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In which the most Ornamental Foreign Plants cultivated in the Open Ground, 

the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented and coloured. 

To which are added, 


Their Places of Growth, Times of Flowering, and most approved 
Methods of Culture. 





F. R. A. and L. S. and Regius Professor of Botany in the University 
of Glasgow. 



Or Vol. lix. of the whole Work. 

*' Here may the flowers display their sweets, 
And, gay, their silken leaves unfold, 

As fearless of the noontide heats 

As careless of the Winter's cold." 


Printed by Edward Couchmau, 10, Throgmorton Street ; 




Also by Sherwood, Gilbert, & Piper, 23, Paternoster Row; J. & A. Arcb, Cornhill; Treuttel, A Wurti, 

Soho Square ; Blackwood, Edinburgh ; and in Holland, of Mr. Gt. Eldering, Florist, at Haarlem s 

And to be had of all Booktellcr* in Town and Country. 














Glasgow, Dec. 1, 1832. 

byS.Cwli*, Glafric, ex Jan.? £/gj 

Sir an Sc 

( 3123 ) 

Lathyrus decaphyllus. Ten-leafletted 
Everlasting Pea. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LEGUMiNosiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. campanulatus 5-fidus, lobis 2 superioribus breviori- 
bus. Cor. papilionacea. Stam. diadelpha. Stylus com- 
planatus, apice dilatatus, antice villosus aut pubescens. 
Legumen oblongum, polyspermia bivalve, 1-loc. Semina 
globosa aut angulata. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lathyrus * decap hy llus ; glabriusculus, caule acute angu- 
lato, foliolis 8 — 12 elliptico-ovatis suboblongisve, 
stipulis parvis lanceolatis utriuque acuminatis, pedun- 
culis folii longitudine multifloris, calyce dense pubes- 
cente dentibus 2 superioribus valde abbreviatis, (corol- 
lis purpureis.) 

Lathyrus decaphyllus. Pursh, Fl. Am. v. 2. p. 471. Hook. 
Fl. Bor.Am.v. I. p. 159. 

Descr. Stem three feet and more long, procumbent, or 
climbing among bushes, rather stout, downy, somewhat 
geniculated, acutely three or four -angled and striated, 
purplish-green. Leaves a span long, pinnated with from 
eight to twelve ovato-elliptical, or sometimes approaching 
to oblong, alternate, remote, and shortly petiolated leaflets, 
mucronated at the point, somewhat nerved, and obscurely 


* In Greek *»Qvpor, the name of a Leguiuinose plant in Theopbrastus. 

„ted, bright yellow-green and nearly glabrous above, 
paler, almost glaucous and downy when seen through a 
lens, beneath. Rachis angular, terminated by a branched 
tendril. The stipules may be said to be half arrow-shaped, 
with the lobe deflexed, and equal in size to the stipule, in 
other words, to be composed of two equal, acuminated, 
divaricating lobes : the length about three-fourths of an 
inch. Peduncles about as long as the leaves, angular 
and striated, slightly downy, terminated by an unilaterally 
and very beautiful many-flowered raceme. Pedicels curved, 
downy. Calyx reddish -purple, very downy, obscurely 
ribbed, the two upper teeth very short, the lowermost one 
the longest. Vexillum bright red-purple, becoming paler 
and more blue in age; above the claw are two obtuse 
teeth, and the border is minutely, but delicately reticulated 
with red. Ala oblong, the upper margin complicated, and 
folding into some depressions of the carina so as to adhere 
rather firmly to it, pale purplish ; carina obtuse, almost 
white. Filaments in two sets. Style linear, a little dilated 
upwards, and there downy above. 

In the " Flora Boreali-Americana" I have described this 
plant, which is found, both by Dr. Richardson and Mr. 
Drummond, on the banks of the Saskatchawan river, in N. 
lat. 52° — 53°, and by Mr. Douglas, in North-West America, 
as the L. decaphyllus of Mr. Pursh, a native of the Missouri, 
and from whose description it only diners in the greater 
number of flowers in a raceme. These flowers are rather 
large, forming a dense, almost capitate raceme, before ex- 
pansion of a bright red colour, gradually becoming purple 
as they open, and fading away in age to a rather dingy 
blue. Our plant was raised from seeds brought home by 
Mr. Drummond and Dr. Richardson, in the garden of P. 
Neill, Esq. and it flowered for the first time in June, 1831. 

It is a highly ornamental species, and well merits a place 
in every flower-border. 

Fig. 1. Vexillum. 2. Alae. 3. Carina. 4. Style. 5. Calyx .—mag- 
nified, • 

XJ ffrfel' 

** H ' S *»** 6!a Xfniropd &JejcJim y J 

fy, /ZLeL-tw^jsL* 


( 3124 ) 

Geranium albiflorum. White-flowered 
Crane's Bill. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Geraniaces. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala 5 aequalia. Pet. 5 aequalia. Stam. 10 fertilia 
alterna majora. Glandulce nectariferae ad basin stam. ma- 
jorum. Carpellorum aristce intus glabrae., demum elasticae, 
a basi ad axios apicem circinnatim revolutae. — Herbae 
rarissime suffrutescentes , foliis palmato-lobatis, pedunculis 
1 — 2-fioris. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Geranium * albiflorum ; caule terete erecto dichotomo in- 
ferne glabro superne glanduloso-piloso, foliis profunde 
5-partitis, laciniis ovato-acuminatis inciso-subpinnati- 
fidis subpilosis, radicalibus longe petiolatis superio- 
ribus oppositis breve petiolatis 3-partitis magis acu- 
minatis, calycibus gland uloso-pilosis, petalis integris 
(albis) intus filamentisque basi hirsutis. 

Geranium albiflorum. Hook. FL Bor. Am. v. 1. p. 116. 
t. 40. Graham in Ed. N. Phil. Journ. June, 1831. 

Descr. This is a perennial plant, with herbaceous, 
erect stems, a foot and a half or two feet high, rounded, 
simple and glabrous below, upwards dichotomously branch- 
ed and downy. Leaves almost entirely glabrous, the lower 
ones upon very long stalks, palmatedly five-partite, the 
lobes ovato -acuminate, cut and laciniated in a pinnatifid 

manner : 

* From ytfans a crane ; whose beak the seed-vessel somewhat resembles. 

manner : those of the stem are gradually smaller upwards, 
on shorter stalks, three-partite, more acuminated and in- 
cised. Peduncles elongated, downy, and glandular, two- 
flowered, and, as well as the pedicels, bracteated at the 
base. Calyx of five oblong, glandular leaves, tipped with 
a long, softmucro. Petals obovate, longer than the calyx, 
tapering into a short unguis, milk-white, veined, hairy and 
ciliated below. Stamens with hairy glands on the lower 
parts of their jilaments, which are reddish-purple. Anthers 
bluish -purple. Stigmas yellow-green. 

The gardens, both of Edinburgh and Glasgow, are in- 
debted for the possession of this plant to the exertions of 
Mr. Drummond, who brought home seeds of it from the 
vallies of the Rocky Mountains of North America, in lat. 
52°— 54°. 

In habit and general appearance it approaches, on the 
one hand, the European G. pratense, and on the other, the 
N. American G. maculatum, differing in the characters 
above given, and in the colour of the flowers, which are 
constantly white. 

It blossoms copiously during the summer months, and 
increases readily by its roots. 

Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Stamen and Gland : — magnified* 

J*u6 fij t dirhs-, C/m t mnmf Esse* Jan.' ZJS32. 

( 3125 ) 
Cereus Royeni. Van Royen's Cereus. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — CactejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala numerosissima imbricata basi ovario adnata, in 
tubum elongatum concreta, exteriora breviora calycinalia, 
media longiora colorata, intima petaliformia. Stamina 
numerosissima cum tubo concreta. Stylus filiformis apice 
multifidus. Bacca sepalorum reliquiis areolata tuberculosa 
aut squamata. Cotyledones nulla? ? — Frutices carnosi elon- 
gati axi ligneo interne medullifero donati, angulis vertica- 
libus spinarum fasciculos gerentibus regulariter sulcati. 
Anguli seu alae nunc plurimee, nunc paucissimce, rarius duee 
tantum et tunc rami compresso-alati. Flores ampli e spi- 
narum fasciculis aut crenis angulorum orti. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cereus * Royeni ; erectus simplex continuus 9 — 10-angu- 
latus, angulis acutiusculis, spinis fasciculatis 6-^8 
aciculiformibus fuscis junioribus lana laxa paulo lon- 
gioribus, tubo florali brevi crassa inermi, lobis exteri- 
oribus parvis viridi - purpureis, interioribus roseis 
omnibus subacutis. 

Cereus Royeni. Haw. Syn. p. 182. De Cand. Prodr. v. 
3. p. 466. 

Cactus Royeni. Linn. Sp. PL p. 688. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 
2. v.3. p. 177. 

Descr. With us, this plant has attained a height of 
about three feet and a half, and a diameter of an inch and 

From the Latin word Cereus, signifying pliant, which many of the 
species are. 

a half or two inches, erect, straight, or somewhat flexuose, 
of nearly the same width throughout, obtuse at the extre- 
mity, marked with eight to ten prominent, rather acute 
angles or ridges, which are beset with little tufts of rather 
long, lax, and deciduous wool, whence arises a spreading 
(or when young erect) cluster of dingy brown, long, slender, 
and sharp aculei, some of them nearly an inch in length, 
longer than the wool. From a tuft of this description (the 
woolly substance being increased in quantity, and rising 
one above another in each successive season,) springs a 
flower, large, indeed, in proportion to the size of the plant, 
but not remarkable for the beauty of its colour. The tube 
is about two inches Ion"* and three-fourths of an inch thick, 
of an olive green colour, glabrous and unarmed, expanding 
upwards into many imbricated, fleshy scales or segments, 
which are ovate and acute, often tinged with rose colour. 
These may be considered as constituting the calyx : for 
within is a series of ovate, pale rose-coloured petals, shorter 
than the calyx. Stamens numerous, shorter than the co- 
rolla. Anthers linear-oblong, pale yellowish-white. Style 
exserted, white, jointed near the base, and deep rose colour- 
ed below the joint. Stigma of about seven or eight rays, 
which are erect, or connivent, white. 

The difficulty of determining the various species of the 
Cactus tribe, is well known to those who have had occasion 
to study them. In the present instance, we have given a 
plate of an individual, which certainly, in description, is so 
little at variance with the Cereus Royeni, that I am inclined 
to think it is that species : although the exterior scales of 
the flower are not acuminated, as De Candolle describes 
them to be ; nor are the petals white, but rose-coloured. 

Our specimens were obligingly communicated to the 

Glasgow Botanic Garden by Ryburn, Esq. of this 

place, who received them from Mr. Swapp of Grenada. 
Our tallest plant, three feet and more in height, flowers 
readily in the spring and summer. We possess a very 
similar plant from Trinidad, whence it was sent by the 
late Baron de Shack : but it has considerably shorter 
spines, and is, probably, the Cereus lanuginosus of Mr. 
Haworth (Cactus lanuginosus. Linn.) 

Fig.l. Flower: nat.size. 2. Anther: magnified. 3. Style and Section 
of the Germen : nat, size. 4. Stigma: magnified, 5. Tuft of Spines and 
Wool : nat. size. 

Ju.6 \ 6y 

'azfnwpct/ £ 

tsejrJm U832. 

( 3126 ) 

Eriocaulon decangulare. Ten-angled 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Restiace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Capitulwn androgynum : squamis imifloris., extiinis sa> 
pius vacuis involucrantibus. Perianthium duplici serie 
4 — 6-phyllum. — Masc. in disco capituli. Perianthium 
foliolis interioribus infra connatis altiusve insertis. Sta- 
mina 4 — 6. Anther ce biloculares. — Foem. in ambitu capi- 
tuli. Perianthium foliolis interioribus distinctis. Stylus 
1. Stigmata 2 — 3. Capsula 2 — 3-locularis, 2 — 3-loba, 
angulis salientibus dehiscens. Semina solitaria. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Eriocaulon * decangulare ; scapo elato longe vaginato 
10 — 12-angulato, foliis subulato-ensiformibus canali- 
culatis glabris, capitulo magno depresso - globoso, 
squamis exterioribus ovatis nitidis apice hirsutis in- 
terioribus linearibus hirsutissiinis., perianthii foliolis 4 
apice villosis. 

Eriocaulon decangulare. Linn. Sp. PL p. 485. Mich. 
Fl. Am. Bor. v. I. p. 165. Pursh, FL Am. v. I. p. 91. 
Elliott, Carol, v. 2. p. 565. Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 
1310. Willd. Sp. PL v. 1. p. 486. Roem. et Sch. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 864. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 3. p. 

Eriocaulon decemangulare. Humb. et Kunth } Nov. Gen. 
Am. v. I. p. 254. 

Eriocaulon serotinum. Lam. Encycl. v. 3. p. 176. (fide 

Eriocaulon Novaboracens. Pluken. Amalth. t. 409. / 5. 


* Named from tpor, wool, and xavtot, the stem, in allusion to the downy 
stems or scapes of the species first known. 

Descr. Perennial. Leaves all radical a span or more 
long, half an inch broad, subulato-ensiform, pale green, 
somewhat shining, semipellucid, striated, and compactly 
cellular, the inner ones nearly erect, the outer ones patent 
or recurved. Scape one to three feet high, terete, with 
twelve (often spiral) strise and as many obtuse angles 
between them ; sheathed below with a bractea, which is 
nearly as long as the leaves, tubular, and spirally striated. 
Head of Flowers nearly three-fourths of an inch in diameter, 
forming a depressed globe, nearly hemispherical, woolly. 
Outer scale's the largest, empty, ovate, acute, pale yellowish- 
brown, glossy : inner ones bearing flowers, linear, very 
hairy. Male Flowers in the disk, each a perianth of four 
leaves, the two outer and lower ones subconduplicate, 
carinate, hairy at the back and tip ; the two inner ones 
united for the greater part of their length into an infundi- 
buliform, glabrous tube, the two lips hairy, bearing each a 
black, sessile gland, and at the base two stamens on short 
filaments and two others from the sinus of the lips, one on 
each side. There are besides two glands at the base of 
these lips. Filament short, white. Anther 2-lobed, dark 
green. Female Flowers occupying the circumference. 
Segments of the Perianth free to their base, or nearly so ; 
outer ones conduplicate ; inner ones linear, spathulate, 
hairy at the extremities. Pistil on short stipes. Germen 
two-lobed. Style bifid. Stigmas subulate. 

A native of North America, from Pennsylvania to Caro- 
lina and Virginia ; and if Humboldt's E. decemangulare be 
the same, as is supposed by that author, of the tropical 
parts of South America likewise. Our Glasgow Garden is 
indebted to the Messrs. Loddiges for the species. It is, 
with us, cultivated in the stoves, in pots of peat-earth set 
into pans of water. Its flowers are produced in July and 
August, and upon scapes two and a half and three feet long. 

Judging from the description, Michaux's E. gnaphalodes 
is very nearly allied to this ; nor can I distinguish what I 
have received from the Southern States, under that name, 
from the present. Like our British Eriocaulon, (E. septan- 
gulare) it is liable to vary much in size. 

Fig. 1. Section of the Scape. 2. Outer Scale of the Capitulum. 3. Inner 
Scale. 4. Male Flower. 5. Scale of a Female Flower. 6. Female Flower. 
7. Pistil : — magnified. 

( 3127 ; 

Verbena venosa. Strong-nerved 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — VerbenacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5-fidus, dente unico subbreviore. Cor. limbus irre- 
gulariter 5-lobus. Stam. inclusa. Utriculus 4-spermus, 
cito rumpens, ut maturi fructus caryopses sistant. Spr, 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Verbena venosa; asperrima, caule acute tetragono, foliis 
oblongo-lanceolatis sessilibus basi latis subcordatis 
venosis grosse acutissimeque serratis, spicis termina- 
libus decussatim paniculatis, corollis calyce cylin- 
draceo 4-plo (bractea 3-plo) longioribus. 

Verbena venosa. Gill, et Hook. Bot. Misc. v. I. p. 167. 

Descr. This Verbena., in the wild state, is about a foot 
in height, and decumbent at the base ; in our stove, it rises 
nearly erect to a height of two to three feet. Its stem is 
rough, acutely quadrangular, but little branched. Leaves 
opposite, remote, rough, oblongo -lanceolate, sharply, 
coarsely, and unequally serrated, strongly marked with 
veins, which are immersed above, and prominent beneath, 
the apex acute, the base sessile, narrow in the lower leaves, 
m the rest broad and somewhat cordate. At the setting-on 
of the peduncles of the flowers, the leaves become lanceo- 
late, or lanceolato-subulate, acute, entire bracteas. The 
peduncles themselves are opposite, three to four pairs placed 
m a sort of decussated panicle, having a terminal, nearly 
sessile spike. Spikes oblong, with rather closely imbricated, 


hairy, purple, subulate bracteas. Flowers flowering from 
below upwards in succession. Calyx shorter than the 
bractea and concealed by it, cylindrical, with five angles, 
and five, nearly equal, red teeth, hairy. Corolla rather 
large, rich purple. Tube three or four times as long as the 
calyx, curved, downy, purple ; limb in five broad, emargi- 
nate, almost bifid, purple segments, mouth slightly hairy. 
Stamens four, inserted below the middle of the tube : Fila- 
ments short : Anthers ovato-lanceolate. Pistil : Germen 
oval, glabrous. Style about half as long as the tube of the 
corolla. Stigma somewhat capitate, with a spur at its base. 
Fruit separating into four oblong achenia, on one of which 
the style for a time remains, and enveloped by the persist- 
ent calyx, which is closed at the mouth. 

This is a very handsome species of Verbena, in many 
respects allied to V. Bonariensis, differing in its much 
shorter spikes, and vastly larger flowers, which are of a 
bright purple colour. 

It is a native of the Pampas of Buenos Ayres, whence 
seeds were sent by Dr. Gillies, its discoverer, to Mr. Neill, 
and to the Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh and Glasgow, 
where the plants have flowered readily in the greenhouse 
during the summer months. From a specimen kindly com- 
municated by Mr. Neill our figure was made. 

Fig. 1. Leaf from the lower part of the Plant: natural size. 2. Flower 
and Bractea. 3. Stamens. 4. Pistil. 5. Fruit enclosed in the Calyx and 
with the Bractea. 6. Fruit, separating into four achenia : magnified. 

Ful lyS.Cu,rhs GiatennoeJ £sstxJan. r l 2352. 

( 3128 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — CampanulacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 8 ( — 10) -fidus, sinubus appendicibus obtectis. 
Cor. 8 ( — 10) -partita, rotata. Stam. 8 ( — 10) inter se 
libera ; filamentis latissimis, mem bran aceis, basi approx- 
imatis ; antheris flavis, apice leviter cuspidatis. Stylus 
pilis collectoribus 16 ( — 20) ordinibus dispositis tectus. 
Stigmata 8 ( — 10) filiformia, ovarium totum inferum, 8 
( — 10) -loculare, loculamentis lobis calycinis oppositis. 
Capsula nutans, 8 — 10-valvis, basi dehiscens. Semina nu- 
merosa, ovata, ferruginea, receptaculis carnosis ad angulos 
internos loculamentorum sitis inserta. Alph. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Michauxia laevigata; caule elato glaberrimo nitido, foliis 
duplicato - dentatis hispidis, radicalibus ovatis longe 
petiolatis, caulinis sessilibus oblongis, inferioribus basi 
attenuatis, superioribus cordatis, floribus decandris, 
stigmate calyce corollaque 10-partitis. 

Michauxia laevigata. Vent. Hort. Cels. p. 81. t. 81. Pers. 
Syn. PL v. 1. p. 418. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 
213. Graham in Ed. New Phil. Journ. Dec. 1830. 
Bot. Reg. for Oct. 1831, cum Ic. 

Michauxia decandra. Fischer MSS. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem (eleven feet high,) her- 
baceous, smooth, shining, tapering, subsimple, upright, 


Named in honor of the celebrated Botanist and Traveller, Andre 

straight. Leaves sprinkled on both sides with harsh, en 
hairs, duplicato-dentate, coarsely veined and reticulate; 
root-leaves ovate, decurrent xvpon petioles longer than them- 
selves, and on the upper part of which there are a few small 
pinnae ; stem-leaves sessile, the lower ones oblong, and 
somewhat attenuated at the base, higher up cordate and 
more acute, and gradually passing into cordate, acute, 
bracteas, with reflected aculei on the margin and on the 
back of the middle rib. Flowers scattered along nearly 
the whole length of the stem, on short peduncles in the 
axils of the bracteas, they expand in succession, and slowly, 
from below upwards. Peduncles solitary, bearing three 
flowers, of which the terminal one only has expanded. 
Calyx consisting of ten segments which are acute, at first 
erect, afterwards spreading at right augles, reflected in the 
sides and fringed with reflected aculei, and of ten other 
segments, which extend backwards along the pedicel, flat 
and shorter, but in other respects similar to the first ten, 
and alternating with them. Corolla white, much longer 
than the calyx, ten-parted, segments (one inch long, one 
line broad) linear, revolute, reflected in the edges, and 
ciliated with reflected aculei along the middle rib. Stamens 
ten ; filaments connivent, subulate, winged, wings reflected, 
villous ; anthers as long as the filaments, linear, yellow, 
bursting along their sides ; pollen yellow. Germen top- 
shaped, inferior, ribbed, ten-locular. Style stout, straight, 
longer than the stamens, pubescent. Stigma ten-parted, 
revolute. Ovules very numerous, attached to a large, cen- 
tral receptacle. The whole plant yields, on the slightest 
injury, a large quantity of milky juice. 

Seeds of this plant, which is a native of the North of 
Persia, were communicated to the Botanic Garden of Edin- 
burgh by Dr. Fischer, in March, 1829, and the same spe- 
cimen has been in flower with us in the open border for 
about two months after the middle of August. Even yet, 
(16th October,) the flowers are not expanded much above 
halfway up the stem, and I have no doubt the plant would 
have continued in blossom till the frost cut it down, but for 
an injury which it has accidentally received. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Section of a portion of the Germen. 3. Portion of 
the Calyx, seen from heneath. 4. Extremity of the Segment of the Corolla, 
seen from beneath. — Magnified. 

Ai *-'- ■^^■r.^>JJM2. 

( 3129 ) 

Anthericum semibarbatum. Half- 
bearded Anthericum. 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodele,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium sexpartitum, patens, aequale, deciduum. 
Antherce versatiles. Ovarium loculis polyspermis. Stylus 
filiformis. Stigma subpapillosum. Capsula subglobosa, 
3-loeularis, 3-valvis, valvis medio septiferis. Semina pauca, 
angulata, umbilico nudo. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Anthericum semibarbatum; radicibus fibrosis, filamentis 
declinatis (exterioribus imberbibus ?). Br. 

Anthericum semibarbatum. Br. Prod. Fl. Nov. Holl. v. I. 
p. 275. Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 330. 

Bulbine semibarbata. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 86. 
Schult. Syst. Veget. v. 7. p. 445. 

Descr. Root fibrous. Leaves all radical, from six inches 
to a foot long, subulate, rounded at the back, grooved in 
front, glaucous-green, paler and yellowish below. Scape 
one and a half or two feet high, rounded, glaucous-green, 
bearing at the extremity a raceme of flowers, of which a 
few (two or three) only are expanded at a time. Perianth 
of six ovate, obtuse, spreading, bright yellow pieces, with 
a greenish nerve on the back. After flowering, the pedicels, 
which are an inch or more long, become very erect, and the 
perianth withers, persists, and changes to a yellow-brown 
colour. Stamens six, declined, all of the filaments with a 
tuft of yellow hairs above the middle. Anthers yellow, 


oblong, transverse. Pistil: Germen globose, three-lobed. 
Style with its base bent down, then curved upwards, filiform. 
Stigma acute. 

Of the Genus Anthericum only two species are described 
as Australian by Mr. Brown ; A. bulbosum, figured at tab. 
3017 of this work, and the A. semibarbatum, which we con- 
sider the present plant to be, and of which the seeds were 
received from Van Dieman's Land at the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden. It flowered in the Greenhouse in April, 1831. 

As our A. bulbosum did not entirely accord with Mr. 
Brown's character of that species ; so neither does the 
present individual quite tally with the A. semibarbatum of 
that learned author ; for the stamens are not bearded in the 
outer filaments only, but all of them are furnished with a 
dense tuft of hairs above the middle. This indeed exactly 
accords with the flowers of a plant described by Schultes 
as a native of Van Dieman's Land, under the name of 
Bulbine semibarbata, and which he thinks may probably 
constitute a new species, but of which he had not seen the 
roots and leaves. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil : magnified. 


Hmr -I".- tfW l / < ^My t/*/ f 

JUl ly S. &*+>£*, Gl**r*w*oc£ Ems*JzJibriJS*-2 

( 3130 ) 

coccoloba uvifera. round-leaved 
Sea-side Grape. 

. v !'r .St 1 '. A'. A'. .-I'. A'. .St*. ■>!'. ■St / . ■ v t / . . v l / . ^.4.^. ■ v I / . .^ ■ s I / . .SV 1 - .•i'- A'- Af- 
7j\ vf,' vf." vf.* vjx* •/£." v|s" Tfr */Jn" vj> vjs vis v^ tjn v^s vf. vf. vf. >K VT* 

C/«ss «w«Z Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Polygone^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium 5-partitum corollatum. Nux monosperma, 
perianthio baccato tecta. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Coccoloba* uvifera; foliis cordato-orbiculatis obtusissimis 

nitidis glabris, racemis spicatis, fructiferis nutantibus. 
Coccoloba uvifera. Linn. Sp. PL p. 523. Jacq. Am. p. 

112. t. 73. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 457. Ait. Hort. 

Kew. ed. 2. v. 2. p. 421. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. 

p. 252. 
Guajabara racemosa, foliis coriaceis subrotundis. Plum. 

Ic. t. 145. 
Coccoloba foliis crassis orbicularis, sinu acuto. Browne, 

Jam. p. 209. 
Prunus maritima, racemosa, &c. Sloane, Jam. v. 2. p. 

129. t. 220. / 3. 
(3) racemis fructiferis erectis. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 457. 
Coccoloba leoganensis. Jacq. Am. p. 113. t. 178./. 33. 

Descr. A Tree, twenty feet or more in height, much 
branched, the branches flexuose. Leaves very beautiful, 
ample, orbiculari-cordate, coriaceous, entire, obtuse, wav- 
ed, of a full bright and glossy green, with the principal 


* Koxxoi;,frtiit, and Jw/3o$, a lobe, from the lobed fruit. 


nerves red, especially at the base. Petioles short, with 
combined, sheathing stipules at their base. Racemes ter- 
minal, long, erect in flower, afterwards cernuous; pedicels 
short, in many closely-placed fascicles, with little scales or 
bractea? at their base. Flowers fragrant. Perianth small, 
white, in five deep, spreading segments, uniting into a 
fleshy attenuated base, which is jointed upon the pedicel. 
Stamens eight, combined at the base into an annulus which 
surrounds the germen. Germen superior, ovate. Styles 
three. Stigmas obtuse. As the fruit advances to maturity 
it becomes enveloped by the enlarged and fleshy perianth, 
which thus forms an obovate, reddish, purple Berry, re- 
sembling a small pear, with a scar at the top where the 
segments of the perianth had been attached : within is one 
cell, divided at the base into three imperfect cells, whose 
dissepiments enter into the base of the nut. Nut roundish, 
very acute, longitudinally wrinkled, three-lobed at the base 
below, and attached by the centre. Albumen copious, 
marked with numerous clefts and fissures at the margin. In 
the middle of this, or nearly so, is the foliaceous Embryo, 
with its radicle pointing upwards. 

For drawings and description of this fine plant I am also 
indebted to the Rev. L. Guilding of the island of St. Vin- 
cent. For though it has been cultivated in Britain since 
1690, when the species was introduced by the Duke of 
Portland, it has not, as far as I am aware, yet produced 
blossoms in this country. 

Iu its native climate, the West Indies, and the warmer 
parts of South America, its roots penetrate into the sands 
of the sea-shore and are washed by the waves : hence, in 
conjunction with the racemes of pulpy fruits, arises its usual 
English appellation. These fruits have a sweetish -acid 
and rather agreeable flavour, but are not much esteemed, 
though generally sold in the markets. 

The wood, when boiled in water, gives out a red colour. 
It is also employed for Cabinet-work. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Part of a Fruit-bearing Raceme. 3. Transverse sec- 
tion of the Berry. 4. Vertical section of ditto. 5. Transverse section of 
the Nut. 6. Embryo : magnified. 

( 3131 ) 

Geitonoplesium cymosum. Cymose 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodele,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium 6-partitum, patens, aequale, imberbe, deci- 
duuin. Stam. 6, basi laciniarum inserta. Filamenta fili- 
formia, glabra, apice curvata. Antherce conniventes, sa- 
gittate filamentis longiores. Ovarium loculis oligospermis. 
Stylus filiformis, 3-sulcus. Stigma simplex. Bacca oligo- 
sperma. Semina subglobosa. — SufFrutices, habitu, penitus 
Eustrephi, cut affinitate proximi. Flores cymosi vel um- 
bellati, terminates et axillares. Pedicelli cum perianthii 
basi subattenuata articulati. Bacca nigra, quandoque mo- 
nosperma. (Forsan a planta peruviana genere diver see 
sub Luzuriagam.) Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Geitonoplesium * cymosum; cymis terminalibus bipartitis, 
ramis teretibus, ramulis striatis Iambus. Br. 

Geitonoplesium cymosum. Cunningham in litt. 

Luzuriaga cymosa. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holt. v. I. p. 282. 
Schult. &yst. Veget. v. 7. p. 316. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 
v.2. p. 94. 


FromyiiTo*, a neighbour, and **w»o», near; in allusion no less to the 
close affinity of this plant with Eustrephus of Brown, (" Orange-vine' of 
the Colonists) than to its locality in relation to that plant.—" The greatest 
quantity of G. cymosum I ever saw in New South Wales, where it is, compa- 
ratively speaking, a rare plant, was in the same dark-shaded wood, where 
Eustrephus latifolius was equally abundant, and where they were to be 
seen climbing: up the same tree." Cttnningham. 

Descr. This appears to constitute a climbing and twining shrub, 
with slender, rounded, dark green, wiry stems, variously branched ; at 
the setting on of the branches are small, membranaceous scales. Leaves 
alternate, rather remote, distichous, lanceolate, entire, glabrous, mem- 
branaceous, dark green above, paler beneath, furnished with a midrib, 
and finely striated, at the base much contracted and twisted, so as to 
form a minute sort of petiole. Flowers in a terminal, bifid cyme of from 
five to eight flowers, which are pendent. Perianth campanulate, of six 
yellow-green, oblongo-lanceolate, striated pieces, the three inner more 
delicate, and rather shorter than the outer. Stamens six. Filaments 
short, a little dilated at the base, and apparently united into a ring. An- 
thers linear, yellow, two-celled. Germen globose, green. Style slender, 
subulate, white. Stigma acute. 

For the means of publishing a figure of this interesting plant, I am 
indebted to W. T. Aiton, Esq., who supplied me with drawings and 
specimens for that purpose : the plant having been introduced to the 
Royal Garden at Kew from New Holland by Allan Cunningham, 
Esq. late Colonial Botanist there, who has recently returned from that 
country, after many years' residence, which have been wholly, and most 
enthusiastically devoted to the Natural History and Geography of it : 
so that Science cannot fail to derive great benefit from his researches. 

Mr. Brown has in his Prodromus called in question the propriety 
of referring this Genus to Luzuriaga of the Flora Peruviana : and 
when I had lately the pleasure of looking over some specimens of the 
Peruvian plant with that profound Botanist, he was quite satisfied on 
this point. 

Mr. Cunningham has hence been induced to give it the name of 
Geitonoplesium, and observes, that Mr. Don has ascertained that 
the true Luzuriaga belongs to the Smilace^e ; and that our present 
Genus differs from Eustrephus in having the divisions of the perianth 
equal and beardless ; but more especially in its indehiscent fruit, which 
is a Berry, containing sometimes but a single seed ; that of Eustre- 
phus being distinctly a trilocular, hard, baccate capsule, which, wher 
burst, exhibits many large, black seeds. 

The G. cymosum was found by Mr. Brown about Port Jackson, and 
also within the tropical parts of New Holland. Mr. Cunningham 
observes it to inhabit dense, subhumid woods on the sea-coast, in which 
Corypha australis, the Alsophila, or Tree-fern of the colony ; Eu- 
trephus latifolius ; Achras australis; Trochocarpa laurina ; 
Cedrela Toona; Fieldia australis ; Cargillia australis; several 
parasitical Epidendra; with the more splendid Australian Filices 
and Musci, luxuriantly grow: on the belt of a mountain bounding the 
Illawarra, or Five Islands' District, in lat. 34|° on the West, and else- 
where, in like shaded situations, on the extended shores of New South 

Besides the two species of Mr. Brown, G. cymosum and G. monta- 
num, Mr. Cunningham has discovered a third, which he has also 
introduced at Kew. It differs in habit from G. cymosum; and that 
Botanist distinguishes it as "G. asperum; ramulis membranaceo-angu- 
latis asperis." 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamens and Pistil. 3. Pistil -.—magnified. 

( 3132 ) 
Piper Betle. Betel Pepper. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Piperacej;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spadix floribus undique tectis. Flores hermaphroditi, 
singulus squama suffultus. Stamina numero indeterminata. 
Antherce biloculares. Ovarium uniloculare ; ovulo soli- 
tario, erecto. Stigma tri- aut multifidum. Bacca. — Fru- 
tices, rarius arbores, aromaticee, ramis articulatis, nodosis. 
Folia alterna, integra integerrima, scepe nervosa. Spadices 
oasi spatha instructi, oppositifolii, rarissime terminates, 
cylindracei, nonnunquam subglobosi. Kunth. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Piper* Betle; dioicum, foliis alternis bifariis cordatis 5 — 7- 

nerviis integerrimis glabris, amentis foemineis subcy- 

lindricis cernuis. Roxb. 
Piper Betle. Linn. Sp. PL p. 40. Fl. Zeyl. n. 27. Vahl, 

Enum. v. I. p. 328. Willd. Sp. PI. v. I. p. 159. Roxb. 

Fl. Ind. v. 1. p. 160. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. \. p. 

69. Roem. et Schult. SysL Veget. v.l.p. 307. Spreng. 

Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 115. 
Piper, qui Saururus foliis septinerviis oblongo-acuminatis. 

Burm. Zeyl. p. 193. t. 82. / 2. 
Beetle Codi. Rheed. Hort. Mai. v. 7. p. 29. t. 15. 
Sirii folium, &c. Herb. Amb. v. b.p. 336. t. 116./ 2. 

Descr. Stems shrubby, much branched, running along 
the ground or climbing to a great height, throwing out 
roots from the numerous joints. Leaves alternate, disti- 
chous, cordato-ovate, more or less broad, oblique at the 
°ase, acuminated at the point, four to seven inches long, 
glabrous, five to seven-nerved, nerves connected by trans- 

In Arabic, habary, whence the Greek iritr^, Latin, piper, &c. But Dr. 
William Hunter (see Asiatic Researches, vol. 9, 8vo. ed. p. 384,) considers 
*ne Sanscrit word papali, (the name of the long Pepper,) to be the ordinal 
w <>rd. Betle or Betel is derived from the Malabar beetla-codi. 

hood ; till, becoming toothless, they are reduced to the ex- 
tremity of having the ingredients previously reduced to a 
paste for them, that, without further effort, the Betel may 
dissolve in the mouth. Along with the Betel, and generally 
in the Chunam, is the mode of conveying philtres, or love- 
charms. How far they prove effectual I cannot take upon 
me to say ; but I suppose that they are of the nature of our 
stimulant medicines, and that the direction of the passion is 
indiscriminate. The practice of administering poison in 
this manner is not followed in later times ; but that the idea 
is not so far eradicated, as entirely to prevent suspicion, ap- 
pears from this circumstance, that the guest, though taking 
a leaf from the betel-service of his entertainer, not unfre- 
quently applies it to his own chunam, and never omits to 
pass the former between his thumb and fore-finger, in order 
to wipe off any extraneous matter. This mistrustful pro- 
cedure is so common as not to give offence ." 

In an ancient Sanscrit inscription on a stone found at Curugode, in 
the district of Adoni, (or Adavani,) published in the IXth Volume of the 
Asiatic Researches, this plant is reckoned among the greatest blessings 
of the country : — " In its towns are numerous groves of Mangou planta- 
tions, of luxuriant Betel, and fields of Rice; channels of water and wells; 
opulent men and beautiful women ; temples of gods and of the saints ; 
and men blessed with vigour of body and every virtue." 

It is related in the life of Sir Stamford Raffles, that when Lady 
Raffles reached Merambung in Sumatra, being much fatigued with 
walking, the rest of the party having dispersed in various directions, she 
lay down under the shade of a tree, when a Malay girl approached witn 
great grace of manner, and on being asked if she wanted any thing, 
replied, " No, but as you were quite alone, I thought you might like to 
have a little bichara (talk) ; so I came to offer you some Siri, (Betel,) 
and sit beside you." 

Considered medicinally, the Betel is known to stimulate powerfully 
the salivary glands and the organs of digestion, and to diminish the per- 
spiration of the skin. Notwithstanding the statements of Mr. MarsdEN 
above quoted, the chewing of Betel is said by the authors of the " Vic- 
tionnaire des Sciences Medicales" to be so acrid, that it gradually 
corrodes the teeth to such a degree, that persons who use it habitually are 
deprived of all that part of the teeth above the gums at the age o 
twenty-five or thirty years; yet, this does not hinder the universal 
employment of it. 

So general is the cultivation of this plant, that it is difficult to say in 
what part of India it is really wild. Roxburgh never saw it in a state 
of nature. That author says it is raised from slips and cuttings, which 
are carefully planted in a rich, moist soil, well enclosed and shaded, so 
as to be protected in a great measure both from sun and rain. In so0ie 

places, small plantations of ^Eschynomene grandiflora are made to 
train them to, and to keep off the sun ; in others poles are employed 1 
the first, and a thin shed of mats over them for the latter purpose. 

Tah. 11*9. Speci 
2. Female Flowers 

imen with nearly mature Spikes. Fig. 1. Spike of Flowers, naM ta 
, magnified. 3. Seed or Fruit, nat. size. 4. The same, wflgW*"* 

/Wa,,w>„.a, <;,„,„,„,.„ 

t £o.-r fkfrijga 

( 3133 ) 

Grevillea caleyi. Blechnum-leaved 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria. Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium irregulare; foliolis laciniisve secundis: api- 
cibus cavis staminiferis. Glandula hypogyna unica dimid- 
lata. Stigma obliquum depressum (raro subverticale co- 
nicum). Folliculus unilocularis, dispermus, loculo centrali. 
Semina marginata, v. apice brevissime alata. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Grevillea Caleyi; foliis pinnatis super pubescentibus pilis 
patulis subter cinereis tomentosis tomento subappresso, 
laciniis oblongo-linearibus parallelis integerrimis, ra- 
cemis erectis, perianthiis ovariisque hirsutis, stigmate 
dilatato subverticali convexo. Br. 

Grevillea Caleyi. Brown, Prodr. Suppl. 1. p. 22. 

Grevillea blechnifolia. Cunningh. MSS. apud Hort. Kew. 

Descr. This plant I have not seen growing, but, judg- 
ing by the specimens communicated from Kew, it consti- 
tutes a moderately - sized shrub, with rounded, zigzag 
branches clothed with dense, ferruginous down. Leaves 
alternate, remote, patent, often recurved, pinnated with 
many alternate, linear-oblong, obtuse segments, the upper 
°nes decurrent, the margins recurved, above downy with 
patent, ferruginous hairs, below whitish, and silky with 
glossy, appressed hairs. The young foliage and young 
branches are beautifully tinged with red, giving the whole 
plaut a great richness of colour. Racemes shorter than the 


leaves, axillary, and sometimes bearing a leaf on the pe- 
duncle. Pedicels very short. Flowers seeund, brownish- 
red inclining to purple. Tube of the perianth rather 
slender, swollen below, curved above, very hairy. Germen 
oblong, clothed with white, silky hair. Style very long, 
wavy, bright red. Stigma green, capitate, somewhat ob- 

For specimens and a drawing of this lovely plant, I am 
indebted to William T. Aiton, Esq. who received seeds of 
it at the Royal Gardens of Kew in 1829, from Mr. Allan 
Cunningham, collected by that most zealous and able 
Botanist, between Port Jackson and Broken Bay, New 
South Wales. It was previously (in 1824) found by the 
same Naturalist, who forwarded it to England with the 
appropriate MS name of Grevillea blechnifolia. But it 
appears to have been already known to Mr. Brown, from 
specimens gathered by the late Mr. Caley, in 1804, and by 
him it has been published in the Supplement to the Prodr. 
Fl. Nov. Holl. as G. Caleyi. 

It flowered in the greenhouse at Kew, in June, 1830. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Perianth cut open to show the inside of the Tube and 
the Stamens : magnified. 


t**.*rS.{hm* Ommm 

it Esse*. MTtJ#3i. 

( 3134 ) 

Gratiola tetragona. Four-sided 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularin^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Corolla tubulosa, bilabiata, labio supe- 
riore bilobo, inferiore trifido aequali. Stam. 2 antherifera, 
2 — 3 sterilia (nunc 4 antherifera.) Stigma bilamellatum. 
Caps. 4-valvis, dissepimento e marginibus inflexis tardius 
solubilibus. — Herbae oppositifolia. Flores axillares 3 bibrac- 
teati. Br. 

Specific Character. 

Gratiola * tetragona ; glabra, caule tetragono angulis ob- 
tuse alatis, foliis lanceolatis acute serratis inferne atten- 
uatis subauriculatis, floribus subsessilibus subspicatis. 

Descr. Perennial. Stem herbaceous, nearly simple, 
erect, a foot or more high, four-sided, glabrous, the angles 
with short, obtuse wings. Leaves opposite, two and a half 
to three inches long, lanceolate, very acute, almost acumi- 
nate, deeply and sharply serrated, glabrous, the younger 
ones minutely punctated, and with the serratures glandular, 
all of them glabrous, attenuated and somewhat auricled at 
the base. These leaves are gradually smaller upwards, so 
that the floral leaves may almost be considered bracteas. 
Flowers small, forming a sort of dense, pyramidal raceme, 


Derived from Gratia Dei, " bv the grace or favour of God j" in allusion 
J. e eminent medicinal virtues of the most common species, Gratioi-a 

so closely are the small leaves placed, in the axils of which 
the flowers are situated. Calyx deeply five-partite, the 
segments subulato-lanceolate, and bearing at the base, on 
each side, a subulate bractea, about as long as the calyx. 
Corolla bright and deep blue a little inclining to purple, 
the tube swollen at the base, slightly hairy ; limb bilabiate, 
striated ; upper lip roundish, erect, emarginate ; lower one 
large, horizontal, deeply cut into three cuneate, slightly 
waved lobes : the mouth and tube within hairy. Anthers 
four, didynamous, all perfect ; no sterile stamens. Pistil : 
Germen oval-oblong, inserted on a yellow, fleshy disk or 
ring. Style about as long as the tube of the corolla, white : 
Stigma broad, compressed, white, two-lipped ? 

I have referred this plant to Gratiola, with which Genus 
it agrees in habit, and in the calyx and corolla ; but from 
which, as defined by Mr. Brown, it differs by having four 
fertile stamens. 

Seeds of it were received at the Botanic Garden of Glas- 
gow from Buenos Ayres, by favor of Mr. Tweedie. Culti- 
vated in the stove, it produced its small but bright blossoms 
in August, 1831. 

Fig. I. Front view of a Flower, with its Floral Leaf. 2. Upper Side of a 
Flower. 3. Section of the Tube of the Corolla. 4. Calyx, Bracteas, and 
Pistil. 5. Pistil: — magnified. 


Pub by S. Curfc c •;/„_ , „ 

ufTM I, I ay,, „■,.,,; SMeA) 1WU83S 


( 3135 ) 

Salvia strictiflora. Erect-flowered 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Labiate. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. subeampanulatus, bilabiatus, labio superiore 3-den- 
tato, inferiore bifido. Cor. ringens. Filamenta duo fertilia 
bifida, lobo altero adscendenti anthera dimidiata, altero 
sterili. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Salvia strictiflora ; glabra suffruticosa, foliis firmis ovato- 
cordatis obtusis venosis serratis subtus pallidis, brac- 
teis ovali-oblongis acutis calycibusque (iis sublongio- 
ribus) glandulosis, floribus erectis, corolla pilosa, stylo 
staminibusque exsertis. 

Salvia strictiflora. Hook, in Bot. Misc. v. 2. p. 234. 

Descr. Plant three feet high, somewhat shrubby at the 
base, and there principally branched ; branches square, 
pale green, subherbaceous, glabrous. Leaves ovato-cor- 
date, two to three inches long, on petioles rather shorter 
than themselves, glabrous, obtuse, somewhat wavy, of a 
rather firm texture, dark green above, and marked with 
deeply impressed nerves, pale beneath with prominent 
nerves, every where glabrous. Raceme erect, much elon- 
gated in the native specimens, shorter in the cultivated 
°nes, terminal. Flowers erect, opposite, subsecund. Brac- 
teas deciduous, ovate, acute, glandular and viscid. Pedi- 
cels rather shorter than the calyx, glabrous. Calyx tubular, 
striated, clothed with viscid glands, two-lipped; lips nearly 


equal, erect, upper one entire, acute, lower one bifid. 
Corolla three or four times the length of the calyx, rather 
bright red, clothed with fulvous hairs. Upper lip the 
longest, arched, somewhat acute,, entire; lower one of three 
concave, rounded lobes, of which the middle one is the 
largest. Filament very short. Connectivum exceedingly 
long, white, lower extremity somewhat spathulate, acute, 
reddish, upper extremity exserted and incrassated, red, and 
bearing a transverse, solitary cell of an anther, filled with 
orange-coloured pollen. Style red, much exserted : Stigma 
bifid, with one long, recurved segment. 

In general aspect, it must be confessed that the present 
Salvia is closely allied to S. biflora of Ruiz and Pavon, 
PI. Per. t. 38. f. a.; but the latter is described and figured 
as " planta villosissima ;" whereas our plant is quite desti- 
tute of hairs in every part except the corolla. Smith's S. 
tubiflora (Icones, t. 26,) has the stem and leaves hairy, and 
is, probably, the same with the S. biflora 3 as Ruiz and Pavon 

S. strictiflora was found by Mr. Crucrshanks between 
Yazo and Obrajillo in the valley of Canta, Peru, and 
seeds were thence forwarded to our garden, where the 
plant flowered in the stove in December, 1831. Mr. 
Matthews has since gathered the same plant at Cuesta of 
Huamaritanga and Purcochuco in Peru, and sent it to his 
correspondents marked c< No. 467, Salvia biflora." The 
vernacular name he states to be " Socoencha." The whole 
plant on being touched yields a strong, but not agreeable 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Calyx : magnified. 


***J.a***mip*mm4 g*^ , }mh . 


( 3136 ) 
Stylidium scandens. Climbing Stylidium. 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Tetrandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — STYLiDEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. bilabiatus. Cor. irregularis,, 5-fida, lacinia quinta 
(labello) dissimili, minore, deflexa (raro porrecta) reliquis 
patentibus (raro geminatim cohaerentibus. Columna recli- 
nata, duplici flexura ; Antheris bilobis, lobis divaricatis- 
sunis ; Stigmate obtuso, indiviso. Capsula bilocularis, 
dissepimento superne quandoque incomplete. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Stylidium * scandens ; caule scandenti, foliis linearibus 
apice spirali cirrhoso, fauce coronata, labello appen- 
diculato, columna superne pubescenti. Br. 

Stylidium scandens. Brown, Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. v. 1. 
p. 570. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 746. Graham, 
in Edin. Phil. Journ. Dec. 1831. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem (eighteen inches high,) 
slender, shining, red, glabrous, branched. Leaves (three 
inches and a half long) whorled, crowded, linear, channel- 
ed, mucronate, rolled back at the apex in form of a cirrhus, 
throwing out long, filiform, single, unbranched, red and 
shining roots from their axils. Bractece green, adpressed, one 
below each pedicel, and two nearly opposite above its mid- 
dle, the former small, ovato-acuminate, or larger and sub- 
ulate, the latter very minute and scale-like. Corymbose 
T acem eS} erect, clustered at the extremities of the branches. 
Pedicels (three to nine lines long) spreading, single-flower- 
ed, red, glabrous, filiform. Calyx superior, bilabiate, two to 


flow Fr ° m CrT ^ OS ' the *****' or column > which is a remarkable feature in the 

three-partite, green, glabrous, adpressed, segments elliptical, 
with paler edges, ciliated. Corolla (about ten lines across,) 
rnonopetalous ; tube epigynous, nearly colourless, twice 
the length of the calyx ; "limb five-partite ; labellum pale, 
reflected, ovate, acute, fringed with glandular hairs, au- 
ricled, auricles spreading, very slender, subulato-filiform, 
rose-coloured, twice the length of the labellum, with a few 
glandular hairs near the bases, under a high magnifying 
power appearing rough and serrulate ; other segments of 
the corolla lilac and imbricated in the bud, afterwards rose- 
coloured, paler below, darker in the throat, spreading or 
slightly reflected, obovate, sparingly ciliated, crenate at 
the apex, the two next the labellum crowned with an erect, 
generally einarginate subspathulate scale, the two others 
naked. Column terminal, reflected over the labellum, and 
irritable, flat, white at its base, lilac in the middle, yellow 
towards its extremity, and there especially, but slightly also 
on its upper surface, glanduloso-pubescent. Anthers, after 
bursting, brownish-yellow, surrounded by a tuft of shining, 
transparent, at length yellow pubescence, bilobular, lobes 
divaricating, elliptical, pointed at the lower extremity, 
bursting along the front. Stigma in the centre between 
the anthers, green, at first hidden and small, but afterwards 
much enlarged, capitate and raised upon a conical neck, 
pubescent. Germen green, becoming reddish-brown when 
ripe, ovate, glabrous, unilocular ; ovules placed on a round 
central receptacle, having the mere rudiments of a dissepi- 
ment at its base. 

This very pretty species of a singular and interesting 
genus was raised at the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from 
seeds communicated by the late Lord Blantyre ; a noble- 
man, whose melancholy death, in a period of undistinguish- 
ing popular tumult, was deplored far beyond the wide- 
spread circle which includes those who had a personal 
knowledge of his many virtues. They had been received 
by his Lordship from Colonel Lindsey, to whom, and to 
Mr. Fraser, I owe the possession of excellent specimens 
collected at King George's Sound. The flowers were 
slowly developed in the greenhouse, and in succession 
during the whole month of November. Graham. 

The drawing from which our plate is engraved, was 
obligingly made by Dr. Greville. 

Fif? . 1 . Front view of a Flower. 2. Back view of the same. 3. Colunj 9, 
with the Anthers in a young and unexpanded state. 4. Column, with «■ 
Anthers burst: — all magnified. 


( 3137 ) 
Cleome gigantea. Gigantic Cleome. 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Capparide,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-sepalus, patens, subaequalis. Pet. 4. Torus sub- 
hemisphaericus. Stam. 6, rarius 4. Siliqua dehiscens in 
calyce stipitata aut sessilis. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cleome* (Pedicellaria) gigantea; fruticosa velutino-pu- 

bescens subviscosa, foliis 7-foIiolatis obovato-Ianceo- 

Cleome gigantea. Linn. Mant. p. 430. Jacq. Obs. 4. p. 

1. t. 75. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. p. 567. Ait. Hort. Kew. 

ed. 2. v. 4. p. 131. De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 238. 

Schult. Syst. Veget. v. 6. p. 28. Spreng. Syst. Veg. 

v. 2. p. 122. 
Cleome viridiflora. Schreb. Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 4. p. 136. 

Sinapistrum giganteum. " Mcench, Meth. p. 250/' 

Descr. Stem three to five feet high, erect, shrubby, 
branched above, every where downy, the younger branches 
glandular. Leaves alternate, septenate, petioled; leaflets 
spreading in a digitate manner; lanceolate or inclining 
to obovate, acute, narrower at the base, on both sides 
clothed with a dense, silky pubescence : the midrib strong, 
from which diverge many parallel, lateral veins. Petiole 


* Anciently given to some plant allied to Sinapis, and now to the present 
•enus on account of Us affinity with Sinapis. 
VOL. VI. n 

longer than the leaf, rounded, downy. Raceme terminal, 
large, erect. Pedicels jointed upon the stem, one to two 
inches long, thickened upwards, glandular. Calyx of four 
linear, unequal, reflexed and at length revolute, glandular 
and deciduous leaflets. Petals greenish, linear, two inches 
and more long, cohering by their' margins, and opening 
only on one side, whence the stamens and pistil are pro- 
truded. Torus subglobose, fleshy, orange-coloured. Sta- 
mens six, equal in length. Filaments three inches long, 
curved upwards, greenish, tinged with red towards the 
.summit. Anthers linear, purplish-yellow, opening by late- 
ral fissures. Pollen globose, yellow. Germen linear, com- 
pressed, downy, three-fourths of an inch long, crowned 
with the sessile and flat stigma, and supported upon a stalk 
which is nearly as long as the stamens. Ovules many, on 
longitudinal, sutural, filiform receptacles. 

Linnaeus says of this species " Saporis urentissimi, odons 
virosissimi," properties which we omitted to notice at the 
time the drawing was made. The same author gives it as 
an inhabitant of Guinea : — the Hortus Kewensis of South 
America, whence it was introduced into our stoves by Dr. 
Fothergill, in 1774. The plant here described, flowered 
in the Glasgow Botanic Garden in June, 1827, and was 
raised from seeds sent by Mr. Lockhart from Trinidad. 
The flowers are, perhaps, among the largest of the Genus; 
but they are less conspicuous than many others, on account 
of their almost uniform pale green colour. 

Fig. 1. Stamens. 2. Pollen. 3. Section of a Germen : magnified. 

AA IfvSCurhs am\mm—d &.,-«.«&/• IJS32 

S** f 

( 3138 ) 

Lobelia rorusta. Thick-stemmed 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Campanulace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla tubo hinc fisso (raro integro) ; limbo 5-partito. 
Anthers connatae. Stigma bilobum (nunc indivisum). 
Capsula bilocularis (raro 3-loc), aplce supero bivalvi. — 
Herbae vel Suffrutices, plerceque lactescentes. Folia alterna, 
Integra vel laciniata, raro Jistulosa. Flores racemosi, ter- 
minates vel axillares, solitarii, pedicellis bibracteatis vel 
nudis. Antherae scepius barbatce. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Lobelia robusta ; caule suflfruticoso, foliis obovato-lanceo- 
latis acuminatis grosse dentatis glabris nitidis, racemis 
terminalibus simplicibus. 

Lobelia robusta. Graham, in Edin. Phil. Journ. Dec. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem very stout, erect, almost 
woody, branched, green and glabrous, irregularly winged 
with the persistent, decurrent, occasionally wavy bases of 
the leaves. Leaves numerous, scattered, crowded towards 
the apex, falling off below, obovato-lanceolate, acuminate, 
attenuated at the base, and decurrent for a little way along 
the stem, glabrous, pale green and shining, waved, coarsely 
and sharply toothed, veined, middle rib and veins promi- 
nent behind, and, especially when young, lilac-coloured. 
Raceme terminal, gradually elongating, supported on a 
naked, slightly villous stalk. Flowers large, very numer- 

ous, secund, crowded. Pedicels (one inch long) compress- 
ed, finely villous, each with one bractea at the base, and 
two nearly opposite below the middle. Bractea linear, 
acute, villous, entire or sparingly toothed, the lowest nearly 
as long as the peduncle and decurrent, the others shorter. 
Calyx five-parted, green, villous, persistent, segments del- 
toideo-linear, acuminate, serrated, at length reflected at the 
apex. Corolla deep and dull purple, before the separation 
of the segments falcate, segments linear, acute, the two 
upper becoming reflected laterally, the others scarcely al- 
tering their form. Filaments pink, straight, flattened, cili- 
ated, ciliae colourless. Anthers lead-coloured, cernuons, 
the two upper ciliated for half their length. Stigma bilob- 
ular, pubescent, scarcely ciliated, pink. Style (one inch 
long) filiform, glabrous, slightly coloured. Germen infe- 
rior ; ovules numerous. 

A native of Hayti. A plant was received at the Botanic 
Garden, from our excellent friend Dr. Fischer of St. Peters- 
burgh, in 1830. It flowered in August, 1831. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Summit of the Style and Stigma : slightly magnified. 

Jfrf' /.(«,,! ,/,„,/ del? 

Ptlb hf S ('tiff, r • '/-» I -^ 

""r/.i O/a.-fnuviid E.t.rejt; 

( 3139 ) 

Piper nigrum. Black, or Common 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Piperace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spadix floribus undique tectus. Flores hermaphroditic 
singulus squama suffultus. Stamina numero indeterminate. 
Antherce biloculares. Ovarium uniloculare, ovulo solitaries 
erecto. Stigma tri- aut multifidum. Bacca—Frutices, 
rarius arbores, aromaticce, ramis articulatis, nodosis. Folia 
alterna, integra, integerrima, scepe nervosa. Spadices basi 
spatha instructi, oppositifolii, rarissime terminates, cylin- 
dracei, nonnunquam snbglobosi. Kuntk. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Piper nigrum ; morioicum vel polygamum, foliis lato-ova- 
tis acuminatis 5 — 7-nerviis subcoriaceis nitidis, geni- 
culis nodosis. 

Piper nigrum. Linn. Sp. PL p. 40. Vahl, Enum. v. 1 p. 
328. Willd. Sp. PL p. 159. Roxb. Fl. Ind.v. 1. p. 
153. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 1. p. 69. Roem. et 
Schult. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 307. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 
v.V.p.l 12. Diet, des Sc. Nat. cum Ic. 

Piper aromaticurn. Poir. Enc. Meth. v. 5. p. 458. 

Molago-codi. Rheed. Mai. v. 7. p. 23. t. 12. 

Descr. Stem trailing or climbing, shrubby, flexuose, 
and dichotomously branched, jointed, swelling at the joints, 
and often throwing out radicles from the joints, which 
adhere to bodies like those of ivy, or become roots striking 
} nto the ground. Leaves from four to six inches long, 


alternate, distichous, broadly ovate, acuminated, of a full 
green and glossy colour, paler beneath, five to seven -nerved, 
the nerves connected by lesser transverse ones or veins, and 
prominent beneath. Petioles rounded, from half an inch to 
nearly an inch long. Catkins opposite the leaves, stalked, 
from three to six inches long, slender, drooping, apparently 
some are male, others female, while sometimes the flowers 
are furnished both with stamens and pistil ; these catkin9 
are mostly confined to the upper part of the branches; ob- 
serving, Mr. Guilding remarks, no season ; for at the same 
time and on the same plant, flowers and fruit may be seen 
in every stage of progress. The number of starnens is three 
to a flower. The pistil is crowned with three recurved 
stigmas. As the fruit, which is so well known as a condi- 
ment, ripens, it is at first green, then red, afterwards black. 
This plant, like the Piper Betle, figured in our last num- 
ber, has, I believe, never blossomed in our stoves, and we 
are, consequently, thankful to Mr. Guilding for enabling 
us to give a representation of a flowering specimen of this 
very valuable spice. It is a native of the hotter parts ot 
India, where it is most extensively cultivated, and where it 
constitutes a highly important article of commerce. It was 
known to the Greeks in the time of Theophrastus and 
Dioscorides, who, as well as the Romans, distinguished 
between the white and the black pepper. And whilst the 
use of the Betel Pepper is confined almost wholly to the 
Eastern nations, the common Pepper is an article in gen' 
eral use throughout every part of the civilized world. Still 
it is in Asia, where the stomach is weakened by excessive 
perspirations, produced by the heat of the climate, by a 
humid atmosphere, and a too general addiction to veget- 
able diet, that it is employed as a powerful stimulant. Thus 
in a medical point of view, it has been found to be an 
excellent tonic, calculated to create appetite and to promote 

Pepper of the shops, as is well known, is the fruit of this 
plant : and it is called black Pepper, while it is in a state 
of nature, covered by its external coat. White Pepper 9 
the fruit of the same species deprived of its external coat; 
which is accomplished, by macerating the fruit or grains in 
water, when the coat swells and bursts. It is afterwards 
dried in the sun, and by friction and winnowing cleared ot 
the coat. It is then of a paler colour, but as the husk ot 
bark contains a powerful principle, it is evident that o* 
white Pepper loses much of its stimulating property, ana * s 

inferior to the black. 


In the cultivation of the Pepper, moist situations along 
the banks of rivers are preferred, where Pepper-plantations 
or gardens, as they are termed, are formed. In Sumatra, 
where, according 1 to Marsden, the most important and most 
abundant article of commerce is Pepper, the ground is 
marked out in the form of a regular square or oblong, with 
intersections throughout, at the distance of six feet, (being 
equal to five cubits of the measure of the country,) the 
intended interval between the plants, of which there are 
commonly either one thousand or five hundred in each 
garden: the former number being required from those who 
are heads of families, (their wives and children assisting 
them in the work,) and the latter from single men. Indus- 
trious or opulent persons, have sometimes gardens of two, 
or three thousand vines. A border, twelve feet in width, 
within which limit no tree is suffered to grow, surrounds 
each garden, and is commonly separated from others by a 
row of shrubs, or an irregular hedge. When the nature of 
the country admits of it, the whole or greater part of the 
gardens of a dusun or village lie adjacent to each other, 
both for the convenience of mutual assistance in labour, 
and mutual protection from wild beasts; single gardens 
being often abandoned from apprehension of their ravages, 
and where the owner has been killed in such a situation, 
none will venture to replace him. After lining out the 
ground, and marking the intersections by slight stakes, 
the next business is to plant the trees that are to become 
props to the Pepper, as the Romans planted Elms, and the 
modern Italians more commonly set Poplars and Mul- 
berries, for their Grape Vines. These are cuttings of the 
Chinkariang (Erythrina Corallodendrori), usually called 
Chinkareens, put into the ground about a span deep, suffi- 
ciently early to allow time for a shoot to be strong enough 
to support the young Pepper plant, when it comes to twine 
about it. The cuttings are commonly two feet in length, 
but sometimes a preference is given to the length of six 
feet, and the Vine is then planted as soon as the Chinkareen 
has taken root ; but the principal objections to this method 
are, that in such a state they are very liable to fail and 
require renewal, to the prejudice of the garden, and that 
their shoots are not so vigorous as those of the short cut- 
tings, frequently growing crooked, or in a lateral, instead of 
a perpendicular direction. The circumstances which render 
the Chinkareen peculiarly proper for this use are, its readi- 
ness and quickness of growth, even after the cuttings have 


been kept for some time in bundles*, if put into the ground 
with the first rains ; and the little thorns with which it is 
armed, enabling the Vine to take a firmer hold. They are 
distinguished into two sorts, the white and red, not from 
the colour of the flowers (as might be supposed) for both 
are red, but from the tender shoots of the one being whitish, 
and of the other a reddish hue. The bark of the former is 
of a pale ash colour, of the latter, brown : the former is 
sweet, and the food of elephants, for which reason, it is 
not much used in parts frequented by those animals; the 
latter is bitter and unpalatable to them : but they are not 
deterred by the short prickles which are common to the 
branches of both sorts. 

In Penang, the labour of the gardens is undertaken by 
the Chinese, who contract for forming the plantations and 
keeping them in order for three years, when they come 
into bearing, and two hundred and twenty-five dollars for 
each hundred plants is paid by the proprietor. They are 
reckoned to be in full bearing at the end of five or six 
years, and they continue so till they are fourteen years old 
The labour of cleansing the vines, throwing up earth about 
their roots, and collecting the produce of a plantation of 
forty-six thousand plants, has been performed by sixteen 
Chinese workmen. 

{C As soon as any of the berries," says Mr. Marsden, 
ff or corns, redden, the bunch is reckoned fit for gathering, 
the remainder being then generally full grown, although 
green : nor would it answer to wait for the whole to change 
colour, as the most mature would drop off. It is collected 
in small baskets slung over the shoulder, and with the 
assistance of the women and children, conveyed to a smooth, 
level spot of clean hard ground, near the garden or village, 
where it is spread, sometimes upon mats, to dry in the sun; 
but exposed at the same time to the vicissitudes of the 
weather, which are not much regarded, nor thought to 
injure it. In this situation it becomes black and shrivelled; 
as we see it in Europe, and as it dries, is hand-rubbed occa- 
sionally to separate the grains of the stalk. It is then win- 
nowed in large, round, shallow sieves, called Nj/iru, ana 
put in large vessels, (Kulit kaya,) under their houses, un" 
the whole of the crop is gathered, or a sufficient quantity 

* It is a common and useful practice to steep.these bundles in water, ^" 
afterwards reject such of them as do not, in that state, show signs oi W 

for carrying (usually by water,) to the European factory or 
gadong, at the mouth of the river. That which has been 
gathered at the properest stage of maturity will shrivel the 
least ; but, if plucked too soon, it will, in a short time, by 
removal from place to place, become mere dust. Of this 
defect, trial may be made by the hand; but as light Pepper 
may be mixed with the sound, it becomes necessary that 
the whole should be garbled at the scale by machines 
constructed for the purpose. Pepper that has fallen to the 
ground overripe and been picked up from thence, will be 
known by being stripped of its outer coat, and in that state 
is an inferior kind of white Pepper." 

Two crops of Pepper are generally produced in one 
year : at Penang, the first gathering commences in Decem- 
ber; at which time, the vines put out new flowers, whose 
fruit is matured in April and May, when the second harvest 
begins and lasts till July. In Sumatra, the greater crop 
(pupul agungj takes place between the months of October 
and March, and the lesser, or half-crop (buah sello) be- 
tween April and September. 

In the small island of Penang, in the year 1802, the 
quantity of Pepper produced was estimated at between 
eighteen and twenty thousand picols ; which, at twelve 
dollars the picol, amounted to 216,000 dollars. In Sumatra 
previous to the year 1780, the price paid to the grower by 
the Company was ten Spanish Dollars per bahar of five 
hundred weight, or five hundred and sixty pounds. From 
the same country too, about one-third of the quantity of 
black Pepper collected, but none of the white, is annually 
sent to China. The produce of Sumatra in this article is, 
however, probably very small, compared to what is stated 
oy the Commandant Cunes in relation to the Pepper trade, 
of the Malabar coast, in a Memoir addressed to his suc- 
cessor Gaspar de Jong, in the year 1756, (C no less than ten 
full cargoes (amounting to between eight and nine millions 
°f pounds weight) might be annually exported. But the 
half of this quantity is carried over the mountains to the 
coast of Coromandel, to the north, to the Deckan, and 
further on to different parts of Hindostan. This Pepper is 
esteemed the best of all that is produced in Asia, and is 
the most sought after by all nations"*. 

*%•*. Portion of a Male Spike. 2. Perfect Flower. 3. Fruit or Grain 
°J Pepper (naL size). 4. The same cut open to show the situation of the 
Embryo at the top of the Albumen. 5. Embryo included in its sack : /?»«#- 
n \fied. 

* See Stavorinus* Voyages, v. 3. p. 220. 


Put by ,)' Cktr&m <X„y„„*,! JtmmJf4tfJJKU! 

( 3140 ) 

lllium tenuifolium. slender-leaved 



Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Liliace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. campanulata, 6-partita, regularis, sulcis nectariferis 
in laciniis. Caps. 6-sulca, valvis reticulo fibroso nexis. — 
Semina compressa. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lilium * tenuifolium; foliis sparsis angustissime linearibus, 
caule unifloro, flore cernuo, petalis demurn revolutis, 
intus rima nectarifera pubescente. 

Lilium tenuifolium. Fischer MSS. " Schrad. Plant. Rar. 
Hort. Gott. Fasc. 1." Schult. Syst. Veget. v. 7. p. 409. 

Descr. Plant about a foot high. Stem erect, glabrous, 
slender, clothed with numerous, exceedingly narrow, gla- 
brous, almost filiform leaves, which are slightly twisted, 
almost disappearing on the upper part of the stem. Flowers 
solitary, terminal, drooping, of a fine vivid, deep orange- 
red colour. Petals broadly lanceolate, patent, at length 
revolute, striated, each having, at its bases and extending 
half-way up, a linear cleft, densely bordered with short 
hairs. Filaments subulate, red. Anthers oblong, dark 
green, the cells and pollen deep orange. Germen oblong, 
thickened upwards, with three deep, and three lesser fur- 
rows, green. Style curved, green, thickened upwards, and 


* From U, white, in Celtic, according to Tniis. The common white 
garden Lily is considered the emblem of purity. 

crowned with the three-lobed, velvety, bright green stigma, 
which soon becomes covered with the bright orange -colour- 
ed pollen. 

Drawn from a plant which flowered in the open border 
in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden in the month of June. 
It is a native of Dahuria, and was named by our valued 
friend Dr. Fischer, and by him introduced to our gardens. 
It is equally deserving of cultivation with the L. pumilum 
and very nearly resembles it : so much so, that except in 
the presence of the downy rima at the claw (which is indeed 
a very distinct character,) I scarcely know how it is to be 
distinguished. It is described in Schultes' Syst. Veget. as 
having patent petals : and such is the case with the dried 
specimens communicated to me by Dr. Fischer; but it 
appears that as the flower is more advanced in age, the 
petals become revolute, as in L. pumilum;, and as represented 
in our figure. 

Fig. 1 . Petal. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil : more or less magnified. 

L.GuMnf JtC FWfc- 


( 3141 ) 

Cerasus sph^rocarpa. Noyau Cherry. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Drupa globosa aut basi umbilicata, carnosa, glaberrima, 
polline caesio destituta, nucleo subgloboso laevi. — Folia 
juniora conduplicata. Plores nunc pedicellis 1 -Jioris e 
gemina squamosa plurimis umbellato-fasciculatis insidentes, 
et tunc foliis prcecociores, nunc ramosi terminates et post 
folia evoluti. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cerasus * sphcerocarpa ; racemis axillaribus erectis folio 

breyioribus, foliis perennantibus eglandulosis integer- 

rimis nitidis, fructibus subglobosis. 
Cerasus sphserocarpa. Loisel. — De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 

Prunus sphaerocarpa. Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. v. 2. p. 927. 

(not Mich.). Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 987. Spreng. 

Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 478. 
Myrtifolia arbor, foliis latis subrotundis, flore albo. 

Sloane, Jam. v. 2. p. 79. t. 193. f. I. 

Descr. This forms a Tree (according to Mr. Guilding, 
to whom I am indebted for the accompanying drawing with 
remarks) from thirty to thirty-five feet in height, with 
greyish, smooth bark and somewhat erect branches. The 
kaves are alternate, three to four inches long, on short, 
grooved petioles, evergreen, coriaceous, shining, oval, or 
0v al-lanceolate, shortly acuminate at both extremities, 
quite entire at the margins, penninerved, destitute of glands, 
°'ten twisted obliquely at the extremities. Racemes on 
rather short peduncles, erect, glabrous, many-flowered, the 


intr F \ r ° m Cerasus > a Town of Pontus in Asia, whence Lucullus is said to have 
rouuced the cultivation of the Cherry into Italy, seventy-three years B. U 

flowers smaller than those of our European Bird Cherry, 
fragrant (Swartz). Pedicels bracteated at the base; 
bractece very small. Calyx-tube turbinate with five furrows, 
orange -coloured within; teeth of the limb small, patent. 
Petals almost orbicular, waved, at length reflexed, with 
scarcely any claw. Stamens twenty, spreading, inserted at 
the margin of the tube. Germen ovate, gradually tapering 
into a slender style. Stigma spreading. Drupe nearly 
spherical, about as large as that of the common Bird Cherry, 
dark, almost blackish-purple : Nut of the same shape as 
the fruit, wrinkled, with a broad scar. 

I find by Loudon's Hortus Britannicus, that Cerasus 
sphcerocarpa was introduced to our stoves in the year 18-0. 
No living plant, however, has come under my own obser- 
vation : nor should I have deemed it deserving of being 
figured in the Botanical Magazine, under these circum- 
stances, slight as are its pretensions on the score of beauty, 
were it not a plant, of which no satisfactory figure exists ; 
and which may at the same time be reckoned an (Economi- 
cal one. In the preparation of Noyau, probably several 
different vegetables are employed, which contain prussic 
acid. A species of Bind-weed, the Convolvulus dissectus, 
abounds in prussic acid, and to that degree, as Dr. Nichol- 
son of Antigua informs me, that cc if this medicine shall be 
found deserving of the high character which some physi- 
cians have bestowed upon it, it may become valuable in a 
country, where the prussic acid cannot be preserved many 
days in a pure state." Hence this is a frequent ingredient 
in the preparation of Noyau. But we are natuaily led t0 
expect prussic acid in plants of the Plum tribe ; and Dr. 
Swartz assures us, that the bark of the Prunus (Cerasus) 
Occidentalis of the West Indies, on account of its peculiar 
taste and smell, is used instead of that of the Amygdalus Per- 
sica (Peach); and of the P. sphcerocarpa, he says, that the 
kernel of its nut resembles in taste that of the Bitter Almond. 
Mr. Guilding observes, that the bark, leaves, and kernel have 
the smell and taste of those of the Peach, and they are em- 
ployed by French colonists in the manufactory of Noyau. 
This kind of Cherry inhabits Jamaica, and St. Doming^ 
according to Swartz : and the Antilles generally, accord- 
ing to Mr. Guilding. Our drawing was made in the islan 
of St. Vincent. If Sprengel be correct in referring & 
Prunus brasiliensis of Schott to this species, it would app ea 
to be a native of Brazil also. 

Fig. 1. 2. Flowers. 3. Pistil, magnified. 4. Drupe, and f. 5. Nut, 
the Drupe ; nat. size. 



I'ub $ r if (Mb Gla V n,r-c.;: 

( 3142 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Melastomace*;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. tubus turbinates campanulatusve ssepe pilis setis 
vsquamisve vestitus ; lobi 4 lanceolati persistentes ; appen- 
dices inter lobos nulla? ? Pet. 4. Stam. 8, filamentis gla- 
berrimis : antherce oblongae 1-porosse connective- longius- 
culo basi obtuse biauriculato. Ovarium apice setosum. 
Capsula 4-locularis. Sem. cochleata. — Herbae aut suffru- 
tices habitu subvarii, omnes Americani. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

ARTHRosTEMMA*mY/d«; caule suffruticoso erecto ramulis- 
que patulis tetragono alato pilis coloratis patulis hir- 
sutissimo, foliis ovatis acutis serrulatis utrinque glabris 
superne nitidis nervis inferne glanduloso - hispidis, 
pedunculis versus apices ramorum axillaribus petiolo 
longioribus trifloris, petalis obovatis retusis antheris 
dissimilibus, connectivo breve biauriculato. Graham. 

Arthrostemma nitida. Graham, in Ed. N. Journ. of Sc. 
Dec. 1831. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem erect, suffruticose, qua- 
jugular, w »th a narrow wing at each angle, red near the 
bottom, green above, hispid, hairs red, harsh, glandular, 
lumid at the base, tufted, longer and coarser in the same 
^crticel with the leaves. Branches spreading, ascending. 


Cro Fr ° m "fit**, a joint, and <rr*w*, a crown, perhaps in allusion to the 
ot others, which are as it were jointed upon the filaments. 

Leaves (three inches long, two broad) decussated, ovate, 
acuminate, five-ribbed, much veined and wrinkled, dark 
green and shining above, paler below, petioled, glabrous ex- 
cepting on the lower surface of the nerves and veins, which 
is glanduloso-hispid ; petioles short, suberect. Flowers 
collected at the extremities of the shoots, where they arise 
from the axils of diminished leaves, peduncled ; peduncles 
in structure and form like minute branches, about twice as 
long as the petioles, three-flowered, pedicels nearly awant- 
ing. Bractece single on the outside of each of the lateral 
pedicels, and two small, opposite, at the base of the calyx, 
showing a tendency to a farther subdivision of the inflores- 
cence, ovato- elliptical, glabrous, ciliated, nerved. Calyx 
nearly cylindrical, glanduloso-hispid, indistinctly ribbed; 
limb four-parted, segments spreading, deltoideo-acuminate, 
ciliated, ciliae glandular. Corolla pale lilac, petals distant, 
obovato-elliptical, retuse, faintly nerved. Stamens eight, 
inserted alternately within and between the petals into the 
mouth of the calyx ; filaments colourless, erect, glabrous, 
flattened, slightly declined, about half the length of the 
petal; anthers in the bud bent forward, compressed dor- 
sally, the larger passing between the calyx and ovarium, 
and having their apices lodged in cavities on the outside 
of this, when expanded compressed laterally, and wrink- 
led in front, bent at an acute angle with the filaments, 
arched, their apices ascending, perforated with a single 
pore, connective with two short, blunt auricles at the base, 
unequal, four large and brownish-yellow, four small yellow, 
more erect. Stigma minute, divided transversely, pubes- 
cent. Style rather longer than the filaments, declined, as- 
cending at the apex. Germen free above, adhering below, 
having a few hairs upon its apex, four-celled. Ovule* 

This plant was raised at Mr. Neiix's garden, CanonmilK 
from seeds, sent to him in 1829, by Mr. John Tweedie, 
formerly head-gardener at Eglinton Castle, Ayrshire, and 
now of the Retiro, Buenos Ayres. The packet was marked 
in Mr. Tweedie's handwriting, ff Herbaceous Melastoma, 
from damp woods of the Banda Oriental." The plants 
came up freely in the summer of 1830 ; but none showed 
flower till July, 1831, when several blossomed equally well 
in the cold frame and in the greenhouse. Graham. 

For the beautiful drawing here figured, I am indebted to 
Dr. Greville. 


&>* kr S Civrlbs Glaxcnmood Esxejr.H- 

( 3143 ) 

Doronicum Caucasicum. Caucasian 
Leopard's Bane. 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Superflua. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus simplex. Involucri squa- 
ma duplicis ordinis, aequales, disco longiores. Semina 
radii pappo destituta. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Doronicum * Caucasicum ; foliis cordatis dentatis radica- 
libus petiolatis, caule simplicissimo monophyllo uni- 
floro. M. Bieb. 

Doronicum Caucasicum. M. Bieb. Ft. Taur. Cauc.v.2. 
p. 321. 

Descr. The root constitutes an oblong, creeping tuber, 
or rhizoma, throwing out fibres from beneath, and leaves 
and stems above. The latter are, even in the cultivated 
specimen, scarcely a foot high, slender, and as well as the 
rest of the plant, almost entirely glabrous. A few mem- 
branous scales surround the base of the stem, on a cluster of 
root-leaves where no stem appears. Leaves an inch and a 
half long, cordate, obtuse, repando-dentate, having a deep 
sinus at the base : those arising from the root or near the 
root, are upon long petioles, and if inserted a little above 
the base of the stem, the petiole is auricled on each side at 
the base. One leaf near the middle of the stem is entirely 


* From L f0 *, a „;* an a mn> victory, because it was said to be employed 
tormerly to destroy wild beasts. 

sessile. Flower terminal, solitary, almost exactly resem- 
bling that of D. pardalianches. 

D. Caucasicumis a native of the Caucasian Alps, accord- 
ing to M. Bieberstein, and has been introduced to our 
gardens by Dr. Fischer of St. Petersburgh. It succeeds 
with us in the open air, and flowers in April. We have 
hitherto kept it in pots, where it increases readily by its 

Fig. 1. Floret from the Circumference. 2. Floret from the Centre: mag- 

/W fr S.raj^^r. f^^f^rH^ 

if*/ /trx? 

Jhrtm- •*• 

( 3144 ) 

Hibiscus Genevii. Large Purple-eyed 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx cinctus involucello saepius polyphylio, rarius folio- 
lis paucis aut inter se coalitis. Petala hinc non auriculata. 
Stigmata 5. Carpella in capsulam 5-locularem coalita, 
valvis intus medio septiferis, loculis polyspermis aut rarius 
1-spermis. D. C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Hibiscus Genevii; arborescens, inermis, foliis subrotundo- 
ovatis basi integris versus apicem grosse serratis 5- 
nerviis glabris, calyce 5-fido, involucellis 8-phyllis, 
(floribus speciosis albis fundo purpureis), petalis cune- 
atis glabris patentibus, seminibus appresso -pilosis. 

Hibiscus Genevii. Bojer, in Mem. sur une nouv.esp. d' Hi- 
biscus, hi a la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Maurice. 

Descr. Stem fourteen to fifteen feet high, clothed with 
a smooth, grey bark. Branches lax, erecto-patent, round- 
ed, the younger ones tinged with red, or dotted with warts. 
Leaves alternate, petioled, roundish, or approaching to 
oval, two inches or more long, the apex with unequal, 
acute teeth, deep green, glabrous on both sides, the nerves 
five, prominent beneath, continuous from the apex of the 
petiole, the lateral ones less distinct. Petioles rounded, 
scarcely longer than the leaf, thickened upwards, sometimes 
coloured, at the base having a pair of setaceous, deciduous 
stipules. Peduncles axillary, solitary, single - flowered, 



jointed in the middle, glabrous. Calyx ample, campanu- 
late, with five, long teeth. Leaflets of the involucellum 
linear, reflexed, longer than the tube of the calyx, per- 
sistent. Corolla spreading, five inches in diameter. Petals 
entire, sometimes slightly waved, obovato-cuneate, radiant 
but in a contorted direction, in the bud spirally convolute, 
white or pale rose-color, deep purple at the base, quite 
glabrous. Style declined, a little longer than the petals, 
green ; purple below, five-cleft at the top. Stigmas five, 
capitate, purple, hairy. Anthers yellow, on short, distinct 
filaments. Fruit a clavate, five-celled capsule, with five 
many-seeded cells bursting longitudinally, and surrounded 
by the persistent calyx. Seeds subtrigonal, convex on the 
back, clothed with densely-appressed hairs. Bojer. 

This superb Hibiscus, Professor Bojer had long known 
as an inhabitant only of the gardens of cultivators : but 
lately, he says, ef having made an excursion to the Riviere 
noire, and stopped at the house of M. Geneve, a zealous 
cultivator, with whom I remained some days, occupied in 
examining the curious plants in his garden, when my atten- 
tion was struck by the languid appearance of this Hibiscus, 
which M. Geneve assured me that he had been in the habit 
of seeing in the forests of the Riviere noire, and of trans- 
porting to his garden for a period of twenty years ; but 
that he could never cultivate it with success. The next 
day he conducted me to the mountains, where I found many 
trees of the Hibiscus, of considerable size, and covered 
with flowers : and where I made on the spot my drawing 
and description." Professor Bojer has distinguished it by 
the name of his intelligent host, to whom we are indebted 
for the discovery of its place of growth. 

If this shrub be not already in our collections, as I sus- 
pect it is, through the influence of Mr. Telfair and the 
late Mr. Barclay, cultivators should hasten to procure what 
would prove so great an ornament to the stove. 

M. Bojer refers it to the " Cremontia" tribe, notwith- 
standing that the corolla is not " convoluto-cylindracea," 
where it ranks with H. liliiflorus, Boryanus, nndjragilis, all 
natives of the Mauritius as well as of Bourbon. 

Fig. I. Fruit. 2. Seed: nat. size. 

- vV d*l* 

Pub by S.Curtis OaMnwood, Essex .Jpnlll%2>2 

( 3145 ) 

Polygonum adpressum. Berry-bearing Poly- 
gonum, or Macquarie-Harbour Grape. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — PolygonejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium monophyllum, divisum, aestivatione imbri- 
cata. Stamina definita, imo perianthio inserta. Antherarum 
loculi longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Ovarium liberum, mo- 
nospermum, ovulo erecto. Styli vel Stigmata plura. Nux 
nuda, vel perianthio tecta. Albumen farinaceum, raro sub- 
nullum. Br. 

(Div. Helxine, Foliis cordatis, Stylis 3-partitis, Nuci- 
ous angulatis, Staminibus 8, Floribus scepe polygamis.) Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Polygonum* adpressum ; glabrum, caule volubili v. pros- 
trato suffruticoso ramisque teretibus, foliis cordatis 
subacuminatis crenulatis margine scabris, racemis ax- 
illaribus terminalibusque, bracteis ochreisque nudis, 
perianthiis subbarbatis, floribus polygamis. Br. 

Polygonum adpressum. Labill. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 99. 1. 127. 
Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 420. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 
«. 2. p. 254. 

Descr. « Plant procumbent, with a somewhat striated and 
rounded, flexuose stem. Leaves acuminate, cordate, some 
Y tner n suborbiculate ; the petioles glandulose beneath at 
Jne base, the stipules opposite to these, ovato-lanceolate, 
,u * t-sheathing, glabrous, membranaceous, pale red. Flowers 
Polygamous : the male mixed with hermaphrodite ones, in 
n\ m P| ej axillary racemes shorter than the leaves. Calyx, in 
«*e hermaphrodite flowers, quinquepartite, persistent, the 
Se gments ovate, obtuse, concave. Corolla none. Fda- 
ments of the stamens eight, inserted at the bottom of the 



Fiom ti*^ many, and yow, a knee or joint; in allusion to the knot* M 

s *•■ Hip gte 

calyx, by the pressure of the germen compressed, as are the 
ovate, nearly sterile, imperfectly- formed, and minute an- 
thers. Germen superior, ovate, retuse. Styles three, sub- 
fonaceous, dilated, crenulated, reflexed, appressed to the 
germen : Stigmas simple, acute. Seed solitary, crowned 
with the appressed styles, and covered by the persistent, 
turbinate, obsoletely triquetrous calyx, which is marked 
with six striae. Embryo unilateral, cylindrical, white, albu- 
men farinaceous, very white. Calyx in the male flowers, as 
in the hermaphrodite : but the filaments of the stamens are 
cylindrical : anthers oblong, versatile/' Labill. 

Native plants, bearing esculent fruits, are so rare in 
Australia, that the figure of one, scarcely known even in our 
Herbaria, and not yet cultivated among us, may not be 
unacceptable in the pages of the Botanical Magazine. Dr. 
Wilson has lately been kind enough to present us with 
some beautiful drawings, made by Dr. J. Scott in Van 
Diemen's Land; and amongst them is this, called by the 
colonists, the " Macquarie- Harbour Grape:" but which, 
though its fruit at first sight bears no distant resemblance 
to that precious plant, and is borne on stems which ram- 
ble like a vine, and extend during a single season even 
to the length of sixty feet, belongs to a widely different 
family, namely, to our Bistorts and Buck- Wheats. The 
fruit, or seed as it is commonly called, is known to be 
wholesome in the whole Genus, and is, in fact, a small 
hard nut : but in this remarkable species, it is invested with 
the enlarged and fleshy segments of the calyx ; thus giving 
each fruit the appearance of a berry. Again, we know 
that in this tribe, an acid and astringent principle is found, 
which exists in the fruit ; and thus, as Dr. Scott observes, 
it is used in tarts. 

From the figure of Labillardiere (whose description I 
have been under the necessity of copying in the absence 
of good specimens) our plant will be found to differ in 
no small degree : but Mr. Brown observes, that it is a 
very polymorphous species, closely allied and certainly a 
congener with Coccoloba Australis, Forster. Dr. Meisneb 
indeed refers our species to Coccoloba, on account of its 
fleshy covering : but its habit is entirely that of a Poly- 
gonum. Dr. Scott says, that in Van Diemen's Land, the 
plant is peculiar to Macquarie's Harbour, and that it ripens 
its fruit iu December and January. Mr. Brown gives it as 
an inhabitant also of Port Jackson and the Southern shores 
of New Holland. 

Fig. 1. Fruit bursting : nat. she. 




"* Wows, ou^^^^,^ 

jWt S* 

( 3146 ) 

Maxillaria tetragona. Four-cornered 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monogynia. 
( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^s. Div. — Vande,e. Lindl. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium patens, resupinatum. Labellum cum pro- 
cessu unguiformi columnae articulatum trilobum. Foliola 
lateralia exteriora basibus cum processu column® connata. 
Pollinia 4, basibus connata, glandulosa, (vel 2, pedicellata, 
pedicello basi glutinoso). — Herbae parasitica, bulbosce, 
America meridionalis. Racemi ( vel scapi uniflorij radicales. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Maxillaria * tetragona ; pseudo-bulbis ovatis tetragonis, 
foliis oblongo-lanceolatis plicatis solitariis, floribus 
radicalibus (vel racemosis), sepalis oblongis obtusis 
patulis, petalis conformibus paulo minoribus, labello 
carnoso ventricoso trilobo erecto, lobis lateralibus par- 
vis acutis intermedio ovato extus convexo, disci appen- 
dice carnoso tabulari incumbente. Lindl. 

Maxillaria tetragona. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1428. 

Descr. Parasitic. Bulbs clustered, ovate, subacumi- 
na *e, wrinkled, compressed, four-angled, bearing a single 
yato- lanceolate, plicato - striated leaf at the extremity, 
lightly wa vy at the margin From the base of the bulbs, 
JJPong the roots, arises a short scape, clothed at its base 
J"n sheathing bracteas or scales, and bearing three or four 
Wwers of large size, and very fragrant, resembling, ac- 

For the derivation, see tab. 2927- 

cording to Mr. Lindley, fresh violets, and each borne upon 
a long, cylindrical or subclavate, slightly twisted germen. 
The outer segments of the flower, or sepals, are broadly 
ovate, acute, reflexed, the two lower decurrent, and meet- 
ing below so as to form a distinct spur : the two inner ones 
smaller, but similar in shape : all of them of a brownish- 
green colour, tinged and streaked with purple. Lip, in our 
specimen, nearly white, with purple blotches, oblong, ven- 
tricose, fleshy, three-lobed, the two lateral lobes involute 
acute : the middle one cordate, acute, " within, the labellum 
is highly curious, having a large, fleshy, deep purple body 
which gradually passes into the labellum at the lower mar- 
gin ; but anteriorly, it projects into a distinct lobe, resem- 
bling a shovel, glued to the face of the labellum" (Lindl.); 
a peculiarity which our drawing does not represent. Column 
and anther-case yellow-green. 

This beautiful plant is a native of forests in Brazil, whence 
it was imported by John Mutford, Esq. of Exeter, in 1827, 
and presented to the Royal Gardens of Kew, where it flow- 
ered in great perfection in July, 1829. It is unquestion- 
ably the same species with that above quoted in the Bota- 
nical Register, but the scape bears three or four flowers, 
and the labellum is nearly white, which in Mr. Lindley's 
plant is yellow green. 

I am indebted to Mr. Aiton for the use of the drawing 
which is here engraved. 

, F W * J ' L } p - 2> Column » wit h the Anther-case, thrown back and exposing 
the Pollen-Mass. 

( 3147 ) 



Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — EpacridejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. bibracteatus vel ebracteatus. Cor. infundibuli- 
formis, limbo imberbi. Ovarium 5-loculare. Drupa bac- 
cata, putamine osseo solido. — Fruticuli erecti. Folia 
sparsa, subtus lineata. Flores inter minores, albi. Discus 
hypogynus cyathiformis, b-lobus. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lissanthe * sapida ; racemis 2 — 3-floris recurvis, foliis ob- 
longo-linearibus mucronatis margine revolutis, subtus 
dealbatis striatis. Br. 

Lissanthe sapida. Br. Prodr. v. 1. p. 540. Lindl. in Bot. 
Reg. t. 1275. 

Descr. A shrub, with rounded, subpubescent, brownish 
branches. Leaves scattered, an inch and a half to two 
niches long, linear- lanceolate, coriaceous, rigid, entire, 
acuminate and cuspidate at the point, the base suddenly 
tapering into a very short petiole, upon which it is, as it 
We re, jointed, and often bent at an angle from it, the upper 
surface obscurely, the under surface, which is almost white, 
distinctly striated. Racemes axillary and terminal, of from 
three to fixe flowers : the pedicels and peduncle bracteated, 
J he bractece often four in a whorl. Calyx of five imbricated 
'eaves, which are ovato-rotundate, coriaceo-membranaceous, 


°f the'ST 5 ' mooth > and " r9o « f a flower; from the smooth or polished surface 

margined with red. Corolla of one campanulato-cylindra- 
ceous petal, greenish-white, polished, swollen at the base, 
the limb cut into five acuminated, spreading segments: 
within the tube and near the middle is a circle of hairs. 
Filaments five, completely adnate with the corolla. Anthers 
alternate with the segments, at the mouth of the tube, 
oblong, dark-purple, one-celled, bursting longitudinally. 
Germen ovate, five-celled, nearly half-immersed in a cya- 
thiform disk, irregularly and obscurely lobed at the margin. 
Style as long as the tube of the corolla, swollen above the 
base, and hairy. Stigma obscurely five-lobed. Berry a 
globose drupe, as large as a black currant, red, tipped with 
the persistent style. The nut five-lobed, five-celled. 

Introduced into the country from New South Wales by 
Mr. Allan Cunningham, who sent seeds of it to the Royal 
Gardens of Kew in 1823. These produced flowering 
plants in October 1825, and, in May 1827, the same plants 
bore the bright -coloured fruits which are said in the 
" Library of Entertaining Knowledge" to have " some- 
thing of the consistency and taste of the Siberian Crab." 

I am indebted to W. T. Aiton, Esq. for the drawings 
and specimens of this plant, from which our figure and 
description were made. 

Fig. 1 Calyx. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Pistil and cyathiform Disk: 
magnified, J 

I Stue 

Jiti by J. Custom Giazcnrood JbwM ., pnUltte 

( 3148 ) 
Thea viridis. Green Tea. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Camellie^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5 — 6-sepalus. Pet. 6 — 9 ima basi subcohaerentia 
2-— 3-serialia. Stam. basi sublibera. Antherm subrotundae. 
Capsula 3-cocca, septis valvaribus nempe a valvularuin 
marginibus introflexis formatis. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Thea* viridis : foliis elliptico-lanceolatis coriaceo-membra- 

naceis convexis undulatis, floribus solitariis niitantibus. 
Thea viridis. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 735. Willd. Sp. PL p. 1180. 

8m. in Rees' Cycl. Loddiges Bot. Cab. t. 227. " Letts. 

Monogr. t. 1." fVoodv. Med. Bot. Suppl. p. 116. t. 256. 

Booth, in Trans, of Hurt. Soc. of Lond. v. 7. p. 558. 
Bohea laxa. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. p. 303. 
Ihea Chinensis, «. Sims in Bot. Mag. p. 998. (which see 

for the Synonyms of the var. (i in other authors.) 

De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 530. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 

2. p. 603. 

Descr. A shrub, rising to the height of eight or ten 
Ie et in the conservatory of the Botanic Garden of Glasgow, 
much branched, the branches spreading, rounded, brown, 
ne y° u ng shoots green. Leaves rather distant, alternate, 
°» short petioles, elliptical-lanceolate, three to five inches 
"& coriaceo-membranaceous, waved and wrinkled, con- 
ex the margins being recurved, serrated, of a full (but not 
anH • ^ green abov e, paler beneath, where the midrib 
Jr f em * are prominent. Flowers solitary, axillary, fra- 
eacl , Seldom more than one, and that from near the top of 
flow • otj u P on a snort peduncle, drooping, so that the 
* er is scarcely to be seen but by looking at the under- 

* From the Chinese name of the plant, Tcha. 

side of the branches. Calyx of five rounded, spreading, 
green leaves. Corolla of usually six, between oval and 
rounded, white, spreading petals, in two or three series, of 
which the outer are the smallest and greenish, the inner 
gradually larger, and of a clearer white, slightly wavy. 
Stamens very numerous, fixed to the base of the petals, so 
that in fact there are several bundles, though, from their 
proximity, they seem to form one mass. Filaments slender. 
Anthers rotundato-reniform, opening at the sides, yellow. 
Germen ovate, downy, surrounded by a fleshy ring at the 
base, slightly downy, three -celled, each cell containing 
two ovules. Styles three, combined below, free above: 
Stigmas obtuse. 

Of the Tea-plant, two kinds are commonly cultivated in 
our greenhouses, the one under the name of Thea viridis, 
or Green Tea, the other of Thea Bohea, or Black Tea: and 
which appellations have been given them, partly, as it would 
appear, on account of the relative colours of the foliage, and 
partly under an impression, that the former produced the 
Green Tea of the shops, and the latter the Black Tea. But 
this idea seems to be founded on no good authority, as we 
shall presently show ; and even with regard to T. viridii 
and T. Bohea, Botanists are by no means agreed as to their 
specific identity : indeed, a general opinion now prevails 
that they are mere varieties ; an opinion, however, in which 
I do not coincide. T. viridis is a large, strong-growing, 
almost hardy, plant, with its branches spreading, its leaves 
three to five inches long, very broadly lanceolate, pale 
green, singularly waved, the margin reflexed ; the flowers 
are large, solitary, mostly confined to the upper axil : they 
appear in the autumn, six weeks or two months earlier than 
those of T. Bohea : whilst the latter is of smaller size, with 
remarkably erect, stiff branches, leaves not above half or 
two-thirds the size of the former, perfectly flat, more coria- 
ceous, of a dark green, bearing in the axils of numerous 
leaves two or three flowers, which are smaller, and have a 
slight fragrance, and are in perfection during winter. 1 
will not endure our frosts. Both kinds are indeed so frequent 
iu our collections, that every one has the opportunity ot 
examining them, and exercising his own judgment as to 
the importance of their characters. The difficulty is much 
greater m determining which of these species is the one 
cultivated in China ; whether both may not be employed m 
the production of the different kinds of Tea; or whether 
they may not be indiscriminately used :-for the Ch*£ 
are exceedingly jealous over the processes employed in «* 


preparation of Teas, and the Tea-country being at a great 
distance from the European Factory, it is very doubtful if 
any scientific person has, from personal observation, been 
able to decide the question. An assertion is, indeed, (and, 
perhaps, rather too hastily,) made, in the " General System 
of Gardening and Botany," namely, fC that all the different 
kinds of Teas brought to this country from China are the 
produce of Thea viridis :" and, again, under Thea Bohea, 
" this is falsely called Bohea Tea, as we find the Bohea 
Teas of the shops as well as other kinds, both green and 
black, to be the leaves of the former species" (T. viridis). 
Dr. Abel * satisfactorily notices the two kinds of Tea-plant 
under consideration, and he adds, " from persons conversant 
with the Chinese method, I learnt, that either of the two 
plants will afford the black or green Tea of the shops ; but 
that the broad, thin-leaved plant (our T. viridis,) is pre- 
ferred for making the green Tea." This statement is cor- 
roborated by a communication from my valued friend 
Charles Millett, Esq. of Canton, who holds a high official 
situation in the Company's Factory there, and to whom I 
wrote to request information on the subject. " The Tea- 
plant," he says, in a letter, dated Canton, 12th December, 
1827, " is almost as scarce in this neighbourhood as it is in 
England. The Tea-country is at a great distance from 
hence, and the Teas brought to Canton are several months 
on their route by inland navigation. Of the plants there 
are two kinds ; of which, one has a leaf of a much darker 
green than the other. This difference may partly arise 
from cultivation : but it is to the various modes of prepara- 
tion, that the green and the black Teas (as they are called in 
England) of the shops are due. In proof of this, we sent 
home last year green Tea from the black Tea-plant. You 
may, therefore, conclude that, though there are two plants, 
Qinering as much in appearance and growth as any two 
varieties of the Camellia Japonica, each, by proper manage- 
ment, will produce black or green Tea indifferently. The 
varieties of Teas, from the several provinces, arise from 
S01 L culture, mode of preparation, and, above all, from the 
part of the shrub whence the leaves are pulled. From the 
^fne individual plant, indeed, there are three crops or gath- 
jjnngs annually ; the first affords the finer Teas, of which 
^^ourchong is the produce of the larger leaves of the 
y°ung shoots. The extreme shoots, with the opening leaf- 
Qu «s, constitute the Peko. This is in England commonly 


Narrative of a Journey to the Interior of China, p. 221. et seq. 

supposed to be thejlowers : but an examination after infu- 
sion will clearly show its origin. The first picking takes 
place in June, the second in July, and the third in August." 

I may add, that ILempfer's figure of the Japanese Tea- 
plant, which is evidently the plant in general cultivation in 
that empire, is the T. Bohea, not the T. viridis. 

The native country of both the species is, probably, vari- 
ous parts of China, and the cultivation seems to be confined 
to the temperate zone, extending to the northern provinces 
of the empire, and as far as the 45° of lat. in Japan. But 
the Tea-districts, properly so called., are thus stated by Dr. 
Abel: that of the green Tea is in the province of Keang-nan, 
between the 29° and 41° of N. lat., at the North-western 
base of a ridge of mountains, which divides the province of 
Ohe-keang and Keang-nan : — the Black-tea district, in the 
province of Fokien, is contained within the 27th and 28th 
degrees of N. lat., and is situated on the South-eastern 
declivities of a ridge of mountains dividing the province of 
Fokien from that of Keang-si. 

The different kinds of Tea of commerce, as known to us 
in Europe, are not very great ; but M. A. Baron de Schil- 
ling has given the names of thirty-six sorts, copied from 
a Chinese MS in his possession. These are divided into 
seven heads. 1. Teas of the district of the city of Sou- 
ugan-tcheon in the province of Kiang-nan, eight sorts. 2- 
Green Teas, Soung-lo of the district of the city of Hoey- 
tcheon, in the province of Kiang-nan Soung-lo, eleven sorts. 
3. Teas of the district of Hang-tcheon-fou, in the province 
of Tehe-kiang, five sorts. 4. Tea of the province of Hou- 
kouang, one sort. 5. Black Teas, Wou-y, or Bohea, ot 
the province of Fou-kian, ten sorts : and which, if we rnay 
judge from the names, are among the most esteemed-- 
such as, Lao kiun mei, or venerable old man's eye-brows: 
Pekao, white hairs, or Peko Tea : Cheou mei, eye-brows ot 
a very advanced age : Kieou khin lian sin, hearts of Water 
Ldies of Kieou khin : Ouang ninfung, Tea of the pick-axe 
of the king's daughter : Ta haung phao, large red tails- 
and Sianjin tchang, palm of the immortals, &c. 6. Tea oi 
the province of Yun-nan, one sort 7. Teas of the pro- 
vince of Szu-tchhouan, two kinds. But this list, it is said 
by the editor of « Abel Remusat," is not yet complete; a" 
l? a I fifteen others ' se veral of which appear to he t lie 
kuids best known in Europe: Wou-i-tchha, Wou-i l**- 
VVou-i is the name of a celebrated mountain, in the pro- 
vince of Fou-kian ; thence comes the common name© 1 
Bohea Tea. Hi-tchun-tchha, Hyson Tea. Phi-tcbMj 

Skin Tea: it is that species of Hyson Tea commonly called Skin. Siao- 
tchoung-tchha — a small kind, the Saotchoun or Souchong of the mer- 
chants. Pao-tchoung-tchha — a species sold in small packets ; the 
Pouchong of commerce. Soung-tseu-tchha, Sonchais Tea. Koung- 
fou-tchha, Camphon, or Congo Tea. Chang-koung-fou, Carnphon Tea 
of a higher quality, or Camphon Campony. Tchu-tchba, Pearl Tea. 
Ya-toung-tchha, Winter Tea. Tun-ki-tchha, Twankay Tea. Kian-peti- 
tchha, or Tseu-tchoung ; a second species of Campony Tea. On-tchha, 
Black Tea — the leaves serve to dye stuffs black. Ye-tchha, Desert 
Tea.— The flowers of this species of Tea are of a golden colour ; the 
stem is high, and the leaves of a bright green : they use it in the same 
manner as the common Tea. Chan-tchha, Mountain, or Wild Tea. 

All these different kinds of Tea may be distinguished by the experi- 
enced merchant, merely by the taste. The situation of Assayer of Teas 
at Canton requires this sort of talent, and the individual who holds it, 
enjoys a salary of £1,000 per annum for tasting Teas only. 

The quantity of Tea produced in China must be enormous ; for with 
the exception of Japan, a province of China, it has not been found prac- 
ticable, though often attempted in Brazil and elsewhere, (and mainly on 
account of the higher price of labour,) to cultivate it to advantage any 
where but in China proper : and there, the Tea-plant is spread, and not 
very thinly spread, over a square area of 1,372,450 square miles. It is 
now a common beverage throughout the whole civilized world. Its use 
ja China reaches to a very high antiquity. An Indian prince, accord- 
ing to the Japanese, a holy and religious character, of the name of 
Uarma, visited China, about the year 516 of the Christian a>ra, with 
the view to instruct the natives in the duties of religion. He led himself 
a life of great abstinence, and denied all manner of rest or relaxation to 
jus body : but he was at length so weary of his fatigues and fasting, that 
ne fell asleep. As a penance for so great a dereliction of duty, he cut 
°n both his eye-brows, the instruments and ministers of his crime, and 
threw them upon the ground : each eye-brow became a shrub, and that 
shrub the one now called Tea, whose virtues were till then as unknown 
the w °rld as the plant itself. Darma quickly discovered the agreeable 
Properties of the foliage, which endowed his mind with fresh powers to 
Pursue his divine meditations. Having recommended the use of it to 
™s disciples, it soon became general in China, and has now extended to 
ine remotest regions of the earth : while the individual who first disco- 
aS t ltS qualities is held in remembrance by a rude figure in Chinese 
un5 a ,P anese drawings, of an old man standing upon water, with a reed 
uuuer his feet, and one of his eye-brows sprouting out into a Tea-leaf. 

, Lins chot is said to be the first traveller, who tells of a herb, with 

^uich the Japanese prepare a drink, and which they offer to their guests 

fa mark of high consideration. Caspar Bauhin speaks of it m his 

nnax," under the name of Cha. It was very early in the seventeeth 

thaTl^ 5 at Tea first became known in Europe ; and we are assured 

*" ; the Du tch at first carried on a trade, by recommending the Sage of 

of t l C0 ? ntry ' which the y S ave in exchange for Tea of China. The use 

we : former soon ceased; while that of the latter daily increased among 

thp t? r more tnan a century ago, according to Lord Macartney, 

Tea g i lsh East India Company did not sell more than 50,000 lbs. of 

' and ve ry little was smuggled. In 1784, the consumption of Great 

OD Britain 

Britain was estimated at 13,33&,14 rbs. Now, that of Great Britain 
and Ireland, exclusive of the dependencies, amounts to 28,000,000 fts. 

Lords Arlington and Ossory brought home a quantity of Tea from 
Holland, about the year 1666, at which time it was sold for 60s. the ft. 
But the practice of tea-drinking, even in public coffee-houses, was not 
uncommon in England prior to that period : for, in 1660, a duty of 8d. 
per gallon was laid on the liquor made and sold in all coffee-houses. 

In the sister country of Scotland, a century elapsed before Tea was 
generally known. It has been stated, and we believe on the authority of 
Sir Walter Scott, as proving how long a time had passed before Tea 
came into general use in his native land, that people are yet living, who 
recollect how the Lady Pumphraston, to whom a pound of fine green 
Tea had been sent as a rare and valuable present, boiled the same, and 
served it up with melted butter, as condiment to a salted rump of beef, 
and complained, that no cooking that she could contrive, " would make 
those foreign greens tender." 

America carries on a vast trade in this article ; but Russia is stated to 
rank next to Great Britain, inasmuch as 25,200,000 lbs. of Tea are 
yearly imported and consumed by the Russians. Their trade with the 
Celestial Empire, as may be conjectured by the proximity of their terri- 
tories, is by land ; and it is said that, in consequence of it, the Tea is of 
a superior quality than that which has been subjected to a long voyage. 
It is sent from Russia to Germany, where it fetches a high price, under 
the name of Caravan Tea. But in Russia, a peculiar kind of Tea, not 
known in other parts of Europe, (and, indeed, in Russia, its consumption 
is confined to the Asiatic territories,) is Brick Tea, a term frequently 
made use of in the interesting travels of Ledebour in the Altaic Moun- 
tains, and which has been lately explained to me, and a specimen shown 
me by the Rev. William Swan, an intelligent missionary, who has 
resided for ten years at Setenginsk, in Asiatic Russia, where Brick Tea 
is in very general use among the Mongolian tribes and Bouriats. It JJ 
produced at Fokien, and consists of old or coarse damaged leaves and 
stalks, pressed into moulds, and dried in the oven. Of this a small 
quantity is taken, pounded in a mortar, and infused for a long time in 
boiling water before the infusion is ready, which, however, is too bad tor 
the Chinese taste. The people above mentioned, generally add to it a 
little salt and milk, and sometimes flour fried in oil. 

Linnaeus had the honour of introducing this interesting and valuable 
plant alive to Europe : but not till he had experienced many disappoint- 
ments. The seeds would never bear the voyage : for like all oily seeds, 
they turned rancid in a short time. His pupil Osbeck brought a plant 
as far as the Cape of Good Hope, where it was washed overboard during 
a storm. Lagerstroem conveyed two shrubs, for the true Tea, to 
Upsal; but they turned out to be Camellia, which the Chinese call by the 
same name ; not distinguishing it (any more than some able European 
botanists) generically from Thea. Some time after, one reached I the 
harbour of Gottenburg in good health : but the evening before landing. 
the captain set the plant on the table of Ms cabin, where it was eaten 
by rats. At length Linnaeus advised Captain Ekeberg to so*"" 
iresh seeds in pots of earth at the moment of his departure from China, 
so that they might vegetate after passing the line; and the grow 
plants were thus brought in safety to Gottenburg, the 3d of October, 
1763, and transported to the Botanic Garden of Upsal. 

Fig. l. Flower. 


Pub. by 5. Curtis Glaxentrood £sse-\-- /)«■< 

( 3149 ) 
Rosa Kamtchatica. Kamtschatka Rose. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus urceolatus, carnosus, achenia plurima hir- 
suta includens. Receptaculum villosum. Lindl. 

Div. II. Feroces. Rami tomento persistente vestiti. 
Fructus nudus. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Rosa * Kamtchatica ; foliis rugosis opacis aculeis stipulari- 

bus et rameis valde inaequalibus. 
Rosa Kamtchatica. Vent. Hort. Cels. t. 76. Ait. Hort. 

Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. p. 259. Lindl. Monogr. Ros. p. 36. 

et in Rot. Reg. t. 419. De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 607. 

Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 2. p. 546. 
(p.) nitens ; foliis lucidis pallide viridibus. Lindl. in Rot. 

Reg. t. 824. 

This is one of the many beautiful drawings executed by 
Mr John Curtis for the Botanical Magazine, during the 
'atter part of Dr. Sims's editorship : and as I have not my- 
sel * had the opportunity of seeing the plant from which it 
Jas made, I shall transcribe Professor Lindley's excellent 
description, given in the Botanical Register. " Shrub three 
hve feet high, loosely spreading ; branches trailing, cot- 
W, withbiformed, hairy prickles, those under the stipules 
• a Jcate and distant, those upon the branch smaller, thick- 
* e V bnstle-shaped, with thinly mingled bristles. Leaves 
¥r, nkled, opaque, thick-set ; stipules large, halved obversely, 


* Derivation at Tab. 2847- 

ovate, hairy, curled at the edge, here and there beset with 
glands ; petioles cottony, without prickles ; leaflets seven, 
simply serrated, with the teeth callously tipped, naked at the 
upper side, hairy and paler at the under. Flowers generally 
solitary, red ; bracteas elliptic, nearly naked ; peduncles 
naked, purple ; tube of the calyx round, naked ; leaflets of 
the calyx very narrowly triangular, furless on the outside, 
beset with glands, broader at the tip, longer than the petals; 
petals obversely cordate, tipped, ultimately flat. Disk 
raised, fleshy. Ovaries nearly naked ; styles hairy, rather 
naked at the base : mass of stigmas conical, naked. Fruit 
globular, furless, scarlet, waxy, shorter than the calycine 

The species is a native of Kamtschatka, whence it was 
introduced to the gardens of Europe by M. Cels in 1802, 
and is a great ornament to them. 

Our drawing was made from a plant in the garden of Mr. 
M'Leay, of Tilbuster Lodge. 


..\w<, ,.•.'' 

^Vt& $r S. Carlis aiaxcnvool Essex ^ip^Z I /^ 2 

^* i ' 

( 3150 ) 

Sida rosea. Reddish globe-flowered 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx nudus, 5-fidus, saspe angulatus. Stylus apice 
Wljihndus. Carpella capsularia, 5 — 30, circa axim verti- 
cillata, plus minusve inter se coalita, 1-locularia, mono-aut 
°hgosperma, apice mutica aut aristata. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Sida* rosea; caule fruticoso, foliis longe petiolatis cor- 
datis acuminatis serratis molliter pubescentibus, pe- 
dunculis axillaribus unifloris, calyce inflato basi trun- 
cato, corollissubglobosis. 

&, i>a rosea. Link et Otto in Ic. PL Select. Hort. Berol. 

«osa speciosa. Willd. Herb, ex Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. 
^ J19. ■ 

Descu. This forms a shrub of some feet in height; its 
tranches rounded, pubescent. Leaves on long petioles, 
cordate, very acuminate, serrated for their whole length, 
with three principal and several lateral nerves, and reticu- 
J ^ed with connecting veins, soft, with a copious down of 
sl eUated hairs when seen under a microscope. Stipules 
°osolete. Peduncles two to three inches long, from the 
*? of the upper petioles, and longer than they are, some- 
w «at drooping. Calyx broad and truncated at the base, 


* Derivation at tab. 2857- 

somewhat inflated,, five-cleft, with acute segments. Petals 
rather large, showy., broadly obovate, nerved, reddish, 
somewhat inclining to purple, very concave and erect, so 
that taken collectively they almost form a globose corolla. 
Stamens numerous. Anthers yellow, very compact. 

Of this plant, seeds were sent about the year 1820, by 
Sir Thomas Hardy from South America, to Lady Camp- 
bell; but from what part of that vast continent is not 
stated in the MS of Dr. Sims, for whom the drawing was 
made at Messrs. Whitleys, Fulham, in October 1821. It 
appears, however, to be clearly the Sida rosea of Messrs. 
Link and Otto in the work above quoted, differing only in 
the deeper colour of its flowers ; and thence we learn that 
it is a native of Brazil, and that it was introduced to the 
Botanic Garden of Berlin, in 1817, by Prince Maximilian 
de Neuwied. 

It is evidently allied to the Sida globifiora of this work 
t. 2821, and is equally remarkable for the globose flowers 
and inflated calyx, truncate at the base. 

( 3151 ) 

Epidendrum variegatum. Variegated 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchidej3. ) 

Generic Character, 

Columna cum ungue labelli longitudinaliter connata in 
tubum (quandoque decurrentem ovarium). Mass<e Pollinis 
4, parallels, septis completis persistentibus distinctse, basi 
nlo granulato elastico auctae. Br. 

Specific Character. 

EriDENDRUM * variegatum; bulbo elongato compresso, foliis 
subternis ligulatis maculatis, perianthii foliolis obo- 
vato-oblongis acutis intus atro-purpureo- maculatis, 
columna brevi, label lo cordato intus lineis duabus 
elevatis, flore recto. 

Descr. Parasitic. Stem bulbiform, branched : the bulbs 
oblong-, compressed, smooth, dark green, sheathed at the 
base with the withered bases of former years' leaves, one 
bulb rising above another. Two or three leaves terminate 
this bulb : they are eight to ten inches long, ligulate, ob- 
tuse, striated, of a yellow-green, dashed with deeper spots, 
so that they have a variegated appearance. Raceme ter- 
minal, on a compressed peduncle, a span high, lax, of about, 
ei ght to ten flowers, which are straight, not twisted. Peri- 
anth of six obovato-oblong, nearly equal pieces, of a yellow- 
ish-green colour, somewhat coriaceous, obtuse, yellower 


* Derivation at tab. 2844. 
VOL. VI. p 

towards the extremity ; the upper or inner side sprinkled 
almost all over with blackish - purple spots: they are 
patent or even reflex ed. Column short, standing out ho- 
rizontally, thickened upwards, nearly plane, within pale 
yellow-green, united for nearly its whole length with the 
lip, whose free part is cordate, acute, within having two 
elevated longitudinal lines, which are slightly downy. 
Anther-case yellow, lodged in a depression at the top of the 
column, where there is a small three-toothed scale. Pollen 
Masses in two pairs, each pair having its caudiculi com- 
bined at the extremity. Stigma transverse, depressed, 
viscid. Column slender, subclavate, not at all twisted. 

From the collection of Richard Harrison, Esq. of Liver- 
pool, who obligingly communicated a fine specimen of this 
interesting plant, with a drawing by his sister, Mrs. Arnold 
Harrison, in January, 1832. The root was sent from Rio 
by Mr. William Harrison. 

It is extremely unlike any other species of the Genus 
with which I am acquainted, and the flowers are very beau- 
tiful. The leaves, too, have a remarkable appearauce, 
being spotted with a darker colour. 

Fig. I. Flower. 2. Side view of the Column and Lip. 3. Lip, with the 
Labellum forced down so as to show its form more distinctly. 4. Anther. 
5, 6, 7. Different views of the Pollen-Masses : magnified. 



( 3152 ) 

Hibiscus Manihot, /3. Palmated-leaved 
Hibiscus, var. 0. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Malvacejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Pah/x cinctus involucello ssepius polyphyllo, rarius foli- 
olis paucis aut inter se coalitis. Petala hinc non auriculata. 
Stigmata 5. Carpella in capsulam 5-locularem coalita, 
valvis intus medio septiferis, loculis polyspermis aut rarius 
1-spermis. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Hibiscus Manihot; caule inermi, foliis subglabris palmato- 
partitis, lobis 5 — 7 acuminatis grosse serratis, invo- 
lucello hispido 4 — 8-phyllo, pedicellis floridis decli- 
natis. D C. 

Hibiscus Manihot. Linn. Sp. PL p. 980. Cav. Diss. 3. p. 
H2. t. 63. f. 2. Willd. Sp. PL p. 825. Ait. Hort. Kew. 
^. 2. v. 4. p. 229. Sims in Bot. Mag. t. 1702. De 
Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 448. Sprenz. Sust. Veget. v. 3. 
p. 102. 

Ketmia folio Manihot serrato, flore amplo sulphureo. Dill. 
Elth.p. 189. t. 156./ 189. 

(0) palmatus; foliis palmatifidis, radice crassa fungosa. 
De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 448. (Tab. nostr.) 

hibiscus palmatus. Cav. Diss. 3. p. 168. t. 63. f. 1. 

A description, and an excellent figure of the var. *, the 
*)P e of this species, having been given at t. 1702 of this 
* ork > we need offer no further remark than to say, that the 
thfl nt 1S distin guished by the greater size and beauty of 
me Howers, and the less deeply divided leaves. 

l he plant from which our figure was taken, blossomed in 
me stove of the Count De Vandes at Bayswater, m No- 
vember, 1821 

M^'.Si<-A- W, 

( 3153 ) 

Myrcia acris. Wild Clove-Tree, or 
Bay-Berry Myrtle. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Orel. — Myrtace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus subglobosus, rarissime ovatus, limbas 5- 
partitus. Pet. 5. Stam. numerosa, libera. Ovarium 2—3- 
loculare, loculis pluriovulatis. Bacca saepius matura 1 — 2 ?- 
locularis, 1 — 3 ?-sperma. Semen subglobosum testa laevi. 
CotyUdones foliaceae, corrugato-contortuplicatae. — Frutices 
<Mt arbusculae omnes ex insulis Caribais aut America aus- 
trali ortce. Folia opposita integerrima pellucido -punctata 
°ut opaca, nervatione Myrti donata. Pedunculi axillarcs 
et subterminales paniculati multiflori. Flores albi. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Mvrcia * acris; pedimculis axillaribus et termiiialibus tri- 
chotomis corymbosis folio longioribus compressis, flo- 
ribus 5-fidis, foliis ellipticis obtusis convexis coriaceis 
glaberrimis superne venis elevatis reticulata subtilissi- 
me pellucido-punctatis. 

; v }yrcia acris. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 243. 

A bRTus acris. Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. v. 2. p. 909. Willd. Sp. 
P * p. 973. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. p. 190. Spreng. 
tyst. Veget. v. 2. p. 487. _ . , 

J«*fDs caryopbyllata. Jacq. Obs. 2. p. 1. (non Linn.) 

^aryophyllus 1, foliis oblongo-ovatis opposite racenus 
Jateralibus et terminalibus. Browne, Jain. p. 247. 

^Ryophyllus aromaticus Indian occidentalis folns et fructu 

rotundis. Pluk. Aim. 88. t. 155./. 3. 


favlij h 'V VaS fabled to be so nanied from Myrsine > an Athenian damsel, and 
e of Minerva, who was changed into a Myrtle. 

Descr. A tree, according" to Swartz, clothed with a 
grey, brown bark. Branches compressed, in our dry spe- 
cimens, (but Swartz describes them as terete,) four-angled, 
often marked with very minute, raised points, glabrous. 
Leaves opposite, three to five inches long, very coriaceous, 
elliptical, obtuse, convex above, the margins revolute, wav- 
ed and subtortuose, with many parallel, nearly horizontal 
nerves united by reticulations which are most apparent on 
the upperside, (where are impressed dots,) and, in the dry 
state, beneath pale, with discoloured, not depressed dots. 
Panicles pedunculate, axillary, the peduncles as long as, 
or longer than, the leaves, very compressed, ancipitate: 
branches brachiate, each subtended by opposite, small, de- 
ciduous bracteas. Calyx, including its adherent tube, ob- 
conical, punctate, of four short, spreading, obtuse lobes, 
which are downy within. Petals five, nearly orbicular, 
scarcely clawed. Stamens numerous. Anthers yellow. 
Germen small, adherent with the tube of the calyx, the 
summit only free, two-celled, with one broad ovule pendent 
from the top of each cell. Style longer than the stamens, 
plane : Stigma obtuse. The perfect^hi^ I have not seen. 
Of this highly fragrant plant I am not aware that any 
good figure exists. It is, indeed, on account of its affinity 
with the Myrtus Pimenta of Linn^us, involved in some ob- 
scurity; having, I fear, been not unfrequently confounded 
with that grateful aromatic. In the absence of fruit, it is, 
perhaps, best distinguished by its five- (not four) lobed 
calyx, its more elliptical, and far more coriaceous leaves, 
which are glossy and reticulated (when dry) on the upper 
surface. The seeds are very different in the two plants, ij 
De CANDOLLEbe correct, and hence they are by him referred 
to different Genera, Myrtus Pimenta to Eugenia, and the 
M. acris of Swartz to Myrcia. In the former, the radicle 
and the cotyledons are very thick and conferruminated: uj 
Myrcia the cotyledons are coriaceous and corrugated and 
contortuplicate. Prom Myrtus they are both distinguished 
by the extremely thin and membranous coat to the seed 
In Eugenia Pimenta the stigma is certainly capitate, as de- 
scribed by Mr. Lindley. 

The Myrcia acris is a native of Jamaica, and, probably, 
of other West India Islands. I have numerous specimen 3 
from the Rev. L. Guilding from St. Vincent. , 

Lunan, the author of « Hortus Jamaiceusis/' thus spea K 
of this plant. " It may contend with most trees for the pa»» 
of elegance ; it grows slowly, and attains a consider^ 

Sl* e ' 

size. The trunk is handsome,, straight, forming a very lofty, 
thick, and beautiful pyramid. In the younger trees, the 
bark is brown, then ash-coloured, and finally white, with 
yellow spots ; very smooth and even, but sometimes hanging 
down in slender shreds, it has an astringent, somewhat 
aromatic flavor. The timber is very hard, red, and pon- 
derous, capable of being polished and used for mill-cogs 
and other purposes where much friction is required. The 
young branches are sharply four-angled and green ; their 
leaves three to four inches long, of a very sweet aromatic 
smell, and on account of their agreeable astringency, often 
used as sauce. The flowers are small, white, with a slightly 
reddish tinge ; the berries round, as large as peas, having an 
aromatic smell and taste, which render them agreeable for 
culinary purposes ; they contain seven or eight seeds." 

The tree is a native of several of the West Indian Islands, 
and is called in Grenada, Bois d'Inde. Browne says, it is 
common in Antigua and Jamaica, as well as Barbadoes, and 
generally attains a considerable size; that it fills the woods 
with the fragrant smell of its leaves, nearly resembling 
that of Cinnamon, but its bark has none of the warmth 
of that of Cinnamon, though the berries much resemble 
Cloves, both in form and flavour. It is commonly called 
Wild Cinnamon, or Wild Clove Tree ; and is said to be the 
Ben/berry of Hughes. 

Fig. 1. Bud. 2. Section of the Germen. 


( 3154 ) 
Maxillaria picta. Painted Maxillaria. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^. Div. Vande<e, Lindl. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium patens,, resupinatum. Labellum cum pro- 
cessu unguiformi columnae articulatum, trilobum. Foliola 
lateralia exteriora basibus cum processu columnae connata. 
Pollinia 4, basibus connata, glandulosa, (vel 2, pedicellata, 
pedicello basi glutinoso.) — Herbae parasitica, bulbosa, 
■America meridionalis. Racemi (vel scapi uniflori) radi- 
cles. LindL 

Specific Name and Character. 

Maxillaria pict a; bulbis ovatis 1 — 2-phyllis, foliis lineari- 
lanceolatis, scapo radicali unifloro, petalis incurvo- 
patentibus lineari-oblongis subasqualibus discoloribus 
maeulatis, 2 inferioribus basi subproductis, labello 
oblongo incurvo 3-lobo disco elevato pubescente, lobis 
lateral i bus incurvis terminali subcordato acuto. 

Descr. Bulbs about as large as a pigeon's egg, dark 
green, clustered, obscurely furrowed, bearing one or two 
"near-lanceolate or strap-shaped, almost nerveless, coria- 
ceous, acute leaves, a span, or nearly a foot long. Scape 
ny e to six inches high, arising from the root at the base of 
* bulb and there solitary, in part sheathed by membranous 
^ a »es, single-flowered. Flowers large, handsome, inclined. 
petals spreading, but singularly incurved, oblongo-linear, 
acute nearly equal (the two inner ones being the smallest) ; 
*" of them of a rich and deep orange - colour within, 
-Potted with purple ; externally almost white, with spots and 
notches of deep purple. Lip oblong, pale, dirty-white or 

cream-coloured, but little spotted, three-lobed, the disk 
with an oblong, downy swelling, the two lateral lobes in- 
curved, the terminal one somewhat recurved, cordate, 
acute. Column of a deep, almost black-purple, as well as 
the anther, which is hemispherical. Pollen-masses four, 
deep yellow, obovate, connected by the base with a short 
stalk, which spreads laterally into a transversely linear, in- 
curved gland. 

This is another of the many new Orchideous plants 
received by Mrs. Arnold Harrison, from her brother in 
Brazil, where it was gathered in that spot, so fertile in 
vegetables of this family, the Organ Mountains. It flow- 
ered during the month of December in Mrs. Harrison's 
stoves, and is eminently deserving a place in every collection 
from the size and beauty of its blossoms. The colour and 
markings are exceedingly beautiful. 

Fig. 1. Column. 2. Lip. 3, 4. Back and front view of the Pollen- 
Masses : — magnified. 

r,< ii d</< 

PuibjS Curtvs GU 3 m»wd Zssut.XhyJ JggS. 

( 3155 ) 

bldens striata. striated-flowered 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Frustranea. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Anthodium simplex partitum subcoloratum involucratum. 
(Flosculi interdum radiales lingulati.) Receptaculum pa- 
leaceum. Pappus aristis subbinis retrorsum aculeatis. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Bidens * striata; caule subpubescente striato, foliis (pleris- 
<jue) ternatis, foliolis ovato-acuminatis serratis, lateral- 
. ibus subsessilibus terminali majori sublonge petiolato, 
radii flosculis late obovatis lineatis (albis). 

widens striata. Sw. Br. Fl. Gard. t. 237. 

Descr. Annual ? Stem from a foot and a half to three 
<[r four feet high, erect, much branched, striated, slightly 
downy. Leaves petiolated, almost wholly ternately pm- 
Jjated : the two lateral leaflets the smallest, nearly sessile, 
l «e terminal one on a rather long petiole: all of them ovate, 
Ruminate, waved, and much nerved, glabrous. The lower- 
most leaves on the plant, which are of considerable size, 
Tl d Som e of the extreme upper ones, which may be con- 
sidered bracteas, are simple. Flowers in a sort of panicu- 
j"ed leafy corymb, moderately large. Involucre of a 
3 0u ? le series of scales ; the outer linear, reflexed, downy; 
Qe mner oblongo-linear, obtuse, glabrous, erect. Recep- 

So na med from the two teeth which crown the summit of the fruit. 

tacle with numerous" long, linear, chaffy scales. Florets of 
the ray five to six., large, white. Corolla broadly-obovate, 
marked with lines, three -toothed. Corollas of the disk 
numerous, yellow, tubular, five-toothed. Anthers black- 
purple. Stigrna bifid, the segments linear, spreading, hairy. 
Achenium linear-oblong, compressed, margined, the edges 
scabrous, the short bristles pointing upwards. The Pappus 
consists of two erect, rigid bristles, retrorsely scabrous. 

This is one of the many interesting plants introduced to 
our gardens by the late Mr. Barclay from Mexico. It is 
the more desirable from being quite hardy, if treated as an 
annual, although the root is, probably, perennial, and from 
blossoming late in the autumn. The flowers are abundant, 
and conspicuous from their large white rays. 

Fig. 1. Involucre with the Scales of the Receptacle. 2. Floret of the 
Ray. 3. Floret of the Disk, with its accompanying Scale. 4. Achenium : 
magnified. 5. Leaf from near the root : nat. size. 


J*U lyS.Curt^ aaxmnx>d,£sjex.Jftwm5* 

( 3156 ) 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium irregulare, subringens, 6-partitum \ foliola 2 
anteriora exteriorum labello ecalcarato trifido supposita, 
l'mearia : interiorum lateralia patula, unguiculata. Anthera 
stigmati parallela, utrinque lobo laterali peta- 
loideo stipata. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Diuris * maculata ; labello basi intus bicarinato, laciniis 
lateralibus intermedium subaequantibus, foliolorum 
perianthii interiorum laminis obovatis. Br. 

Diuris maculata. Sm. Ex. Bot. v. I. p. 57. t. 20. Willd. 
Sp. PI. v. 4. p. 79. Br. Prodr. v. I. p. 315. Sieber, 
FL Nov. Holl. n. 165. 

Descr. Root ? Stem ten to twelve inches high., rounded, 
glabrous, leafy mostly at the base. Leaves linear-subulate, 
canaliculate, striated, gradually becoming smaller upwards, 
and soon passing into sheathing scales. Raceme of eight 
to ten flowers, each subtended by a membranous, sheathing 
oractea. Petals spreading; upper one of the outer series 
ovate, jagged, yellow, spotted, the two lower ones of the 
same series linear, green, deflexed, and often crossing each 
other. Two inner petals large, spreading, and directed 
upwards, obovate, tapering into a long claw, pale yellow 


Prom & f , double, and «p<x. a tail, in allusion to the form of two of the 

spotted with rich purple -brown. Lip deep yellow, and 
spotted, three -lobed, the lateral lobes oblong, reflexed, 
jagged ; the middle one much larger, obcuneate, with two 
prominent ridges near the base. Column flattened, short, 
with two ovate, jagged wings, which embrace the ovato- 
acuminate, two- celled anther. Germen linear -clavate, 

For the opportunity of figuring this interesting plant, I 
am indebted to the kindness of W. Townsend Aiton, Esq.; 
who sent me a drawing taken from a plant which had blos- 
somed in the Royal Gardens of Kew, in March, 1825. It 
was transmitted from New South Wales, by Mr. Allan Cun- 
ningham, 1823. From the specimens in my Herbarium it 
would appear that this plant is liable to much variation in 
the size and colour of its flowers; which are, indeed, among 
the most elegaut of the family : but the colour and the 
markings of the blossoms in the " Exotic Botany" figure, 
as Mr. Brown observes, are far from being well executed. 

Fig. 1. Lip, Column, and Anther. 2. Back view of the Lip. 3. Column, 
with its Wings and Anther. 4. Anther : — magnified. 

.?"•/ dutlHtno <iW» 

-Pu* b JCuHt* GUxvunvdZ^^jjm 

jV»n So. 

( 3157 ) 



Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Sapotm:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 8 — 6-partitus, gemino laciniarurn online. Corolla 
laciniis duplici serie, exteriores 6 — 16, integral vel divisae : 
interior es 6—8, integrae. Stamina anther if era 6 — 8, laci- 
niis interioribus opposita, totidem sterilia aiternantia. Ova- 
num 6 — 8-locuIare. Bacca abortione oligosperma, v. mo- 
nosperma. Semina nucumentacea, albuminosa. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Mimusops dissecta ; foliis elliptico-ovatis obtusis retusisve 

subtus cinereo-argenteis, floribus octandris, corollis 

octo-decemfidis, pedunculis solitariis ex axillis suprc- 

mis ramorum. 
Mimusops dissecta. Br. Prodr.p.b3l. Sprcng.Syst. Veget. 

v. 2. p. 2m. 
Mimusops Kauki. Linn. Sp. PL p. 497 ? Br. Prodr. v. 1 . 

p. 531 ? 
Mimusops hexandra ? Roxb. Corom. v.\. 
Achras dissecta. For st. PL Esc. p .43. Prodr. p. 25. Willd. 

Sp. PL v. 2. p. 223. 
Achras Balata. Aubl. PL Guian. v. \. p. 308. 
Manil-kara. Rheed. Hort. Mai. P. IV. p. b3. t. 25. 
Metrosideros Macassarensis. Rumph. Amb. v. 3. p. 19. 

t. 8. 

Descr. A small tree ? Branches numerous, rounded, 
the ultimate ones short and bearing leaves, and, in their 
axils, flowers also at the extremities. Leaves petiolated, 
elliptical-ovate, entire, coriaceous, obtuse or retuse, gla- 
brous and somewhat shining, dark green above, beneath 
silvery-grey, penninerved, the nerves prominent beneath : 
Petiole about an inch Ions;. Flowers solitary on peduncles, 

° about 

about as long as the petioles, but appearing aggregated 
from the circumstance of their arising from the axils of the 
crowded leaves at the extremity of the branches. Pedun- 
cles curved, swollen upwards. Calyx of six ovate leaves 
arranged in two series, slightly downy, spreading. Corolla 
monopetalous, of eighteen segments arranged in a double 
series, the outer of twelve linear-acuminate latinise, the 
inner of six somewhat narrower ones, opposite the fertile 
stamens. Stamens, six fertile and six alternating barren, 
squamiform, denticulated ones. Filaments of the perfect 
stamens subulate: Anthers oblongo-acuminate, reversed, 
yellow. Germen small, conical, tapering into a slender, 
filiform style. Stigma obtuse. Fruit, a large oval, or 
nearly obovate, one-seeded (by abortion), at first green, at 
length brownish-purple Berry, with the traces of five other 
cells, and tipped with the persistent style. Seed somewhat 
triangular, compressed, with a narrow, linear scar or hilum. 

Although cultivated under the name of Achbas dissecta of Forster 
in the island of St. Vincent, whence drawings and specimens have been 
kindly communicated by the Rev. L. Guilding, I am by no means certain 
that this is the plant of that author : for its most important distinguishing 
character, the pale and almost silvery hue of the underside, is not men- 
tioned by Forster. It would, perhaps, have been more correct, to 
have adopted the Specific Name of Aublet; for he has most accurately 
described the foliage ; and it is more than probable, that it was intro- 
duced, as many other plants were known to be, to St. Vincent from 
Guiana. Aublet speaks of it as brought from the Isle of France, where 
it is called Bois de Nattes. But this is a vague term, and in Mauritius, 
according to my friend Professor Bojer, is applied to three different 
plants : " Bois de Nattes a petites feuilles, (Mimusops retusa) ; Bois de 
Nattes a grandes feuilles (M. Natta) ; and Bois de Nattes a pomme de 
Singe." I have no reason to think it is any of these: and if it be really 
the Achras dissecta, it is a native of the Philippine and Friendly 
Islands. The figures both of Rheede and Rtjmphius above quoted, 
seem to be sufficiently characteristic of our plant, and the Mimusops 
hexandra of Roxb. Carom, which Mr. Brown notices, as scarcely to be 
distinguished from the Achras dissecta of Forster, seems to differ 
only in the broader segments of the corolla, and the different colour ot 
the underside of the leaves. Lastly, Mr. Brown's M. Kauki appears to 
differ in nothing but the greater length of the petioles. 

The fruit of our plant is esculent, and Mr. Guilding remarks, that 
the cultivation of it is too much neglected in our colonies. 

from the Achras dissecta an unctuous fluid is said to exude. The 
tout is of an agreeable acid, and on account of it, the plant is extensively 
cultivated m China, Manilla, and Malabar. The leaves pounded and 
mixed with the roots of Curcuma and with Ginger are used as cata- 
plasms for tumors. 

ul!& VbEKK & a lowering Branch, from which many of the Leaves ; art s re- 
nat. «•«. Ut : mt ' Size - 3l CoroIla laid °P en ' 4 ' Stame "' 

.31,5 8. 

( 3158, 3159 ) 


pita, or Cannon-Bail Tree. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Myrtace^e. Trib. Lecythide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus turbinatus, limbus 6-lobus persistens. Pe- 
Uda 6 inaequalia. Ligula staminea antheris basi et apice 
instructa. Ovarium turbinatum, 6-loculare. Septa parieta- 
lia versus axim reflexa ibique columellam mentientia; funi- 
culi inter se concreti et ideo ovula plurima gerentes. Stylus 
o. Stigma stellatum hexagonum. Capsula Crustacea, glo- 
bosa, circulo calycino cincta, operculo non solubili notata, 
evalvisj intus pulposa. Mesocarpium ante maturitateui 
carnosum, postea deliquescentia evanidum, tuncque endo- 
carpium ab epicarpio solutum et volubile. Semina in pulpa 
nidulantia, plurima, ovata, membrana villosa coriacea tecta. 
Embryo subrotundus compressus rostratus. Cotyledoncs 
magnae foliaceae nervosae plicatae corrugatae sub radicula 
claviformi curvatae. — Arbores. Folia petiolata oblongo-cu- 
neata subcrenulata. Stipulae parvce caducce. Racemi mm- 
phces trunco ramisque innascentes, bracteati. Flores ampli 
sordide albescentes aut incarnati. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Couroupita * Guianensis ; foliis acutis, (calycis margine 

circumscisso petalis acutis) ? D C. 
Couroupita Guianensis. Aubl. Guian. v. 2. p. 708. t. 282. 

Descourt. Fl. Med. des Antil. v. 5. p. 131. f. 340. Poit. 

in Mem. du Mus. v. 13. p. 152. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. 
- P- 294. 

J^ecythis bracteata. Willd. Sp. PL v 2. p. 1174. 
"e&ea Couroupita. Juss. 


* The name of the plant in Guiana. 

Descr. A Tree of large size, from fifty to sixty feet 
high, with a trunk often more than two feet in diameter : 
the wood is soft; the branches spreading, covered with a 
smooth bark. Leaves most copious at the extremities of 
the branches, eight to ten inches long, broadly lanceolate 
approaching to cuneate, shortly acuminate, membrana- 
ceous, very obscurely toothed ; veins oblique, reticulated 
with nerves. Petioles about an inch long, downy. Racemes 
one to three feet in length, produced on the former year's 
branches, and upon different parts of the trunk, bearing a 
great many, sometimes a hundred flowers ; of a very large 
size, and no less splendid in colour. The buds shortly 
before expansion are about the size of a medlar ; they open 
slowly, two or three in a morning, and falling off in the 
evening, and are highly fragrant. At the base of the flower 
are two opposite, oblong, deciduous bracteas. The calyx- 
tube is turbinate, adherent with the germen or ovary, its 
limb of six rounded, minutely ciliated lobes. Corolla of 
six (rarely seven) coriaceous, unequal, imbricated, subor- 
bicular^ but much waved and concave petals, yellowish on 
the outside with a tinge of red, crimson-lilac within, spread- 
ing horizontally. In the centre of this corolla, and around 
the upper part of the pistil, is a remarkable staminiferous 
ligule or nectary : it is a large, fleshy, exactly circular disk, 
densely covered with short, upright, fleshy, yellowish sta- 
mens, one side of which is prolonged into a broad, strap- 
shaped, fleshy ligule, folded or doubled upon itself, the ex- 
tremity of which on the upper side is thickly clothed with 
numerous longer, red, fleshy stamens. These stamens seem 
to be the most perfect. The filaments are cylindrical. The 
anthers subglobose, two-celled. Those of the circular disk, 
besides being smaller and of a different colour, have the 
filaments clavate ; those of the centre appear to be abortive. 
The greater portion of the pistil is inferior, the upper or free 
portion, which may, perhaps, be considered the style, is 
broad and hemispherical : the stigma of six, appressed rays. 
The Germen appears to have six cells : but if examined 
carefully, it will be found that there are six, arrow-shaped 
(viewed when cut transversely) receptacles, arising from pa- 
rietes and meeting in the centre, and that each of the barbs 
(if I may so term them,) bears several ovules, especially on 
its inner edge. When the germen is a little swollen, and the 
petals with the staminiferous ligule have fallen away, there 
will be seen a transverse constriction in the free portion oj 
the pistil, between the insertion of the limb of the calyx and 



the apex of the pistil. Not having had the advantage of 
seeing the fruit in a recent state, I shall describe it in the 
words of M. Poiteau. r * Although a raceme is composed 
of fifty to one hundred flowers, it produces but one or two 
round fruits, four to eight inches in diameter, reddish, rough 
to the touch, and marked by a circle, bearing the calyx at 
two-thirds of its height. In describing the bark of this 
fruit, I must employ the nomenclature of Richard; its epi- 
carp is crustaceous, thin but solid ; its sarcocarp is very 
thick and fleshy, the endocarp woody, a line thick, and 
very solid ; the sarcocarp becomes deliquescent, and leaves 
a considerable space between the epicarp and endocarp, 
thus allowing the latter to roll about freely in the former. 
The endocarp is full of pulp, at first greenish-white, and 
becoming blue on exposure to the air. When the fruit is 
cut and ripe it has the colour of wine-lees, and diffuses a 
most intolerable odour. The six cells, which are evident 
in the green state, disappear at maturity, and the seeds are 
found here and there, of indeterminate number, scattered in 
the pulp : they are oval, roundish, compressed, covered 
with a woolly coriaceous membrane, and furnished with a 
long and equally woolly podosperm ; the membrane in 
question cleaves laterally, and allows the escape of the 
kernel, covered with its own very thin coat. The embryo 
is roundish, compressed, with a very large, claviform radicle, 
and two large, foliaceous cotyledons, full of nerves, plaited, 
depressed, and applied to the radicle; the colour of the 
embryo is white, except the nerves of the cotyledons, which 
are rose-coloured." 

M. Poiteau, when speaking of the groupe (his Order) of 
Lecythide^e in the <c Mem. du Mus.," characterizes the 
plants which compose it as " Trees or Shrubs of the Equa- 
torial regions, which have leaves simple and alternate, and 
the flowers racemose, remarkable for their size, their beauty, 
and the singularity of their structure; but of which no in- 
dividual has blossomed in France, nor perhaps in Europe." 
If we consider the vast size to which the subject of the 
present description arrives, we despair of ever seeing it flou- 
rish in any extra-tropical region, and we cannot but feel 
greatly indebted to the Rev. L. Guilding, who has enabled 
us to give a figure with many details of this plant, than 
^hich none more curious or interesting has graced our 
Pages. It is an inhabitant and one of the greatest orna- 
ments of the dense forests of Cayenne, flowering at all 
seasons of the year, where it is not unfrequently concealed 
from view by a mass of the Spanish Long-beard (Til- 


iandsia usneoides). Thence it has been introduced, I be- 
lieve by Dr. Anderson, into the island of St. Vincent. If 
the tree is rendered attractive by the beauty of its flowers, 
which, moreover, are endowed with the most delicious 
odour, it is no less remarkable for the size of the fruit, 
whence, in conjunction with its form, the plant is called by 
the colonists the Cannon-ball Tree. t( The fallen peri- 
carps/' says Mr. Guilding, " which strew the ground and 
exhibit the scar or hole by which they were attached to the 
peduncle, so nearly resemble the cannon-shell, that one 
might easily, at first sight, imagine that a company of 
artillery had bivouacked in its shade/' If we may believe 
in the poetical language of M. Descourtilz, " Flore Pitto- 
resque et Medicale des Antilles," the noise they make in 
falling affords an additional reason for the name : " sous 
un ciel pur et eblouissant, la grace est toujours unie a la 
magnificence dans les scenes de la nature; partout, dans les 
monies, des sources cachees dans la profonde nuit de la 
terre annoncent leur presence par un doux murmure, ou 
des eaux argentees qu'elles laissent filtrer entre les rochers, 
ou se derober en gazouillant sous les gazons, ou les plantes 
qu'elles reverdissent. Lorsque le silence de la nature est 
interrompu par les brises violentes qui, sous la z6ne torride, 
font souvent le desespoir du cuitivateur, ou entend la crepi- 
tation des fruits du Couroupite, dont le balancement pro- 
duit un choc mille fois repete, et semblable au feu roulant 
de la mousqueterie." 

The Shell is used in South America for domestic purposes, as the 
Calabash. The pulp contains sugar, gum, malic, citric, and tartaric 
acids, and is employed to afford a refreshing drink in fevers; but, in the 
perfectly ripe state, Mr. Guilding says, " it exceeds whatever is 
filthy, stinking, and abominable in nature : yet the scent is remarkably 
vinous, and so durable, that on examining some portions of the fruit 
that had been preserved in rum for two or three years, the native odour 
of the plant was so strong, as to render the apartment almost insupport- 
able. Insects revel in this disgusting and putrid pulp. Coleopteba 
and Forficul;e feed upon it, while the Formica find a shelter in the 
hollow of the shells." 


Tab. 3158. Portion of a Raceme of Flowers with a Leaf and Fruit : nat. 

Tab. 3159. Fig. 1. Ligule of Stamens spread open. 2. Section of the 
same and of the Pistil and Calyx. 3. Stigma and summit of the Pistil. 4. 4. 
Stamens from the Apex of the Ligule. 5. Anther 6. Stamen from the 
Circle surrounding the Pistil. 7. Pistil a little advanced, with the Calyx. 
8. Lobe of the Calyx. 8. * Transverse Section of ditto. 9. Seed with its 
outer Covering, and 10, the Covering bursting open (from Poiteau). *»• 
Seed. 12. Seed, with 13, Embryo j 14, Embryo unrolled j and 15, Embryo 
with the Lobes cut through to show their structure (from Poiteau.) *»*■ 
1. 7- K— IS. nat. size ; the rest more or less magnified. 


Mazmrvod i'ssac Jiui£lU32 

( 3160 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Myrtacejs. ) 
Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus turbinatus, limbus 5-fidus persistens. Petala 
5. Stam. 5 — 10 ( — 15) libera, petalis breviora. Stylus 
filiformis. Stigma capitatum. Capsula 2 — 5-locularis, 
calyce inclusa, polysperma. — Frutices. Folia opposita 
glabra, punctata. Flores pedicellati, albi, parvL 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

BaicKEA *saxicola; glaberrima, foliis quadrifariis imbricatis 
obovatis acutis punctatis immarginatis brevissime pe- 
tiolatis, floribus ex axillis foliorum supremorum solita- 
riis vel binis breve pedunculatis, staminibus 10. 

B&CKEA saxicola. Cunningham MSS. 

Descr. A low Shrub, prostrate in its wild state, but, 
when cultivated in the gardens of Kew, erect, with virgate 
branches ; the branches mostly opposite, quadrangular, 
clothed with pale grey, lax bark. Leaves most copious on 
the young shoots, all of them opposite, quadrifarious, obo- 
vate, coriaceous, acute, very shortly petioled, scarcely at all 
margined, dotted on both sides with glands, abounding in 
fragrant oil, erecto-patent. Flowers solitary, or two to- 
gether, from the axils of the leaves, which are at the extre- 
mities of the branches, on petioles rather longer than the 
leaves. Calyx with its adherent tube turbinate, glandular ; 
*he/m6 of five rounded, delicate, pale-rose-coloured, almost 


* In compliment to Abraham Baeck, a Swedish Botanist. 

wfcfa lobe*. Petalt very pale rose-coloured, orbicular, 
>in. ill Stamen* ten, five u ppo elie to, and five alternating 
with tin- netata Filament* abort, erect, white Anthns 
deep purple, roundish or eordate, apparently imperfect, and 
lh< MCmeu never seems to he fertilized l»y them. The 

inferior grrnun presents a Hat, dotted mi it, constituting 

id. dink "I the tluwer, and hearing a short >////« with a 
slightly capitate *t>%ma in the cent 

i: i the lloyal Gardens at Kew, by favour <-t 

M Arrow, ami WMN it «;h introduced by .Sir. Allah 
< i sMM.iini, who informs me that it is a n;iti\e of liere, 
t. rOCkl <»n the Smith -ast of \iistralia, where 

he del. . ted ti ui {&?>, llow< in>- in the IIIOoUl Of February. 
There it* h. \\.i> fpiite prostnite; but, on cultivation. 
Mi t i nmm.ham timU its character to l>e much altered, 
und that it beoOOMi an en 1 t shrub. 

It require* the ihelter of ■ greenhouse, and the usual 

! I .llantl plants m general. At K 
flowers in Mar. Ii 

F%. I. BW. », 3. Flown. 4. Sumeu. 5. Portion of the Stm wfcfc 


/&■%■ S.Oirts Slmmm^mdXMmsJi 


( 3161 ) 



Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — PrrrospOREiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-sepalus. Pet. 5, unguibus in tubum conniven- 
tibus. Caps. 2 — 3-valvis, medio septiferis. Semina pulpa 
resinosa obducta. — Frutices /o/ns integris persistentibus. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Pittosporum * cornifolium ; caule fruticoso gracili, foliis 
oppositis elliptico-lanceolatis glabris summis verticil- 
latis, pedunculis terminalibus aggregatis villosis uni- 
floris. Cunn. MSS. 

Pittosporum cornifolium. Cunningham MSS. 

Descr. A shrub, with forked branches, the upper ones 
trichotomous or subverticillate, clothed with reddish-brown, 
smooth bark. Leaves : the lower ones opposite, the upper 
verticillate, all of them elliptico-lanceolate, coriaceous, ob- 
tuse, two to three inches long, quite entire and glabrous, the 
veins reticulated, dark-green above, paler beneath. Pedun- 
cles in clusters of from two to five or six, arising from the 
terminal whorls of young leaves, an inch or an inch and a 
half long, very slender, hairy with spreading, minute hairs, 
single -flowered. Flowers rather small. Calyx of five 


From ** mrreu, to besmear with pitch, and o-irop, seed; because the seeds 
are enveloped in a pitchy fluid, exuding internally from the capsule as it 

paten t, deciduous, subulato - lanceolate, green, ciliated 
leaves. Corolla of eightldeciduous petals, of a reddish-brown 
colour, linear, the lower half erect, forming a tube, the rest 
strongly reflected, sometimes revolute, acuminated. Sta- 
mens five, hypogynous. Filaments as long as the tube of 
the petals, subulate, white, erect. Anthers yellow, oblongo- 
ovate. Pistil : Germen oval, obtuse, densely hairy. Style 
as long as the filaments of the stamens. Stigma capitate, 

Obligingly forwarded from the Royal Gardens of Kew, 
where it was introduced some years ago by Allan Cunning- 
ham, Esq., who has most kindly communicated to me his 
notes, made on the place of growth in the year 1826, when 
he met with it in dark, humid woods by the rivers in New 
Zealand, producing flowers in September, and ripe fruit 
about the close of the year. It was uniformly found grow- 
ing (parasitically) on tufts of Asteli^e (A. Banksii), and 
upon the trunks and principal branches of the larger timber- 
trees, particularly upon the fC Kackatea," or Dacrydium 
taxifolium of Lambert. 

It flowers in the greenhouse of the Royal Gardens at 
Kew, in March. 

Fig. 1. Bud. 2. Flower. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil :— -magnified. 

'%* by S. Curtis CLtxenu-,-, ./ / , texAmUSO. 

( 3162 ) 

Lelcopogon lanceolatus. Lanceolate 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Epacride^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. bibracteatus. Corolla infundibuliformis, limbo pa- 
tenti longitudinaliter barbato. Filamenta inclusa. Ova- 
rium 3 — 5-loculare. Drupa baccata v. exsucca, nunc 

Prutices scepe humiles. Folia sparsa quandoque inter- 
rupto-conferta. Plores spicati, axillares vel terminates. 
Discus hypogynus cyathiformis sublobatus raro nullus. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Leucopogon * lanceolatus ; spicis nutantibus aggregatis, 

ovariis 2-locularibus, drupis ovalibus, foliis lanceolatis 

planis 3-nervibus, ramulis glabris. 
Leucopogon lanceolatus. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. v. 1. 

p. 541. (excl. Syn. Andr. and Vent.) Roem. et Sch. 

Syst. Veget. v. 4. p. 474. (excl. most of the Syn.) 

Cunningham in Field's N. S. Wales, p. 341. Sw. Br. 

FL Gard. t. 47. 
»typhelia lanceolata. " Sm. Nov. Holl. 49. (excl. Syn.") 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 657. 

Descr. An erect, much branched, large shrub, with 
graceful, more or less curved branches, clothed with red- 
dish-brown bark, entirely glabrous. Leaves alternate, most 


*•"*«?, white, and vruyuv, a beard; from the white, hearded limb of the 

numerous upon the younger branches, where they are 
sometimes fascicled at the extremity, lanceolate, rigid, 
glaucous -green, slightly grooved, three -nerved. Spikes 
an inch or an inch and a half long, in clusters at the ex- 
tremity of the branches, slender, drooping, bearing about 
eight to ten flowers. Calyx of five unequal, green, imbri- 
cated leaves, and two or three scales or bractece at the base. 
Corolla white, infundibuliform. The tube is a little swollen, 
the limb patent, at length renexed, clothed above with 
white hairs. Filaments extremely short. Anthers oblong, 
one-celled, with a small, callous point or crest at the upper 
extremity. Pistil : Germ en ovate, surrounded at the base 
by a short, five-lobed annulus : Style thick : Stigma sub- 

Introduced many years ago into the English Gardens, 
where it makes a graceful greenhouse shrub. It has been 
obligingly communicated by Mr. Aiton from Kew Gardens, 
along with the following species, L. Gnidium, and was 
accompanied by some excellent remarks from Mr. Allan 
Cunningham with the view of showing that the two plants 
are really distinct, although they have been united by the 
generality of Botanists. 

Mr. Cunningham speaks of L. lanceolatus as a frequent 
plant in the colony, and constituting a large shrub in the 
Blue Mountains. With us it bears its slender and drooping 
spikes of white flowers in March. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil and hypoffynous Gland -.—mag- 
nified. 3V SJ 

it in 

( 3163 ) 

Hymenanthera dentata. Tooth-leaved 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Violarieje. Trib. — Alsodine,e. Br. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis sepala 5 imbricata. Petala 5 alterna, ovato- 
acuminata, demum reflexa, calyce longiora,, aestivatione ob- 
liqua imbricativa. (Br.) Stamina structura ad Violam 
accedentia, sed basi coalita in discum monadelphum ; 
sc[uamis totidem iis dorso oppositis. Stylus brevissimus. 
Stigmata 2 acuta. Capsula subbaccata (in sicco rugosa 
aut venoso -reticulata) tenuis ovata (unilocularis mono- 
sperma ?) 2-locularis, loculis 1-spermis, (sec. Br.) calyce 
petalis staminibusque induviata. Semina capsular conformia 
illamque omnino replentia., ad ejus apicem e placenta ner- 
viformi (ut in Viola) pendula. — Seminis structura inter 
Violaceas et Polygaleas, ex Br., media. 

Frutices ramosi. Folia nunc solitaria et alterna, nunc 
subfasciculata coriacea. Flores axillares parvi. Pedunculi 
solitarii (vel aggregati) uniflori, basi bibracteati. De Cand. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Hymenanthera * dentata; foliis oblongis denticulatis. Br. 
Hymenanthera dentata. Br. in De Cand. Prod. v. I. p. 
315. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 805. 

Descr. An erect, rigid Shrub, with pale, ash-coloured, 
roughish bark, and many erecto-patent, spinescent branches 


of k ^ rom "/*"'» a membrane, and uibif*, the anther, in allusion to the union 
01 we Anthers by a membrane. 

which themselves are armed with numerous subulate 
spines, about an inch long, sometimes naked, sometimes 
bearing a few leaves, at other times only the rudiments of 
leaves. The leaves are from half an inch to an inch long, 
alternate or fasciculated, generally remote, oblongo-lanceo- 
late, nearly sessile, toothed, yellow-green, somewhat rigid. 
Flowers from the axils of the leaves, or from the older wood 
of the branches when the leaves have fallen away, solitary, 
or in clusters of two to four. Pedicels short, decurved, with 
two small bracteas at or near the base. Calyx of five broadly- 
ovate, imbricated, somewhat unequal leaves, combined at 
the base. Petals five, linear-lanceolate, rather unequal in 
size, twisted and imbricated in the acuminated bud, at 
length reflex ed and revolute, not unlike those of a Pitto- 
sporum, yellow. Anthers five, combined into an urceolate, 
swollen, membranaceous, orange-coloured tube, free only 
at the acuminated extremity, where each of the linear seg- 
ments has its sides involute, its extremity toothed. Cells 
of the anthers double, oblong, yellowish. At the back of 
each anther is an erect,, cuneate, yellowish scale. Pistil 
very small. Germen ovate, tapering into a short style, 
with a bifid, acute stigma. 

Few persons, on first looking at this thorny, rigid, inele- 
gant shrub, would suspect it to be allied to the same tribe 
with those universal favourites, the Violets : but an exami- 
nation of the flowers will show that Mr. Brown has done 
rightly in referring this his own Genus to that, or near to 
that, family, between it and the Polygale^e as he thinks. The 
anthers, more or less combined in all the Violets, are here 
still more remarkably so, to that degree that they form an 
urceolate and inflated membrane, not unlike the covering 
to the fruit of a Carex. This highly curious plant has been 
introduced to the Royal Garden of Kew by the indefatigable 
Mr. Allan Cunningham, and a fine flowering specimen was 
obligingly sent to me by Mr. Aiton, in March, 1832. " I* 
grows/' Mr. Cunningham observes, " in shaded situations 
in the Ikawarra district on the sea-coast to the Southward 
of Port Jackson and elsewhere in the colony, where, how- 
ever, it is a rare plant. Sir Joseph Banks appears to have 
tound it near Port Jackson *' 

Fig. 1. A Flower and Bud. 2. Petal. 3. Stamens and Scales. 4. Single 
scale. 5. Pistil. 6. Staminal Tube laid open i magnified. 


( 3164 ) 

Habenaria cordata. Heart-leaved 


Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla ringens. Labellum basi subtus calcaratum. 
Glandules pollinis nudae distinctae (loculis pedicellorum ad- 
natis vel solutis distinctis). Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Habenaria cordata; caule diphyllo, foliis cordatis subcar- 
nosis nitidis quinquenerviis (siccitate reticularis), peta- 
lis conniventibus, labello trilobo recurvo, cornu brevis- 
simo, antheris duabus abortivis clavatis. 

Habenaria cordata. Br. — Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 
691. Hook, in Bot. Misc. v. I. p. 270. t. 55. 

Orchis cordata. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 4. p 28. 

Satyiuum diphyllum. " Link, in Schrad. Diar. Bot. 1799, 
p. 323." 

Descr. Root consisting of a few stout, simple fibres, and, 
apparently, constantly, one solitary bulb. Stem a span or 
more high, erect, rounded, glabrous, bearing two remote, 
cordate, somewhat succulent, recurved, five-nerved, glossy 
haves, of which the upper one is the smallest and narrow- 
est, both having sheathing bases. Spike of many somewhat 
compact, rather small, greenish jlowers, each with a bractea 
about its own length. Petals nearly equal in length, lan- 
ceolate, connivent, the three outer ones green, occupying 
we upp er side of the flower, leaving the labellum exposed, 
and combined in their lower half. Two inner petals yellow- 

green, a little longer than the outer. Labellum longer than 
Die petals, recurved, yellow-green, the sides incurred, three- 
lobed, the lobei o\ato lanceolate j at the base having a 
sli.nt, rlefiexed horn. Column extremely short, scarce!) 
any. Anthen broadly oval, with two membranous celk 
their bases spreading, through which the red -brown rlandi 
of the clavate, granular pouett-iru&ses arc; protruded. On 
each ride of the perfect anthen is a white, tleshy, clavate, 

abortive one, ;is long as the anther itself. 

Pen Ipfi'ifs ot'U\iir.N\RiA are, perhaps, less known than 

the present : it baring been, so tar as I am aware, onrj de- 
scribed, and as a native of Portugal, by Professor Link ; till 
the Rei Mr. Lows, who (aund it on walls at " Arco dfl 
Santo (Jorge," and on roeksat"Entranza/'on the Southern 
shores of the island of Madeira, enabled me togirea figure 
of it in tin- Botanical Miscellany. But that figure, like toe 

man) others i\y>nr from dried specimens, is inaccurate in 
ral particulars: and in none more so than in the reticu- 
lation of the leaves (which only appears after the ipeci- 
men is dried.) and in the shape of the labellnm. These 
fi 1 have now the pleasure of being able to correct from 
Uvini plants, kindly sent by Mr. Lowe to the Botanic 
den of (J la-. These flowered feebly in 1831, and 

again in March, 1S.'* 1 2, when onr drawing was made. The 
Rowers are highly fragrant, especially in the evening. 

The plants have been hitherto kept in a pot of peat and 
l.»ain in an air\ part of the greenhouse. 

£ I. Flowtr and Bractea. 2. Back view of the Anther, with the «e- 
BMpMjlai abortive Anthers. 3. Front view of the same. 4. Labdlutn, 
front view ■. — magnified. 

-ft** by S CurUs Gtausurood Aw •/«£- U831- 

( 3165 ) 

Clitoria? arborescens. Woody 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. basi bracteis 2 majusculis instructus, 5 -fid us. Cor. 
vexillum amplum. Stam. diadelpha, cum petalis non imo 
calyci sed supra basin inserta. Stylus apice subdilatatus. 
Legumen lineare compressum rectum bivalve styli basi acu- 
minatum 1-loculare, polyspermum. Semina isthmis cellu- 
losis saepe intercepta. — Herbs scandentes. Folia pinnata 
cum impart scepius \-juga, rarius 2 — 3-juga, foliolis sapius 
stipellatis. Plores axillares, pedicellati, ampli albi, ccerulei 
aut purpurei, sazpe resupinati. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Clitoria ? arborescens ; caule scandente liguoso, foliolis 3 
amplis ellipticis brevi-acuminatis subtus elevatim ve- 
nosis junioribus ferrugineo-pubescentibus, pedunculis 
niultifloris, floribus maximis, calycibus tubulosis, vex- 
illo sericeo, pistillo pubesceuti-tomentoso. 

Clitoria arborescens. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. p. 302. 
Dc Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 235. 

Descr. Stem apparently climbing to a great height, 
and very woody, the young shoots only soft and herba- 
ceous, rounded, glabrous. Leaves large, on long, rounded 
Petioles, which have two persistent stipules at their base, 
teniate : leaflets elliptical, or somewhat obovate, shortly 
Ruminate, subcoriaceous, nearly glabrous, the young ones 
°% clothed with soft, ferruginous down, many nerved, 
the nerves oblique, parallel, prominent beneath, and con- 

v °l. vi. h 

nected with transverse veins : the lateral ones on very short, 
the intermediate ones on long petiolules, each with sub- 
ulate stipellce at their base. Peduncle axillary, two to three 
inches long. Pedicels very short, bracteated. Flowers 
large, purple and white, resupinate. Calyx three-fourths 
of an inch long, tubular, five-toothed, tinged with red, 
having two lanceolate bracteas at the base : teeth subulate, 
the lower one the longest. Vexillum ample, its back cover- 
ed with beautiful, silky, down. Alee or carina oblong; the 
latter acute. Stamens ten, nine united and one free : An- 
thers linear. Germen linear, hairy as well as the style: 
Stigma dilated or almost capitate. 

This very handsome species of Clitoria(?) was intro- 
duced to Mr. Vere's Garden from Trinidad in the year 
1804; and I possess excellent specimens from the same 
island, sent to me by Mr. Lockhart. It is likewise culti- 
vated as an ornamental plant in St. Vincent ; and the beau- 
tiful drawing here given of the flowering specimen was 
made by Mr. John Curtis in 1822, during the time that 
Dr. Sims conducted the Magazine. The larger leaf and 
the dissections I have represented from dried specimens, 
not having had the opportunity of seeing the recent plant 
myself. It necessarily requires the heat of a stove, and 
much room, to enable it to arrive at perfection. 

Fig.l. Vexillum. 2. Alse. 3. Carina. 4. Stamens and Pistil ; scarcely 


( 3166 ) 


Sea-side Grape. Leather-coat Tree. 
Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Polygone^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium 5-partitum corollatum. Nux monosperma 
perianthio baccato tecta. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Coccoloba* pubescens ; foliis orbiculato-cordatis maximis 
subsessilibus infra pubescentibus, racemis fructiferis 
erectis (?). 

Coccoloba pubescens. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 523. Willd. Sp. 
PL v. 2. p. 457. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 2. p. 421. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 252. 

Coccoloba grandifolia ; foliis subrotundis, integerrimis, ru- 
gosis. Jacq. Amer. 113. 

Scortia, arbor Americana amplissimis foliis aversa parte 
nervis extentibus hirsutie ferruginea refertis. Leather- 
coat Tree Barbadensibus nostris. Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 
222. fig. 8. pessime. 

Descr. According to Jacquin, this becomes an ineligant, 
upright Tree, between sixty and eighty feet in height, 
dividing above into not more than two or three branches. 
Leaves very large, some of which attain to two feet in dia- 
meter, orbicular with a cordate base, entire, dark green and 
glossy above, covered with more or less of a short, fer- 
ruginous down beneath, where the nerves are of a lighter 
colour, and very prominent. The whole leaf strongly reti- 
culated. There is scarcely any petiole, but at the base of 
the disk, which is formed by the confluence of the nerves, 


* MUMS, seed, and Xofi 0f , a lobe : from the lobed seed, not fruit, as stated in 
No. 3130. mend.) 

are the sheathing stipules inveloping a bud (a), which terminate! a 

abort bran'/ I 1. BranchleU at first green, and looking like petioles to 

■ aves. Branches formed from a succession of these Dam 

indrical, scarred alternately from the fallen leaves, and beany 
a hud (J>) immediately over each scar. Raceme terminal, ( imperfectly 

■n the tpecimen). Pedicels tingle, longer than th- ' 

fruit, with e minute icale and iheath at then base. Flowers (imaer- 
fretly rrjHtnde,/ , /' rn/A small, of live, flesh} segments, united ml 

•hir.u of their length, investing tin- germen, -pherical. 
Stamen* right (unperjhth/ dioetoped), originating from a white roem- 
mmm, vmen ooate the inner surface of the perianth, and l>< comes free 
just iMiirath its diuMons. Germen more than half-inferior, (according 
to common notions, but strictly speaking superior,) ovate, subtrigonom. 
Styles three, exaerted Stigmaa dilated, flat, truncal I. Theim- 

maturc and mmvtiliied berry, consists of the fleahj perianth investing a 
imt composed intrrnally of cullular suhstanco with tracesof three u 
mot dissepiments. The ovule is in the middle of its substance, towards 
the upper part, attached to a long, straight, umbilical chord, and having 

ittle oblique at the summit. 
Thi.trie b a native of the West Imlies, and is said bv Jacqiin tobe 
very common in the mountain forests of Martinique. The wood is hard, 

i. and almost incorruptible. When used for posts, the 
part beneath the ground as hard ns stone. The fruit is said to 

he eatable. It bad not before in England, though introduced, 


sd the dr.i and its description from tin 

bo informs me that he made me* 
from an old plant in the Botai n. This produced a single raceme, 

for the first time, in the beginning of Februar} . 1982; but owing to the bad 
condition of the hothouse, which seldom allow s of its retaining a tempera- 
degrees above 60°, none of the flowers appear to 
I ufficient for him to 

tain tome of t; , u ( | u . fanta and to 

enable him to correct an error in our account of the fructification of C. *r»- 
frra (Tab. 3130). In the description at, the real 

nutbaa been overlooked. This i | ktxkk. to he of the 

■Amm%tliiijr of paper, and to become intimately united with the flesh? 

Crt of the berry, formed of the ripened perianth. In our plate, the *** 
s been figured and described as the nut. 
of the fruit of this Genus m i adily seen in another species, 

C. pmmHeta. where the nut is hard and .nd we have added to oaf 

P»w»t pUie three sections from an unripe bcrrv, grown in the Cam- 

Rf. I. Flower. «. thrown. 3. Three of the Stamen* fimprrferl) *' 

*•**•**•»■• Mmbnui* which lines, the Perianth. 4. Thr aarb* Peria-m 

««J«y«^y, aawing the youn* Nut within, (e) where the Su ae* «• 

3u* *L* €rt * c »* Seetioa «*f the younjr Nut. »howinf the unimprefaaiaS 

*™^ «. Traasrene Section of the unripe Bern. .All mmfni/ed. 

«^awel«|*. r>« 7 Vertical Seetkm of the nn'ripe Perianth, »ho«i«* * 
SMSTiy rt atai. Uny Nat, at (d) are the remain*, of the Stamen*. * * **** 
™T.* **f Ntt »- *' lh •« «*ht lobed Seed in the Utter part. There art 
Jjjwjf njlava in the Nut correspond in* to the Channels <m the Surf** * 
r* ! ™ •• A «*w»wraa Sect,,,,, y f ln€ Seed, detached from Ha fan**"* 
ffexrftmemlmm),^ All «•**»»>** 




( 3167 ) 
Primula Sibirica. Siberian Primrose. 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Primulace*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores subumbellati involucrati. Calyx tubulosus quin- 
quefidus seu quinquedentatus persistens. Corolla tubulosa, 
rauce vel nuda vel glandulosa, limbo 5-lobo. Capsula 
apice decem-dentata polysperma. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Primula Sibirica ; glabra, nuda, foliis ovali-subrotundis 

petiolatis integerrimis vel obtuse crenatis, umbella 

pauciflora laxa nutante, involucri sub tetraphylli foli- 

olis ovatis acutis basi calcaratis. 
Primula Sibirica. Jacq. Misc. Austr. v. \.p. 161. Willd. 

Sp. Pl.v. 1. p. 806. Lehman, Prim. p. 60. t. 7. Roem. 

et Schult. Syst. Veget. v. 4. p. 143. Spreng. Syst. 

Veget. v.l.p. 576. Ledeb. Fl. Alt. v. I. p. 213. 
Primula rotundifolia. Pall. It. v. 3. p. 223. 
Primula intermedia. Ledeb. Decad. PL in Mem. de VAcad. 

des Sc. de St. Petersb. v. 5. p. 519. 
Primula foliis ovatis glabris integerrimis, umbellis pauci- 

floris, nutantibus. Gmel. FL Sib. p. S3, t. 46./. 1. 

Descr. R 00 t perennial, fibrous. Leaves radical, upon 
Petioles about their own length, oval or roundish-oval, 
rarel y subcordate, quite glabrous, and free from mealy 
powder, as is the whole plant, the sides often involute, the 
juargins entire, or bluntly and obscurely crenate. Scape 
nve to seven or eight inches tall, pale green. Umbel of 
J Ve to six nodding flowers, with an erect, four-leaved in- 
volucre, whose leaflets are ovate acute, with a remarkably 


bitted, obtaMj epur at the bene. PedieeU en inch ami a 
halt to two bcbet long. Gtn^xeubcbrrnte, withe constric- 
tion near the heae, most erraenl in tin- voting cnryi t i % « - 
toothed, teeth erect, obtuse: the whole ii yellow-grceo, 

*nriukled with excessive!) minute purple dots, Tube o( 
the Cmniiu slender , cylinarical, yellow, about half as long 

again as tin- calyx ; ///lie of live broad, spreading. obcor- 
• Lit. xmiIi ;i deep notch) purplish rase coloured segnn lit* 

tin* faux .1. \ai. .1. deep orange yellow, ten-rayed. Stamen 
pieced -i little within the throat : antlnrs yellow, almost 

caching to the mouth of the tube. Germ n oi 
tjjfk ebon t halt* as long as the tube of the coroll 

C m tu le, sccnrdiug t«» la m inn i: is longer than the t;d\v 

The l*rirm universal favorite* in our gard< 

iiuuiv have Imn long Cultivated anil figured. Tin present 
i- perhtpi among those hast known in collection* 
assuredly among the most beautiful. Our GlftSgOW Garden 
ili. pnssi-.^ion ot'it to the Cambridge llotauic Garden. 
wh enoi it sent hv Mr. Hu.cs to Mr. Murray. It is a 
entire efthe Northern regions of Siberia, ami of the Altaic 
Mountains, whence we have specimens from Dr. Kiscata; 
but hkr other plants from countriea where the winters are 
h severer than our own, this requirei the prod i tion of 
a fin einteTj which servei the same purpose m the 

covering of snow in its native regions. Thus treated, H 
lOWen in April 

Flf. I. Involucre. 2. fltwor, It. I'i>til : mafnijted. 


r -i t ttrtu! r-farnirooci JTaixvcJuly USX 

( 3168 ) 




Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Epacrideje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx coloratus, multibracteatus : bracteis coloratis. Co- 
rolla tubulosa ; limbo imberbi. Stamina epipetala : An- 
tkeris supra medium peltatis. Squamulce hypogyna? 5. 
Capsula placentis columnar centrali adnatis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Epacris * onosmajlora ; foliis elliptico-lanceolatis acumi- 
natis cucullato-concaviusculis quinquenerviis mucro- 
natis petiolatis margine ciliatis, ramulis incanis, corol- 
lis cylindraceo-ventricosis tubo calycem acutissimum 
superante. Cunn. 

Epacris onosmseflora. Cunningham in Field's N. S. Wales, 
p. 340. 

Descr. A rigid shrub, with numerous, erect, rather 
wavy branches, the ramuli downy. Leaves from half to 
three-fourths of an inch long, patent or somewhat squar- 
r ose, dark green, sessile, ovate, acuminate, coriaceous, rigid, 
concave at the base, obscurely five-nerved, entire, the point 
extremely sharp, the margins, especially below, ciliated. 
Flowers rather large, solitary, nearly sessile in the axils of 
all the upper and rather crowded leaves, thus appearing to 
f orm a bracteated or leafy spike. Calyx deeply five-partite, 


, From w above, and «w, a summit: from the plant growing in elevated 
slt uations. 

tin- MgBMltl lanceolate, subulate, membranaceous, white, 

>ed, about half us 1 « m l; as the tube of tin 
rolla, the Imm surrounded by MVenU small, imbricated, 
peentah •calei Corolla white: fiiftn onlowcn 

ff trJCOtl ly as loil£ as the leaves ; limb lis. rl. II. 

ovat< ;m nil-, patent, <>i relieved. Stamens inserted just 
within the mouth of tin: tube. Filament* very short, 
< ly any; Anther linear-ohlom;, one-celled, bright 
purple ami papillose Pollen pale \ellow ; it> grains in 
thrc< ' nen globose, surrounded by live, yellow, glands 
Stylr thickened about as long as tin* tube of the COToUftj 
wliili . pi -line id with a central line. Stigma capit 

Discovered by Allan Opw mdw um, Em in <>ct«. 
IS'?*.', in prats bogl ll Ulackheath, on the Him- Ifoill 

■ ■I New BoUaodj ;•« n almftkM of 3,400 feet above the 
l. \. I of Am mi, and bi him introduced t<» the Royal (iar- 
deos at K. \> j whence our specimen was mo>i obligingly 
communicated by W. T. Arrow, Btq 

It was in lower and in -rcat beauty in the greenhouse in 
tlie month of March l s »i 

Hf- I. LW. 9. Flowrr. 3. & 3. Anther in diffcreut point* of rkw. 
"* of Polk*. ft. PbiU :— magnified. 

fi*b M- S 

VSOm** (h,^ XHmJimam 

( 3169 ) 

Trop^eolum tricolorum. Three-colored 
Indian Cress. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Tropeolej3. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus, lobo superiore calcarato. Petala 5 in- 
aequalia, 3 inferiora minora aut evanida. Stam. 8 ab 
ipsa basi libera. Carpella S suberosa reniformia indehis- 
centia hinc sulcata rotundata. Semina magna,, exalbumi- 
nosa, loculum suum implentia et hujus cavitati conformia. 
Embryo magnus : cotyledonibus 2 rectis, crassis, junioribus 
distiuctis, dein arete conferruminatis et etiam cum spermo- 
dermate adhaerentibus, ima basi subdistinctis, radicula intra 
cotyledonum processus latente, tubercula 4 mox radicellas 
proferentia gerente. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Trop^olum* tricolorum; scandens gracillimum, foliis pel- 
tatis profunde 6-lobis, lobis oblongo-obovatis obtusis 
integerrimis, calyce obovato in calcar longum atten- 
uate, petalis obovatis obtusis unguiculatis calycem 
panlulum excedentibus. 

Trop^olum tricolorum. Sw. Brit. FL Gard. t. 270. 

Descr. Root tuberous. Stem filiform, much branched ; 
branches entangled, purple, shining. Leaves alternate, 
petioled, palmato-digitate, round, (eight lines across) six- 


From Tfuaraw, a warlike trophy, " from the shield-like leaves and the 
Dr »uant flowers, shaped like golden helmets, pierced through and through, 
and Gained with blood, which might very well justify such an allusion." Sm. 

lobed, soft, slightly villous, especially below, where they 
are paler, veined, lobes unequal, obovato-elliptical, gene- 
rally only one of them is mucronate : petiole an inch long, 
filiform, resembling the branches. Peduncles about two 
inches in length, solitary, opposite to the leaves, pendent, 
capillary, slightly thickened upwards. Calyx of a bright 
Vermillion colour, pentagonal, five-cleft, the segments blunt, 
mucronulate, on the outside tipped, as well as the spur 
with purple, on the inside tipped with green, the whole 
inner surface glandular; spur erect, about one-third of the 
length of the peduncle, awl-shaped, nectariferous. Petals 
five, (three lines long,) yellow, subexserted, inserted below 
the incisions of the calyx, obcordato-spathulate, unguicu- 
late, dilated at the base over a slightly swollen pit. Stamens 
eight, included ; filaments glabrous, colourless, dilated at 
the base, and having on the outside of the insertion of each 
a pit, similar to that at the base of the petals : anthers 
yellow, cernuous. Germen glabrous, three-lobed, lobes 
keeled. Style glabrous, shorter than the stamens, grooved 
on three sides, three-toothed at the top, one of the teeth 
larger than the others and grooved. 

This beautiful species flowered in the greenhouse of the 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, in March, 1832. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower and Peduncle. 2. Flower laid open. 3. Petal. 4. Stamen. 
5. Pistil : — magnified. 


A* hy.s c ur Ks Gl^ enHVod Enm+utst 

( 3170 ) 

Helleborus purpurascens. Purplish 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Ranunculace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx persistens 5-sepalus, sepalis subrotundis obtusis 
magnis sagpe viridibus ; petala 8 — 10 brevissima tubulata 
inferne angustiora nectarifera ; stamina SO — 60. Ovaria 
3—10. Stigmata terminalia orbiculata; capsular coriaceae; 
semina duplici serie disposita elliptica umbilicata. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Helleborus * purpurascens; foliis radicalibus subtus sub- 
pubescentibus palmatisectis, segmentis basi cuneatis 
apice 3 — 5-lobis, caule bifloro, foliis floralibus sub- 
sessilibus, calycis sepalis subrotundatis coloratis. D C. 

Helleborus purpurascens. Waldst. et Kit. PL Rar. Hung. 
v. 2. p. 105. t. 101. De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 47. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 658. 

Descr. The root consists of a woody, tuber-like, trun- 
cated, rough stock, from which are emitted numerous 
simple or branched, descending, brown, fibres. When the 
plant is in flower, the stem is not a span high, terete, some- 
what downy, purplish-green, having at the base many large, 
sheathing, membranaceous, reddish-green scales, which en- 
close the young, or scarcely emerging, leaves. This stem 


* From iXw-, to destroy, and ^of a, food: from the poisonous nature of these 

divides at the top into two branches, or bears two inclined, 
single-flowered peduncles, which have at their base a three 
to five-lobed, sessile, purplish leaf, the lobes lanceolate, 
more or less laciniated, serrated. Flowers drooping, large. 
Calyx of a singularly livid or purplish glaucous-grey colour : 
the sepals or leaves roundish concave, at length much 
spreading. Petals or nectaries about twelve, hypogynous, 
in a single series, spreading, standing close, obovate or 
cuneate, hollow, compressed, the mouth somewhat two- 
lipped, closed, the margins being a little involute. Stamens 
numerous. Filaments white. Anthers oblong, pale yellow. 
Pistils five, erect, upon a conical receptacle. Germen ob- 
long, tapering into a long style. Stigma obtuse. When 
the inflorescence has passed, the root -leaves are in perfec- 
tion, upon a long petiole, longer than the flower-stem, 
digitato-pedate, above smooth, beneath slightly downy, at 
length glabrous, the segments lanceolate, acute, serrated. 

This Hellebore, so remarkable in the colour of its flowers, 
is a native of woods in Hungary, and is described and figur- 
ed in the splendid work above quoted of Waldstein and 
Kitaibel. Our Glasgow Botanic Garden is indebted for 
the possession of it to Mr. Hunneman. It is probably per- 
fectly hardy : but we have kept it in a pot in a cool frame. 
It throws up its flower- stalks in March, and the leaves 
are in perfection in June. 

Fig. 1. Petal (or Nectary). 2. Stamen. 3. Pistils. 4. Stigma: magni- 



Thiby s.curks mmmmtmi 

( 3171 ) 


Class and Order^ 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — EpacridejE. ) 

Generic Character, 

Calyx bibracteatus. Cor. infundibuliformis, limbi laci- 
niis apice barba deflexa. Drupa subbaccata, putamine 5- 
loculari, celluloso ! 

Frutices humiles ramosissimi, ramis s&pius divaricatis. 
Folia sparsa. SpicaB laterales v. axillares, breves. — Flores 
parvi albi. Discus hypogynus cyathiformis sublobatus. 
Drupas parva, depresso-globosa, substantia parca. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Acrotriche * ovalifolia ; foliis ovatis ovalibusque obtusis 
muticis planis margine laevibus, spicis axillaribus, dru- 
pis subcellulosis. Br. 

Acrotriche ovalifolia. Br. Prodr. v. I. p. 548. 

Styphelia ovalifolia. Spr. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 656. Roem. 
et Sch. Syst. Veget. v. 4. p. 485. 

Descr. A low, tortuous, depressed shrub, scarcely more 
than six inches high, with numerous branches, which are 
copiously leafy. Leaves scattered, broadly ovate or oval, 
sessile or nearly so, coriaceous, obtuse, entire ; dark green 
°n the upper side, paler and distinctly veiny beneath, the 
veins dark-coloured and almost resembling parallel lines. 


* a*fo(, a point, and fy%, a hair: from the tufts of hair at the extremity of 
the segments of the corolla. 

Flowers minute, greenish-yellow, in dense, axillary, short 
spikes or clusters, most abundant on the underside of the 
branches. Calyx of five unequal, imbricated leaves or 
scales, scarcely different from the two or three bracteae at 
the base, except in being larger, pale green. Corolla rather 
hypocraterifonn than infundibuliform, the tube inflated, 
contracted at the mouth, and there closed with hairs; the 
limb of five linear-oblong horizontally spreading segments : 
near the extremity is a transverse tuft of rather thick hairs 
not quite erect, but a little inclined inwards. Stamens in- 
serted into the mouth of the corolla, bent back, so that the 
oblong, orange- coloured anthers are lodged in the sinuses 
of the limb of the corolla. Pistil : Germen ovate, surround- 
ed in its lower half by the large cup-shaped, lobed nectary. 
Style short, thick, dark green. Stigma obtuse. 

Introduced to the Royal Kew Gardens, where it flowers 
in the month of March, by Mr. Allan Cunningham, and 
sent to us by Mr. Aiton. The Edinburgh Garden is in- 
debted to that source for the possession of the plant, where 
we saw it blossoming in 1831. As an ornamental green- 
house plant, it cannot boast of much beauty, until the 
flowers are examined with a microscope, when the delicate 
structure of the corolla, the singular tuft of hairs at the ex- 
tremity of the segment of the corolla, and the rich orange- 
coloured anthers, lying in the sinuses of those segments, 
become apparent. 

Mr. Brown discovered the plant on the Southern shores 
of New Holland, and Mr. Cunningham found it cc on the 
exposed summits of sandy ridges connected with f Bald 
Head; King George's Sound," where he observed it, bear- 
ing its white, drupaceous fruit, in January, 1822. 

Fig. I. Flower. 2. Extremity of the Segment of a Petal, with its Tuft of 
airs. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil and Nectary. 5. Back of a Leaf: magnified. 

( 3172 ) 

Pterostylis Banksii. Large-leaved 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Orchtdeje. ) 
Generic Character. 

Perianthium ringens tetraphyllum, foliolo inferioro bi- 
fido (e duobus infra cohasrentibus conflato). Labellum 
unguiculatum, subinclusurn. Lamina basi appendiculata 
v. gibbosa; ungue infra labio inferiore connato. Columna 
basi galea connata, apice alata. Anther a terminalis, per- 
sistens, loculis approximatis. Massce Pollinis in singulo 
loculo binae, compressae, pulvereae. Stigma medio columna? 

Herbae terrestres, glabrae. Bulbi nudi, indivisi, caudicem 
descendentem radiciformem terminantes. Folia nunc ra~ 
dicalia stellata, nervosa, membranacea, scapo bracteato 
aphyllo; nunc caulina alterna radicalibus nullis. Flores 
solitarii rariusve racemosi, ochroleuci, scepius majusculi. 

Div. II. Appendix apice diviso scspius penicellato. Folia 
radicalia in planta Jlorida nulla. C&uUsfoliosus. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pterostylis Banksii; canle folioso unifloro, foliis lato-lau- 
ceolatis inferne carinatis basi vaginantibus, label l<> 
oblongo ovato-subuncinato obtusiusculo eolumnam 
aKjuante, appendice pennicellato. Cunn. in litt. 

Pterostylis Banksii. Brown, in Herb. Banks. 

Pterostylis macrophylla. Cunningham, MSS. 

. Not having had the opportunity of seeing a living spe- 
cimen of this extremely rare plant, I am unable to offer a 
description of it, and which, at best, would have given a 
very inadequate idea of the plant, in comparison with the 
accompanying figure, which is from the inimitable pencil 
of Francis Bauer, Esq. The history of the plant I shall 


vol. vi. i 

give in the words of Mr. Allan Cunningham, in the letter 
above quoted, and dated April, 1832. " When I was in 
New Zealand in 1826, I found on the bank of a stream 
which is received into the Bay of Islands, a Pterostylis, 
remarkable no less for the large size of its cauline leaves, 
than for its height, which exceeded a foot. On my return 
to Sidney, I carried with me some roots of this unpublished 
plant, which I transmitted to Kew, by an opportunity which 
then offered. There it had been long supposed to be dead, 
when, to the surprise of all of us, it has thrown up a perfect 
flower-stem, which I carried to Mr. Bauer, who has not 
only made a beautiful drawing of it, but has most kindly 
permitted me to send it to you to publish in the Botanical 

At this time Mr. Bauer had not examined the grains of 
Pollen; but when he had done so, and found them to be 
very different from those of Orchideous plants, he most 
liberally communicated his exquisite drawing of them 
through Mr. Cunningham ; accompanying it with the fol- 
lowing note: " I have now on the 2d of May, examined the 
Pollen Grains with Ploessel's grand microscope, and, to 
my great surprise, found a total deviation from those of all 
the hundreds of specimens of Orchideous plants I have yet 
investigated. These grains, in their ordinary form, consist 
of three or four-celled corpuscules, or as Botanists express 
it, ' e sphaemlis quaternis conflatis* (see Brown, Prodr. p. 
310.). I therefore send you herewith, a sketch of some 
grains of your plant, which are represented as seen under 
water, except that at A, which is in a dry state, when it ap- 
pears collapsed. This I consider an important circumstance, 
and could not be detected by Botanists possessed only of 
glasses of moderate power." 

These grains of Pollen as given here are magnified 570 times lineally, 
or 324,900 times superficially ! 

Mr. Cunningham had named the species P. macrophylla : but on 
showing the drawing to Mr. Brown, that learned Botanist recognized it 
as the same with a specimen found by Sir Joseph Banks in New 
Zealand, at the time he accompanied Captain Cook round the world in 
the Endeavour, and of which the plant, or the drawing, still exists in the 
tfanksian Museum. Mr. Cunningham then readily consented to the 
wishes of Mr. Brown, that it should bear the name of its first dis- 

wiS^hl'x u ,, 0Wer of Pter °stylis ; nat. size. 2. Front view of the Fructification 
tnl n?r? e ft lnm '.J? at 8lze - 3 - A side ™w of the same ; nat. size. 4. A front view of 
diaJWr k % uct,ficatl0n > w ith the Ate forcibly expanded ; magnified two times in 
thV^Z'J' ?™? tv,e V f theLabel,um magnified two diameters. 6. Back view of 
llasn/an?? 'T d,a, » eter5 ' ?' Front view of the Anther, the Stigmatic Gland, 
1 . "„" £°? ,0 . n °f. thc Columna, magnified six diameters. 8. A side view of the 
ZZIU7&A- S ' X d,an ! e « ers - 9 - Transverse Section of a portion of the Ovarium, 
magmjted tour diameters, (F. Badek). 10. Grains of Pollen as described above. 

( 3173 ) 

Maxillaria placanthera. Flat-anthered 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium patens, resupinatum. Labellum cum pro- 
cessu unguiformi columnae articulatum, trilobum. Foliola 
lateralia exteriora basibus cum processu columnae connata. 
Polljnia 4, basibus connata, glandulosa (vel 2, pedicellata, 
pedicello basi glanduloso). — Herbae parasitica, bulbosa, 
America meridionalis. Racemi v. scapi uniflori), radicales. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Maxillaria placanthera ; bulbo ovato folioso, foliis lato- 
lanceolatis plicatis, scapo unifloro vaginato brevi, 
perianthii laciniis oblongis obtusis aequalibus macu- 
latis lateralibus basi panlulum productis, labello an- 
gusto erecto trilobo, lobo medio transversim oblongo 
integerrimo, antherae apice piano. 

Descr. Parasitic. Bulb ovate, compressed, bearing 
>our to five oblongo-lanceolate, wavy, striated leaves at the 
extremity ; and, whilst young, sheathed and entirely con- 
cealed by many large, membranous, ovate, and acuminated 
scales, which wither before the bulb reaches its maturity. 
wapes arising from among these sheaths, and at the base 
°* the bulbs, single-flowered, each bearing two or three 
obloiigo-lanceolate, membranaceous scales. Flowers large. 
Petals five, oblong, nearly uniform, obtuse, yellow-green, 
externally slightly spotted* internally more copiously mark- 
ea with brown spots placed in lines, especially the two 


inner petals. Lip much contracted at the base, applied 
to tin- column, three lobcd ; two lateral lobes blunt, in 
curved, terminal one the largest, transversely oblong; the 
whole is greenish -white, tpotted and streaked with pur- 
ple Column purplish-white, tapering at tin- DM6. AboTB 
the stigma is a three -toothed projection, the middle tooth 
■leader and longer. Anthvr suborbicular, hidentatc, quite 
Hat on the ton within, having four cells for the reception 
oi the tour orbicular, pale yellow, pollen-masses, attached 
l>\ then ;i gland which covers the central tooth on 

the top of the stign 

Pot this new rod well-marked ipeciei of Maxillaria wc 

Igalo indebted to the rich collet tion id* ftffl \kn«»m» 
Ihuiti-oN, who recei\ed the bulbi from her brother i" 
Hra/il, and who cultivates it with the same degree of suc- 
cces, with which die docs so many other species of the 
Orchideoos famil\ 

Fl*. l Uhellum. 2. Column. 3. Anther. 4. Cnder-ride of the Anther. 
'• Summit of the Column from which the Anther is remored. 6. Pollen- 
M**m« m*g*i/«d. 

fat M- £ O/. 

C 3174 ) 

Acacia cinerascens. Grey Fragrant 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LeguminosjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores polygami. Cat 4 — 5-dentatus. Pet. 4—5, nunc 
libera, nunc in corollam 4 — 5-fidam coalita. Stam. nurnero 
varia 10 — 200. Legumen continuum exsuccurn bivalve. — 
Prutices aut arbores, habitu etfoliatione valde varia. Spinas 
stipulares, sparsce aut nulla. Flores Jlavi, albi aut rarius 
rubri 3 capitati aut spicati, decandri aut polyandri, eleuthe- 
randri aut monadelphi, petalis 4 — 5 liberis coalitisve con- 
stantes.— Sect. I. Phylxodine;e. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Acacia cinerascens; phyllodiis oblongo-lanceolatis falcatis 
trinerviis glaucis acutis inferne attenuatis, spicis axil- 
laribus terminalibusque subfasciculatis breviter pedun- 
culitis, floribus 4-fidis, stylo staminibus duplo longiore. 

Acacia cinerascens. Sieber PI. Ex. Sice. n. 448. Dc 
Cand. Prod. v. 2. p. 454:. 

Descr. A tree, with long, twiggy, decurved, angular, 
glabrous branches, which are of a brown colour but covered 
with a glaucous pruina, compressed upwards. Leaves, or 
rather leaf-stalks (phyllodia) large, scymitar-shaped, acute, 
with a curved mucro while young, much attenuated at the 
base, destitute of gland, three nerved, very glaucous. Pe- 
tiole extremely short, scarcely any. Spikes long, cylin- 
drical, pendent, arising several from nearly the same point 
towards the extremity of the branches. Flowers bright 
yellow, very fragrant, crowded. Calyx short, deep yellow, 


downy, four-toothed. Corolla of one, four-cleft, campanu- 
late petal. Stamens numerous. Style filiform, glabrous, 
much exceeding the stamens in length. 

This beautiful and most desirable Acacia was introduced 
by Mr. Allan Cunningham to the Royal Gardens at Kew, 
whence Mr. Aiton has favoured us with specimens, (which 
were in great perfection in April, 1832,) and Mr. Cunning- 
ham with some notes respecting the distribution of the 
Genus over the Continent of Australia, where it is observed 
that " it inhabits not only the southern coasts, but all parts 
of the interior that have been hitherto explored." " Wher- 
ever I landed/' continues that zealous and intelligent 
Naturalist and Traveller, ce during my four and a half 
years' voyage with Capt. King, an Acacia was sure to 
welcome me on my landing, and the last plant on which 
the eye rested, on those inhospitable steppes, to which Mr. 
Oxley traced the Lachlan River, in 1827, (five hundred 
miles inland from Sidney) was my Acacia stenophylla, a 
curious, slender tree, twenty-feet in height, with leaves 
from twelve to fifteen inches in length." 

Fig. 1 . Flower : magnified. 


tzcrontuiXistr ,., 

( 3175 ) 



Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — P^ONiACEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5 sepalus foliaceus inaequalis. Pet. 5 — 10 subor- 
biculata. Stam. numerosa. Discus carnosus ovaria cin- 
gens. Carpella 2 — 5, grossa, stigmatibus bilamellatis crassis 
instructa, in folliculos capsulares conversa. Semina sub- 
globosa nitida. — Rad ices fascicula t&. Folia caulina biter- 
natim secta. Flores ampli albi aut purpurascentes. D C. 

Specific Character. 

P^eonia officinalis; herbacea, carpellis tomentosis rectius- 
culis, foliorum segmentis inaequaliter laciniatis glabris, 
laciniis ovato-lanceolatis. D C. 

PiEONu officinalis (vid. t. 1784,). 

Paw. anemoniflora. Tab. nostr. 3175. 

This rich and very deeply-coloured Paeony has been 
obligingly communicated from the garden of the Rev. 
*■ T. Huntley of Kimbolton, who received it from the 
Prince De Salm Dyck. It will be seen, that the stamens 
a re converted into narrow, acuminated and spirally twisted 
Petals, bearing the same relation to the original stock as 
^e Anemone-flowered, or Warratah Camellia does to the 
? r ue Camellia Japonica, and it is scarcely less beautiful in 
lts appearance. 


1 '''•'■ to f-Car&r, CUutmmed. hsex.AutP I 

( 3176 ) 

Menziesia empetrifolia. Crow-berry- 
leaved Menziesia. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Erice^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. profunde 4— 5-fidus. Cor. 4— 5-fida, ventricosa. 
htam. 8 — 10. Capsula 4 — 5-locularis, marginibus valvaruin 
inflexis dissepimenta sistentibus. 

Specific Character and Sj/nom/ms. 

Menziesia * empetriformis ; foliis linearibus serrulatis, pe- 
dunculis aggregatis, floribus campanulatis erectis de- 
candris, calycibus glabrisobtusis basi gibbosis antheris 
filamenta aequantibus. 

Menziesia empetriformis. Smith in Linn. Soc. Trans, v. 
10. p. 380. Pursh, Ft. Americ. Sept. v. I. p. 264. 
ISuttall, Genera, v. I. p. 252. Sprengel, Sj/stema Veget. 
v. 2. p. 202. 

Descr. A small, erect shrub. Leaves (six lines long, 
°ne line broad,) linear, on short, adpressed petioles, crowd- 
ed, suberect towards the extremities of the branches, below 
spreading, when young, glanduloso- ciliated, afterwards 
glabrous, with a few cartilaginous, small teeth, especially 
towards the apices, slightly channelled above, fleshy in 
th eir sides, midrib somewhat depressed, flattened, and 


Named by Sir J. E. Smith in compliment to Archibald Menzies, Esq. 
the COlDpamon of Capt. Vancouver in his Voyage round the world, one of 
m ost excellent of men and the most liberal of Botanists. 

wrinkled. Peduncles (half an inch long,) erect, glandular, 
axillary, solitary, single-flowered, collected near the ex- 
tremities of the branches, bibracteate at the base. Bractece 
ovate, concave, crenate, opposite. Calyx pentaphyllous, 
red without, green within, except on the edges, where it is 
red, glabrous, ciliated with minute, white hairs; leaflets 
blunt, wrinkled and gibbous at the base. Corolla (three 
lines long, two broad,) red dish -purple, campanulate, erect, 
glabrous, about three times as long as the calyx, five-tooth- 
ed, teeth reflected. Stamens ten, of rather unequal length 
alternately, about the length of the germen ; jilaments rose- 
colouredj flat, linear; anthers purple, oblong, narrower at 
the upper end, as long as the filaments, connivent, grooved 
along the sides, but bursting by two terminal pores, attach- 
ed by their backs to the filaments. Pistil exserted; stigma 
of five connivent, triangular teeth ; style slightly curved, 
cylindrical, red ; germen globular, green, glandular, five- 
locular ; ovules very numerous, attached to a large, central 

This very distinct species of Menziesia was raised at the 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from seeds communicated by 
Mr. Drummond, on his return from the last expedition to 
North America under the command of Capt. Sir John 
Franklin, and, I believe, collected by Mr. Drummond on 
the Rocky Mountains. It first flowered in November, 1831, 
but much more abundantly in May, 1832. 

If Sir James Smith had seen the living plant, I think he 
would have given a different specific character. The leaves 
in the recent state are decidedly tumid, both above and 
below, being depressed only along the middle rib on either 
side. (Graham.) 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistil. 4, 5. Leaves. 6. Branch of a 
Plant in Fruit (from the Herbarium). 7. Capsule :— all but fig. 6 magnified. 



Put. by S 

( 3177 ) 
Arbutus pilosa. Hairy Arbutus. 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord.— Erice*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. urceolata, limbo reflexo 5-dentato. 
Anthers dorso bi-aristatas. Bacca 6-locularis, placentis 
laminas polyspermas sistentibus. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Arbutus pilosa; caule frutescente procumbente piloses foliis 
ovato-ellipticis ciliato-serrulatis coriaceis apice muticis 
callosis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris elongatis nu- 
tantibus, antheris quadri-aristatis. Graham. 

Arbutus pilosa. Graham in Ed. New Phil. Journ. ined. 

Descr. Stem branching from the root, prostrate, red, 
twiggy, covered with thickset, harsh, spreading-, rusty- 
coloured hairs. Leaves (nine lines long, four and a half 
broad) scattered, spreading, and being turned to the light, 
are distichous, coriaceous, naked and shining on both sides, 
dark green in front, pale behind, ovato-elliptical, with a 
callous tip, but no mucro, veined, serrulate, each serrature 
being tipped with a hair similar to those on the stem, a very 
lew also occasionally exist on or near the middle-rib behind. 
Petioles short, subappressed, and with rather tumid, axillary 
buds. Peduncles sparingly covered with a few fulvous 
hairs, solitary in the axils of a few of the terminal leaves, 
°f which they are equal to one-half the length. Bractece 
0v ate, scattered upon the peduncle, adpressed, larger and 
'ewer upwards. Calyx five-cleft, persisting, white, gla- 
brous within and without, spreading; segments ovate, acute, 
^bbous at the base. Corolla (three lines long,) ovate, 


white, five-toothed, teeth blunt and revolute. Stamens ten, 
arising from a small green disk; filaments white, cover- 
ed with minute pubescence, swollen immediately above 
their origin, and there somewhat concave on their inner side, 
subulate upwards ; anthers yellow, attached by their backs, 
ovato-oblong, each loculament with two, small, ascending 
awns, in front of which it opens by a pore. Stigma small, 
red, terminal, very obscurely five-lobed. Style erect, cylin- 
drical, included, colourless. Germen ovate, green, rather 
more than half the length of the style, and equal to the 
filaments, slightly covered with obscure pubescence, and 
depressed on the top, where the style is inserted. 

This species is nearly allied to Arbutus mucronata, which 
flowered in the Botanic Garden lately, and is figured in 
Bot. Mag. t. 3093, but is easily distinguished by the cha- 
racter given above. They undoubtedly belong to the same 
Genus, but whether they should be left as species of Arbu- 
tus, or removed to Gualtheria or Arctostaphylos, or erect- 
ed into anew Genus, must be chiefly regulated by the fruit, 
which I have not seen. I doubt whether the calyx, though 
persisting, will become berried/ as in Gualtheria, but the 
anthers are, as in that Genus, provided with four awns. 
The present species is a native of Mexico, and was raised by 
Mr. Neill from seed received from Mr. Don. From Mr. 
Neill we received it at the Botanic Garden. In both esta- 
blishments it flowered during May, and is perfectly hardy. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil -.—magnified. 

WJS. del 

sex 4a£ 

( 3178 ) 

Francoa appendiculata. Appendiculated 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Galacine^e. Don. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4-partilus, persistens. Pet. 4. Stam. 8 fertilia, to- 
tidem sterilia minuta cum iis alternantia. Germen 4-sulca- 
tum. Stigma sessile 4-lobatum. Capsula 4-loba, 4-locu- 
Iaris, polyspermia. Semina angulo interiori loculorum 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Francoa* appendiculata; caulescens, foliis lyratis denticu- 
latis utrinque pubescentibus, lobo terminali maximo 
cordato obtuse angulato, floribus racemoso-spicatis. 

Francoa appendiculata. Cavan. Icon. vi. 77. t. 596. Pers. 
Synops. 1. 445. Sprengel, Syst. Veget. v. 2. 262. 

Francoa sonchifolia ? Ad. Juss. Ann. des Sc. Nat. 3. 192. 
t. 12. 

Descr. Root with several very leafy crowns. Stems short. 
Leaves (eight inches long) petioled, lyrate, with soft, 
slightly glutinous pubescence on both sides, bullate, un- 
dulate, strongly veined, denticulate, decurrent along the 
petiole ; lobes blunt, the terminal one by much the largest, 
(in a vigorous plant six inches long, four and a half inches 
broad) bluntly angled, cordate at the base. Flower-stalk 
(two feet high) terminal, scape-like, having a few leaves at 
the base only, erect, straight, round, slightly tapering, 


Named in compliment to Francis Franco, a Physician and Botanist of 
♦ alentia. 

densely covered with pubescence similar to that on the 
leaves; from the axils on the stem -leaves and from a 
bractea near the top arise solitary erect branches, in all 
respects similar to the primary shoots, but smaller. Spike 
(six inches long) racemose, flowers (half an inch long, 
three-quarters of an inch across, when fully expanded) 
rather dense, springing from the axils of lanceolato-linear, 
green bractets. Calyx persisting, four to five-parted, green, 
rather longer than the pedicel, segments ovato-acute, three- 
nerved, gland uloso-pubescent within and without. Petals 
four to five, twice the length of the calyx, obovato-ellip- 
tical, channelled in front towards the short claw, keeled 
behind, of a pale rose-colour, with a darker spot in the 
entre, becoming lighter after expansion. Stamens eight 
to ten, shorter than the calyx, alternating upon an obscure 
but nectariferous disk, with short diverging scales (abortive 
stamens) ; filaments subulate, glabrous ; anthers yellow, 
bilocular, oblong, bifid at both extremities, and slightly 
diverging at the lower, bursting along the sides, pollen 
yellow, granules small. Germen superior, oblong, four to 
five-furrowed, four to five-valved, and having as many 
loculaments, formed by the inversion of the margins of the 
valves. Stigma sessile, four to five-lobed, at first involute, 
then spreading, peltate, fleshy, surface tubercled. Ovules 
numerous, green, oblong. 

This showy plant was introduced into the Clapton 
Nursery from Chiloe by Mr. Anderson. From Clapton it 
was obtained by Mr. Cunningham at Comely-bank, near 
Edinburgh, and communicated to Mr. Neill's garden at 
Canonmills. In both these establishments, it flowered in 
May 1832. I have no doubt of this being the species of 
Cavanilles, and very little about its being that of Jussieu, 
though the petals are figured (not described) by Cavanilles 
as acute, and though the flowers are said by Jussieu to be 
without pedicels in his plant. The leaves correspond with 
Cavanilles's, and the station is the same. His figure 
represents the flowers as secund, and a dried specimen, 
brought home by Mr. Anderson, and given to Mr. James 
Macnab, has the same appearance. Graham. 

Fig. 1, 2. Flowers. 3. Petal. 4. Stamens. 5. Pistil. 6. Stigma. 7- 
Capsule (scarcely mature) with its Floral coverings (nat. size). 8. Cap- 
sule separated from its Floral coverings. 9. Transverse Section of ditto. 10. 
Immature seeds : all but fig. 7, magnified. 

( 3179 ) 

Ornithogalum corymbosum. Peruvian 
Star of Bethlehem. 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asphodele^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. 6 -petala patens. Filamenta basi dilatata recep- 
taculo inserta. Caps. 3-locuIaris. Embryo axilis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ornithogalum corymbosum ; scapo tereti, floribus corym- 
bosis, corolla magna, genuine atro. Ruiz et Pavon. 

Ornithogalum umbellatum. Ruiz et Pav. Ft. Peruv. v. 3. 
p. 68. t. 300. Lindt. in Hort. Trans, v. 6. p. 86, et in 
Bot. Reg. t. 906. Schultes, Syst. Veget. v. 7. p. 512. 

Descr. Bulbs, according to Ruiz and Pavon, ovate, 
tunicated, and proliferous. Leaves a foot or a foot and a 
half long, linear, the apex acuminate, the sides involute, 
those of the young bulbs very narrow. Scape two to three 
feet high, terete, bearing a large, spreading, corymbose 
raceme, in our specimens of from twelve to sixteen flowers, 
two inches and a half in diameter, almost pure white. Petals 
obtuse, oval, spreading, the three inner ones rather nar- 
rower; the tips often bluntly two or three-toothed. Sta- 
mens opposite to the petals. Filaments white, broadly 
subulate, nearly erect. Anthers oblong, yellow. Germen 
turbinate, six-lobed, glossy, black -green: Style rather 
shorter than the germen : Stigma trigonal, downy. The 
pedicels are long, the lower ones especially, three inches and 
more in length, and subtended by a rather large, cordate, 
membranaceous, almost white, carinated bractea, attenuated 
mto a long green point. 

v ol. VI. K 

I follow Ruiz and Pavon and Professor Lindley in keep- 
ing this South American Ornithogalum distinct from the 0. 
Arabicum of the Old World; although, as the latter author 
observes, " it is very like it, and perhaps a mere variety ; 
remarkable, however, for being a native of a country far 
distant from any in which O. Arabicum has yet been found." 
— Still it must be allowed, that no distinctive character can 
be pointed out; and I cannot help suspecting, that it was 
introduced into Chili (where it is apparently wild) and into 
Peru (where it is only cultivated in gardens, and whence 
our bulbs were sent by Mr. M'Lean) by the early Spanish 
visitors. Be this as it may, it is a most desirable acquisition 
to our collections. The true O. Arabicum, if not a rare 
plant, is, according to Mr. Gawler (Bot. Mag. t. 728.) a 
very shy flowerer ; while our bulbs blossom most readily, 
and bear so many and such large flowers in each raceme, 
that there is at this season of the year (March) scarcely a 
more desirable inmate of the greenhouse. Its fragrant 
flowers, we are told by Ruiz and Pavon, are used to orna- 
ment the hair by the Peruvian females. 

Fig. 1. Bractea. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil. — magnified. 

.11 SI) 

( 3180 ) 

Eriostemon myoporoides. Cuspidate 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rutace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Pet. 5. Stam. 10, Jilam. hispidis ciliatis 
aut nudis, antheris terminalibus. Stylus 1 brevissimus. 
Carpella 5 basi coalita. Semina in loculis 2 aut abortu soli- 
taria. Embryo subcurvatus, radicula longa. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Eriostemon * myoporoides ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis glau- 
cescentibus mucronatis subtus praecipue glanduloso- 
punctatis, racemis umbellatis 4 — 5-floris axillaribus 
terminalibusque, calycibus petalisque glabris, fila- 
mentis ciliatis. 

Eriostemon myoporoides. De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 720. 

Eriostemon cuspidatum. Cunningham in Field's N. S. 
Wales, p. 331. 

Descr. a robust, strong growing shrub, with numerous 
branches, soon covered with glandular, or rather, resinous 
warts. Leaves two to three inches or more long, sessile, 
rigid, subcoriaceous, linear-lanceolate, dotted with glands, 
which are larger and evident to the naked eye beneath, 
costate, entire, tipped with a short, often curved mucro. 
Racemes axillary, shorter than the leaves, umbellate, of 
from three to five moderately large white flowers. Pedun- 

* *?"»> wool, and crrtpov, a stamen : so called from the hairy or fringed 
"laments to the stamens. 

cles and pedicels glandular, the latter enlarged upwards. 
Calyx very small, five-lobed. Petals five, oblon go-ovate, 
spreading, glandular at the back, and marked with a red- 
dish brown line. Stamens ten, alternately smaller, all 
nearly as long as the style. Filaments subulate, white, 
ciliated at the margin. Anthers mucronate, flesh-coloured, 
the pollen deep red. Pistil : Germen of five, deep, ovate, 
acuminated lobes, glandular. Style about as long again as 
the germen. Stigma capitate. A glandular ring surrounds 
the base of the germen. 

Discovered by Mr. Allan Cunningham, on rocky hills in 
the neighbourhood of Cox's River, on the western side 
of the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, flowering in 
October; and sent to Kew in the year 1823, and given in 
Mr. Field's " New South Wales," under the appropriate 
name of E. cuspidatum. Mr. Cunningham could not pos- 
sibly then have been aware that it was published the year 
before by M. De Candolle under the name by which Mr. 
Aiton has now sent it from the Kew Gardens, where it blos- 
soms in the early spring. In New Holland its season of 
flowering is October. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil, with a portion of the 
Pedicel and the Calyx. 

.#*•/».«,, .»#* «fo/» 

( 3181 ) 

Andromeda tetragona. Four-sided 


Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Erice*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. subcampanulata, limbo reflexo. 
Anthera bicornes. Caps. 5-locularis, marginibus valvarum 
nudis, columna centrali quinqueloba. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Andromeda tetragona; foliis quadrifariam imbricatis ap- 
pressis subtriquetris obtusis glabris, pedunculis elon- 
gatis solitariis unifloris, corollis campanulatis. Spreng. 

Andromeda tetragona. Linn. Fl. Suec. ed. 2. n. 356. Willd. 
Sp. PL v. 2. p. 607. Wahl. Fl. Lapp. n. 200. Pursh, 
Fl. Am. v.l.p. 290. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 289. 

Andromeda pedunculis solitariis lateralibus, corollis campa- 
nulatis, foliis oppositis obtusis imbricatis revolutis. 
Gmel. Fl. Sibir. v. 4. p. 120. n. 5. 

Descr. Stem erect, woody, (about five inches high,) 
naked near the base, and marked by the scars of fallen 
leaves, much branched ; branches suberect, the lower ones 
decumbent at the base and rooting. Leaves (two lines 
J°ng) in four rows, closely imbricated, sagittate, concave in 
front, triquetrous, and furrowed over the midrib behind, 
blunt, slightly pubescent, particularly in native specimens, 
but the degree seems to vary, as does the colour, which is 
"right or dull green. Peduncles axillary, solitary, at first 
sn ort, afterwards elongated, slightly pubescent, sheathed 
with scales at the base. Flowers drooping : Calyx five- 

parted, greenish tipped with red, glabrous, persistent, seg- 
ments gibbous at the base. Corolla white, campanulate, 
somewhat contracted near the mouth, which is five-cleft, 
the segments blunt and spreading. Stamens included , 
filaments shorter than the pistil, erect; Anthers yellow, 
each with two slender, spreading, hispid bristles. Pistil 
scarcely longer than the stamens ; Stigma obtuse ; Style 
persisting, straight, slightly tapering upwards. Germen 
roundish-oval, obscurely four-lobed, depressed at the in- 
sertion of the style, and surrounded at the base by a 
wrinkled, glandular ring. Capsule erect, nearly globular, 
glabrous, with five cells, the dissepiments arising from the 
centre of the valves, which are inflected in their apices. 

The seeds of this interesting little plant, which we hope 
may yet be found indigenous to Britain, were kindly com- 
municated to the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, by Dr. 
Richardson and Mr. Drummond, on the return from North 
America of the last expedition, under the command o 
Captain Franklin. It flowered for the first time in April, 
1832, in the same border with, though rather later than, its 
beautiful congener and native of the same country, Andro- 
meda hypnoides. We have two varieties, of which only on< 
has yet flowered to reward the judicious treatment of Mr 
M'Nab. It is the lighter coloured plant, and grows much 
the most freely of the two. Graham. 

Fig. 1 . Upper side of a leaf. 2. Under side of ditto. 3. Flower. 4 
Stamen. 5. Calyx, including the Pistil. 6. Pistil.— Magnified. 

( 3182 ) 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Pentagynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Buttneriace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Petala 5, e cucullata basi ligulata. Stamina sterilia 5, 
indivisa (Nectarium, Linn.). Ovarium 5-loculare ; locu- 
lis dispermis. Capsula : septis duplicatis demum 5-parti- 
bilis. Br. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Rulingia corylifolia ; foliis ovato - deltoideis subcordatis 
basi lobatis supra hispidis subtus hirsuto-tomentosis, 
stipulis ovatis acuminatis, corymbis oppositifoliis, fila- 
mentis antheriferis simplicibus, sterilibus ovato-lance- 
olatis alternantibus. Graham in Ed. N. Phil. Journ. 
June 1832. 

Descr. A Shrub, branched from the base of the stem, 
branches slightly flexuose, tomentoso-villous, and somewhat 
viscid. Leaves (two inches and a half long, two inches 
broad) ovato-deltoid, slightly cordate, slightly lobed at the 
base, serrato-crenate, rugose, pubescent on both sides, but 
touch more considerably'behind, where also they are paler, 
bright green above, and when fading, becoming red, being 
v pry prominent behind ; petioles slightly channelled above, 
y ihous, much shorter than the leaves, bistipulate. Stipules 
°Pposite, distinct from the petiole, ovate, acuminate, villous, 
and with long cilia?. Corymbs collected near the apices of 
the branches, densely covered with white hairs in the pri- 
mary and subsequent divisions, each division having on the 


outside a lanceolate bractea. Flowers pedicellate, white. 
Calyx pentaphyllous; leaflets cordate, villous both within 
and without, but much more harshly without, somewhat 
reflected in their sides, and forming a prominent edge where 
they meet each other. Petals pubescent, much smaller 
than the calyx-segments, concave, gibbous at their base, 
their sides formed into two blunt, parallel wings, which 
project towards the axis of the flower, apex extended into a 
blunt, linear appendage, at first curved towards the axis, 
but afterwards bent back, and passing out between the 
segments of the calyx. Stamens five (perfect), immedi- 
ately within the petals, and alternating with the segments 
of the calyx, shorter than the petals, and included within 
their folds, alternating on the same urceolate border with, 
and somewhat shorter than, the ovato- lanceolate scales 
(abortive stamens), which are hairy on the outside, smooth 
within ; filaments glabrous; anthers short, bilocular, bursting 
aloug the sides. Pollen yellow, granules round. Stigmas 
cohering to each other, small, capitate, colourless, shining. 
Styles five, glabrous, in contact in the centre of the flower, 
scarcely longer than the stamens. Germen five-lobed in 
its early stage, lobes conical and a little rough, afterwards 
rounded, green, depressed in the centre, and densely cover- 
ed with stellate pubescence, five-locular, dissepiments from 
the edges of the valves, their two layers afterwards separat- 
ing. Ovules two in each loculament, with a central ridge 
of the valve between them, both attached to the central 
column below its middle. Pubescence every where on the 
plant stellate, except from abortion, when, as on the upper 
surface of the leaves, it often appears single. 

This plant was received last year by Mr. Neill at Canon- 
mills, and in the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from Mr. 
Knight on the King's Road; both with Mr. Neii.l and 
us, it flowered freely in the greenhouse in May last. Gra- 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Flower, the Calyx, having been removed. 3. Petal. 
4. Barren and fertile Stamens. 5. Side view of a Stamen. 6. Front view of 
an Anther. 7. Back view of an Anther. 8. Pistils : — magnified. 

■ ■ ! v"> 

0m»m»wmd f~t*r*. .:, 

( 3183 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Dillentace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Stam. numerosa libera filiformia aaqualia; antkera ovato- 
oblongae. Ovaria 1 — 15; styli filiforraes inflexi. Carpella 
membranacea dehisceutia, ssepius 1 — 2-sperma. Semina 
exarillata. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Hibbertia Cunninghamii ; subvolubilis glabra, foliis alter- 
nis linearibus basi cordatis amplexantibus marginibus 
revolutis, staminibus exterioribus sterilibus, carpellis 
5 glabris 4 — 5-spermis. 

Hibbertia Cunninghamii. Ait. MSS. apud Hort. Reg. Kew. 

( Descr. A somewhat twining shrub, with slender, brandi- 
ng stems, clothed with reddish, smooth bark; branches 
slender, straggling, zigzag. Leaves two to three inches 
long, glabrous, (as is the whole plant,) linear, more or less 
acuminated, entire, broader and cordate at the base, and 
somewhat amplexicaul, spreading, the margins somewhat 
reflexed. Young leafy shoots often spring from the axils, 
giving an appearance of the leaves being fasciculated. 
lowers axillary, solitary, large, handsome. Peduncles 
an inch or more long. Calyx of five, imbricated, unequal, 
reddish -green, ovate, at length reflexed leaves. Petals 
bnght yellow, obovate, much waved, especially at the 
margins. Stamens yellow, in two or three series, the outer 
ot short, abortive filaments, the inner gradually larger, 
and bearing perfect, oblong anthers. Pistils five. Germens 


ovate, glabrous, one-celled, with four or five ovules. Styles 
curved, spreading. Stigmas obtuse, slightly capitate. 

This very pretty plant, which grows to the height of a 
foot and a half or two feet, and on a warm sunny day is 
almost covered with its bright yellow but fugacious blos- 
soms, was introduced by Mr. Allan Cunningham from King 
George's Sound to the Royal Gardens at Kew, whence it 
was liberally communicated to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
under the name adopted ; a name likely to be still more 
intimately connected with the Botany of New Holland, than 
it has even yet been, now that Mr. Richard Cunningham is 
appointed to be the successor to Mr. Fraser, the late Colo- 
nial Botanist at Sydney, for which country he is very shortly 
to embark. 

Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistils. 4. Pistil, with the Germen laid 
open to show the Ovules : — Magnified. 

'«/. &*4*X 

( 3184 ) 



Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium irregulare; foliolis laciniisve secundis; api- 
cibus cavis staminiferis ; anthera immersae. Glandula 
hyp°gyna unica dimidiata. Ovarium dispermum. Stigma 
obliquum depressum, (raro subverticale, conicum.) Fol- 
liculus unilocularis, dispermus, loculo centrali. Semina 
marginata, v. apice brevissime alata. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Grevillea robusta ; foliis bipinnatifidis laciniis acutis : su- 
per glabris venosis subter caneseentibus, racemis pani- 
culatis, perianthiis pistillisque glaberrimis, stigmate e 
basi dilatato oblique conico. Br. 

Grevillea robusta. Cunningham MSS. Br. Prodr. Suppl. 
p. 24. 

Grevillea venusta. Cunningham MSS. (non Br. Prodr.) 

Descr. This forms a gigantic tree, eighty to one hun- 
dred feet in height, bearing numerous reddish-brown, dense, 
recurved branches, clothed with long bipinnated, rather 
r %id, somewhat coriaceous leaves, dark green above, and 
glabrous, pale and silky with appressed hairs beneath; the 
young leaves silky all over. Racemes branched at their 
base, hence somewhat panicled, elongated. Flowers slen- 
der, unilateral, longer thau the pedicels, glabrous, tawny 
orange; laciniaB curved, spathulate. 

For the drawing of this plant, which was made from a 
native specimen, (having never flowered in this country,) I 


am indebted to Mr. Allan Cunningham. It was accompa- 
nied by a reduced sketch of the plant, which he introduced 
to the Kew Gardens, the only one in Britain ; but as it was 
scarcely suited to the nature of this publication, it has been 
reluctantly omitted. " This noble species of Grevillea," 
Mr. Cunningham remarks, " in the thick, moist woods on 
the banks of Brisbane River, vies in size and stature with 
the Flindersia, Oxleya, and other large forest trees : but by 
none is it surpassed in height in its native woods, except by 
the Araucaria of those regions, whose level-topped branch- 
ing head is seen rising far above all the rest. Some aged 
trunks of Grevillea robusta I have found to measure nine 
feet in circumference ; so that it is probably the largest 
tree of the order that has yet been discovered, surpassing 
both the Knightia of New Zealand, and the Orites excelsa, 
Br. of Port Macquarrie. From its deeply dissected foliage, 
and the silkiness of the under-side, it has obtained the name 
of " Silk Oak" among the pine-cutters of Moreton Bay ; but 
its timber, which is of a tough fibre, has not been appro- 
priated to any use." 

Fig. ], Flower : magnified. 

( 3185 ) 
Grevillea canescens. Hoary Grevillea, 

Class and Order. 
Tetrandria Monogvnia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Proteace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Periantkium irregulare; foliolis laciniisve secundis; api- 
cibus cavis staminiferis. Antherce immersae. Glandula 
h y P°gy na unica dimidiata. Ovarium dispermum. Stigma 
obliquum, depressum, (raro subverticale, conicum.) Fol- 
liculus unilocularis, dispermus, loculo centrali. Semina 
marginata, v. apice brevissime alata. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Grevillea (Ptychocarpa) canescens ; foliis oblongo-obo- 
vatis obtusis mucronulatis, super pubescentibus molli- 
bus, subter velutinis incanis pilorum cruribus adscen- 
dentibus, racemis recurvis, perianthiis sericeis laminis 
acutis, pistillis tomentosis. Br. 

Grevillea canescens. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Suppl. p. 18. 

Grevillea cinerea. Cunningh. in Field's N. S. Wales, p. 
329. (non Br. Prodr.) 

Descr. A much-branched, large shrub, with downy, 
ash-coloured branches. Leaves alternate, upon extremely 
short petioles an inch and a half long, oblongo-obovate, 
rather coriaceous, entire, obtuse, mucronate, pubescent, 
green above, beneath very downy and pale grey. Racemes 
terminating the branches, very downy, often bent down, 
pedicels reflexed. Perianth pale green, hoary with a dense 
down, of which the hairs are not appressed, curved like a 
horse-shoe, swollen towards the apex, and then suddenly 
and much acuminated so as to resemble the head and beak 
of a bird, separated on the upper-side by a fissure reaching 
down to the base; at the extremity it chiefly opens by a 


transverse cleft,, which gives that part still more the appear- 
ance of a bird's beak, within it is glabrous and dull orange- 
coloured, yellow-green at the swollen base, which is filled 
with honey. Stamens yellow, lodged in a cavity in each 
of the four segments near the apex ; filament very short. 
Germen oblique, and as well as the long and thick style, 
green and hairy. Nectariferous Gland deep yellow. Stig- 
ma oblique, flat, green. 

Communicated from the Royal Gardens of Kew, where it 
was introduced by Mr. Allan Cunningham in 1824, from 
the banks of Coxe's River and Rocky Hills beyond Bath- 
urst, where that able and zealous Naturalist found it in the 
summer of 1823, bearing both flowers and ripened fruit at 
the same season. Mr. Brown, in the Supplement to his 
Prodromus, notices, under Grevillea canescens, the great 
affinity between it and the G. arenaria; in our specimens 
(for both have been obligingly sent from Kew, and will 
appear in this Magazine,) the segment of the perianth is 
much more acuminated in the present species than in G. 
arenaria: in the latter too the colour of the flowers is dingy 

Fig-. 1 . Bud. 2. Flower. 3. Section of the Perianth seen from within. 
4. Pistil. Magnified. 


-•'.•'/ 4CMMK |Sfetf ? }#32 

( 3186 ) 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — BromeliacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Bractece 3, in cyatho connatae. Calyx superus. Pctala 
convoluta, distincta, basi squamosa. Stamina basi peri- 
anthii inserta. Stylus filiformis. Stigmata linearia, con- 
voluta. Capsula baccata. Semina nuda. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

^Echmea * Mertensii; racemo spicato denso pubescenti- 
lanato, floribus glomerato-fasciculatis, bracteis univer- 
salibus foliaceis coloratis, partialibus solitariis ventri- 
coso-convolutis striatis calycibusque spina tcrrninatis, 
petalis acutissimis, foliis ligulatis acutis lepidotis spi- 
noso-marginatis inferne convolutis. 

^Echmea Mertensii. Schultes, Syst. Veget. v. 7. p. 1272. 

Bromelia Mertensii. Meyer, Ft. Essequib. p. 144. Sprcng. 
fyst. Veget. v. 2. p. 21. 

Descr. Leaves radical, two feet and more long, erecto- 
patent, ligulate, acute, concave, coriaceous, dark-green 
above, paler and more yellowish beneath, on both sides 
dotted with minute, membranaceous, white scales, not al 
all fasciculated, convolute below, the margins beset with 
Wrong, deflexed, spinous teeth, of a dark-brown colour. 
Sc «pe a foot or more long, terete, downy upwards, and 
there, and in the lower part of the spike, beneath the fasci- 
cles of flowers, bearing several oblongo-lanceolate, mem- 

* *W*> a point, from the rigid points on the ci 
V 0L. VI. L 

branaceous, spinoso-dentate, red, more or less downy, large 
bracteas, which are soon reflected and withered. Racemt 
nearly a foot long, stout, spicate, downy, composed of nu- 
merous, glomerated or fasciculated Jlowers, each subtended 
by a somewhat ventricose, green, striated, obtuse, downy, 
circumvolute bractea, more than half as long as the flower, 
which it closely embraces, having a strong and sharp dark- 
purple spine, just below the point. Calyx superior, of three 
erect, convolute, rather rigid, yellow, or greenish-yellow 
sepals, each terminated by a dark-coloured, rigid spine. 
Petals linear, acute, bright and deep rose-red, longer than 
the calyx, having two very obscure white scales near the 
base, afterwards changing to orange. Stamens six ; three 
on the base of the petals, and three alternating with them. 
Filaments white, shorter than the petals : Anthers white, ob- 
long-oval, with an acute point. Germen inferior, obovate., 
slightly downy, green, three-celled, each cell bearing many 
ovules attached to the upper part of the inner angle. Style 
as long as the filaments, white. Stigmas three, linear, white, 
downy, twisted. The fruit, which has been obligingly sent 
to me since the plate was completed, by Mr. Shepherd, and 
too late to have the whole figured, is extremely beautiful, 
consisting of numerous bright blue, ovato-acuminated ber- 
ries, mixed with some white abortive ones, tipped with the 
withered remains of the perianth, and all collected together 
into a very compact oblong head. Each berry has three 
cells, and several oblongo-pyriform brown seeds, suspended 
from the top of the cells. Albumen between corneous and 
farinaceous. Embryo small, situated near the hilum. 

For the introduction of this beautiful Bromeliaceous plant to the Bo- 
tanic Garden of Liverpool, we are indebted to the great friend and 
patron of that Institution and of Botany in general, C. S. Parker, Esq., 
who, whilst on a visit to Demerara, sent it, with many other rarities, 
from that country, where it is parasitical upon trees. Its noble yellow- 
green spikes, tipped with richly-coloured, erect, protruded portions of 
the petals, and the large red bracteas at the base, Tender this plant a 
most desirable inmate of the stove. It flowers in March and April. 

I follow Dr. Schultes in referring this plant to jEchmjea, which 
Mr. Lindley distinguishes from Billbergia, by the three bracteas of 
the flower being united into a single cup-shaped one. This part, in our 
plant, is less distinctly cup-shaped than in Ruiz and Pavon's original 
JE. "paniculata. 

< Fig. 1. Fascicle of Flowers. 2. Single Flower with its Bractea. 3. Inner 
view of a Bractea. 4. Flower. 5. Ditto, from which the Calyx has been 
removed. 0. Petal and two Stamens. 7- Germen cut through horizontally. 
in v ?^ s ', naL sizc ' 9 - Section of a Berry, the Seeds being- removed. 

10. Vertical Section of a Berry showing two of the Cells filled with Seeds. 

11. Seed. 12. Section of ditto : all but 8. 8. more or less magnified. 


( 3187 ) 
Calochilus campestris. Field Calochilus. 


Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide/E. ) 

Generic Character, 

Periantkium ringens, foliolis lateralibus exterioribus la- 
bello suppositis; interioribus sessilibus minoribus crectis. 
Labellum longius, sessile, acuminatum, disco intus margin- 
ibusque barbatum. Anthera stigmati parallela, persistens. 

Heibac glabra. Bulbi indivisi, nudi. Folia caulina 
pauca, injimum canaliculatum, reliqua abbreviata. Spica 
racemosa, vara, Jloribus porrectis rufis majusculis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Calochilus* campestris ; labello perianthio paruin longiore, 
acumine semilanceolato lamina 5-plo breviore, colum- 
na basi biglandulosa, bracteis ovarium superantibus, 
spica 4— 8-Hora. Br. 

Calochilus campestris. Br.Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 320. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 713. 

Descr. Bulbs two, oblong, undivided. Stem a foot or 
more high, rounded, erect, bearing two or three linear, 
acuminated, channelled, sheathing leaves, the lower one 
the longest. Spike racemose, of from five to eight extremely 
beautiful flowers, large in proportion to the size of the 
plant, and standing forward at right angles with the rachis; 
each subtended by a bractea longer than itself. Calyx, 
°i" three outer segments of the perianth, ovate, subacumi- 
nate, green, concave, the two lower, or anterior ones, placed 


* «•**, beautiful, ami %•*** a tip, from the lubellum being clothed with 
e xc«edi D? iy beautiful hairs. 

I>encath the lip, two inner ones similar in shape, but smaller, 
more inclining to yellow and streaked with red. Lip 
longer than the perianth, ovato-lanceolate, acuminate, the 
point reflexedj deep purple-blue at the base, the whole disk 
and margin covered With rich, velvety, yellowish-brown 
hairs, purplish-red in the centre. Germcn club-shaped, 

twisted, stalked. 

It is to be regretted that, notwithstanding the great Dum- 
ber Of Australian plants, which are now the pride and orna- 
iii iit of collections, but few of the terrestrial Okciiidea 
bare been lent to this Country; Mid We there tore learn with 
mud) satisfaction, that Mr. Andeuson, the Botanical Col- 
lector in Captain King's late voyage of discovery, who i- 
recently gone to New Holland, will particularly direct hi-* 
attention to thi> singular and beautiful tribe, and transmit 
their room to England. 

The present plant is one eminently worthy of cultivation, 
and is probably of frequent occurrence in its native soil. 
Mi BaowVj its original discoverer, found it not only about 
Port Jacksottj but in the tropical parts of New Holland, 
and Mr. Allan Cunningham gathered it on stony hills, near 
Bathnrst Our drawing was made from the living plant in 
t Diemen'i Land, by Dr. John Scott, who detected it 
in bWj lhaded grounds ; but who observes, that it is rarely 
nut with in that island. 

Mr Hkown remarkSj that the Genus is nearly allied to 

a *??' *' J' 0,umn *nd Geriuen, wiUi tlic two inner Segments of the Perisuith. 

Pub &J Cult* f9m, m »md Cm 

*t* r /M3f. 

( 3188 ) 
Symphytum Caucasicum. Caucasian 


Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Boragine^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. 5-partitus. Cor. cylindrico-campanulata, fancc 
fornicibus subulatis in conum conniventibus clausa. Nuccs 
basi perforata?. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Symphytum* Caucasicum; caule ramoso infernc hirsuto 
superne glutinoso, foliis ovato-lanceolatis basi atte- 
nuatis semidecurrentibus hirsutism calycibus obtusis. 

Symphytum Caucasicum. Marsch. Bieb. Fl. Tauric. Cauc. 
— Spreng. Sj/st. Veget. v. 1. p. 563. Graham in Ed. 
New Phil. Journ. June, 1832. 

Descr. Stem (two feet high) hairy near the bottom, 
higher up pubescent and viscous, slightly winged, fiexuose, 
branched. Leaves ovato-lanceolate, hairy on both sides, 
hut less harshly on the upper, and there, when young, sub- 
viscid, half-decurrent, the lower ones attenuated at the base, 
the upper pair oblique, sessile, and alternate. Racemes 
terminal, geminate, many-flowered, secund, and involute, 
common peduncle and pedicels glanduloso-pubesccnt. Calyx 
angled, the angles and blunt teeth ciliated ; when in fruit, 
distichous. Corolla at first red-purple, but losing this co- 
tour as soon as it expands, and acquiring a lively azure 

hue ; 

wpQva, to unite, from the supposed healing virtues of some of tin- 
species. ■ 

hue ; tube longer than the calyx, sparingly and minutely 
pubescent on the outside, having a white, fleshy, narrow 
edge projecting internally from its base over the disk, teeth 
of the limb blunt and revolute in their edges, teeth of the 
throat erect, blunt, and having short, chrystalline cilia; on 
their edges. Stamens included, about as long as the teeth ; 
filaments purplish ; anthers yellow, rather shorter than the 
free portion of the filaments, bifid at both extremities. Pis- 
til rather longer than the stamens ; stigma bilobular, 
rounded ; style slightly tapering, glabrous, lilac ; germen 
light yellow ish-green, seated on a white disk. The unripe 
Achenia are rough, irregularly depressed over their surface ; 
and each is raised on a sandglass-shaped portion of the 
disk, the upper lobe of which projects from its lower side 
a simple row of short, dependent, subulate hairs. 

The seeds of this plant were received at the Royal Bota- 
nic Garden, Edinburgh, from Dr. Fischer, under the name 
here adopted, in 1830, and they blossomed, for the first 
time, in May, 1832. The profusion of lively-coloured 
flowers in this kind of Comfrey, which is less deformed by 
coarseness of herbage than others, makes it one of the most 
desirable for cultivation. Graham. 

Fig. I. Flower. 2. Two of the Scales of the Corolla and Stamens : mag- 

Awr, <*t*'lMXt 

( 3189 ) 

FLOWERED Evening-Primrose. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Onagrari^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cat. tubulosus, 4-partitus, deciduus. Petala 4. Capsula 
cylindrica vcl prismatica, 4-locularis. Scmina nuda cortice 
fungoso placentae columnari centrali affixa. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Sj/nont/ms. 

(Enothera speciosa; puberula, caule suflfruticoso, foliis 
oblongo-lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis serratis sub- 
pinnatifidisque nervosis subtus pubescent! bus, floribus 
racemosis, racemo nudo primum nutante, petalis ob- 
cordatis stamina aequantibus (seu longioribus,) capsu- 
lis obovatis angulatis. D C. 

CEnothera speciosa. Nutt. in Journ. of Sc. Phil. v. 2. p. 
119. Hook. Exot. Fl. t. 80. De Cand. Prodr. v. 3. 
p. 50. Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 2. p. 230. Sweet, Br. 
Fl. Gard. v. 3. t. 253. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem three to four feet high, 
slender, weak, flexuose, suffruticose, rough with minute 
pubescence, cylindrical, green, slightly branched. Leaves 
distant, scattered, broadly lanceolate, attenuated at the 
base, denticulato-serrate at the margin, acute, nerved, gla- 
brous above, minutely pubescent beneath. Floicers in 
terminal racemes, at first drooping. Peduncle very short, 
with a small, narrow, foliaceous bractea at the base. Calyx 
superior, tubular at the base ; the limb of four linear seg- 
ments, but adhering for the greater part of their length, 


opening entirely, only on one side to admit the expansion 
of the corolla, and standing out nearly horizontally. Petals 
four, placed upon the summit of the tube of the calyx, 
very large, obversely cordate, spreading, waved, pure white, 
yellow at the base, and sending upwards several yellowish- 
green, slightly diverging nerves, becoming rose-coloured 
previous to decay. Stamens eight, inserted just within the 
tube of the calyx. Filaments nearly equal in length to the 
corolla, erect, alternately shorter. Stamens long, linear, 
placed transversely, with their centre on the top of the fila- 
ment. Pollen yellow, cohering together, and hanging 
attached to the stamens, stigmas, and style, in great abund- 
ance, after the bursting of the cells. Germen inferior, 
subclavate, but slightly attenuated at both ends, and qua- 
drangular, pubescent. Style filiform, longer than the sta- 
mens. Stigmas four, spreading cross-wise, linear, afterwards 

As I suspected, when I first described this plant, ten years 
ago, in the Exotic Flora, this fine and fragrant species of 
Evening Primrose has proved perfectly hardy, producing 
its lovely cream-coloured blossoms, which change to rose- 
colour in decay, in the open border, during the months of 
July and August. It was discovered by the American 
Botanist, Mr. Nuttall, on the plains of the Red River, in 
the Arkansa territory of North America, and communicated 
to the Glasgow Botanic Garden by Mr. Dick, of Phila- 
delphia, who kindly transmitted some seeds, which had 
ripened under his own care. Like some other species of 
this Genus, the scent of the blossoms is most powerful in 
the evening. 

The flowers continue many days in perfection, and are 
most fully expanded at the approach of night. 

Fig. I, 2. Leaves : nat. size. 

/V-* /,,■ r n^rHj g 

"wrf J&Mh*. t'rt' /M>. 

( 3190 ) 

Trop^eolum pentaphyllum. Five-fingered 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Trop^ole^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus, lobo superiore calcarato. Petala 5 inae- 
qualia, 3 inferiora minora aut evanida. Stam. 8 ab ipsa 
basi libera. Carpella 3, suberosa, reniformia, indehiscentia 
June sulcata rotundata, Semina magna, exalbuminosa, 
Joculum suum implentia et hujus cavitati conformia. Em- 
bryo magnus: cotyledonibus 2, rectis, crassis, junioribus 
distinctis, dein arete conferruminatis et etiam cum spermo- 
dermate adhaerentibus, ima basi subdistinctis : radicula intra 
cotyledonum processus latente, tubercula 4 mox radicellas 
proferentia gerente. De Cand. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Trop^olum pentaphyllum; foliis digitato-quinatis, foliolis 
ovalibus integerrimis petiolatis, petalis duobus subro- 
tundatis subsessilibus calyce multo brevioribus. 

Trop^eolum pentaphyllum. Lam. Encycl. Method, v. I. p. 
612. Illustr. t. 277. fig. 2. Willd. Sp. PL 2. 299. Pers. 
Syn. v.l.p. 405. De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 684. Spreng. 
Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 226. Graham in Ed. New Phil. 
Journ. 1832. 

Descr. Root tuberous, large, oblong. Stem slender, 
greatly elongated, slightly twisted, round, glabrous, co- 
loured, branched. Leaves (about two inches across) pe- 
eled, digitate, of five oblong, entire, petiolate, soft, gla- 
brous, spreading leaflets. Common petiole (two inches long) 
listed in form of a tendril, and forming the chief support 


of the stem, as well as the partial petioles and the veins of 
the leaf, purple and glabrous : partial petioles bordered by 
the decurrent leaflets. Peduncles (four inches long) solitary, 
axillary, longer than the leaves, purple, glabrous, thicken- 
ing upwards, pendulous. Calyx (an inch and a quarter 
long) persisting ; spur horizontal, fleshy, dull purple on 
the outside, yellow within, nectariferous, conical, till to- 
wards its apex, when it is contracted, thinner, and somewhat 
shrivelled, the apex being ovato-acute, fleshy and erect ; 
limb (seven lines and a half across) five -parted, green, 
brighter and spotted or streaked with deep purple within, 
segments ovato-acute, the uppermost the narrowest, the 
two next to it the broadest. Petals two, small, roundish, 
subunguiculate, reflected, bright vermillion-coloured, in- 
serted into the throat of the calyx on each side of the upper 
segment. Stamens eight, longer than the calyx-segments ; 
filaments subulate, declined, closely streaked or spotted 
with purple, in the bud erect, turned out between the calyx- 
segments after the pollen is shed ; anthers four-sided, ob- 
long, truncated above and below, green ; pollen green. 
Germen yellow, glabrous. Style yellow, three-sided, shorter 
than the stamens. Stigmas three, acute, diverging. Fruit 
tricoccous, glabrous, even. 

Of this plant Mr. Neill received at his garden at Canon- 
mills a tuber, gathered by Mr. Tweedie, in 1829 ; it pushed 
out some feeble shoots, and is still plump and alive, though 
growing feebly ; thus settling a question of which De Can- 
dolle was doubtful, — that the species is perennial. A cut- 
ting taken from it, and growing vigorously, flowered most 
freely, in the greenhouse for the first time, during June and 
July, 1832, and will probably ripen its seeds. From Mr. 
Tweedie I have excellent native specimens, gathered in 
hedges near Buenos Ayres. Its taste is very similar to that 
of Trop^olum maju8, but less pungent, and not so agree- 
able. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil: magnified. 


•cl A'ssf.v I V*T U832 

( 3191 ) 
Tecoma Stans. Ash-leaved Tecoma. 


Class and Order. 

( Nat. Old. BlGNONIACE^E. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-dentatus. Corolla subcampanulata, ore 5-lobo 
inasquali. Stam. 4, didynama : filamento quiiito sterili 
breviore. Capsulce dissepi men turn contrarium. 

Frutices, raro arbores. Folia opposita impari-pinnata v. 
digitata. Flores paniculati. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Iecoma* Stans; fruticosa, foliis pinnatis glabris, foliolis 
lanceolatis acuminatis profunde serratis, racemis ter- 

Tecoma Stans. Juss. — Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 834. 

Bignonia Stans. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 871. Willd. Sp. PI v. 
3. p. 302. 

Bignonia fruticosa, &c. Browne, Jam. p. 264. 

Arbor,, flore luteo, fraxini folio. Plum. Ic. t. 54. 

Apocyno affinis, &c. Sloane, Jam. v. 2. p. 63. 

Descr. A shrub, growing, according to authors, in its 
native country, to a height of eight or ten feet. Leaves 
opposite, stalked, pinnated with about three pairs of oppo- 
site, lanceolate, acuminated, deeply serrated, veiny, sessile, 
glabrous leaflets, dark -green above, paler beneath. Ba- 
ce?nes of few flowers, terminal. Flowers large, handsome, 
golden-yellow, faintly striated. Calyx small, campanulate, 
five- toothed. Corolla rather infundibuliform than cam- 

panulate ; 

* From TecomaxQchill, the Mexican name of one of the species. 

panulate; the tube long, very slender at the base, gi 
dually widening upwards ; the limb large, of five broad, 
roundish, reflexed lobes. These flowers are succeeded by 
linear capsules, six to seven inches long, straight or slightly 
curved, coriaceo-membranaceous, remarkably compressed 
at their sides, so that each of the two valves into which the 
capsule opens constitutes a deep carina, into which the mar- 
gins of the dissepiment are inserted, so that the dissepiment 
is contrary to the valves. Seeds numerous, imbricated 
upon the dissepiment on both sides and for its whole length, 
remarkably thin, and surrounded by a delicate membrane, 
much lengthened at both extremities. 

Notwithstanding that this beautiful plant has been intro- 
duced to our gardens more than a century ago, it has never 
yet found a place in any of our botanical periodical publi- 
cations. Perhaps its blossoms are of rare occurrence in 
our collections. I have never myself seen them in a recent 
state ; and I describe the plant partly from dried specimens 
sent to me by Mr. John Lockhart, from Trinidad, and 
partly from the drawings made by Mr. John Curtis, in 
1820; but from what collection is not stated. It is a na- 
tive of the West India Islands, and of course requires the 
heat of the stove; where, according to the Hortus Kew- 
ensis, its season of blossoming is August. 

Tecoma diners from Bignonia chiefly in the dissepiment 
of the capsule being contrary to the valves, instead of pa- 
rallel with them. 


ib by S tin. 'is (LixamrtJod KssiucJvor.USS 2 

( 3192 ) 

Alpinia? magnifica. Magnificent 

Class and Order. 
Monandria (rather Diandria) Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Scitamine^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Anther a duplex stylum amplectens. Filamentum erec- 
tum, simplex, anthera brevius. Corolla? labium inferius 
unilabiatum. Rose. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Alpinia magnifica* ; scapo lateralis floribus numerosis in 
receptaculo communi aggregatis, labio angusto lineari 
apice ovato rubro albo-marginato, filamento styloque 
pubescentibus. Rose. 

Alpinia magnifica. Bojer's MSS. apud Herb, nostr. Roscoe 
PI. Monandr. cum 1c. 

Descr. Root large and thick, creeping, forming many 
knots and tubers, from the upper side of which arise the 
stems and scape, while from beneath are sent out several 
rather stout fibres. Stems ten to twelve feet high, erect, 
rigid, and thick in the lower part, narrower above, leafy. 
Leaves few, oblong, acute, with a midrib, and many oblique, 
rather closely-placed, parallel nerves ; the petiole, (if it may 
be so termed) forming a long sheath around the stems. 
Scape five to six feet high, very stout, leafless, sheathed ; 
the uppermost sheath is dilated, and forms a large, leafy, 


* In honor of Prosper Alpinus, a Venetian, and Professor of Botany at 
Bologna towards the close of the sixteenth century. 

green bractea, within which the splendid head or dense 
capitate spike of flowers is produced. This is rendered the 
more striking from its numerous bracteas of a fine deep rose- 
red colour, all margined with a white line, the outer ones 
exceedingly large and spreading, often reflexed, three or 
four inches in length, ovate, acute, gradually becoming 
more obtuse as they are more internal, always barren; 
suddenly the bractea become smaller, oblong, very obtuse, 
erect, imbricated and fertile. Flowers shorter than the 
bractcar, cylindrical, about an inch long : each consists of 
a small, inferior germen, slightly downy, three-celled, each 
cell with two vertical rows of ovules placed upon the disse- 
piment at a distance from the inner angle. From the top of 
this arise the lloral coverings, combined with the filament 
of the stamens into a tube having a sort of cavity or nectary 
at the base within. Calyx of three imbricated, unequal, 
delicate, membranaceous, convolute, oblong leaves. Corolla 
of one piece, broadly ovate, deep purplish-red, convolute, 
enclosing the stamen, of which the lower part of the fila- 
ment is membranaceous, (where it combines with the floral 
coverings,) the upper part broad, deep red-purple, thick, 
emarginate, the sides involute, enclosing the style and the 
stigma till the latter rises above it by the prolongation of 
the style: within, near the margin, are two yellow, one- 
celled, linear-oblong anthers, opening by a longitudinal 
fissure, and containing pollen in globular grains. Style 
filiform, white, having a two-lobed gland at its base. 
Stigma red, capitate, compressed, having on one side a 
transverse, green, depressed spot, which receives the pollen. 
This collection of flowers with the richly coloured bracteae 
soon withers, and is succeeded by a large head of fruit, 
formed of many capsules, each as large as a chestnut, nearly 
globose, or obscurely three-lobed, downy, terminated by the 
withered floral coverings, and intermixed with the equally 
withered ami ragged bracteas. These I have not seen with 
perfect seeds; but I have the opportunity of representing 
them and a section of a ripe capsule through the kindness 
of Mr. Telfair and M. Bojer. The latter capsule is three- 
celled, and contains numerous seeds apparently attached to 
branched funiculi (enveloped in pulp ?) Seeds pear-shaped, 
having an aritlus at the base, a copious albumen, and an em- 
bryo of the same shape as the seed, with its radicle pointing 
to the hiltmi. 

Ill the month of August of the present year, Lord Milton 
was m> kind as to communicate to me the splendid spe- 

cimen here figured of Alpinia magnified, which blossomed 
in his Lordship's stove at Wentworth. All that was hitherto 
known in Europe of this most rare plant was from a drawing 
and a dried specimen sent to me by Charles Telfair, Esq. 
from the Mauritius, where the plant is a native ; and which 
was published in the work on Scitamineas of the lamented 
Roscoe. Little did I then think, that in a few years we 
should see flowering specimens from our own stoves. But 
roots were, through the medium of Mr. Telfair, intro- 
duced by the late Mr. Barclay, and sent to Lord Milton's 
collection, where, says Mr. Cooper, (through whose skill 
this plant has been brought to such perfection) <e it blos- 
somed for the first time in August, 1832. The scape 
rises up from under the leaf-stem, which is ten or twelve 
feet high, and about five inches in girth at the bottom." 

Professor Bojer of the Mauritius has suggested the pro- 
priety of constituting this a Genus distinct from Alpinia, 
and I am quite inclined to agree with that Naturalist; but 
as I have not had the opportunity myself of seeing perfect 
fruit, and am too little acquainted with the structure of 
the allied Genera from an examination of recent specimens, 
I willingly leave to that able Botanist, who has living indi- 
viduals at his command, the honor of establishing the dis- 
criminating characters ; contenting myself with laying be- 
fore the public a figure and description, however imperfect, 
of one of the noblest plants that has graced the pages of the 
Botanical Magazine. 

Fig. 1. Flower and Bractea;. 2. The same, from which the Calyx is re- 
moved, not. size. 3. Front view of fig. 2. 4. Flower, the Calyx and Co- 
rolla being removed. 5. Entire Flower, magnified. 6. Staminal Filament 
and base of the Floral Tube. 7- Upper part of the Staminal Filament, with 
the two one-celled Anthers. 8. Base of the Styles, with the glandular body. 
9. Back view of the Stigma. 10. Front view of the Stigma. 11. Section of 
the Germen. 12. Head of Capsules, nat. size. 13. Section of a ripe Cap- 
sule. 14 and 15. Vertical and transverse Sections of the Seed, with the 
" arillus" at the base (from Professor Bojer and Mr. Telfair s drawings), 
—all but fig. 1, 2, and 12 more or less magnified. 

( 3193 ) 

Astragalus alopecuroides. Fox-tail 
Milk- Vetch. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos/E. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-dentatus. Cor. carina obtusa. Sta?nina diadelpba. 
Legumen biloculare aut semibiloculare, sutura inferiore in- 
troflexa. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Astragalus alopecuroides ; caulescens suberectus, foliolis 
ovato-lanceolatis pubescentibus, stipulis ovato-lanceo- 
latis acuminatis, spicis ovato-oblongis sessilibus, caly- 
cis Iaciniis setaceis tubo brevioribus corollatn fere 
asquantibus. D C. 

Astragalus alopecuroides. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1064. De 
Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 294. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. 
p. 297. De Cand. Astragal, n. 66. 

Astragalus Alopccurus. Pall. Astragal, t. 8. De Cand. 
Astragal, n. 67. 

Descr. Perennial. Stems assurgent, rather stout, 
branched, zig-zag, angular, woolly, leafy. Leaves a span 
or more long, alternate, remote, pinnated : Pinna almost 
an inch long, alternate, ovato-elliptical, upon a very short 
stalk, rather dark green, and almost glabrous above, downy 
and paler beneath. Rachis woolly. Stipules very large 
and glabrous, membranaceous, from a broad base, lanceo- 
late. Flowers axillary, sessile, in a large, broadly-cylin- 
drical spike or head, bracteated, the outer bractea rather 
large, ovato-acuminate, the inner or upper ones gradually 
smaller, at length almost subulate. Calyx oval, inflated, 


membranaceous,, densely clothed with long white wool, 
having five nearly equal, subulate teeth, shorter than the 
petals. Corolla lemon-coloured. Vexillum somewhat re- 
flected, oblong, attenuated into a claw. Alee and Carina 
with very long claws ; the latter more deeply coloured : 
Germen ovate, very hairy. Style long, filiform. Stigma 

This is a very handsome species of Astragalus, and de- 
serves a place in every collection of plants. Yet it does 
not appear to be common in our gardens, though intro- 
duced from Spain nearly thirty years ago, and though it is 
perfectly hardy. 

Fig. 1, Flower. 2. Vexillum. 3. Alse. 4. Carina. 5. Pistil : — magnified. 


•" *»" '**> J%4, hy 

r 'Uzemr4Xfd iWwtfl 

( 3194 ) 
Stylidium hirsutum. Hairy Stylidium. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Tetrandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Stylidie,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx bilabiatus. Cor. irregularis, 5-fida, lacinia quinia 
(labello) dissimili, minore, deflexa, (raroporrecta,) reliquis 
patentibus (raro geminatim cohaerentibus). Columna re- 
clinata, duplici flexura ; Antheris bilobis, lobis divarica- 
tissimis ; Stigmate obtuso, indiviso. Capsula bilocularis, 
dissepimento superne quandoque incompleto. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Stylidium hirsutum; scapo hirsuto villis acutis, racemo 
subsirnplici, calycis labio (f)-partito, capsula ventricosa 
ovata, foliis linearibus basi attenuatis margine parinn 
recurvis, squamis scariosis distinguentibus interiori- 
b usque acuminatis. Br. 

Stylidium hirsutum. Br. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Holl. 568, 
Sp. Plant. 3. 747. Graham in Ed. New Phil. Journ. 

Descr. Root of strong, hard, branching fibres. Leaves 
(six inches long) all radical, linear, glabrous, firm in their 
texture, edges revolute, attenuated at the base, interspersed 
with scariose glabrous scales, which become larger towards 
the innermost ones, these being terminated with a point re- 
sembling the leaves, but shorter. Scape (nine inches high) 
erect, simple, rather longer than the leaves, covered, espe- 
cially at the base, with long, spreading, colourless, acute 
(not glandular) hairs, smoother upwards. Raceme (an inch 
and half long,) spicate, the uppermost flowers expanding 
first, each rising from the axil of a lanceolate, green bractea, 


which is covered with hairs similar to those on the scape. 
Pedicels hairy,, half the length of the primary bractese, and 
having secondary lateral bracteae. Calyx bi- or tri-partite ; 
tube very hairy, having both pointed hairs and others which 
are shorter and glandular ; segments eonnivent, blunt, hav- 
ing glandular hairs only, the two outer the largest and 
broadest. Corolla purplish rose-coloured, yellow in the 
throat, covered as well as the calyx on the outside with 
glandular pubescence, the four larger segments nearly 
equal, spreading, flat, channelled in the centre, and slightly 
crisped on the edges, the two next the labellum rather the 
narrowest, and each having one erect, ovate, entire tooth 
at its base, of similar colour with the rest of the corolla, 
the two others green at their base on the outside, and fur- 
rowed in the throat, the groove with promiuent, erect, pu- 
bescent edges ; labellum deflected from the inside of the 
calyx between the lips, small, ovate, acute, yellow, with a 
purple, crisped, and crenate edge, its appendices blunt, 
spreading, and much shorter than itself; tube pale yellow, 
twisted, equal to the longest segments of the calyx, the 
whole of the inside and the upper surface of the limb pre- 
senting, under the microscope, a beautiful crystalline ap- 
pearance. Column linear, flat, equal in length to the limb, 
dark red in front, yellow behind, glabrous, very irritable, 
bordered at its lower part. Anthers leaden-coloured, pollen- 
granules lilac, minute, ovate. Stigma of a dull green colour, 
oblong, glandular, surface crystalline. Germen ovate, bi- 
locular, dissepiment imperfect above. Ovules very numer- 
ous, attached to a central receptacle, in the lower part of 
the dissepiment wanting. 

This species has newly come into cultivation, and its 
flowers are larger than any in our gardens. I owe to the late 
Mr. Praser, Colonial Botanist, a native specimen collected 
at King George's Sound, on the south coast of New Hol- 
land ; and from seed taken off one that was sent at the same 
time to Mr. Macnab, the plant here described was raised. It 
blossomed in the greenhouse of the Royal Botanic Garden 
in May, and will continue to bear flowers during the early 
part of June. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower. 2. Back view of ditto.— Magnified. 

319 J. 

/W bv S Curtis (UncmrecJ /> . , 


( 3195 ) 

Acacia ruscifolia. ButcherVbroom- 
leaved Acacia. 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores polygami. Cal. 4— 5-dentatus. Pet. 4—5, nunc 
libera, nunc in corollam 4 — 5-fidam coalita. Stam. nutnero 
vana, 10 — 200. Legumen continuum, exsuccum, bivalve. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Acacia ruscifolia ; stipulis spinosis deciduis, phyllodiis ver- 
ticillatis sparsisve ovatis ovato-lanceolatisve acutis 
rnucronatis obscure 2 — 3-nerviis, mucrone recto pun- 
gen te, spicis (cylindraceis) solitariis axillaribus pedi- 
cellatis, pedicello phyllodii dimidium aequante, ramulis 
marg-inibusque superior! bus phyllodiorum cinereo- 
hispidis, floribus quadrifidis. Cunningh. 

Acacia ruscifolia. Allan Cunningh. MSS. 

Descr. A shrub, much branched in a straggling man- 
ner, the old branches terete, clothed with a brown, naked 
bark; the younger ones downy, with green prominent 
angles. Leaves (Phyllodia) horizontally patent, rarely 
solitary or in pairs, almost constantly verticillate, five or 
six in a whorl, linear-lanceolate, very harsh and rigid, ter- 
minated with a rigid spine, dark-green, entire, slightly pu- 
bescent, especially at the margin, which is thickened, 
furnished with a pale, on both sides prominent, midrib, 
and beneath besides with two obscure longitudinal nerves, 
scarcely observable but in the dried state. Flowers ar- 
ranged* in dense, solitary, axillary,, oblongo-cylindrical, 


dense spikes of a full and bright yellow colour. Calyx 
very minute. Corolla cut almost to the base in five deep 
ovate segments. Stamens very numerous, yellow. An- 
thers rounded. Pistil: none in the flowers of the specimen 
here figured. 

Communicated by W. T. Aiton, Esq. from the Royal 
Gardens of Kew, in April, 1832, to which establishment it 
was introduced by Mr. Allan Cunningham, who disco- 
vered it on the rocky shores of Macquarrie Harbour, Van 
Diemen's Land, bearing fruit, in January, 1819, Its 
nearest affinity is with Acacia Oxycedrus of Sieber, from 
which it is distinguished by its broader, shorter, and more 
constantly verticillate leaves and shorter spikes of flowers. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Whorl of Leaves. 3. Single Leaf: — magnified. 


■W *y 

( 3196 ) 
Daviesia virgata. Twiggy Daviesia. 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^i. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx angulatus ebracteatus 5-dentatus interdum sub- 
bilabiatus. Cor. carina vexillo breviore. Ovarium pe- 
dicellatum dispermum. Stylus strictus. Stigma simplex. 
Legumen compressum angulatum elastice dehiscens ad 
suturam infer, dilatatum, fere semitrapezoideum. Strophi- 
ola seminis postice integra. — Frutices Australasici glabri, 
spinosi aut inermes. Folia simplicia aut nulla. Pedicelli 
basi bracteolati axillares. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Daviesia* virgata; foliis subspathulato-linearibus (uncia- 
libus) verticalibus nervosis, rnucrone innocuo apicula- 
tis, margine crassiusculis, racemis axillaribus solitariis 
subquadrifloris folio triplo brevioribus basi bracteatis, 
ramis inermibus virgatis. Cunningh. 

Daviesia virgata. Allan Cunningham, MSS. 

Descr. Frutescent. Stem erects bearing many twiggy, 
alternate branches,, which are green, angular, and slender. 
Leaves remote, alternate, erecto-patent, linear, obtuse, with 
a short mucro, attenuated at the base, but destitute of peti- 
ole, vertical, striated, one to two or three inches in length. 
Flowers small, in short, somewhat corymbose racemes, aris- 
ing from the axils of the leaves, or from above the scar 
whence a leaf has fallen, much shorter than the leaves. 


* Named is compliment to the Rev. Bvoa Davies, a well-known Welch 

Pedicels slender, with a small, elliptical, obtuse, concave 
bractea at the base. Calyx bluntly five-toothed, teeth short, 
especially the upper one, red, as is part of the tube of the 
calyx, the rest green, quite glabrous : the teeth are fringed 
with a very minute, white down. Vexillum obcordate, with 
a short claw ; externally rich reddish-brown with a yellow, 
dorsal line, internally bright orange-red, white, or yellow- 
ish-white in the centre, around which is a dark-red spot 
sending forth radiating lines, AI<b obliquely oval, with 
short claws, reddish, or chocolate-coloured. Carina deeply 
boat-shaped, obtuse, yellowish-white, at the extremity deep 
chocolate-coloured. Stamens free. Filaments white, scarce- 
ly shorter than the pistil. Anthers roundish, yellow. Pistil 
quite glabrous, red tinged with green at the base. Germen 
linear-lanceolate. Style subulate, obtuse. 

This is another of the numerous interesting discoveries of 
Mr. Allan Cunningham, by whom it was introduced to the 
Royal Gardens at Kew, whence it was kindly communi- 
cated by Mr. Aiton. It inhabits the more elevated, dry, 
barren parts of the Blue Mountains of New Holland, where 
it flowers in October. In the greenhouse at Kew its blos- 
soming season is June. Mr. Cunningham observes, that it 
appears to be allied to D. racemulosa of De Candolle, and 
to D. umbellata of Sir J. E. Smith; but that it is really 
distinct from both. 

Fig. 1. Flower and a Bud. 2. Vexillum. 3. Alse. 4. Carina. 5. Calyx, 
Stamens, and Pistil. 6. Pistil. 

319 7. 

CUxtnwooJ £sscxJtir>/!<?>Z 

Smin So 

( 3197 ) 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Iridejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha diphylla. Perianthium simplex, corollinum, pro- 
funde 6-partitum, aequale. Filamenta connata. Stylus 
simplex. Stigma trifidum. Capsula 3-locularis, infera. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Sisyrinchium maculatum; caule folioso ancipiti-compresso, 
foliis lineari-ensiformibus, pedicellis longitudine spa- 
tli£e albo-membranaceae acuminata periantliii laciniis 
obovatis acutis, tribus macula magna atro-sanguinea, 
stigmatibus subulatis, ovario glanduloso. 

Descr. Stem, in our plant, scarcely more than a foot 
high, remarkably compressed, green, bearing four to five 
linear-ensiform, acuminated, striated, equitant leaves, the 
lower ones the longest, and about a span in height, all 
of them full yellow-green, scarcely at all scabrous. From 
the upper and shorter leaf arises a panicle of several flowers, 
three or four of which proceed together from a common 
spatha, only one however, flowering at once. Spathas lan- 
ceolate, conduplicate, green, with a broad, white, mem- 
branaceous margin, within which are a few membranaceous 
bracteae. Pedicels equal in length with the spatha, or 
scarcely exceeding it. Perianth of six obovate and some- 
what cuneated, acute, spreading segments of a full deep 
yellow colour, pale at the claws, and with a deep blood- 
red spot just above the claw; the three alternate ones with 
a large horse-shoe-shaped spot or cloud of the same hue 


occupying the whole width. The back of the segments of 
the perianth is of a paler colour, and the spots and clouds 
less distinctly marked. Stamens three., yellow. Filaments 
monadelphous. Anthers oblong, versatile. Germen infe- 
rior, broadly ovate, somewhat angled, glandular. Style 
shorter than the filaments of the stamens : Stigmas three, 
subulate, spreading. 

A native of Chili, where, in the neighbourhood of Valpa- 
raiso, it was found by Alexander Crucrshanrs, Esq. and by 
him introduced to the Glasgow Botanic Garden. It pro- 
duced its bright and lively coloured flowers in May, 1832, 
being treated as other plants of the same Genus, in the green- 
house. Its nearest affinity is with S. graminifolium (Bo't. 
Reg. t. 1067) ; but it is, with us at least, a smaller and less 
vigorous plant, the leaves are scarcely at all scabrous, the 
flowers larger, of a deeper yellow, and marked with dark 
blood-coloured spots, the spathas smaller, sharper, and more 
membranaceous at the margins. 

Fig. 1. Flower, from which the Perianth is removed : magnified. 

( 3198 ) 

Althaea rosea. Common Hollyhock. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord.— Malvaceae. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cah/x cinctus involucello 6— 9-fido. Carpella capsu- 
laria monosperma in orbem disposita. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Althaea* rosea ; caule strieto, foliis cordatis 5 — 7-angulatis 
crenatis rugosis, floribus axillaribus sessilibus (v. breve 
pedunculatis) ad apicem subspicatis, petalis subcrena- 
tis, unguibus villosis. 

Althaea rosea. Cav. Diss. 2. t. 29. /. 3. Linn. Sp. PL 
p. 966. De Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 437. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 3. p. 108. 

Descr. Root biennial. Stem, in our gardens, six to ten 
feet high, erect, stout, simple, more or less hispid with 
fasciculated, branched hairs. Leaves on rather short pe- 
tioles, cordate, five to seven-lobed, the lobes angled, une- 
qually serrated, upper-side dark green, slightly downy, 
beneath pale, more downy, with fasciculated stipules, large, 
unequally bifid. Flowers solitary, large, handsome. Pe- 
tiole short. Calyx large, five-cleft, downy, striated, the 
segments acute. Involucre monophyllous, large, cup- 
shaped, six to nine-lobed, striated, downy, the lobes ob- 
tuse, often bifid. Staminal tube short. Anthers very nu- 
merous, pale yellow. Germens numerous, collected around 


* Prom aAta, to comfort or cure ; from the healing qualities of plants of 
this tribe. 

the dilated downy base of the style, which latter is cleft 
at the extremity into several segments. Corolla of five 
very broad, wavy, obcordate or somewhat cuneate petals, 
united at the base, in our gardens varying excessively in 
colour though generally inclining to rose-red, often with a 
pale eye or centre, surrounded with a deep black-purple 

A native of China ; introduced in 1753, and now an uni- 
versal inhabitant of the garden and shrubbery in all the 
temperate parts of Europe, where it is a hardy biennial and 
greatly admired for its stately growth, and the size and 
profusion and rich and varied colour of the blossoms, which 
continue to flower in succession from June till a late period 
in autumn. Hollyhocks succeed too in any soil, but no 
where perhaps so perfectly as in the vicinity of the sea. 

Fig. 1. Young fruit. — Natural size. 


( 3199 ) 


Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — AsphodelejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium profunde 6-partitum vel 6-phylIum, folio- 
lis in ttibum approximates, interioribus Jongioribus apice 
paten ti bus. Stam. adscendentia erecta, 3 breviora recep- 
taculo corolla) inserta. Stylus trigynus, stigmate trigone 
Capsula obiongo-elongata, trigona, torta, tril ocular is. Sem. 
numerosa, plana, margin e membranacea. Schult. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Phormium* tenax. Thunb. Diss. Nov. Gen. p. 94. Forst. 
Gen. n. 24. Prodr. p. 325. Cook, Voy. v. 2. p. 96. 
cum Ic. Thouin in Ann. du Mus. v. 2. p. 228 et 474. 
t. 19. St. Fond, v. 19. p. 401. t. 20. Redout. Liliac. 
t. 448, 449. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 2. p. 284. Schult. 
Syst. Veget. v. 6. p. 621. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. 
p. 76. 

Descr. Root flesh y, forming a somewhat tuberiform 
rootstock, creeping beneath the surface of the soil, and 
sending up many tufts of luxuriantly growing leaves, from 
four to eight feet long, and from two to four inches in dia- 
meter. They are distichous, vertical, coriaceous, deep 
green, somewhat glaucous beneath, finely striated, ensi- 
form, the margin and nerve (especially at the back) are 
reddish -orange, at the base the inner edge has a deep fur- 
row, which sheathes the leaf immediately within it, and 
upon various parts of the surface a gummy substance flakes 
off in whitish spots or scales. From the centre of these 


* <poflu 0j -, a basket, in allusion to one of the uses made of the leaves of the 
plant, by the inhabitants of its native country. 

tufts of leaves arises a scape, in the present instance " twelve 
feet in height and bearing thirteen branches,, of which the 
lower ones contain about twenty flowers, and diminish 
gradually in number as they arise on the scape." These 
flowers are panicled and seeund, ascending or pointing up- 
wards, the peduncles and pedicels rounded, glabrous, often 
tinged with purple and sheathed with scales or bractece, 
margined with red. Perianth of six pieces or leaflets, ap- 
proaching so as to form a tube, three outer and three inner, 
all united at the base, and of a lanceolate form, concave ; 
the outer a dull brownish-orange, the inner a full yellow, a 
little longer than the outer, with their extremities patent. 
Stamens six, inserted each at the middle of the base of 
the segment of the perianth, and much exceeding it in 
length, three a little shorter than the other three. Filaments 
red above, yellow below. Anthers oblong, yellow, fixed by 
the centre of the back to the summit of the filament. 
Germen oval-oblong, greenish-brown, attenuated into a 
slender, triquetrous, red style. Stigma a mere point. The 
lower flowers of the branches seem to be very generally 
abortive and deciduous, breaking off at an apparent joint: 
the upper ones bear almost ripened capsules while many 
of the former are still in full flower : and these capsules 
are oblong, triquetrous, brown, and wrinkled, attenuated 
slightly at the base, and surrounded by the withered sta- 
mens and floral coverings, acuminated at the extremity, and 
terminated by the persistent but withered style, somewhat 
fleshy, three-celled ; each cell bearing numerous, compress- 
ed, imbricated, and erect seeds, inserted upon the inner 
angle of each cell. 

This highly useful plant is one of the many important 
discoveries, for which we are indebted to the late Sir Joseph 
Banks; who says, in Cook's first Voyage, when speaking of 
the productions of New Zealand : " But among all the 
trees, shrubs, and plants of this country, there is not one 
that produces fruit, except a berry, which has neither sweet- 
ness nor flavour, and which none but the boys took pains 
to gather, should be honoured with that appellation. There 
is, however, a plant that serves the inhabitants instead of 
Hemp and Flax, which excels all that are put to the same 
purposes in other countries. Of this plant there are two 
sorts; the leaves of both resemble those of Flags, but the 
flowers are smaller, and their clusters more numerous ; in 
one kind they are yellow, and in the other a deep red. 
* rom the leaves of these plants, with very little preparation, 
the natives make all their common apparel ; and they also 


manufacture their strings, lines, and cordage for every pur- 
pose, which are so much stronger than any thing we can 
make with Hemp, that they will not bear a comparison. 
From the same plant, by another process, they draw long 
slender fibres, which shine like silk, and are as white 
as snow : of these, which are also surprisingly strong, the 
finer clothes are composed ; while of the leaves, without any 
other preparation than splitting them into proper breadths, 
and tying the strips together, they make their fishing nets; 
some of which are of an enormous size. A plant, which, with 
such advantage might be applied to so many useful and 
important purposes, would certainly be a great acquisition 
to England, where it would probably thrive with very little 
trouble, as it seems to be hardy, and to affect no particular 
soil ; being found equally in hill and valley, in the driest 
mould and the deepest bogs. The bog, however, it seems 
rather to prefer, as near such places we found it to be larger 
than elsewhere/' 

The seeds brought home by Sir Joseph Banks in 1771 
did not succeed, but the New Zealand Flax was introduced 
to the Royal Gardens at Kew, through the medium of the 
same enlightened individual in 1789, and thence has been 
liberally distributed to collections in our own country and 
upon the continent. I possess flowering specimens in my 
Herbarium, which were produced in the Liverpool Gardens 
more than twenty years ago, the only instance that has come 
under my knowledge, except in the case of the individual 
plant now under consideration, which blossomed in June 
of the present year, in the greenhouse of Joseph Boultbee, 
Esq. of Springfield, Knowle, near Birmingham, who de- 
scribes it, " though not as a brilliant, yet as a very hand- 
some and magnificent plant." By Mr. Aiton it was sent to 
the garden of the Museum of Natural History of Paris in 
1800: and in that country it has, as might be expected from 
the nature of the climate in many of the districts, been cul- 
tivated in the open air, and, for the first time, it produced 
flowers in the department of the Drome, in 1812, but it 
bore no fruit. Messrs. Labillardiere, Faujas de St. Fond, 
Desfontaines, and Freycinet, have devoted much atten- 
tion to the cultivation, and to the manufactory of this plant. 
It has even withstood the severe winters of Paris : but in 
the South of France it has been propagated with consider- 
able success, and survived the winters without the smallest 
protection. In the departments of the west, particularly in 
the environs of Cherbourg, it has perfectly succeeded and 
yielded ripe fruit. It is readily increased too, by dividing 


the roots. M. Faujas de St. Fond, gives the following 
niode of preparing the fibre. He dissolves three pounds of 
soap in a sufficient quantity of water, together with twenty- 
five pounds weight of the split leaves of the Phormium tied 
up in bundles. All are then boiled during the space of 
five hours, until the leaves are deprived of a tenacious glu- 
ten, and of the gum-resin above alluded to, but which is 
not removed by the ordinary process employed in the pre- 
paration of Hemp : after which they are carefully washed in 

running water. 

From the experiments of M. Labillardiere, the strength 
of the fibre of this plant, as compared with that of the 
Agave Americana, Flax, Hemp, and Silk, is as follows : — the 
fibre of the Agave breaks under a weight of 7 ; Flax of 1 If ; 
Hemp of 16| ; Phormium 23f r ; and Silk of 24. Thus it 
appears that of all vegetable fibre, that of Phormium is the 
strongest. It possesses too, this further advantage over 
Hemp and Flax, according to the French authors, that it is 
of a brilliant whiteness, which gives it a satiny appearance, 
so that the cloths made of it do not need to be bleached by 
a tedious process, or through those other means, by which 
the quality of Hemp and Flax is considerably injured. 

There can scarcely be a question, seeing that the Phor- 
mium tenax has succeeded remarkably well in the open air 
in Invernesshire, Scotland, (apparently in the neighbour- 
hood of the sea,) without any shelter in the winter, and 
without even the protection of a wall, that the opinion 
expressed by Sir Joseph Banks of the suitableness of the 
English climate to it, is well founded. Indeed, we know 

that the late Yates, Esq. of Salcombe, Devonshire, 

did cultivate this plant upon a rather extensive scale, 
and made preparations for converting it into thread, which 
his sudden death prevented him from carrying into eifect. 
The south of Ireland would, in all probability be found to 
be well suited to its growth and increase. 

I shall refer my readers to the authors already mentioned 
for many interesting details concerning the New Zealand 
Flax, and shall devote the remaining space to a relation of 
what has been kindly communicated to me for this work, 
by that very intelligent Botanist and Traveller, Allan Cun- 
ningham, Esq. 

" The Phormium tenax is indigenous to the islands of 
New Zealand. On the northernmost of the islands, which 
has been traversed almost in every direction, by Europeans, 
it is found in greater or less abundance, as well on the im- 
mediate coasts in low situations, subject to be overflowed 

by the tide, as in the inland country, generally in ground 
more or less swampy. 

cc Extensively diffused as this valuable plant is over the 
surface of the island, it is along its western coast, to the 
southward of the parallel of 35°, and in Cook's Streight, 
that the greatest quantities have been found, where it is 
said to grow in fields of inexhaustible extent. The indige- 
nous growth of the Phormium is not limited simply to New 
Zealand ; for it was long ago discovered in a wild state at 
Norfolk Island, where it forms long tufts, along the cliffs, 
within the influence of the salt spray rising from the heavy 
surfs, which, ever and anon, lash the iron-bound shores of 
that small, but truly beautiful spot of the Pacific. 

" The preparation of the Flax for their own use, or for 
exchange with Europeans, is effected by the native women, 
and their method of separating the silky fibre, from the long 
Flag-like leaf of the plant, of which it forms the under sur- 
face, appears simple enough. Holding the apex of a re- 
cently cut leaf between their toes, they make a transverse 
section through the succulent matter at that end, with a shell, 
(which they still employ, though they possess every species 
of iron edge-tool,) and inserting the shell, (said to be of 
the Genus Ostrea,) between that substance and the fibre, 
readily. effect its separation, by drawing the shell through 
the whole length of the leaf. It is to be observed, that the 
separation is always performed by those people, when the 
vegetable is freshly cut : as the leaf contains a gum, which 
causes the fibre to adhere more strongly, when dry ; nor 
have the attempts of Europeans to extract the filaments 
from the leaf by maceration, been at all successful : the 
experiments that have been made at Sidney, showing that 
' the large proportion of the succulent matter (for so the 
failure was accounted for) rendered it impossible to effect 
the separation by decomposition in water, without materi- 
ally injuring the strength of the fibre.' 

" Simple as appears this mode of separating the Flax 
from the leaf by a shell, in the hands of those savages, still 
the European has not succeeded in his endeavours to pre- 
pare the fibre for himself, either by that, or any other means 
that have been tried ; nor has any instrument or piece of 
machinery yet been invented to enable him to strip oft, 
and prepare this valuable filament for the English market. 
The Port Jackson traders must still be dependent on the 
native women and their shells for the cargoes they obtain ! 
" The Flax thus obtained from the natives by the mer- 
chants of Sidney, undergoes no heckling, cleaning, or other 
J ° preparation, 

preparation, previous to its being shipped for the English 
market: but is merely made into bales, by being put in a 
press and screwed down. It is manufactured into every 
species of cordage, excepting cables, and Mr, Bigge, the 
Commissioner of Enquiry to New South Wales, observes in 
his Report, pp. 52, 53, that e its superiority of strength 
to the Hemp of the Baltic has been attested, both by expe- 
riments made at Sidney, and by one that was effected under 
his own observation in the King's Yard, at Deptford/ 

" The relative proportions of strength of each, however, 
I have, I am sorry to say, not been able to obtain for you. 
A casual meeting, however, which lately took place between 
an old and experienced captain of a merchant-vessel and 
myself, enables me to give you some information on this 
point. He had been for thirty five years at sea, and many 
years in the trade between Liverpool and Mauritius ; and 
from conversing upon sugar, Timor ponies, Torres Streights 
and coral reefs, we got upon the subject of New Zealand 
Flax and the rope it made, of which he spoke much in 
commendation, having employed it in the ships he had 
commanded. He had proved the superiority of the New 
Zealand Flax to Hemp in ropes, upon which there is al- 
ways a great strain on ship-board ; such as stays, braces, 
tacks, sheets, &c. ; and such were the strength, elasticity, 
(hence its value for stays) and durability of the fibre of the 
New Zealand material, that it admitted of the ropes for 
such purposes, which had been manufactured of it, being of 
less dimension, and therefore more convenient to use than 
the same description of rope, to be appropriated to the 
same purposes, of Baltic Hemp, necessarily required. As 
a comment on this information of the Mauritius' captain, I 
will here briefly observe, that in one of our voyages, (Mer- 
maid, with Capt. King) we bent a new main-sheet at Port 
Jackson, (which, in a cutter, is a rope on which there is 
ever much stress,) and after nine months, returned from the 
N. VV. coast, and the rope was still good and serviceable ; 
whereas, of Baltic Hemp, a main sheet, by friction and 
strain, would have been so worn, at the close of our survey 
on that coast, that it would have become indispensible to 
bend another to carry us back from that shore to Port 
Jackson, the voyage being seven or eight weeks. 

c I have not heard that canvass has been made of it, but 
my correspondent (a merchant from Sidney, now in Lon- 
don) informs me, that a person has been trying it in table- 
cloths, napkins, &c. but with what success he was not 

« For 

tc For many years past has some communication been 
kept up by individuals residing at Port Jackson, with the 
natives of New Zealand ; but it is only of late that the 
trade in Flax has been found to be a profitable speculation. 
Of this, the merchants of Hobart's Town and Launceston 
in Van Diemen's Land are now fully aware ; and having 
had their attention turned to its advantages, they are be- 
ginning to prosecute it with ardour. 

<c I may here remark, that at the period (years ago) when 
the trade with this noble race of savages was first opened 
by persons of courage and enterprize at Port Jackson, 
axes, knives, and other edge-tools, together with beads and 
similar ornaments, were received by them with avidity ; but 
now, they will hardly take any thing in exchange but arms 
and ammunition. With these last-named articles, the peo- 
ple are not at all likely to be satiated : there is no danger 
of there being a glut of muskets and gunpowder, to stop 
the trade in flax or Cowdie timber ; but the arms must be 
of a superior, or at least a good quality: for, as Mr. Busby, 
in his paper on New Zealand, just published with other 
authentic information relative to New South Wales, justly 
observes, (p. 61,) Honghi, the late chief of the Bay of 
Islands' Tribe, could bring into the field five hundred war- 
riors, all of the aristocratic or free class, armed with mus- 
kets ; and so well are they now acquainted with the quali- 
ties of the latter, that a vessel, which lately took down two 
hundred, could not dispose of them on any terms, because 
the locks were only single-bridled. The same vessel sold a 
ton and a half of gunpowder, in exchange for Flax, in a few 
days, and would have had as little difficulty in disposing of 
the muskets, had they been of a better description . Although 
most of the chiefs can now muster a large force armed with 
muskets, their avidity to add to their armoury has undergone 
no diminution ; and, with the exception of blankets, red 
woollen shirts and other warm clothing, tobacco, and sugar, 
scarcely any other article of English manufacture or mer- 
chandise has, as yet, any attraction for thern. 

" To what extent the trade in Flax has increased with 
these islanders of late, (say, since 1828,) some idea may be 
formed from the following facts. According to the sta- 
tistical returns of New South Wales, for the year 1828, 
New Zealand Flax to the extent of sixty tons, and valued 
a t £2,600, was exported from Sidney to England, during 
that year ; whilst, during 1830, (according to the returns 
taken from the Custom-House books,) the quantities stated 
a s the imports of it into Sidney for the English market were 


eight hundred and forty-one tons,, and in 1831, one thou- 
sand and sixty-two tons. Its present price in London, my 
correspondent informs me, may be stated at from £15 to 
£25 per ton, much depending on its quality, and the clean 
manner in which it is brought into the market. Some 
doubts have been entertained by merchants, of this kind of 
trade with the New Zealanders being likely to continue. 
In reply to this doubt, my friend observes, that he, among 
others, considers it doubtful at present : for as the demand 
for the raw commodity, as introduced into the London 
market, is not considerable, and at the public sales of it 
there is but little competition, few houses having com- 
menced to manufacture it, it may hardly fetch a remunera- 
ting price. But when its character has become more gene- 
rally known, than it at present is, and its superiority to 
Baltic Hemp more fully ascertained by rope manufacturers 
in England, the demand for it will increase, and the price 
improving, will induce Sidney merchants, to hold out to 
the New Zealand chiefs such novel and costly temptations, 
in the way of trade, as would ensure the continuance of 
their exertions in preparing the Flax for them, in which it 
has been said they have rather relaxed of late, because they 
are determined to see what new articles of use or ornament 
we could offer them, that would be worthy of their accept- 
ance, other than muskets and gunpowder. 

te I will close my remarks on the subject of the Phormium 
and the communication which it, and other indigenous pro- 
ductions of the soil of New Zealand have brought about, be- 
tween its half-civilized inhabitant and the European, in the 
words of Mr. Busby, in the page just referred to. ' This inter- 
course (with commercial men) claims the attention of His 
Majesty's Ministers, from the advantage which could not fad 
to result from fostering and protecting a trade, that is calcu- 
lated to open a very considerable demand for British manu- 
factures, and to yield, in return, an article of raw produce, 
not only valuable to England as a manufacturing country, 
but indispensible to her greatness as a maritime power, and 
which the superiority of that power will always enable her 
to command, independently of foreign countries. And, 
apart from all motives of interest, it is deserving of attention 
from the opportunities it affords of civilizing and convert- 
ing to Christianity, one of the most interesting races ot 
people, which British enterprise has yet discovered in any 
quarter of the globe !' " 

Fig. ], 2. Outer and inner Segment of the Perianth with its Stamens. 3. 
Capsule, scarcely mature. 4, 5. Sections of the same. 6. Seed, magnified 
— All but fig. 6, nat. size. 



tut 'if., i 

■/W ky >> Curtis, 01, 

arenmwd Zss ex Dec' US3Z. 

( 3200 ) 

Crotalaria striata. Striated-flowered 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-lobus, subbilabiatus, lab. sup. bi- infer. 3-fido. 
Corolla vexillum cordatum magnum, carina falcato-acumi- 
nata. Filamenta omnia connexa, vagina saapius superne 
nssa. Stylus lateraliter barbato-pubescens. Legumen tur- 
gidum valvis ventricosis inflatum, saepius polyspermum, 
pedicellatum. — Herbae aut frutices. Folia simplicia aut 
palmatim-composita, 3- aut rarissime b-foliolata. Flores 
scepius Jlavi. Bracteolae minima secus pedicellum aut ad 
basin calycis. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Crotalaria striata; stipulis nullis, foliis trifoliolatis foliolis 
ellipticis obtusis mucronatis subglabris, racernis termi- 
nalibus, bracteis setaceis marcescentibus demum de- 
ciduis, petalis omnibus striato-pictis, alis carina vexil- 
loque duplo brevioribus. 

Crotalaria striata. De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 131. 

Descr. A shrub, apparently of humble growth, with 
rounded, green branches. Leaves trifoliolate; leaflets ellip- 
tical, subglabrous, mucronate, about equal in length with 
the petiole, which is thickened at the base and destitute of 
stipule, unless, indeed, the stipules be early deciduous. Ra- 
cemes elongated, terminal, or in the axils only of the upper 
leaves. Bractece small, setaceous, soon withering, brown, 
a nd at length deciduous. Pedicels short, recurved. Flowers 
numerous, drooping. Calyx campanulate, with five, rather 


long, lanceolate, acuminated teeth. Corolla thrice as long 
as the calyx, yellow; all the petals striated with deep, 
orange-brown lines. Vexillum broadly oblong, reflexed. 
Ales oblong, subfalcate, acute, not half the length of the 
carina, which is equal in length with the vexillum and 
much acuminated. 

Our figure is from a drawing made ten years ago, by Mr. 
John Curtis, from a plant in the collection of the late Mr. 
Walker, of Arno's Grove, but unaccompanied with any 
remark. It is probably a stove plant, and a native of the 
Mauritius : at least, we have received specimens of what 
appears to be exactly the same species of Crotalaria from 
that island, and communicated by M. Bojer, under the 
name of " C. laburnifolia ;** but it is quite different from 
the plant of that name sent by Dr. Wallich, and agrees in 
many respects with C. bracteata of Roxb. and De Candolle, 
and with C. striata of the latter author ; both natives of 
the East Indies. I have referred it, but doubtfully, to C. 

ffJG—Mi JM ^ 

S.CurUs. Claicntwod Essm. Dcc r JJS32 

( 3201 ) 

Physianthus albens. Whitish-leaved 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asclepiade*;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cor. campanulata, tubo inflato-ventricoso, limbo 5-fido 
connivente. Columna fructificationis inclusa pentaphylla, 
foliolis tubo stamineo insertis, deinde corollas adnatis, 
sursum liberis cucullatis. Antherce membrana terminate. 
Pollinis massce decern, cereaceae, compresso - clavatae, in 
cruribus retinaculi deflexis pendulae. Stigma biapiculatum. 
Semina comosa. Martius. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Physianthus* albens; herbacea, volubilis, foliis oppositis 
integerrimis acutis basi cordato-truncatis subtus albo- 
pruinosis, floribus subdichotomo-cymosis. Martius. 

Physianthus albens. Mart. Nov. Genera et Sp. Plant. Bra- 
sil. v. 1 . 54. t. 32. Graham, in Ed. New Phil. Journ. 
Oct. 1832. Spreng. Sj/st. Veget. cur. post. p. 112. 

Descr. Root woody, branched, and fibrous. Stem woody, 
(at least when cultivated in the stove,) round, branched, 
twining; bark green, cracked, and on the recent shoots, 
which are very long and slender, pretty densely covered 
with short, adpressed pubescence. Branches opposite and 
axillary, spreading. Leaves (three inches long, an inch 
and three quarters broad,) petioled, opposite, oblong, trun- 

<pvcro<, a bladder, and *M, a flower, from the inflated corolla. 

cated below, undulate, entire, acute, deep green and prui- 
nose above, paler beneath, and there especially clothed with 
minute pubescence. Petiole about one-third of the length 
of the leaf, of the same colour with the shoots, channelled 
above, spreading. Peduncles lateral, more rarely axillary, 
subdichotomously cymose, four- to eight-flowered, about as 
long as the petiole, and similar to it ; pedicels (about seven 
lines long) spreading, straight. Calyx five-parted, green, 
very minutely tomentose, obscurely veined ; segments ovate, 
acute, spreading below, erect in their upper half, reflected 
at the sides. Corolla faintly perfumed, somewhat fleshy, 
white, when in bud pale rose-coloured, hypocrateriform, 
glabrous : tube (half an inch long) one and a half times as 
long as the calyx, at its base ventricose, with five gibbo- 
sities and slightly hairy on the inside, above pentagonous, 
sides depressed, and having a ridge in the centre of the 
depression ; limb (an inch and a quarter across) spread- 
ing, five-parted, segments ovate, acute, reflected at the 
apices and at the sides. Crown attached to the inside of 
the base of the tube, five-parted, lobes connivent, blunt, 
convex on the outside, alternate with the gibbosities of the 
tube, glabrous. Stamens opposite to the lobes of the crown, 
and twice as long as these, adpressed to the pistil ; fila- 
ments coarse and fleshy, monadelphous, concave on the 
inside, flat on the out, sagittate above, terminated by a 
little ovate, subacute point, below the sides of which, and 
on the inside of the filament, are the cells of the anther; 
pollen-masses yellow, elliptico-ovate, flattened, reticulated. 
Stigma large, conical, angular, terminated above by two 
appendages longer than itself, which diverge below, meet 
above near the apices, and again diverge ; glands alternate 
with the stamens, indented into the angles of the stigma, 
deep lilac, cartilaginous, slit vertically along their outer 
surface, terminated above by a cordate, brown process, 
emarginate at the apex, and below by two processes, which 
are brown, linear, flat, swollen at both their extremities, 
each becoming attached obliquely to the narrower extre- 
mity of a pollen-mass in the stamen next to it. Styles two, 
short, connivent above. Germens two, turgid, ovate, acute. 
Ovules very numerous, small, imbricated, filamentous, at- 
tached to the receptacle placed on the inside of the germen. 
Seeds of this fine plant were received by Mr. Neill from 
Mr. Tweedie, Buenos Ayres, in 1830, and climbing along 
the roof of the stove in his garden, flowered freely in August 
last. I possess from Mr. Tweedie an excellent specimen, 
in no respect different from the cultivated plant. Graham. 

f'Ma*iml J.t 

M iy & cwh, <* ■ „« , « £„^T^. 

( 3202 ) 

Manettia cordifolia. Heart-leaved 

Class and Order. 

Tetrandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rubiaceje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 4— 5-s. 8— 10-partitus. Cor. tubulosa 4— 5-fida. 
Stam. 4 — 5 fauci inserta. Caps, bilocularis. Sem. alata. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Manettia* cordifolia; glaberrima, caule suffruticoso volu- 
bili ramis teretibus, foliis cordatis acuminatis utrinque 
nitidis, stipulis amplexicaulibus acuminatis, pedunculis 
axillaribus unifloris folio longioribus, calyce 4-lobo 
lobulis minimis interjectis, corolla fauce nudo dilatato. 

Manettia cordifolia. Mart. Specim. Mat. Med. Bras. v. 1. 
p. 19. t. 7. De Cand. Prodr. v. 4. p. 363. 

Manettia glabra. Chamisso et Schlecht. Linn. 1829. p. 169. 
De Cand. Prod. v. 4. p. 363. 

Descr. Whole plant glabrous. Stem suffruticose, much 
branched, very slender, round, twining; bark grey and ex- 
foliating, on the young shoots green, glabrous, shining. 
Leaves (two inches long, one inch broad, but gradually 
smaller, and the uppermost about four lines long, two lines 
broad, while the low and largest on a vigorous cultivated 
specimen, are four inches long, and nearly two and a half 
broad) opposite, petioled, cordate, acuminate, glabrous on 
both sides, shining, pale, with prominent veins and obscure, 
minute, reticulations, below dark, and the veins slightly 
channelled above. Stipules small, subulate, and at length 
often reflexed in their upper half, bases broad and connate 
within the petioles, so as to form a small cup, which is 
occasionally toothed, round the branch. Peduncles elon- 
gated, solitary, glabrous, filiform, shining and single-flow- 

* Named in honour of Xavier Manetti, a Florentine Professor of Botany. 

ered, at the extremities of the branches, which are subse- 
quently elongated, rendering the peduncle axillary. Calyx 
green, glabrous, four-parted, with minute, divided inter- 
vening teeth ; segments acute, at length reflected, one- 
nerved. Corolla (fully an inch and a half long, three lines 
and a half across the revolute limb,) very handsome, shin- 
ing on the outer surface, and glabrous every where, except 
a little above its base on the inside, where for some dis- 
tance it is densely clothed with inverted, white hairs ; tube 
clavato-funnel-shapcd, with four flat sides, nectariferous, 
and only colourless at the base, every other part of the 
corolla vermillion-orange coloured, deepest on the inner 
side of the limb, green in the young buds, throat dilated 
and naked ; limb four-parted, segments deltoid, revolute. 
Stamens four, alternating with the segments of the corolla ; 
filaments colourless, adhering to the tube throughout its 
whole length, the free portion slightly connivent, and rather 
shorter than the segments of the limb ; anthers versatile, 
oblong, purple, inserted by their back, bursting along the 
front of the cells, which are distant in the middle, conni- 
vent at the extremities ; pollen green. Germen inferior, 
green, compressed, bilocular, crowned by a white, depress- 
ed disk, which rises above the insertion of the corolla. 
Style rather longer than the stamens, exserted, colourless, 
filiform. Stigma green, blunt, of two, erect, parallel lobes. 
Ovules numerous, erect, on erect, free, columnar recep- 
tacles, one rising with each loculament from near the base 
of the dissepiment. Capsule ovate, compressed, channelled 
on both sides, crowned by the persisting, indurated calyx, 
bivalvular, bilocular, opening by a division of the dissepi- 
ment ; valves boat-shaped, nerved, and each splitting into 
two teeth at the apex. Seeds brown, round, flattened, and 
surrounded by a membranous wing. 

This truly beautiful plant, raised from seed sent by Mr. Tweedie 
from Buenos Ayres, first showed flower in the stove of Mr. Neill's 
garden, Canonmills, near Edinburgh, in August last. Another and 
stronger specimen is just now (10th October,) opening its first blossoms ; 
and being covered with a profusion of buds in every stage, it promises 
to be exceedingly ornamental during many weeks. My native speci- 
mens, obligingly communicated by Mr. Tweedie, are from the woods of 
the Uraguay. The seeds were gathered on the banks of the Arroyo de 
la China, a stream which enters the Uraguay entre Rios. The dilated, 
naked throat of the corolla forms a remarkable exception to the Generic 
Character as drawn by Jussieu in Memoires du Museum 1820, p. 384, 
and the four-sided tube of the corolla with the connivent filaments are at 
variance with the Generic Character given by De Candolle, 1. c. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and Pistil. 2. Section of the Germen. 3. Stigma :— 


*JM. del* 

■Pai (V .9 Cnrtif. 

stx, DecJ.JS32 

( 3203 ) 

Acacia intermedia. Intermediate 

Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — LeguminosjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores polygami. Cal. 4 — 5-dentatus. Pet. 4—5, nunc 
libera, nunc in corollam 4 — 5-fidam coalita. Stam. numero 
vana, 10 — 200. Legumen continuum exsuccum, bivalve. 
— ^Frutices aut arbores habitu et foliatione varia. Spinas 
stipulareSj sparse aut nullce. Flores jlavi, albi aut rarius 
rubri, capitati aut spicati, decandri aut polyandri, eleuthe- 
randri aut monadelphi, petalis 4 — b-liberis coalitisve con- 
Mantes.— Sect. I. PHYLLODINEJ3. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Acacia intermedia; phyllodiis lineari-lanceolatis acutis basi 
attenuatis obscure bi- trinerviis, spiciscylindricis com- 
pacts, floribus quadrifidis, petalis reflexis, stylo sta- 
minibus duplo longiore. Cunningh. 

Acacia intermedia. Cunningh. MSS. apud Hort. Reg. Kew. 

Descr. The specimen here figured is from a shrub of 
strong- growth, eight feet in height ; much branched, the 
branches twiggy, of a rusty-brown colour, quite glabrous, 
(as is the whole plant,) bearing copious foliage, especially 
at f the slender extremities. Leaves or phyllodia two and a 
half to three inches long, linear-lanceolate, attenuate at the 
base, acute at the extremity, of a full but yellowish-green 
colour, not at all approaching to glaucous, obscurely mark- 
ed with three nerves, and with still more obscure, anastomos- 
ing veins. Flowers crowded, fragrant, arranged in rather 
long, slender, cylindrical, spreading, sessile, deep yellow 


spikes, shorter than the leaves. Calyx short, quadrifid. 
Corolla deeply quadrifid, the segments oblongo - ovate, 
rather obtuse, and reflexed at the apex. Stamens very nu- 
merous, twice the length of the corolla, and half the length 
of the filiform wavy style. 

From the Royal Gardens at Kew, where it has been long 
cultivated among the plants that were the earliest intro- 
duced from New Holland : but which does not yet appear 
to have been taken up by any author. My friend, Mr. 
Allan Cunningham, has justly pointed out the Acacia flovi- 
bunda, Willd. and Vent., Choix des Plantes, t. 13, and A. 
mucronata, Willd. and Wendl., Diss. t. 12, as among its 
nearest allies : — but the former has longer leaves, much 
larger spikes, with exceedingly remote five-fid flowers, and 
a much shorter style ; and the latter has linear-spathulate 
leaves, with a rounded apex and a mucro, and lax flowers. 

Fig. 1 . Flower .—magnified. 

^ v \ 7 


( 3204 ) 

Calendula officinalis. Common 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Necessaria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus nullus. Cat polyphyl- 
lus, aequalis. Sem. disci membranacea. Willd. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Calendula * officinalis ; seminibus cymbiformibus muri- 

catis omnibus incurvatis. Willd. 
Calendula officinalis. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1304. Willd. Sp. 

PL p. 2340. Jit. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 4. p. 166. 

Spreng. Si/st. Veget. v. 3. p. 623. 
(3.) flore pleno. 

Descr. Root annual, fibrous. Stem about a foot high, 
with many patent, dichotomous, or sometimes, trichotomous 
branches, striated, green, succulent, hispido- pubescent. 
Leaves oblong, acute, somewhat succulent, broad, and a 
bttle cordate at the base, the margins quite entire, often, 
as well as here and there upon the surface, hispid with short 
hairs. Flowers large, terminal, solitary upon each branch, 
of a rich, full golden yellow, deeper and brighter previous 
to their full expansion. Involucre of many nearly equal, 
oppressed, linear -subulate, piloso - hispid leaves or scales, 


* From Calend<e, the Calends, or the first day of every month, according 
to the Romans ; in allusion to its bearing a succession of blossoms for a very 
long period— -flower of every month. In France it is called Souci, or Solsi, 
altered, according to Theis, from solsequium, to follow the course of the 

not one-third so long as the radiant florets, the apices a 
little recurved. Corollas of the ray ligulate, female tri- 
dentate, broadly linear, the lower tubular portion hairy. 
Germen singularly boat-shaped, curved like a horse-shoe, 
large, green, downy, within having a thickened margin, 
more or less tuberculated on the back. Florets of the 
centre all tubular, small, male, and, consequently, sterile; 
the mouth five-cleft, the base hairy. Abortive Germen 
cylindrical, downy, green. Receptacle dotted. The heads 
of fruit have a singular appearance : the centre or disk is 
occupied by the closely packed, abortive pistils, and sur- 
rounded by the numerous, large achenia, which constitute 
the circumference, and are cymbiform, with a broad, thick- 
ened margin, singularly incurved, within at the base having 
an elevated lamella, the back furnished with a tuberculated 
ridge : the inner of these achenia are more narrow, and 
have less margin. 

mi • i 

This well-known and truly brilliaut ornament of our 
gardens, even of that of the humblest cottager, has, strange 
to say, never found a place in any of our periodical Maga- 
zines. It is too, a very old inhabitant of our flower-borders, 
having been introduced so long ago as 1573, from the 
South of Europe: and is now frequent in the gardens even 
of the peasantry. Linn^us observed, that its flowers usu- 
ally expanded from nine in the morning till three in the 
afternoon ; but Shakespeare seems more correct when he 
calls it 

The Mary gold that goes to bed with the sun, 
And with him rises weeping." 

The flowers, which vary much in intensity of colour, and 
in being more or less double, were formerly, and are still, 
used in some parts of England, to impart an agreeable 
colour and peculiar flavour to soups and broths, and have 
been considered as " comforters of the heart and spirits :" 
and a distilled water, and a kind of vinegar and a conserve 
have been prepared from them. 

Fig. 1. Central male Floret. 2. Male ligulate Floret of the Circum- 
ference. 3. An outer Pericarp of the Head of Fruit : — magnified. 


'te* #-£&*» CbZR* 

( 3205 ) 
Mentzelia hispida. Hispid Mentzelia. 


Class and Order. 


( Nat. Ord. — Loase^e. Juss. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. persistens, tubo cylindraceo sub 5-sulcato, lobis 5 
lanceolatis subulatisve aequalibus. Petala 5 suramo caly- 
cis tubo inserta aequalia. Stamina plurima petalorum nu- 
mero multiplicia cum iis inserta,, filamentis liberis saepc in 
phalanges dispositis, antheris ereetis ovatis bilocularibus. 
Ovarium calycino tubo adnatum. Styli 3 ad medium aut ad 
apicem in unicum striis tribus notatum connexi. Capsula 
turbinato-cylindracea, calycinis lobis coronata, 1-locularis, 
apice 3-valvis. Semina 3, 6, 9, aut abortu ab iis numeris 
subdiscrepantia, placentis 3 parietalibus inserta. — Herbae 
ramoso-dichotomce, pilis barbatis aut glochidiatis rigidis 
asperce. Folia alterna aut subopposita exstipulata grosse 
dentata. Flores Jiavo-aurantii, in dichotomiis solitarii sub- 
sessites, aut, ramo uno abortivo, pseudo-axillares, sole fer- 
venti expansi. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Mentzelia* hispida ; petal is obovatis mucronato-acumina- 
tis calyce longioribus, staminibus 30 — 3b, quorum 10 
ext. majoribus, foliis floralibus sessilibus. 

Mentzelia hispida. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 1176. Juss. 
Ann. du Mus. v. 5. p. 24. De Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 
343. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 601. 

Mentzelia aspera. Cav. Ic. v. I. p. 51. t. 70. (excl. syn.J 
Hook, in Bot. Misc. v. 2. p. 220. (excl. Syn. Linn.) 

Descr. Stem herbaceous, erect, branched in a dicho- 
tomous manner, clothed with a pale, whitish, shining bark, 


* In compliment to C. Msntxhl, a Botanical Author of Brandenburg. 


which easily peels off, and is rough to the touch, and, on 
the young branches, rough with hairs. Leaves opposite, 
ovate, shortly petiolate, deeply and very irregularly ser- 
rated, often angled, rough on both sides with harsh, rigid 
hairs. Flowers solitary, large, terminal upon the branches, 
or axillary in the dichotomies. Calyx with its tube ad- 
herent with the germen, rough with hairs, the five seg- 
ments lanceolate, reflexed. Petals five, broadly ovate, 
acuminulate, deep, rather fulvous yellow, patent. Sta- 
mens numerous, the ten outer ones the largest. Filaments 
slender, yellow. Anthers rounded. Germen roundish, ob- 
long, inferior. Style filiform. Stigma obtuse. Immature 
capsule oblong, crowned with the style and the reflexed 
segments of the calyx, very rough ; according to Cava- 
nilles about six-seeded. 

Seeds of this plant were sent to the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden from Yazo, in the valley of Canta, Peru, by Mr. 
Crucrshanks, and the plant produced flowers in April, 1832. 
When noticing this species, from the dried specimens com- 
municated to me by the same traveller, in the Botanical Mis- 
cellany above quoted, I was led to refer it to the Mentzelia 
aspera of Linnjsus, and I am now far from certain that 
authors have done right in separating the two, the differ- 
ences appearing to me to rest on very slight grounds. I 
there likewise mentioned, that the M. oligosperma of North 
America, seemed to me to be scarcely different from the 
present. Its flowers are smaller, more tawny, and the seeds 
are described as two or three in each capsule. 

Cavanilles and De Candolle give our plant as an in- 
habitant of Mexico, where it is called Zazale. Its pow- 
dered roots are violently purgative and used medicinally. 

Fig. 1. Flower, not fully expanded. 2. Petal and Stamens. 3. A long 
and a shorter Stamen. 4. Pistil. 5. Immature Capsule. — Magnified. 


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Sixth 
Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Ninth of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged. 


Acacia cinerascens. 


■ ruscifolia. 

Acrotiche ovalifolia. 

iEchmea Mertensii. 

Alpinia magnifica. 

Althaea rosea. 

Andromeda tetragona. 

Anthericum semibarbatum. 

Arbutus pilosa. 

Arthrostemma nitida. 

Astragalus alopecuroides. 

Beeckea saxicola. 

Bidens striata. 

Calendula officinalis. 

Calochilus campestris. 

Cerasus sphaerocarpa. 

Cere us Royeni. 

Cleome gigantea. 

Clitoria ? arborescens. 

Coccoloba pubescens. 
■ ■ uvifera. 

Couroupita Guianensis. 

Crotalaria striata. 
Daviesia virgata. 
Diuris maculata. 
Doronicum Caucasicum. 
Epacris onosmseflora. 
Epidendrum variegatum. 
Eriocaulon decangulare. 
Eriostemon myoporoides. 
Francoa appendiculata. 
Geitonoplesium cymosum. 
Geranium albiflorum. 
Gratiola tetragona. 
Grevillea Caleyi. 



Habenaria cordata. 
Helleborus purpurascens. 
Hibbertia Cunninghamii. 

3144 Hibiscus Genevii. 

3152 Manihot, ft 

3163 Hymenanthera dentata 
3123 Lathyrus decaphyllus. 
3162 Leucopogon lanceolatus. 
3140 Lilium tenuifolium. 
3147 Lissanthe sapida. 

3138 Lobelia robusta. 
3202 Manettia cordifolia 
3154 Maxillaria picta. 

3173 placanthera. 

3146 tetragona. 

3176 Menziesia empetrifolia. 
3205 Mentzelia hispida. 
3128 Michauxia laevigata. 
3157 Mimusops dissecta. 

3153 Myrcia acris. 
3189 Oenothera speciosa. 

3179 Ornithogalum corymbosum. 
3175 Paeonia officinalis, var. anemot 

3199 Phormium tenax. 
3201 Physianthus albens. 
3132 Piper Betle. 

3139 nigrum. 

3161 Pittosporum cornifolium. 
3145 Polygonum adpressum. 
3167 Primula Sibirica. 
3172 Pterostylis Banksii. 

3149 Rosa Kamtchatica. 
3182 Riilingia corylifolia. 

3135 Salvia strictiflora. 

3150 Sida rosea. 

3197 Sisyrinchium maculatum. 

3136 Stylidium scandens. 

3194 hirsutum. 

3188 Symphytum Caucasicum. 
3191 Tecoma Stans. 

3148 Thea viridis. 

3190 Tropaeolum pentaphyllum. 

3169 tricolorum. 

3127 Verbena venosa. 


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the 
Sixth Volume of the New Series (or Fifty-Ninth of the 
Work) are alphabetically arranged. 

3195 Acacia, Butcher's broom- 

3174 grey* fragrant. 

3203 intermediate. 

3171 Acrotriche, oval-leaved. 

3186 ^Echmsea, Mertens'. 
3192 Alpinia, magnificent. 
3181 Andromeda, four-sided. 
3129 Anthericum, half-bearded. 

3177 Arbutus, hairy. 

3142 Arthrostemma, shining. 
3160 Bseckea, stone. 

3155 Bur-marigold, striated-flow- 


3187 Calochilus, Field. 
3125 Cereus, Van Royen's. 
3141 Cherry, Noyau. 
3137 Cleome, gigantic. 
3105 Clitoria, woody. 

3153 Clove-tree, wild, or Bay-berry 

3188 Comfrey, Caucasian. 

3158 Couroupita, Guiana, or Cannon- 

ball tree. 

3159 Ibid. 

3124 Crane's-bill, white-flowered. 
3200 Crotalaria, striated-flowered. 
3196 Daviesia, twiggy. 

3156 Diuris, spotted. 

3168 Epacris, Onosma-flowered. 
3151 Epidendrum, variegated. 
3180 Eriostemon, cuspidate. 

3189 Evening Primrose, large white- 

3123 Everlasting Pea, ten-leafletted. 
3199 Flax, New Zealand. 

3178 Francoa, appendiculated. 
3131 Geitonoplesium, cymose. 

3133 Grevillea, Blechnum-leaved. 

3184 — gigantic. 

3185 hoary. 

3164 Habenaria, heart-leaved. 

3134 Hedge-hyssop, four-sided. 
3170 Hellebore, purplish. 

3183 Hibbertia, Mr. Cunningham's. 
3144 Hibiscus, large purple-eyed. 

3152 Hibiscus, palmated-leaved, 

var. /3. 
3198 Holyhock, common. 
3163 Hymenanthera, tooth-leaved. 
3190 Indian-cress, five-fingered. 

3169 three-colored. 

3143 Leopard's-Bane, Caucasian. 
3162 Leucopogon, lanceolate. 
3140 Lily, slender-leaved. 

3147 Lissanthe, esculent. 

3138 Lobelia, thick-stemmed, 
3202 Manettia, heart-leaved. 

3204 Marigold, common. 
3173 Maxillaria, flat-anthered. 

3146 four-cornered. 

3154 painted. 

3205 Mentzelia, hispid. 

3176 Menziesia, crow-berry-leaved. 
3128 Michauxia, smooth. 

3193 Milk-Vetch, Fox-tail. 
3157 Mimusops, cut-flowered. 
3175 Paeony, common, var. of the 

anemone -flowered. 
3132 Pepper, Betel. 

3139 black, or common. 

3201 Physianthus, whitish-leaved. 

3126 Pipe-wort, ten-angled. 
3161 Pittosporum, Cornel-leaved. 
3172 Pterostylis, large-leaved. 
3145 Polygonum, berry-bearing, or 

Macquarie-harbour grape. 
3167 Primrose, Siberian. 

3149 Rose, Kamtschatka. 
3182 Rulingia, nut-leaved. 

3135 Sage, erect-flowered. 

3166 Sea-sideGrape, do wny,or great- 
leaved, Leather-coat tree. 
3130 Sea-side Grape, round-leaved. 

3150 Sida, reddish globe-flowered. 
3197 Sisyrinchium, spotted-flowered 
3179 Star of Bethlehem, Peruvian. 

3194 Stylidium, hairy. 

3136 _ climbing. 

3148 Tea, green. 

8191 Tecoma, Ash-leaved. 

3127 Vervain, strong-nerved.