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Full text of "Curtis's botanical magazine."

CURTIS'S 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE; 

OR 

iFIo&ttr ©artrcu EJtsi)iar>rD: 

In which the most Ornamental Foreign Plants cultivated in the Open Ground, 
the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented and coloured. 

To which are added, 

, THEIR NAMES, CLASS, ORDER, GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS, 

ACCORDING TO THE SYSTEM OF LWNMVS; 

Their Places of Growth, Times of Flowering, and most approved 
Methods of Culture. 



CONDUCTED 



By SAMUEL CURTIS, F. L. S. 



THE DESCRIPTIONS 



By WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, L. L. D. 

F. R. A. and L. S. and Regius Professor of Botany in the University 
of Glasgow. 



vol. i. cn 

OF THE NEW SERIES; 
Or Vol. Lir. of the whole Work. 



Here Spring perpetual leads the laughing hours, 
And Winter wears a wreath of summer flowers. 

Sotheby's Virgil. 



LONDON : 

Printed by Edward Couchman, 10, Throgmorton Street ; 

FOR THE PROPRIETOR SAMUEL CURTIS, 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE WAREHOUSE, PROSPECT ROW, WALWORTH, 
410 AT G1AZENWOOD, JiE.\R COGGESHAIX, ESSEX: 

Also hj Sherwood and Co. Paternoster Row ; J. & A. Arch, Cornhill; Treuttel & Wurtz, Soho Square : 

Blackwood, Edinburgh; and in Holland, of Mr. Gt. Entering, Florist, at Haarlem "• 

And to be had of all Booksellers in Town and Country. 



1827. 

'Ho 



N. 2J05 




Ad>. bj S.Curtis. Walwmik. Jan 1S27. 



( 2705 ) 

MUTISIA SPECIOSA. HANDSOME PINNATE- 
LEAVED MlJTISIA. 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

( Nat. Old. — Composite. Div. Perdicie^: : corollulis 
bilabiatis. Spreng. ) 

Generic Character. 

lnvolucrum cylindricum, imbricatum, squamosum; squa- 
mis latis. Recept. nudum. Flosculi, disci, hermaphroditic 
tubulosi, 5-dentati, demum in lacinias, 2—5 asquales, vel 
in tres inaequales fissi ; antherce bisetosa? : radii faeminei, 
bilabiati ; labio inferiore ligulam referente, tridentato, 
superiore minore bipartito (raro integro vel nullo); rudi- 
menta filamentorum 5. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Mutisia speciosa; scandens, foliis pinnatis 6 — 7 jugispeti- 
olis cirriferis, foliolis ovato-lanceolatis acutissimis ses- 
silibus arachnoideo-tomentosis demum glabrk, floribus 
solitariis longe pedunculatis, squamis inferioribus in- 
volucri recurvis. 

Mutisia speciosa. Aiton Mss. in Hort. Reg. Kew. 



Descr. A scandent plant, of humble growth, as culti- 
vated in a pot, in the stoves of the Kew Gardens ; but, 
probably, in its native soil, reaching to a considerable 
length. Stems and branches angular. Leaves pinnated, 
with about six or seven alternate leaflets on each side, 
sparingly covered with a cobweb-like down, at length, 
probably, in consequence of age, becoming glabrous: 
Leaflets one, and sometimes nearly two inches long, ovato- 
lanceolate, entire, very acute, contracted at the base, but 
not petiolate, and there three-nerved ; the rest of the leaflet 
veiny : main petiole slender, terminated by a large branch- 
ing tendril. Stipules elliptical. Peduncle terminal, very 

long 



long, furrowed, with one or two small lanceolate bractece, 

and bearing a single large showy flower. Involucre long, 

cylindrical, clothed with numerous rather lax scales, which 

are ovato-oblong, the lower ones acute and reflexed, the 

upper ones erect and obtuse. Florets of the circumference 

female, about sixteen, forming a ray, each composed of a 

very long slender tube, two-lipped at the extremity ; the 

outer-lip a beautiful purple colour, ligulate, tridentate : 

the inner one pale, cut into two deep, revolute, filiform 

laciniae : the mouth furnished with five filiform processes, 

or abortive stamens. Germen oblong : Style long: Stigma 

cleft. Pappus three- fourths of the length of the floret, 

feathery. Florets of the disk perfect, tubular, yellowish, 

five-toothed, at length breaking into two or five equal 

revolute segments, or more frequently, into three uneq ual 

ones, the broadest one (three united segments) tridentate. 

Anthers long, greenish, protruded, each with two long 

setae at the base. Germen, Pappus, and Style, as in the 

florets of the circumference. 

We rejoice in having the opportunity to commence the 
New Series of the Botanical Magazine with so interesting 
a subject as the present plant, a novel species of a genus, 
of which, although twelve species exist in our Herbaria, 
not one had ever previously been cultivated in Great Bri- 
tain. The individual now under consideration is a native 
of Brazil, and was communicated to the Royal gardens at 
Kew, by M. Parmentier of Paris. There it blossomed in 
September, 1826 ; and from a specimen kindly given to 
me, by Mr. Aiton, aided by an excellent drawing in that 
gentleman's collection, the annexed figure and description 
were made. 

Four species only of Mutisia, with pinnated leaves, have 
been hitherto described. M. grandiflora, Clematis, pedun- 
cularis, and vicicsfolia, and these, as well as the simple- 
leaved ones, are all natives of the western side of South 
America. The one to which the present plant is most nearly 
allied, is, perhaps, M. peduncularis ; but that has the scales 
of the involucre all imbricated, and the larger segments of 
the corollules of the ray oval. 

The whole plant turns black in drying. We have re- 
ceived native specimens from the neighbourhood of Rio 
Janeiro, from Mr. Harris of that place, as well as more re- 
cently, from our valued friend, Mr. Burchell, who is now 
exploring, as a Naturalist, that highly interesting country. 

Fig 1 . 1. Floret of the Circumference. 2. Ditto of the Disk deprived of the 
Pappus. 3. Base of an Anther. — Magnified. 




K 2706. 




Jilt, by S.Curli*. Walwerth, Jan. . 1S27- 



( 2706 ) 

Pyrethrum uliginosum. Large-flowered 
Marsh Ox-eye. 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. CorymbiferjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaeulum nudum. Pappus marginatus. Cal. hemis- 
phsericus, imbricatus ; squamis acutiusculis, margine scari- 
osis. Willd. Div. Leucanthema. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pyrethrum uliginosum ; caule erecto superne ramoso, foliis 

sessilibus lanceolatis profunde serratis scabriusculis, 

floribus corymbosis. 
Pyrethrum uliginosum. cc JValdst. et Kitaib. PL Rar. 

Hung." JVilld. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 2152. Spreng. Syst. 

Veget. v. 3. p. 585. 
Chrysanthemum uliginosum. Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. p. 460. 
" Chrysanthemum lacustre." Brot. 
Matricaria inciso-serrata. Poir. in Encycl. Meth. Suppl. 

v. 3. p. 604. 



Descr. Annual, herbaceous. Stetns three to five feet 
high, rounded, striated, glabrous, branched almost wholly 
above, and there in a somewhat corymbose manner. Leaves 
four to five inches long, lanceolate, deeply and very irregu- 
larly inciso-serrate, particularly towards the extremity ; at 
the base, too, having generally a large tooth on each side ; 
the upper ones gradually smaller and less toothed : all of 
them slightly scabrous, with short hairs, and appearing, 
under a lens, minutely dotted, nerved, the midrib promi- 
nent on the under-side, swollen at the base, where it is 
inserted upon the stem : colour, a deep green, paler beneath. 

Flowers 



Flowers on several, terminal, leafy petioles, forming an im- 
perfect corymb, very large, three to four inches in diameter. 
Involucre hemispherical, compressed, of many imbricated 
dark-coloured scales, membranaceous and diaphanous at 
the margin. Florets of the ray very long, white, ligulate, 
tridentate at the extremity ; their germen oblong, abor- 
tive?, not crowned. Style with a yellow, bifid stigma. 
Florets of the disk small, yellow, tubular, the lower part 
cylindrical, covered with yellow glands, the limb broad, 
cup-shaped, five-toothed, the points of the teeth black, 
erect ; stamens with the anthers protruded. Germen ob- 
long, sulcated, crowned with a cup-shaped membranous 
pappus. Style longer than the stamens; stigma bifid. 
Receptacle convex, naked, dotted. 

The noble flowers of this plant, added to the lateness of 
the season when they are expanded (the month of October), 
render this a most desirable plant for the garden or the 
shrubbery. It is quite hardy; a native of Hungary, Spain, 
and Portugal, and the seeds of it were sent to the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, in 1825, by Mr. Fischer, of Gottingen. 
We observed the same plant flowering in the Royal gar- 
dens of Kew, during the Autumn of the last year. 



Fig. 1. Lower leaf, natural size. 2. Floret from the Disk. 3. Floret 
from the Circumference. — Magnified. 



y. 2JC7. 




"lb A fy XOirrtr. Walwert/t. Jan. J#2f. 



( 2707 ) 

Aster acuminatus. Pointed-leaved 
Michaelmas Daisy. 

?l', ?V. y,\ ■"!'. . V V. .'V. . V K A'. -!'• &• fa fa fa fa. fa fa< fa- fa. fa. A'. <fa 
VJS VJS ",jv' vfw" vf.* vj>* vf." vjs." vf-. vf. vf» Vf.* vis vf. vf. vf." vf.* vf.* vf. vf. vf. 

C&zss and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. Corymbifer.e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus simplex. Cor. radii 
plures 10. Cal. imbricati squamte inferiores (nonnunquain) 
patulae. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Aster acuminatus ; Iaeviter pubescens, caule simplici flex- 
uoso, foliis conformibus majusculis cuneato-lanceolatis 
superne inciso-serratis basi apiceque attenuatis, pani- 
cula divaricato-corymbosa, pedicellis longis bracteo- 
latis, involucri squamis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis 
appressis. 

Aster acuminatus. Michaux FL Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 109. 
Pursh. N. Am. FL v. 2. p. 555. Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. 
p. 447. Spreng. Syst. PL v. 3. p. 534. 



Descr. Stem erect, herbaceous, in a cultivated state, from 
a foot to a foot and a half high, flexuose, simple, angular, 
downy, bare of foliage at the base, upwards furnished with 
leaves, about four inches long, and nearly equal in size, 
very slightly downy, lanceolate, broadest above the middle, 
so as to be somewhat cuneate, and thence to the point 
inciso-serrate, at the base and at the extremity acuminated, 
the upper surface somewhat wrinkled, the lower with pro- 
minent anastomosing veins. Panicle terminal, longer than 
the leaves, subcorymbose ; the pedicels long, slender, with 
many small subulate scales or bractece, larger at their base, 

the 



the lower part of the panicle, and that only, leafy. Invo- 
lucre subcylindrical, glabrous, of several broadly subulate 
appressed scales. Florets of the ray rather long, white, 
recurved, and twisted; those of the centre or disk purplish; 
their teeth recurved. Stamens and Style much exserted, 
yellow. Seeds crowned with a pappus , which is nearly as 
long as the florets. 

Discovered by Michaux in Canada, and sent to our gar- 
dens from the same country (the neighbourhood of Mon- 
treal), by Mr. Cleghorn. Pursh discovered it upon the 
Alleghany mountains ; and a variety of it, with fewer flowers, 
upon the highest mountains of Virginia and Carolina. With 
us it flowers in October. 

This present is one of the few well-marked species of 
this most troublesome genus, characterized by its erect, 
simple, flexuose, stalk; large and uniform leaves; together 
with the long, slender bracteolated pedicels to the flowers. 
The Involucre has the scales singularly fine and delicate, 
and in the old state so narrow, as scarcely to be distinguish- 
able from the pappus. 

We propose, from time to time, doing what lies in our 
power in the present work, towards illustrating the indivi- 
duals of the genus Aster : for the British collections contain 
numerous but ill-understood species, which, flowering in 
the latest season of autumn, constitute the chief ornaments 
of our garden, till winter comes 

" to rule the varied year." 



Fig-. 1. Involucre. 2. Floret of the Disk. 3. Floret of the Circumference. 
— Magnified. 



y. 970* 




Oil. by S.i 



( 2708 ) 

solanum coiuaceum. coriaceous 
Solan um. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solanace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5 — 10-partitus. Cor. subrotata, 4 — 10-fida. An- 
therce conniventes, apice poro gemino dehiscentes. Bacca 
2, 3, 4-loeularis, placentis septo adnatis. Semina glabra. 

Specific Character. 

Solanum coriaceum; inerme, fruticosum, glabrum, foliis 
petiolatis oblongis coriaceis nitidis integris subvenosis, 
pedunculis terminalibus sub-unifloris, corolla 5-loba, 
lobis obtusissimis plicatis mucronulatis, calyce 4-par- 
tito. 



Descr. At present, in our collection, one individual of 
this plant has only attained the height of a foot. It is rigid, 
erect, much branched, glabrous in all its parts. Leaves two 
to three inches long, somewhat acute at the extremity, at 
the base tapering into a short footstalk, the texture thick 
and coriaceous, the surface very slightly veined, the margin 
quite entire. The flowers are upon short simple, or imper- 
fectly branched terminal peduncles. Calyx of four deep 
segments, spreading, the lower evidently formed of two, 
cohering at the margin. Corolla varying in size, sometimes 
an inch across, almost plane, of a beautiful purplish-blue 
colour, five-lobed, the lobes waved at the margin, longitu- 
dinally plicate in the middle, very obtuse and mucronated 
at the extremity. Stamens : Filaments and Anthers short : 
the latter deep orange. Gcrtnen ovate : Stj/le longer than 
the stamens. 

We 



We scarcely know any tender species of the genus more 
deserving of being cultivated than the present, for which 
we are indebted to Robert Barclay, Esq. of Bury Hill, 
who received the seeds from Mexico. It forms a handsome 
bushy shrub, with thick shining, and rigid, coriaceous 
leaves, and beautiful purplish-blue flowers, having in the 
centre a deep orange-coloured spot, formed by the stamens. 
These blossoms too are frequent upon the plant ; but those 
which appeared when it was quite young were much larger 
than the subsequent ones. There is often an irregularity 
in the lobes of the corolla, and the calyx is constantly and 
unequally four-partite. 



Fig. 1. Back view of a Flower. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. Stamens. — 
Magnified. 



N. 2709 




lf2/. 



( 2709 ) 

LlPARIS FOLIOSA. MANY-LEAVED 
LlPARIS. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchideje. Div. MalaxidejE. Lindl. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum planum, explanatum, integrum, varie versum. 
Columna alata. Pollinia 4 (antice cohaerentia). Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Liparis foliosa ; bulbo rotundato, foliis (subtribus) lance- 
olatis carinatis enerviis racemo subasqualibus, scapo 
compresso, labello apice reflexo obscure tridentato. 

Liparis foliosa. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 882. 



Descr. Plant, to all appearance, parasitic. Bulb round- 
ish, about an inch in diameter, bearing a few ovate, acute 
bracteas at the base, and, at the summit, about three lan- 
ceolate, carin ate, somewhat fleshy, acute, nerveless, recurved 
leaves. The scape springs from the centre of those leaves, 
which, being the present year's production, have no bulb 
yet formed. It rather exceeds the leaves in length, is com- 
pressed, and bears about ten flowers in a lax spike or raceme. 
The segments of the perianth are all linear, pale yellow 
green, reflexed, the two innermost ones the narrowest. 
The labellum broadly oblong, yellow green, with an orange 
spot in the centre, thick and fleshy, the lower half erect, 
and appressed as it were to the column, the upper half bent 
down ; the extremity has three obtuse teeth. Column linear- 
clavate, curved, margins in front slightly winged. Anther 
yellow, operculate, enclosing two didymous waxy pollen- 
masses. Germen linear, straight, tapering down into a 
footstalk, and having, at its very base, a small bractea. 

Drawn 



Drawn from a plant presented by Mr. Barclay., to the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden, which flowered in the month of 
October, 1826. It is a native of the Mauritius, and there, 
in all probability, grows upon trees. The figure given in 
the Botanical Register being drawn from a young speci- 
men, the bulbs were not formed, and hence, probably, 
Mr. Lindley was induced to suppose the plant was ter- 
restrial. 

Like many other parasitical plants, it is easily culti- 
vated in common soil, which serves as a support to the 
individual, and as a vehicle for moisture. The roots that 
are thrown out from the base of the bulb lie nearly horizon- 
tally upon the surface of the earth. 



Fig. 1. Single flower. 2. Summit of the Column, from which the Anther is 
removed. 3. Inside view of the Anther-Case. 4. Pollen masses. 5. Lip. — 
Magnified. 



,v: £ m 




WJUde/ 



ftii. by S. Curtis, WalwoHk.Jan.lgSJ. 



( 2710 ) 

Gnaphalium modestum. Squamose-flow- 
ered Cape Gnaphalium. 

A'. A'. A'. A'. A*. A / . A'. A/. .~i'. A'. A 1 , A'. A'- A'. A'. A'. A'. ■4'i As. ;V. A'. A*- &• 
7fr 'jif vfr vjs* vj»' vjs" vf: vjw" •/!■>• */fv" '<^" vj>" v^ m /is m ,\c ■/?%' vfr "vf? *<f,* "vf.* "/Jn v^ '/j,* 

CZass and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum imbricatum, squamis internis scariosis sub- 
coloratis. Rec. nudum, scrobiculatum. Flosc. radiales 
feeminei, imperfecti, tenuissimi v. nulli. Pappus pilosus 
seu apice penicellatus. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Gnaphalium modestum ; fruticosum, ramosum, foliis line- 
aribus canaliculatis dense tomentosis, pedunculis ter- 
minalibus solitariis, involucro lato-cylindraceo tomen- 
toso, squamorum apicibus attenuatis nudis reflexis. 

Astelma modestum. Sieber Fl. Cap. n. 12. 



Descr. Stems decumbent at the base, throwing up nu- 
merous erect branches, which are stiff and rigid, covered 
with a dense cottony down. Leaves alternate, about two 
inches long, linear, almost filiform, waved, semicylindrical 
on the back, grooved in front, thickly clothed with white 
down. The peduncles terminate the branches, and are 
from two to three inches long, cottony, single-flowered. 
Involucre broadly cylindrical, of several imbricated reddish 
scales, cottony, especially in the middle; the extremities 
attenuated into a long, brown, membranaceous, naked, 
reflexed point. Receptacle foveolated, the cells deep, the 
partitions laciniated. Florets all tubular, perfect, yellow, 
live-toothed. Anthers each with two awns at the base. 

Gcrmcn 



Germcn more than half immersed in flic cells of the recep- 
tacle, at length forming an oblong tuberculated J'ruit. 
Style (as well as the stamens) included. Stigma a little 
exserted, bifid, the segments linear, spreading. Pappus of 
numerous white, filiform, feathery processes, united at the 
base, and often forked. 

The only knowledge wo have of the cultivated state of 
this plant, is derived from the Royal gardens at Kew, in 
which inestimable collection it flowered in the month of 
June, 1826. From an excellent drawing then made, and 
in the possession of W. T. Aiton, Esq. the annexed figure 
was made. The seeds were sent, in 1824, from the Cape 
of Good Hope, by Mr. Bowie, who was long and most ad- 
vantageously employed in collecting plants in the interior 
of Southern Africa, at the government's expencc. Ever} 
friend to Science must regret that this indefatigable Natu- 
ralist, after sending the greatest treasures, both of living 
and dried plants to the Royal gardens, and, in the midst of 
his usefulness, has, by a needless st retell ofpenimoni been 
recalled. We do rejoice to find, however, that he "has re- 
solved upon visiting the same productive country, as a 
Naturalist, on his own account, only seeking for remunera- 
tion in the sale of such living or dried roecimens, or seeds, 
as may be useful to the Botanists and Cultivators in Europe. 
Dr. Sieber, of Prague, has visited the Cape and other dis- 
tant countries in the same capacity, and has thereby con- 
siderably aided the cause of Science. 

The Naturalist last mentioned, if not the first to discover 
the present plant, was, at least, the first to publish it. in his 
" Specimens of Cape Plants," as belonging to the genus 
Astelma of Mr. Brown ; but that genus is said to have a 
receptacle which is neither chajfy nor honey-combed. In the 
present case, it is deeply honey -combed. 



Fiff. 1. Inferior, and fif. 2. Superior Srale of tlir Involucre. .'J. Floret 
and portion of the Receptacle. 4. Stamens. — Magnified. 




v. zjn 



WLB.cUl 



JHi. b\ 5 Curtis. Walyrerth Jan ISHf. 



( 2711 ) 

candollea cuneiformis. cuneate 
Candollea. 

Class and Order. 

POLYADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Dilleniace;e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus, persistens. Pet. 5. Phalanges plurima^ 
singula? 4 — 5-antherifer3e. Caps. 3 — 6-locuIares, 2-spermae. 
De Gand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Candollea cuneiformis; foliis obovato-cuneatis glabris sub- 

dentatis, floribus sessilibus. 
Candollea cuneiformis. Labill. Nov. Holl. v. 2. p. 34. 

t. 176. De Cand. Syst. Veget.v. 1. p. 423. Ejusd. 

Prodr. v. 1. p. 73. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 338. 
Hiebertia cuneiformis. Smith in Rees. Cycl. 

Descr. A shrubby much branching plant; according to 
^abillardiere, 8—9 feet in height. Branches reddish- 
orown, much marked with the scars of fallen leaves ; the 
leaves are mostly confined to the extremity of the branches, 
alternate, crowded, obovato-cuneate, of a thickish texture, 
stiit and rigid, furnished with a midrib, the margins entire, 
ov > m ore or i ess distinctly toothed towards the extremity, 
every where, as is the whole plant, glabrous. Flowers 
sessile at the extremity of the branches, moderately large, 
yellow. Calyx of five unequal, spreading, ovate leaves, or 
deep segments, two of them, the smaller ones, acute, the 
others obtuse, and much resembling the smaller leaves. 
stamens in five bundles, each bundle placed opposite a 
Petal, and composed of four, rarely five, linear, yellow 

anther** 



anthers, whose filaments are free at the extremity. Pistils 
five. Germen ovate, gibbous, tapering into a filiform stale, 
with an obtuse stigma. Capsule " opening interiorly/' 
containing two seeds, which are roundish, brown, erect, 
and almost, or sometimes wholly enclosed in a membranous 
arillus. 

This exceedingly rare plant blossomed in the Royal gar- 
dens at Kew, in the month of May, 1826, having been 
raised from seeds, gathered, in 1823, by Mr. Allan Cun- 
ningham, at King George's Sound, during the fourth voyage 
of discovery of Capt. King. Labillardiere had found it 
previously, in Van Lewin's Land. 

The plant has much the habit of Hibbertia, with which, 
indeed, Sir James Smith unites it; but it differs from that 
genus essentially, in the polyadelphous stamens. 

The accompanying figure was copied from an excellent 
drawing, in the possession of W. T. Aiton, Esq, 



Fig. 1. Back view of a Flower. 2. Stamens and Pistil. :}. Si&gk fluster 
of Stamens. 4. Pistils. 5. Capsule, scarcely ripe, cut open to ihew the 
seeds.— Magnified. 



y. '2j/2 




Pub. ty S. QmtU Vklwtrth. .Jan.. IStJ 



( 2712 ) 

SCHELHAMMERA UNDULATA. WAVE-LEAVED 
SCHELHAMMERA. 

************************* 

Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Melanthace/e. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium 6-phyllum, petaloideum, campanulatum, 
asquale, deciduum ; foliola unguiculata, ffistivatione invo- 
luta, stamina segregantia. Stamina 6, basi foliolorum 
inserta. Antherce posticae. Ovarium 3-loc, loculis poly- 
spermis. Stylus!. Stigmata 3, recurva. Capsula 3-loc. 
3-valv., valvis medio septiferis. Semina nonnulla, ventri- 
cosa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Schelhammera undulata ; foliis amplexieaulibus' ovatis 
(v. ovato-lanceolatis) undulatis, floribus subsolitariis, 
caule diviso, petalorum unguibus foveolatis. Br. 

Schelhammera undulata. Br. Prodr. FL Nov. Holl p. 274. 



Descr. Root fibrous. Stem from four to six inches high, 
slender, dichotomously branched. Leaves alternate, re- 
mote, ovate, according to Mr. Brown, in the specimens that 
flowered at Kew, more inclining to lanceolate, waved or 
crisped at the margin, striated, the base sheathing. Pe- 
duncles terminal, one inch or an inch and a half long, bearing 
a single purple flower. Segments of the Perianth equal, 
lanceolate, striated. Stamens opposite to the petals : fila- 
m ents pale : the Anthers a deep purple. Pistil ; Germen 
spherical, three-lobed : Style longer than the stamens : 
stigmas three, recurved. Capsule three-lobed, the lobes 
0n gitudinally wrinkled, opening with three valves, each 

valve 



valve with the septum in the middle, bearing about six 
roundish seeds attached to a fleshy base. 

I had the satisfaction of seeing this rare little plant flow- 
ering in the stove of the Kevv Gardens, in September 1826. 
Prom that individual aided by a beautiful drawing* in the 
possession of William Townsend Aiton, Esq. the accom- 
panying figure was made. 

The species was discovered in the vicinity of Port Jack- 
son, New South Wales, by Mr. Brown, who dedicated it, 
together with the S. multijlora, to G. C. Scheliiammer, a 
Professor of Jena. Seeds were sent from the Five Islands 
to Kew, by Mr. Allan Cunningham, in the year 1825. 



* This drawing was made in the month of May, so that the plant appears 
to have no fixed period of flowering. 



Fig. 1. Segments of the Perianth and Stamens. 2. Pistil. 3. Capsule. 
4. Capsule open. 5. Seed. 6. Section of ditto. — Magnified. 



JV. 2713 




Tub. by XCuriis Vaiwar-tk FebJ.ltt?. 



( 2713 ) 

BuDDLEA BRASILIENSIS. BrASILIAN 
BUBDLEA. 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Vitices. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-fidus. Cor. 4-fida. Caps, bilocularis, dissepimen- 
tum e marginibus val varum. Semina paleacea. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Buddlea brasiliensis; foliis deltoideo-oblongis perpetiolos 
decurrentibus connatis irregulariter crenato-dentatis, 
floribus verticillatis bracteatis, ramis tetragonis lana- 
tis. Graham MSS. 

Buddlea brasiliensis. Cf Jacq. fil." — Spreng. Syst. Veg. 
v. I. p. 430. 



Descr. Shrub erect. Stem nearly round ; bark brown 
and cracked. Branches opposite, decussating, four-sided, 
covered with a white wool, which, subsequently, peels off. 
Leaves opposite and decussating; when young, oblong, 
afterwards becoming wider at the base and more pointed, 
so as to be nearly deltoid, unequally dentato-crenated, 
broadly decurrent along the petiole, where they are quite 
entire, connate, soft, toinentose, especially beneath, and 
there white, green above, and reticulated. Flowers verti- 
^'late, the lowest, whorl on two short, axillary footstalks. 
Venicillus many-tlowered, leafy. Bractece small, pointed, 
& r een, placed on the outside of the a\ horls. Calyx persist- 
ln ^ green, covered with white down, four-cleft. Corolla 
°rang e -yellow, hairy within and without, least so on the 
"Pper surface of the limb; tube more than twice the length 

of 



of the calyx : limb spreading, four-parted, the segments 
rounded. Anthers reddish, almost sessile, in the throat of 
the corolla ; pollen pale-yellow. Germen very slightly 
hairy, oval : style filiform, at length exserted. Stigma 
rounded, lobular, deep green. Graham MSS. 

Communicated, along with the above description, by 
Dr. Graham, from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. The 
seeds were received from Russia, through the kindness of 
Mr. Hlnneman. 

Sprengel has included it in his Systema Vegetabilium, 
under the name of B. brasiliensis of J acq. Fil. ; but I 
do not know in what work of Jacquin it is described. 
Sprengel further says, it is the B. Neemda, Hortulanorum, 
and the B. perfoliata of Humboldt. The latter it cannot 
be ; for it is quite at variance with the description given in 
the Nova Genera. 

It is said to be a native of Brazil and Mexico. The 
flowers are produced in the stove, in the month of No- 
vember. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Stamen. 4. Leaf, from the lower part of 
the branches. — All but Jig. 4 magnified. 



X. i 714. 




n/>- 'n S. i urtis It'u 



( 2714 ) 

Crotalaria dichotoma. Dichotomous 
Crotalaria. 

Class and Order. 

DlADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 

( Nat. Old. — Leguminosje. Div. II. LotejE. De Cand. ) 

Generic Character. 

CaL quinquelobus, subbilabiatus, lab. sup. bi, infer. 3- 
fido. Cor. vexillum, cordatum, magnum, carina falcato- 
acuminata. Filamenta omnia connexa, vagina saepius su- 
perne fissa. Stylus lateraliter barbato-pnbescens. Legumcn 
turgidum valvis ventricosis inflatum, saepius polyspermum, 
pedicellatum. De Cand. 

Specific Character. 

Crotalaria dichotoma ; fruticosa, diffusa, foliis ternatis 
cuneato-ellipticis pilosiusculis mucronatis, stipnlis 
subulatis reflexis persistentibus, racemis subcapitatis 
oppositifoliis. Graham MSS. 

Crotalaria dichotoma. Graham MSS. 



Descr. Stem weak, round. Branches long, straggling, 
pubescent, slightly furrowed towards the top, subdichoto- 
mous, one of the limbs being generally a little thicker than 
the other. Leaves ternate, leaflets elliptical, mucronate, 
w edge-shaped at the base, rather longer than the petiole, 
and supported on very short, equal, partial footstalks, soft, 
covered with minute pubescence, very indistinct on the 
upper surface, bright green, and becoming mottled when 
lading, mid-rib strong; petiole half an inch long, furrowed, 
spreading at right angles to the branch. Stipules awl- 
shaped, reflected, persistent. Racemes opposite to the 
| e aves, subtriquetrous, their flowers crowded towards the 
to p, one occasionally half way up the peduncle. Bractea; 

like 



like the stipules, but less frequently reflected. Calyx bila- 
biate, hairy, segments pointed, green, upper lip two-parted, 
spreading, lower lip three-parted, segments parallel and 
closely applied to the keel. Corolla yellow, vexillnni 
rounded, spreading, striated with deeper lines on the back, 
claw furrowed and hairy on its lower side ; alec involute, 
shorter than the vexillum ; carina pointed, equal in length 
to the alee, split at its base, its lower edge forming nearly 
a right angle. Stamens monadelphous ; filaments very 
slender, five nearly as long as the style, and crowned with 
small, round, abortive anthers, five shorter, having oblong 
anthers of a deep yellow colour. Germen pubescent, flat- 
tened. Style turgid at the base, afterwards bent nearly to 
a right angle, filiform, hairy, persisting. Stig??ia small and 
pointed. Legumcn covered with small, appressed hairs, 
inflated, nearly cylindrical, slightly furrowed above. Seeds 
numerous (about fourteen) kidney-shaped, and arranged 
in two rows, at least when young. Graham MSS. 

In De Candolle's Prodromua SjystenuUis Naturolia 
Regn. Vcget. one hundred and thirty-seven species of 
Crotalaria are described, and among those of the division, 
" fol. palmatlm compositis 3 — 7-foliolalls ; foliti li-fo/iolatis 
racemis oppositifoliis ; stipulis setaccis aut nullis" there are 
several, it must be confessed, that, in character, approach 
very nearly to the present species : but yet, that differ in 
some particular ; so that I dare not venture to say that any 
is the same, without fuller characters or reference to the 
figures. Indeed, such extensive Genera can scarcely be 
expected to be well illustrated without plates. 

It is, perhaps, the Crot. lupulina of De Candolle, but 
that should have ovate legumes. Ours, like it, is a native 
of Mexico, the seeds having been brought from that coun- 
try by Mr. Mair, and by him communicated to the Botanic 
Garden of Edinburgh. The plants have been kept in the 
stove, and have flowered for two successive summers. 

Wild specimens were kindly given to me, by Chaiu i - 
Mackenzie Esq. our late Consul at .Mexico; and I have 
an individual, from the Hev. Lansdown GuiLDIKG, of SI. 
Vincent, that I can only distinguish from our plant, by its 
somewhat larger haves. I may observe, that my Mexican 
specimens, seem to be rather biennial, than fruticose. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamens with the Pistil. 3. Legume.-— Magnified. 



a: 2JJ5. 




f>,A A,S.r»rfi-r HWuwM ft-!'- 1. f&7- 



( 2715 ) 

LOCKIIARTIA ELEGANS. BEAUTIFUL 
LOCKHARTIA. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum superum, trilobum, tuberculatum, ecalcara- 
tum. Petala duo,, lateralia, patenti-reflexa, 3-conniventia. 
Columna alata. Antherce infra apicem columnar, opercu- 
laris. Massce pollinis 2, cereaceae. 

Specific Name. 
Lockhartia elegans. 



Descr. A parasite on the decaying trunks of trees. 
Stems three to five inches high., clothed with numerous, 
closely placed, distichous, equitant, ovato-oblong, very 
obtuse leaves, obscurely striated, each from half to three- 
quarters of an inch long, smallest at the base and at the 
summit. Flower pedunculated, from the axil of one of the 
upper leaves. Peduncle slender, drooping, with one or 
two ovate bractece, an inch long, single-flowered. Petals 
oblong-ovate, concave, pale yellow, the two lateral ones 
patent and even deflexed, the upper (but from the unusual 
direction of the flower inferior) immediately covering, and 
connivent with the two inner ones. Lip erect, and hence 
superior, oblong, three lobed, the two lateral lobes lanceo- 
late, standing out at right angles, the middle one very 
lar ge, obscurely three lobed, the central one notched, 
curved upwards. The colour is yellow, variously spotted 
^th red, the substance thick and fleshy, except at the ex- 
tremity, the upper surface tuberculated. Column large, 
yellow, spotted with red, having, on each side, a large 

crescent- 



crescent-shaped, serrated, deflexed wing. Anther in front, 
near the apex of the column, operculiform, two celled, 
having two ovate waxy pollen masses. 

The above description, and the annexed engraving of 
this singular and highly interesting plant, are made from 
a beautiful drawing in the possession of W. T. Aiton, Esq. 
That drawing was done from a specimen that Howered in 
the stove of the Royal Gardens at Kevv, and which was 
sent, at the request of his Excellency Sir Ralph Woodford, 
by Mr. David Locrhart, from the Island of Trinidad. 

Not finding the plant to agree with the character of any 
already defined genus, I am sure I am complying with 
what would be the wish of Mr. Aiton, in naming it after 
the very zealous and most deserving Botanist, who has 
introduced it into our gardens, and who, under the direction 
of the governor, so ably conducts the Botanic Garden at 
Trinidad. For this important situation (useful plants and 
trees being there especially cultivated) he is fitted no less 
by education, than by his travels. Instructed by Sir Ralph 
Woodford, he has visited many parts of South America, 
particularly the Caraccas, and the interior of Demarara : 
and let it be remembered, that he is one of the few of our 
brave countrymen, who returned from the disastrous Congo 
expedition, under Captain Tlckey, and the only survivor of 
the party by whom the river, above the falls, was examined. 
It was from Mr. Locrhart, that Mr. Brown, as that gentle- 
man tells us, in his inestimable Memoir on the plants of 
that expedition, received valuable information concerning 
many of the specimens, and also respecting the esculent 
plants, observed on the banks of the Congo. 



Fig. 1 Flower deprived of its Petals. 2. Back view of a Flower. 3. Front 
view of ditto. 4. Anther. 5. Pollen Masses.— Magnified. 




■ar*i'-t W«t 



//. /■;/./ J* <^. 



C 2716 ) 

GlLLIESIA GRAMINEA. GRASSY-LEAVED 
GlLLIESIA. 

********************* 
Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA TRIANDRIA. (TrIANDR. MONOG. LlNDL). 

( Nat. Ord. — Gilliesie^. Lindl. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucr ? pentaphyllum, foliolis duobus interioribus 
minoribus. Perianth, triphyllum, foliolis basi staminum 
unitis, inferne ssepe appendiculatis, superioribus lanceo- 
latis, inferiore labelliformi carnoso. Fil. apice libera, 
dentibus (plerumque) tribus abortivis. Caps, trilocularis, 
tnvalvis, polyspermism valvis medio septiferis. 

Specific Name and Synonym. 

Gilliesia graminea. 

Gilliesia graminea. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 992. 



Descr. Bulb oblongo-ovate, tunicate, fibrous at the 
base, where it likewise produces its new bulb, as in the ge- 
nus Ixia. Leaves two from each root, long, linear, tapering, 
carinate at the back, grooved in front. Scape shorter than 
the leaves, terete, bearing at the extremity an umbel of few 
flowers, having two opposite, unequal, lanceolate brac- 
teas at the base. Pedicel two to three inches long, bearing 
a solitary green flower, of which the divisions are all more 
or less margined with red. Involucre (which seems to hold 
the situation of a calyx) of five leaves, which are subspi- 
jally imbricated before expansion, drooping and spreading 
horizontally : the three outer ones ovate, of which the two 
u Ppermost are the smallest : the two inner, or lateral ones 
opposite, broadly ovate, all sometimes obscurely toothed, 



nerved, red at the margin. 



Perianth, 



Perianth, if it may be so called,, since it is, especially in 
bud, much shorter than the organs of fructification, spring- 
ing from the fleshy base of the united stamens, of three 
leaflets ; the two upper the smallest, ovato-lanceolate, 
nearly erect, often with a tooth at the base (as at fig. 4) ; 
the lower, or anterior one, large, labelliform, thick and 
succulent, notched at the extremity, the margin thickened 
and revolute, having two curved linear teeth-like processes, 
one on each side, at the base, which stand forward. All 
these parts, when viewed under a magnifier, appear minute- 
ly papillose. Stamens united into a white, fleshy, slipper- 
shaped cup, embracing the Germen, with a red spot in 
front and a sulcus, the mouth oblique, furnished with six 
teeth (the free portion of the filaments) whereof three, in 
front, bear broadly-oval, yellow anthers, whilst the poste- 
rior three are abortive, or sometimes wanting altogether, 
Germen globose, three celled, many seeded. Style cylindri- 
cal : Stigma subtriangular. Capsule three valved, three 
celled : dissepiments occupying the centre of the valves and 
bearing a row of seeds on each side. 

It will be seen that I have taken a view of the structure 
of the flower in this most curious plant rather different 
from that which has been given by my friend Mr. Lindley, 
in his admirable account of the genus, in the Botanical 
Register. If I am correct in my idea, then, the number of 
parts in the flower corresponds sufficiently with that which 
prevails in the Monocotyledonous tribes. The pistil has 
the ternary division, both in the germen and the style. 
The cup, formed by the stamens, has clearly six divisions 
or teeth, three bearing anthers, and three imperfect. Around 
this body, and, evidently, springing from its base, are con- 
stantly three processes or leaflets (one having the form of 
the labellum in an Orchideous plant) which are regularly 
arranged round the axis of the flower, and which appear 
to me, collectively, to constitute the perianth. But around 
this there are, as Mr. Lindley justly observes, four, 
three, or two other processes, bearing no relation, either in 
their number or arrangement, to the outer segments or 
Monocotyledonous perianth. 

Now, upon a careful dissection of many specimens, I 
have universally found, that these small processes have 
their origin from the base of the segments of the perianth ; 
and hence, as well as from the fact of their varying in num- 
ber and in form, I am rather disposed to consider these as 
teeth-like appendages to the perianth, and, perhaps, even a 
kind of monstrosity, similar to what Mr. Lindley has ob- 
served 



served to take place in the stigma and style. The outer 
covering of the flower is, perhaps, justly defined, by that 
author, to be bracteas, although its appearance, its close 
proximity to the flower, and the full expansion of the latter 
so soon as the bracteas are laid open, would seem to mili- 
tate against such an opinion; add to which, what we have here 
called the perianth, never, even in bud, covers the organs 
of fructification : and, indeed, though the quinary divisions 
would seem incompatible with its being considered as a 
floral covering ; yet, if we look upon the lower large seg- 
ment, which we may do, as two united, the ternary series 
will be complete. It will be seen by the representation of 
the bud, at fig. 1, that this large (double) segment and a 
smaller one constitute the outer series, as much as the 
remaining three do the inner one*. 

Our plant, in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, which had 
been sent from Valparaiso, by the kindness of our esti- 
mable correspondent, Mr. Cruicrshanks, flowered readily 
in the stoves, in the month of October, and, perhaps, in 
greater perfection, under a cool frame. At best, however, 
the Gilliesia must be regarded rather as a curiosity, than 
an ornament. The infloresence bears, at first sight, a most 
striking resemblance to an Orchideous plant ; its bulb, 
foliage, seed, and seed vessel, to the Asphodelece ; and near 
this latter order, if not among it, I think it should be 
placed. Its situation, in the artificial arrangement, may be 
near Sisyrmchium, on account of the united stamens. 



Should this suggestion prove correct, and if the double perianth, or, as 
Mr. Lindley calls it, the third series to the usual senary division of Mono- 
cotyledones, be to great an anomaly; then, may we not consider that the three 
mner bodies, with their occasional tooth-like appendages, as glandular excres- 
cences, arising from the united base of the stamens ? Their whole structure 
is cellular, destitute, as Mi". Lindley observes, of spiral vessels, and would 
seem to favour such a notion : we must otherwise allow, that this supposed 
"°ral covering never shelters and protects the stamens and pistils at any 
period of its growth. 



Fl f- 1. Bud. 2. Outside view of a Flower, with the Involucre. 3. Inner 
ditto. 4. Flower taken from a Bud, side view. 5. Back view of the Sta- 
^ ei »s, including the Pistil, and shewing the three abortive Filaments. 6. 
*ront view of an expanded flower. 7. Side view of the same (a. The Label- 
"m, with two processes, b. The two upper Segments of the Perianth, c. 
{be Stamens, d. The Style and Stigma.) 8. Stamens and Labellum. 9. 
Anther. 10. Pistil. 1 1 . Section of the Germen. 12. Root, 13. Capsule. 

dll but the Root more or less magnified. 



( 2717 ) 

Deeringia celosioides, Celosia-like 
Deeringia. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. AMARANTHACEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

4 

Perianth. 5-partitum. Stamina 5, basi in cyathulam 
edentulam connata Anthers biloculares. Stylus tripar- 
titus. Bacca polysperma. 

Prutices glabri, debiles, supra arbores et frutices decum- 
bentes. Folia alterna. Spica terminates et e summis alis. 
F lores tribracteati. Pericarpium baccatum infiatum. Br. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Deeringia celosioides. 

Deeringia celosioides. Brown Prodr. Ft. Nov. Holl. 

p. 413. 
Celosia baccata. Retz. Obs. 5. p. 23. Willd. Sp. PL v. 

1. p. 1202. 



Descr. A glabrous plant, producing, as cultivated in 
the open air at Kew, green, herbaceous, much branched, 
straggling stems, such as require artificial support. Leaves 
alternate, ovate, acuminate, thin, entire, nerved : petiole 
slender, about an inch long. Spike long, slender, ter- 
minal upon the branches, and also springing from the 
axils of the superior leaves, bearing many small, green- 
*sh, sessile flowers, somewhat like those of Rivina humilis. 
Rracteas three, small, lanceolate. Perianth five-partite; 
the segments oval, concave, greenish, spreading. Sta- 
mens five, about as long as the perianth, and opposite to 
the segments, united at the base into a disk surrounding 

the 



the germen: Anthers oval, two-celled, yellow. Pistil; 
Germen roundish, ovate : Style three-partite : Stigmas ob- 
tuse. Fruit a bright red, hollow or inflated, three-lobed 
berry. Seeds upon erect, short seedstalks, all occupying 
the centre of the base of the pericarp, kidney-shaped, com- 
pressed, deep black and shining. Embryo curved, occu- 
pying the circumference of the albumen. 

Introduced, by W. T. Aiton, Esq. to the Royal gardens 
at Kew, from New Holland, where it was noticed by Mr. 
Brown, and mentioned in the Prodromus, Fl. Nov. Holl. as 
probably distinct from the Indian species described by 
Vahl, in having the flowers larger, and several seeds in 
each berry. As I have not seen the Indian plant, I am 
unable to settle this point. 

At Kew, this plant flourishes in great perfection during 
the summer months, planted in a good exposure in the open 
air, in the front of one of the stoves. The flowers are as 
devoid of beauty as those of Rivina humilis, and the berries, 
though much larger, are of a less brilliant red. The whole 
plant turns almost black in drying. 

Our figure was drawn in the month of October, from 
specimens kindly given to us by Mr. Aiton. In Novem- 
ber the frosts generally cut the plant almost down to the 
ground. 



Fig. 1. Flower-bud. 2. Expanded Flower. 3. Berry. 4. Section of 
ditto, shewing the situation of the Seeds. 5. Seed. 6. Section of ditto to 
shew the Embryo and Albumen. — Magnified. 




jv. rjris. 



ftii.by S.Curiis Walworth Feb. UtSf. 



( 2718 ) 

Aster fruticosus. Small shrubby Cape 

Aster. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Recept. nudum. Pappus simplex. Cor. radii plures 10. 
Cal. imbricati squamas inferiores (saepe) patulae. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Aster fruticulosus ; fruticosus, valde ramosus foliis subfas- 
ciculatis lineari-spathulatis punctatis integerrimis, pe- 
dunculissolitariis ex apice ramorum unifloris elongatis, 
calycibus imbricatis squamis linea dorsali elevata. 

Aster fruticosus. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1225. Thunb. Fl. Cap. 
ed. Schult. p. 687. 

Aster fruticulosus. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 2018. Ait. 
Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 49. 

Aster africanus frutescens &c. Comm. Hort. v. 2. t. 27. 

(£•) Aster maritimus fruticosus Hyssopi foliis confertis, 
flore albo, &c. Pluk. Mantiss. p. 29. t. 340./. 19. 

Dbscr. Stem woody, much branched in a zigzag manner, 
from eight inches to a foot or a foot and a half high, accord- 
ing to Commelin. Leaves upon numerous young branches, 
»ut so short in general, that the leaves appear to be fasci- 
culated; they are from half to three quarters of an inch 
*°ng, spreading, linear, approaching to spathulate, im- 
pressed with dots, the margin quite entire and recurved. 
Mowers solitary, upon terminal, solitary, naked, very slen- 
der peduncles. Involucre ovato-cylindrical, of several li- 
near-oblong, closely imbricated scales, slightly ciliated at 

the 




the top, at the back having an elevated, hard, callous, lon- 
gitudinal line or ridge. Florets of the ray purple, linear, 
acute, in the cultivated state, with one or two serratures 
at the margin. Germen oblong, hairy. Pappus rough. 
Florets of the centre, tubular, yellow. Germen and pappus 
as the florets of the circumference. 

This appears to have been cultivated, according to 
Philip Millar, so long ago as 1759, in the English gar- 
dens. It is certainly a very desirable greenhouse plant. 

Our figure was made from a drawing in the possession of 
W. Townsend Aiton, Esq., from plants introduced by Mr. 
Bowie from the Cape of Good Hope. It flowers in May. 

Our native dried specimens have not the serratures in the 
florets of the circumference which are here represented. 



Fig. 1. Leaves. 2. Two Scales of the Involucre. 3. Floret of the cir- 
cumference. 4. Floret of the centre. 5. Portion of the Pappoa, — Mag- 
nified. 




X 2/1. 9 



Pub hvS.Cu.rUs. *r,Uw.,Hh> F»h 1. 1821 






( 2719 ) 

Bletia Woodfordii. Woodfordian 
Bletia. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide/e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum sessile,, cucullatum ; nunc basi calcaratum. 
Petala 5, distincta. Columna libera. Massed pollinis 8 v. 
4, bilobae. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Bletia Woodfordii ; labello calcarato trilobo, lobis invo- 
lutis marjnnibus crenato-undulatis, caule folioso basi 
bulboso, scapo radicali, (foliis maculatis). 



Descr. Parasitic. Bulbs ovato-rotundate, bearing leafy 
stems, formed of the sheathing bases of the leaves. Leaves 
three to four, lanceolate, plicate, green, variegated with 
pale spots. Scape radical, two feet or more high, terete, 
glabrous, jointed at distant intervals ; with purplish-brown 
sheathing scales at the joints. Flowers large, in racemes 
terminating the scape, each subtended by a lanceolate, 
green bractea. Petals five, nearly equal, elliptical, concave, 
spreading, yellow-green, striated, four lateral and one ter- 
minal. Lip quite exposed, erecto-patent, nearly as long as 
the petals, large, involuto-cylindrical, white, thick, fleshy, 
obsoietely veined, embracing the column, with a short, 
white, obtuse spur at the base, the apex standing forward, of 
three broad, yellow-brown, completely involute lobes, which 
are waved and crenate at the margins. Column nearly as 
long as the lip, curved forwards, cylindrical at the back, the 
"•ont grooved and hairy, white. Sunk into the apex, as it 

were, 



were, is the Anther, convex,, white, operculiform, contain- 
ing four, two-lobed, waxy, obovate, yellow pollen masses. 

This fine species of Bletia was communicated, in 1820, 
from Trinidad, to the Royal gardens at Kew, by Sir Ralph 
Woodford, to whom I am anxious to dedicate it, as to a 
gentleman through whose love of science and liberality, 
our stoves are enriched by many choice productions, and 
to whom I am, individually, indebted for a most valuable 
Herbarium of Trinidad plants. 

As a species, it is abundantly distinct from any described 
individual of the genus. 

The engraving was made from a drawing in the pos- 
session Of W. TOWNSEND AlTON, Esq. 



Fig. 1. Reduced outline of a Plant. Side view of the lip, enclosing the 
Column and the Germen. 3. Column and Spur. 4. Front view of the 
Column, with the Spur cut open. 5. Summit of the Column, with the Anther 
and Stigma. 6. Interior view of the Anther, with the pollen masses. 1. 
Anther-case. 8. Pollen Masses. — All but Jig. 1. more or less magnified. 



.v. -jj-jo 




' ■ ■ 



( 2720 ) 
Protea longiflora. Long-flowered 

CREAM-COLOURED PrOTEA. 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteacejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. bipartibilis inaequalis, labii latioris laminis stamini- 
feris cohaerentibus. Stylus subulatus. Stigma angustius 
cylindraceum. Nux undique barbata, stylo persistenti 
caudata. Receptaculum commune,, paleis abbreviatis per- 
sistentibus. Involucrum imbricatum, persistens. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Protea longiflora ; foliis ovato-oblongis sessilibus basi 
subcordatis simplicibusve, ramis tomentosis, invo- 
lucro sericeo-ciliatis, calycis aristis brevissimis, stylo 
glabro involucro longiore. Br. 

Protea longiflora. Lam. Encycl. v. 5. p. 650. Br. in 
Linn. Trans, v. 10. p. 76. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. 
p. 461. 

Protea lacticolor. ", Salisb. Par ad. 27." 

Protea ochroleuca. Smith Exot. Bot. v. 2. p. 43. t. 81. J ? 



Descr. The plant from which the annexed figure was 
taken forms a small tree, seven to eight feet high, with rather 
few, downy branches, and numerous spreading, broadly- 
ovate, obtuse, slightly concave, waved, sessile leaves, some- 
times cordate at the base : scarcely veined, midrib strong at 
the base, slightly serieeo-pubescent, the margin tomentoso- 
sericeous, reddish : the substance, especially of the older 
ones, thick and rigid : the colour somewhat of a glabrous 
green . Involucrum much longer than any of the leaves, 

yet 



yet shorter than the flowers, between cup-shaped and 
funnel-shaped, externally beautifully silky ; the lower part 
formed of cordato-ovate, closely imbricated, erect scales ; 
the upper scales, gradually longer, oblong, subspathulate, 
spreading, and beautifully margined, especially towards the 
point, with a delicate silky fringe ; their colour, too, is yel- 
lowish white, the tips mostly brownish. Calyx four inches 
long, subulate, opening, from below, upwards, to three- 
fourths of its length, into two, unequal, silky, cream-colour- 
ed, waved, filiform segments, the upper part enclosing the 
stamens, entire, forming a vagina or green sheath around 
the style, tipped with a silky pencil of hairs. The calyces 
(or Perianths), sixty to seventy in number, collectively 
form a cup-shaped ray of a single series, and exhibit a most 
beautiful appearance. German with a brown, silky fringe. 
Style filiform, brownish on one side, quite glabrous. Stigma 
a little inclined, subulate, very slender, obtuse. 

From the greenhouse of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
where it bears its fine blossoms, of that beautiful cream- 
coloured white which we see in the flowers of the Mag- 
nolia, in November. If the figure of Sir James Smith, in 
Exotic Botany, referred to by Mr. Brown, be the same (and 
it differs materially in the relative length of the flowers 
with the involucre, in the radiated tip to the calyces, and 
acute leaves) then it was, probably, introduced to this 
country by Mr. Hibbert. Mr. Brown mentions it as ex- 
isting in the Royal Gardens at Kew, in 1809. 

Probably too, it is the species alluded to by Dr. Sims, at 
t. 1717, of the Old Series of this Magazine, under Protea 
latifolia, as '* a variety of that species, with greenish-white 
flowers," which was cultivated in the Hammersmith nur- 
sery. That species, indeed, (P. latifolia) has very much 
the habit of the present plant, scarcely differing but in the 
rose-coloured flowers and the sericeous style. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Upper portion of the Calyx laid open, to shew the 
Stamens. 3. Stigma. — Magnified. 



y. 272/ 




Ttdb.by.S.Cartis WalwoHk.UajrckJ.l67'' 



( 2721 ) 

DlCHORISANDRA OXYPETALA. ShARP- 
PETALED DlCHORISANDRA. 

****»«»»»«»»•& 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Commeline^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx triphyllus, inferus. Cor. tripetala. Stam. 5 — 6, 
in duas phalanges disposita, antheris lanceolatis, erectis, 
loculis parallelis. Caps, corolla baccante induta, trilocu- 
laris, polysperma. Nees. et Mart. 

Specific Character. 

Dichorisandra oxypetala ; racemo terminali, pedicellis sub- 
bifloris, petalis ovatis acutis, foliis ellipticis basi apice- 
que attenuatis, floribus hexandris. 



Descr. Apparently a small plant, with an oblique, sim- 
ple or forked, rounded stem, clothed with the cylindrical, 
striated, slightly pubescent sheaths of the leaves : scaly 
below. Leaves confined to the upper part of the stem, 
about five on each stem or branch, alternate, elliptical, 
attenuated both at the base and at the extremity, entire, 
striated, the sides a little incurved, very glabrous, except a 
little pubescence at the base, on the underside. Raceme 
three to four inches long ; the rachis stout, rather zigzag, 
the pedicels remote, two-flowered ; the upper ones very 
short, the lowest one long, deflexed ; pedicels and flowers 
with small brown ovate bractea?. Calyx of three, ovate, 
spreading, greenish, veined leaflets. Corolla of three, 
°vate, acute, spreading, reddish purple, veined petals, with 
a white spot at the base. Stamens six, three interior, and 
three exterior, erect : filaments very short : anthers linear- 
oblong 



oblong, purple, whitish at the base, opening by two pores 
at the extremity. Pistil : Germen spherical ; style fili- 
form ; stigma obtuse. 

Dichorisandra is a genus that was established upon the 
D. thyrsijlora, by Mikan, in his Delectus Flora et Faunae 
Brasiliensis ; and three more, D. gracilis, radicalis, and pu- 
berula, were afterwards, together with an amended charac- 
ter of the genus, published by Dr. Nees and Dr. Martius, 
in the 11th vol. of the Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. From all 
these our plant is sufficiently distinct in the form of its 
petals. 



Fig. 1. Anther. 2. Pistil. 



.v: 2722 




( 2722 ) 

justicia speciosa. purple-flowered 
East-Indian Justicia. 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Old. Acanthace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. Eequalis, 5-raro 4-partitus. Corolla valde irregu- 
laris, bilabiata vel ringens, labio inferiore diviso. Stamina 
2, antherifera. Antherce biloculares, loculis insertione 
saepius inaequalibus. Filamenta sterilia nulla v. obsoleta. 
Ovarii loculi dispermi. Dissepimentum adnatum. Semina 
retinaculis subtensa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Justicia speciosa ; perennis, erecta, foliis ovatis subcor- 
datis petiolatis vix serratis glabris, pedunculis axilla- 
ribus terminalibusque proliferis paucifloris, bracteis 
involucratis duplicibus involucro externo tetraphyllo 
3-floro, corolla bilabiata tubo curvato torto, labio 
superiore tridentato. 

Justicia speciosa. Roxb. in Fl. Ind. v. I. p. 123. 



Descr. A rather tall spreading shrub, the stem and 
old branches ash-coloured, the younger branches green, 
glabrous, rounded, scarcely striated. Leaves opposite, 
petiolated, ovate, somewhat acuminated, the lower and 
larger ones subcordate, and slightly crenate, dark green 
above, paler beneath ; the nerves oblique, prominent be- 
neath. 

Peduncles axillary and terminal, often proliferous, some- 
times wanting ; when present, generally very long, leaf- 
less. Bractece, constituting a double involucre, ciliated at 

their 



their margins, of which the outer is three-flowered., corn- 
posed of four leaflets, two being oblong, and two spathu- 
lato-oblong, the inner or partial involucre also consists of 
four, upright, lanceolate, smaller leaflets surrounding each 
flower. Calyx small, of five deep, linear, acute segments. 
Corolla externally pubescent, with a very long, pale, curved, 
remarkably twisted, purplish tube. Lips two, elliptical, 
oblong ; the upper one (become so by the curvature of the 
tube) with three minute teeth at the extremity; the lower 
entire (two-toothed. Roxb.). Both are of a deep, rich, 
carmine purple, the upper lip with one large, and several 
smaller deep spots at the base. Stamens two ; Filaments 
much exserted; Anthers of two obliquely placed cells. 
Pistil : Germen ovate, with a fleshy annular disk ; Style 
as long as the stamens ; Stigma obscurely bifid. 

The first information I had of this charming species of 
Justicia, and which I cannot doubt is justly said by Dr. 
Roxburgh to be (C one of the greatest ornaments of the 
forests in the interior of Bengal," where it is a native, was 
from Mr. J. F. Bunbury, of Barton Hall, Suffolk, who 
communicated to me a living plant, as well as tine flower- 
ing specimens from his mother, Lady Bunbury's collection 
at that place. 

The seeds were received by Lady Bunbury from St. 
Helena, where, in all probability, the plant was introduced 
from India, since it has been long cultivated in the Botanic 
Garden, Calcutta. I possess specimens from Dr. Carey, 
of Serampore ; and the individual from which the accom- 
panying drawing was taken, came from the stove of Mrs. 
Edward Cropper, of Toxteth Park, near Liverpool. 

Not only is the colour of the flowers very brilliant, but 
the flowers themselves are so large and so numerous upon 
the plant, that, perhaps, scarcely any species of the genus 
is more deserving of a place in our collections. 



Fig. 1. Anther. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. Germen. 4. Stigma.— Mag- 
nified. 



X J7J3 




fkA by S Curtis WaheerthJfar. 



( 2723 ) 

Begonia undulata. Waved-leaved 
Begonia. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 

MONCECIA POLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Begoniace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. CaL o. Cor. polypetala, petalis plerumque 4, 
inaequalibus. 

Rem. Cat. o. Cor. petalis 4 — 9, plerumque inaequa- 
libus. Styli tres, bifidi. Caps, triquetra, alata, trilocularis, 
polysperma. 

Specific Character. 

Begonia undulata ; fruticosa, foliis inaequaliter cordatis 
undulatis integerrimis glabris nitidis, capsular alis 
rotundatis aequalibus. Graham MSS. 

Begonia undulata. Otto. 



Descr. Stem erect, turgid below, tapering upwards, 
annular ; when young, slightly hispid, green, and having 
numerous small oblong white spots ; when older, glabrous, 
and of a reddish grey colour, branched ; branches axillary 
and alternate. Leaves petioled, alternate, distichous, un- 
equally cordate, smooth and shining, undulate, acuminate, 
of a full green on the upper surface, paler and minutely dotted 
below, three inches long, the edges occasionally reddish, 
especially when young and callous, quite entire, but having 
a dot like an obsolete tooth at the termination of each 
ve m ; petioles hispid, especially on the older branches, a 
quarter of an inch long. Stipules varying in size and 
s »ape, pointed, transparent, reddish, and spotted like the 

stem, 



stem, caducous. Panicle supported on peduncles about 
half the length of the leaves, dichotomous, smooth and 
shining 1 . Bracteee unequal, shorter than the pedicel, pel- 
lucid, colourless. 

Flowers white : Cor. of the male of four petals, of which 
the two outer are largest, cordate ; that of the female of 
five petals, the largest about one-third of the length of 
the wings of the capsule : wings of the capsule rounded, 
tapering towards the pedicel. Stigmata convolute, pubes- 
cent, with two prominent angles on each, yellow. Stamens 
numerous, yellow. Seeds very numerous, covering the 
projecting wings of their green receptacles. Graham. 

Communicated with the above description by Professor 
Graham, from the stove of the Botanic Garden at Edin- 
burgh. That gentleman received it, with the name here 
adopted, from Mr. Otto, of Berlin, with the information, 
that it was a native of Brazil. It seems to be quite dis- 
tinct from any hitherto published. 



Fig. 1. Male Flower. 2. Female Flower. 3. Transverse section of the 
Gerraen, 



iV. 2724 





Rib tryJ.CurUsWaAvc 



( 2724 ) 

CONOSPERMUM TAXIFOLIUM. YeW-LEAVED 
CoNOSPERMUM. 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianth, tubulosum, ringens : lacinia suprema basi for- 
nicata. Antherce tres inclusae : laterales dimidiatae : supe- 
rior biloba ; primum cohaerentes, lobis proximis vicinarum 
loculum constituentibus ! Stigma liberum. Nux obconica, 
papposa. 

Prutices. Folia sparsa, integerrima, plana, rariusve 
filiformia. Spicce axillares, v. terminales, composites, sensim 
fiorentes inde corymbosce. Flores solitarii, sessiles, unibrac- 
teati, albi v. ccerulescentes. Perianthium deciduum. Br ac- 
ted cucullata, persistens. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Conospermum taxifolium ; foliis lanceolato-linearibus acu- 
tis mucronatis tenuissime pubescentibus verticalibus 
basi tortis, pedunculis axillaribus. Br. 

Conospermum taxifolium. Smith in Rees Cycl. Br. in 
Linn. Trans, v. 10. p. 154. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. 
Holl. v. 1. p. 369. Sieber Fl. Nov. Boll. n. 43. ? 

" Conospermum falcifolium. Knight et Salisb. Prot. 95 f" 



Descr. An erect twiggy shrub, with its stem and few 
branches more or less pubescent; sometimes glabrous. 
Leaves numerous, scattered, rigid, from one half to three 
quarters of an inch long, linear-lanceolate, with a very 
sharp point, somewhat obliquely twisted, erecto-patent, 

pubescent 



pubescent or glabrous. The peduncles are axillary , aris- 
ing singly from several of the upper leaves ; so that taken 
collectively, they form a sort of corymb. Each peduncle 
is simple or forked, pubescent, furnished with remote, 
ovate bracteas, and terminated by several sessile, pubes- 
cent, whitish flowers, each having an ovate, pubescent, 
and ciliated bractea at its base. Perianth tubular, slightly 
curved, two-lipped at the extremity ; the upper lip entire, 
ovate, gibbous or fornicate at the back below the point ; 
the under lip trifid; the segments ovate. Stamens four, 
placed just within the mouth of the tube : Filaments dou- 
ble ; three alone bearing anthers, and these are placed in 
the upper lip of them ; the two lateral ones have one lobe, 
and the central one two, purple. Pollen yellow, globular, 
with three points or angles. Pistil: Germen superior 
obconical, hairy, and terminated by a long simple pappus ; 
Style geniculated filiform ; Stigma spreading, toothed. 

Of this genus, nine species are enumerated by Mr. 
Brown in his Prodromus; but no species appears hitherto 
to have been cultivated in our gardens, till Mr. Allan Cun- 
ningham, in 1823, sent seeds from New Holland to the Royal 
gardens at Kew, where they produced flowering plants, in 
the greenhouse, in the month of May, 1826. From a 
drawing in Mr. Aiton's possession, the annexed represen- 
tation was made, aided by dried specimens for the dissec- 
tions. 

Judging from these dried specimens, C. taxifolium is lia- 
ble to much variation, in the size and pubescence of the 
foliage. Sieber's plant has the leaves twice the size of 
that here given, and I have, on the other hand, specimens 
gathered by Mr. Fraser, whose leaves are so narrow, that 
the plants might almost be considered as intermediate be- 
tween taxifolium and ericifolium. 



Fig. 1. Flower and Bracteae. 2. Upper part of a Perianth laid open. 3. 
Front view of a Stamen. 4. Back view of ditto. 5. Pollen. 6. Germen, 
with its pappus, style, and stigma.— Magnified. 




n: 272s 




/iiAfirS.Oirf, 



( 2725 ) 

Gesneria aggregata. Cluster-flowered 

Gesneria. 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Gesnerie^e. Rich. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus, (plerumque germini adnatus.) Cor. 
tubuloso-campanulata, limbo bilabiato ; labio superiore 
bi-inferiore trifido. Stigma bilobum. Capsula bilocularis, 
2-valvis, placentis parietalibus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gesneria aggregata; pubescenti-villosa, foliis ovato-ob- 
longis crenatis rugosis petiolatis, pedunculis 2 — 4 axil- 
laribus unifloris aggregatis, corollis clavato-cylindri- 
cis basi superne bigibboso. 

Gesneria aggregata. Bot. Reg. t. 329. 

Gesneria pendulina. Bot. Reg. t. 1032. 



Descr. Stem herbaceous,, from one and a half to two 
feet high, branched, with opposite branches, and hairy. 
Leaves opposite, from two to four inches long, ovato- 
oblong, rather obtuse, wrinkled with the numerous anas- 
tomosing veins, downy, especially beneath, where it is pale 
and almost woolly, the nerves prominent, the margins cre- 
nulated : petiole semiterete, from half an inch to an inch 
long. Peduncles from two to four, springing from the 
axils of the leaves, and shorter than they, slender, hairy, 
smgle-flowered. Calyx of five, deep, ovate, acuminate, 
hairy segments. Corolla beautiful scarlet, an inch and a 
half long, tubular, but swelling upwards, pubescent ,- the 
mouth nearly regular, with two spreading lobes forming 

the 



the upper, and three, the lower lip. Stamens four, inserted 
at the base of the corolla, white. Filaments shorter than 
the corolla, curved. Anthers all united by their edges so 
as to form one mass. Pistil: Germen almost wholly supe- 
rior, ovate, pubescent, with four yellow glands at the base, 
of which the upper one is much the largest ; Style filiform ; 
Stigma obtuse. 

This was raised in the Glasgow Botanic Garden from 
seeds which Mrs. Graham collected in Brazil, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rio. It is well figured in the Botanical Re- 
gister*, where it is justly given as a previously undescribed 
species. It seems, however, to be very nearly allied to 
Gesneria hirsuta and hondensis of Humboldt and Kunth. 

In this genus (as in Gloxinia, which in many respects 
bears a great similarity to it) there are some species, among 
which is the present, that have the germen almost entirely 
free from any adherence with the calyx. 



* Since the above description was written, we find in the number of the 
Botanical Register for January, the same plant, as it appears, figured under 
the name of G. pendulina. 



Fig. 1. Anthers. 2, Pistil. — Magnified. 



( 2726 ) 

Habenaria leptoceras. Slender-spurred 
Habenaria. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — ORCHiDEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. ringens. Labellum basi subtus calcaratum. Glan- 
dule pollinis nudae distinctae (loculis pedicellorum adnatis 
vel solutis distinctis.) Br. 

Specific Character. 

Habenaria leptoceras; labello tripartito laciniis linearibus 
lateralibus minutis, cornu filiformi compresso germine 
duplo longiore, petalis ext. : valde concavis, int. semi- 
sagittatis, anthera basi bicalcarata, calcaribus subtus 
bituberculatis. 



Descr. Root ? Stem a foot or a foot and a half high, 
rather stout, angular, leafy. Leaves erect, lanceolate, 
much carinated, striated, gradually passing upwards into 
bract eae, which are as long as the germen, ovato-lanceolate, 
concave. Spike from six to eight inches long, of many 
rather remote greenish flowers. Outer petals or segments 
of the perianth ovate, green, remarkably convex, the late- 
ral ones obliquely twisted, spreading : the two inner ones 
semisagittate, plain yellowish, applied to the inner margin 
of the galea. Lip yellow-green, of three linear segments, 
the middle and large one is linear, shorter than the germen, 
curved back, the lateral ones small, dentiform. Spur twice 
as long as the germen, white, filiform, slender, compressed 
at the extremity. Anther ovate, yellow, lengthened out at 

the 



the base into two horizontal protruded, straight horns or 
spurs, which include, in a groove or furrow, the pedicels of 
the pollen masses., and are terminated by the brown gland. 
At their base beneath are two sessile yellowish glands. 
Pollen mass oblong, granulated : pedicel very long. Ger- 
men cylindrical, striated, and twisted. 

This singular species of Habenaria came up in a pot of 
mould which we received, at the Glasgow garden, from the 
Horticultural Society, and which was marked as containing 
Neottia orchioides. It belongs to the true Habenaria of 
Willdenow, of which that author described but two spe- 
cies, characterized by having two long spur-like processes 
from the base of the anther, which contain the lengthened 
pedicels of the pollen masses. From both those species it 
is abundantly distinct. The bud has a curious appearance, 
being much compressed laterally, and notched on one side : 
the cornu too is developed considerably before the expan- 
sion of the perianth. 

Flowered, in the stove, in the month of October, 1826. 



Fig. 1. Side view of a Flower. 2. Front view of the Helmet, Anther, and 
Lip. 3. Lateral Petal. 4. Anther. 5. Pollen mass. — Magnified. 







/»«*, hy S Curtis Walworth ytpri? I 1*2. 




( 2727, 2728 ) 

Caryocar nuciferum. Souari, or 
Butter Nut. 

Class and Order. 

MoNADELPHIA TeTRAGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rhizobole^. De Cand. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus, demum laciniis deciduis. Stamina 
numerosissima, basi monadelpha. Pet. 5, crassiuscula. 
Drupa, nucleis 4, aut abortu 1 — 3 t reticularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Caryocar nuciferum ; foliis ternatis, foliolis elliptico-lan- 

ceolatis obscure serratis glabris calyce corollaque 

purpureis, antheris oblongis, drupa maxima. 
Caryocar nuciferum. Linn. Mant. p. 247. Willd. Sp. PL 

v. 2. p. 1143. Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. p. 84. Spreng. 

Syst. VegeL v. 2. p. 627. De Cand. Prod. v. I. p. 

599. 
Rhizobolus Pekea. Gcertn. p. 93. t. 98./. 1. 
Rhizobolus tuberculosus. Smith in Rees Cycl. 
Pekea tuberculosa. Aubl. Guian. p. 597. t. 239. fructus ? 

non folia. 
Amygdala guaynensis. Clusius's Exot. p. 21. f. I. (nux.) 

Pluken. Phyt. t. 323. (nux.) 



Descr. Arborescent : the tree attaining a very consider- 
able size: its branches, at least the smaller ones, oppo- 
site, their bark smooth, dark grey, inclining to purple, the 
young shoots purple-green. Leaves also opposite, enclosed, 
when quite young, within two lanceolate, concave, deci- 
duous stipules, petiolate, ternate, the leaflets broadly lan- 
ceolate 



ceolate or elliptical., attenuated at the base, acuminated at 
the extremity, from four to six or eight inches long, quite 
glabrous on both sides, having a mid-rib and parallel ob- 
liquely transverse veins, the margins obscurely serrated. 

The inflorescence is produced in a terminal corymb of 
from two to eight flowers. The pedicels long, thick, pur- 
plish, glabrous, gradually enlarging upwards. Calyx two 
inches broad, cut to the very base into five broadly-ovate 
or rounded, obtuse, spreading lobes., of a purplish-brown 
colour and thick texture, with a scar or transverse mark 
near the extremity on the outside, concave, within pale 
purple towards the apex. Corolla of five very large ellip- 
tical concave petals, imbricating in the bud, of a deep 
purplish -brown colour, paler and redder where they have 
been protected by the outer ones ; the inside is pale yel- 
lowish, streaked with purplish red. Stamens exceedingly 
numerous, hypogynous, united into one body at the base, 
the union reaches higher up from the base in the inside, 
than on the outside of this tube, thence separating into an 
infinite number of separate bundles of filaments, which are 
themselves united for about half their length, and which 
then divide into from sixteen to twenty slender, unequal, 
yellowish, distinct filaments, each terminated by an oblong, 
curved, two-celled, longitudinally-opening Anther. Pollen 
exactly spherical. The number of these stamens Mr. 
Guilding has determined to exceed four thousand nine 
hundred. Pistil : Germen broadly ovate, red, four-celled, 
terminated by four filiform Styles, about as long as the 
stamens, yellowish-green at the base, the rest reddish : the 
Stigmas simple, acute. Fruit an almost spherical, four- 
celled, four-seeded drupe; measuring five or six inches in 
diameter ; but having, generally, one or more of the cells 
abortive, — the form of the entire fruit is altered in conse- 
quence ; and the extremity or scar of the styles is generally 
excentric. The exterior surface is, when ripe, of a reddish- 
brown colour, finely mottled with darker markings, like a 
russet apple ; the flesh is thick and yellowish. Each cell 
has a lining of a white astringent pulp, in which the large 
Nuts lie embedded ; affixed, as it appears, to a central axis : 
these are of a rounded subreniform figure, and rich brown 
colour, compressed, and even flattened to an almost sharp 
edge on one side and truncated, where they are attached 
to the pericarp, and there likewise having a sulcus. The 
shell is closely embossed with tubercles, which are elon- 
gated towards the flattened edges, of a very hard texture 

(so 



(so as to require a heavy blow with a hammer to break it) 
and thick substance ; this substance is filled with numerous 
linear transverse cavities. Each Nut has a single cell, in 
which is a glossy and shining, rich brown, solitary seed, 
attached to the truncated portion of the margin, nearly re- 
niform, or of the same shape as the nut, covered with a 
rather thick, smoothish, red-brown membrane or integu- 
ment, within which lies the almond, destitute of albumen. 
This is reniform, or subcylindrical, curved so as to be 
kidney-shaped, and is believed to constitute the radicle, 
subacute at one end, at the other having a curved atten- 
uated process, terminated by two small ovate cotyledons. 
The whole of this mass is greyish brown externally, within 
almost of a pure ivory white, the substance soft and fleshy, 
somewhat oily (whence the fruit is known by the name of 
Butter Nut), and of a very agreeable flavour. 



If we sometimes depart from the rule, to which the for- 
mer editors of the Botanical Magazine appear rigidly to 
have adhered, that no plant should be admitted into its 
pages, except it has been cultivated and brought to blos- 
som in our gardens ; it will only be in the rare instances, 
where, if the plant has been introduced, we have little hope 
of seeing it produce flowers in this country; or where the 
individual is not yet known to our collections, but is most 
worthy of being cultivated, either from its beauty, or from 
some useful property residing in it : in both these cases, 
none will be given but such delineations and descriptions 
as are taken from living plants, on the fidelity of which we 
can, with certainty, rely. 

Already we have at our command an inestimable set of 
drawings of West Indian Plants, principally of such as are 
useful, from yielding articles of food or medicine, or which 
afford materials connected with commerce ; these are exe- 
cuted by the Rev. Lansdown Guilding of the island of 
St. Vincent, with the greatest attention to accuracy : and 
we have another collection, from General Hardwicke, of 
designs, made under his directions, in the East Indies. 

The subjects of the annexed plates are taken from the 
drawings of our excellent friend, Mr. Guilding, which were 
accompanied by specimens, both dried and in spirits, and 
by ample notes. These, we trust, have enabled us to com- 
pile a very satisfactory account of a plant, of which, though 

the 



the nuts have long been known, no representation what- 
ever has been given of the flowers. 

In the fruit shops we are all familiar with a nut, known 
by the name of Souari, or Suwarrow (Aublet spells the 
word Saouari), or Butter Nut. To the tree which pro- 
duces them, Linnaeus, in his Mantissa, seems to have given 
the appellation of Caryocar nuciferum, which has been 
adopted by Willdenow and De Candolle, by Persoon and 
Sprengel. Willdenow describes the species as having 
ternate leaves, and farther says, " Calyx corollaque pur- 
purea, Drupa magnitudine capitis, Nuclei amygdali sapori?" 
Aublet, under the name of Perea butyrosa, Plantes de la 
Guiane, t. 238, has figured a plant evidently belonging to 
the genus Caryocar, only that the fruit is monospermous : 
the leaves are quinate. At p. 597 and t. 239 is represented 
his Perea tuberculosa, where again the foliage is quinate, 
but downy beneath, and the nut is figured and described 
(for neither the flower nor the pericarp of the fruit were 
known to Aublet) as so extremely similar to that of our 
present plant, that we can hardly persuade ourselves they 
are not the same. The almond is said to be white and 
good to eat ; its name among the natives is Tata Youba ; 
and the Sauoari of the Caribbees is declared by Aublet, to 
be represented in his t. 240, which, though it has ternate, 
glabrous leaves, like those of the Caryocar nuciferum, 
bears a fruit of a totally different kind. 

Willdenow describes three species of Caryocar; the first 
is the C. nuciferum (Linn. Mant. being the only synonym) ; 
the second, C. butyrosum (Perea butyrosa. Aubl.) ; and 
the third, C. tomentosum (P. tuberculosa. Aubl.); and he 
mentions the Saouari of Aublet as probably belonging to 
this genus. 

Sir J. E. Smith describes two species of the genus, the 
Caryocar butyrosum (Pekea. Aubl.) and the C. tubercu- 
losum,smd refers them both to the Rhizobolus of G^rtn. 
To this latter, Sir J. E. Smith refers C. tomentosum of 
Willdenow, together with the C. nuciferum of Linn^us, 
and the P. tuberculosa of Aublet. 

De Candolle, like Willdenow, has kept the C. nuci- 
ferum of LinnjEus distinct from the rest, and characterized 
it fe foliis trifoliolatis, calyce corollaque purpureis, an- 
theris oblongis, drupis capitis humani magnitudine: with 
which arrangement we perfectly accord. Our plant has 
ternate leaves, glabrous on both sides, and is the tree that 
produces the nut, so commonly sold under the name of the 

Suwarrow, 



SuwarroWj, or Butter Nut. Of this it has fallen to the lot 
of Mr. Guilding to illustrate not only the flower,, but the 
fruit, in a way, which, we trust, will prevent all further 
confusion. 

The tree is a native of the continent of South America, 
in the districts of Essequibo and Berbice, and the leaves, 
as well as nuts, have more than once been communicated to 
us from those countries, by C. S. Parker, Esq.*. It was, 
however, from a tree, imported into the island of St. Vin- 
cent's, that the drawings here given and many others, which 
the limited nature of our work will not allow us to intro- 
duce, were made. We have confined ourselves to the 
more essential figures, selected from a series of four folio 
drawings. The flowers, Mr. Guilding observes, may, 
occasionally, expand more than they are here represented ; 
but the tree being at a great distance from our friend's 
residence, he had not the opportunity of frequent access 
to it. 



* Mr. Parker writes us word " of the Suuari (or, by corruption, 
Suwarra Nut), I have only seen one kind, and that not often, in our ill- 
supplied market at George Town, Demerara. It is the kind I sent you, 
which I always took for the C. nuciferum. In its native woods I never ga- 
thered the Souari Nut hut once, during a hasty excursion to the summit of 
the " Blue Mountains," on the left hank of the Essequibo river. When we 
had attained the summit of the ridge, perhaps six or eight hundred feet above 
the level of the sea (the highest ground I ever stood upon in €he colony), I 
found first a Nut, and then a decayed Drupe upon the ground. The trees were 
very lofty which produced them, and, I think, I may safely say, that their 
stems grew perfectly straight, without a branch for seventy or eighty feet, 
like vast columns." 



Tab. 2727. Fig. 1. A small terminal flower-bearing Branch; having few 
blossoms (compared with others), and from which most of the leaves are 
removed. At the letter a, is a scar whence a leaf has fallen. A peduncle 
is seen, from which the corolla and stamens have dropped ; and, at 2. is 
the Flower, perhaps not quite so much expanded as when in a growing 
state. 3. Calyx, with a Germen cut through transversely, to show the Ovules. 
—All of these are the natural size. 4. Portion of the Stamens, shewing 
their union at the base, and their mode of splitting into distinct bundles. 
5. Front view of an Anther. 6. Back view of the same, to show the insertion 
of the Filaments. 7- Pollen. — All magnified. 



Tab. 2728. Fig. 1 . Fruit containing three Seeds, reduced to about one- 
third of its natural size. 2. Section of the same, shewing the situation of the 
Seeds, and their intermediate pulpy envelope, similarly diminished. 3. 
Nut. — Natural size. 4. The same cut open to show the Seed. 5. The 
Embryo. 6. Seed laid open, to show the internal appearance of the Embryo. 
— All these of the natural size. 



2.T29 








t.n — 



Pub. hr.VfuriJS Hnlircrlh^riU.JH'i7. 



( 2729 ) 

Maxillaria Parkeri. Mr. Parker's 
Maxillaria. 

.4'. ■rt'i ■.4'. A •St'. ai& A sbm .4". al& A . > t > . Afc ■4'. jV. .4'. .4 11 . .*!'. jK 
•Sfr v{n." vj»* 9ff */jc iff flp */j>* "/j\ vjc vj»* */fs* vis vj\ •/}» vjs vjs v j. "/J." 

C/«ss awd Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide/e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium patens, resupinatum. Labellum cum pro- 
cessu unguiformi columnae articulatum, trilobum. Foliola 
lateralia exteriora basibus cum processu columnar connata. 
Pollinia 4, basibus connata, glandulosa (vel 2. pedicellata, 
pedicello basi glanduloso). Herbae parasitica, bulbosa, 
American meridionalis. Racemi {vel scapi uniflori), radi- 
cales. Lindl. 

Specific Character. 

Maxillaria Parkeri; bulbo elliptico compresso rugoso 
monophyllo, folio lanceolato-lingulato coriaceo obscure 
striato, basi in petiolo compresso attenuate, scapo 
unifloro bracteis imbricato, petalis interioribus lineari- 
lanceolatis, labello oblongo trilobo, lobis lateralibus 
incurvis, terminali patente undulato, intra lobos late- 
rales linea media longitudinal! clavata. 



Descr. Parasitic: Bulb about the size of a pigeon's egg, 
elliptical, compressed, somewhat wrinkled, and partially 
clothed with dry husky sheaths, terminated by a solitary 
leaf, often a foot long, and two, or two and a half inches 
broad, of a coriaceous texture, with a central slender rib, 
and obscurely marked with longitudinal lines, dark green, 
lanceolate, or between lanceolate and strap-shaped, rather 
acute, attenuated at the base into a compressed fleshy 
petiole, which is grooved on the anterior edge. 

Scapes, one or two from the base of the bulb, bearing a 
moderately sized single flower, and clothed with large 

alternate, 



alternate, imbricating, equitant, compressed, broadly ovate, 
membranaceous scales or bractece : their colour is green, 
beautifully striated with purple at the base ; the upper 
one the largest, having its apex lying over the base of 
the back of the flower. Flower erect, or a little inclined : 
three outer petals erecto-patent, oblong, the two lateral 
ones decurrent at the base, but scarcely forming a spur ; 
yellow buff-colour, the two interior ones erect, linear-lan- 
ceolate, white, punctato-striated with purple on its lower 
half within, its lower inner margin adnate with the column. 
Labellum as long as the inner petals, erect, the sides invo- 
lute, three-lobed, beautifully and longitudinally veined with 
purple, except on the terminal lobe, which is ovate, crisped 
at the margin and spreading. Between the lateral lobes is a 
longitudinal elevated yellow line. Column semicylindrical, 
curved a little forward, deep brownish purple, yellow at 
the base. Stigma quadrangular, placed in the front just 
at the apex. Anther operculiform, terminal, hemispherical. 
Pollen ?nasses four, two smaller and two larger, elliptical 
or ovate, compressed, yellow, united by a semilunar, large, 
whitish gland, having a purple margin. 

This is a very pretty species of Maxillaria, and very 
distinct from any hitherto described. It was discovered by 
our friend Charles S. Parker, Esq. in Demerara, and by 
him sent to the Liverpool Botanic Garden, where Mr. Shep- 
herd informs us, it flowers readily (treated in the usual 
manner of the Parasitical Orchideae), and continues a long 
time in blossom. 



Fig 1 . 1. A Blossom, of which the Petals or Segments of the Perianth are 
laid open to show the Column and Labellum. 2. Side view of the Labellum. 
3. Summit of the Column from which the Anther-Case has been removed, 
showing the Stigma and Pollen-Masses. 4. An Anther, including its Pollen- 
Masses. 5. Front view of a Pollen-Mass. 6. Back view of ditto. — All more 
or less magnified. 



2730 




■Pub. by. S.Cmrtis, Walrorlh April '. ] . 182% 



( 2730 ) 

Neottia grandiflora. Large-flowered 

Neottia. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. ringens : petalis exterioribus anticis labello imberbi 
suppositis; interioribus conniventibus. Columna aptera. 
Pollen farinaceum. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Neottia grandiflora ; foliis ovato-lanceolatis sessilibus sub- 
carnosis immaculatis, scapo bracteato, petalis auticis 
decurrentibus labello semiinfero ecalcarato suppositis. 

Spiranthes grandiflora. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1043. 

Descr. Terrestrial, stemless. Leaves ovato -lanceolate, 
sessile, bright green, having a few large semipellucid spots, 
springing from the crown of the root. They are six to 
eight inches long, concavo-carinate, with a central rib, and 
several parallel obscure nerves ; the margin waved : the 
substance is rather thick and fleshy, more succulent than in 
N. picta. Scape a foot or more high, having several brac- 
teee, ovate, or ovato-lanceolate, appressed, gradually be- 
coming smaller, and passing into the linear-lanceolate 
bracteae of this flower : — this scape is thick, succulent, 
pubescent, sulcated; at the extremity the flowers are ar- 
ranged in a lax spike, occupying about one-third of the 
scape. The flowers are large, erect, the greater part of 
the perianth or petals declined almost at right angles ; so 
that the whole, especially in bud, has a strong resemblance 
to the head and neck of a bird : their colour is pale uni- 
form green, except the two inner petals and the labellum, 
which are paler and yellower : the whole flower too, is, ex- 
ternally, clothed with dense succulent white hairs, except 
the inner petals and the labellum : this pubescence is, how- 
ever, far more conspicuous on the germen than on the 
Petals, and the apices of all the petals are almost entirely 

glabrous 



glabrous. Upper petal shorter than the two lower ones, 
thick, fleshy, darkish green, united and incorporated with 
the two inner ones, of which latter, the margins alone are 
visible : they are thin and membranous, and the three, 
collectively, form a helmet over the essential parts of fruc- 
tification; — the two lower petals (which in most orchideous 
plants occupy the side of the flower, but here the under 
side) are long, linear, lanceolate, remarkably decurrent at 
the base, at least twice the length of the upper petals, 
uniting, and then, still lower down, forming an adnate 
spur, best seen by a transverse section, fig. 9 ; where the 
lower part of the figure represents the space formed between 
the petals and the germen, containing only the base of the 
labellum. The labellum is long, the margins involute 
about the column, spathulate, the extremity spreading (but 
not reflexed), waved at the margin, longitudinally striated, 
the base slightly gibbons. Column erect, long, almost cy- 
lindrical, having the stigma at the base full of honey-like 
juice, spreading at the upper part into an ovate acuminate 
horizontal extremity, flat at the top, and having affixed to 
its base, on the upper surface, the lanceolate two-celled 
anther. The pollen masses, two in number, while, farina- 
ceous, clavate, having a longitudinal rima, and fixed, by 
their base, to a rather large leaden-coloured gland, are de- 
posited by the anther-ca.se on the top of the column (as at 
tig. 7.). Germen twisted at the base. 

The present plant is a native of Brazil, and we were 
favoured with the specimen by the Messrs. Shepherd, of 
the Liverpool Botanic Garden*. It bears much affinity to 
the Neottia picta ; but that has uniformly thickly spotted, 
more petiolated, less succulent leaves, petals far more 
spreading and much whiter, and a lip which is always reso- 
lute. The two are cultivated in t ho same stove by the 
Messrs. Shepherd, and are always found to maintain their 
respective characters. 



* We had called this plant Neottia viridis, to distinguish it from the N. 
picta; hut since our engraving and description were completed, we find the 
same species to he figured in the last Numhcr of the Botanical Register (for 
Fehruary, 1H2J), Under the name which we have now adopted ; and it is 
stated to he introduced to the Horticultural Society, in 1824, from Hio Jane- 
iro, hy Mr. David Douglas. 



Fig. 1. Side view of the upper part of a Flower. 2. Front view of a 
Flower. 3. Back view of ditto. 4. Flower deprived of its Petals. 5. Co- 
lumn. (5. Back view of the top of the Column, the Anther Case covering the 
Pollen Masses. 7. Top of the Column, the Anther Case heiiig removed. 
8. Pollen Masses. — All more or less magnified. 



2/31 




Pnb.by. S.Cuilis WalwcrVi Aptil 1 J82J 



( 2731 ) 

HOUTTUYNIA CORDATA. CORDATE HoUT- 

TUYNIA. 

Class and Order. 
Triandria Trigynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Aroide^e ? ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha tetraphylla. Spadix oblongus staminibus nudis 
epigynis tectus. Capsula unilocular^ polysperma. Re- 
ceptacula 3, parietalia. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Houttuynia cordata. 

Holttuynia cordata. Thunb. Jap. p. 234. t. 26. Willd. 
Sp. PL v . 2. p. 290. Wall, in Fl. hid. v. 1. p. 360. 
Polypara corichinchiiiensis. Lorn. Coch. v. 1. p. 78. 



Descr. Root perennial, somewhat thick and creeping", 
throwing out a few fibres. Stem from three or four inches 
to two or three feet high, according to Dr. Wallich, erect, 
mostly simple, zigzag, glabrous, in our specimens, bearing 
remote alternate leaves. Leaves cordato-acuminate, entire, 
glabrous, nerved., more or less deeply notched at the base : 
Petiole more than half as long as the leaf, furnished at the 
base with a membranaceous, brown, somewhat ciliated sti- 
pule. 

Peduncle terminal, solitary, single-flowered. Spatha re- 
sembling a corolla, of four ovate, spreading, white elliptical 
leaflets, inserted immediately below the oblong spadix, 
which consists of several naked closely-placed flowers. 
Germen somewhat ovato-triangular, terminating in three 
recurved styles, with an opening (as in Reseda) between 
the base of the styles. Stamens: Filaments white, inserted 
"pon the angles, near the middle, of the germen. Anthers 

oblong. 



< 



oblong, yellow, opening with two lateral cells. The cap- 
sule is scarcely altered in form from what it was in the state 
of the germen, except that the aperture between the styles 
is more enlarged : the styles and withered stamens remain. 
Within the one-celled capsule are three longitudinal pari- 
etal receptacles, bearing each a few elliptical brown seeds, 
acuminulated at both extremities, filled internally with an 
albumen, which is between waxy and corneous, except at 
one end, where the minute embryo is imbedded. 

Although the drawing in the possession of W. Townsend 
Aiton, Esq., from which the annexed figure was principally 
copied, represents but a small state of the plant ; yet we 
are glad to have an opportunity of giving any representa- 
tion of so great a rarity, of which no good plate has yet 
been given, and which has been by no one well described, 
but by Dr. Wallich, in the Flora Indica, above quoted. 
That description, indeed, is most accurate in every respect. 
Thunberg first detected the plant in Japan, where it is 
known by the name of Doku Dami, or Sjunjak, growing- 
abundantly in ditches by way sides ; and it has since been 
found in very great plenty also in Nepal, by the Honorable 
Mr. Gardner, Dr. Gowan, and Dr. Wallich. We have 
many dried specimens from the latter botanist, from which 
our dissections have been made ; and, from seeds sent by 
the same individual, and from the same country, Nepal, 
plants have been raised by Mr. Aiton at Kew, which blos- 
somed in the month of September, 1826. 

In Cochinchina, Loureiro found it oidy in gardens. 



Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Anther. 3. Capsule. 4. Capsule open to 
show the insertion of the Seeds. 5. Seed. 6. Section of ditto. — Magni- 
fied. 



Zjrsi 




Pubbry.curtts WalvcrfA April 1 /#2J. 



Tmm -n Sr_ 



( 2732 ) 

SciEVOLA KCENIGII. SlIRUBBY EAST INDIAN 

Sc^VOLA. 



Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Goodenovi>e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla hinc longitudinaliter fissa, genitalia exserens ; 
limbo inde secundo, 5-partito, laciniis alatis conformibus. 
Antherce libera?. Stigmatis indusiurn ciliatum. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Scevola Kaenigii; cymis glabris, floribus dichotomiarium 
pedicellatis, calyce 5-partito ovarium aequante, foliis 
obovatis apice subrepandis utrinque ramisque glaber- 
rimis. Br. 

Sc^evola Kcenigii. Vahl. Symb. v. 3. p. 36. Willd. Sp. 
Pl.v.l. p. 956. Brown Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. v. 1. 
p. 580. 

rf Sc^vola Lobelia. Herb. Linn, (auctoritate Herb. 
Banks.)" 



Descr. Apparently a small succulent shrubby plant, with 
thick, rounded, unbranched ? stems, erect. Leaves alter- 
nate, four to five inches long, obovate, and tapering at the 
base into a very short footstalk, and at the point of inser- 
tion furnished with a tuft of white silky hairs : the surface 
is scarcely nerved, the margin repando-crenafe towards the 
extremity ; the substance thick and fleshy. 

Cyme of about three lateral flowers, opposite, subtended 
by opposite bracteae, which have a tuft of white hairs in 
the inside, central flower pedicellate. Calyx superior, five- 
partite, the laciniae lanceolate. Corolla with a tube slit 
open on the upper side, and yellow, hairy within; limb 

unilateral, 



unilateral, of five spreading, winged, waved, and ciliated, 
white, obovate segments : each has a central line ; pubes- 
cent at their base, and this down, or these hairs, when 
closely examined, are found to originate on small scales, 
fig. 2. Stamens five ; free, scarcely so long as the tube. 
Anthers oblong, two-celled. Germen inferior, obovate, 
furrowed. Style thick, longer than the stamens, green, 
hairy at the base. Stigma obtuse, surrounded by a cup- 
shaped, strongly ciliated indusium. Berry ovate, about as 
large as a pea, two-seeded. 

For the opportunity of figuring this exceedingly rare 
plant, I am likewise indebted to the friendship of Mr. 
Aiton. His drawing was made at the Royal Gardens at 
Kew, in August, 1826, from specimens raised from seed, sent 
in 1824, by Mr. Allan Cunningham, from New Holland. 
It is a native of the sea shore in the tropical parts of that 
country, according to Mr. Brown ; and it was on the north 
coast that Mr. Cunningham likewise detected it. I possess 
specimens from the Mauritius, which were gathered by 
Mr. Bojer, and which differ from the figure here given 
only in having the Cymes compound, probably the effect 
of luxuriance. 

Sc^vola sericea and Sc. Plumieri of Linnaeus have the 
same aspect as the present plant. The former has downy 
leaves, and the latter (a native of the West Indies, and 
also of the Cape), has the central floret always sessile. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Scale from the base of one of the Segments of the 
Flower. 3. Flower deprived of the Corolla. — Magnified. 



-33 




—W.SB.JXt— 



rui. fy S.Cnrtis. WalwertAApaU 1&7. 



( 2733 ) 

Campanulata Prismatocarpus. Angular- 
fruited Cape Campanula. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Campanulace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx tri- rarius 4-fidus. Corolla campanulata, 5-fida. 
Filamenta basi dilatata. Stigma 3, 2-lobum. Capsula 3, 
2-loeularis, saepius infera, foraminibus lateralibus aperiens, 
nunc apice supero valvato. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Campanula Prismatocarpus ; capsulis linearibus bilocula- 

ribus, foliis lanceolatis laxe serratis glaberrimis caule 

decumbente. 
Campanula Prismatocarpus. Ait. Hort. Kew.ed.l. v. I. 

p. 224. ed. 2. v. 1. p. 352. Willd. Sp. PL v. I. p. 913. 

Spreng. Syst. Veg. p. 737. 
" Prismatocarpus nitidus. L'Herit. Sert. Angl. 2. t. 3." 



Descr. Shrubby, whole plant glabrous. Stems pro- 
cumbent at the base, thence erect, reddish-brown, shining, 
scarcely branched. Leaves rather remote, patent, sessile, 
lanceolate, rigid, scarcely more than half an inch long, 
stiff and rigid, furnished with a mid-rib, the margins slight- 
ly revolute, spinuloso-dentate, the teeth distant, pointing 
upwards, the apex acute. Bracteee large, concave, spinu- 
loso-serrate, with a lesser one linear and entire, on the 
inside of the base of the germen. 

Flowers three or four together, from the extremity of 
the stem ; each subtended by its bractea, sessile. Calyx 
superior, five-partite, the leaflets linear-lanceolate, erect. 

Corolla 






Corolla almost infundibuliform, white, quinquefid at the ex- 
tremity. Stamens united by the anthers. Pistil: Germen 
very long, linear, tetraangular : Style filiform. Stigma 
bifid. Capsule acutely quadrangular, two-celled, four-valv- 
ed, the valves opening- longitudinally. Dissepiment linear, 
membranaceous, at length free, thin, membranaceous, with- 
a central thickened rib, to which the seeds are attached on 
both sides. Seeds in two ranks, elliptical, plane, dotted. 

Introduced to the Royal Gardens, according to the Hor- 
tus Kewensis, by Mr. Masson, from the Cape of Good Hope, 
in 1787. It appears then to have been lost to our collec- 
tions for a number of years, until seeds were again sent to 
the Royal Gardens at Kew, from the Cape, by Mr. Bowie, 
in 1823. 

Poriet describes the corolla as rotate ; which, it as- 
suredly, is not, either in the Kew plant, or in dried spe- 
cimens we have in the Herbarium ; — on the contrary, 
it is an unusually long and narrow tube for the genus. 
The capsule is as long as narrow, and as regularly tetra- 
gonal as that of an Epilobium ; it splits from top to bottom 
into four valves, and contains a dissepiment bearing two 
rows of seeds on each side. 



Fig. 1. Flower and Bracteae. 2. Stamens and Style. 3. Capsule : one 
of the Valves separated from the bottom to shew the Dissepiment bearing the 
Seeds. 4. Portion of the Dissepiment. 5. Seeds. — Magnified. 



■cfWTfYfti 



273* 
A 




, 



Pub br ■?. Curtis. Wn/lrcrth . Ma\: J . IS*/ 



( 2734,2735,2736,2737,2738 ) 

Lodoicea Sechellarum. Double, or 
Seychelles-Island, Cocoa-Nut. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Dkecia Monadelphia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Palmjs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Spadix basi spathaceus, amentaceus. Amentum 
cylindraceo-elongatum, squamatum intra substantiam flo- 
nferum. Flores in massam subreniformem arctissime 
distiche imbricati, numerosi. Calyx triphyllus. Corolla 
tnpetala. Stamina numerosa, basi monadelpha. 

FiEM . Spadix basi spathaceus, vaginato-squamosus ; squa- 
mis erosis, flores remotiusculos gerens. Calyx triphyllus. 
Corolla triphylla. Germen late ovatum, inferne triloculare. 
Stigma sessile, minutum, trifidum. Drupa fibrosa, nuce 
bi- triloba, di- trisperma ? 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lodoicea Sechellarum. 

L. Sechellarum. Lahill. in Ann. du Mus. v. 9. p. 140. t. IS. 

Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 2. p. 622. 
L. maldivica. Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. p. 630. 
Cocos maldivica. Gmel. Syst. Nat. v. 2. p. 569. fVilld. 

Sp. PL v . 4. p. 402. 
Palmier de PIsle Praslin, vulgairement appelle Cocotier 

de Mer. Sonnerat Voy. de la Nouvelle Guinee, p. 4. 

t. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 
Cocus maldivicus. Rumph. Hist. Amb. v. 6. p. 240. L 81. 

(Nux.J 



Descr. The Trunk of this beautiful Palm rises com- 
monly to an elevation of fifty or sixty feet, and, sometimes, 
attains to eighty or one hundred feet, straight, apparently 
destitute of bark, annulated with the scars of the old leaves, 

about 



about a foot in diameter, with scarcely any difference in 
size to the very top, where it is crowned with a tuft of 
from twelve to twenty leaves ; these are very large ; the 
youngest rising from the centre, at first folded close, like a 
shut Ian, and then clothed with a downy substance ; at 
length they expand into a broadly-ovate form, having a 
central rib, and beautiful regular plicae or folds diverging 
from it ; the margins more or less deeply cut, especially at 
the extremity. Some of these leaves have been measured, 
and found to be twenty feet long and ten or twelve feet 
wide, supported upon a petiole as long as the leaf itself : 
their more common size, however, is from eight to ten 
feet long, and five or six wide, which is about the dimension 
of the foliage produced by the oldest trees. The colour is 
a bright yellow green ; the texture thin and dry, and when 
viewed under the microscope, is seen to be composed of 
a beautiful tissue of fine network, having quadrangular 
areolae or meshes. The old leaves, when withered, hang 
down upon the stem, previously to falling off. 

The male and female flowers are produced upon different 
trees ft. 2734 J ; each constituting a Spadix, which has 
small sheathing Spalhas at the base. 

Spadix of the Male Plant from the axils of the leaves, amen- 
taceous (not unaptly compared to the closely imbricated 
Catkin of a willow), from two to four feet long (t. 213b), 
and from three to four inches in diameter in the thickest part, 
cylindrical, tapering however towards the extremity, closely 
covered on all sides with densely imbricated, semicircular, 
slightly convex scales, which so completely form a continua- 
tion of the substance of the spadix, as not to be separated 
but by force. When looking externally at these scales, a 
small aperture will be perceived, from which the stamens 
issue ; and this aperture, though near the base, is not in the 
centre of each scale, but constantly on one and the same 
side ; and as the scale laps over with that side the one next 
above it, so the aperture and the stamens will be found to 
pass through both (t. 2735. f. %.). The origin of the sta- 
mens, indeed, is not, as in our amentaceous plants, imme- 
diately beneath the scales. We must make a transverse 
section through the whole tough (between fleshy and fibrous) 
substance of the spadix, and we shall find it to be every 
where filled with elliptical cavities, radiating from near 
the centre to the circumference, and on the circumference 
terminating at the apertures above mentioned. (See t. 
2735, / 3, in which figure, it will be observed that, 

where 



Ji. 




where the cavities are the largest, the section has passed 
through the very middle of them, where smaller, either a 
very small or a very large portion has been cut away ; for, 
opposite to the apertures, the cavity is of the same size, or 
nearly so throughout.) Each cavity we find to be filled with 
a great number of flowers, about an inch long, but collected 
and united into a very closely imbricated, distichous, 
kidney-shaped mass (t. 2735. / 4 .), attached by its base, 
(a) to the innermost side of the cavity next the axis of 
the spadix. Only one flower opens at a time, beginning 
with the lowermost, which is the longest and next the 
aperture ; when that has discharged its office, the one 
above it becomes more elongated, expands, is protruded 
till the pollen is dispersed ; and so on, till the whole, perhaps 
fifty or sixty, have withered ; in which state they still remain 
within the cavity, a mere mass of husky scales, if possible 
more closely compacted than before. Each flower is com- 
posed of six pieces, of which the three outer have been gene- 
rally considered a calyx, and the three inner, a corolla ft. 
273b. f. 5, 6.): they are oblong, membranaceous, yellowish- 
brown ; the outer ones rather larger and more angular 
than the inner. Stamens fifteen or twenty. Filaments 
united at the base into one body ft. 2735. f. 7. J: Anthers 
linear, two-celled, opening longitudinally, each cell termi- 
nating in two globular heads. The Spadix has a short 
compressed footstalk, with a groove on one side. 

Spadix of the Female Plant (t. 2736, f. \.) also springing 
from the axil of the leaves, pendent, two to four feet long, 
thick and woolly, tortuose, clothed with large sheathing, 
red-brown scales, which are singularly fimbriated, or more 
generally erose at the margin, and support several, more 
or less distantly placed, female flowers of different ages, at 
the same time, and of various sizes : for, along with the 
fully-formed ripe fruit is often seen the still unfertilized 
germen, in itself about the size of a hen's egg, but enve- 
loped in the six leaves of the perianth, of so thick a nature, 
as to render the whole of the dimensions and form of a 
moderate sized apple (t. 2736, f. 5). The three outer 
and three inner leaves (or Calyx and Corolla) are almost 
hemispherical and an inch thick at the base ; the outer ones 
the largest, their margins crenated ; but both remain and 
increase in size prodigiously with the fruit, so as then to 
be five or six inches in diameter. Germen almost concealed 
by the Perianth; broadly ovate, narrow at the base above 
the insertion of the Perianth; and in that lower part only, 

exhibiting 



exhibiting an appearance of three cells (t. 2737. f. I. J: the 
whole upper part,, a little above the letter a off. 2, t. 2736, 
is a pulpy mass, traversed by longitudinal vessels. In 
other germens there is no trace of cells. The stigma is 
sessile (unless the great mass above the insertion of the 
ovules may be considered as a style), having a minute, three- 
lobed aperture. As the fruit advances to maturity, one or 
two of the cells become abortive, and the germen, rounded 
before, then appears depressed on one side. (A vertical 
section of an unripe fruit is given at/. 2, and a transverse 
section, at/. 3 of t. 2737, in both of which there appears 
to be but a single seed or nut.) 

Many, indeed, of the germens are wholly abortive. A 
single spadix ripens from five to six fruits, each as large as 
the largest melon, often a foot and a half in length, weigh- 
ing twenty, or twenty-five pounds, oval, rounded, or com- 
pressed on one side, and more or less acuminated, the base 
surrounded by the greatly enlarged Perianth (t. 2738, f. 1 .). 
The external coat, or Pericarp, is formed by a thick enve- 
lope, or husk, which bears much resemblance to the coat 
of the common walnut, but is vastly thicker in proportion, 
having nearly the same form and colour, that is, a deep 
green. Before the fruit has attained its perfect maturity, 
the interior, near the base, is divided into two parts, and 
contains a substance like a white jelly (t. 2737, / 2, a), 
firm, transparent and sweet to the taste. A single Cocoa- 
nut holds, perhaps, three pints of this substance ; but if kept 
a few days, it turns sour, thick, and unpalatable, giving 
out a very disagreeable smell. 

One, two, or three, rarely four nuts are found within 
each pericarp. These nuts are a foot long, broadly ovate, 
or elliptical, at the base very obtuse, at the upper extremity 
notched into two or three, rarely four deep lobes, hemi- 
spherical on one side, compressed on the other, of a dark 
brown almost black colour, and a very hard woody texture, 
marked externally with shallow furrows (t. 2738, /. 2, 3.). 
This nut is divided in the middle by a dissepiment (two or 
three, probably, in those which are two or three lobed) of 
considerable thickness, but leaving a communication in 
the centre from which the germ or infant plant eventually 
appears. The cavity is filled by the almond, which is very 
hard, white, and corneous, so that it may be rasped with 
a file, but is with difficulty cut with a knife. 

Twelve months elapse, from the time of the appearance 
of the germen, before the fruits are fully ripe ; and they 

have 




J.Kdtli - 



V*yl.J827 



have been known to hang three years on the tree before 
falling on the ground. The outer envelope rots away in a 
few days. It is from the sinus of the lobes, where there 
are many, coarse, rigid fibres (t. 2738. f. 3. J, that the 
Emhryo or Germ is protruded ; and this takes place before 
the shell has decayed, but after the pericarp has fallen away. 
It extends itself to a considerable distance from its parent 
seed before it is separated, remaining attached to it by 
what appears a portion of the root or radicle ; whilst the 
outer extremity penetrates into the earth, and from a cleft 
in the thickest part, near the middle, throws up the plumule, 
as appears at the letter a of the same plate and figure. 

Prom the period of its falling from the tree, a year 
elapses before the nut begins to germinate ; and it is twenty 
or thirty years before it bears fruit. The tree has generally 
from twenty to thirty ripe Cocoa nuts upon it at the same 
time. 



For a long series of years, such was the difficulty of 
obtaining specimens of Palms in a good state for examina- 
tion, and so few Naturalists had the opportunity of examin- 
ing those trees in a growing state, that they might well 
have been considered as the opprobrium of Botany. This 
was the more to be regretted, since, of all known plants, 
hardly any tribe has offered to man so many useful and 
valuable properties as the Palms ; or has been stamped by 
Nature with such elegance and majesty of form ; whence 
Linn^us has justly styled them the Princes of the vegetable 
kingdom. So imperfectly was their fructification known 
to the great Swedish Naturalist, that he could scarcely 
refer any of them to their proper places, even in the arti- 
ficial arrangement, but grouped them in a distinct class, 
at the end of his system, called " Palma." Roxburgh and 
Thunberg contributed materially to our knowledge of 
those which are natives of the East Indies ; while in South 
America, Poiteau, during his residence in the French pro- 
vinces of Guiana, and, since that period, Spix and Martius, 
during their travels in Brazil, have made the structure of 
many of the Palms comparatively familiar to us. The 
splendid work, exclusively on that subject, which has been 
published by the latter authors, will remain a monument of 
their knowledge and industry, as well as of the munificence 
of the Prince through whose means it was given to the 
scientific world. But of all the Palms, perhaps that which 

for 



for a long time has been the least perfectly known, and yet 
the most extensively celebrated, is, the subject of the pre- 
sent description, the Double Cocoa Nut, the Coco de Mer, 
Coco de Salomon, and Coco des Maldives of the French, 
the Cocos Maldivicus of Rumphius, and Nux Medica of 
Clusius. Until the discovery of the only spot in the world 
where the nuts grew, in the year 1743, they were solely 
known from having been found floating on the surface of 
the sea, in the Indian ocean, and near the Maldives islands, 
whence their French name was derived ; and even in the 
time of Rumphius, the nut was spoken of as the " rnirum 
miraculum naturae, quod princeps est omnium marinarum 
rerum, quae rarae habentur." The nut only was found 
floating, destitute of its husk, and mostly with the internal 
part decayed ; it was called cc Calappa Laut" by the Dutch, 
and under that appellation Rumphius has given an histo- 
rical account of it ; but fabulous as it is, he tells us, that 
many other tales were related to him respecting it, which 
were too absurd for him to detail. 

The Double Cocoa Nut is not, he assures us, a terrestrial 
production, which may have fallen by accident into the 
sea and there become petrified, as Garcias ab Orta relates; 
but a fruit, probably growing itself in the sea, whose tree 
has been hitherto concealed from the eye of man. The 
Malay and Chinese sailors used to affirm, that it was borne 
upon a tree deep under water, which was similar to a Cocoa- 
nut tree, and was visible in placid bays, upon the coast of 
Sumatra, &c; but that if they sought to dive after the tree 
it instantly disappeared. The negro priests declared it to 
grow near the island of Java, with its leaves and branches 
rising above the water, in which a monstrous bird, or griffin, 
had its habitation, whence it used to sally forth nightly, and 
tear to pieces Elephants, Tigers, and Rhinoceroses with its 
beak, whose flesh it carried to its nest ; furthermore, they 
avouched, that ships were attracted by the waves which 
surround this tree and there retained, the mariners falling a 
prey to this savage bird, so that the inhabitants of the Indian 
Archipelago always carefully avoid that spot. 

With such, and many even more strange ideas respect- 
ing its place of growth and history, it is not wonderful 
that this nut should have been highly prized ; and in the 
Maldivian islands, it was death to any man to possess it : 
all that were found became the immediate property of the 
king, who sold them at a very high price., or offered them 
as the most precious of regal gifts. Their value was esti- 
mated at from sixty to one hundred and twenty crowns ; 

but 





1-u.h. by S.Cnrfis. H'a/irrrth . Mary. I. /».?, 



but those nuts which measured as much in breadth as in 
length were the most esteemed ; and those which attained 
a foot in diameter were sold for one hundred and fifty 
crowns. Nay, some kings have been so greedy of obtain- 
ing these fruits, as to have given a loaded ship for a single 
one. 

The Chinese, as well as the natives of the Archipelago, 
are justly thought by Rumphius to have set, perhaps, too 
high a value upon their medical properties, in considering 
them an antidote to all poisons. The principal virtue 
resided in the meat or albumen, which lines the nut, and 
which is so hard and corneous, as to be preserved for a 
length of time after the embryo is destroyed. This sub- 
stance was triturated with water in vessels of porphyry, 
and, mingled with black and white, or red coral, ebony, 
and stags* horns, was all drunk together. The Double Cocoa 
Nut was also thought serviceable in all inflammations of the 
body ; as a preservative against colic, apoplexy, epilepsy, 
paralysis, et id genus omne. 

The great men formed of the shell, which possesses fewer 
medicinal properties, precious vessels, cutting off a trans- 
verse slice, which constitutes the lid ; and in this they put 
their tobacco, betel, lime, and whatever else they masticate ; 
believing they can never then be contaminated by any 
thing noxious. Water kept in it is considered to preserve 
those who drink of it from every complaint. 

The discovery of the Seychelles Islands, and the know- 
ledge thence derived, that these nuts grew upon trees, as 
other Cocoa-nuts, soon reduced the value of this commodity; 
and now, probably, by the Indians, as by the Europeans, it 
is only sought as a matter of curiosity, or for domestic 
purposes. The Botanical history of the tree, was, however, 
not the less a desideratum. The industrious Sonnerat 
gave a description of it, not a very scientific one, indeed, 
in his excellent Voyage a la Nouvelle Guinee, when he 
landed upon the Isle Praslin, or Isle des Palmiers, one of 
the Seychelles. The Tree is represented in the third plate 
of his work, and again in the frontispiece, and the Fruit, 
Nut, and sections of the Nut and the male Spadix, are 
given in the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh plates: he 
first introduced the tree into the Isle of France. Commerson 
described it in his MSS., under the name of Lodoicea, which 
has been since adopted ; and, lastly, La Billardiere, in the 
ninth volume of the Annates du Museum d'Histoire Natu- 
relle, gave a Botanical description of it, and figures, from 

specimens 



specimens preserved in spirits ; together with a representa- 
tion of the tree,, from a drawing made in the Seychelles 
Islands, by M. Lilet. This is followed by an account of 
the uses of the Palm, communicated to the Museum of 
Natural History at Paris, by M. Qle.au- Quincy, Corres- 
pondant et Administrateur General des Isles Seychelles. 

These accounts, in conjunction with some nuts that Mr. 
Barclay and myself received from our inestimable friend 
and correspondent, Charles Telfair, Esq. of the Mauri- 
tius, only served to stimulate our curiosity ; and we re- 
quested Mr. Telfair, to procure, if possible, either from 
the Palms that he informed us were cultivated in the Isle 
of France, or from the Seychelles Islands, such specimens 
as would enable us to publish more satisfactory delinea- 
tions than had yet appeared. The Isle of France Palms 
had not yet fructified ; but Mr. Telfair lost no time in 
begging his friend J. Harrison, Esq. of the Seychelles, to 
obtain the necessary specimens. With the utmost promp- 
titude and kindness, that gentleman devoted several days 
to visiting, with a dozen of blacks, the Isles of Praslin and 
Curieuse ; and in the midst of those little known islands, 
he not only made drawings from the living trees, but pro- 
cured and forwarded to us, through Mr. Telfair, the Male 
and Female Spadices and Fruit, in different states, pre- 
served in spirits, with Leaves, a Seedling Plant, and even 
with a portion of the Trunk. All these, except the fully 
ripened fruit, arrived in safety. A perfect representation, 
therefore, of the mature nut, is still wanting. 

Much of the description of the plant here given has 
been communicated by Mr. Harrison ; and we have now 
to offer some further remarks, from the same valuable source. 

The Seychelles, or Make Islands, as they are sometimes 
called, lie to the N. East of Madagascar, in about 5° S. 
latitude, and 55° E. longitude. It is in this groupe only, 
that the Palm is found, and among them, on no others than 
the Isles of Praslin and Curieuse, and Round Island. These 
are within half a mile of each other, mountainous and 
rocky, and the soil poor. The common Cocoa nut (Cocos 
nucifera) occupies the sea coast; but all other parts are, 
or have been entirely covered with " Cocos de Mer." " To 
behold these," says Mr. Harrison, " growing in thousands, 
close to each other, the sexes intermingled ; — a numerous 
offspring starting up on all sides, sheltered by the parent 
plants ; — the old ones fallen into the sear and yellow leaf, 
and going fast to decay., to make room for the young trees, 

presents 



I 




27J8 




WJM.i 



Kt A> «^H . May US 27. 



presents to the eye a picture so mild and pleasing, that it 
is difficult not to look upon them as animated objects, ca- 
pable of enjoyment, and sensible of their condition." 

A new leaf is formed upon the tree annually; and on 
falling away at the end of the year, it leaves a scar or ring : 
by these, it is estimated, that one hundred and thirty years 
are required before the tree attains its full development. 
The foliage is largest and most beautiful in young plants ; 
the new leaf is always formed in the centre, and it shoots 
out perpendicularly, folded close like a fan from the top, 
to the length of ten feet, or more. In this state, it is of a 
pale yellow colour, and is employed for making hats and 
bonnets; afterwards it expands itself in all its beauty, and 
becomes green. There is a space of about four inches be- 
tween the rings on the trunk. A Coco de Mer, planted on 
M. De Quincy's estate, on the Isle Mahe, is thirteen feet and 
a half high, has thirty-nine marks or rings, and was planted 
forty years ago ; it is a female plant ; but there being no 
male plant in the island, the fruit never comes to maturity. 

The crown of the trunk, in the midst of the leaves, is 
called the cabbage, and is eaten like that of the true Cabbage 
Palm (Areca oleracea); but it is less delicate, and slightly 
bitter ; it is often preserved in vinegar. 

The trunk itself after being split and cleared of its soft 
and fibrous part within, serves to make water troughs, as 
well as palisades for surrounding houses and gardens. 

The foliage is employed to thatch the roofs of houses and 
sheds, and even for the walls. With a hundred leaves, a 
commodious dwelling may be constructed ; including even 
the partitions of the apartments, the doors and windows. 
In the Isle Praslin, most of the cabins and warehouses are 
thus made. 

The down which is attached to the young leaves serves 
for filling mattrasses and pillows. 

The ribs of the leaves and fibres of the petiole constitute 
baskets and brooms. The young foliage, as before men- 
tioned, affords an excellent material for hats: for this pur- 
pose, the unexpanded leaves only are taken, dried in the 
sun, and cut into longitudinal strips, two or three lines in 
breadth, which are then plaited ; and scarcely any other 
covering for the head is worn by the inhabitants of the 
Seychelles. 

Out of the nut are made vessels of different forms and 
uses. When preserved whole, and perforated in one or two 
places, the shell serves to carry water; and two of them 

are 



are suspended from opposite ends of a stick Some of these 
nuts hold six or eight pints. If divided in two, between the 
lobes, each portion serves, according to the size and shape, 
for plates and dishes, or drinking cups; these being valua- 
ble from their great strength and durability: so that this 
kind of utensil, in the Seychelles Islands, bears the name 
of Vaisselle de VhlePraslin. And such is the estimation in 
which these nuts are held by the negroes and poor people 
of other islands, that the sailors always try to obtain, and 
make them part of the cargo of their vessels. Amongst 
other articles, shaving dishes, black, beautifully polished, 
set in silver, and carved, are made from them. 

We have received from Mr. Telfair, at the Royal Glas- 
gow Botanical Garden, a living nut of tins rare Palm; 
but, although all possible care was taken in its treatment, 
it did not vegetate with us. We feel confident, however, 
of possessing living plants in our stoves ere long, as Mr. 
Telfair has promised us the nuts in an actual state of ger- 
mination ; which, with proper care on board of the ship, 
during the voyage, will reach us in safety *. 



* Since the above was printed, Mr. Barclay and myself have received 
accounts of the arrival, in the river, of Germinating nuts of this most valuable 
plant ; and we cannot doubt of soon seeing them flourishing in our stoves. 



Reference to the Plates, 2734, 2735, 2736, 2737, 2738. 

Tab. 2734 represents the Male and Female Palm. — T. 2735, f. 1, Male 
Spadix, much diminished. 2. Scales, with Stamens protruded, natural size. 
3. Section of the Male Spadix, ditto. 4. Cluster of Male Flowers; a. the 
point of attachment to the Cell. 5. Single Flower, in bud. 6. the same 
expanded, natural size. J. Bundle of Stamens, slightly magnified. 8. 
Single Stamens, magnified. — T. 2736. 1. Part of a Female Spadix. 2. Pistil. 
3. One of the outer Segments of the Flower. 4. Inner Segment, all reduced 
in size. 5. Female Flower, natural size. — T. 2737- I. Section of a Germen. 
2, Vertical, and 3 Transverse Section of a young Drupe. — T. 2738. 1. Drupe. 
2. Nut. 3. Nut in a state of germination. — All much reduced in size. 



2739 




( 2739 ) 

SOLANUM QuiTENSE. ANGULAR-LEAVED 
DOWNY SOLANUM. 

Class and Order. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solanacejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5 — 10 parti tus. Cor. subrotata, 4 — 10-fida. An- 
therce conniventes apice poro gemino dehiscentes. Bacca 
% 3, 4-locularis, placentis septo adnatis. Semina glabra. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Solanum Quitense ; inerme, caule suffruticoso, foliis sub- 

cordatis sinuato-angulatis utrinquetomentosis, racemis 

lateralibus brevissimis, hirsutissimis, bacca globosa. 
Solanum Quittoense. ham. III. n. 2326. Encycl. Meth. 

v. 4. p. 285. Dunal. Solan, p. 143. 
Solanum Quitense. Humb. et Kunth Nov. Gem. v. 3. p. 

25. Syn. PL CEgr. v. 2. p. 162. Spreng. Syst. Veg. 

v. 1. p. 679. 
Solanum angulatum. Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Per. v. 2. p. 36. 

t. 170. / a. 
Solanum amplissimo, anguloso, &c. Feuil. Per. Obs. v. 3. 

p. 61. t. 46. 



Descr. Biennial : according to Ruiz and Pa von, six feet 
and more high, quite destitute of spines, rounded, greenish- 
brown, thick and succulent, densely hairy. Leaves : the 
Wer, one and a half to two feet in length, cordato, sinu- 
ato-angulate, the angles callous at the tip, very downy, 
especially beneath, and there remarkably so in the young 
leaves, purple, very veiny ; the veins purple, very promi- 
nent beneath. Racemes exceedingly short, axillary, clothed, 



as well as the five-parted calyx, with very densely, crowded, 
soft hairs, drooping. 

Corolla large, pure white, purplish on the outside and 
there pubescent, rotate, almost two inches in diameter 
Anthers very large, yellow, connivent, as long as, and con 
cealing the style. Fruit a globose Berry, according to 
Flora Peruviana, of the size and colour of an orange, cover- 
ed with a short down, at length glabrous, shining, fragrant 

Solanum Quitense, the very noblest species of the genus 
we are acquainted with, we had lately the pleasure of seeing 
in the garden where the drawing was made in October, 1826. 
that of our friend R. Barclay, Esq., at Bury Hill, Surry 
it was growing in the open air to the height of five or si* 
feet, and with its noble leaves, large white flowers, the 
thick and beautiful purple down which clothes its racemes, 
calyx, and the underside of its young foliage, exhibiting a 
truly handsome appearance. 

Introduced by Mr. Barclay, from Peru, where it appears 
to be not uncommon, and where it is even cultivated in the 
gardens. The natives call the fruit Orange de Quito 
(Naranjitas de Quito); and some drops of the juice are 
mixed with the drink called Matte. 

This plant must prove a valuable addition to our gar- 
dens, treated as a hardy annual : probably, however, it 
will only ripen its fruit in the stove or greenhouse. 




Pub. br S. Cartis.lTalwcrlh ,3,igyJ . IS2"J, 



( 2740 ) 

Rhipsalis grandiflorus. Large-flowered 

Rhipsalis. 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord.— Cacti. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. superus, subquadrifidus. Corolla polypetala, una 
cum calyce persistens. Anther ce rotundatae. Stigma 3 — 
4-fidum. Bacca pellucida. Semina 12 — 20 intra pulpam 
nidulantia. 

Plantae aphyllce. Caules cylindracei nunc fasciculatim 
pilosi, obscure articulati. Flores parvi. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Rhipsalis grandiflorus ; parce ramosus, ramis suberectis 
subcalamiformibus nudis, spinulis minutissimis soli- 
tariis regulariter distantiusculis pallidis arete appressis, 
floribus nurnerosis vix uncialibus. Haw. 

Rhipsalis grandiflorus. Haw. Suppl. PI. Succ. p. S3. 
Haw. Rev. of Succ. PL p. 72. 

Cactus funalis. Salm. Dyck. Index PI. Succ. in Hort. 
Dyck. 1822 ? Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 2. p. 497. 



I have not had the satisfaction of seeing this plant in 
flower myself, and my description is, necessarily, taken 
from the drawing, aided by Mr. Haworth's description, 
and a plant without flowers in our Botanic Garden. 

Probably, like the common R. parasiticus, it is a para- 
site upon the trunks of old trees. Its mode of growth is 
similar. The stem and branches are, however, much stouter, 
scarcely so regularly verticillate, and they have scattered 
dots upon them, as well as distantly placed, very minute 

spinules : 



spinules : the extremities of the branches are veiy obtuse. 
The flowers are numerous,, especially upon the ultimate 
ramuli, sessile, an inch across, and, according to the draw- 
ing, the Germen is covered with scales. The lowermost 
and shorter of these scales are supposed to constitute the 
calyx ; the upper interior ones the corolla ; these are much 
the longest, and, as Mr. Haworth observes, become sud- 
denly longer, linear-oblong ; all of them pale yellow, with 
a brownish tinge on the outside : they spread out horizon- 
tally, or are even reflexed. Stamens very numerous: Fila- 
ments as long as the corolla, white : Anthers roundish, 
pale yellow : Style as long as the stamens, terminated by 
the four-rayed stigma. 

Introduced to the Royal Gardens of Kew, by Messrs. 
Bowie and Allan Cunningham, the King's collectors, in 
1816. It blossomed there in the early part of the summer 
of 1826, when the drawing was made which Mr. Aiton has 
kindly allowed us to introduce in this place. 

The genus Rhipsalis has already been adopted in the 
present work, and also by us in the Exotic Flora, as dis- 
tinct from Cactus : but, as we observed in the latter work, 
it is better characterized by habit, than by any essential 
marks in the fructification. The small number of divisions 
in the calyx and corolla, and the fewer stamens, we had 
formerly supposed to be useful points of discrimination ; 
but, in this plant, we find them to be inconstant. 



N. 2741- 
.1. 




■ Rer.7. /Xiiltiint, J?/ 



Pub bv s, Curtis Hidyrcrlh.Uuitf i?47. 



( 2741, 2742 ) 

Cactus cochinillifer. Spineless 
Cochineal Fig. 

Class and Order. 

IcOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Cacti. Div. Opunti^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat., e squamis numerosis, imbricatis, supertis. Pet. 
numerosa calyci inserta, interiora majora, basi coalita. 
Stigma multindum. Bacca umbilicata, unilocularis, po- 
lysperma. Semina intra pulpam nidulantia. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cactus cochinillifer ; articulis obovatis compressis basi at- 
tenuatis inermibus, petalis conniventibus staminibus 
brevioribus. 

Cactus cocbinillifer. Linn. Sp. PL p. 670. mild. Sp. PL 
v. 2. p. 944. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. p. 179. An- 
drews Repository, t. 533. Sprengel Syst. Veg. v. 2. p. 
497 (uon C coccinellifer. De Cand. Plantes Grasses.). 

Opuntia cochinellifera. Haw. Syn. PL Succ. p. 192. 

Opuntia maxima, &c. Sloane Hist. Jam. v. 2. p. 152. t. 8. 
/ 12. 

Ficus indica major hevis, &c. Pluken. Aim. p. 146. t. 281. 
f. 2. 

Tuna mitior florc sanguineo cochinellifera. Dill. Elth. p. 
399. t. 297. /. 383. 



Descr. This Cactus may almost be reckoned arbores- 
cent, for it grows to the height of nine feet. The lower 
and older parts of the stem and branches are cylindrical, or 
but slightly compressed, of a greyish ash colour, and woolly; 
the younger branches are every where proliferously jointed, 
their joints varying in size, from four to six inches, to a 

foot 



foot in length, oblong or obovate, more or less attenuated 
at the base, all of them much compressed, flattened, of a 
deep full-green colour, when young having several scat- 
tered, fleshy, curved, subulate leaves, scarcely half an inch 
long, which soon fall off, leaving a white scar. There 
are no spines. 

The flowers, which are three inches or more long, appear 
in the joints at the extremities of the branches, and gene- 
rally at or near their superior margins. The base is occu- 
pied by the large, fleshy, obovate, truncated, reticulated, 
dark-green germen, whose areolae constitute an oblong 
swelling or tubercle, tipped at the apex by a white scar, 
whence small leaf-like processes have fallen, and above 
which is a small fascicle of fine hairs or bristles. This has 
one cell filled with ovules, attached to a curved seedstalk. 
Calyx of many ovate or obovate, very acute, erect, greenish- 
red scales, gradually passing into the broader and larger, 
obtuse, very closely imbricated, connivent, bright rose- 
colored petals. Stamens much protruded, very numerous, 
rose-colored, their base sunk into the top of the Germen, 
forming a cylindrical mass, united below. Filaments 
very slender. Anthers oblong, pale yellow. Style dilated 
near the base, but again suddenly contracted at the very 
base, tapering upwards to the length of the stamens, and 
terminated by a cup-shaped stigma, cut into from five to 
eight yellow -green rays. After the falling away of the Calyx, 
Corolla, Stamens, and Pistil, a considerable hollow remains 
on the top of the germen, and this latter, scarcely increasing 
in size, or altering its form, becomes a Berry of a fine red 
colour within and without, having, in the centre, a number 
of nearly reniform, compressed seeds, enveloped in pulp. 

There are few tribes of plants that require illustration, 
by the aid of the pencil, more than the Cactuses ; they 
cannot be preserved in the Herbarium, nor so easily des- 
cribed in words, as many other plants. An idea, too, has 
been very generally current, that they are liable to much 
variation ; but from what we have ourselves seen of them in 
a state of cultivation, we think ourselves warranted in 
considering them to be tolerably constant to their character. 

With regard, too, to that particular species of Cactus, 
which nourishes the Cochineal Insect, much doubt has ex- 
isted ; and we believe it must be allowed, that our plant, 
which was named by LiNNiEus, and has been almost uni- 
versally called the C. cochinillifer , is not that which pro- 
duces the best Mexican Cochineal ; nor are we prepared to 

say, 



M. 27 +2. 




, urtij '<,'//>.. ,-//>. Jane. I. 1*2/- 



say, of what part of South America it is a native. Linnaeus 
speaks of it as indigenous to Jamaica and the warmer parts 
of the New world ; but Sloane, who gives a very tolerable 
figure of it, says., that the plants he saw, in Mr. Worley's 
plantation, were brought from the main Continent of Ame- 
rica, by a Spanish priest, and affirmed to be the species on 
which grew the Cochineal. 

We know our present subject to be the true C. cochinillifer 
of LiNNiEus, by his references to various figures, especially 
to that of Dillenius, in the Hortus Elthamensis above 
quoted ; and that author considers it may be the same as 
the Nocheznopalli or Nopelnochetzli, figured in Hernandez ; 
except that, in the latter plant, the flowers are spreading, 
whilst in our's, the petals are connivent. He does not say 
where it is indigenous. In the Chelsea garden according 
to Ray, it was cultivated prior to 1688, and was received 
from Barbadoes. 

Ulloa, not upon his own authority, as it appears, but on 
that of well informed travellers,, states, that the Cochineal 
Cactus has no spines, and a fruit imbued with a deep-red 
pulp. This is partly contradicted by Clavigero, who says, 
" in Misteca, where I was for five years, I always saw the 
insect upon prickly Nopals. M. de Raynal imagines, that 
the colour of the Cochineal is to be ascribed to the red fig 
on which it lives ; but that author has been misinformed ; 
for neither does the Cochineal feed upon the fruit, but only 
upon the leaf, which is perfectly green ; nor does that 
species of Nopal bear red, but white figs." It is true, Cla- 
vigero adds, " it may be reared upon the species with a red 
fig ; but that is not the proper plant of the Cochineal." 

De Candolle, in his beautiful work entitled " Plantes 
Grasses," has given, as the Cactus CoccineUifer, the C. Tuna 
of Linn-eus, a plant totally distinct from the Linnaean cochi- 
nillifer, and whose flower is of a different structure. 

Thierry de Menonville, who so courageously procured* 

the 



* This circumstance is thus related by Dr. Bancroft, in his valuable 
" Researches on the Philosophy of Permanent Colours." In the month of 
January, 1777, M. Thierry de Menonville left Portau Prince, in St. Do- 
mingo, for the purpose of procuring some of the living Cochineal Insects in 
Mexico, and bringing them away to be afterwards propagated in the French 
West India Islands ; an enterprize, for the expence of which, four thousand 
livres had been allotted by the French Government. He proceeded, by the 
Havannah, to la Vera Cruz, and was there informed, that the finest Cochineal 
Insects were produced at Guaxaca, distant about seventy leagues. Pretending 

ill 



the Cochineal Insect and the Cactus from Guaxaca, and 
transported them to St. Domingo, and who unquestionably 
had the best means of determining the kinds of Cacti, cul- 
tivated for the Insect, describes particularly three sorts, 
on which it may be reared and cultivated to advantage. 

1 . The Cactier Nopal ; upon which alone the Cochineal 
is reared in Mexico, both the fine and the common Cochineal 
(la Cochenille^me et sylvestre) although there are through- 
out the country, many other kinds of Cactus. The two 
following, therefore, it is presumed, are employed in St. 
Domingo. 

2. The Cactier Splendide ; which may be used to equal 
advantage with the former ; and 

3. The Cactier de Campeche. 

Of these, the first, as far as can be determined by de- 
scription, for the writer had never seen the flower or fruit, 
is the Cactus Tuna of Linnaeus ; C. coccinellifer of De 
Candolle. 

The second appears from the account to be very similar 
to the former, but larger in its joints (some of them thirty 
inches long), and very glaucous. 

The third, the C de Campeche, is, I think, without a 
doubt, our C. cochinillifer 3 for his whole description, and 
especially the flowers and fruit, entirely correspond ; and 

he 



ill health, he obtained permission to use the baths of the river Magdalena ; 
but instead of going thither, he proceeded, through various difficulties and 
dangers, as fast as possible, to Guaxaca ; where, after making his obser- 
vations, and obtaining the requisite information, he affected to believe that 
the Cochineal Insects were highly useful in compounding an ointment for 
his pretended disorder (the gout), and therefore purchased a quantity of 
Nopals, covered with these Insects, of the line or domestic breed, and putting 
them in boxes with other plants, for their better concealment, he found means 
to get them away as Botanic trifles, unworthy of notice, notwithstanding the 
prohibitions by which the Spanish Government had endeavoured to hinder 
their exportation ; and being afterwards driven by a violent storm into the 
bay of Campeachey, he there found and added to his collection a living 
Cactus, of a species which was capable of nourishing the fine domesticated 
Cochineal ; after which, departing for St. Domingo, he arrived safe, with his 
acquisitions, on the twenty-fifth of September, in the same year, at Port au 
Prince. Though almost unaided, M. TmERRvde Menonville, there perse- 
vered in cultivating, not only the fine Cochineal (which he brought from 
Mexico) but also the Sylvestre, which he afterwards found wild in St. Do- 
mingo, and so successfully, that in 1789, there were more than four thousand 
plants in a single Nopalery, the produce having been ascertained by chymists 
to be equal in quality to that of Mexico. The political troubles in St Domingo 
consequent upon the French Revolution, caused the total destruction of these 
plantations. 



he says of it, from his own experience, that it may be 
usefully employed for rearing the Cochenille sylvestre, and 
may even support a small quantity of the fine kind. 

The celebrated Humboldt also, although he allows that it 
is the plant upon which the Cochineal has often been sent 
to Europe, asserts, that our Cactus cochinellifer is not the 
individual of the Mexican Nopaleries, which he makes a 
new species, under the name of C. Bonplandii; and he quotes 
under it, with a mark of doubt, the Cactus Tuna of Linnaeus. 
At Rio de Janeiro, when that, place was visited by the 
Chinese Embassy, under Lord Macartney, there were con- 
siderable plantations of Cactus, for rearing the Cochineal, 
which had some time previously been introduced into Brazil ; 
and the plant, which is the Cactus Tuna, is represented on 
the twelfth plate of the Atlas of that work. 

I shall further, upon the subject of the kinds of Cactus 
employed in rearing the Cochineal, only add, that my ex- 
cellent friend, the Rev. L. Guilding, who sent me most 
splendid drawings of this particular Cactus, and from which 
most of the accompanying figures were executed, wrote 
me two years ago from St. Vincent, " I possess a consider- 
able nursery of this Cactus inhabited by thousands of the 
true Coccus Cacti; and I do not despair of being able to 
send to the Society of Arts a large quantity of dried insects, 
before the termination of the present year." In the East 
Indies also, the Insect has been extensively propagated ; 
but we have not had the means of knowing whether suc- 
cessfully or otherwise. 

Prom all this, we think it may be inferred, that, in Mexico 
and Brazil, the Cactus Tuna is the favorite food of the 
Cochineal ; and that in the West Indian Islands, where the 
C. Tuna is, perhaps, less frequent, the C. cochinillifer is em- 
ployed by the natives, and answers the purpose sufficiently 
well. 

Mr. Guilding, indeed, thinks it probable, that the C. co- 
chinilifer was introduced to St. Vincent's, from Mexico ; but 
he is, perhaps, led to this supposition, from the generally 
prevalent idea, that it is the species, on which the Cochineal 
°f the Mexicans is reared. 

Like all its congeners, C. cochinilifer increases readily 
by having the joints stuck into the ground ; and the plant 
loves dry and barren spots. If cultivated for the purpose 
of rearing the Coccus, it must be defended, at least in the 
rainy island of St. Vincent, from storms and winds, by 
sheds placed to windward. It there blossoms all the year. 

The 



The flowers, from which some of the dissections here given 
were drawn, were produced in the stove of the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, in September, 1826. 

The Cochineal Insect, which feeds upon the kinds of 
Cactus just mentioned, is too well known to need a parti- 
cular description here ; as are also its valuable properties in 
producing the dye, which bears its name, and carmine. It 
is the Coccus Cacti of Linn^us, a small Insect of the order 
Hymenoptera, having a general appearance not very dissi- 
milar to that of the Mealbug of our gardens, and equally 
covered, with a white powdery substance. The male is 
winged. It is originally a native of Mexico, and was culti- 
vated for its precious dye, long before the conquest of that 
country ; and these plantations, called Nopaleros, are most 
extensive in the Misteca and Oaxaca: the latter district 
alone has exported, according to Humboldt, upon the 
average, 32,000 arobas annually, estimated at 2,400,000 
piastres, above ,£500,000 sterling. 

A representation of a Mexican Nopalery, is given in 
Sloane's Jamaica, vol. 1, t. 9, from a drawing, made at 
Guaxaca, by an Indian : that author, however, particularly 
states, that though the plant be a kind of prickly pear, 
it has no thorns. In these small plantations or enclosures, 
they cultivate, either the fine sort (Grana jina of the 
Spaniards) or the common kind (Grana sylvestre), which 
differ, by the first having a finer quality, and more powdery 
covering, whilst the latter, less valuable in its produce, 
has a cottony covering, : but whether or not these two 
insects be specifically distinct, has not been determined. 
The placing of the females, when big with young, upon 
the Cactus, is called the sowing. The proprietor of a 
Nopalery buys in April or May, the branches or joints 
of the Tunas de Castilla ('Cactus Tuna ?); which are sold 
in the markets of Oaxaca, at about three francs a hundred, 
loaded with young Cochineals. (Semilla). These are kept in 
cellars for twenty days, when they are exposed to the air, 
suspended under a shed. So rapid then is the growth of the 
insect, that by August or September, the females are big with 
young, and ready for the sowing, which is done in small 
nests, made of the fibrous parts of the foliage of a Tillandsia, 
called Paxtle. In four months from the time of sowing, 
the harvest commences. The insects are brushed off, with 
a squirrel's or deer's tail, by women, who sit during this 
operation, for whole hours, at one Nopal plant ; so that, 
were it not for the extreme cheapness of labour in that 

country, 



country, Humboldt assures us, that the rearing of Cochi- 
neal, would prove an unprofitable employment. After 
being gathered, the insects are killed by boiling water ; 
or by exposing them in heaps to the sun ; or by means of 
the vapour baths of the Mexicans (temazcalli) ; and when 
dry, they are fit for exportation. By the latter method, the 
powdery substance is preserved, which increases the value 
of the insects in commerce. 

Doctor Bancroft has estimated the annual consumption 
of Cochineal in Great Britain only, at about seven hundred 
and fifty bags, or 150,000 lbs., worth £275,000, « a vast 
amount," as the authors of the introduction to Entomology 
observe, c< for so small a creature, and well calculated to 
shew us the absurdity of despising any animals, on account 
of their minuteness." According to the same writers, the 
only kind of Cochineal that has been conveyed to the East 
Indies, is the Sylvestre from Brazil ; and the Court of 
Directors of the East India Company offered a reward of 
£6,000 to any person who should introduce the more valu- 
able sort. 

Since our plate and description of this plant were com- 
pleted for publication, unfortunately, too late to render that 
justice to them which the subject required, we have been 
most obligingly favoured by W. T. Aiton, Esq. with a 
drawing and specimens of the Insects, from the Royal Gar- 
dens at Kew ; which we have added to our plate. Their 
introduction to the Royal Gardens was in the year 1814, 
from Martinico, by Mon. Castelneau d'AuRos, late super- 
intendent of the Botanic Garden on that island. 



Tab. 2741, A. entire plant, much reduced. 

Tab. 2742, B. f. 1. Section of the Flower, natural size. 2. Anther, 
magnified. 3. Ovule ditto. 4, Ripe Fruit, and 5, Section of ditto, and 
6, Seed from ditto, natural size. 7. Seed, magnified. 8. Male Cochineal 
Insect (Coccus Cacti) natural size. 9. Two of the same, magnified. 10. 
Female Insect, natural size. 11. Two of the same, magnified. 





,jr. 27*3. 



y 




;// 



r 



fab. ty:. 



trtA. Ju. 



( 2743 ) 

CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA. LiANCE- 

leaved Cunningham i a. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 

MoNCECIA TRIANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Conifers. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cunninghamia. Br. MSS. non Willd. Rich. Masc. Ament. 
ovatum, squamis dense imbricatis, unguiculatis, dorso tri- 
andris, antheris 1-locularibus dependentibus. — Fcbm. Ament. 
subovatum, squamis imbricatis, extus bracteola adnata rau- 
iritis, intus 3-floris ; floribus inversis. Fruct. : Strobili 
ovati ; bracteolae dense imbricate, durae, squamis majores, 
basi pericarpia tria compressiuscula, subcoriacea, in alam 
brevem a lateribus desinentia foventes. Embryo cylindri- 
cus, fere longitudine endospermii, 2-cotyledoneus; cotyle- 
donibus obtusis. 

Arbor, foliis solitariis, spar sis } sessilibus, angusto-lanceo- 
latis, rigidis et subspinescentibus. Richard. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cunninghamia sinensis. 

Cunninghamia sinensis. Richard Conif. p. 80. 

Belis jaculifolia. Salisb. in Linn. Trans, v. 8. p. 316. 

Sprengel Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 888. 
Pinus lanceolata. Lamb. Pin. p. 52. t. 34. Willd. Sp. PL 

v. 4. p. 505. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 320. 

Smith in Rees Cycl. 
Pinus Abies. Lour. Cock. v. 2. p. 710. (excl. syn. pleris- 

que.) 
Abies major sinensis, &c. Plukn. Amalth.p. 1. t. 351. f. 1. 



Descr. A tree, as it would appear, of considerable size, 
with opposite, cylindrical branches and numerous linear- 
lanceolate, cuspidate, rigid leaves, scattered, as to their in- 
sertion, but more or less distichous in direction, slightly 

tapering 



tapering at the base, sessile; and there obliquely twisted, 
acuminate at the upper extremity, the margin finely spi- 
nulosely serrate, the upper surface dark, shining green, 
with two depressed longitudinal lines, the under very glau- 
cous, except on the midrib and at the margin. Male 
Catkins at the extremity of the younger branches, sur- 
rounded at the base by several green, obtuse, imbricated 
scales, themselves formed of a number of triangular, brown, 
serrulated, peltate scales, bearing on their lower margin 
three or four pendent, oval, one-celled anthers, opening 
internally with a longitudinal fissure : Pollen yellow, glo- 
bular. The fruit is, according to Richard, an ovate Cone, 
whose scales are coriaceous, reddish, somewhat triangular, 
shortly unguiculated, the margin minutely toothed, having, 
within, the floriferous scale, which is free at the top and 
denticulated, immediately beneath which, the three peri- 
carps are seen pendent, obovate, compressed, fixed near the 
upper extremity, which is truncated, while the base is 
emarginate, the margin alate. Albumen formed like the 
seed, enclosing a nearly cylindrical dicotyledonous Embryo, 
its radicle pointing downwards. 

It was our good fortune to have, in the stove of the 
Botanic Garden of Glasgow, a plant of the Cunninghamia, 
lanceolata bearing its male flower in the winter of 1826 — 7 : 
and thus, by the aid of Richard's figures, for the female 
part of the fructification, to offer, we trust, a satisfactory 
delineation of this rare plant. It was introduced from 
China to the Royal Gardens at Kew, in 1804, and, by Mr. 
Aiton, kindly given to us. 

Mr. Lambert has published a splendid figure of it from 
dried specimens ; but the male flowers he had never seen, 
and only a very young male amentum seems to have been 
known to Richard. Mr. Salisbury called the genus Belis, 
a name that has been considered too nearly allied to Bellis, 
and hence originated that of Cunninghamia, given by Mr. 
Brown, to commemorate the merits of Mr. James Cunning- 
ham, ce an excellent observer in his time, by whom this plant 
was discovered ; and in honour of Mr. Allan Cunningham, 
the very deserving Botanist who accompanied Mr. Oxley 
in his first expedition into the interior of New South Wales, 
and Capt. King in all his Voyages of Survey of the Coast of 
New Holland." 






Fig. 1. Scale of the Male Flower, with three, and fig. 2 ditto, with four 
Anthers. 3. Cone. 4. Scale of ditto, with three Seeds. 5. Section of » 
Seed.— All hut fig. 3 magnified. Fig. 3, 4, and 5 from Richard. 



x. ?7#* 




WafwcrtA , Jbmr.S. utp. 



( 2744 ) 
Dianthus Caryophyllus. varieties of 

PlCOTEES. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Decandkia Monogynia. 
( Nat. Ord. — Caryophylle^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. cylindricus, 1-phyllus : basi squamis 4. Petala 5, 
unguiculata. Caps, cylindrica 1-locularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Dianthus Caryophyllus ; caule ramoso, floribus solitariis, 
squamis calycinis brevissimis ovatis submucronatis, 
petalis latissimis imberbibus, foliis lineari-subulatis 
canaliculars giaucis. D. C. 

(*.) flore simplici. Engl. Bot. t. 214. 

(3.) flore pleno. 

petalis fulvis, apice plumbeo-maculatis. Close-House 

Carnation, f. 1. 
petalis lurido-purpureis. Mrs. Bewicke's Carnation, 
/2. 



Mrs. Bewicke, of Close-House, North umberland, hav- 
ing imported a considerable number of rare Carnations 
from Brussels, was kind enough to send us drawings 
of a variety of them, from which we have selected the two 
given in the annexed plate, as the most unlike any that 
we have hitherto seen. 

If we occasionally trespass on the department of the 
Florist, we hope our readers will excuse us. In this in- 
stance, the singular display of unusual colours amongst 
Picotees tempted us to select those here represented from a 
number of others. 

The Picotee is a term, used amongst Florists, for those 

varieties 



varieties of the Carnation which have their colours like a 
fringe round each petal, instead of distinct stripes running 
through from the apex to the base : they are of more mo- 
dern culture than the Carnation ; and as regards those 
with yellow grounds, are more tender, almost requiring a 
greenhouse treatment during the winter. Their introduc- 
tion to this country was from Italy ; but whether the pro- 
duce of that country, or from whence originally obtained, 
Florists do not seem to know. Their excellence consists in 
strongly marked colours on a white or yellow ground ; and 
if several colours unite in the same flower the better ; it is 
also a perfection to obtain them rose-leaved ; i. e. free from 
the jagged edging of the petals. 

The singular colours of those introduced by Mrs. Bew- 
icke forms a new feature and object of pursuit for the 
Florist ; they were obtained with some difficulty by her 
from Brussels, where they were considered rare, and flow- 
ered with her, at Close-House, near Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 
the summer of 1826. Her gardener treated them exactly in 
the same manner as the other Carnations in pots, and kept 
them in the open air. A rich compost of rotten manure 
and good loam, well mixed by turning it two or three times 
in the winter, for spring potting, is the best for all kinds of 
Carnations. C. 




7*n& jhr &. CHrtt i 



( 2745 ) 

Camellia japonica, Jiore simplicu albo. 

Single white-flowered Camellia, 

or Japan-rose. 

Class and Order. 

MoNADELPHIA POLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Camellie^. D. C. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. imbricatus. Stam. basi polyadelpha aut monadel- 
pha. AnthercB ellipsoideae. Capsula valvis medio septi- 
feris, axim triquetrum liberum post dehiscentiam relin- 
quentibus. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Camellia japonica ; foliis ovatis acuminatis acute serratis, 
floribus terminalibus subsolitariis. D. C. 

Var. Flore albo simplici. S. Curtis, Monogr. of Camel- 
lia cum Ic. Bot. Reg. t. 353. 



Descr. The single white Camellia possesses the same 
claims to our admiration, as so many of the other varieties 
of the species, which promises to be as sportive, when raised 
from seed, as the Roses themselves. The Plant in ques- 
tion is supposed to be the produce of seed from the striped 
Camellia, and raised by Mr. Rollinson, of Tooting. 

Our readers are referred to Mr. Samuel Curtis's work 
above quoted, for the most splendid figures of the different 
varieties of Camellia, and for a detailed history of them, 
with an account of their mode of treatment, That author 
justly remarks, ec that they possess good natural constitu* 
tions to bear the variety of treatment they meet with ; for 
they are obliged to submit to all temperatures, from that 
of the open air, to the heat of the Pine stove. As to 
soil they grow best in about one-third of good bog earth, 
and two-thirds of rich sandy loam." 

It 



It was our intention, in order to complete the Botanical 
character of the genus, to have added to the accompanying 
plate, figures of the fruit and seed, which are exceedingly 
handsome, and, of which, we know not that a good repre- 
sentation has been given. For this purpose we are in 
possession of a beautiful drawing, recently made, by Miss 
C. Curtis ; but each of the two fruits (of the Waratah 
Camellia) being as large as a moderate sized apricot, they 
will, together with the seeds, occupy more space than 
we can here afford ; and as we are in expectation of soon 
figuring two new kinds of Camellia, from Mrs. Palmer of 
Bromley (one supposed to be the finest sort yet known, 
var. Rawesiana), we shall take that opportunity of intro- 
ducing the fruit. 



Fig. 1. Portion of the Stamens, shewing how they are united at the base. 
2. Front view of a Stamen. 3. Back view of ditto. 4. Pistil. 5. Section of 
the Germen. — All more or less magnified. 




! 



H'nfirer/h /'j n-c I. 7227! 



( 2746 ) 

Pleurothallis foliosa. Leafy fragrant 
Pleurothallis. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^:. Div. IV. Anthera terminalis mo- 
bilis decidua ; Massae pollinis demum cereaceae. Br.) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum articulatim connexum cum basi simplici vel 
brevissime producta columnae. Petala 2 antica exteriorum 
inferne connata. Massae pollinis 2, exsulcae. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Pleurothallis foliosa ; bulbo oblongo compresso basi 
apiceque folioso, scapis multifloris, petalis angusto- 
lanceolatis patentissimis, labello ovato reflexo basi 
longitudinaliter bituberculato membranisque duabus 
erectis. 



Descr. Parasitic. Roots thick, fleshy, whitish, mostly 
simple. Bulb about four inches long, oblong, compressed, 
obscurely striated, green, having a few distichous, sheathing 
leaves at the base, and two linear-lanceolate acute ones at 
the top, of a coriaceous, rather than membranaceous tex- 
ture. Scapes two, springing from within the radical leaves, 
one on each side the narrow edge of the bulb ; 6 — 8 inches 
long, nearly erect, compressed, having several sheathing 
scales which pass upwards into membranous, lanceolate 
bracteas, as long as the germen. Flowers numerous, 
yellow, very fragrant. Petals spreading horizontally, lan- 
ceolate, acute, waved, the two lower ones united at the 
base under the lip. Lip standing forward, ovate, acute, 
entire, its upper half reflexed; its lower, furnished with two 

longitudinal 



longitudinal tubercles, which, at the very base, rise into 
two erect membranes, embracing the lower part of the 
column. Column about half as long- as the petals, semi- 
terete, yellow, with a bright-red mark below the stigma. 
The Anther-cases had all fallen from our plant. Pollen 
Masses obovate, waxy, with a depression at the back, 
fixed to a linear, white footstalk, having a reddish gland at 
the base. Germen linear, clavate, not twisted. 

Communicated from the Dublin College Botanic Garden, 
by J. T. Mack ay, Esq. who received it, in 1825, from 
Brazil. It flowered in the month of February (1827), and 
yields so delightful a fragrance (resembling, as it appears to 
us, that of the Cowslip), as to be well worthy of cultivation 
in every stove. The whitish, membranous bracteae remain 
after the flowers have fallen, and give a singular appear- 
ance to the old scapes. 



F'i£. 1. Flower. 2. Lip. 3. Flower from which the Lip has heen re- 
moved. 4. Superior side of a Pollen Mass. 5. Inferior ditto. — All more 
or less magnified. 



X. 27-1-7- 




— KJSdilf 



J>uh by S Curtis, Wal» 



( 2747 ) 
Acacia mucronata. Mucronated Acacia. 

Class and Order. 

PoLYGAMIA MoN(ECIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores polygami. Cal. 4 — 5-dentatus. Petala 4—5, 
nunc libera, nunc in corollam, 4 — 5-fidam coalita. Stam. 
numero varia, 10 — 200. Legumen continuum. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Acacia mucronata; petiolis lineari-spathulatis apice ob- 
tusis oblique mucronatis subtrinerviis integerrimis 
glabris, spicis axillaribus solitariis vel binis, calyce 
brevi corollaque quadrifidis. 

Acacia mucronata. " Willd. Enum. Suppl. p. 68." fVend- 
land, Diss, de Ac. Aph. p. 46. t. 12. De Cand. Prodr. 
£>. 2. p. 454. Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 136. 



Descr. A twiggy shrub, which, in our collection, has 
reached to the height of four or five feet, with very nume- 
rous branches, the older ones brown, the rest greenish. 
Leafstalks alternate, entirely glabrous, 2 — 4 inches long, 
linear-spathulate, slightly falcate, much attenuated at the 
base, the extremity obtuse, furnished with a short oblique 
toucro : the margins every where entire, the surface three- 
nerved, the two lateral nerves the most obsolete, all connect- 
ed by lesser oblique nerves or veins. Spikes of flowers an 
lr »ch or more long, one, or frequently two from the axils of 
the leaves. Calyx very short and small, four-toothed, 
yellowish-green, subtended by a minute bractea. Corolla 
deeply four-cleft (or of four equal, ovate petals united at 
Jhe base) yellow. Stamens very numerous, united at the 
base. Filaments very delicate, flexuose, longer than the 
corolla, pale yellow: Anthers small, roundish, deep yellow. 

Pistil 



Pistil often present in the same flower with the stamens. 
Germen ovate, pubescent. Style long, curved, filiform, 
glabrous, as well as the simple style. 

Acacia mucronata appears to have been first described by 
Willdenow in his Enumeratio: and Wendland has given 
a good figure of it in his useful Commentatio de Acaciis 
Aphyllis. 

Our plant, in the Glasgow Royal Botanic Garden, was 
raised from seeds, sent some years ago to Mr. Murray, by 
Mr. Fraser, from New Holland. It flowers during the 
early Spring months. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and Corolla. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistil. 4. Leaf. — More or 
less magnified. 



( 2748 ) 

Zygopetalon Mackaii. Mr. Mackays 
Zygopetalon. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE. Div. IV. Anthera terminalis mo- 
bilis decidua; Massas pollinis demum cereacese. Br.) 

Generic Character. 

Petala aequalia, subsecunda, erecto-patentia, basi con- 
nata. Labellum explanatum apice emarginatum, disco 
tuberculo magno ; basi inferiore obtuse calcarato ; Colum- 
na aptera. Anthera ovata, compressa, calceiforme, disco 
subtus affixa : loculis duobus subbivalvibus. Massed pol- 
linis duae, ad basin inaequaliter bilobae, basi glandulosae. 

Specific Character. 
Zygopetalon Mackaii. 



Descr. Parasitic. Root large, fleshy, tortuose, rarely 
branched. Bulb large, ovate, wrinkled, marked with the 
scars of the old leaves. Leaves distichous, linear-lanceolate,, 
sheathing, and subequitant at the base, submembranous, 
slightly carinated, striated, a foot long. Scape a foot and 
a half long, compressed, having distant sheathing scales. 
Floivers five or six, very large, handsome, emerging from 
cymbiform bractea, which are nearly as long as the germens. 
Petals dingy yellow-green, with blotches of a purplish 
colour, which are obscure on the outside, lanceolate, acute, 
erecto-patent, subsecund, all united for some way up from 
the base. Lip wholly uncovered by the petals, very large, 
standing out horizontally, rounded, waved, emarginate at 
the extremity, white marked, with lines and spots of 
purplish blue : on the disc, and applied to the column, is 

a large 



a large convex, somewhat, horse-shoe shaped, fleshy tuber- 
cle ; and the base itself, articulated upon the base of the 
column, runs down into an obtuse whitish spur. Column 
semiterete, about half as long as the petals, yellow-green, 
marked with lines and spots of purple. Stigma convex. 
Anther terminal, ovate, yellowish-white, remarkably com- 
pressed, almost exactly slipper-shaped, and fixed by a 
minute point, near the centre of the disc below, within two 
celled, cells sub-two-valved. Pollen masses, two, large, 
yellow, with each of them a small lobe or pollen mass 
behind ; so that they might be said to be four ; and these 
fixed to a large reddish gland. Germen linear, clavate, 
green, not twisted. 

This was received in February, 1827, along with the 
Fragrant Pleurothallis, given in the preceding number, 
from Mr. Macray, of the Dublin College Botanic Garden, 
and was by him imported from Brazil. It is a plant of 
great beauty, and may be numbered amongst the most 
shewy of the highly interesting family of Orchideous plants. 
It is so unlike in the structure of its flower to any describ- 
ed plant, that I have no hesitation, in constituting of it a 
new genus. Besides the union of the five petals at the 
base (whence I have derived the generic appellation), the 
Anther will be found to be of a curious structure. Even 
when viewed from the under side, the pollen masses are 
concealed partly by the peculiar form of the Anther-case 
itself, and partly by the singular nature of the cells. 

The noble specimen here figured was cultivated in the 
stove, in peat earth. 



Fig. 1. Back view of an Anther removed from the top of the column at 
f. 2. 3. Under side of the Anther, including the Pollen Masses. 4. Ditto from 
which the Pollen Masses are removed. 5. Back view of the Pollen Masses. 
6. Under side of ditto. — All magnified. 




Pu&Try.S. Curtis W a 7s*'orfK :/ulV '. / 14 37. 



( 2749,2750 ) 
Caryophyllus aromaticus. Clove Spice. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord.— Myrtace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partitus superus, persistens. Pet. 4. Germen 
oblongo-cylindraceum, biloculare, ovulis plurimis. Stylus 
subulatus, glandula elevata quadrangulari ductus. Bacca 
elliptica, (abortione) monosperma. Cotyledones crassae. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Caryophyllus aromaticus. 

Caryophyllus aromaticus. Linn. Sp. PL p. 735. Gcert. 

de Fruct. v. I. p. 167. t. 33. Lam. Diet. v. 2. p. 718. 

Illustr. t. 417. Smith in Rees CycL Pers. Syn. PL 

v. 2. p. 30. 
Engenia caryophyllata. "Thunb. Diss, de Caryoph. arom. 

p. 1." Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 965. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 

2. v. 3. p. 188. 
Myrtus Caryophyllus. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 485. 
Caryophyllum. Rumph. Herb. Amb. v. 2. p. 1. t. 1. 2. 3. 
Caryophyllus aromaticus., &c. Clusius Exot. p. 15. et Ic. 

p. 16. Pluk. Aim. p. 88. t. 155. / 1. 
LeGerofle. Sonnerat Voy.dlaNouv. Guin.p. 196. 1. 119. 
Le faux Gerofle. Sonnerat Voy. d la Nouv. Guin.p. 197. 

t. 120. 



Descr. A moderately sized Tree, whose outline or cir- 
cumscription is somewhat conical or pyramidal, bearing- 
numerous opposite branches which are more or less virgate. 
VV hole plant every where glabrous. Leaves opposite and 
decussate, persistent, somewhat coriaceous and shining, 
minutely punctated, about four inches long, ovato-lanceo- 

late. 



late, move ov less acute, quite entire, pale beneath, tapering 
gradually at the base into a slender footstalk, which is 
almost two inches long. Panicles short, terminal, of many 
flowers, and always trichotomously divided, jointed at 
every division. Peduncles terete, green. Calyx of four 
ovate, concave segments, erecto-patent, placed upon the 
top of the germen, and together with it, is first green and 
then red, coriaceous. Petals four, larger than the calyx, 
imbricated into a globe in bud, at length spreading, 
roundish, concave, yellowish-red, very soon caducous. In 
the centre of the calyx, and occupying the top of the germen, 
is a quadrangular elevated line or gland, surrounding, but 
not embracing the base of the shortish, obtusely subulate 
Style. Around this gland, immediately within the petals, 
the Stamens are inserted ; but, as their insertion does not 
extend to the angles of the gland, they appear to be collect- 
ed into four bundles, numerous. Filaments much longer 
than the petals, yellow. Anthers ovato -cordate, yellow, 
two-celled. Germen oblong, or almost cylindrical, having, 
in the upper part, two-celled, with many small ovules in 
each cell, attached to the sides of the dissepiment. All these 
become abortive ; or one proves fertile, and by its great 
enlargement, destroys the appearance of the rest of the 
ovules, and of the second cell ; so that the fruit which forms 
a rather large elliptical purple berry is only one-seeded : 
this is of the same shape as the berry ; its integument thin, 
and of a soft texture. Embryo likewise elliptical, large, 
greenish, fleshy, dotted. Cotyledons unequal, sinuose ; the 
larger one partly enveloping the smaller, including the 
superior radicle. 

Almost every part of the plant is covered with minute 
dots or glands, which contain the essential oil, that gives 
the aromatic odour to it. These abound, particularly in 
the interior of the subtance of the germen, near the epi- 
dermis. 

The Clove was introduced into the Royal Gardens at 
Kew, in 1797, by the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks. 
Its native country is the Molluccas ; but from its value as 
a spice, its cultivation has extended to the West, as well as 
to the East Indies ; and we must endeavour to lay before 
our readers some details respecting a plant, of such import- 
ance, that it was once the staple commodity of some of the 
East India Islands, particularly Amboyna. 

It is not easy to determine when the Clove was first 
known to Europeans. J. Bauhin tells us, that the inhabi- 
tants 




A 7 . 27oO. 



-AittZ. O. Ai 



tants of the Molluccas were scarcely acquainted with its 
value,, till some Chinese vessels visited their country, and 
transported many plants into China, and that they were 
thus the means of distributing them into other districts of 
India, into Persia, and Arabia. Sir James Smith (in Rees's 
Cyclopedia) suspects, that it was brought into Greece from 
Arabia, and that the first distinct mention of it is made by 
Paulus (Egineta, a Greek physician of the seventh century, 
when it was used in food and in medicine ; and the same 
author supposes it was the Carunfel of Serapion, and the 
Charumfel helium of Avicenna, two Arabian physicians. 
The Molucca Isles were discovered by the Portuguese in 
1511 ; and from that time, or very soon after, it may be 
imagined, the Cloves came into common use in Europe. 
But the Dutch, after driving the Portuguese from the Spice 
Islands, strove to take the monopoly of all the spices 
into their own hands ; and, for this purpose, after vainly 
endeavouring to destroy the Cloves in the neighbouring 
islands, they concentrated their cultivation in Amboyna 
and a few smaller islands in the vicinity, where, indeed, 
they had been introduced, even before the conquest of the 
Portuguese, by the Cerammers of Cambello, who brought 
some mother -cloves (seed) secretly in hollow bamboos 
from Machian. The conduct of the Dutch, in all that con- 
cerns their trade in the East Indies, has fixed an indelible 
disgrace upon their country. When the natives of Cam- 
bello shewed their conquerors, the Dutch, the trees of 
Cloves they had cultivated secretly for so many years, 
behind the hill of Massili, they were rewarded for their 
openness by the destruction of all their Clove trees, and the 
deprivation of the fruits of their industry and exertion. And 
when the natives came to make reprisals, by attacking 
the forts of the Dutch, such enmity, on their part, is called 
by their European tyrants, a wicked spirit of disobedience, 
and an unjust and cruel lust of blood and warfare : so that 
their great historian Valentyn has said, " it would have been 
better, if, instead of extirpating their trees alone, we had, at 
the same time, exterminated this revengeful and sanguinary 
nation*." 

A military Officer, a civil servant belonging to the Dutch, 
with European attendants, and twenty or thirty Buggness 

soldiers, 



See Stavorinus's Travels for a roost valuable account of the Dutch 
tode and possessions in the East Indies. 



B 



soldiers, are sent to the other islands annually, with axes, 
to destroy the Clove trees : thus, as the Abbe Raynal ob- 
serves, maintaining a perpetual struggle with the liberality of 
nature. In the Molucca Islands, having subdued the princes 
by force of arms, they made conditions with them, princi- 
pally with reference to the Clove trade ; compelling them, 
at first, not to sell any of the Cloves, produced in their 
respective dominions, to any other nation, and afterwards 
to destroy all the Clove trees which grew in their territories, 
for which they were to receive indemnity in money. Thus 
did they, for a time, keep exclusive possession of this trade, 
and were enabled, at pleasure, to raise and lower the price ; 
committing to the flames such overstock spice, as they could 
not sell on their own terms. 

They also reduced the quantity of bearing trees in their 
own possession, to five hundred thousand Cloves ; which 
yield, upon the average, at least a million of pounds per 
annum. One of the largest sales ever made in Holland, 
was (in 1714) 435,427 lbs. ; but in, 1758, 200,000 lbs., in 
1778, 234,271 lbs., and in 1738, 400,000 lbs.; whilst in the 
Indies, about 150,000 lbs. or 200,000 lbs. according to the 
English Editor of Stavorinus's travels, were disposed of; so 
that a great superfluity must still always have remained in 
the hands of the monopolizers. 

A better state of things now exists, and the Clove is cul- 
tivated wherever human industry has carried it to a suitable 
soil and climate ; and numerous other countries possess this 
precious vegetable. The French introduced it to their 
islands of Mauritius and Bourbon, through the medium of 
M. Poivre their intendant of those islands, who sent two 
vessels in 1769, to the kings of Gueby and Patany, to pro- 
cure the Clove and other valuable spices ; and they have 
been found to succeed so well, that in the year 1802, when 
Mr. Bory de St. Vincent was in the Mauritius, he visited 
the individual tree which was first planted by the philan- 
thropist Poivre; saw it loaded with Cloves; and ascertained 
that it had, in some years, alone produced the extraordinary 
quantity of 125 lbs. of this spice : whereas, the average 
produce in Amboyna, is 2 or 2| lbs. per annum. It requires 
five thousand Cloves to weigh a pound ; consequently, here 
were 625,000 flowers upon this single tree (independent 
of others, which were, perhaps, left for seed); "a fact," says 
Bory de St. Vincent, " which would appear incredible, 
were we not to mention, that this beautiful tree is at least 
forty feet high, throwing out innumerable branches, some 

of 



of which, falling down on all sides, form a pyramid of ver- 
dure". In 1791, M. Hubert, the proprietor of the original 
Spice estate, of the former intendant, M. Poivbe, gave a 
fete champetre there in honour of the extended cultivation 
of the spice trees ; whilst the festivals, annually held by the 
Dutch in Amboyna, were instituted in commemoration of 
their destruction in all the surrounding islands. 

Another French gentleman, M. Cere, sent plants from 
the Mauritius to Cayenne, about the year 1779 ; and, in 
1792, the plantations there contained 2500 trees, which 
bore Cloves equal to those of the East Indies, and which 
fetched a higher price in France, than those from the Mo- 
luccas. Others were sent to Martinique, and the French 
West India Islands ; so that the former furnished the 
London market, in 1797, with 350 lbs., and in the following 
year with 200 lbs.; at which time St. Kitts sent 2981 lbs. ,v 

From Martinique, the Clove tree was introduced to our 
Island of St. Vincent ; and by the great care and attention 
of Dr. Anderson, the superintendent of the Botanic Garden, 
it is brought to perfection*. fc About April," says Mr. 
Guilding, in his notes which accompanied his beautiful 
drawings of this plant, "the tree is covered with its lovely 
blossoms, the greater part of which, prove abortive, and 
falling to the ground, are collected, and dried for sale. 
The Berries which remain on the tree, gradually enlarge 
their calyx and develop the seed, and are gathered under 
the trees about July, having turned to a blackish purple, 
and lost all their value as a spice. The seeds require to 
be set out immediately and planted near the surface, as they 
vegetate rapidly. The young plants are tender, and should 
be placed if possible, where it is intended they should remain. 
The Clove was once cultivated to a great extent in Domi- 
nique : in our own island, the trees which are little valued, 
produce annually upwards of a million of seed, besides the 
abortive fruit, which is dried as a spice. The colonists, 
supposing from our overgrown trade in India, that it can 
never become an article of commerce, neglect even to 
plant the Clove in their hedges ; although it, as well as the 
Cinnamon and many other plants, which any overwhelm- 
ing change in our Eastern possessions might render in- 
valuable, would grow without any expence." 

In 



. * See the history of its introduction, and of its culture, by Dr. Anderson, 
»» the Rev. Lansdown Guildikg's «* account of the Botanic Garden in the 
Island of St Vincent." 



In Trinidad too,, the Clove is extensively cultivated ; and 
it cannot be doubted, but that with the present enlightened 
and truly scientific governor, Sir Ralph Woodford, it will 
there, if it can in any of our West India possessions, be 
rendered a profitable article of commerce. I have received 
from a French gentleman of that island, M. Begarret, 
several of the Berries or Matrices {mother cloves) as they 
are called, for our Botanic Garden ; but, as has just been 
observed by Mr. Guilding, they must be planted as soon 
as gathered, or the essential oil escapes, which, perhaps, 
nourishes the Embryo, and its vegetative property is de- 
stroyed. 

The Clove of merchandize is the unexpanded flower; the 
corolla forming a ball or sphere on the top, between the 
teeth of the calyx ; thus, with the narrow base or germen 
tapering downwards, giving the appearance of a nail; a 
similarity, indeed, much more striking in the dry, than in 
the fresh state of the bud. Hence, as Sir James informs 
us, cc the Dutch call it Naghel ; the Spaniards, Claro ; the 
Italians, Chiodo ; and the French, Clou, from which the 
English Clove is evidently derived." The uses of Cloves 
are sufficiently known, particularly in domestic economy, 
as a seasoning in various dishes, and to give flavor to wines 
and spirits. In medicine, they are esteemed tonic and ex- 
hilirating, powerfully stimulating on the muscular fibres, 
but dangerous to bilious persons, and those of a sanguine 
temperament. These properties, their acrid and burning 
taste, depend on the essential oil, which is procured by 
distillation, and is hot and caustic, and therefore employed in 
the curing of the tooth ache and other maladies, and by 
perfumers. 

The Cloves are gathered by the hand ; or beaten with 
reeds, so as to fall upon cloths placed under the tree ; and 
dried by fire, or, what is better, in the Sun. The fully- 
formed Berries are preserved in sugar, and eaten after 
dinner to promote digestion. 



Tab. 2740, A. Flowering Branch of Caryophyllis aromaticus. 

Tab. 2750, B. f. 1. Vertical Section of a Flower. 2. Front view of the top 
of the Germen, seen within the Calyx. 3. Inner view of a Petal. 4. Outer 
view of ditto. 5, Front view, and 6, Back view of a Stamen. 7- Section, of 
the Germen, magnified. 8. Cluster of Fruits, natural size. 9. Section of a 
Berry, made transversely above the middle. 10. Vertical Section. 11. The 
Embryo. 12. Embryo, with the Cotyledons laid open. — Magnified. 




7*>it.lvS. Cmrfit irWumM Jm& I. Jftf. 



( 2751, 2752 ) 
Telfairia pedata. Pedate Telfairia. 

****«*««*««■&«■&.& 

Class and Order. 
Dl^ECIA Pentandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Cucurbitace^e. Juss. Nhandirobe^e. Aug;. 

St. Hil. ) 

Generic Character. 

Telfairia. Hook. Masc. Cal. campanulatus, profunde 
quinquefidus. Petala b, fimbriata. Stam. 5, lobis antherae 
distinctis. 

F(em. Cal. superus, minimus, 5-dentatus. Petala b, 
fimbriata. Germen cylindraceum sulcatum. Stylus brevis. 
Stigma quinquelobum. Fructus : Bacca maxima oblonga, 
profunde sulcata, quinque — 6-locularis, loculis pulpo reple- 
tis. Semina magna orbiculari-compressa tuberculata, tu- 
nica coriacea, e vasis reticularis, tecta, seriatim disposita, 
horizontalia. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Telfairia pedata. 

Feuill^ia pedata. Smith in Botanical Magazine, Old 

Series, t. 2681. (fcem.) 
Joliffea africana. Bojer MSS. 



Descr. After the excellent figure and description of the 
female of this plant, given in a former number of the 
present work, I need only confine myself to an account of 
the Male flowers and of the fruit, in order to render our 
description complete, of this highly interesting vegetable ; 
and this I am able to do, from having received from Mr. 
Telfair, dried specimens of the flower ; a fully formed, but 
scarcely ripe fruit, in spirits ; several ripe seeds ; and a beau- 
tiful series of drawings, from the pencil of Mrs. Telfair. 
These drawings were all made in 1826, from plants, culti- 
vated at Bois Chery, one of Mr. Telfair's estates in the 
Mauritius. 

The 



The female flowers are produced solitary, as figured and 
described, at t. 2681. The male, on the other hand, pro- 
duces, upon an axillary peduncle (between the point of 
insertion of the lateral tendril and the leaf,) of six or 
eight inches in length, a receme of six or eight large flowers, 
each upon a pedicle, often bracteated, an inch or more 
long. Here, too, the Calyx is large, campanulate, downy, 
nerved, cut into five deep ovate or ovato-lanceolate, very 
deeply inciso-serrate segments, almost half as long as the 
flower. Corolla of five petals, very similar, as far as I can 
judge from the dried specimens, and from the drawing, to 
those of the female. Stamens five, and (apparently) dis- 
tinct ; but I am not able to determine clearly that point, 
nor that of their exact insertion. Filaments cuneate, taper- 
ing downwards ; the broad upper part separates the two 
linear oblong cells of the anther, which open with a longi- 
tudinal fissure, and, as well as the pollen, are yellow. 

The fruit constitutes an enormous Berry or Pepo, from 
one and a half, to three feet in length, and often eight 
inches across, oblong, always green, having from ten to 
twelve deep furrows, the prominences rounded, the bottoms 
of the furrows rough, with minute elevated points, as is 
the concave part where the stalk is inserted : the apex is 
acute, or shortly acuminated, and near the base is a con- 
traction ; so that the very base forms a dilated, furrowed 
apophysis. There are five cells, each cell filled with a 
dense fleshy pulp, in which the seeds are imbedded hori- 
zontally in a longitudinal series. Each seed is the size of 
that of a very large kidney bean, between orbicular and 
cordate, much compressed, even a little concave on one 
side, and firmly enclosed in a beautiful, yellowish- brown, 
but tough and almost coriaceous, reticulated mass of ves- 
sels quite distinct from the seed itself, whose integument is 
hard and thick, yellow-brown, on both sides marked near 
the margin with an elevated line, and in the disc, or 
centre, it is prettily embossed with many serpentine lines. 
Although the outside of this be brownish, the inside (or 
that next the almond) is a deep and almost bright yellow; 
and the intermediate part is a fine black. The whole in- 
ternal cavity is occupied by the Embryo, except a thin 
membranaceous, brownish covering, adhering to it, which, 
perhaps, may be considered as Albumen. Cotyledons two, 
of the same shape as the seed, pure white, fleshy, and 
rather oily. Radicle inferior, small, conical. 

The genus Feuill^a of Linn^us, was instituted by 

Plumieu 



Plumier, under the name of Nhandiroba, and figured by 
the latter author, but in so imperfect a manner, that, with the 
incomplete materials of our plant, possessed by Sir James 
Smith, it is not surprising he should have referred it to 
Feuill^a. A much more satisfactory representation of a 
Feuill,ea, and probably too, the very same species as the 
F. cordifolia of Linn, (and Plum. Ic. t. 209.) is given in 
the " Nouveau Diet. d'Hist. Nat."; and now, being in pos- 
session of the male, as well as female flowers, and the 
perfect fruit, I have no hesitation in pronouncing it quite 
distinct from Feuill^ea, as well as from every other of the 
family, to which it belongs ; and it is no less my own wish, 
than that of Mr. Barclay, that it should bear the name of 
our mutual and excellent friend, through whose means it 
has been introduced to this country, Charles Telfair, Esq. 
of the Mauritius. 

I need only give the generic character of FeuilljEA, as 
laid down in the Nouv. Diet. v. 16. p. 500, to shew how 
the two genera differ. Flowers dioecious : Male, with a 
campanulate calyx, 5-cleft, monopetalous, rotate, five-lobed 
corolla, closed with a double star, five fertile stamens, and 
as many sterile ones : Female, Cal. and Cor. as in the 
male. Germen half inferior, surmounted by five styles, 
and as many stigmas. Fruit, a large, spherical, three-celled, 
many-seeded Berry, envelloped in a hard bark. Both the 
ovules and the seeds are erect, and all the species are natives 
of South America. 

The first information I had of this present plant was 
from Mr. Telfair, who sent me, in the latter end of the 
year 1825, a sketch of the fruit with the following note. 
<( 1 most earnestly hope, that Bury Hill will have the honour 
of flowering the seed I have sent, of an extraordinary climb- 
ing plant, which is hitherto nameless. It was brought here 
(to the Mauritius) from Pemba, near the shores of Zan- 
zibar, on the eastern coast of Africa, by Mr. Bojer, and 
is dioecious. The fruit is three feet long, and eight or ten 
inches in diameter, full of seeds as large as Chesnuts (two 
hundred and sixty-four in one fruit) which are as excellent 
as almonds, and have a very agreeable flavour ; and when 
pressed, they yield an abundance of oil, equal to that of 
the finest Olives. It is a perennial plant, and grows at the 
margins of the forests; enveloping the trees with its 
branches; while its trunk is frequently seen with a circum- 
ference of eighteen inches. I have distributed the seeds 
over this island and Bourbon, and have sent some to New 

Holland 



Holland, and even to Otaheite and New Zealand, to the 
Missionaries. Mr. Bojer has made a sketch of the fruit 
which I have attached to this letter. The seeds that I 
planted here, have produced stems which are thirty feet 
high, and they were put into the ground at the same time I 
sent the first seeds to Mr. Barclay." 

Mr. Barclay's plants flowered, as well as Mr. Telfair's, 
in 1826 ; and one of them has flourished to such a degree, 
that, by this time, it would more than have filled a large 
stove at Bury Hill, were not the pruning knife constantly 
employed. A plant, therefore, so easy of cultivation, must 
soon become common in climates, that are at all favorable 
to its growth : and, thus will Mr. Telfair have the honour 
of giving a most useful vegetable to mankind at large, as 
well as a name to a new and very beautiful plant*. 



* Since the above was printed, and too late to be inserted, M. JIojer has 
obligingly sent to mean ample description, which he made, of this plant, from 
the living plant at Zanzibar : this goes to confirm the opinion, of the plant 
constituting a new genus, which he himself has called Joliffea africann, in 
his own MSS. I trust he will still further concur with us in dedicating it to 
his patron and friend, Mr. Telfair. Its name among the Indians of Zanzi- 
bar is Koume\ 



Tab. 2751. A. f. 1. Raceme of Male Flowers, natural size. 2. A Fruit, 
greatly reduced. 

Tab. 2752, B. f. 1 . Transverse Section of the Fruit. 2. Longitudinal Sec- 
tion of ditto, much reduced. 3. Seed with its vascular envelope. 4. Seed 
deprived of its envelope. 5. Section to shew the different colours of the 
Integument and the Cotyledons, Embryo, and Radicle. 6. Embryo taken 
from the Seed, and with its immediate membranous covering removed. — 
Natural size. 



.V. I',"-" 




Fttb bv S- Curtis, Warworrfi.Jul v I. /<?£?. 



( 2753 ) 

SlDA PULCHELLA. DELICATE WHITE- 
FLOWERED SlDA. 

****************** 
Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PoLVANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord — Malvacea. D. C. ) 
Generic Character. 

Calyx nudus, 5-fidus, ssepe angulatus. Stylus apice 
multifidus. Capsular 5 — 30 circa axim verticillata, plus 
minusve inter se coalitae, 1-loculares, mono aut polysper- 
my apice muticae aut aristatae. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Sida pnlchella ; toto pubescenti-stellata, foliis cordatis 
ovato-lanceolatis grosse inagqualiter crenatis subtus 
tomentosis, racemis axillaribus paucifioris petiolo bre- 
vioribus (longioribus. D. C), capsulis 5 (biaristatis. 
D. C). 

Sida pulchella. " Bonpl. Nav. t. 2." Willd. Enum. p. 724. 
De. Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 468. 

Sida ramosa. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 115 ? 



Descr. Shrubby, three to four feet high, branched ; the 
branches rounded, the older ones glabrous, the rest, and, 
indeed, almost the entire plant clothed with densely stellated 

fmbescence *. Leaves rather remote, three to four inches 
ong, deeply cordate at the base, ovato-lanceolate, doubly 
and coarsely crenate at the margin, many nerved, dark- 
green above, paler and almost tomentose beneath, especially 
in the older leaves. Petioles terete, slender, an inch and a 

half 



* I have known the stems and leaves to become quite glabrous, when the 
plant has been cultivated in the open border. 



half to two inches long, having two linear or almost seta- 
ceous stipules at the base. Racemes few flowered, from 
two to three on a peduncle, having one or two rather large 
stellato-pubescent bractece, and a smaller glabrous one at 
the base of each pedicel. Calyx (as well as the peduncle 
and pedicels) glabrous, smooth, subcampanulate, quinque- 
fid, the segments subulate, erecto-patent. Petals five, pure 
white, ovato-lanceolate, somewhat unguiculate, and united 
by the marginal hairs of these claws, as well as by the base 
of the cylindrical column or tube of the stamens : this tube 
separates into many short branching filaments, each branch 
bearing a yellow, kidney-shaped, one-celled Anther. Ger- 
men of five angles, small, roundish, tipped with five short, 
filiform styles, much shorter than the staminal tube. 

Seeds of this singular species of Sida were received by 
Mr. Murray, at the Glasgow Botanic Garden, both from 
Mr. Fraser, at New Holland, and from a correspondent in 
Van Dieman's Island. Plants of it were placed in a shel- 
tered situation in the open air, and have survived two 
winters, one of which has been very severe. The flowers, 
however, were produced in the greenhouse, in the month of 
March. 

I have not the opportunity of consulting Bonpland's 
plants of the garden of Malmaison, where the present 
species is figured ; and, although De Candolle's character 
accords in most of the essential particulars ; yet it must be 
allowed, that it differs in the relative length of the raceme 
with the petiole ; which, however, may be a variable circum- 
stance, and, I suspect, too, in the biaristate capsules : for, 
although I have no ripe capsules to examine, by which I 
might set the matter at rest ; yet, I think, if present in the 
capsule, the aristae would be apparent iu the state of the 
germ en. 

Sprengel unites the S. pulchella of Willd. with the S. 
ramosa of Cavanilles, and says it is a native of Peru ; 
whilst DeCandolle gives Senegal as the native country of 
S. ramosa. 



Fig- 1. Portion of a Raceme. 2. Portion of the Stamens. 3. Flower cut 
open to shew the structure of the Corolla, the tube of the Stamens, and the 
Pistil. — More or less magnified. 



.V. S7S4. 




itrj& v~/ ' — 



Puiiy S Car-ftj; H r atwvrth-J?iZ-r. , 



( 2754 ) 

Acacia penninervis. Feather-nerved 
Acacia. 

Class and Order. 

POLYGAMIA MONCECIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos>e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Floi'es poly garni. Cal. 4 — 5 dentatus. Petala 4 — 5, 
nunc libera, nunc in corollam 4 — 5 fidam coalita. Stam. 
numero varia 10 — 200. Legumen continuum. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Acacia penninervis ; glabra petiolis lanceolatis mag-is mi- 
nusve acutis basi attenuates subcurvatis marginatis 
uninerviis venis obliquis parallelis margine antice 
prope basi uniglandulosis, capitulis globosis in racemis 
terminalibus axillaribusque, calyci corollaque quin- 
quefidis. 

Acacia penninervis. Sieber Fl. Nov. Holl. n. 458. De 
Cand. Prod. v. 2. p. 452. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. 
p. 135. 

Acacia impressa. Hort. 



Descr. A shrub, attaining in our gardens, the height of 
five or six feet, having numerous regular, brown, twiggy 
branches, which, as well as the whole plant, are quite gla- 
brous. Leafstalks three to four inches long, coriaceous, 
lanceolate, six to seven lines broad, more or less acute at the 
point, much attenuated at the base, straight or slightly fal- 
cate, having a somewhat thickened margin, and, on the upper 
margin, near the base, an oblong gland. There is a single 
rib or nerve not running through the centre, but nearer the 
upper margin, and from this diverge several oblique, not 

very 



very distinct, parallel veins ; a more conspicuous one con- 
nects the gland with the central nerve. The colour is a 
yellow-green, but clothed with a slightly glaucous tint. 
The flowers are arranged in perfectly globular capituli, of 
a delicate yellow colour, and about the size of large peas, 
and these are racemose ; the peduncles shorter than the 
leaves, terminal and axillary ; when axillary, they are either 
solitary or two together, with one shorter than the other, 
but both shorter than the leafstalks. Each has from four 
to six or eight heads of flowers. Calyx five-toothed, cup- 
shaped, and brown. Corolla quinquefid, pale yellow, as 
are the numerous stamens. 

Much difficulty attends the investigation of the leafless 
New Holland species of Acacia, or the tribe of Phyllo- 
dinejE, as De Candolle calls them ; and we must proceed 
with caution in determining the species, which, from time 
to time, flower in our greenhouses. The present plant 
exists in the Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh and Glasgow, 
and may, probably, be common in other collections, having 
been received under the unpublished name of A. itnpressa. 
It is, however, unquestionably, the A. penninervis of Sie- 
ber : a name sufficiently appropriate, considering, that the 
species, with which it is liable, at first sight, to be con- 
founded, is the A. melanoxylon; but, which is, nevertheless, 
essentially distinguished by its many parallel nerves. It is, 
indeed, perhaps, still more nearly allied to K.falcata, which 
may likewise be called penninerved, but the racemes of 
capituli are much shorter, and the leafstalks are destitute of 
a gland. 

We possess several other species which will come into the 
same natural group with the present, and are equally fur- 
nished with a gland on the margin of the leaf; some with 
two. In every instance there is an oblique nerve or vein, 
which connects it with the principal nerve. 



Fig. 1. Lower portion of a leafstalk, to shew the thickened margin and 
the gland. 2. A single flower. — Magnified. 



( 2755 ) 

GONGORA SPECIOSA. LARGE VELLOW- 
FLOWERED GONGORA. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Petala S exteriora patentissima subuniformia, 2 interiora 
minora. Columna elongata. Labellum pedicellatum, varie 
appendiculatum. Massae pollinis 2, pedicellatae. 

Specific Name. 

Gongora speciosa; petalis approximatis,, labello saccato, 
appendice magna pedunculata galeata, columna basi 
bidentata. 



Descr. Parasitic. Roots whitish, flexuose, branched. Stem 
an oblong, deeply striated, green bulb, broadest towards the 
base, terminated by two linear-lanceolate, at both ends very much 
tapering, strongly striated and subplicated leaves. Scape radical, 
a foot, or a foot and a half long, erect, compressed, jointed, with 
brown sheathing scales at the joints, and bearing two (or more?) 
powerfully, but not agreeably scented flowers at the extremity, of 
a very large size, and so curious in structure, that I should fail 
to make myself understood without the aid of the figures. The 
three outer petals are remarkably spreading and reflected, and 
folded back at their margins, so that it is difficult to trace the 
true form of them. They are, however, ovate, or ovato-lanceo- 
late, the upper one two, the lateral ones three inches in length, 
of a thin membranaceous texture, longitudinally striated, and of 
a gamboge yellow colour. The two inner ones stand almost up- 
right, but are waved, and somewhat twisted, yellow, linear-oblong, 
destitute of striae. All these are inserted at the base of the co- 
lumn. Lip (f. 1. A.) pedunculated : peduncle an inch long, cy- 
lindrical, almost white, deflexed. The lip itself is formed of two 
portions : at the base is a deep orange, satiny, large cup or sack 
(f. 1. a.), from the inner and upper margin of which, there rises a 
*><?ry large, again pedunculated, helmet-shaped process, of a thick 
and fleshy nature, hollow within, standing erect (f. 1. £.), which 
covers, with its acuminated, trifid apex, the top of the column of 
fructification : its colour is a reddish, or tawny yellow : its pe- 
duncle 



(htnch is attached to the margin behind, is thick, semi-cylindrical, 
having a broad, satiny line behind, within grooved ; below, it ends 
in a conical point, which fits into the cup. Column standing ex- 
actly perpendicular, almost two inches long, cylindrical, pale 
green, enlarged at the top, so as to resemble an inverted foot : 
this summit is gibbous and two-lobed, constituting the stigma 
(f. 1. «.), and on each side has an erect two-lobed membranous 
process, of which two of the lobes extend behind, and are acu- 
minated and incurved (f. 1. e.). Within these, the anther-case 
appears to have been placed, but this had fallen in my specimens, 
although the pollen-masses remained firmly fixed to a slightly 
raised process above the stigma, which, as well as the stigma, lies 
horizontally. The Pollen-Masses two, waxy, oval, compressed, 
orange coloured, with a fissure on the outside margin of each, 
are to be separated with difficulty, and when lifted up and thrown 
back as at f. 2, it appears that the hollow, inflated, and membra- 
nous curved pedicel covers a white tubercle (f. 2. a.). The base 
of the column, immediately above the peduncle of the labellum, 
has two (one on each side), white, compressed, oblong, curved 
processes, at the end of which, on the outside, is apparently an 
opening (f. \.f.)-> from which honey is distilled, and this drops into 
the cup of the lip below. Germen very long, cylindrical, stri- 
ated, scarcely twisted, having a lanceolate bractea at its base. 

There are two collections in this country that are preeminently 
rich in the plants of Brazil, that of Mrs. Arnomj Harrison, 
and of Richard Harrison, Esq. both of Aigburgh, near Liver- 
pool. Their connection with Rio Janeiro, and the circumstance 
of their having a near relative resident there, who loses no op- 
portunity of collecting the vegetable treasures of that country for 
them, have been the means of their introducing to Britain some 
of the choicest productions now existing in our stoves. Some are 
already recorded in the pages of this and other Botanical works, 
especially individuals of the family of the parasitic Orchideje ; 
and, amongst the most curious of that very singular tribe will, 
undoubtedly, rank the subject of our present plate. It grows on 
trees, in large patches, on' Victoria Hill, above Bahia, in Brazil, 
and was sent, by Henry Harrison, Esq. of Rio, to Richard 
Harrison, Esq., about twelve months ago. It produced its 
large and fragrant blossoms in the month of May, 1827. 

The cup at the base of the labellum of the present plant Mr. 
Harrison's gardener observed to be rapidly filled with the 
honey ; and Mr. Shepherd informs me, that some cups that were 
emptied in the morning, were, when he saw the plant on the 
same day again, half filled with the nectariferous juice. 



Fig. 1. The top of the Germen, the Column, and Lip. A. the Lip. a. the 
Cup at the base. b. the Helmet, c. the Column, d. the Stipma. e. *a 
membranous processes, between which are the Pollen Masses. /. the pro- 
cesses from which the Honey is distilled. 2. The part of the extremity "f 
the Column bearing the Poll'en-Masses, which are here forced back to shew 
the underside and the Tubercle («.) which the pedicel previously covered. 
3. Side view of the Pollen Masses.— All more or less magnified. 



■_>7."m; a 







( 2756 A. 2757 B. ) 

Myristica officinalis. Aromatic, or 
True Nutmeg Tree. 

Class and Order. 
Dkecia Monadelphia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Myristice^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. o. Cor. campanulata, trifida. Filamentum 
columnare. Antherce 6 — 10, connatae. Pcem. Cal. o. 
Cor. campanulata, trifida., decidua. Stylus nullus. Stig- 
mata 2. Drupa nuce arillata, monosperma. Willd. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Myristica officinalis; foliis oblongo-ellipticis subacumi- 

natis glabris subtus palidioribus, nervis simplicibus, 

pedunculis paucifioris, perianthiis urceolatis. 
Myristica officinalis. Linn. Suppl. p. 265. Gcert. de 

Fruct. v. 1. p. 194. t. 41. /. 1. Smith in Rees Cycl. 

Hook. Exot. Fl. t. 155, 156. 
Myristica moschata. Thunb. in Act. Holm. 1782. p. 45. 

Woodv. Med. Bot. t. 134. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 4. p. 869. 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 64. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 

2.v. 5. p. 419. 
Myristica aromatica. ff Lam. Act. Par. 1788. p. 155. t. 

5—7." Lam. Diet. v. 4. p. 385. Lam. III. t. 832. 

Roxb. PL of Corom. v. 3. t. 267. 
La Muscade. Sonerat, Voy. de la Nouv. Guin. p. 194. t. 

116, 117,118/ 
Nux Myristica seu Pala. Rumph. Herb. Amb. v. 2. p. 

14. *.4. 
Nux Moschata, fructu rotundo. Pink. Phyt. t. 219. 



Descr. A dicecious tree ; its trunk rising to the height 
of from twenty to twenty-five feet, clothed with a greyish- 
brown 



brown, and tolerably smooth bark, abounding in a yellow 
juice, and bearing many whorls of spreading branches. 
Leaves from three to six inches long, subbifarious, oblong, 
approaching to elliptical, glabrous, rather obtuse at the 
base, acuminate at the extremity, quite entire at the mar- 
gin, above dark-green and somewhat glossy, beneath much 
paler, but neither pulverulent nor downy ; nerves parallel, 
simple, or only a little branched at the extremities towards 
the margin, prominent, and of a brownish colour beneath. 
Petioles from half to three quarters of an inch long, plane 
above. When bruised, the leaves are slightly aromatic. 

Flowers in axillary, subumbellate racemes, sometimes 
forked or compound. Peduncles and pedicels subclavate, 
glabrous, the latter having a quickly deciduous, ovate 
bractea at its summit, often appressed to the flower. 

Male flowers, from three to five or more on a peduncle. 
Perianth single, urceolate, not inaptly compared by Rum- 
phius to the flower of the Lily of the Valley, which it re- 
sembles in size and form : it is of a thick and fleshy texture, 
clothed with a very indistinct reddish pubescence, of a 
dingy pale yellowish colour, cut into three, rarely, and 
perhaps, the effect of luxuriance, into four, erect, or erecto- 
patent teeth at the extremity. Filaments of the stamens 
united and incorporated so as to form a thickened, whitish, 
cylindrical body, about as long as the perianth, of which 
the top is rounded, and the upper half covered by about 
eleven longitudinal, linear-oblong, two-celled anthers, free 
at their base, opening longitudinally, and charged with 
yellow pollen. 

Female flowers scarcely recognizable, at first sight, from 
the male, except, that the pedicel is very frequently solitary 
on the peduncle. Pistil solitary, shorter than the perianth, 
broadly-ovate, a little tapering upwards into a short style, 
and bearing a two-lobed persistent stigma: a broad, differ- 
ently-coloured band is generally visible near the middle. 
As the germen swells, the perianth falls away : the former 
then becomes obovate, and, from its weight, pendent, con- 
stituting a nearly spherical Drupe, of the size, and some- 
what of the shape of a small pear. The flesh, which abounds 
in an astringent juice, is of a yellowish colour, almost white 
within, four or five lines in thickness : this opens into two, 
nearly equal, longitudinal valves, and presents to view the 
Nut, surrounded by its arillus, or Mace, which soon drops 
out, and the husk withers. 

Arillus thick, between horny and fleshy, much laciniated, 

folded 




7Ctr.£.GW/. 



folded and anastomosing- towards the extremity, envelopr 
ing the nut almost entirely, and so tightly, as to form 
inequalities on its surface. The colour, when fresh, is a 
brilliant scarlet. When dry, it becomes much more horny, 
of a yellow-brown colour, and very brittle. Nut broadly 
ovate, or oval, the shell very hard, rugged dark-brown, 
glossy, about half a line thick, pale, and smooth within. 
This immediately envelopes the seed (the Nutmeg as sold 
in our shops) which is of an oval or elliptical form, pale 
brown, quite smooth, when first deprived of its shell, but 
soon becoming- shrivelled, so as to have irregular, vertical 
lines or furrows on its surface. Its outside very thin ; its 
inner substance or albumen is firm, but fleshy, whitish, but 
so traversed with red-brown veins, which abound in oil, as 
to appear beautifully marbled. Near the base of the albu- 
men, and imbedded in a cavity in its substance, is situated 
the Embryo^ which is large, fleshy, yellowish- white, rounded 
below, where is the radicle ; its cotyledons of two, large, 
somewhat foliaceous, plicate lobes, in the centre of which 
is seen the plumule. 



The true Nutmeg tree is a native of the Molucca, or Spice 
Islands, principally confined to that groupe denominated the 
islands of Banda, lying- in lat. 4° 30' south : and there it bears 
both blossom and fruit at all seasons of the year, and assists, 
with other aromatic trees and shrubs, to form that atmosphere of 
fragrance, in the upper regions of the air, in which the natives 
believe the Birds of Paradise perpetually float. Long before 
the East India islands were discovered by the Portuguese, the 
Nutmeg, as well as the Clove, seems to have been known in 
Europe, through the medium of Persia and Arabia, and since the 
year 1510, when the first Portuguese navigators visited those 
islands, they have probably been known as an article of commerce ; 
yet, down to the time of Linnjeus, nothing was known of the 
plant that produced this precious fruit ; nor till M. Cere, 
director of the Royal Garden in the Isle of France, communicated 
specimens and observations to the Chevalier de Lamarck. 

Avicenna, who flourished about the year 1160, calls the Nut 
(t Jiansiban, or Jansiban, which signifies Nut of Banda ." (Poi- 
n ET.) Rumphius says it was called by the Arabians Gianzbant, 
Jauzialbant, and Gjauz Bawa (the latter of Persian origin), 
which means aromatic nuts. The Sanscrit name is Jah-phalo, 
and the Hindoo name, to this day, according to Roxburgh, is 
Ja-i-pkul. 

The Dutch having possession of the Spice islands in 1619, en- 
couraged, to the utmost of their power, the cultivation of the 
Nutmeg in a few of them, and were anxious, for the s.ake of the 

B monopoly 



monopoly, to have them there so exclusively, that they either 
destroyed them themselves, in the remainder of the isles, or kept 
their princes in their pay for the purpose of doing so. In fact, 
they pursued the same line of policy with the Nutmeg, as has 
been already described with regard to the Clove, under that 
article (tab. 2749, 2750). They have, more than once, suffered 
dearly for their insatiable avarice : for the dreadful hurricanes 
and earthquakes, which spared other islands, nearly annihilated 
the Nutmegs of Banda in 1778; so, that the Dutch were only 
able to have a few supplies for several years afterwards. While 
the Dutch remained undisputed possessors of the Spice Islands, 
the quantity of Nutmegs and Mace exported from their Nutmeg- 
grounds, circumscribed as they were, was truly enormous. Sta- 
vorinus, in his valuable " Voyage to the East Indies," gives 
an excellent account of the commercial history of this spice. 
A quantity, estimated at no less than 250,000 lbs annually, used 
to be vended in Europe, and nearly half that amount in the 
East Indies. Of Mace, the average has been 90,000 1bs sold 
in Europe, and 10,000 lbs in the East Indies. When the Spice 
Islands were taken by the British, in 1796, the importations of 
the East India Company into England alone, in the two years 
following the capture, were, of Nutmegs, 129,732 lbs, and of 
Mace, 286,000 lbs. When the crops of spice have been super- 
abundant, and the price likely, in consequence, to be reduced, 
the same contracted spirit has actuated the Dutch to destroy 
immense quantities of the fruit, rather than suffer the mar- 
kets to be lowered. A Hollander, who had returned from the 
Spice Islands, informed Sir William Temple, that, at one 
time, he saw three piles of Nutmegs burnt, each of which was 
more than a church of ordinary dimensions could hold. In 1760, 
M. Beaumare witnessed, at Amsterdam, near the Admiralty, the 
destruction, by fire, of a mass of Spice, which was valued at one 
million of livres, and an equal quantity was condemned to be 
burnt on the day following : and Mr. Wilcocks, the translator 
of Stavorinus's Travels, relates, that he himself beheld such a 
conflagration of Cloves, Nutmegs, and Cinnamon, upon the little 
island of Newland, near Middleburgh, in Zealand, as perfumed 
the air, with their aromatic scent, for many miles round. 

M. Poivre has the credit of introducing this valuable plant 
into the isles of France and Bourbon, in 1772, together with the 
Clove ; thence, by the liberal policy of the French, it was sent to 
Guiana and to the West India Islands. 

In 1796, the British took possession of the Molucca Isles, 
and, two years afterwards, planted the Nutmeg at Bencoolen, in 
Sumatra, where it has grown with the greatest luxuriance ; so 
that, in five years, the trees had arrived at from ten to fourteen 
feet in height, and, in October and November, 1802, two hundred 
and forty seven trees, out of about six hundred, blossomed. About 
half of these were male and the rest female. A second importa- 
tion was made to that island, by the assistance of the Bengal 
government; and the son of Dr. Roxburgh arrived there with 
twenty-two thousand Nutmeg plants, from Amboyna, which, in a 



few years, yielded 200,000 lbs weight of Nutmegs, and 50,000 lbs 
of Mace. 

In the Moluccas, the Dutch appear to have been totally ignor- 
ant of the dioecious nature of the trees, and of the cause of steri- 
lity in so many of them. Where the trees are very abundant, 
this is a matter of comparatively trifling importance : but, in 
colonies where but few plants have been introduced, it is not only 
of essential consequence that the female flowers should be fertil- 
ized by the male, but that the male plants should be employed in 
the most ceconomical manner. This has been achieved by M. 
Joseph Hubert, in the Isle of France, in the most successful 
manner. Ascertaining that one male plant is sufficient for a 
hundred females, he resolved upon grafting the seedling stock 
of all his plantations in that proportion, in the second year 
of their growth : by this means, there are no superfluous trees, 
and they come into bearing the sooner *. According to the old 
method, the trees did not bear flowers till the seventh or eighth 
year ; and it was not till that period, that the useless trees could 
be removed. 

In our West Indian colonies, the Nutmeg was introduced about 
thirty years ago ; and, first, to the island of St. Vincent, from 
Cayenne, though not without great difficulty, on account of the 
extreme jealousy of the inhabitants of that colony, the two coun- 
tries being then at war with each other. The three trees which 
were originally imported have borne fruit for many years, and 
have attained the height of twenty feet, with a trunk eight or 
nine inches in diameter. It does not, however, appear, that the 
culture of the Nutmeg succeeds so well in the West, as in the 
East Indies. Mr. Lockhart, who has the charge of the plants 
introduced into the island of Trinidad, by his Excellency Sir 
Ralph Woodford, observes, in a letter to me, that the plants 
flourish best in the rainy season ; even when moderate showers 
fall requiring constantly artificial watering; although a soil 
saturated with moisture is injurious. For a long time, though 
the trees introduced into St. Vincent produced abundance of 
flowers, they bore small crops of fruit, until Mr. Guilding re- 
commended the same process as is employed with the caprification 
of the Fig, when the crops were much more productive, two trees, 
at one period, bearing three hundred ripe fruits. The process of 
grafting adopted in the Mauritius might be employed, perhaps, 
to still greater advantage. Female flowers, which had reached 
perfection on the 20th of June, became ripe fruit from the 6th to 
the 12th of February following ; this is the case, at least, in the 
island of St. Vincent, according to Mr. Guilding; who, further 

observes 



* My friend, Mr. Telfair, has been so good as to communicate to me, 
from the Mauritius, an interesting account of the culture of the Nutmeg in 
that country, in the " Archives de lisle de France," and entitled, " Sur la 
culture du Muscadier, par feu M. de Cossigny," in which the method 1 have 

here related is detailed. 



observes, that the trees are almost always in flower ; that fruit is 
most abundant in April, May, and June; and that the seed 
vegetates at the expiration of six weeks from the period of its 
being put into the ground. 

In the East Indies, as I have already observed, the trees are 
almost always loaded with flowers and fruits. In the Moluccas, 
the gathering of the fruit takes place at three periods of the year; 
in July and August, when the Nutmegs are most abundant, but the 
Mace is thinner than in the smaller fruits, which are gathered 
during November, the second time of collecting : the third har- 
vest takes place in the month of March, or beginning of April, 
when the Nuts, as well as the Mace, are in the greatest perfection, 
their number being then not so g'reat, and the season being dry. 
The outer pulpy coat is removed, and, afterwards, the Mace, with 
a knife. The Nuts are placed over a slow fire, when the shell 
becomes very brittle, and the Seeds, or Nutmegs, drop out: these 
are then soaked in sea-water, and impregnated with lime, a pro- 
cess, which answers the double purpose of securing the seeds from 
the attack of insects, and of destroying their vegetating property. 
It further prevents, the volatilization of the aroma. The Mace 
is simply dried in the sun, and then sprinkled with salt water, 
after which it is fit for exportation. 

The uses, both of the Mace and Nutmeg are well known, 
whether in a medicinal or oeconomical point of view. The whole 
fruit, preserved in sugar, is brought to table with the dessert, but 
not till after the acrid principle has been, in a great measure, 
removed, by repeated washings. 

An essential oil is obtained from the Nutmeg and the Mace, by 
distillation, and a less volatile one by expression. 

For most of the drawings here given, made in the West Indies, 
from the living plants, and for many valuable notes, I am indebted 
to the Rev. L. Guilding. For some healthy young plants, 
which are flourishing in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, I have to 
acknowledge my obligation to his Excellency Sir Ralph Wood- 
ford. 



Tab. 2756. A. Fig. 1. A branch from a Male plant of Myristica offici- 
nalis, natural size. 2. Male Flower cut open to shew the Cohimn of Stamen. 
3 Anther (copied from Roxburgh). 4. Female Flower cut open to shew 
the Pistil. 

Tab. 2757. B. Fig. 1. Young Fruit. 2. Ripe Fruit in the act of burst- 
ing. 3. Section of a fully-formed Fruit, shewing the Nut included in the 
Mace, natural size. 4. The Mace from which the Nut has been removed. 
5. The Nut. 6. The Seed, or Nutmeg. J. Nut cut through vertically, 
shewing the Albumen, and the Embryo imbedded in the base of it. 8 mid 9. 
The Embryo. — Only 8 and 9 magnified. 



( 2758 ) 

Ceratiola eiucoides. Heath-like Cera- 

tiola. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Dmecia Diandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Empetrejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Perianthium e squamis 5—7, imbrieatis, fimbri- 
ato-ciliatis. Stam. 2. Pistillum nullum. 

¥mm. Perianthium, ut in mari. Pistillum unicum. 
Stylus incrassatus, deciduus. Stigma radiato-multifidum. 
Bacca nucibus duabus monospermis. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Ceratiola ericoides. 

Ceratiola ericoides. Mich. Fl. Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 222. 

Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 712. Pursh N. Am. Fl. v. 1. 

p. 21. Nutt. Gen. N. Am. v. 2. p. 232. Elliott Bot. 

of S. Carol, and Georgia. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 1. 

p. 95. D. Don. in Edin. New Phil. Journ. 1826. p. 63. 

Descr. An upright, much branched, twiggy shrub, from 
two to four, and even eight feet high : branches subverti- 
cillate, erect, marked with the scars whence the numerous 
leaves have fallen, the younger and upper branches alone 
retaining their leaves, and those are slightly tomentose. 
Leaves verticillate, quaternate, patent, half to three-quarters 
of an ; nch long, linear, rigid, acerose, shining, pale, the 
upper side semicylindrical, the under, grooved in the mid- 
dle, the base narrowed into a very short petiole, which is 
jointed upon a little tooth or projection of the bark, and 
this gives the scarred appearance to the stems and branches 
when the leaves have fallen away. Flowers in the axils 
of the upper leaves solitary, with a small (abortive?) one 
on each side, the males on one plant, the females on a se- 
parate plant. Perianth of each forming an imbricated 
gemma, or bud, resembling a minute catkin, ovate, com- 
posed of about five or six erect, brownish, thin, membrana- 
ceous scales, all originating from the same point, the inner 
niuch the largest, convolute, all fimbricated at the margin, 

and 



and somewhat tomentose towards the apex. Stamens two, 
united at the base by a small point, which appears to be a 
very minute abortive pistil. Filaments flexuose, longer 
than the perianth, purple. Anthers large, ovato-globose, 
two-lobed, each lobe constituting a cell, which opens late- 
rally by a longitudinal fissure. Pistil, for three-quarters of 
its length, enveloped by the perianth. Germen ovate, 
green, above slightly hispid, and glandular, having two 
ovules. Style incrassated, columnar, the base inserted into 
a little hollow on the top of the germen, and there at length 
separating from the germen. Stigma of three or four mul- 
tifid brownish -purple rays, umbilicated in the centre. Fruit 
a small orange -yellow Berry, spherical, glabrous, sur- 
rounded at the base by the scales of the perianth, with a 
small umbilicus at the top : enclosing two hemispherical, 
closely placed, wrinkled nuts, each having one erect seed 
of the same shape. Albumen white, between fleshy and 
corneous. Embryo cylindrical, in the centre of the albu- 
men, erect. ' 

A native of dry and sandy soils in South Carolina and Georgia, 
where it was first detected and afterwards described by Michaux. 
On the Edisto river, Mr. Elliott says, *'it covers a space of three 
or four hundred yards in width, and two or three miles long, which 
appears to have been a sand-bank formed by some of the ancient 
freshets of that river, and on which only Lichens, and a few stunt- 
ed Oaks (Q. Catesbcei and nigra) are found intermingled with it.' 
I am indebted for the opportunity of figuring this hitherto 
little-known plant to my excellent friend, Stephen Elliott, 
Esq. of Charleston, S. Carolina, who, to an extensive collection 
of living plants of the Southern states of N. America, which he 
was so good as to send this year (March 1827), to the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, added four of the Ceratiola ericoides. These 
bore the voyage so well, a9 to afford immediately upon their ar- 
rival, male and female flowers and fruit. By the details that I 
have hence been able to give, it will be at once seen how closely 
this plant is allied to Empetrum; especially to E. album; and, 
perhaps, it might, without much violence to nature, be united with 
it. Empetrum nigrum has the three innermost scales of the 
flowers decidedly coloured, and of a different shape from the rest, 
spreading out and even recurved. Empetrum album has a dis- 
tinct mucronate bractea at the base of the flower, and two to 
four of the inner scales of the perianth, sometimes coloured 
(reddish) and a little spreading, thus being as it were intermedi- 
ate between E. nigrum and our Ceratiola. 



A. Portion of a Female Plant: not. size. f. 1. Part of a Stem with 
Leaves. 2. Male Flower. 3. Inner Scale of ditto with Stamens. 4. Female 
Flowers with abortive lateral ones. 5. Pistil. 6. Section of Germen. 7- 
Berry. 8. Section of ditto. 9. Nuts. 10. Single Nut, interior side. 1 ' - 
Section of a Nut. 12. Seed. 13. Section of ditto, shewing the Embryo :— 
All more or less magnified. 




Tub if s-- tjmrtu. Wal* 



( 2759 ) 
Sida mollis. Soft-leaved Sida. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. nudus quinquefidus saBpe angulatus, Stylus apice 
multifidus. Carpella capsularia, 5— -50 circa axim verticil- 
lata, plus minusve inter se coalita, 1-locularia, mono aut 
oligosperma, apice mutica aut aristata. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Sida mollis ; foliis orbiculari-cordatis acuminatis inajqua- 
liter dentato-serratis pubescenti-mollibus, pedunculis 
solitariis subbifloris petiolo brevioribus, capsulis 9 
mucronato-acuminatis hirtis calyce parum longioribus, 
ramis hirsutissimis. 

Sida mollis. " Ort. Dec. p. 65." De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 
470. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 3. p. 121. 

Sida grandifolia. " Willd. Enum. v. 2. p. 274." Bot. 
Reg. t. 360. 



Descr. A shrub or small tree, attaining a height, even 
when cultivated in the stove, of from ten to twenty feet, 
bearing numerous, rounded branches, of which the younger 
ones are green, and, as well as the petioles and peduncles, 
clothed with long, soft hairs. Leaves alternate, rather re- 
mote, large, orbiculari -cordate, acuminate, the lobes at the 
base rounded, and meeting together, the margin unequally 
dentato-serrated, the surface clothed on both sides with ex- 
ceedingly soft pubescence; the nerves diverge mostly from 
the base of the midrib, and all are connected by transverse 
nervelets or veins, prominent beneath. Petiole about as 
long as the leaf, having a linear-setaceous bractea on each 
side at the base. Peduncle axillary, solitary, somewhat 
shorter than the petiole, bearing, in our plant, two pedicel - 

lated 






Iated, large, handsome, orange-yellow flowers. Calyx al- 
most five-partite, the segments ovate, reflexed at the mar- 
gins. Petals twice the length of the calyx, orange-coloured, 
wedge-shaped, rounded and crenate at the extremity, some- 
what oblique, the base narrow, united there to each other, 
and to the column of stamens, a little ciliated just above 
this point of union. Tube of Stamens somewhat conical, 
yellow, dividing at the extremity into numerous yellow 
filaments, bearing deep orange-coloured reniform, one- 
celled anthers. Pollen large, globose. Pistil : Germen 
rounded, hairy, with nine points, and as many longitu- 
dinal angles. Style as long as the stamens, separating into 
nine at the top, each tipped with a globose brown stigma. 
Capsules nine, circularly disposed round an axis, and there 
united, compressed, inflated, somewhat membranaceous, 
longer than the persistent calyx, very hairy, glabrous only 
where the sides touch each other, and there semipellucid : 
the top truncated at the outer angle, lengthened into a 
mucro, opening interiorly and longitudinally, and bearing 
four seeds attached to the suture. 

This is really a very desirable plant for the stove. Its 
leaves are large, handsome, and its flowers when the plant 
is well grown, are two inches across, of a fine clear orange- 
yellow, and produced in considerable abundance. It is a 
native of Peru. 

Seeds were received at the Glasgow Botanic Garden from 
Gottingen, under the name of S. grandifolia ; and, as such, 
it is published in Willdenow's Enumeratio, and figured in 
the Botanical Register. 



Fig. 1. Section of the Staniiniferous Tube. 2. Anther, 3. Pistil. 4. Cap- 
sule. 5, The same laid open to shew the Seeds : — More or less magnified. 



27 6 °- 










( 2760 ) 

DORSTENIA CERATOSANTHES. CLEFT DoR- 

STENIA. 

Class and Order. 

MoN(ECIA DlANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Urticej2. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum carnosiim dilatatum, patens,, superne papil- 
losum vel squamosum : papillis vel squamis intus florigeris. 
Cal. o. Cor. o. Stam. 2. Pistillum receptaculo immer- 
sum : Stylus bifidus, lateralis. Pericardia monosperma. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Dorstenia ceratosanthes ; acaulis, foliis oblongo-cordatis 
subserratis reticulato-venosis scabridis, receptaculo bi- 
partite, laciniis lineari-acuminatis margine laciniatis. 

Dorstenia ceratosanthes. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1216. 



Descr. I am unacquainted with the root of this plant, 
from the top or crown of which the leaves are said immedi- 
ately spring : these are elevated upon a footstalk, about six 
to eight inches long, oblong, or ovato-oblong, acuminated, 
the margin obscurely serrated, the base cordate, the surface 
marked with numerous reticulated veins, which contract 
the substance of the leaf so as to make it blistery on the 
upper surface, every where rough to the touch, but with 
points so minute, that they are scarcely visible with a 
common lens : the colour is very dark green on the upper 
surface, much paler beneath, where the nerves are very 
prominent. Receptacles upon a scape, shorter than the 
leafstalk, and compressed upwards, two or three inches 
long, rounded at the base, cleft from the top almost to the 
bottom, into two linear-acuminated segments, plane above, 
keeled beneath, and there furnished with a midrib, the 
margin papillose, and beneath the papillae are several fili- 
form 



form laciniae, or appendages, most numerous on the out- 
side of the segments : these are downy when seen under a 
microscope. The upper surface of the receptacle is cover- 
ed with numerous papillae, of two kinds, the one perfo- 
rated and covering the cell of the female flowers; the 
other, which are of a purple colour, when examined care- 
fully, are formed of two concave hemispherical downy 
scales, each enclosing a stamen, of which the filament is 
short, and terminated by two nearly-white globular cells, 
opening by a transverse fissure. Pistil having an ovate 
germen, from the side of which springs the style with an 
incrassated base, tapering upwards, and dividing into two 
rather short filiform spreading stigmata. The style is pro- 
truded through the aperture in the tubercle above men- 
tioned, while the whole of the germen is immersed. 

This very curious species of Dorstenia was communi- 
cated by the Horticultural Society of London to the Liver- 
pool Botanic Garden, where it flowered in the month of 
April, 1826 ; but of what particular country it is a native 
I am ignorant. In the shape of the leaves it is most nearly 
allied to the young foliage of D. arifolia, which is, how- 
ever, smaller, destitute of that roughness, which, in the 
present species, is scarcely sensible but to the touch, and 
they are decidedly sagittate. The receptacle is very sin- 
gular and quite different from that of every other species 
with which I am acquainted*. 



* I had called this species D. bifida, hut just as I was on the point of 
sending the MSS. to the press, I received the 122d No. of Mr. Loddiges 
Botanical Cabinet, where I find that it bears the name I have now adopted. 
It is said to be a native of South America j but of what part is not stated. 



Fig. 1. Section of one of the Segments of the Receptacle. 2. Under side 
of a portion of ditto. 3. The two Scales constituting the tubercle or papilla 
which include the Male Flower. 4. Stamen. 5. Pistil : — More or less 
magnified. 



■jyiii 




Ai by S. Curtis. Walworth-, <l 



( 2761 ) 
Gnidia tomentosa. Downy Gnidia. 

Class and Order. 

OCTANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — ThymelejE. ) 
Generic Character. 

Perianthium simplex, coloratum, tubulosum, quadrifi- 
dum. Squamce ad faucem. Anthera tubo insertae. Nux 
monosperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gnidia tomentosa; foliis oppositis decussatis elliptico-ovatis 
obtusiusculis nervosis hirsutis subtus scabriusculis, 
floribus capitatis villosis, squamis antheriformibus 8 
per paria approximatis. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 512. 

Gnidia tomentosa. Thunberg Ft. Cap. v. I. p. 381. Willd. 
Sp. PL v. 2. p. 427. Spreng. Syst. Keg. v. 2. p. 239. 

Gnidia pubescens. <f Berg. Cap. 124." (Willd.) 

Gnidia denudata ? Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 757. 

Descr. A twiggy shrub, three or four feet high, bare 
of leaves below, proliferous, very leafy and downy at the 
extremities. Leaves opposite, decussate, more or less pa- 
tent, sometimes reflexed, ovate, or ovato-lanceolate, very 
often approaching to oblong or elliptical, sessile, rather 
obtuse at the point, five-nerved, hairy, especially the upper 
and younger leaves, the hairs patent, the older ones often 
glabrous above, the underside slightly scabrous when seen 
through a lens, and more conspicuous in the dried than in 
the living plant. Flowers sessile, collected into a sort of 
fasciculated head at the extremity of the younger shoots, 
and surrounded by four closely-placed leaves which form 
an involucre : Tube long and slender, swollen at the base, 
where the germen is contained, and a little so at the ex- 
tremity, externally clothed with long, generally much 
spreading, white, and rather silky hairs ; Segments lanceo- 
late., 



late, spreading horizontally, faintly 3-nerved, pale yellow, 
the inner or upper side quite free from pubescence. At the 
mouth of the tube are eight, erect, linear, greenish glands 
or scales, placed in pairs at the sinus of the segments ; al- 
ternating with these four pairs, having the same line of in- 
sertion, are four linear, almost sessile anthers: these are 
opposite the middle of the segments of the Perianth : lower 
down, and alternating with them, are four others. Pistil: 
Germen oval x a little hispid at the point : Style shorter than 
the tube, inserted below the apex of the germen, flexuose, 
filiform, terminated by a clavate, white, hispid stigma. 

Introduced, but I know not in what year, from the Cape 
of Good Hope, by Mr. Aiton, of Kew, and by that gen- 
tleman, kindly presented to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
where it produces its pale yellow and very agreeably night- 
scented flowers in the greenhouse, in the months of March 
and April. We received it with the name here adopted, 
and it perfectly agrees with a specimen in my Herbarium of 
Gn. tomentosaj from Professor Thunberg. I am inclined 
to think, however, that the Gnidia denudata of Mr. Lind- 
ley, in the Bot. Register, is merely a variety of the same 
species ; for, in hairiness, the species is certainly liable to 
great variation; and, perhaps, the Gnidia imbricata of 
Loddiges, t. 890, is not to be considered distinct from it. 
Thunberg attributes to the imbricata of Linn^ius four 
nectaries at the mouth of the tube, but, in other respects, 
his description is not at variance with his own specimens ol 
tomentosa. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Section of the upper part of a Flower, shewing the 
insertion of the Stamens, and the Scales in Glands. 3. Pistil : — Magnified. 



( 2762 ) 

tulipa stellata. stellated east indian 

Tulip. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Liliace*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium inferum, campanulatum, hexaphyllum. 
Stylus nullus. Semina plana. 

Specific Character. 

Tulipa stella ta ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis subconvolutis 
glaucis, petalis lanceolatis obtusis patentissimis, tribus 
exterioribus longioribus, filamentis aequalibus glabris, 
pistillo staminibus breviore. 



Descr. Bulb broadly ovate,, small, clothed with a dark- 
brown coat, which is cut at the extremity into three or four 
lanceolate segments, thickly clothed with fulvous hair in 
the inside : — the bulb throws out an offset from near the 
base. Stem, in the cultivated specimens, nearly two feet 
high, terete, glaucous, bearing four to five linear-lanceo- 
late, very long, and narrow leaves, subconvolute, with a 
midrib prominent on the underside, and a few obscure 
striae ; the lower leaves are much the broadest and slightly 
falcate, the upper ones linear, acuminate, and somewhat 
twisted. Flowers solitary, or sometimes two upon the same 
stem, erect, oblong in bud ; when fully open the petals 
spread out horizontally : they are lanceolate, slightly con- 
cave, obtuse ; the three outer longer than the rest, and, 
sometimes, perhaps the effect of luxuriance, having a single 
tooth on one side: all are pure white, with a faint tinge of 
pink and green at the points on the outside, and bright 
yellow at the base within. Stamens equal in length, yel- 
low 



low. Filaments subulate. Pistil : Germen green, trique- 
trous : Stigma trigonal, sessile. 

This very delicate species of Tulip was sent (from 
C( Kumana," according to Mr. Shepherd,) by Dr. Wallich, 
to the Liverpool Botanic Garden, under the name of "Tu- 
lipa Clusiana ?" But, as Mr. Shepherd observes, it is very 
different from that plant; and, as it appears to me also, from 
every other of the geniis, although its characters are not 
very easily defined. It is remarkable for the narrowness 
of the petals, and their spreading out almost flat in the 
middle of the day when the sun shines, and closing again in 
the evening. The bulbs were received from the East In- 
dies, in the month of January ; and in two months from that 
period, they produced flowers. Cultivated in the green- 
house. 

It will, probably, prove hardy enough to bear the open 
air; and is certainly a most valuable acquisition to our 
gardens. 



Fig. 1. Stamen, and f. 2, Pistil, shewing their relative height. — Both mag- 
nified. 



■Jje>:>. 







( 2763 ) 
Calypso borealis. Northern Calypso. 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchidejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum ventricosum, prope apicem subtus calcaratum 
Petala adscendentia, secunda. Columna petaloidea, dila- 
tata. Massa pollinis 4. Br. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Calypso borealis. 

Calypso borealis. Salisb. Parad. Lond. 89. Richard de 

Orchid, in Mem. du Mus. v. 4. p. 60. Pursh Fl. of 

N. Am. v. 2. p. 593. Hook. Exot. Fl. t. 12. 
Calypso Americana. Br. in Hort. Kew. v. 5. p. 208. Nutt. 

Gen. N. Am. v. 2. p. 194. Sprengel Syst. Veg. v. 3. 

p. 733. 
Orchidium boreale. Swartz in Svensk. Bot. t. 518. 
Limodorum boreale. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 123. Sw. de 

Orchid, p. 85. 
Cymbidium boreale. ** Sw. in Nov. Act. Ups. v. 6. p. 76. 
Cypripedium bulbosum. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1347. 



Descr. Root, a small scaly bulb or tuber, sending out 
two or three simple and somewhat downy fibres. Leaf so- 
litary, springing from the top of this bulb, and generally 
lying upon the ground, cordate, entire, rather obtuse, stri- 
ated, having two remarkable elevated plaits in the middle 
of each half of the leaf, the striae connected by delicate trans- 
verse nerves or veins. Petiole half an inch to an inch long. 
Scape three to four inches high, clothed, for the greater part 
of its length from the base, with long tubular sheaths; the 
upper one the smallest, and a little reflexed. Flower large, 
solitary, drooping. Petals five, delicate rose-coloured, 
lanceolate, acuminated, pointing forward, except the upper 

one, 



one, which is nearly erect. Lip large, pendent, ovato-ob- 
long, remarkably concave, inflated, slipper-shaped, pale 
reddish-brown, with dark dots placed in lines; below, it 
terminates in two tooth-like points, and these are, above, 
covered by a pale, almost whitish lamina, having a tuft of 
yellow hairs at the base, and a few brown spots : it is some- 
times as long as, sometimes shorter than, the two teeth, 
sometimes bifid at the point ; at other times, as in the pre- 
sent specimens, quite entire. Column large, dilated, con- 
vex, oval, petaloid, rose-coloured. Anther white, cordate, 
inserted just within the point of the column. Pollen masses 
four, ovate, compressed, in two pairs, the under ones the 
smallest, fixed upon a large white membranous base. 

I have, on a former occasion*, stated it, as my opinion, 
that the American and European Calypso should only be 
considered as one species, and the present figures, drawn 
from living plants, sent from Montreal, by Mr. Cleghorn, 
seem to confirm this opinion, having the two teeth of the 
labellum as short, if not shorter than the lamina, which has 
been given, by Mr. Brown, as the essential character of the 
European plant. Sprengel again, relying probably on my 
figures in Exotic Flora, has made a principal character of 
the C. Americana to depend on the bifid lamina ; but, in 
the present individuals, that is quite entire as in Swartz's 
figure. So that we see, even in the same country, that the 
structure of the flower is liable to vary. Our plants flow- 
ered in a cool part of the greenhouse, in the latter end of 
March, being kept in the same earth and the same box, in 
which the roots were imported the preceding year. 

It appears to be a general inhabitant of the northern 
parts of Europe and America. In Canada it is common. 
Dr. Richardson and Mr. Drummond found it about Lake 
Erie; Mr. Menzies at Nova Scotia; Governor Lewis and 
Mr. Scouler on the north-west coast of America. Its 
beauty must recommend it, as highly deserving a place in 
every collection. 



Exotic Flora, p. 12. 



Fig. 1 . Side view of the Lip. 2. Column of fructification. 3. Ditto, the 
Anther-case being removed, and exposing the Pollen Masses in situ. 4. An" 
ther-case. 5. Front view of the Pollen Masses. 6. Back view of ditto.— 
Magnified, 



( 2764 ) 

OCTOMERIA GRAMINIFOLIA. GrASS-LEAVED 
OCTOMERIA. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchides;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum articulatum cum processu unguiformi, cujus 
lateribus petala antica adnata. Massce pollinis 8. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Octomeria graminifolia ; caule elongato unifolio, folio lan- 
ceolato, pedunculis geminatis unifloris, radice repente. 

Octomeria graminifolia. Br. in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. 
p. 211. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 3. p. 744. 

Epidendrum graminifolium. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1353. 

Dendrobium graminifolium. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 135. 

Helleborine graminea repens biflora. Plum. 1c. t. 176. 



Descr. Parasitic ? Root creeping, jointed, flexuose, 
sheathed with scales, whicli separate into setaceous fila- 
ments in age and give a curious setose appearance to the 
plant: from the under side of this creeping root many 
fibres descend. Stems several from the upper side of 
this root, rising singly from the joints,, two or three inches 
long, slender, almost filiform, jointed, the articulations 
sheathed with scales, which become, at length, setose, as 
do those of the root. Leaf solitary, terminating the stem, 
linear-lanceolate, thick, and coriaceous, with a central 
nerve, prominent beneath. At the base of this leaf on the 
upper side are a few small, ovate, brownish bracteaB, from 
whence arise two very short peduncles, and, as well as 
the germen, which is not half an inch long, curved, so as to 

bear 






bear a pendant, solitary flower, of which all the segments 
of the perianth are placed in a manner so regular as to ap- 
pear campanulate. Five of these are nearly equal in size 
(the petals), pale yellow-green, ovato-acuminate, veinless, 
the points a little recurved. The sixth division, or lip, is 
oblong, rather obtuse, a little shorter than the petals, 
waved, bright-yellow, with two, incurved, lateral, rounded 
lobes near the base,, and two oblong, bright, red-brown tu- 
bercles between them. Column small, yellow, semi-cylin- 
drical, a little curved forward. Anther broadly ovate, 
covering eight, obovate or clavate, yellow, waxy pollen 
masses, attached to a small gland, lying on the base of a 
white membrane which covers the top of the stigma. 

This very curious orchideous plant, which has much the 
habit and mode of growth of a Fern (what we here call the 
root being analogous to the stipes, or a creeping stem,) 
was introduced to the Royal Gardens at Kew, from the West 
Indies, in 1793, by Rear Admiral Bligh. The specimens 
from which our figure and description were taken were sent 
to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, in 1 826, from the island of 
St. Vincent, by the Rev. L. Guilding. They flower in the 
stove in April, and the blossoms yield a delightful fra- 
grance, most powerful in the evening. 

In the situation of the flowers, at the base of a solitary 
leaf, this plant has much affinity with the Pleurothallis 
ruscifolia, figured in Exotic Flora, t. 197; but, on a care- 
ful examination of the flowers, they will be found to be 
quite different in structure. Here the petals are all distinct, 
and the pollen masses are eight in number, which have 
given origin to the generic name, Octomeria. 



¥x% I. Flower. 2. The same with the Perianth a little forced back. 3. 
Lip. 4. Summit of the Column bearing the Anther. 5. The same, the 
Anther lifted up, still attached at the back of the Column, to shew the Pollen 
Masses, and the membrane at their base. 6. Pollen Masses : — All more or 
less magnified. 



27«.>- 




Tub.lyS Cu.rtis.lTalwr-t/u. StJ>> 1. 142? 



( 2765 ) 
Trixis auriculata. Auriculated Trixis. 

***«**»#*&*«««« 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia iEQUALIS. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. Labiatifloile. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum polyphyllum, bracteatum. Receptaculum 
nudum seu subpilosum. Flosculi omnes requales (bilabi- 
ati), labio exteriore trifido, interiore bifido. Anthera basi 
bicalcaratae. Pappus sessilis, scaber. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Trixis auriculata; fruticosa, foliis sessilibus auriculatis 
pubescentibus subtus tomentosis sparse denticulatis, 
paniculis axillaribus tenninalibusque divaricatis pau- 
cifloris. 

Perdicium Brasiliense. Graham in Jameson's New Journ. 
of Science, 1827, p. 387. 



Descr. cc Stem woody., round. Bark brown, cracked. 
Branches green, woolly, flexuose. Leaves scattered, at 
length revolute from the apex, sessile, winged, lanceolate, 
ciliato-denticulate, pale green, densely pubescent above, 
covered with yellowish, short tomentum below, glutinous ; 
wings rounded, quite entire, stem-clasping, at first spread- 
ing flat, afterwards revolute in their edges. Peduncle ax- 
illary, generally supporting three flowers, round, about 
half the length of the leaves, spreading, and afterwards 
divaricated ; pedicels spreading, at length divaricate, as 
well as the peduncles, pubescent ; one of the pedicels is 
generally provided about its middle with a small ovate leaf. 
The Peduncles, Pedicels, and reflected Calyx become brown, 
and long remain attached to the plant. Flowers nodding : 
Calyx persisting, calycled, cylindrical, green, of eight equal 
^near-lanceolate keeled scales; calycle persisting, of five or 

six 




six unequal, lanceolate leaflets, spreading at the apex. 
Corolla white, pubescent on the outside, bilabiate, outer 
lip much the largest, reflected, its edges involute, apex 
three-toothed : inner lip revolute, cleft to its base ; faux 
inflated ; tube curved outwards. Anthers brownish-yellow, 
extending from the throat to the stigma ; spurs two, from 
the base of each anther, somewhat waved, nearly as long as 
the filaments, and almost colourless : filaments inserted into 
the upper part of the tube. Stigma cleft, revolute, yellow ; 
Style turned at the base, and slightly swelling towards the 
stigma, nearly as long as the outer lip of the corolla, white. 
Seed long, pubescent, surmounted with a small spreading 
saucer, the edges of which support the pappus, and the 
style is inserted into a little elevation in the centre : pu- 
bescence tubular, and yielding from its extremity a trans- 
parent fluid. Pappus sessile, yellow, hair-like, rough, 
reaching to the limb of the corolla. Receptacle subpiiose, 
pitted. 

" This plant was received at the Royal Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh, from Mr. Otto, of Berlin, under the name of 
Perdicium Brasiliense ; but, I entirely agree with Dr. 
Hooker, that it is a new species, and, I adopt the specific 
name which he suggested." Graham Mss. 



Fig. 1. Lower Leaf. 2. Section of the Involucre. 3. Floret. 4. Hair 
of the Pappus : — All but/. 1. more or less magnified. 



!/«;• 







TnitiyS Cur-tU ralKo>-f-^.S»ji(J.JS27- 




( 2766 ) 

JUSTICIA VENTRICOSA. HOP-FLOWERED 
JUSTICIA. 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Acanthace/E. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cal. aequalis, 5-raro 4-partitus. Corolla valde irregu- 
laris, bilabiata vel ringens, labio inferiore diviso. Stamina 
duo, antherifera. Anther as biloculares, loculis insertione 
saepius inaequalibus. Filamenta sterilia nulla v. obsoleta. 
O^ar^ loculi dispermi. Dissepimentum adnatum. Semina 
retinaculis subtensa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Justicia ventricosa; fruticosa, foliis oblongo-ovatis inte- 
gerrimis glabris, spicis oblong-is, bracteis imbricatis 
rotundatis venosis, corollis bilabiatis, labiis venosis, 
labio superiore ovato subintegro, inferiore trilobo. 

Justicia ventricosa. Wallich MSS. 



Descr. A shrub, from three to four feet high, every 
where quite glabrous, with numerous opposite branches, 
the younger ones green, obtusely tetragonal. Leaves op- 
posite, large, five to six inches long, on short footstalks, 
subcoriaceous, between ovate and oblong, more or less 
acute at the extremity, the base attenuated ; the margins 
quite entire ; the nerves distinct ; dark green above, paler 
beneath. Spikes of flowers terminal upon the numerous 
branches, two or four inches long, formed of numerous 
imbricated, rounded, convex, entire, veined bractese, each 
inclosing about three flowers. Calyx very short, five-par- 
tite; the segments erect, subulato-lanceolate. Corolla 
scarcely an inch long ; the tube greenish, a little swollen 

upwards ; 



upwards ; the limb two-lipped, whitish, dashed with a few 
red spots: upper Up erect, ovate, entire, or a little notched, 
plane, having a narrow groove in the centre, in which the 
style is lodged, and three parallel nerves on each side : 
lower lip broadly ovato-oblong, obtuse, reflexed, promi- 
nent in the middle, three-lobed at the extremity, three- 
nerved, the central nerve pinnated with oblique veins on both 
sides ; the lateral ones only on the outside : the nerves are 
very prominent on the underside, so as to form pits or hol- 
lows between the veins. Stamens two. Filaments white, 
shorter than the upper lip, against which they stand : An- 
thers of two conduplicate, yellowish-white lobes, of which 
one is rounded or hemispherical, the other oblong and acu- 
minated ; both containing large globular grains of pollen. 
Germen ovate, seated upon a large yellow-green gland, 
tapering upwards into a white filiform style : Stigma simple, 
reddish. 

This is a native of China, and was introduced thence to 
the Calcutta Botanic Garden by Mr. Reeves, and from Cal- 
cutta, seeds were sent to the Messrs. Shepherds in Liverpool, 
in 1825. The plant flowers in the stove in April. As a 
species, it will, perhaps, rank near J. Ecbolium, having a 
similar bracteated spike : but the flowers are very different, 
and very beautiful in their structure when examined with 
a little attention, and with the assistance of a microscope. 



Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Upper Lip of the Corolla, with a portion of the 
Style lodged in the Groove. 3. Lower Lip, seen from the underside, 4. 
Anther. 5. Pistil ; — All more or less magnified. 



2767 




( 2767 ) 

euonymus echinata. sp i no us- fruited 
Spindle-wood. 

.-fri &• Af. .4*. aift afc A .Sk jE*. . v ir". . v I / . .^ .St'. ■•1 / . ■ v l'. alt alt alt alt ah 

CZass «wrf Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Celastrin^e. Ur. De Cand. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4 — 6 lobus, planus, basi disco peltato tectus. Pet. 
4 — 6 patentia, disco inserta. Stam. 4-— 6, glandulis supra 
discum prominulum inserta, petalis alterna. Stylus 1 . Cap- 
sula 3 — 5 locularis, 3 — 5 annularis, valvis medio septiferis ; 
semina in loculis 1 — 4, pulpa aut arillo involuta. De C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Euonymus echinata; foliis ovato-lanceolatis serratis, pe- 
dunculis axillaribus filiformibus bis terve dichotomis, 
capsulis echinatis, caule scandente radicante glabro. 

Euonymus echinata. Wall, in Fl. Indica. v. 2. p. 410. 

Euonymus scandens. Graham in Jameson's Ed. New Phil. 
Journ. 1827. p. 386. 



Descr. <e Shrub climbing to a great distance. Branches 
very long, cylindrical, green, with brown scars, adhering 
to every thing in contact with them by long, flattened, 
branching, white threads, which, at first, spring in linear 
tufts, but afterwards, throughout the whole length of the 
branches, and, hanging loose on all sides, conceal these in 
an entangled mass. Leaves opposite, and secund on the 
barren shoots, somewhat decussating; the older ones sub- 
coriaceous ; the younger shining and membranous, bright 
green and paler on the back, ovate or ovato-lanceolate, 
acuminate, crenato-serrate, the serratures being frequently, 
especially on the ovate leaves, compound, veins oblique, 
and, as well as the middle rib, prominent on both sides, 

reticulations 



reticulations at the edges, most distinct on the under. Pe- 
tioles channelled, approximate on the branches, distichous 
on the flowering-shoots (quarter of an inch long) • stipules 
minute, brown, lacerated, one on each side of the petiole ; 
buds lanceolate, pointed, covered by imbricated, blunt 
scales, some of which are persistent on the base of the twig. 
Bractece small, awl-shaped, brown, reflected, slightly 
fringed, with brown scales at their edges. Peduncles axil- 
lary, twice or thrice dichotomous, filiform, angular, straight, 
nearly three times as long as the petiole. Calyx very small, 
green, tetraphyllous, segments rounded, persisting at every 
period concave, and closely applied behind the bases of the 
stamens. Corolla yellowish -white, tetrapetalous, petals 
rounded, minutely toothed, reflected, attached by small 
claws, which are about the length of the calyx, and conceal- 
ed. Stamens four ; filaments whitish and tapering, scarcely 
longer than the claw of the petals, at first erect, afterwards 
reflected, inserted into broad, flattened, green bases between 
the petals ; anthers yellow, of two roundish lobes as long 
as the filaments. Germen flattened, yellowish-green, in- 
distinctly warted. Stigma, at first, deep green and sessile, 
after the shedding of the pollen, paler, blunt, and conti- 
nuous, with a stout furrowed style, equal in length to the 
filaments." Graham. Capsule of the size of a large pea, 
flattened at top and bottom, the sides every where clothed 
with subulate tough prickles, fewer in Dr. Graham's spe- 
cimens, and much shorter, four-celled, four-seeded. 

In addition to the above accurate description of Dr. 
Graham, I have little more to observe than, that upon 
comparing the specimens here figured from the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden, with original specimens of Dr. Wallich's 
Euon. echinata, I find them in every particular to corres- 
pond ; and, I do not know how Dr. Wallich, in the FI 
Indica, could describe the leaves as having nearly trans- 
verse nerves, in opposition to those of E. vagans, which are 
oblique. This naturally induced Dr. Graham to describe 
his plant as a new species received, indeed, from the Cal- 
cutta Botanic Garden, and a native of Nepaul. 

E. vagans, of Fl. Indica, is very closely allied to this, 
having exactly similar oblique veins to the leaves ; and, al- 
though Dr. Wallich has described the capsules as smooth, 
in my specimens, there is sometimes a disposition to be 
echinate. 



Fig. 1. Back view of a Flower. 2. Disk and Germen, with the Stamens 
as they appear when in perfection. 3. Flowers more advanced. 4. Flower 
with the petals fallen. 5. Capsule.— AH but f. 5, more or less magnified. 



27«». 




st< 



( 2768 ) 

WlTHERINGIA MONTANA. MOUNTAIN Wl- 
THERINGIA, Or St. LORENZO PoTATOE. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solanace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. urceolatus 4 — 5-fidus. Cor. campanulato-rotata, 
tubo gibboso. Antherce longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Bac- 
ca 2-locularis, calyce persistente suffulta. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Witheringia montana ; herbacea, hispido-pilosa, foliis cor- 

dato-ovatis obtusis sinuato-repandis, petiolis alatis basi 

subauriculatis, racemis axillaribus terminalibusque 

paucifloris, radice tuberosa. 
Witheringia montana. Dunal. Spreng. Syst. Veget.v. 1. 

p. 676. 
Solanum montanum. Linn. Sp. PL p. 514. Ruiz et Pav. 

Fl. Peruv. v. 2. p. 33. t. 160./. 6. Willd. Sp. PL v. 1 . 

p. 1034. Pers. Syn. PL v. I. p. 226. 
Solanum Laurentii. Mitchill in Addr. to Hort. Soc. ofN. 

York. 
Solanum tuberosum minus ; atriplicis folio, vulgo Papa 

montana. Feuil. Obs. v. 3. p. 62. t. 46. 

Descr. Root a roundish or rounded, oblong, thick, fleshy 
tuber, about the size of a chesnut, and very similar to those 
of our common Potatoe, but bearing a greater quantity of 
fibrous radicles. Stems three or four, from the same root, 
six inches to a foot in height, decumbent at the base, 
rounded, with a few obscure angles, and hispid (less so in 
the lower part,) with numerous pellucid, white, succulent, 
short hairs, which point upwards. Leaves few, two or three 
of them radical, two to three inches long, cordato-ovato, 
obtuse, petiolate, sinuato-lobato at the margin, strongly 
nerved, the nerves prominent on the under side, piloso- 
hispid : petioles about as long as the leaf; those of the 
stem distinctly winged at the margin, the wings terminate 

ing 



ing in auricles at the base. Racemes almost panicled, few- 
flowered, terminal, and, according to Ruiz and Pavon, 
lateral, opposite to the leaves. Peduncles long, hispid ; 
pedicels also long. Calyx hispid, suburceolate, green, 
cut into five linear-oblong, obtuse, spreading segments. 
Corolla white, rotate, scarcely, except before expansion, 
at all campanulate, five-lobed, lobes acute, with five green- 
ish rays, and somewhat waved. Stamens five, inserted at 
the base of the corolla, connivent. Filaments short, green- 
ish : Anthers oblong, two-celled, cells opening longitudi- 
nally, deep yellow. Pistil: Germen roundish, small, green : 
Style longer than the Stamens, deflexed : Stigma oblongo- 
capitate, somewhat glandular, yellow-green. 

Our knowledge of this interesting species of Witheringia 
or Potatoe in a living state, is due to Dr. Samuel Mitchill, 
of New York, a gentleman who has been unweariedly 
employed in the promotion of science throughout North 
America, and who very obligingly communicated some 
tubers to me in the month of February, 1827. They were 
gathered on the top of the island of San Lorenzo, in 
Callao Bay. These were immediately planted in a pot 
and placed in a cool part of the stove of the Botanic Gar- 
den ; and in six weeks one of them produced the flowering 
stem here figured. It agrees so well with a specimen of 
Solanum montanum in my Herbarium, from Lima, and also 
with the figure in Ruiz and Pavon, that I cannot doubt its 
being the same, or, I would gladly have adopted the name 
under which it is published in the excellent address, above 
referred to, by Dr. Mitchill, who has laudably distributed 
it to various countries, in the hopes of its being employed 
as the common Potatoe. Commodore Isaac Hull, says, 
that when boiled, the tubers are yellow, and of a good 
flavour. Feuillee has observed, that the Indians employ 
them very much in their soups and ragouts, and Ruiz and 
Pavon say, that they are excellent for fattening swine. 
In all probability, therefore, especially, seeing that the 
plant is a native of elevated and probably temperate situa- 
tions, about Lima and Chancay, it may be cultivated as 
the common Potatoe, and become an useful culinary vege- 
table. With the protection of a greenhouse, it may be 
easily raised, and is certainly an ornamental plant. The 
flowers probably vary much in colour. Ruiz and Pavon 
describe them as blue, whilst Feuillee says they are rose- 
coloured. Ours are white. The vernacular name is Papas 
de Lomas and Papa montana. 



Fig. I. Stamen. 2. Pistil. — Magnified. 



■_'76!>. 







Tub !>■*■ S. Car-tit. m*tiror-lAag&I*'7 



( 2769 ) 
ASARUM CANADENSE. CANADIAN AsARABACA, 

or Wild Ginger. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 

DODECANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — AristolochiEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Periantkium simplex, superum, coloratum, trilobum. 
Antherw laterales. Stigma 6-lobum. Capsula 6-locularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Asarum canadense; foliis geminatis cordato-reniformibus 

subpubescentibus, perianthii lobis acuminatis velutinis 

reflexis. 
Asarum canadense. Mich. Fl. Bor. Am. v. I. p. 279. Willd. 

Sp. PL v. 2. p. 838. Lam. III. t. 394. / 2. Pursk 

FL N. Am. v. 2. p. 596. Bigelow's Am. Med. Bot. 

v.l.t.lb.p.U9. Lodd.Bot.Cab.t.889. Sweet Br. 

FL Gard. v. 1. t. 95. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 

461. 
Asarum Carolinianum. Walt. FL Car. p. 143. 
Asarum latifolium. Salisb. Prodr. p. 344. 



Descr. Root rounded, creeping, between fleshy and 
woody, throwing out long, descending, whitish fibres. 
Stem very short, decumbent, rounded, glabrous, sheathed 
with three or^ four large, brownish, between fleshy and 
membranous, cymbiform scales. From the top of this stem 
spring two leaves, cordato-reniform, often more decidedly 
renitbrm than those here figured, rather obtuse at the point, 
the lobes at the base rounded, the sinus very deep, slightly 
pubescent on the upper surface, beneath more downy, 
the margin indistinctly ciliated ; there are three principal 
nerves on each side the midrib springing from the base, 

and 



and all these are united by numerous reticulations, most 
prominent on the underside : colour a very delicate yellow 
green. Petioles four to five inches long, terete, very dense- 
ly hairy, the hairs mostly deflexed. Peduncle solitary, 
about one and a half or two inches long, reddish, densely 
pubescenti-hirsute, terminated by a single, erect, or inclined 
flower. Perianth superior : Segments three, united into an 
unceolate or globose tube below, which is white within, 
with dark purple lines at the base and at the points of 
union, the rest forming three ovato -acuminate lobes, more 
or less reflexed, whose upper surface is deep purplish-brown, 
and velvety. Stamens twelve, erect, placed upon the top 
of the germen, at the base of the style, purple. Filaments 
subulate, six longer, placed between the rays of the stigma, 
and six shorter, opposite the lobes : Anther lateral, one cell 
on each side, opening by a longitudinal cleft. Pollen 
yellow. Germen globose, tomentoso-hirsute, six-celled, 
each cell many seeded : Style rather short, columnar : 
Stigma umbilicate, with six, spreading, rather obtuse rays. 

A hardy perennial, cultivated in England, before 1713, 
by Bishop Compton, and deserving a place in every collec- 
tion, from the singular structure of the flowers, which are, 
moreover, brighter coloured than those of our European 
species. Some excellent remarks on the medicinal proper- 
ties will be found in Dr. Bigelow's American Medical Bo- 
tany. Closely as it is allied to the A. Europceum in botanical 
character, it does not, like that, act as an emetic. The 
aromatic flavour of the root is more agreeable than that of 
the Aristolochia serpentaria, and it is much employed in its 
native country as a warm stimulant and diaphoretic. It is 
used instead of Ginger by the country people, and hence 
its name of Wild Ginger. It is called Snake-root too, from 
the similarity of its properties to the Aristolochia just 
mentioned, and ColVs-foot, probably, from the shape of 
the leaf. 

It grows in woods, and extends from Canada to Carolina. 
With us, its flowering season often begins in April, in N. 
America in May, and continues till July. 



Fig. 1. Section of a Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Style and Stigma. 4. Sec- 
tion of Germen. — Magnified. 






1\ 



.1: »11<>. 













I " 





( 2770 ) 

Baxksia integrifolia. Entire-leaved 
Banksia. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. quadripartitus (raro quadrifidus). Stamina apicibus 
concavis laciniarum immersa. Squamuhe hypogynae 4. 
Ovarium biloculare, loculis monospermis. Folliculus bilo- 
cularis, ligneus : Dissepimento libero, bifido. Amentum 
flosculorum paribus tribracteatis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Banksia integrifolia ; foliis verticillatis oblongo-lanceola- 
tis integris mucronulatis : subtus venulis reticalantibus 
conspicuis, folliculis tomentosis, caule arborea. Br. 

Banksia integrifolia. Linn. Suppl. p. 127. Lam. Encycl. 
v. 1. p. 369. Willd. Sp. PL v. 1. p. 535. « Cavan. 
Annal. Be Hist. Nat. v. \.p. 229. Ic. 6. p. 30. t. 546." 
Pers. Syn. PI. v. I. p. 116. Brown in Linn. Trans. 
v. 10. p. 206. Prod. p. 393. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 
v. I. p. 215. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 485. Gra- 
ham in Jameson New Journ. of Sc. 1827, p. 174. 

Banksia spicata. Gcertn. de Fruct. v. 1. p- 221. t. 48. 

Banksia oleaefolia. Cav. Annal. de Hist. Nat. I. p. 228. Ic. 
p. 30. t. 545. et B. glauca. Cav. Annal. de Hist. Nat. 
\.p.Z30. Ic.6.p. 31*. (fide Br.) 



Descr. " Trunk erect. Bark dark and cracked. Branches, 
at first, erect, ultimately spreading, covered with soft, yel- 
lowish pubescence when young. Buds in whorls, but gene- 
rally all, excepting one or two, abortive. Leaves petiolated, 
subverticillated or scattered, ligulate, dry, stiff, undulated, 

green 



green and naked above,, below, covered with white tomen- 
tum, through which many small reticulated veins appear ; 
when young covered with yellow tomentum on both sides, 
sinuato-serrated, occasionally entire, serratures mucronate, 
middle-rib prominent behind. Flowers terminal, head two 
to three inches long, less than half the length of the leaves, 
which are generally crowded at the base. Calyx silky. 

We have a plant which has not yet flowered, but which 
I can consider only a variety, that is more vigorous in its 
growth ; the trunk swollen into joints ; the branches more 
erect ; the leaves more decidedly verticilled ; more of them 
entire, and many of them lanceolate, having evident nearly 
transverse primary veins, the pubescence on the young 
shoots being red- brown." Graham. 

Introduced to our gardens, from the neighbourhood of 
Port Jackson, in 1788, by Mr. Thomas Watson : but, 
according to Hortus Kewensis, it does not appear to have 
flowered when the second edition of that work was pub- 
lished. Our drawing was made from a fine plant which 
flowered at the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, in May, 1827. 
The seeds had been sent to Dr. Graham, in 1819, by Mr. 
Fraser. Both from Dr. Graham and Mr. Brown's obser- 
vations on the species, it seems to be liable to much varia- 
tion : the latter gentleman indeed observes, " Species poly- 
morpha, cui nimis affines sunt B. insularis et compar." 



Fig. 1. Two Flowers, with their bracteae. 2. Underside of a portion of 
the leaf to shew the reticulations. — Magnified. 



X. »Jp. 




▼ jW 



( 2771 ) 

MlRBELIA GRANDIFLORA. LARGE-FLOWERED 

MlRBELTA. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus, bilabiatus. Legumen dispermum, longitu- 
dinaliter biloculare, sutura utraque superiore praesertim 
introflexa. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Mirbelia grandiflora ; pubescens, foliis alternis ovato- 

lanceolatis, floribus axillaribus binis. 
Mirbelia grandiflora. Alton MSS. 



Descr. Apparently a small shrub, hairy or pubescent 
in all its parts, except the corolla. Leaves an inch long, 
on very short petioles, ovato-lanceolate, indistinctly reti- 
culated with close nerves, dark -green above, paler beneath. 
Flowers axillary, in pairs, on extremely short pedicels. 
Calyx of two lips ; the upper cut into two short teeth, the 
lower into three longer, lanceolate ones, very hairy on the 
outside. Vexillum broadly obcordate, subunguiculate, 
bright yellow, striated, having a deep red horse-shoe-shaped 
mark, waved at the margin. Ala oblongo-faicate, yellow, 
with a red blotch on one side. Carina of two, oblong, 
concave, unguiculate petals, united at the extremity. Sta- 
mens ten, free, unequal : Filaments subulate : Anthers 
oblong. Pistil: Germen ovate, hairy. Style ascending, 
short. Stig?na capitate. Legume having the outer coat 
easily separating from its interior substance, which is two- 
halved, bearing two black, shining, kidney -shaped seeds. 

Of 



Of this interesting species of Mirbelia, having* yellow 
flowers, I know nothing, except from the beautiful drawing 
kindly communicated to me, by W. T. Aiton, Esq. from 
Kew Gardens. The seeds were sent from the Blue Moun- 
tains in New South Wales, by Mr. Allan Cunningham, 
in 1823. 

De Candolle considered blue flowers to be characteristic 
of the genus ; but in this, and in another species, we find, 
that the flowers are yellow, whilst every other characteristic 
is perfectly that of Mirbelia. 



Fig. 1. Flowering specimen. 2. Specimen in fruit (outline only) . 3. Calyx. 
4. Vexillum. 5. Alae. 6. Carina. 7- Stamens surrounding- the Pistil. 8. 
Pistil. 9. Upperside of a Capsule. 10. Underside of ditto. 11. The same 
deprived of its outer integument. 12. Seeds. — All hut 1. and 2. more or 
less magnified. 



X.2772. 




SvarvSc 



( 2772 ) 

HUTCHINSIA STYLOSA. SWEET-SCENTED 
LONG-STYLED HUTCHINSIA. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 

( Nat. Ord. — Crucifer*. ) 

Generic Character. 

Silicula elliptica, valvis navicularibus, apteris ; loculis 
dispermis, rarius polyspermis. Calyx aequalis. Petala aequa- 
lia. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Hutchinsia stylosa ; foliis subcarnosis, inferioribus petio- 
latis obovato-oblongis subintegris, caulinis oblongis, 
staminibus petala et stylo siliculam subaequantibus. 
D. C. 

Hutchinsia stylosa. D. C. Syst. Veg. v. 2. p. 387. D. C. 
Prodr. v. I. p. 177. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 2. p. 863. 

Iberis stylosa. <c Tenore, Prodr. Fl. Neap. XXXVII." 

Thlaspi minimum. Arduin. Specim. 2.p.37.t. 15./. I.? 
CD. C.J 



Descr. A small, tufted growing- plant, not above two 
or three inches high, and scarcely more than biennial in its 
duration. Root subfusiform, fibrous. Stems, two or three 
from the same root, and not unfrequently throwing up 
innovations from near the base. Leaves dark green, some- 
what fleshy, quite glabrous, the radical ones the largest, 
and (as are those of the young shoots) more or less petio- 
lated, slightly toothed, oblong or obovate, those of the 
main stems oblong, sessile, scarcely toothed, almost ara- 
plexicaul. Flowers in crowded corymbs of a most delight- 
ful fragrance. Cal. of four, elliptical, nearly erect, concave 
leaflets, green, the margin scariose, purple. Petals ob- 
long 



long, waved, patent, clawed, purple or rose colour, equal 
in length. Stamens, four longer and two shorter, almost 
equalling the petals in length : Filaments purple. Anthers 
oval, deep purple : Pollen bright yellow. Germen ellip- 
tical, slightly compressed : Style longer than the germen, 
and nearly equal to the petals, green. Stigma obtuse, 
scarcely dilated. Silicula oblongo-obcordate, nearly plane 
above, more convex beneath : Valves keeled : Dissepiment 
semi-ovate. Each cell has about five seeds, which are pen- 
dent, and attached to the marginal receptacle, broadly- 
oval, brown. 

An inhabitant of stony and rocky places in the more 
elevated of the Neapolitan mountains. The seeds from 
which our plants were raised, were sent, by its discoverer, 
Professor Tenore of Naples, to the Glasgow Botanic Gar- 
den. Flowers have now been produced in the months of 
March and April, for two successive years, from the same 
roots, kept under a common frame, in pots. We trust to 
prove, that it is sufficiently hardy to bear our winters ; and 
that it may be cultivated like our more common hardy alpine 
plants, to which it will make a most valuable addition : 
the blossoms being both shewy and fragrant ; the fragrance 
more resembling that of the Heliotrope than any thing I 
' can compare it with. Professor De Candolle says the 
flowers are white, probably judging from dried specimens. 
They are with us always of a fine purplish rose-colour. 



Fig. 1. Plants natural size. 2. Single flower, with the Petals scarcely 
expanded. 3. Flower fully expanded. 4. Stamens and Pistil. 5 Silicula. 
6. Ditto, with one of the Valves, separating and shewing the situation of the 
Seeds. 7- Seed. — All more or less magnified. 



j:277Z. 




Pub. iv S. Cur-Sis. #: 



( 2773 ) 
Oncidium pulchelllm. Elegant Oncidium. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum explanatum, lobatum, basi bituberculatum. 
Petala paten tia (2 antica nunc connata). Columna alata. 
Massce pollinis 2, postice bilobae ; medio affixaej^processu 
communi stigmatis. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Oncidium pulchellum ; floribus racemosis secundis, petalis 
ovalibus subunguiculatis, duobus anticis connatis 
lineari-spathulatis, labello quadrilobo, lobis rotunda- 
tis aequalibus, foliis acute carinato-triquetris. 



Descr. Parasitic. Roots flexuose, whitish, branched. 
Stem none. Leaves equitant, with their compressed, sub- 
membranous, striated base, and jointed on that base ; the 
rest carinate and acutely triquetrous, thick and succulent, 
dark green, destitute of striae, very sharp at the point, 
distichous, linear-lanceolate, three to five inches long. Scape 
arising from the base on the outside of the plant, six to seven 
inches high, slender, here and there bracteated, terminating 
at the extremity by a secund raceme of ten or twelve 
delicate flowers. Corolla of five, small, whitish petals, of 
which the three posterior ones are ovate, subunguiculate, 
the middle one concave, the two anterior ones connate, so 
as to form, beneath the labellum, a linear-spathulate, appa- 
rently single, bidentate petal. Lip large, spreading hori- 
zontally, cut into four, nearly equally rounded, white lobes, 
having a tinge of pink near the base, and some yellow 
spots around and upon the trifid crest. Column semiterete, 
white, with two delicate, rose-coloured, obovate, spreading. 

slightly 



slightly reflexed wings. Anther-case ovate, acute, white. 
Pollen masses two, ovate, two-lobed at the back, fixed to a 
linear, white pedicel, which has a small gland at the base. 

A native of Demerara, where it was discovered growing 
upon trees, by C. S. Parker, Esq. and from plants sent by 
him to the Liverpool Botanic Garden, which flowered in 
June, 1827, the accompanying figure was taken. 

The absence of the bright yellow of the blossoms of 
many Oncidia, is compensated in this by great delicacy ; 
the ground of the flower being pure white. There are a few 
orange-coloured spots near the base of the large, four lobed 
lip, and the wings of the column are rose-coloured. In 
habit it approaches the Ionidium of Exotic Flora (Ionop- 
sis of Kunth.). 



Fig. 1. Back view of a Flower. 2. Front view of ditto. 3. Column and 
base of the Lip. 4. Column, from which one Wing and the Anther-case have 
been separated. 5. Anther-case. 6. Pollen Mass. — All more or less mag- 
nified. 



( 2774 ) 

SCILLA ESCULENTA. fi. fl. albo. ESCULENT 

Squill or Camass; white-flowered variety. 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodele*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6-petala, patens, decidua. Filam. filiformia, peta- 
lorum basi adnexa. 

* 
Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Scilla esculenta ; bulbosa, scapo foliis linearibus carinatis 
longiore, petalis lineari-oblongis basi contractis, 5 
subascendentibus, infimo deflexo. 

(*.) flore caeruleo. 

Scilla esculenta. Gawler in Bot. Mag. t. 1574. 

Phalangium esculentum. Nutt. in Fraser. Cat. 1813. 
Nutt. Gen. of N. Am. PL v. I. p. 219. 

Phalangium Quamash. Pursh. Fl. N. Am. v. I. p. 226. 

Anthericum esculentum. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 84. 

(0.) flore albo. t. S774. 



Descr. Bulb ovate, covered with a brown husk. Leaves 
eight to ten inches, or almost a foot long-, linear, grooved, 
somewhat carinated, rather acute, attenuated at the base, 
bluish green. Scape perfectly naked, from a foot to a foot 
and a half, and even, in the wild specimens, two feet high, 
rounded, terminated by a raceme of from ten to twelve, or 
even twenty flowers, these are large and shewy. Pedicels 
short, horizontal, subtended by a linear subulate bractea, 
longer than the pedicel. Corolla of six petals, an inch 
long, slightly imbricating before expansion, and then form- 
ing a clavate bud, nearly flat on the upper side, but gibbous 
below, pale blue in «, in (3 pure white, spreading horizon- 
tally 



tally, but not equally, for the five upper petals are more 

inclined upwards, and stand nearer to each other than the 

lower one, which is deflexed, and, as it were, apart from the 

rest : each is linear-oblong, somewhat concave, a little 

keeled on the back, faintly striated, at the base a little 

waved, and contracted into a sort of claw or unguis, and 

there having the sides conduplicate. The petals remain, 

as well as the stamens, till the fruit advances to maturity. 

Filaments as long as the corolla, slender, white, inserted 

into the base of the petals. Anthers versatile, oblong, 

yellow. Germen obtusely trigonal, roundish, three-celled ; 

ovules placed in two rows, in the centre, in the internal 

angle of each cell. Style filiform, as long as the stamens. 

Stigma minutely and unequally trifid. The ripe fruit I 

have not seen. 

I have given a description of this interesting and very 
desirable plant, because, although the blue-flowered state 
of it is already published at tab. 1574 of this work, yet, 
in the shape and size of those blossoms, there is a con- 
siderable difference from those here figured. Our blue and 
white-flowered varieties agree in every thing excepting 
colour. It will be at once seen by Mr. Gawler's figure, 
that the flowers there are not half so large as these ; nor is 
the irregularity of the petals there observed, which is so 
striking in our plant, and is indicated even in the bud : so 
that, probably, this irregularity, taken in conjunction with 
the persistent corolla, will, at some future time, when we 
shall be better acquainted with the fruit, cause this plant 
to be separated from Scilla, no less than from Phalangium 
and Anthericum, with which it has, by some authors, been 
placed. 

Our roots were brought from the shores of the Columbia, 
on the North-west coast of America, by Dr. Scouler, in 
1826, and being planted in a border, and covered with a 
frame, the flowers, both blue and white, were produced in 
May, 1826. Two blossoms only seemed to be in perfection 
at a time, and those continued but for one day, when two 
more expanded, and so on in succession. 

The roots are eaten by various Indians on the North- 
west coast of America : and a kind of cake, which Dr. 
Scouler met with among the natives of the Columbia, is 
supposed to be made of them. 



Fig. 1. Petal and Stamen. 2. Back view of a Petal. 3. Pistil- 4. 
Section of the Germen. — Magnified. 




w. ffla. 



( 2775 ) 

Calceolaria purpurea. Purple-flowered 
Slipperwort. 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partitus. Cor. bilabiata, labium inferiusinflatum, 
calceiforme. Caps, semi-bivalvis, valvulis bifidis. 

Specific Character. 

Calceolaria purpurea; herbacea, caulibus erectis ramosis, 
foliis venoso -miosis hispidis, radicalibus cuneato-spa- 
thulatis serratis postice integerrimis subacutis, cau- 
linis cordatis superioribus minoribus integerrimis, co- 
rymbis terminalibus multifloris. Graham. 

Calceolaria purpurea. Graham MSS. 



Descr. Stems in our plants., many from the same root, 
erect, pubescent. Root-leaves spathulato-cuneate, somewhat 
acute,, with a strong middle rib., veined, wrinkled, with a 
few long, scattered hairs on the surface. Stem-leaves cor- 
date, broad, decussating, more entire than the root-leaves, 
uppermost pair nearly smooth, and quite entire. Corymbs 
terminal : bractece two, ovate, at the base of the corymb. 
Pedicels numerous, slightly bent, filiform. Calyx : segments 
ovate, pubescent. Corolla rather small, of an uniform 
reddish- violet colour, upper lip nearly half the size of the 
lower, which is doubly furrowed. Graham MSS. 

The seeds were received, both at the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow Botanic Gardens, in December, 1826, from Mr. 
Cruickshanrs, who collected them in the Cordillera. The 
habit of the plant is quite that of the Calceolaria corym- 
bosa, next which it should be placed, and it seems to require 
the same treatment. It flowered at the Edinburgh Royal 

Botanic 



Botanic Garden, in the beginning of August, 1827. Grcr 
ham MSS. 

Mr. Cruicrshanks has been so obliging as to send me, 
besides the seeds of this curious Calceolaria, beautifully 
dried specimens, gathered below Los Ojos del Aqua, a 
high pass in the Cordilleras, on the route from St. Jago de 
Chili, to Mendoza. In these, the hairs are all glandular, 
and in the upper part of the stem glutinous. The leaves 
are variable, more or less cordate on the stem ; more 
or less decidedly tapering into a footstalk at the root ; and 
more or less distinctly toothed, sometimes even almost 
laciniated, at the margin. The flowers are greatly smaller 
than in C. corymbosa, the upper lip quite entire, the lower 
one not pendent, but standing out horizontally, so as almost 
to close the mouth. 



Fig. 1. Back view of a Flower. 2. Front view of ditto. 3. Stamens. 4. 
Pistil. — All but fig. 1, more or less magnified. 



v. *-,:<.. 



6 







( 2776 ) 

Gesneria verticillata. Verticillate 
Gesneria. 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Gesneriejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. tubuloso-campanulata, limbo ?. 
Stigma bilobum. Capsula monolocularis, bivalvis, placen- 
tis parietalibus bilamellatis. Spreng. 

Specific Character. 

Gesneria verticillata ; herbacea foliis verticillatis quaternis 
ovatis serratis pubescenti-mollibus petiolatis, pedun- 
culis terminalibus unifloris, floribus nutantibus infun- 
dibuliformi-cylindraceis, ore quinquefido subaequab, 
laciniis extus basi 5-tuberculatis. 



Descr. Stem about a foot high., subcylindrical, green, 
pubescent, somewhat tuberous at the base, simple. Leaves 
in two (or more ?) distant whorls, each of four leaves, which 
are spreading, or reflexed, ovate approaching to cordate, 
petiolated, dark green, clothed with a soft pubescence, 
much veined, midrib at the base, and on the under side, as 
well as the lateral nerves, wholly red, the margin strongly 
serrated, the extremities of the older leaves very coarsely 
and doubly so. Petioles about one-third of the length of 
the leaves (those of the upper whorl much less so, thick, 
red, pubescent, grooved above. Peduncles two (or more ?) 
from the extremity of the stem, and from the centre of the 
upper whorl of leaves, three to four inches long, red, single- 
flowered, below erect, then pendent, slender, pubescent. 
Flower altogether drooping. Calyx half superior, of five 

teeth 



teeth., erect, lanceolate, green. Corolla between two and 
three inches long, tubular, somewhat funnel-shaped, the 
base having five vesicular swellings, throughout pubes 
cent; the colour is reddish, inclining to purple, with several 
longitudinal series of brown streaks towards the extremity 
The mouth is cut into five obtuse short lobes, nearly equal, 
scarcely spreading, the two upper the smaller, standing 
close together, and, as it were, forming the superior lip ; 
on the outside, at the sinus of each lobe, is a rounded 
tubercle. Stamens four : the Anthers united into one body, 
bearing much white pollen. Pistil: Germen half inferior, 
the upper part gradually tapering into the filiform style, as 
long as the corolla. Stigma obtuse. At the base of the 
germen, on the upper side, are two large yellow glands. 

This very beautiful and graceful Gesneria is distin- 
guished by many points from the hitherto described species 
of the genus. It was kindly communicated from the rich 
collection of Mrs. Arnold Harrison of Aighburgh, having 
been sent to her, by her brother, William Harrison, Esq- 
from the hills about Rio de Janeiro. It of course requires 
the heat of the stove, and is a plant in every way deserv- 
ing of more extended cultivation. 



Fig. I. Summit of a Flower, shewing the Stamens and top of the Style. 
2. Base of the Corolla. 3. Base of the Germen, Calyx, and Glands (two of 
the Segments of the Calyx being cut away to shew the Glands). — Slightly 
magnified. 




jf.nn. 



.^/*vv-//L„7v;-r Z7327. 



( 2777 ) 

Barbacenia purpurea. Purple-flowered 
Barbacenia. 

Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — ILemodorile. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium corollinum, ovario adnatum, infundibuli- 
forme, sexfidum. Filamenta bifida, antheras dorso affixas 
in divisione (non semper) gerentia. Capsula trilocularis, 
polysperma. Mart. 

Specific Character. 

Barbacenia purpurea; foliis lineari-acuminatis carinatis 
spinuloso-serratis, scapo foliis longiore, ovario elon- 
gate lineatim tuberculato, antheris basi filamentorum, 
affixis. 



Descr. Caudex scarcely any, divided in a dichotomons 
manner, bearing a few striated, brownish scales, and nume- 
rous, linear, somewhat spirally inserted, acuminated, flexu- 
ose and slightly twisted, carinated, striated, rigid leaves ; 
their margins are beset with many, but rather distantly 
placed, minute, spinous teeth, pointing upwards; the bases 
are sheathing. Scape much longer than the leaves, obtusely 
trigonal, scabrous upwards, single-flowered. Flower erect, 
moderately large, of a beautiful purple colour. Petals six, 
united into a tube at the base, lanceolate, the three outer 
narrower, reflexed, much acuminated, obscurely striated, 
the three inner broader, waved, more erect, acute, veined ; 
at the mouth of the tube, are six broadly linear, petaloid, 
bifid, purple filaments, opposite the petals, at the base of 
which, by the lower part of its back, is fixed the linear, 
erect Anther, two celled, enclosing a white pollen, shorter 
than the filaments. Pistil: Germen inferior, oblong or 
subclavate, greenish, with six lines of purplish tubercles, 
and scabrous, with minute elevated dots between them. A 
transverse section of this germen, shews three cells, with 

large 



large cordate perforated dissepiments, and between, in each 
cell, two vertical plates, covered at their margins, the whole 
way down, with numerous oblong ovules. Style reaching 
as high as the anthers, acuminated, trigonal, purple, having 
below the point three oblong, white glands , which repre- 
sent the stigmata. 

Barbacenia was so named by Vandelli, in honour of 
Barbacena, a governor of Minas Geraes, in Brazil. The 
species, however, of that author seems to be very imper- 
fectly known. Drs. Spix and Martius discovered twelve 
species during their travels in Brazil, inhabiting mountains 
of micaceous schist and other primitive rocks, in dry barren 
places, at an elevation of from one thousand to five thou- 
sand five hundred feet above the level of the sea, and 
between the fourteenth and twenty-third parallels of south 
latitude. Although a smaller race of plants, they seem in 
aspect to be very nearly allied to the Vellosi^e, which in- 
habit similar places in Brazil, and which by their curiously 
branched and spreading trunks with terminal tufts of leaves 
(not much unlike some of the Aloes, especially the A. di- 
chotoma,) and liliaceous flowers, give a peculiar aspect to 
their native districts. Of the twelve species of Barbacenia 
known to M. M. Spix and Martius, six only are yet de- 
scribed by them in the Nova Genera et Species Planta- 
rum Brasiliensium. With none of those species does the 
present one accord, and which, I believe, is the first that 
has ever been known in a state of cultivation. The seeds 
were gathered from a bundle of Brazilian moss by the 
Honorable and Reverend William Herbert of Spofforth ; 
and some young plants being sent to Lord Milton's col- 
lection at Wentworth House, they were there brought to 
flower under Mr. Cooper's judicious management, when a 
beautiful specimen was communicated to me in the month 
of August, 1827. 

The caudex or stem, Mr. Cooper observes, is very short, 
and, probably, only arises from the old leaves falling away 
from the lower part of the plant. At present the young 
plant bears few flowers ; but an old plant, with its nume- 
rous blossoms, which, it would no doubt produce, of a deep 
and lively purple colour, must have a very beautiful effect ; 
and, it will be acknowledged to be a most valuable and 
interesting addition to our stoves. 

It is to be increased by dividing the plant, and it like- 
wise promises to ripen its seeds. 



Fig. 1. Flower cut open. 2. Stamen. 3. Back view of the Anther. 4 
Style and Stigma. 5. Section of the Germen. — All more or less magnified- 



v -77 s 







% r a.(W-?r£&jro K /Jfi 



( 2778 ) 

Helianthus pubescens. Illinois Sun- 
flower. 

Class and Order. 

Syngenesia Polygamia Frustranea. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum imbricatum, squamis subsquarrosis. Rec, 
paleaceum. Pappus diphyllus. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Helianthus pubescens ; foliis oppositis sessilibus semi- 
amplexicaulibus ovato-lanceolatis crenato-serratis hir- 
sutiusculis supra asperis subtus pubescenti-scabris, 
caule piloso scabro, squamis involucri lineari-lanceo- 
latis pubescentibus ciliatis. 

Helianthus pubescens. Vahl Symb. v. 2. p. 92 ? Willd. 
Sp. PL v. 3. p. 3240? Ait. HorL Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. ;;. 
127. Pursk FL N. Am. v. 2. p. 570. Elliott Sketch 
of Bot. of S. Carol, and Georg. v. 2. p. 418 ? Bot. 
Reg. t. 524. Spreng. Sh/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 617. 

Helianthus mollis. Lam. Encycl. v. 3. p. 81. Willd. Sp. 
PL v. 3. p. 2240. Pursh Fl. N. Am. v. 2. p. 572. 
Elliott Sketch of Bot. of S. Carol, and Georg. v. 2. /;. 
418. 

Helianthus canescens. Mich. FL Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 140. 

Helianthus tomentosus. Mich. Fl. Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 141. 



Descr. A perennial herbaceous plant, the stem rising- to 
the height of eight feet, scabrous, with shortish rigid hairs 
below, above more tomentose and less rough, divided at 
the summit into a panicle of flowers. Leaves opposite, ex- 
cept the uppermost ones, where they seem rather to take 
the place of bractea?, ovato-lanceolate, sessile, semiamplex- 
icaul at the base, and mostly connate, the largest as long 

as 



as the human hand, the upper ones gradually smaller, ra- 
ther indistinctly crenato-serrate at the margin, every where 
clothed with short hairs, which, on the upper side, are more 
scattered, rigid, tuberculated at the base, and occasioning 
that side to be very scabrous to the touch ; the under side 
is far less rough, and the hairs are closer set and softer, and 
give a tomentose or rather pubescent character ; two of the 
lateral nerves, especially in the lower leaves, are longer 
than the rest, but they do not spring from the base, and the 
term "folia triplinervia" can hardly with propriety be ap- 
plied to them. The whole texture of the leaves is thickish 
and rigid; the colour a full green, paler beneath. Flowers 
terminal in panicles, large, handsome. Peduncles three to 
six inches long, with alternate, lanceolate, nearly entire 
leaves, or bracteae. Involucre of many imbricated, subu- 
late, or linear-lanceolate, very dark coloured, almost black 
scales; two or three of the outer lax and spreading, slightly 
downy, the margins more so, and ciliated. Florets of the 
Ray sixteen to eighteen, ligulate, striated, bi-tridentate at 
the extremity : their germen abortive, destitute of pappus. 
Florets of the centre very numerous, tubular, deep yellow, 
brown on the outside. Pappus of two, chaffy, subulate 
scales. Receptacle with linear, chaffy scales, as long as the 
florets, and carinated, pubescent at the back, near the top. 

According to the author of the Botanical Register, this 
plant is the true Hel. pubescens of Hort. Kew. and of 
Pursh ; and it may be that of Willdenow ; but the cha- 
racters in none agree satisfactorily with our plant. It is 
perhaps very variable ; and hence, have arisen the appear- 
ances which have given origin to the supposed species H. 
mollis, canescens, and tomentosus, which Mr. Gawler has, 
perhaps, justly enough referred to our plant. 

It appears to be common in the Southern states of N. 
America, in S. Carolina and Georgia, in the Illinois coun- 
try, Kentucky, and Tenessee ; and, indeed, in dry seasons, 
in the swamps throughout Pensylvania and Virginia. 

It deserves a place, from its large showy flowers, in every 
garden, being perfectly hardy. Seeds were sent by Mr. 
Nuttall from N. America to Mr. Barclay at Bury Hill, in 
whose garden they produced flowers, in the autumn of 1825. 
From those plants our drawing and description were made. 



Fig. 1. Floret of the Ray. 2. Floret of the Disc. 3. Scale* of the Recep- 
tacle. — Magnified. 



a: »J79 




( 2779 ) 

Trifolium alpestre. Narrow - leaved 
round-headed clover. 

*****«»«*«««*•&* 
Class and Order, 

DlADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores capitato-spicati. Cor. 1-petala, persistens. Le- 
gumen 1-spermum, circumscissum, calyce tectum, s. 2 — 3 
spermum. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Trifolium alpestre; capitulis densis subglobosis sessili- 

bus, calyce hirsuto dente infimo tubum corolla? 

aequante, stipulis nervosis setaceo-acuminatis, foliolis 

lanceolatis ciliato - serrulatis venoso - striatis, caule 

stricto subsimplici. 
Trifolium alpestre. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1082. J acq. Obs. 

P. III. p. 14. t. 64. Fl. Austr. v. 5. p. 15. t. 433. 

All. Ped. v. 1. p. 304. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 1368. 

Afz. in Linn. Trans, v. I. p. 234. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 

2. v. 4. p. 384. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 194. 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 215. 



Descr. Root long and creeping. Stem from six to eight 
inches to a foot in height, erect, quite straight, rounded, 
green, scarcely pubescent, simple, or a little branched at 
the base. Leaves ternate : leaflets lanceolate, somewhat 
hairy, beautifully striated, with close parallel diehotomous 
veins, the margins minutely serrated, and ciliated. Petiole 
short. Stipules large, amplexicaul, sheathing, united at 
the base, somewhat inflated, scariose, with purplish veins, 
terminating in long awl-shaped points, pubescent. Head 
roundish, or broadly oval, sometimes geminate, terminal 

and 



and sessile, of many densely-placed, purple flowers. Calyx 
greenish, white and scariose, hairy, five-toothed, two short 
teeth on each side, and the lowermost as long as the tube 
of the corolla, all setaceous and purple. Petals conjoined. 
Vexillum cylindrical for a great part of its length, spread- 
ing upwards, and but little longer than the alee and carina. 
A most elaborate history of this species of Clover or Tre- 
foil is given by Professor Afzelius, in the first volume of 
the Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London. It is 
a native of subalpine countries, in various, especially the 
southern parts of the continent of Europe, and was culti- 
vated, according to the Hortus Kewensis, in the Gardens of 
Britain before 1789. It is perfectly hardy, and is a very 
desirable plant ; its heads of flowers being of a peculiarly 
rich and bright purple. With us, in the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden, it flowers in the month of June. 



Fig. 1. Flower. — Magnified. 



jr.r&o. 




( 2780 ) 

Omalanthus populifolia. Poplar-leaved 
Omalanthus. 

Class and Order. 

MONCECIA MONADELPHIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Euphorbiace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores racemosi, inferiores fseminei. 

Masc. Perianthium bilobum. Stamina 3 — 6, basi mo- 
nadelpha. 

FiEM. Pendens. Perianthium in mare. Stylus bipar- 
titus. Capsula ovalis, bivalvis, biloeularis, loculis mono- 
spermis. Semen pendens arillo pulposo tectum. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Omalanthus populifolia. Graham in Jameson's New Ed. 

Journ. of Science, 1827, p. 175. 
Omalanthus leschenaultianus? Juss. (Adr.) Tent, de Euph. 

t. 16. f. 53. (sine ult. descr.J 



Descr. A shrub (or probably in its native climate,, a 
tree) having attained the height of ten or twelve feet in the 
stove of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, much branched ; 
the older branches covered with a glabrous greyish bark : 
the younger ones reddish, glabrous, as is every part of the 
plant. Leaves alternate, on long, red, filiform, slender 
stalks, which have a gland at their extremity on the upper 
side ; at first enclosed within two lanceolate, greenish sti- 
pules, which soon fall away, rhombeo-ovate, somewhat 
acuminate, quite entire at the margin, and there often 
bordered with red, especially at the base ; in age, and just 
before their fall, they turn of a fine orange red, the under 
side much paler, nerves parallel, transversely oblique, often 
reddish; on the underside reticulated with smaller ones. 
Racemes terminal, from two to four inches long. Female 
flowers (four or five) occupying the lower part, solitary, 
pendant, having a broad green bractea at the base, with a 
gland on each side. Pedicel curved downwards, so that 

the 



the flower is drooping. Perianth cup-shaped, two-lobed, 
or shortly two-lipped, pale green, embracing the lower 
half of the pistil. Germen oblong, green, tapering into a 
bipartite style, whose divisions are linear, and recurved : 
the stigma appears to constitute a gland or disk on the 
underside, just beneath the extremity. Male flowers nu- 
merous, very small, generally in threes, of which the central 
one is on the largest pedicel, and has the most stamens (six), 
while the lateral ones have only three or four stamens, all 
included in a bractea resembling that of the female flower. 
Perianth small, green, membranous, cup-shaped, rather 
compressed, two-lobed. Filaments united at the base in 
one row. Anthers large, didymous, granulated, at first 
yellow, at length each lobe bursts with a vertical fissure 
and becomes green. As the germens advance to maturity, 
the axis of the raceme which supported the male flowers 
falls off, and the fruit reaches to the size of a large pea, 
oval, terminated by the bifid style. Before it is quite ma- 
ture, the pericarp is green and fleshy, marked with a suture 
on each side, where it evidently opens. There are two 
cells, each bearing one brown, pendent seed, enveloped in 
a white, pulpy, semipellucid arillus. Albumen copious, 
white. Embryo small, compressed, imbedded in the upper 
part of the albumen, the radicle pointing to the scar of the 
seed. 

This plant has much affinity with Stillyngia sebifera. 
A comparison of the flowers, however, soon enabled me to 
refer it to the genus Omalanthus of the excellent Memoir 
of the younger Jussieu, on the Euphorbiace^e. His speci- 
mens were in an imperfect and a dried state, which will 
account for the trifling; difference in his figure and mine. 

JNative of New Holland, whence seeds were communi- 
cated by Mr. Fraser to Dr. Graham, in 1824. The plants 
flowered in the stove of the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, 
in June, 1827. 

My wild specimens were sent to me from Java, by M. 
Spanoghe. 



Fig. 1. Male Flowers and their Bractea. 2. Male Flower spread open to 
show the Stamens. 3. Young Anther. 4. Old ditto. 5. Female flower and 
Bractea. 5. Style and Stigma. 6. Section of Capsule. 7- Section of a 
Seed enclosed in its pulpy Arillus or Coat. — More or less magnified. 



X.2J64. 




C 2781 ) 

OXALIS BIPUNCTATA. TWO-SPOTTED WoOD- 

SoRREL. r JAqJJCa 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Pentagynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Oxalide^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. pentaphyllus. Pet. 5. Stamina alteraa longiora. 
Capsula 5-gona, 5-locularis, 5-valvis, seminibus arillatis 
ad angulos loculorum fixis. Spreng. 

Specific Character. 

Oxalis bipunctata ; scapo multifloro petiolis vix Iongiori 
compresso petiolisque pubescentibus, foliis ternatis, 
foliolis rotundato-obcordatis subtus pubescentibus su- 
pra subnudis, petiolis cylindraceis, sepalis obtusius- 
culis apice bimaculatis, staminibus 5 stylos superanti- 
bus. Graham Mss. 



Descr. Leaves bright green above, paler (occasion- 
ally purple, when young) below, very slightly acid, all 
radical, ternate, leaflets broadly obcordate, pubescent on 
the lower side, very sparingly so on the upper, ciliated, 
middle rib prominent below, and giving off two strong 
arching veins on each side, those nearest the base being 
generally branched on their outer side ; petioles round, 
live inches long, pubescent, hairs spreading and lax. 
Scapes numerous, pubescent like the petioles, and rather 
longer than they, slightly compressed, somewhat irregu- 
larly divided at the top; but generally into three branches, 
which are sometimes again divided, though generally 
the flowers proceed directly from the extremities, on long, 
round, spreading pedicels. Pedicels of the bud nodding*, 

of 



of the fruit reflected. Bractea at the primary division of 
the scape, a short entire sheath, at the secondary, divided 
into small leaflets, placed one on the outside of each pedicel. 
Calyx green, with a few adpressed hairs, leaflets lanceolato- 
elliptic, with narrow membranous edges, each having two 
oblong, approximating, orange callosities on the outside of 
the apex. Petals lilac, and veined, sub-linear, truncate, 
unequally crenate at the apex, spreading. Stamens ten, 
five shorter and five as much longer than the styles : fila- 
ments colourless, united at the base, and above the union 
hairy. Anthers yellow, cordate, attached by their backs 
to the filaments. Germen nearly smooth, green, divided 
into five, oblong lobes, each containing several seeds. 
Stigmata lobular, deep green, projecting between the 
longer filaments. 

The plant flowered abundantly in the stove of the Royal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, in April, 1827, but has not 
produced seeds. It was raised from seeds received from 
Mr. Harris at Rio de Janeiro, by Captain Graham, of his 
Majesty's Packet Service ; but other specimens which are 
extremely similar were in the collection before, though it 
is not known from whence obtained. These differ from the 
plant described, only in having the back of the leaf more 
reticulated, the anthers paler, and the shorter stamens equal 
in length to the styles. Graham MSS. 

This may, perhaps, prove to be only a luxuriant state of 
Oxalis violacea, the figure of which plant in Jacq. Hort. 
Vindib. v. 2. t. 180, seems to be, as it were, intermediate 
between the small glabrous plant, given at t. 2215 of the 
Botanical Magazine, and the present individual. If this 
idea be correct, then, O. violacea is a native of South, as 
well as of North America. The Oxalis elegans and lati- 
folia of Humboldt and Kunth, are both nearly allied to our 
plant. 



Fig. I . Calyx with its Stamens and Pistil. 2. Stamens and Pistil. — Mag- 
nified. 




v _.-vj 






( 2782 ) 

Cerastium Biebersteinii. Taurian 
Mouse-eared Chickweed. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Pentagynia. 

( Nat. Ord. CaRYOPHYLLEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-phyllus. Pet. 2-fida. Caps. 1-locularis apice 
decemdentata. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cerastium Biebersteinii ; caulibus basi repentibus adscen- 
denti-diflfusis foliisque oblongo-lanceolatis tomentoso- 
lanatis, pedunculis erectis dichotomis, foliolis calycinis 
oblongis tomentosis, capsula ovata subcylindracea ca- 
lyce longiore. D. C. 

Cerastium Biebersteinii. De Cand. in Mem. Soc. Hist. 
Nat. de Gen. v. I. p. 463; ejusd. Prodr. v. I. p. 418. 
De Cand. PL rares de Gen. t. 11. 

Cerastium repens. Bieberst. FL Taurico-Caucas. v. I. 

P- 
Cerastium tomentosum « Linn. Sp. PL p. 629 ? 



Descr. The lower part of the stem is slender and 
creeping, and near the base it throws out numerous as- 
cendent branches, which, as well as the whole leaves, are 
covered with a soft and dense-white toinentum. Leaves 
opposite, connate at the base, patent, linear-lanceolate, sub- 
acute. Panicles of flowers terminal, twice or thrice dicho- 
tomous, erect, with a single flower between the dichoto- 
mies : there are small opposite oblongo-ovate bractea, at 
the base of the divisions of the panicle. Calyx of five, 

ovato- 



ovato-oblong leaflets, downy in the middle; the margin 
glabrous. Petals large, white, spreading, obcordate, veined 
at the base, where it is lengthened into a sort of claw, bifid 
at the extremity. Stamens ten; five alternately shorter. 
Pistil : Germen subglobose : Styles five, filiform ; Stigmas 
subclavate, glandular, and yellow. The Capsule, accord- 
ing to Bieberstein, nearly cylindrical, erect, longer than the 
calyx, opening with equal straight teeth. 

An inhabitant of dry, stony places in the higher Tau- 
rian Alps, and sent to our garden by M. Fischer of 
Gottingen. It flowers early in July, and is a far more 
desirable plant for cultivation than C. tomentosum; being 
distinguished from it by its broader foliage, and its much 
larger flowers, which are of a pure white colour. 



Fig. 1. Leaflet of the Calyx. 2. Petals. 3. Three Stamens. 4. Pistil.— 
Magnified. 



ft 



y. 2jt ■'■ 




( 2783 ) 

Iberis Tenoreana. Serrate fleshy-leaved 
Candy-tuft. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 

( Nat. Ord. — Crucifer2e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Silicula emarginata : valvis navicularibus alatis ; loculis 
monospermis. Petala inaequalia. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Iberis Tenoreana ; basi suffrutescens puberula, foliis sub- 

camosis crenatis, inferioribus obovatis basi attenuates, 

superioribus oblongo-linearibus, siliculis subcorymbo- 

sis emarginatis. D. C. 
Iberis Tenoreana. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 404. 

De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 179. Spreng. Sh/st. Veget. 

v. 3. p. 864. (I. Tenorii.) Sweet. Br. Fl. Gard. 

v.l. t. 88. 
cc Iberis cepeaefolia. Tenor. Prodr. FL Nap. p. XXXVII. 

(non Linn.)" 
" Iberis pilosa. Desv. Journ. Bot. 3. p. 167 ?" 



Descr. Stems short, purplish brown, suffruticose, 
scarcely pubescent, sending out several ascendant, simple 
or again divided, opposite, angular, slightly downy, leafy 
branches, from three to six inches long. Lower Leaves and 
those of the barren shoots obovato-spathulate, the former 
most frequently entire ; those of the fertile shoots becom- 
ing gradually smaller, more oblong, and even linear 
upwards ; all of them of a thickish and fleshy substance, 
dark green, tinged with purplish, finely ciliated at the mar- 
gins, especially the smaller ones, and at the tapering base 

or 



or petioles of the larger ones. Flowers in dense umbellate 
corymbs, large and shewy, outer ones the most so ; at first 
frequently rose -coloured, afterwards (and sometimes al- 
ways) pure white ; yielding a disagreeable odour. Pedicels 
downy. Calyx of four, erecto-patent, oblong, pubescent 
leaflets, of which that placed between the two smaller 
petals is always the smallest. Petals patent, waved, the 
two outermost very large. Stamens much longer than the 
calyx : Filaments swollen upwards, the four longer ones 
reddish : Anthers small, yellow. Pistil : Germen ovate, 
compressed, style rather longer than the stamens : Stigma 
capitate, notched. 

This is an equally desirable plant for the garden, and 
especially for rock-work, with the I. nana. In the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, to which the seeds were sent, by Professor 
Tenore, we find it does best, treated as a semi-hardy plant ; 
being kept under a frame in winter, when it produces its 
long-lived blossoms of a pale rose colour, or of the 
purest white in April and May. It is much handsomer 
than Iberis ciliata,, figured in this work (tab. 1030), with 
which it has some affinity ; but the flowers are considerably 
larger, as are the leaves ; these latter too are larger and 
most decidedly toothed or crenated. 

Discovered by Professor Tenore (from whom I have 
also received native specimens), in the Neapolitan do- 
minions. M. Thomas detected it near St. Angelo, in the 
same country, and M. Schoner upon Mount Vellino, near 
Abruzzo. 



Fig-. 1. Leaves slightly magnified. 2. Back view of a Flower. 3. Calyx, 
Stamens, and Pistil. — Magnified. 



278±. 











J^.&.<:. Decfl^BT 






( 2784 ) 

Camellia reticulata. Captain Rawes's 

Camellia. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Camellie^. D. C. ) 
Generic Character, vide tab. 2740. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Camellia reticulata ; foliis oblong-is acuminatis reticularis 
planis, calyce pentaphyllo colorato, ovario sericeo. 
Lindl. 

Camellia reticulata. Lindley in Bot. Reg. t. 1078. 



The drawing of this splendid species of Camellia, was 
made by Miss Curtis in the spring of 1827, from the plant 
imported by Captain Rawes, in the collection of Thomas 
Carey Palmer, Esq. at Bromley, Kent. Not having- my- 
self had the opportunity of seeing the plant, I adopt Mr. 
Lindley's suggestion, of its being a new species, " distin- 
guished from C. japonica by its rigid, flat, strongly reticu- 
lated leaves, and also by its silky ovarium. The flowers 
have also a different aspect ; the petals are much undulated, 
and irregularly and loosely arranged, with none of the com- 
pactness and regularity for which the C. japonica is so much 
admired." 



With the view to render our history of the Camellias 
as complete as possible, we have accompanied the figure 
of this splendid species with the fruit and seeds. We 
must, however, premise, that the representations 1 and 2 
(drawn by Miss C. Curtis), are from the Waratah Camellia, 
(t. 1654.) and the seeds are from the single red (t. 42.). The 

fruit 



fruit is thick, coriaceous, roundish, three-lobed, three-celled, 
and three-valved, the dissepiments arising from the middle 
of the valves. In the centre is a columella or receptacle, 
near the top of which the seeds are fixed, and are thus pen- 
dent. Each cell contains from one to three seeds, of a 
roundish form ; but more or less angular, according to the 
pressure of the neighbouring seeds. In the Waratah the 
seeds are almost black ; in the single red, almost of a ches- 
nut brown. Integument thick, and almost nucumenta- 
ceous : filled in the interior with the embryo, which takes 
exactly the same shape. Radicle superior, directed to the 
scar of the seed. Cotyledons thick, unequal, plumule small. 



Fig. 1. Fully-formed fruit of the Waratah Camellia. 2. Section of the 
Pericarp, shewing the Seeds. 3, 4. Seeds of the single Red Camellia. 5. 
Section of a Seed of ditto, shewing the unequal Cotyledons, the Radicle, and 
Plumule. 6. The two Cotyledons separated : the one on the left hand side 
containing the Radicle and Plumule j the other is simply one of the Cotyle- 
dons, with an excavation, in which the one-half of the Radicle and Plumule 
were immersed : — All of the natural size. 



2765. 



K 




( 2785 ) 

NlCOTIANA NOCTIFLORA. NlGHT-FLOWER- 

ing Tobacco. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solane^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubulosus, 5-fidus. Cor. infundibuliformis vel hy- 
pocrateriformis limbo plicato. Capsula apice 4-dentata, 
placentis ad dissepimentum transversis. Spreng. 

Specific Character. 

Nicotiana noctiflora ; glanduloso-viscosa, foliis lanceolatis 
undulatis inferioribus oblongis, floribus paniculatis 
hypocrateriformibus, limbi laciniis obtusissimis dia- 
metro tubo subbrevioribus. 



Descr. Apparently an annual, two feet or more in 
height, with an erect, rounded, branching, leafy stem, 
clothed, as is all the external part of the plant, with ex- 
ceedingly viscid, very numerous, short, glandular hairs, 
giving out a very powerful and disagreeable smell, parti- 
cularly when touched. Leaves, the lower ones oblong 
and tapering into a footstalk, the rest narrow, lanceolate, 
sessile, remarkably waved at the margin, all of them acute. 
Panicle of several moderately-sized flowers, which expand 
in the evening and during the night, when they are very 
sweet scented ; and they are, when in perfection, drooping. 
Calyx tubular, cut into five, linear-lanceolate, rather short, 
and nearly erect teeth, green, having a white line alter- 
nating with the teeth. Tube of the Corolla, thrice the 
length of the calyx, a little enlarged upwards, greenish, 
vvith five small depressions just above the calyx, where the 

stamens 



stamens are inserted. Limb broad, greenish - purple on 
the outside, pure white and glabrous above, broadly ob- 
cordate, very obtuse, emarginate, spreading. Stamens 
unequal in height, reaching nearly to the mouth of the 
tube. Filaments slender, curved and hairy at the base. 
Anthers oblong, yellow. Pistil: Germen ovate, inserted 
into a bright orange-coloured gland, and tapering upwards 
into a filiform style, a little longer than the tube, and 
terminated by a clavate stigma. 

The flowers of this species of Tobacco, have so much 
similarity with those of Nicotiana undulata of Ventenat, 
Sims, and Brown, that I can hardly persuade myself, but 
that the two plants must be the same. N. undulata, how- 
ever, is said to have the leaves confined to the lower part 
of the plant, or nearly so, and they of a different shape ; no 
notice is taken of the numerous viscid glands which cover 
the entire plant in our individuals ; to which I may add, 
that, whereas N. undulata is a native of New Holland, 
the present species is found perfectly wild at Uspallata, 
on the eastern side of the Andes, looking towards Mendoza, 
whence both dried specimens and seeds were sent to us 
by Mr. Cruickshanrs and Dr. Gillies, in 1826. 

Planted in the open border, in the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden, the species succeeds remarkably well, blossoming 
abundantly in the month of August. During the day they 
make but little show, but as evening approaches, the limb 
of the flower which was before curiously folded expands 
into a broad and pure white surface, yielding, at the same 
time, a powerful fragrance. 

If the plant be handled, the smell is very narcotic and 
unpleasant. 



Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Section of a Calyx, shewing the Pistil and its glan- 
dular base. 3. Lower Cauline Leaf. 4. Leaf from near the root. — Fig. 1 • 
and 2. Magnified. 









fiU>. fiy S Vto WWtmm 



, 



( 2786 ) 

SlSYRINCHIUM CHILENSE. CHILIAN SlSYRIN- 

CHIUM. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA TrIANDRIA. 

Generic Character. 

Spatha diphylla. Cal.o. Petala 6, subaequalia plana. 
Filamenta omnino connata. Stylus 1. Caps, trilocularis, 
infera. 

Specific Character. 

Sisyrinchium chilense ; caule ramoso ancipiti-alato, foliis 
ensiformibus, petalis oblongo-subspathulatis retusis 
mucronatis, capsula pyriformi pubescente, pedunculis 
pedicellisque gracillimis. 



Descr. Stems remarkably compressed, ancipitate, and 
winged, jointed, branched. Leaves linear-ensiform, striated, 
upper ones gradually becoming shorter and more spathi- 
form. Peduncles sometimes solitary and axillary, at other 
times terminal, and growing four to six together, at all 
times remarkably slender, filiform, four to five inches long, 
bearing at their extremity two linear-acuminate spathes, 
which include, generally, three pedicellated, moderately- 
sized flowers. Pedicels about one and half inch long, very 
slender, curved. Petals six, oblongo-subspathulate, retuse, 
with a subulate mucro, pubescent without, and pale purple 
within, glabrous, and of a deeper purple, marked with five 
lines; the base is yellow : Filaments united into a yellow- 
green, pubescent tube, bearing, at the top, three large oval 
yellow anthers. Germen suboval, pubescent : Style about as 
long as the stamens, and concealed within them, a little thick- 
ened below the stigma, which is obscurely trifid. Capsule 
pyriform, retuse, nearly glabrous, three-celledj opening at 
the middle of the cells into three valves. Seeds attached to 

the 



the central portion of the dissepiment (at the axis) in two 
rows, globose. 

The present plant has much affinity with S. Anceps and 
S. Bermudianum, having flowers most resembling the 
former, and germen and ramification most like the latter, 
differing from both in the singularly slender general as well 
as partial flower-stalks. These peduncles too are often 
clustered together, and they give the whole plant quite a 
different appearance from the Bermudian and Virginian 
species. 

Seeds were obligingly communicated by Mr. Cruick- 
shanrs in 1826, from the vicinity of Valparaiso to the Glas- 
gow Botanic Garden, where they flowered in June 1827, 
and continued blossoming during the whole of that and of 
the following month. 



Fig. 1. Upper side of a Petal. 2. Under side of ditto. 3. Pistil, having 
the Style surrounded hy the Stamens. 4. Pistil separated from the Stamens. 
5. Capsule : — All magnified. 



27 H 7 




( 2787 ) 

Malva obtusiloba. Blunt-leaved Chi- 
lian Mallow. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

Generic Character. 

Cal. duplex : exterior tryphyllus. Capsulte plurima?, 
1 — 2 polyspermy in orbem dispositae. 

Specific Character. 

Malva obtusiloba ; stellato-tomentosa, foliis cordatis quin- 
quelobis crenatis lobis obtusissimis, pedunculis axilla- 
ribus subramosis paucifloris, floribus congestis, calycis 
exterioris foliolis linearibus. 



Descr. Stem three to four feet high, much branched, 
fruticose, clothed with a densely-placed, whitish, stellated 
pubescence, as, indeed, is the whole plant. Leaves on slen- 
der petioles, about equal to them in length, cordate, almost 
truncated at the base, rather obsoletely five-lobed, the 
lobes crenate, very obtuse; upon the leaves, the stellated 
tomentum is so compact, that it is not visible to the naked 
eye. Stipules small, linear, deciduous. Peduncles soli- 
tary from the axils of the leaves, and longer than the leaves, 
once or twice branched towards the extremity, where, on 
each branch, five or six flowers are collected into a head. 
Exterior Calyx of three linear leaflets, much shorter than 
the inner, which is quinquefid, with the segments ovate, 
very acute, spreading. Corolla rose-purple, with a deep 
spot at the base of each obcordate petal, and with the claw 
ciliated. Column of stamens deep purple. Stamens col- 
lected into a round head. Anthers deep purple : Pollen 
yellow : the styles are reddish, and produced just beyond 
the stamens. 

Malva 



Malva obtusiloba will rank near to M . abutiloides, agree- 
ing in the colour and structure of the flowers, and in the 
dense stellated pubescence with which the whole plant is 
covered ; but differing essentially in the very obtuse lobes 
of the leaves. It is an inhabitant of Chili, whence seeds 
were sent to us from the vicinity of Valparaiso, by our 
valued correspondent Mr. Cruicrshanrs. They have 
flourished in the greenhouse, flowering in the month of 
July. 



Fig. I. Petal. 2. Stamens: — Magnified. 




J*tii>. i>T J", t^tvfi* Ht ft" 



( 2788 ) 

Iberis nana. Spathulate fleshy-leaved 
Candy- tuft. 

Class and Order. 
Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 
( Nat. Ord. — Cruciferje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Silicula emarginata : valvis navicular ib us alatis ; loculis 
monospermis. Petala inaequalia. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Iberis nana; herbacea glabra, foliis subrotundo-spathu- 

latis integris subcarnosis, siliculis corymbosis emargi- 

natis, sinu latiusculo obtuso. D. C. 
Iberis nana. cc All. Auct. p. 15. b. 2. f. I." Willd. Sp. 

PL v. 3. p. 456. Be Cand. Fl. Fr. ed. 3. v. 4. p. 717. 

Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 403. Prodr. v. 1. p. 179. Spreng. 

Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 864. 
Iberis aurosica. Vill. Delph. v. 1. p. 349. v. 3. p. 289. 



Descr. Biennial, at least, in a state of cultivation, 
having a short, purple, naked stem, and a few horizontal, 
simple, or again divided, straggling branches, purple at the 
base, and cylindrical, green and angular at the extremity. 
Leaves broadly oval, or roundish on the barren branches, 
narrower on the fertile ones, tapering into a footstalk, so 
as on the whole to be spathulate, dark green, thick, and 
fleshy, with a central nerve, the margin entire, or slightly 
serrated, every where perfectly glabrous, the uppermost 
ones almost linear. Flowers large, in terminal corymbs, 
scentless. Pedicels; the longest scarcely half an inch 
long. Calyx of four unequal, erecto -patent, concave, ellip- 
tico-spathulate, obtuse leaflets : the inner one the smallest, 
and with a small tuft of hairs in the middle. PetalSj two, 

small 



small, and two four times their size, broadly obovate, pure 
white (in their cultivated specimens), tapering at the base 
into a narrow claw. Stamens ; two short and four long, 
yellow. Filament bent down as it were at the very point, 
and there inserted into the back near the base of the ovate 
anther. Pistil shorter than the stamens. Germen rhom- 
boid, flat, a little keeled on each side in the middle. 
Style as long as the germen, thickish, cylindrical. Stigma 
capitate. 

A native of the Alps of Piedmont and Dauphinee, and 
certainly, as it appears to me, very near allied to the Pyre- 
nean I. spathulata. Both are described as having the 
leaves entire. My native specimens of I. spathulata have 
the leaves serrated, and those of I. nana are entire : but 
in a cultivated state they are both serrated and entire. 

Raised from seeds sent from Dr. Fischer of Gottingen, 
by Mr. Murray at the Glasgow Botanic Garden. In all pro- 
bability the plant is perfectly hardy, and will prove a great 
ornament to rock work with its showy long-continuing 
flowers : but, hitherto, we have kept it under a common 
frame, where it has flowered in April and May. 

The flowers are constantly white in our cultivated spe- 
cimens, but the wild ones are rose coloured. 



Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. One of the smaller, and 3, One of the larger 
Petals, natural size. 4. Calyx, Stamens, and Pistil. 5. Single Stamen. 
6. Side view of part of a Filament and Anther. 7. Pistil. — More or less 
magnified. 



//> //J 



2 78!). 



^> 




fv.b. iy S. Ciu 



( 27B9 ) 

Maxillaria racemosa. Raceme-flow- 
ered Maxillaria. 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium patens, resupinatum. Labellum cum pro- 
cessu unguiformi columnar articulatum, trilobum. Sepala 
lateralia exteriora basibus cum processu columnar con- 
nata. Pollinia 4, basibus connata, glandulosa. Herbae 
parasitica, bulbosce, Americce meridionalis . Folia corracea 
plicata* Racemi radicates. Lindl. 

Specific Character. 

Maxillaria racemosa; bulbo compresso tetragono, folio 
lanceolato trinervi, floribus racemosis, petalis ovalibus 
duobus inferioribus in cornu decurrentibus, interiori- 
bus minoribus, labello unguiculato obovato-spathu- 
lato subtrilobo cristato, lobis lateralibus incurvis, 
columna pubescente. 



Descr. Bulb about two inches long, nearly oval, com- 
pressed, sharp at the edges, and with a longitudinal ele- 
vated line or angle on each side the base, with lacerated 
sheaths or scales : this bulb is terminated by a single, re- 
flexed, lanceolate, stiff, coriaceous, three-nerved leaf, acute 
at the point. Prom the very base of the plant arises a so- 
litary, bracteated, slender, rounded scape, having at the 
extremity a raceme of nine or ten flowers: these, when 
open, are erect, with the petals likewise erect, of an uniform, 
yellowish-brown colour, acute, the two inner ones, which 
spring from the back of the column, the smallest, the two 
lowermost and outer ones running down into a spur-shaped 

process. 



process. Column white, pubescent, attenuated down- 
wards within the spur, and bearing at its lower extremity, 
the obovato-spathulate labellurn, which is not patent, but 
applied to the column ; its colour is yellow with red spots ; 
it is subcrenated, and obscurely three-lobed, of which the la- 
teral lobes are involute, and there is an oblong tubercle in 
the centre. Anther-case hemispherical. Pollen-masses two, 
cleft at the back, yellow, waxy, fixed upon a white gland. 
From the rich collection of South American Orchid eae of 
Richard Harrison, Esq. at Aegburgh, who received it from 
Rio de Janeiro. It flowered in June, 1827. It may pro- 
bably rank with the Dendrobium squalens of the Botanical 
Register, which Mr. Lindley now makes a Xylobium ; but 
I scarcely see how that genus is distinguished from Maxil- 
laria, according to Mr. Lindley's character, except in the 
straight, not resupinate perianth, and they might, perhaps, 
both be united without offering much violence to nature. 



Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Column, with the two inner Leaflets of the 
Perianth. 3. Side view of the Column. 4. Front view of ditto. 5. Inner 
view of the Anther-case. 6. Front view of the Pollen Mass. 7- Back 
view of ditto : — Magnified. 



( 2790 ) 

Trifolium Olympicum. Long-flowered 

Clover. 

Class and Order. 

DlADELPHIA DeCANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores capitato-spicati. Cor. 1-petala, persistens. Le- 
gumen 1-spermum, circumscissum, calyce tectum, s. 2 — 3. 
sperm urn. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Trifolium olympicum; spicis oblongis solitariis, calyci- 
bus hirsutis dente infimo longiore tubum corolla; 
aequante, carina longe attenuata, stipulis subnhitis 
longe vaginantibus, caule erecto stricto foliisque lan- 
ceolato-ellipticis hirsutis. 

Trifolium olympicum. Hornemann MSS. 



Descr. Stem erect, straight, rounded, simple, pubes- 
cent. Leaves ternate, oblongo-lanceolate, clothed with 
rather dense, soft hairs, and distinctly striated with veins : 
the margin entire. Petiole short. Stipules huge, green, 
striated, pubescenti-hirsute, embracing the stem and united 
at the very base, terminating in long subulate points. Head 
subspicate, large, oblong, of many pale-yellowish but rather 
large flowers. Calyx whitish, scariose, hairy, with green 
veins, and five setaceous green teeth, of which tour are 
nearly equal in length, the two upper ones united at their 
base, the lower one the longest, at length spreading. Co- 
rolla an inch in length, having the vexilluin tubular at the 
base, broader upwards and spreading, and ending in a 
gradually acuminated, long, somewhat recurved point. 

.wo 



Ala and carina much shorter than the vexillum. The 
fruit I have never seen. 

Mr. Curtis has given an excellent figure of the Trifo- 
lium canescens of Willdenow, and observed, that it was 
distinguished from Tr. pannonicum, by the shorter, broader, 
and more obtuse vexillum. It is probable,, that he had 
then in view,, the present plant which has much the habit 
of Tr. pannonicum. The real Pannonicum of Jacq. Obs. 
t. 42, is probably, as De Candolle suspects, the same as 
Willdenow 's and Curtis's canescens, and from both, our 
plant is well distinguished by the remarkable attenuation 
of the vexillum of the corolla ; so that, in this respect, I 
know of no species that comes near it. Seeds of our plant 
were received from Professor Hornemann of Copenhagen 
two years ago, under the name here adopted; but it ap- 
pears to be a MSS. name, and I presume a native of Mount 
Olympus. It flowers in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, in 
July. Perhaps this species may be intended by Persoon, 
when he says, (Syn. PI. v. 2. p. 350.) cc sub nomine, T. 
pannonicum, in hortis occurrit planta speciosa, magna, flor. 
flavis distincta, quae cum icone CI. Sturmii non convenit, 
an species distincta ?" (T. alopecuroides.) 



Fig. 1. Back view, and f. 2. Front view of a Flower. — Magnified. 



INDEX, 

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the First 
Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Fourth of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged. 



PL 

2747 Acacia mucronata. 
2754 — 3— penninervis. 

2769 Asarum canadense. 
2707 Aster acuminatus. 
27 18 fruticosus. 

2770 Banksia integrifolia. 
2777 Barbacenia purpurea. 
2723 Begonia undulata. 
2719 Bietia Woodfordii. 

2713 Buddlea Brasiliensis. 

2741 Cactus cochinellifer. 

2742 Ibid. 

2775 Calceolaria purpurea. 
2763 Calypso borealis. 
2745 Camellia japonica fl. simpl. 
albo. 

2784 reticulata. 

2733 Campanula Prismatocarpus. 
2711 Candollea cuneiformis. 

2727 Caryocar nuciferum. 

2728 Ibid. 

2749 Caryophyllus aromaticus. 

2750 Ibid. 

2782 Cerastium Biebersteinii. 
2758 Ceratiola ericoides. 

2724 Conospermum taxifolium. 

2714 Crotalaria dichotoma. 

2743 Cunninghamia lanceolata. 
2717 Deeringia celosioides. 

2744 Dianthus Caryophyllus, var. 
2721 Dichorisandra oxypetala. 

2760 Dorstenia ceratosanthes. 
2767 Euonymus echinata. 

2725 Gesneria aggregata. 

2776 verticillata. 

271 6 Gilliesia graminea. 
2710 Gnaphalium modestum. 

2761 Gnidia tomentosa. 
2755 Gongora speciosa. 

2726 Habenaria leptoceras. 
2778 Helianthus pubescens. 
2731 Houttuynia cordata. 
2772 Hutchinsia stylosa. 
2788 Iberis nana. 



PL 

2783 Iberis Tenoreana. 
2722 Justicia speciosa. 

2766 ventricosa. 

2709 Liparis foliosa. 
2715 Lockhartia elegans. 

2734 Lodoicea Sechellarum. 

2735 Ibid. 

2736 Ibid. 

2737 Ibid. 

2738 Ibid. 

2787 Malva obtusiloba. 

2729 Maxillaria Parkeri. 

2789 racemosa. 

2771 Mirbelia grandiflora. 

2705 Mutisia speciosa. 
2/56 Myristica officinalis. 
2757 Ibid. 

2730 Neottia grandiflora. 

2785 Nicotiana noctiflora. 
2764 Octomeria graminifolia. 

2780 Omalanthus populifolia. 

2773 Oncidium pulchellum. 

2781 Oxalis bipunctata. 
2746 PleurothaUis foliosa. 
2720 Protea longiflora. 

2706 Pyrethrum uliginosum. 
2740 Rhipsalis grandiflorus. 
2732 Scsevola Kcenigii. 
2712 Schelhammera undulata. 

2774 Scilla esculenta, 8. fl. albo. 
2759 Sida mollis. 

2753 pulchella. 

2786 Sisyrinchium chilense. 
2708 Solanum coriaceum. 
2739 Quitense. 

2751 Telfairia pedata. 

2752 Ibid. 

2779 Trifolium alpestre. 

2790 olympicum. 

2765 Trixis auriculata. 
2762 Tulipa stellata. 
2768 Witheringia montana. 
2748 Zygopetalon Mackaii. 



INDEX, 

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the First 
Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Fourth of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged 



PL 

2754 Acacia, Feather-nerved. 
2747 Mucronated. 

2769 Asarabaca, Canadian, or wild 

Ginger. 

2718 Aster, Small-shrubby Cape. 

2770 Banksia, Entire-leaved. 
2777 Barbaeenia, Purple-flowered. 

2723 Begonia, Wave-leaved. 

2719 Bletia, Woodfordian. 

2713 Buddlea, Brazilian. 
2763 Calypso, Northern. 

2784 Camellia, Captain Rawes's. 
2745 Single white-flowered 

2733 Campanula, Angular-fruited, 

Cape. 

2711 Candollea, Cuneate. 

2783 Candy-tuft, Serrate, fleshy- 
leaved. 

2788 Spathulate, fleshy- 
leaved. 

2758 Ceratiola, Heath-like. 

2782 Chickweed, Taurian Mouse- 
eared. 

2790 Clover, Long-flowered. 

2779 Narrow-leaved, round- 
headed. 

2749 Clove Spice. 

2750 Ibid. 

2741 Cochineal Fig, Spineless. 

2742 Ibid. 

2734 Cocoa-nut, Double, or Seychel- 

les-Island. 

2735 Ibid. 

2736 Ibid. 

2737 Ibid. 

2738 Ibid. 

2724 Conospermum, Yew-leaved. 

2714 Crotalaria, Dichotomous. 

2743 Cunninghamia, Lance-leaved. 
2717 Deeringia, Celosia-like. 
2721 Dichorisandra, Sharp-petaled. 

2760 Dorstenia, Cleft. 

2725 Gesneria, Cluster-flowered. 
2776 — Verticillate. 

27 16 Gilliesia, Grassy-leaved. 
2710 Gnaphalium, Squamose-flow- 
ered, Cape. 

2761 Gnidia, Downy. 

2755 Gongora,Large yellow-flowered 

2726 Habenaria, Slender-spurred. 
2731 Houttuynia, Cordate. 



PL 

2772 Hutchinsia, Sweet-scented, 

Long-styled. 
2766 Justicia, Hop-flowered. 
2722 Purple-flowered, East 

Indian. 
2709 Liparis, Many-leaved. 
2715 Lockhartia, Beautiful. 
2787 Mallow, Blunt-leaved, Chilian. 

2729 Maxillaria, Mr. Parker's. 

2789 Raceme-flowered. 

2707 Michaelmas Daisy, Pointed- 
leaved. 

2771 Mirbelia, Large-flowered. 

2705 Mutisia, Handsome, pinnate- 

leaved. 

2730 Neottia, Large-flowered. 

2756 Nutmeg Tree, Aromatic. 

2757 Ibid. 

2764 Octomeria, Grass-leaved. 
2780 Omalanthus, Poplar-leaved. 

2773 Oncidium, Elegant. 

2706 Ox-eye, Large-flowered, Marsh. 
2744 Picotees, Two varieties. 
2746 Pleurothallis, Leafy, fragrant. 
2720 Protea, Long-flowered, cream- 
coloured. 

2740 Rhipsalis, Large-flowered, 
2732 Scaevola, Shrubby, East Indian. 
2712 Schelhammera, Wave-leaved. 
2753 Sida, Delicate, white-flowered. 

2759 Soft-leaved. 

2786 Sisyrinchium, Chilian. 

2775 Slipper-wort, Purple-flowered. 

2739 Solanum, Angular-leaved, 

downy. 
2708 Coriaceous. 

2727 Souari, or Butter-nut. 

2728 Ibid. 

2767 Spindle-wood, Spinous-ffuited. 

2774 Squill, Esculent, or Camass ; 

white-flowered var. 
2778 Sunflower, Illinois. 

2751 Telfairia, Pedate. 

2752 Ibid. 

2785 Tobacco, Night-flowering. 

2765 Trixis, Auriculated. 

2762 Tulip, Stellated, East Indian. 

2768 Witheringia, Mountain, or St. 

Lorenzo Potatoe. 
2781 Wood-Sorrel, two-spotted. 
2748 Zygopetalon, Mr. Mackay s.