
of the Hawkesbury, the Parramatta River, George's River, etc. 
An observer contemplating the vast sheets of alluvial gravels, 
forming the plains of Mulgoa, Penrith, Windsor and Richmond, 
cannot fail to appreciate the vast erosive force, that must have 
been exercised by the Nepean River and its tributaries, to trans- 
port such a bulk of rock material through their narrow gorges, 
some of which has been carried for a distance of perhaps over fifty 
miles. From Mulgoa to Richmond, the alluvial gravels vary from 
one to two miles in width, and extend in an unbroken sheet about 
twenty miles long. Their thickness is at least forty-seven feet. 
The iron piers for the Penrith Railway Bridge over the Nepean 
are sunk a few feet below the bed of the river in gravel, the base 
of this gravel is forty feet above sea level. If the bulk of the 
Pleistocene gravel be added to that of the recent alluvial gravel 
it will amount approximately to about thirty square miles ; and 
those who depreciate the erosive power of the rivers of the Blue 
Mountains, should not forget that almost the whole of this grave 

An interesting feature in connexion with these recent alluvials 
is the fact that they appear to descend far below sea level, which 
confirms the theory that the coastal strip has subsided to a depth 
of two or three hundred feet, and so has enabled the waters of 
the Pacific to inundate the valleys of the Hawkesbury and the 
Parratnatta rivers for a considerable distance inland from their 
original seaward terminations. That these alluvials in the estuary 
of the Hawkesbury extend considerably below sea level, [was 
proved by the excavations and trial borings made along the line 
of the present Hawkesbury River railway bridge. The deepest 
of these borings penetrated to a depth of one hundred and seventy- 
six feet below sea level, without completely passing through the 
alluvial deposits. The water of the estuary was here found to be 
fifty feet deep ; the thickness of the alluvials at this spot would 
therefore be at least one hundred and twenty-six feet. No absolute 
proof however, was obtained that the lowest alluvials in this 
estuary were distinctly of fluviatile and of fresh-water origin; but 
as already stated, the lowest alluvials were not reached in the 
borings. It would be very important to ascertain whether coarse 
river gravels do not there underlie the estuarine clays ; and if any 
shells of Unio or Cydas were discovered, in situ, in these alluvials, 
their original fluviatile origin might be looked upon as proved. 
The borings for the iron piers of the Parramatta railway bridge 
also show that the alluvials extend there for a considerable depth, 
eighty-nine feet, below sea level, the alluvials being at least sixty- 
three feet thick. The diamond drill bores for coal at Narrabeen 
Lagoon struck a bed of peaty loam fifteen feet in thickness, at 
a depth of over twenty feet below sea level J and a well marked 
layer of marine shells at over eighty feet below sea level. Both 
these occurrences are strongly in favour of the hypothesis that 

the amount of twenty or eighty feet at least, in late geological time. 

It would be most useful, if engineers and others, would keep 
accurate records of any sections obtained in borings or excavations 
in these allu vials, especially in cases where they descend below 

(2) Eruptive rocks. These may for convenience be divided 
into (A), a Pre-Triassic Group older therefore than the Blue 
Mountains, and (B) a Post-Triassic Group of later origin than the 
formations of the Blue Mountains. 

(A) Pre-Triassic— (i.) Granites. These rocks are represented 
chiefly by granites, which are seen outcropping to the west of the 
g Peninsula, near Katoomba, and which extend thence 
into the valley of Cox's River, and occupy considerable areas near 
Hartley, Rydal, etc. They are biotite granites, rendered porphy- 
rinic in places by orthoclase felspar. These granites are probably 
of the same age as those of Bathurst, which have already been 
described by the Rev. J. Milne Curran. At the latter locality 
they are rich in sphene. As already mentioned these granites 
near Rydal have intruded the Lepidodendron beds, but no 
evidence has as yet been adduced to show that they intrude the 
Permo-Carboniferous rocks in the Blue Mountain region. On 
the other hand, near Hartley and Marangaroo, granite pebbles 
may be noticed in the basal beds of the Permo-Carboniferous 
System. (See Plate 2.) 

(ii.) Diabasic Lavas. Sheets of eruptive rock, apparently of 
contemporaneous origin with the Upper Marine Series, are seen 
in the railway cuttings between Rylestone and Lue, especially 
near the Rawdon Coal Mine. They may have been erupted 
contemporaneously with the great series of andesitic dolerites and 
tuffs of the same geological age at Kiama. 

(iii.) Tuffs of a basic character, and dipping at a steep angle, 
occur high up on the western escarpment of the Blue Mountains, 
at Cumberamelon, on a horizon about midway between the Lithgow 
Coal-seam and the seam at the top of the Permo-Carboniferous 
Coal-measures. They somewhat resemble the tuffaceous beds 


which overlie the kerosene shale at Doughboy Hollow, north of 
Murrurundi. It is doubtful, however, whether they are contem- 
poraneous with the Permo-Carboniferous Coal-measures. 

(B) Post-Triassic. With the exception of an eruptive boss of 
trachytic syenite near Mittagong, which is outside of the Blue 
Mountains proper, all the Post-Triassic eruptives belong to the 
basic group. Mounts Wilson, Tomah, King George, and Hay 
are capped with outliers of basaltic lava, as shewn on the geological 
map of the Rev. W. B. Clarke, at the beginning of his work on 
the " Sedimentary Formations of N. S. Wales." As yet, as far 
as I am aware, scarcely anything is known about these outliers, 
and it would be a very useful work to map in their boundaries 
and describe them. At the Australian Kerosene Company's 
Mine below Hartley platform a basic rock has intruded, and has 
considerably altered, in places, the kerosene shale, becoming 
bleached almost white in the process. Further east and situated 
close to the upper fold of the monocline are two very remarkable 
masses of volcanic breccia. The smaller mass is situated at 
Euroka Farm about five miles south of Penrith, and about half a 
mile west of the left bank of the Nepean River. (See Plate 1-3.) 

It is nearly circular in shape, about one-quarter mile in diameter 
and forms a depressed area, being completely surrounded by 
Hawkesbury Sandstone. The latter has been slightly altered 
along the contact zone. Evidence of the intrusive nature of this 
volcanic breccia is afforded by the fact that on the north margin 
a seam of coal, discovered in 1885, was found when followed down 
in a shaft to be almost vertically inclined in the manner shewn 
on diagram 2 of Plate 3, and to end abruptly at about seven feet 
below the surface. It was possibly a large disrupted fragment 
floated up by the volcanic rock from the coal-measures about 
1,400 feet below, or perhaps derived from a thin seam of coal in 
the Hawkesbury Sandstone. The coal shewed very little sign of 
having been altered. The volcanic breccia is a tough black rock, 
the base of which is very opaque even in thin slices, and containing 

abundant small angular fragments of decomposed dolerite and 
sandstone, together with numerous sand grains. 

About twelve miles north of this mass is a second and much 
larger development of a similar rock at The Valley near Spring- 
wood. This mass has been described by Mr. C. S. Wilkinson 1 as 
follows : — " In the bottom of a gully called the Valley about one 
mile from Springwood, there outcrops a mass of altered con- 
glomerates containing fragments of carbonized wood. I did not 
discover any fossils to enable me to discover the age of the beds ; 
but in their lithological character they resemble the Lower Coal- 
measures of the Hunter River. * * With these conglomerate 
beds occur some trachytic rocks, and in one place there is a spring 
deposit about fifty feet in diameter of brown iron ore." A cursory 
examination of this mass by myself a few days ago shews that it 
is oval in shape about three-quarters of a mile in diameter from 
east to west, and nearly half a mile from north to south. Towards 
the centre a good section is seen of the eruptive rock which is 
there a very hard volcanic breccia, similar to that already 
described at Euroka Farm. Crystals of augite up to three-quarters 
I abundantly distributed throughout the 
of very slightly altered bituminous coal, from 
up to three inches in diameter, are very 
There is evidence of an older and newer 
;s of the older breccia may be noticed in 
;he newer. The intrusive character of the 
mass is proved by the vertical position of large fragments of sand- 
stone and their alteration near the north-east edge of the intrusion. 
The surrounding Hawkesbury Sandstones are almost horizontal. 
The Valley forms a flat-bottomed depression about five hundred 
feet below the level of the top of the surrounding Hawkesbury 
Sandstone, and five hundred and fifty feet above the level of the 
sea. It is difficult to decide as to the exact part which these 
eruptive masses at the Valley and at Euroka Farm have played 
in the basic eruptions which visited this district in Post-Triassic 
l Annual Eeport, Mines Department, 1882, p. 139. 


time. The evidence is tolerably clear as to their having intruded 
the Hawkesbury Sandstone as well as the coal-measures, and 
as to there having been a powerful upward flow of paroxysmal 
violence. At first sight, therefore, one would infer that they 
mark the site of old volcanic chimneys. This was probably their 
function, though the slightly altered condition of the fragments of 
bituminous coal seems incompatible with an intimate association 
with a matrix of volcanic rock. The highly brecciated character 
of the mass, however, shews that superheated water producing 
violent steam explosions was probably abundantly present, and 
this may have protected the coal from calcination such as it has 
undergone when in contact with the basic dykes at Cremorne. 
There is here, therefore, a fine field for further investigation. 

About twenty miles east of the Valley is a large eruptive mass 
of very coarse dolerite at Prospect Hill (Waimalee). The Rev. 
W. B. Clarke, 1 has referred to this mass :— " At Waimalee on 
Prospect Hill, west of Parramatta, the magnetic diorite which 
there occurs, and which is, probably, the summit of a concealed 
mass submerged during the Carboniferous period and belonging 
to the Auriferous Epoch, has furnished the material of fern bear- 
ing beds of this division, that rest upon the diorite, and have 
since been intruded into and altered by basalt, which, in another 
part of the hill, exhibits a columnar structure." This so-called 
"magnetic diorite" is now known to be a crystalline -graxralfur 
dolerite rich in titaniferous iron and analcime. Drusy cavities, 
one to four feet in diameter, are occasionally met with, having 
their sides lined with prehnite. The dolerite graduates into the 
basalt, and there is clear evidence that both have intruded the 
overlying Wianamatta Shales, which in places are converted into 
chert at the point of contact. No trace of any breccia has yet 
been noticed. Probably this mass which is over half a mile in 
diameter represents the material which has consolidated in the 
reservoir of a now deeply denuded volcano. About ten miles 

;iles, Second Edition 

north-easterly from the preceding is the much smaller volcanic 
pipe (?) which has been worked for road-metal at the Pennant 
Hills quarry. This quarry has been described by Mr. C. S. 
Wilkinson. 1 It has also been described by Messrs. W. F. Smeeth, 
J. A. Watt, and myself. 2 

It is an oval mass of basalt about one hundred yards in greatest 
diameter, and has obviously intruded both the Hawkesbury Sand- 
stone and the Wianamatta Shale. A remarkable feature in con- 
nexion with this pipe is the occurrence of blocks of a rare chromite 
rock adhering to the sides of the basaltic pipe and having a 
diameter of from six inches to twenty inches. They are irregularly 
rounded, probably through partial fusion in the basaltic magma, 
and consist of chrome-diallage, chromite, and a felspar of the lime- 
soda series. 

In addition to the bosses mentioned above, the rocks of the 
Blue Mountains and the coastal strip are traversed by a network 
of basic dykes. These have been described by the Rev. W. B. 
Clarke, 3 by myself, 4 by Mr. E. F. Pittman, 6 and by the Rev. J. 
Milne Curran. 6 The last mentioned is the only detailed peno- 
logical account of these dykes that has yet been published, and is 
well illustrated. The mineral sodalite is stated to be present in 
this basalt, and the analyses shew that the total soda = 7 34%. 
These basalt dykes at Bondi, at La Perouse, at Lane Cove, at 
Five Dock etc. have rendered the Hawkesbury Sandstone distinctly 
prismatic (v. Plate 9, op. cit.) As regards the age of the. eruptive 
rocks described above, while it is clear that they are all Post- 

1 Annual Eeport Department of Mines for 1879, p. 218, Appendix A. 

2 Journ. Boy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxvn., 1893, pp. 401-406. 

3 Transmutation of Rocks in Australasia— Trans. Phil. Soc. N.S. Wales 
1862 - 1865, p. 294 et seq. 

4 " Notes on some points of basalt eruption in N. S. Wales "— Geol. Soc. 
Aust., Vol. 1., part i., p. 25, Melbourne, 1886. 

s " Report on Site for a New Bore at Cremorne."— Annual Report 
Department of Mines for 1892, pp. 109-111. 

6 '* Structure and Composition of a Basalt from Bondi." — Journ. Roy. 
Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxvin., 1894, pp. 217 - 231, pis. 9 - 12. 


Triassic, as they are distinctly intrusive into the rocks of the 
Hawkesbury series, it is not quite clear that they are all of the 
same age. It is probable, that in view of the considerable amount 
of denudation to which they have been subjected, they date back 
into some early portion of the Tertiary, or some late portion of 
the Mesozoic era. For example, the basaltic cappings of Mounts 
Wilson, Tomah, King George, and Hay, have probably at one 
time formed part of a more or less continuous sheet ; whereas 
now the Mount Hay outlier is separated from that of Mount King 
George by the valley of the Grose River, considerably over 1,500 
feet deep. No section has as yet been observed shewing any of 
the eruptive rocks in contact with the ancient river gravels such 

as those c 

1 Lapstone Hill 

; but it is probable that the erupti 

rocks are 

newer than the £ 

jravels. More information on the a 

of the eru 

ptive rocks is mu 

ich needed. 

C. Folding. No important folds have as yet been observed in 
the Hawkesbury series with the exception of the monocline at 
Lapstone Hill. Foldings however, on a small scale, may be 
observed at many places, as seen in the railway cuttings, in the 
Wianamatta Shales between Lapstone Hill and Sydney. These 
smaller folds are evidently partly the result of superficial expan- 
sion of the shales, due to weathering, as shewn on Plate 2, diag. 3. 
The Lapstone Hill monocline has not yet been systematically 
traced to its north and south limits. Southwards it certainly 
extends for at least three miles, and perhaps continues to beyond 
Picton, a distance of thirty-three miles south. Northwards it 
extends at least as far as the Kurrajong, and may perhaps be 
prolonged so as to join the end of the great anticline south of 
Maitland. Its trend is thus almost meridional. It may be divided 
into three parts, a fold, a septum and a trough ; though there is 
of course no hard and fast line between the three. As previously 
stated the sandstone platform has a constant inclination from 
Clarence Siding to Glenbrook of about ninety-five feet per mile. 
At Glenbrook, however, the strata rise to the extent of about fifty- 
three feet eastwards, as shewn on Plate 2, diagram 2, and thus form 

the gentle western slope of the fold. The summit of the fold is 
reached at the point where the old line of railway above the Zig- 
zag intersects the ancient river gravels. From here to the top of 
the Zigzag the strata resume their easterly dip, which increases 
rapidly until at the point where the septum is reached it amounts 
to 30°, and near the base of the septum to 50°. The exact shape 
of the fold has been determined by studying the bending of the 
well marked bed of clay shale interstratified with the Hawkes- 
bury Sandstone about twenty feet below its surface. There is 
no evidence that shearing has taken place either in the fold or 
in the septum. The septum is about fifteen chains long, and the 
strata composing it dip at an average angle of 38°, the dip of the 
current bedding being as high as 70°, measured from the present 
horizon, but never making an angle of more than about 26° with 
the true bedding planes. (See diagram 2, Plate 2.) 

The section above referred to, shews how the ancient river 
channel has partaken in the folding. Near the foot of the escarp- 
ment the septum becomes united to the trough ; and here again, 
up to the present I have not been able to find any evidence of 
shearing. The fact that brittle rocks such as the Hawkesbury 
Sandstones have been bent so sharply and to such an extent 
without any considerable fracturing, suggests that the bending 
movement was probably extremely slow. As regards the amount 
of displacement which has resulted from the folding, it is found 
that if the normal easterly slope of the sandstone platform be 
produced over the bottom of the trough near Emu Plains, the 
surface of the Hawkesbury Sandstone is about two hundred and 
fifty feet below its normal level. The question here suggests itself 
— has the movement produced an upheaval of the eastern escarp- 
ment of the Blue Mountains, or a depression of the coastal strip, 
or both? If positive elevation has resulted, evidence of such should 
be afforded by a lessening of the easterly slope of the Blue Moun- 
tains as it approaches the top of the fold, so as to make the surface 
to the west of the fold slightly concave. Such a concavity exists, 
but only to a very limited extent ; on the other hand there is a 

marked concavity in the trough of the fold which appears to me 
to point to a positive downward movement of this part of the 
earth's crust with regard to sea level. The evidence for a sub- 
mergence, in Tertiary or Post-Tertiary time, of the coastal strip 
is strong, though it is just possible that this may have been due 
to a rise in the level of the ocean consequent on the removal of 
the great ice-sheets of the northern hemisphere at the close of the 
glacial epoch. The fact is worthy of notice, that the trend of 
the fold is not at right angles to the greatest diameter of the area 
of sedimentation, as one would have expected to have been the 
case had the fold resulted from expansion due to the rise of the 
isogeotherms. The movement was probably connected with the 
widespread one which determined the outline of the Australian 
coast in Tertiary time. (See Plate 4.) 

D. Sculpture. Sufficient evidence has already been adduced 
to prove that the valleys of the Blue Mountains have been formed 
through sub-aerial erosion, and do not owe their shapes or positions 
to any original depressions in the sheets of sediment out of which 
they were formed, or to marine erosion. Had the sea played any 
part in their erosion there could not fail to have been some traces 
left behind of raised beaches : no vestige of such have as yet been 
discovered in the Blue Mountain area. As already noticed by 
Darwin, the valleys are somewhat funnel-shaped, being wider 
westwards and narrowed eastwards to deep gorges with precipitous 
sides. This structure is related to that of the geological mor- 
phology of the region. In the westward portion of the Blue 
Mountains the soft strata of the coal-measures which underlie the 
sandstones of the Hawkesbury series stand high, and have thus 
been much exposed to denudation, and have led to a constant 
undermining of the sandstones wherever these softer rocks have 
been brought within reach of denuding agencies. As, however, 
the soft strata of the Permo-Carboniferous coal-measures dip east- 
wards at a more rapid angle than the river channels, which also 
flow eastwards, it follows that in the east portion of the Blue 
Mountains the rivers leave the strata of the coal-measures and flow 

E-May 20,1896. 

66 T. W. E. DAVID. 

over the hard sandstones of the Hawkesbury Series, so that no 
undermining action is possible in the eastern area ; hence the 
narrowness of the river gorges near the eastern escarpment. 
With reference to the date when the erosion of the present valleys 
of the Blue Mountains commenced, it must obviously have been 
later than that of the basaltic eruptions of Mounts Hay and King 
George, and later than that of the ancient river channel at Lap- 
stone Hill. The last two dates were perhaps late Mesozoic or early 
Tertiary. Whatever may be the date of the commencement of 
the formation of the fold, it is clear that that of the erosion of 
the valleys of the Blue Mountains must have nearly coincided 
with it. The depth of the valleys exceeds 1,500 feet. 

E. Relation of the Blue Mountains to the leitlinie of Australia. 
On Plate 4 are shewn the guiding lines of folding which have 
determined the principal orographic features of Australia. There 
is no evidence that in Pre-Cambrian, Cambrian, and Silurian time 
the eastern boundary of Australia approximated to its present 
outline. In Carboniferous time, however, an extensive folding 
took place (termed the ' Gympie folding ' on Plate 4) which led to 
the development of the eastern cordillera of Australia, as else- 
where suggested by me. 1 That the bulk of this folding was 
accomplished in Carboniferous time is proved by the fact that 
whereas the Carboniferous strata have been powerfully folded 
over wide areas, the Permo-Carboniferous rocks have been very 
little disturbed. The trend of the Blue Mountain fold approxi- 
mately follows that of the present coast line as well as of the 
continental shelf ; and it therefore, perhaps, represents a renewal 
on a small scale in Mesozoic and Tertiary time of the folding so 
strongly marked in the Carboniferous strata of Australia. 

Summary. — There is evidence that a few miles to the west of 
the present western escarpment of the Blue Mountains, marine 
conditions obtained in Upper Silurian time, from at least as far 
south as the Monaco taUelund to beyond the .JVnolan Caves, 

1 Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. vm., Series 2, Nov. 29, 1893, pp- 


Bathurst, and Mudgee. That this sea may have been of consider- 
able depth, is perhaps implied by the development of radiolarian 
cherts near the Jenolan Caves. Folding and elevation ensued, 
and in Upper Devonian time there was heavy sedimentation pro- 
longed into Carboniferous time. While the conditions were still 
mostly marine the frequent occurrence of interstratified beds of 
conglomerate shews that land was not far distant to the west of 
the present position of the Blue Mountains. The greater portion, 
however, of the present New England tableland may have been 
covered by a very deep ocean, as would appear from the very 
extensive development of radiolarian red jaspers in that district. 
Then followed the powerful folding of the Carboniferous (Gyrnpie) 
and Upper Devonian formations, a great land-building epoch in 
the history of the Australian continent. When this folding had 
nearly ceased, and a great range had now become established 
west of the present site of the Blue Mountains, sediments derived 
from the former began to be deposited in the shallow seas extend- 
ing from near Penrith to the continental shelf. These constituted 
the strata of the Lower Marine Series (Per mo-Carboniferous). 
Swampy or lacustrine conditions succeeded, and the Greta coal- 
long from north to south, by from thirty to forty miles from east 
to west. A considerable subsidence ensued during which the 
waters of the Pacific penetrated to at least as i',u inland as Mount 
Lambie, about seventy-two miles inland from the present coast. 

interstratified between the top of the Upper Marine Series and 
the base of the Dempsey Beds, which underlie the Newcastle 
coal-measures. The abundance of fossil trees referable to Aran 
carioxylon, many preserved in the form of stumps in situ in the 
formation in which they grew, is clear proof that the conditions 
under which the Newcastle-Bulli coal-measures grew were terres- 
trial rather than marine. The formation of the last of the coal 
seams of the Newcastle-Bulli Series closes the history of the 
Palaeozoic era- in New South Wales. 

Triassic time witnessed the deposition of the sediments of the 
Narrabeen Beds, partly lacustrine or estuarine, partly of volcanic 
(tuffaceous) origin. The entire absence of distinct marine fossils 
in these beds, and the abundance of remains of terr-estrial plants 
and Estheria, suggest that the conditions were lacustrine or fluvio- 
marine. The sands and conglomerates of the Hawkesbury Sand- 
stones were next formed under conditions probably similar to those 
just described, but there is no evidence of any important tuffaceous 
beds in this group. The material of which it is formed was derived 
from Plutonic rocks to a considerable extent ; and the currents 
which carried it came chiefly from south-south-west, so that it 
may be inferred that high land lay in that direction. A slight 
elevation appears to have followed, and the clays of the Wiana- 
matta Shales were next formed in a brackish lake of much smaller 
dimensions than the area covered by the Hawkesbury Sandstones. 
The Wianamatta Shales conclude the Triassic system of New 
South Wales. There is no evidence to shew that any strata were 
added to the Blue Mountain area, or the present coastal strip, in 
Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous time. A slight upward movement, 
however, of the western portion of the Blue Mountains appears to 
have been in progress whereby the upper Marine Beds of Mount 
Lambie were elevated to a height of over 3,500 feet above the sea. 
At the close of the Mesozoic, or commencement of the Tertiary 
era, a large river flowed from south to north at the top of what 
is now Lapstone Hill, so that the erosion of the eastern portion 
of the Blue Mountains could not have fairly commenced at this 

iEss. 69 

time, as that ancient river had only just succeeded in cutting its 
channel down to the level of the top of the Hawkesbury Sand- 
stone. Then followed the gradual folding of the earth's crust 
along the Lapstone monocline, accompanied by more or less 
extensive volcanic eruptions, in the neighbourhood of Prospect, 
Pennant Hills etc., in the coastal strip, and The Valley, Euroka 
Creek etc. in the Blue Mountains. The erosion of the lower 
portions at any rate of the valleys of the Blue Mountains dates 
from the formation of the monocline, since which time they 
have been deepened to the extent of six hundred feet or more. 
While the monocline was forming the coastal strip was slowly 
;. and in the now submerged valleys along the seaward 
margin of this strip were laid down the sands and gravels succes- 
sively of Pleistocene and Recent Age. It would be of importance 
to ascertain by means of accurate measurements whether the 
subsidence is still in progress. M> lly due, for 

information supplied me for this paper, to the following : — T. F. 
Furber, l.s., II. Deane, M.A., m.i.c.e., F.L.S., W. S. Dun, and A. J. 
Prentice, b,a. 

1. It is stated in this Sandstone plateau of the 
Blue Mountains attains an elevation of about 4,000 feet. It is 
questionable, however, whether any portion of the Blue Mountains 
proper attains a greater elevation than about 3,800 feet. 

2. While the proofs of this address were being revised, I have 
been able to obtain further evidence which shows that the coal, 
disrupted by the volcanic neck at Euroka Farm, (Diagram 2, 
Plate 3) was probably derived from the Hawkesbury Sandstone 
rather than from the Permo-Carboniferous coal-measures. 


By H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., p.r.s. 

[With Plate V.] 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, June 3, 1896.'] 

I feel some reluctance in coming forward to night, with the 
results of my investigations into the periodicity of good and bad 
seasons — floods and droughts if you will— because they must come 
to you as a surprise, and they will make a claim on your con- 
fidence, which at first sight you will probably not be disposed to 
grant. For myself, I know that some years ago, if anyone had 
come to me, stating that it was possible to forecast the seasons 
many years in advance, I should have received the statement 
with incredulity. It will not be a surprise therefore if you 
feel the same, but I hope you will give me a fair hearing before 
coming to a conclusion, so that you may have before you the 
evidence that has convinced me, and you can then form your own 

I am not unaware of the fact, that there is a great gulf between 

produce enough evidence to convince an audience, but the state- 
ment has not been made until there seemed to me to be evidence 
enough to convince anyone who will carefully weigh it. Moreover 
an endeavour has been made to put the evidence in such a form that 
it can be easily followed by all ; to me it seems to be conclusive, 
but probably most of those who hear, will wait to be convinced 
by the result of the forecasts, and to meet this very natural feel- 
ing there will be to night a forecast of the seasons for the coming 
two years. The difficulty in getting the facts together has been very 
great, I have had to ask from history records of passing phenomena, 
which it has been the habit of the historian to neglect; however, 
there will ' be before you a mass of evidence in support of coy 
proposition, that there is a periodicity in weather. 

The argument of my paper is, that if we take one hundred 
years of climate thoroughly studied, so that its salient features 
are clearly defined, and we compare this section of time with all 
past time, so far as the data are available, and find that the 
salient points in our century are repetitions of the salient points 
in all past time, and probably in all countries, then one is justified 
in coming to the conclusion that these salient points are definitely 
connected with the climate of the world, and will appear again 
regularly in the future. The weak point is freely admitted, viz., 
that history has not kept a regular and continuous account of 
droughts, but only recorded them when they became very promin- 
ent. The strong point is that all the data that history does give 
us is in favour of the nineteen years' cycle. 

In 1876 I read a paper before this Society on Meteorological 
Pci'io'-licity, ami pointed out that, of many cycles discussed, one 
of nineteen years seemed to represent the seasons in New South 
"Wales better than any other. Since that time the subject has 
been constantly before mi', and no opportunity of [Hitting together 
facts which might be useful in the further dicussion of it has been 
lost. Scores of investigations have been carried out, some suc- 
cessful, others not so, in bringing forward evidence. My papers 
to this Society on "Floods in the Darling " and "Floods in Lake 
George," and the careful study of the rainfall and general weather 
and the diagrams of various weather records, barometer, ther- 
mometer, wind direction and force, and rainfalls of different 
Australian latitudes, from 1840 to 1887 have all been helps. All 
the usual weather cycles have been carefully studied, one that 
very many meteorologists accept, " Sun Spots," will be referred 
to later. 

And it may be explained that the word drought is not used here 
in the sense in which it is often used in England and elsewhere, 
that is, to signify a period of a few days or weeks, in which not a 
drop of rain falls, but it is used to signify a period of months or 
years during which little rain falls, and the country gets burnt 
up, grass and water disappear, crops become worthless and sheep 
and cattle die. 

There are parts of the world in which you never hear of drought, 
but they tell you they have years of floods, and years of moderate 
rains, but nothing that can be called a drought, and yet we have 
in these variations of the rainfall exactly the same causes at work, 
which make in another place a serious drought; that is, a varia- 
tion in the annual rainfall, and in the temperature and winds ; 
but one place has a superabundance of rain and does not miss a 
small quantity, while the other has barely enough at any time, 
and a slight variation makes a drought. The interior of Australia 
and many other places are of this character, and our coast districts 
have a fairly abundant rainfall which modifies the drought con- 
ditions, and relatively we have little drought. In other words a 
drought is nothing if it has not a suitable local setting. 

Drought is however not wholly made by a shortage of rainfall. 
Its most important factors are great heat and drying winds. As 
an illustration we may look to the year 1895 ; in the latter part 
of winter and in spring, there were many falls of rain, which 
would have made grass in ordinary seasons, but it had do sooner 
fallen than a dry north-west wind and burning sun dried it all up. 
This great and burning heat was a well known feature in historical 
droughts, and some authorities say that the fable of Phaeton driv- 
ing the Chariot of the Sun so close to the earth that he set it on 
fire, is a poetical setting of an 
the sun became so powerful 

Before 1895 all the diagrams I used had been made to show- 
quantities of the various elements, as well as their relation in time 
with a view to seeing if there was any periodicity. Recently it 
occurred to me that it would be useful to have a diagram in which 
all the droughts without regard to their intensity should be placed 
in their order of time; not only was this desirable for seeing what 
the relation in time was, but it had become evident that it would 
be impossible to see the relation between our droughts and those 
in other countries, unless some such pictorial arrangement was 

made. At the time it was not seen what a great saving of trouble 
and time this very simple device would ensure, but it is abun- 
dantly evident now, that this diagram has shortened by some 
years the attainment of the object I had in view. 

As a preliminary to making the diagram, the particulars of the 
weather in this Colony from all sources, for every year of our 
history, were carefully examined, and the years simply classed as 
good or bad, that is, having sufficient or insufficient rainfall ; a 
form was then prepared with a vertical space for each year, and 
across these a zero line was drawn to divide the good from the 
bad, and beginning with 1895 I tilled in for that year, and below 
the line a convenient length of the column in red ink, the length 
was simply to catch the eye ; then for 1894, a good year, I filled 
in with black ink above the line a space equal to the red in the 
vertical space for 1895. The two years were thus contrasted, 
simply as good and bad ; the question of how good or how bad 
was purposely left out. The diagram was then completed, each 
year being treated in the same way back to 1788. It was at once 
apparent that the drought which has been lettered A for conveni- 
ence was the most regular in its recurrence, and the most exten- 
sive in time, lasting as it does from three to seven years. 

A vertical red line was then drawn through A between the first 
and second years, and it was found that the interval was regular 
and exactly nineteen years. In giving the date of any drought, 
the year after this line was used, being in all ordinary cases the 
middle year. Drought D was then examined and found to recur 
with nearly the same regularity, and a short vertical line was 
drawn under it to mark the point which has Keen taken as the 
centre, and this also recurs at intervals of nineteen years ; there 
are three others, B, C, and E which also recur with an average 
interval of nineteen years, but they are not quite regular, may 
in fact differ from time to time a year or even two years, this 
uncertainty of time is indicated in the diagram by making the 
red space shorter. 

The diagram takes in the whole period from the foundation of 
the colony to the present year, i.e., one hundred and eight years, 
and it is certainly very noteworthy that the most pronounced 
droughts recur with such regularity, that is, at every nineteen 
years throughout the one hundred and eight years. It had been 
observed by me years ago that some of our great droughts had 
been world-wide, and when the diagram had got so far, it was 
decided to fill in the Indian droughts on a lower line, and see if 
they also coincided with Australian ones, and you see the result, 
viz., that in nearly all cases the great droughts in Australia had 
their counter parts in India. 

The investigation had become interesting, and seemed to 
promise to show the exact year of the great drought in this 
country, of which there was abundant evidence when the colonists 
landed here, both in the fact that to the south of Sydney all the 
very large trees were dead and between them were growing young 
trees ; and the story of the blacks who said that the river Hunter 
dried up, that all the great trees died and most of the blacks, that 
those who survived had obtained drinking water from the moun- 
tain springs. A similar story of the drying up of the Murrura- 
bidgee and their sufferings was told by the blacks on the Mur- 
rumbidgee. I had long wanted to find out when this terrible 
drought in this Colony took place, and the Indian record showed 
that the A drought had been repeated in 1769-70 which probably 
fixes the date : for the middle of the eighteenth century was 
very dry generally all over the world. 

But, if we can carry the nineteen years period in this way back 
beyond our history, the idea immediately presents itself: — "Where 
are you going to draw the limit: is there any limit?" It was 
evidently not a question for argument, but for proof or disproof 
by figures. It was recollected at the moment, that history records 
a terrible drought and famine in India in 1022, and there was a 
similar one in South America about the same time. 1 Does it lie in 

the nineteen years' cycle was the question which naturally 
occurred to me? And it was seen that it did, for 19 x 43 takes us 
back from 1838 to 1021, that is, to a repetition of D drought, 
and on the spur of the moment the differences of opinion about 
the accuracy of B.C. dates was ignored and the figures were run 
out to see if the seven years famine in Egypt 1708 B.C. was in 
one of our nineteen years' cycles, and sure enough 19 x 186 + 2 takes 
us back to 1708 B.C., that is exactly the date of Pharaoh's famine; 
but Pharaoh's drought may for the present be discarded to 
appear again later; the fact that one famine in 1022, when dates 
may be taken to be reliable, should fall into the cycle was enough 
to suggest further investigation in reference to other recorded 
droughts, and all the records of droughts that had been collected 
in the last twenty years of general reading were tested to see if 
they fitted in. Tables were prepared showing every date on 
which A drought recurred back to A.D. 1, and the same for 
drought D. I am not going to weary you by going through the 
list, 1 but will give you the result. History says very little about 
droughts prior to A.D. 900, between that date and this, A drought 
has, on the assumption, occurred at every nineteen years. In 
this interval of nine hundred and ninety -six years there have 
been fifty-two repetitions of A drought, and the question is, what 
has history to say about its droughts. Well, it shows that these 
droughts have been repeated at various places on the earth on 
forty -four of the fifty-two dates ; of these eight missing droughts, 
no less than six of them occurred between 1100 and 900 A.D., an 
interval when history was less complete on these matters. So far 
as I have gone history furnishes us with seventy-eight droughts in 
different countries, all of which fit into the series which we have 
named A. During the same period, D recurred fifty-one times, 
and history records droughts, numbering eighty-nine, on thirty-six 
of these periods. Taking then the droughts history has recorded 
between A.D. 900 and 1896 we have seventy-eight A, and eighty, 
nine D, a total of one hundred and sixty-seven, out of two hundred 
1 Appendix No. 1. 

ot all, for the drought E which 
be more definite and important 
>rthern hemisphere, and twenty-six more out of the two 


In estimating the importance of these figures, it must be 
remembered that North and South America, Russia, China, Persia, 
Turkey, Austria and Australia, before 1788, all subject to 
frequent drought, yet did not furnish to the numbers quoted 
more droughts than you could count on your fingers, and it may 
be fairly assumed that if we had these records, and especially if 
history had made a point of recording droughts, we should have 
had drought recorded on every recurrence of the A and D nine- 
teen years' cycle, but I think the evidence, that history furnishes 
one hundred and ninety-three recorded droughts every one of 
which fits into the cycle, justifies us in assuming that the nine- 
teen years' cycle has been running for at least one thousand years, 
and may be trusted to continue and justify forecasts based upon it 

Having got so much from a study of A and D in the Christian 
era, it seemed desirable to see if there were any recorded in B.C. 
times and the following were found : one drought in Abraham's 
time given as 1920 B.C., does not fit into the cycle. 

(1) Gen. xxvi. 1, in the time of Isaac, 1,804 B.C., 3,632 years 

before A ; this interval is a multiple of nineteen years, i.e., 
19x181 + 3. 

(2) Gen. xli. 54, Pharaoh's (seven years), 3,536 years before A 

= 19x186 + 2. 

(3) II. Sam. xxi. 1, David's time, 2,849 years before A- 

19x150 + 1. 

(4) I. Kings xvii. 1, Elijah's drought, 2,736 years before A = 


(5) II. Kings viii. 1, Elisha's drought, 2,717 years before A = 

You will observe that the interval between (4) and (5) is 
nineteen years, between (3) and (4) is six times nineteen years, 
between (2) and (3) thirty-six times nineteen years. 

For the convenience of having all the B.C. droughts together, 
we will bring forward from " Red Rains " the droughts which are 
therein found, and two from Roman and one Grecian history. 
First then the Roman 

(6) 493 B.C., drought at Rome, 2321 years before 1828 is in A 

series, interval is 19 x 122 + 3. 

(7) 436 B.C., drought at Rome, thousands of persons threw 

themselves into the Tiber, to avoid death by starvation; 2,264 
years before 1828 is in A series, interval 19 x 119 + 3. 

(8) 138 B.C., a drought over the world 1,976 years before 1838, 

is therefore in D series, interval 19 x 104. It is worth 
mentioning that in India from 503 B.C. to 443 B.C. there 
was great drought and pestilence, and these dates are in the 

(9) 503 B.C., great drought in India 2,341 years before 1838, 

interval 19x123 + 4. (D) 

(10) 443 B.C., end of great drought, 2,281 years before 1838, 
interval 19x120 + 1. (D) 

(11) 738 B.C., red rain in Rome 2,566 years before 1828, interval 
19x135 + 1. (A) 

(12) 652 B.C., red rain fell in Avis, 2,490 years, interval 
19x131 + 1. (D) 

(14) 648 B.C. 

j drought as No. 12. (D) 

(15) 626 B.C., red rain at Ceres 2,454 years before 1828, interval 
19x129 + 3. (A) This rain was at the end of the drought. 

(16) 587 B.C., rained blood in the campagna 2,415 years before 
1828, interval 19 x 127 + 2. (A) 

(17) 585 B.C., rained blood on one day in Rome 2,413 years 
before 1828, interval 19x127. (A) The beginning of the 
same drought as No. 16. 

78 H. C. RUSSELL. 

(18) 572 B.C., rained blood on the squares of Yulcan and Con- 
cordia for two days, 2,414 years before 1842, interval 
19x127 + 1. (E) 

(19) 570 B.C. The beginning of same drought as No. 18. 

(20) 538 B.C., blood rain in Rome 2,376 years before 1838, 
interval 19 x 25 + 1. 

We have in this list (omitting 13, 14, and 17) seventeen B.C. 
droughts, all of which with one exception, fit into our nineteen 
years' cycle. If these dates are examined apart from their con- 
nection with Australian droughts, we find that the intervals 
between them, are multiples of nineteen years, which shows, that 
droughts recurred then as now, in cycles of nineteen years, and 
this is very strong evidence in favour of our theory. The more 
so when it is remembered that all the B.C. droughts I have been 
able to find, except one, do fit in ; they are not a series selected 
out of many, for the purpose of supporting the nineteen years 
period, but they are all that can be found. Again taking the 
dates given in history, the intervals between these B.C. droughts 
and ours in Australia are multiples as Ave have just seen of nine- 
teen years. 

If it be objected that chronologists have grave doubts as to the 
accuracy of B.C. dates, I reply that whether they be correct or 
not, it is quite certain that historians did not purposely arrange 
the dates in order to make them fit into a cycle, running amongst 
these droughts, that was unknown to them, or to make them fit 
into the Australian cycle, which had not even been discovered. 

These drought dates are well marked points in ancient history, 
and the fact that they fit into a cycle, supported by all the known 
droughts of the last thousand years of the world's history, is in 
strong confirmation of the accuracy of these B.C. dates. 

The figures show thai Elijah'* prediction was a repetition of 
Pharaoh's drought 42 x 19 years after it ; also Elisha's prediction 
was nineteen years after Elijah's, and it is noteworthy that the 
drought in Davids time, although it does not appear to have 


been predicted, was 19 x 36 after Pharaoh's. This seems to me 
to be very strong evidence in favour of the view that the Egyptians 
knew of the nineteen years' cycle, and that the Jews brought the 
knowledge away with them. 

Those learned in Assyrian antiquities tell us that the book con- 
taining "the Observations of Bel," the oldest astronomical book of 
that part of the world, was ordered to be kept by the king of Saros 
3,800 years B.C.; that book shows that they kept a record of 
astronomical and all other events ©vered the 

nineteen years' cycle of eclipses, and we are told that they 
believed that one event caused another, and all astronomical 
and meteorological observations were thus bound up together. 
Under such conditions I do not think it would be possible for 
them to avoid finding in the droughts a similar period to that 

have been impossible for those who kept the Kilometer in Egypt 
to avoid finding it in the variations of the heights of the Nile floods 
which were of such vital importance and so carefully recorded. 

Having got so far, I looked for any droughts mentioned in 
Roman history, to see if they would coincide like the others with 
the nineteen years' cycle, and found two, one in 493 and the 
other in 436 B.C., in both cases these are repetitions of the A 
drought, but the historian has quoted the end of the drought for 
they are three years after my date, which is the second year of a 
that lasts from four to seven years. History tells us that 
in 138 B.C. there was a drought over the whole world, and the 
heat is said to have been excessively great : this intense heat, is one 
of the most marked feature of a D drought to-day; witness the 
excessive temperatures of January last, and the record temperature 
of Australia 127° at Bourke, was nineteen years before in 1877; 
while intense heat was a feature of January 1858, scorching hfat 
of January 1839, and intense heat February 1820; such is the 
D drought series in Australia. 

We thus see that five out of six Scripture droughts fit into the 
nineteen years cycle, two from Roman history, and one from 

Grecian, and nine from red rain, in all seventeen B.C. droughts, 
agree in supporting the cycle. 

The evidence of these droughts is very strong because it is so 
nearly unanimous ; and, as we shall see presently, it receives 
support from an unexpected quarter. In passing, I may mention 
that the interval between the dates four hundred and ninety-three 
and four hundred and thirty-six is fifty-seven years, or three 

Since I have been working at this subject there have been a 
number of red rain storms noted in this Colony, and the latest on 
April 10, suggested to me this line of investigation. Red dust is 
obviously a proof of drought somewhere, otherwise the dust could 
not rise, and since these proofs of drought are entirely apart from 
the others, and recorded not as droughts but as prodigies, which 
in days gone by created no little alarm ; it will be worth while to 
see how far they support or contradict the nineteen years cycle. 

was so unexpected, I had no idea there were so many records of 
red rains, or that they so strongly supported the nineteen years' 

There are altogether sixty-nine recorded instances of the fall of 
red rain, of these I have recorded six for New South Wales. The 
first historic red rain was fourteen years after the foundation of 
the city of Rome, that is in B.C. 738, and there are nine others 
B.C., all of which fit into the nineteen years' cycle ; between 538 
B.C. to 582 A.D. I can find no record of red rain, but from 582 
to 1896 there are fifty-nine recorded falls of red rain, and all of 

B.C. droughts which go with the eight mentioned before to make 
seventeen B.C. droughts in support of the cycle, the remainder, 
fifty-nine, are included with a few exceptions in appendices Nos. 
1 and 2. 

I should like it to be clearly understood that I do not mean 
ordinary hurricanes which are as much parts of ordinary weather 
conditions in some parts of the world, as our southerly winds are 
here. What I mean are ricane$, those that came 

at long intervals to terrify mankind by their power for destruction. 
These are connected with droughts, and therefore should be dis- 
cussed here. I had years since observed that the connection 
between the two was obvious enough sometimes, and during the 
past year I was reminded of it very often by the frequent reports 
of heavy gales met with by ships coming to this port, indicating 
great atmospheric energy. Then on March 24, 1895 occurred 
the worst gale of the Nineteenth Century in England, which did 
more damage there than any other gale since 1703. Then on 
January 3, 1896, came the hurricane over the Tongan group of 
islands, and not one of the vessels in the harbour rode out the 
storm ; every one of them was wrecked before morning, and the 
wind was of such exceptional violence that after it was over, the 
islands looked as if they had been bombarded. 

And as I write, May 28, we have the report of a terrible 
cyclone in America, by which three of the States, Missouri, Illinois 
and Indiana were damaged, the city of St. Louis was wrecked, 
and 1,500 people killed by falling buildings, and damage to 
property caused to the extent, as estimated, of twenty millions of 
dollars ; this is another fragment of the present D drought. 

Then I turned to storms on this coast, some of which were of 
terrible violence. 

And as I looked, memory ran over the storms of the past and 
picked out the most terrible gale of which we have any record in 
Australia, viz., the Dandenong storm, on 10th of September, 1876, 
just nineteen years before 1895, a storm in which a very fine 
steamer the " Dandenong," going to Melbourne foundered, and all 
hands were lost. In parts of this storm gusts of wind reached 
one hundred and forty and one hundred fifty-three miles per hour. 

Then the " Cawarra " Gale, a most furious easterly storm in 
which this fine steamer was wrecked at the entrance to Newcastle, 
N. S. Wales, on July 12, 1866, in the great drought period which 
we have called A. 

And on going back another step, I remembered the loss of the 
"Dunbar" at Sydney heads, in a tremendous easterly gale, on 
20th August, 1857, just nineteen years before the " Dandenong" 
was wrecked. It is not my purpose to describe these wrecks, I 
only recall them as the most memorable that our short history 
affords, and the fact that they all occurred in our great drought 
periods, set me searching history to see if great storms and droughts 
had any connection. 

That there is such a connection seems, a priori, extremely 
probable, because the great heat that accompanies a drought 
furnishes that additional impulse to the circulation of the wind 
which is necessary to urge it into violent storms ; for a compara- 
tively small additional impulse over the large area of the equatorial 
regions, would supply the energy necessary for these very violent 
local storms. The heat is a matter of common observation, and 
the hurricane at such periods is found by the careful observer to 
be something unusual, and possessed of a restless energy in drought 
times. It was soon found that the conditions observed in a few 
cases of my own experience were amply confirmed by a search 
which was carried back for six hundred years. Sixty-two hurri- 
canes were found, the greater majority being between 1700 and 
the present day, and only exceptionally violent hurricanes were 
selected, such as are quite distinct from the ordinary hurricane 
or storm, and when these came to be compared with the drought 
periods it was found that every one had occurred in a drought 
year; and further, that those of the greatest violence belong to 
the D drought, which is remarkable for its great heat and the 
energy of its winds. 

Another interesting series of phenomena connected with 
droughts I find in the great frosts of Europe — the absence of 
cloud in these seasons, due to the dryness of the air, permits of 
extreme radiation at night, and hence great cold is frequent in 
drought winters, as heat of unusual severity is experienced in the 
summers, and it is another proof of the hold these drought periods 
have on the weather. But let us turn to the lists of the great frosts 
of Europe, collected by the celebrated astronomer Arago — they 
were not collected for the purpose I am going to use them, but he 
selected all of them from ten centuries of European records — as 
there are only sixteen in a thousand years, it is safe to assume 
they were of exceptional severity; and they are so beyond 
question. Our present purpose with them, however, is to see 
whether they support in any way our theory. — Eleven of them fall 
directly into the A drought, three of them fall directly into the 
D Drought, and three into one of the minor droughts lettered E. 
306, the Rhone was frozen over, (end of a long A drought) 
833, the Po was frozen over from Cremona to the sea (D) 
1234, loaded waggons crossed the Adriatic on ice in front of 

Venice (E) 
1305, all the rivers of France were frozen (D) 
1324, people travelled from Denmark to Lubeck and Dantzic on 

the ice (D) 
1334, all the rivers in the South-east of France and all those of 
Northern and Central Italy were frozen and the frost 
lasted in Paris two months and twenty days (A) 
1468, it was necessary to break up the wine in Flanders with 
hatchets in order to serve it out to the soldiers, owing 
to the intense cold (A) 
1544, the wine in France frozen ; had to be broken up before 

issue to the soldiers (A) 
1594, the Mediterranean was frozen over from Marseilles to 

Venice (E) 
1657, the Seine was completely frozen over (A) 

1709, the Adriatic and the Mediterranean were frozen c 
1717, shops were established on the Thames (A) 
1742, the Seine was entirely frozen over (A) 
1744, Seine entirely frozen over (A) 

1766, Seine entirely frozen over (A) 

1767, Seine entirely frozen over (A) 
1895, the Thames frozen over (A) 

(A) eleven, (D) three, (E) three. 

One finds it commonly stated in books that the Dead Sea is 
gradually drying up and perhaps it is, but there are very con- 
siderable alterations in the level of it; for instance Lieut. Conder, 
when surveying Palestine, June 1872 to June 1875, found it did 
change its level considerably, and at page 220 of "Tent Work in 
Palestine," he states, " Sheikh Jemil, the most intelligent Arab 
near Jericho, told me that in his father's time the sea did not 
generally reach further inland than the Rujum el Bahr. Whereas 
now the connecting causeway is always under water. This repre- 
sents a rise of some ten feet in the water level. In fact accord- 
ing to this statement, the sea had now (1873 or 1874) more water 
in it than it used to have half a century ago." 

From this it would seem more than probable that the Dead Sea 
followed the same course as Lake George, where the water gradually 
disappeared after 1826, was all gone in 1838, and remained only 
a shadow of its true self until 1852, when it began to fill up, and 
in 1874 attained its maximum flood. Lake Titicaca followed 
much the same order. So that we have here lakes in Asia, South 
America and Australia, drying up in the great droughts of 1828 
and 1838 and during the small rainfall of the whole period 1825 
to 1851, and tilling up after that year. 

Mr. Anderson, Principal Librarian of the Public Library, ha» 
given me very cordial assistance in my search for particulars of 
the climate of Egypt, and, as a consequence, I found in the works 

he brought uader my notice records of droughts, or, as it is tl 
termed, "low Nile" on nineteen years. Five belong to A drou 
in our cycle, and twelve belong to D : that is seventeen ou 
nineteen correspond with dry periods in New South Wales, 
the other two correspond with one of our minor droughts ; ar 
see that, in Egypt as in England, their weather change co 
about a year before ours in Australia. 

It is not my purpose to night to go into the details of the life 
of a drought ; I am writing to try and prove to you that there is 
a cycle which rightly understood will be of the utmost value to 
this Colony. At another time I have to go into what might 
he called the personal history of a drought ; but there is one 
feature of their history that bears so strangely upon their 
periodicity, that I cannot defer it, although this matter more 
correctly belongs to their personal history : I refer to their sudden 
interruption by violent rains extending over small areas; you 
will see in what follows that this is a feature that comes in a cer- 
tain month in each series A and D, and for the moment seems 
to break up the drought, but the drought nevertheless returns to 

omplete its full course. 

This break is a well-marked feature of droughts, and one that 
18 verv apt to, and very frequently does, mislead those who do 
not study the drought as a whole. A very good illustration of 
this has been before us quite recently in this D series. A very 
heavy rain storm came on in February, 1896, in the north-western 
districts, as much as ten inches falling in a single night in 
some places. But when one comes to look carefully at the 
character of the rain, we find that the most marked feature of it 
18 that it is not general, but made up of a series of violent local 
st °rms, each confined to small areas, but widely separated 

roi » one another, and connected only by comparatively light 
rains ' and , further, that these storm-bursts, as they are sometimes 
? aUed ' ^scharge the rain so rapidly that it has not time to sink 
ln > hut runs away to the nearest water-course, and therefore, fails 

to do that amount of good which we should expect from the 
quantity measured. 

Unfortunately, one cannot, as a rule, learn the area of these 
storms, but many circumstances, such as the absence of the same 
heavy rain at neighbouring stations indicate the fact, and some- 
times they cover only a small part of one station. I may 
illustrate what I mean, both as to the area covered by the rain 
and the immense quantity that comes down, by the experience of 
a friend, Mr. L. S. Donaldson, in 1869, on page 87. 

One of the most remarkable and best known rain storms inland 
occurred in the end of January, 1885, when we were right in the 
middle of A drought. The storm came in at the north-west 
corner of the colony, and travelled thence in an east south-east 
direction, straight across New South Wales to the sea, depositing 
from six to eleven inches in a day and a half as it passed on. 
From the central line of heaviest rain, which passed over 
Wilcannia, the quantity of rain fell off rapidly, so that at Bourke 
the river rose only four feet, while at Wilcannia it rose twenty- 
eight feet ; but the rain messenger having made his way over the 
colony, drought again took possession, and it did not break until 
the middle of the year 1886. 

Just nineteen years before this storm of 1885, a very similar 
storm passed over Bourke in January, 1866 (again in A drought); 
very heavy rain fell, but the river did not rise much, although 
the rain lasted two days, showing that the rain area was small. 
Nineteen years before this there is no record (i.e., in 1847) of 
what took place in the then unoccupied Darling Country, but it 
is worth mentioning as evidence so far, that there was such a 
storm in the West, that an exactly similar storm passed over the 
Paterson River on January 17th, 1847, just as the one in 1885 
passed over Lake George and deposited eight inches of rain there; 
at the Paterson, it rained so heavily during the day that the 
river rose higher than it had been for some years before. 

I have already alluded to the recent (February 1896) rain 
storm over Bourke and the Bogan country and its remarkably 

patchy character. It is worth while adding that it is evident 
from the few records available (only two stations west of the 
Darling) that a similar storm occurred in February 1877; for in 
February " Momba " Station had a storm and four inches of rain, 
and " Yancania," seven and a half inches in the same month, nine- 
teen years before that of the present year 1896. In 1858 no one 
on the Darling River thought of rainfall records, and the few 
notes left by those who were taking up the country there do not 
help us at all ; but Dr. Glennie's record at the Paterson again 
comes to our aid and tells us that on February 2nd, 1858 a most 
tremendous rain and hail storm with thunder and lightning passed 
over the Paterson. I mention these peculiar rain storms just to 
show how they repeat themselves as notable parts of the weather 
at intervals of nineteen years, and it is to be noted that in A 
droughts the storm came in January, and D series in February. 

But it is not alone in these storm rains that these features of 
drought are repeated, it shows in many ways and not least in 
temperature ; for instance, we all remember the intense heat of 
January 1896, when one hundred and sixty deaths were attributed 
to the great power of the sun in the Bourke district, we find intense 
heat occurred at nineteen years' intervals before that in January 
1877, 1858, 1839, and 1820; in 1839 it was so severe that the 
vines, grapes, and leaves were burnt up ; the latter crumbling 
to the touch as if they had been baked. 

I will add just one more because it is in a short sharp drought 
*hich only lasted a year and finds its type in 1888. In that year 
on February 8th, a very heavy rain storm accompanied by thunder 
a »d lightning came into the Colony from the north, and reached 
Moree at 7-45 p.m. on that day ; so heavy was it that the whole 
of the surrounding country was flooded, and the local rain caused 
a rise in the river of ten feet. It spread over the Namoi, Mac- 
quarie and Bogan Rivers, but did not go south of Dubbo. Just 
nineteen years before in February 1869, Mr. L. S. Donaldson, p.m., 
Who was then living on the Bogan, tells me that the February 
1896 stor m reminded him of a heavy flood rain in the former year. 

occasion the rain fell at Moonagie, near Cannonbar ; the River 
Bogan was dry throughout its course, except a waterhole at long 
intervals. The rain fell over only about a mile and a half of the 
river, and for only about one hour, but such a quantity of rain 
fell (we had no rain gauges then) that the river ran for seventy 
miles, into the long waterhole at Gongolgon. The rain was 
accompanied by large hailstones, which went through verandahs, 
and killed emus and kangaroos, and stripped all the leaves off 
the trees till they looked like English trees in winter." 

Looking at the diagram, we find that there are as many good 
seasons as bad ones. Some of these recur with ^n-at regularity, 
for instance, the two years immediately before the commencement 
of A drought, and likewise the two years immediately following 
D drought. Then there are three good years together that come 
as a rule four years after the centre of A drought; their regularity 
is made uncertain by the irregularity of the end of A. drought. 

Before A. 

Following A 


In 1893 we had the lowest grass temperature on record, and a 
ery wet year on the coast although inland it was dry. The series 

wing D. 


heavy floods, lowest grass te 

nperature ( 

1*7 1. 

many heavy floods. 


no record of this year. 


abundance of rain, sno 

v fell 

in Sydney. 


high floods on the coas 




" wet, and in July unc 

n cold." 

It thus appears that good years precede and follow great 
droughts in the cycle, and while D carrys its heat and its winds 
with it. The 1893 series carries its floods and its low temperatures. 

I have thus endeavoured to put before you some of the reasons 
which have convinced me that there is a cycle in weather, but the 
necessity for brevity in order to keep the proof within the limits 
of one address, has rendered it necessary to express in a few 
sentences the results of many separate investigations, and the 
evidence does not seem so strong when thus condensed, as it 
does when a number of facts one by one are brought to light 
from diverse sources, all of which individually support the 
proposition. I can assure you that the evidence was far more 
convincing when taken in detail, but want of time to get these 
details into one address, make t his course impossible. Enough 
appears to have been said to prove that the cycle does exist, and 
to show you the very great importance of this re-discovery of a 
law of climate, which, there are many reasons to think was well- 
known to the Jews, the Egyptians, and other ancient peoples ; 
they at least knew how to forecast droughts successfully, and 
in Egypt, like sensible people made provision for them. 

We have in the diagram, the weather of one hundred and eight 
years of New South Wales Climate, arranged in order of date (the 
intensity being for the time overlooked); the black spaces above 
the line represent the good years, while the red spaces below the 
line represent the bad years. It is evident upon inspection that 
certain features of it recur every nineteen years ; we have seen 
that the droughts of history, the great and conspicuous droughts 

"lean, all drop into this same cycle : both those that happened 
before the birth of Christ and those that have occurred in our era. 

We have seen that great hurricanes, the great frosts of history, 
a11 the red rains, and all the droughts that history records, with a 
V6ry few exceptions, are likewise included in this cycle, and that 
the level of great lakes in Palestine, South America, and New 
S ° Uth W ales, are subject to the same mysterious influence that 

controls our weather, and a search for the cause has not been 

As my investigation proceeded, the weight of evidence gradually 
converged upon the moon as the exciting cause. I have never 
had any sympathy with the theory of lunar influence upon 
weather, and received, rather against my will, the evidence that 
presented itself, but the logic of facts left no alternative, but to 
accept the moon as prime motor. There has not been time to 
complete this investigation, and when finished it must form 
another paper. Meantime I may say that so far the comparison 
of the moon's positions in relation to the sun and earth and 
droughts shews that when the eclipses congregate about the 
equinoxes, that is in March and September, they do so in the 
years which give us great droughts, the As and Ds of our series. 
Further that when the eclipses accumulate in February and March, 
that is at the vernal equinox, and the month before it, and Septem- 
ber the autumnal equinox, and the month before it, August, we 
have the more intense and relatively shorter D droughts, vith 
heat, gales and hurricanes ; on the other hand, when they accu- 
mulate about March and April, that is the month of equinox, 
and the one following, and about September the month of 
equinox, and October following it, we have A droughts, that are 
less severe, but much longer than the D droughts. But I must 
stop for the present. 

I have already pointed out the use of the diagram, and a few 
words in reference to it will close what I have to say to-night. 
I have spoken chiefly of droughts, but so far as our own history 
is concerned it would have served the purpose just as well if I had 
taken up the periodicity of wet years, but outside Australia it 
would have been very difficult to get the necessary data, for 
history has much more to say about the horrors of drought than 
the abundance of wet seasons. The diagram presents one fact 
that will be" of interest to many in this droughty time, it is the 
forecast of good seasons in 1897 and 1898. 

For convenient reference, I have put on the diagram the 
maxima and minima of the sun spots. You will see at once that 
the recurrence of the period is very far from being the regular 
eleven years cycle which many persons suppose it to be, and it is 
equally far from being in accordance with the cycle that I have 
endeavoured to demonstrate to night. 

"ar. List of Droughts of the A Series. 

1885 1886, great drought in Texas; grass completely destroyed, 
calves nearly all dead ; 180,000 head of cattle on the move; 
estimated loss so far (Sept. 1886) $3,000,000. (Evening News.) 
1886, drought in Ireland for past three years. (Mr. Pollock.) 
The Scottish Agricultural Gazette, March 1886, says, the 
losses in stock in the Argentine Republic have been excep- 
tionally heavy, no less than 70% of the cattle and sheep en 
some estancieros having perished ; the estimated loss in 
sheep in the Republic is 5,000,000 since this time last year. 

1885 France. Rainfall has been below the average in almost 
every month since January 1883. (Journal of Science, 
Feb. 1885, p. 116). 

1885 This drought in New South Wales was considered to be 
the worst since 1837-8. The estimated loss of sheep alone 
was nine millions. The Darling at Bourke was below sum- 
mer level seventeen months out of the two years 1884-5, 
and during the other months never rose more than ten feet. 
Even on the coast, the Paterson River had become a chain 
of water holes in February 1884. 

J 885 Red rain fell in December 1883 ; in February and again 

in March, 1884 ; in August 1885. A proof of the intensity 

of this drought. 

18 66 Great drought in Bengal and Orissa ; one and a half 

millions of people died from starvation. (Journal of Science.) 

Year. List of Droughts of the A Series. 

In Mauritius from 1861 to 1868 the rainfall was less than 
during any similar period, so far as can be ascertained since 
the discovery of the island. {Physical Geography, p. 171, 
. Laughton) 

Bousingalt wrote, " The table lands of New Grenada at an 
elevation of from 6,500 to 9,000 feet. The village of Dubati 
is situated near two lakes, which were united in 1807; the 
inhabitants had witnessed the gradual subsidence of the 
waters, in so much that lands which in 1837 were under 
water are now 1867, under cultivation. (Smithson. Bep. 
1864 Drought in Russia. 
1846-7 Great Famine known as Potato Famine in Ireland. 

1847, great drought in South Africa. {Livingstone pp. 17- 
18, South Africa.) 
Red rain 1846, and again 1847. 
Very severe drought in New South Wales. 
Great drought in England 1845 and 1846. 
1828 1827, great drought in England which lasted two years. 
1826, great heat and drought in Europe. {Herschel, Metr.) 

1826, the late drought in Russia caused a rise in the price 
of flax. {Climate N.S. W., p. 95.) 

1827, "on the Pampas and the Chaco of La Plata these 
droughts produce the most remarkable results with regard 
to the distribution of animals. In the drought of 1827-8-9 the 
drought still spoken of as " II gran seco," the destruction of 
life was enormous, not only amongst the cattle, but also 
amongst wild beasts, of which last, indeed some species were 
altogether annihilated." {Laughton, Phys. Geography, p. I 5 *) 

1828 "During this time {i.e., 1827-28-29) so little rain fell that 
vegetation even to thistles failed. The brooks were dried 
up and the whole country (the Pampas in South America) 
assumed the appearance of a dusty road. This was especi- 
ally the case in the northern part of Buenos Ayres, and the 

southern part of " Santa Fe," very great numbers of birds, 
wild animals, cattle and horses perished from want of food 
and water. The lowest estimation of the loss of cattle in 
the province of Buenos Ayres alone, was taken at one mill- 
ion head." (Laughton, Phys. Geography, p. 33.) 

1809 The intense drought of 1811 in Europe was accompanied 
by hurricanes and earthquakes. (Eng. Mechanic,Yo\. xxxix., 
1884, p. 507, quoting an Italian savant.) 

1812, great drought in Venezuela, not a drop of rain had 
fallen at Caracas or within two hundred and fifty miles of 
it for five months before this. (Boschovish on Earthquakes, 
P, 131.) 

1790 A great drought in 1790-2 in " Baroda," India and some 
adjoining districts. (Ency. Brit, et Journal of Science, 1878.) 

1771 " During 1769-70 the great drought in India killed three 
millions of people. In 1770 the heat in India was so terrible 
that many persons died of asphyxia (? heat apoplexy) others 
saved themselves by going into caves and pits." {Eng. Meek. 
Jour. Sci.) Mulhall, Die. Dates, says " this was considered 
the worst drought of modern times." 

1752 Drought in India 1745 to 1752, in 1753 many died from 
excessive heat. Temperature 100° to 104°. (Walford.) 

1733 Great drought in the north-west provinces of India this 

1714 Exceedingly hot and dry in England 1716. ( Walford.) 

1695 1693, an awful famine in France. 1693-4, hot drought in 

1676 1678, hot and dry throughout this year in England. 
( Walford, Journal of the Statistical Society.) 

1657 Scorchingly hot and dry in England. 1657-8, drought 
and famine in Rome. 

16 38 1637-8, hot and dry in England. Bed rain 1638 and 1640. 

161 9 1616, exceedingly hot and dry in England. (Walford.) 

Year. List of Droughts of the A Series. 

1600 1601 to 1603, great drought and famine in Ireland. Same 

in England. Great drought in Russia. 
1581 Drought in Persia. Red rain 1580. 1583, excessively 

hot and dry in England. 
1562 1563, drought and pestilence in India, carried off 20,000 

1543 A wonderful drought in England. 1540 to 1543, three 

years drought in India. 
1524 Severe drought in England. 
1505 1503, great drought in England. 
1486 Great drought in England. 
1467 No record. 

1448 1447, great drought in Ireland and England with heat. 
1429 Drought in Scotland. 

1410 Great drought in the delta of the Ganges India 1412-13. 
1391 Great drought for two years in England. 
1372 No record. 
1353 1352-3, great drought and famine in England, France, and 

1334 1332, drought in Ireland. 
1315 1316, drought in England, grain was so scarce that there 

there was none to make beer. 
1296 1294, universal drought in England. 
1277 1280, drought in England for three years. 1277, all the 

largest rivers in Europe shrank to the tiniest rivulets owing 

to drought. {Eng. Mech. Vol. xxxix., p. 506). 
1258 1259, droughts in England. 1260, the Rhine, the Seine, 

the Po, and the Tiber shrank to the tiniest rivulets owing 

to drought. (Italian Essay— ^. Mech. Vol. xxxix., p. 506.) 
1239 Great famine in England, people eat their children. 
1220 No record. 

1201 Drought in Egypt. (Modern Egypt, p. 115) 
1182 Red dust 1181. Red dust 1184. 
1163 Red dust; drought and famine all over the world. 

Tear. List of Droughts of the A Series. 

1144 Drought during all harvest and long after in England. 

1125 1 123-4, terrible drought in France and Germany . ( Walford) 

1106 Drought in England. {Walford.) 

1087 No record. 

1068 1064, drought in Egypt for seven years. (Modem Egypt.) 
This is probably E united to A. 

mM > No record. 
1030 3 

1011 1012, drought in England and Germany. 
992 993, vegetation was burnt up by the sun as if by fire. 

(Eng. Mech., Vol. xxxix., p. 506. 
973 975, the great famine of Paris. 
954 | 

935 >No record. 

897 The water supply of Italy, France, and Germany was 

entirely dried up by drought ; vast numbers of peasants 

were struck down by the intense heat of the sun. (Eng. 

Mech., Vol. xxxix., p. 506. 

764 762, long and terrible heat, Britain ; 767, great drought 

in Asia. A and B united. 
645 Great drought in England. 
479 480, drought in Scotland. 
460 No record. 

List of Droughts of the D Series. 
Drought in New South Wales. 
Red rain, April 10, 1896. Drought in England. 

1894, a terrible drought in Antiqua, West Indies. 

1896, farmers in Spain are being ruined by protracted 
bought. (Sydney Morning Herald.) 

1895, drought in Norfolk Island. 

1896, excessively high temperatures in India. 

Year. List of "Droughts of the D Series. 

1895-6, drought in China about Honkong. (S.M. Herald.) 

1896, Jan. 8, South Africa, no harvest to speak of for three 
years, no grass, no water, and the rainy season over, so that 
there is no hope of rain until April or May. 
1876 Drought in West Indies, Guinea, Venezuela, Columbia, 
and Brazil. 

1878, United States, excessively high temperatures 90° to 
110°; in Canada 90° to 103°, at Milwaukie 103 cases of 
sun stroke, at St. Louis 1,500 cases of sun stroke. 

Drought in India 1875-6-7, half a million of people died, 
Madras, Mysore, and parts of Bombay. " Madras, Oct. 17, 
1876, the state of Kurnool, Bellary, Cuddapah, North Arcot, 
and Chingleput districts, and also Mysore, is alarming, owing 
to the drought. In the Bombay Presidency six millions of 
people are threatened with famine by the failure of the 
monsoon rain. Relief cost £9,000,000. (Jour. Sci.) 

1878, great drought in Barbary. 

1876, severe drought in Spain. 

1876, drought in Samara, Eastern Russia. 

1877, June 18, "China," "Chihle,"and "Shantug" districts 
containing many millions of inhabitants, the harvest had 
failed for two years running, neither grain nor food were to 
be had at any price ; the whole country seems to have been 
scorched by a burning wind ; people eat every bit of grass, 
or bark or leaves off trees that they could find, and to avoid 
death by starvation, committed suicide. In Chefoo it is 
stated on good authority, that human flesh was actually 
offered for sale in the shops until prohibited by the mandarins. 

1877, in Southern California there was a total failure of 
crops, and millions of sheep died. 
1876 "Cape Colony, Australia, South Sea Islands, and it would 
appear almost every known portion of the Southern Henu- 

suffering from 


drought. In Australia shade temperatures of 124° and 127 

List of Droughts of the D Series, 
are reported ; sheep cattle and horses and wild animals of 
these regions are dying off in thousands." The heat in the 
east of Cape Colony during January 1878 is described as the 
most disastrous ever known in that region. — Nature, Yol. 
xvii., p. 436. 

(Goldsbrough & Co., estimated that in Australia the loss 
of sheep alone at nine millions in the 1877-8 drought; to 
this has to be added the losses of wool, cattle, horses and 
farm produce ; Sir James M'Cullock, estimated the loss on 
the sale of wool alone at £2,000,000). 
i In Cape Colony (Nature, ibid.) complete ruin has over- 
taken a large number of the settlers, many of the homes of 
hitherto well to do colonists have been broken up, and the 
several members obliged to go into menial service in exchange 
for the barest necessaries of life. 

In the South Seas we find the same dire effects of the 
1876-77 drought; it began in 1876 and lasted all 1877, 
many of the natives died of starvation, so severe was the 
drought. The Rev. S. J. Whitmee writes, " we have had 
the greatest drought I have ever known." In Tanna, New 
Hebrides, the crops completely failed and many of the 
people died of starvation. 

In the Island of Ascension there was no rain for fourteen 
months before August 1877, and the supply of fresh water 
for each person had to be reduced to one gallon per day. 

In Egypt in 1877 they had the lowest Nile on record, a 
proof of the severity of the drought at its source. 
7 Drought in India lt>."i6-7. 

Admiral Fitzroy states that in 1S.1S and lS-V.t drought 

but in South Africa and Australia it broke up before that. 
■ s 1837-8-9, severe drought in parts of the north- west pro- 
vinces of India ; 800,000 people died. 

Year. List of Droughts of the D Series. 

January 1839, weather scorching hot in New South Wales, 
River Cowpastures New South Wales dried up, not as much 
rain the past two years as would suffice for two months. 
Murrumbidgee also dried up. The drought in Australia 
during 1837-8-9 was one of the worst ever known here. 
Red rain in 1839. 
1819 Great drought in Germany 1821, all vegetation parched 
up and even the rivers dried up. 
England 1819, very hot and dry, no rain fell for 74 days. 
New South Wales suffered considerably from drought 
1818-19. 1821, red rain fell. 
1800 Drought in New South Walea. 

1781 1781-82, drought and famine in Madras and Carnatic in 
1872-3 drought in " Sind," no rainfall for two years. 
1783-4, drought in Punjaub during these years. 
1779, excessive heat at Bologna, many died of sunstroke, 
and many others to escape the heat, took refuge in pits and 
caves underground. (Eng. Mech., Vol. xxxix., p. 506.) 
1762 1763, red rain. 
1743 Red rain 1744. 
1724 No record. 

1705 1704, the hottest and driest summer in England, continued 
to August 1705. 

1705, the temperature rose so high in Europe that it 
resembled that of a glass house furnace, and butcher's meat 
was cooked in the sun, and from midday to 4 p.m. no one 
ventured out of doors. (Eng. Mech., Vol. xxxix., p. 506.) 
1686 Red rain fell in 1 689 ; 1 684 was a very dry year in England. 

1686, great drought in Italy. 
1667 1666, hot and dry easterly winds in England ; 1669, the 
whole year was hot and dry in England. Red rain fell in 
this year, 1669. 
1648 No record. 

Year. List of Droughts of the D Series. 

1629 1630, drought in England; 1631, drought and famine in 

India and throughout Asia. 

1610 Excessive heat and drought in England ; red rain fell. 

1591 1590-92, extreme heat in England with plagues of insects. 

1572 Red rain fell 1571. 

1553 1651 to 1654, in England they had scorching hot and dry 

1534 No record. 

1515 1516-17, hot and dry in England. 

1496 1498, very great drought in England. 

1477 Great heat and drought in England. 

1458 No record. 

1439 1437, wheat sold in England for six times its normal price. 

1420 Red rain, March 1822. 

1401 ) xr 

1382 record. 

1363 1361, very grevious drought in England. 

1344 1344-5, all Hindustan suffered from drought and famine. 

1325 No record. 

1306 1303-4-5, protracted drought in Europe, in so much that 

the largest rivers of Europe, the Rhine, the Seine, the Po, 

and the Tiber, all shrank to the tiniest streamlets. {Eng. 

Mech., Vol. xxxix., p. 506.) 
1287 1285, great and sudden darkness, then such drought and 

and heat as killed most grain in England. 
1288, heat and drought so intense that it killed many 


>2, very dry and cold, followed after harvest by greatest 
heat and drought. 
> 1135 and 1137, great drought in France and England. 
In 1132 the earth was so burnt up by the intense solar 
heat that that great fissures appeared in it miles long. (Eng. 
Mech., xxxix. 

100 H. C. RUSSELL. 

Year. List of Droughts of the D Series. 

1116 1113, England so hot that corn and forests took fire. 

Red dust 1117. 
1059 Famine in Egypt in 1859 (Enc. Brit. Fara.)— in Modern 
Egypt the date is given as 1064. Rise in river failed for 
seven consecutive years ; in two provinces half the people 
died. (B and E combined.) 
1040 No record. 

1021 Excessive heat and drought in England. 1020, great 
drought in India, and in Central America it lasted six years. 
(Abbe Brasseur ds Bourbourg — "History of the civilized 
nations of Mexico and Central America," Paris 1857.) 
1002 1000, the wells, water courses, and lakes were all dried up. 
(Eng. Mech., xxxix., p. 506.) 
860 Red dust 869. 

8")0 S.")0 to S.'il, drought in Italy and Germany. 
77 1 775, drought and excessive heat in England after great 

frost. 772 great drought in Ireland. 
755 No record. 

736 737, great drought in Britain. 
679 680, drought in England for three years. 
603 605, drought and scorching heat in England. 
584 Red rain fell. 
451 Great drought Eastern Europe, Phrygia, Galatia, Cappa- 

docia. This was probably an extension of D into E. 
37") 374, drought and famine in England. 
299 298, great drought in Wales. 

Professor Gurnet said:— Though neither astronomer nor meteor- 
ologist, I should like to offer a few remarks on Mr. Russell's paper, 
taking points in order, as they strike me. In discussing the 
weather of this Colony, Mr. Russell says, " The years were simply 
classed as good or bad, the question of how good or bad was pur- 
posely left out," What is Mr. Russell's definition of a good year 


or a bad one ? He has apparently thrown over his rainfall and 
temperature statistics, and his bald statement that such-and-such 
a year was good or bad seems far from convincing. I am afraid 
that the diagram which he shews us to-night, based upon these 
statements, is useless, if not misleading. I object also to another 
detail in the diagram. Mr. Russell " draws a vertical red line 
through A between the first and second years." He says that the 
interval " was regular and exactly nineteen years." Also this 
so-called A drought varies in its length, " lasting from three to 
seven years." It follows that a line drawn so as to mark the 
middle of an A drought would not have recurred at equal intervals 
of nineteen years. Yet the middle seems to me a more natural 
datum line. 

Again, periodicity cannot be shewn by picking out a drought 
in Egypt, another in India, and a third in Australia, all happen- 
ing at different times. Mr. Russell distinctly lays down as his 
thesis " the salient points (in the weather) in our century are 
repetitions of the salient points in all past times, and probably in 
all countries." To prove this he must produce evidence of a con- 
stantly recurring period in Egypt, of an identical period in 
Australia, and so on, independently. This he has not done. 

I myself have examined certain weather statistics, published in 
Vols. xvm. and xxi., of the "Smithsonian Contributions to 
Knowledge," which refer, in one case, to the ' Precipitation of 
Rain and Snow,' and in the other, to the ' Average Temperature, 
over a considerable part of the United States of America. These 
volumes I lay before you to-night. The first table shews minima 
in 1818-9, 1836-7, 1856— just enough agreement with a nineteen 
years' cycle to tantalize— but the other minima do not conform to 
such a cycle, nor do the maxima. In the second table minimum 
temperatures occur in 1785, 1797, 1816, 1835, 1857, 1868, and 
maxima in 1793, 1802, 1826, 1845, 1865. Mr. C. A. Schott, 
wno compiled these tables says, " the average of the longer waves 
18 about twenty-two years." I would point out that such an 
average does not assist Mr. Russell in any way, but quite opposes 

his conclusions. He refers to the moon as the "exciting cause," 
and he presumably has in his mind therefore the Metonic cycle 
of two hundred and thirty -five lunations, which gives a period of 
nineteen years so exactly, that an average error of even a few 
months is out of the question. 

This Metonic cycle of nineteen years has been known to the 
astronomers of the civilized world for more than 2000 years. 
Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, all were acquainted with its undoubted 
accuracy. Surely, if this same cycle obtained as regards the 
annual overflow of the Nile, it would have been known to every 
Fellah in Egypt for the last 2,000 years. Such knowledge, once 
gained, could never be lost. The prosperity or adversity of the 
whole country depended upon this yearly flood ; its approach was 
heralded to an expectant populace by swift messengers ; its absence 
spread misery throughout the land. I conclude that it is 
highly improbable that a nineteen years' cycle has existed for 
the Nile-flood within historic times. 

It is impossible to deal seriously with the evidence which Mr. 
Russell draws from Biblical meteorology. The dates given in the 
margins of some English bibles are foreign to the text, and have 
no scientific value. Supposing the dates are trustworthy which 
Mr. Russell gives from Greek and Roman history, they frequently 
seem to miss his datum line by from one to four years, and Mr. 
Russell's cycle is so full of different droughts that it seems easier 
to hit a drought somewhere than to miss altogether. He actually 
says in one place " It is worth mentioning that in India from 50o 
B.C. to 443 B.C. there was great drought and pestilence, and 
these dates are in the D series." It seems to me that a continu- 
ous sixty years' drought would completely efface three cycles and 
part of a fourth. 

The picturesque description which is given of the peculiarities 
of a drought in New South Wales is no doubt quite accurate ; but 
it does not help the argument, and I can only conclude by saying 
that Mr. Russell has produced no satisfactory evidence that a 
nineteen years' cycle exists in the weather of the world. Not- 

withstanding this conclusion, I think Mr. Russell has provided 
us with an extremely interesting paper, and I hope that these 
remarks upon its subject-matter do not exceed the limits of fair 

Mr. D. M. Maitland, said that in a country dependent almost 
entirely on its pastoral and agricultural interests, the question of 
periodicity of seasons was of vital importance. There were some 
points in the paper, or rather in the diagram illustrating it, that 
he thought required further explanation. The year 1857 was 
shewn as about the middle of a dry cycle, of the D series, but on 
the coast at any rate the rains were very heavy ; in June, July, 
and August of that year, there occurred the highest floods of 
which any authentic records had been kept up to that time, those 
present might remember that the "Dunbar" was wrecked in 
the August of that year. Again in 1866, the year the "Cawarra" 
was wrecked, which is shewn as a dry year in an A cycle, very 
heavy floods occurred. The year he desired to call attention to 
particularly was 1867, (shewn in the middle of a dry cycle) of 
which the rainfall record at the Observatory was sixty-nine and 
a half inches, at Melbourne the same year, the rainfall was above 
the average, and if his memory served him correctly, the register 
at Greenwich also shewed a rainfall higher than usual. That 
year would long be remembered in this Colony, from the fact that 
the most disastrous flood ever experienced in the valley of the 
Hawkesbury took place, the water rising at Windsor to a height 
of sixty-two feet above ordinary level. That year being apparently 
an exceptionally wet one, he would like to know whether its inser- 
tion in a dry cycle was an error or whether the records from other 
Places indicated that the rain supply was so scanty elsewhere as 
*<> justify its insertion in a dry term, notwithstanding the large 
Onfall in Sydney, Melbourne, and in England. 

Mr. P. n. Trkbeck, said that the existence of a nineteen year 
c yde had been referred to by the late Rev. W. B. Clarke, as would 
** evident from the following extract from the Sydney Morning 
Herald of l st May, 1846 :— " The Rev. W. B. Clarke in a recent 

communication to the Sydney Herald, expresses his opinion that 
Sturts' desert, Leichhardt's experience of little or no rain even in 
the tropics, Sir T. L. Mitchell's sufferings on the Bogan from want 
of water, and the state of the Colony generally, prove this to have 
been a year of drought parallel with the season of 182(> 7, and 
certainly adding another link to the chain of facts for establishing 
an atmospheric cycle of nineteen years " 

Prof. Tiikelfall said :— Mr. Russell's statement as to what 
constituted a good or a bad season is somewhat indeterminate. 

(1) An exact definition of the difference between a drought and 
a good season was essential, otherwise there must be a fundamental 
uncertainty in the investigation. A farmer or pastoralist may be 
supposed to do well or ill according to a variety of circumstances, 
amongst which rainfall is no doubt a prominent but not over- 
powering factor. 

(2) The records of Australia have, as I understand, only been 
kept with anything like adequate care for about five and twenty 
years, while the period decided on by Mr. Russell is nineteen 
years. Hence the observations have not really extended over 
more than a period and a third, and this is rather too little to 
form a foundation for such a wide generalization. Before the 
records were kept properly, the evidence as to 'good 7 and 'bad' 
years may have involved other than meteorological factors. 

(3) With regard to the historical evidence advanced in which 
droughts are cited sometimes from Europe, sometimes from India, 

nineteen years, or whether droughts recur at the same place every 
nineteen years. 

(4) The statement in the paper, that Egypt like Europe seems 
to get its change of weather a year earlier or later than Australia, 
should appear in the historical evidence as drawn indifferently 
from Europe and India and run on the Australian records. 

(5) These criticisms apply to droughts of the A series only- 
The evidence for the other series is on Mr. Russell's own shewing 
not sufficient to establish any periodicity at all. 


(6) Whether the cycle of nineteen years be accepted or not, I 
consider that Mr. Russell's investigation has brought many 
ititci-">tin^ points tn ii-hi. and that the method of comparing 
evidence collected from all parts of the world, exhaustively 
employed, can not fail to advance our knowledge of meteor- 
ology, and that Mr. Russell is to be complimented on having 
made such a plucky attack on a difficult subject. 

Mr. Garment said that he would like to ask Mr. Russell whether 
his contention was that droughts prevailed over the whole of the 
world at once in accordance with the nineteen years' cycle ; and 
whether or not he contended that the eclipses of the moon had 
any real connection with the atmospheric changes which were 
concerned in producing droughts. He would also like to ask why 
the vertical red lines in the diagram were drawn after the end of 
the first year of each of the A droughts, seeing that the successive 
intervals would have been just the same if they had been drawn 
at the commencement of the drought in each case. Again, it was 
not at all clear from the paper what had induced the author to 
construct precisely five different series of droughts and neither 
more nor less. It was clear that with a sufficient number of 
different series, each of which might last for several years, any 
previously recorded drought would fit into one or other of the 
given series. Further, the author had not given any data in his 
paper which would enable an independent observer to come to a 
conclusion as to the propriety or otherwise of any given year being 
classed as a good year or a bad year ; and as regards the various 
historical droughts cited, one would require much more extensive 
information, as to the nature and value of the evidence available 
in support of the alleged facts set forth, before being able to accept 
them as a foundation on which to base any theory of periodicity. 
In regard to the question of chronology alone and with respect to 
events which happened in prehistoric times, Mr. Russell had him- 
self admitted that the dates were quite uncertain, and yet pro- 
ceeded to found conclusions upon them in support of his theory. 

Professor David said that, with regard to Mr. Russell's nine- 
***» year weather cycle he had collected some statistics as to the 

106 H. C. RUSSELL. 

times of occurrence of some historic earthquakes and violent 
cyclones, the dates of which were authentic, with a view of ascer- 
taining whether they supported the nineteen year weather cycle. 
The dates of the events referred to range from 1692 A.D., the 
great Jamaica earthquake, to 1886 A.D. the date of the eruption 
of Tarawera. Out of the fourteen events here recorded, three 
were violent cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, unaccompanied by 
earthquakes, one a violent cyclone in the Bay of Bengal accom- 
panied by an earthquake, and the remaining eleven violent earth- 
quakes. Of the four cyclones of phenomenal violence and extent 
one was at the commencement of an "A" drought, (so called in 
Mr. Russell's paper), one at the end of an " A." drought, one at 
the middle of a "D" drought, and one during an "E" drought. 
Of the twelve violent earthquakes, five were during or very close 
to a " D " drought, three occurred during an " A " drought, and 
four do not appear to have been connected with any of the drought 
periods referred to by Mr. Russell. Although the evidence might 
be considered inconclusive, it appeared probable that great 
cyclones and violent earthquakes were more frequent during 
droughts than at other times. Several of them fell into the "A" 
and "D" droughts, though this does not necessarily support the 

secular contraction is probably the chief cause of earthquakes, through 
the earth's crust at a depth cracking owing to excess of tension. If the 
annual temperature over the whole earth's surface be raised, outflow of 
heat would be checked, and earthquake action would be at a minimum. 
Conversely, if the annual temperature be lowered the escape of telluric 
heat is accelerated, and earthquake action would attain a maximum 
intensity ; thus theoretically, earthquake action should be more intense 
in winter than in summer. Mallet's Curve for 5879 earthquakes in the 
Northern Hemisphere shows that they attained their maxima in January 
and October, and their minima in June. Out of two hundred and twenty- 
three earthquakes observed in the Southern Hemisphere the minima 
were in May and August and the maxima in November, May, June, i 
July, (as stated by Mr. J. Milne in his " Earthquakes and other I 


Mr. Deane said : — Will Mr. Russell kindly inform me where the 
statement is to be found as to the number of large dead trees 
which were seen when colonists first landed here? I am much 
interested in the subject and would like to read the original 
account of it. 

It is somewhat difficult to understand how a meteorological 
cycle can exist unless accompanied by or resulting from some 
cosmic cycle. Mr. Russell's cycle of nineteen years corresponds 
with the Metonic cycle, and a good may persons would be glad if 
Mr. Russell would explain what that term means. They believe 
that in a vague sort of way, it implies a recurrence of similar 
lunar phenomena, but are the phenomena which recur of sufficient 
importance to account for periodic variations of weather conditions? 

I gather from Mr. Russell's remarks that similar eclipses recur 
at the same time of year after a period of nineteen years, and that 
when they take place near the equinoxes, droughts seem to result. 
If the period is an exact one, the centuries can be divided up 
indefinitely, if not, there must be a gradual transition in the 
character of the lunar phenomena which ought to be accompanied 
by an alteration in the meteorological maxima and minima. 

Does not the occurrence of eclipses depend upon the position of 
the moon's nodes 1 My difficulty is that the period of revolution 
of the moon's nodes does not correspond with the Metonic cycle. 
Which period is it that causes the meteorological phenomena 1 

If the moon has an influence on the weather it can only be by 
combining its pull on the atmosphere with that of the sun. When 
Movements."— International Science Series, p. 256, London, 1886). It 

8 PQere, earthquakes attain a greater intensity than during the summer 
months. If this is due to the cold of winter, and if commercial droughts 
are also droughts in the scientific sense, that is periods when the earth 
receives less superficial heat, and therefore makes less rain than at other 
Penods, it should be possible to correlate maxima of earthquake intensity 
J"th drought maxima. The question, however, is much complicated by 

e ^wness with whi< 
which prevents the wa 
trating many f, 

eclipses occur, the sun, moon and earth are in the best positions 
to produce the maximum effect, and when these occur near the 
equinoxes we might expect to see some special result, if at other 
times the sun, moon and earth were a long way off the straight 
line, but they never are at new and full moon more than 5° off 
the straight line, and of course generally much less ; would such 
a small difference in angular distance make such a large difference 
in meteorological effect ? 

If the result of the combined pull of sun and moon at these 
particular periods is strong winds, producing droughts in this and 
some other parts of the world, the increased force of the moist 
south-west Atlantic air-currents would probably cause a greater 
deposition of moisture in Western Europe, but it really seems, 
from recent experience, as if droughty weather in Aus- 
tralia is contemporaneous with droughty weather in Europe. 

I was much struck with Mr. Russell's array of facts, but the 
method of deciding whether a particular year belonged to a drought 
or a good period was not quite clear to the audience, many of 
whom probably thought that a year with a rainfall up to, or nearly 
up to, the average, could not be a droughty year, disregarding, 
however, the irregularity with which the rain fell. A definition 
of the word drought as applied to this country is very desirable, 
so that observers might be able to classify the weather with some 

The President asked what convention Mr. Russell adopted to 
indicate with an approximation to uniformity, the beginning and 
end of a drought, for the purpose of graphic illustration. 

Mr. Russell in reply said :— Professor Gurney asks, (1) "What 
is Mr. Russell's definition of ' a good year or a bad year ' 1" The 
terms good and bad were defined in the paper as those having 
"sufficient or insufficient rainfall." In the text, page 72, I had 
shewn by reference to 1895, what a bad year was, and stated 
" Drought is not wholly made by a shortage of rainfall, its most 
important factors are great heat and drying winds." I should 
like to give all the data on which the diagram was based, but it 


would cover at least two volumes as large as our annual one, and 
it could not therefore be included in a paper such as this, and I 
thought, perhaps I was mistaken, that I could be trusted to go 
through these records and select the good and bad years. More- 
over, I had gone over it once before, and published it in an 
abstract. My reason for going over it again was to include all 
the additional matter. 

(2) Professor Gurney objects to my making a definite point in 
a drought, by drawing a line between the first and second year, 
and points out that it might be drawn anywhere. It may be said 
here in reply to several questions, a drought is difficult to get hold 
of, because its limits are not sharply defined like a month or a 
year in which a day comes, that you pass by the stroke of the 
pendulum to the next one, it is wanting in defined limits, often 
drought and rainfall battle for months so evenly, that it is difficult 
to draw any line, and therefore I took the middle year as the date 
of the drought ; drawing the line between the first and second 
year, simply to avoid making another line across the record. Now 
a glance at the diagram shews that out of six A droughts on 
record four lasted three years or thereabouts, and the second year 
was therefore at least the nearest to the middle of the drought. 

(3) " Periodicity cannot be shewn by picking out a drought 
here and there." Certainly not, but I have not done so. It is 
stated in the text that history had been asked for data, which it 
had been in the habit of neglecting, and that this was admitted 
to be a weak point, the difficulty of obtaining the data. But it is 
a very strong point to be able to say, as was done in the text, that 
all the historical data that I had been able to find in twenty years 
st udy, is in favour of the nineteen years' cycle. To my mind this 
ls one of the strongest proofs of the cycle, and I think in legal 
i" ittcis, when all the evidence points to one conclusion, the jury 
•» "atoned, even if the evidence is not complete in every point. 

»t were necessary to prove constantly recurring periods in Egypt, 
there would be small hope, but is it J The records of the past 
■Nde levels seem to have all disappeared, except for a short recent 

period, which, as stated in the text, are very strongly in favour of 
the cycle, and I must disagree with Professor Gurney's argument 
that such knowledge once gained in Egypt would never be lost, 
for the knowledge was not gained by the common herd who sur- 
vived the downfall, it was known only to the priests, and would 
in all probability have been lost in the centuries of degradation 
through which Egypt has passed. 

(4) The evidence quoted from Smithsonian Contributions of 
Knowledge. The minima of snow and rain (i.e., droughts) were 
in 1818-9, 1836-7, 1856 in America. Let us see how they com- 
pare with the diagram ; 1818-9 were in D drought here ; 1836-7 
D drought here began in the latter part of 1836, lasted all 1837 
and 1838 ; 1856, D drought here began in the latter part of 1856 
and continued through 1857-8. The evidence here is far stronger 
in favour of a connection between these North American droughts 
and the Australian nineteen years' cycle than against it, the more 
so, when we remember that there is good reason to believe from 
the records, and from common observation, that the change to 
drought or to wet weather there is generally a year in advance of 
the date in the Southern Hemisphere. I have not gone into the 
question of minimum temperature at all, but of the dates of live 
maxima in America, three agree closely with our droughts which 
began in 1826, 1845, and 1865. It is evident therefore, that had 
Professor Gurney looked a little more closely he would have found 
confirmation not contradiction. 

(5) Now as to what the Professor calls "Biblical Meteorology" 
"which it is impossible to take seriously," the point cannot be 
passed over so lightly. I know in common, I suppose, with every 
one who has read anything about chronology, that the dates in 
question are generally taken to be guesses at the probable dates, 
an uncertainty which I indicated at the time; but the facts 
remain, first, that whatever the chronologists did, the intervals 
between those droughts and ours are multiples of nineteen years, 
within the limits of the droughts ; and second, that the intervals 
amongst them are either exactly nineteen years or multiples of 

nineteen years: the same remarks apply to the other B.C. droughts. 
I rejected one of them, and gave the reason for doing so: the 
remaining seventeen all support the nineteen years' cycle. The 
drought in India 503 B.C. to 443 B.C. when we come to look into 
it, is not such a remarkable occurrence, for we find from the care- 
fully kept meteorological records of England, that last century, 
i.e., from 1738 to 1762 a period of twenty-five years, there was a 
drought in England, in which the average rainfall for the whole 
period was only 78% of the average ; four years of this period, 
1740-41-42-43 were exceptionally dry, the rainfall only amounted 
to 63% of the average, and perhaps it will seem . remarkable, but 
according to the nineteen years cycle, part of 1740, all 1741-42 
and part of 1743 must have been a drought in New South Wales. 
Again other four years of the English period 1759-60-61-62 made 
a drought with an average percentage of rain of 76 or 24% below 
the average, and again we find the computed drought for Australia 
part of 1759, all 1760-61, and part of 1762. It is obvious there- 
fore that there can be long periods of drought in England as in 
India, and that in them there may be intensified periods of the 
drought, the dates of which would be chronicled and fit into the 
i years' cycle. These facts seem to me to be strongly in 

favour of the 
Professor thinks. 

uneteen years' cycle 

(6) The Professor says, "the cycle is so full of different droughts 
that it seems easier to hit a drought somewhere than miss 
altogether." I collected many facts about these minor droughts, 
and have good reason to believe that I could, for some short 
intervals, shew that the great and little droughts in the northern 
hemisphere could be shewn to be in the same order and relation 
as they are in Australia, but I thought that there was not evidence 
*ough to be convincing, and I omitted them as they were not 
my purpose, and took the two major droughts, and 
sd that they have recurred very frequently in their 
id I taken one only, it would have been enough for my 

material 1 

order. I 
Purpose, i 

> prove that a certain phase of weather recurs, but 

112 ' H. C. KUSSELL. 

I did take only the two major droughts about which history has 
something to say. 

(7) Mr. Carment asks if I contended that droughts prevailed 
over the whole of the world in nineteen years' cycles ? That was 
what I meant to convey as my conviction, but as pointed out, 
nearly the whole of the world had no history of such matters, and 
it could not at present be proved. See list of droughts under 
date 1876, appendix 2. 

(8) As to the effect of eclipses of the sun and moon on weather. 
I said in the text that the investigation as to the moon was 
unfinished, but that, so far as the comparison of the moon's 
position, in relation to the sun and earth and droughts, goes, it 
shews that when the eclipses occur about the equinoxes, that is, 
when both sun and moon are making the greatest tides in the 
ocean, then we have droughts, due possibly to their combined in- 
fluence on the earth's atmosphere. 

(9) Mr. Carment — " It was not clear from the paper what had 
induced the author to construct five different series of droughts. 
A reference to the text shews that I did not construct them. The 
years were studied and classified without reference to any cycle, 
and when this was done, the diagram was complete with its good 
and bad years all shewn, the theory followed to account for the 
order in which they recur. 

(10) As to what constituted a good or bad year, see (1) in reply 
to Professor Gurney. And in regard to the statement that it did 
not appear why the author had constructed five different series of 
droughts, see my reply (6). 

(11) And as to the question of chronology see (5). 

( 12) Mr. Maitland, I think correctly appreciates the importance 
of the nineteen years' cycle, but does not see how great rains and 
floods form parts of droughts. In the text I have endeavoured 
to shew that places with large rainfall, as the coast of New South 
Wales, do not feel the severity of drought, and that hurricane 
storms are in some way connected with droughts, and such storms 

travelled down our coast in 1857 and 1866 depositing deluges of 
rain on the coast, while inland drought reigned supreme ; these 
are the phases of what I have called in the text "breaks in 

(13) Mr. Trebeck's quotation is support from a very close 
observer of nature, and could we find a full statement of the late 
Rev. W. B. Clarke's opinions on this subject they would be 
invaluable. % 

(14) Professor Threlf all's criticism (1) is I think answered in my 
reply (1). In answer to (2), (3) and (4):— No, the complete 
meteorological records go back only twenty-live years, but news- 
papers and histories have enabled me to carry the record back to 
the foundation of the Colony, see my replies (1) and (3). 

(15) Professor Threlf all (5), said his criticisms apply to drought 
A only. The evidence for the other series is on Mr. Russell's 
own shewing, not sufficient to establish any periodicity at all. 
This does not represent my contention ; I claim that droughts A 
and D are in the nineteen years' cycle, the others I did not discuss; 
see my reply (6). History seldom records any but the major 
droughts A and D. The recurrence of these in a nineteen year 
cycle is I think, proved beyond question, if the fact be remembered 
that there was in past ages no meteorology, and a record of 
drought only when very intense or the cause of some disaster. 
If these occasional records all prove the cycle, as I have shewn 
that they do, then the probability in its favour is so strong, that, 
to my mind it is proof of the fact. 

(16) Mr. Deane asked, where the story about dead trees was to 
!» found. References to this fact in my book on the " Climate 
of New South Wales," 1876, pp. 66 and 181.— {Royal Society, N.S. 
Wales, Vol. x., p. 165, 1876.) 

A full reply to Mr. Deane's further questions can only be given 
0n the completion of the investigation into the cause of droughts, 
and X re gret that this is not far enough advanced to enable me 
re P'y ; evidence sufficient to convince me as to the moon's 


114 H. C. RUSSELL. 

influence has, however, been obtained, as indicated in the text, 
and I hope that when completed it will amount to a demonstration ; 
I may, however, say here, that I do not think eclipses, as such, 
have any appreciable influence on droughts. 

The President asks, "What convention Mr. Russell adopted to 
indicate with an approximation to uniformity, the beginning and 
end of a drought for the purpose of graphic illustration." The 
only guide as to the boundary line between good and bad years 
was the time when sufficient rain ceased, which marked the end 
of good weather, which as the diagram shews was very frequently 
not the end of a year, but often was the time of equinoxes ; some- 
times the change comes in other months, but the tendency is for 
a change to come about March or September, the times of equinox; 
when thus determined, the diagram was plotted accordingly, shew- 
ing as nearly as the size of the diagram permitted, the time of 
year at which the change took place. 

The Rev. Dr. Wyatt Gill, who was for thirty-three years a 
missionary in the Cook's group of Islands, and knew from his 
predecessor, what the weather had been for seven years before he 
went, gives me as his contribution to the discussion on my paper, 
some valuable notes as the result of that forty years experience. 
He says, that in those islands hurricanes came in droughts, and 
'he knew that they were in for a hurricane if there was a drought 
in summer,' and the natives of Mangaia, who are keen observers, 
if asked about the weather repeated their proverb, " Kare e roto, 
la in b> i hi ,</," which translated is, "should there be no flood there 
will be a hurricane." This then was the result of generations of 
close observation by those whose lives to a large extent depended 
upon it. Unquestionably a heavy flood in those islands is &fat 
less evil than a cyclone, because the flood secured sufficient mois- 
ture for the "Taro" 1 which constitutes the staff of life on Mangaia, 
and at that period no supplies of food were obtainable from any 
outside source. About the year 1813 a terrible famine resulted 
from long continued drought in the island of Mangaia. Probably 
1 CMadwmpetiolatum. 

a half, certainly one-third of the population died in consequence of 
that drought. In December 1831 a most severe cyclone was 
experienced at Rarot<m u a and Mantua: on the island of Rarotonga 
1,000 houses were destroyed. In March 1846, a fearful cyclone 
took place desolating the entire group of islands. On March 27, 
1866, another fearful cyclone devastated Mangaia, destroying two 
hundred and sixty-eight houses and uprooting 2,000 cocoa nut 
palms ; Rarotonga suffered in the same cyclone, but not so severely 

Ihk "MIKA" or "KULPI" OPERATION" of the 


By T. P. Andbbson Stuart, m.d., 

Professor of Physiology in the University of Sydney. 

[With Plate VI.] 
[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, June 3, 1896.~) 
It was Miklouho-Maclay who appears to have been the first to 
adopt the term " Mika." 1 Howitt proposes to give the name 
" kulpi " to the operation from the name given to the initiate 
among the Dierie blacks of the Cooper's Creek district. 2 The 
custom was first noticed by Eyre, 3 in the country around the 
Great Australian Bight : it practically consists in, generally at 
the age of puberty, cutting the lower wall of the urethra so that 
it is sht completely open from below, the cleft s 


In a paper which was for the immediate purpose of describing 
certain stone implements or knives used by the blacks of the 
Mulligan River in performing the operation, R. Etheridge, Jun., 
in 1890, gave an account of what had up till that time been 
written on the subject of this curious and interesting custom, 1 
because as he said, "there still (1890) seems to be much scepticism 
and ignorance on the subject." I shall, therefore, but briefly 
refer to the operation before describing the photographs of the 
actual condition which it is the main purpose of this note to record 
and publish. 

In 1879, Dr. Milne Robertson, Surgeon of the Convict Estab- 
lishment in Western Australia, sent a photograph of the organs 
of an aboriginal, who had had the operation performed, to the 
Exhibition in Sydney, but this photograph is believed to have 
perished in the fire which destroyed the entire building and its 
contents. Recently Sir John Forrest, the Premier of Western 
Australia, at my request, caused a search to be made for the 
negative or a print from it, but failed to find either, and as, so 
far as I can ascertain, no photograph or drawing of the condition 
had ever been published I venture to publish two which were 
taken under my own superintendence. 

Dr. Milne Robertson 2 describes the slitting of the urethra to be 
from the meatus to the middle of the organ only, in the case of 
the De Grey River blacks, while in the case of those living on the 
north side of the Murchison, the cleft extends from the meatus to 
the scrotum. The latter condition is identical with that of the 
subject of my photographs. In other cases, as in that of the blacks 
of the Gawler Range, the operation is a mere perforation of the 
lower wall of the urethra "at the base of the scrotum," 3 that is 
anterior to the scrotum, in the penial portion, as is expressly 

1 Notes on Australian Aboriginal Stone Weapons and Implements.— 
Proc. Linn. Soc. of N.S.W., 1890. 

2 Report upon certain peculiar Habits and Customs of the Aborigines 
of Western Australia, Perth, 1879. 

3 Le Souef— see Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria, 1878, Vol. n., p. 205. 

stated by Creed, 1 who gives the opening as being from one to one 
and a half inches long. So also Lumholz, 2 who says that the 
Georgina River blacks make a similar opening an inch long in the 
same position, and Pro vis 3 gives half an inch. 

The incision is made with a sharp edged piece of quartz, shell, 
flint, or, in more recent times, glass. These fixed with resin, twine 
etc., into handles constitute the "mika-knives." The bleeding is 
stanched with sand, 4 and the edges of the wound are burnt, 
Lumholz says, with hot stones — perhaps, as Etheridge suggests, 
to cauterize them — and are kept from adhering again and healing 
by being kept apart with bits of stick, wood, bark, or bone inserted 
between them, or by being filled with clay, 5 or by being rubbed 
with a broad edged stone. The result is a permanent slit, cleft 
or opening. Stretton speaking of Leeanuwa tribe, Borroloola, 
Northern Territory, says that no dressing is used. 6 Palmer 7 states 
that amongst the Kalkadoona of Central Queensland, the urethra 
is said to be sometimes " taken out," that is " cut out " after the 
wound is healed, that is after the wounds from the operation of 
slitting of the urethra are healed. 

The time of life at which it is done varies very much ; eight 
days is the soonest 1 have seen recorded, then ten years, fourteen 
years, eighteen years, and lastly the man may first be the father 
of two or three children, and then be operated upon. In some 
tribes all the males are said to be operated upon, in others some 
are left unoperated upon. In that case sometimes the strong and 
able bodied are selected for operation, sometimes they are those 
that are left intact. 

1 J- M. Creed— Australasian Medical Gazette, Vol. n., 1883, p. 95. 

2 Lumholz -Among Cannibals, 1870, p. 48. 

3 Police-Corporal C. Provis, speaking of the natives of Port Lincoln in 
Taplin's Folklore, Adelaide, 1879, p. 99. 

4 How itt-Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xx., 1890-91. 

5 Ravencroft— Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., xv., 1892, p. 121. 

6 Trans. Eoy. Soc. S. Aust., xvn., -1893, p. 232. 


As to the aim of the operation it is impossible to come to 
a definite conclusion. Dr. J. C. Cox, 1 says the object of the 
operation is " difficult to surmise." Some writers merely refer to 
it as an "operation," e.g., the " terrible operation" of Sturt, thus 
involving no theory ; others again regard it as a rite or ceremony 
merely, e.g. the " incredible ceremonial " of Lubbock, the " most 
extraordinary ceremonial" of Eyre (loc. cit.), the "terrible rite" 
of Curr. 2 

C. W. Schiirmann, 3 a missionary, who appears to be the second 
observer to record this custom, writing of the aboriginal tribes 
of Port Lincoln in South Australia, says, " the object of this 
strange mutilation I have not been able to ascertain. In 
support of a practice so essentially barbarous the natives have 
nothing to say more than that ' it was observed by their fore- 
fathers, and must therefore be upheld by themselves,'" here 
apparently it is now, at all events a pure rite or ceremony. 
Froggatt, 4 says " the only reason I could learn for this curious 
mutilation is a statement of an old man, that until it was done 
"they were all the same dog (or other animal)," meaning I suppose 
that they were not really men till they had been operated upon, 
they were no better than dogs or other lower animals. Howitt, 
(loc. cit.) speaking of the important Dieyerie tribe in Central 
Australia, says that this tribe names anyone the subject of this 
operation " Kulpi," and that " it is only when a young man has 
been made kulpi that he is considered to be a "thorough man, 
and in this sense kulpi is the highest stage of the initiation cere- 
monies. A kulpi has the privilege, and he alone, of appearing 
before the women in a perfectly nucle state. It is to the kulpis 
that important matters bearing on the welfare of the tribe are 
entrusted, and they always take precedence of the other men who 
are not kulpi. They hold in fact the most important positions, 

i Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1881, p. 663. 

2 The Australian Race, 1886, i., p. 72. 

3 Aboriginal Tribes of Port Lincoln in South Australia, Adelaide, 1846. 

4 Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1883, p. 652. 


and powerfully influence the government of the tribe. The head- 
man, Jalina Piramurana, in complimenting a kulpi on the satis- 
factory manner in which he had accomplished some mission or 
matter which had been entrusted to him, was accustomed also to 
refer to his being a kulpi. All men sent on special missions to 
other tribes are kulpi. It would never be even thought of to 
send a non-kulpi in charge, as he would not carry much weight 
or have such influence as a kulpi, Men often express regret that 
they are not kulpi, feeling some jealousy of the superior position 
of those who are so distinguished, for the kulpis also take pre- 
cedence at the grand corroborees, where they are the principal 
leading dancers and also are "masters of the ceremonies" generally. 
The Dieri say, according to Mr. Gason, that the object of the 
kulpi operation is "cleanliness," and that without it no one can 
be a "thorough man."" 

Hardman, 1 who was geologist to Forrest's Kimberley Expedition 
and a keen observer, says that it can hardly be considered from a 
Malthusian standpoint, because " every boy is so treated, and the 
married men have no lack of families." He thinks it may have 
arisen from some case of stricture, or may perhaps be " simply 
some ancient rite connected with Phallic worship." 

Foelsche 2 says that he was told by a Mr. Lautour that he was 
told by the women that the men so operated upon, though not 
impotent, could not beget children, and so on that account were 
preferred, and Mr. Lautour also said that it was considered as a 
mark of honour. Scarcity of food has been suggested as a cause, 
inducing the members of the tribe to limit their families : but, 
then again the custom is observed in places where food is plentiful. 

Milne Robertson does not believe it is practised in order to 
iimit population; the natives he examined were very fond of 
children and had abundance of food in their country. " For my 
°wn part," he says, " I am inclined to think that these operations 

1 Proc. Roy. Irish. Acad., 1881, I. (8) «0. 1, p. 73. 

2 Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc, South Australia, Vol. v., Adelaide, 1882. 


were first performed to give relief in cases of inflammation of the 
urethra, and that this rude surgery gradually became a custom. 
He argues, from the occurrence of hypospadias and the mode of 
development of the urethra, the comparative morphology and 
analogy of the organs, and from the fact that so little spermatic 
fluid is required to impregnate, that the operation is not really 
effective and is not really practised for the purpose of limiting 

Miklouho-Maclay 1 says that his correspondent, Herr Rotsh, 
told him that on the Herbert River the aborigines told him it was 
in order not to have too many children, and this is supported by 
another custom there, the pulling out of the nipples of young 
women. Sometimes the nipples are cut off so that if a child is 
born it shall not be suckled and will die, for they have none of 
the artificial means of feeding infants that we have. 

The subject of my photograph was from the spinifex district of 
North Australia. I show you whole length photographs of him, 
that prove him to be a strong well-made, lusty fellow. The great 
cuts on the outer sides of the thighs and the tatooing of the 
abdomen, breast, shoulders and arms prove him to be one of a 
very savage and barbarous tribe. He was a difficult subject, and 
I was obliged to have two photographs of his genitalia made in 
order to show the condition fully. It is seen that we have here 
the result of the operation in its fullest extent, the cleft extending 
right up to the front of the base of the scrotum, where the round 
opening seen is that of the urethra. The urethra in front of this 
is widely opened, and it is not even a groove, for the corpora 
cavernosa project so that instead of being concave the urethral 
roof is actually convex. In the photograph, where the man him- 
self is holding the organ, it is seen that the skin edges are pulled 
away to the side and the urethral surface is thus enormously 
extended : in the other photograph, where I am holding the organ 
in a suitable position to show the glans, the wrinkling of the 
urethral mucosa, due to its being so extended, is clearly seen. 
1 Zeitsehrift fur Ethnologie, Bd. xiv., 1882, p. 27. 


The prepuce was intact, there having been no preliminary circum- 
cision as sometimes occurs. The exposed urethral mucosa had 
the bluish, injected, hardened appearance common to mucous 
membrane in such circumstances. The man had a considerably 
urinous odour, in fact he was anything but a pleasant companion 
to the photographer ! That is not difficult to understand, when 
we think of the amount of wetting of the parts adjacent to the 
orifice which must almost necessarily happen at each micturition, 
and of the fact that in Sydney he was not so lightly clad as he 
would most likely be on his native heath. As to the actual man- 
ner in which micturition is performed Miklouho-Maclay 1 says that 
it is in an upright position, the organ being raised by the hand 
and the legs widely separated. 

As to the origin of the custom we can now only surmise, but 
these possibilities suggest themselves, viz. — 1 Quite certainly 
hypospadiacs would be met amongst the aboriginals, who would 
not, and could not fail to notice the condition. May not some 
aboriginal naturalists and philosophers have noted that, when the 
malformation did not actually prevent copulation, the seminal 
fluid escaped to an unusual extent, and that such unions were 
followed by unusually few children ? This of course raises the 
crucial point is the Mika operation associated with limited repro- 
duction? Before discussing this I shall note the other possibilities. 

2. What is more likely than that in such a life as that of the 
aborigines, wounds and lacerations of the urethra should occur, 
be badly tended and in the end lead to permanent fistulas more 
or less extensive, or do not often fistulous openings result from 
disease of these regions? Dr. Milne Robertson suggests that rude 
surgery for the relief of inflammation may have formed the start- 
^g point. Here again, the aboriginal observer would come in, 
f or he might be supposed to notice the escape of spermatic fluid 
trough the opening. 

3. May there not have been a deliberate and well reasoned out 
operation undertaken for the express purpose of letting the fluid 

1 Loc. cit., Band hi., p. 86. 

escape 1 This seems to me quite probable, for we know in very 
many ways that the aboriginals ascribe to the fluid the most 
wonderful life-giving qualities, and they are quite capable of such 
reasoning. Moreover, there is direct evidence of the validity of 
this suggestion, for I have often been told by pioneers and others 
that the aboriginal women deliberately empty the vagina after 
coition, with the view of preventing inpregnation. The power 
of the fluid to impregnate is thus clearly recognised. 

If the custom is not to be considered as a mere rite, the question 
of utility or effect must be discussed. The statements of the 
blacks themselves, as we have seen, do not permit of any certain 
conclusion to be drawn. White observers, too, give unsatisfactory 
accounts, some say that it really limits production, some that the 
children are just as numerous, some make no remark on that 
head at all. 

Miklouho Maclay's informant Mr. B told him that he had 

actually seen the fluid escape in coitfr, and this is indeed what 
one would expect from the state of the parts. Milne Robertson 
argues that the edges of the groove will be brought together m 
coitic, and so a sort of temporary channel be established as in birds. 
Contemplation of the subject of these photographs leads me to 
the opposite conclusion ; it seems to me, rather, that the bulging 
corpora cavernosa will open the urethral groove wider and wider. 
Indeed is is wholly misleading to compare the natural corpus 
spongiosum of birds to the mutilated spongy body of these men. 
I believe, then, that the condition does prevent the entrance of 
the full charge of the fluid. This, however, does not imply 
absolute sterility, for it is of course well known that an extremely 
small quantity of the spermatic fluid is necessary to fecundation. 
It is also known that if the fluid merely bathe or touch the 
external parts the spermatozoa can make their way up the whole 
length of the passage by their own motion and so effect fecunda- 
tion. But in the mika condition the base of the intromittent 
organ and the pudenda will be so bathed in the fluid that the 
I of the parts will certainly smear the lower part of 


the vagina with it. Further, we are told, and it is certainly tin- 
case in the subject of my photograph, that the release of the 
corpora cavernosa below permits the organ to be flattened and 
widened, especially during erection. This will itself tend to widen 
the vaginal orifice and so permit the fluid to enter more easily. 
Thus while the imperfection of the tube prevents all the fluid 
being lodged well within the passage, a quantity will certainly 
be left within the lower part of it. In my opinion therefore, it 
is a question of degree— in the normal condition a large quantity 
is left in the passage, in the mika condition it is a small quantity. 
What then is the probable effect of this diminution of the 
quantity of fluid introduced? I think there will generally be 
upon the whole, lessened chance of fecundation, but in particular 
cases it may not be very marked at all, and the recorded observa- 
tions as to the number of children in the camps of mika-practising 
tribes support this view, which, however, is opposed to the opinions 
expressed by many writers. Creed, 1 for instance, regards the 
mika as the "most perfect form of " Malthusianism practicable," 
and says that "impregnation is impossible, and this effect seems 
to be the desired end for which the operation is performed." Eyre 
however, who first described the condition, does not go so far as 
that. He says, " this extraordinary and inexplicable custom 
must have a great tendency to prevent the rapid increase of 
population, and its adoption may perhaps be a wise ordination 

a character as that which these people occupy." 

Taking everything into consideration, I conclude that — 

(1) Nothing whatever can be definitely stated as to the origin of 

the custom. 

(2) The operation does not necessarily render the man sterile. It 

merely diminishes his fertility ; what the degree of diminu- 
tion may be will depend entirely c 

By F. B. Guthrie, f.c.s. 
Chemist to the Department of Agriculture ; Acting Professor of 
Chemistry, Sydney University. 
[Bead before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, June 3, 1896.'] 
The property possessed by flour of absorbing water, known 
technically as the strength of the flour, is known to vary con- 
siderably in different samples. In order to produce a dough of a 
given consistency, flour from different grain takes up quite differ- 
ent proportions of water. This is a factor of the greatest impor- 
tance to the bread-maker and consequently to the bread consumer 
as well as to the miller and farmer, since upon it depends the 
volume and lightness of the baked loaf. 

In the course of an investigation into the milling qualities of 
different wheats, 1 it was observed that the water-absorbing power 
of the flour from different grain, varied in many cases quite 
independently of the gluten content. As it is not unusual to 
regard these two properties as identical, and to assume that the 
strength of a flour depends upon the quantity of gluten it contains, 
I append a few examples of the discrepancies then observed. The 
figures relating to strength are expressed as quarts of water 
absorbed by a sack of flour of 200 lbs., the weight adopted in this 

Gluten percentage. 


Triticum Polonicum... 

17-75 ... 



15-59 ... 


Improved Fife 

1203 ... 



12-03 ... 


Australian Poulard... 

11-42 ... 


White Essex 

10-00 ... 


Purple Straw 

8-83 ... 




Northern Champion... 

... ... 7-97 ... 


L Agricultural Gazette of X. S. Wales, 

From the above results it seemed not unreasonable to suppose 
that this property of absorbing water depended rather upon the 
nature of the different glutens than upon their actual quantity. 

This supposition was moreover strengthened by the fact, noticed 
during the course of the experiments referred to, that the glutens 
obtained from the strong flours were as a rule rather tough and 
elastic, coherent, but not adhesive ; the weak flours, on the other 
hand yielding a gluten which was soft, tenacious and inelastic. 
The glutens of this class of flours when superficially dried, adhered 
to everything which came in contact with them, they could be 
drawn out and remained out of shape when the tension was 
relieved. So general is this, that although the terms soft, adhesive 
etc., used to express the nature of the glutens, are arbitrary terms 
and not referred to any exact scale, yet if we arrange the list 
already given in the order of their water-absorbing capacity we 
find this property follows closely the physical nature of the gluten 
Variety. Strength. Nature of Gluten. 

Improved Fife ... 63-1 soft, non-adhesive. 

White Essex 589 med. hardness, non-adhesive. 

Amethyst 54-8 hard, non-adhesive. 

Triticum Polonicum... 52-9 soft, adhesive. 

Northern Champion... 49-0 soft, adhesive. 

Purple Straw 47-8 soft, adhesive. 

Medeah 46 "7 very soft, very adhesive. 

Australian Poulard ... 42-7 very soft, very adhesive. 

Vermont .., ... 406 very soft, very adhesive. 

Assuming then that the adhesive or sticky glutens are charac- 
teristic of the weak flours, and the non-adhesive and coherent 
glutens are characteristic of the strong, it remained to be seen if 
any connection could be established between these properties and 
the chemical constitution of the glutens, in other words what 
constituent of gluten determined the water-absorbing property 
°* the flour. The following notes are an attempt to elucidate 
this question. 

In 1893, Messrs. Osborne and Voorhees published the results 
of their investigations into the nature of the proteids of the wheat- 
kernel. 1 In the course of a long and careful series of experiments 
they established, among other interesting points, the fact that the 
gluten of the wheat-kernel consists of two proteid substances, one 
soluble in weak alcohol, the other insoluble. To these proteids 
they gave the names gliadin and glutenin respectively. The 
grain they experimented upon was of two kinds, Scotch Fife and 
Fultz. In the glutens from these varieties they obtained 61 -5% 
glutenin and 38-5% gliadin in the case of the Scotch Fife, and 
63-2% glutenin and 36-8% gliadin in the case of the Fultz. Both 
these grains belong to the same class of wheats and contain Fife 

It remained to be seen whether the proteids existed in the same 
proportions in other grain as in those used by Messrs. Osborne 
and Voorhees, and whether any variation which might be observed 
in the proportions was coincident with the variation in the water- 
absorbing quality of the flour. 

The wheats selected for the purpose of these experiments are 
typical of some of the more important families of grain, and those 
offering striking peculiarities either in the strength or gluten- 
content of the flour They were sown last year with this particular 
object in view by Mr. Wm. Farrer of Queanbeyan, a gentleman 
whose valuable services in the propogation and cross-breeding 
of wheats are recognized all over the world, and were harvested 
early in this year. They may therefore be relied upon as pure 
and true to name, a point of the utmost importance in an investi- 
gation of this nature. The wheats were milled by Mr. E. H. 
Gurney of the Department of Agriculture on the system which 
we elaborated together and explained in detail in the publication 
already referred to. To these gentlemen I desire to convey my 
warmest thanks for their valuable co-operation. 

The types selected were the following :— Improved Fife, Horn- 
blende, Toby, Triticum Polonicum, Australian Poulard and 

l Chemical Journal, Vol. 

Bancroft. They were examined for the following points: (1) 
strength, (2) gluten-content, (3) proportion of glutenin and gliadin 
in the gluten, (4) physical nature of gluten. 

The strength is estimated by running water from a graduated 

burette upon a weighed quantity of flour until a dough of a given 

icy is obtained. This consistency is such that it can be 

drawn out into long threads and at the same time adheres to the 

palm of the hand when pressed. 

The gluten was determined by making ten grammes of flour 
into a dough with water, allowing the mass to stand for one hour 
and removing the starch by working the ball between the lingers 
in a glass mortar under a running tap. The gluten thus obtained 
was washed slightly with a definite quantity of ether, introduced 
into a weighed dish, weighed when wet and again weighed after 

be sure that the starch is entirely removed from the dough, it is 
usually stated in printed directions for gluten estimation that the 
gluten should be squeezed until a few drops of iodine added to the 
wash-water fail to produce the characteristic blue colouration. 
As a matter of fact, although very small traces of iodine can be 
easily detected by the addition of boiled starch, it requires an 
appreciable quantity of cold, unboiled starch to strike an immediate 
blue colour with iodine solution. My experience is that the water 
is rendered turbid from the separation of starch long after the 
addition of iodine has ceased to produce an immediate colour- 
ation. The glutens in these experiments were always washed 
until they imparted only the slightest cloudiness to the wash-water. 
The determinations of the glutenin and gliadin in the gluten 
were made according to the method adopted by Messrs. Osborne 
and Voorhees. Fifty grammes of flour were made into a dough 
with water, and allowed to stand for one hour, the gluten was 
extracted in the manner above described, and the wet gluten 
sighed as a check upon the previous determination. The still 
moist gluten was then cut up into very small pieces and intro- 
duced into a flask containing 300 cc. of seventy per cent, alcohol. 

The extraction of the gliadin was continued for four and a half 
days, the alcohol being replaced by fresh and measured quantities 
at stated times, so that all the glutens should undergo exactly the 
same treatment. The alcoholic solutions of the gliadin were 
evaporated to dryness and the gliadin dried at 100° to constant 
weight. The insoluble glutenin was introduced into a weighed 
dish, washed once with alcohol and three times with ether, and 
dried at 100° to constant weight. 

The following are the results obtained : — 


Strength = 56 


consists of glutenin = 8*89 
gliadin - 3-36 

or glutenin = 72-5 per c 
gliadin = 27 -5 

Strength = 50 

The gluten of this 
at very coherent. 

Gluten { J et " ^'i 
(dry = 12-1 

wheat is soft, not very elas 


ts of glutenin = 9-01 

gliadin = 3*10 

or glutenin = 7 4 -3 per ce 

gliadin = 25*7 , 

Triticum Polonicum. 

Strength = 48 -4 

The gluten of this wheat is soft, inelastic, adhesive, non-coherent 

Gluten consists of glutenin = 9*21 
gliadin = 645 
or glutenin = 59 per cent, in the gluten. 

gliadin = 41 
Australian Poulard. 
Strength = 45-4 
_. t ( wet = 41-98 
Gluten j dry = 12-97 
The gluten of this wheat is very soft, inelastic, very adhesive, 

Gluten consists of glutenin = 8-32 
gliadin - 4-65 
or glutenin = 64-1 per cent, in the gluten. 
gliadin = 359 „ „ „ 

These four wheats are typical of four different families of grain, 
and being all high in gluten content it was anticipated that any 
differences in the nature of the glutens would be exaggerated. The 
two first are good bread wheats ; Hornblende being a hard Fife 
wheat, similar to that grown and milled in the United States. 
Toby being of similar character to the best class of wheat grown 
in New South Wales. Both these wheats give strong flour, the 
glutens are elastic and non-adhesive, and it will be seen that in 
both cases the insoluble proteid, glutenin, preponderates. Triti- 
cum Polonicum is not, strictly speaking, a bread wheat, but belongs 
to the class known as Durum wheats, which are extensively 
cultivated for macaroni, on account of their high gluten content. 
Australian Poulard is one of the Poulards which are also not liked 
for bread making on account of the weakness and bad colour of 
the flour. These latter wheats it will be seen yield a compara- 
tively weak flour, the gluten being sticky and inelastic, and the 
gliadin comparatively high. 

A further batch of wheats was next examined which had been 
harvested in the previous year, 1895, in order to ascertain if the 
differences i 

130 F. B. GUTHRIE. 

flours when compared with those of flours obtained from thi 
season's wheats were accompanied by a quantitative alteration i 
the gluten constituents. 

Improved Fife (harvested 1895). 
Strength = 63-4 
n1 . ( wet = 32-54 
Glute Mdry = 11-20 
The gluten of this wheat is tough, elastic, 

Gluten consists of glutenin = 8 73 

gliadin = 2-47 

or glutenin = 78 per cent, i 

gliadin = 22 

Triticum Polonicum (harvested 1895). 

Strength = 54-0 

( wet = 36-04 

Gluten ldry = 13-20 

The gluten of this wheat is soft, inelastic, 

Gluten consists of glutenin = 9-91 
gliadin = 3-29 
or glutenin = 75 per cent, in j 
gliadin = 25 „ 
Australian Poulard (harvested in 1895). 
Strength = 47-8 
Gluten j^: 2 ^ 
The gluten of this wheat is soft, inelastic, very adi 

Gluten consists of glutenin = 6*94 
gliadin = 2*86 
or glutenin = 70-8 per cent, in j 
gliadin = 29-2 

Strength = 57-2 

The gluten of this wheat is soft, inelastic, adhesive. 

gliadin = 3-60 
or glutenin = 62-2 per cent, in gluten, 
gliadin = 37-8 

Improved Fife was selected as being of a similar nature to 
Hornblende, no grain of this latter variety being available. No 
grain of the class represented by Toby was obtainable from the 
1895 harvest, and comparison of this wheat was therefore unfor- 
tunately impossible. Bancroft is a very peculiar Durum wheat, 
and is the only one I have met with which yields a fairly strong 
flour, whilst its gluten is sticky and inelastic. It was examined 
here in order to see whether the chemical nature of the gluten 
would clear up the anomaly. It will be seen that the gliadin is 
high as in the other adhesive glutens. 

A comparison of the results obtained by the Fife wheat, and 
by Triticum Polonicum and the Poulard harvested in 1896 with 
the same wheats harvested in 1895 show the influence of the 
proportions of the proteids in a very striking manner. 






Fife wheat, represented by 
Imp. Fife in 1895 and 
Hornblende in 1896 ... 

Triticum Polonicum 
Australian Poulard 




1 895 











78 | 22 

72-5 27-5 

75 25 
59 41 

70-8 29-2 
64-1 35-9 

132 F. B. GUTHRIE. 

In all the above cases the flour obtained from the wheat harvested 
in 1896 contained more gluten than that from the 1895 harvest, 
but was in all cases a weaker flour, and this appears to be charac- 
teristic of this season's harvest. This is directly opposed to the 
assumption that the gluten content and the strength are inter- 
dependent. The explanation is found in the columns giving the 
proportions of glutenin and gliadin in the gluten. It will be seen 
that the glutens of the 1895 wheats are all richer in glutenin than 
the 1896 wheats. 

An examination of the separated proteids glutenin and gliadin 
for their individual power of absorbing water gave the following 
results. The glutenin and gliadin from four of the glutens, after 
being dried and weighed were soaked in water until they were 
thoroughly saturated, the excess of water drained off, and the 
proteid superficially dried as well as possible. 
8-89 grammes dry glutenin from Hornblende gave 15-89 grammes 

wet glutenin ; absorption = 78-7 per cent. 
8-32 grammes dry glutenin from Australian Poulard gave 15*-j° 

grammes wet glutenin ; absorption = 78-2 per cent. 
4-18 grammes dry gliadin from Toby gave 6-76 grammes wet 

gliadin ; absorption = 38 - 2 per cent. 
6-02 grammes dry gliadin from Triticum Polonicum gave 8'9o 

grammes wet gliadin : absorption = 43*5 per cent. 
These results though they agree with the results previously 
obtained, and show that glutenin is capable of absorbing water to 
a considerably greater extent than gliadin, are nevertheless not 
quite satisfactory on account of the difficulty in removing the 
surface moisture of these proteids, especially of gliadin. I leave 
them however, subject to future correction, as they are a sort of 
check on the previous work. 

The experiments here recorded point to the following facts. 


The strength of water-absorbing capacity of a flour depends 
directly upon the relative proportion in which the two proteids 
are present in the gluten. 

If the gluten-contents of two flours be nearly the same, that 
will be the stronger flour which contains the larger proportion of 

Flours in which glutenin preponderates yield strong, tough, 
elastic, non-adhesive glutens. 

Increased gliadin-content produces a weak, sticky, and inelastic 

It is to be regretted that a larger number of wheats could not 
have been experimented with. The absence of Purple Straw 
which is the variety most largely cultivated at present in the 
Colony, is particularly regrettable. It is however, fairly well 
represented by Toby. Those examined represent, moreover, types 
of grain with well marked characteristics as to strength and gluten 
content, and it was to be anticipated that these would exhibit 
differences in constitution more distinctly than would grains more 
nearly resembling each other. Moreover, these could not be 
obtained until the harvest of 1897, and the results here given are 
I think, sufficiently definite to justify my bringing them before 
your notice without waiting until next year. 

Appended is a table giving the results in a concise form. For 
the sake of comparison, the gluten and strength of the 1894 grain 
is included. It will be noticed that there is a considerable differ- 
ence from year to year in the nature of one and the same grain. 
Both gluten content and strength of flour vary in different years, 
which is no doubt attributable to the nature of the seasons. 


By Henry G. Smith, f.c.s. 
{Read before the Royal Society ofN. S. Wales, August 5, 1896.2 

At the general meeting of this Society held on June 5th of last 
year, a paper 1 was read by the author in conjunction with Mr. 
J. H. Maiden, in which was described the new organic substance 
"Eudesmin" found by us existing in the kino of Eucalyptus 
hemiphloia, which body (together with another new organic sub- 
stance existing in the same kino provisionally named by us 
Aromadendrin) caused the turbidity of this Eucalyptus kino when 
dissolved in hot water and allowed to cool. We then promised to 
make a further communication to the Society when the chemistry 
of this other body (Aromadendrin) should have been worked out. 
Through the transference of Mr. Maiden to the Directorship of 
the Botanic Gardens, the work of continuing this research has 
devolved upon me. It is with pleasure that I am enabled to lay 
before the Society the results of my investigation in this direction. 
Some short time since the Bureau of Agriculture for Western 
Australia, forwarded to the Technological Museum a sample of 
the kino of the Red Gum, Eucalyptus calophylla, R. Br., and in 
investigating this kino, which belongs to the turbid group of 
Eucalyptus kinos, it was found that the turbidity was caused by 
the second body found in the kino of Eucalyptus hemiphloia and 
named Aromadendrin. It was also found that " eudesmin " was 
entirely absent. This was a most gratifying discovery, as it has 
enabled me to make this investigation upon a pure substance, free 
from « eudesmin," the presence of which in a kino makes it exceed- 
mg dlffic nlt to obtain Aromadendrin sufficiently pure for research 

1 A Contribution to the Chemistry of Australian Myrtaeeous Kiaos— 
J0 «rn. Ro yal Society Qf N g Waleg> 1895> Vq1 xxiXf p 3Q 

purposes, at all events with our present known methods of separa- 
tion. Whether its insolubility in chloroform can be utilized to 
separate it successfully from " eudesmin," which body is readily 
soluble in that liquid, is a matter for further investigation. 
Method of Preparation. 
The fine powder of this kino was treated with a small quantity 
of water and placed in separator for the attempted determination 
of " eudesmin," as fully described under that substance, in the 
paper already referred to. The ether was more reddish-brown 
than was the case with the kino of E. hemiphloia, and when dis- 
tilled to dryness did not deposit tufts of crystals as was the case 
in that of the latter kino under the same condition. When tested 
for the characteristic colour reactions of "eudesmin" it was found 
that that body was absent, and that apparently the whole consisted 
of Aromadendrin, giving the same colour reactions as that body 
before described. The residue after the ether had been distilled 
off was more difficult to crystallize out than "eudesmin," the 
solution requiring to be cooled considerably before it could be 
obtained in any quantity, and it also required to stand some hours 
when only the smallest possible quantity or absolute alcohol had 
been used for solution. When these crystals are filtered off, they 
cannot be washed with rectified spirit as they are readily soluble 
in tint liquid, but may be washed once with absolute alcohol ; or 
dried as much as possible on a porous slab, recrystallized from 
boiling absolute alcohol, dried again on the slab, and then crystal- 
lized twice from boiling water. When the substance is dissolved 
in boiling water, it becomes a jelly-like mass on cooling, the fine 
acicular crystals holding the water mechanically. The water is 
filtered off as much as possible, and the crystalline mass placed on 
a porous slab to dry. When thus prepared the substance is quite 
white and has the appearance of paper pulp, the interlaced hair- 
like crystals giving it a peculiar matted appearance, having a 
silky lustre, and totally distinct in physical appearance from 
"eudesmin." When these two bodies are prepared under like 
conditions they are both white, but " eudesmin " has the appear- 


ance of small scales, and separates in particles, while Aromadendrin 
has the appearance of flakes of matted material. This difference 
in appearance is very marked. 

Colour Reactions etc. of Aromadendrin. 

When the dry substance is treated with concentrated sulphuric 

acid, the solution becomes of a fine yellow colour which fades and 

darkens on standing some time, thus differing entirely in this 

reaction from "eudesmin" which gives a purple colour under like 

With nitric acid it gives a fine crimson colour, thus differing 
from " eudesmin " which gives a yellow colour with this reagent. 
Potash gives a fine yellow colour. 

When dissolved in the smallest quantity of glacial acetic acid, 
and water added, nothing is precipitated, but after some time 
hair-like tufts of radiating crystals form. This is also a character- 
istic reaction differing from "eudesmin"; because, when "eudes- 
min " is dissolved in the smallest quantity of glacial acetic acid 
and water added, the first drop causes turbidity; if now enough 
water be added to cause the whole to remain turbid, beautiful 
crystals soon form, the turbidity disappearing and the whole 
becomes crystallized. This is an easy method whereby to obtain 
" eudesmin " crystallized in well shaped and fair sized crystals. 

The melting point of Aromadendrin was found to be 216° C. 
(uncorrected) on the surface of mercury ; the previous melting 
point was evidently taken on impure material, and not free from 
"eudesmin." Chloroform does not dissolve Aromadendrin but it 
readily dissolves " eudesmin." 

If these reactions are tabulated the differences are brought out 
more distinctly : 

| Eude.min. 



(Fuming and 

Dissolves yellow, after 
some time dendritic form s 
appear and continue to 
increase, being yellow in 

Dissolves with a fine 
crimson colour. (This 
reaction diminishes the 

ellagic acid.) 


Little change. 

Dissolves a fine yellow 

Glacial Acetic Acid 

small quantity of water 

soon form, t 

removed and the whole 

becomes crystallized. 

Dissolves; on addition of 
water does not become 
turbid, even when more 
than an equal quantity 
of water has been added. 
Hair-like tufts of crystals 
form on standing. 

Melting Point 

mercury. The same in 
water in fine tube sealed 

216 3 C. (uncorrected) on 
the surface of mercury. 
Closed tube determina- 
tion not satisfactory. 

Heated between 

Melts at a low tempera- 
ture to a clear liquid, and 
on continued heating 
chars but slightly, a 

Melts at high tempera- 
darken at once, very 
quickly beginning to 


Eeadily soluble. 

Almost insoluble. 

Chemical Formula 


C 2 9H 2 60 1 2 when heated 
tol20 o C.,orC 2 9H 26 12 + 
3 H 2 when only air 

It may be well to direct attention to the danger of a mixed 
compound, when preparing these substances. The plates of the 
second body mentioned in the former paper evidsntly consisted of 
such, and contained enough "eudesmin" to alter the melting point 
as they gave a melting point of 162° 0. Later a purer product 
of Aromadendrin was obtained from the kino of E. hemiphloia 
which melted at 192° C, while the melting point of pure Aroma- 
dendrin is 216° C. 

Aromadendrin is readily soluble in ether, acetic ether, rectified 
spirit, and amyl alcohol ; but is almost insoluble in chloroform. 
It is insoluble in benzole and petroleum spirit. When dissolved 

1 :19 

s mentioned, the crystals left on evaporation all 
jicular radiating tufts ; this is so when slowly 
1 water, alcohol, dilute acetic acid, ether, and 
acetic ether, and it appears difficult to obtain crystals of fair size 
from any solution. The first crystals obtained from the solution 
in absolute alcohol, although impure, appear to be of larger size 
than by any other method. 

Aromadendrin also gives the following reactions, the cold 
aqueous solution of the substance being taken for the determina- 
tions except as otherwise mentioned. The small amount of the 
substance in solution is not sufficient to redden litmus, although 
a stronger solution in hot water does so readily. With solution 
of acetate of lead a yellow-coloured precipitate is formed ; in a 
stronger solution in hot water a dense precipitate forms of a 
yellow-chrome colour, becoming ochre-yellow on drying. 

With solution of sulphate or acetate of copper a light greenish 
precipitate is formed ; this is much more copious in a strong hot 
solution of the substance. 

Acetate of zinc or acetate of cobalt, both fail to form a precipi- 
tate, the salts being soluble. 

Gold chloride gives a purple colour, the dilute solution of gold 
being readily reduced. 

Silver nitrate gives no precipitate but is reduced ; this very 
readily takes place in a hot strong solution of the substance, a 
bright silver mirror being formed. 

Ammonio-nitrate of silver is readily reduced. 

Fehling's solution is also reduced on heating. 

Gelatine gives no precipitate. 

All akaline solutions give a yellow to orange colour, ranging 
from the light yellow given by lime-water, to the orange colour 
given by ammonia. 

Ferric chloride gives a purplish-brown colour in all solutions, 
however dilute, there is not the slightest i 
colour, and it does not readily form a precipitate. 

140 H. G. SMITH. 

Ferric acetate gives a lighter purplish -brown and forms a 

Ferric chloride added to a portion of the dry substance gives a 
purplish-brown colour. With "eudesmin" this reagent only stains 
the crystals slightly yellow. 

Composition of Aromadendrin. 
Combustion was made of the substance after repeated crystalli- 
zation from alcohol and water ; it was perfectly white, had the 
characteristic felted appearance of this substance when crystal- 
lized from hot water ; it gave the characteristic colour reactions 
perfectly, and melted on the surface of mercury at 216° C. The 
portion taken for combustion was previously heated in air-bath at 
120° C. as the whole of the water is given off at that temperature, 
no further loss being experienced when melted. It was extremely 
light, the quantity taken filling the platinum boat. 
No. 1 -1550 gram, gave -348 gram. CO a 

and -0648 gram. H 2 
equal to 61-233 per cent. Carbon 

4-645 „ Hydrogen 

34-122 „ Oxygen 

No. 2 -1324 gram, gave -2982 gram. CO a 

and -0550 gram. H a O 
equal to 61-4252 per cent. Carbon 

4-6156 „ Hydrogen 
33-9592 „ Oxygen 

Mean of the two combustions — 

61-3291 Carbon 
4-6303 Hydrogen 

34-0406 Oxygen 
From which we may deduce the formula — 

Theory requires for this formula — 

61-484 Carbon 

4-593 Hydrogen 
33 923 Oxygen 

This agrees very well with the percentage amounts obtained by 

Combustion made on material before heating to 120° C. was not 
satisfactory, the results of three combustions not being sufficiently 
constant It was found that 8-86 per cent, of water was removed 
by heating from 120° to 130° C. in air oven, while by heating in 
water bath until constant 6-1 per cent, was removed. Taking 
the formula as given above it is seen that it requires three 
molecules of water to equal 8-71 per cent., so that Aromadendrin 
crystallizes with three molecules of water ; two of these molecules 
are removed at or below 100° C, while the other is removed 
between that temperature and 1 20° C, the formula for this body 
is before heating therefore C 29 H 8J 12 + 3 H 2 0. The removal of 
these molecules of water does not form coloured anhydrides when 
not heated beyond 1 20° C. the substance remaining quite white. 
When heated to melting kino-yellow is formed. 

Solubility of Aromadkndrin in Cold Water. 

A portion of the purified substance was dissolved in warm 
water and allowed to cool to 155° C, when the greater portion 
of the substance had crystallized out. This was filtered off, and 
a portion of the filtrate evaporated to dryness ; it was found that 
the residue equalled -036 per cent, only, soluble in cold water at 
the temperature given, or that it required 2,777 parts of cold 
water of that temperature to dissolve one part of Aromadrendrin. 

Several attempts were made to form salts, but owing to their 
instability, the results were not very satisfactory. The lead pre- 
cipitate obtained by adding lead acetate to a hot strong solution 
appeared the most satisfactory. The lead precipitate thus obtained 
] eft 45 per cent, of PbO on ignition, this corresponds to half the 

molecule, or the precipitate contained two atoms of lead in the 

Although somewhat resembling catechin in many respects, such 
as melting point ; not precipitating gelatine ; reduction of gold 
and silver salts ; its apparent action like an acid, although but 
slightly acid to litmus ; its reaction with acetate of lead, &c; its 
slight solubility in cold water ; its crystallizing in needles with 
water ; and a few other reactions ; yet, it differs from catechin in 
its composition ; its reaction with ferric chloride ; its not forming 
pyrocatechin on heating in glycerol from 220° C. to 230° C. for 
half an hour ; its different reactions with potash solution and 
sulphuric acid; and its not imparting brown tints to cotton cloth 
when boiled with solutions of sulphate of copper, and potassium 
bichromate, it having very little dyeing properties. 

We must admit the family likeness however, and if we con- 
sider the composition of the members of the catechin group 
and the relations of the catechin tannins, we cannot but recog- 
nise the probability that eventually some connection will be 
found to exist between Aromadendrin and the tannins of the 
turbid group of Eucalyptus kinos. 

The reactions of the products obtained by fusing Aromadendrin 
with caustic potash, indicate that both phloroglucol and proto- 
catechuic acid are formed. 

has been heated in glycerol, the ether 
removes a yellow resinous looking body which is almost insoluble 
in cold water, but instantly soluble in alcohol, forming a yellow 
solution of great staining power, dying the skin, wool, etc., a 
bright yellow. This is an alteration product that may be con- 
sidered as kino-yellow, and is worthy of further investigation. 
Kino-yellow is also obtained when Aromadendrin is heated above 
its melting point. 

Although the term aromadendric acid has been used for this 
substance, it should only be so considered in the sense already 
adopted for catechuic acid, as the acid qualities of the former are 
but slightly greater than are those of the latter, but it may 
eventually be proved to form one of a series of the tannic acids 
of the Eucalypts, and may probably be a starting point for those 
as yet but little investigated bodies. 

The ready isolation and determination of these two bodies 
eudesmin and aromadendrin, will assist in the elucidation of many 
problems connected with the large group of Eucalyptus kinos known 
as the " Turbid Group," and will enable it to be broken down on 
a purely scientific basis, a result long hoped for. Much work will 
require to be done before an authentic scheme can be laid down, 
but from our present knowledge, I look forward to an easy, 
accurate, and scientific method of arranging the members of this 
large group in their proper classes, and to eventually settle, 
chemically, the affinities existing between the Eucalypts, and thus 
help to bridge over the difficulties which have up to the present 
existed in reference to the members of this important genus. 

We require now a method whereby these bodies can be correctly 
separated, both from each other and from the tannin of the kino, 
and until this mode of procedure is worked out, it is little use 
attempting a gravimetric determination of the original kinos. 

By Lawrence Hargrave. 
[With Plate VII.] 
[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, August 5, 1896-2 
As there is little doubt that the cellular is a permanent type of 
kite, a few remarks will be of interest ; especially as its action 
and construction as hitherto explained are somewhat obscure. 
The first question that suggests itself, is, why should the cellular 
lift more per square foot than the ordinary single surfaced kite 1 
In a kite or flying machine the distribution of the lifting surface 
is most important. The value of the lifting surface depends 
within certain limits on the linear dimension that first meets the 
wind. Thus, a common kite of twenty-five square feet area can- 
not show more than about seven feet of edge to the wind, whereas 
a cellular one of twenty-five square feet area can easily show 
twenty feet of edge to the wind. 

The great stability of the cellular kite is due to the vertical 
surfaces. To understand this, it is necessary to grasp the truth, 
that a perfectly flat kite has no stability; and even with tail and 
side ropes is an inferior flyer. The more the kite bends back from 
the longitudinal centre line or back bone, the more stable it 
becomes. The angle between the two sides is called by flying- 
machine men the dieclral angle, and without this or its equivalent, 
no flying apparatus will balance with any degree of certainty. 

Let A B C be the diedral angle of a kite. B being the end 
view of the back bone. Resolve A B and B C into their com- 
ponents, and D B E is the breadth of surface that tends to lift 


the kite, and A D and E are the heights of the surfaces that 
tend to steady it. Bisect D B and B E, and erect perpendiculars 
F H and G K equal to A D or C E, join H K ; and F H K G is 
the breadth and height of a cell having the same lifting power as 
ABC and (apparently) greater stability. 

The width of the kite D E is halved, and therefore much less 
timbering spreads an equal area of lifting surface to say nothing 
of the rigidity of the lattice girder construction. 

To realize this question of stability from another point of view, 
let us imagine a flying machine with its lifting surfaces in the 
diedral fashion A B C, and one with two cells like FHKG, to 
be on their respective stages, rails, carriages or floats, ready to 
% : suppose them to have equal areas, weights and wheel or other 
bases and to be heading directly to the wind ; a momentary 
change of wind would promptly overturn A B C, but FHKG 
would only be pushed sideways. 

Suppose both machines to be flying at the same speed and to 
require to turn to the right suddenly. They each port their helm 
with the result that the diedral one turns on its beam ends to 
starboard and the cellular one loses way due to the amount of 
vertical surface and develops a slight listing moment to star- 

A comparison of the scale drawing of a ninety square feet kite 
(Plate 7) with Plate 8 of the paper on "Aeronautical Work" read 
here on June 5th, 1895, will show detail improvements that have 
lately been made. The 1895 drawing shows the main frame to 
have had three king-posts and four diagonal wire ties, these are 
now abolished and the cells brought closer together longitudinally. 
The frame now consists of two pieces of wood, each three times 
the length of the cell, united by the ties (B) at the centres of each 
cell. The effect of this alteration is that the kite is equally strong 
With less material, and it will fold to a close bundle seven feet six 
inches long, with a maximum circumference of sixteen inches, 
is makes the question of transport a very simple matter. 


The strop for the kite line (D) and that for any kites that may 
be flown above (A), pull on to the tie of the forward cell, so that 
no special rigging is required for tandem flying. 

The fabric of the surfaces can be adjusted easily to any degree 
of tension by the ties (B): previously it required some effort to 
fleet the boom shoes along the main frame. 

The booms (C) for pushing out the jackyards (E) are of plano- 
convex section instead of being round ; this adds a little to their 
weight, but something is gained by the reduced head resistance, 
and the lift due to the plane underside of the booms. 

The booms for the lower corners are continuous, those for the 
upper corners are joined at the crossings by tape or string hinges 
to the continuous booms, this brings all compressions of the truss 
work of each cell into one plane. 

The outer ends of all the booms have wooden cleats (R) lashed 
on top and bottom, so that the jackyards (E) fitting exactly 
between them, receive the thrust truly square. The inner ends 
of all the booms are quite square and rest in beds on the main frame. 
There are no metal ferrules, joints, nails, or shoes on the kite. 

The sticks for bending the surfaces (F) have a versed sine of 
1-125 inches. They are not steamed, or held bent by a cord or 
wire. They are simply made in two or three layers of wood 
united with glue. The sticks retain the form given them and 
acquire an extra stiffness due to the glue. 

The total weight of this ninety square feet kite is twelve and 
a half pounds ; at least a pound of this might be saved by using 
light muslin instead of calico. 

The lifting power at the ultimate strength of the structure is 
not known ; it is estimated to be about three pounds per square 
foot, and that a wind of thirty miles per hour would not break it, 
or make it dive. This kite was flown on July 22nd, at 2 p.m. 
You will remember the weather as reported in the Sydney Morn- 
ing Herald next day. One of the jackyards broke at a small nail 
hole, and one pair of booms fell to the ground, but the kite con- 

tinued to fly steadily. It is this remarkable stability that makes 
the cellular form of aeroplane so suitable for flying-machines, and 
it is a matter of surprise to the writer that other experimenters 
do not adopt it, especially as there is no charge for its use. 

For man lifting purposes, small kites are better than large ones. 
For instance, a nineteen square feet kite has been made that weighs 
nineteen ounces, and folds to about the size of an umbrella ; ten 
of these could be tucked under one's arm, and with a coil of line 
and a decent breeze an ascent could be made from the bridge of 
a torpedo boat or the top of an omnibus. 

Some confusion has arisen through the apparent ambiguity of 
the definitions of the dimensions of cellular kites. They fly at 
such a high angle and present such a small projected area to the 
wind, that when viewed from below, misunderstanding cannot 

Length equals the dimension in the direction the wind is blowing. 
Breadth equals the dimension horizontally at right angles to the 

Depth equals the dimension vertically at right angles to the length. 



By C J. Martin, d.Sc, m.b., Demonstrator of Physiology in the 

University of Sydney. 

(From the Physiological Laboratory of the University.) 

[Read be/ore the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, August 5, 1896.'] \ 

The method consists in Altering under a pressure of forty to fifty 

atmospheres, through a film of gelatin or gelatinous silicic acid. 

In order to do this the film must be supported at frequent intervals. 

This is accomplished by i 
filter as the scaffolding t 

The apparatus consists of — 

(1) A steel cylinder containing compressed air. 

(2) A pressure gauge, T junction, and connections of copper 


(3) A gun-metal case to hold the filter, tinned inside. 

(4) A Pasteur-Chamberland filter, the pores of which have 

been filled with gelatin or gelatinous silica. 

The filters are securely fixed into the case by pressing the flange 

on them tightly against a rubber washer resting upon a small 

platform in the end of the filter case. On the outer surface of 

the flange is another rubber washer and then 

a disk of metal with a central aperture to 

allow the spout of the filter to project. This 

disk has five holes near its circumference 

through which screws pass to be inserted 

into a projecting rim on the end of the filter 

case. When these are screwed home the 

flange is compressed between the washers and 

forms a tight joint. (Vide figure in text). 

A membrane of gelatin in the pores of 
the filter is produced, by first filtering a 
hot 10% solution of gelatin through them, 
allowing the gelatin to set and subsequently 
washing the excess from the outside and 
inside of the filter with hot water. A 
by first 

nd afterwards converting this 

into gelatinous silica by immersing the filter 

in 2% hydrochloric acid for a couple of days. 

tirely prevents the following substances from 


Proteids ^ 



\ Caseinogen 

Carbohydrates ...J 

t Soluble starch (Amyl.-dextrin) 


j Haematin 

Colouring Matters J 

Serum pigment 


t Egg-white pigment 

Albumoses and peptones pass through the filter. Crystalloids 
pass through and at the same rate as water, for a solution of glucose 
or salt neither gains nor loses in concentration by filtration. 

The method I have found of service in some physiological 
enquiries. If blood is placed outside the filter, the solution 
coming through is rid of all albuminous and colouring bodies. It 
is clear, colourless, and contains the glucose salts, urea etc., in a 
condition favourable for quantitative analysis. 

For solutions of crystalloids I believe the process to be one of 
true filtration and in no way connected with the phenomena of 
molecular diffusion. The molecules of albumen and other proteids 
are unable, probably on account of their size, to pass through the 
Pores of the jelly. 





By C. J. Martin, d.Sc, m b., Demonstrator of Physiology in the 

University of Sydney. 

(From the Physiological Laboratory of the University.) 

[.Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, August 5, 1896.'] 

In a recent paper on the physiological action of the venom of 
Pseudechis porphyriacus, 1 I drew attention to the fact that the 
results following subcutaneous and intravenous inoculation were 
frequently so different that one could hardly imagine one was 
dealing with the same poison. Speaking very generally, when 
minimal fatal doses were employed, after subcutaneous inocula- 
tion, death occurred through paralysis of the respiratory centre, 
whereas in those experiments in which the venom was, introduced 
directly into the circulation, death was brought about by the 
destructive operation of the venom upon the blood corpuscles, 
setting free nucleo-albumens which occasioned thrombosis. 

This difference is such, that two observers who experimented, 
the one with intravascular the other with subcutaneous injections, 
would assuredly arrive at quite different conclusions as regards 
the physiological action of this snake venom. This variation in 
symptoms according to the method of introduction of the venom 
is not however confined to observations made with the poison of 
Australian snakes. The work of most experimenters on snake 
poisons exhibits the same fact, and this extraordinary variation 
in results has given rise to much confusion. 

These differences, as I have shown in the paper referred to, are 

to a large extent dependent upon the varying rapidity with which 

1 Proc. Koy. Soc, N. S. Wales, 1895. 

the poison reaches the blood, and I think I am now in a position 
to completely elucidate the matter. 

With this object it is necessary to consider for a moment the 
chemical constitution of snake venoms. Venoms are solutions of 
proteids, together with a trace of inorganic salts and a small 
quantity of an organic acid and colouring matter. All venoms 
so far investigated contain at least two kinds of proteids, one of 
which is precipitated by heating the solution. The relative 
amounts of these two proteids are not constant in venoms from 
different species of snakes. Weir Mitchell and Reichert 1 found 
that the proportion of coagulable to total proteid in the poisons 
of these different kinds of snake was— 

Crotalus ... 25% 

Ancistrodon ... 8% 

Cobra 1-75% 

The physiological action of these three venoms varies very 
greatly, and in the same order as their content of coagulable proteid. 
Crotalus venom produces the greatest destruction of cells generally, 
«■</-, blood corpuscles, epithelium of vessels, and epithelium of 
kidney. Ancistrodon, venom operates on these elements less than 
Crotalus poison but much more than that of Cobra. The poison of 
the Cobra exercises comparatively little effect on tissues generally, 
but confines its action principally to nerve cells, and those nerve 
cells constituting the respiratory centre in particular. A further 
interesting observation by these authors, is, that after heating, 
Crotalus or Ancistrodon venom to 80° C, by which means the 
coagulable proteid is separated in an insoluble form, these venoms 
no longer produce their destructive effect on blood and tissues, 
but now kill by paralysis of the respiratory centre, as is the case 
with Cobra posion. 

Pseudechis poison when injected into dogs, produces wholesale 

destruction of blood corpuscles the products of their destruction 

causing thrombosis. When however, this venom is previously 

1 Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. xxvi. 

heated to 85° C. it only possesses this power to a trifling extent, 
and to compass the death of the animal by intravascular clotting, 
the dose must be increased five-hundred fold. 

An obvious inference from these facts is that the body in 
venoms which destroys blood cells and kidney epithelium is the 
proteid coagulated by heat. 

It must however be borne in mind that heat affects venoms in 

(1) By coagulating some of the proteids present, in which con- 

dition they are inert. 

(2) By imparing the toxic power of the proteids present without 

influencing indeed changing them in 

any way recognisable by chemical tests. 

The first method of action is sudden. When the solution is 
raised to a certain temperature some portion of the pr 
stituents is coagulated. 

The second method is gradual, the longer the heating and the 
greater the dilution of the solute in'iit of viru- 

lence occurs. Perfectly dry venoms may be submitted to a 
temperature above 100° C. withou toxic power. 

Cobra poison is least affected by heating, whereas viperine poisons 
are very sensitive to heat when in solution. 

Accordingly, before I could conclude that the alteration in the 
action of Pseudechis venom was due to the exclusion of one of the 
poisonous constituents by heat, it was necessary to accomplish 
the separation by some other means which should not at the same 
time modify the remaining constituent. This I have been able 
to do, and by a method which has thrown light upon the causation 
of those differences in effects which follow subcutaneous or intra- 
venous inoculation. The method consists in filtering a solution 
of venom through a film of gelatin by aid of a hydrostatic pressure 
of fifty atmospheres. 1 The proteid which is coagulated by heat 
on a method of separating Colloids from 
-Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1896 and Journ. 

K SNAKE. 153 

does not pass through the filter, whereas the other proteid does. 
The filtrate is still highly poisonous, but a whole group of symptoms 
which are characteristic of the venom, are absent, as was found 
to be the case after heating to 82° C. 

This fact is illustrated by the following six experiments : — 

Experiment 1 — 005 gramme of Pseudechis venom was dissolved 
in 50 cc. of 0-9% NaCl solution. 10 cc. were kept for comparative 
experiment, and 40 cc. passed through the filter. 

lOcc. of the filtered and 10 cc. of the unfiltered solution of 
venom were both faintly acidified and boiled. The unfiltered 
solution of venom gave cloudiness which settled as a precipitate ; 
the filtered venom remained absolutely bright and clear. Filtering 
through gelatin had kept back the coagulable proteid. 

I then tried whether the filtration had also deprived the venom 
of its capacity of destroying dogs' red blood corpuscles in vitro. 

Experiment 2— Four si: 
blood from a dog was mixed with an equa 
solution. On two others a drop of blood was mixed with a drop 
of the solution Of filtered venom. 1 All four slides were ringed 
round with acid-free oil to avoid concentration, and left at the 
laboratory temperature 12° C. By next day (twenty -four hours) 
no difference was to be observed between the venom slides and 
the control slides. 

Experiment 3— Four other slides were prepared as before, two 
with isotonic salt solution alone, and two with the same salt 
solution containing 0-01% venom. In this experiment the slides 

venom would have broken up the majority of the corpuscles, I 
conclude that the active agent in this regard is separated by 
filtration through gelatin. 

I then injected the remaining portion of the filtered venom 
solution into a dog to see whether the usual destruction of blood 
corpuscles, haemorrhages, and affection of the kidney would be 

Experiment 4 — Small dog, weight 4 kilogrammes. 
July 14, 11 a.m.— 9cc. of 01% solution of Pseudechis venom pre- 
viously filtered through gelatin injected into 
each flank. (Amount injected equal 0018 
gramme). Temperature 39° C. 

,, 11*25 a.m. — Vomited, tremulous, uncomfortable. 

„ 3-15 p.m. — Very "tucked up," lethargic, weak on hind 
legs. Temperature 32° C. 

„ 4-30 p.m. — Passed loose foetid mucous stools but no blood. 
Can just walk, sinks on haunches. Respira- 
tion a little stertorous. Has passed no 
urine ; Temp. 38-9° C. 

,, 6-30 p.m. — Condition a little worse. Temperature 38*8° C. 
No urine passed. 
July 15, 9 a.m. — Cannot stand. Has eaten two biscuits during 
night, but vomited them. Respiration very 
noisy ; temperature 38° C. Passed a small 
quantity of highly concentrated urine con- 
taining no albumen or blood pigment ; pupils 

„ 12-30 a.m.— Condition the same ; drop of blood taken from 
the ear. Appearance normal, except large 
increase in leucocytes. No haemoglobin in 
July 16, 9 a.m.— Quite lively, runs about and takes food well. 
No trace of weakness in limbs. Little urine 
passed in capsule, very concentrated, other- 
wise normal. 

Experiment 5 — Small dog, weight 5£ kilogrammes. 
July 16, 10 a.m. — lOcc. of a 0-2% solution of venom which had been 
filtered through a gelatin film, injected under 
skin of back. Temperature 39° C. 

July 16, 11 a.m. — Has vomited ; tucked up appearance. 

,, 2 p.m. — Has passed loose stools but no blood ; lethargic, 

weak on legs. Temperature 38 -6° C. 
n 4 p.m. — Cannot walk. Breathing laboured and noisy 

(laryngeal). Temperature 38-5° C. 
„ 6 p.m. — Cannot stand. Breathing slow and laboured. 

Has passed a small quantity of urine contain- 
ing no albumen or blood ; pupils dilated. 
Temperature 38-3° C. 
Next day, 9 a.m.— Found dead. P.M.— Slight extravasation at 
seat of inoculation. Blood partially clotted 
in heart, fluid elsewhere. Examination of 
blood showed no destruction of corpuscles. 
A little urine in bladder, not albuminous. 
No haemorrhages in any of the organs. 
Kidneys congested but otherwise normal. 
All these experiments are characterised by the absence of the 
usual destructive effects on corpuscles, and kidney complications, 
which I have always noticed with the entire venom when dogs 
have been the animals experimented with. They agree however, 
absolutely with other experiments in which venom previously 
heated to 85° C. was injected. 

Experiment 6— The same dog which was injected with filtered 
venom ten days previously but recovered. During the interval 
he had been in good health and gained weight. Present weight 
4-25 kilogrammes. 

J «ly 24, 9 a.m. — 0-018 gramme of the entire venom injected under 
skin of back. Rectal temperature 39° C. 
n 1M0 a.m.— Has vomited. Nearly dead; heart beats very 
slow and irregular (twenty-four per minute). 
Pupils dilated ; corneal reflex just present 
Respiration occasional. 
» 1M5 a.m.— Dead. P.M. examination made directly— Small 
fibrinous clot in right ventricle. Vena cava 
1 fluid blood, which clotted instantly 

on being drawn. Portal, splenic, 1 
and renal veins thrombosed. No urine in 
bladder. Examination of blood — Haemo- 
globin in solution in the plasma. Extensive 
extravasation of blood in situation of inocu- 
lation. Hemorrhages in lungs and portal 

In this experiment the amount of poison injected was the same 
as formerly (Experiment 4). In this ease however, the entire 
venom was introduced and the animal speedily succumbed from 
extensive intravascular clotting, whereas in the previous experi- 
ment he nearly died from respiratory paralysis, but ultimately 
made a speedy recovery. In the first experiment there were no 
symptoms indicating destruction of blood corpuscles, or haemor- 
rhages, whereas the post mortem following Experiment 6 demon" 
strated that both had occurred. 

I therefore conclude that Pseudechis venom contains at least 
two toxic proteids : 

(1) A proteid precipitated on heating the solution to 82° C. 

and indiffusible. 

(2) An albumose, 1 not precipitated by heat and diffusible. 

(3) And that the former is responsible for the destruction of 

blood corpuscles and hemorrhages, whereas the latter is 

principally a nerve-cell poison and is endowed with a 

selective affinity for those nerve-cells constituting the 

respiratory centre. 

If two poisons, one of which passes much more readily through 

the capillary wall than the other, be simultaneously injected into 

a connective tissue space, the former will reach the circulation 

more rapidly than the latter. Under such conditions the effect 

1 It is difficult to classify this proteid in any present system. It is not 
rendered insoluble in dilute saline solutions by prolonged sojourn under 
absolute alcohol. This fact would point to its being an albumose. Its 
inability to pass through a film of gelatin, and coagulation on heating, 
would lead one to class it with the abumens or globulins. 

K SNAKE. 157 

produced may be largely that of the diffusible poison, at any rate 
until after the lapse of some interval of time. If the more rapidly 
absorbed constituent be a powerful poison, the animal may suc- 
cumb to its effects before the less diffusible constituent has reached 
the circulation in sufficient concentration to occasion any marked 
effect. On the other hand if the quantity of the former is sub- 
lethal the animal may suffer from its effects, recover, and subse- 
quently exhibit all the symptoms due to the latter. 

When, however, the mixture of poisons is directly introduced 
into the blood stream, both poisons produce their individual effects 
simultaneously, and the animal may succumb to one or other, 
according to the relative amount of each present, and to the vary- 
ing sensitiveness of some essential portion of the physiological 

When a minimal lethal dose of venom is subcutaneously injected 
the symptoms may be confined to those occasioned by the diffusible 
constituent. The reason is that the indiffusible proteid has been 
absorbed so slowly that the animal has succumbed to the influence 
of the diffusible constituent, or else that the absorption of the 
former was so slow that it was eliminated as rapidly as absorbed. 
Also, it has not infrequently happened that an animal has 
recovered from the paralytic symptoms, been apparently well for 
some hours, and afterwards died from extensive hsemorrhagic 
pneumonia, due to multiple thrombi in the pulmonary circulation, 
or other grave results secondary to blood cell destruction. 

The records of some cases of snake poisoning in Australia show 
a complete parallelism with these experimental results. It has 
happened that the patient has recovered from the paralytic 
symptoms, and has been to all appearance out of danger for a 
considerable number of hours, but has succumbed in one or two 
days with symptoms of extensive blood-cell destruction such as 
hemoglobinuria together with evidence of serious kidney mischief. 




By R. Ethe ridge, Junr., Professor T. W. Edgeworth David, 

B.A., F.G.S., and J. W. GRIMSHAW, M. lust. C.E., 

[With Plates VIII. - XI.] 
[Bead before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, August 5, 1896.'] 

Contents : 
I.— Eeferences by previous observers to movements of the East Aus- 
tralian Coast. (1) Submergence. (2) Elevation. (3) Stability. 
II.— Shea's Creek. (1) The locality as it was before the Canal was 
commenced. (2) General Geological Features. (3) Details of 
the Section exposed in the Canal. (4) Description of the 
remains of the Dugong. (5) Traces of Man's Presence. (6) 
Description of the Submerged Forest. 
III.— Deductions. (1) As to the evidence of Subsidence. (2) As to the 

geological antiquity of man in Australia. 
I. — References by Previous Observers to Movements of the 
Australian Coast. 
Evidence proves that changes have taken place, in comparatively 
recent geological time, between the relative levels of land and sea 
on the East Coast of Australia. The evidences may be divided 
into two classes, according as they show (a) a negative movement 
(subsidence) of the land or corresponding positive movement of the 
sea, as the case may be— [For this the term submergence will be 
used in this paper] — (b) a positive movement (elevation) of the 
negative movement of the sea. 

(1) Submergence. — As this paper relates to submergence, 

evidences of submergence may be taken tirst. Darwin was in 

favour of the view that the Great Barrier Reef of Australia was 

evidence of submergence, though he does not supply many details. 1 

1 Journal of Researches, 2nd Edit., 1845, p. 474. 

He states in a later publication 1 :—" If instead of an island, as in 
the diagram, the shore of a continent fringed by a reef were to 
subside, a great barrier-reef like that on the north-east coast of 
Australia, would be the necessary result ; and it would be separated 
from the main land by a deep-water channel, broad in proportion 
to the amount of subsidence, and to the less or greater inclination 
of the bed of the sea." 

Prof. J. D. Dana and Commodore Charles Wilkes, U.S.N., 
were also of opinion that the Barrier Reef of Australia was 
evidence of subsidence. They state 2 : — "The coral reefs indicate 
an extensive subsidence along the east and north-east coasts of 
New Holland." On the following page they estimate the sub- 
sidence as not less than five hundred feet. On the same page is 
also adduced some evidence of elevation—" On the eastern coast 
there are occasional elevated beaches or deposits of shell and some 
appearances of terraces." Prof Dana dwells specially on evidence 
of a raised beach on the Illawarra Coast of N. S. Wales, between 
Bulli and Wollongong, about ten feet above sea-level. The fact, 
however, should here be mentioned, that subsequent researches 
show that this ridge is rather a storm-beach with midden remains 
than a true raised beach. Professor Dana in a later publication 3 
repeated his statement, that the existence of barrier reefs on a 
coast is evidence of subsidence. 

The Rev. W. B. Clarke was of opinion that a subsidence had 
taken place along the east coast of Australia, as proved by the 
following statement 4 :—" Whilst marine deposits of Tertiary age 
are found along the west coast of Australia, and along the southern 
coast from Cape Leeuwin to Cape Howe, there are no known marine 
Tertiaries in any part of the coast of New South Wales and 
Queensland up to the Cape York Peninsula ; and the reason of 

1 Structure and Distribution of Coral R-el's, 2ml Edit. 1S7K p. 135. 

2 U. S. Exploring Expedition. 1833-42, Vol. x., Geology, 1819, p. 533. 

3 Corals and Coral Islands.— J. D. Dana, 1872, p. 319. 

* Remarks on the Sedimentary Formations of New South Wales. By 
the Rev. W. B. Clarke, p. 7, 4th edit. By Authority, Sydney, 1878. 

this may be, that, as indicated by phenomena before pointed out 
by me, but which on this occasion cannot be further dwelt upon, 
the eastern extension of Australia has been probably cut otf by a 
general sinking, in accordance with the general Barrier Reef 
theory of Mr. Darwin." 

Perhaps the most important statement on this subject is that 
made by Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, the late Government Geologist of 
New South Wales. He says, 1 with reference to Port Hacking, 
near Sydney :— " It will thus be seen that this locality is over a 
very deep portion of the coal basin. The eastern portion of this 
basin has been apparently faulted and thrown down beneath the 
waters of the Pacific Ocean, the precipitous coast, and a line about 
twenty miles east from it, marking approximately the lines of 
dislocation. The deep soundings immediately beyond this would 
seem to favour this view, so that here the bed of the ocean prob- 
ably consists of the old land surface which once formed the con- 
tinuation of that upon which the City of Sydney now stands, and 
which has been faulted to a depth of over 12,000 feet ; the length 
of the faulted area is not known, but it probably does not extend 
along the coast beyond, if so far as, the north and south limits of 
the Colony." 

" The abrupt eastern margin of the Blue Mountains, up which 
the Great Western Railway ascends at Lapstone Hill, near Emu 
Plains, marks the site of a similar though not so extensive fault, by 
which all the country between it and the coast was thrown down 
to its present level — the depression being so great that the ocean 
water flowed into the old river valleys, one of which forms the 
beautiful harbour of Port Jackson. We have evidence that these 
faultings probably took place towards the close of the Tertiary 
epoch ; for no marine Tertiary deposits are known along this 
portion of the coast of Australia, whereas in New Guinea on the 
north, and in Victoria on the south, the marine Miocene bedi 
occur at elevations up to eight hundred feet above the sea. Had 
Wales etc., p. 52. By Authority, 

ST. 161 

this low lying country along the east coast of Australia then 
existed, it must have been covered by the Miocene Sea, and 
doubtless some portions of the Miocene strata of that period would 
have escaped denudation, and have remained as those have which 
are seen in Victoria and elsewhere ; but it is very probable that 
until or during the Pliocene period it stood at a much higher level 
and extended some distance beyond the present coast line. Then 
again the Tertiary deposits throughout east Australia show that 
the valleys draining the Great Dividing Range have been chiefly 
eroded since the Miocene period, for we find deep valleys and 
ravines cutting through later Tertiary formations ; therefore, the 
sinking of the land traversed by any of these valleys, such as that 
of Port Jackson, evidently took place in comparatively recent 
geological times, and may have been contemporaneous with the 
extensive volcanic eruptions of the Upper Pliocene Period during 
which the southern portion of Victoria especially was the locale 
of great /volcanic activity." 

In 1886, Mr. Walter Howchin, f.g.s., 1 recorded evidence of a 
supposed land surface submerged about twenty-six feet below sea- 
level, (high water) at Glanville, near Adelaide. The evidence is 
in the form of a crust of travertine capped by brown clay. In 
the absence, however, of land fossils, the evidence, as the author 
points out, is inconclusive. 

Reference has been made by one of the authors to the occur- 
rence of black loam and peat extending from about sixteen feet 
to thirty-six feet below low water at Narrabeen lagoon, about 
nine miles northerly from Sydney. 2 This is probable though not 
conclusive evidence as to submergence, as the peaty loam may 
possibly have been originally deposited below sea-level. Further 
evidence as to submergence along the eastern coast of Australia 
has been quoted by the same author in his Presidential Address 
*>r 1896 to this Society. 


(2) Elevation of Coast (o 
References to papers on the above b been given 

by two of the authors elsewhere. 1 A brief summary will here 
suffice. Reference has already been made to the supposed raised 
beaches of the Til:* warra 1 Strict of New South Wales, noticed 
by Professor Dana during the United States Exploring Expedition 
under Commodore C. Wilkes, U.S.K, 1838 - 42. 

In 1846, Captain Stokes quoted evi< 
Cape Upstart, in the following words 3 : — "1 will, myself, here 
adduce what may be deemed an important fact ; and which, 
if allowed its due weight, will go far to weaken the arguments 
brought forward in favour of subsidence of the north-east coast 
of Australia. I found a flat nearly a quarter of a mile broad, in 
a great sheltered cove, within the Cape, thickly strewn with dead 
coral and shells, forming, in fact, a perfect bed of them — a raised 

beach of twelve feet above high water mark Had it 

been on the seaward side of the Cape, I might have been readier 
to imagine that it could have been thrown up by the si-a m its 
ordinary action, or when suddenly disturbed by an eartln.nake 
wave, but as the contrary is the case, it seemed impossible to come 
to any other conclusion than that an upheaval had taken place." 

In 1847, Professor J. B. Jukes described small sandy flats of 
coral conglomerate, never extending more than fifteen feet above 
high water mark, at intervals along the 

In 1859, Mr. Ludwig Becker adduced evidence to show a rising 
of the shores of Hobson's Bay, Port Phillip, as shown by the 
readings taken by Mr. R. L. J. Ellery on the tide gauge at 
Williamstown near Melbourne. 4 Mr. Becker estimated the rise 
of the coast near Melbourne at four inches a year. 

1 Eec. Geol. Sur. N. S. Wales, Vol. n., pt. i., 1890.— Eaised Beaches of 
the Hunter Biver LMt.. IX i . W. )] [■/ , .,-,„ I > ,>. „I and R. Etheridge 
Junr.. pp. 37 - 52, pi. 3. By Authority, Sydney. 

2 Discoveries in Australia, etc., 1846. i., p. 332 
f Voyage of H.M.S. " Fly," 1847, i., P- 5 »; 

„ e rate of upheaval of the South Coast ol 
itinent — Trans. Phil. Inst., Vict. 1S50, in., p. 7. 


In 1862, the Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods corroborated Mr. 
Becker's observations, as to a rising of the southern coast of Aus- 
tralia, and on the evidence partly of the shallowing of the sound- 
ings, since they were taken by Flinders in 1802, partly from the 
occurrence of marine shells on the shores of coastal lakes now- 
fresh, but evidently formerly salt, concluded that the rising affected 
the whole coast from Melbourne to King George's Sound. 1 

In 1869, Dr. Alexander Rattray published his opinion that in 
the Cape York district there was evidence of a recent elevation of 
the coast. He says 2 : — " Equally interesting is the evidence that 
the north-east, if not the whole of the east coast of Australia, is 
slowly rising, to be found in the gradual shoaling of the channel 
between Hinchinbrook Island and the mainland, (Lat. 18.T S.) 
which is due to all appearance, neither to silting up nor to the 
growth of coral— in the presence of water worn caves in the sand- 
stone cliffs of Albany Island and those of the mainland opposite, 
now well above high water mark — and in the existence along 
many parts of the coast, especially towards the northern end of 
the peninsula, of extensive tracts of level country now covered 
with sand dunes bearing a scanty vegetation stretching inland, 
and on either side to the base of lofty hills now ten, fifteen, or 
twenty miles off, but which had once closely bordered the sea, the 
whole looking as if they had once been under water." 

two of the authors published an account of some well 
ped and extensive raised beaches near the apex of the 
Hunter River Delta near Maitland, N. S. Wales. The marine 
shell beds nowhere attained a greater elevation than that of fifteen 
feet above high water. 3 

In 1892, Mr. E. J. Statham, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., described certain 
shell heaps and shell beds near the mouths of the Clarence, Rich- 
mond and Brunswick Rivers. 4 He states, 5 "These layers are to 

1 Geological Observations in South Australia, 1862, p. 205. 

2 Q-J.G.S., Vol. xxv.. 1869, p. 302. 3 Op. cit.. p. 46. 

2 Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxvi., 1892, pp. 304-314. 3 Op. 
«*• p. 306. 



be found at levels usually from four to ten feet above high water, 
and are important as indicating that the east and south coasts (if 
not the whole insular mass of Australia) are rising, further sup- 
port to which conclusion is afforded by the fact of nearly all the 
streams and estuaries having bar entrances, which in some 
instances become entirely blocked up until a passage is opened by 
land floods." 

In 1894, Mr. G. A. Stonier, f.g.s., described a raised terrace of 
auriferous black sand, six feet above ordinary high water mark, 
near the Evans River in the Lismore District, New South Wales. 1 
The following year Mr. J. E. Came, f.g.s., described similar 
terraces at a level of a few feet above high water, at Jerusalem 
Creek in the same district. 2 Mr. Carne, however, states : — 
" Whether the slight elevation of the surface of the black rock 
represents an elevation of the land or depression of the sea bed, 
or simply an accumulation of sand thrown up by stormy conditions, 
sufficient data are not yet to hand to enable a determination to be 

(3) Stability.— The paper by Mr. T. E. Rawlinson, C.E., on the 
coast line formation of the Western District of Victoria, 3 does not 
bring forward evidence either as to elevation or subsidence, but 
is rather in favour of stability in the level of the coast line in 
recent geological time. He says, 4 "The formation of the land and 
its three distinct coast lines as described indicate considerable 
changes of coast, and these changes must have occurred since the 
upheaval of the land toits present level." — (The italics are ours). He 
concludes that the land has gained on the sea in southern Victoria 
in recent geological time, chiefly through accumulation of shell 
sand, and not through elevation of the sea floor. R. Daintree 
referring to the eastern coast of Queensland, states that " little 

1 Annual Report Department of Mines, N. S. Wales, 1894, p. 130. By 
Authority, Sydney, 1895. 2 Op. tit., p. 151, 1895, published 1896. 

3 Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic. Vol. xiv., pp. 25 - 34, 1878. * Op. cit., 

From the evidence above quoted it is clear that in comparatively 
recent geological time there has been a relative change in the level 
of land and sea along the east and south coasts of Australia of 
about fifteen feet, and this amount of alteration seems so constant 
as to incline us to the opinion that it may be due, as so ably advo- 
cated by Suess in his classic work, "Das Antlitz der Erde," rather 
to a negative movement of the ocean than to a positive movement 
of the land. On the other hand, Darwin, Clarke, and Wilkinson, 
have brought forward arguments, to which we think much weight 
should be attached, to show that in late Tertiary, perhaps even in 
Post-Tertiary time, there has been a considerable submergence, 
perhaps due to subsidence of the lithosphere, along the east coast 
of Australia. In comparing the conflicting evidences as to sub- 
mergence and elevation along the east coast of Australia, the fact 
which has been well emphasized by Suess should always oe borne 
in mind, viz., that in case of oscillatory movements even when 
the positive movement has greatly preponderated, it is chiefly as 
a rule, the traces of the negative movement that survive. 2 Positive 
movement (of the ocean) submerges old beach lines and hides them 
from view, with a covering of sediment, whereas raised beach lines 
are exposed to view and are not easily obliterated. 

II.— Siiea's Creek. 
(1) The locality as it was before the Canal was commenced.— 
Previous to the cutting of the present canal and the artificial 
raising of the level of the surrounding land, the area referred to 
m this paper was mostly a salt water swamp, through which crept 
the sluggish malodorous Shea's Creek. Shea's Creek rises to the 
east of Redfern in some low sandy hills, and can be traced thence 
for a distance of three and a half miles south-south-west, until its 
estuary joins that of Cook's River, half a mile below the Cook's 


River Dam, and about half a mile north of the point where the 
estuary of that river enters Botany Bay. For the greater part of 
its course it was little more than a ditch, and was tidal for about 
a mile and a half above the point where it joined Cook's River. 
Its course throughout is almost entirely over alluvial deposits, 
derived from the denudation of the low hills of Triassic rocks 
(Wianamatta Shales and Hawkesbury Sandstone) which lie to the 
north-west, north, and north-east. It is the alluvial flats which 
lie on either side of the tidal portion of Shea's Creek, which con. 
stitute the salt swamps referred to above. The surface of the 
swamp is covered by rank grass and sa^olaceous plants with a 
thin belt of swamp oak (Casuarina) along its western margin. 

(2) General Geological Conditions. — A glance at the geological 
s-k< tcli 11 " u-i on • if.e 8) shows that these 

alluvials form a somewhat delta shaped area, about three and a half 
miles long from its apex to its seaward termination, and four miles 
wide measured along the shores of Botany Bay. To the west of 
the present canal area, and at a distance of about half a mile at 
right angles to Shea's Creek, the alluvials are sharply bounded on 
the south-west by II ( ■, ... - >, u-y Sandstone, and farther north-east 
by the Wianamatta Shales. Eastwards their boundary is lost 
under the hills of blown sand in the neighbourhood of the Waterloo 
and Botany swamps and Randwick. The excavations for the 
Shea's Creek canal prove that these alluvials occupy the site of 
what has once been a large indentation of Botany Bay. 

(3) The Section exposed at Shea's Creek.— The portion of the 
Shea's Creek canal excavations, specially examined by us, extends 
from the dam five hundred and fifty feet, measured horizontally, 
above Rickety Street, as far as the site of a second dam to the 
north-east, a further distance of 2,150 feet. The bottom of the 
canal is being carried to a uniform depth of ten feet below low 
water, and is one hundred feet wide at the bottom, and two 
hundred feet wide at the top. The mean rise and fall of the 
tide is about five feet, so that at mean high tide there will be a 
depth of fifteen feet of water in the canal when filled. The 


alluvials on eitlier side have had their surface artificially raised 
with material excavated from the canal, as shown on the sections 
accompanying this paper, {Plate 9, fig. 1.) As the original 
level of the swamp was there at, or a trifle below, that of mean 
high water, and as the canal has been excavated to a depth of 
fifteen feet below mean high water, it follows that a section of 
that thickness (fifteen feet) is exposed to view in the banks, 
whenever they have been cut down to the full depth, and have 
not vet been concealed by the fascine work and stone pitching 
with wlii h the sides of tin- canal are being lined, from three feet 

The nature of the strata observed by us is shown on tigs. I - 2, 
of Plate (j. (a) The uppermost stratum is a bed of sandy peat 
from nine inches to one foot in thickness, obviously of recent 
origin. (/>) NVxt in descending order are layers of blown sand, 
with interst rati lied peaty partings, the whole having a thickness 
of about three feet. The outcrop of these beds is stained yellow 
and orange by a superficial film of sulphate of iron and alum. 

especially An,> IU alocan!ia trapezia. The bed was traced by us 
almost uninterruptedly from the dam above Rickety Street for 
nearly half a mile north-east. The shells are imbedded in sandy 
clay. A few varieties only, and all belonging to living species > 
are r-'presont.-d. The bed is two feet thick, and ar its base is 


1 passing in places 1 

with roots of various trees, and a few stumps of Swamp Mahogany 
underlies the shell bed just described. 

On the longitudinal section the stump of a tree (No. 3 Stump) 
is shown on the horizon of this bed. No. 3 Stump was in pieces 
when seen by us. It was surrounded with sand containing part- 
ings of peaty matter, covered with a thin sandy clay. This stump 
Was one foot seven inches above low water mark and possibly not 
*» situ. The exterior showed traces of perforation by a boring 
amphipod, Sphairoma rerrueauda, Dana. An allied species S. 

quoyana, M. Edw., perforates sandstone rocks between tide marks; 
both are met with in Port Jackson. The stump belonged to the 
Swamp Mahogany, Eucalyptus botryoides, as determined by Mr. 
R. Baker of the Technical Museum. Near the preceding, we 
observed another stump, (No. 4) on the horizontal section. 

Although the above stump was perhaps not in situ, numerous 
horizontal roots of trees were observed by us on this horizon, 
undoubtedly in situ, and the layer of peaty loam in which they 
occurred was very persistent, (e) Below the second well marked 
peat horizon is a bed of unctuous, plastic, dark bluish-grey clay, 
sandy in places, and occasionally showing vertical rootlets passing 
through it. The bottom of this bed rests, at about from nine to 
ten feet below low water, on the submerged forest, and a thick 
bed of peat, developed chiefly at the north-east end of the section. 
Marine shells are very plentifully and rather irregularly scattered 
through it, being most abundant near its upper surface, and, 
(towards the south-west end of the section) they form an irregular 
bed composed almost entirely of shells, and about two feet in 
thickness, extending from four to six feet below the level of low 

On the east side of the cutting at position of No. 1 Stump, the 
bed is at least seven feet thick. The contained shells are strictly 

the muddy arms of the Parramatta River or sandy beaches con- 
nected therewith. A very similar bed of shells was excavated a 
few years back at Long Cove Creek, between Leichhardt and 
Dobroyd, Ashfield, the lithological character of the deposit being 
very similar to that of the present bed. 

The organic remains so far obtained from this horizon, Shea's 
Creek, are as follows :— Annelida : Polydora ciliata, Johnston 
(borings). Echinodermata : Salmacis Alexandri, Bell. Pelecypoda: 
Anomalocardia trapezia, Deshayes ; dementia papyracea, Gray ; 
Tapes undulata, Lam.; Tapes turgida, Lam.; Tellina deltoidalis, 
Lam.; Tellina sp. ■? Dosinia circinaria, Deshayes; Circe scripta, 
Linne; Pecten fumatus, Reeve; Pecten tegula, Wood; Spisula 

parva, Petit ; Ostrea Angasi, Sowerby ; Ostrea cucullata; Nucula 
Strangei, A. Adams; Cryptodon globosum, Forskal; Cardium 
tenuicostatum, Lam.; Mytilus hirsutus, Lam.; Potamides eben- 
inus, Bruguiere; Lampania australis, Quoy; Natica Strangei, 
Reeve; Natica plumbea, Lam.; Natica conica, Lam.; Bulla aus- 
tralis, Quoy & Gaimard; Bittium granarium, Kiener; Nassa 
jonasi, Dunker ; Calliostoma decorata, Philippi; Trochocochlea 
zebra, Wood ; Liotia clathrata, Reeve; Risella lutea, Q. & Gaim.; 
Urosalpinx Hanleyi, Angas; Triton olearium, Linn. 

The mollusca do not call for any special mention, they are a 
mixture of both muddy-inlet and sandy-beach loving forms, such 
as one would expect to find in a deposit that must have under- 
gone alterations of deposition. The Echinoderm is a deep water 
species, and in all probability was simply washed in. 

Much interest attaches to the borings of the Oyster-boring 
Worm Polydora. In 1890, Mr. T. Whitelegge, of the Australian 
Museum, was deputed to investigate a disease that appeared 
amongst the oysters of New South Wales, on behalf of the Fishery 
Commissioners. It appears from his researches 1 that a marine 
"worm, determined as above by Prof. W. A. Haswell, bores into 
and infests the shells of the oysters. The death of the oyster is 
then brought about by the decomposition of the mud after the 

death of the 

upposed by the oyster farmers and others to be i 
it any rate, so far as New South Wales was conc< 

but we r 

"which the deposition of bed (e) is to be referred. A few stumps 
of trees were also noticed enclosed in this bed. (Stumps Nos. 4 
and 6 on longitudinal section Plate 9). 

&o. 4 Stump was a very large one, much eaten by boring on 

e out side, the borings, however, extending but a very short 

distance into the wood. This appeared to be in situ, the level of 

the to P of the roots being three feet four inches below low water 

1 Auat. Mus. Records, 1890, 1., No. 2, p. 41. 

mark, the roots descending three feet. It was situated as near 
as possible in the middle of the canal, 2,100 feet north of Rickety 
Street Br d & e The roots rested on six inches of loamy sand 
passing down into a grey unctuous clay. This stump belongs to 
the Mahogany, Eucalyptus sp. 

No. 6 Stump was also apparently in situ, its top being si\ feet 
eight inches, and the roots about two feet lower, below low water 
level. Remains of a Dugong, which will be described presently, 
were found in this bed, and unearthed in the presence of two of 
us. Four tomahawks have also been obtained from this bed, as 
wp arc informed, and our information leads us to the opinion 
that it is almost certain that they were obtained in situ. These 
also will be described presently. 

(/) At the base of the estuarine blue clays is the horizon of 
the third peat bed, from a few inches up to five feet in thickness. 
Its upper surface is from ten feet to seven feet below low water. 
At the north-east end of the canal excavation, shown on the phfcOi 
and next to the upper dam, a very large number of tree stumps, 
as we are informed by Mr. W. Trickett, the overseer of the work, 
were unearthed, the majority being ten feet below low water. 
Of these, all but about three had been removed at the time of our 
visit (Nos. 1, 2, and 5). This submerged forest is also reserved 
for detailed description. 

(g) Below the third peat horizon is white running sand, with 
thin bands of brown peaty sand, extending to a depth of at least 
three feet. Canal excavations have not gone below this depth, 
but bores put down for the foundations of the Rickety Street 
Bridge showed that the strata underlying (g) are as follows : — ■ 
8 ft. 6 in. Sand and mud. 
12 ft. in. Blue clay resting on Hawkesbury Sandstone. 

(4) Remains of the Dugong.— One of the most important dis- 
coveries in connection with the Shea's Creek excavation is the 
discovery, by some of the workmen employed, of the bones of a 
Dugong. These were unearthed partly in the presence of one of 
us, near the junction of the two main tramlines running from 


Rickety Street Bridge, at about seven hundred and sixty feet from 
the latter and fifteen yards from the western bank of the canal as 
now constructed. They were entombed in sandy clay, near the 
top of the estuarine clay marked (e), and just above the shell bed. 
They were five feet six inches to eight feet six inches below the 
present high water level, and a total depth of four feet six inches 
to seven feet six inches below the swamp surface level, previous to 
excavation. The bones were thus distributed through a thickness 
of about three feet of the sandy estuarine clay. The bones are 
those of Halicore dugong, Gmelin, sp., and were found confusedly 
heaped together. Although representing only a portion of the 
skeleton, we see no reason to doubt that they all belonged to one 
and the same individual. The following table shows the number 
found as compared with that of those of the living Dugong. The 
skull was recovered on two different occasions, the skull on one, 
the mandible on the other. The shoulder girdles, paddles, and 
pelvic bones are wholly wanting. 

Name of Bones. | aSSn^ 


Cervical Vertebra 7 

Thoracic 1 19 

Lumbar 4 

Caudal 21 

Ribs | 38 



The whole of the bones are in an excellent state of preservation, 
and are more or less fossilised, particularly the ribs, which never- 
theless still retain a portion of the original animal matter. The 
structure of the bone substance of the ribs is very dense, and is 
*ith difficulty scratched with a knife on a fractured surface. The 
nbs in a recent Dugong are very heavy proportionately, dense 


mparison of thin sections respecti 1 

°f this Dugong and of those of a recent Dugong shows that their 
mineralogical condition and structure are in both cases almost 
identical. We see no reason to doubt the identity of this Sirenian 
"*ith the existing Dugong, and although unquestionably repre- 

senting a large animal, it is not of greater size than the Dugong 
is known to attain. 

The present southern limit of the Dugong is probably Wide Bay. 
although it was formerly to be caught in Moreton Bay. Its 
occurrence on the coast of New South Wales is very rare, indeed 
the late Mr. Gerard Krefft said, "the Dugong is not found on the 
coast of New South Wales," 1 but Dr. E. P. Ramsay states that it 
has been " occasionally observed as far south as the Tweed and 
Richmond Rivers." 2 About two years ago Mr. Harry Stockdale, 
exhibited, at the Hotel Australia, a Dugong, which Mrs. Chinnery 
of Hunter Street, of whom the Dugong was purchased, informs 
us was caught in Broken Bay. 

The late Mr. A. W. Scott, speaking of the Dugong's habits, 
says 3 : — "It is only the shallow waters of unruffled inlets and 
creeks, the sheltered mouths of rivers, the bays and the straits 
between proximate islands, that afford the necessary quiet, and 
the abundant submersed marine aliment essential for a permanent 
residence." This "aliment" is described by Macgillivray, as a 
slender, branchless, cylindrical, articulated seaweed, of a very 
pale green colour. 4 

Macgillivray gives' 5 the following description of the method 
employed by the Cape YTork natives to capture the Dugong : — 
" When one is observed feeding close inshore, chase is made after 
it in a canoe. One of the men standing up in the bow is provided 
with a peculiar instrument used solely for the capture of the 
animal in question. It consists of a slender peg of bone, four 
inches long, barbed all round, and loosely slipped into the heavy, 
rounded, and flattened head of a pole, fifteen or sixteen feet in 
length ; a long rope an inch in thickness, made of the twisted stems 

1 Australian Vertel 

2 Cat. Ex: 
London, 1883, p. 53. 

3 Mammalia, Eecent and Extinct, 

4 Voy. " Kattlesnake," 1852, n., p 

5 Loc. cit., pp. 24-25. 

st. 173 

of some creeping plant, is made fast to the peg at one end, while 
the other is secured to the canoe. "When within distance, the 
bowman leaps out, strikes the Dugong, and returns to the canoe 
with the shaft in his hand. On being struck, the animal dives, 
carrying out the line, but generally rises to the surface and dies 
in a few minutes, not requiring a second wound, a circumstance 
surprising in the case of a cetaceous animal, six or eight feet in 
length, and of proportionate bulk. The carcass is towed on shore 
and rolled up the beach, when preparations are made for a grand 
feast. The flesh is cut through to the ribs in thin strips, each 
with its share of skin and blubber, then the tail is removed and 
sliced with a sharp shell as we would a round of beef." 

On the other hand, Mr. J. K. E. Fairholme, 1 says, the Dugong 
was captured by the blacks in Moreton Bay "by placing large nets 
across through which they knew the animals would pass from the 
feeding grounds." 

Except on one of two hypotheses the presence of these bones in 
the Shea's Greek deposit is difficult of explanation, viz., either 
that the Dugong had strayed some considerable distance from its 
accustomed feeding ground, or else a carcase had floated in from 
seawards and become stranded. It could hardly have frequented 
such an inlet as Shea's Creek must then have been for feeding 
purposes, if the resemblance of the deposit to those now accumul- 
ating in the Parramatta Kiver, and elsewhere under like con- 
ditions be any criterion for " Dugongs are much more strictly 
marine than Manatees, and their food is therefore chiefly restricted 
to sea-water algaj." 2 If, however, it be admitted that this Dugong 
'as stranded alive at Shea's Creek, or at any rate at that part of 
Cook's River Estuary now represented by that odoriferous locality, 
the natural inference is that conditions more akin to those of the 
north-east Queensland coast existed there at that period. 

(5) Traces of Man's Presence.— (a) Tomahawks.— On the north 

«de of the second dam, 2,700 feet from Rickety Street, two 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, pt. xxiv., p. 353. 

2 Ogilby, Cat. Austr. Mam. (Austr. Mus.), 1892, p. 63. 


tomahawks were found in the first sump hole at a point opposite 
the middle of the dam, and one to the south-west, at the present 
site of the pump. Recently a third was found in a heap of mullock 
on the bottom of the canal on south-east side of the same dam. 
The two tomahawks from the first sump were six feet below low 
water, and therefore eleven feet below mean high water mark. 
One of these has come into our possession, and differs in no way 
from the oblong ovate type used by the aborigines, and is now 

(b) What appears to be a far more interesting piece of evidence 
of man's presence around Botany Bay at this epoch of its history 
is afforded by the Dugong bones, particularly the ribs. Many of 
these are scarred transversely and obliquely with deep scratches 
and cuts, especially at their distal ends. These incisions are most 
certainly not of recent execution, nor can we conceive any fortu- 
itous circumstances, such as contact with sharp rock surfaces, 
that would produce them. They present the appearance of cuts 
and scratches that would be made by the direct blows of a sharp- 
edged stone tomahawk. The cuts are in themselves curved, with 
the central portion deeper than the sides, such as one would expect 
to be caused in the manner suggested. (See Plates 10, n.) The 
esteem in which the Dugong's flesh was held by the blacks of the 
north-east coast is well known, and has been already referred to, 
and we are informed by Mr. R. Grant of the Australian Museum, 
that he has seen Dugong bones on the Queensland coast, with 
similar markings, that he knew had been handled by the abori- 
gines. There is, therefore, the probability that at the time this 
Sirenian was stranded, and before the final geological changes had 
taken place that brought about the present aspect of the Botany 
and contiguous swamps, man was an inhabitant of the locality. 
One other item of evidence there is — the burnt off stumps in the 
forest bed, although this is of a much less conclusive nature. 

(6) The Submerged Forest— As already mentioned, a very large 
number of stumps of trees were found, chiefly just to the south- 
west of the northern dam. The greater number of these were m 

situ, just as they grew when their stems were attached. A few 

only about three trees were still left in situ on this horizon, viz., 
Stumps 1, 2, and 5, as shown on the longitudinal section, (Plate 9). 

No. 1 Stump lay at the bottom of the canal, and had a large 
" buttress," the roots spreading out in their natural position, some 
with rootlets attached at least six inches long by two inches in 
diameter. The root rested on and was implanted two feet in dark 
clayey sand, above the top of the stump was one foot of peaty 
material, and then the estuarine bed (e), there six feet thick. Mr. 
E. F. Pittman, the Government Geologist, traced one of its roots 
by digging for fully six feet from the centre of the stump— the 
root extended horizontally and slightly downwards — and satisfied 
himself as to the stump being really in situ. The root was still 
over four inches thick at the furthest point to which it was traced. 
This stump is ten feet below low water, and belongs to the Swamp 
Mahogany, Eucalyptus botryoides. 

No. 2 Stump showed evidence of having been burnt off at the 
top, and the roots also appeared charred. It belongs to Honey- 
suckle, Banksia ( B. serrata). The subsequent discovery of the 
cones by Mr. R. Baker, proves the existence of this species in 
the submerged forest. It is also ten feet below low water, and 

No. 5 Stump, occurring at the same level, was also dug around 
by us to make sure that it was in situ, and the roots were found 
to radiate for at least four feet from the stump. This stump 
belonged to the Mahogany, Eucalyptus (1 E. resinifera). Mention 
should also be made of the fact that during the early part of the 
*o>-k, Mr. A. S. Patison, surveyor in charge at Shea's Creek, 
followed one root belonging to a stump in the bottom of the canal 
near the upper dam, for twenty-one feet. The stump to which it 
belonged had a diameter of two feet six inches. No doubt, there- 
fore, exists in our minds as to the stumps described above being 
really % n g ^ Mj an( j ^ -g F Pittman, the Government Geologist 

III. — Deductions. 

(1) As to Submergence. — It is not our purpose to enter here 
into a discussion of the general question as to whether evidence, 
such as that afforded by the submerged forest, points to a down- 
ward movement of the land or to a rise in the level of the ocean. 
A very brief summary, however, of general views held on the 
subject of beach lines will perhaps be not out of place. Of late 
years eminent geologists, notably Suess, have argued that, in the 
case of raised beaches and submerged land surfaces, the evidence 
points rather to an alteration in the level of the ocean than to a 
definite upward or downward movement on the part of the earth's 
crust. Among causes which affect the general level of the ocean 
or distort its surface may be mentioned the following : — 

i. Development of ice masses at the Poles. 

ii. Bending of the earth's crust. 
iii. Lateral e 

v. Position of the shore with regard to the tide wave, 
vi. Inflow of freshwater. 

vii. Difference in density of the ocean water at different localities 
due to varying conditions of evaporation, rainfall, and 

viii. Direction of prevalent winds, 
ix. Hydration of the lithosphere. 
With reference to (i.) Lord Kelvin 1 has shown that the altera- 
tion in sea level, during an ice age, in a non-glaciated hemisphere, 
(on the assumption that the glaciationof the Northern and Southern 
Hemispheres was alternate) would amount to, (certain other pre- 
mises being granted) as much as three hundred and twenty to 
three hundred and eighty feet. Mr. Warren Upham 2 has calcu- 
lated that during the maximum glaciation of the Ice Age in the 
Northern Hemisphere, the sea surface over the whole globe may 

have been reduced by as much as one hundred and fifty feet, while 
Mr. R. S. Woodward 1 has estimated that gravitation towards the 
ice in the Northern Hemisphere would further depress the ocean 
in the tropics and in the Southern Hemisphere to the amount of 
from twenty-five to seventy-five feet, while it would raise the level 
near the borders of the ice-sheets to counter-balance approximately 
the depression due to the diminution of the ocean's volume, and 
would lift portions of the North Atlantic and of the Arctic Sea, 
perhaps two or three hundred feet higher than now. 

With regard to(ii.), Suess states that, if Kriimmel's formula? be 
taken for the cubic capacity and depths of the oceans, and that if 
it be assumed that the shores of the ocean were everywhere vertical 
and that the Greek Levantine Sea and the Black Sea did not exist, 
and then the depressions were to be formed in which the Black 
Sea and Greek Levant now lie, there would be a eustatic negative 
movement of the ocean to the amount of four metres. In order, 
therefore to produce a change in level of the sea surface equal to 
that of which we have evidence at Shea's Creek, it would be 
necessary for a rise to have taken place in the ocean floor sufficient 
to displace more water than now lies in the Black Sea and Greek 

With regard to (iv.) Sedimentation, it would be necessary to 
denude a thickness of ten metres off the whole area of the land, 
and deposit it in the sea in order to produce an elevation in the 
sea surface of four metres. At the rate of one foot in 50,000 
years, this would occupy a period of 1,637,000 years, a period of 
time vastly in excess of that needed for the production of all the 
Phenomena observed at Shea's Creek. 

Suess 2 states that a strong argument against "Raised Beaches" 
oeing attributable to movements of the solid crust of the earth 
rather than to changes in sea-level, is that that they appear to be 
wholly independent of such folding movements as the earth's crust 

1 !U '"l States Geological 

Survey, Sixth Annual Kepori 
Form and Posit 

can be proved to have undergone in the past, and is probably still 
undergoing in the present. 

Whether the change of level at Shea's Creek be due to the 
movement of the land or that of the water is uncertain, but there 
is evidence, at all events, of an alteration in the level of the land 
and sea in recent geological time to the amount of about fifteen 
feet, as the trees found in situ by us at a depth of fifteen feet 
below high water all belong to genera which do not flourish 
below the level of high tide. This is probably one of the most 
important pieces of evidence yet obtained in any part of Australia 
to prove submergence in recent geological time. 

With regard to the question as to whether the submergence is 
still in progress, the fact might here be mentioned that Mr. 
G. H. Knibbs, L.8., and one of the writers, with the view of 
possibly obtaining some evidence as to whether the coastal strip 
between the eastern escarpment of the Blue Mountains and Port 
Jackson is still subsiding, have levelled carefully across the hinge 
of the fold which forms the inland boundary of the depressed area. 
Marks have been cut in the rock, and Mr. Knibbs proposes to 
to relevel between the marks three or four times a year. Possibly 
some results may be obtained in the course of a few years, and 
might tend to throw light on the question, as to whether the crust 
bag or the ocean rising in the neighbourhood of Botany 

(2) Evidence as to the Geological Antiquity of Man.— A. second 
deduction, perhaps more interesting than the first, may be drawn 
from the Shea's Creek section, with reference to the geological 
history of man in Australia. As already stated, the bones bM 
skull of the Dugong exhibited, show conclusive evidence of having 
been hacked by human agency, the cuts being exactly of tli-' kind 
.as would be produced by blows from a blant edged implement 
such as a stone tomahawk. We may look upon it as an established 
fact therefore, that this Dugong was cut up and no doubt eaten 
by the Aborigines. We have been unable to obtain any evidence 
to show that the Aborigines in the neighbourhood of Sydney ever 

fed upon the Dugong, and we should be glad of any information 
bearing on this subject. The date of this ancient Dugong feast 
at Shea's Creek cannot be stated in terms of years. As regards 
the downward limit in time we have the evidence of the shells 
and of the trees, all of which belong to existing species. The date 
of the feast cannot therefore be moved back below the limits of 
Post-Tertiary time. In view of the probable specific identity of 
the species of the Dugong now discovered with existing species, 
it is questionable whether it is likely that the date can be carried 
back into Pleistocene time. 

As regards the upward limit, the following considerations 
suggest themselves :— The uppermost of the bones discovered lie 
at a level of six inches below low water, and the lowest at three 
feet six inches below low water. It might be argued from this 
that the animal was stranded in shallow water at low tide and 
cut up in the shallow water by the Aborigines at a time when the 
general level of the ocean was much as it is at the present day. 
The occurrence, however, of the peaty horizon ('i).just six inches 
above where the remains of the Dugong were found seems to pre- 
clude this hypothesis, as the evidence shows that after the skeleton 
had become silted up in the estuarine beds, swamp conditions 
extended over the spot, as shown by roots of shrubs, found in this 
peaty horizon. It would obviously have been impossible for such 
shrubs to grow below sea level, and they would have been at least 
five feet below mean high tide, unless the level of the ocean has 

The evidence seemsto point rather to the following conclusions:— 
The Dugong having been captured and killed by the aborigines, 

may then have been taken into water about three feet deep or less, 
and as the lowest of the bones are a trifle over three feet below 
present lower water, the level of present low water probably 
^presented the level of high water at that period ; in other words 


the general level of the ocean may have risen five feet with regard 
to the level of the land since the death of the Dugong. The 
carcase was probably for the most part carried off by the Aborigines 
piece-meal, and as there would have been enough flesh on the 
bones to admit of their cutting and coming again, the feasting 
would probably have been prolonged for more than one day. 
Hence it is all the more probable that the carcase of the Dugong 
would have been taken to near high water mark, where it would 
have been comparatively safe from any but human carnivores, 
than have been left to the tender mercies and maws of the sharks, 
as it would have been had it been allowed to remain at low tide 
level. The skeleton, after being stripped of its flesh, was covered 
over with mud by the wash of the tide, and sediment brought 
down by, perhaps, the ancestor of the modern Shea's Creek, and 
the spot having been temporarily reclaimed by the silting, it 
was possible for swampy vegetation to overspread the spot, and this 
actually happened. Then followed a slight subsidence of the land 
or rise of the ocean during which the mud and shells were brought 
in which form bed (c) above the peaty horizon (d). This move- 
ment continued until the peaty horizon (d) was gradually carried 
five feet below the level of mean high water. During this time the 
sand forming bed (b) was accumulating, the peaty horizons in it 
perhaps marking pauses in the relative movement of ocean and 
land surfaces. If these inferences are correct, we are led to the 
somewhat startling conclusion that Neolithic man may have 
inhabited Botany Bay when the ocean level was about five feet 
lower than at present. 

s tomahawks found at Shea's Creek ^ 
uppose, and if they i 


down in the silt, (and it is all but impossible that they could hav< 
worked down through the peaty layer (d) into the position U 
which they are said to have been found), they would show tha 
man, sufficiently civilised to manufacture such implements, in 
habited this region at perhaps even a more remote period, one o 
the tomahawks having been found close to the horizon of the 

third peat bed (/) about seven feet below the level of low water. 
The burnt stump in the submerged forest is possible, though 
not certain evidence, of the presence of man. 

Previous to this discovery evidence as to the geological antiquity 
of man in eastern Australia was of a very meagre character. It 
has already been summarised by one of the authors, Mr. R. 
Etheridge, Junr. 1 Briefly stated the evidence is as follows :— 

A. Direct. — (1) In New South Wales a human molar tooth, 
more or less fossilised, was found by Mr. Gerard Kretit, a former 
Curator of the Australian Museum, at the Wellington Caves in 

Diprotodon and Thylacoleo. 2 There is, however, some doubt as to 
whether this tooth really occurred in situ in the cave breccia con- 
taining the bones, or whether it may not have been introduced 
subsequently through a crack into the breccia. The Scotch verdict 
of " not proven " is considered to apply to this case. 

(2) In the Hunter River district, sandstone beds covered by 
about thirty feet of alluvial material are said by Bennett to show 
axe-marks produced by the Aborigines, when grinding their stone 
tomahawks. 3 These axe- marks, however, need not necessarily 
have been very old, as the Hunter and Paterson Rivers frequently 
change their courses rapidly during floods, and so a bed of sand- 
stone, which may, previous to a flood, have been exposed in the 
bank of the river at the summer level, may become covered with 
twenty feet or more of alluvium, if during the flood the river 
should suddenly change its course. 

(3) On the Bodalla Estate a stone tomahawk was dug up at a 
depth of fourteen feet, under alluvial deposits, as referred to by 
Mr. C. S. Wilkinson. 4 

* Proc. Linn. Soc, N. S. Wales. Vol. v., 1890.— Has man a Geological 
Antiquity in Australia, pp. 259-266. 

^ Op- cit., p. 263, and Geol. Mag. 1874. i., p. 46. 

3 Op. dt., p. 261, and Bennett. History of Australian Discovery and 
^vih zat i 0I1> p. 263. (8° Sydney, 1867). 

Notes on the Geology of New South Wales— Department of Mines, 
Sydney, 1887, p. 90. (4° Sydney, 1887, By Authority). 

(4) At most sheltered spots along the coast of New South Wales 
where shell life is abundant, as along the shores of coastal lagoons 
and estuaries, there are to be seen mounds of shells, accumulated 
by the Aborigines, and consisting of the shells of edible molluscs, 
fragments of charcoal, bones of fish etc., together with skinning 
knives made of flakes of hard rocks, bone needles, stones for 
opening and cracking shells, etc. From the position of some of 
these shell mounds, on the edges of swampy flats formed of silt 
brought down by rivers into what were probably open estuaries 
at the time that the Aborigines gathered shells there, it is evident 
that the shell mounds must be of somewhat ancient date. 

(5) Sand dunes — Remains of some antiquity, of human work- 
manship, have been discovered in some of the sand dunes of 
Victoria, as described by the late C. S. Wilkinson, 1 and one of the 
writers. 2 These remains consist of flint chips, a sharpened stone 
tomahawk, and several bone spikes or needles. In view, however, 
of the rapid rate at which dunes form and drift these may not 
necessarily have had a very high antiquity, though as they were 
lying beneath sand dunes at least two hundred feet high, they 
must have been tolerably ancient. 

B. Indirect Evidence.— -This evidence would argue a much 
greater antiquity for man in Australia than the above quoted 
direct evidence. It is chiefly twofold. (1) The existence of man 
in Tasmania argues that he crossed from the Australian continent 
thither probably either before the formation of Bass Strait, or, 
at all events, if he crossed in canoes, at a time when Bass Strait 
was far narrower than at present, as neither the Victorian nor 
Tasmanian Aborigines had any knowledge of t 

sea-going canoes, a 

■ival of 

man in Tasmania took place at the most recent time when Tas- 
mania was united to Victoria, it must date back certainly many 
thousand years. There is, however, good ground for supposing 

1 Eeport on the Geology of the Cape Otway District, 1865, p. 2. 

2 E. Etheridge, Junr., Trans, and Proc. E. Soc. Victoria, ] 870, Vol.xii., 
pp. 3, \; and Eecords Geol. Survey N. S. Wales, 1889, i., pt. i., P- 15- 


that Tasmania was already disunited from the mainland before 
the advent of man into that island, because the dingo did not find 
its way into Tasmania, and the dingo was probably introduced 
into Australia by man. At the present there are not only no 
dingoes in Tasmania, but not even the slightest vestige has been 
found of the remains of fossil dingo in Tasmania. The conclusion 
therefore, may be provisionally drawn, that Bass Strait was 
already in existence at the time of the advent of early man and 
his canine companion, the dingo, in Australia. He perhaps 
crossed into Tasmania by means of small canoes, but not judging 
the dingo to be an agreeable cabin companion left him behind. 

(2) The Tasmanian Aborigines never advanced beyond a Palae- 
olithic stage in the manufacture of their stone weapons, always 
producing a cutting edge by rough chipping, never by grinding. 
By far the larger number of the known stone implements of the 
Australian Aborigines are on the other hand of a Neolithic type, 
and mostly very neatly fashioned by grinding. This great differ- 
ence in the manufacture of their stone implements implies that 
the Tasmanian Aborigines must have been long isolated from the 
Australian Aborigines. 

(3) The next piece of indirect evidence is based on the assump- 
tion, (a very probable one,) that the dingo was introduced into 
Australia by man. If this be the case, it follows that to whatever 
Period the date of the dingo can be pushed back, the date of man 
m Australia can be equally extended back into the past. Remains 
of dingo have been discovered in association with those of various 
extinct animals in a cave at Gisborne, Mount Macedon, and also 
from Pliocene deposits near Colac, Victoria, as well as from the 
Wellington Cave bone breccias with Diprotodon in New South 
Wales. The complete skeleton of a dingo has also been discovered 
under a depth of sixty-two feet of basalt tuff from an extinct 
volcano at Tower Hill, near Warnambool in Victoria. There is 
not even a legend among the Aborigines of man having seen alive 
an y of the extinct animals, such as the Diprotodon, with which the 
remains of the dingo have been found I 


mentioned localities. At a time when the dingo was contempor- 
aneous with such huge herbivores as the Diprotodon and the 
Nototheriwn, the climate of Australia must have been far more 
humid than at present, so that the Central Plains supported a 
dense growth of vegetation surrounding swamps which are known 
in the neighbourhood of Lake Eyre to have been infested with 
crocodiles. A great lapse of time is needed to account for this 
great change in the physical geography of Australia. We may 
conclude, therefore, that man, if contemporaneous with the earliest 
arrived dingoes, has probably a considerable geological antiquity 
in Australia, that he may have witnessed the volcanic eruptions 
in Victoria and South Australia, and that he may have crossed 
Bass Strait in his canoes at a time when that strait, now about 
one hundred miles wide, was in the condition of one or more narrow 
channels. It is, however, of course* at present by no means certain 
that the dingo was introduced into Australia by man, and any 
conclusions based on such an assumption must therefore be looked 
upon as only provisional and tentative. 

That aboriginal man may have witnessed some of the latest 
volcanic eruptions in Victoria is rendered probable by the remarks 
of Mr. James Dawson, who makes the following statement : ■ 
"An intelligent Aboriginal distinctly remembers his grandfather 
speaking of fire coming out of Bo'ok "—a hill near the town of 
Mortlake in Western Victoria — "when he was a young man. 
When some of the volcanic bombs found among the scoria? at the 
foot of Mount Leura were shown to an intelligent Colac native, 
he said they were like stones which their forefathers told them 
had been thrown out of the hill by the action of fire." 

With the exception of the meagre direct evidence just described, 
the evidence obtained at Shea's Creek, as far as we are aware, is 
the best direct evidence hitherto obtained to show that the exist- 

i eastern Australia can probably i 


approaching to a geological antiquity, as is implied by the fact 
, 1881, p. 102. 

that the Pacific Ocean and the Australian land have changed their 
respective levels by as much as fifteen feet, since the existence of 
Neolithic man at Botany Bay. 

We desire to gratefully acknowledge the courtesy of Mr. Cecil 
W. Darley, m. i M t. C.E., in placing his offices at our disposal and 
allowing his officers to assist us; and we are also indebted to him 
and to Mr. McLachlan, Under Secretary for Mines and Agricul- 
ture, for the loan of the stone tomahawks dug up at Shea's Creek. 
We also acknowledge the services rendered us during our explor- 
ation of Shea's Creek by Mr. A. S. Patison, the surveyor locally 
in charge of the work, and by Mr. W. Trickett, the overseer, and 
for much important information communicated to us by them. 
We are under a special obligation to Mr. J. Jennings of the 
Australian Museum for the naming of the shells, and to Mr. R. 
Baker of the Technical College for determining the various kinds 
of timber taken from the different stumps of the submerged 
forest. We also beg to thank Mr. W. F. Smeeth for his pre- 
paration of the microscopical sections of the Dugong bones, which 
has proved no light task, and to Mr. Whitelegge of the Australian 
Museum for the photographs exhibited showing the excavation 
at Shea's Creek. We also have to thank Mr. Halligan for kindly 
supplying sections of the Rickety Street Bridge bores, and Mr. 
H. E. C. Robinson for preparing the enlarged diagrams to illus- 
trate this paper. 

Page 159, line 8, delete ' and Commodore Charles Wilkes, U.S.N.' 
line 9, for • were/ read ' was.' 
line 10, for ■ They state/ read « He states.' 


By G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., l.s., 

Lecturer in Surveying, University of Sydney. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, September 2, 1896. .] 

1. In a paper on the above subject, 1 read before this Society 
3rd July last year, reference was made (Note 4, p. 132) to the 
viscosity measurements of Thorpe and Rodger. These, since to 
hand, 2 give two series of values for the viscosity of water, one 
between the limits 0° and 100° C, the other between the limits 
0° and 8° O, the latter being obtained in order to ascertain 
whether the viscosity curve shewed any peculiarity at the tem- 
perature of maximum density. I propose, therefore, to briefly 
consider how far their determinations, and those of other investi- 
gators whose work was previously overlooked, modify the results 
given in my paper: and thus, by completing the review of the 
subject, to indicate the present state of knowledge in regard to 
the evaluation of the viscosity constant for water. 

2. Theory of Correction of Pressure. — Contemporaneously with 
the publication of Couette's deduction, that the pressure head in 
the reservoir supplying the efflux tube, should be reduced by the 
amount IT 1 jg, Uartenmeister 3 stated that Finkener had, in an un- 
published treatise, shewn that that correction was the proper one. 
In 1891 Wilberforce 4 pointed out the principal defect in Hagen- 
bach's reasoning, which led the latter to adopt the coefficient 2~~ : " 
for the value of m in the equation 

n. Eoy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxix., pp. 77 - 146, 1895. 

he relations between the viscosity of liquids and their chetnic; 

-Phil. Trans. Vol. 185, Pt. 2, pp. 397 - 710, 1895. 

nysikalische Cheinie, Bd. 6, p. 524, 1890. 
f On the calculation of the coefficient of viscosity of a liquid from i 
se of flow through a capillary tube.— Phil. Mag. Ser. 5, Vol. 31, p 

equation (3) page 95, in my previous paper. Wilberforce himself 
agrees with Gartenmeister, for he also assigns the value unity to 
the factor m, regarding it as defective only by reason of the viscous 
resistance of the fluid as it approaches the tube. 

Thorpe and Rodger call the correction referred to, the Couette- 
Finkener correction for the kinetic energy of the flow. 1 I have 
already drawn attention to the fact, that it should be associated 
with Neumann's name, since he deduced it as far back at least as 
1860, in the September of which year it was quoted by Jacobson 
as Neumann's, see page 97 of my former paper ; that experiment- 
ally its value appears to vary considerably ; that by kinetic theory 
Boussinesq had shewn it should be about 112; and that this last 
value should be used in the absence of experimental knowledge 
for particular cases. 

within the terminals of a tube, will probably contribute important 

results ; according to a recent number of the Journal de Physique, 

the latter element is at present being studied by Aignan. 2 But 

however well ascertained these 

evaluation will necessitate a dispc 

reduce their infl 

from the discussion in Section 8 of my former paper. 3 

3. Theory of correction of length of tube.— In Thorpe and 
Rodger's paper previously referred to, Couette's proposed correc- 
tion to be applied to the length of the tube to equate the resis- 
tances at the terminals, and to take account of the various circum- 
stances of the motion thereat, has been discussed. In the reduc- 
tion .,f their observations no notice has been taken of the correc- 
tion, because their values for the viscosity were found to agree 

1 Phil. Trans., Vol. 185, pp. 435 -438. 

2 Eeouleinent de l'eau dans un tuyau cylindrique.— Journ. de Phys. 

well with Poiseuille's without applying it. This seems hardly a 
satisfactory reason for rejecting an admittedly rational correction: 
the only justification is the one indicated in Section 9 of my 
former paper, see pp. 103 - 107, viz., that experimentally the 
length-correction appeared to vary and to be either positive 
or negative in sign. The instance selected by Couette from 
Poiseuille's results and compared with his own, merely chanced 
to agree, and a complete discussion of Poiseuille's observation* 
shewed that the fortuitous agreement was evidentially worthless. 
Aignan's investigation will perhaps throw some light on this 
point, but it seems that there is no alternative but to follow some 
such method as that previously indicated, or else Couette's method 
of simultaneous flow through two tubes, using however the more 
rigorous reduction which takes account of the absolute amount 
of the pressures and the ratio of the radii of the tubes, and for 
which I supplied a formula, (43), in my former paper. 

4. Measurements of Viscosity not previously discussed. 

Slotte 1883.— Slotte's 1883 observations 1 of times of efflux give 
values for approximately every ten degrees of temperature from 
0° to 90 a C, and give also a value for 97° C. The relative fluidities 
hereinafter quoted, have been found by correcting his efflux times 
by formula (5) of my former paper (p. 98), m being taken as 112. 
In the small interpolation involved in consequence of his observa- 
tions not being made exactly at whole five degrees, second differ- 
ences have been taken into account, as also in the extrapolation 
from 97° to 100° C. Slotte himself had used Hagenbach's correc- 
tion, i.e., m was taken as 0'79 instead of M2. The dimensions 
of his tubes are not known with sufficient accuracy for absolute 
values of the viscosity, but as his observations are discussed only 
for the evaluation of relative fluidities at different temperatures, 
the defect does not prejudice the results. His corrected times of 
efflux, T in formula (5) above referred to, range between 1447 2 

J Ueber die innere Reibung einiger Losungen und die Keibungscon- 
stante dea Wassers bei versfiWrfpriPTi TemTwrahirPTi — Wied. Ann. Bd. 

Pagliani and Batelli 1885. — Pagliani and Batelli's observations 1 
were made at the temperatures 0°2, 0°5, 10°-9 and 11-25 C, the 
efflux times ranging between 622-7 and 437-5 seconds. Their 
reduction give 1372 as the value of the fluidity at 10° C, that at 
0° being 1000, which happens to be identical with Slotte's deter- 
mination, see table of results hereinafter. 

Traube 1886. — Traube's efflux measurements 2 were made with 
two tubes, from two to four observations being taken at each 10° 
from 0° to 60° C, but his temperatures are apparently uncertain 
to 0-1 below 30° and 0-5 at the higher temperatures, these 
uncertainties producing however but insignificant errors in regard 
to his purpose. 3 His efflux times range between about 96 and 
366 seconds. As he used Hagenbach's correction his results have 
been reduced afresh, and Boussinesq's correction applied, i.e., 
m = 1 -1 2. The tabulated results are the means of his two measure- 
ments which differed in no case more than 0-7%. 

Noack 1886.— In the same year Noack 4 also made efflux obser- 
vations between the same limits, but at about 5° instead of every 
10°. The fluidity values hereinafter given were obtained by 
increasing his kinetic energy correction by 41% as he had used 
Hagenbach's factor. A complete and independent reduction could 
not be undertaken because the necessary data were lacking. In 
the reduction to every fifth degree, second differences were taken 
mto account, and as the interpolations were never for more than 
1"6° this procedure was amply rigorous. 

» nei liquidi.— Atti d. E. Accad. Torino, Vol. 20, 

PP- 607 -634, 1885. 

2 Ueber die innere Eeib 

organiacher Fi 
Ge *U-Bd.l9,pp.87l-89 

3 See p. 875. 

Wied.Ann. Bd 

The recorded efflux times, observed to (H second, ranged from 
about 216 to about 681 seconds, and the determinations for each 
tabulated temperature were from two to eight in number. 

Thorpe and Rodger 1894. — Thorpe and Rodger's measurements 
of the viscosity of water, made in connection with their important 
contribution to chemical [«hy>ics hereinbefore referred to, give the 
results of no less than 13 double observations of the viscosity of 
between 0° and 8-01° C, and also those of double observations 
at about every 8°5 from about 4° 5 to about 99° 7 C. Their pub- 
lished data are incomplete, and it is not therefore possible to 
undertake a thor- : but as they have 

given the applied corrections, in which they assumed m to be unity 
instead of 1-12, I have further reduced their viscosity values by 
subtracting 0-12 times the correction, and from these corrected 
values have obtained the relative fluidities, ascertaining them for 
every 0-5 between 0° and 8° by a system of parabolic interpola- 
tions, and similarly for every 5° from 0° to 100°. 

They mention a formula deduced for them by Riicker, which is 
identical with formula (18) page 1 1 2 of my former paper. The 
method employed to determine the axes of the elliptical section 
of the tube is well worth noting. The ratio of the axes was 
observed optically, and the semi-axes were found from the volume 

the viscosity constant. The time of efflux r; 
to about 1000 seconds. The former time 
thoroughly satisfactory determination. Th 

of the apparatus, 1 seemed to leave little to be desired, and the 
results are remarkably consistent. But so also are Slotte's which 
give very different values for the fluidity at the higher temperature. 

At the suggestion of Bodington, Thorpe and Rodger have called 
the efflux apparatus for viscosity measurements the glischrometer. 2 

5. Relative Fluidity about the temperature of maximum density. 
— In my former paper, Section 25, p. 139, I shewed that between 
the limits 0° to 10° C, the fluidities deduced from combining 
Poiseuille's, Graham's, and Sprung's observations indicated a curve 

and as the sign of the coefficient (i was + in a more extended 
temperature limit, there was an inflexion in the general curve. 
Thorpe and Rodger's work does not shew this peculiarity, and I 
think disposes of the supposition. The following table in which 
the first column gives the observed, and the second the computed, 
values from the formula 

/' - I + 0-0225r + 0-0005r* (1) 

will make this obvious. 

Relative Fluidities of Distilled Water 0' to 8° C, computed 
from Thorpe and Rodger's viscosity me e e t - 

It will be noticed that equation (1) expresses the observed 
values with great precision as far as 7 ' or 7 "5°, and that at 13 "53° 
there is a sensible divergence. Since the curve for Poiseuilles 
results as far as 45° was well represented by 

/' = 1 + 0-03395r + 0O00235t 3 
the coefficient f3 being less than half of what it is in the preceding 
equation, it is evident that the radius of curvature of the fluidity 
curve diminishes as the temperature increases. This Law irf 
borne out by the extension from 45° to 100° C, that is, the curve 
throughout becomes flatter as the temperature increases. Both 
Slotte's and Thorpe and Rodger's results shew that the second 
differences are very much smaller for the higher temperatures, 
say 50° to 100°; Slotte's second differences are however only 
about % of Thorpe and Rodger's. 1 There is no satisfactory indica- 
tion of any peculiarity, other than this relative rapid change of 
curvature, at the temperature of maximum density. 

6. Relative Fluidities 0° to 100° C, deduced from the efflux 
me a ui cment of various investigators. The following table gives 
the results, deduced as explained, from the data furnished by the 
investigators whose initials are noted as follows : — P = Poiseuille, 
G = Graham, mean of tubes D and E, R = Rosencranz, S = Slotte, 
T = Traube, N = Noack, and TR = Thorpe and Rodger. The year 
in which their observations were made is also quoted. The com- 
puted results given in the last column are obtained by formula 
(2) hereinafter given, the value at zero being taken as 100. 

Relative Fluidities 0° at 100" C. 

P. G. R. S. T. N. TK. Com- 

Temp. 1846 1861 1877 1883 1886 1886 1894 puted. 

0°C. 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 ioo 

5 1177 1183 ... 1181* 1178* 1178 1176 118 

10 1363 1369 ... 1372 1365 1375 1365 137 

* Values obtained by parabolic interpolation. 

1 Can it be possible that Thorpe and Rodger's repeated use of the one 
sample of water — flowing to and fro from bulb A to bulb B has anything 
to do with their high values of the fluidity at the higher temperatures ? 

es 0° to 100° C .—continued. 

S. T. N. TB. Com- 

1883 1886 1886 1894 puted. 

2226 2240 


2479 24!):} 

24 73* 

2738 2758 



3010 3018 



... 3308 



... 3549 

35 40 


* Values obtained by parabolic interpolation. 
An examination of the table and of the experiments from \ 
the values given are deduced shews :— 

(a) That the relative fluidity has been ascertained to withi 

(o) That frc 

100 C. the uncertainty i 

(c) That this large uncertainty is apparently not explained by 
ossible errors of observation either of temperatures, efflux times, 
r of the dimensions of the apparatus. 

('/) That determinations <»f viscosity, to the order of precision 
Vzi w ill involve an investigation of the cause of the large dis- 
crepancies in previous results. 

(e) That between the limits 0° and 70° C, the relative fluidity 
" ;i y '•*• expressed to two places of decimals by the formula 

/' - 1 + 0035t + 0-0002t 8 (2) 

>r betw een 0° and V C. to three places of decimals by formula (1) 

On the CONSTITUENTS op the SAP of the "SILKY OAK," 



By Henry G. Smith, f.c.s. 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, October 7, 1896.'] 

During last year, the author in conjunction with Mr. J. H. 

Maiden, carried out investigations on a deposit of Succinate of 

Aluminium, found existing in the timber of Grevillea robusla, R.Br. 

the results of which were communicated to this Society in a paper 1 

read on the 6th November. 

The occurrence of succinic acid in a deposit of this character 
appears to be extremely rare, and the origin of its formation was 
a matter for some consideration. As was pointed out at that 
time, it appeared probable, from the result of our inquiries, that 
the acid might have been formed by the alteration of malic acid, 
together with the formation of acetic acid, as a trace of the latter 
acid had been identified in the deposit. As it had not been pos- 
sible at that time to obtain the sap from this tree, it was of course 
Le to say whether malic acid was present or not, so the 
matter was allowed to remain open until the sap could be investi- 
gated. Special efforts were made to obtain, if possible, some of 
the sap, and it is to the kindness of Mr. W. P. Pope, Forester, 
in the Lismore District, of this colony, that I am indebted for the 
present material, he having collected and forwarded a small 
quantity of the sap for investigation. 

Mr. Pope informs me that he obtained the sap by felling thr 

tree, cutting it into lengths, which were then placed on their ends, 

so as to enable them to drain. He says that the sap would not 

run if the tree was merely cut into, or even if cut quite off, but 

l On a natural deposit 

that it was necessary to cut the log into short pieces before the 
sap would run. The sap is thus obtained without much difficulty, 
but he thinks that the spring is the best time to procure it. The 
present sample was obtained during the month of February last. 
It will be noted that the method adopted by Mr. Pope to obtain 
this sap, is that by which the aborigines of the dry Western Dis- 
trict of this Colony used to obtain a liquid from the roots of the 
" Mallee " trees to allay their thirst. The following extract will 
explain this : — "Looking as if they understood me, they therefore 
hastened to resume their work, and then I discovered that they 
dug up the roots for the sake of drinking the sap. It appeared 
that they first cut these into billets, and strip the bark and rind 
off, sometimes chewing it, then holding up the billet and applying 
one end to the mouth the juice drops out. We now understood 
for what purpose those short clubs, which we had seen the day 
before, had been cut." 1 

The Organic Acid. 
When received, the sap had a specific gravity of 1 0036 at 15:5 8 0. 
It was strongly acid to test paper, and had rather an unpleasant 
Bmett, indicating by its odour the presence of butyric acid. The 
determination of the acid was at once proceeded with. The total 
acidity determined by standard soda, 1 cc. = -0088 butyric acid, 
using phenol-phthalein as indicator, and after air had been drawn 
through the sap to remove C0 2 if present, was as follows : — lOcc. 
of the original sap required 1-9 cc. of soda solution, or 100 cc. 
required 19 cc. ; 50 cc. were then distilled almost to dryness, a 
small quantity of water added, and the remainder of the 50 cc. 
distilled over ; 10 cc. of this distillate required 14 cc. of soda 
solution or 100 cc. required 14 cc, equal to 1232 gram, of butyric 
a «d, so that by far the greater portion of the total acidity was 
due to this volatile acid, as it is not considered that the whole 


i obtained by this distillation. After the distilla- 
:c had been thus carried out, a small quantity 

1 Mitchell— Three Expeditions, p. 197. 

of dilute sulphuric acid was added to the residue in the retort, 
and again distilled. The amount of acid thus obtained was very 
small, and not greater than would probably have been obtained 
if water had been added instead of sulphuric acid. It appears 
from this result, that no volatile acid is present in combination, 
but that it wholly exists in the free state. 

The distillate has a very marked odour of rancid butter, and 
when made alkaline with soda, evaporated to dryness, and treated 
with sulphuric acid and alcohol, the fruity odour given by the 
ethyl butyrate formed by butyric acid under this treatment was 
very marked. 

To determine the rate of distillation of this volatile acid or 
acids, according to the method of E. Duclaux, 1 50 cc. were distilled 
in portions of 10 cc. These were then titrated separately, with 
the result that the first 10 cc. required 1-8 cc. of soda solution, 
the second 1*4 cc, the third 1-3 cc, the fourth 1*1 cc; and if we 
consider that the acid remaining in the retort would require at 
least 1 cc, we have the following percentages : — 

1st fifth - 27-27 per cent, distilled. 

Now the rate of distillation for butyric acid does not differ very 
much from these percentages when we consider that only 50 cc. 
could be spared for experiment, while in the original determination 
110 cc. were distilled in a retort holding 250 to 300 cc. 

By adding together the first and second results as given in the 
table, of a distillation of butyric acid, so that they are represented 
as fifths instead of tenths, and so on throughout, we have the 
following figures : — 

. Chem. Phys. [5_ ii.. 23'.i. 


fifth = 





„ = 


1 tli 

» = 



of total a. -ids oi 

3 of butyr 

ic acic 

this represents 9< "5 per cei ly in the retort. 

The characteristic feature of butyric acid, in distilling over in 
greater proportion in the first divisions of the distillate, is well 
marked in the results obtained from this sap, and it thus differs 
from acetic acid which gives less acid to the first portions of the 
distillate than to each succeeding one. 

From a determination of the barium salt of a portion of the 
distillate from the sap, and weighing as BaS0 4 it was found that 
the percentage of barium sulphate was 79-2, while the theoretical 
quantity from barium butyrate is 74-91. 

From the above results of the odour, the ethereal product, the 
rate of distillation, and the percentage of barium sulphate, it is 
apparent that the greater portion of this volatile acid is butyric 
acid, although the indications obtained by the result of the dis- 
tillation, and also the barium determination, point to the presence 
of a small quantity of acetic acid. 

The amount of fixed organic acid, other than the brownish 
humic-like material, is very small. Special effort was made to 
detect, if possible, the presence of malic acid, but the evidence 
obtainable from the small quantity of material received does not 
point to the presence of malic acid in the sap of Grevillea robusta. 
A very slight precipitate was obtained by adding alcohol to the 
Prepared solution in 'which the absence of oxalic, tartaric, and 
citric acids had been determined. The usual tests with this pre- 
pointed rather to the presence of succinic arid than to 

that of mali 

i the acid is present in such small quai 
I material would be needed to satisfactorily determir 
'y evident, therefore, that the formation of the succ 
I in the deposit in this tree, previously described, 

198 H. G. SMITH. 

not from the alteration of malic acid, but rather that it was 
derived from the natural oxidation of butyric acid in the tree itself. 

It is well known that all the fatty acids of the series C n H 3n O a , 
from butyric acid upwards, when oxidised by nitric acid yield 
succinic acid, together with other acids of the same series. Its 
formation from butyric acid is represented by the equation 
(0 4 H 8 O a +O s = H 3 + C 4 H 6 4 ). 1 Many organic substances 
that are oxidised to butyric acid by nitric acid, generally yield 
succinic acid also, notably agaricic acid, from the Larch fungus 
(Boletus Laricis), which by oxidation with HNO 3 gives both acids. 2 

Normal butyric acid is widely distributed in the vegetable 
kingdom. It has been detected in croton oil, and other fatty 
vegetable oils ; in tamarinds ; in the fruits of the soap-nut tree, 
and that of the Gingko biloba, Linn. 3 Iso-butyric acid also occurs 
in many vegetable substances. It occurs free in the flowers of 
the Arnica montana, as well as in the Carob bean (Ceratonia 
siliqua) and among the acids of croton oil. 4 

The presence of butyric acid in rotten potatoes was demons- 
trated in a paper read by Mr. J. R. Rogers 5 in 1846, and from 
the method by which it was obtained, it must have existed as 
free butyric acid. 

Although its presence in the vegetable kingdom is thus well 
authenticated, yet, I have not found that butyric acid has pre- 
viously been detected in the sap of any tree. 

1 have no evidence as to the form in which the acid is present, 
whether as normal or as iso-butyric, but the odour is less 
unpleasant than that obtained from the decomposition of butter, 
so that if the sap is further investigated it may perhaps be proved 
to be iso-butyric acid. 

i Watts' Diet. Chem., 1879 Edition, Vol. v., p. 453. 

2 Watts' Diet. Chem., (Morley & Muir) Vol. I., p. 87. 

3 Roscoe and Schorlemmer— Treatise of Chemistry, Vol. in., pt. i., P- 59L 

4 Op. cit. p. 599. 

5 Pharm. Journ. Vol. v., p. 345. 


In the report of the British Association for 1868, page 475, 
appears a paper by Alfred R. Catton, M.A., f.r.s.k., entitled "Report 
of Synthetical researches on Organic Acids." From his results 
he arrives at the conclusion that probably the whole of the volatile 
acids, and a considerable part of the fixed acids, are produced by 
the action of nascent hydrogen on carbonic acid. 

Inorganic constituents of the sap. 
The amount of total solids in 100 cc. of the sap was -5384 gram. 
On ignition -1842 gram, was removed. Of the remainder 2996 
gram, was soluble in water, and -0546 gram, insoluble. The 
insoluble portion consisted of the phosphates of iron, magnesium 
and aluminium, and of magnesia, (the solution not being saturated 
b y CO a ), not a trace of lime could be detected in this insoluble 

The soluble portion consisted of the chlorides of calcium, 
potassium, and sodium, a trace of sulphuric acid, but not phosphoric 
acid j nor could a trace of magnesia be found in this portion. 
The chlorine was estimated by titration with nitrate of silver 
(1 cc. equal -001 gram, chlorine). The alkalis were determined 
by estimating the chlorine in the dried mixture of their chlorides, 
and calculating their ratio. The calcium was determined as 
oxalate and weighed as carbonate. 

The analysis of the inorganic constituents is as follows in 100 cc. 
of the sap :— 

(a) Insoluble portion— gram. 

Phosphates of iron, magnesium, and aluminium = -0113 j 

Magnesia (MgO) =-03861-0546 

CO a by difference =-0047) 

(i>) Soluble portion- 
Chloride of Potassium (KC1) =-1049\ 

Chloride of Sodium (NaCl) 

Chloride of Calcium (CaCl 3 ) 

SO , = -0036 equal to?(Na 2 S0 4 ) ... ='0064J -3544 


The full analysis may be stated as fo 


for 100 cc. 

sap, from which the percentage compositi 

be readily 


Phosphates of Fe, Mg and Al. 

... = 

•0113 gran 

Magnesia (MgO) 

... = 

■0386 „ 

CO 3 by difference 

... = 

•0047 „ 

Chloride of Potassium (KC1) ... 

... = 

•1049 „ 

Chloride of Sodium (NaCl) ... 

... = 


Chloride of Calcium (CaCL) ... 

... = 

■1174 „ 

S0 3 - -0036 equal to? (Na 2 S0 4 ) 

... = 

•00G4 „ 

Butyric Acid (by distillation)... 

... = 

1232 „ 

Organic substances, organic acids, i 

jtc. = 

•1842 „ 


trace „ 


)-6982 „ 


The amount of chlorine in the soluble 

portion was fou 

titration to be -167 gram. The results of the analysis give the 
chlorine with the potassium as -0499 gram., with the sodium as 
•0431 gram.; while the amount of calcium found requires -075 
gram, to form the chloride, or almost the identical amount left from 
the alkalis. The theoretical quantity of soda baa been added to 
the SO 3 found, although it is not certain that it is present with 
that base, so a query has been placed before it. The presence of 
phosphoric acid is well marked, also the iron, good reactions being 
readily obtained for both forms. Nitrogen is present, but only 

Fehling's solution shows that the sap has slight reducing pro- 
perties. The absence of lithia etc. was proved by spectroscopic 

In drawing conclusions from the results of this investigation ot 
the inorganic constituents, it appears evident that the calcium 111 
this sap was present as chloride, or in its most soluble form, anc 
not as generally supposed as a sulphate or as a phosphate, because, 
not a trace of lime was found in the insoluble portion of the 
ignited residue. Also that the alkalis were present as chlorides. 

That the magnesia is not present as a sulphate or as a chloride, 
because no magnesia was found in the soluble portion of the 
ignited residue, nor sulphuric acid in the insoluble portion ; the 
small amount of sulphuric acid was found in the soluble portion 
and was probably present in connection with the alkalis, but of 
this I have no evidence outside the ready solubility of the sulphate, 
as only small quantities of cold distilled water, repeatedly applied, 
were used to extract the soluble portion from the ignited residue, 
no heat being applied. 

It appears from numerous investigations and analyses of the 
ash of many plants, that the elements of this class most necessary 
to the growth of the tree, are sulphur, phosphorus, calcium, mag- 
nesium, potassium, iron, and possibly chlorine. All of these were 
found existing in this sap, while in addition we find sodium, and 
nitrogen, the former in fair quantity, the latter only in traces. 
No evidence was obtained as to the form in which the nitrogen was 
present, or with what constituent, but nothing was precipitated 
on boiling the original sap. The aluminium was found to be 
present in only very minute quantities, thus again confirming the 
inert character of this abundant element. It is thus the more 
remarkable that such a large deposit of aluminium succinate 
should have accumulated in the timber as described in the paper 
already referred to. 

The general statement that calcium is present in the form of 
sulphate, phosphate, or carbonate, appears to be of too broad a 
character, and although no doubt correct in some instances, yet, 
it is not so in this sap. The chemical alteration and molecular 
arrangement of these inorganic salts within the cells of the grow- 
ing tree, is no doubt different under altered conditions, and not 
always the same as theoretically supposed from information 
obtained by artificial cultures. In the estimation of the ash after 
incineration, we only arrive at the extreme stage of alteration, 
but we do not know all the changes that have taken place during 
the process, or what has been the order of the molecular altera- 
tion before the completed structure of the plant was obtained. 


By H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s. 

[With Plate XII.] 

[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, September 2, 1896.} 

In October 1894, I read a short paper before this Society on 
forty-three current papers that I had collected during the previous 
twelve years. The present paper contains one hundred and fifty- 
four collected within the past two years; many of these are 
important and call for publication. Twenty-three of the one 
hundred and fifty-four were kindly sent to me by the late Dr. 
Neumayer, Director up to the time of his death of the Meteoro- 
logical Observatory at Hamburg. His letter stated that he 
thought they would be useful to me in the work I had undertaken, 
and they are certainly valuable contributions to the study of 
ocean currents about Australia. Their special interest will be 
pointed out presently. 

I am also indebted to Capt. A. Simpson of the s.s. Thermopyla 
for sending me copies of forty-one papers which he had himself 
collected. Some of these are of great local interest, and eighteen 
others are north of the Equator and equally valuable, but outside 
the area included in our chart. And to a host of other friends, 
some of whom will be referred to in the list which follows, and 
to all of whom I record my very cordial thanks for the hearty 
and persistent efforts which have brought together the papers 
which form the basis of this report. Only a small percentage 
of that work ever sees the light of publication, but every paper 
that comes to me contains valuable data about our coastal and 
other currents. 


Out of the one hundred and fifty-four papers in the following 
list eighteen are outside the limits of the chart, and sixty could 
not be plotted either, because the track followed was so small 
that it would not show on this small scale chart, or because there 
were already too many plotted in its particular area; the remain- 
ing seventy-six papers are shown on the chart. 

111 my previous paper on current papers it 
an interesting fact, and it is accentuated in this one, that a large 
proportion of the papers which came back to me have been put 
into the sea a few miles from the land ; in the present list forty- 
seven or thirty per cent of those received have made these very 
short journeys. In the first list, twenty-one per cent, of the 
papers were of the same class. As a rule papers of this class 
cannot be effectively plotted in a map of such small scale as this 

To avoid mistakes, it may be stated here that the lines plotted 
on the chart are not intended to convey the idea that the actual 
tracks of the bottles are known, only two points in its journey are 
known: the place it was put into the sea and where it was found, 
the lines are simply the shortest lines to connect these two points. 
Neither is it supposed that the date of finding the bottle on shore 
is necessarily the day it landed. It is possible, nay probable, that 
some of them rest weeks or perhaps months before they are found. 
Nevertheless, in cases where a number of papers have made tracks 
over the same ocean their several rates of motion do not differ 
materially from the mean, and are much more nearly alike than 
one might expect them to be under the circumstances, from which 
it may be inferred that the bottles, as a rule, do not rest long 
oefore they are found. For instance, three papers, Nos. 157, 
163 and 164, were set afloat off Cape Horn, and followed as 
indicated by the lines, nearly the same tracks, and their daily 
fates are 9 miles, 7-9 miles, and 10-3 miles over distances of 
9 > 5 17, 8,617 and 9,585 miles. No. 163, the one that made least 
Progress, was picked up on the western shore of the Australian 

204 H. C. RUSSELL. 

Bight in unsettled country, and Nos. 157 and 164 were found on 
the coast of Victoria west of Cape Otway, where probably they 
would not rest many days before they were found. Whereas No. 
163 went ashore where there are but few residents, and presumably 
a bottle cast up by the sea there might rest a long time before 
it was found, but its daily rate seems to indicate that it did not 
rest very long. 

Tn the paper I submitted in 1894 reference was made to twelve 
papers found on the east coast, two of these went to the south, 
and seven went north against the usual current, and three came 
in from the east. In the present list containing more than three 
times as many papers as the first one, we have fifteen papers 
found on the east coast, again three of them went to the south. 
Eight went to the north, and four came in from the east. In 
view of the well known southerly current on this coast, it is 
remarkable that so few of the papers found seem to go with it, 
and that the majority of pipers found go against the current It 
is noteworthy that these made very slow progress, seldom exceed- 
ing one or two miles per day. One of them thrown over near 
Cape Howe, made a run of eight hundred and eighty miles to 
Moreton Bay, at an average daily rate of 13 miles. There is, 
however, no actual {.roof that these bottles follow the coast in 
going north, and in this paper there is ample proof that some 
papers set afloat near our southern coast go to the eastward, and 
are picked up on New Zealand ; there are also proofs that some 
papers once they get well off the coast go northward, and find a 
resting place on Lord Howe Island or other places. We have 
proof therefore, that papers starting near this coast may drift to 
the east, and also to the north; possibly some may go north until 
they get into the great easterly current which passes New Cale- 
donia, and in this way get carried on to the Australian coast, and 
such a course need not have involved a greater rate of progress 
than three miles per day. In support of this view it may be 
mentioned that Nos. 160, 162, and 166, thrown over. in the sup- 
posed possible track found their way on to the coast. On the 

In contrast with daily rate of the papers going northwards, one 
of these going south (No. 64) in a run of three hundred and twenty 
miles made 17-7 miles per day. 

One very interesting paper, No. 168, was thrown into the sea 
in latitude 3° 50' south, off the west coast of South America, and 
found its way on to the east coast of Australia in latitude 15° 
south, having made the journey of 8,840 miles at the rate of 9-2 
miles per day; and No. 106, thrown over from the R.M.S. 
Miowera about four hundred miles to the north-east of Fiji found 
its way on to an island in Torres Straits at the rate of nine miles 
per day. Going now to the westward of Australia we find in 
similar low latitudes that on 2nd April, 1895, Capt. Harris of the 
R.M.S. Parramatta, coming down to Australia from Ceylon, 
threw over a current bottle containing No. 102, in latitude 26° 
13' south, and it was found on Farquhar Island north of Mada- 
gascar in latitude 10° 6' south, having made the journey of 3,500 
miles at the rate of 15-4 miles per day. On 19th October, 1895, 
Capt. Anderson of the R.M.S. Austral, threw over a bottle paper 
Na 56, which made its way on to the coast of Africa in latitude 
0° 30' south, a distance of 3,646 miles at the rate of 16-8 miles 

More current papers are found on the coast between Melbourne 
and Adelaide than on any other part of Australia. It would 
seem as if the bottles carried east by the current and urged by 
the south-west and southerly winds take a resultant direction at 
about east-north-east and get thrown on the coast there. Of this 
series many that should have been plotted here, are crowded out 
% the number of long distance ones and the necessarily small 
scale of the chart; as it is, they are almost too much crowded. 

Some of these are of unusual interest, owing to the very long 
distances they passed over. Three, Nos. 157, 163, and 164, thrown 
into the sea near Cape Horn have already been referred to. 

206 H. C. RUSSELL. 

Five others in these waters, Nos. 147, 148, 165, 169, and 170, 
made from 9-0 to 10-7 miles per day over distances ranging from 
4,400 to 5,900 miles : these are all very long runs, and they show 
a high velocity not found in the papers reported by me two years 
ago, except in those that were far south. In this paper the 
latitude of the quick moving ones ranges from 37° to 57° south, 
but there are not wanting instances of slower movement in the 
lower latitudes ; for instance, No. 173, starting nearly midway 
between South America and the Cape, made a course nearly due 
east 2,648 miles, landing near the Cape of Good Hope after a 
daily progress of 6*8 miles. 

No. 158 starting in latitude 43° 15' and longitude of the Cape 
of Good Hope, made a course nearly due east, and was found on 
the beach near Cape Otway after a journey of 6,375 miles, at the 
rate of 8-6 miles per day ; another, No. 180, thrown into the 
sea a little west of Kerguelen, found its way on to the Chatham 
Islands at the rate of 9-2 miles per day. 

One fact may be mentioned which seems to prove that the wind 
has a decided action in the direction of drift : for several months 
in the latter part of 1895 we had very strong and frequent north- 
west winds, and vessels coming from the Cape of Good Hope had 
a similar experience ; during this period the arrival of current 
papers from the south coast of Australia almost ceased, while in 
ordinary weather they arrive very often. From this I infer that 
the north west winds give the current papers a set towards south 
of east, instead of the usual northerly set which brings them on 
to the south coast of Australia, and that, being thus set to the 
south they passed Tasmania and New Zealand to the great ocean 
beyond, where in all probability they sink owing to the accumul- 
ation of vegetable and other growths on the bottles. 

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Additional Remarks concerning ABORIGINAL BORA 

held at GUNDABLOUI in 1894. 

By R. H. Mathews, Licensed Surveyor. 

In 1894 I contributed to the Royal Society of New South Wales 
a paper describing a Bora, 1 which took place at Gundabloui, on 
the Moonie River, in the colony just named. As stated in that 
paper, 2 the information from which it was prepared was obtained 
trom a correspondent residing at Mogil Mogil, about fifteen miles 
from Gundabloui. Although this gentleman gave me his assist- 
ance very willingly, he was altogether unaccustomed to the fulness 
of detail necessary in original research of this character, and was 
therefore unable to satisfy me in reference to certain parts of the 

pondent being separated from me by upwards of five hundred 
miles, which caused much delay and difficulty in obtaining answers 
to my questions. From my knowledge of the initiation ceremonies 
of other tribes, 3 I considered that the statements furnished to me 
were substantially correct, and I had either to accept them as 
they were, or abandon the idea of publishing the results of my 
enquiries altogether. As no one had previously attempted to 
give a connected account of the Bora of the Kamilaroi tribes, and 
knowing that further details could be supplied in the form of a 
supplementary article at any time, I determined to prepare a 
Paper from the mass of original information which I had collected. 
As the subject of the initiation ceremonies of the Australian 

•P'-'r La.-hkn "— Proc. Koy. Geog. Soc. Aust. (Q.) xi., 
e .New England Tribes "-Proc. Boy. i 

212 K. H. MATHEWS. 

Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, 1 in order that the 
subject might be prominently brought before the members of that 
body, for comparison with the initiation ceremonies in other 
countries. Being desirous of making my description of the Bora 
as complete and accurate as possible, I then determined to travel 
into the district in which it took place, and make personal enquiries 
among the tribes who had been present at it. From the compre- 
hensive particulars gathered by me direct from the natives on 
that occasion, I forwarded to the Anthropological Institute a 
second paper, 2 supplying some omissions, and correcting some 
inaccuracies of der M y former memoir. 

The two papers referred to in this paragraph taken together, con- 
tain a complete narrative of everything which took place in con- 
nection with the Bora held at Gundabloui. 

There still remains the further duty of correcting the account 
of that Bora which was published in this Journal. 3 With regard 
to the statement of Mr. J. A. Glass, at p. 103, that a half-caste 
named Billy Clark was allowed the option of either having a front 
tooth knocked out, or eating human ordure, I am now satisfied, 
from enquiries which I have since made from old blackfellows at 
Gundabloui, that Billy Clark was not initiated. These old men 
told me that in those days, some thirty or forty years ago, half- 
castes were not allowed to go through the Bora c 
innovation having crept in after the half ca 
They further told me that there was no option, and if any novice 
had persisted in refusing to eat what was offered to him or to 
have his tooth extracted the kooringal would have killed him on 
the spot, 

The following lines should be struck out : At p. 107, all the 
words commencing with " which " in line 6 to the word " head- 
man " in line 14; also from the word "and" in line 29 to the 

3 Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, 


word "arranged " in line 4 on page 108. At p. 109, from the 
word "and" in line 16 to the word " top" in line 18. At p. 114, 
from the word " Every " in line 29 to the end of page 115. At 
p. 116, from the word "the" in line 23 to the word "ring" in 
line 14 on page 117. Also at p. 117, from the word "As" in 
line 19 to the end of page 118. At p. 119, from the word 
"After" in line 10 to the word "circle" in line 1 on p. 120. Also 
at p. 120, from the word " During " in line 25 to the word " hunt" 
in line 28 ; and the words " and boys " in line 34. At p. 121, 
lines 3 to 16 inclusive. At p. 122, lines 15 to 18 inclusive. At 
p. 123, from the word "The" in line 8 to the word "come" in 
line 1 on page 124. 

When the foregoing corrections have been made in the paper 
contributed to the Royal Society of New South Wales, the student 
is recommended to peruse it in conjunction with my second 
memoir on the Bora 1 communicated to the Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britain, when the two articles, read side by 
side, will be found to contain a compendious account of the 
Gundabloui Bora. Another Bora, which took place at Tallwood, 
Queensland, is described in a paper contributed by me to the 
Royal Society of Victoria, 2 which contains much important 
additional information respecting the initiation ceremonies of the 
Kamilaroi tribes. 

SOUTH WALES, and the DEPOSITS in which 

By Rev. 

[With J 

Previous Observers. 

The Diamond-Occurrence. Distribution. Properties of New South 

Sapphire and Euby— Occurrence in drifts. Occurrence in Basalt. 

Character of Sapphires found in New South Wales. 
Emerald and Beryl— Occurrence. Discovery of, in situ. Quality of 

New South Wales Emeralds. 
Topaz— Occurrence. Distribution. Characteristics of the stones 

found in New South Wales. 
Opal— Occurrence. Silica of 
*also from diatomaceous 

New South Wales Opals. 
Other Gems and Precious Stones. 
Notes on the Chemical Analyses. 

K>q,I, nation of the Plates. 

Gems were discovered in New South Wales when gold was 
found by Hargraves at Summer Hill Creek near Ophir. In the 
rush that followed, little was thought of the coloured stones that 
remain almost to the last in the cradle or the prospecting dish. 
Not long ago I had an opportunity of speaking with one of the 
Toms, who were associated with Hargraves, and I was assured 
that even in the early days many of the diggers collected gem- 

stones, but only coloured stones were considered of any value, 
as the diamond was not even thought about. Gradually more 
interest was taken in the matter, for in the year 1860, the 
Rev. W. B. Clarke wrote an appendix to his "Southern Gold- 
fields," entitled » New South Wales a Diamond Country." At 
the date of writing a long list of gems are recorded as being 
found in this country, from the diamond, the king of precious 
stones, to the noble opal, which might aptly be called the queen 
of gems. 

From a commercial standpoint, precious stones may not have 
added much to the wealth of the country. None of the diamond 
mines have realised the high promise they once gave of a great 
industry. But we may safely say that New South Wales now 
produces the finest noble opal in the world. 

In dealing with the precious stones of the Colony, as this paper 
is based for the most part on the writer's own observations, I do 
not propose to incorporate all the long lists of localities where 
gems are found, as given in Professor Liversidge's valuable work 
on the -Minerals of New South Wales. I propose to touch only 
on the places where I have some personal knowledge of the 
°' f ems and precious stones. In one or two instances 

some ten years have elapsed since I made my notes, but I have 
taken care that no new interpretation of facts has escaped notice. 
I may add that the photographs that illustrate the paper are 

Previous Observers. 
1851. Diamond from theTuron identified by Stutchbury— Papers 

Ib-lative to (Geological Surveys, New South Wales, 1851, p. 39. 
1,s: »l. Tonaz ; Ruby, Gamut, Sapphire identified by Stutchbury— 

1870. Discovery of Diamonds in New South Wales, Rev. W. B. 

Clarke. Annual Address to the Royal Society— Trans. Roy. 

Soc. N.S.W., 1870, p. 6, (1871). 
1870. Clarke receives Diamonds from Kangaloon— Trans. Roy. 

Soc. N.S.W., 1870, p. 8. 
1870. On the occurrence of the Diamond near Mudgee, Norman 

Taylor and Dr. A. M. Thomson— Trans. Roy. Soc. N.S.W, 

1S70, p. 94. 
1872. Localities for Diamonds in New South Wales, enumerated 

by Rev. W. B. Clarke in his Anniversary Address to the 

Royal Society of New South Wales— Trans. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 

p. 12,(1873). 

1872. On Australian Gems, by George Milner Stephen— Trans. 
Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 1872. 

1873. Note on the Bingara Diamond District, by Archibald 
Liversidge— Trans. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 1873, p. 91. This 
paper has been reprinted in Prof. Liversidge's ' Minerals of 
New South Wales.' 

1874. Minerals of New South Wales, by A. Liversidge— Trans. 
Roy. Snc. N.S.W., 1874. 

187.">. Gem Stones, by C. S. Wilkinson— Mines and Mineral 

Statistics of N. S. Wales, p. 103, Sydney, Government 

Printer, is?:,. 
1879. On the Cudgegong Diamond Field, N. S. Wales, Norman 

Taylor— Geological Magazine, 1879, pp. 399 and 444. 
1881. Report on Bingara and Ironbark Goldfield, by E. F. 

Pittman— Annual Report Department of Mines, New South 

Wales, 1881, p. 141, (1882). 
1886. Report on New South Wales Diamonds, by Tims. Davi« 

and H. Etheridge, Junr. — Annual Report, of the Department 

of Mines, N. S. Wales, lS,Si;,p. 42, (1**7). 

tions in the Inverell District, by C. S. Wilkinson Annual 
Report of the Department of Mines, N. S. Wales, 1887, p- 
141, (1887-8). 

7. Diamonds and other Gems in New South Wales, by Harrie 
Wood— Mineral Products of N. S. Wales, p. 43, Sydney, 
Government Printer, 1887. 
7. Minerals of New South Wales, by A. Liv< rsidge — London 
Triibner and Co. 
1889. Diamonds and other Gems of New South Wales, by J. E. 
Came— Records of the Geological Survey of N. S. Wales, 
Vol. i., p. 93. 

littagong Diamond Mine. C. S. Wilkinson — 
Annual Report of the Department of Mines, N. S. Wales, 
p. 210. 

1891. Report on the Discovery of Emeralds in the Vegetable 
Creek District, T. W. E. David— Annual Report Department 
of Mines, 1891, p. 229 (1892). 

1892. Notes on the occurrence of Opal in New South Wales, by 
William Anderson— Records of the Geological Survey of 
N. S. Wales, Vol. in., p. 29. 

1892. Report on the White Cliffs Opal Field, by John B. Jaquet 
— Annual Report of the Department of Mines, N. S. Wales, 

1 >'.<:', 

Diamond Field, by Rev. J. Milne Cm- 

Exhibit of Diamonds— Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. 
xxvm., 1893, p. 480. 

1893. On a Sand from Bingara, by George W. Card.^Records 
of the Geological Survey N. S. Wales, Vol. in., p. 3. 

3. Note on Diamond Mine near Mittagong, by Edwd. F. 
Pittman, Government Geologist — Annual Report Depart- 
ment of Mines, N. S. Wales, 1S93, p. 102, (1894). 

1894. Olivine from Gum-flat Road, four miles from Invorell, one 
inch in diameter. Garnet, not waterworn, near Bingara, 
(Al.nandite) on basalt hill. D. A. Porter— Journ. Royal 
Society, N. S. Wales 1894, Vol. xxvm., p. 40. 

1- Report on Bingara Diamond Fields, by Geo. A. Stonier- 
Annual Report Department of Mines, N. S. Wales, 1 894, 
P. 131. Issue 1895. 

1894. On Almandine Garnet from the Hawkesbury Sandstone 
at Sydney, by Henry G. Smith — Journ. Royal Society N.S. 
Wales, Vol. xxvm, p. 47. 

1894. Notes on occurrence of Diamonds at Bingara, by G. A. 
Stonier— Records of the Geological Survey of New South 
Wales, Vol. iv., p. 51. 

1895. Note on Gem Sand from the Oberon District, by G. W. 
Card— Records Geological Survey of New South Wales, Vol. 
iv., p. 132. (Sapphire, Zircon.) 


Diamonds were discovered in this Colony by Mr. Stutchbury, 
the Government Geologist, and by Mr. E. H. Hargraves, in the 
year 1851. 1 The Rev. W. B. Clarke had many diamonds brought 
to him in 1859 and I860. 2 

Systematic search for diamonds was begun in 18G9 on the 
Cudgegong River at Warburton, better known as Two-Mile-Flat, 
Some very hue stones were obtained here, but the industry was 
not a profitable one, and in IS'JU, the date of my visit to the 
locality, there was not a single man engaged in Diamond mining. 
The few miners who, to this date, are working the Tertiary and 
Post-Tertiary drifts for gold, occasionally find a good diamond. 
The geology of the Cudgegong Diamond-field has been described 
in detail by Messrs. Norman Taylor and Thomson, 3 and later by 
Mr. Taylor in the Geological Magazine. 4 

No stones hitherto found in Australia have surpassed the 
diamonds from this locality. The yield per load has been greater 

1 Liversidge— Minerals of New South Wales, p. 116. Mr. StutcbbltfJ 
reported in 1851 that he saw a " beautifully crystallized diamond from 
theTurou River."— Papers Surveys, New South 
Wales. Laid upon the Council Table 2nd December, bS.'d. Tim K-'l'oi't 
is dated "Camp near Burrondong, Oct. 18th, ISol," and by an evident 
clerical error, is not included in the schedule prefixed to the papers. 

at Bingara, but the stones are on the whole smaller and show a 
higher percentage of "off" colour. 

Summarised, geological conditions of the Cudgegong Diamond- 
field are simple enough. A river valley in Palaeozoic rocks, with 
its alluvial deposits, is covered by a sheet of basalt. This basalt 
is again cut through, forming a newer valley and redistributing 
the drifts of the older. The older drift is believed to be Pliocene. 
The redistributed drifts are Pleistocene and recent. Diamonds 
are found in the older drift underlying the basalt, and in the 
redistributed drifts. 

Bingara.— The conditions under which the diamon. 

i is found 

at Bingara are somewhat similar. The geology of Bi 

ogara has 

been described by Liversidge, Wilkinson, Pittman, anc 

I Stonier. 

The various papers are enumerated in the list of 


observers. Shortly, it may he described as an area OC 

cupied by 

the claystones and covered by basalt. Patches of the same drifts 
occur where the capping of basalt lias been denuded, and it is in 
areas of this class that the greatest quantity of diamonds have 
been found. The "Monte Ohristo" mine is a case in point. Here 
the "wash" has been denuded of its basaltic covering and possibly 
redistributed. The surface of the wash is cemented to a hard 
iron-stained crust. Some phenomenal yields of d i is have 

washed a hundred weight of the drift and got twenty-nine 
diamonds. The gems wore small, about three to a carat, and 
nearly half were of a straw colour. 

I measured the following section at a depth of forty feet :— 

1. Four inches of a wash, of pebbles under half an inch in 
diameter. Clear white and black quartz pebbles, and tourmaline 
showing. Contains diamonds. 

2. Four feet of wash with pebbles up to three inches in diameter. 
This lias gem-sand, but no diamonds. 

sand. This has s _ 

4. Bedded sediment under which another wash is known to 
carry diamonds. 

The wash was becoming more friable at a depth, being hardest 
near the surface. 

Tourmaline was in every instance present when diamonds were 
found. I brought away a hundred weight of the Bingara wash, 
and on examination noted the following minerals and rocks : — 
1. Tourmaline. 2. Sapphire. 3. Spinelle. 4. Topaz. 5. Garnet. 
6. Quartz. 7. Slate. 8. Claystone. 9. Concretionary Ironstone. 
I made a calculation based on several parcels as to the percen- 
tage of good diamonds, judged by colour and brilliancy only. 

Really good stones ... 12 per cent. 

Marketable stones ... 45 ,, 

May be cut 20 „ 

Useless as gems 23 „ 

Many of the Bingara and Inverell diamonds would undoubtedly 
be classed first water by the expert. These are white, clear, and 
bright, and free from speck or flaw. One of the small stones 
exhibited is of a decidedly green tinge, and another is a light 
red or pink shade. We have repeated opinions from the best 
cutters, that our Bingara diamonds are "hard," so hard that up 
to the date of writing, lapidaries are unwilling to cut them for 
current prices. That they can be cut is certain, but the hardness 
combined with the small average size makes the merchant rather 
unwilling to purchase. 

In the Australian Mining Standard of July 29, 1893, the 
following letter appeared from Mr. Edwin Streeter, p.r.o.s., of 
London, who says :— " I have read with much interest a letter of 
your correspondent with reference to Bingara (N.S.W.) It is a 
corroboration of my oft-repeated assertion that the wealth of 
Australia will prove in time to be equal, if not superior, to that 
of South Africa. I notice, however, that your correspondent is 


in error in saying that the difficulty in cutting Bingara diamonds 
has been overcome. It is true, so far, that an attempt has been 
made, and a machine invented for that purpose, which has, how- 
ever, yet to be proved efficient. There is every hope that time 
and science together will be effectual ; but it would not be right 
on my part to allow a statement to go uncontradicted which avers 
that I and other leading firms have overcome the difficulty ; and 
I trust you will put this explanation before your readers." 

To this explanation, the Standard adds " that every diamond 
merchant in England and abroad has refused to cut Bingara 
diamonds; and Mr. Streeter, we believe, stands alone in having 
expended money on the experiment." 

Mr. Streeter's letter very probably refers to the cutting of 
diamonds to compete with trade in much softer stones, as Bingara 
diamonds are being continually cut both in London and Amster- 
dam. A word may not be out of place here in regard to the 
commercial side of the industry. As already stated, it is a ques- 
tion of finding larger stones, and geologists have every reason to 
believe that larger stones will be found. The hardness of the 
Australian gem may be a quality to enhance its value. Mr. Lewis 
Atkinson wrote in 1886, 1 that "the market price of Australian 
Diamonds in the rough state is liable, like that of all other 
diamonds to great fluctuations, and on the whole they are 
generally lower than the African diamond, for this important 
reason, that they are a great deal harder to cut and polish ; as, if 
it were possible to pick out an Australian and an African diamond 
exactly the same size, weight, shape, and appearance, and to give 
them to one man to polish, the African stone would be finished 
"* six days, while the Australian stone would take eight days, 
with this vastly important difference that the Australian diamond 
"would be of greater brilliancy and refracting power than the 

In connection with the admitted particular hardness of the 

Kmgara diamonds, it is of some interest to note that every parcel 

1 Annual Report of the Department of Mines, X. S. Wales, 1*V>, p. <•»>• 

of diamonds tested gave a higher specific gravity for our 
diamonds than the recorded spc-il'u- gravities of South African 
or Brazilian diamonds. I picked about two grains of the best 
Bingara stones, and taking the average of two experiments I found 
Bingara diamonds, specific gravity at 60° F. 3578. The highest 
specific gravity recorded by Dana for the diamond is 3525. 1 

*Messrs. Etheridge and Davies in their report on New South 
Wales diamonds 2 quote the specific gravity of diamonds from many 
parts of the world. ui\in- Mr. Harry Emmanuel's work and that 
of M. M. Jacob and Chatrain as- their authority. I reproduce 
their table, adding for comparison, the specific gravity of some 
stones collected by myself. 

Country. | White Stones. Velio w Stones. 

India I 3-524 3-556 

Bingara, parcel of 19 grams in the author's collection 3 -565. 

There is therefore some foundation for the generally receive 

opinion that the refractive and dispersive power of Bingai 

•Pot the last few years I have been using Bingara diamonds ii 

my laboratory for charging the thin discs used in slitting rock 
for microscopical study. In crushing the stones, the comparativ 
absence of cleavage, and the dark colour of the powdered diamon< 
are characters that attract attention. It has often been note< 
that the streak of the diamond is of a grey colour, while that o 

e specific gravity of th< d i 

•565. These stones are from Bin 

l in connection with the figures : 
oubt as to the higher density of the Bingara gems. 
1 Eeport of the Department of Mines N. S. Wales, ISSt), 

even a dark ruby, is white. The Bingara diamonds, including the 
yellow stones are when, reduced to powder of a grey-black colour. 
When a Bingara and a Cape stone are separately crushed to an 
equal grain, it will be seen that the Bingara diamond will not 
show so many cleavages, in other words the Cape diamond is more 
sparkling in appearance when powdered. Turning to Messrs. 
Etheridge and Davies' 1 Report we find that it is therein stated 
that "the absence of cleavage" is a point much in favour of the 
New South Wales diamond. 

*Quite recently Mr. Leopold Claremount, who is a cutter of gem- 
stones, wrote to the Si/J,v 7/ Morning II < c«H on the subject of 
Australian diamonds. He confirms the generally accepted opinion 
that Bingara 2 diamonds are harder than the diamonds commonly 
placed on the market. He says, " I have had a great many 
Australian diamonds pass through my hands, and have found in 
all cases that they are considerably harder than any other 
diamonds. It is well known that Indian and Brazilian diamonds 
are harder than those found at the Cape, and it is not surprising, 
therefore, that the Australian stones should be harder than the 
former. It may be mentioned as a curious coincidence in this 
respect that the Australian sapphires are harder than others. I 
do not say that the Australian diamonds are too hard to cut. I 
have cut many, and when cut they have been in every way com. 
parable to diamonds from other localities of the same size and 
quality, but their extreme hardness renders the process exceed- 
ingly troublesome and expensive. Also the veins and ridges 
which are sometimes produced during the process of polishing 
diamonds are in these stones of much more frequent occurrence 
and are extremely difficult to avoid. The specimens so far have 
been of small size and indiffiavnt quality, but 1 have no doubt 
that if the mines are found to yield larger and liner stones I shall 
be able to cut them successfully at a price which will pay.*' 3 

*l Annual Eeport Department of Mines N. S. Wales, 1886 p. 45. 

<>nly diamonds now sent ^London^'rom Australia, he evidently speaks 
«t these stones. 
* :) s ydney Unr.u.o, Ifrrahl, December 5, 1896. 


*The consensus of so many practical men, taken with the high 
specific gravity I find so notable in Bingara diamonds, should I 
think allow us to conclude that, the Bingara diamond is really 
harder, than the diamonds usually found at the Cape or in Brazil. 

I have learned the following facts about Bingara diamonds, and 
as I found the information much needed, I may be permitted to 
introduce it here. A first-class stone from Bingara when cut 
weighed slightly under one carat. It sold readily in London for 
£14 10s. 5d. A Bingara stone with a tinge of green weighed 
when cut \ and -fa carat, and sold readily for £10. Four parcels 
of Bingara stones were sold by one gentlemen, who informs me 
that the average was four to a carat. It was always difficult to 
dispose of them, and the figure realised ranged from 4/6 to 8/- 
per carat on the average. The following extract 1 may be of 
importance to many. In valuing the diamond one must attend 
"firstly, to the size of the stone and proportionate shape for 
cutting ; secondly, as to whether they be white and free from 
defect. Rough diamonds arc calculated half their weight, as 
they are supposed to lose 50% in cutting and polishing. The price 
of doing this may lie estimated at from 12 - to 15/- per carat." 

Auburn Vale. — The diamonds found here under precisely the 

the associated i 

Mittagong. — Southey's Diamond Mine is situated seven miles 
south-east from Mittagong. The gems are found here in a drift 
associated with other gem-stones. The drift is not unlike the 
Auburn Vale deposits, but the absence of tourmaline is at once 
apparent. The volcanic-breccia that seems to underlie the drift 
here, and to which attention has bem called by Messrs. Wilkinson 
and Wood, is thought by many to be the matrix of the diamond. 
This has to be confirmed. The drift is surrounded by Hawkes- 

ting in South Afri 

bury Sandstone or sandstones of the Upper Coal Measures. Some 
of the stones found here are of a deeper yellow than the straw 
colour that makes diamonds " off," so much so that in my opinion 
they have a beauty of their own as yellow diamonds. 

I am not aware of any record having been made of a locality 
where some good diamonds have been found forty miles south-east 
of Mudgee. It is close to Sandy Flat and about ten miles east of 
Cherry Tree Hill. Some alluvial gold mining was being done 
here in 1885, in ground from twenty to fifty feet. A number of 
diamonds were found in the sluice-boxes. One was sold for £75, 
and should have cut into a brilliant of the first water of four carats. 

A few diamonds have been found near Dubbo in a redistributed 
Tertiary drift. But after Bingara and Cudgegong comes Mitla- 
gong, where although no great number of diamonds have been 
found, it was hoped we should find the diamond in its true matrix. 

Source of the Diamond.— It can be safely asserted that up to 
the present no diamond has been found in its true matrix in New 
South Wales. In every case there is evidence to show that the 
stones were drifted from their original matrix to the place where 
we find them. The nature of that matrix is also unknown. 

The occurrence of the diamonds found now and again at places 
as far apart as Trunkey, Muckerawa, Tia, near Walcha (a fine 
stone was found here last month), Uralla, Narrabri, Dubbo, throw 
n ° light on the possible source of the diamond in New South 
Wales. Contrary to the generally received opinion, I believe 
that the diamonds of Auburn Vale, Inverell, and Bingara have 
been derived from a common source. The geological conditions 
on these fields are the same, the associated minerals are the 
same, and after all the Bingara field is situated further down on 
the same river-system. I can hardly say that the Inverell stones 
are larger, but the tourmaline and other associated minerals are 
certainly larger at Inverell than at Bingara. The Bingara tour- 
malines are all small and perfectly waterworn. I do not know 
that an expert could separate parcels of diamonds from the two 

places. But show him the associated minerals, and their more 
travelled and abraded appearance at once singles out the Bingara 

*Mr. Norman Taylor propounded the theory that our diamonds 
were chemically formed in the drifts just whetv we now find them. 
Messrs. Etheridge and Davies at the date of writing their report, 
accepted the explanation offered by Mr. Taylor. They say :— 
"With regard to the source of the diamond in Xew South Wales 
we do not see any other course than to unhesitatingly accept the 
explanations offered by Mr. Norman Taylor, so far as the facts 
bearing on this branch of the subject have been yet gathered. 
He believes that they were chemically formed in the older Tertiary 
drifts, and in support of this view adduces the following cogent 
reasons : — 

1. The older rocks of the various diamantiferous districts have 

2. The older Tertiary drifts or cem 

ents are derived from the 

denudation of these, and contai 

n diamonds. 

3. The younger drifts are only diai 

nantiferous when resulting 

from the destruction of the latt 

er, and similarly the recent 

alluvium again from them. 

4. The natural conclusion is that 

the diamonds have been 

formed in the drifts, and not de 

rived from any pre-existing 

*I would point out that the conclusion come to by Mr. Taylor 
does not rest on a satisfactory basis. It is quite true as he puts it 
that "the older rocks have not been proved to be diamond bearing. 
But this is very different from saying, that the older rocks have 
been proved not to be diamond bearing. The italics are mine. 
Until we can say that the older rocks are not, or were not diamond 
bearing Mr. Taylor's conclusion is premature. 

*I examined the drifts with great care, both in the Inverell and 
Bingara districts, and could not find any evidence of these drifts 
having been subjected to any exceptional influences such as we 

should expect if the diamond had been formed in situ. I admit, 
however, that while it is easy to find seeming flaws in Mr. Taylor's 
views, it is not so easy to advance another theory, and duly 
support it with observed facts. The most I am prepared to do is 
to state that :— 

1. There is no direct evidence that the diamond was formed in 

the drifts in situ. 

2. The character of the drifts lend no support to the theory of 

the formation of the diamond in these drifts. 

3. The gems that are found with the diamond have been derived 

from various matrices, by the denudation and degradation 
of the older rocks. As the diamond occurs under .similar 

matrix that exists, or existed higher up the Dividing Range. 
+. The Bingara diamonds show very little signs of abrasion, but 
their small size and hardness should explain this, even though 
they had travelled from a distant source. 

*The late Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, was of opinion that the "source 
of the diamond may be in the metamorphosed Carboniferous or 
Devonian beds, where they have been intruded by porphyry." 1 
Mr. Stonier after examining the Bingara district, abandons the 
theory that the diamonds were formed in the drifts. He suggests 
(1) serpentine or (2) tourmaline granite as a possible source. My 
own investigations lead me to the conclusion as already stated, 
the Bingara and Inverell diamonds are derived from a common 
source— in my opinion some eruptive rock occurring higher up 
the Dividing Range than any diamond bearing wash yet discovered. 

*If the Bingara diamonds are derived from serpentine, a different 
source must be sought for the Inverell gems, as there is no 
serpentine whence they could be derived within the watershed of 
Auburn Vale or Staggy Creek. As for the granite, while admit- 

pointing to that rock being the source whence the diamonds were 

1 Annual Report Department oTilines N. S. Wales, 1878, p. 137. 

I am of opinion then that the Bingara and Inverell diamonds 
were derived from a common source, and that naturally this source 
is nearer to the Dividing Range than any deposits hitherto dis- 
covered. As far as I could see about Bingara the deep lead of 
the ancient river has not yet been touched. No deposit worked 
looked at all like a main gutter. The late Mr. C. Lowe, of 
Sydney, made a laudable effort to sink on the "deep ground," and 
had already pierced the upper basalt and got one hundred feet 
into the lower rock, when the work was abandoned. This is a 
matter for extreme regret on public grounds, and everyone inter- 
ested in Australian diamonds looks forward to the completion of 
this promising work. 

Until enterprise shall cut the deeper beds of the mighty river 
that rolled west from the mountains of New England, no one may 
say that our country cannot yet glory in her gems, as she has 

Sapphire of every known shade from white to the royal deep 
blue have been found in this Colony. But the percentage of 
first-class gem-stones to the total quantity recovered is extremely 
small. The writer has seen more than one parcel of sapphires 
from New England weighing 20 lbs., from which not more than 
two or three first-class gem-stones of 1 to 1 1 carats were obtained. 
Very many sapphires have also passed through my hands from 
Tumberumba, but I have only noted one example of a perfect 
stone. Professor Liversidge, in his work on the "Minerals of IN V* 
South Wales" already referred to, says (p. 196) that sapphire is 
widely distributed over the New England district, but that the 
New South Wales sapphires in common with those from other 
parts of Australia are usually rather dark in colour. They are, 
however, found varying from perfectly colourless and transparent, 
through various shades of blue and green, to a dark and almost 
opaque blue. One or two green-coloured sapphires, oriental 
emeralds, are almost always met with in every parcel of a 
hundred or so specimens, also blue and white parti-coloured stones. 

This agrees exactly with the writer's experience, but having 
actually collected sapphire from various districts, I describe the 
deposits in which the sapphire is found in the following localities : 

Tumberumba. — At Tumberumba where sapphire is not uncom- 
mon, the gem is obtained chiefly when working Pleistocene and 
recent deposits for gold. These deposits are derived to a great 
extent from the denudation of a Tertiary lead, portions of which 
still remain capped with basalt high above the level of the present 
streams. The relations of the deep lead to the Pleistocene are 
shown on the accompanying sketch. Both deposits have been 

Section at Tumberumba showing a, alluvial drift with gold and gem- 
stones covered by basalt ; b, Pleistocene deposits with gold and gems 
made up in par t of the redistributed drifts from a; e, Slate. 
fairly well exploited in the pursuit of gold. The geology of the 
district has been dealt with by Mr. Wm. Anderson. 1 

During a short stay in the district a few years ago I had an 
opportunity of examining the Tertiary lead, as active mining 
operations were being carried on at the time. Very little sapphire 
w as found in the deep lead (a in diagram), the bulk of the 
corundum coming from the Pleistocene and recent deposits (b). 
° c ««>-ted with sapphire I noted spinelle, topaz, andalusite, and 
garnet. The Pleistocene deposits containing the gems were 

—Records of 
J - E. Came 
Wales, 1894 

the Tertiary Deep Lead at Tumberumba, by Wm- Anderson 
Geological Survey of N. S. Wales, Vol. n., p. 21. See also 
in the Annual Eeport of the Department of Mines N. S. 
p. 120. 


derived from the degradation of granitic, basaltic, and slate 
rocks, 1 as could be seen from the boulders of these rocks con- 
tained in "the wash." A number of tunnels have been 
driven at various points along the valley to catch the "deep 
ground" under the basalt (at a). Although I noted topaz and 
spinelle from these drifts, sapphire was not present, or at least 
exceedingly rare. The spinelles from the Pleistocene drifts are 
the finest I have seen both for size and colour. Some excellent 
stones were recovered by a floating suction dredge that lifted the 
auriferous gravels from some of the deeper water holes on the creek. 
A specimen in my own collection is an almost perfect octahedron. 
The topaz were i bile the andalusite was some- 

times found in long pencil-like specimens showing a pearly lustre. 
An analysis of this mineral is given by Mr. Card, loc. cit., but 
it is stated that no definite crystalline form was observed. In 
my own specimens, however, the rhombic 
andalusite is at once apparent. Cyanite is n 
the andalusite. It occurs in transparent blade-shaped crystals 
of a light blue colour, with very perfect cleavage faces. *Mr. Card 
has also noted cyanite from Tumberumba, and also identified some 

With regard to the character of Tumberumba sapphire there is 
nothing exceptional to note. The bulk of the stones are dark, 
and far too opaque for cutting. A peculiar pitting on the pris- 
matic faces so characteristic of some New England sapphires is 
not seen on these stones. Crystals partly waterworn have been 
found up to three-eights of an inch in diameter. All the cut 
stones I have examined might be called medium in quality. 
Their greatest shortcomings were in the point of colour, a 
greenish-blue tint predominating, but in lustre and life these 
gems were faultless. 

Berrima and Mittagong.—Mv. Wilshire, p.m., of Berrima, has 
collected a considerable variety of sapphire from the drifts or 

Wingecarribee River. Some of these sapphires are nearly one 
inch in diameter, and present more variety in colour and lustre 
than any other sapphires I have met. Zircon and spinelle are 
found with the sapphire. With regard to the deposits in which 
these are found, they are in every instance that I have examined 
in Pleistocene drifts resting on Hawkeshury sandstone, or sand- 
stones of the Upper Coal Measures. There is an intimate con- 
nection between the distribution of the sapphire in this district 
and the denudation of basaltic areas. This will be touched upon 
later on. It is worth noting that pleonaste invariably accompanies 
the sapphire in this district, and that pleonaste occurs as a primary 
t of basalt at Kangaloon. 

Kiandra. — Sapphire has not been found plentiful at Kiandra, 
but as it undoubtedly occurs there, a short description is given of 
the conditions under which it is found. An extensive Tertiary 
"deep lead " has been preserved at Kiandra, and over the country 
to the south, by an extensive capping of basalt. Any sapphires 
found hitherto have been discovered in Pleistocene drift formed 
from a redistribution of the material of the deep lead. The section 
herewith shows the composition of this lead measured close to the 
town of Kiandra. 

A'ew England.— There can be no question that more sapphire 
is found in New England than in any other part of the Colony. 
The gem-stone, although distributed over a large area is remark- 
ably similar in its mode of occurrence. The geology of New 
England has been dealt with by the late Mr. Wilkinson, 1 Pro- 
fessor David,* and others. These authors have also in the works 
referred to, dealt with the occurrence of gems. Broadly speak- 
ln g, it may be stated that sapphire is found in drifts all over the 
tin districts of New England, an area embracing several thousand 
square miles. They were found in great abundance in the surface 

• Mines and Mineral Statistics of N. S. Wales, 1875, Government 
Printer, Sydney. 
2 Geology of the Vegetable Creek Tin-raining Field, by Prof. T. W. E. 


tin deposits to the south of Emmaville, and between that town 
and the Severn River. They can still be obtained in considerable 
quantity at Sapphire in the drift of Fraser's Creek. Between 
Inverell and Glen Innes the road crosses a high basaltic range. 
It may be safely said that sapphire occurs in all the drifts of the 
creeks that head in the western slopes of this range ; the creeks 
that drain the country round the White Rock, for instance, Swan- 
brook, King's Creek, Paradise Creek, and the drifts on various 
parts of Newstead and Elsmore. Further west beyond Tnverell, 
the diamantiferous country is reached, and although sapphires 
are also found here, they are nowhere so abundant as in the 
localities referred to. Sapphires are almost continually being 
found when washing for tin-stone. It must be noted though, 
that sapphire is more plentiful in the Pleistocene deposits than 
it is in the Tertiary leads, as is also the case at Tumberumba. 

♦Some very fine sapphires are found a few miles from Crock well, 
on the Goulburn side, but they have never been systematically 
mined for. AH that have been won were got in alluvial ground 
(in basaltic country) while looking for gold. The very large 
number of sapphires coming from New England is accounted for 
by the fact that they are got when mining for tin. There is no 
tin in the Crookwell drift, and the gold has not been mined for 
on any large scale, so the value of the gem-deposits remain 

Character of the New South Wales Sapphire. 

It is well known at this date that although sapphires are 

abundant in the Colony, the proportion of good gem stones is 

export, and Mr. Murfin, lapidary, of Pitt-street, Sydney, has cut 
a number for my own collection. But a really first-class stone 
more than a carat in weight I have never met. The Rev. Joseph 
Campbell when at Glen Innes had some really good stones, hut 
all under half a carat. 

Taking the best stones, I may mention a stone that in the rough 
was half an inch long and of a lovely velvet blue. It was found 

in a Pleistocene drift on the Severn River, and was sold to the 
trade for £10. I examined a parcel of nine pounds in rough of 
sapphire, collected in and around Emrnaville, without finding one 
faultless gem of half a carat. Most of the stones were dark blue, 
many almost black, but all showed prismatic or pyramidal faces 
and bright basal cleavage surfaces. The more transparent stones 
showed a dark blue-green when viewed across the prism, and 
a deep blue when seen along the axes. Quite a number were 
banded in alternate blue and colourless lines parallel to the basal 

Plate 1 6, fig. 2, shows the general appearance of the New 
England sapphires. The peculiar surface pitting shows well on 
the original photograph, but is rendered somewhat indistinctly in 
block. This character is not seen in the sapphires 

S southern districts, nor is it noticeable 

On the extreme right of Plate 16, fig. 2, a few crystals can be 
found showing parallel lines running obliquely across the prisms. 
In one specimen the alternate lines have a reddish tinge which 
gives the crystal a remarkable appearance. It is most unusual to 
find any suggestion of a cleavage in sapphire other than the basal. 
The lines referred to are certainly structural. 

Professor Judd and Mr. Barrington Brown have recently 
described some structures in a «« Contribution to the History of 
Corundum."* The paper deals with rubies of Burma. The 
authors speak of the corrosion of rubies in deep seated rock masses. 
The corrosion follows "certain planes of chemical weakness, 
analogous to the cleavage planes, gliding planes, and other direc- 
tions of physical weakness. The principal of these solution 
Planes is the basal plane. Other less pronounced planes of 
chemical weakness exist parallel to the prism faces. Unaltered 
corundum is like quartz, destitute of true cleavage, and breaks 
Wlth a Perfectly conchoidal fracture. If, however, gliding planes 
1 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, No. 345, p. 392. 



and lamellar twinning be developed in corundum (like those so 
easily produced in the same way in calcite), parallel to the funda- 
mental rhombohedron of the crystals, then these gliding planes 
become solution planes." The explanation applies exactly to 
the New South Wales stones. I had a face ground parallel to the 
basal plane on a large crystal marked in the manner described, 
and fine lines could easily be noted crossing the prism to join 
the parallel and inclined lines seen on the prism. 

Crystals are rather common that show 

t \ x '• nate layers of dark blue and light material 
('• '/^ f^f ^; are repeated from the centre outwards. 
Many of the stones are a light yellow 
colour, with the top of the prism just 
showing a spot of blue. A stone of this 
a S appHre e from Emina- Ascription was cut by Murfin, and made 
ville district, showing a rather handsome gem. When putting 
alternating bands of a final polish on the table a hexagonal 
blue and white. barrell-shaped piece dropped out, leaving a 

regular faced cavity for the full depth of the stone. I have a 
stone showing alternate bands of opaque blue and opaque white 
in successive hexagons from the centre Small stones banded 
blue and honey-yellow, and blue and white, are not rare. 

As already stated, the sapphires from Tumberumba are all 
blue or blue-green. The New England stones are opaque blue, 
Antwerp blue, greenish-blue, greenish, bottle-green, and yellowish- 

Compared with good gems the New England stones show a 
want of life, probably owing to being invariably too dark when 
they show the true rich velvet blue. I tried the experiment of 
having the dark stones shallow table cut. The effect was a want 
of life that the improved colour did not compensate for. There 
is one quality in the New England gems that is unsurpassed, and 
that is in their surface lustre, being exceeding bright, 
one of the adamantine flash of sphene. 

The colours of the sapphire found about Berrima 1 vary far more 
than in the stones just referred to. It will be understood though 
that the stones good enough to place in the hands of the lapidary 
are as rare as elsewhere. The most notable character of the 
Berrima stone is the large size the crystals attain. Some opaque 
but fine bright blue stones measure two-thirds of an inch across, 
and fragments I saw with Mr. Wilshire, of Berrima, belong to 
crystals that must have been more than one inch across. 

The Wingecarribee drifts have 

yielded sapphires of a rich honey- 

/ jf yellow, and also of a good bronze 

L / colour. These were hardly more 

/ than translucent, but when cut en 

^ — ~~ ~~~ cabochon, showed a remarkable 

decided asteriated 

Berrima. The alternating structure can be found in New Eng- 
bands are bronze-coloured land than elsewhere in this Colony, 
and honey-yellow (nat. size). 

Origin of Sapphire. 
After some acquaintance with the occurrence of corundum, the 
writer inclined to the opinion that although topaz and sapphire 
are often found in the same drifts, yet they are derived from very 
different sources. I find additional evidence to support that 
opinion as time goes on. Throughout New South Wales I have 
noticed that while topaz and other fluorine minerals can be traced 
into granite country, sapphire is invariably traced to basalt. I 
am of opinion that basalt is the true matrix of sapphire in New 
South Wales. In support of this I exhibit herewith a sapphire 
in a matrix of undecomposed basalt. This specimen was found 

urinations g 

Dana gives the specific gravity of 

red sapphire 

on the surface two miles north of Swanvale, between Inverell and 
Glen Innes, and on the western slopes of the range already 

Wherever sapphire is abundant in New England drifts, 
these drifts can be traced up into basaltic hills, or to areas where 
basalt has been extensively denuded. It might be argued that 
this points to the sapphire being derived from the wash underly- 
ing the basalt, and not from the basalt. The specimen exhibited 
is an answer. Moreover when a Tertiary deep lead is preserved 
alongside a Pleistocene, or recent drift, the latter will often have 
sapphires, while the deep lead may contain little or no sapphire. 
The degradation of a basaltic area seems a necessary condition 
for the presence of sapphire. Tumberumba is a case in point. 
At Tumberumba we have a deep lead preserved along side, but at 
a higher level than the present river. I could not get any 
evidence of sapphire being found in the deep lead. But in the 
present river valley, which holds detrital materials derived from 
a basaltic area, the sapphire is found. I have it too on the 
authority of Mr. Parkins, who has a long experience of the district 
and is a collector of minerals, that sapphire is found only when 
the creeks cut through or drain basaltic country. 

I have examined many small tin "surfacings"on Cope's Creek. 
One of these worked at Stanburra yielded nearly every gem stone 
found in New England, but no sapphire. An examination showed 
that this tin-bearing country was granite, and that it showed no 
drifted or transported rocks, that the granite had decomposed in 
situ, setting free the tin-stone and gems. There was no sapphire, 
but there was also no basalt. In studying the country about 
Inverell, one is forcibly impressed with the fact that basalt is 
the source of the sapphire that is found hereabout so abundantly. 

To the south of Swanbrook, at Elsmore, Newstead, the prin- 
cipal localities for sapphire are the creeks that head towards 
basaltic hills such as the White Rock. At Swanbrook and the 
country to the north extensive sheets of basalt have suffered 
atmospheric degradation and decay. Paradise Creek, another 

notable locality for sapphire, drains an extensively denuded 
basaltic plateau. The same may be said of a place called 
Sapphire, further north of Swanbrook, 

At Berrima the sapphire is invariably found with pleonaste, so 
much so that one suspects a common matrix for the two. Now 
pleonaste can be seen in situ in basalt used as road metal about 
Kangaloon, so there is a strong presumption that the sapphire is 
also derived from the basalt. This taken in connection with the 
facts concerning sapphire at Tumberumba and in the Inverell 
districts, and the specimen of basalt with sapphire in situ settle, 
I venture to think, the question of the matrix of sapphire. 

I would add a few lines to describe the basalt containing the 
sapphire. The specimen is waterworn but fairly fresh, as may 
be seen where a slice has been sawn off for a micro-slide. Along 
with the phenocrysts of blue sapphire there can be noted large 
crystals of a black lustrous shining mineral, which proves to be 
magnetite. Under the microscope a good deal of ferrite stains 
the slide, but the rock is on the whole apart from the presence of 
phenocrysts of magnetite, not widely different from other basalts 
in the district. The component minerals are augite, olivine, 
plagioclase, magnetite, and alteration products which sometimes 
fill cavities and show a black cross in polarised light. 

I have never seen anything to lead me to believe that topaz, 
which is so plentiful in New England, is ever found as a primary 
constituent of an igneous rock. 

The separation of the two gems has also been noted in Burma, 
and Messrs. Barrington Brown, and Judd 1 write that it is a 
noteworthy circumstance that none of the silicates combined with 
fluorine, topaz, etc., are found in the limestones that contain the 

1 Report of Proceedings of Royal Society of I 

It is a somewhat remarkable fact that while the blue corundum 
is so abundant, the red variety known as ruby should be one of 
the rarest of gems in New South Wales. The Bingara rubies are 
garnet, and the true ruby found in the diamondiferous drifts of 
that district are invariably small and fragmentary. I have 
recognised a pale rose-coloured ruby amongst gems from the 
Tumberumba River. Rubies have undoubtedly been found on 
the creeks of the Mole Tableland. Here, too, the occurrence is 
very limited. The only locality where I saw any quantity of 
rubies with miners was along the Two-Mile Flat, near Mudgee. 
The best stone from these drifts was in the possession of the late 
Mr. Milner Stephen. It weighed within a fraction of one carat, 
was perfect in colour, but showed a " feather on the templet." 
In the year 1860, the Rev. W. B. Clarke wrote 1 that the occur- 
rence of the ruby with other gems in the gold alluvia of the 
southern as well as the northern goldfields, is now so common as 
to need little remark. Professor David must have examined the 
tin district of New England very minutely, as may be seen in his 
memoir on the Vegetable Creek Tin-mining Field. 2 The "Geology 
of the Vegetable Creek Tin-Mining Field," by Professor David, 

the ruby was clearly so rare as not to demand any attention. 
After an experience of twenty years, the present writer believes 
that the true ruby is rare, — in fact the rarest of our gems. 
Professor Liversidge mentions emerald being found in drifts at 
Tumberumba, Kiandra, mixed with granite detritus at Paradise 
Cr.M-k near Dundee, and in gneissiformed dykes on the summit of 
Mount Tennant. Prof. liversidge states, however, that in some 

3 of New South Wales, by Frof. Lh 

I must say that I have seen the true emerald in one district in 
New South Wales only, viz., in the county to the north and north- 
east of Emmaville. Emeralds have been recognised in that locality 
in the tin-bearing drifts for some twenty years past; but it was 
only in the year 1890 that these drifted emeralds were found in 
situ. In that year systematic mining for emeralds was begun, 
about seven miles to the north-east of the township of Emmaville, 
by the Emerald Proprietary Company. Attention was first 
drawn to this locality by Mr. H. M. Porter of Hillgrove. At 
the present time the Proprietary Company have some shafts 
down on the property to a depth of one hundred and fifteen feet, 
at that depth stones of a good colour and quality have been found, 
but from a variety of circumstances no active work is now being 
carried on at the mine. It would be a mistake however to con- 
clude that the emerald is confined to this one point of the locality 
named. I have seen emeralds of a good quality a mile-and-a-half 
to the north of the Proprietary Company's ground, and I have 
also seen a good emerald in a granitic matrix, discovered in 
detritus from a granite cliff, on a creek about two miles nearer 

Occurrence of Emerald. 
At the Emerald Proprietary Company's mine the emerald was 
found on the surface with disintegrated felspathic material, slate- 
rock, and quartz, not very far from the junction of clay-slate and 
granite. On opening the ground it was seen that a reef or vein 
of siliceous materials occurred in slate-rock or clay-stone. The 
reef travels or trends in a north-eastern direction, dipping at a 
hl gh angle to the south-east. At various points, proved to a 
depth of a hundred feet, shoots or pockets occur containing 
quartz, topaz, tin-stone, arsenical pyrites, fluorspar, and kaolin. 
These shoots almost always carry emerald or beryl associated 
with the minerals named. Again some shoots consist for the 
most part of emerald and beryl only. Glancing over a collection 
of emeralds from this mine, I noted the folio 


1. In this specimen an emerald is seen imbedded along its 
length in pure tin-white arsenical pyrites. In colour this stone 
is faultless. (A coloured photograph of this beautiful specimen 
was exhibited.) 

2. An emerald crystal, two inches long, completely imbedded 
in purple fluorspar. Originally the emerald and fluorspar was 
imbedded in kaolin. When broken across a very perfect hexagonal 
crystal of emerald was seen to be set in a ring of the purple 
fluorspar. A coloured plate of this remarkable stone was handed 

3. Here a long crystal of emerald rests in a quartzose matrix 
with kaolin and fluorspar. 

4. A rock composed almost exclusively of topaz cemented with 
kaolin ; long acicular crystals of emerald penetrate the kaolin in 

5. White fluorspar enclosing topaz, emerald, and beryl. 

6. A red compact felspathic material enclosing abundant 
crystals of beryl and emerald. 

7. This specimen contains purple and white fluorspar, crystals 
of tin-stone, crystallised quartz, arsenical pyrites, and crystals of 

A number of emeralds and beryls have been found to occur 
loose in soft kaolin in various parts of the Proprietary Mine. 
These crystals as a rule are small, (see Plate 16, fig. 1) but very 
perfect in form. The plate referred to gives an idea of their appear- 
ance. Some of the crystals are terminated, showing the basal and 
pyramidal planes. An exhaustive report on this mine by Professor 
David will be found in the Annual Report of the Department of 
Mines N. S. Wales for the year 1891. 

Size and Value.— The largest emerald found in the Proprietary 
Mine is estimated to weigh 23 carats ; but this is cracked in 
several places along the basal cleavage, so that an exceptionally 
large stone could not be cut from it. A few stones of first quality 

have been cut to weigh two carats ; but the great bulk of the 
stones that might be purchased were under one carat when cut. 
As regards the quality of the stones, the mine has yielded some 
gems that realised as high as £10 per carat; of course the ordinary 
run of the stones realise nothing like this figure, being rather 
light in colour, approaching rather to aquamarine than emerald. 

The proprietors of the mine state that 40,000 carats of emerald 
were yielded in eighteen months. Although the mine is not 
working at the present time, there is no doubt that a large 
quantity of emerald is still available. It may be noted here that 
this is the only occurrence of emerald in Australia in a true fissure - 
lode, associated with the minerals already enumerated. The 
Siberian emeralds as is well known, are found in mica-schist. 
But emeralds are known in pegmatite lodes some five feet wide 
near Bakersville, Mitchell County, North Carolina. 1 

Although the above mentioned is the only known instance of 
emerald occurring in a matrix in this Colony, beryl has frequently 
been note 1 in situ. The greenish coloured beryls mentioned by 
Professor Liversidge from the Shoalhaven River could not have 
travelled far from their matrices. Some eight years ago, beryl of 
good quality was found abundantly in the Elsmore Tin Mines. 
But the stretch of granite country between Emmaville and Tenter- 
field, known as the Mole tableland, is the most prolific locality 
for beryl in this country. The detrital matter from this granite 
almost invariably contains beryl. As the same detrital material 
is often washed for the tinstone it contains, beryl is a well known 
and common mineral amongst the tin mines of that part of New 
England. Some magnificent crystals have been found, some of 
the best of which have, to the writer's knowledge, been acquired 
*>y foreign museums. Beryl has undoubtedly been found at Ophir 
near Orange. Good hexagonal crystals of this gem are found in 
surface sluicing at Cope's Creek on the Auburn Vale side, close 

1 American Journal of Science, Third Series, Vol. xlviii., Not. 1894,. 

to the crossing-place to the Round Mount Diamond Mine, and 
also in the deep alluvial sinking at the Tingha Tin Mines. 

Professor David, in the report already referred to, makes men- 
tion of a true emerald being discovered at Kiandra. 1 
Probable oriyin of Emerald. 

Professor David writes, loc. cit., "There can be little doubt that 
the beryls and emeralds have been introduced into the joints or 
fissures in the claystone by solutions emanating from the under- 
lying intrusive granite." I am of opinion, however, that both 
claystone and granite received their gems from a common source. 
The topaz and fluorspar so prominently associated with emerald 
at Emmaville, are found even more abundantly in the granite than 
in the claystone. From a similarity in the occurrence and associ- 
ation of fluorspar and topaz in claystone as well as in granite, it 
seems to me that both granite and claystone were simultaneously 
invaded by the solutions carrying fluoride of silicon and fluoride 
of calcium, from which topaz and fluorspar crystallised. A com- 
parison of some of the best emeralds from Emmaville was made 
with some first-class emeralds from North America and Siberia. 

(a) Colour.— The Australian stones were in no cases of as deep 

(b) Lustre. — It seemed to me that the Australian stone was 

much superior to any others in lustre and life. This may 
be due in part to the cutting, the gems in my possession 
being cut by Mr. Murfin, lapidary, of Pitt-street, Sydney. 

(c) Hardness.— Our emeralds scratch quartz with the same 

facility as does the Siberian emerald, but both I found 
somewhat inferior in hardness to the white topaz associated 
with the emerald, and already referred to. 

(d) Specific Gravity.— The parcel of crystals photographed on 

Plate 15, fig. 1, have a specific gravity of 2 - 73. Some 
samples determined by Mr. Mingaye 2 gave a specific gravity 

of 2-67, while a beryl from Ophir, tested by Professor 
Liversidge had a specific gravity of 2-708. 1 
(e) Chemical Composition. — The following is the composition of 
an emerald from Emmaville as determined in my laboratory 
about two years ago by Mr. James Petrie. The analysis 
of a crystal from Paavo is also given for comparison. This 
latter is taken from Dana's 'Descriptive Mineralogy,' sixth 
edition, p. 407. 

Emmaville, N. S. Wales. Paavo. 
H 2 (on ignition) ... 0-62 

Specific gravity 2-73. 


Beryls, as a matter of course, occur with the emerald. ' The 
more correct statement of the relation between emerald and beryl 
is that around Emmaville beryl 2 is common, and that in a few 
localities there is a small proportion of the emerald. Plate 15 
shows a number of beryls of the natural size, all from New 
England. The longest gem on the plate was found by a Mr. 
Stanley at Stanburra, when ground-sluicing a patch of decomposed 

ne centre outward, the lines being formed of liquid or gas 
cavities are drawn out parallel to the faces of the prism, 
parallel to the vertical axis are examined the cavities are a 
drawn out in the direction of the vertical axis, so it ia evi 
successive shells as they were formed compressed the laye; 
"» all directions around the vertical axis 

tin-bearing granite. The exact place is not far to the left of the 
road from Inverell, through Auburn Vale, to the Round Mount 
Diamond Mine. 

In colour the beryls vary a good deal ; some have a very choice 
light blue, but green and blue-green tints prevail. The peculiar 
etched specimen on the plate was found in alluvial drift at Scrubby 
Gully, Inverell. A small prism in my own collection was found 
in a wash under basalt, on Kangaroobie Station near Ophir. 
Being of a light green colour, it is probable that some stones of 
this class are recorded in the " Minerals of New South Wales," 
as emerald. In fact Professor Liversidge gives it as his opinion 
that beryl is probably meant. 1 I have had a blue beryl from 
Tingha cut, and it made a gem that should satisfy the most 
fastidious. When mounted its brilliancy was faultless, sug- 
gestive somewhat of a blue topaz, but with a very much finer 
surface lustre. Plate 15 gives a good idea of the appearance of 
these stones when found in cradling, sluicing, or puddling for 


New South Wales excels in this gem-stone. If we except the 

famous Maxwell-Stuart topaz, 2 the largest and clearest stones in 

the world have been found in the New England districts of this 

Mode 0/ Occurrence. 

The topaz has been found in its original matrix as well as 

generally in the tin-bearing drifts about Tingha, Inverell, and 

Emmaville. The association of tin-stone and topaz is very 

marked and is easy to explain. The tin stone is invariably found 

i in granite. The same granite 

oved the 

matrix of topaz. Specimens are not rare showing tin stone, topaz, 
fluorspar, and smoky quartz, in the same matrix. At the Pro- 

1 The Minerals of New South Wales, by Prof. Liversidge, London, 
1888, p. 199. 

2 Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. in., p. 9.3. 

prietary Mine, Emmaville, beautifully lustrous crystals are found 
associated with topaz, fluorspar, biotite, and quartz and enclosing 
crystals of arsenical pyrites. At the same mine a massive rock 
composed of topaz crystals held together by a white kaolin is 
common. Professor David records the occurrence of this rock in 
his report on the emerald mine. 1 At the time of Professor 
David's visit this topaz rock formed a vein eight inches thick. 
Since then very much wider masses of almost pure topaz rock 
have been broken down at this mine. The surface lustre of some 
of these crystals is extremely brilliant, and without exception they 
are clear and colourless but flawed across the prism. 

Forms. — Crystals of a more robust habit are found at Oban. 
The Emmaville topaz from the matrix frequently shows the basal 
pinacoid pyramid and prisms well developed. The Oban crystals 
have a wedge-shaped appearance that the topaz at the Emerald 
Proprietary Mine never show. This wedge shape is due to the 
greater development of the brachydomes. The face y of Dana's 
System of Mineralogy is generally present modifying /. The 
prisms I and m are usually striated. M is occasionally present. 
In one specimen a cleavage to parallel / was very clearly shown. 
The basal cleavage is as always very well developed. 

The largest crystal I have seen is the example figured on Plate 
l & fig. 3. This weighed a little over sixteen ounces when found. 
It was discovered in a granitic detritus at Oban in New England. 
The topaz reproduced on Plate 13, figs. 1 and 2, are also from the 
Oban district. The waterworn example is a perfectly clear white 
stone weighing a little over seven ounces, and from which a gem 
could be cut to rival the famous Maxwell-Stuart stone. Fig. 2 
°n the same plate is an imperfect crystal from Oban with a 
slightly greenish cast. *The rounded stone shown in fig. 1 being 
perfectly clear I determined its specific gravity. 

Specific gravity of a New England topaz weighing 

203-548 grams at 60° F 3573. 

1 Annual Report of the Department of Mines=, N. S. Wales, 1891, p. 230. 

*This is a little higher thai : i y of the average 

topaz. The mean of eleven determinations recorded by Dana 
being 3-524. 

Plate 15, fig. 1, shows waterworn pebbles of topaz found with 
allu\i;'l tin on Cope's Creek. 

Plate 15, fig. 2, shows a collection made from Scrubby Gully 
and the Mole Tableland. No two stones are the same colour in 

and they all exhibit the peculiar glaze-like lustre of topaz. This 
quality gives to cut stones a distinctive slippery feel that enables 
one to recognise these stones even in the dark. 

Colour. — As to the hue-suite, there is plenty to select from in 
New South Wales topaz. Writing of Victorian topaz Dr. 
Bleasdale 1 says that "there is not in the world a stone fit for 
brooches of size and fire and lustre, and suited to both day and 
candle-light, equal to some of the blue topazes of Victoria." 
. The same can with truth be said of the topaz of New England. 
When well cut and polished with care (there is as lapidaries say 
a « grain ' in topaz) they have all the qualities that a gem should 
possess, — rarity, durability, hardness, and beauty. 

A light lemon-yellow topaz is often seen in collections. I do 
not think a true yellow topaz has yet been recorded. The speci- 

plate is typical of many 

in the way of colour. The centre of the stone is a delicate warm 
amber-brown, while both ends are tinted with a bluish-green. 
The stone alongside, 299, is a faultless blue with a brilliancy that 
asserts itself even in the rough stone. Sea-green and pink 
varieties are in the possession of every collector. Good topaz 
were at one time coming from Tingha, where they were found 
both in the shallow working for tin known as sluicing-ground, 
and in the deep ground covered by basalt. Some good stones are 
i ( >ban. 

3 and Precious 

Herewith is an analysis of a topaz from Emmaville, t 

are added for the sake of comparison the figures for a Ta 

topaz, extracted from Dana's "System of Mineralogy." 1 

Emmaville, N.S.W. Tasmania 

Si0 2 30-29 ... 33-24 

A1 2 3 60-90 ... 57-02 

Specific gravity 3-50. Colour bluish-white. 


It would be hard to find a district in the Colony where garnet 
m one variety or another may not be found. Massive garnet 
rock is not uncommon. A garnetiferous lode was found gold- 
bearing and worked with profit near Molong. Massive garnet is 
found near Minore Railway Station. Masses of magnetic iron 
and garnet are found near Binalong. Garnet rock must occur in 
abundance in the Tumut district. Numbers of samples are 
collected by miners and prospectors. Professor David first 
recorded the exact localities for garnet in the Emmaville (Vege- 
table Creek) district, as for example, at Boiling-Down Creek and 
Patterson's Reef. 2 Garnet fit to be classed as a precious stone is 
not common. Certainly no garnets have been found here to 
compare with the stones from the MaoDonnell Ranges, or with 
those occasionally sent down from Queensland. The best garnet 
X have seen in situ occurs near the Tarn worth- Bingera road, 
twelve miles from the last-named town. This locality was 
examined by the writer in 1892. A note by Mr. D. A. Porter 3 
referring to the same place, speaks of the garnets as lying on the 

1 Dana's System of Mineralogy, 1892 c 


surface, and he notes that they had the appearance of not having 
travelled far. I found several pieces of a coarsely crystallising 
basic rock containing the garnets in situ. 

The garnet is found close to an isolated hummock of basalt that 
cannot easily be connected with the other basalts of the district. 
The probability is that the basic rock referred to is a segregation 
from the basalt, or a selvage in contact with the country rock, 
should the basalt be found to be an intrusive mass. The rock 
must have been denuded considerably, as garnet can be washed 
from the soil around for a considerable distance. At the time of 
my visit, the stones were considered to be rubies, and the ground 
was taken up to mine for the gems. The mistake was a pardon- 
able one, with men who are accustomed to consider every stone 
with a fine red colour a ruby. 1 collected some of the stones, and 
in violation of all the traditions of the lapidary insisted on having 
the stones cut as brilliants and not en cabochon or carbuncle style. 
The result was decidedly pleasing. The cut stone shows a perfect 
"pigeon-blood" red by reflected light, but a rather muddy 
hyacinth red by transmitted light. The fracture, single refraction, 
fusibility, and hardness, show that they have all the life and 
beauty of true gems. 

The matrix of this garnet already referred to is an interesting 
rock. It might be described as a holocrystalline granular, basic 
rock, composed of pyroxene, felspar and kelyphyte rings of a com- 
posite substance surrounding garnet. The garnet in question tf 
nearer to pyrope than almandine, and it is remarkable that Diller 
describes an American rock with pyrope surrounded in a like 
manner by radial shells of biotite and magnetite. A very similar 
occurrence is figured by Rosenbush. 2 An analysis of this interest- 
ing rock is here given : — 

Basic rock from Bingara H 3 (on ignition) ... I" 2 

Si0 2 42-4 

A1 3 3 I 8 ' 4 


CaO ... 

K„0 ~> 
Na 9 0j 


Specific gravity 3*1. 100-0 

I have stated that the garnet itself is pyrope. A few grains of 

the best coloured stones were picked from a quantity of the washed 

sand. The following is the analysis. An analysis of a South 

African garnet is also given from Dana's " System of Mineralogy." 

Binevara. South Africa. 





10044 10004 

Specific gravity 3 7 43. 

Mr. G. W. Card has described a garnet-bearing sand from 
Bingara. 1 This is probably the same garnet. The presence of 
the pyroxene and magnetite strengthens this opinion. But Mr. 
Card describes his specimens as almandine. I am aware however, 
that garnet is found in several other places around Bingara, but 
I have no personal knowledge of these stones. 

Garnets of good colour, quite fit for gems, are found in the 
auriferous sands of Cuninghame Creek, near Murrumburrah. 
Interesting dyke rocks intersect the granites of this locality. An 
intrusive dyke of leucite basalt was discovered about two miles 
south of Murrumburrah by the writer, and a mile or so further 

Geological Survej 

New South , 

south, at Nimby, another basalt dyke is seen to be the matrix 
of the red garnets. This dyke can be traced from a point just 
in front of Mr. Edward Fallon's house in a southerly direction 
for a mile or more. In that distance the character of the stone 
changes somewhat. At the south end the basalt stands out in 
little hillocks, and is not in any way remarkable in hand speci- 
mens. Further north phenocrysts of a dark lustrous mineral 
show in the stone. These are sometimes one inch in diameter, 
giving the rock quite a distinctive appearance. Through the 
courtesy of Mr. John Burke, j.p., of Murrumburrah, I was 
able to sink a few feet through the rock. Some interesting 
specimens were thus secured. I had the satisfaction of finding 
the blood-red garnet in situ. In most cases the garnet was asso- 
ciated with common olivine, which occured in the basalt in nests 
measuring half an inch across. The olivine was granular, and of 
various shades in the same mass, sometimes of a rich sapphire 
green of o fine a colour as to rise to the dignity of chrysolite. 
As regards colour this chrysolite is perfect, but unfortunately no 
specimens of any size were found. It was not easy to procure 
specimens pure enough for analysis, indeed the results of the 
analyses made vary so much that I am not prepared to give them 
here. The stones show no cleavage, are dark between crossed 
nicols, and are fusible before the blowpipe. Specific gravity 3-78. 
The large lustrous black phenocrysts in this basalt were corroded 
and rounded, and had evidently floated some time in the molten 
magma. These were found to be pyroxenes, closely allied to augite. 
The following is an analysis of the pyroxene with an example 
of a St. Vincent augite for comparison. This last is taken from 
Dana's "System of Mineralogy," p. 361, edition 1892. 

Pyroxene from near Harden. Augite, St. Vincent. 

Si0 2 4980 45-14 

A1.,0 3 9-90 8-15 

Fe 2 O s 8-64 525 

CaO 15-80 .,. ... 19-57 

MgO 15-86 14-76 

Garnets of good colour are not uncommon in the Broken Hill 
district. Broken Hill silver ores ofcen show abundance of bright 
red garnets. Mr. Geological Surveyor Jaquet 1 is of opinion that 
these garnets were derived from the walls of the lodes rather 
than formed in situ from mineral-bearing waters. 

Garnets of good colour are also found plentifully in the sands 
of some creeks at Poolamacca. Mr. Brougham of Poolamacca 
Station, has had some very fine stones cut. The blacks here- 
abouts are adepts at washing the sands for garnets, and T may 
add adepts too in gauging the value of a stone. 2 

In dealing with sapphire I had occasion to mention the presence 
of zircon, both atTumberumba and Berrima. I have also collected 
zircon in the sluicing-boxes at Araluen, and amongst the alluvial 
tin-stone of the Emmaville district. I have had stones cut by 
Mr. Murfin, from Berrima and Tumberumba. These would be 
called hyacinths. I have not noticed the peculiar opalescence 
that zircon sometimes shows, in any of our gems. All the stones I 
tried before the blowpipe lost their colour on heating. There is 
an abundance of zircon in the auriferous drifts and alluvial tin 
deposits, but even good stones have so little commercial value 
that the miner cannot afford time to save them. This is rather 
a pity, for after all, the zircon is a lovely gem with a magnificent 
lustre that should entitle it to be highly prized. The best 
stones hitherto found come from Hanging Rock, near Nundle, 
where for some time they were believed, by the miners to be 

Amandine garnet (derived from older rocks) has been described from 
I iwkeaburj Sandstones near Sydney, by Mr. Henry Smith. They 
mall and not plentiful, indeed they are so rare that I am not aware 
any collector has succeeded in getting a single ounce of the garnets 


Turquoise is found in one district only in New South Wales, 
viz., near Bodalla ; the exact locality is at a bluff on the left bank 
of Mumuga Creek, half a mile up the stream off the main road from 
Bodalla to Wonga Heads. The bluff consists of highly-inclined 
and in some places contorted Silurian slate. This gem-stone was 
discovered here early in the year 1894, by Mr. S. Lorigan, of 
Bodalla, when prospecting for gold. Locally the stone was thought 
to be one of the ores of copper. The credit of recognising its true 
nature is due to Mrs. Laidley Mort, of the Bodalla estate. Shortly 
afterwards some samples were se nt to the writer, who forwarded 
an analysis of the turquoise to Mr. Lorigan. This showed that 
the stone was a phosphate of alumina and copper, or in other 
words a true turquoise. At the date of writing (1896) some men 
are mining for turquoise with varying success. Some excellent 
samples of turquoise have been found, but it is fairly settled, that 
the great bulk of the turquoise found here is not marketable as a 
gem-stone. When I visited the mine, Joubert and party had close 
on one hundredweight of turquoise, but most of this was faulty in 
colour, and not perfect in texture. Much of the stone is found 
on polishing to be rather porous, certainly not as compact as good 
turquoise should be. The bulk of the stones, too, have an objec- 
tionably green tinge. At the same time I must admit that a few 
picked stones are quite equal to turquoise of the best quality. 
Occurrence of the Gem. 

The turquoise generally occurs as : — 

(1) Thin crust-like seams filling horizontal joints in the slate. 

(2) In rounded marble-like balls in vugs of the slate. 

(3) As concretionary masses in similar vugs. 

(4) In thin lenticular plates in black slate associated with iron 

The slate-rock is dark in colour, and at a short distance from 
the surface is always found charged more or less with iron pyrites. 
This pyrites when separated from the stone contains gold at the 

rate of two pennyweights to the ton. It has been mentioned 
that the turquoise has been found in concretionary masses. These 
balls, it may be noted, are oftentimes found completely imbedded 
in a very dark carbonaceous earth. The joints in which the tur- 
quoise occur are, as a rule, at right-angles or nearly at right-angles 
to the bedding-planes of the slate. 

When seen in situ a good deal of the turquoise appears of a good 
sky-blue. When mined and stored for a while the blue colour alters 
to a bluish-green, and often to a decided apple-green, showing little 
or no blue. The thickest seam found up to the present measures 
three-sixteenths of an inch in depth. Some of the best coloured 
stone is not more than one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness. 
Slabs of turquoise six inches long by three inches wide have been 
taken from the mine. 

With regard to the origin of the turquoise in this particular 
locality, there is very little evidence to base an opinion on. Prof. 
P. W. Clarke is of opinion that the turquoise of the Los Cerrillos 
wines is of local origin, and he emphasises the idea that it has 
resulted from the alteration of some other mineral, for instance 
from apatite. The existence of pyrite in the gold-bearing veins 
may have had something to do with initiating the process of alter 
ation, and the alumina of the turquoise was probably derived 
from decomposing felspar. 1 

The presence of pyrites in the matrix of the New South Wales 
stone is a circumstance worth noting in this connection. It has 
been already stated that carbonaceous slate-rock is the matrix of 
some of the turquoise. In more instances than one I have noted 
at Bodalla concretionary turquoise, surrounded by a black powdery 
granular material not unlike a black oxide of manganese. But 
the borax bead shows no reaction for either iron or manganese. 
On heating, the carbonaceous nature of the material is at once 
made clear. If this carbon has had an organic origin a possible 
9 &eria tor this phosphate-bearing gem is apparent. 

'Gems and Precious Stones in United States, Canada and Mexico, by 

Decific g 

avity of Bodalla turquoise 

•5 to 6. 

Tin; chemical composition 

* Analysis of Turquoise. 

H. 3 Oo 

a ignition 

SiO, . 

CuO . 

A1 3 3 

Fe fl O a 

CaO . 

P.O., . 


In a closed tube this turquoise gives off water, decrepitates, 
and on further heating turns black. Alone it colours a Bunsen 
flame slightly green, and with hydrochloric acid a vivid blue. The 
pure varieties are almost entirely soluble in hydrochloric acid, 
making a grass-green solution. 

It has been stated that the turquoise described loses its colour 
with age. This may have arisen from the fact that seams of tur- 
quoise are found at the mine altered to a white porcelain-like 
material. Some polished samples in my own collection, although 
exposed to a strong light for about two years, have not altered in 
colour. A sample of a fine bluish-green colour, cut and mounted 
as a brooch, has not altered in colour since cutting eighteen months 
ago. I have observed that the turquoise does alter somewhat 
immediately after being removed from the parent rock. This I 
attribute to a loss of water, for the gem loses weight as well as 
colour when placed in the cabinet. Once dried, as far as my 
experience goes, the colour then assumed is permanent. 1 

1 Since my visit to Bodalla turquoise has been found in some other 
localities of this district. A record of turquoise being found here, has 
been already made by Mr. Card— Eecords Geol. Survey of N. S. Wales, 


The noble or fire opal, or the only variety that may be called a 
precious stone, is found in two localities only in New South Wales, 
namely, at the White Cliffs, about fifty miles from Wilcannia 
Station, and at Rocky Bridge Creek, near Trunkey. 

At Rocky Bridge Creek the opal fills vesicular cavities in a 
decomposed acidic or andesitic lava. The lava rests on auriferous 
gravels and sandS of the usual Tertiary type. Some of the stones 
found here are of the finest possible quality. The larger stones 

found are rather milky but show fine colours. The small gems 
lately got by Mr. S. Davis, of Carcoar, are not to be surpassed, — 
equal to the best Hungarian. As is well known the Wilcannia 
and Queensland opals are found encrusting or filling cracks, and 
the finest stones often want depth. The Rocky Bridge opals 
occur in the matrix in rounded pea-shaped pieces. When a 
good stone of this kind is found, it can be cut to the best advantage. 
I do not think that the search for these opals ever has been re- 
munerative. There is a difficulty in getting out the gem— at least 
the miner finds it difficult without a cutting wheel. At present 

and the vesicular lava is extensively developed, more gems are 
certain to come to light. 

At the White Cliffs the opals occur in quite a different way. 
They are not in any way connected, so far as I could see, with 


igneous rocks. The opal is found in Upper Cretaceous Sandstones, 
lining joints and filling fissures both vertical and horizontal. 
Shells and other fossils are found completely opalised. As might 
be supposed only a part of the opal found is of any value as a gem. 
The dull, milky, and opaque stones are called " potsh " by the 
miners. Messrs. Hoffnung are large buyers of the better class of 
the opal found here. Much of the stone is cut at their Sydney 
establishment, but the greater quantity is exported to Europe 
and America. I have at various times received opaline stones 
from other localities within the cretaceous area, as far north as 
Mount Brown. 1 Mr. Slee gave it as his opinion some years ago, 
that opal would be found over a large area of the far west, and 
there is every reason now to believe his opinion is correct. The 
drawback to opal-mining is that there are no surface indications 
to guide one where to begin operations in the search. Some of 
the best stone at the White Cliffs is come upon almost by 

When sent to the market the Wilcannia stone can be always 
separated from the Queensland opal. The matrix of the Wilcannia 
opal is so friable that it is easily removed, and the gem is sent 
down in the rough. *In fact they are picked out of the " face " in 
the mines directly they are seen. This is done with a short blade 
knife, and without removing any of the matrix with the gem. I 
very often noticed a clear space above the opal along the whole 
length of the layer. The character of the gem as brought to the 
surface is shown on Plate 17, fig. 2. 

The Queensland gems on the contrary are in a matrix of siliceous 
limonite or haematite, or a sandstone cemented by those iron com- 
pounds. The matrix can be safely removed by the lapidary's 
slitting disc only. Exceptions are known, but generally there is 
the difference shown in Plate 17, figs. 1 and 2. 

l Having gone over a great deal of the north-western districts of the 
Colony since the above was written, I am not now so hopeful as to the 
large extent of country indicated by Mr. Slee, being found to carry opal. 

As to the quality of the stone, 1 I venture to say, after seeing 
some hundreds of packages of it both cut and in the rough, that 
New South Wales is at the date of writing, putting on the market 
a gem that can be taken as the finest opal in the world. 

*Quite recently I spent a few days on the White Cliff opal field 
and found the output of marketable gems equal to £200 per week. 
The opal-bearing country as already stated is of Upper Cretaceous 
age. In this locality opal has been found along a strip of country 
not more than one and a half miles wide and twelve to sixteen 
miles long. 

*Some of the best finds were made by following surface indica- 
tion where some opal was left by the weathering of the sandstones, 
but as a rule, miners sink shafts anywhere within the area indi- 
cated with the hope of finding a seam of opal. Even within this 
area, experience has shown the probabilities of finding good stone 
is confined to certain localities, that show no specially distinctive 

*When on good ground the opal is not confined to a single level. 
I saw opal at three separate levels in one shaft. In one of these 
drives, two horizontal layers of opal could be seen connected by 
a vertical film-like sheet of the same material. In Block 1, seams 
of opal were found at depths of fifteen and twenty-seven feet from 
the surface, and similar conditions can be observed on other parts 
of the field. The question then arises, as to the probability of 
opal being found to considerable depths on the field. Present 
appearances would appear to indicate that the conditions under 
which the opal is found cease at a depth of from fifty to sixty feet 
from the surface. The stratified zone in which the opals occur 
cannot be described as a sandstone. Mr. Jaquet refers to it as a 
kaolin. In my opinion, the term marl-stone would be more 
appropriate. There is no doubt about the matrix being felspathic, 
and much of it contains sufficient carbonate of lime to effervesce 

i black opal is sometimes found and is 
when polished a perfect black, and when, as it o: 
ed with white opal, a very pleasing effect is obtai 

with cold hydrochloric acid. The specimen now exhibited con- 
taining some noble opal, is a typical white and hard marl. In 
places, as might be supposed, this marl is deprived of the carbonate 
of lime and then approaches a kaolin, while it is in most cases 
stained with iron oxides. The opal now mined is won entirely 
from this marl-stone, which probably does not go down more than 
some sixty feet. Below this there is eighty feet of a soft and clayey 
rock, locally called "slum," a bed not at all likely to contain opal. 
Under the so called "slum " is a bed of sandstone into which a 
well was put to the depth of twenty-five feet without finding any 
traces of opaline rock. About nine miles to the north-east of 
White Cliffs, the horizon on which opal is found is seen to be 
succeeded by yellow ochre-like clays. White claystones rest on 
these and the series is capped by a siliceous conglomerate. 
Origin of the Opal. 

*One of the first facts to be noted on the opal field is the associ- 
ation of the opal with lenticular masses of a rock, known to the 
miners as "angle stone," and the "guardian angle stone." This 
rock has all the appearance of a diatomaceous earth. The rock 
is also known as "biscuit stone," aiul this expresses well the 
peculiar and well known feel of indurated diatomaceous earths. 
I have made a number of slices of this rock, but have not been 
able so far to recognise diatoms or radiolaria. 1 I may state that 
the "angel stone " lies in layers above the opal, and in my opinion 
is a diatomaceous deposit, or certainly one of organic origin, and 
that it furnished the silica to form the opal. 

*In this connection I may say that I have more than once 
received specimens of diatomite from the Richmond River, which 
were in part converted into a true opal. Mr. Krause, Lecturer 
on Mining at the Melbourne University, describes 2 a tripolite 
deposit from Lilicur (Vic). The deposit is seventeen and a half 
feet in thickness, and covers an area of four and a half acres. He 

I Royal Society, Victoria, Vol. 

points out how joints and fissures are produced in the co 
mass "along which percolating waters have caused 

form. This process is still going on, and the result is an occasional 
band or reticular patch of opal of a waxy lustre and pale yellow 

*Dr. Cooksey 1 has pointed out that when opal replaces calcite, 
the cleavage of the latter mineral is preserved, and that much of 
the reflected light in the noble opal is thrown from these cleavages. 
I noted opal replacing shells, reptilian bones, and belemnites. 
The finest opal found was probably a stone which replaced the 
centrum of some vertebra? of a Saurian — allied to plesiosanrus. 
One interesting form of opal is locally known as " pipe " opal. 
This 1 found to be a replacement of a belemnite. 

*The occurrence of waterwom quartzite boulders in the opal- 
bearing marls and kaolins is a matter not easily explained. They 
are undoubtedly derived from Devonian quartzites, and in litho- 
logical character cannot be distinguished from the sandstones that 
are seen on the Broken Hill road about nine miles from Wilcannia, 
or from the vitreous-like sandstone overlain unconformably by 
cretaceous beds on the Tally walka Creek to the east of Wilcannia. 
Many of these boulders are ten to fifteen hundred weight, and in 
some cases are completely encrusted by a skin of opal, evidently 
formed in situ. I saw an example where a boulder was surrounded 
by a layer of gypsum, the latter mineral being replaced in places 
by opal. They are also seamed with veins of opal. Sometimes 
specimens of this sandstone are seen to be dotted throughout with 
specks of fire opal, and these when cut into slabs are magnificent 
objects for the cabinet of collectors, or for ornamental purposes. 

* Apart from accounting for the source whence the boulders were 
derived, it is not easy to see how they came to be transported with 
such fine sediments as surround them. The current that could 
carry along such boulders would not be likely to deposit fine clays. 
1 Records, Aust. Museum, Vol. u., p. 111. 

At first sight they lead one to think they had been dropped into 
position after the manner of erratics, but of this there is no 
collateral evidence. 

There are a number of other stones of little interest that come 
under the heading of precious stones, that I propose to treat of 

Amethyst.— Is the one variety of quartz most prized as a gem. 
This stone cannot be said to be rare in the colony. I have collected 
specimens from alongside a quartz leader, in the cliffs between 
Eden and Twofold Bay, in highly inclined clay slates. I have a 
group of crystals found in a cavity in the trachyte (syenite) of 
Bowral. Excellent examples of a fine colour were found at one 
time in a tunnel in porphyry at Bowling Alley Point. Professor 
David 1 notes a vein of amethystine quartz, one and a half feet 
wide, in New England. 

The best coloured amethyst I have in my own collection comes 
from Oberon. Between Oberon and O'Connell's Plains a quantity 
of amethyst was discovered in 1890, from which some fine gems 

Hose Quartz. — This rare variety is not often met with in this 
colony. The only specimen in my collection comes from the Mole 
Tableland, but it was not collected by the writer. 

Black and Smoky Quartz.— Every shade of these stones is easily 
obtainable. Some lemon-yellow varieties are much in request, and 
are often found. Very beautiful and water clear pieces are found 
up to one pound in weight. I have seen large blocks of perfect 
cairngorm from the deep leads at Gulgong. The fine group figured 
on the photograph exhibited, comes from a tin-bearing drift at 
Elsmore, near Inverell. The darkest of these stones becomes clear 
on heating. As exemplifying their abundance, I may say that 
my collection contains good smoky quartz from places as widely 

1 Geology of the Vegetable Creek Tin-mining Field, by Prof. T. W. E. 
David, p. 133. 

separated as Kiandra, Gulgong, Tingha, Dubbo, Port Macquarie, 
Moruya, and Nundle. 

Chrysoprase or green chalcedony occurs in a conglomerate over- 
lying the coal measures at Gunnedah. It is rare ; I have but a 
single example in my cabinets. 

Jasper is abundant in every part of the colony, the plains of 
the interior, granitic and Hawkesbury-sandstone country excepted. 
It is curious to note that rather good and rich-coloured jasper is 
found in the vicinity of Silurian limestones, particularly about 
Molong. Vast quantities are derived from a belt of rock that can 
be traced from Moonbi to Bingara. I have found good water- 
worn jasper ten miles east of Narrabri, have never seen any 
use made of this stone. 

Chalcedony is abundant in the northern and western districts, 
but no really good examples have come under my notice. Remark- 
ably fine slates of chalcedony mamillated on the upper surface are 
found near Walcha, but beautiful as they are they hardly come 
under the heading of precious stones. 

Agate. — We are so accustomed to see beautiful agate in the 
shape of agate mortars, pen handles, and various ornaments— the 
work of the Oberstein mills— that we can only with difficulty class 
those hitherto found in New South Wales as precious stones. 
One is safe in saying that tons of agate could be collected at 
Werris Creek and Narrabri, but in every ton there would be not 
more than two or three specimens worth the attention of a collector, 
not to speak of a dealer in precious stones. 

Serpentine.— Some at least of our serpentines deserve to rank 
as precious stones. Quite recently a serpentine of a rich leaf-green 
colour lias been discovered at Whitney Green, near Orange. The 
nch colour of this stone is unique. But the slabs sent me were 
not more than a few inches square. Should any quantity of the 
material be available it will find a ready market. 

There is a serpentine at Port Macquarie that might well be 
considered a precious stone, from its fine colour, texture, and 


polishing properties. Very handsome slabs of serpentine can be 
procured in abundance at Bingera and Drake, the latter veined 
with chrysotile. 

A variety of Nephrite or jade occurs at Lucknow in the Pro 
prietary mine. It is associated with a hornblendic felsite. Under 

the wonderful toughness of this stone. 

I have one specimen of Iolite found with topaz and tinstone at 
Emmaville. It is hardly fine enough to be ranked as a precious 
stone, but its presence is worth recording. 

At Mount Hope an ore of copper is sometimes found consisting 
of a siliceous red oxide, green carbonate, and " grey ore." Pen- 
dants and trinkets of this were at one time in demand. This 
stone takes a good polish, and the colours are very clear. It 
might be called a precious stone but has an unmistakably vulgar 
appearance when placed alongside true gem-stones. 

Some really good Malachite was found in nodules up to two inches 
in diameter in the upper levels of the Great Cobar Mine. The 
colour of these when cut was remarkably fine — darker and richer 
than the well-known Walleroo malachite. A fibrous variety, fault- 
less in colour but too soft to polish, was also very plentiful at Cobar. 

Topaz.— Perfectly transparent stones were selected, and freed 
from any surface traces of iron, etc., by boiling in HOI. They 
were ground to the finest possible powder in an agate mortar, 
which was weighed before and after crushing. The SiO, taken 
up from the mortar was afterwards deducted. The mineral was 
fused with sodium and potassium carbonates, and the sodium 
fluoride formed was dissolved out of the melt with water. The 
solution was warmed with Am 2 CO 3 to separate any small quantity 
of Si0 2 and A1 2 3 , and filtered. 

The residue was dissolved in HC1, and the SiO„ A1 2 3 , and 
CaO, separated by usual method. 

The filtrate was boiled till free from ammonia and the greater 
part of the Na a C0 3 neutralised with nitric acid. CaCJ 2 was then 
added, and the precipitate of calcium carbonate and fluoride ignited 
to facilitate filtration. The CaC0 3 was dissolved out with acetic 
acid, and the CaF a dried and weighed. 

Garnet — Pyrope. — These were picked out carefully' from the 
gem-sand, crushed and sieved. The sample was fused with double 
carbonates, and the melt, which possessed a deep green colour, 
dissolved, and the Si 2 separated. 

The iron and alumina were separated by basic acetate method, 
re-dissolved and precipitated with NH 4 0H, and the double oxide 
weighed. The ignited residue was fused with potassium bisulphate, 
and the iron estimated volumetrically. The filtrate from the above 
was made alkaline with NH 4 OH, bromine water added, and boiled, 
and the precipitate weighed as Mn 3 4 . The filtrate was treated 
for CaO and MgO in the usual way. 

The ferrous iron was estimated by decomposing the sample with 

Emerald.— The crystals were quite transparent, and perfectly 
free from any of the matrix, pulverised and fused with double 
carbonates ; the mass which was faintly green was digested with 
HC1 and H a O, and the Si0. 3 separated. The Al a O s was pre- 
cipitated from the filtrate after concentration by pouring it slowly 
into a strong solution of (NH 4 ) 3 C0 3 , the BeO remaining dis- 
solved. This was allowed to digest several hours to ensure the 
complete solution of the BeO. The A1 3 3 was filtered off, and 
after boiling off the (NH ( )., C0 3 and acidulating with HC1, the 
beryllia was finally precipitated with NH 4 OH as Be(OH) 3 . This 
method of separating BeO from Al 3 O s is stated in Crookes' 
"Select Methods" not to be reliable, but as a number of my 
experiments gave perfectly concordant results I have no reason 
to object to it. A spectroscopic examination was made of the 
residue, obtained in the usual separation of the alkalis. The rare 


alkalis were carefully searched for but were found not to be 

Basaltic Rock.— In the estimation of the alkalis, the double 
chlorides of E ttn were weighed, then the CI deter- 

mined volumetrically. The proportion of Na and K was then 
calculated by the formula given in Thorpe. The K was also 
specially determined by the PtCl 4 method. 

I am indebted to the following works in studying gems and 

"Minerals of New South Wales."' — Liversidge. 

"Gems and Precious Stones." — Kunz. 

"Precious Stones and Gems." — Streeter. 

"Precious Stones." — Church. 

"System of Mineralogy." — Dana. 

"The Science of Gems."— Lewis Abbott. 

"Select Methods of Chemical Analysis." — Crookes. 

"Mineral Analyses." — Wohner. 

"Encyclopedic Chimique." — Fremy. 

Diamond— New South Wales diamonds are characterised by 
(a) a high specific gravity ; (b) a superior hardness and a tine 
lustre ; (c) an absence of pronounced cleavage. Although some 
stones five to eight carats have been found, the bulk of the stones 
are small, three to the carat. The diamond is widely distributed 
but is found in three localities only, in quantities sufficient to be 
considered economically important: — Bingara ; Inverell district, 
including Cope's Creek, Round Mount, and Staggy Creek ; and 
Two-Mile Flat, near Mudgee. The original matrix of the diamond 
has not yet been discovered. The diamonds hitherto found occur 
in drift, and there is no evidence to show they were formed in 
these drifts. The probability is that the diamond is derived 
from a matrix occurring higher up the Dividing Range than any 

Sapphire— Sapphires are found chiefly in the tin-bearing drifts 
of Tertiary and Post-Tertiary age of the Emmaville and Tingha 

districts. There is reason to believe that basalt is the matrix of 
sapphire. The blue sapphire is abundant under the conditions 
mentioned. The bulk of the stones found are opaque, and stones 
of good quality are rare. Some bronze coloured and yellow- 
opaque sapphire from the Berrima district are remarkable for 
their high specific gravity. The -ruby is in New South Wales the 

Emerald — Emeralds are found near Emmaville in a felsitic 
matrix associated with topaz, fluorspar, and tinstone. Emerald 
and beryl occur in the same district in a granitic matrix. 

Topaz — Topaz of excellent quality is found in New South 
Wales. It occurs for the most part in the tin-bearing granites 
of the northern portion of the colony, and has been discovered 
in situ, but more abundantly in the tin-bearing drifts and recent 
detrital deposits. 

Opal—Opal of excellent quality is found in Cretaceous beds in 
Western New South Wales. This opal is found to replace shells, 
belemnites and saurian bones of Cretaceous age. The silica for 
this opal has been derived from beds of organic origin-r-diatom- 
aceous or radiolarian. Opal is also known to fill the cavities in 
lavas, the silica of these gems being derived from the decompo- 
sition of the felspars. 

Other Gems — Zircon is abundant in a few localities, and in 
lesser quantity is to be found in drifts over granitic and lower 
Palaeozoic areas. Garnets are abundantly distributed, but stones 
that may rank as gems are known from a few districts only. 

Prom a scientific standpoint it will be seen that the variety of 
°ur known gem-stones is sufficient to attract attention, and 
open up a subject worthy of more elaborate research. From a 
commercial point of view we may easily believe that the gems, 
and precious stones of the Colony form not an inconsiderable item 
amongst the factors that go to make up the grand total of the 
Colony's magnificent heritage — her mineral resources. 


In view of the fact that this paper will be read by prospectors 
and others in far-off districts, I venture to add a few notes on the 
discrimination of gems. 

In my own experience, I find i 
lustrous quartz crystals mistaken for diamonds ; and numbers of 
practical men fail to distinguish between topaz and quartz. 
Another every-day difficulty is to discriminate between white 
zircon and diamond. On these points, therefore, I append some 
notes, intended for those who are so situated as not to have the 
methods and resources of a laboratory at their disposal. 

Laboratory methods for the determination of gems have now 
reached great perfection, so much so that the mineralogist is 
not now forced to determine the hardness of a gem, as a necessary 
process in establishing its specific identity. Mr. Lewis Abbot, 
says, in one of his lectures, that " we can begin by dismissing 
hardness as a character which : 
except to identify the diamond 
a past*- ; here I know 1 shall 

really necessary to < 
a rebuke from the 


e the study < 
ith a knife 

>f what should be 

te observatic 

>n is pc 

,ssible, the 

ity will give 

data s 

efficient to 

scratch everything which he c 

In the laboratory whore a 

optical properties and specific 

determine most gems. The use of heavy solutions tlu 
gem-stones is now a recognised method. The reflecting 
the polariscope, the stauroscope, the dichroscope, a 
reflectoraeter are also used to discriminate between 
prospector, however, cannot avail himself of the precision that these 

,:iake possible, and he is compelled 
hardness, colour, fnsiiiiiity, specific gravity, and perhaps 
form of supposed gem stones. 
Diamonds.— Zircon is most commonly taken for dianior 
prospectors. The parcels of diamonds sent from Bingara 

c on the 

often contain some zircon. The mistake is a pardonable one, for 
the surface lustre of these stones is often finer than that of a 
diamond, and as is well known, the specific gravity of the zircon 
is 4-7, while the diamond has a specific gravity of 3-5 only. 

To distinguish between these stones the prospector will try if 
the supposed diamonds will cut glass. As a zircon when used to 
advantage will scratch glass easily, while a true diamond will not 
mark glass if a rounded face is drawn along the glass. Serious 
mistakes are thus apt to occur. Quite recently money was lost 
and much suffering caused through a "find" of white zircons near 
Nundle being mistaken for diamonds. 

In diamond bearing country I should advise a prospector to 
carry a small plate of sapphire and a splinter of diamond mounted 

ting diamond. The sapphire plate and the diamond 
i many shillings. 

Ihe supposed diamond is set in the end of a stick of sealing 
wax, and while the wax is softened by heat the stone can be so 
arranged that a sharp solid angle or a edge projects. This can 
be done after a little practice by heating the stone, and quickly 
transferring it to the wax. Holding the stick of sealing wax, the 
stone to be tested is rubbed with a gentle pressure round and 
round, on the polished face of the sapphire plate. Not more of 
the sapphire need be used than the space covered by a pin's head. 
After the friction is continued for half a minute, if the sapphire 
plate has lost its polish, and with a lens shows the point of contact 

eaten into" or "burned," the stone being tested is a diamond, 
since the diamond is the only stone that can cut into a polished 
Plate of sapphire. 

The use of a writing diamond will however settle the matter at 
°nce. If a prospector draw a writing diamond over a smooth 
zircon and over an uncut diamond, the difference will be so 
apparent that there can be no room left for doubt. Even with 
a very gentle pressure the writing diamond "catches" or "drags" 

on the zircon, and a dull cutting noise is made. When the 
writing diamond is gently rubbed on a real diamond, it (the 
writing diamond) does not "bite" but glances and slips off in 
every direction, no friction due to cutting being apparent, and 
the sound produced is metallic-like and sharp. 

It may be well to remember also that where zircons are found 
a considerable number of the stones are red, or some shade of red, 
and on heating, these coloured stones become white and remain 
white on cooling. Red or green diamonds are exceeding rare. 
These rough and ready tests will also distinguish between small 
and waterworn topaz and diamond — stones which also are con- 

fused by prospectors 

Topaz.— Clear wi 

iterworn quartz 


are c 

ontinually mis- 

taken for topaz. The simplest and 

most i 

ient test for a 

prospector is, when 

these stones an 

5 abundi 

ant, to 

break one and 

note the high and perfect polish on 

the flat cleavage faces of the 

topaz. Quartz of coi 

irse never breaks 

- lustrous flat cleavage 

faces, but rather w: 

ith irregular cu 

rved su 


not unlike the 

fracture of common 

bottle glass. 

When crystals are found it may be noted that the topaz is 
striated and grooved up and clown along the length of the prism, 
while quartz is striated across the prism. 

A splinter of topaz mounted after the fashion of a writing 
diamond will in a moment distinguish between topaz and quartz, 
the topaz scratching quartz with ease. 

Heavy solutions are now so easily procurable that they may be 
of service to miners. Klein's solution of borotungstate of cadmium 
has a specific gravity of 328, therefore every gem with a lower 
specific gravity will float in this liquid. If a white beryl, a topaz, 
a quartz and a diamond are placed in this liquid, the quartz and 
beryl will at once float, while the diamond and topax will sink. 
In Klein's solution — ■ 

will sink — diamond, sapphire, ruby, topaz, spinel, garnet, zircon, 
will float | <* Uart u z ' f^gorm, amethyst, moonstone, emerald, 
( beryl, a 

It may be noted in general that stones that will not scratch glass 
(opal excepted) are useless as gems. Also that stones that fuse 
easily before the blowpipe are as a rule worthless. 

I would repeat that these notes are not intended to replace the 
directions found in so many miners' handbooks, but rather to 
supplement what they deal with. There is no difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing gems when instruments and scientific apparatus are at 
hand, and these notes may be of service when such help is not 


rig. 1 ■-']' 

Plate XIII. 

5 crystals of topaz from New England. Natural s 

1 example is 3,136 grains in weight, and perfectly 
clear and pellucid throughout. There is hardly more than a trace of 
blue-green, more pronounced towards one end, in the stone. The pleo- 
chroism is however very marked. This specimen is so evenly abraded 
that not a trace of the basal cleavage can be seen, rather a remarkable 
feature for so large a stone with so perfect a cleavage. The '• Maxwell- 
Stuart" topaz, said to be "the largest cut precious stone known," 1 weighs 
1475 grains. The specimen flgfured should cut into an excellent stone 
to turn the scale at 1800 grains. 

Fig. 2— The crystal shewn on the same plate is characteristic of the 
habit of the larger topaz, that are found over the granitic areas of the 
New England. Prismatic and pyramidal faces are well developed. But 
the brachydomes / are so prominent as to give a wedge-shape to the 
crystal when it stands on the traces of the basal cleavage. This speci- 
men weighs 3,063 grains. It is marred by several feathers, so that the 
stone could not be cut into one large gem. a, brachydomes; 6, pyramid; 
c > c, prisms. 

Fig. 3— A crystal of topaz found in a granitic detritus, Oban, New 
England. Natural size. This fine crystal weighs 6,839 grains and has 
^ decided blue tint with a cloud of amber-brown, filling about one-fourth 
of the specimen towards the centre. The basal cleavage in this example 
is perfect. The prisms and pyramids are striated. The wedge-shaped 
appearance of the crystal is due to the great development of the brachy- 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 2 — Topaz, shewing a parcel as usually placed on the market. 
They are of first quality, and represent the choice specimens from at 
least twenty times their weight of inferior material. Photographed 
natural size. 

Plate XV. 

Fig. 1— At the Emerald Proprietary Mine patches of kaolin are found 
in which are embeded lonsr slender crystals of beryl and aqua-marine, 
sometimes deep enough in colour to come under the heading of emerald. 
The plate shews the appearance and habit of these crystals. Photo- 

Fig. 2— Beryl, aqu Id from various localities on the 

New England tableland, re-produced natural size. They were all found 
in working alluvial deposits for tinstone. 

Plate XVI. 

Fig. 1— Diamonds found at Bingara. Natural size. As stated in the 
text, much larger stones are often discovered, but the photograph shews 
the average samples sent from Bingara. 

Fig. 2— Sapphire as found in the tin bearing drifts in the district 
around Emmaville. Natural size. The crystals are for the most part 
blue, but nine of those figured are green. Some of the examples are 
banded alternately in white and blue. A few honey-yellow crystals are 
tipped with blue. Some of the stones shew the corosion lines referred to 

istone matrix as shewn in Fig 1, while all the Wh 
nd in a friable and easily pulverulent matrix, and 
} from matrix, as shewn in Fig. 2. Both figures b 

Fig. 1— Tin slu 

Fig. 2— A cradle used in gold saving, ' 

Fig. 2— General aspect of c 

opals and garnets. These stones occur in Cretaceous and Silurian country 
respectively. The plate shews the contrast presented by Silurian and 

Fig. 2— Cretaceous escarpment between Tinaroo and Tibooburra, X. S. 

T. President, I would like to 
make a few remarks on portions of this paper, as there are certain 
statements contained therein that should not go unchallenged, 
and that are certainly open to criticism. I may mention that the 
time to prepare my notes has been very short, as the copy of the 
paper only came to hand this morning. First, under the section 
Ruby, the statement is made that " The best stone from these 
drifts was in the possession of Mr. Milner Stephen. It weighed 
within a fraction of one carat, was perfect in colour, but showed 
a feather on the templet." Mr. Stephen's collection of gem stones 
is now the property of the Government of New South Wales, 
having passed into the possession of the Technological Museum. 
I" my capacity as Mineralogist to that Institution, the duty of 
determining the accuracy of the naming of the specimens in that 
collection, has devolved upon me. In it was a cut stone from 
this locality (near Mudgee), said to be a ruby, weighing over one 
carat, and which stone I presume is the one referred to in the 
Paper. This was found on investigation not to be a ruby, hut a 
topaz. In colour it resembles the burnt topaz, obtained by heating 
the dark wine-coloured topaz of South America, it has a specific 
gravity of 3-51 and its hardness is 8, it being readily scratched 
% a sapphire. The methods whereby gem stones are determined 
to-day, are perhaps, more accurate than those in use when Mr. 

other comparatively large so-called rubies stated to have been 
found in this colony, are of the same character as this specimen, 
and therefore topaz. The theory of the occurrence of these topazes, 
having this colour peculiar to burnt topaz, found in this locality, 
(because we have no reason to doubt the authenticity of this 
specimen in that respect), is, that the topazes have been altered 
to their present colour by the heat of the overlying basalt. That 
authentic rubies do exist in the neighbourhood of Mudgee is 
undoubted; in Mr. Stephen's collection some specimens from 
that locality were determined by myself, and the results published 
in my work. 1 They are however, very small, being mere 

Passing on to the article on Topaz, we find an analysis given 
for topaz from Emmaville. From the figures therein given, it is 
not possible to obtain the theoretical formula for topaz, as given 
by any recognised authority. We find placed by its side an 
analysis of a topaz from Tasmania for comparison. The per- 
centages there given, however, by Dana, work out almost to the 
theoretical quantity required. A perfect specimen of topaz often 
gives nearly the theoretical percentages, and when a difference 
in some of its constituents, of three or four per cent, is obtained, 
it is better that the analysis be not published. It is to be 
regretted that New South Wales topaz should by this analysis 
give results so removed from the theoretical requirements. There 
is nothing gained by publishing results or data collected, that 
do not somewhat advance our scientific knowledge, by enabling 
us to arrive at a just decision, as to the actual molecular con- 
stitution of the mineral. 

Passing on to the article on Garnet, we find that pyrope is 
announced, and the analysis given. The Rev. J. M. Curran will 
remember, that some months ago I stated to him, that from rough 
tests I found that these stones were not pyrope. I will now show 
from the percentage constituents as given in the analysis, that 
i " Gems and Precious Stones," Technical Education Series, No. tfj 

these garnets cannot be pyrope. Taking the recognised classifica- 
tion of the garnet group, we find that pyrope is a subdivision 
where magnesia predominates in atomic proportions over the other 
protoxide bases ; or, that the ratio is at least Mg : Ca : Fe + Mn 
= 3:1 : 2, or that Mg equals the other protoxides, or the ratio 
is as 1 to 1 . In an analysis published by Dana, and stated to be 
of high merit, it is as 1 to -87. But if we take the analysis of 
the so-called pyrope given in the paper, we find that the ratio is 
Mg : Ca + Fe + M = 3 : 6*18 or a ratio of 1 to 2 as shown by 
the figures given. Taking the protoxides only, the oxygen ratio 
works out as follows :— ratio 

le species. 

garnets from the sandstone at Sydney, described by myself in 
the proceedings of this Society two years ago, contain more 
magnesia than those in this paper, yet by no stretch of imagina- 
tion can they be construed into pyrope. If we are to adhere to 
the oxygen ratio for this class of silicates, we must take some 
notice of the recognised basis on which these species have been 
formed, and not attach names to minerals merely because they 
approach others in some constituents. It is evident therefore 
that on a scientific basis these garnets are not entitled to be con- 
sulered as pyropes. In the classification of the garnet group into 
its several subdivisions, sufficient latitude is given, by recognised 
authoritcx, for foreign constituents that exist more or less in all 
>,'■* >'iu-t.s, hut this limit cannot be recklessly ignored. 

Profenor David wished to know the evidence on which the 
statement, made by the Rev. J. Milne Curran, was based that 

R-Oet. 7, 1896. 

FeO = 1004% coi 

itains oxygen = 2*23 = 1-911 "\ 

MnO= 3-76,, 

„ 0-85 = 0-729 =l 

CaO = 14-45 „ 

„4-13 = 3-54oJ 

MgO = 8-76 „ 

„ 3-50 = 3-000 = : 

On behalf of miner 

alogical science in New South 

}ject to priority being given for pyrope to a garnel 

>mposition so diverse 

from that required to form tin 

f pyrope is announced 

1, it should be for a garnet that b 

Australian diamonds were harder than Cape or Brazilian diamonds. 
If the statement was correct, the refractive index of the Australian 
diamonds would probably be found to differ from that of Cape 
and Brazilian diamonds. Had the refractive index of Australian 
diamonds been determined 1 With regard to the important dis- 
covery by the Rev. J. Milne Curran of sapphire in situ in the 
basalts near Newstead, in the Inverell district of this Colony, he 
wished for further information as to whether (1) More than one 
specimen of sapphire had been found imbedded in the basalt at 
the above locality ; and (2) As to whether the sapphire in the 
basalt showed any evidence of having possibly deen picked up by 
the basalt from alluvial gravels over which the basalt had flowed. 
With regard to the occurrence of turquoise near Bodalla, he would 
like to know whether any trace of phosphatic limestones or phos- 
phatic rocks of any kind had been met in the same locality. As 
to the mode of origin of the precious opal in Australia, while he 
agreed with the suggestion made by the Rev. J. Milne Curran 
that it was possibly diatomaceous, he was inclined to think that 
in view of the latitudes of the opal-bearing localities, and of the 
association, near White Cliffs, Wilcannia, N. S. Wales, of marine 
shells with the opal rock, that radiolaria had probably played an 
even more important part in supplying material for the opal than 
diatoms. Sections of the opal rock, kindly lent him by the Rev. 
J. Milne Curran to examine for radiolaria showed fairly good 
evidence of the presence of remains of these organisms in the 
form of spherical casts of the interior of the radiolarian shells. 
No definite latticed shell had, however, been as yet detected by 
him. He had observed similar spherical casts in some of the opal 
rock from Queensland. They were just the right size for radio- 
laria, but too large for diatoms. He understood that the Rev. 
J. Milne Curran was (mite prepared to admit the possibility or 
even probability that the opal of Australia derived its silica largely 
from radiolaria. He considered that the Society were to be con- 
gratulated on having presented to them an essay containing such 
important original observations as those made by the author as 

to basalt being the true parent rock of the sapphire, and he had 
much pleasure in moving a hearty vote of thanks to the Rev. 
J. Milne Curran for his Prize Essay, and for the trouble he had 
taken not only in reading and explaining it to the members, but 
also in illustrating it by means of specimens and an excellent 
series of photographs. 

Rev. J. M. Curran in reply, said: — Mr. Smith's remarks are 
such that a more satisfactory reply could be given if his views 
were put in writing : these, with the reply could then be printed 
with the paper. 

With regard to Professor David's remarks, I think there can 
be no doubt that the Bingara diamonds are harder than Cape 
stones. Cutters are aware of the fact that diamonds from different 
localities differ in hardness. We have Mr. Streeter's estimate in 
the paper, of the extra time required to polish Bingara diamonds. 
A well known diamond cutter, Mr. L. Claremount, writing in the 
S. M. Herald, of December 5th, 1896, gives it as his opinion based 
on a working knowledge, that Australian diamonds are harder 
than any others. The refractive index of our diamonds has not 
been determined so far as I am aware. As to the sapphire, 
several specimens have been found at various times. I had two 
examples, and saw a fine specimen with Mr. Brierton Senr., 
Armidale. There was no evidence to point to the likelihood of 
the basalt having picked up the sapphire from the gravels over 
which it flowed. Had this been the case, other stones should also 
have been picked up and found embedded in the basalt. The 
hasalt showing the sapphire is neither ropy, vesicular, or glassy, 
as if it were in contact with underlying rocks. On the contrary, 
it is of the usual compact crystalline type, at the same time it is 
"peculiar " enough to do no violence to accepted views in making 
sapphire. The phenocrysts of magnetite and 

Pleonaste , 

• rock distinctive without dep-irtin^ : 

> type of New Engla: 

Personally I have no doubt that the sapphires have < 
basalt. The serious objection to this view is the < 
sapphire in the drifts under basalt. Sapphire is recorded as being 
associated with the diamond on the Cudgegong and at Bingara, 1 
and as the diamonds are derived from drifts that underlie basalt, 
the inference is that sapphire is also found in drifts under basalt. 
This is a difficulty that must be faced, and the explanation may 
lie in the fact that it is in redistributed drifts only the sapphire 
is found. At Tumberumba I never saw a trace of sapphire in the 
wash from the "deep ground" under basalt. The sapphires I saw 
were all found in pleistocene drifts that must have received 
detrital matter from the degradation of basaltic hills. 2 From the 
evidence before me I have no doubt as to the matrix of the 
sapphire, but it would be premature to say the question is settled 
absolutely. There is room for much more research, and another 
explanation may be forthcoming for the facts placed on record. 

Referring to the turquoise, I am not aware of any phosphate- 
bearing rocks near Bodalla, and it might be said that the rarity 
of phosphatic rocks is somewhat remarkable in this colony. It is 
very satisfactory to hear that Professor David has detected radio- 
larian casts in " angel rock " from White Cliffs, the slides I 
handed him being slices of that rock, already described in the text. 
The views expressed may however be left on record for this reason: 
the opals found in New South Wales except at White Cliffs can 
be traced to igneous rocks the decomposition of whose felspars 
supply the silica. After an examination of the White Cliff 
mines, I saw that there were no igneous rocks in the locality, 
and the opal was associated with the peculiar sedimentary len- 
ticular shaped rocks locally called angel-stone. This had many of 
the characters of an indurated diatomaceous earth, and suggested 

1 Liversidge— il in. nils . f New South Wales, pp. 237 and 241. 

2 Bernhard von Cotta states that sapphire occurs as an original pro- 

and Described, Revised Ed. p. 8. Specimens from this locality are not 
uncommon in Museums. 

a diatom ooze as the source of the silica. The probability is that 
it was a radiolarian deposit. Rut this fact stands out, that at 
White Cliffs, shells, belemnites, etc., are converted into noble opal 
by a silica derived from organic sources, and at Rocky Rridge 
Creek a noble opal is found, filling vesicular cavities in an andesitic 
trachyte, and its silica is derived from decomposing felspars. 
The points raised by Professor David were most important, but 
the complimentary tone of his remarks could not make the author 
forget that there is necessarily much debatable matter in a paper 
covering so much ground. 

Mr. Henry Smith's criticism contains much compressed into a 
small space ; it will be better to take his statements seriatim, so 
as to prevent any confusion of ideas. Mr. Smith's remarks are 
also so incisive, although to a less extent than in their original 
form, that anything short of direct reply would hardly meet the case. 

Mr. Smith — "Mr. Stephen's collection of gem stones is now the 
property of the Government of New South Wales, having passed 
into the possession of the Technological Museum." 

Reply__I n this statement Mr. Smith is in error, as Mr. 
Stephen's collection— probably the finest made in Australia— was 
broken up and sold. Dr. Rleasdale of Melbourne purchased the 
best rubies and sapphires. Part of the original collection is now 
in my cabinets, other parts of it were sent to London. There is 
it is true, a small collection of gems, made by Mr. Milner Stephen 
m the Museum of the Technical College. They were sent there 
from my laboratory. This collection had passed from Mr. Stephen's 
possession many years ago, and was in the hands of dealers for 

replacing of many of the labels and the disposition of the speci- 

1 good offices of my laboratory 

enterprising youth wh 
specimen for every label ! 

Mr. Smith- "In it (the collection) was a 
lo cality, near Mudgee, said etc." 

Reply— I described a stone as— (1) a ruby, (2) under a carat 
in weight ; (3) perfect in colour ; (4) showing a feather on the 

Mr. Smith has assumed, I submit unwarrantably, that this 
refers to — (1) a topaz, (2) weighing over a carat ; (3) poor in 
colour (burnt topaz); (4) showing no feather on the templet. 

Mr. Smith — "It has a specific gravity of 3-51 and its hardness 
is 8, it" — the cut stone — " being readily scratched by a sapphire. 
The methods whereby gem stones are determined to-day are 
perhaps more accurate than those in use when Mr. Stephen's 
specimens were named." 

Reply — Mr. Stephen never professed to be a mineralogist. He 
did good service in locating gems. His work was often faulty, 
but he made no claim to be considered a scientific man. Never- 
theless he would not have left it on record, that a " cut stone 
was readily scratched by a sapphire ! The tests— those mentioned 
by Mr. Smith— are not in advance of the methods that prevailed 
long before Mr. Stephens time. Mr. H. A. Miers in one of his 
lectures says that " incredible as it may seem, the estimation of 
hardness and specific gravity are the only attempts at anything 
like scientific measurements ever made in the ordinary course of 
business applied to stones." He goes on to say : — " We can 
begin by dismissing the hardness as a character which it is really 
unnecessary to determine, except to identify diamond or to dis- 
tinguish a real stone from paste ; here, I know, I shall earn a 
rebuke from the orthodox mineralogist, who, in order to pursue 
the study of what should be a peaceful science, arms himself with 
a knife and proceeds to scratch everything which he comes across. 
Yet these methods are those advanced by Mr. Smith in a critical 

Mr. Smith— " The question arises whether other comparatively 
large so-called rubies stated to have been found in this colony are 
of the same character." 

Reply— I am not aware that statements to this effect have ev< 
been made. There are not more than a dozen observers who, 
their own knowledge, dealt with the occurrence of the ruby i 
this colony, and not one of them has ever published a line aboi 
" other comparatively large rubies stated to have been found i 
this colony." They all agree that the ruby is the rarest of 01 

Mr. Smith— "The theory of the occurrence of these topazes, 
having this colour peculiar to burnt topaz found in this locality, 
is that etc." 

Reply — I am not concerned with the theory as to the cause of 
colour in these stones, but would observe that the amazing state- 
ment is made that burnt topaz is found with th« ruby at Two 
Mile Flat. The record of this locality for 'burnt" topaz is 

Professor Alex. Thomson, an accomplished analyst, spent some 
weeks at Two Mile Flat, but made no record of "burnt" topaz 
in his paper on the occurrence of the diamond near Mudgee. Mr. 
Norman Taylor an experienced field geologist, spent some months 
at the same place, 1 but makes no mention of "burnt" topaz either 
in his paper read to this Society, or in his subsequent papers in 
the Geological Magazine. May I add that I have seen many 
hundred of specimens from the diamond bearing country near 
Mudgee, but up to the present I have not noted a "burnt" topaz. 
Mr. Smith does not indicate whether he spent any time in exam- 
ming this district, neither does he quote any authority. He 
nevertheless states what, as far as I am aware, no one else has 
ever heard of. I venture the opinion that this is going beyond 
the province of legitimate criticism. Surely Mr. Smith does not 
depend for his information on the little collection of Mr. Stephen's 
that was in my keeping when purchased from the Australian 
Joint Stock Bank by the Department of Public Instruction. The 
"burnt" topaz in that collection is a South i 

L Geological Magazine. Dec. n., Vol. 

Mr. Smith—" That authentic rubies do exist in the neighbour- 
hood of Mudgee is undoubted ; in Mr. Stephen's collection some 
specimens from that locality were determined by myself." 

Reply— This is a plain statement of fact, but it is also true that 
twenty-six years ago Prof. Thomson found rubies at Two Mile 
Flat, near Mudgee, and actually published an analysis of them, 2 
and to him therefore is due the credit of first determining "that 
authentic rubies exist in the neighbourhood of Mudgee."' 

Mr. Smith — "From the figures therein given it is not possihle 
to obtain the theoretical formula for topaz." 

Reply— That is so obvious as to render discussion unnecessary. 
Divergences of the sort are found in the work of some of the most 

Mr. Smith— "When differences of three or four per cent, are 
obtained it is better that the analysis should not be published." 

Reply— This statement is an expression of opinion only — an 
opinion with which I cannot agree. As opposed to it, it may be 
noticed that Genth, Wachtmeister, Delesse, and Liversidge have 

are obtained." For example in Vol. XXIX., p. 32+ of this Society, 
just issued, Professor Liversidge gives an analysis of topaz from 
Shoalhaven, which differs more than three or four per cent, from 
theoretical requirements. Here are the figures — 
Analysis of Topaz. 
My results Theoretical requirements. L'r ,i. Iavr< dge. 

SiO, 30-29 ... 35-3 ... 2819 

A10 3 60-90 ... 56-5 ... 62-66 

CaO -40 

P l.VO.-, ... 17-6 ... UO! 

[ am content to follow in the footsteps of analysts, whose .vholar- 

to publish my analysis, notwithstanding Mr. Smith's declaration 
that this '-.should" not be done. 


Mr. Smith — " There is nothing gained by publishing results or 
data collected that do not somewhat advance our scientific know- 
ledge, by enabling us to arrive at a just decision, as to the actual 
(sic) molecular constitution of the mineral." 

Reply — If anyone is able to reach a "just decision as to the 
actual molecular constitution" of a mineral it may be said that 
the blue ribbon of science is assuredly his. An insight into the 
"actual molecular constitution" of minerals would of course 
enable us to express the functions of the aluminates in mineral 
formulae. No analyst ever hoped for such a possibility in the 

this matter were commonly accepted, not a single analysis of a 
mineral would have been published during this century. 

Mr. Smith— "The Rev. J. M. Curran will remember that some 
months ago I stated to him, that from rough tests J found that 
these stones were not pyrope." 

Reply— I do remember. The information however could not 
affect my results. My paper was at the time in the possession 
of the Royal Society, and in any case the statement would not be 
of service to me as I do not rely upon rough tests. If a rough 
test satisfied Mr. Smith that the stones were not pyrope, he is 
now arguing for a foregone conclusion. 

Mr. Smith—" Taking the recognised classification of the garnet 
group we find that pyrope is a subdivision where magnesia pre- 
dominates over the other protoxide bases ... or that Mg 
(sic) equals the other protoxides, or the ratio is as 1 to 1." 

Reply— I understand Mr. Smith to mean that a standard for 
Pyrope is, that the MgO must be related to the other protoxides 

least i 

Let us therefor* 

1. Protoxides from an analysis of a pyrope by Knap, vide 
Dana's Descript. Mineralogy, Sixth Ed. p. 441. 

FeO = 


% contain 



MnO = 



CaO = 



= 5-71 

MgO = 



- 4-76 

4-76 and 5-71 an 

i not in 

the ratio of 1 to 1. 


the MgO gives 

an oxygen ratio i 

\e$i tha 

n that of 

the other 



2. Protoxides 

in an 


of pyrope give 

n in Streeter's 

Precious Stones, 5th ed. 

, p. 2*.\ 

FeO = 





MnO = 



CaO = 


1-42 = 


MgO = 


5-95 = 

: 595 

These figures also will not give a ratio of 1 to 1. 

3. Protoxides from an analyses of pyrope by Prof. M. Forster 
Heddle, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, Vol. xxvm., p. 311. 

Kobel, vide Lewis 

If Mr. Smith's 
standard is worth anything, Dana and Knap do not know what 
constitutes a pyrope. Dana's Systematic Mineralogy is in its 
sixth edition, and is a standard work. Under the heading Pyrope 
Dana gives thirteen analyses. One of these shews that the ratio 
between the oxygen in the MgO, and in the other protoxides 
taken together is as 4-76 in the MgO, to 5 71 in the other pro- 
toxides together. These figures will not give a ratio of "1 to 1" 
or even "at least" 1 to 1. According to Mr. Smith's standard 
it "cannot be pyrope." I must prefer to be guided by Dana. 

FeO = 8-11 % eonta 

ins oxygen 

MnO = -46 

CaO = 504 

MgO - 17-85 

The figures 7 08 and 3-34 likew 

ise do not g 

4. Protoxides from an analys 

is of pyrope 

Abbott's Lectures on the Scienc 

e of Gems. 

FeO = 9% contain 

s oxygen 

CaO - 2 ° 

MgO = 10 

There is only one conclusio 

The example No. 3 shews the opposite extreme. Here again, 
it is simply a question of being guided by one of two masters. I 
decide for Professor Heddle. 

I should like to add that oxygen-ratio (quantivalent ratio of 
modern chemistry) first introduced by Bischof in quoting mineral 
analysis, is of great utility under certain conditions. It helps in 
calculating the mineral percentages in a rock. It is of use in 
that process, dear to junior analysts, of balancing protoxides against 
sesquioxides, and the protoxides and sesquioxides against silica. 
But it is of no value when used as Mr. Smith uses it amongst the 
protoxides themselves (which of course are isomorphous) to prove 
that a garnet is not a pyrope. The calculation of oxygen ratios 
looks imposing on paper, but instances have come within my ken, 
where this affectation of precision has afforded shelter for the 
issue of material of doubtful value. 

In making a copy of my original paper the figures for the CaO 
and the MgO were transposed by a clerical error, but it will be 
noted I am not going into the figures of the analysis in any shape 
or form. I object to the standard set up by Mr. Smith. 

Mr. Smith — " If we are to adhere to the oxygen ratio for this 
class of silicates." 

Reply— Why should we adhere to it! Prof. Heddle, Dana, 
Knap and a host of others do not adhere to it. We all adhere to 
the legitimate us« of the oxygen ratio. It is not a legitimate use 
of the method to use it exclusively amongst protoxides to prove a 
certain garnet is not a pyrope. 

Mr. Smith has something to add about " recklessly ignoring 
hunts. ' Here is how I learned that the stones in question were 

1. They occurred in a basic rock, and under the microscope, in 

m 8nces this rock shows the radial structures called kelyphite 
shells by Rosenbusch surrounding the garnet. They show exactly 
the structure figured by Rosenbusch in his Microscopical Physio- 
graphy, plate xiv., fig. 4 (Translation by Iddings). The garnets 


occurring under conditions so like ours are decided by T 
busch to be pyrope. 

Diller describes exactly similar shells around a pyrope 
basic rock from Elliott Co., Ky. The probability is ths 
garnet is a pyrope. 

2. An analysis of the garnet showed the composition to t 
Si0 2 = 39-57 

A1 2 3 = 
Fe 3 3 




tble of ga, 

•nets given by Dana- 

3. I then took the t 
Group I. Aluminium Garnet — 

1. Grossularite — Calcium-aluminium garnet. 

2. Pyropk Magnesium •■aluminium garnet. 

3. Almandite I ron-.-ii u iii in ium garnet. 

4. Spessarite — Manganese-aluminium garnet. 
Group II. Iron Garnet — 

5. Andradite. 

Our garnet cannot possibly, from the analysis, belong to Gr 
II. or III. In Group I. we have four garnets. 
The I'.ingara garnet has only 

•58% of MgO; It is not SPESSAJUTI « 

24 to 36% CaO. 

20 to 35% of FeO. 

l The figures for CaO and MgO were transposed in the proofs 
to the members generally. I handed corrected proofs to thos 
'■ rested. 

For lines 27, 28, and 29, page 284, substitute :— 
The Bingara garnet has 

14-45 of MgO ; It is not Spessabite, whi 

has only 0-2 to 2-5 MgO; 


It comes under the heading pyrope ; probably is pyrope. 

The specific gravity, colour, analysis, and the mode of occurrence 
all agree with pyrope. The specimen is pyrope. 

This method may be faulty, but it is given in detail, as a charge 
of "recklessly ignoring" is one not often heard in scientific circles. 
It will be for others to judge if the above process smacks of reck- 
lessness. I would conclude by saying that I value highly the 
privilege and right of every member of our Society to criticise 
papers placed before the members. But criticism of the kind to 
which I have now replied, surely goes beyond that limit of 
dispassionate and courteous treatment which we have all a right 


By Professor T. W. Edgeworth David, b.a., f.g.s. 
[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, November 4, 1S96.~\ 
fn!ro>Iuctor,/.~Sm structure has long been known to play an 
important part in the architecture of the earth's crust. The 
development, however, of sill structure in New South Wales is 
so wonderfully extensive and complex as to justify a special 
description, inasmuch as it promises to revolutionize prevalent 
ideas, at all events in Australia, as to the nature of the junction 
line between eruptive rocks and sedimentary rocks, and satisfac- 
torily explains the apparent anomaly of the occurrence of fossils 
m er uptive rocks. I propose therefore to offer a short preliminary 


ography. —Professor Judd has d.s.iiU d sill structure in 

the Mesozoic rocks of Scotland. 1 Reyer has described in detail 

, and Abstract in 1878, 

286 T. W. E. DAVID. 

the extensive sills of Mount Venda in the Euganean Hills. 1 G. 
V. Rath and others have at an earlier date described the same 
district, 2 Topley and Lebour have described the Whin sill of 
Northumberland, which may be taken as the type of a sill on a 
large scale. 3 According to the description given by the above 
authors the Whin sill covers an area of from one hundred and 
twenty to one hundred and thirty Km., and attains a thickness 
of eighty-four feet and upwards. It cuts obliquely across the 
planes of bedding, so that it has a vertical range of over 1,700 
feet. Sir A. Geikie has described the extensive sills of the 
Western Isles of Scotland. 4 

In Australia Mr. E. F. Pittman has described some interesting 
rocks from Hill End, which from their close resemblance to the 
Mandurama and Tamworth rocks of this Colony, as regards mode 
of occurrence, I have no hesitation in classing as sills. 5 He says, 
(op. cit. pp. 1 — 2), "The siliceous slates and sandstones appear to 
be quite unfossiliferous, but obscure impressions of spirifera, 
encrinites, and corals (Favosites) are rather plentiful in the meta- 
morphosed conglomerates. This latter rock forms one of the most 
noticeable features of the district. In the physical peculiarities 
of its occurrence it somewhat resembles the diontes which are 
characteristic of the neighbouring gold-fields of the upper Turon 
(Sofala), standing out on the hill tops in huge rounded masses, 
bomb-like or concretionary structure 
>wever, the similarity ends, for the Hill 
, is found to be free from hornblende, 
and consists of quartz and felspar crystals in a blue silico-felspathic 

1 Die Eu^aniit' 

2 Geognostische Mittheil. iiber 
Zeitschr. Deuteh. Geol. Ges. 1864, : 

3 On the Intrusive Character of the Whin Sill of Northumberland- 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1877, xxxiii., pp. 406 - 421. 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh (1888) Vol. xxxv., p. Ill, and Q.J.G.S. 
Vol. lii., 189G, p. pp. 373 - 381. 

5 Annual Report Department of Mines, Sydney, 1879. Notes t< 
accompany Geological Map of Hill End and Tambaroora. 

ines of large pebbles of slate and 
sandstone clearly point to the fact that it is an altered sedimen- 
tary rock, the rearrangement of the particles with the production 
of the crystals of felspar and quartz being due partly to chemical 
action, and partly to heat and pressure caused by the shrinkage 

Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, the late Government Geologist of New 
South Wales, was inclined to consider crystalline rocks, such as 
those of Hill End, which contained distinct traces of pebbles as 
being highly metamorphosed conglomerates, and the comparative 
absence of metaniorphism troin the line grained strata between 
these pebbly crystalline rocks he considered was due to selective 
metamorphism. These views he explained to me in the field when 
we examined the tin-bearing quartz-porphyries of New England, 
at Emmaville in 1883. Quartz-porphyries were observed by us 
at Rose Valley and elsewhere near Emmaville to contain water- 
worn pebbles of other rocks scattered throughout them. The line 
of strike of the pebbles cuts somewhat obliquely across the trend 
of the dyke or sill of quartz-porphry, and, on tracing it beyond 
the limits of the sill, we found that in either direction it passed 
into a typical conglomerate, the pebbles of which were set in a 
sedimentary base instead of a base of quartz-porphyry. It did not 
escape the eye of so keen an observer as Mr. Wilkinson, that 
selective metamorphism was incapable of explaining all these 
phenomena, and he directed my attention specially to further 
investigating this point when studying the geology of the 
Vegetable Creek district. I was, however, unable to obtain a 
satisfactory explanation until the year 1890, when a clue was 
given by the geological structure of the Junction Gold Mines 
near Mandurama, N. 8. Wales, examined by me in that year. 
A note on the remarkable structure of the eruptive rocks at the 
above gold mine was contributed by me at the time to the Linnean 
Society of N. S. Wales. 1 

1 Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, (S-ri-s ^nd) ' 

The structure of the dioritic rocks of that neighbourhood 
described by me at that time as that of laccolites might, I now 
think, be more appropriately termed sill structure. A magnificent 
section illustrative of sill structure is exposed at " The Falls " 
above the Junction Mine, where a large dyke of diorite may be 
seen to have intersected the claystones almost vertically, and to 
have injected them, parallel or almost parallel to the planes of 
bedding, with sheets of rock from one-eighth of an inch to about 
twenty feet in thickness, and considerably over one hundred yards 
in length. 

The following passage from my former paper describes the 
Manclurama sills : — " At first sight the precipitous hill side here 
appears to be composed of alternate beds of eruptive rock and 
altered sedimentary strata, at tirst mistaken by the author for a 
volcanic series of lavas alternating with fine tuffs. A closer 
examination, however, convinced Mr. Stonier and the author that 
these apparent beds were in reality intrusive laccolites, as 
evidenced by the slightly intrusive character of the junction line 
of their upper and under surfaces with the sedimentaries, their 
unbroken continuity with the diorite of the large dyke, the 
abundance of hornblende in them, and lastly the development of 
small light grey spots in the claystones near the point of contact, 
due probably to the formation of chiastolice. In places the 
laccolites have brought about a partial solution or fusion of the 
intruded sedimentaries, and where they pass into the so-called 

probably bods of limestone, absorbing into themselves the lime so 
as to form a type of rock of an ultra-basic character, for which 
perhaps the term Manduramile may be suggested." 

The limestone at a neighbouring locality, on Mr. Rothery'a 
Run, as I was informed by the late Professor Stephens, contains • 
Pentamerus, and is therefore of Silurian or of Devonian age. 

When the Australasian Association for the Advancement of 
Science met at Hobart in January, 1892, it was the opinion of 
Captain Hutton and some of the other members, including myself, 

that the gigantic masses of gabbro which are so extensively 
developed along the estuary of the Derwent, as well as along the 
south-east coast, including Freycinet's Peninsula, are in reality 
sills rather than old lava flows, as was formerly contended by 
some. Their intrusive character had been ably argued for pre- 
viously by Mr. T. Stephens, p.g.s. A subsequent examination 
has convinced me that the bulk of these gabbro rocks, such as 
those which form the fine headlands of Cape Pillar and Cape 
Raoul, as well as Mount Wellington, are sills. The intrusive 
mass at Mount Wellington might perhaps by some be termed a 
laccolite on account of its great size. 

During a recent visit to Tamworth, in company with Mr. 
Donald Porter, I examined several sections near the town and at 
Moore Creek. The intricate way in which granite sills are there 
intercalated between the planes of bedding of the sedimentary 
rocks, if it does not baffle description, certainly baffles mapping. 
A zone of sills about five miles in width girdles the intrusive 
granite. The zone is composed of sedimentary rocks alternating 
with sills. The sedimentary rocks are of Devonian or possibly 
Silurian age, altered at their line of contact with the main boss 
of granite into garnet and chlorite rocks. These pass into an 
outer zone of chiastolitic rock. The latter is succeeded by fine 
grained claystones, converted by the sills into chert and jasper, 
and by the thin radiolarian limestones with the coralline lime- 
stones of Moore Creek, from one hundred to about 1,000 feet in 

The sills in this outermost zone are from a fraction of an inch 
up to several yards in thickness, and alternate so regularly with 
the claystones and radiolarian cherts and limestones that it is 
difficult to believe that the eruptive rocks are not interbedded. 
The whole zone for several thousands of feet in thickness is half 
«H half sediment. A careful examination of the sills shows that 
they trespass slightly across the planes of bedding of the sedimen- 
tary rocks, and the latter along their planes of contact with the 
s »ls, both above and below, show evidence of contact metauior- 

290 T. W. E. DAVID. 

phism with development of white spots due probably to formations 
of chiastolitic minerals. The thin sills, from one-eighth of an 
inch up to about one foot, are greenish-grey in appearance, 
resembling quartz-diorites. The thicker sills, from over a foot up 
to several yards thick, have a more definite granitic aspect. In 
places where the sills have partly replaced fossiliferous crinoidal 
limestones, casts of the crinoid stems may be distinctly discerned 
in the granitic base of the sill. This obviously is the correct 
explanation of the apparent anomaly of the occurrence of fossils 
in the eruptive rocks at Hill End. 

The occurence of waterworn pebbles in the sills at the above 
locality and also at Emmaville is, I now think, undoubtedly due 
to the same cause. The sills of fine grained granite and quartz- 
porphyry have, when intruding the conglomerates, dissolved and 
assimilated the base of the conglomerates, but have not been able 
to digest the less soluble pebbles. This is the origin of the zone 
of waterworn pebbles, at Rose Valley, Emmaville, striking obliquely 
across the large quartz-porphyry dyke, and passing in either 
direction, as soon as it leaves the dyke, into a typical sedimentary 
conglomerate. I would further suggest that the granitic bosses 
of New England etc. are laccolitic in shape rather than conical. 
If they were conical it is hard to understand why they should not 
have had strength enough to uplift Lower Silurian, Cambrian, 
and Pre-Cambrian rocks, which would have subsequently been 
exposed at the surface through denudation. As a matter of fact 
the oldest sedimentary rocks in contact with the New England 
granite appear to be Cpper Silurian. On the laccolitic hypothesis 
the absence of rocks older than Upper Silurian around the granite 
can bi> explained. immense volumes of granite may have been 
squeezed through comparatively small punctures in the Pre- 
Silurian crust, so that the lifting power of the granite on the rocks 
forming the sides of these relatively small well-holes would be far 
less than it would be around the periphery of a cone, the area of 
the base of which would considerably exceed the area near the 
summit of the cone exposed by denudation at the earth's surface. 

By R. T. Baker, f.l.s., Assistant Curator and Botanist, 
Technological Museum, and Henry G. Smith, f .as., 
Chemist, Technological Museum. 
[With Plates XXI^XIL] 
[Read before the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, December 2, 1896.] 
The specimens, the subject of this paper, were obtained at Wild's 
Valley, Torreh's Creek, via Townsville, Queensland, by Mr. J. R. 
Chisholm. They had, previous to our receiving them, been deter- 
mined as Spumaria alba, Bull. — a fungus found on grass in this 
Colony and figured in Cook's Australian Fungi, PL 35, fig. 356, 
but as Mr. Chisholm was of opinion that they were galls, he 
asked if we would also examine them for him. Our first examin- 
ation showed that they were manna and not a fungus, as we found 
that they consisted of large quantities of crystals, as well as some 

A section of an individual mass showed the substance to be 
quite solid, with a cavity near its attachment to the grass, con- 
taining apparently excrement of some insect. As its general 
appearance very much resembled the well known Eucalyptus 
manna we were led to apply the usual tests for this substance, 
but with a result that large quantities of mannite were obtained, 
and so proving that it did not belong to that group of mannas. 

In reply to a second letter on the subject, Mr. Chisholm writes: 
" There is one thing certain though, it has nothing to do with 
tr ees j 1 nothing whatever, existing on black soil plains, miles from 
timber of any kind. The flowering grass must be gathered in 
w et weather, 2 it is dry now. Sheep run about grubbing the white 

lumps of the grass, at least I say sheep, a sheep (Lincoln Ram) 
I feed on hay here, sorts over armfuls given him and picks out 
all the white lumps first, just like a child picking lollies out of 
hay. . . . Looking through the hay I cannot find a flower 

of the manna could be gathered in an hour almost anywhere on 
the plains." 

Later we received specimens of the grass; and when diagnosed 
these were found to be Andropogon annulatus, Forsk. This grass 
also occurs in Victoria, Northern Australia, and South Australia. 
It was described by Forsksel, Fl. Aegypt Arab, in 1775, and is 
widely spread over tropical Asia and Africa. 

The description of this grass in B. Fl. Vol. vil, page 531 is as 
follows : — "Stems from a tufted base ascending to about two feet, 
the nodes glabrous or slightly bearded. Leaves narrow, usually 
glaucous. Spikes two or three, nearly sessile at the end of the 
peduncle without sheathing bracts, one and a-half to two inches 
long, the pedicels and base of the sessile spikelets much less ciliate 
than in the preceding species. Spikelets about two lines long. 
Outer glume of the sessile one membranous, prominently many- 
nerved, obtuse or three-toothed, ciliate on the margin and with a 
few long hairs on the back at the top ; second glume thin, the 
midrib alone prominent, third very thin and hyaline ; awn or 
terminal glume one third to three-fourths inch long, without any 
hyaline dilatation at the base. Pedicellate spikelet nearly similar 
but awnless, and with a male flower or reduced to empty glumes. 

There are several other " Blue Grasses" occurring in the various 
colonies, such as the allied species A. sericeus, R.Br., and A. affinis 
R.Br., but we can find no record of any such substance as we are 
describing, as having been found on these, or for the matter of 
that, on any grass either in this continent or any part of the 

The manna occurs in the form of nodules at the nodes of the 
stems, where its earliest stage of formation is marked by a slight 

swelling of the stem and base of the leaves which afterwards split 
or divide longitudinally as the substance increases in dimensions. 
It eventually enlarges to the size of a marble or the top of a 
man's thumb. It is mostly white in colour and in general appear- 
ance resembles the corn-pop lollies of American confectionery, or 
the well known Eucalyptus manna. It is sweetish to the taste, 
is not moist, breaks down easily into fragments, and has a slight 
greasy feel. The surface is irregular, rugose, and granular. 

A vertical or horizontal section gives a kidney-shaped surface, 
showing a cavity opening from the stem and filled with the e 


Mr. W. W. 

Froggatt, Government Entomologist, to whom it was submitted 
for an opinion). The substance is quite white throughout, and 
in section shows radiating lines to the outer surface. 

Microscopical Examination of the Manna.— When the powdered 
manna is placed upon a slide (better under a cover glass) and 
examined with the microscope, minute crystals are seen to be 
present in large quantities. With a quarter inch objective these 
are seen to be principally small prismatic crystals. They are too 
minute for the form to be determined, but under crossed nicols 
they polarize in faint colours of a light grey to dull yellow, and 
extinguish parallel to the principal axis. It is to be supposed, 
therefore, that they are crystals belonging to the rhombic system. 
They are naturally crystallised mannite. It is perhaps worthy of 
note, that naturally crystallised mannite polarises faintly in 
colours, while the crystals formed artificially from the same 
material, do not polarise in colours, with the exception of light 
grey, although they change from light to dark on being revolved 
between crossed nicols, the greatest darkness being when the 
Prisms are parallel to the crossed webs. This was found to be the 
case also in the natural crystals of mannite from the manna of the 
sandalwood Myoporum platycarpum. 1 

When carefully crystallised from water the crystals obtained 
are larger and better defined than when obtained from alcohol, 
being in rhombic prisma. Besides the crystals of mannite there 
is seen to be present minute organisms of a beaded structure, 
and requiring high powers to bring them out. 

These spherical or egg-shaped bodies have no action on polarized 
light, but have a dark outer rim and a light nucleus within. 
They were not coloured blue by iodine. 1 These bodies resist the 
action of water at 100° C. Their appearance is illustrated in 
Plate 22, fig. 2. 

By careful determination of these organisms, using a high 
power objective, it was seen that when placed in a dilute aqueous 
solution of cane sug,ir under a cover glass, that they bore a strik- 
ing resemblance to the ferments allied to the yeast plant. They 
continued to slowly multiply by increasing from the centre. 
The original cell expanded and opened out, the minute fresh cells 
passing into a separate existence. 

It appears remarkable that this ferment should exist in such a 
large quantity in this manna, and we have much pleasure in 
bringing it under the notice of the members of this Society. We 
consider that it may, perhaps, in some way, be responsible for the 
presence of the mannite found in the manna, 2 but at present we 
are not in a position to say definitely. Meanwhile we bring it 
under the notice of bacteriologists and biologists generally, so that 
investigations may be made respecting it. We suggest that per- 
haps it may be new to science, and its investigation may therefore 
be of some importance. From our short investigation we think 
that this ferment or fungus belongs to the Saccharomyces. 

It might, perhaps, be more accurately described as masses of 
oval or spherical cells, each cell consisting of a membrane and con- 
tents, which at first appear as a single body enclosed in the rather 
thick wall of the cell. This body eventually divides into two, 
three, or four vacuoles. Plate 22, fig. 3. 

If placed in a weak solution of cane sugar, the cells multiply by 
gemmation a small body appearing at one side of the cell and 
growing till it becomes the size of the mother cell from which it 
is eventually constricted. Other cells are again produced from 
these till aggregations of numerous cells are formed, which are 
arranged in the form of a chain when production proceeds in a 
linear manner. These cylindrical cells have thick walls with a 
nucleated protoplasm. After an interval of several days the cells 
at the free ends of these chains appear to coalesce and form a 

the interior walls of the cells disappearing and the outer walls 
burst ejecting numerous minute spherical bodies or sporules. 
Piute 22, figs. 4-7. 

To determine whether these organisms had the power to 
decompose cane sugar, four sohittous were prepared as follows, 
sufficient cane-sugar being dissolved in water for the whole. They 
were each placed in a graduated tube over mercury. 

No. 1, a portion of the organisms was added to a solution of 
pure cane sugar. In this experiment there was only added enough 
of the organisms to cause the liquid to be turbid. From the first 
to the ninth day the solution remained turbid and the organisms 
appeared to increase somewhat. On the ninth day one or two 
bubbles of gas made their appearance, the decomposition slowly 
Proceeding until the twenty-eighth day, when 5-4 cubic centimetres 
°* gas had been obtained. 

To "lie 11th day -6 cc. was obtained. 

was obtained. 

These readings were all taken early each morning. On the 
completion of the decomposition, the gas was absorbed to a large 
extent by potash solution, indicating C0 2 , but unfortunately 
owing to an accident the experiment could not be completed. 

The 1 

for ;, 

The products are thus the same as when dccompo^'d by < 
yeast. This experiment will be repeated on larger quantities of 
material and the products of decomposition determined quantita- 

No. 2, a very small quantity of a solution of phosphoric acid, 
made alkaline with ammonia, was added to a portion of the same 
sugar solution as No. 1. Although the sugar solution remained 
turbid, yet, the organisms did not multiply to any extent, and 
there was no decomposition of the sugar with evolution of gas 
during three weeks. 

No. 3, a minute portion of nitrate of potassium was added to 
the solution prepared as in No. 2. The solution soon became 
ropy and after a few days had become quite clear. No decompo- 
sition of the sugar took place. 

No. 4, a portion of the cane sugar was boiled with hydrochloric 
acid, neutralised, made acid with tartaric acid, and the sanie 

quantity of the orgai 
during three weeks. 

water has a sweet taste. It has slight reducing properties, giving 
a distinct reaction when heated with Fehling's solution, thus 
showing the presence of a reducing sugar. When a portion was 
boiled in dilute acid, the amount of copper reduced was apparently 
but little increased, indicating that other sugars were present, 
but in small quantity. It was thus seen that the sweetness of 
the manna must be derived from some other substance than sugar, 
and further tests discovered a crystallised body, of sweet taste, 
present in large quantities, and as seen below this substance is 
mannite. Besides the mannite and sugars, the manna contains 
a small quantity of gum, but no resin. Starch is also absent. 
An aqueous solution is acid to test paper. The identity of this 
acid was not determined, as tin' material at our disposal was not 
sufficient for that purpose, being used in other portions of the 

Moisture and Ash.— The amount of moisture in the powdered 
manna was found to be 719 per cent. It was heated in the air- 
bath at about 100° C. until constant. This dried material was 
then incinerated, and the ash found to equal 2"39 per cent., a 
portion of which was dirt. The inorganic constituents present 
were chlorine, sulphuric, phosphoric, and a trace of nitric acids, 
also carbonic acid from the decomposition of the organic matter. 
The bases being alumina, iron, lime, magnesia and the alkalis. As 
the material at our disposal was required for the organic work, a 
thorough quantitative analysis of the constituents of the ash was 
not made, but it appears to be derived from the grass debris, and 
the substances insoluble in water, together with some foreign 

Estimation of the Glucose and other Sugars.— Two grams of the 
manna were dissolved in water and made up to 200 cc. It was 
found that it required 117 cc. of the solution to reduce 5 cc. of 
Fehling's copper solution, 5 cc. = 025 gram glucose. The manna 
therefore contains 215 per cent, of a glucose. 

To determine the amount of other sugars present, if any, two 
grams of the same manna were taken, dissolved in water, a small 
quantity of dilute hydrochloric acid added, and then boiled for 
half an hour. The solution was then cooled, made neutral, and 
brought up to 200 cc. It required 73 cc. of this solution to reduce 
5 cc. of Fehling's copper solution, or equal to 3-425 per cent, of 
total sugars. As the glucose present equals 215 per cent., the 
manna contains, therefore, 1-275 per cent, of a sugar or sugars 
other than glucose 

Determination of the Mannite.— The mannite for this purpose 
was obtained from the manna by the following method, whereby 
it is obtained fairly pure at the first crystallisation. A quantity 
of the powdered manna was boiled in a small quantity of rectified 
spirit. The alcohol when removed was dark coloured, and deposited 
some mannite on cooling ; it appeared to contain the greater 
portion of the sugars. This portion was discarded. The manna 
was then boiled in several portions of rectified spirit, these were 
mixed together; on cooling a good quantity of mannite crystal- 
lised out in needles and plates. It was fairly white in colour and 
the alcohol was but slightly coloured. The crystals were removed, 
placed an a porous slab to drain, recrystallised from water, and 
again drained on the slab. The mannite is thus readily obtained 
almost pure. For the more delicate reactions the mannite was 
again recrystallised from alcohol and water. The use of animal 
charcoal was not needed. 

The tests whereby these crystals were determined as mannite 

1. The crystals are rhombic prisms. 

alcohol, readily on hoilint; ; and were insoluble in ether. 

3. When dissolved in water the solution liad no action on Hg !lt 
in the polarimeter, being optically inactive. 

4. When the crystals were dissolved in water and Heated with 
fresh yeast, no fermentation took place dining t went) -four hours. 

5. When boiled with Fehling's solution no reduction took place, 

5 the copper reduced after a solution had been boiled in 
cid, so that the substance does not undergo hydrolysis by 

6. The crystals melted at 165° - 166° C. in glycerol 
losed at end. 

7. The crystals dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid 

8. When boiled with potash an aqueous solution is not darkened. 

9. With ammonio-sulphate of copper, a blue precipitate was 

on boiling. 

11. When an aqueous solution was added to either lime or 
baryta water, and alcohol added, precipitates were obtained. 
1 2. The purified substance was sweet to the taste. 

13. When treated with strong nitric acid, and heated until the 
evolution of gas ceased, the oxidation products formed gave the 
reactions for saccharic and oxalic acids, no inucic acid was 

14. When the purified crystals were heated to 105° C. for half 
an hour, no change in weight took place, nor was there any alter- 
ation when heated to 116° C, so that the crystals are anhydrous 
at that temperature. 

15. Combustion was made of perfectly purified material with 
the following result :— 

•2538 gram gave -3658 grain C0 3 
and -1766 „ H 2 
which is ecual to 3931 per cent, carbon 

7'72 „ hydrogen 

5297 „ oxygen. 

Prom which we may deduce the formula 6 H 14 6 or that of 

Theory requires for this formula — 

Carbon ... 39-56 per cent. 

Hydrogen ... 7-69 
Oxygen ... 5275 

From the results of the above tests, it is certain that the 
crystallised substance from this grass manna is mannite. 

Quantitative determinations of the Mannite.— A portion of the 
manna was dissolved in water, alcohol and acetate of lead added, 
a good precipitate forms, which easily separates, the tiltrate being 
quite clear. From the tiltrate the lead was removed by sulphur- 
etted hydrogen, the solution evaporated to dryness and boiled out 
with 90% alcohol, filtered, evaporated to dryness, and weighed. 
In this way 60-5% of mannite was obtained. As the greater 
portion of the sugars were by this method probably present, it 
was again dissolved in boiling alcohol, evaporated down, precipi- 
tated by ether, filtered, dried, and weighed. By this method the 
percentage was 58-98 of mannite. As the decomposition of the 
sugars by fermentation with yeast is slow, and perhaps not satis- 
factory, (see determination of the fermentation of the manna 
below), the method of determining the mannite gravimetrically 
by decomposing the sugars by yeast was not undertaken. As 
the total amount of the sugars present is only just above 3%, 
there could not be less than 57% of mannite present in the manna 
taken for analysis. As it is, perhaps, hardly possible to determine 
with accuracy the gravimetric value of mannite in mixed material 
like the present, we consider that we are justified in stating the 
approximate amount of mannite in this grass manna as 58 per cent. 

The gum was determined in the usual way. 

The substances insoluble in water were found to equal 27 '58 
per cent, and consisted partly of debris, broken grass, and sub- 

tly of a small portio 

,-,u bo- 

hydrates allied to the gums, but largely consisting of a smooth 
light dirty-drab coloured mucilaginous substance that prevented 
the ready filtration of the material and which was practically an 
insoluble ferment. It has been described earlier in the paper. 

From the above results we have the following analysis: — 
Substances soluble in water - 72-42 per cent. 
Substances insoluble in water = 27*58 „ 

Moisture = 7-190 per cent. 

Mannite = 58-000 „ 

Glucose = 2-150 

Other sugars = 1-275 „ 

Gum soluble in water = 2-400 „ 

Soluble in alkali ? gum = 1-780 

Soluble in acid 1 gum = -690 „ 

Ash = 2-390 

Debris, dirt, and the fermentation fungus = 22720 „ 
Nitrogenous bodies etc. undetermined, and loss = 1 -405 „ 

100 000 

We may therefore consider that the chief product of this grass 

Fermentation of the Manna with Yeast.— -9 gram of the manna 
was dissolved in water, mixed with a little fresh yeast, and placed 
in a graduated tube over mercury. 1 

The readings were taken the first thing in the morning in every 
case, the temperature then being about the same. 

The first twenty-four hours gave 1*7 cc. of gas. 
„ second „ „ 2-0 

>, third „ „ 2-2 „ 

1 For comparison a portion of cane-sugar i 
made slightly acid with tartaric acid, yeast adc 
and placed by the side of the manna determination. Fermentation 
rapidly set in, and the whole was destroyed in twenty-four hours, no 
further action taking place after that time. 

„ twelfth „ „ 1-0 

It will be observed that during the last few days the rate of 
decomposition was very irregular. The temperature during each 
day was from 80° to 85° F. when highest. No further gas was 
obtained after the twelfth day, so that the product was 32 cc. of 
gas. After the first few days there had been obtained more than 
sufficient gas to account for the whole of the sugar found to be 
prestnt in the manna. It is evident, therefore, that the decom- 
position of other substances must have taken place. It is generally 
accepted that niannite itself does not ferment with ordinary yeast. 
It is thus difficult to understand what other substances can be 
present in the manna to be decomposed by yeast, with the form- 
ation of C0 2 , if the mannite is not acted upon. The reaction 
may be probably due to the presence of the organisms found in 
mna, acting with the yeast introduced. The organisms in 
mna have the power of decomposing cane sugar, under 
certain conditions, with the evolution of gas. The subject is 
extremely interesting and worthy of more research, and as we are 
expecting to receive shortly much more material, the matter will 
be further investigated. The CO a calculated theoretically from 

ered as glucose, which is more than four times as much as 
;vas found to be present in the manna. 

This is the second record of the occurrence of a true manna m 
Australia. The first being described by J. H. Maiden, f.l.s / in 
an exudation from Myoporum platycarpum, R.Br. 

Our specimen is quite distinct from either the Eucalyptus 
manna, or lerp,as these substances contain sugars and not mannite. 
This latter is found in the dried juice which exudes from the 
Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus). Mannite occurs in many other 


plants, e.ff.,the roots of Aconite, Aconitum napellus, Linn.; Celery, 
Apium graveolens ; Mew, Meum athamanticum ; Hemlock-water- 
drop, CEnanthe crocata; Polypodium vulgare; Scorzonera hispanica 
and Triticum repens; and in the root-bark of Tunica granatum. 
Mannite also occurs in the bark of wild cinnamon, Canellia alba, 
Murr. (8%), and of Ash Fraxinus excelsor; in the leaves and young 
twigs of Syringa vulgaris; in the leaves of Ligustrum vulgare 
and of Cocos nucifera, Linn., and in the fruit of Laurus persea, 
and of Cactus opuntia. Mannite also occurs in Laminaria 
saccharina; in olives, and in several fungi, e.g., Lactarius vellereus; 
L. turpis; L. pyrogalus and L. pallidus. A garicus integer con- 
tains 20% of its dry substance. It also occurs in the cambium 
layer of conifers (Payen, A. 12,60; Meyer a. Reiche.) 

The official manna is obtained from the dried juice which exudes 
from the Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus, Linn.), but substances 
that go by the name of manna have been obtained from the follow- 
ing, and have been used at various times for food or medicine :— 
Alhagi camelorum, Fisch., A. maurorum, Desv.; Atraphaxi$ 
tpino$a, Linn.; Calotropis gigantea, R.Br.; Cedrus Libani, Barr.; 

miliaria, F. et M.; Musa superba, Roxb.; Palmce, various species; 
Pinus excelsa, Wall.; Quercus incana, Roxb.; Rhododendron. 
arboreum, Sm.; Tamarix sp.; Salix sp., according to Stewart; 
Salsola jatida, Del., according to Stewart and Aitchison ; 
Eucalyptus spp. 

Glyceria fluitans, R.Br., is known in many parts of the world 
«s "Manna Grass," not that manna has been found on it, but that 
the seeds are sweet and used for food. A lichen, Leonora escu- 
lenta, is found in portions of Arabia and there used for food, 
under the name of manna. 

Medical Properties and Uses of Manna.— Manna is a mild 
laxative. It is especially suitable for ch 

> disguise their disagreeable taste. 
1 England than formerly. 

Mannite possesses similar laxative properties to that of manna, 
and is frequently employed on that account in Italy. 1 

We advance no theory as to the origin of this manna, as that 
lies in the province of the entomologist, but Mr. W. W. Froggatt 
is of the opinion that it is due to some action of a homopterous 
insect on the stem of the grass. 

Bibliography of Eucalyptus Mannas and Lerp. 2 
Allen (A. H.) — Commercial Organic Analysis (J. and A. Church- 
hill), Vol. I., (1885) p. 191, Glucoses (Eucalyptose, Eucalyn); 
p. 192, Saccharoses (Melitose, Eucalypton ; Melezitose). 
Anderson (T.)— On a new kind of manna from New South Wales. 
Edin. New Philosoph. Journ., July, 1849. Reprinted in 
Papers and Proc. R. S., V. D. Land, Vol. i., 1851. 

This gives an account of lerp received from the north- 
western part of Victoria which he analysed. 
Ueber eine neue Mannasorte aus Neu Siid Wales. (Vom 
Verfasser mitgetheilt). Journ. fur prakt. Chemie., 
xlvii., 449. A translation of the preceding. 
Berthelot (M.)— Sur quelques matieres sucrees. Compt. Rend., 
xli., 392 (1855). Examination of an Australian manna 
received from the Paris Exhibition of 1855. The author 
examines the Melitose of Johnston (see p. 42), and from it 
obtains an unfermentable sugar called Eucalin (Eucalyn). 
The manna examined by Berthelot was probably that 
exhibited by Mrs. (afterwards Lady) John Hay, then of 
Welaregong, Upper Murray, and was probably obtained 
from Eucalyptus Gunnii. 
Sur quelques matieres sucrees. N. Ann. Chim. Phys., 46, 66. 

A copy of the preceding. 
Ueber einige zuckerartige Substanzen. Journ. fiir prakt 
chem., 67, 230. 

A translation of the preceding. See also Chem. Centr., 
1855, 69. 
Chem. Organ., Paris, 1860. 

Deals with Melitose at II., 260, and Eucalin at II., 250. 

Beveridge (P.) — On the aborigines inhabiting the great Lacustrine 

and Riverine depression of the Lower Murray, Lower Mur- 

rumbidgee, Lower Lachlan, and Lower Darling. Proc. P. S., 

N.S.W., xvn., 63. 

Contains notes on the " Laarp" harvest. 
Dobson (T.)— On Laarp or Lerp, the cup-like coverings of Psyllidese 
found on the leaves of certain Eucalypti. Proc. R. S. V. D. 
Land, Vol. i., pt. in., 235 (1851) (with two plates). Des- 
cription and drawings of several species of Psyllidese found 
in Tasmania. 
Erichson.— Description of two Australian species of Psylla. 

Archives, 1812, 286. 
Fluckiger (P. A.)— Vierteljahresschr. de Wittstein, 1868, xvn., 16L 
A chemical investigation of Lerp. 
Lerp Ainylum. Watts' Diet., vn., 2nd Suppl., 733. 
Fluckiger (F. A.) and Hanbury (D.)— Histoire des Drogues, n., 
59. "La Manne dAustralie" and "La Manne de Lerp 
Gmelin— Chemistry, xv., 296. 

Articles : — Melitose, Eucalin. 
Hanbury (D.)— Minor notes on the materia medica of the Inter- 
national Exhibition (London, 1862). Pharm. Journ. [2], iv. r 
A description of Eucalyptus manna, and Australian Insect 
manna called Lerp, is given amongst references to 
other substances. 
Hooper (D.)— Chemical notes on Mannas. Druggists' Circular, 
4, 1891 and brief abstract in Bulletin of Pharmacy, v., 117^ 
Eucalyptus manna is referred to amongst others. 

Johnston (J. F. W.)— On the sugar of the Eucalyptus. Mem. 
Chera. Soc, i, 159. (1843). 

Read before the Chemical Society, 20th December, 1842. 
On the sugar of the Eucalyptus. Phil. Mag. [2nd ser.], xxiil, 

dyptus. Journ. fiir prakt. 
Chemie. xxix., 485. 
A translation of the preceding. 
Landerer (X.)— On the varieties of manna not produced by the 
Ash. Pharm. Journ., xin., 411. Mentions " Manna Aus- 
tralis produced by Eucalyptus resinifera." 
M'Coy (F.) — Cicada mcerens. "The great black or manna cicada." 
Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria, Decade v., plate 50. 
Gives a life history of Cicada mcerens, and states that 
Eucalyptus manna is formed by this cicada. 
Maiden (J. H.)— Report on the Vegetable Exudations collected 
by the Elder Exploring Expedition. Proc. R. S., S. A. 1892. 
That of Myoporum platycarpum proved to be identical in 
composition with the Manna of Commerce yi'-lded '>y 
the Ash. Gums of an Acacia and Uracil in-hitoii; 
resins of CaUitris and Xanthorrhcea, and kinos of 
Eucalyptus are also dealt with. 
Mueller (F. v.)— Eucalyptographia. Decade x., p. 464. 

Under Eucal///>//'s r'unijtah'.i are records of observations on 

Mundy (Lieut.-Col.)— Our Antipodes, 79 (3rd ed., p. 176). 

An account of collecting manna at Bathurst, N.S.W. 
Palmer (E.)— A description of manna found on the leaves of 

Eucalyptus terminalis. Proc. R. S., N. S. W., 1883, 98. 
Passmore (F. W.)— The carbohydrates of manna from Eucalyptus 
Gunnii, Hook., and of Eucalyptus honey. Pharm. Journ. 
[3], xxi., 717. 

Ray (J.) — Correspondence of John Ray. Letters from John Ray 
to Dr. Robinson and reply re the formation of Manna by 
cicadas in Italy, Sept., 1685. Ray Society, 1848, 176. 
Robinson (Dr.)— [See " Ray."] 

Scott (J.)— Revision of the British Museum collection of Psyllidie. 
Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1882, 449. 

Several species from Tasmania are re-described in this paper. 
Stokes (J. L.)— Discoveries in Australia. At p. 482, Vol. n., 
will be found Surgeon Bynoe's account of his observations 
on Cicadas and Manna. See also I., 286. 

Bynoe states that a species of cicada plentiful on the North 
Coast of Australia does produce manna. 
Tepper (J. G. O.)— Remarks on the Manna or Lerp insect of 
South Australia. Journ. Linn. Soc, (Zoology) xvn., p. 109, 

A general account of the formation of Lerp, and its forma- 
tion in South Australia. 
Thomson (T.)— Chemistry of Organic bodies. Vegetables. At 

p. 642 is an account of Australian Manna. 
Walker (F.)— British Museum Catalogue, Homoptera, 1851, p. 910. 
Contains description of Australian species of Psylla (Livia 
lowjipennis.) Insecta Saunderi, in., 1855. 

Description of Australian species of Psylla in Saunders 

West (T.)— A brief description of a singular insect production 
found in some parts of Australia. Sydney Magazine of 
Science and Art, I., 75, 1858. 
An account of Lerp or Laarp. 
Wooster (W. H.)_ How the Lerp Crystal Palace is built. Journ. 
-Micros. Soc. Vict, Vol. i., No. 4, p. 91, (1382), (1 plate.) 
Observations on a Victorian species of Psylla which he 
watched building its covering under the microscope. 

References to Australian Mannas will also be found s 

1. Archiv. der Pharm., 196-7, (1872.) 

2. Yearbook of Pharmacy, 1871, 188. 

Explanation op Plates. 


Sketch of the " Blue Grass," Andropogon annulatus, Forsk 

Fig. 1 — Manna under i objective. 

Fig. 2— Mannite crystals removed from the substance leaving sporules. 
Fig. 3— Cells showing mode of multiplying. X 450 diam. 
Fig. 4— Showing production of cells on a chain or linear manner. 
X 450 diam. 

f No. 4. 

r aggregation of cells with sporules escap- 

Fig. 7— Sporules in " strings of beads " found with No. 6. X 450 diam. 
Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, all in a solution of cane sugar. 




By G. H. Knibbs, f.r.a.s., Lecturer in Surveying, University of 


[Read before the Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, December 2, 1896.] 

-aimucantars and great circles tangent thereto. 

Error of the mean of true altitudes as a datum for the computation 

of azimuth or time : zero declination. 
Ditto: any declination. 

Refraction error of the mean of observed altitudes. 
Diurnal aberration. 

Augmentation of the Sun's semidiameter. 

Contraction of the Sun's horizontal semidiamer by refraction. 

Contraction of the Sun's vertical diameter by refraction. 

Elliptical figure of the Sun's image. 

Contraction of inclined semidiameters and departure from elliptical 

Elliptical image of the Sun, tangent to two diaphragm wires inclined 
at any angle. 

15. Ditto, tangent to perpendiculai and horizontal diaphragm wires. 

16. Elliptical image of the Sun tangent to one diaphragm wire. 

17. Measurement of the angles between the diaphragm wires. 

• On methods of observation generally. 
19. The method of equal altitudes. 

• The method of i 

W. lhe method of altazimuths. 

21- Conditions of precision and general remarks. 

1- Introduction.— Although it cannot be expected that solar 
observations for the determination of the meridian line, will yield 
results equal in precision to those which may be derived from 
stellar observations— chiefly on account of the greater unsteadiness 
°* the atmosphere during the day, and of the larger uncertainty 
J n the magnitude of the refraction— yet their convenience often 

indicates that they are to be preferred under certain circumstances. 
In order to attain to the ultimate degree of precision possible 
with this method, and to form a just estimate of its value, it is 

and to have regard to conditions of accuracy generally. These 
last, vary with changes of the sun's declination and with its 
altitude, and are moreover different in different latitudes. Is is 
proposed therefore to develope rigorously the theory of the subject, 
because the rigorous theory will not be without utility in attempts 
to perfect the method. 

2. Instrumental Theory. — An observation for the determination 
of the meridian line, consists essentially of a measurement of the 
direction or azimuth, and of the altitude, or of its complement the 
zenith distance, of the celestial object selected for the purpose. 
The result is consequently affected both by instrumental and by 
astronomical conditions. The former involve an investigation of 
the particular instrument used, and the application of the general 
theory of corrections for the errors of instruments. The principles 
of the investigation of the first element have been elsewhere 
discussed, 1 and are outside the scope of this paper. 

The only corrections to be applied to observations besides that 
for the index or constant error of the zero of the vertical circle, 
are those for the collimation and level errors. 2 If c denote the 
angle between the sight line of the telescope and the plane at 
right angles to its rotation axis — considered as positive towards 

1 By Bessel, C. A. F. Peters, Hansen and others. The theory of the 
errors of instruments is admirably treated in Chauvenet's Spherical and 
Practical Astronomy. Vol. n., Philadelphia 1863. See also Clarke's 
Geodesy, London 1880. The Surveyor, Sydney, Vol. I., Nos. 2, 4, 10, 
1888 - 1889. On the rigorous examination and use of transit theodolites 
by Q. H. Knibbs. Also the theory of the repetition of angular measures 
with theodolites.— Journ. Eoyal Society, N.S.W., Vol. xxiv., pp. 87 - 106, 
1890, by the same author. 

2 Errors of eccentricity are eliminated by taking the mean of the read- 
ings of the microscopes, dividing the graduated circles into equal parts. 
Corrections to particular graduations would be also applied if an investi- 


the right, looking through the telescope, inasmuch as the circles 
are graduated "clockwise" — the collimation correction p to the 
horizontal circle is, for the altitude h, 

/, = c(secA-l) (1) 

li and c being in the same units, seconds say. If, looking through 
the telescope, the left hand side of its pivots be raised so that the 
rotation axis is inclined i with the horizontal, the similar correction 
A for the same altitude is, — 

A = itan A (2) 

A and i being in the same units. 

Since these corrections are always very small, they may be 
applied independently, without introducing sensible error except- 
ing near the zenith, a case with which we are not here concerned, 
since such points are unsuitable for azimuth determinations. The 
effect of applying the corrections is obviously to reduce the 
recorded direction to that which would be given by a perfectly 
adjusted instrument. In regard to the recorded altitude, it need 
only be remarked that if the alidade level alter from the pogition 
of adjustment, the reading must be corrected by the whole amount 
of the level movement. In order to eliminate the corrections (1) 
and (2) from the results of obs-rvations, it is usual where possible 
to reverse the instrument for each pair, so that the constants, 
having then opposite signs, will involve the disappearance of the 
nearly equal corrections from the mean of the observations. It 
^H be sufficient to observe that since c and i are always very 
small, slight changes of altitude do not vitiate this proceeding, by 
importing into the result errors of sensible magnitude, in conse- 
quence of regarding the corrections as exactly equal. This will be 
seen by differentiating (1) and (2) tor we shall then have for the 
differential corrections at any altitude, for a small change thereof 

d/x = c sec A tan A dh (3) 

dX = zsec 2 h dh (4) 

in which dh will of course be expressed in radians or 'circular 
measure,' the other units being as before. These differential 
corrections and their differentials again, both increase when the 


altitude i 

tude, we may suppose h to amount to 45° as a maximum in the 
class of observations to which we are referring, and dh to be 1°; 
then if c and i were even as large as one minute of arc, the cor- 
rections would amount to only 1"5 and 2-"l respectively. It is 
evident therefore that the second differences of the corrections 
are extremely small, and consequently that the error of using the 
mean altitude, as the argument for the computatioi 
for the collimation or level constant, cannot lead to sensible ei 
so far as least as the defect of instrumental adjustment is ( 
cerned. It may easily b< 
c TO and ct on the correction applied to the mean altitude, the total 
difference being the altitudes being 2/3, are 

e m = §ctan 2 (3 sec h (1 + 2 tan 2 h) + etc (5) 

ei = i tan 2 ft tan h (1 + tan 2 h)+ etc (6) 

which give for ft = 1°, c and i = 60", and h = 45° the values, 0"039 
and O"036 respectively, and even for h = 60°, only 0"128 and 
0"127. With large theodolites and altazimuth instruments, the 
errors ought not to amount to even one fourth of this. Again, 
the interval of time between observations differing 2° in altitude 
can never be less than 8 minutes, and this is more than sufficient 
for the reading and recording of an observation and the prepara- 
tion for the next one. With half the interval the corrections are 
clearly but one-fourth of the amount. The above dictum is there- 
fore justified, and with this the discussion of the instrumental 
theory may be dismissed. 

3. Almucantars and great circles tangent thereto. — Turning to 
the astronomical conditions of the problem, it will be necessary 
in the course of their examination to determine the magnitude 
and law of increase of the distance between small and great circles, 
as for example between an almucantar or parallel of altitude, and 
a great circle of the celestial sphere tangent thereto, as we pro- 
ceed along the latter from the tangent point. By developing the 
tangent cone, whose line of contact with the sphere is the almu- 
cantar of the zenith distance z, and employing the binomial 

expansion for expressing the distance between this curve and the 
plane development of the great circle, it is at once evident that 
the distance sought is 

dz = J5» cot*- i#*cot 3 z + etc (7) 

in which S is measured on the great circle. If dz be required in 
seconds, S should be expressed in seconds, and the terms S 2 and 
S* etc. multiplied respectively by arc 1", arc 3 1" etc. The second 
term, even for a zenith distance of only 5°, amounts only to 0"018 
for the seraidiameter of the sun. For 5° altitude the first term 
similarly amounts only to 0-"19. 

4. Error of the mean of true altitudes as a datum for the com- 
putation of azimuth or time; zero declination. In § 2 it was 
remarked that the mean of the observed altitudes and of the 
directions of a celestial object, as given by the instrument in 
reversed positions was often employed as a basis for computations 
of azimuth, and it was also shewn in that section that the 
differentials of the corrections for the instrumental constants did 
not sensibly affect the result. The error of using the mean altitude 
requires consideration, however, also from the standpoint of 
spherical geometry. We shall suppose that the observed altitudes 
are independently corrected for refraction, and that the mean is 
that of the corrected altitudes. 

!n Fig. 1 let Z H denote a vertical circle crossing a star's path, 
which may be represented by EST, RQ T, or R ST according 
as the polar distance PS, P Q or P S' is less than, equal to, or 
greater than 90°: so that for any one of these three cases, RQT 
will denote a great circle on the celestial sphere. Then if these 
arcs be bisected by the points S Q S', the great circle passing 
trough them will also pass through the celestial pole P. From 
R and T draw the great circles R r and T t cutting Z H at right 
angles, and draw also the almucantars R r' and Tt', so that r' and 
*' are points on the vertical Z H of the same altitude as R and T. 
Let us further suppose the difference of the altitudes corrected for 
refraction of these points to be 2# and the angle of intersection 
between the great circle and the vertical, viz. R Q Z to be /. 

rected zenith distances of R 
supposed small, so that no 
arc, sine, or tangent of this 

rr' = l/:T- tan* /cot (£-/?) («) 

tt' =i£' tan 2 Icot({+ft) (b) 

iindant precision, the term in ft* being negligible, for even 
d T differ in altitude 2 J , this fourth power will be only 
looVooo. Taking the mean of these quantities therefore, 
i for the distance A Q, A being the point whose zenith 
: is t, i.e. the mean of the zenith distances of R and T, 

AQ=i/^ tan*/ cotC 
The omitted term in ft*, for ft = l c 
error of only 1B V : the higher po' 
simplest method of deducing an ex; 
of the zenith distances ; which um 
the azimuth or hour angle of the p 
equal to that of i 

/= 45° will involve f 

ie of which is 
, the quantity 

(c) with the negative sign should be applied to the 


zenith distances ; for it is evident from the figure that at the 
mean of the times the star would have been at Q. This point, 
however, does not represent the mean of the directions of R and 
T, since the former is 2ft nearer the zenith. Since Rr = Tt = 
ft tan I, the difference of azimuth between D— the mean of the 
azimuths of R and T— and Q, viz. the angle Q Z D, not drawn in 
the figure, is expressed by the formula 

Angle Q Z D = £0 tan / [cosec ({- /3)— cosec ((+ ft)] (d) 

By expanding the terms in the brackets, multiplying by sin £ and 
rejecting the higher powers of ft as inappreciable, the distance C D 
from the vertical through Q, of a point D, so taken as to be the 
mean of the azimuths of R and T is obtained 

CD = /T- tan /cot ( (e) 

Multiplying by cot /, we get the difference of altitude between 
this point and Q, viz. 

OQ = 0»cotf if) 

Remembering that if a denote the change of azimuth for the 
change of altitude ft 

tan /= -g- sin £, very nearly (g) 

since a and ft are supposed small, i.e. always less than say about 
1°, the corrections to the mean zenith distance, for a star or the 
sun when the declination is zero, are, for the computation of 
azimuth and of time, respectively 

<o = - (AQ + QC)= -(i« 9 sin 2£+ft* cot (8) 

> /0 =-AQ = -ia^-sm2C (9) 

■t>y means of the approximate equation 

/8«+a»8ia»C=<'Bia»j, (h) 

P denoting polar distance— in this case 90°— the sine therefore 
teing unity, (8) and (9) may be reexpressed by substituting the 
semi-interval of time for the serai interval of azimuth : thus 

*>»-§ cot f(< 9 si* a *>-£') (9a) 

In these four equations, if the corrections are required in seconds, 
°> ft, and t should be expressed in seconds, and the result multi- 
plied by arc 1". The time t must also be expressed in arc, or the 

seconds of time multiplied by 15, before being squared. The 
latter equations are the more convenient, and the corrections are 
readily tabulated. In the following example, which will illustrate 
the precision of the correction method, the latitude <f> is assumed 
to be 35°, the polar distance is 90°, and the zenith distances 44° 
and 46°. From these data we find, a = 1° 57' 53-95", /? = 1°, t = 1° 
42' 41-70". By calculating in the ordinary manner and also from 
the "corrected" mean altitude 1 we get respectively, A denoting 
azimuth, and T hour angle, 

Means A = 134 30 39-71 T 30 17 28-70 / 54 16 9 

By (8)and (9) = 134 30 39-73 30 17 28-77 By (g) 54 16 25 

These differences are very small, notwithstanding that the case is 
an exceptional one, the interval between the observations being 
no less than 13 m 41 -56 s . 

5. Error of the mean of true altitudes as a datum for the com- 
putation of azimuth or time : any declination. In general it is 

or sun moves in a small instead of a great circle, i.e. when its 
polar distance is other than 90°. As previously remarked, the 
line R Q T in Fig. 1 will, in the general case, represent a great 
circle drawn through the positions occupied by the star at the 
moments of observation. The vertical Z H is drawn, not through 
the middle point of the star's path as in the preceding section, 
but through the middle point Q of this great circle. It is evident 
from considerations of symmetry that the declination circle pass- 
ing through this point will intersect the star's path at its middle 
point S or S', hence to the formula} already obtained it is neces- 
sary only, to add terms depending on the distance of this middle 
point from Q. 

By Lagrange's development, rejecting as negligible the powers 
of t higher than the second, since they are of the same order as 
the similar terms rejected throughout, we have 


QS or QS' = tan* \t sin 2p = \t* sin 3ft very nearly (i) 

the simpler form being also given at once, mutatis mutandis, by 
(7). This quantity is negative when the polar distance is greater 
than 90°, therefore the direction Q towards S must be regarded 
as positive. To the previous corrections to the zenith distances, 
therefore, we must add the difference of zenith distance between 
Q and S, which is 1 

Q s or Q s' = -I (■ sin 2;? sin I=\ at sin £sin 2p (j) 

the last expression being deduced by the ratio Q T/Tt = S Q/Qs, 
and containing only factors given by observation. By means of 
(h) the final formula; for the general case may be expressed either 
in terms of ft and a, or ft and t. In this way, we may reexpress 

QsorQs'^asinfcos^ •(«* rin' {+ /?*) 

= Ucosp /(«>sin»j>-0«) (*) 

and from these last expressions, and those previously deduced, 
obtain, by simple addition, the general values of the corrections 
sought, viz. e for azimuth, 7/ for time. 

c = ry-^cotf (10) 

Since t sin p is always greater than ft, see Fig. 1, the similar 
expressions, in terms of t instead of a, may be written, using the 
auxiliary w for brevity, 

»-| t> sin* p [cotp 41 -ff cosec* p)-cot fl...(12) 

e-«-| £* cot f. (13) 

>>=" + * £ 2 cotC < 14 ) 

The term within the rectangular brackets in (12) is a factor in 
which the unit of ft and t is indifferent : these quantities may 
therefore be expressed in either degrees, minutes or seconds ; the 
other factor, and the ft terms in (13) and (14) are easily tabulated. 
As we are dealing with small quantities the computations may be 
readily made, and involve less expenditure of time than is involved 
in the calculation of two spherical triangles. Tables I. and II. 
1 Note that sands' are not shewn in Fig. 1. They would be thepointe 
determined by letting fa] 

dll facilitate the computations. It may be remarked that the 
racketed factor in (12) is generally very small and consequently 
3 value is all that is required. 

170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 

i-5 21 4-4 7-3 10-4 13-3 15-6 17-1 177 

>-9 3-7 7-9 130 18-4 23-6 27-7 30-5 31-4 

•5 5-7 123 20-3 28-8 36-8 43-3 47-6 49-1 

!1 8-3 17-7 29-2 41-5 53-0 62-4 68-6 707 

!-9 113 24-1 39-8 56-5 72-2 850 93-3 96-2 

!-8 14-7 31-4 51-9 737 94-2 111-0 121-9 125-7 

4 0-oott 

18-3 15-3 12-6 

The application of the tables, by means of which the values 
the corrections may be interpolated by inspection, does not requ 
illustration, and it is only necessary to remember that «, ft ° 
are one-half of the observed differences between the azimuths, 
the zenith distances corrected for refraction, or of the times. 

G. Refraction Error of the mean of observed altitudes.— In t 
case discussed in the preceding section, the error of employing t 
mean of the true altitudes of a star has been investigated. ^ 


now propose to determine the further error involved, where instead 
of so doing, the mean of the observed altitudes, is corrected for 
refraction. Since the refraction increases more rapidly than the 
zenith distance it is evident that the refraction for the mean of the 
observed zenith distamy* /* /<•.** than the mean of the refractions of 
those distances. The difference is very small near the zenith, but 
becomes very appreciable near the horizon. At 45° it is about 
0-"01 for a difference of 1° in zenith distance between the mean 
and either observation and, as will presently be shewn, varies as 
the square of that difference. Let z ± b denote the zenith dis- 
tances given by observation, so that z is the means of, and b the 
half difference between the two : let also r be the refraction 
corresponding to z, and r x and r 2 the refractions for the observed 
zenith distances. Then e being the correction to the refraction r, 
we have for the mean of the true zenith distances 

« + J(r 1 +r i )-«+r+« (9 

For small changes of zenith distance the refraction may be put in 
the form 

r«Atan* (m) 

in which, since k varies very slowly with z excepting near the 
horizon it may be treated as constant. Hence substituting in 
this last expression, ;tJ for z, we obtain for the value of the 

e = r tan 2 b sec 2 z + etc (15) approx. 

the sign of which is always positive ; in other words the mean of 
the true zenith distances, is greater than the zenith distance com- 
puted by applying the refraction correction to the mean of the 
observed zenith distances. The above formula, however, is only 
suitable above 20° altitude at which value its error is about 0-*02. 
Between z = 70° to z = 90°, it is unsuitable, because the variation 
J u k, not taken into account, is not negligible, and appreciable 
terms are also neglected. When very great accuracy is required 
nothing is gained for low altitudes by the application of the cor- 
rection to the refraction for the mean altitude : it is more con- 
venient to correct each independently. On the other hand the 
following table will permit of accurate interpolations of the error 

320 G- H. KNIBBS. 

at any zenith distance when moderate accuracy only is required, or 
when the differences of the corrections only have to be determined. 

Table III.— Correction of the Refraction of the Observed Mean 
Zenith Distance for a semidifference of 1°. Barom. 29- 6 Therm. 
48-75 Fahr. 

Appt. Zenith Distance 45° 50° 55° 60° 65° 70° 75° 
Corr. to Refract. + -03" -05" 08" -12" -21" -39" -90" 
Appt. Zenith Distance 77£° 80° 81° 82° 83° 84° 85° 
Corr. to Refract. + 1-50" 2-71" 3-63" 4-86" 6-78" 9-77" 14-65" 

The correction for any other semidifference of apparent zenith 
distance may be approximately found by multiplying the tabular 
value by the square of the semidifference expressed in degrees and 
decimals of a degree. For any other pressure B, and air temper- 
ature t, the tabular quantities should be multiplied by factors 
expressing the barometric and thermometric corrections to the 
tabular refractions. These factors 1 are 
B 461-75 
29-6' 413 + r'" 

The corrections for the error, which it is necessary to apply to 
the azimuthal angle measured from the elevated pole, and to the 
hour angle measured from the meridian toward east or west will 
be respectively 

*" ~*-p < 16 > 

et = + ^sin^ecS (17) 

as it is easy to see from (g) in § 4 : 8 of course denotes declination. 
7. Diurnal Aberration. —The orbital motion of the earth causes 
lied the annual aberration, of the position of 
; which being independent of locality on the 

leclinations tabulated in ephemerides. The diurnal 

1 The coefficient 461-75/413 + t approximately expresses the air temper- 
ature factor of Bessel's refractions. In its stead the factor T in Chamber's 
Mathematical Tables, p. 431, Edit 1885, may be used with advantage. 
For 0° Fahr. it is 1-106, for 100° Fahr. 0'909. 


rotation however, also causes an aberration, which, on the con- 
trary, is dependent on locality, and cannot therefore be thus 
generally treated. The effect of this daily rotation is to displace 
a star towards the east, the displacement being called the diurnal 
aberration. Its ratio to the annual aberration is obviously that 
of the rotational velocity of a terrestrial point to the velocity of 
the earth's centre. This rotational velocity varies as the product 
of the geocentric radius of the earth p\ and the cosine of the 
geocentric latitude <j>', that is as p cos <f>. As the compression is 
less than ^ * .. and consequently the astronomical and geocentric 
latitudes differ never more than 11' 44", we may assume that the 
rotational velocity varies as the cosine of the astronomical latitude 
and this will never lead to sensible error, since the aberration 
itself is a very small quantity. 1 Assuming the orbit to be circular 
and its radius to be unity, the value of the earth's equatorial 
radius will be sin 8 '848; and as there are 366256 axial rotations 

Struve 2 the coefficient of the annual aberration is 20- "4151, the 

Table IV .—Coefficient of Diurnal Aberration for Different 

^titude 0° 20°56' 38"53' 5P29' 62°10' 71°52' 90° 

Coeff. Diur. Aberr. 32" 0-30" 0-25* 020" 015* 0-10" 0" 

The constant of aberration gives at once the effect on the right 
ascension of a star on the celestial equator when crossing the 

1 The rotational velocity may also be expressed by the - formula p cos <£, 
where p is the distance along the normal, from a point whose 
latitude is ^ to the rotation axis of the eatth. If the equator 
axis be denoted by unity, p = 1 + Ae (1-cos 2<£) very appro 
*Mch clearly shews how small the error of the assumption is. 

2 Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 484. 

3 The coefficient 0-"3ll given in Chauvenet's Astronomy, Vol. 
an d in Clarke's Geodesy p. 190 depends upon Eneke's valu 

meridian of the observer the result on the apparent declination 
at the same moment being zero. For a star whose distance from 
the equator, i.e. whose declination is 6, and whose hour angle is 
T, the effect will be, in right ascension da say, 

da = 0- s 0214 cos <f> sec 5 cos T (19) 

and in declination 

d8 = CK321 cos <£ sin 8 sin T (20) 

the former of which can become considerable only for a star near 
the pole, and must always be small for a rapidly moving star. 
The effect of the diurnal aberration on the azimuth and zenith 
distance of a star may readily be derived from these last equations : 
it is :— 

dA = 0-321" cos </> cos A cosec £ (21) 

d( = 0-321" cos $ sin A cos £ (22) 

in which the angle A should be reckoned from the north line. 
These quantities are to be added to azimuths and zenith distances 
computed from the star places given in an ephemeris. The above 
expressions, though not rigorously exact in the case of the sun, 
are sensibly so, since the difference between the sidereal and solar 
apparent rotations is very small. The diurnal aberration may 
always be neglected with instruments that do not read to within 
1", and is perhaps always negligible in the case of the sun because 
of the large uncertainty of the refraction and the indifferent 
definition of the sun's limb. Nevertheless the calculation of the 
correction is only the work of a minute, and it may at least serve 
to decide the last figure in the expression of the final result in 
whole seconds. 

8. Correction for parallax.— Since an ephemeris to be generally 
applicable gives only the geocentric positions of celestial objects 
it is necessary to reduce the results of observations made at a 
point on the earth's surface also to their geocentric values. This 
reduction, called the correction for parallax, affects theoretically 
both the altitudes and azimuths as given by observation, because 
of the spheroidal form of the earth. Turning first to the correc- 
tion for parallax in azimuth, it is shewn in treatises on spherical 


astronomy 1 that if A' denote the apparent, and A the geocentric 
azimuth, reckoned east or west from the elevated pole, p' the radius 
vector of the point at which the observations are made, <f> and <£' 
its astronomical and geocentric latitudes, and -' the equatorial 
horizontal parallax, then 

sin (A'-A) = P ' sin 77' sin (</>-<£') sin A' sec h (23) 

in which h is the true geocentric altitude. 

The term </> - <//, the so-called " angle of the vertical," has a 
maximum value of about 704'' at latitude 45°, if we accept Clarke's 
last values for the dimensions of the terrestrial spheroid. 2 The 
greatest value of -' is about 9", so that supposing p' to be unity, 
A' to be 90 J , the correction can never be more than 0-"0307 sec h; 
consequently, as in all altazimuth observations for meridian h is 
never great, the quantity is negligible. Denoting it by a', its 


a = - 0-"03U2sin 2</. sin A' cosec £ (24; 

negative sign denotes that it is always to be subtrs 

f i"- azinmthal angle reckoned from the elevated pole. 

The parallax in ;>>ui//i >list,ntr>- or altitude, is on the contrary 
always sensible, except in the case of very small theodolites. 
According to Newcomb 3 the value of the equatorial horizontal 
parallax for the earth's mean distance from the suit is 8 '848 j 
and according to Clarke the polar semiaxis is about ^ less than 
the equatorial, consequently the polar horizontal parallax is about 
0"030 less than the above quantity. 8- "84 may therefore be taken 
as a general mean value for the entire surface of the earth, which 
would correspond very nearly to its proper value for a latitude of 
30°. Since the semidiameter S of the sun, given for each day in 
any ephemeris, varies exactly as the parallax— that is to say, both 
v ary reciprocally as the earth's distance from the sun's centre— 

1 See Chauvenet— Spherical and Practical Astronomy, Vol. I., p. 1M. 

324 G. H. KNIBBS. 

and as the sine of the parallax for any geocentric zenith distance 1 
£ is equal to the sine of horizontal parallax multiplied by the sine 
of that distance, we have, putting S o for the sun's mean semi- 
diameter, and substituting the arcs of the very small angles for 
their sines, 

tt = - 8-84' |- Bin £ (25) 

as the general equation for parallax. The negative sign denotes 
that it is always to be subtracted from the zenith distance. With 
this factor, the extreme values are 8-"900 and 8-"694, correspond- 
ing to the semidiameter values 16'2922 and 15-7555 while that 
for the earth's mean distance is 16-'0197. 2 In the following table 
the corrections are given with the argument apparent zenith 
distance 3 corrected for lvfmction. 

Table V.- 


Parallax in Zenith Distance. 




Zenith D 



Lmeter 90° 

76° 55' 

72° 4' ( 

>8° 15' 

64° 58' 

58 9' 


0" 8 83" 







for 10" -092 -090 







Zenith Distances 


42* 49' 

34° 30' 

26° 56' 

19° 52 

" 13° i 


' 0" 7-00" 


5 00" 





for 10" -07:: 

i -062 



•03 1 



9. Augmentation of the Sun's semidiameter. — As the suns 
altitude increases, the distance from the observer diminishes, so 
that when it is in the zenith that distance is less, very approxi- 
mately by the whole value of the earth's radius. Theoretically 
therefore, there should be an increase of the geocentric value given 
in an ephemeris, depending upon the zenith distance. If * ne 
distance to the sun be regarded as unity, the earth's radius is 
sin tt o , that is the sine of the equatorial horizontal parallax, and 
the diminution of distance is sensibly this quantity multiplied by 

distance, consequently the semidiameter 

Hence, rejecting the powers of the small quantity in the denom- 
inator higher than the first, and using mean values of the parallax 
and semidiameters the actual value of the semidiameter will be 

S z = S + 0-0412" cos C (26) 

The successive hundredths of seconds are the corrections for the 
following altitudes, viz., 14°, 29 3 , 46° and 73°. It is evident 
that generally the correction may be ignored without vitiating 
the results of observations. If computations were carried out to 
0""01 and finally expressed to - "l it might affect the last unit. 
It is preferable, however, when tabulating the effects of refraction 
on the sun's diameter, to take cognizance at the same time of the 
augmentation, and combine these in the tabular value, and this 
will be done in the subsequent sections. 

1 0. Contraction of the Sun's horizontal semidiameter by refraction. 
— Since the effect of the refraction is to diminish the zenith 
distance of any point, the extremities of the sun's horizontal 
diameter will apparently approach one another through refraction 
by an amount which is equal to the product of the convergency 
of the vertical circles passing through the extemities, into the 
displacement by the refraction. The convergency increases as the 
tangent of the altitudes, and it has already been mentioned that 
the refraction may be put in the form r = k tan £ in which k, 
though not absolutely constant, is nearly so, and may be taken 
from tables of refraction. 1 Consequently we have for s the con- 
traction of the horizontal semidiameter 

»' = rScot{ = kt*n (cot CS = *$ (27) 

H we take k from a refraction table it must be multiplied by arc 
1" for the value of a in seconds. It is convenient to combine the 
contraction with the augmentation treated of in the preceding 
section. Denoting the augmentation term— 0-"0412 cos £— by ff, 

nd putting s for the 

by means of which the following table is prepared. The geocentric 
semidiaraeter S o is supposed to be 16', bar. 29 6 in. and therm. 
48-75° Fahr. The horizontal semidiameter corrected for refraction 
and augmentation will hereafter be denoted by S, so that S Q - S + s. 

Table VI.— Horizontal Contraction of the Sun's Geocentric 

S t = 16' Bar. 29-6 i 
True Zenith Disk 0° 20° 4^ 
Contraction 0-23" 0-23" 0-24" 025" 0-25" 0-23" 0-20" 0""07 

These results are affected by the augumentation and must not 
therefore be further corrected by (26). For different values of 
the semidiameter, pressure and temperature, the tabular values 
require the same factor as c in (29) hereafter; obviously however, 
may be ignored because of the smallness of the 

11. Contraction of the Sun's vertical diameter by refraction.— 
If a great circle be supposed drawn through the true centre of the 
sun's disc, at right angles to the vertical through the same point, 
it will divide the apparent disc unequally, because the refractions 
are greater for the lower limb and centre, than for the centre and 
the upper limb. If therefore, in Fig. 2, § 13, the vertical through 
the centre C of the sun, be followed downwards, M C from the 
upper edge to the centre, will always be greater than C M i from 
the centre to the lower edge, and both will be less than the 
geocentric semidiameter. This contraction of the vertical diameter 
is sensible to the order of 0-"l right up to the zenith, within 30° 
of which the refraction is about 1"1 per degree. The difference 
between the upper and lower semidiameters however, only becomes 
sensible as we closely approach the horizon— as is apparent in 
Table VTI. hereunder. As in the preceding section, it is also 
convenient to include the effect of augmentation, which slightly 
reduces the contraction, because in this way the apparent form is 

immediately obtained with the zenith distance as argument, 
computing therefore the results given in the table the augme] 
tion has been taken into account ; the geocentric semidiamefc 
taken as 16', reduced barometric pressure 29 6 inches, i.e. at 
Fahr. and air temperature 48-75 Fahr.; these being the press 
and temperature of no correction in BesseFs refractions. 1 
reduced contraction will hereafter be denoted by c . 

Table VII. — Vertical Contraction of the Sun's Semidiamet, 

S o = 16'. Bar. 29-6 in. Therm. 48-75 Fahr. 

Zenith Distances Corrected for Eefraction. 

Centre of Sun o° 15° 30° 40° 50° 55° 60° 65° ■/ 

°ft&a2£ter 0-23 0-24 0-32 0-46 0-62 0-78 1-03 1-44 < 

Dmo, Lower 0-23 0-24 032 046 0-63 0-79 105 1-47 S 

Difierence _____ 0-01 0'01 002 003 

Zenith Distances Corrected for Refraction. 

Note.— See also Table IX. § V.\ for contractions with the argument 
apparent zenith distance. 

For other values of the semidiameter, and other barometric and 
thermometric readings, the tabular quantities will require correc- 
tion. If S o denote the semidiameter in minutes, given in the 
ephemeris for the time of observation, and B and r respectively, 
the barometer reading reduced to 32° Fahr., and the air tempera- 
ture in Fahr. degrees, then the true contraction c may be found 
from the tabular contraction c' by the following formula, the last 
two factors of which also approximately express the barometric 
and thermometric correction of the refraction, 

c = c ' §_o B 461-7.) (29) 1 

16 • 29-6 * 413 + r V 

Below 85° zenith distance the sun's form is generally so irregular 
., \ The ratio S a 1(3 as a factor is not rigorously accurate but will never- 

that no confidence can be placed in any theory of its apparent 
contraction, or in the value of the refraction ; and it may further 
be observed that the imperfect definition of the limbs at low 
altitudes renders accurate observation impossible, so that the 
order of the difference between the upper and lower semidiameters, 
even at 85° zenith distune-", is practically almost negligible. The 
reduced vertical semidiameter will hereafter be denoted by 8i* 

12. Elliptical figure of the Sun's image. Since the variation 
of the refraction for small variations of zenith distance is nearly 
linear, it follows that the form of the sun is nearly elliptical. The 
departure from the outline of a perfect ellipse is perhaps always 
negligible, as will be seen from the following comparison of an 
extreme case between the outline approximately computed on the 
elliptical assumption and that obtained from the refraction theory 
by supposing the air temperature and pressure to be that of no 
correction in Bessel's table, and the true altitude of the sun's 
centre to be 5°. The upper limb is taken for comparison. In 
Fig. 2 let the line N be trisected, and parallels be drawn to the 
verticals through the centre, from the points u, v, so found. Then 
neglecting horizontal contraction, and assuming the refraction to 
act in the direction of these parallels, which is nearly true, we 
have since M M' is 22 -"92 

By refraction U U' = 21-67* VV'=17'25" 
By ellipse 2161 1609 

Difference 0-06 0-16 

This order of difference, viz. one or two tenths of a second of arc, 
is really negligible because of the imperfection of definition at so 
low an altitude. The difference however may easily be taken 
into account as a small correction on the hypothetic elliptical 
form, as shewn in the more exact treatment of the next section. 
What the illustration establishes is that, at least to a first approxi- 
mation, the hypothesis of an elliptical outline for the sun's image 
is justified. 

13. Contraction of inclined semidiameters and departure from 
elliptical form.— We have seen that while the contraction of the 

horizontal diameter is sensibly constant at all altitudes, that of 
the vertical diameter greatly varies with the altitude, so that 
regarding the sun's apparent figure, as an ellipse, the eccentricity 
of the figure will continually diminish as the zenith is approached, 
the circular form being attained only when the centre is at the 

zenith. We shall have occ; 

ision to fiud the length of an inclinec 

semidiameter. This may 

iii'i-i readily be done by finding s 

quantity such that if subtr 

acted, not from the geocentric semi 

diameter, but from the cont 

rarted horizontal semidiameter it wil 

give the value of the inclined 

semidiameter as affected by refractior 

and augmentation. Denoting the values in Tables VI. and VII.. 

§10 and § 11, by s and c' as 

before, we have for the reduced hori 

zontal and reduced vertical 

semidiameters respectively, 

S = S o - 

- * ; 8 X = S a - e ; 

consequently, if we use c to express the difference of the semi- 

rily the defect of the elliptical hypothesis, let 
semidiameter as affected by refraction and 
Fig. 2, be denoted by 5 a j the inclined contrac- 

tion P F by c 2 ; the angle of the radius vector C P, i.e., the angle 
M C P by 6; and the intercept P Q' between the two arcs, of a 
line parallel to C M by c„ then we have by geometry 

SJ(S 2 cos 6) = efe l ;orc l = (5 2 c cos 0)/^ (p) 

and p Q' being at right angles to C P 

c 3 =P P + pF = Cl coa$ + (c'Bm* e)l(2S-etc.)...(q) 
with a high order of precision. 1 By a method of successive 
approximations the following values of c x and c 2 may be derived, 

Cl = c cos 9 [1 + J- sin* (I - f |_ co8«(9)] (31) 

The second term, of this value for the contraction of the inclined 
semidiameter, is generally negligible. It may be reexpressed thus 
for the purposes of calculation, 2 

and is therefore obviously a maximum for = 45°. Resuming 
the previous example, in which the true altitude of the sun's 
centre is taken as 5°, and the difference of the contractions con- 
sequently 22-"69, we have S l = 15'37'"01, hence the value of the 
term is 0-"21. This quantity is of the same order as the difference, 
referred to in the preceding section, between the real image by 
refraction, and that deduced from the assumption of elliptical 
form. If the second term therefore be regarded as appreciable, 
the defect of the elliptical hypothesis must be considered at the 

In order to illustrate the difference between the elliptical outline 
and the figure given by the refraction theory, let us revert to the 
case where the sun's centre has a true zenith distance of 85°, its 
apparent zenith distance being therefore 84° 50' 28-"36 at the 

1 The more complete expression for the denominator of the last term 
in (q) is2S- (e« sin 2 0)/2 8 - etc., a continued fraction. 

2 The computation of the squares of sines and cosines is facilitated by 

l never reach 0"005, 

temperature and pressure of no 
refraction table. For the sun's' 
between plane and spherical coordi 

points on the sun's edge at 221°, 45°, 67f\ and 90° from the 
intersection of the vertical through its centre, with the upper and 
lower limbs, computing very rigorously the refractions thereat, 
remembering that these refractions are displacements, not in lines 
parallel to the central vertical, but on the verticals through the 
several points ; we obtain the coordinates of their positions in 
the sun's refracted image. Then by describing two semi 
with the contracted horizontal semidiameter as major ax 
the upper and lower vertical contracted semidiameters as 
axes ; and computing the ordinates for points thereon 
abscissae, measured on a great circle at right angles to the i 
through the image of the sun's centre, are the same as in the 
refraction computation, we are able to compare the two results, 
and thus determine the error of the elliptical assumption. Taking 
the image of the sun's centre as the origin of the coordinates we 
obtain the following results in which + denotes increase of zenith 

distance, and the 

angles from the vertex are for the real sur 

its image. 

Angle fro. verte 

Upper Limb, 
x 0° 22^ 45* 67^ 


367-29 67866 886-71 9 

Ord. by Refract. 

-937-08 -865-69 -66243 -35840 - 

Ord. by Ellipse 

same -865-75 -662-61 -35860 - 

Angle from verte 


0r d. by Refract. 

0r d- by Ellipse 


M)l + 358-11 +661-50 +86411 
)-00 + 357-89 +661-31 +864-04 
)-01 -0-22 -019 -0-07 

332 G. H. KNIBBS. 

The circumference of the ellipse therefore lies outside the sun's 
refracted disc, on the upper limb, and inside of the lower. In Fig. 
2, the dotted line represents diagrammatically the real boundary 
of the sun's disc, the firm line its boundary on the assumption 
that its circumference is an ellipse. The maximum difference 
between the upper and lower difference is 0-"02; by pushing the 
computation farther it would be seen that their ratio is almost 
exactly as the upper and lower vertical contractions. 

For their values in the directions of the radii vectores, these 
vertical differences between the sun's disc and the circumference 
of the ellipse, must be multiplied by cos 0. 1 In this way we 
empirically find that the difference between the polar coordinates 
of the refracted disc and the ellipse of the same axes is very 
accurately 2 represented by the expression k sin a 26, in which h- 
00057 c. This deviation depends mainly upon the fact that the 
variation of the refraction is not absolutely linear, particularly at 
low altitudes. It becomes sensibly so, however, for the sun's 
diameter, at as low an altitude as 10°; at which the compression 
has diminished to about one-third of what it is at 5°, vide Table 
VII., § 11. A little close consideration will show that the varia- 
tion of this term is of the same order as (33), and that it rapidly 

therefore, to combine it with that expression, by adding for the 
upper limb, and subtracting for the lower, f of the coefficient. 3 
Hence it becomes f (1 ± ■?), and the whole expression for the 
contraction of the reduced or contracted horizontal s 
may be written 

i The result though of course theoretically only approxima 
fectly exact to the order of the quantities under consideration, 
even take 6 = 22*° etc. in the case considered. 

c 2 = c cos 2 + 3 _ sin 2 26*, for = 0° to 90° ") 
c 2 = c cos 2 + Jj |- sin 2 20, for = 90° to 180° ) 

In the following table are given the values (i) of the first term 
of the contraction of inclined semidiameters, on the assumption 
that the apparent horizontal semidiameter, that is as reduced by 
refraction, is 16', and that the difference between the horizontal 
and vertical contractions is 20" : and (ii) also the values of the 
corrected second term which is always to be added, the upper 
number denoting this second correction for the upper, and the 
lower number the second correction for the lower limb of the sun. 
For any other value of the difference of the horizontal, and vertical 
contractions, multiply the first term by the ratio of contraction to 
20", i.e. by c/20", and the second term by the square of that ratio 
and add the results. For a different value of the contracted 
horizontal semidiameter, multiply the quantity so found from the 
table, by the ratio of the reduced horizontal semidiameter to 16'. 
The corrections to the tabular values can generally be applied by 
mere inspection. 

Table VIII. — Contractions of inclined semidiameters of the 
&un: the contracted horizontal semidiameter being 16', and vertical 
semidiameter 15' £0" . 

30 15-00 + -19 60 5-< 
150 -05 120 
35 13-42 . -23 65 SI 

45 1000 -26 

55 6-58 -23 

always be sufficient t 

ivation of which from (32) is obvious. This formula 
i the secondary term in the expansion for the ellipse, and 
i that the difference between the refracted and elliptical 

the sun is often observed at the 
► diaphragm wires, it is necessary to 
ecord as to obtain the altitude and 
un's centre, 1 for it is to that point 

11. Ell t^lical image of ii 
inclined at any angle. — A 
moment it is tangential to 
so correct the instrumenta 

azimuth of the image of the sun's centre, 1 for it is to 
only that the tabulated places in an ephemeris refer 
phragm wires cannot be assumed to be in perfect 
consequently we shall suppose them to be slightly out of position, 
in order to make the treatment of the case quite general. 

In Fig. 3 let M C denote a vertical line drawn through the 
centre C of the sun's elliptical image NQMP, tangent at the 
points P and Q to the diaphragm wires I P, I Q. Since C M and 

CN can never be greater than about 16' each, it is evident that 
the relation between C and I may be ascertained with sufficient 
rigorousness by treating the problem, so far as that relation is 
concerned, as plane instead of spherical. 1 The dimensions of the 
elliptical image, together with the magnitudes of the angles at I 
and J, and their relation to a vertical drawn through this latter 
point, admit of a complete determination of the quadrilateral 
I P C Q. It may be remarked that for the system of wires illus- 
trated in the figure, the angle Q I P is generally about 110°, and 
Q I makes an angle of about 20° with the vertical. I P should 
be at right angles to a vertical passing through J : with ordinary 

found. If P p and Q q be normals to the curve, the angle at p 
will consequently be between 89° and 91°, and at q about 20°. 
It is always intended that the intersection J shall be coincident 
with that at I : this is never perfectly realized so that the inter- 
sections must be treated as non-coincident. 

An expression will hereafter be required for the difference of 
direction between the normals and the radii vectores from P and Q. 
For convenience put a = S, the semidiameter from the ephemeris 
for the date of observation, corrected for augmentation and hori- 
zontal refraction : and put also b = S - c = <S\ viz. the vertical 
semidiameter similarly corrected ; then designating the angles at 
C, P, Q, p and q as follows,— 

PpN' = £ , PC N' = f , OPp = {-? = *s*7, 

QqN = x ,qcn = x'.CQq-x-x'^y sa y> 

we have exactly, from the geometry of the ellipse, 

tanf =?4tanf (t) 

and an identical expression in x- Let 

"\£- l >/£+ i >- -|-»£+£~- w 

then from Lagrange's development we may obtain 

■- *-f= -/xsin2^-i^sin4^-etc (0 

1 This can in no case involve an error of 0- "005 as previously pointed out. 

and the corresponding expression in x, which may also be written 

It is convenient to replace ft by terms in c/S, thus from (s) and 
(u) we have, on rejecting as certainly negligible the powers of this 
fraction higher than the second, 

* = ^sin2£[l--|(cos2£-i)] (36) 

and a similar expression for y containing x instead of £. We 
shall shew that even the secondary terms in these equations for a; 
and y, are also always negligible in the application with which we 
are dealing. Evidently the value of (36) is a maximum for £ = 
45°, when cos 2 £ is zero, and the whole value of the secondary 
term is +c 2 /2S 2 , as the sine factor is then unity. An altitude 
of 5° may be regarded as the lowest at which an observation 
should be made, in which case c'S is about 22-"69/960" or ih: 
consequently the error of omitting the secondary term can never 

or 0-"26 for the angle Q CN in Fig. 3, a quantity which is quite 
negligible since its effect will never be more than 0"001 in the 
final results. We may therefore always write the preceding 
equations in the simpler form 

— J -»»«.» -£■"-»*.... (3T) 

If x and y are required in degrees, minutes or seconds of arc, the 
quantities must be multiplied by the number of degrees, minutes 

for the result in minutes. 

We have supposed C M to be vertical because the elliptical 
outline ia then symmetrically situated with respect thereto. The 
relations of the lines I P, I Q to the verticals drawn through I or 
J — since these last are nearly identical — are ascertained by 
observation : but the convergency of the verticals, through say C 
and I, is a function of both the seniidiameter and contraction, as 
well as of the directions of the lines, IP, I Q. This convergency 
however, is considerable only for high altitudes— i.e., when the 
ellipticity is extremely small— and is very small when the ellipticity 

is marked, its neglect therefore will not sensibly prejudice the 
evaluation of the lengths of the radii vectores C P, C Q. With 
regard to the former it is evident from (32), § 12, and from an 
inspection of Table VIII., that we can take C P = M without 
sensible error if I P be not more than 1° or 2° from the perpen- 
dicular to the vertical through I. For the error of such an 

hence if the vertical c 
would amount in the cases supposed, only to CT008 and (K030 
respectively, the former even, being an extreme case. Again 
with respect to C Q, it may for the same reason be taken equal to 
the contracted horizontal seinidiameter, if I Q be nearly vertical, 
as A B, Fig. 4, hereinafter. If however the wire be inclined about 
20° to the vertical as in Fig. 3, an error of 1° in the estimation 

traction of 20"; and as the convergency can amount only to about 

0-"004 in the length of the line C Q. We may therefore rotate 
the axes of the ellipse through the arc equal to the convergency 
without sensible error. In regard to this it ought perhaps to be 
remarked that as the form of the sun's image approaches a circle 
the effect of rotation becomes more and more negligible, and is of 
course absolutely indifferent for a circular image. We have seen 
in Table VII., § 11 that the ellipticity is only about fa at an 
altitude even so low as 10°: hence it is necessary to consider the 
consequences of rotating the axes, only for the altitude correspond- 
ing to the conditions of most marked ellipticity, or say practically 
at an altitude of 5 U . 

Rejecting very small quantities, the rotation equal to the con- 
vergency y, to make C M parallel to the vertical through J, is 
given by the equation 

v = (S cosec y - S, cot y +j) cot ( approx....(v) 
7 denoting the angle F I P, and j the rectangular distance between 
the verticals through J and I. Taking 8 = 16', 8 X = 1 5f, y = 70°, 

and j say J', we have for £ = 85°, v = llf cot £ = l-'02. We 
may therefore, as before indicated, and without being involved in 
an error of even O"01, always take £ as the angle between the 
horizontal wire and the vertical through the intersection J of the 
inclined wires, and \ «s the angle between the inclined tvires and 
the same vertical. This simplifies the solution. 

Through the point I, Fig. 3, draw I n parallel to the vertical 
through J, and I m at right angles thereto : then £ = angle P I n, 1 
and x = angle Q I n. The angles at C, I, P and Q of the quadri- 
lateral are respectively y + x +y, 180° - y, 90° - x, and 90° -y. 
If the line I P be inclined upwards, we write -x for +x in the 
first of these quantities and vice versa in the third : the others 
remain of course unchanged. By an appropriate construction 2 
the values of I n, Ira may be written down almost by inspection. 
Calling the former, that is the vertical one X, and the latter or 
horizontal one Y, and the lines P, Q respectively £ 3 and S 3 , 
the result, after some slight simplification, is 
X = S 3 cos y (sin x - cos X cot y) + # 3 cos x cos X cosec y ) ^ 
r = S 3 cosysin£cosecy + S 2 cos*(-sin£coty,cos£)/ 
In the last term of the value for Y the lower, i.e., the + sign, is 
to be taken, if the point P is above the line Ira : the minus sign 
is for the case illustrated in the figure. X is unaffected as regards 
its signs ; the variation in the angle y consequent upon variation 
in the direction of I P, produces the requisite modification of its 

If the line I P be within say two degrees of the horizontal, 2 £ 
lies between 176" and 184°: hence from (37) we see that x will 
not be numerically greater than vV of 4°, that is than 6', when 
the zenith distance is 85° or less. The error of putting 1 for its 
cosine is consequently not greater than about one half millionth. 

1 Or its supplement, the former in the figure. It is perhaps somewhat 
safer to take it always as shewn. 

2 As for example, by dropping the perpendiculars C U, C V say— not 
shewn in Fig. 3— from C on to I P and I Q, and again from U on to C V, 
U W say, and from I on to U W. 

It has also already been remarked that the vertical contracted 
seniidiameter may be used for the length P, vide p. 337, this 
section, and it may be noticed that the maximum value of y, 
a 1 ng x to be 20°, and the altitude to be 5°, is only about 

only about K - 4 V„. This would involve an error of 0-"33 in the 
value of Y, and nothing sensible in that of X, 1 consequently the 
equations (38) may, for the system of wires represented in Fig. 3 
always be put in the form 

X = S 3 (sinx-cosxcotyJ + SiCOsxcosecy ) }d) 

r=S s cosy sin£co S ecy -S, (sin£coty ± cosO P 

the plus sign in the last written term being taken for the case 

line I tn. These equations do not involve an error of O"01. 
When the altitude is 15° or more, the substitution of unity for 
cos y will not involve an error of (KOI in the value of Y. Hence 
we see that for any altitude from 15° upwards, the image of the 
sun may be assumed to touch the wires at points determined by 
letting fall perpendiculars thereon from the image of the sun's centre. 
And this may always be assumed for small theodolites, or for such 
as do not read to less than 1". 

If the wire I P be perfectly at right angles to the vertical 
through J, 

X=S U and Y=S 3 cosycosecy-S lC ot 7 (40) 

The desirableness of securing exact adjustment is very obvious on 
comparing this last formula with (38) or (39). 

!n Pig. 3 let I m' represent an almucantar drawn through I : 
then in applying formula (7) for its computation, we may take 

m = i(Scosecy- S t cot y) 8 cot z (to) 

For y=7()o thig correc tion will amount only to 1 '10 cot z, a 
formula by means of which m m' may generally be computed for 

the system ot wires to which reference has been made : % should 
preferably be the apparent zenith distance of C, not of I. 1 

The correction for the difference of altitude between I and the 
point o in Fig. 3, may be supposed to have been ascertained by 
previous investigation. Let it be denoted by i : the position of 
the image of the sun's centre will then be completely determined; 
and if z' denote the zenith distance given after the application of 
merely instrumental corrections, the apparent zenith distance z, of 
C, is 

z = z' ±i + m±X (41) 

To this must be applied the corrections for refraction, parallax, etc., 
for the result z is what would have been given had it been possible 
to have "bisected" a mark defining on its diametral plane, the 

Let the distance of I from the vertical passing through J be 
denoted by j as before, see (v): then A' being the corrected instru- 
mental record, the true direction A of the image of the sun's centre 
will be 

A = A'±(j+Y)co*ecz (43)" 

z is the apparent zenith distance of the sun's centre, as found by (41) 

ir>. Elliptical image of the sun tangent to perpendicular and 
horizontal diaphragm wires. —When the sun is so observed as to 

1 Strictly the almucantar should start on N C at a point vertically 
below J, see Fig. 3 : or else a line should be drawn from C perpendicular 

taken as the correction m. By using z instead of z' see (41) hereafter, 

may be employed, since the altitudes in the case considered are always 
small. Even when z is 45" the difference can amount only to 0"02. 

2 This formula is of course not strictly exact : j ought to be multiplied 
by the cosecant of the zenith distance of J : the error however is quite 
negligible. And again the substitution of an expression of the form 
a = fc b, instead of the proper spherical formula tan a = * tan b, k being 
cosec x and b, j + F, is also theoretically defective. The equivalent of 
the proper formula is 

a = fcb[l-ifc«(i»-l)etc], 
but the error committed is easily seen to be quite insensible. 

be tangent to two wires one of which is nearly vertical and the 
other nearly horizontal — see A I C, position 3 Fig. 4 hereinafter — 
the solution is simplified. It has been shewn in the preceding 
section that when the defect from vcrticality and horizontally is 
small, the perpendicular distance from the image of the sun's centre 
to the wires may always be regarded as equal to the corrected 

that point parallel to the twc 
signification as in the precedir 

X= S x cos X ± S 3 coa£ * U3) 

Y = S,sin£* S lS in X I ( ' 

m = * Y>cotz (44) 

For the position illustrated in Fig. 3 the upper sign is taken in X 
and Y when the inclination of the wires is in the same direction 
as shewn in the figure. 

16. Elliptical image of the sun tangent to one diaphragm wire.— 
The observation of the sun when tangent to one wire, the inter- 
section therewith of the other wire marking the point of tangency, 
gives only one coordinate with precision. With telescopes of high 
power, it is nevertheless the only possible method. We shall later 
return to this point. The typical positions for observation are 
illustrated in Fig. 4 hereinafter, § 18. See 1 and 2 tangent at I, 
and also 2 at J, to the line bisecting the angle E J F. 

For the case represented by 1 in Fig. 4, the tangential point I 
is clearly similar to P in Fig. 3. Let £ denote the error of 
adjustment of the horizontal wire, so that £" + £ = 90°, its sine 
then will be very small, hence from (37) we may write 

r = ^ sin [f(i + -£)].... ) 

X and Y being as before, respectively the vertical and horizontal 

*or the case marked 2 in Fig. 4, the tangential point 1 or J is 
similarly Q i n Fig. 3. x will denote the angle between A B, or 

the dotted line a b Fig. 4, and the vertical through I or J in the 
same figure. 

x= a rin[ x <i --£)].... ) 

Y= fifooB[ X (l-^-)]....j 

X, the correction in altitude, is of very doubtful value ; it would 
be idle to insert the correction m in such a case, as it rarely amounts 
to more than a few tenths of a second, and observations of this 
type are not of sufficient precision to justify it. 

17. Measurement of the angles between the diaphragm wires. — 
This measurement must be accurately made in order to obtain the 
best possible results from the preceding formulae; it can be effected 
in the following manner : Let a large sheet of Bristol board, 
ruled with a set of close very fine and accurately parallel lines, be 
placed at right angles to, and with its centre in, the prolongation 
of the vertical or azimuthal axis of the theodolite and sufficiently 
far away to secure a distinct image by focussing. This will require 
the telescope to be placed in the direction of the axis, i.e. to be 
set at z = 0°, and the diagonal eye-piece to be used. Setting the 
azimuthal circle at zero, rotate the outer azimuthal axis until on 
moving the telesecope vertically, i.e. in zenith distance, the inter- 
section of the wires moves in a direction perfectly parallel to the 
ruled lines; and clamp in this position. Reset to the reading as = 0° 
and rotate the inner azimuthal axis, until each wire becomes 
successively parallel to the ruled system of lines. The successive 
readings give the angles between the wires and the vertical. The 

A second but less exact method is the following :— Set up the 
instrument in the ordinary manner with the telescope pointing 
horizontally, and at right angles to a vertical surface on which a 
Bristol board has been suitably placed. With a fine pricking 
point mark on this the intersection point or points, and the outer 
edges of the diaphragm wires. Rotating the azimuthal axis so that 
the telescope rotates azimuthally only, mark also the trace of the 
intersection point on each side of the mark first made. This last 


will give the relation of each wire to a truly horizontal line. In 
a second series of markings let the telescope be rotated vertically 
and mark the trace of the intersection point vertically above and 
below the original mark : this similarly gives the relation to the 
vertical line directly. By means of a protractor, or better still by 
triangular scaling and computation, the angles may be measured: 
the mean of the two, or of a series, being taken. 

18. On methods of observation generally.— There are really only 
two radically distinct methods of solar observation for the deter- 
mination of the meridian (i) the method of equal altitudes, and 
(ii) that of simple altazimuth observations. In neither can the 
centre of the sun be directly observed, so that it has to be derived 
from observations made of the position of its circumference. The 
systems of diaphragm wires ordinarily found in theodolites are 
either AB and CD, or EG, FH and C D intersecting respectively 
3 intended that AB should be 

typified by the representations in the figi 

344 G. H. KNIBBS. 

Fig. 3 in § 14. With telescopes of high power the types of obser- 
vation marked 1 and 2 are alone possible, since the held of view- 
is very limited : with low powers, type 3 is also possible. Some 
practice is necessary to observe simultaneously the two tangencies 
of this last type ; the observation of a single tangency is much less 
fatiguing. It has already been pointed out however in S 1 G, that 
one of the results of the single tangency observation is not very 
reliable; for example, the positions marked 1 in Fig. 4 determine 
the altitude well, and the direction indifferently: 2 on the contrary 
gives good results for direction, and indifferent ones for altitude. 
With an electrochronograph the difficulty arising from this cir- 
cumstance can be obviated as hereinafter shewn, but without such 
an accessory it may be necessary to determine which of these types 
of observations, i.e. 1 or 2, is to be preferred. This preference 
will depend really upon three things, viz.:— (i) the ratio of the 
probable error of the measurement of a zenith distance to that of 
an azimuthal direction ; (ii) the ratio of the variation in zenith 
di t t c to hat in azimuth, and (iii) the ratio of the probable 
errors of the estimation of horizontal and vertical tangencies. 
We may omit the consideration of the last, and suppose that an 
investigation has shewn the first (i) to be k, a quantity which is 
usually greater than unity and in some instruments amounts fully, 
to 2. Then, for an observation for meridian, we should prefer 

1 if f A < k, and 2 if f A > k, 
d£and dA denoting respectively the relative motions in zenith 
distance and azimuth. The reason of this is evident. In the 
former case it is necessary to measure the altitude with the greatest 
possible precision because of the large influence an error therein 

defect in the est 

both instances, which is probably true i 

I the tangency is about the : 


with normal eyes. 1 It is worthy of remark however that the 
precision of the estimation of tangency depends upon the direction 
of the apparent motion of the sun's image, being more perfect 
when the tangency is estimated at the last, than when at the first 
contact, i.e., the advantage is for the positions illustrated in Fig. 4, 
when the apparent motions of the sun take place in the directions 
of the arrows. It is therefore desirable to secure when possible, 
similar conditions in morning and afternoon observations. 

The following matters apply to any method of altazimuth solar 
observing, and are important :— 

(i) The instrumental adjustments should be well made so that 
the outstandir 

(ii) The level tubes upon which any corrections depend should 
never be allowed to remain partly in sun and partly in shadow, 
because under such circumstances the axis of the level, upon the 
constancy of which all confidence in its indications depends, 
changes. The value of the divisions of the. level fluctuate, and 
are subject to some uncertainty even under the best attainable 

n) The effect of the unequal heating of the metal wh 

duces sensible 

the larger 

possible, be minimised by the scheme of the manipulation, that is 
by reversions, presentation of different sides to sources of heat, etc. 
(iv) The effect of a very slight movement of rotation of the 
stand of the instrument, due to heating, warping etc., when 
instruments are not suitably protected by observing tents, should 
be eliminated by reading the direction of the 'referring object' both 

1 If ^ere be any astigmatism this will not be true, and if the astigmatic 
defect be serious, it may greatly prejudice measurements in one position. 
Usually the vertical meridian of the cornea, at which the observer's 
optical system may be considered to commence, has a somewhat shorter 
^dius of curvature and therefore a shorter focus, than the horizontal 
meridian. Observers who aim at a high degree of precision may not find 
« disadvantageous to test their vision for the measure of its astigmatic 

at the commencement and close of the observations. A similar 
procedure, in regard to the index error of the vertical circle, will 
reveal any change which may have taken place in the axis of the 
level attached to the alidade. 

(v) Uncertainty in the assumed value of the latitude may be 
eliminated by combining observations symmetrically situated with 
respect to the meridian line, that is at equal intervals of time 
before and after apparent noon. 

(vi) Even where it is intended to employ the method of eqilal 
altitudes, the observations should be so made as to permit of their 
reduction as altazimuth observations, because of the uncertainty 
of obtaining satisfactory observations on the other side of the 

(vii) The barometric and thermometric readings should never 
be neglected, even for the method of equal altitudes, since the 
fore and after noon differences are usually quite appreciable. A 
difference of pressure of +0-1 inch is equivalent to about - l - 5° 
Fahr., the amount of the refraction being increased by either 
change by ,,V„, or about 2" for an apparent altitude of 5°. 

(viii) The advantage of securing a small azimuthal component 
in the sun's apparent motion by observing only at great zenith 
distances may be even more than abolished by the greater un- 
steadiness of the image near the horizon, and by the greater 
uncertainty in the absolute value of the refraction. In this con- 
nection it may be observed that the extraordinary variations of 
terrestrial refractions, and the systematic difference in the refrac- 
tions across the sea and land, are a sufficient indication of the 
great uncertainty in the celestial refraction of rays nearly tan- 
gential to the earth's surface. Observations at a less altitude 
than say 10° should be made only under exceptional circumstances, 
especially when the azimuthal component of motion, compared 
with the vertical, is relatively large. 

19. The method of equal altitudes.— If the directions of the 
sun's centre could be directly observed when at equal apparent 


altitudes before and after noon, the mean of these would be to the 
east of the direction of the astronomical meridian 1 of the observer 
by the whole amount of the diurnal-aberration-correction for 
either position, provided the refraction and declination were 
identical for each position. From (21) § 7 it will be seen that 
the correction for diurnal aberration is very small, since A and £ 
are generally not very far from 90°. If applied, however, the 
deduced meridian must be shifted westerly, because the mean 
direction would be either north-east or south-east, the former if 
the sun be observed when north-east and north-west, the latter 
when south-east and south-west. 

The refraction is almost certain to be different at the two 
observations, because the barometric pressure and the temperature 
will have changed in the interval between them. The latter 
element should be measured in the same way for each, say by 
slowly whirling a thermometer in the air. The difference of 
refraction may be found with sufficient precision by multiplying 
the mean refraction for the zenith distance employed, by the 
differences of the products of the barometric and thermometric 
. factors for the two pressures and temperatures recorded. 

Let r denote the mean refraction, ft and 6 the correcting factors, 2 
the suffixes indicating the observation to which they apply, then 
the difference of the refractions is 

r, -r, = r(ft 2 0, -fi t S x ) (47) 

1 Determined by the intersection with the horizon, o 
circle containing the pole of the heavens, and the observe] 
subject therefore to the deflections due to the rugosity and 
of the earth's crust. This direction is of course quite distinct f 
line perpendicular to the curve of the observer's latitude ; this 1 
he called the " geodetic " meridian. 

For a table of mean refractions computed for 296 in. pressui 
Pahr. and 48-°73 Fahr. air temperature, the factors will be thos 
§ 6, or in (29) § 11. Bessel's refractions and correction factors 
431, in Chamber's Mathematical Tables, 1885 Edit., may be us. 

Not only will the difference of the refractions in the two 
observations involve the directions being determined for slightly 
different altitudes, the same consequence will also follow from the 
fact that the level and other corrections will not be the same; 
and further a satisfactory observation at the right moment will 
often fail to be made either from want of skill, from the presence 
of clouds, or from other causes. The difficulty in this respect may 
be obviated either by observing the altitude and azimuth both 
before and after the observation employed, and using the three 
results for the small interpolation from the middle one to the 
proper value of the altitude. 1 In this instance the observed 
values may be corrected before the application of the various cor- 
rections. Failing such additional observations the corrections 
must be made by spherical trigonometry. 

Let Z P S denote respectively the zenith, the elevated pole, and 
the star in a celestial triangle, the parallactic angle q subtended 
by the colatitude, being at 8. Then reckoning the azimuthal 
angle A from the elevated pole as positive either way the small 
azimuthal correction dA, for a small difference of zenith distance 
d(, will be expressed by the formula 

dA = -dCco S ecCcot( q + dt C ^ cr ) (48) 

dp denoting, with its proper sign, the variation of the polar dis- 
tance in the time dt, both being expressed in arc. Dividing by 
arc 1" reduces the circular measure dpjdt to ordinary angular 
measure. The value of the small term to be added to q, can how- 
ever never exceed 9 J , or say 4', and may ordinarily be neglected, 
since the correction dA is itself very small. 

Let \p, p, A' and T denote respectively the colatitude Z P, polar 
distance Z S at apparent noon on the day of observation, one half 
the azimuthal angle S,Z S 3 between the observed positions of the 
sun's centre, so taken as to include the elevated pole, and one half 
of the elapsed time S X P S 2 between the observations ; then it will 

ulate the parallactic angle 


though strictly the zenith and polar distances for the afternoon 
observation, together with the colatitude should be used to calculate 
that quantity ; i.e. it should be determined from the three sides 
ft, ft. *.. s 

The equation of equal altitudes may be derived by writing the 
value of cos (p ± }_, dp)— in which \ dp denotes the half difference 
between the polar distances at the two observations— in terms of 
& £and A, and taking the difference of the results. This procedure 

^•-'■>- d.j£ffifc+j,) w 

But the azimuth of the sun's centre is not directly observed, and 
the time must be recorded in order to compute the change of polar 
distance, hence, since 

A a -A, = ^ (50a) 

cos i. sin T' V ' 

itude being considered positive, and T' as before, half 
id time between the observations. The azimuthal angle 
oned east or west from the elevated pole. When the 
ance is increasing, the azimuthal angle from pole to sun 

the first observation than for the second, whether the 
J a morning or an afternoon observation. 

at precision, second differences shouk 
computing dp, especially at the solsi 
e, although the change of declinatio 

te xb because hereafter the case is coni 

At the equinoxes the change of declination is nearly V per hour ( 
but the second differences are negligible. The parallax, and 
augmentation with altitude, being the same for each observation 
may be entirely ignored. 

It is sometimes inconvenient to occupy the same station for 
each observation, so that it is necessary to consider the case where 
the longitude and latitude are slightly different — a few minutes 
at most— for the two stations. These differences will be denoted 
respectively by dX and d$. It is easy to see that if the second 
station be nearer the pole than the first, i.e., if d<\> be + , the 
azimuthal angle measured from the elevated pole will be greater 
than it would be for a point of the same latitude. Hence we can 
correct the observed direction of the sun, so as to obtain that 
result which would have been given had an observation been made 
at a point on the meridian of the second station, on the parallel 
of latitude passing through the first. 

If this correction be dA it will be given by the equation 

dA = - rf</, sec<£cot(2"=F \ X) (51) 

the minus sign in the last factor being used if the second station 
be west of the first. The \ X term however is generally quite 
negligible. Now, if to the corrected direction, the correction for 
the declinational change be applied, the result will be that the 
deduced meridian will be ^(X 1 +X 2 ); i.e., the direction of the 
meridian will have been determined for points whose longitude is 
the mean of the longitudes of the observing stations. 

For the computation of the change of declination, the total 
elapsed time will of course be used, but in evaluating q by (49), 
we should strictly take 

v being the convergency of the two meridians. The quantities 
| v and \ X are usually, however, so small as to be quite negligible 
in this relation. 

In equal altitude observations we may observe either when the 
sun is in the positions marked 1 in Fig. 4, or when it is in the 

positions marked 2 ; the criterion for determining this point being 
discussed in the preceding section, viz., § 18. In case 1, the line 
C D is supposed to be c horizontal,' i.e. perpendicular to a vertical 
through I or J. Let the angle between the line C D and this 
perpendicular to the vertical, be£" as in (45) § 16, and be regarded 
as positive when the D end droops. It is obvious that the tangent 
point observed will not be vertically above the sun's centre except 
when £" is zero : therefore the values of X and Fin equation (45) 
must be taken into account as corrections to the results given 
immediately by observation. This may practically be avoided, at 
least in part, by observing in the manner indicated hereunder. 
In the suggested programme of observations, RO denotes the 
'referring object,' that is an object on the line, the direction of 
which is to be ascertained ; and 1ST and R denote respectively the 
1 normal ' and ' reversed ' positions of the instrument, that is 
the position when the face of the vertical circle is to the right 
and when to the left, or vice versa. 
Type 1. 
Morning Observations. 

Instrument N : read direction R O : put on dark glass : 
N Alt. h' : upper limb, read direction and time : reverse instr. 
R » /*": lower „ „ „ „ „ remove dark glass: 

instr. being R re-read direction R O : take means. 
Afternoon Observations. 

Instrument R : read direction R O : put on dark glass : 
R Alt. h" : lower limb, read direction and time : reverse instr. 
N „ h' : upper „ „ „ „ „ remove dark glass: 

instr. being 1ST re-read direction R O : take means. 

If the temperature and pressure be nearly identical in the after- 
noon there will be no sensible correction for the error of altitude. 
If not let c'and c" denote the contractions of the vertical diameter 
in the successive observations ; and (3 and as before the refrac- 
tion correction factors for barometer and thermometer, the suffixes 
1 and 2 denoting morning and afternoon, respectively. Then, 
neglecting very small quantities, the correction for contractional 

352 G. H. KNIBBS. 

change between the observations, to be applied to the means of 
the observed zenith distances, will be respectively - ^(^ - c x ) cos£" 
and - | (c' 2 - 4') cos £" , see (45); that is to say these quantities 
must be added 1 to the mean of the observed zenith distances in 
order to obtain the mean of the zenith distances of the sun's centre 
for the same instants. In order therefore to make the afternoon 
corrected mean zenith distance the same as the morning one, we 
must subtract d£ say, derived from (45), and determined by the 

rfr--*<'-o«»rG8.*.-iM.) (52) 

the values of c being the tabular contractions, Table VII., §11. 
Thus we may regard (52) as the error of the afternoon observation. 
The cosine term may be omitted since it is sensibly unity. The 
afternoon mean azimuthal reading will of course require to be 
corrected for the above error dg, see (48), which, since the after- 
is generally considerably greater than the forenoon temperature, 

, required when the 
employed, see Table III. 
§ 6. Taking e from the table, the error of zenith distance in the 
afternoon will be 

«*r-«(M.-0ift.) (5 3 ) 

which is usually negative, and becomes zero if h' = h" . 

The last error has the same sign as the absolute refraction cor- 
rection, see (47), hence for observations of the upper and lower 
limbs of the sun, we may write for the total error d( of the zenith 
distance — other than instrumental — for which a correction must 
be applied to the mean of the second azimuthal readings, see (48). 

df-[r-i(«r-o+«]<M.-/M«) ( 54 > 

It may be remarked that e must necessarily be very small if the 
observations are made in the manner indicated in the preceding 
programme. 2 

1 That is with the sign a 

Cached: numeric 


st be subtracted. 

2 A practised i 

he time takt 

,n by the sun to 

move v.'iticully 


,g ready for the 

.u. Iti, 

•ving may n« 

second morning 

the e after n oon 0r 

the same 

rapidity in o'bsei 


The values of c and c" may be obtained from the table here 
under with sufficient exactness by adding half the semidiameter, 
or say 8 ', to the observed apparent zenith distance when the upper 
limb is read, or by subtracting 8' when the lower limb is read, for 
the argument with which to enter table. The quantities in the 
table, similarly to those in Table VII., require to be multiplied 
by the factor (29) § 11, that is by /3 0, but not when used in the 
formula; immediately preceding. 

Table IX. — Vertical Contraction of the Sun's Semidiameter. 
8 =1G, Bar. 29-6, Therm. 4875° Fahr. 
Observed Zenith Distance, not corrected for refraction. 
Zen. Distance 15 30 40 50 55 60 65 70 
Contraction 0-23 0-24 032 046 0-63 0-79 1-04 146 2-23 
Zen. Distance 75 78 80 81 82 83 84 84A- 85 
Contraction 3-81 575 798 9-60 1179 1474 18-84 21-59 2499 

In applying the corrections of (45) to the results of observations 
according to the preceding programme we have not yet taken 
account of the Y— or horizontal— correction. Rejecting the 
negligible quantities, the mean of the recorded azimuthal angles 
for the morning observations, measured from the elevated pole, 

~hS sin £" (sec A" -sec K) + h (c - c") sin £" sec h (x) 

denoting altitudes ; and the mean of the afternoon observations 
require the same correction with the signs + and - . Hence we 
may correct only the afternoon azimuthal angle by adding thereto 

dA' - 5 sin f (sec h" - sec K) - {c - c") sin f sec A... (55) 
h being the mean of the observed altitudes, and h' and h" the 
approximate altitudes of the centre of the sun. The correction 
must necessarily be very small, hence f3 9 factors may be ignored. 
Ihe more usual method of making equal altitude observations 
is to record the direction and altitudes for the positions marked 
2 in Fig. 4. When the lines A B or a b, the latter bisecting the 

deEned by a vertical circle tangent to the side of the sun. In 

this case therefore must be taken into account the values of X 
and Y in (46) § 16. The appropriate observing programme is as 
follows :— 

Type 2. 
Morning Observations. 

Instrument N : read direction R : put on dark glass : 
N Alt. h' : leading limb, read direction and time : reverse instr. 
R „ h": following „ „ „ „ „ remove dark glass 

instr. being N, re-read direction R O : take means. 
Afternoon Observations. 

Instrument R : read direction R O : put on dark glass : 
R Alt. h": leading limb, read direction and time : reverse instr. 
N „ li : following „ „ „ „ „ remove dark glass 

instr. being N", re-read direction R : take means. 

The azimuths are subject to no correction, for even though the 
contractions differ in the afternoon, the differences cannot sensibly 
affect the azimuths. 1 If the vertical wire be supposed to be inclined 
the amount x, similarly to F Q in Fig. 3, so that the upper part 
of the wire is to the right of the vertical, and the lower to the 
left, the correction to the mean of the zenith distances in the 
morning by (46) will be - sin x W - c") 0^ ; and in the after- 
noon the same with the opposite sign, and with /3 2 6> 2 in place of 
the last factor. Hence the total error d{' of the afternoon 
observation, in zenith distance, may be regarded, similarly to (52) 
in the preceding case, as 

dT-C-O^xCMi +*■*.) ( 56 ) 

The whole term is so small that we may generally omit the 
terms and write sin 2x as the factor instead of 2 sin x- 

The e term must be taken into account as in the preceding case, 
since we employ the mean of the zenith distances. The total error, 
for which an azimuthal correction is required, is consequently 
<*£ = <*f +(*• + «) (/9 9 0»-/3x0x) ( 5 7) 

l That the contraction terms in (46) for Y cannot have any appreciable 


In both types of observing, the declinational change to be 
allowed for, will depend upon the difference between the means of 
the times of observation. This of course is not rigorously exact, 
but owing to the fact that the declinational change is slow and 
nearly uniform, that is the change is sensibly the same in the 
afternoon and forenoon, the error can never be appreciable. 

The corrections to be applied to the mean altitude and mean 
azimuth by (12), (13) and (14) § 5 are not required, because they 
affect the forenoon and afternoon observations by the same amount. 

Observations for equal altitude determinations of the meridian 
may also be made by the double tangency method, type 3 in Fig. 4. 
The programme would be generally similar to the preceding ones 
as regards normal and reversed positions and general manipula- 
tion. The following will sufficiently indicate it :— 

Type 3. 
Morning— I Upper and leading limb ; 2 Lower and following : 
Afternoon— 3 Lower and leading limb ; 4 Upper and following. 

The means would be taken throughout as in the preceding 
instances. Rejecting negligibly small quantities, it is evident 
from (39) and (w) § 14, that the mean of the zenith distances, 
both in the fore and afternoon, require a correction of the form 
d C= -l(c -c'')0co SX cosecy + ^cotz(cosecy-cotyy...(58) 

But x and y, and (3$ will not have the same values in the after- 
noon. For brevity let us put 

then the correction in zenith distance to be applied when the 
whole correction it thrown into the afternoon observation, will be 

Obviously with properly adjusted diaphragm wires the final term 
would vanish, because the two values of H would be equal ; and x 
and y being complementary the value of G would become unity. 

*«* of course be written vew -^ J»y 

These last three formulae serve for the correction of observations 
of the type 3, see both the representations of Fig. 4. • 

20. The method of altazimuths. — The altazimuth method of 
solar observation has the advantage that each observation affords 
data by means of which the direction of the meridian can be 
deduced. Where the field of the telescope is sufficiently large, it 
is generally desirable to employ the double tangency method 
represented both in Fig. 3, and in observations of type 3 in 
Fig. 4 ; because this method yields accurate data both in respect 
of the altitude and azimuth at the moment of observation. H 
the direction of motion be sensibly vertical, however, the single 
tangency method type 2, Fig. 4, is to be preferred, because in that 
case a small error of altitude cannot sensibly influence the result, 
and the tangent point will be more perfectly determined than is 
possible when the two tangencies have to be simultaneously 
observed. The criterion for determining the selection of either 
method may be derived by a process analogus to that indicated in 
§ 18 for the choice between observations of the type 1 and -. 
The reduction of the results may be made by means of one or 
other of the formulae (38) to (44) or (46) § § 14, 15 ; so as to obtain 
the apparent direction and altitude of the sun's centre at the 
moment of observation. This altitude when corrected for refrac- 
tion and parallax, the latitude of the point of observation, and the 
polar distance of the sun deduced from the recorded time at which 
the observation was made, are the data from which the azimuth 
or the hour angle of the sun's centre may be computed. 

The influence of slight defects in the measurement of the 
positions of the diaphragm wires, of imperfect determinations of 
the collimation and level constants, and of rotational movements 
of the stand, may be minimised by taking a series of observations 
similar to those indicated in the preceding section, with similar 
reversions of the face of the vertical circle. Thus if the real 


motion of the sun were that indicated by the arrows in 3 Fig. 4, 
the observations might be made thus : — 

R O : IV, time alt. az. : reverse : II, time alt. az. : R 
and if four observations were desired, the continuation might with 
advantage be as follows :— 

R O : I, time alt. az. : reverse : III, time alt. az. : R 0. 

The Roman figures denote the position in which the sun is to 
be observed, see the figure. 

In the case of observations of a single tangency as 2 Fig. 4, 1 
the opposite side of the sun would be observed in the second 

Reference has already been made, viz., in § 18, to the impossi- 
bility of employing the double tangency method with telescopes 
of high power, and to the fact that for good determinations of 
direction, the leading or following limb must perforce be observed, 
while for good values of the altitude the upper or lower limb must 
be taken whenever the azimuth component of the sun's motion is 
not extremely small as compared with its motion in altitude, it 
becomes necessary to ascertain with precision both elements for 
the same moment. Although this cannot be done directly it may 
be readily effected by using an electrochronograph. The routine 
of observation may be as follows, say for a morning observation : — 
Observe (i.) upper limb and time : (ii.) leading limb and time: 
(iii.) lower limb and time : 

For a second observation, reverse face of instrument, and then 
Observe (iv.) lower limb and time : (v.) following limb and time : 
(vi.) upper limb and time. 

By spherical geometry, and the theory of refraction and parallax, 
the altitude of the sun's centre for the moment of the leading or 
ollowing limb observations, may be readily computed. In 
general there will be a slight discrepancy between the computed 
and observed differences of altitude between observations (i.) and 
("i-), and (iv.) and (vi.) : the interpolated values of the altitude 

1 Or 1 for time : the motion being supposed to be nearly vertical. 

for observations (ii.) and (v.) should of course be taken ; that is 
to say, the altitude deduced from (iii.) should be allowed to influ- 
ence the result as well as that from (i.), and the same in regard 
to (vi.) and (iv.) 

It is perhaps hardly necessary to remark — see (v.) § 18— that, 
where there is any uncertainty in the latitude, observations should 
be taken if possible at equal intervals of time before and after 
apparent noon, especially if great precision be desired. 

21. Conditions of precision and general remarks. — Owing to 
the great range of the sun's motion in declination, viz. about 47°, 
and the consequent change in the ratio between the azimuthal and 
vertical components for any given zenith distance, at different 
times in the year, the value of solar observations, for the deter- 
mination of meridian, greatly varies. If the ratio of the com- 
ponents, i.e., dA/d£ be denoted by k, and the uncertainty of a 
measurement of the sun's altitude through instrumental and 
observational defects, together with the uncertainty of refraction, 
by d(; then the whole uncertainty dA of the azimuth from these 
causes alone, will be 

dA = kd£ (60) 

"Within the tropics k is never very large for great zenith distances, 
but for places outside it may in midwinter become consi'l< m ' 'N 
so that it is not unimportant to estimate its value, when forming 
an opinion as to the reliableness of observations at any given time 
of the year. For example, when the sun has its maximum polar 
distance of about 113J , it crosses a vertical circle at an angle of 
35°, not before its zenith distance is 80£° for latitude 35°, and not 
before that distance is 89£° for latitude 40°. The corresponding 
values of k are the cosecants of these angles, viz., 101 and unity, 
so that the uncertainty in azimuth is identical with that in 
altitude. Consequently even in latitude 35°, midwinter solar 
observations for meridian have not a high value as regards their 

The limiting values of latitude, at which observations made at 
a given zenith distance, will give a particular value of k for any 

assumed polar distance, may be thus ascertained : — Let, as in § 4, 
/ denote the angle of intersection between the direction of the 
sun's path and the vertical through its centre at any moment. 
Then similarly to (g) in that section, we have for the parallactic 
angle q, which is the complement of /, 



After q is obtained, </> may be found for any value of p, by the 
following formula?, in which V is merely an auxiliary angle : — 

limits for any required ratio between the azimuthal and vertical 
components of motion, may be readily interpolated with sufficient 
precision for practical purposes. Very near the equator it will be 
desirable to observe the sun near its elongation rather than at a 
minimum altitude, if the altitude of elongation be not too great. 
It is of course never desi: 11 o 1 ol ations for azimuth 
at great altitudes because level and collimation defects then enter 
into the result with large factors. 

There is a source of persistent error in meridian determinations 
by solar observations, the amount of which cannot be accurately 
defined, but might perhaps be fairly well ascertained by a sufficient 
comparison with the results of stellar observations. This error, a 
consequence of the impossibility of obtaining complete data for 
the evaluation of refraction, and of the imperfection of the refrac- 
tion theory, enters with a necessarily somewhat large factor into 
the results, and cannot be removed by combining morning and 
afternoon obser\ ations, because the physical conditions are asym- 
metrical. In the case of stellar observations the physical conditions 
for observations east and west of the meridian are frequently nearly 
symmetrical, and the final results consequently more reliable. 
The possibilities generally of meridian determination by solar 
observations have not, so far as I am aware, been fully investigated, 
and an exhaustive examination of this question is still a desideratum 
in geodesy. Where extreme precision is not required, the solar 
methods are very convenient, and involve but little loss of time. 
How far the application of more rigorous methods of reduction 
will be justified, can be ascertained only by a careful criticism of 
results : the uncertainties of refraction, and imperfections of 
definition are so serious that it is still a problem whether the 
results can be materially enhanced in value. 

By E. Du FAUR, F.R.G.S. 
[With Plate XXIIL] 

[Read before the Royal Society ofN.S. Wales, December 2, 1896.] 

Having submitted a short memorandum to the Government 
Astronomer, respecting this hailstorm, Mr. Russell asked me for 
further details, and suggested my preparing a paper on the subject 
to be read before our Society. I only propose to place before you 
this evening my notes, illustrated by a rough diagram of this 
phenomenal storm, considered by old residents to have been the 
severest one which has visited the district since that of 12th 
January, 1871, which is reported to have riddled most of the iron 
roofs in the locality, to have killed two horses, uprooted some of 
the heaviest timber, and to have been in all respects, but more 
especially in the force of the wind, more violent than the one now 
under consideration. 

On our arrival at the Gordon Station at 5*21 p.m., on the 
evening in question, we found a considerable amount of hail lying 
on the platform, and heavy mist arising from the lands on the 
north-eastern side of the railway ; before arriving at Pymble we 
found the lands on both sides of the line, completely white with 
hail; as white as after a moderately heavy winter snow-storm in 
Europe. Reaching Turramurra at 5 30 p.m., where I left the 
train, the hail, which had ceased falling some ten minutes pre- 
viously, had almost half filled the empty trucks on the siding, 
and on the permanent way below the platform, sheltered apparently 
and not much subject to drift, the engine wheels had exposed the 
metals, but left a bank of hailstones on either side of them from 
ten to twelve inches high. 

After a few words with the station master, and learning from 
my son that the fall had been only slight at my own place ' Pibrac,' 
about forty-five chains in a direct line, north-west by north from 
the station, I started to drive by the Eastern Road, due north, 
to ascertain the course of the storm. At a few chains from the 
railway gates the hailstones were lying over two feet deep against 
the eastern fence, and the ditch water had cut a tunnel through 
the deposit leaving for some yards an ice bridge over it. The 
owner of adjoining orchard, P. Gilroy, an old resident, had never 
seen anything like it, and would not readily believe my account 
of what I considered to have been a more severe one in Sydney 
some thirty years ago. I had gone but a few chains further north 
when all signs of severe hail ceased. On the first opportunity, at 
three-quarters of a mile from the station, I turned to east, and 
then north-east, along the " Kuring-gai Chase " road, and met 
with only slight signs of hail, while the ground to my right hand, 
at no great distance, still showed white with it through the timber; 
atone and three-quarter miles, an orchardist (Kingjunr.) had 
had slight hail ; and at three miles a road camp had none. 
Returning home I found there had been a severe rain storm with 
wind, but no hail of any consequence, rain gauge showing -47. 

During the next day I made full enquiries from fellow passengers, 
and on the Saturday I again drove round to further prosecute the 
same. From the press and private sources I learned that the 
storm had been very severe at Seven Hills and Baulkhain Hills, 
and through the station master at Hornsby Junction I ascertained 
that its centre had crossed the Great Northern Railway near 
Carlingford, and that at Beecroft it had not been severe. 

Accompanying tracing shows course from Seven Hills to Car- 
lingford as almost west to east, (from W. 10° S. to E. 10° N.)» with 
Baulkham Hills in line. From Carlingford to Turramurra, which 
undoubtedly received the fullest force of the storm, (or of a storm 
as will be further explained), the direct course is E. 52° N. or 42° 
to the north of course as determined above— from Seven Hills to 
Carlingford—: the intervening country, three miles fifty chains in 

a direct line, is almost entirely uninhabited, through which runs 
the upper part of the Lane Cove River, three hundred feet below 
Carlingford and over five hundred feet below Turraraurra. 

In my conversation with the station master at Turramurra, 
who appears to have watched the storm with considerable care, 
he volunteered the information that it came from the south-west, 
but when it reached his station it seemed to go all ways : at first 
it was densest as it passed on the north-west side of his office, 
going north-east, with blue sky showing above it; then on the 
south-east of his office going east, again with blue sky above it ; 
and I have little doubt that the further evidence which will be 
brought forward, will prove that at about this part the storm 
divided, one centre of intensity going a little to the north of 
north-east and probably blowing itself out, (or the hail turning to 
rain), in less than two miles ; the other centre of intensity taking 
an easterly course of greater width. As to how far it extended, 
and at what point it crossed Middle Harbour Creek, whether as 
a hailstorm or rainstorm, I am not in a position to form any 
opinion, my tracing shows that at two miles east of Turramurra 

Returning now to Turramurra, my tracing locates the points 
of greatest intensity, on reliable evidence personally obtained, 
these being coloured pink and lettered. 1 After crossing Lane 
Cove Valley, and emerging from uninhabited lands, it first struck 
4 and B (Herbert Cunningham and McCullock), virtually wreck- 
ing their gardens and destroying glass houses etc., at G (Adams) 
the hailstones were stated to be piled seven feet deep at the bottom 
of the paddock, and lying generally from one to two feet deep all 
over the property, but a few chains to the north-west of A, at G 
and D, (Elwyns and Blytheswood), it was much less severe, and 
at Langtree's at junction of Fox Ground road it was trifling. On 
the opposite side of the railway at a (Gerards) it was trifling ; at 
K F and b, (Coffee. Du Faur, and T. Reid), the same. 

364 E. DU FAUR. 

I have already shown its severe character at H (Gilroys); at N 
to 0, (Vindin and others to Sulinan's) it was even more so— 
gardens ploughed up, young trees destroyed, and at one house, 
(Capt. Bird's) about twenty roofing tiles and fifteen windows were 
smashed ; at P (Porter's orchard), Q (M. Bourke), T (Reilley) the 
fruit trees suffered very severely; 1 at L (Foster), within sight of 
the road along which I had driven immediately after the storm, 
and found it to be outside its limits, the hail lay three feet deep 
in some places, and the fruit crop— plums— was entirely destroyed, 
and trees injured to such an extent that Mrs. Foster considers 
herself ruined. As previously stated, the main storm extended 
no further in that north-east direction, only ordinary hail at 
King's, Reilley's, and King junr.— c, d and e— and none at all at 
/(Road Camp), and as there was also none at h (Phil. Richard- 
son's), it can only have passed along a narrow strip of unoccupied 
country between those properties or have come to an end ; from 
my enquiries I am inclined to believe the latter alternative. 

The orchards all through Irishtown generally suffered severely, 
but unequally; at c (S. King) no damage was sustained, but at 
g (Adams) the hail was very severe. I will return to this district 
later on. 

Again starting from Turramurra, the land to the southward of 
the railway from G (Adams) to R (Cornwell) is mostly unoccupied; 
we had seen on the evening of the 17th at intervals between the 
cuttings, that it was all deeply covered with hail. At B (H. Corn- 
well) on the northern side of the railway, and at Mrs. Cornwell's 
on the southern, we again meet with evidence that they were 
subjected to the fullest force of the storm ; a large vineyard in 
full leaf, was stripped of three-fourths of its foliage, fruit trees 
not only suffered in loss of leaves and fruit, but their bark was 
split in all directions ; and all the windows in both houses exposed 
to the west were broken; the course of the storm here was unmis- 
takeably from due west to east. At S (M. Porter) an orchard of 

1 At T the hail perforated corrugated iron. 

large extent, great havoc took place; the owner stated that any 
one might have his apricot crop for £4, which he had valued half 
an hour previously at £400. Mr. Henry Cornwell, an old resident 
who has very greatly assisted me in my enquiries, subsequently 
went a considerable distance into the bush at the back of Mrs. 
Cornwell's and M. Porter's, and reports finding full evidence of 
the storm throughout. I have therefore tinted the whole of that 
country as having been under its severest influence. Continuing 
along the southern side of the railway, we find that at the church 
the hail was slight only, and at Mrs. Pockley's there was none ; 
but at J. Brown's and Cook's orchards, on the opposite side, it was 
severe, the latter orchard is stated to be completely ruined ; this 
defines the southern limit of the second division of the storm 
bearing almost due west and east as above mentioned. 

As to its northern limit and its extension easterly, I am much 
indebted to Mr. C. B. Bradford, residing at U for information 
collected. Still excluding Irishtown for the present, the storm 
was at its height over all the space between the broken red lines 
on tracing, although I have only tinted those properties respecting 
which direct information was obtained. The country being very 
broken will probably account for effects not having been uniform, 
some properties suffered much more than others. At U ( Bradford) 
the hailstorm was severe, but at W on the opposite side of the 
telegraph road and ridge it was worse, roofing slates being broken. 
It was specially severe at McKeown's, C. Mcintosh's, Smart's, 
Connolley's, the small farms (Hughes and others), and at x W. 
Reid's former residence, where the roof tiles were broken ; thence 
it entered the country leading down to Middle Harbour, which 
is unknown to us, and I believe but little occupied. This northern 
limit appears to be absolutely defined by the information that but 
slight hail fell at i (Etherington), and none as before mentioned 
at h (P. Richardson). 

Returning to the question of the previous exclusion of the 
orchard district known as Irishtown, (which suffered very severely), 
f rom the limits of the greatest intensity of what I venture to 

366 E. DU FAUR. 

designate as the bifurcation of the main meteor, (coming from 
Seven Hills and Carlingford), into two currents, trending the one 
to the north-east, and the other due east : my reasons for this exclu- 
sion are as follows, viz.: — The evidence of the station master at 
Turramurra, to the effect of the storm having veered its course in all 
directions, has been further endorsed by others, and in Irishtown 
especially its favours appear to have been very unequally dis- 
tributed ; at V (Pymble jr.), as I am advised by Mr. Bradford, it 
at one time veered completely round to the east, the hailstones 
having perforated the corrugated iron on a verandah facing easterly. 
Mr. Bradford reports that Mr. Pymble junr., distinctly stated to 
him that, for a short time, he watched a flow of southerly wind, 
which appeared to beat back the s torm and to divide it, the wind 
veering in all directions, with the results to his verandah above 
stated. This statement, as well as that of the station master at 
Turramurra, was volunteered to me, before I had formed any 
views of my own as to the bifurcation of the storm ; in fact my 
first generalization of it, based on its effects at Turramurra only, 
as communicated in my memo, of the 18th to Mr. Russell, was 
that the storm appeared to have come from the south-west and to 
have travelled north-east. 

I think that the evidence which I have illustrated on my diagram 
(Plate 23) proves indisputably the bifurcation referred to; that of 
Mrs. Foster and Adams, T. Porter and Reilley on the one hand, 
and of Brown, Cook, Hughes and W. Reid on the other, with the 
immunity of P. Richardson and S. King between the two, can 
scarcely admit of any other inference being drawn ; and Pymble 
junr's. statement, backed by others, as to the veering of the wind 
in the central part about Irishtown, would appear to indicate a 
cycloidal disturbance much in the position in which it might have 
been expected to occur; but as to whether such disturbance was a 
cause or effect of the division of the main storm, is a matter on 
which I cannot pretend to offer an opinion. 

Since completing the above notes, I have obtained some further 
information which appears to be of remarkable interest ; to the 


effect that the hailstorm was particularly severe after crossing 
the Lane Cover River, and caused ruinous havoc, at the few 
orchards about Z on the western side of the continuation of the 
Stony Creek road down to that river. This information, startling 
to me at first, would indicate that the bearing of E. 52° 1ST., 
assigned above as the course of the centre of intensity of the 
storm, from Carlingford to Turramurra, was not a radical alter- 
ation of the course of the whole meteor, as at first supposed, but 
was due to its bifurcation at or near Carlingford ; such disturbance 
in its course to be repeated again at or near Turramurra, as pre- 
viously shown, and again at or near Swarze's to be seen hereafter; 
it is remarkable that at eacli of these points of bifurcation, the 
divided branches took approximately the same bearings, one to 
the north-east the other to the east. 

The easterly branch from Carlingford devastated Swarze's 
strawberry farm at y, but did not extend to Pockley's z, nor 
Lindfield station ; only a few scattered hailstones fell at Jenkin'a 
orchard, therefore it must have expended itself between Swarze's 
and this part of the river; but a third departure to the north-east, 
or bifurcation, appears to have occurred near the river, as Mrs. 
Kendall's orchard at Z was almost ruined. It should be men- 
tioned here that, with the exception of the three farms or orchards 
above mentioned, this part of the valley of Lane Cove River is 
virtually unoccupied, and information to be obtained is necessarily 
very meagre. After passing Mrs. Kendall's Z, the north-easterly 
branch must also have expended itself before reaching the Lane 
Cove Road ; or following the main spur, by the river road, it may 
have joined the easterly branch from Turramurra, and increased its 
severity about J. Brown's and Cook's, (as it certainly did not 
extend to the Church, or Pockley's), and its junction with that 
branch may account for the various and shifting currents noticed 
by every one in its eastern part, and for the temporary southerly 
wind recorded by Pymble junr. 

I trust that some of Mr. Russell's numerous correspondents 
will have enabled him to trace this meteor beyond the narrow 

limits to which I have confined myself, both as to its initiation 
and final dispersion. I regret that the absence of my business 
partner, owing to a long illness, has left me little leisure for 
either more personal inspection or the putting together of avail- 
able data in a better form. Had I not been so circumstanced I 
should have gladly given several of the days, immediately after 
the storm, to the personal collection of evidence in writing, from 
most of the residents and orchardists on its main lines ; and I 
think that the collation of such materials by more practised hands 
than mine, would have been very interesting, and possibly of some 
real value to meteorological research. 



WEDNESDA Y, MA T 20, 1896. 
Annual General Meeting. 
Prof.T. W. E. David, b.a., f.g.s., President, in the Chair. 
Fifty members and three visitors were present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following Financial Statement for the year ending 31st 
March, 1896, was presented by the Hon. Treasurer, and adopted : — 

) Two Guineas 

Entrance Fees and Compositions 
tt - v "amentary Grant on Subscriptioi 

17 17 ( ■ 
1 1 Oj 

~uvemsements 27 13 

Assistant Secretary 250 

Books and Periodicals 86 15 8 

Bookbinding 2 3 

freight, Charges, Packing, &c. ... ... ... 20 16 6 

Furniture and Effects 14 18 6 

Carried forward 

Office Boy 

Petty Cash Expenses 

Postage and Duty Stamps 


Printing and Publishing Journal 
Prize Essay Award 

Eefreshments and attendance at Meetings 



Amount of Fund on 1st April, 1895 

Australasian Association foi 

First Instalment of Mortgage of ,£1,400 . 
Advance from General Account 

Purchase of Land 14 ft. x 80 ft. 8 in. ... 
Survey and Plans of Land and Premises 

Legal Expenses 

Contractors on account of additions 

Rent of Temporary Office 

Rent of Cottage for Housekeeper 

Labour, moving books and effects 


a Fixed Deposit 

f Fund on 1st April, 1895 

r ed from the Hon. Ealph Abercrom 
Prizes for Competitive Essays or 

Interest on Fixed Deposit, 1893 .. 
Interest on Fixed Deposit, 1894 .. 
Interest on Fixed Deposit, 1895.. 


Award for Prize Essay on " Types of 

Illustrations for Ditto 

Balance returned to the Committee 

Audited, P. N. TEEBECK. 
JNET, 23rd April, 1896. 


W. H. WE HI!, .1— ; 

Messrs. P. N. Trebeck and J. W. MacDonnell were appointed 
Scrutineers, and Mr. H. Deane deputed to preside at the Ballot 

A ballot was then taken and the following gentlemen were 
duly elected officers and members of Council for the current year: 


Pbof. ANDEESON STUAET, m.d. Pkof. T. W. E. DAVID, b.a 

J. W. GRIMSHAW, M.Inst.C.E. | G. H. KNIBBS, 

C. W. DARLEY, 1 

H. A. LENEHAN, f.r.a.s. 
C. J. MARTIN, D. sc„ m.b. 
E. F. PITTMAN, Assoc. E.S.M. 
H.C. RUSSELL, b.a.,c.m.g.,f. 
Prof. WARREN, M. Inst. C.E., 1 

V. M. HAMLET, f.c.s., 

The certificate of one candidate was read for the second 
nd of six for the first time. 

The names of the Committee-men of the different Sections 


Engineering — Wednesday May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. 

(8 p.m.) 14 17 15 19 16 21 

Medical— Friday, (815 p.m,)... 19 17 18 


Chairman— Dr. R. Scot Skirving. 

Secretaries— Dr. C. J. Martin and Dr. J. A. Dick. 

Cecil Purser, Dr. Alfred Shewen, Dr. W. H. Goode, m.a., 

Section K.-Engineerlng. 
Chairman-Prof. Warren, M. Inst. C.E., Wh. Sc. 
Secretary and Treasurer— T. H. Houghton, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 
Committee— C. W. Darley, M. Inst. C.E., T. R. Firth, M. Inst. C.E., P. Allan, 
Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., C. O. Burge, M. Inst. C.E., D. M. Maitland, L.s., 

Past Chairmen, ex officio Members of Committee for three years : 

H. Deane, M.A., M. Inst. c.E., R. R. P. Hickson, M. Inst. C.E., and 

B. C. Simpson, M. Inst. C.E. 

Meetings held on the Third Wednesday in each month, at 8 p.m. 

Two hundred and thirty-one volumes, six hundred and twenty 

parts, one hundred and twenty-seven pamphlets, thirteen reports, 

five hydrographic charts, and twenty-two meteorological charts 


received as donations since the last meeting were laid upon the 
table and acknowledged. 

Due notice having been given at the previous meeting, it was 
unanimously resolved that the whole of the last paragraph of 
Rule XIV. be deleted, viz. :— 

"At the meeting held in July, and at all subsequent meetings 
for the year, a list of the names of all those members who are in 
arrears with their annual subscriptions shall be suspended in the 
Rooms of the Society. Members shall in such cases be informed 
that their names have been thus posted. 

Prof. T. W. E. David, b.a., f.g.s., then read his address. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the retiring President, and 
Mr. J. H. Maiden, p.l.s., was installed as President for the 
ensuing year. 

Mr. Maiden thanked the members for the honour conferred 
upon him. 


J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-three members and five visitors were present. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificate of one new candidate was read for the third time 
and of six for the second time. 

The following gentleman was duly elected an ordinary member 

of the Society : 

Cook, W. R, m.ce. Melb. Univ., M.inst.c.E.; Pitt Street. 

Sixteen volumes, sixty-three parts, two reports, and five 
pamphlets, received as donations since the last meeting were laid 
«pon the table and acknowledged. 

The following papers were read : — 
!• " On periodicity of good and bad seasons," by H. C. Russell, 

B.A., C.M.G., P.R.S. 

Some remarks were made by the President, Prof. David, 
and Judge Docker 

2. "The Mika operation of the Australian Aborigines," by Prof. 

T. P. Anderson Stuart, m.d. 

3. " The absorption of water by the gluten of different wheats," 

by F. B. Guthrie, f.c.s. 

THURSDAY, JUNE 18, 1896. 
A ' Reception ' to the members of the Royal Society of New 
South Wales was held at the Society's House at 8 p.m., by way 
of commemorating the recent enlargements thereto. 

The Hall and staircase were tastefully decorated with palms, 
ferns, and rare pot plants kindly supplied by Mr. J. H. Maiden, 
f.l.s., Director of the Botanic Gardens. 

There were over three hundred guests present, including His 
Excellency the Governor (Honorary President of the Society) and 
Lady Hampden ; about eight hundred invitations having been 
issued. The guests were received by the President (Mr. J. H' 
Maiden, f.l.s.), Professor Anderson Stuart, Professor Threlfall, 
Professor David (Vice-Presidents), Dr. Wright, (Hon. Treasurer), 
Mr. J. W. Grimshaw, and Mr. G. H. Knibbs (Hon. Secretaries), 
and Mr. C. W. Darley, Mr. F. B. Kyngdon, Mr. H. A. Lenehan, 
Dr. C. J. Martin, Mr. E. F. Pittman, Mr. H. C. Russell, C.M.G., 
and Professor Warren (Members of Council). 

The Vice-Regal party arrived at 9 o'clock, and consisted of 
Lord Hampden, Lady Hampden, the Hon. Dorothy Brand, and 
Captain Ferguson, a.d.c. The other visitors included the Minister 
for Lands and the Minister for Justice. 

Brush Electrical Engineering Co., Ld.— Miner's Electric Lamps&c. 
David, Prof. — Microscopes, specimens of Antarctic rocks obtained 

by Mr. Borchgrevink. 
Dowling, J. P.— Queensland Cattle Tick (living specimens). 
Government Geologist — Microscopic Slides. 

Haswell, Prof.— A collection of zoological specimens showing 
various methods of mounting and displaying spirit specimens 
for Museum purposes. 
Mann, J. F.— Plaster cast of Aboriginal body markings. 

Public Library Trustees (per H. 0. L. Anderson) — Collection of 
Rare Books including a very valuable edition of Shakespeare 
published in 1623 (preserved in an oak cabinet). 

Public Works Department, Roads and Bridges Branch— Models 
of Bridges: Cowra, Mulw.-tia, Wai^a Wagga, and Lifting 
Bridge. Type of Truss 1886 and New Standard Type. 
Apparatus for recording deflection diagrams of Bridges. 

Russell, H. C. — Lecturette and Lantern views, illustrating the 
developments of Stellar Photography. 

Schofield, J. A —Apparatus shewing the spectra of Argon and 

Technical College, (per favor of Dr. Morris) — Miscellaneous Col- 
lection of models, electrical toys, and display of Geissler tubes. 

Threlfall, Prof.— Extensive series of photographs by Rontgen's x 

Wilson, Prof. — Edinger's Drawing Apparatus by Leitz. Bern- 
hard's Drawing Desk by Zeiss. New form of Abbe's Camera 
Lucida by Zeiss. 
"Wright, Dr. — Microscope and slides, photographs, a new Wells- 
bach lamp in which the vapour of methylated spirit was the 

J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., President, in the Chair. 
Forty-three members and nine visitors were present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The certificates of six candidates were read for the third time, 
and of five for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Elwell, Paul Bedford, m.i.c.e., m.i.e.b. ; Sydney. 
Onslow, Major J. W. Macarthur; Camden Park. 
Merfield, Charles J., f.r.a.s. ; Marrickville. 
Smyth, Selwood ; Harbours and Rivers Branch. 
Spencer, Walter, m.d. Brux.; Enmore. 
Thompson, Capt. A. J, Onslow ; Camden Park. 


The President announced that a Building Fund had been started 
to which Dr. F. H. Quaife had generously donated £20. 

Twenty-two volumes, one hundred and nine parts, twenty 
reports and twenty-one pamphlets received as donations since the 
last meeting were laid upon the table and acknowledged. 

A discussion took place on the paper read by Mr. H. C. Russell 
at the previous meeting, " On periodicity of good and bad seasons," 
in which the following gentlemen took part, viz.: — Prof. Gurney, 
Messrs. D. M. Maitland and P. N. Trebeck, "Prof. Threlfall, Mr. 
Carment, Prof. David, Mr. Henry Deane and the President. 

Mr. Russell replied. 

Prof. Threlfall read some " Notes on recent developments of 
Rontgen Rays," and exhibited some of the latest forms of tubes 


J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-eight members and five visitors were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of five new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of five for the first time. 

Twenty volumes, one hundred and eighteen parts, four reports 
and five pamphlets received as donations since the last meeting 
were laid upon the table and acknowledged. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "On the occurrence of a submerged forest with remains of the 

dugong at Shea's Creek," by R. Etheridge, Junr., Professor 

T. W. E. David, b.a., f.g.s., and J. W. Gmmshaw, m. mst. c.E. 

The paper was read by Prof. David, and some remarks 

made by Messrs. E. F. Pittman, H. Deane, and R. Etheridge. 

2. " On Aromadendrin or Aromadendric Acid from the Turbid 

Group of Eucalyptus Kinos, by Henry G. Smith, f.c.s. 
Some remarks were made by the ( 

3. » On the Cellular Kite," 

Remarks were made by Professors Threlfall and Warren, 
and the author. 

4. " An explanation of the marked difference in the effects pro- 

duced by subcutaneous and intravenous injection of the 
venom of Australian snakes," by C. J. Martin, m.b., d.Sc. 

5. " Note on a method of rapidly separating crystalloids from 

colloids by filtration," by C. J. Martin, m.b., d.Sc. 
Exhibits : 
Mr. Henry G. Smith exhibited a specimen of Lepidolite 
(Lithia mica) from near Norseman, West Australia. This speci- 
men of lepidolite was found six miles south of Norseman near 
Dundas, Western Australia. Norseman was named by a Mr. 
Sinclair, who came from the north isles of Scotland and who found 
the first mine there (the Norseman Reward). It is one hundred 
and forty-four miles north of Esperance Bay and one hundred 
and twenty-five miles south of Ooolgardie. It is situated in the 
Bundas gold-field. I am indebted to Mr. M. E. Fennessy for the 
specimen and the information. Lepidolite is one of the substances 
from which the lithia salts of commerce are obtained ; it also 
usually contains the rare elements cesium and rubidium. It is 
far from being a common mineral; in Australia it is of rare 
occurrence. Professor Liversidge states that it " is reported by 
Ranft to occur at Black Swamp, Mole Tableland, New England." 
I am expecting shortly to receive more material when an analysis 
will be made and submitted to the Society. 

Mr. J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., President, in the Chair. 
Thirty-two members and six visitors were present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The certificates of five candidates were read for the third time, 
of five for the second time, and of three for the first time. 


The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society :— 

Barff, A. E., m.a.; Sydney University. 
Edwards, George Rixon ; Ooonamble. 
Gollin, Walter J. ; Darling Point. 

Pope, Rowland James, m.d., cm., f.r.c.s. Edin.; Sydney. 
Thorn, John Stuart ; Bexley. 
Twenty-five volumes, one hundred and forty-six parts, seven 
reports and six pamphlets received as donations since the last 
meeting, were laid upon the table and acknowledged. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. ■ Note on recent determinations of the viscosity of water by 

the efilux method," by G. H. Knibbs, p.r.a.s., l.s. 
Some remarks were made by Mr. J. A. Pollock. 

2. "Current Papers No. 2," by H. C. Russell, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s. 

Some remarks were made by Prof. David. 

L — (1) Specimens of steel rails which had been subjected to 
chemical analysis and etched, so as to show the 

(2) A new and simple style of funnel holder, etc. 

(3) A new kind of pipette for ensuring the accurate 

dropping of liquids, were exhibited by Mr. W. M. 

A discussion followed in which the following 

gentlemen took part, viz. :— Major McCutcheon, 

Prof. David, Messrs. G. H. Knibbs, H. Deane, and 

the President, to which Mr. Hamlet replied. 

II. — Cloud photograph transparencies, showing seven different 

and typical forms were exhibited by Mr. Russell. 
HI.— Several exhibits from the Physical Laboratory of the 
Sydney University were shown by Mr. J. A. Pollock 
on behalf of Prof. Threlfall and himself. 


IV. — A case of valuable cut and uncut gems from the Depart- 
ment of Mines was exhibited by Mr. E. F. Pittman. 
V. — A collection of gem stones from the Kangaloon Mines, 
Nepean River, was exhibited by Mr. H. E. Southky, 
VI. — (1) Micrographic slides and specimens of columnar and 
Cretaceous 1 gabbro from the great sill of the Derwent 
estuary, Tasmania. 
(2) Micrographic slides and specimens of Pre-Cambrian 
Oolitic limestone from Halletts' Cove near Adelaide, 
were exhibited by Prof. T. W. E. David. 
VII — Mr. C. Hedley exhibited a quantity of 'Kava' root (from 
the Ellice Group) which he ground and prepared for 
those who might wish to taste it. 
J- H. Maiden, f.l.s., President, in the Chair. 
Thirty-six members and seven visitors were present. 
The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 
The certificates of five new candidates were read for the third 
time, of three for the second time, and of ten for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
°f the Society :— 

Archer, Samuel, b.e., Roy Univ. Irel; Mudgee. 
Bridge, John ; Circular Quay. 

Hinder, Henry Critchley, m.b., cm. Syd.; Ashfield. 
Ruse, Byron ; Ashfield. 
Walsh, C. R. ; Supreme Court. 
The President announced that the Society's Bronze Medal and 
Prize of £25 had been awarded to the Rev. J. Milne Curran for 
paper on <« The occurrence of precious stones in New South Wales, 
*»* a description of the deposits in which they are found." 

Seventeen volumes, one hundred and thirty-six parts, seven 
sports, nine pamphlets, ten hydrographic charts and sixteen 

meteorological charts receive 
were laid on the table and acknowledged. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. "On the occurrence of precious stones in New South Wales, 

with a description of the deposits in which they are found,' 
by the Rev. J. Milne Curran. 

2. " On the constituents of the sap of the ' Silky Oak,' Grevillea 

robusta, E.Br.," by Henry G. Smith, f.c.s. 

Some remarks were made by Mr. Hamlet and the President. 


J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-seven members and one visitor were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of three new candidates were read for the third 
time, of ten for the second time, and of two for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Fairfax, Geoffrey E. ; Sydney. 
Verdon, Arthur ; Australian Club. 
Vivian, Walter Hussey j Manly. 

The President announced the death of Baron Ferdinand von 
Mueller, K.c m.g., f.r.s., who was elected an Honorary Member 
of the Society in 1875, and awarded the Clarke Medal in 1883. 

He then presented to the Rev. J. Milne Curran the Society's 
Bronze Medal and money prize of £25, which had been awarded 
to him for paper on " The occurrence of precious stones in New 
South Wales, with a description of the deposits where they are 

Twenty-four volumes, one hundred and five parts, two reports, 
six pamphlets, two hydrographic charts and two engravings 
received as donations since the last meeting were laid on the 
table and acknowledged. 

The following paper was read : — 

" On sill structure and occurrence of fossils in eruptive rocks 
in New South Wales," by Prof. T. W. E. David, b.a., f.g.s. 

Some remarks were made by the Rev. J. Milne Curran and 
the author. 

The paper on " The occurrence of precious stones in New South 
Wales etc., by the Rev. J. Milne Curran, which had been read 
at the previous meeting, was then discussed, the following gentle- 
men taking part :— Mr. Henry G. Smith, Prof. David, and the 
President ; the author replied. 

J. H. Maiden, f.l.s., President, in the Chair. 
Thirty members were present. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and confirmed. 

The certificates of ten new candidates were read for the third 

time, of two for the second time, and of three for the first time. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

a Beckett, Marsham Elwin j Ashfield. 
Brown, Alexander ; Newcastle. 
Deas-Thomson, E. R.; Elizabeth Bay Road. 
Fairfax, Charles Burton ; Sydney. 
Gibson, Frederick William D. C. J. ; Stanmore Road. 
Hay, Alexander ; Australian Club. 
King, Kelso ; Darling Point. 

Smith, Thomas Hawkins ; Gordon Brook, Clarence River. 
Thorn, James Campbell ; Bexley. 
Tickle, A. H; Woollahra. 
On the motion of Mr. Henry Deane seconded by Mr. J. T. 
Wilshire, it was resolved that Messrs. H. O. W t alker and C. R. 
Walsh be appointed Auditors for the current year. 

Eighteen volumes, one hundred and eight parts, four reports 
a nd three pamphlets received as donations since the last meeting 
w ere laid upon the table and acknowledged. 


A letter was read from the Victorian Branch of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Australasia together with the report of a 
special meeting of the Branch held November 2nd, re proposed 
Memorial to the late Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On the presence of a true manna on a blue-grass, Andropogon 

annulatus, Forsk." by R. T. Baker, f.l.s., and Henry G. 

Remarks were made by Messrs. G. H. Knibbs, J. T. 
Wilshire, and the President, to which the authors replied. 

2. "Remarkable hailstorm of 17 November, 1896 in parts of 

Parish of Gordon" by E. Du Faur, F.R.G.S. 

Some remarks were made by Mr. II. C. Russell. 

3. "On the determination of the " Meridian Line by Solar obser- 

vations with any altazimuth-instrument," by G. H. Knibbs, 

Mr. Grimshaw exhibited a silicious tube-like material probably 
a fulgurite, found on the sand-hills Kensington. 




At the provisional meeting held 14th May, the following officers 
were elected for the 1896 Session :— Chairman : Professor Warren, 
M. Inst. c.E., wh.Sc. Hon. Secretary and Hon. Treasurer : T. H. 
Houghton, Assoc, m. inst. c.e. . Committee : C. W. Darley, 

C O. BURGE, M. Inst. C.E., D. M. Maitland, L.S., H. R. Carleton, 


The Hon. Treasurer presented the balance sheet of the print- 
ing fund for 1 895, shewing a credit of 1 9s. Gd. Messrs. Haycroft 
and Cowdery were elected auditors. 

Monthly t gl Id June 17. 
Professor Warren, in the Chair. 
Thirty -two members and visitors present. 

The Chairman notified that through illness Mr. Houghton had 
been compelled to resign the positions of Hon. Secretary and 
Hon. Treasurer, and that Mr. Percy Allan had been appointed 
Hon. Secretary and Hon. Treasurer. 

The Chairman then delivered his presidental address. 
Monthly meeting held July 15. 

Nineteen members and visitors present. 

A vote of congratulation was accorded > to Mr. Deane on his 
Ppointment to the Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 


Mr. Selfe read a paper on "the Machinery Employed for 
Artificial Refrigerating and Ice Making," and the discussion was 
adjourned to the next meeting. 

Monthly meeting held August 19. 
Mr. C. O. Burge in the Chair. 

Thirty-two members and visitors present. 

Mr. McKinney read a paper on the "Water Conservation 
Surveys for New South Wales," and the discussion was adjourned 
to the next meeting. 

The discussion on Mr.NoRMAN Selfe's paper on "the Machinery 

Employed for Artificial Refrigerating and Ice Making," was 

opened by Mr. Cruickshank and continued by Messrs. Stayton, 

Eaton, Houghton, and Stokes, and adjourned to the next meeting. 

Monthly meeting held 16 September. 

Professor Warren in the Chair. 

Fourteen members and visitors present. 

The discussion on Mr. Norman Selfe's paper on "the Machinery 
Employed for Artificial Refrigerating and Ice Making," adjourned 
from last meeting was continued by Professor Warren and replied 
to by the author. 

The discussion on Mr. McKinney's paper on the " Water Con- 
servation Surveys of New South Wales," was opened by Mr. 
Halligan and continued by Messrs. Haycroft and Davis, and 
adjourned to the next meeting. 

Monthly meeting held October 21. 
Professor Warren in the Chair. 

Twenty-six members and visitors present. 

Mr. A. B. Portus read a paper on " Centrifugal Pump Dredg- 
ing in New South Wales," the discussion was opened by Mr. C. W. 
Darley and continued by Mr. Grimshaw, further discussion being 
adjourned till the next meeting. 

The discussion on Mr. McKinney's paper on the " Water Con- 
servation Surveys of New South Wales," adjourned from the 

previous meeting was continued by Messrs. C. W. Darley and 
Merfield, and replied to by the author. 

Pleasure was expressed at the presence of Colonel Home and 
Mr. Mais. 

Professor Warren in the Chair. 

Twenty-four members and visitors present. 

Mr. Percy Allan read a paper on the " Lift Bridge over the 
Murray River at Swan Hill," the discussion being adjourned till 
the next meeting. 

The discussion on Mr. A. B. Portus paper on "Centrifugal 
Pump Dredging in New South Wales," adjourned from the pre- 
vious meeting was continued by Professor Warren and Mr. Percy 
Allan and adjourned till the next meeting. 

Mr. Barraclough read a paper on the " Experimental Theory 
of the Steam Engine," the discussion being adjourned till the next 

Monthly meeting held December 16. 
Professor Warren in the Cha 


! members and visitors present. 
The discussion on Mr. A. B. Portus paper on " Centrifugal 
Pump Dredging in New South Wales," adjourned from the pre- 
vious meeting was continued by Messrs. Houghton, Haycroft, 
Barraclough, and Grimshaw, and replied to by the author. 

Mr. Percy Allan's paper on the "Lift 
Bridge over the Murray River at Swan Hill," was opened by Mr. 
Burge and continued by Messrs. Haycroft, Grimshaw, Dare, and 
Professor Warren, and replied to by the author. 

The discussion on Mr. Barraclough's paper on the " Experi- 
mental Theory of the Steam Engine," was opened by Mr. Houghton 
and replied to by the author. 

The Chairman briefly referred to the work of the past session. 


During the Session the Section visited, by invitation, the 
Sewerage Works at Johnstone's Creek, Annandale, and the Sand 
Pump Dredges working at Rozelle Bay. 

Mr. W. Thow was on the 1 1th November elected to the vacancy 
on the Committee caused by the resignation of Mr. Maitland. 


The first meeting of the Session was held in the Basement Hall 
of the Society's House, on May 15th, 1896, at 8-15 p.m., when 
the following officers were elected : — Chairman : Dr. Robert Scot 
Skirving. Committee (4): Drs. W. H. Goodb, A. Shewen, C. 
Purser, G. E. Rennie. Hon. Secretaries : Drs. C. J. Martin, 
J. A. Dick. 

The dates of the meetings of the Section were fixed. 

Dr. F. Milford read a paper on " Some experiences of Skull 
and Head injuries with their results during a lengthy practice in 
Sydney." 1 

Special General Meeting. 

A Special General Meeting of the Section was held in the 
Physics Lecture Room of the University of Sydney (by kind per- 
mission of the Senate) on June 19th at 8-15 p.m. Dr. Scot 
Skirving occupied the Chair, there was a very large attendance 
of members of the Society and their friends. 

Professor Threlpall, m.a , gave a Lecture-Demonstration upon 
"The 'x' rays of Rontgen and their practical application." 2 
First Ordinary Bi-Montuly Meeting. 

The first ordinary Bi-monthly meeting of the Section was held 
in the Hall of the Society's House, on July the 17th at 8-15 p.m. 
Dr. Scot Skirving in the Chair. 

Dr. S. T. Knaggs read a paper upon " Human Fallibility and 
its relation to Accidents on Railways and by Sea." 1 

The subject was discussed by Drs. F. Norton Manning, Sydney 
Jones, C. J. Martin, Joseph Foreman, and others. 2 

Dr. F. Tidswell exhibited a series of micro-photographs and 
microscope preparations illustrating the Histo-pathology of 

Dr. Tidswell also exhibited some specimens of the Queensland 

Drs. C.J. Martin and J. A. Dick discussed the n 

Recent additions to the University Museum of Normal and 

Morbid Anatomy were exhibited by the Curator, Dr. S. Jamieson. 4 

Second Ordinary Bi-monthly Meeting. 

The Second Ordinary Bi-monthly meeting was held in the Hall 
of the Society's House on September 18th at 8-15 p m. Dr. Scot 
Skirving in the chair. 

Dr. Clubbe exhibited a patient who had suffered from extensive 
fracture of the skull with subsequent considerable loss of cerebral 

Dr. MacDonald Gill (at the invitation of the Hon. Secretaries) 
exhibited an infant who was suffering from annulus migrans of 
the tongue. 6 

Dr. F. W. Hall (at the invitation of the Hon. Secretaries) 
exhibited an adult who was suffering from scleroderma, also an 
infant the subject of cretinism. 6 

The patients were examined by the members, after which their 
cases were discussed. 

Dr. Jenkins exhibited a spirit specimen of malignant disease, p . 359. 2 A.M.G., p. 362. 
; A.M.G., p. 346. 4 A.M.G., p. 347. 
| Hermes Medical Supplement for November 1896 ; A.B 

Dr. Fjeldstad (at the invitation of the Hon. Secretaries) 
demonstrated the application of the Norwegian Venetian-blind 

Dr. Mullins demonstrated the structure of three varieties of 
filters for drinking-water. 2 

Dr. Sydney Jones described some skiagraphs from a case of 
Leprosy that were on view. 2 

Dr. Wm. Ohisholm described some skiagraphs of elbow joint 
injuries that were on view. 2 

Recent additions to the University Museum of Normal and 
Morbid Anatomy were exhibited by Dr. Jamieson. 2 

Various patterns of Pasteur-Chamberland, Berkefeld, and Jeffrey 
filters were exhibited by the Hon. Secretaries. 2 

Several skiagraphs of medical and surgical interest, taken by 
Mr. F. Schmidlin were exhibited by the Hon. Secretaries. 2 

The other business was postponed. 

Third Ordinary Bi-monthly Meeting. 

The Third Ordinary Bi-monthly meeting was held in the Hall 
of the Society's House on November 20th. Dr. W. H. Goode 
presided in the absence of Dr. Scot Skirving who sent an apology. 

Dr. J. A. Dick exhibited a case of partial cryptorchismus. 

Dr. S. Jamieson read a paper on " Osteitis Deformans " and 
exhibited several specimens. 3 

The subject was discussed by Drs. Rennie, Martin, Goode and 

Drs. C. J. Martin and G. E. Rennie read a joint paper upon 

' Cardiac Thrombosis.' 

The paper was discussed by Professor J. T. Wilson, Drs. Sydney 
Jones, Wm. Chisholm, S. Jamieson, W. H. Goode and others. 4 

The acting Chain 
of the Session. 

i A.M.G., p, 469. 

s A.M.G., Jany. 189 


(The Names of the Donors are in Italics.) 
Aachen— Meteorologische Station I. Ordnung. Deutsches Meteo- 

rologisches Jahrbuch fur 1895. The Director 

Aberdeen— University. Calendar for the year 1896-97. Cata- 
logue of i : iry in King's College, 
March 1894 to March 1895. The University 
Adelaide— Observatory. Meteorological Observations during 

1891, 1892, and 1893. The Observatory 

Royal Society of South Australia. Transactions, Vol. xvi., 
Part iii., 1896 ; Vol. xix., Part ii., 1895 ; Vol. xx. Part 
i., 1896. The Society 

Albany— University of the State of New York. Bulletin of the 
New York State Museum, Vol. in., Nos. 14, 15, 1895. 
State Library Bulletin, Legislation No.6, 1895. The University 
Amsterdam— Kon. Akademie van Wetenschappen. Jaarboek 
l de Zittingen, Deel hi., 
No. 7, 1894; 
Deel iv., Nos. 1-6, 1894-95; 
Deel v., 1 - 3, 1895-96. Sectie II, Deel iv., Nos. 7-9, 
Deel v., Nos. 1-3, 1895-6. Zittingsverslagen Afd. 
Natuur, Deel iv., 1895-96. The Academy 

Colonial Museum. Bulletin, July 1896. The Director 

Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van Nijverheid. 
Wekelijksche Courant de Nijverheid, J aargang in., Nos. 
27 - 52, 1895 ; iv., Nos. 1 - 39, 1896. Electrische Be- 
weegkracht verkregen door Windmolens door J. Van 
Heurn, Civ. Ing. The Association 

Annapolis, Md.— U.S. Naval Institute. Proceedings, Vol. xxi., 
Nos. a, 4, Whole Nos. 75, 76, 1895 ; Vol. xxn., Nos. 1, 2, 

Baltimore— Johns Hopkins University. American Chemical 
Journal, Vol. xvi., Nos. 7, 8, 1894; Vol. xvn., Nos. 1 - 
10, 1895 ; Vol. xviii., 1-5, 1896. American Journal of 
Mathematics, Vol. xvi., No. 1, 1S01- ; Vol. xvn., Nos. 1 - 

of Philology, Vol. xv., Nos. 2-4, 1894; Vol. xvi., No. 
1, 1895. Circulars, Vol. xv., Nos. 121-126, 1S95-90. 
Historical and Political Studies, Vol. xn., Nos. s 12, 
1894 ; Vol. xiii., Nos. 1 - 12, 1895; Vol. xiv., Nos. 1-5 

Batavia — Koninklijke Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederl- 
Indie. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Ned.-Indie, Deel 
LV., (Nej i-ment-Cata- 

logus der Bibliotheek (1883-1893) Boekwerken, 1895. 

Bergen— Bergens Museums. Aarbog for 1894-95. The 1 

Berkeley— University of Calif ornia. Bulletin of the Depart- 
" ~ )logy, Vol. i., Nos. 10 and 11, 1896. Publi- 
le Lick Observatory, Vol. v., 1895. A Brief 

t of Geology, 

untof the Lick Observatory (Second Edition) 
i Report of the Board of State Horticultural I 

Production by Chas. A. Wetrnore, Eeport of 


tiollof the ('HIV 

5. Pamphlets ( 

Berlin— Gesellschaft fur Erdknnde v.u Fl ■■. i : :: < 
Beitriige von Dr. Otto Kunt/.e, IS'.io. V. 
Band xxir, Nos. 4-10, 1895; Baud xxi 

r die Thatigkrh hen Meteoro- 

logischen Instituts im Jahre 1895. Ergebnisse der 
Beobachtungen an den Stationen ( L. und III. Ordnung 
im Jahro 1892, \\-'r .: : .l.-ihie I v. ••.',. 1 loft 2. Ergebnisse 
der Niederschlags-Beobachtungen im Jahre 1893. The Institute 
-IVpartemenl do lTnteriour de la < "onfoderation Suisse 
— Section des Travaux Publics. Bassin du Rhin depuis 
ses sources jusqu a F embouchure de la Tamina, Parts 

mundung, Theif 1 , | > a rstellung 

der Sehweizerischen 1. .m, *1 ii~, h,-n ! :,-..b;tcht tmp-n, 
PI. i. xvi., IS'.).",. Graph is,.- ho barstell.m- d.-r Luft- 
t :"!• .'tui-,.n PI. 1, 2, 3, 1s;m-. T.-tblruu graphique des 

3 of Life " by 
. Eev. W. B. Curpenter, d.d., delivered in the Town 
Hall. Birmingham, 22 Oct. 1895. Programme for Ses- 
sion 1896-97. ° The Institute 

Jirmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society. 

Proceedings, Vol. ix., Part ii., 1895. The Society 

tiTz — Ecole Industrielle. Jahresbericht der Gewerbeschule. 

xx. and xxi., 1894-96. The School 

'— Naturhistorische Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande, 
Westfalens und des Reg.-Bezirks Osnabriick. Verhand- 
lnngen, Jahrgang lii., 1895. The Society 

Jiederrheinische Gesellschaft fiir Natur-und Heilkunde zu 
Bonn. Sitzungsberichte, Hiilfte 1, 1895. 

3N — American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Proceedings, 

Joston Society of Natural History. Memoirs, Vol. v., Nos. 
1 and2, 1895. Proceedings. Vol. xxvi., Part i v., 1894-95; 

Naturwissenschaf tliche Verein. Abhandlungen, Band xiii., 

Heft 3, 1896 ; Band xiv., Heft 1, 1895. The Society 

isbane— Australasian Association for the Advancement of 
Science. Report of the Sixth Meeting held at Brisbane, 
Queensland, Jan , 1895. The Association 

< lii.'t Weather Knveau. Meteorological Synopsis, May- 
Dec. 1895, Jan. -April 1896. Climatological Tables, 
Jan. - Dec. 1895. Table of Rainfall. Jan. - Dec. 1895. The Bureau 

Departm :.t of Agriculture. Hotauy Bulletin, No. 13, 1896. 

The Department 

Geological Survey. Annual Progress Report for 1895. 

remains in the Cairns Ranee, Western Queensland by 
R. L.Jack, r.o.8. SI 

by Robert L.Jack, f.g.s., 1S95. The Sul> marine beakag. 
of Artesian Water by Robert L. Jack, f.u.s., 189G. 

Queensland Aeelimatiznt ion Society. Transactions, Vol. i., 

Part xii., 1895-96. The Socxet y 

Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. Proceedings 
Session ;s ., !' 

Thomson, p.r.s.g.s. The Royal <•■ : - 

of Australasia, Queensland : An Historical Review by 

Royal Society of Queenslam 1. !':• ■■• ■• -liiej-. \ >1 xr., Part 


le des Sciences, des Lettres et des 
Beaux Arts de Belgique. Annuaire, 1894-95. Bulletins, 
Ser. 3, Tomes xxvi. - xxix., 1893 - 1895. The Academy 

Institut International de Bibliographie. Bulletin, Annee 

eografico Argentin 

, 1895-96; Tomo l 

Geological Survey of India. Memoirs, Vol. xxvn., Part i., 
1S95. Si-cords, V..I. xnviii., Part iv., 1895 ; Vol. xxix., 
Parts i.-iii., 1896. Memoirs, Palavmtologia Indira, 
Ser. xiii., Vol. n., Part i.; Ser. xv., Vol. n., Part ii. ; 
Ser. xvi., Vol. I., Part i. The JMrecto 

hbridge — Cambridge Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 
Vol. viii., Part v., Vol. ix., Parts i.-iii., 1S95-96. 
Transactions, Vol. xvi., Part i., ]896. The Sonet 

University Library. Annual Report (42nd) of the Library 

Syndicate for the year ending Dec. 1895. The Utnceoi 

hbridge, Mass.— Cambridge Entomological Club. Psyche, 

Vol. vii., Nos. 235 - 246, 1895-6. 2 he vlH 

Museum of Co \'mual Eeport of the 

1895; Vol - Vol. XIX., 

n — South African Philosophical ! 
ons, Vol. VIII., Part ii., 1892-95. 
yor General. Report by Dr. David 

Town, 1896. 

The Surveyor Hmeral 

Cablbbtthe— Grossherzoglich-Badische Teehnische Hochschule. 
Programm fur das Studienjahr, 1895-96. Lektionsplan 
IS96. Inaugural Dissertations (5) 1S03-95. The Dirccioi 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Vereins. Verhandlungen, Band , 

xi., 1888 - 1895. The Society 

Cabbell— Vereins fur Naturkunde. Abhandlungen u. Bericht, 

Id Columbian Muse 

Field Columbian Museum. Anthropologics 

Botanical Series, Vol. i.~ No. 2, Publication 9, 18 
a — Norwegische Meteorologische Institut. 

Vol. xviii., Nos. 1 

Colombo— Royal Asiatic Society. Journal of the Ceylon Branch 

Vol. xiv., No. 46, 1895. Catalogue of the Library, 1896. 

Copenhagen— Societe Eoyale des Antiquaires du Nord. Memoires, 

N.S. 1894, 1895. Tilhsg. 1894. 
Ceacow — Academie des Sciences. Bulletin International, Nos. 

7 and 8, 1895 ; Nos. 1 and 2, 1896. The A 

Denvee— Colorado Scientific Society. Papers read before the 

Society, Sept. 9, Oct. 7, Nov. 4, 1895 ; Jan. 6, April 6, 

Sept. 7, 1896. The 

Des Moines— Iowa Geological Survey. Vol. iv., Third Annual 

Report, 1891. The 

Deesden— K. Sachs. Statistische Bureaus. Zeitschrift, Jahr- 

gang xli., Heft 1-4, 1895-6. Tkt 

Dublin— Royal Dublin Society. Scientific Proceedings, N.S. 
Vol. viii., Part iii., 1894; Part iv., 1895. Scientific 
Transactions, Ser. 2, Vol. v., Parts v.-xii.; Vol. vi., 
Part i., 1894-96. The 

Royal Irish Academy. Proceedings, 3 Ser., Vol. m., Nos. 
1895-6. List of members, 1895-6. ' ' The A 

,|, .-■;,■ ii s... 
i 1894-95. 

Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. Transac- 
tions, Ser. 5, Vol. viii., 1896 (with Index to Vols. i. - vn.) 
Royal Physical Society. Proceedings, Vol. xin., Part i., 

Session 1894-95. 
Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Scottish Geographical 
Magazine. Vol. xi., Nos. 10, 11, 1895; Vol. xn., Nos. 1 - 
5, 8, 1896. 
Royal Society of Edinburgh. Proceedings, Vol. xx., Sess- 
ions 1893-95. Transactions, Vol. xxxvn., Parts iii. and 
iv. ; Vol. xxxvin., Parts i. andii,, Sessions 1893-95. 
Scottish Microscopical Society. Proceedings, Session 1894- 

University. Calendar 1896-97. ^e Ur 

Elbeepeld— Naturwissenschaftliche Vereins. Jahresberichte, 

Heft 8, 1896. Jubilaums-Pestschrift 1846 - 1896. The 

Revista Geografica Italiana, Annata in., Pasc. 4-7, 1896. 

Vol. xxv., Fasc. iii., 1895; Vol. xxvi°, Fasc. 1, 1896. The Society 
Fort Monroe — U.S. Artillery School. Journal, Vol. iv., No. 4, 

1895 ; Vol. v., Nos. 1 - 3, Vol. vi., No. 1, 1896. The School 

Frankfurt a/m— Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesell- 

schaft. Abhandlungen, Bandxix., Heft 1-4, 1895-6; 

Band xxu. and Appendix, 1896. Bericht, 1895-6. The Society 
Freiberg (Saxony) — Koniglich-Siichsische Berg-Akademie. 

Jahrbucli fiir das Berg- und Hiittenwesen im Koni- 

greiche Sachsen auf das Jahr. 1895. The Academy 

Freiburg ( Baden) —Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Berichte, 

Band ix., Heft 1 - 3, 1894-95. The Society 

Geelong— Gordon Technical College. Annual Report for 1895. 

The Wombat, Vol. i.. Nos. 2-5, 1895-6. The Pirector 

Geneva— lnstitut National Genevois. Bulletin. Tome xxxm., 

1895. The Institute 
Giessen— Oberhessische Gesellschaft fiir Natur-und-Heilkunde. 
Glasgow — Philosophical Society of Glasgow. Proceedings, Vol. 

University. Calendar 1896-97. rhe University 

Gottingen— Konigliche Gesells had .1 . Wiss.-n.schaften. Na- 
chrichten. ( ;<>s<->i af 1 1 ic ' :<• Mittheiluniren Heft 2, 1895; 
Heft 1. 1896. Math-phvs. Klasse, Heft 3, 4, 1895 ; Heft 

Gorlitz— Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen, Band 

xxi., 1895. 
Haarlem— Koloniaal Museum. Bulletin, Extra 1895; March 

1896. The Museum 
Musee Teyler. Archives, Ser. 2, Vol. v., Part i.. 1896. 

d. - S i i - ]]\ i. U - . t Xaturelles. Tome xxix , Liv. 4 

Series, Vol. i , Part iv. ; Vol. n., Part i., 18(1 

Halle— K. LoopoM-: 'a iol D.-nts.-lm Akademie der Na 

Katal., u r,lor Bihliotlu-k LietVruns vi , 1S95. 1 

Heft 31, Jahrgang 1895. Nova Acta, Vols, i 

Hamburg— Deutsche Seewarte. Archiv, Jahnjang > 

Resultate Meteorologisclu 

Mittheilungen, Band xi , J 

-Mitt..ilmigen, Jahrgang s 

lungen, N.F., Band m 

Helsingfors— Societe des Sciences de Finlande. Acta, Tome 
xxn., No. 1, 1890. OfvorM-1. Vol. kxvii., IS'.tLJSir,. 
Observations publiees par l'Tnstitut MrL'ornlogiipie 
Central, Vol. xin., Liv. 1, 1891. Observations Meteoro- 
logiques publ : uologique Central 

1881 - 1890 Tome Supplemental. Observations 
Meteorologiques en 1895. Meteorologie et Magnetisme 
Terrestre, Fennia 13. 

Hobaet— Office of Mines. Eeport of the Secretary for Mines 
for 1895-6. 27 

Royal Society of Tasmania. History of the Boya! Society 
of Tasmania, 30 Dec. 1895. Abel Janszoon Tasman : 
His Lit,, and Voyages by J. B. Walker, f.r.g.s. Papers 
and Proceedings for 1S94-95. The Health ..f Hobart by 
R. M. Johnston, f.l.s., 1896. The 

Jefferson City— Geological Survey ..f .Missouri, Vols, iv., v , 
Paleontology of Missouri, Farts i.. ii., 1891; Vols, vr . 
vii., Lead and Zinc Deposits, Parts i., ii., 1804. The J 

Jena— Medicinis i, \. • ,„ ,. ,... ,,. haftliche Gesellschaft. Jen- 
aische Zeitsch baft. Band xxix. 

[N.F. Bd. xxn.] Heft 3 and 4, 1895 ; Band xxx. [N.F. 
Bd. xxni.] Heft. 1 -4, 1895-6. The 

Kew— Eoyal Gardens. Hooker's Icones Plantarmn, Vol. v., 

Anales Pahsontologia Argentine n. and in. Anales, 
Tome i., 1890-91. Anales Seccion Geolog.and Mineralog., 
Tome i. Anales, Seccion Historia General, Tome i. 

Musoe de La Plata-Rapide coup'd'ceil sur sa fondation, 

LArsANNE — Societe Vaudoise des Sci 

Ser. 4, Vol. xxxi., Nos. 118, 119, 1895 ; Vol. xxxn., No. 
Index Bibliographique de la Faculte des 

Vereins fur Erdkunde. Mitteilungen, 1895. Wissenschaft- 
liche Veroffentlichungen, Band in., Heft 1, 1896. 
Liege— Societe Geologique de Belgique. Annales, Tome xx., 
""** ~~, Tables generates des T 

Tome'xxn., Liv. 2, 1895 ; Tome xxiii., Liv. 1, 2, 1895-96. 

Societe Geologique du Nord. Annales, Tome xxn., 1894. 


i— University of Nebraska. Bulletin, Vol. vm. , Nos. 43, 
41, and 45. Press Bulletin, No. 6, 1895. rhe Un 


-Keal Observatorio Astronomieo de Lisboa. Observa- 
tions liferidiennefl de la Planete Mars pendant 1' oppo- 

Sociedade de Geograpbia de Lisboa. Boletim, Annexo A<> 

No. 1, 1896. Tht 

p-eepool— Literary and Philosopbical Society. Proceedings, 

Vols. xliv. - xlix., Sessions 1889-90 - 1894-95. 
ndon— Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Journal, Vol. xxvi., No. 1, 1896 ; Vol. xxv., Nos. 
2 - 4, 1895-6. The 

British Museum (Natural History). Guides to the British 
Mycetozoa ; Fossils and Birds ; Fossil Reptiles and 

logical Society. Quarterly Journal, Vol. 
Geological Lit 

r§. Charter Ac Lis! Ol 

me, 1896. Minutes of Proceedings, Vol. 
, Session 1895-96. Subject Index, Vols. 

Inst it in ion ,-,£ Mechanical Enffin 

1895. General Index 1874- 

Institution of Naral Architects. 

Iron and Steel Institute. Journal, 

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Meteorological Office. Meteorological 

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Journal, 4 Ser. Vol. i., Nos. 1322-1331, 1895 ; 4 Se 
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Physical Society of London. Proceedings, Vol. xiii., Par 

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Kuviil Agricultural Society of England. 

Royal College of Surgeons of England. Calendar, Aug. ■ 

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Royal Microscopical Society. Journal, Parts v., vi., Nos. 108, 
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Royal United Service Institution. Journal, Vol. xxxix., 

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Sanitary Institute of Great Britain. Journal, Vol. xvi., 

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Society of Arts. Journal, Vol. xliv., Nos. 2244-2291, 

1895-6. The Society 

War Office. Franco German War 1870 - 1871, Vol. i., Part 
i., (without maps), Sections 1, 2, and 5 ; Part ii. with 
case of maps ; Vol. n., Parts i. and ii., with case of maps; 
Vol. in., Part ii. with case of maps. The Campaign of 
1866 in Germany, and Atlas. Handbook of British 
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cations (Section des Sciences Nati 
matiques) Tome xxiv., 1896. 

The Institute 

Madison — Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, , 
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irts, and Letters. 

The Academy 

Madras— Madras Government Museum. Bulle 

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(Supplement to Meteorological Observations from 1796 

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land. Journal, Vol. via., Nos. 5-8, 1896. The 
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Parts i. - ix., Session 1895-96. 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. Memoirs 
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Marburg — University. Inaugural Dissertat 

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v., Fasc. 4 ; Tome vi., Fasc. 1 - 3 ; Tome vii., 1896. 

Annales de l'Institut Colonial de Marseille, Vol. n., 

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119 and 120, 1895 ; Vol. xr., Nos. 121 - 131, 1896. The Editor 

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Australian Fungi by D. McAlpine, 1895. The Department 

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Mkriden, Conn. — Meriden Scie 

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Memorias y Eevista 


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Munich— Bayerische Botanische Gesellsehaft. Berichte, Band 


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, Vol. xiv., 1894-5. TheAcademy 
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North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
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1895. The Trustees 

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Reservoirs in the Greenmount Ranges, by C.T. O'Connor 

% m„t. c.e.. 1896. The Office 

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PoTSDAM-Centralbureau der Internationalen Erdmessung. 
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The Observatory 
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gresso Geografico Italiano :— L'Avvenire della Colonia 
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I anton— Colliery Engineer Co. The Colliery Engineer and 
Metal Miner, Vol. xvi., Nos. 4-12; Vol. xvn., No. 1, 
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kerville, Mass.— Tufts College. Tufts College Studies, No. 

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year 1896-7. The Senai 

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* by Henry G. Smith, p.c.s. 
of Public Works. Catalogue of the Library, 1896. „ 
vernment Printer. The Statutes of New South Wales 
(Public and Private) passed during the Session of 1895. 

lasia, 1895-6, by T. A. Coghlan 

sixth issue. Bl r 1889 and previous 

years ; 1890, 1891, 1895. The Wealth and Progress of 

New South Wales, 1886-87, 1890-91, 1894. Goveri 

igs, Ser. 2, 

Vol. x., Parts ii. - iv. and Supplement 1895 ; Vol. xxi., 

Parts i. and ii., Nos. 81, 82, and Supplement, 1896. 

Abstract of Proceeding y 27, June 

24, July 20. ' 29, Nov. 25, 1896. The Society 

■ yor, Vol. 

vin., No. 12, 1895 and bound copy 1895; Vol. ix., Nos. 

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nell' ann della E. Universita di 

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xxvii., No. 4, 1895; Vol. xxvm., No. 1, 
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Bulletin No. 5. Monthly 

[Jnited States Elev< 

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ring Industries, Parts i., ii., iii. Population, Part i 


Statistics of Fisheries. Transportation Business, Parts 
i. and ii. ; Transportation by Land. Vita] and Social 
Statistics, Part iii., Statistics of Deaths. Wealth, Debt, 
and Taxation, Part ii., Valuation and Taxation. Abs- 
tract of the Eleventh Census 1890 (Second edition). 

The Department 

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Hydrographic Office. Notice to B 
50 - 52, 1895 and Index ; Nos. 1 - 3J 

Eiver (Bar Point) Lighthouse to Mama juda Lighthouse; 
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nia, Abreojos Point to Cape San Lazaro ; No. 1531, The 
Arctic Eegions with the tracks of Search Parties and 
the Progress of Discovery. No. 1543 N.A. Canada, 
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jahrschrift, Jahrgang XL., Heft 3, 4, 1895. 


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Catalogue of Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. U.S.A., 1895-6. The Registrar 

Came, Joseph E., f.g.s.— Report on the discovery of Mercury 

Ore near Lionsville, 1896. F. B. Kyngdon 

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:>., f.e.s., f.s.a. — Supplement to Thesaurus Crani- 
Catalogue of the Skulls of the various races of 
u the collection of 1875- Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, B.. 

aia, 1896. The Author 
s exhibited 
i Section of the Exhibition (in French and 
English). F. B. Kyngdon 

Rev. Robert, m.a., f.b.s.— An obituary notice of Sir 

! weumand 
lildings, Melbourne. The Trustees 

Janet, Charles— Sur les nids de la Vespa crabro, L.; ordre d' 
apparition des premiers alveoles, 1894. Sur la Vespa 
crabro, L. Ponte ; conservation de la chaleur dans le md. 
Observations sur les Frelons. Etudes sur les fourmis, 
les guepes et les abeilles, Neuvieme note sur Vespa 
crabro, L.— Histoire d' un nid depuis son origine. The Author 

Kiddle, H. C, f.r. Met. soc-Notes on the Rainfall of the Southern 
Eiverina 1872- 1894. 

Kosmopolan (Cosmopolitan) Nos. 26, 27, 31, 1896. The Editor 


Medical Press and Circular, Vol. cxin., No. 2993, 1896. The Publisher 

MSlusine, Tome vn., No. 12, 1895. 

Mesny's Chinese Miscellany, Vol. i., No. 18, 1896. 

Mingaye, John C. H., f.c.s., m.a.i.m.e. — Analyses of the Artesian 
Waters of New South Wales, and their value for irriga- 
tion and other purposes, 1895. The Author 

Mullins, George Lane, m.a., m.d., Trin. Coll. Dub — Cancer in 
New South Wales, 1896, 

Oliver, Charles A., a.m., m.d.— Description of an artificial eye 
intended for the study of ophthalmoscopy and the 
objective determination of Ametropia, 1894. History 
of a case of indurated (Hunterian) chancre of the 
eyelid, 1894.. Description of an improved form of trial 

Revista Italiana di Scienze Naturali e Bollettino del Naturalista. 

Anno xv., 1, 15 Maggio 1895. The Publisher 

Russell, H. C, b.a., c.m.g., f.r.s.— Recent Measures of Double 

Stars made at Sydney during 1894. The Author 

Sanchez, Alberto— La Cornoide, 1895. 

Scientific African, Vol. I., Nos. 1 and 2, 1895. The Publisher 

Tannert, A. C— Der Sonnenstoff als Zukunftslicht und Kraft- 

quelle, eine physikalische entdeckung, 1896. The Author 

Tebbutt, John, f.r.a.s.— Report of Mr. Tebbutt's Observatory, 

The Peninsula, Windsor, N.S.W., for the year 1895. 
Thomson, J. P., f.r.s.g.s.— The alleged leakage of Artesian Water. 

The physical and mental energy of Man, 1896. 
Tr jmbetta, Johann— Das Klima von Gorz, 1896. 
Waters, Arthur Wm., f.l.s. — On Mediterranean and New Zealand 

Reteporw and a Fenestrate Bryozoa, 1894. „ 

Wragge, Clement, f.r. Met. soc.-Report on the Meteorology of 

Donations to the Society's Cabinets, &c. 

Annales ( 

AMtronomische Nachrichten. 

Annales des Chin 
es des Min« 
s of Natural History. 

' Heal Journal. 

Curtis' 8 Botanical Magazine. 
Dingler's Polytechnisches Journal. 

Journal of Botany. 
Journal of Morphology. 

Journal of the In-t it ui ion of Electrical Engineers. 
Journal or tnr Uovai \-i:itir Society of Great Britain 

r of Chemical Industry. 

Petermann's Geographischen Mittheilungen. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical I 
Sanitary Record. 

Medicine, Vol. cxiii., 1896. 
st and present. {Int. Sci. Set: , Vol. Lxxxvin.) 
Glacialists' Magazine, Vols. I., n.; Vol. in., Nos. 1 - 3. 
International Scientific Series, Vols, lxxviii., lxxix., lxxx. 
Jahresbericht der Technologie, 1895. 

Leprosy, Prize Essays on, by Newman, Ehlers, Imp y. {New Syd. Soc, 
Lubbock, Sir John— On Seedlings. {Int. Sci. Ser., Vol lxxix.) 
Medico-Oiirurgical Society— Transactions, Vol. lxxviii., 1895; Vol. lxxix., 

Obstetrical Society— Transactions, Vol. xxxvn., 
Parry. C. H. H., d.c.l.— The evolution of the ai 

Vol. LXXX.) 
Pathological Society— Transactions, Vol. xlti., 
Science Progress, Vols. i. -iv., 1894 - 96. ' 
Tear Book of Scientific and Learned Societies, 

Coadcliff N0TE - For Section pn line A- B. vide Plate II 

/ HEX Robinson Belt. 

Geological Sketch Map 


Blue Mountains & Coastal Plain 

New South Wales 

Based chiefly on the Geological Map of the 

Rev. W.B.Clarke 

and of that published by The 

Geological Survey. Dep- of Mines 

Scale of Miles 



[ TERTIARY. EOCENE? Basalt and Dole* 

Claystones with casts < 
SILURIAN. Cay ? limestone. The k 


PERMO-CARBONIFEROUS. sandstones of the i 

Dis juncta , Argil lite 



□ J- „ Coal measures of the Newcastle- Bulli Ser/e 

PERMO-CARBONIFEROUS. with Glossoptens Ganeamocteris. Vertebrana 


[^TRIASSIC? *«££& 

I 1 Wianamatta Shales of Hawkesbury Series with fossils 

| TRIASSIC ? r: the addition of numerous dwarf 

:RETACEO-TERTIARY. River Gravels of Lapstone Hill and S f Marys. 

| PLEISTOCENE & RECENT. Alluvial deposits of the Nepean River. 

of NSW. Vol XXX 1896 

Longitudinal Section 


Blue Mountains & Sydney Coalfields 

from Jenolan Caves to Edge of Continental Shelf 

M ! S W 

of N.S.W.Vol.XXX. 1896. 

Comparative Series of Vertical Sections 
Blue Mountain and Sydney Coalfields 

From Lith g ow to Cremorne 

Royal Society of N.S.W. Vol XXX 1896. 

shewing the relation of the fold of the 

Blue Mountains 

to the chief directions of folding at present known in 

Australia * Tasmania 
and New Zealand 

icfmes of the New Zealand folds are reproduced 

sketch by Capt? Hutton. F R.S (Quart. JwrGeolSoc May 1885) 

folds of West Australia from the Handbook of 
Australia by H. P. Woodward. F. G.S 


Journal Jioyal Society of N.S. IF., Vol. XXX., 1896. Plate V. 

The PERiopiaTY of Coop and Bad Seasons. 

sn ftn 7n 

on iQnn 

11 H 

Diacram shewing Cood and Bad Seasons IN NEW SOUTH WALLS FROM 1788 TO 1896 
also Bad Seasons in INDIA 
Maxima and Minima of Sun-Spots 


Journal Royal Society of NSW. Vol XXX 1836 

I A' 

Journal Roya! Society of N.S.W. Vol. XXX. 



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jrnal Royal Sociefy of N.S.W. Vol.XXX. 1896. 

Royal Society of N.S.W. Vol.XXX. 1836. 

Made Ground 

t Bed of Peat 

Sheas Creek Canal . Sydney . N.S.W 

CROSS-SECT/ON shewing where bones of Dugong were discovered 3* befow Low Water 

Longitudinal. ? i '? 

Horizon of Uppermost 
Horizon of Blown Sand, (b) 
Horizon of Upper Bed of Estuarine Shells (c) 
Loamy Clay. Horizon of Second Bed of Peat, (d) 
Dark bluish- grey Estuarine Beds, with Shells 
Horizon of Shell Beds, Shells very abundant , , 
Dark bluish-grey Estuarine Beds with Shells 


f Uppermost Bed of Peat 

(b) Horizon of Blown Sand 

f r ) Horizon of Upper Bed of Estuarine Shells 
n of Second Bed of Peat 

Dark bluish grey Estuarine Beds 
( e ) Horizon of Shell Bed 

Dark bluish grey Estuarine Beds 

Longitudinal Section of Estuarine Beds 

From between 550* and 2700* North East of Rickety Street 
shewing position of Submerged Forest , Remains of Dugong , Stone Tomahawks etc 

i of Uppermost Bed of 





" Made 





Sand \ v is 

■'•■"■■■■'■■ ' 'and 

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(e) She/is very abundant 

CANAL. 10* below Low \ 



Journal Royal Sociery of N.S.W, Vol XXX 1896. 

v*~ _.-.<& 


Royal Society of N.S.W. Vol XXX 

Lower Jaw of Dugong, discovered at Shea's Creek, 
Sydney, showing Cuts made by Aborigines with Stone 

Journal Royal Society of N.S.W. Vol.XXX. 1836. 

Ribs of Dugong, discovered at 
showing Cuts 
made by Aborigines with Stone 

i Natural Size. 

Royal Society of N.S.W, Vol.XXX. 1836. Plate XI* 


Journal Royal Society of N.S. W., Vol. XXX., 1896. 

»'/ Utn,„l S,. ,/. XXX., 1896. I'hilc Mil. 


/ Society, X. S. IVolex. Vol. XXX.. 1896. Plate XIV. 




Jn,,,;,,,/ /«>,,„•„/ Snru-!,!. X. S. W,thx. Vol . XXX.. 1896. Plate XV. 


AV^y/Y^ s ' v 


Journal Royal Society, N. S. Wales, Vol. XXX., 1896. Plate XVI J. 


<al Society, N. S. Wales, Vol. XXX , 1896. 

I Journal Hoija] Society. X S. Wales, Vol. XXX., 1896. Plate XIX. 


' Hoy,,] Sorirh,, X. S. Wales. Vol. XXX., 1896. Plate XX. 


Journal Royal Sociery of N.S.W, Vol.XXX. 1836. Plate XXI 

Journal Royal Sociefy of N.S.W. Vol.XXX. 1836. PlateXXII 

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Jfanmie crystals and. ZifeMsfoyr o," Sacdiaromyces sp. 

Journal Rxiyal Society of N.S.W., Vol 


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By W. H. Warren, wh. sc, m. mst. c.e., m. Am. Soc. c.e., 
Professor of Engineering in the University of Sydney. 

[Delivered to the Engineering Section of the Royal Society of N. S. Wales, 
Ju ne 17, 1896 .-] 

In the first place allow me to thank you for the honour you have 
done me in electing me as your Chairman for this year. As many 
of you know I was one of those who considered that the formation 
of an Engineering Section of the Royal Society was very desirable, 
and in 1891 the first meeting was held under the Chairmanship 
of Mr. C. W. Darley. Since the formation of this Section I have 
always taken a great interest in everything which concerned its 
welfare, as I believe that meeting together as we do to night, in 
order to discuss matters of professional interest, not only advances 
the interest of the profession to which we belong by increasing 
the aggregate amount of useful knowledge, but by establishing 
personal relationships between its members, renders it a much 
more easy and pleasant task to deal with the many practical 
problems which present themselves in the every day work of the 
engineer, besides stimulating us in attempting the more difficult 
problems which await solution in the future. 

One of the considerations which led to the formation of the 
Engineering Section of the Royal Society was the fact that so 
many of its members were also members of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, London. The four gentlemen whom I have the 
honour to succeed to-night as Chairman, the members of the 
Committee, and nearly all the ordinary members of the Section, 
are engineers engaged in the practice of their profession. The 
success of a society such as this, depends mainly upon the individual 
efforts of its members, in bringing under its notice the results of 
their experience, in the form of papers for consideration and 
discussion. I am most anxious to maintain, and as far as possible 

to increase the advantages of these meetings, and I trust that 
you will accord to me the same loyal support which you have 

Since I was last at these meetings an Engineering Society has 
been formed at the University for the graduate and undergraduates 
in Engineering, and as the former are members of this Society 
and have contributed to its proceedings, I have no doubt that the 
University Society will act as a feeder to our membership, just as 
the graduates act as feeders to the ranks of the profession. The 
importance of a sound scientific knowledge as a basis of engineer- 
ing practice, is so universally acknowledged, that there is no 
necessity for me to enlarge upon it to-night. In order to succeed 
as an engineer, it is indispensable that a man should have a 
thorough knowledge of the scientific principles which underlie the 
practice of his profession. It is therefore with great pleasure 
that I am able to say, that the munificent gift of our noble bene- 
factor Mr. P. N. Russell, will enable us to make the future train- 
ing of our engineering graduates exceptionally complete. It was 
my privilege to meet Mr. P. N. Russell when I was last in 
England, and I am particulary gratified in the fact that our 
Engineering School will in the future bear his honoured name, 
which will go down to posterity not merely in connection with the 
wealth which he so generously bestowed, but also as the most 
successful of the pioneer engineers in Australia, and further, as 
one who bestowed his wealth during his life for the benefit of 
the future engineers of this country. During my recent trip, 
I devoted myself to the study of the methods employed and the 
works produced by engineers in America Kngland, and Europe, 
and at the request of my engineering friends, I propose to night 
to briefly lay before you some of the information I have collected. 
I will first direct your attention to the subject of railways. 
The Western Trans-continental Railway crosses the Sierra Nevada 
range of mountains, reaching the summit level 7,017 feet above 
sea-level, at a distance of one hundred and ninety-five miles from 
San Francisco. The ruling gradient on this line is one in forty- 

six, and the sharpest curve is twelve degrees or four hundred and 
seventy-seven feet radius. There are steeper grades and sharper 
curves crossing the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, and the summit 
height is over 10,000 feet above sea-level. At Colorado the rail- 
way up Pikes' Peak, which ascends to a height of about 14,000 
feet above sea-level, is constructed on the Abt system. The 
gradients contain some long stretches of one in four. The loco- 
motive used is of special construction, and there is a double rack, 
laid midway between the ordinary rails, into which gears a spur 
pinion carried on the engine. The speed attained is about five 
miles an hour. At Denver, on the Union Pacific Railway, there 
are some excellent examples of cheap railway construction, some 
of the cross sections consist of an earth road bed, which is used 
without ballast, where earth of a suitable character exists, both 
in cuttings and embankments ; other cross sections show ballast 
consisting of gravel, .•iiidfr. burnt clay or broken stone. The rails 
are of the ordinary American section, and weigh from forty to 
seventy -five pounds per lineal yard, with angle fish-plates at the 
joints; the sleepers consist of pine or red spruce timber, spaced 
generally, about nineteen inches apart, centre to centre, and six- 
teen inches apart at the joints. The formation is always thorougly 
drained, and in the earth road it is arched up forming a convex 
surface, which rapidly discharges the rainfall to the side drains. 
The abundance of cheap timber of suitable quality has resulted in 

but for carrying the railway over depressions in places where we 
should use an ordinary embankment. Such timber viaducts are 
however, looked upon as a temporary expedient, and when the 
timber shows signs of decay they are filled in with earth and 

The American railway in the portion of the country referred 

■1 at a cost much below that of Australian railways, 

vet railway travelling is quite as comfortable, which is due mainly 

to the special design of the locomotive engines and rolling stock. 

The Pullman Cars on passenger trains; and the long covered 

freight cars on goods trains ; cylindrical wheel treads, running 
upon the flat top of the rails, which are not canted as with us J 
the easing of curves of small radius, by introducing a transition 
portion at each end, leading gradually to the straight line ; the 
introduction of vertical curves in the hollows and summits of 
grade lines ; all contribute to the efficiency and economy of the 

In the Eastern States there is a very decided improvement 
both in the character of the railway and in the safety appliances 
used. I doubt if there are any better railways than the New- 
York Central and Hudson River Railway, or the Pennsylvania 
Railway, these companies pay the strictest attention to all those 
matters which affect the efficiency, safety, and economy of railway 
working. In regard to the interlocking of points and signals, I 
do not think we have much to learn from America, indeed I think 
they might introduce with advantage on the western lines, the 
system which has been introduced and perfected by our Railway 
Commissioners here. On the western lines of America there are 
no signals, excepting starting, and at points, and excepting at 
grade crossing, there is no interlocking whatever. In the eastern 
States on the other hand, the interlocking system has come into 
use and is being gradually extended. At the large terminal 
station of St. Louis, known as the Union Depot, I saw a very 
fine example of the electro-pneumatic interlocking system which 
deals with the starting and arrival of trains of twenty-two railway 
companies. This is an elegant arrangement, but it is not a block 
system. There are some fine examples of terminal stations in the 
larger cities, such as St. Louis, Philadelphia, and New York, with 
large arched roofs, the platforms are however, only a few inches 
above rail level. The absence of raised platforms, and station 
buildings at intermediate stations, and at smaller towns is charac- 
teristic, but here the economy appears to have been carried too far. 
In regard to Locomotive Engines we have had considerable 
experience in this country, but it would be doing the Americans 

engines as a fair sample of their practice. There is no doubt 
whatever, that the American locomotive, both in design and 
construction is well suited for the service it is required to 
perform. In America freight trains consisting of from fifty to 
seventy covered cars of from thirty to thirty-five feet long are 
hauled by two or more locomotives, generally of the consolidation 
class, consisting of four coupled axles and a single bogie truck, 
whereas in England, shorter trains of small open trucks, some- 
times covered with tarpaulins, are hauled by a single engine. The 
difference in practice is due to the different conditions existing, 
one of which is the longer haulages necessary in America on a 
single line. I consider that the statement often made that the 
American engine hauls more than the English type is founded on 
a misconception, as by the universal use of bogie rolling stock in 
America a much smaller resistance is offered to the tractive torce 
exerted by the engine, and experience in this country with English 
built engines compares favorably with American in haulage, and 
in fuel economy. I was much impressed with the statements 
made by many railway engineers in regard to the compound 
locomotive ; the general impression being that it is the coming 
engine for heavy freight traffic. This subject is now receiving 
considerable attention both in America and Europe, and the 
experiments of Professors Storm, Bull, and Goss, the Baldwin and 
the Brooks Locomotive Company, all go to prove that where the 
work to be done is approximately constant, there is a decided 
economy in the compound locomotive. 

The Pennsylvania Company have built at Altona four distinc t 
types of the compound locomotives for experimental purposes 
and I hope to receive shortly the results which ought to demon- 
strate the saving or otherwise due to the compound principle. 
Messrs. Beyer and Peacock of Manchester have built a few com- 
pound locomotives for our railways, according to designs prepared 
by the Chief Mechanical Engineer, Mr. Thow. These engines are 
of the type known as the Von Borris or Worsdale, which appears 
to be most in favour also with the American engineers. 

The ratio of high pressure to low pressure cylinder area is as 
1 is to 2 2, whereas in the continuous expansion engine with 
four cylinders of the Vauclain type, and in many of the French 
engines, the ratio is as 1 is to 3. Some locomotive engineers still 
consider that the economy saved in fuel does not more than com- 
pensate for the additional complication and higher boiler pressure. 
In regard to permanent way, the standard practice now consists 
of eighty feet lengths of rail with lon<? angle fish plates at joints, 
and six holts. Some of the rails weigh 100 lbs. per lineal yard on 
this railway. The formation is carefully graded and drained, and 
is six inches higher in the centre than at the sides, there is from 
twelve to eighteen inches of ballast under the sleepers, the bottom 
ballast consisting of broken stone of larger size than in the top 
ballast. The high speeds attained on this railway and the freedom 
from shocks and vibrations is due to the high character of the 
road, and the excellence of the locomotives and cars. The 
chemical composition of the steel used for the rails is for the 80 B>s. 
rail as follows : — 

Carbon from -55 to -6 

Silicon from -15 to -25 

Manganese ... from -8 to 1 

Sulphur not to exceed ... 069 

Phosphorus not to exceed ... -060 

The lighter weights have less, and the heavier weights more carbon 

than given in the above figures. 

The drop test consists of a weight of 2,000 lbs. falling twenty 
feet and striking the rail which is supported on bearings three 
feet apart. Should fracture occur the portion in t 
show a minimum elongation of 5% or the lot of rails wil 


The Amei 

prefer axles both for engir 

made of Lowmoor iron in preference to steel, but in this matter 
they differ from English and European engineers, and I think 
their practice is in error. They use chilled cast iron wheels for 
cars, and pay special attention to the material used and mode of 

In locomotive boilers they almost, without exception, punch 
and rime the rivet holes in steel plates, and never drill unless 
specially asked for. In the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, I 
saw some large marine boilers in course of construction, but here 
the holes were drilled in position with horizontal drilling machines 
of special design. In the works of Messrs. Dubs & Co. of Glasgow 
I saw an excellent machine for drilling holes in boilers in which 
the drills are arranged normally to the shell of the boiler, and 
produce most perfect work. At Beyer and Peacock's works I saw 
a good drilling machine for boiler work which travelled horizontally 
along the flat plate, before it was bent into shape. 

The out put of steel rails at the Edgar Thompson Works at 
Pittsburg probably exceeds that of any rail works in the world. 
At the Homestead Works the armour plate machinery can handle 
a fifty ton plate of nickel steel which is forged under a 10,000 
tons forging press. Electric cranes transfer the armour plates 
from the furnaces to the press. Electric trolly cars convey steel 
blooms from a roller conveying-table in front of a train of rolls, to 
an electric charging machine in front of a re-heating furnace. 
The trolly car is provided with a motor and controller, and a man 
operates the charging machine while riding on it by means of 
electric switches, the same man telegraphs to the trolly car all 
the motions for it to perform, which are accomplished apparently 
without human agency. The laboratory in these works contains 
in addition to the ordinary testing appliances a special apparatus 
for investigating the microscopical structure of steel. In Professor 
Martin's laboratory at Berlin I also saw an apparatus of this 
description. In the Bethlehem Steel works the hydraulic forging 

rom the largest sot of engines in the world. In Bethlehem and 

on the annour plat-s, and also saw similar apparatus at Messrs. 
Vickers' works, Sheffield, and at Herr Krupp's, Kss.'ii. The two 
latter works undoubtedly produce the best railway tyres and 
axles, which is Wwlv iW tn fchfi wire exercised in the first instance 

in using nothing but the purest materials available, to the method 
of casting the ingots with a head which is cut off, and the special 
machinery used to finish the axle or tyre which ensures that the 
material is practically homogeneous throughout. 

Herr Friedrich Krupp uses nickel steel for propellor shafts and 
sometimes for crank axles which has a tensile strength and tough- 
ness far above the ordinary Siemens-Martin steel. The Krupp 
Works employs 29,000 men. The large steel castings produced 
at these works are extraordinary, and they have no rival in this 
department. The Dorman Long Works in Middlesborough are 
famous for their rolled girders, which are made of Siemens-Martm 
steel. Cochranes Works are noted for the excellence of their pipe 
castings. I visited the Hunt System of coal handling by 
niiichin'-ry, for uulo;i.<lin^ vessels and conveying the coal by means 
of automatic railways to the coal pockets, where it is stored at a 
-cost of about ft that of the ordinary methods using hand labour. 
Bridge Work. 
The Americans have distinguished themselves in developing a 
distinct type of bridge building, and generally their constructive 
work in connection with high buildings is worthy of careful con- 
sideration. The skill which they undoubtedly possess in this class 
of work has been developed in consequence of the existence o 
large rivers necessitating large bridges. In this country we na 
the Hawkesbury Bridge as an example of American design for 
railway bridges, and at Nowra there is an example of a road 
bridge. As illustrating the present practice of bridge building 
in America, I cannot do better than describe a few of the more 
recent bridges built or in course of construction. 

The new bridge over the Allegheny River which connects 
Pittsburg and Allegheny by the main thoroughfare known as 
Sixth Street, was designed by Mr. Theodore Cooper, who is well 
known to bridge engineers as the author of the concentrated load 
system for the determination of the maximum stresses in railway 
bridges, and also for his complete specifications to govern the 
design of road and railway bridges. The contract for the masonry 

was given to the Drake and Stratton Company, and for the super- 
structure to the Union Bridge Company. The two main spans of 
this bridge are 439' 3" measured between the centres of the end 
pins, it is of the bowstring type 79' deep in the centre and spaced 
44' 6" apart centre to centre. The panel lengths are each 29' 3". 
The floor is designed to carry a live load of 100 lbs. per square 
foot, or thirty tons on two pairs of wheels 10' apart. The main 
trusses are proportioned for a moving load of 80 Its. per square 
foot of floor surface, 40 lbs. per square foot of side walk, and 1 30 fife. 
per square foot of roadway. The lateral and sway bracing is pro- 
portioned for 250 lbs. per lineal foot of span. The range of tem- 
perature allowed for is ± 75° F., and the maximum stresses in 
the various members are in accordance with the allowed stresses 
given in Mr. Cooper's specification of highway bridges. The 
masonry of the piers consist of rock-ranged work with rubble 
backing. In this bridge there was no attempt to go down to rock 
fitlipr by excavation or driving piles, as it was about sixty feet 
below the bed of the river, but it was necessary to found the piers 
below the reach of scour, on the firm gravel bed which exists for 
many feet in depth, and which was considered sufficient for sustain- 
ing the weight of the piers without piling. An open cofferdam 
was used built on the timber grillage, which forms the footing 
courses of the pier, and the bottom was simply dredged out. 

In New York I inspected a large number of bridges in course 

of construction and completed, in company with Professor W. H. 

Burr and Mr. Hutton, and inspected many drawings in the New 

York Central and Hudson River Railway Company's office with 

• W. Katte. I also had a number of interviews with Mr. 

i of the elevated railroad, and the construc- 
tion of a large bridge having two fixed and one draw span over 
the Harlem River at New York. The draw span is 389' long, 
measured between the centres of the end connections, and is 
formed with three main trusses arranged to carry four railway 
tracks, the depth of these trusses is 64' over the central pier, 
about which they revolve ; the opening and closing of the hridge 
being operated by steam power. The side trusses are designed 
for a dead load of 2,340 lbs. per lineal foot, and the centre truss 
for a load of 4,520 ft>s. per lineal foot. The live load provided for 
is 3,000 lbs. per lineal foot per track, with an engine excess of 
8,000 fts. per foot on forty feet. The arrangements for distributing 
the load over the circular steel drum, which is supported on a 
double ring of live rollers, is worthy of notice, and is effected by 
means of a complete system of distributing girders. The fender 
for protecting the pivot pier is constructed of timber and thoroughly 
cross-braced, the space inside being filled with loose stone, it is 
503' long and 63' wide. The two fixed spans present the usual 
characteristic features of American practice in trusses. 

The elevated railroad forming the approaches to this bridge 
consists of spans of 65' 2\" and are formed with three plate web 
girders 7' 2" deep, carrying four tracks. There is a continuous 
floor over these bridges and approaches, formed with steel trough- 
ing 18" deep built of steel plates and angles - X V thick. The plate 
web girders on the sides have a top and bottom flange section in 
the centre consisting of two plates 20" x f " and angles 8" x 6" x f"; 
in the central girders there are three flange plates 24" x f" with 
similar angles. The web plates are f" and -,V thick at the ends 
respectively. The web is united to the flanges by a double row of 
rivets through the angles, and the stiffeners and splice joints, are 
made with a much larger rivet area than is usual in British 
practice. The steel columns which support the ends of the plate 
web girders, are built up of angles and plates arranged with a 
trough section, and stand on broad bases. 

I am indebted to Prof. W. H. Burr, for the complete set of 
drawings exhibited of one of his draw bridges, which is built over 
the Harlem River Ship Canal, and provides two clear openings 
of 104' each ; also, to Mr. Theodore Cooper for the view of the 
drawbridge designed by him for the Suburban Rapid Transit 
Company over the Harlem River. I have described and discussed 
these bridges mainly for the benefit of the Roads and Bridges 
Department and others who may have to design draw bridges, 
because I consider that in this direction there is much to be learnt 
from America, and our own practice may be very greatly improved. 
I saw nothing in England or Europe to compare with the bridges 
mentioned, and the more recent bridges such as those over the 
Manchester Ship Canal are decidedly inferior. 

There is a great bridge under discussion at the present time in 
New York which is proposed for crossing the Hudson River 
between Fifty-ninth and Sixtieth Street. The total distance to 
be bridged is 3,200' and two designs have been submitted by Mr. 
Charles McDonald which possess considerable merit, viz., a canti- 
lever bridge with a central span of 202' and a suspension bridge 
of 311' span. Each of the main piers of the cantilever bridge 
which are two in number, are built of steel, having four main 
members rising in parabolic curves from its bases, each of which 
form a square in plan measuring 200' on each side, up to another 
square of 80' side. The bases at each of the four corners rest on 
cones, which are carried by four steel tubes, each 80' in diameter, 
sunk in the bed of the river to a depth of 210' below high water 
and tilled with concrete. The section of the tubes forming the 
Piers is of box section 15' square, the height of the pier is 536' 
above high water and the top of the supporting cone is 30' above 
high water. From the piers the main span starts, and in three 
equal bays covers a space of 2,300' between centres of towers. 
The headway is 150' above high water. The floor of the bridge 
is curved to a parabolic form in a horizontal plane, and is HO' 
wide at piers, and 80' in the centre. The upper tension members 
are parallel throughout. The central truss carried by the cant*. 

levers is 720' long and 160' deep. The trusses spanning the shore 
intervals, each of 910' in length, are not heavy enough to balance 
the weight of the centre span, and the four abutment cylinders 
are hollow ; the end of the shore trusses are to rest on rollers or 
some equivalent on the tops of these piers, and are to be held 
down by pig iron weights suspended from their ends and hanging 
within these piers, and representing an aggregate weight of about 
14,000 tons. The floor of the bridge will accomodate six railway 

The suspension bridge proposed consists of steel towers 557' in 
height, resting upon foundations of solid masonry extending to a 
depth of 125' below high water. The bridge will be 125' wide, 
and will be suspended from twelve steel cables, with a clear head- 
way for ship traffic of 150'. The cost of this bridge is guaranteed 
by the Union Bridge Company not to exceed £5,000,000. Mr. 
Theodore Cooper is the consulting engineer for this enormous 
structure and there are several points in his specification which 
are worthy of notice :— " The bridge will have six standard rail- 
way tracks upon one level. The general type of the proposed 
bridge will be a steel wire suspension bridge, stiffened for moving 
loads by longitudinal girders extending from tower to tower. The 
main span only, or that portion between the towers will be carried 
by the cables. The side spans or that portion between the towers 
and anchorages will be carried upon viaducts independent of the 
cables. The towers will be steel skeleton structures, commencing 
at an elevation about fifty feet above high water, where the 
masonry piers end. All the connections must be rivetted, and all 
the bracing must be rigid. The stiffening truss will be rivetted 
lattice girders, with multiple systems of diagonal web bracing. 
They may be c 

maae with a central hinge at the option of the contractor. J-"* 
dead load will consist of the weight of metal in the structure, and 
the weight of rails, ties, guards, footwalks etc., above the longi- 
tudinal track girders shall be taken as 400 lbs. per lineal foot per 
track. The live load shall consist of trains weighing 3,000 B* 

per foot run per track, covering all tracks from tower to tower at 
rest or moving slowly. Trains 1,000' long weighing 3,000 lbs. per 
track, at high speed enter all in one direction or in different 
directions, three on the north tracks and three on the south. 

For wind stresses, the structure is supposed to be covered with 
trains of cars, and acted upon with 25 lbs. per square foot of sur- 
face ; or a wind pressure of 100 lbs. per square foot of bridge for 
a length of 300' only. The allowed stresses are as follows :— 
Cables in tension, 54,000 lbs. per square inch on the wires in the 
cables ; suspenders, 30,000 lbs. per square inch in the wires ; cross 
stays, 60,000 lbs. per square inch in the wires; anchor bars, 
20,000 lbs. per square inch. Stiffening trusses— The chords of the 
stiffening trusses when subject to tension only, shall not be strained 
above 18,000 lbs. per square inch of net section for live loads or 
22,500 lbs. by the combined action of live loads, temperature, and 
wind. Mr. Cooper gives special formulae for the allowed stresses 
in other parts similar to those given in his standard specifications 
tor steel bridges, also a formula? for members subject to reversal 
of stresses by live loads. 

Mr. L. L. Buck has in hand three very large bridges, and has 
completed the designs and commenced to build an arch bridge of 
8 40' span, with a central rise of 150', giving a headway in the 
centre of 170'. This magnificent structure is now in course of 
erection across the Niagra Gorge, for the Niagra Falls and Clifton 
Suspension Bridge Company. The arch ribs are 26' deep atid are 
spaced 68' 7" apart at the springing, narrowing to 30' in the centre. 
Mr. L. L. Buck has designed another arch bridge to replace the 
existing railroad suspension bridge at Niagra, and he is chief 
engineer for building the new East River bridge between New 
York and Brooklyn. 

I met Sir J. Fowler and Sir B. Baker in England, and visited 
the great Forth Bridge. I also had several interviews with Sir 
W. Arrol, the contractor of the Forth, Tay, and Tower bridges. 

In regard to bridge manufacture, the Pencoyd and Athens 
Bridge Works are well equipped with special machinery for 

hydraulic forging of eyebars, boring holes for pins in bridge 
members ; large milling machines with circular heads, provided 
with a number of cutters arranged circumferentially. These 
milling machines are used for facing the ends of long struts, and 
compression chord members producing parallel planes. There are 
special machines for milling the ends of angles and tees for 
stiffeners so that they fit into the rounds of the main angles. 
Electric and other cranes are so disposed that they can handle 
rapidly the material used; or the partly finished member, and 
transfer it to the various machines. In the American works they 
generally punch the holes for rivet work, but when these are 
drilled, radial drilling machines are preferred to multiple drilling 

Athens Works with an automatic feed. In Sir Win. Arrol's 
Works, Glasgow, the general practice is to drill all holes, except- 
ing in cylinder piers, and they use radial drilling machines for 
this work, but there are in these works some special drilling 
machines of a most interesting character, which were specially 
made for dealing with the Forth bridge work. In the Harkort 
Works, Germany, they punch or drill the holes for bridge work 

In San Francisco I saw a very extensive pile and concrete 
oundation in course of construction for the Union Depot Ferry 
louse, forming the approach to ferry slips on the water front. 
Phis piece of concrete, pile and grillage work is probably the 
argest in the world of its kind, and involved the use of 30,000 
:ubic yards of concrete, in which 36,000 barrels of cement were 
ised ; 3,000 old piles were removed and 5,000 new ones substituted. 
Hie piles were of Oregon timber 80' long, and when these were 
Inven to the proper depth, by means of a steam hammer, tb«# 
vere .ill -cut off to the necessary level for the grillage upon which 
he concrete piers were built. A circular saw was used for cutting 
>ff the tops of the piles about 8' below low water. The s.iw 
worked in a horizontal plane, and was carried by a frame which 
swung on a vertical axis ; the arc of the circle described by the 

centre of the saw was 9' radius. The concrete was deposited in 
caissons, the bottom of which formed the permanent grillage, the 
sides were removed after the concrete was set and used over again. 
The concrete was composed of one barrel of cement to six cubic 
feet of sand and twenty-four cubic feet of broken stone. 

An interesting case of cheap dredging occurs at Liverpool, 
which has been undertaken by Mr. A. G. Lyster to improve the 
entrance to the river Mersey, so that vessels coming from America 
may not be delayed in consequence of the insufficient depth of 
water over the bar. Formerly vessels could only enter during the 
period of about two and a half hours, about high water. The 
dredge used for this purpose is of exceptional dimensions, being 
320' long by 46' beam, and having a draught when fully loaded 
with 3,000 tons of sand of 16|'. The suction pipes which are two 
in number, are placed in the forward part of the ship, and the 
suction pipe which is 45' in diameter is trailed aft through a well 
on the centre line of the ship. At its upper end it is fitted with 
a trunnion joint at the point where it branches off to the sand 
pumps, and below that again with a universal joint, The pipe is 
long enough to enable the vessel to dredge to a depth of 47' 
measured from the surface of the water to the surface of the sand. 
The hoppers for the reception of the sand are eight in number, 
placed on each side of 'the well referred to. Instead of the usual 
hopper doors for the discharge of the sand, a 4' hole is constructed 
at the bottom of each hopper, which is covered by a cylindrical 
valve extending to the top of the hopper, where its diameter is 
somewhat greater than at the lower end. The valve, winch is 
cased in at the upper and lower ends, is connected by a sliding 
Pipe with the discharge from the circulating pumps, and when 
lifted, which is done by a hydraulic ram and cylinder, the water 
is turned on and is discharged through holes on the lower periphe 
of the valve, thus breaking up the s 
ihe hole in the hopper. By t 

ring it out tl.r 
I of sand t 

discharged in ten minutes. The sand pumps can dredge about 
400 tons an hour, and the cost of dredging is 089d. pertonrepre- 

senting from 1| to If cubic yards. The cost included the removal 
of the deposit a distance of three miles to the dumping ground. 

In Glasgow I saw the various dock works in course of construc- 
tion by the Clyde Navigation Trust. The foundations upon 
which the dock walls are built, consist of concrete cylinders which 
are arranged in three rows. The rings are made each 2' 5|" deep 
and are 1' 11" thick with an internal core of 5' 9V diameter. The 
rings are moulded separately in wooden moulds, and the cylinders 
are made to break bond, and are dovetailed into each other. The 
cylinders are sunk by loading with cast iron rings, and excavated 
from the inside by means of grab-diggers. A casting with a 
cutting edge is bolted to the bottom course to facilitate sinking. 
After the cylinders have been sunk to a proper foundation, the 
core is filled with concrete and the dock wall is built up of con- 
crete rubble, many of the stones used weighing from two to three 
tons each. The fall is faced with concrete ashlar in courses 18" 
to 15" thick with a granite coping. A single row of triple 
cylinders makes a wall of 16' 3|" wide. I am indebted to the 
chief engineer Mr. James Deas for the following particulars of 
the cost of this work :— Excavating high ground and depositing 
in water space, 7d. per cubic yard. Excavating in sinking 
cylinders and depositing in water space Is. per cubic yard. 
Filling in cylinders with concrete eight to one in lower part and 
nine to one in upper part 1 Os. 8d. per cubic yard. Moulded con- 
crete ashlar blocks including facing with granulite, and setting 
in work lid. per cubic foot. Concrete rubble backing 10s. per 
cubic yard. Dredging out water space and depositing by hopper 
barges in Loch Losy, 6d. per cubic yard. 

In Glasgow, Sir Wm. Arrol was good enough to show me the 
various works in progress in connection with the underground 
railway and subway, which involves a very entensive system of 
underpinning the foundations of the houses on each side of the 
street, under which the railway has been constructed and getting 
in the side walls and girders without interfering with the 
ordinary street traffic. I also saw the rebuilding of one of the 

Telford Bridges over the Clyde in which the cylinder piers were 
being sunk on the pneumatic process with an air-lock. The 
Blackwall Tunnel is a fine example of compressed air work which 
is now being employed in a similar work at New York, consisting 
of a tunnel under the Hudson River. 

Economical Generation, Transmission, and Utilization of 
Electricity for Power Purposes. 

I propose to describe to you, briefly, a few of the most 
important developments in this branch of Engineering. In 
America, more especially, I was much impressed with the 
extensive use made of electricity, for working street railways, 
' for machinery in workshops usually driven by steam power, 
and also for working cranes, hoisting and pumping machinery. 
With some exceptions, a few of which I will consider presently, 
the energy for producing the electricity is derived from burning 
coal and generating steam by means of boilers and engines driving 
fch-ctrical generators. 

The chief use of electricity in connection with the development 
and transmission of power is at present best seen in the Elec- 
trical Railways of America, England and Europe, and these are 
nowhere better illustrated than in America, where almost every 
town is provided with an electric tramway running through its 
principal streets, and extending for many miles to the suburbs. 
The economy and convenience of this system is most satisfactory, 
and the benefits conferred upon the community in providing a 
cheap and elegant means of transportation can hardly be realized 
by those unacquainted with the system. 

To give some idea of the extent of the Electric System in 
America, it was stated by the Street Railway Journal in October 
last, in connection with the Street Railway Convention at 
Montreal, at which I was present—" That 14,000 miles of Electric 
Railways were earning one third as much in net dividends as 
-34,000 miles of Kail way." This ivmarkaMe statement means 

t earnings per i 

tl„- Ki. 

was more than nve times as great as on the railways worsea dv 

San Francisco, which was one of the first cities to adopt Cable 
Tramways, is now provided with a considerable mileage of 
Electrical Street Railways. During the last year seventy miles 
of horse tramways have been converted to the electric system. 
San Francisco is preeminently a city of heavy grades, but these 
have been successfully dealt with on the Electric Railways, grades 
of one in twelve to one in eighteen being taken in the ordinary 
way with powerful motors on the cars, while a few short grades 
of one in four are dealt with on the balance weight system. 

In Chicago, the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Electric 
Railway was opened last year, and the result was so satisfactory 
that the other elevated railway companies have decided to adopt 
electricity in place of the present steam locomotives. Chicago is 
well provided with street railways, but enormous extensions are 
contemplated on the electric system. 

In New York, the elevated railways worked by steam, and the 
splendid cable tramway down the principal thoroughfare known 
as Broadway, deal with a considerable portion of the traffic in the 
direction of what may be called the length of the city, but the 
streets which run across are worked by horse and electric cars. 
It is proposed to dispense with the horse, in favor of electric cars, 
and to greatly extend the electric system in the city and suburbs. 

In Boston, and in other large American cities, electricity bids 
fair to supersede every other mode of transport for street and 
suburban traffic. 

Power Slations.~In some cases the engine is connected to the 
generator by means of a flexible spring coupling. The power 
houses of America contain some of the finest steam engine plants 
in the world. The most usual type of generator for street 
railway purposes is the direct current multipolar machine, which 
delivers a current at a pressure of about 500 volts. And when 
these are driven directly from the crank shaft of the engine the 

speed is from seventy to one hundred revolutions per minute, but 
where the generator is driven by belting a much higher speed 
is usually adopted. 

A reduction in speed must imply a reduction in weight if the 
same output and degree of general merit are to be obtained, and 
an increase in the first loss ; but this is compensated for by the 
losses of energy due to belting, the trouble saved in bearings, cost 
of maintenance, and other object iona) Feature! luniliarly associated 
with belt driven generators. Each system has its advocates, but 
the direct driven generators appear to be in more general favor. 

As an example of belt driven generators, one of the most 
modern plants occurs in the Power Station of the Hartford Street 
Railway, Conn. Here the engines are six in number, of the Ball 
and Wood type, working at a high speed and developing 300 HP. 
Each engine is connected by belting to a generator of 220 K.W. 
capacity ; the distance from the centre of the fly-wheel to that of 
the generator pulley being twenty-five feet. The advantage of a 
targe number of units is claimed to be, that with the varying 
loads existing in electric railway service, those engines which are 
J n use can be operated at full load, and consequently at their 
greatest point of economy. 

As an example of slow speed engines directly connected to 
generators of large capacity, we may take the Delaware Avenue 
Power Station of the People's Traction Company, Philadelphia. 
There are at present three engines, each of 2,000 H.P. of the 
twin compound tandem Corliss type, manufactured by Edward 
P. Allis Co., and the speed is sixty-seven revolutions per minute. 

The generators are 1,500 K.W. capacity made by the General 
Electric Company, and the armatures are keyed to the crank shafts 
°* the engine. An advantage claimed for this system, which 
consists in reducing the number of units and increasing their size, 
is that there are fewer units and fewer parts to look after, and 
consequently there is a reduction in the cost of maintenance— 
again the economy in using large engines of the Corliss type is 
1 and appreciated. 

The advantages of concentrating all the power required tor a 
large city in a central power station employing large units was 
forcibly impressed upon me during my inspection of the most 
important power stations in America and Europe, as the primary 
object is the production of electrical energy at a minimum cost, 
having regard to interest on capital expended as well as 
maintenance. It should however, be borne in mind that where 
there are several long lines to be operated, the cost of copper in 
the conductors would be prohibitive if direct currents were used 
at a pressure of 500 volts. In such cases, the multiphase system 
of transmission, by means of alternating currents should be 
adopted, by means of which a sub-station may be operated 
economically twenty miles from the main generators in the power 
s tation. Examples of this will be given presently. 

The transmission of the electric energy from the power station 
to the cars will now be considered. The system which is at present 
almost universally adopted is known as the Overhead Wire or 
Trolly System, which consists of poles on the sides or centre of 
the streets, the projecting brackets carrying the overhead or 
trolly wire over the centre of the track. The; cables which 
convey the currents to the trolly wires may be laid [underground, 
on the side poles, or on each side of the centre of the central poles. 
These are generally much more unsightly than they need be in 
America, but in Philadelphia and Buffalo, although 


Havre, Berlin, Brussels, Zurich, and in several other cities I visited. 

The trolly wire is usually divided into sections, with a separate 
feeder to each to avoid inconvenience, as in the event of anything 
going wrong in a particular section the rest will be unaffected. 
The return current is conveyed by the rails, which must be suitably 
connected at the joints, or better, by means of an armoured 
copper wire between the rails and connected with them at 

The Conduit System was proposed in order to avoid the 
unsightliness and obstruction caused by the Trolly system. It i 8 

necessarily much more expensive than the Trolly system, as a 
subway or conduit has to be constructed, in which the conductors 
are placed. The conduit system in various forms has been tried 
with more or less success, among which may be mentioned Bently- 
Knight, Love-Connett, Wheless and the Buda Pesth. The system 
is open to the objection that dirt, snow, and water get down the 
conduit through the slot, and afford facilities for leakage from 
the conductor, but this does not apply to the closed conduit 
system such as that put down experimentally at Lyons and 

The most promising conduit system is that which I saw working 
most successfully in Lennox Avenue, New York. The quiet and 
smooth running of the cars is most satisfactory. The conduit 
contains the conductors spaced six inches apart, and the difference 
m pressure in the two circuits is 350 volts. A plough connected 
with the motors on the car is pressed by means of a spring 
connection against the conductors, gathering current from the 
one and returning it to the other. No current passes through the 
rails or wheels. The conductors which are insulated by means of 
porcelain insulators consist of double channel iron bars four 
inches deep. 

Another system which I saw working successfully in Washing- 
ton, consisted of underground wires connected at intervals of about 
six feet with two rows of metallic disks. The cars carried scrapers 
whichrubbedagainstthedisksasthecarpassed over them. Switches 
are arranged in the conduit and a storage battery in the car, the 
°nly function of which is to magnetize the moving scrapers on the 
car, so that they always touch the disks, and thus actuating the 
switches they enable the motors in the car to derive their supply 
from the feeders in the conduit. The current is thus supplied 
through the disks and scrapers at intervals of about six feet. 
The system so far is experimental, but I saw it working well in 
Washington, and it may be considerably extended. 

I saw two other systems; one at the General Electrical 
Company's works in Schemcktardy, and another at Siemens- 

Holske works in Berlin, very similar to the last described, but 
still in the experimental stage. It is clear, therefore, that there 
is a general effort being made to find something better than the 
overhead wire and more in accordance with our notions of 
a permanent system, providing ample security against injury, 
but this cannot be done without increasing considerably the cost 
of electrical transmission. 

Motors.- — An electric motor for street railway service differs 
from an ordinary electric motor for driving shafting, in that the 
power to be overcome is very variable. The large torque, or 
starting power, is the characteristic feature of the street railway 
motor, and it has been found that the average work is about 
20% of the maximum which occurs at starting. The electric motor 
has no dead centres like the steam engine, and can start equally 
well in all positions of the revolution. 

Eh t ators must be light and strong, must be completely 

protected from dirt and water; they should be capable of 
developing an emergency 100/ more than their rated capacity 
without undue heating. All parts should be accessible and easily 
taken apart, and renewed or repaired when necessary. .Motors 
are general series wound. The pole pieces are steel castings of a 
specially soft quality of metal, and in order to prevent losses from 
hysteresis, eddy currents, and friction, as well as to produce the 
large torque, a large number of windings of wire in the armature 
are necessary. A spur pinion on the motor drives a spur wheel 
on the axle, the reduction in speed is about one-fourth, and these 
are made with the greatest accuracy, by means of automatic 
wheel-cutting machinery. The armature is built up of a core 
consisting of thin soft iron disks, and these are punched out all 
round their circumference into notches, which form the slots for 
receiving the coils or winding, after the disks have been threaded 
upon the axle or shaft of the armature, and compressed by 
hydraulic machinery. The coils are made up separately, being 
wound into form, carefully bound with several layers of insulating 
material and treated with insulating compound. The completed 

armature revolves within one tenth of an inch of the poles of the 

Controller— To apply the current from the line wire to the 
motor, so that the car may be stopped, started, reversed, and for 
regulating the speed, it is first passed through a special form of 
compound switch called a controller, which consists of a cylinder 
with metallic strips or contact pieces fixed as arcs upon its 
surface. The necessary connections are thus made as the cylinder 
is revolved by means of a handle which corresponds to both 
regulator and notching up lever in the locomotive engine. 

If the full pressure of 500 volts were suddenly applied to the 
motors in a car, the cars would start so suddenly that the passengers 
would be injured, so that it is necessary to temper the pressure at 
starting, and apply to each motor less than half the total voltage, 
gi';idiially increasing the pressure and thereby the speed of the car, 
until the maximum is reached. 

The General Electrical Company recommend their Scries 
Parallel Controller in preference to the rheostatic method of 
control, and in order to start the car the motors are first connected 
m " series," i.e.. the circuit passes first through one motor and then 
the other without division. By this means (together with a very 
slight resistance which is instantly cut out) the proper starting 

same current that starts one flows through the other. After the 
car is started the voltage applied to each motor is increased by 
gradually throwing the motors into " parallel," i.e., the circuit is 
divided, one branch passing through each motor. At full speed 

The changes from series to parallel necessitate the breaking of 
heavy currents at a high potential in a limited space, and the 
sparks or arcs produced would destroy the contact plates, fingers, 
cylinder, and all parts in the vicinity of the break ; but the 

fancier is embraced by a powerful ma 
sparks immediately they tend to form. 

which blow-; < 


Switches are arranged at the foot of the controlling cylinder so 
that either motor may be thrown out of the circuit, the throwing 
of either switch sets a stop automatically preventing the turning 
of the cylinder beyond the proper limit. The setting of the 
reversing handle indicates which way the car will move, but this 
cannot be moved until the power cylinder is thrown off, so that 
the car cannot be reversed at full speed. A dial on the cap plate 
indicates at what point the connections of the cylinder are set. 

Brakes.-— Electric cars should be provided with an efficient 
brake for stopping them quickly whenever necessary. 

While attending the Street Railway Convention at Montreal, 
I had an opportunity of studying what appeared to be a most 
efficient form of electric brake, which is used in conjunction with 
the Series Parallel Controller just described, it is operated by 
throwing the controller handle into the breaking position, which 
converts the motors into special dynamos for generating current 
at very low speeds, cuts off all connection with the trolly current 
and applies the brakes. The rheostats and contacts employed 
to control the motors while running the car, are also employed 
to control the current generated by the motors, which is needed 
to apply the brake. The power required therefore to perforin the 
work of stopping the car is taken from the energy of the moving 
car itself, which it is the function of the brake to destroy. Not 
only is the car thus retarded, but the electric brakes arrest the 
motion of the wheels direct, with a force which is remarkably 
powerful and under perfect control of the motor man. 

Another very satisfactory brake is that made by the Standard 
Air Brake Company, which is of the compressed air non-automatic 
type, and it is used by the Railway Commission here in Sydney 

to the cost of working Electrical Tram 
Dable Tramways : — 

cable tramway for very heavy traffic 
ately straight line, is at present i 

electric tramway, but generally speaking the electric is more 

excellent cable as well as an 
mile was fivepence with the 
i, as against eightpence with the electric, but the receipts 
were tenpence with the cable against seventeenpence with the 
electric. Hence the profits derived from electric traction are 
much greater in Chicago than with cable traction. 

In Sydney if the work of converting our present system of 
tramways is done as well as we have a right to expect it to be, 
we shall have no reason to regret the change financially. In 
every other respect the result is likely to be beneficial, and I wish 
the Railway Commissioners every success in their endeavours to 
provide a complete system of electric tramways which will meet the 
"wants of Sydney. 

-Electric Locomotives. — The largest electric locomotive yet con- 
structed in America is that which is used for working the 
Baltimore Belt Line, which consists largely of tunnels. Electricity 
was adopted in this case to avoid fouling the tunnels with smoke 
and burnt gases. This involved the construction of three ninety- 
five ton locomotives, each capable of hauling a five hundred ton 
passenger train at thirty miles an hour or a 1,200 ton freight 
train at fifteen miles an hour on a gradient of one in one hundred 
and twenty-five. The locomotives are now in actual service, and 
are working in a satisfactory manner ; they will exert a draw-bar 
pull of 42,000 pounds continuously, or 60,000 pounds at starting, 
and they are said to be capable of developing 1,400 H.P. 

I saw the large electric locomotive constructed by the Westing- 
house and Baldwin Locomotive Company standing in the Baldwin 
Works, Philadelphia, and during my visit to the General Electrical 
Company's Works at Schenecktady, I saw a still more powerful 
locomotive in course of construction, with larger driving wheels 
> far however, it appears that while electric 


may be used with 


suburban railways, it is not likely to supersede the steam 
locomotive for ordinary railway traffic on long distances. 

I have no time to consider the method of traction by means of 
storage batteries carried by the car itself, but so far, this has not 
been very successful. Of course if a cheap storage battery could 
be made suitable in every respect for railway traffic, it might 
alter considerably our present notions of electric transmission. 
Time will not permit me to refer to the elevated railways 
worked by electricity. 

Electricity has been largely used for the distribution of power 
in workshops — among which may be mentioned the works of the 
General Electric Company, and the magnificent works at Pittsburg 
recently built by the Westinghouse Company, also the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works at Philadelphia; the Brooks Locomotive 
Works, Dunkirk j the works of Fried. Krupp, Essen, Mesa* 
Siemens- Holske, Berlin, and many others. It has been 
demonstrated in many cases that this method is most economical, 
as well as having many advantages over the usual methods 
where a series of shafts, countershafts, and belting are employed. 
Experience has taught, that in shops where both large and small 
machinery is used, it is economy to operate each large machine 
with a separate motor, and to group the smaller machines in 
sections, driving each section with a motor. 

The principal saving in power realized by the electric system 
of distribution is due to the fact that when a machine is stopped, 
the power required to drive it stops at the generator, and no 
simply at the machine itself, as in the case when driven by a 
system of shafting. Further, when the load is reduced, the loss 

This regulation is instantaneous, and at any time the dynamo only 

by the 

at that 

the small vertical engines which are usually used for a section of 
shafting. The electric motors work at about 90% efficiency, and 
the loss in the short line wire between them and the main 
generator is comparatively trifling. 

The General Electric Company have constructed several instal- 
lations of electrical underground haulage plants for collieries, and 
I saw an excellent plant at work in San Francisco, for hoisting 
coal from ships and afterwards hauling it on a short electrical 


are employed to drive fans, centrifugal i 
pumps, air compressors, and for a great variety of purpo 

1 will now briefly consider the generation of electricity by 

Jhere are many places where nature has provided large supplies 
of energy in the form of falling water, and to convey this energy 
to points where it may be utilized in an economical manner is a 
problem of vast importance. The principal methols available 
for transmitting this power are :— Hydraulic Transmission, 
Pneumatic Transmission, and Electric Transmission. Which of 
these methods should be adopted for any given case will depend 
upon prevailing conditions and requirements. Except for very 
short distances however, electric transmission has no rival in 
point of economy, flexibility, efficiency, or general utility. 

The distance over which power can be transmitted electrically 
depends primarily upon the electro-motive force that may be 
safely and judiciously employed, and when it is considered that 
for a given electro-motive force the cost in copper conductors 
increases directly, as the square of the distance, it follows that 
the cost of conductors will be an important factor in the financial 
success of any scheme which the power is generated at a consider- 
able distance from the motors utilizing it. But the amount of 
copper in any conductor is inversely proportionate to the square 
°f the electro-motive force— that is to say, if the distance and 
other conditions, except the electro-motive force be fixed, it will 

require one-fourth as much copper to transmit a certain amount 
of energy if 2,000 volts be used, as will be required to transmit 
the same energy with equal efficiency over the same distance 
if 1,000 volts be employed. And it will require -ih> aS 
much copper if 10,000 volts be used as will be necessary if the 
potential is limited to 1,000 volts. Hence the necessity of using 
high voltages in long distance transmissions, and this is most 
economically accomplished by the use of alternate current 
generators and transformers. The great advantage of the 
alternating current generators over the direct current generators 
is that no commutator is necessary. That part of a direct current 
machine which is especially liable to cause trouble when high 
potentials are employed is the commutator, which is of all 
essential elements of a generator or motor the most complex and 
expensive, while it is at the same time the most delicate and 
liable to damage. Again, in the alternating current machine, the 
manner of placing the wires on the armature admits of better 
protection, more thorough insulation, and greater facility of repair, 
since one wire is wound continuously and there is no exposed 
part, except the collector rings to which ends of the wire are 
connected. The necessity of breaking the windings of a direct 
current machine into so many parts makes thorough insulation 
of the armature very difficult. 

The Westinghouse Company have developed two distinct 
systems for transmitting alternative currents, viz., the syn- 
chronous or two wire alternating current system, and the Tesla 
polyphase or multiphase system. 

In the two wire synchronous system the generator and motor 
are connected with two wires, and but one current flows between 
them. In the polyphase system the generator and motor are 
nth three or more wires, and two or more currents 

differing ii 

i their time relation or phase traverse the wires. 

In the t 

wo wire system the number of alternations which 
is about 7,200 per minute; in the multiphase sysi 
imber is adopted. The two wire systems are not £ 

starting, a small auxiliary motor being used to bring the large 
motor up to its proper speed, before the load is thrown on ; the 
multiphase starts with strong torque and requires no auxiliary- 
starting device. The General Electric Company use a three 
phase transmission system where power is required to be conveyed 
a long distance. The electric power generation at Niagara, 
furnishes the most modern, and at the same time the most 
gigantic example of the utilization of water power. The works 
at Niagara comprise— (1) a head race canal 200 feet wide, 1,500 
feet long, and seventeen feet deep ; (2) a great Tunnel race 700 
feet long, twenty-one feet high, eighteen feet ten inches wide, 
with a slope of from four to seven feet per thousand, to discharge 
the tail water of the turbines into the river below the falls ; (3) 
works for the distribution of water to large consumers who erect 
their own machinery with lateral tunnels to discharge their water 
] nto the tail race tunnel. The Niagara Falls Paper Company 
have contracted to take 3,300 H.P. and the right of taking as 
much more subsequently. The Pittsburg Reduction Company, 
*ho control the patents for the production of Aluminium 
electrically, have acquired the the right to use 6,000 H.P. and 
We built works. I saw the large electric machines for these 
works in course of construction at the Pittsburg Works. (4) 
A large power station has been built and partially fitted with 
machinery for generating electricity for Niagara and Buffalo and 
perhaps beyond. This power house is placed alongside the head 
race canal, and is designed to contain ten turbines, each of 5,000 
H.P. Several of these generators are now working, and others I 
s aw under construction at the Pittsburg Works. A wheel pit or 
slot has been sunk, which is at present 140 feet in length, twenty- 
one feet in width, and 170 feet in depth, having room for four 
turbines. It will be extended as required. Over this the first 
section of the power house has been erected. 

The turbines for the power station are 5,000 H.P., running at 
-aO revolutions per minute and are placed at the bottom of the 
wheel pit 175 feet in depth, and transmit their power to the 

generators by means of vertical shafts. The turbines were made 
by Messrs. Faisch of Switzerland. The electrical generators are 
of the Tesla polyphase alternating current type. Each generator 
delivers an alternating current to each of two circuits, the currents 
in these circuits differing from each other in their time relation 
or phase by 90°, that is to say, the current delivered to each 
circuit attains its maximum value at the instant when the 
current delivered to the other circuit is zero. The frequency is 
twenty-five cycles per second, in other words the current is 
reversed 3,000 times per minute. By means of rheostats con- 
trolling the field circuits of the generators the potential of the 
current delivered is adjusted up to the limit 2,400 volts. 

The currents delivered by the generators are conveyed through 
heavily insulated cables to the switch board, there by means of 
suitable switching devices the engineer in charge can connect any 
one of the generators, or any combination of them to the external 
circuits which convey the current from the power house to the 

distances, as for example to Buffalo, will pass from the switch- 
board through similar lead covered cables in the power house 
subway and the bridge to the transformer house. There it is 
proposed to transform the current up to 20,000 volts. At the 
distant end of the circuit stepdown transformers will be used to 
reduce the potential to an amount suitable for local requirements. 
In the case of large motors used in Niagara, the current will 
be probably supplied at the voltage delivered by the machines 
without transformers, but for smaller motors and where direct 
currents are required stepdown transformers must be used. The 
Niagara generators represent the highest state of the art of 
design and construction of electrical machinery. The revolving 
parts consist of the vertical axis of the turbine shafts, which are 
twelve inches in diameter ; the armature is stationary, but the 
field ring carrying the field magnets is suspended from the top of 
the vertical shafts and revolves with it. The field ring is made 
of nickel steel of very high quality, having a tensile strength of 

82,000 pounds per square inch and 25% elongation ; this was 
made by the Bethlehem Steel Works and expanded from a solid 
ingot of compressed steel. The vertical shaft is made of open 
hearth steel. 

Niagara will ultimately become in my opinion a great industrial 
centre distributing the enormous energy derived from the Falls 
to the various works around it, and is a fine example of the 
utilization and control of one of the great sources of power in 
nature, for the use and convenience of man. 

The General Electric Company of America have designed and 
constructed a large number of long distance power transmission 
plants, one of the most important of which is that at Fulsom, on the 
American River, twenty miles above Sacramento ; a water power 
has been developed by the construction of a dam and canal. In 
the power house is installed four 1,200 H.P. horizontal turbines 
working under a head of fifty-five feet. Coupled to these wheels 
are four 750 K. W. three phase generators which run at a speed 
of 300 revolutions per minute, and furnish current at a pressure 
of 800 volts, and a periodicity of sixty cycles per second. The 
Potential is raised to 11,000 volts by 250 K.W. transformers, 
located in the second story of the power house. There are two 
complete pole lines carrying transmission lines of over 90% 
efficiency from Fulsom to Sacramento, where the potential is 
reduced for distribution. In the sub-station there are three 300 
H.P. sychronous motors which drive a line of shafting to which 
^ belted the generators for supplying the electric tramways in 
Sacramento, and for electric lighting. These generators are 475 
K-W. capacity and capable of supplying 300 lights. Being a 
three phase system there are three copper wires conveying the 
current from Fulsom to Sacramento and at Sacramento a low 
pressure network on the Edison three wire system is fed from 
the transformers to the sub-station feeder regulators giving 
complete control of the potential on the lines. 

Thk MACHINERY EMPLOYED for artifical 

July 15, 1896.-] 

Owing to the very great increase, which has lately come about in 
the exportation of our food products to Europe, few branches of 
mechanical engineering are of so much importance to Australian 
trade as the design and construction of the machinery used for 
producing low temperatures, popularly known as "Freezing 

Over three hundred years are supposed to have elapsed since it 
was first discovered that artificial cold is produced by the chemical 
action which takes place when certain salts are dissolved, but it 
is not known how far back the system of making ice has been 
practised which is still in use in India, where shallow trays of 
porous material are filled with water and exposed to the night air, 
when the heat is abstracted by natural evaporation. The use of 
frigorific mixtures for the abstraction of heat (many forms of 
which are still set out in works on chemistry) was known as far 
back as the year 1607, and the most common combination, that 
of ice and salt (which is said to have been used by Fahrenheit in 
1762, when he placed the freezing point of water at 32° as the 
limit of negative temperature) is still in every day use for such 
purposes as ice cream freezing. The production of cold by what 
may be termed mechanical means — that is by the use of a refriger- 
ating machine, as distinguished from chemical action — is of much 
more recent date. A Dr. Cullen is said to have made a machine 
for evaporating water under a vacuum in 1755, and Lavoisier 
experimented with ether in France, but the next important steps 

appear to come well into the present century. In the year 


-Leslie experimented with a machine using sulphuric acid and 
water. In 1824 a machine was patented by Vallance, who 
probably got his idea from the evaporative system so long in use 
in India. Under this patent, dry air was circulated over shallow 
trays of water when evaporation took place and heat was abstracted. 
In 1858, Mr. George Bevan Sloper patented a similar system 
in this Colony, 1 under which the water was exposed in canvas 
bags so that the whole surface of the containing vessels was 
open to evaporation as well as the surface of the water itself. 
The machine to work this process was designed by the author, to 
carry out the ideas of the patentee thirty-eight years ago, and it 
was constructed in Sydney by Messrs. P. N. Russell & Co., and 
tried in Margaret Street. No commercial success however did, 
or could attend any such system of producing artificial cold owing 
to the excessive amount of power required to produce a given 
result, and in this particular case, as the air delivered into the 
chamber under partial vacuum was not made to perform work, it 
did not part with its heat and reduce the temperature of the water 
^ it might have been made to do had the knowledge of thermo- 
dynamics been then as widely extended as it now is. In 1831 
Hagen used the volatile spirit of caoutchouc, and in the same year 
Jacob Perkins, of London, constructed what appears to have been 
the first ice making machine which really worked successfully ' 
with a volatile liquid. In this machine ether was vaporised and 
expanded under the reduced pressure maintained by the suction 
°f a pump, and the heat abstracted from the substance to be 
cooled, the resulting vapour was compressed by the same pump 
into a vessel cooled by water until liquefaction of the medium 
again resulted as the vapour parted with heat to the condensing 
water under the influence of the increased pressure. The liquefied 
medium was then ready to be evaporated and expanded over again. 
Fig- 1 is taken from Perkins' English patent, No. 66fi2 of Aug. 
ls H and shews dearlv that his invention included the four 

principal features still in use in such machines, viz.:— the evapor- 
ator, the compressor, the condenser, and the regulating valve 
between the condenser and the evaporator. 

Although his machine was the forerunner of all t 
systems of the present day, Perkins does not seem to have had 
any "more success in introducing it for practical use than Vallanco 
had. Dr. Gorrie in 1845, seems to have taken the steps 1 * 
led to the invention of the cold air machine with whic 

Bell Coleman, Haslam, Lightfoot, Hall and others 
are associated, and which were the first that were successful in 
carrying meat from Australia to Europe. In 1850 Carre invented 
the ammonia absorption process. Between the years 1850 and 
1860 Professor Twining in America, and Mr. James Harrison of 
Geelong, in Australia, devoted themselves to the improvement of 
Pet kins ether machine, probably without either inventor knowing 
what the other was doing, as there was not much communication 

have had a machine at work between 1855 and 1857 in the State 
of Ohio, and Harrison, in the year 1855, was at work in Victoria 
and had made ice at Geelong. In the year 1859 the Harrison 
machines were introduced into New South Wales and manu- 
factured by Messrs. P. N. Russell & Co., the author, at that time 
in the drawing office of the firm, was connected with this work 
from its initiation. 

The original drawing of these machines is shewn on the wall, 

with slide valves to the ether pump. One of them was at work 
at the rear of the Royal Hotel, George Street, Sydney, and sup- 
plied ice to a regular list of customers in the following year. In 
the same year (1860) Messrs. P. N. Russell made more Harrison 
machines to a horizontal design worked out by the author, who 
was then their chief draughtsman. These worked for many years 
in New South Wales and Victoria. 1 Messrs. Siebe, of London, 
had introduced the Harrison machine into England about the 
same time, and it is generally admitted in both America and 
England, that the very first ice machine ever adopted successfully 
for manufacturing purposes was one of Harrison's Australian 
ether machines made by Siebe, and applied to the extraction of 
Paraffin from shale oil in 1 86 1. Dr. Kirk invented a sort of regener- 
ative air machine in 1862, which was also used for the cooling of 

1 Two original drawings of these machines made by the author and 
dated were exhibited, the larger one was printed in the Engineer, London, 

Fig. 2. 
paraffin oil in Scotland. From the years 1861 to 1870 Mr. E- 
D. Nicolle, of Sydney, worked at the development of the ammonia 
absorption system hrst introduced into France by Carre, the latter 

years in conjunction with the late Mr. T. S. Mort, and his machines 
at Pacldington quite supplanted the Harrison ether machine in 
George Street. Many thousands of pounds were spent by Mr. 
Mort in experiments, not only with the ordinary absorption 
system, practical improvements in which were patented, but on 
a compressed air system, L. R. No. 181 of 1868; an absorption 
system assisted by a pump, L.R. No. 216 of 1869; and on a 
system for using nitrate of ammonia ; all under the direction of 
Mr. Nicolle. The first compression machine designed in New 
South Wales for the use of anhydrous ammonia was patented by 
the author (No. 887 of 1880) and called The Colonial Freezing 
Machine, it embodied many devices which are now in general use. 
In 1885 the late Mr. W. G. Lock, engineer to the Fresh Food 
and Ice Co. of Sydney, patented a compound compressor for 
ammonia (L.R. No. 1729) consisting of two single-acting high and 
low pressure pumps side by side, very similar to the high class 
machines now being made by the "York" Manufacturing Co. 
of York, Pa. U.S.A. In 1881 the author designed the com- 
pressed air machine illustrated by Fig. 3, which had compound 
expansion and was specially intended for use by untrained men in 
the country where water for condensation was very scarce. This 
machine has worked successfully ever since, and will still deliver 
air at 50° below zero. 

Great numbers of patents have since been issued in New South 
Wales to local engineers for compressors of more or less originality, 
and for other details of refrigerating machinery, and it must not 
he forgotten that Mr. J. D. Postle, by his New South Wales 
patent No. 180 of 1868, was one of the first persons in the world 
to understand and patent the use of an expansion cylinder in a 
cold air machine by which some of the heat held by the air is con- 
verted into work and a low temperature produced. It will thus 
be seen that New South Wales has, in the past, done a large 
share of the work by which the refrigerating machinery of the 
world has been brought to its present perfection. It is probable 
that, in the United States, the development of the ice machine 

has been due more to its use in the brewery and the national taste 
for iced water than to other applications, and that in New South 
Wales the idea of freezing food products for export— first suggested 
in 1860 by the late Mr. Augustus Morris, when he offered to 
contribute £1000 towards the experiment of sending frozen meat 
to England— was the main factor which induced the late Mr. T. S 
Mort to devote his energies and probably a quarter of a million 
sterling towards the economic production of artificial cold. For 
more particulars as to Mr. Mort's great work the author would 
refer those interested, to an article in " Ice and Refrigeration." 1 


Seeing that all machines work with more or less friction, and 
that the power thus lost reappears in another form of energy as 
heat— which is sensible and apparent — there is some excuse for 
the difficulty felt by the ordinary lay mind in comprehending the 
production of cold by machinery. It may be said at once that 
no combination of mechanism— with unlimited power to drive it- 
could alone make ice from water, and that an ice machine is 
simply an instrument for dealing with a medium in such a way, 
that it, the medium, is enabled to take up heat from the body to 
be cooled, and transfer it to another body. Except under very 
special circumstances which will be referred to later on, this heat 
is transferred to the water which is used for the purpose of con- 
densation and goes to waste. 

There are two distinct systems of mechanical refrigeration in 
use, operating by means of a medium. Under the more simple 
system this medium is a permanent gas which is alternately com- 
pressed and expanded, and is not liquefied under compression. 
In actual practice atmospheric air is alone used for this purpose 
and the machines are termed compressed air machines. Under 
a more complex system of mechanical refrigeration a volatile 
medium is employed, and in the operation of the machinery there 

tilization. Although many 

is alternate liquefaction 
different media have been tried, each of which has some specii 
quality to recommend it, the principal ones to which referenc 
will he made, are sulphuric ether, sulphurous acid, ammonia, an 
carbonic acid. In the system introduced by Carre a solution c 
ammonia in water is employed, the gas is driven off by the dim 
application of heat, and is again reabsorbed by the water aft* 
; its functions in the circuit of the apparatus ; this 

fulfillii _„ 

known as an "absorption system." 

refrigerating engineers now adopt 1 

absorption system. 

These machines, coming under the i 
referred to, operate by virtue of the L. . „ 
has a thermal equivalent. The diagram I 
uch a machine in dealing with a 

,iv.<sion systen 

•simpler system already 
that all mechanical work 

pound of air possesses the intrinsic energy due to its specific heat 
multiplied by its absolute temperature, i.e., 62 + 460 = 523 degrees 
and it occupies a volume of 13-141 cubic feet, which is represented 
by the horizontal length of the diagram. ft such a volume of air 
is compressed to a density of four atmospheres, then between 47 
and 48,000 foot-pounds of energy will be required, and assuming 
a frictionless piston and a non-conducting cylinder, the air 
instead of following Mariotte's law, and by an isothermal com- 
pression occupying one-fourth or twenty-five per cent, of its 
original volume at the original temperature will rise to a temper- 
ature of 320 5 and fill 37-3% of the original volume, the difference 
representing the work performed by the engine in the work of 
compression. Now while it is under this increased tension, which 
with cold-air machines seldom exceeds five atmospheres, the com- 
pressed air may be passed through a condenser and have its 
temperature again brought to 62°, in which case the heat or 
energy of the engine will be communicated to the condensing 
water and for all practical purposes be lost. The air then only 
possesses the same intrinsic energy which it did before compression, 
but it is in a physical or mechanical condition which enables it to 
perform work by expanding again to atmospheric pressure. This 
expansion in practice is carried out in an engine similar to a steam 
engine which assists the working of the whole refrigerating 
machine, and the final temperature of the air is found by simple 

proportion thus 

ag ( compressed abs. tempera- I . , ( compressed abs. tempen 
( tu re before condensation j 1S ° (_ turea" 

or 461 + 320 - 781 : 461 + 62 = 523 

So j s I original temperature ) f final temperature 
I before compression j \ after expansion 
: : 461 + 62 = 523 : 348 absolute - - 

r to make a simple proportion sum of it — 
!1 « 7«] : 523 : : 523 : 348 
and 348° - 461 = - 113° 
In actual practice this theoretical low temperature is 
reached, about— 80° being the minimum and— 50° an ordinary 

perature, the losses from friction and conduction being proportion- 
ately much less on large machines, as would be supposed ; the 
results with these machines are also much affected by the moisture 
in the air and other causes. 

Both in theory and in practice compressed air machines require 
very much more power (from four to six times) than other machines 
for a given abstraction of heat, they are therefore rapidly going 
out of use except for special purposes. It is possible in compress- 
ing air to reach very high and low relative temperatures without 
much difficulty, and it occurred to the author some sixteen years 
ago, that some of the heat or energy which is dissipated to the 
condensing water in these machines, and which is equivalent to 
the whole amount of the engine power, might be utilised by com- 
bining a compressed air refrigerator with a modification of the 
Du Trerablay ether engine, and he took out a patent in April 
1880 (No. 812) for a refrigerating machine which had an ether 
engine as well as a steam engine to supply the power. In this 
machine the heat was to be abstracted from the compressed air 
by ether sprays on the condenser tubes, and the vapour thus pro- 
duced was to be utilised to assist the steam engine and reduce the 
power. Although this machine has never been made, and in 
actual practice a very large percentage of the power thus saved 
would be required to overcome the extra friction resulting from 
the additional number of parts, still it appears absolutely certain 
that it is only in this direction by utilising the heat which is now 
thrown away in the condensers of refrigerating machines that any 
great improvement in the future of artificial refrigeration is 

In referring to the second or more complex system of mechanical 
refrigeration it was stated that a volatile medium such as ether, 
sulphurous acid, ammonia, and carbonic acid, was employed instead 
of a permanent gas as in the air machines; before considering the 
machines therefore, it will be well to consider some of the 


The liquefaction of gases by pressure and cold has a special 


scientists and is still being eagerly pursued, new 
triumphs in the way of simple apparatus for liquefying oxygen 
and atmospheric air being continually announced. Whenever a 
gas is vaporised from its liquid condition heat is taken up from 
some source of supply, and this is the property that is utilised in 
ordinary refrigerating machinery ; but whereas water at atmos- 
pheric pressure boils at 212° very much lower temperatures are 
sufficient for the evaporation of the four gases used for refriger- 
ation at atmospheric tension, viz : — 

Sulphuric Ether, Sulphur Dioxide, Ammonia, Carbonic Acid. 
+ 96° + 14° _ 37° - 124° 

Now just as with water and steam, the boiling point of these 
and other gases means the temperature at which such gases liquefy 
as well as that at which their liquids pass to the gaseous condition; 
in fact a temperature under which the material may be either 
liquid or gaseous, depending for its condition upon the heat units 
contained in or held by it; such temperature depends upon the 
pressure to which they are subjected at the time, and conversely 
the pressure under which any gas can be liquefied depends upon 
its temperature. For the practical purposes of artificial refriger- 
ation the lowest temperature to which heated gases under pressure 
can be reduced is limited by the temperature of the i 

50 i 

wi condensation ; L this water may be as low as 40 o 
temperate countries, and in hot climates may exceed 90°. 

The diagram Fig. 5 shews in graphic form the vapour tensions 
of carbonic acid, ammonia, sulphurous acid, ether, and water 
under the temperatures met with in practical work, or their boil- 
ing points under widely varying conditions as to pressure. For 
instance it will be seen that carbonic acid, which under atmos- 
pheric pressure will boil at 124° below zero, requires about 1080 lbs. 
Per square inch to liquefy it at 96°, affording a great contrast to 
water, the boiling point of which at 14-7 lbs. or one atmosphere is 

1 For experimental purposes to produce very low temperatures the 
condensed gas may be cooled by a second refrigeration and a step by step 
Process adopted for attaining the lowest extreme possible. 




i 1 


— —J -j 



" 00 ' 

>\ «,. 

D/t " 







a is I s s 














-f " 




o \ 







-31* r 

HdinJ^ * 


*— *°„ 

*d °s 

*» "s 


, i ! 

; - i 

Fig. 5. 
212° and which requires the pressure reduced down to 0-089 of 
1&. per square inch— a very high vacuum— to enable it to vaporise 
at 32°. Again sulphuric ether which boils at 96° under atmos- 
pheric pressure must be attenuated to at least 12 lbs. below atmos- 


pheric pressure before it will evaporate at the freezing point of 
water. From these figures it will be noted that machines for 
making ice by the evaporation of water or ether must work with 
a vacuum, their pumps exhausting their refrigerators to pressures 
below that of the atmosphere. 


Although the low temperature at which a volatile medium may 
be made to boil in the coils of a refrigerator has a very important 
bearing on the production of cold, as in so doing it abstracts the 
heat necessary for its vaporization, there is another property of 
the medium that has been before referred to, which has a great 
deal to do with the results, and that is the latent heat of lique- 
faction, or the number of heat units that a pound of the medium 
will take up in passing from the liquid to the gaseous condition. 
To make the importance of this property clearer, suppose 


that a pound of one medium in evaporating will abstract heat 
enough to bring two pounds of the substance to be refrigerated 
down 100°, while one pound of another medium will under similar 
conditions lower the temperature of ten pounds of the same sub- 
other things being equal, be two and a half times as efficient tor 
refrigerating as the first one, because it would abstract two and a 
half times as many thermal units in its conversion into vapour. 
If the substance to be cooled is water, then two pounds lowered 
100° represents 200 B.T.U., while ten pounds lowered 50° would 
be 500 B.T.TJ. Ln order therefore to find the relative efficiency 
of one pound of a given refrigerating medium for abstracting heat 
in the refrigerator, the latent heat of liquefaction must first be 
taken into account. Diagram Fig. 6 shows by curves the latent 
heat of the four principal media before referred to through con- 
siderable ranges of temperature. 


When a gas is liquefied under the influence of pressure — whether 
produced by a pump, or through the direct application of heat— 
and the abstraction of heat by cooling it in a condenser, the resul- 
ting liquid is necessarily at a temperature something above that 
of the condensing water and is ready to change its condition again 
when those influences are removed. In actual practice the pres- 
sure is retained in the condenser or liquid receiver by an expansion 
or flash valve, which regulates the passage of the liquid refrigerant 
into the coils of the refrigerator, releasing its pressure at the same 
time to that of the refrigerator; under these conditions the liquid 
immediately boils or evaporates, and in so doing abstracts heat 
from the metal of the coils and the air or liquid surrounding such 
coils ; but it must be particularly noted that it has to be cooled 
itself before it can cool the refrigerator down to any given or 
required temperature and that therefore a certain amount of its 
actual cooling power is not effective for external refrigeration. 

The amount of heat or the number of thermal units that is thus 
lost before any useful refrigeration is done, is the product of the 


specific heat of the medium multiplied by the number of degrees 
it is lowered in temperature. All this cooling power is absolutely 
lost because the medium has to be heated up again by the expendi- 
ture of energy at every circuit it makes through the machine. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be understood that the 
efficiency of different gases for refrigerating purposes is mainly 
dependent upon three properties possessed by them, and not upon 
any one special quality, and these are— 

1. A low temperatue of vaporization upon which depends the 
degree of cold that can be produced by such evaporation. 

2. A high latent heat upon which depends the total number of 
heat units which will be abstracted by the evaporation of a given 
weight of the medium. 

3. A low specific heat upon which depends the percentage of 
the heat taken up by (2) or the amount of cold produced which 

Although ether, chloride of methyl and several other media 
have been used in refrigerating machines besides those already 
I advocated under special conditions, 

i it possesses. The 
has supplanted the use of other 
refrigerating machinery is 
ization, being 555 
B.T.U. at zero, against 123 for carbonic acid, and 171 for sulphur- 
ous acid, that is to say one pound of ammonia at zero Fahrenheit 
m passing from the liquid to the gaseous condition would take up 
555 thermal units, while the other liquids would take up less than 
a third and less than a fourth respectively. There are some com- 
pensating advantages in the case of carbonic acid on account of 
J ts high specific gravity which makes its heat of vaporization for 


k given volume very much greater than i 


volumes at zero for equal weights being about 1 : 32 -4, and thus 
the relative dimensions of the compressors for equal refrigerating 
effects are as 12 32X32-4 = 7 . 2 nearly for ammoniaj to 1 for 
carbonic acid. This would be an advantage, other things being 
equal, but carbonic acid reaches a critical condition (at 88 Fahr.) 
where its efficiency rapidly falls off when the condensing water is 
warm, and many carbonic acid machines have their refrigerator 
and condenser one inside the other. By this device power is 
expended to cool the condensing water and make the machine 
work, this being totally unnecessary with ammonia, as machines 
using it often work with the condensing water at 90° or over 
without any great falling off in efficiency. In a paper read before 
the Ipswich (England) meeting of the British Association, on 
" Carbonic Anhydride Machines," 1 by Mr. Hesketh, one of the 
Directors of Messrs. Hall of Dartford, a firm that has introduced 
these machines all over the world, it is clearly shown that, with a 
machine producing 9,360 lbs. of ice per twenty-four hours, the 
horse power with different temperatures of cooling water varied 

Inlet cooling water Ice in I.H.P. of 

in degrees Fahr. 24 hours. Engine. 

naking it obvious that, in a carbonic anhydride machine, wi 
ncrease of temperature from 50° to 90° in the condensing i 

lhe relative efficiency of a cubic foot of ammonia gas I 
different temperatures from 65 Q to 105° would vary as under 

ng effect in thermal 

<},.,„.. M.rti..,, 

t It 16 i 24 | 33 | 45 

-20 -10 1 1 10 1 20 1 30 



S.V15 106-21 



8311 10 tO!) 



SI -73 101-07 


3164 , 3967 


Sd-02 90-S5 

:i0itf. i 3S-S0 

-,o-4o 6:? lo 

78-31 97-73 

Shewing that with back pressures from 4 to 45 lbs. the i 
of condenser temperature from 65° to 105° only redu 
efficiency of a cubic foot of gas about nine per cent. 

Although compression machines now largely outnumber those 
working on the absorption principle, and are daily replacing them, 
!t must be remembered that the latter led the way and for a long 
time carried all before them. Introduced in 1858 by Ferdinand 
Carre of France, and in 1861 into Australia by E. D. Nicolle, 
this system was largely developed by the munificence of the late 
T. S. Mort, and supplanted the ether machines of Harrison. 
In an absorption system an aqueous solution of ammonia is the 
medium used, instead of pure anhydrous ammonia. Taking a 
solution of twenty-five parts of ammonia in seventy-five parts of 
water in a boiler or still, the application of heat will cause both 
gas and aqueous vapour (steam) to be given off in the proportion 
of, say, 90% of ammonia gas to 10% of steam or vapour. This 
combined vapour is passed into a condenser under the pressure 
maintained in the boiler or still, which is dependent on the tem- 
perature and volume of the condensing water. By the combination 
°f this pressure with the transfer of heat to the condensing 
water the ammonia is liquefied. The liquid ammonia is allowed 
to expand in the coils of the refrigerator where it either freezes 
or cools the substance it is employed to refrigerate. The gas being 
driven out of the boiler or still by the pressure generated, the 
solution left, called the weak liquor, is then drawn out and cooled 

in another condenser, after which the ammonia from the refriger- 
ator and the mother liquors are allowed to re-unite in a vessel 
termed the absorber, from which the system takes its name; after 
this it can be returned to the boiler to go through the same cycle 
of operations over and over again. It will thus be seen that this 
is a very simple process, for, besides the several vessels, coils and 
valves, there is no machinery proper required beyond the pump to 
return the liquor from the absorber to the boiler, and even that 
can be dispensed with by ingenious arrangements like the " Monte- 
jus" whereby the strong liquor is lifted by pressure to a receiver 
and descends to the still by gravity. This class of machinery 
being cheap and the process simple, absorption machines are still 
made and used under certain conditions, and many elaborations 
have been made to secure fractional distillation and dessication 
of the gas, and also by means of exchangers to utilise some of the 
waste heat, but it is perhaps more on account of the greater 
amount of condensing water required, than the greater power 
wasted in the absorption machine, that the compression system 
has replaced it. 

Water, at atmospheric pressure and GO" Fahr., will absorb about 
seven hundred times its volume of ammonical gas, and therefore 
the watery vapour that distills over with the gas largely discounts 
the efficiency of the machine, because it not only requires fuel to 
raise it, but a supply of cold water to condense it, and although 
increasing the amount of fuel required for a compression plant 
might not alone condemn the use of the absorption system where 
fuel is cheap, yet in most parts of Australia the requirement of 
double the quantity of condensing water would be a serious draw- 
back, and has led to great numbers of them being replaced by 
compression machines. 


As soon as the defects inseparable from the absorption system 
were understood, inventors reverted to the work of Jacob Perkins, 
Harrison and Twining, but it was a very diflerent matter 
compressing a subtle gas like ammonia up to twelve or more 

atmospheres than it was to deal with ether vapour at a very low 
tension, and the result has been a long series of inventions having 
for their object the improvement of the compressor. English, 
American, and Continental inventors have all contributed to the 
perfection which refrigerating compressors have now reached, 
most of them keeping one special point in view to the neglect of 
others not so important in their opinion, hence we have a large 
choice of ammonia compressors in the market of most admirable 
workmanship, each one of which is claimed by its respective 
agents to be the best in the world. It is hardly possible that they 
can all be the best seeing the wide divergence which exists in 
their design, proportions, and construction, but it will be instruc- 

made and see how they set about the work they undertake to do. 
It must be admitted that theory and natural laws have no 
favorites, and that the conditions which result from compression 
and expansion are the same for every one. But theory alone is 
of little avail in the work of the mechanical engineer, some of the 
biggest failures have resulted from hugging one main central 
theory so closely that all the little attendent theories were for- 
gotteu, and it is the knowledge of the little theories which con- 
stitute practical experience. 


Refrigerating machines generally consist of a compressor in 
combination with a steam engine, but such compressor may have 
its piston driven by any other power without affecting its efficiency 
for the work of refrigeration. It is therefore desirable in an 
enquiry into the merits of any compressor to consider its various 
points under separate heads. First the work to be done in com- 
pressing a gas, for which the design and construction of the com- 
pressing cylinder with its piston and valves are the principal 
ncerned : and secondly the connection of the same 
>ower, assuming that any form of engine, slide valve, 
Corliss, simple, or compound, is open for use ; and that therefore 
the merits of the engine itself, apart from its attachment to the 


compressing apparatus, need not take up our time ; but it is 
important that the design of the whole machine should be such as 
to simplify its erection and secure economy of power in its subse- 
quent working. Thirdly, there is the provision for easy examin- 
ation of parts, maintenance in repair and working order, which 
should be full and ample. 

Under the first head may be placed the following characteristics 
of a compressing cylinder which are directly concerned with the 
work done on the gas : — 

1. On the in or suction stroke the cylinder should fill with gas 
at a pressure as little below that in the expansion coils as possible 
and the outlet valve should be " tight." 

2. The piston and rod should work with the maximum of 
"tightness" in order to prevent leakage; and with the minimum 
of friction so as not to generate heat or require extra power to 

3. On the out stroke the inlet valve should not permit any 
leakage, and the whole contents of the cylinder, less the minimum 
of clearance, should be discharged through the outlet valve at a 
pressure as little above that in the condenser as possible. 

Under the second head, dealing with the general design and 
construction of the whole compressor : — 

4. The machine, other things being equal, should be self con- 
tained on one sole plate so as to be easily erected at the minimum 
of expense for foundations ; because the cost of the foundations— 
and very costly ones are required by some compressors and their 
steam engines— must be taken into account before it is possible 
to make a proper comparison of the cost of different machines of 
the same power in working order. 

shafts, and connecting rod, and keep down the weight, cost, fric- 
tion, and wear of those parts ; the work of the compressor, crank, 
rods, and crossheads should be double acting instead of single 
acting, and the ratio of compression should be as small as possible 

during both strokes (distributing the work over as large a portion 
of the crank pin's path as possible); because with single and 
double acting cylinders of equal capacity and piston speed the 
single acting one must have double the piston area of the double 
acting one, and must therefore transmit double the stress to the 
connecting rod and cranks. 

If high mechanical efficiency and low working expenses are 
aimed at then :— 

6. In order to minimise the friction in the bearings and prevent 
the loss of power which results from indirect action, the connec- 
tion of the engine piston to the compressor piston should be as 
direct as possible, and the crank shaft, with the crank pins and 
connecting rods, should also if possible, ta"ke up and transfer the 
difference between the powers exerted and required by the steam 
and compressor pistons respectively at any given position, instead 
of the sum of these powers, during each revolution of the fly-wheel. 

Under a third head there are other points of importance con- 
nected with the maintenance of the whole machine in working 

7. The pistons and valves should be easily accessible for exam- 
ination and renewal. The cylinders should be simple castings. 

8. All joints, and covers or bonnets should have plain faces, 
and such things as double or treble connections with bridges under 
one joint face should be avoided in order to make connections 
simple and certain. Lastly, all wearing surfaces should be adjust- 
able and easily adjusted. 


When a gas is compressed in a cylinder, the work performed by 
the piston is not uniform throughout its stroke for the reason 
that the pressure increases as the volume is reduced following a 
curve which is dependent upon the heat during compression. This 
curve is called "adiabatic " when no heat passes from the cylinder 
during the compression of the gas ; and " isothermal " if so much 
heat is transferred during the operation that the gas is maintained 

iewn by the diagram 
Some compressors 
have water jackets and others dispense with them. At present 
it is enough to remember that the piston of an ordinary compressor 
commences its stroke without offering any resistance to the engine 
apart from friction, because the gas is then of the same pressure 
on both sides of it ; the resistance commences with the stroke 
however, and increases until the condenser pressure is reached, 
when the work of the piston continues uniform to the end of the 
stroke ; the greater the ratio of compression the smaller the por- 
tion of the stroke during which gas passes the delivery valve, and 
the greater the importance of reducing the waste space or clear- 
ance in the cylinder ends. 

1. That the cylinder should fill with gas at a pressure as little 
below that in the expansion coils as possible. The diagrams on 
the wall shew twelve different compressors, single and double 
acting, vertical and horizontal. The horizontal machines with 
horizontal valves must have strong springs to close them and 
the pressure required to move the valve is thus a loss. The 
vertical double acting compressors with horizontal valves have 
the same drawback with the further disadvantage of a greater 
waste space or clearance. In the author's design, in "Hercules," 
and "Auldjo," all single acting and vertical, there is provision for 
absolute equilibrium above and below the piston, quite apart 
from the resistance to the inlet valves ; and in the Antarctic 
Compound, this provision is found in the low pressure cylinder. 
It will be noticed in the author's two designs, that the working 
barrels are plain cylindrical castings and the equilibrium ports 
can be drilled, whereas in other machines there are complicated 
castings with cored passages and cored ports. The Frick 
machine has such a large valve in its piston so beautifully balanced 
on springs that it will easily open for the admission of gas. The 
oil in the De La Vergne compressor would seriously affect it in 

tilling with gas, did not this machine run at a very low speed. 
It may therefore be said that the Auldjo, Antarctic, Frick, and 
Hercules machines perfectly fulfil the first condition. 

2. The piston rod should work gas tight with the minimum of 
friction. The use of oil as a seal to the piston rods of these 
machines has made a seal possible, but with horizontal double 
acting machines like the " Linde " this oil has to be pumped by 
special arrangements into a lantern bush. In all but the Antarctic 
Compound the oil being inside the cylinder is liable to be carried 
into the system, and by coating the interior of the pipe coils affect 
their conducting power. In the Antarctic Compound the rods 
are not ordinary piston rods at all, and the oil is not in the 
cylinder, hence the most perfect seal is obtained without these 

3. The whole contents of the cylinder, less the minimum of 
clearance should be discharged at the minimum pressure. In the 
De La Vergne machines the oil ensures the full expulsion of the 
gas, and also in those machines which, like the "Frick," "Auldjo," 
and "Antarctic," have delivery valves the full area of the cylinder, 
the piston can sweep the full contents out. In certain types of 
machines, which, like the "Hercules," have two valves on the top 
cover, their area is limited and the effect cannot be the same. 
While therefore, some machines offer the best facilities for taking 
in the gas, and others have the best arrangements for expelling 
it, the "Antarctic" designs follow the better features of both classes. 


The diagram from a steam engine cylinder, as we are all aware, 
is just the reverse of that from a compressor, the maximum pres- 
sure being exerted upon the piston at the beginning of the stroke 
and reducing rapidly by expansion after the steam is cut off, at 
the time when the resistance of the gas to the compressor piston 

Some of the illustrations on the walls represent straight line 
compressors, which are double acting with their steam engine 

he diagram from I 

The portion 
zontal lines represents the power or force applied by i 
cylinder, and the portion with the vertical liu 
the compressor, the area covered by the intersected lines shews 
all the power which is applied directly to its work, that with plain 
horizontal lines shews the power which has to be imparted to the 
fly-wheel at the commencement of the stroke, and which is restored 
as per the area with plain vertical lines at the latter part of the 
same. This arrangement entails so much friction and expense 
for working parts and heavy fly-wheels that it has become 
customary to set the engine of a refrigerating machine at right 
angles to the compressor in order that the power exerted through- 
out the respective strokes may more nearly correspond with the 
resistance of the compressor. 

One of these machines designed by the author sixteen years ago, 
(Fig. 3) is still at work on the South Coast with vertical engine and 
horizontal compresor, but some of the best machines in the world 
by the most eminent makers, such as the "Frick," "De LaVergne," 
&c, are arranged with horizontal engines and vertical compressors. 
In other machines, as the "Linde" and "Hercules/' the engine and 
compressor are two entirely separate machines on separate 

cranks at opposite ends set at the angle desired. The former 
(Frick &c.) is the better mechanical arrangement as it is possible 
under it to make the whole machine complete in itself on one 
foundation. The only way to secure the simplicity which should 
characterise an ideal compressor is to adhere to the straight line 
connection, so that instead of the crank shaft having to take the 
sum of the work represented by the engine and compressor 
it should only have the difference to deal with. To make this 
clearer, suppose at a particular part of the stroke of a right angled 
machine the force exerted by the engine piston is 1000 lbs. and 
the compressor requires 900 lbs. to move it, then the whole stress 
of 1,900 lbs. is communicated to the bushes of the connecting 
rods and main journals ; on the other hand, in a straight line 
machine, doing the same work, the 900 lbs. would be applied 
directly from one piston to the other, and only 100 lbs. would be 
Communicated to the connecting rods and journal instead of 19001bs. 

When the author realised, from a consideration of these facts, 
the great opening that there was for improvements in this direc- 
tion, he set to work to see how they could be brought about, but 
it soon became evident that it was only by making the diagrams 
from the engine and compressor more nearly coincide, that an 
ideal straight line connection could be effected ; as a result of two 
years' work the machine known as the Antarctic Compressor has 
been devised, which is shewn in section by the diagrams and will 
now be described. 

There is nothing new in compound compression. Mr. Lock's 
patent of 1885 has been already referred to, and the author 
designed a large compound air compressor in 1884, which is still 
in the Colony, but most compound compressors have a complicated 
arrangement of valves and passages from one cylinder to the other, 
and separate stuffing boxes for the piston rods of the high and 
low pressure cylinders. 

Now the peculiarities of the Antarctic Compound Compressor 
shewn by Figs. 8 and 9, are :— 

~ 7 ' 



n— Ijow Press 
C-Low Pressure Piston 
D-High Pressure Cylinder 
E— High Pressure Piston 

G— Low Pressure Outlet 

' J— High Pressure Inlet Valve 
K— High Pressure Outlet Valve 

M— Main Delivery Branch 
N N— Piston Rods 
" -Water Jacket to H.P. Cylind< 
-Cross Head to Piston Trunk 

w w, High Q— Equilibrium _, — 
Cylinder filling of L.P. cylinder 


1. There are no piston rods proper as the cylinders are open 
mouthed and face one another. 

2. The two pistons are so connected that a passage through the 
centre of them permits the flow of gas directly from the low to 
the high pressure cylinder, without going outside and through 
connecting pipes. 

3. The two cylinders are enclosed in a casing, so that any 
possible leakage past the piston is intercepted and again drawn 
in at the suction valve, and they are made simple castings without 
belts or passages to affect the homogeneous character of the metal. 

4. The enclosing casing can be filled up with several inches of 
oil in the bottom without any being put in the cylinders proper, 
and the seal thus made renders leakage of gas through the 
stuffing boxes impossible. 

5. The valves can be made as large as desired for the area 
required, and can be all inspected and taken out by opening only 

6. Owing to the work being divided between the up and down 
strokes, and the proportion of the pistons being as 3 : 1, the 
effective pressure reached in the first stage or down stroke is only 
about one-half of the ultimate pressure, and as the pressure on one- 
third of the area of the large piston is neutralised by the pressure 
on the small piston during the down stroke, the effective stress or 
load is only about one-third of what it would be in an ordinary 
single acting compressor. During the up stroke it is manifest 
that with only one-third the area, a given ultimate pressure of 
gas can offer only one-third the resistance which an ordinary 
compressor piston would exert on the working parts of the machine. 

7. The resistance at any time to the pistons of a given sized 
compressor under this system are from one-third to two-fifths of 
that exerted in an ordinary compressor, but the work is distributed 
practically throughout the whole of the two strokes, instead of 
being confined to the latter portion of one stroke only. 

The four diagrams, shewn by Fig. 10, i] 
comparative strains on the crossheads of a 
arctic Compressor respectively throughout 

Fig. 10. 
shafts. A to B representing the down stroke and B to E the up 
stroke, working from 30 lbs. to 160 lbs. per square inch pressures 
(absolute). The length of the vertical lines shows the resistance 
offered to the piston in pounds per square inch, and pounds absolute 
if the area of the piston is taken as unity; which work in the left 
hand figures is all concentrated at the latter part of the up strokes. 
The dotted lines represent the adiabatic and isothermal curves 
respectively, the actual curve of compression being assumed as 
half way between them. In the lower left hand figure the pres- 
sures during the down and up strokes of an Antarctic Compound 

Compressor are represented as when doing exactly the same work 
and under similar conditions as in the ordinary one, the curves of 
pressure rising to exactly the same height as in the upper figure, 
but the vertical lines representing resistances offered to the pistons 
are only about one-third the height of those in the single compressor. 
This results from the effective areas of the large piston (for the 
down strokes) being only two-thirds, and that of the small one 
(for the up strokes) only one-third of the area respectively of the 
ordinary compressor piston. These resistances are it is seen, dis- 
tributed through the whole of both strokes, instead of being con- 
centrated at the upper end of one only. The two right hand 
figures show these diagrams placed around a circle, the left hand 
half of which, or semi-circle, represents an up stroke, and the 
right hand one a down stroke respectively, the letters of reference 
serving as a guide. The distribution of the work performed by 
the compressor pistons during one revolution of the crank shaft 
is thus graphically displayed by the length of the radial lines. The 
upper of the two showing that a relatively large expenditure of 
power is required during about only one-sixth part of a revolution 
in an ordinary machine, while the Antarctic Compressor requires 
a comparative even expenditure of power (amounting to only 
about one-third of the former) but distributed throughout the 
•whole of the circle of the crank pins travel. 

Mr. Chuicksiiank said it was a matter for congratulation that 
the present development of refrigeration was largely due to 
Australian energy and enterprise, and Mr. Selfe had done his fair 
share of the work. What the author had attempted to do was 
very important, and although it might not be altogether original 
he had done it in a very practical way. He could not do better 
Perhaps than compare the working of refrigerating machinery 
with what takes place in a steam engine. Of course the action 
of a refrigerating compressor was simply that of an engine reversed. 
The strains in o c too„, ^«;.-. u or« VP rv <rreat. and we endeavour 

engine are very 

to lessen those strains by putting the steam through two or three 
cylinders as the case may be. The author had adopted a direct 
system of connection in his refrigerating machine, thus allowing 
of the reduction of the strain to a minimum, reducing friction in 
a very material degree, and enabling the various parts to be made 
lighter ; another very important item is that the machine is so 
nearly balanced. As a distinct and very important branch of 
engineering, refrigerating machinery cannot be overlooked ; inas- 
much as some of our principal industries depend to a very large 

! upon the efficiency and economy of the machir 


are used in the refrigerating process. The many cases of failure 
of refrigerating machinery resulting in the loss of cargoes of meat 
were known to all, and a potent cause of failue no doubt lay in 
the fact that the machinery was often not properly duplicated. 

Mr. W. B. Statham said he made in 1893 eleven tests on two 
different machines, each of twelve tons ice making capacity per 
twenty-four hours. One a Linde machine using ammonia, and 
the other a carbonic acid machine. These machines were working 
under exactly the same conditions, and all measurements were 
carefully gauged, and the results checked by an independent 
engineer. The object of these tests was to find out in the first 
place the relative efficiency of the two refrigerating mediums 
before mentioned when working with different temperatures of 
cooling water. The initial and final brine temperatures were 
kept constant as near as possible throughout the eleven tests, and 
as the duty of the machine fell off consequent on the rise in tein- 

tion was proportionately reduced. No measurements were taken 
until all fluctuations in temperature had ceased. . The diagram 
marked " A " shewed two curves, the lower one representing the 
results obtained with the carbonic acid machine, and the upper 
one the results obtained with the ammonia machine. Plotted as 
ordinates are the number of B.T.U. extracted by each machine 
per indicated horse power, and as abscissa; are given the tempera- 
tures of the refrigerant (ammonia or carbonic acid) measured 


before admission to the refrigerator. The two curves shew that 
at a normal temperature (60° F.) the ammonia machine is 20% 
more efficient than the carbonic acid machine, and even with 
cooling water below freezing point, 5% more efficient, (in this case 

*»" to" 6o° *o ">o° S*M 

Temperature of refrigerant measured before the regulating valve. 
the cooling water consisted of brine. With cooling water above 
°' F. (that is above what is always considered to be the critical 
Point of carbonic acid) the ammonia machine required just half 
the power required by the carbonic acid machine for doing the 
uount of refrigerating work under exactly the same con- 
The above results are practically confirmed by the 
gures given in the paper read by Mr. Hesketh. 1 
"- e > Mr. Statham, carried out several experiments to show how 
he efficiencies of the two machines compared when working with 
pressure pipe, that is allowing 


ember 1, 1895. 

apressor in a super-saturated or super- 
se tests the conditions were identical, 
he two curves on diagram " B " shew that the temperature of 
le pressure pipe of the ammonia machine may be varied through 
range of about 100° F. without causing a very great falling off 
1 efficiency, whereas the temperature of the pressure pipe in the 

J I 1 1 , I 

Pressure Pipe Temperatures, 
carbonic acid machine can only l>c varied through a range of abou 
50° F. for the same falling off. The maximum efficiency was 
obtained when the pressure pipe temperature was about 1-- 
If the temperature were raised to 176° F. the efficiency of the 
machine at once fell off. The vapours aspirated by a Linde com- 
pressor contain sufficient liquid ammonia (very finely divided) to 
absorb by its evaporation the heat produced during compression, 
the vapours leaving the compressor in a saturated condition. 

The author has stated what i 
ideal machine. With regard 1 

from a twelve ton Linde compressor, it will be seen that o 
suction stroke the pressure very nearly corresponds t< 
pressure shown on ■ the refrigerator gauge, (see line m 
'gauge.') and on the com] the pressure £ 

nd delivery 1 

. kKFi;i(.i-:iiATiox - 

showing the end of the su 

being the case at 

suction and delivery valve springs 

to the opening of the valve, where the val 

as the point on the diagram 

iuction stroke is very sharp, the same 

md of the compression stroke. The 

do not offer much resistance 

^ght a greater resistance to the opening 
he exercised by the film of oil which would b( 

With regard to No. 2, the results of 
made on two twenty-four ton Linde Compr 

the valv 



I ifi ng 

per square 
one quarter 

box, shewed that with a condenser pressure of 180 lbs 

ln ch, the power required was somewhat 

indicated horse power the gland remaining perfectly t 

c °oL It is not absolutely necessary to have a special pump for 

Pumping the oil through the lantern bush, as the oil is not under 

Pressure. A sight drop lubricator is frequently used A* r gar la 

011 getting into the system of a plant, this is practically prevented 

by the insertion of an oil collector ; a little oil in the compressor 

18 an advantage as it ensures the tightness of the valves and 

piston rings. 

■Dealing with No. 4, the general design i 
machine, Mr. Statham said that this point 

British Refrig 

several years experience with the self contained simple and duplex 
machines, they have now produced a triple expansion horizontal 
surface condensing steam engine combined with three separate 
compound ammonia compressors arranged all on the same bed 
plate ; the three steam cylinders are placed parallel to each other 
and are connected up to a three throw crank shaft ; the ammonia 
cylinders are placed tandem to the steam cylinders, and are driven 
by prolongations of the piston rods; most of the parts are inter- 
changeable, and the steam engine can be worked either single, 
compound, or triple expanion, condensing or non-condensing as 
the case may be. The crank shaft is also in three separate parts 
connected by two couplings. 

Mr. Statham was surprised at Mr. Cruickshank's remark 
regarding the insufficiency of duplication in marine plants, as it 
has been the practice of many makers for years past to supply 
duplex machines on board ship. Marine plants should have 
always a duplex machine and duplicate coolers, plants of this 
type have been taking home valuable cargoes of meat through 
the tropics using only one half of the machine, the other half 
being kept as a stand by, and generally only used when the ship 
is loading up, and it is necessary to cool the holds down rapidly. 

Mr. Houghton said the author's statement as to the part played 
by Australia in the early history and development of the freezing 
machine was most valuable, as it placed on record the names of 
the men to whom credit was due. In the discussion on the first 
paper read on refrigerating machines before the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, 1 a long list of the works bearing on the subject 
which had appeared up to 1874 was given, and it shewed how 
many men had been at work trying to perfect the machine at that 
early date. The very low temperatures attained in the expansion 
cylinders of machines using air for refrigeration affected the 
strength of the steel piston rods and they broke, although the 
stress was very much within the ordinary elastic limit of the 
i Proceedings Inst. C.E., Vol. xxxvii., p. 271. 


metal, the fracture being very crystalline. Triple expansion 
engines driving compressor direct have been made previously to 
that mentioned by Mr. Statham. Single acting compressors are 
often preferred, both on account of the stuffing box being subject 
to the suction pressure only, and also to the easier adjustment of 
the clearances. 

The machine which the author considered embodied most of the 
points of the ideal machine as formulated in the paper, certainly 
did offer a very direct course for the gases, and being compound 
gave a much more equable resistance throughout the revolution of 
the crank than non-compound compressors possibly could. He 
had seen one of the authors machines at work and it certainly 
ran very steadily, it was not bolted down in any way but simply 
resting on blocks of wood. 

Mr. Stokes said that in his historical remarks the author had 
omitted to mention the Sulphuric Acid Atmospheric Machine, 
which although successful was not an unqualified success, because 
the sulphuric acid absorbed so much water it had to be renewed 
frequently, and was consequently intermittent. He (Mr. Stokes) 
thought that an ideal machine should consist of few parts all of 
ample size ; he would consider the single acting compressor with 
duplex cylinders preferable, the vertical type of compressors with 
horizontal engine required the most attention and more floor space 
would be necessary, but the increased efficiency would compensate 
for that. In certain types of machines, which like the "Hercules" 
have two valves on the top cover, the valves do not require to be 
v ery large to take up the compressed gas. He objected to com- 
pound machines — if, when something happened to one side of it» 
the whole machine was laid up ; with the duplex machine if one 
Part breaks and an overhaul is necessary, the other portion can 
he kept working while repairs are effected. 

Professor Warren said, we may illustrate the changes which 
a substance undergoes in a direct heat engine or a reversed engine 
hy means of pressure — volume or entropy — temperature diagrams. 
Mr. Selfe had made use of the well known pressure volume dia- 

grams, and it is proposed to show how the same problem may be 
represented by means of entropy-temperature diagrams. When 
a substance takes in or rejects heat, it is said to change its entropy. 
The change of entropy being expressed thus 

8Q represents the heat taken in or rejected, and t the absolute 
temperature which the substance had at the time. When an 
entropy temperature curve is drawn for a complete cycle of 
changes it forms a closed figure, since the substance returns to its 
initial state. To find the area of the figure we must integrate 
through the complete cycle thus— Let Q t and Q 3 represent, the 
heat received and rejected respectively, and A W the work done 
in thermal units, then — 

JrdQ = Q l -Q 2 =WA,A = -+«■ 
For Oarnot's cycle — 

Q _ -, _.__£,_£, _U-T ! _, m A w _Qi (T ,_ T .) 

gram is represented by i 

ngle ABC D. 
We can show by means of 
this diagram why a dry air 
machine is necessarily less 
economical than a machine 
which depends on the principle 
of evaporation and compress- 
ion of a vapour such as am- 
monia, carbon dioxide, sulphur 
dioxide etc., but in the first 
place the cycle for a dry air 
machine will be compared with 
Carnot's cycle. In the dry air 
machine the heat is not all 
abstracted at r lt but the n 
tion of temperature i 
chamber is effected by 

in the cold 

ducing the air at a much lower temperature 6 2 , and this is 
heated up to the temperature t 2 , increasing the work done by 
the area E D C where H 1 is the absolute temperature of the 
cold air introduced from the expansion cylinder to the cold 
chamber. The process is thermodynamically wasteful to the 
extent shown by the area, of the triangle E D C, where ED is 
usually about twice A D. Again the compressor aspirates air at 
a temperature r a and compresses it with a rise of temperature d x . 
If this occurs adiabatically the rise is Y - r x which is equal to 
T 2-0 2 , hence the heat is rejected between the temperatures r t 
and d x and the increase in work done is shown by the triangle 
AFB which is equal to the triangle D C E. Hence the whole 
area representing the work done in a dry air machine assuming 
adiabatic expansion and compression is F A E C, or about three 
times the area A B C D. 

But actually the result is worse than represented by this area 
as there is an interchange of heat through the cylinder walls and 
the work done is somewhat as shown by the dotted area A FC X 
Ei or about four times A B C D. The relatively large cylinders 
employed in the dry air machine as compared with the vapour 
machines increases the work required to be done beyond that 
shown by the diagram AFC X E X D. In the "Linde," "Hercules," 
"De La Vergne" &c, the compressed liquid flows from the cylinder 
through the regulating valve to the cooler., and a portion of this 
liquid is re-evaporated before it is admitted to the expansion coils, 
this involves a loss in efficiency, and it is the object in all refriger- 
ating plant to minimise this 
loss. It may be represented 
by an addition to the Carnot 
cycle A B C D of A E D, 
where A E D represents the 
increase in the work done in 





£ C 

In a perfect process the nature of the working substance is 
immaterial, but in the actual process the efficiency depends other 
things being equal, upon the ratio of the specific heat to the latent 
heat of the volatile liquids such as ammonia and carbonic acid. 
The critical temperature of carbon dioxide is 88° F. when its 
latent heat is zero, hence these machines lose efficiency when the 
condensing water is about this temperature which must necessarily 
be the case in warm countries. In America they are using dry 
air machines on board ships in the Navy in which the air is 
initially compressed by means of a special pump— the Allen 
Dense Air Ice Machine— so that the weight of the substance 
circulated is much greater and the machinery less bulky. The 
air is under a pressure of 60 lbs. per square inch, and is compressed 
up to about 210 lbs. per square inch. 

Mr. Selfe said that in the historical portion of the paper he 
had no intention to attempt to write a complete history of artificial 
refrigeration, or to record all the steps by which it had arrived 
at its present position. It was only because there are works 
dealing with the matter which entirely ignore the part which 
Australia has played in this connection, that the historical 
references were introduced at all, and he wished to place these 
Australian facts on record, before they could be contradicted or 
give rise to controversy. 

Mr. Statham gave some very interesting particulars regarding 
the falling off of efficiency in carbonic acid machines corroborating 
the statement made in the paper on that matter. The statement 
as to the valves on the Linde machine not affecting the pressures 
was not accompanied by diagrams, and it was not stated that they 
can do without springs at all or with as light springs as vertical 
valves all opening upwards -as in the Antarctic machines. With 
regard to oil in the cylinder, all good machines are now fitted with 
oil collectors as well as the "Linde." The advantages of wet 
compression as advocated by Mr. Statham, can, if valid, be availed 
of in the first stage of the Antarctic machine as well as in the 

Mr. Houghton's experience with the repeated fracture of the 
piston rod of a cold air expansion cylinder is not unique, 
because the Glebe Island machine had similar trouble. But the 
cold air machine designed by the author and shewn by illustration 
has worked for over twelve years now without once having a 
similar mishap, 

Mr. Stokes corroborated the necessity which exists in ordinary 
cases for setting the engine crank at right angles to that of the 
compressor, and drew some diagrams which were practically 
identical with those shewn by the author to illustrate the amount 
of power required to be stored in the fly wheel of a compressor 
under ordinary conditions. He, Mr. Stokes, summed up the 
qualities of his ideal compressor thus: — Few parts of ample size 
with two vertical single acting compressors and the engine between 
them, vertical for small sizes and horizontal for large machines. 
He must have lost sight however of the fact that in comparing 
such an arrangement with that of the Antarctic machine he had 
to provide three sets of guides, connecting rods and cranks, and 
three separate lines of force instead of one J that the sum of all 
the strains instead of the differences has to be borne by the bear- 
ings, that expensive crank forgings were necessary to make a good 
job, and that the power lost by friction would probably be about 
three times as much as in the direct acting machine. 

In the past large profits were attached to the working of 
refrigerating machinery and economy of power was not a matter 
of great importance, but with the competition and continual 
striving for improvement daily taking place, any arrangement 
^hich reduced the frictional losses as well as the wear and tear 
by more than one half was a much more serious matter, and led 
the author to work out the arrangements shewn in Figs. 8 and 9. 


By H. G. McKlNNEY, M.Inst.C.E. 

August 19, 1896.'] 

Whilst the first great rush for settlement on the lands of this 
Colony was in progress, the question of the conservation of water 
was left entirely to the individual occupiers of the land, and no 
idea of the necessity for dealing with it from a national point of 
view seems to have occured to those who had charge of the fram- 
ing and administration of the laws. It was not surprising that 
settlers of British origin should have treated the subject in this 
manner. Nevertheless it was a great mistake to overlook the 
fact that the conditions here are entirely different to those existing 
in the British Islands, and that precedents for the best course of 
action should be looked for in countries whose conditions more 
nearly resemble those of this Colony. 

As settlement progressed, every dry year brought an increasing 
number of proposals regarding works for water conservation which 
it was suggested should be taken in hand by the Government. 
With very few exceptions the schemes thus brought to the notice 
of the public and of the Government, were of a visionary and 
impracticable character. In some cases a fair knowledge of the 
physical geography of the Colony was alone sufficient to show- 
that the proposed schemes were not feasible ; but it soon became 
obvious that in order to place the Government in a position to 
know both what could, and what could not be done, a compre- 
hensive system of levels and surveys was necessary, as was also a 
system of recording the heights and gauging the discharge of the 
rivers. This was the position of affairs when the present writer 
took up the duties of Engineer to the Royal Commission on the 
Conservation of Water in 1884. Previous to that time, records 

of the heights of several of our rivers had been maintained by the 
Government Astronomer, and some had also been kept by the 
Department of Harbours and Rivers ; but the information thus 
recorded was intended chiefly for use in connection with naviga- 
tion. In many cases no records were entered when the rivers 
were low, and in some cases the gauges were so fixed that their 
zero was above the water level when there was a discharge of 
many hundreds of cubic feet per second. While the records kept 
under such circumstances were undoubtedly of great value for 
purposes of navigation, the fact that they took little or no account 
of low discharges, rendered them of comparatively little use so far 
as questions relating to water conservation were concerned. There 
were thus two great questions to be taken up and dealt with — 
the first, to ascertain what quantity of water was available for 
Attribution and utilization, and the second, to determine the 
directions and extent to which this water could he distributed. 
While it is the main object of this paper to deal with the latter 
question, it may be stated in regard to the former, that gauges 
have been established at all the important points on the western 
rivers, that these gauges have in nearly all cases been connected 
with the general levels of the Colony, and that an extensive series 
of discharge observations has been taken. 

It required little investigation to show that the Central and 
"Western Divisions of the Colony are the great field for water 
conservation and irrigation, and that the great alluvial plains west 
of the Dividing Range present both the greatest requirements for 
water and the greatest facilities for its distribution. The natural 
and systematic course of action was, therefore, to determine by 
levels and surveys the rates of fall in the land extending from 
the places where the plains commence, to ascertain the conditions 
of the rivers and creeks under their varying circumstances, and 
to examine the lakes and other natural depressions of importance 
which serve, or could be made to serve, as storage reservoirs. 

In designing the system on which this work was to be conducted, 
the great principle aimed at was to obtain the maximum amount 

of information with the minimum amount of work and expense. 
To attain this object, the lines to be levelled and surveyed were 
sketched on the county and sometimes on the parish maps, but 
the surveyors employed were not only permitted, but requested to 
deviate from these lines under certain circumstances which were 
indicated in the instructions. In addition to the instructions 
regarding deviations from the main lines laid down on the maps 
when the natural features proved different to what was anticipated, 
the surveyors were required to run cross sections or other extra 
lines to determine the position and extent of any natural features 
which would have an important bearing on any works for the 
distribution of water. Cross sections of creeks and rivers were 
taken at places where the lines of levels touched their banks, and 
in taking levels of running water both the date and hour of obser- 
vation were in every case noted. The main lines of levels con- 
stituted a series of connected geometrical figures, so that there 
were numerous closes and easy means of checking. The work 
was done by contract, and it is very satisfactory to be able to 
state that, as a general rule, it was highly creditable to the 
surveyors employed. Occasionally it appeared desirable to send 
an officer of the regular staff to check portions of the work, and 
this was easily done by running lines across two or more circuits. 
In addition to the checks thus made, surveyors were required to 
connect their levels with those of railway lines and railway trial 
surveys whenever the lines came near work done by the Railway 
Department. This gave many independent checks, and a further 
important check was afforded by the levels taken many years ago 
along the River Murray by the Department of Harbours and 

The datum adopted for the water conservation levels throughout 
the Colony is that of] the Railway Department, namely, Sydney 
high water mark. 

The examination of the level books and the apportionment of 
the differences occurring at the end of long closes, was a matter 
requiring much care and labour. The degree of accuracy specified 


was that the errors in large circuits should not exceed a foot in a 
hundred miles, and this limit was not allowed to be departed from 
except in a few cases where creeks or ridges were numerous, or 
where there were other conditions unfavourable to great accuracy. 
In addition to the checks already described, it occurred to the 
author that it would be interesting to combine the outlines of a 
series of circuits and thus to obtain one great circuit for an entire 
district or a river basin. The results for a number of such circuits 
were prepared by Mr. D. R. Alderton, Licensed Surveyor, of the 
office staff, and from these the following may be cited :— 

(1) Commencing at Albury and carrying levels through Jeril- 
derie, Conargo, Wanganilla, Moulamein, Euston, and Gol Gol to 
Wentworth, the levels taken by the Water Conservation Branch 
close with those taken by the Harbours and Rivers Department 
along the River Murray with a difference of only 1-56 feet. The 
circuit includes eight hundred and fifty miles of levelling by the 
Department of Harbours and Rivers, and four hundred and fifty 
miles by the Water Conservation Branch. 

(2) Commencing at Wagga Wagga and levelling along the north 
side of the Murrumbidgee to close at Hay, the distance by the 
water conservation survey being two hundred and three miles, 
and that by railway one hundred and eighty-nine miles, or a 
total of three hundred and ninety-two miles, the difference at 
the close was 0-54. 

(3) Commencing at Hay and following lines through Oxley, 
Balranald, Euston, and Gol Gol to Wentworth, the difference at 
the close was only 50. The circuit here included eight hundred 
and fifty miles by the Harbours and Rivers Department, two 
hundred and sixty-four miles by railway, and two hundred and 
eighty miles by the water conservation surveys, or a total of 
1,394 miles. 

(4) Commencing at Hay and following lines through Oxley, 
along the north side of the River Lachlan through Booligal, 
Hillston, Euabalong, Condobolin, and Forbes to Cowra, the closing 

difference with the railway levels was 2-34 feet, the distance being 
two hundred and ninety-one miles by railway, and four hundred 
and thirty miles by the water conservation surveys, or a total of 
seven hundred and twenty-one miles. 

(5) Commencing at Hay and following lines through Oxley, 
Booligal, and Hillston, thence along the north side of the Willandra 
Billabong and through the county of Manara to the Teryaweynya 
and Tallywalka Creeks and on to Wilcannia and thence up the 
River Darling to Bourke, the difference with the railway levels 
at Bourke was 5*07 feet. The distance in this case was nine 
hundred and fifty-seven miles by railway and six hundred and 
forty miles by the water conservation levels, or a total of 1,597 

(6) Commencing at Wilcannia and following lines clown the 
River Darling to Wentworth, thence through Gol Gol, Euston, 
Balranald, Oxley, Booligal, Hillston, down the Willandra Billa- 
bong, through the county of Manara to the Teryaweynya and 
Tallywalka Creeks and thence back to Wilcannia, the water con- 
servation levels showed a closing difference of 2-42 feet for a 
length of 1,020 miles. 

(7) The water conservation levels commencing at Bourke and 
closing at Wentworth differ from those of the Harbours and 
Rivers Department by 2-10 feet, the circuit consisting of eight 
hundred and ninety miles by railway, eight hundred and fifty 
miles by the Harbours and Rivers Department, and five hundred 
miles by the water conservation lines, or a total of 2,240 miles. 

(8) Commencing at Bourke and carrying levels up the River 
Darling to Walgett, the difference at the close was 1-68 feet, the 
distance being three hundred and seventy miles by railway, and 
two hundred and twenty miles by the water conservation levels, 
or a total of live hundred and ninety miles. 

(9) Commencing at Bourke and following lines up the Rivers 
Darling and Namoi to Narrabri, the closing difference was T33 
feet, the circuit representing eight hundred and fifty-three miles 

(10) Commencing at Narromine and following lines down the 
lacquarie and Bogan Rivers to Bourke, the closing difference 
fas 1 -22 feet, the distance being two hundred and three miles by 

miles by the water c 
I and thirteen miles. 

(11) Commencing at Narromine and following lines to Walgett 
the close with the levels of the Railway Department shows a 
difference of 151 feet, the circuit including one hundred and forty 
miles by railway levels and two hundred miles by the lines of the 
water conservation surveys, or a total of three hundred and forty 

(12) Commencing at Narrabri and following lines down the 
River Namoi and then up the Darling and Gwydir Rivers to 
Moree, the difference at the close was 1*71 feet, the circuit includ- 
ing seventy miles of railway levels and two hundred and sixty 
miles by the lines of the Water Conservation Branch. 

Other instances of closes of large circuits of an equally satis- 
factory character might be quoted, but enough has been stated 
to shew that in the first place the levelling was carried out with 
every attention to accuracy, and in the second place a complete 
examination of the books was made and all available checks 
brought into operation. Nearly all the large circuits comprise 
work done by two or more surveyors working separately, and in 
some cases at entirely different times. The only reduced levels 
supplied to surveyors were those of starting points, but where 
circuits of any considerable extent were completed, the surveyors 
reported the result and notice was sent to them as to whether 


atistactory. Every set ot booK 

eceived and before any payment v 

b of work done. Any part of the work wh 

up to the standard of accuracy, or which failed to furnish the 
information required in the printed regulations or in the special 

instructions, had to be dealt with fully in the field before a final 
settlement for the work was made. As already indicated, cases 
of this kind seldom occurred. 

Having stated briefly the circumstances which led to the 
initiation of the water conservation surveys, and given an outline 
of the objects in view and of the manner in which the surveys 
were carried out, it remains to give a summary of the work done 
and of the information obtained. Stated in the shortest possible 
terms, what we now possess is a sound knowledge of the levels of 
every river basin of any importance west of the Dividing Range. 
The levels form a complete connection between Mungindi and 
Wentworth, between Boggabilla and Albury, between Wagga 
Wagga and Wilcannia, and between Cowra and Barringun. In 
fact, the great central basin of the River Darling and all its 
tributary basins of any importance in this Colony are traversed 
by a continuous network of levels. The conditions which govern 
the supply of water in the lakes, and great natural depression on 
the River Darling, from Lake Narran on the north to Lake Popilta 
and the other lakes of the Great Ana Branch on the south, have 
been investigated. The remarkable facilities which exist for the 
distribution of the waters of the Murray and the Murrumbidgee 
oses have been clearly established, as has also 
: of Lake Tirana and Lake Coolacumpama as storage 
i for the surplus waters of the latter river. The prac- 
ticability of making extensive use of the effluent channels of the 
Lachlan and the Macquarie has been made evident, and the value 
of these channels as distributaries of the surplus waters of the 
rivers has been proved. The conditions of the Namoi and the 
Gwydir have been investigated, and levels have been taken over 
possible sites for storage reservoirs on both of these rivers. The 
system of levels in the Gwydir District has shown conclusively 
the practicability of draining the great swamps in what is known 
as the " Watercourse Country." Lake Cowal, Lake Cudgellico, 
and the smaller lakes on the lower part of the River Lachlan 
have been connected with the levels and surveys, as have also 

Lakes Tala, Yanga, Pitarpunga, Waldaira, and others on the 
Lower Murrumbidgee and Fletcher's Lake, Gol Gol Lake, and 
Lake Benanee on the Lower Murray. 

Among isolated surveys may be mentioned that of Tantangra 
Basin on the Upper Murrumbidgee, while Lakes George, Bathurst, 
and Victoria have also been investigated as regards their levels 
and conditions. 

The levels which were taken from the River Lachlan along the 
course of the Willandra Billabong and thence to the River Darling, 
connecting with the series of lakes on the Lower Tally walka, threw 
much light on the subject of the feasibility of storing flood waters 
in that dry district. 

To illustrate the value of the surveys which have been made, 
two points in the history of irrigation in the Western .States of 
America may be referred to. The first is that when landowners 
and speculators discovered that extensive water rights could very 
easily be acquired, they proceeded to construct irrigation canals 
^ith such haste that sometimes the surveys were very imperfect, 
and sometimes no surveys were made. The result of this was 
that not only were works carried out on wrong lines, but it 
sometimes happened that several separate canals were constructed 
where one canal would have served the purpose in view, and 
would have avoided the waste which a number of separate canals 
entailed. On this subject any one who wishes to have further 
information, should refer to the report of Mr. Deakin, formerly 
Chief Secretary of Victoria, who was a friendly though candid 
critic of American works and methods. 

The second point to which I wish to refer in connection with 
American irrigation, is the fact that the Central Government of 
the United States decided to carry out an elaborate and very 
extensive system of water conservation surveys, and that these 
surveys have been in progress during the past six years. This is 
a complete departure from the policy almost invariably adopted 
»« that country of leaving everything to private enterprise. A 
v ery dearly bought experience in the Western States had shown 

tribution, complete and reliable surveys are indispensable. 

Already the negative value of the surveys carried out in this 
Colony has been far greater than is generally supposed. They 
have furnished a ready means of disposing of many impracticable 
proposals, the mere enquiry into which would have entailed con- 
siderable expense. The positive value of the surveys has also 
already been much greater than is generally known ; but their 
importance will only be realised as works proceed. Meanwhile 
they indicate what can be done in regard to the distribution of 
the available supply of water in the western rivers, and also, to 
an important extent, what can be done to supplement this supply- 
It remains to be decided what should be done. 

Mr. G. H. Halligak said that Mr. McKinney's paper might 
be said to have been the first contribution in this country, to a 
subject which had engaged a great deal of attention, and had 
provoked a large amount of discussion in other parts of the world. 
Although the literature of the subject of "spirit levelling" was 
large, it was so scattered amongst various reports and contribu- 
tions to scientific societies, that it was very difficult to obtain 
comprehensive information on the matter. On a subject which 
appears so simple, it was at first sight, surprising that so much 
had been said and so much ingenuity expended, when to a super- 
ficial observer such results as Mr, McKinney enumerated could 
be obtained by ignoring the more delicate and intricate appliances 
generally thought necessary by levellers in other countries. For 
when the circumstances were taken into consideration, some of 
the closes recorded in the paper were certainly surprising, and 
however much might be due to compensating errors, still great 
credit was due to all the surveyors employed, for the thorough 
manner in which the work had been performed. By exhibiting 
the information contained in the paper in tabular form, the full 
force of this remark would perhaps be more clearly seen. 




E c r i°oL of 


Miles Leve 

led by 





l S 













































It would be noticed that the closing errors varied from 1 foot 
in 2,788 miles in No. 3, to 1 foot in 193 miles in No. 12, while 
the mean closing error on the total distance levelled amounted to 
1 foot in 529J miles. To the surveyor, this information was of 
very little value without a knowledge of the country levelled over, 
and the circumstances under which the levels were taken. On 
this subject the paper did not touch, the author no doubt think- 
ing that most of his hearers would have a good idea of the class 
of country traversed, from being residents in the Colony ; but in 
the interests of readers in other parts of the world, it was to be 
regretted that this information had not been given. In all reports 
°n levelling operations by the Survey Department of India, in 
the Geodetic Survey of the Cape of Good Hope, the United States 
Coast Surveys and various other valuable scientific reports, the 
rises and falls, number of bench marks laid down, am 
°f country traversed, were all enumerated as having an 
hearing on the subject, and allowing those interested I 
opinion on the value of the close. 

It was perhaps unnecessary to state t u "* * 

!! ■- •■ri'or only. The writer had on vai 

I the clas 

ge of the clos- 

most unexpected closes on a line of levels most roughly done, 
while at other times when accuracy was the first consideration, it 
had been a most difficult matter to obtain a reasonable close. 
Except in flat country where equal sights could be obtained, it 
might be said to be impossible to level from morning to night and 
obtain anything like favorable results, as the refraction element 
entered so largely into all observations made in the densest part 
of the atmosphere. As all the work done by the Water Conser- 
vation Department, was by contract, it seemed natural to infer 
that all the daylight would be utilised when possible, and thus 
when very good closes were made the errors must have compensated 
in a very fortunate manner. In the survey of India, where the 
most elaborate precautions were taken to insure accuracy m 
levelling, and one mile to two miles a day was regarded as good 
work, where staves were standardized at the beginning and end 
of each work, and were marked as being one-ten-thousandth of a 

looked upon as an unusually good close. 

The error in No. 3 line of levels, referred to in Mr. McKinney's 
paper, was equal to one inch in 232.1 miles, which might be taken 
as comparing very favorably with the best work by the best men 
in the older countries of the world. The average daily rate of 
progress attained by the surveyors on this work would have been 
a valuable addition to the paper, and also a statement of the 
distance between bench marks on the routes. It was only by 
cross levelling between intermediate bench marks on the various 
routes, that a true check on the work could be obtained, and this 
would probably be carried out as settlement extends, and the 
serious work of water conservation and irrigation is undertaken. 
That such work will be undertaken at an early date, must be the 
interest of this country at heart. The 

was judiciously applied to the apparently useless soil. The valu- 
able information obtained thus far by the Water Conservation 

Department denoted unmistakeably the immense possibilities of 
the western division of the Colony, and it was only by such com- 
prehensive surveys that properly thought out schemes could be 
devised for improving this portion of our estate. 

Mr. Hayckoft said there was very little in Mr. McKinney's 
paper which admitted of discussion, the information contained in 
it was of such a general character. Nothing for instance had been 
said as to the class of instruments used, nor, as Mr. Halligan had 
pointed out, the number of bench marks and distances between 
them. There were certainly errors in the closes, whether made 
oy the surveyors of the Water Conservation Department or in 
existence before the work was taken in hand. As regards the 
hard and fast rule laid down of one foot in 10Q miles, as the closing 
error, that is not the m I lit' world. The recog- 

nised rule in countries where precise levelling is carried on, is 
that the limit of discrepancy in feet (error of closure) shall not 
exceed 0-01J \ distance in miles; this variation is in accordance 
w ith the law of probabilities. Many instances of accurate level- 
ling in America could be cited. In a length of 4,000 miles reach- 
ing from New York to Chicago and other cities, the closing error 
was only one foot, and the cost varied from £i 12s. to £4 4s. per 
mile. In the levelling carried out in St. Louis a circuit of 240 
miles closed with an error of only 0-001 foot per mile. 

The German practice is very exacting, they do not allow actually 
f" in a mile; -7" they consider good work, 118 inch passable 
w ork i t must be understood that this rule is only applicable to 
short courses : in long courses such as mentioned in the paper the 
™le would be error of closure in feet should not exceed -012 
anltipHed by the square root of the course in miles. Thus in 
C *se •"), mentioned in Mr. Mc Kinney's paper, where the error of 
'''"'Muv is ,,j Vt . n . -.,,- f t - ] v.i 7 miles. "00(1 Continental or 

only permit 

of 0-48 feet. As regards 

Mr- McKinney's reference to errors made in the western parts of 
America, he thought that the rest of the world had a good deal 
practice in these matters j and it must 

be borne in mind that in one sense the making of mistakes was 
the initial stage of experiment ; no doubt the errors referred to 
had been made by land owners and agents. The Yankees were 
cute enough to see the benefits of irrigation, and at the present 
time he believed there was more irrigated land in the United 
States than there would be in Australia at the close of one 
hundred years. It would appear from Mr. McKinney's paper 
that no summit levels are fixed, and it is imposible to say from 
the paper how the levels referred to can be utilised for water 

Mr. Davis said that on the paper as a whole he had not much 
to say, but as regards the question of datum, Mr. McKinney said 
the datum adopted was taken from the Railway Department, i.e., 
Sydney high water mark. From his experience in levelling he 
had found that the Sewerage Department datum did not corres- 
pond with that of the Railway Department, and again the Rail-" 
way Department did not agree with the Survey Department. 
The want of uniformity was a great hindrance in all classes of 
engineering work, and it would be a good thing accomplished if 
the different departments could agree upon a common starting 
point in this matter. 

Mr. J. B. Henson said that it would be interesting to know 
whether, from the numerous surveys which had been made, 
sufficient information was obtainable to enable a rough contour 
map of the western slopes of the Colony to be prepared. A 
general contour map of a locality was indispensable in the designing 
of sewerage and drainage works, and the usefulness of a contour 
map of the Colony not only in relation to the designing of water 
conservation and irrigation schemes but for other purposes, was 
unquestionable. Money expended in the production of such a 
map would be wisely applied, and if a scheme for contouring the 
whole Colony had not yet been projected the time had arrived for 
taking action in this matter, and a procedure might be arranged 
for embracing the future surveying and levelling done by each 
branch of the public service. 

Mr. C. J. Mehfield said that Mr. Mr Kinney mentioned in his 
paper, that the limit of error allowable by the Government 
Department over which he had control was not to exceed one foot 
in one hundred miles. He would would like to ask Mr. McKinney 
by what method or equation he would represent the error to be 
allowed in a short distance, say one mile. The United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, and other large departments of survey 
adopted an equation that varied as the square root of the distance 
to represent the limit of error ; for example in the U. S. Coast 
Survey the limit of discrepancy in £eet between duplicate lines, 

miles, so that for a distance of one mile this equation would give 

was as follows 

ons • if v, v, v, etc., is put to represent the 
11 i i.i „.,™.«.iH*rm of the squares of these 

doubt many of the members present would be fa 
equations, which were deduced from the theory 

lines of levels certainly gave an idea of their accu 
that the work must have been conducted with can 
was to be complimented for fixing some standan 

Mr. C. W. Darley, Engineer-in-Chief for Public Works, 
remarked that it was highly gratifying to find that the levels 
taken by the Department of Harbours and Rivers along the river 
Murray more than twenty years ago, had proved to be so accurate, 
and had afforded so useful a means of checking the water con- 
servation levels taken in recent years. It spoke well too for the 
manner in which the work was conducted, that many of the bench 
marks were still available and in a good state of preservation. 
He was under the impression that a great part of the work was 
done by very junior officers of the department. 

Mr. McKinney in replying to remarks which were made said 

supplementary than critical, and he (mite concurred in the opinion 
he expressed, that the tabular statement which he prepared from 
the information in his paper placed in a clearer li^ht the results 
Of the closes of the circuits referred to. In r - i rd t » t lie omission 

question had been raised, he might state that as a general rule the 

intervals by creeks and sand ridges. Bench marks were fixed a 
every half mile, .and occasionally at important points in addition. 
With regard to Mr. Haycroft's remarks, there was one point in 
which he appeared to have misunderstood the author. This referred 
to mistakes made in Western America. The abstract of Mr. 
Haycroft's remarks conveyed the impression that surveys for 
American irrigation works had been described as iuaceurat.e. If 
Mr. Haycroft would refer to the paper, he would tiud that what 

the Western States, surveys were in some cases dispensed with 
altogether, and were in other cases very incomplete, and tn» 

of the remarkable development of irrigal 

evidence that much mischief was done from the causes described. 
There was, in fact, at the outset a large amount of amateur 
engineering and surveying in connection with the earlier irrigation 
work in America, and he thought that Mr. Haycroft would concur 
in the opinion that in the case of works of any considerable mag- 
nitude, this was an unsafe mode of proceeding. 

Mr. Davis raised an important question regarding the datum 
adopted. There could be no doubt, as Mr. Davis stated, that there 
should be a uniform datum for all levels throughout the Colony. 
That adopted for the Water Conservation Surveys was the most 
convenient under the circumstances ; but he was of opinion that 
a better datum would be mean sea level. However, that is a 
point of less importance than uniformity. In regard to departures 
from uniformity, if he mistook not, the Sewerage 
Branch, which was under the charge of Mr. Davis, a 
adopt a new datum. 

With regard to Mr. lienson'.s imiuirv, Mr. McK 

of the Macq 

uarie, (Jastloreagh, JSTamoi, an 

d Gwydir distri 



also been prepared and pi 

,rts of them pub 


In reply t 

o Mr. Merfiel 

i's inquiries as 

to how errors 



distances "wc 

re dealt with, 

it was explain* 

1 that questions 

5 re 


ing errors in 

short distanc 

arose. When i 

.- had 

to he dealt 

with, they wi 

are considered » 

>n their merits 

;— i 

t the 

error was m; 

Uerially abov, 

3 the limit the w 

ork was done ov 



character of the work was satisfactory, the short length exceeding 
the limit of error was allowed to pass. 

With regard to the remarks of Mr. Darley, it was explained 
that a large proportion of the water conservation levels was 
checked by the surveyors going twice over the lines. Mr. 
HcKinney added that he had reason to believe that the levels 
taken many years ago by the Department of Harbours and Rivers 
fr om Albury to Wentworth were checked in a similar manner— 
a junior officer of the party employed being required to go over 
the lines independently and compare notes as the work proceeded. 


By PERCY ALLAN, Assoc. M. lust. C.E., Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C.E. 

[With Plates 1 - 4.j 

[Bead be/ore the Engineering Section of th Royal Society oj N 8. Wales, 

^le 1 18 1896.-] 

The Lift Bridge over the Murray River at Swan Hill having 
just been completed, and the author having in 1894, under Mr. 
Hickson, M. inst. C.E , then Engineer-in-Chief for Public Works for 
New South Wales, designed the structure, has the honour of 
placing before the members of the Section a description of the 
work— before entering on the subject of the paper, it seems desir- 
able to briefly refer to the character of the river traffic to be 
provided for, and the considerations leading to the adoption of 
lift bridges — whilst a short resume of the lift bridges previously 
erected in the Colony, may be of interest. 

The report by Mr. Darley, M.iust.c.E., Engineer-in-Chief for 
Harbours and Rivers in IS'.JO, on the Locking of the Darling, 
conveys an idea of the large traffic using the great rivers of the 
Colony, the number of steamers and barges trading on the Darling 
and Murray Rivers being given as two hundred and twenty-two, 
with a total net tonnage of 20,35b. The traffic consists mostly 
of steamer with barge in tow carrying in some cases 1,000 bales 
of wool. The largest steamer of which the author has a record 
is 123' long, carrying a width of 33' 6" over sponsoons, and 
requiring a minimum headway of 28' when flying light, this 
vessel trading between Swan Hill and Mildura on the Murray 

The considerations leading to the adoption of lift bridges for 
the Darling, Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers my be summarised 

2. The absence of masted vessels doing away with the necessity 
f an uninterrupted headway, as afforded by a swing span or 


of stream objectionable. 

4. The necessity of providing the maximum headway in the 
highest floods. 

5. The low lying land on either side of river necessitating long 
approaches to a fixed bridge with the required headway. 

6. Heavy wool teams on a narrow bridge making long graded 
side spans inadmissible. 

The first two lift bridges in the Colony were erected in 1880 at 
Bourke and Balranald, on a design by Mr. J. H. Daniels, Assis- 
tant Engineer, acting under the late Mr. W. C. Bennett, M. lust. C.E., 
Commissioner and Engineer-in-Chief for Roads and Bridges, and 
in 1885 the author acting for Mr. J. A. McDonald, m. lust. C.E., 
Engineer for Bridges, then absent in England on leave, designed 
under the late Mr. W. C. Bennett, the lift bridge over the 
Barwon River at Brewarrina, erected by day labour under the 
supervision of the late Mr. John Coleman, Resident Engineer 
at Bourke, at a total cost of £7,700. The bridge consists of a 
steel lift span on iron cylinder piers, giving a clear fairway of 47' 
6" with timber side spans, making a total length of 267' between 
centres of abutments, the clear headway provided when lift is 
raised to its full height being 22£' above highest flood. 

The two steel main girders of lift span are of light construction, 
the booms being each formed of two angle bars back to back 
riveted to 9" x §" boom plates, the web being formed of diagonal 
channel struts and Hat diagonal bars, the steel web plate cross 
girders 1' G" deep pitched 4' 6" apart, are riveted to bottom llangc 
of main girders, whilst steel web plate frames are placed between 
the cross girders to shorten the span of the 3" sawn planking 
forming the floor of bridge. A lateral system of diagonal tie rods 
is secured to bottom booms of main girdera which materially 
" stiffens " the lift span when being raised or lowered. 


The iron hollow towers at the four corners of the lift span 
let 3' into cylinders and surrounded for this depth with concrete, 
are connected at the top by transverse and longitudinal girders, 
thus preventing the tops of towers approaching one another and 
jambing lift span when being raised. Four short galvanised 
link chains attached to the top boom at each end of main 
girders, pass over chain wheels placed at the top of each tower, 
and are then secured to cast-iron balance boxes inside the towers 
adjusted with lead filling ; chains are attached to the bottom of 
balance weights, pass under sprocket wheels at the foot of towers 
and are secured to bottom corner of each main girder, thus making 
practically an endless chain and leaving bridge balanced in any 
position, the weight to be lifted being only that due to friction. 

The bridge was designed to be operated by two men each 
working a winch placed on a platform on the downstream side of 
each pier, driving a transverse shaft to which are keyed the two 
sprocket wheels in the bottom of each pair of towers, whilst 
uniform lifting of ends of span is ensured by connecting the chain 
wheel at top of tower with bevel gearing. The ratio of gearing 
is sixteen and a-half revolutions of handle to one of chain wheel J 
permitting of bridge being lifted to its maximum height of 
19' by two men in four and a-half minutes, or at the rate of 4-22' 

In 1895 the Bourke bridge was altered so as to permit of 
one man instead of two, working the lift span. Contracts 
being subsequently let for similar alterations at Brewarrina and 
Balranald. The alterations consist in the substitution of wire 
ropes for the four suspending chains, the arrangement of the 
ropes being designed by Mr. de Burgh, M. inst. U.E., and may he 
shortly described as follows :— 

From each corner of lift span a wire rope passes over and 
around a rope wheel at top of tower, thence across the span and 
over the rope wheel on the opposite tower, the end being then 
connected to balance weight, the ropes from each corner of lift 
span thus crossing one another at centre of span. The bridge is 

raised and lowered by means of one winch driving the two 
sprocket wheels, working two chains attached to the bottom of 
the two weights (over one pier) and is then secured (after passing 
under sprocket wheels) to bottom corners of lift span. 

In 1889 Mr. J. A. McDonald, M.inst.c.E., Engineer for Bridges 
for New South Wales, introduced a new design for the Mulwala 
Bridge over the Murray River, the author working out under 
Mr. McDonald the details in connection with the structure, this 
design being repeated for the Wentworth Bridge over the 
Darling River, the clear fairway provided is 46' 3" and the 
clear headway above highest flood being 23' 4". The leading 
features of this design were— the stiffening of superstructure by 
the better disposition of the materials, the substitution of wire 
ropes for the cumbersome chains previously used, the placing 
of the operating winch overhead at the centre of the lift span, 
and the arranging of the winch so that the one main longi- 
tudinal shaft geared directly with the two transverse shafts 
carrying the rope wheels. The design was far in advance of 
previous lift bridges but difficulties were met with owing to the 
nntwisting of ropes causing the weights working in the towers to 
brush, inducing considerable friction, which it was thought 
advisable to avoid when the Wilcannia and Tocumwal Bridges, 
designed by Mr. J. A. McDonald, under Mr. Dickson, were 
being considered. 

In the design for these two bridges the driving shaft was 
Placed transversely and geared into two longitudinal shafts 
carrying the rope wheels placed directly over the centre of the 
towers, the balance boxes being placed on the outside of towers 
working on V « u ides. The clear fairway provided is 50' - r >" and 

The Swan Hill bridge designed by the author in ISO I, was the 
next and latest type of lift bridge to be ereeted. The bridge 
consists of one steel lift span 58' 4" between centres of bearings 
over piers, two 91' 0" timber truss spans, and four 35' timber 
approach spans. {Plates i and 2.) The bridge is designed for a 

live load of 84 lbs. per square foot of floor space, and a concentrated 
load of 16! tons on a 10 ' 4 " wheel base > with 9 2 tons on a P air ° f 
wheels, 5' centres. The wire ropes carrying counterweights are 
21" circumference composed of six strands round a core of hemp, 
each strand containing seven wires of mild crucible steel, having 
after galvanising, an ultimate strength of 87 tons per square 
inch, and a twisting strength of 34 turns in a length of 8". 
Prof. Warren, lC.iMt.CE., has carried out at the University of 
Sydney for the Bridges Branch of the Public Works Department, 
a number of tests on rope of the same section, the results (given 
in appendix A.) showing the ultimate strength of a full size "laid" 
rope to be 90% of the strength of the forty-two wires tested indi- 
vidually, and the strength of a turned and spliced end to be 83% 
of the ultimate strength of the rope. As the ultimate strength 
of the sixteen ropes in Swan Hill bridge is 266 tons, and the 
weight of lift span only 34] tons the ropes have a "factor" of 7f, 
an ample margin in view of the slow speed and large diameter of 

diameter of the ropes. 

The steel used in the superstructure is of a mild quality, having 
an ultimate strength of 26 to 29 tons per square inch, with an 
elongation of from 20% to 26% in a length of 10". The main 
girders of steel lift span stand 16' 4" apart and have sliding bear- 
ings at each end, whilst the timber trusses are 21' 7" apart centre 
to centre. The 4" sawn tallow wood planking on the lift span 
rests on longitudinal ironbark girders secured to steel web plate 
"fish-bellied" cross girders pitched 8' 4" apart. 

The planking on truss spans and approach spans rests on iron- 
bark longitudinal girders. The carriage way is 14' between the 
sawn ironbark kerbs on lift span, and 18' 3" and 21' 11" between 
kerbs on truss and approach spans respectively, one 4' 6" foot way 
being provided on the upstream side of truss and approach spans. 

The two river piers each consist of a pair of cast-iron cylinders 
18' 4" centre to centre, founded on rock and extending to a height 

of 1' S ' above summer level, supporting two wrought-iron cylinders 
diameter, connected with still' wrought iron diaphragm bracing, 
so designed as to ensure pier acting as a whole. The cylinders 
are filled with concrete composed of five parts of 21" granite, two 
parts of sand and one part of Portland cement, richer concrete 
being used in the top and bottom of cylinders. The maximum 
pressure on the rock foundation with bridge fully loaded and 
neglecting any assistance from flotation being 4f tons per square 

The superstructure of lift span is similar to that adopted for 
the Tocumwal and Wilcannia bridges, the two steel main girders 
are 4' 2" deep with top and bottom boom of trough section, formed 
of two angle bars riveted to 12' x A" plates, the web consisting 
of vertical struts at ends and channel bars set to an angle of 4-V. 
The steel web plate cross girders are placed at the apices, being 
carried on steel saddle plates riveted to bottom boom of main 
girder, two main girders being connected by a lateral system of 
adjustable diagonal flat bars. The side spans are of the 1893 
standard type design, a description of which has already been 
given by the author in a paper read before this Section. 1 

The four hollow towers (similar in general design to Tocumwal 
bridge) 3' square, 40' 2" long, are formed each of four vertical 
angle irons, braced with horizontal T iron and flat diagonal tie 
oars. The base of each tower is continued 6' down inside wrought 
iron cylinder and bolted to four 6' lengths of vertical angle iron, 
these vertical angle irons being bolted to diaphragm plates, which 
in turn are connected to the shell of cylinder by 3" x 2" x £" angle 
irons with f" rivets, the base of the tower being then filled in with 
concrete to the level of cylinder caps ; the bolt holes in the 6' 
vertical angle irons and in the diaphragm plates were drilled in 
*itu, thus permitting of the adjusting of the slight difference in 
the sinking of cylinders, which amounted to J" in the centres of 
the upstream and tV in the centres of the downstream cylinders. 
1 Journ. Eoy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxix., 1895. 

A provision for such adjustments {Plate 3, fig. 1) is of considerable 
importance in this type of bridge, the correct centring of towers 
being specially necessary for the satisfactory working of lift span. 
Over each pier are seated two transverse girders spaced 17" apart, 
the webs being connected with four diaphragms, and the top and 
bottom flanges, with chequered plates and flat diagonal bars 
respectively. Between the transverse girders over each pier, are 
fitted, two longitudinal girders spaced 13' 7" apart. A lateral 
strut at centre of longitudinal girders with four diagonal tie rods 
completes bracing of the tops of the four towers. (Plate 4) 

The lift span is counter weighted with four cast-iron balance 
boxes, working on steel V guides bolted to the outside angles of 
towers. (Plate 3, fig. 2) The balance boxes (each in eight sections, 
filled with lead) are carried by wrought iron adjustable suspension 
rods, to \ \ \ il 1 tie xt e t eel galvanised wire 

ropes— four to each box — which pass over the rope wheels placed 
over the top of towers and are then connected to steel suspension 
brackets bolted to the four corners of lift span. The lift span 
"hangs" clear when being raised, but provision is made for 
"swaying" by placing two rollers at each corner of span to take 
bearing on a bull headed rail bolted to angle irons of towers. 
The machinery platform (Plate 3, fig. 2) is placed downstream at 
the same level as kerb of side spans. 

Although provision is made for working with two men, the 
bridge as a rule, will be operated by one man working a winch- 
handle (Plate 3) on a horizontal shaft inside the towers, carrying 
a pinion gearing into a spur wheel keyed to a second horizontal 
shaft which is connected by mitre wheels to a vertical shaft pass- 
ing up the inside of and through the top of towers, the vertical 
shaft being connected by bevel wheels with a short horizontal shaft 
at the top of towers, (Plate 4) carrying a pinion gearing into a 
spur wheel keyed to the downstream longitudinal driving shaft, 
to which is keyed at each end a pinion gearing into teeth cast on 
the inside of rim of the two rope wheels over down-stream towers, 
pinions are also keyed to ends of upstream longitudinal shaft, 

ring into the two rope wheels over upstream towers, whilst 
two longitudinal shafts driving the four rope wheels are 
itre wheels keyed to a transverse shaft, the uniform 
working of lift span being thus ensured. 

The total weight of the lift span is thirty-four and a-quarter 
tons, and is so far counterweighted that a maximum weight of 
18001bs. has to be raised or lowered, one man with ease raising or 
lowering span through 25' 10" in 5 J minutes or at the rate of 4w' 

It may be here noticed that the Brewarrina bridge with its 
" endless " chain is balanced in all positions, but at Swan Hill 
the lift span is only in balance when opposite the counterweights, 
necessitating provision being made in the latter bridge for lifting 
the unbalanced ropes, this weight however is more than com- 
pensated for by the reduction in frictional resistance obtained 
w ith ropes in lieu of chains and sprocket wheels 

The Swan Hill bridge differs from previous lift bridges in this 
Colony, in which wire ropes have been adopted, in the following 
respects— the lift is 5' 10" higher, the machinery platform is placed 
at deck level thus avoiding the time lost by man climbing towers 
and making his way to an overhead winch, whilst the disposition 
and design of lifting gear is altogether new, again the absence 
of an overhead machinery platform relieves the deep longitudinal 
girders in the Swan Hill bridge of considerable weight, thus 
preventing any deflection in the girders, with the accompanying 
" pinching " of the shafts. 

The gearing and shafting throughout the author's design is 
v 'ery muc h lighter, the pitch of teeth of pinion on the shaft 
driving rope wheels being only 1.1" as against 2J" and on the first 
motion shaft <" as against 1\" in previous bridges. 

Again the adoption in the Swan Hill bridge of eight cast-iron 
boxes filled with lead for each counterweight, in lieu of a balance 
w eight formed of a cast-iron bottom section weighing four and three- 
quarter tons with a cast-iron top section filled with lead, facilitates. 

transport and erection, whilst the substitution of lead for a greater 
portion of the cast-iron used in previous counterweights reduces 
the overall length of the balance weight with a corresponding 
reduction in the height of the four towers. 

The Tocumwal and Swan Hill bridges, being over the same 
river, having the same fairway, the same width of deck, the same 
weight of lift span, and having been erected by the same contractor, 
a comparison of the relative cost of the two designs may be of 

The Tocumwal bridge was completed in 1895 and the Swan 
Hill bridge in 1896, the distance from Melbourne to site of the 
former bridge is one hundred and fifty-seven miles (one hundred 
and fifty miles by rail and seven miles by road), and from 
Melbourne to Swan Hill two hundred and fourteen miles by 

The lift span, towers, overhead bracing girders at top of towers, 
platforms, counterweights and machinery complete fixed %n situ, 
cost for Tocumwal Bridge £3,400 as against £2,600 for the Swan 
Hill bridge, with its 5' 10" additional lift. 

The overall length of the Tocumwal Bridge, with the iron side 
spans is 336' as against 385' the overall length of the Swan Hill 
bridge with timber side spans. The completed cost of the two 
structures including engineering expenses being £19,635 and 
£8,900 respectively. The large difference in cost is due to the 
more economical design of lift, the substitution of timber for iron 
side spans and the securing of foundations for the two river piers 
at Swan Hill at a lesser depth than at Tocumwal, again the plant 
used at Tocumwal bridge, was available for Swan Hill bridge 
and prices were lower when contract for the latter bridge 

The contract for the bridge and New South Wales approaches 
was let on 6th June, 1895, to Messrs. J. B. and W. Farcuiharson 
of Melbourne, who placed the manufacture of the metal work 
with Messrs. Mephan, Ferguson *fe Co. of Melbourne, the whole 

ot the timber, with the exception of a few piles was obtained from 
the northern rivers of New South Wales, forwarded to Melbourne 
by sea, a distance of about 726 miles, thence to site by rail a 
distance of 214 miles, or a total carriage of 940 miles, the planed 
and framed timber in truss work being erected in situ at 4/- per 
cubic foot, which gives a clear idea of the economical character 
of this design of truss. Mr. D. W. Armstrong was the Resident 
Engineer in charge of the erection of the structure, he having 
previously superintended the erection of the lift bridge at 

In conclusion the author desires to acknowledge his indebtedness 
to Mr. Darley, ar. Inst. c.E., Engineer-in-Chief for Public Works, 
(under whom the Swan Hill Bridge was completed) for the courtesy 
extended in lending photographs and supplying plans to illustrate 
the several bridges referred to in the paper, and to mention the 
assistance of Messrs. Dare and Edgell, Assoc. Ms. Inst. c.E., who, 
under the author's direction were engaged on the more important 
detail work connected with the structure. 




^Dimensions. [Ultimate Strains. | ^^ 


Date of 1 Test 

1 Mean 1 




ldiam.jMean.area Total 

wire, in ll,s ^strawht^ 

8 in. 

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— • 

f 0Peint0n8 ' 

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15 5 03 

2 A 

3 A 

formed of 7 strands 
round a hemp 

6 strands of 7 wires 


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a 111 


id, there 

was one 

s point he 



rig the 

cost of th 

e bridge at 

t Swan Hill 
(£8,900) with that of the bridge erected at Tocumwal (£19,635), 
gave as reasons for the saving on the former, that the plant used 
at Tocumwal was available for Swan Hill, and that the prices 
(he presumed wages was meant) were lower when the latter bridge 
was placed. Now, this comparison having been made he thought 
the qualifications should have been detailed, and he thought that 
Mr. Allan might have given a rough estimate as to the difference 
caused by the fall in wages between the two periods when these 
bridges were built, and also divided the cost of the plant. With- 
out at all events a rough idea of the qualification, the comparison 
was absolutely useless. 

Mr. Haycroft said that he was not aware whether in this 
Colony temporary openings in bridges had been effected by other 
means than lift bridges similar to that at Swan Hill, but if such 
was not the case, he did not agree entirely with the six consider- 
ations put forward by the author which led to the adoption of the 
lift bridge at Swan Hill. 

Taking the first of these considerations, that of economy, this 
essential could have been better secured by the adoption of a 
bascule opening with a single leaf ; the economy of course was 
confined to the cost of construction as the cost of working, though 
not the labour as measured by the work done, would be equal in 

The author would no doubt acknowledge that for equal spans 
it required less power to operate a bridge of the bascule type than 
any other kind ; the average lift of a bascule leaf being only one- 
half, or it might be, if not necessary to bring it into a vertical 
position, one-quarter that of a straight lift bridge of equal span. 
A bascule leaf could be constructed to operate without the aid of 
towers by counterweighing the end, labour of opening being con- 
fined to overcoming inertia and friction as in the case of a vertical 
lift bridge. He might remark that the bascule type of opening 

was probably the oldest type known, having been used in crossing 
moats, affording a thoroughfare when down and a protection 

Consideration No. 2 was rendered unnecessary if No. 1 was 

No. 4 can be equally as easily provided in either type, as also 
Nos. 5 and 6. 

In Engineering News, No. 19, Vol. xxxvi., a leader on the 
design of moveable bridges said, amongst other interesting matter, 
" It is true in engineering work as in every other industry, that 
the force of precedent and custom is exceeding powerful and often 
leads to the adoption of a certain pattern or type of structure or 
machine, not because it is the best that could be devised, or that 
is offered, but because custom has sanctioned it and anything else 
is an innovation." These words were no doubt true in a general 
sense but he did not consider that they applied to the author, as 
he gave him credit for being free from such fine old, crusted, con- 
There was no doubt that the vertical lift bridge, as described, 
was counterbalanced effectively when being operated, but this 
very desirable essential could be effected, and has been, in a 
variety of ways, in a bascule opening. 

The author in describing the alterations to the Bourke Bridge 
in 1895 stated the arrangement of the wire ropes was designed 
by Mr. de Burgh, and then proceeded to describe the arrangement; 
after a careful perusal of this description, Mr. Haycroft was of 
opinion that it was practically identical with the arrangement of 
the wire ropes used by J. A. L. Waddell, M. Am. Soc. C.E., in the 
Halstead Street Bridge at Chicago : a very full description of 
of this structure would be found in the Transactions of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. xxxiii. Mr. Waddell 
having read his paper in Nov. 1894. He possessed blue prints of 
the drawings of this bridge, kindly sent him by Mr. Wadd,-Il, 
where of course the arrangement of ropes was similar to that 
described in the volume referred to. 

If the author's statement was correct he thought that the coin- 
cidence was remarkable, and he also noticed that Mr. Williamson, 
M. Am. Soc. C.E., had used an identical device in a design which he 
submitted for the Newtown Creek Bridge, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Mr. Haycroft would wish to add, that the author was to be 
congratulated on the type of side spans referred to by him as the 
1893 standard type, and there could be no doubt as to the vast 
superiority of this type when compared with the one it supplanted, 
which was in existence when Mr. McDonald was Engineer for 
Bridges, the principal improvements being the abolition of the 
unnecessary diagonal members in the panels, the removal of 
secondary stress in the bottom boom, and the facility with which 
decayable parts could be removed with a minimum of interruption 
to traffic. 

Mr. Grimshaw said he found, on reference to the paper, that 
the timber used in this bridge was obtained in New South Wales 
and carried a very considerable distance. This struck him as 
rather remarkable, seeing that abundance of red gum was obtain- 
able near the site of the bridge. No doubt the particular timber 
used was specified for and this would account for it, but he 
thought red gum could be obtained in the neighbourhood of Swan 
Hill at 2/6 or 3/-. He noticed also that the ironwork was con- 
structed in Melbourne, and it might be explained how Melbourne 
firms secured it against English competitors and if tenders were 
invited in the old country. 

In regard to the design it was of course very evident that this 
idgeof this description, there being no 
under it. As regards the reduced cost 
in Hill bridge as compared with that constructed at 

foundations and the fact that the plant used for the latter was 
available for the former. With regard to the reference made to 
the similarity of design in the bridge under discussion and the 
Chicago bridge, it was of course quite possible that two engineers 
should hit upon similar designs at the same time. 

Mr. Dare, referring to Mr. Haycroft's rei a 1 o I a le 
bridges, without wishing to trench on Mr. Allan's reply, was of 
opinion that the bascule type was unsuitable for rivers such as 
the Murray, where a bridge had frequently to be opened in flood 
time, on account of the pressure of water on the tail end of the 
span when open ; in any case, if the additional cost of a pier 
sufficiently stiff to carry a bascule span were considered, he doubted 
whether that type would prove economical for a span giving the 
same clear opening as the lift span at Swan Hill. 

Professor Warren said he would like to ask Mr. Allan in 
regard to the revolutions of the pinion driving the rope, how much 
had been allowed for frictional and other prejudicial resistances. 
He himself had nothing to criticise in the paper. One could see 
a gradual improvement in the designs of these bridges, as Mr. 
Haycroft pointed out in the side trusses, and no doubt the lift 
bridge at Swan Hill was a long way ahead of any which had 
preceded it. 

Mr. Allan said, the first point brought forward was by Mr. 

that he (Mr. Allan) should not have compared the Swan Hill 
Bridge with the Tocumwal Bridge, without showing in detail how 
the saving in the item of plant, and the reduction in prices affected 
the comparison. The main feature of the paper perhaps was the 
Hft span, in which a savin- was shown of £800, the lift span at 
Swan Hill costing £2,600 as against £3,400 at Tocumwal— 
deducting this item for work which is common to both bridges, it 
leaves the completed cost ef the side spans, piers and approaches 
of Swan Hill bridge at £7,000 as against £16,255 for the same 
items in the Tocumwal bridge— this difference v 

usidered it unnecessary 

perhaps a 15, reduction in «a».-s. 
t of a few hundred pounds for plant 

o have made a thorough 
would have meant going thoroughly into tl 
structures and treating the question from 

however, as this question of the relative economy of Australian 
hardwood and metal structures had been so exhaustively dealt 
with by him in his paper on " Timber Bridge Construction in 
New South Wales," he (Mr. Allan) considered it hardly necessary 
to again touch upon the question in connection with the side spans 
of these two structures. 

In reply to Mr. Haycroft, he said that several bascule or end lift 
bridges had been erected in the Colony, of a cheap character. 
The leaf and towers were of timber, the necessarily varying 
counterweights being provided for by successively dropping 
sections of the weights on stops secured within the hollow 
towers, which were of the same height above top of pier as span 
of opening ; the great height of tower with the pull on the top 
thereof, consequent upon the raising or lowering of leaf had 

resulted in the towe 

tnting" in spite of the tie rods ; 

ing the top of towers back to the side spans, clearly showing 
the necessity of a large based tower with this class of bridge, the 
expense of which, taken in conjunction with the required rigid 
and costly pier foundations, would be less economical in construc- 
tion than the straight lift with its additional counterweight, but 
shorter and lighter towers carrying only vertical loads. 

Whilst he was fully alive to the advantages of the bascule for 
waters carrying masted vessels with small beam, yet Mr. Allan 
from his experience of opening bridges, was firmly wedded to 
the straight lift, Swan Hill type, with a certain and direct motion, 
for rivers where only a limited headway was required. 

Mr. Haycroft had referred to the Halstead Street Chicago Lift 
Bridge, the contract for which was placed in 1893, but it was not 
until the middle of 1895 that the number of the Proceedings of 
the Ameriran Society of Civil Engineers, containing the account 
of this bridge, first reached this Colony. Previously to this, pro- 
visional protection had been granted to Mr. de Burgh for the 
arrangement of ropes for the Bourke Bridge, which although 
' " , differed from the Chicago Bridge in that the 

upporting ropes for the Bourke lift 

span passed from c 

of lift span over the rope wheel at top of tower, round which the 
rope takes a complete turn, passing thence across to, and over 
the rope wheel on opposite tower, the end of rope being made fast 
to counterweight. 

In the Chicago Bridge, the supporting ropes at each corner of 
span passed over the sheaves at top of tower and were then attached 
to the counterweights, this being the ordinary means adopted of 
counterbalancing a lift span, the operating ropes were however 
crossed over the waterway similarly to the Bourke arrangement, 
but instead of taking a complete turn over the sheaves, the "turn" 
was taken over the driving spiral drum at foot of tower, idle 
pulleys being interposed to change the direction of ropes as 
required, before attaching to counterweights. 

Mr. Allan was pleased that Mr. Haycroft was so thoroughly 
in accord with him, as to the features of the truss adopted for 
the side spans of the bridge, which had so far met all that he 
(Mr. Allan) had claimed for this type of truss when introducing 
it in 1893. 

Mr. Grimshaw had referred to the timber in the structure- 
Mr. Allan said tallow wood planking and ironbark for the 
remainder of the work had been specified, it being out of the 
question, with the small scantl