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In which the most Ornamental Foreign Plants cultivated in the Open Ground, 
the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented and coloured. 

To which are added, 


Their Places of Growth, Times of Flowering, and most approved 
Methods of Culture. 





F. R. A. and L. S. and Regius Professor of Botany in the University 
of Glasgow. 


Or Vol. LVI. of the whole Work. 

" Soft roll your incense, Herbs, and Fruits, and Flowers, 
In mingled clouds, to Him, whose sun exalts, 
Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints.'' 



Printed by Edward Conchman, 10, Throgmorton Street ; 




Also by Sherwood, Gilbert, & Piper, 23, Paternoster Row ; J. & A. Arcb, Cornhill ; Tretittel & Wort*. 

Soho Square; Blackwood, Edinburgh; and in Holland, of Mr, Gt. Eldering, Florist, at Haarlem : 

And to be had of all Bookseller* in Town and Country. 


iliriJ7-z7L.. 7 a7, 

( 2876 ) 

Calceolaria connata. Connate-leaved 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — ScrophularinjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partitus. Cor. bilabiata : labium inferius calcei- 
forme, innatum. Caps, semibivalvis, valvulis bifidis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Calceolaria connata; herbacea subpubescens, foliis ova- 
tis basi attenuatis connatis, grosse dentatis, superiori- 
bus subcordatis sessilibus, bracteis cordatis integer- 
rimis, panicula trichotoma patentissima. 

Calceolaria. Hook. MSS. Graham in Edin. New Phil. 
Journ. 1828, p. 572. 

Descr. Root biennial, or more probably perennial. 
Stems erect, slender and weak, rounded, pubescent, as, in- 
deed, is the whole plant in a greater or less degree. 
Leaves, all in opposite pairs, ovate, or narrow ovate, acute, 
waved, nerved ; the nerves much branched and reticulated, 
the margins very coarsely and unequally serrated, the lower 
ones attenuated at the base and connate, the upper ones in 
remote pairs, almost cordate, sessile. Bractece resembling 
leaves, but smaller, and quite entire. Panicle terminal, 
and smaller ones are often lateral, dichotomously divided, 
and much spreading, with a solitary flower in the axil, and 
the flowers on the branches, in the more luxuriant state, 
racemed. Pedicels slender, free from bracteae. Flowers 
pale yellow. Lips of the corolla closely applied to each 
other, compressed, the upper one not much larger than the 


My first knowledge of this new species of Calceolaria 
was derived from plants sent to us by Mr. Taite of the 
Sloane Street Nursery, who raised it from seeds which he 
received " in 1827 along with Tacsonia * pinnatistipula and 
many other rare plants and bulbs from M. Hogan, Esq. 
Consul of the United States at Valparaiso." About the 
same time, indeed, seeds were sent to the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden both by Dr. Gillies and by Mr. Cruickshanks ; 
those from the latter gentleman were gathered near La 
Guardia, on the Western side of the Andes, on the route from 
St. Jago de Chile to Mendoza. They have all blossomed 
readily and abundantly during the whole of the summer 
and autumnal months, on a cool shelf of the greenhouse., 
and promise to have perennial roots, though the stems are 
very slender and herbaceous. 

The dried specimens sent me by Mr. Cruickshanks have 
much larger panicles of racemes than what are here repre- 
sented ; so that, another season, when the plants become 
stronger, we may expect to see, in this species, one most 
highly deserving of cultivation. 

* This has flourished in the Sloane Street Nursery, planted in the open 

Fig. 1. Lower Leaf, to show the connate base ; nat. size. 2. Flower, with 
the lower Lip forced down. 3. Stamen. — Magnified. 


-Pa-fi £y J- Curtu; ttoZ-m 

( 2877 ) 

Broduea grandiflora. Large -flowered 


,*V. V V. '&. ^ ■ v l / . .'•V, ,*V. ,~^. ."-V. v K >V- y V. v l / . ,*\'. A', ,*V, M 7 . .'■V, . v fc 
-IS MS <t> Vf* VK VK Vr VK VIS <t» VK VF VIS VK VIS VK Vt> Vr- Vf* 

Class and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Hemerocallide^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium tubulosum, sex-fidum, persistens ; Squama 
tres ad faucem (stamina abortiva) staminibus alternantes. 
Stylus filiforrnis. Stigma trifidum. Capsula obovata, basi 
in stipitem attenuata, 3-locularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Brodlea* grandiflora; pedunculis umbellatis bracteas 

longe excedentibus, squamis lanceolatis obtusissimis 

Brodlea grandiflora. Smith in Linn. Trans, v. 10. p. 2. 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 169. Bot. Reg. t. 1183. 

(not of Pursh, nor of Nuttall.) 
Brodlea coronaria. Salisb. in Par. Lond. t. 98. 

Descr. Root a smalls roundish, solid, wrinkled bulb, 
from the top of which, and surrounded by a few membra- 
nous scales below, spring two or more linear, acuminated, 
very slender leaves, grooved on the inside. Scape about as 


* " A plant of the Liliaceous, or Patrician Order, which I have named 
after James Brodie, Esq. F. L. S. of Brodie, in North Britain, a gentleman, 
whose scientific merits, whose various discoveries, and whose liberal commu- 
nications on every occasion, tending to elucidate the Botany of his own country 
in particular, require no elaborate display before the Linnean Society.'' — 
Smith, in Linn. Trans, v. 10. 

long as the leaves, erect, terete, terminated by a bracteated 
Umbel of from six to eight very handsome flowers. Brac- 
tece small, soon becoming membranous and withered. Pe- 
duncles an inch and a half long, and about equal in length 
with the flower, spreading. Perianth tubular below, where 
it is green, with six elevated brown lines, upwards expand- 
ing into six spreading, lanceolate, bright purplish -blue 
segments. The throat or faux has three stamens, whose 
anthers are oblong, yellow, opening at the sides, and the 
filaments winged and short ; and alternating with these are 
three lanceolate, or rather linear-oblong, very obtuse, white 
and entire, somewhat fleshy scales, or abortive anthers ; 
their bases unite with the bases of the filaments, which 
thus, to a certain degree, are monad elphous. Pollen of the 
anthers oblong, diaphanous. Germen obovate, attenuated 
at the base into a stalk, three-lobed upwards : Style fili- 
form, not reaching beyond the stamens, white : Stigma 

A beautiful plant, and well worthy of bearing the name 
of so great a patron of Botany as the late James Brodie, 
Esq. It was first found by Mr. Menzies in 1792, in New 
Georgia, on the North-west coast of America, and recently 
by Mr. Douglas and Dr. Scouler at Puget, Fort Van- 
couver, and throughout the dry plains West of the Rocky 
Mountains. By the former of these travellers, bulbs have 
been introduced to the gardens of the Horticultural Society, 
which flourished, and blossomed in July, 1828, planted in 
the open border, and in a peat soil. 

Mr. Douglas has examined the Missouri Hyacinth of 
Lewis, which is the authority for Pursh's and Nuttall's 
Brodi£;a grandiflora, and clearly ascertained it to be a very 
distinct plant, having six perfect stamens. Beautiful spe- 
cimens of this plant, gathered also by Mr. Douglas, prove, 
that it is a new species of Millea of Cavanilles, and scarce- 
ly differing from Brodijea, but in the presence of six perfect 
stamens. Still a third genus allied to them is in Mr. Doug- 
las's rich collection, having six stamens, placed in two rows, 
three higher up on the perianth and large, and three lower 
down and small: and by no means monadelphous. 

Fig. 1. Flower, two of the Segments being cut away to show the position 
of the Stamens and Scales. 2. Flower cut open. 3. Back view of a Stamen. 
4. Front view of ditto.— Magnified. 

Sbb $T X ZurtK. ViOrortk,.Ji„v 2 2#2A 

Swan St 

( 2878 ) 

Brassavola tuberculata. Tuberculated 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum ungue simplici; lamina indivisa. Petala dis- 
tincta patula. Massce Pollinis 8 (vel plures !) 

Specific Character. 

Brassavola * tuberculata ; caule unifloro, lamina labelli 
integra, pedunculo petalis exterioribus tuberculatis. 

Descr. Root many, large, thick, white, fleshy fibres, 
thrown out upon the surface of the soil of the garden-pot. 
Stems short, terete, jointed, sheathed with membranaceous, 
striated scales, and terminated by a single tereti-subulate, 
green, fleshy leaf, with a deep groove on one side, six to 
eight inches long, quite glabrous. Peduncle solitary, short, 
rounded, green, tuberculated, bearing a single large flower. 
Petals five, nearly equal, spreading, linear-lanceolate, yel- 
lowish-green ; the three outer tuberculated externally and 
blotched with purple; the three inner entirely yellow- 
green. Lip very large, the base contracted, and closely 
embracing the column ; the rest, or lamina, broadly oval, 
waved at the margin, blunt at the extremity, pure white, 


* In honour of Antonio Musa Brassavol, a Physician of Ferrara, in 
Italy, who published many works in the 16th century, on the properties of 
plants as employed in medicine. 

yellow towards the base, the margin quite entire. Column 
short, white: the margin, behind the anther, trifid, with 
the segments fimbriated. Anther hemispherical., sunk 
within the margin at the top, yellowish, externally finely 
granulated ; within having eight distinct cells in two rows. 
Pollen Masses eight, large, ovate, compressed, attached in 
pairs to the two opposite extremities of two elastic, flat- 
tened, yellow filaments, which filaments bear near the 
middle three or four other smaller, and apparently abortive 
pollen masses. Germen very long, terete, straight, pur- 
plish, tuberculated at the base. 

Hitherto only one species has been described of this very 
singular Genus, which was established by Mr. Brown upon 
the Cymbidium cucullatum of Swartz and Willdenow, the 
Epidendrum cucullatum of Botanical Magazine, t. 543. The 
present, although the same in the structure of the leaves, 
diners remarkably in the form of the labellum, and in the 
want of the fringe. 

A native of the trunks of trees, in rocky places, at the en- 
trance of Botafogo Bay, where it was found by Henry 
Harrison, Esq. and by him brought to the collection of his 
brother, Richard Harrison, Esq. of Aigburgh, near Liver- 
pool. It produced its flowers in July, 1828, and we were 
then favored with a specimen, and a drawing from the pen- 
cil of Mrs. Arnold Harrison. 

In habit, it very much resembles the only species of this 
curious Genus at present known (Br. cucullata. Brown) ; 
but it diners remarkably in the form and colour of the 
flower, and especially the labellum. 

Fig. 1. Column. 2. Under side of the Anther, shewing the arrangement 
of the Pollen Masses. 3. Inside view of the Anther Case. 4. Front view of 
the Pollen Masses. 5. A pair of the filaments, with the Pollen Masses at- 
tached to them. — Magnified. 

( 2879 ) 

Abronia mellifera. Honey-smelling 

At- &- >"V- ."Vt iS^t ,'V. &. afc iStf. j.^. A*. A'. ?V. &. ifc sk .-V- ?V- ■4'. 
vt? vj. •s^c vji? vf. VJS */i> "/j» "/"is */Js "/Js vf. Tfr V5S" vk? yfi vf. vf, "iff 

Class and Order. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — NyctaginejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium simplex subhypocrateriforme, limbo 5-par- 
tito, basi tumido angulato. Staminum Jilamenta 5, basi 
coalita in vaginulam hypogynam brevissimam, supra ag- 
glutinata tubo perianthii coarctato, demum libera : Antherce 
oblongae, inclusae. Germen I, vaginula staminifera infra 
cinctum, in tumida perianthii basi : Stylus 1. Stigma 
incrassatum. Achenium 1, perianthii basi quinquangulari 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Abronia* mellifera; foliis ovatis subsinuatis glutinosis, flo- 

ribus glabris, perianthii limbo undulato (albo). 
Abronia mellifera. Douglas MSS. 

Descr. Stem procumbent, rounded, branched, succu- 
lent, glabrous, green, reddish at the joints, slightly gluti- 
nous. Leaves in opposite pairs, on long petioles, ovate, or 
ovato-oblong, more or less oblique, somewhat sinuated, 
quite free from serratures, glabrous and fleshy, glutinous, 
nerved. Peduncles axillary, solitary, four to six inches long, 
more viscid than the stems, terminated by a compact, dense 
head of white flowers, and there subtended by an involucre 
of lanceolato-oblong, slightly pubescent, at length reflexed 
leaflets. Perianth an inch long : lube greenish and gla- 
brous : 

* Derived from «/3pj, pretty, delicate. 

brous ; limb spreading, waved. Stamens unequal, three 
longer than the other two : filaments in part agglutined to 
the inner tube of the perianths., but easily separated. Style 
shorter than the filament : stigma incrassated, villous on one 
side. Achenia obovate, enclosed within the pentangular 
persistent base of the perianth. Embryo conduplicate, 
enclosing within its fold, the small mass of the albumen. 

A native of Northern California, extending to N. lat. 46°. 
and to W. longitude 122°. near the great falls of the Co- 
lombia, where it was discovered by Mr. David Douglas. 
It is abundant throughout the dry sandy deserts of the in- 
terior, never growing near the shores of the sea like the two 
hitherto described, Abronia umbellata and arenaria. The 
blossoms have a powerful honey-like smell in the evening. 

By Mr. Douglas it was introduced to the garden of the 
Horticultural Society, where it flowered in the summer of 
1828. At present it is very rare : but being easy of culti- 
vation, and thriving luxuriantly in sandy peat, it may be 
expected soon to form a valuable addition to our flower- 

Fig. 1. Flower, nat. size. 2. Flower, magnified. 3. Stamen and Pistil. 
4. Pistil. 5. Anther. 6. Pollen. 7. Fruit. 8. Achenium. 9. Embryo 
and Albumen. 10. Embryo. — More or less magnified. 


F*i>. fry X Curtis, ralfrortfr, Jfri? 1^39. 

( 2880 ) 



Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. campanulatus, semidecemfidus, laciniis alternls ac- 
cessoriis. Pet. 5, (parva, Schlecht.) Stam. 10,, biseriata > 
calycis parietibus inserta. Receptaculum conicum, siccum, 
villosum. Ovaria, indefinite numerosa3. Styli simplices 
cum ovario articulati, subterminales. Achenia calyce in- 
clusa. Schlecht. in Linncea. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Horkelia* congesta; foliis radicalibus pinnatis laciniis 
euneato-oblongis apice incisis, calycis laciniis exte- 
rioribus integerrimis, petal is calyce longioribus. 

Horkelia congesta. Douglas MSS. 

Descr. Plant more or less hairy and pubescent in every 
part. From a perennial root rises a rounded stem, branched 
upwards, and bearing but few leaves. Root-leaves several, 
prostrate, pinnate with from three to seven, sometimes op- 
posite, sometimes alternate pairs of cuneato-oblong leaflets, 
and an odd terminal one, more or less decurrent at the base ; 
the apex cut into from three to five longer teeth or laciniae : 
stem-leaves alternate, pinnatifid, with the segments linear, 
acute, entire. Stipules adnate to the base of the leafstalk, 
deeply laciniated, broader upon the stem, and at the forking 
of the upper branches, where the leaf seems to be suppressed, 


* In compliment to John Horkel, Professor of Physiology, in Berlin. 

and the bracteae take the place of stipules. Flowers col- 
lected into dense, terminal heads, which have two such brac- 
teae as I have just described immediately at their base. 
Pedicels short, branched. Calyx campanulate, marked with 
ten striae, with five large and (placed a little below their 
sinus externally,) five small, spreading, lanceolate teeth, 
green, sometimes tipped with brown. Petals much longer 
than the calyx, inserted in the sinus of the large teeth or 
segments, and opposite the smaller ones, white, rounded, 
with a long, yellowish claw. Stamens ten, inserted a little 
below the mouth of the tube; five larger, opposite the large 
segments of the calyx ; five smaller opposite to the petals. 
Anthers two-celled, rounded, yellow. Filaments inversely 
ciuieate, with an elevated, longitudinal line in the front, 
white. Receptacle of the pistils conical, rather fleshy, and 
having a few scattered hairs. Germens roundish -oval, 
green. Style filiform, yellow, incrassated at the base, where 
it is jointed upon the germen a little below the summit. 
Stigma obtuse. 

This new genus of plants has lately been established by 
Chamisso and Schlechtendal in the second volume of the 
" Linnaea/' upon the species found during the late Russian 
Voyage of Discovery, at San Francisco, in California. I 
have now the satisfaction of publishing a second species 
of the genus, detected by Mr. Douglas at Cape Mendo- 
cena, and on the low hills of the Umptqua River upon 
the North-west coast of America. From specimens kindly 
communicated by the Horticultural Society of London, 
which flowered in August 1828, from seeds brought home 
by Mr. Douglas, the accompanying figure was made. 

It is a hardy perennial, allied to the genus Sibbaldia, but 
differing in various particulars. It varies much in the shape 
of the pinnae of the leaves. 

Fig. 1 . Single Flower. 2. Portion of the Flower, to show the insertion of 
the Stamens, &e. 3. Pistils. 4. Receptacle of ditto. 5. Single Pistil.— 

2 881. 

&y f Curtis Jra&rorVkJba 

( 2881 ) 

Elichrysum incanum. Hoary-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum imbricatum, squamis internis scariosis radi- 
antibus. Pappus plumosus. Receptaculum nudum. 

Specific Character. 

Elichrysum* incanum ; incano-tomentosum, foliis longe 
linearibus acutis basi attenuatis, caulinis remotis su- 
perne sensim minoribus, caule simplici unifloro (squa- 
mis albis rubrisque). 

Descr. Apparently an herbaceous plant, producing an 
unbranched stem, which is erect, waved, terete, and as well 
as the leaves clothed with a soft, white tomentum, which 
gives the plant a hoary appearance. Leaves mostly radical, 
the lowermost soon withering and persistent, four to six 
inches long, linear, acute, much tapering at the base, slightly 
channelled above, beneath having a prominent midrib : — 
the cauline leaves are remote, and gradually smaller up- 
wards. Flower terminal, large, solitary. Scales of the 
involucre numerous, beautiful, spreading in sunny, warm 
weather; the outermost silvery- white, the intermediate ones, 


* From £?u|, spiral or twining, or **«<>?, marshy, according to Smith, and 
Xfvcrosygold ; that is, a golden-coloured flower, whose stems are twining, or 
which inhabits marshy places. Both characters, indeed, at variance with what 
we know of the individuals of this genus. It is not known to what plant the 
t^Xfvm, of the older Greek Authors was applied. 

which are the largest, tipped with red, the innermost pale 
yellow or cream-coloured ; all of them elliptical, rather 
obtuse, concave, suddenly contracted into a long, narrow, 
green claw, which has a tuft of hairs at its top. Florets 
all tubular. I could not find that any were female or 
imperfect : all appeared to have both stamen and pistils, 
and to be five cleft, and yellow. Pappus yellowish, plu- 
mose. Receptacle plane, dotted, naked. 

Avery beautiful species of Elichrysum of which the seeds 
were received from Van Dieman's Land, under the name of 
" Native Amaranth." We have specimens likewise in the 
Herbarium from Fraser and other correspondents, gathered 
in the interior of New Holland. It differs from all the 
described species of the genus, by its long, narrow, and dis- 
tinctly, on both sides, hoary leaves. 

Its flowers are produced in May, and, as may be ex- 
pected from their nature, they continue a long time in 
flower; opening and closing many times in the day, ac- 
cording to the temperature and force of the sun's rays. 

Fig. 1. Inner Scale of the Involucre. 2. One of the larger coloured Scales. 
3. Flower. 4. A Hair of the Pappus.— Magnified. 

( 2882 ) 
Vesicaria arctica. Arctic Vesicaria. 

Class and Order. 
Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 

( Nat. Ord. — CruciferjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Silicula inflata, subglobosa, polysperma. Cotyledones ac- 
cumbentes. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Vesicaria* arctica; tota stellatim pilosa tomentosa incana, 

foliis radicalibus spathulatis, siliculis orbicularis stylo 

Vesicaria arctica. Rich, in Frankl. Journ. App. p. 743. 

De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 159. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 

v. 2. p. 872. Hook, in Parry's 2d Voy. App. p. 388. 
Alyssum arcticum. Fl. Dan. t. 1520. De Cand. Syst 

Veget. v. 2. p. 324. 

Descr. Root perennial, subfusiform, long, woody, here 
and there fibrous ; bearing at the top many decumbent, 
simple, scarcely fruticose, slender stems. Leaves mostly 
radical, and spreading on the ground, spathulate, from two 
to three inches long, including the footstalk, somewhat 
thick and fleshy, destitute of nerve, clothed on both sides, 
as well as the stems and calyx, with minute, fringed scales 
°r tufts of beautifully stellated hairs, which are white, and 
give to the whole plant a hoary or frosted appearance : stem- 
leaves four, linear- spathulate, alternate, sometimes quite 
bnear. Corymbs terminal, of few flowers, which are bright 



Prom vesica, a bladder, on account of the peculiar shape of the seed- 


yellow. Pedicels rather long, slender, hoary. Calyx of 
four, equal, ovate, concave leaflets. Corolla of four, obo- 
vato-oblong, slightly clawed, veiny petals, twice the length 
of the calyx. Stamens yellow : Anther ovate : Pistil : 
Germen elliptical, stellato-pubescent, tipped with a colum- 
nar style, scarcely its own length. Stigma capitate, mi- 
nutely glandular. Pouch nearly globular, slightly com- . 
pressed at the dissepiment, inflated, sparingly clothed with 
stellated pubescence : tipped with the persistent style and 
stigma. Seeds, six in each cell, brown, orbicular and com- 
pressed. Dissepiment very thin and membranaceous, pure 
white. Embryo green, with the radicle applied to the 
edges of the Cotyledons. 

This species of Vesicaria was first discovered by. Profes- 
sor Gieseke, at Omenak in Greenland, and figured in the 
Flora Danica as Alyssum arcticum. Dr. Richardson de- 
tected it in Arctic America, in lat. 67°, and gave an excel- 
lent description of it in the Appendix to Capt. Franklin's 
Journal ; rightly referring it to the genus Vesicaria. Again, 
Mr. Drummond, during Capt. Franklin's second Journey, 
found it abundantly upon the Rocky Mountains. 

From seeds, gathered by Mr. Drummond, and presented, 
together with many others by Captain Franklin and Dr. 
Richardson to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, plants were 
raised, which blossomed during the same year in which they 
were sown, in the months of August and September. The 
flowers are of a bright and vivid yellow, and appear in suc- 
cession for a considerable length of time ; so that it is a 
most desirable plant for rock-work. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Shorter Stamen, posterior view. 4. Longer 
ditto, anterior view. 4. Pistil. 6. Pouch. 7. The same, the Valves having 
parted from the Dissepiment. 8. Embryo. 9. Portion of a Leaf, to show the 
stellated Scales. — All more or less magnified. 


( 2883 ) 



Class and Order. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Polemoniace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. campanulatus, 5-fidus. Cor. infundibuliformis vel 
hypocrateriformis, quinquefida. Stamina fauci inserta. 
Stigma trifidum. Capsula 3-locularis, 3-valvis, loculis 
mono- di- polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gilia* inconspicua ; caule ramosissimo calycibusque pu- 
bescenti-glandulosis, foliis pinnatifidis inferioribus 
bipinnatifidis, segmentis linearibus. 

Gilia inconspicua. Douglas MSS. 

Gilia parviflora. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 626. 

Ipomopsis inconspicua. Smith Exot. Fl. t. 14. 

Cantua parviflora. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. v. 2. p. 730. SuppL 
p. 730. 

Descr. An annual, much branching plant, with rounded 
stems, glanduloso-pubescent upwards. Leaves one or two 
inches long, those of the root bipinnatifid, becoming less 
compound upwards, so that the cauline ones are simply 
pmnatifid, and the uppermost, especially those that may 
he considered bractece, undivided : the laciniae linear, acute, 
entire. Flowers, some few of them lateral and solitary, the 


* So named by Cavanilles in honour of Piiilippa Salvador Gilio, a 
Jpamsh Botanist, who wrote on the plants of Peru, and a history of the king- 
dom of Terra !?!,..».. :„ A «„„..:-,. 

dom of Terra Firma, in America. 

rest forming a sort of terminal panicle. Pedicels glandu- 
lar. Calyx tubular, quinquefid, glandular, the segments 
erect, brown, with white margins. Corolla hypocrateriform : 
the tube a little longer than the calyx, nearly white ; limb 
of five, patent, ovate, bright-blue, segments. Stamens in- 
serted within the mouth of the tube, and scarcely exserted. 
Anthers pale blue. Germen oval, with three longitudinal 
furrows. Style as long as the tube of the corolla. Stigmas 
three, filiform, hairy. Capsule elliptical, with three deep 
furrows, indicating three lobes, enclosed within the persist- 
ent calyx, and equal in length with it, bursting by the 
centre of each lobe, into thre^e valves, three celled ; cells 
with seven to eight angular, but not winged, seeds in each, 
arranged in two rows. 

Of the authors who have hitherto described this plant, 
Smith alone has seen specimens which were cultivated at 
Sion House, in 1793, from seed which he supposed to be 
brought from some part of America. Pursh imagined it to 
be a native of America : but it was reserved for the indefa- 
tigable Mr. Douglas to determine its exact locality. He 
discovered it in the woodless tracts, or sandy barrens on 
the Southern branches of the river Columbia, on the North- 
west coast of America, growing under the shade of Purshia 
(Tigarea. PhJ tridentata and some species of Artemisia. 

In the garden of the Horticultural Society it thrives well, 
if cultivated among sandy peat, and blossoms in the early 
part of summer. It first flowered at Chiswick, in May, 1827. 

Fig. 1 . Radical Leaf. 2. Flower. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil. 5. Section of 
the Fruit. 6. Ripe Fruit surrounded by the Calyx. 7. Capsule removed from 
the Calyx. — More or less magnified. 




\ \\\ 









fab by SCuriu, »abierth.,F*bf L 2f%> 

( 2884 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminosje. Div. IV. Cjlsalpine/E. D. C. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis sepala 5, hiaequalia, basi in cupulam subper- 
sistentem coalita, inferiore fornicato. Petala 5, stipitata, 
superiore difformi. Stam. 10, longissima, omnia fecunda, 
filamentis basi hirsutis. Stylus longissimus. Legumen 
plano-compressum, bivalve, submultiloculare, isthmis spon- 
giosis. Semina obovata, compressa, endopleura in aqua 
gelatinosa, cotyledonibus planis, plumula ovali. De C. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Poinciana * regia; inermis, foliis bipiunatis, pinnulis ovali- 
oblongis muticis, petalis longe stipitatis crenato-un- 
dulatis, superioris ungue marginibus involutis. 

Poinciana regia. Bojer MSS: 

Descr. A magnificent tree, thirty or forty feet high, 
having an erect trunk, three feet in diameter, for half its 
height unbranched, covered with a grey smooth bark ; the 
wood white ; above forming a vast cyme of alternate patent 
branches, the younger ones green spotted with white, and 
glabrous. The leaves broadly ovate in their circumscrip- 
tion, two feet long, very patent, abruptly bipinnate, 
with from eleven to eighteen pairs of Pinna, which are 
four inches long, horizontally patent : pinnules oblong, 


* In honour of M. de Poinci, a governor of the Antilles, in the middle o£ 
the Seventeenth century, who is said to have paid considerable attention to 
the Natural History of those islands. 

blunt at each extremity, upon very short petioles, beneath 
paler and one nerved. Common petiole grooved above, 
inserted upon a remarkably swollen fleshy base. Stipules 
abruptly bipinnated, erect, the lower leaflets plane, like 
those of the true leaves, the rest subulato-setaceous, decidu- 
ous. Flowers in lax racemes, terminal, and from the axils 
of the superior leaves, bright scarlet. Pedicels alternate, 
patent, two inches and more in length, jointed at the extre- 
mity, having at the base an ovate, acute, reflexed, gla- 
brous bractea. Leaflets of the calyx equal, coriaceous, 
acute, very patent, coloured within, and deciduous with 
the petals. Petals almost orbicular, patenti-reflexed, taper- 
ing into long claws, crenate at the margin, at the base, on 
the upper side veined, and above the base dashed with yel- 
lowish lines : the upper petal more cuneate, with the mar- 
gins involute at the base, variegated and striated with red 
and yellow ; beneath striated with these two colours : all 
of them and the filaments downy at the base. Stamens ten, 
shorter than the petals : Filaments red : Anthers oblong, 
two-celled. Germen linear-oblong, plane, shortly stipitate, 
glabrous : Style filiform, terminated by an obtuse stigma ; 
the whole green, scarcely longer than the stamens. Le~ 
gumen somewhat inflated, two-valved, of a rather woody 
texture, about four inches long, terminated by the persist- 
ent style. Seeds more than half an inch long, compressed, 
ash -coloured, streaked with brown. Bojer MSS. 

Sometimes, though rarely, we have introduced in the 
present work plants of great beauty and rarity, which we 
have no hope of ever cultivating successfully. Such is not 
the case with the present individual, which is, however, no 
less remarkable for its extreme beauty than for its rarity, 
having been found only in Madagascar, near Foule Point, 
(where it is known by the name of Tanahou) by Professor 
Bojer. To that gentleman I am indebted for a magnifi- 
cent drawing, of which a portion only is engraved for the 
present work : and this is so satisfactory in all its parts, that 
I have no hesitation in immediately laying it before the 
public. Were not the subject of such great interest, I might 
nave been induced to wait for its blossoming in this coun- 
try : for plants have been raised by Mr. Barclay at Bury 
Hill, from seeds sent by Mr. Telfair, and there is every 
reason to think they will be brought to great perfection in 
that well-managed establishment. 

Fig. 1. A Legume, natural size. 2. A Stipule, magnified. 

( 2885 ) 

portulaca grandiflora. large-flow- 
ered Purslane. 

Class and Order 


( Nat. Ord. — Portulace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. aut liber aut imoovario adherens, bipartitus, demum 
basi circumscissus et deciduus. Pet. 4 — 6, aequalia, inter 
se libera aut ima basi concrete, calyci inserta. Stam. 8- 
15 (v. plufa,) filamentis liberis interdum ima corolla adna- 
tis. Ovarium subrotundum. Stylus 1, apice 5 — 6- (9-) 
fidus, aut stylus nullus et stigmata 3 — 8 elongata. Capsula 
subglobosa, 1-locularis, medio circumscissa. Semina plu- 
rnna placentae (v. placentis tot stigmata) centrali affixa. 

Specific Character. 

Portulaca * grandiflora ; caulibus diffusis ramosis, foliis 
cylindraceis acutis, axillis pilosis, floribus termiualibus 
congestis, petalis calyce longioribus. 

Descr. Root tuberous. Stems diffuse, branched, six to 
eight inches long, rounded, smooth, succulent, reddish. 
Leaves scattered, rather remote, an inch or an inch and a 
half long, cylindrical or terete, acute, sessile, or with a 
very imperfect contraction at the base, which may be con- 
sidered a sort of petiole, fleshy, glaucous green, glabrous ; 
the axils alone have numerous long, entangled, white (de- 
ciduous ?) hairs. Flowers terminal, three or four in a 
cluster, sessile upon the top of a branch, and surrounded 


* An ancient Latin word applied to the Purslane, of very doubtful origin. 
*>ome say from portula, a little door, because the leaves resemble a little door. 

by a kind of involucre, whose leaflets resemble the cauline 
leaves, and are plentifully interspersed with hairs at the 
base. Calyx diphyllous, spreading, leaflets ovate, green, at 
length scariose, hairy at the point of insertion. Corolla 
large, showy, considerably longer than the calyx, orange co- 
lored, or of a very bright reddish purple. Petals five, united 
at the base, and apparently incorporated with the base of 
the calyx at the point of insertion of the germen. Stamens 
united with the base of the calyx and corolla, and in a slight 
degree with each other, numerous : Filaments deep, blackish 
purple. Anthers rounded, two-celled, purplish : pollen bright 
yellow. Pistil : Germen superior, conical, including several 
upright receptacles, to which the seeds are attached : Style 
as long as the stamens, filiform : Stigma of seven to nine 
filiform, pubescent, at length recurved rays. 

Professor De Candolle justly observes, that the Genus 
Portulaca is a very heterogeneous one; and its characters 
are certainly but imperfectly understood. I am happy, 
therefore, in having the opportunity of giving an analysis 
of what I cannot but think anew species of the Genus, and 
one, the beauty of whose flowers must render it a desirable 
inhabitant of the cool stove or greenhouse. . 

It was discovered by Dr. Gillies, growing in light sandy 
soil, in various situations between the Rio del Saladillo, or 
Western boundary of the Pampas, and the foot of the 
mountains near Mendoza. On the Western side of Rio 
Desaguardero plants were in great profusion, giving to the 
ground over which they were spread a rich purple hue, here 
and there marked with spots of an orange colour, from the 
orange-coloured variety which grew intermixed with the 

It has some affinity with P. pilosa, (Bot. Reg. t. 792) 
but differs in the greater length of its leaves and vastly 
larger size of the flowers. The colour of these flowers we 
find to vary to that degree, that it must afford a very deceit- 
ful character for the grouping of the species of the Genus. 
P. teretifolia and P. lanuginosa will also rank very near our 
plant, but the latter is described as having small flowers, 
and the former, many ovate, acute, diaphanous bractese at 
the base of the flowers. 

Fig. 1 . Orange-flowered state of the plant. 2. Purple-flowered ditto. 3. 
Extremity of a Flowering Branch, from which the corolla is removed. 4. 
Portion of the Stamens. 5. Pistil. 6. Section of the Germen. — All but fig- 
I . and 2 more or less magnified. 

( 2886 ) 
Iris tripetala. Three-petaled Iris. 

Class and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 
( Nat. Ord. — Iride^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6-partita : laciniis alternis reflexis. Stigmata peta- 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Iris tripetala; imberbis, caule tereti foliis lineari-ensiform- 

ibus longiore, corollae laciniis interioribus erectisminu- 

tis integris dentatisve. 
Iris tripetala. " Walt. Fl. Carol, p. 66." Elliott Sketch. 

v. 1. p. 45. Roem. et Schultes Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 

480. ^s 

Iris tridentata. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. v. 1. p. 30. Roem. 
et Schultes Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 468. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. I. p. 161. 

Descr. Root ff creeping" Ell. Stem one and a half to 
two feet high,, terete, bearing a few leaves ; but most of 
them spring from the root and are linear, ensiform, striated, 
acuminated, slightly falcate : uppermost ones spathiform. 
Flowers, three or four from the extremity of the stem, each 
subtended by its own foliaceous spatha. Peduncle shorter 
than the spatha. Exterior segments of the corolla broadly 
°yal, much waved, somewhat clawed, large, of a beautiful 
bluish purple mottled with white, and distinctly marked 
w ith deeper purple lines, the claw whitish, with yellow- 
brown reticulations : inner segments very small, linear-lan- 
ceolate, acuminated, the segments incurved, entire, or with 
three teeth at the extremity, the middle tooth being longer 
and much acuminated : the colour a pale purple. Divisions 

of the styles purple : stigmas toothed, bifid and almost 

Communicated by David Falconer, Esq. from his collec- 
tion at Carlowrie, Edinburgh, in May, 1828. It is a native 
of Carolina, first described by Walter, in his Flora of that 
country : nor does it appear to have been known to any 
other Botanist except Mr. Elliott, who, however, speaks 
of it as being very much circumscribed in its locality. 

The inner segments of the corolla, I do not find to be by 
any means constantly three toothed. Sometimes they are 
quite entire. 

Fig. I. One of the Inner Segments of the Corolla. — Magnified. 

The Ikis lutescens figured at tab. 2861 of the present volume being consid- 
ered by Dr. Graham distinct from the Iris lutescens of Sprengel, his specific 
character should have been adopted in lieu of that of the author last men- 
tioned. " I. lutescens; caule simplici unifloro folioso, folium inferius sequanti ; 
flore barbato, breve pedunculato, tubo corolhe germen superanti, laciniis un- 
dulatis, crenulatis, obtusis, unguiculatis, interioribus latioribus inflexis, laci- 
niis labii superioris stigmatis acutis, spatha erecta, excedente et valvula interi- 
ora vix inflata involvente tubum. Graham in Edin. N. Phil. Journ. No. iX 
p. 174. 


ralroriA, SW 2SS29 

( 2887 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Papavarace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum ampliatum, hypocrateri forme, limbo ex- 
panso integro. Cal. mitraeformis, caducus. Cor. 4-pctala, 
petalis unguibus fauci receptaculi insertis, staminiferis. 
(Cham.) Caps, siliquiformis, bivalvis ; Semina margin i bus 
valvarum affixa. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Eschscholzia * calif brnica. 

Eschscholzia californica. Chamisso in Hone Phys. Berol. 

p. 74. t. 15. Be Cand. Prod. v. 3. p. 344. Bot. Reg. 

t. 1168. Sweet Brit. Fl. Gard. t. 265. Chamisso et 

Schlecht. in hinncea > v. I. p. 554. 

Descr. Root perennial, large in proportion to the size 
of the plant, somewhat fusiform, woody, tortuous, produ- 
cing from its upper extremity many leaves and stems, and 


* Named by Chamisso in honor of Dr. Eschscholz, an excellent Botan- 
ist and Entomologist, who accompanied him as a fellow Naturalist in the 
voyage round the world under the command of Kotzebub. It is not, perhaps, 
generally known, that this gentleman is a descendant of the John Sigismlno 
Elsholz, a Prussian Botanist, author of a Flora Marchica, and after whom 
Wilmjenow named the Elsholzia aristaia. The Russians, into whose ser- 
vice the present Elsholz went, wrote his name Eschschoi,z, hy mistake. 
*ne Genus is now so well established, that the alteration to another generic 
name might create unnecessary confusion. 

abounding in a yellowish juice. Stems about a foot long, 
terete, branched, glaucous, as is the whole plant, and bear- 
ing several distantly-placed leaves. Leaves : all of them 
on long, flat, linear footstalks, especially the radical ones, 
tripirmatifid, the segments linear, acute, the ultimate ones 
trifid at the point. Peduncles axillary and terminal, long, 
terete, terminating in a cup -shaped, fleshy receptacle. 
Flowers large, beautiful. Calyx mitriform, thin, membra- 
naceous, acuminated at the top, separating transversely 
from the thickened margin of the receptacle at its base, and 
like the calyptra of a Moss, which it very much resembles, 
falling off quite entire, or with one or two short fissures, 
previous to the expansion of the bud. Petals four, spread- 
ing, inserted within the margin of the receptacle, and bear- 
ing some of the stamens upon the very short claws, obcor- 
date, waved, and crenate or notched at the margin, of a 
beautiful bright yellow colour, at the base deep orange, 
gradually melting into the yellow. Stamens about thirty, 
partly inserted on the thickened inner margin of the recep- 
tacle, and partly accrete with the claws of the petals. Fila- 
ments short : Anthers long, linear-lanceolate, golden yellow, 
the cells opening longitudinally, and occupying the mar- 
gins of the anthers. Pistil inserted at the very base of the 
hollow receptacle. Germen subcylindrical, but tapering 
upwards, and bearing four filiform glandular stigmas, two 
opposite ones shorter than the other two. A section of the 
germen exhibits two opposite, longitudinal, parietal, rows 
of seeds, placed where the sutures of the valves of the cap- 
sule will appear*. Ovules very numerous, but many prov- 
ing abortive. Capsule a long, siliquiform, straight, capsule, 
generally curved after the valves have separated, attenuated 
at both extremities, and surrounded at the base with the 
persistent, cup-shaped receptacle, with ten deep sulci, the 
corresponding ridges forming distinct ribs; bursting, from 
the extremity to the base, into two equal valves, and exhi- 
biting, attached to the margin of these valves, by means of 


* The peculiar situation of these seeds or ovules within the germen, corre- 
sponding as to situation with the shorter, or ahortive stigmas, has led M r « 
Lindley (in the Bot. Register) to form a new theory of the structure of the 
fruit of the Crucifer^e, in which the two stigmas are, contrary to the usual 
structure in fruits, opposite to the receptacle of seeds (placenta) : and it hence 
appears to him, that their fruit is " formed of four confluent pistilla, of which 
two are placentiferous, and furnished with stigmata, and two destitute of pla- 
centae and stigmata, but separable, in the form of valves. 

slender stalks, many globose, corrugated, dark brown, 
almost black seeds, filled with a fleshy albumen, and having' 
an embryo immersed in that albumen, near the base of the 
seed, and with the radicle pointing to the hilum. The coty- 
ledons are a little spreading - , and notched at the ends. 

This singular and very beautiful plant, which already con- 
stitutes one of the most lovely ornaments of our flower- 
borders, was discovered by Mr. Menzies in 1792, during 
the celebrated voyage of Capt. Vancouver, in various parts 
of the coast of California : but lay long in the Herbaria of 
various Botanists of this country, to whom its discoverer 
had generously distributed it, as a new Genus, allied to 
Chelidonium, but without any public notice being taken 
of it. At length, in the year 1820, it appeared in the Hone 
Physical Berolinenses, under the name we have here adopt- 
ed, as a discovery of the able Naturalists, Chamisso and 
Eschscholz, at St. Francisco in California, during the Rus- 
sian voyage of discovery, directed by Count Romanzoff, 
and commanded by Kotzebue. Still it was only known 
from dried specimens, and it was again reserved for a Bo- 
tanist of this country to introduce it to our gardens. The 
indefatigable Mr. Douglas gathered it abundantly on the 
North-west coast of America, on the dry sandy banks of 
streams, on the plains of the river Multnomah, in about 43 > 
North latitude, and Southward to the Spanish possessions, 
where, as with us, it flowers from July till September; and 
seeds were sent to the Horticultural Society's garden, 
whence they have been dispersed both at home and abroad 
by that valuable institution. 

I may observe, that specimens of the Eschscholzia were 
found by the Botanists Mr. Lay and Mr. Collie of Capt. 
Beechy's Expedition, both at Monterfy and other places on 
the coast of California. De Candolle, in his Prodroinus, 
not without much hesitation, places this Genus among his 
Calycifloiue, at the end Of Loasejs : misled, perhaps by 
Chamisso, who, in his first memoir on the plant, in theHorae 
Phys. Berol. calls the stamens perigynous. But had he 
seen living plants, or had Chamisso's further observations in 
flie ce Linnaea" been then published, where this latter error 
»s corrected, that great man would unquestionably have 
ranked it with Papavarace^e : or if, as Chamisso says, " the 
received Character of Papavarace*: will not admit the union 
°f Eschscholzia, that Character must be amended." The 
c up-shaped, fleshy body into which the pistil is inserted, is, 

B assuredly, 

assuredly, nothing more than an enlarged receptacle or ex- 
tremity of the flower-stalk, a tendency to which, Mr. Lind- 
ley remarks, is observable in Chelidonium majus and Hype- 
coum grandiflorum. 

Fig. 1. Base of one of the Petals, to which some of the Stamens are attach- 
ed. 2. Apex of an Anther. 3. Pistil inserted in the cup-shaped Receptacle, 
or hollowed extremity of the Peduncle. 4. Section of the Germen. 5. Ripe 
Capsule (nat. sizej. 6. Seed. 7- Section of ditto. 8. Embryo. — All but 
fig. 5 3 more or less magnified. 

7int>. by ." Curtis. Ji~alworl7i* Feb? J 2322 

( 2888 ) 


White Chinese Poeony, with Rose 
coloured Flowers. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Pgeoniace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-sepalus, foliaceus, inasqualis. Pet. 5 — 10, subor- 
biculata. Stam. plurima. Discus carnosus, ovaria cingens. 
Carpella 2 — 5, grossa, stigmatibus bilamellatis crassis in- 
structa, in folliculos capsulares conversa. Semina subglo- 
bosa, nitida. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pceonia .* albiflora; herbacea, carpellis glabris recurvatis 

foliorum segmentis glabris nitidis tripartitus, lobis ova- 

to-lanceolatis. DC. 
PffiONu albiflora. Pall. Fl. Ross. v. 2. t. 84. De Cand. 

Syst. v. 1. p. 392. Prodr. v. 1. p. 66. Bot. Mag. t. 

(*) rosea ; flore plenissimo, petalis roseis, t. 2888. 

Communicated by Joseph Sabine, Esq. from the garden 
of the Horticultural Society, as a rare and new kind of 
PffioNY from China, and well deserving a place in the works 
which treat of plants that are cultivated in our gardens. As 


• After P^on, a physician who cured the wounds which the Gods received 
'lunng the Trojan war. 

it was unaccompanied with any further notes or observa- 
tions,, its being referred to the P. albiflora rests entirely 
upon myself. I have so done, from its general resemblance 
to the P. albiflora y. Whitleji of Bot. Reg. t. 630, and still 
more to the P. edulis (a synonym to P. albiflora, var. sinen- 
sis, Bot. Mag. t. 1768.) From the former it is distinguished 
by its inner petals being much broader, and more entire, 
and from the latter, by these being of a beautiful and most 
delicate rose colour, little if at all inferior to that of our 
most favourite roses. 


TaZroriXu JU 

( 2889 ) 

(Enothera decumbens. Decumbent Small- 
flowered Evening Primrose. 

************** *********** 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Qnagrarle. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-fidus tubulosus. Pet. 4 calyci inserta. Capsula 
4-locularis, 4-valvis, infera, Semina comosa. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

(Enothera decumbens ; caule pubescente basi decumbente, 
foliis lanceolatis glands,, petalis calyce vix longioribus, 
stigmate globoso, capsula subcylindracea sulcata pu- 

(Enothera decumbens. Douglas MSS. 

Descr. Annual. Stem decumbent, especially below, 
waved, pubescent and much branched. Leaves nearly ses- 
sile, alternate, lanceolate, glaucous, entire, or sometimes 
distantly and obscurely toothed towards the extremity. 
Flowers axillary, solitary, of a dark purple colour, small. 
Calycine segments acuminate, glabrous. Petals broadly 
obovate, waved, and irregularly notched. Stamens eiglit ; 
four long and four short. Anthers oblong, white. Stigma 
deep purple, the four segments so much reflexed that the 
whole appears globose : it terminates a slender, white style. 
about equal in length with the stamens. Capsule nearly an 
"ich long, cylindrical, a little tapering upwards, furrowed, 

This, as well as the species given at tab. 2873 of this 
work, from the same country, is nearly related to CE. purpu- 
rea; but the present differs from it in its decumbent stem 
and lax, slender branches : in the capsule being less tapering 


and less deeply furrowed. The flower is smaller, the style 
shorter, and the stigma has the appearance, from the short, 
reflected segments, of a globose head. Douglas. 

Detected in Northern California, where it frequents dry 
soils in mountain vallies, by Mr. David Douglas, who sent 
seeds in 1827 to the Horticultural Society, in whose Garden 
at Chiswick it blossomed in the same year, and seems to 
flourish in any kind of soil. 

Fig. 1 . Style and Stigma, magnified, 2. Capsule, nat . size. 



( 2890 ) 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Escalloneje. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus, superus. Petala 5, et stamina, calyci inser- 
ta. Stigma bilobum. Caps, baccata (?) semi- bilocularis, 
placentae binae in quovis loculo : semina creberrima. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Escallonia* rubra; foliis obovato-lanceolatis acutis basi 
in petiolum attenuatis duplicato serratis inferne glan- 
dulosis subtus (plerumque) resinoso-punctatis, pedun- 
culis in axillis foliorum terminalium simplicibus vel 
ramosis bracteatis, floribus cylindraceis. 

Escallonia rubra. Pers. Syn. PL v. 1. p. 235. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget.v. 1. p. 793. 

Stereoxylon rubrum. Ruiz et Pav. FL. Per. v. 3. p. 15. 
t. 236. f. b. 

Descr. A shrub, with numerous twiggy, rounded, red 
branches, more or less pubescent, and sprinkled with pedi- 
cellated glands. Leaves numerous, alternate, persistent, 
ri gid, coriaceous, obovato-lanceolate, acute, doubly ser- 
rated at the margin, attenuated at the base into a short, red 
petiole, and there bordered at the sides with glands, which 
are sometimes sessile or nearly so, sometimes pedicellated ; 
the surface is veined, but not very distinctly, from these 
veins, on the underside, there exude, from various points, 
nrinute resinous drops, most abundant on the native speci- 
mens. A tuft of young leaves springs from the axil of each 


After Escallon, a pupil of the celebrated Mutis, as well as his com[»a- 

J» and fellow traveler in N«w Stiniii. 

won and fellow traveller in New Spain 

of these older ones, indicative of numerous branches. In the axils 
of the upper leaves the peduncles appear, which, in our cultivated 
specimens, are single-flowered, but in the wild ones, the peduncle 
is branched, and bears many rather drooping flowers. Indeed, in 
our plant, the two small, alternate, leaf-like bracteas, near the 
base of the peduncle, show a disposition to bear pedicels. Calyx : 
the lower part turbinate and adherent with the ovary, the upper 
part free, cup-shaped, with five acuminated, at length elongated 
and reflexed teeth or segments, reddish, glabrous. Petals five, 
inserted upon the calyx, spathulate, erect, and forming a tube for 
the greater part of their length, and, indeed, slightly cohering 
with the back of the anthers and the margins, just below the oval 
spreading or reflexed limb. Their color is a deep red, paler in the 
limb, and there, when fading, becoming brown, and distinctly 
marked with a few dark veins. Stamens inserted upon the calyx, 
alternately with the petals, and nearly equal to them in length 'JHo,' 
merits rose colour : Anther oblong, yellow, opening by two longi- 
tudinal clefts. Germen inferior, imperfectly two-celled by means 
of the introflexed margins of the valves, and these latter at the ex- 
tremity, have two longitudinal receptacles, which are covered with 
very minute ovules. Style filiform, purple, sheathed at the base 
by a large, conical, grooved, yellow, afterwards reddish gland ; up- 
wards the style is greenish, and terminated by a two-lobed, capi- 
tate stigma. 

Raised from seeds, sent about two years ago by Mr. Cruick- 
shanks from Chili, in the Botanic Garden of Liverpool, where, 
in September of the present year (1828) it has produced its richly- 
coloured blossoms : and from the structure of these, as from the 
form of the leaves, there can, I think, be no doubt that it is the 
Esc. rubra of Ruiz and Pavon. Our cultivated individuals, in- 
deed, exhibit no traces of the resinous dots upon the leaves : but 
our native specimens in the Herbarium, sent also by Mr. Cruick- 
shanks, show them very distinctly : so that their absence may, 
perhaps, be considered due to the cooler temperature to which the 
plants are exposed in our greenhouses. Mr. Shepherd, indeed, 
finds, that the plants flourish when planted in the open air; and it 
they can be made to bear the winter they would constitute a great 
ornament to our shrubberies. > , 

I possess, in my Herbarium, a variety with white flowers : and 
the Esc. glandulosa of Smith in Rees, andLoDDiGEs (tab. 1291 J 
is, probably, not distinct. As far as I am able to judge from 
various individuals in my collection, the Genus is very liable to 
vary in the degree of pubescence, in the presence or absence o\ 
glands, and of the resinous dots. 

Escallonia has been considered by Jussietj and moat authors 
to belong to the Ericine.e. Mr. Brown detected its aflinity w»tn 
Ribes, yet seems to consider that it should constitute a distinct 
order, along with Anopter us and some other New Holland genera 
for which he proposes the name of Escaleone^e, as here adopted- 

Fig:. 1. Flower, with the Peduncle and Bracteie. 2. Petal and Stamen- 
3. Calyx and Pistil. 4. The same in a more advanced state. 5. Section o 
the Germen. 6. Leaf of the cultivated plant. 7. Leaf from a native specimen 
— All more or less magnified. 

■i<? f JL 

( 2891 ) 

Hibiscus liliiflorus: var. hybridus. Hy- 
brid var. of the Lily-flowered Hibiscus. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. cinctus involucello ssepius polyphyllo, rarius foliolis 
paucis aut inter se coalitis. Petala hinc non auriculata. 
Stigmata 5. Carpetla in capsulam 5-locularem coalita, 
valvis intus medio septiferis, loculis polyspermis aut rarius 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Hibiscus * liliiflorus; foliis lanceolato-oblongis rariusve tri- 

fidis, involucello 5-phyllo, calyce 5-dentato, petalis 

extus subvelutinis. D. C. 
Hibiscus liliiflorus. Cav. Diss. 3. p. 154. t. 57./. I. Be 

Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 446. 
Var. hybridus , ex H. liliifloro et H. Rosa-sinensi. (Tab. 


Descr. A mule plant, derived from H. liliiflorus, whose 
flowers were fertilized by the pollen of H. Rosasinensis. 
The consequence is a production, very variable, indeed, 
as to the size and form both of leaves and flowers, and amply 
deserving a place in every collection of stove plants. 

The first I heard of this charming plant was from my often- 
Mentioned friend and invaluable correspondent, Charles 


Prom i£i<rxo«, an ancient Greek name, which was applied to the Althaea, 
a plant of the same natural family with Hibiscus, and nearly allied to it. 

Telfair, Esq. of the Mauritius, to whom I am indebted for 
two beautiful drawings, from the pencil of Mrs. Telfair ; 
from one of which, the engraving here given is made. 

These drawings were accompanied by a letter, with the 
following remarks upon them. cc We think a sight of these 
drawings may induce our excellent friend Mr. Barclay to 
endeavour to cultivate and vary this beautiful shrub. The 
variety to be artificially produced is endless, especially in 
the colour : — the size of the flowers too is very great, and 
their brilliancy and delicate shading render them objects of 
great interest to cultivators. With us it grows almost 
to a tree : and the blossoms are upon it nearly at all seasons 
of the year." 

Plants were at the same time sent to Mr. Barclay at 
Bury Hill, who cultivates them most successfully, and has 
favoured me both with drawings and dried specimens. 

Sometimes the shape of the leaves is almost exactly as in 
H. Rosa-sinensis : at other times, and that very frequently, 
they are trifid, or tripartite, with the segments laciniated. 
The flowers are deep red, buff-coloured, and more frequently 
of a bright and delicate rose colour. The outer calyx, or 
involucre of De Candolle, is always more erect than in H. 
Rosa-sinensis: but the column of fructification is not so 
much declined. 

Fig. 1. One of the trifid Leaves. — Nat. size. 


2'ut by u furli? TabrarfaMar&ltfZJ. 

( 2892 ) 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Bromeliace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx axuperm. Petala convoluta, basi squamosa. Stam. 
basi perianthii inserta. Stylus filiformis. Stigmata linea- 
na, convoluta. Capsula baccata ? Semina nuda. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Billbergia * cruenta ; foliis ligulatis obtusis mucronatis 
dentato spinosis apice (sa3pissime) sanguineo-maculatis, 
bracteis lato-ovalibus imbricatis obtusissimis concavis, 
spica capitata subsessili. 

Bromelia cruenta. Graham in Edin. Phil. Journ. 

Descr. Plant probably parasitic. Stem short, ascend- 
ing cylindrical. Stolons axillary, sheathed with large, im- 
bricated, ovate, adpressed, entire scales. Leaves (one and 
a half to two feet long, three inches broad,) numerous, im- 
bricated, erect at their base, spreading above, linear, ob- 
tuse, mucronate, serrato-spinous, very hard and rigid, bright 
green and concave above, pruinose in transverse stripes and 
rounded below, sprinkled irregularly with blood-red stains, 
and marked with the same colour on the anterior surface 
for above half an inch at the apex, greatly dilated at their 
base, and forming a cup, from which water thrown upon 
the plant does not escape. Spike terminal, capitate, brac- 


So named by Thunberg, in honour of Gustavus John Billberg, an 

lanf C ...,..]:. i. i> . L :..*. 

excellent Swedish Botanist 

teate, but without coma, nearly sessile, and raising only its 
upper surface above the water which the cup formed by 
the leaves contains. Bractece, one on the outside of each 
flower, ovate, convex internally, and somewhat cucullate, 
broadest on the outside of the capitulum, and there longer 
than the calyx, shorter than it in the centre. Flowers ex- 
pand in succession from without inwards, generally only 
one or two at a time, standing three-fourths of an inch above 
the surface of the capitulum. Calyx ovate, acuminate, 
green, glabrous, shining, segments overlapping, greatly 
dilated upon one side, which is scariose, transparent, and 
passes between the next segment and the corolla (ten and a 
half lines long). Corolla (one inch four and a half lines 
long) three-parted, segments subequal, unguiculate, claws 
white, linear, glabrous, equal in length to the calyx (two 
and a quarter lines broad) erect, bearing on their inside at 
their base large, connate, smooth, shining, colourless, nec- 
tariferous glands ; limb spreading, segments ovate, acumi- 
nate, blue, slightly striated in the centre, and paler behind 
and towards the edges. Stamens inserted at unequal heights 
into the claws, three into one, two into another, and one 
into the third ; filaments flattened, similar in structure and 
colour to the claws of the corolla, inserted into the back of 
the anthers, and continued along these to their apices ; an- 
thers projecting into the throat of the corolla, of equal 
length, and approximating at their apices (nearly three 
lines long), white, acuminate, cleft from the base for about 
a quarter of their length, above which they are connate 
along the back with the filaments ; pollen white. Pistil 
equal in height to the stamens ; stigmata three, flattened, 
ciliated on one edge, spirally twisted ; styles three, united 
throughout their whole length ; germen inferior, glabrous, 
three-celled ; ovulae very numerous, small, attached to a 
central receptacle. 

This plant was brought to the Edinburgh Botanic Gar- 
den by Captain Graham, of H. M. Packet Service from Mr. 
Harris, at Rio Janeiro, in 1824, and has grown freely in 
rich soil in the stove, pushing up three crowns from its 
root, only one of which has yet flowered. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower scarcely magnified. 2. Petal, with the Stamens. 3. Pk» 
4. Section of the Germen. — Magnified. 

*u* *V S. CMT*t TtelirerWJbnJkZ&Sff 

( 2893 ) 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — PolemoniacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. obconicus, glandulosus, 5-fidus. Cor. subhypo- 
prateriformis, limbo 5-fido. Stam. intra faucem tubi inserta, 
roasqualia. Capsula trilocularis, trivalvis, valvis obcordatis 
loculicido-dehiscens, axi libera,, trialata loculis mono- di- 
spermis. Semina mucosa. {Flores involucrati.) 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Collomia * parviflora ; foliis Iineari-lanceolatis Iato-Ianceo- 
latisve opacis plerumque glabris, ramis superioribus 
patentissimis pubescentibus, corollae limbo patentibus 
tubo gracillimo triplo breviore. 

Collomia linearis. Nutt. Gen. v. I. p. 126. Douglas 
Journ. ined. Bot. Reg. t. 1166. 

Descr. An annual, erect, much branching plant, with 
rounded, glabrous stems; the uppermost branches rerr.ark- 
ably patent and pubescent. Leaves two to four or five 
uiches long, linear lanceolate, lanceolate, or broadly lance- 
olate, the shorter ones almost ovate, alternate, patent, ses- 
Sll e, waved, entire, opaque, glabrous, the younger and 
upper ones only pubescent : pubescence glandular. The 
uppermost leaves form an involucre around the terminal, 
sessile, dense heads of flowers. Calyx large, obconical or 


* From wMa, gluten, in allusion to the character of the seed. 

inclining to bell-shaped, glanduloso-pubescent, cut into 
five deep, acute, erect segments. Corolla more than twice 
the length of the whole "calyx : the tube slender, enlarged 
upwards, yellowish-brown : Limb spreading horizontally, 
small, pale lilac-purple, its breadth not equalling one third 
of the length of the tube ; the segments oval. Stamens 
five, inserted at unequal heights within the mouth of the 
tube: Filaments short: Anther rounded. Germen obo- 
vate, with three furrows. Style filiform ; Stigma three- 
cleft. Capsules ripen abundantly, and are lodged within 
the enlarged husky, persistent calyces, obovate, three-lobed, 
three-celled, bursting longitudinally from the summit in 
the centre of these lobes into three obcordate, deeply groov- 
ed valves, which leave the axis or central three-winged re- 
ceptacle free, to the flat sides of which are attached three 
seeds, one to each cell. These are oval, fixed by the middle, 
filled with a horny albumen, which encloses a cylindrical 
embryo, whose radicle is inferior. 

This plant seems to have been first discovered by Mr. 
Nuttall, near the banks of the Missouri river, about the 
confluence of the Shian river. Dr. Richardson and Mr. 
Drummond found it abundantly further North, to the East- 
ward of the Rocky Mountains, particularly plentiful about 
Carlton House and Cumberland House Ports : and Mr. Doug- 
las and Dr. Scouler on dry sandy banks of the Columbia ; 
and the former traveller observes, that it extends over an 
immense tract of country from Menzies Island in the Colum- 
bia, to Lake Winipeg, East of the Rocky Mountains, a 
distance of sixteen hundred miles, growing upon the banks 
of streams ; and flowers from May to July. In our garden 
it is a hardy annual, flowering nearly the whole summer. 
Introduced by Mr. Douglas to the garden of the Horti- 
cultural Society. 

Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil. 4. Capsule within the 
Calyx. 5. Capsule in the act of bursting. 6. Seed with its Hilum. 7- 
Section of a Capsule from which the Seeds are removed. 8. Section of » 
Seed. — Magnified. 

( 2894 ) 



Class and Order. 
Pentandrja Monogynia. 

( Nat. Old. PoLEMONIACEJE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. obconicus, 5-fidus, glandulosus. Cor. subhypocra- 
teriformis limbo 5-fido : Stamina intra faucem tubi inserta, 
lnaqualia. Capsula trilocularis, trivalvis, valvis obcor- 
datis, loculicido - dehiscens, axi libera trialata : loculis 
mono- di-spermis. Semina mucosa. (Flores involucratis.) 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Collomia grandifiora; foliis Iato-lanceolatis nitidis inferio- 
ribus saepissime serratis glabris superioribus ramisque 
junioribus pubescentibus, capitulis viscosis, corolla 
limbo obliquo erectiusculo tubo vix breviore. 

Collomia grandifiora. Douglas Journ. ined. Bot. Reg. t. 

Descr. Annual. Much stronger in its growth than the 
subject of the last plate, Collomia parviflora. The stem 
reddish purple, striated, pubescent above, the branches 
erect, pubescent. The leaves large, shining; the lower 
ones quite glabrous, and inciso-serrate, the upper ones en- 
tlr e, glanduloso-pubescent. Heads of flowers larger, few 
more showy. Calyx smaller in proportion to the size of 
the corolla," viscid with glandular hairs; the teeth more 
obtuse. Corolla at first yellow, when fully expanded, the 
umb becomes of a salmon colour, and is never spread hori- 
zontally, but stands nearly erect, with a degree of obli- 
quity in the oval segments; its whole breadth is almost 


equal to the length of the tube. Some of the stamens are 
a little protruded. Anthers oblong, bluish. Germen ovate, 
surrounded by a glandular ring. 

This fine new species of Collomia (a genus, by the bye, 
which seems to me too closely allied to Gilia), which is 
much more worthy of cultivation than C. parvijlora, was 
discovered by Mr. Douglas and Dr. Scouler on the North- 
west coast of America, especially about the mouth of the 
Columbia ; and it has been traced by the latter from the 
sea to the source of that vast river in the Rocky Mountains, 
which seem to be its limits to the East. 

Flowers in the open border the whole summer. Intro- 
duced by the Horticultural Society in 1827. 

Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil. — Magnified. 


Till, ty S. 

( 2895 ) 




Class and Order. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — PolemoniacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. obconicus, glandulosus, 5-fidus. Cor. subhypocra- 
teriformis, limbo 5-fido. Stam. intra faucem tubi inserta, 
maBqualia. Capsula trilocularis, trivalvis obcordatis locu- 
hcido-dehiscens, axi libera trialata ; loculis mono- di-sper- 
mi s. Semina mucosa. {Flores involucrati.) 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

^ollomia heterophylla; pubescens, caule erecto ramoso, 
foliis inferioribus bipinnatifidis superne sensim magis 
integris, involucris omnino 'integris, capitulis pauci- 

Gilia heterophylla. Douglas Journ. ined. 

Descr. Annual. A foot to a foot and a half high, 
j? ectj much branched. Leaves alternate, all petiolated : 
toe lower ones on long petioles, and deeply and doubly 
Pmnatifid ; the segments lanceolate, rather acute, pubes- 
cent as are all the leaves and stem : upwards the leaves be- 
come gradually more and more entire, and upon shorter 
J°otstalks, till they pass into the uppermost leaves or brae- 
e<e of the involucre, where they are oval, sessile, quite en- 
Ir c, or with a single tooth on one side. Heads sessile, of 
w flowers. Calyx campanulate, nerved with five deep 
segments half its length, glanduloso-pubescent. Tube of 
ne corolla very long, slender, purplish, enlarged and yellow 
u P^ards at the faux : Limb of five oval, purple segments, 


spreading horizontally. Stamens wholly within the tube. 
Germen oval, three-celled, each cell having two seeds: 
Style filiform, as long as the tube of the corolla : Stigmas 
three, liuear-filiform. 

Introduced to the Horticultural Society's Gardens at 
Chiswick, by Mr. David Douglas, who, as well as Dr. 
Scouler, found it about Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia. 
Mr. Douglas afterwards ascertained it to be <c a common 
plant on the subalpine hills of North-west America, grow- 
ing in partially shaded places. It is of easy cultivation in 
any soil ; flowering through the summer. 

I have specimens in my Herbarium, which were gathered 
by Mr. Menzies in California, in 1792. 

Mr. Douglas, in his MSS., has considered this plant to be 
a Gilia ; and, indeed, I scarcely see how it is to be distin- 
guished from that Genus, except in the inflorescence. If 
the situation of the stamens in the sinus of the segments of 
the corolla be characteristic of Gilia, then G. capitata is the 
only North American species with which I am acquainted. 
The present plant cannot, however, be separated from the 
Genus of the plants in the two preceding figures Collomia 
linearis and C. grandifiora. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Section of the Germen.— Magnified. 


faA hySc-m-Hs. KabrmH%MmAJUfK0 

( 2896 ) 

Frankenia pauciflora. Few-flowered 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — FrankeniacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Stylus 3-fidus, lobis oblongis, intus stigmatosis. Cap- 
sula 3 — 4 valvis, polysperma. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Frankenia* pauciflora; foliis linearibus obtusis margine 
revolutis ramulisque et calycibus acutis canescentibus, 
petiolis ciliatis, caulibus erectiusculis, floribus termi- 
nalibus solitariis. Graham. 

Frankenia pauciflora. De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 350? 
Graham in Edin. Phil. Journ. 

Descr. Stem shrubby (one foot high), suberect, branch- 
ing- Branches diffuse, opposite, twigs slender, round, sca- 
brous, dichotomous. Leaves (half an inch long) green, sea- 
wous, hoary or minutely tomentose, especially below, where 
they are paler, opposite, linear, blunt, slightly channelled at 
rj e ^ ase ' reflected in the edges, middle rib prominent below. 
Petiole very short, adpressed, ciliated. Flowers (seven and 
a half lines long) solitary, terminal or in the cleft of the 
^igs, sessile. Calyx adpressed, scabrous, having also a 
Minute tomentum as on the leaves, and in a slighter degree 


* In honor of J. Franckenius, a Swedish Botanist, and Professor of Me- 
«<ane in the University of Upsal, who died in 1633. 

on the twigs, rigid, five-toothed, five-gonous, channelled, 
persisting, teeth acute, erect. Corolla five-petaled, funnel- 
shaped ; claws linear, as long as the calyx, yellowish ; 
laminae obovate, scarcely as long as the claws, sharply cre- 
nated at the apex, pale rose-coloured. Stamens six, une- 
qual, subexserted ; filaments white, flattened ; anthers large, 
incumbent. Germen small, green, ovate, glabrous, unilo- 
cular 3-valvular. Style filiform, 3-cleft. Ovules elliptical, 
attached to the edges of the valves. 

This plant, a native of New Holland, but I am not in- 
formed of what district, was obligingly communicated to 
the Edinburg Botanic Garden in spring last from Kew, un- 
der the name of Frankenia pauciflora. The decidedly sca- 
brous leaves, branches, and calyx may excite some doubt 
whether it be the plant to which De Candolle gives that 
name ; but of this I know nothing, except from the short 
character in his Prodromus, Our specimen has been kept 
in the greenhouse. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Leaf. 3. Petal. 4. Portion of the Calyx, to shew 
the deep angles. 5. Stamen. 6. Pistil. 

AA iyJ- CurUj: fTaZiroreuAfare. 

( 2897 ) 

Calceolaria polifolia. White-leaved 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partitus. Cor. bilabiata ; labium inferius mflatum, 
calceiforme. Caps, semi-bivalvis, valvulis bifidis. 

Specific Character. 

Calceolaria polifolia ; suflfruticosa, caulibus erectis ramo- 
sis, foliis ovatis oblongisve crenatis in petiolum atten- 
uatis, pedunculis dichotomis, floribus rotundatis. 

Descr. Perennial. Stem erect, somewhat woody, round- 
fd 3 a foot high, much branched, especially below, the 
branches opposite, every where woolly. Leaves opposite, 
ln m Y wild specimens ovate, in the cultivated ones, oblong, 
attenuated at the base into a petiole, an inch long (includ- 
ln g the petiole) obscurely nerved, hoary on both sides, but 
^pecially beneath, with a white, dense, woolly covering. 
1 he stem is leafless upwards, and divides into two elon- 
gated peduncles, having a pair of opposite, oblong leaves 
0r DI *acteas at the base : each of them bears a corymb of 
rather small, almost globose yellow flowers : the pedicels 
are dichotomous, and there is one, sometimes two flowers in 
Jbe axil. Calyx, as well as the pedicels, quite white with 
j*°ariness : the form quadrifid, with the segments patent. 
u Pper lip of the corolla small, very pale yellow, the under 
one app r e SS ed to it, and deep yellow. Anther large in pro- 
Portion to the size of the flower. Pistil: Germen roundish, 
0Va te, dotted : Style filiform. 


Native of the Cordilleras, whence seeds were sent to the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden, by Mr. Critickshanks, in 1826. 
It flowered for the first time in July, 1828, in a cool part of 
the greenhouse. Our dried specimens, from the same gen- 
tleman, were gathered below the Ojos de agua, the cele- 
brated pass from Mendoza to St. Jago de Chili. I am in- 
debted to the Horticultural Society of London for speci- 
mens of the same plant, gathered at Combre by their col- 
lector Mr. Macrae : and Dr. Gillies informs me, that he 
gathered it on la Cuesta de Zapata, the second ridge of 
mountains which is passed in going from St. Jago de Chili 
to Valparaiso, along with the C. thyrsiflova of Graham, 
hereafter to be figured. 

In many points, this plant agrees with the figure and 
description of Calceolaria nana of Cavanilles, Icones, t. 
443, f. 2. : but that has the leaves much longer, more ob- 
tuse, and the corolla oblong, not subglobose. 

Fig. 1. Corolla, with the upper lip forced back, to shew the Stamen 
Pistil. 2. Calyx, including the Pistil. — Magnified. 

( 2898 2899 ) 
Carica Papaya. Papaw Tree. 


Class and Order. 
Dicecia Decandria. 

(Nat. Ord. Inserts sedis ; an Urticeis affinis ? Cucur- 

bitace^;. Juss. (non De C.) Passiflore^e. Ach. 

Rich, in Diet. Class. TRicocCiE. Linn.) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. (minutus) 5 dentatus. Masc. Cor. infundibuliformis. 
Stam. al tenia breviora. F(em. Cor. profunde 5-partita. 
Stigmata 5. Pepo polyspermia. Sem. membrana c-bvo- 
luta. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Carica * Papaya ; foliis palmatis 7-partitis., laciniis oblon- 

gis acutis sinuatis, intermedia 3-fida, fructibus oblon- 

gis sulcatis. Spr. 
Carica Papaya. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1466. Willd. Sp. PL v. 

2. p. 814. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 399. Bot. Reg. 

t. 459. (fcemina.) Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 905. 
Papaya vulgaris. Lam. Ill t.82i. 
Papaya Carica. Gcert. de Sem v. 2. p. 191. t. 122. / 2. 
"apaya fructu oblongo melonis effigie. Trew Ehret. p. 2. 

^apaja, masc. et fcemina. Rumph. Amb. v. 1. p. 147. 

t. 50. 
Amba paja (masc.) Rheede Hort. Mai. v. I. p. 21. t. 15./ 1. 
Papaja-maram. Rheede Hort. Mai. v. I. p. 23. t. 15./ 2. 


p So called by Linn^us, I presume on account of its resemblance to the 
ab ° m ™ on Fig (Ficus Carica; from Caria a province in Asia, where the tree 
Ea°M -*' Pa P a y a is > indeed, a general name for the plant, especially in the 
dist- - ' but K,UMPHIUS suspects, that it was originally brought from a 

to it' * CaUed Po P a y a > in Peru ' and that hence that name came t0 be a PP lied 

Descr. An upright growing, unbranched tree, with 
somewhat of the habit of a Palm, the foliage being large 
and confined to the top of the tree ; every part yielding a 
slightly acrid and somewhat milky juice. Stem twelve to 
fourteen feet high in the stove of our garden, in the tropics 
attaining to a height of twenty feet and more, cylindrical, 
or, generally, thickened towards the base, clothed with a 
pale greyish, rather smooth bark, here and there marked 
with the scars whence the old leaves have fallen. Leaves 
spreading, often a foot in length, petiolated, heart-shaped 
in their circumscription, cut into seven oblong, sinuated or 
laciniate and almost pinnatifid, rarely entire lobes or la- 
ciniae, acute at the points, the middle one the longest *and 
the most divided, glabrous on both sides, dark green above, 
and marked with the much ramified pale veins, beneath 
much lighter coloured, with prominent veins. Petiole one 
to two feet long, glabrous, cylindrical. 

Flowers (male) in slightly compounded racemes or pani- 
cles, springing from the axils of the leaves, several inches 
long. Peduncles and pedicels terete, glabrous. Calyx very 
minute, a little concave, with five very small teeth. Corolla 
infundibuliform, an inch or an inch and a half long, yel- 
lowish white, of a thickish, subcoriaceous texture, especi- 
ally the tube, which is cylindrical : limb cut into five 
laciniae, oblong, imbricating each other, as they do in the 
state of the bud. Stamens ten, inserted into the mouth ot 
the tube, and all on the same line, five nearly sessile ones, 
opposite the segments, and five furnished with evident fila- 
ments, and, of course, taller. Filaments white, hairy, 
thickened upwards : Anthers of two, linear-oblong, chan- 
nelled cells, projecting on one (in the in-) side of the extre- 
mity of the filament. Abortive Pistil small. Germert ob- 
long : Style subulate : Stigma none. Female Flowers, 
which I have not myself had the opportunity of examining, 
in short, simple racemes, upon a different tree from the 
male, or occasionally on the same : and, indeed, according 
to Trew, the flowers are sometimes hermaphrodite*. Calyx 
as m the male. Corolla much larger than in the male, ot a 
yellower colour, cut nearly to the base into five, oblong, 
moderately spreading segments, or, if we may trust the 
figures, pentapetalous. Pistil ; Germen large, ovato-ob- 
long, green : Stigmas nearly sessile, of five, radiate, cunej 

* In this case the stamens, judging from the figure, alternately smaller ,# 
in the male, are placed at the very base of the corolla, and all are farms" 6 
with distinct 61aments. ^^^^^^™ 

ated and fimbriated,, yellowish -green lobes. The corolla 
falls away, and the germen, in coming to maturity, becomes 
pendent : the tree, too, advancing in height, casts its lower 
leaves from beneath the flowers ; and the fruit, constituting 
a large oblong-kind of berry, or more correctly speaking, a 
pepo, rests suspended upon the leafless part of the trunk, 
very much in the same way as that of the Artocarpus 
(Bread Tree). The surface, when the fruit is ripe, is a 
pale and rather dingy orange-yellow, obscurely furrowed, 
and often rough with little elevated points. The flesh is 
very thick, coloured, but paler than the outside ; and there 
pass through it, longitudinally, five bundles of vessels (cor- 
delettes pistillaires of Auguste St. Hilaire). In the centre 
is a considerable cavity, with five longitudinal ridges ; aud 
these are thickly clothed with numerous seeds, about as 
large as those of Cannabis sativa, roundish, compressed, 
almost black, but covered with a transversely wrinkled, 
loose, greyish, skin or arillus, and enveloped in mucus. 
Albumen fleshy. Embryo rather large, compressed. Radi- 
cle inferior. 

The Genus Carica is considered by most authors to be 
dioecious ; and in figuring the female plant in the Botanical 
Register, the author takes occasion to mention, that he had 
not met with the flowers of the barren tree. In the stove 
°f the Glasgow garden, we long possessed a tree, which, 
from the flowers I examined, being male, I imagined was of 
this barren kind. In a few years' time, however, this indi- 
vidual plant produced fruit, which came to great perfection, 
and the seeds of which yielded an abundant stock of young 
plants : and this was the case for several years in succession. 
Yet at the moment when I was engaged in making the 
analysis of the parts for the accompanying plates (in Febru- 
ary, 1829) none but male flowers were to be found upon the 
^ e e. I have had recourse, therefore, to the figure in the 
jpotanical Register for the representation of the female, and 
for thus enabling me to give all the essential parts of the 
fructification. These, indeed, amply serve to show that 
the characters are at variance with those of any hitherto 
established Natural Order. Linn jsus referred it to the Tri- 
cocce (or Euphorbiace^e), where Jussieu, in his Genera 
^lantarum likewise places it, though he afterwards was dis- 
posed to arrange it among the Cucurbitace^, in which he has 
oeen followed by a great number of Botanists : the younger 
^chard, alone placing it amongst Passifloreje. De Can- 
Do ^e has not introduced the Genus into the third volume 
ot his Prodromus, which contains the two latter orders, and 


perhaps is of the opinion expressed by Auguste St. Hilaire, 
in the ninth volume of the. Memoires du Museum d'Hist. 
Naturelle; that ec instead of uniting the Carica to som 
Natural family, by employing isolated, and, consequently, 
systematic characters, it should be left among the Genera 
•whose place is doubtful ; and we must wait till new dis- 
coveries will enable us to connect it with other vegetables, 
Nevertheless, if it were absolutely desirable to give it a 
station in a linear series, it ought, perhaps, to be referred to 
the neighbourhood of the Urtice^. 

The native country of the Papaw Tree is almost as diffi 
cult to determine as its situation in a Natural series ; writers 
on the East, and writers on the West Indies being equally 
disposed to claim it as an aboriginal of their respective 
countries. Willdenow gives the East Indies as the station, 
and speaks of it as only being cultivated in America. So 
likewise the authors of the Diet. Classique d'Hist. Nat. say, 
" Almost all the species are natives of South America. One 
only, the Carica Papaya, grows in India, but it is to a cer- 
tain degree naturalized in America." Rumphius, however, 
seems to be decidedly of opinion, that it was introduced to 
India by the Portuguese ; and Dr. Hamilton, in his learned 
Commentary upon the Hortus Malabaricus, published in 
the thirteenth volume of the Transactions of the Linnean 
Society, observes, that every thing he has seen induces him 
to believe, with Rumphius and Dr. Roxburgh, " that the 
tree is an exotic in India/' Mr. Brown * justly argues, 
that a careful investigation of the geographical distribution 
of Genera, might often lead to a determination of the native 
country of plants now generally dispersed : for example, 
that in doubtful cases, where other arguments were equal, it 
would appear more probable that the plant in question 
should belong to that country in which all the other species 
of the same genus were found decidedly indigenous, than to 
that, where it was the only species of the Genus known to 
exist. Hence that learned Botanist and Philosopher infers, 
that the Papaw Tree is a native of America, there being 
several other decidedly distinct species,, natives of that con- 
tinent, while no species, except the cultivated Papaw, nor 
any plant nearly related to this singular Genus, is known to 
exist either in Asia or in Africa. Dr. Fleming too, has 
expressly said (Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 161. 8?°- 
ed.) of the Papaw Cf this is not an indigenous tree of India, 
and consequently has no name in the Sanscrit language. 


* Botany of the Congo, p. 50. 

It is a native of South America and the West Indies * ; whence it 
was brought by the Spaniards and Portuguese to the Philippines 
and Moluccas ; and from these islands, being of very quick growth, 
it spread rapidly to all the other countries of India. It has long 
been cultivated in every quarter of Hindostan, and is in flower 
and in fruit during the greatest part of the year." 

The Papaw Tree is of rapid growth. St. Pierre probably 
spoke from his own knowledge, when he described Virginia as 
having planted a seed, which, in three years' time, produced a 
trunk twenty feet high, with its upper part loaded with ripe fruit. 
It is for the sake of this fruit, mainly, that the plant is cultivated ; 
put if the flavor were not better than that yielded by what ripened 
in our stove, I cannot recommend it as at all agreeable. Brown 
m his Natural History of Jamaica tells us, that " it has a pleasant 
sweetish taste, and is much liked by many people; that, while 
young, it is commonly used for sauce ; and when boiled and mixed 
with lime juice and sugar, is not unlike, or much inferior to that 
made of real apples, for which it is commonly substituted." In 
the opinion of Sloane it is not a very pleasant fruit, even when 
helped with pepper and sugar; and the more ordinary use, he 
adds, of this fruit, is before it is ripe, when, as large as one's fist, 
it is cut into slices, soaked in water till the milky juice is out, and 
then boiled and eaten as turnips, or baked as apples. 

The juice of the pulp, according to Descourtilz, in the Flore 
Medicale des Antilles, is used as a cosmetic, to remove freckles on 
the skin, caused by the sun ; and the negroes in the French colo- 
nies employ the leaves to wash their linen instead of soap. 

As a medicinal plant, the Papaw Tree is particularly deserving 
of notice. Hernandez long ago spoke of the milky juice of the 
unripe fruit as a powerful vermifuge ; which has been confirmed 
by M. Charpentier Cossigni, as mentioned in the Asiatic 
Researches, by Dr. Fleming (vol. ii. p. 162.). A single dose, 
that gentleman says, is sufficient to cure the disease, however 
abundant the worms may be. Another French writer (Poupee 
Desportes) recommends the use of the powder of the seed in- 
stead of the juice. 

But the most extraordinary property of the Papaw Tree, is 
that which is related, first I believe by Browne, in his Natural 
History of Jamaica ; namely, that u water impregnated with the 
nnlky juice of this tree is thought to make all sorts of meat washed 
m it very tender ; but eight or ten minutes steeping, it is said, 
*iH make it so soft that it will drop in pieces from the spit before 
V * 8 Wel1 roast ed, or turn soon to rags in the boiling." Mr. 
JNeill mentioned this circumstance more fully in his interesting 
Horticultural Tour through Holland and the Netherlands; and 
|t ha: repeatedly been confirmed to me by gentlemen of this coun- 
tr y who have been long resident in the West Indies, and who 
s Peak of the employment of the juice for such a purpose as of quite 
general occurrence ; and more, that old hogs and old poultry, 


^ . Sloane mentions, that there is a lesser sort of Papaw Tree growing 
a h I k D the woods of Jamaica, which he guesses by culture may be improved, 
« brought to the state in which it is now so generally known. 

which are fed upon the leaves and fruit, however tough the meat 
they afford might otherwise be, it is thus rendered perfectly ten- 
der ; and good too, if eaten as soon as killed, but that the flesh 
very soon passes into a state of putridity *. 

Whether this power of hastening the decay of meat be attribut- 
able to the animal matter or Jibrine contained in the juice of the 
Papaw or not, I will not pretend to say ; but the presence of 
such is a fact scarcely less wonderful than the property just allud- 
ed to. Two specimens of the juice were brought from the Isle of 
France ; in the one the juice had been evaporated to dryness, and 
was in the state of an extract ; in the other, the juice was pre- 
served by being mixed with an equal bulk of rum. " Both were 
subjected to analysis by Vatjquelin. The first was of a yellowish- 
white colour, and semitransparent. Its taste was sweetish. It 
had no smell, and was pretty solid ; but attracted moisture when 
kept in a damp place. The second was reddish-brown, and had 
the smell and taste of boiled beef. When the first specimen was 
macerated in cold water, the greatest part of it dissolved. The 
solution frothed with soap. The addition of nitric acid coagu- 
lated it, and rendered it white ; and when boiled, it threw down 
abundance of white flakes. When the juice of the Papaw _ is 
treated with water, the greatest part dissolves ; but there remains 
a substance insoluble, which has a greasy appearance. It softens 
in the air and becomes viscid, brown, and semitransparent. When 
thrown on burning coals it melted, let drops of grease exude, 
emitted the noise of meat roasting, and produced a smoke which 
had the odour of fat volatilized. It left behind it no residue. 
The substance ^asjibrine. The resemblance between the juice of 
the Papaw and animal matter is so close, that one would be 
tempted to suspect some imposition, were not the evidence that it 
is really the juice of a tree quite unquestionable +". 

This Jibrine had been supposed, previously, to belong exclu- 
sively to the animal kingdom : but it has since been found in other 
vegetables, especially in Fungi. 

The plant in the Glasgow Botanic Garden has flowered at 
almost all seasons of the year, and bears fruit in the autumn and 
early winter. 

* Since the above was written, I find in the Third volume of the Trans- 
actions of the Wernerian Society a highly interesting account of the property 
of the juice of the Papaw Tree, by Dr. Holder, who has witnessed its effects 
in the islaud of Barbadoes, and speaks of them as known to all the inhabitants. 
The juice causes a separation of the muscular fibres. Nay, the very vapour 
of the tree serves the purpose j hence many people suspend the joints of meat, 
fowls, &c. in the upper part of the tree, in order to prepare them for the table. 
Such is the effect upon hogs that feed upon the fruit, that the good house- 
wives reject the flesh of such, if it be destined for salting, well knowing 1 that 
it is not sufficiently firm for the purpose. . 

f Thomson's System of Chemistry, extracted from the Annales de Chin»e> 
v. 43. p. 267. 

Tab. 2898. Fig. 1. Tree on a very small scale. 2. Portion of a Panicle or K a £ cnie f 
of Male Flowers. 3. Male Flower cut open. 4. Calyx. 5. Portion of the Tube 
the Corolla bearing Young Stamens, the rest being cut away. 6. and 7. Anthers* 
Female Flowers copied from Bot. Reg. — Magnified. . Xkia 

Tab. 2899. Fig. 1. Portion of the Stem with Fruit, nat. size. 2. Section of <«" ' 
3. Seeds, nat. size. 4. Seeds cut open vertically, magnified, 5. Leaf, nat. me. 


( 2900 ) 

Begonia insignis. Handsome-flowered 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Begoniace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cat. o. Cor. polypetala, petalis plerumque 4, 

F^m. Cal. o. Cor. petalis 4 — 9, plerumque inaequalibus. 
Styli tres, bifidi. Caps, triquetra, alata, triloculare, poly- 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Begonia insignis; subherbacea, caule erecto ramoso nodoso 
glabro, foliis longe petiolatis inaequaliter cordatis acu- 
minatis obsolete lobatis duplicato serratis ciliatis, supra 
sparse strigosis subtus subrubris, stipulis lineari-trian- 
gularibus acuminatis integerrimis, pedunculis termi- 
nalibus nutantibus bis-terve dichotomis multifloris, 
capsular ala maxima acuta,, reliquis obtusis. Graham. 

Begonia insignis. Graham in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. 
n. 11. 

Descr. Stem erect, subherbaceous, entirely free from 
hairs, but rough and brown, swollen at the joints. Branches 
erect, smooth, shining-, subpellucid, reddish, and with a few 
white oblong spots. Leaves alternate, on smooth., shining 
petioles, which are nearly round, and half the length of the 
leaves, unequally cordate, acuminate, slightly concave, pale 
green, and sparingly strigose above, paler green, or red, and 
always naked below, obscurely lobed, and doubly serrato- 
eiliate, crisped, especially when young. Stipules linear- 
triangular, narrow, acuminate, entire in the edge, pellucid, 
and nearly colourless, submarcescent. Peduncles terminal, 
twice or thrice dichotomous, nodding. Bracteas cordato- 


ovate, keeled, reflected at the sides, a pair being placed at 
each bifurcation of the peduncle, caducous. Flowers mo- 
noecious, large, rose-coloured, very handsome. Male : one 
standing in each bifurcation, on a peduncle above two inches 
long, and having in the ultimate division a female flower on 
each side, unless, as is not unfrequent, one of the females 
proves abortive ; corolla tetrapetaious, two of the petals 
large (three-fourths of an inch in either diameter), cordato- 
'subrotund, and slightly pointed, the two others nearly as 
long, but much narrower, spathulate ; stamens about forty, 
yellow, monadelphous ; anthers bilobular, wedge-shaped, 
somewhat flattened ; pollen yellow. Female : corolla 
smaller than in the male, generally of five, obovate, some- 
what irregular, unequal petals, occasionally only four ; style 
greenish-yellow, stout, three-parted, diverging, enlarging 
and flattened towards the stigmata, which are large, revo- 
lute, glandular, each with two ascending angles, bright 
yellow ; germen pale green, with three very unequal wings, 
the largest acute, the second rounded, the smallest obtuse 
angled, trilocular, placentae double in each loculament, 
waved, extending from the central column, to which they 
are attached, to the angles, throughout the whole length of 
the capsule, and every where densely covered with minute 
ovules. The male flowers expand first, and one of the fe- 
males before the other, on the same division of the peduncle. 
We received a plant of this beautiful species from the 
Botanic Garden, Berlin, in spring last, under the name of 
Begonia ciliata, but it differs entirely from the description 
of that species by Kunth, and I think from every other 
which is recorded. Its foliage is not equal to B. ar gyro- 
stigma, nor the appearance of its stem to B. dipetala, but it 
surpasses these and perhaps every other cultivated species 
in the gracefully drooping clusters of its large, bright- 
rose-coloured flowers. It adds greatly to its value that it 
flowered most freely in the stove during December. I 
regret that I cannot state from what country it was intro- 
duced into Europe. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Male Flower. 2, Female Flower, slightly magnified. 



Fu2>. try 

( 2901 ) 

Azalea ledifolia. Fragrant Indian 

Class and Order. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — RhododendrEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat 5-dentatus. Cor. infundibuliformis limbo 5-fido. 
Stamina receptaculo inserta. Caps. S — 5-Iocularis, valvis 
dissepimentum formantibus. Sem. nuda. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Azalea* ledifolia; floribus ternis, calyce erecto glandu- 
loso-viscido, staminibus sensum curvatis. 

Azalea indica, alba. Bot. Reg. t. 811. 

Jedogava Tsutsusi, Celebris per Japoniam Citisus urbis 
Jedogava, surculis hirsutis. Datur alia flore albo, alia 
incarnato, alia purpureo. Kcempf. Amoznit. Exot. 

Descr. An erects much branching", but rather stunted 
shrub, two to three feet high ; the branches often whorled, 
straight, every where clothed with rigid, patent, brown hairs, 
the foliage is confined principally to the extremities of the 
branches. Leaves elliptico-lanceolate, horizontal, opaque, 
(not glossy) plane, acute, entire, hairy, the hairs brownish, 
patent, much veined, the veins sunk on the upper side, 
Prominent beneath, tapering below into a short, hairy foot- 
stalk. Flowers three together from the extremity of the 
young branches, while in bud enveloped in large, membra- 
nous, deciduous bracteas. Peduncles short, hairy. Calm 
c ut, nearly to the base, into five erect, lanceolate, glandular 
a nd viscid segments. Corolla large, pure white, extremely 


From » {aAig f dry: so called from the situation in which the plant 
naturally g rows . * 

delicate and very fragrant, in shape*between campanulate 
and infundibuliform : the tube five-angled : the limb of 
five, nearly equal, spreading, large, ovato-oblong, waved 
lobes. Stamens ten, mostly unequal, and one or more 
frequently abortive. Filaments inserted upon the recepta- 
cle, white, much exserted, curved upwards, glandular at the 
base. Anthers of two, oblong, yellow cells, opening by a 
pore at the extremity. Germen ovate, obscurely five lobed, 
glabrous at the base, the rest clothed with white upright 
hairs. Style filiform, white, much longer than the stamens, 
and curved upwards. Stigma incrassated, green. 

This Azalea is said to have been introduced from China, 
by Mr. Brookes, of the Nursery, Ball's Pond, in 1819. It is 
now commonly cultivated in our greenhouses, and is, I be- 
lieve, generally considered to be a white-flowered variety of 
Azalea indica (Bot. Mag. t. 1480.) As such, too, it seemsto 
be enumerated by Kjempfer, under the name of Jedogava 
Tsutsusi, in his valuable Amcenitates Exoticae. 

But if the two plants be compared, many differences will 
be discovered which have led me to describe the present as 
a species. The A. indica, for example, is a very free grow- 
ing plant, arriving at a height of eight or ten feet, with long, 
twiggy, pendent shoots. The leaves are longer, glossy, 
concave, generally much less hairy, the nerves on the upper 
side not sunk, but rather elevated above the surface. The 
corolla is scentless and of a firmer texture. The calyx is not 
viscid ; it is clothed with long, white, rigid hairs, and the 
segments are always horizontally patent or reflexed. The 
stamens are straight, scarcely shorter than the style. 

A. ledifolia blossoms at the same season with the indica, 
namely, at the latter end of the winter, and in early spring, 
and requires the same treatment. It is not indeed a plant 
which boasts such vivid colours as the common Indian 
Azalea, but it is not less worthy of cultivation on account ot 
the extreme delicacy and pure whiteness of the flowers, and 
their fragrant scent. 

Our drawing was made from a fine individual profusely 
covered with blossoms in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, M 
February 1829. 

It is very probable, judging from the habit of the plant, 
that the " double rose-coloured var. of Azalea indica, 
Bot. Mag. t. 2509, will prove to be of the same species with 
the present. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Front view of an Anther. 3. Back view oi ^ lt f' 
4. Calyx. 5. Pistil. 6. Section of the Germen.— More or less magnifi ea - 

290 J 

JCrs C*.. reTtbirdal* 

Tub hvKCirr-th, WafrrffrfkjbnJJS8& 

( 2902 ) 

Euphorbia splendens. Showy Red- 
flowered Spurge. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Euphorbiace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum androgynum 4 — 5-fidum, extus appendiculis, 
glandulosis (petalaZ/. nectaria aliorum) : peripherici pedi- 
celji incerti numeric singuli cum singulis staminibusarticu- 
lati. Germen pedicellatum, centrale : styli 3, 2-fidi. Cap- 
sula 3-cocca. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Euphorbia* splendens; fruticosa, aculeis validis numero- 
sissimis, foliis oblongo-spathulatis mucronatis, bracteis 
suborbiculatis mucronatis basi unitis concavis, invo- 
lucrum includente, filamentis furcatis. 

Euphorbia splendens. Bqjer MSS. 

Descr. Stem perennial,, much branched, clothed with 
numerous long and strong, straight aculei, upright and 
dark-purplish at the extremity of the branches, the rest paler, 
broader at the base and horizontal. Leaves alternate, at- 
tenuated at the base, so that the whole is nearly spathulate, 
scarcely fleshy, mucronated at the point, with a midrib, and 
several lateral parallel veins, bright green, the older ones 
niore or less coloured, very patent, entire, glabrous on both 
sides. Peduncles axillary, jointed in the middle, and there 
furnished with two small bracteas, upwards dichotomously 


Ewpofgw of Dioscorides, so called after Ecphorbus, a physician of Juba, 
"*& of Mauritania, who first made known the medical properties of this Genus 
ot plants. 

divided, so that the flowers form a cyme. Bracteas two, 
large, scarlet, roundish, spreading, united and somewhat cup- 
shaped at the base and greenish, the underside of the bracteas 
pale rose-colour. Immediately within the hollow part of 
the bracteae is the involucre, monophyllous, cup-shaped, 
greenish, with five orange-coloured, fleshy, erect or slightly 
spreading, rounded lobes ; and, alternating with these, a 
small red, inflexed, fleshy lobe or gland. Male fiowers 
numerous, many of them abortive and intermixed with 
numerous hairs. Pedicel green. Filament red, forked, 
each fork bearing a one-celled anther of a dark purple 
colour. Female fiowers : a solitary pistil in the midst of the 
stamens : scarcely pedicellate : germen three-lobed. Style 
three-partite : stigmas bifid, capitate. Fruit of three one- 
seeded cocci. Seed oblong, blunt at each extremity, gla- 
brous. Bojer. 

This handsome species of Euphorbia, well deserving the 
name ofsplendens, given to it by its discoverer, we trust will 
ere long, through the medium of our Botanical friends in 
the Mauritius, be introduced to the stoves of our country *. 
It was found by Professor Bojer on the borders of fields in 
the province of Emirne, in Madagascar, where it is known 
to the natives, by the name of Soongo Soongo. A drawing 
was taken on the spot by that indefatigable naturalist, and 
a beautiful copy was kindly made and communicated to me 
by Mrs. Telfair, from which the accompanying engraving 
has been made. 

* I have recently seen the plant hlossoming in the garden of the Hor- 
ticultural Society of London, in great perfection. 

Fig. I. Flowers or Involucre with its Bracteas. 2. Involucre with its 
Flowers. 3. Portion of the Involucre. 4. Female Flower. 5. Male 
Flower. — Magnified. 

' WaJworlhJpnlJ 

C 2903 ) 

Pentstemon ovatus. Ovate-leaved 

Class and Order. 

( Nat. Old. ScROPHULARINjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. bilabiata, ventricosa. Rudimen- 
turn jilamenti quinti superne barbatum. Caps, bilocularis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Pentstemon* ovatus; herbaceus, floribus caule pedunculis- 
que glanduloso-pilosis, foliis cordato-ovatis amplexi- 
caulibus glabris grosse dentatis, inferioribus longe 
pedunculatis, corollis tubulosis, filamento sterili apice 
barbato basi unidentato. Douglas. 

Pentstemon ovatus. Douglas MSS. 

Descr. Stem herbaceous, four feet high, erect, four-sided 
upwards, clothed with white, somewhat glandular, short 
hairs. Leaves large, ovate, glabrous, dark green, cordate 
a t the base, coarsely dentate, the cauline ones amplexicaul 
at the base, upwards becoming smaller, less dentated, till 
they pass into the quite entire, cordate, floral leaves or 
bracteas. Radical leaves upon very long footstalks. Flowers 
m more or less compound racemes, which are opposite and 
spring from the upper or floral leaves : these latter, gra- 
dually becoming smaller, the whole form rather a dense 
panicle. Calyx glandular, five partite ; the segments lan- 

From wem, Jive, and %n(ut, a stamen, because of the fifth additional stamen 
w, "ch is so unusual in this family of plants. 

ceolate, equal. Corolla of a brilliant purplish-blue colour, 
glandular externally : tube inflated above, upper Up with 
two straight, lower with three reflexed, oblong lobes. Faux 
hairy. Filaments curved : Anthers cordate, purplish- white : 
Barren filament with a sharp tooth at the base, and there 
white, purple at the extremity, and thickly clothed above 
with long brown hairs. Douglas. 

In point of colour, this is perhaps the most beautiful of 
all the numerous species of this Genus lately detected in 
North-west America by Mr. Douglas, and it is equally 
hardy with the rest. The flowers, not large, are first of a 
rich ultramarine colour, gradually, as the flower becomes 
more expanded, the outside especially becomes of a deep 
purple, whilst the inside is much more inclined to azure 

Discovered by Mr. Douglas growing plentifully among 
limestone rocks on the high mountains about the Grand 
Rapids of the Columbia River, at the distance of one hun- 
dred and forty miles from the ocean ; and by him introduced 
in 1826 to the Horticultural Society, whence our specimen 
was communicated in June 1828. 

Fig. 1. Cauline Leaves. 2. Radical Leaf, nat. size. 3. Corolla. 4. Calyx 
including the Pistil. 5. Anther. 6. Barren Filament. — Magnified. 


( 2904 ) 


Class and Order. 

Syngenesia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord.— -Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum subglobosum, scariosum, squamis stipitatis. 
Receptaculum nudum. Pappus scaber. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

"odolepis * gracilis ; herbacea, glabra., foliis oblongo-Ian- 
ceolatis basi trinerviis amplexicaulibus glaberrimis, 
inferioribus obtusis, superioribus acutis, involucri 
squamis laevibus. 

Podolepis gracilis. Graham in Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. for 
July, 1828. Sweet. Brit. Fl. Gard. t. 285. 

Descr. Root slender, subfusiform, annual, fibrous. 
Stem one to two feet high, erect, slender, terete, wiry, pur- 
plish, quite glabrous, as is the rest of the plant ; branched 
upwards in a paniculated manner. Leaves alternate, remote, 
dark-green above, paler beneath, oblon go -lanceolate, quite 
entire at the base, three nerved, and embracing the stem : 
the lowermost ones more or less cordate at their insertion, 
very obtuse at the point, the rest acute, or even acuminate. 
Flowers numerous, terminal, purple, showy. Peduncles 
slender, scaly, the scales scariose. Involucre almost glo- 
bose, of many closely imbricated, scariose, almost white 
scales ; the outer ones" oval, very obtuse, with a short green 


From waj, n^ afoot, and *«*■*, a scale. So named by Labilurdujrb, 

the pedicellated scales of the involucre 

stalk and a green central nerve, (f. 1.) the inner and upper 
ones, ovate acuminate ; (f. 2.) having a long broad stalk 
with a central green nerve. Florets of the centre purple, 
(as well as those of the circumference,) tubular, five-toothed. 
Anthers purple. Germen oblong, obscurely striated, pu- 
bescent. Pappus shorter than the corolla, distinctly sca- 
brous. Style exserted beyond the stamens. Stigma bifid, 
the segments linear. Florets of the circumference, as long 
as the disk is broad. Corolla ligulate, obscurely bi- triden- 
tate ; its tube long, slender : Germen, pappus and style, as 
in the central florets ; the latter a little protruded beyond 
the tube. 

We received seeds of this very pretty plant from Mr. 
Fraser of New South Wales, at the Glasgow Botanic Gar- 
den, where, treated as a hardy annual, it flowered in the open 
border during the summer and autumnal months. Dr. 
Graham, with his accustomed promptitude and kindness, 
communicated at the same season specimens which bloomed 
at Edinburgh, and which he described in Jameson's Jour- 
nal, under the name we have here adopted. 

It certainly comes very near to the figure of Podolepis 
rugata of Labillardiere : but there the flowers are yellow 
(according to Cassini) the leaves are narrower and more ta- 
pering at the base, and the scales of the involucre are de- 
scribed, though not represented, as being wrinkled. 

Sprengel has united the Scalia jaceoides of Dr. Sims 
(Bot. Mag. t. 956.) with the Podolepis rugata, notwith- 
standing that the florets of the ray are both figured and 
described as being tubular (as in Centaurea) which is by no 
means the case with Labillardiere's plant; whilst Mr. 
Brown has made of the same plant his Podolepis acuminata 
(Hortus Kewensis, vol. 5.), but without noticing the parti- 
cular nature of the florets of the circumference. 

Fig. 1. Outer Scale of the Involucre. 2. Inner ditto. 3. Floret of the 
Disk. 4. Floret of the Circumference. 5. Hair from the Pappus.— M°S' 

IS t : ■ 

( 2905 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Buttneriace^e. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus, persistens, involucello 3-phyllo unilaterali 
cinctus. Pet. b. Stam. 15 — 20, filamentis vix basi coalitis, 
5-sterilia, 2 — 3 fertilia inter quodque sterile. Stylus 1, apice 
in stigmata 5, subreflexa fissus. Carpelta 5, bivalvia, 
1-polysperma in capsulam arete connexa. Cotyledones 
contort uplicatae, bifidae. De C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. , 

Dombeya* angulata; foliis cordatis acuminatis serratis adul- 
tis angulatis, supra glabris subtus pubescentibus, flo- 
ribus capitato-corymbosis, calycibus pedunculisque 

Dombeya angulata. Cav. Monadelph. p. 123. t. 39. f. 1. 
and Cat. Hort. Calc. (fide Wallich.) 

Dombeya tiliaefolia. Cat. Hort.- Calc, an Cavan.? (fide 

Dombeya cordifolia. De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 499? (Wal- 

Descr. A shrub ten to twelve feet high, much branched, 
clothed with greyish wrinkled bark, naked below. The 
leaves confined to the extremities of the branches, petiolat- 


* Named in honour of JosErn Dombey, a French Botanist, who accom- 
panied Ruiz and Pavon, and of whose adventurous life an interesting 1 account 
'8 given in the Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, and in Konig and 
Sims Annals of Botany. 

ed, cordate, somewhat waved, acuminated, serrated, three- 
nerved, with many smaller lateral nerves, glabrous above, 
minutely pubescent beneath, horizontally patent, the older 
ones with from three to five angles : Petioles two inches or 
more long, slender, terete, pubescent. Peduncles terminal, 
two to three inches long, bearing a corymbus of many 
flesh-coloured flowers, and, as well as the calyx, stellato- 
pubescent. Pedicels with three oval, concave bractea? just 
beneath the calyx. Calyx five-partite : Segments lanceolate, 
acuminate, spreading ; at the base having a large yellow 
gland, and a smaller one alternating with each. Stamens 
twenty, united into a tube at the very base, five are linear 
barren filaments, much longer than the fertile ones, yet 
shorter than the style. Anthers oblong purplish, two-celled. 
Pollen yellow. Germen ovato-globose, hairy. Style slen- 
der, cylindrical, glabrous, terminating in five linear, re- 
curved, glandular stigmas. 

Raised in the stove of the Glasgow Botanic Garden from 
seeds sent by Dr. Wallich, under the name of Dombeya 
angulata, and as a native of the Mauritius. To Dr. Wal- 
lich I am likewise indebted for the above synonyms, and 
some excellent specimens from the Calcutta Botanic Garden, 
in which the leaves are more angled than in the plant cul- 
tivated in our stove. 

It is a fine handsome growing shrub, with somewhat of 
the habit of Astrapoea, but altogether wanting the large 
stipules which seem to be characteristic of that Genus ; and 
the flowers are of a very different structure in the two 

Fig. J. Flower. 2. Portion of the Stamens. 3. Anther. 4. Pistil- 
5. Base of a portion of the Stamens, with a Segment of the Calyx to show 
the Three Glands at its hase. — Magnified. 


J=ut. A 


( 2906 ) 

Dendrobium jemvlvm. Small Clustered 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum ecalcaratum, articulatum cum apice processus 
unguiformis, cujiis lateribus petala antica adnata, calcar 
aemulantia. Masses pollinis 4, parallelae! Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Dendrobium* cemulum; caulibuserectisapiceS — 3-phyIlis, 
foliis ovali-oblongis integerrimis racemo terminali mul- 
tifloro brevioribus, perianthii foliolis linearibus, labello 
infra divisuram carina tripliei, lobo intermedio semi- 
ovato acutiusculo unicarinato. Br. 

Dendrobium aemulum. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 333. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 739. 

Not having seen the present plant in a living state, I will 
not venture to state any particulars respecting it, further 
Jnan that the plant was sent from New South Wales in 1823, 
»y Mr. Cunningham, to the Royal Gardens at Kew, where 
it flowered in December, 1825. The beautiful drawing 
from which the accompanying engraving was made, was 
Kindly communicated by William Townsend Aiton, Esq. 
and marked ec Dendrobium temulum" of Brown. 

From &»3jjey, a tree, and Sk>j, life : from the circumstance of the plants 
waring that name, living for the most part in the trunks of trees. 

p *V 1. Column and Lip. 2. Column. 3. Pollen Masses. 4. Single 
^Uen Mass.— Magnified. 




tftzy. Zi-f't'l 

( 2907 ) 
Mentha verticillata. Whorled Mint. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Labiate. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-dentatus. Cor. 4-loba, subregularis, lobo latiori 
emarginato. Stamina distantia, recta. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Mentha* verticillata; spicis terminalibus cylindricis crassis, 
floribus densissime congestis, filamentis exsertis pilis 
articulatis medio cinctis, caule ramoso ascendenti basi 
repente, foliis verticillatis superne quaternis elliptico- 
linearibus serratis. Graham. 

Mentha verticillata. Roxb. Hort. Beng. p. 44. Don. 
Prodr. FL Nepal, p. 114. Graham in Edinb, N. Phil. 
Journ. n. 11. Spreng. Syst. Veget. cur. post. p. 227. 

Mentha veronicajfolia. Hamilton MSS. 

Mentha? pumila. Graham in Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. for 
April 1829. 

Descr. Annual. Stem caespitose, ascending, rooting at 
the joints where it lies upon the ground, much branched, 
** to eight inches high, striated, translucent, obscurely 
angled, the cells of the circumference large, empty, pale 
green, and equal in length to the joints, their walls being 
composed of a single row of small four-sided cells ; those in 
" € centre much smaller, succulent, surrounded by a purple 


An ancient Latin word, mostly written Menta, adopted from the Greeks, 

° se f 9e i» synonymous with their ^vocr^, the latter being most generally 

cha 7 he N y m P h Mintha, a favourite of Pluto, is fabled to have been 

Shit by Proser P ine into this Herb, as incidentally mentioned by Ovm.— 

membrane, to the angles of which the roots, branches, 
and leaves may be easily traced, and on the inside of 
which there is a fascicle of spiral vessels. Branches simple. 
Leaves one and a half inch long, gradually smaller upwards, 
very numerous, verticillate, four in the whorls towards the 
top of the stem, often five or six below, (ten according to 
Don,) oblongo-linear, sparingly and distantly serrated in the 
upper half, rarely more than two serratures on each side, 
spreading, veinless, flat, slightly channelled above, keeled 
below, and having minute dots on both sides. Inflores- 
cence a terminal, dense, whorled, cylindrical spike (on the 
leading shoot three-fourths of an inch long, on the others 
shorter,) much thicker than the top of the stem. Bractece, 
one at the base of each flower, ovato-lanceolate, hairy and 
strongly ciliated, concave, connivent at the points, and as 
long as the calyx. Calyx ovate, inflated, four-cleft, seg- 
ments equal, connivent, pointed, hairy. Corolla four- 
toothed, slightly spreading, hairy on the outside, twice the 
length of the calyx, nearly regular, purple, and varying 
with the internal membrane of the stem in the depth of its 
shade, lower segments slightly emarginate. Stamens four, 
exserted ; anthers like rounded, clavate, terminations to the 
filaments, pale, unilocular, bursting in a line across their 
extremities, and becoming brown ; pollen subglobular, 
white ; filaments pink, straight, distant, having in their 
middle a whorl of hairs, appearing under the microscope 
like strings of round beads. Style filiform, as long as tn . e 
stamens, cleft at the top ; segments revolute. Stigma capi- 
tate. Germen four-lobed. Graham. 

My friend Professor Graham is perfectly correct in re- 
ferring this plant to the Mentha verticillata of Roxburgh ; 
for, though somewhat at variance with the description ot 
Mr. Don in the Prodromus Florae Nepalensis, it quite ac- 
cords with the figure sent by Dr. Roxburgh to the Honour- 
able the East India Company. It is a native of watery 
places in Bengal as well as in Nepal, and was raised in the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden from seeds obtained fr orn J^ e 
latter country, and communicated by Capt. M'Gill. "he 
plants were reared in the stove in pots set in water, p u ^ 
after blossoming they soon damped off without producn»» 
any seed. 

Fig. 1. Flower and two Buds. 2. Stamen. 3. Hair from the Stai» e 
4. PiBtil. — Magnified. 


( 2908 ) 

Crinum plicatum. Plaited-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — AmaryllidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6-partita subregularis, laciniis apice uncinatis. Stam. 
recta, tubo inserta. Caps, trilocularis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Crinum* plicatum; foliis supra basin alato-expansis, alis 

Crinum plicatum. Livingstone MSS. 

Descr. From the top of the Bulb arise several dark -green 
leaves, from a foot and a half to two feet long, sheathing at 
the very base and striated : at some little distance above 
the base, the margin is suddenly and very curiously ex- 
panded into a broad, membranaceous, striated, and singularly 
plaited wing, which, upwards, gradually becomes attenuat- 
ed into the extremity of the leaf itself. In other respects 
the plant so much resembles the Crinum asiaticum t that it 
is not necessary here to describe it. 

About five years since Dr. Livingstone obligingly com- 
municated to our Glasgow Botanic Garden, a bulb of this 
singular plant from China, and he sent me a drawing of 
the natural size, made in that country, which, after compar- 
ing with our plant that flowered in the spring of last year, 
1828, I have here copied upon a greatly reduced scale. I 


* From xpuoi, a Greek word for the Lily, and hence applied to other showy 
flowers allied to that tribe. 

confess myself unable to decide upon what constitutes a 
species and what a variety in this most variable tribe of 
plants. I cannot do better, then., than follow the opinion of 
my valued friend Dr. Livingstone who has cultivated it in 
China, along with the Crinum asiaticum (its nearest ally,) 
and who, from many years' experience, finds it to be per- 
manent in its character. He observed that it was not diffi- 
cult to increase it; and at Macao he obtained several 
individuals by offsets from the bulbs. It has, he observes, 
not unfrequently three flowering stems from the same bulb, 
and each stem about twenty flowers. 

The figure represents Crinum plicatum, reduced to about one quarter of 
the natural size. 


Slit Zy 

( 2909 ) 


Class and Order. 
Syngenesia ^Equalis. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum conicum ; foliolis acuminatis, interioribus 
imbricatis, integerrimis, exterioribus reflexis spinoso-den- 
tatis. Receptaculum convexum pilosum. Flosculi omnes 
hermaphroditic tubulosi : limbo altero quiaque partito : la- 
cinns linearibus apice incrassatis : tubo 5-angulato basi 
angustato. Filamenta glanduloso-pilosa. Antherce basi 
bisetosas. Stigma bifidum ; laciniis approximatis. Pappus 
sessilis, plumosus. Sweet. 

Specific Name and Synonym. 

Erythroljena* conspicua. 

Erythrol^na conspicua. Sweet. Brit. Fl. Gard. t. 134. 

Descr. Annual,, or perhaps biennial. Stem eight to ten 
feet high, erect, much branched, angled and furrowed, 
pubescent, purplish-green. Leaves alternate, sessile, the 
lower ones six to eight inches long, deeply pinnatifid or 
even bipinnatifid, dark shining green, pubescent with deci- 
duous down, much veined, the veins most conspicuous be- 
neath, the margin waved and sinuated, and armed with short 
brown or purplish spines : those of the upper part of 
the stem and branches lanceolate, very spinous. Flowers 
large and very handsome, terminating the young branches. 


From Epvpos red and a*\cu>* a covering : so named in consequence of the 
beautiful red involucre of the flower. 

Involucre long, conical : scales lanceolate, outer ones reflex- 
ed, somewhat foliaceous, green with a purple tinge, spinous 
at the margin and tipped with a long, sharp spine ; the rest 
erect, imbricated, linear-lanceolate, somewhat membrana- 
ceous, very sharp, but scarcely spinous, of a beautiful 
deep orange-red colour. Florets several, inserted upon a 
convex, fleshy, pitted receptacle, interspersed with numer- 
ous chaffy hairs. Corolla yellowish, scarcely longer than 
the involucre, tubular; limb cut into five long, linear seg- 
ments. Anthers purple, much protruded, bisetose at the 
base : filaments purplish, rough. Style considerably ex- 
serted. Stigma clavate, bifid, purple. Germen oblong, 
glabrous. Pappus sessile, the hairs beautifully plumose. 

This extremely beautiful plant, which is already becom- 
ing a general ornament to our flower borders, was intro- 
duced to this country from Mexico, by Mr. Bullock ; and 
first raised by Mr. Tate of the Sloane Street Nursery, 
under the name of the Scarlet Thistle. It was early brought 
to flower in the highest degree of perfection by Mr. Barclay, 
at Bury hill, by planting it in the border against a South 
wall. So situated, it thrives most luxuriantly in the latter 
end of summer, and a succession of blossoms appear till the 
plant is cut down by the frost. The Glasgow Botanic 
Garden is indebted to Mr. Barclay for its introduction 
there ; and even in this Northern latitude it thrives well in 
the exposed flower bed. 

Fig. 1 Floret, with some of the chaffy hairs of the Receptacle at its base. 
I. bcarcely mature Germen. 3. Hair from the Pappus.— Magnified. 


Vrff.f. Wh7w7/.t A 

( 2910 ) 

Verbena bracteosa. Bracteated 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Verbenace^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus, dente unico subbreviore. Cor. limbus irre- 
gulariter 5-Iobus. Stam inclusa. Utriculus 4-spermus, 
cito rumpens, ut maturi fructus caryopses sistant. Spr. 

Specific Character and St/nom/ms. 

Verbena * bracteosa ; hirsuta, foliis laciniato-pinnatifidis, 

supremis trifidis, spicis elongatis, bracteis lanceolatis 

fructu duplo longioribus squarrosis. 
Verbena bracteosa. Mich. Fl. Am. Bor. v. 2. p. 13. Pursh. 

Ft. Am. Sept. v. 2. p. 416. Spreng. Sj/st. Veget. v. 2. 

V- 749. 
^apania bracteosa. Poir. Encycl. v. 8. p. 843. 

Descr. Perennial. Stem procumbent below, branched ; 
Jhe branches opposite, square, hairy. Leaves opposite, 
three inches and more in length, spreading, hairy, laciniato- 
pinnatifid, veined, dark green ; paler, and with more pro- 
minent veins beneath, the upper leaves trifid, gradually 
smaller, and changing almost imperceptibly into bracteae. 
£Memuch elongated, composed of numerous flowers, which, 
however, are very evanescent, bracteated ; the bracteae large, 
lanceolate, entire, variously curved and squarrose, often 


From Ferfaen a Celtic word. Per {charier in French, according to 
bee IS ' * nd ^ ence l P resume meaning) to convey away, and faen, a stone ; 
use it; was employed to cure the disorder of that name. 

secund. Calyx almost cylindrical, five toothed, the inner- 
most tooth the smallest, green, reddish at the point, hairy. 
Corolla about twice the length of the calyx ; tube cylin- 
drical, reddish purple, pale, a little narrower upwards : 
limb small, oblique, of five unequal lobes, pale bluish pur- 
ple. Fruit of four oblong, wrinkled, pale-brown achenia, 
firmly enclosed in the calyx. 

Verbena bracteosa seems to have an extensive geographical 
range, it having been found in the Illinois country and in 
Kentucky, and lately by Mr. Douglas on the sands of 
Menzies Island in the river Columbia, and on dry gravelly 
river banks throughout almost all the Western parts of the 
Continent of North America which he visited. By him it 
was likewise introduced to the Horticultural Society's Gar- 
dens, from whence the specimen here figured was kindly 
communicated in September, 1828. 

Fig. 1. Flower and Bractea. 2. Pistil. 3. Fruit enclosed in the Calyx. 
4. Fruit separated from the Calyx. — Magnified. 

( 2911 2912 ) 

Annona reticulata. Netted Custard 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Annonace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala 3, basi coalita, concava, subcordata, acutiuscula. 
Pet. 6, crassiuscula., interiora minora aut nulla. Antherm 
plurirna^ subsessiles, apice angulatae, dilatatae, torum obte- 
Rentes. Carpella plurima., coalita in baccam sessilem., cor- 
tice rnuricato squamoso aut reticulato, intus pulposam, 
ad anibitum multilocularem, loculis monospermis. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Annona * reticulata ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis gla- 
bris subpunctatis, petalis exterioribus oblongis sub- 
clausis, fructibus ovato-globosis reticulato-areolatis. 

Annona reticulata. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 757. (excl. Syn. Rumph.J 
Willd. Sp. PI. v . 2. p. 1266. fexcl. Syn. Plum, et 
Rumph.J DunalMonogr.desAnnon. p. 72. DeCand. 
Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 473. Ejusd. Prodr. v. I. p. 85. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 640. 

(«.) areolis squamoso-rotundatis. 

Anona-maram. Rheed. Mai. v. 3. p. 23. t. 30, 3\. 

Anona maxima; foliis oblongis angustis, fructu maximo 
luteo conoideo, cortice glabro in areolas distincto. The 
Custard Apple Tree. Sloane Jam. v. 2. p. 167. t. 
2. p. 226. 


Often written Anona, a word of doubtful origin. Ecsebius Nurem- 
berg says it is the name applied to this tribe of plants by the inhabitants of 
Jt. Domingo. Humph ius supposes it to be derived from the Malay word 
Manoa, or Menona, by which name the Genus is still known in Banda. Nana 
jjttg denomination in Sumatra. Linn^us calls it Annona, a Latin word sig- 
•Jymg provisions, and hence applicable to plants whose fruits are so gene- 
rally esculent, 

Guanabanus fructu purpureo. Plum. ed. Burm. v. 2. p. 134. 

t. 143./. 2. 
(/5.) areolis angulatis subpentagonis. 
Annona reticulata. Jacq. Obs. v. I. p. 14. t. 16./. 2. 

Descr. A shrub, or small tree,, from ten to fifteen feet 
high, or more, with spreading, tuberculated branches, 
tubercles brown. Leaves numerous, alternate, on short, 
channelled petioles, oblon go-lanceolate, six to eight inches 
long, submembranaceous, dark green, quite entire, penni- 
nerved, obtuse at the base, rather acuminated at the point, 
yielding like its congeners, a very disagreeable smell. Pe- 
duncles lateral branched, bearing about three flowers, and 
drooping. Pedicels swollen upwards. Calyx of three mi- 
nute, subcordate, acute leaflets. Three exterior petals 
large, linear, obtuse, broader at the base, of a greenish 
color, thick texture, and trigonous ; at the base of each is 
a hollow to receive, as it were, the body of stamens and 
pistils, and there of a deep purple colour, externally paler : 
the inner side of the petals is almost white. Three interior 
petals, very minute, alternating with the outer, linear ob- 
long, green, with red on each side near the top. Mass of 
Stamens and Pistils roundish, springing from an hemi- 
spherical torus, or fleshy receptacle. Anthers oblong, 
almost sessile, having a capitate appendage at the point. 
Pistils minute. Germen oblong, green. Stigma linear, 
brownish, sessile. As the fruit advances to maturity, the 
stamens fall away, and leave that part of the torus naked, 
above which the mass of pistils become enlarged, con- 
glomerated, and united into a globose, inclining to heart- 
shaped, pulpy Berry, as large as a good -sized orange, 
whitish within, externally of a reddish-brown colour, sprink- 
led with dots of a darker colour, and marked with more or 
less angular reticulations, whose areola? are constituted by 
the enlarged and united pistils. Seeds numerous, oblong, 
compressed, dark, shining brown. Albumen horny, white, 
marked with numerous transverse lines. 

A native of the West India Islands, thence introduced 
into Malabar, and the Malay Archipelago, and into the 
stoves of the Royal Garden at Hampton Court, in 1690, 
It does not appear, however, ever to have produced flowers 
with us: hence I am glad to have the opportunity of repre- 
senting the plant both in this state and in fruit, from dried 


/•///' /<;• .(. Org* KOr0r&,Jk«0im$L 

specimens and from drawings, sent to me by Mr. Guilding, 
from the island of St. Vincent in the West Indies. 

Although, according to Sloane and other writers, the 
pulp of this fruit <e is, for colour, and consistence, and 
sweetness in taste like a custard" (whence the common 
English name) is " eaten with a spoon/' and, " thought a 
very delicious substance," yet by others it seems to be but 
little prized, and is scarcely so general an article of food as 
the Sour Sop, (An. muricata) or the Sweet Sop, (An. squa- 
mosa) of the same countries. It is more frequently vaunted 
on account of its medicinal qualities ; so that, according to 
Dr. Chevalier, a celebrated physician of St. Domingo, as 
quoted in the Flore Medicale des Antilles, we have not in 
Europe so quick and so certain a remedy against Diar- 
rhaea and Dysentery as the Custard Apple. 

The flowering season in St. Vincent is from June to Octo- 
ber ; and the fruit comes to perfection in March and April. 
This latter is termed by the French colonists " Coeur de 

Tab. 2911. Fig-. 1. Flower of the Annona reticulata, with one of the 
Petals bent back to shew the Stamens and Pistils, not. size. 2. Calyx and a 
portion of the Peduncle. 3. Two of the inner Petals. 4. Flower, from 
which the three outer Petals are removed. 5. Stamen. 6. Pistil.— All from 
fig- 2. magnified. 

Tab. 2912. Fig-. 1. Fruit of Annona reticulata. 2. Section of ditto. 3. 
Seeds. 4. Section of ditto.— All of the naL size. 

) (kl 




/'/'A frs.Ortu mmhmiA /i,,,,- /. ts» 

( 2913 ) 

Lotus pinnatus. Pinnate-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Djadelphia Decandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. tubulosus, 5-fidus. Alee vexillum subaequantes ; 
carina rostrata. Legumen cylindraceum vel compressum 
apterum ; stylus rectus; stigma oculo nudo subulatum (vel 
capitatum.) De C. 

Specific Character. 

Lotus * pinnatus ; foliis pinnatis, foliolis 4-jugis cum im- 
pari oblong is glabris. 

Descr. Whole plant glabrous. Stems decumbent,, branch- 
ed near the base, branches terete, striated. Leaves remote, 
alternate, pinnated with about three pairs of alternate ob- 
long, or, in the wild specimens, obovate leaflets, and ter- 
minated by an odd one. Stipules ovate, rather small, erect, 
oppressed. Rackis or main petiole a little swollen at the 
base. Peduncles axillary, but generally spreading in a 
direction opposite to that of the leaves, equal to them in 
p g . tn or longer, sometimes shorter. Flowers umbellate. 
Pedicels short. Calyx tubular, thick and fleshy at the base, 
the rest rather membranous, four-toothed, the two lateral 


A term employed by the Egyptians and the Greeks to some plant, which 
as esteemed as food, and hence, perhaps, applied to this Genus, of which our 
Penes, tfie Lotus edulis, is used as food by man in Italy; while the others 
e questionably good for cattle. 

arid lower teeth linear, the upper one oblong and bifid. 
Corolla : Vexillum and carina yellow : Alee almost white, 
waved, the claws very distinct, linear, that of the vexillum 
remote from the rest. Stamens diadelphous ; the free one 
apparently always abortive, the rest united to a little below 
the anthers, where they separate into nine alternately 
shorter and narrow filaments. Anthers smaller on the short- 
er filaments, roundish, yellow. Germen linear : Style fili- 
form, curved upwards : Stigma capitate. Legumen two to 
three inches long, compressed, brownish, a little contracted 
between the seeds, acuminated at the point ; within bear- 
ing several roundish, oblong, compressed seeds. Between 
the seeds are spurious dissepiments. 

This is another of the many interesting novelties dis- 
covered by Mr. Douglas, and thus introduced to the gar- 
dens of the Horticultural Society, where it flowered in June, 
1828, in the open border, and in common soil. It was 
found growing abundantly in low alluvial, overflowed soils 
between Port Vancouver and the Grand Rapids, upon the 
Columbia, and also near the base of Mount St. Helen's, in 
similar situations. The root is perennial. 

The habit of this plant, and the general appearance of 
the flowers and seed-vessels, unite this plant to the Genus 
Lotus. But it differs from it in the pinnated (not ternate) 
leaves, in the long, linear, remote claws of the petals, the 
waved alae, and the capitate stigma ; — still I am not sure 
that these are characters which would warrant a separation 
from the true Loti. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamens including the Pistil. 3. Summit of the 
Pistil and Stamens, the latter spread open. 4. Style and Stigma. — Magnified. 

— *:./..■ 

- S.ihrti .,-. 11,,/, 

( 2914 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Acanthace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

tW. aequalis, 5, raro 4-partitus. Cor. valde irregularis, 
bilabiata vel ringens, labio iuferiore diviso. Stam. duo, 
antherifera. Antherce biloculares, loculis insertione saepius 
insqualibus. Filamenta sterilia nulla vel obsoleta. Ova- 
rii loculi dispermi. Dissepimentum adnatum. Semina 
retinaculis subtensa. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Justicia nodosa; (antherse loculis distantibus) foliolis ovato- 
acuminatis obsolete serratis brevissime petiolatis gla- 
bris, floribusaxillaribustubulosisbilabiatis, labio supe- 
rior erecto, inferiori deftexo trifido, bracteis longis 
angusto-linearibus, caule ad nodos tumido. 

Descr. A low shrub, glabrous throughout the stems 
and leaves, much branched, the branches greenish-brown, 

Reaves opposite, ovate acuminated, obscurely serrated 
rk-ffrp PT1 ni, nM ™i~ beneath. Flowers in short axillary, 

jointed, articulations terete, swollen at each extremity. 
Leaves opposite, ovafc 
dark-green above, pale 

f ew (two or three) flowered racemes, erect. Bractea four 
or nve, at the base of each flower, linear -filiform, subpubes- 
ce nt. Calyx ovate, cut into five deep, erect, oblongo-ovate 
segments. Corolla large, handsome, of a beautiful rich 
°ut rather pale crimson : Tube very long, thickened up- 
wards and striated, a little pubescent below : Lips long, 
u Pper one erect, linear acuminate, emarginate at the extre- 

mity. Stamens four, didynamous, standing with beautiful 
regularity. Anthers with the cells remote,, but opposite 
and unequal in size, deep purple : the substance which 
unites these, whitish, fleshy. 

Of this handsome species I know nothing except that it 
was imported by the Messrs. Shepherds from Brazil to the 
Liverpool Botanic Gardens, in the stove of which noble 
Institution it flowered in September, 1828. Its nearest ally 
is, perhaps, Justicia oblongata of Link and Otto, in the 
ninth number of their plants of the Berlin Garden; but that 
has truly lanceolate leaves, and much longer and more 
leafy bracteae. Both are swollen at the jointings of the 

J. nodosa is a plant worthy a place in every stove, on ac- 
count of the large size and beautiful colour of the flowers. 

Fig. 1. Calyx with its Bractea and a young Bud. 2. Anther. — Magnified. 


■I'ul, I'.vXrnrlj.yValwcm,. 

( 2915 ) 

Calceolaria thyrsiflora. Tufted 
Slipper- wort. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partitus. Cor. bilabiata, labium inferius calcei- 
iorme, inflatum. Caps, semibivalvis, valvulis bifidis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Calceolaria thyrsiflora; fruticosa ramosa, foliis oppositis 
linearibus, basi attenuates., lineatis serrato-dentatis gla- 
bris viscosis sessilibus, thyrsis terminalibus confertis, 
pedicellis decompositis umbellatis. 

Calceolaria thyrsiflora. Graham in Edinb. New Phil. 
Journ. 1828, p. 273. 

Descr. An erect shrub: stem round, bark brown and 
cracked ; branches spreading- at their origin, afterwards 
erect, when young-, somewhat rough and obscurely glan- 
dular. Leaves (two inches long, two lines broad) opposite, 
sessile, spreading, linear, subacute, becoming narrower 
towards their base, channelled, lineate, keeled behind, 
rather distinctly serrato-dentate ; the whole edge, but par- 
ticularly the teeth, reflected, without hairs, as well as the 
peduncles and pedicels shining on both surfaces from a viscid 
exudation. Common peduncles terminal, elongated, nearly 
naked below, the upper leaves passing into bracteas, and 
becoming entire; the pedicels rise from the axils of these, 
and are once, twice, or oftener divided, in form of little 
umbels, having at each subdivision a pair of bracteas, 
similar, but successively smaller: ultimate division of the 
Pedicels longer than the flowers. Flowers yellow, crowd- 
^ d mto a handsome thyrsus at the extremity of each branch. 
L *Wx yellowish-green, four partite, segments (one-fourth 
ot an inch long,) ovato-lanceolate, glandular on both sur- 
faces, unequal, slightly divaricated, but after the corolla 
tails closing over the germen, obscurely nerved. Corolla 
t «bglobular, nearly twice as long as the calyx, glabrous on 
ne outside, except a slight pubescence where the closed 


lips touch, pubescent within, especially towards the base, 
obscurely striated, depressed at its base, closed, lower lip 
larger than the upper ; stamens projecting into a depres- 
sion in the lower lip : filaments rising from the base of 
the lower lip, hairy, stout, slightly curved upwards, pitted 
on their lower side near the anthers. Anthers pale yellow, 
placed transversely on the filaments, bilobular, lobes con- 
nected to each other longitudinally, and furrowed along 
their anterior surface, where they burst and discharge a 
white pollen. Germen conical, furrowed on two sides, 
bilocular, green, viscid. Style, filiform, straight, longer 
than the stamens; stigma small, ovules very numerous, 
and attached to a large central receptacle, the transverse 
section of which is kiduey-shaped, and entire in each locu- 
lament. Graham. 

This very handsome and novel species of Slipper-wort 
was raised in the Botanic Gardens, both in Edinburgh and 
Glasgow, from seeds received from Dr. Gillies, Mendoza ; 
but it flowered first in the collection of P. Neill, Esq. 
Canonmills, Edinburgh, who had obtained the plant from 
the same liberal source, in the summer of 1828. Mr. 
Cruickshanks also has obligingly sent me specimens mark- 
ed as iC Palpe" of the natives, who use it to procure a 
yellow dye *. 

The blossoms have a slight fragrance, not unlike that of 
the flowers of the Laburnum. 

* I mentioned under Cal. arachnoidea, (tab. 2874.) that Dr. Gillies 
had communicated to me some further information respecting that plant, which 
I should insert under the present species. The Calceolaria, he says, " de- 
scribed by Dr. Graham under the name of C. arachnoidea, and to which I 
had assigned the specific appellation of C. tinctoria, in consequence of its 
utility in dying, I first found, near the silver mines of St. Pedro Nolasco, 
on the summit of the mountain so called, near the junction of the river Maypu 
with the Rio del Yeso and del Volcan. On a subsequent journey across the 
Cordillera, further to the South, and opposite to San Fernando, I also rati 
with it in abundance, growing in all the most elevated vallies which I visited, 
in the vicinity of la Casa de las Damas. Here many people were employed in 
digging up the roots, which they dry and collect in bundles for sale. « 
Chili, where this plant is in great use, under the name ./{*», f° r ^ w \ 
woollen cloths of a deep crimson colour, the alum-earth called Polenta, and 
employed as a mordant in this process, is obtained abundantly from a moun- 
tain in the neighbourhood. It grows in hard gravelly soil, where the fibrous 
roots penetrate in all directions ; a circumstance which renders the collecting 
of this plant to any considerable extent, a work of time and labour. The C< 
arachnoidea flowers about the end of March or beginning of April ; and at the 
latter time the ripe seeds may also be procured. . , 

" The elevation of the Casa de las Damas, in the neighbourhood of whicft 
the Relbun abounds, may be estimated from the height of the barometer, 
which stood at 22,956 inches, heat of mercury 54°. Temperature of atmo- 
sphere 52°. This Relbun appears to be quite distinct from that which is 
mentioned by Molina, Chili, vol. 1. p. 115/' 

Fig. 1. Entire Flower. 2. Corolla, shewing the Anthers. 3. Calyx, with the P» stlL 
4. Pistil.— All more or less magnified. 

S. 2916. 

( 2916 ) 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asclepiade^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. urceolata, quinquefida. Corona staminea laciniis 
subulatis patentibus recurvis. Massce Pollinis erectae, basi 
affixae. Stigma muticum. Folliculi laeves. Semina co- 
mosa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Dischidia * benghalensis ; foliis ellipticis tereti-compressis 

carnosis glaucis. 
Dischidia benghalensis. Colebr. in Linn. Trans, v. 12. p. 

357. Sjjreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 844. 

Descr. Whole plant succulent, glaucous green, para- 
ge. Stem scandent and climbing, branched, terete, here 
and there sending forth slender, branching, fibrous roots, 
lactescent. Leaves opposite, an inch and an inch and a 
half long, elliptical, rather obtuse, tereti-compressed, entire, 
u Pon short, rounded, fleshy footstalks. Flowers placed in 
small, axillary, almost sessile umbels, white. Calyx of five 
fleshy, rounded lobes. Corolla urceolate : tube globose, 
"mb of five erect, oval, acute, fleshy teeth. Corona of five 
segments, linear, branching at the top into two falcate, re- 
curved, subulate laciniae. Anthers confluent at the base, 


* So named by Mr. Brown, from &?, two, er X ih, a splitting, I presume, in 
0r »sequence of the dividing of the segments of the stamina! corona. 

ovato- triangular, acute, yellowish-brown, meeting so as to 
form a cone ; each two-celled. Pollen Masses club-shaped, 
yellow, waxy, connected by a gland into pairs, each pair 
belonging to two different anthers. 

This has, I believe, been known for some years as an 
inhabitant of the stoves in this country ; but I am not 
aware that it has ever produced flowers with us, except at 
the Liverpool Botanic Garden, whence specimens were sent 
to me in that state by my often-mentioned friends, the 
Messrs. Shepherd, in the month of September 1828. Its 
treatment is the same as that of the parasitical orchideous 
plants, and it is by no means difficult of cultivation. 

Two species only of the Genus are known ; the one 
Dischidia nummularia, a native of Amboyna and the tro- 
pical parts of New Holland, and the subject of our present 
plate, which is, according to Mr. Colebrooke, a native of 
Silhet, where it is named like other parasites, Pardruhd. 

It was introduced by Mr. M. R. Smith to the Calcutta 
Botanic Garden, and thence to the gardens of Europe. 

* Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Corona staminea. 3. One of the segments 
of the Corona Staminea. 4. Two Cells of one Anther j one of the Cells be- 
ing empty ; the other filled with a Pollen Mass, whose Pedicel is connected 
by a Gland to the Pollen Mass belonging to the nearest Cell of the adjoining 
Anther. — Magnified. 

V. 291J. 

j'tt/' ,'>r ,\" Ci<<tf*erlh./iiite I. ISZ9. 

( 2917 ) 

Plumbago rhomboidea. Rhomboid-leaved 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Plumbagine^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. plicatus, 5-dentatus. Cor. monopetala, hypocrate- 
riformis, limbo 5-partito. Stam. 5, hypogyna. Stylus 1, 
nliformis. Stigmata 5, acuta. Capsula valvata. Semen 
albuminosum. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Plumbago * rhomboidea, ; annua, caule terete, foliis rhom- 
boideis inferne in petiolurn alatum ad basin auricu- 
latum amplexicaule attenuatis, spicis paucifloris, brac- 
teis calicybusque glandulosis. 

Descr. Plant annual, one to one and a half foot high, 
erect, branched, the stem and branches erect, terete. Leaves 
wge in proportion to the size of the plant, rhomboid, 
quite entire, glabrous, veined, tapering into a long, winged, 
Petiole, whose very base is auriculated and embraces the 
stem : upper leaves smaller, and less distinctly auriculated. 
"pikes terminal, of a few remote flowers, each subtended by 
a single glandular bractea, which is small and oblong. 


dart u T ° m P lumbuj n, lead ; as Sir James Smith suggests, on account of the 
Dla ♦ ° f the Ieaves of Pl - europtea; but Pliny says the Plumbago is a 
F ant which cures a disease in the eye called Plumbum, and that hence it de- 
es its name : whilst Theis assures us, that our Plumbago is employed in 
to ^ the tooth -ache, but that it at the same time imparts a leaden colour 
em. i u French it is called Dentelaire. 

Calyx oblong, green, somewhat plicate, five-cleft, the teeth 
or segments erect, rather obtuse, clothed with large brown, 
pedicellated glands. Corolla hypocrateriform : tube slen- 
der, purple, more than twice as long- as the calyx : limb 
of five spreading, oval, acute, deep bluish-purple segments, 
with a dark line down the centre of each. Stamens five, 
as long as the tube, hypogynous. Filaments slender to the 
very base. Anthers oblong, two-celled, purple. Pistil as 
long as the tube of the corolla. Germen ovate, green, gla- 
brous : Style filiform : Stigmas five, small, linear. Raised 
from seeds sent to the Glasgow Botanic Garden. 

It is cultivated in the stove ; and the flowers, though 
small, have a very pretty effect, from their extremely rich 

With us it blossomed in the month of September. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Stamen. — Magnified. 

//•<■<* M- . >'. < hrti , t. WaimtrA Julx J IS'i.'K 

( 2918 ) 
Clarkia pulchella. Beautiful Clarkia. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Onagrarijs. ) 

Generic Character. 

CVzZ. superus 4-partitus reflexus, saepe laciniis cohaeren- 
tibus. Pet. 4, unguiculata, aestivatione convoluta. Stam. 
alterna sterilia, antheris demum reflexis. Stigma 4-lobum, 
petaloideum. Capsula cylindracea, sulcata, 4-locularis, 4- 
valvis. Semina adscendentia, nuda. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Clarkia * pulchella ; petalis trilobis. 

Clarkia pulchella. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. v. I. p. 260. t. 2. 

Nutt. N. Am. Gen. v. 1. p. 249. Bot Reg. t. 1100. 

De Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 52. 
(0-) petalis minus profunde lobatis magis denticulatis. 

Descr. An annual plant, about a foot high, every where 
shghtly pubescent, least so on the old leaves, most so on 
Jhe stems, which are cylindrical, branched upwards. Leaves 
? Ur to five inches long, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, ses- 
pe, the midrib distinct, but the veins obsolete. Flowers 
lar ge, solitary, handsome, from the axils of the leaves, 
especially the upper ones, on short footstalks. Calyx supe- 
ri °r, reflexed, of four lanceolate, deep segments, which 
generally cohere by the margins, at length frequently sepa- 
rating and turning brown. Petals large, of a beautiful 
purple rose-colour, cruciate : claw long, slender, with a 


of th 8 ° ° amed b y Pursh, in honor of Captain Clark, who traced the course 
the Missouri in company with Captain Lewis. 

Alt h- xrurlts. ICnlwiTih.Jii/\ 

( 2919 ) 

nlcotiana acuminata. acuminated- 
leaved Tobacco. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solane^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubulosus, 5-fidus. Cor. infundibuliformis, vel hypo- 
crateriformis, limbo plicato. Capsula apice 4-dentata, pla- 
centis ad dissepimentum transversis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Nicotiana acuminata; herbacea, pubescens, foliis lato- 
lanceolatis acuminatis undulatis sublonge petiolatis, 
paniculis paucifloris, calyce glanduloso-pubescenti 
laciniis angustis, corollas tubo elongato, limbi laciniis 
rotundatis obtusis. 

Petunia acuminata. Graham in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. 
July, 1828, p. 378. 

Descr. Root perennial ? Stem herbaceous, erect, terete, 
pubescent, branched. Leaves remote, broadly-lanceolate, 
s °metimes almost ovate, acuminate, waved at the margin, 
nerved, slightly pubescent, entire, petiole. Petiole slender, 
a bout an inch long. Panicle terminal, few-flowered, flow- 
e |s naked or having a leaf or bractea at their base. Pedicel 
sll ort. Calyx ovate, with five unequal, narrow teeth', which 
run down and form so many ribs to the glanduloso-pubes- 
c ^nt, and almost colourless tubular portion. Corolla about 
f. hree inches long. Tube a little curved, green, striated, a 
"We enlarged upwards: Limb rather small, of five, nearly- 
e( iual, rounded, white lobes, blunt, or even emarginate, 
Marked with a few green lines. Style filiform, as long as 


the tube. Germen two-celled. Stigma thickened, two- 
lobed, green. Capsule enclosed by the calyx, ovate. 

Communicated in June, 1828, by Dr. Graham, from the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden, where it was raised, having 
been sent from Mendoza, by Dr. Gillies. Hitherto it had 
been treated as a greenhouse plant : but Dr. Graham con- 
jectures that it will thrive better in the open border. 

Petunia seems to differ from Nicotiana in little else but 
its irregular corolla, which being wanting here, I have 
reluctantly differed from my valued friend, who has hitherto 
alone described this species, in considering it not to be of 
that Genus. 

Fig. 1. Pistil and Calyx. 2. Section of an advanced Germen. 3. Cap- 
sule invested by the Calyx. — Magnified. 

X 2920. 


ftif> ?r S. i Unit n\ 

il»crth. July 7. Idiif. 

( 2920 ) 

Begonia semperflorens. Free-flowering 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Begoniace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. o. Cor. polypetala, petalis plerumque 4, 

*(em. Cal. o. Cor. petalis 4 — 9, plerumque inaequa- 
libus. Stt/li 3, bifidi. Caps, triquetra, alata, trilocularis, 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Begonia semperflorens; glaberrima, foliis ovato-rotundatis 
inaequalibus vix cordatis planis apiculatis, minute 
serratis subciliatis, capsular alis valde inaequalibus, 
maxima triquetra obtusissima. 

Begonia semperflorens. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1439. Gra- 
ham in Ed. New Phil. Journ. May, 1829. 

Descr. Stem erect, rather thick, terete, fleshy, glabrous, 
reddish green, scarcely, if at all branched. Leaves alter- 
nate, remote, plane, ovato-rotundate, obtuse at the base, 
rarely a little cordate, unequal, apiculate, the margins 
Minutely serrated, more or less ciliated at the margin, the 
color pale green, the surface particularly smooth, and free 
""om hairiness. Petiole long, reddish, channelled : at the 
base of each are two large, ovato-oblong, deciduous, cili- 
Jted, brownish stipules. Peduncles axiliary and terminal. 
Male Flo mers with two large, rounded, and two smal 
long or linear, rose-coloured petals: Female, with fiv 
Ul *equal petals, of the same colour. Capsule greenish 


membranous, reticulated, having three very unequal wings ; 
two small, narrow, and equal in breadth throughout, while 
the third forms a large, triangular, very projecting and 
obtuse membrane. 

The nearest ally of this species is, probably, the B. spa- 
ihulata of Willdenow ; but there, the leaves are far more 
concave, not apiculated, the stipules are larger, and the 
larger wing is acute. The present species was sent to the 
Liverpool Botanic Garden, by Charles Chamberlayne, 
Esq. from Brazil, and flowered in October, 1828. 

I have seen this species cultivated in gardens in Britain, 
under the names of B. setaria and B. sellovii. 

X. 20Z1 


Tub. bvS Curtis, Walror£h,Julr2J829. 

( 2921 ) 

Ligustrum nepalense, /3 glabrum. Nepal 
Privet, glabrous var. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Jasmines. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. exiguus 4-dentatus. Cor. infundibuliformis lirnbo 
4-lobo. Bacca 2-locularis, 4-sperma. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ligustrum* nepalense; foliis ovatis vel oblongo-ovatis 

acuminatis subtus villosis; panicula terminali villosa 

e racemis suberectis densis. Wall. 
Ligustrum nepalense. Wallich in Fl. Ind. v. 1. p. 151. 
Wustrium spicatum. Hamilton MSS. Don. Prodr. Fl. 

Nep. p. 107. 
(0) foliis paniculisque glabris. Wall, in Fl. Ind. v. I. p. 

152. (nobis Tab. 2921.) 

Descr. From three to four feet high, as cultivated in the 
greenhouse of our Botanic Garden, much branched, the 
"ranches rounded with small, scattered warts ; the younger 
ones glabrous. Leaves opposite, from one to three or four 
inches in length, oblong, sometimes approaching to ovate, 
dark green, coriaceous, glossy, waved, quite glabrous, entire 
at the margin, acuminate, petiolate. Petiole rather short, 
thick, reddish, grooved above. Panicle terminal ; branches 
tetragonal, brachiate ; flowers on each branchlet forming a 
Mustered spike : glabrous. Calyx small, four -toothed, 


b *"rom it fare, to bind, from the use sometimes made of its soft and pliant 

slightly scabrous, with four minute, imbricated bracteae at 
the base. Corolla with the tube so short as to be almost 
rotate, deeply four-cleft, white, the segments, ovate, re- 
curved. Stamens two, opposite : Filaments rather thick, 
white. Anthers short, oblong : Cells remote, opening 
laterally. Pistil : Germen roundish, ovate, green : Style 
shorter than the germen, cylindrical, purplish : Stigma 

e ' A native of the mountains of Nepal, where it is called 
Goom-gacha, and where it grows to be a considerable tree, 
producing profuse clusters of white, sweet-smelling flowers 
from April to June, which are succeeded by small, oval, 
berries, of a beautiful blue colour, and covered with a beau- 
tiful bloom," as remarked by Dr. Wallich, to whom our 
Glasgow Botanic Garden is indebted for the living plant. 
This flowered with us in August, 1828. 

The more common state of the plant in its native coun- 
try is to have the panicle and leaves below hairy. 

Dr. Wallich seems to consider it possible, that the Lig. 
sinense of Loureiro may be the same, and observes, that 
L. japonicum, Thunb. and lucidum of Aiton, are allied 
to it. 

Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower. 2. Back view of ditto. 3. Calyx and 
Pistil. 4. Anther. 5. Section of the Germen.— Magnified. 

• iirds. ii;i.'«;'ri/i. fufr I. 1S29. 

( 2922 ) 

Acacia lanigera. Woolly-podded 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LeguminosjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores polygami. Cal. 4— 5-dentatus. Petala 4—5, 
nunc libera, nunc in corollam 4— 5-fidam coalita. Stam. 
numero varia, 10—200. Legumen continuum. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Acacia* lanigera ; floribus capitatis, capitulis axillaribus, 
geminis, multifloris ; stipulis subulatis, herbaeeis, mar- 
cescentibus ; phyllodiis lanceolato-falcatis, multiner- 
viis, ramulisque lanatis. 

Acacia lanigera. Cunningham in Field's Geographical 
Memoirs on New South Wales, p. 345. Graham in 
Ed. New Phil. Journ. Jan. 1829, p. 385. 

Descr. Shrub erect, aphyllus; branches scarcely angled, 
ere ct ; bark brown and wrinkled, on the young shoots 
Coolly. Leafstalks (phyllodia) two and a half inches long, 
Io ut lines broad,) lanceolato-falcate, curved downwards, 
nerved, spreading, stiff, dull green, somewhat woolly, 
naving one gland towards the base on the upper edge, 
mucr °nate, mucro rigid, afterwards withering. Stipules 
small, subulate, withering. Capitula geminate (sometimes 
solitary at the points of the branches), axillary, globular, 
n °wers in each numerous, one spreading to each side on a 


Plant**"*' ' in Greek ' ( from ** a &> t0 sharpen) applied to some thorny 

peduncle, which is as long as the stamens, and slightly vil- 
lous. Bractea ovate, villous, ciliated, marcescent, one 
sheathing the base of each peduncle, another below each 
flower, the latter attenuated at the base, and more delicate 
than the former. Calyx colourless, transparent, adpressed, 
five-cleft, segments blunt, ciliated. Corolla smooth, twice 
as long as the calyx, five-cleft; tube transparent, colour- 
less ; limb yellowish, spreading, segments pointed, concave. 
Stamens (three lines long) yellow ; anthers small, bilo- 
bular ; lobes round, bursting by a transverse line on their 
outer sides. Pistil wanting in most of the flowers, yellow; 
stigma minute ; style rather longer than the stamens, ob- 
lique ; germen obscurely pubescent, oval. Graham. 

This plant was received at the Edinburgh Botanic Gar- 
den through the kindness of Mr. Aiton, from the Royal 
Garden at Kew, in the beginning of 1828. It had been 
sent there by Mr. Cunningham under the name now given ; 
and Mr. Cunningham says of it, in Field's Memoirs, that it 
is ** a shrub frequent on rocky barren ranges in the interior," 
between the colony of Port Jackson and the settlement of 
Bathurst. It flowered freely in January and February. 

This species probably bears a great resemblance to A. 
multinervia, D C. only known to me, however, by the de- 
scriptions in his Memoirs on the Leguminos^e, and in the 
Prodromus ; but it diners in being provided with stipulae, 
and in the young branches being less angular. The pedun- 
cles, too, are probably longer, and the marginal gland, 
perhaps, nearer the base of the phyllodium. Further, the 
woolliness of the phyllodia, and more particularly of the 
young branches, could scarcely have been overlooked; and 
as it is not mentioned, I presume it is wanting in A. multi- 
nervia. Graham. 

( 2923 ) 

Erigeron glabellum. Smoothish-leaved 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum imbricatum. Receptaculum nudum. Flos- 
culi radii ligulati angustissimi. Pappus pilosus seu sca- 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Erigeron * glabellum ; foliis lanceolatis integerrimis gla- 
bris ciliatis, radicalibus subspathulatis nervosis, caule 
involucroque pubescentibus, floribus subcorymbosis, 
radiis (purpurascentibus) numerosis angusti linearibus. 

Erigeron glabellum. Nutt. Gen. of N. Am. PI. -o. 2. p. 
148. Richardson in Frankl. First Journ. ed. 2. App. 
p. 30. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 519. 

Descr. Root perennial, somewhat creeping, throwing out 
radicles from beneath. Stems from six to eight inches to a 
toot high, erect, herbaceous, below purple, green and 
pubescent and somewhat angular above, where it branches 
into four to six flower-stalks. Leaves : those springing 
from near the root the longest, spathulate, tapering down- 
wards gradually into a footstalk, the rest sessile, lanceolate 


From tpi, early (from %f, spring) and, yipwi, an old man ; in other 
*'°rds, which grows old early in the season. The name was given by the 
weeks to the Genus Senecio, and by more modern writers, to our present 
0e «us, a5 allied to it. 

scarcely decurrent, somewhat acute, all of them quite en- 
tire, glabrous, ciliated at the margin, and the midrib 
beneath, sometimes pubescent, nerved; the nerves almost 
parallel with the midrib, anastomosing. Peduncles two to 
four inches long, single flower : flower large, handsome. 
Involucre hemispherical, of many subulato-lanceolate, pu- 
bescent, closely imbricating scales. Florets of the ray very 
numerous, exceedingly narrow, linear, purple, female, but 
apparently abortive, bidentate at the extremity. Germen 
oblong, crowned with a pappus of few rough hairs ; Style 
longer than the tube of the floret : Stigma bipartite; seg- 
ments filiform, much spreading. Florets of the disc yellow, 
tubular, five toothed, perfect. Germen oval-oblong, rough 
at the margin. Pappus sessile, rough, of few hairs. Anther 
scarcely protruded. Stigma bipartite ; its segments some- 
what incurved. 

There are few Genera, even in the Natural Order of Com- 
posite, whose species are so difficult to determine as those 
of Erigeron. Of the present individual, I can confidently 
say, that it is the E. glabellum of Richardson in Franklin's 
Journal, and that it accords sufficiently well with the de- 
scription of Nuttal, who discovered it on the plains of the 
Missouri, especially about Fort Mandan, in great abund- 
ance. Dr. Richardson gathered it in the woody country of 
British N. America, between the latitudes 54° and 64° North, 
and Mr. Drummond, in the second overland Arctic expedi- 
tion, under the command of Captain Franklin, found it in 
the prairies among the rocky mountains, and on the plains 
of the Saskatchawan. From seeds brought home by that 
zealous Botanist, our plants were raised at the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden. They flowered in the autumn of 1828, 
and continued in blossom until Christmas. 

Fig. 1. Floret of the Ray. 2. Floret of the Disc. 3. Portion of a hair of 
the Pappus. — Magnified. 

j S.Cttrtis, Kf/ir r '/ /?,./,//•■ I 1019, 

( 2924 ) 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — PolemoniacEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. campanulatus, 5-fidus. Cor. infundibuliformis vel 
hypocrateriformis, quinquefida. Stam. fauci inserta. Stig- 
ma trifidum. Capsula 3-locularis, 3-valvis, loculis mono- 
di- polyspermis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Gillia gracilis; glanduloso-pubescens, caule valde ramoso, 
foliis lineari-oblongis obtusis, calycis segrnentis longis 

Collomia gracilis. Douglas MSS. 

Descr. Plant much branched, annual, every where, as 
is the whole plant, clothed with short, glandular hairs. 
Branches not unfrequently opposite. Leaves : those of 
the stem opposite, those of the branches frequently alter- 
nate,, linear-oblong, obtuse, the lower ones inclining to 
spathulate, costate, and obscurely nerved. The leaves 
continue upon the branches up to the flowers, where they 
become small, and under each calyx become bractea?. 
Flowers crowded towards the extremity of the branches, at 
length elongated into a raceme. Calyx cylindraceo-campa- 
julate ; the tube white, thin, and membranaceous, with 
five long, awl-shaped, straight, teeth, which run down the 
tube and form five broad, green nerves, and clothed with 
black glands. Corolla hypocrateriform. Tube long, yel- 
lowish. Limb of five patent, rose-coloured, oval segments. 
Stamens inserted within the tube, unequal in their inser- 

tion. Filaments short, white. Anthers oblong, yellow. 
Pistil: Gerrnen oval, green : Style filiform, wljite : Stigmas 
three, pubescent. Capsule enclosed in the dry and much 
enlarged, husky calyx, whose teeth are now spreading ; 
three-valved, three-celled, three-seeded. Seed semi-oval, 
brown. • . 

Discovered by Mr. David Douglas ee on light soils, on 
the banks of the Spoken river, and on high grounds near 
Flathead river, in North-West America, flowering in May 
and June : and by him introduced to the gardens of the 
Horticultural Society, where it flowered in 1827 and 1828. 
From thence, the specimens here figured were liberally 

Fig. I. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil. 4. Calyx, including the ripe 
Fruit. 5. Capsule. 6. Section of ditto. 7. 8. Seeds. — Magnified. 

fllh )>r J (//,//.. ■*,,;::, rfj, /„/,/■ 

( 2925 ) 

Clerodendron emirnense. Small-flow- 
ered Madagascar Clerodendron. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Verbenace*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus (nunc 5-dentatus). Cor. tubo cylindrico; 
limbo 5-partito, patenti, laciniis subaequalibus. Stam. 
juxta faucem inserta, exserta, adscendentia : antherarum 
loculis parallelis. Bacca pyrenis 4, monospermis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Clerodendron * emirnense ; foliis oppositis ternatisque 
ovatis acutis basi in petiolum brevem attenuatis inte- 
gerrimis vel grosse serratis, corymbis terminalibus, 
corollae tubo gracili staminibus duplo breviore, denti- 
bus calycinis minutis. 

Clerodendron emirnense. Bojer MSS. 

Descr. A much branching shrub, from ten to twenty 
feet high, subject to much variation in the stems and leaves. 
The branches sometimes opposite, sometimes verticillate, 
elongated, flexuose, dotted, and slightly pubescent. Leaves 
m the younger plants or branches, opposite, in the older 
ones ternate or quaternate, from one to two inches or more 
J n length, ovate or oblongo-ovate, shortly acuminate, en- 
tire or grossly serrated, the base attenuated into a short 


From :*„ f0f> i ot> or fortune, and hfy», a tree; and given to this Genus m 
allusion to the salutary or dangerous effects of the different species which con- 
stitute it. Thus, the Cv.fortunatum is useful in medicine } while the Ct. 
C( *(<unitosum and are the reverse. Theis. 

petiole, above dark green and minutely scabrous, beneath 
paler, veined. Corymbs of flowers terminal, of a pale 
purplish or flesh colour, almost white. Peduncles much 
branched, pubescent, and the pedicels bearing two or three 
linear bracteae. Calyx persistent, short, with five, small 
acute teeth. Corolla salver-shaped : the tube long, curved ; 
limb of five, nearly equal, spreading lobes. Stamens four, 
inserted just within the mouth of the tube ; two a little 
shorter, and reaching to twice the length of the tube of the 
corolla. Style a little shorter than the stamens : stigma 
acute. Berry glabrous, globose, included within the some- 
what enlarged calyx, yellowish, four-seeded. 

Discovered by Professor Bojer in waste and mountain- 
ous places about Tananarivou, the capital of the province 
of Emirne, in the interior of Madagascar. Seeds were com- 
municated by that gentleman and by C. Telfair, Esq. to 
Mr. Barclay, at Bury Hill, in whose stove the plants pro- 
duced blossoms in the month of February, 1824. From 
these our drawing was made : but it is only fair to observe, 
that I have lately received from Mrs. Telfair a beautiful 
drawing of this plant, made in the Mauritius, from which it 
is evident, that the plant as it advances in age becomes 
larger in all its parts, especially in the leaves, which are 
twice or thrice the size of those here figured. 

I have adopted the name communicated to Mr. Barclay 
along with the seeds, by Mr. Bojer. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Fruit. 3. Section of the Fruit.— -Magnified. 

!•,!/• hv S t > II, lun' 1 ■*» 

( 2926 ) 


Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla 5-petala, ringeris, petalo superiore fornicato. La- 
bellum basi subtus calcaratum. Stylus alatus. Anther ce 
loculamenta ad marginem alae styli. Willd. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Bonatea* speciosa. 

Bonatea speciosa. Willd. Sp. PL iv. p. 43. Persoon, 

Synop. PL ii. 506. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 284. Sprengel, 

Syst. Veget. iii. 694. 
Orchis speciosa. Thunb. Prodr. p. 4. Linn. Suppl. 401. 

Swartz, Act. Holm. 1800, p. 206. 

Descb. " Hoots fascicled." Whole plant (one and a half foot 
high) erect. Stem jointed, joints swelling a little upwards, round. 
■Leaves (four inches and a half long, two broad), sheathing, ovate, 
spreading on all sides, undulate, reflected at the apex, coriaceous, 
smooth and shining, deep green above, lighter and irregularly 
stained with rusty spots below, collected towards the upper part of 
*he stem, the lower part of which is only cased in black, decayed 
sheaths ; middle-rib strong, and prominent behind, with four to 
fight much smaller lateral nerves. Spike (seven inches long, five 
br °ad) terminal, erect, many-flowered. Bracteas large, pale green, 
ov ate, attenuated at the base, acuminate, smaller upwards. Flowers 
pending obliquely on all sides, nearly sessile ; their perfume some- 
what, roo^r^ui: * j.i!_ j . en __ _ ' ul u.,* ,v.»-o faint. OuteA 

What resembling that of the orange flower, but more faint. Outer 
Perianth of three, membranous, nerved, pointed, green segments ; 
ot which the upper is cucullate, the two lower ovate, oblique, 
spreading, undulate, reflected at the apex, and whitish on their in- 
ner side. I nner Perianth three-parted ; the two upper segments 
"arrow, membranous, linear, pointed, green, as long as the cucul- 
iate portion of the outer perianth, along the edges of which they 
are laid, and each has, arising from its upper edge near the base, a 
niitorm, erect, straight, white appendage, about half as long as 
" se lf. Lower segment (labellum) fleshy, unequally divided into 
flv e ; the lateral portions separated to the base, are spreading, tal- 

MtiJ h "^^ by WlLM *» 0W > iu bonor of Boxato, a celebrated Botanist, 

cate, acute, pure white, the reflected apex tipped with green, the 
inner part thick and fleshy, the outer, especially towards the apex, 
reduced to a thin edge; below these, and rather less deeply sepa- 
rated, are two white, snorter segments, of similar structure to them, 
but, from their thin edge being convolute, they appear like two 
parallel, nearly straight cylinders, distilling honey from their ex- 
tremities, and projecting downwards upon the surface of the cen- 
tral lobe, which is the longest of any^ and is cleft into three long, 
green, linear, flexuose segments; while from its base, in the centre 
of the flower, rises a short, white, blunt, slightly curved, cylindrical 
tooth, round which, and round the mouth of the spur, a fold of 
the perianth passes, connecting to each other the bases of the con- 
volute segments. The two lower segments of the outer perianth 
are connate at the base with the inner. Between the bases of the 
first and second portion of the labellum, there is on each side a 
short, broad, subcrenate, fleshy scale. Spur (an inch and a quar- 
ter long) blunt, flattened, nearly straight, shorter than the germen, 
green. Stamen green, cucullate, placed under the hood of the 
outer perianth. Pollen-Masses two, marginal, spathulato-ellip- 
tical, flattened bi-parted, yellow, granular, on long, elastic pedi- 
cels, which enlarge at their upper extremities, and arise from a 
little adhesive scale, which, as in other Orchide^e, attaching itself 
firmly to any body that is brought into contact with it, causes the 
pollen-mass to be readily drawn from the flower ; segments of the 
pollen-mass somewhat concave on their inner side, granules large, 
loose, and attached only to the outside of the segment. Anther- 
cases greatly attenuated at their bases, projecting forwards like 
two teeth in the middle of the flower, partly covered by the re- 
flected edge of a white, ciliated cucullus, which rises in front of 
the anther-case, and is much larger than it. This investing fold 
of its edge passes backwards, and terminates on each side in the 
fleshy scale, between the base of the first and second segments ot 
the labellum. Germen (about two inches long) longer than the 
spur, green, twisted, unilocular. Ovula minute, very numerous, 
white, naked, forming two waved lines nearly the whole length ot 
the germen, on each of three parietal receptacles. 

This rare plant, the solitary species of a genus presenting a very 
complicated form of flower, is a native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Here, and I suspect in other cases among the Urchidece, the sud- 
den abstraction of the pollen-mass, by the adhesion of the scale at 
the base of its pedicel to the finger of the examiner, has give" 
rise to the belief that it starts out from an elastic power. The pedi- 
cel, when forcibly extended, contracts from elasticity, but never 
forces the pollen-mass from its case, otherwise than by dragging 
it after a substance to which the scale at its base had adhered. 

The specimen described was kindly communicated to the Roy* 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, by Mr. Aiton, from the rich collec- 
tion at Kew, in 1826. It has been always kept in the stove, in 
soil containing a large proportion of peat, and flowered ve y 
freely both last year and this in March and April. The flower 
remain expanded for a considerable time. Graham. ^^_____. 

Fig. 1. Flower, from which the three outer Segments of the Perianth »re^ 
moved. 2. Column of Fructification and Anther. 3. Section of the U>i ^ 
2.5*8 *» " ! *• ** ".Anther aid Sdgma, 5. **»*- 

I ii in 

Vul> 6r S CurtUf.italworVt lu</' U,s'%''. 

f( 2927 ) 
Maxillaria Harrisoniae. Mrs. Harrison's 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^. ) 

Generic Character. 

_ Perianthiun\ patens, resupinatum. Labettum cum pro- 
cessu unguiformi columnae articulatum, trilobum. Foliola 
lateralia exteriora basibus cum processu columnae connata. 
Pollinia 4, basibus connata, glandulosa (vel 2, pedicellata, 
pedicello basi glanduloso.) Herbte parasitica, bulbosae, 
America meridionalis. Racemi (vel scapi uniflori), radi- 
cals. Until. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Maxillaria* Harrisonice ; foliis solitary's lanceolatis pli- 
catis, racemo bifloro, perianthio maximo cerino pa- 
tentee labelli venosi disco gland uloso-piloso, lobis 
recurvis crispis. Lindl. 

Maxillaria Harrisoniae. Bot. Reg. t. 897. 

Oendrobium Harrisoniae. Hook. Ex. Fl t. 120. 

^olax Harrisoniae. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 727. 

Descr. This beautiful plant, which I had the pleasure 
°f naming in compliment to Mrs. Arnold Harrison, of 
Aigburgh, has an oblong, attenuated bulb, clothed at the 
base with a coarse reticulated sheath, and having at the 
extremity a lanceolate, somewhat waved leaf. Scape radi- 
al, bearing two flowers and the rudiment of a third, jointed, 


. * Named by Ruiz ami Pavon from the resemblance of the Labellum to the 
jaw of an animal. 

with sheathing scales at the joints. Flowers very large and 
handsome. The three outer segments of the corolla are 
spreading, oval, the two lower ones united for their whole 
length at the back, and tapering down into a sharpish point, 
which embraces the lower part of the corolla, with its invo- 
lute margins. The color of the three outer segments is 
yellow brown, tinged more deeply at the extremity : the 
two inner ones are rather smaller than the outer, yellowish, 
all of them rather thick and fleshy. Lip large, standing 
nearly erect, and parallel with the column, narrow at the 
base, and yellowish, broad upwards, cut into three large 
lobes, beautifully, marked with purple veins and pubescent; 
of these the two lateral lobes are incurved, the extreme one 
waved, recurved, and obscurely two-lobed. Within, the 
lip is wholly striated with red lines, except in the middle, 
where is a large orange-coloured gland, and hairy. Column 
long, adnate for nearly its whole length, and uniting to- 
gether the base of all the petals. Anther operculiform, 
2-celled. Pollen Masses in two pairs, each pair consisting 
of a larger and a smaller one, attached to the extremity of 
a bifid, large, white, gland, having a duplicature at the 
base. Germen long, cylindrical, or a little thickened up- 
wards, scarcely striated. 

Mr. Lindley has rightly determined this plant to belong 
to the Genus Maxillaria. As to the species, it varies with 
one or two flowers on the scape, and these flowers are cer- 
tainly among the largest of the Genus. They yield too, a 
faint scent resembling that of the Primrose. I had over- 
looked in my figure in Exotic Flora, the gland at the base 
of the pollen-masses, which, indeed, adheres so closely to 
the top of the column, that it is not easily separated. It is, 
however, remarkable for its great size. 

Fig 1 Lip. 2. Upper side of the Pollen-Masses and Gland. 3. Under- 
side of ditto. — Magnified. 

\ 9928 

flip bvS Curh.rValworth,. Au,/'1I6%J 

.to*' 1 

( 2928 ) 

Acacia Oxycedrus. Downy-stemmed 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores polygami. Cal. 4— 5-dentatus. Pet. 4—5, nunc 
libera, nunc in corollam 4 — 5-fidam coalita. Stam. numero 
^naj 10 — 200. Legumen continuum, exsuccum, bivalve. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Acacia* Oxycedrus; stipulis subulatis, petiolis lanceolatis 
acuminato-pungentibus sparsis glabris trinerviis eglan- 
dulosis, spicis axillaribus solitariis, floribus 4-fidis, 
ramis velutinis. 

Acacia Oxycedrus. Sieb. PI. Exs. Nov. Holl. n. Vol. De 
Cand. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 453. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 

. v. 3. p. 136. 

Acacia taxifolia. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1225. (non Willd.) 

Descr. An upright, growing shrub, with very downy 
Ranches, and numerous rigid, dark green, scattered, peti- 
oles, which are lanceolate, attenuated into a long, pungent 
point, glabrous, marked with three distinct and prominent 
nerves, destitute of gland at the margin. At the base of 
"te petiole is a pair of subulate, soft, small, and brownish 
st] Pules. Spikes of flowers axillary, solitary, about two 


tH , Prona ****>* of Dioscorides, which was considered to be a plant of this 

52 a !? d a kind of Thorn ■• ° r «"*& to p° int or shar P en: or > accord,n ^ to 

,s > from ac, in Celtic, which signifies a point. 

inches long, yellow. Rachis pubescent. Calyx quadrifio 1 , 
having a small pubescent bractea at the base. Corolla 
quadrifid, the segments spreading. Stamens very numerous : 
Anthers subglobose. Pistil : Germen oval, pubescent : 
Style filiform, flexuose : Stigma an obtuse point. 

Seeds of this plant were sent to the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden from New Holland by Mr. Fraser : who detected 
the species in the Blue Mountains. Sieber has publish- 
ed it among his beautiful " Specimens of New Holland 
Plants," under the name which I have here adopted. The 
Acacia taxifolia of Willdenow seems to be a very different 
plant, and a native of Cochin China. 

It flowers in the greenhouse in the month of May. 

Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Leaf, with its accompanying Sti- 
pule s . — Magnified. 



If//> /'y.< Curtis. Unlh-r/tlL 

( 2929 ) 
Cestrum alaternoides. Alaternus-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solanejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubuloso-campanulatus, 5-dentatus. Cor. infundi- 
buliformis, limbo plicato, 5-fido. Stam. tubo inserta, sub- 
aenticulata. Bacca 1-locularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cestrum* alaternoides; fruticosum, filamentis denticulatis, 
foliis alternis ovatis undulatis coriaceis nitidis, racemis 

Cestrum alaternoides. " Cat. Hort. Par. 70." Hamilt. 
Prodr. PL Ind. Occ. p. 25. 

Descr. An upright, much branched, glabrous shrub, 
having numerous, alternate, subsessile leaves, an inch and 
a naif to two inches long, ovate, coriaceous, much waved, 
quite entire, obtuse, with a distinct midrib and obscure 
nerves, dark green above and glossy, paler beneath. Flow- 
ers rarely solitary, mostly in short and nearly sessile ra- 
cemes, most crowded towards the extremities of the 
branches. Pedicels with a small, oblong, slightly stellato- 
Pubescent bractea. Calyx nearly cylindrical, with tive 
short, upright teeth. Corolla infundibuliform, pale yellow- 
° green 

a J ^ f ° m * 60T f »> a Greek name supposed to be formerly given to the Belong 
** Ae flowers of the present Genus have often the appearance of being 
^nged in the same way. 

green, with a rather long and almost straight tube : limb 
cleft into five spreading, ovato-lanceolate segments, having 
the margins thickened. Stamens inserted just above the 
tube, within the faux. Filaments short, with a small blunt 
tooth at the base : Anthers roundish. Germen small, glo- 
bose : Style filiform : Stigma dilated and concave. 

Received at the Glasgow Botanic Garden from the late 
Baron de Shack, as a native of Trinidad. It seems en- 
tirely to agree with the C. alatemoides of Dr. William 
Hamilton, in the work above quoted, which is., I believe, 
the only one in which it has been described. 

It requires the heat of the stove, and in that situation, it 
flowers very early in the spring. 

Fig. 1. Single Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Stamen. — Magnified. 

;/■ />■ St 

( 2930 ) 
Stenochilus viscosus. Clammy steno- 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Myoporin2E. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. ringens ; labio superiore erecto, 
semiquadrifido ; inferiore indiviso, angusto, deflexo. Stam. 
didynama, exserta. Ovarium 4-loculare, loculis mono- 
sperm is. Stigma obtusum, indivisum. Drupa baccata, 4- 
locularis. Semina solitaria. 

Frutices glabriusculi ; v. tomento tenuissimo cinerascen- 
tes. Folia alterna, scepius Integra, avenia. Pedunculi 
solitarii, unifiori, ebracteati. Flores purpurei v. flavicardes. 
Drupae putamen abortione scepe biloculare. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Stenochilus* viscosus; foliis ovato-lanceolatis serratis 
postice integerrimis ramulisque nitidis viscosis, flori- 
bus axillaribus solitariis. Graham. 

Stenochilus viscosus. Graham in Edinb. Phil. Journ. 
Jan. 1829, p. 387. 

Descr. Shrub erect, bark brown and smooth ; young 
branches subangular, scabrous, glutinous, green. Leaves 
(one inch and a half long,) scattered, ovato-lanceolate, sub- 
acute, coriaceous, rigid, suberect, slightly concave, gluti- 
n °us, shining, bluntly and distantly serrated in their upper 

, * ST» 0f , dender, and v„*o S , « lip. The lower lip of the corolla being pecu- 
har »y narrow. 

half, entire behind, obscurely and sparingly veined, midrib 
blunt, and slightly prominent below. Flowers solitary, 
axillary, collected towards the extremities of the shoots, 
longer than the leaves. Peduncles three lines long, green, 
filiform. Calyx half an inch long, green, five-cleft, seg- 
ments subulate, glutinous within and without, the upper 
broadest and longest, the two lateral ones shorter and nar- 
rower than those below. Corolla above an inch long, yel- 
low, ringent, curved, pubescent both within and without, 
the hairs distilling from their extremities a viscid, colour- 
less fluid, bilabiate ; upper lip very broad, and folded down 
by the sides of the flower, four toothed, teeth subulate, 
those at the sides reflected, and their apices approaching 
behind the two in the centre, which are erect, with their 
apices somewhat spreading ; lower lip much more narrow, 
linear, entire, blunt, revolute, tube inflated at its base, nec- 
tariferous. Stamens didynamous, arising from the inflated 
portion of the tube, exserted, (projecting half an inch be- 
yond the corolla) ; filaments thread-like, nearly straight, 
yellow, inserted into the back of the anthers; anthers ob- 
long, bilobular, with a rounded, continuous border ; lobes 
bursting in front ; pollen yellow. Stigma minute, blunt, 
cleft, greenish. Style purple, filiform, (four and a half 
lines) longer than the stamens, over which it is curved. 
Germen ovate, slightly flattened, yellow, greenish towards 
its apex. 

This species is a native of New Holland, from whence 
seeds were imported by F. Henchman, Esq. and plants 
raised by Mr. Mackay, in his nursery at Clapton, along 
with many other additions to our greenhouses from the 
same quarter. The specimen above described was kindly 
communicated by him to the Royal Botanic Garden, Ednv 
burgh, in October last. It flowered in the beginning ot 
March. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Young Fruit, nat. size. 4. Section of 
ditto, magnified. 

( 2931 ) 


Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Petala 5, distincta, conformia, adsendentia, patentia. 
Labellum basi calcaratum ; lamina sessili, cristata, triloba, 
postice indivisa. Masses pollinis 2, bilobae, lobulo postico. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

EULOPHIA* streptopetala ; foliis lineari-Ianceolatis nervosis, 
scapis simplicibus, sepalis exterioribus oblongis obtusis, 
interioribus duplo majoribus coloratis basi tortis, la- 
belli lobo medio rotundato (emarginato ?) : calcare 
conico abbreviate Ldndley. 

Eulophia streptopetala. Bot. Reg. t. 1002. 

Descr. Bulb (three inches long, one broad) ovate and 
somewhat elongated, green and smooth, but cased in the 
withered bases of the leaves. Leaves (one foot long, one 
inch broad), bright green, equitant, articulated above their 
dilated bases by which they ensheath the bulb, strongly 
nerved, plicate, linear-lanceolate, about seven perfect, and 
two or three on the outside, having the dilated bases only. 
Scape (three feet high), rising from the base of the bulb, 
erect, jointed, with alternate, marcescent pointed sheaths 
rising from the joints. Spike many-flowered, evolved before 
the leaves on the bulb which produced it decayed, and after 
the leaves of a new bulb had nearly attained their full size. 
Bracte(B resembling diminished sheaths, ovate, pointed, 
equal in length to the germen. Flowers single, inodorus, 
handsome. External perianth of three segments, reflected, 
ovate, acuminate, contracted at the base, obscurely nerved, 
green and irregularly spotted with brown within ; internal 
Perianth of two segments, similar in form to the external, 


Er*of oj, on account of the crest of the labellum. 

but rather broader, and blunt with a smaller point, project- 
ing forwards, nearly horizontal, bright yellow on the out- 
side, paler within. Labellum articulated at the base of the 
column, of three segments, the two lateral the smallest, 
erect, broad and blunt, reflected' in the edge, pale yellow 
on the outside, brownish within, with a few dark streaks at 
the base, crenate where it joins the central lobe, which is 
subrotund, reflected at the sides, crisped, but entire at the 
edge, excepting at the apex, where it is subcrenate, on the 
outside having nearly the same colour with the outside of 
the inner perianth, but darker and somewhat orange within, 
thicker than any other part of the perianth, all of which is 
somewhat fleshy, the green outer segments the least so. 
Spur very short, straight, conical, but gibbous on both 
sides towards the apex. Column projecting horizontally 
into the centre of the flower, nearly white, clavato-oblong, 
thick and fleshy, rounded above, flat below. Anther-case 
terminal, pear-shaped, emarginate, having two cysts for the 
pollen-masses, and in the middle of each an imperfect lon- 
gitudinal septum. Pollen-Masses two, waxy, orange, pear- 
shaped, furrowed on the side next the anther-case for the 
reception of the imperfect septum, simple, arising by a 
common, thin, colourless, oblong pedicel longer than them- 
selves, from a scale of similar appearance, oval, and glutinous. 
Germen (one inch long) rather slender, green, twisted, fur- 
rowed, flat on one side, rounded on the other. 

In one of the flowers on our specimen, there is a remark- 
able monstrosity. One of the segments of the inner peri- 
anth is reflected, and assumes the appearance of the outer 
perianth, and on each side of the perfect anther there is an 
abortive but distinct appearance of two others, making the 
whole number five. Mr. Brown remarks, that the appear- 
ance of one abortive stamen on each side of the perfect one 
in many Orchide;e, brings them within the ternary arrange- 
ment so common in monocotyledonous plants ; and Dr- 
Hooker shows, that in Epidendrcm fuse alum, Bot. Mag 
2844, the three anthers are all perfected ; but the singular 
monstrosity which I have noticed, would show that the ten- 
dency exists to carry our plant forward to the quinary 
arrangement of Dicotyledones. 

We received our plant in 1828 from the garden at Kew, 
where so much has been done lately to extend the high re- 
putation of that noble collection. It has been kept in the 
stove, and flowered in April, growing in a pot, among 
pieces of bark. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower, from which the Labellum is removed. 2- 
Labellum. 3. Pollen-Mass.— Magnifi ed. 

( 2932 ) 



Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Pontedere^e. Rich. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6-fida, ringens. Stam. tria longiora ori, tria basi 
corolla? inserta. Stylus declinatus. Caps, carnosa, trilocu- 
laris. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pontederia* azurea ; foliis rhombeis cordatisque, petiolis 

incrassatis intus cellulosis. 
Pontederia azurea. Swartz Fl. Ind. Occ. v. I. p. 609. 

Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. v. I. p. 212. (ed. in 

fil.) Willd. Sp. PI. v. 2. p. 22. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 

v. 2. p. 42. Reliq. Hank. fasc. II p. 116. * 
Pontederia crassipes. Mart, in Nov. Gen. et Sp. Bras. v. 

1. p. 9. ? 

Descr. Whole plant, as cultivated in the aquarium of 
the stove, floating upon the surface of the water ; the roots 
not descending to the bottom ; and these are exceedingly 
numerous, many of them thick and fleshy, and sent out 
horizontally, apparently for the purpose of producing new 
plants, whilst others are more slender, exceedingly long, 
a nd clothed with numerous long, horizontal fibres. Every 


* In honor of Julius Ponteder.*, a Professor of Botany at Padua, during 
* e beginning of the last century. 

root has a calyptrate covering at the extremity, similar to 
that found on the roots of the Duck-weeds (Lemn#i). The 
Plant is stemless ; and, immediately above the roots, there 
rises a tuft of spreading, beautifully green leaves, almost 
entirely emersed : these leaves vary considerably in shape, 
sometimes almost rotundate, sometimes rhomboid, often 
quite cordate, acute, or not unfrequently obtuse at the 
point, having numerous nerves, which are nearly straight 
in the middle of the leaf, but which, towards the sides 
follow their curvature. Petioles various in length, all of 
them more or less thickened and inflated below the middle ; 
the longest ones the least so : internally, they are remark- 
ably cellular, the cells filled with air, which no doubt 
assist the plant in floating. At their base are sheath- 
ing, large scales, at first green, then brown. Scape 
about a foot long, having sheathing scales at and above 
the middle, waved at the margin, and one of these is gener- 
ally terminated with one leaf, small, otherwise resembling 
that of the root. Flowers in a large, lax, and most beau- 
tiful spike ; ten or twelve on each scape ; and inserted 
upon an angular rachis. Tube of the perianth long, 
curved, pubescenti-glandular, white, greenish at the base, 
where it is jointed upon the rachis, and accompanied by a 
small, deciduous bractea. Limb of six, oblongo-obovate 
segments, pubescent at the base externally, the rest gla- 
brous ; the colour a pale delicate purple ; the five lower 
segments nearly equal in size ; the uppermost larger, with 
a blue cloud, or stain in the middle, and in the centre of it 
is an oblong, bright yellow spot. Stamens inserted within 
the tube, three short and three long, all curved upwards 
towards the extremity, and bearing a bluish-yellow, oblong, 
two-celled anther : 'Filaments of a lilac-colour, with nu- 
merous, pellucid, pedicellated glands. Germen superior, 
oblong, glabrous, green, with three furrows, tapering up- 
wards into a long, white style, which is glandular upwards. 
Stigma capitate, glandulose, white. The number of cells 
in the germen is three, and the ovules are numerous, at- 
tached to the central angles of the cells without any pro- 
minent receptacles. 

This most curious and beautiful of plants has, I believe, 
for some years been cultivated in our stoves, and was intro- 
duced by Mr. Aiton to the Royal Gardens, at Kew; and, n 
I mistake not, from Brazil. To that gentleman we are in- 
debted for the possession of our plants in the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, where tjiey flowered in great perfection, 

in July, 1829, immediately on being removed from a small 
tub to the larger aquarium of the stove. 

Every where, I believe, in our collections, this plant has 
been cultivated under the name of Pontederia crassipes, 
in consequence of that name having been brought more 
immediately into notice 'by the beautiful figure (in Spix 
and Martius' Genera and Species of Brazilian plants) of 
his P. crassipes. But if that plant be constant in the 
colour of its flowers, as there represented, to the absence 
of the glands on the filaments of the stamens, and to the 
presence of them of a violet black colour on the germen, 
as there described, ours must be distinct, and is, I think, 
quite identical with the P. azurea of Swartz. The flowers 
of our plant become quite blue when dry, which may ac- 
count for Swartz's name. Humboldt describes the colour 
more correctly, from specimens gathered in New Grenada. 
Our valued friend Mr. Parker sent us from Demerara dried 
specimens, which had the flowers apparently wholly blue ; 
but a coloured sketch of the flower, made from the living 
plant, was in every respect like those here figured. ILenke 
met with the species at Guayakil, and Dr. Gillies in pools 
of water at Buenos Ayres. The plant must, therefore, 
have a very extensive geographical range, and seems to 
hold the place in South America, that Pontederia cor- 
data does in the Northern part of that vast continent. 

_ %■ 1. Anther and portion of the Filament. 2. Pistil. 3. Section of the 
Germen. 4. Leaves and Root. 5. Detached Leaf.— All but fig. 4 and 5 more 
«f less magnified. 

( 2933 ) 



Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Saxifrages. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-fidus, superus. Pet. b, pinnatifida. Stam. nunc 
5 - Stigmata 2, sessilia. Capsula unilocularis, bivalvis, 


Specific Character. 

Stella * pentandra ; pubescenti - scabra, foliis cordato- 
lobatis crenatis, floribus pentandris, filamentis brevis- 
simis, stigmatibus bilobis. 

. Descr. Root perennial, oblique, rather thick, and throw - 
lr *g out numerous, branched fibres, bearing, at its upper 
extremity, many leaves, all of them radical, and inter- 
spersed with many brown, ovate, shining, membranaceous 
scales. The form of these leaves is cordate ; they are lobed 
a * the margin, with from five to seven rounded, crenated, 
°} crenato-serrated lobes, having many scattered, or rather 
n gid hairs. Petioles generally longer than the leaves, 
somewhat hispid. Among the leaves, there arise from the 
root also, many flower-stalks or scapes, four or five times 
longer than the leaves, erect, slender, downy at the base, 
an « here and there below the middle, having a few brown, 
c °ncave scales. Flowers in racemes, which are erect, at 


*„ ,F rom mitra, a mitre ; the two-valved capsule bearing: some resemblance 
t0 a little ---- 

•e mitre. 

the extremity of the scapes, which become elongated as the 
fructification advances to maturity. Pedicels very short, 
downy. Calyx having its tube obconical and adnate with 
the germen, downy, the limb or free portion deeply cleft 
into five triangular, reflected segments, green. Corolla of 
five, pectinated, yellow, reflexed petals, alternating with 
the segments of the calyx, and inserted at their sinuses, the 
segments few, and very slender, opposite. Stamens only 
five, inserted just at the base of the petals. Filament ex- 
tremely short, incurved, shorter than the anther, which is 
subglobose, two-celled, yellow. Germen immersed in the 
tube of the calyx, its upper, and almost flattened extremity 
being alone free. Stigmas two, sessile, bilobed, downy. 
Capsule invested by the persistent calyx and petals, top- 
shaped, opening at the extremity between the stigmas, into 
two short, but very spreading valves, which lie back so 
much as to expose the seeds entirely, long before they are 
ready to be dispersed. These are attached to two oppo- 
site, longitudinal and parietal receptacles. 

Raised in the Botanic Gardens both of Edinburgh and 
Glasgow, from seeds brought from the Rocky Mountains of 
North America, by Mr. Drummond. The plant as may be 
supposed is perfectly hardy : blossoming early in June, 
and scattering its numerous polished - black seeds before 
the end of that month. 

Notwithstanding the reduced number of stamens in this 
plant, the short filaments, and the two-lobed stigma, so en- 
tirely has it the habit and every essential character of 
Mitella, that I am unwilling to separate it from that 
Genus. The petals are very beautiful, always reflexed, 
and of a rather rigid texture. 

Fig. I. Unexpanded Flower. 2. Flower fully opened. 3. Petal. 4. 
Stamen. 5. Capsule, with its Valves burst, and including the Seeds.-'AII 
more or less magnified. 

'>." It,,/,,-,,//, Sen 

( 2934 ) 

Drajba aurea. Golden-flowered 
Whitlow Grass. 

Class and Order. 
Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 

( Nat. Ord. — Crucifeb^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Silicula integra,, ovalis : valvis planis v. convexiusculis ; 
loculis polyspermis. Semina immarginata : cotyledonibus 
accumbentibus. Filamenta edentula. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Drab a * aurea ; pubescens, caule erecto simplici folioso, 
foliis ovato-lanceolatis acutis integris dentatisque, co- 
rymbis terminalibus axillaribusque, siliculis oblongo- 
lanceolatis pubescentibus pedicello triplo- longioribus, 
petalis emarginatis. 

Dbaba aurea. " VahL" Horn. Fl. Dan. v. 9. t. 1460. 
De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 350. Prodr. v. I. p. 
170. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 875. 

Descr. Root apparently biennial. Stem inclined at the 
base, then erect, simple, stout in proportion to the size of 
fne plant, pubescenti-hirsute, leafy. Leaves among the 
largest of the species, often an inch and more long, sessile, 
ovato-lanceolate, the lowermost ones crowded and slightly 
japering below, the rest alternate, erecto-patent, entire, or 
frequently, especially in the cultivated plant, having re- 

. * Prom $*&, of Dioscorides, a name supposed to be given to the Whitlow 
^ra ss , 0r to some aUied p , ant# Uvvxvs 6 « y8 the word means acrid or 

mote teeth or serratures at the margin, acute, obscurely 
nerved, on both sides pubescent with branched hairs. 
Corymbs of several flowers, axillary, from the upper leaves, 
and terminal. The axillary flowers in the wild specimens 
are not unfrequently reduced to a single blossom, as re- 
presented in the Flora Danica. Peduncles pubescenti- 
hirsute, as are the pedicels, which are shorter than the 
calyx. Calyx with scattered patent hairs. Petals spathu- 
late, bright yellow, notched at the extremity. Germen 
subcylindrical, with the style about one quarter its length. 
Stigma two-lobed. Pouch oblongo-lanceolate, the valves 
plane, pubescent. Seeds numerous. 

Hitherto this species has only been known upon the 
authority of Vahl and Horneman as a native of Greenland. 
We have now the satisfaction of numbering it among the 
plants of the continent of North America, and likewise too, 
as a denizen of our gardens : it having been found by Mr. 
Drummond upon the summits of the Rocky Mountains; 
whence have been derived the seeds from which our flow- 
ering specimens were produced in the Botanic Gardens, 
both of Edinburgh and Glasgow. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Stamens. 4. Pistil. 5. Pouch, with the 
Valves separating from the Dissepiment. 

C 2935 ) 

Tradescantia crassula. White-flow- 
ered Tradescantia. 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Commeline^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. et Cor. profunde 3-partita. Filamenta subvillosa. 
Caps. 3-locularis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Tradescantia* crassula; caule ascendente ramoso glabro, 
foliis oblongo-lanceolatis nitidis glaberrimis integer - 
rimis nervosis vaginisque ciliatis, umbellis termina- 
libus, filamentis basi villosis. 

Tradescantia crassula- Link in Litt. Graham in Edin. 
Phil. Journ. Oct. 1828, p. 387. 

, Descr. Stem three feet long, stout, succulent, ascend - 
m g, rooting at the joints, smooth and shining, green, 
occasionally purple, especially at the joints. Leaves four 
to nine inches long, one to two broad, alternate, fleshy, 
oblongo- lanceolate, mucronate when young, but soon 
Withering at the tip, bent back, slightly channelled in the 
Middle, and reflexed at the sides, naked and shining on 
°oth sides, sheathing, ciliated, especially when young, and 
at the base : sheaths half an inch long, shortest in the 
u PPer leaves, ciliated, adpressed. Umbels simple, many- 

, 4 fter Joh n Tradescant, an Englishman, and a great patron of Botany 
r, y m the seventeenth century. 

flowered, axillary, peduncled, the uppermost but one gener- 
ally sessile, solitary, or two together, of unequal heights ; 
involucrum of two opposite, unequal, ovate leaflets, resem- 
bling the ordinary leaves of the plant. Peduncles one to 
three inches long, angular, straight, smooth, and shining. 
Pedicels full half an inch long, like the peduncles, but re- 
flected when the flower has faded. Calyx of three green, 
boat-shaped, spreading leaflets, hairy upon the whole of 
their outer surface, except at the narrow, transparent, mem- 
branous edge ; hairs tapering, simple, transparent, colour- 
less, arising from slight, glandular elevations. Corolla 
little more than half an inch across, of three flat, spreading, 
ovate petals, pure white, and twice as long as the calyx, 
every where smooth. Stamens six, erect, shorter than the 
corolla ; Filaments colourless, smooth, excepting at the 
base, where each is surrounded with a tuft of jointed, co- 
lourless hairs, as long as itself. Anthers orange-coloured, 
kidney-shaped, loculaments distant, bursting at the edge ; 
pollen yellow. Pistil single, white ; Stigma small ; Style 
longer than the stamens, tapering both above and below ; 
Germen obovate, trigonous, trilocular. Graham. 

This plant was received by Dr. Graham, at the Edin- 
burgh Botanic Garden, from Berlin, under the name of 
Tradescantia crassula of Link, in 1828, and it blossomed 
in the stove in the months of December and January fol- 
lowing. We are ignorant of its native country. 

Fig. 1. Bud. 2. 3. Flower. 4. Stamen. 5. A Hair from the Filament 
of ditto. 6. Pistil. 7. Section of the Germen. 

( 2936 ) 

, Andromeda hypnoides. Hypnum-like 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Ericineje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. sub-campanulata, limbo reflexo. 
Antherae bicornes. Caps. 5-locularis, marginibus valvarum 
nudis, columna centrali quinquelobo. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Andromeda* hypnoides; pedunculis solitariis unifloris ter- 
mmalibus, corolla campanulata 5-fida laciniis obtusis 
conn iventi bus., stylo ovato-acuminato, foliis imbricatis 
pluriseriatis erectis subulatis. Graham. 

Andromeda hypnoides. Linn. Succ. p. .355. Sp. PL v. 1. 
P- 563. FL Lapp. p. 165. t.\. f. 3. Willd. Sp. PL 
v 2. p. 606. FL Dan. t. 10. Wahl. FL Suec. p 450. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 289. Ait. Hort. Keic. ed. 
2. v. 3. p. 51. Graham in Edin. N. Phil. Journ. July, 

Descr. Stem procumbent, much branched, every where 
covered with leaves. Leaves imbricated, erect, minutely 
pubescent, ciliated, subulate, flat above, rounded below. 
Peduncles (three lines long) terminal, solitary, one-flowered, 
jcd- Flowers drooping. Calyx five-parted, red, sub-acute. 
Corolla pure white, when, as in the specimens here de- 

* So named by Linnaeus after the virgin Andromeda, because it is attach- 
ed t0 r °cks in the midst of marshes which abound in aquatic monsters. 

scribed, raised under glass; but said to be reddish in native 
specimens, campanulate, five-cleft, segments rounded, but 
having a minute mucro, and slightly connivent, three-ribbed, 
central rib undivided, those at the sides fainter, and branched. 
Stamens ten, connivent ; filaments glandular, flat, slightly 
dilated below, yellowish above and below, colourless in the 
middle ; anthers orange-brown, bilobular, lobes blunt and 
rounded at the terminations, pores rounded, each with two 
reflexed awns, much longer than itself, and diverging a 
little. Pistil rather longer than the stamens : Germen 
green, globose, scarcely lobed, wrinkled, surrounded by 
brownish glands at its base : Style articulated on the top of 
the germen, suddenly swollen above its base, and gradually 
tapering upwards : Stigma blunt. 

This extremely pretty little plant was introduced from 
Canada, by Mr. Blair, into the extensive and interesting 
collection of Mr. Cunningham, at Comely Bank, near Edin- 
burgh, in 1826 ; and this enterprising cultivator had the 
satisfaction of seeing the plant come into flower in his 
garden in May last ; the first time it had been seen in 
Scotland, and after it had been lost in England. 

Pursh and Nuttall confine the American station of this 
plant to the north-west coast ; but this Mr. Blair did not 
visit. It is, therefore, more diffused in the northern parts of 
America, and as it is a most abundant plant in the north of 
Europe and Asia, it is extremely probable that it may one 
day in the north of Scotland reward the labour of some 
British botanist : for, unless when it is in flower, it may be 
very easily overlooked. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Back view, and 3, front view of a Stamen. 4. Pistil 
5. Section of the Germen. 6. Leaf. — All more or less Magnified. 

I'll/' l>v S. /'urfi.fWulu; rth Sfp*2Jgf&. 

( 2937 ) 

Orobus stipulaceus. Large stipuled 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.- — Leguminos-e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. campanulatus, 5-fidus, lobis duobus superioribus 
brevioribus. Cor. papilionacea. Stam. diadelphia. Stylus 
gracilis, linearis, apice villosus. Legumen cylindraceum, 
oblongum, 1-loculare, bivalve. Semina hilo lineari. D. C. 

Specific Character. 

Orobus* stipulaceus; caule erecto angulato, superne subra- 
moso, foliis bi-trijugis, foliolis lineari -attenuatis lon- 
gissimis obscure trinerviis glabris, stipulis magnis 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem erect, herbaceous, slender, 
acutely angular, but not winged, often entirely simple, at 
°ther times slightly branched above. Leaves remote, 
spreading, of two or three pair of opposite, very long, linear, 
attenuate, glabrous, leaflets : dark green above, paler be- 
neath, with a distinct midrib, between which and the 
Jfiargin is a conspicuous nerve throwing out occasional 
branches on both sides. Petiole terminated by a bristle. 
Stipules large, green, semi -sagittate, obscurely nerved, quite 


* From 0? w, to excite or invigorate, and 0w«, an ox. Because this or 
»ome allied Genus was so called by the Greeks on account of its yielding food 

for cattle. 

entire at the margins. Peduncle terminal, or from the axil 
of a superior leaf, bearing at its extremity a raceme of few, 
but showy handsome drooping flowers. Pedicels short, 
curved. Calyx purple-green, very abrupt at the base, the 
mouth oblique, the uppermost teeth being considerably the 
shortest. Vexillum purple, with two prominent obtuse 
teeth near the middle, one on each side, which embrace 
the iuner petals. Alee almost blue, firmly cohering by their 
lower margins to the purple carina. Stamens as in 0. 
tuberosus. Style linear, pubescent on its upper and plane 

The drawing of this species of Orobus was made from a 
plant which flowered in the Glasgow Botanic Garden in 
May, 1829 : but whence the plant came, or how it esta- 
blished itself in the collection, we are ignorant. From the 
circumstance of its appearing among several American 
plants, Mr. Murray is of opinion it may have been 
introduced by accident from North America. Certain it 
is, that I can find no description that will accord with it, 
nor do I know of any with such very long leaflets. Those, 
too, among the described species of Orobus, which have 
long and narrow leaflets, have usually narrow and almost 
subulate stipules also. 

In my Herbarium is an Orobus from M. Schleicher, 
under the name of O. setiformis, which I can only distin- 
guish from the present plant by its smaller size and shorter 
leaflets: a native I presume of Switzerland. But again in 
Steudei/s Nomenclator the O. setiformis of c< Schleicher" 
is referred to the O. canescens, a very different species. 

Fig 1. Flower. 2. Vexillum. 3. Carina and Alse. 4. Stamens and Pistil. 
5. Style. — Magnified. 

/■/v. i' Curli&TMmnaUBi />,■/'■ //■>:>" 

( 2938 ) 

Cypripedium macranthon. Large- 
flowered Lady's Slipper. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum ventricosum, inflatum (nunc saccatum). Co- 
lumna postice terminata lobo petaloideo (stamine sterili) 
antheras distinguente. Petala Santica, saepius counata. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cypripedium* macranthon ; lobo columnar elongato-cor- 

dato, ore labelli perianthio brevioris contracto crenu- 

lato, antheris dorso aristatis, caule folioso, foliis gla- 

Cypripedium macranthon. Swartz Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 

103. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 4. p. 145. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 

v. 3. p. 745. 
Calceolus purpureus speciosus. Amman. Ruth. p. 132. n. 

176. t. 21 
Calceolus y. petalis nectario aequalibus aut minoribus. 

Gmel. Sib.v. l.p.2.t.l.y. 

Descr. Stem simple, a span or more high,, terete, joint- 
ed, pubescent, at the base having a sheathing* scale, the 
root a good deal concealed by the long, sheathing bases of 
">ur or five leaves, which are ovate, attenuated at the base, 
Wft vy, striated, or almost plicated, downy at the margin 


From Kuirpof, Venus, and noSwv, a slipper, Venus s Slipper, from the 
sI »ape of the Labellum. 

and on the nerves beneath, of a palish green colour. Pedun- 
cle terminal, enveloped by the base of a large floral leaf, 
glabrous. Flower solitary, large, very handsome, of an 
almost uniform purple colour, the two lateral or lowermost 
segments of the perianth, (which are united, except at the 
extremity, and adpressed to the underside of the labellum,) 
alone being greenish brown : Uppermost segment reflexed, 
large, broadly ovate : two inner ones broadly lanceolate, 
spreading, or slightly reflexed, dotted and hairy at the base 
within, and beautifully marked with deeper lines of purple. 
Labellum very large, inflated, broadly oval, striated and 
reticulated, the mouth contracted and crenated with a white 
margin : within at the base it is spotted with purple, and 
hairy. Column bent downward into the mouth of the 
labellum. Anthers large, roundish oval, deep brownish- 
green, two celled, bearing on the lower part of the back a 
softy, fleshy spur. Abortive one, a flat, minutely glandular 
disk, pedunculated : from the back of which arises the 
elongato-cordate, petaloid lobe, of a pale reddish colour. 
Germen elongato-clavate, sharply angular. 

This beautiful species of Cypripedium, quite new to our 
collections, is said by Amman to be found at Tobolsk, and 
by Gmelin, to be frequent in all Siberia, within the 58° of 
latitude, in open places, or in woods composed of scattered 

Seeds had often been sent by Dr. Fischer of St. Peters- 
burg to the Glasgow Botanic Garden ; but we never 
succeeded in cultivating the plant until last year, when 
roots were presented to us by the same liberal Botanist. 
One of these, from which the present figure and descrip- 
tion were made, blossomed under the protection of a frame 
in May, 1829. 

C. macranthon appears to be nearly allied to the C ven- 
tricosum, which I only know by the figure of Sweet's Brit. 
Fl. Garden, New Series, 1. 1. But there the two innermost 
segments of the perianth are much narrower, and longer 
than the lip, the mouth of the lip is larger, and with a small 
cleft at the lowest extremity, and is not so regularly notch- 
ed as in our plant. The whole colour too is a deeper 

Fig, 1. Perianth, from which the Labellum (f. 2.) is removed. 3. B»<* 
view of the Column. 4. Front view of ditto. 5. Side view of ditto, slight 
magnified. —Fig. 1, 2, 3, and 4, are represented of the nat. size. 

t'ah f'r X t ii/ii.v Kal^rfA Orfl^H 

( 2939 ) 


Bay Fig. 

Class and Order, 


( Nat. Ord. -■* Urtice^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum carnosum, clausum, apice parvum, andro- 
^ynum. Flosculi pedicellate 3-partiti. Stam. 1—3, 3— 
8-partiti. Stylus lateralis. Semina in pulpo receptaeuli 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ficus rubiginosa ; foliis ellipticis obtusis coriaceis basi vix 
cordatis, junioribus subtus praecipue ferrugineo-pubes- 
centibus, receptaculis geminatis sphaericis cum umbone 
tuberculatis, pedunculo brevi, superne incrassato. 

Ficus rubiginosa. " Desf. Cat. Hort. Par. 209." Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 782. 

*icus australis. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 4. p. 1138. Ait. Hort. 
Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 486. 

*icus ferruginea. Hort. 

Descr. A small tree in our stoves, throwing out many, 
Reading branches, and from the stem and branches nu- 
merous woody roots, which reach the ground, like those of 
toe famous Banyan, and give new support to those parts. 
leaves numerous, handsome, three to four inches long, 
coriaceous, elliptical, quite entire, on petioles about an 

* From the Latin, Jicus, a fig. 

inch long, obtuse at the point, and at the base, where there 
is sometimes a shallow sinus ; from the midrib there branch 
off several parallel nerves : when young, they are covered, 
but especially on the underside, with a ferruginous down; 
the older ones are glabrous, except on the nerves beneath. 
Peduncles in pairs, from the axils of the leaves, short, 
thickened upwards. Receptacle scarcely so large as a 
Hazel-nut, greenish brown, globose, with an obtuse umbo 
at the point, the surface granulated with small tubercles. 
This includes many male and female flowers, each petio- 
lated, and having two, small, lanceolate scales at its base. 
Perianth of each three-parted, the segments roundish oval, 
concave. Stamen single : Filament short; Anther reniform. 
Pistil solitary. Germen oval, pedicellate ; Style lateral, 

Introduced by the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, in 
1789, from New South Wales to the Royal Gardens, whence 
it has been distributed, and is, we believe, now general in 
collections of stove plants. Its fructification is, however, 
of rare occurrence. The specimen from which the accom- 
panying figure was taken was sent by the Messrs. Shepherd, 
from the Liverpool Garden, in the summer of 1827. 

Fig. 1. Male Flower. 2. Female ditto. 3. Receptacle of the Flowers.— 
All magnified. 


( 2940 ) 

Gaillardia aristata. Whole-coloured 


Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Prustranea. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum paleaceum, hemisphaericum. Pappus pa- 
ieaceus. Involucrum imbricatum, planum, polyphyllurn. 
Cor. radii trifidee. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gaillardia * aristata ; pubescenti-hirsuta, foliis oblongis 
inferioribus sinuato-pinnatifidis, in petiolum attenuatis, 
superioribus sessilibus integerrimis, radio unicolore. 

Gaillardia aristata. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. v. 2. p. 573. 
Bot. Reg. t. 1186. 

Gaillardia bicolor, var. Nutt. Gen. Am. v. 2. p. 175. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 618. 

Descr. A rather tall branching plant, with striated 
I etns ; which are every where., as well as the leaves,, more or 
es s pubescent or hairy. Leaves oblong, four to six inches 
on g, rather dark, but glaucous green : those springing 
r °m the root and lower part of the stem attenuated at the 
bas e, sinuated, sometimes often pinnatifid, the segments 
r °unded, obtuse, the upper cauline leaves quite sessile and 
entire : midrib rather strong ; nerves few, oblique. Pe- 
wncles long, terminal, single-flowered. Flower large, 


q Named in compliment to a French Botanic Amateur, M. Gaillard dc 
J Ar entonneau. It is often incorrectly spelled Galardia. 

showy. Involucre of many imbricated, lax, linear-lanceo- 
late/ acuminated, pubescent scales, which at length spread 
almost flat. Florets of the ray, all of a pale, uniform yellow, 
cuneate, trifid. Germen abortive, crowned with five, small, 
subulate, chaffy scales. Florets of the centre perfect. Co- 
rolla tubular, bright yellow, tipped with purplish red, and 
clothed with stout hairs or bristles of the same colour. 
Anthers purple. Germen oblong, green, hairy at the base. 
Pappus of five white, membranaceous, chaffy scales, which 
terminate in long awl-shaped points. Stigmas long, linear, 
hispid, with purple red hairs. 

The principal difference between this and G. bicolor of 
our gardens, consists in the leaves being entire in the upper 
part of the stem, and in the ray of the flower being of one 
pale, uniform, yellow colour. Pursh described it from the 
Herbarium of Lewis, who found it in the Rocky Mountains, 
on dry hills. Mr. Douglas discovered it abundantly in dry 
soils, through a tract of country extending from the Rocky 
Mountains, to the Western ocean ; every where retaining 
the characters above mentioned, which distinguish it from 
the G. bicolor. It varies in size : for intermixed with the 
common appearance of the plant, Mr. Douglas saw many 
which did not arrive to a height greater than ten or twelve 
inches, and having all the leaves entire. It flowers in July, 
and will soon become common : the seeds having been in- 
troduced by the Horticultural Society, and by them liber- 
ally dispersed among our gardens. 

Fig. 1. Radical Leaf, natural size. 2. Floret of the Ray. 3. Floret of 
the Disk. — Magnified. 

tf * 


lUmnik OarjJ&A 

( 2941 ) 

Linaria jEquitriloba. Small Fleshy- 
leaved Toad-flax. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — ScrophularinjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. personata, calcarata. Capsula bi- 
locularis, apice dentibus dehiscens. Semina submarginata. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Linaria* cequitriloba ; pubescens, caule repente filiformi, 
foliis cordatis carnosis obtusissimis integris trilobisque, 
lobis rotundatis integerrimis subaequalibus, pedunculis 
axillaribus, calcare calyce breviore. 

Linaria aequitriloba. Viviani Fl. Cors. Sp. Nov. p. 10. 
(sub. non. Antirrhini aquitrilobij . Muller in Un. 
Itin. 1827. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. % p. 790. 

Descr. Apparently a perennial plant, considerably tuft- 
ed; but having the stems filiform and creeping upon the 
ground, much branched, the branches as well as the leaves 
clothed with a very fine pubescence. Leaves broadly cor- 
date, very obtuse, fleshy in our cultivated specimens, quite 
entire ; but in the wild specimens gathered by M. Muller 
although many of the leaves are entire, others are three- 
Jobed, with the lobes rounded, blunt, nearly equal : petiole 
longer than the leaf, pubescent. Peduncles filiform, longer 
than the leaves, axillary, solitary, or two from the same 


* This was the specific name of a species formerly referred to Antirrhi- 
num, Li nar i a . from i t ; numf i ts leaves resembling those of Flax. 

point, curved, downy. Calyx quinquepartite, pubescent. 
Corolla beautiful purple, personate, tube elongated, inside 
of the lips more inclining to blue ; palate large, pale red- 
dish-purple, pubescent, 

Seeds of this beautiful little plant gathered by M. Muller 
on rocks at Laconi, in Sardinia, were sent by the German 
Travelling Society, or " Unio Itineraria" to Dr. Graham, 
in 1828 ; and the specimens from which the above descrip- 
tion is taken, were raised from those seeds, and blossomed 
in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, in June, 1829. The 
plant has hitherto been protected during winter in a frame, 
but in all probability it will bear our climate in a shel- 
tered situation, and would prove a much more ornamental 
species than our L. Cymbalaria, to which it is allied in habit. 
Lin aria pubescens, L. pilosa, and L. hepaticafolia belong 
to the same natural groupe, distinguished by their procum- 
bent, herbaceous, filiform stems, broadly cordate leaves, 
and axillary flowers. 

Viviani, who first described this species, gives, as a station 
for it, moist rocks upon the mountain " della Trinita" in 

Fig. 1. Branch of L. aquitriloba with Flowers. 2. Single Leaf, slightly 
magnified. 3, 4, 5. Leaves from the wild Specimens in the Herharium.— 
Natural size. 

VIE id* 

Pul. hvS fur/u W a i w ,.,ih. Oof'.' Jim. 

( 2942 ) 

Aster salsuginosus. Salt-plain Michael- 
mas Daisy. 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Superflua. 
( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 
Generic Character. 

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus simplex. Cor. radii 
piures 10. Involucri imbricati sguamce inferiores fnonnun- 
quam) patuhe. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Aster * salsuginosus ; caule uni pauci-floro, foliis Janceo- 
iatis acutis subintegerrimis venosis inferioribus in pe- 
tiolum longe attenuatis, reliquis sessilibus, involucri 
squamis linearibus acutis pubescentibus subsquamosis 
disco vix duplo, radio plus triplo longioribus. 

a ster salsuginosus. Richard, in Frankl. 1st Journ. App. 
ed. 2. p. 32. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 527. 

IJescr. From a woody and fibrous perennial root spring 
0I *e or more erect simple, striated, pubescent, and purplish 
st ems, about a foot high, leafy. Leaves mostly lanceolate, 
acute, those of the stem sessile, gradually smaller upwards, 
jne lower ones often inclining to obovate, attenuated at the 
Da se into a long footstalk, entire, or more or less toothed, 
g ] abrous, especially on the upper surface, below often more 
0r less hairy. Flowers solitary, or two or three at the ex- 
tremity of the stem in luxuriant plants, large and showy. 
wvolucre small in proportion to the size oi the flower, 


So named from the Star-shaped flowers. 

purplish-green, its scales linear or inclining to subulate, 
pubescent, lax and squamose. Florets of the disk tubular, 
yellow, five-cleft. Germen slightly hairy, oblong, sur- 
mounted by the simple scabrous hairs of the pappus. Flo- 
rets of the ray ligulate, three- toothed, purple. Pistil and 
Pappus as in the central florets. 

This handsome species of Aster was first detected by 
Dr. Richardson on the Salt Plains of the Athabasca, N. 
America, and described in the Appendix to Franklin's first 
Journal. Mr. Drummond during the second journey found 
it among the Rocky Mountains, and from seeds brought 
home by him, our plants were raised which flowered in the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden, in May, 1829 ; and there cannot 
be a doubt but that so desirable a plant will soon become 
common in our collections. The early flowering and 
weak specimens produced but one flower on the stalk ; but 
later in the season, in the month of June, from two to four 
blossoms were not unfrequent on the same stem. This 
might rather be called the Spring than the Michaelmas 

Fig. 1. Floret of the Disk. 2. Floret of the Ray. 3. Portion of the Hair 
of the Pappus. 4. Scale from the Involucre. — Ail more or less magnified. 

Curtis. Walworth <>,-?'' t'W/J 

( 2943 ) 

Peperomia clusuefolia. Clusia-leaved 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Piperace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spadix cylindraceus, floribus undique tectus. Stamina 
duo. Stigma indivisum. Bacca monosperma. Caulis 
nerbaceus. Humb. et Kunth. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Peperomia * clusicefolia ; foliis obovatis inferne attenuate 
subauriculatis crassis, rubro-rnarginatis, marline recur- 
vato brevi-petiolatis subvenosis, caule radicante ru- 
goso, spicis terminalibus solitariis vel binis cylindra- 

Piper clusisefolium. Jacq. Collect, v. 3. p. 209. Ic. Rar. 
v. 2. p. 2. t. 213. fVilld. Sp. PL v. 1. p. 159. 

Piper marginatum. PI. Succ. Hort. Dyck. p. 24. (non 
Jacq.) Haw. Succ. PI. Suppl. p. 3. 

Piper magnoliaefolium. Haw. Syn. p. 6. (non Jacq.) 

Descr. Stems much branched, thicker than a swan's 
S u ill, red, and full of little transverse wrinkles, glabrous, as 
is every part of the plant, decumbent at the base, and every 
where, immediately at the base of the leaf-stalks, disposed 
Jo throw out roots. Leaves four to six inches long, thick, 
between coriaceous and fleshy, shortly petiolated, obovate, 
tapering downwards from near the middle, and somewhat 
auriculated at the very base, dark green above, obscurely 


* Derived, as well as Piper, from mxt^i, the Greek word for Pepper. 

veined, concave and channelled ; the margin dark red and 
recurved, especially towards the base, the extremity often 
emarginate, the underside is pale green, and the midrib is 
very prominent when it joins the petiole. Peduncle ter- 
minal, quite smooth and red, bearing one or two long cy- 
lindrical spikes, acute at the points. Flowers numerous, 
almost imbedded in the substance of the spadix. Scale 
pellucid, obtusely quadrangular, above which are placed, 
one on each side, the one-celled small anther, on a short 
filament : and between these is the pistil. Germen ovate : 
Stigma sessile, radiated: at the back is a long sharp mem- 
brane or crest. Berry oval with an acuminated point, 
quite protruded, standing out from the spadix. 

This is one of the handsomest of the tribe, and one that 
appears to have been long cultivated in our stoves. It was 
introduced from the West Indies by Captain Bligh, in 1793, 
and flowers in May. The specimen here figured, was from 
a fine plant in the collection of the Edinburgh. Authors 
seem strangely to have confounded this with the Piper ob- 
tusifolium of Willdenow, which is figured by Plumier in 
his <{ Plantes d'Amerique, p. 53. t. 70, and still more accu- 
rately, by Trew, Ehret. p. 54. t. 96. ; but the slightest in- 
spection of those plates will at once shew how much that 
plant is at variance with the one here given. 

Fig. 1. Flower with its Scale. 2. Pistil. 3. Stamen. 4. Berry.— Magnified. 

( 2944 ) 


Class and Order. 

( Nat. Ol'd. CoMBRETACEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis limbus infundibuliformis, 4-lobus, deciduus. Pet . 
4—5, inter lobos calycis inserta. Stam. 8 — 10, biserialia ; 
ex his 4 — 5, petalis opposita, altius inserta. Germen 2 — 5- 
ovulatum. Stylus exsertus, acutus. Fructus 4 — 5-pteri, 
1-locul. 1-spermi, indehiscentes. Semen angulatum, pen- 
dulum. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

^ombretum * grandiflorum ; inerme, scandens, rnolliter 
hirsuta, foliis oppositis ovali-oblongis acutis integer- 
rimis basi subcordatis, floribus densis secundis spicatis 
decandris, pedunculis oppositis, bracteis ovatis acutis. 

Combretum grandiflorum. Don in Ed. Phil. Journ. 1824, 
p. 347. De Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 21 . 

Descr. Stems long, climbing, terete, downy, the down 
mixed with brown, patent hairs, the older ones woody, the 
younger herbaceous, bearing many branches of the same 
character as the parent stem. Leaves in rather distant, 
opposite pairs, from an inch and a half to five inches long*, 
°val or oblong, or more frequently partaking of the cha- 
racter of the two, acute, scarcely mucronate at the point, 
slightly cordate at the base, nerved, entire at the margin, 


* Its etymology unknown. 

hairy on both sides, the hairs soft and white, appressed, 
paler beneath. Petiole scarcely half an inch long, thick, 
downy, flat, or slightly grooved above, beneath convex. 
The color of the leaves is a pale green, the smaller and 
younger ones, at the extremity of the branches, beautifully 
tinged with red. Peduncles axillary, occupying the extre- 
mity of the branches, downy, bearing a spike of large and 
richly-coloured, drooping flowers. In my dried native spe- 
cimens, the upper leaves have fallen away, and then the 
inflorescence appears to be a compound brachiate spike. 
Calyx infundibuliform, springing from the top of the small, 
slender, pentagonal germen, large, five-angled, quinquefid, 
green, shining, the segments acute, brown at the tips, black 
within at the base. At the base of the germen is an ovate, 
acute, deciduous bractea. Corolla of live obovato-cuneate, 
shortly unguiculated peta/s, of a deep scarlet colour, marked 
with still higher coloured veins. Stamens ten ; five insert- 
ed lower down upon the calyx, and opposite its segments, 
and five in the sinuses of the segments, much protruded. 
Filaments red. Anthers, small, roundish, yellow. Style 
filiform, acute, green, longer than the stamens. Germen 
one-celled, with five ovules. 

This truly splendid stove plant was kindly communicated 
from the gardens of Wentworth House, by Mr. Cooper, in 
July last, as one which that able cultivator had received 
from Mr. Mackay, of the Clapton nursery, under the 
name of Combretum grandiflorum. The country from 
whence it came was not specified : but on comparing it 
with specimens of a Combretum brought to me by Miss 
Turner, niece of the late General Turner, from Sierra 
Leone, I find it to correspond with them in every particular. 
There can scarcely be a question, therefore, of its having 
been introduced from that country. The plant was dis- 
covered by Mr. G. Don, while collecting for that inestima- 
ble institution, the Horticultural Society, growing " near 
Freetown, and on the road to Congo," and is described in 
the Linnaean Transactions. The flowers have at first sight 
the appearance of those of a species of Ipomjea, being as 
large as in Ipomjja Quamoclit. 

Fig. 1. Flower, from which the Corolla is removed, the Calyx heing 
laid open to shew the Style and the insertion of the Stamens. 2. Petal. 3. 
(magnifiedj Section of the Germen.— Fig. 1. and 2, nat. size. 

( 2945 ) 

Pentstemon gracilis. Slender 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. bilabiata, ventricosa. Rudimentum 
filamenti quinti superne barbatum. Caps, bilocularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pentstemon gracilis; caule herbaceo subglabro, foliis gla- 
bris glaucis radicalibus lanceolatis in petiolum atten- 
uatis integerrimis, caulinis lineari-lanceolatis acumi- 
natis parce serrulatis, pedunculis elongatis decussatis 
multifloris pedicellisque compositis calyce corollaque 
puberulis, fi lam en to sterili barbato. Graham. 

Pentstemon gracilis. Nuttall N. Am. Gen. v. 2. p. 522. 

Pentstemon glaucus. Graham in Ed. N. Phil. Journ. 
Jw/^ 1829, p. 348. 

Descr. Stem erect, glabrous below, slightly pubescent 
towards the top. Leaves all glabrous, glaucous : root- 
leaves lanceolate, attenuated at the base into petioles shorter 
than themselves, quite entire ; stem-leaves ovato- or linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate, dilated at the base, and amplexicaul, 
distantly serrulate, smaller upwards aud passing into ovato- 
acuininate, entire bracteas at the base of the peduncles. 
Inflorescence, as is common in this genus, axillary, pedun- 
cles collected in the form of a panicle at the extremity of 
the stems, peduncles elongated, as well as the compound, 
filiform pedicels, calyx, and corolla glanduloso-puberulent. 
Bracteas ovate, acuminate, gradually becoming smaller 


from the leaves, and two placed opposite to each other at 
each subdivision of the peduncle. Calyx five-parted, seg- 
ments, ovate, acute, spreading, the upper the broadest and 
shortest. Corolla rather pale lilac above, and, at the apices 
of its lobes, yellow, with purple veins below ; upper lip of 
two, lower lip of three segments, upper surface of lower lip 
with long yellowish hairs. Stamens included ; filaments 
ascending ; anthers cordate, lobes spreading, purple on the 
outside, whitish within ; barren filament dilated at its base, 
and adhering to the upper side of the corolla, above which 
it dips to the lower side of the corolla, along which it is 
laid, densely covered with yellow hairs on its upper side for 
more than half its length. Pistil rather shorter than the 
barren filament ; germen conical ; style straight ; stigma 
small, entire. 

The seeds of this species, which flowered at the Botanic 
Garden of Edinburgh, during the greatest part of the sum- 
mer, were received from Mr. Drummond, on his return from 
the second expedition under Capt. Franklin to British 
North America. Graham. 

This species is unquestionably the P. gracilis of Mr. 
Nuttall, who gave this name to specimens in my herba- 
rium, from the Mandan territory, which were communicated 
by Mr. Bradbury ; this being the same district in which 
Mr. Nuttall had gathered the individual plants that he 
has described in the work above quoted. Mr. Douglas 
found it common upon the Red River, about Brandon 
House, in the plains near that settlement, and Dr. Richard- 
son near Carlton House. It has flowered in the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, which yielded the specimen here figured. 

Fig. 1. Root Leaf. 2. Lower Stem-Leaf, not. size. 3. Pistil. 4. Sta- 
men . — Magn ified. 1 >« 

■ S. CuriitWiit**rth..]ifer?I2&$. 

( 2946 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LeguminosjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubulosus, 5-fidus, aut 5-dentatus, dentibus duobus 
superioribus brevioribus. Cor. papilionacea. Stam. dia- 
delpha. Stylus filiformis, angulum fere rectum cum ovario 
conficiens, superne et infra apicem subtus villosus. Legu- 
men oblongum, 1-loculare, polyspermum. Semina hilo 
laterali ovali aut lineari. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

"V r iciA* argentea ; canescens, caulibus tetragonis, foliis cine- 
reo-argenteis cirrho destitutis, foliolis oblongo-linea- 
ribus rnucronatis, stipulis semisagittato - lanceolatis, 
pedunculis multifloris folio sublongioribus, floribus 
secundis laxiusculis, laciniis calycinis suba^qualibus 
longitudine tubi, stylis elongatis subclavatis apice 
barbatis, leguminibus oblongis compressis tomento- 
sis. D C. 

Vicia argentea. Lapeyr. Abr. PL Pyr. p. 417. Ejusd. 
Suppl. p. 108. (excluding the Synonyms.) Be Cand. 
Prodr. v. 2. p. 359. 

Vicia variegata. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 269. (not of 

Descr. Root perennial, fusiform, slender, descending 
deep into the earth, and sending out a few branches and 
fibrous radicles. Plant every where clothed with soft, 


* From Gevig, in Celtic, according to Theis, whence &«»«», in Greek. 

silky hairs. Stems many from the same root, ascending, 
branched, in the wild specimens compact, in the cultivated 
ones straggling, and, as well as the branches, angular, 
frequently exactly quadrangular, woody below, the rest 
herbaceous, often tinged with red. Leaves with eight to 
ten pair of alternate, elliptical, lanceolate leaflets, scarcely 
mucronate, terminated by an odd one, of a bluish-grey 
colour from the numerous silky hairs with which they are 
clothed, nearly sessile. Main petiole, or rachis, stout, 
grooved on the upper side; stipules large, silky, semisaggi- 
tate. Peduncles axillary, about as long as the leaves, 
having a secund raceme of several large flowers at the ex- 
tremity. Pedicels, curved, silky. Calyx silky, reddish- 
white, streaked with green at the base, the teeth green. 
Vexillum broadly obovate, gradually tapering into the claw, 
yellowish-white, streaked with purple, most distinctly so in 
the inside. Alee obtuse, of the same colour as the vexillum. 
Carina white, very blunt, purple at the extremity. 

Of this extensive Genus, few are more worthy of cultiva- 
tion than the present extremely rare species. It is sup- 
posed to grow in only one spot, namely, in the elevated 
pastures of Massive de Castanese, in the Pyrenees, where it 
was first discovered by La Peyrouse. For the opportunity 
of cultivating it in our gardens, we are indebted to Mr. 
Arnott, who brought seeds from the Pyrenees to Dr. 
Graham : and the plant is now flourishing in the open 
border, in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, whence the spe- 
cimens here figured and described were kindly commu- 
nicated by Dr. Graham. Its flowering season is June. 

In the Supplement to his " Histoire Abregee des Plantes 
des Pyrenees, M. de La Peyrouse has fallen into an error, 
in considering this plant the same with the Armenian V. 
variegata of Desfontaines, as any one may satisfy himself, 
by consulting the figure and description of the latter author, 
in the twelfth volume of the " Annates du Museum d'His- 
toire Naturelle/ > The flowers are there represented con- 
siderably smaller, the plant longer and more straggling, 
(especially than the native V. argentea) and the leaves are 
terminated by branched tendrils. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Carina of the Flower. 3. Leaf.— Magnified, 

fab br S. Curtis WalvcrtkAov?!. LS29. 

Smm *■""? 

( 2947 ) 

Habenaria macroceras. Long-horned 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. ringens. Labellum basi subtus calcaratum. Glan- 
dule pollinis nudae, distinctae (loculis pedicellorura adnatis 
v. solutis distinctis.) Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Habenaria * macroceras ; labello profunde tripartite, laci- 
niis lateralibus (petalorumque interiorum bipartitorum 

lacinia inferiore) setaceis incurvis, cornu filiformi lon- 

gissimo, antherae loculis basi longe productis. 
Habenaria macroceras. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v.S.p. 692. 
Habenaria macroceratitis. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 44. 
Orchis Habenaria. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1331. Amcen. Acad. 

v. 5. p. 408. " Sw. Obs. 319. t. 9." 
Satyrium erectum, foliis oblongis, petiolis vaginatis am- 

plexantibus, spica terminal^ nectariis longissimis. 

Brown Jam. p. 324. 

Descr. Tuber, according to Swartz, single, oblong, 
and downy. Stem, in our plant, a foot high, the lower part 
clothed with the long, cylindrical, sheathing bases of the 
leaves, above more naked, and obscurely angular, pale 
green. Leaves, the lowermost small and oval, the middle 
ones four to five inches long, elliptical-oblong, rather ob- 

* From Habena, a thong, or the lash of a ivhip, from the long nurow 

5 Pitr of most of the species. 

tuse, waved,, the upper ones again smaller, lanceolate, acute, 
with short sheaths, and gradually passing upwards into the 
bracteae, all of them faintly striated, of a beautiful yellow 
green. Bractece lanceolato-acuminate, carinate and con- 
cave, longer than the germen. Flowers in a lax spike, 
pale greenish-white : the three outer petals or segments of 
the perianth ovate, greener than the rest of the flower, the 
upper concave, three-nerved, erect, and covering the anther ; 
the two lateral reflexed : two innermost ones bipartite, the 
laciniae unequal, divaricate ; upper one linear-lanceolate, 
falcate, appressed to the inner margin of the upper and 
outer petal ; the lower laciniae setaceous, nearly two inches 
long, incurved. Lip deeply tripartite, lateral laciniae 
spreading, setaceous, incurved, more than two inches long, 
the intermediate one an inch long, linear, retuse, project- 
ing, having two flat, fleshy tubercles at the base above, 
while, below, depends a filiform, or slightly compressed 
spur 3 four to five inches long. Anther bifid, with the cells 
remote, projecting below into two horizontal, fleshy, spur- 
like processes, along the upper margin of which the mem- 
branous cell is continued which contains the stalk of the 
pollen-mass, and at the extremity of which is the naked, 
white gland. The two glands at the base of the anther are 
a continuation of the substance of the anthers : and at the 
back of each of the- spurs of the anthers, and at their base, 
are two short, fleshy, white, processes, glandular at the ex- 
tremity, and which may be considered two lateral, abortive 
anthers. Pollen Masses yellow, clavate ; stalk long, its 
gland white. Germen much shorter than the spur, cylin- 
drical, twisted. 

Cultivated in the stove of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, from 
roots, sent by Dr. Distan, from Jamaica. It flowered in Sep- 
tember of the present year, 1829. It may surely be reckoned 
among the most curious of the terrestrial Orchideous plants, and 
is rendered very striking by the great length of the spur, and the 
long, setaceous laciniae of the lip and inner petals. I have lately 
received beautiful specimens from my valued friend and cor- 
respondent, Dr. Bancroft, of Jamaica. 

Singular as is the present species in the magnitude of its spur, 
it is still far inferior to one which I have received, though not in 
a living state, from my often-mentioned friend, C. S. Parker, 
Esq., who gathered it in Demerara. The representation of this 
I destine for a future number of our Magazine. 

Tab. 2947- A. Habenaria macroceras representing the upper part of 
the Plant, nat. size. Fig. 1. Inner Petal. 2. Anther, Stigma, and Lip. * 
Side view of an Anther, with the projecting Bases to the Cells, the two fleshy 
Glands, and abortive side Anthers. 4. Pollen Mass. 5. Lower Leaf.— Fig* 
1 to 4 more or less magnified. 



• $ 

Fufrtvs. amis. TaZrorth.yovrilSg9. 

( 2948 2949 ) 
Stanhopea insignis. Splendid Stanhopea, 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchidia. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores resupinati. Petala patentissima, reflexa, % inte- 
riora multo angustiora. Labellum liberum, sessile, ecal- 
caratum, saccato - concavum, appendiculatum, appendice 
tripartite, lobis lateralibus lineari - acuminatis incurvis, 
intermedio magno cordiformi. Columna superne alata. 
Anther a operculata. Massce Pollinis lineari -clavatae, dorso 
suleatae, pedicellatae, pedicello glandular bilobulata?, acumi- 
nata?, pellucidae affixo. 

Specific Name and Synonym. 
Stanhopea insignis. Frost MSS. 

Descr. Parasitic. Bulbs several, clustered, ovate, sul- 
cated, surrounded by many jagged long scales, and termi- 
nated each by a single, broadly lanceolate leaf, of a dark 
green colour, glabrous, having three principal nerves, and 
many parallel, less conspicuous ones ; all very prominent 
on the under side. From the base of a young bulb, whose 
leaf is scarcely expanded, and which is covered by green, 
not yet withered scales, proceeds a scape, bearing two or 
more (sometimes fom) flowers, of a most extraordinary size 
and appearance. This scape is four to six inches long, 
entirely clothed and concealed by thin, membranous, sheath- 
ing, convolute scales, the smallest at the base, the largest 
uppermost, where they form a sheathing bractea, conceal- 
ing and enveloping the whole of the germen Flowers 
Pendent, hanging down perpendicularly over the side ot 

the pot in which the plant grows, large and fragrant. 
Petals singularly reflexed, pale dingy yellow, the outer, 
(that which is, in the most usual position of an orchideous 
flower, the uppermost one), broadly ovato-lanceolate, con- 
cave, the margins reflexed; the two lateral outer ones broad, 
rotundato-ovate, very concave, acute, waved, all of the 
three striated externally, interiorly sparingly dotted with 
purple : two innermost petals broadly linear, rather acute, 
much waved at the margin, spotted with purple within. 
Labellum, from the position of the flower, pendent, sessile, 
spurless, narrow where it is affixed to the receptacle, of a 
thick and fleshy, almost waxy nature, between hemispheri- 
cal and globose, and hollow, hence saccate, and, as it were, 
inflated, the mouth oblong, contracted, the margins reflex- 
ed ; of an almost white colour, spotted and blotched with 
dark purple : at the extremity of this, is what I call, from 
the extreme contraction of the base where it is set and fixed 
on to the labellum, an appendage, though it is, in reality, a 
continuation of the substance of the labellum: this append- 
age is nearly as large as the lip itself, deeply tripartite, the 
two lateral lobes or segments linear, acuminate, incurved, 
and slightly spirally so, the intermediate lobe very large, 
cordate, somewhat carinated at the back, acute at the point, 
the sides curved upwards, the margins reflexed ; the whole 
of this is white, beautifully spotted internally with deep 
purple ; without faintly tinged with yellow, and marked 
with a few and rather obscure spots. Column standing out 
parallel with the lip, free from adherence with the petals, 
slightly incurved, semi-cylindrical, emarginate at the extre- 
mity, below which, and principally confined to the upper 
half, there proceed two semi-circular and somewhat mem- 
branous wings ; the whole white, or partially tinged with 
yellow, marked with innumerable small, and generally 
oblong purple spots. Within the notch, at the extremity 
of the column is fixed, the operculate, oblong, acuminate, 
yellow Anther, its extremity lying over an obscure concave 
stigma, and from beneath which, there protrudes the white, 
oblong, at one end acuminate, at the other rounded and 
bifid, gland of the stalks of the pollen masses. Pollen 
Masses two, linear -clavate, deep yellow, waxy, with a 
groove at the back of each, these are fixed to a rather short, 
white pedicel, and that again is attached, by its base, to the 
white gland above mentioned, which stands out beyond the 
point of the Anther-case. Germen four to five inches long, 
nearly cylindrical, scarcely twisted. 


Among the Orchideous tribes, new wonders are contin- 
ually presenting themselves to our observation and our 
study ; more especially now, when the cultivation of them 
in the stoves of this country is brought to so high a degree 
of perfection, and when our increased intercourse with tro- 
pical regions has been the means of facilitating the acqui- 
sition of them. The present species, though it may be 
excelled by others in the brilliancy of its colours, ranks 
preeminent for its size, and the curious structure of the 
parts of its flower. It was obligingly communicated during 
the present month of October, from His Majesty's Royal 
Gardens at Kew, by John Frost, Esq., with the request, 
that it might be called " Stanhopea insignis, in compli- 
ment to the Right Hon. Philip Henry, Earl Stanhope, the 
noble President of the Medico-Botanical Society of Lon- 
don." Few plants, indeed, are more worthy to bear the 
name of so distinguished a nobleman. 

In point of magnitude, I am not aware of any that ap- 
proaches this, save the Ceratochilus grandiflorus of Lod- 
diges, Bot. Cabinet, n. 1414. The foliage and the bulbs 
too, bear a considerable affinity to this : but the structure of 
the labellum seems widely different, as far as can be judged 
from the figure of the entire flower: but there is unfor- 
tunately no analysis and no character, either of the genus 
or species, by which we might compare the more important 
distinguishing marks of the two plants. 

It was introduced from South America some years ago to 
the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, where a drawing (which 
Mr. Aiton obligingly allowed to accompany the specimen,) 
was taken, from the same roots, which flowered in October, 
1827. An old scape, sent also, shows that four blossoms 
are sometimes borne at the same time upon the scape. 

Whilst revising the proof sheet of this number of the 
Botanical Magazine, we have received from Richard Har- 
rison, Esq. of Aigburgh, near Liverpool, a scarcely less 
splendid Orchideous plant, than that which forms the sub- 
ject of the above description. This is the Zygopetalon 
Mackaii of this work, tab. 2748 ; but having the flowers 
twice the size of those represented in that plate, and so 
much more brilliant in point of colour, that Mr. Harrison 
and Mr. Shepherd were disposed to consider it a distinct 

• species 

species. The scape had nine or ten flowers upon it. Much 
of its beauty and grandeur is doubtless owing to the excel- 
lent management of Orchideous plants adopted in Mr. 
Harrison's collection. 

Tab. 2944. Plant of Stanhopea insignis. Tab. 2945. Fig. 1. Single 
Flower, seen from its underside. 2. Side view* of the Labellum. 3. Front 
view of the Column. 4. Summit of the Column, with the Anther-Case forced 
hack, to show how the Pollen Masses lie. 5. Front view of a Pollen Mass. 
6. Back view of ditto. Fig. 4, 5, 6, alone magnified. 

t'uh by S. Curiu. Vain; ,Ui i)ec r W2f) 

Swart; So 

( 2950 2951 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — ARoiDEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha polyphylla. Spadix floribus masculis fcemineis- 
que tectus. Masc. Receptaculum subcylindraceum, sta- 
mina plurima nuda vel perianthio multidentato tecta susti- 
nens. F<em. Perianthium subtetragonum, quadrifidum, 
subsessile, segmentis obtusis : Filamenta 4, longissima, 
sterilia. Germen 4-lobum, uniloculare, polyspermum. 
Stigmata 4, depressa. Fructus baccatus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ludovia* latifolia; acaulis, foliis rotundato-flabelliform- 

ibus profunde bifidis plicatis, lobis incisis, spadice 

oblongo obtuso longitudine petioli. 
Ludovia latifolia. Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. p. 576. 
Carludovica latifolia. Ruiz et Pavon, Fl. Per. et Chit. 

Prodr. p. 292 ? Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t 1068. 
Salmia latifolia. <c WiUd. Mag. Amic. Nat. Cur. Berol. 

v. 5. 1811, p. 401. " ? Spreng. S^/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 


Descr. Stem none, or scarcely any : the leaves spring- 
ing from the top of the root, which scarcely rises above the 


* This Genus was named Carludovica, by Ruiz and Pavon, in honor of 
Charles the 11th, of Spain, and his queen Louisa. But such a word was 
wholly inconsistent with the rules for constituting Genera, and Persoon 
changed it to Ludovia. 

soil, intermixed at their very base with many dark brown, 
jagged, and much decayed scales. Leaves spreading, petio- 
lated, one and a half to two feet long, and almost of the 
same breadth, membranaceo-coriaceous, between rotundate 
and flabelliform, plicated, and marked with many strong 
ribs, of which the central and two lateral ones (which are 
branched near the base,) are the strongest, and remarkably 
prominent on the underside ; the extremity of the leaf is, as 
it were, truncated, bifid in the middle, with a narrow cleft, 
reaching about half way down, the lobes laciniated : the 
whole very much resembling, as Mr. Loddiges has well 
observed, the young leaf of the cocoa-nut. Petiole four 
to six inches long, thick, keeled at the back, grooved in 
the front, the two edges membranous and often jagged. 
From the centre of these leaves arises the scape, short, thick, 
about as long as the petioles, concealed by several large, 
oblong bracteas, or leaves of the spatha : for the uppermost, 
which only differ from the rest in being more delicate, 
constitute the spatha. Spadix two to three inches high, 
scarcely rising above the spadix, clothed with flowers of 
two kinds, male and female, as many apparently of the one 
as the other. The Male Flower consists of numerous small 
stamens, arising from a thickened, cylindrical, fleshy co- 
lumn or receptacle, by means of which they exceed the 
female flowers in length. Filaments very short : Anthers 
rounded, two-lobed. Female Flower nearly sessile, having 
only a short, fleshy base, consisting of a four-lobed, four- 
sided, fleshy perianth, whose lobes are erect, and very 
obtuse, within which, and shorter than it, is the four-lobed 
germen, each lobe having a depression which represents 
the stigma. A section of this germen exhibits one cell 
with four rounded, parietal receptacles, to which numerous 
ovules are attached. Between the perianth and the ger- 
men, and alternating with the lobes of the latter, are four 
very long, rather thick, fleshy filaments, or abortive sta- 
mens? The fruit I have not seen. 

The habit of this plant, its foliage especially, is so 
similar to that of the Palms, that it is no wonder it has been 
considered to belong to that family. But an attentive ex- 
amination of the structure of the flowers proves it to be 
one of the true Aroide^e. Five species of this Genus were 
described by Ruiz and Pavon, a sixth by Humboldt and 
Kunth, and two more by Poiteau in an excellent paper on 
the Genus, in the " Memoires du Museum." But with the 
exception of L.funifera of the latter, all are so imperfectly 



Pat. fir.. Ckrfu Valiwrth, fWU' .. 

characterized, that we cannot say whether the present spe- 
cies rightly belonp; to any of them. It inhabits Granada, 
in South America; was introduced by Mr. Loddiges, to 
whom the Edinburgh Botanic Garden owes the possession 
of it, whence our figure and description were taken in June, 
1829. The native country of this is so remote from that 
of Peru, where Ruiz and Pa von found their Carludovica 
latifolia, that it is highly probable the two species will 
prove different. Humboldt's L. palmata, from the river 
Magdalena, and Poiteau's L. subacaulis almost equally 
agree with our plant, as far as can be judged from the 
short characters we have of them. 

Tab. 2950. Plant, reduced to one quarter of the natural size. Tab. 2951. 
Fig. 1. Scape and Spadix ; some of the Leaves of the Spatha being cut away : 
nat. size. 2. Portion of the Spadix, exhibiting a Male and a Female Flower. 
3. Pistil and Sterile Filaments. 4. Lobe of the Pistil to show the Stigma. 
5. Section of the Germen. — Fig. 2. to 5, more or less magnified. 

( 2952 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminosje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx profunde bilabiatus. Corolla papilionacea, vexillo 
lateribus reflexis, carina acuminata. Stamina monadelpha, 
vagina integra, antheris 5 parvis subrotundioribus, precoci- 
oribus, 5 oblongis, serioribus. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 
terminal e, subrotundum, barbatum. Legumen coriaceum, 
oblongum, compressum, oblique torulosum. Cotyledones 
crassae, per germin. in folia conversas. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

AjUpinus littoralis * ; perennis, floribus verticillatis pedicel - 
latis ebracteolatis, calycis labio utroque integro, folio- 
lis 5 — 7 lineari-spathulatis utrinque sericeis, legumin- 
ibus 10 — 12-spermis transversim sulcatis, radicibus 
granulatis. Douglas. 

Lupinus littoralis. Douglas in Bot. Reg. t. 1198. 

Descr. " Root somewhat fusiform, with fleshy tubercles. 
Stem decumbent, silky. Leaflets five to seven, linear spa- 
thulate, both sides covered with silky hairs ; stipules subu- 
late, their hairs longer than those of the leaves or stem. 
Flowers whorled; pedicels hirsute, double the length of the 
calyx. Calyx without bracteoles, both lips entire, nearly 
of equal length. Vexillum ovate, purple : alee hatchet- 

* The derivation of the word Lupinus is unknown : for the imagined 
connexion between the term Input, a wolf, and the quality in this plant to 
devour the soil, is too absurd to deserve attention. 

shaped, blue, double the length of the vexillum : carina 
pallid, ciliated, acute. Pod linear, covered with bristly, 
brown hairs ; seeds linear, brown with black spots." 

For the drawing- of this interesting plant, which flowered 
in the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, in June, 1829, I am 
indebted to my friend Dr. Greville, who sent it to me 
from thence. Not having, therefore, had an opportunity 
of seeing and describing a living individual, I have copied 
above, the words of its original discoverer, Mr. Douglas, 
who found it (C growing abundantly on the sea-shore of 
North -West America, from Cape Mendocino to Puget's 
Sound. Its tough, branching roots are serviceable in bind- 
ing together the loose sand, and they are also used by the 
natives of the river Columbia as winter-food : being pre- 
pared by the simple process of drawing them through the 
fire until all their moisture is dissipated. The roots are 
then tied up in small bundles, and will keep for several 
months ; when eaten, they are roasted on the embers, and 
become farinaceous. The vernacular name of this plant is 
Somnuchtan: and it is the Liquorice spoken of by Lewis 
and Clarke, and by the navigators who have visited the 
North-west coast of America. 

' The Sea-shore Lupine is a hardy perennial, flowering 
from June to October, and propagated by cuttings, divi- 
sions of the roots, and seeds." 

Fig. 1. Flower, before its complete expansion. 2. Vexillum. 3. Alse. 4. 
Carina. 5. Stamens and Pistil. — All magnified. 


Pub h-S Curtis. f^alwor-rb.JJec ' 

( 2953 ) 


Class and Order. 
Tetrandria. Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Aroide^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha monophylla. Spadix cylindraceus, undique flo- 
nbus tectus. Perianthium tetraphyllum. Bacca di- tetra- 

Specific Character. 

Pothos * microphylla ; acaulis, foliis ovatis acutis costatis 
venosis nervoque parallelo versus marginem, petiolo 
subffique longo superne incrassato, spadice brevi-cylin- 
draceo spathae longitudine. 

Descr. Roots numerous, fleshy, simple, partly growing- 
out of the soil in which the plant is cultivated. From the 
crown of these roots, among several purplish-brown scales, 
arise several leaf-stalks, which are glabrous, terete, two to 
four inches long, suddenly thickened, and paler coloured 
at the extremity, and bearing a leaf about its own length, 
ovate, acute, quite entire, subcoriaceous, deep green, having 
rather a strong and on both sides prominent midrib, from 
which branch off many veins, and united with a wavy nerve, 
which runs parallel with, but considerably within the mar- 
gin. Scape slender, terete, exceeding the leaves in length, 
bearing a lanceolate, revolute, yellowish -green spatha be- 

* The name is derived from Potha, which is the common appellation given 
to these plants in the island of Ceylon. 

low the solitary, terminal spadix. This is scarcely more 
than half an inch long, deep purple, oblongo-eylindrical, 
obtuse. Leaflets of the perianth deep purple above, the 
rest pale green. Stamens four, scarcely longer than the 
calyx. Filament flat. Anther of two cells, roundish, pale 
reddish purple, presenting its back to the pistil. Pistil 
roundish. Stigma scarcely any. 

Sent by Mr. Taite of the Sioane Street Nursery to the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden, where it flowered in the stove, 
in September, 1829. It is a native of Brazil, and has 
much affinity in general habit with P. Harrisii of Graham, 
in Hook. Exotic Flora, t. 211. But there the whole plant 
is much larger than in ours, the leaves much longer, by no 
means ovate, and the spadix is of considerable length. 

^ Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Leaflet of the Perianth, with a Stamen. 3. Front 
View of a Stamen. — Magnified. 


/>//'. /■ .y />////,■ ifa/w, rf/i.Dfc" LBS&. 

( 2954 ) 
Pentstemon procerus. Tall Pentstemon. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. bilabiata, ventricosa. Rudimen- 
turn filamenti quinti, superne barbatum. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Pentstemon procerus; caule erecto stricto subsimplici, 
foliis lanceolatis integerrimis, inferioribus petiolatis 
superioribus sessilibus subconnatis, floribus verticil- 
lato-spicatis, calycis segmentis membranaceo-laciniatis 
mucronatis, filamento sterili edeutato. 

Pentstemon procerus. Douglas MSS. Graham in Edin. 
Phil. Journ. July, 1829. 

Descr. Stem erect, straight, a foot to a foot and a half, 
or, in the wild specimens, two feet high, rounded, quite 
glabrous, but little branched. Leaves glabrous, lanceolate; 
the lower ones attenuated into petioles, the rest quite 
sessile, and almost connate, gradually smaller upwards: all 
of them quite entire, dark green, obliquely veined. Flowers 
in crowded, opposite racemes from the upper and smallest 
leaves, and standing so close to the stern, that the whole of 
them seem to form a more or less interrupted and verticillate 
spike, having numerous small, linear, bracteae among the 
pedicels. Calyx so deeply divided that it may almost be 
called pentaphyllous, each segment or leaflet ovate, border- 
ed by a white, membranous, and jagged margin, and there 
suddenly contracted into a long and narrow, recurved, pu- 
bescent point or mucro. Corolla small, but of a rich and 
varied purple color, glabrous: upper lip reflected, bifid; 


lower bent down, trifid, with three pale spots at the base, 
and several rufous hairs. Sterile Filament slender, white, 
having a small tuft of reddish hairs on the upper side at the 
extremity, quite entire (toothless) at the base. Germen 
oval, purplish green. Style filiform, white above. Stigma 

The recent travels of Mr. Douglas and Mr. Drummond 
among the Rocky Mountains, and in the North-west part of 
America, have been the means of enriching our gardens 
with many highly beautiful species of the Genus Pentste- 
mon ; and in richness of colours the present will scarcely 
yield to any. It was found by the former of these two 
Naturalists in swampy and overflowed meadows, between 
Fort Vancouver and the Grand Rapids of the river Colum- 
bia, on the North side; and by the latter (to whom our 
gardens are indebted for the living plant) on the Rocky 
Mountains ; and by Dr. Richardson about Carlton House. 

It blossoms in June. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Segment of the Calyx. 3. Sterile Filament. 
Pistil. 5. Section of the Germen. — All more or less magnified. 

/< '///,/,■," 

Tub by S 

h Dec'lMS?) 

— w 

( 2955 ) 

Maxillaria squalens. Dingy-flowered 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium patens, resupinatum. Labellum ecalcara- 
tum. Labellum cum processu unguiformi columnar articu- 
latum, trilobum. Foliola lateralia exterior a basibus cum 
processu columnar connata. Pollinia 4, basibus (vel dorso) 
connata, glandulosa. — Herbae parasitica, bulbosce, America 
meridionalis: Racemi (vel scapi uniflori) radicates. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Maxillaria * squalens ; racemo multifloro, labello trilobo 
lobis lateralibus incurvis, tenninaJi late ovali incras- 

Xylobium squalens. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. (sub Maxillaria 
Harrisonice.) t. 897. 

Dendrobium squalens. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 732. 

Descr. Parasitic. Bulbs several, oblong, dark green, 
in part sheathed with brown lacerated scales. Leaves, two 
from the summit of each bulb, eight to ten inches to a foot 
long, tapering below into a footstalk, strongly five-ribbed, 
with many parallel veins, ribs very prominent beneath. 
Scape from the base of the bulbs four to six inches high, 
clothed with ovate, concave, brown scales, and terminated 


* From a fancied resemblance to the maxillae, or jaws of an in&ect. 

by a dense, thyrsiform raceme of many pale, dingy, yellow- 
ish, flesh-coloured flowers. These flowers are resupinate. 
The three outer segments ovato-oblong, nearly equal, the 
two lower ones decurrent : two inner ones lanceolate, within 
streaked with purple. Lip three lobed ; faintly streaked 
with purple : side-lobes incurved, terminal one slightly 
deflexed, thick, fleshy, deep purple. Column semicylin- 
drical, dotted with purple. Anther two-celled. Pollen 
Masses four, united at their back, yellow : Gland semilunate. 
Germen clavate, twisted, shorter than the lanceolate brac- 

A native of Brazil : communicated to the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden, where it flowered in the stove in the autumn of 
1828, by the Horticultural Society. The flowers are much 
greener in the specimen figured in the Bot. Register. It is 
there first referred to Dendrobium ; afterwards Mr. Lindley 
constituted a new Genus of it : but as it appears to me no 
way differing from Maxillaria, except in a slight difference 
in the place of union of the Pollen Masses; at the back in 
Xylobium, at the base in Maxillaria. 

Fig. ] . Single Flower : side view. 2. Lip. 3. Front view of a Flower, 
the Lip forced open. 4. 5. Back and front view of the Pollen Mass. — 


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Third 
Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Sixth of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged. 


2922 Acacia lanigera. 

2928 — ~ Oxycedrus. 
2879 Abronia mellifera. 
2936 Andromeda hypnoides. 

291 1 Annona reticulata. 

2912 Ibid. 

2942 Aster salsuginosus. 

2901 Azalea ledifolia. 
2900 Begonia insignis. 
2920 semperflorens. 

2892 Billbergia cruenta. 
2926 Bonatea speciosa. 
2878 Brassavola tuberculata. 
2877 Brodiaa grandiflora. 
2876 Calceolaria connata. 

2897 polifolia. 

2915 thyrsiflora. 

2898 Carica Papaya. 

2899 Ibid. 

2929 Cestrum alaternoides. 
2918 Clarkia pulchella. 
2925 Clerodendron emirnense. 

2893 Collomia linearis. 

2894 grandiflora. 

2895 heterophylla. 

2944 Combretum grandiflorum. 

2908 Crinum plicatum. 

2938 Cypripedium macranthon. 
2906 Dendrobium semulum. 

2916 Dischidia benghalensis. 
2905 Dombeya angulata. 
2934 Draba aurea. 

2881 Elichrysum incanum. 

2923 Erigeron glabellum. 

2909 Erythrolama conspicua. 
2890 Escallonia rubra. 
2887 Escbscholzia californica. 
2931 Eulophia streptopetala. 

2902 Euphorbia splendens. 

2939 Ficus rubiginosa. 

2896 Frankenia pauciflora. 


2940 Gaillardia aristata. 

2883 Gilia inconspicua. 
2924 Gilia gracilis. 

2947 Habenaria macroceras. 

2891 Hibiscus liliiflorus, var. hybri- 

2880 Horkelia congesta. 
2886 Iris tripetahr. 
2914 Justicia nodosa. 
2921 Ligustrum nepalense, ft gla- 


2941 Linaria requitriloba. 
2913 Lotus pinnatus. 

2950 Ludovia latifolia. 

2951 Ibid. 

2952 Lupinus littoralis. 
2927 Maxillaria Harrisonise. 

2955 squalens. 

2907 Mentha verticiilata. 
2933 Mitella pentandra. 
2919 Nicotiana acuminata. 
2889 GSnothera decumbens. 
2937 Orobus stipulaceua. 

2903 Pentstemon ovatus. 

2945 — —. gracilis, 

2954 — II procerus. 

2943 Peperomia clusisefolia. 
2917 Plumbago rhomboidea. 

2904 Podolepis gracilis. 

2888 Poeonia albiflora, x. rosea. 

2884 Poinciana regia. 
2932 Pontederia azurea. 

2885 Portulaca grandiflora. 

2953 Pothos microphylla. 

2948 Stanhopea insignis. 

2949 Ibid. 

2930 Stenocbilus viscosus. 
2935 Tradescantia crassnla. 
2910 Verbena bracteosa. 
2882 Vesicaria arctica. 

2946 Vicia argentea. 


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the 
Third Volume of the New Sehies (or Fifty-Sixth of the 
Work) are alphabetically arranged. 


2922 Acacia, Woolly-podded. 

2928 Downy-stemmed. 

2879 Abronia, Honey-smelling. 
2936 Andromeda, Hypnum-Hke. 
2901 Azalea, Fragrant, Indian. 
2900 Begonia, Handsome-flowered. 
2920 Free-flowering. 

2892 Billbergia, Blood-stained. 
2926 Bonatea, Showy. 

2939 Botany-Bay Fig, Rusty-leaved. 
2878 Brassavola, Tuberculated. 
2877 Brodisea, Large-flowered. 

2929 Cestrum, Alaternus-leaved. 
2918 Clarkia, Beautiful. 

2925 Clerodendron, Small -flowered, 

2893 Collomia, Small-flowered. 

2894 Large-flowered. 

2895 Narrow-leaved. 

2944 Combretum, Large-flowered. 

2908 Crinum, Plaited-leaved. 

2911 Custard- Apple, Netted. 

2912 Ibid. 

2906 Dendrobium, Small-clustered. 
2916 Dischidia, Bengal. 
2905 Dombeya, Angle-leaved. 
2881 Elichrysum, Hoary-leaved. 

2923 Erigeron, Smoothish-leaved. 

2909 Erythrolsena, Conspicuous. 

2890 Escallonia, Red-flowered. 
2887 Eschscholzia, Californian. 
2889 Evening Primrose, Decumbent, 

2931 Enlophia, Twisted-petaled. 

2896 Frankenia, Few-flowered. 

2940 Gaillardia, Whole-coloured. 
2883 Gilia, Small-flowered. 

2924 Gilia, Slender. 

2947 Habenaria, Long horned. 

2891 Hibiscus, Lily -flowered, Hy- 

brid var. 

2880 Horkelia, Tufted-flowered. 
2886 Iris, Three-petaled. 
2914 Justicia, Swoln-jointed. 







Lady's - Slipper, Large - flow- 

Lead-Wort, Rhomboid-leaved. 

Lotus, Pinnate-leaved. 

Ludovia, Broad-leaved. 


Lupine, Sea-shore. 

Maxillaria, Mrs. Harrison's. 

■ Dingy-flowered. 

Michaelmas-Daisy, Salt Plain. 

Mint, Whorled. 

Mitella, Five-stamened. 

Orobus, Large-stipuled. 

Papaw Tree. f 


Pentstemon, Ovate-leaved. 



Peperomia, Clusia-leaved. 

Podolepis, Slender-stalked. 

Poeony, Double -White Chi- 
nese, with Rose - coloured 

Poinciana, Superb. 

Pontederia, Large-flowered. 

Pothos, Small-leaved. 

Privet, Nepal, glabrous var. 

Purslane, Large-flowered. 

Slipper-Wort, Connate-leaved. 



Spurge, Showy, Red-flowered. 

Stanhopca, Splendid. 


Stenochilus, Clammy. 

Toad -Flax, Small, Fleshy- 

Tobacco, Acuminated-leaved. 

Tradescantia, White-flowered. 

Verbena, Bracteated. 

Vesicaria, Arctic. 

Vetch, Silver-leaved. 

Whitlow - Grass, Golden - flow-