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In which the most Ornamental Foreign Plants cultivated in the Open Ground, 

the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented and coloured. 

To which are added, 


Their Places of Growth, Times of Flowering, and most approved 
Methods of Culture. 





F. R. A. and L. S. and Regius Professor of Botany in the University 
of Glasgow. 


Or Vol. lviii. of the whole Work. 

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Glasgow, Dec. 1, 1831. 

( 3039 ) 

Hedychium flavum. Large Yellow- 
flowered Hedychium. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scitamine^. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Anthera duplex,, stylum amplectens. Filamentum Ion- 
gum, gracile, antheram in apicem sustinens ligamento 
flexili dorso affixo. Capsula 3-locularis. Semina nume- 
rosa, arillata. Rose. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Hedychium jlavum; foliis lato - lanceolatis, spica terminali 
imbricata, bracteis subquadrifloris, corollas, laciniis 
d nab us interioribus linearibus, labello obcordato apice 
profunde retuso. Roxb. 

Hedychium flavum*. Roxb. Fl. Ind. v. 1. p. 81. (cum nota 
Wallichii ad calcem paginae 82). Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
t. 604. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. I. p. 9. cur. post. p. 6. 
Rose. PI. Scit. cum ic. 

Descr. Roots exceedingly large and thick. Stems seve- 
ral, thick, four to five feet high, at the bottom fully an inch 
in diameter, slightly compressed upwards, and there, as 
well as on the rib of the leaves, furnished, though scantily, 
with long, appressed, deciduous hairs. Leaves very large, 
elliptical, twelve to fourteen inches long, as broad as one's 
hand, nearly sessile on their sheaths, sides bent down, up- 

* Not of Sims in Botanical Magazine, t, 2378, which is Hed. Jlavescens. 

VOL. V. B. 

per surface glabrous, pale beneath; the lowermost leaves 
shorter. Sheaths ample, with a membranous margin, ele- 
gantly lineated, and having a large, obtuse, appressed 
ligule. Spike terminal, large, shorter than the uppermost 
leaves, consisting of loosely imbricated, coriaceous, broad, 
ovate, smooth, four-flowered bracteas, each about three 
inches long ; inner bracteas thin and membranaceous, 
much smaller than the outer ones. Flowers very large ; 
orange-coloured, highly fragrant. Calyx two inches long, 
oblong at the upper end, subventricose and split on one 
side, mouth bearded, entire. Tube of the Corolla cylindri- 
cal, two inches and a half long, double the length of the 
calyx ; limb spreading ; exterior laciniae linear, acute, 
loosely patent, about fourteen lines long ; inner two (or 
lateral ones) cuneate, unguiculate, rather shorter than the 
outer ones, but their apex much broader than those, short- 
ly clawed. Lip very large, roundish, retuse, lateral mar- 
gins sometimes notched, an inch and a half in diameter, 
furnished with a short, broad claw. Filament divaricate, 
thick, semicylindrical, orange-coloured, equalling in length 
the inner petals, rather, though very little, shorter than the 
lip. Anther oblong, thick, fleshy, half an inch long, with 
a sagittate, bilobate base, the lobes of which are slenderish. 
Ovary thick, ovate, obscurely triangular, shining, smooth : 
Style filiform, pallid, with the usual two short, yellow bodies 
at its base (within the tube) : Stigma rather large, clavate, 
compressed, transverse, obtuse and convex, greenish -yellow, 
villous. Wallich. 

The present is one among many fine plants, for speci- 
mens and drawings of which I have again to acknowledge 
myself indebted to W. T. Aiton, Esq. A root of Hedy- 
chium fiavum was brought by Dr. Wallich from India, in 
August, 1828, and presented by the Hon. the East India 
Company to Kew Gardens, where it produced its magnifi- 
cent blossoms in the same month of the present year. 

The specimen was received through Dr. Wallich, and 
that most enlightened and most liberal of Botanists, not- 
withstanding his numerous and important engagements, 
has been so kind as to draw up the above account of it for 
me, although there is already an accurate description in 
Flora Indica ; partly, as he says, because he never saw 
the plant in such perfection before, as it was produced 
at Kew, and partly, because it seems possible, that the 
roots may have been derived from the mountains on the 


Irawaddi, in the Burma country, where he collected some; 
whereas, the specimens described in Flora Indica came 
from Sylhet. 

Dr. Wallich's note in the Flora Indica is as follows : 
In January, 1816, I received roots of this most charm- 
ing species from Mr. Smith, at Sylhet, which produced 
blossoms in the Botanic Garden, during October of the 
following year. It differs from H. coronarium, in regard 
to its flowers, which are about one-third smaller, having 
the inner segments of the corolla linear-clavate, the fissure 
of the lip narrow, with straight sides, and its base con- 
tracted into a linear claw. They partake not only of 
the yellow colour of those of Michelia Champaca, but 
possess even the peculiar fragrance of the latter, only in 
a less powerful, and therefore, more grateful degree. In 
stature and leaves both species are alike." 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Style and Stigma, — Nat. size. 

/>//• tyr& Cnrlis Walwerth lan ? 1JB5J. 

( 3040 ) 

Alstrcemeria pallida. Pale-flowered 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Amaryllide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium corollaceum, subcampanulaceum, sexparti- 
tum, irregulare ; laciniis duabus (vel-tribus) interioribus 
basi tubuloso-conniventibus. Stam. 6, laciniis inserta, 
demum declinata. Stigma trifidum. Capsula trilocularis, 
loculis polyspermis. — Caulis erectus, scandens aut volubilis, 
foliatus. Plores umbeUati. Kunth. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Alstrcemeria pallida ; caule erecto-flaccido, foliis lanceo- 
lato-linearibus denticulatis subamplexicaulibus, peta- 
lis exterioribus obovatis lateralibus latioribus, interio- 
ribus longioribus lanceolatis, pedunculis unifloris. 

Alstrcemeria pallida. Graham in Edin. Phil. Journ. v. 
14. p. 345. 

Descr. Stem simple, slender, flaccid, round, as well as 
the leaves glauco-pruinose, several rising from the same 
root. Leaves scattered, sessile, half-stem-clasping, spar- 
ingly denticulate, lanceolato - linear, flat above, keeled 
behind, and with several parallel ribs, of which one on each 
side is stronger than the others. Flowers umbellate. Peri- 
anth of six unequal segments, attenuated, succulent, and 
channelled and nectariferous at the base ; four outer seg- 
ments of an uniform, very pale rose colour, much reticu- 
lated, nearly of equal length, obovate, the lowest, the 
narrowest and most pointed, and much the least attenuated 


at the base, the two lateral ones the largest, denticulated, all 
slightly acuminated in the middle, the two inner segments 
longer than the others, lanceolate, having denticulate wings 
towards their bases, of the same colour as the outer seg- 
ments at their apices, lower down being marked with red- 
dish veins, above the middle on a yellow, below it on a 
pink ground, at the lower part of which there are a few 
oblong orange spots. Sta?nens six ; filaments as long as 
the outer segments of the perianth, and of a similar colour, 
flattened, at the base triangular, and glanduloso-pubescent, 
twisted when decaying : anthers erect, large, cordate, flat- 
tened, mucronulate : pollen pale brown, discharged in the 
same way as in the other plants of this Genus. Stigmas 
three, revolute, pink : style three-cornered, tapering upwards 
from its greenish, persisting base ; colourless below, becom- 
ing pink towards the stigmas: Germen as in A. pelegrina. 

This remarkably beautiful species, the colours of whose 
inflorescence harmonize together more than in any other 
cultivated Alstiuemeria, blossomed first in the collection 
of Mr. Neill, at Canonmills, in July, 1829. Graham. 

I am indebted to Dr. Greville for the drawing here 
figured . 



Put tvS.Curtis. Walwcrth Jan 

( 3041 ) 

Gesneria bulbosa. Bulbous-rooted 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Gesneria. Rich. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus (plerumque germini adnatus). Cor. tubu- 
loso - campanulata, limbo bilabiato ; labio superiore bi-, 
inferiore trifido. Stigma bilobum. Capsula bilocularis, 
bivalvis, placentis parietalibus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gesneria * bulbosa ; pubescenti-tomentosa, foliis oppositis 
cordato-ovatis erenato-serratis, panicula terminali, co- 
rollas labio superiore longissimo bifido recto, inferiore 
minuto reflexo. 

Gesneria bulbosa. Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 343. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 839. 

Descr. Root, or rather root-stalk, a rounded, large tuber. 
Stem erect, herbaceous, downy, simple, in our plant two to 
three feet high. Leaves opposite, shortly petioled, cordato- 
ovate, downy, especially beneath, glaucous-green. Panicle 
terminal, of many large and splendidly - coloured scarlet 
fiowers. Bractece cordate. Calyx five-cleft, the segments 
short, linear, subulate. Corolla three inches long, tubular, 
enlarged upward, contracted just below the base, the very 
base five-lobed, and remarkably inflated, orange-yellow, 


% * Named in honour of Conrao Gesner, a celebrated Physician and Botan- 
»t, and a native of Switzerland. 

while the rest of the corolla is of a bright scarlet, clothed 
with a fine down. Stamens inserted near the base of the 
corolla : Filaments arched upwards and meeting, so that 
their anthers form a cross. Germen more than half su- 
perior, downy. Style shorter than the stamens. Stigma 

This fine plant is a native of Brazil, and was, we believe, 
first introduced to the stoves of our gardens by Mr. Cham- 
berlayne, our late Consul at Rio Janeiro, who also brought 
into notice the beautiful Bignonia that bears his name. 
It has since been imported through other channels, and is 
now, probably, not uncommon. The specimen here figur- 
ed, bloomed in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, in the spring 
of 1830. J. T. Macray, Esq. has also lately sent us fine 
flowering specimens from the College Botanic Garden, 

Fig. 1. Calyx and Pistil, slightly magnified. 



CtutitWafwoHKJan r 1.1831 

( 3042 ) 


Class and Order. 

Syngenesia Polygamia Frustranea. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum paleis distinctis. Pappus paleaceus, sim- 
plex. Stigmata apice dilatato subtruncato. Calyx imbri- 
catus : squamis intimis (omnibusvej apice dilatato scarioso. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Sphenogyne* crithmifolia; fruticosa, foliis bipinnatifidis 
pinnatifidisque laciniis subulatis mucronatis carnosis 
verrucoso-glandulosis nitidis,, pedunculis terminalibus 
longissimis unifloris, anthodio glabro, squamis interio- 
ribus obtusis scariosis, exterioribus subulatis. 

Sphenogyne crithmifolia. Brown in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 
5. p. 142. 

Arctotis paleacea. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1307. Willd. Sp. PL 
v. 3. p. 2359. 

Arctotis crithmoides. Berg. Cap. p. 326. 

Ursinia crithmifolia. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 609. 

Descr. Stem woody, short, much branched ; branches red, 
erect. Leaves erect, once, or rarely twice, pinnatifid, fleshy, 
channelled both above and below, as well as the branches 
glanduloso-verrucose, shining ; segments ascending, subu- 
late, each terminated by a slighly hooked mucro. Pedun- 

. * From a$w,a wedge, and yum, a female. Sir James E. Smith supposes 
«i allusion to the wedge-shaped Stigma. 

cles terminal, erect, very long, single flowered, having 
many slender grooves, and one or two subulate bracteas. 
Anthodium nearly globular, when in bud glabrous, coloured, 
inner scales blunt, scariose, slender, coloured at the apex, 
outer ones subulate, keeled, and reddish brown. Flowers 
(above three-fourths of an inch long, one inch across) 
rather handsome, yellow. Florets of the ray neuter, nu- 
merous, erect, subplicate, orange-red on the outside, and 
sprinkled with shining dots, yellow within, elliptical, atten- 
uated at the base, and there distant ; tube short, including 
the rudiments of a style, three-toothed at the apex. Florets 
of the disk very short, yellow, erect, regular, terminating in 
five blunt teeth, and furnished with small, erect, crystalline, 
glandular pubescence on the outside. Stamens subex- 
serted, yellow. Pistil rather longer than the stamens; 
Style cleft, revolute ; Germen woolly at the base : Pappus 
marginate, lobed. Receptacle covered with carinate, chaffy 
scales, which are shorter than the florets of the disk. 

We received this plant from Kew as a species of Arc- 
totis, native of the Cape of Good Hope. It requires the 
protection of a greenhouse during Winter, and flowers 
freely in the open air during the month of July. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Central Floret with its accompanying Scale. 2. Floret of the 
Ray . — Magnified. 

Tub, fy S. Curtis Walwartk Jan r 1 MSI 

( 3043 ) 

Urena lobata. Angular-leaved 

Class and Order. 


( Nat, Ord. — Malvaceje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx cinctus involucello 5-fido, nempe foliolis 5 ad me- 
dium coalitis. Antherce in apice tubi staminei. Carpella 
capsularia 5, conniventia, 1-sperma, extus aculeis apice 
radiatis saepissime echinata. — Folia subtus in nervis scepius 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Urena * lobata ; foliis subrotundis obtusissime 3 — 5-lobis, 

subtus precipua molliter velutinis 3 — 5-nerviis uni- 

glandulosis, laciniis calycinis oblongo-lanceolatis. 
Urena lobata. Linn. Sp. PL p. 974. Willd. Sp. PL v. 

3. p. 800. Cav. Diss. 6. p. 336. t. 185./ I. Ait. 

Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 4. p. 222. De Cand. Prodr.v. 

1. p. 441. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 96. Saint 

Hil. PL Us. Brasil. t. 56. 
Urena sinica, xanthii facie. DHL Hort. Elth. p. 340. t. 

319. / 412. 

Descr. A shrub, from two to four feet high, every where 
downy. Leaves alternate, roundish, three to five-lobed, 
and about as many nerved, the upper ones less divided, 
green, below very downy and almost white, having at the 
very base just above the insertion of the petiole, a yellow- 

From Uren, its Malabar name, according to Adanson. 

ish-green gland. Flowers solitary., axillary, on short pedun- 
cles. Calyx five-cleft, glabrous, surrounded by a five-cleft, 
downy involucre. Corolla of five, somewhat wedge-shaped 
petals, combined at the base, of a delicate rose-colour, 
streaked, and having a dark purple ring at their base. 
Staminiferous tube with many anthers. Stigmas many. 
Fruit consisting of five carpels, which surround the base of 
the style, each clothed with long, soft papillae, stellato- 
pilose at their extremity. Seed single in each carpel, ob- 
long, fixed to the inner angle of the cell. 

A native of China, whence the seeds were communicated 
to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, by Charles Millett, Esq. 
It is unquestionably the U. lobata of Linnaeus and of 
Dillenius. Auguste St. Hilaire considers it a native of 
Brazil, and seems disposed to rank the U. heterophylla, 
Swartzii, scabriuscula, and tricuspis, as mere varieties of 
U. lobata. 

In common with the rest of the Mallow tribe, but in an 
inferior degree to many, this plant possesses emollient and 
mucilaginous qualities, which have obtained it a place 
among the medicinal productions of Brazil. 

It flowered with us, in the stove, during the month of 

Fig. 1. Calyx and Involucre. 2. Section of a Carpel. 3. Papilla from 
the Capsule. — Magnified. 

Pub. by S furU..<\\',il*t>i1h Ja ■ 

( 3044 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularinejj. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla irregularis,, labio superiore quinquefido, inferiore 
tripartite Stamina 2 antherifera, 2 sterilia, filamentis villo- 
sis. Capsula bilocularis. 

Specific Character. 

Schizanthus * Grahamii ; corollas tubo calycem aequante 
limbo duplo breviore, labii inferioris laciniis laterali- 
bus centralem aequantibus, centrali bifido, labii superi- 
oris lobo medio ovato-acurninato, pedicellis fructiferis 
erectis. Gillies MSS. 

Schizanthus Grahamii. Gillies MSS. 

In addition to the two Schizanthi already given in most 
of our botanical periodical publications, two species have 
lately been raised from seeds brought from Chili by Dr. 
Gillies, in the garden of Mrs. Boog, at Portobello ; the 
subject of the present plate, with which we have been 
favoured with a drawing by Dr. Greville, and one, the S. 
Hookeri of its discoverer, hereafter to be figured : and if we 
are correct in considering the Schizanthus represented in 
the following plate as a distinct species, a third additional 
kind is now known to us. 


From a-xgp, to cleave, and «i<0o?, a flower, in reference to the divisions of 

the corolla. 

In all,, there exists a considerable general similarity in 
their mode of growth and foliage. The present] is distin- 
guished from those hitherto described by the structure of 
its flowers: which both in colour and shape are very dif- 
ferent from S. pinnatus and S. porrigens. 

Fig. 1. Root-leaf. — Nat. size. 


( 3045 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla irregularis, labio superiore quinqrefido, inferiore 
tripartite Stamina 2 antherifera, 2 sterilia, filamentis vil- 
losis. Capsula bilocularis. 

Specific Character. 

Schizanthus r^etusus ; corollae tubo brevi, labii inferioris 
laciniis lateralibus intermedio bifido brevioribus, labii 
superioris lobo medio subrhomboideo obtusissimo e- 

This Schizanthus was raised by Mr. Barclay at Bury 
Hill, where it flowered in June of the present year, from 
seeds sent by Dr. Gillies from Chili. 

It is remarkable for the large and deep orange-coloured 
spot in the intermediate lobe of the notched upper lip of 
its corolla, which is streaked with black, and for the uni- 
form deep purple hue of the rest of the corolla. It is but 
fair to observe, that Dr. Gillies considers it only a var. of 
S. Grahamii: but, assuredly, its marks, whether constant or 
not, are as decided as those of almost any other species of 
this Genus, and I think it exceeds them all in the beauty 
of its blossoms. 

Fifc. 1. Stamens.— Magnified. 2. Root-leaf. — Natural size, 

Curtis Walworth th 

( 3046 ) 

Adamia cyanea. Blue-berried 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Pentagynia. 

(Nat. Ord. — Araliace^. Wallich. Saxifrages. De Cand.) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx ovario adnatus, limbo quinquedentatus. Petala 
quinque, dentibus calycinis alternantia, epigyna, verticem 
ovarii ambientia. Stamina decern, quorum alterno petal is 
opposita. Sty It quinque. Stigmata clavata, sub-biloba. 
Bacca infera, coronata, subquinquelocularis, polysperma. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Adamia * cyanea. 

Adamia cyanea. WaUich, Tent. Fl. Nep. p. 46. t. 36. 
De Cand. Prodr. v. 4. p. 16. 

Descr. A much-branched, paniculated shrub, three to 
four feet high. Stem from an inch to an inch and a half 
thick, with the bark spongy, whitish, glabrous ; wood pale- 
coloured. Branches opposite, rounded or obscurely qua- 
drangular glabrous, rather glaucous, above purplish, and 
downy with appressed hairs ; the younger ones, as well as 
the leaves, thickly hairy. Leaves opposite, patent, approx- 
imated, somewhat fleshy, between oblong and lanceolate, 
acuminated, sharp at both ends, serrated, the serratures 


So named by Dr. Wallich, in memory of his late friend, John Adam, 
*-sq., President of the Supreme Council at Calcutta, an ardent promoter and 
liberal encourager of Botany, Horticulture, and Rural Affairs in the East 

vol. v. r 

incurved, cuspidate, acute ; above dark green, rather rugose, 
glabrous ; beneath pale, downy towards the midrib as well 
as on the elevated, parallel, approximated, oblique nerves, 
transversely reticulated with veins. Petioles an inch long, 
rounded, plane above, slightly marginate by reason of the 
acute, entire, decurrentbase of the leaf. Stipules none, unless 
an elevated sometimes downy line, connecting the bases of the 
petioles be so called. Panicle large, terminal, broadly-ovate, 
naked or furnished at the base with a few lanceolate, entire, 
floral leaves, shorter than the uppermost pair of leaves, 
densely-flowered ; its branches opposite, downy, subtricho- 
tomous at the summit. Bracteas none. Flowers very 
numerous, pale blue, or sometimes pink, externally whitish, 
scentless, in many fascicles, or subumbellate, their pedun- 
cles short, villous, slightly coloured. Calyx superior, that 
is, cohering with the ovary ; the limb small, free, five-tooth- 
ed, the teeth minute, spreading, ovate, acute, distant, rather 
downy. Corolla fleshy, glabrous, five-petaled, prior to 
expansion valvular and ovato-obtuse. Petals lanceolate, 
acute, marked with three lines, quite patent, finally recurv- 
ed, inserted with its broad base upon the calyx within the 
limb of the latter and alternating with its teeth. Stamens 
ten, patent, rather shorter than the petals and alternately 
opposite, nearly equal ; filaments subulate, bluish, fleshy, 
glabrous : anthers fixed by their base, large, ovate, two- 
celled, before bursting, those five which are opposite to the 
petals are deflexed, the rest erect. Ovary inferior, globose, 
as large as a grain of black pepper, downy, pseudo-quin- 
quelocular, with the top a little elevated within the petals ; 
ovules minute, fixed to five parietal, fleshy receptacles. 
Styles five, nearly erect, fleshy, swelling at the top into as 
many club-shaped, compressed stigmas, which are some- 
what tumid at the margin, and somewhat two-lobed. 
Berries very numerous, panicled, globose, glabrous, deep 
blue, as large as a black currant, within fleshy, pale and 
spongy, somewhat five-celled, many-seeded, convex at the 
top, retuse at the centre, and terminated by the persistent 
styles, crowned with the numerous, minute, persistent, 
calycine teeth, which are united with a very narrow margin. 
Seeds extremely numerous, minute, pear-shaped, slightly 
striated, inserted upon five parietal, fleshy, finally vanishing 
receptacles, and filling the whole cavity of the fruit. Inte- 
gument simple, dark brown, membranaceous. Perisperm 
fleshy, of the same shape as the seed. Embryo cylindrical 
occupying nearly the whole of the centre of the perisperm. 


Cotyledons ovate,, obtuse, convex at the back, short. Radi- 
cle obtuse, directed towards the hilum. 

This new and interesting Genus was found by Dr. 
Wallich, inhabiting barren, stony, and mountainous places 
near Bechiaco, in Nepal, and by him introduced to the 
Royal Gardens at Kew; whence a flowering- specimen, 
accompanied by a drawing from which the annexed figure 
of the natural size was taken, were kindly communicated, 
by W. T. Aiton, Esq. Dr. Wallich characterises it as an 
elegant shrub, covered with large panicles of pale blue or 
pink flowers, which are succeeded by an almost equally 
ornamental profusion of deep blue berries. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil invested by the Calyx. 3. Section of the Ger- 
men. 4. Fruit. 5. Seed. 6. Section of ditto. 7- Embryo : — magnified. 
Fig. 4 — 6 are copied from Dr. Wallich's figure, in the Tent. Fl. Nepal. 


Thb h ■.•'. Curtis }\'utwrtkFt 

( 3047 ) 


Class and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Commeline^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 3-sepalus. Cor. 3-petala, petalo uno ant altero 
saepe abortiente. Stamina 3 spuria glandulosa, cruciata. 
Capsula bi- trilocularis, spatha tecta. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Commeltna * gracilis ; caule ascendente ramoso repente 
colorato piloso pilis reflexis, foliis sessilibus Iariceo- 
latis aciuninatisplanisutrinqueglabris, spatha cordata 
compressa, floribus pentandris, petalis inaequalibus, 
staminibus inclusis tribus fertilibus. Graham. 

Commelina gracilis. Ruiz et Pavon, Fl. Peruv. v. I. p. 44. 
t. 72. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 173. 

Commelina formosa. Graham in Edin. Phil. Journ. Dec. 

Descr. Stem ascending, rooting, branched, red, espe- 
cially above the joints, hairy, hairs reflected. Leaves 
lanceolate, acuminate, flat, glabrous on both sides and 
shining, bright green above, whitish below, seven-nerved, 
the middle rib prominent behind, channelled above, sheaths 
striated, ciliated. Peduncles (two inches long) straight, 
with a line of reflexed hairs along the inner side (the cibae 
of the adhering sheath of the spatha). Spatha heart-shaped, 
folded, compressed, several- flowered, glabrous. Pedicels 


* Named in compliment to John and Gas par Commemn, celebrated Duteh 

of unequal length, slightly pubescent, erect, straight. Calyx 
white, glabrous, triphyllous, leaflets unequal, the upper one 
the smallest and most acute, the two lower rounded, and co- 
hering towards their base. Corolla a beautiful, rather pale 
blue, of three unequal petals, each concave, rounded, 
slightly and unequally crenate, (the largest three-fourths of 
an inch long, and nearly as much broad,) the two upper ones 
particularly unguiculate. Stamens (five ?) inserted within 
the base of the corolla, and sometimes attached to it at 
their origin; filaments glabrous, pale blue, less than half 
the length of the petals. Anthers, two abortive, yellow, 
lobed, three fertile, white, linear, sagittate at their base ; 
pollen white. Germen superior, ovato-acuminate, white. 
Style deflected upon the lower petal, otherwise like the 
filaments, and similar to them in length. Stigma small, 
three-lobed. Unripe capsule three-sided, three-celled. 

The seeds of this very pretty species of Commelina were 
gathered by Mr. Cruckshanks in the valley of Lima, and 
communicated to me last spring. The plants flowered 
freely in the greenhouse in July. Graham. 

It appears, from a comparison of this plant with the figure 
and inscription of C. gracilis in Ruiz and Pavon, that it is 
the same ; an opinion in which Dr. Graham concurs. 

Fig. 1. Fertile Stamen. 2. Sterile Stamen, or Nectary. 3. Calyx and 
Pistil. — Magnified. 

M ty S , ^rhs Walworth fe!>- 

( 3048 ) 




Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LoasevE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus cylindraceus arete ovarium vestiens, sed for- 
san liber ; limbus 5-partitus, persistens. Pet. 10, unguicu- 
lata, calyce inserta. Stamina numerosa (200 — 250), cum 
petalis inserta, iis breviora, filamentis liberis, externis inter- 
dum sterilibus, antheris oblongis. Stylus filiformis, striis 
3 — 7-spiralibus notatus et inde stylis 5 — 7-omnino connexis 
et spiraliter tortis constans. Caps, oblonga, 1-locul. 3 — 7- 
valvis, placentis totidem seminum series duobus gerentibus. 
Semina compressa, numerosa. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Loasa* incana, suffruticosa suburens, caule suberecto ra- 
moso foliisque sparsis petiolatis ovato-Ianceolatis in- 
ciso-serratis scabris, pedunculis simplicibus oppositi- 
foliis. Graham. 

Loasa incana. Graham in Ed. Phil. Journ. Dec. 1830. 

Descr. Suffruticose. Whole plant, particularly the stem, 
densely covered with harsh, barbed, white hairs, and a few 
stinging hairs interspersed. Stem round, much branched, 
branches scattered, spreading. Cuticle like paper, and 
peeling off in the dried specimen. Leaves scattered, 
petioled, spreading, ovate, acute, hispid on both sides, 
veined, inciso-serrate, veins and midrib prominent below, 
channelled above. Flowers opposite the leaves, solitary, 


* A name given by Adanson, of dubious origin. 

peduncled. Peduncles spreading, about half the length of 
the leaves, round. Calyx green, widely spread, segments 
ovato-acuminate, three-ribbed, undulate, reflected in their 
sides, persisting. Corolla white, ten -parted, uniseriate, 
alternate, segments alike, the larger segments spreading, 
cucullate, nerved and veined, longer than the calyx ; the 
smaller segments nearly glabrous, slightly ciliated, concave, 
within nectariferous, each having near its rounded apex, 
three erect, dorsal filaments as long as itself. Stamens 
numerous, nearly as long as the longer segments of the 
corolla, lodged within the hollow larger petals till the 
pollen is ripe, when they become erect, free, unconnected 
with each other, within the corolla, mostly perfect, with 
simple colourless, slightly flattened, glabrous filaments, 
and greenish -yellow, oblong, bilocuiar anthers, erect, 
bursting along the sides, ten barren, two within each of the 
shorter petals, spreading, and flattened at the base, there 
ciliated, each having a reflected lip at the apex of the petal 
within which it is placed, and above this extended into an 
erect filament, nearly as long as the fertile stamens. Style 
erect, simple, shorter than the stamens, tapering, nearly 
smooth towards the top. Stigma capitate, small, lobed, 
smooth. Germen turbinate, inferior, green, unilocular, 
with three to four parietal receptacles, alternate with the 
teeth, covered along their edge with numerous ovules. Cap- 
sule opening by three to four teeth above the level of the 

This plant was raised from seeds communicated in spring 
last from Yazo, valley of Canta, in Peru. Mr. Cruckshanrs 
only observed one plant, which was low and branching, 
with its branches much entangled. Prom this he also 
most kindly presented me with a well-dried specimen, from 
the appearance of which, rather than from our plant (we 
raised but one), which is still small, it would seem to blossom 
very freely. With us it flowered in the greenhouse during 
October and November, and even now (7th December) 
there are buds which may possibly expand. Graham. 

*. , g * ,9 uter PetaL 2 - Mermen and Calyx, one segment of the limb of 
the latter being removed. 3. Inner Petal, with two abortive Stamens. 4. 
Hie two abortive Stamens. 5. Fertile Stamen. 6. Fruit. 7. Seed.— Mag- 

v$ uva~: 

r-f.j W>*P>tL s H a S W W 


( 3049 ) 

Clerodendron nutans. Drooping- 
flowered clerodendron. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Verbenace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus (nunc 5-dentatus). Cor. tubo cylindrico ; 
limbo5-partito, patente, laciniis subaequalibus. Stam. juxta 
faucem inserta, exserta, adscendentia : antherarurn loculis 
parallelis. Bacca pyrenis 4, monospermis. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Clerodendrum nutans; fruticosa, erecta, glabra, ramis acute 
tetragonis, apice nutantibus ; foliis ternis vel oppositis, 
oblongis, longe acuminatis, integerrimis, basi attenu- 
atis, brevissime petiolatis, panicula oblonga, laxe pen- 
dula, pedunculis bis dichotomis, calyce ventricoso 
tubo corolla? parum breviore, limbo secundo. Wallich. 

Descr. A branchy, erect shrub, two to four feet high, 
Mem as thick as a thumb, covered with brownish, even, 
a nd pretty smooth bark. Branches spreading, dotted, 
acutely four-sided, as well as all the other parts perfectly 
smooth; their outer ends nodding. Leaves opposite or ter- 
nate, rarely subalternate, spreading, twice or thrice longer 
than their interstices, short-petioled, oblong, finely acumi- 
nate, entire, slightly waved, narrowing downwards into a 
sharp base, five to seven inches long, dark green and glossy 
above, opaque and pallid underneath, with elevated rib 
and oblique nerves : the latter uniting within the margins 
"y means of curved veins. The uppermost leaves as well 
as the floral ones much smaller than the rest, narrow- 

lanceolate, ascending and gently recurved. Petiole scarcely 
half an inch long, deeply furrowed above ; a series of 
minute and evanescent ciliae is observable across the young 
branches, between the insertions of the petioles, leaving a 
line after it has disappeared. Panicle terminal, oblong, 
slender, subsessile,, pendulous, from six inches to a foot 
long, with one or two pairs of remote floral leaves at 
the base, consisting of opposite, subdecussate, divaricate, 
short, once or twice dichotomous branches. Peduncles 
acutely four-sided, purplish ; common, as thick as a crow- 
quill ; partial, half an inch long, supported under each 
division by a pair of very small, linear, ciliate bractlets. 
Flowers white, inodorous, slightly adscending, ternate, in- 
serted on filiform pedicels, which are an inch long, and have 
a pair of minute, linear bractlets at the middle. Calyx 
ovate, inflated, slightly five-cornered, of a purple colour, 
nearly half an inch long, subtruncate at the base, narrowing 
towards the mouth, which is divided into five equal, lanceo- 
late, acute, obscurely ciliate, converging laciniae. Tube of 
the corolla slender, cylindrical, a little longer than the calyx ; 
limb spreading, unilateral, divided into five obovate, obtuse, 
almost equal, flat lobes, nearly as long as the tube ; throat 
very narrow. Stamina four, didynamous, adscending, longer 
than the corolla ; filaments filiform, white, inserted within 
the tube, immediately below the throat of the corolla ; 
anthers small, ovate, equally bilocular, fleshy, and mi- 
nutely papillose on the back. Pistil a little shorter than 
the stamens, like these curved and adscending; ovarium 
small, ovate, four-celled ; ovula solitary, erect ; style fili- 
form ; stigma simple, small, club-shaped. Berry dark 
purple, smooth, shining, round, most slightly two-lobed, 
almost of the size of a small gooseberry, supported by the 
permanent, scarcely enlarged, open calyx, two-, rarely 
four-seeded. Wall. 

This is one of the most beautiful and desirable shrubs 
with which I am acquainted. It is a native of Silhet, on 
the North-east side of Bengal, whence it was introduced 
into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, by the late Mr. M. R 
Smith. It is well furnished with branches and leaves. The 
panicles are long and slender, hanging down gracefully, 
and vibrating to the least breath of air. The flowers are 
very elegant, the corollas being of a pure white colour, the 
calyces reddish purple. My late much-lamented friend 
Mr. Jack, has given a short character of a shrub, native of 
Penang, which he considered the same species as that just 


described. (See Malayan Miscellanies, vol. 1. part 1.; re- 
printed in Hooker's Botanical Miscellany, vol. 1. p. 284.) I 
found this last plant on the said island in September, 1822 ; 
it was then nearly out of flower, but afforded sufficient evi- 
dence of its being a different species from my C. nutans ; I 
have called it C. Jackianum in the Hon. East India Com- 
pany's Herbarium. (No. 1794 of the Lithographic List.) 
I have a third species from Tavoy, on the coast of Tenas- 
serim, (C. penduliflorum, No. 1795 of the List,) which is 
likewise an exceedingly lovely shrub, with long and pen- 
dulous panicles, totally distinct from the two other species. 

The figure here given was taken from a plant, kindly 
communicated from Bretton Hall, in December, 1830, 
where it had been raised from seeds sent by Dr. Waxlich. 

Fig. 1. Anther and part of the Filament. 2. Pistil— Magnified. 

''urtis VUrnntk t'i 

( 3050 ) 

Alstrcemeria acutifolia. Sharp-pointed- 
leaved Alstrcemeria. 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Old. — Amaryllide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium corollaceum, subcampanulaceum, sexparti- 
tum, irregulare ; laciniis duabus (vel tribus) interioribus 
basi tubuloso-conniventibus. Stam. 6, laciniis inserta, 
demum declinata. Stigma trifidum. Capsula trilocularis, 
loculis polyspermis. — Caulis erectus, scandens aut volubilis, 
foliatus. Flores umbellati. Kunth. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Alstrcemeria acutifolia ; caule subvolubili, foliis petiolatis 
lanceolatis anguste acuminatis subtus pubesccntibus, 
umbella simplici, pedunculis pubescentibus, petalis 
longitudine sequalibus, 3 ext. oblongis subacutis, 3 
int. spathulatis. 

Alstrcemeria acutifolia. Link, et Otto, Abd. Gew. p. 57. 
t. 29. 

Descr. Stem, according to M. M. Link and Otto, 
attaining a height of five or six feet, somewhat twining, 
rounded, glabrous. Leaves remote, lanceolate, much and 
narrowly acuminated, striated, dark green and glabrous 
above, pale and downv, especially on the nerves beneath, 
inserted on a short, twisted petiole. Umbel terminal, of 
™znjfloicers } surrounded at the base by an involucre of 
leaves, resembling those of the stem, but much smaller. 
Peduncles rounded, Ilex nose, downy. Corolla subcampa- 
n »late; the petals erect, and but slightly patent at the ex- 

tremity, all of them nearly equal in height, the three outer 
ones oblong, of a deep but not very bright red, acute ; the 
three inner more delicate in texture, broadly-spathulate, 
orange-coloured; all of them with a deep red spot at the tip. 
Stamens shorter than the corolla : Filaments pale reddish- 
purple : Anthers oblong, bluish-purple. Germen inferior, 
turbinate, triangular, downy; Style straight, filiform, green- 
ish-white, thickened at the base, at the extremity terminated 
by a trifid stigma. Capsule remarkably depressed, turbi- 
nate, opening at the top by three valves, each of which 
bears a septum, and each septum has two seeds attached on 
either side of it, of a bright scarlet colour. 

For this beautiful species of Alstrcemeria our gardens are 
indebted to Mr. Otto of Berlin, who transmitted plants to 
the Botanic Gardens, both of Edinburgh and Liverpool ; and 
from specimens that have flowered in both those establish- 
ments, the present figure and description have been made. 

It inhabits Mexico, where it was discovered by M. Deppe, 
who is now most successfully exploring that interesting 
region, as a Botanist. 

In our stoves it has flowered in the months of August and 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil. 3. Inner Petal. 4. Outer Petal : more or 
less magnified. 5. Capsule, nat. size. 

( 3051 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — EuphorbiacEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Fl. Monoici. Mas. Cat. 5-partitus. Pet. 5, squami- 
formia. Stam. plurima. Fcem. Cal. 5-fidus. Petala o. 
Styli et Stigmata 3. Fructus subcarnosus, tricoccus. Adr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Codleum* pictum ; foliis cordato-oblongis coriaceis nitidis 

Croton pictum. " Noisette." (Steudel.) Lodd. Bot. Cab. 

t. 870. 
Croton variegatum, var. 3, latifolium. Roxb. Hort. Beng. 

p. 69. 

This is, in our stove, a low shrub, of slow growth, gla- 
brous in every part, and having its foliage collected princi- 
pally at the extremity of the branches. The leaves are very 
beautiful, four to six inches long, on short petioles, coriace- 
ous, glossy, between cordate and oblong, rather obtuse, 
e »tire, veined, of a reddish or yellow colour, mottled and 
variegated with green, paler on the underside. Flowers in 
Jong, pedunculated racemes, from the extremity of the 
branches. I have only seen that which bears female flowers. 


* So termed by Ritmhuus, from the Malayan name of the Croton variega- 
■** of Linn^us, Codebo. 

These have a turbinated, five-cleft calyx, the segments, or 
teeth, closely applied to the base of the germen. Germen 
ovate, surrounded by an annular disk or gland : Styles three, 
tapering into reflexed and flexuose, subulate stigmas. 

If the flowers of this plant be insignificant and obscure, 
this deficiency is amply compensated by the singularity and 
beauty of its foliage, which renders it a most desirable 
inmate of the stove, and which has recommended it to the 
inhabitants of the Molucca islands, where it is a native, and 
where they cultivate it around their houses, and for the 
purpose of fences, decorating their triumphal arches with 
its leaves, and strewing them about on occasions of fes- 

We are indebted to Charles Telfair, Esq., and to the 
Professor of the Royal College, Mauritius, for the pos- 
session of this plant in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where 
it flowered in August, 1830. It was sent under the name of 
Croton pictum, and it is said to be C. pictum of Noisette, 
by Steudel; but I do not find it any where described under 
that name, except by Mr. Loddiges in his Botanical 
Cabinet. It is, I think, with justice separated from the d 
variegatum, with which it has been confounded, and which 
has very narrow leaves, almost linear indeed. At the same 
time, it must be acknowledged, that Rumphius has repre- 
sented some intermediate states, which make it difficult to 
draw the line of distinction. All have a peculiar Aucuba- 
like habit, which, in addition to the difference in the fructi- 
fication, shows the judgment of Adr. De Jussieu in separat- 
ing them generically from Croton. 

Fig.l. Female Flower. 2. Gland at the Base of the Germen. 

Tub by $ Catttt tUtontk March I.I83J 

( 3052 ) 
Banksia speciosa. Handsome Banksia. 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. quadripartitus (raro quadrifidus.) Stamina apicibus 
concavis laciniarum immersa. Squamula hypogyna? 4. 
Ovarium biloculare, loculis monospermis. Folliculus bi- 
locularis, ligneus : dissepimento libero, bifido. Amentum 
flosculorum paribus tribracteatis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Banksia speciosa. 

Banksia speciosa; foliis linearibus pinnatifidis lobis trian- 

gulari-semiovatis mucronatis subtus niveis obsolete 

nervosis, calycis laminis lanatis, stylo pubescente, fol- 

liculis tomentosis. Brown. 
Banksia speciosa. Br. Trans. Linn. Soc. v. 10. p. jJIO. 

Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. I. p. 486. Graham in Minb. 

Phil. Journ. Dec. 1830. 

Descr. Trunk erect, branched ; branches spreading, 
towards their extremities densely covered with snowy to - 
mentum. Leaves (a foot and a half long, an inch and a halt 
broad) scattered, linear, attenuated at the base, and very 
slightly so at the apex, truncated, pinnatiHd, nerved and 
reticulated, covered on both sides when young, with short, 
dense, white tomentum, which is beautifully snowy below, 
when old, naked, bright green and shining above ; segments 
alternate, triangular, ovate along their upper edge, mucro- 
nate, the mucro projecting forwards. Spike (four inches 
and a half long, three inches and a half broad to the extre- 
t3 ' mities 

mities of the styles) terminal. Flowers in pairs along the 
raehis, forming double lines, which are much crowded to- 
gether, expanding from below upwards, every where yellow, 
except the stigma, which is red. Calyx (an inch and a half 
long) four-parted, woolly on the outside, the woolliness in- 
creasing upwards. Anthers subsessile, in the oblong hollow 
extremities of the calyx, linear-lanceolate. Style longer 
than the calyx, curved upwards, pubescent, filiform, tumid 
near the extremity, tipped with the red, subacute, some- 
what angled stigma. 

This very handsome species produced a fine head of 
flowers in the greenhouse of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 
in October, 1830, the plant being above five feet high. 

Fig. 1. Pair of Flowers. 2. Three Bracteas from their base.— Magnified. 

3 0*5 


Fub hy S.Curtis Walwrlh March 1 1*M 

( 3053 ) 


-S^- A', ■Sfc &< &- , y i', >l'- &■ >l'< >V- A'- A/, ?V, .^/. A'. , v l / . &• As- As, 
^1? /JS 7ft VIS v|S VIS v{> VJS VIS vf* vf. VIS VK /J> VIS v$» VK vf- vf. 

C/«ss anrf Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Legumixos.e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. bilabiatus, labio super, semibifido, lato, retuso, inf. 
tripartite Carina obtusa. Stam. omnia connexa, aut 
deciino superne plus minus libero. Legumen sessile, sub- 
rotundum, ventricosum, disperrnum. Semina strophiolata. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Hovea* pannosa ; foliis lineari-oblongis obtusis glabris 
nitidis subtus ramis leguminibusque ferrugineo - to- 

Hovea pannosa. Cunningham MSS. apud Hort. Reg. Kew. 

Descr. Stem erect, rigid, branched, branches clothed 
with a dense, ferruginous tomentum. Leaves linear-oblong, 
obtuse, coriaceous, entire, glabrous, dark green and smooth 
above, with a depressed midrib, below clothed with a dense 
rusty-coloured down, and marked with a prominent midrib. 
At the base is a short, downy, petiole; at the point a small 
tuft of hairs. Stipules linear, very downy. Flowers pro- 
duced in the axils of the leaves, two or three from each of 
the upper leaves, on downy, short stalks, with a lmear- 
subulate bractea at their base. Calyx very downy, and 
rusty-coloured, two-lipped; upper lip arched, obtuse, bifid, 
lower of three linear segments. Standard of the corolla 
broad, purple, with a broad, obcordate, pale spot just above 


* Named by Mr. Brown, in compliment to A. P. Hove, a Polish Botanist. 
VOL. V. D 

the unguis, surrounded by a deep purple-coloured ring*. 
Alee short, convex, deep purple. Carina minute, purple, 
included in, and concealed by the alae. Stamens all com- 
bined, the tube cleft above. Anther yellow. Pistil con- 
cealed by the tube of the stamens. Germen oblongo-ovate, 
hairy : Style about equal to it in length : Stigma capitate. 
Legumen oblong, ventricose, very downy, tipped with the 
style, much longer than the calyx. 

Hovea pannosa, thus named by its indefatigable dis- 
coverer, Mr. Allan Cunningham, is a native of Mount 
Stirling, in the country northward from Bathurst, in the 
interior of New South Wales, and was raised at the Royal 
Gardens of Kew from seeds, sent in 1823. Mr. Aiton 
obligingly communicated specimens and the drawing here 
figured, during the last summer (1830). It is a very ele- 
gant and ornamental species, its blossoms being beauti- 
fully coloured, the upper sides of the leaves glossy green, 
sometimes slightly transversely wrinkled, the underside and 
the branches thickly covered with a ferruginous tomentum. 
It approaches to H. linearis, but that species has much 
narrower leaves and smaller and pale-coloured flowers. 

Fig. 1. Calyx. 2. Vexillum. 3. 3. Alae. 4. Carina. 5. Stamens, in- 
cluding the Pistil. 6. Pistil. 7. Legumen :— Magnified. 

Mb by S Curtis Valvarth March 1.H51 

( 3054 ) 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Aroidejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spadix nudus, multiflorus. Perianthium campanulatum, 
6-partitum, basi bracteatum. Anthers sessiles, perianthio 
insert®, laciniis opposite. Stylus columnaris, sulcatus : 
Stigma magnum, 3-lobum, peitatum. Bacca 3-locularis, 
loculis dispermis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Tupistra* nutans; spica oblongo-cylindracea obtusa nu- 
tante, floribus densissime approximates brevi-campa- 
nulatis unibracteatis. 

Tupistra nutans. Wallich in Bot. Reg. t. 1223. 

Descr. Perennial. Stem about two inches long-, and 
set round at the base with a few short but thick fibres: 
from the summit of the rootstock there arise many large, 
sheathing scales, which surround both the base of the leaf 
and of the scape. Leaves few, between two and three feet 
lon g ; petiole semicylindrical, furrowed on the upper side, 
three to four inches long, tapering gradually into an obo- 
vato-lanceolate, acuminated, striated, membranous leaf, 
from the united bases of the leaves arises the scape, which 
is semiterete, and curved downwards, bearing a thick, 

oblongo-cylindrical spadix, of many sessile, unibracteated 
flowers. Perianth shortly campanulate, its limb spreading, 


Name j rvwtt, a mallet, from the large, mallet-like stigma. 

six-cleft, thick and fleshy, the segments obtuse, three inner 
and three outer, of a pale yellowish-brown colour, streaked 
with purple. Anthers six, sessile, or nearly so, opposite to 
the segments of the perianth, and inserted at the mouth of 
the tubular portion, yellow, two-celled. Pistil: Germen 
small, roundish : Style thick, columnar, short : Stigma very 
large, peltate, three-lobed, forming a sort of lid to the 
mouth of the perianth, so as entirely to cover and conceal 
the stamens. The fruit I have not seen : but the fleshy 
germen, on a transverse section being made, exhibits three 
small cells, each with two collateral ovules. 

For this interesting plant of the Natural Order Aroide^e, 
the second species known of the Genus Tupistra, our gar- 
dens are indebted to Dr. Wallich. By that generous 
Botanist a root was presented to Mrs. Beaumont of Bretton 
Hall, and we are obliged to Mr. Marnock, who has the 
charge of the gardens there, for the noble specimen from 
which the accompanying drawing was taken. It blossomed 
in October, 1830, for the second time, having flowered the 
preceding year, soon after which, the plant threw up a new 
set of leaves. 

Fig. 1. Flower, with its Bractea at the Base ; the Stigma heing removed, 
to show the insertion of the Stamens. 2. The Stigma seen from beneath. 
3. Portion of the Perianth with a Stamen. 4. Stamen. 5. Pistil. 6. Ger- 
men and Style, the Stigmas being removed. 7. Section of the Germen. — AH 
more or less magnified. 

'f. J.EM? 

.VS.? VaJvorlh Ifarch 1 m/ 

( 3055 ) 


Class and Order. 
Cryptogamia Filices. 

( Nat. Ord.— Filices. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sort marginales, continui v. interrupti. Involucrum nul- 
lum (nisi setae interstinctae v. squamulae lanave frondis.) 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

NoTHocLjENA*tener«; frondibus bi-tripinnatis, foliolis ellip- 
ticis integerrimis teneris glaucis glaberrimis, capsulis 
nigro-fuscescentibus nitidis. 

Nothocl^na tenera. Gillies MSS. 

Descr. Fronds growing in a tufted manner, four to six 
inches in length, ovato-deltoid in their circumscription, 
each supported upon a glossy, purple-black stipes, bipin- 
nate, the base tripinnate, the pinnae with an odd, terminal 
pinnule or leaflet. Pinnules elliptical, obtuse, sessile 
(except the terminal one, which is often petioled,) of a 
membranaceous, thin, and delicate texture, glaucous-green, 
especially beneath, pinnatedly nerved, the margin entire, 
slightly recurved at first, afterwards plane. Rachis ex- 
tremely slender, glossy purple-black. Sort uninterrupted, 
Marginal. Capsules at first green, and partially covered by 
the revolute margin, at length of a deep, shining brown- 
black, and quite exposed to view : each is globose, reti- 
culated, having a nearly complete annulus. 


fp n • m n ^° ( ' a P ur * ou *> ^d %x»»»«, a cloak, or covering, from the imp 
e «ly involute coverins to the naiMnles. 

covering to the capsules. 

For this graceful little Fern, our Botanic Garden of 
Glasgow is indebted to Dr. Gillies., who sent seeds which 
were gathered in the neighbourhood of Mendoza, and 
which soon vegetated in our stove, bearing fructification in 
the same year that they were raised. 

In point of Genus, this Fern seems to be intermediate 
between Nothocljena and Cheilanthes. But as, even in a 
young state, the slightly revolute margin of the pinnules 
never entirely covers the capsules, I have preferred placing 
it in the former Genus ; from all the other known species 
of which it is distinguished by its tender, glaucous, and 
quite glabrous fronds. 

Fig. 1. Three ultimate Pinnules of a Frond, with perfect Sori. 2. Pinnule 
with Fructification in a younger state. 3. Two Capsules. — Magnified. 

Pah by S Snrtis Wahrtrtk Murk l/ffl 

( 3056 ) 

Lupinus Cruckshanksii. Mr. Cruckshanks* 
Peruvian Lupine. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminosjs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. profunde bilabiatus. Cor. papilionacea; vexillum 
lateribus reflexis, carina acuminata. Stam. monadelpha, 
vagina integra, antheris 5 parvis subrotundioribus, preco- 
cioribus, 5 oblongis serioribus. Stylus filiform is. Stigma 
terminate, subrotundum, barbatum. Legumen coriaceum, 
oblongum, compressum, oblique torulosum. Cotyledones 
crassae, per germin. in folia converses. De Cand. 

Specific Character. 

Lupinus Cruckshanksii ; subarborescens, ubique glaberri- 
mus, ramis patentibus, foliolis 7 — 9 oblongis obrusis 
basi in petiolum attenuatis, raceinis oblongis, floribus 
yerticillatis, calycis labio superiore bifido infcriore 
integro, bracteis caducis. 

Descr. Although this plant has not with us attained an 
elevation exceeding four to five feet, yet it may rather be 
called arborescent than shrubby ; for the greater length 
of the stem below is bare of branches and woody ; above 
divided by numerous, spreading branches, into a rounded 
head, glabrous, as is every part of the plant. Leaves nu- 
merous, pale yellowish-green, divided into seven or more, 
usually nine, spreading, oblong or elliptical, obtuse leaflets, 
blunt at the point, and sometimes terminated by a mucro, 
below attenuated into a short petiole, the whole upon a 
common petiole four to five inches long, rounded and 


green. Flowers in oblong, large racemes, which terminate 
the numerous branches. Bractece linear-subulate., cadu- 
cous. Pedicels mostly in irregular whorls, short. Calyx 
cut almost to the very base into two, nearly equal, linear- 
oblong lips ; of which the upper one is bifid or bidentate at 
the point, the lower one quite entire. Corollas large, very 
handsome. Vexillum rounded, retuse at the extremity, 
with its sides revolute after expansion, bluish purple, deep 
yellow in the middle, becoming paler towards the extre- 
mity and almost white, the margin reddish, the back pale. 
Alee suboval, convex, deep purplish-blue, with a reddish 
spot at the base. Carina pale flesh-colour, with a long, 
orange-coloured acumen or beak. 

I have named this truly magnificent species of Lupine in 
compliment to its estimable discoverer, Alexander Cruck- 
shanks, Esq. respecting whose botanical labours in South 
America, I have elsewhere had occasion to speak *. That 
gentleman discovered it growing upon the Andes of Peru, 
in great plenty, not far from Pasco, and near the verge of 
perpetual snow. Our fine plant was raised from the seed at 
the Glasgow Botanic Garden, and planted in the open 
border in the early summer of the present year (1830), 
when it was soon covered with a profusion of richly-colour- 
ed blossoms, which attracted the attention of all who saw it. 
Mr. Murray, with much judgment, would not run the risk 
of so rare a plant surviving the fickle winter of our climate, 
and removed it to the greenhouse : but it is very impatient 
of moisture, and does not strike readily from cuttings. 
No seeds were produced upon our plant. 

See Botanical Miscellany, Part IV. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and Vexillum :— Slightly magnified. 

YJ.H del' 

J S. Curtis Walworth Mar ■; 

( 3057 ) 
Loasa Hi^piDA. Hispid Loasa. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LoasejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus cylindraceus arete ovarium vestiens, sed 
forsan liber ; limbus 5-partitus, persistens. Pet. 10, ungui- 
culata, calyce inserta. Stam. innumera (230 — 250) cum 
petalis inserta, iis breviora, filamentis libera, externis inter- 
dum sterilibus, antheris oblongis. Stylus filiformis, striis 
3 — 7 spiralibus notatus et hide stylis 5 — 7 omnino connexis 
et spiraliter tortis constans. Capsula oblonga, 1-locularis, 
3 — 7-valvis, placentis totidem seminum series duobus geran- 
tibus. Semina compressa, numerosa. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Loasa hispida ; hispidissima, foliis alternis bipinnatifidis, 

laciniis calycinis lateralibus replicatis, corolla reflexa. 
Loasa hispida. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. p. 364. Willd. 

Sp. PL v. 2. p. 1176. Graham in Edin. Phil. Journ. 

Dec. 1830. 
Loasa urens. Jacq. Obs. Bot. pars 2. p. 15. t. 38. Lam. 

Encycl. v. 3. p. 758. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 601. 

Loasa ambrosiaefolia. Juss. Ann. du Mus. v. 5. p. 26. t. 4. 

/. 1. Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. p. 71. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 

v.2. p. 601. 

Descr. Stem round, rooting at the base, flexuose, branch- 
ed, densely covered with innumerable short, harsh hairs, 
which seem rough under the microscope, and are scarcely 
stinging ; higher up, there are a few deep green oblong- 
spots on the stem, and the hairs are mixed with others which 
are twice or thrice as long, and stinging, smooth, dark 


brown, arising from larger glandular bases ; these increase 
in number upwards, and are much crowded near the top. 
Leaves five inches long, three and a half broad, scattered, 
petioled, oblong, pinnatifid and incised, or oftener bipin- 
natifid, or almost pinnated, and the pinnae pinnatifid, pubes- 
cent on both sides, but especially the under, which is paler, 
with prominent, branching veins, which are a little reticu- 
lated and channelled above. Peduncles scattered, oppo- 
site, but never exactly so, sometimes at a considerable 
distance from the leaves, single-flowered, longer than the 
upper, but shorter than the larger leaves. Flowers nodding, 
rather powerfully, and, as some think, pleasantly perfumed. 
Calyx green, five-parted, segments patent, cordato-ovate, 
acute, reflexed in their sides, submarcescent. Petals one 
inch long, reflexed, navicular, hatchet-shaped, cucullate, 
glandular-pubescent, but sparingly so, except at the claws, 
reticulated, ciliated along the keel, alternating with white, 
erect, truncated, obcordate scales, hollow, and opening 
longitudinally on their inner surface, flat at the apex, there 
transversely marked with elevated stripes, and each ex- 
tended into two short, rose-coloured points in the centre of 
the flower, the stripes reddish-brown on the outside, and 
more and more greenish-yellow towards the centre. Sta- 
mens very numerous, about half as long again as the claws 
of the petals, and lodged, as in all this Genus, within their 
cavities, and advancing in succession ; filaments white, 
glabrous; anthers yellow, becoming brown, short, bilob- 
ular, bursting along the sides ; pollen granular, small, pale 
yellow. Two abortive, subulate, hooked, pubescent fila- 
ments, shorter and broader than the others, are placed on 
the inside of each of the hollow scales, and are at all times 
erect. Germen unilocular, turbinate, inferior, covered with 
pungent hairs, its upper surface flat, becoming conical, and 
rising above the calyx, but there empty, trifid ; ovules 
numerous, attached to three linear, parietal placentas. 
Styles three, cohering, their lower half, as well as the upper 
surface of the germen, covered with hairs. Stigmas very 

I cannot see the propriety of changing the Specific Name 
of Linnaeus to the equally objectionable one of Jacquin ; 
nor could I have thought the reason assigned by Jussieu for 
departing from this last sufficient, even though he had not 
taken a third, which in its turn may be considered inappro- 
priate. It is very true, that all the species of Loasa are 
hispid, and all are stinging; but if such be considered a 


cause for altering a specific name, endless confusion would 
arise in almost every old Genus wherein we have lately 
become acquainted with many new species. I wish specific 
names, when once given, were deemed mere arbitrary and 
immutable terms. Trattinnick, it appears, has considered 
L.urens, Jacq. and L. ambrosicefolia, Juss. as distinct, and 
is followed by Sprengel; but as I am not acquainted with 
the reasons for this opinion, as Jussieu is perfectly explicit 
that they are the same, as his figure agrees sufficiently, and 
as the differences noticed in his description appear to me to 
be trifling, I must follow his opinion, supported as it is by 
Persoon and Lamarck. 

The seeds of this most beautiful species were received at 
the Botanic Garden, in spring last, from my invaluable 
correspondent Mr. Cruckshanks, whose additions to our 
stock of cultivated plants I take delight in recording. 
They were gathered in the valley of Lima. The specimen 
described was raised in a hot-bed, and flowered in the 
greenhouse in the end of July. It has flowered in the 
Royal Botanic Garden at Glasgow * ; and 1 understand 
also in the neighbourhood of London. Graham. 

Where it succeeds well in the open border. 

Fig. I. Outer Petal. 2. Stamen. 3. Inner Petal, with its two abortive 
Stamens. 4. An abortive Stamen from the inner Petal. 5. Capsule, scarcely 
mature, nat. size. 6. Hairs from the Stem. — Magnified. 


( 3058 ) 

Deli ma sarmentosa. Climbing Delima. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— DilleniacejE. ) 
Generic Character. 

Stam. plurima. Carpellum 1, capsulare, 1 — 2-spermum. 
PI ores inter dum abortu dioici. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Delima * sarmentosa; foliis ellipticis serratis integerri- 
misque scabris rigidis, floribus paniculatis hermaphro- 
ditis (?), germinibus capsulisque glabris. 

Delima sarmentosa. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 736. Burm. Ind. p. 
122. t. 37./. 1. Be Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 69. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 597. 

Tetracera sarmentosa. Vahl, Symb. v. 3. p. 70. Willd. 
Sp. PL v. 2. p. 1240. 

Actjsa aspera. Lam. Fl. Cochin, v. I. p. 405 ? 

Trachytella aspera. De Cand. Syst. 1. p. 410, Prodr. 

Descr. A slender, climbing, branching shrub, rough, 
as is every part of the plant, with short, rigid, closely-ap- 
pressed hairs. Leaves alternate, from one to three or four 
inches long, generally almost exactly elliptical, sometimes 
obovate, rarely ovate, rigid, entire, or more or less ob- 
scurely toothed at the margin, particularly in the upper 
half, dark green above, paler beneath, marked with rather 
close and parallel transversely oblique nerves, which are 
prominent beneath. Panicles terminating the branches, 
having a small leaf at the primary divisions, and generally 
a linear bractea at the origin of the lesser ones, and of 
Ihe pedicels. Flowers numerous, in a panicle. Calyx of 
hye leaves, green, the two outer leaves or sepals smaller 
than the three inner ones, grlabrous, the margins ciliated. 

6 Petals 

From delimo, to smooth or polish, from the use made of the rough leaves. 

Petals five, oval, concave., white. Stamens numerous. 
Filaments flexuose, with a thickened or dilated extremity, 
at the top of which are the two transverse cells, opening 
above by a longitudinal fissure. Pistil one : Germen ob- 
lique, gibbous, subovate, gradually tapering upwards into 
a filiform style, and containing 9 — 11 abortive (?) ovules 
at the base of the cell : Stigma dilated. Fruit (in dried 
specimens from Pulo Penang) an ovato-acuminate gla- 
brous follicle, opening on one side, and containing one 
globose, dark -brown seed, surrounded by a beautiful, white, 
cup-shaped, fringed arillus. 

For the introduction of this little-known plant to Britain, 
we are indebted to Dr. Wallich, who sent seeds of it to 
Bretton Hall, whence the specimen here figured was oblig- 
ingly communicated in November, 1830. It is a native of 
China, whence I have received dried specimens from my 
valued friend Charles Millett, Esq., of Ceylon and Mala- 
bar, and I possess the same species from the Horticultural 
Society of London, gathered in Prince of Wales's Island, 
differing only in the fruit being slightly pubescent. The 
Delima nitida of the New World, which I have received both 
from Mr. Parker, gathered in Demerara, and from Mr. 
Lockhart, gathered in Trinidad, very much resembles this, 
but its leaves are less rough, and the style is much shorter: 
or this latter may be the D. hebecarpa, which appears to me 
to differ only in the downy fruit from the D. sarmentosa. 

Again the Tetracera multijlora, D C. is closely allied to our 
plant, and at any rate should, I think, be placed in the same Genus ; 
for the pistil is solitary : and although the flowers were unknown 
to De Candolle, they are figured in De Lessert's Icones; and 
the whole representation has the most perfect accordance with 
the present individual. 

Burman tells us, upon the authority of Hermann, that the 
plant is called Koroswel by the Cingalese, which signifies to 
polish, and that the rigid and scabrous leaves are used for that 
purpose. Lotjreiro says the same of his Act*;a aspera, which 
grows about Canton, nor is his description of it much at variance 
with specimens which we have from the same country; so that 
I am rather inclined to reduce that plant, as a synonym to 
D. sarmentosa. De Candolle has of that (and the same author's 
closely allied Calligonum asperum) constituted the Genus 
Trachytella, on account of the berried, many-seeded fruit; 
but Loureiro expressly says, that he had not noticed the form 
of the seeds. In our plant, in which are probably abortive ger- 
mens, I find many ovules. 

Fig. 1 Flower, scarcely expanded. 2. Expanded Flower. 3. Stamens. 4. 
pistil, a Section of the Germen. 6. Capsule (nat. size). 7. One half of 
the Capsule with its Seed and Arillus (from a dried Chinese specimen). 


Bancroft MP del* 

m JryS.CuiiuVatveHh feb F LMol. 


( 3059 ) 

Monodora Myristica. Jamaica 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Anonace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 3-sepalus, sepalis basi unitis. Pet. 6, basi unita ; 3 
exteriora oblongo-lanceolata, undulato-crispata, 3 interiora 
cordiformia, conniventia. Antherce numerosae, sessiles, 
basin germinis cingentes. Germen solitarium. Stigma 
sessile. Bacca laevis, subglobosa, 1-locularis. Semina in 
pulpa nidulantia. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Monodora* Myristica ; baccis subglobosis magnis. D C. 
Monodora Myristica. Dunal, Monogr. Anon. p. 80. De 

Cand. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 477, Prodr. v. 1 P- 87. 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 604. 
Anona Myristica. Gcertn. de Fruct. v. 2. t. 125./. 1. _ 
American Nutmeg. ec Long, Hist. Jam. v. 3. p. 73j." 

Bancroft in Lunan, Hort. Jam. v. 2. p. 10. 

Descr. " This grows/' according to Dr. Bancroft, " to 
a large, branching tree, in habit resembling the Anonas. 
Leaves confined to the extremities of the branches, disti- 
chous, alternate, oblong, or sometimes obovate, somewhat 
cordate at the base, quite entire, nerved, veined, smooth, 
shining, of a bright, yet pale green above, paler still be- 
neath, from four to five inches long, and from one to two 

in r»ri AC 


* From pons, one, and iup», a gift, in allusion to its solitary fruit. 

inches broad : the petioles are short, grooved above. The 
peduncles opposite to the leaves,, single-flowered, round, 
smooth, greenish -white, pendulous, four to seven inches 
long, generally single on the young branches, or, sometimes 
two, when one is at the base and the other towards the top. 
Occasionally the peduncles spring up on the lateral twigs 
of those branches, at from three to eight inches from the 
terminal leaves ; these twigs being sometimes but half an 
inch or an inch and a half long, and bearing three to five 
leaves. In such cases, the peduncles shoot from the tips of 
the twigs. Near the summit of the peduncles is a bractea, 
reflexed when the flower is full blown, subcordate, acute, 
about twelve-nerved, green, crispato-undulate at the mar- 
gin, slightly variegated with yellowish-red. Flowers fra- 
grant ; when beginning to expand, white, marked with 
purplish-brown spots ; afterwards yellow and the spots 
brighter red. Calyx monophyllous, tube very short, limb 
deeply cleft into three unequal, coloured sepals, their mar- 
gins crisped and waved : the sepal opposite to the bractea 
being shorter and narrower than the other two, which are 
somewhat coriaceous and ovato-acute. Corolla inonope- 
talous, generally twice as long as the calyx ; tube also 
short and reflexed ; limb divided into six segments, arrang- 
ed in a double series. Outer segments three, oblongo- 
ovate, their margins crisped and waved ; of the same color 
as the calycine segments, the ground bright yellow, marked 
with rows of irregular spots or interrupted stripes of 
reddish-brown, extending from the centre obliquely out- 
wards, the smaller calycine sepal only being sometimes 
variegated with greenish-yellow along the middle, and deep 
red at the margins. Inner segments three, from half to 
one-third shorter than the outer series, springing from the 
faux of the corolla by a short claw, cordate, convex, veined, 
yellowish-white externally, somewhat keeled on the back, 
downy and entire at the edges, which adhere slightly 
together, within concave, smooth, shining, of a very pale 
yellow colour, variegated with pale crimson spots. The 
number of both the calycine and corolline segments is liable 
to occasional variation, nor does their figure always pre- 
cisely accord with the above description. 

" Stamens closely set, in about eleven or twelve rows, on 
the receptacle : filaments none ; anthers nearly spherical, 
bilocular, yellowish-white, opening on each side, rather 
below the middle, by a roundish pore : pollen globular, 
yellowish, semitransparent. Germen nearly sphaerical, yel- 

lo wish-white, crowned with a sessile, flattened stigma." 
Dr. Bancroft, on dissecting the recent germen, found it to 
be " thick and fleshy, having a small cavity in the centre, 
with globular ovules arranged around the whole internal 
surface, the seedstalk varying in length." 

The fruit is figured and described by Gartner as, cc a 
simple, nearly globose, one -celled, glabrous, corticated 
Berry. Receptacle none, but the Seeds imbedded, without 
order*, in the pulp: they are ovato-oblong, angled by 
mutual pressure, ferruginous. Integument double. Albumen 
of the same form as the seed, fleshy, hard, sculptured with 
deep, nearly parallel lines, and a longitudinal furrow. 
Cotyledons foliaceous, cordato-lanceolate. Radicle rounded, 
directed to the hilum." 

We are much indebted to Dr. Bancroft of Jamaica for a 
drawing, and specimens both dried and in spirits, and for an 
accurate description of this rare and little-known plant. 
The fruit alone was described by Gjertner, under the name 
of Anona Myristica, from Sir Joseph Banks's Museum. 
According to the Hortus Jamaicensis, the tree is reported 
to have been brought from the continent of South America f 
and planted at the Retreat Estate, Clarendon, Jamaica, 
where it was described by Long, but where it has since been 
destroyed. That author says of it, that the seeds are all 
packed close with singular regularity, so that after displac- 
ing them, it is impossible to restore them to the same order 
and compactness as before : — that they are impregnated 
with an aromatic oil, resembling that of the Eastern Nutmeg, 
from which they differ so little in flavour and quality, that 
they may be used for similar purposes in food or medicine; 
the only perceptible difference to the taste being that they 
are less pungent than the East Indian Nutmeg : and he 
recommends it to general cultivation. Dunal, who had the 
use of Professor DeCandolle's notes, made from dried spe- 
cimens in Mr. Lambert's Herbarium, determined it to be a 
Genus widely distinct from Anona, differing indeed in the 
structure of the petals and fruit, as Dr. Bancroft correctly 


Dr. Bancroft justly observes, that it is only necessary to observe the 
^position of the seeds, as represented in Gartner's own figure, to perceive 
that their position is the very reverse of being" absque ordine" , the hilum of 
each seed being regularly centrifugal, as might have been anticipated from the 
Kind of arrangement which is to be seen in the ovules of the Germen. 

T Mr. Brown considers it more probable, that it was brought by the 
Negroes from some part of the West coast of Africa. 

remarks, from all the other Genera of the Order. At this 
time, there is only one tree in Jamaica, near Stoney Hill, 
whence our specimens were taken, unless the report be cor- 
rect, that a second exists at St. Thomas in the East. 

From the Genus Monodora is to be excluded the M. 
microcarpa, Anona microcarpa of Jacquin (Fragm. Bot. 
t. 44. f. 7), established by that author from the fruit of 
Mr. Brown's Cargillia australis, of the family of Ebena- 
nace^e ; (See Brown's Bot. of Congo, p. 56) so that the 
Monodora Myristica is the only known species of the 

A. Branch of Monodora Myristica, in flower] and B. Fruit (from Gart- 
ner) : nat. size. 

Fig. 1. Portion of a Flower, the reflexed Limb of the Corolla being- removed. 
2. One of the inner Petals or Segments seen from within. 3. Stamen. 4. 
Section of the Germen. 5. 5. Seeds. 6. Albumen. 7- Section of the 
Albumen, to show the Embryo. 8. Embryo. Fig. 1 — 4. more or less mag- 

+ J* 

I'ul: l<\..\\i'lii-!i.s: H'nlworlh, ^/prtf 1, l.1.~l 

( 3060 ) 
Banksia littoralis ? Shore Banksia. 


Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium quadripartitum (raro 4-fidum.) Stamina 
apicibus concavis laciniarum immersa. Squamulce hypo- 
gynae 4. Ovarium triloculare, loculis monospermis. Folli- 
culus ligneus : Dissepimento libero, bifido. Amentum flos- 
culorum paribus tribracteatis ! Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Banksia littoralis? foliis elongato-linearibus spinuloso- 
dentatis basi attenuatis subtus aveniis, perianthiis de- 
ciduis, folliculis compressis bracteisque strobili apice 
tomentosis, caule arboreo, ramulis tomentosis. Br. 

Banksia littoralis ? Br. in Linn. Soc. Trans, v. 10. p. 205 ? 
Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 392 ? Rcem. et Schultes, Syst. 
Veg. v. 3. p. 438 ? Spreng. Syst. Veg. v.\.p. 485 / 
(excl. syn.J Bot. Reg. t. 1363. 

Descr. Shrub erect. Branches ascending, purple, vil- 
lous. Leaves scattered, pubescent when young, naked and 
dark green above when old, densely covered with snowy 
tomentum beneath ; on short, erect petioles, linear, trun- 
cated, spinuloso-serrated, veinless, slightly revolute at the 
e <%es. Amentum (four inches long, three inches broad to 
"ie extremities of the styles) terminal, upon a short, leafy, 
Peduncle, the branches rising far above it, from a whorl at 
jts base. Flowers in pairs, forming rather distant double 
hnes along the rachis, with which, when fully expanded, 
"ley are nearly at right angles, expanding from above 
downwards. Bracteas tomentose, green where exposed, 


yellow where included, either solitary, rhomboid, subacute, 
with the apex turned up, when they are placed between the 
flowers, or geminate, round, and placed above or below 
them. Calyx four-parted, covered with appressed pubes- 
cence ; claws linear, yellow, the spoon-shaped segments of 
the limb reddish, nodding. Anthers elliptical, subsessile in 
the cavities of the calyx. Style twice as long as the calyx, 
shining, of a deep purple colour except at the base and 
apex, where it is yellow, deciduous, rigid, apex nodding. 
Stigma an abrupt, glandular, scarcely-swollen termination 
to the style, retained for a time within the calyx, as in the 
other species, and when liberated, covered with the yellow, 
granular pollen, which gives it a capitate form. 

This species flowered in the greenhouse of the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden, in November, 1830, immediately after 
B. speciosa, figured at t. 3052 of this work, and continued 
also in blossom at the same time with it ; the two species 
forming a good contrast in their colours and manner of 
flowering. The present seems quite different from B. 
microstachya of Cavanilles and B. attenuata of Brown, 
with both of which Sprengel unites his B. littoralis. 

I have assigned the specific name to this plant doubtfully, 
and have quoted all the authorities above cited, with hesi- 
tation ; excepting the Botanical Register ; because there 
seems some reason to question its identity with the plant 
sent from New Holland by Mr. Brown, and cultivated at 
Kew, under the specific appellation of B. littoralis. The 
specimen which flowered with us was received in 1828 
from Mr. Mackay of Clapton, without a name ; again in 
1829, he kindly communicated a seedling, marked B. 
collina, which has proved to be the same, differing only in 
being destitute of veins on the back of the leaf. I have a 
specimen from Mr. Fraser, of a plant that must rank very 
near this, and is chiefly distinguishable by its leaves being 
longer, narrower, and quite entire, except near the apex, 
where there are four small teeth, and by the branches being 
much less hairy. In colour and in the manner of flowering, 
it perfectly coincides. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Two Flowers. 2. Stigma, with part of the Style.— Magnified. 


f.J.U &l? 

Pub I 

fittvrtt. dpril 11831. 

( 3061 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Papaverace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. diphyllus, caducus. Cor. 4-petala. Antherce line- 
ares. Stigma subsessile, peltatum, 4-lobum. Caps, sili- 
miiformis, 1-locularis, bivalvis; Semina valvarum margin- 
ibus affixa. 

Specific Name and Synonym. 

Hunnemannia * fumaricefolia. 

Hunnemannia fumariaefolia. fib. Br. Fl. Gard. t. 276. 

Descr. Stem erect, rounded, smooth, glabrous, glau- 
cous. Leaves petioled, triternately divided, their segments 
linear, rather obtuse, glaucous-green : petiole linear, com- 
pressed. Peduncle solitary, terminal, rounded, glabrous. 
Flower large, handsome, 'of an uniform beautiful clear 
yellow. Calyx of two ovate, concave, glabrous, opposite 
leaves. Corolla of four, at length spreading, concave, 
waved, broadly obovate, or almost roundish petals. Sla~ 
m ens numerous, orange-coloured. Filaments short: Anthers 


Named by Mr. Sweet, in compliment to John Hunneman, Esq. of 
L ondon, who has devoted a long life to furthering the cause of Botanical 
science, by facilitating the intercourse between Naturalists of this country and 
°/ t«e Continent, and by introducing many new seeds and plants to our collec- 
tions. Probably there is not a Botanist, who has not derived advantage 
Jwn the friendly services of Mr. Hunneman, and no one perhaps more 
'"an myself. 

linear,, two-celled, scarcely so long as the filaments. Pistil 
solitary. Germen oblong, tapering upwards into a very 
short style. Stigma peltate, four-lobed ; the lobes spread- 
ing and velvety. Capsule siliquiform, with ten prominent 
ribs, one-celled, two-valved, many-seeded. Seeds attached 
to the marginal sutures, oval, dotted, sessile. 

This interesting plant is a native of Mexico, and was 
introduced to this country by the late Mr. Barclay, a name 
that will be long revered by the Botanist and Cultivator in 
this country, and to whom I am indebted for the specimens 
here figured. They were produced in the open border at 
Bury Hill. 

The Genus is allied, as Mr. Sweet observes, to Meco- 
nopsis ; but still more so, to the beautiful Eschscholzia, 
especially in the foliage, the general structure of the 
flower, and the siliquiform capsule : but it differs in the 
peltate, four-lobed stigma, in the two-leaved calyx, in the 
small receptacle of the parts of the flower, and in the 
sessile seeds. 

Fig. 1. Bud. 2. Flower, from which the Calyx is fallen, hut with its Petals 
not fully expanded. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil. 5. Capsule (nat. size). »• 
Section of the Capsule. 7- Seed (scarcely mature) : — more or less mag- 


m h 

wrth Jpr 

( 3062 ) 

Vernonia acutifolia. Sharp-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Polygamia MqvALis. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum imbricatum. Flosculi tubulosi. Pappus 
duplex : ext. paleaceus : int. pilosus. Receptaculum nu- 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Vernonia* acutifolia; foliis Hneari-lanceolatis attenuates 
subdentatis glabriusculis, floribus alternis secundis 

Vernonia acutifolia. Hortul. 

Descr. Stem elongated, slender, terete, smooth, or in 
the younger branches very slightly hairy. Leaves four to 
six or seven inches long, almost sessile, linear-lanceolate, 
gradually but much attenuated, submembranaceous, the 
margin slightly toothed, dark green and glabrous above, 
beneath paler, and very obscurely hairy ; nerves oblique. 
Flowers solitary, or two together in the axils of the upper 
leaves and secund, sessile. Involucre ovate, imbricated : 
the outer and greater number of the scales are ovate- 
acuminated, green, the point acuminated, rather rigid, and 
more or less reflexed ; the innermost row, next the florets, 
are linear-spathulate, the upper and broad part rose-colour- 
ed, the rest green. Florets numerous, tubular, purplish 


* Named after William Vernon, a Botanist and American Traveller, 
whose Herbarium came into the possession of Sir Hans Sloane, 

rose-colored, five-cleft, the segments linear, patent. Stamens 
exserted, purplish. Stigmas recurved, purplish, downy. 
Germen obovate, silky. Pappus, with the outer paleae 
very narrow, short ; the inner ones capillary and scabrous. 

The present plant was communicated to the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden from that of Bayswater, under the hitherto, 
I believe, unpublished name of Vernonia acutifolia, hut 
without any native country being mentioned ; as, however, 
I possess the same species, gathered by the late Mr. Boog, 
near Rio, in Brazil, our plant here figured, in all probabi- 
lity, is of Brazilian origin also. Its nearest relative is, 
doubtless, the V. sericea, p purpurascens, figured in the 
Botanical Register, t. 522: but that has the leaves consider- 
ably broader, and silky on both sides. Still, the present 
may possibly prove a narrow and nearly glabrous-leaved 
variety of it. 

The present plant blossomed in our stove in the month of 
December : a season when flowers less showy than the pre- 
sent are always acceptable. 

Fig. 1. Floret. 2. Inner Scale of the Involucre. 3. 3. Outer Scales of 
ditto. 4. Portion of the outer and inner Pappus. — Magnified. 

( 3063 ) 

Dryandra nervosa. Nerved-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium quadripartitum vel quadrifidum. Stamina 
apicibus concavis laciniarum immersa. Squamulce hypo- 
gynae 4. Ovarium biloculare, loculis monospermis. Folli- 
culus ligneus: dissepimento libero, bifido. Receptaculum 
commune planum, floribus indeterminatim confertis ; paleis 
angustis, raro nullis. Involucrum commune imbricatum. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Dryandra* nervosa; foliis profunde pinnatifidis subtus 
ferrugineo-tomentosis, lobis linearibus subfalcatis mu- 
cronatis nervosis basi dilatatis, involucri bracteis ob- 
longo-ovatis ferrugineo-tomentosis, perianthii Iaciniis 
linearibus fulvo-hirsutis apice barbatis. 

Dryandra nervosa. " Mackay, MSS. Catal." Sweet Ft. 
Australasica, t. 22. 

Descr. A small shrub, about two feet high, with downy, 
stout, tortuose branches. Leaves nearly a foot long, in- 
cluding the petiole, deeply pinnatifid, coriaceous, dark 
green above, clothed with rusty down beneath, the seg- 
ments one to two inches long, broadly linear, dilated at the 
base, acute at the point, marked with three to four parallel 

nerves : 

Named in compliment to the eminent and learned Swedish Botanist, 
wwfoa to Sir Jos£pn Banks, Jonas Dryander. 

nerves : petioles four to five inches long, rounded, clothed 
with rusty down. The young leaves are covered all over 
with a rich velvety, red tomentum. Head of Flowers ter- 
minal, moderately large, handsome, surrounded at the base 
by an involucre of many imbricated, oblongo-ovate leaves 
or bracteas ; thickly clothed with rusty-coloured down. 
Small, subulate scales are mixed with the flowers. Peri- 
anth tubular, cut nearly half-way down into four, narrow- 
linear, dull orange-coloured, erect laciniae, hairy without, 
and bearded at the extremity. Within each of these laci- 
niae, lodged in a groove, is a linear anther. Germen linear- 
oblong. Style filiform. Stigma clavate. 

The present is one of the many fine Australian Proteace^e 
for which our collections are indebted to Mr. Mackay of the 
Clapham Nursery ; and by him plants were communicated 
to the Liverpool Botanic Garden, where the flowering spe- 
cimen here figured was produced in September, 1830. It 
is a native of the South coast of New Holland, whence the 
seeds were procured by Mr. Baxter. It is a plant of con- 
siderable beauty, and of much variety of colouring. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Segment of the Perianth, with its Stamen. 3. Pistil. 




( 3064 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — PortulacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. aut liber aut imo ovario adhaerens, bipartitus, demum 
circumscissus et deciduus. Pet. 4^—6, aequalia, inter se 
libera, aut ima, basi concreta, calyci inserta. Stam. 8— 15 
(v. plura,) Jilamentis liberis interdum ima corolla adnatis. 
Ovarium subrotundatum. Stylus \, apice 5 — 6- (9-) fidus, 
aut stylus nullus et stigmata 3 — 8 elongata. Capsula sub- 
globosa, 1-locularis, medio circumscissa : Semina plurima 
placentae (v. placentis tot stigmata) centrali affixa. D C. 

Specific Character. 

Portulaca Gilliesii ; caulibus suberectis basi ramosis, 
foliis oblongo-cylindraceis subcompressis obtusis punc- 
tatis, pilis axillaribus fasciculatis erectis appressis, flo- 
ribus terminalibus, petalis calyce longioribus. 

Descr. Perennial. Stem nearly erect, four to five inches 
high, stout in proportion to its length, purplish with trans- 
verse whitish lines, branched, the branches short, princi- 
pally at the base of the stem, sometimes at the extremity. 
Leaves scattered, remote and refl ex i -patent on the stem, 
dense and rosulate on the branches, linear-oblong, tereti- 
compressed, obtuse, green, rosy at the top, and punctated 
with white, pellucid dots. In their axils is a tuft of white, 
erect, appressed hairs. Calyx of two rather unequal, 
broadly oval, membranaceous leaves, scariose and white at 
the margin. Petals five, bright red -purple, patent, broadly 
obovato-rotund, waved. Filaments numerous, deep purple. 


Anthers roundish,, orange. Style filiform. Stigmas seven, 
subulate, reflexed, downy. 

For this new species of Portulaca, as well as for the 
scarcely more beautiful one, P. grandifiora, (t. 2885) we 
are indebted to Dr. Gillies, who communicated seeds from 
the plains of Mendoza. With us the plant flowered in 
the greenhouse in August. Like all other succulent plants 
from the same country, these two species of Portulaca 
should be kept dry, especially during winter. 

The short, dotted, very obtuse leaves, the upright and 
appressed axillary tuft of hairs, together with the large 
size of the blossoms, afford abundant characters for distin- 
guishing the present species. 

Fig. ]. Stamen. 2. Style and Stigmas. 3. Portion of the Stem and 
Leaves. — Magnified. 


lh Jfnll.lSXl. 

( 3065 ) 

Indigofera atropurpurea. Blood- 
flowered Indigofera. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LeguminosjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5-fidus, lobis acutis. Vexillum rotundatum, emar- 
ginatum. Carina utrinque calcare subulato notata, demum 
saepe elastice deflexa. Stam. diadelpha. Stylus filiformis, 
glaber. Legumen teretiusculum, aut planum aut tetrago- 
num, polyspermum, bivalve,, rarius oligospermum, ovatum, 
imo monospermum subglobosum. Semina ovata, utrinque 
truncata, isthmis cellulosis saepe disjuncta. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Indigofera atropurpurea; caule fruticoso erecto, foliis pin- 
natim 5-jugis, foliolis ovato-ellipticis obtusis mu- 
cronatis margine subundulatis, junioribus adpresse 
pubescentibus, adultis glabris, racemis axillaribus 
gracilibus inferioribus longitudine foliorum, legumin- 
ibus pendulis rectis compressis 8 — 10-spermis. 

Indigofera atropurpurea. " Hamilt. in Hort. Hafn. add. 
p. 152." Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepaul, p. 244. De Cand. 
Prodr. v. 2. p. 225. Spreng. Syst. Veg. Cur. post, 
p. 285. 

t Descr. A shrub three to five feet high, with a straight, 
simple stem, and few branches; the young and tender 
parts somewhat villous. Leaves pinnate, from six to twelve 
inches long. Leaflets opposite, six to eight pairs, shortly 
Petioled, oval, entire, smooth on both sides ; their general 
size about an inch and a half long by one inch broad. 


Stipules subulate ; those of the petiole caducous, of the 
leaflets (each pair of which have two) permanent. Racemes 
axillary; by the time the flowers have fallen, considerably 
longer than the leaves, sometimes twice their length. 
Flowers numerous, scattered, before expansion imbricated, 
large, dark purple. Bracteas one-flowered. Legumen 
cylindrical, smooth, reflexed, six- to twelve-seeded. Roxb. 

To the preceding account may be added, that the shrub 
grows very large, and when in full blossom is highly orna- 
mental on account of its numerous long spikes of dark 
purple flowers. It is common in the forests of Nepal, and, 
according to Dr. Roxburgh, was introduced thence into 
the Calcutta Botanic Garden in 1802, by Dr. Hamilton. 

Dr. Roxburgh observes that, e( the same plant has been 
reared from American seeds, sent without a name from 
Philadelphia, by Mr. William Hamilton." It is very 
possible that the Nepal plant may have been introduced 
into Mr. Hamilton's garden at Philadelphia, and acci- 
dentally returned again to Calcutta ; or that Dr. Roxburgh 
may have mistaken a nearly allied species for his I. atro- 
purpurea; but the former assumption is the most probable. 

Fig. 1. Flower, magnified. 2, 3. Fruit, nat. size. 


■ CvitisYahvrth.Jpritl.lMi 

( 3066 ) 
Pladera decussata. Decussate Pladera. 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — GENTiANEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. elongatus, 4-dentatus. Cor. infundibuliformis, Jim- 
bo irregulari. Stamen unicum reliquis minus. Stigma bi- 
lobum. Capsula supera, 1-locularis, 2-bivalvis. Semina 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pladera* decussata; annua, caule erecto 4-alato, ramis 
decussatis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis 3-nerviis, floribus 
terminalibus trichotome paniculatis. Roxb. 

Pladera decussata. Roxb. in Fl. Ind. v. 1. p. 478. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 427. 

Descr. Root small, annual, fibrous. Stem scarcely a 
span high, erect, glabrous, four-sided, the angles four- 
winged, branched, the branches decussate, equally four- 
winged. Leaves few, opposite : the lowest roundish -oval, 
the rest ovato-lanceolate, all three-nerved, entire ; the up- 
permost small, bracteiform. Floivers in a trichotomous 
panicle ; peduncles and pedicels four-winged : the flowers 
jointed on the pedicels. Calyx elongated with four winged 
keels, four-toothed. Corolla, with the tube as long as the 
calyx, infundibuliform ; the limb three-lobed, lobes round- 
ed, the lower one bifid, (two united,) keeled at the back. 
Stamens four, of which three are alternate with the large 


From ir\ct$afos,full of moisture; perhaps from growing in moist situa- 
«ons, certainly not from the nature of the plant itself. 

lobes, and the fourth smaller and apparently abortive; one 
is situated within the keel of the lower lobe : this has a 
thickened, clavate filament, and a small, ovate anther, 
whereas the others have filiform filaments and oblong 
anthers. Germen cylindrical, one-celled, many seeded : 
the seeds attached to the sutures of the valves : Style fili- 
form, shorter than the germen : Stigma two-lobed. 

Two species of this Genus were referred by Linn^us to 
Exacum, a third constituted the Genus Canscora of La- 
marck ; but this was so imperfectly defined, that the MSS. 
name of Pladera of Solander has been preferred, establish- 
ed by Roxburgh in the Fl. Indica, and adopted by Chamisso 
and Schlechtendal in the Linn^ea, and by Sprengel in his 
Systema Vegetabilium. Five species are described by Dr. 
Roxburgh. The present one seems to accord with his P. 
decussata, an inhabitant, indeed, of Bengal ; whereas, our 
plants, which flowered in the stove of the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden, in July, 1830, were raised from seeds communicated 
by Dr. Lindsay, from Nepal. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Upper portion of the Corolla, cut open to show the 
Stamens. 3, 4. Stamens. 5. Pistil. 6. Section of the Germeu. — Magni- 

,llt <ttl' 

Puh by S Curtis Vatk'/n-Ck, May UfSi 

( 3067 ) 

mlmulus perfoliatus. perfoliate 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularine^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx tubulosus, angulatus, 5-dentatus. Corolla perso- 
nata ; labio superiore bilobo lateribus reflexo ; inferiore 
trifido, laciniis subaequalibus. Stamina 4, didynama. An- 
therarum lobis divaricatis. Stigma bilamellatum. Capsula 
calyce inclusa, bilocularis, loculicido-bivalvis ; valvis in- 
tegris. Kunth. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Mimulus * perfoliatus ; caule erecto alato, foliis lanceolatis 
amplexicaulibus brevi-pubescentibus pedunculo axil- 
lari solitario subcymoso multo longioribus. Graham. 

Mimulus perfoliatus. Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. v. 2. p. 
298. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 799. 

Conobea alata. Graham, in Ed. New Phil. Journ. Oct. 
1830. p. 3. 

Descr. Root creeping. Stem (two feet and a half high) 
erect, glabrous, shining, four-sided, four-winged, wings 
undulate, and sparingly ciliated. Branches decussating, 
spreading widely similar to the stem. Leaves (ten inches 
*°ng, two broad) opposite, spreading horizontally, acutely 
serrulate, lanceolate, attenuated and entire towards the 
°ase, at their origin dilated and stem-clasping, much vein- 
ed and reticulated, soft, covered on both sides with very 


Vor m W> an a pe> which the flowers are supposed to resemble. 

V - F 

short pubescence, bright green above, somewhat glaucous 
below, middle-rib very strong, and with the veins pro- 
minent below. Peduncles axillary, opposite, four-sided, 
closely applied to the upper surface of the leaves, and (in- 
cluding the pedicels) about a fifth of their length, pubes- 
cent, bracteate, trifid, the lateral branches again dividing 
in the same way ; pedicels like the peduncles, but less 
distinctly angled. Bracteas lanceolate, entire, acuminate. 
Calyx green, oblique, five-ribbed, five- toothed, pubescent 
on the outside, persisting. Corolla (eight lines long, four 
and a half across) yellow, bilabiate; tube elongated, com- 
pressed laterally in its lower, vertically in its upper half, 
nearly thrice the length of the calyx ; upper lip bifid, re- 
volute, lower lip spreading forwards, plicate, trifid, revolute 
at the apices, all the lobes rounded ; two very prominent 
ridges, very hairy, and somewhat orange-coloured, extend 
backwards into the corolla from the central lobe of the 
lower lip. Stamens didynamous, included ; filaments gla- 
brous, yellow, adhering to the corolla for about half their 
length, connivent ; anthers bilobular, lobes divergent ; 
pollen white. Pistil as long as the stamens ; stigma bifid, 
white, lobes broad, revolute, upper surface pubescent; 
style straight, white, filiform, glabrous, marcescent; germen 
ovate, green, glabrous, four-valved, bilocular ; ovules very 
numerous, attached to a large central receptacle, a trans- 
verse section of which presents a kidney-shaped surface in 
each loculament. 

This plant was raised in the garden of P. Neill, Esq. 
at Canonmills, from Mexican seeds, communicated by Mr. 
D. Don, as probably, a species of Conobea, and flowered in 
the greenhouse, in September, 1830. Graham. 

Since the above was written, Mr. Don has had an oppor- 
tunity, in the garden of Messrs. Whitley & Co., of examin- 
ing specimens of this plant, flowering freely in the open 
air, and has determined it to be a Mimulus, nearly allied to, 
if not the same as, M. perfoliatus of Humboldt and Kunth. 
Their description, indeed, so well accords with our plant, 
that I have little hesitation in adopting the name. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Back view of an Anther. 3. Front view of ditto. 4 - 
Pistil. 5. Young Fruit : not. size. 6. Immature Capsule. 7. Section of a 
nearly ripe Germen.— All but fig. 5, more or less magnified. 


KJ. H. deif 

Put: by* Curtis MUrerUi May 1. 1831 ■ 


( 3068 ) 

Eranthemum strictum. Upright 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Acanthace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5-partitus, aequalis. Cor. hypocrateriformis, limbo 
5-partito, aequali v. parum inasquali. Stam. 2 antherifera, 
exserta. Antherce loculis parallelis muticis. Filamenta 2 
sterilia. OvariiXocuM dispermi. Caps, valvular naviculares, 
dissepimento adnato. Semina retinaculis subtensa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Eranthemum * strictum ; sufFruticosum, erectum, pubes- 
cens, ramis adscendentibus decussatis simplicibus, 
foliis lanceolatis obscure crenulatis, spicis terminalibus 
gracilibus valde elongatis, bracteis oppositis decussatis 
unifloris demum remotis. Wall. 

Eranthemum strictum. " Colebr." Wall in Fl. Ind. v. 1. 
p. 114. Bot. Reg. v. 10. t. 867. 

Descr. A small shrub, of about four or five feet in 
height, slightly covered with short hairs. Stem almost 
found, jointed, sending out quadrangular, slender branches 
in remote pairs. Leaves about four inches long, acute at 
each end ; their margins somewhat revolute and crenulate, 
smooth, shining, and of a peculiar greyish green colour 
above, very pale, and with prominent, hairy, and reticulated 
nerves and veins below. The uppermost or floral leaves, 


From tup, spring, and ados, a flower. Sir J. E. Smith suspects from 
Vtt love, on account of the beauty of the flower. 

at the base of the spikes, approach to the size and figure of 
the bracteas. Petioles about an inch long, flattened above, 
and slightly marginated by the decurrent base of the leaf. 
Spikes solitary, erect, one to two feet long. Rachis sharply 
quadrangular, almost four-winged. Flowers large, dark 
blue, opposite, in alternate pairs, which become remote as 
the spike lengthens. Bracteas appressed, imbricating, their 
extremities cuneato-lanceolate, dark green, acute, ciliated, 
about an inch long ; the lowermost barren, and becoming 
floral leaves. Interior two very small, scarcely longer than 
the five calycine segments, and like them linear, pubescent. 
Tube of the Corolla slender, pubescent, slightly enlarged 
towards the mouth, about twice the length of the outer 
bractea. Segments obovate, truncate, spreading, and flat, 
equal, very pale below. Two filiform, barren stamens are 
between the filaments. Anthers in the mouth of the co- 
rolla, with parallel cells. 

This is almost an equally desirable inmate of the stove 
with the well-known E. pulchellum, for although the flowers 
are not so numerous as in that species, yet they are indivi- 
dually larger, and quite as beautiful in colour. 

Our collections are indebted for its introduction to Dr. 
Wallich. The plant from which our figure was taken, 
flowered in the hothouse of the Glasgow Botanic Garden ; 
but being a native of Nepal, it will probably succeed 
equally well in the greenhouse. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and Bracteas. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistil. — Magnified. 



/'"/£,- S. r„r/,.i H r a/nirr-th May 1.1831. 

( 3069 ) 

Browallia grandiflora. Large- 
flowered Browallia. 


Class and Order. 
Did yn ami a Angiospermia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubulosus, 5-tidus. Cor. tubo apice subinflato, limbo 
hypocrateriformi, lobis subaequalibus. Stam. inclusa. An- 
therce inaequales. Caps. 2-locularis, 2-valvis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Browallia* grandiflora; caule diffuso ramoso, foliis ovatjs 
acutis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris vel in racemis 
terminalibus dispositis, ramulis calycibusque adultis 

Browallia grandiflora. Bot. Reg. t. 1384? Graham in 
Edin. Phil. Journ. Dec. 1830. 

Descr. Annual. Stem herbaceous, diffused, branched, 
smooth, green, purplish below; branches spreading, smooth 
and shining, scattered. Leaves ovate, acuminate, atten- 
uated into a petiole, smooth and shining, the middle rib 
and converging veins prominent below, and channelled 
above. Peduncles straight, single-flowered, axillary, and 
longer than the diminished leaves near the termination ot 
the branches, or collected into lax, terminal racemes, 
when young glanduloso - pubescent. Calyx five-cleft, 
smooth, or, when young, glanduloso-villous, many-nerved, 
nerves branching; segments unequal, spreading, linear, 
channelled. Corolla hypocrateriform ; tube longer than 

. * Named after John Browam,, a Swede, Bishop of Abo in 1743. The 
intimacy and subsequent rupture between Browall and Linn^us, were 
commemorated by the latter in the specific appellations winch he bestowed on 
the only three individuals of the Genus then known. B. data expresses the 
degree of their union ; B. demissa, its cessation; while the ambiguous name ot 
«• third species, B. alienata, while it intimates the uncertain characters ol 
tll c plant, implies also the subsequent difference between the parties. 

the calyx., slightly inflated towards the top,, and compressed 
vertically, glanduloso-villous, greenish-yellow, marked, as 
well as the calyx, with dark streaks; limb plicate in the 
bud, when expanded flat, white, or very pale lilac, with a 
yellow throat, yellow on the outside, bilabiate, the upper 
lip linear and emarginate, the lower much larger, semicir- 
cular, formed of four united, obcordato-cuneate lobes, each 
smaller than the upper lip. Stamens didynamous, adhering 
to the inside of the tube, the two longer ones closing the 
throat of the corolla with the upper part of their filaments, 
which is bent down, flattened and hairy above, their anthers 
included, having one perfect and one abortive lobe, divari- 
cated, compressed, and opening along their upper edge ; 
filaments of the shorter stamens flexuose at the top, filiform 
and smooth, their anthers bilobular, both the lobes perfect, 
divaricated and compressed, bursting along their upper 
edges ; pollen and anthers of all the stamens yellow. Ger- 
men ovate, and slightly compressed, pubescent, bilocular, 
bivalvular, the dissepiment proceeding from the centre of 
the valves across the shorter diameter of the germen ; semi- 
nal receptacle large, central, covered with numerous ovules. 
Style filiform, glabrous, longer than the shorter, shorter 
than the longer stamens, tortuose at the top. Stigma qua- 
drangular, peltate, green, obscurely four-lobed, having two 
depressions or cells in the upper margin, where the anthers 
of the longer stamens are lodged, and two obscure depres- 
sions on the lower side, where the anthers of the shorter 
stamens appear to be placed. 

I am indebted to Dr. Hooker for the description of the style 
and stigma, and for some observations regarding the anthers, for 
the style was lost in the only flower which I reserved for dissection, 
when the specimen was sent to him to be figured in the Botanical 
Magazine. The anthers on the longer and shorter stamens ap- 
peared to him to be alike, reniform, and one-celled ; but I am 
quite certain that the above description of what I saw is accurate: 
the appearance probably varying from abortion. 

We received this plant from the Botanic Garden, Glasgow, in 
October last, having been raised there from seeds collected by Mr. 
Crcckshanks, near Yazo, in the valley of Canta, in Peru. It is 
now (December) flowering very freely in the greenhouse, and 
probably will be found to bear cultivation as a very ornamental 
annual in the open border. Graham. 

The plant figured in the Botanical Register above quoted, has 
the flowers considerably smaller and the leaves more cordate than 
in Dr. Graham's, and appears to be raised from seeds of another 
kind of Browallia, in Mr. Cruckshanks' Herbarium, which I 
have rather been disposed to consider as B. demissa. 

Fig. 1. Portion of the Corolla with Stamens and the upper part of the Style. 2. An 
upper Stamen. 3. A lower ditto. 4. Anthers of a lower Stamen. 5. Pistil. »• 
Stigma. 7. Section of the Germen .—Magnified, 


L'ub: by S Curtis. Walworth. May 11831 

( 3070 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla irregularis, labio superiore quinquefido, inferiore 
tripartita. Stamina 2 antheriiera, 2 sterilia, filamentis vil- 
losis. Capsula bilocularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Schizanthus Hookeri ; corolla tubo limbum aequante, labio 
inferiore longe bicornuto, labii superioris lobo medio 
longe acuminato. 

Schizanthus Hookeri. Gillies MSS. Graham in Edin. 
Phil. Journ. 1830. 

Descr. Biennial ? Stem herbaceous, stout, branched. 
Branches diffuse, whole surface covered with glandular 
pubescence. Leaves variable, once or twice pinnatifid, 
lacinice incised. Pedicels ( three -fourths of an inch long) 
secund, both in flower and fruit, erect. Flowers in large 
branching, terminal, bracteated panicles. Calyx persistent, 
five-parted, four of the segments suberect, the upper rather 
shorter than the next, while the longest, which is closely 
applied to the underside of the tube of the corolla, is con- 
siderably longer than any of the others, at least m the culti- 
vated specimens. Corolla an inch across in both directions, 
slightly pubescent externally, two-lipped ; upper lip, as in 
the other species, three-lobed, the central lobe much nar- 
rower than in S. porrigens, or S. pinnatus (the latter cer- 
tainly distinct from S. pinnatus of Ruiz and Pavon) entire, 
>v ith prominent edges forming the throat, with its sides 
r evolute towards the apex, and drawn out to a long, erect 


point, which, as well as its base, and the whole remainder 
of the corolla, is of an uniform pale rose lilac, rather darker 
and somewhat streaked on the outside, the centre orange- 
coloured, with a few dark purple streaks ; lateral lobes 
bipartite, each segment bifid ; lower-lip tripartite, lateral 
segments linear, very narrow, spreading, and half the length 
of the central one, which is notched, and each segment is 
drawn out into a long beak ; tube slightly curved, laterally 
compressed, and longer than the limb. Stamens four; fila- 
ments pubescent at the base, the two upper ones very short, 
abortive, and projecting forwards from the edge of the 
central lobe of the upper lip, at its base, the two others 
rising from the base of the lower lip, nearly reaching to the 
fissure in its central lobe, and as in the other species, re- 
tained within this till the pollen is ripe, after which they 
advance, and pass forward in straight, parallel lines from 
the centre of the flower : anthers large, green, broadly 
elliptical, notched at their base, bilobular, bursting along 
their inner surface ; pollen greenish-yellow. Stigma very 
minute, terminal. Style rather longer than the stamens, 
ascending at its extremity, lilac. Germen small, conical, 
yellow, bilobular. Ovules numerous, attached to a central 
receptacle in each loculament, capsule ovate, longer than 
the calyx, two-valved, valves bifid. Seeds brown, dotted, 
somewhat scaly, reniform, or so much bent round that their 
extremities meet. 

This remarkably distinct species of Schizanthus was 
raised by James Boog, Esq. in his garden at Portobello, 
from seed brought to this country by my excellent friend, 
Dr. Gillies, having been gathered by him in various places 
on the Chilian side of the Cordillera of the Andes, at an 
elevation of eight or nine thousand feet above the level of 
the sea. The seed was sown in the spring of 1829, in the 
open border, and the plants not having flowered, they were 
taken into the house during winter, and replanted abroad 
in March. The flowers began to appear in June, and were 
abundantly produced during the whole summer. Thus 
treated, Schizanthus Hookeri has proved itself of biennial 
duration, at least; whether it may be longer lived, or 
whether, if raised in a greater degree of heat, the plant 
might not have blossomed in the first year and afterwards 
died, I am unable to say. Dr. Gillies obligingly informed 
me when the flowers first appeared, expressing his convic- 
tion, that the species was hitherto undescribed ; he also 
narrated its most characteristic features, and enclosed a 
specimen. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower, magnified. 2. Fruit, nat. size. 

r.McAv/ien.MD. d*/ 

( 3071 ) 

Janipha Manihot. Eatable-rooted 
Physic-Nut, Bitter Cassada, Manioc, or 


* ******************* 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Euphorbiace.e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Masc. Cal. nullus. Cor. campanulata, quinquefida. 
Stam. 10, libera. Nectarium 10-radiatum. F<em. Cat. 
nullus. Cor. 5-partita. Stigma amplum, carnosum, cris- 
tatum, multifidum. Capsula ovata, apice acutiuscula, tri- 
cocca. Pohl, (sub Manihot.) 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Janipha* Manihot; foliis palmatis 5— 7-partitis glabris 
subtus glaucis, laciniis lanceolatis integernmis, ttori- 

bus racemosis. o qk 

Janipha Manihot. Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. v. A. p. »*>• 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 77. 
Manihot utilissima. Pohl, PL Brasil. Icon. v. 1. P- <**- 

t 24 
Jatropha Manihot. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1428 Ait. Hort. 

Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 330. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 562. 

Lunan, Hort. Jamaic. v. I. p. 161. 
Jatropha. n. 5. Brown, Jam. p. 350. 

* Janipha is an Indian name, applied to another ■£«" °* {* 8 <^£ 
the Jatropha Janipha of L.nk*us. 'mamiiot is equaUy an Ind ™ *PP££ 
tion, by which the various kinds are known in Brazil. The <^ n ^ e ™^; 
being separated from Jatropha, the Generic name off Manihot would I have 
been more properly applied to it, as has already been done by ™»™£ 
Tovrnefort, AdansoV, and, subsequently, by Pohl" Janipha was how- 
ever, established by Kunth, and has been sanctioned by Jussieu, &prengei,, 
and the majority of Botanists. 

Ricinus minor, &c. Sloane, Jam. v. 1. p. 130, t. 85, et t. 

141. /. 1. (root) et vol. 2. App. t. G.f. 1. 
Manihot Theveti, Yucca, et Cassavi. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 

p. 794. 

Descr. cc This has an oblong, tuberous root, as big as 
one's fist, having some fibres drawing its nourishment, and 
being full of a wheyish, venomous juice. The stalks are 
white, crooked, brittle, having a very large pith, and 
several knobs sticking out on every side like warts, being 
the remains of the footstalks of the leaves, which have 
dropped off. The plant usually rises six to seven feet 
high, and has a smooth, white bark ; the branches, which 
come out on every side towards the top, are crooked, and 
have, on every side, near their tops, leaves, irregularly 
placed" (Sloane), on long, terete petioles, broadly cordate 
in their outline, divided nearly to their base into five 
spreading, lanceolate, entire segments, attenuated at both 
extremities, dark green above, pale glaucous beneath ; the 
midrib strong, prominent below, and there yellowish-red : 
from it there branch off several oblique veins, connected by 
lesser transverse ones. Stipules small, lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, caducous. Panicles or compound racemes, axillary 
and terminal, four to five inches long, bearing sometimes 
all male or all female flowers, at other times these are mixed 
on the same peduncle. Pedicels with small, subulate, 
bracteas at their base. Male flower smaller than the 
female. Perianth single, purplish on the outside, fulvous- 
brown within, cut about half-way down into five, spreading 
segments. In the centre of the flower is an orange-colour- 
ed, fleshy, ten-rayed nectary, and the ten stamens alternate 
with its lobes or rays. Filaments shorter than the perianth, 
white, filiform, free. Anthers linear-oblong, yellow. Pol- 
len globular, yellow. Female flower of the same colour as 
the male, deeply five-partite, the laciniae lanceolato-ovate, 
spreading. Nectary an annular, orange-coloured gland or 
ring, in which the purple, ovate, furrowed germen is im- 
bedded : Style short: Stigmas three, reflexed, furrowed, 
and plaited, white. Capsule ovate, trigonous, tricoccous. 
Seeds elliptical, black, shining, with a thick, fleshy, seed- 

We learn from the Hortus Kewensis, that the Cassava has 
been cultivated in the stoves of Great Britain ever since the 
year ] 739, having been introduced from South America, 


where it is most extensively grown, on account of its useful 
and medicinal properties. Some have supposed its native 
country to be Africa, but Pohl expressly states it to be 
indigenous to Brazil, where there exist many apparent 
varieties, differing chiefly in the breadth of the segments of 
their leaves, which that author has distinguished in his truly 
splendid " Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum Brasilia*/' as 
so many distinct species. Indeed, he says himself, of his 
dwarf <c Manihot pusilla, Ego quidem meam Manihot 
pusillam primitivam ipsius Manihot utilissimce plantam 
esse censeo/' 

It is stated in the Hortus Kewensis, that the Jatropha 
Manihot blossoms in our collections in the months of July 
and August. But I have never been able to procure recent 
flowering specimens ; and 1 have felt greatly obliged to my 
valued correspondent, Dr. Nicholson of Antigua, for an 
excellent drawing, here given, made from the recent plant 
in that island. 

Two kinds are especially cultivated in the Colonies, the 
Sweet Cassada of Browne's Jamaica (p. 350) and Lunan's 
Hort. Jam. (v. 1. p. 163.) Manihot Aipi, Pohl; whose root 
is of a white colour, and free from deleterious qualities : and 
the Bitter Cassada, whose root is yellowish, and abounds in 
a poisonous juice. We shall confine our observations to 
the latter kind, which is the one here figured and described. 
They seem not to differ in botanical character. 

When it is considered, that the Manioc belongs to a tribe 
of plants, the Euphorbiace^:, which is essentially distin- 
guished by its acrid and poisonous qualities, and that the 
root of the plant itself abounds in a juice of this peculiar 
character, it cannot fail to excite astonishment in the minds 
of those who are not already aware of the fact, that it never- 
theless yields an abundant flour, rendered innocent indeed 
»y the art of man, and thus most extensively employed in 
lieu of bread, throughout a very large portion of South 
America : and that even to our country it is largely im- 
ported, and served up at table, under the name of Tapioca. 

Such is the poisonous nature of the expressed juice of the 
Ma NI0Cj that it has been known to occasion death in a few 
Minutes. By means of it, the Indians destroyed many of 
their Spanish persecutors. M. Fernier, a physician at 
Surinam, administered a moderate dose to dogs and cats, 
^no died in a space of twenty -five minutes, passed in great 
torments. Their stomachs, on being opened, exhibited no 
symptoms of inflammation, nor affection of the viscera, nor 


was the blood coagulated, whence it appeared, that the 
poison acted on the nervous system ; an idea that was con- 
firmed, by thirty -six drops being afterwards administered 
to a criminal. These had scarcely reached the stomach, 
when the man writhed and screamed with the agonies under 
which he suffered, and fell into convulsions, in which he 
expired in six minutes. Three hours afterwards, the body 
was opened, but no alteration was found, except that the 
stomach was shrunk to less than half its natural size: so that 
it would appear that the fatal principle resides in a volatile 
substance, which may be dissipated by heat; as, indeed, is 
satisfactorily proved, by the mode of preparing the root 
for food. 

By various processes, by bruising between stones, by a 
coarse rasp, or by a mill, the root of the Manioc is broken 
into small pieces, then put into a sack, and subjected to a 
heavy pressure, by which all the juice is expressed. What 
remains is Cassava or Cassada, which, if properly dried, is 
capable of being preserved for a great length of time. 

In French Guiana, according to Aublet, Cassava flour is 
made, by toasting the grated root over the fire, in which 
state, if kept from humidity, it will continue good for 
twenty years. 

Cassava-cake or Cassava-root is the meal, or the grated, 
expressed, and dried root of the Manioc, pounded in a 
mortar, passed through a coarse sieve, and baked on flat 
circular iron plates fixed in a stove. The particles of meal 
are united by the heat, and when thoroughly baked in this 
manner, form cakes, which are sold at the markets, and uni- 
versally esteemed as a wholesome kind of bread. The 
Spaniards, when they first discovered the West Indies, found 
this in general use among the native Indians, who called it 
Cazabbi, and by whom it was preferred to every other kind 
of bread, on account of its easy digestion, the facility with 
which it was cultivated, and its prodigious increase." — L° n S 
in Lunan's Hort. Jamaic. Again, in Guiana, Cipipa is ano- 
ther preparation from this plant, and is the name given to a 
very fine and white fecula, which, according to Aublet, i s 
derived from the expressed juice of the roots, which is de- 
canted off, and suffered to rest some time, when it deposits 
an amylaceous substance, which requires repeated washing- 
I know not whether this is exactly analogous to our Tapioc a - 
" The juice," says Sloane, " evaporated over the fire, gives 
the Tipioca meal." But Lunan tells us, that from ttf 
" roots of the Sweet Cassada, Tapioca is made in Jamaica 

in every respect similar to that imported ; which is done by 
grating them, washing and infusing them in water, and 
evaporating the liquor so as to obtain a sediment like 
starch, which must be well dried in the sun." 

The root of the Manioc is also the basis of several kinds 
of fermented liquors; and an excellent condiment for sea- 
soning meats, called Cabion, or Capion, is prepared from 
the juice, and said to sharpen the appetite. The leaves 
beaten and boiled are eaten after the manner of Spinach ; 
and the fresh root is employed in healing ulcers. 

From what has been above stated, it will appear, that the 
expression of the juice from the root deprives the latter of 
all its deleterious properties ; and that the application of 
heat to these juices, renders their residue also, wholesome 
and nourishing. And whilst Cassava-bread is, as Sloan e 
says, in the most general demand of any provision all over 
the West Indies, and is employed to victual ships ; the use 
of Tapioca is still more extended, and throughout Europe 
is largely employed, for the same purposes as Sago and 

An acre of ground planted with Manioc, yields nourish- 
ment to a greater number of persons, than six acres culti- 
vated with the best Wheat : but it is probable that it 
greatly exhausts the soil. The estate of Mandiocca in 
Brazil,the late residence of M. De Langsdorff, is so called 
on account of the excellency of the Manioc, or Mandiocca 
roots, which are cultivated on it. There, after burning 
the felled trees, the lands are planted with cuttings, (maiu- 
°as) of this plant. In eighteen or twenty months, during 
which time the farmer endeavours above all things to check 
their upward growth by breaking out the buds, the roots 
have attained their full size. Each plantation usually 
yields three crops, and is then abandoned. (Spix and 
Martius' Travels in Brazil. 

, Fi ff . 1. Branch of a plant with Female Flowers. 2. Panicle, with ni..*tlv 
Male Flowers. 3. Pistil. 4. Stamens and Nectary. 5. Anther. 6. heed. 
~~ 3 »4, 5, magnified. 


Ft) h 

'Hfi Mav .1 JgM. 

( 3072 ) 

Chrysophyllum Cainito. Broad-leaved 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Sapotex. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5- seu 4-partitus. Cor. campanulata., 5 — 4-fida. 
Stamina tubo corolla inserta, laciniis opposita. Stylus 
brevis. Stigma subsessile, peltatum. Bacca 1 — 10-locula- 
ris, 1 — 10-sperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Chrysophyllum* Cainito; foliis ellipticis supra nitidis 

subtus aureo - sericeis parallelo-venosis, pedunculis 

sparsis axillaribus terminalibusque aggregatis unifloris. 
Chrysophyllum Cainito. Linn. Sp. PL p. 278. Willd. Sp. 

PL v. I. p. 1083. Jacq. Am. p. 51. t. 37. Lam. 111. 

t. 120. Gcertn. de Fruct. v. 3. p. 120. t. 201. Ait. 

Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 2. p. 12. Spreng. Syst. Veg. 

v. 1. p. 666. 
Chrysophyllum 1-fructu majori globoso, foliis subtus ferru- 

gineis. Browne, Jam. p. 171. t. 14./. 2. 
Anona, foliis subtus ferrugineis, &c. Sloane, Jam. v, 2. p. 

170. t. 229. 
(3.) fructu purpureo, C jamaicense. Jacq. Am. p. 52. 
(y.) fructu cceruleo, C. cceruleum. Jacq. Am. p. 52. 

Descr. This tree is described in its native climate as 
rising to a height of thirty or forty feet, and having a 


* From xfvaot, gold, and tpvtooi, a leaf, from the color of the underside of 
the leaves. Cainito is the American name of the plant. 

trunk a foot in diameter, clothed with a reddish-brown 
bark, with branches and twigs spreading on every side, and 
reaching almost to the ground." — Sloane. The young 
branches are clothed with silky, ferruginous, appressed 
hairs. The leaves are alternate, elliptical, four to five 
inches long, entire, shortly acuminated, dark green and 
glabrous, or with only a few scattered hairs above, beneath 
glossy, with abundant, closely-pressed, golden-rust-colour- 
ed hairs, (aureo-nitentia) which give a satiny appearance, 
" in beauty and strangeness," says Sloane, (e much beyond 
any leaf I ever beheld." The nerves are numerous, parallel, 
and transverse. Petioles short, scarcely more than half an 
inch long. The flowers arise from the axils of the leaves, 
or sometimes from the extremity of the young branches : 
they are on short, single -flowered, aggregated stalks, 
shorter than the petioles. Calyx in five, in our specimens 
four, deep roundish lobes, rust-coloured, and satiny. Corolla 
subcampanulate, yellowish-white, the limb cut into five or 
four roundish lobes. Stamens inserted at the base of the 
limb, and opposite the lobes of it, very small. Filaments 
short, scarcely longer than the rounded, two-lobed anthers. 
Germen ovate, hairy : Style shorter than the germen : Stigma 
obtuse. The fruit is a large, globose, ten-celled Berry, 
m which, however, some of the cells are usually abortive. 
Seed large, compressed, marked with an umbilical areola : 
its albumen fleshy. The Embryo large, erect, the cotyle- 
dons fleshy, with a curved radicle. 

The Star-apple is a well-known fruit of the West Indies, 
where, however, it appears to be more esteemed by the 
natives than it is by Europeans ; yet I am not aware that any 
good figure of it exists in the more recent Botanical publi- 
cations. In our stoves, where it has been known since 
1737, when it was introduced by Philip Miller, it recom- 
mends itself by the beauty of its foliage, particularly on the 
underside : for its flowers not only appear but seldom, but 
they are small in size, and by no means of a brilliant colour. 
They were produced in the month of November, 1830, in 
the stove of the Glasgow Botanic garden. With the view 
to render the figure more complete, the fruit and seeds are 
given, copied from Gartner. 

The wood is said to be serviceable for indoor work, if 
preserved from moisture. 

* Fig. 1. Flower. 2. The same cut open, nat. size. 3. Fruit cut open 
ansversr 1 " 
nat. size. 

sly. 4. Seed. 5. Seed cut through transversely (from Gjjkt»**'' j 

( 3073 ) 

Argemone grandiflora. Large-flowered 
Mexican Poppy. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Papaverace*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Pet. 4 — 6. Stamina plurima. Stylus vix ullus : Stig- 
mata 4 — 7, radiantia, concava, libera. Capsula obovata, 
1-locularis, valvulis apice dehiscens, placentis linearibus. 
Semina sphaerica, scrobiculata. — Flores flavi aut albi. Pe- 
dunculi ante anthesin erecti. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Argemone * grandiflora ; foliis pinnatifidis sinuatis parce 
spinoso-dentatis, caule calyceque laevibus, capsula ob- 
longa tetragona nudiuscula. 

Argemone grandiflora. Sweet, Br. Fl. Gard. t. 226. Bot. 
Reg. t. 1264. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 242. 

Descr. A hardy perennial, throwing up a much branch- 
ed, rounded stem, three to four feet high, which, upwards 
especially, is of a pale yellowish-green colour, with a red- 
dish tinge arising from numerous fine streaks of that colour, 
unarmed as well as the peduncles. Leaves numerous, 
mostly large, plane, or slightly waved, green, whitish in 
the centre, pinnatifid, sinuated and beset with soft and 
remote spinous teeth, the base amplexicaul, the upper 


* Derived from argema, the cataract of the eye, and which again is thus 
named from ap7 o f , silver. The Greeks so called a plant, perhaps this, which 
they considered beneficial in the cure of that complaint. 

ones small and scarcely pinnatifid. Flowers large, in pani- 
cles. Calyx caducous, of three concave, glabrous leaves, 
each lengthened into a soft horn. Petals six, nearly or- 
bicular, pure white, and extremely delicate. Stamens nu- 
merous, spreading, and lying over each other with great 
regularity, orange -yellow. Pistil obtusely four -angled, 
lmear-oblong. Stigma nearly sessile, rich purple, downy, 
with four impressed, bright blue spots. Capsule (scarcely 
mature) oblong, with a few soft, spinous hairs, one-celled, 
with four parietal receptacles, to which many seeds are 

Introduced by Mr. Barclay among many other rarities 
from Mexico ; and now, by that gentleman's well-known 
liberality, it has become a not uncommon inmate of our 
gardens, producing freely its Ene white blossoms with their 
orange stamens and brilliant stigma, through the whole 
summer months. Its stem and peduncles are quite smooth, 
and the fruit has only a few soft spinous teeth, possessing 
none of those " sharpe and venomous prickles," described 
by old Gerarde as characteristic of the A. mexicana, of 
such a nature, " that whosoever had one of them in his 
throte, doubtless it would send him either to heaven or to 
hell *." 

* See the account of Argemone mexicana in t. 243 of the Old Series of 
this Work. 

Fig. 1, Stamen. 2. Section of an unripe Capsule. 

3 7 * 

/•>//. Ac r r„rhs i'.i,,^, „„,,,,,/ //,;•,_, Jim, I I. 

( 3074 ) 

Dendiiobium speciosum. Great 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum ecalcaratum, articulatum cum apice processus 
unguiformis, cujus lateribus petala antica adnata, calcar 
amiulantia. Massce pollinis 4, parallel®. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Dendrobium speciosum; caulibus erectis apice 2 — 3-phyllis, 
foliis ovali-oblongis integerrimis racemo terminali mut- 
tifloro brevioribus, perianthii foliolis angusto-oblongis, 
labello infra divisuram carina Ulrica, lobo intermedio 
latiore quam longo ecarinato. Br. 

Dendrobium speciosum. Sm. Ex. Bot. p. 17. t. 10. Br. 
Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 332. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. I. 
v. 5. p. 212. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 738. 

Descr. Stem a foot or more high, somewhat swollen, 
bulbiform, striated, jointed, sheathed with pale membrana- 
ceous scales, terminated by three large, coriaceous, oval- 
oblong, obtuse leaves, dark green above, paler beneain, 
obscurely striated, eight to nine inches long, bromine 
centre of these, and from the extremity of the stem, arises 
the pedunculated raceme, a foot and a half long: its pedun- 
cle sheathed with large scales or bractea. Flowers resupi- 
nate, numerous, of an uniform, pale yellow colour, (except 
the lip,) deeper towards the extremity, generally secund 
*lien most expanded, though the buds point in various 
directions, scentless. Petals narrow-oblong, nearly equal, 
except that the two upper ones which cover the lip are 

VOL. v 

somewhat falcate, and are swollen at the base where they 
receive the base of the lip, all of them erect, never spread- 
ing *. Lip almost white, within spotted with purple, ob- 
long, erect, the sides incurved, and a little waved, three- 
lobed, the middle or terminal lobe the largest, broad and 
retuse. Column short, white, plane in front, and then 
spotted with purple below the stigma. Anther white, hemi- 
spherical, attached to the back of the top of the column. 
Pollen-Masses yellow. 

Dendrobium speciosum is a New Holland plant, that has 
been long cultivated in our stoves ; but which, as far as I 
am aware, has rarely produced blossoms. In the present 
season, (Jan. 1831,) a noble flowering specimen was com- 
municated to me, from the Liverpool Botanic Garden, 
by the Messrs. Shepherds. The plant was named by Sir 
James E. Smith, in his Exotic Botany, where a figure 
likewise is given, but so unlike our present one, that the 
two plants scarcely appear to be the same. Yet I believe 
they are identical, and that the difference arises from the 
artist of Sir James E. Smith's figure (which was done in 
New Holland,) not being skilled in Botanical drawing. 
The flowers are greatly larger than in our plant, the gib- 
bous or spur-like base, essential to the Genus Dendrobium, 
is omitted, and the petals are widely patent. The plant 
from which our figure is taken was sent by Mr. Fraser 
to the Liverpool Garden. A drawing has likewise been 
obligingly communicated to me, by W. T. Aiton, Esq., 
from the Royal Gardens at Kew. 

* In a fine specimen forwarded to me from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 
since the plate was engraved, one of the blossoms was considerably more 
expanded than is here represented. 

Fig. 1. Flower, slightly magnified. 2. Column or Lip, the latter forced 
back to show more of the former. 3. Front view of the Column. 4. Inte- 
rior view of the Lip. 5. Pollen-Masses.— All more or less magnified. 



( 3075 ) 

Lobelia hypocrateriformis. Salver- 
shaped Lobelia. 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Lobeliace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. tubo hinc fisso (raro integro) ; limbo 5-partito. 
Anthers connatae. Stigma bilobum, (nunc indivisum.) 
Capsula bilocularis, (raro 3-locularis,) apice supero bi- 
valvi. Br. 

Div. Isotoma. Br. Cor. hypocrateriformis, tubo integro, 
limbo parum incequali. Antherce imberbes (2 inferiores 
mucronatce.J Flores racemosi. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lobelia hypocrateriformis; annua glabra, caule subsim- 
plici, foliis linearibus integerrimis. Br. 

Lobelia hypocrateriformis. Br. Prod. v. I. p. 565. Spr. 
Syst. Veg. v. 1. p. 719. 

Descr. A slender, scarcely branched, annual plant. 
Stems erect, glabrous, as is every part, wavy, rounded. 
Leaves scattered, remote, linear-filiform, from halt to three 
quarters of an inch long, spreading, or often recurved, 
obtuse, entire, pale green, gradually becoming smaler up- 
wards, and passing into bracteae. Raceme terminal, tew- 
flowered. Pedicels slender, wavy, much longer than the 
linear bracteae. Calyx superior, of five linear-subulate, 
closely-placed teeth. Corolla truly hypocrateritorm ; the 
tube slender, twice or thrice as long as the calyx, entire, 
almost white : the limb five-partite, somewhat two -lipped, 
the segments broadly obovato - cuneate, submucronate, 

purple, with a small red spot at the" base, the two upper 
ones rather the smallest, approximate, as are the three 
lower, of which the middle segment is the largest of all. 
Filaments white. Anthers oblong 1 , bluish-purple. Germen 
obovate, furrowed, glabrous : Style a little exceeding the 
stamens : Stigma two-lobed. 

This interesting little plant is a native of the Southern 
shores of New Holland, where it was discovered by Mr. 
Brown, and described by that learned author as the type of 
the division of Lobelia which he calls Isotoma. Seeds 
were sent to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, by Mr. C. 
Fraser, and the plants blossomed in the greenhouse during 
the month of September, 1830. 

We possess native specimens, gathered at King George's 
Sound, which are larger than the plant here figured. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Anthers and Stigma : — magnified. 

( 3076 ) 

Broughtonia sanguinea. Crimson- 
flowered Broughtonia. 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Columna libera, v. basi tantum connata labello ungui- 
culato (nunc inferne producto in tubulum ovario adnatum). 
Massce Pollinis 4 parallels, septis completis persistentibus 
distinctae, basi filo granulato elastico auctae. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Broughtonia * sanguinea ; foliis geminis oblongis bulbo 

innatis, scapo diviso. Br. 
Broughtonia sanguinea. Br. in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 5. p. 

217. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 734. 
Dendrobium sanguineum. Swartz, Fl. Ind. Oct. v. 4. p. 

1529. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 4. p. 132. 
Epidendrum sanguineum. Swartz, Prodr. p. 124. 
Viscum radice bulbosa minus, &c. Sloane, Jam. v. I. p. 

250. t. 121. f. 2. 
Satyrium parasiticum ; foliis paucioribus, &c. Browne, 

Jam. p. 324. 

Descr. Bulbs roundish or ovate, dark green, the younger 
ones depressed, slightly compressed, smooth, sheathed with 
a brownish, membranous coat, bearing one or (as would 
appear to be the correct number) two leaves trom the 


* Named by Mr. Brown, in compliment to Mr. Arthur Broughton, an 
En glish Botanist. 

summit, which are said by Swartz to be adnate with the 
bulb, four to five inches long, coriaceous, rigid, obtuse or 
emarginate at the point, channelled in the middle on the 
upper side, somewhat keeled below, nerveless. From the 
base of the leaves, within, rises a rounded, unbranched, 
purplish-green scape, a foot or more high, jointed at inter- 
vals, and having a small, appressed scale at each joint. 
Raceme terminal, lax, few- (seven to eight) flowered. Pedi- 
cels curved upwards, scarcely two inches long, (including 
the adnate spur,) bright red, each with a small bractea 
at the base. Perianth (except at the base of the labellum) 
of a fine rich crimson, inner segments a little paler, and 
more delicate in structure. The three outer segments are 
lanceolato-acuminate, carinated; the two inner and lateral 
ones obovato-cuneate, somewhat waved, veiny ; Labellum 
scarcely longer than the rest of the segments, broadly 
obovate, waved and somewhat crenate at the margin, very 
veiny, and with deep red lines upon an orange-coloured 
ground at the scarcely unguiculated base, where it is 
decurrent, running down into a long spur, which is adnate 
with the slender germen. Column rather short, semicylin- 
drical. Stigma transverse, very viscid. Anther white, 
hemispherical, with four parallel cells, and four oval, com- 
pressed, white pollen-masses, each with a filament, which 
lies upon the edge of the mass. 

Browne, in his Natural History of Jamaica, says that 
this is cc one of the most beautiful species of this tribe of 
plants ;" and it is certain that there are few that can excel 
it in richness of colour. It grows in its native island not 
far from the shore upon the old trunks of Bombax, Rhizo- 
phora, Conocarpus, &c, along with the Cvmbidium nodo- 
sum. (Swartz. J It was introduced to Kew, in 1793, but 
is, probably, yet rare in collections. A specimen has been 
obligingly communicated to me by Charles Horsfall, 
Esq. of Everton, near Liverpool, raised from bulbs sent by 
Mr. Wiles, from Jamaica; and accompanied by an excel- 
lent drawing from the pencil of iMrs. Horsfall. 

Fig. 1. Column and part of the Perianth. 2. Inner view of an Anther- 
case. 3. and 4. Pollen-Masses:— more or less magnified. 

( 3077 ) 

Ornithogalum fimbriatum. Hairy- 
leaved Star of Bethlehem. 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodele^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium inferum, petaloideum, hexaphyllum. Stam. 
alterna majora, seu basi dilatata. Capsula 3-loba, lobis 
sulcatis, 3-locularis, polysperma. Semina biserialia. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ornithogalum * fimbriatum ; foliis linearibus patentibus 

canaliculatis extus scapoque perbrevi hirsutis, racemo 

subcorymboso, pedunculis elongatis patentibus fructi- 

feris deflexis. 
Ornithogalum fimbriatum. " Willd. in Nov. Act. Nat. 

Cur. Berol. 3. p. 26." Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc. v.]. p. 

216. Bot. Reg. t. 555. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. 

p. 50. 
Ornithogalo umbellato affine, foliis pilosis. "Pall, in 

Nov. Act. Petrop. 10. 309." 
Ornithogalum samium villosum umbellatum album, 1 ourn. 

Cor. p. 26. (Bieb.) 

Descr. Bulb ovate, whitish. Leaves all radical, spread- 
ing, six to eight inches long, linear, channelled above and 
glabrous, semicylindrical beneath and very hairy, the apex 
obtuse. Scape exceedingly short, hairy, bearing a short 
but broad raceme of flowers. Peduncles at first erect, short, 
J then 

. * From w, ocn^, a bird, and y*hx, milk: but why so named is very 

then lengthened and becoming patent when the flower 
expands ; somewhat more elongated and deflexed in fruit. 
Bractece at first equal in length with the peduncle, then 
longer, membranaceous, whitish, sheathing. Perianth of 
six spreading, ovato-acuminate leaves, white, green in the 
centre : the three inner ones smaller and less green on the 
back. Stamens opposite the segments of the perianth. 
Filaments white, subulate, very broad at the base, and 
nearly equal in size and shape. Anthers oblong, yellow. 
Germen obovate, deeply three-lobed, each lobe furrowed 
in the centre, so that there are three deep alternating with 
three shallow furrows ; three-celled, cells with many seeds 
arranged in two vertical rows in the inner angle. Style 
short, straight. Stigma small, triquetrous. Fruit (imma- 
ture; of the same form and structure as the germen. 

Marshall Bieberstein and Mr. Ker are surely not cor- 
rect in considering this as so closely allied to O. umbellatum 
that they can scarcely point out any distinction, except the 
hairiness of the leaves. The inflorescence seems to me 
very different, the raceme being almost radical, the pedun- 
cles much more spreading, and becoming deflexed as the 
fruit approaches to maturity. 

It is a native of the Crimea, and was introduced by the 
Horticultural Society of London, in 1821. In the green- 
house of our Botanic Garden it flowers in March, and con- 
tinues in blossom during many successive days. 

Fig. 1. Stamens. 2. Pistil. 3. Section of the Germen. — Magnified. 

307 8. 

-f.y del* 

Pa7>b, S i;,,f. 

( 3078 ) 

Rhipsalis mesembryanthemoides. Fig- 
marigold-like Rhipsalis. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Cacte^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubus ovario adherens, laevis ; limbus superus 3 — 6- 
partitus brevis, dentibus acuminatis mem bran aceis. Pet. 
6, oblonga, patula, calyci inserta. Stam. \2 — 18, petalis 
affixa. Stylus filiformis. Stigmata 3 — 6, patula. Bacca 
pellucida, subrotunda, calyce marcescente coronata. Semina 
intra pulpam nidulantia, exalbuminosa, radicula embryonis 
crassa, cotyled. 2 brevibus obtusis.— Frutices pseudo-para- 
sitici super arbores Ins. Caribcearum orti, s&pius penduli 
aphylli ramosi teretes nudi aut setas minimas subjalcatas 
gerentes, fasciculis tunc or dine spirali quincunciali dispo- 
ses. Flores laterales sessiles parvi albi. Baccae (fere 
Visci) albce pellucidce. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Rhipsalis * mesembryanthemoides; glomerato-ramosa, ra- 
mis erectis teretibus strictis articuliferis, articulis late- 
ralibus confertis teretibus utrinque attenuatis nebu- 
losis medio floriferis, fasciculis setarum capillacearum 
albis pallidis demum mortuisve nigris, Honbus soli- 
tariis. DC. . 

Rhipsalis mesembryanthemoides. Haw. Revis. p. 71. 
De Cand. Prodr. v. 4. p. 476. 

Rhipsalis salicornoides, 0. Haw. in Suppl PI. Succ. p. 83. 


* From f 4, a willow-branch, in allusion to the long flexible stems and 

Descr. Plant easily cultivated in earth, but evidently a 
parasite, like its congeners. Stems woody, covered, as well 
as the branches 3 (which send out roots from different points,) 
with greyish bark, rough with the scars of fallen leaves 
and with scattered black spines. Branches woody, clus- 
tered, densely covered with fleshy, oblong, nearly cylin- 
drical joints (leaves?), which are sprinkled with minute 
dots, and with fascicles of slender black spines. Flowers 
solitary, from the middle of a joint, large, white, inferior in 
size only to those of R. grandiflora. Fruit a white Berry, 
smaller thau that of R. Cassytha. Christy MSS. 

A native, as are most of the Cactus family, of South 
America, and first described by A. H. Haworth, Esq., who 
has for many years paid the most devoted attention to the 
study of succulent plants. That gentleman, however, had 
not seen the blossoms, which were produced in the stove 
of our valued friend, W. Christy, Esq. Clapham Road, 
London, in the month of March, 1831. 

For the drawing of this and the two following species, we 
are indebted to the accurate pencil of Mr. J. D. Sowerby. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil.— Magnified. 


It"* jf 


( 3079 ) 

Rhipsalis fasciculata. Cluster-branched 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Cacte^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. tubus ovario adhaerens, laevis ; limbus superus 3 — 6- 
partitus brevis, dentibus acuminatis membranaceis. Pet. 
6, oblonga, patula, calyci inserta. Stam. 12 — 18, petalis 
affixa. Stylus filiformis. Stigmata 3 — 6, patula. Bacca 
pellucida, subrotunda, calyce marcescente coronata. Semina 
intra pulpam nidulantia, exalbuminosa, radicula embryonis 
crassa, cotyled. 2 brevibus obtusis.— Frutices pseudo-para- 
sitici super arbores Ins. Caribcearum orti, scepius penduli 
aphylli ramosi teretes nudi aut setas minimas subfalcatas 
gerentes, fasciculis tunc ordine spirali quincunciali dispo- 
sitis. Flores laterales sessiles parvi albi. Baccae (fere 
Visci) albcepellucidce. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Rhipsalis fasciculata; pendula, ramis teretibus fasciculate 
pilis cum fasciculis ordine quincunciali spiraliter ser- 
vatis secus ramos juniores. De Cand. Prodr. v. S. 
p. 476. 

Rhipsalis fasciculata. Haw. Suppl. PI. SuccuLp. 83. 

Rhipsalis parasitica. Haw. Syn. PL Succ. p. 187. 

Cactus fasciculatus. Willd. Enum. Suppl p. 33. 

Cactus parasiticus. Lam. Diet. v. 1. p. 541. De Land. 
PL Gras. t. 59. 

Descr. Plant parasitical ; but growing well in a pot of 
soil. Branches springing many together m a dense cluster, 

and more abundantly from near the root, cylindrical, pen- 
dulous, rather thicker than a goose-quill, with many dots 
or scars, especially on the younger branches, and these dots 
are placed beneath a slight protuberance : they each bear 
a fascicle of fine hair-like spines. When the branches are 
young these spines are white, and very soft : but in a more 
advanced state, they are very conspicuous, and of a deep 
black colour. On the older branches, however, they are 
less perceptible. The extremities of the branches are also 
furnished with a tuft of similar spines. Flowers rarely pro- 
duced, and few on a plant, confined to the main branches, 
greenish -white. Petals about six. Stigmas two-lobed, 
the lobes spreading, hairy. Fruit a Berry, similar to that 
of R. Cassytha. Christy MSS. 

Mr. Christy, to whom I am indebted for the opportunity 
of figuring the present species of Rhipsalis, observes, that 
he received the plant from Mr. Hood along with the follow- 
ing, and that he believes it to be a native of Brazil. It 
flowered in March, 1831, for the first time, and, may pro- 
bably, another season, bear more copious blossoms. 

The fruit-bearing plant is represented by M. De Can- 
dolle, in the « Plantes Grasses" above quoted. 

Fig. I. Flower. 2. Stamens. 3. Part of the Style with its two-lobed 
Stigma : — magnified. 


.1 D So»rrh J, U 

Ah. by S Curtis Glajtrxrood Efttx. June 1 183J 

( 3080 ) 
Rhipsalis Cassytha. Naked Rhipsalis. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Cactejs. ) 

Generic Character . 

Cal. tubus ovario adhaerens, laevis ; limbus superus 3 — 6- 
partitus brevis, dentibus acuminatis membranaceis. Pet. 
6, oblonga, patula, calyci inserta. Stam. 12 — 18, petalis 
affixa. Stylus filiformis. Stigmata 3 — 6, patula. Bacca pel- 
lucida, subrotunda, calyce marcescente coronata. Semina 
intra pulpam nidulantia, exalbuminosa,. radicula embryonis 
crassa, cotyled. 2 brevibus obtusis. — Frutices pseudo-para- 
sitici super arbores Ins. Caribcearum orti, scepius penduli 
aphylli ramosi teretes nudi aut setas minimas subfalcatas 
gerentes, fasciculis tunc ordine spirali quincunciali dispo- 
sitis. Flores laterales sessiles parvi albi. Baccae (fere 
Visci) albcepellucid(B. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Rhipsalis Cassytha; pendula, ramis verticillatis nudis gla- 

bris, calyce 4— 6-partito, petalis 4 — 6. 
Rhipsalis Cassytha. Gcertn. Fr. v. 2. p. 136. t. 28. Haw. 

Syn. Succ. PL p. 186. Hook. Ex. Fl. t. 2. (var. Hook- 

eriana. D C.) Be Cand. Rev. des Cact. t. 21. (var. 

Mociniana.) Prodr. v. 3. p. 476. 
Cactus pendulus. Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. p. 876. Willd. Sp. 

PI v. 2. p. 942. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. p. 178. 

Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 2. p. 496. 
Cactus parasiticus, &c. Browne's Jam. p. 238. 

E)escr. A parasite, but flourishing in a pot of common 
s°u in the stove. Stem more woody than in R. grandi- 
flora, covered with a greyish bark. Branches smooth, 


green, cylindrical, obtuse at their extremities, the older 
ones almost truncated. Smaller branches mostly alternate, 
sometimes opposite, the extremities of the main branches 
generally terminating in a sort of whorl of from three to 
six smaller ones. The branches are studded with irregu- 
larly placed dots or scars, whence the flowers, and, occa- 
sionally, young shoots are produced. Each of these scars 
is furnished with a very minute and hardly perceptible 
spinule, in other respects the branches are entirely naked. 
Flowers sessile, greenish -white, most abundant on the 
alternate ramules. Petals five. Stamens numerous. Stig- 
mas generally three-, sometimes four-cleft. Fruit a semi- 
transparent, white, pulpy Berry. Seeds numerous, black, 
apparently in three cells. Christy MSS. 

This is an old inhabitant of our stoves, readily cultivated, 
flowering freely in February and March, and, as Mr. 
Christy observes, (from whose collection our figure was 
made,) when covered with ripe fruit in April, it bears a 
considerable resemblance to a plant of Misseltoe. The 
number of divisions to the calyx, the number of petals and 
lobes to the stigma are evidently variable. 

Fig. 1. Portion of a Flower, the Petals being removed. 2. Flower. 3. 
Stigma. — Magnified. 

Jiy S l'lirl!.< f.ii I ■:!'!' 

( 3081 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Gesneriace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. profunde 5-fidus. Cor. tubulosa, curvata, limbo 
bilabiato, labio superiore fornicato, inferiore 3-fido, laci- 
niis divaricatis. Antherce connexae. Capsula subbaccata, 
unilocularis, polysperma, receptaculis 2 parietalibus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Columnea * hirsute ; foliis ovatis acutiusculis crenato-ser- 

ratis superne hirtis, laciniis calycinis denticulatis lan- 

ceolatis corollisque hirsutis. 
Columnea hirsuta. Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. v. 2. p. 1080. 

fVilld. Sp. PI. v. 3. p. 396. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. I. 

v. 4. p. 68. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 342. 
Achimenes major, &c. Browne, Jam. p. 270. t. 30. f. 3. 
Hapunculus fruticosus, &c. Sloane, Jam. v. I. p. J°. p. 

100./ 1 

Descr. Stem suffrutescent and climbing, according to 
Swartz, branched, branches thick, obtusely quadrangular, 
Pubescenti-scabrous, the extremities soft and herbaceous. 
Leaves opposite, each pair generally unequal in size, three 
to four inches long, borne on rather short, thick footstalks, 
fleshy, ovate, rather acute, with a strong midrib and several 
lateral veins, the margins crenato-serrate, the upper side 
dark green and hairy, the lower pale green, with fewer 
J hairs. 


. * Named in compliment to Fabius Columsa, an Italian Botanist of the 
s 'xteenth century. 

VOL. V. H 

hairs, and those mostly confined to the midrib and nerve, 
and appressed. Flowers from the axils of the superior 
leaves, large, handsome, solitary or two together. Pedun- 
cles nearly an inch long, red, they are mostly declined, so 
that the flowers appear under the stem and leaves. Calyx 
altogether inferior, very hairy, often streaked with about 
five red lines, the tube subglobose, the laciniae linear-lan- 
ceolate, laciniated or toothed at the margin, three outer 
and two inner, these almost close over the mouth of the 
tube when the corolla is removed. Corolla three inches 
long, tubular, curved, the mouth oblique ; gibbous at the 
base above, bright red, streaked with yellow, and yellow 
on the underside, velvety with numerous hairs, two-lipped, 
the lip (in this species being much the largest,) trifid, the 
two lateral segments entire, linear, recurved, the middle 
one large, convex, bifid ; the lower lip of one reflexed, 
linear piece. Stamens four, didynamous ; the stamens 
curved inwards, so as to bring the anthers close, when they 
combine and form apparently one piece. Germen superior, 
ovate, silky, with a thick, bifid, fleshy gland at the base 
above. Style curved, filiform, white, pubescent, glandular 
upward, nearly as long as the corolla : Stigma deflexed, 
with a small, transverse furrow. The fruit I have not seen : 
but the more advanced germens scarcely indicate that it 
will be a berry : they are one-celled, with two opposite, 
parietal receptacles, covered with numerous obovate ovules, 
each upon a short stalk. 

This Columnea has been very coarsely figured by Sloane, 
and a representation of the flower is given by Browne in his 
History of Jamaica. But, although introduced into our 
stoves by the Marquis of Rockingham upwards of fifty 
years ago, according to the Hortus Kewensis, it has not yet 
appeared in any of our modern Botanical periodical publi- 
cations. I was, then, much gratified at receiving in March 
of the present year, a fine flowering specimen from Messrs. 
Shepherds of Liverpool. The plant was sent from Jamaica 
by Mr. Wiles, where, according to Swartz, it inhabits 
rocks, and grows about the roots of trees, in shady moun- 
tain woods. 

Fig 1. Anthers and upper portion of the Filaments. 2. Base of the 
Corolla. 3. Calyx including the Pistil. 4. Pistil. 5. Section of the Ger- 
men : — more or less magnified. 


( 3082 ) 

Drosera binata. Forked-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Pentagynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Droserace^e. ) 

Generic Character.' 

Sepala petalaque 5, inappendiculata. Stam. 5. Styli 
3 — 5, bipartiti. — Herbae in uliginosis sphagnosis crescentes. 
Folia ciliis glandulosis rubidis irritabilibus ornata. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Drosera * binata ; acaulis, foliis longe petiolatis profunde 
bipartitis lobis linearibus, stylis capillaceo-multifidis. 

Drosera binata. Labill. Nov. Holl. v. 1. t. 105. p. 78. 
Be Cand. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 319. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 1. p. 956. 

Descr. Root perennial, of a few stout, descending, 
branched fibres. Leaves all of them radical, five to six 
inches or more long (including the petiole) deeply bipar- 
tite, with two spreading, linear-acuminate lobes, fringed at 
the margin, and clothed on the upper surface with copious 
hairs, tipped with red, viscid glands. Petioles very long, 
terete, glabrous. Scape longer than the leaves, terete, 
reddish at the base, glabrous, bearing a few-flowered co- 
rymb. Pedicels glabrous. Calyx four- to five-partite. 
Petals four or five, large, obovate, waved, yellowish at the 
base. Stamens four or five. Filaments subulate. Anthers 
cordate, deep orange. Pistil : Germen subglobose, four- 

* From fy, S o«, dew, the glands of the leaves distilling a viscid, pellucid 
fluid, resembling dew. 

to five-lobed. Styles four to five, divided into numerous 
capillary segments and obtuse stigmas. 

A native of Van Djemen's Isle, according" to Labillar- 
diere : but in 1823, it sprung up among some earth im- 
ported from New Holland to the Royal Gardens at Kew, 
whence a drawing, taken from the specimen that flowered 
there, was kindly communicated by W. T. Aiton, Esq. 

There can be no question, but that the other DroserjE of 
New South Wales, and the still more showy ones of the 
Cape of Good Hope, may be safely introduced to our 
gardens, if the seeds be kept in moist earth during the 
voyage : and they would prove a most valuable acquisition 
to our collections. 

Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Stamen. 3. Stamens and Pistil. 4. Style and Stigmas: 

30 K 

Pub brSi'nrlis fUiummi S/tatJub 

( 3083 ) 

Fritillaria leucantha. White-flowered 

Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Tulipace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6-petala, basi nectarifera. Semina compressa mar- 
ginata. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Fritillaria * leucantha ; caule paucifloro, floribus axilla- 
ribus terminalibusque solitariis, foliis infimis oppositis 
ovatis apice attenuatis obtasiusculis multinerviis, supe- 
rioribus verticillatis lineari-IanceolatiVcarinatis apice 

Fritillaria leucantha. Graham MSS. 

Imperialis leucantha. Fischer MSS. 

Descr. Bulb round, lobed, covered with a thick brown 
coat, which separates in large fragments, splitting all along 
the furrows between the lobes. Stem simple. Leaves 
(three to four inches long) bright green, or slightly glau- 
cous, somewhat crowded about the middle of the stern, 
the lowest pair opposite, many-nerved, without a conspi- 
cuous middle rib, ovate, tapering towards the apex, which 
is rather blunt; the others more or less perfectly whorled, 
linear-lanceolate, few- (three to five-) nerved, nearly flat in 
front, and with a strong middle-rib behind, extended at the 
apex into a simple cirrhus. Flowers solitary, axillary or 


* From fritillus, a dice-box, but which most authors, according to Sir 
J- E. Smith, consider to mean a chess-board, to which the tessellated flowers 
"car a resemblance. 

terminal, nodding, white, at the base externally green, and 
within at the base, sprinkled with small purplish spots. 
Petals tipped with a green, callous, slightly pubescent 
apex, the three outer ones ovate, the three inner ones obo- 
vate and broader, all gibbous on the outside near the base, 
and there, on the inside, each having a round, green, con- 
spicuous pit, containing honey. Stamens included ; fila- 
ments straight, white, collected together in the centre of 
the flower; Anthers yellow, linear, erect, very loosely 
attached. Pistil longer than the stamens ; stigma trifid, 
slightly diverging ; style straight, somewhat clavate, three- 
sided, twice the length of the anthers, colourless ; Germen 
green, with six prominent, brownish, somewhat waved, lon- 
gitudinal angles. Ovules numerous, in two rows within 
the three cells of the capsule, ovate, flattened, attached by 
their apices to the central receptacle. 

This species, which I conceive should follow P. pyre- 
naica in the arrangement of the Genus, is a native of the 
Altaic Mountains, and was obligingly communicated in 
September, 1830, from the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, 
where it flowered in the open border in the beginning of 

Fi£. 1. Petal. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil. 4. Section of the Germen.— Mag- 


( 3084 ) 

Anthericum ? plumosum. Bearded-flow- 
ered Anthericum. 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodelej3. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium sexpartitum, patens, aequale, deciduum. 
Stam. 6. Filamenta (omnia vel interiora) barbata. An- 
therce versatiles. Ovarium loculis polyspermis. Stylus 
filiformis. Stigma subpapulosum. Capsula subglobosa, 
3-loc, 3-valv., valvis medio septiferis. Semina pauca, an- 
gulata, umbilico nudo. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Anthericum ? plumosum ; scapo- bi- 4-floro subfolioso, pe- 
talis interioribus barbatis, capsulis elongafis trigonis, 
stylo brevi. 

Anthericum plumosum. Ruiz et Pav. v. 3. t. 300. /. b. 
Sch. Syst. Veget. v. 7. p. 481. 

Descr. Root, according to Ruiz and Pavon, composed 
of oblong, fasciculated tubers, attenuated at their base, and 
bearing fibres. Leaves mostly radical, from four to six or 
ten inches long, linear-subulate, channelled, striated, glau- 
cous-green, quite glabrous, those of the stem or scape 
remote, gradually shorter upwards. Scape mostly simple, 
short and naked, or bearing only one leaf, in our specimens 
a foot and more high, bearing three or four leaves or 
oracteae, and sometimes forked. Flowers, generally two 
a * the extremity of the scape or branch, with a bractea at 
fheir base, pedicellated. Perianth small, cut into six deep, 
hnear-oblong, patent divisions, each white at its margin ; 


the three outer ones naked, the three inner beautifully 
fringed with numerous white, succulent hairs, which, when 
seen under a microscope, are, each of them, studded with 
pellucid raised points, directed forwards. Stamens six, in- 
serted at the base of the segments of the perianth, shorter 
than them. Filaments white, subulate, glabrous. Anthers 
oblong, of a deep orange-colour. Pistil : Germen oblong, 
with three angles and three furrows. Style short, columnar. 
Stigma of three, spreading, dilated rays. Capsule (imma- 
ture) almost an inch long, surrounded at the base with the 
withered, persistent segments of the perianth. Cells three ; 
each cell containing many roundish seeds, arranged in one 
series, in the inner angle of the cell. The ripened fruit I 
have not seen. 

Seeds of this were brought from Chili, by our valued 
friend Mr. Cruckshanrs, and together with many others 
from that country and Peru, liberally given to the Botanic 
Garden of Glasgow. The plants raised from them were 
reared in the greenhouse, and produced flowers and nearly 
ripe capsules in April, 1831. The figure of Ruiz and 
Pavon represents a smaller plant than our's, with a simple 
and scarcely leafy scape, bearing larger flowers. Still, I 
believe the two plants are identical. How far it may be 
right to retain this in the Genus Anthericum I scarcely feel 
competent to decide. It differs from that Genus in its quite 
glabrous stamens, in its oblong capsule, short style, three- 
rayed stigma, and in the inner petals being beautifully 
fringed, in this particular approaching the Genus Thysan- 
otus of Mr. Brown, but departing from it in the short, 
straight style, and in the elongated, many-seeded fruit. 

Fig.]. Outer segment of the Perianth. 2. Inner do. 3. Portion of the 
Hair of the Fringe. 4. Pistil. 5. Unripe Fruit, cut through transversely 
to show the Seeds. — Magnified. 

Note. — We here take the opportunity of remarking, that the Gladiolus 
ptittacinus, published at Tab. 3032 of this work, should bear the name of O. 
natalensis, (it being a native of the shores of the Natal River, Cape of Good 
Hope,) given to it by Professor Reinwardt, of Leyden ; who introduced it 
to Europe, and who, we know, has distributed this splendid plant with grea 


ten wtti 

( 3085 ) 

Pterostylis nutans. Nodding-flowered 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium ringens, tetraphyllum, foliolo inferiore bi- 
fido (e duobus infra cohaerentibus conflato). Labellum 
unguiculatum, subinclusum. Lamina basi appendiculata 
v. gibbosa. Ungue infra labio inferiore connate Columna 
basi galea connata, apice alata. Anthera terminalis, per- 
sistens, loculis approximatis. Massce Pollinis in singulo 
loculo binas, compressae, pulvereae. Stigma medio co- 
lumnae adnatum. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pterostylis* nutans ; foliis radicalibus stellatis, flore nu- 
tante, labiis longitudine subaequalibus, galea acumi- 
nata, labello apice attenuato truncato. 

Pterostylis nutans. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. v. I. p. 
327. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 715. 

Descr. Leaves radical, spreading in a stellated manner, 
oval, rather acute, membranous, striated, reticulated, taper- 
ing into a short petiole. Scape erect, scarcely a span high, 
erect, glabrous, with about two foliaceous, sheathing brac- 
teas, and terminated by a solitary, nodding flower : the 
three upper segments of the flower are approximate so as to 


Derived from irrtpv, a wing, and arvXar, a style, in allusion to the wing- 
ed style or column. 

form a helmet, very convex, gibbous at the base, acumi- 
nated at the extremity, greenish -white, striated. Lower 
segment (of two combined segments) small in proportion 
to the rest of the flower, green, with two lanceolato-subulate 
laciniae. Labellum linear-attenuated, downy, rather thick- 
ened and obtuse at the extremity. Column green, with two 
broad, white wings towards the extremity. Germen clavate, 

Introduced to the Royal Gardens at Kew from New 
Holland, in the year 1826. The drawing was made from 
an excellent flowering specimen, in September, 1828, and 
obligingly communicated by Mr. Aiton. 

In the direction of the flower, and in the shape of the 
labellum, this species is altogether different from the P. 
curia, figured in our next plate. 

i } 7 \ S ' L B / Ck Vie j ° f a m ° wer > nat - size. 2. Labellum, with its penicel- 
lated appendage. 3. Front view of the Column :— all but fig. 1. magnified. 


■rn.i EssrjJiilyllSol. 

( 3086 ) 

Pterostylis curta. Short-lipped 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium ringens, tetraphyllum, foliolo inferiore bi- 
fido, (e duobus infra cohaerentibus conflato.) Labellum 
unguiculatum, subinclusum. Lamina basi appendiculata 
v. gibbosa. Ungue infra labio inferiore connato. Columna 
basi galea connata, apice alata. Anthera terminalis, per- 
sistens, loculis approximatis. Massa Pollinis in singulo 
loculo binae, compressae, pulvereae. Stigma medio column® 
adnatum. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pterostylis curta ; foliis radicalibus stellatis, bracteis 
scapi prater floralem 2—3, flore erectiusculo, labio 
inferiore breviore, galea acutiuscula, labelli lamina In- 
tegra. Br. 

Pterostylis curta. Br. Prodr. FL Nov. Holl. v. \.p. Sdb. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 715. 

Descr. Root descending, somewhat filiform, flexuose, 
bearing a few fibres, and, at the extremity, two rounded 
bulbs, about the size of peas. Stem a span or more high, 
erect, bearing two to three small bracteiform, sheathing 
kaoes. The greater number of the leaves, however, are 
radical, oval, striated and reticulated, tapering below into 
a petiole. Flower terminal, solitary, erect, large, the three 
u Pper segments of the perianth are oblong, standing so 
dose as appearing to form but one piece, arched at the top, 


whitish, streaked with green, the extremity brown. Two 
lower segments combined for half their length, so as to 
form one erect, green piece, about equal in length to the 
rest of the flower, and having two acuminated and rather 
spreading segments. Labellum lanceolate, erect, reddish- 
green, having at its base a penicellate appendage point- 
ing downwards. Column erect, greenish, with two broad, 
white wings occupying the upper half, and standing for- 
ward, projecting into a blunt lobe at the base, and at the 
extremity into a subulate lobe. Anther sessile, inserted 
between the two upper lobes of the wings, two-celled, each 
cell bearing two flattened pulverulent pollen-masses. 

The curious and beautiful New Holland Genus Ptero- 
stylis is known to Botanists by Mr. Brown's excellent 
character, and by the splendid designs and analysis of one 
species (P. grandiflora,) executed by Mr. Bauer : but no 
where, perhaps, has any species been cultivated, except at 
the Royal Gardens at Kew, whence Mr. Aiton has most 
kindly communicated drawings of three species which had 
flowered in that rich collection. The present individual was 
marked P. grandiflora: but it differs from Mr. Brown's 
plant so named, in the presence of large radical leaves, in 
the different shape of its labellum, and, especially, in the 
much shorter segments of the lower lip of the flower. To 
me it appears to agree better with the character of P. curta, 
as well as with a specimen in my possession of that plant, 
for which I am indebted to Mr. Brown. In our plant, 
however, the lower lip is nearly, if not quite, equal in 
length with the galea, while in Mr. Brown's P. curta it is 

The specimen here figured was sent by Mr. Allan Cun- 
ningham, and flowered at Kew in October, 1829. The 
species was discovered by Mr. Brown in the neighbourhood 
of Port Jackson. 

Fig. I. Front view of a Flower. 2. Labellum. 3. Column. 4. Anther. 
5. Pollen-Masses. — Magnified. 


( 3087 ) 

Farsetia lunarioides. Lunaria-like 

Class and Order. 
Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 

( Nat. Ord. — CRuciFERiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Silicula sessilis, ovalis aut orbiculata, valvis planis. 
Semina alata. Calyx basi bisaccatus. Petala integra. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Farsetia* lunarioides; caulibus suffruticosis adscenden- 

tibiiSj foliis spathulatis petiolatis siliculisque tomen- 

tosis incanis. Br. 
Farsetia lunarioides. Br. in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 4. p. 

96. De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 157. Spreng. Syst. 

Veget. v. 2. p. 870. 
Alyssum lunarioides. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 461. 
Lunaria graeca. " Willd. Enum. v. 2. p. 675." 
Lunaria fruticosa, perennis, incana, Leucoii folio. Tournef. 

It. ed. AngL v. I. p. 189. cum Ic. 

Descr. Stems nearly a foot high, perennial, and throw- 
ing out many shoots from near the base where the plant is 
suffruticose and purplish : the rest herbaceous, pubescenti- 
hirsute. Leaves numerous at the base and spathulate, 
those of the stem oblong-obtuse, waved, and somewhat 
sinuate, hoary with stellated down on both sides. Flowers 
m dense corymbs, moderately large, extending gradually 
as the fruit ripens into a lax raceme. Pedicels two to three 


Named in compliment to Philip Farseti, a Venetian Botanist. 

lines long, downy, without bracteas. Calyx of four erect, 
elliptical, concave leaves, pale green, hirsute, scarcely sac- 
cate at the base. Petals bright yellow, oblongo-obovate, 
retuse, with a claw nearly equal in length with the border, 
which latter is patent and even recurved. Stamens: Fila- 
ments subulate, the shorter ones with an obtuse tooth in the 
inside near the middle : Anthers oblong, greenish. Pistil: 
Germen oblongo-cylindrical, densely clothed with white 
hairs : Style a quarter of the length of the germen : Stigma 
capitate, papillose, yellow. Pouch elliptical, compressed, 
hoary. Septum complete. Cells two- to four -seeded. 
Seeds large, flat, with a broad, membranous ring. Cotyle- 
dons accumbent. 

This plant is a native of the Greek Archipelago, and 
was introduced to our gardens, where (in England at least) 
it is treated as a hardy perennial, by Mr. Ph. Miixer, in 
1731. The specimen here figured is from the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, where, sheltered by a frame in winter it 
produces its bright coloured blossoms in March and April, 
and those again are succeeded by the numerous and large 

Tournefort has figured this plant in his Voyage to the 
Levant, and his account of its discovery is admirably de- 
scriptive of his own botanical enthusiasm. " The 22d of 
September," he says, " as we passed close by Caloyero, an 
ugly rock twelve miles from Amorgos, the master of our 
vessel would needs climb one of its sharp points to take 
some young falcons out of the nest. We did not dare to 
follow him. This man not only knew how to run up the 
shrouds, but would scale the steepest rocks with surprising 
agility. We desired him to bring us all the plants he could 
light on, assuring him we would willingly resign to him our 
share of the falcons. He accordingly brought us some 
plants, which we could have preferred to all the Birds of 
Paradise in Arabia. The description of one of these beau- 
tiful plants take as follows. Lunaria fruticosa, &c." Voy. 
ed.Angl.v. I. p. 188. 

Fig. 1. Root-leaf: nat. size. 2. Flower. 3. Stamens and Pistil. 4. One 
of the shorter Stamens. 6. Silicula (nat. size.) 7. Seed. 8. Embryo : 
— all but fig. 1 and 6 magnified. 

. dug 

( 3088 ) 

Xanthochymus dulcis. Sweet-fruited 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Guttifer^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus inaequalis imbricatus. Cor. 5-petala 
ovato-rotunda. Nectaria 5 petalis opposita. Stam. 15—20 
altissime 5-delpha petalis alterna ; Antherce, oblongae. 
Stylus brevissimus. Stigma 5-lobum, longum, patulum. 
Bacca maxima pericarpio luteo coriaceo. Sem. 3 — 4. — 
Arbor foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis oppositis integris pe- 
Uolatis ; Jlores fasciculati laterales pedunculati. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Xanthochymus * dulcis; polygama, foliis oblongis, floribus 
lateralibus fasciculatis, corollis globosis, fructibus ova- 
libus obtusis. Roxb. 

Xanthochymus dulcis. Roxb. PL of Corom. v. 3. p. 66. 
t. 270. 

, Descr. A small tree with a straight trunk and oppo- 
site, glabrous branches; green and cylindrical in the 
young shoots. Leaves opposite, six inches and more in 
length, oblong, more or less acuminated, coriaceous, entire, 
glabrous, bright green, glossy, dark above and penni- 
nerved, beneath paler, and veiny. Petiole short, thick. 
Mowers in fascicles, from the joints of a former year's 
shoot, and where the leaves have fallen away. Peduncles 
scarcely longer than the flowers. Calyx of three or four, 


* From Iwflof, yellow, and tom, juice, from the colour of the juice of the 


VOL. V. I 

rather small, unequal, rounded, and somewhat imbricating 
leaves. Corolla of five petals, erect and very concave, so 
as to connive in a globular form, cream-coloured, almost 
white. Bundles of stamens five, erect, each of five filaments, 
free at the extremity, and each terminated by a two-celled, 
rounded, mostly abortive, anther. Alternating with the five 
bundles of stamens, are five rounded, and somewhat tuber- 
cled glands. Pistil : Germen globose, tapering upwards 
into a short style, terminated by a large stigma of five 
spreading, obtuse, stellated rays. The fruit is, according 
to Dr. Roxburgh, a rounded or oval berry, of the size of an 
apple, smooth and bright yellow, with copious yellow pulp, 
five-celled, and five-seeded, or fewer by abortion. These 
seeds are large, oblong, acute, with a distinct broad yellow 
hilum. Integument reticulated. A large portion of the 
pulp, of a more agreeable taste than the rest of the fruit, is 
attached to the seed. Albumen hard, fleshy. 

In the month of February, of the present year, (1831,) 
Mr. Marnock was so obliging as to send to me, from Mrs. 
Beaumont's noble collection at Bretton Hall, the speci- 
men here figured of the Xanthochymus dulcis. " Our 
plant," he says, " is now about ten feet high, and is loaded 
with not less than two hundred flowers and young fruit, 
which latter have every prospect of coming to perfection." 
The seeds had been transmitted to Mrs. Beaumont by Dr. 
Wallich, from the Calcutta Botanic Garden, where it was 
introduced by Dr. Roxburgh, from the Molucca Islands, 
as a supposed species of Mangosteen. The fruit appears 
to be palatable and good. 

Dr. Roxburgh's plants, at the Calcutta Garden, at eight 
years old, were not larger than the one which flowered at 
Bretton Hall. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal, nat. size. 3. Stamens and Gland. 4. Section 
of Pistil, magnified. 5. Fruit 3 and 6. Section of do. nat. size (copied from 
Dr. Roxburgh's Plnt^ 

Dr. Roxburgh's Plate). 


Pab bj S.Curtis: Gt<izenw,r,i S*M» Aaa' l- 1831 


( 3089 ) 

Olea undulata. Wavy-leaved fragrant 
Cape Olive. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Oleine,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-dentatus. Cor. 4-fida (raro nulla). Stylus 2- 
fidus. Drupa baccata, putamine osseo, 1-sperma. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Olea * undulata ; foliis oblongis utrinque acuminatis un- 
dulatis subtus pallidioribus, paniculis terminalibus re- 
petition trichotomis, ramis verrucosis. 

Olea undulata. Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. v. I. p. 1. t. 2. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 34. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 

Olea laurifolia. Lam. III. v. I. p. 29. 

Olea capensis. (|3.) Ait. in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. I. p. 21. 
Roem. et Sch. Syst. Veget. v. \.p. 70. 

Descr. With us, cultivated in the greenhouse, this rises 
with a tree-like stem, to the height of eight or nine feet, 
with many spreading branches, which are rough, with scat- 
tered warts; the young shoots green, and all of them gla- 
brous. Leaves opposite, petiolate, three or four inches 
lo ng, coriaceous, oblong, attenuated at each extremity, 
wavy, dark green above, paler beneath, quite glabrous. 
Petioles from half to three-fourths of an inch long, rounded, 
flattish above. Panicles terminal, somewhat thyrsoid, re- 

. * The £*«»«, of the Greeks, from tow, smooth, in allusion to the nature of 
the oil. 

peatedly divided in a trichotomous manner, with the 
branches four-sided, glabrous, very pale green. Pedicels 
with minute bracteae at their base. Flowers numerous, 
white, very fragrant, small. Calyx minute, yellowish- 
white, four-toothed. Corolla rotate, deeply four-lobed, 
the lobes spreading or recurved. Stamens two, inserted 
opposite to each other in the sinus of the lobes. Anthers 
deep orange. Pistil pale green ; Germen globose. Style 
shorter than the stamens. Stigma globose. 

This is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, where it 
appears to form a tree, yielding a wood so hard, that the 
Dutch colonists, according to Mr. Burchell, call it Yzer- 
hout, (or Iron-wood,) which they esteem for making the 
poles of their waggons as but little inferior to the Hassa- 
gay-wood (CvRnisikfaginea). It is a very desirable green- 
house plant; for after it has attained a certain age, it 
blossoms freely in the early spring, the flowers continue 
for a long period, and are exceedingly fragrant. 

Some Botanists are of opinion, that this is only a variety 
of Olea capensis, (figured in the Bot. Register, t. 613.) ; 
but the leaves are less rigid, longer, and vastly more acu- 
minated at both extremities, and the flowers are smaller. 

Fig. 1. Flowers. — Magnified. 

( 3090 ) 

Melocactus communis. Greater Turk's 
Cap Melon-Thistle. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Cacte^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus ovario adherens, lobi 5 — 6-petaloidei fruc- 
tum juniorem coronantes. Petala totidem cum petalis in 
tubum cyliudraceum longe concreta. Stam. filiformia plu- 
riserialia. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 5-radiatum. Bacca 
laevis calycis et corollae lobis marcescentibus coronata. 
Semina nidulantia. Cotyledones minimae. Plumula sub- 
globosa maxima. — Suffrutices carnosi reg. caudice aphyllo 
simplici rotundato, sulcis profundus et costis verticalibus al- 
ternantibus. Costae tuber cutis confluentibus in apice fasci- 
culi aculeorum insignitce. Spadix seu Cephalium terminate 
cylindraceum tuberculis mammaformibus confertissimis to- 
mentosis et setiferis constans,Jlores in tomento subimmersos 
sub apice gerens. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Melocactus * communis ; ovatus seu subrotundus atro- 

virens 12— 20-angulatus, costis rectis, spinis fascicu- 

latis fuscis subaequalibus. 
(«.) subrotundus. Link et Otto, Diss, de Cact. 1827. t. 11. 

De Cand. Diss, de Cact. 6. Prodr. v. 3. p. 460. 
Cactus melocactus. Linn. Sp. PL p. 666. De Cand. PL 

Grass, t. 1 12. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 938. Haw. Syn. 

PL Succ. p. 173. Diet, des Sc. Nat., cum Ic. Spreng. 

Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 494. 

W ovatus. (Tab. nostr. 3090. J 


From Melo, a Melon, and Cactus ; signifying Melon-shaped Cactus. 

Descr. This curious plant forms a succulent mass, twelve or 
fifteen inches high, and ten inches in diameter ; in the generality 
of our specimens, of a dark and rather lurid green colour, ovate 
in form, cut into from twelve to twenty deep furrows, and as 
many rather acute angles, which are armed with a regular series 
of stellated spines, about five in number (exclusive of lesser aculei 
or bristles) ; and of these five, the three lower ones are the 
largest. They scarcely exceed three lines in length, and are of 
a dusky brown colour. On the summit of this large, ovate, 
leafless stem, is a cylindrical crown, not half the breadth of the 
stem, and from three to five inches in height, composed externally 
of innumerable reddish-brown, compact, rigid, acicular bristles ; 
and within, of a mass of a pale, whitish, cotton-like substance. 
The upper half exhibits some transverse lines, which appear to 
indicate a periodical growth. In the summit of these, the flowers 
are produced, and half imbedded. They are small, red, fleshy, 
cylindrical, or a little swollen below ; above, divided into a 
number of spreading and subreflexed narrow segments : the calyx 
and corolla being combined into one perianth. Anthers numer- 
ous, sessile, inserted upon the throat of the perianth. Germen 
inferior, oval. Style reaching to the mouth of the perianth, and 
there dividing into six or seven filiform styles. Fruit, a small 
oval, red berry, containing numerous small, black, shining seeds. 
The noble Cactus here figured differs from Melocactus 
of authors in its truly ovate, not rounded and somewhat de- 
pressed, form ; and it may perhaps be deemed worthy to con- 
stitute a distinct species. It has many times been imported from 
the island of St. Kitt's, to the Glasgow Botanic Gardens by 
Capt. Mac Arthur. It grows in very dry and barren places, 
often on bare porous rocks, into which its tortuose roots pene- 
trate, if they do not derive nutriment from it. Its increase in 
size is very slow. The inhabitants of St. Kitt's have observed 
plants for a long period of years to make no apparent progress, 
and tradition estimates the age of some of them at from two to 
three hundred years. When the head is by any accident broken 
off, a cluster of new Cactuses springs up from the wound, and 
by removing and planting these, the plant may be increased. 
Care must be taken that the pots be well drained, for this species 
is very impatient of moisture. 

De C andolle mentions a var. " oblongus " of Link and Otto, 
but that is described as being only six inches high, and three and 
a half broad ; whereas our's reaches a gigantic size, and is always 
elongated. From Jamaica, we have lately received a Melo- 
cactus, with a comparatively small, rounded, and depressed 
stem, which is probably the M. communis, a, of De Cand. and the 
"Turk's Caps " of Sloane, and which in the Windward Islands, 
we are told in the Dictionnaire des Sciences Nat. have received 
the name of " Englishmen 's Heads.' 1 

A. Melocactus communis, reduced to one-third of its nat. size. Fig- ' 
Flower. 2. The same, laid open to show the Style and Stamens.— Magntfle . 

ztnr-ed F.ssrx Auqfl.lSSl. 

( 3091 ) 
Aphanochilus blandus. Mild Aphano- 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Labiate. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. subaequalis, 5-dentatus. Cor. tubo calycem aequante, 
breviter 4-fida, lobo superior! suberecto subconcavo emar- 
ginato, inferioribus patentibus. Stam. 4, saepius exserta, 
distantia. Antherarum loculi divergentes vel divancati, 
demum confluentes. Benth. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Aphanochilus* blandus; canescens, foliis oblongis utrinque 
attenuatis, verticillastris secundis laxe spicatis, spicis 
paniculatis. Benth. ' 

Aphanochilus blandus. Benth. in Wall. PL Asiat. Bar. I. 
p 29 

Mentha blanda. Wall. MSS. ann. 1821. non D C. 

Perilla elata. Don, Prod. Fl. Nepal, p. 115. 

Descr. Whole plant hoary, with short, very soft and 
transparent hairs, and yielding a slightly aromatic smell 
especially the spike, on account of the great abundance of 
glands on the calyces, corollas, and bractes. Stem two to 
three feet hiffh, erect as well as the branches, quadrangular, 
furrowed on each face, and slightly thickened at each divi- 
sion. Leaves about three inches long, narrowed and acu 

wi mnr 


* From «, not, <p*w, to appear, and #*6 « % ^m the imperfectly 
formed lips of the corolla. 

minate at the apex, the margins furnished with hroad 
serratures, intermixed with others smaller, entire, and nar- 
rowed at the base into a petiole about half an inch long, 
nearly glabrous on the upper surface, hoary and dotted 
underneath, with prominent and hairy midrib and nerves ; 
the upper leaves smaller, narrower, and more entire, often 
bearing only one or two deep indentures, the floral leaves 
perfectly entire. Spikes slender, three to six inches long, 
semicylindrical. Fascicles of flowers approximate, secund, 
containing each about twenty minute, blue flowers. Bracteas 
subulate. Calyx nearly cylindrical, pubescent, with five 
linear teeth. Corolla twice as long as the calyx, pubescent, 
with resinous dots inside. Upper lobe emarginate, lateral 
ones slightly reflexed, lower one concave. Stamens distant, 
scarcely projecting beyond the mouth of the corolla. Wall. 

This plant was first introduced by Dr. Wallich into the 
Botanic Garden of Calcutta in the year 1819, from seeds 
sent from Nepal under the name of Nutchoo by the Hon. 
Edward Gardner. From thence Dr. Wallich sent seeds 
to the Royal Gardens at Kew, which produced the specimen 
here figured. A species closely allied to this, but differing 
in its shorter and broader leaves, cylindrical spikes, and 
strong smell, has been also sent to this country by Dr. 
Wallich, and described in the Transactions of the Horti- 
cultural Society, and figured by Professor De Candolle 
(PI. Rar. Hort. Genev. p. 23. t. 8.) under the same name of 
Mentha blanda. As far as can be ascertained from the 
figure itself, it appears to have been taken from the A. 
/ceteris (Benth. in 1. c.) or Mentha fattens (Wall. MSS.). 

Fig. ]. Flowers. 2. Single Flower -.—More or less magnified. 

( 3092 ) 

Arracacia esculenta. Eatable 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Umbellifer^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Aracacia. Bancr. Calycis margo obsoletus. Pet. lance- 
olata aut ovata integra, acumine inflexo supra nervum 
medium frenatum. Styli erectiusculi ( " demum diver- 
gentes " ) basi dilatati. Fructus oblongus a latere com- 
pressus. Mericarpia jugis 5-aequalibus laevibus, laterali- 
bus marginantibus. Vittce nullae. — Involucrum o aut I- 
phyllum. Iuvolucella subunilateralia 2 — 8 setacea. Flores 
poly garni, radii hermaphroditic disci masculi aut imperfecti. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Arracacia* esculenta; foliis pinnatis, pinnis pinnatifidis 
incisis serratis lobis acuminatis, fructus jugis obtusis. 

Arracacia esculenta. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 4. p. 244. 

Arracacia xanthorhiza. Bancroft in Trans, of Agr. # 
Hort. Soc. Jam. 

Conium Arracacha. Hook. Exot. Fl. t. 152. (excl. tyn. 
Conii maculati, Humb. ?) 

Descr. Root annual, fleshy, itself a tuber, of a large 
size, yellow or white, and bearing several knobs or other 
tubers on the outside. These latter are of two sorts; the 
°ne kind, comparatively small, proceeds from the upper 
surface or crown of the root, inclining upwards, gives oil 


* So called, from the Indian name of the plant. 

each several germs or shoots towards the top, and is marked 
about the base with horizontal rings, bearing there mem- 
branous sheaths, which gradually wither away : — the 
other or larger and edible sort, grows on the outside and 
below those just mentioned, to the number of eight to ten, 
besides small ones, and descend into the earth ; the largest 
measures eight or nine inches long, by two, or two and a 
half inches in diameter, and is nearly of the same circum- 
ference throughout, tapering off suddenly, and sending out 
a few small fibres at the extremity. Their surface is nearly 
smooth, and covered with a thin pellicle, marked across 
with transverse scars, like the roots of carrots. These latter 
are called " Hijos," i. e. sons, in Bogota, and are the roots 
generally brought to table, being more tender and more 
delicate in flower than the main root or " Madre," mother. 
(Bancr.J Stem erect, two to four feet high, glabrous, 
branched, rounded and striated, green, often streaked with 
purple. Leaves, those arising from the root, six to nine 
inches long, (independent of the petiole,) broadly ovate in 
their circumscription, pinnated with five ovato-acuminate 
pinnae, which are deeply and irregularly pinnatifid, the lower 
pair almost again pinnated, incised and coarsely serrated, 
the segments acuminated. The colour is a dark green, 
shining, paler beneath : the serratures yellowish. Petiole 
about as long, or longer than the leaf, sheathing and mem- 
branous at the base. The stem-leaves are gradually smaller 
and less compound upwards, alternate, with short petioles, 
the uppermost ones sessile and opposite. Umbels mostly 
terminal. Partial umbels small, with small inconspicuous 
flowers : their Involucre, consisting of from two to eight 
small setaceous, simple bracteas, mostly on one side of the 
umbellule. Blossoms of two kinds, those in the centre of the 
umbel are either altogether imperfect, or they bear stamens 
only, having a flat disk in the centre. Filaments at first in- 
curved, purplish. Anthers pale green, at length white. Flow- 
ers of the circumference on longer pedicels, bearing stamens 
and pistil. Calyx none. Petals five, (as in the male fl° we ^j 
erect, not spreading in our specimens, oval, with an incurved 
point, and an elevated line, or fraenum within, of a brown- 
ish-purple colour. The fruit I have only seen imperfect, 
but apparently fully formed : it is oblong, laterally com- 
pressed, each carpel (or mericarp of Decandolle) having 
five longitudinal, equal, rather obtuse ribs, which are even, 
not wrinkled as in Conium. The styles are nearly as long 
as the fruity erect or slightly diverging, dilated at the base. 

We have here given the representation of a plant be- 
longing to a Natural Order, the UmbellifervE, possessing, 
it must be confessed, very few external attractions ; and, 
in general aspect, the present individual may rank among 
the least ornamental of its Tribe. But what this plant 
wants in outward charms, is amply compensated by the 
utility of its roots, which, in certain parts of South Ame- 
rica, are no less esteemed than the Potato is among us. 
In this country, public attention was first directed to the 
" Arracacha," by an account of it published by M. 
Varga's, a native of Santa Fe, in Konig and Sims' " Annals 
of Botany," about the year 1805.— " The root," he says, 
" yields a food which is prepared in the same manner as 
potatoes, is grateful to the palate, and so easy of digestion, 
that it frequently constitutes the chief aliment of the sick. 
Starch and pastry are made from its fecula ; and the root, 
reduced to pulp, enters into the composition of certain 
fermented liquors, supposed to be efficacious as tonics. In 
the city of Santa Fe, and, indeed, wherever it can be pro- 
cured, the Arracacha is as universally used as the potato 
is in England. The cultivation of this plant requires deep 
black mould, that will easily yield to the descent of the 
large vertical roots. It is propagated by planting pieces 
of the root, in each of which is an eye or shoot ; these 
acquire, in three or four months, a size sufficient for culi- 
nary purposes ; though, if permitted to continue six months 
in the ground, they attain to immense dimensions, without 
any injury to their flavour. The colour of the root is 
white, yellow, or purple ; but all the varieties have the 
same quality. , . ... 

" Like the potato, the Arracacha does not thrive in the 
hotter regions of the kingdom, for there the roots will not 
acquire any size, but throw up a great number ot stems, 
or at best, they will be but small and indifferent in flavour. 
In the countries which are there called temperate, being 
less hot than those at the foot of the Cordilleras, this 
vegetable sometimes succeeds, but never so well as mine 
elevated re-ion of those mountains, where the medium 
heat is between 58° and 60° of Fahrenheit Here it is 
that these sorts grow most luxuriantly, and acquire the 

most delicious taste." f 4 . 

M. Vargas further remarks, that he was not aware of the 
existence of this plant in any other part of America than 
the kingdom of Santa Fe ; and also, that it is not mention- 
ed by any American writer except Alcedo, who notices it 
* •* in 

in few words, at the end of his Diccionario Geographico- 
Historico de las Indias Occidentales 6 America. 

No further mention appears to have been made of this 
plant in Britain, till the year 1824, when Mr. Shepherd 
was so fortunate as to bring an individual into flower in 
the Botanic Garden of Liverpool, from which I published 
the figure and description given in the Exotic Flora. A 
few years previously, the late Baron de Shack, of Trinidad, 
had sent roots to the Glasgow Garden, and to that of the 
Horticultural Society of London, as well as to Liverpool. 
At the latter place, I believe, alone, it produced flowers, 
when it soon perished, as did all the other plants that had 
been imported : and the expectations of cultivators, that 
this plant might, with due care, hold a similar rank in this 
country with the potato, were frustrated. 

In Jamaica, however, my valued friend and correspond- 
ent, Dr. Bancroft, directed the attention of the public to 
it, by an interesting memoir, which appeared in the Trans- 
actions of the Agric. and Hort. Soc. of Jamaica, and which 
was read before that Society at Kingston, in July, 182a. 
That gentleman, ever anxious to promote the interests of 
Science and of humanity, was no sooner made aware of the 
value of this plant in domestic oeconomy, than, through 
the medium of Don Francisco Urquinaona, he introduced 
it to Jamaica. " Despairing/' he says, " of succeeding 
with the culture of these roots in the heart of the city, 
(Kingston,) I placed them in charge of a very intelligent 
planter in St. David's Mountains, Mr. Henry Burger, and 
under his fostering care the remaining six throve perfectly; 
so that I was enabled in the following year to send young 
plants of the Arracacha to the Horticultural Society of 
London, and to His Majesty's Gardens at Kew, &c. as 
well as to distribute others to various friends in different 
parishes, through whose attention this vegetable may now, 
I trust, be considered as extensively and well established 
in this island. It is not for me to speak of the value ot 
the Arracacha as an esculent ; this will be best shown m 
the course of time. In flavor it appears to me nearly to 
resemble a mixture of the parsnep with the potato. 1 
am aware that not a few of those who have tasted it but 
once, have not liked it; yet I believe that those who 
have liked it even on the first trial, are quite as numerous. 
For my own part, I am inclined to think, that the taste 
for it may rather be deemed an acquired one ; havin n 

found with several persons, that its relish improved upon 


subsequent trials. As the root requires a longer applica- 
tion of heat than the vegetables in common use, a part of 
the distaste which has been felt for it, may have been caused 
by insufficient dressing. At all events, a vegetable, which 
has, for so many ages been the constant and favourite food 
of a considerable portion of the population of South Ame- 
rica, in preference even to the potato, which is there indi- 
genous, ought not to be thought undeserving of a fair trial 
in the way of cultivation in Jamaica." 

When the Arracacha had arrived at perfection, Dr. 
Bancroft determined it to belong to a new Genus, to 
which he gave the native name of the plant, with a more 
euphonious termination, Arracacia, and the species he 
designated xanthorhiza, to distinguish it from a white 
and purple -rooted kind, which, however, he afterwards, 
I believe, justly deemed to be only a variety : hence Pro- 
fessor De Candolle's reason for changing it. To Dr. 
Bancroft I am indebted for drawings and many details 
of this plant, as our Garden is for the roots. With these 
valuable helps, I have been able here to give a more 
correct figure than that which appeared in the Exotic 
Flora. Still the fruit is a desideratum ;— neither in Tri- 
nidad, nor in Jamaica, nor in Britain, have perfect seeds 
been formed : the fruit has invariably fallen away before 
the seeds were ripe. The plants increase considerably by 
the roots ; and by removing the offsets from the parent 
roots, and keeping them through the winter, as the roots 
of Dahlias are kept, Mr. Murray has found them to vege- 
tate readily in the Spring, and to succeed in a warm 
situation, even in the open air. 

Dr. Bancroft relates the following method of cultivating 
this plant at Bogota ; which is, after separating the upper 
tubers, or knobs, from the root, to detach from these the 
offsets, singly, each with its portion of the substance of the 
tuber, which is then to be pared smoothly all round at the 
bottom, the outer leaves being stripped or cut off, so as to 
kave a sprout from half to two or three inches at the most. 
If any germs or eyes be seen at the base of the offsets, these 
must be carefully cut out. Thus prepared, the shoots are 
Planted in loose mould, in a slanting direction, at distances 
of fifteen or eighteen inches from each other, whether the 
ground be level or sloping. Afterwards, at intervals of 
about two months, the soil ought to be weeded ; and when 
the plants have attained the height often or twelve inches, 
°r whenever they show a disposition to blossom, the bud- 
' ding 

ding tips should be taken off, as the process of flowering 
would hinder the root from coming to its greatest size, 
care being taken not to remove more than the budding 
extremities, lest the growth of the root should thereby also 
suffer ; with the same view, any luxuriance in the shoots 
ought to be prevented, since it must be at the expence 
of the root. From time to time, and particularly after 
weeding the ground, fresh mould should be laid round the 
foot of each plant, to aid likewise in the enlargement 
of the root. In favourable situations, the Arracacha, I 
am told, attains its full size in six months. It does not 
seem to require a rich soil or much moisture ; since here, 
on a loose but poor soil, in the St. Andrew's Mountains, 
where very little rain fell from the time it was planted 
until it was full grown, it throve and reached maturity in 
eight months. The soil which suits Yams, appears equally 
adapted to the Arracacha. 

In Bogota and Popayan, they obtain a succession of 
Arracachas through the whole year, by planting shoots 
at every decrease of the moon. 

The root rasped and macerated in water, deposits a 
fecula, which is in very general use at Bogota, as a light 
nourishment for the sick, in the same manner as the fecula 
of the Maranta arundinacea is in Jamaica. 

In the Exotic Flora, I inclined to an opinion, that the 
Conium moschatum, of Humb. and Kunth. Nov. Gen. v. 5. p. 
14. t. 420, might be the same as our Arracacha ; but the 
more compound leaves of Humboldt's plant, their more 
obtuse segments, less deeply serrated, spotted when dry, 
the much larger umbel, trifid involucre, larger fruit, which 
is broad at the base, and the divaricating styles, together 
with the odour of musk, (whereas our plant has the heavy 
smell of Conium maculatum,) have induced me to consider 
it distinct. It is the Arracacia moschata of De Candolle. 
It grows in cold places, in the province of Los Pastos, near 
Teindala, at an elevation of eight thousand four hundred 
feet above the level of the sea, where it is called by the 
natives, Saccharacha ; a name not very dissimilar to tha 
of our plant. 

Fig. 1. Male Flower, young. 2. Stamen from the same. 3. Male Flower, 
with Stamens exserted. 4. Female Flower, with a Bractea. 5. P eta1 ' 
Fruit, immature, 7. Partial Umbel. — All more or less magnified. 

( 3093 ) 

Arbutus mucronata. Sharp-pointed 


Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogvnia. 

( Nat. Ord.— ERicEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus inferus. Cor. urceolata, limbo 5-dentato, 
reflexo. Antherts dorso biaristatae. Bacca 6-locularis, pla- 
centis laminas polyspermas sistentibus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Arbutus * macronata ; caule lignoso difFuso, foliis ovatis 
cuspidatis denticulato-serrulatis rigidis utrinque niti- 
dis,, pedunculis axillaribus folia subaequantibus brae- 
teatis 1-floris cernuis. 

Arbutus mucronata. Linn. fil. Suppl. 239. Forst. Com- 
ment. Goett. 9. p. 31. Lam. III. t. 366. f. 2. Willd. 
Sp. PL v. 2. p. 619. Spreng. Syst. Vegei. v. 2. p. 287. 

Descr. Shrub much branched from the root ; branches 
diffuse, round ; bark brown and cracked, younger branch- 
es reddish, sparingly pubescent, the hairs flexuose, sub- 
ulate, arising from red glands, at first white and soon 
becoming yellow. Leaves (eight lines long, four lines 
broad) on short petioles, scattered, turned towards the light, 
flat, naked and shining, dark green in front, pale behind, 
coriaceous, with a distinct middle rib, but obscure veins, 
excepting on the old leaves, which are faintly reticulated, 
ovate or lanceolato - ovate, denticulato- serrulate, and ter- 

* So named from ar, rough or austere, and boisc, a bush, in Celtic. 

minated by a long, rigid bristle. Flowers axillary, solitary, 
white, nodding. Peduncles pale green, nearly as long as 
the leaves, sprinkled with reddish pubescence, and having 
several scattered, appressed, ovate bracteas on their lower 
half. Calyx naked, white, five-parted ; segments acute. 
Corolla white, campanulate, rather smaller than that of 
Convallaria majalis, somewhat transparent between the 
calyx-segments, five-toothed, segments reflected. Stamens 
ten ; filaments cordato-ovate, white, and under a moderately 
powerful lens appearing rough ; Anthers attached by their 
backs to the apex of the filament, erect, brown, attenuated 
at their points, where they open by two pores, bristles 
very short, erect. Pistil included. Stigma of five, erect 
points. Style nearly half as long as the whole pistil, erect, 
cylindrical, pale yellowish-green ; Germen equalling the 
stamens in length, round, smooth, green. 

We raised a single plant of this species from seed given 
us by Mr. Mackay in 1828, which flowered in the Edin- 
burgh Bot. Garden, May 1830, for the first time. It is 
stated by Forster, to be a native of the Streights of Ma- 
gellan. Mr. Mackay's seeds were received from Mr. An- 
derson, an indefatigable and highly successful cultivator, 
who has been sent to explore the southern parts of the 
continent of America, by the establishment at Clapton : 
but I do not know the exact station where he met with the 
plant. Graham. 

Tig. 1. Leaf: nat. size. 2. Flower. 3, 4. Stamens. 5. Apex of a Cell 
of the Anther. 6. Pistil.— M agnified. 

( 3094 ) 

Calceolaria angustiflora. Narrow- 
flowered Slipper-wort. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partitus. Cor. bilabiata : labium inferius calcei- 
forme, inflatum. Caps, semibivalvis : valvulis bifidis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Calceolaria angustiflora ; caule suffrutescente, ramis dif- 
fusis purpureo-maculatis foliisque oppositis vel ternatis 
pedunculatis ovato-oblongis duplicato-serratis pubes- 
centibus subviscidis, pedunculis axillaribus umbella- 
tis in paniculo terminali collectis. 

Calceolaria angustiflora. Ruiz et Pavon, Fl. Peruv. v. 1. 
p. 17. t. 28. f. a. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. \.p 47. 

Descr. Stem scarcely woody, slender, much branched 
and diffused ; branches green, sprinkled with oblong pur- 
ple spots, pubescent, hairs spreading. Leaves nearly two 
inches long and one inch broad, petioled, opposite or ter- 
nate, ovato-oblong, doubly and unequally inciso-serrated, 
pubescent on both sides, as well as the branches subviscid, 
shining and bright green above, paler below, veined and 
wrinkled, veins prominent below, channelled above. Pe- 
duncles axillary, umbellate, forming an oblong panicle at 
the extremity of the branches, the lower peduncles gene- 
rally supporting four pedicels, two of which are occasion- 
ally branched, the upper peduncles with fewer pedicels, or 
simple ; two bracteas of the structure and form of small 
leaves, are at the origin of the pedicels, these, as well as 
the peduncles, pedicels, and calyx, are pubescent and sub- 
viscid : 

viscid: the whole scarcely exceeding the length of the leaf, 
in the axil of which they are placed. Calyx four-parted ; 
segments unequal, lanceolate, the upper the broadest. 
Corolla yellow, upper lip wanting, there being only a 
scarcely prominent ring, passing round the germen; low- 
er lip extremely slender, and somewhat pubescent at its 
origin, turgid below, and closed by a prolongation of its 
upper edge, turned up and brought into contact with the 
stigma. Stamens two, having their origin from the lower 
half of the ring which forms the faux of the corolla ; fila- 
ments erect. Anthers large, yellow, as in the other species, 
bilocular with the lobes attached to each other by their 
ends, and bursting along the front. Pistil rather longer 
than the stamens ; stigma minute ; style somewhat hooked 
downwards. Germen pubescent, and, as in the other 
species, conical and furrowed on two sides. 

The only plant of this species which we possess, was re- 
ceived from the Botanic Garden of Glasgow, where it was 
raised from seed communicated from Lima by Mr. Crucr- 
shanrs. In habit and appearance it is very distinct from 
any of the species already in cultivation, and corresponds 
with a native specimen that Mr. Crucrshanrs kindly 
gave me, as well as with the figure of Ruiz and Pavon, 
sufficiently to induce me to consider it as illustrative of the 
form to which these authors applied the specific name 
that I have adopted. Still, a continued experience of the 
tendency to produce hybrids which this Genus possesses, 
renders me more and more sceptical about the title which 
very appreciable varieties of form have to be considered 
specifically distinct. In a former number of the Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal, I noticed some mule plants, which 
had been raised by Mr. Gardner, at Grantown, near Edin- 
burgh, by artificially impregnating some of the most dis- 
tinguishable kinds of Calceolaria : since that time, the 
same cultivator has obtained all sorts of mixtures, and 
blended different species into one another, through an in- 
finity of gradations. 

In the figure of Ruiz and Pavon, the lip of the corolla is 
much less turgid than it appears either in the cultivated 
plant or in my native specimens ; but the representations 
are not always correct in these details, and the station, 
Canta, assigned by these authors for C. angustifiora, is the 
same as where Mr. Cruckshanrs gathered the individual 
plant that he gave me. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Leaf, nat. size. 2. Corolla, with the lip forced back; slightly 
magn >Jied. 

/'lib hi \./ nrti.. /.;',i zmammJ ttmm.iffl.19M. 

( 3095 ) 

Annona squamosa. Undulated Custard- 
apple, Sugar-apple, Sweet-sop. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Old. — AnnonacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala 3, basi coalita concava, subcordata, acutiuscula. 
Petala 6, crassiuscula, interiora minora aut nulla ; anthera? 
plurirnae subsessiles apice angulatse dilatatae torum obte- 
gentes. Carpella plarima coalita in baccam unicam sessi- 
lem cortice muricato squamoso aut reticulata, intus pulpo- 
sam, ad ambitum multi-locularem, loculis 1-spermis. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Annona squamosa ; foliis oblongis acutis glabris, fructibus 
rotundatis obtuse squamosis, petalis exterioribus lan- 
eeolatis, interioribus minutis (quandoque nullis ?) 

Annona squamosa. Linn. Sp. PL p. 757. Jacq. Obs. 1. 
p. 13. t. 6. / 1. Swartz, Obs. p. 221. Willd. Sp. PL 
v. 2. p. 1264. Dunal, Monogr. p. 69. Ait. Hort. Kew. 
ed. 2. v. 3. p. 334. De Cand. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 472, 
Pro dr. v. 1. p. 85. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 640. 

Atamaram. Rheed. Matab. v. 3. p. 21. t. 29. 

Annona tuberosa. Rumph. Amb. v. l.p. 138. t. 46. 

Anona foliis odoratis minoribus, &c. Shane, Jam. v. 2. 
t. 227. 

Anona foliis oblongo-ovatis undulatis venosis, &c. Browne, 
Jam. p. 256. 

Descr. This forms a tree, or large shrub, fourteen or 
fifteen feet high, with a smooth and low trunk, and numer- 
ous patent, rounded branches. Leaves petioled, alternate, 


oblong, mostly acute, entire, nerved, glaucous beneath : 
the petioles short, thickened below. Peduncles lateral, 
generally two-flowered. Flowers pendent. Calyx in three 
triangular, acute segments, small. Petals : three exte- 
rior ones an inch long, lanceolate, triquetrous, of a thick 
and fleshy texture, glabrous, moderately spreading, green 
without, pale within, and having a deep purple-coloured 
depression at the base of each; three interior petals minute 
(according to authors, but neither Swartz mentions them, 
nor does Mr. Guilding figure or describe any). Stamens 
forming a very compact, broad ring or circle around the 
pistils, obtuse : Filament very short. Cells of the anther 
longitudinal, occupying the same plane as the filament. 
Pistils collected into a compact, cone-shaped body, very 
small, each with a capitate and somewhat acute stigma. 
Fruit compound, large, roundish or oval, of a yellowish- 
green colour, embossed with prominent, oblong and some- 
what imbricated, obtuse, adnate scales, which in maturity 
spread and are more depressed; internally filled with as 
many pulpy cells as there are united fruits, some being abor- 
tive, the rest one-seeded : these all radiate from a central, 
oblongo-acuminated receptacle, from which, when ripe, the 
pulp readily separates. Seeds oblong, deep brownish- 
black, compressed, with a pale swelling at the hilum. 
Albumen filled with numerous transverse, brown lines or 

The Sweet-sop or Sugar-Apple has been mentioned by 
some authors as a native exclusively of South America, 
by others, as both of Asiatic and American origin. St. 
Hilaire *, however, has come to the conclusion, that it was 
imported from the East Indies to the New World. " The 
Brazilians," he says, « designate all their Annonas which 
are truly indigenous, by the word Araticu, which belongs to 
the Guazani tongue. With regard, however, to the Annona 
squamosa, which I have always seen cultivated, and which 
Vellozo, in his MSS. mentions as not being a native of 
the country, it is known under the names of Pinha, or 
Ata. The first of these is evidently given, from the resem- 
blance of the fruit to that of the Pine-apple: yet it is never 
applied to those indigenous species which have the same 
torm consequently it was introduced to Brazil along with 
the plant. The second name Ata, is derived from Attoa and 


* Plantes Usuelles des Braziliens, Livr. 6. p. 5. 

Atis, by which the plant is called in Asia, and which is of 
Oriental origin. 3 ' Hence our author concludes that Asia is 
the native country of the Sugar-Apple. This opinion is 
strengthened by what Sloane says, " that it was brought 
by the Chinese and Arabs from the Manhilas and Philip- 
pine Islands to Malabar, and afterwards to East India by 
the Portuguese/' Be this as it may, the plant is now 
abundantly cultivated in the New as well as in the Old 
World, and principally on account of the fruit. Yet, in 
regard to its quality, there seems to be some difference of 
opinion. Browne says that, " it is pretty much esteemed 
by many of the fair sex, though seldom served up at table." 
In the French Colonies, it is known under the name of 
Pomme Candle and Coeur de Bceuf, and is highly esteemed 
for its agreeable flavour. The unripe fruit, according to 
Sloane, boiled with a little ginger in fair water, cures the 
vertigo ; and ec the leaves beaten, adding salt to them, 
make a poultess, which put on malignant tumours power- 
fully ripens them." 

Annona squamosa was introduced to the stoves of this 
country in the year 1731, but it does not appear that it has 
ever produced fruit, nor even flowers in this country : hence 
I have great pleasure in publishing, though on a reduced 
scale, the beautiful drawings sent to me by my friend the 
Rev. Lansdown Guilding, and made by him from the 
living plant in the Island of St. Vincent. 

Fig. 1. Small flowering Branch ; nat size. 2. Section of a bud, made 
near the middle. 3. Expanded Flower. 4, 5. Stamens. 6. Calyx, Stamens, 
and Pistils. J. Single Pistil : magnified. 8. Ripe Fruit. 9. Vertical Sec- 
tion of ditto. 10. Seeds : nat. size. 11. Section of a Seed: magnified. 


rah hv S I nrli.s CU imwJ Esstx.Sep'l.iiSl. 

( 3096 ) 



Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Boragine^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. hypocrateriformis (v. subrotata) 
fauce nuda. Stamina inclusa. Stigma peltatum subco- 
nicum. Bacca di- (rarius tetra-) pyrena, ossiculis dis- 
permis. Br. 

Specific Character. 

1 ournefortia * heliotropioides ; suffruticosa, ramis herba- 
ceis hirsutis, foliis ellipticjs obtusis utrinque pubescen- 
tibus margine undulatis, racemis bis terve dichotomis, 
bacca tetrapyrena. 

Descr. Stem, in our plant, one and a half to two feet 
high, rounded, branched, hairy, somewhat shrubby, peren- 
nial, the branches soft and herbaceous. Leaves alternate, 
petioled, elliptical or ovato-elliptical, obtuse, very veiny 
and wrinkled, waved at the margins, entire, soft on both 
sides with short hairs or pubescence. Peduncle terete, 
hairy, termiual, often with a single leaf, twice or rarely 
thrice branched, the ultimate divisions revolute, and bear- 
ds' a one-sided, two-ranked raceme of many flowers, almost 
exactly resembling those of Heliotropium peruvianum, but 
rather larger, and instead of yielding the delicious scent 
°t that universal favorite, imparting a disagreeable odour. 


^ So named in honor of Joseph Pittou de Tournefort, a Physician, 
raveller, and one of the greatest among the Botanists of France. 

Calyx in five deep, broadly linear, obtuse, at length spread- 
ing segments, hairy. Corolla hypocrateriform : its tube 
deep yellow, hairy within ; its limb five-lobed, spreading, 
somewhat plicate, pale lilac. Stamens: Anther very small, 
nearly sessile, inserted near the base of the tube. Pistil 
exceedingly short. Germen globose, glabrous. Stigma 
sessile, large, conical, slightly glandular, yellow. Fruit 
(immature) a nearly globose, but somewhat compressed, 
four-celled, four-seeded berry, tipped with the black, with- 
ered stigma, and surrounded by the persistent calyx. 

This plant has so completely the aspect of a Heliotro- 
pium, that without an examination of the pistil or fruit, no 
one would suspect it to belong to the Genus Tournefortia. 
As an ornamental plant, its merits may be ranked with our 
well-known Heliotropium peruvianum and corymbosum : 
but its flowers are unfortunately devoid of fragrance. 

Seeds were received at the Garden of Glasgow from the 
Reverend Mr. Lansburgh ; and the plants flowered in the 
stove in the month of May, 1831. It is a native of Buenos 
Ay res. 

Fig. I. Flower. 2. Pistil, with the lower portion of the Tube of the 
Corolla bearing the Stamens. 3. Calyx and nearly ripe Fruit. 4. Section of 
the Fruit: magnified. 

I'nb kr SCnrtut €la*€mro»i£. 

( 3097 ) 

Trillium discolor. Green-flowered 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Trigynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Smilace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 3-phyllus. Cor. 3-petala, patens. Filamenta gla- 
bra. Antherce longitudiualiter adnata?. Stigmata linearia, 
sessilia, reflexa. Bacca trilocularis, polysperma. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Trillium discolor ; flore sessili erecto, petalis obovatis 
obtusis obtuse mucronulatis inferne attenuatis calyce 
dimidio longioribus, foliis sessilibus lato-ovalibus 

Trillium discolor. Wray, in litt. 

Descr. Stem nearly a span high, erect, flexuose, of the 
thickness of a goose-quill, glossy, dark purple, green above, 
where, at the very extremity, it bears a whorl of three large, 
broadly oval, quite sessile, acute, spreading leaves, per- 
fectly glabrous, dark green and obscurely blotched above, 
paler beneath, with five wavy ribs, which are connected by 
oblique nerves. Flower solitary, large, sessile in the centre 
of the three leaves, and at the summit of the stem. Calyx 
of three large, green, spreading sepals, oval-oblong, acute. 
Petals three, erect, half as long again as the calyx, obo- 
y ate, very obtuse, with a short blunt mucro, of a pale 
sulphur-yellow inclining to green, tapering below into a 
broad and pale green claw. Stamens six, about one-third 
the length of the petals, erect : Filaments very short, pur- 
ple. Anthers linear, dull purple, acute, and a little incurved 
at the extremity, the cells lateral, longitudinal, yellow. 

Pistil : 

Pistil: Germen ovate, three-lobed, with two prominent 
angles at the margin of each lobe, purplish-green. Styles 
linear-obtuse, purple without, yellow within. 

In the month of January of the present year, our Botanic 
Garden of Glasgow was enriched with a box of rare plants, 
packed in Sphagnum, from Augusta, in Georgia, communi- 
cated by our valued correspondent, Dr. Wray, of Augusta, 
the intimate friend of the late Stephen Elliott, Esq. With 
very few exceptions, these plants, on account of the ex- 
cellent mode in which they were packed, have succeeded 
perfectly well, and among them, the new Trillium, here 
figured, flowered vigorously in May of the present year, 
1831, having been treated as an inmate of the greenhouse. 
I have retained the name which was attached to the plant, 
and which was probably given to it by Dr. Wray himself, 
in consequence of the great difference in the color of its 
flower from that of Trillium sessile, with which it agrees 
in the sessile leaves and sessile and erect flowers, but 
from which it is strikingly different, no less in the broadly 
ovate petals, than in their peculiar, pale greenish-yellow 
hue, which also exhale a smell, resembling the American 

This species grows freely in a mixture of peat and loam, 
and will probably prove as hardy a perennial as other 
species of this Genus have shown themselves to be with us. 

Fig-. 1. Petal, nat. size. 2. Front view of a Stamen. 3. Back view of 
ditto. 4. Pistil : magnified. 

rhnlrn* \rn ,1,11 

( 3098 ) 

Brassavola elegans. Elegant 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum ungue simplici; lamina indivisa (raro triloba). 
Petala distincta, patula. Massa Pollinis 8 (vel plures !) Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Brassavola elegans ; scapo racemoso, labello amplo basin 
columnar amplexante profunde trilobo, columna su- 
perne lato-alato. 

Cyrtopodium elegans. Hamilt. Prod. PL Ind. Occ. p. 53. 
cum Ic. 

Descr. Root consisting of several long, cylindrical, 
fibres, of a cinereous colour. Stem procumbent, rooting, 
jointed, and covered with greyish, dry, membranaceous 
sheaths. Leaves linear-subulate, semi-cylindrical, chan- 
nelled above, coriaceous. Scape two feet long, filiform at 
the base, knotted and covered with grey, appressed, scari- 
ose sheaths, towards the apex and at the base of the flower- 
stalks, bearing minute bractea. Flowers loosely spiked : 
Peduncles about an inch in length. Perianth five-parted, 
the segments nearly equal, (the three outer ones ovato- 
lanceolate, the two inner narrower,) brownish-green, stri- 
ated. Labellum three -lobed, lateral lobes oval, rose- 
coloured, middle lobe obovate, or somewhat rhomboidal, 
thickened and callous towards the base, where it is of a 
yellow colour, the lamina is rose-coloured, and marked 
with five purple lines. Column somewhat boat-shaped, 
expanded at the summit, where there is a small cavity with 


a four-toothed margin for the insertion of the anther. The 
Stigma occupies a triangular depression on the upper and 
anterior part of the column, immediately below the inser- 
tion of the anther. Below the stigma the Column becomes 
somewhat tumid anteriorly, and has a small channel lead- 
ing down to a short tube formed by the junction of this 
part of the column with the middle lobe of the labellum. 
The lateral lobes are attached to the sides of the column ; 
so that, except a small portion posteriorly, opposite the 
superior segment of the perianth, the column is completely 
embraced by the labellum. The tube formed by the base 
of the column does not lead to the germen, and its throat is 
nearly closed by the colli of the middle lobe. The column 
is yellow anteriorly with rose-coloured wings. The anther 
is opercular, deciduous, heart-shaped, eight-celled, (one 
for each mass of pollen, linear, oblong, parallel, and one 
for each of the spherical bodies which terminate the caudi- 
culaB or filamentous appendages of the masses,) divided by 
their membranaceous septa,) of a purple colour. Pollen- 
Masses four, pyriform, compressed, parallel, yellow, each 
having a separate caudicula, reflected upon itself, and 
terminated by a small yellow, viscid, spherical, or glandu- 
lar body. 

I am indebted to Dr. Nicholson of Antigua for the drawing 
and description of the present interesting Orchideous plant, which 
has, I beJieve, been hitherto nowhere noticed, except in the 
work above quoted, and which appears to be exclusively an in- 
habitant of the Island of Antigua. It there grows, neither in 
soil, nor upon trees, but, as Dr. Hamilton, its original dis- 
coverer, observes, upon stones : and according to Dr. Nichol- 
son, " upon lofty rocks of the trap formation, along with 
Epidendrum ciliare, Oncidium pulchellum, Pitcairnia bro- 
melicefolia, Pilea muscosa, Peperomije, and many species of 
Ferns. The same gentleman well observes, that it cannot pro- 
perly be arranged with the Cyrtopodia, as will also appear by 
his own accurate analyses: and if these be compared with the 
flowers of Brass avola, I think it will be evident that the plant 
belongs to the same Genus. The structure of the foliage, too, is 
alike in both. Our plant differs from Mr. Brown's character 
of Brassavola in its deeply three-lobed lip ; but in B. tubercu- 
loid and B. cucullata, the only hitherto known species of the 
Genus, the two sides at the base are somewhat dilated, or imper- 
fectly lobed, and, in all, the base of the lip almost surrounds the 
lower part of the column. 

Tig 1 Flower. 2. Flower, from which the Column is removed. 3. Front 
view of the Column. 4. Anther with its Pollen-Masses. 5. Anther-Case. 
b. * our of the Pollen-Masses, with their Caudicula;. 7. Section of a nearly 
mature Capsule :— more or less magnified. 

nib bv ycitrh* &UttUIM90di i 1831. 

( 3099 ) 



Class and Order. 

Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — RubiacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 4-fidus. Cor. infundibuliformis, 4-fida. Stigma 
bifidum. Caps, biloeularis, placenta fungosa dissepimento 
annex a. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Houstonia * longifolia ; caule erecto ramoso tetragono ad 

geniculas praecipue pubescente, foliis lineari-oblongis 

radicalibus inferne attenuatis pubescentibus basi cilia- 

tis, stipulis lato-ovatis integris vel bi- tridentatis mem- 

branaceis, staminibus inclusis. 
Houstonia longifolia. Gcertn. de Fruct v. I. p. 226. t. 49. 

/ 8. (quoad fructum). Willd. Sp. PI. v. I. p. 583. 

Roem. et Sch. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 208. Spreng. Syst. 

Veget. v. 1. t. 427. Bigel. Fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 53. 

Elliott, Carol, v. 1. p. 192. Torrey, Fl. Am. v. 1. 

p. 173. 
Houstonia angustifolia. Mich. Fl. Am. v. I. p. 85. Pursh, 

Fl.Am.i. I. p. 106. 

Descr. Perennial. Root small, of many branching fi- 
bres. Stem from four or six inches to a span or even a 
foot high, branched, at times very considerably so, four- 
sided, sometimes nearly glabrous, generally downy below 
the joints. Leaves linear-oblong, in our specimens oppo- 
site, spreading, the radical leaves the broadest and atten- 
uated at the base, pubescent, especially near the margin on 
the upper surface, and ciliated at the base ; the cauline 
leaves only ciliated at the base. The upper sides of the foli- 
age are of a rather dark green, and when seen under a lens 


* In compliment to William Houston, who published a Memoir on the 
Contrayerva in the Philosophical Transactions. 

appear to be covered with minute, elevated points ; below 
paler, and quite even. Stipules opposite, broadly ovate, 
almost rotundate, white, membranous, entire or two- or 
three-toothed at the extremity, the margin often glandular. 
Flowers at the extremity of the branches in rather com- 
pact and somewhat corymbose, leafy panicles. Calyx four- 
partite, with linear, oblong, spreading segments, sometimes 
a little ciliated at the margin. Corolla somewhat infundi- 
buliform, white, or very pale purple, yellow at the base, 
the limb cut into four spreading, rather acute, ovate seg- 
ments : — inside, the corolla is slightly downy on the limb, 
and in the lower part of the tube. Stamens small, inserted 
near the base of the tube, and not attaining to the summit 
of it. Anthers linear, yellow. Pistil: Germen inferior, 
turbinate, marked with elevated lines, two-celled, many- 
seeded, the ovules attached to a central, free column : the 
upper part of the germen is convex. Style as long as the 
tube of the corolla. Stigma bifid, glandular, white. Fruit 
a half-inferior, two-celled capsule, surrounded by the per- 
sistent calyx and opening at its free, two-lobed extremity 
into two valves. Seeds small, black. 

This plant was received at the Botanic Garden, Glasgow, 
from Mr. Cunningham, of Edinburgh, as a native of the 
Blue Mountains of N. America, whence I believe it was 
introduced by Mr. Blair. In referring it to the Houstonia 
angustifolia of Michaux (which is now almost universally 
considered to be the same as the H. longifolia of Will- 
denow), I have been influenced by a specimen, evidently 
of the same species, from Lake Champlain, in Dr. Booths 
collection, marked as the plant of that name in Pursh's 
Herbarium. Other individuals which 1 possess from North 
America have narrower and sharper leaves : so that the 
plant is probably liable to much variation in that respect, 
as well as in the color of its flowers. But our speci- 
mens accord almost as well with Michaux's description ot 
the narrow-leaved varieties of his H. varians (purpurea, 
Willd.) as with his angustifolia; only he describes the 
stamens as exserted, which is not the case in our plant. 1* 
this plant proves, as I have good reason to suppose it is, a 
true Houstonia of Linnaeus, 1 do not see how it can possibly 
be separated from the Rubiace^e and referred to Gentiane^, 
as has been done by De Candolle. Indeed Anotis ot 
De Cand. in the Ord. RubiacejE, seems to me identical 
with the Genus of the present individual. 

Fig. 1. Corolla. 2. The same laid open. 3. Calyx and Pistil. 4. Sec- 
tion of a Germen. 5. Capsule. 6. Stipules. — Magnified. 

Vub. bv S.Cprlis, Glazenmed '£ss*t, S, 

( 3100 ) 

Palavia rhombifolia. Rhomb-leaved 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. nudus, 5 -fid us. Carpella plurima monosperma in 
capitulum absque ordine aggregata. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Palavia * rhombifolia ; foliis rhomboideis lobato-crenatis 
ad venas sparsim stellato- pilosis pedunculo brevio- 
ribus, stipulis subulatis ciliatis viridibus, petalis obo- 
vato - cuneatis oblique emarginatis, caule prostrato 
ramoso parce stellato-piloso. 

Palavia rhombifolia. Graham, in Edin. Phil. Journ. Sept. 

Descr. Annual? Stem prostrate, branched, sprinkled 
very loosely with rather rigid hairs, which are single or 
stellate. Leaves an inch and three quarters long, one and 
a half broad, alternate, petioled, soft, bright green above, 
paler below, rhomboid, glabrous, sublobate, or deeply 
and unequally crenate, nearly entire at the base, five-nerved, 
veined, the nerves and veins prominent below, channelled 
above, and both above and below, but especially on the 
latter surface, loosely sprinkled with hairs, similar to those 
on the stem. Petioles one inch long, rather shorter than 
the leaves, having a shallow groove along their upper 


* Named in compliment to Antonio Palau y Verdera, a Professor of 
Botany at Madrid. 

surface, ciliated. Stipules subulate, ciliated, green, spread- 
ing, connivent at the apices. Peduncles three inches long, 
solitary, axillary, longer than the leaves, loosely provided 
with hairs like those on the other parts of the plant, slightly 
tapering, jointed near the calyx, but not swollen at the 
joint. Flowers large, scentless. Calyx persistent, five- 
cleft, green, more hairy both within and without than any 
other part of the plant ; tube somewhat fleshy and lighter- 
coloured than the cordato-ovate, acute, more membranous 
segments, the edges of which are compressed and pro- 
minent in the bud. Corolla thrice as long as the calyx, 
rose-colored, veined, flat, (then two inches across,) and 
becoming paler when fully expanded; Petals five, obovato- 
cuneate, obliquely emarginate, glabrous, ciliated at the 
base, aestivation twisted. Stamens monadelphous, numer- 
ous; sheath of a. pale rose colour, bearing at or near the 
top the partial filaments, which, as well as the anthers, are 
darker and orange-red; anthers kidney -shaped, dotted, 
bursting by a suture along the back ; Pollen globular, 
smooth, yellow. Styles numerous, cohering at their base, 
equal to the stamens in length, purple, appearing rough 
under the microscope. Stigmas flat, deep purple, villous : 
Germens numerous, each containing a single ovule, green, 
dotted, glabrous, collected irregularly into a head, inclosed 
within the calyx. 

This is a very pretty plant ; and if it will bear cultivation 
in the open border as an annual, promises soon to become 
common. The seeds were received from Mr. Cruckshanrs 
in the spring of 1830, having been collected by that gentle- 
man near Lima. It bears a profusion of blossoms in a 
not-bed, at the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh. 

This species has much affinity with Palaua moschata of 
Cavanilles' Dissert, v. 1. p. 41. t. 11. f. 5, (Palavia mos- 
chata of later writers,) but which is described as being 
tomentose, with an erect stem, cordate leaves, coloured 
stipules, and roundish, yellow petals, whose hue passes 
into purple. The figure above quoted, also represents a 
tumefaction at the joint of the peduncle, which is quite 
wanting in our present species; nor can I perceive the 
existence of perfume in any part of the plant. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Column of Stamens including the Styles : magnified. 

' JET- 

( 3101 ) 

Asplenium Nidus. Bird's Nest 

Class and Order. 
Cryptogamia Filices. 

( Nat. Ord. — Filices. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sort lineares, sparsi, dorsales. Involucrum e vena latera- 
liter ortum ducens, margine superiore libero. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Asplenium* Nidus; frondibus lanceolatis integerrimis gla- 

bris subsessilibus, soris confertis parallelis costae ap- 

Asplenium Nidus. Linn. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 1537. Swartz, 

Syn. Fit. p. 74. mild. Sp. PL v. 5. p. 304. Br. 

Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 50. Kaulf, Enum. Fil. p. 

164. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 4. p. 80. Wall. Cat. of 

PL in Mus. oj'E. Ind. Comp. n. 198. 
" Phyllitis indica maxima foliis latissimis plains Musae 

facie. Moris. Hist. 3. p. 558. s. 14. t. \.f 15." 
" Scolopendria Indiae Orientalis, Musae facie. Breyn. Cent. 

129. t. 99." 

Descr. This Fern, in its native country, seems to be a 
parasite on the trunks of trees. Its roots are tufted, and 
from their summit arises in a spreading circle, a crown of 
nearly sessile, lanceolate, shortly acuminated fronds, two 
feet and a half to three feet in length, of a rich green colour 
somewhat glossy, and of a texture between coriaceous and 


* From ., not, and s*>m*, the spleen, some species having been esteemed 
useful in removing obstructions of the viscera. 

membranaceous, having a strong midrib and numerous 
very closely-placed, parallel, oblique, delicate nerves, the 
margin a little thickened, and quite entire. The lines of 
fructification are very copious, densely placed in parallel 
lines almost from the base to the extremity of the frond, 
and extending from near the midrib two-thirds of the way 
towards the margin. Involucres very long and extremely 
slender. Capsules globose, dark brown, on long, slender 
stalks, and surrounded by a rather broad ring. 

The Bird's Nest Spleenwort is a native of the Peninsula 
of India and Islands of the Indian Seas, extending to those 
of the Pacific Ocean, where it has been found in the La- 
drone Islands, and to Oahu of the Sandwich group. Our 
finest dried specimens are from the Mauritius, gathered by 
C. Telfair, Esq., Professor Bojer, and M. Bouton. 

Professor Raddi has given it has an inhabitant of Brazil, 
but neither his figure nor description agree with the true 
plant, and it does not appear to be an inhabitant of the 
New World at all. In the stoves of our country it has only 
been cultivated, according to Loudon's Hortus Britannicus, 
since 1820 ; but it is a highly ornamental plant, and de- 
serving a place in every collection. The mode of growth 
of this plant, its fronds forming a circle, hollow in the 
middle, would alone justify the specific name given by 
Linn^us; but it seems to have originated from another 
circumstance : " the root," he says, " fixes itself upon the 
lofty trees, whence the leaves rise erect, and arrange them- 
selves in a circle, like an umbel, in the hollow centre of 
which the birds are frequently accustomed to build their 

Fig. I. Plant, greatly reduced in size. 2. Portion towards the Apex of 
a Frond, with its Lines of Fructification. 3. A Sorus. 4. Capsules :— 

5102. \ 

fui by S oiLrtis. GltmjimpotZ JEssn 0el r J2t93J 

Strati >>< 

( 3102 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Coryanthes ; nov. gen. Petala 3 exteriora paten- 
tissima reflexa, quorum lateralia maxima; 2 interiora multo 
minora, erecta. Columna cylindracea, basi bidentata, apice 
truncata bialata, alis dorso utrinque productis. Labellum 
poculiforme stipitatum, appendicem maximam galeiformem 
tridentatam pedunculatam, columnam in parte tegentem, 
gerens. Anthera terminalis, operculiformis. Massa polli- 
nis 2, ovata?, compressae, margine hinc rima longitudinal], 
pedicello replicato. 

Herbae parasitica America meridionalis, intertropical. 
Bulbus elongatus diphyllus. Flores inter maximos hujusve 
ordinis 3 racemosi 3 jlam. 

Specific Character. 

Coryanthes* maculata; bulbo elongato, foliis lato-lan- 
ceolatis, racemis multifloris nutantibus, (labello intus 
purpureo-maculato. ) 

Descr. Bulbs clustered., five to six inches long, striated, 
about an inch broad near the base and tapering upwards, 
at the base throwing out tortuouse, fibrous roots ; at the 
extremity bearing two broadly lanceolate, striated, and 
somewhat membranaceous leaves. Scape a foot and a half 


From KofVi, a helmet, and a»0o?, a flower ; from the large helmet-like 
appendage to the lip of the flower. 

VOL. V. L 

in length, arising from the base of the bulb, at first thrown 
out in a horizontal direction, at length from the weight of 
the flowers quite pendulous. Bracteas membranaceous, 
ovato-lanceolate, large, two or three upon the scape, where 
they are sheathing, and one at the base of each of the 
flowers. The two larger petals, as soon as the flowers 
expand, spread out in an horizontal direction, and then 
from their size and texture, they resemble a bat's wings, 
soon becoming reflex ed and withering. The colour of the 
petals is a pale ochraceous yellow, that of the lip and its 
appendage more inclining to yellow, the latter tinged at 
the margin, and spotted inside with purple. The struc- 
ture of all the parts of the flower is so similar to that of 
Gongora (Coryanthes) speciosa, figured at t. 2755 of this 
work, that it is scarcely necessary to repeat the description. 

Although in the vegetation of this plant, and also in 
some degree in its flowers too, there exists a considerable 
affinity with the Genus Gongora of Ruiz and Pavon ; (and 
of Exotic Flora, t. 178;) yet there are few who will not 
allow, that it might well form a distinct Genus, in its 
labellum very unlike all other known Orchideae. Hence I 
have been led to distinguish it under the appellation of 
Coryanthes; which I am the more disposed to do, now 
that I have seen three species belonging to the same Genus, 
all agreeing in general habit and essential character. 

The first of these is the Gongora speciosa above referred 
to; the second, Gongora macrantha (Bot. Miscellany, t. 80,) 
remarkable for its plaited margin to the stalk of the galeate 
appendage ; and our present plant is the third, which cer- 
tainly approaches very near to the first of those now men- 
tioned. It differs in the much greater breadth of its leaves, 
in its more numerous and pendulous racemes, and espe- 
cially in the colour of its flowers, which are here of a pale 
and dingy yellow more or less approaching to tawny, and 
in having the inside of the appendage to its labellum spot- 
ted and blotched with purple. It is a native of the trunks 
of trees in the forests of Demerara, where it was discovered 
by James Ankers, Esq. and communicated to C. S. Parker, 
Esq. of Liverpool, who presented it with many rarities from 
the same fertile country, to the Liverpool Botanic Garden. 

It blossomed in the stove of that collection in the month 
of June, 1831, and was sent to us by our often-mentioned 
friends, the Messrs. Shepherds. 

A. Column and Lip, with its Helmet-shaped Appendage : nat. size. ** 
1. Summit of the Column with the Anther. 2, Inner view of the Antn«- 
case. 3. Pollen-Mass.— Magnified. 

wj.h. dd 

( 3103 ) 

lonicera hirsuta. hairy american 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Caprifoliace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus 5-dentatus. Cor. tubulosa, campanulata 
aut infundibuliformis, limbo 5-fido saepe irreeillari. Statu. 
5. Stylus filiformis. Stigma capitatum. Bacca 5-locul., 
loculis oligospermis. Semina Crustacea. — Frutices inter- 
num scandentes. Folia opposita inter dum connata, Integra 
aut in iisdem speciebus subruncinata. Flores axillares dis- 
position varii. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lonicera* hirsuta; volubilis, verticillis capitatis glandu- 

loso-pubescentibus, foliis late ovato-ellipticis breviter 

petiolatis pubescentibus ciliatisque subtus glaucis, 

summis connato-perfoliatis. 
Lonicera hirsuta. " Eaton, Man. o/Bot. ed. 3. p. 341." 

ed. 4. p. 3b2. Torrey Fl. ofMidd. St. ofN. Am. v. 1. 

p. 242. 
Lonicera pubescens. Sw. Hort. Brit. p. 194. De Cand. 

Caprifolium pubescens. Goldie in Ed. Phd. Journ. ( 182^ ,) 

v. 6. p. 323. Hook. Ex. Fl. t. 27. 

Descr. Stem climbing, six to eight feet high, more 
or less downy, terete. Leaves large, of a full deep green, 


* In compliment to Adam Lonicbr, a German Naturalist of the sixteenth 

in opposite and rather remote pairs, ovato-elliptical, waved, 
rather acute, the lower ones almost obovate, and on short 
petioles, the upper sessile, and the uppermost ones connato- 
perfoliate, downy on both sides, but especially beneath, 
where they are glaucous, ciliated at the margin. The 
floral leaves are quite glabrous above. Flowers in ter- 
minal, capitate whorls ; the extreme ones generally in three 
heads, of a fine golden-yellow colour, externally, and par- 
tially within, glanduloso-pubescent. Calyx of five very 
minute teeth. Corolla with the tube longer than the limb, 
curved. Upper lip broadly cuneate, five-toothed, lower one 
linear, the margins recurved. Stamens exserted. Fila- 
ments hairy in their lower half. Anthers oblong. Style 
nearly as long as the stamens. Stigma orbicular, de- 

This beautiful and hardy species of Honeysuckle was 
introduced to our gardens by Mr. Goldie of Ayr, from 
North America, in the year 1819, and published by him in 
the Edinb. Phil. Journal, in April, 1822, under the name 
of Caprifolium pubescens, by which appellation also it ap- 
peared shortly after in the Exotic Flora. Neither Mr. 
Goldie nor myself were then aware that the same plant 
was known to Mr. Eaton, an American Botanist, and pub- 
lished by him in the third edition of his useful Manual of 
Botany, as Lonicera hirsuta, n. sp. That edition, I have 
indeed not yet had the opportunity of seeing; but judging 
from the date of the Preface to the fourth edition, (1823,) 
and from the circumstance of Dr. Torrey's giving the 
preference to Mr. Eaton's name, it must have the right of 

I do not see any reason for suspecting, with Dr. Torrey, 
that this is only a variety of Lonicera jlava, Curt. (Capri- 
folium Fraseri of Pursh,) which has glabrous flowers and 
leaves, and cartilaginous margins to the latter, and appears 
to be a much more Southern species. 

Our figure is taken from a fine plant, which blossomed 
in the Glasgow Bot. Garden, in June, 1831. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Stigma and part of the Style : magnified. 
4. Lower Leaf, nat. size. 


IT. fKdtl* 

Tud. iy S. Cuj-tts Glazgnmpfid J3SSf£.0ct r Z783L 


( 3104 ) 


Class and Order, 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin^e. ) 
Generic Character. 

Cat. tubulosus 5-dentatus, v. bilabiatus, labiis 2-— 3-den- 
tatis. Cor. ringens, labio superiore bilobo, inferiore trifido. 
Stamina didynama : Antheris per paria cohasrentibus, lobis 
oppositis : Jilamentis longioribus dente laterali auctis. 
Stigma bilamel latum. Caps, bilocularis, bivalvis, valvis in- 
terns ; dissepimento parallelo libero. — Herbal. Folia op* 
posita, dentata. Pedunculi axillares et terminates, ebrac- 
teati, fructiferi erecti. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Torenia * scabra ; foliis lanceolato-ovatis serratis scabris, 
caule erecto pubescentulo, calyce 5-dentato aequali. 

Torenia scabra. Graham, in Ed. Phil. Journ. Br. Prod. 
Fl. Nov. Holland, p. 440. 

Tittmannia scabra. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 800. 

Descr. Annual ? Root slender, tapering, having many 
branching, lateral fibres. Stem erect, with very short, 
harsh, slightly reflected pubescence at its base, perfectly 
glabrous above, channelled on two sides, alternating at the 
joints. Leaves lanceolato-ovate, acutely serrated, entire at 
the apex and base, subciliated, veined, scabrous along the 
v eins behind, soft and subglabrous in front. Inflorescence 
a few -flowered terminal cyme, peduncles erect, without 
hracteas, stout. Calyx smooth, regular, five-parted, per- 

* Named after Olof Toreen, a Swedish Naturalist, and pupil of Linnaeus, 
M 'ho published an account of his voyage to China. 

sistent, segments acute, mucronulate, spreading in their 
upper half, closely imbricated below. Corolla one inch 
long, one inch across, lilac and white, (violet-purple in my 
specimens. II.) striated, glanduloso-pubescent, ringent, its 
limb dilated and spreading, crenate, the upper lip two- 
lobed, the lower three-lobed, of which the central lobe is 
the largest and emarginate ; tube campanulate, dilated on 
its lowest side, somewhat flattened above, contracted and 
having two pits without on each side towards its base, 
again dilated as it covers the germen. Stamens didyna- 
mous ; filaments distant, hairy near the base, adhering to the 
corolla nearly as far as the throat, there suddenly bent, the 
longer at right angles, the shorter at an angle of about 45°. 
The longer filaments projecting from each a clavate tooth 
at this angle, pass horizontally round the throat of the 
corolla, and meet under the stigma ; the shorter having a 
much smaller tooth at the angle, pass obliquely upwards to 
the style, and meet below the others. Anthers bilobular, 
divaricating, lilac, at first free, afterwards cohering in pairs, 
and bursting along the front. Stigma exserted, of two 
ovate, subacute, diverging plates, the lower rather the 
largest. Style glabrous, filiform, slightly flattened near the 
stigma, as well as the filaments colourless, marcescent. 
Germen green, conical, somewhat furrowed in the sides, 
ovules very numerous, attached to a large, central recep- 
tacle. Capsule ovate, tumid, tipped by the persisting base 
of the style, bilocular, bivalvular, valves entire, dissepiment 
parallel to the valves, seeds very numerous, ovate, dotted. 

Seeds of this very pretty plant * were sent from New 
Holland by Mr. Eraser last year, and communicated to 
the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, both directly from himself 
and by Sir Thomas Brisbane, in October and November. 
They were marked " Ruellia, sp. nov. from the banks of 
the Hiver Brisbane, Moreton Bay." Graham. 

* I think it scarcely accords sufficiently with the name or character of 
Mr. Brown's T. scabra, to warrant its being with certainty united to that 

species. H, 

Fig. ]. Corolla laid open to show the Stamens. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. 
Germen and Nectary. 4. Section of a Germen : magnified. 





( 3105 ) 

Alstrcemeria Neillii. Mr. Neill's 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Old. AmARYLLIDEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium corollaceum, subcampanulaceum, sexpar- 
titum, irregulare; laciniis duabus (v. tribus) interioribus 
tubuloso-conniventibus. Stam. 6, laciniis inserta, demum 
declinata. Stigma trifidum. Caps, trilocularis ; loculis 
polyspermis. — Caulis erectus, scandens aut volubilis,folia- 
tus. Flores umbellati. Kunth. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Alstrcemeria Neillii; caule erecto flaccido folioso, foliis 
spathulatis obtusis glauco-pruinosis apice lateribusque 
reflexis integerrimis, petalis tribus exterioribus obo- 
vatis emarginatis aequalibus crenatis, interioribus paulo 
longioribus spathulatis subintegerrimis, pedunculis 
umbellatis bifloris. Graham. 

Alstrcemeria Neillii. Gillies' MSS. 

Descr. Stems simple, many from the same root, erect, 
flaccid, round, very leafy, subglauco-pruinose, especially 
towards the top, greener below. Leaves spathulate, about 
seven -nerved, central rib hardly prominent behind, except 
m the lower and narrower half, reflected at the point and 
sides, waved, glauco-pruinose, quite entire, callous at the 
margin, and particularly so at the apex. Peduncles three 
°r four, forming a terminal umbel, two-flowered, dull pur- 
ple, a little longer than the leaves, which are collected in the 
form of an involucre round their base. Perianth: Segments 
Sl x, unequal, much attenuated, succulent, involute and 
ciliated at the base, each with three primary nerves, pro- 
minent behind, and two or four secondary nerves, scarcely 
reticulated; three outer segments equal, of a nearly uniform 


pale rose colour, rather darker in the middle of the outside, obo- 
vato-crenate, with a central, green, concave, callous point ; three 
inner segments rather longer than the outer, spathulate with a 
green callous apex, and oblong deep rose-coloured spots on their 
upper half, the lowest is rather the shortest of the three, nearly 
flat and arched backwards ; the two others project in the centre of 
the flower, and are straight, except near the apex, where they 
are bent back, and immediately below this point are marked by a 
broad, transverse, yellow band, nectariferous at the base. Sta* 
mens laid along the lower petal till the pollen is mature, when 
they become straight, and nearly parallel with the two central 
petals, which they almost equal in length : jilaments rose-colour- 
ed, slightly tapering, pubescent at the base ; Anthers greenish- 
rose-coloured, flattened, and, as in the other species when the 
loculaments burst, becoming flattened in the opposite direction ; 
Pollen reddish, granules very small and oblong. Stigma trifid, 
rose-coloured as well as the prismatic style, which is only green 
at its persisting base. Germen trilocular, purple, obovato-turbi- 
nate, covered with minute, shining tubercles, ribs strong and 
prominent. Ovules numerons, attached in two rows, within each 
loculament, to the central receptacle. 

This extremely handsome plant flowered, for the first time in 
this country, in Mr. P. Neill's greenhouse, at Canonmills *, 
near Edinburgh, June 1831. Mr. Neill is uncertain to whom 
he is indebted for the plant, but as seeds of Alstrcemeria pal- 
lida were sent in the same packet, and as we possess specimens of 
this, collected by Dr. Gillies at Los Ojos de Agua, it is probable 
A.Neillii was from him also. Dr. Gillies inclines to the same 
opinion, and believes that this species is the one which at Men- 
doza is called Pelegrina, and of which he has various individuals 
in his Herbarium. It is possible that these are identical, though 
the segments of the perianth are in the native specimens perfectly 
entire, the inner ones lanceolate, not spathulate, the outer acute, 
not emarginate, and the peduncles single-flowered. Dr. Gillies 
found it on both sides of the Cordillera of the Andes, between 
Chili and Mendoza. I alluded to it in my description of Alstrce- 
meria pallida, in the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal for 
September, 1829, and conjectured, that when it flowered, it might 
prove to be a variety of it. The inflorescence, habit, and colour- 
ing give support to this conjecture ; and our increasing acquaint- 
ance with South American Genera throws increasing scepticism 
upon all enquiries as to the natural boundaries of species; but till 
the period arrives when a revision of the whole Genus Alstro3- 
meria shall warrant a considerable reduction of its species, the 
characters above noted may be deemed sufficient, as giving to 
this form a better title to a specific name than several others, 
which are now held to be sufficiently distinct. Graham. 

This very interesting establishment has recently sustained a great loss in 
the removal of the gardener, Alexander Scott, whose professional talent 
and patient industry have been transferred to a situation of more extensive 
usefulness. He has been appointed foreman to Mr. Knight's Exotic Nur- 
sery, Chelsea, a situation for which he is especially fitted by his quiet, unas- 
suming manners, and uniformly steady conduct. Graham. 

Fig. I. Lower Leaf. 2. Outer, and 3, inner fetal : nat. size. 

/!u<4 iy S Cu^rixs, CZomhm-oocZ gS-jMr. Oct-TJ.JSZl 

( 3106 ) 

Rhododendron Lapponicum. Lapland 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Erice^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. infundibuliformis 5-lobus. Stam. 
5 — 10 declinata : antheris apice biporosis. Capsula 5-locu- 
laris, 5-valvis, ab apice dehiscens, valvarum marginibus in- 
flexis dissepimenta formantibus : Receptaculum centrale 
5-angulare. Semina membrana involuta. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Rhododendron * Lapponicum ; fruticosum, ramosum, pro- 
cumbens, ram is divaricatis, tloribus umbellatis 5 — 8- 
andris, corollis rotato-infundibuliformibus, foliis ob- 
longis obtusis rigidis foveolato-punctatis subtus disco- 
loribus lepidotis marginibus reflexis. 

Rhododendron Lapponicum. fVahl. Ft. Suec. p. 249. 
Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 2. p. 293. Graham, in Ed. N. 
Phil. Journ. Oct. 1830. 

Azalea lapponica. Linn. FL Suec. p. 64. Sp. PL v. I. p. 
214. FL Lapp. (ed. Smith,) p. 59. t. 6.f. 1. Pall. FL 
Ross. v. 2. p. 52. t. 70. / 1. Fl. Dan. v. 6. t. 906. 
Willd. Sp. PL v.l.p. 832. Pers. St/n. PL v. I. p. 212. 

Descr. An evergreen, procumbent shrub, about six 
inches long ; branches at length divaricated, round, grey, 
when young red, obscurely pubescent, warted. Leaves 


* From po&r, a rose, and hityu, a tree, from the usual colour of the flowers 
°f these shrubby plants. 

three lines long, four lines broad, petioled, divaricated, 
elliptical, veinless, reflexed at the edges, dark green above, 
paler and at last yellowish beneath, thickly sprinkled on 
both sides with hollow dots, which are covered with an 
umbilicated, persisting, yellowish scale, obscurely chan- 
nelled along the middle rib, which is somewhat prominent 
behind. Flowers terminal, umbellate, about five or six in 
the umbel, of which three expand at a time, surrounded 
with large, concave, imbricated, brown, dotted scales or 
bracteas. Peduncles as long as the bracteas, round, dotted. 
Calyx small, five-toothed, blunt, ciliated, thickly covered 
with yellow scales. Corolla (three-fourths of an inch across,) 
crimson, rotato-funnel-shaped, five-cleft, segments blunt, 
unequal, waved, the throat hairy and nectariferous, nectari- 
ferous pore very indistinct. Stamens five to eight, equal in 
length to the corolla, scarcely declined ; filaments adhering 
to the base of the germen, of the same colour as the corolla, 
hairy near their base ; anthers brown, attached by the back, 
bilocular, each cell depressed in the middle as by a longi- 
tudinal suture, but bursting by a pore at its upper extre- 
mity ; pollen yellow. Stigma red-brown, capitate, five- 
lobed, lobes depressed. Style round, red, glabrous, longer 
than the stamens, once or twice geniculated. Germen 
green, thickly covered with yellow scales, similar to those 
on the calyx, conical, obscurely five-lobed, ciliated round 
the base of the style, five-celled ; placentae linear, extend- 
ing to the parietes, covered with innumerable ovules. 

The enterprise of Mr. Cunningham has been rewarded by 
having first in Britain brought into flower Andromeda 
hypnoides * and Rhododendron Lapponicum. These two 
interesting plants may be seen under the same hand-glass, 
in the nursery at Comely Bank, near Edinburgh : they were 
both brought from Canada by Mr. Blair, in 1825. The 
subject of the present description flowered in July, 1830. 

Rhododendron Lapponicum inhabits the alpine ridges of 
the low grounds in the extreme Arctic regions of Europe, 
Asia, and America. The bruised leaves are fragrant, yield- 
ing a smell, which Pallas compares to that of Turpentine. 
The flowers are exceedingly beautiful. 

Figured at Tab. 2936 of this work. 

Fife. 1. Flower, with its Bracteas. 2. Calyx, Stamens, and Pistil. 3. 
Anther. 4. Germen. 5. Upper, and 6, Under side of a leaf: — more or less 



fki k- S Cu.rhs Mezem-ocJ £sS*X. OcWJXM- 


( 3107 ) 
Echinocactus Ottonis. Mr. Otto's 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Cacteje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala numerosa imbricata basi ovarii adnata in tubum 
brevissimum concreta, exteriora involucriformia, intima 
petaliformia. Stam. numerosa. Stylus filiformis apice 
multifidus. Bacca sepalorum reliquiis subsquamata. Co- 
tyledones nullae ? — Frutices simplicissimi carnosi ovati aut 
globosi melocactoidei costati aphylli costis tuberculis conflu- 
entibus quasi formatis, dorso aculeorum fasciculos geren- 
tibus. Cephalium seu spadix nullus. Flores e fasciculis 
aculeorum ad apices costarum orti, similes fioribus Cerei sed 
tubo vix ullo donati. 

Specific Character and Synonyjns. 

Echinocactus* Ottonis; caule subcylindrico, costis 12 
obtusiusculis, spinis mediis 3— 4-longioribus erectius- 
culis tenuibus fuscis, reliquis 10—14 tenuissimis paten- 
tibus longe acuminatis subserrulatis cuspidatis. 

Echinocactus Ottonis. Link et Otto, Gew. Bot. Gart. Berl. 
t. 16. 

Cactus Ottonis. Lehm. Ind. Sem. Hort. Hamb. 1827, p. 16. 
Ind. Schol. in Gymn. Hamb. 1828, p. 11. 

Descr. Stem, in our plant, three to four inches in height, 
orbiculari-cylindrical, contracted at the base, where it pro- 

* From ix»«f, a hedgehog, and x»xto?, cactus. 

duces offsets, marked with about twelve vertical, deep fur- 
rows, the ridges between the furrows obtuse, studded with 
rather closely set small tufts of reddish wool, from which 
arise three or four rather strong spines, of a deep purplish- 
brown colour, which stand forward, and are sometimes 
curved, and several lesser pale-coloured spreading ones. The 
longest and strongest spines are from the summit of the 
stem ; but the largest of them rarely exceed half an inch in 
length, and their bases are the most woolly. From the 
summit of the stem arise one to three or four sessile flowers, 
large in proportion to the size of the plant, and of a delicate 
lemon colour. Calyx tapering at the base, imbricated with 
scales, which are clothed with reddish or ferruginous wool, 
mixed with long, slender, dark red spines. Petals numer- 
ous, erecto-patent, linear-acute, obscurely and irregularly 
serrulated, aristate, of a rather thin and scariose texture. 
Stamens about half as long as the petals, yellow. Style 
equal to them in length, bearing a bright red stigma, with 
about twelve to fourteen rays. 

This very beautiful species of Echinocactus was first 
described by Dr. Lehmann, (to whom our Glasgow Garden 
is indebted for the possession of the plant,) and afterwards 
was well represented in Link and Otto's excellent publi- 
cation on the plants of the Berlin Garden. It is a native of 
Brazil : and like all its tribe should be cultivated in a warm 
and dry stove, and the pots kept well drained from mois- 
ture. It blossomed with us in July, 1831. 

Our collections are now, by the zeal of the Botanists in 
the New World, beginning to be well stocked with the 
species of this curious and highly interesting family. At 
one time, the hotter parts of that vast continent were alone 
supposed to afford them : but from the lat. of Mendoza, 
(33° South,) and at a considerable elevation above the level 
of the sea, Dr. Gillies has supplied the Glasgow and other 
Botanic Gardens, with no less than twenty -two species ; all 
gathered within the distance of a morning's ride from that 
city ; while in North America, Messrs. Douglas and Drum- 
mond met with Cactuses between the parallels of 40° and 
50°, in the Rocky Mountains : whereas, Professor Schouw 
has scarcely extended the region of the tribe beyond the 

Fig. 1. Cluster of Spines : magnified. 



Tub Try S. Curtis Sla^ewrtoilsstx. OATlJiH. 

( 3103 ) 



Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solanace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubulosus, 5-fidus. Cor. subhypocrateriformis, tubo 
longissimo, tenui; limbo 5-lobo, plicato (sub-) aequali. 
Stam. 5, exserta. Filam. inferne connata (an semper ?) 
AnthercE longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Stigma subinfundi- 
buliforme, bilobum, (nobis laterale transverse oblongum 
utrinque acuminatum recurvum). Capsula in fundo caly- 
cis persistentis bilocularis, bivalvis ; dissepimentum valvu- 
jis parallelum, demum liberum ; placenta dissepimento 
intimse adnatae. — Caules lignosi aut herbacei, Jiliformes, 
procumbentes et scepe repentes. Folia sparsa, solitaria, 
interdum gemina, integra et integerrima. Plores extraaxil- 
lares aut oppositifolii, solitarii, subsessiles, albi. Kunth. 

Specific Character. 

Nierembergia* gracilis ; caulibus herbaceis erectiusculis 
foliisque anguste lineari-subspathulatis pubescentibus, 
capsula polyspermia. 

Descr. Stems several, as it appears, from the same root, 
six to eight inches high, herbaceous, rounded, downy, 
branching upwards, with the branches alternate, very slen- 
der. Leaves small, scarcely more than half an inch long, 
narrow-linear, approaching to spathulate, rather obtuse, 


j * In compliment to John Eusebius Nieremberg, a Spanish Jesuit of the 
sixteenth century, who wrote a " History of Nature." 

pale glaucous-green, obscurely costate, downy, all of them 
alternate and scattered, except the lowermost, which ap- 
pear almost whorled, the uppermost ones on the young 
branches subsetaceous. Flowers terminal on the young 
branches. Calyx with its tube attenuated at the base, 
white and membranaceous, with ten green, prominent ribs, 
scarcely downy ; limb of five linear, spreading, green and 
somewhat foliaceous, slightly downy segments. Corolla: 
tube much exserted, very long and exceedingly slender; the 
limb spreading, convex, unequally five-lobed, white, streak- 
ed with purple, having a yellow eye where it is inserted 
on the tube : the lobes rounded, obtuse. Stamens five. 
Filaments rather short, inserted in the mouth of the tube, 
scarcely connate, two in front of the style and three behind 
it, somewhat equal, two longer than the rest, and one 
(the centre of those behind the style,) smaller, curved at 
the apices. Anthers roundish, reniform, two-lobed, two- 
celled, the cells opening laterally by a vertical fissure. 
Style as long as the stamens. Stigma transverse, anterior, 
oblong, acuminate at each extremity and recurved, green, 
viscid. Germen ovate, dotted, two-celled, cells with many 
ovules attached to the receptacles of the dissepiment. 

The Genus Nierembergia, characterized by the ex- 
tremely slender tube of its corolla, inhabits exclusively the 
New World, and appears to have an extensive range there; 
one species of those hitherto described being a native of 
Peru (N. repens, R. and P.) another of Mexico, (N. angus- 
tifolia, H. and K.) and a third of Monte Video, (N. pubes- 
cens, Spreng.). To these, I have the pleasure of adding a 
fourth, a native, like the last, of the vicinity of the Uraguay, 
but in botanical character nearly approaching the Mexican 
plant. Prom that it differs in the pubescent stems and 
leaves, as well as in the structure of the stamens and stigma; 
so much so, that I should almost be inclined to consider 
them generically distinct ; only that the figure and descrip- 
tion of N. angustifolia being made from dried specimens, 
the learned authors might be deceived in the appearance of 
such minute parts, and thus the difference may be account- 
ed for. 

Our plants were raised from seeds sent from Buenos 
Ay res, by Mr. Tweedie, and promise to bear the open air 
in summer. They flowered in July, 1831. 

Fig. 1. Leaves. 2. Calyx. 3. Front view of Stamens and Style. 4. 
Back view of ditto. 5. Anther. 6, 7. Front and back view of the Stigma- 
8. Germen. 9. Section of ditto.— Magnified. 


Pubbf S.Curiis 4 Glazenwvext £sterJKor.' /.l&SI 

Swan Sty. 

( 3109 ) 

Oncidium bicornutum. Two-Horned 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide.e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Labellum explanatum, lobatum, basi bi tuberculatum. 
Petala patentia (2 antica nunc connata). Columna alata. 
Masses Pollinis 2, postice bilobae : medio affixae processu 
communi stigmatis. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Oncidium bicornutum ; bulbo elongato diphyllo, scapo 
radicali, panicula densa, perianthio tetraphyllo foliohs 
obovatis subaiqualibus, labello angulato-lobato late- 
ribus apiceque reflexis, disco tuberculato, columna 
pubescente, anthera cornubus duobus mollibus re- 

Descr. The bulbs of this singular and beautiful species 
of Oncidium are four to five inches long, subcylindncal, 
furrowed, clustered and clothed at the base with lacerated, 
brown, sheathing scales, at the extremity bearing rare y 
one, mostly two, linear-lanceolate, coriaceous, obscurely 
striated, acuminated leaves. Scape radical, terete, jointed 
and bracteated, rising a little above the leaves, and bearing 
a comparatively large and dense panicle, which, apparently 
from the weight of the numerous flowers, curves gracefully 
like an ostrich-feather, the branches somewhat distichous, 
each ramification and the base of each flower bracteated. 
Perianth deep yellow, with transverse spots and bars ot a 
dark-red purple-brown colour, almost wholly yellow at the 
r l base, 

vol. v. M 


base, in four pieces or leaflets, which are nearly equally 
obovato-cuneate, waved, the lateral ones especially, the 
lowermost one the smallest aud narrowest, yet formed of 
the two lower leaflets of the outer series, and obscurely 
two-nerved. Labellum erect, of a very singular form, and 
difficult to be explained by words. It appears smaller 
than the rest of the pieces of the perianth, but these arise 
from the margins and extremity, which are waved and 
angled, being singularly reflexed ; whilst the upper side 
presents many wrinkles and tubercles, yet even these are 
placed with regularity, so that every labellum is alike in 
its angles and projections and depressions : the colour is 
yellow, mottled and spotted with purple -red. Column 
pale reddish-yellow, almost white, downy, semicylindrical, 
shorter than the column, upwards expanding into two pro- 
jecting wings : beyond this the column rises into an orbi- 
cular receptacle for the hemispherical anther, which is also 
downy, and which bears on its anterior edge, two soft, 
recurved awns or horns, such as I have never seen in any 
of this family. When the anther-case is removed, two 
obovate, wavy, yellow masses of pollen with a cleft at their 
posterior side are seen attached to an attenuated, narrow, 
membrane or filament, bearing a small gland at its base. 
Gerrnen linear-clavate, scarcely twisted. 

This is another of the many highly interesting Orchideous 
plants for the possession of which our country is indebted 
to Mrs. Arnold Harrison of Aigburgh, near Liverpool, 

and to her brother Harrison, Esq. of Rio. It was 

discovered by that gentleman in woods, sixty miles inland 
from that capital, and communicated to his sister, who is no 
less successful in cultivating, than he is in detecting the 
many novelties of the tribe which the forests of Brazil afford. 
It was sent to England in 1830, and in June, 1831, pro- 
duced the panicle of flowers here represented, done in part 
from the plant itself, and in part from a drawing sent by 
Mrs. Harrison. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Flower, from which the Lip has been removed. 3, 
Exterior view of the lower of the four Segments of the Perianth. 4, 5. 
Anterior and posterior views of the Lip. 6. Column, with its Anther 
attached. 7. Column, with the Anther- Case forced back, to show the 
Pollen-Masses. 8. Upper view of the Pollen-Masses. 9. Posterior view of 
ditto. — Magn ified. 


Pui bjr s Curia. Olajr 

( 3110 ) 

Lantana nivea, var. mutabilis. White- 
flowered Lantana, Changeable var. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Verbenace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. brevissimus, obsolete dentatus. Cor. tubulosa, lim- 
bo inasqualiter bilobo. Sta?n. inclusa. Drupa baccata, 
1-pyrena, pyrene biloculari, 2-spermo, rima loculis interpo- 
sita. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lantana nivea; foliis oppositis ovatis acuminatis scabris in 
petiolum attenuatis, capitulis hemisphaericis, bracteis 
linearibus tubo brevioribus, caule frutescente aculeate 

Lantana nivea. Willd. Enum. p. 631. Vent. Malm. p. 8. 
t. 8. Bot. Mag. t. 1946. 

(/*.) floribus flavis demum roseis. (Tab. nostr. t. 3110.,) 

Descr. A shrub, four or five feet high, branched, the 
branches four-sided, glabrous, but furnished with strong, 
short, often curved aculei, set principally upon the angles. 
Leaves large, of a deep green colour, scabrous, ovate, acu- 
minate, obtusely serrated, much nerved, diffusing an un- 
pleasant odour, at the base gradually tapering into a rather 
long petiole. From the axils of the upper leaves, the 
peduncles arise, equal in length with the leaves or sometimes 
longer, four-sided and slightly aculeated, rarely branched, 
bearing a large and beautiful head of changeable flowers 
at the extremity. These flowers are collected upon an 
oblong, fleshy receptacle, which has sometimes a pair of 
opposite small leaves at the base. Bracteas, one to eacli 


flower, shorter than the tube, linear, the outer ones broader, 
almost lanceolate. Tube somewhat curved, slightly downy, 
limb spreading, waved, unequally five-lobed, the margins 
more or less recurved, at first yellow with an orange eye, 
then becoming rose-coloured with an orange eye, finally 
entirely rose-coloured. Calyx small, obscurely four-lobed. 
Stamens four, inserted nearly at the middle of the tube. 
Filaments short. Anthers rounded, brown. Pistil: Ger- 
men ovate : Style about half the length of the tube : Stigma 
capitate, oblique. 

Our Glasgow Botanic Garden is indebted for this hand- 
some and most desirable inhabitant of the stove to Mr. 
Marnocr, of Britton Hall, by whom it was communicated, 
under the very appropriate name of L. mutabilis. The 
comparatively large heads of flowers are at first wholly 
yellow, with a deeper eye; the outer ones then first gra- 
dually become rose-coloured, the orange eye for a time 
remaining, when that changes likewise, and at length the 
whole flowers are a delicate rose colour. Of what country 
it is a native, I am ignorant; but it possesses all the essen- 
tial character of L. nivea, and hence I have considered it 
as a variety of that species, although, perhaps, the white- 
flowered state should rather be considered a variation from 
this. L. nivea is stated in Bot. Mag. t. 1946, to be an 
East Indian plant; — a native of the West Indies according 
to Sir J. Smith, in Rees's Cycl. From L. aculeata it 
differs in its far more strongly aculeated and glabrous stems 
and branches. Its flowers appear in May and June, and 
continue for a considerable length of time. 

Fig. 1. Young Flower, 2. More advanced ditto. 3. Stamens. 4. Calyx. 
5. Pistil : — magnified. 

i**z.c**£A*g: A& Mir S.&~£* \M a*u~w>d£*t*x.Tr«r »**. 


:. (ZutZifaeg a&# 

JuS iy S. Cut&s, £&»7c-e<nH't>ec£ £s-se*yt* r L18 31 

( 3111 3112 ; 

Achras Sapota. Common Sapota. 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Sapote^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 6- (raro 5-) partitus. Cor. 6-fida. Stamina 6 ste- 
rilia squamae for mia., cum totidem fertilibus alternantia. 
Ovarium 12 — 6-loculare. Pomum 12 — 6-spermum. Nu~ 
ces compressae,, osseae,, ventre longitudinaliter deraso. Semen 
albuminosum. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Achras* Sapota; foliis oblongo-ellipticis acutis, peduneulis 
calycibus petiolisque ferrugineo-pubescentibus, fila- 
mentis sterilibus oblongis obtusis., ovario pluri-loculari. 

(«.) fructu elliptico seu ovato. 

Achras Sapota. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 470. Willd. Sp. PL v. 
2. p. 224. Jacq. Am. p. 57. t. 41. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 
2. v. 2. p. 312. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 132. 

Achras fructu elliptico scabro majore. Brown, Jam. p. 
200. t. 19. / 3. 

(j3.) fructu subrotundo subdepresso. (Sappadilla or Nase- 
berry tree.) 

Achras Sapota, (3. Jacq. Am. I. c. t. 41, (3. 

Achras Zapotilla. Browne, Jam. p. 200. 

Anona foliis laminis, &c. Sloane, Jam. v. 2. p. 171. t. 230. 

Anona maxima, &c. Sloane, Jam. v. 2. p. 172. t. 169. / 2. 

Descr. This, according to Sloane, is one of the largest trees 
in the mountainous woods of the island of Jamaica. Jacquin says 
the height varies from ten to fifty feet : Mr. Guilding states it 
from thirty to forty feet. From every part of it a tenacious, 
viscid, white juice is distilled. The wood is white, the bark brown. 
Branches numerous, forming a spreading top. Leaves numerous, 
almost all of them placed in clusters at the extremity of the younger 
tranches, three to four inches long, coriaceous, shining, elliptical- 
oblong, acute, glabrous, the midrib prominent behind, the lateral 


* From the Greek «;#»?, a wild pear, from some resemblance in the fruit 
to that of a pear. 

nerves numerous but indistinct : the petioles are more or less downy. 
Peduncles from the axils of the terminal leaves, solitary, single- 
flowered, about an inch long, frequently drooping, rather thick and 
downy. Calyx divided nearly to the base into six, rather large, 
erect, ovate, coriaceous segments, of which the three outer are 
clothed with dense, ferruginous hairs, the three inner much paler 
coloured. Corolla of one petal, tubular, rather longer than the 
calyx, white, cut one-third of the way down into six oblong ob- 
tuse segments : within (alternating with these segments, and nearly 
equal to them in size and shape,) are six scales, abortive stamens, 
often notched at the point. Perfect stamens six. Filaments short, 
curved upwards. Anthers ovato-oblong, opening with a longitu- 
dinal fissure at the sides of the cells. Pistil: Germen subglobose, 
densely hairy. Style exserted. Stigma obtuse, obscurely lobed. 
Berry as large as a moderately-sized apple, often tipped with the 
persistent style, of a dirty brown colour, mottled and spotted with 
a deeper hue, in a. elliptical, in & more or less rounded or com- 
pressed ; having at the base the reflexed segments of the calyx, 
eight to ten- (seven to thirteen, J acq.) celled, many of the cells 
frequently abortive. In the inner angle of the cells is a solitary, 
rather large, laterally compressed, glossy, blackish-brown seed, 
having at the inner angle a long, pale, linear scar ; the lower ex- 
tremity is frequently recurved. Albumen white, fleshy, with the 
flattened embryo in the centre : the radicle pointing downwards. 

Mr. Guilding compares the appearance of the fruit of this tree 
to that of an old and decayed potato : yet he observes that, it is the 
most luscious of the West Indian fruits ; but so abounding in an 
acrid milk, that it cannot be eaten until it is completely ripe, or 
according to French authors, until it almost begins to be putrid. 
It is there served at all tables and generally esteemed. 

The flowers are, according to Jacquin, inodorous, but Mr. 
Guilding remarks, that they yield a smell resembling that of 
brass or copper, and far from agreeable. The general form of 
these blossoms when in perfection is campanulate ; but when fer- 
tilization is effected, the top of the flower closes upon the style, 
and it becomes ovato-acuminate in its circumscription. 

The timber yielded by this tree is considered of great service in 
the making of shingles to corn-houses. The bark is astringent, 
and commonly known by the name of Cortex jamaicensis, accord- 
ing to Brown, being frequently administered to the negroes in 
lieu of the Jesuit's Bark, and found to answer all the purposes of 
that medicine. The seeds are aperient and diuretic. 

It is a native of the West Indies and abundantly cultivated 
throughout all the hot parts of South America for the sake of its 
fruit. In our stoves it was cultivated so long ago as 1731, but it 
does not appear ever to have flowered with us. The figures here 
given are taken from beautiful drawings made by Mr. Guilding 
m St. Vincent. To the same Naturalist I am indebted for many 
observations on the tree. 

Tab. 3111. Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Corolla. 3. Corolla laid open. 4. Pis- 
til. 5. Stamen : — magnified. 

Tab. 3112. Fig. 1. Very young Fruit. 2. Fruit of var. «. 3. Ditto 
section of ditto. 4. Fruit of var. :—nat. size. 5. Seed. 6. Transverse 
Section of ditto. 7- Vertical Section of ditto. 8. Embryo :— -magnified. 



( 3113 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Solane^. Don. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-fidus seu 5-partitus, subinaequalis. Cor. infundi- 
buliformis 5-loba. Filamentum quintum sterile (nunc an- 
theriferum). Stylus apice dilatatus. Stigma truncatum, 
transversum. Capsula bi-loeularis, dissepimento valvis 
parallelo. Semina punctato-scabra. 

Specific Character. 

Salpiglossis integrifolia ; foliis ovato-lanceolatis in petio- 
lum attenuatis, floribus solitariis axillaribus, calyce 
profundo 5-partito, corollas lobis integris. 

Descr. Stem herbaceous, six to ten inches high, some- 
what procumbent at the base, then erect, slightly branched, 
rounded, every where clothed with glandular hairs. Leaves 
alternate, rarely opposite, those from near the root almost 
exactly ovate, the rest approaching to lanceolate or oblong, 
all, but especially the younger ones, more or less clothed 
with glandular and rather fetid hairs, rather obtuse at the 
point, quite entire at the margins, tapering gradually below 
into a footstalk, which has often, at its base, a purplish 
tinge. Peduncles principally confined to the uppermost 
leaves, solitary, about an inch long, glandular, single-flow- 
ered. Calyx three-fourths of the length of the tube of the 
corolla, deeply five-partite, the segments linear, increasing 
in size, after the corolla has fallen away, and inclined up- 
wards. Corolla more than an inch long, broadly infundi- 

buliform : 

buliform : the tube dark bluish-purple,, hairy, and glandular, 
the limb nearly equal, oblique, five-lobed, the lobes rounded 
entire, obtuse, of a rich crimson purple. Stamens five, in- 
cluded, four didynamous, the central one antheriferous. 
Filaments quite glabrous, purplish. Anthers blue, two- 
lobed, the lobes at first approximate, opening at the outer 
margins, at length spreading. Germen, small, ovate, green, 
imbedded in a fleshy yellow gland or ring, with two teeth. 
Style slender, filiform, green, dilated upwards, and bearing 
an orbicular green, peltate, flat stigma, marked with a 
transverse line. Capsule ovate, small, two-celled, two- 
valved, the valves sometimes bifid at their points. Seeds 
numerous, attached to a receptacle on each side the disse- 
piment, oval, approaching to reniform, studded with numer- 
ous, raised points, arranged in lines. 

This new and most distinct species of Salpiglossis was 
raised from seeds sent in the autumn of 1830, by Mr. 
Tweedie of Buenos Ayres, to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
where the young plants, placed in a warm exposure in the 
open air produced their richly coloured blossoms in July 
of the following year (1831). It promises to be a most 
valuable addition to our semi-hardy plants: but whether 
an annual or otherwise, I am not at present able to say. 
I have specimens of the same plant sent to me by Mr. 
James Baird of Buenos Ayres, who gathered them upon 
the Uraguay *, near the Rio Negro. 

Mr. Don has justly referred the present Genus to Sola- 
nacejE. It has the same heavy and fetid smell, though not 
in a very powerful degree, as many others of that family. 

* From the same source, and from the same country, I possess another 
species of Salpiglossis, which may he thus named and distinguished : 
S. linearis ; foliis (parvis) linearibus integerrimis glandulosis, paniculis pau- 

cifloris terminalibus Miosis, calyce 5-fido, corolla; lohis integris. Hab. 

Banks of the Uraguay, Mr. James Baird. 

Fig. 1. Root Leaf, nat. size. 2. Flower. 3. Stamen. 4. Anther burst. 
5. Pistil. 6. Section of the Germen. 7. Summit of the Style and Stigma, 
o. Capsule. 9. Seed : — more or less magnified. 

( 3114 ) 

Centroclinium reflexum. Reflexed- 
scaled Centroclinium. 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. Labiatiflor^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum subglobosum vel cylindraceum arete imbri- 
catum. Flosculi disci tubulosi, 5-dentati, hinc profundius 
fissi; radii 7 — 12 bilabiate labio interiore minutissimo 
bipartite erecto (dein revoluto ?) exteriore longissimo tri- 
fido. Antherce biaristatas. Stigma integrum. Pappus in- 
aequalis, scaber. Receptaculum spinulis mollibus hispidum. 
— Herbal ? v. Frutices Peruviana. Folia petiolata subtus 
albo-tomentosa. Pedunculi solitarii axillares vel terminates 
unifiori. Flores fragrantes speciosi : Radius purpureo- 

Specific Character. 

Centroclinium* reflexum; herbaceum ? foliis ovato-lan- 
ceolatis grosse dentatis, pedunculis bracteato-setaceis, 
involucri squamis apice reflexis. 

Descr. This appears to be an annual plant from a foot 
and a half to two feet in height, branched, the branches 
woolly. Leaves spreading, two to three inches long, ovato- 
lanceolate, acute, coarsely toothed, gradually tapering into 
a petiole, woolly and white beneath, above cobwebby, but 
at length nearly glabrous. Peduncles solitary, terminal, 
or from the axils of the upper leaves, four to five inches 
long, woolly, and bearing many subulato-setaceous brac- 


* From xwrpoy, a sharp point, and *Ai»/*, the receptacle, from the hard, 
rigid spinules observed by the anther. 

teas, single-flowered. Flowers large, handsome, fragrant. 
Involucre broadly ovate or oval, imbricated with numerous 
subulate scales, their apices all remarkably reflexed. Flo- 
rets of the disk deep yellow, very prominent. Corollas 
tubular, cleft more deeply on the interior side, with the 
five linear oblong teeth somewhat unilateral. Anthers 
deep yellow, exserted, biaristate. Germen cylindrical. 
Style yellow, somewhat clavate, entire. Pappus of many 
unequal hairs, the outer being shorter and slenderer, the 
inner longer, frequently darker-coloured ; all of them sca- 
brous. Florets of the ray nine to twelve, rose-purple, two- 
lipped, the inner lip very minute, of two subulate segments, 
erect, probably in a more advanced state reflexed ; outer 
one very long, linear, three-toothed, externally downy. 
Anthers small, abortive. Germen, style, stigma, and pappus 
as in the florets of the disk. Receptacle plane, set with 
small, soft, erect spinules. 

Among the many interesting plants raised last year 
(1830) from the Peruvian seeds liberally communicated to 
the Glasgow Botanic Garden by our valued friend, Mr. 
Cruckshanks, are two species of the family of Composite, 
and of the division Labiatifloile, agreeing in so many 
points with Mr. Don's Genus Centroclinium (Linn. Trans, 
v. 16, p. 254,) that I cannot suppose they are other than 
the same: yet in the nature of the spinules of the receptacle 
there is a remarkable difference ; for whereas Mr. Don de- 
scribes them as harsh and rigid aculei (whence he has 
derived the Generic Name) ; in our plant they are soft and 

Mr. Don suggests that the Onoceris salicifolia of Hum- 
boldt and Kunth may be a species of this Genus, an opinion 
in which I quite agree with him, though the little aculei of 
the receptacle have been overlooked in the description. In- 
deed, except in the narrow and more entire leaves, it seems 
to agree with the present species, possessing, in fact, the 
peduncle and involucre of the present individual, and the 
foliage of the subject of our next plate. 

Our plants of C. rejlexum were cultivated in the stove, 
and produced their handsome, fragrant flowers, smelling like 
Hawthorn, late in the Autumn, when they died, without pro- 
ducing seed. Mr. Murray considers it to be truly annual. 

Fig. 1. Section of an Involucre and Receptacle. 2. Floret of the Disk. 3. 
Inner side of the extremity of a Floret from the Disk, showing the deeper 
cleft. 4. Inner view of the Anthers. 5. Floret of the Ray. 6. Portions oi 
the Pappus: — Magnified. 



S. r„HlS, '",/; 

( 3115 ) 

Centroclinium appressum. Close-pressed- 
scaled Centroclinium. 

A'. . y V^ >V- .^i .Sk- A'. A\ A'< A'* A'. A'. A. ■ v l / . i^I'. A'. A'- .Ski ."fri A'r 
vf* «j» ^f? vj>. vxn "/js vfv" vf> vf." vf» vj\ "/f." vj\ Tf; vj." v^s vj>: v]S vj>.* 

C7#ss awd Order. 
Syngenesia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. LabiatifloRjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum subglobosum vel cylindraceum arete imbri- 
catum. Flosculi disci tubulosi, 5-dentati, hinc profundius 
fissi ; radii 7 — 12 bilabiati, labio interiore minutissimo 
bipartite erecto, (dein revoluto ?) exteriore longissimo tri- 
fido. Antherce biaristatae. Stigma integrum. Pappus in- 
asqualis, scaber. Receptaculum spinulis mollibus hispidum. 
Herbae ? v. Frutices, Peruviance. Folia petiolata subtus 
albo-tomentosa. Pedunculi solitarii axillares vel terminates 
uniflori. Flores fragrantes speciosi : Radius purpureo- 

Specific Character. 

Centroclinium appressum; fruticosum, foliis lanceolatis 
subintegerrimis, pedunculis nudis, involucri squamis 
erectis appressis. 

Descr. Stem shrubby, one to two feet high in our 
stove, with white, woolly branches, and numerous patent 
or reflexed leaves, three inches or more long, lanceolate, 
waved, and nearly entire, partially glabrous and green 
above, pure white and cottony beneath. Peduncle solitary, 
terminal, or, from the prolongation of a shoot beneath it, 
axillary, woolly, naked, single-flowered. Flower large, 
fragrant. Florets of the disk and of the ray, similar to 
those described under C. reflexum. Involucre cylindrical, 
imbricated with many close-pressed, subulate scales. Re- 
ceptacle with soft, small aculei. 

This species,, for which we are indebted to Mr. Cruck- 
shanks, who brought the seeds from Peru, is undoubtedly, 
a perennial and frutescent plant. It blossomed for the first 
time, imperfectly, in December 1830, and again, with larger 
flowers, in June, 1831. 

It appears to differ from Mr. Don's Centroclinium albi- 
cans in its entire leaves, and from Onoseris angustifolia 
(Humb. and Kunth,) principally in its larger and broader 
foliage. It is certainly a very desirable stove plant, no 
less on account of its beauty than its fragrance, 

Fig. 1. Floret from the Disk. 2. Floret from the Ray. 3. Portion of 
ditto, to show the inner Lip : — magnified. 

If* Arnold // 

( 3116 ) 
Peristeria elata. Lofty Dove-Flower. 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores subglobosi. Petala subcarnosa, 3 ext. aequalia, 
valde concava, 2 int. lato-obovata. Labellwn obovatum, 
carnosum, truncatum, cum basi columns articulatum, disco 
cristato crasso. Columna basi petalorum adnata, apice 
solummodo libero, inferne longe produeta, insigniter dila- 
tata alata, alis erectis obtusis carnosis crassis intus uniden- 
tatis. Anthera bilocularis. Masses pollinis 2 clavatae, corn- 
pressae, hinc lateraliter fissae. 

Specific Name. 
Peristeria * elata. 

Descr. A parasite. Bulb, when it has attained its full 
size, as large as a swan's egg, broadly ovate, green, ob- 
scurely striated and somewhat wrinkled, having at its base 
the remains of old, membranous, sheathing scales, at the 
summit bearing from three to five leaves, which are from 
two feet to forty inches in length, and six inches in breadth 
at their greatest diameter, lanceolate, or almost sword- 
shaped, acute, with several strong ribs, prominent at the 
back, and having many plicae and striae ; the outer ones 
sessile and sheathing, the inner tapering at the base into a 
sort of petiole. From the base of the bulb arises the 
Jlower-stem or scape, four feet high, terete, glabrous, having 


* From ffspw-Tipa, a dove, from the resemblance in the shape of the column 
to that bird. 

VOL. V. N 

below three or four large, sheathing, membranous scales, 
and at the extremity a spike or raceme a foot in length, of 
large, yellowish-white, almost globose, fleshy flowers, yield- 
ing a peculiar fragrance, somewhat resembling that of the 
Nuphar lutea. Bracteas much shorter than the germen, 
ovato-acuminate, often carinate, rigid, green tinged with 
purple. The three outer petals of the flowers are broadly 
ovate, almost rotundate, very concave, the two inner ones 
rather more delicate, broadly obovate, all of them subcon- 
nivent. Lip erect, broadly obovate, truncate, erect, thick 
and fleshy, having a large excrescence or protuberance, 
somewhat wrinkled, on the disk, often sprinkled with deep 
purple dots, which reach to the base, where the lip is joint- 
ed upon the prolonged base of the column. Column adnate 
with and decurrent upon the bases of the petals, its upper 
part alone free and standing forward nearly horizontally, 
the rest is extended downwards, remarkably dilated and 
thickened, bearing on each side two large, fleshy wings, 
which are erect, and reach nearly to the top of the column, 
rounded at the apex, below the middle bearing a conspicu- 
ous tooth : the whole is of the same waxy white with the 
petals, but the upper or inner side of the wings is beauti- 
fully sprinkled with deep purple dots. Anther hemispher- 
ical, white, two-celled. Pollen-masses 2, clavate, flattened, 
with a fissure at the outer margin, deep yellow, waxy, firm, 
fixed upon an oblong-acuminate membrane, with its mar- 
gins recurved ; this projects beyond the anther-case, so as 
to resemble the beak of a bird. Germen cylindrico-clavate, 
furrowed and slightly twisted. 

In the year 1826, Henry Barnard, Esq. of Truxillo in 
Peru, communicated to Richard Harrison, Esq. of Liver- 
pool, a bulb of a remarkable, parasitical, orchideous plant, 
which he had found in the neighbourhood of Panama, and 
the flower of which is there looked upon with no little con- 
sideration, and known to the inhabitants by the name of 
" el Spirito Santo." The reason for this appellation was 
quite obvious on the blossoming of the plant, which did 
not occur in Mr. Harrison's stove, until the summer of the 
present year, 1831, when the centre of the flower exhibited 
a column which, with its summit or anther, and the project- 
ing gland of the pollen -masses, together with the almost 
erect wings, bore a striking resemblance to a Dove, the 
emblem of the third person in the Trinity. El Spirito 
Santo was therefore applied by the same people, and in 
the same religious feeling as, dictated the naming of the 
' c Passion-Flower. ' ' 


So soon as the curious flowers were fully expanded, Mr. 
Harrison, with his usual kindness, forwarded me a speci- 
men ; together with an excellent drawing from the pencil of 
Mrs. Arnold Harrison. This is, in part only, copied, to 
suit the plate of the Magazine ; and therefore but imper- 
fectly represents the stately appearance of the original. 
For this species is no less remarkable among Orchideous 
plants for its stature, than for its large and copiously flow- 
ering spike. 

Being unable to find any Genus of the Orchide^e which 
corresponds with it, 1 have ventured to give it a Generic 
name significant of the dove-like appearance of the column 
of fructification. 

It is to be hoped, now that Mr. Harrison has so success- 
fully cultivated this rarity from the tropical parts of America 
bordering on the Pacific, that Mr. Barnard will further the 
cause of Science by collecting and introducing to our stoves 
other plants of the same family, and which bear a long 
voyage better than many less interesting tribes. 

Fig. 1. View of the Column and Lip, the latter bent down. 2. Side view 
of the upper part of the Column and Anther. 3. Anther-case. 4. Upper, 
and 5, underside of the Pollen-masses : magnified. 


Kts'r J)ec r I, IISl. 

( 3117 ) 

Orobus canescens. Canescent Bitter- 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LeguminosjE. ) 

Generic Character, 

Cal. campanulatus, 5-fidus, lobis 2 superioribus breviori- 
bus. Cor. papilionacea. Stam. diadelpha. Stylus graci- 
lis linearis apice villosus. Legumen cylindraceum oblon- 
gum 1-loc. bivalve polyspermism. Semina hilo lineari. — 
Herbae erectce. Stipula? semisagittatce. Petioli in setam 
brevem simplicem desinentes. Folia abrupte pinnata pauci- 
juga. Racemi axillares pedunculali. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Orobus canescens; caule tetragono, foliis subtrijugis, foli- 
olis linearibus obtusiusculis pubescentibus vel punc- 
tata - rugosis, nervis parallelis, stipulis semisagittatis 
linearibus acutis petiolum alatum subaequantibus, pe- 
dunculis 3 — 5-floris folio duplo longioribus, dentibus 
calycinis latis tubo brevioribus, leguminibus rectis 
compressis glabris longitudinaliter reticulato-venosis. 

Orobus canescens. Linn. Fit. Suppl. p. 327. Willd. Sp. 
PL v. 3. p. 1075. Benth. Cat. PL Pyr. p. 110. De 
Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 379. 

Orobus ensifolius. Lapeyr. Mem. du Mus. v. 2. p. 303. 
t. 12. (excl. var. {S.J 

Orobus atro-purpureus. Lapeyr. Abr. (non Desf.J 

Orobus filiformis. Lam. FL Fr. ed. 2. p. 568. Spreng. 
Syst. Veg.v. 3. p. 258. 

Descr. Root perennial, throwing up several four-sided 
and striated, simple, glabrous stcms 3 about a foot high. 


Leaves remote,, almost sessile, pinnated with two or three 
pairs of opposite, linear; sword -shaped, closely-striated, 
scarcely pubescent leaflets : the rachis or common petiole 
short, tipped with a mucro. Stipules narrowly semisagit- 
tate. Peduncles often more than twice the length of the 
leaves, bearing a rather close raceme of four to eight large 
and very beautiful flowers. Calyx glabrous, two upper 
teeth shorter than the rest. Vexillum ample, and, as well as 
the alee, rich purple, becoming more blue when fully ex- 
panded. Carina almost white, purple only at the edges. 
Style remarkably dilated upwards, more so than in most of 
the Lathyri. 

Our Glasgow Botanic Garden is indebted to Mr. Fischer 
of Gottingen for the possession of this most desirable spe- 
cies of Orobus, which produces its large and highly colour- 
ed blossoms in May and June. It is said to be a native of 
the South of Europe ; but chiefly, as it would appear, of 
the Pyrenees. Mr. Bentham gives it as inhabiting the 
central parts of that great chain. Sprengel adopts the 
name of O.filiformis of Lamarck for it; and it must be 
confessed that the appellation given by Linnaeus is far from 

The habit of this plant and the absence of tendrils pro- 
claims it to be an Orobus; but the style, remarkably dilated 
upwards, is altogether that of a Lathyrus. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and Carina; nat. size. 2. Front view of the Style. 3. 
Back view of the same : — magnified. 


C 3118 3119 ) 

Cephalotus follicularis. Follicled 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx coloratus 6-fidus, aestivatione valvata. Pet. o. 
Stam. 12, perigyna : Anther arum, dorso gland uloso. Ova- 
ria 6, distincta, rnonosperma, ovulo erecto. Styli termi- 
nales. Br. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Cephalotus * follicularis. Labill. Fl. Nov. Holl. v. 2. p. 7. 
t. 145. Br. Rem. on Bot. of Terra Austr. p. 68. t. 4. 
De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 591. 

Descr. Root perennial, somewhat fusiform, the upper 
part dividing, as it were, into two or three short stems, 
which bear a cluster of elliptical, lanceolate, petiolated, 
entire, thickish, nerveless, purplish leaves; and amongst 
these, but principally occupying the circumference, are 
several beautiful and highly curious pitcher-shaped appen- 
dages or operculated ascidia, attached by rather stout 
petioles where the lid unites with the margin of the ascidium. 
Their form is ovate or somewhat slipper-shaped, between 
foliaceous and membranaceous, green tinged with purple, 
furnished with two lateral oblique wings and one central 
one, the latter remarkably dilated at the margin, and all 


* Derived from xupaXr, a head, and wt, an car ; on account of the glan- 
dular head of the anthers. 

beautifully fringed with hairs. The inside, which contains 
a watery fluid and entraps many insects, especially ants, 
is clouded with dark purple. The mouth is contracted, 
horse-shoe-shaped, annulated and crested with several deep, 
sharp, vertical annuli, of a dark purple colour, smallest 
near the base of the lid, three of them, which are opposite 
the wings, larger than the adjoining ones ; all of them form- 
ing a sickle-shaped point within the mouth. Lid plano- 
convex, green without and a little hairy, within clouded 
with purple, marked with broad veins which are somewhat 
dichotomous, the margin scalloped ; — at first it closes the 
mouth of the ascidium, and afterwards becomes nearly 
erect. Scape one to nearly two feet high, erect, terete, 
downy, bearing a compound, spicate raceme at the extre- 
mity, and one or two subulate bracteae in its lower half. 
Branches very short, downy. Calyx small, hairy, greenish- 
white, deeply five-cleft, the segments ovate, erecto-patent, 
obtuse, the points thickened : the base or tube within has a 
thickened green disk, covered with small papillae, at the 
margin of which the twelve stamens, alternately shorter, 
are inserted: all shorter than the calyx segments; those 
opposite the calyx-segments the longest. Filaments subu- 
late, purplish rose-coloured, glabrous. Anthers two-celled, 
didymous, subglobose, in part concealed by a large fungose, 
globose excrescence (the connectivum) ; those of the longer 
filaments rather the largest. Pollen globose. Pistils six, 
small, arranged in a circle around a small tuft of hairs, 
purplish. Germen ovate, glabrous, tapering into a some- 
what recurved style : Stigma obtuse. (e Ovule erect, almost 
as large as the cell, and containing within the membrana- 
ceous testa a little, pendulous sack, of the same size as the 
cavity of the testa." (Br.) 

For our first knowledge of this rare and highly curious 
plant, having the ascidia or appendages of the famous 
Nepenthes, but belonging to the Natural Order Rosace^, 
we are indebted to M. Labillardiere, who discovered it in 
" Leuwin's Land," and figured and described it in his 
te Specimen of the Plants of New Holland." Mr. Browne, 
during his voyage with Capt. Flinders detected it on 
nearly the same line of coast, namely, " in the neighbour- 
hood of King George's Sound, especially near the shores of 
Princess Royal Harbour, in 35° S. lat. and 118° E. long.; 
beginning to flower about the end of December." From 
specimens there gathered, the species has been illustrated 



m A-v7/'"/ 

by that profound Botanist, so as, aided by the pencil of 
Mr. Bauer, to leave nothing to be wished relative to its 
structure, save what might be obtained from a knowledge 
of the seed, which is still a desideratum. 

Capt. King brought over living plants of Cephalotus to 
the Royal Gardens of Kew in 1823, which flowered in 
August, 1827. From those individuals and the drawing 
liberally communicated by Mr. Aiton, and some noble 
dried specimens from King George's Sound, for which I 
am indebted to Mr. Fraser, the accompanying figures and 
description have been made. 

Recently, I believe, growing plants have been brought 
home by Mr. Baxter, which are flourishing at the Clapton 

Tab. 3118. Plant : nat. size. Fig-. 1. Upper part of a Scape, the Flowers 
yet unexpanded (from Mr. Bauer's figure.) 

Tab. 3119. Fig. 1. Front view of an Ascidium. 2. Side view of ditto. 
3. Vertical section of the same, slightly magnified. 4. Outside view of a 
Flower. 5. Vertical view of ditto. 6. Vertical section of ditto. 7- A 
shorter Stamen, seen from behind. 8. Longer Stamen, seen in front. 9. 
Pistil, laid open to show the Ovule. 10. The Ovule (from Mr. Bauer's 
figure) : more or less magnified. 


Pr/f> M' S CUfH* /,'//! Ksr/n;;// /T.c.iv.r .'.>■•■■ r 1 ti 

( 3120 ) 
Banksia media. Intermediate Banksia. 


Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium 4-partitum (raro 4-fidum.) Stamina apici- 
bus concavis laciniarum immersa. Squamulce hypogynae 4. 
Ovarium uniloculare biovulatum. Folliculus lignosus : 
Dissepimento (e testis ovulorum amborum formato) libero 
bifido. Amentum flosculorum paribus tribracteatis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Banksia media ; foliis cuneato-linearibus truncatis dentato- 
serratis basi attenuatis : subter reticulatis venis venu- 
lisque glabratislaciniis tomentosis, perianthii unguibus 
sericeis; laminis glabris, folliculis glabriusculis immer- 
sis, floribus marcescentibus. Br. 

Banksia media. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Suppl. p. 35. 

Descr. This appears to constitute a large shrub, or 
small tree, with rather thick, rounded branches, clothed with 
a thin pale tomentum. Leaves scattered, four to six inches 
long, linear-cuneate, coriaceous, rigid, often truncated at 
the extremity, the margins coarsely dentato-serrated, almost 
spinulose, the base attenuated into a very slender, pale 
yellow-green petiole : the upper side is glabrous, dark 
green, and glossy, very obscurely veiny, below paler, the 
veins and veinlets glabrous, the areolae or lacunes filled 
with white down. Flowers of an uniform, rather pale, and 
dull yellow, densely collected into a broadly-oblong, ter- 
minal head. Scales very hairy, deep orange. Perianth 
slender, silky, tubular at the base; the latinise filiform, 
spathulate at the extremity, and there hollowed for the 
reception of the anther. Style as long as the perianth. 


For a fine specimen of this., likewise accompanied by a 
drawing", I am indebted to W. T. Aiton, Esq. It was re- 
ceived at Kew from Francis Henchman, Esq. in 1824 : the 
seeds having a short time previously been gathered, on the 
South -Western Shores of New Holland., between Cape 
Arid and Lucky Bay, by Mr. Baxter. 

It is nearly allied to B. marcescens, (already figured at 
Tab. 2803 of the present work) between which and B. 
attenuata it is placed by Mr. Brown. At Kew Gardens its 
flowering season is August. 

Fig. 1. Flowers with their accompanying 1 Bracteas. 2. Part of a seg- 
ment of the Perianth with its Stamen : magnified. 

( 3121 ) 

Baptisia perfoliata. Perfoliate 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. semi-5-fidus, bilabiatus. Cor. papilionacea, petalis 
longitudine subaequalibus : vexillum lateribus reflexis. Sta- 
mina decidua. Legumen ventricosum, pedicellatum, poly- 
spermum. Br. 

Specific Character and Si/nom/ms. 

Baptisia* perfoliata; foliis perfoliatis integerrimis subro- 

tundis. Br. 
Baptisia perfoliata. Br. in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. p. 5. 

De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 100. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 

2. p. 347. Elliott, Cav. v. I. p. 467. Lodd. Bot. Cab. 

t. 1104. 
Rafnia perfoliata. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 949. 
Podalyria perfoliata. Mich. Fl. Am. v. I. p. 263. Pursh, 

Am. v. 1. p. 307. 
Sophora perfoliata. Walt. PI. Car. p. 135. 
Crotalaria perfoliata. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1003. 
Crotalaria perfoliata folio. Dill. Elth. p. 122. t. 102. 


Descr. Root perennial. Stems herbaceous, erect or 
declined, slightly branched, mostly near the base, about a 


* From (SawTw, to dye, on account of the peculiar properties of some 

foot high : the branches terete, glaucous, glabrous, as is 
every part of the plant. Leaves broadly oval, or almost 
orbicular, simple, entire, pierced by the stem at some dis- 
tance from the margin, hence perfoliate and secund, large 
in proportion to the size of the plant, often emarginate at 
the inferior edge, glaucous-green, veiny, the veins or nerves 
somewhat radiant. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect. Pe- 
duncle short, slender, erect. Calyx in four somewhat 
equally-sized, rather spreading teeth, the upper tooth again 
bidentate. Corolla pale yellow. Petals nearly equal in 
length : the Vexillum shortest, roundish, carinated, emar- 
ginate, the sides somewhat reflexed and concave. Aloe 
oblong-oval, closed upon the carina, which is obovate. 
Stamens ten, equal : Filaments free, standing close together. 
Anthers oval, deep orange. Pistil about as long as the 
stamens. Germen linear-oblong, pedicellate, about as long 
as the subulate style, which is curved upwards. " Legume 
inflated, large. Seeds reniform, very small." (Elliott.) 

Roots of this singular plant were obligingly sent to our 
Glasgow Garden by the late Stephen Elliott, Esq. and by 
Dr. Wray, of Augusta, from Georgia, where it grows in 
dry sandy hills. Coming from so Southern a latitude, it 
might well be supposed to be a tender plant ; and, indeed, 
as such it is considered by Mr. Loddiges, requiring the 
protection of a greenhouse. With us, in the peat border 
of the American ground, it has survived two winters, and 
flowers in great perfection during the months of July and 
August. The blossoms are neither large nor showy, but 
the foliage, of so unusual a character for a leguminose 
plant, and of a tender glaucous-green colour, renders it 
eminently deserving a place in every garden. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Vexillum. 3. Inner view of a Wing. 4. Calyx and 
Carina. 5. Calyx and Stamens. 6. Pistil : — magnified. 


Pui- £>y S. Curtis, Glaxenvccd £sse^2)ea2J83I 

( 3122 ) 


Class and Order. 

( Nat. Old. PoLYGALEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores resupinati. CaL 5-sepalus deciduus, sepalis 2 in- 
ternis alae form i bus, 3 exterioribus ovatis, 2 quorum saepe 
coalitis. Petala basi connata, medio concavo saepe 3- 
dentato. Stam. 8, filamentis subdiadelphis pilosiusculis. 
Drupa 2-loc. 2-sperma aut abortu 1-loc. 1-sperma, inter- 
dum margine membranaceo cincta. Semen fere ex apice 
loculi pendulum. Albumen nullum. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Monnina * obtusifolia ; fruticosa, ramulis foliisque glabris 

( vel puberulis) oblongis obtusis basi cuneatis obsolete 

venosis, spicis solitariis. Kunth. 
Monnina obtusifolia. Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. v. 5. p. 

411. De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 339. 
Monnina nemorosa. Hook, in Bot. Misc. v. 2. p. 208. (vix 

Humb. et Kunth.) 
Hebeandra phyllireioides. '* Bonpl. in Mag de Gesellsch, 

1808, p. 42." 

Descr. This forms a small, upright, somewhat frutes- 
cent, slender and dichotomously branched shrub ; branches 
glabrous or very obscurely pubescent, slightly tinged with 
purple. Leaves obovate, obtuse, attenuated into a short 


* According to the Flora Peruviana, this plant is named from Monmno, 
Count dc Flora Blanca, a Spaniard, who was a patron of Botany. 

petiole, quite entire, scarcely more than one inch long-, often 
glabrous, but sometimes minutely and indistinctly pubes- 
cent. At the base of the petiole, on each side, is a promi- 
nent, fleshy, roundish gland, depressed in the centre. Ra- 
cemes terminal, solitary, slender, more or less peduncled. 
Bracteas very deciduous. Pedicels short, curved down- 
wards, so that the flower is drooping. Three outer seg- 
ments of the calyx small, greenish-purple, oblong, two 
inner ones very large, petaloid, roundish, attenuated at the 
base, deep bluish-purple, spreading. Corolla of three, or 
rather, perhaps, of five, reddish-purple petals, united into 
one hollow keel, within which are the stamens, combined 
below into one body, the free part of the filaments slender, 
incurved, hairy at their base. Anthers oblong, opening 
by a pore at the extremity. Pistil : Germen oblong ; 
style curved almost like the letter S, incrassated above, 
with a tooth on each side. Stigma obtuse, yellow. 

This pretty plant, with its small but bright-coloured 
flowers, blossomed in the stove of the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden, in June, 1831 ; having been raised from seeds 
brought from Lurin, near Lima, by our valued friend Mr. 
Cruckshanks, during the preceding year. 

I had in the Botanical Miscellany referred the dried spe- 
cimens from the same country, though not without hesita- 
tion, to the M. nemorosa of Humboldt and Kunth : but 
the living plant, seeming to accord better with the M. obtu- 
sifolia of the same authors, I have, therefore, here adopted 
that name. 

Fig. 1. View of the upperside of a Flower. 2. Underside of ditto. 3. 
Side view of a Flower. 4. Corolla, laid open. 5. Stamen. 6. Pistil. 7- 
Gland, from the base of the Petiole : — all more or less magnified. 

J N D E X, 

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Fifth 
Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Eighth of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged. 


Achras Sapota. 

Adamia cyanea. 
Alstroemeria acutifolia. 



Annona squamosa. 
Authericum ? plumosum. 
Aphanochilus blandus. 
Arbutus mucronata. 
Argemone grandiflora. 
Arracacia esculenta. 
Asplenium Nidus. 
Banksia littoralis ? 


Baptisia perfoliata. 
Brassavola elegans. 
Broughtonia sanguinea. 
Browallia grandiflora. 
Calceolaria angustiflora. 
Centroclinium appressum. 

reflex um. 

Ceplialotus follicularis. 

Chrysophyllum Cainito. 
Clerodendron nutans. 
Codiaeum pictum. 
Columnea hirsuta. 
Commelina gracilis. 
Coryanthes maculata. 
Delima sarmentosa. 
Dendrobium speciosum. 
Dryandra nervosa. 
Drosera binata. 
Echinocactus Ottonis. 
E ran the mum s trie turn. 
Farsetia lunarioides. 
Fritillaria leucantha. 
Gesneria bulbosa. 
Hedychium flavum. 
Houstonia longifolia. 
Hovea pannosa. 


3061 Hunnemannia fumariaefolia. 

3065 Indigofera atropurpurea. 
3071 Janipha Manihot. 

3110 Lantana nivea, var. mutabilis. 
3057 Loasa hispida. 

3048 incana. 

3075 Lobelia hypocrateriformis. 

3103 Lonieera hirsuta. 
3056 Lupinus Cruckshanksii. 
3090 Melocactus communis. 
3067 Mimulus perfoliatus. 
3122 Monnina obtusifolia. 
3059 Monodora Myristica. 

3108 Nierembergia gracilis. 
3055 Nothoclsena tenera. 
3089 Olea undulata. 

3109 Oncidium bicornutum. 

3077 Omithogalum fimbriatum. 
3117 Orobus canescens. 

3100 Palavia rhombifolia. 
3116 Peristeria elata. 

3066 Pladera decussata. 
3064 Portulaca Gilliesvi. 
3085 Pterostylis nutans. 

3086 curta. 

3080 Rhipsalis Cassytha. 
3079 fasciculata. 

3078 mesembryanthemoi- 


3106 Rhododrendron Lapponicura. 
3113 Salpiglossis integrifolia. 
3044 Schizanthus Grahamii. 

3070 Hookeri. 

3045 retusus. 

3042 Sphenogyne crithmifolia. 

3104 Torenia scabra. 

3096 Tournefortia heliotropioides. 

3097 Trillium discolor. 
3054 Tupistra nutans. 

3043 Urena lobata. 

3062 Vernonia acutifolia. 
3088 Xanthochymus dulcis. 


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the 
Fifth Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Eighth of the 
Work) are alphabetically arranged. 







Adamia, blue-berried. 
Alstroemeria, Mr. Neill's. 


Anthericum, bearded-flowered. 
Aphanocbilus, mild. 
Arbutus, sharp-pointed. 
Arracacha, eatable. 
Banksia, handsome. 


— Shore. 

Baptisia, perfoliate. 

Bitter- Vetch, Canescent. 

Brassavola, elegant. 

Broughtonia, crimson-flowered. 

Browallia, large-flowered. 

Calabash-Nutmeg, Jamaica. 

Centroclinium, close-pressed- 

Centroclinium, reflexed- scaled. 

Cephalotus, follicled. 


Codheum, painted-leaved. 

Columnea, hairy. 

Commelina, slender. 

Coryanthes, spotted-lipped. 

Clerodendron, drooping-flower- 

Custard-apple, undulated, Su- 
gar-apple, or Sweet-sop. 

Delima, climbing. 

Dendrobium, great. 

Dove-flower, lofty. 

Dryandra, nerved-leaved. 

Echinocactus, Mr. Otto's. 

Eranthemum, upright. 

Farsetia, Lunaria-like. 

Fritillary, white-flowered. 

Gesneria, bulbous-rooted. 

Hedychium, large yellow-flow- 

Houstonia, long-leaved. 

Hovea, rusty. 

Hunnemannia, Fumitory-leaved 

Indigofera, blood-flowered. 

Lantana, white-flowered ; 
changeable var. 


3048 Loasa, hoary. 

3057 hispid. 

3075 Lobelia, salver- shaped. 

3056 Lupine, Mr. Cruckshanks' Pe- 

3090 Melon-Thistle, greater Turk's - 

3073 Mexican- Poppy, large-flowered 

3067 Monkey-flower, perfoliate. 

3122 Monnina, blunt-leaved. 

3108 Nierembergia, slender. 
3055 Nothocleena, thin-leaved. 
3089 Olive, wavy-leaved, fragrant 


3109 Oncidium, two-horned. 
3100 Palavia, rhomb-leaved. 

307 1 Physic - Nut, eatable-rooted, 
Bitter Cassada, Manioc, or 

3066 Pladera, decussate. 

3085 Pterostylis, nodding-flowered. 

3086 short-lipped. 

3064 Purslane, Dr. Gillies'. 

3079 Rhipsalis, cluster-branched. 
3078 ■ Fig-marigold- like. 

3080 , naked. 

3106 Rhododendron, Lapland. 
3113 Salpiglossis, entire-leaved. 

3111 Sapota, common or Bully-tree. 

3112 Ibid. 

3070 Schizanthus, acute-petaled. 

3045 blunt-petaled. 

3044 Dr. Graham's. 

3042 Sphenogyne, Sampire-leaved. 
3101 Spleen-wort, Birds-nest. 
3094 Slipper-wort, narrow-flowered. 
3072 Star-Apple, broad-leaved. 
3077 Star of Bethlehem, hairy-leaved. 
3082 Sun-dew, forked-leaved. 
3104 Torenia, rough. 

3096 Tournefortia, Heliotrope-like. 

3097 Trillium, green-flowered. 
3054 Tupistra, drooping. 

3043 Urena, angular-leaved. 
3062 Vernonia, sharp-leaved. 
3103 Woodbine, hairy American. 
3088 Xanthochymus, sweet-fruited.