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in which the most Ornamental Foreign Plants cultivated in the Open Ground, 

the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented and coloured. 

To which are added, 


Their Places of Growth, Times of Flowering, and most approved 
Methods of Culture. 





F. R. A. and L. S. and Regius Professor of Botany in the University 
of Glasgow. 

Lit **!$<* 

VOL. IV. L> 

Or Vol. lvii. of the whole Work. 

" See, Mary, what beauties I bring, 

From the shelter of that sunny shed, 

Where the flowers have the charms of the spring, 
Though, abroad, they are withered and dead." 


Printed by Edward Couchman, 10, Throgmorton Street ; 




Also by Sherwood, Gilbert, & Piper, 23, Paternoster Row; J. & A. Arch, Cornhili; Treuttel & Wurtz, 

Soho Square; Blackwood, Edinburgh; and in Holland, of Mr. Gt. Elderlng, Florist, at Haarlem : 

And to be had, of all Booksellers in Town and Country. 



JOSEPH SABINE, Esq. F.R.S. L.S. &c. &c. 












December 1, 1829. 

l'ut> byS Cu.rtw.Wal»>0rth, Nov* J J, 

( 2956 ) 

Neottia? grandiflora. Large-flowered 


* ********************* 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. ringens: petalis exterioribus anticis labello imbcrbi 
suppositis ; interioribus conniventibus. Columna aptera. 
Pollen farinaceum. 

Specific Character. 

Neottia*} grandiflora; labello oblongo medio lamellato, 
apice petalisque duobus inferioribus papillosis, petalo 
superiore oblongo integro, reliquis sinuato-crispatis. 

Descr. Terrestrial. Stem a foot high, clothed with 
many linear, oblong, acuminated, reHexed, glaucous, shin- 
ing, and striated leaves, whose bases are sheathing, and 
their extremities tipped with brown ; these leaves become 
smaller upward, and gradually change into lanceolate 
bracteae. Flowers few, (three) in a terminal spike, very 
large and singular in their appearance. The petals or seg- 
ments of the perianth all of a greenish colour, beautifully 
striated with a deeper line, their extremities and margins 
white. Upper Segment erect, oblong, obtuse, two inches 
long, the margin entire and even ; the two interior ones are 
a little shorter, obovate, sinuated and plaited at the margin, 
the two lateral, or rather lowermost ones three inches lon<>\ 
spathulate, of a bluer green in the inside, the broad extre- 

From »iott««, or »kwi«, a bird's nest; so called from a peculiarity in 
; roots of some soecies. 

the roots of some species. 

mity remarkably plaited at the margin, while its surface is 
studded with many roundish or linear white papillae,, tipped 
with green. The Labellum is scarcely so long as these, 
reflexed, broadly oblong, the sides curved upwards, waved 
and plaited, especially at the extremity, where the surface 
is papillose as in the petals just described ; at the base it is 
suddenly contracted into a short, white claw, having an 
orange spot at the base, and the inner surface for more than 
half the length is, in the middle, furnished with about six, 
vertical, green plates or lamellae, of which the extremities 
are free, sharp, and curved a little upwards. Germen an- 
gular, thickened upwards. Column linear, oblong, decurv- 
ed, semicylindraceous, within orange-coloured, marked with 
two depressed longitudinal lines, the base dilated, deep 
red, and marked with a tooth on each side: upwards in 
front is the subquadrate, depressed, green, stigma, termi- 
nated by a short bifid lip : the back of the column is green, 
and within the summit of it, which forms an imperfect upper 
lip, is situated the ovato-acuminate, green anther -case. 
Cells two, yellow, opening with a longitudinal fissure, 
and containing each two linear-acuminate, curved Pollen- 
Masses, yellow, and farinaceous indeed on the outside, but 
within, evidently formed of elastically cohering grannies. 

The Orchideous plants, formerly scarcely known in a 
state of cultivation, may now rank with the most numerous, 
and certainly the most curious and beautiful, of any tribes 
which adorn our stoves ; and among those not parasitic 
whose roots are imbedded in the ground, may assuredly be 
reckoned the kind now before us, which was sent to our 
Glasgow Garden by the Rev. Lansdown Gcilding, and 
blossomed in the stove of the spring of 182!). The upper- 
most flower scarcely came to perfection, and I have reason 
to believe, that another year will witness the plant in a 
greater state of beauty and magnitude than it exhibited 
this year. With regard to the Genus, it agrees with the 
essential character of Neottia, as it is at present defined 
by Mr. Brown; but the habit of the plant and the par- 
ticular structure of its floral coverings are so much at 
variance with what we know of the rest of the Neotti^ 
that it will probably constitute a distinct Genus 

3 JW lCl ell T t 'u naL f 6 -^ BaCk VieW ° f the ****** <* the Column. 

MaSr ti^ss^sr 4 - Anther - case - 5 and 6 - p ° iie - 

v "2J#2ff. 

( 2957 ) 

Habenaria longicauda. Long-Tailed 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. ringens. Labellum basi subtus calcaratum. Glan- 
dule pollinis midae distinctae (loculis pedicellorum adnatis 
v. solutis distinctis). Br. 

Specific Character. 

Habenaria longicauda; labello profundo-trifido , laciniis 
setaceis, lateralibus petalorum interiorum bipartitorum 
lon-is incurvis, intermedio latiore breviore, cornu hli- 
foriiii pedicellisque longissimis. 

Descr. Root ? Stem a foot and a half to two and even 
three feet high, every where clothed with the Ion- sheath- 
tog bases of the leaves. Leaves lanceolate acuminate, 
striated, four to five inches long, gradually smaller upward, 
and passing into the bractese. Bractetz lanceolate, much 
shorter than the germens. Floioers in a large, terminal, 
lax, raceme. Flowers large, greenish white. 1 hree outer 
petals, or segments of the perianth, three quarters ot an 
inch long, ovate, acuminate, the two lateral ones reflexed, 
nerveless, the upper one erect, concave, three-nerved, cover- 
ing the anther. Two inner ones bipartite, their segments 
setaceous, curved, long, the upper one, however, the shortest, 
and concealed within the upper and outermost petal. L,ip 
deeply trifid, that is cut below the middle into three seta- 
ceous segments, of which, the two lateral ones are much the 
longest, not spreading, but nearly parallel with the middle 

one, curved upwards : intermediate one broader, hanging 
down : at the base, on the upper side, are no fleshy tuber- 
cles as in H. macroceras : from the base below depends a 
filiform cylindrical, or towards the extremity, slightly 
compressed spur, more than a span long. Anther erect, 
scarcely bifid : its two cells projecting at the base into two 
horn-like, fleshy processes, pointing upwards : (or these 
may perhaps be considered as belonging to the column:) 
below these, on each side, is a projecting, fleshy, clavate 
body, glandular on the outside, and at the extremity ; the 
two abortive anthers. Germen oblongo-cylindrical, striated, 
twisted, tapering into a long pedicel. Fruit : a capsule 
two inches long, ribbed, crowned with the three outer, 
withered segments of the perianth. 

Mr. Parker gathered this most interesting plant in 
Demerara, and though we have not the good fortune to 
possess it in a living state, I do not despair of seeing it ere 
long cultivated in our stoves : and few plants can be more 
worthy the attention of the Horticulturist. In the mean 
time, I am anxious to figure such portions of the plant as 
may give a correct idea of its leaves and flowers, which I 
am able to do by means of specimens given me by Mr. 
Parker, both in a dry state and preserved in spirits. The 
whole of the figures here given are of the natural size. 

Fig. 1. Portion of the Stem with a Leaf. 2. Single Flower. 3.3. 3. 
The three Outer Petals. 4. 4. The two Inner Petals. 5. Front view of the 
Anther and Lip. 6. Side view of the Anther and Lip, with a portion of the 
Germen, and of the Spur. 7. One half of the Column and Anther seen from 
within. 8. Capsule. — All of the nut. size. 

Note The author of the Botanical Register, (see December Number) 
under tab. 1290, seems to be of opinion, that the name Ceratochilus ought 
to have the preference to that of Stanhopea. (See Botanical Magazine, tab. 
jy4H-y.) But in this he is quite mistaken. Common justice requires me to 
state, that no character, whatever, has been given of the former Genus nor any 
peculiarities mentioned or figured, as belonging to it, which could' possibly 
enable me to distinguish it from other Orchideous Genera : (see Loddiges' 
Botanical Cabinet, t. 1414.) In short, it is only a MSS. name of Mr. Lind- 
lky. Had it been otherwise, or had there been any means of identifying 
Stanhopea with Ceratochtlus, I would most cheerfully have acknowledged 
its prior claims. ■ 

1'itb /v 

( 2958 ) 


■^i As- A'. A/. ■ v I / - A'-, As, A'- A'- A*- A*- A', A ^ i^. ^i ■ v I / , ."^i "fc 

C/ass «raZ Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Labiatje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. tubulosus, dentatus. Cor. ringens : labio superiore 
lineari, filamenta involvente. Semina 4. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Monarda* menthcefolia ; caule piloso, foliis cordatis acu- 
minatis serratis undique pilosis breviter petiolatis, flo- 
ribus capitatis, involucris herbaceis venis purpureis. 

Monarda menthaefolia. Graham Descr. Rare PL in Edin. 
Phil. Journ. 1829, p. 347. 

Descr. Stem erect, tetragonous, purple, thickly covered 
with white pubescence. Leaves (an inch and a half long-, 
ten and a half lines broad) spreading, decussated, on short 
petioles, cordate, acute, pale green, pubescent on both 
sides, especially below, acutely serrated, strongly veined, 
the uppermost pair closely embracing the capitulum, and 
having immediately within them four bracteas, two on each 
side, similar to themselves, but rather softer, of paler green, 
with red veins; within these, and surrounding the capi- 
tulum, are many unequal, subulate, ciliated, green bracteas. 
Flowers in a dense, terminal capitulum. Calyx tubular, 
slightly curved, nerved, smooth, except at the base of the 


* Named in compliment to Nicholas Monarpez, a Spanish Botanist of 
the 16th century. 

teeth, where there is a whorl of spreading hairs : teeth 
short, acute, equal. Corolla lilac: tube clavate, curved, 
very slender, colourless, and smooth at its origin, every- 
where else on the outside covered with short, dense tomen- 
tum, smooth within ; upper lip straight, subulate, lower 
lip three-lobed, the central lobe the longest, linear, narrow, 
inflected, and cleft, the two lateral rounded, with erect 
edges. Stamens as long as the style, smooth; anthers 
transverse, flat, their upper edge deep purple, closely applied 
to each other, and embracing the stigma ; filaments and 
style of the same color with the corolla. Stigma unequally 
bilobed. Gcrmen four-lobed, erect, yellow, small. Per- 
fume of the whole plant resembling Mint. 

The species of Monarda are certainly in great confusion, 
and it is not without some hesitation that I have ventured 
to describe this as new ; though there is none described, or 
in cultivation, which I can satisfy myself as being the same. 
It is nearly allied to M. oblongata, but is distinguished from 
it by the much more hairy stem, the harsher and less acu- 
minated leaves, and shorter petioles. It was raised in the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden, and in the garden of Mr. 
Neill, of Canonmills, from seeds collected by Mr. Drum- 
mond, between Norway House and Canada, and flowered 
freely in August. When very luxuriant in cultivation, the 
stem is ascending and less hairy, and very rarely it is con- 
tinued through the capitulum. Even the native specimens 
vary in the degree of hairiness and the number and depth of 
the serratures in the leaves, which also differ in their breadth 
at the base, and are more or less elongated. The appear- 
ance of the less vigorous cultivated plants exactly resem- 
bles the few which are in Mr. Drummond's Herbarium. 

Fig. 1. Calyx. 2. Corolla.— Magnified. 

hill ty.< ('urtu H'.tiift'rtk, Jan 

( 2959 ) 

Saxifraga leucanthemifolia. Ox-eye- 
leaved Saxifrage. 


Class and Order. 
Decandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Saxifrages. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus, inferus, vel superus, vel semisuperus, per- 
sistens. Pet. 5. Capsula birostris, intra rostra dehiscens, 
polysperma, dissepimento placentifero, seminifero. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Saxifraga* leucanthemifolia; foliis fere omnibus radica- 
libus cuneato-obloiigis grosse serratis, scapo ramosis- 
simo divaricato, petalis inaequalibus tribus petiolatis 

Saxifraga leucanthemifolia. Mich. Bor. Am. v. I. p. 268. 
" Lapeyr. Saxifr. t. 25. Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. v. I. p. 
311. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 362. 

Saxifraga Clusii. " Gouan, lllustr. p. 28. 

Saxifraga ferruginea. Graham in Ed. Phil. Journ. July, 
1828, p. 348. 

Descr. Root fibrous, perennial. Leaves almost entirely 
radical, spreading on the ground, one to two inches long, 
obovato-cuneate, obscurely nerved, deeply and coarsely 
serrated at the margin, at the base attenuated and entire. 
Scapes, several from the same root, and from the centre of 
the expanded leaves, erect, a span high, panicled from 


* From saxum, a stone, and frango, to break : because by their rooti 
penetrating into the crevices of rocks and stones they appear to break tnem 
or aa some say, in allusion to the supposed medicinal qualities 

much below the middle, with numerous slender, red, glan- 
dular, extremely divaricated branches, each terminated with 
a single flower. At the base of the primary branches are 
small, linear bracteez, larger and leafy in the lower part of 
the panicle. Calyx of five leaves, bent back so as to lie 
against the pedicel. Stamens : five become perfect before 
the other five: Filaments slender, white: anthers orange- 
colour, subglobose. Petals five, white ; three upper ones 
the largest, exactly ovate, contracted at the base into a dis- 
tinct pedicel or claw, and having each two roundish, yellow 
spots. Two lower petals oblong, narrower at the base, spot- 
less. Pistil: Germen oblong, cleft into two, nearly erect 
styles, superior. The Calyx and Stamens persist long after 
the petals have fallen away. 

Nothing can appear more elegant than the flowers of this 
little-known Saxifrage, when seen under a small power of 
the microscope, as represented at fig. 1. They have a 
considerable similarity to those of S. stellaris : near which 
thje species ranks. 

Our plants from which the figures were taken, were 
raised in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, from seeds which 
Dr. Graham received from the Rocky Mountains of North 
America, where they had been gathered by Mr. Drummond 
1 he blossoms were in perfection in June, being produced 
upon plants, in pots, indeed, but in the open air 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil.— Magnified. 


( 2960 ) 
Desmodium dubium. Doubtful Desmodium. 

A/. A' A' A/. <&, A' A/. A/, A/, A/, As. A\ y'/. A.' A' A'. A\ A\ 

vp y|S 7|S 7j> <IS 'v 'JS 7F 4 s -T- yp 'IS -r- yp yIS "J* yF yF 

C7«ss «wrf Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. basi bibracteolatus, ad medium obscure bilabiatus, 
labio superiore bifido, inferiore 3-partito. Cor. papilio- 
nacea, vexillo subrotundo, carina obtusa non truncata, alis 
carina longioribus. Stam. diadelpha (9 et 1) filamentis 
subpersistentibus. Legumen constans articulis plurimis ad 
maturitatem secedentibus, compressis, monospermis, mera- 
branaceis eoriaceisve, non aut vix dehiscentibus. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Desmodium* dubium; foliis trifoliatis, foliolis obovatis sub- 
retusis mucronulatis pubescenti-pilosis, subtus palli- 
dioribus, racemis elongatis multifloris terminalibus, 
bracteis subulatis pedicellos aequantibus, caulibus an- 
gulatis calycibusque hirsutis. 

Desmodium dubium. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 967. 

Descr. A suffruticose plant, with upright, slender, an- 
gular, branching, and hairy stems. Leaves ternate. Leaf- 
lets large, the terminal one exactly obovate, upon a long 
petiole, the lateral ones more oblong, sessile, all of them 
very obtuse or almost retuse, clothed with short, soft, and 
fine, rather silky, appressed hairs, green above, paler be- 
neath. Main petiole with swollen joints, having a pair of 
small, pointed stipules at the base, and a smaller pair a little 
way up. Racemes terminal, longer than the leaves, many 


* From &<r/M ( , a chain, from the articulated seed-vessels. 

flowered, and lengthening much when all the flowers are 
expanded. Bractece long, subulate, about as long as the 
slender, red, pedicels of the flowers. Flowers at first droop- 
ing, then patent. Calyx slightly hairy, reddish green, two- 
lipped, upper lip bifid, lower lip trifid. Petals of a pale rose 
colour. Vexillum obovate, having two oblong, white spots 
within near the base. Alee and keel alike in shape, the 
latter smaller. Stam. diadelphous. Germen linear. Style 
curved upwards. Stigma obtuse. 

This is a pretty greenhouse plant, blossoming in June 
and July, and was drawn from specimens sent by Dr. Gra- 
ham, which he had raised at the Edinburgh Garden from 
seeds sent by Dr. Wallich. 

Prom the Botanical Register we learn, that the plant is a 
native of the Himala Mountains. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Vexillum. 3. Keel and one of the Alse. 4. Calyx, 
Stamens, and Pistil. 5. Pistil. — All more or less Magnified. 


Sim* ■ 

( 2961 ) 

Anthocercis viscosa. Glutinous 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Solane^e. Sect. II. Br.) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5-fidus. Cor. campanulata, tubo basi coarctata 
staminifera ; limbo 5 -parti to, aequali. Stamina inclusa, 
didynama, cum rudimento 5-ti. Stigma capitato-emargi- 
natum. Caps, bilocularis, bivalvis, val varum marginibus 
mflexis, placentae parallelae insertis. Semina reticulata. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Anthocercis * viscosa ; foliis obovatis glanduloso-puncta- 
tis margine scabriusculis, novellis ramulisque tenuis- 
sime pubescentibus, capsula ovata calycem subae- 
quante. Br. 

Anthocercis viscosa. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 448. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 841. 

Descr. Apparently a low shrub, with alternate, obovate, 
somewhat fleshy leaves, obtuse or even retuse at the extre- 
mity, at the base attenuated, but not petioled, the margin 
scabrous, though not visibly so to the naked eye, the surface 
both above and beneath punctated with glandular, brown 
dots. Peduncles axillary, solitary, single-flowered, having 
two or three linear or linear-lanceolate, green, bracteas ; 
these peduncles become considerably elongated when bear- 

From a»9oj, a flower, and k«*k» a ray. in allusion to the radiated limb 
«f the Corolla. 

ing the fruit. Calyx deeply five-cleft, with linear-lanceo- 
late, erecto-patent segments. Corolla ample, white, cam- 
panulate, the limb five-cleft, with spreading, oblong seg- 
ments, externally with minute, glandular pubescence, the 
tube within streaked with green. Stamens four, didyna- 
mous, inserted at the base of the tube. Anther roundish, 
two-lobed, their back turned towards the pistil. Stigma 
capitate, two-lobed. 

This is much the finest species of the Genus, having 
flowered considerably larger than those of the only other 
hitherto described individuals, A. littorea, Brown, and R. 
albicans*, of Cunningham, in Mr. Barron Field's Memoirs 
of New Holland. It was discovered by Mr. Brown on the 
Southern shores of New Holland. Seeds were gathered by 
Mr. Allan Cunningham at King George's Sound, during 
the fourth voyage of survey of Capt. King, and sent to 
the Royal Gardens at Kew, where the plant blossomed in 
May, 1824. 

The drawing was kindly communicated to me by W. T. 
Aiton, Esq. The figure of the Anther and Stigma, and the 
description, are from a dried specimen in my Herbarium, 
gathered by Mr. Warefield, in King George's Sound, and 
sent to me with many other rarities by Mr. Phaser. 

* A fourth species has been sent to me by Mr. Fraser from the Swan 
River, which I name 

A. ilicifolia ; foliis obovatis glabris spinoso-dentatis munitissime punctatis, 
ramis longissimis virgatis, coroUae laciniis tubo brevioribus, capsula ob- 
longa calyce quintuplo longiore. 

This grows to the height of six feet, and is widely different from the other 
known species. 

Fig. 1, Back view, and 2, front view of a Stamen. 3. Stigma.— Magnified. 



fttf> M' ■? Curtis Walworth Jim* 1 ma 


( 2962 ) 

Begonia picta. Particoloured 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Begoniace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. o. Cor. polypetala. Petala plerumque 4, 
insequalia. Fjem. Cal. o. Cor. petalis 4—9, plerumque 
inasqualibus. Styli 3, bifidi. Caps, triquetra, alata. tri 
locularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Begonia picta ; caule brevi pubescente, foliis cordatis acu- 
tis acuminatisque rugosis daplicato-serratis maculatis 
hispidis, flore masculine 4-petalo, faemineo 5-petalo 
utroque petalis 2 angustioribus, capsula alis inaequa- 
libus pubescentibus. 

Begonia picta. Smith Ex. Bot. t. 101. Hook. Ex. Fl. t. 
89. Lodd.Bot. Cab. t.bU. 

Begonia hirta. Wall. MSS. 

Descr. Stem about a span high, arising from a tuber- 
ous root, herbaceous, scarcely branched, reddish, slightly 
downy, green above. Leaves cordate, more or less inequi- 
lateral, with a deep sinus at the base, and two large, rounded 
lobes, rather obtuse, the margins unequally and doubly 
serrated, downy beneath, where the nerves are very pro- 
minent, hispid above, at the margins and axils of the nerves 
stained with dark purple. Peduncles from the axils of the 
leaves, and longer than them, reddish below, green above, 
bearing one or several flowers, often in a trichotomous 
umbel. Flowers large, rose coloured, very handsome, 


drooping before and after expansion, especially the female. 
Male Flower of four spreading petals, two large, roundish- 
cordate, hispid, with short, red hairs at the back, two inner 
ones obovate. Female of five petals, three outer oues 
rotundato- ovate, hispid at the back, two inner smaller, and 
obovate. Germen inferior, turbinate, downy, with three 
wings, one large and two smaller ones, each dilated upwards 
into an obtuse angle. Stamens, Style, and Pistil as in most 
of the Genus. 

Neither my own figure in Exotic Flora, nor that of 
Loddiges in the Botanical Cabinet, does justice to the 
beauty of this plant, and the size of its flowers. This is 
often the case with plants that are figured when they first 
bloom after their introduction to this country; afterwards 
they become stronger, and flower in much greater per- 

B. picta was first figured by Sir James E. Smith in the 
Exotic Botany. It is a native of Nepal ; but probably of 
the warmer parts : for it seems to flourish best with the heat 
of our stoves, in which situation, the plant from which our 
figure and description were taken flowered in the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, and in the month of September, 1829. 


?-,j /• S-f ^'ssss ss.>- A,* £ar* n£Jk .*■>/> ' / ■ J 

( 2963 2964 ) 
Cycas revoluta. Narrow-leaved Cycas. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Cycade^. Pers. Rich. ) 

Generic Character. 

Fl. dioici. Masc. amentacei ; amentum crassissimum, 
squamis subimbricatis, axi communi insertis, subtriangu- 
latis, inferne angustatis, apice mucrone recurvo terminatis, 
subtus inordinate antheris bivalvibus conspersis. F^m. in 
spadices ensi formes,, foliaceo-carnosos, marginibus dispo- 
siti, erecti, semi-immersi, in utroque margine 3 — 4. Fructus 
drupacei, erecti. 

Arbores stipite erecto 3 tereti ; foliis coronantibus , pin- 
natis. Rich. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cycas * revoluta ; foliorum pinnis numerosissimis linearibus 

mucronatis margine revolutis, petiolo triangulato spi- 

nuloso, spadicibus fcemineis paucifloris apice inciso- 

Cycas revoluta. Thunb. Jap. p. 229. Smith in Trans. 

Linn. Soc. v. 6. p. 312. t. 29, 30. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. 

p. 844. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 907. 
Arbor ragoe Amboinensis. Seb. Thes. v. 1. t. 25./. 1. 
Arbor calappoides sinensis. Rumph. Amb. v. 1. p. 92. 

t. 24. 
Tessio, vulgo. Solitz et Sodetz. Kcempf. Amarn. Exot. 

p. 897. 

Descr. Stem or Trunk three to five feet high in the 
plant here figured, and of considerable thickness, one 


* From «w(, the name of a Palm in TuEorinusTi/s. 

foot or more in diameter ; of a dark brown colour, clothed 
with withered, reflexed scales, and annulated from the 
scars of the former years' circles of leaves. From the sum- 
mit of this stem springs a beautiful crown of feathery, lively- 
green foliage ; each leaf five to six feet long, spreading, 
most beautifully pinnated : pinnae numerous, close set, 
linear-mucronate, dark green above, having a strong mid- 
rib, paler beneath, where the midrib is prominent, and the 
margin bent down or involute. Rachis cylindrical. Stipes 
one to two feet long, triangular, with a row of spines on 
each side, which are abortive pinnse. Prom the centre of 
this superb crown of leaves, the fructification appears. 
The Male I have never seen ; nor do I know that it is any 
where correctly described. Even the Female I have not 
seen in the state of the germen. But, the spadices of fruit 
which have been sent me in spirits, have advanced germ ens, 
which are roundish, compressed, notched, and woolly. 
About six are inserted, three on each side of a long, com- 
pressed, woolly, orange-coloured spadix, digitato-laciniate 
at the extremity, about a span long, and more or less 
incurved at their apices. These germens are quite desti- 
tute of perianth, and even when not fertilized, change into 
an orange-coloured, downy fruit, compressed, and notched 
at the extremity. The down soon disappears, and then the 
fruit becomes glabrous and deeper coloured, more inclining 
to red. Within the sinus of the notch is a raised papilla 5 , 
small, with a circular, margined mouth. Nut oval, a little 
attenuated at the base, at the apex apiculated, with a sharp 
point, which answers to the papilla above mentioned. 
Within, these nuts, not having been fertilized, exhibit only 
a withered and imperfect kernel, which it would be useless 
to describe. The fruits abound in a white, transparent 
mucilage. r 

Having already at Tab. 2826 and 2827 of this work 
given figures and a description of the more rare Cycas 
circmalis, I felt anxious to add a representation of the 
L. revoluta. Sir James Smith has, indeed, given a very 
good figure in the Transactions of the Linnaan Society 
above quoted from a plant that bore its female blossoms in 
the stove of the Bishop of Winchester, in 1799. But that 
belongs to a work which is in the hands of few. I am not 
aware that any plant has besides flowered in this country, 
till about the latter end of the present summer, (1829,) when 
Lord Milton politely invited me to Wentworth House, to 
see a specimen, then loaded with its rich and downy 


Sm» " 

orange-coloured fruits, in the gardens of that noble man- 
sion. My avocations prevented me at the time from taking 
so long a journey, which I should otherwise most gladly 
have done. But, fortunately, at that very period, my 
valued friend, the Rev. R. T. Lowe, sent me a beautiful 
drawing of a plant which had flowered in Madeira, together 
with some spadices in spirits. From these, the accom- 
panying engravings have been made. Mr. Lowe writes me 
respecting this Madeira plant, {C It grows in front of the 
Quinta do Valle, or Valle Villa, a spot whose elevation is 
about three hundred feet above the level of the sea. It has 
produced fruit, (abortive like that sent,) every alternate year 
for a long time till the very last ; but the gentleman who 
resided in the house having left the island last summer, the 
plant was neglected ; and this year it has not, as usual, put 
out a fresh crown of leaves. The usual treatment has been, 
to cut off the whole of the leaves as soon as the fruit of 
the year had nearly perished ; that is, towards January or 
February : and then, towards the spring in May or June, it 
never failed to put forth anew crown of leaves, which, about 
the middle of summer, attained their full size. These con- 
tinued through the winter, and the fruit began to develop 
itself in their centre, towards June or July of the following 
year, arriving at its full size in September. Last winter, 
the foliage of the summer of 1827 was not cut off, as I said, 
after the fruit had perished, and is at this moment on the 
plant. About last March, there seemed to be an effort to 
shoot out fresh leaves, by the protrusion of a conical groupe 
of sharp-pointed processes from the centre of the withered 
spadices and fruit, but nothing more has yet appeared. The 
fruit acquires its fine orange-colour very early, and is about 
the size of a horse-bean. I have just been to take the follow- 
ing measurements. Height of trunk (to the base of decayed 
remains of last summer's fruit,) three feet nine inches. Girth 
at the ground, three feet three inches ; at middle and at 
top, three feet four inches. It appears to the eye, however, 
a good deal thicker upwards. There are twenty-four leaves, 
(the crown is not quite perfect, as you will see in the 
figure,) which are from three feet seven inches to three 
feet ten inches long, still exhibiting no signs of decay ; and 
there is no appearance of fresh ones, except the cone ol pro- 
cesses above mentioned. Counting the alternate remains 
of leaf-stalks and spadices, (distinct traces of the last occur 
at the very lowest ring above the surface of the ground) the 
Plant is forty-five to fifty years old. It has occupied its 
J * present 

present place probably twenty or thirty years. The sketch, 
which is most accurate and faithful, was taken in November 
last, before the fruit was set, by my friend, Francis Hyde, 
Esq. lately of the 12th Lancers." The taste of the fruit is 
mealy, dry, and sweetish, but insipid. It is the general 
opinion here, that this is the Sago Palm, or the plant that 
produces Sago. The Japanese, of whose country the plant 
is a native, eat the fruits; and from the trunk extract a kind 
of Sago, which is highly esteemed, especially by the people 
of rank. On this account, the plant is much cultivated 
about their houses, and is forbidden to be exported. A 
very small quantity of the medulla or pith suffices to satisfy 
the hunger of a soldier in the time of war. 

CrcAsrevoluta is frequently cultivated in the stoves of the 
curious in this country ; but it requires considerable space 
to be seen to advantage. The general structure both of 
the male and female flowers and fruit will prove, in all pro- 
bability, very similar to those of C. circinalis, already ffiven 
in this work. 

Tab. 2963. Plant of Cycas revoluta much reduced. Fig. 1. A leaf upon 
a larger scale ; but still considerably reduced. 

Tab. 2964. Fig. 1. Spadixwith (abortive) Fruit. 2. Nut taken out from a 
Drupe. 3. Summit of the Drupe a little magnified, shewing the Papilla in 
the Sinus. 4. Portion of a Leaf. 1. 2. and 4.— Natural size. 

2 965. 

K-Grertiie Del ''., C rurtis WalwertfuF/'M 1830. 

( 2965 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Irideje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha diphylla. Perianthium simplex, corollinum, pro- 
funde sex-partitum, aequale. Filamenta coimata. Stylus 
simplex. Stigma trifidum. Capsula tri-locuiaris, infera. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Sisyrinchium* pedunculatum ; caule folioso teretiusculo, 
foliis ensiformibus, pedunculis elongatis simplicibus, 
spathis exterioribus ovatis marginibus membranaceis, 
interioribus scariosis albidis, periantbii laeiniis obovatis 
basi angustatis, staminurn columna densissime glan- 
duloso-pilosa, stigmatibus brevissimis, ovario glabro. 

Sisyrinchium pedunculatum. Gillies MSS. 

Descr. Root fibrous. Stems one, to one and a half and 
two feet high, rounded, or but slightly compressed, zigzag, 
leafy. Leaves: radical ones, six to eight inches long. Stem- 
leaves remote, gradually shorter upwards, linear -ensiform, 
sheathing at the base, and there laterally compressed 
acuminated, striated, the uppermost one condu plicate, and 
a little membranous at the edge. Peduncle solitary, or two 
to four, from within the upper complicated leaf or Bractea, 

1 four 

* From avt, a hog, and fv 7X <>i, » snout, applied to some bulbous plant, and 
spoken of by Pliny and Theophrastus. 

four to six inches long, terete, bearing a single head of 
flowers within a diphyllous spatha, with green,, concave, 
ovate leaves, white and membranaceous at the margin, four 
to five flowered, each flower emerging from a large, almost 
entirely white and scariose, convolute, bractea. Perianth 
cut into six, obovate, spreading, deep yellow segments, a 
little concave in their lower half, and there narrow, with a 
small dark purple spot at the very base. Column of fila- 
ments long, densely covered with rather long, glandular, 
yellow hairs. Anther short, yellow, just below the slightly 
protruded tip of the style, with its three very short stigmas. 
Germen oblong, glabrous. Capsule oblong, attenuated, 

A native of Chili, where it has been found both by Dr. 
Gillies, and Mr. Cruickshanks. From the latter I have 
dried specimens. To the former we are indebted for its 
introduction to our greenhouses ; it having been raised at 
Mr. Neill's Garden at Canonmills, from seeds sent by Dr. 
Gillies. It first flowered in June, 1828. The same plant 
produced again, during the summer of the present year, 
(1829,) a succession of blossoms which lasted many weeks, 
and yielded seed, from which many plants have been raised. 

Fig. 1 . Column of the Stamens, with the slightly protruded Style and Stig- 
mas. 2. Capsule, included in its scariose Bractea. — Magnified. 


Pub by S. Cwrlu. ValworVuFelr T 0S8& 

( 2966 ) 

Begonia diversifolia. Various-leaved 


.'■I'. A/. A'. A'. A'. A\ A 1 . A'. A'. A'. .'■1% .St'- A\ A', jfr. A'. A 1 . Af. A '. A'. 

C/«ss «W(Z Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Begoniace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. C«Z. o. Cor. polypetala. Petala plerumque 4, 
inaequalia. Fjem. Cal. o. Cor. petalis 4 — 9, plerumque 
inaequalibus. Styli 3, bifidi. Caps, triquetra, alata, trilo- 
cularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonymn. 

Begonia diversifolia ; herbacea, glaberrima, foliis radicali- 
bus reniformibus late crenatis, caulinis sublobatis in- 
aequaliter argute serratis superioribus iuaequaliter cor- 
datis, inferioribus reniformibus, floribus axillaribus 
congestis, pedunculis petiolos aequantibus vel supc- 
rantibus ramosis, capsular ala maxima acutangula. 

B. diversifolia. Graham Descr. of New PL in Edin. Phil. 
Journ. (1829.) p. 183. 

Descr. Whole plant smooth and shining. Stem her- 
baceous, twining, branched, smooth, very obscurely angled, 
transparent. Stem-leaves alternate, petiolated, half-cordate, 
acuminate, somewhat lobed towards the base, acutely and 
unequally serrated, smooth, bright-green above, paler and 
somewhat glaucous beneath. Nerves branched, and pro- 
minent behind. Petioles shorter than the leaves, spreading, 
flattened on the upper side. Root-leaves kidney-shaped, 
nearly equal at the base, broadly crenate, on petioles, many 
times longer than themselves, and which are slightly com- 
pressed at the sides, and channelled above ; a few leaves at 


the bottom of the stem resemble these, but are on shorter 
petioles., and have their edges pretty equally lobed, the lobes 
being unequally and sharply serrated. Stipules ovate, ob- 
lique, green, ciliated. Peduncles axillary, about as long 
as the petioles on the lower part of the stem, longer above, 
slightly compressed, bracteated, pedicels rising from the 
axils of the bracteas, solitary, or two together, a male and 
female. Occasionally the peduncle is twice divided, with 
a pair of opposite bracteas at each division ; and it is ex- 
tremely probable, that at another season of the year, the 
inflorescence would look very differently, and the plant 
assume a much handsomer appearance, from perfecting 
many more flowers : for in the axil of each leaf, from whence 
the peduncle springs, and in the bosom of each bractea, 
there is a cluster of flower buds. Bracteas cordato-ovate, 
concave, blunt, entire, shorter than the pedicels. Corolla 
rose-coloured; outer petals cordato-ovate, pointed, sharply 
serrated j inner petals obovato-elliptical, entire, subacute. 
Stamens yellow, monadelphous ; union of the filaments 
extending high. Anthers (as is common in the whole of 
this genus) obovate, truncated, compressed, the pollen 
cases being distant, lateral, and connate. Germen with 
three unequal sides, unequally winged, of three somewhat 
unequal loculaments, each containing a large, green, bi- 
partite, waved, seminal receptacle, covered with minute 
ovules; the largest wing acute, the second subacute, and 
the third very small and rounded. 

As far as I can judge by the imperfect characters which 
have been published of this beautiful and extensive Genus, 
the present species is undescribed. It was raised from seeds, 
sent from Rigla in Mexico, by Captain Veitch, to P. Neill, 
Esquire, in whose stove at Cannonmills, near Edinburgh, 
it flowered in October, 1829. Graham. 

We are indebted to the pencil of Dr. Greville for the 
drawing from which our engraving was taken. 

Fig. 1. Capsule. — Natural size. 

3» ( T 

/'///• In- £CHrUsVi r/wv /•/// Fri 

( 2967 ) 

Passiflora ligularis. Ample-leaved 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Passiflore^e. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cal. 10-partitus, laciniis interioribus corollinis. Corona 
radiata perigyna. Nectarium in fundo calycis. Tubus 
stamiuifer stylum cingens. Stigmata 3, clavata. Pepo 
1-locularis, placentatio parietalis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Passiflora ligularis; involucro subflore triphyllo, foliolis 
ovatis serratis, foliis glabris cordatis integerrimis, peti- 
olis giandulas subsex filiformi-clavatas gerentibus, sti- 
pulis ovato-acuminatis, pedunciilis solitarns unifloris. 

P. ligularis. Juss. Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. v. 6. t. 40. 
Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. v. 2. p. 128. Prodr. 
v. 2. p. 433. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 329. Spreng. 
Si/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 36. 

Descr. Stem climbing, of great length and much branch- 
ed, woody below, and somewhat corky, the young shoots 
herbaceous, somewhat flattened, glabrous. Leaves, many 
of them a span long, perfectly glabrous, cordate, more or 
less acuminate, with a deep and narrow sinus at the base, 
with many nerves and numerous minute connecting veins, 
entire at the margin, bright green above, pale and glaucous 
beneath. Petioles three to four inches long, grooved above, 
having on each side the groove, generally, three miiorm, 
clavate, green glands, two to three lines long. Stipules 
large, herbaceous, ovate, acuminate, entire, or minutely 
serrated at the margin, especially towards the extremity . 

Cirrhi axillary, long, simple. Peduncle axillary, solitary, 
bearing a single large flower. Involucre of three large, 
ovato-acuminate, serrated, green leaflets, a little distant from 
the flower. Leaflets of the calyx oblong, the five inner 
subpetaloid, the five outer more herbaceous, with a soft 
mucro at the point. Corona as long as the calyx, curved 
upwards, its rays white, fasciated or annulated with reddish- 
purple, almost blue at the extremity. The base of the 
nectary within is white, and covered with small fleshy tu- 
bercles. Anthers large, oblong, flat, yellow- green at the 
back. Germen oval, green, smooth, on a long pedicel. 
Styles three, spreading, tipped with the club-shaped stigmas. 
The fruit I have not seen, but M. Bonpland has stated it 
to be of the size and shape of an orange, good to eat, and 
of an agreeable flavor. 

This fine Passion Flower recommends itself, not only by 
the beauty and delicacy of its blossom, but by the size and 
rich green of the foliage. It is a native of Peru, and was 
first discovered by Dombey. It flowered in the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, in September and October, 1829 ; that 
establishment being indebted for plants to the sister insti- 
tution at Edinburgh, and to the Lord Justice Clerk for 
seeds, of this hitherto little-known Passion Flower. 

VU* WUtnrrti. &t> T l. SOT 

( 2968 ) 
Cerbera Tanghin. Poison Tanghin. 

.•fr. ^. &. &. &■, .^i ^ ■St'- fo ifc .^- ife .-ifc .^t afc ■St'- ."fr- A rSt'- 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Apocyne^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. infundibuliformis, tubo clavato, fauce 5-dentata. 
Anther a subsessiles summo tubo impositffi, a stigmatis fo- 
veolis exceptae. Drupa putamine fibroso ligneo, I — 2- 
sperma. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cerbera* Tanghin; foliis confertis, ramis erectis, floribus 

paniculatis terminalibus. Poir. 
Tanghinia venenifera. Poire t in Encycl. Bot. Suppl. v. 

5. p. 283. 
Tanghinia. P. Thouars, Gen. Nov. Madag. p. 10. Voa 

Tanghin. Madag. 

Descr. This constitutes a tree in its native climate, 
having crowded or clustered leaves and erect branches. 
The Leaves are from four to six and eight or ten inches 
long, lanceolate, tapering at the base, subcoriaceous, quite 
entire. Flowers in large terminal panicles, with white 
flowers, having a tinge of rose-color on the outside, and a 
deeper red circle round the mouth. " Calyx 5-fid, patent. 
Corolla longer than the calyx, funnel-shaped, dilated up- 
wards, the limb plain, contorted, five lobed. Stamens five ; 
Anthers sessile, inserted into the dilated part of the tube, 
heart-shaped, having a tubercle under each. Germen double. 
%fe single. Stigma capitate, with two tubercles at the 


From Cerberus, on account of its injurious or poisonous qualities. 

point, included within the anthers. Drupes two,, or by 
abortion solitary, pyriform, acuminated. Nut filamentous, 
woody. Albumen none. Cotyledons long, thick, concave." 
P. Thouars. 

The Tanguen or Voa Tanghin, Tangkinia of Aubert du 
Petit Thouars, has been known to Europeans only as a 
native of Madagascar, and from the account given of it by 
Rochon, that " it produces a wood which is hard and veined, 
fit for carpentery, and inlaying work, and of which the 
fruit is a most dangerous poison, too well known, and em- 
ployed by the natives." Du Petit Thouars named the 
plant Tanghinia ; but at the same time observed how closely 
allied it was to the Cerbera Manghas. He even doubted 
if it were not the same. These doubts are now removed by 
the plant having been cultivated in the Mauritius, and 
being thence introduced, through the medium of Charles 
Telfair, Esq. to the rich collection at Bury Hill, where it 
stands in the same house with the true C. Manghas. As 
yet, however, it has not blossomed, and as the plant, accord- 
ing to M. Thouars, becomes a Tree, (Arbor elegans,) a 
period of some years may still elapse before its flowers 

In the mean time, we are not without the means of grati- 
fying the public with a figure of this plant. Mr. Telfair 
has obligingly communicated to us a beautiful drawing of 
a Tanghin which flowered at Reduit, in the Mauritius, from 
the pencil of the Honorable Lady Frances Cole, the Lady of 
His Excellency, the Governor of the Island*. This figure 
is upon so large a scale, that we cannot presume to do 
justice to it in the humble form in which the Botanical 
Magazine appears. The drawing of the fruit is by Mrs. 
Telfair. The value of this communication has been much 
increased by the addition of the history of the use to which 
the poison was put by the former kings of the island of 
Madagascar. " The kernel of the fruit," Mr. Telfair 
writes in his letter from the Mauritius, dated March 8th, 
1829, (( must be a very powerful poison. It is not much 
larger than an almond, and yet is sufficient to destroy above 
twenty persons. Radama, the late king of Madagascar, 
abolished the use of it as an ordeal ; whether the custom 
has been revived by the new government I know not. 
It was with great difficulty that the chieftains could be 


Now Governor of the Cape of Good Hone. 

persuaded to admit of the abolition of an usage,, which had 
existed from time immemorial, and whose unerring efficacy 
in the detection and punishment of crime, had never been 
questioned,, until Mr. Hasty, our Government agent, had 
acquired such au influence with Radama and his court, as 
to admit of the exposure of its fallacy. But this was the 
work of years ; and although Radama was at length him- 
self convinced that nothing could be more unjust, than the 
continuance of the practice, he dared not so far shock the 
prejudices of his people, as to order that it should cease. 
Even the chief performers in the ceremony, the " Skids," 
as they are called at Tanararissoo, who unite in their own 
persons the offices of priests and physicians, and who ad- 
minister the poisonous kernel to the victims, never doubt 
its power of revealing guilt or clearing innocence ; the last 
occasion on which it was practiced in Radama's reign, and 
of which he availed himself to effect its discontinuance, 
personally regarded his court and attendants. The king 
was affected with a complaint of the liver, for which the 
" Skid" prescribed some inefficacious remedies, and as the 
disease became worse, Mr. Hasty gave him some calomel 
in doses, which he had found by experience to relieve him- 
self under similar symptoms. The disease disappeared, but 
Ptyalism was produced, and alarmed the king's family, who 
believed that he was poisoned, and insisted that all his im- 
mediate attendants should be put to the ordeal of the 
Tanghin; and the royal Skid was most earnest in pressing 
to have it performed, although he himself, from his rank 
and place, was among the first to whom it would be ad- 
ministered. In vain the king protested that he felt himself 
cured, and that the indisposition and soreness of the mouth 
was caused by the medicine that had relieved him, and 
which would pass off in a few days. The Skid insisted, the 
ministers and principal chieftains joined with the family in 
requiring the ordeal ; to which the king, in spite of his 
convictions, was compelled to consent ; but at the same 
time, he made it a condition that this should be the last 
exibition of the kind, and he bewailed the necessity which 
deprived him of so many attached dependants, whose fate 
he had predicted, while he protested his conviction of their 

The king's servants, including the Skid, were more than 
twenty in number; they were shut up at night separately, 
and not allowed to taste food ; the next morning they were 
brought out in procession, and paraded before the assembled 

people; the presiding Skid had the Tanghin fruit in readi- 
ness ; after some prayers and superstitious evolutions., he 
took out the kernel, which he placed on a smooth stone, 
and with another stone broke down a part of it into a soft 
white mass like pounded almonds. The victims were then 
brought separately forward, each was questioned as to his 
guilt, and if he denied, his arms were tied behind, and he 
was placed on his knees before the Skid, who put a portion 
of the pounded kernel on his tongue and compelled him to 
swallow it. Thus the kernel was shared among all the 
king's personal servants. On some of the individuals the 
action began to operate in half an hour or less. The Skid 
takes particular notice how they fall, whether on the face, 
to the right or left hand, or on the back, each position 
indicating a different shade of guilt. Convulsions generally 
come on, accompanied with efforts to vomit. Those whose 
stomachs reject the dose at an early period, usually recover; 
on this occasion there were only two individuals with whom 
this was the case ; the others were thrown, in a state of 
insensibility, into a hole, and every person present at the 
ceremony was obliged to throw a stone over them, so that 
their burial was quickly completed. The king's Skid was 
one of the first that fell. Those that recover are supposed 
to bear a charmed life ever after, and are respected as the 
peculiar favorites of the gods." 

Fig. 1. Fruit.— -Natural size. 

n ' * i 

( 2969 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scitamine^;. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Anther a duplex,, stylum amplectens. Filamentum long- 
um, gracile, antheram in apicem sustinens ligamento flexili 
dorso affixo. Capsula 3-locularis. Semina numerosa, 
arillata. Rose. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Hedychium* acuminatum; spica laxa, bracteis unifloris, 
filamento labello breviore recur vato, label lo ovato 
profunde bifido, segmentis aeutis. Rose. 

Hedychium acuminatum. Rose. Scitam. cum Ic. 

Descr. Stem three to five feet high. Leaves broadly 
lanceolate, with a very narrow, almost filiform point, ob- 
liquely veined from the mid-rib, glabrous above, beneath 
slightly silky ; narrower and smaller upwards. Spike ter- 
minal, a span or more long in our specimen, with subdis- 
tichous, handsome, and fragrant/otcers. Bracteas two or 
three, pale green, submembranaceous, and subdiaphanous, 
sheathing the lower half of the tube of the perianth. Limb 
of the Cor. in six, unequal segments : the outer ones linear, 
patent ; of the three inner, two are linear, pale yellow, their 
margins revolute ; the third is ovate, pure white, concave, 
tapering below into a narrow grooved base, the lamina 
deeply cut into two acute, oblong segments, which point 


* From jj&f sweet or pleasing, and *un, snow : alluding to the fragrance, 
Jegance, and whiteness of the flowers, at least of the first and original species. 

forwards, and are generally serrated. Filaments red, grooved 
for the reception of the style. Anther oblong, two-celled; 
cells loaded with yellow pollen. From between the two 
cells of the anther, the stigma is a little protruded, it is 
capitate, and crowned with a tuft or fringe of upright hairs. 

Introduced by Dr. Wallich to our gardens, about the 
year 1820. It blossomed at Liverpool, in 1822, and was 
first described and figured in Mr. Roscoe's work on the 
Scitamineous plants, which has thrown so much light on 
that most beautiful and intricate groupe of vegetables. 

I am indebted for the specimen here figured, to my often- 
mentioned friend, Dr. Graham, who received roots from the 
same liberal donor, and in whose collection they flowered 
in October, 1829. 

Fig-. 1. Stigma. 2. Anther, including a portion of the Style and Stigma. — 


Tub. lr S. Curtis. Walwcrlh MaS US50. 


( 2970 2971 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Menisperme^e. Juss. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala et Petala ordine ternario, bi- rarissime triserialia. 
Stam. 6, libera, petalis opposita. Carpella 3 — 6. Drupce 
baccataB, 1 — 6, saepius obliquae, reniformes, subcompressae, 
monospennae. Cotyledones distantes. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cocculus * palmatus; foliis basi cordatis palmatim 5 — 7 

fidis subpilosis lobis acuminatis integerrimis, caule 

germinibusque piloso-glandulosis. 
Cocculus palmatus. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 523. 

Ejusd. Prodr. v. 1 . p. 98. 
Menispermum palmatum. Lam. Diet. v. 4. p. 99. Willd. 

Sp. PI. v. 4. p. 825. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 154. 

Berry in As. Res. fed. Svo.J v. \0.p. 385. 

Descr. Root perennial, composed of a number of fasci- 
culated, fusiform, somewhat branched, fleshy, curved, and 
descending tubers, of the thickness of an infant's arm, 
clothed with a thin, brown epidermis, marked, towards the 
upper part especially, with transverse warts; internally 
they consist of a deep yellow, scentless, very bitter flesh, 
filled with numerous parallel, longitudinal fibres or vessels. 
Stems annual, herbaceous, one or two proceeding from the 
same root, about the thickness of the little finger, twining, 


* From the Greek xoxw? , a name given to the kermes of the Oak, which 
the fruit of the original Cocculus somewhat resembled. 

simple in the male plant, branched in the female, rounded, 
green ; in the full-grown plants below, thickly clothed with 
succulent longitudinal hairs, which are tipped with a gland. 
Leaves alternate, the younger ones thin, pellucid, bright 
green, generally three-lobed, upwards gradually more nume- 
rous ; older ones remote, a span in breadth, nearly orbicular 
in their circumscription, deeply cordate, five to seven-lobed, 
the lobes entire, often deflexed, wavy on the surface and 
margin, dark green above, paler beneath, hairy on both 
sides ; the nerves, according to the number of lobes, are 
three, seven, or nine, pale, connected by veins which, in 
themselves, are reticulated, prominent beneath. Petiole 
about as long as the leaf, rounded, glanduloso-pilose, thick- 
ened below. 

Male Plant. Racemes axillary, solitary or two together, 
drooping, about as long as the petiole, compound, branches 
an inch or more long, clothed with glandular hairs, slender, 
having at the base small deciduous bractece. Cal. glabrous, 
consisting of six leaves or sepals, which are nearly equal, 
arranged in a double series, oval, acute. Cor. pale green, 
of six free petals, oblong, with involute margins and 
recurved apices, arranged round a central orbicular disc or 
gland, in a single series. Stam. six, opposite to the petals. 
Filaments thick, shorter than the petals, which embrace their 
somewhat attenuated bases. Anthers terminal, truncated, 
four-celled, the cells opening internally and filled with the 
yellow pollen, consisting of linear-oblong grains. In the 
Female Plant, the racemes are axillary, solitary, simple, 
patent, shorter than those of the male. Pedicels with 
caducous, minute bractece. Sepals six, in two series, three 
inferior smaller, ovate, acute, subpatent, plane, glabrous. 
Petals six, rarely eight, free, shorter than the germens, 
recurved at the extremity, green, glabrous. Pistils three, 
free, of which two are generally abortive, ovate, acuminate, 
glanduloso-pilose, containing one ovule: Style almost 
none : Stigma with several spreading points. Fruit dru- 
paceous or berried, about the size of a hazel nut, densely 
clothed with long, spreading hairs, which at the extremity 
are tipped with a black gland, oblongo- globose. Seed 
subreniform, clothed with a thin black shell, transversely 
striated. Bojer's MSS. 

Columbo of the Materia Medica, is the root of a plant 
which appears to have been long known in some parts of 
the East Indies, but whose native country and history have 
been, till very lately, involved in obscurity. Some have 


asserted,, (see Rees's Cyclopaedia, art. Columbo,) that the 
root was introduced from Columbo in Ceylon, to the con- 
tinent of India, and thence derived its name. If such were 
the case, Ceylon was not considered, by the learned in 
India, to be the native country of this plant ; for the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, in the sixth vol. of their Transactions, 
published at the commencement of the present century, 
gave a <c list of such Oriental subjects as required further 
illustration;" and amongst them particularly invited com- 
munications respecting the Columbo Plant, with a view to 
ascertain from what country the root so called was originally 
procured, and to obtain a botanical description and figure. 

Commerson, indeed, whilst residing in the Isle of France, 
gathered there, in the garden of M. Poivre,* about the year 
1 770, some flowering specimens of a plant which came to 
France with the rest of that celebrated botanist's collec- 
tion, and were marked in his Herbarium " Calumbo in 
Indiis vocatur;" and these were first described by La- 
marck, under the name of Menispermum palmatum. 
That author further observes : '■' II paroit qu'elle est ori- 
ginate de Plnde," and " Cest peut-etre de ce Menisperme 
qu'on obtient cette racine qu'on nous rapporte de llnde 
sous le nom de racine de Calumbo ou Columbo, en mor- 
ceaux jaunatres, d'une saveur amere." From no other 
source do we derive any indication of the plant being known 
in a living state about that period; and that in the Isle of 
France probably soon perished. 

About eight or ten years after the invitation was given 
on the part of the Asiatic Society, for information respect- 
ing the Columbo plant, (namely, in the tenth volume of the 
Asiatic Researches, 8vo. edition, published in London, 
1811,) we find a figure and description of the male plant, 
and some important contributions to its history, by Dr. 
Andrew Berry, Member of the Medical Board of Fort 
St. George. From that gentleman we learn that this plant 
is never cultivated in its native country, but that it grows 
naturally and in abundance in the thick forests that are 
said to cover the shores about Oi'bo and Mozambique, on 
the East coast of Africa, and inland for about fifteen or 
twenty miles. The roots are dug up in the month of 
March, the dry season, or when the natives are not em- 
ployed in agriculture. The main stock of the root is not 
removed, but offsets from the base are taken, and those of 


See Lamarck's Cycl. v. 4. p. 99. 

sufficient size : yet not so old as to be full of fibres, which 
render it unfit for commerce. 

Soon after it is dug- up, the root is cut into slices, strung 
on cords, and hung up to dry in the shade. It is deemed 
fit for commerce, when, on exposure to the sun, it breaks 
short ; and of a bad quality when it is soft or black. It is 
held in high esteem among the natives, even those who 
reside at a great distance from Mozambique, for the cure 
of dysentery, which is frequent among them ; for healing 
ulcers, and as a remedy for almost every disorder. 

Dr. Berry obtained this information from Monsieur 
Fortin, who, when at Mozambique, and engaged in pur- 
chasing the dried root, as an article of trade, procured an 
entire living offset of a larger size than usual. This he 
brought with him to Madras, in September, 1805; and 
presented it to Dr. James Anderson, the Physician General, 
who justly esteemed it a valuable acquisition to India. 
This being planted, produced a male plant, from which 
Dr. Berry's figure and description were made. That gen- 
tleman was ignorant of the circumstance of Lamarck having 
published it from dried specimens, as the Menispermum 
palrnatum, nor has he given it a scientific name ; but he 
rightly judged it to belong to " the Sarmentace^: of Lin- 
naeus, the Menispermum of Jussieu." Among the Africans 
its name is Kalumb. It is spelt Kalumbo by the Portu- 
guese, in whose language the o is mute; and, from this, 
Dr. Berry tells us, the name originated by which this 
valuable root is known to Europe. It is a staple export of 
the Portuguese from Mozambique ; and, when we consider 
the quantity exported, it is certainly an extraordinary cir- 
cumstance that the native country of the plant was not 
more generally known. 

Still the female flower was a desideratum ; and De 
Candolle, the last botanical author perhaps who has de- 
scribed the plant (apparently from Commerson's specimens 
in the Parisian Museum), was obliged to declare that he 
was ignorant of the structure of the female flowers and 

For the means of making them known to the botanists 
of Europe, I am mainly indebted to the indefatigable exer- 
tions of my often-mentioned friend Charles Telfair, Esq. 
of the Mauritius. From that gentleman, through the 
hands of Robert Barclay, Esq., I have received no less 
than three atlas folio sheets of drawings, representing por- 
tions of this plant of the natural size, with admirable dissec- 
tions, executed by Professor Bojer, aided in the colouring 




/'//h fir S.CurtU W*lmrltojr*rehll850. 

by the faithful pencil of Mrs. Charles Telfair. What- 
ever is wanting, either of execution or accuracy in the 
accompanying figures, which were taken from these 
splendid delineations, must be attributed to my being oblig- 
ed to reduce them to the humble standard of the Botanical 
Magazine. These drawings too were accompanied by a full 
description of the plant, from the pen of Professor Bojer, 
(and which I have here merely rendered from the Latin,) and 
by an account of the recent introduction of the plant to our 
colonies, from a MSS. memoir, by Mr. Telfair himself. 
Shortly previous to their arrival in England, living roots 
were sent by that gentleman to Mr. Barclay's Botanical 
Garden and to that of Glasgow. 

" The late Sir Walter Farquhar, Physician to the 
King," says Mr. Telfair*, cc was very anxious to intro- 
duce into England the Colombo root in a living state; and 
for that purpose, he desired his son, Sir Robert Farquhar, 
Governor of Mauritius, Bourbon, and their Dependencies, 
to procure the plant from its native soii in Africa, and 
forward it to London. Sir Robert lost no time, after 
assuming his government at the conquest of the French 
Islands, in applying to the Governor of Mozambique for 
growing plants ; and was repeatedly assured that these should 
be sent to him at the proper season. These promises, 
however, were never fulfilled; although renewed by the 
several succeeding officials of the Portuguese possessions 
on the East coast of Africa, ever since the year 181 1. Dr. 
Wallich also took much pains for effecting the same 
object, and sent to Governor Farquhar the drawing made 
at Calcutta of a male plant of the Colombo root, which had 
been brought to the Botanic Garden there by Mr. Berry. 
Copies of this drawing were distributed to the different 
ships of war and captains of merchant vessels, trading to 
the Eastern coast of Africa, that they might be enabled to 
distinguish the plant and bring it to the Mauritius; since 
there had been an evident unwillingness on the part of the 
Portuguese authorities to permit this precious vegetable to 
he taken away, in any other state than what it bears in 
commerce, when deprived of vegetative power by passing 
through the oven. 

7 AH the attempts resulting from these means proved 
fruitless ; until Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen, com- 
manding the surveying squadron of his Majesty's navy, on 


§ . * n . is account appears to have been read at a literary and scientific 
CIet y in the Mauritius, of which Mr. Telfair is the Vice-president. 

the East African coast, undertook the task. The extensive 
influence he had acquired by his intercourse with the native 
chieftains and tribes, enabled him to procure living plants ; 
while his botanical knowledge secured him against the mis- 
takes committed by others, who had been misled by the 
local settlers in their search, and imposed on by the substi- 
tution of other species instead of the true Colombo root. 
Captain Owen; in the year 1825, brought away in his 
Majesty's ship Leven, from Oibo, a great number of cases, 
filled with growing roots of the male and female plants, laid 
down in the sandy loam, which appears to be their favorite 
soil. No time was lost by him in forwarding a great portion 
of these to Mr. Telfair, at Mauritius, planting some also 
at Mahe, in the Seychelles Archipelago, and sending to 
Bombay several cases, in order to multiply, by dispersion, 
the chances of success in naturalizing them in different 

c The roots that were brought to Mauritius, were partly 
transmitted to England, New Holland, and America ; but 
the greater number were distributed among the various 
districts of Mauritius and Bourbon. Many of these plants 
blossomed at Mauritius in the course of a year, but the 
flowers proved all male. The roots, however, had, during 
that period, multiplied to twenty or thirty times the original 
quantity, and thus an opportunity was given for distributing 
them still more extensively. The female plants flowered 
at Seychelles, and Mr. G. Harrison, the Government 
Agent there, transmitted some of their roots to Mr Telfair, 
in whose garden of Bois Cheri, in the Mauritius, they have 
llowered, and being fecundated by Professor Bojer, who 
touched them with the pollen of the male blossom, they bore 
seeds. From these individuals the drawings by Professor 
Bojer have been taken, which give a delineation and dissec- 
tion of every part. 

" Some of the original roots imported by Captain Owen, 
and immediately planted, have however remained in the 
earth without making any shoot, though they possess 
vegetable life, entire and undecayed. When taken up and 
examined, they appear to be undergoing a process of 
cicatrization at the surface, where they have been broken 
pit trom the parent root; and it is not until this wound 
is completely healed and firm, that the powers of vege- 
tation are directed to the production of a stalk and leaves 
and flowers. This process of cicatrization is extremely 
slow, thus offering an obstacle to the extensive propa- 
gation ol this species by offsets from the root. But Pro- 

fessor Bojer is at present engaged in some experiments 
for increasing its productiveness, by laying down and 
planting the stem in cuttings, and hitherto with an appear- 
ance of success. The wound thus caused in the plant is 
♦ much smaller, and seems to heal more readily. If this 
plan answers well, the culture of Columbo root may be so 
extended as to render it an object of industry and resource 
to the planters of the Mauritius. 

cc Mr. Newman, the Superintendent of the King's Bota- 
nical Garden of Mauritius, has prepared a tincture from a 
part of the roots in his possession, according to the formula 
of the London College of Physicians ; but this tincture is 
much stronger than what comes from Apothecaries' Hall, 
and its taste has a more grateful and aromatic flavour." 

Columbo root has been long known and esteemed, both 
in the East Indies and in Europe; where it is found to be of 
singular efficacy in strengthening the fibres of the stomach 
and bowels, not only in chronic cases, but in the cholera 
morbus, dysentery, and diseases of the alimentary canal. 
Its analysis, according to M. Planche, has afforded a third 
of its weight of woody tissue, a third of amylaceous 
matter, and the remaining third is principally composed of 
animal substance and a yellow and bitter matter, insoluble 
in metallic salts. " The presence of so large a quantity of 
amylaceous substance accounts" for the great reputation of 
the root in dysentery, diarrhoeas, and excessive vomiting. 
By a decoction of Columbo, the fecula is extracted, as well 
as the bitter principle, whose action is thus considerably 
modified : whilst an infusion is simply bitter and tonic. 

In the Dictionnaire des Drogues, by Chevallier and 
Richard (Paris, 1817), mention is made of a bastard or 
false Columbo (faux Colombo), brought from the States of 
Barbary, but which may be detected at once on analysis, by 
the entire absence of fecula. It is not yet known of what 
Plant this is the produce, but it is often substituted for the 
frue Columbo, which it has thus sometimes unjustly brought 
, nto disrepute. 

Tab. 2970. Fig. 1. Portion of a Male Plant, reduced to two-thirds of its 
natural size. 2. Male Flower. 3. Stamen and Petal. 4. Grains of Pollen. 
5. Glandular Hair. 6. Female Flower. 7. Pistils, of which two are frequently 
abortive. — All but fig. 1. more or less magnified. 

Tab. 2971. Fig. 1. Root, with a portion of two young stems, rather less 
than the size of nature. 2, 3, 4. Different sections of the Root, showing its 
internal colour and appearance. 5. Portion of a Female Raceme, with per- 
fect Fruit. 6. Seed. 7. Embryo.— Magnified. 


irtis fttlwcrth jffa,r 

( 2972 ) 

Dryas Drummondii. Yellow-flowered 
Mountain Avens. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 8—9 partitus. Pet. 8—9. Caryopsides plurima*, 
stylis plumosis corouatae. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

T)ry as* Drummondii; foliis ellipticis basi subattenuatis in- 
ciso-crenatis subtus scapoque niveo-tomentosis, calycis 
segmentis ovatis (petalis luteis). 

Dryas Drummondii. Richardson's MSS. 

Dryas cliamaedrifolia. Richards, in Frankl. Journ. App. 
p. 740. (nee aliorum). 

Descr. Stems short, woody, simple or divided, the lower 
part rough with the remains of the old leaf-stalks and 
stipules, above principally leafv. Leaves petioled, cori- 
aceous, elliptical, more rarely obovate, inciso-crenate, the 
margin slightly revolute, the base acute or somewhat at- 
tenuated, and there often more deeply crenate, dark green 
above, with a distinct mid-rib, and deep lateral veins, which, 
if traced carefully, will be found each to be directed to 
the marginal teeth ; beneath, covered with a down ot the 
most beautiful snowy whiteness, so as entirely to conceal 
the veins, and in a great measure the mid-rib. Fetioles as 
p long 

* From ty,«, an oak, owing to a fancied similarity between the foliage of 
that tree, and of Dryas. 

long as, or longer than the leaves, reddish, slightly downy, 
with a pair of subulate stipules at the base. Scape termi- 
nal, solitary, three to four inches high, much lengthened in 
fruit, bearing generally a small subulate bractea, and clothed 
with the same almost dazzling white down as the under- 
side of the leaves, and terminated by a single large flower. 
Calyx of seven to nine deep, ovate, somewhat membrana- 
ceous segments; on the back, but not at the margins, densely 
covered with coarse, purple, glandular, and viscid hairs ; 
within, at the base, silky. Petals equal in number with the 
calycine segments, broadly elliptical, with a short claw, ob- 
scurely veined, yellow. Filaments, Germen, and Styles, 
hairy. Caryopsides narrow, obovate, terminated by the 
very elongated, feathery style or awn. Stigma a little in- 

This beautiful species of Dryas was discovered by Dr. 
Richardson, during Sir John Franklin's first journey in the 
woody country of North America, between lat. 54° and 64°; 
but the fruit only having been seen, it was considered to be 
the same as the D. octopetala, (chamadrifolia of Pursh,) and 
as such is mentioned in the Botanical Appendix to Frank- 
lin's Journal. On the second expedition it was found both 
by Dr. Richardson and Mr. Drummond in flower, and in 
great perfection, upon gravelly parts of rivers in the Rocky 
Mountains, and about Slave Lake, and showed itself, in 
the colour of the flower, the shape of the calycine segments 
and foliage, and the remarkable snowy whiteness of the 
down, to be quite distinct both from D. octopetala and D. 
inlegrifolia. It has been Dr. Richardson's wish that it 
should bear the name of the indefatigable and meritorious 
Assistant Naturalist of the expedition, Mr. Thomas Drum- 
mond. Seeds were brought over to this country, which 
have vegetated, and the plants are flourishing in several 
gardens, though they have not yet blossomed. Our draw- 
ing, therefore, has been in part taken from the cultivated 
plant, and in part from well dried specimens. 

Fig. I. Petal. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistil. 4. Caryopsis.— Magnified. 



( 2973 ) 

Primula mistassinica. Lesser American 
Bird's-eye Primrose. 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — PrimulacejE. Juss. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flore's subumbellati, involucrati. Cal. tubulosus, 5-fidus 
s. 5-dentatus, persistens. Cor. tubulosa, fauce vel nuda 
vel glandulosa, limbo 5-lobo. Caps, apice 10-dentata, 
polysperma. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Primula* mistassinica ; foliis obovato-spathulatis dentatis 

subtus scapo calyceque farinosis, involucri foliolis basi 
. gibbosis, corolla? laciniis subcuneatis emargmatis tubo 

subdimidio brevioribus. 
Primula mistassinica. Mich. Fl. Bor. Am. v. I. p. W*. 

Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. v. I. p. 137. Lehm. Prim. p. 

63. t. 7. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 576. Cham, et 

Schlecht. in Linn&a, v. \.p. 213. 
Primula pusilla. Goldie in Edin. Phil. Journ. v. 6. p. Sit, 

*. 11./ 22. Hook. Exot. Fl. •.*.«. 68. Richardson 

in Frankl. Journ. ed 2. p. 21. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 

2. p. 575. Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 2d Ser. t. 5. 

Descr. Root perennial 6brous. Leaves spreading one 
to two, or two and a half inches long, obovato-spathulate, 
tapering into afoot-stalk, the broad part irregularly toothed, 


* So called from its early appearance in the Spring. 

pale-green above, and naked beneath, but, especially in the 
younger leaves, mealy ; for the mealiness generally disap- 
pears in the old leaves. Scape varying much in length, 
from two to four or six inches, naked above, mealy. Um- 
bel of from two to eight or ten flowers. Leaves of the 
involucre broadly subulate, gibbous below, mealy, as are the 
pedicels. Calyx ovato-cylindrical, with five blunt teeth, 
and as many ribs, mealy between the ribs. Tube of the 
corolla yellow, not much exceeding the calyx, the limb of 
five, spreading, almost cuneate and emarginate segments, 
the mouth yellow, with five short, yellow glands. Stamens 
included. Germen globose, green. Style rather shorter 
than the tube of the corolla, green . Stigma globose, yellow. 
Capsule cylindrical, half as long again as the calyx, burst- 
ing with retuse, upright teeth. 

When I published the present species under the name of 
P. pusilla, I was doubtful whether it might not be the P. 
mistassinica of Michaux, a species, indeed, very cursorily 
described by that author, and figured with ripe fruit only 
by the excellent Lehman. Now that I possess fructified 
specimens, I find them very nearly indeed to resemble 
Lehman's figure ; and it is certainly the species which 
Chamisso gathered for the true mistassinica, and has de- 
scribed as such, as I have ascertained by a comparison with 
individuals received from him. It is nearly allied to P. 
farinosa and P. scotica, differing from both in the more 
spathulate and less mealy leaves. The leaves of the invo- 
lucre I find to be nearly the same in all three. 

P. mistassinica inhabits North America from Canada as 
high as the Arctic Circle, and across to the North Western 
shores of that vast continent. Seeds have been distributed 
by Dr. Richardson and Mr. Drummond on their return 
from the second Land Arctic Expedition, and the plant is 
now in Mr. Niell's, and the Botanical Gardens of Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow, and doubtless in many other collections. 
It flowered in July. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Involucre. 4. Capsule. 5. Single Cap- 
sule, — All but fig. 4 more or less Magnified. 


( 2974 ) 

Cestrum bracteatum. Bracteated 
Ce strum. 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solane*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubuloso-campanulatus, 5-dentatus. Cor. infundi- 
buliformis, limbo plicato, 5-fido. Stam. tabo inserta, sub- 
denticulata. Bacca 1-locularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Cestrum bracteatum ; filamentis basi barbatis, foliis lance- 
olatis undatis pubescentibus, stipulis oblique cordato- 
reniformibus, bracteis spathaceis, floribus fasciculatis. 

Cestrum bracteatum. Link. 

Descr. Stem woody, rough. Branches covered with 
dense, greenish tomentum, which withers and remains long 
attached. Leaves scattered, light-green, stalked, spreading 
lanceolate, strongly veined, waved or crisped, covered with 
harsh pubescence on both sides, the middle rib and veins 
projecting much on the under-side, the former above also. 
Petiole erect, grooved above, pubescent, purple before 
fading, about a sixth of the length of the leal. Stipules 
geminate, varying in size, the largest upwards, broadly 
falcate or kidney-shaped, horizontal and bending round the 
branch, more glabrous than the leaves. Peduncles about 
an inch long, axillary and terminal, generally about twice 
as long as the petioles, slightly flattened and dilated to- 
wards the flowers, nodding. Pedicels very short, stout, 
straight, slightly pubescent. Flowers fascicled, of a uniform 
Pale yellow. Bractece single at the base of each flower, 
with the exception of the central one, spatha-like, appressed, 


acuminate, and coloured like the flower, pubescent. Cal. 
about as long as the pedicel, pubescent within and without, 
nearly cylindrical, with five strongly projecting ribs on the 
outside, leading to five slightly connivent acute teeth. 
Corolla inferior, hypocrateriform, pubescent without, smooth 
within ; tube nearly an inch long, dilated a little upwards, 
and contracted at the throat : limb five-cleft, segments 
ovate, acute, spreading at right angles to the tube, each 
with two strong ribs projecting behind. Stamens, five : 
filaments inserted immediately above the middle of the tube, 
each having a tuft of matted hairs projecting from the 
inside at their base, above this straight and smooth, nearly 
reaching to the faux. Anthers bilobular, short, connivent, 
bursting laterally : pollen yellowish-white. Stigma sap- 
green, nearly round, but flattened a little at the top, raised 
above the anthers, and projected into the faux. Style 
three-quarters of an inch long, nearly colourless, filiform. 
Germen roundish or obovate, smooth, yellowish-green, ob- 
scurely furrowed, seated on a small yellow disk. Ovules 
numerous, obovate. Graham. 

This plant was received by Dr. Graham, under the 
name here adopted, from the Botanic Garden of Berlin, in 
June, 1828; but from what country was not stated, pro- 
bably Brazil. It blossomed in the stove of the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden, in December, 1829. There was a suc- 
cession of flowers which continued to expand for a length 
of time, and were rather ornamental. 

Fig. 1. Flower and Bractea. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil. 4. Calyx. 5. Pistil, 
with its Gland at the base. — Magnified. 




Walworth 2ln 

( 2975 ) 

Veronica alpina, var. Wormskioldii. 
Alpine Speedwell, Wormskiold's var. 

A'. A', A*. A / . A', A'. A'* A / . A'. A'. A't A'. A'. .•4'. A*. A'. A'. A / . A'. 
<r» vJS vf. vjs vjs vj» v)s" vis MS vf> MS MS MS vjs vis •sp vj,* "Sff vjr 

Cfoss «wc? Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularine^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 4-fida, rotata, lacinia infima angustiore. Caps. 2- 
locularis, apice emarginata. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Veronica* alpina; racemo, terminali dense corymboso, foliis 
ovato-ellipticis serratis, calyce bracteisque ciliatis, 
capsula obovata emarginata stylo 4 longiore. 

Veronica alpina. Linn. Sp. PL p. 15. Willd. Sp. PL v. 
1. p. 63. Engl. Bot. t. 484. Fl. Dan. t. 16. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 12. 

Var. Wormskioldii, elatior, simplex, foliis multo majonbus, 
calyce capsulaque glanduloso-hirsutissimis. V. alpina, 
var. Unalaschkensis. Cham, et Schlecht. in Linnaa, 
v. 2. p. 556. V. alpina, var. ? FL Dan. t. 1961. V. 
Wormskioldii, Roem. et Sch. v. I. p. 101. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. i.p.72. 

Descr. (Of var. Wormskioldii). Root (apparently) an- 
nual or biennial, small, throwing out few fibres. Stem a. 
span high, quite simple in our specimens, declined at the 
base, there erect, ri^id, stout, terete, downy. Leaves op- 

Posite, almost exactly' ovate^ sessile, obtuse, dark-green, 
obscurely serrated, glabrous ; 

the upper and smaller ones 


* A name of dubious origin. 

alone very slightly hairy, and principally at the margin and 
base. Flowers upon the leafless extremity of the stem, thus 
as it were peduncled, in a compact corymb, which eventually 
lengthens out into a short, fructified spike or raceme. 
Bractece linear, subulate, nearly as long as the flower. 
Calyx deeply four-partite; its segments lanceolate, and as 
well as the bracteae, short pedicels and peduncle, clothed 
with purple hairs, which are often terminated by glands. 
Corolla with a rather long and broad tube, so as to be 
almost funnel-shaped, nearly white: limb of four spreading, 
purplish-blue, obtuse segments, marked with deeper veins. 
Stamens two. Anthers blue. Capsule oblongo-obcordate, 
thickly clothed with purple hairs, which are mostly, not 
always, glandular, and tipped with the capitate V^/Ze, which 
is about one third of its length. 

At the first aspect of the Veronica here figured, there are 
few Botanists, I believe, who would think of referring it to 
the rare but humble V. alpina of our Scottish mountains, 
nor was it till after a careful comparison of many specimens 
in company with my friend Dr. Graham, that I could be 
satisfied of its identity. I have long known the plant as 
a native of Greenland ; especially from specimens that have 
been communicated to me at various times, by Professor 
Horneman of Copenhagen, who though aware of its being 
the Wormskioldii of Roemer and Schultes, yet hesitated 
about considering it a species. Chamisso met with it at 
Unalaschka, and described it as his var. Unalaschkensis of 
A. alpina. Mr. Drummond gathered it in considerable 
plenty on moist alpine prairies on the Rocky Mountains, 
and from his seeds, plants have been raised both in the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow Botanic Gardens. The drawing 
here given was made by Mr. James Macnab. I possess 
the same plant from Labrador, gathered by the late Mr. 

Fig". 1. Corolla. 2. Fruit. — Magnified. 

( 2976 ) 
Bignonia Telfairi^e. Mrs. Telfair's 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Bignoniace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. campanulatus, integerrimus, repandus vel subdcnta- 
tus. Cor. campanulata, limbo bilabiato, 5-lobo. Filamen- 
tum 5 sterile. Stigma bilamellatum. Capsula siliquae- 
formis, bilocularis, dissepimento valvis parallelo. Semina 
transversa, biseriata, membranaceo-alata. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Bignonia* Telfairia; arborea, foliis oppositis pinnatis 6— 9 
jugis cum impari, foliolis ovato-oblongis acuminata 
lucidis, panicula terminali laxa, siliquis teretibus acu- 
minatis carnosis, seminibus lato-alatis. Bojcr MbS. 

Bignonia Telfairiee. Bojer MSS. 

an erect trunk, 

Descr. A densely leafy tree, having a., 
from fifteen to twenty feet high, clothed with a smooth 
greyish bark. Branches below alternate, horizontal, round- 
ed, whitish ; upper ones patent, subcompressed, mostly 

nnnA.:t„ *u- i__ rr _ j _i. .!i *' :„*c ^roon olnhmilS. SDOtted 

pans ot pinnae, with a terminal, odd leauei, uic «»"«■ ~™ 
very patent, even recurved; upper ones nearly erect : Pinna 
or leaflets, opposite, ovato-oblong, acuminate, entire on 
very short petioles, patent, coriaceous, dark green, shin- 
ing above and somewhat viscid, paler beneath, the nerves 
Prominent on both sides. Rachis or main-stalk grooved 
above, remarkably swollen at the base, where it is dis- 
J tinctlv 


* In honor of the Abbe John Yaw Bicnon, a friend of Tournefort, 
w «o dedicated it to him. 

tinctly jointed upon the stem or branch, and jointed also at 
the insertion of the leaflets. Panicles terminal, its peduncles 
opposite or whorled, spreading. Flowers horizontal or 
drooping, large, of a most delicate rose colour. Calyx bell- 
shaped, somewhat inflated, with short, acute teeth, green 
tinged with purple, persistent. Tube of the corolla an incli 
and a half long, inflated upwards, contracted at the base, 
with deeper rose-coloured striae and plaited, glabrous; 
limb 5-fid, the lobes spreading, unequal, the lower one the 
largest, all of them rounded and crenato-fimbriated at the 
margin within ; the corolla has three longitudinal, yellow 
stripes on the lower side. Stamens inserted at the base of 
the corolla : filaments curved : anthers yellow. Germen 
pyramidal, glabrous : Style filiform, longer than the tube : 
Stigma two-lobed. Fruit or siliqua three inches long, 
rounded, fleshy, acuminate, of two valves, many-seeded : 
Dissepiment spongy, bearing many seeds, which are sur- 
rounded by a thin and broad pellucid membrane. Bojer. 

This charming Bignonia is a native of temperate and moun- 
tainous regions, in the island of Madagascar, and in the province 
of Angove, where it flowers from February to April, and is 
known to the inhabitants by the name of Vooa Kidzi-Kidzi-Ka. 
During the six years that Professor Bojer devoted to the inves- 
tigation of the Botanical riches of Madagascar and the neigh- 
bouring islands and continent of Africa, no plant possessed greater 
charms, in his estimation, than the subject now before us. The 
inhabitants too, of the Province of Emirna particularly, cultivate 
it with great ardour, and to a considerable extent, no less on 
account of the beauty of its blossoms, than for the sake of its 
fleshy fruit, which has a very agreeable flavour, and is highly 
prized as an esculent. It is no wonder, then, that M. Bojer 
has selected this individual to bear the name of Mrs. Charles 
Telfair of the Mauritius, in testimony of his high respect for 
her many virtues and accomplishments, and in acknowledgment 
of the services rendered by her to Botany in many ways, but in 
none more than by her happy talent in the delineation of plants. 

For the drawing here represented, made on the spot and from 
native specimens, and for the whole of the above description, I am 
indebted to Professor Bojer. I am not aware that the plant, so 
truly deserving of cultivation with us, has yet been introduced to 
our gardens. But of this we are sure, that if it be in the power 
of Mr. Telfair or M. Bojer, to transmit living plants or seeds, 
it will be done. 

I have erred in my account of Bicnonia Colei, t. 2817, in saying 1 it was 
discovered by Prof. Bojer. It was found in the forests first by his Excel- 
lency Sir G. Lowrt Cole himself, who indicated the station to M. Bojer. 

Fig-. 1. Fruit, nat. size. 2. Seed, ditto. 


( 2977 ) 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — PolemoniacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. campanulatus, 5-fidus. Cor. infundibuliformis yel 
hypocrateriformis, quinquefida. Stam. fauci inserta. Stig- 
ma trifidum. Capsula trilocularis, 3-valvis, loculis raono- 
di- polyspermis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Gilia pungens ; pubescenti-glandulosa, foliis braeteisque 
pinnatifidis, laciniis incisis subulatis pungentibus, flo- 
ribus glomeratis. 

Gilia pungens. Douglas MSS. 

Descr. Annual. Stem much branched, somewhat an- 
gular, zigzag, clothed, as are the leaves and calyces, with 
glandular, viscid hairs, emitting a powerful and disagree- 
able smell, which induced its discoverer at one time to 
name the species fcetida, and which he compares to that of 
Diosma pulchella. Leaves few, mostly at the forking of the 
Ranches, an inch and a half to two inches long, deeply 
P'nnatifid, with laciniated segments, all of which are sharply 
acuminated and pungent. Flowers collected into rather 
Jarge, dense glomeruli or heads, sessile or peduncled, 
having beneath them patent bracteae, resembling the leaves 
except that they are smaller; the inner ones of the head 
gradually become more simple. Calyx almost funnel- 
led, longer than the corolla, cleft nearly to the base 
into five, subulate, dark green, viscid segments. Corolla 
^ypocrateriform : the tube, however, a little swelling up- 
^vards, glabrous, almost white; the limb spreading, of 

five, ovate, pale blue (sometimes white, according to Mr. 
Douglas) segments. Stamens inserted above the middle 
of the tube, and entirely included. Anthers broadly oval, 
two-lobed. Pistil : Germen oval, green, evidently con- 
taining many ovules ; Style filiform, white, scarcely so 
long as the tube ; Stigmas three, slender, linear, recurved, 

Communicated by the Horticultural Society of London, 
by whom it was raised from seeds brought by Mr. David 
Douglas. He discovered this curious plant on moist ground 
in mountain valleys, near the sources of the Multnomack 
river, one of the Southern branches of the Columbia, in 
North West America. It flowers in England in the open 
border, during the month of July. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil. — Magnified. 


( 2978 ) 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Petala 3 exteriora patentissima, 2 interiora minora. Co- 
lumna elongata. Labellum pedicellatum, varie appendicu- 
latum. Massce Pollinis duae, pedicellatae. 

Specific Name. 

Gongora* viridi-purpurea ; petalis insertione subaaquali- 
bus, labello longe pedicellato elongato basi bipartito, 
laciniis subulatis. 

Descr. Parasitic. Bulbs oblong, somewhat clustered, 
and partially clothed with a lacerated, membranous coat ; 
bearing at the extremity a lanceolate, acuminated leaf, 
attenuated at the base, having three principal, and several 
less evident, parallel longitudinal nerves. Scapes three or 
jour, a span long, terete, green, slender, arising from the 
°ase of the bulbs, and, in the cultivated state at least, 
pendent, hanging down over the side of the pot in which it 
js planted : these scapes bear a raceme of several flowers at 
*ae extremity : each flower having at its base a small, 
deciduous bractea. Three outer Petals lanceolate, upper 
(°r that which is usually the upper one, but here the 


dov S °, named in honor of Antonio Caballero y Gongora, Bishop of Cor- 
Souti A e ? coura ? cd the botanical researches of the celebrated Mutis, in 


lowest) reflexed or even revolute, two lateral ones very 
patent, all of them greenish without, spotted with deep 
purple within : two inner ones dingy purple, narrow, lan- 
ceolate, with a rather curved claw, at length patent. Lip 
ascending, linear-lanceolate, thick and fleshy, attenuated at 
its upper extremity, and obliquely notched, the lower half bi- 
partite, the segments subulate, pointing towards the centre 
of the flower; stipes or peduncle inserted at the back of the 
lip, curved, slender. Column club-shaped, a little curved, 
so that its summit meets the centre of the upper side of the 
lip, purple. Anther-case oblongo-hemisphaerical, obscurely 
two-celled, attached to the back of the top of the column 
by a slender ligament, and by means of which, after the 
anther is separated from the top of the stigma, it is often 
suspended. Pollen of two pale-yellow, oblong masses, at- 
tenuated at the base, where they are attached to a short, 
deep-yellow stalk, at the base of which is a flat, waxy 

Communicated with a drawing from the rich collection 
of Aigburgh, by the kindness of Mrs. Arnold Harrison. 
It was gathered in woods, above Botafogo Bay, Brazil, by 
the brother of that lady, Henry Harrison, Esq. It flow- 
ered in June, 1829. 

Whatever opinion may be entertained concerning the 
Genus of Gongora speciosa of this work, t. 2755, there can 
be none respecting this plant, which in the general struc- 
ture of its flowers exhibits the greatest similarity with those 
of Ruiz and Pavon's Gongora, and with the G. atropur- 
purea, figured in Exotic Flora, tab. 178. .The general 
appearance of the Cymbidium dependens, Bot. Cab. t. 936, 
js very similar to this plant ; but there, the colour of the 
centre of the flower especially, is widely different, and of 
its structure I have no means of judging. It is, however, 
considered to be a native of China. 

A. Plant, from which the pendent Scape, B, has been removed. Fig. 1- 
Back view of a Flower, and 2, Side view of ditto. 3. Flower from which the 
three outer Petals have been removed. 4. Column and Lip. 5. Column. 
6. Back view of an Anther-Case. 7- Internal view of ditto. 8. Pollen Mass. 
9. Summit of the Column, from which the Anther has fallen. — Magnified. 


Pub. by ■ S.Curtis. Walwerth, April 

( 2979 ) 


.4^ ■4 / . Af- A'- .^t A'. A / . A'. A'. A*. A/. A'. A' A'. A'. A / . A*, A'. A / . A'. Af, Af, 
•/jc '/]S MS vf« vf> vf. VT» vf> MS MS MS MS vjs MS MS M> MS MS MS MS MS MS 

C/«ss cwrf Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. PoLEMONIACEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx campanulatus, 5-fidus. Cor. rotata. Filamenla 
basi dilatata, pilosa. Capsula subrotunda, 3-locularis, 

Specific Character. 

Polemonium * pulcherrimum ; caulibus pluribus adscen 1 
dentibus foliosis calyceque pubescentibus, foliolis ova- 
tis glabris, paniculis subcorymbosis, corollae segmentis 
ovalibus subacutis. 

Descr. Root perennial, slender, subfusiform, much at- 
tenuated, throwing out many fibres and entering deep into 
the earth. Stems scarcely a span high, several from the 
same root, at the base more or less decumbent, then erect, 
herbaceous, downy, branched upwards, bearing few leaves. 
Leaves, with a faint smell of musk, mostly radical, spread- 
n ]g, pinnated, with several small, mostly alternate, rather 
distant, ovate, obtuse, entire leaflets, which are quite gla- 
brous: the rachis a little downy, especially near the base: 
"Pper leaves gradually smaller, and with fewer leaflets. 
Flowers in small, terminal corymbs, drooping before ex- 
pansion, then erect. Calyx campanulate, with five broad 
segments or teeth, downy. Corolla between rotate and 

campanulate : 

* From vaAifuc, mar. It is said the discovery of its supposed properties, 
occasioned a war between two kings. 

campanulate : the tube short, yellow both within and with- 
out, as is the margin of the mouth : limb spreading, of five 
oval, even, somewhat acute, faintly striated segments, of a 
most beautiful and vivid purplish-blue. Filaments much 
protruded, white, dilated, yellow and hairy at the base. 
Anthers large, roundish, nearly white. Style also protruded. 
Stigmas often only two. 

This is a most desirable addition to our gardens, for 
which we are indebted to Mr. Drummond, who gathered it 
on the highest of the Rocky Mountains, where it is rare, 
and varied with white flowers. It is perfectly hardy, easily 
cultivated, flowering during the month of July, and bearing 
a profusion of blossoms of a much richer colour than any 
hitherto known species of the Genus. 

In size it comes nearest to P. Richardsoni* , (Bot. Mag. 
t. 2800,) but is more tufted in its growth, having smaller 
and shorter leaflets, numerous and ascending stems, much 
smaller and differently coloured^owers with their segments 
greatly narrower and truly oval. There is no question but 
it will soon become general in our gardens. The bright 
colour of the blossoms is retained long after the plant 
is dried. 

Fig-. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Calyx, including the Pistil. — More or 
less magnified. 

* Since that Species was published, I have received from Dr. Fischer the 
same plant, marked P. speciosum, Fischer, MSS., gathered by Langsdorff 
in the islands of St. Paul and St. Lawrence : — and again I have another spe- 
cies from the same liberal friend, a native of Kamtschatka, marked " P. 
lanatum," which I can only distinguish from P. Richardsoni, by its more 
downy leaves. P. moschatum, Wormskiold's MSS., in my Herbarium, I 
am disposed to refer also to P. Richardsoni. 

Fef I 


( 2980 ) 

Epidendrum pallid i florum. Pale- 
flowered Epidendrum. 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

Generic Character. 

Columna cum ungue labelli longitudinaliter connata in 
tubum (quandoque decurrentem ovarium). Massce pollinis 
4, parallelae, septis completis persistentibus distinctae, basi 
filo granulato elastico auctas. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Epidendrum pallidiflorum ; caule simplici paucifolio, foliis 
distichis lineari-oblongis obtusis, floribus in corymbo 
pedunculato terminali, petalis obovato-lanceolatis pa- 
tentibus planis, labello trilobo, lobis aequalibus inter - 
medio inarginibus involutis. 

Descr. Parasitic. Roots fibrous, thick, fleshy, pale 
brownish, almost white. Stem about a span high, rounded 
at the base and scarcely compressed upward. Leaves four to 
five, distichous, sheathing at the base, linear-oblong, cori- 
aceous, nerveless, obtuse, generally slightly twisted, pale- 
green. Peduncle terminal, compressed, with two or three 
laterally compressed bracteag. Flowers several in a loose 
corymb. Petals nearly equal, spreading, obovato-lanceo- 
late, plane, somewhat fleshy, white, greenish at the tips. 
Column semicylindrical, white, rose-purple at the extremity, 
below combined with the lower half of the lip, whose extre- 
mity only is free, three-lobed, pure white, the lobes equal, 
two lateral ones plane, very obtuse, the intermediate one 
)*ith the margins involute, so as to give the appearance of 
»ts being acute. Anther pale purple. Pollen-masses in two 
Pairs, oval, yellow, with stalks about as long as themselves. 


Sent with many other rare tropical Orchideous plants, 
by the Rev. Lansdown Guilding, to the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden ; where, treated like the rest of the parasitical 
Orchideae, it flowered in May, 1829. In habit it resembles 
E. fuscatum, but the flowers are very different in size, 
color, and especially in the form of the lip. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pollen-Masses. — Magnified. 

Fnl' Pr... CUrti ■ Valwortft Jprll , 


( 2981 ) 

Lantana Selloviana. Mr. Sellow's 


,\l>. <b- ,nI/- ,'A', ft ,vl/ ft, ft, >b, v!/, \t>, -J/, ft, -J/, ,vT/ ,-J/, vV, ft, ■A> 

vjy vlS MS MS MS MS V ™ ™ V MS MS VIS MS MS ™ MS MS M> 

CZass awrf Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Verbenace.^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. brevissimus, obsolete dentatus. Cor. tubulosa, 

limbo inaequaliter bilobo. Stam. inclusa. Drupa baccata, 

1-pyrena, pyrene 2-loculari, 2-spermo, rima loculis in- 
terposita. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lantana* Selloviana ; foliis subsessilibus (petiolatisve) 
ovatis acutis rugosis piloso-scabris, capitulis subglo- 
bosis, involucris cordatis capitulo minoribus. Link et 

Lantana Selloviana. Link et Otto. Ic. PL Sel. v. I. p. 
107. t. 50. 

Lippia montevidensis. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 4. P. II 
p. 231. 

Descr. Stem, in our plant, twiggy, slender, branched, 
procumbent, pubescent. Leaves opposite, ovate, somewhat 
pointed, on petioles less than half their own length, cre- 
nato-serrated, pubescent on both sides, wrinkled, middle- 
rib and veins prominent behind; veins oblique, branching 
only towards the edge of the leaf, but connected by small 
transverse, secondary veins. Peduncles (two and a half 


. * Fr om lento, to bind, a name formerly applied to a species of Viburnum, 
^tn which these plants somewhat agree in habit. 

inches long,) axillary, opposite, pubescent. Flowers in 
flattish capitula. Bractece ovate, imbricated, pubescent. 
Calyx minute, 4-toothed, hairy. Corolla bright purplish- 
red, pubescent, paler on the outside. Tube (three lines 
long,) dilated in its middle, yellowish at its base. Limb 
spreading, scarcely half the length of the tube, four-lobed; 
lobes blunt or emarginate, the upper one the longest, the 
two side-lobes the smallest and equal. Stamens reaching 
to about the middle of the tube. 

A plant of this exceedingly pretty species, was received 
from Berlin, at the Edinburgh Garden, last year. It 
flowered in the stove in the months of December and Jan- 
uary. The seeds had been received by M. Otto, from 
Montevideo, in 1822, having been gathered by the Prus- 
sian Botanist, M. Sellow. There is, perhaps, no species 
more deserving of cultivation. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower and Bractea. 2. Portion of the Tube to show the Stamens. 
3. Pistil. — Magnified. 

Pub br S Curtu Pal vert J* 

( 2982 ) 


Snowy Cinque-foil, large-leaved var. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Rosacea. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cat decemfidus, segmentis alternis minoribus. Petala 
5. Pericardia receptaculo sicco affixa. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Potentilla nivea ; foliis ternatis, foliolis ovalibus profunde 

grosseque serratis villosis subtusque praecipue ubi 

caudicantibus, caulibus paucifloris, petalis obcordatis 

calyce longioribus. 
Potentilla nivea. Linn. Sp. PL p. 715. Willd. Sp . PL 

v. 2. p. 1109. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. v. 1. p. 3bS. 

Lehm. Pot. p. 184. Nestl. Pot. p. 74. Fl. Dan. t. 

1035 (excellent). Brown in Parry's 1st Voy.App.p. 

277. Richards, in Frankl. 1st Journ. App. ed. 2. p. 20. 

Cham, et Schlecht. in Linncea v. 2. p. 21. 
Var. macrophylla; foliis majoribus subtus niveo-tomentosis, 

floribus minoribus. Tab. 2982. 

Descr. of the var. macrophylla. Root fusiform, long, 
fibrous. Leaves almost all of them radical, petiolate, ter- 
nate. Leaflets an inch and a half to two inches or more 
long, intermediate one the largest, oval or oval oblong, 
cuneate and entire at the base, the rest cut into very deep 
and large ovate or oblong acute teeth, two lateral ones 
broadly ovate, rounded at the base in the lower margin, 
above oblique and entire, the rest with deep and laree 
^eth, above dark-green, even, with a few scattered white 
h airs most conspicuous at the margin, beneath clothed 

with a pure white down, giving the leaves a most beautiful 
appearance. Petiole two to four or five inches long; downy. 
Stipules adnate, subulate,, brown. Stems erect, dichoto- 
mous, but not frequently divided ; at the divisions of the 
stems bearing a trifid or ternate bractea, below, rarely one 
or two small petiolated leaves, slightly downy. Flowers 
small, on long, slightly pubescent, very slender peduncles. 
Calyx slightly hairy : five inner segments a little longer and 
broader than the five outer ones, or bracteolas. Petals 
obcordate, about a fourth larger than the calyx. 

Potentilla nivea is found on the more elevated moun- 
tains of the South of Europe, and in all the Northern parts 
of Europe, Asia, and America, extending North nearly 
to the utmost limits of phsenogamous vegetation. But 
in these different countries it puts on very different ap- 
pearances, varying extremely in the size of the plant, in 
the relative dimensions of the foliage, in the nature and 
quantity and colour of the pubescence, both above and 
below the leaves, in the number and size of the flowers 
upon the stalk, and in the magnitude of the petals. Leh- 
man has, I think, with much judgment, united with it the 
P. betoniccefolia of Nestler (Gmel. Sibir. v. 3. t. 37. f. I.) 
which has the leaves of our var. but the flowers twice the 
size, and the leucophylla of Pallas. Brown seems dis- 
posed to consider the P. Vahliana, Lehm. (the hirsuta Fl. 
Dan. t. 1390), the Jamesoniana of Grev. and the macran- 
tha* of Ledebour as too nearly allied to, if not the same as 
nivalis. Of these, the small Arctic one of Captain Parry's 
Voyages, as well as from the highest summits of the Rocky 
Mountains, scarcely three inches high, with its leaves silky 
on both sides, and our present var. with its tall stem, large 
leaves and small flowers, may be considered the opposite 
extremes. In Mr. Drummond's rich collection may be 
seen all the intermediate gradations. 

Our present plant was raised, along with many other 
Potentilla, in the Glasgow Botanical Garden, from seeds 
gathered in the prairies of the Rocky Mountains by Mr. 
Drummond. The plant flowered in May and June, in the 
open ground, and is perfectly hardy. 

Fig. 1. Flower. — Magnified. 

* Chamisso and Schlechtendal add to this list, P. angustifolia oi 
WiLiiD. and Lehm., and P. unijlora of Ledebour. 

1'ul- By S. Curtis, Walwr///, Ma r 

( 2983 ) 

Amaryllis aulica, var. platypetala, glauco- 

phylla. Glaucous-leaved, Broad- 

petaled Amaryllis. 


Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Amaryllide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6-partita, subregularis vel ringens, fauce nuda vel 
squainis coronata. Stamina declinata vel recta. Caps. 
trilocularis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Amaryllis* aulica ; biflora ringens, tubo subnullo, faucis 
corona contracta triangulari, lacinia ima limbi interne 
involuta, staminibus declinatis inclusis. 

(a.) stenopetala; perianthii laciniis tenui-acuminatis, tribus 
exterioribus angustioribus, tubi corona distincta. Ker 
in Bot. Reg. t. 444. 

(3.) platypetala ; perianthii laciniis obtusioribus, 5 superi- 
oribus aequalibus multo latioribus, tubi corona dis- 
tincta. A. aulica, platypetala. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 
t. 1038. 

(y-) glaucophylla; perianthii laciniis obtusionbus o supe- 
rioribus aequalibus multo latioribus, tubi corona obso- 
leta, foliis glaucescentibus. (Tab. 2983.) 

The name of Harrison, not as an individual, but as a 

family, stands intimately connected with the Botany, and, 

especially, the Horticulture of Great Britain. Among the 

J most 

fl * After the Nvmph, celebrated by Virgil, on account of the beauty of the 
fl «wers. 

most successful cultivators in this country, will ever rank 
Mrs. Arnold Harrison and Richard Harrison, Esq. of 
Aigburgh, near Liverpool; and the richness of their collec- 
tions is mainly due to another of the family, William Har- 
rison, Esq. of Rio ; whose country residence, in the vicinity 
of the Organ Mountains, has given him facilities, of which 
he has had the zeal and the judgment to profit, for col- 
lecting some of the most beautiful* plants that the richest 
country of the tropics can boast. From that source, novel- 
ties are continually arriving at the gardens of Aigburgh ; 
and amongst them, has lately been received the subject of 
the present plate. I fear it must be considered as one of the 
varieties of A. aulica, but so well marked, and so beautiful, 
as almost to merit the rank of a species. It indubitably 
approaches much nearer to the var. 3 of Bot. Reg. t. 1038, 
than to the original species, t. 444 of the same work : but 
differs in the splendour of its colour, which pencil cannot 
imitate, in the lengthened green lines of each division of 
the perianth, in the small size of the crown of the tube, 
and in its glaucous leaves. I may mention, that at the 
very time I received the beautiful flowering specimen here 
figured from Mrs. Arnold Harrison, bulbs of the same 
variety were blossoming in our Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
which had been presented to us from Brazil by — Pearson, 
Esq., and their markings and colour were in every respect 
the same. 

J'uP.l'r S.Curtis. JfalvMh. Mint 

( 2984 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 10-fidus, laciniis alternis minoribus. Pet. 5. Cary- 
opses nudae, plurimae, in receptaculo sicco, saepe piloso. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Potentilla gracilis; caule erecto elato superne corym- 
boso-paniculato molliter hirsuto, foliis longe petiolatis 
5-natis superioribus solummodo sessilibus, foliolis lan- 
ceolatis profunde pinnatifido-serratis subtus albo-to- 
mentosis, stipulis magnis lanceolatis, calyce senceo 
petalis obcordatis longiore. 

Potentilla gracilis. Douglas MSS. 

Descr. Root perennial, with many brown scales at its 
summit, from which arises a stem, a foot to a foot and a 
half high, rounded and slender in the wild specimens, more 
robust when cultivated, every where clothed with rather 
tong, more or less patent, soft and silky hairs, pamculato- 
corymbose upwards. Leaves few upon the stem, the upper 
ones sessile and ternate, the uppermost ones laciniated 
and bracteiform, the rest, and especially the radical ones, 
u Pon long hairy stalks, quinate : the leaflets three to tour 
^ches long, cut into very deep pinnatifid segments or 
serratures, pointing upwards, varying somewhat in breadth, 
dark green above with a few scattered hairs, beneath 
c lothed with a dense, white, somewhat downy substance, 


mixed with silky hairs. The stipules are particularly large, 
lanceolate, acuminate, hairy, especially at the margin and 
beneath, where they are whitish. Flowers in the wild state 
almost corymbose, in the cultivated plant paniculated, but 
still nearly level-topped, peduncles forked, with generally 
a single flower between the forks. Cal. of five broadly- 
lanceolate, and five alternate, smaller, almost subulate 
segments, all of them clothed with rather long and silky 
hairs. Petals broadly obcordate, wavy, longer than the 

This is a handsome, and, in our gardens, a strong-grow- 
ing species of the Genus, but much better deserving the 
name of gracilis, as seen on the banks of the Columbia and 
the plains of the Multnomah rivers, where it was discover- 
ed by Mr. Douglas, than as it appears after cultivation. I 
cannot refer it to any described species, nor does it appear to 
have been gathered by any other Naturalist, except by Dr. 
Scouler, who accompanied Mr. Douglas as far as Fort 
Vancouver ; unless it be the same as a Rocky Mountain 
species, collected by Mr. Drummond, as I suspect it will 
prove to be. 

The seeds were introduced to the Horticultural Society, 
and the plants, from which the annexed figure was taken, 
flowered there in the month of July, 1829. 

Fig. I. A Panicle, with the upper part of the Stem. 2. An upper Stem- 
leaf. 3. A radical Leaf, nat. size. 4. Petal, and 5. Calyx. — Slightly mag- 

Fnl. frS CarUt Walworth Mm 

( 2985 ) 



Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Hydrophytes. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus, persistens. Cor. subcampanulata : 
tnembranulae tubi decern, per paria filamentis alternantes. 
Stam. exserta. Stylus bifidus. Caps, polysperma, umlo- 
cularis, bivalvis, valvis indivisis medio placentiferis, Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Eutoca* Franklinii; erecta, foliis pinnatifidis bipimiatifi- 
disve, racemis seeundis multifloris aggregates, stylo 
glaberrimo, ovulis placentae singulae vigmti plunbiis. 

Eutoca Franklinii. Br. in Frankl. 1st Journ. erf. 1. App. 
p. 764. t. 27. Spreng. Syst. Vcg. v. I. p. 569. 

Descr. Root annual, subfnsiform, sparingly fibrous. 
Stem eight to ten inches high, hairy, scarcely branched. 
Leaves alternate, two to three inches long, downy, pm- 
natifid, the segments linear-oblong, obtuse, those ot the 
root, where they are crowded, often again pinnatihd or 
incised, the uppermost ones or bractea;, with one or two 
large laciniaj, or entire. Flowers in racemes, arising horn 
the axils of the uppermost leaves or bracteae, crowded at 
f he summit. Calyx deeply five-partite ; the segments lmear- 
»anceolate, erect, hairy. Corolla subcampanulate, the tirno 
J spreading, 

* From mnmm, fertility, probably in consequence of the number of its 
^wers or seeds 

spreading, with five rounded, beautiful blue segments, 
inclining to purple : tube nearly white, with three nerves 
corresponding to each of the segments, each of these three 
lateral nerves has a longitudinal plate or membrane, open- 
ing towards the central nerve, and reaching to the bottom. 
Stamens five, inserted at the base of the corolla. Filaments 
reaching considerably beyond the tube, white, with spread- 
ing hairs. Anthers oblong, reddish. Germen ovate, hairy, 
one-celled, but from two opposite sides there projects a 
parietal, longitudinal receptacle, which thickens as it pro- 
jects into the centre of the capsule, where the two almost 
meet and bear many ovules. 

This interesting plant, discovered by Dr. Richardson, 
during the first over-land arctic expedition, growing abund- 
antly amongst trees that had been destroyed by fire, on the 
banks of the Missinippi, was named by Mr. Brown in honor 
of the commander of that enterprize, and one of the most 
distinguished men of the present century. It must now 
have become general in our gardens, for seeds have been 
distributed to various gardens, the result of the second 
journey*, where they have succeeded, as a hardy plant, 
and where they recommend themselves by the bright colour, 
and profusion of their blossoms, a good deal Resembling 
those ot a Polemonium. Our drawing was made from 
plants of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where they flowered 
in June. J 

rS'-iU. FI °-T' J' Portion 0f the Corolla > t0 show two of the Lamelte 
of the Tube with a Stamen. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil. 5. Section of the Pistil. 
— Magnified. 

JL ^' ^ RUM> 5 0N » found * growing also in burnt woods, in the country 
extending from the Grand Rapid to the Rocky Mountains. 

I'ub t<rS lurfis. Talwtnik Mi , 

( 2986 ) 
Crocus aureus. Golden Crocus. 

Class and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord.— Iride^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. tubo longissimo, limbo regular!, 6-partito. Stain. 
corolla* inserta. Stigmata 3, dilatata, serrulata aut incisa. 
Caps. 3-locularis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Crocus* aureus; biflorus, staminibus stigmata superantibus, 
filamentis glabris, corollas laciniis oblongis incurvato- 
patentibus (unicoloribus), bulbo fibris compactis trun- 

Crocus aureus. " S?n. Prod. Fl. Gr. v. 1. p. 24. Fl. 
Grac.v. l.p.25. t.Sb. 

Crocus lagenaeflorus. Haw. in Hort. Soc. Tr. v. I. p. 135. 
y. Salisb. Parad. Lond. t. 106." 

Descr. Bulb moderately large, coated with a compact 
mass of numerous short, parallel fibres. Foliage and tubes 

. ?" e flowers surrounded for a greater part of their length 
w »th large, sheathing, circumvolute scales, of a whitish 
colour, tinged at the upper part with brown, and of so firm 
a texture, that the former year's scales remain, torn and 
Jigged, but of a dark brown colour, around the newly 
°nried ones. Leaves, at the time of flowering, protruded 

,r one third of their length beyond the sheathing scales, 
•near-acuminate, erecto- patent. Flowers rather small, 


s hons* f °*i '• a t ! trcu<i ' or filament, from the appearance of the saffron of the 
V > which is the dried stigmas of C. salivus. 

always two from the same root; their pale and slender tubes 
about as long as the leaves; the limb of a rich, uniform, 
golden colour within and without, free from any stain or 
stripe, cut into six deep divisions, which^ in sunny weather, 
are patent, but slightly incurved, concave, oblong, obtuse. 
Mouth of the tube naked, just above which the three pale- 
yellow stamens are inserted. These are erect : the fila- 
ments glabrous : the anther linear-oblong, obtuse or even 
notched, sagittate at the base. Stigmas pale, considerably 
shorter than the stamens, nearly equal to each other in 
height, compressed, dilated upwards, and jagged at the 

The Crocuses are certainly amongst the most admired of 
our garden plants ; the variety and beauty of their blos- 
soms, and their appearance at an early season of the year, 
at a period when n Winter still lingers in the lap of 
Spring," combine to render them universal favourites. Yet 
there are few plants more imperfectly characterized by 
authors than the individuals of the Genus in question : their 
names are undergoing perpetual changes, and scarcely any 
two Botanists are agreed as to what should constitute a 
species, and what a variety. Such is the case with the one 
now before us. It is cultivated in our gardens as the 
aureus of Smith, and it truly deserves the name, for it is 
the richest of all the yellow Crocuses I am acquainted 
with. But this has been referred by Mr. Haworth to the 
C. lagenaflorus of Salisbury, and by Roemer and Schultes 
and Sprengel to the C. luteus of Lamarck, (the C. vernus> 
Curt, in Bot. Mag. t. 45,) along with the C. masiacus of 
Ker, (Bot. Mag. t. 1111). To me it appears distinct, 
having a peculiar neatness and elegance in the shape of its 
blossoms. Besides being cultivated in gardens, it appears 
annually in the grounds of the park of Sir Charles Bun- 
bury, at Barton, near Bury, along with C. minimus (C. re- 
ticulatus of Smith's Eng. Fl.) Beautiful specimens have 
been kindly communicated from that station, by W. 
Christy, Jun. Esq., which were procured by N. S. Hodson> 
Esq. of Bury St. Edmonds, and others by Robert Bevan, 
Esq. of the same place : and from those specimens our 
drawings were made. The old, ragged, long scales sur- 
rounding the new plant, were remarkable in all the spe- 

Fig. 1. Section of the Limb of the Flower, to show the Stamens and Stiff- 
as. 2. Stamen. 3. Stigmas.-=-More or less magnified. 

Pi/1', fir ,9. t'urtis Valwertkt Jfay. IMS I 

( 2987 ) 


Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Aroide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha monophylla. Spadix cylindraeeus, undique flo- 
ribus tectus. Perianthium tetraphyllum. Bacca di- tetra- 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pothos crassinervia ; foliis breve petiolatis obovato-lanceo- 
latis nervosis reticulatis basi attenuatis, apice acuto 
costa utrinque prominente, scapo petiolum excedente, 
spadice cylindraceo spatham lato-lanceolatam supe- 

Pothos crassinervia. Jacq. Ic. v. 3. t. 609. Willd. Sp. PL 
* 1. p. 685. Humb. Nov. Gen. et Sp. v. 1. p. 63? 
Roem. et Sch. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 453. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 3. t. 766. 

Descr. Root consisting of a number of clustered, fleshy, 
wavy fibres, such as are common to parasitical plants, as 
|his probably is, on the trunks of trees in its native forests. 
* rom this root, among several brown scales, arises a beau- 
f lf ul tuft or crown of leaves, two to three feet long, includ- 
ln g the short petiole, erecto-patent, subcoriaceous, dark 
peen, obovato-lanceolate, quite entire, attenuated at the 
ba se, at the extremity acute : the midrib thick and strong, 
Prominent on both sides, especially at the base, where, on 
Jne upper surface, it presents a sharp angle in the centre : 
oeneath it is indeed more prominent ; but in my specimens 


less carinated : from this central rib, there branch off on 
each side several rather distant,, patenti-oblique, parallel 
ones., which, where they approach the margin., run for a 
considerable way up close with it : at their axils is a thick- 
ened gland. All these lateral ribs or nerves are connected 
by less distinct, reticulated veins. Petiole semiterete, thick- 
ened upwards, especially where it unites with the midrib 
behind, sheathing at the base, whence arises the scape, 
scarcely a span high, terete in my specimens. Spatha 
ovato-lanceolate, membranous, reflexed, purplish -brown, 
shorter than the cylindrical spadix, which is purplish, more 
or less tinged with green. 

This fine plant, to the foliage of which, a drawing on the 
largest sized paper could scarcely do justice, was sent to 
our stoves from Demerara, by James Fraser, Esq. of Bella- 
drum, near Inverness, a gentleman who has contributed 
many rare plants from the same country to our Botanic 
Garden. It flowered in the month of January, 1830. 

Notwithstanding some slight discrepancies, I am dis- 
posed to consider this species to be the same with the one 
above referred to in Jacquin's Icones; but the scape is there 
angular in its upper part, the spadix is slenderer, and the 
leaves are more acuminated. The foliage agrees better 
with the description of Humboldt's P. crassinervia ; but 
then he describes the spadix as a foot long, on which 
account, probably, he is doubtful if it be identical with 
Jacquin's plant. 

Fig. I. Plant much reduced. 2. Base of a Leaf, and a flowering Scape, 
nat. size. 



( 2988 ) 

Crepis macrorhiza. Large-rooted 
Hawk's Beard. 


Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia i^QUALIS. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. Cichorace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum polyphyllum, squamis ad basin laxis. Re- 
ceptaculum nudum. Pappus sessilis, simplex. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Crepis* macrorhiza; glaberrima, caulibus solidis foliatis 
oblongis dentatis sessilibus (inferioribus in petiolum 
attenuatis) nitidis subcarnoso - coriaceis, pedunculis 
superne subincrassatis squamosis, involucro subfari- 
noso-pubescenti, radice crassa. Lowe MSS. 

Crepis macrorhiza. Herb. Banks. 

Descr. « From the crown of the very large and thick 
root, which, in its native country, penetrates deep into the 
fissures of the perpendicular rocks, spring, annually, several 
leafy, simple, herbaceous, but firm and solid stems, about 
a foot high, forming a tuft of shining, dark green foliage. 
The stems, from their situation, are, generally more or less 
decumbent. The leaves are of a rigid, almost coriaceous 
substance, pointed, and strongly toothed. Flowers numer- 
ous, small, bright yellow, closing soon after the plant is 
gathered, forming a loosely branched, leafy panicle : their 
Peduncles clothed with permanent, linear, scattered scales, 


pliV^- in Greek ' si S nifies a dipper or last; but why it should be ap- 
P ,e Q to this plant we are not informed. 

similar to those at the base of the involucre, which are also 
permanent. Involucre slightly farinoso-pubescent, mealy, 
particularly between the scales. Pappus perfectly sessile." 
Lowe in Hit. 

I have, on a former occasion, in the Bot. Miscellany, 
taken occasion to mention, that the Rev. R. T. Lowe, B. A. 
of Christ's College, Cambridge, and late Travelling Bach- 
elor from that University, had been most successfully ex- 
ploring the Natural History of Madeira and the adjacent 
islands, and that he was preparing materials for a work on 
that interesting subject. This work is now more fully 
announced, as in a state of forwardness, under the unassum- 
ing title of a " Prodromus Faunae et Florae Maderensis." 
Few travellers are better fitted for such a task than Mr. 
Lowe, and we have reason to know, that his book will 
contain much new and important matter, and is one that 
has long been a desideratum. If the number of unknown 
species detected by Mr. Lowe be not very considerable, 
there are assuredly among them many that are undescribed, 
or only noticed in the Banksian Herbarium, which contains 
an extensive collection from Madeira, made by Masson. 
The present is one of that number, as has been determined 
by a comparison of the specimens. 

It is constantly found growing on the perpendicular faces 
of dry, sunny rocks, never in soil, in many of the vallies of 
Madeira, at an altitude above the level of the sea of from 
three to four thousand feet, flowering in July and August. 
Seeds, as well as specimens, have been communicated by 
Mr. Lowe, and the plant has flowered in the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden in the month of June ; but there, whilst 
young, its flowering was hastened by artificial heat. There 
is no doubt, that if the roots are kept well drained, the 
plant will flourish in the open air. 

Fig. 1. A Floret. 2. Fruit. 3. Hair of the Pappus, magnified. 4. Por- 
tion of the Root, nat. size. 

Pub \r S CvrtUWa. ■ 

( 2989 ) 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — H^modorace^e. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium superum, coloratum, campanulatum, pro- 
funde 6-fidum, regulare, lanatum pilis ramulosis, persistens. 
Stamina 6. Anther cb erectae. Ovarium 3-loc, polysper- 
mism. Stylus conico-dilatatus, cavus. Stigma breve. Cap- 
sula apice dehiscens, stylo cavo tripartibili coronata. Pla- 
centa centralis, triquetra. Semina numerosa. — Herbae peren- 
nes. Radix fasciculato-Jibrosa. Caules brevissimi. Folia 
disticha, aversa ensiformia, basibus semivaginantibus equi- 
tantibus. F lores scapum scepius simplicem terminantes, ca- 
pitati, corymbosi vel spicati. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Conostylis* aculeata ; perianthiis intus glabris, scapis co- 
rymbisve divisis, foliis glabris margine aculeatis, acu- 
leis intersticio brevioribus. Br. 

Conostylis aculeata. Br. Prodr. v. I. p. 300. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 26. 

Descr. Perennial. Root a tuft of rigid branching fibres. 
Reaves from a span, to nearly a foot in height, linear, very 
n gid, distichous in their insertion, and partially sheathing 
*ith their dark-purple, shining bases, twisted, marked with 


bJL F J°? n *»»«> « cone, and cmfcoj , the style, in allusion to the cone-shaped 
0as « of the style. * 

fine lines, gradually attenuated into a sharp point, their 
margins beset with short rigid setae or prickles, all pointing 
upwards, all of them perfectly glabrous and somewhat 
glossy. Scape shorter than the leaves, erect, flexuose, terete, 
downy, with a lanceolate bractea near the base, and others 
smaller at the extremity, where the scape divides into many 
branches and bears a rather dense corymb of pale, cream- 
coloured flowers, with sometimes a single bracteated flower 
lower down upon the scape. Perianth campanulate, with 
a small subulate bractea at its base, half five-cleft, its tube 
in the lower part incorporated with the germen, with the 
segments ovato-lanceolate, downy, with short branched 
pubescence externally, glabrous within. Stamens six, in- 
serted into the base of the segments. Filaments very short. 
Anthers linear, oblong, two-celled, yellow. Germen ovate, 
its lower half forming one piece with the base of the peri- 
anth, tapering gradually upwards into a hollow style, and 
tipped with an obscurely three-lobed stigma. The germen 
has three cells, and three longitudinal fleshy receptacles, 
in the inner angles, covered with ovules. Capsule clothed 
with the persistent perianth, and opening through the per- 
sistent style to its base into three valves. 

Of this curious Genus, four species are described by Mr. 
Brown, all natives of the Southern shores of New Holland : 
but none, that I am aware, has yet been figured, nor any 
cultivated in our gardens, until seeds of the present indivi- 
dual were received at the Botanic Garden both of Edinburgh 
and Glasgow, which both now possess living plants. The 
specimen here figured was communicated by Dr. Graham, 
from the Edinburgh collection, in January, 1830. We are 
indebted to Mr. Fraser for the introduction of this plant ; 
as I am likewise for well dried specimens, from which the 
fruit here represented was taken. Mr. Brown observes, 
that this Genus differs from Anigozanthus in its perianth 
and style ; and from Lanaria (Argolasia. Juss.) in the 
structure of the ovary and fruit. 

Fig. 1 . Flower. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistil. 4. Section of the Germen. 5. 
Ripe Capsule enveloped in the Perianth, natural size. 6. Ripe Capsule, 
from which the Perianth is removed. — All hut fig. 5, natural size. 

Tn b. by S. Curtis, t 7u rvc 1J83& 

( 2990 ) 

Oncidium altissimum. Tall-stemmed 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide;e. Juss. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum explanatum, lobatum, basi tuberculatum. Pe- 
tala patentia (2 antica nunc connata). Columna alata. 
Massce pollinis 2, postice bilobae ; medio affixae processu 
communi stigmatis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Oncidium* altissimum; labello pandurifonni trilobo, lobo 
medio subreniformi maximo bifido, lobis iateralibus 
rotundatis versus columnam bidentatam curvatis, 
scapo altissimo paniculato, foliis ensiformibus. 

Oncidium altissimum. Swartz, Act. Holm. 1800, p. 240. 
Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 112. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 
2. v. 5. p. 215. Spreng. Syst. Vcget. v. 3. p. 728. 

Epidendrum altissimum. Jacq. Am, p. 229. 1. 141. Swart-, 
Prodr. p. 123. 

Cymbidium altissimum. Swartz, Nov. Act. Ups. 6. p. 94. 

Oescr. Parasitic on the trunks of trees. Bulb as large 
Q s a turkey's egg, dark green, quite smooth, remarkably 
compressed, sharp at the edges, and marked with a few 
,on gitudirial, elevated lines, bearing one solitary leaf at the 
extremity, from a foot and a half to two feet long; while 
rom the base, at each of the edges, there arise generally 
|*o other and shorter leaves with sheathing bases ; all of 
them are sword-shaped, bright-green, somewhat cartila- 
pnous and fleshy, keeled at the back, but not distinctly 
"erved or striated. From the axils of one of the root-leaves 


ba se of ' T T°*' a mem **> or protuberance, in allusion to the tubercle at the 

appears the scape, which is from four to six feet and more 
in length, as thick as a goose-quill below, upwards gradu- 
ally tapering, much branched and panicled, and bearing 
many handsome, bright-coloured, but not fragrant, rather 
large/otoers. At the base of each ramification, and of each 
flower, is a membranous, sheathing, whitish, conspicuous 
bractea. Petals nearly equal, spreading horizontally, 
broadly lanceolate, acute, much waved, pale yellow, with 
large olive-brown blotches. Lip large, also spreading, 
about as long as the petals, panduriform, its lateral and 
lesser lobes situated at the base, rounded, and incurved 
towards the centre of the flower: the lip is then contracted 
in its centre, and expands at the extremity into a large, 
reniform lobe, slightly crenate and deeply emarginate, often 
with a small point in the sinus. The crest occupies the base 
of the lip, is very prominent and papillose, the papillae 
pointing downwards. The colour of the lip is a sulphur 
yellow, much deeper at the base, and having a broad, ches- 
nut-coloured band, crossing it transversely, but surrounding 
the crest, which is thus rendered the more conspicuous. 
Column yellow, short, two-lobed in front, and with a blunt 
tooth on each side of the stigma. Anther yellow. Pollen 
Masses yellow, fixed to a rather long stalk, and bearing a 
portion of the stigma at the base. 

It is probable that this species of Oncidium, which was 
introduced to the Royal Gardens at Kew, in 1793, by Rear 
Admiral Bligh, was shortly after lost; otherwise so beautiful 
a plant would soon have become general in our collections, 
and would have found a place in some or other of the 
numerous Botanical journals. It is a native of the West 
India islands. Our plants, at the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
were communicated by the Rev. Lansdown Guilding, from 
St. Vincents, and have been easily cultivated in a house 
almost filled with tropical Orchideae, among which, the 
flowers of this were of the longest duration, and not the 
least attractive in point of beauty. Some of the scapes 
were nearly seven feet long. 

* Fig. 1 . Lip and Column. 2. Under side, and 3, upper side of a Pollen 
Mass.— Magnified. 

At Tab. 2956, for Neottia ? grandiflora, read Ulantha (from «Ao?, crisped, 
and ctvQos, a flower,) grandiflora; and add for Generic Character, Pet. paten- 
tia, superiore oblongo, planiusculo, reliquis obovatis, sinuato-crispatis, duobus 
lateralibus papillosis, basi attenuates. Labellum lato-oblongum, papillosum, 
crispatum, disco lamellatum. Columna aptera. Mass* pollinis 4, lineares, 
curvatK subfarinaceae. 




( 2991 ) 
Crocus minimus. Least Purple Crocus. 


Class and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Iride^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. tubo longissimo, limbo regulari, 6-partito. Stam. 
corollae inserta. Stigmata 3, dilatata, serrulata ant incisa. 
Caps. 3-locularis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Crocus minimus ; stigmatibus erectis inclusis flore solitaris 

stamina superantibus, antheris acutis, foliis lineari-fili- 

formibus, bill bis tunico membranaceo. 
Crocus minimus. Redoute, PI. Lit. v. 2. t. 81. De Cand. 

Fl. Fr. ed. 3. v. 3. p. 243. Roem. et Sch. Syst. Veget. 

v. I. p. 367. Duly et De Cand. Bot. Gall. v. I. p. 453. 

Mutter in Un. It. 
C nanus. De Cand. Syn. Gall. p. 168. 
C reticulars. Sm. Engl. Fl. v. 4. p. 262. (excl. syn.) Hook. 

Brit. Fl. p. 17. 

Descr. Bulb small, rounded, with a dark-brown, mem- 
branous coat, below having the flattened layers of former 
years' bulbs. Above this are the sheathing scales, which 
surround the plant for about two-thirds of its length, and 
which are remarkably slender, whitish. Leaves three or 
four only, shorter than the flower, very narrow, linear-fili- 
jorm, pale and depressed in the middle, having a flat, broad 
*eel at the back, the margins revolute. Flower solitary : 
Jts tube slender, white, yellow upwards, where it widens to 
«*m the limb, which has six horizontally-patent, oblong, 
delicate, bluish-purple segments, nearly equal in size : the 
three outer having three deep-purple, feathery streaks ; 

the throat within is yellow. Stamens deep orange : Anthers 
sagittate,, very acute. Stigmas longer than the stamens, of 
the same colour with them, two short, one much longer, 
slender, yet broader, and unequally laciniated at the ex- 

It is singular that nearly the first knowledge, if not the 
very first, of this plant among British Botanists, should arise 
from the circumstance of its being considered a native of 
this country. Mr. Dawson Turner communicated speci- 
mens to Sir J. E. Smith as such, from Sir Charles Bun- 
bury 's Park, Barton, Suffolk. These were published in 
the English Flora as the Crocus reticulatus of Bieberstein, 
and not having then seen their roots, I was led into a simi- 
lar error in my own British Flora. The same friends who 
sent me recent specimens of C. aureus already figured, sent 
also the present one, and the slightest view of the bulbs was 
sufficient to satisfy me that it was quite different from the 
C. reticulatus: and I can only suppose that Sir James E. 
Smith, as was my case in the British Flora, taking it for 
granted that it belonged to the latter species, described 
the roots from the true plant in his own Herbarium. 

I offer no apology for introducing this, a presumed 
British plant, into the Botanical Magazine : for besides that 
it is, as far as I can learn, unknown in our gardens, it is 
amply deserving of being cultivated, being as elegant, and 
as prettily varied with colour, as any in the Genus : and I 
think it may be reckoned among the most distinct. Its 
slender, sheathing scales, very narrow leaves, long stigmas, 
and the deep orange colour of these, and of the acute 
anthers, together with the membranous, not in the least 
reticulated, coat of the bulb, are some of its most prominent 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil. 3. Section of the Leaf. — Magnified. 






/»8 <*;■.!'/ 'urtis.Wahnrth. Jim 

( 2992 ) 

Euphorbia corollata. White-flowered 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Euphorbiace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum androgynum, 4 — 5-fidum, extus appendiculis 
glandulosis (petala L. nectaria aliorum). Peripherics pe- 
dicelli incerti numeric singuli cum singulis staminibus arti- 
culati. Germen pedicellatum, centrale : styli 3, 2-fidi. 
Capsula 3-cocca. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Euphorbia corollata; erecta, umbella ramis primariis snb- 
quinque repetitim dichotomis, bracteis foliisque cllip- 
tico-lanceolatis obtusis subtus hirsutulis, involucri 
glandulis late ovalibus appendicibus corollatis (albis), 
floribus subdioicis. 

Euphorbia corolkita. Linn. Anuen. Acad. v. 3. p. 122. 
Sp. PL p. 659. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 916. Pursh, 
Fl. Am. v. 1. p. 607. Elliott, Carol, v. 2. p. 559. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 798. 

Descr. Stems about a foot high, nearly simple, rounded, 
glabrous. Leaves an inch or more long, scattered, varying 
!""ch in shape, linear, obovato-lanceolate, or, generally, 
between elliptic and lanceolate, always sessile, very obtuse, 
rather dark green, glabrous above, somewhat pilose be- 
neath, the margin quite entire. Umbel of about five rays 
{"■principal branches, which are several times dichotomous, 

dark green, glabrous above, somewhat pilose be- 
the margin quite entire. Umbel of about five ray* 
cipal branches, which are several times dichotomous, 
r \ng opposite bracteee at the base of the forkings, which 
ar e similar to the leaves, only smaller. Beneath the umbel 


there are not unfrequently lateral, axillary peduncles, each 
resembling one of the rays or branches of the umbel. Invo- 
lucre cup-shaped ; its glands five, oval, fleshy, yellowish- 
green, dilated into a petaloid, large white membrane, so 
that the involucre looks like a five-petaled corolla. Mr. 
Nuttall observes, that these involucres are dioecious. In 
the plant here figured they are only pistilliferous ; whilst 
native specimens in my Herbarium, sent me by Mr. Nut- 
tall, and from which the dissections were taken, seem to 
be almost wholly antheriferous (fig. 1.) ; for I found a few 
of the flowers bearing pistils, though mixed with very im- 
perfect stainens. Staminiferous flowers as in most of the 
Genus, only some of them appear to be combined by their 
pedicels. Germen three-lobed, greenish, slightly warted ? 
Styles three, bifid, purplish. 

Cultivated by Robert Barclay, Esq. at Bury Hill, whence 
that most liberal admirer and patron of Botany commu- 
nicated the drawing here given. The plants flowered in 
the open air in July, and were raised from seeds sent from 
North America, by Mr. Nuttall. According to Linn^ius, 
it inhabits Canada, and thence extends as far south as the 

It is one of the most remarkable of that extensive and 
curious Genus Euphorbia; and the appendages of the 
glands of the involucre might, if not examined with some 
care, be taken for the white, spreading petals of a corolla. 

Fig. I. Involucre with Stamens. 2. Staminiferous Flower, removed from 
the Involucre. 3. Pistilliferous Flower.— Magnified. 





~> , 


h~ .' 

( 2993 ) 

Sphacele Lindleyi. Large-flowered 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Labiate. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sphacele. Benth. Cal. campanulatus, subaequalis, 13— 
15-nerviis, venosus, 5-dentatus, intus fauce. Corolla tubo 
exserto fauce subinflata, bilabiata, labiis subaequahbus : 
superiori erecto, bifido, (vel emarginato) subplano; lnte- 
riori patente, 3-fido, lobis lateralibus reflexis, medio bindo, 
laciniis reflexis. Stam. 4, sub labiis superiori asccndeiitia. 
AnthertB biloculares, loculis linearibus divergentibus Sty- 
lus apice subaequaliter bifidus. Achenia sicca, l»via. 
Benth. in Bot. Reg. sub t. 1289. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Sphacele* Lindleyi; ramis floccoso-tomentosis, foliispetio- 
latis ovato-lanceolatis basi obtuse hastato-sagittatis 
subtus tomentosis, superioribus sessilibus, axillis utnn- 
que subtrifloris. Benth. 
Sphacele Lindleyi. Benth. in Bot. Re S-£?- 
Stachys Salviae. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. \24h. 

, Descr. Stem shrubby, four-sided, three to foui feet 
high, branched, the branches downy, white and ™3 '" 
the younger ones. Leaves petiolate, broadly ovato-la iiceo- 
Jate, creSate, wrinkled, soft and downy above, beneath 

* From the Greek name of the Sage, to which this plant bears much re- 

pale,, almost white and tomentose, with prominent veins ; 
the base is cordato-hastate, with blunted lobes : the upper 
leaves become gradually smaller, sessile., ovate, and at 
length the uppermost ones are bracteiform. Flowers form- 
ing a lax, leafy spike, about three in the axil of each leaf or 
bractea, large, handsome. Calyx shortly stalked, tubuloso- 
campanulate, downy, and hence obscurely striated, cut into 
five subulate, rather unequal teeth, which are shorter than 
the tube of the corolla. Corolla a rather rich purple, 
slightly pubescent externally ; the rest of it as described 
in the Generic Character. Germen seated upon a large, 
greenish gland. Stigma bifid. 

This plant has been for some time cultivated in the 
greenhouses of the Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh and 
Glasgow ; and at both these establishments it flowered in 
Autumn, 1828. Seeds were sent by Mr. Cruickshanks, 
from Valparaiso, to whom I am indebted (as I am also to 
the Horticultural Society of London,) for dried specimens, 
both of it, and oT S. subhastata and S. campanulata of Mr. 

The foliage of this plant would be considered by almost 
any one to belong to Salvia ; the flowers to Stachys or 
Betonica; from the former, my friend Mr. Bentham (to whom 
Botany is indebted for a new and valuable arrangement of 
the Labiate) says, that it diners by the length of the tube 
of the corolla, and from both, by the large, campanulate 
calyx, and the cells of the anthers, which are neither divari- 
cate, as in Stachys, nor parallel as in Betonica, but linear, 
and divergent nearly at right angles with one another. 

Fig. 1 . Flower. 2. Corolla, with the Tube cut open to show the insertion 
of the Stamens. 3. Pistil and Gland. — Magnified, 



Hib. ~byS\ CurtUWmlwrrih Ju> 

( 2994 ) 

Helenium autumnale. Autumnal 


Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. Corymbifeiue. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum simplex, e squamis numerosis subaequalibus. 
Receptaculum nudum, margine paleaceo. Flosculi radii 
euneati, 3— 5-fidi. Pappus e squamis plurimis paleaceis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Helenium* autumnale; caule angulato, foliis lanceolatis 
serratis decurrentibus, disci corollis 5-fidis, radii 3—5- 

Helenium autumnale. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1120. Mich. Fl. 
Am. v. 2. p. 133. Pursh, Fl. Am. v. 2. p. 560. Willd, 
Sp. PI. v. 3. p. 2120. Elliott, Fl. Carol, v. 2. p. 401. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 573. Schuhkr, Bot. 
Handb. t. 250. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem two to three feet high, 
erect, branching upwards, marked with prominent angles 
from the decurrent margins of the leaves, slightly pubes- 
cent, as is the rest of the plant. Leaves scattered, lanceo- 
late, the lowermost tapering into a broad and short foot- 
stalk, the rest sessile, more or less deeply serrated, except 
the uppermost ones, appearing minutely dotted when seen 
under a microscope, with a central rib, and a few parallel, 


Said to have sprung from the tears of Helen. 

lateral nerves. Inflorescence somewhat corymbose, the 
peduncles downy, slightly thickened upwards. Involucre 
simple, of about sixteen lanceolato - subulate scales, not 
longer than the disk, united below into a flattened base. 
Flowers large, showy, bright yellow. Florets of the disk 
short, tubular, glandular above and five -toothed, teeth 
erect, those of the ray twelve to fourteen, patent, then 
reflex ed, cuneate, with from three to five large teeth at 
the extremity. Receptacle hemispherical, with lanceolate, 
chaffy, rather jagged scales at the margin. Fruit short, 
bluntly tetragonal, clothed with small, white, chaffy scales, 
and crowned with about seven or eight upright, larger, 
broadly subulate ones, constituting the pappus. 

A native of North America, and by no means an uncom- 
mon inhabitant of our Gardens, but I am not aware that 
any good figure of it is in existence. It flowers in the au- 
tumnal months, as the name implies, and is an ornament, 
especially valuable at that season, to our flower-borders. 

Fig. 1. Inferior Leaf. 2. Floret of the Disk. 3. Scale of the circum- 
ference of the Disk. 4. Floret of the Ray. 5. Fruit, crowned with it? 
scaly Pappus. — Magnified. 


Tub t*S.t urh t llti ■lu-erl/t . four UKff. 

( 2995 ) 

Aster l^evigatus. Smooth-leaved 
Michaelmas Daisy. 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. CorymbiferjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus simplex. Cor. radii 
plures 10. Involucri imbricati ; squamae inferiores (non- 
nunquam) patulae. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Aster * leevigatus; glaber, superne paniculatim ramosus, 
panicula foliolosa, foliis subcoriaceis kevibus, inferio- 
ribus ovato-lanceolatis in petiolum alatum attenuatis 
parce serratis, superioribus sensim minoribus sessilibus 
integerrimis basi cordatis, involucri squamis erectis 
laxiusculis glabris. 

Aster hevigatus. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. p. 2246. Pursh, 
Fl. Am. v. 2. p. 553. Elliott, Carol, v. 2. p. 359. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 538. 

Descr. Plant two to three feet high, perennial, every 
where glabrous and smooth. Stem erect, simple, below 
Purple, not so thick as a goose-quill, a little zigzag, and 
slig-htly angular, gradually tapering upwards, and terminat- 
ing in a copious and much branched panicle. Leaves large 
below, four to five inches long, (including the petiole) 
broadly, or ovato -lanceolate, somewhat coriaceous, dark 
green above, paler beneath, obscurely serrated, in the 


* Aster, a star, in allusion to its stellated flowers. 

upper half veiny, tapering gradually into a winged foot- 
stalk, which half embraces the stem with its base. Upwards 
upon the stem, the leaves gradually become smaller, less 
stalked and serrated, till at length upon the numerous 
branches of the panicle, where they are very numerous, they 
are lanceolate, with a semiamplexicaul, cordate base, and 
are scarcely half an inch long. Flowers moderately large, 
solitary at the extremities of the more elongated leafletted 
and slender branches. Involucre ovate, attenuated at the 
base, imbricated with linear-lanceolate, upright, rather lax 
scales. Corollas of the ray purple ; those of the disk, yellow. 
Receptacle papillose. 

We received this Aster at the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
from Mr. Nuttall. I have dried specimens of the same 
from the Rev. Mr. Schweinitz, and I believe it to be the 
plant of the American Botanists. Whether or not it is so of 
Willdenow, who is the original authority for the species, I 
cannot say. His description is too imperfect to enable me 
to form a judgment. It is well characterized by its large 
panicles with many handsome flowers ; its large wing- 
stalked lower leaves ; and by the great number of small 
leaves, or they might almost be called bracteas, upon the 
branches of the panicle. 

It flowers, like most of the Genus, late in the autumn, and 
deserves a place in every collection of hardy herbaceous 

Fig. 1. Floret of the Ray. 2. Receptacle and Involucre cut through ver- 
tically. 3. Central Floret. — Magnified. 


Pub tyS.Curtis, VmbKrtktJimt / 14S0. 

( 2996 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Labiate. ) 

Generic Character. 

CaL ovatus vel campanulatus, 5-dentatus, dentis superi- 
oris ovato-membranacei marginibus decurrentibus alatus, 
post anthesin reflexus. Cor. tubo calyce subbrevior, bi- 
labiata, labio superiori quadrifido, inferior! integerrimo 
subplano. Stam. 4, declinata. Filamenta libera ; super i- 
ora basi saepius dentata v. penicellata. Antherce ovato-re- 
niformes, loculis confluentibus. Stylus apice subulatus, 
squaliter bifidus. Verticillastri scepius multifiori, interrupte 
spicati, spicis simplicibus v. dense thyrsoideo-paniculatis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Ocymum montanum; filamentis integris nudis paululum 
exsertis, corolla calycem vix excedente, verticillis ap- 
proximatis racemosis, foliis lato-ovatis acutis serratis. 
caule ramisque pubescentibus tetragonis. 

Albacca montana. W. Hamilton, MSS. 

.Descr. Apparently an annual, eight or ten inches high, 
with an erect branching stem, four-sided as well as the 
snort opposite branches, and downy. Leaves on rather 
lo ng stalks, the younger ones somewhat oblong aud acu- 
minated, the older ones three inches and more long, broadly 
ovate, acute, glabrous or nearly so, serrated. Petioles 
downy, slender. The flowers are small, arranged in whorls 
^ch of six, three on each side, and these are placed in 
terminal, leafless racemes, the principal one on the stem, 
lesser ones on the branches. Calyx as in all of this Genus, 


with curious decurrent margins to the upper tooth, which 
soon curve in above the back of the calyx, so as to make 
that part appear boat-shaped, slightly hairy, after flowering 
becoming greatly enlarged. Corolla nearly white, scarcely 
longer than the calyx, five-lobed ; the lobes spreading, the 
lower one rather the largest. Stamens free from teeth or 
hairs, declined, the extremity only ascending. Anthers 
small, ovate or cordate. Style rather longer than the sta- 
mens. Stigma bifid ; the segments bent back or recurved. 

The same remark will here hold good which was made 
by our estimable predecessor in the Editorship of the 
present work, when describing the Ocymum sanctum (t. 
2452) : " there are so many species of Ocymum which are 
but indifferently defined, that it is almost impossible to de- 
cide whether this may not have been already described." 
It was raised two years ago, in the garden of our valued 
friend, P. Neill, Esq., Canon Mills, Edinburgh, from seeds 
communicated to him by Dr. W. Hamilton, of Plymouth, 
and a drawing of it was sent to us from the elegant pencil 
of Dr. Greville. 

Upon the same plant, indeed, Dr. Hamilton has fre- 
quently written to me, and having discovered that it did not 
accord with the old character of the Genus Ocymum, he was 
disposed to form a new one of it under the name of Albacca 
(Albahacas being the Spanish name for the Columbian 
Basils). But I think my obliging and learned friend will 
agree with me that it entirely accords with the Genus, as it 
is now remodelled by Mr. Bentham. This species, like 
the rest of the Basils, is fragrant. It inhabits the moun- 
tains about Carthagena, where it is known by the name of 
Albahaca del monte, and whence the seeds were obtained by 
Edward Watts, Esq. of that place, and introduced to our 
gardens through Dr. Hamilton, a gentleman who has long 
paid the most devoted attention to West Indian Botany. 
It requires the heat of the stove for its cultivation. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Corolla. 3. Calyx enlarged.— Magnified. 

( 2997 2998 ) 

Renanthera coccinea. Scarlet 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Petala patentia, 3 inferiora (quoad axin florum) subae- 
qualia, lineari-spathulata, 2 superiora multo majora, undu- 
lata, unguiculata. Labellum sessile, parvum, bitubercu- 
latum, inferne conico-saccatum, 3-lobum, lobis lateralibus 
erectis, rotundatis, intermedio acuto reflexo basi constricto. 
Germen rectum. Columna brevis, aptera. Anthera oper- 
cularis, obtusa, decidua, pseudo-bilocularis. Massce pollmis 
% postice bilobaj, pedicellatae ; pedicello lato membra- 
naceo : glandula ad basin magna. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Renanthera * coccinea. . ft o 7 

Renanthera coccinea. Lour. Fl. Cochin. ». *. p. te< 
BotReg. t. 1131. 

Descr. Parasitic upon the trunks of trees, sending out, 
not only from the base of the stem, but also, here and there, 
from between the leaves, large, thick, whitish, fleshy, sim- 
ple fibres. Stem about one foot and a half or more high, 
slightly flexuose, nearly as thick as the human finger yel- 
lowish-green, obscurely striated. Leaves many, distichous 
r ?ther distant, linear-oblong, thick, fleshy, emargmate at 
foe point and generally unequal, having a midrib keelea 

. * From ren, a kidney, and anthera, the anther : so named by Loureiro, 
Iro * the shap,., as he says, of the anthers or polkn-nvmes. 

beneath,, the base nearly amplexicaul, but not sheathing. 
Scape arising from the side of the stem among the leaves, 
but not from the axils, three feet high in the present indi- 
vidual, terete, wavy, orange-coloured, glabrous, reddish 
above, and bearing a many - flowered, splendid panicle. 
Below, and at the base of the ramifications, is a yellow, 
roundish acute, appressed scale or bractea. Flowers large. 
Petals spreading horizontally, unequal, the three lower 
ones (in regard to the axis of the flowers,) linear -spathu- 
late, obtuse, scarcely waved, rather dingy orange, with 
bright red stains on the upper side, about an inch and a 
half long; two upper ones much larger, broadly lanceo- 
late, singularly crisped and waved at the margin, obtuse, 
contracted at the base so as to be clawed, the claws a little 
incurved laterally, thus bringing the petals nearly parallel 
with each other ; the colour is a rich, rather velvety, deep 
crimson, sometimes obscurely and transversely banded with 
paler lines; beneath uniformly orange in the centre, redder 
at the margin. Lip very small, sessile, jointed upon the 
base of the column, pale yellow beneath, with a conical, 
crimson, saccate spur at some little distance from the 
base, three-lobed, the two lateral lobes erect, rounded, mar- 
gined and streaked with red, and having two pale-yellow 
tubercles in the centre; middle lobe ovate, acuminate, re- 
flexed, deep purple-red, pale yellow at the base. Column 
of the same colour, except within, where it is pale yellow 
with purple streaks, semicylindrical, the sides a little in- 
flexed above, but not winged. Anther operculiform, sub- 
hemispherical, purple, with a pale yellow line on the top ; 
within imperfectly two-celled. Pollen Masses two, sub- 
globose, wavy, yellow, each with a small lobe at the back, 
and fixed to the top of a thin, broad stalk or membrane, 
which has the margins above indexed, and is fixed at the 
base upon a large, yellowish gland, which laps over the 
top of the convex, transverse stigma. Germen an inch, 
or an inch and a half long, not twisted, resembling a pedi- 
cel, orange red. 

For the opportunity of giving a figure of this singular 
and beautiful orchideous plant, I am indebted to Mr. 
Cooper, the able director of the gardens of the Right Hon. 
Lord Milton, at Wentworth House, who sent me the noble 
specimen here represented, in the latter end of March, 
1830. From the great care that was employed in the 
packing, the flowers were in as entire perfection, as if the 
plant had been still growing in the stove, not a petal being 



injured or displaced ; and in this state of undiminished 
beauty the blossoms continued for many days, though cut 
from the parent plant. 

It inhabits woods in Cochinchina, and is cultivated in 
China on account of the richness of the colour of the flow- 
ers; if indeed it be not a native of that country; for I have 
excellent specimens, sent to me by my valued friend Mr. 
Millett from Canton. Among a set of Chinese drawings 
from the same place, presented to me by Mrs. Halket, is a 
very faithful representation of this parasite. In this coun- 
try the plant has been known for some years; but it had 
never flowered in our stoves till the year 1827, when its 
blossoming at Claremont was attributed to the skilful 
management of Mr. Fairburn, gardener to His Royal 
Highness Prince Leopold, who tried the effect of tying 
moss round the stems, keeping it constantly damp and ex- 
posed as much as possible to the rays of the sun. 

In habit, the stems, and leaves, and roots of this plant 
have a considerable affinity with the Genus Vanda of Mr. 
Brown ; nor are its essential parts of the fructification 
widely different: the chief distinction seems to reside in 
the form and relative inequality of the petals. 

Tab. 2997. Upper part of a Panicle, and portion of the Stem and Leaves, 
nat. size. 

Tab. 2998. Fig. 1. A Flower. 2. A back view of the same, slightly 
Magnified. 3. Front view of the Column and Lip. 4. Side view of the 
same. 5. Front view of a Column with its Anther. 6. The same, with the 
Anther-case removed : the Pollen Masses still attached to the top of the 
Ulumn. 7. Inside view of the Anther-case. 8. Upper view of the Pollen 
Masses, with the Stalk and Gland. 9. Under side of ditto.— All more or 
•ess magnified. 

( 2999 ) 

Ranunculus cardiophyllus. American 
Heart-leaved Crowfoot. 

Class and Order. 

( Nat. Old. RANUNCULACEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-sepalus, sepalis basi non solutis deciduis. Pet. &, 
rarius 10, intus basi squamula foveolari nectarifera in- 
structa. Stam. ovariaque plurima. Cariopsides ovatae, 
subcompressaB, in mucronem aut comu semine vix longius 
desinentes, laeves, striatae aut tuberculataB, in capitnlimi 
globosum cylindraceumve dispositae. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Ranunculus * cardiophyllus ; pubescenti-hirsutus, foliis sub- 
coriaceis glauco-viridibus radicalibus rotundato-cor- 
datis basi subprofunde emarginatis grosse scrrato- 
crenatis, caulinis palmato-multifidis laciniis linearibus, 
calyce patente petalis dimidio breviore, fructibus ob- 

Ranunculus cardiophyllus. Hook. FL Bor. Am. v. I. p. 
14. t. 5. B. 

Descr. Root consisting of a tuft of rather long, crowded, 
fleshy fibres, thickest upwards, clothed with many small, 
hair-like radicles, perennial. Stem from six inches to nearly 
a foot high, simple, or slightly branched upwards, pubes- 
centi-hirsute, as is almost every part of the plant, especially 


* From rana, a frog : the species frequently inhabiting places where those 
^unals abound. 

the back of the foliage. Leaves of a thick and somewhat 
coriaceous texture, and of a dark bluish-green ; the lower 
ones stalked, those from the root broadly, almost rotundato- 
cordate, with rather a deep sinus at the base, undivided, 
the margins deeply and coarsely crenato-serrate : the lower 
stem-leaf is ovate, palmato-pinnatifid, with linear segments, 
more or less incised ; the uppermost two or three are sessile, 
palmated with deep, linear, spreading, incised or entire 
segments. Flowers upon long peduncles, with closely- 
pressed hairs, large, handsome, very bright yellow. Calyx 
of five very concave, hairy, yellow-green leaves, spreading. 
Petals nearly orbicular, slightly waved. Pistils collected 
into an oblong head, each germen subglobose, terminated 
by an oblique, slightly curved, subulate style, about as 
long as the slightly downy germen. 

This, is one of the many new discoveries made by Dr. 
Richardson and Mr. Drummond in the second overland 
Arctic expedition, under the command of Capt. Sir John 
Franklin. It was found by the former in the central 
prairie and limestone districts of Canada, and by the latter, 
in alpine prairies of the Rocky Mountains, between lat. 
52° and 55°. From seeds, brought home by these Natural- 
ists, plants have been raised in the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden, which flowered in May, 1830, having been pro- 
tected by a frame during winter. If I had any doubt of its 
specific distinctness whilst describing this plant from dried 
specimens, I can feel none now that I have seen it growing. 
From the size and bright glossy yellow of the flowers, and 
the length of time they remain expanded, it is likely to 
prove a great acquisition to our collections of hardy 

Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Pistil.— Magnified. 

! P 

eA &r £ f w//j Walworth, July I 

( 3000 ) 

Indigofera sylvatica. Angular-stemmed 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LeguminosjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus, lobis acutis. Vexillum rotundatum, emar- 
ginatum. Carina utrinque calcare subulato notata, demum 
saBpe elastice deflexa. Stam. diadelpha. Stylus filifonnis, 
glaber. Legumen teretiusculum aut planum aut tetra- 
gonum, polyspermum, bivalve, rarius oligospermum, ova- 
turn, imo monospermum, subglobosum. Semina ovata, 
utrinque truncata, isthmis cellulosis saspe disjuncta. Herbae 
aut suffrutices. — Stipulae a petiolo distincta, parva. Pedun- 
culi axillares. F lores racemosi, purpurei, ceerulei aut albi. 
Folia nunc simplicia (pinnata ad impar reducta) impari- 
pinnata aut digitata,foliolis scepe bast stipellatis. Pili nunc 
o?nnes J nunc plerique strigosi^ centro adjixi adpressi. D C. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Indigofera* sylvatica; erecta fruticosa, caule ramisque 
acute angulatis, foliis 4— 7-jugis, foliolis subaequalibus 
ellipticis glaberrimis plerumque emarginatis, racernis 
folio brevioribus vel subaeque longis. 

Indigofera sylvatica. Sieber, PL exsicc. n. 379. Spreng. 
SysL Veget.v. 3. p. 218. 

Indigofera angulata. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 2578. 

Indigofera speciosa. Fraser MSS. et Hortul. 

Descr. Stem erect, eight feet or more high, branchless 
below for about two feet, from which point it forms a pyra- 

From Indigo, the dye so called, and fcro, to bear or produce. 

midal top, ramifying in every direction, the lower branches 
long and reclining (Mack ay) ; both stem and branches of 
a dingy purplish colour, acutely angular, the extremely 
young shoots as well as the underside of young leaves, 
under a microscope, clothed with appressed hairs, among 
which are many thick, black hairs or glands, the falling of 
which, probably, in the old leaves, gives the dotted appear- 
ances mentioned by Sprengel as one of its specific distinc- 
tions. Leaves alternate, four to five inches long, of from 
four to seven nearly equal pinnae. Rachis of the young 
leaves with an orange tuft of hairs on the upper side be- 
tween every pair of pinnae, and which persist, but turn 
brown in the older ones. Stipules small, subulate. Pinna 
opposite, shortly stalked, elliptical or oblong, sometimes 
approaching to ovate, obtuse, retuse, or not unfrequently 
notched, quite glabrous on the upper side. Racemes in the 
axils of the leaves on the upper branches, sometimes shorter 
than, sometimes as long as the leaves. Flowers numerous, 
of a bright rose colour, inclining to purple- Calyx very 
small, purplish, nearly equally five-toothed. Vexillum re- 
flexed, rounded, emarginate, having a white, orbicular spot 
at its base, included in a horse-shoe-shaped, deep purple 
line, slightly downy at the back. Alee and keel deflexed: 
the white claws of the petals of the latter in the fully 
expanded blossom have escaped from the calyx, and are 
reflexed upon the back of the keel. 

Communicated by J. T. Macray, Esq. from the College 
Botanic Garden, Dublin, where it was sent as well as to 
many other collections by Mr. Fraser, in 1808, from New 
Holland, under the name of speciosa, and as such, it is still 
generally known in our gardens. Mr. Sieber published it 
under the name of I. sylvatica, and well distinguished it 
from I. australis, though Professor De Candolle has united 
it with that species, and made a variety of Sieber's true 
I. australis. The leaves are liable to vary in width. As 
cultivated by Mr. Macray in the conservatory, it is MJ 
extremely showy plant and deserving a place in every 

Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower. 2. Back view of ditto. 3. One of the 
Petals of the Keel. — Magnified. 

( 3001 ) 

Begonia longipes. Long Flower-stalked 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Begoniace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. o. Cor. polypetala, petalis plerumque 4, 
inaequalibus. Fozm. Cal. o. Cor. petalis 4—9, plerum- 
que inaequalibus. Styli 3, bifidi. Caps, triquetra, alata, 
triloeularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character. 

begonia longipes ; caule crasso lasviter suleato glanduloso- 
aspero, foliis amplis oblique et valde inaequaliter cor- 
date- -rotundatis angulatis serratis supra nitidissimis 
glaberrimis subtus pallidis opacis subpubescentibus, 
pedunculis axillaribus elongatis superne dichotome- 
corymbosis, capsula ala maxima solitaria. 

Descr. Stem three feet or more high, and full an inch in 
diameter in the lower part, rounded, jointed, green, furrow- 
ed, rough with thick, short hairs or glands. Leaves alter- 
nate, large, a span and more long, when quite young, 
sheathed with an ovato-oblong deciduous bractea, extremely 
unequally rotundato-cordate, the lobe or ear remarkably 
lar ge, angled, and serrated, radiately nerved, of a bright 
yellow green color, extremely glossy, and perfectly gla- 
brous on the upper surface, beneath pale, opaque, with 
Prominent nerves, and more or less pubescent, often with 
gJands, and especially upon the nerves. Peduncle a foot 
T'th "i 0re lon £' funded, glabrous, sometimes roughish 
ltn glands, especially below, above branched in a dichoto- 


mous manner, so that the flowers constitute a compound 
corymb. Pedicels glabrous, often tinged with red. Flowers 
generally three together, of which, one is usually fertile, 
the other two sterile. Sterile Flowers much the largest, 
of four white petals, two opposite ones rotundate, the other 
two inner ones oblong; all spreading. Stamens yellow. 
Fertile Flowers small. Corolla of five, nearly equal, small, 
white, seldom spreading petals. Germen triangular, two 
of the angles acute, the third extending into a large, broad, 
perfectly white wing, or lobe. At the base of the germen, 
are two small, subulate bracteas. Of the fertile flower the 
pedicel is broad and flat ; it is filiform in the sterile ones. 

The present species of Begonia is remarkable for the 
thickness of its furrowed stems ; and for its ample, very 
glossy, bright green leaves, and the unusual length of its 
peduncles. Its nearest affinity is B. dichotoma of J acq. 
Collectanea and Icones, t. 619 ; an inhabitant of the 
Caraccas : but there, the capsule has two small and one 
large wing, and the leaves are neither so glossy nor so 

B. longipes is an inhabitant of Mexico, and was intro- 
duced lately to this country by the Rev. J. Huntly of 
Kimbolton, who communicated it to the Liverpool Botanic 
Garden. I am indebted to my friends, the Messrs. Shep- 
herds, for a noble specimen, from a part of which the 
accompanying figure was taken. It flowered in the stove 
in the month of April, 1830. 

Fig. 1. Flower scarcely expanded, showing the solitary wing of the Ger- 
men. 2. Section of the Germen. — Magnified. 


( 3002 ) 

Trillium erythrocarpum. Blood-stained 



Class and Order. 
Hexandria Trigynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Smilace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 3-phyllus. Cor. 3-petala, patens. Filamenta gla- 
bra. AnthercB longitudinaliter adnatae. Stigmata linearia, 
sessilia, reflexa. Bacca trilocularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Trillium* erythrocarpum ; pedunculo cernuo, petalis ova- 
libus undulatis acutis (albis basi purpureis) calyce 
duplo longioribus, foliis cordato-ovatis subacuminatis 

Trillium erythrocarpum. Mich. Am. v. I. p. 216. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget v 2. p. 150. Sweet, Brit. Fl. Garden, 
t. 212. 

Trillium pictum. Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. v. I. p. %A* 

Descr. Whole plant quite glabrous. Root a thick, 
horizontal, oblong, fleshy, simple or divided tuber, throw- 
ing down a few radicles, and bearing above, oblong-ovate, 
brownish scales, from which the stalks emerge: these latter 
are about a finger's length (scarcely a hand's length) high, 
Jfete, simply reddish below, having, at the extremity, 
ftree, rather large, patent, cordato-ovate, shortly petiolate 

LL CI vcuj 

fl * From trilLv, triple, from the ternate arrangement of the parts of the 
flo *er and leaves. 

leaves, waved, entire, acute, or somewhat acuminate at the 
extremity, with three principal nerves and several lesser 
proceeding from these larger ones. From the centre of 
these leaves arises a curved flower-stalk, an inch to an inch 
and a half high, solitary, and producing a single flower, 
which is slightly drooping. Calyx of three lanceolate 
leaves, about half as long as the corolla, entire, green, often 
slightly margined with red. Petals three, spreading, oval, 
acute, waved, pure white, nerved, each having a large 
purple spot near the base. Stamens six, three opposite, 
and attached to the base of the petals, and three alter- 
nate with them. Filament dilated upwards, where, on the 
posterior side, are two linear, longitudinally-opening cells, 
abounding in white pollen. Pistil: Germen oblongo-oval, 
obsoletely three-angled, crowned with three sessile, recurv- 
ed,, white stigmas,, which are minutely glandular above. 

All the species of the Genus Trillium are well deserving 
of cultivation in every collection of hardy plants : this is 
eminently the case with the present individual, which is 
rendered the more conspicuous, from its otherwise pure 
white petals being marked with a bright purple stain. It 
is probably not unfrequent in the more northern of the 
United States of North America, and in Canada. Our 
plants were sent to the Glasgow Botanic Garden by Mr. 
Cleghorn from Canada, and they flowered in the month of 
April, having been slightly sheltered during winter. 

Fig. I. Petal and Stamen. 2,3. Stamens. 4. Pistil. — Magyvfied. 

'vvrlh July 1. 

( 3003 ) 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Hydrophylle,e. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal 5-partitus, persistens. Cor. subcampanulata: mem- 
Dianulae tubi decern, per paria filamentis alternantes. Stam. 
exserta. btylus bifidus. Capsula polyspermy unilocu- 
lars, bivalvis, valvis indivisis medio placentiferis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Eutoca sericea ; caule suberecto basi ramoso, foliis pinna- 
tihdis senceis, filamentis corolla triplo lon°ioribus, 
ovubs pluribus. 

Eutoca sericea. Graham MSS. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem ten inches high, herba- 
ceous, suberect, angular, red, hoary, leafy, branched at the 
ottom Leaves very numerous, spreading in a stellated 
manner from the crown of the root and lower part of the 
stem, or scattered along the latter, smaller and more entire 
upwards, pinnatifid, covered on both sides with subap- 
pressed, white hairs, channelled, subdecurrent along the 

lo ^ h the lower ones with tlieir petiole about five inches 

ong, the upper ones linear, entire, and about one inch long; 

gjnents incised on their outer edges, and each section has 

strong, central nerve, prominent below and channelled 

Inlffk S P^ e terminal, solitary, compound, dense, about 

ait the length of the whole plant. Spikelets erect, gradu- 

y elongating, hairy. Flowers erect, on the upper side of 

PaV P l S ' expanding from below upwards. Calyx five- 

the se & me nts linear, nearly smooth on the inner side, on 

e outer, covered like the pedicels, with long, spreading, 


somewhat matted, white hairs. Corolla (about three lines 
long 1 , four and a half across) inferior, subcampanulate, 
bluish purple, equal to the length of the calyx ; segments 
three-nerved, blunt, entire, smooth, paler towards the base, 
and there, on the inside, somewhat hairy, and each having 
two over-lapping membranous wings, nectariferous. Sta- 
mens five, nearly thrice the length of the corolla, connected 
to its base, and alternating with its segments ; Filaments 
straight, distant, tapering, purple, slightly hairy at their 
origin, every where else smooth ; Anthers yellow, placed 
transversely, attached by their middle, bilobular, lobes 
somewhat crescent-shaped, furrowed in the centre. Ger- 
men green, ovate, subcompressed, covered with loose, 
white, simple hairs, unilocular. Style erect, subangular, 
purple, nearly as long as the stamens, bifid at its apex ; 
Stigmas two, small, three-angled, green. Ovules numerous, 
attached to each parietal receptacle. 

This pretty and perfectly hardy alpine plant was raised 
at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from seeds col- 
lected on the Rocky Mountains, North America, during 
Captain Franklin's second expedition, by Mr. Drummond. 
It flowered in the open ground last summer, (1829,) but 
much more strongly in May, 1830. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Part of Corolla and Stamen. 4. Pistil, 
5. Section of Germen. — Magnified. 


( 3004 ) 

Terminalia Catappa. Broad Downy- 
leaved Terminalia. 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Combretace^e. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores abortu saepe poly garni. Calycis limbus deciduus, 
campanulatus, 5-fidus, lobis acutis. Pet. o. Stam. 10, 
biserialia, calyce longiora. Ovarium biovulatum. Stylus 
nhformis, subacutus. Drupa calyce non coronata, ssepius 
exsucca, indehiscens,, 1-sperma. Semen amygdaloideum. 
Lotyledones spiraliter convolutae. — Arbores aut frutices inter 
1 ™P ICI - Folia alterna 3 saepe ad apices ramulorum conferta. 
y tores spicati, spicis racemosis vel paniculatis, in parte spicce 
inferiore hermaphroditism in superiore masculis. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Terminalia* Catappa; foliis obovatis inferne atteuuatis 

basi cordatis obscure biglandulosis subtus nervisque 

terminalia Catappa. Linn. Mant.p. 128. Jacq. Ic. Rar. 

t- 197. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 967. Lam. Diet. v. 1. 

P- 348. De Cand. Prod. v. 3. p. 11. Spreng. Syst. 

Veget. v. 2. p. 359. 
Adamaram. Rheede, Hort. Mai. v. 4. p. 3 et 4. 

Descr. This is described by all authors as a very large 
lre e m its native soil, ec whose pyramidal form is compared 


i pa „ So na med from its many terminal branches and the numerous terminal 
,ea ves up on those branches. 

to that of the Spruce Fir, its top being- composed of 
branches arranged circularly in whorls, and spreading 
horizontally" (Lam.) ; or as Dr. Roxburgh observes in his 
MSS., so as to resemble a dumb-waiter. At Liverpool, 
the tree which produced our specimens has already attain- 
ed a height of twenty feet. Bark smooth, brown ; the 
youn°- branches clothed with rust-coloured down. Leaves 
collected at the extremities of the branchlets, spreading 
every way, and horizontally, from six inches to nearly a 
foot in length, on very short stalks, clothed with rusty- 
coloured down,obovate or inclining to wedge-shaped, acute 
at the extremity, attenuated below, the base cordate, where 
on each side of the midrib, is a gland raised on the upper 
surface, depressed beneath : the margins are quite entire, 
except that when very young, they have minute, glandular, 
deciduous, brown teeth ; there too they are clothed with 
rusty-coloured pubescence, which soon disappears above, 
except upon the nerve, while beneath they are downy, and 
the down mostly ferruginous. The midrib sends off several 
oblique, parallel nerves. Spikes axillary, much shorter 
than the leaves, curved upwards, pubescent. Flowers small, 
but numerous, sterile and fertile ones on the same spike. 
Calyx pale green, shallow, 5-lobed, the lobes rather spread- 
ing; within are ten stamens, those opposite the lobes lower 
down, and each of them with an orange-coloured scale or 
gland, which is densely villous ; the other five higher up in 
the sinuses of the lobes, and hence appearing longer. Fila- 
ments white, glabrous. Anthers ovate, yellow. Germen 
inferior, linear-oblong, attenuated upwards, slightly hairy. 
The Fruit, given at Tab. 3004, is drawn from what Mr. 
Parker and myself consider to be the same species, an 
inhabitant (native ?) of Demerara. Should it be otherwise, 
it may still serve to illustrate the character of this Genus. 
It is a dry drupe, of an oval or broadly oval or obovate 
form, compressed and almost winged at the sides and point, 
invested with a thin, dark brown skin. Nut of nearly tlie 
same shape, very hard, thick, marked with little spots and 
hollows, whence proceed the numerous fibres which coV ^ r 
the nut, one-celled. Seed attached to the upper end of the 
cell, brown, inverted, oblongo-acuminated. Jlbumennone. 
Embryo of the same shape as the seed. Radicle pointing 
to the hilum: Cotyledons large, fleshy, beautifully ana 
spirally convoluted. . 

I was much gratified by receiving in April of the P rc j, seU 
year, a flowering branch of the Terminalia Catappa, irom 

my friends, the Messrs. Sheppards, raised in the great stove 
of the Liverpool Botanic Garden ; where it has blossomed, 
I believe, for the first time in this country. Nor can I 
refer to a good figure of the plant. Those in the Hortus 
Malabaricus are peculiarly unsatisfactory, while that of 
Jacquin gives no idea of the size and beauty of the foliage. 
An excellent drawing, indeed, sent from Calcutta by Dr. 
Roxburgh, exists among the splendid collection in the 
India House, which I had the opportunity of copying 
some years ago, and it quite corresponds with our plant, 
which was raised from seeds sent to Liverpool by Dr. 
Wallich. Roxburgh, in his MSS., states the plant to be 
a native of the Andaman Isles; Rheede of the forests of 
Malabar: but in regard to many useful plants, it is ex- 
tremely difficult to say where the species is indigenous, and 
where introduced from other countries. The var. /3, sub- 
covdata, though allowed by De Candolle to be scarcely 
different, even as a var., from «, is reckoned by some a 
native of the Caribbee Islands. The Mauritius again is 
considered to produce a species distinct from this : but the 
plant which I have received from that island, from Charles 
Telfair, Esq. and Professor Bojer, appears to me to be 
identical with our T. Catappa. 

The tree is said to delight in a sandy soil. Its fruit is 
abundantly eaten, being, according to Lamarck, served up 
at the first tables in India. Dr. Roxburgh compares the 
flavour of the kernel to that of fine almonds or filberts. 
An oil, too, is expressed from it, equal to the best olive oil, 
and which does not become rancid. The wood is white, 
hard, and useful for a variety of purposes, and the tree 
itself, on account of its beauty and the shade it yields, is 
planted about houses, &c. Emulsions are made by the 
Indians of the fruit, and the leaves mixed with river-water 
are said to cure the cholic. 

Fig. 1. Base of a Leaf to show the Glands. 2. Flower. 3. Scale and 
Stamen. 4. Stamen. 5, 5. Fruits from Demerara. 6. Fruit, with husk, cut 
through to show the nut. 7. Seed. 8. Embryo. 9. Section of ditto.— All 
but %• 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, more or less magnified. 

Tm*9yS&crUtM**rtA Jut/ ■ 

( 3005 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Bignoniace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Didymocarpus. Wallich. Cal. 5-fidus. Cor. infundibuli- 
formis, limbo 5-lobo, subirregulari, rarius bilabiato. Stam. 
4, rarissime 5, quorum 2, nunc 4, antherifera. Caps, sih- 
quaeformis, pseudo-quadrilocularis, bivalvis, hinc dehiscens ; 
dissepimento contrarii lobis valvulis parallels iis denique 
aemulis (ideoque fructum bicapsularem mentientibus) mar- 
gine involute- seminiferis. Semina nuda, pendula. Jack 
in Linn. Tr. v. 14. p. 32. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Didymocarpus* Rexii ; foliis omnibus radicalibus paten- 
tibus oblongis crenatis rugosis pubescentibus, scapis 
bibracteatis unifloris, capsula spiraliter torta. 

Didymocarpus Rexii. Hook. Ex. Fl. t. 227. Lodd. Bot. 
Cab. t. 1305. 

Streptocarpus Rexii. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1173. 

Descr. Perennial, stemless. Leaves, many from the 
same root, Wins prostrate on the ground, from three inches 
to a span long? oval or more frequently oblong, or almost 
Ungulate, slightly convex on the upper side, ™mjkled, 
downy, bright green, below much paler, and marked with 
J J ° » ' x numerous 

* So named from U^, double, and nmfw» f the fruit which has, when 
r, Pe, and in the act of bursting, an appearance of being double. 

numerous prominent veins. Scapes, several from the same 
root, from a finger's length to a span high, cylindrical, pur- 
plish-brown, downy above the middle, bearing two, small, 
subulate, opposite bracteas, single-flowered. Flower large, 
handsome, drooping. Calyx five-partite ; segments erect, 
linear, often recurved at the extremity. Corolla infundibu- 
liform, three inches long, the tube downy, almost white, 
the limb cut into five unequal, very obtuse lobes, of a deli- 
cate pale blue, inclining to purple, the lower lobe having 
three, the lateral lobes each two, dark purple lines. Sta- 
mens two, perfect, antheriferous, the spreading, two-lobed 
anthers meeting and apparently connected together, just 
beneath the stigma : there are besides two pedicellated 
glands, or abortive stamens. Germen linear, attenuated 
into a short style : Stigma capitate, obtuse, divided at the 
back into two short, transverse, downy lips. Capsule sili- 
quiform, terete, spirally twisted, downy, purple, one-celled, 
two-valved; each valve bearing a central, longitudinal 
receptacle, spreading into two plates, so that the transverse 
section somewhat resembles the letter T, the plates reflexed 
at the margin, and there bearing the many minute, oblong, 
brown seeds. 

For this, one of the most beautiful inhabitants of our 
stoves and warm greenhouses, we are indebted to the Royal 
Gardens of Kew, to which place it was introduced by Mr. 
Bowie, His Majesty's collector in Southern Africa. Speci- 
mens and seeds were gathered in the district of Knysna, 
upon the estates of George Rex, Esq. after whom its dis- 
coverer wished the plant to be named. So abundantly 
does it produce seed, that new individuals come up as 
weeds in the neighbouring pots, and a succession of flowers 
may be obtained at almost every period of the year. 

Fig. 1 . Capsule, nat. size. 

( 3006 ) 

Crotalaria ovalis. Oval-leaved 
Hairy Crotalaria. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat bilabiatus, lab. sup. bi-, infer. 3-fido. Cor. yexillum 
cordatum, magnum, carina falcato-acuminata. Filamenta 
omnia connexa, vagina saepius superne fissa. Stylus late- 
raliter barbato-pubescens. Legumen turgidum, valvis ven- 
tricosis inflatis, saepius polyspermum, pedicellatum. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Crotalaria* ovalis; tota molliter hirsuta, diffusa, stipulis 
acuminatis decurrentibus vel nullis, foliis simplicibus 
ovalibus subsessilibus, pedunculis elongatis oppositi- 
foliis 4— 6-floris, calycibus bibracteolatis vexillo vix 

Crotalaria ovalis. Pursh, Am. Sept. v. 2. p. 469. De 
Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 125. Nutt. Gen. Am. v. 2. p. 
94. Elliott, Sketch, v. 2. p. 194. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 
v 3 n 238 

Crotalaria sagittalis, y. ovalifolia. Mich. Bor. Am. v. 2. 
v. 55 

Crotalaria rotundifolia. Poir. Encycl. v. 2 p. 402. 

Anonymos rotundifolia. Walt. Carol, n. 278. 

Descr. Root perennial, according to Mr. Nuttall. 
Stems a foot or more long, green and herbaceous, in our 

* From npHto,, a kind of Cymbals, used by the ancient Greeks To >*" 
sound of this instrument the noise of the hollow rattling pods of this Genus 

has been likened. 

plant, rounded, and clothed with soft patent hairs, as is 
every part of the plant except the corolla and fruit : from 
beneath many of the leaves (but not all) especially from 
those whose axil bears a peduncle, there is an opposite pair 
of acuminated decurrent stipules, but not by any means 
forming a continued wing to the stem. Leaves remote, 
simple, very nearly sessile, unequal in size, almost exactly 
and broadly oval, rather acute, obscurely penni-nerved. 
Peduncles elongated, from three to six-flowered. Pedicels 
curved, bracteated, bracteas subulate. Calyx distinctly 
two-lipped, and with two opposite, subulate bracteolae; 
deeply bifid in the upper lip into two ovato -lanceolate seg- 
ments, which are bent back by the reflexed vexillum; lower 
one three-partite, the segments linear-subulate, rather longer 
than the upper ones, all very hairy. Corolla bright yellow. 
Vexillum broadly cordate, retuse, a little longer than the 
calyx, on a short and broad claw. Alee oblong, obtuse, 
concave, connivent at the extremity, shorter than the calyx. 
Carina concealed within the alae, acuminated, a little twist- 
ed at the point, pale yellow. Stamen with the tube cleft 
above. Germen lanceolate. Style long, a little hairy on 
the upper side. Legume (immature) obovato- cylindrical, 
inflated, tipped with the long style. Seeds or ovules very 

Raised in the stove of the Glasgow Botanic Garden from 
Mexican seeds, and flowering in the month of April, 1830. 
It appears so entirely to accord with the C. ovalis of Pursh 
and Nuttall, that I can scarcely entertain a doubt of its 
being that plant : hence it is also a native of Carolina and 

Fig.l. Calyx. 2. The Alae. 3. Carina. 4. Pistil. 5. Immature Seed- 
Vessel, nat. size. 6. The same, with a portion removed to show the young 
Seeds. — All, but fig. 5, more or less magnified. 

Tut. iff Si 'urtis. ralwrrffi Ju 

( 3007 ) 



Class and Order. 

Tetradynamia Siliquosa. 

( Nat. Ord. — Cruciferje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Siliqua tetragona, subanceps. Semina biseriata, ovata, 
parva. Cotyledones conduplicatae. Calyx basi bisaccatus. 
— Flores purpurascentes. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Moricandia* arvensis; siliquis subtetragonis, foliis cauli- 

nis cordato-amplexicaulibus integerrimis. 
Moricandia arvensis. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 626. 

Mjusd. Syn. v. 1. p. 221. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 

914. Sweet, Br. Fl. Gard. t. 278. Reichenb. Ic. Bot. 

Brassica arvensis. Linn. Mant. p. 95. 
Turritis arvensis. Br. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 4. p. 108. 
(0) Brassica suffruticosa. Desf. Ail. v. 2. p. 94. 

Descr. Root small, biennial, or probably in the var. $ 3 
perennial. Stem erect, dichotomously branched, one to 
two feet high, rounded, and, as is the whole plant, perfectly 
glabrous. Leaves rather remote, ovato-cordate, amplex- 
icaul, obtuse, glaucous-green, quite entire, with several 
spreading, short, pale nerves, branching off from the mid- 
"o. Flowers large, handsome, in a terminal, lax, raceme. 
Uracteas none. Pedicels rather long, slender. Calyx erect, 
almost cylindrical, of four leaflets, of which two are broader, 


v *» honor of Stephen Mori cand, an Italian Botanist and author of Flora 
v cucta. 

opposite, remarkably saccate at the base, the other two 
opposite ones are exceedingly narrow, especially at the 
base, and not in the least saccate; all of them purplish- 
green. Petals equal, the limb obovate, obtuse, or retuse, 
pale purple, beautifully and delicately veined, deep purple 
at the base ; the claw long, linear, slender, pale. Sta- 
mens scarcely longer than the calyx : four longer ones with 
broader filaments. Anthers oblong, broader at the base, 
yellow. Pistil shorter than the stamens. Fruit: a siliqua, 
three to five inches long, slender, tetragonal, the angles 
ribbed, with rather a long beak, and a small, emarginate 
stigma. Seeds small, in two rows, oblongo-obovate, pale 
brown, scarcely winged or margined. Cotyledons folded, 
so as to represent when cut through transversely the letter 
V; and to the face of the inner one the radicle is applied. 

The Glasgow Botanic Garden is indebted for the posses- 
sion of this plant to Messrs. Young of Epsom, whose choice 
collection of plants is only equalled by the liberality with 
which they distribute them wherever they can be of real 
service to Science, and who may justly be ranked among 
the first and most zealous cultivators in the kingdom. 
Although introduced, as we learn from the Hort. Kew., 
ever since the year 1739, to Great Britain, it yet exists, 
we believe, in no collections, but those which derived it 
from the Messrs. Young; though few plants are more 
worthy of cultivation. 

The colour and size of the flowers are remarkable in this 
tribe. In England it has been treated, though a native ol 
Barbary, Greece, and the Levant, as a hardy annual. In 
our less genial climate, we have hitherto given it protection 
in the greenhouse, where it has flowered in March and 

Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Calyx, with Stamens and Pistil. 3. A longer, and l 4, » 
shorter Stamen. 5. Pod. 6. Portion of ditto, 7- Seed. 8. Section of ditto. 
— All more or less magnified. 


( 3008 ) 


Class and Order. 

Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Grossulariejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-lobus, laciniis minus coloratis. Pet. 5, parva, 
albida, lutea vel rubra. Stam. 5, rarissime 6, filamentis 
liberis. Stvli 1, 2, 3, 4-fida. Bacca unilocularis, recepta- 
culis lateralibus. Semina arillata (an in omnibus ?) oblonga, 
compressa. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Kibes* cereum; inerme, foliis cordatis lobatis serratis glan- 
duloso-pubescentibus glabris glaucis superne albo- 
glandulosis, racemis pendulis, floribus paucis subsessi- 
libus cylindraceo-subangulatis, bracteis ovatis appressis 

Ribes cereum. Douglas in Herb. Hort. Soc. Bot. Reg. 
t. 1263. 

Descr. ce A much branched, compact, twiggy shrub, 
four to six feet high in its native climate/' Douglas MSS. 
Sterns clothed with a greyish - brown bark, when young 
slightly downy, partially coated with a resinous or waxy 
substance and glandular, when old, cracking and peeling 
°"> Leaves small, in my living specimens not at all downy, 
petioled, five-lobed, the lobes rounded, serrated, glaucous- 
green, studded on the upper side with white glands, or very 
Minute warts, perforated in the centre, from which a waxy 


1 he name of an acid plant, antiently applied to the Rheum Ribcs. 

or resinous substance exudes, partially covering the foliage. 
Racemes about as long; as the leaves, pendulous, pubes- 
centi-glandulose, as are the bracteas and Jlowers : these 
latter are few, three to five (Douglas), nearly sessile, and 
collected into a sort of head at the extremity of the pe- 
duncle. Bractea large, ovate, concave, dentato -serrate at 
the extremity, much longer than the germen, and quite 
concealing the lower part of the flower. Calyx cylindrical, 
with five obtuse angles corresponding with the five small, 
recurved segments, pale yellow-green, almost white. Petals 
each a small white scale, scarcely protruded above the 
tube. Stamens 5, inserted above the middle of the tube 
of the calyx. Anthers very small, yellow. Germen glo- 
bose, subdepressed, green, glabrous. Style as long as the 
tube. Stigma 2-lobed. " Berries smooths scarlet, glossy." 

Introduced by Mr. David Douglas to the Horticultural 
Society of London, (to whose liberality our Glasgow Bota- 
nic Garden is indebted for the plant,) having been dis- 
covered by him growing abundantly on the Columbia and 
its Southern tributary streams, from the Great Falls to the 
Rocky Mountains, delighting in light gravelly or sandy 
soils. It does not appear that the fruit is particularly 

It is perfectly hardy, and flowers in April and May. 

Fig. 1. Flower and Bractea. 2. Pistil. 3. Stamen. 4. Petal. 5. Por- 
tion of a Leaf, with its Glands. 6. One of the Glands. — All more or less 


( 3009 ) 

Ranunculus millefoliatus. Milfoil- 
leaved Crowfoot. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Ranunculace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-sepalus, sepalis basi non solutis, deciduis. Pet. 
5, rarius 10, intus basi squamula foveolari nectarifera in- 
structa. Stam. ovariaque plurima. Cariopsides ovatae, sub- 
compressae, in mucronem aut cornu semine vix longiores 
desinentes, lasves, striatae aut tuberculatae, in capitulum 
globosum cylindraceumve dispositae. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ranunculus millefoliatus ; carpellis laevibus compressis in 
spicam oblongam digestis, stylis uncinatis, foliis de- 
compositis multifidis glabris lobis lineari - oblongis 
acutis, caule parce folioso adpresse villoso 1-floro, 
calyce adpresso, radice grumoso. 

Ranunculus millefoliatus. Vahl, Symb. Rot. v. 2. p. 63. 
t. 37. Desf. Atl. v. 1. p. 441. t. 116. Willd. Sp. PL v. 
2. p. 1328. " Sm. FL Grtec. t. 521." De Cand. Syst. 
Veget. v. I. p. 266. Ejusd. Prodr. vA.p. 27. Spreng. 
fyst. Veget. v. 2. p'. 647. Ten. Prodr. Fl. Neap. 
Suppl. 3. p. 377. 

Descr. Root formed of a cluster of oblong-elliptical 
fit ' generally terminated by a fibre, and mixed with 
hbres. Leaves mostly radical, on long stalks, multifid ; 
their primary and secondary divisions opposite and rather 
remote, the rest mostly alternate, the segments linear- 
oolong, acute, quite glabrous. Those of the stem one to 


three, gradually smaller upwards, sessile, less compound, 
with more linear segments. Stem and the terminal solitary 
peduncle erect, with close - pressed hairs, single -flowered. 
Flowers large, bright yellow. Calyx of five ovato-lanceo- 
late, rather acute, glabrous, green leaves, the margin yel- 
lowish, appressed to the corolla. Petals five, spreading, 
obovato-cordate, the pore at the claws covered by a small 
scale. Pistils collected into an oblong, crowded spike: 
styles attenuated, recurved at the extremity; in fruit, these 
are recurved for nearly their whole length. 

Ranunculus millefoliatus is an inhabitant of the northern 
parts of Africa, especially the mountains about Tunis, of 
Greece, Sicily, and the Neapolitan dominions. I have 
specimens gathered by Vahl, in Barbary, others collected 
by William Swainson, Esq. in Sicily, and Italian ones 
from Professor Tenore ; but I am not aware that it has 
been known to our cultivators till the latter Botanist sent 
seeds to the Glasgow Garden about two years ago. The 
plant has succeeded well, is perennial, and aided by the 
shelter of a frame in winter, it produces its large and hand- 
some blossoms, which continue long in perfection, in the 
month of April. 

Fig. 1. Calyx-leaf. 2. Petal. 3. Pistil. 4. Spike of Carpels scarcely 
ripe (hat. sizej. 5. Single Carpel or Capsule. — All but fig. 4, more or less 



Put tySfunj. .*u<Wfirlh; Atif ' 

( 3010 ) 

Phrynium coloratum. Coloured-spiked 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Cannes. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 3-phyllus, coloratus. Cor. tubo elongato, limbo 
5-partito, lacinia inferiori (seu labello) difFormi. Anthera 
lateralis simplex. Stylus corolla adnatus, superne liberus, 
incurvatus, abruptus. Stigma obliquum. Germen inferum. 

Specific Character. 

Phrynium* coloratum; scapo radieali aphyllo medium 
versus bractea longa vaginata, capitulo subgloboso 
laxo, bracteis ovato - acuminatis coloratis, foliis ob- 

Descr. Root horizontal, thick, fleshy, and fibrous. 
Leaves eight or nine inches long, oblongo-lanceolate, gla- 
brous, green, glossy above, acuminate, with the costa or 
main-rib not exactly in the centre, throwing out numerous, 
father closely placed, lateral nerves, the margins at the 
ba se meeting at the upper side of the costa. Petiole a foot 
{ ? n g> with exceedingly long sheathing bases. Scape erect, 
ri gid, terete, a foot and a half high, rising from the root, 
remote from the leaves, leafless, but having a joint below 
l ne middle, where is inserted a very long, dark purple, 
^eathing bractea: for the greater part of the length the 


>hm ? r °n **"»*> or *<*»*'"> » kInd of df y or hard P lant -" ViRGui/ri'M art- 

colour is green, but red at the extremity. Head somewhat 
globose, lax, with numerous large, ovato-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, concave, red bracteas, within each of which is a sessile 
cluster of several bracteated, rather bright orange-coloured 
flowers, of which cluster, two are generally open at the 
same time. Bracteas, as well as the whole flower, orange- 
coloured. Calyx, or outer perianth, of three erect, convo- 
lute, carinated leaves, as long as the tube of the corolla. 
Corolla tubular for the greater part of its length: limb 
decurved, double, the outer, of three nearly equal, concave, 
acute, deep orange -coloured segments, the inner of two 
paler ones, the upper larger, and in part embracing with its 
incurved sides the lower one or lip, which is irregular, 
laciniated, with one of the laciniae obliquely curved. To 
the inner side of the lower lip, and decurrent with the 
tube, is fixed the style, which is broad, flat, linear, remark- 
ably curved in its upper or free part, truncate at the ex- 
tremity : stigma oblique. Filament of the stamen broad, 
truncate, inserted on one side between the upper and lower 
inner petal. Germen inferior, subglobose. 

For this handsome and graceful species of Phrynium 
our country is indebted to Richard Harrison, Esq. who 
introduced it from Brazil. The plant from which the 
accompanying drawing was taken, had flowered at Went- 
worth House, whence it was sent by the able Botanic gar- 
dener there, to the Messrs. Sheppards of Liverpool, who, 
judging from the flowering spike that the species was 
hitherto undescribed, at once obligingly forwarded it to me. 

I here follow the amiable and learned Mr. Roscoe in 
combining Calathea with Phrynium ; no satisfactory cha- 
racters, that I am aware of, having been yet pointed out, 
by which the two genera are to be distinguished. 

P. coloratum flowered in Lord Milton's stove in the 
month of April, 1830. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. The same; the Calyx and the three outer segments of 
the Corolla being removed. 3. Portion of the inner Limb of the Corolla, 
laid open to show the Stamen, and the free portion of the Style.— Magnified- 

Pub by S Caslis. Valvcrth. SepriJSSO 

( 3011 ) 

blgnonia grandifolia. glgantic-leaved 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — BignoniacetE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. campanulatus, integerrimus, repandus vel subden- 
tatus. Cor. campanulata, limbo bilabiato, 5-lobo. Fila- 
mentum 5 sterile. Stigma bilamellatum. Capsula siliquae- 
formis, bilocularis, dissepimento valvis parallelo. Semina 
transversa, biseriata, membranaceo-alata. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Bignonia grandifolia ; foliis conjugatis cirrhosis, foliolis 
oblongis ovalibusve undulatis glaberrimis utrinque 
acutis, racemo terminali, pedicellis bi-bracteolatis 
unifloris vel trifloris, pedunculis petiolis ramulisquc 

Bignonia grandiflora. " Jacq. Hort. Schocn. v. 3. p. 19. 
t. 287." JViUd. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 296. Bot. Reg. t. 
418. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 830. 

Descr. Stems climbing to a very great height, branched ; 
branches rounded, glabrous, brownish, the younger ones 
green, rough with small warts or oblong raised points. 
Leaves opposite, conjugate, stalked, as are the leaflets, main 
Petioles rough like the stem, and bearing long, simple ten- 
uis at the extremity between the petioles of the leaflets. 
leaflets from six or eight inches to a foot or a foot and a 
halflong, oblong or oval, waved, acute at each extremity, 
strongly nerved, quite entire and glabrous, glossy above 
a nd bright green, paler and with prominent veins beneath. 


Raceme large, handsome, from between a pair of leaves, 
and frequently bearing a small pair of leaves upon the 
peduncle. Peduncles flexuose, opposite, about an inch long, 
single-flowered, and with two bracteas in our plant, three- 
flowered according to Jacquin. Calyx a short, oval tube, 
coriaceous, glabrous, green, brownish at the edge, entire at 
the margin, but often cleft on one side. Corolla three 
inches or more long, with a rather compressed tube, swollen 
upwards, its limb cleft into five, nearly equal, spreading, 
very wavy, roundish segments, the lowermost one bifid : its 
color is a full deep and bright yellow, glabrous except at 
the base within, at the mouth marked with reddish lines in 
dots. Stamens pale yellow. Filaments, and even the 
small sterile one, glanduloso-hirsute at the base. Anthers 
of two oblong, divaricated, one-celled lobes. Germen 
oblong, attenuated at the base, placed on a large, globose, 
fleshy, yellow-green gland. Style filiform, shorter than the 
corolla. Stigma bilamellate. 

I am indebted to my friend J. T. Mackay, Esq., of the 
Dublin College Botanic Garden, for the specimen here 
figured of this most desirable inmate of the stove, and 
which is, I believe, still of rare occurrence in our collec- 
tions. Its foliage and flowers are amongst the handsomest 
of the family of the climbing plants : but with a view to its 
blossoming in perfection, a great deal of space must be 
allowed to it. It flowered in April. 

Fig. 1. Calyx, laid open to show the Germen and Gland. 2. A perfect 
and the sterile Filament : — slightly magnified. 

( 3012 ) 
Lobelia Kraussii. Dominica Lobelia. 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Campanulace^. Sect. II. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus. Cor. 1-petala, irregularis. Anthera cohe- 
rentes. Caps, infera, bi- seu trilocularis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Lobelia* Kraussii; caule herbaceo glabro erecto ramoso, 
foliis lanceolatis subsessilibus decurrentibus argute 
serratis utrinque nudis, pedunculis axillanbus solitarns 
foliis longioribus, laciniis calycinis subulatis subden- 
tatis patentibus corollaque glabris. 

Lobelia Kraussii. Graham in Ed. New Phil. Journ. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem a foot to a foot and a 
half high, succulent, green, glabrous, angular from de- 
current leaves, erect, branched. Leaves (four and a halt 
inches long, three - fourths of an inch broad,) numerous 
scattered, lanceolate, glabrous on both sides shining, bright 
green above, paler below, sharply serrated, the serratures 
largest at the base, subsessile, decurrent, much smaller 
towards the top of the stem, slightly bullate, strongly 
veined, veins prominent on both sides. Peduncles > three 
inches long, axillary, solitary, numerous Awards the top 
of the stem, one-flowered, nearly twice the length of the 
diminished leaves, from the axils of which they spring, 
smooth, compressed, and having two, subopposite, bnstle- 

. * Named in compliment to Matthew Lobel, an English Botanist, nhysi- 
c '»an to our first James. 

shaped, smooth,- decurrent hracteas near the middle, below 
which they are bright green, paler in the centre, and red 
towards the top. Calyx red, glabrous, persisting, of five 
rather unequal, subulate segments, (five to seven lines 
long,) spreading at right angles to the peduncles, and each 
with a very few obscure teeth. Corolla one inch long, red, 
marcescent ; tube compressed, cleft to its base along the 
upper side, but spreading little; limb five-parted, segments 
linear, subulate, with the apices deflexed, the two upper 
ones the broadest, the three others turned downwards, and 
that in the centre rather the smallest. Stamens shorter than 
the corolla, marcescent ; filaments white, smooth, forming 
a half cylinder, and united, except towards the base, where 
only they are free and pubescent; anthers lead-coloured, 
terminated by a dense, white beard ; pollen abundant, 
whitish. Stigma bilabiate, segments revolute, rounded, 
glandular, slightly hairy behind. Style as long as the 
stamens, yellowish, somewhat clavate, continued down- 
wards into the dissepiment, marcescent. Germen glabrous, 
bilocular, with a conical, empty beak, which afterwards 
falls down, rising above the calyx, otherwise inferior. 
Ovules numerous, attached to a central receptacle, the 
transverse section of which is kidney-shaped in each locu- 
lament. Seeds minute, pale brown, lenticular, hollow on 
one side ; when seen under a microscope appearing dotted 
and shining. 

The seeds of this plant were obligingly communicated to 
me from Dominica, in September, 1828, by my valuable 
correspondent, Dr. Krauss ; in acknowledgment of whose 
kindness, I have named the species. It first flowered in the 
stove of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, in January and 
February last, and is ornamental. 

In the arrangement of the species, Lobelia Kraussii 
must stand near L. persicifolia of Lamarck. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamens and protruded Stigma : — magnified. 


'worth Sa 

( 3013 ) 

Encyclia patens. Spreading-flowered 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide2e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium subcoimivens vel patens, laciniis subaequali- 
bus. Columna libera, aptera, nunc superne bidentata, 
labello trilobo, ecalcarato, magis minusve circumvoluta. 
Anther a terminalis, 4-locularis. Masses pollinis 4, per 
pares filo elastico in ipsis reflexo connexae. 

Specific Character. 

Encyclia * patens ; perianthii laciniis patentibus duabus 
interioribus spathulatis, labello profunde trifido, lobo 
medio obovato integro. 

Descr. Bulb ovate, attenuated, furrowed ; in the pre- 
sent instance destitute of leaves at the summit, whence they 
have fallen away. From the bulb a new plant rises, having 
two long, sheathing scales at its base, and bearing two 
linear-lanceolate, rather thick, coriaceous, small, nerveless 
leaves. Scape from the centre of these leaves, supporting a 
panicle of six to eight moderately sized flowers. Perianth 
patent, dingy yellow-green, within marked with purplish- 
brown streaks: the three outer segments arc lanceolate, 
the two inner spathulate and acute ; their texture is rather 
thick and fleshy. Lip standing forward, longer than the 
segments of the perianth, narrow at the base, pale yellow 


* Sec folio 2831. 

streaked with red lines within, cut into three deep lobes, of 
which the lateral ones include the column by curving; up- 
wards, the intermediate lobe is the largest, obovate, entire. 
Column semicylindrical, white, with two incurved teeth, 
one on each side above. Anther hemispherical, of two 
double cells., bearing yellow, waxy., pollen-masses. Germen 
clavate, tapering downwards into a pedicel. 

This, a second species of the new Genus Encyclia, was 
obligingly communicated, and accompanied with a sketch, 
by Mrs. Arnold Harrison, from her rich collection at 
Aigburgh; with the information, that it was gathered in 
woods above Rio de Janeiro by Mr. Warr, and that it 
imparted a delightful fragrance. The general structure of 
the flowers is so similar to those of the Encyclia viridi- 
fiora (t. 2831,) communicated by the same lady^ and from 
the same country, that I have no hesitation in referring it to 
that Genus : the character of which, I find it consequently 
necessary in some degree to correct. 

Fig. I. Flower. 2. Labellum, and the Column forced up from the Label- 
lum. 3, 4. Anther-case. 5. Double Pollen-masses, from one of the double 
Cells of the Anther : — Magnified. 


( 3014 ) 
Vangueria velutina. Velvety Vangueria. 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rubiace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

CaL 5-dentatus, dentibus patentibus. Cor. campanu- 
lata, limbo patente, fauce pilosa. Stam. tubo inserta, an- 
theris prominentibus. Stigma capitatum. " Bacca (non 
coronata) 4— 5-locularis, 4 — 5-sperma. Sem. forma Amyg- 

Specific Character. 

Vangueria * velutina ; ubique velutina, foliis cordato - 

Descr. A shrub, growing in the stove of the Liverpool 
Botanic Garden to a height of three feet, clothed on the 
stem, leaves, calyx, and exterior of the corolla, with a soft, 
velvety tomentum. Leaves large, opposite, nerved, shortly 
petiolate, cordato-ovate, rather acute, entire, much waved, 
most downy beneath. Stipules opposite, from between the 
leaves, large, appressed, broadly oval, obtuse, with a long, 
erect, soft point, very downy. Flowers axillary in the 
lower leaves which soon fall off as the flowers advance to 
perfection, in short, dense cymes, of a pale, yellowish-green 
colour. Calyx of five linear-lanceolate, spreading, or often 
reflexed teeth. Corolla between campanulate and mfundi- 
buliform, the tube broad, the limb in five ovate, spreading 
segments, the faux almost closed with long, erect hairs. 
Stamens inserted just within the tube : Filaments short, 

o labrous : 

* The Voa-vanguier of the people of Madagascar. 

glabrous : Anthers ovate, two - celled, yellow, exserted be- 
yond the mouth of the corolla. Pistil : Germen inferior, 
roundish, downy ; at its mouth, within the calyx, is a cir- 
cular, yellow gland or ring : Style subulate, fleshy : Stigma 
extinguisher-shaped, blunt, large. 

The present plant boasts of little beauty, but is deserv- 
ing of a figure, as a new species of a Genus, whereof 
only two have been hitherto described : namely, the Van- 
gueria edulis of Vahl, an esculent-fruited plant, native of 
Madagascar, and V. spinosa of Roxburgh, an inhabitant 
of Bengal and China. The present is, like the former, 
a native of Madagascar, and was received thence at the 
Liverpool Botanic Garden, where it has blossomed in May 
of the present year, 1830. It is at once distinguished from 
V. edulis by its leaves being broad and cordate at the base, 
and by the beautifully velvety foliage. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. Stamen. 4. Section of the 
uermen: — magnified. 

( 3015 ) 

Ceropegia elegans. Beautiful 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asclepiade^e. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corona staminea exterior abbreviata, 5-loba; interior 5- 
phylla, foliolis ligularibus indivisis. Massa: pollinis basi 
affixae, marginibus simplicibus. Stigma muticum. Folli- 
culi cylindracei, laeves. Semina comosa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Ceropegia* elegans ; volubilis laevis, radice fibrosa, foliis 
oblongis acntis, pedunculis axillaribus 1- vel 2-floris, 
corollaj tubo clavato incurvo basi inflato-ventricoso, 
limbo hemisphaerico, laciniis ligulatis longe ciliatis; 
lobis coronae stamineae exterioris profunde 2-partitis. 
Wall. MSS. 

Ceropegia elegans. Wall. MSS. 

Descr. The whole plant smooth, somewhat fleshy, 
climbing to a considerable extent. Root consisting- of 
many filiform fibres, without any tubers. Branches numer- 
ous, long, and slender. Leaves opposite, remote, spread- 
ing, oblong acute, or ending in a short acumen, about three 
inches long, dark-green aud shining above, pallid under- 
neath, with elevated ribs, and capillary, distant nerves, 
Which unite near the margins by means of arcuate veins ; 


* From *„ P o S , wax, and W*, a fountain, in allusion to the delicate, waxy 
umbels of some species. 

supported on cylindrical, curved, furrowed footstalks, which 
conceal within their axils a few of the minute, subulate, 
fleshy bodies, which belong to the family of Asclepiade^. 
Peduncles axillary, solitary, thickish, round, shorter than 
the petioles, one or two-flowered. Flowers large, inodor- 
ous, of a purple colour, speckled with green, on slender, 
half-inch long, partial peduncles, each of which has at its 
base one or two small, linear, purplish bracteas. Corolla 
deeply five-cleft, closely pressed to the enlarged base of 
the corolla; lacinice spreading, linear - subulate. Corolla 
nearly an inch and a half long ; tube club-shaped, curved, 
much swelled and ventricose at the base, widening again 
at the upper end into the large, round, slightly depressed, 
five-cleft border; laciniae tongue -shaped, acute, bent in- 
wardly, and connected by their apices, having between 
them large and wide interstices ; their sides are bent back- 
wards so as to become contiguous, and the margins furnish- 
ed with a row of long, black, shining, straight, loose and 
vacillating hairs ; the inside of the border is dark purple. 
Organs of Fructification very small, concealed in the bot- 
tom of the corolla, and surrounded with a double corona ; 
the outer one five-cleft, or, rather, ten-cleft, in consequence 
of the five lobes, which are linear-subulate, and converge 
over the inner corona, being deeply two-cleft ; inner corona 
five-cleft, lobes subulate, rather obtuse, undivided, oppo- 
site to those of the outer corona. Anthers fleshy, clavate, 
naked, bilocular ; the cells being large, membrane -mar- 
gined. Pollen-masses ovate, obtuse, erect, connected in 
pairs by means of a very short pedicel to the apex of a small, 
brown, sulcate corpusculum. Stigma indistinctly five-cor- 
nered, depressed, with an obscurely two-lobed, central 
prominence. Wall. MSS. 

The Company's Botanic Garden of Calcutta is indebted 
to the Venerable Archdeacon Hawtayne of Bombay for this 
ornamental plant, which is one of the most elegant of the 
Genus to which it belongs. It was discovered on the 
Nilghiry range, and forwarded to the garden in 1824; where 
it blossoms profusely in the beginning of every year. A 
living plant was brought to England by Dr. Wallich, h 
1828, which was presented by the Hon. Court of Directors 
of the East India Company to His Majesty's garden at 
Kew, where it is now in full flower. 

Fig-. 1. Calyx and Pistil. 2. The double Corona Staminea. 3. The inner 
ditto. 4. Portion of the outer and inner Crown, with two Pollen-masses, an 
the angular Stigma. 5. Pollen-masses. 6. Pistils. — Magnified. 


( 3016 ) 
Brachystelma crispum. Waved-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Pent and ri a Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asclepiade^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla campanula, siuubus angulatis. ^lumnain- 
clusa. Corotia monophylla, 5-fida ; lobis an hens 01 po- 
sitis, dorso simplicibus. Anther* absque membrana apicu- 
lari. Mass* pollinis erect*, basi insert*. Brown Mto. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Brachystelma* crispum; folUs ^^"femSdk sc- 
roll* laciniis tubo duplo longionbus, peduncubs s* 

pius aggregate. f Rare Plants, 

Brachystelma crispum. L*ratiam } ucbti . »j 

in Edin. Phil. Journ. 

D ESCR . Tuber four inches in diameter, round flattened 
slightly depressed, having in the centre a rugged crown o, 
neck, divided at top and permanen t about! half o r three 

the plant begins to vegetate, sterns several, „ J 

tuft, (jn the specimen described six inches dw 
inches broad,) covered with short, g andular pube scene c 
law opposite, decussating, - ^ceoU^ da k 
green above, paler beneath, covered on both «*%$? 

* From ^ « and »*-, • «•». >» a,1 » si0 " «° *" ** C °'' "° * 
the flower. 

glandular pubescence, crisped, on short petioles, with a 
strong middle rib, and a few veins prominent beneath : at 
the flowers, the pairs occasionally approach, so as to give 
the appearance of a four-leaved verticel. Peduncles nearly 
three-fourths of an inch long, simple, rarely solitary, gene- 
rally aggregated, situated on the side of the stem, between 
the leaves, two or more frequently agglutinated together in 
the luxuriant specimen described. Bracteas small, awl- 
shaped, at the base of the peduncles. Calyx small, five- 
parted, pubescent, segments awl-shaped, and very much 
resembling the bracteas. Corolla monopetalous, pubes- 
cent within, naked without ; limb five-parted, plicate, occa- 
sionally twisted, forming to the bud an angular, blunt beak, 
about an inch long, of the same colour as the back of the 
leaves, segments afterwards spreading wide, their edges 
revolute, upper surface dark olive-green, faux devoid of 
pubescence, yellow, especially within-side, crowded with 
deep purplish-brown, oblong, transverse spots, which on 
the outside are fewer and more rounded ; tube campa- 
nulate ; crown deep-purple, included, monophyllous, with 
five teeth, which are connivent over the stigma ; there is an 
emarginate, erect border on the outside of each, and be- 
tween them five pits, over which are situated the truncated 
stamens, each having two distinct pollen-masses, and a de- 
pending, central, double beak. Germen of two smooth, 
green, conical/o//zc/es ; each with many ovules attached to 
their inner side. Stigma common to both follicles, large, 
flat, white. 

Several bulbs of this plant were collected in Southern 
Africa, by Mr. Bowie, and sent, with many others, in the 
spring of 1829, to Mr. Neill, in whose stove at Canonmills 
they flowered in May, 1830. The species approaches Bra- 
chystelma spathulatum, Bot. Reg. t. 1113, but it seems to 
me evidently distinct. Mr. Neill has received another 
plant, which has not yet blossomed, from the same quar- 
ter, of which the leaves are flat and elliptico-spathulate, 
while the bulb is somewhat elevated in the centre. It 
seems probable that it will prove to be the B. spathulatum. 
In the natural groupe of plants to which Brachystelma 
belongs, there are many fetid species, but I am not ac- 
quainted with any whose smell is so decidedly stercora- 
ceous as the present individual. Graham. 

( 3017 ) 

Anthericum bulbosum. Bulbous-rooted 
Lancashire Asphodel. 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodele^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium sexpartitum, patens, aequale, deciduum. 
Antherce versatiles. Ovarium loculis polyspermis. Stylus 
filiformis. Stigma subpapillosum. Capsula subglobosa, 
3-locularis, 3-valvis, valvis medio septiferis. Semma pauca, 
angulata, umbilico nudo. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 
Anthericum* bulbosum; bulbo depresso, filamentis dech- 
natis omnibus barbatis. Br. QnK 

Anthericum bulbosum. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. HolL p. I*. 
Bulbine australis. Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 4. p. w. 

Descr. Bulb in our plant ^undish - ova^te somewhat 
truncate at the top, partly rising above ground, andb»nn 
a few fleshy, short fibres. Leaves all radical, white at the 
base, and surrounded by some lanceolate sheath ing scale 
the rest darkish-green/linear, attenuated, ff^rete and 
deeply grooved above, quite glabrous a ^ ™° £££ 
long/ Scape a foo t and a half to two feet and more *gh, 
naked, terete, glabrous, bearing a rac ^.™?"™^: 
handsome, bright-yellow flowers, which as the jflowen ^ ex 
Pand, lengthens considerably. The buds arc V™™^ 
tipped with purple. Pedicels at length patent, almost^an 

* From ^ t ,a„ame given by the Greeks to the stem of the Asfhod.l. 

inch long, slender, with a small, subulate bractea at the 
base. Perianth patent, in five very deep, narrow, ovate, 
concave, segments. Stamens spreading, about as long as 
the segments. Filaments very hairy, and, especially, the 
anthers at the back and between the two linear lobes, where 
the hairs are exceedingly long : all yellow. Germen small, 
globose. Style declined, subulate, as long as the stamens, 
almost white. 

For this species of Anthericum our Botanic Garden at 
Glasgow is indebted to Mr. Fraser, the Colonial Botanist 
at New South Wales, many plants of it having flowered 
with us during the months of May and June. Only two 
species of this Genus are yet enumerated as natives of New 
Holland; of these, one (A. semibarbatum, Br.) has fibrous 
roots and stamens of which the outer only are bearded ; 
the other, (A. bulbosum, Br.) has a bulbous root and all 
the stamens bearded. The latter characters are conspi- 
cuous in our plant: but Mr. Brown further says of his A. 
bulbosum, that it has depressed bulbs and declined filaments, 
characters which do not well accord with the present indi- 
vidual : on which account it may, perhaps, deserve to be 
considered a new species. Mr. Brown gives it as a native 
of Port Jackson. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil -.—magnified. 

( 3018 ) 
Jonesia Asoca. Fragrant Jonesia. 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Octandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. Div. Cassie^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Bracteolce 2, oppositae ad basin calycis. Cal. coloratus, 
infundibuliformis, tubo longo clauso carnoso, limbo pa- 
tente 4-lobo, lobis ovatis. Pet. o. Stam. 8 (interdum 6, 
7 — 9) ex fauce calycina orta, longe exserta, libera aut ima, 
basi nonnulla subconcreta. Ovarium stipitatum, stipite in 
parte infer, calycis tubo adnato superne libero. Stylus 
filiformis. Legumen 4 — 8-spermum, compresso-planum, 
acinaciforme, suturis callosis. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

J onesia* Asoca ; caule arboreo. DC. 

Jonesia Asoca. Roxb. in Asiat. Res. v. 4. p. 853. Hort. 

Beng. p. 27. De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 487. 
Jonesia piunata. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 287. 
Saraca indica. Linn. Mant. p. 98. 
Saraca arborescens. Burm. Fl. Ind. p. 85. t. 25. / 2. 
Asjogam. Hort. Mai. v. 5. p. 117. t. 59. 

Descr. A tree of middling height, much branched, with 
an erect trunk and a spreading head. Leaves alternate, 
abruptly pinnate, with generally five pairs of opposite, 
ovato-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, acuminated leaflets, short- 
ly petioled, four to six inches long, entire, quite glabrous, 


So named in honour of the late Sir William Jones, a zealous cultivator 
and patron of Botany, as well as of other branches of Science and of general 
"terature. J 

somewhat glaucous beneath : the rachis terete, swollen at 
the base,, where is a lanceolate, deciduous stipule. Flowers 
of a rich orange-red colour, delightfully fragrant, collected 
into a rounded, compact panicle, with many small bractece, 
and situated in the axils of the leaves, than which they are 
much shorter. Pedicels short, red. Bractece two, opposite, 
oval, red, resembling a calyx, as the calyx, in its rich co- 
lour, resembles a corolla. This latter is hypocrateriform ; 
its tube solid and fleshy, except just at the mouth, cylin- 
drical, or a little enlarged upwards : the limb consisting of 
four spreading, oval, at length reflexed segments. At 
its mouth is a deep-red, fleshy, annular ring : upon which 
the stamens, mostly six in number, are inserted ; two 
opposite all the segments of the calyx but one. Filaments 
purplish-red, long, flexuose. Anthers oblong, inserted by 
the middle of the back, dark purple. Cor. o. Pistil on 
a short stalk, inserted into the mouth of the tube, and on 
that side where the stamens are wanting : sometimes 
abortive. Germen linear -lanceolate, compressed, reddish, 
slightly hairy. Style long, curved : Stigina capitate. The 
fruit I have not seen. I have represented it (reduced) from 
a drawing in the possession of the Hon. the East India 
Company. It is described by Dr. Roxburgh, as acinaci- 
form, reticulated, six to ten inches long, and about two 
inches broad. Seeds four to eight, smooth, grey, of the 
size of a large chestnut. 

I was favoured with the specimen here figured of this 
highly beautiful, fragrant, and interesting plant by the 
Messrs. Shepherds, from the stove of the Liverpool Garden, 
whither its seeds had been sent (packed in mould) by the 
Rev. Dr. Carey of Serampore. So skilful had been the 
mode of treatment pursued, that it flowered in great per- 
fection when only four feet high. Few could at the first 
sight of the flower, consider this plant as belonging to 
the Leguminos^; : the blossoms have a much greater re- 
semblance, both in form and colour, to some species of 
Ixora ; being quite as beautiful, while its foliage is more so. 

Roxburgh tells us that the tree is commonly cultivated 
about Calcutta, but that it is indigenous in the interior ; as 
it is likewise of the Malabar coast and of Java. I have 
fine specimens from the Mauritius, sent to me by my often- 
mentioned friend, Mr. Telfair. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Section of the upper part, magnified. 3. Legume, 


( 3019 ) 

Hydrastis canadensis. Canadian 


Class and Order. 

( Nat. Ord. — RANUNCULACEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 3-sepalus, sepalis ovatis; Pet. o. Stamina ovari- 
aque plurima. Cariopsides baccate, plurimae in capitulum, 
stylo terminate;, l-loculares, 1— 2-sperma; ; Semina obovo- 
idea laevigata. D C. 


Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Hydrastis* canadensis. 

Hydrastis canadensis. Linn. Sp. PL p. 784. Mich. Bor 

Am. v.\.p 317. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 1340. Pursh, 

FL Am. v. 2. p. 389. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 

218. De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 23. Spreng. Syst. 

Veget. Cura post. p. 220. (not o/Poiret EncycL et Lam. 

III. t. 500.J 
Warneria canadensis. Mill. Ic. t. 285. 

Descr. The root, which I have not seen, is perennial 
and described by authors as composed of fleshy tubercles, 
of an intensely yellow colour, affording a dye of the same 
tint, bitter, somewhat pungent and tonic, according to Dr. 
Barton. Stem erect, herbaceous, rounded, about a toot 
high, simple, hairy upwards, bearing two leaves o\ a rather 
Wge size, the lower one petioled, the other sessile, palmate, 
with three or five deep inciso-serrated segments, hairy, 

r veiny, 

* From l^ ? , water: this plant growing in moist places. 

veiny, dark green. Flower-stalk solitary, terminal, about 
two inches long, single-flowered. Flowers small. Calyx 
of three deciduous, broadly -ovate, pale greenish -white, 
concave, slightly-downy segments. Stamens many, longer 
than the pistils. Filaments flat, dilated upwards, contract- 
ed again below the anther, whose two cells are separated 
from each other and lateral. Pistils several. Germens 
oval, glabrous, attenuated upwards into a short style. 
Stigma obtuse, scarcely lobed. The fruit, which I have 
not seen, resembles a raspberry, is red, and consists " of 
many little two-seeded berries collected into a globose head, 
and each crowned with the persistent style, one-celled, two-, 
or by abortion, one-seeded, one seed placed above the 
other. Mich. 

I had the satisfaction of receiving a flowering specimen 
of this rare and little-known plant, in May, 1830, from the 
garden of Mr. James Smith of Monkwood Nursery, Ayr. 
It was introduced into England, according to Mr. P. Mil- 
ler, in 1759, and was figured by that author in his Icones, 
above quoted. It was probably then soon lost to our gar- 
dens, and has now been again imported by Mr. Smith, 
whose collection is so rich in the rarer American plants. 
It is stated by Michaux to be an inhabitant of the tract of 
the Alleghany Mountains, from Canada to Carolina, yet I 
have never received specimens of it from any of my Ameri- 
can correspondents, though I have particularly requested it. 
The plant so called by Poiret, and figured in the Illustra- 
tiones of Lamarck, (t. 500,) though quoted as such, by Sir 
James E. Smith, is rightly referred by De Candolle to his 
ActjEA palmata. On that account, and because a represent- 
ation does not exist in any generally accessible work, with 
which I am acquainted, I have been glad of this opportu- 
nity of giving it a place in the Botanical Magazine, al- 
though the fruit is still a desideratum ; and although it is 
not a plant that recommends itself as eminently deserving 
a place in our flower-gardens, save in those of the curious. 

Fig. 1. Flower, after the Calyx has fallen away. 2, 3. Leaves of the 
Calyx. 4. Stamen. 5. Pistil.— Magnified. 


Tub h 

( 3020 ) 

Primula pusilla. Pale-flowered Ame- 
rican Bird's-eye Primrose. 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Primulace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores subumbellati, involucrati. CaL tubulosus, 5-fidus, 
s. 5-dentatus, persistens. Cor. tubulosa, fauce vel nuda 
vel glandulosa, limbo 5-lobo. Caps, apice 10-dentata, po- 
lysperma. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Primula* pusilla; foliis obovatis basi attenuatia acute 
dentatissubtuscalycibusque farinosis, involucri foliolis 
basi vix gibbosis, corollas laciniis obcordatis bitidis 
(pallidis) tubo subaeque longis. 

Primula pusilla. Goldie in Edin. Phil. Journ. v. 6. p. 322. 
t.ll.f. 22. Hook. Exot. Fl. v. I. t. 68. Richardson 
in Frankl. 1st Journ. ed. 2. App. p. 31. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 2. p. 575. Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 2d Ser. 

Descr. Root small, fibrous, perennial. Leaves many, 
from the crown of the root, spreading, about two inches 
long, obovate, attenuated at the base, but not stalked, dis- 
tinctly and sharply toothed at the margin from the base to 
below the middle, pale green above, mealy below. Scape 
from three or four to six and seven inches high, scarcely 


* Sec derivation at t. 2973. 

mealy, naked, bearing an umbel of several flowers. Invo- 
lucre of several lanceolate, subulate leaves, slightly con- 
cave, but scarcely gibbous at the base, a little mealy. 
Peduncles slender. Calyx oblongo-oval, cut about half 
way down into five lanceolato - ovate, erect segments. 
Corolla : tube cylindrical, yellow ; limb of five, horizon- 
tally patent, obcordato-cuneate, bifid, very pale, whitish, 
flesh-coloured segments, the mouth yellow, with five obso- 
lete, yellow glands, and a bright yellow ring round it. 
Germen globose: Style nearly as long as the tube : Stigma 

Great difficulty unquestionably attends the determining 
those species of the Genus Primula that are allied to the 
P. farinosa, among which the present may certainly be 
reckoned. I had been lately disposed to unite it with what 
I take to be the true P. mistassinica, figured at t. 2073 of 
our Magazine, but on seeing that figure, Mr. Goldie, the 
original authority for P. pusilla, pronounced the two to be 
decidedly distinct. At his suggestion, therefore, I have 
again examined the P. pusilla as it flowered in a cold frame 
in our Glasgow Botanic Garden, in April, 1830, and all the 
differences that I can discover are detailed in the figure 
and in the description. If these should prove constant, 
therefore, I have no hesitation in pronouncing the two 
plants distinct. The present has always pale flowers 
(whence I have been led to doubt the correctness of 
Sweet's figure), and they are delightfully fragrant. The 
species inhabits many parts of Canada, where it is not un- 
frequently mistaken for the real P. farinosa. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Calyx and Pistil.— Magnified. 

Fab. by S Curtis. Walwert 

( 3021 ) 
Akabis collina. Hill Rock-Cress. 


Class and Order. 
Tetradynamia Siliquosa. 

( Nat. Ord. — Crucifer/E. ) 

Generic Character. 

Siliqua linearis, valvis planis medio uninerviis. Semina 
in qnoque loculo I-serialia, ovalia aut orbicularia, com- 
pressa. Cotyledones planae, accumbentes. Flores albi, aut 
rarius-rosei. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Arabis* collina; foliis oblongo-ovatis sinuato-dentatis pu- 
bescentibus pube stellata, radicalibus petiolatis cau- 
linis sessilibus, siliquis pedicello octies longionbus 

Arabis collina. " Tenore Prodr. Fl. Neap, xxxix." De 
Cand. Syst. v. 2. p. 241. Prodr. v. i.p. 148. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 893. 

Descr. Root " perennial," small, fibrous, throwing up 
two or more steins. Stems six to eight inches high, erect 
leafy. Leaves pubescent with minute, downy, stellated 
hairs, those of the root spreading, numerous, spatnulate 
and petiolate, large, those of the stem ovate or ovato- 
oblong, sessile, smaller upwards, and semiamplexicaul, all 
of them coarsely and even sinuate-dentate i at the margin. 
Raceme terminal, leafless and destitute of bracteas, always 
drooping when in flower. Pedicels long, slender, quite 
r & glabrous. 

* This word signifies native of Arabia, a territory, * "^*»*£Z*2 
«f thi s pl ail t and a general preference of arid spots, caused it to be presumed 


glabrous. Calyx glabrous, erect, of four oblong leaflets, 
tinged with purple, two opposite ones saccate at the base! 
Petals obovato-cuneate, retuse, clawed at the base, of a 
delicate, purplish, rose-colour, twice as long as the calyx. 
Stamens shorter than the petals. Anthers oblong, yellow. 
Pistil, linear, filiform, erect. Stigma scarcely dilated, 

This very pretty species of Rock-Cress will in all proba- 
bility prove hardy, and amply deserving of cultivation on 
account of its graceful and drooping raceme of pale purple 
flowers. Seeds of it were sent to our Botanic Garden, by 
Dr. Fischer of St. Petersburgh, and the plant lias been 
hitherto with us confined to the frame. It is a native of 
hills in the environs of Naples ; but I am not aware that it 
has any where been figured. 

Fig. ]. Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Pistil.— Magnified. 


( 3022 ) 

Ranunculus montanus. Yellow Moun- 
tain Ranunculus. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Ranunculace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5-sepalus, sepalis basi non solutis, deciduis. Pet. 
5, rarius 10, intus basi squamula foveolari nectarifera in- 
structa. Stam. ovariaque plurima ; cariopsides ovatae, sub- 
compressae, in mucronem aut cornu semine vix longius 
desinentes, laeves, striatae aut tuberculatae, in capitulum 
globosum cylindraceumve dispositae. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ranunculus* montanus; caule 1-floro, foliis (paucis) gla- 
bris tripartitis laciniis bi- trifidis laciniis oblongo- 
cuneatis, apice obtusis inciso-serratis supremis sessili- 
bus, ultimi laciniis linearibus integerrimis, pedunculo 
appresso-piloso, sepalis patentibus subpilosis, germini- 
bus in capitulo subrotundo-aggregatis, stylo subaeque 
longo uncinate, radice tuberose 

Ranunculus montanus. Willd. Sp. PI. p. 1321. De Cand. 
Syst. Veget. v.l.t. 276. Prodr. v. I. p. 36. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 651. Schlecht. Anim. II. p. 19. 

Ranunculus nivalis. " Scop. Cam. ed. 2. n. 686 ?" Jacq. 
Austr. t. 325,, 326. (non Linn.) 

Descr. Root an oblong, horizontal, truncated, and 
knobbed tuber, throwing down from its under side very 


* From Rana, a frog ; many of the species inhabiting the places where 
those animals abound. 

many exceedingly long and stout fibres, scarcely divided 
but at or near the extremity, with small, hair-like radicles, 
and bearing, above, one or two short stems, scarcely a 
finger's length in height, erect, terete, rather stout, gla- 
brous. Leaves few ; one or two lower ones petioled, the 
rest (generally two) sessile, orbiculari-cordate in their cir- 
cumscription, glabrous, deeply divided into three oblongo- 
cuneate, obtuse lobes, often again bifid, and at the extre- 
mity, inciso-serrate, nerved, dark green, paler beneath : 
petiole flat above, sheathing, and purplish at the base. The 
uppermost leaf{ or bractea) besides being sessile, has about 
five linear, entire, acute lobes. Peduncle terminal, solitary, 
single-flowered, terete, clothed with appressed hairs. Calyx 
of five, patent, concave, ovato-lanceolate, acute, yellow- 
green leaves, slightly hairy with spreading hairs. Corolla 
large, of five broadly-obcordate, very bright yellow petals, 
glossy above, paler beneath, and opaque. Scale small, 
with a pore above. Germens numerous, collected into a 
rounded head ; style nearly of the same length, recurved, 

Ranunculus montanus is a native of Alpine pastures in 
various parts of the South of Europe, from those of Car- 
pathia to the Italian and Pyrenaean chains. But it is lia- 
ble to considerable variation in size and hairiness, and 
Jacquin has devoted two plates to its different appearances. 
Schlechtendal unites with it the R. Villarsii of De Can- 
dolle, and observes how closely allied to it is R. Gouani of 

It is a very handsome species, and well worthy of cultiva- 
tion in every collection of hardy, and especially Alpine 
plants, flowering in April and May if slightly protected 
from the severity of the winter frosts, and increasing rapid- 
ly by its curious roots. The colour of the flower is a par- 
ticularly bright yellow, and the upper side is quite glossy. 

Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Calyx and Stamens. 3. One of the Pistils.— Magnified. 

( 3023 ) 



Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodele^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. subrotata. Stamina aequalia, basi petalis adnata. 
Semina globosa. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Scilla * pumila ; corolla patente, folio solitario vaginante 
apice calloso, racemo erecto, bracteis pedicello multo 

Scilla pumila. Broteir. Fl. Lusitan. v. I. p. 527. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 67. Graham in Edin. Phil. Journ. 

Descr. Leaf (two inches long, half an inch broad) 
generally, or always as in the specimen described, solitary, 
involute, ovato-acuminate, with a callous, subcylmdrical 
apex, somewhat carinate, waved, glabrous. Scape about 
the same length as the leaves, erect, filiform, glabrous, 
green, racemose (five-flowered in the present specimen,) 
pedicels purplish, gradually to about half an inch, spring- 
ing from the axil of a small, sheathing bractea, which is 
occasionally drawn out into a point, projecting from some 
Part of a truncated, ragged extremity. Corolla of a bright 
lilac colour, half an inch across, its segments spreading, 
subunguiculate, ovate, slightly undulate, having a blue, 
thickened middle rib, and an inflected mucro. btamens 


* («»w*, / injure, according to Miller). The root of Scilla is a uo- 
lent poison, as food, but often employed to great advantage m medicine, it 
»s remarkable that the Arabic name for this plant is identical : asgyl. 

inserted into the base of the corolla, and rather more than 
half the length of its segments; filaments light lilac, di- 
lated towards their base, but contracted immediately 
above their insertion; anthers erect, blue; pollen greenish. 
Germen blue, ovate, three-lobed, with a distinct lighter-co- 
loured suture along the front of each lobe. Style furrowed. 
This pretty little species of Scilla flowered in the garden 
of David Falconar, Esq. of Carlowrie, near Edinburgh, in 
May, 1830. It is a native of Portugal, and is said to vary 
rarely with white flowers. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil.— Magnified. 

( 3024 ) 

Cypripedium parviflorum. Lesser-flow- 
ered Lady's Slipper. 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Diandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum ventricosum, inflatum, (nunc saccatum.) Co- 
lumna postice terminata lobo petaloideo (stamine sterili,) 
antheras distinguente. Petala 2 antica saepius connata. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cypripedium * parviflorum ; caule folioso, lobo columnar 

triangulari acuto, labello petalis breviore subtus super- 

neque depresso. 
Cypripedium parviflorum. Salisb. in Linn. Trans, v. I. p. 

77. t. 2.f. 2. Pursh, Fl. Am. v. 2. p. 594. Ait. Hort. 

Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 221. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 143. 

Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. t. 80. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 

3. p. 745. (not Bot. Mag. t. 911. J 

Descr. Stem solitary, erect, downy, about a foot high, 
rounded, leafy. Leaves slightly downy, especially the 
uppermost ones, few, remote, ovato - lanceolate, acute, 
waved, striated, four to five inches long. Flowers very 
handsome, delightfully fragrant, especially at night, soli- 
tary, or two at the extremity of the stem, each placed on 
a bracteated peduncle; bractea large, leaf-like. Corolla 
greenish at the base, the rest either a rich chocolate-brown, 
or a greenish ground spotted and striated with brown : 
upper petal broadly ovate, acuminated, waved, the two 
lower ones combined into one, pointing downwards, of the 
same shape as the upper one, the latter considerably longer 
th an the lip, the lower (double one) scarcely so long : two 


* For derivation, see t. 2938 (Cypriped. macranthon.) 

lateral petals considerably longer than the rest,, linear-lan- 
ceolate., spirally twisted, all of them downy at the base 
within. Labellum standing forward horizontally, bright 
yellow, veined, and furrowed at the veins, oval, convex 
below, yet somewhat flattened, above decidedly depressed, 
the mouth somewhat elliptical, blotched with red at the 
margin as is the inside. Column short, cylindrical; its peta- 
loid lobe cordato-triangular, fleshy, keeled below, grooved 
above, bright yellow, greenish in the centre, and spotted 
with red. Stigma stalked, greenish, on each side of which 
is a horn-like process, bearing each a sessile anther, with 
two cells, and a waxy, or horny-like pollen. Germen curv- 
ed, not twisted, downy, cylindrical, sulcate, tapering into 
the stalk. 

I have been much gratified in the early part of the present 
month (May, 1830,) with the beauty and variety of Cypripedia, 
and the numerous specimens of each kind, flowering under a com- 
mon frame in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, at one and the same 
time. C. macranthon, humile, spectabile, arietinum, pubescens, 
and parvijlorum, seemed to vie with each other in the rich 
colours, or curious structure of their blossoms. The two latter 
I had now the opportunity of comparing in a living state, and 
of ascertaining that, however difficult it may be to discriminate 
between them in the dried specimens, they were now at once to 
be recognized by the form of the labellum and the upper petal of 
the corolla. Willdenow makes the only distinction to exist in 
the lobe of the column, which I find to be the same in both, or 
to possess only occasionally trifling differences. The lip in both 
is said to be compressed ; but they are so in a very different 
manner. That of C. pubescens (whose whole flower is con- 
siderably larger and paler coloured) is remarkably convex, as 
gibbous above as below, (see fig. A.), and only laterally com- 
pressed, whereas the same part is in our plant somewhat 
flattened below, remarkably so above, and consequently broader 
from side to side, than it is from top to bottom. In C. pu- 
bescens, the upper petal is longer, lanceolate, and much atten- 
uated, and its blossoms are scentless ; in the present individual, 
the upper petal is broadly ovate, acuminated, the bases of all 
the petals are less hairy, and the flowers yield a powerful and 
delicious fragrance. Our roots were sent from Canada. 

C. paroijlorum of Old Series of Bot. Mag. t. 911, should assur- 
edly be referred to C. pubescens, and should be thus characterized : 
C. pubescens ,• Willd. caule folioso, lobo columnar triangulari 

acuto, labello petalis breviore subtus superneque convexo- 

gibboso laterahter compresso. 
C. parviflorum. Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 911. 

Note. It ought to have been stated when describing Trillium erythro- 
carpum in a late number (vid. t. 3002) that the plant erroneously figured 
under that name by Mr. Curtis, t. 855, is Trillium grandiflorum, as noticed 
mthe Index. 


( 3025 ) 
Hibiscus splendens. Splendid Hibiscus. 

rfr. .Sh .St*. .4'. .Sfc A .4'. A A lS^". .Sfc ■.'fr. .SI 7 . ^ i>K >!'■ .Sk .^V. .Sfc .S^. .Sfc 

Cfcm and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. cinctus involucello saepius polyphyllo, rarius foliolis 
paucis aut inter se coalitis. Petala nine non auriculata. 
Stigmata 5. Carpella in capsulam 5-locularem coalita, 
valvis intus medio septiferis, loculis polyspermis aut rarius 
monospermis. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Hibiscus * splendens ; " frutex, aculeis rectis basi tuber- 
culatis, corolla expansa extrorsum costis pluribus 
flexuosis tomentosis, calyce 5-fido laciniis acutis 3- 
nervibus carinatis, involucro multipartito laciniis line- 
ari-subulatis interdum ramosis calyce paulo brevio- 
ribus, pedunculo supra medio oblique articulator foliis 
palmatis 3 — 5-lobatis lobis lanceolatis." Graham. 

Hibiscus splendens. Frazer MSS. Graham in Edin. Phil. 
Journ. p. 175. 

Descr. Stem woody, in our specimen ten feet high, 
erect, round. Bark every where green, covered with short, 
stellated pubescence, interspersed with short, spreading, 
nearly straight, tubular aculei^arismg from large, callous, 
glandular bases, which are red on the young parts of the 
plant. Branches axillary, woody, scattered, ascending, 
round. Leaves six or seven inches long, six inches broad, 
spreading, palmated, three to five-lobed, light green, re- 
ticulated, thickly covered with rather harsh, stellated, 
unbranched pubescence on both sides; lobes lanceolate, 
unequally serrated, ribs and veins prominent and aculeate 
below. Petioles three to five inches long, nearly as long as 
the leaves, slightly flattened above, filled with pith, which 


* For derivation, see t. 2891. (H. UlUflorus.) 

is continued into the ribs of the leaves. Stipules an inch 
long, green, subulate, linear, unconnected with the petioles, 
pubescent on the outside. Peduncle solitary, single-flower- 
ed, longer than the petiole, from the axil of which it springs, 
and resembling it, filled with pith, obliquely reticulated, 
and bent about three-fourths of an inch from the calyx. 
Involucre about an inch long, green, divided to its base 
into many linear-subulate segments, which are occasionally 
branched, smooth on the inside, covered on the outside 
with long, harsh, simple, spreading hairs, arising from glan- 
dular bases. Calyx yellow, deeply five-cleft, rather longer 
than the involucre, densely covered with softer, shorter 
hairs on the outside, smooth within ; segments tapering, 
three-nerved, two of the nerves lateral, the other forming a 
strong keel. Corolla (in our plant, three inches and a half 
long by six inches across when expanded,) rose-coloured ; 
petals with many colourless, flexuose nerves, prominent on 
the outside, and there, especially, pubescent, connected to 
each other and to the lower part of the united filaments near 
their base, while towards their lower part, each having two 
dense tufts of dark-red wool on the inside of its callous 
base, within a large, obcordate, slightly orange-coloured 
spot, having a dark rose-coloured margin. In the entire 
flower this margin forms a continuous line around the cen- 
tre, inclosing a space about half an inch in diameter, and 
five tufts of red wool, produced by the confluence in pairs of 
the tufts on the petals. Stamens numerous, united ; fila- 
ments at the lower part pale, above rose-coloured ; Anthers 
dark crimson, arranged in a pyramidal form ; Pollen-gra- 
nules very large and sphaerical : Style projecting beyond 
the stamens, as is usual in the Genus, but much shorter than 
the petals, supporting five deep red, hairy, round stigmas. 
Germen covered with erect, silky hairs, quinquelocular ; 
Ovules numerous, attached to the central receptacle, and 
arranged in two rows in each loculament. Seeds ash- 
coloured, wrinkled, warted, angular. 

This noble plant was raised in various collections from New 
Holland seeds, sent by Mr. Fraser, in 1828, but I am not aware 
that it flowered anywhere prior to the present time, (May, 1830,) 
when it produced its superb blossoms in the stove of the Royal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Its only fault as an object of culti- 
vation is its great size, but in its native situation it must present a 
most brilliant appearance. Mr. Frazer writes of it : " this I 
consider the king of all the known Australian plants, I have seen it 
twenty-two feet and a half high. The flowers, this season, mea- 
sured nine inches across, they were of the most delicate pink and 
crimson colour, and literally covered the entire plant." Graham. 

Fig. 1. PHiferoua Gland from the Stem. — Magnified. 

50 26' 

( 3026 ) 
Saxifraga petr^ea. Stone Saxifrage. 


Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Saxifrages. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus, inferus vel superus vel semisuperus, per- 
sistens. Pet. 5. Capsula birostris, intra rostra dehiscens, 
polysperma, dissepimento placentifero, seminifero. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Saxifraga * petrcea ; annua, glanduloso-pilosa, foliis car- 
nosis trilobis, radicalibus cordatis lobis incisis sublonge 
petiolatis, caulinis subcuneatis supremis indivrsis, pe- 
dunculis germinibusque inferis glanduloso - hispidis, 
laciniis calycinis oblongis erectis, petahs obovatis re- 

tUsis. _ r r> 

Saxifraga petraa. Linn. Sp. PL p. m. Jacq^ Ic. Rar 
v. 1. t. 81. Don, Saxifr. in Linn. Tr. v. 13. p. 443. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 369. 

Saxifraga rupestris. mild, Sp. PL v. 2. p. 653. 

Saxifraga Pons. Sternb. Saxifr. p. 47. t. 18, ett.U.f. 6. 

Descr. Root annual. Stem erect, and, as we 1 as the 
branches and leaves, glanduloso-pubescent, reddish, terete, 
much branched, the branches often divaricating. Leaves 
mostly trifid, fleshy, those of the root on long, slender 
stalks" cordate, the three lobes bi- or trifid, the segments 
short, ovate, rather acute, those of the stem generally in- 
clined to be cuneate, the segments simple, linear, the late- 

* For derivation, see t. 2950 (S. leucanthemifolia). 

ral ones often bifid, the uppermost ones resembling bracteas, 
small, entire. Flowers moderately large, on terminal and 
lateral, simple, or mostly branched peduncles, which latter, 
as well as the inferior germen, are hispid with glandular 
hairs. Calyx superior, glabrous, of five erect, oblong, ob- 
tuse, erect segments. Petals obovato-cuneate, pure white, 
retuse, three-nerved below. Stamens alternately shorter. 
Styles two, small, abortive ? (in the present individual). 

The present very pretty species of Saxifrage was sent by 
John Hunneman, Esq. of London, from the continent, to 
the Glasgow Botanic Garden, under the name of Saxifr. 
Pona. Authors seem now to be generally agreed, in con- 
sidering this as identical with S.petraia : and, indeed, the 
specimens quite accord with the true S. petrcea, which I 
have gathered abundantly in Savoy, upon the " Petit 
Mont Cenis." It is a native also of the Monte Baldo in 
the north of Italy, and of the Carinthian Alps, while the 
same plant has been introduced to our collections by Mr. 
Drummond, from the Rocky Mountains of North America. 

It is quite a hardy plant, and flowers in May. 

Fig-. 1. Flower. 2. The same, from which the Petals have been removed. 
3. Pistil. 4. Segment of the Calyx and two Stamens. 5. Styles and Top or 
Disk of the Germen. — Magnified. 

• /V'/r • Curb \WktortA I 

( 3027 ) 



Class and Order. 
Syngenesia /Equalis. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. Cichorace^s. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum imbricatum squamis latiusculis. Reccpta- 
culum nudiusculum. Pappus plumosus, sessilis v. stipi- 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Scorzonera * mollis ; caule uni- trifloro foliisque lineari- 
subulatis canaliculars involucroque pubescenti-tomen- 
tosis, radice tuberosa. 

Scorzonera mollis. M. Bieb. 

Descr. Root a large, and almost woody tuber, more or 
less lobed. Stem woody below, in the wild specimens very 
short and single-flowered, in the cultivated ones elongated, 
(a span high) branched, three to four-flowered, woolly, 
glaucous. Leaves crowded at the base, remote upwards, 
linear-subulate, often recurved, deeply canaliculate, downy, 
especially beneath, almost cobwebby, glaucous-green, ex- 
ternally striated, the margin of the lower leaves brown. 
Peduncles lateral and terminal, slightly thickened upwards, 
cobwebby. Involucre cylindrical, of few large, closely im- 
bricated scales, the lower ones the most downy. Corollas 
linear obtuse, five-toothed, not numerous, the tube long, 


* The word Scorzonera owes its origin to scurzon, (the Cataloman name 
for a viper,) this plant passing in Spain for an assured remedy against the 
bite of that reptile. There is reason to fear, however, that the form ot the 
root, often resembling a serpent, has had some share in causing this belief. 

hairy above. Anthers large, conspicuous, dark brown. 
Style, in our specimens, often geniculated, and drawn out 
as it were, below the anthers. Stigmas long, linear, revo- 
lute, bright yellow. Germen oblong. Pappus of several 
unequal, scabrous, and plumose hairs. 

The Genus Scorzonera is one, the determination of 
whose species is attended with considerable difficulty, and, 
probably, many varieties have been raised to the rank of 
species. Such I have no reason to believe is the case with 
the present individual, which appears to have been disco- 
vered in Tauria, by Marschall Bieberstein, and described 
by him, probably in the Supplement to the Flora Taurico- 
Caucasica, a work which I have not the good fortune to 
possess. Dr. Fischer sent the plants to the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, which, sheltered by a cool frame, blossom- 
ed in April, 1830. I am indebted also to Baron Steven, 
for native Taurian specimens : and from those individuals, 
I have drawn the singular tuberous root. 

Fig. 1 . Root (from a wild specimen) nat. size. 2. Floret. 3. Hair of the 
Pappus. 4. Portion of the Hair itself. — Magnified. 


( 3028 ) 
Selago Gillii. Dr. Gill's Selago. 


Class and Order. 

( Nat. Ord. — SELAGINEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. monosepalus, ovatus aut campanulatus, 3 — 5-fidus 
aut 3 — 5-dentatus. Cor. tubulosa, 4— 5-loba. Stam. 4. 
Capsula 2-locularis, loculis sporite separabilibus mono- 
spermis. Choisy. 

Specific Character. 

Selago * Gillii; caule terete subsimplici pubescente, foliis 
sparsis lineari-oblongis glabris, floribus umbellato- 
capitatis, calyce tripartito pubescente. 

Descr. Stem hardly a foot high, rounded, slender, 
terete, shrubby and downy, scarcely branched. Leaves 
scattered, erecto-patent, linear-oblong, rather obtuse, gla- 
brous, entire, slightly convex above, about three-fourths of 
an inch long Flowers collected into a somewhat umbellate 
head. Bracteas lanceolate and downy. Calyx downy, 
oblongo-ovate, deeply cut into three lanceolate teeth, ot 
which one is smaller than the other two. Corolla ot a deli- 
cate purplish rose-colour: tube long and slender, much ex- 

* Derived, according to Thki 3 , from sel, fight, «*j«V ^?&£ o 
Celtic language : signifying beneficial to the sight. The MMflM » *• 
root of SeZl™ the paU of Fingal is called in Ospau, and eqmvakn to 
*eHe-vue. There seems to be no analogy, except"! ™f> J**" n J™ 
Selago of the ancients and the present plant, and it is n * ^ * *J"^ 
why Ux*mv* thai appropriated it. The SbjaJO of tbe Celtic »*«"£ 
held in high esteem, as a specific in diseases of the eyes, ami man 7«y«** 
ous observances attended its preparation for that purpose by the Diuuto. 

ceeding the calyx in length : the limb of five, spreading, 
linear-oblong segments, of which the outer one is the 
longest. Stamens four, inserted within the tube, of which 
two are protruded. Filaments glabrous, thickened up- 
wards. Anthers transverse, one-celled, yellow. Style ex- 
serted : Stigma simple. 

Of the twenty -one species of the Genus Selago, de- 
scribed by M. Choisy in his Memoire sur la Famille des 
Selaginees, one only is characterized by having a three- 
partite calyx, namely S. ciliata : but that is abundantly 
distinguished from our present plant by the different foliage, 
the long spikes of slender flowers, and the ciliated leaves, 
calyx and bracteas. 

S. Gillii is an elegant little shrub, for the possession of 
which our Glasgow Botanic Garden is indebted to Mr. 
Beck of the Cape of Good Hope. The seeds were gathered 
in the interior of Southern Africa by Dr. Gill, to whom I 
have dedicated the species. 

Fig. I. Flower. 2. Bractea. 3. Calyx, 4. Stamens and Style.— Mag- 


■ !. If 30 

( 3029 ) 

rljscus androgynus, a. climbing 
Butcher's Broom. 

■•^i ■~1 / - &- .^i .^i ■ V I / . A'-, "&• A*i &, A- A '- ."V, ■ v l / . ^i A / . A', ■'i'l .^ .^1". 
/ff ^^^J\ ^^^^^Tp^fr ^$r"/f?"/T?? '/J* VJS" VJv' VJ\ VI\* Vf,* 

CZ«ss #wd Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — SmilacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. inferus, 6-partitus, laciniis internis corolli- 
nis. Tubus antherifer, cylindricus, truncatus. 

Fcem. Cal. ut in masc. Stylus 1. Stigma simplex. 
Bacca globosa, 3-locularis, loculis 2-spermis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ruscus * androgynus ; foliis margine floriferis. Willd. Sp. 
PI. v. 4. p. 875. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. p. 421. 
(a.) foliis subcordato-acuminatis, floribus subsessilibus in 
capitulum multiflorum congestis. — Sims Tab. nostr. 
(y). foliis ovato-oblonjiis acuminatis, floribus solitariis, 
pedicellis florem aeqnantibus. Bot. Mag. t. 1898. 
Ruscus latifolius; e folionim sinu florifer et baccifer. DHL 
Hort. Elth.p. 832. t. 250./. 322. 

The general aspect of this plant is very different from the 
figure which bears the same name, at t. 1898 of the present 
work : but having seen intermediate states, Dr. Sims very 
judiciously has made it a variety. Our state of it is consi- 
dered as the «, it being the same with the original authority 
for the species, figured and described in Dillenius's Hortus 


* This word was originally written Bruscus, being latinized from the Celtic 
Ueuskelen ; belts, signifying a bush, and kelen the holly. It is frequently 
called Thorn-bush or Dwarf Holly. 

Elthamensis. Its leaves are short and broad, cordato- 
acuminate, the young ones delicate, and stipuled at the 
base. The flowers are collected into clusters, rarely soli- 
tary, almost sessile, and inserted in a sinus or notch at the 
margin of the leaves. 

Our specimens had only male flowers, and were kindly 
sent from the rich collection of the Liverpool Garden, by 
the Messrs. Shepherds, who received them from the Canary 
isles. It is a native also of Madeira, and I have had fine 
dried specimens communicated to me from that island, by 
the Rev. Mr. Lowe. 

It requires to be treated as a green -house plant. 

Fig. 1. A young leaf. Natural size. — 2. Flowers. 3. Abortive Pistil. — 


( 3030 ) 

Pleurothallis saurocephalus. Lizard- 
flowered Pleurothallis. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchideje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala conniventia, subaequalia : lateralibus vel omnibus 
connatis. Pet. minora. Labellwn liberum, cum columna 
subparallelum, integerrimum, petalis dhforme. Columna 
elongata, aptera, libera, cum ovario continua. Anthera 
apice membranacea. Pollinia 2, nunc materia pulverea ad 
apicem cohaerentia. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Pleurothallis* saurocephalus; caule compresso acute 
sulcato, folio elliptico carnoso piano spica subaequali, 
bracteis ovatis brevi-vaginatis, laciniis ealycinis obtu- 
sis carnosis lateralibus semiconnatis, petalis labelloque 
bituberculato minutis. 

Pleurothallis saurocephalus. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1571. 

Descr. The root of this plant I have not seen. The stem 
is three or four inches long, about as thick as a swan's quill, 
compressed, but grooved on the upper side as if its edges were 
rolled in, and nearly of equal width throughout; bearing 
at the extremity one rather large elliptical fleshy leaf, which 
is plane, or only with a depressed line in the centre, having 
a notch at the extremity. Spikes two, in the present m- 


. * From wfetp,, a rib, and to**, tofioxoer, probably in allusion to the dis- 
tichous inflorescence of some species. 

stance, from a groove in the base of the leaf, arising from 
one or more filamentous or fibrous bracteae, scaly with 
bracteae below, bearing flowers for the rest of their length, 
which are distichous, erect, each with a sheathing short 
bractea at its base. Calyx of three erect, nearly equal and 
connivent, thick and coriaceo-carnose, obtuse, pieces or 
leaves, quite surrounding and concealing the rest of the 
flower, downy and pale brownish -green externally, within 
minutely tubercled and richly spotted and lined with brown, 
of these the two lateral or lower ones are combined for half 
their length. Petals exceedingly minute, erect, pale-green, 
spathulate, acute, serrated at the point and crested. Lip 
scarcely larger than the petals, quite erect, ovato-oblong, 
greenish -purple, with two large tubercles near the middle. 
Column erect, smaller than the lip, semicylindrical, dilated, 
concave and serrated at the top and there somewhat winged, 
including the stigma and operculiform anther, which is 
yellow, and contains two hemispherical, yellow, waxy 
pollen-masses, united at their bases by a small gland. 
Germen clavate, furrowed, short, straight. 

Brazil is still sending forth new contributions to our 
vegetable treasures ; and among the Orchideous tribes her 
productions rank pre-eminent. Many of great interest are 
communicated to the rich collection of Mrs. Arnold 
Harrison of Aigburgh, by her brother W. Harrison, Esq. 
long a resident in that country ; and among them is the 
present interesting species, which Mr. Loddiges from speci- 
mens sent to him by Mr. F. Warre from the same part of 
the world, has published in his Bot. Cabinet, under the ap- 
propriate name of Pleurothallis saurocephalus. It is 
unquestionably nearly allied to the P. proliferus of Mr. 
Herbert in Bot. Register, t. 1298 : but it differs in its stem, 
leaf, and in the shape and colour of the calyx. 

P. saurocephalus flowered in Mrs. Harrison's collection, 
in the stove, during the month of May, 1830. 

Fig-. 1. Flower. 2. Flower from which the upper Segment of the Calyx, 
3, has been removed. 4. Petal. 5. Lip. 6. Column. 7- Inner view of 
the Anther. 8. Pollen-masses. — Magnified. 


Pub. b/ S. Curtis. Waktt 

( 3031 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Fumariace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Pet. 4, 2 exteriora basi aequaliter calcarata, aut g-ib- 
bosa. Siliqua bivalvis, polysperma. Herbae perennes. 
Flores racemosi, albi aut purpurascentes. D C. (sub nom 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Dielytra* canadensis; foliis decomposito-pinnatifidis la- 
ciniis anguste linearibus integris, scapo nudo, racemo 
simplici, calcaribus duobus rotundatis brevibus rectis, 
calycibus minutissimis, stigmate transverse sulcato. 

Corydalis canadensis. Goldie in Edin. Phil. Journ. 1822. 
p. 330. Be Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 126. 

Dielytra eximia. ((3.) Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. v. I. p. 3b. 

Descr. Leaves radical glaucous-green, glabrous, three 
or four times pinnatifid, with the segments narrow -linear, 
acute : Petiole longer than the leaf, grooved on the upper 
side near the base. Scape radical, leafless, naked, termi- 
nated by a simple raceme of large and delicate, white 
flowers. Each pedicel has a recurved, rather small, lanceo- 
late bractea at its base, and near its extremity, two small- 
er, more subulate, reddish ones, which spread over the 


* From &?, twice, and tKvrpi, a cover, in allusion to the two petals terminat- 
ln S in a bag or pouch. It is by mistake often spelled Diclytra. 

gibbous bases of the outer petals. Cal. of two extremely 
minute, subulate, deciduous, opposite leaves. The Corolla 
is nearly heart-shaped in the greater part of its outline, 
from the base upwards : its outer petals being each very 
gibbous at the base, and presenting a rounded, straight, 
but short spur, the apex spreading ; the two inner and 
lateral petals narrow, linear, keeled or winged at the back 
above, behind is a depression which receives the stigma 
and anthers. Stamens six, free to the base, three on each 
side of the pistil : Filaments long, white, the central one of 
the three on each side the broadest: Anthers small, yellow. 
Pistil : Germen green, subulate, tapering into a rather short 
style and crowned by the dilated, truncated, compressed 
and grooved stigma, which is generally loaded with the 
yellow pollen from the anthers. 

Living specimens of this delicate and interesting plant, 
sent from Canada by Mr. Cleghorn, and which have 
flourished in the Botanic Garden of Glasgow, have satis- 
fied me that Mr. Goldie is perfectly correct in considering 
it as quite a distinct species, and that I have been wrong in 
the " Flora Bor. Americana" in referring it to a state 
of Dielytra eximia. 

As far as I am aware, it is quite unknown in any British 
garden, save that just mentioned ; nor have I ever seen 
dried specimens, except those gathered by Mr. Goldie in 
Canada. Yet noue of the family of Fumariace^e deserves 
better to be cultivated. Being still scarce in the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, the able curator, Mr. Murray, has hitherto 
kept it in a cool frame during the winter, where it flowered 
in April of the present year, 1830. 

Fig. 1. Flower, from which two of the Petals are removed. 2, One of the 
bundles of Stamens. 3. Stigma. — Magnified. 

//'„/„, rth l>>, ■ 

( 3032 ) 

Gladiolus psittacinus. Splendid 


Class and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Iride^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. tubulosa, limbo 6-partito, irregulari. Stamina ads- 
cendentia. Stigmata filiformia, indivisa. Semina alata. 

Specific Character. 

Gladiolus * psittacinus; foliis ensiforraibus bicostatis ob- 
seureque nervosis, corolla? limbo campanulato laciniis 
obtusis mucronatis, tribus exterioribus late ovatis, 
tribum interiorum suprema obovata concava, reliquis 

Descr. Stem three feet high, erect, rig-id, stout, clothed 
for the greater part of its length with the sheathing bases 
of the leaves. Leaves distichous; the lower ones a foot or 
more long, ensiform, attenuated, rather rigid, having two 
principal nerves or costae, and several lesser and more ob- 
scure ones. Spikes terminal, a foot or more long, of many, 
(ten to twelve,) bifariously inserted, but secund and truly 
splendid flowers. Each is surrounded for more than half 
its length with a double convolute sheath ; the inner one 
pale yellow - green, the outer ones larger and purplish. 
Tube of the Corolla about half the length of the flower, 
greenish with purple streaks, expanding upwards into a 
campanulate, and, at the mouth, much spreading limb, of 
which the three outer laciniae are considerably the largest, 
nearly equal, broadly ovate ; the inner and upper one 
obovate and concave, the two inner and lower ones oblong 


From gladius, a sword, in allusion to the shape of its leaves. 

and reflected, all obtuse and mucronate. The general 
colour of the three upper lacinias is a rich scarlet, with a 
central, deep yellow line, and spotted with yellow at the 
base, that of the three lower ones a rich yellow scarlet at 
the extremity. In the state of bud, the colour is a deep 
velvety purplish -blood colour, with obscure yellow spots. 
Stamens fixed within the tube below the middle. Fila- 
ments ascending. Anthers yellowish, linear-sagittate, the 
margins of the cells purple. Style as long as the stamens : 
Stigmas linear, furrowed and downy within ; Germen ob- 
long with six, obscure furrows, three-celled : each cell 
bearing, in the central angle or axis, several imbricated, 
obovate ovules. 

For this truly splendid addition to the hardy bulbous 
plants of our collections, we are indebted, in part to Richard 
Harrison, Esq. of Liverpool, in whose garden at Aigburgh 
it flowered during the latter part of the summer and autumn 
of the present year (1830), and in part to Mr. Hitchin of 
Norwich, the eminent cultivator of Succulent plants. On 
taking up the root, at the end of the flowering season, Mr. 
Harrison was surprised to find the solitary original bulb 
had been replaced by several fine large ones, and, between 
them lay hundreds of gemma?, each of which is doubtless 
capable of forming a new plant. These, we will venture to 
say, will be distributed with a liberality very different from 
the line of conduct pursued by the gardener at Leyden, in 
Holland, where Mr. Harrison first saw the plant; and who, 
upon this gentleman's expressing a wish to possess a bulb, 
offered to send him one, C( when he should have received a 
collection of Orchideous plants from Mr. Harrison." Such 
a want of confidence towards a well-known Horticulturist, 
could not impress our friend with a very favourable opinion 
of the possessor of this charming Gladiolus, and of course 
he declined all further communication with him. On his 
return, no sooner were Mr. Harrison's wishes made known 
to Mr. Hitchin, than he wrote to his friend and fellow-culti- 
vator of Succulents, the Prince De Salm Dycr, for a bulb 
of Gladiolus psittacinus, and it was forwarded to Mr. 
Harrison forthwith. p . 

Our figure only represents the upper half of the spike ot 
the plant, and though we have taken the utmost pains m 
the colouring of the flowers, their hues fall far short of the 
rich tints of the original. 

FIf. 1 . Inner Spatha. 2. Pistil and Stamens, and base of the Corolla, with 
which the latter are combined : nat. size. 3. Back view of an Anther. 
Front view of ditto. 5. Stigmas. 6. Section of the Germen. — Magnified. 



jtrt" J 1 * 

( 3033 ) 

Alstrcemeria psittacina. Parrot- 
flowered Alstrcemeria. 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. AMARYLLIDEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium corollaceum, subcampanulaceum, sex-par- 
titum, irregulare, laciniis duabus (vel tribus interioribus) 
basi tubuloso - conniventibus. Stam. 6, laciniis inserta, 
demum declinata. Stigma trifidum. Capsula trilocularis, 
loculis polyspermis. — Caulis erectus, scandens, aut volubilis, 
foliatus. Flores umbellati. Kunth. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Alstrcemeria psittacina ; caule erecto flexuoso, foliis ob- 
longo-lanceolatis obtusis basi attenuatis tortis, petalis 
spathulatis acuminulatis tribus interioribus angustio- 
ribus, pedunculis unifloris. 

Alstrcemeria psittacina. Lehm. Cat. Hort. Hamb. 1826. 
Roem. et Sch. v. 7. p. 739. Sweet, Br. Fl. Gard. N. S. 
t. 15. 

Descr. Stems short, erect, but nexuose, glabrous some 
of them sterile with a crown of broadly oblong, spathulate, 
twisted leaves; others taller, with distant, scattered, li near- 
oblong, twisted leaves, attenuated at the base, all ot them 
obtuse. Umbel terminal, of from four to six flowers, sur- 
rounded by an involucre of four or five leaves, similar to 
those of the stem, but smaller. Peduncles angular, un- 
branched. Corolla subcampanulate, of six lmear-spathu- 
late, shortly acuminated petals, of a beautifu red colour 
green at the apex, and there only marked, both within and 

without with small, oblong, brown spots, the three inner 
ones narrower than the rest. Filaments slender, glabrous, 
pale rose-coloured. Anthers oblong, green. Germen infe- 
rior, turbinate, angled. Style as long as the stamens, slen- 
der : Stigma trifid. 

This plant has flowered in the greenhouse both in the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow Botanic Gardens, having been 
received from its original describer, Professor Lehmann of 

It is said to be a native of Mexico, and is certainly well 
deserving a place in every collection from the singular 
colour of its flowers. In Mr. Barclay's garden at Bury 
Hill it has blossomed in the open border. 

Fig-. 1, 2. Petals. 3, 3. Stamens. 4. Pistil : — nat. size. 


Walworth. DuH V&0. 

( 3034 ) 

Crotalaria verrucosa. Warted 


Class and Order. 

( Nat. Old. LiEGUMINOSjE.) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-lobus, subbilabiatus, lab. sup. bi-, infer. 3-fido. 
Cor. vexillum cordatum magnum, carina falcato-acuminata. 
Filamenta omnia connexa, vagina saepius superne fissa. 
Stylus lateraliter barbato-pubescens. Legumen turgid um, 
valvis ventricosis inflatum, saspius polyspermum, pedicel- 
latum. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Crotalaria verrucosa ; stipulis lunatis declinatis, foliis 

simplicibus ovalibus, ramis acute tetragonis, racemis 

termiualibus, germinibus villosis. 
Crotalaria verrucosa. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1005. fVilld. Sp. 

PI. v. 3. p. 977. Andr. Rep. t. 308. Ait. Hort. Kew. 

ed. 2. v. 4. p. 272. De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 125. 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 237. Bot. Reg. 1. 1137. 
Crotalaria caerulea. Jacq. Ic. Rar. t. 144. 
Crotalaria angulosa. Lam. Diet. v. 2. p. 197. Cav. Ic. 

v. 4. t. 321. 

Descr. Annual. Stem, in our specimen, a foot or more 
high, acutely quadrangular, branched. Leaves generally 
oval, more or less attenuated at the base into a short 
petiole, simple, entire, obtuse at the extremity, sometimes 
acute, sometimes retuse with a mucro, glabrous. Stipules, 
one on each side the short petiole, lineate, deflexed. Ra- 
cemes terminal, of six to eight rather large and handsome 


flowers. Calyx somewhat two -lipped,, five-cleft, green, 
glabrous. Standard of the corolla bent back., its sides in- 
flected., greenish -white,, streaked with pale blue within ; 
wings obovate, yellowish-white at the base, the rest deep 
purple : keel whitish, yellow at the point. Stam. mona- 
delphous ; five of the anthers oblong, five roundish : all 
yellow. Germen oblong, hairy. Style linear. 

This plant, although not frequently seen in our collec- 
tions, is by no means unornamental, the flowers resembling 
in their colour some species of Lupine. The great objection 
to it, as an inhabitant of the stove, is its being annual. We 
have received seeds from various of our correspondents, 
both in the East and West Indies : and it is probably a 
general native of tropical countries. 

Fig. 1. Keel of the Corolla. 2. Stamens and Pistil. — Magnified. 


( 3035 ) 

Papaver croceum. Orange-flowered 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Papaverace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. diphyllus, caducus. Pet. 4. Stigma sessile, radia- 
tum. Caps, supera. Semina numerosa, receptaculis pari- 
etalibus dissepimentiformibus inserta. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Papaver * croceum ; foliis subbipirmatifidis vix pilosis 
saepe pilis arete appressis, genuine ovali calycibusque 
densissime fusco-hispidis, capsula oblonga. 

Papaver croceum. Ledebour, Reise durch das Alt. p. 113. 
Ejusd. Fl. Alt. ined. 

Descr. Root apparently perennial, descending- deep 
into the ground, andj bearing at its crown or summit, nu- 
merous, erecto - patent, pinnatifid leaves; the segments 
again somewhat divided ; three to five or six inches long, 
petioled, almost free from hairs, except at the margin of the 
base of the petiole, which is ciliated, and at the extremity 
of each segment of the leaf, which is mostly terminated 
with a hair. Scape a foot and more high, hairy, or rather 
bristly, with the hairs erect, appressed. Flower terminal, 
solitary. Calyx of two elliptical, concave, green leaves, 
clothed with long, spreading, brown hairs. Petals four, 


* Derived, according to Theis, from papa, in Celtic, a kind of soup or pap, 
into which the seeds of the Poppy were put, to induce sleep in those that ate 
of it. 

subrotundate, wavy, of a beautiful orange-yellow colour. 
Stamens numerous,, yellow. Filaments slender. Anthers 
linear, two-celled. Germen oval, green, clothed with nu- 
merous, erect, and appressed purplish - brown bristles. 
Stigma sessile, seven -rayed, yellow. Capsule oblong, seven- 
ribbed, hispid. 

Our Botanic Garden of Glasgow is indebted to Professor 
Ledebour of Dorpat for the possession of this beautiful 
species of Papaver; which, nearly allied as it assuredly is to 
Papaver nudicaule, is, nevertheless, truly distinct from it. 
The learned Botanist just mentioned, speaks of its disco- 
very in his interesting Travels to the Altai Mountains 
(Berlin, 1829) : where, describing his excursion from Rid- 
dersk, along the river Grammatucha, " The old bed of 
this river," he says, " is remarkable for the quantity of 
debris from the surrounding country, and here it was I 
found a Poppy with an orange flower (Papaver croceum, 
mihi), but by no means plentiful, and allied to Papaver 
nudicaule." This was on the 18th of May, when vegeta- 
tion in general was almost destroyed by a severe hail-storm. 

In the open border of our garden, it flowered in the 
month of June, along with the large variety of the P. nudi- 
caule; surpassing it in beauty, and not exceeded even by 
the Eschscholzia californica and Hunnemannia papaver acea. 
Dr. Fischer's P. nudicaule, var. rubro-aurantiacum, from 
the Altai, may be the same as this; but the var. of nudi- 
caule in the Bot. Mag. referred to it by De Candolle, is 
surely very different : and has the hairs of the scape patent. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil. 3. Capsule.— Magnified. 

( 3036 ) 

Calceolaria bicolor. Two-coloured 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — ScrophularinjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 4-partitus. Cor. bilabiata : labium inferius calcei- 
forme, inflatum. Caps, semibivalvis ; valvulis bifidis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Calceolaria bicolor; foliis ovato-cordatis venosissimis ru- 

gosis biserratis, pedunculis multifloris dichotomo-um- 

Calceolaria bicolor. Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Peruv. et Chil. v. 

1. p. 16. t. 2b. f. 6. Pers. Syn. PI. v. 1. p. 15. Spreng. 

Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 147. Graham in Edin. Phil. 

Journ. 1830. 

Descr. Plant somewhat shrubby, every where covered 
with a soft, short, glandular pubescence. Stem two to 
three feet high, erect, purple at the base, green above, 
round, much branched. Branches nearly round, ascending, 
or suberect at the base, and above, bent outwards at an 
obtuse angle. Leaves three inches long, two and a half 
broad, opposite, very rarely ternate, petioled, spreading at 
right angles to the stem, ovato-cordate, acute, doubly 
serrated, much veined, waved, wrinkled, the veins and 
middle-rib prominent behind ; petioles below nearly half 
the length of the leaves, shorter above, flattened on the 
upper side, connate. Cymes peduncled, axillary and ter- 
minal, dichotomously branched, two opposite, small, sub- 
sessile, nearly entire, ovato-acuminate leaves being placed 
at the primary division of the peduncle, and two flowers on 


simple pedicels in each cleft, the one ascending and first 
expanded, the other spreading and deflected. Calyx-seg- 
ments elliptical, the lowest narrower and more acute, the 
upper ones the shortest. Corolla sulphur-coloured, except 
the inferior half of the lower lip, which is white ; upper lip 
very small; lower one large, many-nerved, linear, com- 
pressed, turned upwards, so as with its retuse extremity to 
touch the upper lip till fully expanded, when it is separated 
from it a little way, the opening into the lower lip large ; 
at its base, on the inside, there is a tuft of long hairs, every- 
where else the pubescence on the corolla is very short, and 
at the extremity of the lower lip, it is almost absent. Sta- 
mens erect, the lower lobes of the large yellow anthers pro- 
jecting from the apex of the upper lip. Style rather longer 
than the stamens, slightly curved downwards at the apex, 
compressed laterally, Withering. Stigma small, two-lipped. 
Germen pubescent, pyramidal, grooved on its four sides, 
bilocular : ovules numerous, placed on large, undivided, 
central placentae. 

Ruiz and Pavon state this species of Calceolaria to be a 
native of rocky places in Canta; and we obtained the seeds 
from which our plants were raised, through the kind atten- 
tion of Mr. Crucrshanks, from Cullnay, in the same pro- 
vince of Peru. They were sown in spring, and the first 
spcimens came into flower towards the end of July. It is 
an extremely pretty addition to the already-cultivated spe- 
cies, (now fifteen in all, exclusive of the hybrids, and of 
the narrow -leaved variety of C. integrifolia) resembling 
in colour the pleasing, subdued tint of C. scabioscefolia. 

Fig. ]. Front view of a Flower, the lower Lip being laid open. 2, 2. Sta- 
ins. 3. PistiL— Magnified * 

mens. 3. Pistil— Magnified 

Pub t>ys Vurtif.Walwertl^^^ff^i 

( 3037 3038 ) 


Class and Order. 

( Nat. Old. ScROPHULARINEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla campanulata ; limbo 5-lobo, 
subequali. Capsula bilocularis, irregulariter dehiscens. 
Semina imbricate, membranaceo-alata. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lophospermum* scandens ; foliis cordatis acuminatis inciso- 
serratis, pedunculis ebracteatis, caule herbaceo. 

L scandens. Don in Linn. Trans, v. U, p. 3o3. Sweet 

Brit.Fl. Gard. N. S. t. 68. 
Besleria scandens. Sesse et Mocino. Mbb. 

Descr Plant herbaceous, climbing, chiefly by its peti- 
oles Stem round, brownish-green in a very Luxuriant 
state nushin- out roots from near the base ; bark smooth, or 
somewha backed. Branches round, oppos.te, villous, 
^"t the base, young shoots green. J*™^£ 
',1 n half from the base to the apex, and lather more 
ac,oss Zl opposite, petioled, delto^eo -cordate, 
acute iS>-toothed, villous on both s.dcs, bright green 
above' paler below, three-nerved, the lateral nerves branch- 
ed IlthUy retienlated, chiefly at the margins ta^ mucn>- 
nte^Pekles pnrple, villous, as long as the leaf, stoat 

. Fr„n, ^ . »«'. * "4* " "* fl "'" '"° S,r " C '" rC ° f " ,e 

round, scarcely channelled above, twisting. Peduncles 
axillary, solitary, single-flowered, ebracteate, as long as 
the petioles, erect, straight, green, villous. Flowers spread- 
ing horizontally. Calyx foliaceous, five-parted, persistent, 
segments (one inch long, half an inch broad,) subequal, 
the upper rather the shortest and broadest, ovate, acute, 
prominent at the edges, veined, pubescent within and 
without, sometimes becoming purple, entire or rarely auri- 
cled at the base. Corolla (nearly three inches long, two 
inches across,) rose-coloured, pubescent everywhere on the 
outside, campanulate, slightly turgid below; tube elongated, 
somewhat curved downwards, dilated, nectariferous, and 
nearly colourless at the base, darkish on the upper side, 
within freckled with rose colour, and having yellow pubes- 
cence towards the insertion of the stamens ; limb spreading, 
five-parted, segments rounded, subequal, the lowest the 
smallest, the two upper ones the largest : from the base of 
the lower segment upon each side, a "straight ridge, covered 
with erect, yellow hairs, extends to the insertion of the two 
longer stamens. Stamens four, didynamous, as long as the 
tube, from the base of which they arise ; Jila?nents com- 
pressed and adhering for a little way to the corolla and 
there closing the tube, coarsely pubescent where they be- 
come free, at this part purple on the back, beautifully 
sprinkled with rose-coloured spots or streaks, from which 
springs a glandular pubescence, especially on the sides of 
their upper half, straight, diverging slightly, connivent to- 
wards their extremities ; anthers large, bilobular, glabrous, 
lobes parallel in the bud, afterwards divaricated, bursting 
along their sides. Pollen white, granules small. There is 
a minute, abortive, fifth stamen, between the two shorter 
perfect ones, at their origin. Pistil as long as the stamens ; 
stigma simple, bent nearly at a right angle with the style, 
colourless, pointed ; style straight, filiform, smooth above, 
sparingly provided with glandular pubescence, in its lower 
halt, base persisting ; germen seated upon a prominent, 
white, glabrous, and shining receptacle, (gland) densely 
covered with erect, colourless, glandular hairs, bilocular. 
Cnripe Capsule crown -shaped,, green, colourless at the 
base, somewhat compressed and furrowed laterally, covered 
with glandular pubescence, undulate, terminated with the 
persistent base of the style, included within the calyx. 
Ovules numerous, imbricated, tubercled, stipitate, erect, on 
two large, central receptacles, winged all round ; wing radi- 
ated, emarginate, somewhat ragged at its edge; nucleus, 



■ f r U ,i et i 

Fub h] 

ttl. Dee 

pendulous, pointed below : albumen large ; embryo straight, 

This truly magnificent creeper, whose climbing stems, 
copiously adorned with leaves and with large, campanulate 
blossoms, render it a very desirable object of cultivation, 
was raised by P. Neill, Esq., in his garden at Canonmills, 
near Edinburgh, from Mexican seed, in the spring of last 
year (1830). It flowered in his stove in the beginning, and 
in the greenhouse of the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, in the 
middle of September. It also possesses the advantage of 
thriving in the open border, where its flower-buds are now 
making their appearance. Graham, MSS. 

Mr. Sweet remarks, that when this plant flowers in the 
open air, the colour of its blossoms becomes a deep purple, 
instead of the pale pink which it assumes, when cultivated 
under glass. 

Tab. 3037- Portion of the Stem of Lophospermum scandens, and a lower 
Leaf : nat size. 

Tab. 3038. Fig. 1 . Corolla. 2, 3. Stamens. 4. Calyx with its Pistil. 
5. Germen and it3 Glands. 6. Capsule in its Calyx. 7- Capsule removed 
from the Calyx. 8, 9. Two views of the Capsule cut open so as to show the 
insertion of the Seeds. 10, Single Seed: magnified. 11. Seeds : nut. size. 
All but fig. 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11, more or less magnified. 


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Fourth 
Volume of the New Series (or Fifty -Seventh of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged. 




Alstroemeria psittacina. 
Amaryllis aulica, var. platype- 

tala, glaucophylla. 
Antliericum bulbosum. 
Anthocercis viscosa. 
Arabis collina. 
Aster laevigatas. 
Begonia diversifolia. 


— — — - picta. 
Bignonia grandifolia. 


Brachystelma rrispum^ . 

Calceolaria bicolor. 
Cerbera Tanghin. 
Ceropegia elegans. 
Cestrum bracteatum. 
Cocculus palmatus. 

Conostylis aculeata. 
Crepis macrorhiza. 
Crocus aureus. 


Crotalaria ovalis. 


Cycas revoluta. 

Cypripedium parviflorum. 
Desmodium dubium. 
Didymocarpus Rexii. 
Dielytra canadensis. 
Dryas Drummondii. 
Encyclia patens. 
Epidendrum pallidiflorum. 
Euphorbia corollata. 
Eutoca Franklinii. 


Gilia pungens. 
Gladiolus psittacinus. 
Gongora viridi-purpurea. 
Habenaria longicauda. 
Hedychium acuminatum. 
Helenium autumnale. 
Hibiscus splendens. 
Hydrastis canadensis. 

3000 Indigofera sylvatica. 
3018 Jonesia Asoca. 

2981 Lantana Selloviana. 
3012 Lobelia Kraussii. 

3037 Lophospermum scandens. 

3038 Ibid. 

2958 Monarda menthsefolia. 

3007 Moricandia arvensis. 

2956 Neottia ? grandiflora, est Ulan- 
tha grandiflora. 

2996 Ocymum montanum. 
2990 Oncidium altissimum. 
3035 Papaver croceum. 
2967 Passiflora ligularis. 
3010 Plirynium coloratum. 
3030 Pleurothallis saurocephalus. 
2979 Polemonium pulcherrimum. 
2984 Potentilla gracilis. 

2982 — — nivea, var. macro- 

2987 Pothos crassinervia. 
2973 Primula mistassinica. 

3020 pusilla. 

2999 Ranunculus cardiophyllus. 
3009 millefoliatus. 

3022 montanus. 

2997 Renanthera coccinea. 

2998 Ibid. 

3008 Ribes cereum. 

3029 Ruscus androgynus, a. 

2959 Saxifraga leucanthemifolia. 

3026 pelrsea. 

3023 Scilla pumila. 

3027 Scorzonera mollis. 

3028 Selago Gillii. 

2965 Sisyrinchium pedunculatum. 
2993 Sphacele Lindleyi. 
3004 Terminalia Catappa. 
3002 Trillium erythrocarpum. 
2956 Ulantha grandiflora, sub 110111. 

Neottia ? grandiji. 
3014 Vangueria velutina. 
2975 Veronica alpina, var. Worms- 



In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the 
Fourth Volume of the New Series (or Fifty -Seventh of the 
Work) are alphabetically arranged. 


3033 Alstrcemeria, parrot-flowered. 
2983 Amaryllis, glaucous -leaved, 

2961 Anthocercis, glutinous. 

3017 Asphodel, Lancashire, bulbous- 

2972 Avens, mountain, yellow-flow- 

2996 Basil, mountain. 

3001 Begonia, long flower-stalked. 

2962 particolored. 

2966 various-leaved. 

2976 Bignonia, Mrs. Telfair's. 
3016 Brachystelma, waved-leaved. 
3029 Butcher' s-broom, climbing. 
3015 Ceropegia, beautiful. 

2974 Cestrum, bracteated. 

2982 Cinque-foil, snowy, large-leaved 

2984 tall, upright. 

2970 Columbo Plant. 

2971 Ibid. 

2989 Conostylis, prickly. 
3032 Cornflag, splendid. 
2986 Crocus, golden. 

2991 least, purple. 

3006 Crotalaria, oval-leaved, hairy. 
3034 warted. 

2999 Crowfoot, American, heart- 


3009 milfoil-leaved. 

3008 Currant, waxy. 

2963 Cycas, narrow-leaved. 

2964 Ibid. 

2960 Desmodium, doubtful. 
3031 Dielytra, Canadian. 
3005 Didymocarpus, Cape. 
2994 Elecampane, autumnal. 
3013 Encyclia, spreading-flowered. 
2980 Epidendrum, pale-flowered. 
2985 Eutoca, Capt. Franklin's. 
3003 silky. 

2977 Gilia, sharp-leaved. 

2978 Gongora, greenish- purple. 
2957 Habenaria, long-tailed. 
2988 Hawk's beard, large-rooted. 
2969 Hedychium, sharp-leaved. 
3025 Hibiscus, splendid. 

3000 Indigo, angular-stemmed, 


2979 Jacob'sLadder, bright-flowered. 
3018 Jonesia, fragrant. 
3024 Lady's Slipper, lesser-flowered. 
2981 Lautana, Mr. Sellow's. 
3012 Lobelia, Dominica. 

3037 Lophpspermum, climbing. 

3038 Ibid. 

2995 Michaelmas -Daisy, smooth- 

2958 Monarda, mint-leaved. 
3007 Moricandia, field. 

2956 Neottiaf large -flowered, is 

Ulanlha, large-flowered. 
2990 Oncidium, tall-stemmed. 
8987 I'assion-flower, ample-leaved. 
3010 Phrynium, coloured-spiked. 

3030 PleurothallLi, liynrd-HWfnMl. 

:}();{.! Poppy, orange-flowered. 
2987 Pothos, thick-ribbed. 
2973 Primrose, bird's-eye, lesser, 

3020 bird's-eye, pale-flow- 
ered, American. 

3022 Ranunculus, yellow, mountain, 

2997 Itenanthera, scarlet. 

2998 Ibid. 

3021 Rock Cress, hill. 

2959 Saxifrage, ox-eye-leaved. 
3026 stone. 

3028 Selago, Dr. (Jill's. 
2965 Sisyrinch'mm, long-stalked. 
3036 Slipper-wort, two-coloured. 
2975 Speedwell, alpine, Wormskiold's 

2993 Sphacele, large-flowered. 
2992 Spurtre, white-flowered. 

3023 Squill, dwarf. 
2968 Tan gb in, poison. 

3004 Terminalia, broad, downy-leaved 

3002 Trillium, blood-stained. 

3011 Trumpet Flower, gigantic- 

2956 Ulantha, large-flowered, under 
the name Neottiaf large- 

3014 Vangueria, velvetty. 

3027 Viper's-Grass, soft. 

3019 Yellow-root, Canadian.