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Full text of "Curtis's botanical magazine."

CURTIS'S 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE; 



OR 

iFlotocr ffiariKti fctSpiaytir: 

In which the most Ornamental Foreign Plants cultivated in the Open Ground, 
the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented and coloured. 

To which are added, 

THEIR NAMES, CLASS, ORDER, GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS, 
ACCORDING TO THE SYSTEM OF LINNAEUS; 

Their Places of Growth, Times of Flowering, and most approved 
Methods of Culture. 



CONDUCTED 



By SAMUEL CURTIS, F. L. S. 



THE DESCRIPTIONS 



By WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, L. L. D. 

F. It. A. and L. S. and Regius Professor of Botany in the University 
of Glasgow. 



VOL. II. 

OF THE NEW SERIES, 

Or Vol. ir. of the whole Work. 

BOTANICAL 
What Nature, alas! has denied, GARDEN. 

To the delicate growth of our isle, 
Art has, in a measure, supplied ; 

And Winter is decked with a sntfle. 

Cowper. 



LONDON : 

Printed by Edward Conchman, 10, Throgmorton Street ; 

FOR* THE PROPRIETOR, SAMUEL CURTIS, 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE WAREHOUSE, PROSPECT ROW, WALWORTH, 

ADD AT GLAZES WOOD, BEAK COGCESHA1L, ESSEX: 

Also hy M. Sherwood, 23, Paternoster Row ; J. & A. Arch, Cornhiil ; Treuttel & Wurtz, Soho Square; 

Blackwood, Edinburgh; and in Holland, of Mr. Gt. Eldering, Florist, at Haarlem : 

And to be had of all Booksellers in Town and Country. 

1828. 






TO 



WILLIAM TOWNSEND AITON, ESQ 



AUTHOR OF THE SECOND EDITION OP THE HORTUS KEWBNSIS, AND 



THE ABLE DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL GARDENS OF KEW, 



WHO HAS HONOURED THIS WORK WITH HIS PATRONAGE AND 



VALUABLE ASSISTANCE, 



THIS SECOND VOLUME OF THE NEW SERIES 



THE BOTANICAL MAGAZINE 

IS DEDICATED, 
- WITH SENTIMENTS OF THE HIGHEST REGARD AND ESTEEM, 

BY HIS FAITHFUL, 
AND VERY OBEDIENT FRIEND AND SERVANT, 

W. J. HOOKER. 



2791. 




i». />v .rcur.y.,- >t > V. ■-.:?. JautJ /#?* 



( 2791,2792 ) 

Adansonia digitata. Ethiopian Sour- 
Gourd, or Monkiey Bread. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PotYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Bombacejs. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. simplex deciduus. Stylus longissimus. Stigmata 
plura. Caps, lignosa, 10-locularis, pulpa farinacea, poly- 
sperma. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Adansonia digitata. 

Adansonia digitata. Linn. Syst. Veget. p. 620. ee Cav. Diss. 

v. 5. p. 298. t. 15." Lam. Diet. v. I. p. 370. Illustr. 

t. 588. WiOd. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 730. Aiton Hort. Kew. 

ed. % v. 5. p. 195. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 478. 

Spreng. Sjyst. Veget. v. 3. p. 124. 
Adansonia Baobab. Linn. Sp. PL p. 960. Gartn. de 

Fruct.v.2.p.2b3.t. 135. f. o. 
Baobab. Bauhin Hist. v. I. p. 110. " Adanson in Act. 

Paris, 1761, p. 218. t. 16, 17." 



Descr. A Tree of moderate elevation, but whose trunk 
is of vast thickness, from twenty to thirty feet in diameter, 
soon dividing into branches of great size, and bearing a 
dense mass of leaves, which are digitate, quinate, gla- 
brous, petiolated ; the leaflets elliptical, scarcely acumi- 
nated, veined : petiole cylindrical, downy. Flowers axillary, 
solitary, very large, pendent. Peduncle 4 — 6 inches long, 
terete, pubescent, with about two linear-lanceolate bracteas 
near the top ; within, having five principal tubular vessels. 
Calyx very large, cup-shaped, externally green and pubes- 
cent, within pale and silky, cut into five, large, revolute 

segments 



segments: its substance thick, and somewhat coriaceous. 
Corolla of five spreading, at length deflexed, white, round- 
ish, waved, faintly-striated petals. Tube of the stamens 
long, thick, united to the base of the petals, terminated 
by very numerous, spreading, afterwards recurved fila- 
ments, oach bearing a one-celled anther, of a reddish-brown 
colour. Pistil : Germen ovate, silky, tapering upwards 
into a very long, thickish, filiform style, which is, m age, 
bent down at an angle in a very curious manner, and ter- 
minated by a stigma of seven to ten spreading, pubescent 
rays. Fruit, a large, oblong (indehiscent ?), downy cap- 
sule, tipped with the base of the style. Internally it is 
divided longitudinally into eight to ten or more cells, but 
in a dry state, the partitions seem to be only formed by 
tough, stringy fibres. Each cell is filled with a pulpy 
substance, which, when old and dry, becomes medullose, 
and in this the seeds are immersed. These are kidney- 
shaped, brown, shining, hard, with a few pale dots, filled 
within by the white, fleshy embryo, whose cotyledons are 
foliaceous, and singularly convoluted around the inferior 
radicle. 

The Adansonia digitata, Ethiopian Sour Gourd, Mon- 
riey Bread, or Baobab, is a native of Senegal. It is said 
likewise to be found in Egypt and Abyssinia, and is be- 
sides cultivated in many of the warmer parts of the world. 
There seems to be no question that it is the largest known 
tree ; the diameter of the trunk, Adanson says, being some- 
times no less than thirty feet. Although it has been intro- 
duced into Britain, according to the Hortus Kewensis, so 
long ago as the year 1724, by William Sherard, Esq. 
yet, as may be supposed, so vast a tree is not likely, in our 
stoves, to arrive at that size, when its flowers and fruit may 
be expected. Hence, I trust, that representations of so 
great a rarity, taken, in part, from drawings made in India, 
and kindly lent to me by Major General Hardwicke, and 
in part, from specimens of the fruit and flowers sent to me in 
spirits, by Mr. Guilding, from St. Vincent, may be gene- 
rally acceptable to the Botanical world. 
• Adanson, during his visit to Senegal, has given a full and 
interesting account of this tree, and, certainly, not the least 
striking circumstances respecting it are, its enormous size, 
and its great age, whence it has been called " Arbre de 
mzlle Ansr and whence too, Humboldt has been led to speak 
ot it as, " tlie oldest organic monument of our planet." Its 
trunk, indeed, great as is its diameter, has a height by no 

means 



'J7t>2. 




means proportionable to its breadth. Adanson calculates 
as follows : That a tree of 

1 year old is 1 In. or \\ In. diameter, 5 In. in height. 

20 , 1 foot 15 

30 2 22 

100 4 29 

1000 14 58 

2400 18 64 

5150 30 73 

The roots, again, are of a most extraordinary length, 
having numerous ramifications. In a tree, whose trunk was 
only ten or twelve feet high, with a trunk seventy-seven 
feet in circumference, Adanson has determined the main 
branch, or tap-root, to be one hundred and ten feet long. 
A figure of the whole tree may be seen in a beautiful vig- 
nette, at p. 141, of Lord Macartney's Embassy to China, 
drawn from a fine specimen in St. Jago, one of the Cape de 
Verd islands. The foliage there, indeed, is not so abun- 
dant as to conceal the vast proportion of the trunk, but it 
often happens, that the leaves are so numerous, and the 
branches spread out, drooping at the extremities, to such a 
degree, that the trunk is almost entirely concealed, and the 
whole forms a nearly hemispherical mass of verdure, from 
one hundred and forty to one hundred and fifty feet in 
diameter, and sixty or seventy feet high. 

The wood is pale coloured, light, and soft, so that, in 
Abyssinia, the wild bees perforate it, for the purpose of 
lodging their honey in the holes, which honey is reckoned 
the best in the country. I know not that the wood itself is 
applied to any particular purpose, but the Negroes on the 
eastern coast of Africa employ the trunks in a certain state to 
a very extraordinary purpose. The tree is subject to a 
particular disease, owing to the attack of a species of 
Fungus, which vegetates in the woody part, and which, 
without changing its colour or appearance, destroys life, 
and renders the part so attacked, as soft as the pith of trees 
in general. Such trunks are then hollowed into chambers, 
and within them are suspended the dead bodies of those 
who are refused the honor of burial. There they become 
mummies, perfectly dry and well preserved, without any 
further preparation or embalmment, and are known by the 
name of guiriots. 

This 



This plant, like all of the neighbouring order of Malvacre, 
is emollient and mucilaginous in all its parts. The leaves 
dried and reduced to powder constitute lalo, a favourite 
article with the natives, and which they mix daily with 
their food, for the purpose of diminishing the excessive 
perspiration to which they are subject in those climates, 
and even the Europeans find it serviceable in cases of 
diarrhasa, fevers, and other maladies. 

The fruit is, perhaps, the most useful part of the tree. 
Its pulp is slightly acid and agreeable, and frequently 
eaten ; while the juice is expressed from it, mixed with 
sugar, and constitutes a drink which is valued as a specific 
in putrid and pestilential fevers. Owing to these circum- 
stances, the fruit forms an article of commerce*. The 
Mandingos convey it to the eastern and more southern 
districts of Africa, and through the medium of the Arabs, 
it reaches Morocco and even Egypt. If the fruit be de- 
cayed or injured, it is burned: the leys are boiled with 
rancid oil of palm, and the negroes use it instead of soap. 

The flowers are large and handsome, and on their first 
expansion, as given at t. 2791, have a very different appear- 
ance to what they put on in a more advanced stage, as seen 
at t. 2792. There is a solitary tree planted in the island of 
St. Vincent, from which Mr. Guilding gathered the flowers 
and fruit he has so obligingly sent to me, and which are 
produced abundantly, though the plant has not attained a 
height of more than thirty feet. These flowers and fruit, 
Mr. Guilding observes, are both pendent. 



* In Bowdich's account of Banjole, it is mentioned that this fruit possesses 
an agreeably acid flavour, and, being very abundant, it forms a principal article 
of food among the natives, who season many of their dishes with it, especially 
a kind of gruel made of corn, and called Rob'y. Mr. Bowdich further ob- 
serves, that this tree loses its leaves before the periodical rains come on. 



Tab. 2791. Fig. I. Flower and Leaf. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. Capsule. 
4. Section of ditto. 5. Seed. 6. Embryo. — Natural size. 

Tab. 2792. Fig. 1. Flower, drawn from a more advanced specimen. 2. 
Portion of the Tube of the Stamens. 3. Stamen. 4. Section of the pedun- 
cle. — Natural size. 



2703, 







*r. *W"W># .^*./y rf ^ 



( 2793 ) 

Malva Morenii. Broad-lobed Vervain 

Mallow. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA. 

Generic Character. 

Cal. duplex : exterior triphyllus. Capsulce plurimae, 1 — 
2-polyspermae, in orbem dispositae. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Malva Morenii; hirsuto-scabra, foliis inferioribus quin- 
quelobo-cordatis inciso-crenatis superioribus quinque- 
partitis incisis crenatisque, pedunculis terminalibus 
axillaribusque (plerumque) corymbosis. 

Malva Morenii. " Pollin. Veron. 1816." Sprengel Syst. 
Veget. v. 3. p. 91. 

Malva alceoides. Tenor e Prodr. Ft. Neap. Suppl. I. p. 
62. t. 64. FL Neap. v. 2. p. 109. 

Malva Alcea. (3. Morenii. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 432. 



Descr. Root perennial, throwing up many rounded or 
subangular stems, which are but little branched, and, as 
well as the leaves, scabrous, with shortish simple or branch- 
ed hairs. Leaves petiolate, the lower ones orb iculari -cor- 
date, five-lobed, the lobes obtuse, broad, inciso-crenate, 
the upper ones 5-partite, the segments somewhat wedge- 
shaped, laciniated, and subcrenated, all of a darkish-green 
colour, paler beneath. Stipules linear -lanceolate, hairy. 
Flowers in terminal and axillary peduncles, corymbose 
(rarely solitary) ; corymbs accompanied by a pair of small 
leaves. Pedicels shorter than the flower. Calyx quinque- 
fid, with the outer leaflets linear. Petals elongato-cordate, 
with rather a deep sinus at the extremity, pale pinkish- 
purple, striated. Column of filaments and anthers, pale 
purple, a little shorter than the styles. 

Whether 



Whether or not this handsome plant may be a variety of 
Malva Alccea must be left for future observation. Its 
appearance is very different in the Glasgow Garden, where 
it is cultivated from seeds sent by Dr. Fischer of Got- 
tingen. It flowers in July. 

It is a native of Italy, particularly about Naples, where 
likewise the Malva Alccea grows, from which Professor 
Tenore, who has seen them both abundantly in a wild 
state, considers it to be quite distinct. 



Fig. 1. Root-leaf. — Natural size. 




J*-*- 4y S. Ws,%r, *Ww 



( 2794 ) 

Croton castaneifolium. Chesnut-leaved 

Croton. 

Class and Order. 

MoNffiCIA MoNADELPHIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Euphorbiaceje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. pen tape tala. StamAO — 15. 
Fcem. Cal. polyphyllus. Cor. plerumque abortiva. Styli 
3, bi-multifidi. Caps. 3-locularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Croton castaneifolium ; herbacea, foliis lanceolatis plieato- 
nervosis serratis glabris, racemis axillaribus solitariis, 
caule petiolis pedunculis capsulisque hispidis. 

Croton castaneifolium. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1424. Lam. Diet. 
v. 2. p. 213. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 534. Pers. %». 
PL v. 2. p. 583. Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 877. 

Acalypha australis. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1424. (Jide Lam.) 

Ricinoides castaneaefolia. ce Plum. Cat. 20. ed. Burm. t. 
239./. 1. (mala.) 



Desgr. An annual, erect, branching plant, two feet or 
more in height, with a thick, succulent, roundish, hispid 
stem ; hairs softish and spreading. Leaves remote, 4 — 6 
inches long, alternate, lanceolate, broadest at the base, 
glabrous, serrated, with many oblique, parallel, strong, 
generally simple nerves, which give them a plicated appear- 
ance. Petioles two inches long, succulent, hispid, with a 
small, setaceous, generally bifid stipule on each side., at the 
base. Spikes or racemes axillary, about as long as the 
petioles : Peduncle slender, hispid, with a few bracteated, 
almost sessile flowers at the extremity, of which one or two 

of 



of the lower are female, the rest male. Male flowers with 
a calyx of five, deep, ova*e segments or leaflets, green. 
Corolla of five, oblong, waved petals. Stamens 10, five 
upper and five lower, all united with the base of a colum- 
nar, abortive, subtrigonous pistil. Filaments spreading, 
nearly horizontally : Anthers roundish, pale yellow, with a 
reddish gland of union between the lobes. Female flower 
with five, upright, oblong, and acute leaflets, and three 
outer and smaller ones. Corolla of five, small, erect petals. 
Pistil oblongo-rotundate, with a sessile, white, many-rayed 
stigma, clothed with numerous soft bristles. Fruit three- 
lobed, hispid. 

Seeds of this Croton were sent by Mr. Locrhart from 
Trinidad to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where they pro- 
duced flowering plants in August, 1827. Plumier's figure 
above referred to is so ill executed, that I cannot quote it 
as a certain synonym to this plant ; but the descriptions of 
other authors sufficiently accord with it. Probably the C. 
palustre of Linn^us is scarcely specifically distinct. 

It has nothing to recommend it as a plant worthy of 
cultivation, except, indeed, in the gardens of the curious. 



Fig. 1. Male Flower. 2. Front view of a Stamen. 3. Back view of ditto. 
4. Female Flower. 5. Calyx and Corolla of ditto spread out, from which the 
Pistil, at fig. 6, has heen removed. 7. Young Fruit. 8. Soft hair or bristle 
from the Fruit. — All more or less magnified. 



rfi 







trSEdelt- 



-A-i. &r 



> 'u.rt2^. K*Ar**MmXm£/fM 



( 2795 ) 
Oncidium Papilio. Butterfly Oncidium. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum explanation, lobatum, basi bituberculatum. 
Petala patentia (2 antica nunc connata). Columna alata. 
Massce PoUinis 2, postice bilobas, media affixes processu 
communi stigmatis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Oncidium Papilio; foliis solitariis ovalibus pictis paten tibus, 
scapo articulato ancipite paucifloro, sepalis superio- 
ribus linearibus lotigissimis, inferioribus distinctis ova- 
to-lanceolatis undulatis, columna bicorni, alis fimbri- 
atis. Lindl. 

Oncidium Papilio. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 910. 



Descr. Bulb somewhat orbicular, compressed, dark 
purple ; bearing- a single,, elliptical, one-nerved, coriaceous 
leaf, of a purple-brown colour, spotted and blotched with 
green, the spots smaller on the underside. Scape two to 
three feet long, springing from the base of the bulb, flex- 
. nose, jointed, with sheathing, membranous bracteae at the 
joints, lower articulations terete, very slender, spotted with 
purple, upper ones very much compressed, sharp at the 
edges and quite ancipitate. Flowers solitary, or two, at 
the end of the scape, very large and beautiful. Three pos- 
terior petals, at least three inches long, linear, the margins 
revolute, the back lurid green, the inside deep purple : two 
anterior petals decurved, subfalcate, lanceolate, waved, 
bright yellow, with transverse red-brown blotches, longer 
than the lip. Lip two inches long, deep yellow, pendent, 

three 



three-lobed, two lateral lobes forming a cordate base to the 
lip, and dotted with reddish-brown, having a three-lobed, 
whitish crest, spotted with red, the middle lobe two-toothed 
at the base ; terminal lobe cordate, its sides involute, its 
margins waved; a broad irregular band of red -brown 
runs along just within the margin. Column short, yellow, 
fringed at the upper margins with glandular soft spines, of 
which the upper one on each side is the longest, lower 
down bearing two, yellow, fleshy wings, obscurely fringed 
with glands at the extremity. Anther -case helmet-shaped, 
two-celled. Pollen Masses two-lobed at the back, placed 
at the point of a thin, ovate, membranous, white pedicel, 
whose margins are revolute, and which has a large brown 
gland at the base. Germen small, lineari-clavate, striated. 
From the stove of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, to which 
the plants were liberally communicated by the late Baron 
De Schack, from Trinidad. The species blossomed in 
1826, and again in June, 1827. It is among the most sin- 
gular and most beautiful of the extensive parasitic family 
with which our hothouses are now so abundantly stored ; 
and is well named Oncidium Papilio by Mr- Lindley. 



Fig. 1. Column and part of the Lip. 2. Front view of the Column, from 
which the Anther-case is removed. 3. Anther-case. 4. Pollen Mass. 5. 
Back view of ditto. — All more or less magnified. 



ifT.'Mi. 




fu£. tv J. CWrfu. fKa/r^rl/i., £»//;- ff 



( 2796 ) 

orobus sessilifolius. sessile-leaved 
Bitter- Vetch. 

Class and Order. 

DlADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. campanulatus 5-fidus, lobis 2 superioribus brevio- 
ribus. Corolla papilionacea. Stamina diadelpha. Stylus 
gracilis linearis, apice villosus. Legumen cylindraceum, 
oblongum, 1 -loculare, bivalve. Semina hilo lineari. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Orobus sessilifolius ; caulibus simplicibus striatis, foliis 

binis ternatisve lineari-subulatis mucronatis, stipulis 

angusto-semisagittatis petiolo multo longioribus, laci- 

niis calycinis subaequalibus. 
Orobus sessilifolius. "Smith Fl. Grate, n. 692. Sm. Prodr. 

FL Greece v. 2. p. 64." De Cand. Sust. Veget. v. 2. 

p. 380. 
Orobus digitatus. Bieb. Fl. Taur. Caucas. v. 2. p. 155. 

Sprengel Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 269. 
Orobus Pyrenaicus. Pall. Ind. Taur. Habl. Taur. p. 121. 

(fide BiebersteiniiJ . 
Orobus orientalis ; foliis angustis costs brevissimae innas- 

centibus. Tournef. Cor. p. 26. 



Descr. Several simple stems scarcely a foot in height, 
erect, striated, slightly pubescent, as seen under a micro- 
scope, at the base, arise from the same root. Leaves distant, 
composed of two or three leaflets placed at the extremity of 
an exceedingly short footstalk, linear-subulate, with about 
five striae, scarcely pubescent, slightly grooved on the up- 
per 



per surface; whether the leaflets be two or three, they 
are always accompanied by another very minute,, abortive 
leaflet. Stipules semisagittate, narrow, thrice as long as 
the petiole. Peduncles almost twice as long as the leaves, 
terminating in a raceme of a few large, drooping flowers. 
Calyx green, glabrous, obtuse at the base, five-nerved, the 
teeth nearly equal in length. Vexillum deep purple, redder 
towards the base. Alee purple at the extremity. Carina 
with an acuminated point, greenish. Stamens : nine united 
and one free. Pistil: Germen linear, slightly pubescent : 
Style bent at an angle, plain and broader upwards, very 
pubescent on the underside beneath the stigmm. 

This plant is a native of woods in the mountainous parts 
of Tauria, according to Marshall Bieberstein, as well as 
of Greece, about Athens, and near Messina, where it was 
discovered by Dr. Sibthorp. The flowers are very beau- 
tiful, and produced, in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, early 
in July, in the open air. 

Sprengel quotes the Orobus ensifolius of La Peyrouse's 
Fl. Pyrenaica under this species : but Mr. Bentham, in 
his valuable " Catalogue des Plantes Indigenes des Pyre- 
nees, &c." refers the O. ensifolius, a, of La Peyrouse to the 
O. canescens of Linnaeus, and the variety |3 of the same 
author to the O. albus of Linn^ius. 



Fig. 1. Carina. 2. Alse. 3. Carina of the Flower. 4. Pistil. 5. Base of 
a Leaf, with Stipules. — More or less magnified. 




27! > 7. 





fub.br S- Curtis. Valmortiu J'oju J. /<?"<?<£ 



( 2797 ) 
Neottia aphylla. Leafless Neottia. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. ringens : petalis exterioribus anticis labello imberbi 
suppositis ; inferioribus conniventibus. Columna aptera. 
Pollen farinaceum. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Neottia aphylla ; aphylla, scapo bracteato superne flori- 
busque pubescenti -gland ulosis, perianthii laciniis tri- 
bus exterioribus lineari-acuminatis rectiusculis, basi 
in calcare brevi obtusissimo productis. 



Descr. Leaves, altogether none. Scape ten inches to a 
foot high, terete, glabrous below, pubescent with glands 
above : clothed at the base with rather closely-placed, above 
more distant, sheathing, large, membranaceous, brownish- 
green scales, gradually passing into the linear-lanceolate, 
pubescent bractea. Spike lax, of few flowers, almost en- 
tirely, as is the whole scape, of a reddish-green colour, 
standing out horizontally, an inch and a half long. The 
three outer petals, or segments of the perianth, linear- 
lanceolate, nearly straight, the two lower ones embracing 
the lip, and running down below it into a rather short, 
obtuse spur. The two upper and inner ones glabrous, of 
the same shape as the outer, and applied to the uppermost 
one. Lip about as long as the petals, linear -oblong, 
glabrous, recurved, its base uniting with the two lower 
exterior petals. Column of fructification as in N. speciosa 
and plantaginea. 

At tab. 226 of my Exotic Flora, I have given a figure of 
• a 



aNEOTTiA which I have called N . plantaginea, which differs 
from N. orchioides, principally, in having only a single leaf, 
instead of many leaves, and that one oblongo-ianceolate, to 
each scape. The present individual, which we have re- 
ceived both from Mr. Locrhart of Trinidad, and the Rev. 
Mr. Guilding of St. Vincent, and have cultivated for seve- 
ral years, bears nearly the same relation to N. plantaginea 
as that does to N. orchioides. It is, however, in all the 
specimens that I have seen, both dried, and in a state of 
cultivation, entirely destitute of leaves, and the whole 
plant is of a singularly lurid reddish-green colour. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Column of Fructification. 3. Pollen Masses. 4. 
Extremity of the Lip.— Magnified. 



2798. 




( 2798 ) 

Nepenthes distillatoria. Mas. Pitcher 
Plant: male. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 

DlGECIA MONADELPHIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Aristolochie^s. ) 
Generic Character. 

Masc. Cat. 4-partitus, patens, interne coloratus. Cor. 
nulla. Filamentum columnare; Antherce 15 — 17, con- 
nate. 

¥mm. Cal. et Cor. maris. Stigma peltatum sessile. 
Caps. 4-locularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Nepenthes distillatoria; caule suffruticoso subramoso cir- 

rhis scandente, foliis sparsis oblongo-lanceolatis peti- 

olatis aveniis decurrentibus, ascidiis subventricosis, 

racemis oppositifoliis prope summos ramorum subsim- 

plicibus. Graham. 
Nepenthes distillatoria. Linn. Sp. PL ed. 2. v. 2. p. 1354 ? 

tVilld. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 873 f Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 

5. p. 420. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1017. 
Nepenthes Indica. Lam. Encycl. v. 4. p. 458. 
Nepenthes Phyllamphora. Sims in Bot. Mag. t. 2629. 

(non Loureiro.) 
Nepenthes. Linn. Fl. Zeyl. p. 151 ? 
Pandura Zeylanica. Burman Thes. Zeyl. 1. 17 ? 
Bandura Zingalensium. Amman. Misc. Curios. Ann. 

Prim. Decur. 2. t. 13? 
Planta mirabilis distillatoria. Grimm Miscell. Curios. Ann. 

Prim. Decur. 2. t. 27? 
Utricaria vegetabilis Zeylanensium, Bandura cingalen- 

sibus dicta. Plukenet Phytogr. t. 237. /. 3. Almag. 

Bot.p.394e? 

Descr. 



Descr. Stem eight feet high, round, below slender and 
somewhat woody ; above, twice as thick, and more herba- 
ceous, branching. Buds small, and placed above the axds 
of the leaves, many of them abortive. Leaves entire, chan- 
nelled, undulated, glabrous, scattered, one to one and a 
half foot long, exclusive of the cirrhus but including the 
petiole, along which they are broadly decurrent, and which 
is about three inches long, semiamplexicaul, and decur- 
rent half-way to the next leaf below, veinless, or veins only 
obscurely seen, and not prominent on either side till dry, 
after which, several slender veins and nerves are observed, 
nearly parallel to the middle rib, and reticulated with 
transverse veins: middle rib strong, prominent behind, 
drawn out into a cirrhus from ten to twelve inches long, 
flattened on its upper side, and convolute in the middle, 
enabling the plant to climb, from this point somewhat 
thickened and turned down, having at its extremity an 
erect pitcher, which is wedge-shaped behind when young, 
afterwards in its lower half obscurely conical, above this 
contracted a little, and nearly cylindrical, its mouth oblique, 
with a rounded, regularly and transversely wrinkled edge, 
and a round lid, connected by its posterior margin to the 
highest portion of the oblique mouth, where alone the 
wrinkled edge of the pitcher is interrupted. The outer 
edge of this border is revolute after the lid rises, but before 
this it is erect, and passes within the sides of the lid, which at 
that time are folded down. Diameter of the lid from back 
to front two inches, transversely it is two and a quarter 
inches. Two prominent and curved ribs (between which, 
and also between them and the edges, the lid, otherwise 
flat, is somewhat depressed) run on its upper surface from 
the base towards its anterior edge, and from the point 
of their union at the base, is projected a small awl-shaped 
spur, and along the back of the pitcher a nerve, which be- 
comes less prominent towards the extremity of the cirrhus. 
Along the front of the pitcher are two prominent ribs, ex- 
tended from the edges of the flattened surface of the cirrhus : 
these are more prominent than the nerve on the back, and 
more or less completely flatten the pitcher on its ante- 
rior surface, which is the heel of the wedge in its young 
state. Lid at first closed, afterwards raised to about a right 
angle with the oblique opening of the pitcher, and never 
again closed. Before the opening of the lid, rather more 
than a drachm of limpid fluid was formed within each of 
the largest pitchers on our specimen. This had a subacid 

taste 



taste, which increased after the rising of the lid, when the 
fluid slowly evaporated. My friend Dr. Turner perceived 
it to emit, while boiling, an odour like baked apples, from 
containing a trace of vegetable matter, and he found it to 
yield minute crystals of superoxalate of potash, on being 
slowly evaporated to dryness. The pitcher whose contents 
Dr. Turner analysed was a large one ; it had not opened ; 
and the whole fluid weighed only sixty-six grains. The 
upper part of the pitcher decays first; and the line at which 
this is observed, is often quite defined. Our largest pitchers 
measure six inches and a half from the highest part of the 
oblique mouth to the lowest part of the curvature at their 
base ; the greatest circumference four and a half inches. 
Flowers dioecious. Perfume offensive, resembling in kind, 
though less in degree, that of the Lilium pomponium. 
Raceme solitary, opposite to a leaf near the extremity of the 
branch ; its extremity nodding, till the flowers expand in 
succession, when it is elongated, and becomes erect. Pe- 
duncle round, about two feet and a half long, of which 
about eleven inches at the base is without flowers ; pedicels 
round, half to three quarters of an inch long, clustered 
irregularly, and frequently bifid, supporting two flowers, 
having a small subulate bractea on the lower side near the 
base, and sometimes the appearance of an abortive one 
opposite and nearer the flower. Calyx four-parted, spread- 
ing or slightly divaricated ; segments blunt, coriaceous, 
containing honey, green within when first opened, after- 
wards red in the middle ; two opposite segments slightly 
overlap the two others in the bud. Anthers numerous, 
collected into a capitulum on the top of a hollow club- 
shaped pedicel, formed by the united filaments ; pollen an 
abundant yellow powder. The middle rib of the leaf, the 
cirrhus, the whole outside of the pitcher when young, but 
its ribs chiefly when old,, the peduncle, pedicels, every 
part of the calyx which is exposed in the bud, and a narrow 
triangular space extending upwards from the axil of the 
leaf to the bud, which it includes, are covered with a rusty 
pubescence; every other part of the plant is smooth. The 
whole is green except the lower part of the stem, which is 
brown ; but the leaves, at first darkest above, become 
yellow in fading, and there is a tendency in them, and in 
almost every other part of the plant, to become red, parti- 
cularly in the lid, and especially its under side, which uni- 
formly acquires a deep red somewhat mottled colour, though 
at first it is quite green. 

4 * This 



This plant is certainly the same species as the female 
specimen figured from the collection of Messrs Loddiges, in 
Botanical Cabinet, t. 1017, under the name of N. distilla- 
toria, and in Bot. Mag. t. 2629, under the name of N. Phyl- 
lamphora. What Linnjsus meant by his N-. distillatoria 
does not certainly appear, for he refers to the Cantharifera 
of Rumphius's Herbarium Amboinense, v. 5. t. 59. f. 2. 
and to the Pandura Zeylanka of Burmann's Thesaurus 
Zeylanicus, t. 17. — figures of plants which differ altogether 
from each other, as the first, at least, does from the subject 
of the present article. If any conclusion could be drawn 
from the bad figures of Plukenetius and Grimm, to which 
reference is also made by Linn^us, I should believe that 
these also differ from the present species. The inflores- 
cence in Plukenetius is copied exactly from Grimm, and is 
certainly in great part imaginary; the rest of the figure 
appears to be modified from his having seen a dried leaf 
and pitcher, which, however, are much more reticulated than 
with us. Our plant differs from the description of Phyl- 
lamphora of Loureiro in the stem being branched, the 
leaves veinless and scattered, the inflorescence a lateral 
raceme, in which the pedicels are frequently bifid, support- 
ing two flowers, and in the anthers being more numerous. 
In Loureiro's plant, the stem is described as simple, the 
leaves lineato-veined and opposite, the inflorescence a ter- 
minal, perfectly simple spike. Our plant, however, has 
only produced two branches besides the leading shoot ; and 
this tendency may possibly have been given by its top 
having been injured several months ago. The universality 
of the buds in the axils of the leaves, however, makes me 
believe in the branching being natural. Near the extre- 
mity of each of the three shoots a raceme is produced. Our 
plant farther differs from Loureiro's description, in the lid 
never closing after it once opens; but the power of alter- 
nate opening and closing, even in his plant, was, probably 
imaginary, as his statement of the pitchers receiving the 
night-dews certainly is. The fluid which they contain is 
undoubtedly a secretion, but for what purpose does not 
appear. It is stated to have nearly filled one-third of the 
pitcher in Messrs. Loddiges' plant; but with us it never 
much exceeded a drachm, even in the largest pitchers, 
whose capacity was three ounces five drachms. The out- 
line figure in Bot. Mag. t. 2629 is very good; but the 
detached pitcher is much too contracted in its upper half, 
and the lid is not nearly so flat as it always is after it has 

been 



been fully opened. The site of the two large nerves is 
occupied by prominent ciliated wings, and the base is bent 
exactly in the opposite direction from that which it takes 
in the outline figure, and in the specimen which I have 
described. We have two plants which scarcely yet exceed 
the size of seedlings, in which these wings, strongly cili- 
ated, are present ; and, as in the detached pitcher, t. 2629, 
their pitchers are so bent at the base that the cirrhus passes 
between the wings. It is probable, therefore, that these 
appearances are peculiar to plants which have not yet 
advanced to maturity. The youngest pitcher on the large 
plant has the same relative situation to its cirrhus that the 
oldest has, and the same absence of wings. In Rumphius's 
figure, the position of the pitchers is always, as in the de- 
tached pitcher of the Magazine, t. 2629. The imperfect 
figure given by Ammannus of his Bandura Zingulensium in 
Miscell. Curios. Ann. Prim. Decur. 2. t. 13. seems to ap- 
proach nearly to the present species. 

The N. distillatoria of Linnaeus is quoted by Lamarck 
under N. in&ica, and, notwithstanding some difference in 
the description, I believe this (N. indica) to be our species, 
though reference is made from it to Plukenetius, Amman- 
nus, Burmann, and Rumphius, to the last indeed with 
doubt. Where a change of name has become necessary, it 
is an evil which must be endured, but as no necessity 
appears to exist here, I retain that by which our plant was 
universally known, at least in this country. 

Our specimen has been constantly kept in the stove, and 
now produces a very striking effect, by supporting itself 
on the adjoining plants, and hanging from them its pitchers. 
It gives off suckers, but not freely, a circumstance remark- 
ed in the female plant by Mr. Loddiges. Mr. Macnab has 
succeeded in propagating two plants in this way. Graham. 



For the above synonyms and description I am entirely 
indebted to Dr. Graham, who obligingly sent me a noble 
specimen of the male plant of this most rare and singular 
vegetable production, from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden 
in the month of August. This species of Nepenthes ap- 
pears to have been introduced into this country, according 
to Hortus Kewensis, in the year 1789 : but it was probably 
shortly after wholly lost to the country, till the excel- 
lent 



lent Dr. Carey of Serampore sent to Mr. Cooper, who so 
ably conducts the gardens at Wentworth House, and to the 
Messrs. Shepherds of Liverpool, a packet of seed gathered 
on the Circar mountains to the North East of Bengal *, and 
from the liberality of these two cultivators, I believe, have 
originated all the plants that are now living in the country. 
The seed vessels Mr. Cooper describes as occupying a por- 
tion of the flower-stalk nearly twelve inches in length, as 
being an inch and a half long, and very like those of the 
genus (Enothera, particularly (Ebiennis or muricata. 

Mr. Lindley has given me a specimen of our N. distilla- 
toria, gathered at Macao, from J. Harrison, Esq. I have 
a drawing of the same species which that gentleman found 
in the Seychelles Islands : so that the plant has probably a 
very extensive geographical range in India. It is to be 
hoped, that the other equally wonderful species of this 
genus, of which I possess three in my Herbarium, from Dr. 
Wallich, and a fourth, a native of Madagascar, gathered 
by Mr. Bojer, will, ere long, be introduced into our stoves: 
none can be more truly worthy of cultivation. 



* Dr. Graham, in the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, expresses 
an idea, that the seeds were received from Ceylon. Mr. Cooper's olbliging 
communication at the moment of going to press, enables me to correct this 
error. 



Fig. 1. A Flower-bud. 2. Flower. 3. Column of Stamens. 4. Pollen, 
magnified. 5. Part of an Ascidium, with the lfd closed. 6. Part of another 
shewing a back view of a raised lid. — Natural size. 




1 






W<?. 6v £&**•**& fmAforM. A*. 



J23&. 



( 2799 ) 

GONOLOBUS NIGER. BlACK-FLQWERED 
GoNOLOBUS. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — AscLEPiADEa:. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Asclepiadea. Massce pollinis laeves, 10, transversa?. Cor. 
subrotata. Sem. comosa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gonolobus niger ; volubilis, foliis cordato-oblongis undu- 
Iatis subtus pubeseentibus, racemis corymbosis, laci- 
niis corollas ovatis acutis reflexis glabris. 

Gonolobus niger. Br. Asclep. in fVern. Trans, v. I. p. 35. 
Roem. et Schultes Syst. Veget. v. 6. p. 61. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 846. 

Cynanchum nigrum. fC Cavan. Ic. 2. p. 45. t. 159." Wittd. 
Sp. PL v.l.p. 1255. (not of Per s.) 



Descr. Stem long, twining, terete, glabrous, gradually 
tapering towards the extremity, branched. Leaves remote, 
opposite, cordato-oblong, acute, waved, quite entire, gla- 
brous above, pubescent, and paler green beneath, the lobes 
at the base rounded, and having a deep sinus : petioles 
frequently as long as the leaves, and glabrous, their base 
almost connate. Peduncles axillary, as long as the petioles, 
terminated by a raceme of several flowers ; but the lower 
flowers being elevated upon longer pedicels than the upper 
and younger ones, the whole are corymbose. Calyx some- 
what cup-shaped, with five teeth, much smaller than the 
corolla, greenish purple. Corolla deep black -purple, five- 
partite, rotate, the laciniae ovate, convex, reflexed, the limb 

elevated 



elevated into a marginal ring, within which is situated the 
large six-lobed inferior corona (fig. 2.). Pistils two : Ger- 
men roundish compressed in the inside, tapering into the 
shortish styles, and terminating in the upper, pentagonal, 
deep purple, flat corona ; at the margin of which are five 
brown, pendent scales, white at their upper edge : these 
are the anther-cases ; each has two cells, and two linear, 
waxy pollen masses, united in pairs by a small connecting 
point, which is placed between the scales, in the axil, or 
sinus. 

Raised from seeds sent from Mexico to the Rev. J. T. 
Huntley of Kimbolton, a gentleman, whose collection of 
living plants promises to rank among the most valuable in 
the kingdom for rare and beautiful individuals. The seed- 
vessels, Mr. Huntley remarks, were larger than an apple : 
but in the stove, where the plant is cultivated, and where it 
bears its numerous singularly-coloured blossoms in the 
month of October, these flowers fall away without produc- 
ing fructification. 



Fig. 1. Single Flower, before the Segments of the Corolla are reflected. 
2. Lower Corona, with the point of attachment in the centre of the upper 
pentagonal Corona, seen at f. 3. 4. Pair of Pollen Masses. 5. Pistils. 6. 
Section of the Germen, to shew the situation of the Ovules. — Magnified. 



MOO. 







Fu£ Zv S. Curtis ftttircrtiLFet. I/32&. 



( 2800 ) 

POLEMONMJM RlCHARDSONI. Dr. RlCH- 

ardson's Polemonium. 

Class and Order. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Polemonice^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. urceolatus 5-fidus. Cor. subcampanulata. Fila- 
menta basi dilatata. Stigmata 3. Caps. 3-valvis, poly- 
spermia. Sp. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Polemonium Richardsoni ; caule piloso angulato erecto, 
foliis pinnatis multijugis, pinnis ovato - rotundatis 
mucronulatis subtus pubescentibus, floribus corym- 
bosis nutantibus, corollae segmentis obtusis crenulatis, 
radice subfusiforme longissime. Graham. 

Polemonium Richardsoni. Graham MSS. 



Descr. Root perennial, very long, in the old plant three 
or four feet, yellow, about as thick as the finger, somewhat 
branched at the apex, descending deep into the sand, and 
tending to bind it together, very much resembling liquorice. 
Stem erect, herbaceous, green, purplish at the base, branch- 
ed : Branches axillary, chiefly from the lower part of the 
stem and the crown of the root, ascending, as well as the 
stem, angular, and having a slightly prominent line along 
each flat side. Leaves pinnate, with an odd leaflet, com- 
mon footstalk channelled, from the leaflets being narrowly 
decurrent, and forming a border on each side, pinnaB very- 
numerous on the root-leaves (ten to twelve pairs), fewer on 
the stem-leaves, quite entire, a very few shelving a tendency 
to become lobed, sessile, rotundato -ovate, mucronulate, 
oblique, pubescent below, naked above, somewhat fleshy, 
middle-rib channelled, veins obscure; root-leaves depressed 
and spreading, star-like, on the ground, at least when the 

plant 



plant is young. Flowers in terminal corymbs, buds nod- 
ding, when fully expanded fronting outwards, large ; pedi- 
cels round. Calyx persisting, ovate as w^ell as the stem, 
branches and pedicels villous, and slightly viscid, five-cleft, 
segments ovate, pointed, spreading a little while the corolla 
is fully expanded. Corolla slightly marcescent, but soon 
after, falling; perfume faint, but disagreeable; tubular, tube 
nearly as long as the calyx, yellow, and somewhat plaited 
in its upper half, colourless below; limb of five, broad, 
obovate, spreading segments, minutely crenated, pale pur- 
ple marked with deeper veins, darker at its base, where, on 
the outside, it is very slightly pubescent. Stamens five, 
included • filaments connivent, slender, flattened, awl- 
shaped, contracted at the base, inserted into the apices of 
small, connivent, hairy valves, which arise within the throat 
of the corolla, alternately with the segments of the limb ; 
anthers sagittate, curved inwards, large, white ; pollen 
white. Germen small, ovate ; style filiform, equal in length 
to the filaments ; stigma in most of the flowers four-cleft, 
revolute, pubescent. 

Seeds gathered by Dr. Richardson in 1825, from plants 
growing in deep sandy soil, on Great Bear Lake, in 66 
degrees North latitude, and received from him in this 
country in 1826. The species flowered in a cold frame at 
the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, in the beginning of 
October, 1827. 

I have a double reason for dedicating this species to our 
excellent and indefatigable countryman. It is the first 
which has flowered among the plants raised from seeds re- 
ceived from him last year, and while I was in the act of 
writing the description, I received information of his having 
arrived in Edinburgh from the last successful survey of the 
shores of the Arctic Sea. Graham. 

I forbear saying any thing further respecting this beau- 
tiful and interesting plant at present, except that it comes 
very near to the P. humile of Pallas ; that Mr. Menzies 
found it during his celebrated voyage with Capt. Van- 
couver, upon the North-west coast of America ; and, that I 
believe my var. nana of P. caruleum*, gathered by Capt. 
Sabine in Spitzbergen, i%not distinct. There are nume- 
rous specimens in Dr. Richardson's and Mr. Drummond's 
collections, whwfa will at a future time enable me to offer 
some remarks upon the species. 

* In LinnEean Transactions, Vol. XIV. p. 377. 



Fig. 1. Corolla. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil. 4. Stigma, with four Rays.— Magnified. 



2801. 




j*W. £>' S. Cterfi 



( 2801 ) 
Pothos Macrophylla. Large-leaved 

POTHOS. 

*»*****»***»**»■&« 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Aroide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha monophylla. Spadix cylindraceus, undique flo- 
ribus tectus. Perianthium tetraphyllum. Bacca di-tetra- 
sperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pothos macrophylla; acaulis, foliis cordatis obtusislobis 

divaricatis, spadice spatha multo breviore. 
Pothos macrophylla. Swartz Fl. Ind. Occ. v. 1. p. 269. 

fVilld. Sp. PL v. I. p. 686. Roem. et Schultes SysL 

Veget. v. 3. p. 269. /Sjprewg*. Sjyst. Veget. v. 3. p. 766. 

Humb. et Bonpl. Nov. Gen. et Sp. v, I. p. 63. 
Pothos grandifolia. Jacq. Coll. v. 4. p. 121. Ic. Rar. 

v. 3. t. 610. 
Dracontium cordatum. Aubl. Guian. v. 2. p. 837. 
Dracontium amplis foliis., &c. Plum. Am. p. 48. t. 51. f. 

4. et t. 63. ¥ , 

Arum acaule, &c. Plum. PI. Am. ed. Burm. v. I. p. 25. 

t.36. 



Descr. Parasitic on the trunks of the trees. Root large, 
somewhat tuberous, jointed and knotted, the articulations 
marked with rings, which are the scars of former leaves, 
greenish brown, throwing out many short, thick, fleshy, 
simple fibres, which are not confined to the body of the 
root, but spring up among the leaves : and none of them, 
when the plant is in a state of cultivation, have any attach- 
ment to tbe^soil. Leaves all radical, from a foot to a foot and 
a half, or even two feet in length, cordate, approaching to 
ovate, coriaceous, somewhat waved, dark green above, 

paler 



paler beneath, nerved, with three or five nerves springing 
from the base, the rest branching off from it ; the lobes 
forming the base of the leaf are rounded, and spreading, so 
as to leave a broad sinus between them. Petioles one to 
two feet long, subcylindrical, grooved on the upper side, 
sheathing at the base ; and, while young, furnished with a 
large green oblongo-lanceolate bractea, which soon withers 
and falls away. Scape, about as long as the petiole, cy- 
lindrical, terminated by a large spadix, a foot, or nearly so 
in length ! and as thick as a finger, covered on all sides 
with densely-placed flowers, and having a reflexed lan- 
ceolate spatha shorter than itself at the base. Each flower 
is composed of four scales, is concave, flat and purple at 
the top, which gives the whole spadix a purple colour. 
Each scale contains a single stamen, which stamens are 
protruded at different times in the same flower, just above 
the scale : Filament flat, white : Anther of two cells, 
orange-coloured, its back presented to the pistil. Pistil: 
Germen obovate, its sides tetragonal, greenish, brown at 
the very top, where is indicated the scarcely visible ses- 
sile stigma. The fruit has a very remarkable appearance. 
By the enlargement of the germen from the size of a 
hemp-seed or less to that of a large pea, and the protru- 
sion of the berries, the spadix is vastly increased in size, 
so as to be nearly three inches in diameter. Each berry 
is deep purple, obovate, when protruded, suspended for a 
time by the stamens, whose base is attached to their base, 
two-celled, each cell bearing one obovate, compressed, 
slightly tuberculated seed, emarginate at the top, and there 
having a small apiculus. 

A plant of easy cultivation in the stove, being a native 
of the trunks of trees in the West India Islands, and of 
the warmer parts of South America, flowering with us 
during a greater part of the year. The fruit I believe to 
be of very rare occurrence. A noble specimen has been 
communicated to me, from the Liverpool Botanic Garden, 
by the Messrs. Shepherds, of which a portion is introduced 
into the accompanying plate, of the natural size; the 
figure of the entire plant, being, of necessity greatly re- 
duced. 



Fig. A. Plant reduced to one quarter of its natural size. 1. Flower. 

2. Scale of the Perianth, with a young Stamen. 3. Fully-formed Stamen. 

4. Pistil. 5. Portion of the Fruit, natural size. 6. Berry. 7. Section of 
ditto. 7. Section of a Berry. 8. Seed. 




1801 



jr.S£ 



( 2802 ) 

B^ECKIA FRUTESCENS. SHRUBBY CHINESE 
B^CKIA. 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Old.— MvRTACEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Germen inferum, turbinating lobis calycinis 5 persisteu- 
tibus coronaturn. Pet. 5, unguiculata. Caps. 3 — 5-locu- 
laris, polysperma. Stam. 5, 8, 10 — 15. (Folia opposita.) 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

B^eckia frutescens ; glabra, foliis oppositis remotis paten - 
tibus linear! -acerosis brevissime petiolatis, floribus 
brevi-pedicellatis, axillaribus solitariis, staminibus 10, 
capsulis trilocularibus. 

Bj2ckia frutescens. Linn. Suppl. p. 514. Smith in Linn. 
Trans, v. 3. p. 260. Willd.Sp.Pl. v. 2. p. 434. Pers. 
Syn. PI. v. 1. p. 234. Spreng. Syst, Veget. v. 2. p. 
220. 

Bjsckia Chinensis. Gartn. de Fruct. v. I. p. 157. t. 31. 

BjEckia. Osb. It. t. 1. 



Descr. A small twiggy shrub, with brown bark, having 
very much the habit of a Diosma, frequently branched : 
the younger branches dotted with glands, as, indeed, is 
the whole plant. Leaves linear-acerose, sharp, tapering 
into a very short footstalk, having an obscure midrib, 
opposite. Flowers small, solitary, axillary, each upon a 
stalk about as long as the flower. Calyx of five mem- 
branous, pale, almost white, roundish lobes. Corolla of five 
spreading, roundish, very shortly clawed, white, waved 
petals. Stamens ten, inserted at the base of the calyx, be- 
tween the petals, in pairs. Germen rotundato-pyriform, 

three- 



three-celled, each cell having a fleshy receptacle in the 
inner angle, and many seeds attached to it. Styles short : 
stigma capitate. 

Sir James Smith, in the Memoir above referred to, in the 
Transactions of the Linnean Society, has rightly referred 
this Genus to the Order of Myrti. It has all the character 
of it : the leaves and stem and calyx, and even the outside 
of the petals abound in glandular dots, which in this, and 
probably all the other species yield a fragrant and aromatic 
scent. 

B.ECKIA frutescens is the only species which we are ac- 
quainted with that inhabits China. It was discovered by 
Osbeck. during his journey, and is the species upon which 
the Genus was founded. Nevertheless, I do not find eight, 
but constantly ten stamens. Perhaps the number of the 
divisions of the floral coverings may vary to four, and then 
we might expect eight stamens. The New Holland BjEckia 
virgata, as I have observed at p. 2694, of the former series 
of this work, has fifteen stamens. 

Sent to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, together with a 
great number of other Botanical rarities from China, in 
1827, by Dr. Livingstone. It is kept in the greenhouse, 
and produces its little delicate and snow-white flowers in 
the month of December. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Upper part of the Germen and Calyx. 3. Lower part 
of the Germen, to shew the Cells and Seeds. 4. Leaf. — All more or less 
magnified. 



2806. 




/W 



■brorfkfet. 7JfjfS. 



( 2803 ) 

Banksia marcescens. Marcescent 
Banksia. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. quadripartitus (raro quadrifidus). Stamina apicibus 
concavis laciniarum immersa. Squamulce hypogynaa 4. 
Ovarium biloculare, loculis monospermis. Folliculus bilo- 
cularis, ligneus: dissepimento libero, bifido. Amentum 
flosculorum paribus tribracteatis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synom/ms. 

Banksia marcescens ; foliis cuneiformibus planis sparsis 
truncatis extra medium dentato-serratis : basi acutius- 
cula, ramis tomentosis, calycibus persistentibus folli- 
culisque glabris. Br. 

Banksia marcescens. Br. in. Ldnn. Trans, v. 10. p. 208. 
Br. Prodr. Ft. Nov. Holl. p. 395. Sweet Fl. Austr. 
t.U. 

Banksia praemorsa. Andr. Repos. t. 258. 

Banksia aspleniifolia. Knight et Satisb. Prot. 113. (excl. 
Syn. Salisburii Prod. (Br.) 



Descr. A shrub from four to six feet high in our collec- 
tions., much branched, the ultimate and younger branches 
downy. Leaves scattered, two to three inches long, erecto- 
Jatent, rigid, oblong, cuneate at the base, petiolate ; petiole 
lalf an inch long; truncate at the extremity, the upper 
lalf deeply dentato-serrate, the lower half entire ; the upper 
side deep green, the under white, with numerous green, 
minute reticulations : the midrib is prominent on the under- 
side, 



side, and in the younger leaves only, downy. Amentum 
terminal, large, cylindrical, of exceedingly numerous flow- 
ers, placed in pairs, each pair subtended by three closely- 
placed bractea, two inner and one outer one, clothed with 
long, silky, fulvous hairs, the middle one having a conical, 
naked point. Perianth or Calyx glabrous, greenish yellow, 
with the tube slender, filiform, the upper half separating 
into four segments, spathulate and concave at the extremity, 
and, in the hollow, bearing, each, a solitary anther. Style 
scarcely longer than the perianth, filiform, yellow. Stigma 
simple. 

The seeds of this fine species of Banksia were received 
from Mr. Fraser, and, according to Mr. Brown, it is an in- 
habitant of Lewin's Land, near the shore, in the Southern 
part of New Holland. Introduced into England by Mr. 
Menzies, its discoverer, in 1794. I have no opportunity of 
comparing the plant with the figure quoted by Mr. Brown, 
in Andrews's Repository, nor am I quite sure of its being 
the true B. marcescens. The leaves are not decidedly cu- 
neate, and they are reticulated with white, downy areola?. 
In some respects it approaches the B. oblongifolia, but that 
is described by Mr. Brown as having sericeous calyces. 

The B. marcescens flowers in the greenhouse in the month 
of April, and our drawing was made from the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden. 



Fig. 1. Bractea with two Flowers. — Magnified. 



2804. 




( 2804 ) 

DORSTENIA TUBICINA. PEZIZA-FLOWERED 
DORSTENIA. 

****************** 
Class and Order. 

MoN^ICIA DlANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Urtice^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum carnosum, dilatatum, patens, superne pa- 
pillosum vel squamosum : papillis vel squamis intus flori- 
geris. Cal. o. Cor. o. Stam. 2. Pistillum receptaculo im- 
mersum. Stylus bifidus lateralis. Pericarpia monosperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Dorstenia tubicina; laeviter pubescens, foliis cordato-ob- 
longis denticulatis, scapis radicalibus, receptaculis po- 
culiformibus margine squamoso-crenatis. 

Dorstenia tubicina. Ruiz et Pavon Fl. Per. v. I. p. 65. 
t. 202./. 6. Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. p. 557. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 3. p. 777. 



Descr. Root large, in proportion to the size of the 
plant, woody, subfusiform, descending, truncated or prae- 
morse at the extremity, having a few simple, or branching 
fibres, powerfully aromatic. From the summit of the root 
arise many green, fleshy, small scales, among which are 
inserted the leaves and scapes. Leaves (as indeed is the 
whole plant) slightly pubescent, cordato-oblong, denticu- 
late at the margin, reticulato-venose, petiolated, petiole 
about as long as the leaf Scapes about equal in length with 
the petioles, terminated by a peziza, or wine glass-shaped 
receptacle, whose margin is incurved and crenated with 
granulated scales. Flowers numerous, of the male there 
are two stamens within a tubercle or swelling, which is 
purple, lacerated at the edge or mouth, and apparently 

imperfectly 



imperfectly two lipped. Filaments much protruded, white,, 
the base, or that part within the tubercle, much dilated. 
Anthers purplish, two lobed. Pistils: Germen entirely im- 
mersed in the fleshy substance of the receptacle., ovate, 
having a lateral style which is protruded through a perfora- 
tion in a tubercle on the surface of the receptacle, its upper 
part purple. Stigmas bifid, purple. 

This rare and curious species of Dorstenia seems to 
have been hitherto only known, by the figure and description 
of Ruiz and Pavon, as of Peruvian origin. It is now 
ascertained to be a native of Trinidad, whence, by the favor 
of his Excellency, Sir Ralph Woodford, plants were sent 
to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where they flowered in 
August, 1817. The plants differ in nothing from the figure 
of Ruiz and Pavon, except in being smaller; which is 
probably owing to their not yet having acquired their full 
vigour. The receptacle almost exactly resembles in shape 
some of the larger stipitate species of Peziza ; and, in one 
instance, I found it thin, foliaceous, and veined, as if, 
being abortive, it was about to change into an actual leaf. 

The fragrance of the root, has induced the inhabitants 
of Peru, to employ it in the room of Dorstenia Contrayerva. 



Fig. 1 . Section of a Receptacle. 2. Male Flower, consisting of two Stamens 
within their Tubercle. 3. Single Stamen. 4. Female Flower within the recep- 
tacle.— More or less magnified. 




2 SOS 




( 2805 ) 

Calceolaria plantaginea. Plaintain- 
leaved Slipper-wort. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 
{ Nat. Ord. ScROPHULARINiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 4-partitus. Cor. bilabiata : labium inferius calcei- 
forme, inflatum. Caps, semibivalvis : valvulis bifidis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Calceolaria plantaginea ; acaulis pubescens, foliis rhom- 
beis serratis nervosis, scapis subumbellato paniculatis, 
corolla labio inferiore hemisphserico superiore arete 
appresso ovato acuminata bifido. 

Calceolaria plantaginea. Smith Plant. Ic. t. 2. Vahl 
Enum. v. 1. p. 172. (excl. Syn. Jo fell, scapiflora. R. 
et P.) Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 4:3. 

Calceolaria biflora. Lam. Encycl. v. I. p. 556. 



Descr. From the summit of the root spring several tufts 
of leaves, but almost wholly destitute of stem ; the largest 
of them four to five inches long (including the petiole), and 
lying on the ground, the smaller ones more erect, all of 
them rhomboid (in the wild specimens indeed, sometimes 
flabelliform), the upper half only deeply serrated, the lower 
gradually tapering into a broad and flat petiole : the mid- 
rib sends out lateral and parallel strong nerves, which 
again give out smaller and more spreading ones ; all of 
which are more prominent beneath : the upper-side dark 
green, scarcely pubescent ; the under side paler, and, as 
well as the margin, distinctly downy, with hairs that are 
short, sometimes branched, sometimes, jointed, and some- 
times 



times continuous. Scapes eight and ten inches to a foot 
high, pubescent, having the flowers in loose, umbellate 
panicles at the extremity, of from two to four, and some- 
times, as in one of my wild specimens, of eight flowers ; the 
peduncles ternate. Calyx 4-partite, the segments ovato- 
cordate, spreading, externally glanduloso- pubescent and 
reddish. Corolla large, horizontally inclined, nearly hemi- 
spherical, yellow, the under and flat side beautifully dotted 
with red: upper lip very small, closed, ovate, bifid, ex- 
ternally minutely pubescent ; at the base within are two 
transverse brown bands. Stamens meeting together in 
front of the style, short : Anthers oblong, yellow. Germen 
nearly spherical, surrounded by a green gland, pubescent; 
Style rather short ; Stigma capitate, yellow. 

Seeds of this plant were sent by Mr. Cruickshanks from 
near the Guardia, Chili, to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
in 1826, and they blossomed in the stove in August, 1827. 
Dried specimens were likewise sent by the same friend from 
the same country, as well as by Dr. Gillies, who detected 
it growing plentifully on the sides of a small rivulet which 
arises a little below the Casa de la Combre, on descending 
from* the top of the Cordillera, on the Chili side, flowering in 
March. This gentleman had named it in his MSS. C an- 
dicola, an appellation I should willingly have retained had 
not Sir James Smith already figured and described the 
plant in his Icones Plantarum, Under the name here adopt- 
ed. That plant, however, as well as Lamarck's C. bifiora, 
which appears to be the same, are natives of the Straights 
of Magellan, and hertce the species seems to have an exten- 
sive geographical rartge. Vahl considers the Jovellana 
scapiflora of Ruiz and Pavon to be synonymous with this, 
but that has a flower of a totally different structure. 



Fig. 1. Flower seen from the underside, natural size. 2. Front view of 
a Flower, with the Lower Lip forced down. 3. Pistil. — Magnified. 



* 




™ud. 



■>.I.1#2$. 



( 2806 ) 

Maxillaria pallidiflora. Pale- 
flowered Maxillaria. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium paten s, resupinatum. Labellum cum pro- 
cessu unguiformi columnar articulatum, trilobum. Foliola 
lateralia exteriora basibus cum processu columnae connata. 
Pollinia 4, basibus connata, glandulosa (vel 2, pedicellata, 
pedicello basi glandulosa). Herbae parasiticce, bvXbosce, 
America meridionalis. Racemi (vel scapi uniflori radica- 
ls. Lindl. 

Specific Character. 

Maxillaria pallidiflora ; bulbo elongato-lineari laevi, folio 
lato-lanceolato trinervi striatoque, scapo paucifloro, 
bracteis linearibus, petalis erectis subeequalibus, la- 
bello oblongo obscure bituberculato margine undu- 
lato. 



Descr. Plant, growing in a tufted manner, having at 
the base a linear, or only swelling slightly in the middle, 
terete, smooth, dark-green bulb or stem, sheathed with 
scales: while in a young state, the scales entirely cover this 
bulb, and upon the top, the solitary, deciduous leaf is pro- 
duced : afterwards the bulb increases greatly in size, and is 
only sheathed with brown, withered scales at the base. 
Leaf four to six inches long, broadly lanceolate, rather 
acuminate, with five principal nerves, and many rather ob- 
scure striae, subcoriaceous. Scape scarcely longer than the 
bulbs, arid proceeding from their base, slender, whitish, 

having 



having several linear, subulate, pale, membranaceous brac- 
te®, similar to those which accompany the flowers, which 
are few, at the extremity of the scape, drooping. Perianth 
of five deep divisions or petals, very pale yellowish green, 
each lanceolate, rather obtuse, united at the base below 
into an obtuse, brown, spur-like process. Lip about equal 
in length with the petals, almost white, oblong, having two 
obscure tubercles at the base, the margin thin, waved, the 
extremity a little recurved. Column white. Anther -case 
operculiform, hemispherical. Pollen Masses four, two small 
and two large, yellow, waxy, attached to a whitish gland. 

Received at the Glasgow Botanic Garden from the island 
of St. Vincent, by favour of the Rev. Lansdown Guilding, 
and cultivated in the same way as other parasitical Or- 
chideje in the stove, where it flowers in September. It has 
much affinity with the Dendrobium squalens of Mr. Lind- 
ley, in Bot. Reg. t. 732 ; but, besides the different form of 
the bulbs and colour of the flowers, that plant is said to 
have the pollen masses two in number, with a furrow on 
one side, whence Mr. Lindley has subsequently constituted 
of it the Genus Xylobium (Bot. Reg. t. 897.) 



Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower. 2, and 3. Front and back view of the 
Pollen Masses. — Magnified, 




If JCM.de*! 



.(/*■-■-/ ■ 



( 2807 ) 

Gretillea acanthifolia. Acanthus* 
leaved Gretillea. 

$& ^ % 4 ^ m i % * t ft * $ * »»» » 

Cfass mid Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteaceje. ) 

Generic Character. 

CaL irregularis. Glandula hypogyna, dimidiata. FolU- 
culus coriaceus, 1-locularis, dispermus. Semina marginara. 
Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Grevillea acanthifolia ; foliis pinnatis glabris, lobis sub- 
oppositis trifidis, racemis erectis, perianthiis lanugino- 
sis, stylis glabris. Cunn. 

Grevillea acanthifolia. Cunningham in Field's N. S. 
Wales, p. 3%8. cum Ic. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1153. 

Descr. Shrub erect ; stem round, bark brown, branches 
scattered, angular, green. Leaves scattered, pinnatifid, rigid , 
smooth on both sides, revolute in their edges, dark green 
above, paler below ; pinnae wedge-shaped at the base, trifid, 
segments tipped with a spine ; middle-rib of the leaf, pinnae 
and pinnulge prominent below. Racemes terminal upon 
short branches, opposite to the leaves, spreading. Flowers 
all turned upwards, refracted, sessile. Calyx lanato-seri- 
ceous on the outside, purple within and smooth, segments 
at length distinct, deciduous. Anthers dark red-orange 
coloured, after shedding the pollen yellow, bilocular, ses- 
sile. Germen stipltate, silky, lateral, gland on the anterior 
side of the base of the footstalk, lobular, semicircular, 
secreting abundance of honey : Style curved, quite smooth, 
and shining pink : Stigma flattened, set straight on the top 
of the style, green ; on bursting from the calyx it carries on 

its 



its centre a round and prominent mass of the dark-coloured 
pollen. 

The specimen above described has flowered in April, and 
will continue to produce flowers during May, at Comley 
Bank, near Edinburgh, ft) the greenhouse of Mr. Cunning- 
ham, whose very extensive collection has within these few 
months been distinguished by exhibiting in flower, for the 
first time in this country, several of the greatest ornaments 
of our gardens. Among them may be reckoned Dory- 
anthes excelsa, Rhododendron arbor eum, and the subject 
of the present article. This was procured by Mr. Cun- 
ningham from Mr. Lee of Hammersmith, by whom it was 
raised in 1824, from New Holland seeds. Graham MSS. 

This interesting species of Grevillea was discovered by 
the King's collector, Mr. Allan Cunningham, on peaty 
bogs on the Blue Mountains, and banks of Cox's river, 
during Mr. Oxley's first expedition into the interior in 1817, 
and introduced to this country through the medium of the 
Royal Gardens at Kew. 



Fig. 1. Flower. — Magnified. 



2808. 




Fu* §y S Citrtzc #Sr/*e2r£&lfel4£JMtf 



( 2808 ) 

Lotus microphyllus. Small-leaved 
Lotus. 

Class and Order. 

DlADELPHIA DECANDRlA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubulosus, 5-fidus,a&£ vexillum subaequantes; carina 
rostrata. Legumen cylindraceum vel compressum apterum ; 
stylus rectus ; stigma oculo nudo subulatum(r). 

Specific Character. 

Lotus microphyllus ; subhirsutus, caule procumbente fili- 
form^ foliolis ellipticis subtus praecipue hirsutis, 
stipulis subulatis, capitulis paucifforis, leguminibus 
brevibus cylindraceis hirsutis trispermis, seminibus 
punctatis. 



Descr. Plant, apparently annual, throwing 1 out from 
one root several spreading, decumbent, branching, slender 
stems, which are slightly hairy and reddish, eight to ten 
inches long. Leaves scattered, small, ternate, petiolate; 
leaflets elliptical, carinate, slightly hairy above, much more 
so beneath. Stipules small, subulate. Flowers five to six, 
collected^nto a small head, upon long, axillary peduncles, 
rose-coloured. Calyx greenish- purple, pubescent, with 
five, nearly equal, subulate teeth. Vexillum broad : ake 
obliquely twisted : carina scarcely rostrate, having on each 
side a small projection or tubercle, in which a portion of 
the alae is, as it were, held. Stamens diadelphous ; nine 
united and one free. Pistil rather shorter than the stamens. 
Oermen linear, pubescent; Style glabrous-; Stigma capi- 
tate and glandular. Legumes short, cylindrical, terminated 

by 



by the straight,, acute style; three-seeded, the seeds lodged 
in as many cells, roundish, dotted. Embryo compressed : 
Cotyledons plano-convex ; radicle curved. 

A graceful but small plant, and as far as my investi- 
gations have enabled me to determine, quite a new species. 
Professor Hornemann sent the seeds, which were gathered 
by his Danish Majesty's collector at the Cape of Good 
Hope. We have cultivated it in the greenhouse, where it 
flowers in July. 



Fig. 1. Flower seen from the underside. 2. Side view of a Flower. 3. The 
Carina. 4. Stamens and Pistil. 5. Pistil. 6. Fructiferous Peduncle, natural 
size. — 7. Single Legume. 8. The same laid open. 9. Seed. 10. Embryo. 
11. Leaf, with its Stipules. — ML hut fig. 6. more or less magnified, 



( 2809 ) 
Pen,ea imbricata. Imbricated Penjea. 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Epacride^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 2-phyllus. Cor. campanulata. Stylus tetragonus. 
Caps, tetragona, 4-locularis, loculis dispermis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Penjsa imbricata; foliis rhombeo-ovatis acutis integerrimis 
quadrifariam imbricatis vel patulis, ramis tetragonis 
decussatis, floribus terminalibus, bracteis paucis nudis 
coloratis sagittatis folio minoribus, laciniis corollae ob- 
tusis medio plicatis. Graham. 

Penjea imbricata. Graham MSS. 



Descr. Shrub erect, bark brown and cracked, branches 
numerous, decussating, ascending, four-sided. Leaves ses- 
sile, rhomboid -ovate, coriaceous, somewhat pointed, decus- 
sating, generally spreading on the branches, imbricated 
towards the flowers, naked, on the back middle rib distinct 
with a few obscure lateral veins. Bractece few, without 
alse, coloured. Calyx diphyllous, segments linear, co- 
loured, alternating with the hastate bracteae, nearly on the 
same plane. Corolla rose coloured, tubular, tube furrowed, 
inflated at its base, tapering somewhat to the throat, less 
than double the length of the calyx ; limb four-parted, seg- 
ments rounded, with a slight point in the centre, folded 
back in the middle, about half the length of the tube, and 
slightly contorted. Stamens four, alternating with the 
segments of the corolla, and attached to the throat : fila- 
ments subulate, coloured : anthers large, cordate, as long 

as 



as the filaments : pollen yellow. Germen four-lobed, four 
celled, pointed : style terminal, four sided : stigma capi- 
tate, four cornerecL 

Raised from Cape of Good Hope seeds, kindly communi- 
cated to the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh by W. T. 
Aiton, Esq. Graham MSS. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Flower cut open to shew the Stamens and the Pistil. 
3. and 4. Back and Front view of the Anther. 5. Section of the Germen. — 
Magnified. 



' " 



2810. 




/■u A *! 



( 2810 ) 

CORCHORUS OLITORIUS. BRISTLY-LEAVED 

Corchorus, or Jew's Mallow. 

Class and Ordei\ 

POLYANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Tiliacejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat pentaphyllus, deciduus. Pet. 5. Stylus subnullus. 
Stigmata 2 — 5. Capsula subulaeformis aut rotunda, 2 — 5- 
valvis, 2 — 5-locularis, valvis medio septiferis. Semina 
biserialia. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Corchorus olitorius ; capsulis oblon^is subteretibus gla- 

bris 5-locularibus, foliis ovato-oblongis serratis, serra- 

turis infimis longe setaceis. D. C. 
Corchorus olitorius. Linn. Sp. PL p. 746. Lam. III. t. 

478./ 1. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 1214. Ait. Hort. 

Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. p. 313. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. 1. 

p. 504. Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 583. 
" Corchorus Plinii. Bauh. Pin. 317. Lob. Ic. 505." 
" Melochia. Alp. (Egypt. 45. t. 30." 



Descr. An annual species, with rounded, branching 
stems, which are quite glabrous, as, indeed, is the whole 
plant. Leaves two to three inches in length, oblong, ap- 
proaching to ovate, frequently quite ovate, acute, or some- 
times even acuminate, serrated, thin, membranaceous, with 
three principal nerves at the base, and several oblique minor 
ones and reticulations between : the two lower serratures 
ru-i out into long bristles. Petiole often as long as the leaf. 
Stipules subulato - setaceous. Flowers solitary, on short 
peduncles, which spring from opposite the leaves, and which 

have, 



have, in their middle, three subulate bractece. Calyx of five 
pale green, concave, oblong, acuminate, spreading leaves. 
Petals obovato-oblong, yellow, waved. These flowers are 
succeeded by erect, pod-shaped, somewhat angular, acumi- 
nated capsules, varying in length from one to three inches, 
five-celled, five-valved. Each valve has two rows of ovate 
brown seeds. 

This plant is said to grow spontaneously in Asia, Africa, 
and America ; and was introduced into our gardens, accord- 
ing to Parkinson, in 1640. Seeds were sent to the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden by Charles Telfair, Esq. from the Mau- 
ritius, and from them the plant was raised from which our 
figure and description were taken. It possesses little 
beauty to recommend its continued cultivation ; but it is a 
plant with which we may wish to have some acquaintance, 
since, as its name implies it has been extensively cultivated 
in Egypt, Syria, and other parts of the East, as a pot herb. 
In Egypt, Forskal tells us, it is abundantly planted in 
gardens, and is called Melbkych by the Arabs. Olivier 
says the Egyptians eat the leaves during the whole summer 
in ragouts, or simply boiled, drained, and seasoned with 
olive oil ; and, in India, it is equally employed as an article 
of food. It is besides said to possess slight medicinal qua- 
lities ; to be emollient, a sweetener, and a pectoral. It 
flowers in the stove in July. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen and Pistil. 3. Single Stamen. 4. Pistil. 
5. Capsule. 6. The same bursting open. 7- Seed. — Magnified. 



28JL 




&? Crerilldel* 



fu£. iff j: Cur>i2j; fftUwGrZb. JTanvi f 2J<ffk?. 



( 2811 ) 

Salpiglossis atro-purpurea. Deep 
Purple-flowered Salpiglossis. 

****************** 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Bignoniace^s ? — Solanejs. Sweet. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus, subinaequalis. Cor. infundibuliformis, 
limbo 5-lobo. Filam. quintum sterile. Stylus apice dila- 
tatus. Capsula 2-locularis, dissepiraento valvis parallelo. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Salpiglossis atro-purpurea; foliis lanceolato-ellipticis, con- 
vexis, sinuatis, superioribus integerrimis linearibus ; 
stylo edentulo. Graham. 

Salpiglossis atro-purpurea. Graham MSS. 



Descr. Stem herbaceous,, procumbent for a little way at 
the base, afterwards erect, two feet high,, somewhat flex- 
uose, branching. Branches ascending. Leaves scattered, 
varying considerably in shape, the larger (three to four 
inches long, one and a quarter to an inch and a half broad) 
lanceolato-elliptical, often nearly elliptical or ovato-ellip- 
tical, flaccid, and folded back from the middle rib, sinuated, 
the segments generally blunt and entire, sometimes sharp, 
and occasionally toothed on their sides, decurrent along the 
petiole, which is nearly equal in length to the leaf ; upper 
leaves lanceolato-lihear and entire, and on the flowering 
branches passing into linear bractea. Flowers on loose, ter- 
minal panicles. Pedicels opposite to, or alternate with the 
bracteae, stout, slightly curved upwards, as well as the stem 
and branches cylindrical. Calyx persisting, oblongo -ovate, 
five-cleft, segments acute, five-angled, angles deep green, 
the intervening spaces paler and rugose. Corolla large, in- 
serted 



• serted into the receptacle,, veined, rich deep purple within, 
more lurid on the outside, funnel-shaped, tube cylindrical, 
twice the length of the calyx ; throat much inflated, a little 
more on its lower side, and half as long again as the tube ; 
limb spreading, five-cleft, segments obcordate, the largest 
above, the two smallest below. Stamens four, didynamous, 
with the slender rudiment of a fourth between the two 
longer, inserted into the orifice of the tube of the corolla ; 
filaments slightly flattened, purple towards the anthers, 
paler below; anthers very large, yellow, ovate, bilobu- 
lar, bifid at the base, the outer lobe always the largest ; 
pollen yellow. Germen conical, channelled on both sides, 
bilocular, green; Style single, terminal, slender below, 
transversely flattened and much expanded above, without 
lateral teeth, pale green, longer than the filament, in- 
cluded ; Stigma truncated, cleft along its extremity, green. 
The stem, branches, leaves, pedicels, and calyx are 
covered with a soft, glandular, glutinous pubescence, which 
appears more sparingly on the outside of the corolla, and 
on the filaments. When fading, the upper part of the 
corolla is nearly deliquescent, the decay beginning in 
round transparent spots, the lower part is somewhat mar- 
cescent. 

It is impossible to suppose this the same species with the 
S. straminea of Hooker, Exot. Flor. t. 229, yet, as the leaves 
probably vary, it may not be easy to find good specific charac- 
ters. It seems a larger, more robust plant, th^branches and 
pedicels being considerably stouter and more straight, the 
stamens inserted higher in the tube. It first flowered in the 
garden of Mr. Neill, Cannon Mills, Edinburgh, from seeds, 
sent by Dr. Gillies. Both the species have flowered freely 
in the stove of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, in 
September, and will continue to do so during October, the 
seeds having been sent from the Cordillera by Mr. Cruick- 
shanks, in 1826. Both differ from the Salpiglossis figured 
by Ruiz and Pavon, Prodr. Fl. Peruv. et Chil. t. 19, in the 
segments of the corolla being larger, more spreading, and 
obcordate rather than emarginate, and in the absence of 
teeth on the style. Our specimens of & straminea have the 
tube of the corolla as long as in the S. atropurpurea, which 
is considerably longer than in Dr. Hooker's figure, and in 
this respect both agree with the figure of Ruiz and Pavon. 
—Graham. 



( 2812 ) 

Arum campanulatum. Campanulate 
Arum. 

Class and Order. 

MoNOSCIA MONANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — ARoiDEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha monophylla, cucullata. Spadix supra nudus, 
inferne faemineus, medio stamineus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Arum campanulatum; foliis decomposito-pinnatifidis, spatha 

campanulata undulato-crispata spadicem capitato-cla- 

vatum aequante. 
Arum campanulatum. Roxb. Hortus Bengh. p. 66. Ejusd. 

Ic. ined. Roxb. PL Corom. v. 3. t. 272. Spreng. 

Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 770. 
Schena. Hort. Mal.v. 11. p. 35. t. 18. et Mulenschena. 

t. 19. 
Mulenschena. Hort. Mai. v. II. p. 37. t. 19. 
Tacca Phallifera. Herb. Amb. v. 5. p. 326. t. 112. et t. 

113. f. 2. 
Arum Ceylanicum polyphyllum caule aspero, &c. Commel. 

Hort.v. I. p. 101. t. 53. 



Descr. Root a large, rounded, compressed tuber, marked 
with concentric lines and numerous scars ; and producing 
a few small fibres. From the centre of this, generally, a 
single large leaf is produced, a foot and a half to two feet 
high. Its peduncle is cylindrical, greenish-brown, with pale 
spots, and hispid, or rather echinated, expanding above 
into three principal divisions or pinnae ; each is again bifid, 
and the segments are pinnatifid, being cut almost to the 
midrib into ovato-lanceolate laciniae or leaflets, with many 
parallel veins. The flower appears at a different season 

from 



from the leaf, and is very large and showy. From the top 
of the tuber arises a short, green, spotted stem, or peduncle, 
having numerous, succulent radicles thrown out from its 
very base, and two unequal, lanceolate, membranaceous 
sheaths or bracteas. This short stem bears a very large 
subcampanulate purplish spatke, of a somewhat coriaceous 
texture, much waved at the margin, greyish, spotted with 
white on the outside, within whitish towards the middle, 
and reddish-purple at the very base. Spadix ten inches to 
a foot high ; its lower half (that part covered with pistils) 
cylindrical, above (where the stamens are placed) much 
dilated, and at the top expanding into a large, waved, 
deep-purple, granulated head. Pistil: Germens numerous, 
somewhat sphaerical, purple: Style cylindrical, purple:' 
Stigma capitate, waved, yellowish. Anthers sessile, very 
numerous, oblong, obtuse : eacli four-celled, opening with 
pores at the extremity. 

The first I knew of this extraordinary plant was through 
the medium of my friend Dr. Strang, who obligingly 
brought me from M. Spanoghe, from Java, a noble speci- 
men of it in spirits. About the same time, a living plant 
was sent from Madagascar by Mr. Telfair to Robert 
Barclay, Esq. at Bury Hill, in whose superb collection, 
and under the skilful management of his gardener, it soon 
produced its flowers : and, from a drawing kindly sent to 
me by that gentleman, aided by my specimens preserved in 
spirits, the accompanying figures were taken. 

Although the plant had been long represented and de- 
scribed by Rumphils, Rheede, and Commelin ; yet no 
systematic botanist seems to have noticed it, until Dr. 
Roxburgh introduced it into the Hortus Benghalensis, un- 
der the name which I have here retained. We are there 
told that its Sanskrit name is Kunda, and its Hindoostani 
Muncha-kunda : that it is not uncommon on the Continent 
of India, as well as in the Archipelago ; and that in the 
Northern Circars it is cultivated and valued as the Potato 
is with us, and as the Yams in the West Indies. The roots 
often weigh from four to eight or more pounds each. Com- 
melin received it from Ceylon, and cultivated it at Amster- 
dam, but never saw it produce its flower. Rumphius 
seemed to consider the flower of this to belong to his real 
Tacca, v. 5. t. 113. f. 1. Both he and Rheede speak of 
the root being employed medicinally by the natives. 



i F i^' V ^^ aboutone quarter the natural size. 2. Flowering Plant ditto, 
J. ttstii. 4. Anthers. 5. Section of ditto.— Magnified. 




PU&. b,y J- Curftj. Wcz£iror£k^/>si/j/#2 c p, 



( 2813 ) 

PiTCAIRNIA BRACTEATA. BrACTEATED 
PlTCAlRNIA. 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — BromeliacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. semisuperus. Petala libera, irregularia, basi squa- 
mosa. Stamina basi perianthii inserta. Stylus filiformis. 
Stigmata linearia, convoluta. Capsula. Semina caudata. 
Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pitcairnia bracteata ; foliis integerrimis basi spinosis sub- 
tus bracteis cauleque furfuraceis, bracteis longitudine 
calycis, petalis subsequalibus lanceolatis convolutis. 

Pitcairnia bracteata/ «. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 2. p. 202. 
(excl. var. $?). Sprengel Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 22. 
(excl. Syn. P. sulfureae. Andr. ?) 

Pitcairnia latifolia. Redoute Liliac. v. 2. t. 73 et 74. 



Descr. From one and a half to two feet high. Leaves 
a foot or more long on the lower part of the cylindrical aud 
furfuraceous stem, linear-lanceolate, coriaceous, obscurely 
striated, very acuminated, the margin entire, except at the 
sheathing base, where there are some strong brown teeth 
pointing upwards: the upper surface is a dark, shining 
green, quite glabrous, the underside clothed with a blue- 
ish-white furfuraceous substance. These leaves gradually 
become smaller upwards, and pass into the broadly lance- 
olate, concave, slightly furfuraceous, imbricated bractea, 
which are about equal in length to one half of the flower, 
reaching to the top of the calyx. Peduncle only to the 

lower 



lower flowers, and there very short. Calyx half superior, of 
three, erect or slightly twisted, lanceolate, reddish leaflets. 
Petals three, curved, nearly regular, convolute, red ,* at the 
base of each furnished with a large, white, crenated scale. 
Stamens shorter than the petals : filaments white : anthers 
linear-oblong, yellow. Pistil : Germen half-inferior, the 
superior part three-lobed, tapering upwards into a filiform, 
white style. Stigmas three, shortly linear, twisted. Cap- 
sule tri-angular, or forming a double three-sided pyramid, 
the base incorporated with the fleshy base of the calyx ; 
the upper part covered by the persistent, withered flowers, 
three-celled. Seeds numerous, scrobiform. 

This is assuredly the same plant as Redoute's P. latifolia, 
which is the P. bracteata, *, of Hortus Kewensis. But I 
cannot agree with the author of that valuable work in con- 
sidering the P. sulfur ea of Andrews to belong to the same 
species. Independent of the colour of the flowers, they 
are much larger and the petals, as represented both in the 
Bot. Repository and in the Bot. Register, are very different 
in shape from those of our plant : nor do the bracteas ap- 
pear to be so large in proportion to the flower. 

The spike of flowers in our specimen is young : a spike 
of seed-vessels now before us is thrice the length of the 
flowering plant. Communicated by Messrs. Shepherds, 
from the Liverpool Botanic Garden, in January, 1828 ; to 
which valuable establishment the seeds were sent in 1825, 
by Mr. Elliott, Staff-Surgeon, from the island of St. Vin- 
cent. We have fine dried specimens from the same island, 
gathered by the Rev. L. Guilding. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil 5. Capsule. 6. 
Section of ditto. 7. Seed. — All more or less magnified. 



2SU. 




J.&.jen 



( 2814 ) 

Lycopersicum peruvianum* Large- 
flowered Tomato. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat, Ord.— Solane,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5 — 6-partitus. Cor. rotata, 5— 6-Ioba. Antherds 
eonicae, membrana apice elongata connatae, intus longitudi- 
naliter dehiscentes. Bacca bi-trilocularis. Semina villosa. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lycopersicum peruvianum; caule subherbaceo tomentoso, 

foliis inaaqualiter pinnatis tomentosis canescentibus 

stipulatis, foliolis incisis, pedunculis pedicellisque 

bracteatis. 
Lycopersicum peruvianum. Miller's Gard. Diet. Dunal 

Hist. Solan, p. 111. Synops. p, 3. Roem. et Schult. 

v. 4. p. 566. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 677. 
Lycopersicum dentatum. Dun. Synops. Sol. p. 4. [fide 

Spreng.) 
Solanum peruvianum. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 265. Jacq. Coll. 

-o. 2. p. 284. 1c. Rar. v. 2. t. 327. WiM. Sp. PI. v. 

1. p. 1034. Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Peruv. v. 2. p. 37. 
Lycopersicum Pimpineilae Sanguisorbae folio. Feuill. Per. 

v. 3. p. 37. t. 25. 



Descr. Stem one to two {eet high, rounded, pubescenti- 
tomentose, branched, herbaceous, except, perhaps, at the 
very base. Leaves alternate, rather remote, pinnated with 
an odd one ; leaflets from half an inch to an inch long, oval, 
or approaching to ovate, obtuse, unequal at the base, more 
or less incised at the margin, especially the terminal ones, 

slightly 



slightly petiolate, more or less remote,, with or without 
smaller ones between them, all of them pubescenti-tomen- 
tose, and often hoary. The pubescence is mixed with 
glands, which cause the plant to be somewhat clammy, and 
which yield a rather powerful odour. At the base of the 
petioles are small rounded stipules, one on each side. 
Peduncle lateral (not axillary), bearing four to six corym- 
boso-racemosejfawers, which are drooping. Peduncles and 
pedicels bracteated with bracteas resembling the stipules. 
Calyx not one third the size of the corolla, of five, lance- 
olate, spreading segments, two or four of the segments often 
cohering in pairs, the margin and back pubescenti-hirsute. 
Corolla large, rotate, deep yellow, the segments reflected, 
waved, and margined, acuminate. Stamens five, united into 
a firm tube, and terminating in a hollow, horn -like process: 
anthers opening by two longitudinal clefts inwards, the 
whole resembling the stamens of the plants of the Class 
Syngenesia, only that here the short filaments as well as 
the stamens firmly cohere. Pistil roundish, pubescent. 
Style longer than the stamens, filiform, hairy below, gla- 
brous above ; Stigma globose. 

Raised in the Glasgow Botanic Garden from seeds sent by 
Mr. Cruickshanks from Valparaiso. It produced its blos- 
soms in the stove in November. Ruiz and Pavon tell us, 
that it is found in the provinces of Lima and Chancay, and 
Feuillee observes, that it grows in the clefts of rocks on 
the shores of the sea. The fruit which we possess in the 
Herbarium is sphaerical, orange-red, about the size of a pea, 
and pubescent. In the dialect of the country the plant is 
called Tomatte cimaron, or Wild Golden Apple. Indeed, 
Sir James Smith (see Rees's Cyclop, article Solanum 
Lycoperskum) does not feel satisfied that it is distinct from 
the common Love Apple, or Tomato ; but had he seen 
living specimens of the two, he would, I think, have felt 
satisfied of their being specifically different. Roemer and 
Schultes quote with a mark of doubt Jacquin's figure in 
the Icones Rariores, because Linnaus describes the leaves 
as being not interruptedly pinnate : but both kinds of 
leaves are often found on the same plant. 



F%. 1. Stamen. 2. Staminal Tube laid open. 3. Calyx and Pistil.— 
Magnified * 



( 2815 ) 

GOMPHRENA GLOBOSA. ANNUAL GLOBE 

Amaranth. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Amaranthace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium 5-partitum. Stamina 5, coimata in tubum 
subcylindraceum ovario longiorem, apicibus distinctis, 
cum v. absque dentibus interjectis. Anthera uniloculares. 
Stylus 1 . Stigmata 2. Utriculus monospermus, evalvis. Br. 

Flores glomerati vel spicati. Flores tribracteati, brac- 
teis coloratis, duobus interioribus majoribus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gomphrena globosa ; pubescenti-pilosa, caule erecto, foliis 
oblongis basi attenuatis, capitulis terminalibus sub- 
globosis diphyllis, bracteis duobus majoribus carina 
alata, perianthio lanato. 

Gomphrena globosa. Linn. Sp. PL p. 326. Willd. Sp. PL 
v. 1. p. 1321. Ait. Hort. Kem. ed. 2. v. 2. p. 105. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 822. 

Amarantho affinis indias orientalis, floribus glomeratis, 
ocymoidis folio. Comm. Hort. v. I. p. 85. t. 45. 

Wadapu. Hort. Malab. v. 10. p. 73. t. 31. 

Flos globosus. Rumph. Amb. v. 5. p. 289. t. 100. /. 2. 



Descr. An annual plant with an upright stem, and 
terete, straggling branches, every -where pubescenti-hirsute. 
Leaves opposite, oblong, more or less acute, and tapering 
below into a footstalk : the floral-ones ovate, sessile, re- 
flexed. Heads of Flowers at first sight somewhat resem- 
bling those of the common Trefoil, globose, purple, rarely 

white 



white. Bractece three to each flower : the outer one small, 
roundish, acuminate, membranous, scariose, greenish, tipped 
with purple : two inner ones three or four times as large, 
resembling the calycine valves of a grass, and in like 
manner including the flower, purple, carinated, carina 
winged and serrated. Perianth of five, lanceolate, mem- 
branaceous, scarcely coloured segments., enveloped within 
and without almost to the point with a delicate woolly sub- 
stance. Tube of the stamens rather longer than the peri- 
anth, cylindrical, membranous, reticulated, white, termi- 
nated by five bifid teeth, within which, between the notch, 
in each tooth, a sessile, linear, one-celled, yellow anther is 
inserted. Pistil shorter than the tube of the stamens, 
globose, tapering into a short style, which has two linear 
stigmas. Capsule or Utricule containing a single, reniform, 
brown, pedicellated, compressed seed. 

Introduced into Britain from the East Indies so long ago 
as the year 1714, and extensively cultivated as a favourite 
ornamental plant in the gardens of the rich, and in the 
windows of the poor cottagers ; yet so far neglected by the 
Botanist, that it has not been honoured with a figure in any 
British publication that has come within my observation. 
The structure and colour and texture of the flowers when 
accurately examined are highly beautiful, but, like those of 
the Class Syngenesia, require nicety and care in the dis- 
section and analysis. The generic name is altered from 
Gromphena (ypct<pu, to paint) which Pliny applied to the 
Three-Coloured, or Painted Amaranth, a plant naturally 
allied to this. Both possess floral coverings of that pecu- 
liarly dry and imperishable nature as to have merited the 
name of Everlasting, and hence they are considered in 
many countries as the emblems of friendship. In the East 
Indies the common Globe-flower is formed into garlands to 
ornament the hair, and to adorn instruments of music at the 
festivals : and in the South of Europe, for the plant is now 
cultivated in almost every part of the world, churches are 
decorated with it in the winter. 

As a tender annual, the Gomphrena globosa requires to 
be raised in a hot-bed, and planted out during the summer. 



^ Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower, with its three Bracteas. 2. Back view of 
ditto. 3. Flower. 4. Portion of the Staminat Tube. 5. Pistil. 6. Utri- 
cule. 7. Seed. — All more or less magnified. 



2m. 




CJf.Curtzj<£tl» 



f*& trJlCariu. tialmrtkJpri/IMSS 



( 2816 ) 

JUSTICIA CALYCOTRICHA. YeLLOW- 
FLOWERED JUSTICIA. 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Acanthace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 4 — 5-fidus, bracteatus. Cor. 2-labiata. Anthera 
biloculares, loculis saepe distantibus. Caps, ovalis, 2-locu- 
laris, loculis dispermis, dissepimento retinacula seminum 
gestante adnato. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Justicia calycotricha ; (anthers loculis parallel®) panicula 
terminal! compacta, calyce 5 -parti to laciniis setaceis 
longissimis, corollae labio iuferiore tripartito revoluto, 
superiore recto apice recurvato emarginato, foliis sub- 
cordato-oblongis repandis glabriusculis. 

Justicia calycotricha. " Link." Spreng. Syst. Veget. vol. 
IV. part 2. p. 18. 

Justicia calytricha. Hook. Ex. Ft. t. 212. 

Justicia flavicoma. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1027. 



Descr. Stem two to four feet high, branches cylindrical, 
green, slightly turned near the joints. Leaves opposite, 
upon petioles from one to four inches long, cordate, cor- 
dato -ovate, or even approaching to lanceolate, waved and 
repand, scarcely serrated, to the naked eye appearing 
glabrous, but when seen under the microscope, exhibiting 
numerous short, clavate hairs, more abundant on the nerves 
and margin. Panicle terminal, close. Flowers large, beau- 
tiful, yellow. Calyx deeply five -partite, the segments 
setaceous, sometimes glabrous, often clothed with a minute 

pubescence, 



pubescence, similar to that of the leaves. Corolla two to 
three inches long, quite glabrous, the tube angular : the 
upper lip straight, narrow, the apex recurved, emarginate, 
the lower-lip tri-partite, revolute. Stamens exserted. An- 
thers yellow, oblong, formed of two parallel cells. Cap- 
sule ovate, compressed, tapering at the base, so as to be 
stipitate. 

The figure which I gave of this plant in the Exotic Flora 
being taken from a very indifferent specimen of the plant, 
I am not surprised that Mr. Lindley in the Botanical 
Register should have expressed an opinion, that it was 
probably a different species from his Justicia Jlavicoma. 
A specimen afterwards sent me by the Messrs. Shepherds 
from the same plant as that figured in the Exotic Flora, 
corresponds in every particular with Mr. Lindley's plate : 
as does an individual which is now in flower (February 
1828) in the Glasgow Botanic Garden. 

It is, indeed, a most desirable inhabitant of the stove, and 
its shewy blossoms are of considerable duration. Its native 
country is Brazil, and the plant from which our drawing 
was taken flowered in the collection of Mrs. Palmer, at 
Bromley, Kent. It is liable, however, to much variation in 
the size and shape of the leaves, and in the relative length 
of the petioles. The curious pubescence, which Mr. Lind- 
ley justly describes, upon the leaves, is only to be seen under 
the microscope, and, in the calyx, is frequently altogether 
wanting. 



Fig. 1 and 2. Back and front view.of the Anther. — Magnified. 



( 2817 ) 

BlGNONIA COLEI. GENERAL Cole's 
BlGNONIA. 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Bignoniace^e. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cat. campanulatus, integerrimus, repandus vel subden- 
tatus. Cor. campanulata, limbo bilabiato, 5-lobo. Fila- 
mentum 5-sterile. Stigma bilamellatum. Capsula siliquae- 
formis, bilocularis, dissepimento valvis parallelo. Semina 
transversa, biseriata, membranaceo-alata. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Bignonia Colei ; foliis ternato-verticillatis pinnatis bijugis 
cum impari, foliolis ellipticis integerrimis, floribus in 
cauiem sparsis, capsulis oblongis acuminatis verrucosis. 

Bignonia Colei. Bojer MSS. 



Descr. A shrubs reaching to the height of from ten to 
fifteen feet, having a greyish wrinkled bark, and bearing 
the flowers upon the main stem. This stem is straight and 
twiggy, leafy above and generally simple. Leaves verti- 
cillate, in threes, impari -pinnate, erecto -patent, leaflets in 
two opposite pairs, besides the terminal ones, the lower 
ones the smallest, oblongo-elliptical, the terminal one 
oblongo-lanceolate, all of them entire at the margin, un- 
equal at the base, rather obtuse, or often emarginate at the 
extremity, waved, shortly petiolate, dark green and shining 
above, paler beneath, glabrous on both sides, nerved ; 
nerves most distinct beneath, confluent and reticulated 
towards the margins. Petiole grooved above, swollen at 
the base or point of insertion. Flowers springing from the 
stem, remote from the leaves. Peduncles very short, simple. 

Calyx 



Calyx shortly five-toothed, angular, coloured, persistent. 
Corolla with the tube cylindrical, swollen upwards, thrice 
as long as the calyx, reddish, veined with yellow, quite 
yellow within, the limb patent, five-cleft, the segments 
roundish, waved, reddish purple. Stamens four, fertile ; the 
filaments hairy at the base. Anthers two celled. Germen 
ovato-cylindrical, surrounded by a five-toothed urceolate 
nectary. Capsule oblongo-cylindrical, terminated by the 
long caudate style, verrucose, two-celled, the seeds imbri- 
cated, winged. Bojer MSS. 

The accompanying figure of this curious species of Big- 
nonia was made from a beautiful drawing executed in the 
Mauritius, by Mrs. Telfair, and communicated with many 
others, to Robert Barclay, Esq. of Bury Hill. The 
plant itself was discovered in the month of May of the 
last year (1827) in the forests of that island, and near the 
source of the Grand River, South-east, by Mr. Bojer, 
whose indefatigable exertions in the cause of Botany, have 
induced his Excellency the governor, to appoint him to 
a Professorship of that Science, in the establishment of the 
Royal College at Port Louis. We know that his class has 
already produced students who, under his able tuition, 
are zealously exploring the vegetable productions of that 
most fertile island, and that much is to be expected from 
them. The very formation of such an institution by Sir 
Galbraith Lowry Cole would alone entitle that gentle- 
man to have his name commemorated in a plant, a native 
of the island which he has so ably governed. But his 
Excellency as well as Lady Cole, have further done every 
thing in their power to aid the cause of Botany, and have 
encouraged the transmission of plants to Europe to a very 
great extent. We have sincere pleasure, therefore, in 
giving greater publicity to this beautiful species of Big- 
nonia, named in honour of the governor, by Mr. Bojer, in 
testimony of his respect and gratitude. 

There can be no question, but that living plants will 
soon be seen in the stoves of our own country, through the 
means of Mr. Telfair. 



Fig. 1 . Specimen, reduced to one-third of its natural size. 2. Portion of 
the Trunk with Flowers in different states of perfection. 3. Portion of the 
Corolla with Stamens. 5. Pistil and Nectary. 6. Seminal Receptacle and 
Seeds. 7- Seeds.— Magnifi ed. 




T^u*. #r J? <rur>fzj: WaZtra rtft„ Ipri! &gnt. 



( 2818 ) 

Blechnum longifolium. Long-leaved 
Blechnum. 

****«*«**«»*«*•& 

Class and Order. 
Cryptogamia Filices. 

( Nat. Ord. — Filices. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sori lineares, solitarii, costal paralleli. Involucrum super- 
ficiarum, continuum, interius liberum v. dehiscens. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Blechnum longifolium; frondibus pinnatis, pinnis (quinque 
aut septem) lineari-lanceolatis subsessilibus margini- 
bus scabris, terminali longiore petiolata. 

Blechnum longifolium. Humb. et Kunth Gen. et Sp. v. 1. 
p. 13. mild. Sp. PL v. 5. p. 413. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 4. p. 93. 



Descr. Root scarcely creeping, scaly, throwing out 
many branching fibres. Caudex four to six or eight inches 
high, and in my wild specimens, even ten inches high, 
greenish except at the very base, where it is brown, and 
where are likewise a few scales, slender, grooved on one 
side. Frond about equal in length with the caudex, pin- 
nated ; pinna, in my most perfect specimens, always five, 
according to Humboldt, sometimes seven in number, linear- 
lanceolate, slightly falcate, acuminate, entire, mote or less 
waved, and the margin beset with numerousveryminute setae 
or bristles, which point upward ; the lateral ones are from 
four to six inches long, opposite or alternate, nearly sessile ; 
the terminal one is half as long again, has the base more 
rounded, and a petiole more than half an inch long. The 
sterile pinnae are often small and rounded. The colour is 

a 



a deep shining green, and the surface is marked with many 
parallel, almost horizontal nerves ; beneath paler. Fruc- 
tifications forming a continued line on each side of, and 
very near the midrib, reaching from near the base almost 
to the summit. Involucre opening inward. Capsules very 
numerous, brown. 

Like the tropical Orchide^:, the Exotic Ferns were long 
supposed to be very difficult of cultivation ; but now, in 
many stoves of our country they form a striking and a beau- 
tiful feature ; and they possess this peculiar advantage, 
that they flourish, perhaps, best, where other plants will 
scarcely live, namely, under the shade of taller plants. Thus 
they may be advantageously employed to fill up vacancies 
upon the stages, which otherwise look bare and unsightly, 
with a foliage the most varied and most graceful that can 
be imagined. They delight in a peat or heath soil ; and 
in the Liverpool and Glasgow Botanic Gardens, as well 
as, I believe, at Mr. Loddiges, where the most numerous 
collections may be found, the roots are placed between 
two broken pieces of a garden pot, and always kept moist : 
a simple way of imitating the rocky situations in which so 
many of them are seen in a state of nature. 

The present species may be reckoned among the rarest 
that we have in cultivation, and it was sent to the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, with very many others, by Mr. Lockhart 
from the island of Trinidad. No other Botanist seems to 
have been acquainted with it except Humboldt, who dis- 
covered it growing in the opposite country of the Caraccas, 
in shady and stony places, near San Augustin and Caripe, 
at an elevation of almost three thousand feet above the 
level of the sea. 



Fig. I. Extremity of a Pinna, with its Fructification. 2. Capsules. — 
Magnified. 



teis. 




( 2819 ) 

Zygopetalon rostratum. Rostrate 
Zygopetalon. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord — Orchide^e. Div. IV. Anthera terminalis mo- 
bilis decidua ; Massae pollinis demum cereaeeae. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Petala aequalia, basi (tria superiora precipue alte) con- 
nata. Labellum explanatum, disco tuberculo carnoso mag- 
no ; basi calcare obtuso vel nullo. Columna margine supe- 
riore alata. Anthera compressa, calceiformis, disco subtus 
affixa, loculis duobus bivalvibus. Mass<e pollinis dua?, 
biiobae, glandula magna inserta. 

Specific Character. 

Zygopetalon rostratum ; labello rotundato integro margi- 
nibus reflexis, columna alis rotundatis, anthera longe 
rostrata. 



Descr. Parasitic. Roots simple, whitish, fleshy. Bulbs, 
when fully grown, and after the falling away of the leaves, 
oblong, compressed, pale green, smooth. Leaves, several, 
distichous, lanceolate, submembranous, striated, acute. 
Scape arising from the base of the young leafy stem, five 
to six inches long, terete, having here and there foliaceous 
scales, and bearing one (or more) flower; upper scale, or 
bractea, large, concave. Flower very large, handsome, 
scentless. Petals greenish- brown, spreading horizontally, 
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, waved, the three upper ones 
connate for one-fourth of the way, so as in fact to be 
one tripartite petal, the two lower ones connate to a lesser 
height from the base ; but the whole five when seen from 
the underside are united into one piece around the top 

of 



of the germen. Lip nearly as long as the petals, very 
broad, subrotundate, the margins reflexed, pure white, 
with a few radiating red lines near the base, and at the 
very base, a large fleshy tubercle, in shape resembling the 
reversed hoof of a horse, purple at the edge, slightly cre- 
nated, elegantly and delicately pencilled with red within. 
Column semicylindrical, the margin above projecting for- 
ward into two rounded wings, the upper margin distinctly 
spinuloso-serrate. Anther ovate, compressed, slipper-shaped, 
white, as is the whole column, tapering into a long beak, 
which surmounts the column considerably, shortly two- 
lipped, within having two bilabiate membranous cells, in 
which the pale yellow pollen-masses are lodged. These 
pollen-masses, four in number, (or two, each two-lobed) 
are attached to a very large, notched, horny, dark purple 
gland, which projects beyond the base of the anther-case, 
and lapt over the square stigma ; the under-side of the 
gland, is, at the lower extremity, covered with a clammy 
fluid. Germen cylindrical, not twisted. 

At tab. 2748* of the present work, I had the pleasure of 
figuring a new Orchideous plant from Brazil, upon which 
1 founded the Genus Zygopetalon : and it is with no 
small satisfaction that I am now able to give a second 
species of this handsome and curious genus, and one no 
less remarkable in the size and structure of its flowers. 
The credit of introducing this fine plant from Demerara 
to the Liverpool Botanic Garden, is due to our excellent 
friend C. S. Parker, Esq. Beneath the perfect blossom 
in the figure will be seen an abortive flower, so that in all 
probability the scape when in perfection is two or many- 
flowered ; and under any circumstances the plant is highly 
deserving of cultivation. It flowered in October, 1827. 



Fig. 1 . Front view of the Lip. 2. Column and base of the Petals. 3. 
Anther, seen from the underside. 4. Pollen Masses. 5. Ditto, seen from the 
underside. — Magnified. 



Z. Mackaii; labello subrotnndato emanrinato, columna vix superne 
alata, anthera obtusa. 



( 2820 ) 
Cactus alatus. Wing-stemmed Cactus. 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MoNOGYNlA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Cacti. Div. Phyllanthi. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cal. e squamis imbricatis, superus. Petala calyci in- 
serta, interiora majora, basi coalita. Stigma multifidum. 
Bacca umbilicata, polysperma. Semina intra pulpam ni- 
dulantia. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cactus alatus ; caulibus articulatis proliferis, articulis ob- 
longis compressis marginibus crenato-Iobatis midis, 
floribus (parvis) in sinubus crenarum solitariis, tubo 
nullo, petalis 5, subaequalibus, stigmatibus 5. 

Cactus alatus. Smarts. Prodr. p. 77. Fl. Ind. Occ. p. 278. 
Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 945. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. 
p. 498. 

Epiphyllum alatum. Haw. Suppl. PL Succ. p. 84. 

Cactus mitis minor, &c Brown Jam. p. 237. 

Opuntia non spinosa minima caulescens, &c. Sloane's 
Jam. v. 2. p. 159 ? 



Descr. Plant one to two feet high, jointed and branch- 
ed in a proliferous manner ; joints from four to six inches 
in length, oblong, remarkably compressed, varying in 
breadth from one to three inches, the margins slightly 
thickened, crenato-lobate, every where glabrous. There 
is a distinct midrib running through the centre of these, 
and bundles of vessels forming lateral, thickened nerves or 
ribs, leading off from it, and extending in a curve, whose 
convexity is uppermost, to the crenatures. The colour of 
the plant is rather a dark green, the ribs and margin often 
reddish. Flowers numerous upon the joints., solitary in 

each 



each crenature, small and not unlike those of the Rhipsalis 
tribe. The base is occupied by the germen, which is 
nearly sphaerical, pale green, smooth . Calyx of three small, 
oval, concave, brownish, scariose leaflets, but gradually 
becoming larger and more petaloid, and passing almost 
insensibly into the five, pale yellowish green, spreading 
petals : tube none. Stamens numerous, inserted within the 
united bases of the calyx and corolla. Filaments rather 
longer than the corolla, white. Anthers didymous, yellow- 
ish white. Style filiform, as long as the stamens. Stigmas 
four, or generally five, linear, recurved, pubescent, white.. 
A flowering specimen of this singular species of Cactus 
was obligingly communicated, in November, 1827, by 
Mrs. Arnold Harrison, of Aigburgh, together with an 
excellent sketch of the natural size of the plant; which 
last is copied on a very reduced scale at fig. 1. of the 
accompanying plate. That lady received it from her 
brother William Harrison, Esq. of Rio, who discovered 
it in the Organ mountains. I was at first disposed to con- 
sider it distinct from Cactus alatus, more, however, from 
the country which it inhabits (so distant from Jamaica, 
the only station hitherto given for that plant), than from 
any other circumstance : for I have generally considered 
the Cacti to be peculiarly local in their geographical dis- 
tribution. Swartz's description, however, especially his 
account of the size and colour of the flowers of his Cactus 
alatus, is such as to forbid their being kept separate : at 
the same time, as there is no figure of the plant existing, 
I cannot determine the point with certainty. Sloane refers 
to Cactus Phyllanthus in Plukenet, which has unusually 
large flowers ; whereas our plant has rather the blossom of 
the Rhipsalis than the Phyllanthus tribe : thus shewing 
that a similar habit in the plant and in the flowers are 
not always combined in this tribe, and that we ought to 
be cautious how we separate this family into Genera. Mr. 
Haworth had never seen the inflorescence, which does not 
agree with his^Genus Epiphyllum. 



Fig. 1. Reduced figure of the entire Plant. 2. Portion of ditto, natural 
size. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil, with the Germen cat through. — Magnified. 




I'uf' &v. J' riirftj. Watirr 



( 2821 ) 

SlDA GLOBIFLORA. GLOBE-FLOWERED SlDA. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord— Malvaceae. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cal. nudus, quinquefidus, saspe angulatus. Stylus apice 
multifidus. Carpella capsularia, 5 — 30, circa axin verti- 
cillata, plus minusve inter se coalita, 1-locularia, mono- aut 
oligosperma, apice mutica aut aristata. D. C. 

Specific Character. 

Sid a globiflora ; glabra, foliis longe petiolatis cordatis sub- 
septemnerviis serratis apice valde attenuates integer- 
rimis, pedunculo solitario longitudine petioli, calyce 
basi truncato, corolla subglobosa nervosa. 



Descr. The Plant from which the accompanying figure 
is taken forms a shrub four to five feet high, with a few 
straggling branches towards the top, which are terete, 
green, quite glabrous. Leaves remote, large, cordate, 
petiolate, glabrous, marked with from five to seven nerves, 
which spring from the base, and branch off nearly trans- 
versely into smaller ones ; the base is truncated, and as 
well as the long, attenuated, almost cordate extremity, 
entire; while the rest of the margin is strongly serrated. 
Petiole often almost as long as the leaf, slender, having 
small, subulate, deciduous stipules at the base ; the ex- 
tremity, where it is inserted upon the leaf, thickened. 
Flower solitary, rather large, and slightly pubescent,, ter- 
minating an axillary peduncle, which is about equal in 
length with the petiole. Calyx cup -shaped, the base 
truncated, thfe segments ovate ind generally reflexed. Co- 
rolla of a pale yellow or straw colour, its petals united by 
their claws to the base of the column : the limb erect, very 

concave, 



concave,, rounded, obtuse., imbricating at the margin, and 
forming, collectively, a somewhat globe-shaped corolla, 
with a comparatively small opening at the top : each petal 
too, is marked with elevated nerves. Column of stamens as 
long as the corolla, slender, spreading at the extremity 
into many filaments, each terminated by a one-celled orange- 
coloured anther, whose lips or divisions are bent backward 
after the discharge of the pollen. Pistil : Germen roundish, 
of ten compact divisions, pubescent, apparently muticous. 
Style as long as the column of stamens, separating at 
the extremity into ten divisions, each bearing a globular 
yellow stigma. 

This singular and very distinct species of Sida, I can no 
where find described by authors, and have hence named it 
from the globose appearance of the corolla. The seeds 
were sent by Mr. Bojer and Mr. Telfair, to the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, where the plant flowered in November, 
1827. A native, we presume, of the Mauritius. No seeds 
have yet been produced with us. 



Fig. I. Filament with its advanced Anther. 2. Pistil, 



* 



*<fi>J 




( 2822 ) 

HOUSTONIA SERPYLLI FOLIA. THYME- 
LEAVED HOUSTONIA. 

*«*»*»»*»*»■& 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rubiace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-fidus. Cor. infundibuliformis, 4-fida. Stigma 
bifidum. Caps, bilocularis, placenta fungosa dissepimento 
annexa. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Houstonia serpyllifolia ; caespitosa, ramis brevibus nume- 
rosis, foliis spathulatis subhirsutis, pedunculis termi- 
nalibus unifloris elongatis. 

Houstonia serpyllifolia. Mich. Fl. Bor. Am. v. I. p. 85. 
Pursh. N. Am. Fl. v. I. p. 106. Rozmer et Schultes 
Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 208. Spreng. Syst Veget. v. 1. 
p. 427. 



Descr. Caespitose, bearing many rooting stems. Leaves 
rotundato-ovate, decurrent, on nearly flat petioles, which 
are longer than the leaves, pointed or blunt, bearing a few 
hairs on the surface, chiefly at the margin, and there ciliated, 
deep green above, pale below, destitute of prominent veins. 
Peduncles terminal, four-sided, about three inches long, 
upright, bent nearly horizontally close to the flower, free 
from bracteas. Calyx tetraphyllous, leaflets lanceolate, 
or lineari-lanceolate, more or less spreading, green. Co- 
rolla hypocrateriform, tube equal in length to the calyx, 
contracted below the insertion of the stamens, and above 
this point pubescent without. Limb spreading, four-parted, 
segments oval, approaching to obovate, acute, white, with 
an obcordate yellow stain at the base of each segment of 

the 



the limb, and these being confluent, surround the faux 
with a yellow margin. Faux four-sided. Stamens nearly 
sessile, inserted into the tube of the corolla, at about one 
third of its height. Anthers linear, oblong, yellow. Ger- 
men inferior, quadrangular, bilocular : Style very slender : 
Stigma bifid, large, exserted. 

This plant flowered in June 1827, in the nursery grounds 
of Mr. Cunningham, Cowley Bank, near Edinburgh, at 
the same time with the Polygala pauciftora. Both were 
brought from North America by Mr. Blair, and the subject 
of the present article was found by him, on the tops of the 
mountains of New Hampshire, surrounded by abundance 
of Menziesia ccerulea and Andromeda kypnoides. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Front view, and 2. side view of a Flower. 3. Faux of the Corolla 
shewing the insertion of the Stamens. 4. Pistil. 5. Leaf. — All more or less 
magnified. 




*8S3. 



S**& %rj- Cur>fz\r, tr cz i u , r,?fr Mav7J f S<f 



( 2823 ) 

OcTOMERIA SERRATIFOLIA. SERRATED-LEAVED 
OcTOMERIA ; 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum articulatum cum processu unguiformi, cujus 
lateribus petala an tica adnata. Massce pollinis 8. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Octomeria serratifolia ; caule folioso, foliis lineari-lanceo- 
latis distichis apice denticulato-serratis, racemo ter- 
minali paucifloro. 



Descr. Parasitic. Stem six to seven inches high, erect, 
two edged, a little waved, clothed with many distichous, 
linear-lanceolate, striated, more or less carinated, rather 
rigid leaves, sheathing at the base, at the apex denticulato- 
serrate. Raceme terminal, few-flowered, having small brac- 
teas at the base of each flower, with rather long sheathing 
bases. Petals five, nearly equal, moderately spreading, lan- 
ceolate, pale yellowish white, striated, the two lower ones 
placed one on each side the lip. Labellum oblong, shortly 
three lobed, crenate at the margin, white, with a thickened, 
broad, winged line in the centre. Column semicylindrical, 
white. Anther operculiform, with two large cells, each di- 
vided by an imperfect septum into two. Pollen Masses eight, 
pale yellow, broadly obovate, gland of union very indistinct. 

This curious genus, having the pollen in each anther 
composed of eight distinct masses, was established by Mr. 
Brown upon the single individual species, the Dendro- 
bium graminifolium * of Willdenow. A second species is 

described 



Figured at Tab. 2764 of this work. 



described by Mr. Don., as a native of Nepal ; and now 
a third species, the subject of the present plate, has been 
detected in the Organ mountains, near Rio Janeiro, by 
William Harrison, Esq., and by him introduced to the col- 
lection of his sister, Mrs. Arnold Harrison, of Aigburgh, 
near Liverpool, where it flowered in November, 1827, and 
by whom it was kindly communicated to me. The habit 
of the plant is, indeed, considerably different from that of 
the species already figured in this work, but in the struc- 
ture of the flower, and in the essential generic characters, 
they are the same. 



Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower. 2. Side view of the Labellum. 3. View 
of the upper side of ditto. 4. Inside view of the Anther-case. 5. Pollen 
Masses. — All more or less magnified. 



( 2824 ) 

BUDDLEA MADAGASCARIENSIS. MADAGASCAR 

BUDDLEA. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord.— Vitices. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-fidus. Cor. 4-fida. Caps, bilocularis, dissepimen- 
tum e marginibus val varum. Semina paleacea. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Buddlea madagascariensis ; ramis sub-4-gonis, foliis ovato- 
lanceolatis petiolatis supra glabris rugulosis subtus 
ferrugineo (vel albo) tomentosis, racemis terminalibus, 
pedicellis 3-floris. Spr. 

Buddlea madagascariensis. Lam. Encycl. v. I. p. 513. 
Diet. t. 69. /. 3. Vahl Symb. Fasc. 3. p. 14. Willd. 
Sp. PI. v. I. p. 633. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 428. 



Descr. A twiggy and straggling shrub, having a cot- 
tony and obtusely four-sided stem. Leaves opposite, re- 
mote, ovato-lanceolate, quite entire, dark green on the 
upper surface, and wrinkled with the numerous reticulated 
veins, below cottony, white, or inclined to rusty : the same 
cottony substance cloathes the petioles, which are an inch or 
more long, and the peduncles and the pedicels. The flowers 
are numerous, and placed in an erect compound raceme; the 
pedicels half an inch long, spreading, each bearing three, 
or in the lower part of the stem, sometimes five flowers, and 
having a small subulate bracteaat the base. Calyx small, 
oval, four-toothed, cottony. Corolla funnel shaped ; mar- 
cescent, the tube rather long, cottony ; the segments four, 
spreading, the margins more or less recurved, without 

downy, 



downy, within quite glabrous, and of a bright reddish 
orange colour. Stamens four, inserted just within the 
mouth, at the sinus of the segments. Filaments very short. 
Anthers oblong. Pistil : Germen rounded, downy : Style 
filiform, as long as the tube and reaching to the stamens : 
Stigma clavate. 

This is a very desirable inmate of the stove, and may pro- 
bably be found sufficiently hardy to bear the greenhouse. 
The stem and underside of the leaves, clothed with a dense 
white or rust-coloured tomentum, form a singular contrast 
with the dark green of the upper surface of the leaves, and 
with the rich orange colour of the flowers, which yield a 
powerful honey -like smell. 

It is a native of Madagascar, and appears to have been 
iirst gathered there by Sonnerat, who gave it the name of 
Vigne de Malgache. Seeds have been sent to this country, 
by Dr. Wallich, from the Botanic Garden at Calcutta ; 
and we had the pleasure of seeing it flower, and the oppor- 
tunity of figuring it at the Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh, 
and Kew, and Glasgow, almost at the same time, namely 
in the autumn of 1827. 

In the expansion of the flowers, the lowermost open first, 
and of the three on each pedicel, the middle one, according 
to Dr. Graham's observations. 



Fig. 1. Pedicel with its three Flowers. 2. Calyx with the Pistil. 3. 
Stamen removed from near the summit of the Tube of the Corolla. — Mag- 
nified. 




^«5. h: JZ&r&r.Wk&ror&AfarZffM 



( 2825 ) 

DlOSCOREA CINNAMOMIFOLIA. ClNNAMON- 
LEAVED DlOSCOREA, Or YAM. 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Trigynia. Spr. (Dioecia Hexandria. Linn.) 

( Nat. Ord. — Dioscorejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores dioici. Perianthium simplex, 6-partitum. Cap- 
sula trilocularis. Semina alata. Spr. 

"*• Specific Character. 

Dioscorea cinnamomifolia ; caule inermi striato petiolisque 
pubescenti-hirtis, foliis alternis oblongis acutis triner- 
viis coriaceo-subcarnosis, racemis simplicibus vel com- 
positis. 



Descr. Root a roundish, ill-shapen tuber, as large as 
the human head. Stem twining, branched, striated, and 
pubescenti-hirsute, hairs brownish : whole plant destitute 
of prickles. Leaves alternate, petiolate, oblongo-acumi- 
nate, quite entire, of a texture between coriaceous and 
fleshy, shining, having three distinct nerves or ribs, which 
are prominent on the under side, where the leaf is of a paler 
green, and where, near the base, are some dark dots or 
glands : the margin itself, when held between the eye and 
the light, is seen to have a thin pellucid margin. Petioles 
from three-fourths of an inch, to an inch long, hairy like 
the stem. Male Racemes apparently always solitary, ax- 
illary, hairy, often compound at the base; pedicels branched, 
each with a lanceolate bractea . Perianth cup-shaped, deeply 
six-partite, the segments spreading, oblong, yellow-green. 
Stamens six, opposite to the divisions of the perianth. The 
female flowers I have not seen. 

Detected 



Detected in the woods about Rio de Janeiro, by William 
Harrison, Esq. and by him introduced to the valuable 
collection of his sister, Mrs. Arnold Harrison, at Aig- 
burgh, near Liverpool. Its flowering season is November. 
The male plant alone is at present known. We are 
ignorant of the nature of the fruit, which may perhaps prove 
it to be a Rajana ; and, indeed, in specific character, it 
seems to be allied to Swartz's Rajana ovata. 



Fig. 1 . Flowers from the Raceme. 2. Section of a Male Flower to shew 
the Stamens. — Magnified. 




r szr.Jai'- 



,v//,. TMfwartA. Sun* J J<f2£. 



( 2826 2827 ) 

Cycas circinalis. Broad-leaved 
Cycas. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Dkecia Polyandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — CycadejE. Pers. Br. Rich. ) 

Generic Character. 

FL dioici. Masc. amentacei ; amentum crassissimum, 
squamis subimbricatis, axi communi insertis, subtriangu- 
latis, ab apice ad basin angustatis, apice mucrone recur vo 
terminatis, subtus inordinate antheris bivalvibus eonsper- 
sis. Fcem. in spadices ensiformes., fbliaceo-carnosos, mar- 
ginibus floriferis dispositi ; floribus erectis., semi-immersis, 
in utroque margine 3 — 4. Fructus drupacei, erecti. 

Arbores stipite erecto, tereti ; foliis coronantibus, pin- 
natis. Rich. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. . 

Cycas circinalis ; foliorum pimiis lineari-lanceolatis planis 
petiolis aculeatis spadicibus icemineis paucinoris acu- 
minatis inciso-serratis, fructibus ovato-globosis gla- 
bris. 

Cycas circinalis. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1658. Burm. Fl. Ind.p. 
240. fexcl. syn. Breynii, Seb<E> et Kasmpferi.) Willd. 
Sp. PI. v. 4. p. 844. Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. p. 631 . Lam. 
Encyl. v. 2. p. 231. (" excl. Sebee Syn. Sup. II. 425. in 
observatione.") Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 409. 
Hamilton in Linn. Trans, v. 15. p. 81. Hamilton in 
Comment, on the Herb. Amb. p. 19. Annates du Mus. 
d'Hist. Nat. v. 16. t: 20. ffruct.J Nouv. Diet. d'Hist 
Nat. v. 12. p. 275. (cum Iconibus duabusj. Diet. 
Classique. v. 5. p. 218. Rich. Mem. sur les Conif. p. 
187. /. 24, 25, 26. Graham in Hist, oj Rare Plants in 
Edinb. New Phil. Journ. 1827, p. 175. 

Cycas 



Cycas frondibus pinnatis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis, stipitibus 

spinosis. Linn. Fl. Zeyl. p. 393. (" excl, nisi Rati, sy- 

nonymis omnibus.") 
Todda panna. Rheede Hort. Malab. v. 3. p. 9. t. 13—21. 
Olus calappoides e Celebe vel ex insulis Ulasseriensibus. 

Herb. Amb. v. I. p. 87, 89. t. 22, 23. 
Palma Indica ; caudice in annulos protuberante distincto. 

Raii Hist. 1360. 



Descr. Male Plant. Trunk, when attaining its full 
growth, from fifteen to twenty feet high ; in the individual 
from which our drawing was taken, and to which I shall 
confine my description, between four and five feet, and half 
a foot in diameter, of an equal thickness throughout, 
marked with the scars whence the old leaves have fallen, 
but scarcely annulated ; between which scars, the trunk is 
shaggy with the old, and jagged downy scales or stipules, 
which accompany the base of the leaves, and which are 
yet in a perfect state at the top of the stem : these are 
cordate and turgid at their base, and very much acumi- 
nated. From amongst them, and at the very top of the 
stem, is a crown of most beautiful foliage. The spread of 
the leaves is twelve feet, each six and eight feet long, 
including the petiole ; for three quarters of the length, 
from the extremity, pinnated, with linear-lanceolate, nearly 
horizontal, plane, subflexuoso-falcate pinna, from twelve 
to fourteen inches long, dark green on the upper side, 
paler beneath, quite glabrous, having a strong, pale mid- 
rib running through the centre. Rachis unarmed. Petiole 
swollen at the base, clothed with ferruginous, evanescent 
down, and unarmed; upwards glabrous; and spinous at the 
margin, from abortive pinnae. The young leaves have a 
very beautiful appearance, being of a delicate pale green, 
and having the pinna? singularly involute, like the young 
fronds of a Fern. 

Prom among the crown of the leaves, at the top of the 
trunk, and nearly, if not entirely sessile, is the male amen- 
tum produced. This is between four and five inches long, 
ovate. Scales large, loosely imbricated, ferruginously 
downy ; the lower half tapering, inserted horizontally, the 
upper half takes a curvature upwards and tapers into an 
erect, sharpened, and long point. Upon these scales, on 
the under side of the lower half, the numerous Anthers are 

crowded 



2X27. 




WT,7:z:ct#t*' 



fu&. by S l 'urfit. PalworifcJnni. JJ#2£. 



crowded together, sometimes singly, sometimes two, three, 
or four together, in which latter case the opening of each 
anther, which is one celled, is interiorly. The consistence 
of these is horny ; and they contain within them a pale 
yellow pollen, which, if I have seen it in a perfect state, 
is roundish, angular, and pellucid. 

The Female Plant, which I have not seen, according 
to Richard, throws up likewise from the extremity of the 
trunk, among the leaves, a cluster of numerous spadices, 
(tab. 2827, f. 1.) a foot long, somewhat imbricated, clothed 
with a reddish down, of a thick coriaceous texture, the ex- 
tremity lanceolate, acuminate, and serrated, tapering below. 
Beneath the extremity the margin is broadly sinuato- 
dentate, and within each projection, or tooth-like process, 
is, pointing upwards, a cavity, in which is almost half 
immersed the solitary female flower. The same author, 
Richard, takes the following view of the structure of each 
flower. It is subglobose, about the size of a pea, and 
resembles a naked pistil, slightly depressed at the top, and 
there having a small, cylindrical, perforated papilla, re- 
sembling a stigma. Tab. 2827, f. 2, represents a female 
flower, cut through vertically; a. the fleshy calyx or single 
perianth, surrounding the flower ; b. its perforated cylin- 
drical mouth or limb ; c. the inner indurated or nucumen- 
taceous portion of the calyx ; d. a somewhat fungous 
substance filling the internal cavity of the calyx, and ad- 
hering to the half-immersed germen in the centre ; e. the 
superior and free part of the germen. Other Botanists, 
and amongst them Mr. Brown, seem rather disposed to 
consider the female flower as a monospermous pistil, having 
no proper floral envelope. Of the female fructification, I 
have only seen the perfeet/rw#, and of that but a single spe- 
cimen, which I have here figured. In it I perceive nothing 
to militate against its being destitute of any floral envelope; 
hence I shall adopt the terms simply applied to a fruit, 
considering the whole as a Drupa *, about the size of that 
of a walnut, roundish-oval, smooth, glabrous, reddish - 
orange, having a small perforation at the top, f. 3. The 
outer pulpy portion is about half a line thick, which sur- 

* Not to multiply figures unnecessarily, I may refer to the Section of the 
female flower, tab. 2827, f. 2, which will equally serve to illustrate Richard's 
ideas of the fruit. The germen, f. e, being with him of course the fruit ; his 
Nucleus still immersed in the fungous substance, f. d. AH without ttat (his 
calyx) equally accompanies the fruit as the flower. This fungous substance, 
however, did not exist in my fruit. 

rounds 



rounds the corneous or subosseous thinner coat. Imme- 
diately within that, and free from adhesion with it, is a 
beautiful membranaceous lining, of a rich brown colour, 
marked with longitudinal veins, as seen when held up be- 
tween the eye and the light. A portion is represented at tab. 
2827, f. 5. a. It immediately surrounds (but has no con- 
nection with it, except at the very point) the almond, or oval, 
carnose, yellowish -white albumen, having a depression at 
the top conducting to the embryo, which is imbedded in a 
cylindrical cavity in the upper half of the albumen, attached 
by its radicle to the upper extremity of the cavity by means 
of a flat, white, membranaceous filament, which is curiously 
folded, and so compactly, as to occupy a very small space 
in the top of the cell; but which may, without rupturing it, 
be drawn out to the length of an inch and a half, or two 
inches. Cotyledons two, straight, cylindrical flattened in 
the inside, one a little longer than the other, and closely 
applied ; but easily separated, and thin at the base. F. 7. 
is seen lodged in a cavity of the two cotyledons, the plumule 
of two lobes, in this instance. Radicle conical, tapering 
into the curious filamentous stalk above mentioned. 

Of the four species of Cycas, now enumerated as being 
cultivated in our gardens, only one has hitherto been re- 
corded as having flowered with us; namely, the Cycas 
revoluta, of which a description and a splendid figure has 
been given by Sir James Smith, in the sixth volume of the 
Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London. It was, 
therefore, with no small pleasure that I was invited, by my 
excellent friend Dr. Graham, to visit the Edinburgh Botanic 
Garden, in the month of May, 1827, for the purpose of 
seeing the Cycas circinalis, which had thrown up from 
among its noble crown of leaves, a perfect Male Amentum. 
From that plant my figure and description have been taken ; 
and in order to render its history more complete, I have 
copied a female spadix from Richard's inestimable work 
on the Conifers, together with & female flower; and to 
them I have added an analysis of a ripe fruit, which was 
sent to me from St. Helena, by the kindness of his Excellency 
General Walker. The species has been cultivated in 
our stoves for upwards of a century; the Sioanean MSS. 
in the British Museum, as quoted in Hortus Kewensis, 
stating it to have been introduced in 1700, by the Earl 
of Clarendon ; and it is, assuredly, one of the most orna- 
mental of all plants, but requiring a great deal of space for 
the display of its leaves. Its native country is the East 

Indies 



Indies, especially the Molucca Isles, where the fruit is eaten, 
and where a substance is said to be taken from the stem 
resembling the Sago produced by the trunks of many Palms' 
But this is probably a mistake; at any rate, it is by no means 
from this tree, as some have supposed, nor from any species 
of Cycas, that the Sago of the Shops is produced, but from 
a species of Sagus *, a true Palm, though from what parti- 
cular species, or whether any one exclusively, does not 
appear to be yet ascertained. In the gardens and plan- 
tations towards the sea-coast of the Southern provinces of 
Malabar, according to Dr. (Buchanan) Hamilton's Travels 
in the Mysore, vol. 2. p. 469, the Cycas circinalis, called 
Indu by the natives (Todd a panna of the Hortus Mala- 
baricus) is very common ; but it grows spontaneously from 
the nuts that accidentally fall. The nuts are collected ; 
and having been dried for a month in the sun, are beaten 
in a mortar, and the kernels formed into a flour, which 
the natives eat and call Indum Podi. It is reckoned supe- 
rior to the flour obtained from the stem of the Erimpanna 
(Caryota); but is only used by the poor, who, between the 
14th of July and the 13th of September, are in danger of 
perishing: it is prepared during the former month, and 
cannot be preserved longer than the end of the latter. 
When Rheede speaks of the Sago produced from the 
Todda panna, of which bread is made, he evidently con- 
founds some Japanese Palm which produces Sago, with the 
Cycas circinalis, and has thus, probably, misled others, 
with regard to the produce of the trunk of the Cycas. 

In Europe, the Catholics employ the leaves of the Phce- 
nix dactylifera f on their Palm Sundays and other festival 
days, as do the Jews on the feast of the Passover. Those 
Malabars who profess to be converted to Christianity by St. 
Thomas, and who are thus called Thomaeans, Rheede tells 

* Dr. Hamilton, indeed, considers the Sagus genuina of Rumphius (the 
S. inermis of Roxb. Hort. Ben. and S. Rumphii of Wii.ld.) to be the tree 
which yields the best Sago, and the S.farinifera of Lamarck, the worst of 
all the four or five kinds described in the Herbarium Amboynense. 

t The Date Palm, which in all probability afforded the Palm leaves 
that were strewed on the ground, to welcome our Saviour's entrance at 
Jerusalem. This plant is cultivated at the Isles d'Hyeres, San Remo, Nice, 
Genoa, &c. and more especially at Bordighiera, a small place of the Sardinian 
States, in the territory of Genoa, where it constitutes a very important article 
of commerce, in the exportation of the leaves. They are sold in the spring, 
for Palm Sunday, and in the autumn, for the Passover of the Jews. Several 
vessels quit Bordighiera with this singular freight, and some go so far as 
Holland, where great quantities of the Palm leaves are bought by the Jews. 

US, 



us, adorn their temples on festival days with the leaves of 
the Cycas circinalis, because they do not soon fade ; and 
on this account the Portuguese call them Palma de' Igreria 
or Armatoria das Igrerias. At Rouen, on Palm Sunday, I 
have seen the leaves of the same plant carried in procession, 
and which had been procured from the Botanic Garden there. 
The natural family to which this plant should belong 
has engaged the attention of various Botanists ; it has even 
been questioned in which of the three great classes of 
the vegetable kingdom, the Monocotyledones, the Dicoty- 
ledones, or the Acotyledones, it should be placed. Linnsus 
ranked it among the Palms, but at the same time, justly 
observed "Foliatio circinalis more Filicum peragitur ;" Jus- 
sieu and Ventenat, along with the Ferns ; Jacquin, in an 
artificial system, considered it to belong to the Class Dkecia, 
and Order Polyandria ; Smith looked upon it, along with 
Zamia, as constituting an intermediate Order between 
the Palms and the Filices. In Persoon's Synopsis, the 
Natural Order Cycades is established; and the place of 
it suggested, corresponding with the ideas just mentioned 
of Sir James Smith. Our learned countryman, Mr. Brown, 
in his inestimable Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae, has 
placed the Order the last of the Monocotyledones, immedi- 
ately before the Dicotyledones ; calling the embryo, indeed, 
pseudo-dicotyledoneus. The true structure of this embryo, 
is now completely ascertained by the labours of Du Petit 
Thouars, and the late admirable Richard ; and this latter 
has determined it to have the closest affinity with the 
Dicotyledonous plants; and amongst them, with the Coni- 
fers, near which he consequently places the Order. Here, 
however, it must be acknowledged that the natural habit 
and aspect of the vegetation, are sacrificed to minute 
differences in the fructification. In the structure of the 
stem, in the mode of growth, in the situation and appear- 
ance of tlie leaves, the Cycas has the closest affinity with 
the Palms, and is in these particulars as far removed as 
can be from the Pines. 

On the peculiar structure of the flowers, especially the 
female ones, of Cycas, Richard, has written fully in the 
Memoir es surles Conifer es et les Cycadees; and Mr. Brown, 
in the Botanical Appendix to the " Narrative of a Survey of 
the Coast of Australia," p. 554. To them I must refer my 
readers for valuable information on that head. Those dis- 
quisitions are too long to be here introduced, and too im- 
portant 



portant to be injured by curtailment. They are slightly 
noticed in the above description of the female flower. 

I may here point out some differences which will be^found 
to exist between the figures in the splendid work of M. 
Richard, and those here given. There, at tab. 24, the 
stems, as in Rheede's figures, are very strongly annulated ; 
more so, as Dr. Hamilton remarks regarding the latter, 
than he ever observed on the growing plant; and which 
have, probably, that gentleman thinks, prevented Dr. 
Roxburgh from quoting them in his Hortus Benghalensis. 
The male amentum too, at fig. A ., is more pedunculated 
than in our plant, and the scales of it far more closely imbri- 
cated. Again, their scales, represented of the natural size, 
at tab. 25, are more elongated at the base, and very much 
less so at the extremity. At tab. 26. fig. D. the true fruit 
of Richard, (f. 5.) which corresponds with what I call the 
seed, is represented, as more than half immersed in a fun- 
gous substance. This I did not find to exist in the only 
individual I examined, but which was in a state of great 
perfection. Immediately within the subosseous covering, 
was the brown membranous integument enveloping the 
albumen : the albumen, (nucleus of Richard), fig. D, E, 
is far broader at the base than in my specimen, and the 
embryo, occupies a much greater portion of it. This 
embryo, too, f. F, G, has the cotyledons united for the 
greater part of the length ; whereas, I found them, though 
closely applied, unquestionably divided for their whole 
length, and easily separated without causing the slightest 
rupture, as far as the plumule, which, in my specimen, was 
formed of two lobes; in Richard's figure H, f. 2, of one. 



Tab. 2826. 1. Ctcas circinalis, Male Flowering Plant, reduced to about ,\ 
of the Size of the Plant of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. 2. Male Amen- 
tum.— Natural size. 3. Upper Side of a Scale of the Male Amentum. 4. 
Under Side of Ditto.— Natural size. 5, 6, 7- Anther. 8. Pollen.— Mag- 
nified. 9. Small Pinna from a Leaf.— Natural size. 

Tab. 2827. 1. Female Spadix (copied from Richabp). 2. Single Female 
Flower. — Magnified ; also copied from Richard. The letters are referred 
to in the description above given of that part. 3. Fruit. — Natural size. 4. 
Partial Section of Ditto, the Pulpy Coat being removed from the upper part. 
5. Section of the Albumen, showing the Insertion of the Embryo, a portion 
of the membranous covering above described remaining at a. 6. Embryo, 
with its filamentous Stalk drawn out. 7- Portion of the Embryo ; one 
Lobe of the Cotyledons, 8, being removed to shew the Plumule. — Mag- 
nified. 



282S. 




■ ffu^orM 



( 2S2S ) 

Solanum Balbisii; var. purpurea. Balbis' 
nightshade; purple-flowered var. 

Class and Order. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — SoLANACEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. monophyllus, persistens. Cor. monopetala, rotata. 
Anthera oblonga?, apice poris duobus dehiscentes. Bacca 
bi- tri-quadrilocularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Solanum Balbisii; caule fruticoso hirsuto aculeato, foliis 
pinnatifidis, laciniis acutis sinuato-dentatis, racemis 
(florum) cymosis lateralibus terminalibusque. 

(a.) floribus albis. 

Solanum Balbisii. Dunal Solan, p. 232. t. 3.f. D. Roan 
et Schultes Si/st. Veget. v. 4. p. 656. Spreng. Si/st. 
Veget. v.l.p. 687. Bot. Mag. t. 2668. 

Solanum decurreiis. Balb. Icones et Descr. fasc. I. p. 17. 
t. 1. 

Solanum sisymbrifolium. Encycl. Bot. v. 4. p. 307. 

Solanum inflatum. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. v. I. p. 221. 

Solanum viscosum. Lagasca Gen. et Sp. p. 10. n. 145. 

Solanum brancaefoiium. Jacq. Eclog. p. 14. t. 7. 

(/3.) floribus purpureis. 



Descr. Somewhat shrubby, two to three feet high, and 
branched ; stem, leaves, peduncle, and calyx pubescenti- 
hirsute, glandular, and armed with numerous, deep orange- 
coloured aculei, from one or two lines, to three-fourths of 
an inch long-. Leaves on long petioles, narrow, ovate in 
their circumscription, deeply pinnatifid, the segments sinu- 
ato-lobate : their aculei arise from the mid-rib and prin- 
cipal 



cipal nerves. Racemes cauline, four to six inches long, bear- 
ing very large flowers, which are subcymose, and which, in 
fruit, are much elongated. Calyx 5-fid, small, afterwards 
becoming, as well as itsaculei, vastly enlarged, and persist- 
ing with the fruit. Corolla rotate, beautiful bluish purple. 
Stamens five, equal, free; anthers yellow. Germen globu- 
lar : style short, stigma capitate. Fruit globose, as large 
as a cherry, yellow-brown, orange when ripe, surrounded 
by the enlarged and somewhat inflated calyx : two-celled, 
with three fleshy receptacles in each cell, to which are at- 
tached numerous reniform, margined seeds. 

This highly beautiful variety of Solanum Balbisii, has 
been raised from Brazilian seeds, by Robert Barclay, Esq. 
at Bury Hill, where the accompanying drawing was made 
in November of last year. The fruit is no less singular 
than the flowers are shewy, for it is large, and covered with 
the enlarged calyx, and its richly-coloured aculei : so that 
the plant is highly deserving a place in every stove. I 
may observe, that there is, in Mr. Barclay's collection, also 
raised from Brazilian seeds, a third variety of this species, 
having pale blue flowers, and shorter and paler coloured 
aculei. 



Fig. 1. Stamens. Magnified. 2. Fruit, with its persistent, and enlarged 
Calyx. — Natural size. 



anna. 




j°&£ ir S. Cxriis. »i//trr7TA /bmrJJMit. 



( 2829 ) 

Pranciscea Hopeana. Short-Flowered 
Franciscea. 

***************** 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA AnGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Scrophulariple. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. persistens, inflatus, campanulatus, quinquedentatus : 
dentibus aequalibus. Corolla hypocrateriformis ; limbus 
quinquepartitus, subaequalis; lobis rotundatis, repandis, 
margineincumbentibus, tuboapice inflate- incurvato. Stylus 
apice incrassatus. Stigma bilobum. Capsula ovata, bilo- 
cularis, bivalvis, valvuiis impartibilibus. Pohl. 

Specific Character. 

Franciscea Hopeana; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis glaberri- 
mis, floribus (plerumque) solitariis ramis brevibus fo- 
liosis terminalibus, corollae tubo calyce campanulato 
panlulum breviore. 



Descr. This plant has at present only become a small 
branching shrub in the stove, eight to ten inches high. 
Branches generally short and spreading. Leaves rather 
numerous, alternate, between membranaceous and coria- 
ceous, oblongo-laneeolate, rather acute, quite entire, dark 
green, paler beneath, obscurely nerved, petiolated ; petioles 
short. Flowers very fragrant in the living specimens, so- 
litary ; in our dried nature ones frequently two together, 
terminating short leafy branches. Stipules, none, or so deci- 
duous, as, in the specimen we have examined, entirely to 
have disappeared. Calyx campanulate, below tubular, with 
five equal acute teeth. " Corolla with the tube, much 
narrower than the calyx, curved, pale ; limb of five spread- 
ing, rounded, waved, purple lobes, the mouth yellow at 

the 



the lower margin. Stamens four, didynamous ; filaments, 
subulate, purple, decurrent : Anthers transverse, one celled, 
glabrous, upon a thickened apex of the filament. Pistil: 
Germen ovate, two celled, situated within a fleshy ring ; 
cells having many seeds attached to a rounded, central re- 
ceptacle : Style filiform, thickened, compressed ; the epi- 
dermis corrugated, especially upwards : Stigma (not bifid) 
gaping; with a green, viscid, fungous substance at the 
mouth for retaining the pollen/ 5 Lindley MSS. 

Seven species of this genus have been figured, and de- 
scribed by Dr. Pohl, in his splendid :c Plantarum Brasiliae 
Icones et Descriptiones hactenus ineditae ;" which genus, 
that author has dedicated to the Emperor of Austria, 
Francis the First. Yet, of those seven species, not one 
can be said so entirely to accord with the present, as to 
enable me to satisfy myself, that it is there described. 
Either the individuals of the genus, therefore, are liable to 
much variation, or ours must be reckoned a new species. 
It differs remarkably from all, particularly from the few 
flowered kinds, by the shortness of the tube of the corolla. 
And that, in this respect, the plant is not liable to vary 
much, we may conjecture from the circumstance, of the 
wild specimen I have received from Wm. Swainson, Esq., 
gathered by him at Pernambuco in Brazil, being exactly 
the same. The F. uniflora of Pohl comes, perhaps, the 
nearest to it ; but, that I possess from Dr. Martius, and 
the tube of the corolla is at least twice as long as in our 
plant, and the leaves are more inclined to obovate. 

The specimen from which the accompanying figure was 
taken, flowered in the stove of Robert Barclay, Esq., 
at Bury Hill. It was first sent from Brazil, by Marshal 
Beresford, to his sister Mrs. Thomas Hope, of Deepden, 
Surry, who has thus been the means of introducing to our 
stoves a most interesting and desirable plant ; for not only 
are the flowers of a rich purple-blue colour, but they are 
excessively fragrant. 

Mr. Lindley had already made some sketches and notes 
upon this plant, which he very kindly communicated to 
me ; and of which I have availed myself in the above de- 
scription. 



Fig. 1. Calyx. 2. Portion of the Corolla with the Stamens. 3. Pistil. 
4. Stigma and the upper part of the Style. 5. Section of the Germen. — 
Magnified. 




Uw/rth, Ju • 



( 2830 ) 

OXALIS ROSEA, Ot. RoSE-COLOURED OxALIS. 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Pentagynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — OxalidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5-sepalus, sepalis liberis aut basi coalitis, Pet. 5. 
Stem. 10, filamentis basi breviter monadelphis, alternisbre- 
vioribus. Capsula pentagona, oblonga aut cylindracea. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Oxalis rosea; caule erecto ramoso, peduncuiis axillaribus 

longissimis apice corymboso-racernosis, foliolis obcor- 

datis. 
(*.) floribus majoribus petalis lineatis roseis apice crenatis. 
Oxalis rosea. Jacq. Oxal. n. 5. p. 25. De Cand. Syst. 

Veget.v.l.p.693. 
Oxalis floribunda. " Lehmann. in Litt." Bot. Reg. t. 

1123. 
Oxalis racemosa. Lam. Diet. v."4t. p. 684. 
Oxvs roseofiore ereetior, vulgo Culle, p. 133. t. 23. 
(<3.) floribus minoribus, petalis vix lineatis rubris apice in- 

tegerrimis. 
Oxalis rosea. Sims in Bot. Mag. t. 2415. 



Descr. Stem herbaceous, erect, much branched, terete, 
glabrous, subpellucid, leafy. Leaves ternate ; leaflets ob- 
cordate, minutely hairy, sessile upon the common peduncle, 
which is about an inch long, swollen at the base. Pedun- 
cles numerous, four to five inches long, glabrous, swollen 
at the base, at the extremity bearing two, forked, few- 
flowered racemes, with a solitary pedicellated flower in the 
axil. Pedicels, at first drooping, in flower erect, in fruit 
refracted. Calyx of five, ovate, acute leaflets, bearing two 

yellow, 



yellow, oblong glands at the points. Corolla large, showy. 
Petals obcordato-cuneate, somewhat clawed, the base white, 
the rest rose-coloured, marked with darker lines, the extre- 
mity crenate. Stamens ten, inserted upon a five-toothed, 
deep, cup-shaped, white, fleshy nectary : the five longer 
filaments within the teeth ; the five shorter ones situated in 
the sinuses of the teeth. Anther roundish, yellow. Styles 
hairy ; Stigmas capitate, gland ulous. 

Raised from seeds sent by our friend A. Cruickshanrs, 
from Valparaiso. It is one of the handsomest, if not the 
very handsomest of this beautiful Genus, rising to a height 
of a foot, or a foot and a half, and covered with the fine 
rose-coloured blossoms, which it bears for very many weeks 
in succession. We have hitherto, in the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden, kept it in a cool part of the stove, where it pro- 
mises to ripen its seeds well. The flowering season with us 
has been March and April. 

It is assuredly the O.jloribundaof Lehmann and Lindley. 
The Oxalis rosea, with small red, scarcely lined flowers 
figured at p. 2415 of the Botanical Magazine, may, pro- 
bably, be a distinct species. Ours is surely the " Oxys roseo 
Jlore, erectior, vulgo Culle," which comes from the same 
country, " moist humid places in the kingdom of Chili, in 
the thirty-seventh degree of South latitude/' The Indians 
there make use of it mixed with other plants as a dye. 



Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Flower deprived of the Petals. 3. Stamens enclosing 
the Pistil. 4. Portion of the nectary with Stamens. — Magnified. 




*\Z2 r <jW* 



ru2>. &» Jl Curtis. fTaiir,.'rM.J//m 21<f2<9. 



( 2831 ) 

Encyclia viridiflora. Green-flowered 

Encyclia. 

A'- A'. A'. A'. A'. A'- .4*, A/, A/, i^. ^ A/. A/. Af, A/ r .^T .^ - 'i'- A/- A/. ,^. 

>r» <T» <!» "^ VtS <t» <t> M> 'K «t* <t> ■t- M> '!> 4* MS -T- -t> MS <$» <*> 

C&m cnc? Order. 
Gynandria MonAndria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium rectum, subconnivens, laciniis subaequalibus. 
Columna libera, aptera, labello trilobo ecalcarato arete 
circumvoluta. Anthera terminalis, 4-locularis. Masses 
pollinis 4, per pares filo elastico in ipsis reflexo connexae. 

Specific Name. 
Encyclia viridiflora. 



Descr. The base of the plant is occupied by a roundish 
bulb, larger than a nutmeg, around which is the sheathing 
scariose base of an old leaf. From the top of this bulb 
spring two, linear-lanceolate, carinate, stiff and rigid, some- 
what coriaceous leaves. Scape nearly a foot high at the 
extremity, branching into a panicle, each branch spreading, 
bearing six or eight flowers ; which, from the circumstance 
of the germen not being twisted, are considered to be in 
their natural, though not usual position ; the back of the 
labellum being uppermost. Perianth or petals of five, 
nearly equal, lanceolate, green, scarcely striated segments, 
the two uppermost standing a little on each side the label- 
lum, somewhat falcate ; the three lower patenti-incurved, at 
length, in age, reflexed. Labellum oblong, greenish -brown, 
with red streaks, and a red margin, the sides remarkably 
convolute, so as to embrace and conceal the column, at the 
extremity three-lobed ; lobes nearly equal, short ; the mid- 
dle one much waved at the margin : at the base within, is 



a large,, fleshy, oblong gland, or tubercle, grooved in the 
middle, white, with red lines. Column much snorter than the 
labellum, semiterete, greenish and white ; its plane side 
beautifully streaked and dotted with red. Stigma large, 
concave, with a triangular projecting lip above it. An- 
ther terminal, deep purple, fixed by its back, four celled, 
containing four deep-yellow, plano-convex, waxy pollen- 
masses, joined in pairs by means of the stalks, which are 
pressed against the edges of the pollen-masses, in the same 
way the radicle of the embryo of many cruciferous plants 
is turned up and pressed against the cotyledons. Germen 
resembling a pedicel, club-shaped, streaked and purplish 
upwards. 

From the collection of Mrs. Arnold Harrison, of Aig- 
burgh, near Liverpool, where it flowered in the stove, 
in the month of February, 1828. It was introduced into 
the garden of that lady by her brother, William Harrison, 
Esq., of Rio, who gathered it in the neighbourhood of that 
place. 

It would appear unnatural to arrange this singular Or- 
chideous plant along with the splendid species of Cattleya : 
yet, in point of essential character, it is very closely allied 
to it, and like it, unquestionably belongs to Mr. Lindley's 
tribe of Epidendree. I have, however averse to multiply- 
ing the Genera, already so much increased, of this family, 
felt myself under the necessity of giving a new name to this 
plant, which I have derived from the circumstance of the 
column of fructification being inclosed in, or wrapped round 
by, the labellum*. It is not, however, in this particular 
that it differs from Cattleya ; but, simply, in the decidedly 
straight, not resupinate flower, in the less patent petals, 
and in its very different habit. 



* Encyclia, from ty*x*>6<», circumvolvo. 



Fig. ] . Flower. 2. Labellum inclosing the Column, in their natural posi- 
tion. 3. Front view of the Labellum. 4. Column. 5. Underside of the 
Anther-case. 6. Pollen Masses, more or less magnified. 



2852. 




( 2832 ) 

OENOTHERA LlNDLEYII. LARGE-FLOWERED 
FOUR-SPOTTED OENOTHERA. 

Class and Order 

OCTANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Onagrarle. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 4-fidus, tubulosus. Petala 4, calyci inserta. Cap- 
sula 4-locularis, 4-valvis, infera. Semina comosa. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

(Enothera Lindleyii; caule adscendente diffuso, foliis 
lineari-lanceolatis glabris integerrimis, capsulis tere- 
tibus elongatis acutis foliis longioribus, petal is disco - 
loribus integris. Douglas. 

(Enothera Lindleyii. Douglas, MSS. 



Descr. Stem ascending, numerously branched with flexile 
twiggy branches. Leaves alternate, linear - lanceolate, 
entire, glabrous, on short footstalks. Flowers axillary, 
sessile. Segment of the calyx twice as short as the petals. 
Petals of the corolla broadly obovate, entire, of a deli- 
cate lilac colour, with a purple spot in the centre of each. 
Filaments of the stamens unequal, four long and four short. 
Anthers linear-oblong, yellow. Stigma deeply four lobed, 
pale yellow. Capsule sessile, linear, an inch and a half 
long, cylindrical, destitute of furrows, and glabrous. 

The present handsome species of (Enothera is allied to 
CE. Romanzovii, (E. purpurea, (E. quadrivulnera, and (E. 
tenella, from all which it is manifestly distinguished by the 
greater length of the capsule. Its nearest affinity is with 
the last mentioned, but it is a far more robust and yet pro- 
cumbent or ascendant plant. In the spotting of the petals 
there is moreover an approach to (E. quadrivulnera, but 

here 



here the flowers are much larger, quite entire at the mar- 
gin, and the capsule is terete or cylindrical, not furrowed. 
It is a hardy annual, a foot or eighteen inches in the length 
of the stems, flowering in the open border, from June till it 
is destroyed by the frosts ; hence it is a most desirable 
inmate of the garden. Douglas. 

Introduced by the Horticultural Society from the North- 
West Coast of America, where it was found in 1826, in the 
dry, woodless part of the interior, by that zealous col- 
lector and traveller, Mr. David Douglas, who is engaged 
in preparing the narrative of his interesting journey and a 
description of his discoveries, for publication. It has been 
his wish that it should bear the name of John Lindley, Esq. 
P.R.S.*, and I am happy in the opportunity of thus laying 
it before the public. 

The drawing was made at the Horticultural Society's 
garden, Chiswick, in October, 1826, and Mr. Douglas him- 
self has been so good as to communicate to me his descrip- 
tion. 



Recently appointed Botanical Professor in the London University. 



Fig. 1. Stamens. 2. Stigma. — Magnified. 3. Leaf from the lower part 
of the stem.— Nat. size. 




■ 
















i ■ ■ QJffK 


illfill 










I 


3?t?£w3^^H 












Wtf/rorl/t. ,/}//: 



( 2a33 2834 ) 

Artocarpus integrifolia. Jack Tree, or 
Entire-leaved Bread Fruit. 

****************** 

Class and Order. 

MoNCSCIA MONANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Urtice^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores amentacei. Masc. Perianthium simplex, di- tri- 
phyllum. Filamentum longitudinal perianthii. Fjem. Peri- 
anthium monophyllum, ore contracto. Bacca composita. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Artocarpus integrifolia; foliis obovato-oblongis glabris 

subtus scabris, junioribus non raro trilobis, floribus e 

ramulis propriis caulis. 
Artocarpus integrifolia. Linn. Suppl. p. 412. Willd. Sp. 

PL v. 4. p. 189. JRoxb. PI. Corom. v. 3. p. 46. t. 250. 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 804. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 

2.v.b. p. 231. 
Artocarpus. Jacq. Lam. Encycl. v. 3. p. 209. Illustr. t. 745. 
Artocarpus heterophylla. Lam Encycl. v. 3. p. 209. 
Rademachia integra. " Thunb. Act. Holm. v. 36. p. 252." 
Polyphema Jaca. Loureiro Fl. Cochin, p. 346. 
Sitodium cauliflorum. Gcertn. Fruct. v.l.p. 345. t. 71 . et 72. 
Tsjaca-marum. Rheede Hort. Mai. v. 3. p. 17. /. 26, 27, 2S. 
Soccus arboreus, major et minor. Rumph. Amb. v. I. p. 

\04.L30et3l. 



Descr. This forms a good-sized tree in the West Indies, 
reaching to the height of thirty feet, with a diameter of 
eleven or twelve inches : but in the East Indies, Roxburgh 
assures us, the circumference of the trunk is from eight to 
twelve feet, covered with dark - coloured, deeply- cracked 
bark. Every part of the tree yields a copious milky juice 
when wounded. Branches numerous, spreading in every 
direction, and forming so large a top, and so thickly clothed 

with 



with leaves, that Bory de St. Vincent informs us, they do 
not leave the smallest passage for the rays of the sun. 
Leaves four to six inches long, bursting from a pair of 
large, deciduous stipules, varying much in different parts of 
the plant : those of the fertile branchlets are such as are 
here represented, nearly obovate and entire : those from 
the higher branches are more obovate and oblong : whilst 
those produced by the young shoots from the root are often 
very narrow, or cut into two or three oblong lobes, making 
an approach, as Mr. Guilding observes, to the leaves of 
Artocarpus incisa. All of them are of a thickish, some- 
what coriaceous texture, smooth above, rough with minute 
hairs beneath, somewhat obtuse at the point, at the base 
attenuated into a short footstalk. 

The flowers, both male and female, are produced not 
only on the same plant, but, generally, on the same pecu- 
liar branchlet, springing from the trunk of the tree, or some 
of its main branches. The male mostly appear laterally, 
the female solitary and terminal. 

Male Flowers exceedingly densely crowded on the out- 
side of a large, fleshy, pedunculated, central receptacle, so 
as to constitute an amentum, very minute ; consisting each 
of a single stamen, having a flattened, white filament, and a 
two-lobed, yellow anther, included within a two, more 
rarely a three-leaved, single perianth, of which the leaflets 
or scales are oblong-obtuse, downy at the top, about equal 
in length with the stamen. A transverse section shews 
these beautifully radiating from the circumference of the 
spongy centre. This amentum is at first covered (and 
frequently accompanied by a leaf) with the stipules, which 
thus seem to act the part of a spatha. 

Female flowers equally surrounding a large, fleshy recep- 
tacle, much crowded, so as to form an oblong, tuberculated 
mass of Jlowers ; each of which consists simply of an oblong, 
tubular perianth, green, contracted at the mouth, which 
surrounds the pistil in the same manner as the urceolate 
perianth of the Genus Carex : convex, and generally hex- 
angular at the top. Within is seen, at the base, the small 
ovate germen, bearing from its side the white style, whose 
simple, clavate, curved stigma passes through the aperture 
of the perianth. In advancing to maturity, this amentum, 
or spadix, as it might be called, swells in every direction, 
and becomes a muricate or papiilose, compound, fleshy, 
oblong fruit, of a yellowish colour, and of most enormous 
size, often exceeding seventy or eighty pounds in weight, 
and of a structure that deserves more particular consider- 
ation 




JTaltrortft, Julv 1.1$ 2 8. 



ation. On viewing a section, made transversely, we observe 
in the centre, the soft, fleshy receptacle, and surrounding 
this, and radiating towards the circumference, we find two 
bodies : the one very numerous, narrow, long, and stringy, 
or having a fibrous texture, conical and angular at the 
top, and terminated by the stigma: these are abortive 
florets : the enlarged perianths having the imperfect ger- 
men at the base (t. 2834, f. 1.). Imbedded among these 
are large, fleshy, brownish -yellow bodies, two or three 
inches long, almost elliptical, with an acuminated point : 
these are the fertile perianths, prodigiously enlarged in size 
and in thickness, and constituting, indeed, the eatable part of 
the fruit. The transverse section, just alluded to, has cut 
through several of these partial coverings to the fruit, and 
exhibits to us the real oval fruit itself in the inside, which, 
in the state of the germen, only occupied the base of the 
perianth, but which now reaches to the centre. Pericarp, 
a thin, brown membrane, soon bursting, easily separating 
from the seed, and bearing the withered style, still attached 
to it. Seed large, oblongo-oval, attached by the centre of 
one side, which is more flattened than the other ; pale 
brown : this has a double integument ; on removing the 
outer one, a brown, inner coat appears, and the radicle at 
the top becomes visible : on separating this, the embryo, 
(t. 2834, f. 14.) destitute of albumen, comes in sight, and the 
two very unequal cotyledons are distinctly seen. 

This highly interesting and (in our gardens) rare plant, having 
flowered in December of last year, (1827) in the stove of the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden; and having besides received a splen- 
did series of drawings of the fruit, as well as flower, made from 
the living plants in St. Vincent, by my often-mentioned friend, 
the Rev. L. Guilding, I gladly embrace the opportunity which 
is thus afforded me, of publishing its figure and description in the 
Botanical Magazine. 

It is a native of very many parts of the continent, and of the 
islands in the East Indies, especially the Molucca Islands, and, 
according to Roxburgh, is cultivated very generally through the 
warmer regions of Asia, on account of the use that is made of its 
fruit and seeds. This curiously muricated fruit, which appears to 
vary considerably in shape, as to its comparative length and 
breadth, Mr. Guilding reckons among the largest that is known; 
often weighing, as we have already stated, seventy or eighty 
pounds. The fleshy part of the fruit is eaten in the East Indies ; 
but authors vary in opinion in regard to the quality of it ; yet all 
allow that it is difficult of digestion. Mr. Marsden says, it is 
of a rich, and, to strangers, too strong a smell and flavour, but 
which gains upon the palate. In the West Indies, " it has a strong, 
sweetish, and, to some persons, offensive smell, and is but seldom 

eaten ; 



eaten; and when rotting under the tree, the odour is highly 
disgusting : in this state affording support to hundreds of Curcu- 
lionidece, Staphylinidece, Forficulce, #c." (Guilding MSS.) The 
seeds, however, are allowed by all to be good, and even when 
roasted, to have the taste of chesnuts. In Amboyna, the bats 
greedily devour this fruit, and, passing the seeds entire, thus 
aid the more extended propagation of the plant. In Ceylon, 
where the tree grows most plentifully, and where it attains the 
greatest size and perfection, it forms a considerable part of the 
diet of the natives, at particular times of the year. The unripe 
fruit is also used pickled, or cut into slices and boiled, or fried in 
Palm oil. The wood itself is like mahogany in colour, when it 
has been for some time exposed to the air: and in some parts of 
India, is on that account employed to make furniture of. It is 
more commonly employed in building houses, for which it is well 
suited. From the juice or milk, a very viscid bird-lime is made. 
The tree seems naturalized in the West Indies, particularly in 
the island of St. Vincent. It was probably introduced there by 
the late Dr. Anderson, and constitutes one of the peculiar fea- 
tures of its Botanic Garden. Mr. Guilding says, in his inter- 
esting account of that establishment, a Assembled together are the 
various fruits transplanted from the islands of Asia and other 
distant lands, or the nations of the Antilles, attracting by their 
nectared flowers, the gaudy humming birds. You behold the 
Bread Fruit (Artocarpus incisa) of the Friendly Islands, the 
most precious gift of Pomona, and the Jack of India (Artocar- 
pus integrifolia) bearing its ponderous fruit of sixty or seventy 
pounds, on the trunk and arms — huge deformities for the lap of 
Flora." 

The Flowers have a sweet smell, and are produced, in the 
tropics, in the months of January and February. The fruit ripens 
in August and September. 

We see no reason for making two species of this plant as 
Lamarck has done ; for it is very certain, that, as far as leaves 
are concerned, the two kinds, with entire and cut leaves, are 
found on the same plant. The different quality and flavour of 
the fruit described by authors, probably depend upon cultivation. 
Into England, the Jack Tree was introduced in 1778, by Sir 
Edward Hughes, K. B. 



Tab. 2833. Fig. 1. Small Branch of the Jack Tree, with a Male and 
Female Amentum, and the two Bractese, enclosing another Male Amentum or 
Spadix : reduced to one-third of the natural size. 2. Male Amentum, natu- 
ral size. 3. Ripe Fruit, very much diminished. 

Tab. 2834. Fig. 4. Male Flower,* or Stamen, with its two-leaved Peri- 
anth. 5. Female Flower, or Pistil, enclosed within its monophyllous Perianth. 
6. Germen and part of the Style. 7- Portion of the Ripe Fruit, less than the 
natural size. 8. Abortive Female Flowers : one of them cut open below, to 
shew the Pistil within. 9. Ripe Fruit, natural size, surrounded by the 
enlarged, soft, fleshy Perianth. 10. The same cut open to shew the Fruit 
within, the Pericarp already beginning to burst and shew the seed within. 
11. Seed. 12. The same deprived of its Outer Coat. 13. Section of the 
same. 14. Embryo, taken entire from the Seed.— Fig. 4, 6, and 7 only, 
magnified. 




irs/rj*/* 



J*i&. /■r, J \ Ca**Lr. /TaSve. 



( 2835 ) 

Dracaena australis. White-flowered, 
New Zealand Dracaena. 

Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodele^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6-partita. Filamenta medio incrassata, corollas 
inserta. Stigma trifidum. Bacca 3-locularis, loculis 2- 
(poly)spermis. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

DracjEna australis; arborea, foliis lanceolatis acutis muti- 
cis confertis planis basi dilatatis, superioribus erectis, 
paniculam compositam congestam aBquantibus. 

Drac^na australis. " Foster Prodr. n. 151." Willd. Sp. 
PL v. 2. p. 156. Spreng. Sh/st. Veget. v. 2. p. 92. 

Dracena obtecta. Graham in Jameson's Edin. New. Phil. 
Journ. 1827, ;>. 175. 



Descr. Stem round, scarred by the separation of the 
leaves, twelve feet high. Leaves crowded at the top (and 
they would probably have remained on a great part of the 
stem, had they not been cut off for want of room), lance- 
olate, acuminate, but without, mucro, attenuated below, and 
then, at the very base dilated amplexicaul, thickened along 
the middle; nerves numerous, slender, parallel. A large 
bud is formed in the axil of each leaf; but it proves abor- 
tive, except near the top, and at the period of flowering, 
when several offsets split the leaves, in the axils of which 
they spring, and, pushing through, appear on the lower 
side. Panicle terminal, large, crowded, compound, scarcely 
exceeding in height the tip of the upper leaves. Bracte<e 
situated at the origin of each branch of the panicle, resem- 
bling leaves in miniature, quite entire, gradually becoming 

smaller 



smaller upwards on the panicle, at the lower branches of 
which there are two, one large, below, the branch, the other 
much smaller, and above it. Flowers sessile, numerous, 
scattered, and highly perfumed. Corolla six-parted, revo- 
lute, afterwards approaching by the apices of the segments 
and withering. Filaments subulate, at length revolute : 
Anthers small, green : Pollen yellow. Germen ovate, 
green, trilocular : Style somewhat tapering upwards to the 
three-cleft stigma. Every part of the flower, except the 
germen and anther, fine white. Graham in Jameson's 
Journ. 

Since the above was printed in the Edinburgh Journal, 
this plant has produced abundance of fruit, which Dr. 
Graham has been so obliging as to send to me. It con- 
sists of white, fleshy, nearly orbicular berries, about the 
size of peas ; having at the base the withered corolla, and 
at the extremity the faded style. The top of the berry is 
marked with three rays or short furrows, indicating the 
three cells which exist within : and these are crowded with 
angular, shining, deep-black seeds, fixed to a receptacle in 
the central axis. At the base, or point of attachment, is a 
white appendage or strophiolus. 

The plant, from which the accompanying figure is taken, 
flowered in May, 1827, in the greenhouse of the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden, having been raised from seeds sent by Mr. 
Fraser of New Holland ; but without any name or state- 
ment of the particular country from which it was obtained. 
Upon referring to my Herbarium, I find specimens of the 
same plant derived from the same source, marked " Dra- 
cjbsa australis." The characters of the plant are by no 
means at variance with those (short and imperfect it must 
be allowed) which we possess ; and hence I have retained 
the older name. 

In the numerous seeds contained in each cell, it departs 
from the Genus Dracena ; and, in that particular, agrees 
with Cordylina of Commerson and Brown, and with Charl- 
woodia of Sweet, in his Flora Australasica. From the 
former again it differs in the persistent (not deciduous) 
perianth or corolla, having equal segments, and all equally 
revolute. 



Fig. 1. Dracaena australis, much diminished. 2. Leaf still upon a very 
reduced scale. 3. Part of a Panicle in Flower, natural size. 4. Flower and 
Bracteae. 5. Portion of the Corolla with its Stamens. 6. Pistil. 7. Fruit. 
8. Vertical Section of the Berry. 9. Transverse Section of ditto. 10. Seed. 
11. Section of ditto.— More or less magnified. 



■jx.ru; 




TSS-.te* 



( 2836 ) 

CHjETOGASTRA LANCEOLATA. LANCE-LEAVED 
CHjETOGASTRA. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Decandbia Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Melastome^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubus turbinatus pilosus aut squamosus; lobi 5-per- 
sistentes. Pet. 5-obovata. Stam. filamenta glabra ; an- 
therte 10, oblongae, consimiles, 1-porosae, connect, basi 
producto nunc in calcar simplex aut bifidum, nunc in tu- 
bercula 2 obtusa interdum minima. Ovar. liberum apice 
setosum et sa?pe denticulatum. Caps. 5-locul. Sem. coch- 
Ieata. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Chjstogastra lanceolata ; annua, pilosa, caule subtetra- 
gono, foliis lato-lanceolatis serrulatis quinquenerviis 
breviter petiolatis, pedunculis trichotomis, calycis seg- 
mentis linearibus reflexis, petalis acutis (albis) ciliatis. 

ChvEtogastra lanceolata. De Cand. Prod. v. 3. p. 131. 

Rhexia lanceolata. Bonpl. Rhex. t.2\. 

Osbeckia lanceolata. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 312. 

Rhexia flexuosa. Ruiz et Pav. Ft. Per. v. 3. p. 85. t. 320. 
f.b. 



Descr. Plant annual, about a foot high ; the stem ob- 
scurely tetragonal, hairy, as is every part of the plant, 
except the upper and under surface of the corolla, the 
stamens, and pistil, throwing out short branches from the 
axils of the leaves. Leaves opposite, upon very short 
petioles, ovato-lanceola^e, two to four inches long, serru- 
late at the margin, five-nerved. Peduncles axillary and 

terminal 



terminal, short, three - flowered. Calyx urceolate in its 
tube, with ten rather obscure elevated lines, and cut at the 
margin into five, linear-reflexed, hispid segments. Corolla 
of five petals, each oval, acute, the extreme point generally 
reflexed, pure white, the margin ciliated ; the insertion is 
upon the margin of the calyx, between the segments. 
Stamens ten, alternate five shorter. Filaments white, erect : 
Anthers linear, oblong, yellow, transversely wrinkled, pro- 
truded into a didymous spur at the base, the extremity 
attenuated in a slight degree, brown, and there opening 
with a large pore. Pistil: Germen oval, hid by the per- 
sistent calyx, obscurely striated : Style straight, erect, 
filiform, as long as the stamens : Stigma obtuse, glandular. 

Seeds of this plant were received from Mr. Lockhart, of 
Trinidad, with many other rarities, in 1827: but the plants 
raised in the stove promise to be only of annual duration. 
The blossoms appear in January. 

This genus has been recently established by the Professor 
De Candolle, who observes, that it is to be distinguished 
from another new Genus, Lasiandra, by its smooth stamina 
and inflorescence; from Arthrostemma, by the quinary, 
and not quaternary number of the parts of the flower ; from 
Osbeckia, by the absence of appendages between the lobes 
of the calyx ; and from Melastoma by the fruit being cap- 
sular and free. The species are usually shrubs, and all 
from South America. 



Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. Pistil. 4. Stamens. — All more 
or less magnified. 




Tu£. *r S. ■:"urfij: ValwartA. Ju, 



( 2837 ) 

NlCOTIANA GLAUCA. GLAUCOUS-LEAVED 

Tobacco. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solane^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubulosus, 5-fidus. Cor. infundibuliformis vel hy- 
pocrateriformis, limbo plicato. Capsula apice 4-dentata, 
placentis ad dissepiment urn transversis. Spreng. 

Specific Character. 

Nicotiana glauca ; caule suffruticoso erecto ramoso, foliis 
inaequaliter cordato-ovatis acutis obsolete sinuatis 
nudis glaucis longe petiolatis, paniculis terminalibus, 
corollae laciniis acutis brevissimis. Graham. 

Nicotiana glauca. Graham MSS. 



Descr. Plant, probably short-lived. Stem erect, rounds 
branched, of great height; native specimens said to be 
twenty feet high ; ours about ten, and still growing freely. 
Branches ascending obliquely. Leaves petioled, somewhat 
unequal at the base, cordato-ovate, obscurely sinuated, 
acuminate, smooth, soft, naked, veined (five inches long 
and three broad), mid-rib strong; petiole round, spreading, 
shorter than the leaf (three inches long). Panicle terminal, 
secund, lax; its pedicels arising from the axils of minute, 
subulate bracteae, which are often absent. Calyx as long 
as the pedicel, tubular, obscurely angled, with five, sharp, 
unequal, erect, somewhat ciliated teeth. Corolla green in 
bud, afterwards of an uniform yellow colour, covered with 
close white and soft pubescence on the outside ; tube slightly 
curved downwards, thrice as long as the calyx, within 

which 



which it is contracted and impressed with five furrows: 
beyond this it is five-sided, and of a nearly uniform diameter, 
till near the faux, where it is slightly inflated, and again 
contracted immediately below the limb ; limb small, cup- 
shaped ; segments short, acute, erect. Stamens unequal ; 
filaments slender, incurved from the sides of the corolla at 
their apices, also approaching each other above their inser- 
tion into the corolla at the extremity of the calyx, below 
this adhering to the tube, in the substance of which they are 
lost downwards : Anthers short, oblong, brown before burst- 
ing, on the longer filament subexserted. Pollen light 
yellow. Pistil ; Germen ovate, imbedded in a fleshy disk 
or ring, two-celled, having attached to the middle of the 
dissepiment on each side a large fleshy receptacle, to which 
the numerous ovules are attached : Style filiform, somewhat 
compressed : Stigma dark green, subexserted, bifid, seg- 
ments short, spreading. 

The whole plant, to the base of the pedicels, is of a beau- 
tiful glaucous hue : at this point, at the base of the petioles, 
and on the young leaves by the sides of the midrib, near 
the petiole, the colour is dark purple. The bloom is easily 
rubbed from every part (except the leaves, where it is 
more fixed) leaving the cuticle of a lively green, as on the 
pedicels and calyx, where the bloom is wanting. Whole 
plant inodorous. In the arrangement of the species, this 
should follow N. cerinthoides. 

The plant was raised from seeds, communicated to the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, by Mr. Smith, of Monk- 
wood, Ayr, whose son had sent them from Buenos Ay res. 
It was kept in the stove, but on coming into flower in the 
middle of March, was removed to the greenhouse. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Corolla seen within. 2. Anther. 3. Pistil. — Magnified. 



•JX3H. 




Sto* fir s. furfts, Jblw&tk Ju/i 



V - xtra'er 



S***& 



( 2838 ) 

OSBJECKIA GLOMERATA. CLUSTER-FLOWERED 
OSBECKIA. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Melastomeje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tribus ovatus, saepius setis stellatis aut pube stellata 
yestitus ; lobi 4 — 5-persistentes aut decidui; appendices 
inter lobos extus ortae forma et magnitudine varia>. Pet. 
4 — 5. Stam. 8 — 10,, filamentis glabris, antheris subaequa- 
libus breve rostratis, conneetivo basi breve biauriculato. 
Ovarium apice setosum. Caps. 4 — 5-locularis. Sem. coeh- 
leata. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Osbeckia glomerata; octandra, caule tetragono foliisque 
ovato-lanceolatis trinerviis appresso-hispidis, floribus 
terminalibus breviter pedunculatis, calycis segmentis 
ovato-lanceolatis ciliatis, tubi pilis ramoso-stellatis, pe- 
talis obtusis (roseis) minuto-ciliatis. 

Osbeckia glomerata. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 141. 

Rhexia glomerata. " Rottb. PI. Surin. p. 8. t. 4." WiM. 
Sp. PL v. 2. p. 304. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 310. 

Rhexia capitata. Humb. et Kunth Melast. v. 2. p. 84. 
t. 32? 

(0.) flore albo. 

Rhexia glomerata. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 334:. 



Descr. Apparently an annual, a foot or a foot and a 
half high, erect, with opposite, four-sided branches, clothed 
with rigid, appressed hairs or bristles. Leaves opposite, 
about an inch long, upon very short petioles, ovato- 

lanceolate, 



lanceolate, entire, three- nerved, hispid with closely ap- 
pressed, whitish hairs, paler, and the nerves prominent 
beneath. Flowers from the extremities of the stems and 
branches, three or more together, having several small, 
green, foliaceous, ciliated bracteaB at the base. Peduncles 
very short. Calyx urceolate, the tube clothed with many 
long bristles, which are stellated at the top, and, besides, 
are more or less branched : Segments of the calyx four, 
ovato-lanceolate, never reflexed, strongly ciliated at the 
margin. Petals four, obovate, rather large, finely ciliated 
at the margin, obtuse, rose-coloured, the claw yellow. 
Stamens ten, five alternate ones smaller, and these have 
the anthers yellow; the others are purple on the upper 
side ; both have two yellow, ovate glands or appendages at 
the base. Pistil : Germen oval, with a tuft of hairs at the 
top, four-celled, each cell containing many ovules, attached 
to a fleshy receptacle : Style about as long as the stamens, 
filiform : Stigma obtuse. 

Seeds of this were sent along with those of Ch^etogastra 
lanceolata to the Glasgow Botanic Garden from Trinidad, 
by Mr. Lockhart, and it flowers at the same season of the 
year. It grows in Savannahs; and if, as I suspect, and as 
Sprengel seems to be of opinion too, the R. capitata of 
Humboldt and Kunth be the same, it is a native also of 
Martinique. Rotboll gives it as an inhabitant of Surinam. 

The calyx presents a highly curious appearance when 
magnified, from the nature of the hairs. 



Fig. 1. Small Cluster of Flowers with their Bractese, the Petals and Stamen 
being removed from the central Flower. 2. Petal. 3. The two kinds of 
Stamens. 4. Pistil. 5. Section of the Germen. 6. Hair from the Calyx. 
— All more or less magnified. 



2 8.3 9 




urH, ■ 



( 2839 ) 

m alva angustifolia. narrow-leaved 
Mallow. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx ductus involucro triphyllo rarius 5 — 6-phyllo, 
bracteolis . obiongis setaceisve. Carpella capsularia plu- 
rima in orbem disposita. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Malva angustifolia ; stellato-tomentosa, foliis Iauceolatis 
crenato-dentatis, pedunculis plurimis axillaribus uni- 
bifloris, fructu globoso tomentoso, capsulis trispermis. 

Malva angustifolia. Cav. Diss. v. 2. p. 64. t. 20. f. 1. 
ejusdem Icon. v. I. p. 48. t. 68. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 
p. 777. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 4. p. 211. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 87. 



Descr. Stem suffruticose, four to five feet high, rounded, 
branched, clothed, as is all the rest of the plant except the 
corolla, stamens, and pistil, with a closely-placed, stellated 
down. Leaves alternate, four to six inches long, upon a 
short footstalk, lanceolate, crenate at their margin, having 
a midrib, and two principal nerves at the base, besides 
many others branching from the midrib: the young leaves 
are very downy, the older ones less so, the down being 
more or less fugacious. Stipules setaceous, one on each 
side the petiole. Peduncles axillary, four or five from the 
same point, half an inch long, generally one, sometimes 
two-flowered. Calyx quinquefid, the segments pvato-lan- 
ceolate, the base having three setaceous appendages, which 

constitute 



constitute the outer calyx or involucre. Petals five, spread- 
ing", united at the base, obcordate, rose-purple. Column 
of stamens ; short, white, a little hairy. Anthers numerous, 
forming a rounded mass. Pistil globular. Style white, as 
long as the stamens. Stigmas twelve, filiform, clubbed at 
the point. Fruit of about ten, compressed capsules, form- 
ing a globe of the size of a pea, very downy : each within 
containing three kidney-shaped, compressed seeds. 

Raised in the garden of Robert Barclay, Esq. at Bury 
Hill, from seeds received from Mexico in 1826. It is a very 
ornamental plant ; and during the summer and autumn 
comes to great perfection in the open border. I saw it in 
full blossom in October, 1827, when the accompanying 
drawing was made. 

We learn from the Hortus Kewensis, that it was intro- 
duced into Britain by Benjamin Bewick, Esq. in the year 
1798 ,• but it appears again to have been lost to our gardens 
till Mr. Barclay cultivated it : and we know of no figure 
existing but that of Cavanilles. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and Involucre. 2. Column of Stamens, including the Pistil. 
3. Extremity of a Stigma. 4. Fruit (hat. size). 5. Single Capsule or Car- 
pellum. 6. Section of ditto. 7» Seed. — More or less magnified* 



'I 8*0. 




. J*bJ. £p S- Cus\' 



Z2#e<?. 



Swan JIB 



( 2840 ) 

Hedyotis campanuliflora. Bell- 
flowered Hedyotis. 

*&. A / . A*. .-I'. A. .-Vi &, &, As. .^ A?. &. A". A'. A". A'. A. A'. A', .-fr. -V. 
VfT "/j» "/f.* vf." v$» vf? '4? vfr- VK <r> Vr> Vr* MS MS MS MS MS •IS MS MS MS 

CZass *zraJ Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rubiace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partitus. Cor. tubulosa, 4-fida. Caps, didyma, 
2-locularis, polysperma, apice inter denies calycinos dehis- 
cens. Spreng. 

Specific Character. 

Hedyotis campanuliflora; suffruticosa, villosa, foliis ova- 
libus obtusissimis petiolatis, stipulis setaceis, capita- 
tulis pedunculatis terminalibus axillaribus. 



Descr. Stem much branched, especially below, where 
the plant is fruticose ; branches spreading, flexuose, more or 
less herbaceous, obscurely four-sided, clothed with nume- 
rous long, horizontal, purple hairs. Leaves opposite, petio- 
lated, roundish oval, very obtuse, entire, penninerved, hairy, 
especially on the underside, with white pellucid hairs : 
petioles very short in the upper part of the branches, below, 
more than half an inch long, clothed with purplish hairs, 
the two opposite ones connate, and furnished with a long, 
purple, setaceous, hairy stipule. Flowers large for the size 
of the plant, collected into a head, wllich is pedunculated, 
terminal, or axillary. Calyx : the tube subglobose, hairy, 
green, incorporated with the germen ; the limb of four 
erect, linear-lanceolate, hairy, erect, afterwards spreading 
segments. Corolla between infundibuliform and campa- 
nulate, tube slightly hairy without, very much so within, 
and white at the base. Limb of four ovate spreading, bright 

pale 



pale blue, inclining to purplish, segments, throat yellow. 
Stamens four : Filaments inserted near the base of the tube : 
Anthers linear-oblong, reaching alittle higher than the tube, 
white. Germen two-celled, each having near the base of 
the dissepiment an ascending, short, filiform receptacle, 
bearing a cluster of ovules : upon the top of the germen, 
and on each side of the base of the style, are two fleshy, 
green glands. Style filiform, white, about as long as the 
tube of the corolla : Stigmas two, linear, pubescent. Cap- 
sules collected into a very compact, globular head, some- 
what turbinate, membranous and inflated, crowned with the 
segments of the calyx, hairy, didymous. Seeds by no 
means filling the cell, ten or twelve in each, somewhat 
angular, dark brown, minutely tuberculated. 

A very beautiful stove plant, flowering almost the whole 
year through, and remarkable in the Genus for the large 
size and rich colour of the flowers, as well as for the great 
breadth of the leaves, and rich clothing of purple hairs upon 
the stem. It is a native of Brazil, about Rio, where it 
cannot be uncommon ; for it is not unfrequently sent to this 
country in seed, or as dried specimens. Our first knowledge 
of the plant was from the latter, which were transmitted to 
us nearly at the same time by Mr. Boog, Mr. Burchell, 
and Dr. Scouler. In 1826 and 1827 it flowered in the 
stove of Robert Barclay, Esq. at Bury Hill, where our 
drawing was made, and where from only a casual inspection 
of the plant it had been called " Campanula nummulariifolia" 
by Dr. Sims. In the months of February and March plants 
have flowered in the Glasgow Botanic Garden ; for some of 
which we are indebted to Mr. Barclay ; and others, raised 
from Brazilian seeds were sent to us by the Honourable the 
Lord Justice Clerk. It deserves a place in every collec- 
tion *. 

The stems in the younger part of the plant are fragile ; 
but there is a central bundle of vessels which is by no 
means so easily broken. 



* Since the above was printed, this plant has appeared in Jameson's Edinb. 
Phil. Journal as ^Eginbtia capitata. 



Fig. 1. Corolla laid open. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. Section of the Ger- 
men. 4. Head of Capsules (natural size). 5. Single didymous Capsule. 
6. One of the two portions entire. 7- The other cut through vertically to 
shew the Seeds. 8. Single Seed : — All but fig. 4 more or less magnified. 



2S41. 




<3 - U^ 



( 2841 ) 

TlLLANDSIA PSITTACINA. GAUDY-FLOWERED 
TlLLANDSIA. 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Bromeliace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 3-partitus, inferas. Cor. 3-partita. Caps. 3-valvis. 
Semina papposa. Spr. 

Specific Cliaracter. 

Tillandsia* psittacina ; foliis lineari-ligulatis integerrimis 
acutis nudis basi inflatis, spica simplici, rachi flexuosa 
coiorata, floribus remotis, bractea longitudine floris 
colorata. 



Descr. An inhabitant of the trunks of trees. Leaves 
radical, from six to eight inches long, linear-ligulate, much 
inflated, with the sides involute at the base, towards the 
extremity plane, recurved, acute ; the margin every where 
entire, the colour a yellow-green, the surface naked, free 
from scales or any other superficial covering ; of a thin 
texture, more or less waved. From the centre of these 
leaves arises a scape or flower-stalk, a foot or more high, 
terete at the base, and bracteated; the rachis zigzag, of a 
fine red, grooved on one side. Flowers remote, distichous, 
large. Bractea equal in length with the flower, or nearly 
so, broadly ovate, circumvolute upon the flower, its lower 
part of a bright-red, the rest deep yellow. Cah/x of three 

circumvolute 



* After Til-lands, a professor of medicine at Abo, who wrote, in. 1683, a 
history of the plants of the neighbourhood of that city. 



circum volute leaflets,, scariose : Corolla of three petals, 
longer than the calyx and bracteae, linear, revolute and 
green at the point. At the base of each petal are two 
oblong,, membranaceous, erect scales, within which the sta- 
mens are inserted. Filaments as long as the corolla. 
Anthers versatile, linear, yellow-brown. Pistil: Germen 
inferior ovate, tapering into a filiform style, which is as 
long as the stamens. Stigma trifid, the segments very 
blunt, villous. 

Recently introduced by William Harrison, Esq. of Rio 
de Janeiro, to the rich collection of his brother Richard 
Harrison, Esq. of Aighburgh, near Liverpool ; who oblig- 
ingly sent me a specimen of the flowers and leaves, together 
with a sketch of the whole plant, which is here given. 

It may certainly rank among the most beautiful of this 
curious genus ; the colour of the rachis, bracteae, and flowers 
being singularly brilliant. It is allied to the Bromelia 
aloifolia of my se Exotic Flora" ; but here there are scales 
at the base of the corolla, as in Pitcairnia. 



Fig. 1. Petal shewing the scales and the insertion of the stamens. 2. 
Pistil. — Scarcely magnified. 



2K4'> 




J 



V.ZJ,' 



( 2842 ) 

Primula verticillata. Whorled- 
flowered primrose. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Primulaceje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores subumbellati, involucrati. Cat. tubulosus, 5-fidus 
s. 5-dentatus, persistens. Cor. tubulosa, fauce vel nuda 
vel glandulosa, limbo 5-lobo. Caps, apice 10-dentata, 
polysperma. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Primula* verticillata ; foliis radicalibus erectis oblongis 

acutis serratis in petiolum attenuatis subtus farinosis, 

floribus verticillatis, involucris foliaceis, tubo corolla? 

longissimo, laciniis integris. Spr. 
Primula verticillata. Forsk. Ft. JEg. Arab. Cent. II. p. 

42. Vahl Symb. Bot. p. 15. t. 5. Willd. Sp. PL v. 1. 

p. 500. Lehm. Primul. p. 92. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 

v. I. p. 575. Graham Descr. of New and Rare Plants 

inEdin. New Phil. Journ. 1828. 



Descr. Root supporting several scapes. Leaves sube- 
rect, rhomboideo-spathulate, decurrent along- petioles that 
are longer than the leaves, incised, and the divisions ser- 
rated, convex above, soft, much veined from the midrib, 
and somewhat bullate. Scape erect, round. Flowers ver- 
ticillate, five in each whorl, bracteate. Bractea, one to 

each 



* From primus, on account of the early appearance of the flowers of most 
of the species. 



each pedicel, sessile, lanceolate, dpubly serrated, but less 
so than the leaves, nerved and veined. Pedicels nearly as 
long* as the bractese. Calyx five-cleft, segments erect, or 
somewhat spreading, pointed, and serrated. Corolla yellow, 
scarcely perfumed, tube (three-quarters of an inch long) 
twice as long as the calyx, round and slightly swollen, 
where it covers the germen, and in the situation of the 
stamens, distinctly five-sided between these two points, and 
in some degree above the last ; throat naked ; limb spread- 
ing at a right angle, small (less than half an inch across,) 
segments obcordato-rotund, crenate (or entire ?). Anthers 
oblong, nearly sessile in the upper third of the tube. 
Stigma cup-shaped, included, but carried above the stamens. 
Style filiform. Germen globular, green. Ovules extremely 
numerous, ranged round the central receptacle, a slender 
process which is continued with the style, and may be easily 
unsheathed from the lower part of this. The outer side 
of the corolla, both sides of the calyx, the pedicels and 
scape, the bracteae and leaves, particularly on the lower 
sides, are powdery. 

We received, in 1825, a plant of this species from M. Otto, 
of Berlin, under the name of P. involucrata, marked 
<f iEgypt", but it suffered so much on the way that it could 
not be preserved. The subject of the present article was 
raised from seed, communicated from the same liberal quarter, 
in 1826, and flowered in the beginning of the present 
month (March, 1828). The divided edge of the corolla 
seems the only deviation from the essential character of P. 
verticillata of Forsraol, and the analogy of other species, as 
P. pramitens, shews that this cannot be relied upon as a 
specific distinction. Graham. 

I have compared the drawing of this interesting plant, 
kindly sent to me by Dr. Graham, with Vahi/s figure of 
P. verticillata, in his Symbolae Botanieae, and I think there 
can be no doubt of the identity of the two. The plate 
of Vahl, evidently made after a dried specimen, has the 
segments of the corolla not only entire but acute; Forskaol 
himself describes them as being emarginate ; but Lehmann 
assures us that both the specimen of Vahl and Forskaol 
have them entire. 

Forskaol found the plant growing by the sides of streams 
on the mountain Kurma, in Arabia Felix. 




f .J.n..j~n 



'mrnprito ■Su??~J.Jif£<f. 



( 2843 ) 

Gaultheria shallon. Shallon 
Gaultheria. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Ericeje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus, pedicello bibracteato. Cor. urceolato-ovata. 
Antherce apice bicoraes. Capsula 5-locularis, calyce bac- 
cato vestita. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gaultheria* shallon; suberecta, foliis subcordato-ovatis 
acutis serratis marginibus ramisque junioribus hispidis, 
racemis secundis, pedicello infra medium bibracteato, 
corollis viscoso-glandulis. 

Gaultheria shallon. Pursh Am. Sept. v. I. p. 284. Nutt. 
Gen. v. 1. p. 263. 

Gaultheria fruticosa. Menz. MSS. (in Herb. nostr.J 



Descr. Stems fruticose, terete, branched, a foot to a foot 
and a half high, nearly erect, the younger branches hairy, 
or even hispid, the hairs deciduous. Leaves alternate, 
nearly sessile, broadly ovate, subcoriaceous, somewhat 
cordate at the base, shining, acute, or rather suddenly and 
shortly acuminate, veiny on both sides, dark-green above, 
paler beneath, finely serrated; the margin red in the young 
leaves and ciliated, the hairs becoming black in the older 
leaves, and at length deciduous. Racemes terminal, often 

two 



* Named after Gaulthibr or Gautier, a French physician, resident in 
Canada, who wrote on the Sugar Maple. 



two or three together. Peduncle ferruginous,, glanduloso- 
hirsute and clammy, with small, concave, imbricated brac- 
teae at the base, and a larger, reflexed one at the base of 
each pedicel. Below the middle of the pedicel, but not at 
the very base, are two small, white, reflexed, ovate bracteae. 
Flowers secund and pendent, white, clothed with viscid, 
red, glandular hairs. Cal. of the same colour as the corolla, 
and closely embracing its base. Corolla ovate, the mouth 
five-toothed, the teeth small, reflexed. Stamens ten : Fila- 
ment broad, white, ciliated: Anther oblong, two-celled, 
opening by two pores, and behind them are two bifid horns. 
Discovered by Archibald Menzies, Esq. on the North- 
west coast of America, growing in pine forests, under the 
shade of trees where scarcely any other plant would live. 
Its handsome and graceful flowers, with the large, glossy, 
evergreen leaves, render it most desirable for the American 
border : but it was not till last year that we had any pros- 
pect of cultivating so great a rarity, when seeds arrived, 
both for the Horticultural Society of London and for the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden, gathered at the Columbia by Dr. 
Scouler and Mr. Douglas. These soon vegetated, and 
from the first plant that blossomed in our Botanic Garden 
early in May, 1828, the accompanying figure was made. 
There is no doubt that the plant will succeed well in the 
open air, treated like other North American shrubs, and 
that it will then produce stronger stems, and more nume- 
rous flowers. 

The berries of the Shallon are much esteemed by the 
natives, on account of their agreeable flavour; and we 
can attest their excellence from having tasted some which 
Dr. Scouler brought home. 

Sir James Smith, in Rees's Cyclopedia, seems to have 
taken this plant for the Gaultheria erecta, of Ventenat, 
Hort. Cels : but that is a native of Peru, and though, un- 
questionably, very nearly resembling this, has the leaves 
less distinctly serrated, ferruginously downy beneath, and 
flowers of a bright red colour. 



Fig. 1. Flower, Pedicel, and Bractese. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil,—- Ma eni- 
fied. 5 



2844 




7'aA fy £ e'urttj: WaSirc. 



( 2844 ) 

Epidendrum fuscatum. Dingy- flowered 
Epidendrum. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Columna cum ungue labelli longitudinaliter connata in 
tubum (quandoquedecurrentem ovarium). Masses Pollinis 
4, parallel*, septis completis persistentibus distinct*, 
basi filo granulato elastico auctae. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Epidendrum* fuscatum; cauli simplici, foliis oblongis acu- 

minatisve, pedunculo terminal i elongato, spica globosa, 

columna petalis breviore. Willd. 
Epidendrum fuscatum. Swartz Nov. Act. Ups. v. 6. p. 69. 

Smith Spicil. Bot. p. 21. t. 23. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 4. 

p. 120. Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 441 . Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 

v. 5. p. 218. Bot. Reg. t. 67. Loddiges Bot. Cab. 

t. 472. 
Epidendrum anceps. Jacq. Am. p. 224. t. 138. Loddiges 

Bot. Cab. t. 887. 
Epidendrum secundum. Swartz Obs. p. 325. exclusis 

synonymis. ( Fide Willd.) 



Descr. Parasitic. Roots thickish, white, flexuose fibres. 
Stem six to eight inches high, by no means bulbous, below 
sheathed with scales, and terete, upwards more compressed, 
leafy, leaves distichous, oblong, thickish, fleshy, the point 
reflected, the base sheathing. At the extremity rises a 

peduncle 



* From tvi, upon, and ^e»3jpo», a tree ; from the circumstance of the species 
growing upon the trunks of trees in their native country. 



peduncle four to five inches long, sheathed with remarkably 
compressed ancipitate scales. Flowers forming a loose 
head, or an imperfect umbel, of a brownish green colour, 
particularly the two inner, which are rather smaller, and 
somewhat spathulate; the three outer more oval. Lip, with 
its claw united by its upper surface to the whole length of the 
underside of the column, the lamina spreading, greenish, 
somewhat three-lobed, the middle lobe notched and some- 
what obtusely mucronate. Column shorter than the petals, 
cylindrical, green, a little enlarged at the extremity, sunk 
into which are three ( ! ) distinct anthers. Upper one the 
largest, and containing, as in the other species of the genus, 
four Pollen Masses (in two pairs), in as many separate 
cells, and the two lower ones, (which are partly concealed 
by a lobe on each side of the extremity of the column,) 
scarcely more than half the size, each having two cells, and 
one pair of pollen masses. The Pollen Masses are the 
same shape in both, but smaller in the lower or lateral 
anthers, yellow. 

Mr. Brown has long ago shewn that, in many Orchi- 
deae, on each side of the perfect anther may be seen a swell- 
ing, indicating the rudiments of two other anthers, thus 
making the real number three, according with the ternary 
arrangement so common in the Dicotyledonous plants; and 
in the Genus Orchis and Habenaria in particular, these 
abortive anthers are distinctly visible. But I am not aware 
that any author has ever seen three perfect anthers in 
each flower. Such, however, is actually the case in the 
individual here figured ; and that not in one flower only, 
but upon every blossom on the plant. 

The specimen came from St. Vincent, whence it was sent 
last year by the Rev. L. Guilding; and this year, in the 
month of March, having been treated in the same manner as 
other tropical Orchideae, it bore its curious flower. — 
Whether or not a similar mode of structure, as regards the 
stamen, belongs invariably to this species, I am not able 
to say. The flowers are liable to vary somewhat in size 
and in colour ; but there seems no real difference to exist 
between E. fuscatum and anceps. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Front view of the Column and Lip. 3. Uppermost 
and large Anther. 4. Its Pollen Masses. 5. 5. The lower and smaller An- 
thers. 6. One seen from its under side. 7- Its Pollen Masses. — More or 
less magnified. 



2843. 




( 2845 ) 

JUSTICIA QUADRANGULARIS. SqUARE-STALKED 

JUSTICIA. 

Ain A*- Aft Af- Af, A't A', A/. ."V 1 - As. A\ As. A/. As. .4'. As* A'. A/, ji*. A/. &* 
-tv /J* MS >y> Vf." Vh VIS Vf> VIS VIS <f> Vf- MS Vf» VJ» VJC >vf» -/J.* vj»* "/J*" vtv* 

C/ass awrf Order. 

DlANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — AcanthacEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. aequalis, 5 raro 4-partitus. Cor. valde irregularis,, 
bilabiata vei ringens, labio inferiore diviso. Stamina duo, 
antherifera. Antherce biloculares, loculis insertione saepius 
inaequalibus. Filamenta sterilia nulla v. obsoleta. Ovarii 
loeuli dispermi. Dissepimentum adnatum. Semina reti- 
naculis subtensa. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Justicia* quadrangularis ; (antheris loculis parallelis), foliis 
late ovato-lanceolatispetiolatisacutissubserratis, spica 
terminally bracteis minutis, corolla subinfundibuliformi 
curvato limbo subaequali, caule acute tetragono. 



Descr. Plant, in our stove, a hot high, every where 
glabrous, slightly branched, and somewhat shrubby ; stem 
and branches dark green, acutely quadrangular, the angles 
margined. Leaves large, opposite, remote, broadly ovato- 
lanceolate, dark green, somewhat coriaceous, paler beneath, 
acute, rather obscurely serrated, the base entire, petiolated. 
Spike terminal on a quadrangular peduncle, four-sided. 
Bracte<s small, three to each flower, ovato- acuminate. 

Cah/x 



* Named by Houston after James Justice, Esq. F.R.S., who published, 
in 1674, a volume called the British Gardeners Director, 



Calyx five-partite, on a short, very thick pedicel, laciniae erect, 
linear-lanceolate. Corolla purplish red, somewhat infun- 
dibuliform : tube short, rather gibbous at the base, curved 
down suddenly at the upper part, limb nearly equal, of five 
suberect segments. Stamens two, much curved, as long as 
the corolla. Filaments white, pubescent. Anthers oblong, 
acute, white, and pubescent at the back ; cells two, parallel, 
brown. Germen ovate, upon a yellow fleshy disk or base. 
Style as long as the stamens, slender, filiform. Stigma 
slightly clavate. 

This very distinctly marked species of Justicia, which I 
do not find described by any botanical author, exists in the 
stove of the Glasgow Botanical Garden, and is marked as 
having been sent from Mr. Barclay's collection at Bury Hill, 
under the name of '* J. asprella." But there is nothing in 
the slightest degree rough about the plant ; and it is to be 
feared there has been some mistake in labelling it. It is 
probably a native of the Mauritius or Madagascar, and one 
of M. Bojer's discoveries. 

It flowers in the month of January. 



Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Calyx and Pistil, with 
the three Bractese. — M ore or less magnified. 



-'8 46. 




v.jm.4s 



~fcr. VeJw?r£&.Aii0*-2. 7-95 



( 2846 ) 
Begonia papillosa. Papillose Begonia. 

Class and Order. 

MoNOSCIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Begoniace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. o. Cor. polypetala, petalis plerumque 4, 
inaequalibus. 

Fmm. Cal. o. Cor. petalis 4 — 9,, plerumque inaequalibus. 
Styli 3. bifidi. Caps, triquetra, alata, trilocularis, poly- 
sperma. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Begonia * papillosa ; caule erecto tereti, foliis inaequaliter 
cordatis acumiaatis inaequaliter dentato-ciliatis supra 
albo-maculatis papillisque acuminatis raris infra ad 
venas pubescentibus, stipulis ovatis acuminatis inte- 
gerrimis, capsula alis subaequalibus obtusangulis. 
Graham. 

Begonia papillosa. Graham, MSS. 



Descr. Stem erect, fourteen inches high, scarcely 
branched in our specimens, till after being cut down ; but 
probably more so when in a vigorous state: somewhat 
tumid at the joints, rounded, brown. Petioles alternate, 
spreading, rounded, channelled above, pubescent, one and 
a quarter inch long. Leaves three and a half times as long as 
the petiole, very unequally cordate, acuminate, somewhat 
undulate and bullate, crisped, on the upper surface bright 

green 



* So named by Plumier> after Began, who assisted that author with mate- 
rials for his writings on American Botany, 



green and shining, occasionally spotted with white, and 
having distant papillae, of which each is terminated with a 
curved rather harsh hair, red and glabrous below, except 
at the veins, which are sparingly pubescent, unequally den- 
tato -ciliated, and somewhat angled. Stipules ovate, acu- 
minate, smooth, entire, marcescent. Cymes axillary, longer 
than the leaves, turned to one side of the stem, drooping, 
(thrice ?) dichotomous ; peduncles and pedicels flattened. 
Bractece opposite, ovate, coloured, deciduous, placed in 
pairs at each division of the cyme, and at the base of each 
female flower, but wanting in the male. Male flowers 
placed in the axil of the bifurcations, and, as it would 
appear, always along with a female at the ultimate divi- 
sions of the cyme, where they hang on the outside of the 
female flowers in the two lateral, and, on the inside in the 
two middle divisions of the cyme; each always expands 
before the corresponding female flower. This distribution 
and premature evolution of the male flowers are common 
in the genus. Corolla tetrapetalous, very unequal, rather 
more so in the female flowers, where the outer petals are 
retuse, full three-quarters of an inch broad by half an inch 
long, in the male cordato-subrotund. Stamens numerous ; 
filaments slender ; anthers large, wedge-shaped. Germen 
inferior, nearly equally winged, the angles obtuse, the 
upper edges placed at right angles to the axis of the flower. 
Sti/les three, channelled, enlarging upwards. Stigmas large, 
lobed, revolute, crisped, and pubescent. 

This species flowered in the stove of the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, in April of this year, 1828, and at about 
the same season during the three preceding years. We re- 
ceived the plant from Kew in 1824, but without specific 
name, or any intimation regarding its native country. — 
Graham. 



Fig. 1. Stamens, magnified. %. Truncated Capsule.— Natural size. 




t.jkb 









( 2847 ) 

Rosa sinica. Three-leaved Chinese 

Rose. 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus urceolatus, carnosus, achenia plurima hir- 
suta includens. Receptaculum villosum. Lindl. 

Div. XI. Banksiance. Stipulce sublibera?, subulatae v. 
angustissimaBj saepius decidual Foliola saepius ternata, 
nitida. Caules scandentes. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Rosa* sinica; stipulis (parvis) lineari-Ianceolatis semiad- 

natis serratis deciduis, petiolis costaque (plerumque) 

aculeatis, fructibus muricatis. 
Rosa sinica. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 202. ed. 2. p. 3. p. 

26J . (excl. syn.) Smith in Rees Cycl. (excl. syn. Linn.) 

Lindl. Ros. p. 126. /. 16. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 2. 

p. 556. 
Rosa nivea. De Cand. Cat. Hort. Monsp. p. 137. Red. 

Ros. v. 2. p. 81. cum Ic. De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. 

p. 599. 
Rosa ternata. Poir. in Encycl. Bot. v. 6. p. 284. 
Rosa trifoliata. ec Bosc. Diet." 
Rosa cherokeensis. Donn Cant. ed. 8. p. 170. 
Rosa laevigata. Mich.Bor. Am. v. I. p. 295. Pursh Am. 

Sept. v. 1. p. 345. Smith in Rees Cycl. Nutt. Gen. 

v.\.p. 308. Elliott, Sketch, v. I. p. 567. Lindl. Ros. 

p. 125. De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 600. Spreng. Syst. 

Plant, v. 2. p. 556. 

Descr. 



* From fo$or, in Greek, and that again from rhos (whose root is rhodd, 
red) a Rose, in Celtic. 



Descr. A climbing, much branching shrub, with very long, 
flexible, green branches, clothed with a beautiful smooth bark, 
and bearing scattered, rather large, uncinate prickles, which are 
often geminate at the setting on of the leaves. Petioles often 
tinged with purple, grooved on the upper side, generally, but not 
always, beset with several small, uncinate prickles ; at the base 
are two small semiadnate, linear-lanceolate, yellowish, deciduous 
stipules, serrated and somewhat glandular. Leaflets three, rarely 
five, and in the latter case the two lowermost are much the small- 
est ; the rest an inch and a half, and sometimes (the terminal one) 
two inches long, broadly lanceolate, somewhat rigid, evergreen, 
perfectly glabrous, shining, dark green above, paler beneath ; 
the margins beautifully serrated, with the teeth almost setigerous, 
the nerves indistinct, the midrib beneath mostly very prickly. 
Petiole hispid above. Flower solitary, very large, fragrant. 
Calyx tube ovate, very hispid : the segments pubescent, spreading, 
soon reflexed, much acuminated, entire. Petals pure white, waved, 
obcordate, very obtuse, approaching to triangular. Stigmas 
collected into a head in the centre of a yellow, fleshy disk. 

The plant which produced the flower here figured in the stove 
of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, was sent to that Institution 
by Mr. James Wilson, from Savannah, with the name of the 
Cherokee Rose ; under which appellation, I believe, it has long 
been known in British collections ; though it has never, to my 
knowledge, blossomed in any of them. Our plant was trained up 
to one of the rafters of the building, and in that situation bore 
its very large, pure white, and fragrant flowers in May, 1828. 

There can be no doubt of its being the Rosa laevigata of 
Michaux and the American Botanist, who describes it as a 
native of Georgia, growing in shady woods, and climbing up trees 
to a great height. It has, however, altogether the peculiar habit 
of the Chinese Roses, and, cultivated in the same stove with Rosa 
sinica, which we have received direct from its native country, 
there does not appear the slightest marks of distinction ; and Mr. 
Lindley, in his valuable Monograph, notices their great simi- 
larity. So that to me it seems more than probable, that Rosa 
sinica has been imported into North America, either from China, 
or from our European gardens ; an idea which is much strength- 
ened, if not confirmed, by an observation made by Mr. Elliott, 
in his Fora of South Carolina and Georgia : " This has been 
cultivated in the gardens of Georgia for upwards of forty years, 
under the name of the ' Cherokee Rose,' but its origin is still 
obscure. 

" In our rural oeconomy," Mr. Elliott continues, (i This 
plant will one day become very important. For the purpose of 
forming hedges, there is perhaps no plant which unites so many 
advantages ; and in quickness of growth, facility of culture, 
strength, durability, and beauty, it has perhaps no rival." 



i Fig. 1. Flower, from which the Petals are removed, natural size. 2. 
Stamen s. — Magn ified. 




2 8 ±8 



( 2848 ) 

Alstrcemeria ovata. Broad-leaved 
downy Alstrcemeria. 

************************** 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Amaryllide^e. Br. Kunth. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium corollaceum, subcampanulaceum, sexparti- 
tum, irregulare ; laciniis duabus (vel tribus) interior! bus 
basi tubuloso-conniventibus. Stam. 6, laciniis inserta, 
demum declinata. Stigma trifidum. Capsula trilocularis, 
loculis polyspermis. Caulis erectus, scandens aut volubilis, 
foliatis. Flores umbellati. Kunth. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Alstrcemeria * ovata; volubilis, foliis oblongis acuminatis 
petiolatis supra villosis, pedunculis umbellatis bifloris 
bracteatis laxis, perianthio cylindraceo-campanulato 
laciniis rectis. 

Alstrcemeria ovata. Cav. Ic. PL v. l.p. 54. t. 76. Willd. 
Sp. PL v. 2. p. 196. Lam. Cycl. v. 5. p. 151. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 81. 

Alstrcsmeria hirtella. Sweet Brit. Fl. Garden, t. 228. 
Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. v. l.p. 226 ? 



Descr. Stem, in our plant, seven to eight feet high, 
herbaceous, quite simple, terete, twining, glabrous, pur- 
plish. Leaves alternate, remote, four to five inches long, 
oblong or elliptical, acuminated, and contracted at the base 
into a flat, red petiole of half or three quarters of an inch 

in 



* So named after Alstroemek, a Swedish Naturalist, who first made this 
genus known to Linn.ui.-s. 



in length, and this is twisted in such a manner, that the 
underside of the leaf becomes the upper, and is perfectly 
glabrous, whilst the underside is strikingly hairy, especially 
upon the numerous parallel nerves. Involucre of about 
five spreading or recurved leaves, unequal in size, and 
exactly resembling those of the stem. Umbel of three, or 
according to Cavanilles, five peduncles, long, pendent, 
tlexuose, red, bearing two flowers, one upon a short, the 
other upon a longer pedicel ; and there are two ovate, 
reflexed bracteae upon each. Flowers pendent, an inch and 
a half long. Perianth of six segments, tubuloso-campa- 
nulate, the laciniae straight, especially the three outer ones, 
which are oblongo - spathulate, pale ochraceous yellow, 
nerved, green at the points, the three inner are decidedly 
spathulate, a little longer than the outer, with the margins 
below remarkably inflexed, subsaccate and bearing honey, 
yellowish, the limb notched, having a little point in the 
notch, green, with many purple, linear, oblique spots. 
Stamens six : Filaments whitish, slightly pubescent. An- 
thers at first dark green, oblong, compressed, opening at 
the sides, at length, after the discharge of the pollen, oval, 
brownish-purple. Pollen purplish. Pistil: Germen infe- 
rior, turbinate, subtriangular, furrowed : Style at first short, 
slender, columnar, subpubescent, at length longer, and 
dividing at the extremity into three stigmata. 

This very interesting species of Alstrosmeria, allied, in- 
deed, but yet abundantly distinct from A. Salsilla, flowered 
in the greenhouse of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, in Sep- 
tember, 1827. Seeds of it were received from Mr. Cruick- 
shanrs in 1825, and young plants from the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden in the same year : raised from seeds, equally, 
I believe, sent from Chili, by Mr. Cruickshanks. 
It is said to be also a native of Peru *. 



* The Alstrcemebia hirtella of Sweet's British Flower Garden is, I 
think, though said to he a native of Mexico, unquestionably the same 1 species 
with the one here given ; and it may also be that of Humboldt and Kunth. 
Perhaps the A. hirsuta of these latter authors may not be specifically distinct, 
and all these approach very near to the A. latifolia of Ruiz and Pavon. 



Fig. 1. Outer Segment of the Perianth. 2. Inner ditto, nat. size. 3. 
Stamen, before the discharge of the Pollen. 4. Ditto, after the Pollen is dis- 
persed. 5. Pistil.— Magnified. 




w:jcx.d*& 



Tad. br 



( 2849 ) 

Begonia dipetala. Two-petaled 
Begonia. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

MONCECIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — BegoniacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. o. Cor. polypetala, petalis plerumque 4, 
inaequalibus. 

F(em. Cal. o. Cor. petalis 4 — 9, plerumque inaequa- 
libus. Styli tres, bifidi. Caps, triquetra, alata, trilocularis, 
polysperma. 

Specific Character. 

Begonia dipetala; fruticosa, erecta, foliis semicordatis acu- 
tis subangulatis duplicato-serratis glabriusculis macu- 
latis discoloribus, stipulis semicordatis, floribus dipe- 
talis, capsular alis subaequalibus rotundatis. Graham. 

Begonia dipetala. Graham MSS. 



Descr. Stem erect, tapering, greyish brown, with a few 
small, round, vermillion spots, scarcely branched in our spe- 
cimens, which are small. Leaves half heart-shaped, acute 
and somewhat lobed, without any callosity on the edge, 
unequally and doubly serrato -dentate, slightly bullate, 
crisped at the margin when young, above green, with white 
spots, and having a pellucid, short, awl-shaped hair, rising 
from the centre of a few of the spots, below blood-coloured, 
but when old, blanched, smooth, except at the veins, where 
there are a few hairs ; veins prominent, especially below : 
petioles distichous, at first suberect, afterwards spreading 
or divaricated, nearly as long as the leaves, rounded, flat- 
tened a little, and slightly channelled above. Cyme axil- 
lary, 



lary, peduncled, drooping, rather longer than the petioles 
and foliage. dichotornous, peduncles and pedicels flattened :. 
two obsolete, nearly opposite bracteas are on the middle of 
the female pedicel, but none on the male. Flowers pink, 
dipetalous, handsome, large, (female, one inch broad, by 
three quarters of an inch long ; male, three quarters of an 
inch in either diameter,) males in the clefts of the cyme, 
and on the outside of its subdivisions ; those in the clefts 
expand first, the others nearly at the same time with the 
corresponding females ; petals in them subrotund ; in the 
females more cordate ; in both, but especially the latter, 
subacuminate. Stamens numerous, filaments wedge-shaped 
at the top, , an anther -cell being fixed along each side. 
Capsule , wings rounded, subequal : Stigmata pale yellow, 
revolute, angled, pubescent along the edge. 

This species flowered at the Royal Botanic Garden Edin- 
burgh, in April, 1828, having been raised two years before 
from seed sent by Dr. Johnstone, from Bombay. Like all 
the other species of Begonia, it requires the heat of the 
stove. Graham. 



>a 



SO 




?,7/lp,"/'^. ^^ 



( 2850 ) 

CONOSPERMUM ERICIFOLIUM. HEATH-LEAVED 
CONOSPERMUM. 

fk-i jfc ■'{'■. ii". lit .St'. .St', afc jfc A .Sk .Sfr 1 . jfc .^i jXl .Sir', ifc .4'. .Sfc .SK .Sk 
vf? M> MS MS *l* MS MS Mr " f MS MS «!* MS MS MS 9p> M> MS MS MS M? 

C/ass «wd Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — -Proteacejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium tubulosum, ringens : lacinia suprema basi 
fornicata. Antherce tres, inclusae : laterales dimidiatae : su- 
perior biloba; primo cohffirentes, lobis proximis vicinarum 
loculum constituent ibus. Stigma liberum. Nux obconica, 
papposa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Conospermum * ericifolium; foliis erectis numerosis subim- 

bricatis subulato-filiformibus, spicis simplicibus axilla- 

ribus pedunculo brevioribus. 
Conospermum ericifolium. Smith in Rees Cycl. Knight 

et Salisb. Prot. p. 95. Br. in Linn. Trans, v. 10. p. 

154. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 474. 



Descr. Shrub erect. Stem rounded, brown ; Branches 
erect, green when young and pubescent. Leaves subulato- 
filiform, slightly twisted, mucronate, veinless, when seen 
under a microscope a little scabrous, veinless, somewhat 
imbricated, persisting, very numerous. Peduncles axillary, 
crowded at the extremity of the branches, erect, elongated, 
obscurely scabrous, and having a few scattered ovato- 
acuminate, blueish bracteae, but no flowers (unless an abor- 
tive one) except at the top, where they form a rather dense, 

almost 



* From x«ro«, a cone, and cnr/fpux, seed, on account of the shape of the 
seed. 



almost capitate spike. Flowers, in the bud, slightly tinged 
with pink, afterwards white, spreading, each sessile in the 
axil of a bractea, which is larger than those below. Peri- 
anth pubescent : tube curved outwards and obscurely tetra- 
gonous ; limb inflated, bilabiate : upper lip pointed, re- 
flected, the lower-lip of three straight, erect teeth of equal 
length, but the two outer are a little broader than that in 
the middle. Graham. If in a state of the bud the perianth 
be carefully cut open at the faux, where the stamens (three 
in number anther-bearing) are situated, they will be found, 
as Mr. Brown has long ago observed, to be most curiously 
joined, so that the three anthers constitute but two cells : 
that is to say, the single lobe of each of the two anthers 
of the lower lip is conjoined with a lobe of the perfect 
anther in the upper lip. In flower, the stamens sepa- 
rate, and we find one perfect, two-lobed anther in the 
middle of the upper lip, and two one-lobed anthers in the 
lower lip ; the other lobe being abortive, and appearing 
like a subulate appendage : the fourth stamen, which should 
have occupied the middle of the lower lip, is entirely abor- 
tive, and appears like a bipartite scale, with a mucro in the 
sinus. The filaments are very short : the Anther-lobes 
oval, purple-brown : the pollen yellow. Pistil : Germen 
free, broadly oblong, narrow below, clothed with silky 
hairs, and crowned with a beautiful tuft of the same. Ovule 
pendent, obconical. Style zigzag, filiform. Stigma slightly 
toothed, clavate, concave. 

I have already, at t. 2724 of this work, observed, that 
some narrow-leaved varieties of C. taxifolium approach this 
species : still I believe it to be distinguished by the shape 
of this foliage. Seeds were received by Dr. Graham at the 
Edinburgh Garden, from Mr. Fraser of New Holland, and 
they flowered both in April 1827 and 1828. 



Fig. 1. Flower and Bractea. 2. Section of the Perianth and Anther, to 
shew the situation of the latter before the expansion of the flower. 3. 
Perianth in perfection, cut open, to shew the Stamen and Pistil, 4. Section 
of the Germen, to shew the Ovule. — Magnified. 



M&l 




&£<>?* 



7>u& £>!■ X. , //,/■//. <•. VaAf0r£& S&r ZJtfi. - 



( 2851 ) 

Cattleya intermedia. Middle-size- 
flowered Cattleya. 

.Sfc .Sfc .Sk .St 7 . .St'. ■'V. .Sfc .St'. ■4'« .S^. ■St'-. . v t / . ■St'. .Sfc jfc .St'i ate lit, A ■-'I'.. 

Tfr *^r vfr vfs vf, vf? "/}r Tfr "^r Tfr vf.* vjs* ift /£ vf? Vr» >f» MS VK 7r» 

CYass arcd Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium resupinatum, patens ; laciniis subsequalibus. 
Columna libera,, semiteres, labello eroso cucullato atn- 
plexa. Anthera infra-apicularis., opercularis., persistens, 
columnar apice subulato supertecta, 4-locularis; septis 
completis membranaceis marginatis. Masses Pollinis 4, 
lenticulares, per pares filo elastico granulato in ipsis re- 
flexj) connexae. Lindl. 

Specific Character. 

Cattleya * intermedia ; perianthio subaequali acutiusculo, 
labello trilobo, lobo medio cordato rotundato, spatha 
obtusa pedunculum subaequante, caule articulato cla- 
vato compresso vix bulboso. Graham. 

Cattleya intermedia. Graham MSS. 

Descr. Parasitical. Root consisting of several strong, cylin- 
drical, branching fibres, green where exposed to the light. Stems 
numerous, jointed, three to nine inches high, enlarging upwards, 
but scarcely bulbous, smooth when in vigour, but often deeply 
furrowed, covered with grey, without blunt, appressed sheaths, 
green where exposed, terminated by two nearly opposite and 
equal, spreading, flat, ovato-lingulate, fleshy, veinless leaves, five 
inches long, very slightly notched and mucronate at the apex, 
yellowish-green when young, afterwards darker. Spatha submen- 
branaceous, blunt, compressed, broad, green, united at its edges, 
open only at its extremity, two inches long. Peduncle scarcely 
exserted, round, smooth, supporting, at its apex, a single flower, 
in our specimen : but as there is also an abortive bud, it is pro- 
bably two-flowered. Perianth nearly equal, of an uniform deli- 
cate faint lilac colour, inodorous : upper segment two inches and 
a half long, linear-elliptical, reflexed at the edges, and terminated 
by a greenish point, the four others two inches long, falcate, undu- 
late 

* So named by Mr. Lindlby, " in compliment to Wilmam Catti-ev, 
Esq. of Barnet, Hertfordshire, a great patron of Botany, and the most ardent 
collector of rare plants of his day." 



late, and more nearly lanceolate, the two inner rather the nar- 
rowest. Labellum as long as the perianth, and of a rather paler 
color, curved downwards, compressed, its edges entire, and over- 
lapping above; terminated by three lobes, of which the middle is 
the largest, projecting forwards, cordato-subrotund, saddle-shaped ; 
all the three jagged at the edges and waved, but the lateral lobes 
less so, and not spreading : middle lobe of deep purple, mottled 
with the general color of the labellum or perianth. Column half 
the length of the labellum, shaped like a boat, blunt in the keel, 
and inverted upon the labellum : there is a round notch at the 
extremity, with a projecting tooth in the middle, for the attachment 
of the anther : the sides of this notsh project, are truncated, and 
edged with purple. The general color of the column is the same 
as the upper part of the labellum, but beautifully streaked with 
purple, especially on its lower side. Anther hemispherical, two- 
lobed, four-celled : cells linear-oblong, each having a thin, brown 
margin or rim. Pollen Masses four, in two pairs, subovate, plano- 
convex ; the reflected, filamental stalks slightly cohering in each 
pair. Stigma occupying the upper half of the plane, or under, 
side of the column, concave, large, and coming to a point at the 
base. Germen an inch and a half long, club-shaped, erect, slightly 
curved, brownish-green, obscurely spotted with purple, and having 
three longitudinal, double furrows. Graham. 

It is with much pleasure that I add a fifth species of Cattleya 
to the four already in cultivation. Its nearest affinity certainly is 
to C. Forbesii, but the general appearance of the flower more 
nearly resembles C. labiata, and it is almost as handsome. C. 
Forbesii could not be distinguished from this by the essential 
character given by Mr. Lindley, in Bot. Reg. t. 953, to which, 
therefore, must be added the acuminate spatha, much shorter than 
the peduncle. The habit, as shewn in Bot. Reg. is precisely the 
same as in C. intermedia. 

Our plant has further the three-lobed lip and the stem of C. 
Loddigesii and C. Forbesii ; the approximating perianth of the 
latter, and of C. labiata, together with the form of the perianth 
and sharply jagged lip of C. Forbesii, and the colours and spatha 
of C. labiata, only that this spatha is united at its edges, in which 
circumstance there is an agreement with C. Loddigesii j but in this 
again the spatha is pointed, and much shorter than the peduncle. 
We received our specimens along with many other valuable 
plants from Mr. Harris of Rio Janeiro, by Capt. Graham, of 
his majesty's Packet service, in 1824. They have been kept in 
the stove in pots of decayed bark ; and the specimen now describ- 
ed flowered for the first time in spring, 1826, but met with an 
accident before it could be figured or described. It bloomed for 
the second time in April last (1828), and remained in perfection 
several days. Other specimens, subjected to the same kind of treat- 
ment, have remained without the least alteration in their appear- 
ance since they were imported. The subject of the present article 
is now pushing its roots freely over the pieces of bark. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Column of Fructification. 2. Anther-Case, from which the four 
Pollen Masses, fig. 3, 3, are taken. 4. Side view of a pair of Pollen Masses.— 
— Magnified. 



28 32 




r.JKdel* 



Tub. &>j[ Cnrm H r aI V orh>! 



( 2852 ) 

polygala paucifolia. few-leaved 
Milk-Wort. 

Class and Order. 

DlADELPHIA OcTANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Polygale^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis sepala persistentia, 2 interiora, alaeformia. Pet. 
3 — 5 tubo stamineo connexa, inferiore carinaeformi (forsan 
e duobus coalitis constante.) Caps, compressa, elliptica 
obovata aut obcordata. Semina pubescentia, hylo caruncu- 
lata, coma destituta. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Polygala* paucifolia; caulibus simplicissimis erectis in- 

ferne nudis, foliis ovatis, floribus ternis terminalibus, 

carina eristata. D. C. 
Polygala paucifolia. Wittd. v. 3. p. 880. Pers. %n. v. 2. 

p. 212. Be Cand. Prodr. p. 1. p. 331. Purshv. 2. p. 

464. Nuttall, PI. Am. v. 2. p. 87. BigelowFl. Boston. 

p. 267. Elliottj Bot. S. Carolina et Georg. v. 2. p. 

180. 
Triclisperma grandiflora. Rafinesque Speech. 1. p. 117. 



Descr. Root slender, creeping near the surface, peren- 
nial. Stem herbaceous, erect, angular,- shining, three to 
four inches high. Leaves collected near the top, petioled, 
orate, acute at both ends, shining, nearly naked, imper- 
fectly ciliated, sparingly veined, green, red when young, 
in the lower part of the stem degenerating into ovate, 

pointed 

* From *oXt>?, many, and yttKn, milk : from the supposed quality, in cer- 
tain plants of this genus, of increasing the quantity of milk given by the 
cattle which feed upon them. 



pointed, sessile scales. Peduncle generally terminal, though 
in a few instances the stem is extended beyond it, where it 
is opposite to the leaf, one, two, or three flowered, very 
short ; pedicels lax, half as long as the flowers, angular, 
red, naked, and shining. Calyx : two lowest segments 
small, lanceolato-ovate, upper segments tumid, ovate, con- 
cave, wings spreading, obovate, as long as the wings of the 
corolla. Corolla handsome, three-fourths of an inch long, 
nectariferous at the base; petals three, coalescing below 
for above half of their length, compressed, the wings over- 
lapping above, slightly arched towards their apices ; keel 
after separating from the wings inflated, rounded, edges in 
contact above, terminated by a purple tipped beard, form- 
ing a tuft nearly as large as the inflated portion of the keel ; 
whole flower of a beautiful purple, indistinctly veined and 
pale, almost white on its lower side. Stamens six ; fila- 
ments united to the inside of the petals to the point where 
these separate from each other, after which they project 
forward in two equal, opposite bundles, smooth, flattened, 
colourless ; anthers terminal, obscurely bilobed, yellow. 
Stigma truncated, obscurely bordered, bilabiate, lips di- 
verging, the upper largest and pointed : Style clavate, bent, 
colourless towards the stigma, purple below : Germen un- 
equally obcordate, green, compressed. 

Nuttall quotes, though with doubt, the Polygala 
uniflora of Michaux as a synonym for this species ; but as 
it is beardless, which no specimen, even imperfect, of this 
plant, ever is, and as the inflorescence is quite different, 
they must be distinct, though P. paucifolia has often one 
flower only. This species is altogether overlooked by 
Michaux. De Candolle, in his Prodromus, mentions the 
P. purpurea of Hortus Kewensis, as the same with P. pau- 
cifolia, although the former plant is stated in that work to 
be woody. 

This beautiful little plant flowered sparingly last year in 
the Nursery Gardens of Mr. Cunningham, at Comely Bank, 
near Edinburgh, having been introduced from Canada by 
Mr. Blair. During the month of May, 1828, it has blos- 
somed abundantly, and formed one of the most pleasing 
objects in Mr. Cunningham's extensive collection. Its roots 
spread widely among loose vegetable soil, and in a cool 
frame, under the shade of the garden wall. Graham. 



Fig. I. The three outer Leaflets of the Calyx. 2. One of the inner ditto. 
3. The combined Petals. 4. Stamens. 5. Pistil.— Magnified. 



<2*5?> 




-Fu*. fr J! Curtis. IfatieorZi. Sy>?. JJfgf. 



( 2853 ) 

BUDDLEA CONNATA. CoNNATE-LEAVED 
BUDDLEA. 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Vitices. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-fidus. Cor. 4-fida. Caps, bilocularis, dissepimen- 
tum e marginibus val varum. Semina paleacea. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Buddlea * connata; foliis lanceolatis serratis connatis basi 

auriculatis subtus pubescenti-tomentosis, pedunculis 

ternatim divisis, floribus capitatis. 
Buddlea connata. Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Peruv. v. I. p. 52. t. 

81./ b. Roem. et Schult. v. 3. p. 152. Spreng. Si/st. 

Veget. v. 1. p. 431. 



Descr. Plant sufFrutescent, erect, branched, four to five 
feet high, branches obscurely angular, glabrous above, pubes- 
cent. Leaves: the largest of them six to seven inches long, 
lanceolate, serrated, glabrous on the upper surface, pu- 
bescent and even white and tomentose beneath, the base 
attenuated, entire, till at the connate bases, where the mar- 
gin is waved, and generally dilated into an ear-like appen- 
dage on each side; but in the older leaves, the margin is 
there quite regular. From the axils of these leaves, in our 
specimens, spring the flower-stalks, angular, with one or 
two pairs of opposite branches, which, with the centre axis, 
make them appear ternately divided ; each branch or pedi- 
cel 



* In honour of Adam Buddle, an English Botanist of the last century, 
whose Herbarium is deposited in the British Museum. 



eel bearing a globose head of deep orange-coloured, power- 
fully-scented flowers, resembling that of honey. Beneath 
each head of flowers is a pair of small linear-lanceolate leaves. 
Calyx almost as long as the tube of the flower, pubescent ; 
segments acute. Corolla with the tube externally pubes- 
cent, limb spreading, the segments obtuse, the mouth a 
little hairy. Stamens inserted near the mouth of the tube. 
Style as long as the corolla: Stigma obtuse, slightly notch- 
ed, green. 

All that has hitherto been known of this species of Bud- 
dlea, is from the figure and description of Ruiz and Pavon, 
who found it an inhabitant of the province of Chancay. 
The seeds from which our plants were raised, were sent 
to the Glasgow Botanic Garden from Valparaiso, by A. 
Cbuicrshanks, Esq. It forms a handsome greenhouse 
shrub, flowering in the beginning of May, and remarkable 
for its curiously connate foliage. 

Ruiz and P Avon's figure, indeed, differs slightly from 
ours, in the crenated, not serrated margin of the leaves, and 
in those crenatures extending down to the auriculated base. 
In the older leaves these auricles become obsolete. 



Fig. 1. Flower.— Slightly magnified. 



28M 




Pub h' X Curtis H'alrertk. Sgj>k2.2<?gj>. 



Sr*»<& 



( 2854 ) 

Eriostemon salicifolius. Willow-leaved 
Eriostemon. 

**«*»*»**»•»*«&« 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — RutacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Pet. 5. Stam. 10, filamentis hispidis 
ciliatis aut nudis, antheris terminalibus. Stylus brevissi- 
mus. Carpella 5, basi coalita. Semina in loculis 2, aut 
abortu solitaria. Embryo subcurvatus, radicula longa. 
Frutices arboresve nunc Diosmis nunc Croweis, nunc Phe- 
baliis affines, foliis alternis simplicibus, floribus axillaribus. 
DC. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Eriostemon* salicifolium ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis integer- 
rimis glabris, ramulis triquetris, floribus axillaribus 
subsessilibus basi bracteolatis solitariis, calycibus pe- 
talisque extus canescentibus, filamentis hispidis. D C. 

Eriostemon salicifolium. Smith in Rees' Cycl. D C. Prodr. 
v. I. p. 720. Adr. Juss. Rutac. t. 21. /. 25. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. % p. 321. 

Crowea saligna. Sieber. Fl. Nov. Holl. No. 294. 

Crowea scabra. Graham in Edin. N. Phil. Journ. 1827, 
p. 174. . 

Descr. An erect shrub, with the stem more or less round- 
ed, the branches triquetrous, often scabrous. Leaves scat- 
tered, erecto-patent, linear-oblong, somewhat falcate, cori- 
aceous, quite entire, a little concave in front, roughish, 
veinless; the midrib obscurely prominent behind, nearly 

obsolete 



* From ipw», wool, and <nfun, a stamen : the filaments of the stamens being 
more or less woolly, or hairy. 



obsolete on the superior surface. Flowers axillary, soli- 
tary, pale lilac, on short scaly pedicels ; pedicels slightly 
downy. Graham. Cal. deeply quinquefid, of five rounded, 
equal, somewhat downy, fringed lobes, small in proportion 
to the corolla. Petals oblong, or ovato-oblong, with three 
lines in the centre. Stamens ten, hypogynous, incurved and 
connivent at the top. Filaments alternately longer, taper- 
ing, white, with numerous spreading hairs in the front at the 
margin : the longer ones with a swelling, which is beset 
with small, spherical glands, just beneath the anther, but 
ovate-acuminated, largest on the shortest filament, and the 
last to discharge the pollen, which is of a deep orange 
colour. Pistil much shorter than the stamens : Germen 
of five lobes, dotted with glands seated upon a fleshy base ; 
each lobe is one-celled, and has two ovules : Style of five 
united into one, which scarcely rises above the lobes of the 
germen, is sunk between them, and which at the base has 
a few white hairs. 

Communicated from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, by 
Dr. Graham, who described it in Jameson's Journal, under 
the name of Crowea scabra. I fear, that I may have my- 
self, from too hasty a comparison of the plant, have been 
accessory to that gentleman's considering it to be a Crowea : 
for it is the same as what is sent by our valued correspond- 
ent Mr. Fraser, under the name of Crowea saligna, and 
Dr. Sieber has published it under that name. It is, howe- 
ver, as Dr. Graham has ascertained, a true Eriostemon, 
and certainly the E. salicifolium, which is admirably describ- 
ed by Sir James Smith, in Rees's Cyclopedia, where, as well 
as by De Candolle, it is acknowledged to have quite the 
appearance of a Crowea. 

Its flowering season is April : but it does not grow freely, 
though treated with the same care as the generality of New 
Holland plants : but it is unquestionably one highly deserv- 
ing of cultivation. 

It was introduced to the gardens of this country by Mr. 
Fraser, and to him we are likewise indebted for our dried 
specimens. 

It is curious, that Sprengel makes Eriostemon mascu- 
line, Smith feminine, and De Candolle neuter : — the 
former is surely correct, #/*«, a stamen, is indeed neuter ; but 
<rr»y*Mi", on; is masculine, from which our word immediately 
comes. 



^ Fig. 1. Petals. 2. Shorter Stamen, back view. 3. Longer Stamen, back 
view. 4. Upper Part of the Stamen, front view. 5. Ditto of the Upper 
Part of a longer Stamen. 8. Scaly Pedicel and Calyx.— Magnified. 




jsr>ri. 



Pub if>v if. t 'lit-/ /'.; ;r<'/»v/A/lrt J . 



(2855 ) 

Saponaria glutinosa. Clammy-stalked 
Soapwort. 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Caryophylle^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. cylindricus, basi nudus. Petala 5, unguiculata. 
Capmla oblonga, uni-bilocularis. 

Specific Character and Sj/noni/ms. 

Saponaria* glutinosa ; floribus fasciculato - corymbosis, 
calycibus glanduloso-hispidis viscosis striatis, petalis 
faux coronatis apice 2-dentatis, foliis ovatis nervosis. 
Spr. 

Saponaria glutinosa. Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc. v. I. p. 322. 
" Cent. 2. t. 66." Be Cand&yst. Veget. v. I. p. 365. 
Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 2. p. 374. 

Silene Armeria. Pall. Ind. Taur. (Bieb.) 



Descr. Plant apparently biennial,, from one to two feet 
high when cultivated, with a roundish erect stem, having 
many, opposite, reddish-purple branches, and, as is the 
whole plant, clothed with glandular, viscid hairs, much 
fewer upon the leaves, especially upon the lower ones. 
Leaves opposite, ovate; the uppermost ones cordate, ses- 
sile and subperfoliate ; those at the base attenuated into a 
broad, flat petiole ; all of them entire at the margin, and 

having 



* Saponaria — from sapo, soap. Because the bruised leaves of one species, 
S. officinalis, are said to form a lather when agitated in water. 



having three red nerves. Flowers in threes, collected into 
dense terminal, panicles, upon the stems and branches, with 
small, leaf-like bractete at the base of the divisions. Calyx 
purple, cylindrical, an inch or an inch and a half long, very 
glandular and viscid, five-toothed, and having ten striae. 
Petals five: Clam very long; limb very small, deep rose 
colour, linear, recurved between the teeth of the calyx, 
bidentate, at their base having a bipartite gland or nectary. 
Stamens ten. Anthers purple, roundish. Pistil : Germen 
on a short, thick pedicel, green, with a longitudinal furrow 
on each side : Styles two, filiform, as long as the stamens, 
purple at the extremity : Stigmas acute. The fruit I have 
not seen, but the germen is evidently two-celled. 

An inhabitant of the Taurian mountains, according to 
Bieberstein, its original discoverer, growing along the mar- 
gins of woods in sterile places, particularly abundant about 
Temirdschi. I possess a specimen from Sieber's Cretan 
collection, gathered at Lassiti, which differs in no respect 
from that here figured, but in being smaller, and having 
the leaves narrower, and the radical ones upon longer pe- 
tioles. It is a very desirable plant for the garden. The 
flowers, though small, are of a vivid red, and the purple 
calyces and stems and nerves to the leaves have a rich 
effect. 

Cultivated in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where it was 
raised from seeds sent by Dr. Fischer from St. Petersburg. 
It flowers in the month of June. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Pistil. 4. Section of a Germen. — Mag- 
nified. 



2860. 




C 2856 ) 

Imatophyllum Aitoni. Handsome- 
flowered Imatophyllum. 

Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Amaryllide^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores umbellati, spathacei, nutantes. Perianthium su- 
perum, subcurvatum, sexpartitum, tubulosum, laciniis sub- 
asqualibus. Stamina basi submonadelpha, tubo inserta, 
perianthio longiora. Germen globosum, hexagonum : Sty- 
lus filiformis, exsertus : Stigma trifidum. Bacca globosa, 
trilocularis, loculis trispermis. 

Habitus Cyrtanthi; sed radix fibrosa : folia numerosa, 
loricata, disticha, marginata : umbella multiflora, jloribus 
vix curvatisy limbo perianOhii profunde sexpartito : stamina 
exserta. 

Specific Name. 
Imatophyllum * Aitoni. 



Descr. Root perennial, consisting of numerous large and 
thick, fleshy,, simply or branched fibres. Leaves radical, 
long, spreading out in a distichous manner, strap-shaped, 
flat, striated, green, with a diaphanous, jagged margin, the 
apex blunt, almost retuse, the bases sheathing each other, 
and purplish. On breaking a leaf, a greenish, gelatinous 
fluid exudes in considerable quantity, which has the flavor 
and smell of a fully ripe apple. From the centre of these 
leaves arise one or more erect, rounded scapes, with a large 

umbel 



* From !/*«;, »/*«T©f, a thong, or strap, and fv**o* a leaf, from the shape of 
the foliage. 



umbel at the extremity, of handsome, numerous, drooping 
flowers, accompanied by a many-leaved spatha, which soon 
withers. Peduncles filiform, glabrous. Perianth superior ; 
of six somewhat incurved and slightly unequal, lanceolate, 
acute, orange-green segments, united at the base into a 
tube. Stamens six, inserted at the top of this tube, and, at 
the very base of the filaments, monadelphous : longer than 
the perianth. Anthers oblong, yellow, fixed near the cen- 
tre of the back ; the cells opening at the sides. Germen 
globose, with six angles and three cells, each with three 
ovules : Style longer than the stamens, filiform : Stigma 
trifid. Fruit, a large, three-celled, red Berry, containing 
about six, somewhat triangular, whitish seeds, clothed with 
a double integument ; the outer loose and pulpy. Albumen 
between waxy and horny. Embryo cylindrical. 



Mr. Bowie, whoso successfully explored the Botany of South- 
ern Africa, and enriched the Royal Gardens at Kew with many of 
its choicest productions, in the summer of last year, immediately 
previous to his return to the Cape, mentioned to me a Cyrtanthus- 
like plant, which he had there found and imported, and which, if 
it blossomed in this country, he desired might bear the Specific 
Name of his patron, Mr. Aiton. ^At the same time, the letter 
enclosed one or two of the wild specimens of the flowers, and a 
small piece of the leaf; from which it was evident that, however 
closely allied the plant might be to Cyrtanthus, it could not 
rank in the same Genus. 

A specimen having flowered in October of last year, in the 
noble gardens at Sion House, Mr. Forrest, under whose skilful 
charge is placed the whole of those truly princely collections, 
kindly requested His Grace the Duke of Northumberland's 
permission for a drawing to be made of the plant, from which, 
the accompanying figure is copied. Mr. Aiton has likewise been 
so obliging as to send me a drawing and specimens of the fruit, 
with the particulars of its habitat, extracted from Mr. Bowie's 
notes : " on shaded spots, near Quagga flats, and more common in 
the Albany tracts, near the great Fish River." 



Fig. 1. Lower part of a Plant, to shew the Root. 2, 3. Flowering Scape 
and portion of a leaf, natural size. 4. Flower, from which the segments of 
the Perianth are removed. 6. Anther. 7> Pistil. 8. Section of the Ger- 
men. 9. Berry, natural size. 10. Seed, natural size. 11. Section of 
ditto. — Figures 4 — 8 magnified. 



8 8.-, 7. 




( 2857 ) 

SlDA SESSILt FLORA. SESSILE-FLOWERED 

SlDA. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx nudus, 5-fidus, saepe angulatus. Stylus apice mul- 
tifidus. Carpella capsularia 5 — 30 circa axim verticillata, 
plus minusve inter se coalita, 1-locularia, mono- aut oligo- 
sperma, apice mutica aut aristata. D C. 

Specific Character. 

Sid a * sessiliflora ; mollissima pubescens, subherbacea (?), 
foliis cordatis acutis serratis, floribus subglomeratis 
sessilibus axillaribus terminalibusque, capsulis 10 pu- 
bescentibus muticis, corolla calyce vix duplo longiore. 



Descr. Plant, in our stove, from two to three feet high, 
having the stem rounded, branched, soft with very nume- 
rous short hairs, and apparently more herbaceous than 
woody. Leaves rather distantly placed, beautifully soft 
with short hairs or down (as is every part of the plant), ex- 
actly cordate, rather acute, veined, distinctly serrated, 
darkish green, paler beneath. Petiole about as long as the 
leaf, swollen just beneath its insertion on the leaf, and, at 
the base, having on each side a subulate stipule. The 
flowers are small, generally produced two together, in the 

axils 



* From <nh, an ancient Greek name, supposed to have been applied to some 
plant allied to the Marsh-Mallow. 



axils of the superior leaves, or clustered at the extremity of 
the branches, all sessile, or having so short a pedicel as to 
appear destitute of any. Calyx cup-shaped, with five acute, 
almost erect segments. Corolla yellow, a little inclining to 
orange ; petals roundish or obcordate. Stamens nume- 
rous, united by their filaments into a tube, yellow. Pistil : 
Germens ten, pubescent, united around the base of the 
style, destitute of spines : Styles ten, united in their lower 
half: Stigmas clavate. 

The seeds of this, which I take to be an undescribed spe- 
cies of Sida, were sent from Mendoza in South America, by 
Dr. Gillies, and produced plants, which flowered in the 
stove of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, in November, 1827. 
The flowers are very small, and not possessed of bright 
colours ; so that, as an ornamental plant, it is scarcely 
worthy of cultivation. 

There seem to be few species of this Genus described 
whose flowers are sessile, or subsessile. Amongst them is 
the S. pellita of Kunth (holosericea of Spreng.) ; but that 
has birostrate capsules, and the S. verticillata, which is 
said to be a somewhat hairy plant, and to have only five 
birostrate capsules. 



Fig. 1. Pistil.— Magnified, 



2»5& 




ir,r.Z.Jrl? 



r?i?*. 



( 2858 ) 

SlEVERSIA TRIFLORA. ThREE-FLOWERED 
SlEVERSIA 

* Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA PoLYGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 10-fidus, laciniis alternis minoribus. Pet. 5. Cary- 
opses stylis rectis coronatae. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Sieversia* triflora; foliis radicalibus interrupte pinnatis 

pilosis, foliolis cuneatis inciso-dentatis, caule simplici 

sub-3 floro, petalis calycem aequantibus., aristis longis- 

simis villosis. Spr. 
Sieversia triflora. Brown in Parry's First Voy. App. p. 

cclxxvi. in adnot. Richardson in Frankl. Journ. ed. 2. 

App. p. 2\ . Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 543. 
Geum triflorum. Pursh Ft. of N. Am. v. 2. p. 736. (in 

Suppl.J De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 553. Richardson 

in Frankl. Journ. ed. 1. App. p. 740. 



Descr. Root perennial, woody, subfusiform, throwing 
out from beneath many radicles. Leaves radical, from four 
to six inches or more in length, with an oblong or obovate 
outline; interruptedly pinnated ; the pinna? placed close to 
each other, often imbricated ; the upper ones more or less 
united at their base ; all of them pubescenti-hirsute, sub- 
cuneate, nerved, with the margins deeply cut and serrated ; 

gradually 



* So named by Willdenow, probably after some Botanist of the name of 
Sibvers, but of whose history I am ignorant. 



gradually becoming smaller towards the base: Petiole 
dilated, grooved. Scape from eight or ten inches to a foot 
high, terete, purplish, clothed with soft hairs, bearing two 
deeply -pinnatifid and laciniated leaves or large bracteae 
above the middle, which are connate at the base, and ter- 
minate in a three-flowered umbel. There are again two 
large, laciniated bracteae, similar to those just mentioned, at 
the base of the pedicels ; and the two lateral ones have simi- 
lar bracteaB near their middle, while the central flower is 
destitute of them . These pedicels are from three to four inches 
long, each terminated with a solitary, drooping flower. 
Cal. dark purple, with five, erect, large inner laciniae, and 
five external, smaller, patent ones. Petals oblong, not 
longer than the calyx, white, purplish-red at the extremity 
and at the margins, never spreading. In the centre of the 
flower is a short, five-lobed, fleshy cup, around which, and 
beneath it, are the hairy stamens : and in the centre of 
which is an elongated, conical receptacle, with many elon- 
gated tubercles, upon which the Pistils are jointed. Ger- 
men hairy, tapering gradually into the arista-like style : 
Stigma obtuse. 

A very little known inhabitant of North America, having 
been first detected by Mr. Bradbury (some of whose 
specimens are in my Herbarium) in Upper Louisiana, 
and described by Pursh in the Supplement to his Flora. 
Mr. Goldie found it on the banks of Ohio ; Dr. Richard- 
son during his and Captain Franklin's first expedition ; 
Dr. Morison gathered it in Labrador ; and Mr. Cormacr in 
Newfoundland ; and at length Mr. Blair brought living 

Slants from North America, (the White Mountains) which 
owered in the collection of Mr. Cunningham near Edin- 
burgh. But the finest specimens I have ever seen are 
amongst Mr. Drummond's plants, gathered on the alpine 
prairies of the Saskatchawan. 

It is quite hardy and has the same graceful appearances, 
and subdued, but agreeable colour, as our Geum rivale, and 
which caused that plant to be so great a favourite with the 
late Sir James Smith. Indeed, the habit of the two is so 
very similar, that it seems almost unnatural to separate 
them into different genera, on account of the slight differ- 
ence in the style. 



Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Cup-shaped body in the centre of the Flower, from 
around which, all but one Stamen is removed. 3. Receptacle of the Pistils, 
with a single Pistil remaining upon it.— Magnified. 




f/if< /»> S. c urtis J&lmrlh- f£i!'2J&26'. 



( 2859 ) 

PULTEN^A PEDUNCULATA. PEDUNCULATED 
PULTEN^A. 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5-fidus, labiis proportionatis, bibracteatus (bracteis 
saepius ipso tubo insidentibus). Cor. papilionacea. Germ. 
sessile, dispermum. Stylus subulatus, adscendens. Stigma 
simplex. Stropheola seminis lobis posticis incisis. 

Specific Character. 

PultenjEA* pedunculata ; pedunculis binis elongatis ter- 
minalibus, fructibus lateralibus, foliis lineari-lanceo- 
latis planis ramisque adpresso-pilosis. 



Descr. A low growing shrub, with slender, flexuose 
branches, which are deflexed, especially the lower ones, 
pubescent ; branchlets numerous. Leaves scattered, small, 
linear-lanceolate, sessile, clothed with many appressed 
hairs, plane, dark green above, paler and marked with a 
midrib beneath : at their base on the upper-side are two 
brown membranaceous stipules, which stand upright and 
are appressed to the stem Flowers in pairs from the ex- 
tremity of the young branches : but they afterwards appear 
lateral from the prolongation of their branches. Peduncle 
an inch or more in length, slender, filiform, flexuose. Calyx 
red, green at the base, and with green lines corresponding 
with the centre of each of the five acuminated teeth. There 

is 



* In honour of Dr. Richard Pultenet, an excellent Natural Historian. 



is a pair of linear subulate bracteae, one on each side of the 
calyx., and inserted on the tubular part. Vexillum obcor- 
date, and, as well as the alae, bright yellow. Carina rather 
shorter than the alae, reddish, deeper within. Stamens 10, 
free : Germen ovate, hairy, gradually tapering into an 
adscendent, glabrous style : Stigma a small, rather acute 
point. 

The seeds of this species of Pultenjsa were sent with 
many others from New Holland by Mr. Fraser, the govern- 
ment Botanist in that Colony. It is distinguished from all 
the others of the Genus by its pedunculated flowers, and 
especially from the Pulten^ea tenuifolia of Mr. Brown in 
Bot. Mag. t. 2086, which is unquestionably a nearly-allied 
species. But the latter has, besides the sessile flowers, much 
narrower (linear-subulate) leaves, covered with long and 
spreading hairs, the upper side being concave, the lower 
convex. The branches and calyces are likewise clothed 
with soft hairs. 

Its flowering season with us, in the greenhouse, is the 
month of May. 



Fig. 1. Portion of the Stem with Leaves and Stipules. 2. Single Leaf and 
Stipules. 3. Flower. 4. Carina. 5. Stamens and Pistil. 6. Pistil. — 
Magnified. 



*<><>. 




Wijrjr.dj&r _p u A ty S. 6kr$is. Walmrrt* <?ctr&6 



( 2860 ) 

DodoNjEa attenuata (Mas.). Attenuated 
leaved, dodon^ea. 

Class and Order. 

OcTANDRJA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Sapindacejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores saspe abortu polygami aut dioici. Cal. 4-parti- 
tus, deciduus. Pet. o. Stam. 8, filamentis brevissimis, 
antheris oblongis linearibusve. Stylus filiformis ab alis 
capsular distinctus, apice subtrifidus. Capsula 2 — 3 valvis, 
2 — 3-loc. 2 — 3-alata, angulo centrali 2 — 3-angulato in faci- 
ebus seminifero. Semina bina subglobosa. Frutices^/b&Ys 
oblongis saepius viscosis. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Dodon^ea * attenuata ; foliis lineari-spathulatis basi atten- 
uates subverrucosis rigidis, marginibus subrevolutis 
dentatis, floribus dioicis, racemis terminalibus axilla- 
ribusque, calycibus demum reflexis viscidis. Graham. 

Dodoioea attenuata. Cunningham in Field's New South 
Wales, p. 353. 



Descr. Shrub erect ; stem round, with brown, cracked 
bark ; branches scattered, slightly compressed. Leaves 
scattered, sessile (three inches long, one quarter of an inch 
broad), spreading, linear-spathulate, with a small mucro at 
the apex, which is not always distinct ; much attenuated 
at the base, rigid, rough, with minute % warty elevations on 

the 



* After Dodoens or Dodon^its, a learned Belgian Botanist and Physician, 
who flourished in the sixteenth century. 



the upper surface ; middle rib strong and prominent both 
above and below ; veins few and obscure, the margin 
slightly reflected, toothed. Racemes terminal and axillary, 
rarely compound, bractea ; rachis, pedicels, and calyx 
slightly hairy and viscid. Bractece subulate, solitary at 
the base of each pedicel and shorter than it. Flowers 
nodding ; segments acute, reflected, light green, deciduous 
with the other parts of the flower. Stamens eight ; Fila- 
ments very short. Anthers large, bilocular, and each lobe 
deeply grooved, bursting along the side, erect, and arranged 
in a square form around the centre of the flower, yellow. 
Pollen abundant, sphaerical, yellow. Pistil abortive. 

Seeds of this plant were received at the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden, in 1824, from Mr. Fraser, Colonial Bota- 
nist, New South Wales. It flowers freely in the green- 
house, in the months of February and March. Graham. 

Professor Graham considered that this plant might 
probably be the Dodon^ea angustissima of De Candolle, 
which is among the species dubiae of that author. But the 
character is so short, that it is impossible to refer any 
species decidedly to it. The present plant is, however, 
unquestionably the Dod. attenuata of Mr. Allan Cun- 
ningham's account of some new plants, published in Mr. 
Barron Field's cc Memoirs relating to New South Wales". 
That indefatigable Botanist found it in the channel of 
Cox's River. 

We possess in our Herbarium likewise, specimens gather- 
ed by Mr. Fraser among the Blue Mountains ; some of 
them being females, have given me the opportunity of re- 
presenting a flower of that sex and likewise the fruit. The 
former has a tripartite, reflexed, calyx ; an ovate triangular 
germen, a filiform style, and a clavate wrinkled stigma. 
The capsule has three broad, diaphanous nerved wings. 



Fig. 1 . Male Flower. 2. Stamens. 3. Pollen. 4. Female Flower. 5. 
Capsule (nat. size). 6. Capsule. — All but Fig. 5. more or less magnified. 



2801 




WaltrcrlA, Octr 2M9&. 



( 2861 ) 
Iris lutescens. Pale yellow Iris. 

Class and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Iridic. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6 -partita: laciniis alternis reflexis. Stigmata peta- 
liformia. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Iris* lutescens; barbata; scapo brevissimo subunifloro, 
foliis glaucis, spatha erecta tubum corolla ante invol- 
vente, pistilli laminis obtusis erectis. Spr. 

Iris lutescens. Lam. Encycl. v. S. p. 285. Willd. Sp. PL 
v. I. p. 225. Red. Liliac. v. 5. t. 263. Ait. Hort. 
Kew. ed. 2. v. 1. p. 118. Roem. et Schultes, Syst. 
Veget. v. I. p. 464. 

Iris virescens. Red. Liliac. v. 5. t. 295 ? 



Descr. Stem leafy , flexuose, about seven inches high, 
nearly round, one-flowered. Leaves scymitar-shaped, and 
a little turned forward at the point, partially glaucous or 
subpruinose; ribbed, the lowest equal in length to the 
stem, the other shorter, sheathing the stem ; sheaths com- 
pressed and bordered. Spathe bivalvular, longer than the 
tube of the corolla ; valves pointed, herbaceous, green, 
membranous and withered towards their apices ; outer 
valve rather the broadest, but scarcely longer than the 
other, erect; the inner sheathing the tube of the corolla, 
and slightly inflated. Peduncle about three-eighths of an 
inch long, nearly round, succulent and almost colourless ; 

by 



* From the varied hues and colours of the flower, as those of the rainbow. 



by its side within the spathe there'is a small awl-shaped 
thread, the abortive representation of a second peduncle. 
Corolla pale yellow, delicate ; nearly the whole of the outer 
segments, and the claws of the inner, streaked with pale 
brown ; segments undulate, crenulate, especially towards 
their extremities, of about equal length ; outer ones rolled 
backwards, bearded with yellow hairs, spathulated, tapering 
gradually towards their base ; inner ones the broadest, bent 
across the centre of the flower above the stigmata, oblong 
and decurrent upon long winged claws, which are slenderer 
than those of the outer segments. All the segments when 
decaying have their claws adpressed to the style, and their 
laminae folded over the middle of the flower, so as entirely 
to close it. Tube exceeding an inch in length ; limb, in- 
cluding the claws, about two and a half inches. Stamens 
shorter than the stigmata ; filaments subulate, adhering to 
the corolla as high as the base of the hairy line ; anthers 
white, equal in length to the free portion of the filaments. 
Stigmata broader than the portion of the reflected segments 
of the corolla, which they cover, about one inch and a quarter 
long, upper lip erect, its segments pointed, inciso-serrated. 
Style three-sided, free for about half an inch, below which 
it is united to the tube of the corolla. Germen half an inch 
long, green, trigonous, marked along the middle of each 
side by a slightly prominent line, opposite to the insertion 
of the dissepiments. Ovules obovate, attached to the cen- 
tral column. 



This is certainly the Iris lutescens of the authors ahove quoted; 
though Steudel (Nomenclator Botanicus) says it is not that of 
Lamarck ; and he refers the I. lutescens of Willdenow and 
Hort. Kew. to I. virescens of De Candolle, which Sprengel 
again considers to be I. variegata ; but this species, as figured in 
Bot. Mag. t. 16, is held distinct from our plant, by its many-flow- 
ered stem, and by the appearance of its spat ha. The I. lutescens 
of Sprengel, erroneously attributed to Lamarck, is quite dif- 
ferent from our plant ; and it is at once distinguished by the ob- 
tuse upper-lip of its stigma, and the shortness of its stem. It is, 
probably, one of the modifications of I. pumila, var. lutea. Bot. 
Mag. t. 1209. 

The subject of the present article was given to us by David 
Falconer, Esq. in whose garden at Carlowrie, near Edinburgh, 
(distinguished especially for being rich in this genus), it flower- 
ed in May, 1828 ; but our figure was taken from a second speci- 
men, sent by him from the garden of Messrs. Dickson & Co. 
seedsmen, in Edinburgh. 

According to Lamarck, this species of Iris is a native of hilly? 
stony places in France and Germany. Graham. 



2802. 




( 2862 ) 

Cynara cardunculus, |3. Cardoon, 
Unarmed var. 

Class and Order. 

SyNGENESIA PoLYGAMIA i^QUALIS. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Squama involucri basi carnosae, spinosae. Receptaculum 
carnosum, paleis fissis munitum. Pappus sessilis, plumo- 
sus. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cynara* cardunculus; foliis decurrentibus pinnatifidis 

subtus albo-tomentosis spinulosis, squamis involucri 

ovato-oblongis. 
Cynara cardunculus. Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 368. 
(«.) foliis angustis squamisque receptaculi valde spinosis. 

Cynara cardunculus. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1159. Willd. 

Sp. PL v.3. p. 1691. Desfont. Ft. AH. v. 2. p. 248. 

De Cand. Fl. Fr. v. 4. p. 108. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 

2. v. 4. p. 487. Pers. Syn. PI. v. 2. p. 384. 
Cynara sylvestris. (Artichaut sauvage.) Lam. Diet. 

v.l. p. 277. 
Scolymus acuieatus. cc Tabern. Ic. 697." 
(/3.) foliis angustis fere inermibus, involucro superne 

contracto squamis obtuse spinosis. Cultivated Car- 

doon. Ic. nostr. t. 2862. 



Descr. (var. /3.) Stem four to five feet high, stout, erect, 
branched, especially upwards, striated and ribbed, some- 
what woolly, leafy. Leaves very long, especially the lower 

ones, 



* From wavy a dog, from a fancied resemblance in the spines of the leaf 
to the teeth of a dog. 



ones, which extend to three feet and more ; these are deeply 
pinnatifid, or even pinnated,, with the pinnae decurrent, the 
segments pinnatifid, the divisions oblongo -lanceolate, more 
or less acute, the sinus, and they alone, frequently furnished 
with a soft, blunt spinule. The midrib is remarkably large 
and thick, grooved on the upper side, the underside semi- 
cylindrical, marked with prominent lines, the inner part 
thick and fleshy, and abounding in bundles of longitudinal 
vessels, veins numerous, anastomosing ; the upper leaves 
become gradually smaller, narrower, and less pinnatifid, 
till, just beneath the flower, they pass into linear bracteas : 
the upper is dark green, obscurely tomentose, the under- 
side white with tomentum. Heads of Flowers large, nume- 
rous. Involucre broadly, almost rotundato-ovate, imbri- 
cated loosely with ovato-oblong, subattenuated, rigid scales, 
purple at the extremity, the base green and fleshy, more or 
less spotted with purple, and waved : the upper and inner 
scales are smaller, scariose, brown : the outermost and 
lower ones patent, or even reflexed. Receptacle thick, 
fleshy, and nearly plane, abounding in chaffy, filiform, white 
hairs, among which are inserted the numerous florets which 
are placed erect, all tubular, the tube long, white, swelling 
upwards, and there purple, just before it breaks into the 
five linear, blue segments. Anthers dark purple, through 
which passes, much exceeding them in length, the linear, 
blue style, or perhaps it should be considered the stigma, 
for though it is bifid merely at the extremity, a line is 
visible, passing through it. Germen small. Pappus rather 
shorter than the tube of the flower, feathery. 

It has now, I believe, been generally acknowledged, 
that the Artichoke (Cynara Scoh/mus. L.) is but a variety 
of the Cardoon, depending on cultivation ; and differing 
from this latter in its broader, spineless foliage, humbler 
growth, shorter and less branched stems, and larger and 
more fleshy heads : thus the heads of the Artichokes, and 
the stems of the Cardoons, or the midribs of their leaves, 
are employed for culinary purposes. 

The plant here figured has, like the Artichoke, spineless 
leaves, but it has the other characters of the Cardoon 
family, and is one with the beauty of which I was much 
struck in the Garden of the Horticultural Society of Edin- 
burgh, in the autumn of last year, 1827 ; and indeed I can 
scarcely conceive a more highly ornamental plant for any 
shrubbery or extensive garden. It was received at Edin- 
burgh from the Horticultural Society of London, and is 

probably 



probably the fourth variety of Cardoon described by Mr. 
Andrew Mathews., in the 7th vol. p. 12, of the Transac- 
tions of that most useful Institution. The stems, however, 
had not that deep tinge of red which could entitle it to the 
name of u Red Cardoon," 

The different kinds of Cardoon are eaten, after being 
blanched, as a salad, or boiled or stewed ; but by no means 
so generally in Britain as upon the Continent, though, ac- 
cording to Mr. Neill, it was cultivated at Holyrood Palace 
so early as 1683. Its native countries are the South of Europe 
and the North of Africa ; but the seeds having been con- 
veyed to South America, it has escaped into the extensive 
plain that lies between Buenos Ayres and the Andes, and 
has given such an extraordinary feature to that country, as 
deserves to be recorded under the history of the species. 
" The great plain or Pampas of the Cordillera," says Capt. 
Head, in his e Rough Notes taken during some rapid Jour- 
neys across the Pampas and among the Andes,' "is about nine 
hundred miles in breadth ; and the part which I have visited, 
though under the same latitude, is divided into regions of 
different climate and produce. On leaving Buenos Ayres, 
the first of these regions is covered for one hundred and 
eighty miles with clover and thistles*; the second, which 
extends for four hundred and fifty miles, produces long 
grass ; and the third region, which reaches the base of the 
Cordillera, is a grove of low trees and shrubs. The second 
and third of these regions have nearly the same appearance 
throughout the year, for the trees and shrubs are evergreens, 
and the immense plain of grass only changes its colour from 
green to brown ; but the first region varies with the four 
seasons of the year in a most extraordinary manner. In 

winter, 



* I feel myself justified, although Captain Head does not mention the 
scientific name of this " Thistle" in calling it the Cardoon, from the circum- 
stance of my most intelligent friend and valued correspondent Dr. Gillies of 
Mendoza, having sent me the Cardoon from similar situations in South Ame- 
rica, accompanied by the following remarks : — "This Thistle is very common 
in all the province of Buenos Ayres ; it grows to a height of six to eight feet 
and upwards. The florets of several flowers, if tied up in a rag, and put into 
a quantity of warm milk for a few minutes, or stirred about among it, coagulate 
the milk, in the same manner as rennet ; and the plant is commonly used for 
this purpose in Buenos Ayres as well as at Mendoza, where it is not unfre- 
quent in cultivated fields. * I presume it is not indigenous to Mendoza, but 
introduced by some accident. It is also sometimes used as a vegetable for 
the table. The tender footstalks of the leaves, and also the young stems, when 
they are boiled, and the outer skin is taken off, have the flavour of Artichoke. 



winter, the leaves of the thistles are large and luxuriant, 
and the whole surface of the country has the rough appear- 
ance of a turnip field. The clover at this season is ex- 
tremely rich and strong ; and the sight of the wild cattle, 
grazing in full liberty on such pasture, is beautiful. In 
spring, the clover has vanished, the foliage of the thistle has 
extended across the ground, and the country still looks as 
if covered with a rough crop of turnips. In less than a 
month the change is most extraordinary ; the whole region 
becomes a luxuriant wood of enormous thistles, which have 
suddenly shot up to a height of ten or eleven feet, and are 
all in full bloom. The road or path is hemmed in on both 
sides ; the view is completely obstructed ; not an animal 
is to be seen ; and the stems of the thistles are so close to 
each other, and so strong, that independent of the prickles 
with which they are armed, they form an impenetrable bar- 
rier. The sudden growth of these plants is quite astonish- 
ing ; and though it would be an unusual misfortune in 
military history, yet it is really possible that, an invading 
army, unacquainted with this country, might be imprisoned 
by these thistles, before it had time to escape from them. 
The summer is not over before the scene undergoes another 
rapid change ; the thistles suddenly lose their sap and ver- 
dure, their heads droop, the leaves shrink and fade, the 
stems become black and dead, and they remain rattling 
with the breeze one against another, until the violence of 
the pampero or hurricane levels them with the ground, 
where they rapidly decompose and disappear, — the clover 
rushes up, and the scene is again verdant." 



Fig. I. Portion of a Leaf, nat. size. 2. Floret. 3. Stamens. 4. Hair 
from among the Florets of the Receptacle. — Magnified. 




y- zj&juf 



C 2863 ) 
Sieversia Peckii. Mr. Peck's Sieversia. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 10-fidus, laciniis alternis miuoribus. Petala 5. 
Caryopses stylis rectis coronatae. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Sieversia Peckii; foliis radicalibus lyrato-pinnatis, pinnis 

lateralibus paucis minutissimis, terminali maxima 

reniformi-cordata lobato-serrata, caule pauce folios 

apice paniculato. 
Sieversia Peckii*. Brown in Parry's Second Voyage. 

App. p. eclxxvi. (in adnot.) 
Geum Peckii. Pursh Fl. of N. Am. v. 1. p. 352. Nutt. 

Gen. v. 1. p. 309. Torrey Fl. of Midi. St. v. 1. 

p. 494. Bigelow Fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 208. Be Cand. 

Prodr. v. 2. p. 554. Spr. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 543. 



Descr. Root perennial, woody. Stem a foot or more 
high, rounded, pilose, branched upwards, so as to be pani- 
culated. Leaves mostly radical, upon long, hairy petioles, 
and in reality, pinnated : but having the lateral pinnae so 
few and so small that, in some specimens, they may be 
easily overlooked ; these are oblong or cuneate, incised at 

the 



* Peckii: named in honour of Mr. Peck, Professor of Natural History, if 
I mistake not, in the University of New Cambridge, State of New England. 
He was a zealous Entomologist, and communicated many curious Insects to 
Mr. Kirby. 



the extremity : the terminal pinna is remarkably large, re- 
niformi-cordate, slightly hairy, especially on the nerves, the 
margin cut into many lobes, and serrated. The leaves of 
the stem scarcely any, except at the branching of the pa- 
nicle, and there they may be considered as bracteas, cordate, 
sessile, inciso-laciniate. Flowers terminal, solitary upon 
each ramification or peduncle. Calyx hairy, the tubular 
part larger and more distinct than in any other of this 
family, almost urceolate, as in Rosa. Outer segments of 
the calyx very small. Petals bright yellow, showy, 
roundish, waved. Stamen yellow. Receptacle of the pistils 
elongated. Germen oblong, hairy : Styles scarcely longer 
than the calyx, hairy below, straight : Stigma obtuse. 

I have native specimens of this rare species of Sieversia 
from Dr. Nuttall and Dr. Boott, gathered by those gen- 
tlemen in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and find 
them exactly to correspond with the subject here figured, 
and which was brought from the same country, and proba- 
bly from the same mountains, to Mr. Cunningham, near 
Edinburgh, in whose collection it flowered in June of this 
year, 1828. 

It comes very near the Sieversia rotundifolia of Chamisso 
and Schlechtendal in the second vol. of the Linnrea, p. 4, 
a native of Kamtschatka, and also of the N. W. coast of 
America, whence I have specimens from Mr. Menzies, 
and which is identical with the Geum radiatum of Michaux 
and Pursh ; and is distinguished from S. Peckii, by its 
more deeply cordate, radical leaves, whose lobes almost 
meet at the base, and the much larger cauline ones. 



Fig. 1, Receptacle with two of its Pistils. — Magnified. 



2804 




Fu&. drS. Curtis. ¥aiwcrtiUbr? 2M24 



( 2864 ) 

Salvia pseudo-coccinea. Hairy-stalked 
Scarlet Sage. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Labiate. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. bilabiatus, 3 — 5 dentatus. Cor. bilabiata, lab. sup. 
galeato, inf. trilobo. Filamenta basi appendiculata (an- 
theras spurias saepe gestantia.) Caryopses 4. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Salvia* pseudo-coccinea; caule fruticoso, ramis pilosis, 
foliis ovato-oblongis (cordatisve) acutis crenatis pubes- 
centibus, verticillis sexfloris subdistantibus, bracteis 
ovato-acuminatis calyce brevioribus. 

Salvia pseudo-coccinea. J acq. Coll. v. 2. p. 302. Ejusd. 
Icones, v. 2. p. 2. t. 209. Willd. Sp. PL v. I. p. 141. 
Roem. et Schultes Syst. Veg. v. I. p. 231. et Mant. in 
vol. 1. p. 185. Humb. Nov. Gen. et Sp. v. 2. p. 239. 
Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 1. p. 58. 



Descb. A small, slender, shrubby plant, about two feet 
high, with upright, hairy, tetragonal branches, and oppo- 
site, downy leaves, which are petiolate, varying in shape, 
ovate or oblong, in our plants more inclining to cordate, 
deeply veined, the margin crenulated, the apex more or 
less acute. Whorls remote, of six flowers, having two, 

ovate, 



* Salvia i from salvo, to keep safe, on account of the imagined medicinal 
properties of some of the species .—pseudo-coccinea, from Vtvfa, that which 
puts on the appearance of, or is like Salvia coccinea. 



ovate, subulato-acuminate, pale green bracteae, shorter than 
the calyx, hairy at the margin. Pedicels short. Calyx 
subcylindrical, pubescent, a little hairy at the mouth, 
striated, green, deep purple on the back, two-lipped, upper 
lip the longest, the sides inflexed, acute, entire, the lower 
one bifid. Corolla thrice as long as the calyx, bright scar- 
let, downy : tube cylindrical : upper lip small, galeate, the 
sides compressed ; lower, large, three-lobed : lobes rounded, 
the intermediate one much the largest, bifid, concave. 
Stamens two : pedicel geniculated ; filament abortive at 
the lower extremity ; the other bearing a one-celled, oblong 
anther, and protruded : Style also protruded : Stigma bifid. 
A very beautiful and most desirable stove plant, having 
very richly coloured blossoms, which continue long in 
perfection. It is a native of South America, and was first 
described by Jacquin. Humboldt found it in New Anda- 
lusia. Our plants in the Glasgow Botanic Garden were sent 
to us a few years ago by the late Baron de Schack, from 
the Island of Trinidad. 



Fig. 1, Stamen. 2. Calyx, seen from the underside. — Magnified. 




Tnfr Z? ■ J! c 'ur?i.s: Wabrvr&,M>K2IS'£cP. 



( 2865 ) 

Blumenbachia insignis. Palmated 
Blumenbachia. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 

POLYADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Loase^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus spiraliter striatus ovario adhaerens ; limbus 
5-partitus, marcescens. Petala 5, compresso-cucullata. 
Squamae 5 petalis alternae, singulae filamenta 2 sterilia in- 
cludentes. Stam. plurima in fasciculos 5 petalis oppositos 
disposita. Stylus 1 obtusus. Fructus fungosus in partes 
10 basi spirales dehiscens, 5 alternae tenuiores (dissepi- 
menta), 5 crassiores (valvae). Semina plura parieti dissepi- 
mentorum versus axim adfixa, epidermide indusiata, rugosa. 
Herba ramosa, scandens, piloso-pruriens, habitu et injlores- 
centia hoasece, sed fructus structura distincta ! Pedunculi 
axillares 1-flori bracteati. Flores albi. De Cand. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Blumenbachia* insignis. 

Blumenbachia insignis. Schrad. in Diss, de Blumenbachia. 

p. 9. t. 1. Sweet. Brit. Fl. Gard. t. 171. De Cand. 

Prodr. v. 3. p. 340. 
Loasa palmata. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 601. De 

Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 342. 



Descr. Stem climbing, much branched, herbaceous, 
four-sided, rising from a perennial root, and clothed, as is 
almost every part of the plant, with small, glandular hairs 

and 



* So named, by Dr. Schrader, after the celebrated German physician, 
Dr. Blumenbach. 



and larger stings, as in the genus Loasa. Leaves opposite, 
remote, palmato-partite, or sometimes pinnatifid, the seg- 
ments oblong, deeply inciso-serrate, nerved. Petioles about 
an inch long. From the axils of the upper leaves, princi- 
pally, the flower-stalk rises, three to four inches long, 
spreading or erect when in flower, deflexed in fruit, curved 
at the very extremity, and bearing there a small bractea. 
Calyx superior, of five, deep, linear segments, which are 
incurved, and much shorter than the corolla. Petals five, 
spreading, pure white, hairy externally, oblong, ungui- 
culate, remarkably cucullate, compressed and carinate, with 
an apiculus at the extremity, and a large, more or less ser- 
rated, tooth at the margin, below the middle. Stamens in 
five bundles, alternating with the petals. Filaments white : 
Anthers roundish, oblong, yellow. Scales alternating with 
the bundles of stamens, thick, fleshy, very concave, bright 
yellow, with a brilliant red spot on the back, and a red 
thickened margin at the top ; the lateral margins beauti- 
fully fringed. From the back of this scale, near the base, 
proceed three, long, yellow setae ; and within each scale are 
situated two linear falcate, aristate bodies, longer than the 
scale itself", and considered to be sterile filaments. Germen 
roundish-oval, spirally striated. Style straight, subulate. 
Fruit fleshy, separating into ten pieces, alternate five the 
largest, and dissepiments ; the rest valves, to which are at- 
tached near the inner axis, and partly imbedded in the 
substance, (on each side three,) ovate, black, wrinkled seeds. 
Albumen white, fleshy. Embryo central; radicle superior. 
This very curious plant, in habit and in the structure of its 
flowers, so closely allied to Loasa, yet in the fruit differing so re- 
markably from it, appears to have been introduced into our stoves 
by John Hunneman, Esq. probably from Germany; the German 
Naturalists having received it both from Monte Video on the 
eastern, and from Chili on the western side of South America. It 
is now not uncommon in our collections, requiring the same treat- 
ment as the rest of the Loase^e. We possess specimens from the 
Liverpool, Glasgow, and Edinburgh Gardens. De Candolle 
thinks it probable that the Loasa contorta of Jussieu should be 
referred to this genus : and I possess from Buenos Ay res, a spe- 
cies gathered by Dr. Gillies, which I can scarcely distinguish 
from Bl. insignis, except by its much more divided (constantly 
bipinnatifid) leaves. 



Fig. 1 . Petal. 2. Bundle of Stamens. 3. Scale with abortive Anthers. 
4. Abortive Anthers removed from the Scale. 5. Section of an unripe 
Fruit. 6. Ripe Fruit. 7. One of the Valves and its accompanying Disse- 
piment. 8. Seed. 9. Albumen. 10. Section of the Albumen to shew the 
Embryo. — More or less magnified. 



2806. 




r.JTMdttf 



Paf>. t>v ■ ?. i'7;r,-i,s. /F,/7tfrrM 



( 2866 ) 

OXALIS CARNOSA. FLESHY WoOD-SoRREL. 

Class and Order. 
Decandiua Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Oxalide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-sepaIus. Pet. 5. stamina alterna longiora. Caps. 
5-gona, 5-locularis, 5-valvis, seminibus arillatis ad angulos 
loculorum fixis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Oxalis* carnosa ; herbacea glabra, caule perbrevi dentato, 
foliolis ternis longe petiolatis obcordatis carnosis sub- 
tus punctato-chrystallinis, scapo triflora, calycis foli- 
olis duobus exterioribus majoribus planis. 

Oxalis carnosa. " Molina." Bot. Reg. t. 1063. 



Descr. Root, a large, subfusiform, tuber, from the crown 
of which arises a very short, herbaceous, toothed stalk. 
Upon each tooth is jointed the long, terete petiole, gla- 
brous, as is all the rest of the plant. Leaflets ternate, 
obcordate, jointed upon the petiole, fleshy, dark green 
above, beneath clothed with beautifully minute, perfectly 
transparent, chrystalline dots or papillae, which extend to 
the very margin, and reflect a yellow or pale golden light. 
Scapes generally longer than the leaves, bearing three pedi- 
cellated flowers at the extremity, with a pair of oval, convex 
bracteas at the base. Calyx having the two outer leaflets 
the largest, quite flat and compressed, fleshy, oblongo-cor- 

date, 



* From ofa, sour, many of the species being remarkable for their acid 
properties. 



date, and almost entirely concealing the three inner and more 
membranaceous ones; all of them more or less conjoined at 
the base. Corolla of five yellow, obcordate petals, united 
at the base by a membrane between the claws. Stamens 
united at the base : filaments slightly pubescent. Germen 
oblongo-cylindrical : Styles five, rather short, filiform : 
Stigmas penicelliform, green. 

This very singular species of Wood-sorrel was received 
at the Glasgow Botanic Garden from Valparaiso, by favour 
of our often-mentioned friend Mr. Cruickshanks, and is 
unquestionably the same with Mr. Lindley's O. carnosa in 
the Bot. Register. That gentleman states it to be the 
plant of the same name in Molina's Chili. De Candolle 
seems to have taken no notice of the species ; and Sprengel 
has united it with O. magellanica, which, as De Candolle 
describes them, has the petioles clothed with hairs of a 
brown colour. 

It is a plant well deserving of cultivation, flowering dur- 
ing a great part of the summer, and succeeding well in a 
cool greenhouse. It increases readily by the roots, and 
would no doubt flourish during the warm season, if planted 
in light earth in a sheltered situation in the open air : where 
perhaps the leaves would become still larger, and the glit- 
tering crystalline appearance of their underside more con- 
spicuous, as is the case with the Mesembryanthemum 
chrystallinum, whose frosted appearance is of an exactly 
similar nature. 



Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Portion of the Stamens. 3. Pistil.— Magnified. 




*.rjztu#* 



A3 ty J. Curtis. Valw<?r?AK, r r22 l ?2<f. 



( 2867 ) 

Desmodium nutans. Drooping-flgwered 
Desmodium. 

Class and Order. 

DlADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. basi bibracteolatus ad medium obscure bilahiutus^ 
labio superiore bifido, inferiore 3-partito. Corolla papi- 
lionacea vexillo subrotundo., carina obtusa non truncata, 
alis carina longioribus. Stamina diadelpha (9 et 1 ) iiJa- 
mentis subpersistentibus. Legumen constans articulis plu- 
rimis ad maturitatem seudentibus compressis monospermis 
membranaceis coriaceisve, non aut vix dehiscentibus. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Desmodium* nutans, fruticosus ramosus, racemis compositis 
terminalibus axillaribusque ramisque pendulis, floribus 
geminatis bracteis acutis, foliis ternatis pendulis, foliolis 
rhomboideis integerrimis utrinque tomentosis, stipulis 
subulatis. 

Hedysarum nutans. Wallich in Herb. Hook. — Graham in 
Edin. Phil. Journ. 



Descr. A low slender shrub, much branched ,* branches 
long, straggling, drooping : bark brown, cracked, scaling 
off. Leaves scattered, ternate, leaflets rotundato-rhom- 
boidal, undulate, mucronulate, reticulated, soft with a dense, 
short down on both sides, the terminal one twice the size 

of 



* From &<?iao<;, a chain, from the bended or articulated appearance of the 
seed vessels. 



of the others, (three inches in both ways,) and on a petiole 
half its own length, the lateral ones just above the middle 
of the common petiole, on short, partial footstalks; common 
petiole from its base to the terminal leaflet, full three inches 
long, channelled above. Stipules lateral, subulate. Ra- 
cemes a foot in length, terminal or axillary, branched. 
Flowers in pairs, on pedicels nearly as long as themselves, 
the panicle branching from between them, but many of the 
branches shewing no more than their terminal flower-bud. 
Calyx four-cleft, opposite ; Segments equal, ovate, subacute, 
concave, spreading, and on the outside, as well as the pe- 
duncle and pedicels, hairy. Corolla of an uniform delicate 
lilac colour, gaping; vexillurn erect, flattish, subrhomboid, 
notched, faintly striated, and marked in the middle with a 
deeper purple spot, the lower part of which is green ; un- 
guis inversely conical ; wings depressed, about as long as 
the vexillurn, and nearly forming right angles with it, 
lower edges in contact in the anterior half, open behind, 
abruptly cut down to narrow, flattened, linear claws, which 
are continuous with their lower edges ; keel rather paler 
than the rest of the flower, and somewhat more distinctly 
striated, shorter than the wings, notched at its apex, and 
split from the base to nearly half its length, having two 
linear claws, above which it is gibbous on both sides, and 
adheres there to corresponding depressions of the wings ; 
it shuts the aperture between the claws of these, so as with 
them to give the form of a boat to the lower half of the 
flower. Stamens monadelphous, straight, being scarcely 
curved at their apices ; anthers yellow. Germen long, 
linear, slightly hairy, indistinctly lobed ; style bent at right 
angles to the germen, conical, smooth ; stigma terminal, 
small, cleft, in contact with the vexillurn. 

This plant was brought to the Royal Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh, in 1823, under the name here adopted, from 
the Botanic Garden of Calcutta, by Dr. Macwhirter ; and 
it has flowered in the stove every summer since. The early 
fall of the blossoms, and the small number of them which 
expand at a time, are prejudicial to the beauty of this spe- 
cies ; but its raceme is large, the hue of the flowers beau- 
tiful, and the drooping branches are remarkably graceful. 
No fructification has been perfected. 



Fiff. 1. Flower. 2. Vexillurn. 3. Pistil. 4. Calyx, Stamens, and Pistil. 
— Magnified. 



W68. 




rj-^daif- 






( 2868 ) 

Passiflora capsularis. Angular-fruited 
Passion-flower. 

Class and Order. 

MoNADELPHIA PENTANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Passiflore^e. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cat. 10-partitus, laciniis interioribus corollinis. Corona 
radiata perigyna. Nectarium in fundo calycis. Tubus 
staminifer stylum ringens. Stigmata 3, clavata. Pepo 
1-locularis, placentatio parietalis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Passiflora* capsularis, foliis sulvelutinis basi cordatis 
bilobis in sinu aristatis subtus petiolisque eglandulosis, 
pedicellis solitariis, ovario elliptico-oblongo fructi- 
busque acute hexagonis glabris. D C. 

Passiflora capsularis. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1357. Willd. Sp. 
PL v. 3. p. 614. Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 88. Dc 
Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 325. " 

Passiflora foliis bilobis. Plum. PL Am. ed. Burm. 1. 138. 

(/3.) foliis vix pubescentibus profunde bilobis, lobis oblongo- 
lanceolatis. Ic. nostr. t. 2868. 



Descr. Stem climbing, glabrous, triangular, purplish 
green. Leaves alternate, remote, cordate at the base, 
dividing from below the middle, and spreading into two, 
oblongo-lanceolate, acute, entire lobes, glabrous and dark 
green above, paler and slightly downy beneath, quite free 

from 



* Flos Passionis: from a fancied resemblance in the different parts of the 
flower to the instruments of our Saviour's Passion. 



from glands, having three principal nerves; one in the cen- 
tre of the leaf, which terminates in a rettexed mucro within 
the sinus; the others running up the middle of each lobe. 
Petiole scarcely an inch long, destitute of glands, with two 
subulate stipules at the base. Cirrhi unbranched. Pe- 
duncles single-flowered, axillary, solitary. Calyx of ten, 
deep, oblong lobes, greenish white, the five inner smaller 
and more delicate. Filamentose crown pale yellow-green, 
scarcely so long as the calyx, surrounding a double white 
nectarium or cup, one within the other. Column green. 
Anther yellow ; germen oblong ; stigmas yellow. Capsule 
(immature) two inches long, oblong, acute, sharply six- 
angled within, containing many seeds arranged upon three 
longitudinal, parietal receptacles. 

Received from the West Indies by Dr. Graham, who 
communicated a flowering branch, together with the unripe 
fruit in the month of June, 1828, from the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden. The plant has the flowers much smaller 
than Plumier's figure represents them, and the leaves much 
more deeply lobed, indeed agreeing with De Candolle's 
var. (3. in every thing except the spotted leaves. 



Fig. 1. Section of the Capsule. 



286ft. 




( 2869 2870 2871 ) 

Artocarpus incisa. Bread-Fruit Tree 

(x and /3). 

****************** 

Class and Order. 

MONOSCIA MONANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. URTicEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores amentacei. Masc. Perianthium simplex, mono- 
di- triphyllum. Filamentum longitudine perianthii. F^em. 
Perianthium monophyllum, ore contracto. Bacca compo- 
sita. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Artocarpus incisa* ; foliis cuneato-ovatis pinnatifido-Ioba- 

tis glabris, subtus scabris. 
(«.) fructu seminifero vulgd Bread Nut. 
Artocarpus incisa. Linn. Fit. Suppl. p. 411. Willd. Sp. 

PL v. 4. p. 188. Jit. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 231. 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 804. 
Rademachia incisa. ** Thunb. Act. Holm. t. 36. p. 250." 
Rim A, ou Fruit au Pain. Sonnerat Voy. a la Nouv. Guinee, 

p. 99. t. 57—60. 
Soccus granosus. Rumph. Amb. v. I. p. 112. t. 33. 
(/3.) fructu apyreno, vulgo Bread Fruit. 
Artocarpus communis. Forster Gen. PL p. 102. t. 51. 
Soccus lanosus. Rumph. Amb. v. 1. p. 110. t. 32. 



Descr. A tree, from thirty to forty feet high, with a 
diameter of trunk from a foot to a foot and a half, bearing 
a large head of many, patent, fragile branches, and abound- 
ing 



* From Afire*, bread, and ttafvof fruit. 



ing in every part with a viscid, milky juice. Leaves from 
one to two and even three feet long, and often a foot and a 
half broad, coriaceous, alternate, ovate, but cuneate and 
entire at the base, the upper part cut in a pinnatifid manner 
into from three to nine acute, more or less deep lobes ; on 
the suckers the foliage is often entire, and on the shoots 
from the larger branches, it has only two or three lobes * : 
the upper surface dark green, with numerous yellowish 
nerves, almost entirely glabrous, below scabrous, paler in 
colour, and marked with very prominent nerves. Petioles 
short and thick. Stipules large, soon withering and cadu- 
cous, downy. Peduncles axillary, solitary, from within the 
upper leaves of the branches : the superior one bearing the 
male, the lower, the female flowers ; when young, included 
within the same stipule with its accompanying leaf. The 
male Jlowers are very densely crowded around a central, 
spongy receptacle, so as to form a cylindrical or somewhat 
club-shaped catkin, ten to sixteen inches long, and of a 
yellowish colour. Perianth monophyllous, cylindrical, 
opening half-way down into two valves. Stamen one. Fila- 
ment broad, as long as the perianth, white. Anthers round- 
ish, two-lobed, two-celled. Female flowers collected into a 
globular, echinated head, having a central, spongy recep- 
tacle. Perianths single, fleshy, united indeed, and incor- 
porated with each other, except at the very extremity, where 
they form as many sharp, pyramidal, downy points. The 
lower part only of each perianth is hollow, and downy 
within, where the pistil is situated. Germen oval, one- 
sometimes two-celled. Style lateral, incorporated with the 
solid substance of the upper part of the perianth, and again 
appearing beyond the point, where it divides into two sub- 
ulate, white stigmas. Fruit becoming a very large, aggre- 
fate, oval or globose, fleshy Berry, as large as a good-sized 
lelon ; in a, the seed-bearing kind, remarkably muricated. 
A vast number of these perianths prove abortive, and un- 
dergo no alteration, but in becoming more developed and 
fleshy ; those in which the fruit ripens, separate from the 
rest in the lower part and from the fleshy top, and form a 
loose cup-shaped, jagged, membranous receptacle to the 
enclosed fruit. Pericarp oval, gibbous on one side, mem- 
branous, loose, reticulated, still retaining the withered style. 

Seed 



* That kind which produces the seedless fruit, especially the Timor Bread 
Fruit, has the lohes very deep, reaching almost to the midrib. 




2870. 



Seed erect, irregular, oval, brown, veined. Albumen none. 
Embryo large, yellowish. Radicle superior. Cotyledons 
unequal. 

The var. (3 has the flowers abortive. The styles have 
but one stigma, and the fruit, instead of being remarkably 
muricated, is marked with reticulations, whose areola? are 
flat, or but slightly prominent, and it contains no seed. 

A tree, producing a fruit, which, without any preparation, 
has the appearance of, and is used as a substitute for, bread, 
cannot fail to be an object of great curiosity; and from the 
time of Dampier, who appears to have first * made known 
the existence of such a plant to Europeans, it has been 
spoken of as one of the wonders of the vegetable creation ; 
but much of its present celebrity is due to that deeply affect- 
ing history of the sufferings of Captain, afterwards Rear 
Admiral Bligh, consequent upon the mutiny in the Bounty, 
the ship that was employed to convey so valuable a fruit to 
our own colonies in the West Indies. 

Dampier saw the tree abundantly in the Ladrone Islands, 
and he tells us that the fruit is as big as a penny loaf, when 
wheat is at five shillings the bushel ; that the natives of 
Guam use it as bread, "gathering it when fully grown, 
while it is green and hard, and then baking it in an oven, 
which scorches the rind and makes it black ; but they scrape 
off the outside black crust, and there remains a tender, thin 
crust, and the inside is soft, tender, and white, resembling the 
crumb of a loaf. There is neither seed nor stone in the 
inside, but all is of a pure substance, like bread. It must 
be eaten new ; for if it is kept above twenty-four hours, it 
becomes hard and choaky, but it is very pleasant before it 
is too stale. The fruit lasts in season eight months in the 
year, during which, the natives eat no other sort of fruit." 
This account was published in 1697. Above forty years 
afterwards, Commodore Anson, in visiting the same country, 
speaks of it as being in size equal to a two-penny English 
loaf; from which we may infer, that the price of bread had 
already risen considerably during that time. He compares 
the flavour of the Bread Fruit, when boiled or roasted, to 
that of the common potatoe ; and further tells us that, " the 
Spaniards slice it, and expose it to the sun, and when 

brought 



* The Jaca of Clusius, Exot. t. 281, though often quoted as the A. 
inclsa, seems certainly to belong 1 to the A. integrifoliu, and might, 1 think, 
with safety have been referred to under that species. 



brought thereby to a crispature, they reserve it as a biscuit, 
and say it will bear long keeping when so prepared. Eaten 
ripe, it is delicious to the palate ; and when mixed with 
lime or orange juice,, it makes a grateful tart not unlike to 
apple sauce." ft was eagerly sought by the crew of Com- 
modore Anson, and preferred by them to bread." Rum- 
phius figures the plant, and gives it as a native of Sumatra, 
Java, Amboyna, and of the Molucca Isles generally, where 
the seeds of the seminiferous kind are eaten as well as the 
pulp, and where the ample leaves serve as table-cloths. 
Sonnerat introduced the tree from the Isle of Lucon to the 
Isle of France, and M. Poivre to that of Bourbon. But it 
is in the South Sea Islands, and especially in Otaheite, that 
the best Bread Fruit is found, and where it is consequently the 
most highly prized. Capt. Cook says of it, that the flavour is 
insipid, with a slight sweetness, somewhat resembling that of 
the crumb of wheaten bread mixed with Jerusalem Artichoke. 
From Otaheite then, it was arranged by our government, 
that the tree should be imported to the West Indies, and 
His Majesty, George the Third, ever anxious for the welfare 
of his people, appointed the Bounty to be freighted with 
this and other valuable productions of the South Seas, 
under the command of Capt. William Bligh. Seven hun- 
dred and seventy-four healthy plants of the Bread Fruit 
were procured, and conveniently placed on board the vessel, 
so as to be protected from the spray of the sea, and there 
was every prospect of a happy termination to the voyage ; 
when, on the second morning after leaving the island, a 
mutiny broke out, headed by Christian, the master's mate, 
who was of a most respectable family in the north of Eng- 
land, and had now gone three voyages with his present 
commander, by whom he had been treated with more than 
usual kindness. The consequences of this mutiny, the 
sufferings of Bligh and of his faithful friends, together with 
the fate of the mutineers, and the good conduct and reform- 
ation of Christian, are known to every one ; and I need 
only here say, that they completely frustrated the bene- 
volent design of our government. Another ship, however, 
the Providence, was engaged for a similar purpose, and the 
charge was given to the same experienced navigator, who 
accomplished, to the fullest extent, the object of his mission. 
Eleven hundred and fifty Bread Fruit Trees were received 
on board. Many, as may be supposed, notwithstanding the 
care of the officers, and the skill of the gardener, perished 
during the voyage. Five hundred and fifty were landed at 



L iHll 





• * ***** V 



St. Vincent's, in January, 1793, the rest went to Jamaica, 
with the exception of five plants, destined for the Royal Gar- 
dens at Kew, and which arrived in England the same year. 
Of the success of the plants which were sent to Jamaica, 
I have no means of knowing ; but in St. Vincent's, under 
the 'judicious management of Dr. Anderson, then director 
of the Botanic Garden, the Bread Fruit Tree began to bear 
in the following year, 1794; and it has thence been com- 
municated to the other islands, and to the colonies of equi- 
noctial America. Several memoirs on the Bread Fruit are 
given by Dr. Anderson, in the different volumes of the 
Transactions of the Society of Arts, and by the Rev. Lans- 
downe Guilding, in his " Account of the Botanic Garden of 
the island of St.. Vincent." It is to this able naturalist 
that I am indebted for a splendid set of drawings * executed 
in that island, (from which most of the accompanying figures 
have been made) as well as for specimens preserved in spi- 
rits ; together with valuable information respecting the 
uses and history on the Bread Fruit. Cf How curious and 
interesting/' says this gentleman, " to the Botanist, is the 
migration of plants, which man in his travels exports from 
the most distant lands ! The Bread Fruit is now known 
from Spanish Guiana to the kingdom of New Granada : 
thus, as Humboldt states the curious fact, the western 
coast of America, washed by the Pacific Ocean, receives 
from a British settlement in the West Indies, a production 
of the Friendly Islands. It is not probable that its culti- 
vation will ever supersede, valuable as it is, that of the 
Plantain, (Musa paradisaica) and its several varieties; which 
on the same space of ground, furnishes perhaps more nutri- 
tive matter, at least in a shorter period of time. 

" The improvident negro, forgetting that for three parts 
of the year the Bread Fruit Tree is loaded with ripe, or 
lately developed fruit, considers only the greater rapidity 
with which he may reap the produce of his Plantain, which 
in a few months after the setting of the sucker, repays the 
owner's pains; and the master, equally thoughtless, seldom 
plants it, even in waste and otherwise useless spots." 

The Fruit rarely exceeds eight inches in diameter. When 
ripe, the skin assumes a yellow crust, and the viscous juice 
(so common in others of the same family) exuding in tears, 

runs 



* Among them is a variety or monstrosity, with the female fruit occupying 
the lower part of a male catkin. 



runs down its sides, and is concreted by the sun. It is eaten 
plainly boiled as potatoes, or as a substitute for bread, 
baked after the central pith has been removed. It is often 
also made into boiled or baked puddings. 

There are many varieties of the Bread Fruit, as may be 
supposed with a plant so extensively cultivated . Mr. Guild- 
ing enumerates the following as the principal. 

1. Round and rough (muricated) fruit. 

2. Oval and rough, one of the most valuable. 

3. Oval and smooth variety ; the second-best. 

4. Round and smooth variety. 

5. Timor variety : small, and very inferior. 

I may sum up the properties of this tree by remarking, 
that in the native countries of this widely-diffused plant, 
clothes are made of the fibres of the liber or inner bark; the 
wood serves for building houses and making boats : the 
male catkins are employed as tinder ; the leaves for wrap- 
ping provisions in ; and the viscid, milky juice affords bird 
lime. 

The Artocarpus incisa, exists in a living state in the 
Glasgow, and, probably, other Botanic Gardens of this 
country : but it is both imported and kept alive in our 
stoves with great difficulty : so that we dare not expect to 
see it ever flourishing in Europe. 



Tab. 2869. Artocarpus incisa, ». ( Bread Nut.) Fig. 1. Branch reduced 
to one-third of the natural size, with Male and Female Flowers. 2. Section of 
a Male Flower (nat. size). 3. Male Flower. 4. Single ditto. 5. Cluster of 
Female Flowers. ■ 6. Single ditto. 7- Germen. 8. The same laid open to 
6hewthe Ovule. 9. A variety of the Germen with two Cells. 10. Trans- 
verse section of the same. — All but fig. 1 and 2 more or less magnified. 

Tab. 2870. Fruit of Artocarpus incisa, x. Fig. 1. Section of the Com- 
pound Fruit. 2. Single Fruit, with its enlarged Perianth. 3. The same with 
the Perianth forced back. 4. Seed. 5. Section of ditto. 6. Embryo. — 
natural size. 

Tab. 2871. Artocarpus incisa, |8. (True Bread Fruit. J Fig. 1. Male 
Flower. 2. Female ditto, magnified. 3. Fruit, one-third of the natural size. 
4. Section of the same. 




*JM4*Z! 



■Put. fr'X Curtis. Yalmrtt.£)ec.'22(?2 < f 



( 2872 ) 

Salvia involucrata. Large-bracted 

Sage. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Labiate. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. bilabiatus, 3 — 5 dentatus. Cor. 2-labiata, lab srip. 
galeato, inf. 3-lobo. Filamenta basi appendiculata (anthe- 
ras spurias saepe gestantia.) Caryopses 4. — Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Salvia involucrata ; glabra,, foliis cordato-ovatis acumina- 
tis serratis, verticillis sexfloris, bracteis magnis colo- 
ratis deciduis, corolla ventricosa glabra calycem longe 
superante. 

Salvia involucrata. Cav. Ic. v. 2. p. S. t. 105. Willd. Sp. 
PL v. I. p. 147. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 62. 

Salvia laevigata. Humb. Nov. Gen. et Spec. v. 2. p. 238. t. 
147. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 64. 



Descr. Plant, as growing in Mr. Herbert's conser- 
vatory,, twelve to fourteen feet high, almost woody below, 
much branched ; the older branches terete, the younger 
ones quadrangular, glabrous. Leaves also quite glabrous, 
large, cordato-ovate, acuminate, serrated, of a deep and 
singularly beautiful velvety - green above, beneath pale, 
where the nerves are prominent and often purplish : peti- 
oles an inch and a half or two inches long. Flowers form- 
ing a rather handsome thyrsus : but if traced carefully they 
are seen to arise in threes, which are opposite, hence six form 
a whorl, each three included, while in bud, within a very 

large 



large, broadly-ovate, red, nerved bractea, which falls off 
before the blossoms are expanded. Pedicels short. Calyx 
tubular, reddish -green, ribbed, slightly pubescent, two 
lipped ; upper lip with one, lower, with two small terminal 
teeth. Corolla large, tubular, somewhat inflated or ventri- 
cose, especially on the under side, marked with elevated lines, 
purplish red : upper lip very hairy, entire, with the sides 
compressed : lower reflexed, three lobed. Stamens having 
the transverse appendage remarkably long and large, at 
one extremity of which is placed a small, yellow, single- 
celled anther. Style scarcely exserted : Stigma bifid. 

Communicated by the kindness of the Hon. and Rev. 
William Herbert, of SpofForth, from his splendid conser- 
vatory : where, planted in the border, it has attained a 
height of from twelve to fourteen feet, and makes a brilliant 
appearance, with its numerous heads of richly-coloured 
blossoms, scarcely less beautiful than those of the well- 
known Salvia splendens. Mr. Herbert received the plant 
from Mr. Tate of the Sloan e Street Nursery, who imported 
the seeds from Mexico. The plant smells not unlike the 
Common Sage (Salvia verbeneca) of our country. 

There can be no question, I think, as to the propriety of 
considering the S. Icevigata of Humboldt, synonymous with 
the S. involucrata. The plates and the descriptions agree 
in every essential particular. 



Fig. 1. Bractea, including three Buds, mat. size. 2. Calyx. 3. Corolla. 
4. Stamens. — Magnified. 



28 7,5. 




( 2873 ) 

OENOTHERA VIMINEA. LARGE PuRPLE-FLOvV- 

ered Twiggy Evening Primrose. 

Class and Order. 

OcTANDHIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Onagrari^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Col. 4-fidus, tubulosus. Pet. 4, calyci inserta : Capsula 
4-locularis, 4-valvis, infera. Semina comosa. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

(Enothera* viminea; caule erecto ramoso virgato glabro, 
foliis lanceolatis glaucis integerrimis, capsulis cylin- 
draceo-attenuatis sulcatis pubescentibus. 

(Enothera viminea. Douglas MSS. 



Descr. Stem annual, erect, glabrous, pale, almost white 
and polished, three to four feet high, branched, with many 
long, slender, twiggy branches. Leaves three to four inches 
long, alternate, shortly petioled, upper ones sessile, quite 
entire, glaucous. Flowers sessile in the axils of the supe- 
rior leaves. Segments of the calyx acuminate, something 
more than half the length of the corolla. Petals large, of 
a fine and bright lilac colour, roundish-cuneate, waved, 
spreading, minutely crenulate at the extremity. Stamens 

four 



* oUo<;, wine, and B^a,, searching or catching, according to Smith, (Qn^, 
a wild beast, according to Theis) "from the circumstance of the root having 
caught the perfume of wine." To what particular plant, however, the antients 
applied that name is uncertain : not, we may he sure, to any of the species now 
arranged iu the Genus, which are wholly confined to America, with the excep- 
tion of one or two, said to be found at the Cape of Good Hope, 



four long and four short : Anthers linear-oblong, longer 
than the filaments. Style almost as long as the anthers. 
Stigma four-cleft, deep purple, the segments patent. Cap- 
sule rounded, an inch or more long, with eight longitudinal 
furrows, tapering upwards, downy. 

Allied to CE. purpurea, from which it is abundantly dis- 
tinct. It is a handsome and hardy annual ; and if the seeds 
be sown in the open border in the spring, the plants will 
continue to blossom throughout the summer. Douglas. 

Introduced to the garden of the Horticultural Society, 
by Mr. David Douglas, in 1827. It was discovered by 
that most zealous Naturalist, in the interior of Northern 
California : and it flowered for the first time in this country 
in the month of June, 1828. 



Fig. 1. Stigma, magnified. 2. Capsule, natural size. 



2H7-t. 




TrS2r*4lt~ 



-Put iys. Cu-rfrs Toi*?^ /v 



C 2874 ) 

Calceolaria arachnoidea. Cobweb 
Slipper-wort. 

******************* 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularinje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partitus. Cor. bilabiata : labium inferius calcei- 
forme, inflatum. Caps, semibivalvis, valvulis bifidis. 

Specific Character. 

Calceolaria * arachnoidea ; caule herbaceo ramoso patulo, 
foliisque lingulato-oblongis subdentatis oppositis lana- 
tis, pedunculis terminalibus geminatis elongatis dicho- 
tomis, calycibus pedicellisque arachnoideis. 

Calceolaria aracjhnoidea. Graham in Edin. Phil. Journ. 
1828, j». 572. 

Calceolaria tinctoria. Gillies MSS. 



Descr. Stern herbaceous, round, much branched, spread- 
ing, succulent, woolly, hairs appressed. Branches opposite, 
spreading, similar to the stem. Leaves (with their petioles 
about five inches long) opposite, lingulate, oblong, narrow- 
ing downwards into long petioles, over which they are 
decurrent, amplexicaul, obscurely toothed, wrinkled, woolly 
on both sides, midrib and branching veins prominent on 
the lower side ; two uppermost leaves smaller than the 
others, sessile, cordato -ovate, undulate, and placed at the 
origin of the peduncles. Peduncles terminal, geminate (six 
inches long) dichotomous, branches spreading, and bearing 

the 



* From calceolus, a little slipper, on account of the peculiar form of the 
lower lip in the flower. 



the pedicels in pairs. Pedicels round, undivided, and like 
the calyx clothed with a cobweb-like tomentum. Bracteas 
two, opposite, at the bifurcation of the peduncle, like the 
uppermost leaves, but smaller. Calyx and segments equal, 
ovate, pointed, spreading, woolly on the outside. Corolla 
of an uniform dull purple colour, subglobular, flattened 
below, glabrous within, upper lip very small, lower cre- 
nated, its neck white. Stamens rising from the base of the 
corolla at its sides ; filaments straight, stout, smooth, sup- 
porting the elongated bilocular anthers by their middle in 
contact with the edge of the upper lip of the corolla : pollen 
yellow. Germen conical, grooved in its sides. Style straight, 
filiform, exserted. Stigma simple, small. Ovules very nu- 
merous, attached to a large central receptacle, the trans- 
verse section of which in each loculament is emarginate. 
Surface of the germen, outside of the corolla, and inside of 
the calyx, covered with short, obscure, glandular pubes- 
cence. 

We received the seeds of this plant from our invaluable 
correspondent, Dr. Gillies *, of Mendoza, in January last, 
having been collected by him in Chili. It has been treated 
like all the other species of the genus, and hitherto kept in 
the greenhouse. There is great probability that it may 
not produce seed ; but it strikes very readily by cuttings, 
the branches even pushing down roots as they lie along 
the ground. 

We fear it will be found more difficult to preserve the 
only other purple-flowered Calceolaria in cultivation (C. 
purpurea, Edin. Phil. Journ. 1827; Bot. Mag. t. 2775,) 
which was also introduced through the Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh, by seeds sent from our other excellent cor- 
respondent Mr. Cruickshanks, as it has hitherto produced 
very few seeds. An entirely new aspect has been given to 
our greenhouses within these few years, by the kindness of 
Dr. Gillies and Mr. Cruickshanks, particularly in most 
interesting additions from the genera Fuchsia, Calceo- 
laria, Salpiglossis, Schizanthus, and Loasa. Graham. 



? lnce ^ e aDOve was P r i nte d, Dr. Gillies, who is now, happily for his 
ilV r . eturnea to tn * s country, has obligingly communicated to me some 
valuable information respecting the dyeing properties of this Calceolaria : 
and as it cannot now be inserted here, I shall publish it in an early number, 
loiiowmg the description of a Calceolaria (thyrsiflora, Graham, equally 
used as a dye) from the same country. W. J. H. 



Fig. 1. Flower. — Magnified. 



( 2875 ) 

DlDISCUS CjERULEUS. BLUE-FLOWERED 
D.I DISCUS. * . 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Umbellifer^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Didiscus. De C. Prodr. v. 4, ined. Umbella simplex. 
Involucrum polyphyllum. Flores ext. abortivi : Petala in- 
sequalia, aestivatione imbricata. Fructus orbiculatus, piano - 
compressus utrinque bivittatus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Didiscus * cceruleus ; piloso - glandulosus, foliis palmato- 
pinnatifidis, laciniis linearibus incisis, petalis obtusis- 
simis. 

Didiscus caeruleus. De C. MSS. 

Trachymene cserulea. Graham in Edin. New Phil. Journ. 
1828. p. 380. 

Trachymene cyanea. Cunningham MSS. apud Hort. Kew. 



Descr. Root annual. Stem a foot or more high, terete, 
branched upwards, and clothed, as is every part of the plant, 
with soft hairs, many of which are tipped with glands. 
Leaves palmato-pinnatifid, their segments linear, again pin- 
natifid and incised, the ultimate divisions often trifid, and 
always acute, the lower extremity tapering into a com- 
pressed petiole; the upper ones sessile and gradually be- 
coming less divided, till at length they pass into the simple 
linear bracteas at the base of the peduncles. Umbels termi- 
nal, simple, showy. Involucrum of many linear-subulate 
leaflets. Peduncles long, whitish, surrounding a flat, green- 
ish disk, which occupies the centre of the umbel, spreading, 
at length reflexed. Calyx obsolete. Petals in bud curi- 
ously imbricated, slightly unequal (which is best seen before 
the flower is fully expanded) : the outer petal (as regards 

the 



* From Jl«, two, and itmot, a disk, in reference to the two flat circular lobes 
which constitute the fruit. 



the umbel) being the largest, all obtuse, spreading, waved, 
of a beautiful blue color. Stamens at first erect. Fila- 
ments and Anthers whitish. Germen flat, nearly orbicular, 
reddish, dotted, and very glandular : disk flattish, white : 
Styles linear. Fruit between orbicular and reniform, or, 
rather, composed of two almost exactly orbicular hemi- 
carps *, quite flat, rough or granulated on the surface, 
having two semicircular, elevated lines or vittae in the disk, 
and a thickened margin. Styles persistent. Seed pendent, 
obovate. 

With the exception of the flowers of some species of 
Eryngium, I am not acquainted with any Umbelliferous 
plant whose blossoms are blue. It was, then, with no small 
degree of surprise and pleasure that I received from my 
friends, the Messrs. Shepherds, in the month of July of this 
year, 1828, specimens of this most singular plant, which they 
had raised, at the Liverpool Garden, from seeds sent by Mr. 
Fraser from New Holland. It has since flowered at Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow, and, I believe, too, at the Horticultural 
Society's garden, as well as at the Geneva garden, under the 
care of Professor De Candolle, the seeds having been de- 
rived from the same source as those at Liverpool. Again, 
Mr. R. Cunningham, of Kew, has been so good as to 
convey to me the information, that it has been cultivated at 
the Royal Gardens there from seeds sent by his brother, Mr. 
Allan Cunningham, under the name of Trachymene eyanea 
of his MSS. ; a name I should gladly have adopted, as given 
by, probably, its first discoverer, but that it has already 
been published by Dr. Graham, under that of ccerulea. 

Professor De Candolle intends separating this as a Genus, or 
Subgenus, from Trachymene of Rudge (Atorella, Labillar- 
diere) on account of its different habit, bright blue flowers, and 
the peculiar structure of the fruit, very much resembling that of 
a Biscutella. In my specimens of true Trachymene, of which 
I have several species, the Umbels are compound. I may observe, 
that the Trachymene incisa of Rudge and Sieber will belong 
to the same groupe as the present plant, but in a dried state it 
does not appear that the flowers are blue. 

Didiscus cyaneus is one amongst a few of the Umbelliferous 
plants which eminently deserves a place in every collection, and in 
all probability it will be found to succeed well in the open air. 



* A very expressive term employed by Prof. De Candolle, to indicate the 
two united portions of the fruit of the Natural Order UmbelliferjE. 



Fig. 1. Flower Bud. 2. Flower partly expanded. 3. Fully expanded 
Blossom. 4. Stamen. 5. Fruit. 6. Hemiearp, cut open to shew the Seeds 
—Magnified. 



INDEX, 

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Second 
Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Fifth of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged. 



PL 

2791 Adansonia digitata. 

2792 Ibid." 

2848 Alstrcemeria ovata. 

2869 Artocarpus incisa. 

2870 Ibid. 

2871 Ibid. 

2833 Artocarpus integrifolia. 

2834 Ibid. 

2812 Arum campanulatum. 

2802 Bseckia frutescens. 

2803 Banksia marcescens. 

2849 Begonia dipetala. 
2846 papillosa. 

2817 Bignonia Colei. 

2818 Blechnum longifolium. 
2865 Blumenbachia insignis. 
2853 Buddlea connata. 

2824 Madagascariensis. 

2820 Cactus alatus. 

2805 Calceolaria plantaginea. 

2874 arachnoidea. 

2851 Cattleya intermedia. 
2836 Chsetogastra lanceolata. 

2850 Conospermum ericifolium. 
2810 Corchorus olitorius. 
2794 Croton castaneifolium. 

2826 Cycas circinalis. 

2827 Ibid. 

2862 Cynara cardunculus, ft 
2867 Desmodium nutans. 

2875 Didiscus caeruleus. 

2825 Dioscorea cinnamomifolia. 
2860 Dodonsea attenuata, mas. 
2804 Dorstenia tubicina. 
2835 Dracaena australis. 

2831 Encyclia viridiflora. 
2844 Epidendrum fuscatum. 
2854 Eriostemon salicifolium. 
2829 Franciscea Hopeana. 
2843 Gaultheria shallon. 
2815 Gompbrena globosa. 
2799 Gonolobus niger. 
2807 Grevillea acanthifolia. 



PL 
2840 Hedyotis campanuliflora. 

2822 Houstonia serpyllifolia. 
2856 Imatopbyllum Aitoni. 
2861 Iris lutescens. 

2816 Justicia calycotricha. 

2845 quadrangularis. 

2808 Lotus microphyllus. 
2814 Lycopersicum peruvianum. 
2839 Malva angustifolia. 

2793 Morenii. 

2806 Maxillaria pallidiflora. 

2797 Neottia aphylla. 

2798 Nepenthes distillatoria, mas. 

2837 Nicotiana glauca. 

2823 Octomeria serratifolia. 
2832 Oenothera Lindleyii. 
2873 viminea. 

2795 Oncidium Papilio. 

2796 Orobus sessilifolius. 

2838 Osbeckia glomerata. 
2866 Oxalis carnosa. 

2830 rosea, «. 

2868 Passiflora capsularis. 
2809 Pensea imbricata. 
2813 Pitcairnia bracteata. 

2800 Polemonium Richardsoni. 
2852 Polygala paucifolia. 

2801 Pothos macrophylla. 
2842 Primula verticillata. 
2859 Pultensea pedunculata. 
2847 Rosa sinica. 

2811 Salpiglossis atro-purpurea. 
2872 Salvia involucrata. 

2864 pseudo-eoccinea. 

2855 Saponaria glutinosa. 
2821 Sida globiflora. 

2857 sessiliflora. 

2863 Sieversia Peckii. 

2858 -triflora. 

2828 Solanum Balbisii, var. pur- 
purea. 
2841 Tillandsia psittacina. 
2819 Zygopetalon rostratum. 



INDEX, 

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the 
Second Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Fifth of the 
Work) are alphabetically arranged. 



PI. 

2848 Alstroemeria, Broad -leaved, 

downy. 
2815 Amaranth, Annual globe.. 
2812 Arum, Campanulate. 

2802 Bffickia, Shrubby, Cbinese. 

2803 Banksia, Marcescent. 
2846 Begonia, Papillose. 

2849 Two-petaled. 

2817 Bignonia, General Cole's. 
2796 Bitter-Vetch, Sessile-leaved. 

2818 Blechnum, Long-leaved. 
2865 Blumenbaehia, Palmated. 

2869 Bread-Fruit Tree (« and /3.) 

2870 Ibid. 

2871 Ibid. 

2824 Buddlea, Madagascar. 

2853 Connate-leaved. 

2820 Cactus, Wing-stemmed. 
2862 Cardoon, Unarmed variety. 
2851 Cattleya, Middle- size -flow- 
ered. 

2836 Chaetogastra, Lance-leaved. 

2850 Conospermum, Heath-leaved. 
2810 Corchorus, Bristly-leaved, or 

Jew's Mallow. 
2794 Croton, Chesnut-leaved. 

2826 Cycas, Broad-leaved. 

2827 Ibid. 

2867 Desmodium, Drooping - flow- 
ered. 
2875 Didiscus, Blue-flowered. 

2860 Dodonsea, Attenuated-leaved. 

2804 Dorstenia, Peziza-flowered. 
2835 Dracaena, New Zealand, White- 
flowered. 

2831 Encyclia, Green-flowered. 
2844 Epidendrum, Dingy-flowered. 

2854 Eriostemon, Willow-leaved. 
2829 Franciscea, Short-flowered. 
2873 Evening Primrose, Large pur- 
ple-flowered Twiggy. 

2843 Gaultheria, Shallon. 
2799 Gonolobus, Black-flowered. 
2807 Grevillea, Acanthus-leaved. 
2840 Hedyotis, Bell-flowered. 
2822 Houstonia, Thyme-leaved. 
2856 Imatophyllum, Handsome-flow- 
ered. 

2861 Iris, Pale yellow. 



PI. 

2833 Jack Tree, or Entire -leaved 

Bread Fruit. 

2834 Ibid. 

2845 Justicia, Square-stalked. 
2816 Yellow-flowered. 

2808 Lotus, Small-leaved. 
2839 Mallow, Narrow-leaved. 

2793 Broad-lobed Vervain. 

2806 Maxillaria, Pale-flowered. 
2852 Milk-wort, Few-leaved. 

2797 Neottia, Leafless. 

2828 Nightshade, Balbis', Purple- 
flowered variety. 
2823 Octomeria, Serrated-leaved. 
2832 CEnothera, Large-flowered, 

four-spotted. 
2795 Oncidium, Butterfly. 
2838 Osbeckia, Cluster-flowered 
2830 Oxalis, Rose-coloured. 
2868 PassionFlower,Angular-fruited. 

2809 Pencea, Imbricated. 

2813 Pitcairnia, Bracteated. 

2798 Pitcher-plant, Male. 

2800 Polemonium, Dr. Richardson's. 

2801 Pothos, Large-leaved. 
2842 Primrose, Whorled-flowered. 
2859 Pultenaea, Pedunculated. 
2847 Rose, Chinese, three-leaved. 
2872 Sage, Large-bracted. 

2864 Scarlet, hairy-stalked. 

281 1 Salpiglossis, Deep-purple-flow- 
ered. 
2821 Sida, Globe-flowered. 

2857 ■ Sessile-flowered. 

2863 Sieversia, Mr. Peck's. 

2858 Three-flowered. 

2874 Slipper-wort, Cobweb. 

2805 Plantain-leaved. 

2855 Soap-wort, Clammy-stalked. 

2791 Sour-gourd, Ethiopian, or Mon- 

kiey Bread. 

2792 Ibid. 

2841 Tillandsia, Gaudy-flowered. 
2837 Tobacco, Glaucous-leaved. 

2814 Tomato, Large-flowered. 
2866 Wood -sorrel, Fleshy. 

2825 Yam, or Dioscorea, Cinnamon - 

leaved. 
2819 Zygopetalon, Rostrate.