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plants of ti)t Eopai eartims of Urto, 








L.L.D, F.R.S., and L.S., Vice-President of the Linneean Society, and Director of the Royal Gardens of Kew. 

VOL. I. # 
{Or Vol. LXXI. of the whole Work.) 

' Nature and Art t'adorn the page combine ( 
And flowers exotic grace our northern clime. 





ffiKotftf, arrtf 3SutRjms£, &c, &c, &c 





ftopal Motmiic earfcms of ittto, 






Royal Gardens, Kew, 
Bee. 1, 184o, 

Tab. 4132 
LUCULIA Pinciana. 

Mr. Pinces Luculia. 

Nat. Ord. Rubiace^e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
LUCULIA. Sw. (Supra Tab. 3946.) De Cand. Prodr. 4. p. 357. 

Luculia Pinciana ; cordite limbo tuberculis quinque didymis*. 

At the commencement of a new or Third Series of the 
Botanical Magazine, it is with no ordinary pleasure, that we 
are able to present our readers with one of the most lovely 
and most fragrant plants that it has been our lot to publish 
in any of our volumes. Much deserved praise was bestowed 
on the Luculia gratisswm (Tab. 3046) by our fair corre- 
spondent who communicated that lovely shrub : but it may be 
said, without diminishing aught from that species, that the 
present far excels it, no less in the size and delicacy of its 
flowers, than in their powerful, yet agreeable fragrance. As 
a species, too, it is totally distinct from that just mentioned ; 
the only hitherto described one of the Genus. In stature 
and general aspect, the two appear to accord : but the pre- 
sent has broader and shorter leaves, with much more com- 
pact (closely-placed) nerves, and the limb of the corolla has 
five pairs of prominent tubercles ; one pair at the sinus of 
each lobe. It was raised from seeds received from Nepal by 
Mr. Pince, (to whom the Royal Gardens are indebted for a 
plant,) at his Nursery, Exeter, and is cultivated in the green- 
house. I may observe, that the specimen, figured here, is 
but a portion of the great compound cyme that was sent, 
and which would have required a folio plate to render it 
adequate justice. 

Descr. A shrub, attaining to some feet in height, much 
branched, the branches opposite. Leaves oval, rather than 

By which character it is at once distinguished from the only other 
species, ° ' 

L. gratissima ; corolla; limbo etuberculato. 
VOL. I. „ 

S-wan. Sc. 

Tab. 4133 
BACKHOUSIA myrtifolia. 

Myrtle-leaved Backhousia. 

Nat. Ord. Myktace^e. — Icosandria Monogynia. 

BACKHOUSIA. Hook, et Ifarv. Calycis tubus turbinatus, inferne 
ovario adhserens, villosus, extus basi bracteis caducis imbricatis: limbus 
persistens profunde 5-partitus, lobis tubo longioribus patentibus corollatis 
(albis) petaloideis. Petala 5 parva, calycis segmentis triple- minora, 
ovato-rotundata, acuta, valde concava. Stamina numercsissima, corolla 
calyceque longiora. Antherce parvae subrotundae. Ovarium tubi parte 
inferiore adnaturn, superne liberum hirsutissimum biloculare ; loculis poly- 
spermis : dissepimento placentifero. Ovula plurima. Fructus (immaturus) 
siccus, coriaceus. — Frutices Australasici, ramis teretibus nunc villosis. 
Folia opposita sessilia v. brevissime petiolata, ovato-acuminata,subcoriacea, 
pellucido-punctulata, penninervia nervoque intramarginali. Flores ma- 
jusculi, luteo-albi, in cymas pedunculatas oppositas terminalesque dispositi. 

Backhousia myrtifolia; foliis ovato-acuminatis, nervis patentibus. 
Backhousia myrtifolia. ^Hook. et Harv. MS. 

This very pretty greenhouse shrub, its conspicuous petaloid 
calycine segments giving the idea at first sight of large 
corollas to the flowers, was found by Mr. James Backhouse 
in the Illawara district of New South Wales ; and, not being 
referable to any Myrtaceous Genus yet described, Mr. Harvey 
and myself are anxious to dedicate it to our mutual friend 
now mentioned, who, amidst his various and arduous labors 
of love during a voyage to, and journeyings in, various parts 
of Australia and South Africa,* still found leisure to collect 
and to describe in manuscript many interesting plants, which 
his previous botanical acquirements enabled him to do with 
great judgment. The greater number of these specimens are 
placed, partly in the hands of Mr. Brown, and partly in those 

* See " Narrative of a Visit to the Australasian Colonies/' and " Narrative 
of a Visit to the Mauritius and South Africa, by James Backhouse ; works 
which will gratify and instruct the Naturalist as well as the Philanthropist. 

of the Editor of this work. Less perfect specimens of the 
same plant were detected by Mr. Allan Cunningham, in a 
state of bud only, " South of the Colony" of N. S. Wales, 
and marked "allied to Eugenia elliptical and what confirms 
the stability of the Genus is, the discovery by Mr. Allan 
Cunningham of a second species* (which exists in Mr. J. 
Smith's Herbarium) on the Hastings' River. With regard 
to the present individual, it has been introduced to our gar- 
dens by Mr. Low of Clapton, to whom the Botanic gardens 
of Kew owe the possession of it, and there it forms a small 
tree-like shrub, six to eight feet high. It is readily increased 
by cuttings: and they flower while quite small, soon after 
being struck. 

Descr. A small Tree, sixteen feet high, according to Mr. 
Backhouse, with slender, terete branches, of which the 
younger ones are often villous. Leaves opposite, on short 
petioles^ ovate, acuminate, between membranaceous and cori- 
aceous, pellucido-punctate, glabrous, or more or less villous, 
especially on the costa beneath, often ciliated. Corymbs 
pedunculate ; peduncles much longer than the leaves, axillary 
or terminal ; branches generally bearing three flowers. Young 
flowers more or less concealed by petaloid bracteas, which are 
ovato-lanceolate, caducous, falling before the flowers expand. 
Tube of the calyx turbinate, very villous, the lower part 
adherent to the small ovary, which is itself villous at the 
upper part: limb of the calyx large, deeply five -cleft, 
petaloid, nearly white : sepals ovato-lanceolate, veined. Sta- 
mens numerous, at the mouth of the tube of the calyx. 
Petals small, rotundato-ovate, very concave, acute. Ovary 
semi-inferior, two-celled, with receptacles on the dissepiment, 
with several ovules. Fruit immature, apparently dry and 

* This may be called 

Backhousia riparia ; foliis elliptico-lanceolatis basi apiceque longe 
acuminatis, nervis oblique-patentibus. 

Eugenia riparia. A. Cunn. 3tS. 

Hab. Hastings' River. Mr. Allan Cunningham. 

Tab. 4134 
sida graveolens. 

Heavy-scented Sida. 

Nat. Ord. Malvaceae. — Monadelphia Polyandria. 
SIDA. L. (Supra Tab. 3892.; De Cand. Prodr. 1. p. 459. 

Sida (Abutilon) graveolens ; ramis tomentosis patenti-hirsutisque, foliis 
cordatis obsolete lobatis subangulato-dentatis utrinque velutino- 
pubescentibus, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis unifloris petiolum 
vix superantibus sub florem articulatis, calycis lobis ovatis acutis, 
petalis imbricatis flavis basi atro-sanguineis, carpellis plurimis pubes- 
centibus inermibus. 

Sida graveolens. Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3. p. 179. De Cand. Prodr. 1. p. 473. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. 3. p. 118. Wall. Cat n. 1856. 

Abutilon graveolens. Wight et Am. Fl. Pen. Ind. Or. I. p. 56., and in 
Comp. to Bot. Mag. I. p. 20. t. 2. 

Sida hirta. Reichenb. Icon. Exot. t. 152. (vix Lam.) 

S. tomentosa. Wall. Cat. n. 1852. 6. 

A native of the East Indies, and of Jamaica ; and probably 
common to the tropics both of the Old and the New World : 
for my young friend, M. Planchon, while arranging the 
two extensive Genera Hibiscus and Sida in my Herbarium, 
was struck with the great number of species that are common 
to America and Asia, and even to Africa ; more than Botan- 
ists in general are aware of. The present species, winch is 
undoubtedly the S. graveolens of Dr. Roxburgh, the S.hirta 
of Reichenbach (if not of Lamarck), and probably, as Messrs. 
Wight and Arnott suggest, also the S. Indica and S. Asiatica 
of Linnaeus, has been always considered to be exclusively a 
native of the East Indies : but Mr. Purdie detected it growing 
truly wild in Jamaica : and seeds which he sent to the Royal 
Gardens produced plants which have blossomed in the autumn 
of 1844 in the stove. It is a handsome species, with sort, 
pale-green . foliage, and yellow flowers with a deep blood- 
colored eye. 

Descr. A moderate-sized shrub, four to six feet high, with 
. ery downy branches, and copious, soft, spreading hairs, not 
confined to the branches, but extending to the petioles and 
peduncles. Stipules subulate, curved, deflexed, at length 
deciduous. Leaves upon petioles about as long as themselves, 
cordate, acute, scarcely, or but obsoletely lobed, toothed, or 
subangulato- dentate, very downy, almost velvety on both 
sides. Peduncles about as long as the petioles (but variable 
in length,) axillary, solitary, single-flowered, articulated below 
the calyx. Calyx rather five-partite than quinquefid, the 
segments ovate, acute. Corolla rather large. Petals five, 
cuneate, erecto-patent, imbricating one another, orange-yellow, 
not very bright, but having a deep blood-red spot at the base 
of each, forming an eye around the numerous stamens. Ovary 
globose, hairy. Style with many branches. Stigmas small, 
globose. Carpels numerous, composing a nearly globose, de- 
pressed, downy fruit, shorter than the calyx. 

Fig. 1. Pistil: — magnified. 

Tab. 4135 


Large-flowered Hindsia. 

Nat. Ord. Rubiace^e.— Pentandria Monogynia. 

HINDSIA. Benth. Calycis tubus turbinatus, limbus 4— 5-partitus, 
iaciniis insequalibus hnearibus v. apice foliaceo-dilatatis. Corolla infundi- 
buhiormis, tubo elongato, superne paullo inflato et inter stamina intua 
barbato, iauce nuda, limbi Iaciniis 5 ovatis, sestivatione valvata. Antheree 
lineares sub apice tubi subsessiles. Ovarium biloculare; placentas medio 
dissepimento affixse, multiovulatee. Styli rami longi lineares compres- 
siuscuh papilloso-hirti. Capsula calyce corticata, septicide bivalvis, val- 
vule duns demum loculicide bipartitis. Semina numerosa non alata 
(immatura ignota).— Frutices Austro-Americani. Folia opposita, petiolata, 
ovata v sublanceolata. Stipule utrinque solitarice, ovatce, integrce v. glan- 
duloso-dentatai intus sapius glandulosce. Flores ad apices ramorum in 
cymas subfohatas dispositi, subsessiles, speciosi ; corollis cceruleo-violaceis. 

Hindsia violacea; molliter pubescens, stipulis ovatis, foliis lato-ovatis basi 
rotundatis, Iaciniis calycinis valde inaequalibus, majoribus supra me- 
dium foliaceo-dilatatis. 

Hindsia violacea. Benth. in Bot. Reg. 1844, t. 40. 

The present Genus was constituted by Mr. Bentham, and 
intended to include the Rondeletia longiflora, Cham., figured 
at t. 3977 of the present work. It is dedicated to R. B. 
Hinds, Esq., R. N., who accompanied Captain Sir Edward 
Belcher in his surveying voyage in the Pacific, and who is 
charged with the publication of the Natural History collec- 
tions made during that voyage. Both the species are plants 
oi great beauty, the present one eminently so. It is a native 
of the Organ Mountains of Brazil, and was imported by Mr. 
Veitch of Exeter (through his collector, Mr. William Lobb), 
who received for it the large silver medal of the Horticultural 
lft4 16tv ' S Garden . Exhibition, in May of the present year, 
o44. The flowers are large, of an extremely handsome 
violet-blue color, and of lonff duration. It requires the heat 
of the stove. 

Descr. A shrub with very obtusely angled, four-sided 
branches, slightly pubescent. Leaves opposite, petiolate, ovate, 
rather acute, entire, many -nerved, the nerves close and 
parallel, and these united by slender cross nerves. Petioles 
thick. Stipules ovate, acute, opposite. Flowers in a large, 
handsome, subsessile, cyme. Calyx downy, with five, erect, 
very unequal, spathulate segments, the shortest of them 
longer than the tube. Corolla rich, but pale, violet blue: 
tube two and a-half to three inches long, enlarged upwards, 
where the stamens are inserted : limb of five spreading, ovate 
segments. Anthers included. Ovary inferior, two-celled, with 
several ovules on fleshy placentae. Style filiform. Stigma 
bifid ; the segments linear. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and Pistil. 2. Section of the Ovary : — magnified. 


Tab. 4136 

BARBACENIA squamata. 

Scaly -stalked Barbacenia. 

Nat. Ord. H.emodorace^e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

BARBACENIA. Vandelli. Gen. Char. Perianthivm corollinum, ova- 
rio adnatum, infundibuliforme, sex-fidura. Filamenta bifida, antheras dorso 
affixas in divisione gerentia. Capsula trilocularis, polysperma. Mart 

Barbacenia squamata; caudice brevi diviso basibus squamiformibus 
foliorum vetustorum tecto, foliis lineari-acuminatis carinatis glaucis 
marginibus carinaque minute spinuloso-serratis, scapo foliis breviore, 
perianthii glabri tubo superne sensim dilatato laciniis lanceolatis 
acuminatis, filamentis latissimis apice truncatis vix emarginatis anthera 
dimidio brevioribus. 

Barbacenia squamata. Paxt. Mag, of Bot. cum Ic. 

A singular plant, and belonging to a singular Genus of 
HiEMODORACE^E, of which twelve species have been hitherto 
known, and these, according to Martius, are confined within 
very narrow limits in the New World, between 14° and 23° 
of southern latitude ; they delight in mountainous situations, 
growing among micaceous schist, and on rock of other prim- 
aeval formations, at an elevation of from 1,000 to 5,500 feet, 
and in exposed, dry situations. The present seems to differ 
from all yet described in several particulars, and was sent 
to Mr. Veitch of Exeter from the Organ Mountains, by 
Mr. William Lobb, in 1841. From a plant obligingly com- 
municated by Mr. Veitch to Kew Gardens, where it flowered 
in the stove in the summer of 1843, our present figure was 
taken. In the color of the flowers, and general size of the 
plant, it resembles B. tricolor and B. tomentosa, Mart.; but it 
differs from both in the absence of clothing to its leaves, in 
the form of the flower, and especially in the nature of the 
filament of the anther, which is here unusually short and 
broad, and can hardly be termed bifid. 

Descr. Caudex, or stem, short, dichotomous, clothed with 
the scale-like remains of former leaves: the perfect leaves are 

confined to the apex of the branches, and are from four to five 
or six inches long, resembling in miniature those of some 
Agave or Yucca, spreading, glaucous, linear-acuminate, cari- 
nate; when seen under a lens, they are beautifully marked 
with close parallel lines, and have the margin and keel finely 
spinuloso-serrate. Scape springing from among the terminal 
leaves, and shorter than they. Perianth of a fine orange-red; 
the tube slightly enlarged upwards, adnate with the ovary, 
deeply striated and marked with raised, elevated points, or 
minute glands: segments lanceolate, moderately spreading, 
about as long as the ovary. Stamens six, inserted at the base 
of the ovary ; three longer than the rest : Filaments short, 
very broad, emarginate. Anthers linear-oblong. Style coni- 
cal at the base, shorter than the stamens : Stigma clavate. 

Fig. 1. Flower, segments of the Perianth being removed. 2, 3. Stamens. 
4. Pistil. 5. Transverse section of do. 6. Portion of a Leaf:— magnified. 

Tab. 4137 


Elm-leaved Turner a. 

Nat. Ord. Turnerace^e.— Pentandria Trigynia. 
TURNERA. L. (Supra Tab. 2106.J De Cand. Prodr. 3. p. 346. 

Turnera ulmifolia; floribus axillaribus subsessilibus solitariis, foliis 
ovato-oblongis rugosis acutis grosse serratis subpubescentibus, stylis 
staminibus subbrevioribus. 

Turnera ulmifolia. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 387. De Cand. Prodr. 3. p. 346. 

Spreng. Syst. Veget. I. p. 940. Sloane, Jam. 1. p. 127. /. 4. 5. 
&. angustifolia ; minor, foliis, lanceolatis, petalis angustoribus. Willd. Sp. 

PI. 1. p. 1503. De Cand. Prodr. I. c.—T. angustifolia. Mill. Curt, in 

Bot. Mag. t. 281. 

There are, in the West Indies, two striking varieties of 
Turnera ulmifolia. One is already figured in the present 
work, under the name of T. augustifolia. The much finer 
state, and that which is considered the type of the species, 
is that now given, drawn from the rich collection at Syon 
Gardens. Its seeds were sent over from Jamaica by Mr. 
Purdie, and its very showy flowers, and ample glossy foliage, 
were in perfection in the stove, in July, 1844. Shortly after, 
plants, .from the same source, flowered in the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, and convinced us that this variety, at least, is well 
deserving of cultivation. It appears, however, to be a plant 
oi snort duration, and requires to be renewed from seed. 

Descr. A strong growing spreading plant, with herba- 
ceous stems, said to survive one, two, or three years, glabrous 
in our individual. Leaves alternate, on short, thick petioles, 
broadly lanceolato-oblong, acute, wrinkled, deeply veined, the 
margin very coarsely, almost lobately serrated, rather flaccid 
and pendent. Stipules small, subulate, deciduous. Flowers 
solitary, axillary, on a short peduncle, about the length of the 
K'tiole. Calyx of five, deep, lanceolate segments. Corolla 
full yellow, of five, nearly rotundate, shortly-unguiculated 

petals, spreading. Stamens five, yellow. Filaments rather 
short : Anthers subulate. Ovary ovate, one-celled, with 
three parietal placentae and many ovules. Styles three, erect : 
Stigmas penicillate. 

Fig. 1. Pistil. 2. Transverse Section of the Ovary : — magnified. 

A I \ 

Tab. 4138 

solanum macranthum. 

Large-flowered Nightshade. 

Nat. Ord. SolanejE. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
SOLANUM. {Vide supra Tab. 3954.) 

Solanum macranthum; caule arboreo aculeato, ramis lanatis, foliis amplis 
late ovatis acuminatis profunde angulato-lobatis basi attenuatis sub- 
sessilibus utrinque lanatis subtus praecipue aculeatis, racemis folio 
multoties brevioribus subcymosis, pedicellis calycibusque 5-fidis lanatis 
aculeatis, corolla ampla venosa. 

Solanum macranthum. Dun. Syn. Solan, p. 43. Roem. et Sch. Syst. 
Veget. 4. p. 650. Spr. Syst. Veget. 1. p. 689. Walp. Repert. Dot. 
v. 3. p. 88. 

A native of Brazil, and has been long cultivated in the 
old stove of the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew, where, 
planted in the border, it has attained to the height of the 
roof. In such a situation, it really makes a very handsome 
appearance, with its ample foliage, and its large pale lilac- 
coloured flowers, which, drooping as they do from the upper 
branches, are seen to great advantage from below. To those 
cultivators who have not space to allow its growing thus 
freely, cuttings may be recommended, which strike freely, 
and flower almost as soon as struck. — It is n. 800 of Mr. 
Gardner's Brazilian collection. 

Descr. Arborescent, and, with us, attaining a height of 
twelve or fourteen feet; much more, probably, in its native 
country. Branches mostly at the top, spreading ; young ones 
densely clothed with rusty green wool, and beset with copious, 
very rigid aculei. Leaves ample, alternate, on very short 
petioles, almost sessile, broadly ovato-acuminate, attenuated at 
tile base, the margins deeply angulato-lobate, the lobes acute, 
the surface strongly marked with copious reticulated veins, 
downy above, more so, almost woolly beneath; the hairs 
stellate and stipitate, as at f. l,the veins on both sides prickly, 
the aculei larger and stronger below, especially on the costa. 

vol. i. r 

Racemes axillary, much shorter than the leaves, suhcymose, 
densely woolly and aculeated. Pedicels as long as the calyx. 
Calyx large; tube broad, almost hemispherical, woolly and 
aculeated ; limb of five, ovate, acute, spreading, downy seg- 
ments. Corolla very large, sometimes three inches across, 
pale bluish-purple, with darker dashes and pale lines, veiny. 
Stamens nearly sessile, five, equal, the anthers large, uniting 
in a broad cone, and each opening by two pores at the apex. 
Style a little longer than the stamens : Stigma two-lobed. 

Fig. 1. Hairs: — magnified. 

Tab. 4139 

aerides odoratum. 
Fragrant Air-plant. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Gynandeia Monandria. 
AERIDES. (Vide supra Tab. 4049.) 

Aerides odoratum; foliis flaccidis apice obtusis obliquis, racemis pendulis 
multifloris foliis longioribus, labelli cucullati infundibularis laciniis 
lateralibus erectis cuneatis rotundatis, intermedia ovata acuta inflexa, 
calcare incurvo. Lindl. 

Aerides odoratum. Lour. Fl. Cochin, p. 525. Br. in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 

v. 5. p. 212. Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 239. 
Aerides cornutum. Roxb. Hort. Beng.p. 63. Lindl Bot. Reg. t. 1485. 

One of the many lovely Orchideous plants of the East 
Indies, no less remarkable for the elegance of its spikes of 
flowers, than for their fragrance. Loureiro first detected it in 
China and Cochinchina; upon it founded the Genus Aerides, 
and says of it what is now known to be a property common 
to almost all Epiphytes. " Mirabilis hujus plantae proprietas 
est, quod ex sylvis domum delata, et in aere libero suspensa, 
absque ullo pabulo vegetabili terreo vel aqueo, in multos 
annos duret, crescat, floreat, et germinet. Vix crederem, nisi 
diuturna experientia comprobassem." It was introduced to 
the Royal Gardens of Kew by Sir Joseph Banks from China, 
so long ago as 1800, and has been since sent from Dacca and 
Sylhet in the East Indies by Drs. Roxburgh and Wallich. 
It flowers during the summer months. 

Oescr. Stem branched, thick, rounded, leafy, rooting; 
roots thick, fleshy. Leaves subdistichous, ligulate, carinate, 
a nd sheathing below, obtuse, coriaceous. Spike or raceme 
axillary, drooping, many-flowered, dense, highly fragrant. 
Auricle terete, three to four inches long, bracteated. Flowers 
v, 'i'y delicate, cream -colour, fleshy, spotted and blotched with 
pTOple. Sepals and petals spreading, ovato-subrotiuid, upper 

sepal and petals smaller than the two lateral sepals. Label- 
lum somewhat infundibuliform, singularly curved, the lower 
portion ending in a blunt, curved spur; the limb very concave, 
three-lobed, with the segments incurved and connivent. 

Fig. 1. Lip : — magnified. 


W Fit 



Tab. 4140 


New- Caledonia Disemma. 

Nat. Ord. Passiflore^e.— Monadelphia Pentandria. 

Calyx 10-lobus; tubus brevis subtus sulcatus; faucis corona duplex: 
exterior filis distmctis ; interior filis in membranam integram dentatamve 
concretis. Caet. Passi/lora.— Species e Nova-Hollandia aut Nova-Cale- 
donia ortse. Be Cand. 

Disemma aurantia; foliis glabris basi ovatis late trilobatis, lobis obtusis 
inter medio longiore, lateralibus extus appendice subauctis, bracteis 
setiformibus apice glandulosis a flore parum remotis, petiolis apice 
biglandulosis, filis corona; exterioris lobis cal. internis subaequalibus. 
Be Cand. 

Disemma aurantia. Labill. Sert. Austr. Caled. t. 79. Be Cand. Prodr 
3. p. 332. 

Murucuja aurantia. Pers. Syn. 2. p. 222. 

Passiflora aurantia. Forst. Prodr. p. 326. 

The Genus Disemma (from J» r , double, and vip^x, a crown,) 
was established by Labillardiere in his Sertum Austro-Caledo- 
nicum, upon this very plant, a native of New-Caledonia, and 
is readily distinguished, on the one hand, from Passiflora by 
the presence of the membranous, truncated crown of Murii- 
<™ja, and, from the latter, by the outer filamentous crown of 
passiflora. The species are all of Australian origin, and 
m !! U( ^' besides the present, D. Herbertiana, D. coccinea, 
and D. admntifolia ; the latter from Norfolk Island. The 
Botanic Gardens of Kew, where our figure was taken in the 
greenhouse in July, 1844, owe the possession of this hand- 
some plant to T. Bidwill, Esq. It is easily cultivated in a 
Pot, with wire-trellice, and is remarkable, like D. adiantifolia, 
or the flowers being nearly white in bud and on first expand- 
ing, gradually assuming a yellow or tawny tint, and finally 
Becoming a brick red. The sepals have a singularly broad 
keel or deep wing at the back. 

Descr. A twining shrub, with the habit of our common 
Passiflora ccerulea, everywhere glabrous. Leaves alternate, 
petiolate, broad, deeply trifid ; the segments oblong-ovate, 
rather obtuse, middle segment the longest, at the base beneath, 
at the apex of the petiole are two rounded glands. Stipules 
none, or soon deciduous. Tendrils axillary, simple. Pedun- 
cles axillary, much shorter than the leaf, bracteated ; bracteas 
small, setaceous, deciduous, distant from the flower. Flowers 
large, handsome, at first almost white, gradually becoming 
orange-red, and finally brick-red. Sepals colored, oblong, 
acute, concave, with a singularly broad carina or wing at the 
back. Petals scarcely half their length, oblong-obtuse, spread- 
ing. Outer ray of the corona deep red, consisting of numer- 
ous subulate, erect, or slightly inclined filaments, dark at 
their tips, united at the base : inner one a conical, red, plicate 
membrane, open at the mouth, a little longer than the outer 
ray. Ovary oval, supported, as it were, on the united portion 
of the filaments, which thus form a cylindrical column, 
nearly thrice as long as the corona. Styles clavate, spreading. 
Stigmas capitate. Anthers linear, rather shorter than the free, 
spreading portion of the filaments, green. 

Tab. 4141 

Pale Yellow Cymbidium. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Gynandria Monandria. 
CYMBIDIUM. (Tide supra Tab. 3648.) 

Cymbidium ochroleucum; caulescens axillis pseudobulbiferum, foliis ligu- 
latis carinatis apice Oblique emarginatis, floribus solitariis axillaribus, 
sepalis petalisque aequaliter patentibus lineari-oblongis subspathulatis 
acutiusculis, labello cucullato trilobo disco barbato. Lindl. 

Cymbidium ochroleucum. Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 168. 

Camaridium ochroleucum. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 844. 

Ornithidium album. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 8306. 

This plant has a very singular mode of growth, producing 
its distichous flowers in a leafy spike quite distinct from the 
pseudo-bulbs, which themselves originate from the axils of 
leafy branches : and the plant has not yet had justice done to 
it in either of the figures above quoted, least of all in that of 
the Botanical Magazine ; whence I have thought it deserving 
of being again represented. The flowers of the leafy spike 
open in succession, but I have never seen more than two 
expanded at once. 

Descr. Stem compressed, much branched, and proliferous, 
bearing oblong, compressed, smooth pseudo-bulbs, having a 
long, ligulate leaf on each side at the base, and about three 
terminal leaves of the same shape. Flowers from the axils 
°f the leaves of a long, proliferous shoot, or branch, which 
bears small, distichous, ovato-oblong, acute leaves, one flower 
in each axil opening successively from below, and bracteated ; 
bracteas subulate, brown. Flowers white or cream-color, 
fragrant, rather large. Sepals and petals nearly uniform, 
oblongo-obovate, the latter rather narrower; all of them 
concave. Lip applied to the column, yellow, streaked trans- 
versely with red, oblong, three-lobed; siderlobes small, middle 
one obtuse ; the disk of the lip has a broad crest, formed of 

orange-colored, imbricated, soft spines; the spines passing 
towards the apex into toothed lamellae. Column semi-cylin- 
drical, curved, cream-colored, with a broad, red spot at the 
base. Anther-case conical, obtuse. Pollen-masses four, un- 
equal, attached to a broad gland by their base. 

• Fis ' e \u C ? lumn and Lip. 2. Column. 3. 4 Pollen-masses. 5. Inner 
view of the Lip '.—magnified. 

Tab. 4142 
PLEUROTHALLIS bicarinata. 

Double-keeled Pleurothallis. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide.e. — Gynandria Monandria. 
PLEUROTHALLIS. (Vide supra Tab. 3897.) 

Pleurothallis bicarinata; " folio oblongo coriaceo planiusculo leviter 
carinato basi subcordato petiolo acute canaliculato univaginato brevi- 
ore, sepalis linearibus squalibus lateralibus carinatis ad apicem fere 
connatis, sepalis lineari-obovatis minute serratis glabris, labello obovato 
camoso medio exarato denticulo inflexo utrinque prope basin." Lindl. 

Pleurothallis bicarinata. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 1839, Misc. p. 14. 
n. 11. 

South America, but especially the Western side of the Cor- 
dillera, and the mountains of Peru and Columbia, abound in 
species of the curious Genus Pleurothallis. The present, 
however, is a native of Brazil, and has thence been received 
by Mr. Loddiges ; and Mr. Gardner sent living plants of it 
from Rio to Woburn, which have through that source reached 
the Royal Gardens of Kew, where they produced their orange- 
colored flowers from the bosom of the solitary, elliptical leaf, 
in December, 1843. The species is well named by Dr. Lind- 
ley from the sharp keel on each of the lateral sepals. 

Descr. Plants aggregated, throwing out fibrous roots from 
the base. Stems two to four or five inches long, jointed, 
angled, slightly tuberous at the base, clothed at the joints with 
sheathing scales, the lowest short, rich chocolate, broad, spot- 
ted, approximate, the upper ones more distant, elongated, pale 
yellow, with numerous dark-red spots. Each stem, or petiole 
as Dr. Lindley considers it, is' terminated by a coriaceous, 
elliptical leaf, blunt at the apex, a little cordate at the base, 
faintly striated on the surface. From the base of this leaf, and, 
as it were, from a hollow or depression, the peduncle arises, 
bracteated and bearing a spike of orange-red flowers, spirally 
arranged, nearly as long as the leaf. Sepals oblong, acute, 
gaping, the upper sepal rather the smallest, free, the two 

lateral ones conjoined almost to the apex, beneath the label- 
lum, apiculate below the point, sharply carinated at the back. 
Petals small, linear, shorter than the labellum, appressed to 
the column. Labellum not half so large as the sepal, obovate, 
concave, obtuse, with an obscure tooth on each side at the 
base. Column semicylindrical, spotted with red at the base. 

Fig. 1 . Flower from which the Sepals are removed. 2. Front view of an 
entire Flower. 3. Back view of ditto -.—magnified. 

Tab. 4143 
CRYPTADENIA uniflora. 

Solitary -flowered Cryptadenia. 

Nat. Ord. Thymele^e.— Octandria Monogynia. 

CRYPTADENIA. Meisn.— Flores perfecti. Perigonium coloratum, 
infundibuliforme, tubo angusto, sursum ampliato, limbo 4-partito, fauce 
nuda. Glandulee 8, medio perigonii tubo simplici serie adnata;, stammibus 
alternae. Stamina 8, alterna perigonii laciniis opposita, exserta, alterna, 
infra sinus inclusa, filamento pertubum adnato decurrente barbato. Germen 
unilocular ; gemmula unica, pendula, anatropa. Sty lus lateralis ; stig- 

male capitate Fructus perigonii basi persistente hirsutis inclusus. 

—Fruticuli Capenses, ericoidei, dichotome ramosi. Folia opposita, decus- 
sata v. suprema quaternatim verticillata, sessilia, linearia y. subacerosa, 
utrinque glabra. Flores terminates, solitarii v. gemini mqjuscuh, v. axil- 
lares, solitarii parvi, extus sericeo-pubescentes, intus glabri, violacei, hla- 
cini v. rosei. Endl. 

Cryptadenia uniflora; foliis patulis linearibus acutis v. mucronatis sub- 
pungentibus compressis dorso acutis (rarius obtusis v. deplanatis) 
margine nudis summis haud latioribus, floribus terminahbus solitarus 
majusculis tubo bracteis superante, limbi lobis oblongis acutiuscuhs, 
tubum sequantibus v. sublongioribus. Meisn. 

Cryptadenia uniflora. Meisn. in Linncea, v. 14. p. 406. 

Passerina uniflora. Linn. Sp. PI p. 560. Burm. Apr. t 48. / 1. 
Lam. III. t. 291./. 1. PL Eckl in Un. Itin. n. 362. Zeyl. PI. Cap. 
Exsicc. Suppl. n. 239. 

Among the handsomest of the Linnaean Genus Passerina 
were three species, the present, P. grandiflora, and P. ciliata, 
which, in habit, as well as in essential character, differed con- 
siderably from the others. These Professor Meisner has wisely 
separated from Passerina, and named Cryptadenia, from the 
presence of eight glands concealed within the tube of the 
floral envelope, and alternating with the eight stamens. All 
are natives of the Cape. The present species, though s ^ cl ' 
ently known in Herbaria, is probably rare in gardens, though 
well deserving of a place on account of the beauty ol its 
copious blossoms, and the long time the plant continues in 
Mow. it h as> however, been cultivated at Kew since 1755*. 
It flowers there in the early summer months, m an airy part 
of the greenhouse. 

Descr. A small heath-like shrub, with twiggy branches, 
somewhat fastigiate at the apices. Leaves patent, or in the 
younger branches suberect, linear, acute, opposite, glabrous, 
plane above, or slightly channelled, keeled at the back. 
Flowers solitary, rather large, handsome, lilac, terminal. 
Perianth hypocrateriform, silky on the outside; the tube sunk 
in the floral leaves, nearly cylindrical, striated upwards, 
downy within. Limb of four spreading, ovate, acute, seg- 
ments. Stamens eight, four placed at the mouth of the tube, 
and a little exserted, the other four a little lower down in the 
tube, and alternating with them : below these and near the 
middle of the tube, are eight small, oblong, yellow, sessile 
glands, alternating with the eight stamens. Ovary oblong. 
Style elongated, inserted below the apex, thickening upwards, 
and terminating in a capitate, downy stigma. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. The same laid open, to show the Stamens and 
Glands. 3. Pistil : — magnified. 

Tab. 4144 

ACHIMENES hirsuta. 
Hairy Ackimenes. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriace^e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 
ACHIMENES. ( Vide supra Tab. 4126.) 

Achimenes hirsuta; caulibus hirsutis paniculatis bulbilliferis, foliis cor- 
datis serratis hirsutis, pedunculis solitariis foliis sequalibus, corollse 
limbo piano laciniis rotundatis serrulatis. Lindl. 

Achimenes hirsuta. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 1843. Misc. n. 103. Tab. 55. 

This is not so gay in its flowers as the Achimenes picta 
(Tab. 4126), nor are the leaves by any means so beautiful; 
but there is a richness of colour in the large corollas, and a 
peculiar bloom, very difficult to be imitated by art, which 
render it worthy a place in every stove. Its nearest affin- 
ity, however, is, as Dr. Lindley, its first describer, observes, 
with A.pedunculata (Tab. 4077), " but the flowers are larger, 
the border is much more flat, and the colour is a deep, rich 
rose, instead of the clear orange of A. pedunculata." Our 
specimen has even deeper colored blossoms (partaking of a pur- 
plish blush, or bloom) than that figured in the Bot. Register: 
still, it must be acknowledged that the two species have a very 
close affinity. It is, like the A. pedunculata, a native of 
Guatemala, and was " raised from among a mass of Guatemala 
Orchidaceae bought at one of Mr. Skinner's sales." It loves 
neat, and flourishes in the stoves with the same treatment as 
other species of this lovely Genus. 

Descr. Stem herbaceous, erect, branched, two to three 
reet high, terete, hairy, repeatedly and trichotomously divided, 
with opposite, shortly petiolate, ovato- cordate, acuminate, 
serrated, hairy leaves at the ramifications. Upper branches, 
J ut especially the peduncles, bearing in the axils of small 
wacteas, clusters of little bulbilli, by which the species may be 
•' 'undaiitly increased, as well as by the roots. The peduncles 
are elongated, much longer than the leaves, terminal and 

vol. i. 

axillary, undivided and single-flowered, or forked and two- 
flowered. Flowers large, handsome, drooping, deep-rose red. 
Calyx having the turbinate hairy tube adnate with the ovary'; 
limb of five spreading, lanceolate segments. Corolla with 
the tube mfundibuliform, the limb very oblique, spreading, 
cut into five rotundate segments, of which the two upper are 
the smallest and more or less reflexed, all of them crenate; the 
mouth yellow, with red dotted lines. Stamens included. 
btyle having an annular disk at the base, thickened, oblique. 
otigma two-lipped. 

Fig. 1. Pistil: — magnified. 


Tab. 4145 
ANGILECUM distichum. 

Two-rowed Angrcecum. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Gynandria Monandria. 

ANGRCECUM. Pet. Th. Perianthium patens. Sepala et petala sub- 
sequalia, libera. Labellum sessile, cum basi columnse continuum, carnosura, 
indivisum, petalis multo latius; calcare recto cornuto, saepius subcylindraceo, 
perianthio multo longiore, raro obconico. Columna nana subteres, raro 
elongata semiteres. Anthera 2-locularis, truncata. Pollinia 2, biparti- 
bilia, caudicula brevi angusta, glandula, triangulari. — Epiphytae caulescentes. 
Folia coriacea, ligulata, apice obliqua. Flores solitarh v. racemosi, albi, 
nunc citrini, v. herbacei. Lindl. 

Angrcecum distichum; caule imbricato, foliis distichis compressis recurvis 
obtusis supra canaliculars, floribus solitariis axillaribus, pedunculis 
foliis subaequalibus, sepalis ovatis petalisque angustioribus secundis 
obtusis, labello postico oblongo concavo apice tridentato calcari tereti 
horizontali pedunculo breviore. Lindl. 

Angrcecum distichum. Lindl. Bot. Peg. t 1781. 

The Genus Angrcecum is peculiar to the Old World, if we 
except the A.filiforme, a native of Hispaniola, but which will 
probably prove to belong to a different Genus. It was founded 
by Du Petit Thouars, and the name derived from a barbarous 
word " Angwrek" of the Malays. Minute as are the flowers 
of the present species, they are identical in structure with those 
of the fine A. eburneum of Thouars. We are indebted to Mr. 
Loddiges, who received the plant from Sierra Leone, for the 
possession of the present species in the Royal Botanic Gardens 
of Kew, where it flowered in October, 1843. 

Descr. Stems three to five inches long, tufted, simple or 
branched, clothed throughout their whole length with fleshy, 
oblong-falcate, obtuse, distichous leaves, having a groove at 
the thickened upper edge, which receives the sharp edge of the 
one above it. From the axils of these leaves arise the small, 
white, inconspicuous flowers. Each has a bractea at its base. 
Sepals and petals spreading, but secund, the former oblong- 

ovate, the latter rather smaller, linear-oblong, all of them 
1° kT'.u t P ° Vat6 ' cuculla te, acuminate, obscurely three- 
lobed, the base running out into a long, straight spur, as long 
as the straight, furrowed germen. Column very short, with a 

ZTZC7^i ntker - CaSe **«*-"■ Pousses 


Pollen-masses : magnified. 

Tab. 4146 


Slender Aotus. 

Nat. Ord. Leguminosje. — Decandbia Monogynia. 

AOTUS. Sm. — Char. Gen. Calyx 5-fidus bilabiatus basi ebracteo- 
latus. Pet. starainaque decidua. Ovarium dispermum. Stylus filiformis. 
Legumen bivalve. Seminis strophiola nulla. — Frutices Australasici. Folia 
simplicia, linear i-subulata, margine revoluta, alterna, subopposita aut ter- 
natim verticillata. Flores axillares flavi. De Cand. 

Aotus * gracillima; ramis gracilibus lsevibus glabris apice minute pube- 
rulis, foliis sparsis v. suboppositis erectis patulisve anguste linearibus 
obtusis v. mucronulo exiguo innocuo recurvo apiculatis la^vibus glabris 
margine revolutis supra convexis v. obsolete 1-sulcis, axillis 1 — 3-floris, 
pedicellis brevissimis calycibusque adpresse pilosis, calycis labio supe- 
riore truncato laevissime emarginato. Meisn. 

Aotus gracillima. Meisn. in PL Preiss. p. 59. 

A very elegant Swan River species of Aotus, introduced 
to the Royal Gardens of Kew by Mr. James Drummond. 
We have also received it from Baron Hugel, imported from 
the same country, to which it seems peculiar. Mr. Preiss 
and Mr. Drummond have both sent dried specimens. Besides 
its glabrous branches and foliage, it may at once be known 
from the old A. villosa (v. Bot. Mag. t. 949) by the very 
copious flowers, so abundant on the branches as to conceal 
the leaves of a great portion of the branches : thus its beauty 
will recommend it to every greenhouse. Only two species of 
the Genus were known to Professor De Candolle, and both 
natives of Eastern Australia; now, six others are described 
in the " Plantae Preissianae," as inhabitants of the Swan River 

Descr. A rather tall - growing, slender shrub, with 
twiggy branches, often fasciculate at the apex of the mam 

* So named by Sir James Smith, from the absence of the two little 
bracteas, or ear-like appendages to the base of the calyx, possessed by 
some allied Genera. 

branches, slightly- pubescent. Leaves scattered, slender, nar- 
row-linear, erecto-appressed, acute, or with a soft mucro, 
channelled above, the margin revolute, slightly and minutely 
silky beneath between the revolute margins; petiole very 
short, scarcely any. Flowers one to three in the axils of the 
leaves, longer than they, and so copious as to form a dense, 
cylindrical mass of many inches in length, of a lively yellow 
color, spotted with red. Peduncle very short. Calyx sub- 
cylmdncal, deeply two-lipped, slightly silky; upper lip 
obliquely truncated, bifid; lower lip three-dentate: teeth 
rather small. Vexillum subrotund, unguiculate ; just above 
the claw is an oblong spot, surrounded by a red line. Alee 
obtuse, yellow. Carina red. Stamens ten ; anthers oblong. 
Cyan, ovate, very silky. Style a little deflexed, then curved 
up. Stigma obtuse. 

Fig. 1. Flower 2 Carina. 3. One of the Ate. 4. Carina. 5. Calyx, 
Stamens and Pistil 6. Pzstil. 7. Upper, and 8, under side of a Leaf ; all 
more or less magnified. 



Tab. 4147 
ruellia lilacina. 

Lilac-flowered JRuellia. 

Nat. Ord. Acanthace*:.— Didynamia Angiospermia. 
RUELLIA. (Vide supra Tab. 3718.) 

Ruellia hlacina; glaberrima fruticosa, foliis ovatis brevissime petiolatis 
obtuse subacurainatis subcoriaceis integerrimis, floribus axillaribus ses- 
sihbus subbinis, calycis tubo corollino triplo brevioris laciniis subulatis 
paululum insequalibus, corollae venosse tubo elongato gracili infundibu- 
liformi curvato, lirabi lobis patentibus rotundatis subsequalibus, semin- 
ibus orbiculatis marginatis ciliatis. 

The stove of the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew is indebted 
for this handsome Ruelliaceous plant to Mr. Glendinning of 
the Chiswick Nursery : but of its native country, I regret I 
can learn nothing. Its fine dark and glossy foliage, with 
large, full lilac-colored flowers, which are produced from time 
to time during the greater part of the summer months, renders 
it well worthy of a place in the hothouse. 

Descr. A low shrub, having attained with us a height of 
from two to three feet, branched, the young branches herba- 
ceous, glabrous, as is every part of the plant, and smooth. 
-Leaves opposite, ovate, bluntly acuminate, penninerved, quite 
entire at the margin, dark green, somewhat glossy, paler 
beneath. Flowers axillary, generally two from each axil, 
sessile. Calyx less than two-thirds the length of the tube of 
the corolla, of five deep, rather unequal, subulate, glabrous, 
erect segments. Corolla with a very long, curved, slender, 
infundibuliform tube, veiny and lilac above, pale and almost 
white towards the base ; limb spreading, of five rounded, very 
obtuse, and nearly equal lobes, veined, and of a purple-lilac 
color. Fruit an oblong, two-celled capsule, a little longer 
Jhan the persistent segments of the calyx, slightly acuminated 
but obtuse, containing about four orbicular, compressed, mar- 

gined and ciliated seeds in each cell; and each seed subtended 
by a subulate bracket. 

Fig. 1. Capsule and persistent Calyx. 2. Vertical section of the imma- 
ture Capsule, showing the Seeds and Brackets. 3. Single Seed and 
bracket : — magnified. 

Tab. 4148 


Tivo-warted Oncidium. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^.— Gynandria Monandria. 
ONCIDIUM. (Vide supra Tab. 4130.) 

Oncidium bicallosum; bracteis ovatis membranaceis obtusis, labelli lobis 
laterahbus abbreviatis intermedio maximo transverso emarginato obcor- 
dato, crista bicallosa, tuberculis distantibus uno ante alter um posito 
rugosis subtrilobis, columns; auriculis linearibus falcatim recurvis. 

Oncidium bicallosum. Lindl. in Benth. PL Hartw. p. 94. Bot Req 
1843. t. 12. '• 9 

An inhabitant of Guatemala, whence it was introduced to 
our stoves by Mr. Skinner, who sent it to Woburn Abbey, 
as well as to Mr. Bateman : and it is now, with the Woburn 
Orchideous collection, in the gardens of Kew, where we do 
not find it difficult to flower. Our drawing was made in 
October, 1843, and the plant is now again in blossom at the 
time of drawing up this description in January, 1845. Dr. 
Lmdley alludes to its close affinity with Oncidium Cavendishi- 
anum," so much so as to seem a mere variety of it ; but it is 
in reality quite distinct." My own investigation would rather 
lead me to consider the two as forms of one and the same 
kind, and that the species is liable to considerable variation ; 
the more especially as our O. pachyphyllum, Bot. Mag. 
t. 3807, is considered by Dr. Lindley a state of O. Cavendishi- 
anum. To me, our present plant seems to correspond better 
with Mr. Bateman's original figure of O. Cavendishianum, 
than our O. pachyphyllum does. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs none. Foliage, as in our O. pachy- 
phyllum, large, singularly thick and carinate, subcymbiform. 
"eduncle arising from a scale at the base, and therefore radi- 
cal* very long, bearing a many-flowered panicle, which varies 
much in size and ramification. Flowers large, handsome, 
yellow, slightly tinged with green on the sepals and petals: 

these are all spreading and obovato-spathulate, but not 
equal ; the upper sepal is broadly spathulate, the lateral ones 
narrow ; the petals rather larger than these, all more or less 
undulated, especially at the margin. Lip large, three-lobed ; 
lateral lobes small, obovate ; intermediate one very large, two- 
lobed : at the base is a raised crest, divided into two portions ; 
the upper one with two elevated points or glands, the lower 
one presenting five smaller points. Column short, with a 
decurved tooth or small wing on each side. Anther-case 

Fig. 1. Column and Lip. 2. Column and base of the Lip, with the 
lateral Lobes : — magnified. 


Tab. 4149 

lycium fuchsioides. 
Fuchsia-flowered Lycium. 

Nat. Ord. SoLANEiE. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

LYCIUM. L. — Char. Gen. Calyx urceolatus, aequaliter quinqueden- 
tatus v. irregulariter tri- quinquefidus. Corolla hypogyna, infundibuliformis 
v. tubulosa, limbo quinque- decemfido v. dentato, interdum plicato. Stamina 
5, medio v. imo corolla? tubo inserta, inclusa v. exserta ; antherce longitudi- 
naliter dehiscentes. Ovarium biloculare, placentis dissepimento adnatis, 
multiovulatis. Stylus simplex; stigma depresso-capitatum v. obsolete bilo- 
bum. Bacca calyce suffulta bilocularis. Semina plurima, reniformia. 
Embryo intra albumen carnosum periphericus, hemicyclicus. — Arbuscuke 
v. frutices, in regione Mediterranea et in America tropica transandina 
crescentes, plurimi quo ad seminis structuram nondum explorati, etfortas- 
sis olim e genere expellendi; foliis alternis, integerrimis, interdum fascicu- 
latis; pedunculis extra axillaribus aut terminalibus, solitariis, geminis v. 
umbellatis, rarius corymbosis; corollis albidis,Jlavescentibus, roseis, pur- 
pureis v. coccineis. Endl. 

^QiVM.*/uchsioides ; fruticosum inerrae glabrum, foliis oblongo-obovatis 
obtusis in petiolum brevem attenuatis, pedicellis aggregatis axillaribus 
terminalibusque unifloris, floribus nutantibus, calycibus subcampanula- 
tis'5-dentatis bilobis seu hinc fissis, corolla tubulosa calyce ter longiore, 
limbo patente quinquedentato dentibus minoribus interjectis, stamini- 
bus inclusis, bacca ovato-acuminata. 

Lycium fuchsioides. H. B. K. PI. JEquin. 1. p. 147. t. 42. Gen. et Sp. 
Am. 3. jo. 52. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 701. Roem. et Sch. Syst. 
Veget. 4. p. 696. Walp. Repert. 3. p. 110. 

Introduced to the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew, and 
raised from seeds sent by Dr. Jameson, from Azoques, in 
the Quitinian Andes, where it is used by the natives for 
fences. Dried specimens from the same locality are now 
before us, bearing both flower and fruit at the same time : the 
fruit occupying the lower part of a branch ; perfect flowers 
the upper. From these specimens, the fruit has been added. 
The figure in the " Plantes ^Equinoctiales" from nearly the 

* So called from the original species being a native of Lycia, in Asia Minor. 

same country (" locis subfrigidis Regni Quitensis, prope Delay, 
Cumbe et Cuenca, alt. 1,400 hexap."), is a good representation 
of the plant ; but the intermediate lesser teeth of the limb of 
the corolla are omitted, which indeed are not easily seen in 
the dried specimens ; and the fruit is given as a small globose 
berry. In the Nov. Gen. Amer., however, the berry of the 
same plant, is, on the authority of Humboldt, described as 
" ovate ;" so that I cannot doubt of our plant being identical 
with it. It flowered during a good part of the summer, and, 
which may be inferred from our figure, made a very handsome 

Descr. A shrub, as cultivated by us, about five feet high, 
everywhere glabrous, or nearly so, unarmed. Leaves often 
fascicled, obovate, inclining to oval or oblong, very obtuse, 
entire, tapering at the base into a short footstalk. Peduncles 
aggregated, axillary, or supra-axillary, or terminal, shorter 
then the leaves, single-flowered. Floivers drooping, large, 
handsome. Calyx subcampanulate, five-toothed, and bursting, 
as it were, with a fissure on one side, or into two unequal 
lobes. Corolla thrice as long as the calyx, orange-scarlet; 
tube elongated, nearly straight; limb moderately spreading, 
five-toothed or angled, with a smaller intermediate tooth. 
Stamens inserted near the base of the corolla. Filaments 
included, downy at the base. Germen pyramidal, obscurely 
five-lobed : Style as long as the corolla : Stigma capitate. 
Berry (on native specimens) ovate, acuminate, in part sur- 
rounded by the cleft calyx. 

Fig. 1. Stamens. 2. Pistil : magnified. 3. Capsule : nat. size. 

Tab. 4150 
lobelia thapsoidea. 

Mullein-like Lobelia. 

Nat. Ord. LobeliacejE. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. LOBELIA. L.— Calyx 5-lobus ; tubo obconico, ovoideo vel 
hemisphserico. Corolla superne longitudinaliter fissa, bilabiata ; tubo cylin- 
draceo vel infundibuliformi recto ; labio superiore saepius minore et erecto, 
inferiore saepius patente latiore 3-fido v. rarius 3-dentato. Antherce 2 
inferiores vel rarius orones apice barbatae. Ovarium inferum v. semi-supe- 
rum, imo (in speciebus simillimis) subliberum. — Herbae v. rarius suffrutices, 
iohis alternis, floribus scepius racemoso-spicatis, pedicellis axillaribus, 
corolla cmrulea, alba, violacea, rubra vel ex rubro-aurea. D C. 

Lobelia tkapsoidea; caule stricto simplicissirao pilosiusculo, foliis ses- 
silibus superne confertis lanceolatis basi attenuatis subdenticulatis 
minuteque ciliatis pilosiusculis, racemo terminali pyramidali densifloro, 
bracteis approximatis lanceolato-acuminatis pilosis integris pedicello 
longioribus, calyce piloso, tubo hemisphserico, lobis acuminatis basi 
latis tubo corolla? dimidio brevioribus, lobis corollae pilosae omnibus 
angustis labio inf. 3-fido, antheris 2 infer, baccatis. D C. 

Lobelia thapsoidea. Schott in Pohl, Bras. 2. p. 102. t. 167. De Cand. 
Prodr. 7. p. 380. Cham, in Linncea, v. 8. p. 209. 

Rapuntium thapsoideum. Presl, Prodr. Lob. p. 24. 

Geniostoma Brasiliense. Spreng. Syst. Veget. I. p. 588? (according to 

Much as the Genus Lobelia, L., has been reduced in 
amount of species by the numerous Genera that have been of 
late separated from it, especially Siphocampylos and Tupa, 
there are yet enumerated, in De Candolle's Prodromus, one 
hundred and seventy-three species, and many new ones exist 
m our own Herbarium and those of other Botanists. Among 
the most remarkable of the Genus for stateliness and show- 
iness are the L. uranacoma, Cham., L. exaltata, Pohl, L. 
Organensis, Gardn., and the subject of the present plate, 
which so far excels the rest, as to have obtained from 
De Candolle the epithet of " Lobeliarum Princeps." Pohl 
gives the height as six feet. Mr. Gardner, to whom our 
stoves owe the possession of this fine plant, gathered speci- 

VOL. I. E 

mens measuring eight feet. Of the size and beauty of its 
raceme and the number of the flowers, our readers can form 
some idea from the accompanying figure, which was made from 
a noble specimen, sent from the College Botanic Garden by 
our often-mentioned friend Mr. Mackay. The same plant is 
possessed by the Botanic Gardens of Glasgow and Kew. 
Pohl has represented the flowers blue, the artist being de- 
ceived no doubt from the appearance of the dried specimens. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem erect, herbaceous, six to 
eight feet high, leafy, simple, with a habit and foliage some- 
what resembling those of our great Mullein, Verbascum 
Thapsus (whence the specific name), stout, obtusely angled 
and furrowed, within filled with a soft, white pith. Leaves 
broadly-lanceolate, attenuated below, but sessile, the inferior 
ones a foot or a foot and a half long, all soft and finely downy, 
dentato-cihate, closely and regularly penninerved. Raceme 
very large, pyramidal, covered with rather large, densely 
imbricated flowers, so dense as to appear spicate. Bracteas 
linear-lanceolate, reflexed. Pedicels also reflexed when in 
flower, especially the lower ones. Corolla rose-purple, hairy, 
or rather silky when seen under the microscope. Column of 
stamens nearly as long as the corolla. Anthers lead-color, 
the two lower ones bearded. The seeds, which are unknown 
to authors, are compressed (lenticular), margined, but not 
broadly winged like those of Z. uranocoma, Cham. 

Fig. 1. Column of Stamens, including the Style : magnified. 

Tab. 4151 

govenia utriculata. 

Bladdery Govenia. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e.— Gynandria Monandria. 
GOVENIA. Lindl. (Vide supra Tab. 3660.) 

Govenia utriculata; pseudo-bulbo ovato vagina ampla merabranacea 

striata pellucida oblongo-attenuata incluso, foliis binis lato-oblongis 

acuminatis plicatis basi attenuatis, racemo elongato multifloro, sepalis 

petalisque curvatis acuminatis, labello oblongo-ovato acuto. 

Govenia utriculata. Lindl. (v. Bot. Reg. 1839. Misc. sub. n. 66.J 

Cymbidium utriculatum. Sw. in Act. Nov. Tips. 6. p. 75. Fl Ind Occ 

™?' U7 7- Willd - S P- PL v - 4 - P- 107 - Spreng. Syst. Veqet. 3. p 
724. Lmdl.Gen.etSp.OTchidp.ll0. * P 

Limodorum utriculatum. Sw. Prodr. p. 119. Jacq. Fragm. Bot. 29. t. 
32. f. 4. 

For a long time, this singular plant, remarkable for the 
large, transparent, bladdery sheath surrounding its scape 
and the lower part of the leaves, was only known from 
the description of Swartz, who gathered it in Jamaica and 
Hispaniola. A specimen, in a very imperfect state, sent to 
me by Dr. Macfadyen, from the former of the two islands 
just mentioned, was all that Dr. Lindley had seen ; and from 
} t he made some remarks in his valuable Genera et Species 
Orchidearum. An allied plant communicated from Mexico 
(Govenia lagenophora, Lindl J, satisfied him, however, that our 
Jamaica " Cymbidium" was a congener, and he then, in the 
volume of the Botanical Register Miscellany above quoted, 
named it Govenia utriculata. The attention of our Collector, 
Mr. Purdie, was especially directed to the re-discovery of this 
plant in Jamaica, and we had soon the pleasure to receive 
fine dried as well as living specimens at Kew. The latter, 
planted in earth in a pot, flourished, and blossomed beautifully 
m September, 1844. The bladdery sheath seems destined to 
contain water for the nutriment of the plant. 

Descr. Plant terrestrial. Root of large, coarse, tortuose, 
rather woolly fibres. From the summit of this, rises ;i singular, 

large, oblong or oblong-ovate, inflated, membranaceous 
sheath, which surrounds the lower part of the scape and base 
of the leaves. Leaves two, a foot and more long, broadly 
oblong, acuminate, closely striated and plaited, tapering at 
the base. Scape radical, a foot or a foot and a-half long, 
erect, terete, bracteated ; bractew lanceolato-subulate, the 
lower ones distant, sheathing. Raceme, or rather spike, six to 
eight inches long, with many cream-colored blossoms. Sepals 
and petals scarcely at all spreading, lanceolate, acuminate, 
decurved, the petals shorter than the sepals. Lip oblong- 
ovate, acute, decurved, entire, with three red spots at the 
apex. Column semicylindrical, white, with transverse red- 
dish streaks in front. Anther-case acuminated. Pollen- 
masses four, with a gland and short caudicle. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. The same, with the lateral Sepals removed. 

8. Column and Lip. 4. Apex of the Column, with the Anther-case. 

5. Back view of ditto, with the Anther-case removed. 6. Front view of 
ditto, ditto : — magnified. 

Tab. 4152 
GESNERIA Schiedeana. 

Schiede's Gesneria. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriace^e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

GESNERIA. L. (Vide supra Tab. 3995J De Cand. Prodr. 
v. 7. p. 526. 

Gesneria Schiedeana; tota pubescenti-tomentosa, caule erecto suffruti- 
coso, foliis terno- quaternove-verticillatis breviter petiolatis oblongo- 
lanceolatis rugosis crenatis acutiusculis subtus tomentosis, pedunculis 
aggregatis axillaribus 1 — 3-floris folio multo brevioribus, calyce turbi- 
nato 5-lobo, corolla infundibuliformi-campanulata subtus ventricosa 
tota velutino-villosissima, limbi brevis patentis lobis 5 subaequalibus, 
ovario hirsutissimo basi nectariis 5, stylo brevi hirsute 

Gesneria spicata, p. Schiedeana. De Cand. Prodr. v. l.p. 531. 

This is another lovely addition to the many beautiful 
Gesnerias now cultivated in our stoves. It was sent from 
Woburn Abbey by Mr. Forbes, who received the roots from 
Mexico. It quite agrees with the G. spicata, |3., of De 
Candolle (also from Mexico), and seems different, as that 
author suspected, from the original New Grenada G. spicata 
of Humboldt, in which the inflorescence is more truly 
spicate, the flowers smaller, and the corollas much less hairy. 
Out species is remarkable for its richly-colored blossoms, 
clothed with long, shaggy hairs ; their color, a bright-golden 
scarlet; the limb variegated with red and yellow, the red 
arranged in broken lines. It flowered at Woburn, in Novem- 
ber, 1844. 

Descr. An erect-growing plant, apparently little branched, 
with a rounded, tomentose stem, tinged with red. Leaves 
generally in whorls of three, petiolate, spreading, or a little 
reflexed, oblong, petiolate, somewhat acuminate, crenatc, 
rather thick, rugose, soft and downy above, more reticu- 
lated, paler and tomentose beneath: the lower leaves much 
larger and broader. Flowers copious from the axils. Pedun- 
cles aggregated, much shorter than the leaves, one or three- 

flowered, tomentose. Calyx short, turbinate, tomentose, with 
five moderately spreading segments. Corolla between cam- 
panulate and inmndibuliform, ventricose below, of a rich 
scarlet color, and clothed with long, shaggy, scarlet hairs, the 
limb of five, spreading, rounded, nearly equal lobes, yellow, 
streaked with dotted lines' of red. Stamens included. Ovary 
clothed with copious, long, silky hairs; and, at the base, sur- 
rounded by five obtuse, large, yellow glands. Style short 
and thick, hairy. Stigma two-lipped. 

Fig. 1. Pistil and Hypogynous Glands: — magnified. 

/ UiH-5 

Tab. 4153 
DENDROBIUM moniliforme. 

Necklace-stemmed Dendrobium. 

Nat. Ord. OrchidEjE. — Gynandria Monandria. 

DENDROBIUM. Sw. (Vide supra Tab. 4013.) Lindl. Gen. et Sp. 

Orchid, p. 74. 

Dendrobium moniliforme; caulibus erectis clavatis ramosis foliosis inter- 
nodiis demum tumidis, foliis distichis oblongis obtusis oblique emargi- 
natis, floribus ex articulis supremis caulium geminatis folio longioribus, 
sepalis oblongis acutis petalisque ovatis striatis, labello ovato reflexo 
obscure trilobo basi attenuato margins serrulato, disco elevato pubes- 

Dendrobium moniliforme. Sw. Act. Holm. 1800, p. 245. Willd. Sp. PI. 
p. 136. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. p. 738. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1. 1314. 
Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 83. 

Limodorum moniliforme. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1352. 

Fu Ran. Keempf. Amcen. Acad. t. 865. 

A native, it is said, of China and Japan, and first introduced 
to Europe through the instrumentality of the Horticultural 
Society. The plant from which our figure was taken was 
sent by Dr. Wallich to the Royal Gardens of Kew. It pro- 
duced its truly handsome blossoms in November, 1844, and 
again in February, 1845, each time the flowers continuing 
long in perfection. It is indeed one of the most lovely of our 
Epiphytes. The specific name is not at first very apparent ; 
but is considered to be derived from the tumid internodes of 
the stem in age, giving the appearance of a necklace, some 
traces of which may be observed in our figure. 

Descr. Stem erect, scarcely a foot high, branched and 
rooting ; when young terete and striated ; when old strongly 
articulated, losing the leaves, and then deeply furrowed, and 
swollen at the internodes, the articulations partly sheathed by 
the withered bases of the leaves. Flowers in pairs from the 
articulations, or from the axils of the leaves, but the flowering 
stems are frequently destitute of leaves. Germen very long, 

slender, colored, pedunculiform. Perianth large, handsome, 
varied with purple and white. Sepals and petals spreading, 
white, the upper half purple-blush : the former oblong acute ; 
the latter ovate, all of them striated. Lip small, in proportion 
to the rest of the flower, white tipped with deep purple, and 
having two purple spots on the disk. Column short, very 
decurrent, the lip articulated at the end of the prolonged 

Fig. 1. Column, and Lip forced back : — magnified. 

Tab. 4154 
CALCEOLARIA floribunda. 

Copious-flowering Slipper-wort. 

Nat. Ord. Scrophularin^;. — Diandria Monogynia. 
CALCEOLARIA. L. (Vide supra Tab. 3255.) Endlich.Gen. p. 671. 

Calceolaria floribunda; suffruticosa, ramis pedicellisque ferrugineo- 
pubescenti-glandulosis, foliis oppositis oblongo-lanceolatis sessilibus 
dentato-serratis basi latis subcordatis subamplexicaulibus gradatim 
acuminatis hirtellis subtus pallidioribus magisque hirsutis, corymbis 
terminalibus multifloris, calycibus pubescenti-glandulosis, corollis sub- 
globosis pallide flavis pubescentibus, labiis arete clausis, labio supe- 
riore triple- minore compresso. 

Calceolaria floribunda. H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. Am. v. 2. p. 385. 
Roem. et Sch. Syst. Veg. v. 1. Mant. p. 160. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 
v.l.p. 46. Walpers, Repert. Bot. v. 3. p. 162. 

Our gardens abound in Calceolarice from Chili and extra- 
tropical South America ; but very few are known alive in this 
country from the tropical regions of the New World. The 
present handsome species is from the environs of Quito, where 
it was gathered by Lobb, Mr. Veitch's South American col- 
lector, and sent to him in 1843. It flowered in Mr. Veitch's 
establishment at Exeter in September, 1844, whence the spe- 
cimen here figured was communicated. Although from within 
the tropics, and almost under the Line, yet, the city itself of 
Quito being at an elevation of 11,000 feet above the level of 
the sea, this will probably prove a suitable plant for the 
greenhouse, and perhaps may flourish in the open air in the 
summer months, where it cannot fail to be highly ornamental; 
and we should be thankful if it do not share the fate of the 
Chilian species, which are so hybridized, that the original 
native kinds are wholly lost to our gardens, and are to be 
found only in the Herbarium. 

Uescr. A suffruticose plant, with erect stems, and oppo- 
site, terete branches, which are clothed with short, glandular 
pubescence. Leaves opposite, three to four, or, the lower 

ones, five inches long, oblong-lanceolate, sessile, submembra- 
naceous, dentato - serrate, reticulato- venose, the base broad, 
subcordate and subamplexicaul, thence tapering gradually to 
a point, or widening only a little above the base ; the upper 
surface is slightly hairy, the under more so and paler. Co- 
rymbs ample, terminal, many-flowered ; the peduncles and 
pedicels and calyx clothed with short, rusty-colored, glandular 
hairs. Calyx small, four-lobed, the lobes spreading. Corolla 
pale, but rather full yellow, subglobose, but flattened, as it 
were, above and below, slightly pubescent; the lips firmly 
closed ; the upper one-third the size of the lower, and much 
compressed 4 Stamens and pistil as in the allied species. 

Tab. 4155 

WHITFIELDIA lateritia. 

Brick-colored Whitfieldia. 

Nat. Ord. Acantha.ce.e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

WHITFIELDIA, nob. — Calyx amplus, coloratus, subinfundibuliformis, 
basi bibracteatus, profunde 4 — 5-fidus, laciniis lanceolatis, acutis, erectis, 
concavis, linearis ; bracteis ssepissime coloratis majusculis oppositis obova- 
tis, acutis, trinerviis, appressis. Corolla infundibuliformi - campanulata, 
calyce duplo longior, tubo striis 15 elevatis, limbo bilabiato patente, labio 
superiore minore bifido, inferiore trifido segmentis omnibus ovatis, acutis. 
Stamina 4, didynama, fere inclusa, rudimento quinto obsolete. Filamenta 
glabra. Anthers oblongo-lineares, biloculares, loculis oppositis, longitudi- 
naliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium compressum, ovatum, glabrum, biloculare, 
loculis biovulatis, ovulis ascendentibus. Discus hypogynus magnus, carno- 
sus, cupuliformis. Stylus stamina vix superans, filiformis. Stigma parvum 

capitatum Fructus — Frutex Africa tropica occidentalis, subhu- 

milis, ramosus, glaber, ramis patentibus, Jlexuosis. Folia oblong o-ovata, 
opposita, subcoriacea, integemma, undulata, penninervia. Racemi termi- 
nates subsecundi deflexi. Pedicelli brachiatim oppositi, basi bracteati brac- 
teis lanceolatis membranaceis coloratis (paribus oppositis foliaceis). Flores 
subpubescentes deflexi: calycibus corollis bracteisque calycinis omnibus 

Whitfieldia lateritia. 

Our plant, here figured, is a very desirable inmate of the 
stove, forming a small bushy shrub, with spreading branches 
and copious evergreen foliage; the branches terminated by 
racemes of flowers of a rather large size, of which the calyx 
and corolla, and often large bracteas, are of one uniform 
brick-red color. It is one of the many novelties brought 
home to Lord Derby from the interior of Sierra Leone. As a 
Genus of Acanthacea, I can refer it to no described one ; 
though its affinity (yet not very close) is probably with 
Geissomeria, Lindl., and I have dedicated it to Thomas 
Whitfield, Esq., who, at the risk of his life, and, as we have 
reason to know, with much injury to his constitution, has 
made several voyages to, and journies into, the interior of 
xv «-tern-tropical Africa, and formed extensive collections oi 

living plants and animals. The majority of these have been 
sent to the Right Hon. the Earl of Derby; and the Royal 
Gardens of Kew have not failed to benefit by that distin- 
guished nobleman's love and patronage of science. To this 
source, besides the plant now figured, we are indebted for the 
" African Teak" (or " Oak" as it is often called, and still 
unknown as to its Genus), the Napoleonea imperialism the 
splendid Gardenia Stanleyana, MS. (shortly to be figured in 
this work), and three other species of the Genus, the bril- 
liantly-colored Thunbergia chrysops" (see our Tab. 4119), 
and many other rarities. Our drawing was made at Kew, in 
October, 1844 ; and the same plant was still flowering in 
March, 1845. 

Descr. A low shrub ; with spreading, terete, rather tor- 
tuous branches; and opposite, evergreen, entire, ovate or 
oblong-ovate, subcoriaceous, waved, penninerved leaves. Pe- 
tioles short, flat or slightly grooved above. Racemes terminal. 
Pedicels opposite (brachiate or cruciate), drooping, bracteated 
at the base ; bracteas lanceolate, submembranaceous, the 
lowest pair leaf-like. Two other large, ovate, acute, opposite 
bracteas are situated at the base of the calyx, and appressed to 
it. Calyx large, colored (brick -red, like the calycine bracteas 
and corolla), ample, somewhat inflated, subinfundibuliform, 
deeply cut into four, erect, concave, acute, nerved segments. 
Corolla twice as long as the calyx, orange-red or brick-color, 
between campanulate and infundibuliform ; the limb two- 
lipped; upper lip with two ovate, acute segments; lower 
with three spreading ones. Stamens and style included. 

Fig. 1. Stamens. 2. Pistil. ' 3. Transverse Section of the Ovary:— mag- 


ajar "•<" * v /« HWb v •» 3Effii ■. 

iir«* ,• 

Tab. 4156 
PERISTERIA Humboldti ; var. fulva. 

Humboldt' s Peristeria, or Dove-flower ; tawny -flowered var. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^;. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra Tab. 3479.J 

Peristeria Humboldti ; racemo elongato pendulo multifloro, sepalis 
subrotundo-ovatis concavis, petalis iis minoribus ovatis obtusissimis, 
labello subrotundo carnoso valde concavo profunde trilobo, lobis late- 
ralibus subrotundis intus lobulo auctis, terminali oblongo-ovato obtuso 
canaliculato, "disco appendice oblongo-quadrato utrinque dilatato retuso 
aucto, columna utrinque superne dilatato-alata. 

Peristeria Humboldti. Lindl Bat. Reg. 1843, t. 18. 

Anguloa superba. H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. Am. 1. p. 343. t. 93. 
Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 160. 

ft floribus fulvis. (Tab. nostr. 4156.) 

For this noble specimen we are indebted to Mr. Barker, in 
whose collection near Birmingham it flowered in June, 184:*. 
I he color is considerably different from that given by Dr. 
Lindley in the Botanical Register, above quoted, on which 
account it is here indicated as a variety. Its native country 
W Venezuela, where it was first detected by Humboldt: for 
Dr. Lindley has clearly determined that the Anguloa superba 
of that author is in reality this plant, represented in an im- 
perfect state. It is one of the most striking among Orclii- 
deons plants, and few are more worthy of cultivation. The 
true Anguloa of Ruiz and Pa von, is ascertained by Dr. Lindley 
to be a very different Genus. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs oblong, tapering upwards, angled. 
■Leaves several from a young pseudo-bulb, broadly lanceolate, 
somewhat membranaceous, striated. Raceme a foot and a 
half to two feet long, pendent, arising from r 1 1 * - base of the 
Pseudo-bulbs; peduncle short, scaly." Flower* numerous, 
kfge, fleshy, of a tawny vellow color, dashed almost all m 
with Boots of purplish-brown. At first the Bower i- irregu- 
larly globose, afterwards the floral covering! are more patent. 

VOL. I. F 

Sepals broad, rotundato-ovate, very concave, the lateral ones 
the largest, united at their lower margin, and produced or 
gibbous at the base. Petals applied to the sides of the lip, 
broad-ovate, much smaller than the sepals. Lip with a broad, 
thick claw, very fleshy, gibbous at the back, deeply three- 
Iobed : central lobe ovate, obtuse ; lateral lobes large, sub- 
rotund, much incurved, each having a projecting lobule 
at its base within. The color of the lip is a brighter yellow 
than the rest of the flower, and the spots are deep purple. 
A large, purple, oblong gland is situated near the base of 
the intermediate lobe, on the disk. Column short, with a 
projecting, rounded wing on each side. Anther-case rostrate. 
Pollen-masses linear-oblong, broader upwards, attached to a 
conspicuous stipes, and that to a large, somewhat lunate 

■ Fig 'r 1 lu S i d 1 TJ ew of the Vellum and Column. 2. Front or inner 
view ot the Labellum. 3. Front view of the Column. 4. Pollen-masses: 
— magnified. 





r M,,,, J.1#-f,5 

Tab. 4157 

White-flowered Calceolaria. 

Nat. Ord. Scrophularine^e.— Diandria Monogynia. 
CALCEOLARIA. (Vide supra Tab. 3255J 

Calceolaria alba; suffruticosa resinoso-viscosa, foliis linearibus acutis 
remote serratis, panicula terminali foliosa, pedunculis oppositis corym- 
bosis, corollse clausae (albae) labio superiore parvo, inferiore 5-pIo 
majore inflato compresso. 

Calceolaria alba. Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Peruv. et Chit. I.e. 19. t. 27. f. b. 
Walp. Repert. Bot. 3. p. 164. 

A native of Chili; but, probably, of rare occurrence, at 
least, it has not, till now, been introduced to our gardens. 
Mr. Veitch received seeds from his Collector, Mr. William 
Lobb, and plants raised from them flowered in his nursery in 
September, 1844. From one of these our drawing was taken. 
It is singular in the very pale, nearly white, color of the 
flowers. The foliage, though narrow, is copious, and the 
plant has an erect and graceful mode of growth. Ruiz and 
Pavon's figure represents the corolla with the lips spreading : 
but this is probably owing to its being taken from a dried 
specimen. The species will, perhaps, bear our mild winters. 

Descr. Plant apparently suffruticose, erect, branched; 
branches opposite. Leaves opposite, and copious fascicles of 
leaves arise from their axils, all of them linear, or a little 
broader upwards, acute, sometimes entire; but generally re- 
motely serrated, more or less viscid. Panicle terminal, leafy, 
elongated; peduncles opposite, from the axil of a leaf, and 
each bearing a corymb of white flowers. Pedicels dichoto- 
mous, bearing a flower in the fork. Calyx four-cleft. Corolla 
white, of two very unequal lips ; the upper one very small, 
the lower one large, both are, however, compressed, and they 
meet together so that the faux is quite closed. 

Tab. 4158 

SALPIXANTHA coccinea. 
Scarlet Trumpet-flower. 

Nat. Ord. Acantha.ce.e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. SALPIXANTHA. Hook.— Calyx parvus, ovatus, 5-den- 
tatus, basi bibracteatus. Corolla infundibuliformi-hypocrateriformis : tubo 
basi angustato cylindraceo, sursum sensim dilatato ; limbo regulari patente 
qmnquelobo, lobis retusis. Stamina 4, tubi parte contracta inserta : Fila- 
menta subsequalia, gracilia, glabra, longitudine tubi totius : Antheree ob- 
longse, dorso affixse, uniloculars. Ovarium ovatum, disco carnoso impo- 
situm, biloculare; loculis biovulatis; ovulis adscendentibus : Stylus gracilis, 

hliformis, stamina paulo superans : Stigma obtusum. Fructus ? — 

rrutex humilis Indue Occidentalism ramosus ; ramis teretibus glabris (utet 
totaplantaj. Folia opposita, ovata, subcoriacea, integerrima. Pedunculi 
axillares, solitarii, penduli, vel terminates, terni. Flores sessiles decussati 
oppostli in spicam laxam dispositi, distantes. Corolla pulchra, nitida, 

Salpixantha coccinea. 

This curious plant, which has at first sight, indeed, little 
apparent affinity with the Acanthacecs (Sect. MueUiacece), 
was discovered by Mr. Purdie, Botanical Collector for the 
Hoyal Gardens, in the island of Jamaica, whence it was sent 
to the Royal Gardens. It blossomed freely in the stove dur- 
mg the autumn of the same year, and in the early winter of 
1844-5, and made a very pretty appearance, with its grace- 
fully pendent, scarlet blossoms, and its well-formed dark- 
green foliage. It appears to me to be new as a Genus ; nor 
ca n I find the plant is anywhere, or under any name, 

Descr. It is a low shrub, branched, and glabrous in every 
part, the young shoots green, rounded. The leaves opposite, 
on short petioles, ovate, subcoriaceous, somewhat waved, 
entire, penninerved, dark-green, rather paler beneath. Pedun- 
cles axillary and solitary, or terminal, and then ternate, 
drooping, the lateral ones, however, terminate a two-leaved 
branch, or innovation, while the central peduncle springs 

from the apex of the older branch. The upper part of this 
peduncle bears rich red-coloured flowers, arranged in a spike; 
the flowers decussately opposite. 

Fig. 1. Corolla laid open. 2. Anther. 3. Vertical section of the Ovary. 
4. Transverse ditto : — magnified. 


Tab. 4159 
ANGR.ECUM apiculatum. 

Apiculated Angrcecum. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide,e. — Gynandria Monandria. 
ANGRCECUM. (Vide supra Tab. 4145.; 

AngRjECUm bilobum; caulebrevi radicante, foliis distichis obovato-lanceo- 
latis oblique acurainatis opacis striatis racemo pendulo lsevi (everru- 
coso) multifloro multo brevioribus, sepalis petalisque lanceolatis 
patentibus, labello conformi paulo latiore calcare filiformi integro bre- 
viore, antherse crista eglandulosa. 

From Sierra Leone, introduced to our gardens by Mr. 
Whitfield, in 1844. I was at first disposed to consider it 
the same with A. bilobum, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1841, t. 35; but 
that has semipellucid, reticulated leaves, distinctly and deeply 
two-lobed at the extremity, (whence the specific name), the 
rachis of the raceme and peduncle are warty, and the spur is 
dilated and emarginate at the apex. In other respects the two 
plants seem almost entirely to agree. 

Descr. Stem three to five inches long, rooting, below 
scarred and scaly with the remains of fallen leaves, leafy 
above. Leaves distichous, spreading, four to five inches long, 
obovato-lanceolate, obliquely apiculate, opaque, longitudinally 
striated. Raceme axillary, on a rather short, scaly peduncle, 
drooping. Rachis quite smooth. Flowers white, or only 
tipped with brownish purple. Sepals and petals spreading, 
lanceolate, nearly uniform, the former more acuminated. Lip 
resembling the petals, but rather broader, and more suddenly 
acuminated ; at the base extended into a very long, filiform 
spur, entire at the apex. Column short, subtrigonal. Anther- 
case hemisphserical, indistinctly two-lobed, with a mucronate 
crest at the top, — not granulated like that of A. bilobum. 

Fig 1. Column, Lip, and Spur: nat. size. 2. Front view of the Column 
and Anther. 3. Pollen-masses :— magnified- 


Tab. 4160 

DENDROBIUM fimbriatum ; var. oculatum. 

Fringe-lipped Dendrobium ; var. with sanguineous eye. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Gynandria Monogynia. 
DENDROBIUM. (Vide supra Tab. 4013J 

Dendrobium fimbrialum; caulibus erectis fertilibus plerumque aphyllis, 
foliis lanceolatis striatis, racemis plurifloris, sepalis oblongis patentissi- 
mis integerrimis, petalis majoribus undulatis ciliato-denticulatis, labello 
indiviso cucullato firabriis laceratis. 

Dendrobium fimbriatum. Hook. Ex. Ft t. 71. Wall. Cat. n. 2011. 
Lindl. Gen. el Sp. Orchid, p. 83. 

Var. oculalum; labello fauce macula lata atro-sanguinea. (Tab. nostr. 

A native of Nepal, whence plants have from time to time 
been sent to our stoves by Dr. Wallich. It first blossomed in 
the Liverpool Botanic Garden, as stated in the " Exotic 
Flora :" and the flowers were of an uniform golden yellow. 
Our present plant, in the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew, has 
a dark blood-coloured eye-like spot in the centre of the label- 
lum, which adds greatly to the beauty of this otherwise very 
charming plant. This state of it, Dr. Lindley considers thai 
of the native specimens. It flowered with us in September, 

Descr. Stems a foot or a foot and a half long, jointed 
and furrowed. Leaves, several confined to the sterile branches, 
four or five inches long, alternate, striated, sheathing at the 
base. Racemes from the sterile branches, drooping, bearing 
five to seven large and exceedingly handsome flowers, of a 
rich golden-yellow colour. Sepals and petals very patent: 
the former oblong, more or less waved, entire ; the latter 
larger and broader, waved, and ciliato-dentate at the margin. 
Lip large, cucullate, spreading at the mouth, entire, or very 
indistinctly three-lobcd, and fimbriated, the fimbria- them- 
selves elegantly divided, the faux having a deep blood-red spot 

on the lower side. Column short, but prolonged below, so as 
to form a spur with the bases of the lateral sepals. Anther 
hemispherical, and somewhat four-angled. 

Fig. 1. Column. 2. The same, with the Anther-case separating. 3. 4. 
Pollen -masses. 5. Portion of the Fringe : — magnified. 



Tab. 4161 

POLYSTACHYA bracteosa. 

Bracteated Polystachya. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — G^nandria Monandbia. 
POLYSTACHYA. (Vide supra Tab. 2,107.) 

Polystachya bracteosa; pseudo-bulbis subrotundis compressis aggre- 
gatis, folio unico petiolato oblongo-ovato acuto, racemo e summitate 
petioli nutanti pubescente pedunculoque bracteato, bracteis (infima 
foliacea) lanceolatis acuminatis concavis inferioribus florem aequantibus 
v. superantibus, petalis obovato-oblongis glabris, labello lato-oblongo 
revoluto medio longitudinaliter villoso lobo medio subrotundo. 

Polystachya bracteosa. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. Misc. n. 102. 

A native of Sierra Leone. Drawn from the Woburn Collec- 
tion of Orchidece in the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew, 
to which it was communicated by Mr. Whitfield from Sierra 
Leone. Dr. Lindley observes, it is well distinguished by its 
downy flowers, tapering squarrose bracts, which extend down 
the peduncle, the lowermost one being very large and leaf- 
like, at least in our flowering specimen. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs about an inch in diameter, suborbi- 
cular, singularly compressed, and the old ones, especially, 
very uneven on the surface : — from the summit arises a stout 
petiole, an inch or an inch and a half long, bearing a solitary, 
oblong-ovate, acute, somewhat membranaceo-coriaceous leaf, 
with a few longitudinal lines or nerves. From the base of 
the leaf, in a cleft at the summit of the petiole, arises the 
peduncle, bearing, at its origin, a very large, leafy bractea, 
and other smaller, membranaceous, but green, ones above it ; 
these are concave, lanceolate, and much acuminate. Raceme 
many-flowered, drooping, downy. Flowers dull orange-yellow, 
bracteated : bracteas similar to those of the peduncle ; the 
lower ones as long as the flowers ; the upper ones pubescent. 
Sepals downy, erecto-patent ; upper one oblong-lanceolate; 
lateral ones broadly rotundato-ovate, the base decurrent on 

the long descending base of the column. Petals erect, obovato- 
oblong, glabrous. Lip broad, oblong, the lower half erect, 
and applied to the face of the column, then recurved ; the 
disk with three pubescent lines: lateral lobes streaked with 
red; terminal lobe small, ovato-rotundate. Column very 
short, but the base extending downwards some way with the 
lateral sepals. Anther-case subcorneal. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Flower, with the Sepals removed. 3. Column and 
Lip. 4. 5. Anterior and posterior view of the Pollen-masses. 


Tab. 4162 

Sharp-angled Echinocactus. 

Nat. Ord. Cacte^e. — Icosandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra Tab. 4124J 

Echinocactus oxygonus ; subglobosus v. magis minusve elongatus ver- 
tice depresso 1& — 15 angularis, sinubus profundis, costis compressis 
sinuato-lobatis circa areolas subinflatis, areolis reraotis rotundis junio- 
ribus flavido-dein griseo-tomentosis, aculeis 6 — 8 — 10 semiuncialibus 
subulatis rectiusculis subsequalibus patentibus, floribus (roseis) inter 
maximos, tubo longissimo superne dilatato squamis villosis. 

Echinocactus oxygonus. Link et Otto in Verhandl. des Pr. Gart. 
Vareins. v. 6. t. 1. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1717. Pfeiff. Enum. Cact. 
p. 70. 

Scarcely any plant possesses more noble or more lovely 
blossoms than the present; and they are the more striking, 
from the circumstance of their being produced from so grace- 
less and small a trunk. It is, moreover, a free-flowering 
plant in the month of May ; and we have, while I am writing, 
specimens with three blossoms expanded at the same time : 
their duration, is, in cloudy weather at least, of two days. 
The species is said to be a native of South Brazil. 

Descr. Our specimens are from seven to ten inches in 
height, subglobose, but generally a little longer than broad ; 
hence somewhat oval, or obovate, depressed at the top ; green 
slightly inclining to glaucous. There are from thirteen to 
fifteen deep furrows, with acute sinuses, and as many pro- 
minent, compressed ridges, sinuato-lobate at their edges. 
Areola about three-fourths of an inch apart, sunk, as it were, 
in the upper edge of each lobe, sphserical, woolly, with six to 
ten, rather short, straightish, spreading, nearly equal spines. 
It is from the areole of some of the upper lobes that toe 
flowers spring, a span and more long, often longer than the 
plant itself. °Tube very long, trumpet-shaped, raeniah, with 
many red-brown, villous, appressed scales which gradually 

VOL. I. G 

become longer and larger upwards, and pass into deep rose- 
colored, calycine segments, and these again into the oblong, 
apiculate, slightly serrated, pale rose-colored, spreading petals. 
Stamens pale straw-color, copious, nearly equal in height. 
Style and stigmas almost white. 

Fig. 1. Reduced figure of a Flower. 2. Upper portion of a Plant and 

flVVPrQ • rtnf VI -ro 

Flowers : — nat. size 

Tab. 4163 


Dillwyn Llewelyn's JEria. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide*:. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra Tab. 3605.J 

EuikDillwynii; pseudo-bulbis oblongis laevibus di- 4-phyllis, foliis oblon- 
gis racemis subsequalibus, bracteis membranaceis oblongis obtusis 
reflexis, racemis erectis, petalis sepalisque erectis, labello trilobo basi 
trilamellato, lobo medio rotundato obtuso 5-lamellato. 

From the Philippine Islands, whence it was received by 
Dillwyn Llewelyn, Esq., of Pennleegar, through Mr. Cuming, 
in whose collection it blossomed freely in March, 1843. " I 
send you," Mr. Llewelyn says, " a specimen of one of Mr. 
Cuming's Erias, which is valuable from the great facility 
with which it submits to cultivation, and the profusion with 
which it bears its flowers. It blossomed in my stove last 
year; and this season it is a beautiful object, with seven or 
eight bulbs, each bearing two spikes of flowers." It does not 
seem to accord with any described species of the Genus. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs oblong, nearly smooth on the sur- 
face, dark green, clothed at the base with large, striated, 
membranaceous, sheathing scales. Leaves about four; from 
the top of the pseudo-bulb, six to eight inches long : oblong, 
obtuse. Raceme of flowers ' about as long as the leaf, re- 
markable for the copious, pale-colored bracteas ; on the 
peduncle, as well as on the rachis, oblong, obtuse, reflexed, 
membranaceous. Flowers nearly white, or cream -colored. 
Petals and sepals almost erect, uniform, lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, slightly falcate; the lower decurrent with the base of 
the column into a blunt spur. Lip oblong, three-lobed, with 
three lamellae reaching the whole length to the apex, or 
nearly so; the two lateral ones thickened, and red at the 
base; the intermediate lobe, besides these three lamellae, 

presents two others, and has, consequently, five lamellae or 
plates. Column with a red blotch at the protruded base. 
Anther red. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Column. 3. Lip: — magnified^ 


Tab. 4164 
MASDEVALLIA fenestrata. 

Windowed Masdevallia. 

Nat. Ord. OechidevE. — Gynandeia Monandeia. 

Gen. Char. MASDEVALLIA. Ruiz et Pav.—Perianthium clau- 
sum, sepalis acuminatis v. aristatis in tubum carapanulatum connatum. 
Petala nana. Labellum nanum, oblongura, concavum, integrum, cum 
columna articulatum. Columna erecta, linearis, canaliculata. Anthera 
(hemisphserica). Pollinia cluo, caudicula brevi. — Herbae/o/m Pleurothal- 
lidis, scapis unifloris. Lindl. 

Masdev alli a fenestrata; folio oblongo emarginato petiolo multo longiore 
cauli subffiquali, floribus aggregatis, pedunculis petiolo vix sequalibus, 
sepalis carinatis apice connatis dorsali utrinque infra apicem libera 
ideoque fenestram efficiente, petalis obovatis mucronulatis, labelli tri- 
lobi lobis lateralibus subtriangularibus intermedio ovato acuto ciliato. 
Lindl MSS. 

Masdevallia fenestrata. Lindl. ined. 

This is one of the very curious productions of nature, of 
which there are such frequent instances in the Orchideous 
plants. The plant is not only singular in color, the flowers 
being externally of a dee}* blackish blood-o »lor, but still more 
singular in form, with the sepals united below and at the 
apex, leaving a small space much below the apex, whicli is 
open and window-like ; the whole representing the head of a 
bird, with a perforation where the eyes should be. Our 
plants were sent from Jamaica by our Collector, Mr. Purdie, 
in 1843, and they flowered in October, 1844, and during 
most of the winter months, in the Orchideous House of the 
Royal Gardens. 

Descr. Plants growing clustered: each consisting of & 
stem, or petiole, clothed with sheathing scales, and terminated 
by a solitary (rarely two) oblongo-elliptical leaf. Peduncles 
aggregated in the upper sheath at the base of the leaf, 
d<'Hexed, bracteated, single-flowered. Flower (large in pro- 
portion to the plant) of a dark brown or blood-color: the 
three sepals united, except at a small opening below the apex; 

the apex acute, and curved upwards : this floral covering is 
set obliquely on the germcn, as shown at fig 1. 2. When the 
sepals are forced open, the rest of the flower is seen as at 
fig 3. Petals much smaller than the sepals, ovate, acute, 
pale purple at the edge. Lip oblong, acuminate, serrated at 
the apex, with a small lobe on each side, near the middle. 
Column semiterete. Anther-case hemispherical. Pollen- 
masses two-lobed. 

Fig. 1. Entire Flower. 2. Flower, with the Sepals laid open, to show 
the Petals, &c. 3. Petals, Lip and Column removed. 4. Column, with the 
Lip laid open. 5. Pollen-masses : — all more or less magnified. 

Tab. 4165 
EPIDENDRUM longicolle. 

Long-necked Epidendrum. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Gynandria Monogynia. 
\Gcn. Char. (Vide supra Tab. 4107.J 

Epidendrum longicolle; caule erecto compresso folioso, foliis linearibus 
apice angustatis, floribus aggregatis terminalibus nutantibus foliis bre- 
vioribus, sepalis lineari-lanceolatis acuininatis patentibus, petalis linea- 
ribus acutis supra columnam convergentibus, labelii trilobi lobis late- 
ralibus semiovatis acutis integerrimis intermedio lincari-acuminato 
paulo brevioribus, lamellis bicallosis ad basin. collo ovarii elongato. 

Epidendrum longicolle. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 1838. Misc. n. 49. 

This, I believe, is a rare species; and, at present, in few 
collections. It is a native of Demerara, and blossomed in the 
stove of the Royal Botanic Gardens, in February, 1844. 
What it lacks in beauty, is made up in fragrance. 

Descr. Stems clustered, erect, simple, rounded or com- 
pressed upwards ; bare of leaves at the base, but clothed with 
membranous sheaths, above leafy: leaves linear-lanceolate, 
subdistichous. Fhmers terminal, clustered, shorter than the 
leaves, white. Sepals and petals linear-acuminate. Up com- 
bined with the column, three-lobed, with two pale yellow cal- 
losities at the base ; lateral lobes large, semiovate, with a deep 
sinus between them, in which is the narrow, linear, acute, 
intermediate lobe. Ovary narrow, much attenuated. 

Fig. 1 . Column and Lip :— slightly magnified. 


Tab. 4166 


Dr. Careys Bolbophylluin. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e.— Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra Tab. 4088J 

Bolbophyllum Careyanum; rhizomate repente, pseudo-bulbis oblongo- 
ovatis laevibus membranaceo-vaginatis, folio solitario oblongo-lanceo- 
lato obtuso basi angustiore, racemo pseudo-bulbi longitudine, pedunculo 
perbrevi squamoso, floribus imbricatis, sepalis ovatis acuminatis latera- 
libus duplo majoribus conniventibus, petalis minimis acuminatis, 
labello ovato longe unguiculato utrinque unidentato, columna bicor- 

Bolbophyllum Careyanum. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 3. p. 732. Wall. Cat. 
n. 1990. Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 51. 

Anisopetalum Careyanum. Hook. Exot. Fl. 1. 149. 

Tribrachia purpurea. Lindl. Coll. Bot.p. 41. 

Pleurothallis purpurea. Don Prodr. Fl. Nep.p. 33. 

Native of Nepal and Martaban, according to Wallich. We 
are indebted for living plants in the Kew Gardens to the 
kindness of the lamented Dr. Griffith. It is more curious 
than showy, and is probably rare in collections. 

Descr. The pseudo-bulbs are between oblong and ovate, 
and clothed with a membranous, scaly sheath, arising, at 
distant intervals, from a creeping rhizoma. Leaf solitary, 
from the summit of each bulb, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, cori- 
aceous, tapering at the base. Peduncle short, scaly with 
bracteas, arising from the base of a pseudo-bulb, and termi- 
nated by a dense, ovate head or spike of imbricated ^fowers, of 
a yellow color, mottled and dotted with small, blood-colored 
spots. Sepals unequal, ovate, concave, the lateral ones twice 
or thrice the largest and connivent. Petals broadly subulate, 
yellow, with a blood-colored spot at the base. Lip with a 
long claw, ovate, reflexed, with a small lobe or tooth on each 

side. Column short, with two teeth at the apex in front. 
Anther-case hemispherical. 

Fig. 1. Side view, and 2, front view of a Flower. 3. Column and Lip. 
4. Outer, and 5, inner view of an Anther-case. 6. Pollen-masses ; — mag- 


rf £- 

Tab. 4167, 4168 
STRELITZIA augusta. 

Great White Strelitzia. 

Nat. Ord. Musace*:.— Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. STRELITZIA, Banks et Ait.—Perigonii epigyni foliola 
exteriora subaequalia, anticum carinatum; interiora lateralia exterioribus 
subconformia, inter se connata, acuminata, latere versus medium auriculata, 
genitalia amplectentia, posticum nanum concavum. Stamina 5, sexto 
postico abortiente. Ovarium inferum, triloculare. Ovula in loculorum 
angulo centrali plurima, biseriata, horizontalia, anatropa. Stylus filiformis; 
stigma tripartitum, laciniis linearibus. Capsula trilocularis, loculicido-tri- 
valvis. Semina plurima, subglobosa, /wmctt/o brevi, in arillum stupposum 
fatiscente affixa, testa fuliginea, laevi. Embryo orthotropus, linearis, in 
axi albuminis farinaceo-cornei, extremitate radiculari umbilicum spectante, 
centripeta. — Herbse Capenses, foliis radicalibus maximis, distichis, longe 
petiolatis, peliolis cdnaliculatis, basi dilatatis, vaginantibus ; scapo radicali 
vaginis velato,Jloribus e spatha terminali obliqua erectis. Endl. 

Strelitzia augusta; caudice elongato, foliis longe petiolatis oblongis acu- 
tis basi cordatis parallelim nervosis basi cordatis, scapo brevissimo. 

Strelitzia augusta. ** Thunb. Prodr. p. 45. Fl. Cap. p. 216. Willd. 
Sp. PI. v.l.p. 1190. Ait. ffort. Kew. ed. 2. p. 55. Roem. et Sch. 
Syst. Veget. v. 5. p. 594. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v.l.p. 833. 

A native of Southern Africa, with the other species of 
Strelitzia. Anteniqua Land, about the neighbourhood of the 
Pisang River, is the station given for it by Thunberg. 
According to the Hortus Kewensis, it was introduced to 
Europe in 1791 by Mr. Francis Masson, then Botanical Col- 
lector for the Royal Gardens. It is still a rare plant m our 
collections ; not indeed that it is difficult of increase, for it 
sends out offsets frequently, but it requires the heat of a 
stove, and more space than cultivators can generally atiord to 
give it. Thunberp: describes the native caudex or trunk, as 
eighteen feet long ; and the leaves and petioles from the 
summit of that probably add as many more feet to it. In 
the Royal Gardens of Kew, it has, including the leaves, 
attained a height of twenty-three feet. The flowering speci- 
men, however, from which our present drawing is made, H 

VOL. I. 

comparatively young, and its caudex short. With us, it 
flowered during the whole of the summer and autumn months, 
with a scape or peduncle infinitely shorter than the petioles, 
though the character in the Hortus Kewensis gives it as the 
" flower-stalk half the length of the leaf-stalk." Our in- 
florescence is almost sessile, and so it was in the larger plant 
which had been observed to blossom at Kew. 

Descr. Caudex eventually attaining a height of eighteen 
feet, stout, six to eight inches in diameter, erect, marked with 
the transverse scars of fallen leaves ; deep purple-color, pro- 
liferous from the sides, bearing, at the summit, a crown of 
distichous leaves, much resembling those of Urania or 
Ravenala. Leaves ample, two to three feet long, oblong, 
acute, cordate at the base, bright green, costate, and marked 
with conspicuous, transverse, parallel veins. Petiole four to 
six feet long, sheathing, and grooved at the base; upwards 
laterally compressed. Peduncle from the axil of an inferior 
leaf, short, bracteated ; bracteas lanceolate, brown, more or 
less tinged with yellow, concavo-in volute. Spatha broadly 
lanceolate, conduplieate, very acute, of a deep purple-color, 
generally having drops of transparent fluid, which run down 
from the flowers. Flowers several in each spatha, on short 
purple stalks or pedicels. Their general structure is similar to 
what is stated at Tab. 119 of the flowers of S. Begince, but 
they are larger and altogether white ; and the two larger inner 
sepals, which unite to form the so-called " nectary," have the 
lobes short and obtuse. Stamens the same, white. Style 
and stigma also white; the three branches of the latter 
cohering into a subulate body. 

Tab. 4168. Fig. 1. Inner Sepals, including the Stamens and Pistil :— 

nat. size. 



Tab. 4169 

LEIANTHUS longif6lius. 

Long~leaved Leianthus. 

Nat. Ord. Gentiane^e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Char. Gen. LEIANTHUS. Griseb.— Calyx 5-fidus, 5-carinatus v. 
5-alatus, lobis yalvaribus planiusculis acuminatis, carinis alisve dorsalibus. 
Corolla infundibuliformis, nuda, tubi fundo tenui supra germen in faucem 
longiorem cum limbo 5-partito confluentem aequalem ampliato. Stamina 5, 
supra fundum coroltae inserta, filamentis elongatis inaequalibus. Antherte 
incumbentes, immutatae neque apiculatae. Ovarium annulo basibus desti- 
tutum, valvulis introflexis semibiloculare, ovulis ipsarum margini insertis. 
Stylus distinctus, persistens, stigmate indiviso capitulate Capsula bival- 
vis, septicida, semibilocularis, placentis margini valvarum insertis. Semina 
placentis! immersa. — Herbse vel frutices Jamaica et America centralis, 
cymis terminalibus, fioribus albidis vel Jlavis, rarius cyaneis, gracilibus. 
Be Cand. 

Leianthus longifolius; caule suffruticoso teretiusculo, foliis petiolatis ob- 
longo-lanceolatis acuminatis, cymis 3 — 5-floris, alis calycinis lanceo- 
lato-linearibus, corollse (luteae) tubo gracili sensim ampliato, lobis 
oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis genitalia aequantibus. Griseb. 

Leianthus longifolius. Griseb. Gent. p. 196. De Cand. Prodr. 9. p. 82. 

Lisianthus longifolius. Linn. Mant. p. 43. Lam. III. t. 107. /. 1. 
Willd. Sp. PI. 1. p. 826. Ker, Bot. Reg. t. 860. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. I. p. 586. 

Taschia longifolia. Mart, in Bon's Gard. Bict. 4. 197. 

Lisianthus erectus, foliis lanceolatus, floribus singularibus terminalibus. 

Brown, Jam. p. 157. t. 9./. 1. 
Rapunculus fruticosus linifolius, &c. Sloane, Jam. I. p. 15. t. 101. f. 1. 

A rare plant in our gardens. It was introduced, however, 
to Kew, as early as 1793, by Capt. Bligh, of H. M. S. Provi- 
dence, and then lost to our collections till 1825, when it was 
published in the Botanical Register from plants in the 
Nursery of Messrs. Lee and Kennedy at Hammersmith. 
Again, it seems to have been wanting to our stoves till the 
summer of 1844, when it flowered in that of His Grace the 
Duke of Northumberland at Syon, and that of Kew, to both 
which places the seeds were sent by their Botanical Collector, 
Mr. Purdie. 

Descr. A small suffruticose plant, two to three feet high, 
with opposite and downy, spreading or drooping, branches ; 
and opposite and more or less downy or hairy leaves: the 
latter are two to four or five inches long, lanceolate, more or 
less acuminate at both ends, nearly sessile, the margin cili- 
ated. Peduncles axillary, opposite, leafy, axillary, generally 
pendent ; or they may be called flowering branches : the 
blossoms forming terminal, leafy, trichotomous cymes. Calyx 
of five, erect, close-placed sepals, lanceolate, acuminate, keeled 
and winged on the back. Corolla funnel-shaped, yellow, 
long; the tube narrow at the base, gradually enlarging 
upwards, and terminating in a deeply five-lobed limb ; 
the segments oblong, acuminate, spreading. Stamens five. 
Filaments longer than the tube, thus exserted. Anthers 
oblong, acute. Style larger than the stamens. Stigma capi- 
tate, two-lobed. 

Fig. 1. Calyx. 2. Pistil. 


Tab. 4170 
SIDA (Abutilon) p^onosflora. 

Pceony -flowered Sida. 

Nat. Ord. Malvaceae. — Monadelphia Polyandria. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra Tab. 3892.; 

Sida (Abutilon) paonicejlora ; fruticosa, ramis teretibus pubescenti-hirsu- 
tis, foliis brevi-petiolatis late ovatis acuminatis serratis pubescentibus, 
basi trinerviis, stipulis subulatis deciduis, pedunculis axillaribus binis 
ternisve unifloris folio brevioribus pubescenti-hirsutis, calyce ventri- 
coso basi obtuso 5-fido, segraentis ovatis acutis reflexis, petalis valde 
concavis rotundatis venosis, germine globoso, sty lis 12 — 13. 

This is another of the interesting discoveries of Mr. Wm. 
Lobb, while on a Botanical mission for Messrs. Veitch of 
Exeter, in the Organ mountains of Brazil. It is, indeed, a 
remarkable fact, and an evidence of the great variety of the 
Brazilian vegetation, that, although Mr. Lobb and Mr. 
Gardner were botanizing in the same range of mountains at 
the same time, each of them met with plants which the other 
did not find. The present species will rank in the section 
Abutilon, and along with Sida picta, and S. Bedfordiana. It 
flowered in the stove of Mr. Veitch's Nursery, in January, 
1845, and seems new to our books, as it assuredly is to 
our gardens, where, indeed, it is likely to prove highly 

Descr. Probably, when fully grown, a tall shrub or small 
tree ; the branches downy, mixed with hairs. Leaves four to 
six inches long, ovate, acuminate, slightly downy, conspi- 
cuously serrated, penninerved, three-nerved at the base, all 
the main nerves connected by slender, transverse ones. 
Petiole short, downy, with two subulate stipules at the base, 
which are soon deciduous. Peduncles shorter than the leaves, 
erect, downy, and hairy, rarely solitary, generally two to 
three in the axils of the leaves, single-flowered. Flowers 
large. Calyx downv, ventricose, and very obtuse at the base. 

as it were, truncated ; five-fid, with the segments acute, some- 
what reflexed. Petals very concave, erecto -patent, nearly 
orbicular, on a short claw, of a red-rose-color, with pale veins. 
Anthers numerous, yellow-orange. Pistil: germen or ovary, 
globose, downy, and hairy. Style dividing into twelve or 
thirteen erect branches, each with a capitate stigma. 

Fig. 1 . Pistil : — magnified. 

Talvl. 1 *■{■.: 

Tab. 4171 
GOMPHOLOBIUM barbigerum. 

Fringe-keeled Gompholobium. 

Nat. Ord. Leguminosjb. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra Tab. 1533.J 

Gompholobium barbigerum; ramis angulatis, foliis trifoliolatis, foliolis 
lato-linearibus setaceo-acutis, carina margine barbata, vexillo amplo 
petalis calyceque majore. 

Gompholobium barbigerum. De Cand. Prodr. 2. p. 105. 

Gompholobium fimbriatum. Sieb. PI. Exsicc. Nov. Holl. n. 361. (in Herb. 
nostr.) not Sm. 

One of the most beautiful of the many New Holland 
Leguminoscs, confounded by Sieber with the G. fimbriatum, 
but correctly determined by De Candolle, and named by 
him " barbigerum" in allusion to the curious, deep, beard-like 
fringe on the margins of the keel of the corolla ; by which 
character it is readily distinguished from G. grandiflorum, 
and no less easily by its broader leaves and larger flowers. No 
exact locality is given for the plant by Sieber, nor by Mr. 
Fraser (in Herb, nostr.) : but I possess beautiful specimens 
gathered at Port Stephen by Capt. Sir Edward Parry. It 
flowers in the greenhouse of the Nursery of Messrs. Lucombe 
and Pince, who appear to have been the first to introduce it 
alive to this country, in April, 1845. 

Descr. Apparently a moderate-sized shrub, with twiggy, 
erect, glabrous, angular branches. Leaves shortly petioled, 
bearing three rather broadly-linear, more or less acute, 
often setaceous (sometimes obtuse or even retuse) leaflets, 
tapering at the base. Flowers copious, very large, terminal, 
or usually on short, axillary branches, with small leaves, 
which in structure resemble those of the stem. Calyx cam- 
panulate, of five deep, oblong, acute, segments. Corolla full 
yellow : Standard, or vexillum, very large, suborbicular, but 
much broader than long, hence subreniform, and considerably 

larger than the rest of the petals. Wings somewhat deflexed, 
obliquely oval, obtuse. Carina obliquely obovate, clawed, with 
a remarkable, deep, woolly fringe at the apex and along the 
upper margin. Stamens ten, unequal, free. Pistil stipitate. 
Ovary oblong, laterally compressed. Style as long as, or. 
longer than, the ovary, carried upwards: Stigma a mere 

Fig. 1. Petals of the Carina. 2. Stamens and Pistil. 3. Pistil separated 
from the Stamens : — magnified. 



Tab. 4172 
begonia albo-coccinea. 

Scarlet and White-flowered Begonia, or Elephant's Ear. 

Nat. Ord. Begoniace.e. — Moncecia Polyandria. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra Tab. 4131.; 

Begonia albo-coccinea ; acaulis, foliis oblique ovatis obtusissimis subre- 
niformibua peltatis coriaceo-carnosis sublobato-sinuatis glaberrimis 
longitudine petiolorum, petiolis appresso-hirsutis, sepalis 2 exteri- 
oribus rotundatis (extus coccineis), reliquis minoribus obovatis (albis), 
fructu turbinate) trialato alis latis subaequalibus. 

One of the most lovely of this beautiful Genus, which we 
cannot too much recommend for cultivation to all admirers 
of hothouse plants, blooming throughout the spring and 
summer months ; the flowers numerous, white and coral-red. 
Our plants were raised in the Royal Gardens of Kew, from 
seeds sent from India by — Strachan, Esq., of Twickenham, 


Descr. Stem none ; or so short, that the plant may fairly 
be called stemless. From a short, thick column, spring the 
stout, red-colored leaf -stalks, two to five or six inches long, 
terete, with scattered appressed hairs on the surface ; their 
base sheathed with large, lax, membranaceous stipules. Leaves 
from two to five or six inches in diameter; m general the 
length being about equal to that of the petiole, quite glabrous, 
obliquely ovate, very obtuse, approaching to remlorm the 
margins slightly reflexed, sinuate, and unequally sublobate, 
peltate, the point of insertion excentric, and towards the prin- 
cipal sinus. The texture is thick, between fleshy and cori- 
aceous. Scapes a foot to a foot and a half high, twice as 
long as, or more, than the leaves, terete, red, branched 
above into a many-flowered, spreading, ax panicle with small 
bracteas at the setting on of the branches. Male flowers of 
four sepals ; two outer and larger ones, nearly orbicular, red 
externally, white within: two inner, smaller, obovate, white, 

sometimes tinged with blush. Stamens as in the Genus. 
Female-flowers with similar sepals to the male, except that the 
inner ones are sometimes increased to three. Fruit with 
three, broad, nearly equal angles. 

T Fitr/f ,/,/.< 

Tab. 4173 


Mr. Bojer s Phyllarthron. 

Nat. Ord. Bignoniace,e. — Didynamia Gymnospermia. 

Gen. Char. PHYLLARTHRON, De Cand. Arthrophyllum, 
Bqjer, (non Blume). BiGNONiiE Sp. Auct. — Calyx ovatus campanulatus, 
breviter et obtuse 5-dentatus. Corolla late infundibuliformis, lobis subro- 
tundis. Stamina (4, didynamia, inclusa, prope basin tubi inserta. An~ 
therm biloculares, loculis patentibus. Ovarium disco carnoso inserta bilo- 
cularis: Stylus inclusus: Stigma bilabiatum). Fructus siliquaeformis, 
carnosus, indehiscens, plurilocularis. Semina non alata, verticaliter sita, 
pericarpio adfixa. — Frutices seu arbores ex insulis Africce Austr. ortee. 
Folia opposita, rarius alterna, lomentacea, nempe petiolo articulato, arti- 
cults 2 — 4 late foliaceis, foliolis aut nullis aut paucis et parvis. Rami 
dichotomi. Racemi seu corymbi ex ultimis dichotomiis orti, foliis bre- 
viores, pluriflori. Flores pedicellati. Bractese sub pedicellis oblongce. D C. 

Phyllarthron Bojerianum ; ramis trigonis aut ancipitibus, petiolis arti- 
culatis junioribus viscosis, articulis 2 late marginatis, inferiore obovato- 
cuneato, super, elliptico utroque pinnatim venoso, ramulis pedunculia- 
que compressis, racemo terminali subcorymboso-trichotomo, calyce 
ovato-campanulato enervio subtruncato obtuse 5-dentato. D C. 

Phyllarthron Bojerianum. De Cand. Prodr. 9. p. 243. 

Arthrophyllum Madagascariense. Bqjer, Hort. Maurit. p. 221. (excl. 
Syn. Bignonia articulata. Desf. according to De CanaolleJ. 

A remarkable Genus of Madagascar, and some neighbour- 
ing islands, allied to Colea, and named Arthrophyllum (from 
«/>fyoj a joint, and puAAo* a leaf) by Bojer, under a belief that 
the leaves themselves were jointed, or at least that the solitary 
leaflet was articulated upon the leaf-stalk : and such would 
appear at first sight to be the case with the present species, 
but another kind, P. Noronhianum, "est remarquable par 
ses feuilles plusieurs fois articulees, comme celles du Nopal ;" 
hence De Candolle is disposed to consider it an articulated 
petiole, without any leaf. I will not undertake to say, what 
is its true structure : but I may observe, that in my native 
specimen from M. Bojer, the older portion of the stem is 

ancipitate, and almost winged, showing an approach to the 
winged petiole. The name Arthrophyllum being preoccupied 
by a plant of Blume, De Candolle changed the appellation to 
what we have here adopted. Our garden at Kew owes the 
possession of this rarity to that of Mauritius, where it has 
been introduced by M. Bojer, and long cultivated. It flowered 
with us in the month of August. 

Descr. A small shrub, with a very peculiar appearance. 
Branches compressed. Leaves none. Petioles leaf-like, oppo- 
site, or alternate, Particulate, the upper one nearly elliptical, 
more or less acute ; the lower narrow, cuneate ; both of them 
subcoriaceous, glabrous, penninerved, the nerves connected 
by a slender, intramarginal one ; the younger foliage viscid. 
Raceme compound, axillary, few-flowered. Calyx small, 
campanulate, five-toothed. Corolla infundibuliform, rose- 
color, downy ; the tube subcampanulate ; the limb large, 
spreading, of five, blunt, wavy segments, with two yellow lines 
in the throat. Stamens four, didynamous, included. Anther- 
cells two, spreading. Ovary seated on a large, fleshy gland, 
two-celled, ovate. Style included. Stigma of two linear lobes. 

Fig. 1. Stamens. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. Pistil. 4. Ovary cut through 
transversely : — magnified. 

Tab. //// 

Tab. 4174. 


Serrated-leaved Fuchsia. 

Nat. Ord. Onagrarie^:. — Octandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4082.) 

Fuchsia serratifolia ; fruticosa glabra, foliis ternis quaternisve verticillatis ra- 
rius oppositis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis serratis petiolatis, pedunculis soli- 
tariis axillaribus unifloris, flore nutante, calycis tubo elongato laciniis paten- 
tibus petala obovata superantibus, staminibus exsertis stylo parum breviori- 
bus, stigmate clavato, ovario oblongo glabro. 

Fuchsia serratifolia. Ruiz et Parv. PI. Peruv. et Chit, v. 3. p. 86. t. 223./. a. 
Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 38. Sprenff. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 234. 

Ruiz and Pavon have justly remarked of this, " planta dum 
florida perpulchra." Its flowers are among the largest and most 
lovely of this lovely genus, and the leaves are handsome likewise, 
they and the stems being deeply tinted with red. The species 
was imported by Messrs. Veitch of Exeter, through their collector 
Mr. William Lobb, who detected it in Peru, probably at Mima, 
where it was first discovered in moist and shady places by the 
original describers Ruiz and Pavon. It has been already exhi- 
bited at Chiswick, when the large silver-gilt medal was awarded 
to it and other prizes in the Rooms of the Horticultural Society 
and 'the Regent's Park Garden ; and the plant has excited 
great admiration. At present it is considered a hot-house plant ; 
but in all probability it will be found to bear the open air during 
the summer months, when it will prove more ornamental than 
any species yet in cultivation among us. We possess fine native 
specimens gathered in Peru by Mathews, at Panahuanca (n 542), 
and at Pangoa (n. 1168), and at Huamantanga, gathered by our 

friend Mr. Maclean. -, , , , 

Descr. A tall shrub, with its young stems rounded and deep 
red. leaves rarely opposite, in the main or central shoot grow- 
ing four in a whorl, on the side shoots three m a whori oblong, 
approaching to lanceolate, shortly petiolate, entire and rather ob- 
tuse at the base, the rest of the margins serrated, the apex acute ; 

august 1st, 1845. 

their upper side is a deep or rather sattiny green, the under side 
pale, and, especially the petiole and costa, tinged with red. Nerves 
strong, prominent beneath. Flowers solitary, pendent, on pe- 
duncles which spring from the back end of the upper leaves, large, 
handsome. Ovary green, oblong. Calyx swollen at the base 
and there deep red, the long tube gradually becoming pink and 
paler, at length the red hue gives place to yellow-green in the 
tour lanceolate spreading acuminated segments. Petals four, 
obovate, waved, shorter than the calycine segments. Stamens 
unequal, four longer and four shorter, but nearly as long as the 
calycine segments, and longer than the petals. Anthers oblong, 
yellow. Style rather longer than the stamens, terminated by a 
thick club-shaped stigma. 

Tab. 4175. 

Tab. 4175. 
ACHIMENES argyrostigma. 

Silvery -spotted Achimenes. 

Nat. Ord. Gesnerace.e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4125.) 

Achimenes argyrostigma; pubescenti-pilosa, cauli brevi inclinato, foliis oppo- 
sitis ellipticis crenatis albo-maculatis, racemis subterminalibus elongatis 
multifloris calycibusque piloso-glandiilosis, corollse labio superiore abbreviate 
bilobo inferiore concavo fimbriato, tubo extus ore ovarioque pilosis. 

Among many novelties sent by our Collector for the Royal 
Botanic Gardens from the Sierra Nivada de Sta. Marta in New 
Grenada, is the accompanying highly interesting plant. The 
leaves are peculiarly beautiful, of a rich, velvetty, dark green, with 
a tinge of purple, spotted with white, as in Begonia argyrostigma. 
We will not deny that (partly from the consciousness that the 
plant was a true Achimenes), very great expectations were raised 
in respect to the beauty of its flowers. Their first appearance 
no doubt disappointed us ; but as the racemes increased m length 
and more blossoms expanded, the plant became a general favourite 
and is likely to continue so, for the flowers bid fair to continue 
the whole summer months. They are white or cream-colour, 
spotted with red. The plant requires the same treatment as others 
of this family ; and we find it best, after rearing it in in a moist 
and hot stove, to remove it to a cooler place; thus treated 
the bloom and'foliage continue in beauty a great Length of time. 
It will be readily increased, we cannot doubt, by its scaly, cater- 
pillar-like tubers, as is the case with the original Acktmenes cocci- 
nea, of winch this is unquestionably a true congener. 

Descr Boot branched and fibrous, bearing from the fibres 
long scaly buds or tubers, by which the plant readily increases 
Stem herbaceous, short, somewhat branched, green hairy, as well 
as the thick petioles. Leaves opposite, elliptical, obtuse, crenafco- 
serrate, downy, of a rich deep velvetty green, marked with scattered 
white rounded spots. Racemes erect, from the axils of the upper 
leaves, very much longer than the leaves, ^anduloso-mrsute, and 

AUGUST 1st, 1845. 

bearing flowers almost from the very base. Pedicels half an inch 
to an inch long, each with a small linear bractea at the base, 
rarely forked. Calyx, as well as the pedicel, pilose and glandular. 
Tube adnate with the base of the ovate hairy germen ; the seg- 
ments linear, slightly spreading. Corolla white, beautifully mottled 
with red. Tube rather short and gibbous at the base behind, 
hairy ; limb oblique, two-lipped ; upper lip abbreviated, two-lobed, 
with the lobes nearly entire, the lower divided into three lobes, 
which are rounded and fimbriated. Stamens four, didynamous ; 
the white antlers cohering all from the base of the tube of the 
corolla and with a fifth abortive stamen between the two pairs. 
Germen surrounded by a deep cup-shaped ring or disk. Style 
included, curved. Stigma capitate, two-lobed. The fruit presents 
two parietal receptacles nearly meeting in the centre and having 
many minute seeds in the lower portion chiefly of the receptacles. 

Fig. 1. Corolla laid open. 2. Pistil with annular cup-shaped disk. 3. Trans- 
verse section of an ovary : — magnified. 

Tal>. 41 


Wl-ch. del 

Tab. 4176. 
PORPHYROCOMA lanceolata. 

Lance-leaved Porphyrocoma. 

Nat. Ord. Acanthace;e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. POBPHYROCOMA, Hort. — Calyx 5-partitus, laciniis subaequa- 
libus, subulatis, basi tribracteis, bracteis coloratis magnis in spicam quadrifariam 
digestis, exteriore majore, duabus interioribus minoribus, omnibus spathulatis 
carinatis. Corolla longe exserta, tubulosa, bilabiata, labiis subsequalibus, superiore 
angusto, recto, apice bifido, inferiore latiore, reflexo, trifido. Stamina 2, labiis 
paulo breviora. Antherce loculis divergentibus. Ovarium ovatum, basi capsula 
immersa. Stylus longitudine fere corollae. Stigma obtusum. Capsula oblonga 
stipitata bilocularis. Semina 2, in singulis loculis, orbicularia plana retinaculo 
subtensa. — Fruticosa. Patria — ? Folia opposita, lanceolata basi attenuata, sub- 
sessilia, integerrima. Spicae terminates et subterminales aggregate, bracteata, brac- 
teis exterioribus magnis vividi-purpureis, quadrifariam dispositis unifloris. Mores 
exserti, purpureo-cesrulei. 

Pobphykocoma lanceolata, Hort. 

For the possession of this truly charming plant we are indebted 
to Mr. Forkel, Gardener to His Majesty the King of the Belgians, 
at Brussels, who sent it to us under the above name ; but unfor- 
tunately without any history, so as to leave us in the dark as to 
its native country, or the author of its very appropriate name, 
(■n-op^vpa, purple, and *6 M , head of hair), given in allusion to the 
singularly richly coloured spikes of deep purple, from within the 
scales of which the scarcely less brightly coloured (but more inclin- 
ing to blue) flowers appear. It was exhibited in the Horticultural 
Society's Rooms, and excited admiration from the beauty of the 
blossoms which consist in the dark purple comb-like parts half 
covering the Lamium-like violet flowers. 

It is a stove plant, and continues flowering during the spring 
and summer months. It may be referred to the Tribe Echna- 
tacanthi, Nees, and the Sub-tribe Justiciea, Nees. 

Descr. Our Plant is about a foot high, clothed more parti- 
cularly in the upper part with rather large drooping lanceolate 
leaves, quite entire at the margin, acuminated at the point, taper- 
ing at the base, but scarcely petioled, quite glabrous, dark green, 

august 1st, 1845. 

with very oblique nerves. Spikes aggregate, terminal, and subter- 
mmal, deeply four-angled from the opposite closely placed and im- 
bricated bracteas of the richest purple colour. Each of these is spa- 
tulate, membranous, carinate, acute; and within it are two which 
are smaller and narrower, one on each side the solitary sessile 
flower. Calyx small, of five deep, almost subulate, rather unequal, 
erect segments. Corolla a good deal protruded beyond the bracts, 
purplish-blue, tubular, two-lipped ; upper lip straight and narrow, 
two-lobed at the apex, lower one broader, bent down and three- 
lobed at the apex. Stamens two, as long as the corolla. Anther* 
cells two, divaricated yet partially parallel. Ovary ovate, with 
its base sunk in a fleshy cup. Style as long as the corolla. 
btigma obtuse. Fruit concealed by the large persistent bracteas, 
unguiculate, two-celled, two-valved. Each cell contains two flat- 
tened nearly orbicular seeds, supported by a curved process or 

'i ¥ \ g \l' CalyX ( includin g the P istil ) with side bracts. 2. Corolla laid open. 
<5. Anther. 4. Germen and hypogynous cup : — magnified. 

Tab. mi 



Tab. 4177. 
ECHINOCACTUS myriostigma. 

Many-spotted Echinocadus. 

Nat. Ord. Cactace^;. — Icosandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4115.) 

Echinoc actus (§ Asteroidei, Salm-Dyck) myriostigma; suborbicularis v. 
demum oblongus, profunde 5-6 sulcatus totus punctis seu pulvinulis minu- 
tis lanosis sparsis tectus, angulis valde prominentibus ad carinam planis 
areolatis, areolis approximatis trans versis lanosis inermibus, floribus ex urn- 
bilico terminab stramineis, sepalis superioribus glabris apice sphacelatis 
mucronatis, petalis subimiserialibus. 

Echinocactus myriostigma. Salm-Dyck, Cact. Sort. Dycle, p. 22. 

Astrophytum myriostigma. Lemaire, Cact. Nov. p. 4. 

One of the most singular of the singular family of Cactaceae, and 
still considered a rarity in collections ; first described by Lemaire 
in 1839, but from very imperfect specimens, of which even the 
native country was not known, but which presented such remark- 
able characters, independent of flower and fruit, that he ventured 
to constitute of it a Genus, under the appropriate name of Astro- 
phytum. The flowers, however, (for we are still ignorant of the 
fruit) seem to present no characteristic marks to distinguish it 
from Echinocadus, and I venture to follow the Prince de Salm- 
Dyck in considering it to form a section of that extensive genus, 
which he has called Asteroidei. The transverse section not in- 
aptly resembles a star-fish. We owe the possession of our spe- 
cimens in the Royal Gardens to F. Staines, Esq., of San Luis 
Potosi, Mexico, who sent us, in the first instance, specimens ;i 
foot long; but coming in contact, as it would appear, with 
a " monster species " enclosed in the same case, they were bruised 
and eventually perished. Others were afterwards forwarded of a 
smaller size, and one of them here figured threw out its pretty 
starry straw-coloured flowers from the depression at the top of the 
plant in July 1845. 

Descr. Plant eventually attaining a height <>i i> t'(»»r and 
probably more, at first subrotund, in age becoming more oblong, 

august 1st, 1845. 

umbilicated at the top, the sides formed of five or six deep furrows 
and as many broad, projecting angles ; the whole surface covered 
with white, scale-like dots, which when carefully examined are 
seen to be formed of matted and as it were interwoven hairs ; 
the keel of the angles is not sharp, but flattened, as if cut off 
with a knife, and this is occupied by closely placed transversely 
oblong areolae, filled with a floccose substance, but bearing no 
spines. In the umbilicus alone, whence the flowers appear, there 
are a few small brown rigid setae rather than spines. Flowers 
aggregated at the top of the plant, rather smaU, of a delicate 
straw-colour. Sepals closely imbricated, oblong, tipped with a 
black point and a mucro. Petals resembling them, but longer, 
arranged nearly in one series, linear, acute, but not mucronate, 
nor sphacelate at the tip. 

TaJb. 41, 

Tab. 4178. 

Showy scarlet-flowered Siphocampylos. 

Nat. Ord. Lobeliace*. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4105.) 

Siphocampylos coccineus; suffruticosus glaber elatus, foliis ovatis acutis brevi- 
petiolatis (nunc sublobatis) duplicato-serratis, pedunculis folio longioribus 
axillaribus sobtariis unifloris, flore nutante, ovario oblongo-turbinato sulcato 
laciniis calycinis lanceolatis patentibus serratis breviore, corolla? tubo basi 
(infra filamentorum insertionem) angustato demum sensim dilatato curvato 
ore contracto, bmbi vix bilabiati laciniis oblongo-ovatis acutiusculis sub- 
aequabbus incurvis. 

Perhaps the most beautiful of this Genus which has yet been 
introduced to our stoves, and sent from the Organ Mountains, 
Brazil, by Mr. William Lobb, one of the botanical collectors of 
Mr. Veitch, in whose Nursery at Exeter it first showed its large 
and scarlet flowers, in June 1845. Plants were exhibited at the 
Chiswick Exhibition in July, which gained the same prize there, 
as well as in the Regent's Park Garden, as had been awarded 
to the Fuchsia before described (Tab. 4174). It is treated as 
a stove plant, and, cultivated by Mr. Veitch, is not sparing of 

Descr. Suffruticose in the lower part of the plant only, erect, 
branched, glabrous. Leaves petiolate, alternate, broadly ovate, 
acute, scarcely acuminate, occasionally slightly lobed, doubly den- 
tato-serrate, rather strongly nerved, glabrous ; petiole rather short, 
grooved above. Peduncles axillary, solitary, one-flowered, longer 
than the leaves, erect, but curved at the top, so that the flower 
is gracefully pendent. Ovary turbinate, deeply sulcate. Segments 
of the calyx lanceolate, serrated, moderately patent, longer than 
the tube or ovary. Corolla bright scarlet, two inches and more 

august 1st, 1845. K 

long, curved ; the tube constricted at the base, as far as the 
setting on of the stamens, thence the tube gradually enlarges 
and again becomes contracted at the mouth; limb scarcely 
two-lipped, of five nearly equal, oblong-ovate, acute, incurved 
segments. Stamens and style included. 

Tab. 1/79. 

Reeve., Bro- 


Tab. 4179. 

GOMPHOLOBIUM versicolor; 

Far. caulibus purpureis. 

Changeable Gompholobium ; purple-stemmed variety. 

Nat. Ord. LeguminosjE. — Decandkia Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5 -partitas subaequalis. Corolla petalis 2 earinalibus con- 
cretis, vexillo explanato. Stigma simplex. Legumen polyspermum subsphaericum 
obtusissimum. — Frutices Amtralasici rigiduli. Folia alterna composita breviter 
petiolata. Fructus intus extusque glabri. Pedicelb florum medio aut bad bibrac- 
teolati. Calyces scepe lana subtili ciliati. Corolla? j?««w. Be Cand. 

Gompholobium versicolor; foliis breviter petiolatis trifoKolatis, foliolis lineari- 
bus glabris margine revolutis, racemis laxis paucifloris, calycis laciniis ob- 
longo-linearibus cuspidatis extus glabris intus pubescentibus, carina glabra. 

Gompholobium versicolor. Lindl., Bat. Reg. 1839. Suppl. no. 62. and Tab. 43. 

A pretty greenhouse Swan River suffruticose plant, from the 
rich collection of Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., Exeter, who 
raised it from seeds sent home by Mr. James Drummond. It 
derives its specific name from the circumstance of the flowers be- 
coming paler in age. But at all times the plant is extremely 
beautiful and most profuse in its blossoms, if it be kept well cut 
in, and not allowed to send out shoots that are too long and too 
luxuriant. Dr. Lindley has well distinguished the species from 
G. etnue and G. sparsum. It varies with purple stems, as repre- 
sented in our plate, and flowered in May 1845. 

Descr. An upright, rather twiggy, small shrub ■ with sub- 
angular stems and branches, deep purple in our variety, glabrous, 
as is every part of the plant. Leaves alternate, nearly sessile, 
trifoliolate ; leaflets linear, rather broadly so in the older parts of 
the plant, acute, almost apiculate at the extremity, the margins 
slightly recurved, costate, but with no evident nerves or veins, 
dark-green above, paler beneath. Bacemes axillary (from the upper 
leaves), and terminal, few (2-8)-flowered; pedicels furnished with 
minute bracteoles. Flowers large, handsome, peculiarly beauti- 
september 1st, 1845. L 

M just before expansion, when the rich and deep scarlet of the 
standard alone is seen. Calyx of five deep, oblong-acute, or almost 
mucronate segments. Standard long, somewhat reniform, deep 
red externally, pale within, yellow in the disk and with a deep 
red line bordering the yellow. Wings also deep red. Keel paler 
below, red towards the apex. Stamens ten, nearly as long as the 
pistil. Filaments ten, free. Ovary oblong, compressed, shortly 
stipitate. Style almost as long as the ovary, curved upwards. 
Stigma obtuse. 

Fig. 1. One ofthealae or wings. 2. The keel. 3. Stamens and pistil. 
4. Pistil : all slightly magnified. 



Tab. 4180. 
ANIGOZANTHUS pulcherrimus. 

Beautiful Yelloiu Anigozanthus. 

Nat. Ord. Hemodorace^e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 3875.) 

Anigozanthus pulcJterrimus ; caule elato foliisque sequitantibus lmeari-acumi- 
natis falcatis ubique tomento stellato tectis, panicula valde ramosa pilis 
setulosis rufis tecta, perianthio infundibuliformi piUs ejusdem stnicturae flans 
dense obsitis, ore valde obliquo intus glaberrimo laciniis intus tomentosis, 
antkeris muticis. 

One of the most beautiful of this fine Genus from its copious 
and richly coloured flowers and flowering branches ; the former 
being bright yellow, the latter clothed with scarlet hairs, curi- 
ously branched on a yellow ground. It is a native of the Swan 
River settlement, where it was detected by our indefatigable 
friend Mr. James Drummond. From seeds sent by him it has 
been raised by Mr. Lowe, of the Clapton Nursery, to whom the 
Royal Botanic Garden owes the possession of a fine plant. It 
has not yet, however, as far as I am aware, bloomed m this coun- 
try, and our flowering specimen is taken from a dried native spe- 
cimen sent by Mr. Drummond, in which, from the nature of the 
plant and peculiarity of its vestiture, the form and colours are as 
well preserved as if seen in a living state. Perhaps m the ge- 
neral structure of the blossoms it comes nearest to J.Jkmaus; 
but the flowers are much shorter, and the panicle and leaves and 
clothing are all very different in the two species It loves a light 
sandy soil and the protection of a good greenhouse, and will 
prove a highly ornamental plant to our gardens. 

Descr. Plant 2-3 feet high. L**H» most numerous near 
the root, but smaller, remote upwards ; all of them linear-falcate, 
acuminate, entire, equitant, clothed with a (Urns, steUated or 
branched greyish tomentum, givingahoary character to the fohage 
ami to the lower part of the stem which .s sun. arly invested. 
This stem has again the leaves becoming gradually smaller up- 
wards, where it becomes a large fiowe*ng pamde, with lanceolate 


bracteas at the setting on of the branches, and the branches them- 
selves apparently clothed with a short yellow down, but which is 
partially concealed by copions bright red hairs or setae, themselves 
beset with setulse or lesser horizontal hairs, imparting a rich red 
velvetty hue to this portion of the plant. Flowers several on each 
branchlet, distichous, each subtended by a small subulate bractea, 
and of a rich yellow colour. Pedicels short. Perianth infundi- 
buliform, curved, the mouth oblique ; externally clothed, with 
bright yellow hairs of the same structure as those on the branches 
of the panicle. Segments spreading unequally, the two lowest 
being wide apart, within covered with short whitish down. Mouth 
very oblique, smooth within the tube, lined as it were with a 
membrane, which at the faux gives origin to the six exserted 
stamens. Filaments short. Anthers oblong. Style curved, ex- 
serted, as long as the stamens. 

Pig. 1. Flower, slightly magnified. 

Tab. 4181. 

Tab. 4181. 

ECHINOCACTUS multiflorus. 

Many-jlowered Echinocactw. 

Nat. Ord. Cached. — Icosandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4124.) 

Echinocactus (§ Tuberculati) multiflorus ; depresso-globosus obscure viridis 
subglaucus tubercidatus vix costatus, tuberculis magnis verticaliter oblongis 
hemisphaerice prominentibus mamma3formibus demum confluentibus superne 
m series subverticales irregulares dispositis, areolis ovalibus tomentosis, 
aculeis 5 validis reflexo-patentibus recurvatis subappressis subsequalibus, flo- 
ribus numerosis (pro plants ratione) magnis albidis. 

From the rich collection of Cactuses in the possession of Mr. 
Palmer, of Stockwell, near London, who obligingly sent a speci- 
men (the one here figured), to Kew, on the eve of its blos- 
soming. Of its native country we are ignorant, and it does not 
appear to be described ; but on this subject it behoves us to speak 
with caution, for no plants are so difficult to define by words as 
the individuals of this now extensive family : figures, alone, can 
render the distinguishing characters of them intelligible. The 
species is remarkable for the large tubercles, strong spreading 
recurved and almost appressed spines, and for the copious pale, 
almost white, flowers, tinged with greenish-brown. 

Descr. Our only specimen is of the size here represented, 
globose, depressed at the top, green, slightly glaucous. Tubercle* 
large, irregularly placed, upper ones only in an imperfect verti- 
cal series, and those oblong or oval, very prominent, obscurely 
angled. Areola oval, woolly ; bearing five nearly equal spines, 
about an inch long, diverging, but not on all sides, two opposite 
pairs laterally and the lower one towards the base of the plant ; 
all are so much spread and decurved that they may almost be 
said to be appressed strong, of a yellowish colour, purple at the 
base. Mowers large (for the size w the plant), numerous, several 
opening at one time, SO as to cover and conceal the upper surface 


of the plant. Calyx-scales green, gradually enlarging and be- 
coming petaloid, till at length they pass into the spreading, 
obovate, almost white petals. Stamens numerous. Anthers small 
orange. Rays of the stigma white, or nearly so. 


Tab. 4182. 
CHIRITA Zeylanica. 

Ceylon Chirita. 

Nat. Ord. Cyrtandrace^e. Gesnerace^: Cyrtandraceje, Br. — 


Gen. Char. CHIRITA, Ham. in Don's Prodr. Calyx tubulosus sub 5-gonus, 
lobis per asstivationem subvalvatis. Corolla basi tubulosa superne ventricosa 
campanulata, limbo 5-lobo bilabiato, lobis subrotundis. Stamina 5, duo anthe- 
rifera, 3 steriba minima. Antherce reniformes nudse superne cohasrentes 1-locu- 
lares. Ovarium sibquosum. Stylus 1. Stigma bipartitum lobis oblongis. Cap- 
sula siliquaeformis bilocularis stylo terminata bivalvis, septo valvulis adnato bi- 
partite Semina 00, minuta calva subulata. — Herbas perennes hirsute Nepalenses. 
Caules simplices. Folia opposita scepius disparia et basi vix incequalia petiolata 
serrata. PeduncuH axillares oppositi bibracteati seepius \-flori. Corollae magna 
rubra autflavcB. Be Cand. 

Chirita Zeylanica; fobis oppositis longe petiolatis supra appresso-brunnco-se- 
riceis obscure serratis basi obliquis, pedunculis axillaribus, floribus panicu- 
latis tricbotome divisis, bracteis lobisque calycinis ovatis, coroUse (purpurea;) 
tubo intus supra bilamellato infra lineis duabus elevatis hirsutis (flavis), 
stigmate transversim triangulari. 

Of the family of Cyrtandracea, lately so admirably illustrated 
by Mr. Brown, and more fully described by De Candolle, father 
and son, very few species indeed have been in cultivation, and 
two of those that are at this moment blossoming in the Royal Gar- 
dens of Kew, do not appear to be anywhere described. Our 
knowledge of those we have (including jfischynanthus), will lead 
us to seek for more ; since, like their affinities, the Gesneracea (of 
which, indeed, Mr. Brown considers them a group or section), 
they are of great beauty and easy cultivation ; and they seem to 
abound in the East Indies, as the true Gesneracea do in the 
tropical parts of the New World. The generic Chirita of Hamil- 
ton, (written Chirata in Don's ' System of Gard. and Botany'), is 
said to be altered from the vernacular name of one of the species, 
and of course of Indian origin. Our present species is a native 
of Ceylon, and was raised from seeds sent from that island by Mr. 
Henderson, the scientific gardener to Lord Rtewilliam, late at 
Milton, now at Wentworth. The plant strikes readily from cut- 

BEFFKMBSB 1ST, 1st."). 

tings and soon blossoms, flowering through most of the summer 
months, treated as a stove-plant. 

Descr. Plant a foot and more high, slightly branched, having 
appressed hairs. Leaves opposite, petiolate, ovate, acute, entire, 
obliquely penninerved, with impressed veins above, prominent 
beneath, covered with rather close-pressed, silky-brownish hairs. 
Panicle on a peduncle, considerably longer than the leaves, not 
much, but trichotomously divided, the middle branch often single- 
flowered, the lateral ones again divided. Branches tinged with 
purple. Bracteas opposite, ovate, greenish-purple. Calyx large, 
lax, of the same colour as the bracteas, obtuse and oblique at the 
base, two-lipped ; upper lip of three, lower of two deep, ovate, acu- 
minated segments. Corolla large, handsome, rich purple, reddish 
and paler in the tube. Tube broadly infundibuliform, ventricose 
beneath. Limb two-lipped, moderately spreading, upper of two, 
lower of three nearly equally sized rounded lobes. Lower palate 
having two raised yellow lines. Stamens included, two fertile 
filaments angled or geniculated outside near the middle, their 
anthers reniform connate ; two other stamens are small and abor- 
tive, and there is an imperfect rudiment of a fifth. Ovary linear- 
oblong, seated upon a fleshy disk. Style elongated. Stigma of 
two spreading somewhat triangular plates, white. Fruit long 
linear, siliquiform, tapering into the long persistent style. I have 
not seen it mature. 

Pig. 1. Corolla laid open. 2. Pistil :— slightly magnified. 

kid 3. 

Tab. 4183. 

HABROTHAMNUS fasciculatus. 

Cluster-Lowered Ilabrothamnvs. 

Nat. Ord. Solanace^:. Trib. Cestre/E. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char, HABROTHAMNUS, Meissn. — Calyx campanulatus, 5-dentatus. 
Corolla hypogyna, clavato-tubiilosa, tubo longo, limbo 5-dentato contracto. 
Stamina 5, medio corollse tubo inserta, inclusa ; filament a simplicia. Antliera 
longitudinaliter detuscentes. Ovarium biloculare placentis oblongis dissepimento 
adnatis, pluriovulatis. Stylus simplex ; stigma capitatum, obsolete bdobum. 
Bacca calyce cincta bilocularis. Semi, 1a pauea angidata, umbilico ventrali. Em- 
bryo in axi albuminis carnosi rectus ; cotyledonibus foliaceis ; radicula tereti, 
ini'era. — Frutices Mexicani, glabri v. subfomentosi-pubescentes, pilis articulatis ; 
foliis alternis integerrimis ; floribus ituequaliter cymosis ; corollis baccisque rubris. 

Habrothamnus fasciculatus; fruticosus, ramis junioribus pubescentibus, foliis 
breviter petiolatis ovatis acuminatis integerrimis pubescentibus penninerviis, 
floribus terminalibus cymoso-capitatis involucratis, involucri foliobs folia 
semulantibus sed multo minoribus, calycis segmentis ovatis acuminatis, 
corolla urceolatim tubulosa basi attenuate ore valde constricta, laciuiis ova- 
tis acutissimis patentibus ciliatis, staminibus infra medium insertis. 

Habrotiiamnus fasciculatus. Endl. in Bentli. Plant. Hartic. no. 369. TTalp. 
Repert. Bot. Syst. V. 3. p. 123. JIart/r. in Ilort. Trans, land. N. 8. 3. 
Tab. 2. lindl. in Bot. Bey. Misc. 184.3. no. 73. 

Meyexia fasciculata. SchlecM. in Linnaa, S.p. 251. 

Habrothamnus elegans. Scheidweil. in Walp. Repert. Bot. Syst. 3. p. 122. et 
Addend, ejusd. vol am. p. 934. 

H. purpureus. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1841. t. 43. and Miacell. no. 1 9. 

Avery handsome greenhouse shrub, which in its native country 
(Mexico) bears innumerable closely placed heads or clusters of 
beautiful red flowers, but of which the sample given exhibits only 
one such head. This was communicated by Messrs. Lucombe, 
Pince, and Co., from their Nursery, Exeter ; they imported it, I 
believe, through Belgium. One has only to look at the figure 
above quoted in the ' Hort. Society's Transactions' to see how this 
plant is capable of improvement, and that figure, done from the 
native dried specimen, is no exaggeration over nature. Hartweg 
describes it as one of the gayest productions of the Mexican Mora. 
Our specimen was produced in winter. The generic name is de- 


rived from afyos, gay, and Bapvos, a shoot, or branch ; so named from 
the beauty of its flowering branches. 

Descr. A shrub, according to Hartweg, about five feet high, 
downy. Branches terete. Leaves alternate, on short thick red 
petioles, ovato-acuminate, waved, entire, obtuse at the base, pen- 
ninerved. Flowers in involucrated capitate cymes. Involucral 
leaves three or four, resembling those of the stem, but much 
smaller and nearly sessile. Pedicels short, or none. Calyx small, 
with a short obconical tube and five erect ovate acuminated cili- 
ated segments. Corolla rather a deep red rose-colour, urceolate, 
but much elongated and tapering at the base, constricted at the 
mouth ; limb of five spreading, ovate, very acute, ciliated segments. 
Stamens included. Filaments inserted below the middle of the 
tube. Anthers short-oblong. Ovary globose, on a fleshy disk, 
two-celled, few-seeded. Style included. Stigma capitate, some- 
what two-lobed. 


Tab. 4184 

Mr. Lees Echinocactus. 

Nat. Ord. Cacte.e. — Icosandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4124.) 

Echinocactus (§ Tuberculati) Leeanus ; depresso-globosus obscure subglau- 
co-viridis tubercubs subkemisphsericis majusculis obtuse hexahedris niam- 
miformibus confluentibus, in series m-egulares subverticales dispositis, areolis 
ovalibus tomentosis, aculeis subgracilibus quorum subdecem patentibus 
rectiusculis cum unico centrali porrecta vix majore, floribus majusculis pal- 
lide flavescentibus. 

Raised by Messrs. Lee of the Hammersmith Nursery, from seeds 
sent from the Argentine provinces by Mr. Tweedie of Buenos 
Ayres, in 1840. The specimen here figured blossomed in May, in 
the Cactus-house of the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew. 1 do 
not meet with its description in any book to which I have access, 
and therefore venture, though not Avithout hesitation, to publish 
it as new. It may rank near our E. muliiflorus (supra, Tab. 4181), 
but is in reality very different. 

Descr. A small species, globose, but depressed at the top. 
Tubercles which compose the surface rather large, hemispherical, 
but having about six very obtuse angles, of a rather glaucous green 
colour, not arranged in distinct lines or series so as to form ridges 
with their corresponding furrows, but placed with a good deal of 
irregularity, becoming, below especially, confluent and obsolete, at 
the top small and very numerous. Areola oval, downy, or rather 
woolly, producing about eleven rather slender spines, of which 
one, the central one, stands forward and is quite straight ; the other 
ten are slightly recurved, and spread horizontally (especially on 
the older tubercles), most of these are nearly equal in size and 
about half an inch long. Flowers from the summit or depressed 
portion above, one or two moderately large. Tube short, covered 


with green roundish or oblong obtuse scales, the upper ones larger, 
with pale edges and tips, and gradually passing into the pale sul- 
phur or almost cream-coloured petals. 

Fig. 1 and 2. Areoke with the aculei: — slightly magnified, 



Tab. 4185. 
GARDENIA Stanleyana. 

Lord Derby s Gardenia. 

Nat. Ord. Rubiace^e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus ovatus ssepe costatus, limbus tubulosus truncatus 
dentatus iissus partitusve. Corolla infundibuliformis aut hypocraterimorpha, tubo 
calyce multo longiore, limbo per sestivationem contorto patente 5-9-partito. 
Anthera 5-9 lineares ad faucem subsessiles. Stigma clavatum bifidum aut biden- 
tatum, lobis crassis erectis. Ovarium dissepimentis incompletis 2-5 semi-divisum, 
1-loculare. Bacca carnosa calyce coronata intus cbartacea aut nucleata incom- 
plete 2-5-locularis. Semina minuta placentis parietalibus carnosis immersa. 
Embryo albuminosus vagus. — Arbores aut frutices, inermes aut spinescentes. Folia 
opposita raro verticillata, ovalia. Plores axillares aut terminates, plerumque soli- 
tarii, albi, devmm scepe Jlorescentes, seepius odori. — Be Cand. 

Gardenia (Rothmannia) Stanleyana; glaberrima, ramis horizontalibus, folus 
oblongis brevissime petiolatis utrinque acutis venarum in axillis glandulosis, 
floribus subsessibbus axillaribus solitai-iis erectis plerumque e caubs dicbo- 
tomia, calycis subcybndracei tubo superne libero 5-dentato dentibus ap- 
pressis, corolla? glaberrima} tubo longissimo superne sensim ampliato angu- 
lato, bmbi laciniis late ovatis obtusis cito revolutis, antheris styloque mclusis. 

Gardenia Stanleyana. Hook. MSS. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1845, t. 4. 

Sent to the Right Honourable the Earl of Derby by Mr. 
Whitfield from Sierra Leone, and assuredly one of the most re- 
markable and beautiful of the plants which that gentleman has 
had the satisfaction of introducing to our collections. The young 
plant presented to us, when yet only a few months old, but 
placed on the table of a stove heated below by the tank-system, 
threw out flower-buds from most of the dichotomies of its young 
horizontal branches; and in the month of March 1845 no fewer 
than ten of the noble flowers, here represented, were expanded 
at a time on one and the same plant. Our drawing was made 
at that period, but was scarcely finished when we sent the plant, 
for the gratification of those who might not be able to see it at 
Kew, to the rooms of the Horticultural Society m London where 
it did not fail to attract great attention. Unfortunately the sea- 
son was unusually cold ; the blossoms were materially injured in 
the transit, so much so that our figure would have still been unfit 
for publication, were it not that Messrs. Lucombc and I ince, witli 

OCTOBER 1st, 1845. 

a liberality common to other distinguished nurserymen, as well 
as to themselves, sent me from Exeter a flowering plant which 
we had the pleasure of presenting to them a short time before as 
a cutting : so freely does this species of Gardenia produce its 
charming blossoms. It deservedly bears the name of the scien- 
tific nobleman through whose means it was introduced, and in 
whose, as well as other collections, it has now flowered. 

How closely it is allied to Rothmannia longifiora of Salisbury, 
in ' Paradisus Londinensis,' Tab. 65. (strangely separated from 
Gardenia Rothmannia, Linn., in Bot. Mag. p. 690, and there re- 
ferred to Randia) is very evident ; but, if the characters of that, 
as given by Salisbury, who only saw it " when all the flowers were 
fading," be considered, it cannot be the same ; for, independent 
of the exserted stamens of that species, the smaller size of the 
corolla (five to six inches long, whereas ours is nine inches), and 
the very different colour of the tube, which is described as being 
cottony and the limb slightly cottony on both sides, will readily 
distinguish it. Nothing of the kind is seen in our plant. 

Descr. Plant, now scarcely two years old, about five feet 
high, shrubby or almost tree-like, having a central stem throw- 
ing out horizontal branches on all sides and a spreading top ; 
everywhere glabrous. Leaves spreading, subcoriaceous, oblong, 
on short petioles, acute at each extremity, quite entire, penni- 
nerved, the nerves bearing glands or swellings at their axils. 
Flmoers large, handsome, powerfully fragrant, nine inches long ; 
solitary from the upper side of the upper spreading branches, and 
generally from the dichotomies or from the base of a branchlet, 
nearly sessile, pointing upwards. Base of the ovary slightly at- 
tenuated into a short peduncle and bearing a few small bracteas ; 
upper or free portion of the calyx tubular, with five small, erect, 
appressed teeth. Corolla infundibuliform ; tube extremely long, 
slender, cylindrical, dark purple, sometimes tinged with green, 
dilated above and opening into a bell-shaped purple mouth, marked 
with raised lines without ; limb of five broadly ovate, spreading, 
at length reflexed, obtuse segments, purple and white without, 
pure white within with a shade of blush near the mouth, and co- 
vered, except at the margin, with oblong dots of deep purple 
elegantly arranged in oblique lines. Anthers linear, sessile, fixed 
by the back to the inside of the mouth of the corolla, and, as well 
as the very long style, included. Stigma clavate, bifid. Or my 
thick and fleshy, with two cells and numerous ovules on the 

Kg. 1. Stamen. 2. Calyx, ovary, style and stigma. 3. Transverse section of 
tin ovary ; — luixjiujitd. 


Tab. 4186. 
EXOSTEMMA longiflorum. 

Long-flowered Exostemma. 

Nat. Orel. KuBiACEiE. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus obovatus, limbus 5-dentatus. Corolla tubo tereti, 
limbo 5-partito, laciniis linearibus. Stamina filamenta nunc tubo usque aut fau- 
cem, nunc vix basi adnata. Antherce lineares exsertse. Stylus filiformis apice 
clavatus indivisus aut bilobus. Capsula calyce coronata aut demmn subnuda bi- 
locularis, ab apice septicido debiscens, mericarpiis nempe semi-teretibus seu semi- 
ovatis, commissure, chartacea. Placenta bnearis in medio cujusque loculi. Semina 
plurima retrorsum imbricata margine membranacea alata suborbiculata ; aidumme 
carnoso ; cotyled. planis. — Arbores aut frutices sapius glabri. Foba ovalia aut lan- 
ceolata breve petiolata. Stipuke utrinque solitaries. Pedunculi axillares aut ter- 
tninales. Flores candldi aut rubentes. Be Cand. 

Exostemma longiflorum ; foliis lanceolatis acuminatis basi in petiolum perbrevem 
attenuatis glabris,pedicellis terminalibus axillaribusve, calycis dentibus tubum 
Ecquantibus lineari-subulatis strictis, corolla foliis triplo 4-plove longiore. 

Exostemma longiflorum. Roem. et Sch. Syst. Veg. v. 5. p. 18. Be Cand. Prodr. 
v. 4. p. 359. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 405. 

Cinchona longiflora. Lamb. Cinchon.p. 38. tab. 12. excl. syn. (Be Cand.) 

We received this plant at Kew, from Mr. Makoy of Liege, 
under the name here adopted, and though some discrepancies 
exist between our specimen and the figure of Lambert above 
quoted, yet they are too trifling to lead me to suppose the species 
otherwise than the same. In Mr. Lambert's representation the 
leaves are narrower, the flowers rather smaller, and the segments 
of the calyx and corolla are too short ; probably occasioned by 
being drawn from an imperfect specimen in the Herbarium of 
Aubfet Lambert gives Guiana as the native country of the spe- 
cies ; while De CandoUe, on the authority of Richard, says it is in- 
digenous to St. Domingo. Be that as it may, it constitutes a very 
pretty shrub, flowering freely and copiously, and the blossoms 
are fragrant and remarkable not only for their great length but 
for their change of colour, at first pure white, gradually becoming 
red. Exostemma is a genus separated from dnehom, chiefly on 
account of its exserted stamens, whence the name U», without, 

OCTOBER 1st, 1845. 

beyond, and tni^a % a crown. E. lonyiforum blossoms with us in 
June and continues for some weeks in beauty. 

Descr. A low shrub, in our stove about a foot and a half 
high, much branched ; the branches opposite, ultimate ones short 
and subcorymbose. Leaves lanceolate, sharply acuminated, en- 
tire, tapering into a very short footstalk at the base, penninerved, 
of a texture between coriaceous and membranaceous. Stipules 
broadly ovate, acuminate, appressed. Peduncles axillary and ter- 
minal, short, often clustered or subcorymbose, bracteated. Calyx- 
tube purple, oblong, tapering at the base, glabrous j teeth or 
segments equal in length to the tube, erect, linear-subulate. 
Corolla with a very long slender tube nearly a span in length, 
cylindrical, slightly widening upwards and suddenly expanding 
into the five segments of the limb, which are one-third as long as 
the tube, linear, obtuse, soon reflexed. The corolla, green in the 
bud, is pure white on first expanding, at length drooping and 
changing to red. Stamens placed at the mouth of the tube and 
wholly exserted ; about as long at the limb. Filaments flat, slightly 
dilated upwards, when they are broader than the very narrow 
linear anthers. 

41 81 

Tab. 4187. 


Downy-leaved Tacsonia. 

Nat. Orel. Passifloke^;. — Monadeephia Pentandria. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus longus, limbus 10-lobus, faux membraua squamu- 
losa instructa. — Habitus Passiflorae. Be Cand. 

Tacsonia (§ Bracteogama) mollissima ; foliis tripartitis pubescentibus subtus 
toraentosis basi cordatis laciniis ovato-lanceolatis serratis, petiolis pluri- 
glandulosis, stipubs semiovatis cuspidato-acuminatis dentatis, pedunculo 
unifloro, flore glaberrimo, calycis segmentis intus color atis (roseis), nectario 
glanduloso ad faucem tubi. 

Tacsonia mollissima. H. B. K. Nov. Gen. Am. v. 2. p. 144. Be Cand. Prodr. 4 
p. 334. 

A worthy companion to the scarcely less beautiful T. pinnati- 
stipula, figured at our Tab. 4062 ; and, like it, only requiring a 
cool greenhouse ; for though indigenous in the tropics of New 
Grenada, yet growing at a height of nine to ten thousand 
feet above the level of the sea, it is evident that a temperate cli- 
mate suits it best. It probably occupies an extensive geographical 
range at the elevations just mentioned. Humboldt found it about 
Santa Fe de Bogota, and Mr. W. Lobb in woods near Quito. 
It is from seeds sent home by the latter to Messrs. Veitch at 
Exeter, that the plants were raised from which the accompanying 
figure was taken, and these we have reason to know will soon 
be brought into the market. 

From Mr. Veitch we have received the following particulars. 
" We have cultivated it in the stove, but there the flowers inva- 
riably dropped off before they had expanded. In a cool green- 
house it blooms freely, and from what M_r. Lobb has said respecting 
it, and from our own experience, I am inclined to think it might 
survive our winters here (Devonshire) on a sheltered wall, and we 
shall try this experiment. As a conservatory climber it is emi- 
nently beautiful and is best cultivated in a mixture of loam and 
peat with decayed leaves and a little sharp sand. It bids fair to 
strike readily in the usual manner." 

OCTOBER 1st, 1845. 

Our figure was made in August, but the plants will probably 
bear a succession of these lovely blossoms till the cold weather sets 
in. The species is nearly allied to Tacsonia tripartita of Jussieu ; 
but the leaves are cordate and the segments much broader. 

Descr. A long-stemmed climbing plant, with rounded 
branches. Leaves cordate in circumscription, deeply divided into 
three ovato-lanceolate, serrated segments, dark green and downy 
above, paler and almost tomentose beneath, reticulato-venose. 
Tendrils simple. Stipules rather small, semiovate, toothed, acumi- 
nato-cuspidate. Peduncle solitary, single-flowered, much shorter 
than the tube of the flower, but longer than the petiole, which 
latter has several glands. Involucre three-fid, or rather of three 
united bracteas at first sheathing. Calyx-tube very long, stout, 
cylindrical, green, quite glabrous (as is the whole flower), the 
mouth glandular at the margin ; segments five oblong, obtuse, 
mucronate, green at the back, the margins and outlines full rose- 
colour. Petals five, oblong, obtuse, rose-colour. Column as long 
as the tube. Filaments exserted. Anthers yellow. Ovary oval. 
Styles dilated upwards ; stigmas capitate. 

416 8. 

Tab. 4188. 

Mr. Tweedies Calliandra. 

Nat. Ord. Lugumino&s. Trib. Mimose^e. — Monadelphia Folyandria. 

Gen. Char. CALLIANDRA, Benth. — Flares plerique bermaphroditi. Calyx 
eampanulatus 5-dentatus v. varius 5-fidus, ssepius striatus. Corolla infundibu- 
liformi-campanulata, rarius subtubulosa, laciniis striatis v. tenuiter membranaceis. 
Stamina indefinite samius rmmerosa corolla prunes longiora, basi in tubum coalita 
et corollas saepius plus minus adnata. Legumen lineare, rectum v. vix falcatum, 
compressum, in valvulas 2 lignosas coriaceas v. submembranaceas marginibus 
valde incrassatis, ab apice ad basin elastice dehiscens, intus uniloculare epulpo- 
sum. Seminum funiculus ssepius brevis. — Frutices v. arbores parva, America? 
calidioris incolee, smpius inermes. Folia bipinnata, petiolo rhachique fere in omnibus 
eglandulosis. Stipulae in ramulis floriferis v. ad basin pedunculorum sapius persis- 
tentes, subimbricata, foliacea, membranacece v. indurate, in ramulis vegetioribus 
nonnunquam decidual, rarius postice in spinam ut primum refiexam mox patentem v. 
surrectam products. Capitula florum globosa, pedunculata v. rarius sessilia, in 
axillis foliorum superiorum v. in racemo terminali solitaria gemina v. rarius plura, 
staminibus (idtrapollicaribus) purpureis v. albis, comosa, speciosa. Flores centrales 
seepius quant in Albizzia diformes, corolla elongalo-tubulosa, stamimm tubo longe 

CALLIANDHA Tweediei : ramulis petiobsque pilosis, stipulis ovatis acutiusculis, 
piimis 3-4-jugis, fobolis multijugis oblongo-linearibus acutiuscubs cibatis 
subtus pilosis, pedunculis petiolo longioribus, bracteolis sub flore lanceolatis 
linearibusve deciduis, floribus brevissime pcdicellatis molliter pilosis, calyce 
turbinato corolla dirnidio breviore, legumine sublignoso crasso dense viboso. 

Calliandea Tweediei. Benth. in Hook. Joum. Bot. v. 2. p. 140. et in Bond. 
Journ. Bot. v. 3. p. 107. 

An elegant shrab, belonging to a Gemts of Mimoseee, distin- 
guished by the great length and frequently rich red colour of the 
stamens, whence the appropriate name Calliandra, Benth., 
(<caXX oy , beautiful, and ivh P -avh p0Si the stamen). Sixty species are 
enumerated by Mr. Bentham in the ' London Journal of Botany,' 
all inhabitants of the American continent. They have, Mr. Ben- 
tham observes, the corolla of Albizzia, the stamens of an La/a, 
and a pod different from that of any other Genus, the valves of 
the pod rolling back elastically in a very remarkable manner. 
The present species is a native of Rio Grande and Rio Jaqury in 

wi'ober 1st, 1845. 

South Brazil, where it was detected by the indefatigable Botanist 
whose name it bears ; found also by Mr. Sellow. From seeds 
sent to Lord Derby at Knowsley, plants were raised by Mr. 
Jennings, which produced the flowering specimens here repre- 
sented, in March 1845. It has likewise been grown at Kew, where 
the plants flowered a little later in the season. It requires the 
heat of a stove and to be kept moist. 

Descr. A small tree or in mountainous places a low shrub, 
according to Tweedie. Our plant seems disposed to trail with 
its branches ; the younger branches are slightly villous. Leaves 
bipinnate. Pinna three to four pair, each with very numerous 
oblong acute leaflets three to four lines long, bright green, paler 
and slightly hairy beneath. Stipules ovato-scariose, brown, hairy. 
Peduncle axillary, solitary, shorter than the leaf, bearing a head 
of about twenty flowers. Calyx campanulate, rather deeply five- 
toothed. Corolla silky, pale greenish -white. Stamens numerous. 
Filaments long, red, monadelphous at the base. Anthers very 
small, subglobose. Style shorter than the stamens. 

Fig. 1. Flower from which the stamens are removed : — magnified. 


Tab. 4189. 
FRANCISCEA acuminata. 

Acuminated Franciscea. 

Nat. Ord. Scrophularine^e. — Did yx ami a Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx persistans, inflatus, campanulatus, quinquedentatus : den- 
tibus sequalibus. Corolla hypocrateriformis ; limbus quinquepartitus subsequalis ; 
lobis rotundatis repandis, margine incumbentibus ; tubus apice inflatus, incurva- 
tus. Stylus apice incrassatus. Stigma bilobum. Capsula ovata, bilocularis, 
bivalvis, valvulis impartibilibus. Pohl. 

Franciscea acuminata; ramis erecto-patentibus, fobis oblongis acuminatis ad 
basin parum attenuatis glabris (ciliatis), bracteis lanceolatis acuminatis caly- 
cibusque glaberrimis, floribus paucis subracemosis terminabbus. Fold. 

Franciscea acuminata. Pohl, Plant. Brazil, v. 1. p. 4. t. 3. 

Franciscea Pobliana, Hort. 

A handsome Brazilian shrub, native of Brazil, presented by 
Mr. Lowe of Clapton to the Royal Gardens of Kew, where it 
flowers in the stove during the months of June and July. It was 
received under the name of F. PoUiana, probably a mere garden 
name, which ought not to be retained, for it is assuredly the F. 
acuminata of Pohl, in the splendid work above quoted. It is a 
very desirable hot-house plant, wanting indeed the delicious scent 
of F. Hopeana and the handsome foliage of F. hydrangeaformis, 
but nearly equal to the latter and superior to the former in the 
flowers. Cuttings will strike under a bell-glass in sand, if placed 
on a tank-pit. Sixteen species of this genus are now described 
in books ; but some of them are doubtful, or with difficulty to be 
distinguished from others. The genus is also thought not to be 
sufficiently distinct from Brunsfelsia, and Mr. Bcntham has united 
the two in the descriptions of Scrophularinea for the forthcoming 
volume of De Candolle's Prodromus. 

Descii. A shrub, in our stove about two feet high, much 
branched, everywhere glabrous. Leaves alternate, on short peti- 
oles, subcoriaceous, oblong, acuminate, tapering gradually at the 
base, quite entire, obscurely nerved and ciliated at the margin. 
Flowers terminal, but generally on short branches, which are 

OCTOBER 1st, 1845. p 

frequently overtopped by neighbouring ones, arranged in rather 
few-flowered corymbs. Pedicels short, with subulate bracteas at 
the base. Calyx oblong-campanulate, tapering below, five-toothed. 
Corolla hypocrateriform, with the tube about twice as long as the 
calyx, slender, slightly enlarged upwards and there much inclined, 
so as to give an oblique direction to the limb, which is broad, 
deeply cut into five roundish, waved, spreading, deep purple seg- 
ments, soon fading to a pale purple ; the mouth having a white 
elevated ring. Stamens didynamous, included. Pistil also in- 
cluded. Ovary sunk in a fleshy disk or ring, ovate. Style nearly 
as long as the tube, and geniculated or bent at an angle so as to 
follow the inclination of the tube, a little thickened upwards. 
Stigma large, two-lobed. 

Fig. 1. Pistil with its fleshy disk or ring at the base : — magnified. 


Tab. 4190. 
ECHINOCACTUS pectiniferus. 

Pectinated PJchinocactus. 

Nat. Ord. Cacte,e. — Icosandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Sepala numerosa imbricata, basi ovario adnata, in tubum brevis- 
simum coucreta, exteriora involucriformia, intima petaliformia. Stamina nume- 
rosa, calyci affixa, insequalia, intima brevissima, filiformia, antheria oblongis. 
Stylos cylindricus, subfistulosus, apice multifidus. Bacca sepalorum rebquiis 
subsquamata, rarissime laevis. Cotyledones parvulse. — Erutices simplicissimi car- 
nod, ovati out globosi, melocactoidei aut mammillariadvrmes, aphylli, costati aid 
tuierculati, costis tuberculin conflumtibus quasi for matis, dorso aculeorum fasciculos 
gerentibus. Cephalium seu spadix nullus. Flores efasciculis aculeorum ad apicem 
costarum orli, similes fioribm Cerei, sed tubo vix supra receptaculum elougato. 

EcHDJOC ACTUS pectiniferus; snbrotundo-ovatus vertice depresso sub 20-costatus, 
costis derails submammillatis obtusis, areolis approximatis ovalibus juni- 
oi'ibus albo-lamitis, aculeis copiosis biformibus in singula areola albis demum 
fuscis breviusculis compressis, exterioribus patentissimis bifariam radiantibus 
subpectinatis interioribus 4-6 ercctis minoribus ssepe abortientibus, floribus 
subterminalibus, ovario oblongo supei'ne dilatato areolato areolis albo-lanatis 
setoso-aculeatis, sepalis extus setosis, petalis (roseis) oblougo-lanceolatis 
acuminatis serratis. 

Echinocactus pectiniferus. Lemaire, Cact. Nov. p. 25. 

It is the case with tins small but showy Echinocactus as with 
too many others in our collection ; descriptions can give no ade- 
quate idea of the varied forms of these plants, especially as regards 
the nature of the costse, the spines, and their arrangement in the 
areolae, of the flowers, &c. The present species flowered in the 
Royal Gardens of Kew in April 1845, and was received from San 
Luis, Mexico, among many fine Cactece sent by Mr. Staines. So 
uncouth a looking trunk would hardly be expected to give birth 
to such large and handsome flowers. Professor Lemaire alone has 
described this curious plant in his " Cactearum Genera nova 8pe- 
eiesque novae et omnium in Horto Monvilliano cultarum, &c," 
but he was ignorant of the blossoms. 

Descr. Plant, in our specimens, about four inches high, 
subrotund or ovate, rather suddenly contracted above the 
middle, depressed and even umbilicated at the top, deeply cos- 

OCTOBEB 1st, 1845. 

tate, with about twenty prominent costae, which are obtuse and 
somewhat mammillose at the margins ; in the centre of each mam- 
milla is an oblong, white, woolly, close-placed areola, with nume- 
rous rather short spines or aculei, whose arrangement is very 
peculiar. They are of two kinds ; the greater number, twenty 
and more, are about three lines long and spread out almost hori- 
zontally in two rows, closely placed in a pectinated maimer, 
whitish or yellowish-white, tipped with red or brown, almost 
united at their base, the middle ones the longest ; between these 
two rows are a few smaller ones. Flowers solitary, two or more 
from the same crown, and springing from near the top, large for 
the size of the plant, very beautiful. Ovary oblong-cylindrical, 
a little expanded upwards, studded with white woolly areola? 
which produce several rather soft hair-like, white spines, tipped 
with rose, and which appear also (but still longer and softer) on 
the outer segments of the perianth. Sepals ovate, cuspidate, yel- 
lowish-green tinged with purple, and having a broad dark dorsal 
purple line • these sepals gradually pass into the longer and more 
delicate rose-coloured petals, greenish at their base and serrated 
at their margins above. Stamem numerous. Stigma of about 
thirteen greenish rays. 

nilfrtd 2 CIusters of acuIci - 2 - A P ex of st y le witk the ™y s of the ***&*>* :_ 


Tab. 4191. 
ixora odorata. 

Fragrant Ixora. 

Nat. Ord. Bubiace^:. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Gen. CJiar. Cat. tubus ovatus, limbus parvus 4-dentatus. Cor. hypocrateri- 
morpha, tubo gracili tereti lobis longiore, limbo 4-partito patente. Antheras 
4 ad faucem subsessiles. Stylus tubo corolla; a?quabs aut paulo longior (lobis 
nempe corollinis brevior), apice bifidus, stigmatis cruribus divergentibus aut re- 
volutis. Bacca drupacea calyce persistente coronata subglobosa bilocularis. 
Pyrence chartacese intus planse aut concavse dorso gibbae 1-spermae. Albumen 
cartilagineum. Embryo dorsalis erectus incurvus, cotyl. foliaceis, radicula longa. 
— Frutices interdum arborescentes, ex Asia, rarius ex Africa aquinocliaU. Folia 
opposita. Stipulse basi lata apice acuta aut in aristam setaceam desinentes. 
Corymbi terminates sceptics trichotomi. Flores coccinei rosei Jtammei aut albidi 
scepefragr antes. Be Cand. 

Ixora odorata; glaberrlma, fokis amplis elliptico-subovato-lanceolatis acutis 
coriaceis nitidis basi in petiolum attenuatis summis subovato-oblongis basi 
rotundatis sessilibus, stipulis late ovatis acutissimis connatis, panicula ter- 
minali ampla patente repetitim tricbotome divisa, calyce 5-dentato, corolla; 
tubo longissimo (digital!) Caciniis oblongis demuin tortis. 

Pavetta gracibs. Acli. Rich, in Mem. Soc. (FHist. Nat. Par. v. 5. p. 181 ? Be 
Cand. Prodr. vA.p.4^92 ? 

We have been much gratified by the sight of a noble specimen 
of this splendid and highly odoriferous shrub. The leaves vie 
in size and almost in firmness of texture with those of the Indian 
Caoutchouc Tree {Ficus elastica), while the numerous flowers, 
of the most delicious odour, form a spreading panicle, a foot or 
more in diameter, with deep red-purple branches, each blossom 
four to five inches in length, the tube red below, white above, 
the white buds tipped with rose-colour, the spreading segments 
of the limb white, soon twisted and then changing to buff. The 
plant is in the possession of Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., 
of the Exeter Nursery, who received it from the Continent 
under the incorrect name of Ixora Brvnonis, and without any 
indication of its locality. Fortunately 1 have a fine native speci- 
men from Madagascar, showing that to he its native country. 
Few persons who visited the last floral exhibition of the year 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1845. P 

1845, at the Chiswick Gardens, will fail to remember the extreme 
beauty and fragrance of this truly desirable plant. 

Descr. A Shrub, in that plant from which our specimen came, 
about three feet high, with rounded opposite branches. Leaves 
opposite, ample, broadly ovato- or obovato-lanceolate, spreading, 
six to eight inches to a foot long, fine dark green, acute or rather 
acuminate, entire, penninerved, coriaceous, the lower ones tapering 
downward into a stout footstalk, the upper ones smaller, more 
ovate, sessile. Stipules broadly ovate, acuminate, closely appressed 
to the branches and conjoined at the base. Panicle terminal, large, 
much divided, with opposite branches, subtended by small bractea, 
the ultimate branches in di-trichotomous peduncles. The flowers 
in threes, sessile or nearly so, deliciously fragrant, pure white, but 
quickly changing to yellow-brown. Stamens slightly protruded 
beyond the contracted mouth. Style arising from a thick glandu- 
lar ring, longer than the tube of the corolla and the stamens. 
Stigma incrassated, bifid. 

Fig 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Ovary. 3. Transverse section of the ovary:— 

41 9 Z 

Tab. 4192. 
HEBECLADUS biflorus 

Twin-fowered Hebecladus. 

Nat. Ord. Solane^:. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. HEBECLADUS, Miers. Cat. brevis, profunde 6-partitus, laci- 
niis ovatis submembranaceis 1-nerviis venosis, persistens. Corolla infundibub- 
formis, tubo amplo calyce 2-6-plo longiore, fauce ampbato, bmbo patenti-sinuato, 
5-lobo, lobis acutis, ssepissime dentibus interjectis, sestivatione basi valde pbcatis. 
Stamina 5, imo corollas inserta, filamentis filiformibus, glabris, basi dilatatis, an- 
theris exsertis, cordato-oblongis, adnatis, 2 -lobis, longitudinaliter debiscentibus, 
polbne albido. Ovarium, subrotundum, glabrum (disco nullo?), 2-locidare, pla- 
centis dissepimento adnatis, pluri-ovulatis. Stylus simplex, exsertus. Stigma 
clavato-capitatum, sub2-lobum. Bacca globosa, parva, calyce membranaceo 
suffulta. Semina plurima in pulpam nidulantia, compressa, reniformia, testa re- 
ticulata. Embryo intra albumen carnosum hamato-arcuatus, cotyledonibus semi- 
teretibus, radicula tereti, inferne paulo crassiore, duplo longiori, hilum petente. — ■ 
Suffrutices America intertropicae ; ramubs subdicltotomis, fiexuosis, teneris ; fobis 
plerumque geminis, altero vix minori, ovatis, ellipticis vel cordatis, integris, petio- 
latis. Inflorescentia pedunculo solitario laterali cernuo,floribus 1-2 velplurimis, 
umbellatis, rubris,jlavis, vel rubro-viridescentibus. Bacca alba, pisi magnitudine. 

Hebecladus biflorus ; suffruticosus, ramis glabris teretibus, foliis ovatis acutis 
glabris undulatis saepe angulato-sinuatis superioribus geminatis, pedunculis 
subbifloris, floribus nutantibus, calyce rotato, limbo patente undulato, co- 
rolla? tubo conico cybndraceo pubescenti-piloso striate purpureo, bmbi laci- 
niis cum dentibus intermediis lanceolatis patentibus glabris. 

Hebecladus biflorus. Miers in Hook. Bond. Journ. Bot. v. 4. p. 322. 

Atropa biflora. Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Per. et CHI. v. 2. p. 44. tab. 181 b. Spreng. Syst. 
Veget. v. 1. p. 698. Roem. et Sch. Syst. Veg. v. 5. p. 684. Walpers' Repert. 
Bot. v. 3. p. 103. 

A very pretty Solanaceous plant, with graceful drooping two- 
coloured blossoms ; a native of the Andes of Peru, about Tarraa, 
Canta, Culluay, &c, according to Ruiz and Pavon, and collected in 
the same countries by Mr. Mathews, but only recently introduced 
in a living state by Mr. Veitch of Exeter, through Mr. William 
Lobb. It flowered in Mr. Veitch's Nursery in August 1 845, and 
from a fine specimen kindly communicated by him, the accom- 
panying figure is taken. It only requires a good greenhouse and 
may easily be increased by cuttings and probably by seed. The 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1845. 

generic name is derived by Mr. Miers from iffy down, and *xa8o f 
a slender stem, in allusion to the character of some of the species. 
The genus includes a very natural group of Solanea, mostly na- 
tives of Peru and New Grenada, and all from South America. 

Descr. This is usually stated to be a shrub, but the specimen 
sent to me is so green and succulent, that it is probably at most 
suffruticose ; branches more or less spreading, terete, glabrous. 
Leaves, the lower ones solitary and alternate, upper ones in un- 
equal pairs, subovate, shortly petiolate, acute, sinuate, often angu- 
lato-dentate, glabrous, paler and with prominent nerves beneath. 
Peduncles axillary, solitary, forked or trifid, bearing two (rarely 
three) handsome, drooping/oows. Calyx glabrous, rotate, with 
five spreading acute waved segments. Corolla an inch or more 
long, of two colours ; the tube conico-cylindrical, purple, hairy, 
striated; the limb of five spreading, green, narrow-lanceolate 
segments, with a small tooth in each sinus. Stamens from the 
base of the corolla, much exserted. Filaments hairy at the base. 
Anthers blue-purple. Ovary globose, sunk in a two-lobed fleshy 
disk. Style as long as the stamens. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Corolla laid open -.—magnified. 


Tab. 4193. 


Tawny-flowered Lycaste. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Mores ringentes, petalis stepe dissimilibus, in mentum breve pro- 
ducti. Labellum medio appendice transverso integro v. emarginato _ auctum. 
Columna elongata, semiteres, ssepius pdosa. Pollinia 4, per paria caudicube an- 
gustse elongate adnata ; glandula parva subrotunda ; rostello subulate-.— Herbse 
pseud obulbosee ; f oliis plicatis. Scapi erecti, radicates, unifiori. Flores semper spe- 
ciosi bractea magna spathacea suffulti, — Lindl. 

LYCXSTEfulvescens; bractea herbacea ovario breviore, sepalis lanceolatis latera- 
libus falcatis, petalis conformibus paulo minoribus, labello oblongo lacinus 
lateralibus parvis acutis intermedia ovata obtusissima fimbriato, appendice 
carnoso emarginato. 

From the rich collection of the Rev. John Clowes, of Broughton 
Hall Manchester, who sent it as a species distinct from L.gigantea 
of Dr. Lindley, ' Bot. Reg.' 1845, Tab. 34. " I received it," that 
gentleman observes, " along with L. gigantea and other Orchideas 
from the province of Coro, in Columbia, of Linden's collecting;" 
and now that Dr. Lindley has figured the L. gigantea, we are the 
better able to point out the distinguishing characters, which may 
be found in the much smaller size of the flowers, and especially 
of the bractea, and the beautifully fringed margin of the middle 
lobe of the labellum, to say nothing of the different colour— here 
a rather pale tawny, with an orange-coloured lip, in L.gigantea a 
greenish-brown, with a red-purple lip. 

lycaste is a name recently given by Dr. Lindley to a group of 
Maxillaridea, of which Mawillaria aromatica, Hook. Lx. 11 t. 2 1 9, 
and M. macroglia, Poepp. Nov. Gen. pi. 1. t. 64, may be con- 
sidered the types, and of which he has now described ten species, 
all natives of Peru, Columbia, Mexico, and Guatemala 

Descr Pseudo-bulbs broadly ovate, in part sheathed by mem- 
branous large scales. Leaves two or more from the summit of 
the pseudo-bulb, one and a half to two feet long and varying much 
in width, rather membranous, plicate. Peduncles from the base 

NOVEMBER 1 ST, 1845. 

of the pseudo-bulb, eight to ten inches to a foot long, terete, simple, 
single-flowered, jointed, and with sheathing bracteas at the joints \ 
upper bractea at the base of the ovary, and shorter than it. Se- 
pals lanceolate, two lateral ones the longest, subfalcate, acuminate, 
combined at the base which is retuse, the two lower ones forming 
there an obtuse spur. Petals smaller than the sepals, but of similar 
torm and colour. Lip oblong, three-lobed, orange colour; the 
disk with a large emarginate, fleshy gland; the side lobes small, 
acute, curved upwards, middle lobe ovate, very obtuse, reflexed, 
its margin beautifully fringed with wavy hairs 

Fig. 1. Lip : magnified. 

A in I' 

Tab. 4194. 
SMEATHMANNIA laevigata. 

Smooth-stalked Smeathmannia. 

Nat. Ord. PASSIFLOBJEiE. — Polyandbja Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. SMEATHMANNIA, Soland. Perianthium duplex, utrinque 
5-partitum ; exterius semicalycinum persistens, interius petaloideum, marcescens. 
Urceolus simplex, membranaceus, ex ipsa basi perianthii. Stamina numerosa, 
distincta, apici columnar brevissimee genitalium inserta. Styli 5. Stigmata pel- 
tata. Capsula inflata, 5-valvis. Semina axibus valvarum inserta. — Frutices 
Africa cequinoctialis. Folia alterna, simplicia, subdentata, stipulis lateralibus 
(utrinque solitariis geminisve) distinctis, callosis. Flores axillares, subsolitarii, 
pedunculis quandoque brevissimis, bad bibracteolatis. Urceolus abbreviatus, ore 
denticidato. Filamenta simplici serie, viginti circiter. Antherae incumbentes, li- 
neares. Capsida chartacea. Semina axibus filiformibus valvularum mbsimplici 
serie inserta, pedicellata, punctata, omnino Passiflorae. Br. in Linn. Trans, v. 13. 
p. 221. 

Smeathmannia laevigata ; ramulis subsericeis, foliis oblongis grosse serratis 
basi in petiolum perbrevem attenuatis apice acuminatis glaberrimis nitidis, 
urceolo inciso intus piloso. 

Smeathmannia laevigata. Soland. MSS. in Herb. Banks. Brown, I. c.p. 221. 
Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 322. 

A rare and remarkable genus, consisting of upright (not climb- 
ing) shrubs, with white scentless flowers, nearly allied to PassiJIora ; 
first made known by Mr. Brown who described three species, 
S. pubescens (Sol.) distinguished by its downy branches and its 
broad leaves, which are very obtuse at the base and scarcely acute 
at the summit; our present species; and 8. media, which our 
learned friend remarks may perhaps be a variety of the present. 
Our specimens, both cultivated and native (gathered by Miss 
Turner, daughter of the late Govenor-General Turner, and by 
Mr. Whitfield) do not entirely agree with the character of S. lavi- 
ffata, for the branchlets as well as the flower-buds are evidently 
silky, and the urceolus of the flower is both fringed at the mar- 
gin, and beset with hairs on the inside. The name was given 
by Dr. Solander in compliment to Mr. Smeathman, an African 
Naturalist and Traveller, who detected the three species defined 
by Mr. Brown. 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1815. 

This shrub constitutes a very desirable stove-plant, with a glossy, 
evergreen, almost distichous leaves and white flowers, growing 
downwards and best seen on the underside of the branches. It was 
introduced by the Earl of Derby through Mr. Whitfield, and to 
his Lordship we are indebted for the possession of the plant at 
Kew. It requires the constant heat of the stove, and flowers 
freely, especially in July. 

Descr. A Shrub, growing erect, with spreading branches, the 
younger ones slightly downy or rather silky. Leaves alternate, 
oblong, subconaceous, somewhat distichous, coarsely serrated, ta- 
pering at the base into a short petiole, and rather suddenly, but 
sharply, acuminated at the point. I perceive no distinct stipules; 
but on the anterior side at the base of the short petiole is a gland, 
probably the rudiment of a tendril Flowers solitary, axillary on 
a short silky stalk bracteated at the base, curved downwards. Bud 
{alabastrum) ovate, silky, with short brown leaves. Outer perianth 
at length glabrous, green, with the broad edges of those sepals 
which have been imbricated by the others, white; inner perianth 
or oblong petals white, spreading as well as the calyx. Nectary 
murceolus short, pale brown, fringed at the margin, beset with 
hairs withm Stamens and pistil elevated on a short thick stipes. 
Moments (about twenty) longer than the pistil. Anthers oblong. 
Uvary ovate ; ovules on five parietal placentas. Styles five. Stig- 
mas larger, capitate, peltate. 

v3 S ' L , S ?£ tion of a flower > showing the stamens, pistil, and nectary. Pig. 2. 
i omon ot the nectary, seen from within. Fig. 3. Transverse section of the 
ovary : — magnified. 


Tab. 4195. 

GENISTA (Teline) Spachiana. 


Mr. Spactis Genista. 

Nat. Ord. Leguminos^. — Diadelphia Decandkia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx bilabiatus, labio superiore bipartite), inferiore 5-dentato, aut 
5-lobus, lobis 3 infer, ad apicem fere coalitis. Vexillum oblongo-ovale. Carina 
oblonga recta genitalia non omnino continens. Stamina monadelpha. Legumen 
plano-compressum aut rarius subturgidum, polyspermum, rarius oligospermum, 
eglandidosum. — Frutices floribwfiavis. JDeCand. 

Genista (Teline) Spachiana ; ramis striatis nodosulis pilis ascendentibus pube- 
rulis, sterilibus apice obtuse mucronatis, floralibus pendulis ; foliis omnibus 
3-foliatis, foliolis ellipticis lanceolatisque, acuminatis, subtus prsecipue se- 
riceo-hirtis, nervo medio crasso, mox supra fusco-virentibus, stipulis brevis- 
simis anguste lineari-lanceolatis ; spica terminali ovata, bracteobs linearibus 
tubo calycino brevioribus, labio inferiore longius 3-dentato dentibus linea- 
ribus labium superius excedentibus, vexillo rotundato profunde emarginato, 
medio ad apicem subpubescente, alis latis apice rotundatis glabellis, carina 
oblonga hirta alis subbreviore ; stigmate antrorsum (versus axim) declivi, 
legumine hirsutissimo seminum caruncula flavicante. P. B. Webb. 

This is a pleasing addition to the many-flowered and sweet- 
scented group of Canarian Genista which in early spring en- 
liven the conservatory and greenhouse. Though a native of the 
Canaries, the present species was not taken up in the ' Phytogra- 
phia Canariensis' forming part of the ' Hist. Nat. des lies Canaries,' 
the author of that portion of the work not being able to decide on 
the specific value of the plant, owing to the incomplete specimens 
in fruit, but without flowers, which alone existed in his herbarium. 
It has now flowered from seeds sent by him formerly to Europe, 
both at Mr. Young's nursery at Milford near Godalming and at 
the Jardin du Roi at Paris. It has been named in honour of Mr. 
Edward Spach, assistant-naturalist in the latter establishment, 
whose learning and acute observation have so much advanced the 
"amiable science." 

M. Spach, in his elaborate revision of the Genista just pub- 
lished in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles, has not discovered any 
character sufficiently marked to enable him to break up this exten- 
sive group into new and convenient genera. He has been con- 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1345. Q 

tent to class them under numerous subgenera. If therefore neither 
Salzwedelia, nor Voglera, nor any other divisions can be admitted 
as genera, the group of Teline, the types of which are G. candicans 
and G. Canadensis (the latter considered to be a genus by Moench 
and in the ' Phytographia Canariensis') must subside likewise into a 
sub-genus, though geographically most distinct, occupying almost 
exclusively the south-western extremity of the Old World. Nine 
Telines were described in the 'Phytographia Canariensis;' to 
these must be added the Spartium virgatum of Madeira; the 
present species ; and another, the seeds of which were sent with 
it from Teneriffe, and which has flowered in Mr. Young's garden 
G. {Teline) discolor, nob. ; with a fourth yet unnamed from the 
mountains about Tetuan ; in all thirteen species, of which eight 
are peculiar to the Canaries, two to Madeira, and three to the 
western shores of the Mediterranean region. 

The G. {Teline) iSpac/iiana, indigenous to the high mountains 
of the N.W. of Teneriffe, will probably prove hardy in the cli- 
mate of England. It existed for several years at Paris in the 
open ground, and was only destroyed by the cold of the late severe 
winter.— P. B. Webb. 


Tab. 419(>. 


Attenuated-leaved Sccevola. 

Nat. Ord. Gtoodenovieje. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cal. tubus ovario adnatus, limbus 5-partitus aut 5-dentatus, rarius 
subinteger. Corolla hinc longitudinabter fissa genitalia exserens, limbo inde 
secundo 5-partito, lobis alatis subconformibus. Antherte Mberse. Stigmath in- 
dusium fere in omnibus ciliatum. Brupa caraosa aut exsucca coronata 1-4-locu- 
laris, loculis 1-spennis. — Frutices suffnttices aut Herbae perennes in Australasia, 
rarius in India, Senegalid aut insulis Caribms habitantes. Foba alterna, rarius 
opposita, integerrima aut dentata imo subincisa. Spicse aut cymaa dichotomy ex 
axillis ortte. Flores bibracteati interdum in axillis solitarii. Corolla? ccerulea, 
alba, rarius lutescentes. Cor. lobi alati stepe jimbriati, tubus intus xdlhsus, faux 
fimbrias apice capitellas gerens. Be Cand. 

Sc^vola attenuata; fruticosa erecta pilosa, fobis lanceolatis dentatis, bracteis 
subtendentibus integerrimis, corollis intus hirsutis, marginibus supra nudis, 
stybs villosissimis. Br. 

Scjsvola attenuata. Brown, Prodr. Nov. Roll. p. 583. Be Cand. Prodr. v. vii. 
p. 508. Spreng. Sysi. Veget. v. 1. p. 752. Boem. et Sch. Syst. Veget.p. 163. 

A shrubby plant, a native of south-west Australia, first detected 
and described by Mr. Brown, possessing little beauty in its mode 
of growth or foliage, but in June and July bearing rather copious 
spikes of bright, but light, blue flowers, which then give it a very 
pretty appearance. Our plant was reared from seeds sent by Mr. 
Drummond from Swan River, and probably gathered to the 
southward of that colony, toward King George's Sound. It is cul- 
tivated in good loam and treated as a greenhouse plant, fully ex^ 
posed to the open air and rains in the summer, and housed m a 
cool greenhouse during winter. It may be increased by cuttings. 

Descr. Shrub one and a half to two feet high ; the lower part 
woody, the upper and younger branches herbaceous, often tinged 
with brown, terete, hairy. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, somewhat 
rigid and fleshy, much tapering at the base, with a long dilated 
grooved petiole, which is still more dilated and gibboosbelow at 
the point of insertion, hairy, especially at the margin, with a tew 
almost parallel veins, the margin entire, serrated. Spike termi- 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1845. 

nal and axillary, of several rather long, bright blue, slightly tinged 
with purple, sessile floioers, each with a bractiform.leaf, and each 
again subtended by three lesser almost lanceolate hairy bracteas. 
Calyx with the tube oval, combined with the ovary, and crowned 
with an elevated truncated margin. Corolla hairy externally and 
beautifully ciliated at the margins ; tube slit for the whole length 
above, exposing to view the stamens and pistil. Limb spreading, 
secund, of five obovate and margined lobes, waved at the margins ; 
at their base are several pedicellated glands. Stamens much 
shorter than the tube. Style nearly equal to the tube in length, 
hairy. Stigma clavate ; the indusium two-lipped. 

Fig. 1. Flowers and branches, slightly magnified. 


Tab. 4197. 
STANHOPEA tigrina. 

Tiger-spotted Stanhopea. 

Nat. Ord. Obchide.e, — Gyxaxdiua Moxogynia. 

Gen. Char. Periautltium raerabranaceum, patentissimum vel reflcxum. Sepal a 
libera, subundulata, mole sua ruentia. Petala conformia augustiora, LahcRum 
liberum, anticum, ecalcaratum, carnosum, utrinque cornutum ; dimidio superiore 
(epicliilio) convexo, inferiore (hypochiKo) excavato. Columna longissima, petal- 
oideo-marginata. Anthera 2-locularis. Pollinia 2, elongata, fissa, caudicula 
quam glandida biloba stipitata breviore. — Epiphyte pseiido-bulbosa. Folia pli- 
cata. Scapi radicates, vaginati, paucifiori. Flores maximi ruagu minusve macu- 
lati. Lindl. 

Stanhopea tigrina ; hypochilio subrotundo intus lamellis glandulosis radiato, 
metachilii comubus falcatis porrectis epichilii tridentati longitudinc, sepalis 
lateralibus maximis subrotuiulato-obloiigis petalis multo latioribus. Lindl. 

Stanhopea tigrina. Batem. Orchid. Meat, et Guatem. t. 1. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 
1839. 1. 1. 

Perhaps no Orchideous plant is more calculated to attract at- 
tention than the present, whether we consider the large size of 
its blossoms, their strange form and almost waxy consistence, 
their singular markings, or the powerful fragrance they exhale, 
scenting the whole stove, and almost too strong to be agreeable ; 
but which is considered to resemble a mixture of Melon and Va- 
nilla. The species is now not uncommon in our collections, and is 
said to have been introduced to them by Messrs. Low, of Clapton, 
from Xalapa in Mexico. Like the other Stanhopeas it is easily cul- 
tivated, only requiring to be suspended from a beam of the stove 
in a wire basket rilled with Sphagnum and other mosses, through 
which the flower-stalks penetrate downwards and hang below the 
basket, the pseudo-bulbs and leaves being seen above. During 
the present and for several months in the summer, our plants in 
the Royal Botanic Gardens flowered in the highest degree of per- 
fection, and from one of them this representation was made. It 
is the best marked and most distinct of all the genus. 

Descr. In the leaves and pseudo-bulbs there is nothing 
peculiar, a general sameness prevails in them, throughout the 

DKCEMBEB I ST 1845 ,{ 

several species. From the base of the pseudo-bulb, the short 
scape is thrown out and hangs downwards, in an early stage wholly 
covered by very large sheathing membranous pale brownish-co- 
loured imbricated brackets. This scape bears from three to four 
very large jfcm, of a form difficult, if not impossible, to convey 
an idea of in words. The 3 sepals are broadly ovate and spread- 
ing, concave especially below, the margins more or less recurved. 
Petals oblong-lanceolate, and, as well as the sepals, of a rather 
dingy yellow colour, mottled, especially towards the base, and 
spotted with dark sanguineous purple. Lip very large, and of a 
remarkable shape, divided into three portions, the lower (or hy- 
pochilium), is very concave and cup-shaped, with a large tooth at 
its apex, and, within, some raised radiating granulated lines. 
A middle portion is the " metachilium," it is short, and bears 
two long curved and geniculated horns, and encloses, as it were, 
the " epichilmm," a middle lobe of the lip, which is rhomboid and 
three-toothed at the apex. The whole of the lip is thick and fleshy 
or rather of a waxy consistency, of the same general ground colour 
as the perianth, and more or less spotted with purple, the upner 
and under side however of the " epichilium" is tinged with orange. 
A great part of this lip is covered by the very large spathulate 
incurved column, winged at the margin, more or less spotted with 
purple, and bearing the anthers at the apex beneath. Pollen-mas- 
ses club-shaped, attached to a curious foot-stalk. 

Fig. 1. Lip ■.—-natural size. Fig. 2. Pollen-masses:— magnified. 


Tab. 4198. 

Ceylon Bhgnckoglossum. 

Nat. Ord. Cyrtandrace.e. — Diandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx tubulosus 5-fidus, lobis per sestivationem valvutis. Corolla 
tubulosa, personata, breviter bilabiata, labio super, abbreviate) bilobo, infer, pro- 
ducto semitrilobo, lobis lateralibus brevissimis. Stamina inclusa, 2 inferiora an- 
theras reniformes gerentia, 2 et cum rudimento minimo 3 supcriora sterilia. 
Vaginida incompleta ovarii basin cingens. Stigma capitatum vix divisum. Cap- 
sula stylo filiformi persistente superata, ovata, calyce inclusa bivalvis. Placenta' 2 
parietales adnata? in lamellas 2 fissiles. Semina parva elbptico-oblonga. — Herba? 
Indicce annua glabra aid subpuberulce. Caulis mcculentus. Folia alterna petiolata 
ovata basi hinc alte excisa apice acuminata. Kacemi terminates secund'tflori sm- 
plices, pedicellis solitariis 4-bracteatis. Flores dejlexi ceerulei. DC. 

Rhynchoglossum Zeylanicum ; corolla? labio inferiore tubo duplo breviore trifido. 

A lovely little plant, sent from Ceylon by Mr. Gardner, with 
flowers of a bright blue, arranged in long one-sided racemes, and 
leaves with singularly unequal sides like those of many Begonia, 
and of a peculiarly tender green colour. The genus is Loxotis, of 
Mr. Brown, in Horsfield's 'Plants of Java', Fasc. 1. p. 102. t. 24., 
and the species there admirably figured and described, so much 
resembles the present one, that at first I was unwilling to consider 
them distinct ; but in all the many flowers I have examined, there 
is uniformly in our plant such a difference in the lower lip, short 
and broadly ovate, not twice the length of the upper lip, and 
much shorter than the tube ; — in Mr. Brown's Loxotis odiimea 
oblong or strap-shaped, longer even than the tube of the corolla, 
obscurely tridentate, that I cannot but describe the present as 
new. Mr. Brown was doubtful if his genus was the same with 
the Rhjnchoglosmm of Blume ; but De Candolle having apparently 
decided that point in favour of Blmne's name, I follow De Can- 
dolle in adopting it. This name I presume is given from piy X ot 
a beak, and y\«o-<ra a tongue, from the tongue-like beak or lower 
lip to the flower; a name, applicable enough to the projecting 
lower lip in the original species (constituting more than one half 
of the corolla), but not at all so to that of ours. 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1845. 

Descr. Annual, or at most biennial. Stem herbaceous, terete, 
glabrous, about a foot high, dichotomously branched ; branches 
succulent. Leaves alternate, petiolate, obliquely ovate (one side 
of the leaf frequently not half the size of the other), entire, closely 
penninerved ; petiole strait, half an inch to nearly an inch long. 
Flotvers in long, terminal, sometimes interrupted and sometimes 
leafy racemes, unilateral, drooping. Pedicels short, curved, with 
a small subulate bractea at the base. Calyx rather short, hemi- 
spherico-campanulate, five-angled, five-cleft, the lobes acute, un- 
equal. Corolla personate, blue, beneath paler and almost white, 
with a little yellow. Tube cylindrical, rather more than twice the 
length of the calyx ; Limb two-lipped, upper lip bent back and 
bifid, lower lip a little reflexed, trifid ; the faux yellow ; middle 
lobe the largest. Stamens two ; filaments arcuate ; anthers slightly 
cohering. There are the rudiments of two other stamens, and a 
minute gland, representing a fifth stamen. Ovary oval, glabrous, 
with a large fleshy trifid gland on one side at the base ; two-celled, 
with parietal two-lobed placenta covered with many ovules. Style 
included. Stiyma capitate. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Pistil and gland. 4. Transverse 
section of the ovary: — magnified. 


Tab. 4199. 

Tliyrse-jlowered Meevesia. 

Nat. Ord. Sterculiace^, Helictebe^. — Monadelphia poeyandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx campanulatus, 5-dentatus, sestivatione imbricata, pube stel- 
lata tomentosus, bracteolatus. Petala 5, lvypogyna, unguiculata, sestivatione con- 
voluta, callo inter unguem et laminam. Stamina in toro longo filiformi insidcntia. 
Antlierce 15, sessiles, in cyatho capitaliformi apice tantum pervio obsolete 5-den- 
tato connatae, extrorsse, biloculares, locidis divaricatis, intricatis, longitudinaliter 
dehiscentibus. Pollen sphsericum, glabrum. Ovarium sessile, intra cyathum an- 
theriferum, ovatum, glabrum, 5-angulare, 5-loculare, locubs dispermis. (hula 
margini loculorum unum super alteram affixa, superiore basi concavo in iuferiorem 
incumbente. Stigma 5-lobum, simplicissimum, sessile. Capmla stipitata, lig- 
nosa, obovata, 5-angularis, 5-locularis, loculicide 5-valvis, axi nullo. Samoa 
cuique loculo duo basi alata. — Arbor (China) foliis alternis exsiipulatis, racemis 
terminalibm compositis, floribus albis. Lindl. 

Reevesia thyrsoidea. Lindl. inBrande's Journ. vol.ii. p. 112. Bot.Eeg. 1. 1236. 

The interesting plant here represented, drawn from the stove 
of the Royal Gardens of Kew in July 1845, is a native of China, 
and was first made known to botanists through John Reeves, Esq. 
a gentleman long resident in Canton, distinguished for the many 
services he rendered to Natural History, and Botany in particular, 
and in honour of whom this plant is named by Dr. Lindley. Its 
affinity with Helicteres is very striking. Endlicher forms of it, 
with Ungeria, a little group, which he calls Beeveeiea, chiefly 
distinguished from Helicteres by the anthers being sessile. It 
loves a warm green-house, and seems to flower at different seasons 
of the year. 

Descr. With us this plant is only a Shrub, three to four feet 
high; but, in its native country, it is said to constitute a tree. 
Branches rounded, glabrous. Leaves alternate, broadly lanceolate, 
subcoriaceous, acuminate, petiolate, entire, penninerved ; petiole 
slender, dilated upwards. Corymb* terminating the branches. 
Peduncles and pedicels clothed with stellate pubescence. Calyx 
also stellately pubescent, campanulate, suddenly contracted a little 
above the base, the mouth cut into four or live unequal segments. 


Petals five, clawed, white or cream-colour. Anthers collected into 
a head upon the top of a long stipes or torus ; the cells oblong, 
opening vertically. Within these, and supported by the same torus 
is the pistil; consisting of a subglobose, five-angled, stellately 
pubescent germen or ovary, crowned by a sessile blunt smooth 

Pig, 1. Calyx with the torus and anthers collected into a head, enclosing the 
pistil. 2. Petal. 3. Pistil :— magnified. 


Tab. 4200. 
ANTHOCERCIS ilicifolia. 

Holly-leaved Anthocercis. 

Nat, Ord. Scrophularine^:. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx quinquefidus. Corolla campanulata, tubo basi coarctata, 
staminifera ; limbo 5-partito, sequali. Stamina inelnsa, didynama cum rudimento 
quinti. Stigma capitato-emarginatum. Capsule 2-locularis, 2-valvis, valvaruin 
marginibus inflexis, placentae parallels insertis. Semina reticulata. — Frotices 
glabriusculi. Folia alterna, petiolo basive attenuata cum ramo articulata, crassa, 
nunc glanduloso-punctata. Flores axillares, subsolitarii, pedunculo minuti brac- 
teato, ad artkulmn sapius solubili. Corolla alba vel flava, speciosa, tubo intus 
striato, limbo quandoque 6-S-partito. Br. 

Anthocercis ilicifolia ; elata, ramis virgatis, foliis obovatis spirmloso-dentatia 
glabris, racemis elongatis terminalibus subcompositis, corolla? laciniis line- 
ar ibus tubum sequantibus, capsnla oblonga calycem quintuplo superante. 

Anthocercis ilicifolia. All. Cunn. in Hook. Bot. Mag. sub tab. 2961. 

A species, in colour and general habit, nearly allied to the 
showy Anthocercis littorea ; but very distinct and remarkable for 
its size, often six feet high, and its very long twiggy branches, 
leafy below, terminating in elongated compound spikes of gracviu] 
pendent yellow flowers, the inside of the widely campanulate tube 
of which is elegantly marked with dark blood-coloured lines. It 
was first detected at the Swan River Settlement by Mr. Eraser, 
(no. 186, of his collection), who speaks of it as general on the 
river banks, and afterwards sent to us by Mr. James Drummond. 
Seeds were given to the Royal Dublin Society by G. W. Webb, 
Esq of the Commissariat department there, and these, on being 
reared by Mr. Moore of the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, were 
kindly communicated to us in a fine state of flower in July 1845. 
The plant requires a warm greenhouse in the winter; but in 
summer, during the flowering season, a cooler place, with a plen- 
tiful admission of air, will be the best suited to it. 

Descr. Boot perennial. Stems woody at the base, soon be- 
coming green, glabrous, as is every part of the plant, four to six 
feet high, copiously branched ; the brancke* le;.(V below, flonferous 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1845. 

above. Leaves alternate, obovate, or sometimes approaching to 
spathulate, edged with rather remote spinous teeth, somewhat 
fleshy, scarcely punctate when fresh, when dry marked on both 
sides with copious depressed dots ; in the ultimate ramifications 
these leaves become gradually smaller and the flowers appear, 
forming long graceful racemes, the pedicels frequently again 
divided and subtended by small linear bracteas. Flowers pendent. 
Calyx-tube short, five-angular, the five acuminated small teeth 
appressed to the corolla. Corolla yellow ; the tube bell-shaped, 
with greenish lines on the outside, within marked with deep 
blood-coloured ones, which are very conspicuous, owing to the 
spreading tube : limb of five patent linear segments, about the 
length of the tube, their margins reflexed. Stamens four, didyna- 
nious, inserted near the base of the tube, with the rudiment of a 
fifth ; all of them included. Anthers large, subrotundate. Ovary 
ovate, sunk in a fleshy slightly toothed ring. Style rather shorter 
than the tube ; stigma two-lobed. Capsules (on the native spe- 
cimens) oblong, tapering, two-valved, five times as long as the 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistil : — magnified. 


Tab. 4201. 
HABROTHAMNUS corymbosus. 

Corymb-flowered Habrothamnus. 

Nat. Ord. Solane.e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4183.) 

Habrothamnus corymbosus ; fruticosus glaber, foliis breviter petiolatis ovato- 
lanceolatis acuminatis integerrimis penninerviis reticulars, corymbis termi- 
nalibus in ramos numerosos confertos breves paniculam densam foliosam 
quasi formantibus, calycis Iaciniis acuminatis patentibus, corolla? (intense 
rosea?) tubo superne sensim dilatato, limbi Iaciniis elongatis lanceolato- 
acuminatis demum reflexis, staminibus tubi supra medium insertis. 

Habrothamnus corymbosus. Endl. in Walp. Repert. Bot. v. 3. p. 122. 

Meyenia corymbosa. SchlecJd. in Linn. v. 8. p. 252. 

A very handsome species of Habrothamnus, native of Mexico, 
sent to the Royal Gardens of Kew by Mr. Low of Clapton, quite 
distinct from the H.fasciculatus, figured at Tab. 4183 of our pre- 
sent volume. It is everywhere glabrous, apparently a much taller 
plant, and with the corolla of a very different shape, widening 
upwards and then suddenly contracted, so as to have an urceolate 
tube ; and having the segments of the corolla much longer acu- 
minated and at length reflexed. Its growth appears to be much 
more rapid, and it is more easily cultivated, only requiring the 
protection of a greenhouse in the winter. In the summer it does 
best in the open air, and may readily be increased by cuttings. 
As far as can be judged from the description it seems to be the 
Meyenia corymbosa of Schlechtendahl. 

Descr. Our Plant forms a shrub about five or six feet high, 
erect, much branched. Leaves alternate, crowded in parts, and, as 
it were, fasciculate, ovato-lanceolate, membranaceous, acuminate, 
entire, penninerved, the nervelets anastomosing. Petiole short. 
Towards the extremities of the main branches, copious, short, 
leafy, ones are produced, each of which is terminated with a 
corymb of pretty deep rose-coloured flowers. Calyx tubular, cut 
about halfway down, into five lanceolate-subulate, slightly spread- 
ing segments. Corolla thrice as long as the calyx. Tube infiiii- 

D1CKMBSB 1ST, 1845. s 

dibuliform, gradually tapering upwards. Limb of five long, ta- 
pering, and at length recurved, segments, half as long as the tube. 
Stamens included. Filaments inserted above the middle of the 
tube, with a small blunt tooth at the point of insertion. Anthers 
rotundate. Germen subglobose, situated on a shallow, fleshy disk. 
Style as long as the tube. Stigma capitate, two-lobed. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Germen and disk. 4. Stigma;— 

42C } 2. 

Tab. 4202. 
evolvulus purpuro-cveruleus. 

Purple-blue-Jlowered Evolvulus. 

Nat. Ord. Convolvulace.e. — Pentandria Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Sepala 5. Corolla campanulata aut infundibuliformis. Styli 2 
bifidi. Ovarium 2-loculare, 4-ovulatum. Capsula 2-locularis. — Herbse aid m\- 
nores suifrutices, non volubiles, plerceque intra tropicos habitantes. Be Cand. 

Evolvulus purpuro-ceerulem ; appresso-pilosus subincanus interne fruticosus e 
basi ramosus, ramis primariis elongatis erectis secundariis patentibus graci- 
libus rigidis, fobis patentibus v. recurvis lanceolatis acutis parvis, pedicellis 
unifloris terminalibus vel lateralibus basi bracteatis, calycis laciuiis parvis 
lanceolatis patentibus, corollis extus sericeis margine crenulatis. 

A small, but most lovely little suffruticose plant, with copious 
flowers, at first sight not much unlike those of Anagallis carulea, 
but borne upon erect twiggy branches with small patent or re- 
flexed leaves, and worthy a place in every garden on account of 
the brilliant colour of its blossoms. Its nearest affinity, as to 
species, and it is certainly an undescribed one, is with Evolvulus 
Arbuscula of Poiret, according to the Bahama specimens in our 
Herbarium, thus named by M. Choisy, the author of the " Con- 
volvulacege" in De Candolle's Prodromus; but that has still 
smaller and erect leaves, not tapering at the base, like those of 
the one now before us. — It inhabits arid rocks near the sea, in 
the district of Manchester, Jamaica ; and caught the attention of 
Mr. Purdie, its discoverer, and who sent home seeds of it to the 
Royal Gardens of Kew, by its showy bright blue flowers. 

Our figure was named from a charming specimen, belonging 
to His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, Syon House. A va- 
riety has bloomed at Kew, from the same country, with pale blue 
flowers. It was reared in the stove, and requires to be kept mo- 
derately moist. Flowers in July and August. 

Descr. Boot perennial, not very stout, throwing out branches 
and fibres. Stem a foot and a half high, quite woody below and 
often for more than halfway up, branched from the very base , 
main branches erect, stout below, gradually tapering upwards and 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1845. 

bearing several wiry, slender, patent, rigid, alternate branchlets, ap- 
presso-pubescent. Leaves hairy in the same way, small, especially 
the ultimate branches, all of them patent or reflexed, lanceolate, 
acute, entire, the smaller ones almost linear, the larger ones taper- 
ing below, but scarcely petiolate. Floivers terminal on the leafy 
branches and pedicellate ; or the pedicels are axillary and gene- 
rally bracteated at the base. Calyx with a short tube, tapering 
below, with five" rather spreading small lanceolate segments, 
downy with appressed hairs. Corolla rotate, rich ultramarine blue, 
with the centre white and a purple ray diverging from that up 
the centre of each lobe, the margin five-lobed, the lobes rounded, 
crenate; externally the corolla is silky. Stamens: fwefllaments 
and anthers white. Ovary ovate, two-celled, four-seeded. Styles 
white, each branched above the middle and club-shaped at the 

Fig. 1. Portion of a branch and leaves. 2. Outer view of a flower. 3. Inner 
view of ditto. 4. Pistil. 5. Transverse section of an ovary, showing the four 
seeds : — magnified. 


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the First 
Volume of the Third Series (or Seventy-first of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged. 


4175 Achimenes argyrostigma. 

4144 hirsuta. 

4139 Aerides odoratum. 

4180 Anigozanthus pulcherrimus. 

4159 Angrsecum apiculatum. 

4145 distichum. 

4200 Anthocercis ilicifolia. 

4146 Aotus gracillima. 
4133 Backhousia myrtifolia. 
4172 Begonia albo-coccinea. 
4166 Bolbophyllum Careyanum. 
4136 Barbacenia squamata. 
4157 Calceolaria alba. 

4154 floribunda. 

4188 Calliandra Tweediei. 
4182 Chirita Zeylanica. 
4143 Cryptadenia uniflora. 
4141 Cymbidium ockroleucum. 

4160 Dendrobium fimbriatum; vt 

4153 moniliforme. 

4140 Disemma aurantia. 

4184 Echinocactus Leeanus. 

4181 ■ — multiflorus. 

4177 myriostigma. 

4162 — oxygonus. 

4190 pectiniferus. 

4165 Epidendrum longicolle. 

4163 Eria Dillwynii. 

4202 Evolvulus purpuro-caeruleus. 

4186 Exostemma longiflorum. 

4189 Franciscea acuminata. 
4174 Fuchsia serratifoba. 

4185 Gardenia Stanleyana. 
4195 Genista (Teline) Spachiana. 
4152 Gesneria Schiedeana. 
4171 Gompholobium barbigeruni. 

4179 Gompholobium versicolor ; var. 

caulibus purpureis. 

4151 Govenia utriculata. 

4201 Habrothamnus corymbosus. 

4183 fasciculatus. 

4192 Hebecladus biflorus. 
4135 Hindsia violacea. 
4191 Ixora odorata. 

4169 Leiantbus longifolius. 
4150 Lobeba thapsoidea. 
4132 Luculia Pinciana. 

4193 Lycaste fulvescens. 
4149 Lycium fucbsioides. 
4164 Masdevallia fenestrata. 
4148 Oncidium bicallosum. 

4156 Peristeria Humboldtii ; var . fulva. 

4173 Phyllarthron Bojerianum. 

4142 PleurotbaUis bicarinata. 

4161 Polystachya bracteosa. 

4176 Porphyrocoma lanceolata. 

4198 Eliyncboglossuin Zeylanicum. 

4199 Reevesia tbyrsoidea. 
4147 Ruellia lilacina. 
4158 Salpixantba coccinea. 

4196 Sceevola attenuata. 

4170 Sida (Abutdon) pseoniseflora. 
4134 graveolens. 

4178 Siphocampylos coccineus. 

4194 Smeathmannia la?vigata. 
4138 Solanum macranthum. 

4197 Stanhopea tigrina. 

4168 f Strelitzia a* 1 ^ 3 - 

4187 Tacsonia moUissima. 

4137 Turner a ulmiflora. 

4155 Whitfiddia lateritia. 


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the First 
Volume of the Third Series (or Seventy-first of the Work) 
are alphabetically arranged. 


4144 Achimenes, hairy. 

4175 silvery-spotted. 

4139 Air-plant, fragrant. 

4159 Angraecum, apiculated. 

4145 two-rowed. 

4180 Anigozanthus, beautiful yellow. 
4200 Anthocercis, holly-leaved. 

4146 Aotus, slender. 

4133 Backhousia, Myrtle-leaved. 
4136 Barbacenia, scaly-stalked. 
4172 Begonia, or Elephant's Ear, scar- 
let and white-flowered. 
4166 Bolbophyllum, Dr. Carey's. 
4157 Calceolaria, white-flowered. 

4188 Calliandra, Mr. Tweedie's. 
4182 Chirita, Ceylon. 

4143 Cryptadenia, solitary-flowered. 
4141 Cymbidium, pale-yellow. 

4160 Dendrobium, fringe-lipped ; var. 
with sanguineous eye. 

4153 necklace-stemmed. 

4140 Disemma, New-Caledonia. 
4156 Dove-flower, or Peristeria, Hum- 
boldt's; tawny-flowered var. 

4181 Echinocactus, many-flowered. 
4177 many-spotted. 

4184 Mr. Lee's. 

4190 — pectinated. 

4162 — sharp-angled. 

4172 Elephant's Ear, or Begonia ; scar- 
let and white-flowered. 

4165 Epidendrum, long-necked. 

4163 Eria, Dillwyn Llewelyn's. 
4202 Evolvulus, purple-blue-flowered. 
4186 Exostemma, long-flowered. 

4189 Franciscea, acuminated. 
417 1 Fuchsia, serrated-leaved. 

4185 Gardenia, Lord Derby's. 
4195 Genista, Mr. Spach's. 
4152 Gesneria, Schiede's. 


4179 Gompholobium, changeable ; pur- 
ple-stemmed variety. 
4171 Gompholobium, fringe-keeled. 
4151 Govenia, bladdery. 
4183 Habrothamnus, cluster-flowered. 
4201 corymb-flowered. 

4192 Hebecladus, twin -flowered. 
4135 Hindsia, large-flowered. 
4191 Ixora, fragrant. 

4169 Leianthus, long-leaved. 
4150 Lobelia, Mullein -like. 
4132 Luculia, Mr. Pince's. 

4193 Lycaste, tawny-flowered. 
4149 Lycium, Fuchsia-flowered. 
4164 Masdevallia, windowed. 
4138 Nightshade, large-flowered. 
4148 Oncidium, two-warted. 

4156 Peristeria, or Dove-flower, Hum- 
boldt's ; tawny-flowercd var. 

4173 Phyllarthron, Mr. Bojer's. 

4142 Pleurothallis, double-keeled. 

4161 Polystachya, bracteated. 

4176 Porphyrocoma, lance-leaved. 

4199 Eeevesia, thyrse-flowered. 

4198 Rhynchoglossum, Ceylon. 

4147 RueUia, lilac-flowered. 

4196 Scsevola, attenuated-leaved. 
4134 Sida, heavy-scented. 

4170 Pseony-flowered. 

4178 Siphocampylos, showy scarlet- 

4154 Slipper-wort, copious-flowering. 

4194 Smeathmannia, smooth-stalked. 

4197 Stanhopea, tiger-spotted. 

4168 f Strelitzia > S^ 8 * whlte " 
4187 Tacsonia, downy-leaved. 
4158 Trumpet-flower, scarlet. 
4137 Turnera, Elm-leaved. 

4155 Vvhitneldia, brick-colored. 







" So sits enthron'd, in vegetable pride, 
Imperial Kkw, by Thames's glittering side; 
Obedient sails from realms unfurrowed bring 
For her the unnam'd progeny of spring." 
" Delighted Thames through tropic umbrage glides, 
And, flowers antarctic bending o'er his tides, 
Drinks the new tints, the sweets unknown inhales, 
And calls the sons of Science to his vales. 
In one bright point admiring Nature eyes 
The fruits and foliage of discordant skies, 
Twines the gay floret with the fragrant bough, 
And binds the wreath round George's royal brow.' 
" Sometimes retiring from the public weal, 
One tranquil hour the Royal Partners steal; 
Through glades exotic pass with step sublime ; 
Or mark the growth of Britain's happier clime." 

The renewal of the Miscellaneous Information, under the 
title of " Companion to the Botanical Magazine," which, 
commencing in 1835, was carried on to the extent of two 
closely printed volumes, affords an opportunity of laying 
before our readers some particulars, which cannot fail to 
interest all lovers of Plants and of Horticulture, respecting 
the present condition and future prospects of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens of Kew. 

It is generally known that considerable changes in this 
establishment were contemplated upwards of four years ago 
when, from a private garden, belonging to the Koyal 
Family, and maintained by funds from the Board ot Green 
Cloth it was liberally ceded by Her present Majesty Queen 
Victoria, and placed in the hands of H. M. Commissioners of 
Woods and Forests, with the view of its being made available 

to the general good. The public, too, having since had free 
access to the gardens, under a few needful regulations, cannot 
fail to have observed the many alterations and improvements 
effected under the sanction of the above-mentioned Board, 
and must feel desirous of some particulars respecting them. 
It is with a view to satisfy this laudable curiosity, that the 
following notice is now offered. 

This is not the place to enter into the full early history of 
the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, but a few statements are 
necessary, selected from the best authorities. 

About the middle of the 17th century, the spot that now 
forms the gardens of Kew, with the residence, called Kew 
House, was the property of R. Bennett, Esq., whose daughter 
and heir married Lord Capel. This nobleman was much 
attached to the cultivation of plants, and is said to have intro- 
duced several new fruits and trees at Kew, which he had 
brought with him from France ; among them, " two Lentisks, 
or Mastic-Trees" are recorded, for which he paid £40 (an 
enormous sum two hundred years ago) to one Versprit, and 
four white striped and variegated Hollies, costing him £5 a 
tree. In Macky's Tour through England in 1724, mention is 
made of the " fine seat and excellent gardens, said to produce 
the best fruit in England, belonging to that great statesman 
and gardener, Lord Capel." Kew House and Grounds then 
passed into the hands of Mr. Molyneux, who was Secretary 
to King George the Second (when Prince of Wales), and 
who married Lady Elizabeth Capel. He was well known as a 
man of literature and an astronomer, and with an instrument 
of his own construction, in these very grounds, Dr. Bradley 
made his valuable discoveries relating to the fixed stars, 
to record which, an inscription was ordered, by the late King 
William the Fourth, to be placed on the pedestal of the sun- 
dial, erected on the identical spot where Dr. Bradley's telescope 
had stood, upon the lawn, and opposite to the present palace. 

The Prince of Wales, who was son to George the Second, 
and father of George the Third, admiring the situation, took 
a long lease of Kew House from the Capel family, about the 
year 1730, and formed the pleasure-grounds, containing 
nearly one hundred and twenty acres, which were finished by 
his widow Augusta, the Princess Dowager of Wales, who 
had great delight in superintending the improvements, then 
carried on upon a most extensive scale. " Originally, the 
ground was one dead flat ; the soil sandy, and, in general, 
barren, and destitute of either wood or water. With so many 

natural disadvantages, it was not easy to produce anything, 
even tolerable, in gardening ; but princely munificence, aided 
by a Director, equally skilled in cultivating the earth, and in 
the polite arts, overcame all difficulties. What was once a 
desert is now an Eden. The judgment with which Art hath 
been employed to supply the defects of Nature, and to cover 
its deformities, hath very justly gained universal admiration, 
and reflects uncommon lustre on the refined taste of the 
noble contriver, as the vast sums which have been expended 
to bring this arduous undertaking to perfection, do infinite 
honor to the generosity and taste of the illustrious possessor, 
who, with so liberal a hand, distributes the superfluity of her 
treasures, in works, which serve at once to adorn the country, 
and to nourish its industrious inhabitants." * 

At this time, Sir William Chambers was employed in deco- 
rating the grounds at Kew with temples, &c, an account of 
which he published in a large folio book, with many plates, 
dedicated to the Princess Dowager of Wales, under the title 
of " Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Perspective Views of the 
Gardens and Buildings at Kew, in Surrey, the Seat of Her 
Royal Highness, the Princess Dowager of Wales." 

the Physick or Exotic Garden, f was also begun before 
the year 1759, by the Princess Dowager; for we find in that 
year, Mr. William Aiton, a pupil of the celebrated Philip 
Miller of the Chelsea Gardens, was placed in charge of the 
Botanical Garden at Kew ; a gentleman distinguished no less 
by his private virtues, than for his knowledge of plants, and 
great skill in cultivating them. His professional abilities 
soon procured him the friendship of the late Sir Joseph 
Banks, which subsisted for life: the most curious plants 
were collected from every part of the world, and Mr. Aiton's 
care in rearing them, was evinced by his attention to the 
various soils and several degrees of warmth or cold, that their 
different natures required. The borders in the garden were 
enlarged for the freer circulation of air where it was needful, 
and the stoves improved, so as to afford the plants, as nearly 
as possible, the atmosphere of those climates where they 
originally grew. J 

* Sir William Chambers. . , 

t This does not appear to have been the first Botanic Garden in Kew ; 
for Dr. Turner, the Herbalist, "one of the fathers of English Botany had 
a Botanic Garden here, as well as at Wells, where he was Dean ot the 

% Gentleman's Magazine, 1793. 

In 1783, Mr. Haverfleld having been advanced to a higher 
office, was succeeded by Mr. Aiton in the lucrative post of 
superintending the pleasure-grounds and kitchen -gardens at 
Kew, conjointly with which he was allowed to retain his 
former charge. 

It was about the year 1789, that His Majesty George, the 
Third purchased Kew House, which was soon afterwards 
pulled down, and the furniture removed to an old mansion, 
known by the name of Kew Palace, once the property of Sir 
Hugh Portman, who is mentioned as "the rich gentleman 
who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth at Kew." This small 
but picturesque old brick dwelling, which appears to be of 
the date of King James or Charles I., was bought in 1781 for 
Queen Charlotte, and was long the favorite suburban resi- 
dence of the Royal Family. Her Majesty took great interest 
in the increase of the collection of plants ; and the late Sir 
James E. Smith, President of the Linneean Society, has borne 
testimony to the love of Botany on the part of Queen Char- 
lotte, when he says, " the name Strelitzia * of Aiton, stands 
on the sure basis of Botanical knowledge and zeal ; and that 
few persons have ever loved the study of nature more, or 
cultivated it so deeply as Her Majesty." Under such Royal 
auspices, and with the powerful patronage of Sir Joseph Banks, 
it was only to be expected that the garden of Kew should 
soon become celebrated all over the world. So early as 1760, 
the great stove was built by Sir William Chambers, which 
still exists, and must have been a remarkable structure for 
that time of day, being 114 feet long; the centre, occupied 
by the bark stove, 60 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 20 feet high, 

* So called by Sir Joseph Banks and Mr. Aiton, in compliment to Her 
Majesty, the Consort of George III., as Princess of the House of Mecklen- 
berg Strelitz. It is a plant worthy to bear so great a name ; and noble 
specimens are usually to be seen in flower, in one or other of the stoves, 
during the winter months : especially that species on which the Genus was 
founded, Strelitzia Regince, figured at Tab. 119 of the Old Series of this 
work, and which has been justly described as one of the most brilliantly 
colored flowers in nature. The Strelitzia augusta, a far more stately 
plant of the Genus, and with larger, but very differently colored petals, has 
recently flowered in the conservatory of Kew, and will soon find a place 
in these volumes. — By the recent marriage of H. R. H. the Princess 
Augusta of Cambridge with the Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenberg 
Strelitz, this august name is still preserved in the family ; and the amiable 
Princess who bears it, has, we have ample opportunities of knowing, 
evinced a no less lively interest in the present improvements carrying 
on at Kew, than her Royal ancestor did in those to which we are now 

exclusive of the tan-pit ; and the two ends formed two dry 
stoves, each 20 feet long, 18 wide, and 20 feet high. 

In 1761, the Orangery was erected, also by Sir William 
Chambers ; this is 145 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 25 feet 
high, and in the same year was added the very elegant 
Temple of the Sun, as it is called, of the Corinthian order, 
and some young trees were planted near, now grown to be 
nearly the most beautiful and ornamental in the garden, par- 
ticularly an Oriental Plane and a Turkey Oak. Such an 
increase of plants had taken place in the year 1788, that a 
greenhouse for Cape plants was built, measuring 110 feet 
long ; and another for New Holland ones, nearly the same 
size, in 1792. 

In 1768, a catalogue of the plants in the Exotic Garden at 
Kew was published by Dr. Hill, under the title of " Hortus 
Kewensis" and a second edition the following year. But a 
far more elaborate and important work appeared, in three 
vols. 8vo, with some admirable plates, the " Hortus Kewensis 
of William Aiton," in 1789, giving an account of the several 
foreign plants which had been introduced into the English 
gardens at different times, amounting to 5,600 in number; 
and so highly was it esteemed, that the whole impression was 
sold off within two years. Mr. Aiton did not long survive 
this publication, for he died in 1793, in the sixty-third year 
of his age, and lies buried in the church-yard at Kew, near 
the graves of his distinguished friends, Zoffany, Meyer, and 
Gainsborough. His pall was borne up at the funeral by the 
most distinguished literary and scientific men of the day, by 
Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Goodenough, afterwards Bishop of 
Carlisle, Mr. Dryander, Dr. Pitcairn, Sir David Dundas of 
Richmond, and Mr. Zoffany. A singular Genus of Cape 
plants was named after him by the celebrated Professor Thun- 
berg, and the admirable portrait of him, which we have often 
seen in the library of the late Sir Joseph Banks, now in the 
British Museum, represents him as holding a sprig of Aitonia 

in his hand. 

Mr. Aiton was succeeded by his son, William fownsend 
Aiton," Esq., who was no less esteemed by His Majesty George 
the Third than his father had been, and who, besides con- 
ducting the botanical department, and taking the charge of 
the extensive pleasure grounds, was also employed in the 
improvement of the other royal gardens and pleasure- 
grounds, in all which he displayed great skill and judgment 
and an intimate acquaintance with his profession. The voyage 

of Captain Cook and Sir Joseph Banks round the world, 
those of Capt. Flinders and Mr. Robert Brown ( JBotanicorum 
Princeps) and of Mr. Allan Cunningham to Australia, of 
Bowie and Masson to the Cape of Good Hope and Brazil, 
enriched the gardens at this period with the vegetable pro- 
ductions of the Southern Hemisphere, to a degree which has 
had no parallel, before or since, — add to this, one or more 
collectors were, for a long period of years, employed in vari- 
ous other countries abroad, and the produce of their researches 
was deposited at Kew. 

These vast accessions of plants to the garden occasioned a 
new and greatly enlarged edition of Mr. Alton's Hortus 
Kewensis to be published by his son, in five vols. 8vo. (1810) ; 
" a work," as the author justly remarks, in the Dedication to 
the King, " rendered necessary to the public, not only by the 
number of valuable plants continually sent home by your 
Majesty's collectors abroad ; but also by the influx of curious 
Exotics, poured into the Royal Botanic Garden of late, by 
your Majesty's subjects, anxious to aid, by their individual 
exertions, that munificent patronage which has rendered 
Botany a favorite pursuit among all classes of your Majesty's 
people." In the same Dedication Mr. Aiton acknowledges 
the valuable assistance he (as well as his father) received 
from the scientific knowledge and learning of Sir Joseph 
Banks and Mr. Dryander. In this second edition too, the 
Botanical world is indebted, for an entire revision of the 
Orchideous and Cruciferous tribes, to the pen of Mr. Brown. 
At various times, and especially during the life of His Majesty 
George the Third, other houses, stoves, and pits were erected as 
occasion required; but it must be confessed that, on the decease 
of that revered monarch, and of Sir Joseph Banks, whom His 
Majesty so much delighted to honor, and who died shortly 
after the King, the Botanic Garden languished and suffered 
from want of royal and scientific encouragement. During the 
reigns of George the Fourth and William the Fourth, with 
the exception of the few plants transmitted by collectors who 
were occasionally employed, and one hothouse, (the conserv- 
atory,) being erected by the last-mentioned sovereign, (and it 
is but justice to say this is the handsomest and most orna- 
mental,) the Botanic Garden rather retrograded than other- 
wise ; its funds were diminished ; and matters would have been 
much worse, but for the truly parental affection cherished 
towards the establishment on the part of Mr. Aiton and the 
able exertions of his Assistant and Foreman (now the Curator) 

in the gardens, Mr. John Smith. Throughout the country, a 
feeling existed, which soon began to be loudly expressed, 
either that the establishment should be entirely abolished, or 
that it ought to be placed upon a very different footing, and 
rendered available, as a great scientific establishment, for the 
advantage of the public. 

Government was happily ready to respond to this latter 
feeling, and in 1838, the Lords of H. M. Treasury appointed 
a Committee to enquire into the management, condition, &c, 
of the Royal Botanic Gardens. The result was that in May, 
1840, a " Return" was made to the House of Commons, 
consisting of a Report by Dr. Lindley, who, at the request of 
the Committee, had surveyed the Gardens, in conjunction 
with Messrs. Paxton and Wilson, two practical gardeners. 

Strangers, or persons not well acquainted with the vicinity 
of Kew, have often very incorrect notions of this establish- 
ment ; nor can it be wondered at that such should be the case, 
seeing for how long a time it was the private garden of the 
Royal Family, and taking into account, also, the great extent 
and varied nature of the grounds. We shall in few words 
describe them, as they existed at the period we speak of. 
They consist of, 

1st, — The Grounds immediate about the Palace of Kew ; 
they are of small extent, (including a waste piece, on which 
was begun the great edifice of Mr. Wyatt, soon afterwards 
pulled down,) bounded on the North side by the road and 
towing-path and the river, on the South and West by the 
Pleasure Grounds, and on the East by the Botanic Gardens. 

2d, — The Botanic Garden proper, the present unfavorable 
entrance to which is on the South side of Kew Green, between 
the residence of H. R. H. the Duke of Cambridge and that 
occupied by General Sir George Quentin. It contained, at 
the time in question, eleven acres,* or thereabouts, of very 
irregular outline, bounded on the North partly by the gardens 
of the residences (chiefly Crown property) which stand on the 
South side of Kew Green, in part by the Green itself, from 
which it is separated by a handsome railing, and in part by the 
gardens of H. M. the King of Hanover; Westward by the 
grounds of the palace above mentioned ; Eastward by the 
royal Kitchen and Forcing Gardens ; and South by the Plea- 
sure Ground. 

• Not fifteen, as mentioned in the Report above named. That extent 
must, we think, have been intended to include the Kitchen and Forcing 
Gardens also. 

3d, — The Royal Kitchen and Forcing Gardens, situated 
between the Botanic Gardens and the Richmond road (where 
is the entrance), and comprising about 6 acres. 

4th, — The Pleasure Ground, consisting- of 120 acres, an 
extensive and beautiful area, lying to the South of the Botanic 
Garden, and bounded by the Richmond road and the river. 
For some years, this has been thrown open twice a week to 
the public, during the summer months ; it contains the well- 
known pagoda, temples, seats, and an ornamental piece of 
water, which was once a large lake, covering many acres. 

5th, — To the South of this, and stretching between the 
Richmond road and the river, almost into the lower part of 
the town of Richmond, lies Richmond Old Park, or Kew 
Park, as it is sometimes called ; a noble extent of pasture, 
interspersed with many fine trees, and distinguished by the 
Observatory, which was erected by George the Third, now 
liberally granted to the use of the British Association, and 
where this scientific body is carrying on an interesting series 
of experiments on Terrestrial Magnetism. 

The Report of Dr. Lindley, mentioned above, has reference 
only to the 2d of these divisions; namely, the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, and it states that " they occupy about fifteen acres 
(see note supra), and contain many fine Exotic Trees and 
fehrubs, a small collection of Herbaceous Plants, and numer- 
ous specimens of Grasses.- Ten different stoves and green- 
nouses, built at different times, as occasion required, are 

As some of these houses have already been greatly altered, and others 
rl! c ° n ?, emn « d ' as unworthy of the gardens, it may not be uninteresting to 
record their former extent, and contents, as given in the Report. 
s i x , • Stove > 60 feet long, containing some fine old Palm trees, 
«c., planted in the ground." 

plant " A Stove > 50 feet long, with a miscellaneous collection of stove 

plants " Dltt °' 6 ° feet ' C0Dtainin S ditto ' and two sma11 tanks for a q uatic 

4. " A small span Greenhouse, 40 feet lorn* occupied by a miscella- 
neous collection of New Holland and Cape plants." P 
succulent ^ V ^ l ° Ve ' 4 ° feet lon S' in two compartments, filled with 
CW fp G ? e e n house, 60 feet long, chiefly filled with fine specimens of 
Banksia " P6 and NeW Holland P lants > a mong which are some noble 

rJt';Jo A , dou 1 ble 1 Propagating Pit and Hospital, 35 feet long, with 

^^IS1S l itteSte^ ^, ° nedivisi ° n ' Ferns ' orchide *' and ° ther vaiuabie 
A^i::tSkfj^ long ' contaimng smai1 Cape of Good 

crowded together without plan or arrangement, all heated by 
separate fires, producing a quantity of soot, which causes 
much inconvenience ; they contain a great variety of rare and 
valuable Tropical plants, in good preservation. Besides these 
houses, a fine Orangery stands in the Pleasure Grounds, 
filled with Orange trees and other shrubs, of great size and 
value, and a new architectural greenhouse (that erected by 
William the Fourth, before mentioned). The report goes on 
to state that " the cultivation, on the whole, is creditable to 
those individuals who have had charge of the garden, consid- 
ering the crowded state of the houses, and the inadequate 
funds allowed for its support. These causes, and the very 
insufficient extent of ground allotted to the garden as a 
National Institution for the encouragement and extension of 
Botanical Science, prevent its fulfilling the objects for which 
it was designed ; neither does it seem to be useful as a private 
Royal Garden, being only resorted to for supplies of flowers 
and plants, on occasion of great entertainments at the royal 

" Of late years, the means of maintaining this garden 
appear to have been considerably reduced ; one of the two 
collectors, who had been sent abroad in 1814 to collect seeds 
and plants and to communicate with similar institutions in 
other countries, having been recalled in 1823, and the other 
in 1830." 

It resulted from this investigation that the whole of the 
Gardens, Pleasure Grounds, and Park was transferred to the 
department of Her Majesty's Commissioners of Woods and 
Forests. Mr. Aiton, on the eve of the fiftieth anniversary of 
his Directorship, retired from the charge of the Botanic Gar- 
dens, and the writer of the present notice received instructions 
from the Honorable Board of Commissioners to enter upon 

9. " A Botany- Bay house, 110 feet long, crowded with magnificent 
specimens, chiefly of New Holland plants." 

10. " An old" Stove, reported to be the first house erected in the garden, 
110 feet long, in three divisions, one occupied by noble succulents and other 
plants; the second containing a stately Zamia pungens, Palms, fyc; and 
the third a miscellaneous set of greenhouse plants, with a few forced flowers 
for nosegays." 

11. "In addition to these, there are, in the Pleasure Ground, a fine old 
Orangery, above alluded to, 130 feet long, filled with Orange trees Arau- 
carias, New Holland and other plants, of great size : and 

12. In another part of the Pleasure Ground, adjoining the Arboretum, 
there has been recently erected an architectural greenhouse, 82 feet long, 
42 feet wide, and 28 feet high." 



the important duties of that office in the spring of the year 
1841, and to make, as speedily as possible, a report to the 
Board, of such alterations as were deemed essential for render- 
ing the gardens useful to the public at large and to our 
colonies abroad. Many useful suggestions on these heads 
are offered in the Report of Dr. Lindley, especially when he 
observes, " A National Garden ought to be the centre round 
which all minor establishments of the same kind should be 
arranged ; they should be all under the control of the chief of 
that garden, acting in concert with him, and, through him, 
with each other ; reporting constantly their proceedings, ex- 
plaining their wants, receiving their supplies, and aiding the 
mother country in every thing that is useful in the Vegetable 
Kingdom. Medicine, Commerce, Agriculture, Horticulture, 
and many valuable branches of manufacture, would derive 
much advantage from the establishment of such a system. 
From a garden of this kind, government would be able to 
obtain authentic and official information on points connected 
with the establishment of new colonies : it would afford the 
plants there required, without its being necessary, as now, to 
apply to the officers of private establishments for advice and 

" Such a garden would be the great source of new and 
valuable plants, to be introduced and dispersed through this 
country ; it would be a powerful means of increasing the plea- 
sure of those individuals who already possess gardens; and, 
what is of far more consequence, it would undoubtedly become 
an efficient instrument in refining the taste, increasing the 
knowledge, and augmenting the amount of rational pleasures 
of that important class of society, to provide for the instruc- 
tion of which has become so great and wise an object with the 
present enlightened administration. 

" Purposes like these could not be effectually accomplished 
with such a place as the Botanic Garden of Kew now is 
(in 1838). It would, however, prove an admirable founda- 
tion ; and the facility of reaching it, either by land or water, 
renders it impossible to select a better site in the vicinity of 
the metropolis. 

" To render it effective, it should be enlarged by the addi- 
tion of, at least, 30 acres from the Pleasure Grounds of Kew. 
Considerable additions should be made to the houses ; every 
thing should be systematically named and arranged ; in short, 
the garden should be perfectly adapted to the three branches, 
of instruction, exhibition, and supply." 


Other alterations of a very important character could not 
fail to suggest themselves to the Director on his becoming 
intimately acquainted with the minutiae of the establishment, 
and many which it were tedious to narrate in this place. 

One of the first of these was to throw open the Botanic 
Garden for the admission of the public on every week-day, 
from the hours of one to six, or, rather, till dark in summer ; 
and even to admit any respectable individuals coming from a 
distance, who may not be acquainted with this regulation, at 
an earlier hour ; and not only are the grounds, but the houses 
also, open to visitors ; and it is almost needless to say that the 
number of these has been very considerable. Yet, what is 
peculiarly gratifying, and contrary to the anticipation of many 
persons, this privilege has been rarely abused. In the few 
cases of an opposite description, the conviction (which must be 
expected when trustworthy men are necessarily dispersed 
through the garden at their various occupations) has produced 
its own punishment. 

Next to the facility of ingress, and consequent pleasure 
and instruction to the public, the enlargement of the ground 
was an important object. The limit of the garden was not 
indeed exactly defined where it met the precincts of the 
residence of H. M. the King of Hanover ; but permission was 
soon granted to include within the Botanic Garden, all 
the ground immediately adjoining the Conservatory and the 
Orangery, which greatly augmented the beauty of the 
view, and included between 3 and 4 acres. This addition 
to the gardens, howeve'r, was rather to be considered orna- 
mental than useful. Application was made by the Chief 
Commissioner of Woods and Forests to Her Majesty, for such 
an extent of land from the contiguous Pleasure Ground as 
might afford the means of forming an Arboretum, suited to 
such an establishment, and also of erecting a Palm or Tropical 
stove, equally worthy of the place and the nation. Her 
Majesty was graciously pleased to assent to this request, and a 
portion of the Pleasure Ground, comprising about 47 acres, 
and including a piece of water, was surveyed and permitted to 
be enclosed with a light wire fence, so as still to open the 
view into the rest of the Pleasure Ground, and added to the 
beauty of the Botanic Gardens, which may now be estimated 
to contain 60 acres, and the two areas are now laid into one. 
Thus, here is a considerable space allotted for Arboretum, it 
judiciously planted, and in grounds already so highly orna- 
mental, and so furnished with well-grown trees, as to present 


great inherent beauty, independently of the additional im- 
provements which are in contemplation. 

But changes now come to be noticed that have taken place 
within the boundary of the old ground, or original Botanic 
Garden : for in the same ratio that the space for hardy plants 
needed enlargement, so did the accommodation for tender 
plants ; and plans were given in for those improvements, by 
which such a transformation is effected in the aspect of the place, 
that persons, who have not visited Kew Gardens for two or 
three years, can scarcely recognize the localities. These alter- 
ations may be best understood by a reference to the former 
condition of the stoves and greenhouses (as given in the note 
p. 8) ; and, at the same time, some changes will be detailed, 
that are yet only in contemplation. 

We will suppose the visitor to enter the garden from Kew 
Green : he passes along an alley of shrubs, which turns at an 
angle close to the present dwelling of the Curator, Mr. John 
Smith, and after walking under a handsome specimen of Napo- 
leon's Willow (Salix Babylonica) growing on the left hand 
(and remarkable for a conspicuous and strong root which it sent 
out for more than 20 feet in search of water) and a healthy 
young Pinus Webbiana on the right, he enters the Arboretum 
immediately opposite to a Glastonbury Thorn, which may often 
be seen in flower on or before Christmas, and does not shed its 
foliage till after that time, blossoming again in Spring. Near 
the Thorn is a handsome Deodar, from the Himalaya Moun- 
tains (Cedrus Deodar a) ; a Deciduous Cypress (Taxodium dis- 
tichum), and a rare unkown species of the Genus supposed to 
come from Japan ; the curious and scarce Juniperus Jiliformis, 
unique of its kind ; Pinus macrocarpa, P. Coulteriana, &c. 
&c. Here the visitor, attracted by the appearance of stoves, 
probably turns to the left, or south, rather than into the right- 
hand walk, which would lead more immediately to the old 
Arboretum, and the first object he sees on the right-hand side, 
opposite to a noble tree of the Downy-fruited Maple, (Acer 
eriocarpum of North America,) is the house to which we 
have been alluding, as about shortly to be removed, viz. : — 
" A Palm-stove, 60 feet long, containing, among other things, 
some fine old Palm trees, planted in the ground." These 
Palms have greatly outgrown the house, and they are suffer- 
ing extremely ; but the building, which had been raised to 
give them more room, is old and worthless, and will be 
altogether demolished. In the meanwhile, preparations are 
making for the removal of the Palms, and of a noble Screw 


Pine (Pandanus odoratissimus), planted in the ground, 
which, by digging round the roots, and limiting them within 
a smaller compass, will allow of being set into a great tub, 
and thus removed into the future Palm Stove. Besides the 
plants just mentioned, this house at present contains a large 
collection of Ferns ; amongst them the Tree Fern of Van 
Diemen's Land (Dicksonia antarctica), a fine specimen of 
the Indian Dammara Pine ( Dammara orientalis) ; and two 
still rarer ones, the Dammara of New Zealand, or Cowdie 
Pine (D. australis), so valuable for masts for our navy ; some 
miscellaneons bulbs, &c. 

Following the same path for a very short distance, we 
come on the left to 

" No. 2. A Stove, fifty feet long, filled with a miscellaneous 
collection of plants." At the time alluded to (1839), this, 
like all the other hothouses and greenhouses described in 
the list, was nothing more than a lean-to, presenting only a 
South front, with a high back-wall on the North, and heated 
by smoke-flues. The present erection, retaining its original 
position and length, has been doubled, and is converted into a 
span-house, giving, of course, twice the area of its former 
dimensions ; the new glass is all sheet-glass ; the heating is 
on the best construction, with hot-water pipes, and hot- water 
tanks ; slate tables are placed in the -centre, and broad stone 
shelves in the circumference ; and there are pillars for 
climbers. It is still, assuredly, " filled with a miscellaneous 
collection of plants;" but these are in a highly flourishing 
condition, and as unlike plants cultivated with smoke-flues 
as it is possible to conceive. One of the shelves is, at present, 
occupied with a fine range of ever-flowering Begonias, whose 
highly-ornamental foliage, amid a hundred modifications, 
always preserves its peculiar character of obliquity, and is 
thence, not inaptly called, Elephant's Ear. The Genus, too, 
possesses a great advantage, in its species producing their 
delicate pink or white blossoms at different seasons ; so that 
one or other kind may be seen in bloom all the year round. 
Here, too, are the famous Tea Plants of Paraguay (Ilex 
Paraguayensis), a kind of Holly, affording the beverage, 
called Mate in South America, and used almost as extensively 
in that great continent, as the Bohea, Souchong, and Hyson, 
of China, are in Europe. The Upas or Poison Tree of Java 
(Antiaris toxicodendron), to whose authentic virulence it 
has been the pleasure of poets and travellers to add many a 


horrifying imaginary incident : this most valuable specimen 
was presented to the Royal Gardens, along with many other 
oriental rarities, by the Hon. the Directors of the East India 
Company. The Tanghin, or Poison Tree of Madagascar 
(Tanghinia veneniflua), rendered infinitely more extensively 
baleful than Upas by the execrable laws of the Malagassy 
kingdom (for a colored representation of this tree, and many 
particulars of its use in the native ordeal, as communicated 
by the Missionaries, see the Botanical Magazine, Tab. 2968; 
and Botanical Miscellany, v. 3, p. 275—291, Tab. 110). In 
this same house, are Coffee and Chocolate shrubs, Black 
Pepper, the Teak of India, the Cow- Tree or Palo de Vaca 
of the Caraccas, Galactodendron utile, (described and figured 
in the Botanical Magazine, Tab. 2723 and 2724), and a 
multitude of other rare fruticose plants. The Telfairia 
pedata (Botanical Magazine, Tab. 2751, 2), with its curiously 
fringed flowers, would fill the building with the lengthened 
branches which it throws out, if permitted to do so : the Gre- 
nadilla {Passiflora edulis, Botanical Magazine, Tab. 1989) ; 
the beautiful Gardenia S her bournice,— these climbers, together 
with the Passiflora alata, Allamanda cathartica, Echites 
hirsuta, Poivrcea coccinea and Roxburghii, Petrcea volubilis, 
Beaumontia grandiflora, and Ipomcea Horsfallice, twine round 
the pillars. 

It may be remembered by former visitors to the garden, 
that, m the old state of this stove, there was a gate of entrance 
at its west end, opening from the Arboretum into the Botanic 
garden, and that from this point, a wall went off (where a 
lcrebinth-Tree, and a large Salisburia now stand) to the 
back of the "old stove," and from the West termination of 
that again in the direction of the old Orangery : this wall 
formed the boundary (now pulled down) between the Arbo- 
retum and the herbaceous ground. 

" No. 3. A Stove, sixty feet long, with two small tanks, 
tor water-plants, occupied by a miscellaneous assemblage of 
stove plants." This remains still in the same condition as 
when the Report was prepared ; and it is interesting, during 
the short time it will be permitted so to stand, to compare 
the state of its inmates, as to growth and vigour, with those 
in the building just left, (No. 2,) where the improvements in 
hothouse cultivation have been adopted. It is, however, in- 
tended, during the present year, 1845, to make a span-house 
ol this, to carry it out to the length of ninety feet, joining it 


to, and rendering it in every point, except as to internal 
arrangement, like No. 2, when it probably will form a recep- 
tacle for Orchideous plants. 

" No. 4. A small Span-greenhouse, forty feet long, con- 
taining a miscellaneous collection of New Holland and Cape 
plants." This runs North and South, and may be entered by 
a door opposite the centre of the house, No. 2, and it is, as to 
external appearance, much the same as it originally was ; but 
the interior arrangement and mode of heating are altered, 
and it is filled with Cape Heaths and Epacridece. Outside 
this greenhouse, both on the East and West sides, are low 
frames, warmed by a single hot-water pipe. That on the 
East, contains Erythrinas, Ahtroemerias, and other half- 
hardy herbaceous plants; that on the west side, together 
with a number of half-hardy Ferns, and other rarities, pro- 
tects the rare Beech- Trees of Cape Horn, Fagus Forsteri, 
and Fagus antarctica* the most southern trees in the world, 
one of which has small evergreen leaves ; also the Winter's 
Bark (Drimys Winteri), Berberis ilicifolia, the rarest and 
largest -flowered species of the Genus, &c. : all these were 
brought home by the Antarctic Expedition, under the com- 
mand of Captain Sir James Ross. 

" No. 5. A dry Stove, forty feet long, in two compart- 
ments, filled with succulent plants." This is a house, 
situated a little to the south of No. 4, and which was sepa- 
rated from it by a gravel walk; but the two compartments 
have been since thrown into one : the building has been 
besides doubled and converted into a span-house, heated by 
hot- water, and joined to the South end of No. 4, opening into 
it by a glass door. It is now occupied by an invaluable col- 
lection of Cactuses and other stove succulents. Am ° n g 
them are many species of Cactus, for the possession of which 
we are indebted to the liberality of Mr. Parkinson, late 
Consul-General to the Republic of Mexico, and, through the 
same friend, to the obliging kindness of Mr. Staines of ban 
Luis Potosi. The " Monster Cactus" t with which the 

* See Hooker's London Journ. of Bot. v. 2, p. 147, &c , for a full account 
of these two species. They are trees of great beauty, attaining a large 
size (Capt. Fitzroy measured the trunk of one of them, which was seven leet 
in diameter) : they have been found already to bear our winters. 

t Since writing the above, and just before going to press the appearance 
of this hothouse has been materially altered by the arrival of five large boxes 
of Cactuses from Mexico, sent by the same public-spirited individual whose 
name is mentioned before, Frederick Staines, Esq. To make room tor 
them, several of the taller kinds of Cereus had to be removed elsewhere (to 


Illustrated London News has made England generally ac- 
quainted, is situated near the centre of the house : it is the 
gift of the latter gentleman, and sure we are that no collection 
in Europe possesses a more remarkable specimen of this 
extraordinary and grotesque family. The low platform on 
the west end, is chiefly occupied by the Nopal or Opuntia- 
tribe of Cactus, upon some or other of which, especially the 
Opuntia cochinilifer, the Cochineal Insect is extensively 
reared in Mexico ; the opposite side presents the different spe- 
cies of Cereus, &c, ; while, on the broad shelf in front, stands 
an immense variety of Melocactus and Echinocactus. Against 
the front of this hothouse, in the open air, grow some fine 
plants, attracting general attention, of the Black Tea (Thea 
Bohea), the Green Tea (Thea viridis), and the Sasanqua 
Tea (Camellia Sasanqua) : the latter being cultivated in 
China solely for the sake of its flowers, which are said to 
impart a peculiar fragrance and flavor, when mingled with 
the foliage which affords the other kinds of Tea. 
Nearly opposite to the east end of this house is 
" No. 6. A Greenhouse, sixty feet long, chiefly occupied 
by fine specimens of Cape of Good Hope and New Holland 
plants ; among which are some noble Banksias." Of all the 

the Conservatory), that the space might be occupied with others of that 
family, before whose magnitude even our hitherto Monster Cactus has 
shrunk into comparative obscurity. The latter will not, however, escape 
notice, and may be recognized by the name and inscription it bears, 
-bchinocactusStainesn;' from San Luis, Potosi, presented by F. Staines, 
£sq. ; weight 23o lbs." There may now be seen two other individuals of 
the same species; one nearly the same size, with peculiarly red spines; the 
other bearing pale spines, but considerably taller than any of those just 
mentioned. j j 

The Monster, however, of the collection, though quite a different species, 
and we may assert without disparagement to other Cactus collections, the 
most astonishing plant of that tribe which has ever been sent from the New 
r:' .y I 1 V 1 i ttt „ t0 whlch the name is att ached, " Echinocactus Viznaga, 
weight 71d lbs." It would occupy too much space here, to detail the many 
difficulties and obstacles which attended the uprooting of this gigantic plant, 
and transporting it in a waggon, drawn by eight oxen, for a distance of 
tnree hundred leagues, over mountains, and along the worst possible roads, 
ere it reached the coast, whence it was shipped for Britain. The omission 
01 this narrative, is the less to be regretted, since it is fully given in the 
Gardeners Chronicle of March 1st, 1845. Suffice it to say, that this 
Actiinocactus is a perfectly distinct species, and that Viznaga is an appel- 
ation given to it, and other thorny Cactuses, by the Spaniards, from the use 
io wnicn their numerous, strong, starry spines are applied. Viznaga, or 
itS V S nam f - f ° r the s P in y ra y s of the um bels of Daucus (or 

2! Ir a ? a { and * means a toothpick; these Cactuses affording that 
usetul Uttle article by wholesale, and without any artificial preparation. 


changes that have yet been made, this edifice presents, per- 
haps, the most important. The house was good of its kind 
before, save in the mode of heating, and in the shelves or 
stands which supported the plants. It has now been doubled, 
converted into a span-house thirty-two feet broad ; while, 
extending North from this addition, a new wing is attached, 
sixty feet long, and forming a span twenty-two feet in 
breadth. The whole interior is neatly fitted up, with stone 
shelving, and hot- water pipes, while copious concealed tanks 
(as in our other new and improved houses) are added for the 
purpose of catching and preserving a large body of rain 
water ; and it is glazed with sheet glass. This extensive, but 
simple structure, is filled with a perfectly unique collection 
of Banksias and other Proteaceous productions of Australia. 
Coming, as many of these plants do, from the Southern 
Hemisphere, they preserve their natural habits, and a large 
proportion of them, especially the Banksias, may be seen, 
bearing their curious flowers in the winter, and the Lcgu- 
minosce, during our early spring months, when the fragrant 
Acacias are in the highest perfection. It is now in contem- 
plation, during the coming summer (1845), to add another 
wing to this house, on the South side, corresponding with 
that on the North ; the whole building then will be m the 
form of a cross, one hundred and fifty-two feet long. 

" No. 7. A Double Propagating Pit, or Hospital, thirty- 
five feet long, with cuttings under bell-glasses and sick plants 
in one division ; Ferns, Orchidaceous plants, and some other 
valuable specimens, in the other." To reach this house from 
the one just described, the visitor must follow the path from 
the eastern door of the last house (n. 6), and proceed to the 
South, passing compartments of herbaceous plants, on the 
right, among lawn, and the famous Chili Pine (Araucaria 
imbricata), which was brought to England in the year 1792, 
by Mr. Menzies, the surgeon of Capt. Vancouver s voyage, 
comes into view. It is, perhaps, not generally known that the 
seeds of this Pine are eaten in Chili, as those of the btone 
Pine are in Italy, or as Almonds are with us. Ihe Com- 
mander of the voyage and some of his officers were dining at 
the table of the Governor of Chili, and a dish of these kernels 
was served for dessert, when the surgeon of the expedition, 
Mr. Menzies, requested permission to plant, instead ot eating, 
hi* portion, which was accordingly done, and five ot the seeds 
having germinated on board ship, were presented to the Koyai 
Gardens of Kew on the return of the expedition. Ihe Chili 


Pine in question is the finest of these, and has already pro- 
duced its remarkably large, almost globose, yet infertile cones. 
Though the tree is in perfect health, it does not, however, 
assume with us that striking pyramidal form which distin- 
guishes it on the mountains of Chili ; but a cutting, taken 
from it, and planted at Dropmore, the seat of the late Lord 
Granville, is now become a handsomer specimen than its 
parent, and grows in the natural manner so peculiar to it. 
Near the Araucaria, on the West, is a splendid specimen of 
the Weeping Birch of Scotland ; while, closer to the walk, 
in concentric circles, with brick edging round the beds, is the 
Grass collection, and a noble Hop-Hornbeam Tree (Ostrya 
vulgaris). Turning to the left, in a recess which includes the 
British Garden, we arrive at the house under consideration, 
having a low span roof. In external form it is unaltered ; 
but, inside, the division which made it a double house is re- 
moved, the whole fitted up with slate shelving, tanks, and 
hot water pipes, and it contains the chief part of the tropical 
Orchideous collection, intermixed, however, with many rare 
Ferns; among these the Acrostichum ( Platy cerium) grande, 
trom Australia, the gift of Mr. Bidwill, particularly claims 
attention ; * and no less two other plants, kept under glasses, 
R "^ m 9-pl ant " of Ceylon, Ancectochilus setaceus (see 
tfot. Mag. t. 4123), which has rich velvety leaves, covered, 
as it were, with a net-work of golden lace, and the equally 
rare Pitcher-Plant of New Holland, Cephalotus follicularis 
(Hot. Mag. t. 3118 and 3119), with its curious pitchers, as 
the name implies, each terminated by a lid. This, as may at 
once be seen, is a very distinct thing from the more common 
Pitcher Plant of Ceylon (Nepenthes distillatoria), and it be- 
longs to a widely different family. 

"No. 8. A Greenhouse, thirty feet long, in which are 
small Cape of Good Hope and New Holland plants." This 
is a small, neat building, near, but not next to, No. 7, 
attached to a dwelling occupied by one of the gardeners, in 
very good condition, and not easily capable of improvement. 

^ 1 1 \f^ e ** is filled witl1 Mesembryanthemums and other 
south African succulent productions, requiring: a greenhouse 
temperature. TV 

m- , he J e . ls a , n excel 'ent representation of this grotesque and rare Fern 
published in the second volume (p. 181) of the " Voyage of the United 
states Exploring Expedition," as it may be seen growing on the branch of 
N w S m ti w^ 6 " ° f ° Ur friend ' AIexander M'Leay; Esq., at Sydney, 


Returning from this house, and continuing in the path 
some way to the West, leaving the Hop Hornbeam on one 
side and a noble Sophora Joponica on the other, you turn 
into the main walk of the herbaceous ground, and come to 

" No. 9. A Botany-Bay House, one hundred and ten feet 
long, crowded with magnificent specimens of New Holland 
and other plants, especially the former." This edifice also 
remains in statu quo, and contains at this time a very mixed 
collection ; mainly, however, from South Africa and Australia, 
and many of them very grand specimens, particularly those 
from New Zealand, many having been presented to us by the 
Rev. William Colenso, of the Church Missionary Society in 
that island. The oldest and largest individuals, however, are 
the gift of Capt. Sir W. Symonds, Surveyor General of the 
Navy. Among them may be seen the New Zealand Pine 
(Dammara australis), of which the long, straight trunks are 
so valuable for spars of ships; the graceful Dacrydium cupres- 
sinum ; the peculiar- looking Phyllocladus trichomanoides, and 
other forest-trees of that singular group of Islands. There is 
a striking character in the hue of the New Zealand trees, 
which must give a sombre aspect to the forest when chiefly 
composed of them. 

This building is very much out of place in its present 
position, and will be taken down as soon as a more suitable 
range for greenhouse accommodation shall have been else- 
where erected. 

" No. 10. An old Stove, reputed to be the first house 
built in the gardens, one hundred and ten feet long, in three 
divisions ; one containing noble specimens of succulent and 
other plants; the second, a stately Zamia pungens, Palms, 
&c. ; and the third, a miscellaneous set of greenhouse plants, 
together with a few forced flowers for nosegays." This was 
indeed the first, or among the first houses erected by Sir 
William Chambers, and is that alluded to at p. 4 supra, where, 
however, its length is given by Sir William Chambers at one 
hundred and fourteen feet. Its antiquity is indicated by the 
large, massy, wooden beams, which, if the edifice were allow- 
ed to remain, would yet outlive many of the more modern 
wooden structures. The walls, however, have, in part, given 
way. It stands condemned, and will be pulled down, as soon 
as we are provided with the needful accommodation for its 
fine inmates. The contents arc still nearly of the same kind 
as described by Dr. Lindley, and have suffered exceedingly 


for want of more space, and a more wholesome atmosphere in 
the winter. 

The above ten houses are all that are catalogued in Dr. 
Lindley's Report. He alludes to the brick pits attached to 
many of them " on the outside," and to " a damp pit for 
raising seedlings;" the former are, generally speaking, remov- 
ed, as alterations take place in the houses ; for they are very 
unsightly, and the glass suffers much from the fall of snow 
and ice from the roofs above during the winter ; and the latter 
is so changed, that we shall, in continuing the catalogue, 
call it 

No. 13. This " Damp Pit" was a deep frame or brick pit, 
forty feet long, with a single row of lights, facing the South, 
situated immediately in front of the dry stove, No. 5, and is 
now raised and doubled, by a span roof, and fitted up with 
tables and shelves, and iron pipes, and iron tanks, and is one 
of the completest and most useful moist stoves in the esta- 
blishment. In it a great number of our rarest tropical plants 
are kept, till such time as they are fit for the larger stoves. 
Here are, at this period, some fine young Bread-fruit Trees; 
the hitherto almost unknown (to Naturalists) Teak of Africa, 
often called African Oak; the almost as little known Na- 
poleonea imperialis; a large - flowered new Gardenia (G. 
btanleyana, Hook.), and other treasures of Western Africa, 
brought over by Mr. Whitfield, and presented by the Earl of 
Derby ; the curious Lace-Bark Tree, and the equally singu- 
lar aquatic (Pistia Stratiotes); the splendid Clerodendron 
speciosissimum, &<•., &c. 

Another moist stove we shall designate as 

No. 14. It is situated in the recess of the garden, above 
mentioned, near the British Garden, and between the houses, 
Nos. 7 and 8, and is a low building fifty feet long, with a 
double span roof, divided transversely into two compartments, 
heated by iron pipes and tanks, and designed for a Propagat- 
ing House and Hospital for tropical plants, to which it is 
admirably adapted. Many or most of the new importations 
are lodged for a while here, seeds are raised, and cuttings 
struck. The crowded state of the Orchideous house (No. 7) 
requires that several of the Orchideous plants should be re- 
moved into this one ; but it is only a temporary measure. As 
the contents are not, in general, stationary, it is hardlv n&d- 
tal to speak of them; but I may observe that, at the present 
period, it contains many interesting Orchideous and other 


plants, lately received from our Collector, Mr. Purdie, from 
Jamaica and Santa Martha; some fine young Tree Ferns, 
also from Jamaica, the kind gift of Mr. Wilson ; and many 
other rare and interesting plants, but which are soon to be 
removed to other stoves. 

The houses now described, are all that are contained in 
what was considered the Botanic Garden proper, at the period 
of my being placed in charge of the establishment : but in 
the adjoining palace grounds, two of the finest houses had 
long been occupied with plants under the care of the Director, 
and they are now included within the boundary. I allude to 
the " Orangery''' and the " Conservatory ;" unquestionably, 
two of the finest plant-houses at present existing at Kew. 
The first of these, we shall call 

No. 11. The " Orangery." To arrive at this from the old 
stove, n. 10, above described, we proceed from the western 
end, past a stone tank, the Aquarium, for hardy water plants; 
and taking the right hand turn, the handsome structure in 
question comes into view. This is already briefly alluded to, 
supra p. 5. It was erected by Sir William Chambers, in 
1761, and is one hundred and forty-two feet long, thirty 
feet wide, and twenty-five feet high. In the back shed, 
are two furnaces to heat flues, laid under the pavement. 
It was, until 1841 filled chiefly with Orange Trees, which 
were then (with the exception of a few reserved as speci- 
mens) removed to Kensington Palace, and their places sup- 
plied by trees and shrubs, which were becoming too large 
for the other greenhouses. Amongst them, may be seen an 
invaluable collection of the more tender Coniferce; the 
superb Araucarias — excelsa, Cuninghami, Brasiliensis; Pinus 
longifolia, &c, &c, &c. ; noble specimens of Camellias, 
Rhododendron arboreum, and a great number of New Holland 
trees and shrubs. Well as this house may have served for 
an Orangery, there is not light enough for greenhouse plants 
generally, notwithstanding that two large windows have been 
lately constructed (one at each end), at the suggestion of Mr. 
Aiton, and three windows or ventilators at the back. To 
render this house efficient, it should be doubled, and covered 
by a double span glass roof. 

Proceeding from the East end of this structure, and in- 
clining to the North, we came to 

No. 12. The " Conservatory," as it is usually designated ; 
spoken of in Dr. Lindley's Report, as the "Architectural 
Greenhouse, in the*pleasure ground, adjoining the Arboretum, 


eighty-two feet long, forty-two feet wide, and twenty-eight 
feet high." This handsome edifice was removed hither from 
Buckingham Palace by His Majesty William the Fourth, in 
the year 1836, and is heated by innumerable coils of small 
pipes fixed by Mr. Perkins. For some years, it was occupied 
by greenhouse, and chiefly fine specimens of New Holland, 
plants ; but, as the removal of the Orange Trees from the 
Orangery gave us more greenhouse accommodation, this build- 
ing was converted into a stove, and it is now filled with an 
extensive collection of Palms, and other large Monocotyle- 
donous plants, especially Bromeliaceos, Avoided, Agaves, the 
bugar Cane, the Papyrus, tall plants of Dragon's Blood 
(IJracama Draco), and a great variety of Dicotyledons in- 
habiting tropical countries: noble Euphorbias, some large 
Cacte<E Zamias and other Cycadece, &c, &c. On the more 
particular contents of this house it is needless to dwell, as the 
greater number will be shortly removed to more suitable 

It will thus be seen that the existing number of plant-houses 
is fourteen, exclusive of pits and frames. We have much to 
say yet on the garden ground generally, but the writer can- 
not but feel that with the many changes which are at this 
moment (June, 1845) in progress,— the formation of a new 
entrance and new grand walk (the Victoria Walk, accom- 
panied by a flower-garden) at the head of Kew Green, and 
or a great Palm-stove, and of a more extended sheet of water 
tiian the garden yet possesses,— the description of this ground 
ana ot these improvements will be better undertaken when 
me works are more advanced, and when we trust to be able 

7n f ° f the entire pounds, and a correct view of the 
great Palm-stove before the public. 

hi the mean time, we are not without matter of interest for 
tlie subscribers to the "Companion to the Botanical Maga- 
zine. Our excellent friend and neighbour, Frederick 
acneer, fcsq., a former historian of Kew Gardens,* has kindly 
sent us a translation of the account published by Dr. von 
riscner of the Imperial Botanic Garden of St. Petersburg, 
mtiierto, we believe, the most extensive and one of the best 
conducted of any in Europe. This we shall hasten to lay 
before our readers. 

Mr Sr-ff l Hd *l S Gardens - h y Frederick Scheer, Esq., 1840 ;" in which 
limateiv o? fV Vn . himself t0 ** a warm friend to the Gardens, and in- 
timately acquainted with them and the adjoining village. 



By the Director, Dr. von FISCHER. 

(With a Plan. Tab. I J 

The Imperial Botanic Garden is one of the many striking 
features of St. Petersburg, well worthy the attention of the 
visitors of the northern Metropolis. Like everything to be 
seen there, it is on a gigantic scale, the lines of houses ex- 
tending to a length of nearly three-quarters of an English 
mile. The translator of the following account, furnished by 
Dr. Fischer to the Horticultural Journal at Berlin, has had 
recently the advantage of seeing this garden, and can bear 
testimony to the extraordinary beauty of the establishment 
and the perfection to which botanical cultivation has been 
carried under the direction of that able gentleman, whom he 
is proud to call his friend, and who is, in fact, the friend of 
every liberal man in Europe connected with botanical pur- 
suits. It may not be amiss to remark, that though the severe 
winters of St. Petersburg are the cause of many difficulties, 
yet these find, in a great measure, compensation, in the im- 
mense quantity of solar light and warmth, which the plants 
enjoy during the prolonged days of the short summers, accel- 
erating the growth and maturity of vegetation in a surprising 
degree. A large sum of money has been lately granted (as 
much as £20,000) by his Majesty the Emperor, to improve 
and further extend this princely establishment. — F. S. 

The Imperial Botanic Garden is an important testimony 
of Peter the Great's creative genius. His comprehensive 
mind fostered not only those sciences to which he inclined 
most, but attended to whatever was useful. By an Imperial 
Ukase, dated the 11th February, 1714, he ordered the garden 
to be established on one of the islands, formed by the Delta 
of the Neva. It was, like most early Botanic Gardens, 
originally intended to serve for the culture of medicinal 
plants. On that account, and also because the government 
depot of drugs was situated in its immediate neighbourhood, 
it obtained the name of the "Apothecary's Garden," as the 
island, on which both establishments were situated, retains to 


this day the name "Apothecary's Island." How long the 
garden was exclusively limited to the growth of medical 
plants, is not known ; all early records having been lost in 
a fire, on the 5th June 1837, which consumed the govern- 
ment drug establishments, and the archives of the medical 
department. It would appear, however, from an inventory of 
the gardens, dated in 1743, that, in that year, there were 
already two divisions, one being devoted to medical, the other 
to botanical purposes. Documents of later dates, do not 
enable us to trace a clear history of the garden down to the 
year 1823, when it was entirely remodelled. Large sums of 
money had certainly been granted for its maintenance and 
improvement, but it had not reached the perfection of other 
distinguished botanical establishments, though the few old 
rare and fine plants remaining in 1823 proved, that, if not 
rich in species, it yet contained much that was remarkable. 
It is probable, that part of the plants collected by Pallas 
found their way thither, although the majority fell to the 
share of the Academy of Sciences, which had its own Botanic 
Garden, subsequently ceded to the military school of Paul, 
near the Obuchow Bridge. It is probable that during the 
direction of Professor Stephan, our garden was very rich in 
Siberian plants. 

In the mean time, experience proved that medicinal plants 
grown in latitude 60° North, in a richly manured soil, lost alj, 
medical properties ; this species of culture was, therefore, 
gradually abandoned, government having recourse to its 
arge Medicinal Garden at Lubry, in the Ukraine, altogether 
better suited for such purposes. 

In 1822, Count Alexis Rasumowsky, the founder and 
owner of a large Botanic Garden, at Gorenka, near Moscow, 
died. Count Victor Kotshubey, Minister of the Interior, 
wishing to retain the treasures of that collection (now likely 
to be dispersed), in Russia, conceived the plan of bringing all 
the plants to the Apothecary's Garden at St. Petersburg, and 
ot re-organizing that establishment altogether. His Imperial 
Majesty the Emperor approved of the proposals of the Count, 
and Dr. Fischer was accordingly instructed to draw up plans 
tor re-modelhng the garden and for the construction of 
additional houses, and to proceed to Moscow, with a view of 
purchasing the plants which had been under his management 
since 1804: that purchase, however, was not concluded, the 
sum asked being too high. It also became apparent, that the 
transport through Russia to St. Petersburg, whether by land 


or canal, would be very expensive, as well as injurious to 
many plants, and the idea of carrying the tenants of that old 
and splendid garden to St. Petersburgh was abandoned. In 
the interim, one of the old houses had been rebuilt, and 
another had been put in order for the expected arrivals. On 
the 22d March, 1823, Dr. Fischer was appointed Director of 
the Imperial Botanic Garden (that was ordered to be its 
future name), and the establishment was placed under the 
immediate care of the Minister of the Interior ; the foundations 
of the new houses, the plans of which had been approved of 
by the Emperor, were laid on the 26th June, 1823, and the 
erections were carried on so vigorously, that by the fall of the 
year 1824, every thing was ready for the reception of the 
plants obtained in the intervening period. The requisite funds 
were liberally furnished by the Home Department. At this 
time the number of species, including annuals, amounted to 
about fifteen hundred. It was necessary to obtain plants 
for the new houses and borders; much, existing in St. 
Petersburgh, was purchased, and in August, 1823, the gar- 
dener, F. Falderman, recommended as head gardener by the 
Horticultural Society of London, brought with him a large 
collection, partly purchased, partly obtained as gifts from 
Kew, Chiswick, Chelsea, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Liverpool. 
The same autumn, Her Majesty, the late Empress-mother, 
added a valuable collection from her gardens at Pawlowsk; 
and thus our houses were soon filled with no less a number 
than twenty-four thousand plants. It is delightful to record 
the eager liberality which supported our endeavours in this 
good cause. . 

During the subsequent winter, seeds, amounting, through 
the contributions of many kind correspondents, to fourteen 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-four sorts, were sown, and 
prospered bevond expectation. 'Plants were, however, still 
wanting to fill the most lofty houses. The money originally 
granted for the projected Moscow purchase, say 100,000 
Roubles (about £4,000 sterling) was therefore devoted to the 
obtaining of what we had been disappointed in getting from 
the Gorenka Gardens. Dr. Fischer proceeded in May, 1824, 
on a journey to visit the most celebrated gardens of other 
towns, and saw those of Dorpat, Konigsberg, Berlin, Hamburg, 
Bonn, Dyck, Louvain, Brussels, and Enghien. What had been 
bought at Paris, or bestowed by the liberality of the adminis- 
trators of the Jardin des Plantes, was sent by way of Havre 
to Cronstadt, under the care of a gardener brought out for that 


purpose. In Great Britain every garden of note was visited, 
and Dr. Fischer universally received proofs of good will from 
the managers, to whom our new establishment became in- 
debted for most valuable additions. The purchases in England 
amounted to about 40,000 Rs., or £1,600, and the presents 
received ought to be valued at even more than that sum. 
Mr. Goldie, well known from his travels in North America, 
was entrusted by Dr. Fischer with the care of these treasures 
on the voyage from London to St. Petersburgh. In the mean 
time, a choice selection had arrived from the Royal Gardens 
at Berlin. The total increase of plants thus obtained was 
fourteen thousand five hundred and ninety-eight, in eight 
hundred and eighty-eight genera, and three thousand two 
hundred and thirty species, of which about four hundred 
perished on the way. The total number of species in the 
garden was at this time about ten thousand. 

This splendid collection, brought together at so much ex- 
penditure of labor and money, ran, almost immediately, the 
risk of being totally destroyed, in a few minutes time, by the 
Jearlul inundation which visited St. Petersburgh on the 19th 
JNovember, 1824. The waters, cooled down to the freezing 
point, rose to the height of fifty-two inches in our houses, upset 
stands and pots, and flooded and damaged what did not perish 
with cold. The extreme height of the flood fortunately lasted 
but a tew minutes; the waters subsided as rapidly as they had 
advanced, and, with some inconvenience, we were able to set 
toot the same evening into the houses. The flues had not 
been much injured, and, after many vain attempts, we suc- 
ceeded m lighting the fires. It took fully six weeks to get 
the houses properly dried ; and after a couple of months, when 
order had been restored, we counted the extent of our loss, and 
found it to amount to quite one-fifth of the collection. 

femce 1824 we have increased our stock of plants by every 
possible means. Collectors have been dispersed, whose labours 
procured us many rare specimens. The expenses were de- 
frayed by His Imperial Majesty. Turtschaninow visited 
pastern bibena; Szovits the North-west of Persia, Armenia, 
Larabog and Circassia; Hohenacker Circassia, Carabog, and 
lalysh; Niever a part of Kamschatka; Wiedeman Natalia; 
Uaron VVrangel caused the Russian colonies on the North- 
west coast of America to be examined ; Tshernich was our 
collector m California; Riedel and Lushnath visited the pro- 
vince of Rio Janeiro, where they had a temporary garden to 
Siw plants for the return of the Russian vessel from Kam- 

y;,/ i 


&chatka, to carry them home ; and, lastly, Schrenk, who, after 
a voyage along the shores of the Arctic Sea, made four 
excursions during four summers, in company with Mr. Mein- 
shausen, in Songery as far as the frontiers of China and 
Independent Tartary. For many living plants, the garden is 
indebted to Messrs. Gebler, Kyber, Steven, Weinmann, and 

The garden continued till 1830 under the Minister for the 
Interior ; but, as a proof of special favor, His Majesty caused it 
to be transferred in that year to the Ministry of the Palace, 
accompanied by a considerable increase of means for its annual 
support, obtained from the Emperor through the influence of 
the chief of that department, Prince Wolchonsky. Thus the 
garden has been gradually advanced towards an equality with 
similar establishments elsewhere. 


which shows the garden to be an irregular quadrangle of 
somewhat beyond 20 Russian acres* (dessatmes) containing 
48,350 square fathoms, each fathom being 7 feet English mea- 
sure. On the South and East it closely approaches branches 
of the river Neva; on the West is the Apothecary s fetreet ; 
and on the North, with the northern front of the garden, the 
Garden Street. , T . . AT 

a. is the chief entrance from the Newka, or Little Neva. 

b. New houses, described below. 

c. Old houses, used for the growth of the necessary orna- 
mental plants ; on its northern side a large hall has been added, 
containing part of the Herbarium and specimens appertaining 
to the Botanical Museum. . , 

d. Wooden dwelling houses for the official gardeners and 

laborers. _ . . ,, 

d* A large wooden house on stone foundation, the resi- 
dence of the Director. A large hall, occupying the centre of 
this structure, contains the Library and part of the Museum. 

e. Ground for out -door perennials and ^ biennials. L his 
ground is enclosed with a quick hedge of Siberian White 
Thorn (Crataegus sanguined, Pall.; well suited for northern 
latitudes, where the ordinary White Thorn will not live. 

/. Vacant space intended for the Russian flora. 

* About 54 English acres. 


y. Enclosed ground for the growth of such vegetables as 
will succeed in the latitude of St. Petersburgh, 60° N. 

h. Arboretum for trees and shrubs capable of enduring 
our winter. 

h* A row of black Poplars (Populus nigra) reported to 
have been planted by Peter the Great in person, and of the 
same age as the garden itself. 

t. Nursery of young trees. 

m. Underground pipes, leading the water of the Neva 

n. A canal, supplying the necessary water, and dividing 
the garden into two nearly equal parts. 

n * Small reservoirs of water. 

o. Flower-borders. 

p. Avenues of trees dating from the first establishment of 
the gardens. 

The same Plan at b. exhibits the new houses, built in three 
parallel ranges, facing S. S. E., and connected at the ends, so 
that the whole may be passed in winter without exposure to 
the open air. The North range measures 686 feet English, 
the other two 672 feet each. These buildings are of brick, 
with iron roofs; and to the North side of each a wide gallery 
is attached, partly as protection against the cutting winds, 
partly to serve as storehouses, &c. In some of these passages, 
plants dormant during winter find shelter. The North range 
contains chiefly less tender plants ; the middle tropical ; and 
the southern consists of two warm and three cold houses. 
Plants of the same natural families have been placed together 
as tar as practicable, especially in the greenhouses ; but strict 
adherence to this system is impossible, because the size, differ- 
ence of temperature, and other circumstances require frequent 
removals and cause disturbances of such arrangement. In 
many cases the plants have been put in the borders to promote 
their development and grow them as nearly as possible in 
their natural form. 

The main entrance (a.) from the Garden Street leads into 
the house No. 1, the North front of which is a portico or 
peristyle ornamented with appropriate has reliefs. This en- 
trance is only opened on great occasions.— (b.) Ordinary 
entrance through the gardens ; the front is not finished. It is 
a roomy hall, heated in winter, serving as place of meeting 
tor gardeners and laborers to agree on their daily arrange- 
ments, for the watch and other conveniences. A book is kept 
here, m w hich visitors are requested to enter their names. 


This vast collection of houses consists of 

No. 1. A conservatory 32 ft. high. Plants chiefly in borders. 
Large species of Heteromorpha arborescens, Fuchsia arborea (cor- 
ticata ?), Ileaa Perado, etc., are conspicuous. This house, like 
several others, has a flat dark roof, it being apprehended at the 
time of its construction, that with a glass roof so large a house 
could not be kept sufficiently warm. 

2. A house, 28 ft. high, intended for the lofty trees indigenous 
or acclimatized in the south of Europe, it accommodates, however, 
several species from other regions. Thus its centre is occupied 
by a large Laurus Camphora, probably the oldest tenant of the 
garden. In the east end of this house Magnolias are planted ; 
in the west end a few New Holland Trees. A Parrotia Persica 
may be mentioned as one of the more remarkable plants of the 

3. Large New Holland house, 30 ft. high. Besides the plants 
its name indicates, others have found shelter in it, more particu- 
larly some large specimens of Araucaria Braziliensis, and two 
very old plants of Rhododendron arboreum, dating from the in- 
troduction of the species into Europe. In the eastern borders 
Cape plants of large size, namely Plectronia ventosa, Rhus glauca, 
several Royence, Cunonia Capensis, etc., are growing. There are 
double lights, to avoid the necessity of other coverings. 

4. The eastern end of the north range, 14 ft. high, contains 
Proteacea, Casuarinea, and large Ericaceae ; amongst them are 
some very large specimens of Banksia, Cunninghamia, Macros- 
tachya grandis, and others. 

5. This house, coinciding in height with the preceding, con- 
tains young and low Conifera, Cape plants, except Proteacese, 
Liliacese, Geraniacese, and Succulentae. The garden is somewhat 
poor in South African plants, and the Coniferce leave much to 
desire, because with our climate many will not grow in the open 
air, and in pots and tubs they never succeed to perfection. 

6. The centre of the middle range, entirely devoted to tropical 
vegetation, is formed by this house, 32ft. high; everything it 
contains is placed in the borders. Unfortunately the vigorous 
growth of the plants outstrips the capacity of the house. Caryota 
urens and a Maximiliana touch the ceiling, a Hemaudia sonom, 
Coccoloba pubescens, Livistonia Borboniea and others, soon will. 
To prevent the loss of these and many other valuable plants this 
house must be raised and a glass roof added. It was not expected 
that tropical plants would grow so luxuriantly, and the height of 
32 ft. was thought more than sufficient. Experience has proved 
the contrary. 



7. Contains Palms and Monocotyledones requiring much room. 
The house is 30 ft. high. The entire stock of large Palms, Cyca- 
dcce, and Pandanea is about one hundred species. 

8. Also 30 ft. high, with a double glass roof, as have also Nos. 
9, 10, and 12, giving thus great warmth with abundance of light. 
Here are large Bananas, several Palms, Carolinea, Pterospermum, 
Broivnlovia, etc. 

9. Height 28 ft. The plants are in the borders. In the eastern 
part are Succidenta and arborescent Ziliacea from tropical Africa 
and America, planted amongst rocks ; in the other half are specimen 
plants of the Monocotydelones cultivated in the garden. Amongst 
these are a large Elate sylvestris, several specimens of Sabal um- 
braculifera and Blackburniana, old Pandani and Cerei, reaching 
to the roof of the house. 

10. Twenty-nine feet high. Tropical plants corresponding 
with its height. Pine specimens of Gustavia, Genipa, Meliacete, 
and Bignoniacece are conspicuous. 

11. Twenty-nine feet high. This house forms the east end of 
the middle range ; it has a hot-Avater apparatus, and contains in 
two borders chiefly Monocotyledones, such as large specimens of 
Musa Cavendis/iii. 

12. Height 26 ft. Tropical plants as in No. 10, too high for 
the stoves of the south range. 

13. The centre of the south range, 28 ft. high. Large Chinese 
and Japan plants, as Camellia, Thea, Magnolia, Nandina, etc., 
planted in borders. The glass roof is supported by pillars and 
slants towards the north, admitting light from both sides. The 
top is double glass. Here is a large Magnolia fuscata, 12 ft. high, 
and stem 7 inch, in circumference near the ground. 

14. Greenhouse, 18 ft. high, containing plants from the south 
of Europe, the Canaries, and Madeira, with Gerania and Pelar- 

15. Corresponding with the preceding, with hardy plants from 
Chili and isothermal countries of America, and such Camellia and 
Rhododendra as find no room elsewhere. 

16 and 17. Both 14 ft. high. Intended for young tropical 
plants. No. 17 contains hardly any but Brazilian plants, amongst 
which many as yet unnamed. Of those named we may mention 
Geonoma Schottiana and pauci/lora, Bactris caryotifolia, Theobroma 
Cacao, Gonyshia oliviformis, Mettcrnichia principis, Metrodorea, 
Raddima, etc. In all these houses are shelves near the windows 
for young plants requiring most light. 

Four houses, all 14 ft, high, connect the north with the middle 
range on the east side ; they are divided by glass partitions into 


compartments, of which the most northern contain southern tro- 
pical Ferns, the next Succulents {Aloe, Agave, Fourcroya, Basy- 
lyrion, and Bromeliacece) ; the last, which is not divided from 
the Banksia-house (No. 4), contains similar plants from tempe- 
rate climes, planted among rocks. 

The eastern connection between the middle and south range, 
1 2 ft. high, protects herbaceous perennials during winter ; in 
spring it is used for sowing seeds in pots. 

A similar connecting gallery between the middle and southern 
range on the west side serves for the protection during winter of 
Liliacece and Oxalidece of temperate climes. 

The western connection between the middle and north range, 
14 ft. high, and heated by hot water, consists of three houses, 
for OrchidacecB, Aroideae, Borstenice, Begonia, and Scitaminea. 
Epiphytal Orc/tidacea and Bromeliacea are grown on oak blocks 
and in cork baskets. 

The gardens being as yet without a proper Aquarium, aquatic 
plants cultivated here in boxes lined with lead and cement. 

At (c) on our plan is a small conservatory for hardy plants of 
the same height with the western division of the middle range, 
furnished at both ends with glass doors leading to the enclosed 
spaces between the houses, and allowing of easy communication 
without exposing the plants, removed there in winter, to the cold. 

All these houses are only suitable for plants of considerable 
height, and it was found necessary to add a line of very low ones 
for the culture of young and tender plants requiring much light 
and the proximity of glass. This range of low houses has been 
built in the southern court (e), and in connection with the eastern 
range. They are span-houses numbered, with the light north 
and south, and two of them are chiefly used for New Holland 
and South American tender plants ; in another is a very consider- 
able collection of Cactea ; and the northern side of it serves, with 
the assistance of a steam-apparatus, as a propagating house. — 
Finally, there is at No. 18 a small separate house of high temper- 
ature, serving partly as a hospital for diseased plants, and partly 
as a reception-house for new arrivals. 

d and e are the two courts surrounded by the above-mentioned 
buildings. In north court (d), hardy plants are placed during 
summer between live hedges, and a good many herbaceous Plants 
and Cerealia are grown here. The southern court (divided by the 
line of low houses) contains frames and warm boxes, mould- 
heaps, and other needful accessories ; along the whole of the 
southern range the plants contained in the same, likely to bear 
the open air in summer, are put out during the warm season. 


Means for acquiring a thorough knowledge of the plants intro- 
duced or cultivated have been abundantly provided. Besides the 
Herbarium and Library there are considerable collections of 
woods and fruits. Unfortunately, want of room has prevented 
the proper arrangement for practical study of many of these 

The collections of Langs dorfF, during his travels at the cost of 
the Imperial Government and under the auspices of the minister 
for foreign affairs, in the Brazils, ceded by the kindness of 
Count Nesselrode to the Gardens, constituted the foundation of 
the Herbarium. It has since been greatly enlarged by the col- 
lectors already mentioned, and also by presents and purchases. 
Amongst purchases the Herbarium of Mertens of Bremen ranks 
foremost, rich both in genera and species, forming in fact the 
basis of our collection ; and it is admitted to be classic and of high 
authority as regards the flora of Germany and the Alga. Other 
collections from Schrader at Gottingen, Schumacher of Copen- 
hagen (rich in plants of Vahl), Eschholz (who collected on the 
voyage of circumnavigation in the Rurick), Poiteau (Guyana), 
Stephan (Siberian plants), Wunderlich (Southern Volga), Riedel 
(the flora of most parts of Brazils, which he visited before joining 
Langsdorff), and others, have been obtained, as well as presents 
from Bode, Lady Crichton, Gebler,Hartweg, Sir William Hooker, 
Jemsh, Kapherr, Koch, Kyber, Peters, Rieder, Siniavin and Ste- 
ven, and further additions were made by parties who travelled on 
behalf of the Garden, already enumerated, to which however, 
Kolenati and Karwinski must be added. 

Before 1833 the Garden had neither collections nor library. 
The latter was begun by the purchase, ordered to be made by 
His Majesty the Emperor, of the library of the late Councillor of 
State, Stephan, in 1824, and soon afterwards the botanical por- 
tion of the library of Count Alexis Rasumowsky, rich in presen- 
tation copies {exemplaires de luxe) was added. Since that time 
an annual grant of 6000 roubles, or about 260/. sterling has been 
devoted to purchases, besides which many splendid additions 
have been made by his Imperial Majesty. The library is con- 
fined to botanical and other works of natural science, academical 
transactions and periodicals, and voyages and travels connected 
With Botany. The number of volumes is now 6000. There is 
also a large number of coloured drawings of old and new plants 
mat have flowered in the Garden, drawn by the ingenious artists 
Matthes, Stoll, and Satory. A portion of these drawings will 
now be published. 

Since 1835, a catalogue of seeds, matured in the garden, with 


notices appended of remarkable plants enumerated in it, has an- 
nually been printed and sent to all correspondents ; and we may 
hope that with our abundant means, due diligence on our part 
and continued liberality on that of our friends, this Institution 
will not fail to be worthy of the Russian Empire, where science 
in all its branches is so much cherished and means for its pro- 
motion always readily granted. 

The preceding account of the Botanic Gardens at Petersburg, 
and our enquiries into the origin and progress of our own, natu- 
rally suggest the wish of knowing something of other similar 
establishments, and we should be glad to receive communica- 
tions of this kind from the gentlemen under whose care they may 
be at present. We can hardly expect that accounts consuming 
much time and labour should be furnished, and our purpose 
would in fact be best served by enabling us to publish, in a short 
form, brief sketches of the principal botanical gardens in and out 
of Europe • a kind of synopsis of the history of botanical Horti- 
culture. The details we should like to have furnished might 
perhaps be — 

1. Date of first establishment. 

2. Extent of ground. 

3. Number and kind of houses. 

4. Annual expenditure, and source from whence de- 


5. Names of eminent men connected at any time with 

the establishment. 

6. Remarkable plants first cultivated, introduced, 

named, or now particularly conspicuous. 
and any other notice of striking importance. 

Such information we hope will be readily furnished, and we 
would have pleasure in publishing it. It would mutually be a 
labour of love, and in the permanency which we flatter ourselves 
to give to it in our pages, it would have its own reward. We 
also hope, that other publications, both here and abroad, will 
give currency to our wish and promote its accomplishment. It 
is satisfactory to state, that gentlemen connected with embassies 
and consulates are everywhere willing to forward papers concern- 
ing such matters, free of expense, which, as in days of yore, so 
even now, fair Science can ill afford to defray. 



{In a Letter to Sir William Hooker, from Dr. Scouler, Professor of Natural 
History in the Royal Dublin Institution.) 

We consider that, even after the labours of Brotero, the com- 
plaint of Linnaeus may still be repeated respecting the botanic 
riches of this kingdom, contrasted with our very imperfect infor- 
mation respecting it. The history of Botanic Science in Portugal 
is, unfortunately, a very brief one ; especially as the country has 
produced only two botanists of European reputation. The earliest 
Portuguese work, in any way relating to the vegetable kingdom, 
is by Garsia de Horto, a Professor of Medicine in the University 
of Coimbra. He resigned his Chair in 1534, visited India and 
China, and published at Goa his work on the Species of the East, 
a work whose merit caused it to be translated into most of the 
European languages. Thome Oynes, an apothecary at Leyria, 
also wrote on the same subject, about the beginning of the six- 
teenth century ; and another and still more valuable work appeared 
about this time from the pens of Pero Magalhaes de Gondavo, 
the friend of the poet Camoens, on the history of the Provinces 
of Brazil, then called Santa Cruz. This rare but most judicious 
book, contains notices of many of the most valuable vegetable 
productions of Brazil, and discusses the capabilities of that fine 
region, and the vast resources it woidd yet open to Portugal, in 
a spirit of sound and enlightened judgment far in advance of his 
age or countrymen. 

The earliest catalogue of Portuguese plants was by Gabriel 
Gaillez, who wrote about 1670, and dedicated it to the celebrated 
Duke of Schornhurg, who afterwards fell in Ireland. It resem- 
bles Threlkeld's on the plants of Ireland, compiled a few years 
later • only it is very inferior even to that very meagre book. 
Gaillez' work is merely a list of names, and often the same species 
is indicated several times. To use the expression of Linnaeus " it 
would require another CEdipus to divine the plants indicated by 
Gaillez." A second edition of this work was edited by Vandelli 
in 1780. 

We possess nothing else from the pen of a Portuguese Botanist 
until the energetic administration of Pombal, which seems to have 


infused a portion of its life into every kind of pursuit. Both Bro- 
tero and Correa de Serra were educated during this period, and may 
truly be pronounced the first and as yet the only eminent bota- 
nists which Portugal has produced. Concerning Brotero we need 
not say anything at present ; but we may remark that, at least 
in our opinion, Correa de Serra ranks higher as a philosopher. 
His residences at London, Paris, and Washington have rendered 
his name familiar to the naturalists of Europe and America. Be- 
sides his botanical papers, with which the scientific public is 
acquainted, he is known to his countrymen for other valuable 
labours. He was an active coadjutor to the Duke of La Foez, 
in founding the Academy of Sciences, and also published many 
works on the literature of Portugal, and illustrating its history. 
iVlthough an Abbe and Ecclesiastic, yet such was the spirit of the 
times, that he was obliged to reside chiefly in foreign countries. 

It were easy to add to the list of Portuguese botanists the 
names of Loureiro, Padre Leander, Vellozo, and even others less 
known, but such statements would be of small interest to the 
public. It is perhaps more necessary but less agreable to* mention, 
that while the eminent men of the last generation have passed 
away they have left no successors, and probably, at the present 
day, Portugal is as destitute of original talent in natural history 
as she was before the reform of her literary institutions, about 
the middle of the last century. The devastations of the French, 
followed up by so many political changes and civil wars, may in 
part account for this ; but we suspect the cause lies deeper, and 
depends on the slender emoluments and very small number of 
situations open to scientific men. Another circumstance is the 
want of a reading public, or of anything like a general taste for 
natural history ; thus rendering the task of scientific authorship 
a ruinous undertaking : and as the educated classes understand 
French, the necessity for native books is not felt. Connected 
with and depending upon this, it is a curious fact that while many 
individuals may be found, who have a theoretical knowledge of 
natural history, derived from books, a practical acquaintance with 
it is very rare. Few are at the pains to herborize or to study 
the structure and productions of the earth, by excursions to 
the mountains. 

With respect to the present state of Botany we may also men- 
tion the following circumstances. There arc, or rather we mav 
say were, two Botanic Gardens in Portugal ; one at Ajuda near 
Lisbon, and the other at Coimbra. The situation of the garden 
of Coimbra is highly beautiful, and indeed it would be difficult 
to find any but delightful places on the Mondego. The ground 


is laid out in the French taste, and the quantity of glass which 
they possess is very small. This garden was commenced by 
Brotero, while Professor at Coimbra, when it appears to have been 
in a flourishing state, and it continued a respectable establish- 
ment under Brotero's successor Dr. Neves ; but since 1834 it has 
obviously been quite neglected. At present, even including weeds 
and the lichens and mosses growing on the trees and stones, we 
do not think it contains a thousand species. 

The Royal Garden, Menagerie, and Museum of Ajuda, were 
placed under the superintendance of Brotero, when he was re- 
moved from Coimbra. There is now no menagerie, and the gar- 
den is also in a neglected condition, although not to the degree 
of that of Coimbra. Under the care of Brotero it was said to 
possess 4000 species ; now they cannot exceed 1200. The glass 
is of no great extent ; a matter of, however, less importance in 
Portugal than England. The Aquarium is very large and well 
adapted for aquatic productions. Many of the plants have their 
names attached, which was done by Dr. Welwitsch when he had 
charge of the garden. 

On the other hand, indications are not wanting of some pro- 
gress in the right direction, as exhibited in a taste for horticul- 
ture. Horticultural societies are about to be formed, both in 
Lisbon and Oporto, and there are some individuals who cultivate 
different tribes, such as Cactete, &c. Indeed there is not a coun- 
try in Europe more admirably adapted for the lover of flowers ; 
for here many of the choicest productions of Africa and Brazil 
may be raised in the open air. The Date-palm, Dragon-tree, 
Bananas, and Cacti stand the winters of Portugal, and thus may 
afford some idea of the multitude of useful and ornamental plants 
which might be introduced into this fine country. 

But the re-establishment, which will afford most hope to the 
botanist, is the Garden at Lumiar, the property of the Marquis 
of Fayal (son of the Duke of Palmella), and situated about five 
miles from Lisbon. Lumiar has been recently purchased by the 
Marquis and is still under process of repair, but bids fair to pos- 
sess the richest collection of plants, whether native or introduced 
to Portugal. Even at present a visit to the grounds is highly 
interesting, and especially as there are some fine old plants from 
tropical regions, which are completely naturalized. The mixture 
of Clerodendron fragrans, Polygala myrtifolia, Bamboos, Bananas, 
the Goa Cypress, Dracanas of gigantic size, Araucaria Brazill- 
ensis (twenty feet high), Cereus Peruvianus (twenty-five feet high, 
one and a half foot in circumference), with the trees and shrubs 
of the north and south of Europe, afford to him, who has visited 


India and Brazil, a strange and grotesque association, filled with 
many recollections to the travelling botanist. The utility of such 
undertakings is much greater in Portugal than with us, for there 
public spirit and good example are more needed, and we trust 
the Marquis of Fayal will fill in his country the post of the Dukes 
of Bedford and Devonshire among ourselves. 

This establishment is also fortunate in being under the care of 
Dr. Welwitsch, the only person we met with in Portugal who is 
equally familiar with the theory and the practice of Botany, and 
as well acquainted with Alga and Mosses as he is with flower- 
ing plants. Dr. Welwitsch is also minutely versed in the Portu- 
guese Flora, and an inspection of his herbarium shows how rich 
that is, and how many species remain to be added to the work of 
Brotero. Even in the class of "Ferns we were indebted to Dr. 
Welwitsch for the Cheilanthes pteroides and Pteres palustris, 
which are not in Brotero's list*. It is to be desired that Dr' 
Welwitsch should furnish us with a new " Flora. Lusitanica," for 
which he is so well qualified by his knowledge of the country, his 
literary acquirements, and knowledge of the science. 


{Communicated by Dr. Scouler, Professor of Natural History in the Royal 
Dublin Institution.) 

The Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Coimbra, although 
it has not existed for more than sixty-three years, has been infe- 
rior to no literary institution, with respect to the eminence of its 
Professors and the reputation of its students. 

There is much to admire in the zeal with which the different 
branches of philosophy have been cultivated among us since the 
reform of 1772 was carried out by Drs. Vandelli and Dalla Bella. 
Emulation arose on the part both of teachers and pupils, which 
was attended by a corresponding progress of knowledge. The 
Government rewarded those who distinguished themselves and 

* In the north of Portugal we found, in one day, the following plants unno- 
ticed by Brotero ; Saxifraga umbrosa and leucantheu'iifolia (La Pcrouse), Potentilla 
mvea, and the Davallia Canariensis, supposed to be peculiar to Cintra, grows 
abundantly at Oporto and even further north, at Braga. 


afforded them liberal allowances that they might visit the most 
enlightened nations of Europe*. 

The character of the Faculty of Philosophy was well sustained 
in the literary world, it maintained an active intercourse with the 
most eminent foreign academies, so that the Portuguese name, 
formerly so distinguished for bold nautical enterprises and pro- 
found geographical science, (at a time when all Europe, except 
Italy, was plunged into barbarism), again arose to notice, after so 
many years of disgraceful indolence. 

Among the eminent Professors may be named Dr. Joao An- 
tonio Monteiro, whose profound knowledge of Mineralogy obtained 
for him the praise of Hatty, and Dr. Sobral, a zealous chemist ; 
but he incurred the dislike of the Erench, who set his house on 
lire and thus destroyed his unpublished manuscripts. Dr. Bar- 
jona was another able chemist ; he maintained, in his • Thesis,' 
the compound nature of water, several years before its analysis by 
Lavoisier. This philosopher was also Professor of Mineralogy and 
Zoology, and by his labours the objects in the Museum of the 
University were classified and named, and a complete catalogue 
of the whole collection was drawn up. 

Among the Botanists we may mention Dr. Antonio Jose das 
Neves, author of a small work entitled " Circa Stipa, avenacece, 
aristam, atque Cinchonam braziliensem et alias Observationes." 
He was expelled from the Chair of Botany and the care of the 
Botanic Garden in 1834, and died in the following year. He 
was highly esteemed by Brotero, and since his expulsion the Bo- 
tanic Garden has fallen into complete neglect f. 

This notice of Brotero is translated and abridged from an account of his life 
hx .Senhor Gusmao, and published in his » Mevista Xittenirm ' of Oporto (No. 83, 
1843). The reform alluded to was introduced by the celebrated Marquis of 
Pombal, and earned into operation under his auspices by the Italian Naturalists 
\ andelli and Dalla Bella. The Faculty of Philosophy includes what we under- 
stand in England by the term Natural History, when taken in its most extensive 
Signification* That the reform was absolutely necessary is proved by the fact 
that, down to the reform of Pombal, physical science was nearly unknown in the 
I niversity of Coimbra, and the Professors lectured on substantial forms and ab- 
solute accidents. 

t In 1836 the University of Coimbra, in a Keport presented to the Legislative 
Chambers, informs us that " the Botanic Garden, which had been once flourishing, 
has suffered great decay, which impeded the teaching of Botanv, and that it was 
almost ruined during the usurpation (of Don Miguel)." The truth is that Dr. 
Neves and his able gardener, before their expulsion, delivered over to Dr. Ban- 
deira and Marques, all the objects in the garden, and the inventory shows that a 
great many plants had been added. After the dismissal of Leite, the intelligent 
gardener, an inefficient person was substituted, who brought everything into con- 
fusion. When the establishment was committed to Dr. Jose de Sa, he wished 
to discharge the incapable man and recall his predecessor, but this could not 


Felix Avellar Brotero was born in Lisbon in 1745. We are 
ignorant of the history of his early youth, but have reason to be- 
lieve that he received an excellent education. The accuracy and 
elegance with which he wrote his Latin works, the correct diction 
of his Portuguese, added to the copious historical notices with 
which he enriched them, prove that he possessed high intellectual 
powers, improved by well directed literary training. 

Desirous of further instruction he visited Prance in the year 
1778. When he settled in Paris he was thirty-three years of age, 
and well qualified, in his literary attainments, to profit by the 
advantages afforded in that celebrated school*. 

The study of the natural sciences, especially of Botany, occupied 
all his attention, and he socn gave evidence of the progress which 
he had made in this department, by publishing at Paris, in 1788, 
his " Compendio de Botanica, on Nocbes Elementares desta Scien- 
cia segundo os melhores Escriptores Modernos, ecepostos na lengua 
Portugiteza." This well written work was the first, and is still the 
only elementary botanical one, in the Portuguese language. The 
preliminary discourse, on the origin, progress, and present state of 
Botany, called forth the approbation of Link, a distinguished Ger- 
man writer, always severe in his remarks on Portuguese affairs. 

Besides the above-mentioned work, Brotero, while residing in 
Paris, entered upon several other literary undertakings, and among 
them a valuable English and Portuguese Dictionary. He was also 
the writer of the learned corrections and all the nomenclature of 
the Thesauro de Meninos, written in French for Blanchard and 
translated into Portuguese and published in Lisbon in 1817 f. 

be accomplished. Such is Senhor Guzmao's account of the matter, and either 
the Professor or the University is much to blame, for when we visited the Garden 
in March last, it was in a miserable condition and barely deserved the name of a 
Botanic Garden. 

* This is a most unfair statement on the part of the biographer. From this 
and the preceding paragraph one would be apt to conclude that Brotero travelled 
from choice, or perhaps even at the expense of the Government, while the reverse 
is the fact. After the fall of Pombal, a party, hostile to all improvement, came 
into power, that viewed men of science with jealousy and dislike, and let loose 
the Inquisition upon them. The celebrated mathematician and poet, J. M. de 
Nascimiento, fortunately escaping from the individual who was sent to apprehend 
him, fled to France, where the two botanists, Brotero and Correa de Serra, were 
also obliged to take refuge. 

t We have again to complain of the unaccountable mystery in which Senhor 
Gusmao envelopes the most interesting incidents in the life of Brotero. The 
very circumstance of such a man, residing in France, during so important a period 
of human life as that comprehended between thirty-three and forty-five years of 
age, and spending his time in compiling dictionaries and such works as the 
' Child's Treasury (Thesauro de Meninos), plainly shows that he supported him- 
self by his literary labours during an exile of twelve years. 



During his residence abroad he improved his time by travelling, 
and explored the greater part of France and Belgium, and on 
other occasions he visited the north of Italy and undertook a jour- 
ney to England. The period of his residence in Paris was not 
exclusively devoted to Botany, though this was his favourite pur- 
suit ; but he availed himself of the opportunity to profit by the 
instructions of such able teachers as Vicq-d'Azyr and D'Aubenton. 
After finishing his studies at Paris he took his degree of doctor 
of medicine at Rheims. 

In the year 1790 Brotero returned to Portugal, whither his 
reputation as a botanist had preceded him, and attracted the no- 
tice of the queen, Donna Maria the First, so that, after a short 
tune, he was appointed Professor of Botany and Agriculture to 
the University of Coimbra, and Superintendant of the Botanic 
Garden. On the 25th of February 1791, the Faculty of Philo- 
sophy was incorporated, in the same manner as that of Mathema- 
ties had been in the preceeding reign, and Brotero was, of course, 
admitted a member of this body. He filled the situation of Pro- 
fessor of Botany for twenty years, and in the discharge of his 
duties was careful, not only to instruct his pupils in theoretical 
knowledge, but by frequent excursions in the beautiful district 
around Coimbra to infuse into them a taste for practical Botany. 
The brief vacation which the statutes of the University allow 
to the Professors* was employed by Brotero in botanical excur- 
sions to different parts of the kingdom. At that time all Europe, 
with the exception of Portugal, had been explored by botanists, 
and with the same exception every country had its Flora, and the 
deficiency here was the more to be regretted, as the reputation of 
our botanical treasures had long excited the curiosity of Natu- 
ralists, and drew forth from Linnaeus such epithets as the " terra 
feliemiina? and " India Eur op ata!' Portugal, in the meanwhile, 
possessed nothing better than the Viridarium Lusitanicum of G. 
( ms ley, which the great Swedish naturalist characterised most justly 
as fLmiserrimum opus. It is true Toumefort had visited Portugal, 
and in his Listitufiones Bei Herbaria had given notices of some 
ol its plants, but without figures or descriptions. In 1788, Do- 
iiungos Vandelli published a Flora Lusitanicce et Brasilia 
Specimen, leaving all that regards Brazil to be executed by the 
eminent botanist Vellozo. This, however, was a feeble attempt* 
and far below the importance of the subject, and it was reserved for 
Brotero to accomplish the wish of Linnaeus and to fill this void 
m the science, by publishing (in 1804) his ' Flora Lusitanica.' 

1 he Professors tire occupied in teaching during nine months of the year. 


The impatience with which Linnaeus looked for such a work nun 

be best expressed in his own words when writing to Vandelli : 

" Anne ullus sit in toto Regno pulcherrimo, qui possit orbe lite- 
'' rato dare genuinam Floram Regionis ? Bone Deus ! quam pul- 
" chrum et desideratum opus prsestaret illo, qui ejusmodi Floram 
"sisteret? "* 

The author of the Flora was not one of those men, who, after 
giving proof of talents, are content to remain satisfied with the 
reputation thus acquired. Twelve years after the publication of 
his Flora, Brotero showed farther evidence of his activity, by pre- 
senting his ' Phytographia Lusitanica ' to the lovers of Botany. 
This is a splendid work, not only from the labour bestowed on 
it by the author, but from the high finish of the plates and 
beauty of the typography, which render it deserving in every re- 
spect of the illustrious person to whom it is dedicated (Dom. 
Joao VI.). The dedication and preface merit to be read for their 
purity and elegance, and are worthy of the age of Augustus. The 
composition of the Phytographia occupied much time, from the 
numerous researches requisite to ensure accuracy and value. It 
consists of two volumes folio, of engravings and descriptions of 
many of the rarer and more interesting plants of Portugal f. 

The learned author of the ? Phytographia' also promised the 
public a ' Specimina Fegetabilium,' which was never published. 
It appears, however, that he translated several scientific works 
mto Portuguese, and also wrote many botanical memoirs, some of 
which were transmitted to the Linnsean Society. In 1S17 he 
published a small volume on the Natural History of the Pinep, 
entitled ' Historia Natural dos Pinheiros e Abetos,' 1 vol. 8vo ; 
also the zoological nomenclature of the 'Tableau Elementaire' of 
Cuvier, which had been translated by the Surgeon Antonio d'AI- 
meida. We possess no information respecting his other writings. 

* Grisley, alluded to in this paragraph, wrote about the year 1680. His book 
is a mere list of names, and the same plant is sometimes mentioned under two 
names. It indicates, however, some new and interesting plants, such as Ophi- 
offlossum Lutitanicum and Drosophyllum Ladtanicum. A second edition, with 
the Linnsean names, was published in 1780 by Vandelli ; " Miserrimum opus, 
cujus plantas (Edipus sit qui intelligat." Linn. 

Jellozo was a Franciscan Friar, and a native of Brazil; he died at Rio de Ja- 
neiro m 1812, in the 69th year of his age. The composition of his 'Flora 
Flummerms occupied him for twenty-five years, and it was published at the ex- 
pense of the Brazilian Government in 1827, the editor being Senhor Antonio 
d Arrabida, Bishop of Anemuria. The work consists of eleven volumes in folio 
of engravings and a few pages of text. 

f The ' Phytographia ' is no doubt an excellent work, but the colder tempera- 
ment of the north will not express itself so strongly in its praise tt the ardent 
and patriotic Portuguese biographer. 


The esteem in which Brotero was held by foreigners is ho- 
nourable to his country ; his works were sought after and even 
solicited through the intervention of Portuguese ambassadors, 
and they procured for him an extensive correspondence. In short, 
the literary history of Portugal presents few characters of greater 
distinction, and there was hardly any scientific society of which 
he was not a member. 

After fulfilling for twenty years the duties of Professor at Coim- 
bra, he was removed to Lisbon, to superintend the Royal Garden 
and Museum of Ajuda. He died there on the 5th of August 1828, 
alter acquiring the character of the Portuguese Linnaeus, and ren- 
dering his country many services, for which his only recompense 
was the paltry decoration of the Order of S. Bento d'Avis.* 

(Translated from tJie 2%rd Vol. of the "Pun Tsavu Kang Muh.") 

In antient times, bamboos were connected together, and letters 
burnt into them, to form books • and hence the several characters 
employed to denote papers and documents are formed partly with 
the letters for "bamboo." In the time of the Tsin and the 
Han dynasties letters were written upon silk cloth; and hence 
the names for silk and cloth are component parts of the character 
used for paper. In the time of the Emperor Ho Te (a.d. 100), 
Tsac Lun began to take the bark of trees, old silk of different 
kinds, fishing-nets, and hemp, and boil them to rags and make 
paper of them, which was employed throughout the whole of 
the empire. 

Another authority says, the people of Shuh, on the western side 
of China, use hemp or linen to make paper ; the people on the 
east, in Fokeen, use tender bamboos ; the people of the north, the 
hark of the mulberry ; others use the rattan ; some, mosses or 
lichens; some the straw of wheat or other grains; some the 

* The biographer, although abundantly verbose, appears extremely embarrassed 
ami difficult to comprehend; of this we have already had examples. While in 
1 ortugul, we were iuformed by an intelligent gentleman, that, after the first revo- 
lution, Brotero was a member of the Cortez. If this was the rase, it may explain 
the neglect complained of in the last paragraph. The Garden of Ajuda, near 
Lisbon, is in a wretched condition, although not nearly so bad as that of Coim- 
bra, whu-h we believe is owing to the fact that only a* brief period has elapsed 
since Br. Welwitseh resigned the superintendence of it. 


Coccoon of the silk worm ; and others the bark of the choo-tree 
(syn. of kuh) the Broussonetia. 


This paper is brought from among the mountains of Nanking, 
in the province of Tkwang Se. In spring, during the first and 
second moons, they take the bark of a tree called kuh muh (Brous- 
sonetia papyrifera) and having pounded it, throw it into a stone 
reservoir of pure water, where they leave it to steep till it is fit for 
use. They then take it out with the sediment, and pouring it into 
cow-skin glue boiled with water, they stir all together and taking up 
this mixture with a mould of bamboo screen of the size required, 
they put it out in the sun to dry, and it becomes crape paper. 

The Chinese paper, called touch-paper (or paper fuel), is made at 
the village called Peih Keang, a few miles from Canton, of the 
variety of bamboo called lang. 

At the beginning of summer, during the 4th and 5th moons, 
the young sprouts of the bamboo are cut off just as the leaves are 
beginning to grow, and having been beaten flat, are thrown into 
a lime pit to steep for about a month. They are then taken out, 
washed clean, and dried in the sun, after which they are pounded 
small, passed through a sieve, and laid up. The kernel of the 
longan fruit {Bimocarpus Longari) is also used, being pounded 
small, dried in the sun, and passed like flour through a sieve. 
Wh en making the paper, this powder is put into clean water, 
stirred about, then taken up with a mould made of bamboo screen, 
and the water left to run off. It is afterwards applied to a heated 
wall to dry, and the paper is then complete. For coarser or finer 
paper a coarser or finer mould is used. 

The person, who made the drawings, says, the bamboo is cut into 
lengths of about three feet, tied up in bundles of seventeen each, 
and laid into running water, where it remains six months. It is then 
put (in the same bundles) into pits made in the ground, mixed 
with quicklime made from the shells of the Venus Sinensis, pressed 
down with weights and left for six months longer. The bundles 
will have been thus soaked for twelve months; they are then 
taken out, cut into short lengths, put into one of the usual 
Chinese pounding mills, and beaten down into a pulp, being 
stirred occasionally, so as to present a new surface ; about four 
hours labour will break it down. The pits contain 2000 bundles 
of seventeen pieces each, weighing about 24 catty or 32 pounds. 

During the fourth moon, at the close of spring and commencc- 



ment of summer, the bamboo shoots are cut off when about six 
or seven inches thick, and thrown into a lime pit to steep for 
about a month. They are then taken out, washed clean, and 
bleached every day till they are of the purest white ; after which 
they are dried in the sun, pounded small and passed through a 
very fine sieve, and the finest and whitest part of the powder se- 
lected for use. To this is added the best white cotton of Loo 
Chow ten times bowed (or bolted), the very light cotton which 
is uppermost being used. 

Rice water made from the whitest rice being mixed with these 
two ingredients, the whole is taken up with a mould made of 
bamboo screen of the size required and then applied to the heated 
wall to dry. This forms the whitest and finest Kang Yucca 

THE IVORY-PALM NUT (Phytelephas macrocarpa.) 

A very beautiful vegetable substance, closely resembling ivory, 
has for some years been employed in England by turners and 
workers in wood and ivory, for the manufacture of heads of canes, 
umbrellas, thimbles, &c, and toys of various kinds ; and rounded 
nuts about the size of a large medlar, with one end turned off to 
show the albumen (that portion which so much resembles ivory), 
are sold in shops and bazaars as the fruit which affords this very 
singular material. Ruiz and Pavon, and Humboldt discovered the 
plant which produces these nuts in several parts of Peru, and have 
described its botanical characters, the two former correctly, as a 
Palm {Phytelephas macrocarpa), the latter as of the family of the 
Screw-Pines (Pandanea). From the banks of the Magdalena in 
Columbia, the seeds or nuts have for some time constituted an im- 
portant article of commerce into Europe, to be used as ivory. The 
turner again, employs the chips and shavings for a very useful pur- 
pose, for they are sold for making blanc-mange. The rarity of this 
Palm, and a desire to possess it in the stoves of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens of Kew, induced the Director to send a Botanical Col- 
lector, Mr. Purdie, to the Magdalena, for the purpose of intro- 
ducing the plant alive to Europe. Mr. Purdie has been successful. 
The pages of the Supplement to the Botanical Magazine will 
shortly contain several particulars of Mr. Purdie's mission to New 
Grenada. At present we must content ourselves with giving 
extracts from his last letter, giving the account of his visit to the 
locality of this Palm, or " Taipm" as it is called by the natives, 
and we are happy to add that germinating seeds and living 
plants safely reached the Royal Gardens in October, 1845. — En. 


Ocaiia, July 1845. 
Since writing to you last, from Santa Martha, I have travelled 
hither, over a scorched, and, but for the palms which it presents, 
most uninteresting plain, between five and six hundred miles in 
length. Such a trying journey I never had. Two or three slight 
attacks of fever excepted, I have however been pretty well. At 
the village of Semafia, seventeen leagues from hence and near the 
great River Magdalena, I entered the mountains by the Paroquia 
del Carmen, and there saw the " Tagua" for the first time. 
Rising gradually between two ranges of mountains, of no great 
elevation, I reached Ocaiia, situated in an undulated amphitheatre 
of grassy hills, those in the distance are seen to be covered with 
primitive forests. Some of these hills are 1500 feet higher than 
the city, which is itself built at an elevation of 2500 feet, and 
contains about 6000 inhabitants. The temperature is most de- 
lightful, and I noticed here, for the first time in this part of the 
world, small gardens attached to the irregularly placed dwellings. 
Apples are cultivated with tolerable success, and on the sur- 
rounding lulls a sufficiency of wheat is grown to supply the town 
with bread, of somewhat inferior quality. The weather was bad 
when I first arrived, and prevented my herborizing for a while. 
I have found it necessary to purchase mules for my journey to 
Bogota. The hire of each such animal is forty-five dollars, to 
go direct, and the purchase money is fifty dollars for a cargo 
mule, and from a 100 to 150 for a saddle-mule, but as I was 
already provided with the latter, I saved that expense ; and 
though the people are very difficult to deal with, I accomplished 
the purchase of the necessary number, at about 200 dollars. 

I spent about fifteen days on the mountains roimd Ocaiia, and 
from the peculiarly marshy nature of the soil I found a species of 
Befaria, growing over at this elevation ; I have sent plants of it 
in the glass case. Two gigantic forest-trees belonging to the 
genus Cinchona {Quina rosa and Quina clava) abound in the virgin 
woods, and are showy and highly fragrant ; but two kinds of 
SipJwcamp'f/hs are the most striking things I have found, one par- 
ticularly fine. You will find growing specimens of them in the 
box ; also small individuals of a remarkable Baianop/iora*, often 

* This is, indeed, a very remarkable Balanophorous plant, and different as 
the appearance of these fine and perfect specimens are from the Ombrophjtum 
Peruvianum, Poepp. in Nov. Gen. et Sp. Plant. Peruv., &c, vol. ii. t. 155, I 
have yet satisfied mvself that the two plants are the same or very closely allied 
species ; differing, if "the description alone be attentively considered (irrespective 
of the figure), only in our plant being dioecious ; wliile Poeppig's is momccious. 


attaining a foot in height and five or six inches in diameter, and 
called Car don de la Cordillera. Its colour is of an Indian red, 
with the rigid bracteas completely covering and concealing the 
flowers, even in their most perfect state ; it is common on the 
summit of the range in moist places. I also detected another 
singular plant, allied to Balanophora, but a perfectly distinct 
genus, of which I have only three specimens not yet dry. 

A showy species of Salvia was found and a beautiful Begonia, 
so much like a Fuchsia, both in habit and inflorescence, that I 
at first took it for one, some of the best kinds of which it rivals 
in splendour, and has the great advantage of being reported to bear 
flower all the year round ; plants, and a few seeds of it are sent, 
with two species of Achimenes, new to me ; one of them was in 
flower, of dwarf habit with showy white flowers ; you will receive 
roots of both. Of OrchidecB I have but few, as may be expected 
in so open a country as I have passed through. Nos. 1 and 2 
are fine and highly fragrant. 

Having received intelligence of the things I had sent up the 
river (to save land-carriage), to the Puerto Maconal de Ocana, three 
days journey from this and on the banks of the Magdalena, I 
proceeded, carrying what plants I had collected, in order to secure 
growing specimens, seeds &c, of the celebrated Phytelephas, which 
I ascertained to abound on the other side of the range facing the 
Magdalena. On my road to that place, one day's journey from 
hence, I reached La Lagunata, a small settlement, where in the 
evening I beheld some plants of the Tagua. On enquiring of my 
host I found that I was in a good locality for procuring this re- 
markable plant and accodingly remained some days. 

The P/igtelep/ias is a dioecious Palm, not robust, never forming 
a Caudexf, and has generally from fifteen to twenty pinnated 

The genus is probably not really distinct from LopJiopkytum, Schott and Endlicher, 
Meletr. t. 1, Of the Peruvian species the author remarks, that it is called " Mays 
del Monte " by the Indians, and that it is cooked and eaten as Fungi are ; that, 
after showers, it springs up at the roots of trees with wonderful rapidity ; but 
that it soon, by continued rains, becomes corrupted or is destroyed by innumerable 
minute insects. A second and smaller species is also noticed,' but not described, 
by Poeppig. 

t This account is a little at variance with that of Kuiz and Pavon, who de- 
scribe the Phytelephaz macrocarpa as having a short caudex, which they make 
the only distinguishing specific distinction between it and their Phyt. microcarpa. 
Hut the size of fruits in our plant forbid the idea of its being the P. microcarpa. 
In the ' Voyage de la Bonite, Botanique ' I am informed that some recent livrai- 
sons contain figures of several supposed species of Phytelephas, chiefly determined 
by the fruits or nuts ; and it is possible that this may form one of the new 
species ; but I have not that portion of Freycinet's work at hand to compare 


leaves, from fifteen to twenty feet long, of a light green colour, 
particularly graceful in their aspect. In old leaves the midrib is 
flattened ; in young, but fruit-bearing ones, it is round. The aspect 
of both sexes is the same, except that the male plants produce a 
distinct spatha, the female none ; or, if it does, it is only perfect in 
an early stage, afterwards torn into shreds. The male flowers 
and the spatha are produced from the axils of the inner leaves, 
and are recurved outwards. The extraordinary heads of fruits 
are seen around the base of the plant (one plant frequently bear- 
ing six at a time) ; the heads resting on the ground, or lodged 
between the leaves, on a footstalk so short as to be buried among 
the bases of the leaves, and of which the fibre is extremely tough. 
Each is composed of three to five, but generally four, large nuts, 
wedged in and firmly knit together, of a roundish, but more or 
less angled, form, depressed at the top, and there covered with 
conical or pyramidal woody-fibrous protuberances, from half an 
inch to an inch or more long ; the whole forming a compact mass 
or dark-coloured head, whence the name given to it by the colo- 
nists " Cabesa del Negro" the form not only representing the 
head of the negro, but the fibrous protuberances the coarser hair. 
The styles, of the female flower, I find to be concentrated to a 
point, terminated by a long stigma, four to five inches long, and 
again divided in as many points (of about half an inch in length) 
as there are seeds or cavities in the cluster. At a very early stage 
these cavities contain a watery fluid of a sweetish taste, which 
gradually diminishes in quantity as the fruit advances to maturity. 
The leaves are employed to thatch houses, and the whole of the 
village of the Paroquia del Carmina and the houses, generally, in 
this district, are covered with it. This, however, arises from the 
great number of this kind of Palm in the neighbourhood ; for 
there are many other species of Palm whose leaves are far supe- 
rior for this purpose. Enclosing the fresh mature seeds is a yel- 
low, sweet, and oily pulp, which is collected in the proper season 
(October) and is called " Pepa del Tagua," which I am informed 
is sold by the Indians in Ocana at one rial per pound. A spoon- 
ful of this, with a little sugar and water, makes the celebrated 
" Chiche de Tagua," said to be the most delicious drink in the 
country, but it is slightly drastic in its effect. The fluid, although 
containing much oil, does not become rancid, but keeps for months, 
in a crude state, without losing flavour or quality. The Palm 
itself grows in the greatest abundance in dense shaded woods, 
at an elevation of from one to three thousand i'vvt, along the 
mountains facing the Magdalena. I do not think it is to be 
found in the hot plains. In the season of its ripe fruit it is said 



to scent the whole country with a delicious odour. All kinds of 
wild animals, such as wild hogs and turkeys are very fond of its 
fruit. Fresh and good seeds of it are very easily detected by the 
bright yellow colour and by the fresh tooth-marks of the animals 
of the woods, which feed upon the sweet yellow pulp above 
mentioned. Snakes of a very venomous kind are abundant among 
these stemless palms, so much so, indeed, that the men I had with 
me found it necessary to dislodge them with a long stick before 
they dared approach them. We killed several, which were not 
particularly formidable in their appearance, but deadly in their 
nature. A cross, decorated with flowers, and a few loose stones, 
near one of the Taguelis (Tagua woods) mark the grave of a 
person who died in a few hours from the bite of one of them, 
and, as may be supposed, the inhabitants of the district live in 
great dread of them. 

I leave this in four days for La Cruiz Bucaramanna. From 
that place it is my intention to go to Pamplona, the highest town 
of New Grenada, where snow frequently falls. I then return to 
Bucaramanga, that being the direct road to Bogota ; and as the 
whole of the journey is " Tierra fria " I expect it will afford me 
many good plants. 

I shall be glad to know how the consignment arrives. The 
glass case is filled with Tagua plants and the bottom covered with 
seeds. There is also a separate box of fresh seeds. Should they 
not arrive safely, I can procure another collection on my return 
down the river. I am therefore anxious to learn how they succeed 
as soon as possible. The roots of the two species of Achimenes I 
trust will reach you in a living state, if not, it is worth going out 
of my way to collect more. Should I receive no instructions 
from you on my arrival at Bogota, I shall make the best use of 
my time in some direction till I do hear. I am still of opinion 
that the Province of Antioquia would produce some good collec- 
tions. You may expect the boxes of plants and glazed case by 
the packet which takes this letter." 

(Signed) " William Purdie."