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Full text of "Curtis's botanical magazine."

CURTIS'S 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE; 

J-"*""'" OR 

In which the most Ornamental Foreign Plants cultivated in the Open Ground, 

the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented and coloured. 

To which are added, 

THEIR NAMES, CLASS, ORDER, GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS, 
ACCORDING TO THE SYSTEM OF LINNAEUS; 

Their Places of Growth, Times of Flowering, and most approved 
Methods of Culture. 



CONDUCTED 



By SAMUEL CURTIS, F. L. S. 



THE DESCRIPTIONS 



By Sir WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, K. H. 

LLD. F. R. A. and L. S. and Regius Professor of Botany in the 
„ University of Glasgow. 



VOL. XII. CI 

OF THE NEW SERIES; 
Or Vol. lxv. of the whole Work. 



Securely here the flowers unfold 

Their painted leaves, — nor winter's cold 

Nor summer's sun they fear ; 
From various soil and clime they come, 
Monthly to renovate their bloom, 

And flourish all the \. 



LONDON : 

Printed by Edward Couchman, 10, Throgmorton Street: 

FOR THE PROPRIETOR, SAMUEL CURTIS, 

AT THE 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE WAREHOUSE, GLAZENWOOD, NEAR COGGESIIAI.L, WSBX : 

Published also by Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper, 23, Paternoster Row ; Blackwood, Edinburgh ; and in Holland, 

by Mr. Oi. Eldering, Florist, at Haarlem : 

And to he had of all Booksellers in Te 



1839 



TO THE 

HON. & REV. WILLIAM HERBERT, 

OF SPOFFORTH, 

DISTINGUISHED 
NO LESS AS A CULTIVATOR, THAN BY HIS VAST KNOWLEDGE 

OF 

THE AMARYLLIDACE^E 

AND OTHER ALLIED MONOCOTYLEDONOUS ORDERS, 
MANY OF WHICH HAVE BEEN REPRESENTED IN THIS WORK, 

ILLUSTRATED 
BOTH BY HIS PENCIL AND PEN, 

THE PRESENT VOLUME IS DEDICATED, 

WITH SENTIMENTS OF GREAT REGARD 
AND ESTEEM, 

BY HIS FAITHFUL 

AND OBEDIENT SERVANT, 

W. J. HOOKER. 

Glasgow, February 1, 1839. 




5626 



( 3626 ) 

LlSIANTHUS RuSSELLIANUS. DlJKE OF BeD- 

ford's Lisianthus. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Gentiane^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Anthers incumbentes, plerumque dernum recurvae. Co- 
rolla infundibuliformis, marcescens, 5-mera. Stigmata bila- 
m el lata. Capsula valvulis introflexis scmi-4 — 2-locularis, 
vel saepius complete bilocularis, placentis utrinque biuis. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Lisianthus Russellianus ; glaucus, foliis ovatis acutissimis 
3 — 5-nerviis, floribus paniculatis, calycibus profundc 
partitis laciniis longissime subulatis, corolla (speciosis- 
sima) 5-partita campanulato-infundibuliformi, laciniis 
late obovatis patentibus. 

Lisianthus glaucifolius. Nutt. Fl. Ark. p. 197. (not Jacq.j. 



Specimens and seeds of this plant were among the last of 
the many novelties that were sent home by the lamented 
Drummond from San Felipe de Austin, Texas, in 1835. 
They were accompanied by the remark, " not excelled in 
beauty by any plant:" and truly one has only to see this 
species of Lisianthus in a flowering state, to be assured of 
the accuracy of the observation. It was shortly before the 
period of the arrival of these seeds and specimens, that His 
Grace the Duke of Bedford, with his wonted liberality, 
contributed a sum of money, which, had the receiver conti- 
nued in health, would have materially assisted in forward- 
ing his views in Florida, but which was no less available in 
a period of pain and sickness immediately preceding his 
lamented death in Cuba ; and I am rare thai in dedicat- 
ing this splendid plant to so distinguished a patron of 

Science, 

w>r.. xii. u 



Science, I shall have the approbation of every Botanist and 
of every lover of Horticulture. 

Although apparently an annual in the wild state, yet no 
specimen flowered till 1837, and then for the first time in the 
greenhouse at Bothwell Castle, under the skilful manage- 
ment of Mr. Turnbull. It was there that the drawing here 
figured was made, in August of that year. Shortly after, its 
lovely blossoms were produced in the Glasgow Botanic Gar- 
den : and so long-lived were they, that we have remarked a 
single blossom continuing in great beauty for a period of 
three weeks. I think there can be no doubt but, under pro- 
per management, by forcing in the early spring, and plant- 
ing out in the open border, this plant will there perfect its 
flowers as readily as the Phlox Drummondii. In the Genus 
the species will rank near L. glaucifolius, J acq., Ic. Rar. t. 33. 
(Chlora exaltata, Grisebr.) having, like it, glaucous leaves, 
a deeply divided corolla, and long subulate segments to 
the calyx, but readily distinguished by the vastly larger 
flowers, three to five-nerved (not single-ribbed) leaves, of 
which the upper ones are finely acuminated, and by the 
absence of a keel or wing to the calyx-segments. In the 
dried collection sent home by Mr. Drummond, and distri- 
buted, this plant is numbered 177. I possess specimens 
gathered by M. Berendier, at Nouveau Leon, Monterey, 
Mexico; and by Mr. Nuttall, from the Great Salt River, 
Arkansa. 

Descr. Annual. Stem one to two feet high, erect, round- 
ed, simple, or throwing out a few opposite branches, and, 
as well as the foliage, glabrous and glaucous. Leaves 
opposite and connate, ovate or ovato-oblong, three to five- 
nerved, very acute, gradually becoming smaller upwards, 
and more acuminated, till they pass into the subulate brae- 
teas at the base of the peduncles. Flowers large, hand- 
some, borne in a terminal panicle. Pedicels elongated. 
Calyx deeply five-partite ; the segments erect, from an 
ovate base, gradually lengthened into a long, subulate 
point. Corolla as large as a tulip ! Tube short, limb of 
five, large, obovate, spreading segments : the colour a rich 
purple, with a very deep eye in the centre. Filaments 
scarcely longer than the tube: Anthers large, yellow. 
Germen oblong, equal in length with the style : stigma of 
two, very large, yellow-^reen, velvety spreading plates. 
Margins of the valves of the capsule much introflexed. 
Seeds minute, orbicular-reniform, deeply punctated, pale- 
brown. 



Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil. 3. Section of the Germen -.—magnified. 



3627 




( 3627 ) 

ECHINOCACTTS TUBIFLORUS. TuBE-FLOWERED 

Spine-Cactus. 

*************** ^^.^^ 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MoNOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord— Cacte^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala numerosa imbricata basi ovarii adnata in tubum 
brevissimum concreta, exteriora iiivolucriformia, intima 
petaliformia Stamina numerosa. Stylus filiformis apice 
miiltindus. Bacca sepalorum reliquiis subsquamata. Co- 
medones nullae ?— Prutices simplicissimi carnosi ovati aut 
globosi melocactoidei costati aphylli costis tuberculis conflu- 
entibus quasi formatis, dor so aculeorum fasciculos gerenti- 
bus Cepha hum sen spadix nullus. Floras e fasciculis 
aculeorum ad apices costarum orti, similes fioribusCevei sed 
tubo vix ullo donati. D C. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Echinocactus tubiflorus ; subgloboso depresso umbilicato 
costis profundis subundecim undulatis compressis tu- 
berculis lanatis aculeatis aculeis 5—6 lineas lon^isVas- 
ciculatis stnctis nigris, floris tubo 6—8 uncias°lono 
superne dilatato fasciculatim villoso, petalis patentibus 
(albis acummatis). 

Echinocactus tubiflorus. Hort. Angl.-Pfeiff. Enum. Cact. 

& ■ Jb4AAe#,<+i--i ,.,-r--^ - Av P Vu , J^ , fiL && $7 

The drawing here figured was kindlv communicated un- 
der the name now adopted, by Mr. Frederic Macrie, of the 
Norwich Nursery, in whose collection of Cacte^e (late Mr. 
Hitchin's) it has lately flowered. Its affinity with E. Eyri- 
esn will be at once perceived : but from that species it dif- 
fers remarkably in the fewer and much deeper angles to 

the 



the stem, in the very much longer and stronger and black 
species, collected into fewer fascicles. The flower, as Mr. 
Mackie observes, is larger, the tube longer and slenderer, 
and clothed with much longer tufts of hairs. It is, in all 
probability, a native of the same country as E. Eyriesii, 
namely Mexico. 

Descr. Stem subglobose, much depressed, umbilicated 
at the top, and deeply cut into about eleven very prominent, 
compressed, slightly undulated angles, which have five or 
six woolly tubercles, each giving rise to a fascicle of six to 
eight strong black spines, from half to nearly three quarters of 
an inch long. From one of these fascicles the flower springs, 
which is remarkably large in proportion to the size of the 
plant. The calycine tube is very long, a little enlarged 
upwards, brownish-green, scaly, each scale with a long tuft 
of slender, flaccid hairs. Petals spreading, white, oblong, 
much acuminated. Stamens numerous, included, white as 
well as the style and stigmas. 



A ^ 



1628. 







( 3628 ) 
Verbena incisa. Cut-leaved Melindres. 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA AnGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Verbenace,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-fidus, dente unico subbreviore. Corolla limbus 
irregulariter 5-lobus. Stamina inclusa. Utriculus 4-sper- 
uius, cito rumpens, ut rnaturi fructus caryopses sistant. 
Spr. 

* 

Specific Name and Character. 

Verbena incisa ; pubescenti-hirsuta erecta suffruticosa ra- 
mosa, foliis petiolatis cordato-oblongis pinnatifido-lo- 
batis grosse inciso-dentatis superioribus sublanceolatis 
sessilibus inciso-pinnatifidis, corymbis terminalibus 
planiusculis, floribus subsessilibus, calycibus cylindra- 
ceis 5-dentatis 5-costatis tubo corollas i brevioribus, 
limbi obliquo 5-lobis segmentis cuneatis bifidis. 



This is another South American Verbena of the ei Melin- 
dres" group, for the discovery of which we are indebted to 
Mr. Tweedie, who sent the seeds to G. F. Dickson, Esq., 
of Everton, near Liverpool, by whom they were raised in 
1836. Mr. Skirving, of the extensive nursery of Liverpool, 
transmitted the specimens now represented. Mr. Tweedie's 
specimens corresponding to the figure here given, are ga- 
thered at Santa Fee, in dry pastures in Porto Alegro Bay 
(Nos. 504 and 505), and on the shores of the Panama (No. 
460). It flowered in the greenhouse, in July (1837), and 
is extremely handsome, the blossoms of a deep red rose- 
colour, with a yellow eye, and becoming paler in age. It 
will rank next to V. Tweediana, from which it differs in the 
broad and depressed (not spiked) corymbs, in the broader 

lea 



leaves which are far more deeply lobed and cut in a pinna- 
tifid maimer. This will, in all probability, prove as hardy 
a species as V. chamcedrifolia. 

Descr. Whole plant pubescently hairy. Stem, in the 
individual from which our figure was taken, erect, but 
weak, between two to three feet high, branched. The 
leaves below cordato-oblong, petiolate, deeply lobed and 
cut, especially near the base ; the upper ones sessile, inci- 
so-pinnatifid, much narrower than the rest, and with longer 
and narrower segments. Corymbs terminal, of many nearly 
sessile flowers, presenting a nearly plane or slightly convex 
surface. Calyx cylindrical, slender, pale, with five dark- 
green angles or ribs, and as many very short, spreading 
teeth. Corolla with the tube slender, about one-third longer 
than the calyx, whitish ; limb large, spreading, oblique, of 
five wedge-shaped and bifid lobes, rose-crimson on the up- 
per side, very pale beneath, the eye yellow, the mouth 
closed with converging hairs. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Leaves from the lower part of the Stem. 



S629. 




/*■*/>. A, 



( 3629 ) 

Maxillaria aureo-fulva. Golden-brown 
Maxillaria. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium connivens, raro patens. Sepala lateralia 
cum basi producta columnae connata. Petala subconformia. 
Labellum trilobum, cucullatum, sessile, cum basi producta 
columnae articulatum. Columna semiteres, aptera. An- 
thera subbilocularis. Pollinia 2, bipartibilia v. integra, 
caudicula brevi, glandula transversa. — Epiphytal (Ameri- 
cana) pseudo-bulbosce, acaules v. caulescentes. Folia pli- 
cata, v. coriacea. Pedunculi radicales, axillares v. termi- 
nates, uni- v. multiflori. Lindl. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Maxillaria aureo-fulva; pseudo-bulbis rotundato-ovatis 
3 — 4-angulatis rugosis monophyllis, folio elliptico-ob- 
longo striato petiolato acuto, scapo radicali folio lon- 
giori, floribus racemosis, sepalis oblongis acuminatis 
lateralibus basi in calcar spuriurn obtusum connatis, 
petalis labelloque conformibus. 



Not having seen the plant from which this very beautiful 
drawing is made, I am unable to describe its flowers, and 
especially the labellum, so accurately as I could wish. It 
exists in the collection of Mr. Allcard, who received it from 
Rio. Its nearest affinity is assuredly with M. racemosa 
(Bot. Mag. t. 2789) : but the pseudo-bulb and leaf are 
very different ; the flowers larger, of a full golden-brown 
colour, the spur shorter, more obtuse, and more closely 
applied to the gennen ; and the lip is narrower, and very 
different in form 



~>u~»o. 




1 



( 3630 ) 

TWEEDIA VERSICOLOR. ChANGEABLE-FLOW- 
ERED TWEEDIA. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 

Pentandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Asclepiade^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla campanulata, fauce coronata, 
squamis 5 carnosis retusis vel bifidis, exsertis, sinubus op- 
positis. Corona staminea nulla. Antherce membrana ter- 
minate. Massa? pollinis ventricosae, apice attenuato affixaj, 
penduke. Stigma elongato-acuminatum, bipartitum. — Suf 
frutices volubiles. Folia opposita membranacea. UmbellaB 
axillares. F lores majusculi. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Tweedia* versicolor; pubescenti-tomentosa, foliis brevi- 
petiolatis oblongo-hastatis,pedunculis umbellatis 3—4- 
floris, corollas laciniis obtusis, squamis corollinis ligu- 
latis apice recurvis crenatis., antheris erecto-appressis, 
stigmate bifido squamis corollinis vix longiore. 



A most highly interesting Asclepiadeous plant, for which 
I am indebted to Mr. Niven, the excellent Curator of the 
Glasnevin Botanic Garden, in which Establishment it flow- 
ered in July, 1837, and whence the specimen here repre- 
sented was sent, accompanied by a beautiful figure. It was 
discovered by Mr. Tweedie, probably in Tucuman, (though 
the locality is not mentioned,) and communicated to Mr. 
Niven with the name of Asclepias Asedra. Its larjje flow- 



ers, 



* So named in compliment to Mr. James Tweedie, an intelligent and 
indefatigable collector of plants in Buenos Ayres, Tucuman, S. Brazil, &c. 



ers, of a singularly changeable blue colour, with exserted 
scales from the tube, remind one rather of a Boragineous 
than an Asclepiadeous plant. In Genus it borders upon 
Oxypetalum and Tweedia; and I think it may safely be 
referred to the latter. 

Descr. Stems twining, herbaceous, and, as well as the 
foliage, peduncles, calyx, and even in a degree, the outside 
of the corolla, clothed with fine woolly down. Leaves op- 
posite, on short petioles, oblong, between cordate and has- 
tate at the base. Peduncles axillary, from one of the two 
opposite leaves, bearing an umbel of three to four flowers. 
Calyx deeply cut into five, erect, lanceolate segments. Co- 
rolla between rotate and salver-shaped, having a conspicu- 
ous, almost globose tube, and five spreading, oblong, very 
obtuse segments ; when first open, pale-blue, with a slight 
tinge of green, then purplish, and when withered, lilac. 
Within the corolla are five erect, deeper blue, fleshy scales, 
exserted, their apices recurved, emarginate. Stamens com- 
bined into a tube, erect, appressed to the base of the white 
pyramidal stigma, which is cleft into two closely-placed 
segments. Pollen-masses pendent from a triangular, mem- 
branous appendage, on each side the base of which is a 
linear-oblong, black, shining spine. Pistils two. 



Fig. 1. Section of the Calyx with the Pistils. 2. Section of the Tube 
of the Corolla, showing the Scales, Staminal Column, and Stigma. 3. Inside 
view of an Anther, separated from the rest, showing its two Cells. 4. Pol- 
len-masses : — magnified. 




■ V 7 "* Wither? del 



Rtk, hy S, Curtis GLutnw 



od, fs set Jan,'l 283,1. T^<. 



( 3631 ) 

Epidendrum papillosum. Warty-fruited 
Epidendrum. 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala patentia, subaequalia. Petala sepalis aequalia., v. 
angustiora, rarius latiora, patentia v. reflexa. Labellum 
cum marginibus columnae omnino v. parte connatum, limbo 
integro v. diviso, disco saepius calloso, costato v. tubercu- 
lato ; nunc in calcar productum ovario accretum et cuni- 
culum formans. Columna elongata ; clinandrio marginato,, 
saepe fimbriato. Anthera carnosa, 2 — 4-locularis. Pollinia 
4, caudiculis totidern replicatis annexa. — Herbae ( Ameri- 
cana) epiphytes, caule nunc apice v. basi pseudo-bulboso, 
nunc elongato, apice folioso. Folia carnosa, rarissime venis 
elevatis striata. Flores spicati, racemosi, corymbosi, v. 
paniculati, terminates v. laterales. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Epidendrum papillosum; pseudo-bulbis ovatis vel subtur- 
binatis membranulis glaucescentibus tectis 2 — 3 phyl- 
lis ; foliis strictis carinatis acutis scapo simplici multi- 
floro subagqualibus, sepalis obovato-lanceolatis acuti- 
usculis petalisque minoribus subspathulatis acutis ; 
labello semilibero 3-partito, laciniis lateralibus divari- 
catis obovatis, intermedio 3-plo majore obscure qua- 
drilobo versus basin calloso : columna bidentata ovario 
pedicelloque papillosis. Bateman. 

Epidendrum papillosum. Bateman, MSS. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 
sine Ic. 



Another of the many interesting discoveries of Mr. 
Skinner, which has enriched the collection of Mr. Hate- 
man, at Knypersley Hall, where the specimen here figured, 

drawn 



drawn by the skilful pencil of Mrs. Withers, was raised 
in June of last year. It is a very distinct species, and 
of easy culture. 

Descr. The pseudo-bulb, in this specimen, was broadly 
ovate, furrowed longitudinally and transversely, so as to be 
marked with oblong convex areolae; the whole dark-green, 
but covered with a delicate semi-transparent, silvery pellicle, 
and crowned with two or three erect, but slightly recurved, 
carinated and acuminated, dark-green, obscurely striated, 
coriaceous leaves. Scape, from the centre of these leaves, 
a foot long, slender, erect, bearing a terminal raceihe of 
eight or ten, rather distant, handsome flowers. Sepals and 
petals almost spathulate, spreading, yellowish-green, the 
two latter rather smaller. Column club-shaped, tipped 
with orange. Lip deeply three-lobed, white, with three 
deep pink streaks, the two lateral lobes obovate, standing 
out at right angles from the middle lobe, which is large, 
plaited, obscurely four-lobed. 



&6&2. 




i.A lhl< 



a/> t v y. t 






( 3632 ) 

LOASA LATEKITIA. ReD-FLGWERED IjOASA. 

Class and Order. 

POLYADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Loase;e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus ovario adherens, limbus persistens 5-parti- 
tus aequalis. Petala 5 lobis calyci alterna breviter ungui- 
culata concava. Squamce 5 petaloideae petalis alterna} bi- 
aut triloba? in conum conniventes et basi intus filarnentis 2 
sterilibus instructs. Stamina oo, exteriora 10 sterilia, eas- 
tern in phalanges 15 — 17-andras petalis oppositas disposita, 
antheris erectis bilocularibus. Stylus apice trifidus. Cap- 
sula turbinato-oblonga, 1-locularis, apice 3-valvis calyce 
coronata, valvis margine placentiferis, placentis ideo cum 
vicina continuis. Semina ovalia creberrima reticulata. — 
Herbae ramosa? plerumque piloso-prurientes interdum scan- 
dentes. Folia alterna aut opposita, dentata aut lobata. 
Pedunculi oppositifolii axillares aut terminales l-Jlori. Pe- 
tala. Jlava, rarissime alba. D C. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Loasa lateritia ; longissime scandens pungenti-hispida, fo- 
liis pinnatis pinnis pinnatifidis laciuiis inciso-pinuatili- 
dis, petalis basi latioribus vix unguiculatis, squamia 
nectariferis apicibus conniventibus 5-appendiculatis, 
appendicibus 2 interioribus subulatis longissimis, ex- 
terioribus 3 squamiformibus brevibus. 



This singular and truly beautiful species of Loasa was 
discovered in Tucuman, by Mr. Tweedie, and dried speci- 
mens have been sent by him lo me and others (marked n. 
1195), and seeds to the Glasgow Botanic Gardeu. From 
these latter, plants were raised by Mr. Murray, in 18. 
which survived in the hothouse through the winter, climb- 
ing 

VOL. XII. C 



ing to the uppermost light ; and they produced their bright 
orange-red blossoms in the month of May,* 1837. In its 
native country, according to Mr. Tweedie, it is annual : 
with us, probably from having been sown so late in the 
season, it is certainly biennial. There is every reason to 
believe that either by seeds or cuttings this fine species may 
be perpetuated. 

Descr. Hispid and stinging, more especially the stem. 
Stems ten to twenty feet long, slender, climbing. Leaves 
petiolate, opposite, pinnate, especially the lower ones, with 
from five to several pinnae, which are ovato-lanceolate inciso- 
pinnatifid and serrated ; the upper leaves (here represented) 
are bipmnatifid, and much shorter than the lower ones 
Peduncles very long, axillary, single-flowered. Germen 
inferior, cylindrical, hispid, spirally twisted. Calycine leaves 
linear-subpinnatifid, spreading. Petals five, large, exter- 
nally hispid, cucullate, and compressed laterally, broad at 
the base, and scarcely unguiculate. Stamens in five bun- 
dles, lodged in the hollow of the petals, from which they 
rise up at intervals to fertilize the stigma. Anthers pale 
reddish-yellow. Nectariferous scales five, downy, yellow- 
green, alternating with the bundles of stamens, cucullate, 
bearing each three outer short, dark purple segments, and 
two long, subulate inner ones, which curve gracefully all 
meeting over the top of the stigma. Germen compressed, 
obtusely five-lobed. Style somewhat subulate. Stigma a 
mere point Fruit two to three inches long, cylindrical, 
bursting in five, spirally twisted valves. 



■JX- 1 ' ^? er ' 2 - Pistil - 3 - Inner view of a nectariferous Scale 4 
Side view of the same -.-magnified. 5. Fruit :-nat. size. 



of nSSZ ^had setin nUy; n °' mSm ^ &om the frosts «"*• moth 





■•A. 










Ptei-iy S. Curtis. Glazav* 7 .J<?J<9. 



( 3633 ) 

Carica citriformis. Small Citron- 
fruited Papaw. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Dkecia (rather Moncecia) Decandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Carice,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx (minutus) 5-dentatus. Masc. Corolla infundibu- 
liformis. Stamina alterna breviora. Fcem. Corolla pro- 
funde 5-partita. Stigmata 5. Pepo polyspermia. Semina 
membraua obvoluta. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Carica citriformis ; foliis cordatis S — 5-lobis lobis oblon- 
gis acuminatis medio trifidis nervis superne glandulo- 
sis, pedunculis axillaribus brevissimis, fructibus ovali- 
bus laevissiinis aurantiacis. 

Carica citriformis. tc Jacq. Jil." (ex Spreng.) Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 3. p. 905. 



As far as can be judged from the brief character (and I 
know of no other) of Carica citriformis, given in Sprengel, 
the present plant may be safely referred to it : and it is a 
native of Guiana. A specimen, with the charming fruit 
here represented, was communicated from the stove of 
Charles Horsfall, Esq., Liverpool, in 1835. That gen- 
tleman procured it from the Curator of the Botanic Garden 
of Rotterdam, as the C. monoica of Desfontaines : but that 
species, as may be seen by the figure in the Ann. du Mus. 
d'Hist. Nat. v. 1. t. 18, is the same as the C. microcarpa of 
the Hort. Schcenbr., and is easily distinguished by its small, 
deeply sulcated, and pointed fruit. Seeds from the fruit 
above-mentioned were raised in the Botanic Gardens of 

Glasgow 



Glasgow and at Woburn, and so rapidly does the plant 
come to perfection, that it bore flower and fruit the first year. 
Descr. Stem erect, three to five feet high, unbranched, 
woody below, herbaceous and succulent above, rounded. 
Leaves only from the upper part of the stem, on long 
rounded petioles, cordate, irregularly three- to five-lobed in 
a palmated manner, the lobes broadly oblong-acuminate, 
the middle lobe frequently trifid. On the nerves of the 
older leaves are scattered small, globose, white glands, 
sometimes in clusters. Flowers yellowish-white, in short 
panicles or clusters, from the axils of the leaves, much 
shorter than the leaf-stalks, monoecious ? Male flowers, 
which alone have come under my observation, about an 
inch long. Calyx obsolete. Corolla with the tube long : the 
five oblong segments spreading. Pistil small, abortive. 
Stamens ten, in two rows, near the mouth of the tube. Fi- 
laments short, broader upwards ; anther-cells applied to 
the inner face of the filament below the point. Fruit about 
the size of a hen's egg, and nearly of the same shape, but 
more inclining to oval, baccate, bright orange, contain- 
ing several dark-brown seeds, muricated with large blunt 
spines. Embryo in a white waxy albumen. 



Fig. 1. Male Flower laid open. 2. 2. Stamens. 3. Fruit, and 4, Dis- 
section of ditto, and 5, Seed (all nat. size). 6. Seed, magnified. 7. Al- 
bumen. 8. Albumen cut open, showing the Embryo. 9. Embryo: — 
magnified. 



.-><>.-> 




( 3634 ) 

Mammillaria Lehmanni. Lehmann's 
Mammillaria. 

************************ 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — CactEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cali/cis tubus ovario adherens ; lobi 5 — 6 colorati fruc- 
tum juniorern coronantes. Petala 5 — 6 a calyce vix dis- 
tincta eo longiora et cum sepalis in tubum concreta. Sta- 
mina filiformia pluriserialia. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 5 — 
7-fidum radiatum. Bacca laBvis. Semina nidulantia. Cotyle- 
dones nullae. (ex Nutt.J — Suffrutices carnosi subrotundi aut 
subcylindracei axi ligneo destituli, (an in omnibus ?) lactes- 
centes, aphylli, tuberculis subconicis mammceformibus spira- 
liter dispositis confertis apice spinulas radiantes et tomentum 
demum deciduum gerentibus obtecti. PI ores inter bases 
mammillarum sessiles, scepius in zonam transversam dispo- 
siti. Bacca obovata, edulis, calyce marcescente demum de- 
ciduo coronata. Tubercula caulis simulant folia Mesem- 
bryanthemorum barbatorum, et forte sunt vera folia plantce. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Mammillaria Lehmanni; oblonga subcylindrica., mammil- 
lis magnis conicis angulatis subtetragonis in axillis 
glandulosis resiniferis, apicibus fasciculatim aculeatis, 
aculeis 7 — 8 rectis gracilibus unico longiore, floribus 
terminalibus, petalis lineari-oblongis acuminatis stra- 
mineis. 

Mammillaria Lehmanni. Hort. Berol.—Pfeiff. En. Cact. 
p. 23. 

M. octacantha et leucacantha. D C. Rev. p. 113. Mem. p. 
11? (exPfeiffer.). 



From the rich collection of Cacteab, formerly Mr. Hitch- 
ins, now in the possession of Messrs. Mackie, who oblig- 
ingly 



ing'ly communicated the drawing here figured. Its native 
country is Mexico. Mr. F. Mackie observes, that it is " a 
very distinct and remarkable species, bearing; dark points 
in the axils of the mammillae, which in hot weather exude 
a dark-coloured viscid matter, which I have not observed 
in any other species/' 

Descr. Stem, in the specimen here figured, about six 
inches high, oblong and cylindrical, covered all over with 
large, conical mammillae, three-quarters of an inch long, 
angled with about four sides, and tipped with a minute woolly 
tuft, from which springs a fascicle of seven or eight slender 
spines, mostly three or four lines in length, but one of them 
is twice as long as the rest. Floivers moderately large, ter- 
minal. Cali/cine tube short. Petals numerous, imbricated, 
spreading, linear-oblong, of a delicate straw-colour. Sta- 
mens and style included. Filaments red. Anthers and 
stigmas yellow. 



"Mi.Vt. 







( 3635 ) 

PASSIFLORA NIGELLIFLORA. NlGELLA- 
FLOWERED PASSION-FLOWER. 

Class and Order. 

MoNADELPHIA PENTANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Passiflore^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 10-partitus, laciniis interioribus corollinis. Corona 
radiata perigyna. Nectarium in fundo calycis. Tubus 
staminifer stylum cingens. Stigmata 3, clavata. Pepo 1- 
locularis, placentatio parietalis. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Passiflora nigelliflora ; sericeo-pilosa, foliis cordatis 5- 
lobis argute serratis, involucris setaceo-multifidis apice 
glandulosis. 

Passiflora nigelliflora. Tweedie PL Exsicc. (n. 1170. ) 



Plentiful at St. Jago de Estero, ou the Rio Dulce, where 
it was discovered in 1835, by Mr. Tweedie, when on his 
way from Mendoza to Tucuman. It will be at once seen, 
that it is nearly allied to P. gossypiifolia, P. hibiscifolia, 
joztida, and ciliata, four species which indeed have a near 
affinity to each other : but the present may at all times be 
distinguished by its truly cordate leaves, which are five- 
lobed) except in the upper part of the stem), and strongly 
serrated. The dried specimens which accompanied the 
seeds, have the same character in the foliage as the culti- 
vated ones. It flowered in the Glasgow Garden in Sep- 
tember, and seems to re-quire the heat of the stove. 

Descr. Stem climbing to the height of several feet, clothed 
with soft spreading hairs, as are the petioles. Leaves yield- 
ing a fetid smell when bruised, exactly cordate in their 
circumscription, five-lobed, hairy, or almost silky on both 

sides, 



sides., the margin distinctly serrated : on the underside and at 
the margin, there are numerous hairs, tipped with unctuous 
glands. Stipules capillaceo-multifid, the segments termi- 
nated by a gland. Tendrils hairy. Involucre placed close 
beneath the calyx, of three leaves, which are pinnatifid, 
with numerous slender, capillary segments, each tipped 
with a gland at the extremity. Calyx with a very short 
tube, above which is a constriction, and a depression un- 
derneath : segments five, spreading, oblong, pale-green 
without, white within. Petals of the same shape, white. 
Filaments of the nectary elongated, waved, white, bluish 
at the tip : in the centre of these is a double circular 
disk, the outer thick and fleshy, the inner thin and almost 
membranous ; these immediately surround the base of the 
staminal tube. Germen globose, hairy : Style slightly 
hairy : stigma subglobose. 



( 3636 ) 

Passiflora Tucumanensis. Large- 
stipuled passion-flower. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 

MoNADELPHIA PENTANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Passiflore^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 10-partitus, laciniis interioribus corollinis. Corona 
radiata perigyna. Nectarium in fundo calycis. Tubus 
staminifer stylum cingens. Stigmata 3, clavata. Pepo 1- 
locularis, placentatio parietalis. Spr. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Passiflora Tucumanensis ; glaberrima scandens cirrhifera, 
foliis lato-cordatis petiolatis alte trilobis, lobis ob- 
longis inferne glanduloso-serratis subtus glaucis, sti- 
pulis magnis semicordatis grosse serratis, pedun- 
culis unifloris 3-bracteatis, bracteis calycem fere 
aequantibus laxis cordatis serratis, corona filamentosa 
duplici, int. brevissima, ext. petalorum longitudine. 



This new species of Passion-flower was discovered by 
Mr. Tweedie, at St. Jago and Tucuman, at the eastern 
foot of the Cordillera of Chili, inhabiting", though rarely, 
the woods. It is a free grower, and flowered copiously the 
second year in the stove of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
in the month of July. It is n. 1173 of Mr. Tweedie's col- 
lections sent in 1836. 

Descr. Plant everywhere glabrous. Stems long and 
twining. Leaves copious, dark-green above, pale and 
glaucous beneath, broadly cordate, deeply three-lobed, the 
lobes spreading, oblong, sometimes approaching to ovate 
or lanceolate, entire except at the base, where they are 
glanduloso-serrate. Petioles shorter than the leaf, rounded, 

naked, 



naked, or sometimes with one or two fibrous glands. Sti- 
pules very large, leafy, an inch and more long, waved, 
reticulated, especially beneath, coarsely serrated. Cirrhi 
long, simple. Peduncles solitary, single-flowered, bearing 
beneath the flower three alternate, ovato -cordate, waved 
bracteas, almost as long as the flower. Flower about two 
inches in diameter. Calyx white within, of five oblongo- 
lanceolate segments, with a long soft green mucro beneath 
the apex. Petals five, of the same shape as the calycine 
segments, white. Nectary double; inner of numerous, 
short, erect, white filaments, tipped with blue, and woolly 
at their base; outer of numerous, spreading filaments, 
nearly as long as the corolla, white, barred with purplish 
blue. Column short. Stigmas club-shaped, recurved. 




&iA 6\ 






( 3637 ) 

Epidendrum floribundum. Many-flow- 
ered Epidendrum. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala patentia, subaequalia. Petala sepalis aequalia, v. 
angustiora, rarius latiora, patentia v. reflexa. Labellum 
cum marginibus columnar omnino v. parte connatum, limbo 
integro v. diviso, disco saepius calloso, costato v. tubercu- 
lato ; nunc in calcar productum ovario accretum et cuni- 
culum formans. Columna elongata ; clinandrio marginato, 
saepe fimbriato. Anthera carnosa, 2 — 4-locularis. Pollinia 
4, caudiculis totidern replicatis annexa. — Herbae (Ameri- 
cana) epiphytes, caule nunc apice v. basi pseudo-bulboso, 
nunc elongato, apice folioso . Folia carnosa, rarissime venis 
elevatis striata. Flores spicati, racemosi, corymbosi v. 
paniculati, terminates v. Laterales. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Epidendrum floribundum ; caule folioso, foliis lanceolato- 
oblongis acuminatis submembranaceis, panicula termi- 
nal^ sepalis reflexis lanceolatis, petalis filiformibns, 
labelli quadrilobi basi bituberculati Iobis lateral ibus 
subrotundis, terminalibus linearibus divaricatis. Lindl. 

Epidendrum floribundum. Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. et 
Sp. v. 1. p. 353. t. 86. Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 
109. 



Kindly communicated by James Bateman, Esq., who ob- 
serves, that "the figure was taken from a specimen in Messrs. 
Loddiges' Collection, by whom it was imported some years 
ago from Mexico. The flowers of their plant were con- 
siderably 



siderably larger than those of some wild specimens, ga- 
thered on the Amazon River, by Dr. Pceppig, and now 
(thanks to his liberality) in my possession. The species 
continues a long time in flower, and has a particularly neat 
and pleasing appearance." Humboldt found it in woods 
near St. Jean de Bracamoros and the Amazon River. This 
plant has also been gathered by Mr. Henchman, in Deme- 
rara, in 1834, and a noble specimen flowered by Messrs. 
Lowe, in the rich stoves of the Clapton Nursery, was kindly 
communicated to us in November, 1837. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs none. Stem about a foot high, 
erect, round, leafy. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, some- 
what flaccid and membranaceous, often reflexed. Panicle 
terminal, of three to four long, spreading and reflexed 
branches, bearing numerous forcers, each on a long pedicel. 
Sepals greenish-brown, reflexed, spathulate. Petals white, 
filiform, very slender, spreading. Column elongated, green 
at the base, white above. Lip white, with a curved line of 
red dots, bituberculate, deeply four-lobed; the two side 
lobes rounded ; intermediate ones spreading, linear. 



3638. 




/■>//. /n 



( 3638 ) 

Epidendrum tesselatum. Chequer-flow- 
ered Epidendrum. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide.e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala patentia, subaequalia. Petala sepalis aequalia v. 
angustiora, rarius latiora, patentia v. reflexa. Labellum 
cum marginibus columnar omnino v. parte connatum, limbo 
integro v. diviso, disco saepius calloso, costato v. tubercu- 
lato ; nunc in calcar productum ovario accretum et cuni- 
culum formans. Columna elongata ; clinandrio marginato, 
saepe fimbriate. Anther a carnosa, 2 — 4-locuIaris. Pollinia 
4, caudiculis totidem replicatis annexa. — Herbae (Ameri- 
cana) epiphytce, caule nunc apice v. bast pseudo-bulboso, 
nunc elongato, apice folioso. Folia carnosa, rarissime venis 
elevatis striata. Flores spicati, racemosi 3 corymbosi v. 
paniculati, terminates v. laterales. Lindl. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Epidendrum tesselatum; pseudo-bulbis ovalibus compres- 
sis2 — 3-phyllis, foliis iineari-lanceolatis scapo simplici 
rnultifloro paulo brevioribus, floribus subpatentibus, 
sepalis lanceolatis mucronatis petalisque minoribus 
subspathulatis acutis, labelli liberi trilobi lobis latera- 
libus rotundatis, intermedio majore oblongo cucullato, 
venis tribus parallelis cristigeris munito. Bateman. 



A native of Guatemala,, and sent to Knypersley, in 1836, 
by Mr. Skinner, where the drawing, from which the accom- 
panying figure was taken, was made by Mrs. Withers. 

" My invaluable friend, G. U. Skinner, Esq., who has, I 
believe, already discovered a larger number of new Orchi- 

DACEjS 

VOL. XII. « 



dacem than any other individual whatsoever, first detected 
this species, which flowers here in June and July." 

Descr. ce The sepals and petals are greenish-yellow out- 
side., and brown inside, with darker streaks of the same 
colour, which give them a tessellated appearance. Lip beau- 
tifully veined throughout its whole length with numerous 
purple streaks." (Bateman in litt.). 



3659. 







( 3639 ) 

Erica Florida; wr.campanulata. Drooping 
Round-headed Heath. Bell-flowered var. 

■Sk. &• &. ■Sfc &. M. . v t / . .^i .St'. ■St'- &. .St^ jfr. &. ■St'. .Sfrv .Sfc .Sfr 1 . .St'. .St'. 
MS MS Vf» MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS VIS MS MS MS MS MS 

Class and Order. 

OcTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Erice^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 4-sepaIus inferus. Corolla 4-fida. Stamina recep- 
taculo inserta. Antherce bifida?. Capsula 4-locularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Erica ftorida; foliis linearibus pilosis, floribus terminal i bus 

umbellatis glabris, calycibus reflexis, staminibus inclu- 

sis. Spr. 
Erica florida. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 2. p. 357. Thunb. Eric. 

n. 64. t. 6. Salisb. in Linn. Soc. Trans, v. 6. p. 377. 

Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 406. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 2. 

Var. campanulata; ramis strictioribus, foliis longioribus 
glabris, calycibus acutis bracteisque imbricatis, corolla 
lato-campanulata, stylo exserto. (Tab. nostr. 3639). 



This very charming Heath was communicated from the 
choice collection at Both well Castle, in May, 1837, having 
been raised from seeds of F,. florida, by the very intelligent 
gardener, Mr. Turnbull, in May, 1835. The plant is thus 
only two years old, and in size, for it is now two and 
a half feet high, and in the profuseness and beauty and 
expanded form of the blossoms, in the foliage, and in the 
straightness and vigour of the branches, it is so much 
superior to the other plants of E. florida raised from the 
same lot of seed, and cultivated with precisely the same 
care and attention, that Mr. Turnbull cannot but suspect 
that the seed yielding the individual in question had been 
the produce of a flower which was fertilized with t\w 

pollen 



pollen of some other species, probably by an insect. This 
is, however, only conjecture : for though Mr. Turnbull is 
in the habit of impregnating the flowers of several heaths 
with the pollen of others, yet he is certain that the parent 
of this was not so treated. All the other plants but this 
have wiry flexuose stems and branches, and are so shy of 
flowering, that the best of them has only a few blossoms, 
while the present individual has quite a lively appearance 
from the profusion of them. 

Descr. The plant from which our drawing was made, 
and indeed the only one raised by Mr. Turnbull, is two and 
a half feet high : the stems and older branches clothed with 
reddish-brown bark. Leaves quaternate, rarely ternate, 
spreading, linear, mucronate, keeled, and with a furrow 
on the keel at the back. Flowers terminal, three to four 
together, rarely five, forming small umbels at the ex- 
tremity of short copious lateral spreading branches, droop- 
ing. Pedicels short, with about three, ovate, pale-white 
and rose-coloured imbricated bracteas. Sepals four, similar 
to the bracteas in every respect, but larger and broader, 
appressed to the corolla. Corolla four-cleft, broadly cam- 
panulate, of a delicate but full rose-colour. Stamens 
included, erect or slightly incurved. Anthers ovate, red- 
brown, awnless ; cells acuminate, opening by two large 
oblique pores. Germen globose, five-lobed ; style much 
exserted ; stigma a little spreading. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pedicel, Calyx, and Bracteas. 3. Stamens and Pis- 
til. 4. Single Stamen. 5. Pistil, magnified. 6. Flower of the true E. 
Jlorida (also communicated by Mr. Turnbull), magnified. 





A 



\ 







/^uA. /jV S. / ■'/•///< f,7f/:r//i< i 



( 3640 ) 

Aristolochia saccata. Pouch-flowered 
Birth- wort. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Hexandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Aristolochie*;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx corollinus superus basi ventricosus, limbo vario. 
Antherce 2-loculares stigmatis lateralibus insculptae. Cap- 
sula infera 6-locularis polysperma. Spr. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Aristolochia saccata; volubilis, foliis oblongis vel ovato- 
oblongis acuminatis integris subtus ramisque villosis, 
floribus lateralibus racemosis, perianthio villoso in- 
flexo medio ventricoso, limbo orbiculato angustissimo 
subrepando patentissimo fauce maxima. Wallich. 

Aristolochia saccata. Wall. Planted Rariores, v. 2. t. 103. 
Ibid. Catalogue of Indian Plants, No. 2707, a. 



This curious plant is a native of Silhet, and was intro- 
duced into the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from the 
Calcutta Garden, in 1829. It produced a succession of 
flowers in September last, but formed no fruit. I did not 
perceive that exceedingly offensive smell, for which Dr. 
Wallich, in the splendid work above quoted, says that its 
blossoms are remarkable. 

The ensnaring of insects by plants, is observed in many 
cases, its use disputed, sometimes, I think, misunderstood, 
and its benevolence in the arrangements of nature consid- 
ered equivocal. One thing is obvious, it demonstrates 
premeditation and design in the configuration of parts. The 
large, heavy pouch in the middle of the tube necessarily 

keeps 



keeps the flower pendulous, and its throat erect. Having 
removed from the plant one of the racemes for examination, 
I laid this down on the table, and was surprised to observe 
a crowd of small flies immediately rush out at the throat. 
I raised the flowers into their natural position again, and 
though I saw, by placing them between me and the light, 
that very many flies were still in the tube, all very restless, 
and attempting to escape, not one could climb up the now 
erect throat. I repeated this experiment many times, and 
always with the same result : — in the horizontal position of 
the flower, the flies came out instantly, — in the erect posi- 
tion they were imprisoned. I could not discover, even 
with the microscope, any cause for this, and am forced to 
suppose, that there may be a particular condition of the 
surface in the upper part of the tube, from secretion or 
other cause, which prevents the adhesion of the feet of the 
insects, though they are able to walk along it when hori- 
zontal. 

It is supposed that the confinement of insects in flowers 
is to effect their impregnation, and it has been thought 
that the decay of their bodies in other parts, as in Di- 
onjea, Nepenthes, and Sarracenia, tends to the nourish- 
ment of the plant. The first, I believe, is sometimes true ; 
■ — and though I discredit the second theory, I have not in 
every supposed instance, the means of disproving it. In 
the case under consideration, and I believe in others, the 
object seems altogether different. Years ago, I observed 
a living worm on several of the decayed leaves of Dion^ea 
muscipula, and was induced, in consequence, to suspect 
that the capture of certain insects by this plant was not for 
their destruction, but to provide a proper nidus for their 
eggs; and I more confidently believe this to be the case with 
Aristolochia saccata ; for in all the flowers of this plant 
which I opened, I found many perfect eggs, and many 
living maggots. Some insects wrap up their eggs in leaves ; 
to others this instinct is denied ; but protection is extended 
to their race by what, imperfectly understood, has been 
thought an act of unmixed cruelty. 

Descr. Shrub volubile ; stems very long, slender, branch- 
ed ; bark, when old, corky. Leaves (twelve to fifteen inches 
long, four broad) scattered, ovato-cordate, attenuated at 
the apex, slightly waved and sinuated, entire in the edges, 
petiolate, when young covered with brown hairs, which, 
below, are silky, more dense, subappressed, and longer than 
above, where they are more erect; leaves when old less 

hairy, 



hairy, rather by the extension of the surface, than by the 
hairs being deciduous ; middle-rib and 'primary veins pro- 
minent on both surfaces, transverse reticulations only pro- 
minent behind. Racemes arising from the stem near its 
base, where the leaves have dropped, and quite in the shade 
(even tinder the table in the stove) several-flowered, pendu- 
lous, like the petiole and young branches densely covered 
with brown hairs, which are reflexed on the last, but erecto- 
adpressed on the first two. Flowers membranous, covered 
with spreading hairs, pendulous; tube turned upwards in 
the middle, the reflected portion being parallel to and in 
contact with the other, yellowish-white within and without, 
but having externally many nerves, smaller transverse reti- 
culations, and small, glandular excrescences, all of a brick- 
red colour, contracted a little above its base, (and below 
this part, both within and without, of a dirty-red colour, and 
having spread over its inner surface a covering of hairs sin- 
gularly crystalline and ramified,) forming a large pouch, 
where it is reflected, and in its erect portion again contract- 
ed, flattened in front, and slightly clavate upwards, within 
this portion, minutely glandular, but without any hairs ; 
throat circular, placed vertically, of bright yellow colour, 
with a narrow, erect margin ; limb narrow, before expan- 
sion folded in three triangular divisions across the throat, 
when expanded flat and obscurely three-lobed, on its upper 
(anterior) surface dark purple, densely covered with erect 
warts of similar colour ; on its lower (posterior) surface 
similar to the outer surface of the tube. Anthers six, yel- 
low, two-celled, bursting along the front, oblong, sessile 
upon the short, stout, clavate style ; pollen yellow, granules 
nearly globular. Stigma of three acute, connivent lobes, 
sending projections downwards upon the style, so as to 
separate the stamens into pairs. Germen inferior, slightly 
clavate, furrowed, densely covered with erect, brown hairs. 
Ovules very numerous, horizontal. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Pistil with Stamens : — Magnified. 



3641 




I^ub 



( 3641 ) 
Chenopodium Quinoa. Useful Quinoa. 

****************** 

Ciass and Order. 
Pentandria Digynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Chenopode^!. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla nulla. Stamina 5. Styli 2 
simplices, vel unicus stigmatibus 2. Semen unicum (orbi- 
culare) superum, pellicula tenuissima tectum. Embryo 
periphericus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Chenopodium Quinoa; foliis triangulari-ovatis sinuatis sub- 
angulato - pinnatifidis glaucis, paniculis axillaribus 
terminalibusque, floribus densissime glomeratis fari- 
nosis. 

Chenopodium Quinoa. Willd. Sp. PL v. I. p. 1301. Humb. 
et Kunth, Gen. et Sp. v. 2. p. 153. Spreng. Sp. PI. v. 
\.p.92Q. 

Chenopodium folio sinuato saturate virente, vulgo Quinoa. 
Feuill. Chil.p. 15. t. 10. 



If the present plant boasts neither beautiful forms nor 
gaudy colours to attract attention, it must be recollected, 
that we have promised, besides handsome plants, represen- 
tations of such as are of peculiar interest ; and it is upon 
that ground alone that we venture to figure a vegetable, as 
unattractive in external aspect as are the Oraches and the 
Goosefoot of the road-sides and waste places of our own 
country. The interest of the Chenopodium Quinoa arises 
from this, that in the temperate regions of South America, 
it is, like the Corn in Europe, the " chief nourishment of 
the people ;" with this difference, however, that it is not 
made into bread. The seeds, with their pericarp?* — in other 

words, 



words, the little glossy fruits, are what are so extensively 
employed as an article of food on the Pacific side of South 
America, from the temperate parts of the Andes to the coast, 
although the cultivation seems to be chiefly confined to 
the mountainous districts. We learn from the ce Memoires 
d'Agriculture" for 1786, that there are few countries in 
South America where the Quinoa is more used than in 
Lima. Two principal methods are employed in preparing 
it. In the one case, it is boiled in water like Rice or Oat- 
meal, and a kind of gruel is the result ; in which the seeds 
are described as floating in the liquid coiled up and looking 
like little white worms. These are, no doubt, the spirally 
curved embryos of the seed. It is seasoned in various ways, 
chiefly with Pimento, and is much liked by those who are 
accustomed to it; but others find it insipid, and such is 
especially the case in Europe, where, at Edinburgh, our 
excellent friend Dr. Neill, tried various methods of prepar- 
ing this vegetable, but like his countrywoman, the worship- 
ful Lady Pumphraston, who, on receiving, about a century 
ago, a pound of the finest Green Tea from China, as a rare 
and valuable present, stewed the same with butter, and 
served it up as sauce to a salted round of beef, and then 
marvelled '* how folk could praise such worthless, fissen- 
less stuff;" so perhaps, from an equal deficiency in the 
mode of cooking, our Edinburgh friend could not make 
tf these foreign greens" palatable. 

The second mode of preparation employed in South 
America is called Carapulque, and is a favourite dish with 
the ladies of Lima. The grains are slightly toasted like 
Coffee, strained, and boiled in water, yielding a brown- 
coloured bouillie, seasoned with spices as in the first method, 
but it has so peculiar a flavor that few strangers like it. 
Two kinds of Quinoa are, however, in use in South Ame- 
rica ; the one here figured with very pale fruits, called the 
White, and the dark, red-fruited one, called the Red Quinoa. 
The latter is chiefly cultivated in gardens for its medicinal 
virtues ; its seeds bruised and boiled in water, form a bitter 
decoction, which, mixed with sugar, is employed as a vul- 
nerary for sores and bruises. Cataplasms are also made of 
this variety. But the bitter principle may be removed, by 
throwing away the water in which the seeds are infused. 
Did the Quinoa constitute a food agreeable to the European 
taste, it might be cultivated easily enough ; and if grown in 
a rich soil, or upon the refuse of a hot-bed frame, as the 
plant was from which the accompanying figure was taken, 

it 



it attains a height of four or five feet by the month of 
July, and continues flowering and ripening seeds till cut 
off by the autumnal frosts. Dr. Graham informs us, that 
he has cultivated both kinds at Edinburgh. Father Feu- 
illee, in his travels in Peru and Chili, seems first to have 
brought this plant into notice. Dombey, in 1779, sent 
seeds to Paris, but they did not succeed ; nor are we aware 
that it was known in a living state in Europe till within 
these few years, when it was in cultivation first in Paris, and 
since in England. Mr. Lambert directed public attention 
to it in 1834 : and we are indebted at the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden to John IVTLean, Esq., of Lima, for seeds, which 
have increased most abundantly in the course of a single 
year. 

Descr. Herbaceous, annual. Stem erect, stout, much 
furrowed and angled, three to four or even five feet high in 
a good soil, much branched, the branches short, erect, but 
little again divided. Leaves on rather long petioles, espe- 
cially the lower ones, which are almost as large as the 
human hand, triangular-ovate, sinuated with prominent 
angles, almost pinnatifid, of a pale, rather glaucous hue, 
the young ones pulverulent. Panicles numerous, axillary 
and terminal, longer than the leaves, bearing innumerable 
small green, densely-clustered flowers, pulverulent from co- 
pious globular granules, which cover them externally. 
Perianth of five lanceolate, concave leaves, which scarcely 
expand, but at almost all seasons are connivcnt over the 
stamens and pistils. Stamens five, shorter than the calyx 
and opposite to its segments. Anthers yellow. Germen 
globose, depressed. Style bipartite. Fruit a depresso- 
globose achenium, with a slightly elevated point in the 
centre. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. The same laid open. 8. Fruit, enveloped by the 
Perianth. 4. Fruit (of the white var.) :— magnified. 



3642 




£ry S.C 



( 3642 ) 

Mammillaria atrata. Dark-green 
Mammillaria. 

****************** 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Cacte;e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus ovario adhaerens, lobi 5 — 6 colorati fructum 
juniorem coronantes. Petala 5 — 25 a calyce vix distincta, 
eo longiora et cum sepalis in tubiun concreta. Stamina 
filiformia pluriserialia. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 3 — 7- 
fidum radiatum. Bacca laevis oblonga. Semina nidulantia. 
Cotyledones minutas acuminata?. — Suflfrutices carnosi subro- 
tundi aut cylindracei, lactescentes aut succo limpido repleti, 
aphylliy tuberculis subconicis rnammceformibus spiraliler dis- 
positis, apice spinulas radiantes et tomentum demum deci- 
duum gerentibus obtecti. Flores inter basin mamm'dlarum 
sessiles, sapius in zonam transversam dispositi. Bacca 
obovata edulis, calyce marcescente demum deciduo, coro- 
nata. Pfeiff. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Mammillaria atrata; simplex ovali-cylindracea, crassa, 
mammillis grossis conicis subobtusis inferioribus com- 
pressis apice obtusis, areolis albo-villosis setosis, acu- 
leis semiuncialibus rigidiusculis strictis subasqualibus 
patentibus rufis demum albis, floribus sub apice inser- 
tis copiosis, petalis subasqualibus patentibus. 

Mammillaria atrata. Hort. Mack. 



A beautiful plant, from the choice collection of Mr. 
Mackie, at Lakenham, near Norwich, where, by that gen- 
tleman's skilful management, it flowers in very high perfec- 
tion. It will be seen by Pfeiffer's useful " Enumeratio 

Cactearum," 



Cactearum/' that he refers the Mammillaria atrata of gar- 
dens to the M. rhodantha, Link and Otto, " Hortus Beroli- 
nensis ;" but from that our plant is wholly different ; nor 
do I find it characterized in any work to which I have 
access. The drawing was kindly communicated by the 
Messrs. Macrie ; but the native country does not appear to 
be ascertained ; though probably Chili, from whence it is well 
known that Mr. Hitchin, the former possessor of Mr. Mack.- 
ie's collection, received many excellent Cacte^;. As I have 
not had the advantage of seeing the living plant, I abstain 
from offering any description, which could no way illus- 
trate so excellent a figure as that which is here given. 



( 3643 ) 

Dendrobium aggregatum. Close-flow- 
ered Dendrobium. 

A', A. Ac. A'. A. .-I'. A. A'. A< A. A. A. A'. A. A. .St'. A. .^. ."-fr. .St'. .4'. . v fr". 
MS VIS '!> M> MS MS MS MS MS MS MS VJS VIS' VJS VJS V]S" Vf. "4> "40 vf." "/f>.* VIS 

C7«ss c«d Order. 
Gynandria Monandbia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala membranacea, erecta vel patentia, lateralibus ma- 
joribus obliquis cum basi producta columnar connatis. 
Pelala sepalo supremo saepius majora, nunc minora, semper 
membranacea. LabeUum cum pede columnar articulatum 
vel connatum, semper sessile, indivisum vel trilobum, 
saepius membranaceum, nunc appendiculatum. Columna 
semiteres, basi longe producta. Anther a bilocularis. Pol- 
linia 4, per paria collateralia. — Herbae epiphytes, nunc cau- 
lescentes, nunc rhizomate repente pseudo-bulbifero. Folia 
plana, seepius venosa. Plores solitarii fasciculati vel race- 
mosi speciosi. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Dendrobium aggregatum; pseudo-bulbis caespitosis mono- 
phyllis ovatis sulcatis stipitatis cuticulo cinereo vesti- 
tis, foliis oblongis emarginatis coriaceis nervosis, ra- 
cemo laterali cernuo multifloro fere duplo brevioribus, 
petalis ovatis sepalo Iatioribus, labello subintegerrimo 
latiore quam longo basi concavo pubescente. 

Dendrobium aggregatum. Roxb. Ft. Ind. v. 3. p. 477. 
Lindl. in Wall. Cat. Bot. Reg. t. 1695. 



The plant was received at the Botanic Garden, Edin- 
burgh, from Wentworth, the seat of Earl Fitzwilliam, in 
1836, and flowered in the beginning of May, 1837. It is 
handsome ; but its blossoms quickly expand, and they pro- 
bably last but a short while, in which case, they will be 

much 



much less ornamental than the Oncidiums, which flower 
with us at the same time, but whose individual blossoms 
are in beauty for many days. 

Descb. Pseudo-bulbs (two inches long) ovate, crowded, 
having about eight broad shallow grooves, and as many pro- 
minent subacute ridges, loosely covered with a gray, shin- 
ing, wrinkled cuticle, and marked with two transverse lines 
(joints), the outer stipitate. Leaf solitary, oblong, coria- 
ceous, obscurely nerved, emarginate, and somewhat une- 
qual at the apex, attenuated at the base, twice as long as 
the bulb. Raceme (six inches long) protruded laterally 
from the upper joint, cernuous, many-flowered, lax. Flow- 
ers springing from the axil of a small, acute bractea, orange- 
coloured, darkest towards the base of the lip ; sepals ovate, 
united at their base, where the two lowest form a little 
pouch behind the base of the lip ; petals ovate, broader 
and longer than the sepals, on short claws ; lip broader than 
long, entire in the middle, ciliated towards the base, slightly 
undulate, concave at their base, and excavated over 
the point of its insertion into the base of the column, mi- 
nutely pubescent in front. Column short, streaked with 
red in front, having a truncated scale near its base, scarce- 
ly hollowed at the stigma, toothed at each side of the 
anther, and in the centre behind affording attachment to 
the bilocular, greenish anther-case ; pollen-masses sessile, 
each grooved along the centre. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Column and Sepals. 2. Lip : — magnified. 



.>;■/■/ 










( 3644 ) 

COLLETIA HORRIDA. BRISTLING CoLLETIA. 

■St', ii'm &. &. A', . ,> t / T /-fr". ."V. :i / i &- ■ V I / . .•& > . &, &, "fr. fV- tfr, 1*^1 jfr. .^i 

VJ\ '/$. Vj\ 4» Vf." Vf. Vf> 4^ 'Jff «T> MS <T» <$■■ MS MS T> MS MS MS MS 

C7ass *md Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rhamne^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx campanulatus, membranaceus, coloratus. Petala 
o, vel minutissima, linearia. Stamina antheris ovatis bilo- 
cularibus vel reniformibus unilocularibus. Discus brevis, 
cupulaeformis, fundo calycis adnatus. Ovarium liberum, 
triloculare. Stylus simplex, elongatus. Fructus basi caly- 
cis tubo persistente cinctus, tricoccus, dehiscens. Semina 
sessilia. Brongn. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Colletia * horrida ; spinis validis, florum fasciculis sparsis, 
calycibus ovato-cylindraceis, antheris subsessilibus. 

Colletia horrida. Brongn. in Ann. des Sc. Nat. v. 10. p. 
366. t. 14./. 1. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1776. (non Willd.) 

Colletia ferox. Gill, et Hook. Bot. Misc. v. 1. p. 154. t. 
44. b. 



A singular but not very ornamental plant, belonging to a 
Genus remarkable for itsspinescent character, natives of the 
temperate, and chiefly extratropical parts of South America ; 
growing in sandy places, and seeming to occupy such spots 
as the Whin or Furze does with us. Leaves only exist 
in young plants, or the tender shoots ; in age they seem 
almost made up of spines ; but in none in so extraordinary 



* Named in compliment to a French Botanist of the name of Collet, of 
whom little is known, except that he studied the plants of Brazil, and opposed 
the system of the celebrated Tournefort. 

VOL. XII. C 



a manner as in the C. cruciata, Hook, et Gill. Bot. Misc. 
v. 1. p. 152. t. 43, which was found by Dr. Gillies near 
Maldonado, in the Banda Oriental. It is a mass of oppo- 
site, decussated and decurrent, large, lateral, compressed 
spines, of a dark green colour, but woody and exceedingly 
rigid. Our present species is of a much milder character, 
yet so rigid as to be used in its native country, Chili and 
Meudoza, instead of brooms, whence it has, with many other 
such plants, received the Spanish name of retinilla. In a 
warm and dry situation it survives our English winters; 
and the drawing here made by Mrs. Pope was sent by Mr. 
Curtis, in whose garden, we believe, it flourished, blossom- 
ing in June. 

Descr. A small, tufted bush, with innumerable spinous 
branches, the spines simple or divided, very generally tri- 
partite, terete, clothed with a soft green bark. Leaves are 
only borne by the younger shoots, and are small, opposite, 
ovate, serrated, glabrous on short petioles. Flowers from 
the axils of the spines in the upper part of the branches, 
fasciculated, drooping. Peduncles scarcely half an inch 
long. Calyx white, externally tinged with green and rose 
colour, ovato-cylindrical, the mouth a little spreading, cut 
into five recurved segments, lined within, at the base, with 
a fleshy disk, involute at the margin, where a separation 
takes place as the fruit ripens. Stamens five. Anthers 
sessile, roundish-reniform, opening, as it were, with two 
unequal lips. Germen globose ; Style shorter than the 
calyx ; Stigma small, three-cleft. 



( 3645 ) 

Pentstemon diffusus. Spreading 
Pentstemon. 

A'. A', A'-, A\ .'■I'. A'. ■ v l / . . v l'. A.'. >V, A'. A\ A'. A'* A'. Af. A\ • V V'- At* A'. A*. 
Tfr vf? vt? '/£? '/JS /f. vt> Tr- Tr- -r- ^f- •r- <IS MS <iS yr Vt* f Vf vj? Tf. 

C/ass awrf Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularineje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla bilabiata, ventricosa. Rudi- 
mentum filamenti quinti superne barbatum. Capsula bilo- 
cularis. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pentstemon diffusus ; ramosus diffusus,, foliis inferioribus 
lato-ovatis petiolatis superioribus sensim minoribus 
sessilibus acuminatis omnibus grosse inaequaliter serra- 
tis, panicula foliosa, laciniis calycinis tubo corollae 
3-plo brevioribus lanceolatis serratis. 

Pentstemon diffusus. Dougl. Journ. ined. Lindl. Bot. 
Reg. t. 1132. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 95. 



A very handsome species, of a beautiful, and now, thanks 
to the labours of its discoverer, extensive Genus. No 
less than twenty-three are enumerated as inhabiting the 
British Possessions in North America, of which seventeen 
were new discoveries of Mr. Douglas. His success was 
almost equally great in California, and others, and very 
splendid species indeed, are found to inhabit the warmer 
parts of the United States and Mexico. The present is a 
native of the mouth of the Columbia River, and was intro- 
duced by the Horticultural Society in 1827. It flowers 
through the summer and autumnal months. 

Descr. A hardy herbaceous plant, with perennial root. 
Stems spreading, two and even three feet high, glabrous, as 

is 



is every part of the plant. Leaves ovate,, all of them very 
coarsely and unequally serrated, the lower ones tapering 
into a footstalk,, the rest sessile, gradually becoming smaller 
and more acuminated on the upper part of the stem. Pe- 
duncles two and three inches long, leafy upwards, and 
bearing a corymb of three to five or six large purple^oieers. 
These peduncles arise from the axils of the leaves in the 
upper part of the plant, so that the inflorescence may be 
described as a large, leafy panicle. Calyx about one-third 
the length of the tube of the corolla, its segments lanceo- 
late, serrated. Corolla with the throat inflated, the limb 
two-lipped, the upper lip with two, the lower with three 
nearly equal lobes. Stamens included. Barren filament 
rather longer than the tube, bearing a conspicuous white 
tuft of hairs. 



Fig. 1. Calyx with a portion of the Corolla, bearing the Stamens, and in- 
cluding the Pistil : — magnified. 



^646 




t3> 







fill- by S.Citrlis i 



( 3646 ) 

Mammillaria tenuis. Taper Mam- 
millaria. 

********************** 
Class and Order. 

IcOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Cacte^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus ovario adhaerens, lobi 5—6 colorati fructum 
juniorem coronantes. Petala 5 — 25 a calyce vix distincta, 
eo longiora et cum sepalis in tubum concreta. Stamina 
filiformia pluriserialia. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 3 — 7- 
fidum radiatum. Bacca laevis oblonga. Semina nidulantia. 
Cotyledones minutae acuminata?. — Suffrutices carnosi subro- 
tundi aut cylindracei, lactescentes aut succo limpido repleti, 
aphylliy tuberculis subconicis mamma\formibus spiraliter dis- 
positis, apice spinulas radiantes et tomentum demum deci- 
duum gerentibus obtecti. F lores inter basin mammillarum 
sessiles, sapius in zonam transversam dispositi. Bacca 
obovata edulis, calyce marcescente demum deciduo, coro- 
nata. Pfeiff. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Mammillarfa tenuis; basi saepe multiplex, cylindracea, ax- 
illis angustis nudis, mammillis ovatis, areola juniorum 
sublanata, aculeis setiformibus 20 — 25 flavidis radian- 
tibus mammilla paulo longioribus, centralibus nullis. 

Mammillaria tenuis. De Cand. Rev. des Cact. p. 110. 
Mem. p. 4. t. I. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1523. Pfeiff. 
Enum. Cact. p. 6. 



This is no doubt a variable plant. The specimen to 
which De Candolle applied the name, though as tall as 
the one here figured, was only five lines in diameter. Of 
the beautiful little group to which this belongs, four kinds 

were 



were discovered in Mexico, M. echinaria, subcrocea, inter- 
texta, and the present one, all of De Candolle, but these 
four, that able traveller, Dr. Coulter, who had the oppor- 
tunity of studying them in their native soil, considers, con- 
trary to the opinion of De Candolle, as but forms of one and 
the same species. Indeed the M. densa of Link and Otto, 
Hort. Berol. t. 35, (var. /3. of M. echinata, according to 
Pfeiffer,) can scarcely be distinguished from this, but by 
its rather large mammae, and longer and straighter spines. 
Be that as it may, the present plant is one of great beauty 
and of very curious structure. The aculei are so closely 
placed and so regular and delicate, that they seem to clothe 
the plant with a fine cobwebby substance. The specimen 
from which the present drawing was taken, flowered in the 
stove of the Glasgow Botanic Garden in the month of May. 
It grows freely, and is readily increased by offsets. 

Descr. Plant two to four inches high, and an inch or 
more in diameter, cylindrical, or a little tapering upwards, 
throwing out copious nearly globose offsets from the sides, 
especially at the base. The whole is covered with mam- 
milla of an hemispherical form, green, about a quarter of an 
inch in diameter, each tipped with a tuft of white down, from 
which diverges a cluster of about twenty slender, recurvo- 
patent aculei, nearly as long as the mammillae, at first red- 
dish, then yellowish or pale tawny. From below the sum- 
mit and from all sides indifferently, spring the flowers, 
solitary, small, and campanulate, they are pale straw- 
coloured, slightly externally tinged with red. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil : — magnified. 



.>;■// 







( 3647 ) 

Mammillaria floribunda. Copious- 
flowering Mammillaria. 

iV. &. &. A'. s&. A'. A', &. A*. A'. •&. &. -] / ■& . •&. •&. ,-l / . .'I'. .•I', - fr , '&*- •&- 
tjf <t? <$■ MS VI? vJn vjS. VI* "/JS." vfc vf,* vf? vf: vf>' vj*.' vf." yf.' vf. '/f>* vjs vf>" Vf." 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Cacte*:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus ovario adherens, lobi 5 — 6 colorati fructum 
juniorem coronantes. Petala b—2b a calyce vix distincta, 
eo longiora et cum sepalis in tubum concreta. Stamina 
filiformia pluriserialia. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 3 — 7- 
fidum radiatum. Bacca laevis oblonga. Semina nidulantia. 
Cotyledones minutae, acuminata^. — Huffrutices carnosi sub- 
rotundi aut cylindracei, lactescentes aut succo limpido repleti, 
aphylli, tuberculis subconicis mammaformibus spiraliter dis- 
positis, apice spinulas radiantes et tomentum demum deci- 
duum gerentibus obtecti. Flores inter basin mammillarum 
sessiles, sapius in zonam transversam dispositi. Bacca obo- 
vata edulis, calyce marcescente demum deciduo, coronata. 
Pfeiff. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Mammillaria floribunda ; simplex subdeformis globoso- 
subcylindracea, mammillis grossis conico-hemisph»ri- 
cis obtusis, areolis villoso-tomentosis, aculeis 14 — 16 
validis strictis subaequalibus viridi - fuscis, floribus 
copiosissimis, petalis valde inaequalibus interioribus 
erectis. 



This really fine Mammillaria was imported by Mr. 
Hitchin from Chili, and passed with the rest of that gentle- 
man's rich collection of Cacte^e into the hands of Messrs. 
Mackie of the Norwich Nursery, who kindly sent the beau- 
tiful figure here represented. I do not find it any whore 

described ; 



described ; indeed,, we cannot but regret how few of the 
many Cacte^e noticed by Travellers as inhabiting the 
Pacific side of extra-tropical America; have been yet intro- 
duced to our gardens. The early writers on Cacte^e erred 
in considering the Cacte^e as almost peculiar to the warmer 
parts of the tropics,, and curiosity was much excited when 
Dr. Gillies sent from Mendoza (lat. 33° 25" S.) no less than 
twenty-two species. The distinguished Traveller and Nat- 
uralist, Mr. C. Darwin, found " Cacti abundant, and of a 
large size, at Rio-Negro in latitude 41* S. :" and one spe- 
cies, Opuntia Darwinii, Henslow, was seen by that gentle- 
man so far South as Port St. Julian m lat. 49° S., though 
more abundant in Patagonia, at Port Desire, lat. 47° S., 
where the climate indeed is remarkably dry and clear, hot 
in summer, but with sharp frosts during the winter nights. 
The present species I have no opportunity of describing 
particularly. It will be at once seen that in some charac- 
ters it approaches our M. atrata (t. 3642) differing, howe- 
ver, abundantly in its stouter habit, larger, and less closely 
placed, and more projecting mammillae, the stouter and 
coarser aculei, larger flowers, and very unequal petals, 
which are moreover of a paler red colour, yellowish in their 
lower half. 




JS3S. 



( 3648 ) 

Cymbidium triste. Lurid-flowered 
Cymbidium. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium explanatum, petalis sepalisque subaequa- 
libus liberis. Labellum sessile, liberum, ecalcaratum, con- 
cavura, cum basi columnae nunc articulatum, nunc leviter 
connatum, indi visum vel trilobum. Columna erecta, serni- 
teres. Anthera bilocularis. Pollinia 2, saepius postice 
biloba, in glandulam subtriangularem subsessilia. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Cymbidium triste ; foliis teretibus, racemo axillari subses- 
sili, sepalis oblongis aequalibus 3 superioribus conni- 
ventibus, labello trilobo lobis lateralibus abbreviatis 
terminali transverso cordato. 

Cymbidium triste. Willd. Sp. PL v. 4. p. 99. Lindl. 
Orchid, p. 167. Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 3. p. 722. 

Epidendrum triste. Forst. Prodr. n. 314. 

Epidendrum teres. Thunb 

Luisia teretifolia. Gaudich. Voy. Part. Bot. p. 437. t. 47. 

Vanda ? trichorhiza. Hook. Ex. Fl. t. 72. 



A very remarkable Epiphyte, though destitute of the 
gaudy flowers which distinguish so many individuals of this 
family. It is a native of various countries in the South- 
eastern portion of the Old World, as New Caledonia, (where 
it was first discovered by Forster during the celebrated 
voyage of Captain Cook,) the Mariane Islands, Japan, 
Ceylon, and Nepal. It was introduced from the latter 
country to our stoves by Dr. Wallich, and our first know- 
led ge 



ledge of it was derived from a plant which flowered at the 
Liverpool Botanic Garden several years ago, and we then 
referred it doubtfully to the Genus Vanda. Our present 
figure was taken from a plant that blossomed in Mr. Hors- 
fali/s rich collection at Everton. 

Descr. Stem eight to ten inches high, throwing out 
strong fibres from the base, which appear to be sometimes 
clothed with a woolly substance. Leaves three to four or 
five inches long, terete, fleshy, green. Flowers in a short, 
sessile raceme, from the axil of a leaf, drooping. Sepals 
oblong, concave, fleshy, purplish-yellow, the three upper 
ones connivent over the column, while the two lower ones 
are situated under the lip. Lip large in proportion to the 
size of the blossom, of a very rich deep purple hue, three- 
lobed, the lateral lobes obsolete, the terminal one broader 
than long, cordate. Column short, pale green, partially 
mottled with purple. Anther-case tawny. Pollen-masses 
yellow. 



Fig. 1. Front view of a Flower. 2. Column and Anther. 3. Anther- 
case. 4. Pollen-masses: — magnified. 



( 3649 ) 
Bartonia aurea. Golden Bartonia. 

•-V. ■&. &- 1 4 / . >V. &• A'. A*. A*. As. A'. A'. .SI'. A/. A*. A'. A/- A*. -St / l .St / ..4 / i.S^ 
vf.' vf." MS MS MS MS VIS MS vlS MS MS VIS MS MS Vf»' MS MS MS MS MS MS MS 

C/«ss ««d Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Loase^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus cylindraceus arete ovarium vestiens, sed 
forsan liber ; limbus 5-partitus persistens. Petala 10 un- 
guiculata calyce inserta. Stamina innumera (200 — 250) 
cum petalis inserta,, iis breviora, filamentis liberis, externis 
interdum sterilibus, antheris oblongis. Stylus filiformis 
striis 3 — 7 spiralibus notatus et inde stylis 5 — 7 omnino 
convexis et spiraliter tortis constans. Capsula oblonga, 
1 -locularis, 3 — 7-valvis, placentis totidem seminum series 2 
gerentibus. Semina compressa numerosa. — Herbse pilis 
barbatis rigidis tenacibusque pubescentes. Folia alterna in- 
terrupte pinnatifida. F lores terminates solitarii ampli albi 
(vel lutei). 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Bartonia aurea ; foliis ovato-lanceolatis simpliciter pinna- 
tifidis laciniishiferiorum grosse serratis, bracteis ovatis 
pinnatifidis flores obvallantibus, petalis 5 obovatis cus- 
pidatis, filamentis numerosissimis omnibus filiformi- 
bus. Lindl. 

Bartonia aurea. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1. 1831. 

Bartonia is exclusively an American Genus., and as the 
author of it (Nuttall) justly observes, one of the most sin- 
gular and splendid of that vast Continent. It commemo- 
rates the name of Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton, of Philadel- 
phia, Professor of Botany in the University of that city, 
and author of e< Elements of Botany" (of which an English 
edition appeared in 1804), and of" Fragments of the Nat. 
History of Pennsylvania." Sir James E. Smith says of him 
that, " after many exertions and several publications in the 
cause of Natural Science, he died of hydrothorax, on the 
19th of December, 1815, in the fiftieth year of his age. His 
nephew, Dr. William Barton, in an animated and interest- 
ing 



ing ' Biographical Sketch' of his character and pursuits, 
has preserved some account of the plants which compose 
this Genus, written by the late Professor three or four days 
before his death, and accompanied by many particulars 
relative to Mr. Pursh and Mr. Nuttall, through whose 
means it has come to the knowledge of European Botanists ; 
all which evince a love of Science, which the most painful 
bodily sufferings could not repress." 

The Genus was founded on the Barton ia ornata, Pursh 
and Nuttall (B. decapetala, Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 1487,) and 
it truly deserved the name on account of its very large white 
and handsome blossoms, each of ten petals, an inhabitant of 
the Missouri. To this Nuttall added, from the same 
country, B. nuda, a species from the same locality, and with 
a similar habit, but with smaller flowers. Mr. Douglas in 
his first expedition to North-west America found three new 
species on the Columbia, which I had the satisfaction of 
publishing in the Flora Bor. Americana, B. Icevicaulis, (with 
a figure, t. 69,) B. parviflora, and B. albicaulis : — and in his 
second visit to those regions, he had the singular good for- 
tune to discover this, the most showy of the whole, having 
golden, not white (as the rest of the species) flowers, near 
Monterey, in California, and he sent home seeds in 1834. 
The Horticultural Society has liberally distributed the 
seeds, which, proving perfectly hardy, the plant is now 
found in gardens very remote from the metropolis, even in 
the Highlands of Argyleshire. Its flowers continued with 
us in succession and in great beauty from July till October. 
This is perhaps the only species of Bartonia that has ever 
flowered in Britain, (Dr. Sims' B. decapetala having been 
drawn from a dried specimen,) and it is probably a mis- 
understanding on the part of Pursh, that the flowers open 
" only during the night;" and this has been noticed as a 
character of the Genus. Nuttall says the blossoms expand 
towards sunset. This is certain, that those species disco- 
vered by Douglas, have their flowers expanded only during 
the hot sunshine. 

Descr. Root annual. Stem two to three feet high, branched and 
straggling, succulent, scabrous. Leaves lanceolate, pinnatifid, the seg- 
ments entire or coarsely serrated; smaller ones, or bracteas, immediately 
surround the calyx, but they do not so completely conceal them as in B. 
ornata. Peduncles axillary, each bearing two or three flowers, of which 
only one expands at a time. Calyx of five lanceolate segments, much 
shorter than the petals. Corolla of five large, bright yellow, obcordate 
petals, red at the base. Stamens numerous, the outer ones much the 
longest Anthers twisted after the pollen is discharged. Germen in- 
terior, furrowed. Style filiform. 

4 & 1 c, CalyX ^P^ 1 ; 2. Portion of a Stamen with perfect Anther. 3. Outer, and 
4, mner Stamen, with the Anthers twisted in age -.-magnified. 



C 3650 ) 

LOPHOSPERMUM SCANDE^S. CLIMBING 
LOPHOSPERMUM. 

&. ij'm &. &■ ■>I / . &. &• &• &. &• &. .4 / . &* .Sfc .S^. .SL i&m &. i&. &. A'. &. 

■%* Jlf Jt* Jt? /[? JF v|S MS <%' MS «t? Vr> 't» <r> Vf> <t» ^» <V <f» vfc. VK <r» 

C/ass awe? Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — ScrophularinejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla campanulata; limbo 5-lobo, 
subaequali. Capsula bilocularis, irregulariter dehiscens. 
Semina imbricata, membranaceo-alata. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Lophospermum scandens ; foliis cordatis grosse inaequali- 
terque dentatis tenuissime glanduloso-pubescentibus, 
calycis segmentis oblongis apice attenuatis, corolla 
extus nuda lobis inferioribus erectis. 

Lophospermum scandens. Don, in Linn. Soc. Trans. 15. 
353, (not Don in Sw. Br. Fl. Gard. t. 68, nor Bot. 
Mag. t. 3037, 3038, which is now h. erubescens. Don.) 
Henslow, in the Botanist, No. 17. 



This plant, though only lately introduced, is easily cul- 
tivated, either in the open air or in the greenhouse, and has, 
with the Lophospermum erubescens, and the Rhodochiton 
volubile, even, within a few months, given a character to 
our trellises as new, as that imparted a few years ago to 
our greenhouses, by the introduction of the Fuchsias, Cal- 
ceolarias, and the varieties of the genus Salpiglossis. 

Descr. Plant herbaceous, scandent by its petioles, 
with long slender branches, everywhere, excepting on the 
outside of the corolla, finely glanduloso-pubescent. Leaves 
(an inch and three quarters broad, two and a half long) 
opposite below, alternate above, petiolate, heart-shaped, 

subacute, 

Vol. xii. i 



subacute, coarsely and unequally toothed, of lively green 
above, paler below, seven-nerved, nerves prominent below, 
channelled above, teeth mucronate. Petioles as long as 
the leaves, grooved above. Peduncles solitary, axillary, 
single-flowered, erect, reaching beyond the middle of the 
leaf. Calyx five-partite, segments (one inch long, five 
lines broad) oblong, slightly cordate at the base, attenuated 
and connivent at the apex, projecting outwards along their 
edges, entire, slightly undulate, subequal, the lowest rather 
the shortest. Corolla twice as long as the calyx, funnel- 
shaped, purplish-rose-coloured, obscurely dotted on its 
outside, but without pubescence; tube white, especially 
on its lower side, ftattish above, with two grooves below, 
dilated and angular where it covers the germen ; limb five- 
lobed, uppermost lobes largest, subacute, reflected, slightly 
pubescent within, lowermost blunt, erect, the middle one 
the smallest, and from its base on each side proceeds, to the 
origin of the longer stamens, an elevated line corresponding 
with the groove on the outside, and covered with short erect 
coarse hairs, yellow only towards the limb, and much less 
dense than in Lophospermum erubescens. Stamens four, 
didynamous, as long as the tube, from the base of which 
they arise, and to which they are adherent till they pass the 
germen, above which they are free, and hairy for a little 
way, higher up glabrous, sprinkled with a few colourless 
glands only towards the anthers ; anthers cream-coloured 
lobes diverging below, and bursting along the face; pollen 
granules mmute. A minute tuft of hairs between the 
shorter stamens, and a little below the part at which they 
become free, is the rudiment of a fifth stamen. Pistil as 
long as the shorter stamens ; germen small, conical, green, 
seated upon a yellowish obscurely lobed glabrous disk ; 
style continuous, straight, in contact with the upper side 
ot the tube, glabrous, bent nearly to a right angle imme- 
diately below the stigma. Ovules very many. Graham. 

■ I-ODIO 1 

101 ^.SoaO smsst? 



j65I 











( 3651 ) 

Cereus pentalophus ; p subarticulatus. Five- 
winged Cereus, somewhat jointed var. 

Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

(Nat. Ord. — Cacte*:.) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala numerosissima imbricata, basi ovario adnata, in 
tubum elongatum concreta,, exteriora breviora calycinalia., 
medio longiora colorata, intima petal iforrnia. Stamina 
numerosissima cum tubo concreta. Stylus filiformis, apice 
multifidus. Bacca areolata., sepalorum reliquiis squamata 
aut tuberculosa. Cotyledones acuminata. — Frutices carnosi 
subglobosi vel elongati, stricti, articulati vel repentes, axi 
ligneo interne medullifero donati, angulis verticalibus spina- 
rum fasciculos gerentibus vel inermibus regulariter sulcati. 
Anguli sen ala nunc plurimce, nunc paucissimce, rarius duo 
tantum, et tunc rami compresso-alati inermes. Flores ampli 
e spinarum fasciculis later alibus trunci aut ramorum vetus- 
tiorum, aut crenis angulorum orti. Fructus oviformes, ple- 
rumque anno sequente maturescentes, edules. Pfeiff. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

vidsfs bad 
Cereus pentalophus; erectus cinereo-viridis obtusus, costis 

5 verticalibus obtusis, fasciculis approximatis, areo- 
la juniore velutiua, aculeis 5 — 7 setaceis divergentibus, 
junioribus albido-flavidis, adultis griseis. 

Cereus pentalophus. De Cand. Rev. des Cact. p. 117. 
Pfeiff. Enum. Cact. p. 101. 

(«.) simplex; caule simplice, sinubus latis obtusis, costis 
parum prominulis, aculeis albidis, areolis subnudis. 

Cereus propinquus. De Cand. 

(/3.) subarticulatus ; caule ramosissiino subarticulato, costis 
irregularibus subrepandis vel tuberosis, sinubus angus- 
tioribus, aculeis junioribus flavescentibus, areolis 
albo-lanatis. Pfeiff 

Cereus leptacanthus. D C. (Tab. nostr. Tab. 3651.) 

C. 



C. pentalophus, with its varieties above quoted from De 
Candolle, was discovered by Dr. Coulter in Mexico, but 
it does not appear from the descriptions that its flowers 
were known previous to the blossoming of the present in- 
dividual in Mr. Mackie's collection at Norwich. The 
flower is exceedingly handsome, of a fine rose colour, 
paler and almost white in the centre, where are the yellow 
anthers, and rising above them is the cluster of dark blue- 
green styles. The germen is prickly like the stem. 



( 3652 ) 

Kennedya nigricans. Dingy-flowered 
Kennedya. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 

DlADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — LeguminosjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx bilabiatus, labio superiore bidentato, inferiore 
trifido aequali. Corolla papilionacea, vexillo recur vo a 
carina non reflexo. Stamina diadelpha. Stigma obtusum. 
Legumen lineare compressum isthinis cellulosis transversis 
multiloculare. Semina strophiolata. — Frutices Nova: Hol- 
landiai volubiles. Pedunculi axillares. Flores rubri aut 
violacei, vexillo basi bimaculato. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Kennedya nigricans; foliolis ovatis retusis solitariis terna- 
tisve, racemis simplicibus, floribus erectis secundis, 
carina recta vexillo sublongiore, alis apicibus paten ti- 
bus, calycibus villosis basi angustatis. 

Kennedya nigricans. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. J 71 5. 



Our specimens of this New Holland climber, sent both 
by Messrs. Lowe, of Clapton, and from the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden, differ from the figure given of it by Pro- 
fessor Lindley in having the leaves altogether simple, and 
the flowers of a much deeper colour, almost approaching 
to black, forming a striking contrast with the rich scarlet- 
blossomed species which abound in the same country. 

Descr. A twining shrub, attaining a considerable 
height, more or less pubescent. Leaves in our specimens 
simple, large, broadly ovate, almost cordate at the base, 
retuse at the apex, sometimes ternate on the same branch. 

Stipules 



Stipules small, ovate, pointed. Peduncles axillary, much 
longer than the petiole, bearing a raceme of erect, secund 
flowers. Pedicels about as long as the calyx, which latter 
is hairy with dusky pubescence. Corolla dark, black- 
purple. Vexillum oblong, remarkably retrofracted, pale 
yellow in the disk. Wings as long as the keel, narrow, 
the extremities spreading. Keel nearly straight. Stamens 
ten, diadelphous. Style a little longer than the stamens. 
Stigma small, capitate. 



'ft. ">7> 




( 3653 ) 
Rehmannia Chinensis. Chinese Reh- 

MANNIA. 

Yr "4^" "%•' '& '& "%■' '}£' "%•' '^' '%■' '^' "'F <%■' ''!>" ''K '4^' ^' "Jf* "'p a** V 

C/ass and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGI0SPERM1A. 

( Nat. Ord. — ScrophularinEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx campanulatus, 5-fidus. Corolla ringens., tubulo- 
so-ventricosa ; limbo 5-lobo, lobis subaequalibus 2 superi- 
oribus reflexis. Stamina didynama. Antherce terminates., 
loculis divergentibus maticis. Stigma bilamellatum. Cap- 
sula ovata., polysperma., unilocularis, bivalvis; valvulis in 
media parte septiferis., marginibus liberis. Semina albu- 
rninosa, ovata., membrana spongiosa reticulata involuta. 
Fisch. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Rehmannia* Chinensis. Fisch. et Meyer, Ind. Sem. Hort. 

Petrop. p. 36. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1960. 
Rehmannia glutinosa. Libosch in Herb. Imp. Petrop. 
Gerardia glutinosa. Bunge Enum. Plant. Chin. p. 49. 

(not Linn.) 
Digitalis glutinosa. Gcertn. in Nov. Commen. Acad. Imp. 

Petrop. v. 14. p. 544. t. 20. 



This interesting plant is a native of walls and of waste 
and mountainous places about Pekin,, where it was collected 
by Dr. Bunge., now Professor of Botany at Kasan, who 
accompanied the Ecclesiastical Russian Mission to China. 
The result of his botanical researches there were given in 
a work entitled " Enumeratio Plantarum, quas in China 

Boreali 



* Probably named in compliment to a Botanist of the name ol Hermann. 



Boreali collegit Dr. Al. Bunge, Anno 1831." On his return, 
he explored the Altaic Mountains with such success as to 
be rewarded by the discovery of three hundred and fifty 
species of plants, including- many new ones, and which will 
form a valuable supplement to the already extensive Flora 
of that country, published by Dr. Ledebour. Treated as 
a hardy greenhouse plant, Rehmannia Sinensis flowers 
readily in the early summer. Its blossoms vary somewhat 
in size and in colour, as may be seen by a comparison of 
our figure with that of Professor Lindley. 

Descr. Pubescenti-hirsute. Stem from a span to a foot 
high, erect, weak, tinged with purple, branched at the base. 
Leaves obovate, alternate, tapering into a short stalk at 
the base, acute, remotely and coarsely subinciso-serrate, 
somewhat shining, wrinkled with veins : lower petioles 
about an inch long. Peduncles axillary, solitary, from 
almost every leaf, single-flowered, longer than the leaf. 
Calyx tube oval, inflated, striated with ten elevated lines, 
the limb of five recurved ovate segments, of which the 
two lower ones are set more apart than the rest. Corolla 
large, handsome, yellowish-buff, deeply tinged at the mouth 
and upper part of the tube both within and without; 
dark purple, hairy all over; the tube remarkably com- 
pressed, the limb large, spreading, two-lipped, upper lip of 
two, lower of three oval, obtuse, emarginate lobes, marked 
with reticulated veins as in Hyoscyamus. Stamens and style 
quite included. Filaments four, didynamous, yellow, 
spotted with purple, not half the length of the corolla, and 
arising from near its base. Anthers of two diverging, 
oblong cells. Germen ovate, green, inserted on an annu- 
lar disk, one-celled with two parietal placenta?, bearing 
two lobes with numerous ovules. Style reaching the 
height of the stamens. Stigma two-lipped, as in Mimulus. 



( 3654 ) 

Agave Americana ; var. foliis variegatis. Great 
American Aloe; with variegated leaves. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — BromeliacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla infundibuliformis, basi tubulosa; limbo erecto, 
6-partito, aequali. Stamina exserta, summo tubi inserta ; 
filamentis longis, subulatis, compressis, suberectis. An- 
therce magnae, lineares, versatiles. S(y/Msfiliformis, subtri- 
gonus. Stigma capitato-trigonum. Capsula oblonga v. 
obovata, subtrigona, trilocularis, polysperma. Semina 
numerosissima, biserialia, plana. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Agave * Americana ; foliis dentato-spinosis, scapo ramoso, 

tubo corolla? medio angustato, staminibus corolla lon- 

gioribus stylo subbrevioribus. 
Agave Americana. Linn. Sp. PL p. 461. Ruiz et Pav. 

Fl. Peruv. v. 3. p. 66. Humb. et Bonpl. Nov. Gen. v. 

1. p. 238. Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 438. Roem. et Sch. 

Syst. Veget. v. 7. p. 722. Spr. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 78. 
Var. (i. foliorum marginibus flavis. (Tab. nostr. 3654J 



The Aloe, that Patriarch of the Flowers, which " blooms 
once in a hundred years, and whose blossoms then are 
developed with such rapidity, as to occasion an explosion 
resembling the firing of a cannon/' is the theme of a tale 
that all have heard from their infancy, and to which many 
still give credence. In regard to the age at which the plants 
flower, that is extremely uncertain, and depends much upon 

the 



* From eiyouns, admirable, on account of the stateliness and grandeur of 
this plant. 



the health and vigour of the individuals, and the degree of 
heat to which they have been exposed. Many live to a great 
age, and appear never to flower at all. In warm climates 
twenty-five or thirty years, and, probably, a much shorter 
period is sufficient to bring them to perfection. The most 
remarkable instance on record of the early flowering of the 
American Aloe is that detailed by Mr. Hawkins in the Trans- 
actions of the Horticultural Society, v. 4. p. 389. This took 
place in the open ground, at Woodville, near Salcombe, 
Devonshire, the residence of the late James Yates, Esq., and 
considering that the plant is a native of South America, 
more especially within the tropics, it tells more for the mild- 
ness of that part of England, than any circumstance that 
could be mentioned. The Aloe was planted in 1804, when 
it was only about six inches high, and then two or three years 
old, within a few yards of the sea-shore, yet elevated forty 
or fifty feet above the level of the water, where it never had 
any cover, shelter, manure, or cultivation. In 1812, it was 
more than five feet high, and it grew during that summer, 
nearly the eighth of an inch daily. In 1820 it measured 
between ten and eleven feet in height, and covered a space, 
the diameter of which was sixteen feet ; its leaves, close to 
the stem, being nearly nine inches thick. In the beginning 
of June of that year, a stem made its appearance, resem- 
bling a head of Asparagus, of immense size, which, during 
six weeks grew at the rate of three inches a-day, and then 
gradually diminished in progress ; but not till it had attain- 
ed the elevation of twenty-seven feet from the ground, which 
was at about the middle of September. The two lowest 
branches first showed flowers on the 3d of September, and 
others came out in succession from the beginning of Octo- 
ber to the end of November, when they all began to lose 
their colour and to decay. There were upwards of forty 
flowering bunches, each with between three and four hun- 
dred flowers, making in all above sixteen thousand blossoms. 
As the stem grew, the leaves began to wither ; and it ap- 
pears the plant then died." " Its age was twenty-one years : 
the height from the earth when in blossom twenty-seven 
feet: the lateral branches, beginning at twelve feet from the 
ground, were in number forty-two, the lowest projecting 
two feet from the stem, and gradually diminishing to about 
a foot or nine inches in length at the top : the stalk where 
the side brauches commenced was twenty inches round, or 
near seven inches in diameter, gradually tapering to the 
apex : the bunches of flowers (or at least those next the 
bottom) were from a foot to fourteen inches in breadth." 

Although 



Although various instances are on record of this plant having blossom- 
ed when confined in a pot or tub, and sheltered from the severity of our 
climate, yet the occurrence is so rare, as to excite a great deal of inter- 
est in the neighbourhood where such an event takes place; and I know 
not whether the variegated-leaved variety, which is not uncommon in 
collections, blossoms with equal readiness ; not having myself heard of 
the flowering of that kind, till that which is here represented threw up 
its flowering stem in the summer of 1836, at Aiken Head, the seat of 
Mrs. Gordon, where, the garden is under the management of Mr. 
Lambie. In this instance, the whole height of the flower-stalk, was 
only the half of that of Mr. Yates : and the blossoms were few indeed 
in comparison ; yet they came to great perfection, and the plant made 
a very noble appearance. 

But the great size and strange form of this plant, and the rarity of its 
blossoming in our collections, are not the only circumstances which 
recommend the American Aloe to attention. It yields a drink, and a 
fibre of such extensive use in the New World, that it is reckoned, next 
to the Maize and the Potato, the most valuable of all the products which 
nature has lavished on the mountain-population of sequinoctial America: 
and no where perhaps is it held in greater esteem than Mexico, according 
to M. de Humboldt, from whose " Essai politique sur la Royaume de la 
Nouvelle Espagne," I extract the following interesting particulars, bear- 
ing on this subject. 

" Scarcely," says this distinguished Philosopher, " does there exist a 
tribe of savages in the world, who are not acquainted with the art of pre- 
paring some kind of vegetable drink. The wretched hordes which wan- 
der in the forests of Guiana, extract from the fruits of different Palms, 
a beverage, which is as palatable as the European orgeat. The inhabit- 
ants of Easter Island, confined to a mass of barren, springless rocks, 
mingle the expressed juice of the Sugar Cane with the briny water of the 
sea. Most civilized nations derive their drink from the same plants as 
afford them food, and whose roots and seeds contain the saccharine prin- 
ciple mingled with the farinaceous. In Southern and Eastern Asia this 
is Rice ; in Africa and Australia the roots of Ferns, and of some Arums; 
while in the North of Europe, the Cerealia afford both bread and fo- 
mented liquors. Few are the instances of certain plants being cultivated 
solely with a view to extract beverages from them. Vineyards only 
exist west of the Indus ; in the Old World, and in the golden age of 
Greece, the culture of the Grape was confined to the countries lying 
between the Oxus and the Euphrates, in Asia Minor, and in Western 
Europe. In other parts of the world, nature certainly produces several 
species of Wild Vine ; but no where has man attempted to collect them 
around them, and improve their quality by cultivation. 

" The New Continent presents the instance of a people who derived 
their drinks not only from the farinaceous and sugary substance of 
Maize, Manioc, and Bananas, or from the pulp of some species of 
Mimosa, but who cultivated a plant of the Pine Apple family for the 
express purpose of converting its juice into a spirituous liquor. In the 
vast plains in the interior of Mexico, there are large tracts of country 
where the eye discerns nothing but fields planted with the Pittes or 
Maguay (Agave Americana). This plant, with its leathery and 
thorny leaves, and which, with the Cactus Opuntia, has become 

naturalized 



naturalized ever since the sixteenth century, throughout Southern 
Europe, in the Canary Islands, and on the African coasts, imparts a 
most peculiar character to the Mexican landscape. What can be more 
strongly contrasted than a field of yellow Wheat, a plantation of the 
glaucous Agave, and a grove of Bananas, whose lustrous leaves always 
preserve their own tender and delicate hue of green ! Thus does man, 
in all latitudes, by introducing and multiplying the various vegetable 
productions, modify at his pleasure the aspect of the country around him ! 

" In the Spanish colonies there are several sorts of Maguay deserving 
of careful cultivation ; some indeed, which, by the length of the sta- 
mens, the mode of division of the corolla, and form of the stigma, may, 
perhaps, belong to separate genera. The Maguay or Metl, which is 
grown in Mexico, consists of several varieties of the American Aloe 
(Agave Americana), so common in gardens, which has yellow, fascicled, 
and straight flowers, with stamens twice as long as the divisions of the 
corolla. This must not be confounded with the A. Cubensis of Jac- 
quin, (A. Mexicana, Lamarck, A. odorata, Persoon,) which has 
been erroneously supposed to be the Metl or Maguay of Mexico, but 
which is extensively grown in the Caraccas, where it is called Maguay 
de Cocuy. 

" These plantations extend wherever the Azteque language is spoken ; 
they cease to the north of Salamanca, and are seen in the greatest 
luxuriance in the valley of Toluca and the plains of Cholula. There the 
Agave plants are set in rows, distant fifteen decimetres from one 
another. The juice or sap, commonly called the honey, from its abun- 
dant sweetness, is only afforded when the flowering-stem is about to 
appear, so that it is of great importance to the cultivator to ascertain 
precisely this period. Its approach is indicated by the direction of the 
root-leaves, which the Indian always watches and examines with great 
attention, and which, formerly recurved, suddenly take an upward 
direction, and approximate as if to enclose the incipient flower-stalk. 
The bunch of central leaves (corazon, the heart,) next assumes a livelier 
green, and lengthens considerably ; indications which the natives assure 
me hardly ever fail, and to which may be added several other less 
striking appearances in the general aspect of the plant. Daily does the 
cultivator examine his Agave plantations, to watch those individuals 
which promise to bloom, and if he himself entertains any doubt, he 
appeals to the village sages, the old Indians, whose long experience 
gives them an unerring precision both of touch and eye. 

"At eight years old, or thereabouts, the Mexican Agave generally 
shows signs of inflorescence, and then the collection of the juice for 
making Pulque begins. The bunch of central leaves, or corazon, is cut 
through, the incision gradually enlarged and covered by the side leaves, 
which are raised up and tied together at their tips. In this cleft the 
sap of those parts which were destined to form and nourish the gigantic 
flowering-stem is deposited, and this vegetable spring flows for two or 
three months, and may be tapped three times a day. The quantity of 
sap is enormous; and the more surprising, as the Agave plantations 
are always made by choice on the most sterile soil, frequently on mere 
shelves of rock, scantily covered with vegetable earth. Each plant is 
calculated to yield about one hundred and fifty bottles ; and at Pachuca, 
the value of a Maguay, near flowering, is from twenty to twenty-five 

francs, 



francs, or five piastres. Still, as with the Vine, which may bear a 
greater or less quantity of grapes, the produce is apt to vary, and 
cannot be precisely calculated. Instances have, however, been known, 
of a parent bequeathing a plantation of Maguay worth from seventy to 
eighty thousand piastres. 

" The cultivation of the Agave is attended with many real advantages 
above that of Maize, Wheat, or Potatoes, as this sturdy, harsh, and fleshy- 
leaved plant is uninjured by the occasional drought, frost, and excessive 
cold, which prevail in winter on the lofty Cordilleras of Mexico. It 
dies after having flowered, or when the central bunch of leaves is cut 
away, and then a number of suckers spring from the parent root, which 
increase the plant with extraordinary rapidity. One acre of ground 
will contain from twelve to thirteen hundred plants of Maguay, of which 
it may be calculated that one in every thirteen or fourteen is always 
affording, the honey. Thus the proprietor who sets from thirty to forty 
thousand Maguays is sure of leaving his family rich ; though a man 
must possess patience and resolution to devote himself to cultivating 
what only becomes productive after an interval of fifteen years. In good 
soil, the Agave blossoms at the end of five years ; while in poor ground 
nothing can be expected under eighteen years ; and any artificial means 
by which the flowering state is unnaturally accelerated, only destroy 
the plant prematurely, or materially lessen the amount of sap. 

" The honey, or juice, is of an agreeably bitter-sweet flavour, and fer- 
ments readily from the sugar and mucilage with which it abounds, this 
process being hastened by the addition of some old and acid pulque. 
This vinous liquor resembles cider, but diffuses a disgusting smell of 
decayed meat, which Europeans have some difficulty in overcoming. 
Those, however, who have accustomed themselves to the beverage, con- 
sider it as strengthening, stomachic, and particularly nutritive, recom- 
mending it, peculiarly, to persons of a very meagre habit ; and I have seen 
many whites, who, totally discontinuing water, beer, and wine, drink 
only the Pulque, like so many Mexicans. The cause of the fetid smell 
of this liquor is variously attributed to the mode of preparation, the 
manure used for the soil, and the different materials in which the fer- 
mentation is carried on ; and I only regret, that I was unable, for want 
of proper apparatus, to ascertain this curious point in vegetable che- 
mistry. By distillation, a most intoxicating spirit is obtained from 
Pulque, which is called Mexical, ox Aguardiente (Fire-water) of Maguay. 
The plant which is preferred for this purpose, appeared to me smaller, 
and its foliage more glaucous than the common kind ; but not having 
seen it in blossom, I cannot pronounce it to be specifically distinct. 

" But not only is the Agave the Mexican Vine, but it holds the place 
of Asiatic Hemp and the Egyptian Paper-Reed, (Cyperus Papyrus). 
The antient manuscripts of this country consisted of hieroglyphics, often 
inscribed on a paper made of numerous layers of the Agave leaf, mace- 
rated in water, and glued together in the same manner as the pith of 
papyrus and the bark of the Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia) of the 
Pacific Isles. I brought away many antient specimens of this fabric, 
some as thick as pasteboard, others as thin as fine India paper, which 
are the more interesting, as all the Mexican records hitherto discovered 
and still preserved at Rome and in Spain, are inscribed on the skins of 
the Mexican Deer. No thread is so much prized by physicians in 

Europe 



Europe as that which is extracted from Agave leaves, which are some- 
times ten feet long, fifteen inches wide and eight thick, because it is not 
liable to twist ; though the fibre of the New Zealand Flax (Phormium 
tenax) excels it in tenacity. Twine, thread, and rope are made of it ; 
the latter is employed in the mines, and, on the western coast, for rig- 
ging the ships. The common juice of the plant, or that which it yields 
when not about to blossom, is highly caustic, and useful for cleansing 
wounds ; while the thorny points of the leaves, like those of the Cactus, 
used to serve the Indians for nails and needles. The Mexican priests 
were accustomed to inflict wounds in that manner on their breasts and 
arms by way of expiation, as do the Buddhists in Hindostan." 

Rarely as the American Aloe blossoms in this part of Europe, a friend 
of mine, who lately visited the shores of the Mediterranean in the North 
of Spain, tells me, that the brown withered flowering stems often stand 
there as tall, strong, and thick as the masts of small vessels in a harbour, 
and are sometimes used for thatching. The height of this stalk varies from 
twenty to forty feet, and expands like a rich candelabrum, its arms clus- 
tered with golden yellow flowers. An extract from the foliage, when 
made into balls, will lather water like soap ; and, finally, the centre of 
the flower -stalk cut longitudinally is by no means a bad substitute for 
the European razor-strop, owing to minute particles of silex forming 
one of its constituents, in the same way as the Dutch Hushes, or stems of 
the Horsetail (Equisetum) are employed to polish ivory and brass. 
My friend, William Christy, Esq., when writing from Guernsey last 
autumn (1837) says, " in this delightful climate, an Agave Americana 
is just coming into flower, in the street of St. Pierre Port. It is twenty- 
five years old, and already thirty feet high ; and has always stood in 
the open air, summer and winter, without any protection." 

Descr. Leaves radical, imbricated at the base, spreading on all 
sides, sword-shaped, rigid, flat or slightly grooved above, convex be- 
neath, very acute, glaucous-green, sometimes, as in our variety, border- 
ed with yellow, the margin toothed with short, strong spines, mucronate 
at the point : they are from four to six feet long. Scape from twelve 
(in our specimen) to twenty and even forty feet high, erect, bearing a 
panicle of innumerable flowers in dense clusters. Perianth yellow- 
green, the tube for the greater part of its length incorporated with the 
germen, above which is a constriction : limb deeply cut into six linear- 
oblong, erect, obtuse segments. Filaments inserted on the short, free 
portion of the tube, just below the segments, and opposite to them ; 
subulate much exserted, a little compressed. Anthers linear, versatile, 
deep yellow. Style filiform, sometimes about as long as the stamens, 
sometimes much shorter than they are : Stigma capitate, three-lobed : 
Germen obscurely triquetrous, three-celled, the cells many-ovuled. 






====== 



The principal figure represents the Agave Americana from the garden 
at Aiken Head reduced one twenty-fourth part of the nat. size.— Fig. 1. 
A Mower. I. lhe same laid open. 3. Germen cut through transversely: of 

tilt, FILL I . ui4ii 






3655. 







( 3655 ) 

DlPLACUS PUNICEUS. SCARLET-FLOWERED 

DlPLACUS. 

doirfw jjsfl 

********************** 

Class nnrt Orrlpr 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord.— Scrophularine^. ) 
idBmaise Generic Character. 

Cal. prismaticus apice 5-fidus. Corolla ringens, 5-fida, 
lobis subaequalibus plerumque emarginatis. Stigma bila- 
mellatum. Capsula lineari-oblonga, bilocularis. Placenta 
(s. receptaculum seminis) lata, dernum bipartita, adnata. 
Semina utrinque subulata. — Frutices Californica, Mimulo 
proximo. Folia opposita plerumque viscosa. Nutt. MSS. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Diplacus puniceus ;* fruticosus viscosus glaber, foliis li~ 
neari-lanceolatis subconnatis vix serrulatis acutius- 
culis, calycinis laciniis inasqualibus acuminatis, corolla 
punicea lobise marginatis, caule elato ramosissimo. 
Nutt. MSS. 

Diplacus puniceus. Nutt. MSS. 



" A very elegant shrub, flourishing in its native soil 
nearly the whole year. Like the other species of this 
Genus it has altogether the habit of a Mimulus ; and one 
of them has, indeed, long been known under the name of 
Mimulus glutinosus. The present species is a far taller- 
growing plant than that, and much more of a true shrub. 
The leaves are of a deep green, narrow-lanceolate and 
somewhat acute. The steins and calyx have a purplish 
hue, and the corolla, considerably exserted, is of a deep 
velvety scarlet, with shades of pink lake, and its lobes are 
constantly emar^inate. 

J » a J t 



* The name Jij, two, and <***x°<.> placenta, alludes to the splitting of the 
capsule, to each valve of which is attached a large placenta, and under its 
edges are found the slender subulate seeds. — Nutt. 



tc It inhabits sandy loam by the borders of small winter 
streams, attaining commonly the height of a man, growing 
near St. Diego in Upper California, and flowering in April 
and May. In cultivation, it continues to bloom apparently 
all the year." 

We need offer no apology for departing from our accus- 
tomed practice, and figuring a new and handsome plant 
from the pencil of Mr. Nuttall, which cannot yet have 
blossomed in the gardens of this country. It was disco- 
vered by the gentleman just mentioned during his late 
arduous western travels, and transported in 1836 to the gar- 
den of Mr. Buist, the extensive nurseryman of Philadelphia, 
by whom the whole stock was sent, in the autumn of last 
year, to Messrs. Lowe,* of Clapton, who are consequently 
the only possessors of it. It cannot fail to prove a great 
ornament to our gardens. 

In the MSS. which accompanied this drawing, and which 
will be published in an early number of Mr. Taylor's 
"Annals of Nat. History," the following species (besides 
the D. glutinosus) are given : — 

Diplacus latij'olius (Nutt.) ; suffruticosus viscosus, foliis 
oblongis sublanceolatis obtusiusculis serrulatis subtus 
puberulis, pedunculis brevibus, calycibus glabris, la- 
ciniis inaequalibus acutis, corollas lobis vix emarginatis 
latis. 
Hab. About Monterrey, Upper California. Fl. April. 
Diplacus teptanthus (Nutt.) ; fruticosus viscosus, foliis 
oblongo-lanceolatis acutiusculis subserrulatis glaberri- 
mis, pedunculis brevissimis, calycibus glabris tubulosis 
elongatis, laciuiis inaequalibus acutis brevibus, corollae 
lobis latis oblique emarginatis. 
Hab. California, Arch. Menzies, Esq. Described from specimens 
in the Herbarium of the Academy of Nat. Sciences of Philadel- 
phia, which had been communicated by Sir Wm. Jackson Hooker 
to the late Dr. Schweinitz. 
Diplacus longijiorus (Nutt.) ; suffruticosus viscosus pu- 
bescens, foliis lineari-lanceolatis utrinque attcnuatis 
vix serrulatis margine revolutis supra glabris, pedun- 
culis brevissimis, calycibus villosis, laciniis vix inaequa- 
libus acutis, corolla? lobis latissimis oblique emarginatis. 
Hab. Rocky places by small streams, in the vicinity of Santa Barbara, 
Upper California. 



* We regret to learn, however, from these gentlemen, that many of their 
have perished, owing to the extreme severity of the late winter. Pre- 
vious to that season the plant showed itself to be of free growth and graceful 

habit. 



( 3656 ) 
Cattleya pumila. Dwarf Cattleya. 

A'. A / . A*. As. .^ A/. A*. A/. A'. A'-. A*. A* A- A. A', A*- A'. A". A*. A'^ 
'W '/^ vj»" •/£. vf»" "/js* *(Jn" */t> '/^ "/Js ■/{%" '%. *>jv '4>. vj-. '/jc v^ "/^s v|>. '/js 

C/«ss awrf Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala membranacea v. carnosa, patentia, aequalia. Pe- 
tala saepius majora. Labellum cucullatum, columnam in- 
volvens, trilobum v. indivisum. Columna clavata, elongata, 
semiteres, marginata, cum labello articulata. Anthera 
carnosa 4-locularis, septorum marginibus membranaceis. 
Pollinia 4 ; caudiculis totidern replicatis. — Herbs epiphyte, 
(Americana) pseudo-bulbosa. Folia solitaria v. Una, cori- 
acea. Flores terminates, speciosissimce, sape e spatha magna 
erumpentes. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Cattleya pumila; pseudo-bulbisoblongis minutis teretibus 
sulcatis unifoliatis unifloris, folio oblongo-lanceolato, 
sepalis oblongis acutis superior! recurvo petalis ovali- 
oblongis obtusis undulatis anffustioribus, labelli lobo 
intermedio brevi obtuso undulato-Iaciniato. 



The small size of this plant, the minute, rounded pseudo- 
bulbs and the narrow leaves, together with the obtuse, short, 
and almost fimbriated lip, will, I think, clearly distinguish 
this very beautiful species of Cattleya from those hitherto 
described. It was received from the Essequibo by John 
Allcard, Esq., in whose collection it flowered last year, 
and who' kindly sent the well executed drawing here en- 
graved, from the pencil of Mrs. Withers. 

Descr. There is evidently a horizontal stem, or rhizoma, 
throwin"* out stout radicles below, and minute pseudo-bulbs 

above, 



vol. xii. 



above, which latter are at first clothed with sheathing 
scales, and afterwards seem to enlarge, till on the falling 
away of the leaves they are two inches long and naked, 
always rounded and striated. Leaf solitary, terminal, co- 
riaceous, four to five inches long, scarcely an inch broad, 
linear-oblong, nerveless. Flowers solitary, arising from a 
membranaceous sheath at the base of the leaf, drooping, of 
a beautiful blush-purple colour. Sepals spreading, oblong, 
the upper one reflexed. Petals larger and broader, waved 
at the margins. Lip large, three-lobed, the two lateral 
lobes involute, enclosing the column with the tube thus 
formed, the middle lobe short, reflexed, waved and crisped, 
almost laciniated. 



Fig. 1. Column. 2. Anther-case. 3. Pollen-masses: magnified. 



5657 







( 3657 ) 

FlJNCKIA ALBO-MARGINATA. VARIEGATED 

FUNCKIA. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Hemerocallidejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla 6-partita, tubulosa, campanulata, limbo subrin- 
gente, connivente, vel parum patente. Stamina fasciculata, 
basi limbi inserta, declinata. Stylus filiformis situ stami- 
num. Stigma subtrigonum laeve. Capsula oblonga, sub- 
prismatica, 6-sulca, bilocularis, bivalvis. Semina numerosa, 
depressa, membranaceo-alata : embryonibus pluribus. Spr. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Funckia* albo-marginata ; humilis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis 
albo-marginatis longe petiolatis scapo racemoso brevi- 
oribus, floribus declinatis infundibuliformibus remotis, 
bracteis omnibus aequalibus ovatis pedicello subduplo 
longioribus. 



This interesting species of Funckia was received from 
Belgium at the Glasgow Botanic Garden from Mr. M'Coy, 
at the same time with the F. Sieboldiana to be figured in 
our next Number, t. 3663, and was in all probability intro- 
duced into Europe by the same Botanist, Dr. Siebold, from 
Japan. But it came without any name, save that of 
" Funckia sp. foliis marginatis/' and I have no means of 

ascertaining 



* So named, I presume, in compliment to Henry Christopher Funck, 
an Apothecary of Gefreez, near Baireuth, and author of a beautiful " Tasch- 
enherbarium," or Pocket Herbarium of German Mosses, which was the 
model for that equally beautiful one of British Mosses, by Mr. Gardner. 



ascertaining whether it has been described by any author. 
It is quite different from the F. Sieboldiana, and still more 
so from the other known species, F. Japonica and F. as- 
rulea. It has been treated with us as a greenhouse plant, 
flowering in July. 

Descr. Root? Leaves all of them radical, petiolate, 
ovato-lanceolate, very acute, about seven-nerved, green, 
elegantly margined with white. Petiole longer than the 
leaf, grooved on the upper side. Scape racemose, longer 
than the leaves. Raceme of twelve to fourteen large, hand- 
some, declinate flowers, lilac-purple streaked with white, 
and deeper purple lines. Pedicels short. Bracteas ovate, 
leafy, twice as long as the pedicels. Perianth funnel- 
shaped, the tube slender below, widening considerably at 
the mouth, and there forming a broad, slightly oblique 
limb, cut into six, oblong, acute lobes. Stamens declinate, 
curved upwards at the extremity, as long as the periauth. 
Anthers yellow. 



5658. 




( 3658 ) 

Epacris microphylla. Small-leaved 
Epacris. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Epacride^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx odoratus, multibracteatus, bracteis textura calycis. 
Corolla tubulosa, limbo imberbi. Stamina epipetala : An- 
theris supra medium peltatis. Squamulce 5 hypogynas. 
Capsula placentis columnar central i adnatis. — Fruticuli 
ramosi 3 sapius glabri. Folia sparsa petiolata v. basi sim- 
plici. Flores axillares, in spicam foliatam stzpius digesti, 
albi v. purpurascentes. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Epacris microphylla ; calycis foliolis obtusiusculis, tubum 
corollae aequantibus; foliis cordatis, acutis, peduncu- 
lum superantibus, lateribus erectis; spica apiciflora; 
ramulis pilosis. Br. 

Epacris microphylla. Br. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Holland, 
550. 



We received this plant at the Botanic Garden, Edin- 
burgh, in 1835, from Mr. Westland's Nursery, near 
Dorking, Surrey, where a large stock of scarce plants, and 
of Epacride^e in particular, are cultivated with a very 
remarkable degree of success. It flowered in the green- 
house during the month of March. 

Mr. Brown places this species next to E. pulchella, of 
which, were it not for his authority, I should certainly have 
considered it only a variety. I do not find the difference 
in the form of the calyx-segments, nor of the leaves, which 

Mr. 



Mr. Brown observes, and would rest the chief distinction 
on the more slender, less tortuous, branches of E. micro- 
phylla, the hairiness of the young shoots, the shortness of 
the peduncles in relation to the leaves, and in the pseudo- 
spikes being collected nearer the extremities of the 
branches. 

Descr. Shrub erect ; branches ascending, slender, tor- 
tuous, hairy. Leaves cordate, spreading, shining, rigid, 
sides folded forwards, base embracing the stem, middle 
bent back, apex ascending, acute. Flowers white, solitary 
in the axils of the leaves, collected into subterminal pseudo- 
spikes, on peduncles shorter than the leaves. Calyx-leajlets 
oblong, blunt, white. Corolla white; tube campanulate, 
equal to the calyx, nectariferous; limb five-parted, seg- 
ments ovate, blunt, spreading. Stamens alternating with 
the segments of the corolla. Filaments adhering to the 
tube, the free portion erect, shorter than the limb. Anthers 
bilocular, bursting along the face. Germen spheroid, with 
a short style rising from the depressed apex, and supporting 
a stigma of five erect, blunt lobes. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Portion of Stamens and Leaves. 2. Single Leaf. 3. 4. Flow 
ers: magnified. 



3659. 




( 3659 ) 

Gesnera fascialis. Gaping-flowered 
Gesnera. 

************************** 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Gesnerace^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus, (plerumque germini adnatus). Cor. tu- 
bulosa campanulata limbo bilabiato; labio superiore bi- 
inferiore trifido. Stigma bilobum. Capsula bilocularis, 
2-valvis, placentis parietalibus. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Gesnera fascialis; herbacea, foliis subsessilibus cordatis 
oblongis acutis crenatis rugosis tomentosis, racemo 
terminali, bracteis ovatis acutis reflexis, corollis tomen- 
tosis, labio superiore oblongo bilobo basi angustato 
inferiore minimo revoluto fauce latissima truncata. 

Gesnera fascialis. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1785. 



Professor Lindley, who figured and described this species 
from a plant that flowered in the collection of the Hon. and 
Rev. William Herbert of SpofForth, rightly judged that it 
was a native of Brazil : Mr. Gardner having since sent 
roots of it from the neighbourhood of Rio Janeiro to his 
subscribers : and from one of these, the plant here figured 
was raised at the Glasgow Botanic Garden in 1837. It 
produced its truly splendid blossoms in July of the same 
year ; and the species may certainly be reckoned among the 
most beautiful of this handsome Genus. 

Descr. Root tuberous. Plant every where downy. Stem 
erect, a foot to a foot and a half high, erect. Leaves oppo- 
site, sessile, cordate, much wrinkled and reticulate, rather 

obtuse, 



obtuse, coarsely serrated. Raceme terminal, the pedicels 
opposite, or in whorls. Calyx short, cut into five deep, 
subulate segments, leaving scarcely any tube. Corollas 
large, handsome, of a rich velvety scarlet, tubular, two- 
lipped, the mouth oblique, exceedingly large; upper lip 
oval, convex, retuse, porrected ; lower lip reduced to a small, 
reflexed lobe, white within, clouded with dark purple. 
Filaments nearly as long as the whole corolla. Anthers 
yellow. Style equal in length with the stamens. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and Pistil: magnified. 



3660 




v. i wEJWauMnr USiS . 



( 3660 ) 

Govenia Gardneri. Mr. Gardner's 
Brazilian Govenia. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchideje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium bilabiatum. Sepala lateralia falcata labello 
supposita, basi paululum connata, supremo paulo majori. 
Petala sub sepalo supremo conniventia, breviora, obliqua. 
Labellum integerrimum, ecalcaratum, concavum, cum basi 
parum producta columns articulatum, sessile. Columna 
basi paulo producta, teres, subfusiformis, apice utrinque 
marginata. Anthera calyp triform is, 1-locularis. Pollinia 
4, solida, incumbentia, caudicula brevi, glandula minore 
triangulari. — Terrestris. Folia plicata. Spicae radicales, 
multiflorce. Plores speciosi. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Govenia Gardneri; foliis elliptico-lanceolatis membrana- 
ceis plicatis solitariis v. binis petiolatis, petiolis sca- 
poque vaginatis, petalis sepaloque superiori concavis 
conniventibus galeam formantibus, petalis lateralibus 
porrectis, labello late oblongo recurvato apiculato 
medio bituberculato, apice glandulifero. 

Orchidea. Gardn. PL Exsic. Bras. n. 670. 



The Genus Govenia, so named in compliment to Mr. 
James Robert Gowen, of the High Clere Gardens, was 
established on a Mexican plant, and two other species have 
been published also by Professor Lindley, (Bot. Reg. see 
sub fol. 1795, Govenia capitata, and N. S. t. 13, Govenia 
liliacea,) equally inhabitants of Mexico. It has been 

Mr. 



Mr. Gardner's good fortune to discover a fourth species, 
the one here figured, inhabiting the Organ Mountains, and 
which has been by him sent to the Contributors towards the 
cost of his expedition, both in a living and dried state. It 
seems to grow very freely ; for the roots only arrived in 
July, and in the latter end of December the flowers and 
bright green foliage, sheathed at the base with purple mem- 
branes, were in perfection in the stove of the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden. It certainly is a very interesting plant, 
though perhaps less showy than the Mexican ones figured 
by Professor Lindley. 

Descr. Terrestrial. The leaves, solitary or two to- 
gether, springing from the top of the root on long, broad 
petioles, are of an elliptical-lanceolate figure, acute, mem- 
branous, striated and plaited, slightly waved ; the petioles, 
for their whole length, clothed with large, cylindraceous, 
purple membranes as thick as one's finger. From the same 
sheath the peduncle or scape arises, nearly a foot in height, 
(about as tall as the leaves), purple, sheathed with purple 
bracteas, and terminating in a raceme of large, nearly white, 
almost globose, or rather hemispherical flowers, convex 
above, plane below. Sepals and petals oblong or broadly 
lanceolate, the latter and upper sepal counivent, concave, 
and forming a helmet over the column and lip, while the 
two lower sepals almost united at the base under the lip are 
patent and slightly falcate ; lip articulated by a very short 
claw, closely applied to the column, broadly oblong, the 
upper half bent back, with a recurved mucro at the point : 
on the disk are two oblong tubercles, and on the margin 
towards the point, three distinct glands. Column semi- 
terete, the base extended, slightly glandular, winged, the 
wings standing forward, very broad upwards. Anther-case 
hemispherical, with a large mucro. Pollen-masses four, in 
two pairs, connected by a gland. Germen clavate, with 
a membranous bractea at the base of each. 



Fig. 1. Flower 2. Column and Lip. 3. Column. 4. Lip. 5. Pollen- 
masses : magnified. 



3661 A>'l 




( 3661 ) 

Pentstemon gentianoides. Gentian-lire 
Pentstemon. 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularinejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. pentaphyllus aut quinquepartitus, bractea solitaria 
distante. Corolla ventricosa bilabiata. Stamina didynama, 
rudimento quinti filiformi saepius barbato. Antherce se- 
junctae, saepius glabrae. Capsula ovata, bilocularis, bival- 
vis, polysperma. Semina angulata. — Herbae v. suffrutices, 
Americana? vel Or ientali- Asiatics. Folia lavia acuminata, 
saipius serrata. Flores paniculato-racemosi, purpurei, rosei, 
albidive. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pentstemon gentianoides ; caule elato, foliis lanceolatis 
integerrimis glaberrimis, superioribus brevioribus la- 
tioribus acutissimis, panicula elongata laxa foliosa, 
pedunculis elongatis su bum belli feris, Iaciniis calycinis 
late ovatis, corollae lobis acutis, stamine sterili apice 
paululum hirsuto. 

Pentstemon gentianoides. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. N. S. t. 3. 

Chelone gentianoides. Humb. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Sp. 
PL v. 2. p. 292. t. 112. 



A native of Mexico,, but of cold situations on the sloping 
sides of the mountain of Toluco, (whose summit is covered 
with perpetual snow,) at an elevation of 11,500 feet 
above the level of the sea, where it was discovered by 
the distinguished travellers Humboldt and Bonpland. As 
may be expected, it proves hardy with us, and even in the 
climate of Scotland the summer is sufficient to bring the 

plant 



plant to a high degree of perfection. In the Glasgow Gar- 
den it attained a height of four feet in the open border, 
and its handsome flowers continued in beauty during a 
great part of the summer and autumn. Professor Lindley 
observes that the cuttings strike freely, by which the plant 
may be increased as well as by seeds. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem three to four feet high, 
erect, branched upwards, glabrous, dark purple. Leaves 
opposite, lanceolate, spreading horizontally, sessile, quite 
glabrous and entire, the upper ones are broader, that is, 
ovate and sharply acuminated, becoming gradually smaller, 
so that the uppermost may be considered bracteas. The 
upper part of the plant may be regarded as a large pani- 
cle, the peduncles being opposite, much elongated, and 
bearing umbels of three to five or six large handsome 
flowers. Calyx deeply cut into five broadly ovate, acute 
segments, green, tipped with purple. Corollas drooping, 
rich, dark, reddish-purple : the tube slightly curved, narrow 
at the base, gradually enlarging upwards, so as to be sub- 
campanulate ; the limb two-lipped, within white, streaked 
with dark purple veins, the upper lip two-, the lower three- 
lobed; all the lobes ovate, acute. Stamens and style as 
long as the tube. Anthers two-lobed, dark purple : barren 
filaments enlarged upwards, with a fringe of a few hairs 
at the extremity. Germen ovate, green : Style purplish : 
Stigma obtuse. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and part of the Corolla, with the four Stamens, abortive 
Filament and Pistil : magnified. 



\662. 




!l</>Jn ■., „rf, f fVmmmtmiHi 



C 3662 ) 

Centaurea depressa. Prostrate Cen- 
taury. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Frustranea. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Anthodium ventricosum, ovatuin, imbricatum, squamis 
inermibus vel spinosis. Flosculi radiates neutri tubulosi. 
Receptaculum setosum. Pappus setaceus annulo caducus. 
Hilum laterale ad basin. 

Specific Character and Synonymns. 

Centaurea (Sect. Cyanus, D C.) depressa; caule e basi 
ramoso declinato aut simplici erecto foliisque albo- 
tomentosis, caulinis oblongis basi obtusis sessilibus 
integerrimis, infimis subdentatis, fructus umbilico bar- 
bigero, pappo fructus longitudine aequali. D C. 

Centaurea depressa. M. Bieb. FL. Tauc. Cauc. v. 2. p. 
346. De Cand. Prodr. v. 6. p. 578. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 3. p. 339. 

Centaurea pygmaea. Hoffm. Hort. Mosc. 1808. n. 783. 



Allied to the well-known " Corn Blue-bottle" of our fields, 
but a plant of much humbler growth, and far brighter- 
coloured flowers : indeed, we doubt if any species of this 
extensive Genus presents more lively blossoms than the one 
now before us, an inhabitant of dry hilly places of Iberia, 
and of the Province of Aberdeischan in Persia. It succeeds, 
however, in the open border with us, flowering in August in 
the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where it was raised from 
seeds sent by Dr. Fischer. 

Descr. Root elongated, slender, annual. Stems, in the 
native specimen, not more than a span long, in our culti- 
vated 



\()L. XII. 



vated ones, eight or ten inches, decumbent and branched at 
the base,, there erect, green, but clothed with a whitish 
down as is the whole plant, giving the latter a silvery, or 
hoary appearance. Leaves alternate, sessile, linear-lanceo- 
late, acute, in our specimens entire, not decurrent, single- 
nerved. Flowers large, handsome, solitary on the copious 
branches, terminal. Involucre ovato- globose, with very 
closely imbricated scales, beautifully fringed with white 
hairs. Florets of the centre tubular, deep red-purple, broad 
above, with five long, unequal teeth, below much narrower 
and white. Anthers long, protruded, black. Germen ob- 
long, crowned with a hairy pappus of about the same length. 
Florets of the ray considerably longer than those of the 
centre, neuter ; the tube very slender, reddish, white below ; 
the limb very large, campanulate, deep blue, two-lipped, 
the lower lip smaller, bifid, the upper large quadrifid, the 
segments ovate, somewhat acute. 



Fig. 1. Floret of the Ray. 2. Ditto of the Disk : magnified. 



5663. 




( 3663 ) 

FlINCKIA SlEBOLDIANA. Dr. SiEBOLD's 
FUNCKIA. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Hemerocallide2E. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla 6-partita, tubulosa, campanulata, limbo subrin- 
gente, connivente, vel parum patente. Stamina fasciculata, 
basi limbi inserta, declinata. Stylus filiformis situ stami- 
num. Stigma subtrigonum laeve. Capsula oblonga, sub- 
prismatica, 6-sulca, bilocularis, bivalvis. Semina numerosa, 
depressa, membranaceo-alata : embryonibus pluribus. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Funckia Sieboldiana ; humilis, foliis ovatis acuminatis in- 
ferne in petiolum vaginatum decurrentibus scapo race- 
moso subdimidio brevioribus, floribus nutantibus in- 
fundibuliformibus remotis, bracteis lanceolatis infimis 
flore longioribus superne sensim minoribus. 

Funckia Sieboldiana. Lodd. Bot. Reg. t. 1869. 



Hemerocallis Japonica (Bot. Mag. t. 1433.) and H. cce- 
rulea (Bot. Mag. t. 894.) constitute a distinct group in that 
Genus which Sprengel has separated,, and to which he has 
given the name of Funckia. The present is a species be- 
longing to that Genus, for a knowledge of which we are 
indebted to Dr. Siebold, the celebrated Japanese Traveller, 
who found it in Japan, and introduced it to the gardens 
in Belgium, whence it was received by Mr. Murray at the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden from Mr. M'Coy. It flowers in 
the greenhouse in July. 

Descr. Leaves all radical, ovate, acuminate, striated, 
below tapering into a sheathing petiole. Scape scarcely a 

foot 



foot high, rounded, bearing' a raceme of large nodding 
flowers, of a white colour, slightly tinged with purple and 
green, remote when fully expanded. Pedicels short, curved. 
Bracteas lanceolate, the lower ones longer than the flower, 
the upper ones gradually smaller, and broader in propor- 
tion to their length. Perianth funnel-shaped, its tube 
straight and about as long as the campanulate limb, seg- 
ments ovate, striated. Stamens inserted at the very base of 
the perianth beneath the germen, and equal with it in 
length, curved upwards at the apex ; Anthers inserted by 
the middle of the back, two-celled ; pollen yellow. Ger- 
men oval, with three furrows, small ; Style rather longer 
than the stamens, and like them curved upwards at the 
extremity, filiform; Stigma capitate, hairy, obscurely three- 
lobed. 



366 -t. 







( 3664 ) 

Gesnera tuberosa. Tuberous-rooted 
Gesnera. 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Gesnerace^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus, (plerumque germini adnatus.) Corolla 
tubuloso-campanulata, limbo bilabiato ; labio superiore bi- 
inferiore trifido. Stigma bilobum. Capsula bilocularis, 
2-valvis, placentis parietalibus. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Gesnera tuberosa; radice tuberosa subrotunda, caulibus 
perbrevibus tuberiformibus, foliis subradicalibus late 
ovatis serratis molliter pubescentibus, pedunculis nu- 
merosis erectis 1 — 3-floris, corolla? tubo paululum cur- 
vato limbo 4-fido subaequali, glandulis hypogynis pos- 
ticis binis. 

Gesnera tuberosa. Mart. Nov. Gen. et Sp. Bras. v. 3. p. 
29. t. 212. 

Gesnera rupestris. Graham in Ed. Phil. Journ. Dec. 1837. 



For the introduction of this very remarkable species of 
Gesnera to the British stoves we are indebted to Dr. 
Graham, who received it from the Berlin Garden in 1834, 
but under the name of" G. rupestris, Mart. :" — by mistake, 
as I should presume : for it is assuredly the G. tuberosa of 
Martius above quoted. It flowers readily in the stove 
during the autumnal months. 

Descr. Tuber flattened. Stem scarcely any, support- 
ing two opposite, round, pubescent petioles, twice as long 
as itself. Leaves (eight inches long, six and a half broad) 

ovate, 



ovate, peltate, minutely glanduloso -pubescent, strongly 
nerved, bullate, unequally crenato-dentate, concave and 
dark above, paler below ; corymbs subradical, pedicels 
(two to two and a half inches long) erect, very slender, 
glanduloso-hairy, opposite, decussating, rising from the axil 
of a linear bractea. Flowers deflected outwards. Calyx 
glanduloso-pubescent, five-cleft; tube fleshy, adherent, teeth 
subulate, connivent after the corolla falls. Corolla (an inch 
and a quarter long) tubular, curved; limb, of five subequal, 
rounded, short segments, of which the two upper are rather 
the smallest, and least deeply divided. Stamens four, per- 
fect, slightly exserted; filaments glabrous; anthers dark, 
rounded, two-lobular, bursting along the face of the cells, 
connectivum rounded ; pollen yellow, granules minute ; 
one, sometimes two rudimental stamens on the upper side 
of the tube at its base. Disk white, projecting on the up- 
per side, emarginate. Germen half immersed in the calyx- 
tube, above conical, slightly pubescent, brown. Ovules 
numerous. Style nearly as long as the stamens, slightly 
pubescent, colourless. Stigma bilobular, Zo&es short. Gra- 
ham. 



Fig. 1. Pistil : magnified. 



( 3665 ) 

Ipommea Bonariensis. Buenos-Ayres 
Ipomuea. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Convolvulace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus, nudus. Corolla campanulata v. infun- 
dibuliformis, 5-plicata. Ovarium 2 — 3-loculare, loculis 
dispermis. Stylus indivisus. Stigma capitatum, 2 — 3- 
lobum. Capsula 2 — 3-locularis. — Herbs volubiles, quan- 
doque erectce. Folia indivisa v. lobata, nunc pinnatifida. 
Semina in quibusdam comosa. Br. 

Specific Name and Character. 

IpomjEA Bonariensis; volubilis pubescenti-subtomentosa, 
foliis petiolatis cordatis (sinu profundo) 3-lobis, lobis 
valde insqualibus lato-oblongis obtusis, inferioribus 
basi rotundatis, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis folio 
sublongioribus apice corymbosis 5 — 7-floris, sepalis 
ovalibus concavis membranaceis obtusis glabris, co- 
rolls infundibuliformi-subcampanulats limbo patenti 
lobis rotundatis undulatis. 



Common on ditch-banks about Buenos-Ayres, according 
to Mr. Tweedie, who sent seeds of it to this country in 
1826, and who observes that the plant has a large tuberous 
root. It thrives readily in the stove, bearing its hand- 
some flowers in August, which are not much inferior in 
beauty to those of Ipomjea insignis. 

Descr. Stem long, twining, branched, purple, clothed 
in the younger parts, as are the leaves, petioles, and pedun- 
cles, with short, but rather dense, stellated pubescence, or 

tomentum. 



tomentum. Leaves cordate, petiolate, with a very deep si- 
nus at the base, three to five-lobed in a palmated manner; 
the lobes very unequal, generally broadly -oblong, the 
lowest much rounded and dilated, as it were, at the base, 
occasioning the deep sinus between them, where the petiole 
is inserted. Petiole much shorter than the leaves, purple. 
Peduncle axillary, solitary, about as long as the leaf, flex- 
uose, bearing a corymb of from five to seven flowers, purple, 
greener above, pedicels short, green, with a small bractea at 
their base. Flower-buds oval, obtuse. Calyx of five leaves 
or sepals, oval, erect, imbricated, concave, obtuse, glabrous, 
membranaceous. Corolla large, handsome, lilac-coloured, 
between funnel-shaped and campanulate : the limb spread- 
ing, of five large, rounded, waved lobes. 



5666> 




fuhb 



( 3666 ) 

Epidendrum viridi-purpureum. Purplish- 
green Epidendrum. 

■SI^t ■Sl'o A** ■St / - ■Sfc .Sfc .Ski ■St'. .~V. i&. A/. As. As. A'. As. Af. Ac. Ac. Ac. .St*. Ac. Ac. 
VIS <fc vf» vf? vf, 1 vf> vf> vfr ""/f? "/fr *%? vfr vf; vj^ vfr vjs vf** ",$? v]S ">Js '/[: vf? 

CZass «wd Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala paten tia, subaequalia. Petala sepalis sequalia v. 
angustiora, rarius latiora., patentia v. reflexa. Labellum 
cum marginibus columnae omnino v. parte eonnatum, limbo 
integro v. diviso, disco saepius calloso, costato, v. tubercu- 
lato ; nunc in calcar productum ovario accretum et auric- 
ulum fonnans. Columna elongata : clinandrio marginato,, 
saepe fimbriato. Anthera carnosa,, 2 — 4 locularis. Pollinia 
4c, caudiculis totidem replicatis annexa. — Herbae (Ameri- 
cana (epiphytce, caule nunc apice v. basi pseudo-bulboso, 
nunc elongato apice folioso. Folia carnosa, rarissime venis 
elevatis striata. Flores spicati, racemosi, corymbosi v. pani- 
culati, terminates v. laterales. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Epidendrum viridi-purpureum; caule elongato simplici 
tereti basi incrassato vaginato., superne folioso,, foliis 
disticbis oblongo-iigulatis subdistichis, racemo denso 
subcapitato terminal^ sepalis petalisque oblongo-obo- 
vatis, labello convexo latissime cordato triloba, basi 
bituberculato, lobis lateralibus rotundatis, intermedio 
bifido laciniis divaricatis. 



Although a native of Jamaica, one of the best explored 
of our possessions in the West Indies, I do not find that 
this is noticed by any botanical writer. Seventy-one spe- 
cies of this extensive Genus were defined by Dr. Lindley 
in his valuable " Genera and Species of Orchideous Plants/' 

in 



in 1831; and since that period many have been elsewhere 
described by him and other writers. The present was first 
known to us in the flowering state by Mr. Horsfall of 
Liverpool, who imported it from Jamaica, and it has since 
blossomed in the stove of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
having been sent there by Dr. M. Fadyen. 

Descr. Like the rest of the Genus, it is an Epiphyte, 
and produces a stem about a foot and a half high, simply 
rounded, thickened at the base, and there clothed with 
membranaceous, pale -brown sheaths. Leaves from the 
upper part of the stem, subdistichous, oblongo-ligulate, 
carinated, coriaceous, bright green, nerveless. From the 
summit of the stems proceeds a jiower-stalk four to five 
inches long, compressed, bearing two or three large, with- 
ered, brown, lanceolate, carinated, striated bracteas, and a 
drooping, dense raceme, or almost capitulum of flowers. 
Sepals and petals spreading, obovato-oblong, almost spa- 
thulate, rather acute, pale green, tinged with brown ; the 
latter smaller. Column clubshaped, green slightly tinged 
with purple, bearing, at the apex below, the broadly cordate, 
very convex, fleshy, three-lobed lip, green, its broad disk 
purple, having two tubercles at the base : the lateral lobes 
are rounded, the intermediate or terminal one deeply cut 
into two spreading lobes. 



Fig. 1. Flower from which the Sepals are removed : magnified. 



( 3667 ) 

Rhododendron nudiflorum ; var. scintillans (hy- 
bridum). Sparkling Rhododendron. 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Erice^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla infundibuliformis 5-loba. Sta- 
mina 5 — 10,, declinata: antheris apice biporosis. Capsula 
5-locularis, 5-valvis, ab apice dehiscens, valvarum margin- 
ibus inflexis, dissepimenta formantibus. Receptaculum 
centrale, 5-angulare. Semina membrana involuta. 

Specific Name and Synonyms, 

Rhododendron (Azalea) nudiflorum. Linn. — Curt. Bot. 

Mag. t. 180. 
Var. hybrida, scintillans. 
Azalea nudiflora ; var. scintillans. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 

1461. 



The hybrid varieties of the Azalea group of Rhododen- 
dron are almost endless,, but few are more beautiful than 
the present, when growing vigorously, as was the case 
with the individual from which our figure was taken in the 
American border of the Glasgow Botanic Garden. 

The origin of this variety, first reared by Mr. Gowen, the 
gardener at High Clere, is thus given in his own words, in 
the Botanical Register. " This Azalea was raised at High 
Clere in the same year with those already figured in previ- 
ous parts of this work, and is a seedling from Azalea coc- 
cinea, (nudiflora, var. coccinea,) major, impregnated by the 
pollen of Azalea Pontica. 

No where perhaps are the varieties of Azalea, Rhodo- 
dendron, and other choice American shrubs cultivated upon 
a larger scale, or more successfully, than in the Nursery of 
our friend Mr Curtis at Glazenwood, where the present 
hybrid makes a very splendid appearance. 



366 s 




( 3668 ) 

Pyrus arbutifolia. Arbutus-leaved 
Aronia. 

Class and Order. 

IcOSANDRIA Dr-PENTAGYNIA. 

Generic Character. 

Calyx tubus urceolatus, limbus 5-lobus. Petala subro- 
tunda. Styli saepius b, rarius 2 — 3. Pomum clausum 5- 
locularis putaminibus cartilagineis. Semina in loculo quo- 
que 2 3 testa cartilaginea. — Arbores fruticesve. Folia sim~ 
plicia vel pinnata. Cymae patentes terminates multiflora. 
Bracteae subulate deciduce. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pyrus arbutifolia; foliis obovato-oblongis lanceolatisve 
crenato-serratis subtus pallidis reticulatim venosis costa 
supra glandulosa, floribus corymbosis. Hook. Fl. Bor. 
Am. v. I. p. 204. 
Var. «. rubra; foliis subtus (praecipue junioribus) calycibus- 
que tomentosis, fructu rubro. 
Pyrus arbutifolia. Linn.Jil. Suppl. p. 256. Pursh y Fl- 
Am. v. 1. p. 339. Bigel. Fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 195. 
De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 637. 
Crataegus pyrifolia. Lam. Diet. 
Mespilus arbutifolia. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 685. — var. ery- 

throcarpa. Mich. Am. v. I. p. 292. 
Aronia arbutifolia. Elliott, Carol, v. I. p. 356. Torrey, 

Fl. ofUn. St. v. 1. p. 478. 
Aronia pyrifolia. Pers. Syn. PI. 
Var. (i. melanocarpa ; foliis calycibusque plerumque gla- 
bris, fructu nigro. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 2. 1013. 
Mespilus arbutifolia,, |3. Mich. Am. v. }.p. 202. 
Pyrus melanocarpa. Willd. Enum. p. 525. De Cand. 

Prodr. v. 2. p. 637. Pursh, Fl. Am. v. I. p. 339. 
Pyrus floribunda. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1006. 
Aronia arbutifolia 0. Torrey, Fl. of Un. St. v. I. p. 478. 
Aronia melanocarpa. Elliott, Carol, v. I. p. 557. 

From 



From all that can be learned from American authors, as 
well as from copious specimens I have received from various 
Botanists of that country, it does not appear that there is 
more than one species of the Adenorachis section of Pyrus 
and that varying with red and black fruit. In the absence 
of the fruit, it seems impossible to distinguish these varie- 
ties ; the tomentum which clothes the young leaves particu- 
larly being more or less deciduous ; so that both states may 
be seen with glabrous or woolly foliage. Dr. Lindley's 
Pyrus jloribunda is surely only the black-fruited kind, retain- 
ing the down on the foliage, and thus, as he observes, par- 
taking of the character assigned to both respectively 

Descr. Our plant forms a handsome bush, five to six 
feet high, copiously branched, the branches with dark brown, 
glossy bark, the young shoots green and downy. Leaves 
obovato-lanceolate, acute, finely serrated, almost sessile, 
reticulated with veins and with glands on the midrib the 
young ones, especially beneath, and frequently in a niore 
advanced stage, clothed with rather thick down ; at len-th, 
often wholly glabrous. Corymbs copious on the short 
branches, about as large as those of the White Thorn. 
Calyx often tinged with bright red, and the anthers before 
bursting are of the same colour. Petals obovate, concave, 
slightly stained with blush. 







■h DtV: 



AwotL Essol 



( 3669 ) 

Cattleya Mossi^. Mrs. Moss's Superb 
Cattleya. 

********************* 

Class and Order. 

GlTNANDRIA MoNANDRIA. 

(Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE.) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala membranacea vel carnosa, patentia, aequalia. Pe- 
tala saepius majora. Labellum cucullaturn, columnam in- 
volveus, triloburu vel iudivisum. Columna clavata, elongata, 
semiteres, marginata, cum labello articulata. Anthera car- 
nosa, 4-locularis, septorum marginibus membranaceis. 
Pollinia 4, caudiculis totidem replicatis. — Herbae epiphytce, 
(Americance) pseudo-bulbosee. Folia solitaria vel bina cori- 
acea. Flores terminales, speciosissimi, scepe e spatha mag- 
na erumpentes. Lindl. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Cattleya Mossice ; caule elongato ramoso pseudo-bulbi- 
fero, pseudo-bulbis oblongis sulcatis, floribus giganteis 
speciocissimis, sepalis lanceolatis, petalis elliptico-ova- 
tis unguiculatis marginibus oblique crispatis, labello 
latissirno obovato intus flavo oblique coccineo-stri- 
ato, ungue in tubum superne acutissirnum condupli- 
cato, limbo bilobo pulcherrime crispato crenulato. 



We wish our plate could do justice to this most magni- 
ficent of all Orchideous plants. The flowers are very con- 
siderably the largest yet known in any of this superb family ; 
the colour is equally striking', with which no art of the 
pencil can attempt to vie, and we may add that the fragrance 
is most powerful, resembling that of Gymnadenia conopsca, 
but it is much stronger. The diameter of this splendid 
flower is, from the tip of the upper sepal to the tip of the 

lalx'llimi. 

VOL XII. I 



labellum, seven inches and a half; from tip to tip of the two 
opposite petals eight inches and a half! each petal being a 
little more than four inches long, and two inches and a half 
in breadth: — twenty-four inches in the circumference of 
the entire blossom ! 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mrs. Moss, of Otterspool, 
near Liverpool, for the noble specimen here figured, which 
was accompanied with a folio sketch of the entire plant 
from her pencil : and I know of no name more appropriate 
for it, as suggested by my friend Mr. Parker, than that of 
the lady in whose stove it has, by the care of her skilful 
gardener, Mr. James, been brought to such high perfec- 
tion. This is the third lady* of Liverpool who has taken 
advantage of the commercial facilities of that flourishing 
town, and, by its intercourse with the New World, to im- 
port from thence its most beautiful botanical productions. 
The present plant was introduced through the medium of 
George Green, Esq., of Liverpool, in September, 1836, 
from La Guayra, a country which, were it probably investi- 
gated, would amply reward a Collector by many other 
novelties. 

There is a general resemblance in the structure of the 
flowers of several of the purple-flowered Cattley^e: but, in- 
dependent of the gigantic size, the present species may be 
known, especially from C. labiata, its nearest affinity, by its 
elongated, branching stem, bearing many deeply sulcated 
pseudo-bulbs, by the much broader sepals and petals, which 
latter are unguiculated at the base, and by the colour and 
markings and size of the lamina of the labellum. 



* The two others, it needs hardly here be remarked, are Mrs. Horsfall 
and the late Mrs. Arnold Harrison. 



3610. 




( 3670 ) 

Rhododendron albiflorum. White- 
flowered Rhododendron. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Decandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Ericine^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla infundibuliformis 5-loba. Sta- 
mina 5 — 10, declinata: antheris apice biporosis. Capsula 
5-locularis, 5-valvis, ab apice dehiscens, valvarum margin- 
ibus inflexis, dissepimenta formantibus. Receptaculum 
centrale. Semina membrana involuta. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Rhododendron albiflorum ; erectum, foliis deciduis ellip- 
tico-lanceolatis integerrimis membranaceis glabris in 
apicibus ramorum, pedunculis fasciculatis, calycibus 
subfoliaceis hispidis, corollis albis rotato-campanulatis, 
staminibus 10 erectis inclusis a^qualibus, filamentis 
basi barbatis. 

Rhododendron albiflorum. Hook, in Fl. Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 
43. t. 133. 



This extremely interesting and distinct species of a very 
favourite genus was discovered by Mr. Drummond in the 
alpine woods of the Rocky Mountains ; and seeds which 
were sent by the officers of that expedition to Dr. Graham 
produced plants, which have, at length, in July, 1837, 
produced their delicate cream-coloured blossoms. 

Descr. Shrub two to three feet high, erect, branched, 
with the branches upright, clothed with a dark brown, gla- 
brous bark. The leaves are confined to the young shoots 
at the apices of the branches, and deciduous, elliptical- 
lanceolate., suhmemhranaceoiis, shortly petiolate, entire, 

glabrous, 



glabrous, penninerved, from an inch to an inch and a half 
long-. Stipules ovate, membranaceous, brown, concave, 
early deciduous. Peduncles fascicled, rarely solitary, lateral 
and subterminal, about an inch long, recurved, slightly 
hispid. Bracteas resembling the stipules. Flowers droop- 
ing. Calyx large and deeply cut into five ovate, somewhat 
fohaceous, brownish-green, obtuse, slightly hairy segments. 
Corolla pure cream-white, twice as long as the calyxfrotato- 
campanulate, five-lobed, lobes obtuse, rounded. Stamens 
ten, hypogynous, shorter than the corolla. Filaments thick, 
bearded at the base, white. Anthers white, of two parallel 
cells opening by a pore at the extremity. Germen ovate, 
5-lobed. Style about as long as the stamens, hairy below 
Stigma peltate, five-lobed. 



Fig. 1. Calyx including the Pistil. 2. 3. Stamens:— magnified. 




e.7»coJ. Essex Jutf^ LI 3 5 8- 



( 3671 ) 

Lobelia Bridgesii. Mr. Bridges' 
Lobelia. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Lobeliace^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla tubo hinc fisso (raro integro) ; limbo 5-partito. 
Antherce connatae. Stigma bilobum (nunc indivisum). 
Capsula bilocularis (raro trilocularis), apice supero bivalvi. 
— Herbae vel Suffrutices) plerceque lactescentes. Folia al- 
terna, Integra vel laciniata, rarofistulosa. Plores racemosi, 
terminates vel axillares, solitarii, pedicellis bibracteatis vel 
nudis. Antherae sapius barbatce. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Lobelia Bridgesii ; suffruticosa glabra simplex, foliis lan- 
ceolatis submembranaceis sensim anguste acuminatis 
minute serratis basi decurrentibus, racemo elongato 
bracteato bracteis pedicelli longitudine, laciniis caly- 
cinis lato-subulatis, ciliato-serratis, corollae glaberrimse 
tubo dorso fisso basi fissuris 5 (corolla quasi 5-petala) 
laciniis lineari-acuminatis, staminibus exsertis, antheris 
2 apice barbulatis. 

Lobelia Bridgesii. Hook, et Am. Contr. S. Am. Bot. in 
Bot. Journ. p. 278. 



An extremely handsome species of Lobelia, for our first 
knowledge of which we are indebted to Mr. Bridges. He 
discovered it near El Castello de Amorgos, Valdivia, in the 
south of Chili. (It is n. 663 of his Collection.) Since that 
period the plant has been raised from seeds at the Royal 
Gardens of Kew, and to Mr. Aiton's kindness we owe the 

possession 



possession of it. It produced its very large and handsome 
flowers in the greenhouse in July,, 1837. 

Descr. Plant three to four feet high. Stem stout,, suf- 
fruticose below, then herbaceous, glabrous, as is every part 
of the plant, and angled and winged by the decurrent bases 
of the foliage. Leaves five to six inches and more long, 
lanceolate, much acuminated, penninerved, closely and 
acutely serrated, even down to the decurrent bases, up- 
wards on the stem they gradually become smaller, and con- 
stitute lanceolate and subulate, always strongly serrated 
bracteas, among the flowers. Pedicels spreading, about 
half an inch long. Calyx-segments about one-fourth the 
length of the corolla, erect, broadly subulate, fringed with 
rather distant, coarse serratures. Corolla rose-coloured, 
reflexed, cleft to the base above, and near the apex and 
near the base into five linear-acuminate segments ; so that 
it may almost be said there are five petals, cohering at the 
middle and at the apex. Filaments combined into a tube, 
deep rose-coloured above. Anthers lead-coloured, two of 
them bearded at the apex. Stigma curved down a little 
beyond the anthers, yellow. 



Fig. 1. Flower, the Corolla being removed. Magnified. 






( 3672 ) 

SOLANUM CAMPANULATUM. BELL-FLOWER 
SOLANUM. 

»^**«*»*«»***-&** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solane^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5 — 10-partitus. Corolla subrotata, 4 — 10-fida. 
Antkerce conniventes apice poro gemino dehiscentes. Bacca 
2, 3, 4-locularis, placentis septo adnatis. Semina glabra. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Solanum campanulatum ; caule herbaceo, aculeis confertis- 
simis rectis subulatis, foliis ovatis angulato-lobatis 
utrinque hirsutis calycibusque aculeatissimis, racemis 
simplicibus armatis, corollis campanulatis. 

Solanum campanulatum. Br. Prodr. Nov. Holl. p. 446. 
(non Willd.) 



A very beautiful species of Solanum., for the first know- 
ledge of which we are indebted to Mr. Brown, who found 
it about Port Jackson. The specimen here figured was 
communicated from the greenhouse of the Edinburgh Bo- 
tanic Garden, in July, 1837. 

Descr. Stem herbaceous, branched, and, as well as 
almost the entire plant, hirsutely pubescent, and equally 
clothed in the same parts with numerous long, straight, 
slender, subulate spines, green at the base, the rest purple. 
Leaves petiolate, broadly-ovate, sometimes triangulari- 
ovate, deeply and irregularly lobed and angled, aculeated 
on both sides, the aculei confined to the midrib (which is 
often purple) and the veins. Racemes lateral and terminal, 
few-flowered. Pedicels almost as long as the flower. ^Calyx 

campanulate, 



campanulate, five-cleft, persistent ; the segments acute, at 
first spreading, afterwards connivent over the fruit, very 
prickly. Corolla large, handsome, purplish-blue, broadly 
campanulate, very indistinctly-lobed, lobes with an acute 
point, almost aristate. Stamens five. Filaments short. 
Anthers oblong-lanceolate, connivent, yellow. 



Fig. 1. Calyx of the Flower. 2. Calyx, enclosing the young Fruit 
scarcely magnified. 




3673. 



( 3673 ) 

Euphorbia jacquinifjlora. Jacquinia- 
flowered euphorbia, or spurge. 

Class and Order. 

MoN(ECIA MONANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — EuphorbiacejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum androgynum 4 — 5-fidum, extus appendiculis 
glandulosis (petala, L. nectaria, aliorum). Peripherici : 
pedicelli incerti numeri, singuli cum singulis staminibus 
articulati. Germen pedicellatum, centrale : Styli 3, 2-fidi. 
Capsula 3-cocca. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Euphorbia jacquinijiora ; dioica? fruticosa, foliis deflexis 
longe petiolatis lato-lanceolatis, racemis axillaribus 
paucifloris, involucri lobis 5 obcordatis coccineis basi 
glandulosis cum squamis rotundatis serratis luteis in- 
ternis alternantibus. 



I regret to know nothing- more of the history of this very 
singular and handsome frutescent Euphorbia., than that it 
was sent from the Berlin Botanic Garden under the appro- 
priate name here retained,, and that it flowers in the stove 
of the Glasgow Garden during the winter months. The 
fine rich red of the spreading lobes of the involucre contrast 
admirably with the full and bright green of the foliage. 

Descr. Our plant is a shrub, four to five feet high, with 
the stem slender, branching only above, and there only 
leafy. Leaves all pendent, broadly lanceolate, entire, acute, 
somewhat membranaceous, penninerved, upon long foot- 
stalks. From the axils of the upper leaves arise the short 
racemes of few flowers (or rather involucres,) each pedicel 
with a small ovate bractea at the base. Involucre with a 

short, 



short, broadly ovate, greenish tube, and a five-cleft, spread- 
ing bright red limb : the segments obcordate, and having at 
the mouth five roundish, bifid, serrated, buff-coloured, con- 
nivent scales. At the base of each lobe is a transverse 
honey-bearing gland. In our plant the involucres contain 
only male flowers; each consists of a pedicel with a single 
stamen, subtended by a narrow linear scale. Anthers of two 
globose cells, set apart at the apex of the filament 



Fig. 1. 2. Unexpanded Flowers. 2. Portion of the Involucre, the Scales 
removed to show the Gland. 3. Scale. 4. Male Flower and accompanying 
Scale or Bractea : — magnified. 






3674. 




7Uw-ocJ.X,s„A, 9 -J.M-3g . 



( 3674 ) 

Zygopetalon Murrayanum. Mr. Mur- 
ray's Zygopetalum. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium explanatum, sepalis petalisque ascendenti- 
bus subasqualibus, cum ungue producto columnae conna- 
tis. Labellum muticum indivisum, patens, ungue ascen- 
dente, crista magna transversa carnosa. Columna brevis, 
arcuata, serniteres. Anthera subbilocularis. Pollinia 2, 
bipartibilia, in glandulam transversam subsessilia. — Herbae 
terrestres, subacaules, foliis plicatis patentibus. Flores 
speciosi, labello cceruleo. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Zygopetalum Murrayanum ; pseudo-bulbis ovatis profunde 
sulcatis, foliis lanceolatis striatis, racemis plurifloris, 
sepalis petalisque ovato-lanceolatis acutis immaculatis, 
labelli lobis oblongis lateralibus erectis interrnedio 
4-plo majore reflexo albo basi purpureo maculato callo 
prominente sulcato. 

Zygopetalum Murrayanum. Gardn. MSS. 



This new Zygopetalum has been lately discovered with 
many other treasures in the Organ Mountains of Brazil, by 
Mr. Gardner, and has been named by him in compliment 
to his steady friend Mr. Stewart Murray of the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, under whose skilful management, the 
bulbs sent by Mr. Gardner about the middle of last year 
blossomed in the early part of Winter. In the Organ 
Mountains, it is found at an elevation of about four thou- 
sand feet above the level of the sea. 

Descr. 



Descr. Pseudo-bulbs clustered, nearly three inches long, 
ovate, furrowed. Leaves lanceolate, somewhat membran- 
ous, acute, tapering at the base, striated. Scapes radical, 
generally one from each side of a young shoot, racemose^ 
shorter than the foliage. Bracteas broadly lanceolate, 
about as long as the pedicels (including the germens). 
Sepals and Petals spreading, pale yellow, green, ovato- 
lanceolate, acute, connate at the base, nearly equal. Lip 
white, deeply three lobed : the lateral lobes at the base 
(where there are some dark purple streaks) erect, oblong, 
incurved, the terminal or intermediate one four times as 
large, nearly of the same shape, reflexed. The callosity or 
crest is between the two lateral lobes, very prominent and 
fleshy, recurved, somewhat furrowed. Column semiterete, 
pale greenish-white, streaked with red in front, decurrent 
below, where the labellum is fixed. Anther transverse, 
obtuse, in a great measure sunk into the top of the column, 
two-celled. Pollen two pairs of obovate, waxy masses, 
fixed to a brown, triangular gland. 



Figl I' i 1 ?; 2 - Column - 3 - Outer, and 4, inner view of the Anther- 
case. O. Pollen-masses : — magnified. 




S Curtis t;/ir.csnit><. 



( 3675 ) 

ISMENE MACLEANA. Mr. M'IjEAn's 

Amancaes. 
****************** 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord.> — AmaryllidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Tubus curvatulus cylindricus, laciniis angustis linearibus 
patulis. Filamenta conniventia (tria superiora in coronam 
plerumque deflexa curvata) : Antherte modicae. Semina 
viridia rotunda. — Bui bus ovatus. Folia (estiva decidua. 
Bulbus semine maturo mox ortus non ante cestatem sequen- 
tem folia protrudit. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Ismene* Macleana; genuine breviter pedunculato, perian- 
thio sublutescente viridi-notato, tubo gracili triunciali, 
limbo et stylo coronam superante, filamentis circiter 
5-uncialibus, flore odorato., foliis viridibus. Herbert 
in Litt. 



The Glasgow Garden is indebted to John M'Lean, Esq., 
of Lima for the bulbs which produced this handsome and 
delightfully fragrant Amancaes, and which Mr. Herbert 
considers to be a new species, worthy of bearing the name 
of the liberal gentleman through whose means we possess 
it. Its nearest affinity is with 1. pedunculata } (Herb. 
Amaryll. p, 222. t. 35. f. 2.,) from which it is distinguished 
by the above characters. It flowers readily in the stove, 
and makes a very handsome appearance. 

This 



* Named after the daughter of CBdipus and Jocasta. 
VOL. XII. K 



This is one of those plants so much celebrated by the 
Peruvians under the name of Amancaes. And so great a 
favourite is this flower with the people, that the plain at 
the foot of the mountains, where it grows, near Lima, bears 
the same name ; and one of the greatest festivals at Lima, 
called the " Festival of the Amancaes," is thus described 
by a late intelligent visitor. 

" The Amancaise is an annual festival, celebrated at 
Lima on the 24th of June : it is something similar to our 
May-Day ; the occasion of it being the height of bloom at 
that time of a flower peculiar to Peru, called the c Aman- 
caise/ to gather which, the citizens of every class, in the 
afternoon of the day, hasten, as a gala, to a spot in the 
vicinity of the city, deriving its name, as well as the festival 
itself, from the flower which grows more abundantly there 
than in any other place. 

" After an early dinner, our party, principally on horse- 
back, set off. It was with difficulty that a sufficient number 
of steeds could be secured, as every animal of the name and 
similitude, in the city, is put in requisition at this time, if at 
no other during the year. 

" We left the city by a new and handsome gate on the 
North, and crossing the bridge over the Rimac, passed 
through a large suburb, whence we entered a regularly 
planted and beautiful Almeda, or avenue, a favourite pro- 
menade of the Limanians, and similar to that already 
described at the entrance of the city from Callao. 

:c After passing the Almeda, we entered a narrow, wind- 
ing, and sandy road, enclosed on either side by high mud 
walls and completely filled by parties in carriages, on horse- 
back, and on foot, gazing at each other, and interchanging 
looks and bows of cheerful hilarity. Here were persons 
of every class of society, from the hignest to the lowest, and 
of every shade and colour, from the fairest Briton to the 
deepest ebony of the African Tribes. 

"At the end of two miles, we found ourselves close to the 
wild and naked hills, encircling Lima on the North and 
East, and immediately in front of a gorge, between two of 
these, terminating at the distance of half a mile, against the 
steep acclivity of a third. The whole were bare as volcanic 
ashes and sand can make them, except where the bloom of 
the flower, which had called the crowds together, exhibited, 
here and there, a tinge of yellow, (for this was the ' Aman- 
caise/ the spot of our visit,) and over the precipitous sides 
of which, small parties were already scattered, and even 

horsemen, 



horsemen, at the seeming hazard of their necks, clambering 
to points, fitted, apparently, only for the footing of the goat, 
or chamois. 

fC The general appearance of the multitude, at the dis- 
tance first seen, was that of a field in America at a general 
militia-muster, or of a race course : and a nearer view, save 
in the variety of colour and novelty of costume, did not 
lessen the resemblance. There was the same bustle and 
hum of laugh and talk ; the same pressing and hurrying from 
one place to another, the confused sound of musical instru- 
ments in different directions, and the loud and coarse mirth 
of the booth and the stall. 

ec On either side of the way were carriages drawn by 
mules, with a postillion and footman, and filled with ladies 
and children in rich evening dress ; — around these, groups 
of genteel-looking horsemen were gathered in gay conver- 
sation and laughter ; while within a few rods on every side, 
might be seen thronged circles, in the midst of which, 
negroes and negresses, in as full dress as their masters and 
mistresses, were dancing to music scarce less heathenish, 
vulgar, and rude, than that heard within the kraals of their 
aboriginal country. 

" Every person was decorated with the Amancaise, and 
clusters of the flowers were placed in the bridles and harness 
of the horses, as well as on the hats and headdress of the 
riders. 

ct yy e roa * e to a rancho, or booth, for the purpose of tast- 
ing a common drink of the country, called Chichi It is 
made from new corn ground, and tastes much like the beer 
at a distillery of Whiskey after fermentation, and before 
distillation has taken place. The primitive and favourite 
preparation of it among the Indians was by chewing, in the 
manner of the Ava at the Sandwich Islands : a fact, which 
I was satisfied not to have learned till after my curiosity in 
tasting it had been indulged. 

" By this time, the scene around had reached the height 
of iuterest in its novel and varied exhibition. In addition to 
hundreds of Calesas, the clumsy and antique carriage in 
general use, there were two English chariots, two barouches, 
two gigs, and a few other foreign vehicles, on the ground. 
One or two Scotch and English ladies, on horseback, were 
also distinguished in the throng, and a few Spanish ladies, 
mounted, in similar dresses and attitude; while other na- 
tives, male and female, Peruviaus, both Spaniards and 
Indians, Negroes and Negresses of every shade, and in an 

endless 



endless variety of costume,, some on foot, and others on 
every kind of animal, from the noblest of horses to the 
sorriest jackass, were scattered in thousands around. 

" It was not long' before the fashionables began to move 
on a return, and the mob slowly to follow ; many of those 
on foot dancing as they went, to the rude tunes of the 
Negroes, still heard at a distance. I observed one Peruvian 
female advance in this manner at least a quarter of a mile, 
turning, as in a waltz, the whole time, in the midst of car- 
riages and gay horsemen, apparently in danger every mo- 
ment of being run over. 

" In coming from the city, I had noticed at the termina- 
tion of the road where we entered the Amancaise, a kind of 
tent, in crimson hangings, at which there was dancing and 
music, with a crowd around. The throng pressing forward 
was, however, so great, that I merely observed a man and 
woman, running to the carriages and horsemen passing, 
with plates extended, for money.. On our way back, we 
stopped here for a moment, the musicians were still playing; 
the instruments, a violin, flute, and rude harp ; the air, a 
monotonous repetition of a few wild notes. But what most 
astonished and affected me, and what is perfectly character- 
istic of the religious views and state of the people, was to 
behold a table, in front of which the dancers were, spread 
with the flowers of the Amancaise, at which was seated a 
full length waxen figure of the Saviour of men, crowned 
with thorns, and streaming with blood ! — representing him 
who was emphatically, < a man of sorrows and acquainted 
with grief/ thus presiding over a scene of mirth and folly. 

This sight induced a sadness, which all the gaiety of the 
thousands we met and passed on our way to the city could 
not dissipate ; and it was only with the deep tones of the 
vesper bell, falling upon us from the towers of the cathe- 
dral, as we entered the royal square, invoking from all a 
moment, at least, for solemnity and prayer, that a change 
of thought and feeling came over me." Stewart's Visit to ,. 
the South Seas. 



Fig. 1. Flower, with the Limb of the Perianth removed ; nat. size. 



3616. 




( 3676 ) 

POTENTILLA GLABRA. GLABROUS PoTEN- 

TILLA. 



Class and Order. 

ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Rosacea. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus concavus, limbus 4 — 5-fidus, extus 4 — 5- 
bracteolatus. Petala 4 — 5. Stamina numerosissima. Car- 
pella numerosissima stylo laterali donata, in receptaculo 
procumbente persistente exsucco capitata. Semen appen- 
sum.-— Herbae aut Suffrutices foliis compositis, stipulis peti- 
olo adnatis , floribus alb is luteis rariter rubris. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Potentilla glabra; caule fruticoso erecto, ramis nutan- 
tibus, t'oliis pinnatis bijugis sursum ternatis vel simpli- 
cibus utrinque glabris nitidis subtus glaucis (floribus 
albis.) 

Potentilla glabra. Lodd. Bot. Cabinet, 914. Graham, in 
Ed. Phil. Journ, March, 1838. 



This is a very pretty little shrub,, producing in abundance 
its small, rosaceous, white blossoms ; its erect, rigid stem, 
and arched branches, forming a neat round bush, and fitting 
it for cultivation along with the smaller ornamental species 
of Cistus. The flowers appeared in succession in the open 
border at the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, during August 
and September. The species is a native of Siberia, and is 
stated by Mr. Loddiges to have been received by him from 
Mr. Busch of St. Petersburg in 1822. The difficulty of 
propagating it, noticed by Mr. Loddiges, is probably the 
reason why it is so seldom seen in collections. 

Descr 



Descr. Shrub erect, rigid, every where glabrous, ex- 
cepting occasionally on the edges of the leaflets, on the 
young shoots, peduncles, and outside of the calyx, where 
there are a few long, spreading hairs. Flowering branches 
cernuous. Leaves very numerous, small, pinnate, bijugate, 
those towards the flowers ternate, or at the base of the 
peduncle simple j leaflets ovato-acute, turned forwards at 
their apices, reflected at their sides, slightly undulate, 
veined, shining above, glaucous below, the upper pair 
slightly decurrent, and often united at their base to the 
terminal leaflet. Stipules dry and membranous, brown, 2- 
ribbed, united in front of the petiole, and about as long as 
it, bifid at the apex. Peduncles (about half an inch long) 
reflected upwards, collected in small numbers, or solitary 
near the extremity of the branches. Petals subrotund, 
entire, white, longer than the calyx. Styles short and ab- 
rupt. Receptacle hairy. Graham. 



I take the earliest opportunity afforded by a vacant space in the 
present number of the Magazine, to offer my very sincere apology to 
J. R. Gowen, Esq., for having spoken of him, at p. 3667, as the 
" gardener," at High Clere; whereas the gardener is Mr. Lindsay. 
Mr. Gowen is a gentleman of independent fortune, much devoted to 
Science, and well known in the most respectable circles in London ; 
and under whose advice and direction many of the improvements at 
High Clere had been effected by the late Earl of Caernarvon :— a 
circumstance which led to my unfortunate mistake. W. J. H. 



JfilJ 




( 3677 ) 

* 

SOPHRONITIS CERNUA. DrOOPING-FLOWERED 
SoPHRONITIS. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Pollinia 8, antice et postice parallela, caudicula duplici 
pulverea, glandula o ? Anthera terminalis opercularis 8- 
locularis, cardine crasso. Stigma concavum rostello ob- 
tuse Columna libera apice utrinque alata, alis integris 
conniventibus super cristam labelli. Labellum integrum 
cucullatum linguiforme, basi cum columna connatum, medio 
crista simplici transversa. Sepala subaequalia, imbricata, 
basi libera. — Herb&epiphyta ( Braziliensis) monophylla, non 
bulbosa, racemis axillaribus effusis paucifloris, floribus ru- 
bris. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Sophronitis * cernua. 

Sophronitis cernua. Lindl. (in a note upon Eulophia 

ensata) Bot. Reg. t. 1147. 
Sophronia cernua. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1129. 



ec This pretty little Epiphyte was added to Sir Charles 
Lemon's Collection at Carclew, in August, 1836, and flow- 
ered in November, 1837. Its native country is Brazil, 
whence it was first introduced to our stoves by William 
Harrison, Esq. Specimens were also gathered by Mr. 
Gardner in the Organ Mountains, and are distributed as 
No. 665 of the second collection. The plant requires a 

high 



From ffwtyo*, modest, from its unassuming appearance. 



high temperature, and to be kept rather moist. It thrives 
pretty well when placed on the branch of an old apple tree, 
to which it soon attaches itself by means of its long, clasp- 
ing, round, ash -coloured roots. 

" Descr. Pseudo-bulbs one-leaved, roundish-oblong, alter- 
nate, dark green, nearly concealed by the thin, sheathing, 
brownish covering in which they are enveloped, becoming 
when old flattish, compressed, and wrinkled. Leaves ovate, 
sessile, smooth, thick and leathery, rather more than an inch 
long, and three-fourths of an inch broad, cordate at the 
base, slightly pointed, and of a rich green colour. Scape 
short and round, issuing from the base of the leaves, on our 
plant four-flowered, but ou the old specimens they appear- 
ed to have been eight or nine, with a small acuminate, per- 
sistent bracte at the base of each. Pedicels round, thicken- 
ing outwardly, of a greenish-orange as well as the buds, 
which are triangular and pointed. Sepals spreading, ovate- 
oblong, acute, of a bright reddish-orange. Petals similar 
in form and colour, but rather broader and rounder at the 
point. When the flower has been some time open, both 
sepals and petals become reflexed. Labellum a little shorter 
than the petals, and of a paler orange, ovate acuminate, 
slightly concave, with the edges turned up so as to embrace 
the column ou each side, and having two, somewhat reni- 
form, fleshy protuberances at its base. Column about half 
the length of the labellum, roundish above, with two wings 
beneath tipped with dark pink. Anther-case brownish-red, 
two-celled, containing four pairs of thin, ovate-acuminate, 
yellow, pollen-masses in each." 

I am indebted to Mr. Booth, of the Carclew Gardens, 
tor the above description and for the drawing from which 
the plate was engraved. 



3678 




( 3678 ) 

Arthrostemma versicolor. Changeable- 
flowered Arthrostemma. 

*********************** 

Class and Order. 

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Melastomace^e.) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. tubus turbinatus campanulatusve saepe pilis setis 
squamisve vestitus ; lobi 4 lanceolati persistentes : appen- 
dices inter lobos nullae. Petala 4. Stamina 8, filamentis 
glaberrimis ; anthers oblongae 1-porosae connectivo longi- 
usculo basi obtuse biauriculato. Ovarium apice setosum. 
Capsula 1-locularis. Semina cochleata. — Herbas aut suffru- 
tices habitu subvarii, omnes Americani. Genus heteroge- 
neum et in posterum dividendum ! interea ne generum multi- 
plicatis nimia evadat 3 hie indivisum retinui. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Arthrostemma versicolor; suffruticosurn undique pilosum, 
foliis petiolatis ovatis serrulatis 3 — 5-nerviis, floribus 
terminalibus solitariis ebracteatis, calycis lobis 4 line- 
ari-oblongis reflexis, ore intns 8-glanduloso. 

Arthrostemma versicolor. De Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 137. 

Rhexia versicolor. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1066. 



An exceedingly pretty Melastomaceous plant, probably 
not an un frequent native of Brazil. It was first detected 
by Mr. M'Rae at St. Catherine's, who was the Collector 
there for the Horticultural Society ; and since, on the same 
line of coast, by Mr. Tweedie, from whose seeds it was 
raised at the Glasgow Botanic Garden, and the little bushy 
plants are pretty thickly studded with their delicate flowers 
in July and August. It seems to require the heat of the 
stove to bring it to perfection. 

Descr. 



Descr. Plant eight to ten inches high, somewhat 
shrubby at the base, above herbaceous, much and dichoto- 
mously branched, four-sided, hispid with spreading hairs. 
Leaves opposite, rarely, at the dichotomies, quatenate, 
ovate, acute, spreading, serrated, hispid and ciliated, three 
to five-nerved, paler, sometimes reddish beneath: upper 
leaves gradually smaller, so that the plant terminates in a 
somewhat leafy panicle. Flowers solitary, terminal, upon 
a short hispid pedicel. Calyx hispid : tube ovate, the limb 
of four reflexed linear -oblong segments; there are no 
scales alternating with the segments, but a bristle there 
situated is generally larger than the rest: within at the 
mouth are eight small coloured glands. Petals four, obo- 
vate, approaching to round, of a pale rose-colour, fringed 
at the apex. Stamens eight, exserted, nearly erect, equal. 
Anther oblong, acuminate, yellow, with two gibbosities at 
the base. Germen free, ovate, hispid at the apex. Style 
filiform, exserted. 



Fig. 1. Calyx with its Pistil. 2. The same laid open. 8. Petal. 4. 
Stamens. 



3619. 




( 3679 ) 

ASPASIA VARIEGATA. VARIEGATED AsPASIA. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 






( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium patens, aequale. Sepala lateralia libera ; 
supremum cum petalis basi et dorso columnae connatum. 
Labellum oblong am, concavum, ecalcaratum, obsolete 4- 
lobum, cum columna semiconnatum. Columna labello 
parallela, semiteres, marginata. Anther a bilocularis. Pol- 
linia 2, pyriformia, postice sulcata, caudicula plana cuneata, 
gland ula parva. — Herbae epiphytes, caulescentes , pseudo- 
bulbosce. Folia subcoriacea. Spicae radicales, breves. Lindl. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Aspasia* variegata ; pseudo-bulbo oblongo ancipiti-com- 
presso basi et ad apicem diphyllo, foliis elongato-lan- 
ceolatis, subenerviis, scapo radicali unifloro bracteato, 
perianthii foliolis lanceolatis, labelli subtrilobi bituber- 
culosi ungue elongato columna connato. 

Aspasia variegata. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1907. 



This, I at first considered a new Zygopetalum. It will, 
however, be seen to be the same plant with the Aspasia 
variegata of Professor Lindley. It was sent from Trinidad 
in 1835 by Mr. Cross to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
where it produced its beautifully marked and highly fra- 
grant flowers in July, 1837. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs clustered, oblong, compressed and 
two-edged, pale green, smooth at the base, at each angle is 

a 



* From cKTvta.fypcu, I embrace, in allusion to the manner in which the 
column is embraced by the labellum. 



a sheathing scale terminated with a leafy appendage, and 
each pseudo-bulb is also terminated with a pair of elon- 
gated, moderately thin, lanceolate, recurved and somewhat 
nerveless leaves, about a span long : from the base of the 
pseudo-bulb, and in the axil of the leafy scale, arises the 
scape, two to three inches in height, and bearing two or 
three small bracteae, and a single flower. Sepals and petals 
alike, lanceolate, the three former widely spreading, the 
two latter erecto-patent, all yellow-green, beautifully pen- 
cilled with brown lines, which are interrupted by pale 
bands. Lip with a long claw, which is united for its whole 
length with the column, its lamina broadly ovate, three- 
lobed, with a small, reflexed point, yellowish-white, streak- 
ed with purple lines; at the base are two deep orange spots, 
and in the middle are two slightly elevated oblong tuber- 
cles. Column quite erect, cylindrical, grooved in front, 
pale green, tawny upwards. Pollen-masses two, obovate, 
bipartite. — The anther-case had fallen before I had the 
opportunity of seeing the specimen. 



Fig. 1. Column and Lip: — slightly magnified. 



L A 






IM A 





. 






( 3680 ) 

Gladiolus Mortonius. Mr. Morton's 
Gladiolus. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Irid&e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla tubulosa, limbo 6-partito irregulari. Stamina 
adscendentia. Stigmata filiforrnia indivisa. Semina alata. 
Spr. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Gladiolus Mortonius; foliis 8 — 9 viridibus nervosis acutis 
tortilibus A unc. latis 10-uncialibus flabelliformiter 
divergentibus, scapo sesquipedali, floribus antice spec- 
tantibus sex vel ultra undulatis reflexo- paten ti bus 
substriatis albo-roseis, stylo antherisque albescentibus. 
W. H. 

Gladiolus Mortonius. Herbert, MSS. 



A new species, from the East coast of Southern Africa, 
for the drawing and character of which, we are indebted to 
the Hon. and Rev. William Herbert of Spofforth, who, 
we are happy to say, is devoting the same attention to the 
iRiDEa:, which he has lately paid to the Amaryllidejs, and 
we trust the public will derive the same advantage from 
the result of his labours, by the publication of them also. 
That gentleman received the plant from Messrs. Rollisons, 
and named it in compliment to the person who sent it to 
this country. He observes that, in the posture of its 
flowers, it belongs to the European and Natal-river species, 
and seems to have some affinity to Gladiolus oppositifiorus, 
(Herb. Amaryll. p. 366.,) but is not half so tall. 



16M 




If.i/tsr ,<!/,/, ,/,/' 



Jitii'i ■' '69* 



C 3681 ) 

Spathodea pentandra. Five-stamened 
Spathodea. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA AnGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — BiGNONiACEiE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. spathaceus, hinc fissus. Cor. infundibuliformis, 
limbo 5-fido inaequali. Filamentum quintum sterile. Stig- 
ma bilamellatum. Caps. siliquaeformis falcata sub-4-locu- 
laris, dissepimento valvis contrario suberoso. Spreng. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Spathodea * pentandra ; arborea, foliis impari - pinnatis, 
foliolis plurijugis lato-ovatis acuminatis undulatis gla- 
bris acute serratis, panicula terminali thrysoidea gla- 
berrima, corollae limbo bilabiato saepissime 6-lobo 5- 
andro cum rudimento sterili. 



Seeds of this noble Bignoniaceous tree were received from 
India by Mr. Murray of the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
under the name of " Bignonia pentandra," a name of Lou- 
reiro, referred by Willdenow to B. Indica, a very different 
species from the present, which, on account of the structure 
of the calyx I refer to Spathodea. Indeed I do not find it 
anywhere described, but it will probably rank next to 
Bignonia (Spathodea, Spr.) 4t-locularis, Roxb. Cor. t. 145 : 
which has, however, much smaller leaves, a tomentose pa- 
nicle, and a nearly regular limb to the corolla. Our plant 
did not flower till it had attained a height of nearly twenty 
feet. This occurred in June, 1838. 

Descr. 



* oWto, a spatha, from the sheathing nature of the calyx. 
VOL. XII. L 



Descr. Trunk erect, straight, slender, branched slightly 
and only at the top, where alone it is leafy. Leaves two to 
three feet and more long, irnpari-pinnate. Leaflets oppo- 
site, from five to ten or twelve pairs, ovate, glabrous, (as 
is every part of the plant,) waved, serrated, strongly penni- 
nerved, the nerves prominent beneath. The rachis round- 
ed, swollen at the insertion of the leaflets. Panicle of 
many large, handsome flowers, so compact as to form a 
thyrsus. Peduncles and pedicels red, rough, with raised 
points. Calyx red, oblong, somewhat inflated, split to the 
base on one side, the apex bifid. Corolla two inches long : 
tube inflated upwards, yellowish. Limb two-lipped, white 
mottled with purple : upper lip of two, lower of three or 
four obtuse, waved and somewhat crenated lobes. Sta- 
mens four, and didynamous ; a fifth solitary stamen is pre- 
sent when the corolla is six-lobed : and there is besides the 
rudiment of a sixth stamen. Anthers large, white. Germen 
linear, inserted upon a yellowish gland or disk. Style white, 
filiform, bent at the base. Stigma of two lanceolate plates. 



1. Calyx and Pistil. 2. Base of the Corolla with Stamens. 3. Pistil, 
and hypogynous Disk : — magnified. 



( 3682 ) 

Pleurothallis Grobyi. The Groby 
Pleurothallis. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — OrchidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala conniventia subaequalia : lateralibus v. omnibus 
eonnatis. Petala minora. Labellum liberum, cum co- 
lumna subparallelum, integerrimum, petalis difForme. Co- 
lumna elongata, aptera, libera, cum ovario continua. An- 
thera apice membranacea. Pollinia duo, nunc materia 
pulverea ad apicem cohaerentia. — Herbae epiphyta, rhizo- 
mate repentefiliformi. Caules jiliformes monophylli } scepius 
vaginati. Flores axillares, solitarii, v. fasciculati, v. race- 
?nosi, herbacei v. fusci. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Pleurothallis Grobyi; folio oblongo-spathulato racemo 
laxo gracili multoties breviore, bracteis minimis mem- 
branaceis, sepalis costatis oblongis acutis lateralibus 
apice tantum sejunctis, petalis lanceolatis, labello line- 
ari obtuso carnoso superne unisulcato. 

Pleurothallis Grobyi. Bateman in Bot. Reg. t. 1797. 



This is a Brazilian plant, sent from the Organ Mountains, 
near Rio Janeiro, by Mr. Gardner, to the Glasgow Gar- 
den, in the spring of 1836, and it flowered in the stove 
in July of 1837. It seems almost to connect the P. picta * 

of 



* Of the P. picta we have received beautiful flowering specimens at the 
time of writing this, from our often-mentioned friend C. S. Parkeb, Esq., of 
Liverpool. 



of Lindley with the P. Grobyi, (both from Guiana,) having 
leaves more resembling the former, and flowers more ac- 
cording with the latter, but rather longer in proportion to 
the diameter. It is of larger growth than either, but, on 
the whole, I am disposed to refer it to P. Grobyi. 

Descr. Plants growing loosely tufted, many from one 
point: each consisting of a slender, almost filiform stem, 
and one oblongo-spathulate, somewhat coriaceous leaf, 
from the base of which arises the peduncle, four to five 
inches long, extremely slender, almost capillary, reddish, 
bearing a distichous raceme of flowers ; the rachis zigzag. 
Flowers yellow -green, streaked with red ; upper sepal, as it 
is usually considered, ovato- lanceolate, the two side ones 
much narrower, united into one by their lower edge : thus 
the flower appears to be two-lipped. Petals very small, 
lanceolate. Lip the size of the petals, jointed on the de- 
currentbase of the column, oblong, obtuse, furrowed, and 
with two small tubercles near the middle. Column as long 
as the lip. Anther sunk into the top of the column. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Flower from which the two lateral Sepals are remov- 
ed. 3. Column and Lip. 4. Front view of the Column : — magnified. 






3683. 




( 3683 ) 

Veronica prostrata; y., satureiaefolia. 
Prostrate Speedwell ; Savory-leaved var. 

Class and Order. 

DlANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 
( Nat. Ord. ScROPHULARINjE. ) 

Generic Character. " , 

Cor. 4-fida, rotata; lacinia infima angustiore. Caps. 2- 
locularis apice emarginata. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. i 

Veronica prostrata ; foliis sessilibus oblongis obtusis serra- 
tis superioribus lanceolatis plauis, calycibus 4 — 5-par- 
titis, caule florifero ascendente. 

Veronica prostrata. Vahl, Enum. \.p. 75. De Cand. Fl. 
Fr. v. 3. p. 460. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 13. 
Roem. et Schult. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 111. 

(£.) minor. 

(y.) satureiae folia. Roem. et Schult. I. c. y. satureiaefolia. 
Poit. et Turp. Fl. Par. p 22; spicis lateralibus caulem 
prostratum superantibus, foliis infimis oblongis su- 
perne serratis, intimis subdenticulatis, aliis linearibus 
integerrimis. ( Tab. nostr. 3683.) 



A hardy perennial ; a native of France, Germany, Italy, 
and Switzerland, and well deserving of cultivation on ac- 
count of the very brilliant blue of the flowers, in conjunc- 
tion with their large size and constaut succession from a 
very long raceme. It blossoms during the summer months. 

Descr. Stem prostrate at the base and purplish, then 
erect and green, more or less downy, as is the entire plant. 
Leaves opposite, mostly oblong, especially in the lower 
part of the plant, spreading, or somewhat reflexed, deeply 

serrated, 



serrated, and marked with a few nerves., which have a direc- 
tion almost parallel with the midrib, dark green above, 
paler beneath : the upper leaves are narrower, less serrated, 
and the uppermost are linear and quite entire. Racemes 
axillary, pedunculated, a span long, loaded with blossoms 
in various stages of expansion. Pedicels about as long as 
the calyx, with a linear stipule at the base. Calyx oblique, 
deeply five-cleft, almost partite, the segments lanceolate, 
unequal. Corolla rotate, of four spreading, broadly-ovate 
lobes, of which the lower one is the smallest. Style slender, 
blue ; Stigma capitate. 



Fig. 1. Calyx including the Pistil, Pedicel, and Bractea: — magnified. 



( 3684 ) 

solanum fragrans. fragrant south 
American Nightshade. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Solane,e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. monophyllus, persistens. Cor. monopetala, rotata. 
Antherce oblongae, apice poris duobus dehiscentes. Bacca 
bi- tri-quadrilocularis. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Solanum fragrans ; arborescens, foliis geminis ovatis cor- 
datisve inaequalibus integerrimis, racemis solitariis ex 
axillis ramorum, floribus secundis pedicellis inferio- 
ribus maxime elongatis, calyce 5-fido, corollis lato- 
campanulatis profunde 5-partitis, limbo reflexo, stami- 
nibus geniculars, stigmate dilatato concavo. 



This extremely curious Solanum was sent from South 
Brazil by Mr. Tweedie, to the Glasgow Botanic Garden. 
It grew rapidly, but for the first two years showed no dispo- 
sition to flower in a pot, when it was removed into a border 
in the great stove, where it soon reached a height of twelve 
to fourteen feet, and in the month of June produced its 
singular racemes of changeable coloured flowers, the fra- 
grance of which is peculiarly powerful and agreeable. I 
can find no description of a Solanum which agrees with it ; 
but there is, in Dr. Schomburgk's collection from Guiana, a 
species which comes near to it, but there the calyx is almost 
entire ; the segments of the corolla are not reflexed nor 
glabrous, and the stamens are very different. 

Descr. Stem erect, arborescent, twelve or fourteen feet 

high 



high in our cultivated plant, bearing at the top many long 
branches spreading horizontally, glabrous, as is every part 
of the plant. Leaves in pairs, rarely solitary, unequal, peti- 
olated : the lesser one on the shorter petiole, cordate, short- 
ly acuminate, entire, glossy and somewhat succulent ; the 
larger one on a longer petiole, and rather ovate than cor- 
date, dark green, a little paler beneath. From the forking 
of the branches the peduncles have their origin ; these are 
pendent, bearing a raceme of flowers, of which the pedicels 
are all secund, the lower ones, (and, indeed, all of them as 
the blossoms expand,) singularly reflexed, that is, bent in the 
direction of the base of the peduncle, but the mouth of the 
flowers all directed downwards. Calyx a shallow cup with 
five spreading, rather short, triangular lobes. Buds at first 
purple, then greenish, at length when fully open, green 
with a dark streak on the back of each segment : valvate 
but not plicate in aestivation. The corolla is thick and 
fleshy, rotato-campanulate ; that is broadly campanulate, 
and deeply cut into five oblong, reflexed segments. Sta- 
mens with the filament short, bent back, and suddenly geni- 
culated at the top, so as to incline the anthers forward, of 
which the tips reach the top of the style, while their bases 
are at a considerable distance, purplish : the connectivum 
swollen and gibbous at the base. Germen subglobose, 
tapering into a very short, thick style. Stigma dilated, 
very thick, green, transversely oval, concave, with two 
swellings or tubercles within. 



Fig. 1. Stamens and Pistil : the Calyx and Corolla almost entirely re- 
moved. 2. Nearly front view of a Stamen. 3. Back view of ditto. 4. 
Pistil. 5. Section of the Germen : — magnified. 



H6S& 




( 3685 ) 
Ipom^a Platensis. The Plata Ipom^ea. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Old. — Convolvulacejs. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. 5-partitus, nudus. Cor. campanulata v. infundibuli- 
formis, 5-plicata. Germen 2 — 3-loculare, loculis dispermis. 
Stylus indivisus. Stigma capitatum, 2 — 3-lobum. Caps. 
2— 3-locularis. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Ipom^a Platensis; volubilis, foliis palmatis lobis septenis 
cuneato-oblongis obtusis extimis minoribus, peduncu- 
lis 2 — 4-floris petiolo longioribus, calycis foliolis sub- 
rotundato-ovatis obtusis. 

(a.) pedunculis petiolisque tuberculatis. 

Ipom^ea Platensis. Herb, in Bot. Reg. t. 333. 

(j3.) pedunculis laevibus, petiolis tuberculatis. (Tab. nostr. 
3685.) 



A very handsome Ipom^ea, a native of the banks of the 
Plata, for our first knowledge of which we are indebted to 
the Hon. and Rev. William Herbert of SpofForth, who 
raised it from seeds sent by Mr. Cooper. It has again been 
transmitted in the year 1836, by Mr. Tweedie, from the 
same country, to the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where it 
blossomed in great perfection in the stove, in the month of 
August, 1837. 

Descr. The stem, as is so common in this genus, is 
long and climbing, the younger shoots slender and green. 
Leaves petiolate, glabrous, palmate, or rather pedate, for 
the lobes are five, lanceolate, or oblongo-lanceolate, obtuse, 
the two lower ones again divided, the lowest segments 

smaller 



smaller than any of the rest. Petioles shorter than the 
leaves, terete, flexuose, tubercled ; but in this variety the 
tubercles are small and partial. Peduncles axillary, soli- 
tary, slender, tubercled in «, smooth in ft, longer than the 
petioles, but shorter than the leaves, bearing an umbel or 
cyme of from two to four handsome flowers, each pedicel 
having a bractea at the base. Calyx of five, imbricated, 
broadly oval, concave leaflets, closely appressed to the 
base of the flower. Corolla between hypocrateriform and 
funnel-shaped, of a delicate lilac colour, with a broad five- 
lobed, spreading limb. Germen on a glandular disk. Stigma 
two-lobed, granulated. 



Fig. 1. Pistil: — magnified. 



36 f& 




( 3686 ) 

Zygopetalon maxillare. Tree-Fern 
Zygopetalon. 

****■»**«****»***•&» 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^i. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium explanatum, sepalis petalisque ascenden- 
tibus subaequalibus, cum ungue producto columnar conna- 
tis. Labellum muticum, indivisum, patens, ungue ascen- 
dente ; crista magna, transversa, carnosa. Columna brevis, 
arcuata, semiteres. Anthera subbilocularis. Pollinia 2, 
bipartibilia, in glandulam transversam subsessilia. — Herbs 
epiphytes, subacaules ; foliis plicatis patentibus. Flores spe- 
ciosi, labello cceruleo. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Zygopetalon maxillare ; pseudo-bulbis oblongis sulcatis, 
foliis lanceolatis nervosis basi attenuatis, sepalis peta- 
lisque ovato-oblongis acutis subaequalibus, labelli tri- 
lobi obtuse calcarati lobis lateraiibus erectis crista un- 
guliformi crenato maximo unitis intermedio patente 
majori subrotundo. 

Zygopetalon maxillare. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1776. Lindl. 
Gen. et Sp. Orch.p. 188. 



A very beautiful epiphyte, remarkable for the colour of 
the labellum, which is a rich and very deep purple, and 
still more so for the form of the large callosity at its base, 
which Mr. Loddiges compares to the lower jaw of an ani- 
mal, and which in shape resembles a horse's hoof. If well 
grown this is one of the most beautiful of its tribe, for it 
has in its native forests a rhizoma more than six feet in 
length, while from the tops of its branches the racemes of 

flowers 



flowers appear,, of which there are three within a few inches 
of each other, in the native specimen in my Herbarium. 
Mr. Gardner found it on the Organ Mountains in April 
of last year, and always growiug upon the stems of the 
Tree Ferns. It flowered readily in the stove of the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, in June, 1838, a few months after the 
plant was imported. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs oblong, furrowed. Leaves eight to 
ten inches in length, lanceolate, membranaceous, strongly 
nerved, attenuated at the base. Scapes longer than the 
leaves, each bearing six to eight large handsome flowers, 
with sheathing scales, which pass into bracteas that sheath 
the germen. Sepals and petals spreading, nearly equal, 
(the latter the narrowest,) ovato-oblong, acute, green with 
transverse, brown blotches. Lip horizontal, purple, the 
two side lobes erect and united to the remarkably large, 
deep, glossy purple, notched, and horse-shoe-shaped callo- 
sity : the middle lobe roundish, waved, and obscurely lobed : 
the base of the lip below forms a blunt spur along with the 
decurrent base of the column ; which latter is short and 
broad, incurved, purple. Anther-case transversely oblong, 
yellow, with a blunt point at the top. 



Fig. 1. Lip and Column, side view. 2. Column and Anther ; front view : 
-magnified. 






( 3687 ) 

GONGORA MACULATA. SPOTTED GoNGORA. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 

Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium explanatum. Sepala lateralia libera divari- 
cata, supremum cum dorso columnae connatum. Pet. mi- 
nora columnar medio adnata. Labellum cum basi columnae 
continuum, liberum, unguiculatum, hypochilio explanato 
utrinque cornuto, epichilio verticali ancipiti (faciebus op- 
positis complicatis connatis) acuminato. Columna longis- 
sima, arcuata, clavata marginata. Anthera subbi [ocularis. 
Pollinia 2, linearia, in caudiculam cuneatam sessilia. — 
Herbae epiphyte, pseudo-bulbosce. Folia plicata. Racemi 
longissimi, jlexuosi, multiflori. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Gongora maculata ; foliis 5-plicatis obovato-oblongis basi 
valde angustatis, sepalis lateralibus e lata basi angus- 
tatis, hypochilio oblongo subtus convexo basi obtuse 
bicorni apice truncato angulis acutis in cirrhis duobus 
producto, epichilio acuminato. 

Gongora maculata. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1616. 



This strange-flowered species of Gongora is, doubtless, 
nearly allied to our G. atro-purpurea (Bot. Mag. t. 3220), 
but distinguished not only by the colour, but the form of 
the different parts of the flower. It has been introduced at 
various times, and by Collectors from Demerara, and firstly 
by Mr. Moss of Otterspool, Liverpool. Our plant flowered 
in great perfection in July, 183T, and again in August of 
the present year (1838). 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs ovato- oblong, deeply - furrowed, 
bearing two broadly-lanceolate, plaited leaves at the extre- 
mity. 
vol. XII. m 



mity. From the base of the bulb the scape or flower-stalk 
arises, two feet long, curved, bearing a long raceme of very 
singularly-shaped flowers, of a rich yellow colour spotted 
with dark red in every part, resembling some strange 
insect. Sepals lanceolate, the margins revolute, the upper 
one very remote from the two lateral ones, erect, rising 
from the upper part of the long greenish column, the latter 
bent completely back, so as to meet behind the flower. 
Petals small, linear oblong, from the middle of the column, 
and standing forward. Lip also standing forward, laterally 
compressed, curiously wrinkled or folded, tapering into a 
setaceous point, and having two setaceous appendages or 
lobes arising from the upper side. Anther terminal, broader 
than the column. Pollen-masses linear, with a long, white 
stalk between them and the gland. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. 2. Outer and inner view of an Anther-case. 8- 
Pollen-masses : — magnified. 
























m ; 4i 



.36<¥S, 




^■u-JWor r 118 38. 



( 3688 ) 

Pentstemon glandulosum. Glandular 
Pentstemon. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA AnGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Scrophularine^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Cal. pentaphyllus aut 5-partitus, bractea solitaria dis- 
tante. Cor. ventricosa, bilabiata. Stam. didynamia, rudi- 
mento quinti filiformi saepius barbato. Anthene sejunctae 
saepius glabrae. Caps, ovata bilocularis, bivalvis poly- 
sperma. Semina angulata. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Pentstemon glandulosum; pubescenti-glandulosum, foliis 
radicalibus ovato-lanceolatis acutis dentatis petiolatis, 
caulinis subcordatis amplexicaulibus subintegerrimis, 
corollis ventricosis, staminis rudimento glabro. 

Pentstemon glandulosum. Dougl. in Herb. Hort. Soc. — 
Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1262. 



A handsome, and even in Scotland, perfectly hardy plant, 
native of dry, gravelly, or rocky mountain-torrents in the 
Rocky Mountains, lat. 47° North ; and at the base of the 
Blue Mountains on the banks of the Kooskooskee river, 
six thousand three hundred feet above the level of the sea, 
it occurs frequently. It was introduced to the Horticul- 
tural Society's garden by the late Mr. Douglas, and it 
flowers during the months of June and July. 

Descr. Stem erect, a foot or a foot and a half and more 
high, erect, nearly simple, purple, clothed with fine glandu- 
lar down. Leaves nearly glabrous above, slightly downy, 
but scarcely glandular beneath : radical ones ovato-lanceo- 

late, 



late, petiolate, serrated, those of the stem almost cordate, 
opposite, acute, concave, amplexicaul. Peduncles axillary' 
opposite and terminal, bearing three to four, subumbellate 
flowers, with two ovate leaves or bracteas at their base. 
Calyx of five deep, unequal, hairy segments. Corolla large, 
bluish-purple, glanduloso -pubescent, the tube ventricose, 
two-lipped, the lips standing forward, upper two-lobed, the 
margins reflexed, lower in three nearly equal lobes. Anthers 
two-lobed, the lobes pointing downwards, blue : rudiment- 
ary stamen subspathulate, glabrous. Capsule glabrous, as 
long as the persistent calyx. 



Fig. 1. Sterile Filament :— magnified. 



3£S& 




■ 7 MM 



( 3689 ) 

Heuanthus mollis. Soft-leaved 
Sunflower. 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia Pkustranea. 

( Nat. Ord. — Composite. ) 

Generic Character. 

Involucrum imbricatum, squamis subsquarrosis. Recep- 
taculum paieaceum. Pappus diphyllas. Spreng. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Helianthus mollis ; foliis oppositis (supremis bracteantibus 
exceptis) ovato-lanceolatis triplinervibus supra scabris 
subtus glauco-pallescentibus laevibus glabris vel molli- 
ter pubescentibus inferioribus subgrosse serratis supe- 
rioribus subintegerrimis, involucri foliolis lineari-acu- 
minatis squarrosis, paleis tricuspidatis. 

Helianthus mollis. Willd. Sp. PL p. 2240. Pursh, Fl. 
Am. v. 2. p. 572. Ell. Carol, v. 2. p. 418. Darl. Fl. 
Cestr. p. 92. 



In the Botanical Register, t. 524, is given a Helianthus 
of North America, under the name of pubescens, Vahl, and 
the same species is represented at t. 2778 of the present 
work, where great doubts are expressed as to its being the 
real plant of Vahl and the American Botanists. It is, I 
believe, the H. tomentosus, Mich.; a name which, indeed, 
is introduced among the synonymy both by Mr. Gawler 
and myself together with the H. mollis; but I believe they 
are three distinct species. The H. pubescens has the leaves, 
as its author described them, truly ovato-cordate, and very 
villous, on both sides ; but whether H. pubescens be a vari- 
ety of it or not may admit of doubt : whilst the H. mollis of 
Willdenow, and certainly of Elliott, is free from hairs, 

except 



except on the underside of the leaves (and there not always), 
and is remarkable for the deep green colour of the upper 
side of the foliage, and the pale and glaucous hue beneath ; 
and is that which we have here represented. Our speci- 
men, now figured, is from the Glasgow Botanic Garden. 
Native specimens I possess from the late Mr. Schweinitz 
of Bethlehem, Dr. Darlington of West Chester, and Dr. 
Short of Kentucky. It flowers about autumn. 

Descr. Perennial. Stems erect, four feet or more high, 
branched above, generally deeply tinged with dark purple, 
more or less scabrous. Leaves opposite, the uppermost one 
alone excepted, mostly on very short footstalks, ovato- 
lanceolate, slightly tapering at the base, acuminated at the 
extremity, glabrous, scabrous and dark green above, below 
smooth, pale, glaucous, glabrous, or clothed more or less 
copiously with soft down, three-nerved, the margin rather 
distantly and not deeply serrated, the upper ones almost 
quite entire. The upper and alternate leaves are small, 
and may be considered bracteas. Involucre of many lance- 
olato-subulate, spreading or squarrose scales. Receptacle 
slightly convex, chaffy : scales or paleas tricuspidate. Flo- 
rets of the ray bright yellow : their abortive germens with 
two unequal, chaffy, subulate, opposite scales : those of the 
disk with generally two, sometimes more broadly subulate, 
soft, deciduous ones. 



Fig. 1. Floret of the Ray. 2. Floret of the Disk -.—magnified. 



3690. 




i oedJssczd 



( 3690 ) 

Merendera Caucasica. Caucasian 
Merendera. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Trigynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Melanthace^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla mfundibuliformis, hexapetala : unguibus longis- 
simis. Stamina petalis supra ungues inserta. Capsula 
supera. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Merendera* Caucasia; antheris versatilibus, foliis lanceo- 

lato-linearibus patulis, flore cum foliis erumpente. 
Merendera Caucasica. Bieb. Fl. Tauc. Cauc. v. I. p. 

293. Ejusd. Centur. PL Rar. Ross. Merid. tab. 5. 

Roem. et Sch. v. 7. p. 1524. 
Bulbocodium trigynum. Adam, in Web. et Mohr. Catal. 

v. I. p. 49. 
Colchicum Caucasicum. Spreng. Sj/st. Veget. v. 2. p. 143. 



A charming little bulbous plant, sent by Dr. Fischer to 
the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where it produced its pretty 
blossoms, at the same time with the foliage, in the month 
of May, under the shelter of a glass frame. In the Cauca- 
sus, and in Middle Iberia, where it is a native, it blossoms 
in the very early part of spring. 

Descr. Bulb coated, pale, or more frequently of a dark 
brown, almost black colour, ovate, ragged at the top, 

whence 



* A name given by the Spaniards to the Colchicum, u Genus which 
this so nearly resembles. 



whence springs a long, membranous sheath or spatha, sur- 
rounding the base of the flowers and of the foliage. Leaves 
three, narrow-lanceolate, obtuse, channelled, much taper- 
ing at the base, shorter than the flowers. Flowers one to 
three from the same spatha : each consisting of six petals, 
with very long, narrow, slender claws, which meet so as to 
form a tube, arising from a very short peduncle : the lamina 
oblongo-lanceolate, obtuse, faintly striated, of a delicate 
rose colour tinged with purple. Stamens six, arising from 
the base of the lamina of each petal, and about half its 
length. Anthers oblong, yellow. Style very long, filiform. 




3691. 



S. Curtis. GLa-Tt-utwood/ Fsscx NmdlSbS. 



C 3691 ) 

Melocactus depressus. Depressed 
Meloc actus. 

Class and Order. 

IcOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Cacte^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus ovario adherens,, lobi 5 — 6 petaloidei fruc- 
tum juniorem coronantes. Petala totidem cum petalis in 
tubum cylindraceum longe concreta. Stam. filiformia plu- 
riserialia. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 5-radiatum. Bacca 
Jaevis calycis et corollae lobis marcescentibus coronata. 
Semina nidulantia. Cotylcdones minimae. D C. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Melocactus depressus; depresso-conicus basi multum latior 
profunde subdecem-angulatus, costis latis obtusius- 
culis, spinis 5 — 7 fasciculatis subulatis rectiusculis pal- 
lide fuscis basi lanuginosis, corona per-brevi lanugi- 
nosa, aculeis rubris. 



This is one of the few Cactejs which have rewarded 
Mr. Gardner's researches in the vicinity of Pernambuco, 
and from whence a number of this species were sent to 
Woburn Abbey, and to the Glasgow Botanic Garden. The 
flower is at present unknown, probably it is small and red, 
like what we know of other Melocacti : but they had blos- 
somed freely previous to their having been embarked ; and, 
after their arrival copious seed-vessels were produced, long, 
and of a delicate transparent rose-colour, which, rising in 
a circle considerably above the crown of red aculei, present- 
ed an appearance perhaps more striking than the flowers 
themselves. 

Descr. 



Descr. Our largest specimen scarcely measures more 
than six inches across near the base, below which the plant 
is suddenly contracted, and above which it gradually be- 
comes smaller to the height of about four inches, whence 
the crown springs : so that the shape of this Melocactus is 
that of a depressed cone with rounded sides : and this is 
deeply cut into about ten broad furrows, forming as many 
prominent costae, the ridges and bottoms of the interstices 
forming moderately acute angles : upon each of these 
ridges are about four or five clusters of spines, of from five 
to seven spines in a cluster, subulate, strong, spreading, 
straight, or but very slightly curved, of a pale brown, or 
ashen-green colour. At their base is a small, dense, woolly 
tuft or scar. From the summit is a short crown, scarcely 
three-fourths of an inch high, and about two inches and a 
half in diameter, of a woolly substance, filled with exserted, 
red aculei, very crowded. Fruit, an oblong or rather club- 
shaped berry, about an inch long, of a delicate rose colour 
tipped with the withered flower : containing within several 
nearly globose, shining black, reticulated seeds. 



Fig. 1. Berry. 2. Vertical Section of the same. 8. Seed : — magnified. 






( 3692 ) 
Pavonia Schrankii. Schrank's Pavonia. 

Class and Order. 

MONADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord— Malvaceae. ) 
Generic Character. 

Calyx cinctus involucello 5 — 15-phylIo. Stigmata 10. 
Carpella capsularis, 5-valvis, monosperma. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

P ay oma* Schrankii; inermis, " foliis subcordato-ovatisacu- 
minatis, inaequaliter serratis utrinque stellato-tomen- 
tosis, pedunculis 1-floris, involucris calyce brevioribus 
5-partitis, carpellis inermibus. 

Pavonia Schrankii. Sprengel, Syst. Veget. 3. 98. 

Lebretonia coccinea. Schrank. PL Rar. H. Mon. t. 90. 
De Cand. Prodr. 1. 446. 



We received this plant from the Botanic Garden Berlin, 
in 1836. It flowered freely in the stove at the Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, in July, 1837 ; but though its blos- 
soms are of considerable size, and not destitute of beauty, 
the plant will probably never be a favourite in cultivation, 
because its flowers are only expanded during the forenoon, 
and the shrub is coarse and in no degree attractive. It is 
a native of Brazil. 

Sprengel unites Lebretonia with Pavonia, and De Can- 
dolle questions the propriety of considering them distinct. 
The only part of the definition which seems to me to jus- 
tify the separation, is the reported dehiscence of the carpels, 
which I have not found to take place. 

Descr. 



* So named in compliment to Don Josef Pa von, the companion of 
Dombey in Peru, and, in conjunction with Ruiz, the author of the valuable 
" Flore Peruviana." 



Descr. Shrub erect; branches erect, and, as well as the 
whole plant except the corolla and parts within it, densely 
covered with coarse, harsh, reflected, yellowish hairs, which 
are distinctly stellate on both sides of the leaves. Leaves 
(three inches and a half long, an inch and a half broad) 
scattered, spreading wide, petiolate, ovate, subcordate at 
the base, acuminate, strongly veined and wrinkled, darker 
above than below, where the midrib and veins are very 
prominent, coarsely and unequally serrated ; petioles about 
one-third of the length of the leaves. Stipules (half an inch 
long) slender, subulate, erect. Peduncles solitary, axillary, 
reaching nearly to the middle of the leaf, single-flowered. 
Involucre 5-partite, segments ovate, valvate and prominent 
at their edges near the base, five-nerved, with reticulated 
veins, wrinkled. Calyx longer than the involucre, five- 
partite, segments similar to those of the involucre, but 
rather less coarse, with the marginal nerves less conspicu- 
ous, at first erect, afterwards folded over the germen. Co- 
rolla (above an inch and a half long, two inches across 
when fully expanded) pentapetalous, orange-coloured, yel- 
low at the base, petals imbricated and convolute, dolabri- 
form, many -nerved, slightly tomentose, deliquescent in 
decaying. Stamens indefinite, monadelphous, inserted into 
the base of the petals, and uniting these to each other ; 
united filaments slightly tomentose ; gradually smoother 
upwards, free portion glabrous; anthers kidney -shaped, 
unilocular, opening along the top, attached loosely in 
the sinus to the filament. Styles ten, cohering for above 
one-third of their length, glabrous, each terminated by a 
small pencil-shaped, crimson -coloured stigma. Germen 
oblong, wrinkled, green, of five verticillate lobes, each 
containing a single oblong ovule, compressed at its inner 
side, and there attached near its base to a central placenta. 
Carpels dark brown, much wrinkled, subglabrous, glabrous 
and nearly white within, where they are seen evidently to 
be bivalvular, but are not, I think, dehiscent. Seeds kidney- 
shaped, pale brown, glabrous, except along the back where 
there are a few, and at either extremity where there is a 
tuft of yellowish hairs. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Pistil : — magnified. 



1695 




I'n* b, S.Cartu Gluxertwood Ess*xJ)ecL1838. 



( 3693 ) 

Cattleya guttata; /3. Russelliana. Spotted 
Cattleya ; Lord Edward Russell's var. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Petala membranacea vel carnosa, patentia, aequalia. Pe- 
tala saepius majora. Labellum cucullatum, columnam in- 
vol veils, trilobum vel indi visum. Columna clavata, elon- 
gata, semiteres, marginata, cum labello articulata. Anthera 
carnosa, 4-locularis, septorum marginibus membranaceis. 
Pollinia 4, caudiculis totidem replicatis. — Herbae epiphytce 
(Americana) pseudo-bulbosce. Folia solitaria vel bina, cori- 
acea. Flores terminales, speciosissimi, scepe e spatha magna 
erumpentes. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Cattleya guttata ; floribus carnosis, sepalis lineari-Ianceo- 
latis obtusis, petalis conformibus paulo latioribns un- 
dulatis, labelli trilobi lobis lateralibus ovatis obtusis, 
intermedio cuneato obcordato disco tuberculato, foliis 
concavis, spatha obsoleta. Lindl. 

Cattleya guttata. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1406. 

(/5.) Russelliana; elata, floribus subtriplo majoribus, sepa- 
lis petalisque intense fusco-viridibus. (Tab. nostr. 
3693.) 



This superb variety of a very handsome and uncommon 
Cattleya, was brought to the Woburn Collection from 
Brazil, together with many other rare South American 
vegetable productions, in the spring of 1838, by Capt. 
Lord Edward Russell, R. N., then commanding H. M. S. 
Actaeon. It was jnven to that nobleman by the Director of 

the 

VOL. XII. N 



the Botanic Garden at Rio, with the information,, that it 
was one of two specimens that had recently been dis- 
covered in the Organ Mountains. In August of the same 
year, its lovely flowers were displayed, when the drawing 
here represented was made on the spot. Widely as the in- 
florescence differs in size and colour from Dr. Lindley's C. 
guttata above quoted, it cannot be considered otherwise 
than as a beautiful and stately variety, worthy of a place in 
every choice collection of epiphytes. 

Descr. Stems clustered, three feet high, erect, but with 
a graceful curve, rounded and striated, jointed, about as 
thick as one's finger, of a silvery greenish-white, with green 
blotches. Leaves two from the top of the stem, large, six 
inches and more long, spreading, fleshy, oblong-oval, or 
elliptical, scarcely striated, somewhat concave. From be- 
tween the leaves springs a short spatha, whence arises the 
peduncle, which is short, bearing a raceme of about five 
handsome, spreading flowers, each about five inches across. 
Sepals oblong-lanceolate, obtuse; petals similar to them, 
but waved at the margin ; all of them of a rich greenish- 
brown colour spotted with purple. Lip short for a species 
of the present Genus ; the side-lobes a delicate rose colour, 
the intermediate one, which is broadly wedge-shaped, red- 
purple, with deeper lines. Column scarcely longer than the 
side lobes of the lip. 



Gladiolus Mortonius. (t. 3680.) 

Mr. Herbert further observes, with regard to this species, that it 
always blows in the winter, and rests in the spring. G. oppositiflorus 
flowers very late, viz., at this season (Sept.), but Mortonius shows no 
signs of flowering yet. 




Pub '. 



( 3694 ) 

Verbena teucrioides. Germander- 
leaved Vervain. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Verbenace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-fidus, dente unico subbreviore. Corollce limbus 
irregulariter 5-lobus. Stam. inclusa. Utriculus tetrasper- 
mus 3 cito rumpens, ut maturi fructus caryopses sistant. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Verbena teucrioides ; erecta ramosa pilis rigidis saepissime 
glandulosis ubique vestita, foliis oblongis lanceolatisve 
profunde incisis sessilibus, spicis elongatis densifloris, 
calycibus elongatis post anthesin tortis corollae tubo 
duplo brevioribus. 

Verbena teucrioides. Gill, et Hook, in Bot. Miscell. I. p. 
167. 



My first knowledge of this charming species of Verbena 
was from specimens communicated by Dr. Gillies from the 
highest ridge of the Uspallata Mountains in South America, 
at an elevation of ten thousand feet above the level of the 
sea. Afterwards Mr. Tweedie sent it from the hill of 
Monte Video, and more abundantly from the Sugar-loaf 
Mountain of Maldonado, marked " No. 461, Verbena, with 
slightly purple flowers and highly odoriferous." In August, 
1838, Mr. Niven of the Glasnevin Botanic Garden favoured 
me with a beautiful drawing, from which the accompanying 
figure is reduced, of the same interesting plant, which he 
received from the Earl of Arran, and about the same time 
Mr. Handaside, Nurseryman, of Musselburgh, Edinburgh, 

passed 



passed through Glasgow with a noble flowering specimen. 
Seeds gathered also at Tandil* by Mr. Tweedie had been 
sent to the Right Hon. the Earl of Arran, in whose garden 
the plant was first raised : and we cannot but regret that it 
is not an entirely new species, which we should have been 
glad, in that case, to have honoured with the name of that 
distinguished nobleman, a name which, as Mr. Niven 
observes, is almost identified with that of the beautiful 
Genus in question. 

" The plant is of easy culture, appearing to luxuriate in a 
mixture of peat, loam, and sand, with a small portion of 
well-rotted cow dung. The delightful jasmine-like odour 
of the flowers is greatest and most powerful about dusk and 
during the night : towards midday it diminishes consider- 
ably, gradually increasing again towards the evening." 
(Mr. Niven)— The Messrs. Handaside, of Musselburgh, 
possess Mr. Niven's entire stock of this fine plant, and 
they propose disposing of it in April of next year (1839). 

Descr. It will be at once seen that this Verbena belongs 
to the Melindres group. The plant from which our draw- 
ing was made was about two feet high, erect, of very hand- 
some growth ; the lower part bearing numerous more or 
less spreading branches, the main stein terminating in a 
spike of dense flowers, a span or more long. The tube 
of the corolla very long ; the limb of a delicate yellowish- 
white on first expansion, afterwards becoming purplish rose- 
coloured. In our native specimens the long tubular calyx 
is spirally twisted in age. 



* For an account of Mr. Tweedie's Journey to the Serras de Tandil 
see Taylor's Annals of Nat. Hist., vol. 1, p. 139. 



J6K 







• > CartU Glarenwood £ssud?ecelI838. 



( 3695 ) 

COLLINSIA HETEROPHYLLA. VARIABLE- 
LEAVED COLLINSIA. 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 
( Nat. Ord. ScROPHULARINEjE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx 5-fidus, aequalis. Corolla bilabiata, tubo supra 
gibbo, limbo inaequali ; labio superiore erecto bifido, inferi- 
ore trifido. Stamina didynama. Capsula globosa, 4-valvis, 
oligosperma. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Collinsia heterophylla ; foliis inferioribus trilobatis, supe- 
ribribus ovato-acuminatis; pedunculo floribus breviore, 
calycibus glanduloso-pubescentibus ; laciniis corollas 
apice rotundatis, crenatis, lobis medio labiorum inferi- 
orum subaeuto, labio superiore fauce subintegro. 



This, the handsomest species of Collinsia yet known, 
was found by Nuttall on the Columbia, and was raised 
at the Experimental Garden, Edinburgh, by Mr. James 
M'Nab from seeds transmitted to him under the name 
adopted, by Mr. Buist of Philadelphia in Spring; last. 
From Collinsia grandiflora our plant is easily discriminated 
by its pubescent filaments and calyx ; from C. parviflora and 
verna by its short peduncles ; and from C. bicolor I have 
attempted to distinguish it, by its lobate lower leaves, by 
the coarser hairs on its calyx, by the rounded (not retuse) 
crenate segments of the corolla, by the sub-acute middle 
lobe of the lower lip, and by the nearly entire border to the 
upper side of the throat. It extremely nearly resembles C. 
bicolor, but the flowers are larger, and the character which 



I have given may be sufficient to satisfy many of its being a 
distinct species, though, I confess, scarcely sufficient to 
take away my doubts. I have not, however, seen modified 
forms run riot among North American as among x South 
American species, and therefore my scepticism is less than 
if the Genus had been met with south of the equator. 

The condition of the Experimental Garden shows that 
Mr. James M'Nab, as a cultivator, has received the law at 
the feet of Gamaliel ; and the gorgeous display of Buenos 
Ayres Verbenas which his houses at present contain, proves 
by their infinity of form and shade, and minuteness of gra- 
dation, how few are species compared with diversity in these 
particulars. 

Descr. Root annual. Stem erect, branches divaricated, 
ascending, slightly pubescent when young. Leaves gla- 
brous, distantly serrated, paler below, darker above, lower 
ones three-lobed and petiolate, the upper ovate, subsessile. 
Bractete opposite, lanceolate, linear. Flowers large and 
handsome, very much resembling those of C. bicolor, to 
which it is certainly nearly allied, — the lower opposite and 
solitary, the upper in crow ded whorls. Calyx, like the com- 
mon peduncle, glanduloso-pubescenton the outside, coarse- 
ly hairy within, ventricose at its base, its rather short, blunt 
segments spreading. Corolla (seven-eighths of an inch 
long, above an inch across at its longest diameter) with a 
few long hairs scattered over the upper surface, slightly 
glanduloso-pubeseent on the lower, the inside of the tube 
having long coarse hairs, the lobes of the upper lip and the 
lateral lobes of the lower lip rounded and crenate in the 
apex, the central lobes straight and subacute, the promin- 
ent ridge projecting into the throat from the upper lip, 
subentire. The colour of the flower is deep lilac over the 
whole of the lateral lobes except at the throat, at the tip of 
the middle lobe and at the tip and base of the upper lip ; 
every where else the flower is white, but, in front of the 
upper lip, the white portion is sprinkled with lilac spots. 
Fertile stamens about as long as the middle lobe of the 
lower lip ; filaments hairy, along their upper side; anthers 
orbiculate, kidney-shaped, orange, bursting along the edge ; 
abortive stamen subulate, green, without appearance of 
anther. Pistil glabrous ; stigma minute ; style much de- 
clined. Germen green, ovate. Graham. 

Fig. 1. Lower portion of the Stem, showing the divided Leaves ; nat. size. 
2. View of the underside of a Flower, showing the curious projecting ridge 
of, the lower Lip : — magnified. 



369 b. 




WFocklW- 



rUiip S.CuHjCs Clo.^rujjood. Ess -cxDcaO. 1838. 



( 3696 ) 

HYPOXIS STELLlPiLIS. StARRY-HAIRED 

Hypoxis, 

A*- &- A- A- A"- A"- .A- A / . A*. A', A'. A". A 1 A/. A', A"- A'- A'- A', A"- A'. A- 
•/J» "4s v]S vf. vj. 4^. vf. "/{s. •/$»■ */}»■ *<)j»* vIn" ".j^. "v^. vj»' vjs •/*,." vj<" vjs vj^* "^ -/fr 

Class and Order. 
Hexandria Trigynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — HypoxidejE. ) 

Generic Character. 

Spatha bracteiformis. Corolla 6-partita plana, extus 
calycina persistens. Discus nectariferus staminifer. Stig- 
mata 3. Capsula 3-locularis, non dehiscens. Semina glo- 
bosa, strophiolo rostrato. Spr. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Hypoxis * stellipilis ; rhizomate ovato, foliis radicalibus 
plurimis trifariam fasciculatis triquetris - subulatis e 
pilis brevibus stellatis implexis subtus tomentoso- 
candicantibus, canaliculo carinaque acutis., umbella 
2— 4-flora. 

Hypoxis stellipilis. Ker. Bot. Reg. t. 663. 



A very pretty species of the Genus Hypoxis, first intro- 
duced from the Cape of Good Hope by Messrs. Colvill, 
and lately sent to the Glasgow Botanic Garden by Baron 
von Ludwig. It flowered vigorously in the greenhouse in 
Julv, 1838, having: been treated in the manner usuallv re- 
quired by Cape bulbs and tubers. 

Descr. Root consisting of an egg-shaped rhizoma or 
tuber, of a dark brown colour, marked with transverse lines, 
and bearing a few coarse fibres. From the summit of this 
tuber springs a cluster of leaves trifariously arranged. 

1 nese 



* wo, underneath, and oi-vt, sharp, alluding, Sir James Smith supposes, 
to the tapering base of the inferior capsule. 



These leaves are half a foot long, linear-subulate, much 
tapering, striated, acutely keeled, dark green and glabrous 
above, beneath very pale coloured, owing to a covering of 
closely-placed J minute, stellated hairs, whence the specific 
name. Scapes one to two from the same root, among the 
leaves, but much shorter than they, bearing from two to 
four large handsome star-shaped flowers. The scapes and 
pedicels and outside of the flower are clothed with long and 
soft hairs. Sepals oblong, spreading, bright yellow within, 
greenish externally. Stamens six, spreading : Filaments 
short : Anthers oblong, orange-coloured. Germen inferior, 
small, obconical : Style short : Stigmas three. 



Fig. 1. Flower, from which the Sepals are removed: — magnified. 



3697 




( 3697 ) 

PaSSIFLORA INCARNATA. YELLOW-FRUITED 

Virginian Passion-flower. 

*********************** 

Class and Order. 

MoNADELPHIA PeNTANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Passiflore^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calycis tubus brevissimus, faux corona filamentosa mul- 
tiplici ornata. Bacca saepius pulposa, rarius membra- 
nacea. De Cdnd. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Passiflora incarnata ; foliis profunde trilobis glabris ar- 
gute serratis lobis lato-lanceolatis, petiolo supra medi- 
um biglanduloso, stipulis minimis subulatis, pedun- 
culis axillaribus solitariis folium asquantibus unifloris, 
bracteis sub florem tribus parvis cuneatis argute serra- 
tis infra serraturis grosse 1 — 3-glandulosis, calycis tubo 
subnullo, corona corollam paululum superante, ger- 
mine pubescente. 

Passiflora incarnata. Linn. Sp. PL 2. p. 1360. Amcen. 
Acad. vol. I. p. 230. t. 10./. 19. a — e (mala.) Pursh, 
Am. vol. 2. p. 445. Elliott, Carol, v. 2. p. 154. De 
Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 329. 

((3.) integriloba ; foliorum lobis integerrimis. 

Passiflora incarnata, S. Ker, Bot. Reg. t. 332. (excl. the 
reference. ) 



Although an inhabitant of the southern States of North 
America, and introduced to our gardens more than two 
hundred years ago, this handsome Passion- Flower has been 
but little understood, never well figured, and strangely con- 
founded by many Botanists with the P. edulis, a species 
satisfactorily determined by Mr. Brown and Dr. Sims, at 

t. 



t. 1989 of this work. The same species (P. edulis) is also 
well represented by Mr. Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 152 as P. in- 
carnata, & ; while the incarnata, $, of the last-mentioned 
work is an entire-leaved variety of our plant, with the 
peduncles much shorter than I have ever seen them in 
reality. The two species are abundantly different in the 
following particulars. P. incarnata has comparatively 
small serratures to the leaves, the petiolary glands much 
below the blade of the leaf, very long peduncles which are 
generally equal in length to the leaf ; three small bracteas 
under the flower, set so apart, however, as not to form an 
involucre, minutely serrated in the upper half, and having 
from one to three large glands below where the serratures 
commence ; a large flower with no distinct tube at the base 
of the calyx, and a purplish-blue filamentous crown, rather 
longer than the calyx and corolla. — In P. edulis the leaves 
are more coarsely serrated, the two glands at the very apex 
of the petiole, the peduncles are much shorter than the 
leaves, the bracteas are three, large and very deeply serrated, 
forming an involucre under the flower, the serratures often 
glandular : the base of the calyx is contracted into a tube, 
and the filamentous crown is much paler and shorter than 
the corolla. The germen is sometimes downy in P. edulis, 
but the colour of the fruit is said to be different in the two ; 
lurid purple in the last-mentioned ; yellow in our plant : 
from which circumstance I have derived our English spe- 
cific name, for I have never seen any thing flesh-coloured 
about the blossom. P. incarnata extends from Virginia to 
the extreme southern point of the States, and I believe not 
of South America. It is No. 121 of Mr. Drummond's 
Louisiana Collection. P. edulis I have never received in a 
wild state, except from Brazil. 



Fig. 1. Glandular Bractea from the Peduncle : — magnified. 



( 3698 ) 

Malva Creeana. Showy Red-flowered 

Mallow. 

■St'- .Sfc &> .SI". :fr. .Sfr'. J^. iS^i -Sf. .SL'. l^. .Sfc ■SI'. ■Sit'. ■St'- .'!'- iSfc ■St'. .Sk*. .Sk ■'I'- ■St'* 
MS MS V|S MS MS MS My MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS M> MS MS MS MS M> 

Class and Order. 






MONADELPHIA PoLYANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Malvaceae. ) 
Generic Character. 



Calyx cinctus involucro triphyllo, rarius 5 — 6-phyllo, 
bracteolis oblongis setaceisve. Carpella capsularia, plu- 
rima in orbem disposita. D C. 






Specific Name and Character. 

Malva Creeana ; fruticosa, ramis suberectis, foliis trilobatis 
incisis subundulatis deltoideo-ovatis stellato-hispidis 
basi integerrimis, floribus solitariis axiliaribus, petalis 
obcordatis subcrenatis, pedunculis petiolo brevioribus, 
involucri foliolis filiformibus. 

Malva Creeana. Hort. 



This, though a small flowered, is an extremely pretty 
species of Mallow, and very deserving of cultivation in the 
Greenhouse, where it flowers freely in June and July. 
We received it at the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, in 1837, 
from Mr. Pince, Nurseryman, Exeter; but I know nothing 
of its history or of the country from whence it was imported. 
In the arrangement of the species, it seems to me, that it 
should be placed near to Malva divaricata. 

Descr. Stem shrubby, branched ; branches erect, closely 
covered with harsh stellate hairs. Leaves petiolate ; peti- 
oles somewhat flattened above, covered like the stem with 
similar hairs; lamina rather longer than the petiole, del- 
toideo-ovate, blunt, somewhat undulate, green and sparsely 
covered with stellate pubescence above, white and more 
closely covered with similar pubescence below, the upper 

leaves 



leaves trilobate, with the central lobe elongated, the lower 
less deeply cut into lobes, but all coarsely and unequally 
incised, the segments blunt and reflected at their apices ; 
stipules filamentoso-subulate. Flowers axillary, solitary, on 
peduncles shorter than the petioles. Involucre of three fili- 
form leaves. Calyx longer than the involucre, deeply five- 
cleft, pubescent on the outside, subglabrous and shining 
within. Corolla of a uniform rose-colour, cup-shaped, petals 
obcordate, and slightly crenate, glabrous except at their 
insertion, where they are ciliated. Staminiferous column 
hairy. Pistil equal in length to the stamens, rather shorter 
than the petals. Styles about fifteen, combined to about 
the middle. Germen hairy. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and Pistil, with Bracteas : — magnified. 




7'uh byS.l 'urtu.6 



Swan Sc 



( 3699 ) 

leycesteria formosa. handsome 
Leycesteria. 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Caprifoliace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx superus, limbo 5-partito inaequali. Corolla infim- 
dibuliformis, tubo supra basin gibboso, limbo 5-fido subae- 
quali. Filamenta exserta. Stigma capitatum. Bacca 
calycis limbo coronata, 5-locularis, polyspermaj. Semina 
laevia, nitida. 

Specific Name and Synonyms. 

Leycesteria * formosa. 

Leycesteria formosa. Wallich, in Roxb. Flora Indica, 

Carey's edition, v. 2. p. 182. D C. Prodr. v. 4. p. 

338. Wallich, Plantce Asiaticce Rariores, tab. 120. 



This plant was sent to the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 
from the London Horticultural Society in 1837, and flowered 
pretty freely in July, 1838, in moderate heat. 

This plant is a native of the Himalaya Mountains, and is 
handsome, but its flowers are not very conspicuous, and the 
bracteas are not deeply coloured when grown under glass. 
It is probable, that the incised state of the leaves also arises 
from cultivation, for this peculiarity is not mentioned in 

the 



* Named by Dr. Wallich in compliment to his highly esteemed friend 
William Leycf.ster, Esq., Chief Judge of the principal Native Court, 
under the Bengal Presidency, who, during a long series of years, and in 
various distant parts of Hindostan, has pursued every branch of horticulture 
with a munificence, zeal, and success, which abundantly entitle him to that 
distinction. 



VOL. XII. 



the description of native specimens, nor figured by Wal- 
lich. ( — That author speaks of it as " a charming shrub, 
growing wild on the highest mountains surrounding the 
valley of Nepal, blossoming from April to October. Its 
fruit ripens at the end of the rains, and during the com- 
mencement of winter. I have also had it from much more 
northerly situations towards Gossain Than. According to 
my friend Dr. Govan, it is found in abundance at an eleva- 
tion seldom less than eight thousand feet above the plains, 
among the Pine and Oak forests of Bishuhur, as at Hutto, 
and at Desoo in the Thakooraee of Kioonthul, blossom- 
ing from June till August, and called by our natives 
Nulkuroo.") 

Descr. Shrub branching, dark brown and cracked ; 
branches opposite, ascending, glabrous, the twigs of a deli- 
cate, subglaucous green. Leaves (four inches and a half 
long, three and a half broad) petioled, broadly ovato-cor- 
date, inciso-lobate, smaller and more entire upwards, acu- 
minate, veined, above of the same colour as the twigs and 
glabrous, below paler and slightly pubescent. Petioles 
much shorter than the leaves, generally red, channelled 
above, and stem-clasping. Flowers in verticillate, bracteate, 
cernuous spikes, terminal, or in the axils of the upper 
leaves. Bracteas large, cordato-ovate, acuminate, red-pur- 
ple, veined, somewhat hairy. Calyx persisting, superior; 
limb five-parted, segments very uuequal, subulate, glandu- 
loso-pilose, its throat much contracted, and, with that por- 
tion which is dilated over the adhering germen, scattered 
with purple glandular hairs. Corolla (nine lines long, se- 
ven across the expanded limb,) white, funnel-shaped, with 
a small globular dilatation at its base, where it is inserted 
into the base of the calyx-throat, glabrous, its limb five- 
partite; lobes ovate, blunt, spreading; nectariferous glands 
five at the base of the tube. Stamens five, as long as the 
corolla, inserted into this and adhering to it, as far as the 
throat where they alternate with yellow streaks, below they 
alternate with the nectaries, Jilaments glabrous, filiform ; 
anthers versatile, bilocular, bursting along the face; pollen 
cream-coloured, its granules small, globular. Pistil longer 
than the flower. Stigma capitate, obscurely and unequally 
lobed ; style filiform, glabrous, articulated at the base. 
Germen five-locular; ovules very numerous, pendulous from 
central receptacles. Graham. 



Fig. 1. Flower and Bractea. 2. Calyx and Pistil -.—magnified. 



( 3700 ) 

Leonotis nepet^folia. Catmint-leaved 
Leonotis. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 

DlDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Labiate. ) 
Generic Character. 

Calyx 10-striatus, 6 — 10-dentatus. Corolla galea elon- 
gata, barbata, Integra ; labium inferius nanum, 3-fidum : 
laciniis subaequalibus. Antherce lobis divaricatis. Stigma 
labio superiore brevior. Br. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Leonotis * nepetcefolia ; herbacea, foliis ovatis crenatis, caly- 
cis dentibus omnibus spinosis supremo maximo ovato, 
corollis (coccineis) calyce vix duplo longioribus. 
Benth. 

Leonotis nepetae folia. Br. Prodr. Nov. Holl. p. 504. Ker, 
Bot. Reg. t. 281. Benth. Lab. p. 618. 

Phlomis nepetaefolia. Linn. Sp. PL p. 820. 

Leonurus nepetaefolia. Mill. Diet. n. 2. 

Leonurus globosus. Maznch, Meth. p. 400. 



Six species of this handsome Genus are enumerated by 
Mr. Bentham in his valuable work on the Labiate, all of 
them natives of Africa : but the present one is found also in 
various parts of the continent of India and adjacent islands, 
and (probably imported) even in Brazil : and we have spe- 
cimens also from Trinidad and Demerara. Seeds are not 
unfrequently sent to this country, and occasionally culti- 
vated in the stove, though the plant is often too tall, and its 

leaves 



* From X««w, a lion, and u; unr, an car, from a fancied resemblance in the 
flowers to the ears of that animal. 



leaves too coarse and common-looking to render it a general 
favourite. The specimen here figured flowered in the stove 
of the Botanic Garden in July, 1837. 

Descr. Stem tall, herbaceous, acutely four-angled, and 
furrowed between the angles, obsoletely downy. Leaves 
remote, in opposite pairs, on very long stalks : the lower 
ones large and broadly heart-shaped, very coarsely serrated, 
gradually becoming smaller, narrower, and less serrated 
upwards, till at length they are linear, entire, and scarcely 
an inch long. Flowers in dense, axillary, remote clusters, 
frequently two to three inches in diameter. Bracteas linear- 
lanceolate, spinous. Calyx an inch long, tubular, narrow 
below and hairy ; upper tooth large, ovate, tapering into a 
sharp spine, three lower ones reflexed, two side ones small. 
Corolla scarcely longer than the calyx, bright red, and 
densely clothed with red velvety hairs, the margins ciliated. 
Anthers yellow, protruded. 



Fig. 1. Flower : — not, size. 



3 101. 




WJxlckDeL- 



7 S.Cuf 



C 3701 ) 

Statice puberula. Downy-leaved 
Canary Thrift. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Pentagynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Plumbagine^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Flores spicato-paniculati. Calyx 1-phyllus, plicatus, 
subscariosus. Petala 5, subconnata. Stamina basi peta- 
lorum inserta. Utriculus 1-spermus, calyce inclusus. 

Specific Character and Synonym. 

Statice* puberula; foliis obovatis obtusis planis mucro- 
natis integerrimis longe petiolatis utrinque stellato- 
pubescentibus, pedunculo bialato sparse stellato-pu- 
bescente-dichotome corymboso, ramis ultimis erectis 
triquetris, calycibus obtusis crenatis. 

Statice puberula. Webb, Bot. Reg. t. 1450. 



This plant flowers freely in the greenhouse in the Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, and is ornamental, both when the 
white corollas are expanded, and after they have fallen, 
when the purple calyces remain as its only ornament. 
Professor Lindley notices a resemblance between this and 
S.furfuracea of Lagasca. 1 do not recollect to have seen 
S. pectinata, Ait., but judging from the description, 1 have 
a doubt whether it be different from our plant, which, as 
well as it, is from one of the Canary Islands. 

The figure in Bot. Reg. has far more acute leaves than 

the plant ever acquired with us. 

F ^ Descr. 



* From *wri£«, to stop; from some of the Genus having been employed 
to check dysentery. 



Descr. Stem short and branching. Leaves obovate, 
flat, with a slender recurved mucro, a prominent middle 
rib, and a few obscure veins, stellato-pubescent and glau- 
cous on both sides, attenuated into a long petiole. Pedun- 
cle erect, round at the base, above compressed, twice or 
thrice dichotomously corymbose, branches with two wings, 
the subdivisions near the top secund and erect, and the 
ultimate branches triquetrous. Bractece reddish, pubescent, 
sheathing, blunt. Calyx twice as long as the bracteae, 
blunt, crenate, purple. Corolla white, funnel-shaped, claws 
long, laminae obcordate. Stamens about as long as the 
corolla. Styles very slender. Germen green, glabrous. 
Graham. 



Fig. 1. Flower and Bracteas: — magnified. 



37C2. 




( 3702 ) 

Trifolium hybridum. Mule White 
Trefoil ; or Tall Dutch Clover. 

Class and Order. 

DlADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 

( Nat. Ord. — Leguminos^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Calyx tubulosus, persistens, gland ulosus, 5-fidus, laciniis 
subulatis. Carina alis et vexillo brevior. Stamina dia- 
delpha. Legumen parvum, vix dehiscens, saepius ovatum, 
1 — 2-spermum, calycem paululum superans. — Herbae. Sti- 
pulae petiolo adnatce. Folia palmatim tri- aut rarissimi 5- 
foliata. Flores capitati aut dense spicati, bracteati ) pur- 
purea albi aut ochroleuci. Petala in quibusdam omnia inter 
se basi coalita. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Trifolium hybridum ; glabrum, caule erecto flexuoso fistu- 
loso polycephalo, foliis longe petiolatis foliolis obovatis 
ellipticisve serrulatis, stipulis latis membranaceis acu- 
minatis, capitulis globosis subumbellatis, floribus de- 
mum deflexis, laciniis calycinis subaequalibus tubum 
aequantibus, leguminibus " dispermis." 

Trifolium hybridum. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1079. Sm. in Rees 
Cycl. — Wahl. Fl. Suec. v. 2. p. 468. (vix Be Cand 
Prodr. v. 2. p. 200. J 

Trifolium Michelianum. Savi — De Cand. Prod. v. 2. p 
201. 

Trifoliastrum pratense, &c. Mich. Gen. t. 25. f. 2 
(not 6.) 

Melilotus qui Trifolium orientale, &c. Vaill. Par. t. 22 

f.b. 



A native, it would appear, of a large portion of the con- 
tinent of Europe, from Italy to Sweden, and not unworthy 

a 



a place in the flower-border on account of its pretty, numer- 
ous, and long-continued flowers, and of being cultivated in 
the fields as an excellent food for cattle. Our plant, which 
flowers in June and July in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 
entirely accords with Sir James Smjth's description, drawn 
up from the original specimen of LinnjEus, and also with 
the figures to which he and Linnaeus refer. With this, the 
T. Michelianum of Savi and De Candolle seems to corres- 
pond : but whether the T. hybridum of those authors be 
really different, or only a variety, I cannot take upon me to 
determine, without having recourse to authentic specimens. 
Descr. Plant everywhere glabrous. Stems several from 
the same root, simple or slightly branched, hollow, striated, 
zigzag, erect, about a foot high. Leaves upon long foot- 
stalks : leaflets varying considerably in shape, ovate or ob- 
long, sometimes nearly obovate, not unfrequently rhom- 
boidal, sharply serrated. Stipules large, broadly ovate, 
acuminate, membranous, white, streaked with green. Pe- 
duncles solitary, axillary, much longer than the leaf, erect, 
or nearly so, striated. Head of flowers globose, dense. The 
flowers at first erect, and then pale rose coloured, at length 
reflexed with the corollas persistent, orange brown. Pedi- 
cels short. Calyx white, membranous, with five green ribs, 
and five nearly equal, subulate teeth as long as the tube. 
Vexillum acuminated. Wings blunt, much shorter than the 
vexillum, a little longer than the rather acute keel. 



Fig. 1. Flower: — magnified. 



.'/it'. 




W.FiZADU' 



CurUs GlazciMi 



Jan'UBW 



( 3703 ) 

Phacelia tanacetifolia. Tansy-leaved 

Phacelia. 

*********************** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Hydrophylle^;. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla decidua. Ovarium ovoideo-globosum, piloso- 
hispidum. Placenta lineares, saepius dorso parietibus ova- 
rii adnatae, biovulatae. Capsula dissepimentis subcompletis 
pseudo-bilocularis. — Herbae annuce vel perennes, erectce vel 
diffuses. Flores racemosi, densi, sessiles, vel laxi peduncu- 
lati, cymis unilateralibus simplicibus vel dichotomis. Benth. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Phacelia tanacetifolia ; scabro-hispida, foliis aequaliter pin- 
natis, pinnis pinnatifidis segmentis ovatis inciso-denta- 
tis, spicis densis circinnatis corymbosis, calycis laciniis 
linearibus patenti-hispidis, staminibus exsertis. 

Phacelia tanacetifolia. Benth. in I Ann. Trans. N. S. v. 1. 
p. 479. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. J 696. 



An inhabitant of California, whence its seeds were sent by 
Mr. Douglas to the Horticultural Society of London. It is 
a species in some respects approaching my Phacelia con- 
gesta (Bot. Mag. t. 3452) discovered by Mr. Drummond in 
Texas almost at the same time that .the present species was 
detected on the Pacific side of North America. But besides 
the difference in foliage, the present species has the flowers 
much more spicate, of a more purplish colour, and less 
vivid hue : still it is a most desirable addition to our hardy 
annual plants: flowering in June and July. 

Descr. Stem erect, but weak, rounded, branched, suc- 
culent 



culent and brittle, clothed with scattered hairs, so rigid 
as to be almost prickles. Leaves rough with short rigid 
hairs, alternate, five to six inches long, ovate in their 
circumscription, pinnated with equal pinnae, or only becom- 
ing gradually smaller at both extremities : these pinnae are 
oblong-lanceolate, patent, pinnatifid, the segments ovate, 
obtuse, inciso-dentate ; the rachis grooved above. Pedun- 
cles terminal, elongated, bearing a corymb of from four to 
six spikes of dense, unilateral, ciYc'mn&te flowers : the lower 
ones on short pedicels. Calyx cut into five very deep, 
unequal, linear segments, which are erect, and clothed with 
long, patent, rather rigid, white hairs. Corolla longer than 
the calyx, subcampanulate, reddish -purple, five-lobed : 
within the tube, alternating with the lobes, are five pairs of 
delicate, fringed, and incurved scales, and between each 
pair arise the filaments of the stamen, which are longer 
than the corolla. Germen ovate, clothed with long, silky 
hairs above. Style bifid, or almost bipartite, the segments 
filiform. Stigmas acute. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Portion of the Corolla with the Scales at the base 
of a Filament. 3. Anther. 4. Pistil : — magnified. 






Mz 










( 3704 ) 

• Marshallia c^spitosa. Tufted 
Marshallia. 

************************ 

Class and Order. 
Syngenesia ^Equalis. 

(Nat. Ord. — Composite. Div. Senecionide^;. DC.) 

Generic Character. 

Capitulum homogamum. Involucrum 1 — 2-seriale, squa- 
mae lineari-lanceolatae aequales. Receptaculum convexum 
paleis linearibus acutis onustum. Corolla tubulosae 5-den- 
tatae, extus hirsutae. Styli rami exappendiculati. Achenium 
turbinato - subquinquangulum, pubescens seu villosum. 
Pappi palea 5, enerviae, elliptical, acuminata?, integral. — 
Her baa Boreali- Americana perennes. Folia alterna integra. 
Capitula terminalia solitaria purpurascentia non male Scabi- 
osarum capit. rejerentia. D C. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Marshallia caspitosa ; glabra caespitosa, caule simplici 
aphylio l-ce|>halo, foliis elongato- et lato-linearibus 
subobtusis iutegerrimis, involucri squamis oblongo- 
linearibus obtusis, paleis receptaculi linearibus. D C. 

Marshallia caespitosa. Nutt. MSS. in Herb, nostr. — De 
Cand. Prod. v. 5. p. 680. 



Marshallia is a Genus named in 1791, in compliment to 
Mr. H. Marshall, who wrote a Natural History of the Trees 
and Shrubs of North America, a country to which the spe- 
cies are wholly confined. Michaux called it Persoonia, an 
appellation which Smith had dedicated to a different plant : 
and it is the Trattenickia of Persoon (not Willd.). Mi- 
chaux described three species, the M. latifolia, M. angusti- 
folia, and M. lanceolata. A fourth, that now under consid- 
eration, 



eration, was discovered by Mr. Nuttall in the Red River 
Territory, by Berlendier at Villa de Austin in Texas, and 
by Drummond in Galveston Bay of the same country. It was 
sent to the subscribers to the latter Naturalist in his third 
Texas Collection, n. J 74, and seeds having been likewise 
transmitted from Galveston, they have succeeded, and the 
plants have flowered in July and August, in a cool frame of 
the Glasgow Botanic Garden. The species, it must be con- 
fessed, nearly approaches the M. lonceolata, which De Can- 
dolle has described, (erroneously, so far as my authentic 
specimens will enable me to judge,) as having obovate 
leaves ; but I think it is really distinct, having much nar- 
rower scales to the involucre, and quite linear ones on the 
receptacle. De Candolle justly compares the plant to an 
Armeria, and a number of them cultivated close together 
have a very pretty effect to the eye. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stems tufted, a foot or more 
high, simple, leafy only below, the rest quite naked, striat- 
ed, slightly downy, especially upwards. Leaves lanceolate 
or linear-lanceolate, glabrous, three-nerved, entire, the 
lowest one tapering into a long slender stalk, the upper 
ones nearly sessile. Head of flowers solitary, large, convex. 
Involucre of many linear-lanceolate, nearly equal scales, in 
about two rows. Florets all tubular, five-cleft and deeply 
so, rose colour, afterwards white, downy externally. Ache- 
nium obovate, with five rough angles. Pappus of five 
broad, ovato-acuminate, serrated, membranous scales. An- 
ther-tube considerably protruded, brown. Scales of the re- 
ceptacle linear, much shorter than the flower. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Flower more advanced, with the Corolla withering. 
3. Achenium and Pappus : — magnified. 



( 3705 ) 

Oncidium Forbesii. Mr. Forbes' 
Oncidium. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandrta Monandria. 

(Nat. Ord. — Orchide^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium explanatum. Sepala saepius undulata : late- 
ralibus nunc sub labello connatis. Petala conformia. La- 
bellum maximum, ecalcaratum, cum columna continuum,, 
varie lobatum, basi tuberculatum v. cristatum. Columna 
libera, semiteres, apice utrinque alata. Anthera semibilo- 
cularis, rostello nunc abbreviate, nunc elongato rostrato. 
Pollinia 2, postice sulcata ; caudicula plana ; glandula ob- 
longa. — Herbae epiphytce, nunc pseudo-bulbosce . Folia cori- 
acea. Scapi paniculati vaginati, rarius simplices. Flores 
speciosi, lutei, scepius maculati, raro albi. Lindl. 

Specific Name and Character. 

Oncidium Forbesii; pseudo-bulbis oblongis sulcatis com- 
pressis monophyllis, folio lanceolato coriaceo, scapo 
paniculato multifloro, sepalis recurvo-patentibus peta- 
Jisque (duplo majoribus) obovatis undulatis subungui- 
culatis, labelli disco basi tuberculato-cristato lobis 
lateralibus parvis oblongis intermedio maximo flabelli- 
formi, columnae alis parvis angulatis. 



A very rare inhabitant of the Organ Mountains, where it 
was discovered by Mr. Gardner in 1837, and whence it 
was sent by the same zealous Collector to his distinguished 
patron, his Grace the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey. 
I have named it in compliment to the very able Horticul- 
turist who has the charge of that noble collection, and by 

whose 

VOL XII, P 



whose judicious care, so many rarities, both of Mr. Gard- 
ner and of other Collectors, have been brought to a high 
state of perfection. Among the dried specimens there is 
only one of this species, and that is marked " very rare : 
only one plant was found ;" and that is numbered 442 of 
the Organ Mountains' Collection. In the stove at Woburn 
the specimen here represented blossomed in October, 1838. 
As a species, it comes near Oncidium crispum, Bot. Mag. t. 
3499, but the panicle is much larger, bearing more copious 
flowers ; these flowers are very differently coloured and 
marked : the crest and side-lobes, and still more the column, 
present also amply sufficient characters of distinction, the 
latter being considerably smaller, with very shorty angled, 
by no means serrated, wings. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs small for the size of the plant, ob- 
long, compressed, sulcated, producing a solitary, lanceolate, 
coriaceous, rather acute, dark green leaf. Scape from the 
base of the pseudo-bulb, a foot or more high, and bearing 
a large, very handsome panicle of numerous flowers. Sepals 
obovate, small, somewhat clawed, recurvo -patent, waved : 
petals twice their size, patent, obovato-rotundate, shortly 
clawed, waved : they and the sepals are of a rich, glossy, 
reddish-brown colour, spotted, chiefly round the margin, 
with yellow ; — the sepals are somewhat banded with the 
same colour; behind they are greenish. Lip, in colour resem- 
bling the petals, three-lobed ; the disk at the base crested 
with unequal-sized tubercles, yellow, spotted with brown ; 
the two side-lobes very small, oblong, the intermediate lobe 
large and fan-shaped. Column small and short, with two 
comparatively narrow and angled wings. Anther -case 
hemispherical, containing two small cells. Pollen-masses 
yellow, stalked, and bearing a small, oblong gland or cau- 
diculus. 



Fig. I. Column and lower portion of the Labellum. 2. Inside view of 
the Anther-case. 3. Pollen-masses : — magnified. 



370 b- 




% 






Pai by S.i 



( 3706 ) 

EUTOCA DIVARICATA. STRAGGLING ElJTOCA. 

*********************** 

Class and Order. 
Pentandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Hydrophylle^. ) 

Generic Character. 

Corolla decidua. Ovarium ovoideo-globosum, piloso 
hispidum. Placenta lineares, dorso parietibus ovarii adnatae, 
4-rnulti-ovulatae. Capsula dissepimentis incompletis, semi- 
bilocularis. — Herbae annua (?) scepius erectce habitu Pha- 
celiae, rarius diffuses vel divaricates. Flores racemosi densi 
sessiles, vel laxi pedunculati, cymis unilateralibus simpli- 
cibus vel dichotomis. Benth. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Eutoca divaricata ; caulibus dichotome divaricatis, foliis 
omnibus ovatis indivisis, placentis 12 — 20-ovulatis. 
Benth. 

Eutoca divaricata. Benth. in Linn. Soc. Trans, v. 17. p. 
278. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1784. 



A Californian plant, for which our gardens are indebted 
to the late Mr. Douglas. It is a hardy annual, which does 
not suffer in Scotland by the droughts of summer, as it is 
said to do in England. Its appearance, rather, is more in- 
jured, being of humble growth, from the soil being dashed 
upon its foliage and flowers by our rains. The drawing 
was made in August, when the plants were in the highest 
perfection in the Glasgow Botanic Garden. 

Descr. Herbaceous, annual. Stems weak, flexuose, 
frequently decumbent and dichotomously branched, downy. 
Leaves hairy, remote, ovate, the lower ones on rather long 
petioles, the upper ones gradually with shorter stalks, and 
at length sessile ; all of them simple, quite entire. Flowers 

in 



in terminal heads, rather large, handsome. Calyx deeply 
5-partite, with the laciuiae lanceolate. Corolla between 
rotate and campanulate, purplish-blue, veined, almost white 
at the base. Stamens five, nearly as long as the corolla, 
arising from its base, and having a white membranous scale 
alternating with them. Pistil oval, hairy ; Style filiform : 
Stigma bifid. Capsule separating into two valves, each 
valve bearing on the centre several large, oval, dotted 
seeds. 



Fig. 1. Corolla. 2. Pistil. 3. Capsule. 4. Seed :— more or less mag- 
nified. 



3m 




M' s Wti/ur? dtlr 



Pub by S-CmrU. En*x. Fib? 



( 3707 ) 

POLYSTACHIA GRANDIFLORA. LiARGE- 
FLOWERED PoLYSTACHYA. 

******************** 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^:. ) 

Generic Character. 

Sepala erecta, acuta ; lateralibus majoribus cum basi pro- 
ducta columnae connatis. Petala minora. Labellum ses- 
sile cum basi producta columnae articulatum, trilobum. 
Columna semiteres, brevis. Anthera bilocularis. Pollinia 
4 collateral a, equalia, per paria cohaerentia. — Herbae epi- 
phytal caulescentes nunc pseudo-bulbosce. Folia Iceviter 
nervosa. Flores paniculate parvi } alabastris trigonis. 
Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Polystachia grandifiora ; pseudo-bulbis parvis monophyl- 
liSj folio lineari-oblongo carnoso, pedunculo terminali 
subunifloro, flore recto (non resupinato), sepalis mu- 
cronatis lateralibus quadruplo majoribus, petalis minu- 
tis oblongo-spathulatis, labello carnoso trilobo lobo 
intermedio cordato acuto. 

Polystachia grandifiora. Lindl. MSS. 

Limodorum cucullatum. Afz. in Pers. Syn. PL v. 2. p. 521 . 
Lindl. Gen. et Spec. Orchid, p. 185. 



This extremely interesting plant is referred by Dr. Lind- 
ley to Polystachia,, and no doubt correctly so ; but, I 
must confess, that my faith is somewhat shaken in the 
Genus, on seeing how closely this borders on Maxillaria, 
in which I had unhesitatingly arranged the present plant, 
till Dr. Lindley's decision was communicated to me by 
by Mr. Allcard. The only difference I can tind between 

the 



the two Genera is this, (which indeed is considered charac- 
teristic of the respective Tribes to which they are referred,) 
that in Malaxtde^ (including VandaJ there is no real cau- 
dicula to the pollen-masses,, while VandEjE, (where Maxil- 
laria is placed) is furnished with an elastic or transparent 
strap or caudicula to the pollen-masses. But Maxillaria 
squalens, (Bot. Mag. t. 2955) M. racemosa (t. 2789), and 
M. Parkeri (t. 2729), and other acknowledged Maxillary, 
are quite destitute of this caudicula. To whatever Genus, 
however, the present plant is referred, it is a very distinct 
and a very interesting one, a native of Sierra Leone, whence 
it was imported by our valued friend, John Allcard, Esq. 
In October, 1838, it flowered in the stove of that gentleman, 
who obligingly sent us the accompanying drawing by Mrs. 
Withers, Botanical Painter to Her Majesty the Dowager 
Queen Adelaide, together with a specimen, from which the 
following account is drawn up. 

Descr. Stems, or pseudo -bulbs, slender, cylindrical, tufted; 
bearing a single linear-oblong, fleshy, dark green leaf at the 
extremity : from the base of this leaf and from the summit 
of the pseudo-bulb arises the flower-stalk, about equal in 
length with the leaf, sheathed with scales, and having a 
single erect (not resupinate), moderately large, greenish 
flower, with purple blotches : sometimes there are the rudi- 
ments of a second blossom. Every part of the flower, but 
especially the lip, is singularly firm, and between fleshy and 
coriaceous. Sepals slightly spreading : the lowest one the 
smallest: all concave, almost cucullateand mucronate at the 
point. Petals very small, oblongo-spathulate. Column very 
short, at least the free part, the rest remarkably decurrent 
with the lateral sepals. Lip obovato-oblong, three-lobed, 
the disk, with a large slightly elevated gland; the side-lobes 
incurved ; the middle one cordate. Anther-case conico- 
obtuse, two-celled. Pollen-masses yellow, globose, two- 
lobed, fixed by a short, yellow stalk to an oblong, trans- 
verse, dark-brown gland. 



Fig. 1. Front view of an inverted Flower, that is, in the usual position of 
the Flowers of an Orchidea. 2. Lip. 3. Anther-case 4. Pollen-masses: 
— magnijied. 







SCuriLs GLa-K- v.feb'Z.1839. 



( 3708 ) 

monachanthus fimbriatus. fimbriated 
Monk-flower. 

********************** 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchideje. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium explanatum. Sepala et petala asqualia de- 
orsum versa. Labellum posticum, carnosum, indivisum, 
ventricosum, sepalis multo majus. Columna brevis, crassa, 
mutica. Anthera et pollinia Cataseti. — Epiphytes Cataseti 
habitu. Lindl. 

Specific Character and Synonyjn. 

Monachanthus Jimbriatus ; labello longissimo fimbriato 

intus pubescente. 
Monachanthus fimbriatus. Gardner, MSS. 



This plant certainly belongs to the Genus Monachanthus, 
agreeing, as it does, with that species, M. viridis, on which 
Lindley founded the Genus, in general habit, in its mode 
of inflorescence, and in having all its sepals and petals 
turned in the same direction. The posterior situation of 
the labellum, which covers the other parts of the flower like 
a helmet, together with its fleshy structure, and the green 
colour of the blossoms, assimilate it with Monachanthus. 
It differs from M. viridism its slenderer and more tapering 
pseudo-bulbs, and the many-flowered scape, and still more 
remarkably in its three-lobed fringe and labellum, and the 
excavated column. Although I have twice met with M. 
viridis in blossom in the province of Rio Janeiro, yet as it 
always so happened that the anther and pollen-masses had 
disappeared, it is impossible for me to institute a compari- 
son of the two species, so far as regards these organs. 



I found it growing on dry sandy banks, beneath the 
shade of some low shrubs, beyond the village of Apipucas, 
about ten miles West from Pernambuco, in Nov., 1837. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs about six inches long, bearing the 
scars of from six to eight leaves. Only one of the six 
pseudo-bulbs which were on the specimen that I found pro- 
duced two lanceolate, acuminated, slightly plicate, three- 
ribbed leaves, about seven inches long ; it was, however, 
covered with the withered sheaths of former leaves. Scape 
arising from the base of the leafy pseudo-bulb, fifteen inches 
long, with four articulations in its lower half, the base of 
each surrounded by a membranous sheath, about a quarter 
of an inch in length, split on one side. The upper portion 
of the scape bears nine alternate, pedicellated flowers ; the 
three lower ones about an inch distant from each other, the 
upper ones only half an inch apart. Pedicels, including 
the germen, about an inch long, at first ascending, then 
curving a little downwards. At the base of each pedicel, 
there is an ovato-lanceolate bractea, about a quarter of an 
inch long, closely pressed to it. Perianth spreading open, 
entirely of a yellowish-green colour ; Sepals three, linear, 
apiculate, submembranaceous, all turned downwards in a 
direction parallel to each other. Petals two, linear-oblong, 
fleshy, a little longer than the sepals, but equally turned in 
the same downward direction. Labellum posterior, fleshy, 
ventricose, a little flattened from above downwards, three- 
lobed ; the lobes about equal, fringed with long, mostly 
bifid fimbria?, those on the middle lobe shorter than on the 
lateral ones. Column declinate, somewhat triangular, its 
base bounded by a slightly elevated, entire, fleshy crest, 
with a sinus in its middle, which curves a little into the 
labellum ; its middle portion excavated with a reniform 
opening, and its upper portion has a hollow for the recep- 
tion of the pollen-masses. Anther hemispherical, crowned 
by a fleshy, strap-shaped body, which adheres to the side 
of it, but is free at the upper extremity ; subbilocular. 
Pollen-masses two, ovate, compressed, sulcated behind, of 
a waxy yellow colour. Ovary, in its early state, cylindrical 
and sulcated. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Lip : — magnified. 



3J09- 




( 3709 ) 

SOPHRONITIS GRANDIFLORA. IjARGE- 
FLOWERED SOPHRONITIS. 

Class and Order. 
Gynandria Monandria. 

( Nat. Ord. — Orchide^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Pollinia 8, antice et postice parallela, caudicula duplici 
pulverea, glandula o ? Anthera terminalis opercularis 8- 
locularis, cardine crasso. Stigma concavum rostello ob- 
tuso. Columna libera apice utrinque alata, alis integris 
conniventibus super cristam labelli. Labellum integrum 
cucullatum linguiforme, basi cum columna connatum, me- 
dio crista simplici transversa. Sepala subaequalia imbri- 
cata, basi libera. — Herbae epiphytce (Brasilienses) ?nono- 
phyllce, non bulbosce, racemis axillaribus effusis paucifloris, 
Jloribus rubris, LindL 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Sophronitis grandiflora ; pseudo-bulbis oblongo-cylindra- 
ceis junioribus spathaceis apice monophyllis, folio 
elliptico, petalis elliptico-rotundatis, sepalis oblongo- 
lanceolatis subduplo minoribus, labello (parvo) trilobo, 
lobis lateralibus incurvis obtusis, intermedio acumi- 
nato planiusculo. 

Sophronitis grandiflora. LindL Sertum Orchidaceum, tab. 
b.f. 2. 

Cattleya coccinea. LindL Bot. Reg.fol. 1919 fin text.). 

Epidendre ponceau. " Descourtilz's Drawings, pi. 10. 
p. 27." 



This lovely Orchideous plant is figured by Dr. Lindley 
from a drawing executed, as it would appear, in the native 
country of the species by M. Descourtilz, and he has, I 

think, 



think, rightly followed the suggestion of making it a So- 
phronitis. The credit of introducing the plant alive to 
this country is due to Mr. Gardner, who found it in the 
Organ Mountains of Brazil and sent it home in 1837. 
The station given by M. Descourlitz is upon the high 
mountains that separate the district of Bananal from that 
of Ilha Grande. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs clustered, oblong, rounded, the 
young ones clothed with cylindrical membranaceous sheaths, 
of which the upper one forms a kind of spatha to the base 
of the flower-stalk : the base of the bulb throws out a few 
greenish-white roots, the upper portion bears a solitary ellip- 
tical leaf, about two inches long. Flower, of which the 
narrow ovary tapers into a short peduncle, solitary ; blossom 
large and very handsome, internally of an uniform red colour 
inclining to orange, with darker red streaks. Sepals and 
petals spreading horizontally and nearly flat : the former 
oblong-lanceolate, much smaller than the latter, which are 
elliptico-rotundate, slightly waved. Lip small, standing 
forward, ovate, the base yellow, three-lobed, obscurely 
bitubercled at the base : the two broad side-lobes involute so 
as to cover the column, the middle lobe acuminate, nearly 
flat. Column short, white, tinged with red, having a tooth 
or wing on each side the stigma. Anther with eight cells 
and eight almost triangular pollen-masses. 



Fig. 1. Lip. 2. Inside view of ditto. 3. Side view of the Column. 4. 
Front view of ditto. 5. Anther-case showing the Cells. 6. Pollen-masses : 
— magnified. 



J 110. 










( 3710 ) 

Phalocallis plumbea. Lead-coloured 
Phalocallis. 

,vl/. -.1/. •!/. x -d'. J' vt/, v?/, .-!/, -.}/, vl'. ,-!/, vT/ <|/ v{/ vV .vl< v'^, ■J/ vT/ -J/ \t> \T/ >[/ 

•/Jn '/Jn vj\ vjs vj\ MS MI- MS MS MS VIS MS MS MS MS MS M> vjs '/js Vf. '^ '/^ "4> 

C/ass and Order. 
Triandria Monogynia. 

( Nat. Ord. — Iridace^e. ) 

Generic Character. 

Perianthium infra crateriforme, sepalismajoribus superne 
patentibiiSj petalis superne compressis revolutis. Filamenta 
brevia conica basi connata apice reflexo. Antherce Ioculis 
longis latere dehiscentibus medio angustiores superne styli 
lobis agglutinatae. Stylus trigono-cyathiformis infra gra- 
cili-cylindricus., superne trilobus. Stigmata brevia trans- 
versa biloba obtusa emarginata., loborum cristis externis 
duabus petaloideis reflexis, internis fere obsoletis. Capsula 
triquetro-oblonga tenuiter membranacea, operculo obsoleto 
(quoad vidi) indehiscens ; semina subplana alato-margi- 
nata. W. H. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 

Phalocallis plumbea; foliissubglaucisplicatisacutis,, caule 
foliis longe altiore 2 — 4-pedali bracteato ex axilla imi 
folii prodeunte, spatha subtriunciali pedunculo trigono 
subasquali adpressa, flore unico matutino fugacissimo, 
germine subunciali, sepalis circiter 3^ unc. patentibus 
pallide plumbeis inferne pubescentibus unguibus lutes- 
centibus, petalis infra lutescentibus transverse macu- 
latis, medio saturatioribus gibbis lateralibus purpureis 
pubescentibus, apice luteis subacutis,, filamentis annulo 
ad basin purpureo medio bimaculatis, antheris con- 
nectivo pallido polline caeruleo., cristis in conum re- 
flex is plumbeis, stylo et stigmatibus pallidis, seminibus 
badiis alato-marginatis circiter iV unc. latis. W. H. 

Cypella plumbea. Lindley, Bot. Reg. t. 24, Misc. Not. 
p. 71. 

This 



This very remarkable plant, though its flower is delicate 
and beautiful, disappoints the expectation by producing, 
as far as I have seen, on its strong and tall stem only one 
blossom, which expands before sunrise, even in a dark 
room, and passes away ere noon. Some bulbs of this plant 
have been raised in England from Mexican seeds, and others 
have been received by Mr. Anderson of the Chelsea Garden, 
from Mr. Otto at Berlin. The specimen here represented 
flowered in the autumn at SpofForth, being of the latter 
importation. The pot had stood out of doors all the sum- 
mer, but the flower-buds appeared so late, owing to the 
unusual coldness of the season, that it was removed into 
the stove to promote the blossom. There was a consider- 
able interval between the flowering of the bulbs. It will 
probably be found to succeed well under a South wall in 
the open ground. Dr. Lindley has referred it to the Genus 
Cypella ; but on mature consideration, it does not appear 
that it can be properly united with it ; and, although it 
seeds readily if the true stigma be touched with its own 
pollen, it refuses to cross with Cypella Herbertiana. On 
careful examination of the Natural Order to which it be- 
longs, it appears that the crests of the stigmas or style and 
the dehiscence of the capsule are very material points, and 
and it disagrees with Cypella, in having the true stigma 
consisting of short two-lobed, transverse, tender lobes like 
those of Iris, (whereas those of Cypella are long, acute, 
horny, and fringed on their upper surface,) and the outer 
crests petaloid, which in Cypella are horny ; the inner 
crests soft and almost obsolete and imperceptible, whereas 
those of Cypella are stiff and erect. It has also a capsule 
without any prominent opercle, except a minute point, 
and has ripened its seed here without any dehiscence, 
the coat of the capsule being very thin and perishable ; 
whereas the capsule of Cypella opens at the end by the 
sutures of a very prominent opercle. The seeds of Phalo- 
callis are nearly flat, with a thin margin, while those of 
Cypella are angular, and its whole fruit more like that of 
Tigridia. The generic name is given from the delicacy of 
the cone formed by the crests. The proper generic charac- 
ter of Cypella will be, — " Perianthium et tilamenta ut in 
Phalocallide. Antherce loculis latere dehiscentibus basi 
latiores superne angustiores et styii lobis agglutinate. Sty- 
lus trigono-cyathiformis infra gracili-cylindricus superne 
trilobus. Stigmata distincte biloba acuta porrecta cornea 
superne fimbriata, cristis acutis corneis, externis duabus 

majoribus 



majoribus reflexis, internis erectis. Capsula operculi pro- 
minentis suturis dehiscens. Semina angulata, fV. II. Mr. 
Ker referred Cypella Herbertiana to Marica, with which it 
does not conform. The name Marica was improperly sub- 
stituted by SchrvEber for theCiPURjE of Aublet, and the latter 
appellation must be restored to paludosa. The name Ma- 
rica will be properly restricted to the plants which conform 
with Northiana, Sabiniana, and ccerulea, distinguished gene- 
rically by a coriaceous, reflexly dehiscent capsule with an- 
gular, oblong seeds, which are comparatively large, and by 
erect, acute, external and internal crests to the true stigmas, 
which are short and transverse. The root in that Genus is 
fibrous ; the stalk flat, leaflike, and proliferous. Cypella 
Herbertiana has a branched stalk, with many-flowered 
spathes, and produces, from the beginning of July till 
November, a constant succession of flowers, which are not 
fugaceous, lasting, in cool weather, two or three days.* 

This opportunity may be taken to record a remarkable 
new Genus, of which a live specimen in flower has been sent 
to Spofforth by Mr. Loddiges, imported, as he states, from 
Valparaiso, being the first Cyrtanthiform plant found else- 
where than in South Africa. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidace^e. 
Sub. Ord. AmaryllidejE. § Cyrtanthiformes (next after 
Gastronema). Cyphonema. Pedunculi erecti. Germen 
trigono-oblongum erectum. Tubus rectus infra gracili- 
cylindricus superne campanulatus. Limbus regularis re- 
flexus. Stylus gracilis rectus stigmate trifario. Filamenta 
incurvata, sepalina tubi medio petalina altius adnata. Spec. 
1. Cyphonema Loddigesianum, floribus binis I-| uncialibus 
subalbidis viridi-striatis. Named from the curved fila- 
ments. W. H. 



* Mr. Loddiges, having been requested to reconsider whether the bulb of 
Cyphonema certainly came from Valparaiso, stated, that he had many- 
bulbs imported from the Cape in the same house with his Chilian bulbs, and 
that, although he considered the Cyphonema to have been one of the latter, 
it is possible that there may have been a mistake. Phalocallis plumbea, 
if protected from frost, seems disposed to preserve its foliage after flowering 
through the winter. 



Dissections of Phaloc allis plumbea. 1. Style and Stamina, magnified. 
2. Back of a Stamen straightened. 3. Front of ditto. 4. Style. 5. One 
Lobe thereof. 10. Seeds. 11. Hipe Capsule. — Of Cypell.v Herbertiana. 
6. Front of a Stamen. 7. Back of ditto. 8. Style and one Stamen. '.». 
One lobe of the Style. 12. Ripe Capsule and Seed. The I 
of the utmost size. 



INDEX, 

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Twelfth 
Volume of the New Series (or Sixty-fifth of the Work) are 
alphabetically arranged. 



PI. 

3654 Agave Americana, var. foliis 

variegatis. 

3640 Aristolochia saccata. 

3678 Arthrostemma versicolor. 

3679 Aspasia variegata. 
3649 Bartonia aurea. 
3633 Carica citriformis. 

3693 Cattleya guttata, /3. Russell- 

iana. 

3669 Mossiae. 

3656 pumila. 

3662 Centaurea depressa. 

3651 Cereus pentalophus, (3. subar- 

ticulatus. 

3641 Chenopodium Quinoa. 
3695 Collinsia heterophylla. 
3644 Colletia horrida. 
3648 Cymbidium triste. 

3643 Dendrobium aggregatum. 

3655 Diplacus puniceus. 
3627 Echinocactus tubiflorus. 

3658 Epacris microphylla. 
3637 Epidendrum floribundum. 

3631 - — ■ papillosum. 

3638 ■ — tessellatum. 

3666 ■ viridi-purpureum. 

3639 Erica florida, var. campanulata. 
3673 Euphorbia Jacquiniflora. 
3706 Eutoca divaricata. 

3657 Funckia albo-marginata. 
3663 Sieboldiana. 

3659 Gesnera fascialis. 

3664 tuberosa. 

3680 Gladiolus Mortonius. 

3660 Govenia Gardneri. 
3687 Gongora maculata. 
3689 Helianthus mollis. 
3696 Hypoxis stellipilis. 
3665 Ipoma^a Bonariensis. 

3685 Platensis. 

3675 Ismene Macleana. 
3652 Kennedya nigricans. 

3699 Leycesteria formosa. 

3700 Leonotis nepetsefolia. 
3626 Lisianthus Russellianus, 



PI. 
3632 Loasa lateritia. 
3671 Lobelia Bridgesii. 
3650 Lophospermum scandens. 
3698 Malva Creeana. 
3642 Mammillaria atrata. 
3647 floribunda. 

3634 • ■ ■ Lehmanni. 

3646 tenuis. 

3704 Marshallia csespitosa. 

3629 Maxillaria aureo-fulva. 

3691 Melocactus depressus. 
3690 Merendera Caucasica. 
3708 Monachanthus fimbriatus. 

3705 Oncidium Forbesii. 
3697 Passiflora incarnata. 

3635 nigelliflora. 

36B6 Tucumanensis. 

3692 Pavonia Schrankii. 
3645 Pentstemon diffusus. 

3688 — glandulosus. 

3661 gentianoides. 

3703 Phacelia tanacetifolia. 
3710 Phalocallis plumbea. 

3682 Pleurothallis Grobyi. 
3707 Polystachia grandiflora. 

3676 Potentilla glabra. 
3668 Pyrus arbutifolia. 
3653 Rehmannia Chinensis. 
3670 Rhododendron albiflorum. 
3667 nudiflorum; 

var. scintillans (hybridum). 
3672 Solanum campanulatum. 
3684 « fragrans. 

3677 Sophronitis cemua. 

3709 grandiflora. 

3681 Spathodea pentandra. 

3701 Statice puberula. 

3702 Trifolium hybridum. 

3630 Tweedia versicolor. 
3628 Verbena incisa. 
3694 teucrioides. 

3683 Veronica prostrata, y. saturei- 

sefolia. 
3686 Zygopetalon maxillare. 
3671 Murrayanum. 



INDEX, 

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the Twelfth 
Volume of the New Series (or Sixty-fifth of the Work) are 
alphabetically arranged. 



PI. 

3654 Aloe, great American, with 

variegated leaves. 
3675 Amancaes, Mr. M'Lean's. 

3668 Aronia, Arbutus- leaved. 

3678 Arthrostemma, changeable - 

flowered. 

3679 Aspasia, variegated. 
3649 Bartonia, golden. 

3640 Birthwort, pouch -flowered. 

3656 Cattleya, dwarf. 

3669 Mrs. Moss's superb. 

3693 spotted, Lord Edward 

Russell's var. 

3662 Centaury, prostrate. 

3651 Cereus, five -winged, somewhat 

jointed var. 
3702 Clover, Mule white Trefoil, or 

tall Dutch. 
3644 Colletia, bristling. 

3695 Collinsia, variable-leaved. 
3648 Cymbidium, lurid-flowered. 
3643 Dendrobium, close-flowered. 

3655 Diplacus, scarlet-flowered. 

3658 Epacris, small-leaved. 

3638 Epidendrum, chequer-flowered 

3637 ■ many-flowered. 

3666 purplish-green. 

3631 warty-fruited. 

3673 Euphorbia, or Spurge, Jac- 

quinia-flowered. 
3706 Eutoca, straggling. 

3663 Funckia, Dr. Siebold's. 

3657 variegated. 

3659 Gesnera, gaping-flowered. 

3664 tuberous-rooted. 

3680 Gladiolus, Mr. Morton's. 
3687 Gongora, spotted. 

3660 Govenia, Mr. Gardner's Bra- 

zilian. 

3639 Heath, drooping, round-head- 

ed bell- flowered var. 

3696 Hypoxis, starry- haired. 

3665 Ipomsea, Buenos-Ayres. 
3685 ■ the Plata. 

3652 Kennedya, dingy-flowered. 
3700 Leonotis, Cat-mint leaved. 
3699 Leycesteria, handsome. 
3626 Lisianthus, Duke of Bedford's. 
3632 Loasa, red-flowered. 
3671 Lobelia, Mr. Bridges'. 



PL 
3650 
3698 
3647 

3642 
3634 
3646 
3704 
3629 
3628 
3691 
3690 
3708 
3684 

3705 
3633 
3636 
3635 

3697 

3692 
3661 
3688 
3645 
3703 
8710 
3707 
3682 
3676 
3641 
3653 
3667 
3670 
3672 
3677 
3709 
3681 
3683 

3627 
3689 
3701 
3702 

3630 
3694 
3674 
3686 



Lophospermum, climbing. 
Mallow, showy, red-flowered. 
Mammillaria, copious-flower- 



dark green. 
Lehmann's. 



— — — taper. 

Marshallia, tufted. 
Maxillaria, golden-brown. 
Melindres, cut-leaved. 
Melocactus, depressed. 
Merendera, Caucasian. 
Monk-flower, fimbriated. 
Nightshade, fragrant South 

American. 
Oncidium, Mr. Forbes'. 
Papaw, small citron-fruited. 
Passion-flower, large-stipuled. 
Nigella-flow- 



ered. 



yellow-fruited 



Virginian. 

Pavonia, Schrank's. 

Pentstemon, Gentian-like. 

■ glandular. 

■ spreading. 

Phacelia, Tansy-leaved. 

Phalocallis, lead-coloured. 

Polystachia, large-flowered. 

Pleurothallis, the Groby. 

Potentilla, glabrous. 

Quinoa, useful. 

Rehmannia, Chinese. 

Rhododendron, sparkling. 

. white-flowered. 

Solanum, bell-flowered. 

Sophronitis, drooping-flowered 

large-flowered. 

Spathodea, five-stamened. 

Speedwell, prostrate, Savory- 
leaved var. 

Spine-Cactus, tube-flowered. 

Sun-flower, soft-leaved. 

Thrift, downy-leaved, Canary. 

Trefoil, Mule white; or tall 
Dutch Clover. 

Tweedia, changeable -flowered. 

Vervain, Germander-leaved. 

Zygopetalon, Mr. Murray's. 

Tree-Fern.