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plants; of tbt ftopal <§arfcens; of &*to, 







LL.D., F R.S., and L.S., Vice-Preaident of the Linnean Society, and Director of the Royal Gardens of Kcw. 

VOL. 111.0 

(Or Vol. LXXIU. of the Wlwh Work.) 

• No chilling cold deforms the beauteous year,^ 
The springing flowers no coming winter fear." 



uars, mix * iuti, 

""W *"» MMOM o» MBHM loin, 














Royal Gardens, Ken-. 
IW. 1st, 1847. 

\ \ 

Tab. 4275-4278. 

Victoria Water-Lily. 

Nat. Ord. Nymph.eace.e. § Euryale^:. — Polyandria Polygynia. 

Gen Char. Victoria, Lindl. Calycis tubus subglobosus, ovario adherens, 
ad oram in torum expansus, limbo 4-partito deciduo colorato. Petala numerosa, 
fauci seu toro calycis inserta ; exteriora patentissima, calycem superantia, inte- 
riora sensim angustiora acuminata rigida staminiformia ; omnia basi in annulum 
v. torum connata. Stamina plurima, subdupbci serie inserta, fertiba ; jilamenta 
subulata petaloidea, sed rigida firma basi inoiiadelpba, demum erecta : antherce 
introrsse, infra apicem inserta?, lineari-elongata?, adnatse. Filamenta interiora 
subbiserialia stenlia, basi monadelpha. Ovarium inferum globosum, vertice con- 
cavo-campanulatum radiatum centro rostratum, multiloculare, loculis uniseriatim 
regulariter in circulum dispositis, pluriovulatis, ovulis parietalibus, funiculis reti- 
cularis affixis : stylis nullis (in campanulam sulcatain tubum calycis vestientem 
connatis, Lindl.); stiff ma tibus maximis tot quot loculis, ad marginem verticis 
campanulati quasi articulatim insertis, lato-lanceolatis compressis carnosis erectis, 
medium versus ad angulum innexis deciduis dorso stigmatosis. F met us bacca- 
tus globoso-campanulatus v. cyatbiformis, truncatus, supra campanulatus, intus 
rostratus, plurilocularis, loculis polyspermis. Semina ovali-^Jfobosa, nucamentacea. 

Herba ingens, aquatica, Jtuvios placidos Cisanduios America australis habitans. 
Radix perennis ? fobis giganteis, natautibits, orbiculatis, peltatis, planis, margine 
ubique elevatis, radiatim atque reticidatim nervosis, nereis subtus valde elevatis ; 
floribus maximis speciosis albo-roseis, pedunculis longe extantibus ; petiolis, pedun- 
cubs, ovariis, nervisque subtus insig niter aculeatis. 

Victoria regia. (Tab. nostr. 4275-4278.) 

Victoria regia, Lindl. Monogr. Vict. 1837, ined. cumic. Bot. Beg. Mm. 1838. 
p. 9. D'Orbigny, in Ann. des Sc. Nat. v. 13. p. 57. Walp. Repert. 1. p. 1 06, 
Schomburgk, hi Views in the interior of Guiana, p. 2. frontispiece. 

Victoria Regina, Gray in Mag. of Zool. and Bot. v. 2. 1838. p. 440. 
Nymph^a Victoria, Schomburgk in litt. 

Euryale Amazonica, Poepp. in Froriep, Notizen, 35. p. 9. Beise, v. 2. p. 432. 
Victoria Cruziana, D'Orbigny, I. c.p.hl (" foliis utrinque concoloribus, petalis 
cunctis concoloribus roseis.") 

It has always been our endeavour to commence a New Year 
in this Magazine with some eminently rare or beautiful plant ; 
but never had we the good fortune on any occasion to devote a 
Number to a production of such pre-eminent beauty, rarity, and 
we may add celebrity, as that now presented to our Subscribers ; 
worthy, as we have no doubt they will agree with us in thinking : 

JANUARY 1ST, 1846. B 

to occupy the entire Number. Seldom has any plant excited 
such attention in the botanical world ; the interest being spe- 
cially enhanced by the name it is privileged to bear. If it could 
be said, in reference to the royal ancestor of Queen Victoria, 
the Consort of His Majesty, < teorge III., that the Streliizia was 
peculiarly appropriated to Her, because of the patronage which 
she gave to Botany, by improving and embellishing the Royal 
Gardens of Kew, much more does the name of Victoria claim 
to be handed down to posterity on similar grounds; seeing 
that Her present Majesty has been graciously pleased to make 
these Gardens available to the public enjoyment, and even to 
endow them with a liberal provision for that "especial purpose. 

It is true that the Victoria has not yet produced its blossoms 
in England; but we have growing plants in the Royal Gardens 
of Kew, which germinated from seeds brought from Bolivia by 
Mr. Bridges. These have hitherto made satisfactory progress ; 
although we have our fears that the plant being possibly 
annual and the season late (December), they may not survive 
the winter; or, at any rate, may not produce perfect flowers 
Many are the disappointments and delays of Science ! It was 
not till after Tea had been used as a beverage for upwards of a 
century in England, that the shrub which produces it was brought 
alive to this country. More than one botanist had embarked 
for the voyage to China,— till lately a protracted and formidable 
undertaking,— mainly m the hope of introducing a growingTea-tree 
to our Greenhouses. No passage across the Desert, no Waghorn- 
facihties, no steam-ship, assisted the traveller in those ° days 
Phe distance to and from China, with the necessary time spent 
in that country, generally consumed nearly three years ! Once 
had the lea-tree been procured by Osbeck, a pupil of Linnaeus, 
m spite of the jealous care with which the Chinese forbade its 
exportation ; and, when near the coast of England, a storm ensued, 
winch destroyed the precious shrubs. Then, the plan of obtaining 
berries was adopted and frustrated by the heat of the tropics, 
which spoiled the ofly seeds and prevented their germination: 
The Captain of a Swedish vessel hit upon a good scheme : having 
secured fresh berries, he sowed these on board ship, and often 
stinted himself of his daily allowance of water, for the sake of 
the young plants; but just as the ship entered the English 
Channe an unlucky rat attacked his cherished charge and de- 
voured them all! We have, however, no reason to despair of 
being able to raise the Victoria regia and of seeing it bloom in 
this country. The time is not long, since we first heard of this 
gorgeous Water-Lily ; and the facilities of communicating with 

foreign countries are very different now from what they were in 
the days of Linnaeus and of the first importation of the Tea-Shrub ! 
Of the Victoria we have the good fortune to possess flowering 
specimens, gathered by Sir Robert Schomburgk ; and blossoms, 
both preserved in spirits and dried, collected by Mr. Bridges. 
These, with coloured drawings executed on the spot by'Sir 
Robert, enable us to present, in the accompanying figures, all the 
more important analyses necessary to illustrate the genus and 
species of the plant. 

Although to our own country belongs the honour of first fully 
detailing, in 1837, the particulars relative to this extraordinary 
Water-Lily, and clearly defining its generic distinctions, yet the 
earliest mention of it in print, so far as we can find, was in 1832,* 
in a work to which we have not at this moment access, ' Froriep's 
Notizen ', vol. xxxv. p. 9. It is there described as a new species of 
Eur yah, under the name of E. Amazon ica ; so called by Dr. Poeppig, 
from the circumstance of that distinguished botanist and traveller 
having found it in the Amazon River of South America. After- 
wards (in 1836) he alludes to it, in the 2nd vol. of his 'Reise in 
Chile, Peru, &c.' p. 432 ; but only says, " In the Igaripes, which 
are branches of the Amazon River, bearing no peculiar appellation, 
yet worthy to rank, from their size, with rivers of the second 
magnitude in Europe, grow some aquatic plants, whose almost 
fabulous dimensions may vie with the celebrated Bafflesia of 
India ; while they excel that wonderful production in beauty of 
inflorescence." Then, in a note, he specifies the Eur y ale Amazo- 
nica, as belonging to the family of Nymjohaaccce, " whose wonder- 
fully large leaves are deeply channelled below and traversed with 
veins beset with prickles, their width equalling six feet, while the 
flower is lovely snow-white externally, and crimson within, and 
measures from ten to eleven English inches across." " This," 
he says, " is the most magnificent plant of its tribe, though far from 
common ; I only saw it in one Igaripe, near the confluence of the 
Teffle river with the Amazons. The flowers appear in December 
and January. It is called Murura." 

Previously, however, to this period, f M. D'Orbigny, in 1828, 
sent specimens of this gigantic Water-Lily to the Museum of 
Natural History in Paris. He had gathered them in the Province 
of Corrientes, in a river tributary to the Rio dc- la Plata. The 
evident analogy between the foliage of this plant and that of 
Euryale, induced the French botanists also to rank it as a species 
of that genus. The dried flowers and fruit, which M. D'Orbigny 

* Guillemin, in 'Ann. des Sciences Naturelles ,' v. xiii. p. 51. 
f Guillemin, I. c. 


had transmitted, wore unfortunately neglected, and nothing 

mainedof his specimen! but a single leaf, of immense dimensions 
and somewhat injured, which had been folded for insertion in 
the Herbarium. 

In 1835, the following notice of what M. D'Orbigny is dis- 
posed to consider a species of the genus distinct from our plant, 
appeared in that author's ' Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale.' 
" I resumed my descent of the Parana on the 3rd of March, and 
arriving at the junction of a small river called the San Jose, 
which spreads into a wide marsh before falling into the Parana, 
I found one of the most beautiful flowers that America can 
produce. The plant seems to belong to the family X'/mphteacea, 
and is certainly much allied to the Nuphar, but its dimensions 
are gigantic. The people of Guiana call it Irope, deriving this 
name from the shape of its leaves, which resemble the broad 
dishes used in the country, or the lids of their large round baskets. 
A space, more than a mile broad and nearly a mile long, is covered 
with the large floating leaves, each of which has a raised edge 
two inches high. The foliage is smooth above and furrowed 
below with numberless regular compartments, formed by the 
projecting, thick, hollow nerves, the air in which keeps the leaf 
upon the surface of the water. Leaf-stalks, flower-stalks, and 
ribs of the leaves, are alike cellular and coveted with long 
prickles. Amid this expanse of foliage rise the broad flowers, 
upwards of a foot across, and either white, pink, or purple ; 
always double, and diffusing a delicious odour. The fruit, which 
succeeds these flowers, is spherical, and half the size, when ripe, 
of the human head, full of roundish farinaceous seeds, which 
give to the plant the name of Water-Maize (Mai's del Agua), for 
the Spaniards collect the seeds, roast and eat them. I was 
never weary of admiring this Colossus of the Vegetable Kingdom, 
and reluctantly pursued my way the same evening to Corrientes, 
after collecting specimens of the flowers, fruits, and seeds." 

Thus much for the earlier discoverers and first notices of 
this magnificent aquatic : we shall have occasion to return to 
M. D'Orbigny ; but in the meanwhile it is only justice to mention 
in this place, that Sir Robert Schomburgk detected the plant in 
British Guiana, when travelling on account of the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society of London, aided by Her Majesty's Government ; 
his object being to examine the natural productions of that 
portion of the British Dominions. The following account of 
this discovery was given in a letter addressed to the Geographical 

* Another, and similar but more brief, account, contained in a letter addressed 

"It was on the 1st of January, 1837, while contending with 
the difficulties that nature interposed in different forms, to stem 
our progress up the River Berbice (lat. 4° 30' N., long. 52° W.), 
that we arrived at a part where the river expanded and formed 
a currentless basin. Some object on the southern extremity of 
this basin attracted my attention, and I was unable to form an 
idea what it could be ; but, animating the crew to increase the 
rate of their paddling, we soon came opposite the object which 
had raised my curiosity, and, behold, a vegetable wonder ! All 
calamities were forgotten ; I was a botanist, and felt myself 
rewarded ! There were gigantic leaves, five to six feet across, 
flat, with a broad rim, lighter green above and vivid crimson 
below, floating upon the water; while, in character with the 
wonderful foliage, I saw luxuriant flowers, each consisting of 
numerous petals, passing, in alternate tints, from pure white to 
rose and pink. The smooth water was covered with the blossoms, 
and as I rowed from one to the other, I always found something 
new to admire. The flower-stalk is an inch thick near the calyx 
and studded with elastic prickles, about three quarters of an 
inch long. When expanded, the four-leaved calyx measures a 
foot in diameter, but is concealed by the expansion of the hundred- 
petaled corolla. This beautiful flower, when it first unfolds, is 
white with a pink centre; the colour spreads as the bloom 
increases in age j and, at a day old, the whole is rose-coloured. 
As if to add to the charm of this noble Water-Lily, it diffuses a 
sweet scent. As in the case of others in the same tribe, the 
petals and stamens pass gradually into each other, and many 
petaloid leaves may be observed bearing vestiges of an anther. 
The seeds are numerous and imbedded in a spongy substance. 

"Ascending the river, we found this plant frequently, and 
the higher we advanced, the more gigantic did the specimens 
become ; one leaf we measured was six feet five inches in diameter, 
the rim five inches and a half high, and the flowers a foot and a 
quarter across. A beetle {Trichius sp. ?) infests the flowers to 
their great injury, often completely destroying the inner part of 
the disc ; we counted sometimes from twenty to thirty of these 
insects in one flower." 

This highly interesting Narrative was made the groundwork of 
a more full history of the plant, accompanied by a splendid figure, 
in a separate memoir of Atlas-folio size, by Dr. Lindley. Only 
twenty-five copies were printed for private distribution, in 1837, 

to us, was published, with further remarks, in the { Annals of Natural History 
for 1838,' p. 65. 

and shortly after, this gentleman published the same account, 
with important additions, in the ItjsoeUanj | the 

'Botanical Register ', whence copbufl extracts appeared in nume- 
rous papers and journals. Ni-vertln-le>s that able botanist had 
to acknowledge, that the specimens in the p of the (no- 

graphical Society, from which his generic- and Sj haracter 

(aided by Schomburgk's coloured drawing- hid been drawn 
up, were in a very decayed condition, owing to the manner in 
which they had been packed. They were, however, 
botamcally examinable; and such he' has proved them to be by 
the accuracy of his descriptive character, and bv the correct 
result at which he arrived, viz., that the Ficbria is truly and 
genencally distinct from E«n/aJp, which in its similar habit* infe- 
rior gennen, and the prickly nature of the foliage, petioles, pedun- 
cles, and ovaries, it so completely resembles, that, as has been 
previously observed, both Poeppig and Guillemin unhesitatil 
referred it to that genus. ° 

Stdl it is obvious that, as far as the public was concerned u ith 
the exception of individuals versed in scientific Botany hardly 
anyone could be gratified with the sight of a Bgore, and still 
fewer with that of a specimen of this wonderful production The 
former was only known in the portfolio of the ' London Botanical 
feociety where we believe the original drawing, made bj Sir R 
Schomburgk is deposited, along with a letter* addressee! to that 
body, and published by Mr. Gray in the 22nd vol. of the ' Ma* 
azme of Zoology and Botany (Edinburgh, 183S, p |. H) )'. : ,U 

?^ T tWe !! ty " fi T e C ° pieS ° f the beautif u\ but unpublished pi, 
ot Dr. Lmdley, above mentioned ; to which we must add a splendid 
private delineation of the plant, of the natural size, placed in the 
alcove of a greenhouse at Chiswick, which has more than once been 
thrown open to public view by the noble proprietor, on the days 
of the Horticultural Society's fetes; while, with regard to spe- 
cimens actually none existed, save the imperfect ones already 

tS^XAlST^ * *» G ^ P hical 

But before proceeding to speak of the fortunate circumstance, 

which gave us possession of specimens, and with them the power 

IXtT !?! , n , blG Ph ?h ll iS °^ ^ to mention what 
the French botanists have written upon the subject. Dr. Lind- 

* Underthetitleof-Dr.Robt.H.Schomburgk'sdescriptionof Victoria Reaina 
Gray _: but unaccompanied by any botanical definition . £ JA^^Sc 
name is "r&a and this appears to have been published in a ™l nSS 
of the Botanical Register for 1838 '; while Sir Grav's na^ « 2 si . nun ? bei 
in a later number of the 'Magazine of ^i^™%J^^#«* 

ley's excellent description was the means of directing their atten- 
tion to those specimens especially winch had been sent to Paris 
by M. D'Orbigny from Corrientes. In the 13th volume of the 
Annales des Sciences Naturelles (1840), M. Guillemin has 
published his ' Observations sur les Genres Euryale et Victoria? 
but he throws no new light whatever upon the subject ; nor could 
it be expected, from the condition of the specimens in the 
Museum of Paris. Nor would he probably have criticised the 
view taken of the genus by Dr. Lindley as he has done, had he 
been acquainted with the article on Victoria regia, above quoted, 
in the miscellaneous matter of the Botanical Register, vol.24, p. 9. 
This notice by M. Guillemin is, however, followed in the same 
volume by a more interesting but popular account of Victoria, by 
M. A. D'Orbigny, who claims to himself the priority of disco- 
very; while, strangely enough, he alludes at the same time to 
Haenke (who travelled about 1801), and then to Bonpland, as the 
first persons to meet with this splendid aquatic. Our readers 
will be glad to peruse his own words, which we here give, trans- 
lated from the ' Annales ', only omitting a little expression of 
vexation that a botanist belonging to another country should have 
the privilege of first laying a scientific description of this gorgeous 
plant before the world. 

" If there exist in the Animal Kingdom creatures, whose size, 
compared with our own, commands admiration by their enor- 
mous stature ; if we also gaze with wonder on the giants of 
the Vegetable Kingdom, we may well take especial pleasure in 
surveying any peculiarly wonderful species of those genera of 
plants which are already known to us only in more moderate 
dimensions. I shall endeavour to express not only my own 
feelings, but those of M.M.Bonpland and Haenke, for we were all 
alike struck with profound emotion, on beholding the two species 
of Victoria which form the subject of this note. 

" For eight months I had been investigating, in all directions, 
the province of Corrientes, when, early in 1827, descending the 
river Parana, in a frail Pirogue, I arrived at a part of this 
majestic stream, where, though more than 900 miles distant from 
its junction with the Bio Plata, its breadth yet nearly attained a 
league. The surrounding scenery was in keeping with this splen- 
did river ; all was on a grand and imposing scale, and being my- 
self only accompanied by two Guarani" Indians, I silently con- 
templated the wild and lovely view around me ; and I must 
confess that, amid all this watery waste, I longed for some vege- 
tation on which my eye might rest ; and longed in vain ! 

" Ere long, reaching a place called the Arroyo de San Jose, I 

observed that the marshes on either side the river were bordered 
with a green and floating surface ; and the Guaranis told me that 
they called the plant in question " Yrnpe ", literally water-platter: 
from//, water, and ntpS, a dish. Its general asped reminded 

me of our Nenuphar, belonging to the family Nympiaacea. 
Nearly a mile of water was overspread with huge round mar- 
gined leaves, among which shone, sprinkled here and there, 
the magnificent flowers, white and pink, scenting the air with 
their delicious fragrance. I hastened to load my Pirogue with 
leaves, flowers and fruits : each leaf, itself as heavy as a man 
could cany, floats on the water by means of the air-cells con- 
tained in its thick projecting innumerable nerves, and i 
like the flower-stalks and fruit, with long spines. The ripe fruit 
is full of roundish-black seeds, white and mealy within. 

" When I reached Corrientes, I hastened to make a drawing 
of this lovely water-lily, and to show my prize to the inhabitants ; 
and they informed me that the seed is a valuable article of food, 
which, being eaten roasted like maize, has caused the plant to be 
called Water-Maize ('Mais del Agua'). I afterwards Beard from 
an intimate friend of M. Bonpland, the companion and fellow- 
labourer of the famous Humboldt, that having visited accidentally, 
eight years previously to my visit, a place near the little rivet 
called Riochuelo, he had seen from a distance this superb plant, 
and had well nigh precipitated himself off the raft into the river 
in his desire to secure specimens; and that M. Bonpland had 
been able to speak of little else for a whole month. I was so 
fortunate as to get dried leaves, flowers and fruits, and also to put 
other specimens in spirits ; and about the end of 1827, I had 
the delight of sending them, with my other Botanical and Zoolo- 
gical collections, to the Museum of Natural History at Paris. 

" Five years afterwards, when travelling in Central America, in 
the country of the wild Guarayos, a tribe of Guaranis or Caribs, 
I made acquaintance with Father La Cueva, a Spanish Mis- 
sionary, a good and well-informed man, beloved for his patri- 
archal virtues, and one who earnestly devoted himself to the con- 
version of the natives. The traveller, after spending a year 
among Indians, may easily appreciate the privilege of meeting 
with a human being who can understand and exchange senti- 
ments with him ; and I eagerly embraced the opportunity of con- 
versing with this venerable old man, who had passed thirty years 
of his life among savages. In one of our interviews he happened 
to mention the famous botanist Haenke, who had been sent by 
the Spanish government to investigate the vegetable productions 
of Peru, and the fruit of whose labours has been unfortunately 


lost to science. Father La Cueva and Haenke were together in a 
Pirogue upon the Rio Mamore, one of the great tributaries of the 
Amazon river, when they discovered in the marshes by the side 
of the stream, a plant which was so surpassingly beautiful and 
extraordinary, that Haenke, in a transport of admiration, fell on 
his knees and expressed aloud his sense of the power and mag- 
nificence of the Creator in His works. They halted, and even 
encamped purposely near the spot, and quitted it with much 

"It was some months after this interview with Father La 
Cueva that I was investigating the province of Moxos, the only 
means of travelling from one part of which to another is by water, 
and while I was going up the Rio de Madeiras towards the source 
of the Mamore, and often thinking over in my mind the anec- 
dote which the good old man had related to me, I beheld in an 
immense lake of stagnant water, which had a communication with 
the river, a plant of such extraordinary aspect, that I instantly 
concluded it must be the same as Haenke had seen. I also per- 
ceived that it was allied to the Water-Maize, already mentioned 
as found at Corrientes. Great was my delight to observe that 
this gigantic vegetable, though of the same genus, still differed 
specifically from that which 1 had seen before. The underside 
of the foliage and the crimson sepals were quite peculiar. Like 
Haenke, I made a perfect harvest of leaves and flowers ; but sub- 
sequent illness, caused by alternate exposure to the blazing sun 
and drenching rains of these flooded plains, brought on such 
langour and exhaustion that I lost my specimens of this second 
species, and was thus deprived of the satisfaction of carrying the 
plant to Europe. 

" The honour of naming the original and first-found plant has 
been forestalled by Dr. Lindley, who calls it Victoria regia ; but 
to the one subsequently detected at Corrientes, I propose giving 
the name of Victoria Cruziana, in testimony of my obligations 
to General Cruz, whose kindness mainly contributed to the 
successful issue of my journey to Bolivia." 

At the conclusion of M. D'Orbigny's interesting narrative, he 
goes on to define this so-called second species of Victoria j but 
as the sole difference pointed out by him lies in the colour of 
the underside of the leaves and of the flowers {V regia, "foliis 
subtus purpureis, petalis exterioribus virgineis, interioribus roseis," 
contrasted with " foliis utrinque concoloribus, petalis cunctis con- 
coloribus roseis v. albis," of V. Cruziana) we may, I think, with- 
out doing violence to nature, or showing any disrespect to M. 
D'Orbigny, consider V Cruziana as a mere variety, if it even 


deserve such a distinction, of V. regia. No one can June examined 
the aquatic plants, either of our own or of foreign n unit hex, 
without remarking that those parts whicli come in contact with 
the fluid are apt to turn purple, without any apparent cause for 
such change. 

It now only remains, before completing the historical narra- 
tive of this plant, to say that the specimens from winch the ac- 
companying analyses are made, are exclusively derived from Mr. 
Bridges. On his return from his journey through Bolivia, of 
whicli some particulars are given at p. 571. of vol.4, of our 
' London Journal of Botany', Mr. Bridges detected the Victoria 
regia in considerable abundance, and brought home, in 1846, 
seeds in wet clay and well-dried foliage ; also flowers, preserved in 
spirits. It is to be regretted there were no ripe capsules (ours is 
drawn from the figure of Sir R. Schomburgk), and of the seeds 
the majority were decayed; so that out of twenty -two which we 
purchased, only two have germinated, the rest being in fl state 
equally unfit for examination and description. 

We lament extremely that Mr. Bridges' severe illness puts it 
totally out of his power to give any information respecting his 
collecting this plant, or indeed of its exact locality.* We have 
always understood the latter to be in some part of the Republic 

* Happily the improved state of Mr. Bridges' health has enabled him to com- 
municate to us the following information ; but which has only come, as it were, at 
the twelfth hour, after our whole description had been corrected and made ready 
for press. We are therefore compelled to give it in the form of a note. 

" During my stay at the Indian town of Santa Anna, in the province of Mora, 
B^public of Bolivia, during the months of June and Jidy, 1845, I made daily 
shooting excursions in the vicinity. In one of these Iliad the good fortune 
(whilst riding along the woody banks of the river Yacuma, one of the tributary 
rivers of the Mamore) to come suddenly on a beautiful pond, or rather small 
lake, embosomed in the forest, where, to my delight and astonishment, I dis- 
covered, for the first time, " the Queen of Aquatics," the Victoria regia ! there 
were at least fifty flowers in view, and Belzoni could not have felt more rapture 
at his Egyptian discoveries than I did in beholding the beautiful and novel sight 
before me, such as it has fallen to the lot of few Englishmen to witness. Fain 
would I have plunged into the lake to procure specimens of the magnificent 
flowers and leaves ; but knowing that these waters abounded in Alligators, I 
was deterred from doing so by the advice of my guide, and my own experience of 
similar places. I now turned over in my thoughts how and in what way flowers 
and leaves might be obtained, and I clearly saw that a canoe was necessary, and 
therefore promptly returned to the town, and communicated my discovery and 
wants to the Correjidor or Governor, Don Jose Maria Zarate, who with much 
kindness immediately ordered the Cacique to send Indians with a yoke of oxen 
for the purpose of drawing a canoe from the river Yacuma to the lake. Bein«- 
apprised that the canoe was in readiness, I returned in the afternoon, with several 
Indians to assist in carrying home the expected prize of leaves' and flowers 
The canoe being very small, only three persons could embark ; myself in the 
middle, and an Indian in the bows and stern. In this tottering little bark we 


of Bolivia ; perhaps the very spot where it was first found by 
Haunke, and afterwards by D'Orbigny. Seeing, indeed, that V. 
regia has been detected in Bolivia (Rio Mamore), in the Ama- 
zons; in Berbice and in Corrientes (Parana) rivers; the first 

rowed amongst magnificent leaves and flowers, crushing unavoidably some, 
and selecting only such as pleased me. The leaves being so enormous I could 
find room in the canoe for but two, one before me and the other behind ; owing 
to their being very fragile, even in the green state, care was necessary to transport 
them ; and thus we had to make several trips in the canoe before I obtained the 
number required. Having loaded myself with leaves, flowers, and ripe seed- 
vessels, I next mused how they were to be conveyed in safety ; and determined 
at length upon suspending them on long poles with small cord, tied to the stalks 
of the leaves and flowers. Two Indians, each taking on his shoulder an end of 
the pole, carried them into the town ; the poor creatures wondering all the while 
what could induce me to be at so much trouble to get at flowers, and for what 
purpose I destined them now they were in my possession. 

" This splendid plant has, undoubtedly, a very extensive geographical range ; 
the town of Santa Anna is situated between the 13th and 14th parallels of south 
latitude, which I consider about its most southern limit, because I sought in 
vain for it farther south, in the department of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. May we 
not justly suppose that it is also found as far north of the Equator ? thus occu- 
pying about 28° of northern and southern latitude. Dr. Weddel, the botanist of 
the French expedition across the American Continent, informed me that he had 
found it about the same latitude in Brazil. It occupies, without doubt, many of 
those immense lakes lying between the rivers Mamore, Beni and the Amazons ; 
that central part of the ('out iuent, yet but little known. The Indians are well 
acquainted with the plant ; the Moimas or natives of Santa Anna call it in their 
language " Morinqua "; and the neighbouring nation, the Cayababas, natives of 
the town of Exaltacion, know it under the name of "Dachocho." The leaves 
are round, varying considerably in size, the largest about four feet in diameter. 
They float on the surface of the water ; the colour is a very bght green, in age 
inclining to yellow, some of them even when young possess a yellow hue. The 
margins of the leaf are turned upwards, giving the leaf a singular appearance, 
somewhat like a floating dish ; this margin and the under surface of the leaf are 
of a dark brown colour, while the part under water often assumes a purple tinge. 
The costse are of the same colour. The spines incline to the interior of the leaf, 
and in some leaves are nearly white. 

" The Victoria grows in 4-6 feet of water, producing leaves and flowers, which 
rapidly decay and give place to others. From each plant there are seldom more 
than four or five leaves on the surface, but even these in parts of the lake where 
the plants were numerous, almost covered the surface of the water, one leaf 
touching the other. I observed a beautiful aquatic bird, (Parra sp. ?) walk with 
much ease from leaf to leaf, and many of the MuscicapidrE find food and a resting- 
place on them. The plant occupies almost exclusively the water, with the ex- 
ception of a few floating aquatics of small dimensions, amongst which I saw a 
beautiful Utricularia. 

" The blossoms rise six and eight inches above the surface, expanding first in 
the evening, when they are pure white ; changing finally (and by exposure to 
the sun) to a most beautiful pink or rose colour, flowers may be seen, at the same 
time, partaking of every tinge between the two hues, the recently expanded being 
pure white and the adult rosy, almost sinking under water to ripen its seed and 
produce a new race of plants when required. The largest flowers I saw measured 
from ten inches to one foot in diameter. 


and last being separated (at their embouchures) by thirty-five 
degrees of longitude, we must conclude that this magnificent 
Water-lily is, like the generality of Aquatics, a plant of wide dis- 
tribution, and probably a not uncommon inhabitant of the still 
waters of all those great rivers which intersect the immense 
plains eastward of the Andes. 

" I had an opportunity of experiencing the fragrance of the flowers. Those I 
collected for preserving in spirits were unexpanded, but on the point of opening; 
on arriving at the Government House, in the town, I deposited them in my 
room, and returning after dark, I found to my surprise that all had blown 
and were exhaling a most delightful odour, which at first I compared to a rich 
Pine-apple, afterwards to a Melon, and then to the Cherimoya ; but indeed it 
resembled none of these fruits, and I at length came to the decision that it was 
a most deticious scent, unlike every other, and peculiar to the noble flower that 
produced it. 

" The calyx is green, darker than the leaves, as is the seed-vessel. 

" With the assistance of the Indians we got out of the water two entire plants, 
and from their appearance I shoidd say the Victoria is decidedly perennial. Each 
plant had from twenty to thirty foot-stalks of flowers and leaves, in all stag 
some nearly decayed to the base, others half-way down the stem, whilst Others 
had just lost the floating portion. The same was observed in the petioles ; some 
bearing the seed-vessel perfect, with ripe seed; others the expanded flower; and 
near the crown or centre of the plant was just issuing the tender flower-bud. 
With a knife we cut or trimmed the foot-stalks, when the trunk (if 1 may use 
the comparison) somewhat resembled a Zamia, and in length was about eighteen 
inches or two feet. At the base and between each foot-stalk protrudes a mass or 
cluster of fleshy, hollow roots, about the size of a straw, or larger, and varying 
in colour from brown to white, or nearly so ; a succession of these roots is 
formed, as the new leaves are thrown out from the centre of the plant ; nature 
having made a beautiful and wise provision for this plant, as in all her other 
works. The base of the trunk, or rather stem, situated in the soft mud, appears 
to decompose in proportion as new leaves and flowers issue from the centre, 
keeping the plant from elevating itself above water, which but for such an 
arrangement, might be the case, from the rapidity of its growth. 

" From what I observed of the nature and habits of this most interesting plant, 
I conclude that it cannot and does not exist in any of the rivers, where the immense 
rise and fall, of twenty feet, would leave it dry, during many months of the year, 
especially in the season when there is no rain. The lagoons, being subject to 
little variation in the height of their waters, are the places where it grows in all 
its beauty and grandeur. 

" The Victoria appears to delight in parts of the lake fully exposed to the 
sun, and I observed that it did not exist where the trees overshaded the margins. 
" The vegetation surrounding the locality of the Victoria was not of that 
splendid character that I could have wished. It wanted those noble Palms, the 
Mutacu and Talma real, which so beautifully adorn the banks of the Mamore, 
to have made a perfect and enchanting picture with the Victoria in the waters'. 
The trees belonged to genera new to me and peculiar to this level part of the 
country. Amongst the shrubs I observed two species of Bauhinia, and a fine 
purple-flowered Bignonia, climbing even to the summit of the trees." 

Thomas Bridges. 
Prospect Place, Bristol. December, 16th. 1846. 


The following are the recorded stations for V. regia : Bolivia, 
at Rio Mamore, upper tributary of the Amazons, found there by 
Haenke, about 1801 , and some time afterwards seen byBonpland ; 
Igaripe, a branch of the Amazons, Poeppig (1832); Parana 
and Riochuelo rivers, province of Corrientes, on the frontier of 
Paraguay, D'Orbigny (1827); Rio Madeiras, near the sources 
of the Mamore, between the confluence of the rivers Apere and 
Tijamuche, province of Moxos, Bolivia, D'Orbigny (1832); Berbice 
river, British Guiana, SirR. Schomburgk (1837): and also in the 
Rupununi, a tributary of the Essequibo* (1842); Bolivia, Rio 
Yacuma, tributary of the Rio Mamore, Bridges (1844). The 
Mamore is a tributary of the Amazons, as the Parana is of 
the Rio Plata, and both consequently empty themselves into the 
Atlantic Ocean. It does not appear that the Victoria regia has 
been found in any water flowing into the Pacific; probably 
because of the rapid movement of those streams. 

Of the difference between the genera Eitryale and Victoria 
our more perfect specimens enable us to add some particulars 
beyond those already indicated by Dr. Lindley j and the subjoined 
tabular view of their discrepancies will put the matter in the 
clearest light. 


Sepals persistent. Sepals deciduous. 

Petals 20-30, apparent ly in 3-4 Petals very numerous, in several 

series, smaller than the calyx, dimi- series, longer than the calyx, the inner 
nishing in size towards the interior, gradually narrower, acuminated, and 
but all free, uniform in shape, in no indurated, passing into the stamens (as 
way changed in form or in texture. in Nympluea) and united with them 

into an elevated ring, forming a pro- 
longation of the torus. 

Stamens numerous, uniform and all Stamens united at the base in several 

fertile and free ; the inner ones gene- series, the free portions subulate, fleshy, 

rally smaller. Filaments filiform, deli- firm, bearing the elongated antJier-cells 

cate, short. Anthers terminal, oval, below the acuminated point, and adnate 

obtuse, free, not apparently adnate with with the filaments. Innermost stamens 

the filaments. ( united into a monadelphous body and 


Ovary oval, " 6-8-celled? cells irre- Ovary turbinate, with a deep cavity 

gularly (?) placed and each containing at the top and a central projecting 

6-10 seeds, attached to the partitions column. Around the cavity, and placed 

and to the exterior angles of the cells," with great regularity, are from 27-30 

* In the same year Sir R. H. Schomburgk had the gratification of showing 
this plant in its native waters to the officers of the 1st West India Regiment, 
when proceeding up that river to take mditary possession of Pirara, at which time 
it was in full flower. The Rev. Thomas Youde, Sir Robert informs us, made 
several attempts to bring plants from the interior to the coast, but they never 
survived manv weeks. 


Roxb. ; concave at the top, the edge cells, immersed in a pulpv rabctanoe 
alone slightly aud very obscureK lobed, and partly below the Imllmv, tin- p.i- 
and this concavity cqacwuUu g the rk-tesofwWh have reticulated funiculi, 
stigma, destitute of central projecting bearing 10-12 ovules ; — upon the edge 
column. No style nor evident stigmas, of this cavity, in a circle within tli. 

mens, are situated as many verv large 


Fruit a nearly round berry, swelling Fruit a turbinate truncated berry, 

out in various places, by the growth of with a deep hollow disc and persistent 

the seeds within, and crowned with the central column, even and regular on the 

connivent persistent sepals. outside. 

We do not attempt to contrast the structure of tl but 

the above distinctive characters are surely abundant] v sufficient 
to prove the correctness of Dr. Lindley's \ u\\ s, in establishing 
the genus Victoria. 

Descr. Aquatic? Root perennial?" large and tuberous, provided 
with numerous filiform, or cylindrical fibres, which abound along 
their whole length with air-tabes. The tuber resembles the thick 
rhizoma of some Jspidium, and is of a brown colour externally, 
white within, but when cut through the internal substance soon 
changes to purple," (Schomburgk in litt). Stem none. Petiole* 
long, terete, radical, clothed with copious prickles ; " they assume 
a diagonal direction when the water is low, and rise with tin- 
water so as to be perpendicular, and during the floods, the leaf, 
as well as the petiole, is entirely submerged. Leaves' (usually) 
floating, of prodigious size, four to six and a half feet in diam< 
(twelve to nineteen feet in circumference), at first oval with a deep 
narrow cleft or sinus at one end, in age almost exactly orbicular, 
peltate, plane but with a considerable depth of margin, which is 
two to four or five inches broad, and turned up so as to form an 
elevated rim, like that of a tea-tray ; the upper side of this vast 
leaf is a full green, marked with numerous reticulations which form 
somewhat quadrangular areolae ; the underside deep purple, some- 
times green, according to D'Orbigny, clothed with a short spongy 
pubescence, furnished with copious very prominent flat veins 
radiating from the point of insertion of the petiole and extending 
to, and through the raised margin, but there becoming less ele- 
vated, till they disappear at the very edge ; these are united by other 
deep flattened nerves, and they again by cross ones of less ele- 
vation, and all are more or less beset with prickles varying in 
length, sharp and horny, subulate, that is, swollen at the base 
very much like the sting of a nettle in shape. 

Peduncle or scope radical, longer than the petiole and risino- 
above the surface of the water when in flower, terete, prickly 
varying in size, in the recent plant sometimes' an inch thick 


single-flowered. Flower of the same gigantic dimensions in 
proportion with the leaf; in M pear-shaped (Tab. 4277. f. 1); 
when expanded our specimen here figured (Tab. 4276) measured 
rather more than a foot in diameter, (giving a circumference 
of thirty nine inches) ; but specimens in their native rivers, have 
been ascertained to be fifteen inches in diameter (forty-five in 
circumference), fragrant. The calyx is deeply quadrifid ; the tube 
turbinate, tawny-coloured, very prickly, adnate with the ovary ; 
the segments or sepals large, oval, purple-brown, concave, deci- 
duous, a little prickly on the outside towards the base, rather 
shorter than the petals. From within, the mouth of the tube of 
the calyx (at the very base of the segments) extends itself into 
an annular torus, which bears the petals and stamens. Petals 
very numerous, the outer ones spreading and longer than the calyx, 
oblong, concave, obtuse, white, the inner ones gradually becoming 
narrower, much acuminated and insensibly passing into the 
filaments and becoming deeply coloured with purple or full rose. 
Stamens (perfect ones) in about two series, large, subulate, 
fleshy, gracefully incurved below, the rest erect; anther -cells 
double, linear, introrse, occupying the inner face of the filament, 
below the apex. Within these fertile stamens is another annular 
circle bearing a double series of abortive filaments only ; these, 
with their lower portion, form an arch over the stigmas, the 
upper half being erect. 

Ovary adnate with the whole length of the prickly tube of 
the calyx, and therefore turbinate like it, with a deep radiated 
depression or cavity at the top, and in the centre an elevated 
umbo or short pyramidal column : it may be therefore termed 
cup-shaped, with a thick fleshy base, having air-cells or cavities 
extending downwards into the peduncle ; in the upper part of 
this substance, forming, as it were, the rim of the cup, there stand 
in a circle, placed with the greatest regularity, about twenty- 
six to thirty compressed cells, their parietes bearing several ovules 
attached to reticulated funiculi. From the inner edge of the 
cavity, just beneath the inner crown of sterile stamens, and arti- 
culated, as it were, at their base (or the base of the torus) rises a 
circle of stigmas, as many as there are cells in the ovary, large, 
fleshy, ovate, acuminated, laterally compressed, but geniculated, 
so to speak, in the middle ; that is, the lower half of them is erect, 
and the upper half bent at an angle so as to lie horizontally over 
the cavity at the top of the ovary, and parallel or on the same 
plane with the base of the sterile stamens : the back of these 
stigmas is slightly grooved and is the stigmatic surface. 

I much regret I can say nothing of the fmit from my own 


observation ; but judging from the figure given of it by Sir Robert 
Schomburgk (see our Tab. 4278. f. 6), it is a large cyathiform, 
truncate, fleshy, green, prickly deny, the margin even; bearing 
many oval, dark brown, almost black seeds. 

Tab. 4275. 

An exceedingly reduced representation of the plant, in situ, chiefly done from 
Sir K. H. Schomburgk's scene in his ' Views in British Guiana '; 'showing the 
flower, unexpanded bud, and fully formed leaves and fruit. 

Tab. 4276. 

This plate exhibits a flower of the natural size, delineated from a very perfect spe- 
cimen in spirits, in the author's possession, brought by Mr. Bridges from Bolivia. 
A portion of the leaf is given, supposed to be a transverse section taken near the 
petiole, but so much fore-shortened (to allow of its being introduced at all) as to 
convey little idea of the magnificence of the entire foliage ; drawn from a fine 
dried specimen in the author's possession, obtained from Bolivia. 

Tab. 4277. 

Fig 1. Exhibits an unexpanded flower (from Bolivia) -.—natural she. Fig. 2. 
A portion of the underside of the leaf (natural size) showing more particularly the 
remarkable venation. Fig. 3. A vertical section of the inferior ovary, with the 
stamens (sterile and fertile), and exhibiting the mode of union of the bam of 
the petals and stamens on the elevated rim (or torus), at the mouth of the calycine 
tubes. This section is through two of the many cells of the ovary in which 
are seen the parietal reticulated funiculi, with the attached ovule* * The tower 
part of the ovary contains air cavities. The upper part shows the radiated 
cavity oi the top of the germen, with the central column or umbo, and the 
curious stigmas at the edge of said cavity : — natural size. 

Tab. 4278. 

Fig. 1. Vertical section (natural size) of a portion of the torus or elevated 
run, at the inside of the tube of the calyx and which bears a 'portion of a 
calycme segment, and petals which gradually pass into stamens • within is 
an inner circle or crown of sterile stamens, united at their base into an arched 
ring over the stigmas. Fig. 2. Stamen -.-slightly magnified. Fig. 3. Transverse 
section of an ovary through the centre of the cells-, showing the position of those 
cells with relation to the cavity, in which latter is seen the central umbo or column. 
±ig. 4. Iwo ovules attached to the funiculus -.— much magnified Fie 5 Sti-ma 
(natural size) showing its stigmatic surface on the back. Fig. 6 Outline sketch 
of a fruit (natural size), copied from Schomburgk. 

(The colouring of the above is done in part from Sir Robert Schomburgk's 
figures, and in part from description.) & 


Tab. 4279. 

Rumphius' Cordyline. 

Nat. Ord. Asphodeles: (J5r.).— Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium campanulatum, 6-fidum, aequale, deciduum. Stamina 
6, fauci inserta. Tdamenta subulata, glabra. Anthem versatiles basi bifida?. 
Ovarium loculis polyspermis. Stylus 1. Stigma parvum, trilobum. Bacca 
globosa, trilocularis. Semina plurima (vel abortione solitaria), umbilico strophio- 
lato. Embryo axilis, radicula centripeta.— Caudex fruticosus. 'Eo'li&elongalo- 
lanceolata, nervoso-striata. Panicula terminate, e spiels alternis multifions. Flores 
bibracteati, bractea altera interiore. Pedicelli, dum adsunt, cum perianthw arti- 
culati. Br. 

Cordyline Rumphii; foliis lineari-canaliculatis longe acuminatis marginatis re- 
flexis, panicula terminali ampla erecta, filamentis mcrassatis hinc rugosis, 
bacca tri-abortu di-monosperma. 

Sanseviera fruticosa. Bl. " Enum. Ft. Jav. v. 1. p. 11" Roem. et Sch. v. 7. 
p. 361 and 1679. 

Terminalia angustifolia. Rumph. Herb. v. 5. p. 81. t. 35. 

A greenhouse plant of graceful habit, which has long been an 
inhabitant of a cool stove in Kew Gardens, where it bears its 
copious greenish-white flowers, succeeded by the orange berries, 
in July; but whence introduced, is not recorded. Ihe figure 
of Rumphius, above quoted, leaves no doubt of that being the 
same plant; it is consequently a native of Amboyna Blume s 
description and reference to Rumphius make it equally certain 
that our plant is the Sanseviera fruticosa of that author, and 
consequently a native of the ' mountains of Java ; but equally 
certain is it, that neither in habit, nor in essential character, can 
it be referred to Sanseviera. Its place is near Bracana and 
Cordyline. If D. Draco be the type of the former genus, I should 
be unwilling to associate this with the true 'Dragons blood ; 
with Cordyline it sufficiently accords in habit and inessential 
characters, save that the seeds are, in the state of the ovules 
even, always solitary in each cell, whereas they ought to be nume- 
rous, as shown in hrauma aiistralis (Bot. Mag. Tab 2835) now 
referred to Cordyline. In all probability, this plant will constitute 

February 1st, 1847. 

a new genus, in which the inflated and rugose filaments of the 

stamens contribute to afford characters. In this rasped it dii 
from Draeana reflexa, Lam. {Con{ I immei8.)j and from 

D. cernua, J acq., both of which bear a considerable resemblance 
to our plant. 

Descr. Stem simple, terete, shrubby, two to three feet high, 
marked with the scars of fallen leaves, and bearing foliage only 
at the summit. Leaves a foot and a half Ion g, linear-lanceolate, 
much and gradually acuminate, dark green, with a pale narrow car- 
tilaginous edge or margin, all channelled, and more or less reflexed. 
Panicles terminal, large, branched from the very base. PedioeU 
bracteated. Perianth streaked green and white ; the tube slightly 
swollen at the base ; segments linear, as long as the tube, soon 
reflexed. Filaments much exserted from the mouth of the tube, 
club-shaped, inflexed, transversely wrinkled or puckered, and 
suddenly coming to a point, which bears the small oblong versa- 
tile anthers. Guar// on a short, thickened stipes, obovate, tliree- 
lobed. Berry orange, globose or didymous, bearing one or two 
(rarely more) kidney -shaped, smooth, yellowish seeds. 

Fig. 1. Entire plant, much reduced. — 2. Apex of leaf. 3. Portion of a panicle : 
— natural size. 4. Perianth laid open. 5. Ovary cut through transversely. (L 
Berries: — natural size. 7. Berry with two, and 8, berry with one seed, laid 
open. 9. Seed. 10. The same laid open : — magnified. 

Tab. 4280. 

Purga, or True Jalap. 

Gen. Char. Sepala quinque. Corolla tubulosa. Stamina exserta. Stylus 1. 
Stigma capitatum, bilobum. Ovarium biloculare, loculis biovulatis. Chois. 

Exogonium Purga ; foliis cordatis acuminatis integerrimis utrinque glabris, 
peduneulia 2-3-floris, tubo corollae calycem obtusum quadruplo superante, 
limbo hypocraterimorpho, lobis obtusis subemarginatis. Chois. 

Exogonium Purga. Benth. PI. Hart. p. 46, andE. dumosum,* ejusd. 

Ipomcea Purga. Wenderoth, PI. Central, v. 1. p. 457. Choisy, in DC Prodr. v. 9. 
p. 374. Lindley, Tlor. Med. no. 809. Pot. Peg. Misc. 1839, n. 836. Nees 
ah Esenbeck, PI. Off. Suppl. v. 3. t. 13. Hayne, Barstell. undBeschreib. Arz- 
neikund ' gebraiechlich PJlanzen, 1833, t. 33, 34. 

Ipomcea Schiedeana. Zuccarsini, Ab/iand. de Bagn. Acad, du WissenscJiaft. 1S32. 

Ipomcea Jalapa. Nutt.andCoxe, Amer. Joum. of Med. Science, Feb. 1830, /. 7. 
Boyle III. Him. p. 308 (non Pursh.). 

Convolvulus Jalapa. Schiede in Linnaa, 1830, p. 473. (non Linn.) 

Although Jalap has been used in European medicine for nearly 
two centuries and a half, it is only within a few years that its 
botanical source has been correctly ascertained. The plant long 
cultivated as yielding the true Jalap, in the stoves of Europe, 
and among the rest in the Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh, is 
the Convolvulus Jalapa of Linnaeus and Willdenow, or Ipomcea 
macrorhiza, of Michaux, a native of Vera Cruz. But, between 
the years 1827 and 1830, it was proved by no fewer than three 
independent authorities, M. Ledanois, a French druggist, resi- 
dent at Orizaba, in Mexico, Dr. Coxe, of Philadelphia, through 
information supplied by Mr. Eontanges, an American gentleman, 
who lived at Jalapa, and Schiede, the botanical traveller, from 
personal examination, that the drug of commerce is obtained, not 
from the hot plains around Vera Cruz, but from the cooler hill 
country near Jalapa, about 6,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
where it is exposed to frost in winter-time ; and that the plant 

* Choisy is no doubt right in referring Mr. Bentham's E.dumosum to E. Purga ; 
but surely wrong in transferring these plants from Exogonium (corolla tubulosa, 
stamina exserta), to Ipomcea (corolla campanulata, stamina inclusa!). 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1847. C 2 

which yields it is an entirety tea Schiede introduced 

the plant for the first time into England : and it has been culti- 
vated in various Botanic Gardens of Germany. In this country, 
it was pi first grown in the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, 

from a tuber, scut by Dr. Coxe of Philadelphia to Dr. Christison, 
in 183S. The late Dr. Graham could not describe it at that 
time, because, owing to ignorance of its habits, it was forced 
in the stove, and died the same year, after showing number- 
less flower-buds, of which one only became partially deve- 
loped. In 1S44, a plant, from the Chelsea Botanic Garden, 
cultivated in a cold frame during the winter and spring, and 
uncovered during summer and autumn, flowered luxuriantly in 
the Edinburgh Garden, in the month of September. But the 
crown of the tuber was injured by frost the subsequent winter, 
and the tuber was thus killed. A drawing was made by Dr. 
Graham, but it has not been found among his papers. Fortu- 
nately, Mr. M'Xab, on removing specimens for the Herbarium, 
resolved to try whether the plant could be raised from ^lip^, and 
the experiment has. proved completely successful. A tuber of 
the size of a hasel-nut, formed in the course of three months. 
The stem made little progress the next summer, but when re- 
moved to the cold frame last spring, formed the plant from 
which the description and drawing have been taken. 

The plant belongs to the genus Eawyomvm of Choisv, as defined 
in De Candolle's ' Prodromus,' although the author places it under 
the genus Ipomoea, from which it is at once distinguished by 
its exserted stamens. It grows on the Mountains of Mexico. 
Schiede found it at a great elevation, on the eastern slope of the 
Mexican Andes, near Chiconquinaco ; and also on the eastern 
slope of Cofre de Perote. He gives an account of his discovery 
in the 'Linnaea' for 1830. Hartweg gathered it in Mexico, 
and it has been described by Bentham, from his specimens. 

Descr. Tuber roundish, becoming as large as a moderate-sized 
turnip, brown externally, whitish internally, giving rise to nume- 
rous rootlets and stems. Stem twining from right to left, spirally 
twisted, glabrous, marked with numerous ridges and furrows 
(twenty or more), branching more or less, purple-red, extending 
ten or twelve feet. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, petiolate, cordate 
or sagittato-cordate, deeply lobed at the base, acuminate, entire, 
glabrous on both sides, slightly rugose, dull green above, pale 
or subglaucous below, reticulated ; veins radiating at the base, 
prominent on the lower surface of the leaf and channelled on the 
upper. Petioles about two inches long, shorter than the leaves, 
thick, grooved above, rounded below. Peduncles reddish, axil- 
lary, erect, twisted, wiry, about one inch and a half long, two- to 
three-flowered (rarely one-flowered) with a small triangular 

bractlet at the base of the pedicels or partial flower-stalks, which 
are about three quarters of an inch long, and thickened upwards. 
On making a section of the pedicel, near its upper part, the cel- 
lular tissue in the centre was seen, under the microscope, to be 
arranged in a stellate manner. Inflorescence centrifugal. Calyx 
glabrous, of five, somewhat elliptical, obtuse, concave, adpressed 
sepals, membranaceous at their margins, the two outer ones 
smaller. Corolla shining, glabrous, between funnel- and salver- 
shaped ; of a purplish-red colour ; tube slightly contracted at its 
juncture with the limb, then widening, and ultimately tapering 
downwards, about two inches long, four times the length of 
the sepals, purplish-red outside, whitish within ; limb expanded, 
two and a half inches across, somewhat rugose or undulated, of 
five blunt slightly notched lobes and shallow sinuosities between 
them. Beautiful spiral vessels may be seen in the corolla under the 
microscope. ^Estivation contorted. Stamens five, colourless, ex- 
serted beyond the tube, and, towards one side of the throat, shorter 
than the limb ; filaments unequal in length, from two to two and a 
half inches long, inserted near the base of the tube of the corolla, 
where they are flattened, with scattered hairs or tooth-like pro- 
jections towards their lower half ; anthers two-lobed, opening lon- 
gitudinally, innate, introrse. Pollen spherical, exteriorly marked 
with numerous prominent processes. Pistil rather longer than 
the longest stamens; stigma colourless, two-lobed, capitate, 
tubercular, i. e. covered with numerous projecting cellular pro- 
cesses. Style about three inches long, slender, tapering. Ovary 
superior, conical, gradually ending in the style, surrounded at the 
base by a thickened annular disc of a yellowish colour, two- 
celled, with two ovules in each cell ; ovules somewhat triangular, 

For the medical history of the plant, and the account of its 
introduction into the country, I am indebted to the kindness of 
Professor Christison. 

J. PI. Balfour. 

Tab. 4281. 

BEGONIA fuchsioides. 

Fuchsia-like Begonia, or Elephant's Ear. 

Nat. Ord. Begoniace^e. — Moncecia Polyandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4172). 

Begonia fuchsioides ; subdioica, caule erecto ramoso glaberrhno, foliis semiovatis 
obliquis subfalcatis acutis serratis ciliatis, paniculis in ramos terminahbus 
floribusque pendentibus ; masc. sepabs 4 in globum conniventibus quorum 
2 int. oblongis minoribus, 2 ext. majoribus ovatis carnosis cymbiformibus ; 
fern, petalis 5 ovatis conniventibus, ovario fructuque trialato ala unica multo 
majore, pedicellis triquetris. 

A most lovely new Begonia, detected by Mr. Purdie on the 
Ocana mountains of New Grenada, during his mission for the 
Royal Gardens of Kew. It is easily propagated by cuttings, grows 
rapidly, bears small but copious foliage, and is a plant to which he 
particularly requested our attention, on account of the copious 
elegant, drooping, red flowers, at first sight resembling those of 
a Fuchsia ■ and because it is much eaten to allay thirst by the 
Arrieros (mule-drivers) of the country. He also observes that 
the globular buds (meaning, probably, the buds of the fertile 
blossoms, which are globular) contain a fluid, which, together 
with the acid of the flowers, proves highly grateful in the dry 
season and where there are no rivers. It has bloomed during 
the autumn months with Mr. Veitch of Exeter, and he has at this 
time (December 18th) one plant three feet high loaded with the 
richly-coloured flowers. It has been three months m bloom, and 
has abundance of buds yet to expand. Our plants are now, at 
mid-winter, beginning to flower. It is singular that, as tar as 
they have yet blossomed, the plants have proved only male-flowered, 
except the tall one of Mr. Veitch, which has one cluster ot female 
flowers at the top, and of which two are represented at fig. 2. 

Descr. Stem erect, two to three feet high, terete, succulent, 
glabrous, slightly tinged with red. Leaves copious, distichous, 
alternate, rather small, about an inch and a half long, dark foil 
green, obliquely oblong-ovate, slightly falcate, acute, serrated, 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1847. 

glabrous, the margins obscurely ciliated, often tinged with ml. 
Stipules oblong, obtuse, coloured. Flower* on dicnotomouflly 
branched, pendent panicles, dioecious, rarely monceaoiii i all of a 
rich deep scarlet colour. Pedicels bracteated ; dracteas lanceo- 
late, acuminate, opposite. Male flowers- Sepals four, almost 
closed over the stamens ; two ovate, large and boat-shaped, thick 
and fleshy, opposite and external; the other two smaller, oblong 
or approaching to obovate, slightly concave, of a thinner, almost 
membranaceous texture : column of stamens forming an ovate 
mass. Female flowers : Sepals five, rarely spreading, oval, nearly 
equal, concave. Stigmas six, erecto-patent, subulate, waved. 
Ovary of young fruit white, broadly obovate, triangular, the 
angles winged; two wings very short and one long, divergent , 
all red, and decurrent, so as to form a triangular pedicel. 

Fig. 1. Male flower, with one (inner) sepal removed .—magnified. 2 Female 
flowers -.-natural size. 3. Pistil (or young fruit) :— slightly magnified. 

Tab. 4280. 

~Purga, or True Jalap. 

Gen. Char. Sepala quinque. Corolla tubulosa. Stamina exserta. Stylus 1. 
Stigma capitatum, bilobum. Ovarium biloculare, loculis biovulatis. Chois. 

Exogonium Purga ; foliis cordatis acuminatis integerrimis utrinque glabris, 
pedunculis 2-3-floris, tubo corollse calycem obtusum quadruplo superaute, 
limbo hypocraterimorpho, lobis obtusis subemarginatis. Chois. 

Exogonium Purga. Benth. PI. Hart. p. 46, sWE. dumosum,* ejusd. 

Ipom(EA Purga. Wenderoth, PI. Central, v. 1. p. 457. Choisy, in DC. Prodr. v. 9. 

p. 374. Idndley, Flor. Med. no. 809. Pot. Peg. Misc. 1839, n. 836. Nees 

ah Esenbeck, PI. Off. Suppl. v. 3. t. 13. Hayne, Darstell. und Beschreib. Arz- 

neikund ' gehraiechlich Pflemzm, 1833, t. 33, 34. 
Ipomgea Schiedeana. Zuccarsini, Abliand. de Bagn. Acad, du Wissenschaft. 1832. 
Ipomcea Jalapa. Nutt.andCoxe, Amer. Journ. of Med. Science, Feb. 1830, t. 7. 

Boyle III. Him. p. 308 («o« Pursh.). 
Convolvulus Jalapa. Schiede in Limma, 1830, p. 473. (wo« Linn.) 

Although Jalap has been used in European medicine for nearly 
two centuries and a half, it is only within a few years that its 
botanical source has been correctly ascertained. The plant long 
cultivated as yielding the true Jalap, in the stoves of Europe, 
and among the rest in the Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh, is 
the Convolvulus Jalapa of Linnaeus and Willdenow, or Ipomcea 
macrorhiza, of Michaux, a native of Vera Cruz. But, between 
the years 1827 and 1830, it was proved by no fewer than three 
independent authorities, M. Ledanois, a French druggist, resi- 
dent at Orizaba, in Mexico, Dr. Coxe, of Philadelphia, through 
information supplied by Mr. Pontanges, an American gentleman, 
who lived at Jalapa, and Schiede, the botanical traveller, from 
personal examination, that the drug of commerce is obtained, not 
from the hot plains around Vera Cruz, but from the cooler hill 
country near Jalapa, about 6,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
where it is exposed to frost in winter-time ; and that the plant 

* Choisy is no doubt right in referring Mr. Bentham's E.dumosum to E. Purga ; 
but surely wrong in transferring these plants from Exogonium (corolla tubulosa, 
stamina exserta), to Ipomcea (corolla campanulata, stamina inclusa!). 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1847. C * 

which yields it is an entirely new species. Schiede introduced 
the plant for the first time into England ; and it has been culti- 
vated in various Botanic Gardens many. In this country, 
it was pi irst grown in the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, 
from a tuber, sent by Dr. Coxe of Philadelphia to Dr. Ghristison, 
in 16 'in. 1 late Dr. Graham could not describe it at that 
time, because, owing to ignorance of its habits, it was forced 
in the stove, and died the same year, after showing number- 
less flower-buds, of which one only became partially deve- 
loped. In 1S44, a plant, from the Chelsea Botanic Garden, 
cultivated in a cold frame during the winter and spring, and 
uncovered during summer and autumn, flowered luxuriantly in 
the Edinburgh Garden, in the month of September. But the 
crown of the tuber was injured by frost the subsequent winter, 
and the tuber was thus killed. A drawing was made by Dr. 
Graham, but it has not been found among his papers. Fortu- 
nately, Mr. M'Xab, on removing specimens for the Herbarium, 
resolved to try whether the plant could be raised from slips, and 
the experiment has proved completely successful. A tuber of 
the size of a hasel-nut, formed in the course of three months. 
The stem made little progress the next summer, but when re- 
moved to the cold frame last spring, formed the plant from 
which the description and drawing have been taken 

The plant belongs to the genus Exogonium of Choisy, as defined 
in De Candolle's ' Prodromus,' although the author places it under 
the genus Jpomcea, from which it is at once distinguished by 
its exserted stamens. It grows on the Mountains of Mexico. 
Schiede found it at a great elevation, on the eastern slope of tin- 
Mexican Andes, near Chiconquinaco ; and also on the eastern 
slope of Cofre de Perote. He gives an account of his discovery 
in the 'Linnaea' for 1830. Hartweg gathered it in Mexico, 
and it has been described by Bentham, from his specimens. 

Descr. Tuber roundish, becoming as large as a moderate-sized 
turnip, brown externally, whitish internally, giving rise to nume- 
rous rootlets and stems. Stem twining from right to left, spirally 
twisted, glabrous, marked with numerous ridges and furrow r s 
(twenty or more), branching more or less, purple-red, extending 
ten or twelve feet. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, petiolate, cordate 
or sagittato-cordate, deeply lobed at the base, acuminate, entire, 
glabrous on both sides, slightly rugose, dull green above, pale 
or snbglaucous below, reticulated ; veins radiating at the base, 
prominent on the lower surface of the leaf and channelled on the 
upper. Petioles about two inches long, shorter than the leaves, 
thick, grooved above, rounded below. Peduncles reddish, axil- 
lary, erect, twisted, wiry, abont one inch and a half long, two- to 
three-flowered (rarely one-flowered) with a small triangular 

bractlet at the base of the pedicels or partial flower-stalks, which 
are about three quarters of an inch long, and thickened upwards. 
On making a section of the pedicel, near its upper part, the cel- 
lular tissue in the centre was seen, under the microscope, to be 
arranged in a stellate manner. Inflorescence centrifugal. Calyx 
glabrous, of five, somewhat elliptical, obtuse, concave, adpressed 
sepals, membranaceous at their margins, the two outer ones 
smaller. Corolla shining, glabrous, between funnel- and salver- 
shaped ; of a purplish-red colour ; tube slightly contracted at its 
juncture with the limb, then widening, and ultimately tapering 
downwards, about two inches long, four times the length of 
the sepals, purplish-red outside, whitish within ; limb expanded, 
two and a half inches across, somewhat rugose or undulated, of 
five blunt slightly notched lobes and shallow sinuosities between 
them. Beautiful spiral vessels may be seen in the corolla under the 
microscope. ^Estivation contorted. Stamens five, colourless, ex- 
serted beyond the tube, and, towards one side of the throat, shorter 
than the limb ; filaments unequal in length, from two to two and a 
half inches long, inserted near the base of the tube of the corolla, 
where they are flattened, with scattered hairs or tooth-like pro- 
jections towards their lower half ; anthers two-lobed, opening lon- 
gitudinally, innate, introrse. Pollen spherical, exteriorly marked 
with numerous prominent processes. Pistil rather longer than 
the longest stamens ; stiff ma colourless, two-lobed, capitate, 
tubercular, i. e. covered with numerous projecting cellular pro- 
cesses. Style about three inches long, slender, tapering. Ovary 
superior, conical, gradually ending in the style, surrounded at the 
base by a thickened annular disc of a yellowish colour, two- 
celled, with two ovules in each cell ; ovules somewhat triangular, 

For the medical history of the plant, and the account of its 
introduction into the country, I am indebted to the kindness of 
Professor Christison. 

J. H. Balfour. 

Tab. 4281. 
BEGONIA fuchsioides. 

Fuchsia-like Begonia, or Elephant's Ear. 

Nat. Ord. Begoniace.e. — Moncecia Polyandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4172). 

BEGomx fuchsioides; subdioica, caule erecto ramoso glaberrinio, foliis semiovatis 
obliquis subfalcatis acutis serratis ciliatis, paniculis in ramos terniinalibus 
floribusque pendentibus ; masc. sepalis 4 in globum conniventibus quorum 
2 int. oblongis minoribus, 2 ext. majoribus ovatis carnosis cymbiformibus ; 
foem. petalis 5 ovatis conniventibus, ovario fructuque trialato ala unica multo 
majore, pedicellis triquetris. 

A most lovely new Begonia, detected by Mr. Purdie on the 
Ocafia mountains of New Grenada, during his mission for the 
Royal Gardens of Kew. It is easily propagated by cuttings, grows 
rapidly, bears small but copious foliage, and is a plant to which he 
particularly requested our attention, on account of the copious, 
elegant, drooping, red flowers, at first sight resembling those of 
a Fuchsia ; and because it is much eaten to allay thirst by the 
Arrieros (mule-drivers) of the country. He also observes that 
the globular buds (meaning, probably, the buds of the fertile 
blossoms, which are globular) contain a fluid, which, together 
with the acid of the flowers, proves highly grateful m the dry 
season and where there are no rivers. It has bloomed during 
the autumn months with Mr. Veitch of Exeter, and he has at this 
time (December 18th) one plant three feet high loaded with the 
richly-coloured flowers. It has been three months m bloom, and 
has abundance of buds yet to expand. Our plants are now, at 
mid-winter, beginning to flower. It is singular that, as far as 
they have yet blossomed, the plants have proved only male-flowered, 
except the tall one of Mr. Veitch, which has one cluster of female 
flowers at the top, and of which two are represented at fig. 2. 

Descr. Stem erect, two to three feet high, terete, succulent, 
glabrous, slightly tinged with red. Leaves copious, distichous, 
alternate, rather small, about an inch and a half long, dark full 
green, obliquely oblong-ovate, slightly falcate, acute, serrated, 

FEBBUARY 1 ST, 1847. 

glabrous, the margins obscurely ciliated, often tinged with red. 
Stipules oblong, obtuse, coloured. Mower* on dichot<mu>u<ly 
branched, pendent pani cles, dioecious, rarely monoecious : all of a 
rich deep scarlet colour. PediceU bract eated j bracteas lanceo- 
late, acuminate, opposite. Male flowers : Sepals four, almost 
closed over the stamens ; two ovate, large and boat-shaped, thick 
and fleshy, opposite and external ; the other two smaller, oblong 
or approaching to obovate, slightly concave, of a thinner, almost 
membranaceous texture : column of stamens forming an ovate 
mass. Female flowers : Sepals five, rarely spreading, oval, nearly 
equal, concave. Stigmas six, erecto-patent, subulate, waved. 
Ovary of young fruit white, broadly obovate, triangular, the 
angles winged ; two wings very short and one long, divergent ; 
all red, and decurrent, so as to form a triangular pedicel. 

Fig. 1. Male flower, with one (inner) sepal removed: — magnified. 2. Female 
flowers : — natural size. 3. Pistil (or young fruit) : — slightly magnified. 



Tab. 4282. 
niphiea albo-lineata. 

White-lined Niphcea. 

Nat. Ord. GesneriacejE. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx semisuperus, sequalis, 5-partitns. Corolla rotata, subsequalis ; 
laciniis superioribus paulo minoribus et magis connatis. Stamina inclusa, libera, 
conniventia ; 4 fertilia, subsequalia, antberis glabris ovatis ; quintum sterile, 
carnosum, corollae dorso suo adnatum, deforme. Glandules perigyna 0. Ovarium 
1-loculare, placentis didymis polyspermis. Stigma simplex. — Herba Ramondae 
cujusdam caulescentis facie ; foliis rugosis in verticillum approximate, jtoribus 
axillaribus terniinalibusque aggregatis candidis. Lindl. 

Niph^.a albo-lineata ; hirsuta, foliis oppositis internodiis elongatis, segmentis 
calycinis rotundatis tuboque hispidis. 

The genus Niphaa was recently established by Dr. Lindley, 
upon a Guatemala plant, and is derived from v2<f>as, snow, in 
allusion to the snowy white blossoms. The present species, 
evidently of the same genus, and preserving the same character 
in the pure white of its flowers, was discovered by Mr, Purdie, 
on moist banks, near Laguneta, Ocana, in New Grenada. The 
curious scaly roots, resembling those of Achimenes coccinea, were 
sent to the Royal Gardens in 1845, and quickly came to perfection, 
being planted in pots with a mixture of loam, peat, and leaf-mould, 
and placed in the tropical propagating house. By a little manage- 
ment in the periods of planting these roots, by which the plant 
readily increases, it may be made to bloom at almost all seasons 
of the year; and although the flowers do not display any gaudy 
colours, like many of the Gesneriacete, yet the purple-tipped 
calyces contrast prettily with the snowy white of the corollas, 
and the leaves, with their rich purple green hue marked with 
white lines upon the costa and nerves, are always beautiful. Our 
figure was drawn in October. 

Descr. The root is fibrous, and in reality annual, but it pro- 
duces those curious elongated scaly tubers, denominated " radix 
squamosa," each fleshy excrescence or scale of which is capable 
of forming a new plant. Stem erect, a span or more high, simple, 
rounded, hairy, herbaceous, green. Leaves opposite, on long foot- 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1847. 

stalks, ovate, acute, cren at o- serrate, often purple beneath, above rich 
velvety green, marked with white lines on the costa and pinnated 
nerves. Inter nodes elongated, except at the summit, where the 
leaves are more crowded. Peduncles crowded from the axils of 
the upper leaves, forming a sort of umbel, simple, single-flowered, 
hispid. Calyx hispid ; the tube short, admit e with the ovary: 
the segments broad, rounded. Corolla rotate or nearly BO ; tube 
very short; limb of five concave, nearly regular, rounded, de- 
noted lobes, white. Stamens short, four, with the rudiment of a 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Calyx, laid open to show the ovary, style, and stigma. 
3. Corolla, laid open to show the stamens. 4. Ovary, cut through trausver.-tlv 
to display the placentas and ovules : — magnified. 

pc Ltli. 

Tab. 4283. 

Purple -flowered Smithia. 

Nat. Ord. Leguminosjs. — Diadelphia Decandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx basi bracteolis duabus persistentibus, bilabiato-bipartitus, 
labiis aequalibus, integris v. obsolete partitis. Corolla papibonacea? vexillum 
subrotundum, patens, aim oblongse, transversim pbcata?, carina petala dorso 
apice leviter cohserentia. Stamina 10, in phalanges pentadelpbas coalita ; 
antherce conformes. Ovarium sessile, quadri-sex-ovulatuni. Stylus filiformis 
adscendens ; stigma simplex. Legume* eompressum pbcato-4-6-(pluri-)articu- 
latum, calyce inclusum, articulis orbicularibus, delabentibus, monospennis. Semma 
corapresso-reniformia. — Herbre procumientes, in Asia et Nova Hollaudia tropica 
indigence ; foliis abrnpte pinnatis, paucijugis, foliolis ciliatis, adpresse setosis ; sti- 
pulis semisagittatis ; racemis axillaribus, paucifioris, floribus fiavis (v.purpureis). 

SMITHIA purpurea ; caule ereeto ramoso glabro, foliolis oblongis longe apiculatia 
cibatis subtusqne ad costam submarginalem prsecipue setuloso-strigosis, 
stipulis adnatis ovatis seta terminatis, racemis terminakbus lateralibusque, 
peduncubs setosis fohum sequantibus, bracteis ovatis calycis labiisque integris 
striatis ciliatis, corolla purpurea (vexillo rotundato absque macula alba 
notatis) alis vexilloque patulis basi superne unidentatis, ovario bneari pluri- 
ovulato basi cupulato. 

Five species of Smithia are described, all natives of India, and 
all having yellow flowers. Our valued friend J. S. Law, Esq., has 
discovered in Bombay a sixth species, having purple flowers, the 
vexillum and alae being moreover each marked with a conspicuous 
white spot. Seeds of this lovely little plant (and dried native 
specimens) were forwarded to us by Mr. Law, and the former 
soon germinated and blossomed in the stove of the Royal Gardens, 
in October, 1846. It differs in no respect from the generic 
character of Smithia, except that it has more seeds in each legume 
than had been attributed to the Genus. 

Descr. Moot annual ? Stem erect, filiform, branched, terete, 
glabrous. Leaves sessile, closely pinnated, with ten to twelve 
opposite, oblong, acute, ciliated leaflets, the apex terminated by 
a hair. Stipules subulate, brown. Racemes terminal, few- (two 
to five) flowered, bracteated. Pedicels hispid. Bracteas and 
sepals of the calyx ovate, striated, green, ciliated : the former con- 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1847. 

duplicate, ciliated at the keel. Corolla deep and rich purple. 

Standard rotundate, pale at the back, the upper half white; the 

inside with a white spot and white streaks at tin- base. Wing* 

with a clear spot towards the apex. Carina uniform purple. 

Stamens monadelphous, cleft above. Ovary linear, many-seeded, 

inserted into auhypogynous gland or cup. Style subulate. Stigma 

Fig.l. Flower. 2. Standard. 3. Win-, i. Keel. 5. Stamens and pistil. 
6. ristd: — magnified. 

Tab. 4284. 

CHIRITA Sinensis. 

Chinese Chirita. 

Nat. Ord. Cyrtandrace.e, DC. (Gesneriace.e CyrtandracEjE, Br.) — 


Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4182.) 

Chirita Sinensis; acaulis, foliis elliptico-ovatis crenatis in petiolum crassum 
trigonum attenuatis, pedunculis erectis rufo-villosissiinis pilis patentissimis, 
corymbis multifloris basi bracteis 2 membranaceis, corollas lobis 2 sup. 
brevioribus tubo iuferne subtus carinato, intus caUis duobus buearibus, 
supra callo lato bilobo, ovario glanduloso-hirsuto. 

Chirita Sinensis. Lindl.Bot. Reg. 1844, t. 59. 

The introduction of this charming plant from China is due to 
the Horticultural Society. Mr. Fortune sent home flowering- 
plants in 1844. Mr. Backhouse (of the York Nursery), to whom 
we owe the possession of the specimens here figured, and who 
has been eminently successful in the cultivation and increase of 
it, speaks of it as follows : — 

" The largest we had this season had a succession of upwards 
of twenty flower-stems, and some of the strongest of these had 
as many flowers opening in succession ; the panicles being dicho- 
tomous and flowering in the axil of each fork. Some of the 
stems were nine inches high. The plant is easily propagated in 
moist sand in a warm, humid atmosphere ; any portion of a leaf 
will emit leaves and roots. The young plants will however be pro- 
bably a year in flowering, and the progress of the scape is at 
first very slow. The plants succeed best in a moist stove, near 
the glass, but require to be shaded when the sun is hot, other- 
Avise their leaves are sometimes scorched. By having plants in 
different temperatures the flowering may be kept up for many 
months ; but a common greenhouse scarcely brings them to per- 
fection. We have not ripened seed, the capsules having been 
removed to keep up the flowering." 

Its habit is that of some stemless Gloxinia, and it continues 
flowering for many months. 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 181?. 

Dsscb. Stem none. Leaves springing directly from the root. 
Petioles short, but very thick and triquetrous, expanding into an 

elliptical ovate blade, the outer ones the longest, all hairy, 
crenate, obtuse, wrinkled, pale, and with very prominent veins 
beneath. Scape a span and more high, at first curved down- 
wards, then erect, stout, terete, clothed with copious, patent, red 
hairs and terminating in a subtrichotomous, compound corymb, 
having at the base two large deciduous membranaceous bracteas. 
Peduncle and pedicels with coarse spreading hairs. Calyx small, 
with five ovate segments. Corolla large, lilac-purple, yet varied 
with red and white; the tube inflated, but with a sudden com- 
pression towards the base beneath, forming a carina ; faux open; 
limb two-lipped, upper lip of two, lower of three rounded lobes ; 
within the corolla, on the lower side, are two linear, orange- 
coloured callosities ; above at the faux, a broad two-lobed one of 
the same colour. Stamens two, fertile, with the anthers two- 
lobed, firmly united to each other; two sterile filaments, and one 
rudimentary filament. Ovary linear, glanduloso-pilose. Style 
short. Stigma one-lipped, bifid. 

Fig. 1. Corolla, laid open. 2. Pistil. 3. Trausversc section of ovary : — mag- 

Tab. 4285. 
NEPENTHES Rafflesiana. 

Sir Stamford Baffles Pitcher-Plant. 

Nat. Ord. Nepenthace.*:. — Dicecia Monadelphia. 

Gen. CJiar. Mores dioici. Masc. Perigonium calycinum, profunde quadri- 
fidum. Stamina in columnam centralem connata; anthera 16, in capitulum 
subsphasricum congestee, biloculares, longitudinabter dehiscentes. FffiM. Peri- 
gonium maris. Ovarium liberum, subtetragonum, quadriloculare. Ovula plurima, 
septorum parietibus adscendentim aflixa, anatropa. Stigma sessile, discoideum, 
obsolete quadrilobum. Capsula quadriloeularis, loculicido-quadrivalvis, valvis 
medio septiferis. Semina pluriraa, setaceo-fusiformia, adscendentia, imbricata : 
testa membranacea, utrinque relaxata ; nucleo centrali inverso, subgloboso. Em- 
bryo in axi albuminis carnosi cylindricus, ortbotropus ; radicnla brevi, infera. — 
SufFrutices in Asia tropica et in Madagascaria indigeni ; petiolis alternis, basi 
brevissime vaginantibus, foliaceo-dilatatis, apice cirrhosis, cirrho ascidiophoro, lamina 
articulata ascidium claudente ; jloribus racemosis vel panictdatis. Endl. 

Nepenthes Rafflesiana ; foliis petiolatis inferiorum ascidiis ventricoso-campauu- 
latis antice late membranaceo-alatis alis longe ciliatis superiorum infundi- 
buliformibus nudis, omnium ore pulcherrime pectinato-striato oblique postice 

Nepenthes Rafflesiana. Jack, in Hooker, Comp. toBot. Mag. p. 270. Korthals, 
Pot. Ind. Batav. p. 35. 

To Dr. Jack is due the discovery of this remarkable species of 
Nepenthes, in the island of Singapore. It was our privilege, in 
the first volume of the ' Companion to the Botanical Magazine ', 
to publish the letters of that distinguished botanist so early lost 
to science. He relates the circumstance of finding this pitcher- 
plant in one of his many valued communications, addressed to his 
family at Aberdeen. Writing from Singapore, June 20th, 1819, 
Dr. Jack says, " My last letter from hence was sent by way of 
Penang; this goes home via Bengal. It is impossible to con- 
ceive anything more beautiful than the approach to Singapore, 
through the Archipelago of islands that he at the extremity of 
the Straits of Malacca, Seas of glass wind among innumerable 
islets, clothed in all the luxuriance of tropical vegetation, and 
basking in the full brilliancy of a tropical sky. The island of 
St. John's, which forms the western point of the bay of Singapore, 

would, if fortified, command with cannon the straits, through 
which every vessel passes to China and all the eastern settlement*. 

A more convenient site and more formidable DoeitJOE could not 
possibly be selected; and it is really astonishing that it should 
have remained so long unnoticed, 'it was the capital of the 
Malays in the twelfth century ; but they were obliged to abandon 
it, during the unfortunate wars with the Javan Empire of Maja- 
pulait, and retire to Malacca, and when the latter was taken by 
the Portuguese, they settled at Johore ; and Singapore has, till 
now, been almost forgotten. I have no doubt it will soon rise 
to more than its ancient consequence. I have just arrived in 
time to explore the woods, before they yield to the' axe, and have 
made many interesting discoveries, particularly of two new and 
splendid species of Pitcher-Plant {N<>pr„thes Rqfiesiana and 
N. ampullaria), far surpassing any yet known in Europe. I have 
completed two perfect drawings of them, with ample descriptions. 
Sir S. Raffles is anxious that we should give publicitv tb OUT 
researches, in one way or other, and has planned bringing out 
something at Bencoolen. He proposes lending home tl 
Pitcher-plants, that such splendid things mav appear under all 
the advantages of elegant execution, by way of attracting attention 
to the subject of Sumatran botany." Many of 1 >r. Jack's plants 
did appear in the Malayan Miscellany, published at Bencoolen ; 
but no plants of the Nepenthes Rajjh^lmm ever reached Europe 
alive ; till the Royal Gardens was supplied with a case of them, 
through the kindness of Capt. Bethune, R.N., who, oi his return 
from his scientific mission to Borneo, had a Wardian case filled 
with them ; and so well were the plants established in the case. 
and so great was the care taken of them overland from India, 
that they were as healthy on their arrival at Kew in 1845 as 
the day they were transplanted from their native glen in Singa- 
pore. It was the very year in which Dr. Jack writes, that, as is 
well known, at the suggestion of his friend and patron, Sir 
Stamford Raffles, the island of Singapore was purchased by the 
India Company of the Sultan of Johore. Mr. Crawford was its 
first Governor and historian : since that period, it has become a 
settlement of vast importance to our country, and being much 
frequented by our ships, both mercantile and of the navy it is 
to be hoped its vegetable productions will soon be familiar to 
us. Dr. Jack, with the modesty which was a striking feature in 
his character gives the credit of the discovery of this plant m 
the forests of Singapore, to Sir Stamford Raffles- probably m 
order that the name might be considered more appropriate. 
Singapore, however does not appear to be the only station 
for this pant; Korthals, if we read his high Dutch correctly, 
gives Bmtang, off the coast of Sumatra, as another habitat 

Our plants, on their arrival, were soon removed into pots 
according to their sizes, and placed in a pan frequently filled 
with water, having moist moss covering the earth : with this 
treatment, a fine spike of male flowers was thrown up in the 
autumn of the same year. The spike is large and handsome, 
from the rich colour of the copious perianths and the numerous 
yellow heads. The pitchers, or ascidia, are not only remarkable 
in their shape, and from their different form in different parts of 
the plants, but for the richness of the colour and spots, and the 
elongated mouth with the curiously striated margin : the striae 
terminate internally in teeth, and give a beautifully pectinated 
appearance to the inner edge. 

We possess fine dried specimens from the East India Company, 
distributed by Dr. Wallich (and our capsule is drawn from one 
of these) ; and we have other specimens for which we are indebted 
to Mr. Veitch, also received from Singapore, and gathered by 
Mr. Lobb. Dr. Jack well observes " this is the largest and most 
magnificent species of the genus, being adorned with two kinds 
of urns, both elegant in their forms, and brilliant in their 
colouring." We cannot, indeed, we think, do better than copy 
the description drawn up from native living specimens, by Dr. 
Jack himself; for we can offer nothing more accurate. 

Descr. The root is fibrous. Stem ascending at the base, 
becoming erect and supporting itself on the neighbouring trees : 
the young parts covered with a deciduous tomentum or down. 
Leaves alternate, petiolate, the lower ones crowded and lanceolate, 
the upper more remote and oblong : the adult foliage is smooth ; 
all the leaves are entire, having inconspicuous lateral nerves, and 
the mid-rib elongated into an urn-bearing cirrhus or tendril. 
The cirrhi of the lower leaves are not twisted, but hang straight 
from the apex ; they terminate in larger ventricose and highly- 
coloured ascidia or urns, fringed along the interior angles with 
two membranaceous fimbriate wings, somewhat contracted at 
the mouth, which opens obliquely, rising much higher and 
slightly recurved behind, where the operculum, or lid, is inserted. 
The tendrils of the upper leaves are twisted into one or two 
spires at the middle, and terminate in long ascending funnel- 
shaped urns, flattened anteriorly, but not winged, and gracefully 
turned at the mouth like an antique vase or urn. Both have 
the inverted margin beautifully and delicately striated and varie- 
gated with parallel stripes of purple, crimson, and yellow. The 
opercula, or lids, are incumbent, membranaceous, ovate marked 
with two principal longitudinal nerves, and cuspidate behind the 
hinge. The racemes of flowers are at first terminal ; but the 
stem begins, after a time, to shoot beyond them and they become 
lateral, and are always opposite to a leaf, which differs from the 

2 D 

others in being sessile, and its coital never bearing an urn at 

its extremity. The pedicels are one-flowem I \faie Ffowere: 

Cah/v deeply four-parted, tomentose on the outer surface, smooth, 
red, and punctate on the inner ; segments oblong, obtuse, reflexed. 
Corolla none. The staminous column is central, thick, erect, red. 
Anthers numerous, yellow, contorted into I round terminal head. 
Female flowers : Calyx as in the male. Ovary superior, oblong, 
four-sided, erect. Style none 5 a sessile, peltate, four-lobed. 
Capsule oblong, somewhat curved, four-angled, deeply furrowed 
at the sides, four-celled, four-vahed; the valves septiferous in 
the middle, many-seeded. Seeds oblong, linear, membranaceous, 
and acute at both ends ; arranged longitudinally, and affixed by 
the base to the partitions. — Wm.Jack. 

Fig. 1. Male flower. 2. fruit: — natural tizt. 

Tab. 4286. 
SIPHOCAMPYLOS microstoma. 

Small-mouthed Siphocampylos . 

Nat. Ord. Lobeliaceae. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4178). 

Siphocampylos (Eusiphocampylos) microstoma ; suffruticosus erectus ramosus, 
ramis teretibus, foliis alternis brevi-petiolatis ovatis acutis glanduloso-serratis 
glabris, floribus umbellatis terminalibus Miosis, calycis tubo turbinato 
angulato brevi, laciniis longioribus linearibus obtusis patentibus, corollae 
pubescentis tubo elongato clavato superne ventricoso laterabter compresso 
angulato ore contracto, lobis subsequalibus parvis Uneari-obtusis conniven- 
tibus pilosis, staminibus subinclusis, antheris 2 inf. barbatis. 

Among many fine species of Siphocampylos, detected by Mr. 
Purdie in New Grenada, few, if any, can vie with this, in the size 
of the flowers and richness of their colour. It seems also to 
produce its blossoms early and freely, and they continue a long 
time in perfection ; so much so, that though our plants were only 
raised from seed twelve months ago, they have been gay with 
flowers throughout the whole autumn and winter months, and 
have proved a great acquisition to our stoves, during this 
dreary season. In the summer, a greenhouse will be a better 
situation for it, and from the successions of buds that are 
forming, it seems to be one of those plants which one may 
reckon on having in bloom, at all times of the year. Some of 
our plants have the stems and branches deeply tinged with pur- 
ple ; and the corollas are occasionally of a deeper and sometimes 
a paler scarlet, always produced in a compact leafy terminal 

Descr. Perennial. Stems erect, rounded, branched, two to 
three feet high, glabrous. Leaves alternate, petiolate (petioles 
short), ovate, acute, glabrous (the younger ones slightly downy), 
serrated, each serrature tipped with, or rather constituted, by a 
pale gland. Flowers umbellate ; that is, they seem each to spring 
from the axil of a leaf, which then becomes so reduced in size, they 
forming so compact a mass, that the foliage here may rather be 

called bracteas, and the pedicels, placed in an umbel, an umbellate- 
corymb ; at rirst these flowers are erect, soon spreading. Caljj.r- 
tube short and broad, turbinate, angled ; limb of five, spreading, 
linear-obtuse segments. Corolla rich scarlet, downy, two and a 
half inches long, monopetalous ; the tube elongated, club-shaped, 
slightly curved and ventricose above, laterally compressed, and 
angular. The mouth of the tube is small and contracted : the 
segments small, nearly equally hairy, connivent only when old, 
the lower ones spreading. Stamens scarcely protruded, two 
lower ones bearded. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Anthers: — magnified. 

Tab. 4287. 
BRUNFELSIA nitida ; £. ? Jamaicensis. 

Shining-leaved Brunfehia ; Jamaica var.? 


Gen. Char. Calyx 5-dentatus v. 5-fidus. Corolla hypocraterimorpha, tubo 
apice vix dilatato, limbo ultra medium 5-fido, lobis latis rotundatis, sestivatione 
bilabiato sinubus subplicatis. Stamina fertilia 4; anther* apice confluentes. 
Stylus apice incurvus dilatato-bilobus : lobis subsequalibus intus stigmatosis. 
Capsula coriacea aut carnosa, valvulis integris, vel rarius indehiscens ? crassissima, 
subdrupacea ; dissepimeutum tenue sub placentis carnosis reconditum. Semma 
plurima, majuscula, pulpa vel placentis carnosis plus minus immersa. Embryo 
leeviter incurvus. — Frutices arboresve parvce, America; australis v. Antillarum 
incolce. Folia alterna, integerrima, exobovato-oblonga, sa>pe nitida. Cymae termi- 
nates, nunc dens* capituliformes, nunc laxiuscule paucifiorx, vel ad florum umcum 
reducta. Bractese porta. Flores speciosi, scepissime suavolentes, pallide violacei, 
cterulei vel albidi, rarius ochroleuci aut albi. Be Cand. 

Brunfelsia nitida; glabra, foliis obovato-oblongis acutis, flonbus solitarus, 
calyce campanulato profunde 5-fido, corolla? tubo calyce 8-10-ies longiore, 
limbo planiusculo capsular valvulis coriaceo-carnosis. Bentk. 

Brunfelsia nitida. Beuth. in Be Cand, Prodr. v. 10. p. 200. 

j3. ? Jamaicensis ; floribus majoribus, fructu ignoto. Beuth . I. c. 

The genus Brunfehia was so named by Plumier in honour of 
Otto Bunfels or Brunfels, of Mete, who is described by Waller as 
one of the restorers of botany, on account of his work ' Herbarum 
vivse Icones', published in three vols, folio, between the years 
1530-36. Two species of the original genus were detected by 
the older botanists, B. Americana, and B. mdulata ; a thud sup- 
posed species is described by Mr. Don, from Peru, B.grandijtora ; 
and a fourth, by Mr. Bentham above quoted, B. nitida, from 
Havanah; to which he has referred var. 0. Jamaicensis, trom Air. 
Purdie's specimens in our Herbarium. With these large yellow 
flowered species, Mr. Bentham has united the blue-flowered Fran- 
ciscecs (of Pohl) as not generically distinct : similar dry fruits 
being found in some of the yellow-flowered ones, ihe plant Here 
figured, is the var. Jamaicensis of B. nitida, of Mr. Bentham, 
being what corresponds with the specimens sent by Mr. Purdie 
from Jamaica ; but as I am in ignorance of the fruit, I cannot 

remove Mr. Bentham's doubts, respecting its identity with that 
species. It is a very handsome plant, flowering during the sum- 
mer months copiously, in a cool stove, and easily increased by 

Descr. An erect shrub, four to five feet high, when fully 
grown, glabrous, with terete stems and branches. Leaves alter- 
nate, but crowded about the setting on of the younger branches, 
obovato-oblong or obovato-lanceolate, broadest above the middle, 
coming to a sharp point, tapering below into a short brown or 
purple petiole, quite entire, subcoriaceous, glossy. Flowers solitary 
from the axils of the upper leaves, on short peduncles. Calyx 
campanulate, glabrous, deeply five-lobed, the lobes reaching as 
far as the middle, ovato-obtuse. Corolla very large, yellow. Tube 
long, cylindrical, downy. Limb oblique, of five obovato-rotundate 
slightly waved spreading lobes. Stamens filiform ; style included. 

Fig. 1. I'istil: — slightly magnified. 

Tab. 4288. 

TILLANDSIA bulbosa ; var. picta. 

Bulbous Tillandsia ; coloured var. 

Nat. Ord. Bromeliace^e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perigonii liberi sexpartiti lacinia exteriores catycina, aequales basi co- 
haarentes spiraliter convolutae, duo altius inter se connatae, tertia minor, interiores 
petahideas inferne in tubulum convolutae v. connatae, superne patentes, basi intus 
nudae v. rarius squamosa3. Stamina 6, hypogyna ; jilamenta linearia, alterna, 
saepius perigonii laciniis interioribus adhaerentia; anthera incumbentes, basi 
sagittato-emarginatae. Ovarium liberum, triloculare. Ovula in loculorum angulo 
centrab prope basin plura, biseriata, adscendentia, anatropa. Stylus fibformis ; 
stigma trifidum, lobis abbreviatis v. filiformibus aut apice dilatatis, rectis v. con- 
tortis. Capsula cartdaginea, linearis v. ovata, trilocularis, loculicido-trivalvis, 
valyis endocarpio mox soluto dupbcatis, explanatis v. tortis. Semina plurima e 
basi dissepimentorum erecta, lineari-clavata, stipitata, stipite pibs papposis cincto, 
testa dura, chalaza terminab mamillari. Embryo in basi albuminis farinosi rectus, 
extremitate radiculari infera. — Herbae in America tropica et extra-tropica cali- 
diore indigent ; utplurimum pseudo-pat -asitica, lepidotee, caulibus foliosis simplici- 
bus v. rarius ramosis,fioribus spicatis v.paniculatis, rarius solitariis, bracteatis. Endl. 

Tillandsia bulbosa ; foliis (subpaucis) e basi latissima circa bulbum vaginata 
longe subulatis rigidis coriaceis tereti-convolutis, superioribus basi angus- 
tioribus (in /3. coloratis), spica ramosa bracteata bracteis ovatis distichis 
(saepe coloratis), petalis acuminatis purpureis brevioribus,staminibus exsertis, 
filamentis infra apicem dilatatis. 

Tillandsia bulbosa. Hook, in Exot. Ft. 1. 173. 

0. picta; major, foliis superioribus bracteisque coccineis. (Tab. nostr. 4288.) 

Few persons, who have the opportunity of comparing this richly 
coloured plant with the figure above quoted, in the ' Exotic Flora,' 
would at first sight perhaps consider them to represent the same 
species ; yet, except that this is a better grown specimen, with a 
more perfect spike, and that the upper leaves and bracteas are of 
a bright scarlet hue, tinged with yellow, I see no difference, and 
am bound to consider them the same. The original plant was 
transmitted from Trinidad, by the late Baron de Schack ; our 
Garden is indebted for this splendid variety to the mission of 
Mr. Purdie, who sent healthy specimens from Jamaica, which on 
being simply suspended by a piece of wire, from the beam of a 

moist stove, flowered in the winter of 1S4G-7. In proof that 
the highly coloured leaves afford no permanent character, these 
became, after flowering, of the same uniform green as the rest of 
the foliage. 

The Tillandsias exhibit strange forms, and many of them highly 
beautiful inflorescence ; but they are very unintelligible, when 
studied in the Herbarium, and little sought after by those who 
send home living plants ; so that our knowledge of the species is 
but imperfect. It is to be regretted, too, that they are difficult 
to keep long in a state of cultivation, generally dying soon after 
flowering, more frequently without blossoming at all. 

Descr. Plants clustered, two or more united at the base, and 
sometimes growing in two opposite directions, and in the instance 
here represented, slightly attached to the branches of trees by 
slender feathery fibres. Stem simple, leafy at the base, immediately 
swollen and bulbiform. Leaves a span or more long, subulate, 
coriaceous, rigid, waved and somewhat spirally twisted, terete 
from the singularly incurved or almost convolute sides, dark 
green, naked, the bases of the lower ones singularly dilated into 
very broad membranaceous sheathing bases to the bulb, pale- 
coloured with a red margin, dotted ; the upper leaves gradually 
smaller and almost bracteiform, richly tinged with scarlet and 
yellow. Spike racemose, the branches compressed, and clothed 
w r ith distichous, scarlet, imbricated bracteas, entirely concealing 
the flower-buds. Flowers protruded beyond the bracteas. Calyx 
of three green convolute sepals. Corolla of three linear-lanceo- 
late, purple, acuminated petals, twice as long as the calyx. 
Stamens and style exserted. Filaments dilated below the apex. 
Stigmas three, cuneate, fringed at the edge. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil: — magnified. 

Tab. 4289. 


Purging Pharbitis. 

Nat. Ord. Convolvulace.e. — Pentandria Monogynla. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-sepalus. Cor. campantilata aut campanulato-infundibuli- 
formis. Stylus 1. Stigma capitato-granulatum. Ovarium 3- rarius 4-loculare, 
locnlis dispermis. — Herbae volubiles elongate speciosee, perplurima ornamenti 
gratia in hortis culta ; pleraque Americana, retr or sum pilous. Chois. in DC. 

Pharbitis cathartica ; caule glabro contorto, foliis glabris cordatis aut ssepius 
cordato-trilobis, lobo intermedio ovato-acurainato basi saepius dilatato, late- 
ralibus brevioribus acutis, petiolo longo, pedunculis 1-2-floris petiolis supe- 
rantibus, bracteis 6-8 lineas longis bilineari-lanceolatis apice (tructis) acu- 
minata reflexis hirsutulis, corolla speciosa purpurea. 

Pharbitis cathartica. Chois. in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 342. 

I pom/ea cathartica. Poir. Encycl. Suppl. v. 4. p. 633. 

Convolvulus Portoricensis. Spr.Syst. Feget. v. I. p. 595. 

Var. floribus roseis. 

Convolvulus pudibundus. Lindl. Bol. Beg. t. 999. 

Ipom^ea pudibunda. Boh, in Mill. Bid. v. 4. p. 276. 

A native of St. Domingo, Porto Rico, and Mexico, according to 
Choisy. we may further add Sta. Martha, in New Grenada; whence 
Mr. Purdie sent seeds in 1845, which flowered at Syon Gardens, 
in November of the same year, and made a very lovely appear- 
ance. The colour of the corolla is particularly vivid, varying 
from deep reddish-purple to rich violet-blue. The Convolvulus 
pudibundus of Dr. Lindley, above quoted, is doubtless the same 
species, with rose-coloured flowers. The ' Flore Medicale des 
Antilles ' states that M. Bauduit, a rich proprietor of St. Do- 
mingo, discovered in this milky plant a resinous juice, which 
coagulates and proves to be profusely purgative. He formed 
of it a much approved syrup, which, in the French colonies, 
bears his name. This syrup is very active, and requires, on 
account of its drastic properties, to be used with great caution. 

Descr. Stem apparently annual, terete, glabrous, twining, 
slender, branched. Leaves alternate, remote, broadly cordate, 

sometimes entire, but more usually (altogether so in our speci- 
men) three-lobed, glabrous ; the lobes broad, rounded, suddenly 
acute, or rather acuminated, especially the middle lobe. Petiole 
as long as the leaf, slender. From the axil of the leaf or petiole, 
a solitary peduncle appears, about as long as, or longer than, the 
petiole, in our plant bearing one Jlower, with an articulation, and 
two small bracts, not unfrequently two or even three flowers : the 
upper joint or pedicel slightly incrassated upwards, about three 
quarters of an inch long. Calyx of five lanceolate, acuminated 
sepals, slightly hairy at the back, the apices more or less spreading. 
Corolla with the tube funnel-shaped, white below, rose-purple 
above; limb spreading, slightly five-lobed, the lobes rounded, 
with a small point in the sinus, the colour varying from reddish 
to deep blue-purple. Stamens five, unequal, included. Filaments 
hairy below. Style filiform, included. Stigma large, capitate, 
granulated. In fruit, the pedicel is bent at the joint or genicu- 
lated, and is much dilated below the persistent calyx. 

Fig. 1. Portion of the corolla, with stamens. 2. Pistil : — magnified. 

Tab. 4290. 
SCUTELLARIA cordifolia. 

Heart-leaved Skull-cap. 

Nat. Orel. Labiate. — Didynamia Gymnospermia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 426S.) 

Scutellaria cordifolia ; canle erecto ramoso ramisque obtuse tetragonis race- 
misque (nunc ramosis) longissimis pubescenti-glanduloso-pilosis, foliis longe 
petiolatis meinbranaceis pallide Iuteo-viridibus molbbus rotundato-cordatis 
copiose rugoso-reticulatis acutis pubescenti-pilosis grosse sinuato-dentatis, 
floribus subverticillatis glanduloso-pubescentibus, bracteis angustis cito deci- 
duis, calyce parvo, corolla (coccinea) gracili calyce multoties longiore, labio 
superiore 3-fido lobo intermedio breviore emarginato. 

Scutellaria cordifolia. Benth. in De Cand. Prodr. ined. 

Perilomia cordifolia. SchlecM. in Linntea, v. 6. p. 3 74. 

Scutellaria splendens. Klotzsch, Ic. PL Rar. Berol.p. 31. t. 13. 

For this beautiful Scutellaria, the Royal Gardens of Kew are 
indebted to Messrs. Rollisson, of Tooting, who had received it 
from the Continent, under the name of Scutellaria splendens; and 
as such the species is described in the beautiful work of my 
friend Dr. Klotzsch, above quoted. It is, however, assuredly 
the S. cordifolia, Benth. {Perilomia, Schlecht.), and a native of 
Misantla and other parts of Mexico. The brilliant red colour, the 
size and general form of the flowers, indicate an affinity with 
S. Ventenatii; but the hue is more inclined to orange-red, the 
corolla is longer and more slender, the flowers are not secund or 
distichous, but subverticillate, and pointing in all direcfions ; it has 
shorter stems, and very different foliage in colour, form, texture 
and reticulation. It flowers in the stove in September and 

Descr. Stem nearly erect, branched ; with the branches diva- 
ricated, four-sided, pubescent with glandular hairs. Leaves 
opposite, large, downy, cordate, membranaceous, coarsely and 
almost sinuato-dentate, pale green, reticulated and wrinkled with 
the copious venations. Petioles an inch and a half long, pilose. 

Racemes very long, terminal upon the branches, simple, or 
ramose, many -flowered. Pedicels short, subverticillute, with small 
deciduous bractem at the base. Calyw as in the genus, glandu- 
loso-pilose, tinged with purple, having the dorsal Bcale much en- 
larged in fruit. Corolla orange-scarlet, glanduloso-pilose, very 
long, many times longer than the calyx, the tube much curved, 
slender in the lower half, gradually widening upwards, so as to 
be funnel-shaped : the mouth inclining downwards : the limb of 
two lips, the lower lip ovate, acute, entire, deflexed, the upper 
much shorter, galeate, obtuse, three-lobed, middle lobe emargi- 
nate. Stamens and style included. Ovaries glandular, situated 
on a large conical gland or gynophore. 

Fig. 1. Flower: — magnified. 


Tab. 4291. 
ANIGOZANTHOS fuliginosa. 

Sooty Anigozanthos. 

Nat. Ord. Hemodoeace^e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4180.) 

Anigozanthos fuliginosa; caule angulato elato superne paniculato, inferne 
foliisque aequitantibus lineari-acuminatis subfalcatis striatis glaberrimis, 
spicis paniculatis secundifloris, pedunculis pedicellis parteque inferioris 
florum pilis plumosis fusco-brunneis ftdiginosis, perianthii straminei tomen- 
tosi laciniis lanceolato-acuminatis tubum curvatum superantibus, staminum 
filamentis lacinias Bequantibus, antheris apiculatis. 

This is one of the few plants, figured in the ' Botanical Maga- 
zine ', of which no living specimen yet exists in our Gardens. It 
is here given to show how much it merits cultivation; also 
because, from its peculiarly dry, or " everlasting " character, it 
exhibits so much of its beauty in the Herbarium, that we can 
vouch for the accuracy of the figure, both in form and colour. 
It is, too, among the rarest of the genus yet found in Australia, 
and is thus noticed, in conjunction with another species, A. pul- 
cherrima, figured in this work, Tab. 4180, in a letter from 
Mr. J. Drummond, published in the ' London Journal of Botany', 
vol. iii. p. 263. "By a ship now about to sail, I send two fine 
species of Anigozanthos, collected by my son (since killed by 
the natives), in the vicinity of the Moore River. Of the golden- 
flowered kind (A. pulcherrimd), I gave some account before 
(vol. i. of Lond. Journ. of Bot. p. 627, 8). The dark-flowering 
one, of which but two specimens have ever been found in bloom, 
is a real mov/rning flower ; the upper portions of its stem, and 
lower portion of the corolla being covered, as it were, with black 
velvet : the corolla is deeply cleft, and expands about two inches. 
The species is not allied to any other yet discovered in the Swan 
River Settlement." The flower alone, independent of the curious 
sooty tomentum of the upper part of the plant, is indeed quite 
sufficient to distinguish this species ; being much deeper cleft, 
with far larger and longer laciniae, and longer filaments to the 


stamens than any known .[.tries. We do not despair of seeing 
this plant ere long in our greenhouses. 

Descr. Root a creeping eauclex, thicker than the linger. 
Leaves chiefly radical, or from the verv base of the stem, and 
fasciculate, sheathing, equitant, linear-ensifomi, acuminate, striated, 
quite glabrous, shorter than the stem, much tinged with brown- 
purple. Stem erect, herbaceous, angled and furrowed, two to 
four feet high, bearing three or four leaves, similar to those of 
the stem the uppermost less equitant. This stem branches 
above, and becomes a panicle, dichotomously divided, with a 
small leaf-like bractea at the forks, clothed with a dense dark-red 
brown or sooty, coloured tomentum, which, when seen under a 
microscope, is found to consist of beautiful plumose hairs. The 
ultimate branches, or peduncles of the pan icle, bear a spike of 
large, tomentose, lemon-coloured Jhwera, the lower portion of 
the flower and the ovary being covered with the same fuliginose 
tomentum as the panicle, but which gradually becomes more 
scattered and inconspicuous towards the upper portion of the 
flower. Ovary globose. Perianth with the tube sightly curved, 
scarcely an inch long, a little dilated upwards ■ the month very 
oblique ; the limb of six spreading lanceolate acuminate segments 
(clothed withm, as well as without, with pale yellow tomentum), 
which are much longer, especially the upper ones, than the tube. 
filaments subulate, as long as the segments of the perianth, 
their bases united into a membrane, or ring, at the mouth of 
the tube. Anthers small, oblong, pale-coloured, tipped with a 

Tbb d mucro ' 8tyle longer than the coro,,a - m * ma 

\ %st 

Tab. 4292. 
MARTYNIA fragrans. 

Fragrant Martynia. 

Nat. Ord. Sesames, DC. Tribe II. Pedalineje, Br.— Didynamia 

Gen. Char. Calyx subaequaliter 5-fidus, basi 2-3-bracteolatus. Corolla irre- 
gularis campanulata, basi gibba, limbo 5-lobo insequali. Stamina 5, uno rudi- 
mentario sterili, 4 didynamis nunc omnibus nunc 2 tantum antheriferis. Stigma 
bilamellatum. Corolla coriacea lignosa, ovata aut longior apice rostrata, rostro 
inflexo bicorni, anterius sulcato-dentata, intus 4-5 ?-locularis (1) sed vix apice 
dehiscens, septis coriaceis. Semina pauca, crassa, secus septum in loculis 
uniserialia, pendula, subbaccata, demum tuberculato-rugosa. — Herbse ex America 
calidiore orta, seepius ramosa, piloso-viscosee. Folia opposita aut suprema subalterna, 
petiolata, cordata, subrotunda. DC. 

Martynia fragrans ; foliis (plerisque) oppositis petiolatis cordatis v. oblongo- 
cordatis trilobis angulato-sinuatis, racemo terminali, calycibus inflato-cam- 
panulatis obliquis plicatis, bracteolis ad basin calycis 2 plano-convexis, 
floribus tetrandris, fructibus supeme aristatis rostris capsula subduplo 
longioribus apice uncinatis. 

Martynia fragrans. Lindl. Bot, Reg. 1840. Misc. n. 206. 1841, tab. 6. 

The curious capsules of this very beautiful and highly fragrant 
annual, containing ripe seeds, were received at the Royal Gardens 
of Kew, in the spring of 1846, from Mr. Ropper, at the Real del 
Monte mines, in Mexico. Treated as half-hardy plants, they 
nourished during the summer months, in a cool greenhouse, and 
were universally admired, no less for their large and highly 
coloured flowers, than for their delicious odour. There can 
scarcely be a doubt but this species will bear our summers 
in the open air; a bed entirely filled with it would have a 
rich effect, and would contribute greatly to ornament the flower 

Descr. Plant one to three feet high, everywhere clothed with 
soft glandular down. Stem terete, erect, flexuose. Leaves op- 
posite, or usually so, petiolate, cordate, sometimes approaching 
to oblong-cordate, three-lobed, lobes rounded, angulato-sinuate, 
the middle one the longest. Raceme terminal, of from three to 
sixjloivers, which are large, handsome and fragrant. Pedicels 

2 E 

as long as the flowers. Culi/t largo, -ubeampanulate, inflated ; 
the mouth oblique, plaited and striated ; the teeth short, famished 
at the base with two appressed hYshv bracts. Corolla with the 

tube scarcely longer than the calyx, the mouth oblique, the limb 
of four spreading lobes, of which the upper and lower are the 
largest, the former bifid, all of them rounded. The general colour 
of the corolla is a rich purplish-red, the throat yellow, with dark 
dots. Stamens and style included. Fruit an oblong dark-brown 
capsule, curved upwards, wrinkled, crested above, terminating in 
two incurved beaks, much longer than the capsule, and hooked 
at the end. 

Fig. 1. Capsule: — natural me. 


Tab. 4293. 
iECHMEA discolor. 

Two-coloured, or Crab's eye JEchmea. 

Nat. Ord. Bromeliaci^e. — Hexanpria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Bracteee sub singulo flore cyathiformes. Perigonii superi sex- 
partiti lacinice exteriores calycince, aequales, spiraliter convolutse, aristatae v. 
muticae, apice hinc oblique dilatatae, interiores petaloidea, exterioribus multo 
longiores, inferne convolutae, basi intus squamosa? v. rarius nudae. Stamina 
6, imo perigonio inserta : filamenta filifonnia, tria laciniarum interiorum basi 
adnata; antherce ovatae, dorso affixae, subincumbentes. Ovarium inferum trilo- 
culare. Ovula plurima, e loculorum angulo centrak" pendula, anatropa. Stylus 
filiformis : stigmata 3, linearia v. petaloidea, spiraliter convoluta. Bacca oyato- 
subglobosa, trilocularis. Semina plura ex apice loculorum pendula, testa coriacea 
fusca, umUlicofilo brevi gracili appendiculato. Embryo minimus, rectus, in basi 
albuminis dense farinacei, extremitate radiculari umbilicum attingente, supera.— 
Herbae Americana tropica, seepe in arborum truncis pseudo-parasitica ; foliis 
radicalibus ligulatis v. ensiformibus, crassis, coriaceis, integerrimis v. spinuloso- 
serrulatis ; scapo ramoso paniculato, xwtis.flexuosa, bracteis sub singulo fore cyatU- 
formibus spinoso-aristatis integerrimis v. tricrenatis, floribus terminalibus abortivis. 

zEchmea discolor; foliis ligulatis striatis obscure fasciatis serrulato-dentatis 
subtus discoloribus, bracteis lanceolatis membranaceis, floribus in panicu- 
lam sessilibus bracteatis, bracteis lanceolatis caducis, calycibus ovario adha> 
rentibus conico-ovatis coccineis dentibus obtusis atris, corolla calyce bre- 

jEchmea discolor. Hort. 

A singularly attractive plant, from the rich coral-red of the 
panicle, the flowers being of the same bright vermilion colour, 
and the calyx tipped with black; also from the great length of 
time the plant continues in blossom, through the whole of the 
winter months. The unexpanded buds have a most striking 
resemblance to the well-known beads, commonly called " Crab's 
eyes ", which are the seeds of Abrus precatoria, only that they 
are much larger. The species is probably a native of Brazil; 
but I know nothing respecting its history, further than that it 
was received at the Royal Gardens of Kew, under the name 
here retained, from Messrs. Henderson, and from the Pans gardeu 

Descr. Leaves radical, erecto-patent, ligulato-obtuse, grooved 

above, and there green and transversely banded with furfnraceous 
lines ; the underside purple, the margin dentato-serrate. Scape 
twice as long as the leaves, terete above, branched into a panicle, 
of a rich scarlet colour, bearing a few membranaceous lanceolate 
pale brownish bracts. Flowers sessile, furnished with large ob- 
long, membranaceous, deciduous bracts. Calyx, including the 
adherent ovary, conical-ovate, bright red, the connivent teeth 
obtuse, black. Petals twisted, closed, at first red, afterwards 
purple, boat-shaped, with two scales within at the base. Stamens 
included ; and the style also. Stigma capitate. 

Fig. 1. Vertical section of the calyx and ovary. 2. Petal, scales, and stamen. 
3. Flower. 4. Transverse section of germen : — magnified. 



t^eeve U 

Tab. 4294. 


Golden Columnea. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriace^e. — Didynamia Gtmnospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx liber, 5-partitus. Corolla tubulosa, rectiuscula, basi postice 
gibba, ringens, lobis superiore erecto fornicato, inferiore trifido patente. Sta- 
mina 4 didynama, antheris comiexis, quinti r postici rudimentura. Glandula 
1-5 circa basin ovarii. Baeca 1-locularis, placentis 2 parietalibus bilobis. 
Semina oblonga. — Frutices Americani jlexiles, erecti aid scandentes. Folia oppo- 
sita brevi-petiolata crassimcula subserrata, hirmita vel pubescentia. Pedunculi 
axillares solitarii out covferti. CorollaB coceinea. DC. 

Coltjmnea aureo-nitem ; fruticosa erecta subsimplici tota aureo-sericea, foliis 
oppositis subsessilibus distichis, altero obovato oblongo acuminato denticu- 
lato serrato basi valde inaequilatera hinc decurrente, altero multoties minore 
ovato-acuminato insequilatero sessili, floribus sessilibus aggregatis (2-3) 
bracteatis deorsum versis, bracteis sepalisque appressis lanceolatis longe 
acixminatis laciniatis, corolla tubulosa calyce duplo longiore compresso- 
subangulata, paululum ventricosa basi inflata curvataque, limbi parum 
decurvi laciniis 5 sequalibus erecto-incurvis. 

From the Royal Gardens of Kew, where it flourishes in a 
moist stove, producing its blossoms sometimes in autumn, some- 
times in early spring. These flowers and nearly the whole plant, 
but especially the younger portions, are densely covered with a 
rich gold-coloured clothing of silky hairs. We owe the posses- 
sion of it to Messrs. Hendersons, Pine- Apple Place, Edgeware 
Road. Native specimens are in our Herbarium from Columbia. 

Descr. Our tallest plant is a foot and a half high, sufiruticose, 
but succulent, erect, or nearly so, scarcely branched, everywhere 
of a golden hue from the copious golden-coloured silky shaggy 
hairs, most abundant in the young parts. Leaves opposite, but 
of two kinds ; one of each pair is from four to six inches or more 
long, on a short footstalk, ovato-oblong, acuminate, serrated, deeply 
penninerved, the veins very prominent beneath, the base very 
unequal, one side terminating very abruptly, the other decurrent 
to the base of the petiole ; the other opposite leaf is very small, 
scarcely an inch long, sessile, ovate, acuminate, and also unequal 
at the base. Flowers axillary, fascicled, directed towards the 

back of the plant, on short petioles, bracteated. Bracteas lan- 
ceolato-laciniated. Calyx of five lanceolate, appressed sepals, 
equally with the bracteas laciniated. Corolla tubular, about an 
inch and a half long, slightly curved, yellow, but aureo-nitent 
from the golden hairs ; slightly curved, the base above gibbose, a 
little ventricose near the middle, the mouth oblique ; limb of five 
obtuse, erect, nearly equal, segments. Stamens four, didyna- 
mous, included. Filaments united into a tube, split on one side. 
Anthers subglobose, connate. Ovary ovate, hairy, with five 
glands, of which two at the back are large, and bifid, the three 
others small, clavate. Style shorter than the tube. Stigma two- 

Fig. 1. Flower, with the calyx expanded : — slightly magnified. 2. Stamens. 
3. Pistil and hypogynal glands. 4. Ovary and three of the glands cut through 
transversely : — magnified. 

Tab. 4295. 
ANGRtECUM funale. 

Cord-like Angrcecum. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide*. — Gynanbria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium patens. Sepala et petala subsequalia, libera. La~ 
helium sessile, cum basi columnse continuum, carnosum, indivisum, petalis multo 
latius ; calcare recto cornuto, ssepius subcylindraceo, perianthio multo longiore, 
raro obconico. Columna nana subteres, raro elongata, semiteres. Anthera 2- 
locularis, truncata. PoU'mia 2, bipartibilia, caudicula brevi angusta, glandula 
triangulari. — Epiphytse caulescentes. Folia coriacea ligulata, apice obliqua. Flores 
solitarii v. racemosi, albi nunc citrini v. herbacei. Lindl. 

Angrcecum funale; subacaule aphvllum, radicibus copiosis elongatis crassis 
cylindraceis hie iUic articulatis" pedunculis subbifloris, sepalis petahsque 
oblongo-lanceolatis reflexis, labello trilobo, lobis laterahbus parvis erectis, 
intermedio maximo lato obcordato-bifido, calcare filiformi perianthio bis 

Angr^cum funale. Lbtdl. in Gard. Chrou. 

CEceoclades funalis. Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 237. 

Epidendrxjm funale. Sw. Prodr.p. 126. 

Limodorum funale. Stc. PI. hid. Occ. v. 3. p. 1521. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 4. p. 127. 

One of the rarest and least known of the West Indian Orchi- 
deous plants, which though referred by Lindley in the ' Genera 
et Species Orchid.', to CEceoclades, that excellent botanist has 
since acknowledged it (in a recent number of the ' Gardeners 
Chronicle') to be a true species of Angracwm. We adopt 
accordingly the latter name, and find that the characters quite 
agree with those which may be considered to belong to the type 
of the genus, A. ebumeum. Our plant, together with A. JUiforme, 
Lindl. (of Hispaniola), are the only species yet detected in the 
New World, and both are aphyllous, the rest bemg all natives 
of tropical Eastern Africa and adjacent isles (Madagascar, Bourbon 
and Mauritius). A. funale grows on the trunks of trees, in the 
mountains of Jamaica, and was first detected by Swartz, and well 
described by him : recently it has been sent to the Royal Gardens 
of Kew by our collector, Mr. Purdie. Attached to • a block ot 
wood, and freely supplied with moisture, it produced its highly 

fragrant blossoms in the winter of 1846, and continued some 
time in blossom. 

Descr. The plant may be said to consist of a very short caudex, 
throwing out, in all directions, copious, long, flexuose, cylindrical, 
partially articulated, greenish, fleshy roots, about as thick as a 
goose-quill. The same caudex gives rise to one or more slender 
peduncles, simple and one-flowered, or divided and two-flowered, 
bearing two or three small brown appressed bracteas. Flower 
large, highly fragrant. Sepals and petals pale green, oblong- 
lanceolate, reflexed. Lip very large, white, three-lobed, the two 
side lobes turned up so as to be applied to the column, interme- 
diate one very large, obcordate, two-lobed • spur very long, slender, 
filiform. Column short. 

Fig. 1. Lip, with the spur. 2. Column. 3,4. Pollen-masses -.—magnified. 


Tab. 4296. 

Mr. Williams Echinocactus. 

Nat. Ord. Cacte^:. — Icosandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4190.) 

Echinocactus Williamsii; humilis caespitosus turbinatus inferne teres trans- 
versim cicatricatus cinereo-fuscus superne mnbilicato-depressus glaucus 
6-8-costatus, costis latis convexis parce tuberculatis inermibus pulvilligeris, 
pulvillis e pUis fasciculatis densis erectis fonnatis, floribus pamdis subsoli- 
tariis albo-roseis. 

Echinocactus Williamsii. " Lemaire, ex Salm-Dyck in Otto et Dietr. Allgem. 
Gartenzeit, xiii. p. 385." Walp. Repert. v, 5. p. 816. 

A neatly-formed species, which has a very pretty appearance 
when its starry blossoms are expanded. We received several plants 
of it at the Royal Gardens of Kew, through the favour of the 
Real del Monte Company, from the rocky hills of their district 
of mines in Mexico, with many other treasures. It flowers in 
the summer months. 

Descr. Our largest plants do not much exceed the size re- 
presented. They grow in a tufted manner and are often pro- 
liferous, as in the instance here shown: the parent plant being, 
as it were, stifled or subdued by its offspring. Each individual 
is turbinate : from the base to the crown, or summit, terete, 
of an ashy brown colour, and scarred with close transverse lines 
occasioned, it would appear, by the progressive withering and 
contraction of the tubercles : the summit is broadly convex, but 
with a deep depression in the centre, glaucous, traversed from 
the centre outwards by 6-8 furrows, and thus divided into as 
many convex ridges, and these again, transversely, but more or 
less deeply, into rather large, rounded, more or less confluent 
unarmed tubercles, each of which has a dense tuft or short 
pencil of compact erect hairs :— no aculei. Mowers proceed from 
a young tubercle, near the centre of the crown. The base of 

the calyx is downy. The petals lanceolate, rather numerous, 
white, externally tipped with pale green, and having a rose- 
coloured line down the centre. Stamens yellow. Stigma of four 
spreading rays. 

/ 297 

Tab. 4297. 
PHALiENOPSIS amabilis. 

Indian Butterfly -Plant. 

Nat. Ord. Orchideje. — Gtnandria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium explanatum, patens, sepalis Kberis, petalis majoribus 
dilatatis. Labellum cum basi paulo producta columnse connatum, liberum, basi 
callosum, trilobum ; lobis lateralibus ascendentibus petaloideis, intennedio an- 
gustiore bicirrboso. Columna in ovarium recumbens, semiteres ; rostello gladiato. 
Anihera bilocularis. Pollinia 2, subglobosa, caudicula plana spatbulata, glandula 
maxima cordata. — Herba epiphyta. Caules radicantes, simplices. Folia rigida, 
lato-lanceolata, apice oblique retusa. Mores paniculati. Lindl. 

Phaljenopsis amabilis. 

PHALiENOPSis amabilis. Blume, Bijdr. p. 294. Rumphw, tf. 194. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 

1838. t. 84. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 213. 
Epidendrum amabile. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1351. Swartz, Orchid, p. 184. 
Angrjscum album majus. Rumph. Herb. Anib. v. 6. p. 99. t. 43. 

This noble Orchidaceous plant, though introduced to our 
Stoves ten years ago, by Mr. Cuming from Manilla, is still perhaps 
the choicest and most highly prized of the family. Indeed, there 
is not a more chaste or lovely flower among all the OrcMdea ; 
and it has the merit of continuing a long time in blossom, one 
single plant at the Royal Gardens of Kew having been in bloom 
through the whole of' the present winter (1846-7). There is, 
indeed, a danger of its flowering too freely, and so exhausting 
itself; and we have on that account been obliged to nip off" some 
of the flowering branches ; especially as we do not find the species 
to increase readily. The species was first detected at Amboyna, 
by Rumphius. In Java, and probably in the Malayan Islands 
generally, it seems abundant. It grows freely, attached to a 
piece of wood, together with a little moss, suspended from a 
rafter of the stove. The graceful racemes and branches, having 
a pendent character, frequently display their blossoms in front of 
the dark green foliage, which sets them off to great advantage. 
The generic name, Phalanopsis, was given to the plant from a 
fancied resemblance to a moth or butterfly : Qabawa, a moth, 
and 6%fns, resemblance. 

may 1st, 1847. F 

Descr. An Epiphyte, attaching itself to the trunks of trees in 
the Indian forests, by stout fleshy whitish fibres. Pseudo-bulk 

none. Leaves large, dark green, distichous, very thick and 
coriaceous, elliptical-lanceolate, obliquely retuse. Peduncle long, 
drooping. Mowers racemose, distichous, large, the ground of 
the purest white imaginable, becoming tinged with cream, or a 
yel owish hue m age : the lip only streaked and spotted with red 
and yellow Perianth spreading almost exactly horizontally. 
Sepals uniform, elliptical-oyate : the petals large, subrhomboid, 
and in the broadest part nearly as broad as long. Labelhm 
connate with the produced base of the column, smaller than the 
petals, free, three-lobed, with a callosity at the base: the side- 
lobes ascending, broad, petaloid, the intermediate one trowel- 
shaped, bearing two curious incurved twisted cirrhi. Column 
semi-terete. Anther two-celled. Pollen-masses two, subglobose. 


Fitclv dfileLlith 

He eve imp 

Tab. 4298. 
RUELLIA Purdieana. 

.]//■. Purdies Buellia. 

Nat. Ord. Acauthacejs. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus, laciniis gequalibus v. subeequalibus. Corolla 
hypogyna, infundibuliformis, limbi quinquefidi sequabs laciniis patentibus obtusis. 
Stamina 4, corolla? tubo inserts, didynama, inclusa ; anther* oblongse, biloculares, 
loculis parallelis, sequalibus, muticis v. basi mucronulatis. Ovarium biloculare, 
loculis 3-4-ovulatis. Stylus simplex; stigma subulatum, dorso canabculatum, 
basi denticido auctum. Capsula oblongo- sub 4-angularis, 2-loculans, 6-8-sperma, 
loculicide 2-valvis, valvis medio septiferis. Semina retinaculis suffulta.— Herbse 
tropica et subtropical, caulescentes, piloses ; foliis oppositis ; spicis azillanbus v. 
terminalibus,foliaceo-bracteatis, bracteolis parvis v. nullis ; floribus medweribus. 

Ruellia Purdieana ; fruticosa glabriuscula, ramis subteretibus folns ovato-acumi- 
natis subundulatis sublonge petiolatis integerrimis, floribus bmis termina- 
libus braeteis 2 flores subtequantibus foUiformibus suffultis, calyce protunde 
5-fido laciniis subulatis, corolla? tubo valde elongato curvato 5-angulato 
infundibuliformi, limbo 5-lobo patente, lobis rotundatis undulatis subaequa- 
libus, antheris ultra tubum exsertis. 

A desirable Acanthaceous plant for cultivation in the stove. It 
strikes freely from cuttings, blossoming at an early period and at 
different seasons of the year,and the flowers are a foil deep crimson- 
lilac. When the Acanthacea of De Candolle's ' Prodromus sha 
have been published by Professor Nees von Esenbeck we shall 
know something of the characters for distinguishing the genera 
of this extensive and difficult family. I place the present species, 
with some confidence, in Buellia, because of its great similarity 
in habit and flowers to the Buellia bracteata of Mr. Brawn Irom 
New Holland, as figured by Endlicher in his valuable Icono- 
graphia'. Prom that, however, our present species is readily 
recognized by the different form of the corolla, and by its glabrous 
stem and leaves. . 7 , , 

Descr. A fruticose, or rather perhaps suffruttcose, plant, erect, 
1-li foot high, glabrous, branches obtusely tetragonal, nearly 
cylindrical, g?een Leaves opposite, petiolate, ovato-acummate 
penninerved, entire ■ transverse nervelets connect the principal 

may 1st, 1847. F 

nerves. Flowers terminal, apparently in pairs, and each remark- 
able for a very large pair of bracteas, resembling the leaves at 
the base, much smaller than the stem-leaves, indeed, but nearly 
as long as the flower. Calyx small, deeply cut into five subulate 
erect segments. Corolla of a fine deep crimson-lilac colour, with 
the tube much elongated, curved, gradually enlarging upwards : 
limb of five nearly equal spreading waved segments. Stamens 
four, didynamous. Anthers sagittate, white, protruding a little 
beyond the tube. Ovary oblong, seated on a fleshy base, two- 
celled. Style as long as the tube. Stigma cleft : the subulate 
segments unequal. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and Pistil. 2. Anther. 3. Ovary. 4. The same cut through 
transversely : — magnified. 


Fitei. dffLet lith. 


Tab. 4299. 
MARSDENIA maculata. 

Spotted-leaved Marsdenia. 

Nat. Ord. Asclepiadeje. — Pentandkia Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla subcampanulata, v. rotata, v. rarissime 
urceolata, 5-fida, laciniis patulis v. rarius reflexis contortis, tubo introrsum glabro, 
v. superne pilis inflexis instructo. Corona staminea 5-phylla, fob'obs gynostegio 
insertis, simplicibus, ovatis v. inferne rotundatis et in acumen v. in ligulam 
bnearem attenuatis. AntJieree membrana terminata?. Massa pollinis ovoidea?, 
processu subdilatato affixa?, erecta?. Stigma umbonatum muticum v. rostratum 
obscure bifidum. Folliculi la?ves. Semina comosa. — Suffrutices in India orientali, 
Moluccis, Nova Hollandia, rarius in America tropical, v. Antillis et in Europa 
orient, crescentes; foliis oppositis, planis; peduncubis interpetiolaribus ; floribus 
cymosis v. thyrsoideis. DC. 

Marsdenia maculata ; volubilis glabra, foliis lato-ellipticis membranaceis acutis 
(rarius obtusis) maculatis basi cordatis, petiolis ad costa? basin pulvinigeris, 
umbellis densifloris subsessilibus, sepalis ovato-ellipticis subcibatis, corolla? 
limbo ciliato, corona? staminea? foliobis ovatis cum antheris confluentibus, 
stigmate subapiculato. 

This has been long cultivated in the stove of the Royal Gardens 
of Kew, as a new Asclepiadeous plant which had been sent 
by the late Mr. Lockhart of Trinidad, and we have received 
flowering plants from Messrs. Lucombe, Pince and Co., of the 
Exeter Nursery. In 1834 living plants were again transmitted to 
the Royal Gardens, by our Collector Mr. Purdie, from the plain of 
Santa Martha, New Grenada. It seems to be a true Marsdenia, 
and is remarkable for its large foliage, spotted with pale yellow, 
somewhat like the leaves of Jucuba Japonica, but with the spots 
more regular, more equi-distant, and less confluent. It is a great 
climber, and flowers readily in June : the flowers are of a dark 
purplish or liver colour, greenish when young, and thus the 
dense umbels have a mottled appearance. Their texture is 
rather fleshy, like those of Eoya. 

Descr. A strong climbing plant, nearly glabrous in every 
part. Stems and main branches as thick as as a swan's quill. 
Leaves opposite, large, petiolate, broadly elliptical, membrana- 
ceous, acute (rarely obtuse), the base cordate, the whole surface 
may 1st, 1847. 

marked with pale yellowish spots, of various sizes, but of an 
irregular orbicular form. The costa sends off several strong 
lateral parallel and almost horizontal nerves, and these are more 
or less united by transverse nervelets. Petioles stout, varying 
in length from one to two inches, the two opposite ones connate 
at the base around the stem and branch, the apex on the upper 
side, at the setting on of the leaf, and forming the base of the costa, 
has a cushion-like tuft. Flowers rather large, numerous, collected 
into a dense hemispherical almost sessile umbel, variegated, pale 
green, and purplish-brown. Pedicels and calyx brownish with 
indistinct down. Sepals elliptical-ovate. Corolla, with the tube, 
as long as the calyx ; segments of the limb rather longer, rounded, 
ciliated. Segments of the staminal crown ovate, fleshy, not 
forming an apex distinct from the anther, but gradually passing 
into it. Stigma rather acute. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Staminal crown. 



Tab. 4300. 
CALCEOLARIA amplexicaulis. 
Clmping-leaved Calceolaria, or Slider-wort. 

Nat. Ord. Scrophularinb.<e. — Diandria Monogynia. 

Gen. CJiar. Calyx basi ovario brevissime adherens, 4-partitus, laciniis aestiva- 
tione valvatis. Corolla subperigynse tubus subnullus, limbus concavus bilobus, 
lobis integris concavis vel calceiformibus, superioTe minore infeviorem vulgo 
inflatum sestivatione ad margines angustissime obtegente. Stamina 2 lateralia, 
prope basin corolla? inserta, addito rarissime tertio postico, deficientum rudimen- 
tum nulla ; antherce biloculares v. dimidiatse. Stylus simplex, apice non incras- 
satus minute stigmatosus. Ovarium disco tenui calyci adnato impositum. Cap- 
sula ovato-conica, septicide dehiscens, valvulis bifidis marginibus inflexis colum- 
nam placentiferam nudantibus. — Herba? suffrutices, y.frutices, Austro-Americani 
vel Novo-Zelandici. Folia opposita out verticillata rarissime altema. Pedunculi 
axillares terminalesve cymoso-midtiflori ml rarius uniflori. Corolla? Jlava, alba v. 

Calceolaria amplexicaulis ; suffruticosa, ramis pilosis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis 
oblongisve acuminatis crenato-serratis utrinque piloso-lrirsutis, pamcula 
subcorymbosa, calycis pilosi laciniis acutis, corolla? labio supericre calycem 
superante inferiore magno obovato-orbiculato faucem claudente. 

Calceolaria amplexicaulis. H.B.K. Nov. Gen. Am. v. 3. p. 384. 1.171. Spreng. 
Syst. Veg. v. 1. p. 46. Benth. in Be Card. Prodr. v. 10. p. 220. Flant. 
Hartw. n. 1272. 

A handsome and ornamental Calceolaria; though, except in 
foliage, little differing from many other forms of that genus, which 
have been some time in cultivation, and on that account perhaps 
not likely to become a general favourite. It is a native of Peru 
and Colombia. Humboldt met with it upon the banks of the 
San Pedro, between Chillo and Conocoto, at an elevation of from 
seven to eight thousand feet above the level of the sea : Mr. Wm. 
Lobb at Mima, whence he forwarded seeds to Mr. Veitch of Exeter, 
where the plant from which the figure here taken was raised ; 
Professor Jameson and Hartweg send it from Quito. There 
can, I think, scarcely be a doubt of Mr. Veitch's plant being the 
same as Humboldt's ; though the figure in the ' Nova Genera 
represents the lips as more apart so as to leave an expanded 

may 1st, 1847. 

faux ; the consequence, probably, of that representation being 
made from a dried specimen. 

Descr. The lower part of the plant I have not seen: the 
stem is from a foot to a foot and a half high. The leaves 2-4 
inches long, cordato-ovate, gradually acuminated, pubescenti- 
hirsute, almost woolly beneath, the upper surface marked with 
depressed reticulated veins, the under with prominent ones. 
The peduncles are terminal, upright, and bear compound corymbs 
of flowers, but as there are other and longer peduncles from the 
axils of leaves below them (each with a pair of ovato-lanceolate 
leafy bracteas at the base of the primary divisions) they collectively 
form a rather large and very compound corymb. Calyx of four 
deep ovato-orbicular, acute, spreading, or somewhat reflexed divi- 
sions. Corolla closed, formed of two very unequal lips; the 
upper one helmet-shaped, compressed, the lower one almost the 
shape of a horse's hoof: both pale yellow, spotless. 


Rich, del et iL-Eh 

Reeve itnf 

Tab. 4301. 


Fine-leaved Ipomcea. 

Nat. Ord. ConvolvulacejE. — Pentandkia Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4206.) 

Ipomjea muricata ; radice tuberosa, caule annuo (non volubili) ffliformi ramoso, 
foliis glabris sessilibus multipartitis laciniis setaceo-filiformibus acutis, 
pedunculis filiformibus unifloris soHtariis axillaribus folio brevioribus fmcti- 
feris reflexis, sepalis ovatis mucronatis dorso muricato-tuberculatis, corolla 
subhypocrateriformi, tubo superne dilatato. 

Ipom^ea muricata. Cav. Ic. v. 5. p. 52. t. 478. /. 2. Choisy, in Be Cand. Prodr. 
v. 9. p. 353. 

IpoMjEA armata. Roem. et Sch. v. 4. p. 214. 

Convolvulus capillaceus, H.B.K. Nov. Gen. v. B.p. 97- Spreng.Syst. Veg. v. 1. 
p. 613. 

Canta tuberosa. Boon, et Sch. 1. c. p. 793 (Jid. Choisy, who also adds as syno- 
nyms — Ipomopsis tuberosa, Willd. awe? verticillata, Schlecht.; Ip. capillacea 
and Leptocallis quinata, Bon). 

A beautiful little species of Ipomaa, not very aptly named 
muricata by its first describer (for the base of the sepals alone 
are tubercled), and very inaccurately described by most authors 
in regard to its foliage. The leaves are not simple and whorled 
or fascicled, as they might appear at first sight, but multifid 
almost to the base ; and the segments are often again divided. 
It would appear, from the numerous collectors through whom I 
have received it, to be common in many parts of Mexico and Co- 
lumbia, and hence the numerous synonyms. Yet distinct as it is 
specifically, it seems little understood. Our living plants were 
raised from tubers, sent by our collector, Mr. Purdie, from open 
grassy mountains of the Nivada de Santa Martha, New Grenada. 
They flowered both at Syon and the Royal Gardens in October, 

Descr. R 00 t an oblong fusiform tuber, with a few scattered 
fibres. Stems one or more from the crown of the tuber, varying 
much in length and ramification ; sometimes erect and simple, 

may 1st, 1847. 

or more or less branched, with the longer branches spreading 
and flexuose. Leaves sessile, rarely exceeding an inch long, 
glabrous, multifid, divided to the base into five or more segments' 
which are very narrow, between filiform and subulate, acute', 
simple or again divided, more or less spreading. Peduncles very 
short, solitary from the axil of the leaves, single-flowered, with 
one or two minute leaves near the middle. Calyx of five segments 
or sepals, two shorter than the rest ; all of them ovato-mucronate, 
from their middle to the base muricated with small sharp tuber- 
cles. Corolla rather small, but of a delicate full lilac hue, inclining 
to rose : the tube gradually enlarging upwards : the limb strongly 
plaited, patent. Stamens five, included, three short and two 
long: filaments subulate, slightly glandular. Anthers oblong 
Ovary on a fleshy disc. Style filiform. Stigma capitate, two- 
lobed, granulated. Fruit a globose capsule, about the size of a 
pea, crowned with the persistent style, and surrounded at the 
base with the persistent calyx, pendent, or hanging downwards 
m consequence of the curvature of the fructiferous peduncle 

Jig. 1. Peduncle and calyx with the style and stigma. 2. Ovary and fleshy 
disc:- -magnified. 3. Capsule -.—-natural me. J J 


Tab 4302 
lielia cinnabarina. 

Cinnabar -coloured Lalia. 

Nat. Ord. OKCHiDEiE. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Sepala explanata, lanceolata, sequalia. Peiala majora, paulo diffor- 
mia, carnosa, explanata. Labellum posticum, 3-partitum, lamellatmn, circa 
colunmam convolutum. Columna aptera, carnosa, antice canaliculata. Anihera 
opercularis. Pollinia 8, caudiculis quatuor elasticis. — Herbse epiphytal, rhizomate 
pseudo-bolbophoro. Folia carnosa. Scapi terminates, pauci- vet multiflori. Flores 
speciosi, odorati. Lindl. 

L.ELIA cimabarina ; pseudo-bulbis cylindraceo-ampullaceis elongatis, foliis binis 
basi discretis oblongis subrecurvis et undidatis, scapo tenui ascendente foliis 
multo longiore 4-5-floro, sepalis petalisque oblongo-linearibus obtusis sequa- 
libus, labelli convoluti recurvi lobis lateralibus acutis intermedio ovali cns- 
pato, lineis tribus elevatis in axin. Lindl. 

L^lia cinnabarina. Bateman in Lindl. Sertum Orchidaceum, tab. 28. 

Dr. Lindley has, in the volume of the Botanical Register for 
1842 (under folio 62), grouped the fourteen species of Lmlia 
then known to him under two heads : 1, Grandiflora, including 
the well-known L. autumnalis, majalis, &c, having the petals 
distinctly larger than the sepals, all but one natives of Mexico 
and Guatemala; and 2, Parviflora;, petals the same size as the 
sepals, all being natives of Brazil. L. cinnabarina is the type 
of the second group, and what it wants in the size of the 
flowers of the first division is amply compensated, as Dr. Lindley 
justly observes, by the peculiar colour of its flowers and its 
graceful manner of growth, " rendering it one of the most orna- 
mental species we possess." 

The Orchidaceous House of the Royal Gardens, where our 
drawing was made in February, 1847, owes the possession ot 
this plant to the Messrs. Loddiges, who received it from Brazil. 
It appears to have been first introduced, however, from that 
country, by Mr. Young of Epsom, in 1836. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs clustered, elongated, subcyhndrical, but 
broadest at the base, clothed with sheathing, acute, pale-coloured, 
striated scales, and bearing at the extremity one, or generall) 

KAY 1st, 1847. 

two, linear, oblong, reflexed, acute, coriaceous leaves. Peduncle 
terminal, elongated, with a large sheathing compressed scale at 
the base, and producing at the extremity a raceme, of 5-6 mode- 
rately-sized floioers, every part of which is of an uniform reddish 
orange : Dr. Lindley calls them yellow-scarlet. The ovary is 
long, thickened upwards, and has a small lanceolate scale or 
bract at the base. The sepals and petals are uniform, patent, 
lanceolate, acute or sometimes obtuse. The lip is convolute over 
the column, oblong, three-lobed, the middle lobe large, oval, acute, 
crisped and reflexed. The centre of the lip within has three 
longitudinal elevated plates. Column short, semi-cylindrical. 
Anther-case hemispherical, placed in front of the apex. Pollen- 
masses, as in the genus, eight. 

Fig. 1. Front view of the column. 2. Interior view of the labellum :— mag- 





* A "" 





■ if M 

1 ; 

■ \ 

• » 


Tab 4303 

Beautiful Thibaudia. 

Nat. Ord. Vacciniace.e. — Decandria Monogyma. 

Gen. Char. Calyx semi-adha?rens tubuloso-urceolatus breads subcoriaceus, par- 
titionibus dentiformibus erecti? persistentibus. Corolla tubidosa, urceolata, 
5-dentata, carnosa. Stamina decern. Ydamenta brevia compressa linearia glabra, 
nunc libera, nunc monadelpha. Atithera elongata?, biloculares, basi libera?, 
medio adnata?, superne libera? furcata? id est locuii superne segregati in tubulos 
vacuos elongati, rima longitudinali dehiscentes. Discus epigynus subinteger, 
obsolete 5-dentatus, v. 5-gonus. Bacca subglobosa, subangulosa, truncata, 
calycis limbo carnoso coriaceo 5-partito coronata,5-locularis, loculis polyspermis. 
— Frutices ; caules erecti diffusique ramosissimi. Gemm&Jlorifera axillares termi- 
nalesque bracteis squamosis coriaceis subrotundis imbricatis tecta. Folia alterna 
coriacea sempervirentia, breviter petiolata, petiolis sape contortis, sapins integerrima, 
interdum denticulata v. serrata. Flores racemosi v. subitmbMati, pedicellis uni- 
fioris bibracteatis, sape cernuis, interdum secundis. Gemma? squama, bractea, 
calyces, corolla et bacca sape rubicundi coloris. Bacca? sapore grate acido donata. 
Dunal in DC. Prodr. 

Thibaudia pulclierrima ; glabemma, ramis vetustis elongatis sparse verrucosis 
floriferis, junioribus terminalibus herbaceis foliiferis, folds lato-lanceolatia 
utrinque acuminatis subserratis, floribus numerosis in umbellis sessilibus 
dependentibus unilateralibus, pedicellis superne incrassatis, alabastro fusi- 
formi 5 -gono, corolla? variegata? tubo cyUndraceo-campanulato quinquangu- 
lato ore paululum dilatato laciniis acuminatis patenti-reflexis, staminibus 
styloque subexsertis. 

Thibaudia pulcherrima. Wall. mn. 

Rarely have I been more surprised and delighted with any 
plant than with the flowering specimen of this Thibaudia (Aga- 
petes, Don), kindly sent from the Exeter Nursery by Messrs. 
Lucombe, Pince and Co. Imagine a branch four feet and a half 
long, dividing only at the top in from 4-6 rather short leafy 
ramuli : the leaves evergreen, 6-8 inches long ; the old, long, 
and woody portion of the stem throwing out, on one side (uni- 
lateral), numerous, crowded clusters, or drooping sessile umbels, 
of from twelve to twenty blossoms in each umbel, and in all 
states of progress, from the early buds, when they, as well as 
the pedicels, are scarlet variegated with pale but bright green, to 
the fully expanded corollas, an inch long, narrowly campanulate, 
of an ochraceous red, veined and chequered (something like the 
flower of Fritillaria Meleagris) with deeper and brighter lines of 
red. The inner structure of the flower, too, is very curious, the 
stamens forming a close column around the style, and the anther- 
tubes of very great length, as shown by our figure and description. 
The plant is a native of the north of India, and Dr. Wallich, on 
my showing him the blossoms and a leaf, recognized it as a 
native of the district of Khasiya, and to which he had given 

JTKl 1st, 1847. G 

the name of Th. pidcherriiua, a name it well deserves. I 
find among some of Dr. Griffith's Facci niece in my possession, 
what I believe to be the same species, also gathered at Khasiya : 
but owing to the absence of corollas some doubt must still remain. 
It is quite different from any Indian species of Thibaudia (or 
Jgapetes) yet described. " Planted against one of the walls of 
our Camellia House (which in winter is frequently within a 
degree of the freezing point) " observe Messrs. Lucombe and 
Pince, " in a border composed of peat, loam, and sand, which 
being very well drained admits of copious waterings during the 
growing or summer season, it thrives remarkably well, making 
vigorous shoots from three to four feet long in a year. The 
copious flowers appear on the two year old icood, and first began 
to develope themselves at Christmas, expanding early in April, 
and they still continue to expand, many at a time, in succession. 
It must then be considered a hardy Greenhouse plant, and I 
consider the best way to cultivate it, is to plant it out in the 
border of a Conservatory, where it will soon become a noble and 
interesting object." 

Descr. A rather lofty shrub, with long vigorous branches, 
bearing the leaves mostly at the extremity of the branches, that 
is to say, the leaves fall off as the branches are prolonged: 
branches, like every part of the plant, glabrous, pale-brown : on 
the young ones are small subulate scales (they cannot be referred 
to stipules) which, falling off, leave a tuberculated scar on the 
older branches. Leaves alternate, crowded at the extremity of 
the branches, 6-8 inches long, broadly lanceolate, nearly sessile, 
subcoriaceous, dark green, penninerved, acuminated, subserrate 
towards the point or even half way down, the under side is pale 
and more reticulated. The flowers appear from the older (not less 
than two year old) wood, from the axils of the fallen leaves, in 
xmi-hter&\ fascicles or sessile pendent umbels. Peduncles enlarged 
upwards, red. Ovary turbinate, jointed on the petiole. Calyx- 
tube short, ovato-lanceolate, appressed. Corolla, in the state of 
bud, almost fusiform, with five deep angles : when expanded 
the tube (thrice as long as the calyx) is between cylindrical and 
campanulate, five-angled ; the limb of five rather short, acumi- 
nate, reflexed segments : the colour of the corolla is pale red 
(sometimes verging to yellow-green), beautifully, both longitudi- 
nally and transversely, marked with lines of deeper red. Stamens 
ten, a little exserted. Filaments short, broad, ciliated : anther 
very long, subulate, downy, curved at the base, each cell lengthened 
out into a very slender tube, and bearing a reflexed spur at the 
back near the middle. Ovary fleshy, with ten small cells, the 
top or disc flat. Style longer than the tube of the corolla and a 
little longer than the stamens, slightly thickened upwards. Stigma 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamens and pistil. 3. Two of the stamens. 4. Pistil. 
5. Section of ovary : — all more or less magnified. 


Tab. 4304. 
vanda cristata. 

Crested Vanda. 

Nat. Ord. Orchideje. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium explanatum, patens, petalis sepalisque subsequabbus. 
Labellum saccatum vel obconico-calcaratum, cum basi columnse continuum, sub- 
trilobum ; lobo medio carnoso. Columna crassa, Libera, abbreviata, rostello 
obtuso. Antliera bilocularis. Pollinia 2, oblique biloba, caudicula lineari, 
glandula subrotunda. — Herbge epiphyta, caulescentes. Folia disticha coriacea. 
Spicae oppositifolits. Mores speciosi. IAndl. 

Vanda cristata; foliis canaliculatis recurvis apice truncatis oblique excisis 
tridentatis, racemo erecto trifloro foliis breviore, sepalis oblongis obtusis 
fornicatis, petalis angustioribus incurvis, labelli lobis lateralibus brevibus 
acutis intermedio vittato oblongo convexo apice saccato insequaliter tricorni 
cornu brevi conico. IAndl. 

Vanda cristata. Lindl. in, Wall. Cat. n. 7328. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, n. 9. Sertum 
Orchid, f. 3 infronte. Bot. Reg. 1842. t. 48. 

This has not much beauty to recommend it ; but the lip is 
large, and prettily striped and variegated with blood-colour and 
yellow upon a velvety ground : and as far as the labellum is 
concerned, Dr. Wallich was quite correct in saying " flos exqui- 
site pulchritudinis." To that liberal gentleman we owe the 
possession of the species at the Royal Gardens of Kew, where it 
blooms in the latter end of winter and early in spring, enlivening 
the stove at that season with its variegated flowers. It inhabits 
trees in Nepal, where also its flowering season is the spring. 

Descr. The stems of this, without any pseudo-bulbs, attach 
themselves to the trunks of trees by coarse fleshy fibres, and are 
clothed with leaves, which imbricate at the base and are broadly 
linear, thick, and leathery, carinated at the back even to the base, 
grooved above, abrupt and irregularly three-dentate at the apex. 
Raceme from an axil of the leaf and shorter than the foliage, of 
five or six straggling, rather large flowers. Petals and sepals 
spreading, but incurved and rather concave; the former the 
narrowest, obtuse, all of the same uniform yellow-green. Lip 
large, broadly oblong, green beneath, with a short conical spur 

June 1st, 1847. G ^ 

at the base ; on each side of the spur two lobes are formed, 
which almost meet in an incurved manner and are dark blood- 
purple within : the main lamina or middle lobe is convex, almost 
saccate about the middle (or, as it were, inflated), the apex cut 
into three conico-cylindrical points or horns : the upper surface 
is deep yellow, rich and velvety, marked with blood-purple longi- 
tudinal streaks and dots. Column short; anther-case hemispherical. 

Fig. 1. Column and anther : — magnified. 


Tab. 4305. 


Handsome Ipomma. 

Nat. Ord. Convolvulacej;. — Pentandhia Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4206.) 

Ipom^a pulchella ; herbacea glabra, foliis quinatis lobis anterioribus nunc 
integris nunc bifidis omnibus eUiptico-ovatis petiolulatis acuminatis glabris, 
pedunculis tortuosis petiolos subsequantibus 1-3-floris, pedicelbs clavatis, 
sepalis latis glabris ext. vix brevioribus acutiusculis int. obtusissiinis, corollse 
tubo inflato limbi lobis rotundatis emarginatis pUcatis. 

Ipom^a pulcbella. Rath, Nov. Sp. PI. p. 115. Wight, Ic. PI. Ind. Or. t. 156. 
Chois. in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 387. (non Don.) 

Convolvulus heptaphyllus. " Rottl. et Willd. Act. Nat. Cur. v. 4. p. 196." 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. v. 1. p. 480. ed. Wall. v. 2. p. 66. 

Convolvulus bellus. Spr. Syst. Veget. v. I. p. 590. 

A very handsome Bind-weed, which would much better de- 
serve the name of 'pulchra ' than 'pulchella '. It was sent, in 
December, 1845, from the stove of Mrs. Sherbourae, near Pres- 
cott, Lancashire, the seeds having been received by that lady 
from Ceylon. There cannot, I think, be a doubt of its being 
the pulchella of Roth and Choisy. The latter refers to Dr. 
Wight's figure, which is sufficiently characteristic, allowance 
being made for our plant being a highly cultivated one. Nor do 
I see any reason to question its being the Convolvulus heptaphyllus 
of Roxburgh, who accurately describes the twisted character of the 
peduncles ; but a copy of the drawing of Roxburgh's plant, shows 
the leaves and flowers to be even smaller than those figured by 
Wight. Choisy describes the main petiole as tuberculate and 
stipulate -. neither of which characters appears in my specimens, 
nor in Roxburgh's figure ; Dr. Wight represents a pair of small 
pentaphyllous leaves (except in size, exactly resembling those of 
the stem) at the base of the petiole. 

Descr. A climbing plant, with herbaceous angular stem, here 
and there rough with small dots. Leaves alternate, petiolate, 
digitato-quinate ; petiole shorter than the leaf and twisted or 

June 1st, 1847. 

spirally curled like the peduncle : leaflets petiolulate (petiolules 
purple) elliptical ovate, acuminate, entire, full green above, paler 
beneath, everywhere glabrous. The lower pair of leaflets is said 
sometimes to divide, so as to make the number seven. Peduncle 
axillary, single flowered, or, as may be judged by the tubercles 
on our specimens and the figures of authors, two- and even 
three-flowered, twisted, thickened upwards. Calyx of five 
closely imbricated, erect, rather fleshy sepals, nearly equal in 
height, broadly ovate or subrotundate, the outer rather acute, 
and a little shorter than the rest ; the inner very obtuse, all 
edged with purple. Corolla large, of the same dark purple 
colour without as within. The tube is rather strikingly inflated, 
immediately above the calyx, so as to be bell-shaped, as far as 
the faux : the limb is spreading, of five rounded rather waved 
emarginate lobes, much plaited between the lobes. Stamens and 
filiform style as long as the tube. Filaments woolly at the point 
of insertion in the corolla. Ovary sunk in a fleshy disc or ring. 
Stigma capitate, two-lobed. 

Fig. 1. Base of the corolla bearing the stamens. 2, Pistil and hypogynGus 
ring or disc : — magnified. 


\ *$&& 





'T 3 

Tab. 2306. 
acacia celastrifolia. 

Celastrus-leaved Acacia. 

Nat. Ord. Leguminos.e. — Polygamia Polyandria. 

Gen, Char. Mores polygami. Calyx 4-5-dentatus. Petala 4-5, nunc libera 
nunc in corollara 4-5-fidam coalita. Semina numero varia 10-100. Legumen 
continuum exsuccum bivalve. — Frutices aut arbores, Jiabitu et foliatione vaUe 

Acacia celastrifolia ; glaberrima, v. junior glauco-pruinosa, ramulis angulato- 
triquetris, phyllodiis oblique ovatis obovatisve calloso-mucronatis basi 
angustatis crasso-coriaceis marginatis infra medium glanduliferis nervo 
parum incurvo, racemis phyllodio paulo longioribus, capitulis brevissime 
pedunculatis, ovario glabro. Benth. 

Acacia celastrifolia. Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. of Bot. v. 1. p. 349. Walp. 
Repert. Bot. v. 1. p. 895. Plant. Preiss. p. 14. 

If a gracefully formed, much branching evergreen shrub, with 
rather dense and broadish, bright glaucous-green leaves {phyl- 
lodia), whose ultimate branches are literally bowed down with 
the abundance of yellow heads of highly fragrant flowers for 
nearly two months of the year, and those almost of the winter 
season, can have any claim to cultivation, then may Acacia celas- 
trifolia be confidently recommended. We raised it from Swan 
River seed, sent by Mr. Drummond, and our plant is now nearly 
six feet high ; so loaded with fragrant blossoms, that it would 
be in itself sufficient to scent the entire house. While it 
was in perfection, March, 1847, Messrs. Lucombe, Pmce and Co. 
sent us a noble specimen from their Greenhouse at the Nursery, 
Exeter. The odour a good deal resembles that of White-thorn, 
but is more delicate. Although very different it will rank near 
A. myrtifolia. 

Descr. Shrub five to six feet or more high, glabrous m every 
part, the younger shoots glaucous and angled. Phjllodia alter- 
nate, oblong, elliptical or subovate, acute, slightly tapering at the 
base, with a callous mucro at the point, margined all round, a strong 
nerve running through the centre ; on the upper margin below 
the middle is a conspicuous oval glandular depression. A few 

June 1st, 1847. 

obscure nerves branch off obliquely from the costa. At the 
bottom of the leaf the bases of the mid-rib and of the incrassated 
margins unite and form a thickened portion or short petiole, 
which is jointed upon the branch. Peduncles racemose, longer 
than the phyllodia, and articulated in their axils ; although soli- 
tary, they spring from every upper phyllodium, and form a great 
leafy panicle of the most fragrant flowers, and of a palish yellow 
colour. Capitula rather large, but each of few flowers. Stamens 
innumerable in each corolla. 

Fig . 1. Base of a leaf. 2. Flower: — magnified. 

frbch. del k hlh. 

P_ e0 ve.inip- 

Tab. 4307. 
GARDENIA malleifera. 

Clapper-bearing Gardenia. 

Nat. Ord. Rubiace^:. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cal. tubus ovatus saepe costatus, limtm tubulosus truneatus dentatus 
fissus partitusve. Corolla infundibuliformis aut hypocraterimorpha, tubo calyce 
multo longiore, limbo per sestivationem contorto patente 5-9-partito. Anthera 
5-9 lineares ad faucem subsessiles. Stigma clavatum bilobum aut bidentatum, 
lobis crassis erectis. Ovarium dissepimentis incompletis 2-5 semi-divisum, 
1-loculare. Bacca carnosa calyce coronata intus chartacea aut nucleata incom- 
plete 3-5-locularis. Semina minuta, placentis parietablbus carnosis immersa. 
Embryo albuminosus vagus. — Arbores aut frutices, inermes aut spinescentes. 
Folia opposita raro verticillata, ovalia. Flores axillares aut terminates, plerumque 
tolitarii albi, demum fuscescentes, scepius odori. Be Cand. 

Gardenia malleifera ; foliis obovato-lanceolatis acuminatis glabris in petiolum 
brevem attenuatis, floribus solitariis subterminabibus vel in axillis dichoto- 
miarum speciosis, calycis tubo fusco-pubescenti superne bbero pentagono, 
laciniis longe subulatis erectis flexuosis, corollae (albae v. ochroleuese) extu« 
pubescenti-tomentosis tubo elongato graciH fauce ampHato latissime campa- 
nulato, limbi magni laciniis ovato-rotundatis patentibus, antheris inclusis, 
stylo superne flexuoso exserto, stigmate maximo malleiformi. 

My first knowledge of this fine plant, with its large and fra- 
grant flowers (not unlike the odour of primroses), and extraordi- 
narily large and clapper-shaped stigma, so large and so heavy 
that it rests as it were on the lower side of the flower, was from 
dried specimens sent to me by Miss Turner, daughter of the then 
Governor of Sierra Leone : and I have long had what I consi- 
dered the same plant but with rather broader, thinner, and green 
leaves from Senegambia, gathered by Haudelot (n. 809). Again, 
in 1843, Mr. Whitfield gave me dried specimens which he brought 
from Sierra Leone, and the same year he enriched the stoves at 
Knowsley with living specimens. Our plant, which, as far as I 
know, is the first to have flowered in this country, is derived 
from the same source, and we gladly illustrate another fine 
species of a group of Rubiacea peculiar to tropical western Ame- 
rica. The Gardenias of that country have been little understood 
and ill-defined. In describing the truly superb G. Stanleyana 

JTTVi? 1 t"B ~l O A rt 

June 1st, 1847. 

(Tab. nostr. 4185) we had to lament the being obliged to leave it 
uncertain whether it was the same as the Rot/uua/inia longifiora 
of Salisbury or not. A tine species of Randia (or rather, perhaps, 
Gardenia, for the two genera even are by no means clearly dis- 
tinguished), R. Bowieana (Bot. Mag. t. 3409), was sent to us 
from Kew in 1815, as a plant derived from "Brazil"; but the 
accurate Mr. J. Smith, at the Royal Gardens, has long since 
found it necessary to correct that error, and has satisfied himself 
that it was one of the few plants collected by Mr. Lockhart in 
Tuckey's Voyage to the Congo. Again, a noble Randia is given 
by Mr. Salisbury in the ' Paradisus Londinensis ', t. 93, under 
the name of Randia longifiora, Salisb. (not of Lam.); this is the 
Gardenia longifiora of ' Ait. Hort. Kew ' ed. 2. v. i. p. 368 (not of 
* Fl. Peruv.') the Randia macrantJia of De Cand., and Gardenia 
macrantha, Roeni. and Sch. Yet the plant was supposed to be only 
known from the figure in the ' Paradisus.' Lastly, we have in 
the 'Bot. Register,' 1846, tab. 63, a Gardenia from Mr. Whit- 
field equally introduced by Lord Derby, dedicated to one of the 
noblest patrons of Botany, His Grace the Duke of Devonshire. 
A comparison is drawn in favour of this really fine species, as 
contrasted with our Gardenia Sianleyana given not long pre- 
viously in the Bot. Mag. above quoted : how far correctly, it 
being a mere matter of taste, the public may judge. Be that as 
it may, we cannot but express our opinion that this Gardenia De- 
voniana is identical with Randia longifiora, Salisb., of which there 
was a plant six feet high in Mr. Hibbert's collection in 1808, 
and with Randia Bowieana, which was at Kew before 1815, 
and is there still, at this moment copiously in flower (April, 
1847). The earliest specific name must of course be preferred 
for that plant. 

With regard to the present species, warned by former errors, I 
have taken the greatest pains to see if it is anywhere described; but 
no published Randia or Gardenia accords with it : indeed, it seems 
scarcely possible for any one to describe this species without 
directing attention to the stigma (for so I here denominate the 
whole upper swollen part of the style) which really looks more 
like some diseased thing than the usually delicate extremity of 
a pistil. I may observe, indeed, that I possess from the Hort. 
Society of London a fruiting specimen of a Gardenia gathered 
by Mr. G. Don, at Sierra Leone, probably the same and which 
may be that taken up in Don's edition of ' Miller's Gard. Diet'. 
under the name of G. ? longifolia : but when it is known that 
all that is said of this is, ' shrubby,' branched, unarmed ; 
leaves long, broad, lanceolate, acuminated, entire, membranous, 
petiolate ; flowers terminal, solitary, sessile ; fruit largish, 
roundish, smooth,' we may be well excused from coming to 

any conclusion about it, especially too, seeing that Mr. Don 
separates it from the ' Euclinice ' of Randia, (where he has 
placed the long-flowered Sierra Leone species) and puts it in 
Gardenia, and further remarks, " perhaps a species of Pomatium." 

Gardenia mallei/era loves heat and moisture, and planted in 
a good sized pot, with a mixture of peat and loam, makes rapid 
progress, and begins to flower when only two or three feet high. 
It would seem in its native country to form a large shrub. We 
believe at least one other large flowered Gardenia from Sierra 
Leone, brought also by Mr. Whitfield, is in our collection ; but 
has not yet flowered. 

Descr. A shrub four to six feet high, often proliferously 
branched from the axils of the leaves. Leaves opposite or ternate, 
from five and six to nine inches long, obovato-lanceolate, glabrous, 
between membranaceous and coriaceous, quite entire, dark green 
above, paler beneath, penninerved, shortly acuminated at the 
apex, the base attenuated into a short and rather broad petiole, 
brown and transversely cracked. Stipules persistent, small, triangu- 
lar, acuminate, rigid, brown. Flowers solitary, terminal, or upon 
a short scaly stalk, or very small branch between the upper pair of 
petioles, and which sometimes bears two or even three leaves 
just below the calyx. Calyx rather large, conspicuous, clothed 
with rusty down ; the tube long, five-angled, the lower half adnate 
with the germen, the upper free, and embracing the base of the 
corolla; segments long (sometimes an inch in length), longer 
than the tube, subulate, flexuose, rigid, erect. Floioer-bud club- 
shaped ; the segments of the corolla in that state lapping over 
each other laterally. Corolla a span long, white or cream- 
white,* soon, in age, changing to tawny ; the outside clothed 
with a short woolly down : the tube four inches long, as thick as 
a goose-quill, curved, thin, at the top rather suddenly expanding 
into a broad campanulate mouth : the limb of five broad ovato- 
rotundate, slightly wavy, large, spreading segments. This cam- 
panulate mouth contains the five sessile linear anthers, acute at 
both ends, placed alternately with the segments, and scarcely 
projecting beyond the base of the limb. Style filiform, longer 
than the tube, beyond the mouth singularly enlarged into a club, 
or rather clapper-shaped stigma, two and a half inches long and 
half an inch broad in the thickest part, white, solid, fleshy, 
streaked in the upper extremity longitudinally with impressions 
of the anthers, which were applied there in the state of the bud. 

* The Randia Bowieana (Gardenia macrantha, Roem. and Sch.) is figured in 
Bot. Mag. with yellowish-buff flowers : this is in consequence of the journey the 
specimen had to make from Kew to Glasgow. All those large-flowered Sierra 
Leone Gardenia soon change from a pure white, or cream-colour, to buff and 
tawny, and when dry generally become black. 

The real stigmatic surface, however, is upon this swollen part, and 
is distinguished by a cleft on each side the apex, and that cleft 
is surrounded by a yellow waxy glutinous substance, as shown 
in our figure. 

Fig. 1. Anther: — slightly magnified. 2. Pistil: — natural size. 

del kMx. 

Tab. 4308. 
BERBERIS ilicifolia. 

Holly-leaved Berberry. 

Nat. Ord. Bebbebide^e. — Hexandbia Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Sepala 6 squamis 3 extus stipata. Petala 6 intus biglandulosa. 
Stamina edentula. Bacca 2-3-spenna. Semina 2, rarius 3, ad basin laterality 
inserta, erecta, oblonga, testa Crustacea, albumine carnoso, cotyledonibus foliaceis 
ellipticis, radicula longa apice capitellata. — Ymticesf oliis primariis abortivis et in 
tpinam scepius mutatis secundariis in axillis fasciculatis. Flores in omnibus fiavi. 

Berbebis ilicifolia; erecta, spinis tripartitis, foliis obovatis acutis coriaceis 
grosse spinoso-serratis, racemis folio subbrevioribus 4-6-floris, pedicelbs 
elongatis subcorymbosis, floribus majusculis globosis aurantiacis, baccia late 
ovatis lagenaeformibus. 

Berbebis ilicifolia. Forst. Comm. v. 9. p. 28. Linn, f I. Suppl. p. 210. WilU. 
Sp. PI. v. 2. p. 228. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 107. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 
v. 2. p. 119. Hooh.fil. Fl. Antarct. v. 2. p. 230. t. 86. 

Berbebis lagenaria. Poir. Bict. v. 8. p. 619. 

Of this rare and beautiful Berberry, hitherto known only to 
the hardy adventurer on the coasts of Fuegia, beyond the Straits 
of Magalhaens, living plants were sent home by the Officers of 
the Antarctic Voyage, under Capt. Sir James Ross, to the Royal 
Gardens, with other treasures of those Antarctic regions. So much 
did they suffer during their perilous voyage, that, of the Berbens, 
only one could be successfully reared, and that has, during the 
monthof March, 184 7, produced its deep orange-coloured blossoms 
which, taken in conjunction with its bright, glossy, holly-leaved 
foliage, induced Dr. Hooker to consider it, and justly so, the hand- 
somest known species bf the genus. The wood is pale yellow 
affordinga gamboge-coloured dye. The berries are of a deep steel 
blue colour, and remarkable for their gourd-shape form. We trust 
tobe able to increase it, and to prove that the climate of Britain 
is suitable to it. Hitherto, on acccount of its variety, we have 
given it the protection of a cold frame in winter ; and in summer 
it requires to be well screened from the sun. 

Descr. It is described as forming a straggling bush in its 

june 1st, 1847. 

native country, about eight feet high. Young wood yellow-brown, 
Stems angular. Spines three-parted, each segment subulate, 
spreading, often curved. Leaves obovate, petiolate, acute, cori- 
aceous, dark shining green, especially above, paler beneath ; the 
margin coarsely and distantly serrated, and each serrature armed 
with a distinct spur. Racemes axillary, subcorymbose. Pedicels 
elongated, slender. Mowers globose ; calyx, as well as corolla, of 
a uniform full golden-yellow or orange colour. Filaments with 
the anthers bursting by two lateral valves. Ovary subglobose, 
tapering upwards into the style and that surmounted by a peltate 
stigma, depressed in the centre. The shape of the entire pistil 
is that of the bottle-gourd (lageniform). 

Fig. 1. Petal and stamen. 2. Pistil: — magnified. 

Tab. 4309. 

PUYA Altensteinii ; var. gigantea. 

Altensteins Put/a ; gigantic variety. 

Nat. Ord. BBOMELIACEiE. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perigonii liberi sexpartiti lacinice exteriores calycitue, aequales, 
subconvolutse, interiores petaloideee, inferne convolute, apice patentim renexye 
marcescendo spiraliter convolutae. Stamina 6 hypogyna ; filamenta subulata, 
anthera incumbentes, lineares, basi emarginatse. Ovarium liberum, trigonum, 
triloculare. Ovula plurima, in loculorum angulo centrali biseriata, horizontalia, 
anatropa. Stylus filiforrais ; stigmata 3, linearia, spiraliter contorta. Capsula 
cartilaginea, pyraraidato-trigona, trilocularis, loculicido-trivalvis. Semina plurima, 
compressa, hinc auguste membranaceo-marginata. — Herbse in America tropica 
et australi extratropica monticolce, caule simplici interdum subarboreo folioso, 
foliis angmtis spinosis, spick bracteatis solitariis v. panicuhtis. Lhdl. 

Puya Altemteinii ; caule brevi erecto, foliis inermibus distichis angustis longis- 
sirais arcuato-pendulis acuminatis nervosis integerrimis aridis margine 
undulatis in petiolo conduplicato-equitantia attenuatis, spica solitaria pe- 
dunculata strobiliformi, bracteis inferioribus fobaceis lanceolato-acummatis 
basi semi-amplexantibus superioribus amcene puniceis oblongo-acutis eon- 
cavis enerviis sessdibus erectis, floribus sessdibus candidis longe exsertis, 
foliolis perianthii versus apicem ochraceis, staminibus sequdongis. 

Puya Altensteinii. Link, Kl. et Otto, Ic. PL Mar. Berol. v. \.t.\. 

Pitcairnia undulatifolia. Hortulan. Hook. Pot. Mag. t. 4241. 

/3. gigantea ; 5-6-pedalis, foliis spica triplo majoribus. 

Some time ago, we received at the Royal Gardens of: Kew a 
plant, under the name of " Pitcairnia undulatifolia," which 
was published at Tab. 4241 of the present work. The same was 
afterwards sent from Berlin under the name of Puya Alten- 
steinii*-. those two plants were identical, and our figure above 
quoted represents as accurately the one as the other. In the 
spring of the present year, 1847, we were astonished by the 
splendour of a plant, liberally presented to the Gardens by 
Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., of the Exeter Nursery, of so 

* Let it be observed, too, that the figure, in Link, Klotzsch, and Otto's 
1 Icones ' above quoted, is as dwarfish as, and in every respect resembles, the 
Bot. Mag. representation of Pitcairnia undulatifolia. 

July 1st, 1847. H 

gigantic a size, with such large leaves and such a massy 
spike of flowers, with innumerable richly-coloured bracteas, that 
positively neither I nor those who first saw it with me, could 
recognize it as the Pitcairnia undulatifolia of Bot. Mag., or the 
Puya Altensteinii of the Prussian botanists. Yet a rigid com- 
parison has satisfied me that they are the same, and there 
is no reason to doubt that, whoever will give the plant plenty 
of heat, light, moisture, and pot-room, may have it growing 
in the like perfection with Messrs. Lucombe and Pince. Any 
one can now assure himself, by looking at the accompanying 
figure, that I ought not to be satisfied with representing the small 
state alone of the plant, with the observation that it is a very 
showy species, and no collection should be without it. The 
var. gigantea is truly magnificent: its flowering season has 
hitherto been February and March ; when one such specimen 
(standing as it does five feet high from the ground) gives effect 
to a large portion of a stove. 

The description, given under P. undulatifolia, tab. 4241, will 
suffice for the present species. 

lei LlU-i. 

Tab 4310 
HYPOCYRTA leucostoma. 

White-mouthed Hypocyrta. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriace2E. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx liber, profunde 5-partitus, lobis lanceolatis integerriniis. 
Corolla tubulosa, basi postice gibba, tubo antice ventricoso, limbo 5-lobo aut 5- 
dentato subsequali. Stamina 4 didynama cum quinti postici rudimento ex ima 
basi tubi. Antherae per paria cohserentes. Annulus hypogynus et glandula 
postica. Stigma bilobum aut infundibuliforme indivisum. Bacca globosa 
succosa 1-locularis, placentis 2 parietialibus bilobis. Semina oo oblonga aut 
ovata. — Fruticuli Brasilienses extend et radicantes, rarius erecti. Folia opposita 
crassiuscula. Flores axillares solitarii aut aggregati. Corolla} coccinece rosea 
alba aut ochroleucce. DC. 

Hypocyrta leucostoma ; erecta tota pubescenti-tomentosa, caule herbaceo ob- 
tuse tetragono, foliis oppositis petiolatis oblongo-lanceolatis insigniter 
rugosis crenato-sen-atis, pedicellis axillaribus aggregatis petiolum sub- 
a3quantibus, floribus nutantibus, corollee subvillosse tubo aurantiaco latera- 
liter compresso antice sursum insigniter ventricoso dorso basi gibboso, ore 
contracto, limbi albi laciniis rotundatis suba3qualibus. 

A Gesneriaceous plant, received by Mr. Purdie from New 
Grenada ; and which I think I am not incorrect in referring 
to Martius' genus Hypocyrta, the first extra-Brazilian species 
yet described. The genera of Gesneriacece may still, however, 
be said to be in a very unsettled state. It bears its pretty 
drooping axillary flowers in the moist stove in April. 

Descr. Plant about a foot high, erect, obtusely tetragonal, 
clothed in every part with a short copious but rather rigid 
covering of woolly hairs. Leaves on lateral compressed 
petioles, opposite, oblong, or subovato-lanceolate, acuminate, 
crenato-serrate, penninerved: the nerves united by closely 
interwoven reticulations, so as to give a nettle-like roughness 
to the surface (densely rugose). Petioles nearly half an inch 
long. Peduncles about the length of the petiole, axillary, erect, 
hairy, aggregated, simple, bearing each a solitary drooping 
flower. Calyx of five nearly equal, oblong, acute sepals. Corolla 
three quarters of an inch long : the tube slightly hairy, tawny 
July 1st, 1847. H ^ 

orange, laterally compressed, beneath, near the limb, very ven- 
tricose, at the base above gibbose : this gibbosity varies in our 
specimens, sometimes forming a spur; but in that particular 
corolla, on the opposite side, is a petaloid strap-shaped appendage. 
Stamens inclosed, four, didynamous, with a minute abortive 
fifth. Ovary ovate, silky, the base surrounded by an annular 
disc. Distinct glands obsolete. Style included, articulated 
upon the ovary. Stigma subinfundibuliform, oblique. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Pistil. 4. Ovary cut through 
transversely : — magnified. 


Tab. 4311. 
ECHINOCACTUS hex^drophorus. 

Hewcedron- Echinocactus. 

Nat. Ord. Cacte^e.— Icosandria Monogtnia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4190.) 

Echinocactus hexadrophorus ; globosus vertice planus saturate glaucus 
mammillarie tuberculatus tuberculis plane hexsedris in duplicem senem 
altemantibus (verticalem et spiralem), areolis immersis albido-tomentosis 
sursum elongatis, aculeis septem radiantibus insequahbus, centrah nno 
validiori et duple- longiori, omnibus teretibus subulatis stnatis. Lam. 

Echinocactus hexaadrophorus. Lemaire, Cact. Nov. Gen. et Sp. p. 27. Walp. 
Repert.Bot. v. 2. p. 322. 

This handsome Cactus has long been cultivated at Kew, under 
the name here given, and it is said by the authority for that name 
to be a native of Tampico. It is of a nearly globose form and 
remarkable for its large tubercles, which are obscurely six-sided, 
whence the specific appellation is derived. Lemaire further says 
that the direction of these tubercles is in a double series, vertical 
and spiral; the double series in our plant is not an evident 
character, though it may sometimes be discerned. Its flowering 
season is June, and the blossoms are lively and pretty. 

Descr. Entire plant subglobose or turbinate, flattened at tne 
top, divided into large six-sided depressed mammillae, the lower 
and older part compressed and brown, the rest of a glaucous tint, 
the tubercles or mammillae arrayed in spiral lines with deep 
furrows between them. The areola is indicated by a linear 
depression in the disc of the tubercle, from which the cluster 
of spines springs. The spines are from four to seven in number, 
varying in length from half an inch to nearly an inch; the 
central one is the longest and strongest : all of them are rather 
stout, of a reddish-brown, subulate, more or less spreading. 
Flowers 2—3 from the crown of the plant. Calyx gradually 
passing into the numerous delicate, spreading, closely imbricated, 

July 1st, 1847. 

linear petals, white, streaked with pink or deep rose on the 
outside, and sometimes faintly so within : their base is yellow. 
Stamens numerous, compact, full yellow. Stigma of 9 — 11 
white spreading rays. 



Tab. 4312. 
ACHIMENES cupreata. 

Copper-leaved Achimenes. 

Nat. Ord. Gesnebiace^e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus ovario adnatus, limbus 5-partitus, Iobis lanceolatis. 
Corolla tubuloso-infuncbbidiformis basi hinc sa3pe gibba, limbo piano 5-fido, 
lobis subsequalibus subrotundis. Stamina A, didynama, antheris non cohserentibus. 
Rudimentum statu, quinti corollae basi. inferne impositum. Nectarium glandu- 
losum annulare tenue. Stylus in stigma vix incrassatum obliquum aut sub- 
bilobum abeuns. Capmla semibilocularis bivalvis, placentis parietalibus sub- 
sessikbus. — Herbse Americana erecta villosce. Folia opposita aut ternato-verti- 
cittata petiolata dentata. Pedicelli unijlori axillares. Corollae coccinea aut 
purpurea. DC. 

Achimenes cupreata ; repens stolonifera undique pubescenti-hirsuta, foliis ellip- 
ticis petiolatis serratis reticulatim mgosis coloratis, pedunculis axillaribus 
solitariis petiolo longioribus uuifloris, calycis laxi profunde 5-partiti, 
laciniis subspatbulatis insequalibus, corollae tubo calycem subduplo superante 
curvato intus maculato ore fimbriato limbi patenti laciniis rotundatis planis 
ciliato-dentatis, staminibus styloque inclusis, ovario hirsuto hinc basi 

A new and highly interesting species of Achimenes, remarkable 
for the dark-copper colour on the upper side of its rather large, 
elliptical leaves (not unlike, in hue, those of the copper-coloured 
beech), purplish-rose beneath, and the rich scarlet flowers, with 
the segments of the limb, beautifully toothed and ciliated. It 
was detected by Mr. Purdie, on moist banks, near Sona, New 
Grenada, and from seeds sent by him in September, 1845, to 
the Royal Gardens, plants were reared which flowered in April, 
1847. It requires the same treatment as other species of Achi- 
menes. A shallow pan is soon filled with it owing to the 
extraordinary stoloniferous nature of the plant ; among the dark 
coppery leaves the bright flowers have a very pretty effect. 

Bescr. Boot a much-jointed rhisoma. Stems varying in 
length, creeping, branched, and stoloniferous, sending out 
radicles abundantly from the procumbent branches. A main 
branch rises erect a few inches from the ground, and this portion 
seems to bear the flowers and the largest leaves. Leaves hairy, 

July 1st, 1847. 

with rather short dense down, as is almost every part of the 
plant, elliptical and obtuse, reticulato-venose, wrinkled, serrate, 
above rather glossy and dark copper-coloured, beneath purplish- 
rose. Peduncles erect, solitary, axillary, longer than the petioles, 
single-flowered. Flower inclined almost horizontally. Calyx 
however, erect, divided to the base into five, lax, spathulate 
lobes, of which one is smaller than the rest and more spreading, 
forced back, as it were, by the gibbous base of the corolla! 
Corolla rich scarlet, hypocrateriform ; tube hairy, twice as long 
as the calyx, yellow, spotted with red within, mouth fimbriated. 
Limb oblique, of five rounded, dentato-ciliate, spreading segments. 
Stamens four, didynamous. Filaments united at the base. 
Anthers combined. Ovary hairy, with a large yellow gland 
corresponding with the spur of the corolla. Style included. 
Stigma capitate, with an oblique perforation. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Ovary and gland. 
4. Section of ditto : — magnified. 

Tab. 4313. 
ANGULOA Clowesii, var. 

Mr. Clowes' Angoloa, variety. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. CJiar. Flores subglobosi, nunquam patentes. Sepala lateralia invicem 
imbricantia, basi valde convexa, nee in cornu producta ; alteram nunc anticum 
nunc posticum, conforme, basi planum. Petala sepalo dorsali sequalia, et simiba. 
Labellum coriaceum, unguiculatum, subconvolutum, trilobum, lamina camosa 
lata plana supra medium auctum, basi quasi bilabiatum. Colunma teres, clavata, 
Hbera; cbnandrio nunc mutico, nunc lacinia acuta porrecta utrinque aucto. 
Anther a galeata, valvis membranaceis nunc in lacinulas acutas productis. 
Pollinia 4, plana, insequalia, caudicula longa lineari, et glandula acuta. — Herbae 
tee Granatenses et Peruvianae, Lycastis/«eie. DC. 

Anguloa Clowesii; pedunculo unifloro radicab laxe squamato, flore carnoso 
(resupinato, Lindl.) sepalis petalisque ovatis convexis conniventibus, labelli 
trilobi lobo medio pilose- infundibulari bilabiato tridentato, columna integra. 

Anguloa Clowesii. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1144. Misc. 29. et tab. 63. 

Var. floribus flavis, labelli lobo medio aurantiaco. 

Notwithstanding some very trifling discrepancies in structure, 
and more marked ones in the colour of the flower, I cannot 
consider this fine plant other than a var. of Anguloa Cloivesii, 
figured by Dr. Lindley in the ' Botanical Register ' above quoted. 
Our flowers have, indeed, the ordinary position of those of Orchi- 
dece generally, and are not " resupinate ", as Dr. Lindley's flower 
was, according to his acceptation of the term ; but probably 
much stress cannot be laid on that character. The plant here 
figured was sent by Mr. Purdie to the Royal Gardens of Kew, 
and bloomed in the collection at Syon (whence our figure is 
derived) under the skilful management of Mr. Carton, in May, 
1847. The blossoms are fragrant. 

Desc. Pseudo-bulbs, when old, leafless, oblong, broadest above 
the base, obscurely furrowed. Leaves several, broadly obovato- 
lanceolate, membranous, striated, arising from scarcely-formed 
pseudo-bulbs, which are surrounded by green scales or im- 
perfect leaves. Scapes single-flowered, from the base of the 
pseudo-bulbs, about twice the length of them, erect, stout, 

July 1st, 1847. 

partially clothed with sheathing green bracteas, the largest one 
embracing the ovary. Flower large, handsome, fragrant, sub- 
globose, almost entirely of an uniform yellow colour. Petals 
and sepals uniform, except that the former are smaller, broadly 
orbicular, ovate, acute, very concave. Lip rather shorter than 
the rest of the perianth, ovate, concave at the base, three-lobed, 
lateral lobes acute, yellow, glabrous, intermediate one hairy, 
orange-coloured, subdeltoid, three-toothed (middle tooth very 
large), two-lipped, upper lip subobcordate, much shorter than 
the acuminated lower one. Column large, wingless. Caudicula 
of the pollen-masses toothless in this variety. 

Pig. 1. Labellum 2. Pollen-masses : — magnified. 


Tab. 4314. 

LEUCOTHOE pulchra. 

Elegant Leucothoe. 

Nat. Ord. Etuce^e. — Decandkia Monogynia. 

Gen. Cliar. Calyx 3-lobus, lobis nee demum carnosis nee sensim auctis. 
Corolla ovata aut cylindracea, rarius ovato-campanulata, ore plus minus contracto 
5-dentato. Stamina 10 inclusa, filam. subdilatatis complanatis seepe villosis, 
antheris ovatis truncatis muticis apice biporosis. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 
simplex capitatum. Capsula depresso-globosa, 5-locul., 5-valvis, loculicido- 
dehiscens, suturis nullo modo ut in Lyonia valvaeformibus. Semina ovato- 
angulato.— Frutices elegantes Americani aut Asiatici. Folia sempervirentiaaut 
decidua, integra aut dentata. Flores albi aut rarius coccinei, dispositione varii. 

Leucothoe pulchra ; erecta glaberrima, ramis angulatis, foliis brevissime petio- 
latis elliptico-cordatis obtusis retusis mucronatis coriaceis marginatis 
siccitate pracipue reticulatis subtus nervis prominentibus, racemis folia 
longe superantibus axillaribus sobtariis pendentibus, floribus secundis, 
corollis ovato-cylindraceis, limbi dentibus parvis erectis. 

Leucothoe pulchra. De Cand. Prodr. v.l.p. 604. 

Andbomeda pulchra. Cham, et Schlecht. in Linnaa, v. 1. p. 521. et v. 8. p. 507. 
(non Arrab.) 

Aganota pulchra. Bon, Card. Diet. v. 3. ^.837- 

Received at the Royal Gardens of Kew, from Mr. Makoy of 
Liege, as a " Vaccinium " from Caraccas. It will now merge in 
the genus Leucothoe as restricted by De Candolle, and is unques- 
tionably the Andromeda {Leucothoe) pulchra of Chamisso and 
Schlechtendal, of which we have authentic specimens from Brazil, 
chiefly gathered by Sellow. L. pulchella (Androm. Cham, et 
Schlecht.) is probably not different ; and L. crassifoha and L. cre- 
nifolia are perhaps mere forms of the same species. This plant 
flowers in a cool green-house in May, and is equally handsome in 
foliage and in flower. 

Descr. A shrub, two or more feet high, glabrous in every part. 
Branches erect, many-angled, pale brown. Leaves rather closely 
placed, alternate, on very short petioles, an inch or rarely more 
long, elliptical-cordate, coriaceous, obtuse, mucronate, reticu- 
lated with small areola?, principally seen when dry, and parti- 

JULY 1st, 1847. 

cularly on the underside : the primary nerves have there frequently 
a conspicuous gland, at a little distance from the mid-rib. 
Racemes four inches or more long, consequently much longer than 
the leaves, axillary, solitary, pendent. Pedicels shorter then the 
flower, bracteolated. Flowers numerous, unilateral, pointing 
downwards. Calyx articulated upon the pedicel, fleshy at the 
base, with five short broad, acute, slightly ciliated lobes. Corolla 
between ovate and cylindrical, greenish- white, with a pale obscure 
reddish band near the middle -. mouth small, with five small erect 
teeth. Stamens ten. Filaments dilated below, hairy, with a 
double curve below the anther, which latter is ovate, muticous, 
opening by two pores, the pore or mouth two-lipped. Ovary 
globose. Style straight, included. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Stamen : — magnified. 


Tab. 4315. 
LIEBIGIA speciosa. 

Showy Liebigia. 

Nat. Ord. Cyrtandrace,e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx tubulosus 4-5-fidus lobis subasqualibus. Corolla infundi- 
buliibrmis sursum ampbata limbo insequali 5-lobo subbilabiato. Slam. 4 inclusa 
quorum 2 antherifera. Antherce biloculares cohserentes, loculis insertione sequa- 
libus. Stigma subbilamellatum. Capsula siliquaeformis elongata pseudo-4 
locularis bivalvis, septi contrarii lobis in margine revoluto seminiferis. Semina 
minuta pendula basi in alam membranaceam expansa. — Frutices Javani seu 
Moluccani, erecti aut radicardes. Folia opposita eequalia aut ineequalia serrata. 
Pedunculi elongati axillares. — Genus Didymocarpo affine, seminibus saltern basi 
membranaceo-alatis distinctissimum. DC. 

Liebigia speciosa ; elata, erecta, pubescenti-scabra, foliis oppositis inaequalibus 
ovato-ellipticis acuminatis serratis supra hirsuto-asperis, pedunculis axillaris 
bus aggregatis bifidis dicbotomisvc, floribus diandris. 

Liebigia speciosa. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 259. 

Tromsdorffia speciosa. Blume, Bijdr. p. 762. 

This is a lovely plant, well deserving the name of "speciosa ", 
and, in its genus, equally worthy to bear the name of the most 
distinguished Chemist of the present day. It was discovered in 
Java by Blume, and in the work above quoted is published as a 
new genus under the name of Tromsdorffia ; but there being 
already a genus of Martius bearing that appellation, that given 
by Endlicher is here adopted. The species was imported from 
Java through the means of that zealous collector, Mr. Thos. Lobb ; 
and we had the gratification of receiving the fine specimens here 
figured in February, 1847, from Messrs. Veitch and Son of Exeter. 

Descr. Stem herbaceous, a foot and a half to two feet high, 
terete, rough with harsh down. Leaves large, opposite, the pairs 
unequal in size, spreading, petiolate, rough with harsh down, 
and the upper side still more rough with rigid hairs ; the form 
between ovate and elliptical, acuminate, serrated, penninerved 
and reticulated. Peduncles axillary, aggregated, much shorter 
than the leaves, forked or dichotomous, the upper ones almost 
panicled or corymbose, the pedicels bracteated. Flowers drooping, 

AUGUST 1st, 1847. T 

Calyx tubular, subcylindrical, tapering at the base, the mouth 
cut into five erect, nearly equal teeth. Corolla tubular ; limb 
spreading, oblique, of five nearly equal lobes, pale yellow-white, 
with a purple tinge above near the base. Filaments four, (with 
an imperfect fifth), of which two are abortive, terminated each by a 
lax tuft of hairs : the longer ones are fertile and have also a short 
tuft of hair beneath the anthers. Ovary linear- terete, arising 
from a fleshy ring. Stigma obscurely two-lobed, depressed in 
the centre. 

Pig. 1. Stamens. 2. Pistil: — magnified. 


Tab. 4316. 

abelia floribunda. 

Copious-flowering Abelia. 

Nat. Ord. Caprifoliace^:. — Didyjjamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus oblongus, limbus 2- vel 5 -partitas foliaceus, laciniis 
oblongis. Corolla tubuloso-infundibubformis 5-loba, lobis ovatis subaequalibus. 
Stamina 4 didynama vel subsequalia. Stigma capitatum. Ovarium 3-loculare, 
loculis 2 polyspermis abortientibus, tertio monospermo fertili. Pericarpium 
1-spermum indehiscens calycis limbo foliaceo aucto coronatum. — Frutices de- 
cumbentes v. debiles glabri. Folia petiolata dentato-crenata. Pedunculi modo 
terminates indivisi. Involucrum bi-multiflorum, foliolis sex pluribusve. DC. 

Abelia Jtoribunda ; fruticosa erecta, foliis brevi-petiolatis ovatis obtusis reticu- 
laris glabris ciliatis, pedunculis subtenninabbus axillaribus 1-3-floris bi- 
bracteolatis, involucro minimo 1-5-dentato, calycis laciniis lineari-oblongis 
foliaceis ciliatis, corollis nutantibus (magnis) longe tubulosis, tubo inferne 
constricto superne dilatato intus hirsuto, limbi laciniis rotundatis subaequa- 
libus patentibus, filamentis hirsutis styloque exsertis. 

Abelia noribunda. " Decaisne, MS. in Van Houtte, Fl.der Gewachshdus. und 
Garten, v. 2. t. 4." Walpers, Repert. Bot. St/st. v. 6. p. 3. 

Vesalea noribunda and Vesalea hirta. Mart, et Galeot. Bullet, de VAcad. 
Brux. xi. No. 3. p. 31. 

From the Royal Gardens of Kew, to which it was presented 
by M. Van Houtte. It is a Greenhouse plant, and bears its 
lovely flowers during the spring months, continuing a long time 
in great beauty. The species has attracted much attention, and 
has been exhibited at the Horticultural shows with the generic 
name variously written, and sometimes corrupted into Russeha. 
Martens and Galeotti assure us, in the Bulletin above quoted, 
that it is cultivated in the Gardens of Belgium under the name 
of Fuc/mcs sp. Mexic. Vesalea, however, is the name originally 
given to it by Martens and Galeotti, in compliment to a distin- 
guished anatomist, Vesale (" in honorem celeberrimi Belgici 
Anatomici Vesalei). In constituting this new genus of Capri- 
foliacea, they notice, indeed, its affinity with Abelia of Brown, 
and Decaisne is quite correct in removing it to Abelia itself. 
All the other Abelias are Chinese or Japanese, even A. n/pestris, 

AUGUST 1st, 1847. 

Lindl. (the " Chamoo hills ", where it was found by Mr. Fortune, 
being situated in China, not the East Indies as stated by 
Walpers), with the exception of Dr. Wallich's Abelia triflora, 
which is from Kamoun in Northern India. The Mexican species 
was discovered by Galeotti in the Cordillera of Oaxaca and Vera 
Cruz (there also by Linden), on the peak of Orizaba ; elevations 
between 9—10,000 feet. 

Descr. Our Plant is between two and three feet high, 
shrubby, branched, erect, but of rather straggling growth, the 
younger branches pubescent. Leaves opposite, ovate, sometimes 
broadly so, small, obtuse, crenate, glabrous, minutely ciliated at 
the margin, much veined and reticulated, more so beneath, and 
there of a paler colour. Flowers axillary, but from the extremity 
of the branches, large, handsome, pendent. Peduncles with two 
small bracteas, short, one-, two-, or three-flowered. Ovary 
inferior, almost fusiform, flattened on one side: a transverse 
section exhibits two small (abortive?) cells, and one large 
(fertile ?) one : this ovary is inserted in a very minute irregularly- 
toothed involucre. Ca^a?-segments five, very large, linear-oblong, 
erecto-patent, foliaceous, veiny, ciliated, two generally more or 
less combined. Corolla two inches or more long, purple-red : 
the tube long, narrow at the base, gradually enlarging upwards, 
a little curved, hairy within ; limb nearly regular, of five obtuse, 
rounded lobes. Stamens four, slightly didynamous. Filaments 
a little exserted, hairy, inserted above the base of the corolla. 
Anther oblong. Style slender, filiform, exserted a little beyond 
the stamens. Stigma dilated. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Inferior ovary cut through 
transversely : — magnified. 


Tab. 4317. 
DRYANDRA carduacea ; var. angustifolia. 

Thistle-like Dryandra ; narrow-leaved variety. 

Nat. Ord. Proteace^e. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium 4-partitum v. 4-fidum. Stamina apicibus concavis 
laciniarum immersa. Squamula hypogynae 4. Ovarium triloculare, loculis 
monospermis. Folliculus ligneus : dissepimento libero, bifido. Receptaculum 
commune planum, floribus indeterminatim confertis : paleis angustis, raro nullis. 
Involucrum commune imbricatum. — Frutices plerumque humiles. Kami dum 
adsint sparsi v. umbellati. Folia sparsa, pinnatifida v. incisa, plants juvenilis 
conformia. Tnvolucra solitaria, terminalia, raro lateralia, sessilia, foliis confertis, 
interioribus quandoque nanis obvallata, hemispharica, bracteis adpressis, in qui- 
busdam apice appendiculatis. Stylus seepe perianthio vix longior. Br. 

Bryandra carduacea ; ramis pubescentibus, foliis lanceolatis remote sinuato- 
spinoso-dentatis versus basin nunc spinoso-pinnatifidis, supra glabris 
subtus niveo-tomentosis, involucri glabri (floribus triplo minoris) foliolis 
arete imbricatis erectis subulatis exterioribus latioribus nunc basin versus 
spinosis interioribus longioribus apice ciliatis, perianthiis sericeis, stylo 
basi glabro, stigmate parvo oblongo obtuso. 

Bryandra carduacea. Lindl. Swan River Bot. p. xxxiii. Meum. in PL Prehs. 

fi. angustifolia; foliis angustioribus. Tab. nostr. 4317. 

A Swan River species of Bryandra, discovered by Mr. Drum- 
mond, and reared in the Royal Gardens of Kew from seeds sent 
by that indefatigable and most successful botanist. Our living 
plants in the Proteaceous House only differ from dried ones in 
having narrower leaves. It flowers in the spring months. 

Descr. Our Plants are three feet high, erect, much branched; 
the branches terete, the young ones downy, leaves scattered, 
rather distant, sessile, lanceolate, in our variety linear-lanceolate, 
spreading and recurved, harsh and rigid, remotely sinuato- 
dentate, the teeth broad, decurrent, tipped with a sharp spine or 
mucro, and the leaf terminated by the same : the base is some- 
times entire, sometimes almost pinnatifid with rather long spinous 
teeth: the upper surface is indistinctly veined, dark green, 
glabrous, the underside clothed with compact white down Ihe 
capitula terminate short branches, and are surrounded, as it were, 

august 1st, 1847. 

by a rosule of spreading leaves. Involucre of many closely-imbri- 
cated, mostly subulate scales, the outer ones shorter and broader, 
and sometimes spinous at the margin ; the inner ones longer 
and narrower and ciliated at the tips. Florets numerous, the 
segments of the perianth linear-spathulate, clothed with yellowish 
silky hairs. Anthers sunk in the hollow of the spathulate apex. 
Style longer than the flower, tipped with a rather small cylindrical 
glabrous stigma. 

Fig. 1. Floret : — magnified. 


Tab. 4318. 


White-flowered Salvia. 

Nat. Ord. Labiate. — Decandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx bilabiatus, labio superiore integro v. tridentato, inferiore 
bilobo. Corolla bilabiata, labio superiore erecto fornicato v. falcato, inferiore 
patente trifido. Stamina fertilia 2, sub labio superiore ascendentia. Momenta 
brevissima, tubo inclusa. Anthem dimidiatse ; connectivo elongato filiformi 
incurvo, postice sfepius clavato, rarius antherse loculura alteram gerente. Stylus 
apice bifidus, lobo superiore saepius breviore. Achenia sicca. Benth. 

Salvia leucantha ; fruticosa, foliis breviter petiolatis anguste oblongo-lahceolatis 
acutis crenato-serratis supra rugosis nudiusculis subtus albo-lauatis, racemo 
elongato, verticillastris multifloris infimis remotis, calycibus subsessilibus 
ovatis pulcberrime dense violaceo-lanatis, labio superiore integro dentibusque 
labii inferioris ovatis acutis, corollis calyce duplo longioribus albis lanatis 
tubo exserto ampliato subventricoso, labiis abbreviatis superiore erecto 
integro inferioris lobis lateralibus rotundatis medio emarginato, connectivo 
postice lineari-dilatatis deflexis comiatis, stylo barbato. 

Salvia leucantha. Cavan. Ic. v. 1. p. 16. t. 24. Benth. Lab. p. 275. Sprang. 
Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 58. 

This rare and remarkable Salvia possesses in its numerous 
flowers, in the rich violet or lavender coloured tomentum of 
the calyx, and the pure white of the corollas, a beauty which 
cannot well be represented on paper. It is a native of Mexico, 
and has now been first introduced to the Greenhouse of this 
country, from a garden at Nice, by Lady Smirke, Great Stanmore, 
Middlesex ; in whose collection it flowered in June, 1847. 

Descr. Plant a foot and a half to two feet high : branches 
rather obtusely four-angled, elongated, woolly, chiefly while 
young. Leaves narrow, oblong-lanceolate, on short petioles 
acute, rugose and almost glabrous, dark green above, beneath 
clothed with greenish white woolly down. Spile or raceme very 
much elongated : the rachis clothed with violet-coloured wool. 
Pseudo-whorls rather distant below, naked or subtended by 
subulate deciduous bracteas. Floivers six to eight or more m a 
whorl, crowded, nearly sessile. Calyx ovato-cylindrical clothed 
with dense violet or lavender-coloured wool, paler and almost 

august 1st, 1847. 

white beneath ; upper lip entire •. lower, in three short, ovate 
segments. Corolla about twice the length of the calyx, white 
and woolly, tube (the exserted portion) thick, curved upwards, 
with a contraction on the underside below the mouth : limb 
bifid : lips short, upper one erect, entire, helmet-shaped, covering 
the anthers ; lower one three-lobed ; lateral lobes almost obsolete, 
rounded ; intermediate one short, emarginate. Stamens included, 
the posterior portions of the connectivum linear-dilatate, deflexed 
and connate. Below the two fertile stamens are two very minute 
abortive ones. Style included, clavate, bearded above. Stigma 
bifid ; segments subulate, unequal. 

Tig. 1. Flower. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Pistil: — magnified. 

Titdli.lel- • 


Tab 4319 

Mr. Gordon s Pentstemon. 

Nat. Ord. ScuophularinejE. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Cat. 5-partitus. Cor. ventricoso-tubulosa, limbi labio superiore 
nunc basi concavo apice bilobo, nunc usque ad basin bipartite, rarius elongato 
emarginato ; inferiore patente trifido basi intus barbato v. nudo. Stamina fer- 
tilia basi declinata, apice adscendentia ; anthera varise. Stamen quinti filamenti 
sterile subulatum, apice saepe dilatatum barbatum v. nudum, cseteris sequilongum 
vel vix dimidio brevius. Stylus apice capitato-stigmatosus. Capsula septicide 
biYalvis, valvulis integris bifidisve. Semina numerosa, immarginata, nunc ovoideo- 
triquetra incurva, nunc apice truncata angulis acutis. — Herbae America borealis, 
basi perennes v. fruticosa, ramosts, ramis fioriferis s&pius erectis simplicibus, rarius 
diffusis ramosis. Folia opposita, radicalia et infima petiolata, gradatim infioralia 
amplexicaulia decrescentia . Peduncudi dichotome pluriflori ad ramificationes 
bracteati, in paniculam sen thyrsum terminaleni basi sapius foliatum dispositi, 
rarius tmiflori subjlore oppositi bibracteolati et articulati in racemum simplicet??, 
dispositi. Corollae speciosa>, rubra violacece ccprulece albida v. rarius ochroleucrp. 

Pentstemon Gordoni ; elatus, viridis, Mis radicalibus oblongo-spathulatis pe- 
tiolatis, caulinis lato-lanceolatis sessibbus subamplexicaubbus integerrimis, 
pedunculis plurifloris axillaribus paniculam spicatam foliosam formantibus, 
sepalis parvis ovatis apicidatis imbricatis margine membranaceis, corolla? 
caerulese tubo superne ampliato, limbi bilabiati lobis inaequalibus, antheris 
filamentoque sterili hirsutis. 

For the opportunity of figuring this charming species of 
Pentstemon I am indebted to Edward Leeds, Esq., of Manchester, 
who raised it from seeds given him by Mr. Shepherd of the 
Botanic Gardens, Liverpool, and which had been collected by 
Mr. Gordon in the valley of the Platte River, on the east side of 
the Rocky Mountains. I possess native specimens from the 
same traveller, gathered in the same locality, and also from 
Mr. Geyer, collected in the " Upper Platte ", on slate hills near 
the junction of the Horse and Laramie Rivers. In many respects 
it approaches the Pentstemon speciosus, an inhabitant exclusively 
of the Oregon territory, west of the Rocky Mountains ; but that 
has much narrower leaves, a less leafy panicle, deeper coloured 
flowers, a larger calyx, and, above all, the anthers and sterile 

august 1st, 1847. 

filaments glabrous. The present species seems to be quite hardy, 
but, Mr. Leeds observes, is impatient of too much moisture, and 
it should be kept quite dry from November until February. It 
flowers in June, when the large sky-blue flowers render the plant 
a very beautiful object. 

Descr. Plant varying from 8-10 inches to a foot or a foot 
and a half high under cultivation, glabrous. Stem erect, herba- 
ceous, terete, tinged with purple. Boot-leaves spathulate, entire, 
those of the stem broadly lanceolate, sessile, subamplexicaul, 
also entire, acuminate ; the upper ones gradually becoming 
bracteas. The axils of the leaves of the upper half or more of 
the plant bear many-flowered peduncles, the whole forming a 
leafy elongated panicle. Flowers large, handsome, a rich ama- 
thystine blue. Calyx very small in proportion to the size of the 
flowers j their segments ovate, subaristato-acuminate. Tube of 
the corolla infundibuliform, ventricose above : limb two-lipped ; 
upper cut into two short, erect lobes ; lower, into three reflexed, 
deeper ones, of which the middle is the smallest and most 
reflexed. Sterile filament bearded at the apex on the upper side. 

Fig. 1. Root-leaf; and 2, lower stem and leaves: — natural size. 3. Stamens. 
4. Pistil: — magnified. 


Tab. 4320. 
tESCHYNANTHUS speciosus. 

Shoioy JEschynanthus. 

Nat. Ord. Cyrtandrace^:. — Didynamia Gymnospermia. 
Gen Char. ( Vide supra, Tab. 4236.) 

^Eschynanthus speciosus ; ramis junioribus subtetragonis, foliis oppositis v. 
ternatis supremis (floriferis) verticillatis ovato-lanceolatis camosis obsolete 
serratis acuminatis, floribus terminalibus numerosis fasciculatis puberulis, 
pedunculis erectis unifloris, calycis 5-partiti laciniis liiteari-subulatis erectis 
appressis, corolla; tubo longissimo clavato superne curvato dorso convexo 
subtus concavo-canaliculato, ore obliquo 4-lobo lobis patentibus rotundatis 
superiore bifido, fllamentis styloque exsertis. 

This, in our opinion at least, was the most charming of the 
many tine plants exhibited at the Regent's Park Garden Show 
in May 1847 and is unquestionably the most beautiful species, 
yet known to us, of a genus eminent for the rich colouring 
of its blossoms. Judging, however, from the dried specimens 
of another kind {jfisch. lonaifloriis) which has yet flowered but 
imperfectly with Messrs. Veitch and Son, we shall soon have 
the opportunity of figuring one which will yie with the pre- 
sent, if it does not exceed it, in the size of the flowers and m 
depth of colouring. To the two species in question, the charac- 
teristic given by Blume of M longifiorm is almost equally app i- 
cable : but the term " folia acuminatissima , accords better with 
the plant last mentioned than with that now before > us^ Mr. 
Thos. Lobb, from whom the seeds were received by Messrs. 
Veitch and Son, detected this plant, in Java, on Mount Asapan 
near Bantam, attached to the trunks of forest trees. It requires 
the same treatment as tropical Orchideous plants. 

Descr. Stems about two feet long, according to Mr. Lobb ; 
the lower part woody: the upper and young branches subtetra 
gonous and herbaceous. Leaves opposite or ternate, mostly 
nearly sessile, the uppermost ones beneath the flowers m a whorl 
of four to six or eight ; the form is between ovate and lanceolate, 
acuminate, the texture very fleshy, the margin obscurely serrated. 

august 1st, 1847. 

Flowers in terminal fascicles of from six to ten and even twenty, 
large, handsome, showy, slightly pubescent. Peduncle erect, 
short, single-flowered. Calyx cut to the base in five deep 
almost subulate, erect segments. Corolla between three and 
four inches long, full orange, with the extremity scarlet: the 
tube clavate, curved downward at the extremity, and there convex 
at the back, concave or canaliculate beneath (within glandular) : 
the mouth oblique, four-lobed, the lobes patent, rounded, the 
upper one bifid : each lobe bears a lunulate, black line, forming 
the boundary between the orange and red colour. Stamen and 
style exserted. Ovary linear, inserted in a fleshy gland or cup. 
Stigma transversely grooved. 

Fig. 1. Pistil: — magnified. 

Tab. 4321. 
MEDINILLA speciosa. 

Shoioi/ Medinilla. 

Nat. Ord. Melastomace^e. — Octandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus obovatus ecostatus, limbus cylindricus tubo con- 
tinuus exacte truucatus persistens. Petala 4 ovata obtusa subcoriacea. Stamina 
8 agqualia, antberis elongatis acutis uniporosis basi obtuse biauriculatis. Ova- 
rium superne truneatum. Stylus filiibrmis. Stigma punctum prurnosum. 
Capsula baccata lagenaria nempe globosa calycis tubo coronata 4-locularis. 
Semina ovoidea lsevia. — Frutex glaber. Hamuli tetragoni. Folia 3-4 verticillata ! 
pi-tiolata ovalia mucronata triplinervia integerrima. Cyrnse %-5-florce axillares, 
ped/mculo petiolum vix super ante. Flores albo-rosei. DC. 

Medinilla speciosa ; ramulis alato-tetrahedris, foliis subsessilibus verticillato- 
-(tevnis)-quaternisque raro oppositis ovali-oblongis uti'insecus attenuatis 
basive obtusis 7-9-uerviis (raro quintuplinerviis), paniculis tenninalibus 
axillaribusque nutantibus, floribus 6-10-audris. Bl. 

Medinilla speciosa. Bl. in Flora, oder Bot. Zeit. v. 14. p. 515. Walpers, 
Repert. v. 2. p. 142. 

Melastoma eximium. BL Bijdr.p. 1072. (nou Jack). 

M. speciosa. Reiuiv. in Bl. 

The genus Medinilla, remarkable for the beauty of the 
foliage, and the delicacy of the flowers, was established by 
Gaudichaud, in the Botany of Freycinet's Voyage, in honour of 
Don Jose de Medinilla y Pineda, Governor of the Marianne 
Islands, in which group the first species (M. rosea) was disco- 
vered. Blume has since increased the number of species very 
considerably, and no less than twenty five stand recorded by 
Walpers. M. speciosa, as its name would imply, is among the 
most beautiful, and perhaps exceeds them all in the fine panicle 
of delicate rose-coloured flowers, gracefully drooping from among 
the rich green and ample foliage. It is an inhabitant of Java, 
and is among the treasures of that island sent home to Messrs. 
Veitch and Son by Mr. Thos. Lobb. The noble flowering 
specimen from which our drawing is made, was exhibited at the 
Chiswick Horticultural fete in July, 1847. The species is also 
n- 836 of Mr. Cuming's specimens from the Philippine Islands. 


Descr. A shrub about tour feet and a half high in the present 
instance, erect, branched : the branches di- or tri-chotomous, tri- 
or tetragonous, the angles winged, glabrous as is the whole 
plant. Leaves in our plant rarely opposite, mostly in whorls of 
from three to four, large, handsome, nearly sessile, oval, or oval- 
oblong, often waved on the surface, usually obtuse at the base, 
acuminate at the point, quite entire, five- or seven-nerved, the 
nerves beneath and often the margin red. Where the leaves 
have fallen away a circle of harsh wiry hairs surrounds the 
stem, especially at the setting on of the branches. Panicle 
terminal, branched almost to the base, and so dense as to form 
a thrysus a span long, drooping, main peduncle and branches 
red : the secondary branches in whorls : ultimate pedicels short. 
Calyx urceolate, pale red, truncate, deepest coloured towards the 
margin. Petals four to five, ovate, acute, spreading, delicate 
rose. Stamens eight to ten : f laments subulate : anther longer 
than the filament, curved, subulate, with two blunt anterior 
horns at the base and a short spur there behind. Style filiform, 
shorter than the stamens, curved. 

Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Calyx and pistil. 3. Stamen : — magnified. 


Tab. 4322. 
GARDENIA longistyla. 

Long-styled Gardenia. 

Nat. Ord. Rubiacete. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 4185.) 

Gardenia longistyla ; inermis fruticosa, foliis ovalibus apiculatis pubescenti- 
villosis, floribus terminalibus fasciculatis, calycis pubescentis tubo cylin- 
draceo, lirabi laciniis subulatis erectis, corollas hypocrateriformis tubo lon- 
gissime exserto, stigmate magno globoso didymo. 

Randia longistyla. Be Cand. Frodr. v. 4. p. 388. 

Another beautiful Gardenia, as I consider it to be, rather 
than a Randia, from tropical western Africa: for the intro- 
duction of which our stoves are indebted to Mr. Whitfield. For 
the fine flowering specimen we are obliged to Messrs. Lucombe, 
Pince, and Co., of the Exeter Nursery,, in whose houses its 
cluster of blossoms was produced in June, 1847, for the first 
time, we believe, in this country. It is a handsome and most 
distinctly marked species, with long flowers and a style twice 
the length of the corollas, terminated by a large globose stigma. 
It requires, we need hardly say, the heat of the stove for its 
successful cultivation, and does not seem shy of flowering. 

Desce. This appears to form a large shrub, with terete, brown 
branches, the young ones downy. Leaves opposite, oval, of a 
rather soft and membranous texture, hairy on both sides (espe- 
cially beneath) and at the margin, wavy, apiculate, on rather 
short petioles. Flowers terminal, and there forming a large 
cluster or fascicle, inclining to one side. Peduncles short. Calyx 
downy : the tube adnate with the ovary, cylindrical : the limb 
of five, erect, subulate teeth. Corolla rather large, hypocrateri- 
forni: the tube about two inches or more long, cylindrical, 
green: the limb of five, oval, spreading segments, greenish 
without, white within. Anthers sessile, linear, inserted at the 
mouth of the tube. Style peculiarly long and not slender, 

SEPTEMBER 1ST, 1847. K ^ 

twice the length of the tube of the corolla. Stigma very large 
inclined, globose, didymous, the lobes striated. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil: — magnified. 


Tab. 4323. 
TROPtEOLUM speciosum. 

Showy Indian-Cress. 

Nat. Ord. Trop.eole^j. — Octandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus, lobo superiore calcarato. Petala 5 insequalia, 
3 inferiora minora aut evanida. Stamina 8 ab ipsa basi libera. Carpella 3 sub- 
erosa reniformia indehiscentia. Semina magna exalbuminosa. Embryo magnus ; 
cotyledonibus 2 rectis crassis. DC. 

Trop^eolum speciosum ; volubile, fobis subpeltatis sex-foliolatis, fobolis oblongo- 
obovatis obtusis brevi-petiolatis, subtus caule stipulisque tri- 6-partitis 
pilosiusculis, pedunculis folio 3-plo longioribus, petalis cordatis bilobis 
stipitatis calycem longe calcaratum superantibus, superioribus duplo mi- 
noribus obcordatis cuneato-attenuatis. 

Trop.eolum speciosum. Midi, et Poepp. 8p.Pl\Chil. et Peruv. v. I. p. 22. 
t. 35. Walp. Repert. Bot. v. 1. p. 466. 

This is a charming addition to our species of the handsome 
genus Tropaohm, a little known one to botanists, imported by 
Messrs. Veitch and Sons of Exeter, through the intervention of 
their excellent collector, Mr. W. Lobb. Being a native of Chiloe, 
no wonder it bears our climate through all the summer months ; 
but whether it will endure the winter in the open air in 
England remains to be ascertained. Poeppig discovered the 
species in the subandine regions of South Chili and in the 
province of Antuco. It will certainly prove equally hardy with 
and more ornamental than most of our Tropaola. In Messrs. 
Veitch's Garden at Exeter it produced its richly coloured 
blossoms in June, 1847 : the plant was soon after exhibited at 
the Chiswick Horticultural show. 

Descr. Stems many feet long, slender, twining, herbaceous, 
branched. Leaves alternate, on short wavy petioles, subpeltate, 
cut to the base into six, obovato-oblong, very obtuse leaflets, 
green, the younger ones tinged with red. Stipules small, divided 
much in the same way as the lamina of the leaf, into three to 
six, narrow, almost linear segments. Peduncles one-flowered, 
axillary, solitary, flexuose, almost cirrhose, red, twice or thrice 


as long as the petioles and leaves. Calyx of five, deep, ovato- 
acuminate segments, the three upper ones prolonged behind into 
a large and long, attenuated, curved spur. Petals five, longer 
than the calyx-segments, two upper ones small, obcordato- 
cuneate, attenuated, three lower ones more than twice as large, 
cordate, two-lobed on a longer slender claw or stipes : all rich 
vermillion red, yellowish towards the claw. Stamens eight. 

Fig. 1. Flower deprived of petals : — magnified. 

Tab. 4324. 

Sharp-angled Lisianthus. 

Nat. Ord. G-entiane^. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus v. 5-fidus, segmentis imbricatis exalatis, concavis 
v. planiusculis. Corolla infundibuliformis v. hypocraterimorpha, nuda, tubo 
supra fundum ampliato, fauce saepius cum limbo 5-partito confluentc. Stamina 
5, corollse tubo interne inserto, filamentia elongatis saspius insequalibus. Anthem 
incumbentes, rarius erectae, plerumque demum recurvae, counectivo ssepius in 
apiculum producto. Ovarium annulo basilari destitutum, valvulis introflexis 
biloculare, ovulis angulo centrali utrinque insertis. Stylus distinctus, persistens, 
stigmate bilamellato, lameUis subrotundis v. augustioribus. Capsula bivalvis 
septicide bilocularis, placeutis margini interno valvarum insertis simplicibus ▼. 
duplicibus, loculis approximatis demum sejunctis et rima interna deorsum dehis- 
centibus. Semina placentis immersa. — Herbae v. frutices Americas tropica?, 
cyma laxe dichotoma, floribus scepe pulchre coloratis. Griseb. 

LISIANTHUS (Cbelonantbus) acutangulus ; caule elato subsimplici tetragono 
angubs subulatis, foliis ovatis penninerviis basi petiolatis supenonbus 
pracipue remotis sessilibus 3-5-nerviis, panicula terminah laxa dichotoma, 
floribus secundis racemosis, pedicellis brevibus. calyce hemispliaerico 5-lobo 
lobis ovato-rotundatis obtusis, corolla; viridis late-infundibuhiormis campa- 
nulataa basi contract* inde sursum curvatae ore oblicpio 5-lobo lobis ovatis 
demum revolutis, staminibus inclusis declinatis inaequahbus, filamentis basi 
dilatatis, stylo corollas longitudine, capsula elliptica stylo acuminata calyce 
3-plo longiore. 

Lisianthus acutangulus, Ruiz, et Pav. M. Per. v. 2. p. 14. t. 122 a (excl. the 
fruit). Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. 1. p. 586. 

L.trifidus. H.B.K. Nov. Gen. Am. v. 3. p. 142. Griseb. Gent. p. 185. et in 
Be Cand. Prodr. 

L. tetragonus. Benth. Plant. Hartweg. n. 496. 

There cannot be the smallest doubt of this being the L. acu- 
tangulus of Ruiz and Pavon. The figure is excellent, save that the 
large fruit, apparently belonging to L. revolutus of the same writers 
is added gratuitously. Those authors found the L. acutangulus 
in Chinchoa of Peru, in mountain districts ; Mathews gathered it 
at Casapo (n. 209G) ; Humboldt and Bonpland in New Grenada, 
between Maraquita and Santanna; Moritz at Menda and m 
the province of Truxillo ; Purdie on the Sierra Nivada, feierra 


Nigra, and other mountains about Santa Martha ; Mr. Hartweg 
also in Colombia; Mr. Skinner in Guatemala (n. 1:240); at 
Talea in Mexico, Hartweg (n. 496). From seeds sent by Mr. 
Purdie our plants were raised in the Royal Gardens of Kew in 
a warm stove, and kept in a Greenhouse during the period of 
flowering, the summer months. The species appears to be 
biennial, and is remarkable for the unusually green hue of the 

Descr. Stem erect, two to three feet or more high, nearly 
simple, till it forms the panicle, tetragonous, the angles very 
sharp, slightly winged. Leaves rather large, opposite, ovate, 
acute, the lower ones on short petioles, penninerved, the upper- 
most ones sessile, shorter and broader, three- to five-nerved, the 
upper pair very distant from the rest. Panicle lax, dichotomous, 
its branches terete. Flowers green, in second racemes, on 
short bracteated pedicels. Calyx small, with five rather gibbous, 
ovate, obtuse segments. Corolla rather campanulate than infun- 
dibuliform, the base contracted and thence curved upwards : 
mouth oblique, limb of five ovate, acute segments, soon revolute, 
at length withering and closing over the mouth, while the rest 
of the corolla is green. Stamens and style shorter than the 
corolla. Ovary inserted on a large gland or torus. 

Kg. 1. Stamens. 2. Pistil: — magnified. 

63 Z< 5 

Tab. 4325. 

IXORA Griffithii. 

Mr. Griffith's Ixora. 

Nat. Orel. — Tetraxdiua Monogynia. 

Cat. tubus ovatus, limbus parvus, 4-dentatus. Corolla hypocraterimorpha, tubo 
gracili tereti lobis longiore, Umbo 4-partito patcnte. Anthem 4 ad faucem 
subsessiles. Stylus tubo corollae a?qualis aut paulo longior (lobis nempe corol- 
linis brevior) apice bifidus, stigmatis cruribus divergentibus aut revolutis. Bacca 
drupacea calyce persistente coronata subglobosa bdocularis. Tyrenm cbartaceffl 
intus plana? aut concavse dorso gibba? monospermy. Albumen cartilagincum. 
Embryo dorsalis erectus iucurvus, cotyl. ibliaceis, radicula longa. — Frutices inter* 
dum arbor -escentes, ex Asia, rarlus ex Africa aquinoctiali. Folia opposite. Stipulse 
basi lata apice acuta aut in aristam setaceam desiueiites. Corymb] terminates 
sapius trichotmii. Flores coccinei rosei jtamniei aut albidi sa>pefragrantes. DC. 

Ixora Griffithii; glabra, folds amplis oblongo-ovatis acuminatis basi acutis 
brevi-petiolatis reticdatim venosis, stipidis brevibus latis acuminatis, cyraa 
ftmpla densa composita, calyce parvo brevi obtuse 4-dentato, corollae tubo 
elongate gracili, limbi lobis rotundatis obtusissimis pateutibus, antbens 
lineari-subulatis horizontali-patentibus, stylo paulo exserto stigmatis ramis 

Ixora Griffithii. Hook. Herb. 

The ample foliage, the large, compact cyme of very rich yellow 
and orange-coloured flowers, with the long slender tube of the 
corolla and the almost orbicular segments, together with the 
blunt and short-toothed calyx, distinguish this from the nume- 
rous species hitherto known to us of the present genus. It is 
from the collection of Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., Exeter 
Nursery, and was by them exhibited at the Regents Park 
Garden, in July, 1847, when the first prize being awarded to it, as 
the best new plant, it could not fail to be much noticed. It was 
introduced from Singapore by the son of Mr. Low, of the Clapton 
Nursery, and has been, we believe, disposed of by him under the 
unpublished and scarcely appropriate name of I. kydrangeaformi*. 
Its present name serves to commemorate its first discoverer, the 
late Mr. Griffith ; from whom I possess specimens gathered at 
Mergui. It is a really noble species and will prove invaluable 
to our stoves, where it requires the same treatment as our tavountes 


of the genus, I. coccinea and striata : to both of which it is 
superior in the size of the inflorescence and the large leaves, 
some of which are a foot in length. 

Descr. This seems to form a large shrub in its native country, 
branched : the branches terete, rich brown. Leaves among the 
largest of the genus, oblong-ovate, acuminate, somewhat cuneate 
at the base, tapering into a short stout petiole, penninerved, 
with numerous transverse veinlets, glabrous, as is every part of 
the plant. Stipules broad, short, acute. Cyme large, broad, 
nearly flat at the top, compound, with innumerable richly coloured 
floivers, and subtended by two small leaves. Calyx very small, 
with four short, blunt teeth. Corolla hypocrateriform, at first 
orange-yellow, then red-orange : the tube long, slender, the limb 
of four rotundate, very obtuse, spreading lobes. Anthers sessile, 
inserted at the mouth of the tube, and lying horizontally between 
the lobes. Style a little longer than the tube : stigma bifid. 

Fig. 1. Flower : — magnified. 


Tab. 4326. 

ECH1N0CACTUS cinnabarinus. 

Cinnabar-flowered Echinocactus. 

Nat. Ord. Cactace^. — Icosandkia Monogynia. 
(Jen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 4124.) 

Echinocactus chmabarinus ; atro-viridis globoso-depressus centro umbili- 
catus, tuberculis spiraliter dispositis basi tetragonis dorso verticaliter pro- carinatis, areolis parvis tomentosis ad .sunimum apicem tuberculi 
sitis, aculeis rigidis mediocribus gracdi-subulatis exterioribus radiatis subuni- 
formibus, centrali erecta dimidio longiore, floribus solitariis sparsis, calycis 
viridis tubo lanato sepalis inferioribus minutis acutis superioribus spathu- 
latis, petalis numerosis cinnabarinis. 

A neat species in regard to the form and arrangement of its 
tubercles, and very striking when in flower, from the numerous 
rich cinnabar-coloured petals, which spread to a diameter of 
three inches. The species is among the many rare ones from 
Bolivia, purchased for the Royal Gardens from Mr. Bridges. It 
flowers in a cool greenhouse in July. 

Descr. Our specimens grow solitary and are globose, but 
depressed and umbilicated in the centre, six to seven inches in 
diameter and three or four inches in height. The surface is 
formed of copious dark green mamitta or tubercles, closely packed 
and arranged in spiral oblique lines ; they are four-sided at their 
base, and dilated at the back into a deep, vertical, rather 
short keel, on the top of which the areola is situated ; this areola 
is small, woolly, and bears a cluster of about' twelve, pale brown, 
narrow, subulate or acicular, but rather strong aculei : those of 
the circumference are nearly equal in length, and form a circle, 
2~f of an inch long: the central one is longer and stronger 
than the rest, all slightly curved. Flowers scattered, solitary, 
large in proportion to the size of the plants. Calyx green ; the 
tube short, woolly, the folioles, or sepals, of the lower portion, 
small, short, acute, the superior ones large, spathulate, and 
resembling the petals except in colour, and seeming gradually 
to pass into petals. Petals numerous, spathulate, obtuse, 

OCTOBER 1st, 1847. L 

spreading, of a rich cinnabar colour. Filaments red. Anthers 
yellow. Bays of the stigma (in the few flowers I have seen) 
erect and approximate. 

Fig. 1. Keel of a tubercle with, a cluster of aculei : — magnified. 



Tab. 4327. 

CHIRITA Walkers. 

Mrs. Walker s Chirita. 

Nat. Ord. Didymocarpe,i\ — Diuyn.uha Angiostek.uia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4182.) 

Chirita Walkeria ; caule suffruticoso ramoso, ramis teretibus villoso-tomentosis, 
foliis ternatim verticillatis petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis basi acutis apice 
acuminatis minute glanduloso-dentatis utrinque pubescenti-tomentosis, pe- 
dunculis axillaribus solitariis folio brevioribus 3—1-noris, lobis calycinis 
lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis tomentosis, corolla extus puberula. 

Chirita Walkerue. Gardner, in Mem. on Didymocarpea of Ceyl. p. 26. 

Mrs. General Walker detected this fine species of Chirita 
m Ceylon, in 1830, and her specimens are deposited in my 
Herbarium. It remained for Mr. Gardner, the able Director of 
the Botanic Garden, Peradenia, Ceylon, to send the seeds to us, 
m 1845, and to establish it as a new species, with a full 
and accurate character, in the work above quoted. In 1846 
our plants blossomed, and proved the species to be well worthy 
of a place in every collection, from the beauty of the flowers 
and their continuing long in perfection. Indeed there is scarcely 
a month throughout the year that it does not produce blossoms. 
With bottom heat it becomes a luxuriant plant and it must 
always be considered an inhabitant of the stove. 

Descr. Stem shrubby but succulent, stout, branched, downy, 
especially the young shoots and branches, which are herbaceous. 
Leaves ternately whorled, soft and downy on both sides, ovato- 
lanceolate, acuminate, penninerved, acute at the base, the mar- 
gins denticulate with glandular teeth. Petioles about an inch 
long, thick, succulent. Peduncles axillary, solitary, slender, 
bearing from two to three flowers, which are drooping, shorter than 
the leaf. Calyx half the length of the corolla, downy or tomen- 
tose, tube almost cylindrical, the teeth equal in length with the 
tube, linear-subulate, erect. Corolla twice as long as the calyx, 
between infundibuliform and campanulate: the tube downy, 

OCTOBER 1ST. 1847. L ~ 

pale: the limb spreading, deep purple, two-lipped, wavy, the 
upper lip two-, the lower three-lobed, the lobes subrotund: 
within the mouth, below, is a deep yellow line. Stamens five, 
of which two are perfect, their lobed an fliers cohering ; two 
other are small, imperfect, with hairy abortive anthers ; and one 
is the rudiment of a stamen. Ovary linear, inserted in a cup- 
shaped gland or torus. Style hairy. Stigma oblique. Young 
fruit narrow, siliquose, four to five inches long, curved. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Base of the corolla, seen from within. 3. Pistil 
and hypogynous cup : — magnified. 

Tab. 4328. 
JESCHYNANTHUS longiflorus. 

Long-flowered JEschynanthns. 

Nat. Ord. Cyrtandracb^. — Didynamia Angtospkhmia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4236.) 

-/Eschynanthus speciostis ; ramis pendulis subteretibus, foliis oppositis lato- 
lanceolatis acuminatissimis integerrimis, floribus ereetis numerosis termi- 
nalibus fasciculatis, pedunculis unifloris, calycis 5-partiti laciniis iineari- 
subulatis ereetis appressis, corollse tubo longissimo clavato superne curvato 
dorso convexo subtus canaliculato, ore oblique- contracto 4-lobo lobis rotun- 
datis ereetis superiore bifido, filamentis longe styloque minus exsertis. 

Eschynanthus longiflorus. Bhtme, in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 262. 

Lysionutus longiflorus. Blums, Bijdr. p. 766. 

When describing the JEschynanthus speciosus (Bot. Mag. 
t. 4320), we gave our readers reason to expect that another 
species would soon be represented, which would vie in beauty 
with that eminently" handsome plant; and we now keep our 
pledge. Closely as the two species are allied, they are unques- 
tionably distinct ; and the differences are equally apparent in the 
dried native specimens as in the living ones. Much of the 
beauty of jE. speciosus is due to the varied colour (red and 
yellow) of the corolla ; in the present, to the rich uniform puce 
of the entire flower. Here, the mouth of the corolla is much 
contracted, with the segments or lobes erect, the style scarcely 
exserted beyond the corolla, the stamens very much so:— in 
jffl. speciosus the style is very much exserted, the stamens 
scarcely so at all. Messrs. Veitch and Son, of Exeter, have 
equally the credit of introducing this as the one last mentioned, 
through their East Indian Collector, Mr. Thomas Lobb, from 
Java: it is probably derived from the locality mentioned by 
Blume, "mountain-woods, Province of Bantam." It flowered 
with Messrs. Veitch in August, 1847. 

Descr. Stem procumbent, or pendent from branches of trees, 
and said to be rooting, terete, or nearly so, the younger shoots 
green. Leaves opposite, broadly lanceolate, very acuminate, 

OCTOBER 1st, 1847. 

thick and fleshy, entire, penninerved. / terminal, generally 

upon a pendent branch, and then they iuclim- upwards and 
become erect, fascicled or subumbellate ; eight or ten flowers or 
probably more are in a fascicle. / ; short, single-flowered. 

Calyx deeply cut, almost to the base, into five linear-subulate, 
erect teeth. Corolla in general shape much resembling that of 
uE. speciosm, but of an uniform dark purple or puce colour ; the 
inside of the mouth, which is contracted, yellow and surrounded 
by a band of black : the lobes erect, upper one bifid. St a Hint* : 
filaments very much exserted, and connected in pairs by the 
oblong anthers. BtyU much shorter than the stamens, scarcely 

Tab. 4329. 
hibiscus grossulari^efolius. 

Gooseberry-leaved Hibiscus. 

Xnt.Ord. Malvaceae.— Monadeiphia Polyandrfa. 

Gen. Char. Calyx cinctus involucello ssepius polyphyllo, rarius foliolis paucis 
aut inter se coalitis. Tetala hinc non auriculata. Stigmata 5. Carpella m 
capsulam 5-locularem coalita, valvis intus medio septiferis, loculis polyspermia 
aut rarius monospermis. DC. 

Hibiscus (Bombicella) grosmlariafolks ; fruticosus erectus pilis stellatis paten- 
tibus pubescens, foliis petiolatis cordatis 3-5-lobis, lobis obovatis obtusis 
sinuato-lobatis, peduncvdis axillaribus solitariis unifloris, supra medium 
articulatis bracteatis, inyolucri monophylli 10-12-partiti laciniis lineari- 
subulatis, calycis laciniis lanceolato-acuminatis, stylo exserto, stigmate 

Hibiscus grossularisefolius. Mujuel, in Plant. Treks, p. 240. 

I cannot assert with certainty that this is the H. grossularicefolius 
of Miquel, for it does not in all respects accord with the descrip- 
tion : neither in our recent or dried specimens can it be said of 
our plant, " totus to*ce»#-stellato-tomentosus "; nor can the 
leaf-stalks or peduncles be considered " short ", nor the involucre 
8- (but 10-12-) fid; and the stigma is not capitate, but dilated 
and lobed. Still the general characteristics are so similar that 
the differences may be accounted for on the supposition that the 
able Miquel described from an imperfect dried specimen of Preiss. 
I run the risk of retaining the name, rather than load the system 
with needless synonyms. Australia does not seem eminently 
rich in species of Hibiscus ; but some of them are eminently 
beautiful ; and the present one is no exception. It was raised 
in the Royal Gardens of Kew from Swan-River seeds, sent 
by Mr. Drummond, and has this character to recommend 
it, that in the summer, if planted against a wall, it makes a 
beautiful open border plant, flowering frequently during the 
summer months. 

Descr. A shrub three to four feet high; branches terete, 
younger ones, leaves, and calyx (the latter more copiously) 

OCTOBER 1st, 1847. 

clothed with tufts of stellated patent hairs. Leaves on petioles 
nearly as long as themselves, cordate with a deep sinus at the 
base, three-, but more generally deeply five-lobed, the lobes 
obovate, obtuse or retuse and again lobed and serrated or 
toothed at the margin. Stipules subulate, deciduous. Peduncles 
longer than the leaves, terete, single-flowered, axillary, solitary, 
with a joint above the middle, and there bearing two or three 
small, subulate bracteas. Involucre cup-shaped, hemispherical, 
longitudinally ribbed, and cut into ten to twelve subulate 
teeth or segments. Calyx deeply 5 -fid, twice as long as the 
involucre ; the segments ovate, acuminate, ribbed. Corolla large 
handsome, rich blueish-purple, slightly downy in a broad line 
outside on each petal. Petals triangular, obovate, oblique; 
one angle rounded, the opposite one sharp and mucronate. 
Column of stamens elongated, free portions of the filaments 
spreading. Style longer than the tube, stigma dilated, with 
five obtuse rays. Young fruit elliptical, shorter than the calyx, 

Tab 4330. 

COLUMNEA crassifolia. 

Thick-leaved Columnea. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriace.e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx liber 5-partitus. Corolla tubulosa, rectiuscula, basi postice 
gibba, ringens, lobis superiore erecto fornicate- iiiferiore trifido patente. Stamina 
4 didynama, antheris conuexis, quinti postici rudimentum. Qlandulce 1-5 circa 
basin ovarii. Bacca 1-locularis, placentis 2 parietalibus bilobis. Semina ob- 
longa. — Frutices Americani Jlexiles erecti aut scandentes. Folia opposita brevi- 
petiolata crassiuscula subserrata, Mrsuta v. pubescentia. Peduncub axillares 
solitarii aut conferti. Corollae coccinea. DC. 

Columnea crassifolia ; caide sufrruticoso-carnoso squamuloso-punctato radicante, 
foliis brevi-petiolatis erectis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis carnosis subin- 
tegerrimis supra atro-viridibus glabris nitidis subtus flavo-rufescentibus 
pilosiusculis, floribus solitariis axillaribus, calycis glabri lobis lanceolatis 
acuminatis erectis subintegerrimis. corollis niagnis coccineis hirsutissimis. 

Columnea crassifolia. Horb&lan. 

This is the largest-flowered and most beautiful of this beautiful 
genus, of which I regret that I know nothing more concerning its 
history than that it was sent to us by Mr. Makoy of Liege, under 
the name of Columnea crassifolia ; which appellation being unex- 
ceptionable, I gladly adopt. It is probably a native of Mexico, 
and extremely different from any species hitherto described. 
It requires the heat of the stove, and is readily increased by 
cuttings, which are exceedingly tenacious of life ; a specimen, 
under pressure for the Herbarium, continuing to push a green 
shoot at the extremity two months after being gathered. 

Descr. Our plants are scarcely a foot high and the stems are 
simple, disposed to spread and to throw out fibrous roots at the 
joints, terete, fleshy, suftruticose, scurry with brown scales which 
give them a spotted appearance. Leaves four or five inches 
long, shortly petiolate, erect, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, fleshy, 
nearly entire, dark glossy green and quite glabrous above, 
beneath paler yellowish-red and very slightly hairy. Peduncles 
axillary, short, thick, single-flowered : flowers erect, very large. 
Calyx ^ nearly an inch long, brownish-green, cut almost to the 

OCTOBER 1st, 1847. 

into rive erect, lanceolate, acuminate, nearly entire segment*. 

Corolla between three and four inches long, bright scarlet, 
shaggy with long red hair; tube curved; Hmb with the upper 
lip galeate, entire, the mouth very open, the lower tip having the 
two lateral segments short and appearing rather to belong to the 
upper than to the lower lip, the intermediate segment is deflexed. 
Stamens and style shorter than the corolla. Ovary with a shallow 
hypogynous ring, enlarging at the back into a conspicuous broad 

Fig. 1. Pistil and hypogynous cup. 2. Back view of the large gland : — niacj- 

Tab. 4331. 
SIPHOCAMPYLOS glandulosa. 

Glandular Siphocampylox. 

Nat. Ord. Lobeliace.e. — Pentandbia Monogyma. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4178.) 

Sipiiocampylos glmdmkm ; ubique raolliter pubescens, cauie superne angu- 
lato herbaceo, foliis sublouge petiolatis eordato-rugosis duplicato-dentatis 
denticiilis nigro-glandulosis, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis folio brevioribus 
unifloris infra medium bibraetcatis, calycis tubo turbinato 10-sulcato, limbi 
lobis lanceolatis patentibus marginibus reflexis profunde glanduloso-serratis, 
ooroftsB (rosea?) nutantis curvatis tubo eompresso 5-clavato lineis 5 elevatis 
limbi laeiuiis 5 oblongo-ovatis orerto-patentibus subaequalibus, staminibus 
styloque iiirlusi?;. 

A handsome species of Pohl's genus Siphocampylos, from 
Bogota, of which seeds were sent to'Syon and to the Royal 
Gardens of Kew, by Mr. Purdie, in 1845. Our drawing was 
taken from a fine flowering specimen in the Greenhouse of His 
Grace the late Duke of Northumberland. It grows freely and 
flowers abundantly during the summer months. 

Descr. Stems herbaceous, yet apparently perennial, erect, 
two to three feet high, clothed with soft short down, as is every 
part of the plant. Leaves alternate, large, cordate, petiolate, 
wrinkled, deeply and doubly dentate, the teeth all terminated by 
black glands. Petioles an inch or more long, slender. Pedun- 
cles axillary, solitary, single-flowered, shorter than the leaf, 
downy or almost tomentose like the calyx. Calyx of five somewhat 
leafy, spreading, lanceolate segments, the margins reflexed, deeply 
glanduloso-serrate, tube turbinate, sulcate ; limb of five almost 
equal, spreading, glanduloso-serrate segments. Corolla rose 
colour, downy, two or two and a half inches long, clavate, 
laterally compressed, contracted below the insertion of the 
stamens, and again dilated at the very base ; limb of five nearly 
equal segments, of which the upper lip consists of two slightly 
incurved, the lower of three very slightly spreading segments, 
all ovato-lanceolate. Stamens scarcely protruded, inserted below 

OCTOBER 1st, 1847. 

the middle of the corolla. Anthers lead-colour, united into a 
tube, all hairy at the point and ciliated at their margins. Stigma 
of two nearly orbicular, spreading lips, downy within, the margins 

IA. etlitk 

Tab. 4332. 
isopogon sphjerocephalus. 

Mound-headed Isopogon. 

Nat. Ord. Proteace^e. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium quadrifidum, tubo gracili diutius persistente. Squama; 
nulla? bypogynse. Stylus totus deciduus. Stigma fusiforme v. cybndraceum. 
Nux sessilis, ventricosa, undique comosa. — Frutices rigidi. Folia glabra, plana 
v.Jiliformia, divisa v. integerrima. Capitula terminalia, raro axillaria. Flores 
modo densissime imbricati, strobilo globoso ; modo fastigiati, receptaculo communi 
planiusculo subinvolucrato, paleis deciduis congestis. Br. 

Isopogon spkeerocephalm ; ramis patenti-pilosis tomentosisquej foliis lineari- 
lanceolatis mucronulatis nervosis puberulis scabriusculis, strobibs termina- 
libus (rarius et axillaribus) sessibbus subglobosis, squamis ovatis acumi- 
natis villosis, calycis tubo glabro lobis crispato-villosis, stigmate articulato, 
articulo inferiore breviore turbinato stuposo superiore subulato glabro apice 
subdilatato excavato. Nees. 

Isopogon sphserocephalus. Lindl. Swan Jtiv. Bot. p. xxiv. «.163. Nees in Blunt. 
Preis. p. 508. 

A free growing Greenhouse shrub, of which the seeds, from 
the Swan River, sent by Mr. James Drummond, were reared in 
the Royal Gardens of Kew. It there flowers in the spring 
months, and attains a height of three to four feet. 

Descr. A woody shrub, with stout, terete branches, the 
younger ones downy and clothed with rather long spreading 
hairs. Leaves scattered, three to four inches long, broad, linear 
or linear-lanceolate, broadest above the middle, obtuse, mucro- 
nate, sessile, downy or rather silky, especially at the margins, 
which are hence ciliated : the texture is harsh, rigid, rather dull 
green, with a costa and oblique parallel nerves, everywhere 
quite entire. Heads of flowers terminal, solitary or more fre- 
quently clustered, and then the lower heads are subtended by a 
leaf. Bracteas ovate, acute, concave, shaggy with hair. Flowers 
dense, yellow. Tube of the perianth slender, villous at the base, 
the rest glabrous : lacinice spathulate, soon reflexed, externally 
very villous. Stamens lodged one in the hollow of each segment 

OCTOBER 1st, 1817. 

of the perianth. Style longer than the tube of the perianth, 
slender, glabrous. Stigma large, jointed ; lower joint globose, 
villous, upper joint subulate, glabrous. 

Fisr. 1. Flower-bud and 

2. Expanded flower : — magnified. 

frb dYnf b'tftsgoi 


Tab. 4333. 

EUCALYPTUS macrocarpa. 

Large-fruit rrf Eucalyptus, or Gum-Tree. 

Nat. Ord. Myrtace.e. — Icosandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cahjch tubus persistens obovatus aut globosus cupulfeformis, 
lindjits operculiformis integer basi circumscisse et regulariter dehiscens deciduus. 
Petala nulla. Stamina : JUamenia numerosa libera. Capsjda 4-locularis aut 
abortiv. 3-locidaris apice dehiscens polysperma. — Arbores (Novae Hollandise) 
excelste. Folia intrgerrima cor'wcea soepins alterna, rarius opposita. interdum in 
i'mtr,,/ 'ntdiridiiis varia, paucis exceptis glaberrima. Pedunculi axillares breves 
umbellam S—lb-jloram gerentes. Operculum in noniiulUs, ex cl. Brown, duplex, 
exterius calgcinuni, iiderius coroUinum. DC. 

Eucalyptus macrocarpa ; tota pulverulcnto-glauca, foliis oppositis elliptico- 
cordatis eoriaeeis acuminulatis, pedunculis axillaribus solltariis brevissimis 
onifloris, calvcis magni crassissimi opcrcido couico-liemisphserico acuminato, 
capsula maxima dcprcsso-bemispha*rica marginata lignosa 4-5-valvi. 

Eucalyptus macrocarpa. Hook. Ic PL v. 5. tab. 405, 406, 407. Lehm. PL 
Preiss. p. 132. 

It is truly said in the 'Icones Plantarum ' above quoted, 
that "one of the finest among the many fine plants lately 
sent by Mr. Jas. Drummond from the Swan River Colony, is the 
present new species of Eucalyptus!' That was spoken of the 
dried specimen : with still greater truth does the remark apply 
to the living individual. Our specimen is about five feet high ; 
and the large and copious foliage, covered everywhere with 
glaucous white powder, and the bright red flowers nestled among 
the leaves, form a very striking object. The colour of the flowers 
is due to the stamens alone ; for petals (as in the genus) there 
are none, and the calyx falls off like the lid of a box. Drum- 
mond found it at " Guangan," an open sandy desert, commencing 
about eighty miles E.S.E of Freemantle and continuing for two 
hundred miles. This barren country is bordered by a consi- 
derable forest, consisting principally of two species of Eucalyptus, 
called by the aborigines "Urac" and "Morral": the latter is 
the plant now before°us. The seed was raised at Kew in 1842, 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1847. M 

and our plant, when five feet high, in the summer of 1847, 
blossomed in great perfection. 

Descr. A. shrub, everywhere covered with a glaucous-white, 
pulverulent substance; young branches four-sided. Leaves 
numerous, opposite, large, three to four inches long, elliptical- 
ovate or cordate, sessile and half embracing the stem, coriaceous, 
acuminulate, margined, penninerved, the nerves very patent, 
rather crowded, parallel. Flowers axillary, solitary, nearly sessile. 
Calyx-tube subhemispherical, but tapering : the free portion 
united into a hemispherical acuminate lid, which separates trans- 
versely from the very thick tube. Stamens exceedingly numerous. 
Filaments long, subulate, rich deep red ; the central ones spread- 
ing. . Anthers yellow. Style subulate. Fruit (see Ic. PI. f. 407) 
very large, orbicular, a depressed hemisphere, very woody, 
opening in the middle by four to five valves. 

Mg. 1. Calyx-tube adherent with the ovary. 2. Operculum : — natural size. 

Tab. 4334. 

Club-stalked Malachadenia. 

Nat. Ord. OrchidejE. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Flos resupinatus. Sepala lateralia connata, apice reflexa libera, 
galeam formantia; dorsale cordatum acuminatum. Petala minima, scmamse- 
formia, rotundata. Labellum camosum, margine revolutum, basi mucronatum, 
cum pede elongato columnse sepalis lateralibus galeatis adnatse articulatum. 
Columna antice bicirrhosa, basi longe producta, stigmate lineari-oblongo. An- 
them bilocularis decidua. Pollinia 2, cereacea, sessilis, glandula molli, cubica, 
nuda. — Herba repens, pseudo-bulbis monophyllis, scapo radicali, floribus carnosis 
galeatis. Lindl. 

Malachadenia clavata. 

Malachadenia clavata. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1839. Misc. p. 67. w.110. 

A Rio plant, in the collection of Mr.Bateman, where it bloomed 
first in 1839, (when Dr. Lindley described it as a new genus, 
Malachadenia, from the soft nature of the gland of the pollen- 
masses), and again in 1847, when we received from that gentle- 
man the flowering specimen here represented. The author speaks 
of its place among Vandea as doubtful; but to me the plant 
appears, both in habit and structure of the flowers, so close to 
Bolbophyllum, that I do not see how it can be separated. The 
locality given would seem to militate against such an opinion, 
Bolbophyllum having for a long time been considered peculiar to 
the Old World but Bolbophyllum recurvum is now announced 
by Dr. Lindley (in Bot. Reg. 1844, Miscel. p. 72) as a native of 
South America as well as of Sierra Leone. Be that as it may, 
the^plant is a very singular one, though it has little beauty to 
recommend it, and Mr. Bateman remarks, "it is the only epi- 
phytal Orchideous plant I know which emits a positive stench, 
and that too at all hours by night and day. In the stove it 
resembles the foulest carrion." It was first imported by Mr. 
Hooper of Lambeth. 

Descr. Bhizoma creeping, bulbiferous. Pseudo-bulbs oblong- 
ovate, solitary, curved, clothed with a membranous sheath, and 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1847. M 

terminated by a solitary, oblong, acute, veinless, coriaceo-carnose 
leaf. Scape radical, slender, twice as long as the leaves, articu- 
lated, sheathed at the joints, thickened upwards among the 
flowers (whence the specific name). Flowers five or six, spicate, 
green, richly spotted with brown, resupinate. Bracteas shorter 
than the flower. Sepals erecto-patent, very concave, acuminate, 
dorsal one the largest. Petals very minute, squamiform. Lip 
articulated on the produced base of the column, upper half ovate, 
reflexed. Column with two projecting cirrhi. Pollen-masses 
two, yellow, sessile on a soft gland. 

Fig. 1. Flower deprived of the sepals. 2 and 3. Pollen-masses : — magnified. 

Tab. 4335. 
TRITONIA aurea. 

Golden Tritonia. 

Nat. Ord. Iride^e. — Triandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Rerianthium corollinum superum subcampanulatum v. tubulosum, 
limbo sex-fido regulari v. subbilabiato, laciniis basi callosis. Stamina 3, infra 
faucem perigonii inserta, aubsecunda: Jilamenta filiformia: anthera versatiles. 
Ovarium ovatum, teretiusculum, triloculare. Ovula plurima, in loculorum an- 
gulo centrali biseriata. Stylus filiformia. Stigmata 3, ligularia, angusta, com- 
plicata, Integra v. breviter bifida. Capsula coriacea, subclavata, trigibba, tri- 
locularis, loculicido-trivalvis. Semina plurima subglobosa. — Herbfe Capenses-, 
rhizomate bulboso-tuberoso, foliis eollateralibus exsertis, cavlejunceo, tereti, grocili, 
simplici v. ramoso, floribus spicatis, scepius resupinatis. Endl. (sub Monbretiam.) 

Tritonia aurea ; seapo ancipiti-compreaao bialato Moso apice paniculato, folus 
panicula brevioribua lineari-ensiformibus coatatis striatia, bracteia apathiaque 
integerrimis aubherbaceis, perianthii toti aureo-crocei tubo limbo patentisaimo 
aubajquali paulo breviore laciniis oblongo-ovatis, staminibus lacmiarum 
longitudine, capaula subglobosa abortu trisperma. 

Tritonia aurea. Pappe, MS. in Hook. Herb, cum ic. et descr. 

I am indebted to Dr. Pappe, of Cape Town, for an excellent 
drawing by Mr. Villett, and dried specimens, obtained also by 
Mr. Villett, from the district of George, Cape of Good Hope, of 
this new species of Tritonia. Of all the genus this is the most 
beautiful, and, happily, it has been introduced to our gardens 
probably from the same source (Mr. Villett) by our friend Mr 
James Backhouse, of the Nursery, York. It seems easy ot 
cultivation and a profuse flowerer, remaining a long time in great 
beauty. A bed of it would be a far more striking object than 
the gaudy Gladiolus psitf acinus ; for the colour of the blossom 
is much more brilliant, and for such a purpose it will prove a 
great acquisition. , . •,- 

Descr. Bulb rather large, subglobose, striated, brown, sending 
out offsets from clefts in the sides. Scape a foot and a halt to 
two feet high, leafy below, naked or only bracteated, and 
panicled above, compressed, two-winged. Leaves distichous, 
long, but shorter than the scapq, narrow, linear, ensilorm, 

NOVEMBER 1st, 1847. 

striated, but with a distinct central costa. Flowers sessile on 
the panicle. Spatlia two-leaved ; leaflets ovate, acute, almost 
mucronate, not scariose but subherbaceous, and more or less 
coloured. Perianth rich orange-red ; tube about three quarters 
of an inch long, narrow, curved ; limb very patent, subirregular, 
the segments oblong-obovate. Stamens and style much exserted 
and nearly equal in length, a little curved. Anthers linear, 
yellow. Stigmas thickened at the apex. Capsule subglobose, 
longer than the persistent spatha, three-lobed, three-celled : most 
of the seeds abortive, one generally ripening in each cell, globose, 

Fig. 1. Capsule. 2. The same laid open. 

'itdhj cic 

Tab. 4,336. 

Javanese Rhododendron. 

Nat. Ord. Ericaceae. — Decandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cat. 5-partitus. Cor. infundibuuformis rarius campanulata aut 
rotata, nunc regularis nunc plus minus irregularis semper 5-loba. Stam. 10 
(rarius abortiv. 5-9) corollae non adnata ante et inter lobos sita, ssepius declinata, 
exserta. Antherce poris 2 terminalibus dehiscentes. Capsula 5-locularis, 5- 
valvis, aut 10-locul. 10-valvis, septicido-dehiscens. Semina axi columnari angu- 
lato adnata, compresso-scobiformia subulata. — Frutices rarius arbores. Folia 
sempervirentia petiolata integerrhaa. Flores in corymbos terminates dispositi. 
Alabastra fioratia squamosa. Corolla? conspicua? alia autjtavce. DC. 

Rhododendron Javanicum ; foliis ovalibus obovatisque subcoriaceis acutis basi 
attenuatis supra nudis subtus minute punctato-squamulosis, pedunculis 
glabris, ealyce obsoleto, corolla infundibuliformi-campanulata, limbi laciniis 
obovato-rotundatis, ovario 5-loculari. 

Rhododendron Javanicum. Bennett, in PI. Jav. Ear. p. 85. t. 29. Be Card. 
Brodr. v. l.p. 721. 

Vireya Javanica. Blume, Bijdr. p. 854. 

On communicating this splendid plant to me for figuring in 
the Botanical Magazine, Messrs. Veitch and Sons, its possessors, 
remark that " it is certainly one of the finest things ever intro- 
duced to our gardens ". And in this opinion we think all will 
agree who see the present representation, and more especially 
those who have the privilege of beholding, as we now do, the 
plant itself with its beautiful, glossy, bright green foliage and 
orange-coloured flowers (twelve on a bunch), here and there 
marked with red spots, and again spotted, as it were, with the 
dark black-purple coloured anthers, which lie generally five on 
each side towards the lower side of the mouth of the corolla. 
On a plant which previously flowered (equally sent from Java 
by Mr. Thos. Lobb), Mr. Veitch observes the flowers to be deeper 
coloured: again, Professor Blume mentions a citron-coloured 
variety, with smaller flowers. It is, as its name implies, an 
inhabitant of Java. Blume discovered it on the mountain 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1847. 

Salak ; Dr. Horsfield, " on the volcanic range extending through 
Java, in dense forests, at an elevation of 4,000 feet above the 
level of the sea," Hence we are not surprised to learn from 
Mr. Veitch that it succeeds well under the mere shelter of a 
Greenhouse, where, that able cultivator thinks, it may probably 
be brought to blossom all the year round. 

Descr. A moderate sized shrub, with spreading branches. 
Leaves scattered, subcoriaceous, oblong-oval, or approaching to 
obovate, acute, tapering into a short petiole, naked above, beneath 
minutely dotted with very small brown peltate scales. Flowers 
fascicled, eight to ten or twelve or more, large, handsome, termi- 
nal. Peduncle glabrous, but squamulose, single-flowered. Calyx 
very small, five-lobed. Corolla large, showy, orange-coloured, 
(though not bright), with scattered red spots, between infundibuli- 
form and campanulate : the tube gradually widening upwards 
into a five-lobed, nearly equal limb : segments broadly obovate, 
rotundate, obtuse, spreading, or a little revolute. Stamens ten, 
slightly ascendent ; five on one side the style, lying against the 
corolla, five on the other side. Anthers dark purple, almost black, 
two-pored at the apex, from which pore the white pollen falls 
out in cohering masses. Ovary oblong, five-lobed. Stigma 
peltate, with five points (the margin looking less like an indu- 
sium than in the figure of Dr. Horsfield). Style about as long as 
the stamens. 

Fig. 1. Under side of a portion of the leaf, natural size, showing the squamu- 
lose dots. 2. Portion of the same: — magnified. 3. A scale: — more highly 
■magnified. 4. Pistil : — magnified. 

Tab. 4337. 
TROPjEOLUM umbellatum. 
Umbellate Tropaolum, or Indian Cress. 


Gen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 4097.) 

Tropjeolum umbellatum ; glabrum, scandens, foliis subpeltatis cordato-quinque- 
lobis, floribus umbellatis, calyce cylindraceo calcare obtuso subcurvato lon- 
giore, petalia spathulatis rectis acutis, 3 calycem superantibus, 2 minimis 

One of the most remarkable of all the Tropteola, which have 
been characterized as bearing one-flowered peduncles ; here the 
flowers are umbellate, of a rich orange-red colour, tinged with 
green, and so copious as quite to overpower the foliage. For its 
first discovery the merit is due to Professor Jameson of Quito, 
who gathered it on Pilzhum, a mountain to which, he observes, 
it is quite peculiar, at an elevation of 7,000 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

To Messrs. Veitch and Sons we owe its introduction to our 
gardens, through their collector Mr. W. Lobb, who probably 
collected it on the same spot as that above mentioned, and from 
the nature of its locality their can be little doubt it will prove 
to be among the most hardy of the genus. It flowered in 
Messrs. Veitch's Nursery during the summer months of 1847. 

Descr. Root (according to Professor Jameson) a tuber of three 
or four pounds weight. Stem climbing, terete, slender, fleshy, 
purple, zigzag. Leaves remote, on long flexuose petioles, sub- 
peltate, cordate, deeply five-lobed, the lobes ovate, obtuse, 
nmcronate while young. Peduncles axillary, about as long as 
the petiole, bearing an umbel of five to six or more flowers, and 
small subulate bracts at the base of the peduncle and pedicels. 
Calyx orange-red, tipped with green at both extremities, most 
so when young, cylindrical, the limb erect, unequally five-lobed, 
the base extended into a curved blunt spur which is shorter than 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1847. 

the calyx. Petals extremely unequal, spathulate, acute, ungui- 
culate, erect (not spreading) ; three of them red, a little longer 
than the calyx ; the two others orange, very minute, squamiform. 
Stamens as long as the petals. Ovary globose, three-lobed. Style 
thick, shorter than the stamens : stigma trifid. 

Kg. 1. Flower with the calyx removed from the spur. 2. Pistil : — magnified. 

lei. etlitk. 


Tab. 4a38. 
CHiENESTES lanceolata. 

Lanceolate-leaved Clusneste-s. 

Nat. Ord. Solane^e. — Pentandrta Monogynia. 

Gen. Cliar. Calyx tubulosus, inaequaliter obtuse 5-dentatus, subbilobus, demum 
parum auetus, lateraliter fissus persistens. Corolla hypogyna, infundibuliformi- 
tubulosa, subincurvata, lobis 5 acutis, margine floccosis, sestivatione valvato- 
induph'catis, basi plicatis, dentibus brevibus interjectis. Stamina 5 subinclusa, 
filamentis basi adnatis, mox libera, gracilibue, erectis vix exsertis; antheris 
oblongis, basi iixis. Ovarium ovatum, 2-loculare ; stylus gracdis, apice incrassatus, 
exsertus. Stigma clavato-bilobum. Bacca obovata, calyce bine fisso inclusa. 
Semina numerosa, in pulpo nidulantia, rugosa, reniformia. — Frutices Andicoli 
America? intertropical. Folia at 'tenia, petiolata. Flores sjoeciosi coccinei n. auran- 
tiaci (v.purpureo-cyanei). Bacca rubra. Miers. 

Ch^enestes lanceolata ; fruticosa, ranndis cano- v. subferrugineo-floccosis, fobis 
lanceolatis acmninatis supra parce pubescentibus infra pallidioribus floccoso- 
toinentosis, petiolo canaliculato tonientoso, umbellis brevibus multirloris, 
calyce urceolato 5-dentato mollissime pubescente pilis floccosis, corolla sub- 
curvata (j)urpureo-cyanea) parce puberula loborum marginibus floccosis, 
antheris lineari-oblongis subinclusis. Mien. 

Ch^enestes lanceolata. Miers, m Hook. Loud. Joum. Bot. v. 4. p. 338. 

The seeds of a fine flowering specimen of this were sent by 
Mr. Purdie from the mountains of Quindiu, marked " a very 
beautiful shrub "; and so it has proved. The young plants 
grew rapidly and were planted out against a wall in the Royal 
Gardens, in the summer of 1847, where they blossomed and 
continued to produce their umbels of rich deep-blue flowers till 
the cold of autumn injured them. These flowers, in colour and 
general appearance, bear considerable affinity with lockroma 
fubulosa, Benth. (Bot. Reg. 1845. t.20, — Habrothamnus cyanem, 
Lindl. 1. c. 1844. Misc. 68) ; but this truly belongs to Mr. Miers' 
new genus, CAanestes, of which the C. fuchsioides (Lycium, 
H. B. K. and Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4149) may be considered the 
type ; it is very nearly allied to C. {Lycium, H. B. K.) umbrosa, 
Miers, — differing from that chiefly in its narrower and more 
downy leaves, and in the colour of the flowers ; here deep blue, 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1847. N 

in C. umbrosa " coccinei ", according to Humboldt. If, however, 
only the dry specimen be examined, our plant as well as the 
C. umbrosa may be supposed to have red flowers ; and hence 
our valuable friend Mr. Miers has observed in the Journal above 
quoted, of our C. lanceolata, that " the corolla seems crimson ". 
When recent, the flowers are as rich and deep a blue, a little 
inclining to purple, as the Iochroma figured by Dr. Lindley and 
their fine colour constitutes one of the great charms of the 

Descr. A shrub four to five feet high, the young branches her- 
baceous, downy with stellated hair. Leaves alternate, rather large, 
oval or elliptical-lanceolate, membranaceous, acute, entire, tapering 
below into a long petiole, slightly downy above, beneath stellato- 
tomentose, the young leaves arachnoid : in age, however, almost 
every part becomes glabrous. Umbels axillary, or rather supra- 
axillary, and terminal or nearly so, almost sessile, downy. Pedi- 
cels slender, filiform, pendent. Flowers drooping. Calyx 
between urceolate and cylindrical, unequally five-toothed, the 
teeth blunt, erect : there is besides a cleft a little way down on 
one side. Corolla two inches long, rich deep purplish-blue, 
cylindrical, glabrous, somewhat dilated at the mouth into a short 
five-toothed spreading limb, which is downy. Stamens rather 
shorter than the style : both scarcely exserted. 

Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil: — magnified. 

^ ~~y 

Tab. 4&39. 
BROWALLIA speciosa. 

Showy-flowered Browallia. 

Nat. Ord. Scrophularine^:. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Cat. 5-dentatus v. 5-fidus. Corolla hypocraterimorpha, tubo su- 
perne parum dilatato, limbo obliquo breviter et late subbilabiatim 5-lobo, lobis 
emarginatis (in B. speciosa acuminatis) antico paulo majore, sestivatione plicato- 
bilabiata. Stamina fertilia 4 ; postica breviora, filamentis lanatis, antherariim 
loculo altero minimo casso ; antica longiora, antheris asqualiter bilocularibus. 
Stylus apice bifidus, lobis latissimis divaricato-subbilobis, intus stigmatosis. 
Capsula membranacea, valvulis bifidis, dissepimento tenuissimo. Embryo rectus. 
— Herbse rarius frutices, Americae australis, plus minus viscido-pubescentes. Folia 
alierna, integer ritna. Flores ad axillas foliorum superiorum pedicellati ; in cytnas 
irregulares terminates dispositi. Corollee violacea, carulescentes v. albida. Benth. 
in Be Cand. 

Browallia speciosa ; foliis oppositis alternisve ovatis acuminatis petiolatis, 
pedunculis axillaribus solitariis unifloris, calycis laciniis subulatis tubum 
aequantibus,. corolte laciniis ovato-acuminatis. 

Had not the name of grandiflora been pre-occupied, we should 
gladly have adopted it for the present new species of Browallia 
which we had the good fortune to receive from our Collector, 
Mr. Purdie, who discovered it in the mountains of Tolima and 
Quindiu, in the year 1846. The flowers are thrice the size of 
those of B. grandiflora and the segments of the corolla are not 
retuse, nor bifid, but acuminate. It flowered in September, 
1 847, both in the stove of Kew Gardens and in those of Syon 
House, being derived from the same source. 

Descr. Stem erect, branched, glabrous (as is almost every 
part of the plant). Leaves sometimes opposite, sometimes alter- 
nate. Peduncles axillary, solitary, single-flowered, in general 
shorter than the leaf. Calyx-tube ovato-cylindrical : limb of five, 
erect, subulate segments, nearly equal in length with the tube. 
Corolla hypocrateriform : tube long, slender, thrice the length of 
the calyx: limb oblique, somewhat two-lipped, of five large, 
spreading, ovate, acuminate segments, striated, pale lilac beneath, 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1847. N ^ 

dark purple above : throat white. Stamens inserted in the faux, 
didynamous ; filaments short, ciliated, curved above. Anthers 
didymous. Ovary globose on a short small disc, two-celled. 
Ovules very numerous on a large central placenta in each 
cell : style nearly as long as the tube of the corolla. Stigma 
two-lipped, four-lobed within the lips. 

Fig. 1. Tube of the corolla laid open, showing the stamens and pistil. 2. Back 
view of the stigma and upper portions of the style. 8. Front view of ditto : — 


Tab. 4340. 
EXACUM TETRAGONUM ; /3. bicolor. 
Square-stalked Exacum ; two-coloured var. 

Nat. Ord. Gentiane^. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 4-5-partitus, segmentis dorso carinatis v. alatis. Corolla 
rotata marcescens, tubo demum globoso, limbo 5-partito. Stam. 4-5, corollas 
fauci inserta, suberecta. Antherce immutatee, per apertnram rimae poriformem 
apice dehiscentes. Ovarium valvis introflexis biloculare, ovubs suturse centrali 
utrintpie affixis. Stylus distinctus, dedinatus, deciduus, stigmate indiviso capi- 
tidato v. leviter transverse sulcato. Capsula bilocularis, bivalvis, septicida, pla- 
centis centralibus nunc secedentibus nunc in unam coadunatis demum e valvis 
liberatis. Semina minutissima, placentis immersa. — Herbse plerumque annua, 
strict^, glaberrimce, cyma terminali, in India Orientali insulisque nonnullis maris 
Indici indigence. Griseb. in DC. 

Exacum tetragonum; caule tetragono subsimplici, foliis subamplexicaulibus 

ovato-oblongis acuminatis 5-nerviis margine lsevibus, calycis alati 4-partiti 

segmentis aristato-acuminatis, corollae tubo brevi lobis ovato-lanceolatis 

Exacum tetragonum. Eoxb. Fl. Ind. vA.p. 396. ed. Wall. v. 1. p. 413. Wall, 

Ic. Plant. Ear. v. 3. if. 276. Wall. Cat. n. 4356. Griseb. Gen. et Sp. 

Gent. p. 107. et in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 44. 
Exacum Hamiltonii. Don, Gard. Diet. v. 4<.p. 213. 
|Q. roseurn, Griseb.; foliis paulo angustioribus, corolla rosea. Griseb. in De Cand. 

Prodr. I. c. 
b. bicolor ; foliis fere ovatis, corolla? segmentis albidis apice purpureis. 
Exacum bicolor. Eoxb. Fl. Did. v. 1. p. 397. ed. Wall. v. 1. p. 413. Griseb. in 

De Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 45. 

An East Indian plant, for the seeds of which we are indebted 
to J. E. Law, Esq., of Tanna, Bombay. He finds it growing 
profusely in the Concan among long grass. The seeds being 
sown in the autumn of 1846, produced flowering plants in the 
stove of the Royal Gardens in June, 1847. The blossoms are 
highly ornamental; but as the plant is annual it may prove 
difficult in some seasons to ripen the seed. That it is the species 
called Exacum bicolor by Roxburgh, I can hardly doubt, and 
Mr. Law agrees with me in considering it to be so ; but 1 am 
equally disposed to believe that the E. bicolor is only a var. of 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1847- 

F. tetragonum. The flowers are very variable in size and colour, 
and even in our plant Mr. Law observes the colour is sometimes 
altogether purple ; and Dr. Roxburgh remarks that the leaves 
are also very variable. 

Descr. Foot annual. Stem erect, a foot and more high, 
simple below, panicled above, tetragonous ; the angles more or 
less winged. Leaves sometimes broadly ovate, acute, becoming 
narrower upward, ovato-lanceolate, and even lanceolato-acuminate 
above, three- to five-nerved, glabrous, smooth at the margin, 
pale beneath. Flowers in a cyme or panicle, few (in our speci- 
men), or (in the native specimens) many-flowered : branches 
trichotomous, or dichotomous with a single-flowered peduncle in 
the axil, all tetragonous and slightly winged at the angle, with a 
subulate bractea at the base. Calyx deeply five-partite : the 
segments broadly ovate, aristato-acuminate, furnished with a broad 
wing on the keel, which is decurrent more or less on the angles 
of the footstalk. Petals large, obliquely obovate, acute, purple, 
white at the base. Stamens four, curved to one side. Filaments 
short. Anthers large, subulate, truncate and opening by an 
oblong pore at the extremity. Ovary ovate : style longer than 
the stamens : stigma two-lipped. 

Fig. 1. Tube of the corolla 2. Pistil : — magnified. 


Tab. 4341. 
ANEMONE Japonica. 

Japan Anemone. 

Nat. Ord. Ranunculace^e. — Polyandria Polygynia. 

Gen. Char. Involucrum 3-florum, a flore distans, foliolis incisis. Calyx petaloi- 
deus, 5-15-sepalus. Petala 0. Be Cand. 

Anemone Japonica ; caulescens, foliis radicalibus caulinisqne ternatim sectis, 
segmentis cordatis trilobis inaequaliter ampliato-serratis, involucralibus 
inferioribus petiolatis basi cuneatis caeterum conformibus superioribus 
sessilibus, pedunculis elongatis v. uudis imifloris v. dichotomo-ramosis et 
iterum involucratis, sepabs plerumque 20 extus sericeis, caryopsibus ecau- 
datis dense villosis. Sieb. 

Anemone Japonica. Siebold, Fl. Japonica, v. 1. p. 16. t. 5. Lindl. Bot. Misc. 
1846. p. 66. Walp. Repert. Bot. v. 1. p. 28. 

Atragene Japonica. Tliunb. Fl. Jap. p. 239. 

Clematis? polypetala. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 10. 

A native of damp woods on a mountain called Kifune, near 
Miaho, in Japan, and introduced to this country by Mr. Fortune 
during his travels in China. As the plant is, according to Siebold, 
much cultivated by the Japanese on account of the beauty of its 
flowers, I cannot but fear that what have been transmitted to 
our Gardens exhibit strong marks of the flowers being double 
(floribus plenis), which may account for the fact mentioned by 
Siebold of the seeds rarely coming to perfection. Be that as it 
may, the species is a very beautiful one, flowering during the 
summer months and till late in the autumn. It is, moreover, 
perfectly hardy, and has endured, unharmed, the winter of 
1846-7, in the open air. A moist soil seems most favourable 
to its success. 

Descr. A herbaceous perennial, everywhere soft and downy 
with short hairs, leaves radical, on long petioles, ternate : 
leaflets petiolulate, cordate or cordato-ovate, acute, three- or five- 
nerved, irregularly cut into three or five lobes (the lateral leaflets 
oblique) and coarsely serrated. Scape erect, one and a half to 
two feet high, divided above in a trichotomous manner, involu- 
december 1st, 1847. 

crate, some of the branches or peduncles single-flowered, others 
again ternately divided and then again involucrate : leaves of the 
involucre ternate, nearly sessile, the leaflets divided as the radical 
leaves but scarcely petiolulate. "Flower* large, handsome, erect. 
Perianth rose-lilac, consisting of from fifteen to twenty oblong- 
obovate, spreading sepals. Stamens numerous. Anthers bright 
yellow. Ovaria numerous, ovate, silky, collected into a globose 
head. Styles extremely short, hooked. 



Tab. 4342. 

TJiree-flowered Gesneria. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriace^e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4217.) 

Gesneria trijiora ; caule erecto obscure tetragono subsimplici petiolisque dense 
ferrugineo-lanatis, internodiis elongatis, foliis amplis ovato-acuminatis 
serratis reticulato-rugosis pubescentibus subtus pallidis dense lanatis, pe- 
dunculis axdlaribus umbellatim trifloris petiolo pedicellisque brevioribus 
lanatis, urabelbs basi bibracteatis, calycis lanati tubo hemisphserico lacinias 
acuminatas aequante, corollae flavae tubo ventricoso rufo-birsutissimo, limbi 
ore contracto, lobis parvis rotundatis patentibus. 

Tubers of this Gesneria were sent from New Grenada by 
Mr. Purdie, and flowering plants were in perfection in the Royal 
Gardens in the summer of 1847, continuing a long time in 
blossom. The flowers are by no means so copious as in the 
G. Hondensis, to which the species is in some respects allied ; but 
the corollas and foliage, too, are larger. It has affinity also with 
G.elongata, said to be from "Quito?", (I possess specimens 
from Mexico) : which has much longer peduncles, and a different 
habit and foliage. . 

Descu. A foot and a half or two feet high, nearly simple, 
erect, stout, obscurely four-sided, densely clothed with ferruginous 
tomentum. The space between the pairs of leaves is elongated. 
Leaves opposite, four to six inches long, on woolly petioles, ovate, 
acuminate, serrated: upper surface dark green, wrinkled with 
copiously reticulated nerves, and downy beneath; the costa and 
main nerves are prominent, and the whole densely covered with 
pale tomentum. Peduncles axillary, solitary, shorter even than 
the petiole, woolly, bearing, in an umbel, three, elongated pedicels 
longer than the peduncle, and, at their base, two small opposite 
ovate bracteas. Calyx woolly, hemispherical, cut half way down 
into five ovato-lanceolato, erect, acuminated segments Corolla 
nearly thrice as long as the calyx, tubular, but slightly curved 
and ventricose, yellow, densely clothed with shaggy red hair; 


the mouth contracted, spotted ; the limb of five short, spreading, 
rounded lobes. Stamens and pistil included. Ovary ovate, 
hairy, with five unequal orange-coloured glands at the base : style 
downy : stigma two-lipped. 

Fig. 1. Pistil and hypogynous glands : — magnified. 


Tab. 4343. 
GARDENIA nitida. 

Glossy-leaved Gardenia. 

Nat. Ord. Rubiaceje. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide mpra, Tab. 4307.) 

Gardenia nitida; inermis glaberrima, foliis oppositis ternisve submembranaceis 
lato- seu oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis petiolatis undulatis nitidis, stipulis 
late ovatis acutis, floribus terminalibus solitariis sessilibus, calycis tubo 
cybndraceo ecostato, timbo 6-partito laciniis obovatis fobaceis patentibus 
tubo aequilongis coroUas tubo ter brevioribus, corolla? speciosse albas tubo 
cylindraceo (3 poll, longo) limbi 7-partito laciniis oblongis cito reflexis 
marginibus revolutis, staminibus 6-7 inclusis, stylo exserto apice bifido, 
stigmatibus cuneatis bifidis. 

From the stove of Messrs. Lucombe and Pince, who raised 
it from seeds taken from a dried specimen gathered by Mr. 
Whitfield at Sierra Leone. It proves to be a perfectly new 
and most distinct species, possessing handsome, dark green, 
glossy foliage, flowers among the larger of the genus, deliciously 
scented, the calyx furnished with large leafy segments, the 
corolla of the purest white, its limb cut into seven long segments 
which are soon reflected, as shown in our figure. Though 
shrubby, it is eminently suited to " pot culture ", and deserves a 
place in every stove. It blossoms in October and November, 
and will probably be found to do so at other seasons. 

Descr. The flowering plant from which our figure was taken 
is remarkable for its dense, compact, and sturdy habit, not more 
than two feet high, but three feet across, so as even without 
blossoms to be a beautiful object ; young branches herbaceous, 
glabrous, as is every part of the plant. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
tapering at both extremities, below into a short petiole, penni- 
nerved and reticulated, undulate, very glossy and dark green 
above, paler beneath. Stipules broadly ovate or triangular, 
acuminate, appressed. Flower axillary, solitary, sessile, large, 
white, deliciously fragrant. Calyx-tube much elongated, cylin- 
drical : limb of seven rather spreading obovate, or spathulate 

DECEMBER 1ST, 184?. 

spreading leafy segments. Corolla pure white : tube slender, 
cylindrical, about as long as the whole calyx, slightly wider 
upwards : the limb of seven very long, oblong, obtuse segments, 
soon becoming reflexed, and their sides or margins also reflexed. 
Stamens six or seven, included. Style filiform, a little exserted ; 
Stigma bifid, the segments cuneate and bifid. 


IReevs ■&% 

Tab. 4344. 

THIBAUDIA Pichinchensis, /?. glabra. 

Pichincha Thibaudia ; glabrous var. 

Nat. Ord. Ericace.e. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4303). 

Thibaudia PichincJienm ; ramulis angulatis sparse furfuraceo-hirtellis glabrisve, 
foliis brevissime petiolatis ovali-oblongis sublanceolatisve obtuse acuminatis 
basi rotundatis quintuplinervibus v. subpenninervibus utrinque scabrius- 
culis subtus pilis pams nigris raris conspersis, racemis axillaribus flori- 
bundis folio brevioribus, bracteis parvis, calycibus furfuraceo-hirtellis, co- 
rollis glabris. Benth. 

Thibaudia Pichinchensis. Benth. Plant. Hartw. p. 223. n. 1217. 

ff. glabra ; ubique omnino glabra vel foliis solummodo subtus pilis raris fuscis 
instructis. (Tab. nostr. 4344.) 

Rich as my Herbarium is in specimens of Thibaudia from the 
Andes of South America and of Mexico, there is not one that 
exactly corresponds with the present; and in no genus is it 
harder to refer the individuals to described species, even when 
aided by figures. Our plant is raised from seeds sent from the 
elevated mountains of Columbia by our Collector, Mr. Purdie, 
and it flowered first in the Greenhouse at Syon, in September, 
1847. It approaches, however, so closely to the specimens of 
T. Pichinchensis of Mr. Bentham, collected by Hartweg on the 
west side of Pichincha, and still more to the description of the 
latter author, that I am disposed to pronounce it a glabrous 
variety of that species. From Professor Jameson I have a 
Thibaudia (no. 293) "from woods on the western side of 
Pichincha"; and another "from Pulalaqua, 9,000 feet above 
the sea-level ", which I am inclined to consider identical with 
our present plant, but the leaves are blunter and the flowers 
narrower. It is only from an extensive suite of specimens, or 
from an investigation of living plants, that we can arrive at any 
accurate conclusions ; and no genus is more worthy of a full 
monography. The present species is eminently beautiful, with its 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1847. 

bright green, rather ample foliage and flowers, larger than and 
as waxy as those of any Heath. 

Descr. At present our plant forms a shrub only a foot and a 
half to two feet high, (six to twelve feet, according to Hartweg) 
with glabrous slightly angled branches, the young ones green. 
Leaves alternate, on short petioles, oblong-ovate, acuminate, 
but in general rather obtuse, between coriaceous and fleshy, gla- 
brous, or only with a few short pale brown, scattered, paleaceous 
hairs beneath, rather obscurely penninerved in the recent state, 
but in the dry state very conspicuously so ; and the nerves, besides 
the mid-rib, consist of two on each side from below the middle, 
generally (but not invariably opposite), the lowest pair is directed 
upwards and usually become obsolete above the middle, slightly 
anastomosing, the two upper nerves converge towards the point 
and are connected to the costa and margin by a few faint trans- 
verse nervelets. Racemes axillary and subterminal, of from four 
to six or more flowers. Peduncle shorter than the leaves, and, as 
well as the pedicels, inclining downwards (towards the under-side 
of the leaves), bracteated j bracteas minute. Calyx red (with its 
adherent ovary) turbinate, articulated upon the pedicel, quite 
glabrous, the limb cut into five, short, triangular, acute teeth. 
Corolla deep rose-red, waxy, paler at the mouth, nearly an inch 
long, urceolate ; limb of five, equal, rather spreading, acute teeth 
or segments. Stamens included : filaments very broad, membrana- 
ceous, slightly cohering at the margin : anthers linear-subulate, 
downy, the broad portion attached to the front, or inner-side of 
the filament, the narrow, acuminated portion free, and opening 
by two linear pores or slits at the summit. 

Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Two stamens: — magnified. 


In which the Latin names of the Plants contained in the Third 
Volume of the Third Series (or Seventy-third Volume of 
the Work) are alphabetically arranged. 


4316 Abelia floribunda. 

4306 Acacia celastrifolia. 

4312 Achimenes cupreata. 

4328 iEschynanthus longiflorus. 
4320 speciosus. 

4293 iEchmea discolor. 

4341 Anemone Japonica. 
4291 Anigozanthos fuliginosa. 
4295 Angrsecum funale. 

4313 Anguloa Clowesii, var. 
4281 Begonia fuchsoides. 
4308 Berberis ilicifolia. 

4339 Browallia speciosa. 

4287 Brunfelsia nitida; 0? Jamai- 

4300 Calceolaria amplexicaubs. 
4338 Chsenestes lanceolata. 
4284 Chirita Sinensis. 
4327 Walkeriee. 

4294 Columnea aureo-nitens. 
4330 crassifoba. 

4279 Cordyline Eumphii. 

4317 Dryandra carduacea ; var. angus- 

4326 Echinocactus cinnabarinus. 

4311 hexaedrophorus. 

4296 Williamsii. 

4333 Eucalyptus macrocarpa. 

4340 Exacum tetragonum ; /3. bicolor. 

4280 Exogonium Purga. 
4322 Gardenia longistyla. 

4307 malleifera. 

4343 nitida. 

4342 Gesneria triflora. 

4329 Hibiscus grossularisefolius. 


4310 Hypocyrta leucostoma. 

4301 Ipomsea muricata. 
4305 pulcbella. 

4332 Isopogon sphserocephalus. 
4325 Ixora Griffithii. 

4302 Laelia cinnabarina. 

4314 Leucothoe pulchra. 

4315 Liebigia speciosa. 
4324 Lisianthus acutangulus. 

4334 Malacbadenia clavata. 
4299 Marsdenia maculata. 
4292 Martynia fragrans. 
4321 Medinilla speciosa. 

4285 Nepenthes Kafflesiana. 

4282 Niphaea albo-lineata. 

4297 Phalsenopsis araabilis. 

4289 Pharbitis catbartica. 
4319 Pentstemon Gordoni. 

4309 Puya Altensteinii ; var. gigantea. 

4336 Rhododendron Javanicum. 

4298 Buellia Purdieana. 

4331 Siphocampylos glandulosa. 

4286 microstoma. 

4283 Smithia purpurea. 
4318 Salvia leucantha. 

4290 Scutellaria cordifoba. 
4344 Thibaudia Pichinchensis, 

/3. glabra. 

4303 ■ pulcherrima. 

4288 Tillandsia bulbosa ; var. picta. 

4335 Tritonia aurea. 

4323 Tropseolum speciosum. 

4337 ■ umbellatum. 

4304 Vanda cristata. 
4275-8 Victoria regia. 


In which the English names of the Plants contained in the Third 
Volume of the Third Series (or Seventy-third Volume of 
the Work) are alphabetically arranged. 


4316 Abelia, copious-flowering. 

4306 Acacia, Celastrus-leaved. 

4312 Achimenes, copper-leaved. 

4293 iEchmea, two-coloured, or Crab's 

4328 iEschynanthus, long-flowered. 

4320 showy. 

4341 Anemone, Japan. 
4295 Angrsecum, cord-like. 

4313 Anguloa, Mr. Clowes's var. 
4291 Anigozanthos, sooty. 

4281 Begonia, Fuchsia-like, or Ele- 
phant's Ear. 
4308 Berberry, holly-leaved. 

4339 Browallia, showy -flowered. 
4287 Brunfelsia, shining-leaved; Ja- 
maica var. ? 

4297 Butterfly-Plant, Indian. 
4300 Calceolaria, or Slipper-wort, 

4338 Chsenestes, lanceolate-leaved. 
4284 Chirita, Chinese. 
4327 Mrs. Walker's. 

4294 Columnea, golden. 

4330 ■ thick-leaved. 

4279 Cordyline, Rumphius'. 

4317 Dryandra, Thistle-like; narrow- 
leaved var. 

4326 Echinocactus, cinnabar-flowered. 

4311 hexsedron. 

4296 Mr. Williams' 

4281 Elephant's Ear, Fuchsia-like. 
4333 Eucalyptus, large-fruited or Gum 

4340 Exacum, square-stalked ; two- 
coloured var. 

4307 Gardenia, clapper-bearing. 

4343 glossy-leaved. 

4322 long-styled. 


4342 Gesneria, three-flowered. 

4333 Gum-Tree, large-fruited. 
4329 Hibiscus, Gooseberry-leaved. 
4310 Hypocyrta, white-mouthed. 

4323 Indian Cress, showy. 
4337 umbellate. 

4301 Ipomaea, fine-leaved. 

4305 handsome. 

4332 Isopogon, round-headed. 

4325 Ixora, Mrs. Griffith's. 

4302 Lselia, cinnabar-coloured. 

4314 Leucothoe, elegant. 

4315 Liebigia, showy. 

4324 Lisianthus, sharp-angled. 

4334 Malachadenia, club-stalked. 
4299 Marsdcnia, spotted-leaved. 
4292 Martynia, fragrant. 

4321 Medinilla, showy. 

4282 Niphaea, white-lined. 
4319 Pentstemon, Mr. Gordon's. 
4289 Pharbitis, purging. 

4285 Pitcher-Plant, Sir Stamford 


4309 Puya, Altenstein's ; gigantic par. 

4280 Purga or True Jalap. 

4336 Ehododendron, Javanese. 

4298 lluellia, Mr. Purdie's. 
4318 Sage, white-flowered. 
4331 Siphocampylos, glandular. 
4286 • small-mouthed. 

4299 Skull-cap, heart-leaved. 

4283 Smithia, purple-flowered. 

4303 Thibaudia, beautiful. 

4344 Pichincha, glabrous 


4288 Tillandsia, bulbous; coloured^/. 

4335 Tritonia, golden. 
4334 Vanda, crested. 

4275-8 Water-Lily, great, Victoria. 





Clerodendron macrophyllum. 

Elatum glabruin fruticosum, foliis amplis ellipticis coriaceis ajiice acumi- 
natis basi obtusis in petiolum crassum semiteretem breviter decurrentibus 
integerrimis costa nervisque subtus valde prominentibus, paniculis axillari- 
bus terminalibusque braeteatis, bracteis longis spathulatis, pedunculis 
ultimis trichotomis, pedicellis apice dilatatis, calycibus deltoideo-acuminatis 
profunde 5-partitis, laciniis lanceolato-acuminatis conniventibus, corollae 
(albee) tubo calycem duplo superante, limbo 5-lobo, lobis secundis lineari- 
oblongis extimis angustioribus, staminibus flexuosis divaricatis styloque 
longe exsertis. 

Clerodendron macrophyllum, Bl. Beitr. {non Sims). 

Clerodendron phyllomega, Steud. Nomencl. vol.i. p. 382. Walters, Repert. 
Boi. vol. iv. p. 104. 

Hab. Sandy places on Seribu Mountains of Java ; and introduced from 
thence by Mr. Veitch, in whose Nursery at Mount Radford, Exeter, three 
plants have been in blossom for six weeks, and are now (December, 1846) 
in high perfection. 

One of the finest of all the species of Clerodendron ; with white 
flowers indeed, but what is wanting in brilliancy of colour in 
the corolla is amply compensated by the noble foliage (almost 
resembling that of some East Indian Magnolia) and the vast 
panicle of innumerable blossoms. It is of easy growth, and 
continues many weeks uninterruptedly in flower. It is a soft- 
wooded shrub, an inch in thickness at the base of the stem, erect, 
three feet high. The leaves fourteen to sixteen inches long inde- 
pendent of the petiole, thick and subcoriaceous, dark green, with 
a very prominent midrib and nerves beneath. The panicles are 
terminal and axillary ; so copious, that the whole plant may be 
said to be one vast pyramidal leafy panicle. The flowers are about 
the size and of the same colour as those of Cler. nutans (Bot. 
Mag. Tab. 3049). No figure could possibly do justice to this 
fine plant in the small pages of our Magazine. It has, we under- 
stand, been recently exhibited at a Meeting of the Horticultural 
Society in Regent Street. 

* The Cler. macrophyllum of Sims (Bot. Mag. t.2536), is only a downy variety 
of Cler. (Volkameria) serratum, L. 




Collector for the Royal Gardens of Kew ; in letters addressed to the Editor. 
(Continued from vol. ii. p. 42.) 

Santa Martha, June 4th, 1844. 

Since my last letter, of the 5th of May,* I have made several 
excursions to the mountains behind Santa Martha, but on no 
occasion have I got any higher than 2,000 feet ; further progress 
being impossible from this side. I find there are only two direc- 
tions in which the Nivada can be reached, one is by way of Rio 
de la Hacha, the other by the Valle de Upari. The former is 
the route by which Mr. Linden ascended, and the distance from 
hence is 150 miles. The latter is the way I think of pursuing, 
for it is untrodden by any botanist, and it also seems unadvisable 
to follow Mr. Linden's footsteps : the distance by the Valle de 
Upari is 250 miles. 

Behind Santa Martha rises a succession of mountain ridges ; 
terminated, so far as can be seen from this place, by a lofty 
range, apparently about 6,000 feet high. Behind this range 
lies the Valle de Upari, by which the Nivada may be gained. 
I understand it is a very rich district. Hitherto I have found 
Orckidece very scarce. 

There has been great difficulty in obtaining mules ; owing to 
the want of inland population, there is no demand for these 
animals, except what are actually in use, and I find them both 
scarce and dear. As yet, I have bought only two, for which 
I paid 180 dollars. They are, however, good and valuable. 
This beautiful country lies uncultivated for want of inhabitants ; 
forests stretch in every direction, hardly a rood of land is reclaimed. 
There is no intercourse with the interior, and the hire of mules 
costs 24 dollars each to go to the Valle and back again ; with 
the stipulation, too, that the journey must be performed in a 
given number of days. Thus it is cheapest in the end to pur- 
chase, and I have taken care to select such animals as will please 
the eye, as well as prove serviceable ; otherwise there would be 
great difficulty in disposing of them again, when I go away. 
These Columbians look very sharp to their own interests. 
Hitherto my excursions have been made cheaply ; for the gentle- 
men, to whom I brought letters of introduction, kindly lent me 

* No letter appears to have arrived of this date. 


beasts for my journeys : but now I must have my own mules, 
and I shall require no fewer than four ; one for my riding, one 
to carry specimens and paper, and two others for various articles 
of cargo, plants, &e. I hope to set off for the Valle on Monday 

I now send a box of Orchidea and a few seeds, together with 
specimens of a highly curious tuberous-rooted plant, which I have 
never seen in flower. The Indians use a decoction of the root, 
not the tuber, for an eye-wash, and consider it a most valuable 
application for removing inflammation and healing injuries in 
that organ. The tuber should be kept almost entirely above the 

The dristolochia is singular, and its roots contain a valuable 
astringent, which has the reputation of proving an antidote to 
the wounds of the most venomous serpents. The Indians aver 
that long keeping improves the virtue of these roots : some pieces, 
together with seeds and specimens, and a perfect capsule, are in 
the parcel. I also send specimens, not in bloom, of a remarkable 
tree, with a habit resembling a Punica ; it is marked Granadilla, 
and was discovered, I am told, by M. Funck during his brief 
visit to Santa Martha : he saw it in flower, and considered it to 
be a new and splendid species of Punica ; but to me it seems 
essentially distinct from that genus.* The calyx is inferior, the 
capsule dry, and the seeds winged. Though I have never seen 
the inflorescence, the above peculiarities convince me that M. Funck 
examined the tree no farther than its general habit, which 
certainly bears a strong resemblance to Punica, to which it owes 
its local appellation. Lest the seeds should not germinate, 1 
shall procure living plants on my return from the Nivada 1 
intend sending home a glass case, as soon as I can find withal to 
fill one. 

The roads in this country are dreadfully bad ; and communica- 
tion is mostly carried on by water. Yesterday, returning to Santa 
Martha, I was obliged to swim two rivers; sometimes they are 
quite unfordable : in fact, I never passed such a trying lortmglit 
as the last, it being impossible to keep myself dry. Ine paths 
are generally conducted by the river-sides, and often the mules 
capsize and hurl rider and load into the water: add to which, 
ram falls daily of the most terrific kind. I shall set off for the 
Valle on Monday, and be absent about three months, lo-day 
the weather is hot and moist, the thermometer indicating 8b in 

the shade at noon. . . , 

I will thank you to decide on the route you wish me to take, 

* It proves to be the rare and beautiful Lafoemia -puuicafolia of De Candolle.— Ed. 

after leaving Santa Martha. I could go by Maracaybo to Bogota, 
through the plains of Maraceto, and obtain the Palm which pro- 
duces the Vegetable Ivory, which I am informed grows there. 
It strikes me this would be the most eligible course to pursue ; 
and then proceed down the Magdalena to Chagres, thus avoiding 
the navigation up the river (the Magdalena) which is very long 
and tedious, occupying as much time as it would take to reach 
Bogota by way of Maracaybo. 

Pueblo Nuevo, Valle de Upari, 
July 25th. 

Two days ago I returned from La Nivada, bringing a collection 
of plants, seeds and specimens. The Post from Santa Martha 
has just put me in possession of your esteemed letter of April 
16th; and though I have only two hours in which to answer it, 
I send a few lines, and can do no more this time, being engaged 
in preparing a box of seeds, which I shall send by the same con- 
veyance, to meet the August Packet. 

I am glad to hear that the articles I despatched formerly have 
reached England in good order. The Orchideous plant, marked 
Broughtonia, is very handsome. The present parcel of seeds 
will probably arrive about Oct. ; not sooner, because the packet 
goCs to Cartagena and Chagres and returns to the former place, 
before crossing to meet the Jamaica Packet. I must convey the 
seeds and specimens to La Pundacion, one hundred miles 
distant, whence they will go to Santa Martha, one hundred and 
ten miles more ; I shall send them by a canoe, and it is very 
probable I may arrive myself at Santa Martha, about the same 
period ; for I shall proceed by way of Rio de la Hacha. After 
conveying these things to La Pundacion, I return hither and 
ascend the mountains at all the accessible points, viz., the 
Indian village of Artankes, Rosario and Maracassa. Prom the 
latter, I trust it will be found practicable to reach the Nivada ; 
if not, I shall attempt it from the side of Rio de la Hacha, after 
despatching my collection to Santa Martha. I find M. Punck 
has preceded me in this direction, having attempted to climb 
the Nivada from the village of St. Sebastian, but failed in conse- 
quence of the excessive cold. I certainly never felt such a piercing 
air. I, however, reached the snow line and gathered a few plants 
peculiar to that region. The only combustible article that could 
be procured to make a fire withal, is a singular composite 
plant, which was too wet to burn readily. No shelter was there, 
but rocks. The suffering which the Indians seemed to endure 

from the cold was extreme, although the village where they reside 
is at an elevation of 6,000 feet ; on the second day, one of these 
poor creatures was unable to proceed, from lightness in the head*, 
and he lay down among the rocks, till I returned ; his companion 
was also very unwell, but I experienced no farther inconvenience, 
than a slight throbbing in the temples. 

This journey has not been quite so productive as I had hoped ; 
for although I have some good plants of Orchidece, all new to 
me, the number of species does not exceed ten. One is very 
remarkable ; it is a climber, with pseudo-bulbs upwards of a foot 
long. It grows fifteen to twenty feet high and bears a 
long twining spike of handsome Oncidium-like blossoms, but 
denoting a different genus ; it is a showy and remarkable plant. 
The best thing I procured is a terrestrial Cymbidium, allied to 
C. utriculatum, but without the conspicuous sheath; it is the 
handsomest terrestrial Orclddea I have ever seen. As I collected 
abundance of strong tubers, I hope it will succeed in England ; 
the plant is very rare, I have seen it only twice. 

Herewith I forward a box of one hundred kinds of seeds 
from the Nivada, some are of handsome Ericoid shrubs. The 
vegetation, near the snow line, consists mainly of types of 
European genera ; I noticed three Gerania and four Carices (one 
of which resembles C. penduld), two Ranunculi, a showy Alyssum 
&c. The seeds include a Botrychium and an Osmmida, an 
Umbellifera and a Senecio, two Vaccinia, one Cerastium, two 
species of Hieracium, several of Gnaphalium, and many fine shrubs, 
allied to Erica ; also a Lupine and Gentian and three singular 
tetrandrous plants ; I have plenty of seeds of the latter. Near 
the snow line grew two pretty species, quite unknown to me, 
and on the margin of the snow, a Primula (?) of which I regretted 
not to obtain plants or seed. 

I think of proceeding to Santa Martha in about six weeks, 
whence I shall make two excursions to the mountains in different 
directions, to an elevation of 3,000 feet, the greatest elevation 
that can be attained in that direction. The weather is now 
pretty good, but rain falls daily on the mountains, towards 
evening. The lowest temperature I have yet seen is 38°. Fahr., 
when the cold was extremely piercing. 

* One of the symptoms of the malady, called " La Puna ", which affects 
persons who ascend lofty mountains. See Mr. Cruikshank's description of it, on 
an ascent of the Andes.. Botanical Miscellany, vol. ii. p. 191— o. 

Valle Dupar, August 20th. 1844. 

I have just returned from La Fundacion, having forwarded 
three boxes of plants, chiefly Orchidece, and one of dried speci- 
mens. The former will, I hope be sent on without the least 
delay, but the dried plants can remain at Santa Martha till I 
return, as it is probable they may imbibe damp on the way and 
will require fresh papers, previous to their being despatched to 

Among the contents of the boxes are some very good Orchidece > 
a pretty Achimenes, which seems new, a handsome terrestrial 
Cymbidium, several tufts of a Sobralia, an Oncidium, with dis- 
tant pseudo-bulbs, and twining flower-stems, eight feet in 
length ; I have only one indifferent specimen of it. The plants 
are all packed in sheaths of maize, to absorb any superabundant 
moisture, and are now in excellent order. I expect to reach, 
shortly, a good country for Orchidece, which is not the character 
of any district I have yet visited. This immense cluster of 
mountains can only be gained by two routes, that of San Sebas- 
tian, and of the Rio de la Hacha ; in every other direction, they 
are absolutely inaccessible. The distance, in a direct line, from 
Santa Martha to La Nivada, is forty-six miles, and by the 
route I pursued two hundred and seventy miles, two hundred 
and twenty of which led through an uninteresting plain, a ramifi- 
cation of the great plain of the Magdalena, affording few plants. 

I am now on my road for three Indian villages, situated at the 
slight elevation of 2,000 feet, whence I hope to make my way 
to a higher latitute; 4,000 feet is probably the height most 
favourable to the production of Orchidece. After reaching Rio 
Hacha, I shall ascend the Nivada from that side, and I do not 
expect to return to Santa Martha before the beginning of October. 
From thence I plan to undertake two excursions to the interior, 
which is all that can be effected, because of the uninhabited nature 
of the country. Owing to the entire want of facilities of access, 
the fine soil and desirable climate of these mountains are lost 
to the human race ; and the thinly scattered population, chiefly 
of Spanish descent, is located in hot savannahs, of which the 
people's looks plainly testify the unhealthy influence. The few 
villages on the mountains belong exclusively to the aboriginal 
Indians ; the remote situation having preserved them from the 
ravages of Spanish conquest. A route leads to Bogota by Ocafia, 
which no botanist has visited, and it passes over some lofty moun- 

You will find a charming and fragrant orchideous plant in the 
box ; it is numbered ' 9 '. I gathered it to day in flower. 

I expected to have arrived at Rio Hacha ere this time, but 
have been detained some days by the illness of one of my mules, 
which is now better. Among the seeds from the Nivada, you 
will find some of a curious Columnea ; it grows upright and pro- 
duces its flowers in large whorls, six inches across j the calyx, 
is scarlet, very large and showy, and the whole habit of the 
plant is striking. The flowers protrude but slightly beyond the 

The weather is exceedingly unsettled : the plains are warm : 
the thermometer varying from 90°. to 96°. in the shade ; a heat 
which is the more oppressive, from the absence, thus far inland, 
of the sea breeze. 

I find it is impracticable to reach Maracaybo by land. The 
Indians and some other tribes being now hostile to the Colum- 
bian Spaniards, it is said they will allow no one to traverse their 
territory. I am sorry to hear that the man bringing the post, 
was murdered the other day between Rio de la Hacha and Santa 
Martha, after being robbed of three hundred dollars. 

Rio de la Hacha, Oct. 19th, 1844. 

I arrived here yesterday from the interior, bringing my collec- 
tions with me. During this last excursion I have explored the 
south side of the Nivada de Sta. Martha in all its accessible parts. 
I sent hither before me, three mules' loads of plants, chiefly 
Orchidece, from the Sierras de Maracaybo ; my visit to which 
occupied a month beyond the time on which I had calculated ; 
but finding myself, when I reached the village of Molina, in the 
Valle Dupar, close to the above named Sierras, I judged it right 
to investigate the first great range. Though the wet weather 
was unfriendly to travelling, I gathered more Orchideous plants 
on these beautiful mountains, than have fallen to my lot during 
all my journeys in the Nivada. This Nivada is one solitary 
stupendous cluster, severed from the Sierras de Maracaybo, by 
the Valle Dupar, which is from ten to twenty-five miles in width 
and stretches its broad savannahs to the great plain of the Mag- 
dalena river on the w r est, and the extensive savannah of the 
Guajira to the east ; while a few hills, scattered on the flat land, 
seem to form an imperfect connexion between these two vast 

Among other Orchidea, I have found a splendid Limodorum 
(no. 22; resembling L. Tankervillia, but of much finer growth : 
its scapes are simple, three feet high, sepals pure white, and 
labellum dark purple : the blossoms are rather smaller than those 
of L. TankervillidB. It is rare and confined to one mountain 


forest, where it grows in the earth among rotten trees and wood. 
Also a charming Peristeria and a Stanhojjea. I was surprised 
to find the forest, at the summit of the range, consisting of the 
same kind of Podocarpiw which I had seen in Jamaica ; it is of 
gigantic stature, vyeing with the loftiest trees. I am satisfied 
that these mountains, if traversed to Maracaybo, would produce 
many valuable plants, especially Orchidea; but the journey 
would be a task of no small difficulty ; for all communication was 
cut off, two years ago, with the view to prevent the escape of 
General Paz, and the way has never been re-opened. The savage 
tribes of wandering Indians, the bad state of the roads, and the 
abundance of tigers, bears, and other wild beasts, would offer 
formidable obstructions. 

It was a disappointment, on reaching Rio de la Hacha, to 
find no letters ; though I had requested Mr. Marks, the Vice- 
Consul at Sta. Martha, to forward what might arrive for me. 
Your last bears date April 16th. 

I fear this is but a bad season for sending home my plants, 
for though I have used all possible expedition, with the view of 
forwarding them ere winter, I have been unable to accomplish 
my design. The Packet has also changed its time of sailing, so 
that the middle of November is now the earliest period when 
the boxes can be sent, and they and my letter will go by the 
same opportunity. I am now busy packing four boxes, and I 
enclose a list of their contents. 

In two or three days, I shall set off for the Nivada, to ascend 
it by this side ; an excursion which will occupy about a month, 
when, on my return, I shall ship my plants from Sta. Martha, 
and there dispose of my mules ; that place affording the best 
market for them. The Nivada is four or five days from hence ; 
it has been the wet season ever since I came here, and my jour- 
ney has proved, of course, all the more slow and tedious and 

I send a few seeds, to fill up the spaces of the box ; among 
them are some good things : a species of Justicia, much resem- 
bling a Fuc/ma in habit and inflorescence ; the seeds were scarce, 
but I procured a small quantity. No. 181 is an interesting 
Ipomcea, of an upright heath-like habit, and large showy flowers ; 
there are three species of Aristolochia, two of Manettia, some of 
Pentstemon, with a greenish yellow inflorescence. No. 164, a 
Tetrandrous plant, is very showy, and has the habit of a Mimulus, 
and flowers like a Petunia, large and white. I have also some 
species of Orchideous plants, that I consider new. 

Shortly after Mr. Linden visited the Nivada, an epidemic broke 


out among the Indians, which carried off about fifty persons ; 
and the poor ignorant beings attribute the malady to his pre- 
sumption in exploring that range, and consider him to be in 
concert with some evil spirit, and give him the name of 'El 
Diablo '. The governor assures me that this delusion is deeply 
rooted : he has vainly endeavoured to combat it, and even appre- 
hends it may interfere with my movements and hinder my success. 

Rio de la Hacha, Dec. 14th, 1844. 

Possibly you are surprised that my collections have not 
arrived before winter, and my own calculations are equally put 
out by it ; but the nature of the country through which I have 
travelled, the wet season and the great distance, have conspired 
to cause this delay. As far as the performance of my duty 
allowed (in executing which I have ascended the mountains, 
wherever it was practicable,) my movements have been made 
with expedition ; for my health was admirable, till the second 
ascent of the Nivada, from whence I am just returned ; I was 
there sharply attacked with fever and ague, and was laid up for 
a fortnight in San Miguel, an Indian village, the highest on this 
side of the Nivada, its elevation being about 5,000 feet. I believe 
that frequent wettings induced this illness ; but I am now happily 
recovered. It was my intention to reach Santa Martha, on 
the coast side, fifty miles from the road by which I have come ; 
and only ninety remained from a village called Dibulla, but I 
find it utterly impracticable to pursue that route, for I should 
be compelled, by keeping along the coast, to cross all the 
rivers at their mouths ; and some of them are truly so many arms 
of the sea. The whole flat country, lying between the sea and 
the mountains, several leagues wide, is inundated completely, 
which prevented bringing my mules from Dibulla. We have 
just had a few dry days ; and the general opinion is, that the wet 
season is over. I have therefore sent for the beasts, and shall 
travel by land, through the Valle Dupar, now the only practicable 
course ; for if I shipped my mules, the expense of it would be 
greater than that of going by land. It is also somewhat uncer- 
tain how long I might be detained here. 

Rio Hacha is prettily situated on the dry sandy beach, without 
any harbour : it is a cool and pleasant spot. 

If possible, I shall set off on the 1 7th. I have two objects in 
view, one is to sell my mules at Santa Martha ; for I should dis- 
pose of them here at a great loss, because the Indians breed 
these creatures in great numbers at Guagira ; and the other, 



because I fear that the four boxes of Orchidea and one of seeds, 
which were to leave Santa Martha by the November or Decem- 
ber packet, may have arrived in England, at a time of frost; so 
that I am very anxious to secure more of the same plants ; which 
I shall get in the Interior. Among the very fine species are a 
Scliomburghkia, a splendid Limodorum and a very singular and un- 
common Maxillaria. I have never seen the latter in full bloom, 
but judging from its strong habit and still stronger flower-stems, 
I expect it will prove a remarkable thing ; these I hope to pro- 
cure in a day or two, from the Sierras of Maracaybo ; the re- 
mainder of the road, three hundred miles, lies through a savan- 
nah country, and will afford the seeds of some fine Palms. I 
expect the distance will occupy about eighteen days. I shall 
pack up here the plants collected on this side of the Nivada, to 
be shipped by the first conveyance to Santa Martha ; whence they 
will be despatched, so as to reach England early in April, when 
there will be no risk of frost. Among other plants, gathered on 
this side of the Nivada, is a magnificent Oncidium ranking among 
the most conspicuous of that noble tribe : its bright yellow flowers 
are slightly striped in the centre with scarlet, and as large (which 
you will see by the specimens) as those of 0. Papilio : the habit 
of the species is strictly trailing, like a Manettia. I have some 
fears about getting this plant to England alive, its pseudo-bulbs 
being so delicate. I found it climbing over mossy trees, to then- 
topmost branches, on the river San Antonio, at an elevation of 
about 3,000 feet. There is also a showy and fragrant plant, like 
Catasetum, but a distinct genus. 

The ascent of this slope of the Nivada has afforded me many 
more plants than did the other side, by way of San Sebastian. 
The vegetation is generally stronger and finer. After ascending 
2,000 feet, I came to a gigantic forest oiLaurus Per sea (Avocado 
Pear) strewing the ground with its delicious fruits, and the 
luxuriant foliage affording an impenetrable shade: there were 
also a few scattered Palms ; the slender and graceful Chamcedorea 
gracilis was particularly abundant ; producing pendent clusters 
of golden fruit, which imparted a lively aspect to the otherwise 
sombre wilderness. This mixture of trees continued till about 
4,000 feet of elevation ; where Palms become more predominant, 
blending with the less noble but more delicate and beautiful 
Tree-Ferns. There was nothing, however, new to me in this 
vegetation. Higher still, at 5,000 feet, comes the Podocarpus, 
with some Myrtaceous trees, Melastoma and the stately Wax- 
Palm, the only Palm that is found at such an elevation. Hence, 
till shrubs cease (at about 11,000 feet) the beautiful Bef arias 


(the Bhododendrons of South America) and other ericoid shrubs, 
with some suffruticose Syngenesia and a few conspicuous Melas- 
tomacees, compose the principal vegetation. The last plant of 
any size seen near the snow, is a robust Syngenesia, which is 
esteemed highly medicinal ; here and there grew also patches of 
a showy Lupine, some kinds of Geranium, and, in swampy 
spots, an Osmunda, several Carices, and a striking Pinguicula, 
reminding me of our P. grandiflora, with foliage of the same 
glistening and icy-cold nature. The plants that vegetated highest 
up were a conspicuous species of Alypium, and, along the margin 
of perpetual snow, a Primula ; which I should have much liked 
to gather in bloom. Many other plants were seen upon the 
Sierra, but not in sufficient abundance to form any feature in the 
landscape. I found in rocky spots a striking Echeveria ; a neat, 
but not conspicuous Daphne ; one species of Fuchsia, and two 
of Berberis, with a strong and rather rare Passion-flower, a 
Tropceolum, several Ardisia, an Ilex, and a Crataegus, &c. 

On my return hither two days ago, I received your and Mr. 
Smith's letters, announcing the arrival of my first box of plants 
from Sta. Martha : sorry I am that some of the contents had 
perished. I am now convinced that it is a faulty plan to pack 
OrchidecB (finally) shortly after they are gathered ; which I did 
with all my Jamaica plants, and with the box in question from 
Sta. Martha. I have observed that after carrying plants in open 
airy baskets for a week or two, the oldest bulbs of the Orchidece 
commonly perish : thus it must be advisable to ascertain their 
state before sending them away. When I arrived at Rio de la 
Hacha, I found, in the four boxes just despatched, that there 
was a full bushel of dead and broken rubbish : if this had been 
allowed to remain in consequence of the packages having been 
closed, it must have destroyed many more plants ; and to a 
similar process of unexamined decay, I attribute my previous 

I am anxious to hear how the roots of Achimenes have borne 
the journey ; in order that I may yet secure more if desirable, for 
I know of a station where three species grow, on the mountains 
above Sta. Martha ; one of which 1 believe is not in cultivation. 
Every inquiry has been made, since I came into Columbia, with 
a view to obtaining intelligence of the Palo de Vacca (Cow-tree), 
but I can hear nothing of it, The Phytelephas (Vegetable Ivory 
Palm) is procurable at Sta. Martha, the nuts being brought 
from the province of Maraquita ; but I am not so sure of their 
freshness : therefore, in the absence of further directions from 
you about my movements, I think of ascending the Magdalena, 


and myself collecting growing plants and seeds of the Ivory 
Palm. If time allows, I shall make an excursion to the moun- 
tains in that district, and return to Santa Martha about the 
middle or end of March. I have much to do there and mean to 
make the best possible use of my opportunities and to bring 
with me all the plants I can. 

If there is anything you particularly desire to receive from 
Jamaica, have the goodness to specify it : my acquaintance 
with the stations in that island will probably enable me to 
procure it without difficulty, and it is probable I must come 
home via Jamaica. 

Santa Martha, February 21st, 1845. 

I returned to this place a month ago and was laid up imme- 
diately for a fortnight, with fever and ague i though weak, I 
am now recovered. There is much fever in the country, carrying 
off great numbers of people. My first business has been to 
prepare my plants, which are despatched by this day's Packet 
(the list is enclosed). They have been gathered some time and 
are packed in the way recommended by Mr. Smith in his last 
letter ; so that I trust they will arrive in the same excellent 
order they are in now. I particularly wish that the bulbs of the 
trailing Oncidium may succeed : they are delicate. They should 
be twisted round a mossy branch and placed in a cool part of 
the stove, their native habitat being river-courses, 4,000 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

I take the liberty of mentioning that the thermometers arrived 
safely ; but they are of no use to me ; because I want them to 
ascertain heights, which can be estimated sufficiently accurately 
by a thermometer for all botanical purposes. For instance, 
my thermometer gave the altitude, which I reached on the Sierra 
Nivada, as 14,500 feet ; and I calculated the snowy peaks above 
to be 2,000 feet higher than where I stood ; and as this amounts 
to the same measurement as Humboldt, and I tested the eleva- 
tion again when I descended, I feel satisfied with the general 
correctness of my reckoning. But the thermometers now sent 
are unfit even for the common temperature of the tropics, their 
range being only isfo Fahr.; so that riding in the sun would burst 
them in my pocket. Unfortunately I am now without one ; for a 
thermometer which I purchased in Jamaica was broken at the 
time of my illness. 

The boxes contain many fine plants. No. 3 is perhaps among 
the noblest of Orchidea ; its pseudo-bulbs resemble those of a 


Gongora, but are longer, and the peduncles, two feet long, are 
pendent, and bear at the extremity three or four very large fra- 
grant flowers, with a scent equalling that of Stanhopea grandi- 
fiora, but more succulent, and thus very difficult to dry ; orange 
and scarlet are the prevailing colours of these charming blossoms. 
This plant is very rare, and comes from the Sierras of Maracaybo. 
I also send a box of seeds and one containing Cacti t there is 
a pretty Mammillaria and a few plants of a species of Melocactus, 
probably distinct from M. communis. Among the seeds are 
some of a splendid Passion-flower, which I gathered near the 
snow : it was in bloom on my first ascent, but I could not secure 
fruit, till the last time. I found this fruit very delicious, the 
Indians give it the name of Cummincalla. In a few days I 
expect to secure growing plants of Lafoensia punici/olia, for 
my Ward's case. 

I lately sold my four cargo mules for eight doubloons : less 
than they cost by a good deal ; but I have had eight months 
work of them, and they are, of course, somewhat out of condition, 
and grass being scarce, their keep is very dear here. I still 
retain my own riding mule, which I bought for one hundred 
dollars, and expect to realize the same sum for it. 

The most remarkable Palm I have seen is a scandent, or 
climbing one, called " Malamda," and with more the aspect of a 
briar than a palm : I send seeds of it. 

After I shall have made a few excursions to the mountains, 
behind Santa Martha, it is my present design to ascend the Mag- 
dalena, to three days journey above Mompax (eleven days' ascent 
in all). There, at a place called Taguaje, from the native name 
of the Ivory-Nut Palm {Phytelephas), this tree, the Tagua, 
abounds ; and I shall also be in the vicinity of Ocafia, the 
mountains of which may be worth a visit. But as this plan is 
formed in the absence of precise instructions from you, it is pro- 
bable the letters I look for by the next packet may alter my 

I have collected many Palm-seeds of different kinds, which 
should have been sent home with the other things ; but I am 
unable to pack them properly without moss, which is not to be 
had till I go to Mancha. A plant of the singular Aristolochia is 
thriving beautifully in one of my glass cases. 

My dried specimens are also waiting till the next packet. 1 
have been too ill to arrange and despatch them yet. 

Several gentlemen have given me descriptions of Phytelephas, 
{Ivory-Nut Palm) which they all profess to know well ; but the 
details which they communicate vary strangely. One says the 


tree is dwarfish, not a yard high, and produces its nuts at the 
bottom ; while others assure me that it is a lofty Palm, and that 
the fruits are procured from the summit. Of course, I am the 
more desirous to see the tree myself. A few days since, thirty 
tons of the nuts arrived from the Magdalena, commissioned for 
America and Germany : 1 applied for and received some, and 
found, on cutting open two or three, that they were quite fresh, 
and the germ in a state of perfect vitality. Accordingly I planted 
some fifty, and I hope they may succeed. 

You speak of my collecting sea-weeds, but I have only visited 
the coast in two places, near Rio de la Hacha, which is low and 
sandy, and affords none. I hope to be more successful at Santa 
Martha. It will be necessary for me to return thither, that I 
may plant the nuts or growing specimens of Phytelephas, which 
I expect to procure up the Magdalena River. In the absence of 
instructions from you, I shall probably visit Antioquia, said to be 
famous for its rich mountain vegetation. 

Santa Martha, March 23rd, 1845. 

At the time when I wrote last, rather more than a month ago, 
I was very weak, from an attack of fever and ague. During my 
tardy recovery, I have been engaged in packing my dried speci- 
mens, which I forward in two boxes, by the same packet as 
carries this letter. Owing to the carelessness of the persons who 
brought my luggage from Rio de la Hacha, some of the bundles 
were immersed in salt water, to the injury of the specimens and 
destruction of the seeds. 

To-morrow I start for Mancha and other places in the vicinity, 
where I hope to procure plants to fill one glass case, reserving 
the other for the Ivory-Nut Palms. My present intended route 
is by way of Ocana, and thence to cross the mountains to Bogota, 
a beautiful and fertile district, according to the reports I hear, 
and which has never been hitherto travelled by any botanist. I 
have no doubt that I shall find many interesting plants at Bogota : 
have the kindness to address me, care of the British Minister. 

There are some good Ferns among the plants now sent, but 
this tribe is less numerous here than in the West India Islands. 
Among the dried specimens I have lost, were fine ones of Lafo- 
ensia punicifolia : two or three still remain, and some good 
Orchidece. I sent growing plants of a very fine Stanhopea, 
from the Sierra de Maracaybo, which is part of the same chain 
of the Andes which I shall meet with again at Ocana. The 
vegetation is said to be far richer around Bogota than at Santa 


Martha, and there are snowy mountains between Ocana and 

I am glad to hear that the Lace Barks thrive so well. I shall 
do my best to keep a journal of my travels, and to make notes 
of everything worthy of observation ; but this is no easy task, 
where all the arrangements devolve upon one individual : my 
eye has to be upon all minutiae, and often at night I am too 
weary to sit down to write. 

I am not yet quite decided whether to proceed to Bogota, by 
the Valle Dupar, or by the river Magdalena, ascending it to 
Ocaiia. The latter is the most direct course, but I shall of 
course get no plants that way. 

Tidings have just arrived from Bogota of a dreadful visitation 
that has befallen the Valle of Ambolema, famous for its tobacco. 
An avalanche descended from the snowy range of Tolima, and 
covered four leagues, engulphing a thousand persons, all its 
population. For many miles down the Magdalena river the 
effect of this catastrophe was seen, in the destruction of the fish 
killed by the sudden rush of cold water. Government has esti- 
mated the damage at 60,000 dollars worth of tobacco. 

Santa Martha, April 20th, 1845. 

Since the sailing of the last packet, I have made excursions to 
all accessible points of the mountain range lying behind this 
town, and have collected as many Orchidece, some very handsome 
species, as fill a large box. I have also many seeds : one is a 
species of Lisianthm which I had not before seen, an abundant 
flowerer though not very conspicuous ; the plant grows to about 
eighteen inches high, and is much branched. There are also 
fine ripe fruits of the Granadilla ; and I see in an old work called 
' Floresta de Santa Martha,' and written by a Spanish military 
officer, about a hundred years ago, that the wood of this tree was 
then exported, being very highly prized for its beauty in orna- 
mental furniture. Now, nothing seems known of the Granadilla 
timber ; and, indeed, the taste for any decorative articles in a 
house is at the lowest ebb. I have not been able to fill the glass 
case with growing plants, as 1 hoped, and have therefore put 
Palm-seeds into the vacant spaces that they may germinate on 
the passage. I shall leave the case under the charge of Mr. Fer- 
guson, an English merchant, who is also appointed Vice Consul 
here, during the approaching temporary absence of Mr. Marks, 
who is about to proceed to Bogota, by way of the river. 

I trust to start myself the day after to-morrow, and mean to 


diminish the expence of land-carriage by sending before me to 
the port of Ocafia, all such things as I can dispense with till I 
arrive there. The mule I mentioned before, is in good condition, 
and quite fit for the journey. 

Enclosed are some flowers of a splendid Orchidea : several 
growing plants of it are forwarded ; but I have been unable to 
dry good specimens. 

I shall write from Ocana, which is probably the first good 
botanizing ground I shall reach, six hundred miles distant, the 
country between is said to be all savanna. The weather con- 
tinues very warm, 90° in the shade, and 87° during night : 
happily there is no rain, which is a most favourable circumstance 
for my journey ; several rivers, difficult to be forded, occurring 
within a few days' travelling from hence. My health continues 

Ocana, July 20th, 1845. 

Since writing from Santa Martha, I have reached this place, 
traversing a burning plain from five to six hundred miles wide, 
and destitute of all vegetable interest, except as regards its 
numerous Palms. So very trying a journey I never made ; but 
my health was good, though I had one or two slight touches of 
fever. At the village of Semana, seventeen leagues from hence, 
and near the great river Magdalena, I entered the mountains by 
the Paroquia del Carmen, and saw, for the first time, the Tagua, 
or Ivory-Nut Palm {Phytelephas). Rising gradually between two 
ranges of mountains of great elevation, I reached Ocana, which 
is situated on an undulated amphitheatre of bare grassy hills, 
those in the distance only being clad with primitive forest. The 
elevation of the city is 2500 feet, the surrounding hills about 
1500 feet more : there are 6,000 inhabitants. Nothing can be 
more delicious than the climate, the temperature varying from 
65° to 75° Pahr. At Ocana, for the first time in South America, 
I have seen little gardens attached to the houses. Apples are 
grown with some success, and wheat is raised on the hills suffi- 
cient for the consumption of the town. I cannot praise the 
quality of the bread. 

Bad weather prevented my doing much for some days after 
my arrival. I have been obliged to purchase mules for the 
journey to Bogota ; the hire of each animal to go thither being 
charged forty -five dollars, while the price to buy them is only 
five dollars more ; — viz., fifty dollars for cargo mules, and from 
one hundred to one hundred and fifty dollars for those which are 


used to the saddle. I am fortunately provided with a riding- 
beast, and have procured four others, at about 200 dollars : but 
the bargain was attended with much difficulty, for the people 
here are very hard to deal with. 

I spent about a fortnight in the mountains of Ocana. From 
the peculiarly marly nature of the soil, a Be/aria is common, 
even at this elevation : there are plants of it in the glass-case. 
Two gigantic forest-trees, species of Cinchona, abound in 
the virgin woods, they are conspicuous and highly fragrant. 
The most remarkable things I have found are two kinds of 
Siphocawpylus, one particularly handsome and rare; I send 
growing plants of them. Also, some small specimens of a most 
remarkable Balanophora, which I have often seen, five or six 
inches in diameter. The natives call it ' Cardon de la Cordillera '. 
Its colour is Indian-red and its rigid bracteas completely enclose 
the flower when in its most perfect state. Moist places, near the 
summit of the range, produce it abundantly. Also, another 
singular plant, allied to Balanophora, but quite a distinct genus : 
I have only three specimens and they are not yet dry. A showy 
Salvia, and a most beautiful Begonia* so closely resembling a 
Fuchsia, that I took it for one : in habit, and inflorescence, it 
rivals our finest cultivated Fuchsias, and excels them by being 
in bloom all the year : I send growing plants and a few seeds 
of it, and a quantity of roots of two species of Achimenes, new 
to me ; one, which I gathered in flower, grows dwarfish, its flowers 
are showy and white. Of Orchidea I found few : Nos. 1 and 2 
are handsome and highly fragrant. 

Having received information, that my baggage, which, to save 
land-carriage, I sent by the river, had arrived at Puerta Mac- 
connal de Ocana, three days' journey from this place, I proceeded 
thither. I ascertained that the celebrated Phytelephas grew in 
that direction, and accordingly, one day after leaving Ocana, and 
on my way to the Port, I found it at La Laguneta, a small 
settlement, and being told that I should no where else have such 
good opportunity of collecting it, I spent some days there. 

The Phytelephas, or Ivory-nut Palm, is dioecious, very graceful 
in aspect and producing 15-20 pinnate leaves, which, when 
full-grown, measure nearly twenty feet in length, and are of a 
delicate pale green colour. The nature of this Palm is to have 
little or no stem, its habit is not robust. In old specimens, the 
mid-rib of the leaves is flattened, but in young and fruit-bearing 
ones, it is round. The aspect of both sexes is the same. The 
male plant is distinguished by its spatha: the female plant 

* Begonia fuclmoides ; lately published, with a figure, in the pages of our 
Botanical Magazine 


produces none, or it bursts and disappears at a very early stage 
of growth. The male flowers and spatha are produced from the 
axils of the inner leaves and they incline outwards. The singular 
heads of fertile inflorescence grow round the base of the plant, 
often six clusters at one time and the heads rest on the ground, 
or are wedged between the leaves, and borne on a buried footstalk, 
of which the fibre is exceedingly tough. These clusters are of 
an imperfectly rounded form, covered with strong protuberan- 
ces, about an inch and a half long, resembling styles, but which 
have generally no connexion with the fructification of the seeds. 
On dissecting one of these compact heads, I found it to consist 
of many clusters, with three to five, commonly four seeds, com- 
pactly knitted together. Hence the name of this Palm," Cabeza 
del Nigro," by no means an inapt comparison, for the style- 
like projections resemble a black man's rigid hair. The styles 
contract to a point, tipped by a stigma, four or five inches 
long and again divided into as many points as there are 
seeds or cavities in the clusters. At a very early stage, these 
hollows are filled with a watery fluid, of a sweetish taste, which 
lessens in quantity with the advancing state of the fruit. The 
foliage of this Palm is used for thatching, and the whole of the 
houses in the Paroquia del Carmea are thus covered, the Ivory- 
nut Palm abounding in that neighbourhood. The leaves of other 
Palms are, however, better adapted to the purpose. Enclosing 
the seeds is a yellow, sweet, oily pulp, which is collected at the 
present season (October), and sold, under the name of Pepe del 
Tagua, for one real a pound, at Ocafia. A spoonfull of it, with 
a little sugar and water, makes the celebrated Chiche de Tagua, 
said to be the most delicious beverage of this country. It has, 
however, a slightly drastic property. Although this substance 
contains much oil, it never becomes rancid by keeping, but at 
the end of nine months it preserves, in a crude state, all its 
flavour and quality. 

The Phytelephas principally inhabits dense shady woods, facing 
the Magdalena, at an elevation of 1,000 to 3,000 feet on the 
mountains. I do not believe it is ever seen in the hot plains or 
level country. At the season when the fruit is ripe, the country- 
is scented with its fragrance and all wild animals, hogs and 
turkeys, are extremely fond of it. 

I shall leave this place in four days, for La Cruz Bucaramanga, 
proceeding thence to Pamplona, the highest town in New Grenada : 
snow frequently falls there. I shall return to Bucaramanga, that 
being the direct road to Bogota. The whole journey is in Tierra 
fria and I hope will afford some valuable plants. 

I am anxious to know how this consignment of plants &c. 


arrives. The glass-case contains growing specimens of Tagua ; and 
the soil is full of fresh seeds. I also send a box of the newly- 
gathered nuts, packed in moss. If these should unfortunately 
suffer by the voyage, 1 can procure more on my way down the 
river and am therefore peculiarly desirous to know their fate, 
without delay. 

There are two singular kinds of Achimenes, which I hope may 
reach you alive ; if not, they are worth looking for, on my return 

When I reach Bogota, if I find no instructions from you as to 
my further course, I shall endeavour to employ my time to the 
best advantage ; botanizing in different directions, till I do receive 
orders. I am still of opinion that the Province of Antioquia 
offers a promising field. 

The plants in boxes and the glass-case will be forwarded by 
the Packet, which conveys this letter. My health is now, happily 

Bogota, Nov. 13th, 1845. 

I reached this place four days, in good health ; but I find no 
letters, though a Packet has very recently arrived. 

The country I have traversed from Ocana hither is moun- 
tainous and beautiful, but unfortunately deficient in virgin 
forests ; owing to the practice which the inhabitants pursue of 
burning considerable tracts every year, their object being to obtain 
with little trouble, fresh grass for their cattle. Rich as is the 
soil, a very small amount of labour bestowed on cultivation would 
procure all the necessaries of life ; but such is the rooted idleness 
of the people that they prefer depending on their cattle. 

I found the cold very severe in the Paramos ; not from its 
absolute intensity, for the thermometer rarely falls below 40°, 
but because, in these elevated regions, the atmosphere is so rare. 
Animals and birds perish in great numbers with the cold : I 
noticed large tracts strewed with their bones. Still these places 
were highly interesting to me in a botanical point of view, and 
produced noble Gentians and Syngenesious plants. I am sending 
home a fine collection of seeds, chiefly of Ericea, Berberidece, a 
striking Tovaria &c. 

Four days' journey from Bogota, I found the most beautiful 
plant that has yet rewarded my researches, a Lisianthus, forming 
a dense shrub, about three feet high, and covered with lax racemes 
of scarlet flowers. As the seeds were not ripe, I must go again to 
collect them ; a considerable detour, which it is, however, advisable 


to make, for the living plants which I took up, will not, I fear bear 
the journey to Antioquia: the route to reach which is by the 
Peak of Tolema. 

I arrived here with only a real and a half (nine-pence English) 
in my possession, in debt with my servants and my clothes almost 
reduced to rags. A few days, however, will enable me to set 
these little matters to rights. 

The situation of Bogota is delightful, though rather cold, the 
thermometer varying from 58° to 63°. The city stands at the 
sloping base of a rock, which rises almost perpendicularly 1500 
feet above it. A beautiful plain, several leagues in extent, 
stretches in front ; while westward there is a fine view of the snowy 
peak of Tolema, which I shall pass on my way to Antioquia. 

You will be glad to hear that I detected the famous Cow-Tree 
of this country (Arbol de Leche); indeed, two kinds of what is 
so called. I have sent seeds of one sort ; the other, of inferior 
quality and value, was not in fruit, but in flower. Both are of 
gigantic stature, and it is singular that they are quite distinct, 
though probably alike belonging to the family of Sapotece. The 
most esteemed of these Cow-Trees was laden with its golden 
fruit, the size of a pigeon's egg, which strewed the ground beneath. 
Every part of the tree, including the delicious fruit, abounds with 
milk, which is agreeable, and tastes like sugared cream ; having, 
however, a clammy consistency, which does not please all palates. 
I found no injurious effects to follow my partaking freely of this 
vegetable milk. 

Bogota, Feb. 11th, 1846. 

On my return from a tour, through Muzo and Tunja, I have 
the pleasure to receive your letter of the 19th, of October. 

A few days since I dispatched a box of seeds, two of growing 
plants, and two of dried specimens. Every precaution has been 
used in the packing and I think that no injury can occur, except 
mischief be done in going from the river to Santa Martha. The 
navigation, though only thirty miles from the mouth of the river 
to the latter place, is carried on in such wretched, ill-constructed, 
and worse managed craft, that I am ready to tremble for the fate 
of my boxes. All was in the best condition when despatched. 

Bogota, February 9th, 1846. 

The purport of your last letter has somewhat changed my 
proposed route. I shall still, however, go to Antioquia, and 
return, either by way of the Rio Conca, or by the Magdalena, to 


Santa Martha. The post is expected to arrive on the 11th; and 
I am occupying the interval in excursions around Bogota. 

I return you my grateful thanks for recommending me to the 
office of Curator of the Botanic Gardens at Trinidad. If I 
obtain the appointment, I trust to do good service to Botany. 

I have just despatched a box of seeds, two of dried specimens, 
and one of living plants. They are all carefully packed ; and if 
they sustain no injury between this place and Santa Martha, where 
the" navigation as before stated is very ill conducted, there is 
little fear of damage on the longer voyage to Europe. Among 
the dried plants, you will find two specimens of a Balanopliorous 
species. It is small and rare: the form is globular and it 
inhabits moist temperate woods, growing parasitically on decayed 
vegetable substance. There are also duplicates of one which I had 
sent previously and of which I hope soon to transmit an interesting 
detailed account: the genus is certainly distinct from Bala- 
nophora. The plant is edible and has curious yellowish rigid 
calyces, which might almost be considered bracteas. 

You will be pleased, I think, with the various species of Gesne- 
riacecs : there are seeds of them all. One, which is equally rare 
and handsome, has terminal drooping spikes : another, a Lisi- 
anthus, is fine and scarlet-flowered. I procured the seeds of it, 
by retracing my steps 100 miles on purpose, but I considered 
these pains well rewarded, by the beauty and abundance of seeds 
which I was thus enabled to gather. 1 have also, at last, suc- 
ceeded in getting abundance of seeds of a Mutisia, a Drimgs&c. 

During an excursion of five days to the East of Bogota, I 
gathered an Achimenes and a Lisianthus ; neither of which I had 
seen before. The latter grows very strong and is peculiar to this 
district. I was also much struck with the beauty of a Loam, 
with noble tulip-shaped flowers, and an upright habit. Its 
stings are very formidable, but, happily, the pain they inflict is of 
short duration. This remarkable species is singularly local, 
affecting only one spot, so far as I can ascertain, namely the 
bottom of a deep ravine, called El Vafion, fifteen miles east of 
Bogota, where it grows in immense quantity. Dr. Cespedes 
informs me that it is undescribed; and he is acquainted with no 
other habitat for it. The scenery and vegetation of this ravine 
are most beautiful ; its elevation is 2,000 feet above the sea, and 
as Mr. Marks, who accompanied me, justly observed, you would 
sooner take it for a flower-garden, than as forming part of a 
primeval forest. I also send seeds of two species of Passiflora, 
one of which inhabits the mountains to the east of Bogota, at an 
altitude of 13,000 feet. 


Immediately after the Post comes I shall start for Tolema 
and Quindiu, returning through Antioquia. I am concerned to 
tell you that Dr. Cespedes, from whom I have received great 
kindness, is now suffering from an accident. He was passing 
on horse-back beneath some trees, when his progress was 
impeded by a large branch, which struck him so severely as to 
break several ribs. This has brought his botanical excursion to a 
close, and threatens to be of dangerous consequence. Dr. Cespedes 
gave me much valuable information respecting the rare plants of 
the neighbourhood and their localities. He knows six species of 
Theobroma. On the Plains of San Martin a species grows which 
is in universal esteem among the inhabitants, who call it " Cacao 
verde ": two kinds are particularly handsome : so I consider 
one of those forwarded in the last case. Among my specimens 
are two Theobromas distinct from T. Cacos. From the same 
gentleman I hear of a PJnjtelephas, which has a twisted prostrate 
trunk ; it is so rare, that he only met with one instance of it 
during a year's residence amid a large forest of these trees. 

Santa Anna, near Honda, April 18th, 1846. 

Since writing from Bogota, I have visited the Paramo of 
Ruiz, which forms the northern extremity of the snowy range of 
Tolema, and is about eighty miles distant. Two reasons led me 
to choose this route : the vegetation promised to be like that of 
the Paramo of Quindiu ; and Mr. Linden had already visited the 
Peak of Tolema. The journey has not proved quite so productive 
as I hoped ; though I have gathered some few very good plants. 
It was necessary to return here in order to ship my collections 
and, besides ensuring a quicker despatch, thus to save the expense 
and trouble of carrying them over Quindiu. The rainy season 
has just begun, to the great joy of every one but myself. The 
protracted drought had been the cause of pressing scarcity, 
especially at Bogota. 

On my way to the Paramo of Ruiz, I was enchanted with the 
rich luxuriance of the lower mountains : no where have I seen 
more beautiful vegetation. Several kinds of Palm are conspicuous : 
I forward seeds of two species, along with the Phvtdepka?, which 
also grows there in great abundance. I am happy to inform 
you that I have had, at last, the good fortune to detect the male 
flowers of the Ivory-Nut Palm, for which I long sought in vain. 
The singularity of this inflorescence is only equalled by its beauty. 
It differs from most other Palms by having a double spatha ; 


the central column is thickly set with clusters of male blossoms, 
and forms, when taken all together, a mass three feet long, and 
four inches thick. Half is concealed within the spatha, from 
which the other portion projects in a gracefully recurved form. 
The fragrance is most powerful and delicious, beyond that of any 
other plant, and so diffusive, that the air, for many yards around, 
was alive with myriads of annoying insects, which first attracted 
my notice : the closeness of the forest not permitting me to discern 
the blossoms at any distance. I had, afterwards, to carry it in 
my hands for twelve miles, and though I killed a number of 
insects that followed me, the next day, a great many still hovered 
about it, which had come from the wood where it grew. 

Some of the Mosses of the Paramo, now sent, are peculiarly 
interesting : also a box of the Orchidece, which I gathered at a 
height of 10,000 feet, containing many new and beautiful species. 
The cold, at that height is intense, particularly in the morning 
and evening ; the absolute degree of cold is not great, but it is 
extremely penetrating, and sets the teeth chattering violently. 
However reluctant to give way, I found myself constrained to 
own its trying effects. 

You will be gratified, I think, with some bottles of Balanopho- 
rous plants : the spirits sold here are so weak and inferior, that 
it will perhaps be well to fill them again in England. The tall 
slender specimen is what Dr. Mutis proposed calling Helosis 
aquatica. Dr. Cespedes showed me a very bad figure of it, as 
described by Mutis, before I saw the growing plant. It is so 
abundant in some spots, that I could have loaded a waggon with 
it ; none of its allies are found in nearly equal profusion. One 
of the species resembles what I gathered in Ocana, but is very 
distinct, having a separate envelope which, in an early stage, 
covers the expanding flower stem. 

1 had hoped to give, in this letter, an account of the fearful 
avalanche, which caused such loss of life and property last year, 
but my time and paper forbid any details. I passed over the 
place, on my way to the Paramo : it stretches twelve miles, and 
from being a rich fertile district, is now reduced to desolate 
waste, where not a particle of vegetation remains. The fall of 
the then freezing mass overthrew whole forests, and buried the 
houses, strewing the country with stones and fragments of up- 
rooted trees, and engulphing, it is said, upwards of six hundred 
human beings. 

(To be continued) 



The Bamboo, is one of those surprising Tropical Grasses, of 
which we have no parallel in Temperate Climes. An idea of the 
grandeur and beauty which these magnificent arborescent Grasses 
impose upon the face of their native country, may, perhaps, be 
best collected from the account of Capt. Basil Hall, who, after 
travelling during the night in a palanquin, from the bare Table 
land of Mysore, towards the hilly and thickly-wooded regions 
overhanging the Malabar country, awoke in the morning, when, 
says he, " I found myself in the midst of one of the most curious 
and magnificent scenes which my eyes had ever beheld. It 
appeared as if I were travelling among the clustered columns of 
some enormous and enchanted Gothic Cathedral, compared to 
which the Minster of York, or the Cathedral at Winchester, 
would have seemed mere baby houses : the ground extended on 
all sides as smooth, and flat, and clear of underwood, as if the 
whole had been paved with grave stones. From this level 
surface rose on every hand, and as far as the eye could penetrate 
into the forest, immense symmetrical clusters of Bamboo, varying 
in diameter at their base, from six feet, to twenty or thirty, and 
even to twice that width, as I ascertained by actual measurement. 
For above eight or ten feet from the ground, each indivi- 
dual of these clusters, preserved a form nearly cylindrical, after 
which, it began gradually to swell outwards, assuming for 
itself a graceful curve and rising to the height, some of sixty, 
some of eighty, and some even of one hundred, feet in the 
air : the extreme end being at lines horizontal, or even drooping 
gently over, like the tips of the feathers in the Prince of Wales' 
plume. The gorgeous clusters stood at the distance of from 
fifteen to twenty yards from one another, and being totally free 
from the interruption of brushwood, could be distinguished at a 
great distance, more than a mile, certainly, in every direction, 
forming, under the influence of an active imagination, naves and 
transeps, aisles and choirs, such as none but a Gothic architect 
ever dared to conceive. Overhead, the interlacing curves of the 
Bamboos constituted as complete a groined roof as that of Win- 
chester or Westminster, on a scale of grandeur far beyond the 
bold conception even of those wonderful artists, who devised that 
glorious school of architecture. 

" On counting the separate Bamboos, in some of the smallest, 
and also in some of the largest clusters, I found the numbers to 
vary from twenty or thirty, to upwards of two hundred ; and the 


height, generally, from sixty to one hundred feet from the ground 
at the point of intersection of the curves overhead. Most of the 
Bamboos were somewhat thicker than a man's thigh at the 
ground, where, as I have before said, they are clustered so close 
as to be almost in contact. They then taper off very gradually 
to the extreme end, where the point is not thicker than a quill. 

" There occurs a joint at about every foot and a half; distin- 
guished not only by a flat ring, or fillet, but by a set of small 
branches, eight or ten feet long, striking out at right angles to 
the main Bamboo. These minor shoots are again divided into 
joints ; from which, other series of shoots, still more minute, 
are thrown out, and so on for many successions, the last always 
terminating in a sharp-pointed narrow leaf, two or three inches 
long, and half an inch wide in the middle, not unlike a large 
Tea leaf, when spread out. As each Bamboo, of the hundred or 
more forming the cluster, sends out shoots from every joint, and 
as all the joints of these subordinate plants do the same, a com- 
pact mass is formed by these innumerable little branches, which 
cross one another at every possible angle. If a person were to 
rill a hat full of pins and needles, and shake them about for some 
minutes, it might give a notion of the inextricable confusion 
which is presented to the eye in looking into one of these clustered 
columns of Bamboos. It is only at the top, where the bend 
takes place, that the foliage has full room to play, or where the 
tapering arms of this magnificent plant form, by their meeting 
and crossing, a complete system of pointed arches. 

" What surprised me at first, very much, and greatly puzzled 
me, too, was to observe that, notwithstanding the multitude of 
lateral shoots from each of the main Bamboos, and from all the 
subordinate branches, not a single trace of displacement, or the 
slightest obstruction to the growth of any branch, could be 
detected. Every person must have heard of the astonishing 
rapidity of growth in the Bamboo : it is said, indeed, that in one 
season it starts up to its whole length, I do not know if this be 
true, but am quite certain that if one of the main Bamboos were 
to spring from the ground in the centre, or even near the sides 
of the cluster, and that from its points there were, at the same 
time, to sprout the lateral branches I have described, it would be 
impossible for the main stem to force its way through the ob- 
structions presented by the network, formed by the little branches 
growing from the joints of the other Bamboos in the cluster." 

Captain Hall then goes on to state how he thinks we can 
perceive " the way in which Nature manages this difficult affair. 
When the Bamboo first springs out of the ground, it is about as 


thick as a man's wrist, always highly polished, with an extremely 
hard point ; and, as no lateral shoots are put out until it has 
attained its] full height, it readily makes its way through the 
thickest ramified masses, while the subordinate branches, growing 
in the same manner, find no difficulty in piercing this complicated 
mass of vegetable life. 

" I saw ", continues this Author ; " Bamboos in every different 
stage of this process, and particularly I noticed several of the 
main stems rising to the height of seventy feet and upwards, of 
a clear yellow colour, and evidently of recent growth, but without 
a single lateral branch growing from their joints, from top to 
bottom ; and this led me to infer that their extreme height had 
not been reached, or was but just attained." 

Bamboos are applied to many useful purposes, both in India, 
China, and Japan. The tender tops are used to form a pickle ; 
an excellent paper is manufactured from the tissue of the stem , 
and the stems themselves are employed in a great variety of 
ways, such as the making of furniture for their houses, cups, 
tubs, and boxes : also, in the construction of dwellings, which 
are sometimes covered with the gigantic leaves of the Banana : 
in making water-pipes, and in the construction of fences. The 
substance called, in India, Tabashur, is procured from the joints ; 
it was ascertained, by Dr. Turner, to consist of silica, with a 
minute proportion of lime and vegetable matter. 



(I am indebted to the kindness of Captain Sir Everard Home, Bart., R.N., 
for the following interesting table, made during an extended voyage in H.M.S. 
' North-Star ', which may be of use to many persons who cultivate plants from 
any of the regions there mentioned, and for regidating the temperature of 
houses, &c. — Ed.) 









10 ,h tol5 th | 88° 

„ n o Malay Peninsula, 
South extremity. 



4 _ 12 89 




16 — 24 j 66 

53 jChina. 


1 — 5 | 84 




24 — 26 j 68 




21 — 31 1 76 




1— 30 I 75 



1 — 31 ] 76 




1— 9 












16 th to30 th 






1 — 31 





1 — 31 





1 — 30 




1 — 19 




April, May. 

29— 2 



Island Timor. 

Port Essington. 


6 — 31 



New Holland, North 




1 — 23 



KingGeorge's Island 


23 — 31 





May, June. 




South Coast. 

Port Phillip. 

June, July. 







10 — 24 



Ditto, East Coast. 


12 — 31 




3 — 11 





1 — 30 





1 — 12 





12 — 30 




June, July. 











July, Aug. 

16— 1 



Nov. Dec. 





May, June. 




Van Diemen's Land. 

Port Arthur. 


9 — 13 



South Extremity. 



23 — 30 






1 — 31 





1 — 31 





1 — 23 



New Zealand. 

Bay of Islands. 


1 — 18 



North End of 


March, April. 

30 — 5 




April, May. 

26 — 12 





20 — 25 




1 — 31 





1 — 30 




1 — 31 




1 — 30 




1 — 31 



100 miles South of 



20 — 26 



Bay of Islands. 


23 — 29 




7 — 23 





14 — 18 




10 — 14 




13 — 24 




10 — 16 



Dec. Jan. 

23 — 18 



Port Nicholson. 

Jan. Feb. 

26— 3 



Cook's Strait. 



16 — 24 




Aug. Sept. Oct. 

and 1 to 5 












3 rd tol0 ,h 



In Blind Bay. 








1 — 10 



Banks's Peninsula, 

Norfolk Island. 


10 — 19 



Tonga-taboo Island. 

July, August. 




Friendly Islands. 

Varan Island. 


14 — 20 




TJpolu Navigator' s I. 

Aug. and Sept. 

24 — 1 



Navigator's Group. 

Wallis's Island. 


5 — 14 



Latitude 13° 20' S., 
Long. 176° 20' W. 

Cape of Good Hope. 


24 — 27 





25 — 31 


5 7 

St. Helena. 


22 — 28 





3— 5 



Fayal, Azores. 


8 — 11 



Halifax, Nova Scotia. 


25 — 28 



5 , 


3 — 10 




Jan. Feb. 

22 — 10 




March, April. 






10 — 27 



Port Royal, Jamaica. 


3 — 11 





13 — 15 




Feb. March. 

27— 1 





11 — 31 





1 — 28 




Sept. Oct. 

28 — 10 




Oct. Nov. 

26— 11 




Nov. Dec. 

17— 4 





8 — 17 



Port Antonio. 

Dec. Jan. 

24— 2 



North side of 


Dec. Jan. 




Carlisle Bay. 



9 — 16 





21 — 26 




March, April. 

8— 8 





13 — 17 





1 — 14 










1 — 30 



Carib. Islands 

St. Thomas's. 


16 — 19 



St. Vincent's. 

April, May. 

22 — 11 



Carib. Sea. 



7 — 12 



St. Juan's, Nicaragua 


18 — 24 



Musquito Coast. 



10 — 12 




Jan. Feb. 

30— 1 



Isth. Panama. 



17 — 20 




Jan. Feb. 






9 — 13 



La Guayra. 


11 — 14 




May, June. 






1 — 30 



Brazil . 



1 — 31 












l st to31 st 86° 

7 7° Brazil. 

1 — 13 84 




1 — 30 84 
! 1 — 31 85 


Nov. and Dec. 

124 — 11 84 



1—31 84 




23 — 30 84 
1 — 31 S3 




1 — 21 | 82 
1 8 — 25 | 83 


The same intelligent friend (Capt. Sir Everard Home, Bart.,) 
in reply to some queries put to him, has given the following in- 
teresting notices : — 

" There is no fear of the Pines {Araucaria excel set) being ex- 
hausted upon Norfolk Island. The island is very nearly covered 
with' them ; their outline having, at a distance, the appearance of 
Cathedral ruins, &c, as the light or shade may be; and the 
convicts do no more work than they are obliged. 

" I forget whether I mentioned to you that the island was- 
formerly covered with orange-trees. The Commandant, in 1827, 
Colonel Morrison, believing that the fruit furnished means of 
sustenance to the runaway convicts, caused them to be destroyed, 
with a very few exceptions, which trees have since gone off; and 
although every means have been taken to re-establish them, they 
will not succeed. In 1844 there was but one tree upon the 
island, and that was in an unhealthy state. 

" In the Island of Ascension, the vegetables cultivated in the 
garden will not re-produce their seed : the seed being supplied 
by contract, it is often old and bad. When I was there, this time 
last year, they had not vegetables to give the sick in the hospital, 
the consequence of which was that the men did not recover; and 
those sent to the island from the Coast of Africa, instead of re- 
turning thence to their duty, were invalided, and sent to England. 
I think the gardens of those islands might be supplied regularly 
with good seed, from some Government establishment in England 
that could be depended upon. In New Zealand, beans, peas, 
&c, do not bear a crop until the second year. 

" In Van Diemen's Land it is believed that neither fruit nor 
flowers have the same flavour or perfume as here, although 
they are very fine. Nor have bees the same degree of venom in 
their stings. 

" The largest known tree there is twenty-four and a half feet 


in diameter, the tallest is ISO feet: they are White Gum trees. 
Hops, &c., in the Southern Hemisphere turn in the same direction 
as they do in Europe." 

"At Port Nicholson (Cook's Strait), French Beans and Scarlet 
Runners are not good until the second year. Broad, or Windsor, 
Beans produce the best crop in the second year. Scarlet Kale is 
never good, for want of frost to sweeten it : it is bitter." 

An excellent correspondent, Assistant-Surgeon J. E. Stocks, 
Esq., of Scinde, writes as follows, from that country, so little 
known in a botanical point of view. — 

" Perhaps a brief statement of what I have seen of the Scinde 
vegetation may be acceptable, though almost valueless from its 
incompleteness. However, I trust one day to do better, and 
this may illustrate the few plants I have now sent. 

" The Beloochistan Hills (Brahooie range), which form the W. 
boundary of Scinde and run parallel with the river, sending 
spurs towards it, are confined to the right bank t except at two 
places, viz., Sukkur and Hyderabad, where the river passes 
through a Limestone range, which does not, however, extend far 
from the river on its left bank. The hills and their spurs vary 
in their distance from the river, (reaching down to it sometimes, 
as at Jerruk and Sehwan,) and the tract of land between them 
and the river is well cultivated, more especially the oval island 
formed by the divergence and re-entrance of the Arun branch 
(of which Lake Munchur is a mere expansion). On the left bank, 
the land is less and less cultivated as you recede from the river, 
till it shades off into the great desert to the E., and the little 
desert, to the S.E. 

" During the inundation, numerous canals carry fertility over 
a large extent of country ; and under the admirable management 
of Major Scott, will, in a few years, make the revenue swell out 
wonderfully. But it requires two years yet, at an expense of 
20,000/. a year, to bring the canals back to the state in which 
they were when we conquered the country. Eor the Scindians 
neglected tillage, and allowed the canals to choke up, for two 
successive years, not knowing what would happen, whether the 
Ameers would be restored, or whether w r e should hold the 
country ; and the staple commodity of Scinde, viz., sand, being a 
bad material for canal- works, they get blocked up if neglected a 
single year. The Marrum grasses would be of great use in 


Scinde, or the Spinifeoe squarrosus, of the Concan, which binds 
the ' ribbed sea-sand.' To return to Scinde : there is the Delta 
also, ending in the line of Sea-coast, forming the S.W. boundary. 
The Delta I do not know, except that it produces gigantic grasses 
and sedges in abundance ; and I have only seen the coast at the 
extreme west angle, where, at Kurrachee, the Beloochistan hills 
come down to the sea. 

"There grow the Convolvulus Pes-Capra, Salsolas, Salicornias, 
jEgiceras majus (mentioned by Arrian as having sweet flowers 
like a violet, laurel leaves, and growing below high-water mark, 
which can apply to nothing so well as to this), a Scavola, and, no 
doubt, Avicennia and Rhizophoras, though I have not seen these 

" A Stat ice and a Lycium seem also to confine themselves (as 
much as they can) to the neighbourhood of the sea ; and many 
plants, when growing within reach of the salt breezes, get fat 
and hypertrophied, with thickened leaves. AVhat is it that 
causes the change above referred to ? 

" In the sandy deserts of Scinde grow Calotropis Hamiltonii, 
and its parasite Phelipaa Calotropidis, Capparis aphylla, Zizyphi, 
Acacias, Mimosas, Cassias, Indi gofer as, Neurada, Cucumis ama- 
rus, Colocynthis vulgaris, Fagonia Mysorensis, Equisetum debile, 
Tributes lanuginoms, Alhagi Maurorum, Prosopis spinigera, Fa- 
chellia Farnesiana, Corchorus humilis (Munro — Wight's ' Icones.' 
1073, Corchorus humifums, Law in « Bombay Catalogue,' p. 254.) 
which regularly opens its flowers at 3, p.m.. 

" Round villages, or where the soil is better, or has been 
cultivated, grow also Sidas {humilis, alba, &c), Lebretonia, 
Pavotiia, Abelmoschi, Abutilons, Cardiospermum Halicacubum, 
Aristolochia bracteata, Phyllanthus Niruri, Polygalas fBothiana, 
rosmarinifolia, &c), Gynandropsis pentaphylla, Cadaba Indica, 
Commelinas, Lactuca sarmentosa, Sonchi, Zapania nodiflora, Gi- 
sekia molluginoides, Aerva lanata, Celosia argentca, Achgranthes 
lappacea and altermflora, Gtiaphaliums, Solanums, Argemone 
Mexicana; several Corchori, Trianthcmas, Portulaceas, Poly- 
carpaa spadicea, Glinus diclamnoides, Boerhaavia procumbens, 
and one, if not two, shrubby species. Justicia bicahculata, 
paniculata, echioides, repens, and other Acanihacea. Xanthium 
Indicum, Ipomaa Pes-Tigridis, pilosa, and dasysperma, Pharbitis 
Nil, Batatas pentaphylla, Colony ction maricatum, Convolvulus mi- 
crophyllus, and two Jacque?nontias. 

" On the spurs of the Beloochistan hills (limestone formation) 
grow Euphorbia antiquorum, two Barlerias (both, I think, new), 
Monsonia Lawiana, Melhania abutiloides, Linaria ramosissima, 


two Cleomes, Seddera, Balsamodendron Roxburahii and pnbescens, 
Cometes Su.rafeusis, Serraa purpurea. Heliotropes, Amelia, 
Xygopliyllum simpler and another species, Didesmw, Tavemiera, 
Ca inpylantlms saholoides, a shrubby Convolvulus, Gossypium obtusi- 
folw.m, Antirrhinum htsbifoliwm (nriki), &c. Again, Salvadora 
Persiea, Ochradenus dioicus, Leptadenia Jacqtremontiana, with 
Bryonia epigiPa, Bligncliosia mala, Cocci nia Indira, Tufas, Jfoiuor- 
dica Balsamina and Pilogyne cerasiformia Onilii), these, though 
not rock-plants, yet will grow where in the crevices there is any 
earth, or round the stems of the Euphorbia. On the river bank 
grow Zapania nodifora, Banuneulus Indicm, a Potentilla, Grangea 
sEgyptiaea, a Bumex, and young germinating plants of Tama- 
rix and a Populus* {the Ban tree of Scinde), cover the mud 
banks for miles. The Tamarisk is a great feature in Scinde, on 
the river banks, and in choked up canals and ravines. There 
are two species, one a large tree, whose flowers I have not as yet 
seen : its timber is useful ; as arc the woods of Dalbergia Sissoo 
(the Talee), Capparis aplylla (the Kureel), Acacia vera (the Ba- 
bool or Keehir). The SMkargues of the Ameers were formed 
almost exclusively of the Babool, which attains an enormous size, 
and is a most magnificent tree. These forests arc quite a feature 
in the country about Hyderabad ; as art: the palm-groves (Plaeui.v) 
about Sukkur. 

" I forward you a few plants gathered round Kurrachee, from 
which, collected at intervals, and under disadvantages, the fore- 
shadowings of the Scinde vegetation may be traced. Among 
the interesting genera are Neurada, Cometes, Serreea (Senra, DC), 
Ocltradenus, Didesmus, Seddera, all Egyptain and Arabian genera. 
Besides which, two Balsamodendrons (one new), — two (new?) 
Cleomes, two Jacquemontias, a shrubby Cone oh: id us, two Zygo- 
phylla (one new), a Statice, a Chaseanum, a Tycium, abundance 
of Boraginea? {Arnebia, Heliotropes, Heliop/iytum, &c.), show 
a vegetation much akin to South Persia, Arabia and Egypt ; in 
short, the nearest approach in India (geographically and botani- 
cally) to the "Syrian" vegetation, — Schouw's "Acacia and 
Mimosa region "—which extends to the Punjaub, and even to 
Agra and Delhi, as Royle long ago observed." 

^ * A very remarkable species of Poplar, very nearly allied to, if not identical 
with, Populus Evphratica, Dne. — Ed. 


1. Ceropegia Cumin giana. 

Volubilis glabra, foliis ovatis basi cordatis apice longe attenuatis acutis 
tenuibus, pedunculis folium medium sequantibus plurifloris, sepalis acutis, 
corolla? tubo clavato, limbi laciniis oblongis glabris apice cohserentibus, 
corona stam. ampla, fol. externe acuminatis approximatis glabris, interior, 
subulatis exterior, vix duplo superantibus. — Becaisne in Be Cand. Prodr. 
vol. viii. p. 643. 

Hab. Philippine Islands, Cuming, n. 447. Island of Ba'lla, m the 
Java Sound, Thos. Lobb. Cull, in Horl. Veitch, 1847. 

A very pretty climber and free flowerer, from the collection 
of Messrs. Veitch and Sons, in whose stove, at Exeter, it bloomed 
in August, 1847. The flowers are among the largest of the 
genus, and variegated with dull green and reddish brown. 

2. Calceolaria (Aposecos) chelidonioides. 


Annua (?) ramosa, pilis sparsis hispidula, foliis pinnatisectis, seg- 
mentis paucis, terminali maximo ovato lateralibus oblongis, lanceolatisye 
dentatis subincisisve, petiolis vix connatis, laciniis calycinis ovatis acutis, 
corollas labio superiore calyce dimidio breviore, inferiore maximo porrecto 
obovato orbiculato basi abrupte et longiuscule contracto breviter aperto, 
antherarum connnectivo jwstiec incrassato loculo adnato sub-sessih pollrm- 
!'( to, antice elongato clavato sterili. — Benth. 

Calceolaria chelidonioides, H. B.K., Nov. Gen. elsp. Am. vol. n. p. 37b. 
C. pinnata, Buiz, et Pav. Fl. Per. et Chil. vol. i. p. 14. 1. 19. f. a. (non 
Linn.) Benth. in Be Cand. Prodr. vol. x. p. 204. 

Var. Leedsii ; foliis fere omnibus integris. 

Hab. Peru, Columbia, Mexico. Yar. Leedsii, Bolivia, Bridges. Cult. 
in Horl. B. Leeds, 1847. 

A hardy, creeping, herbaceous, but apparently perennial species, 
raised by Mr. Leeds, of Manchester, from seeds collected m 
Bolivia by Bridges. It may, perhaps, prove a distinct species, 
for the leaves can be scarcely said to be pinnatifid in every part 
of the plant, but resemble those of the upper portion of most of 
my native specimens of the true C. chelidonioides. It clearly be- 
longs to Mr. Bentham's Aposecos section ; of which C. pmnata 
is the type If it proves new, as is more than probable, I should 
wish it to be called C. Leedsii, in compliment to a gentleman 
of Manchester, E. Leeds, Esq., who reared it from seed, and who 
is indefatigable in introducing new plants into our gardens. 


3. Aster Caubulicus. 

Herbaceus erectus ramosus, ramis obtuse angulatis fusco-pubescentibus 
foliis subsessilibus lanceolatis (supremis sublinearibus) acuminatis basi 
subatteuuatis subundulatis iiiferioribus obscure dentatis supra impresso- 
reticulatim venosis glabris subtus pallidis nervis prominentibus subpubes- 
centibus, corymbis multifioris, pedicellis sparse foliosis pubescenti-subviscosis, 
involucri ovati squamis imbricatis 3-4-serialibus liueari-subulatis viridibus 
pubescentibus apice sphacelatis inferioribus 1-2 remotis bracteiformibus, 
acheniis compressis pilosis radii sterilibus. 

Hab. Caubul. Cult, iu Hort. Kew, 1846. Receive! from Mr. Cameron 
of the Birmingham Garden. 

A pretty shrubby Aster, flowering in the Autumn in the open 
border, for it seems quite hardy, as late as October and probably 
till the frosts cut it off. Two to three feet high, erect, branched, 
copiously leafy ; leaves, with axillary shoots, four inches long in 
the lower parts of the plant, two and three in the upper, where 
they become narrower and almost linear. Corymbs ample, many- 
flowered; the flowers small but closely placed, ray pale and 
bright purple, disc deep yellow ; pappus in a single series almost 
white ; setae scabrous. 

Notice of the Pines introduced of late years into England, and 
especially of the Pinus Austriaca ; by the Rev. J. Rogers. 

The Pinus Austriaca appears to have been introduced into 
England in the year 1835 : the English name is the Austrian 
or Black Pine, and it is also called the nigricans or nigrescens. 
Having been recommended to me as a hardy Pine, likely to do 
well in Cornwall, I began to plant it there in 1839, and reared 
489 trees that year, and was encouraged, by the satisfactory 
appearance of this Pine, to plant double the number in the 
following year : so that by the end of 1846 I had planted 28,739. 
It seems peculiarly adapted to bear the violent and blighting 
winds to which Cornwall is subject, and which render care and 
skill on the part of the cultivator, both in the selection of the 
trees best adapted to the climate, and in choosing the proper 
time and mode of planting, essentially necessary. Neither the 
Larch, the Scotch Fir, nor the Spruce, will stand the south-west 
and north-west winds ; the Pinaster has been hitherto considered 
the only Pine which endures our blighting winds without 
injury, and I believe that a larger proportion of this is planted 


in Cornwall than in any other county. But the Pinus Austriaca 
is in many respects superior. The Pinaster, indeed, grows more 
rapidly, presents a fuller mass of foliage to our prevailing 
winds, and consequently is an excellent nurse in an exposed 
situation ; but it is more difficult to rear than the Pinus Aus- 
triaca, and suffers much in the nursery in a very dry, or 
very wet season. An unfavourable season has sometimes killed 
from one third to half of my young Pinasters ; whilst at the 
same time, and in the same nursery, I have not lost more than 
five per cent, of my Austriacas. The Pinaster is also less firmly 
rooted, and generally requires to be banked up after a storm for 
the first three years. The wood of the Pinaster is brittle, and 
subject to the worm : the Austriaca, as far as I can judge from 
cutting down small trees, appears tough, and is said to be 
durable, and, from the comparative straightness of its stem, is 
much better calculated for planking. It does not thrive like 
the Pinaster in a dry stony soil, but it promises to bear expo- 
sure to the sea air equally well. The largest of my Austriacas, 
planted probably in 1839, is eleven feet high and two inches 
and an eighth in diameter, three feet above the ground. A few 
are beginning to produce cones which are about the size of those 
of the Scotch Fir ; still this Pine does not bear cones either 
so early or so freely as the Pinaster. A shelter having been 
formed by the Pinaster and the Austriaca, other and less 
hardy pines may be planted, even in exposed situations ; the 
Scotch Fir, the Larch, the Spruce, and the Silver ; though the 
latter endures exposure better than the other Pines. I have 
mentioned that the Pines of India succeed in Cornwall : of 
these the Cedrus Deodara is the most graceful and vigorous : 
the Abies Morinda promises well, and will grow in moderately 
exposed situations : the Pinus excelsa likes shelter, yet grows 
feebly without it, the wood is soft, like the kindred Pine, 
the Weymouth. The Picea Webbiana is a very slowly growing 
Pine, though highly ornamental, where, as at Dropmore, it 
exhibits its purple cones. I have not yet succeeded in raising 
the Pinus lonpfolia, and my plants of the Pinus Gerardiana are 
hardly sufficiently advanced to exhibit their character. There is 
one Pine, the produce of California, which stands our climate, 
and promises to be a great ornament to our plantations, — the 
Pinus insignis : it has a rich full foliage of various shades of 
green, grows as freely as the Pinaster, and, like that Pine, 
requires to be occasionally banked up if planted in an exposed 
situation. I have not yet tried it in situations fully exposed to 
the winds ; but it has all the appearance of being very hardy, 


and bids fair to endure the blighting winds of Cornwall. My 
two largest Pines of this species measure, respectively, ten 
feet eight and thirteen feet five in height, and were planted 
about the year 1841. I conclude with one remark on the 
management of Fir plantations, the result of some years' expe- 
rience. Thinning ought to be commenced at a very early period, 
before the thinnings are of any value. It tends greatly to the 
thriving of the trees to admit the sun and air freely, as soon as 
a shelter has been formed against the prevailing winds. Weeds 
and underwood should be cut and laid round the trees, which 
will keep the trees from the too powerful effect of the sun, and 
will also check the growth of the weeds. One thinning prepares 
the way for an early repetition, and as soon as the branches 
meet, the intermediate trees should be cut down. I never cut 
the side limbs of a Fir, except preparatory to felling it the 
succeeding winter ; and the flourishing state of my plantations 
fully confirms the propriety of this mode of treatment. Planters 
generally begin to thin their plantations when injury has been 
already sustained by the trees growing too near, and by the 
want of the free access of the air and the sun. 

August 25th, 1847. 

T/ie Ceylon Botanic Garden. 

(Extract of a despatch to the Colonial Secretary from Sir J. EMERSON TENNENT, ou the 
condition of the Ceylon Botanic Garden.) 

In connexion with the agriculture of the island, I feel it my 
duty to call your Lordship's attention to the very satisfactory 
progress of this institution, and the services which it is rendering 
to the development of the natural resources of the island. 

The attention of its superintendent, Dr. Gardner, has been 
directed not merely to scientific investigation, but to the intro- 
duction from other countries and the acclimatized cultivation of 
such exotic plants as are likely to add to the agricultural wealth 
of the island. 

Previously to the arrival of the present superintendent, who was 
selected by Sir W. J. Hooker, the garden had been so neglected 
as to be almost valueless to the colony. By Dr. Gardner s 
attention and exertions, it is now one of the most flourishing 
and useful institutions in India: large nurseries have been 
established for the propagation and distribution of useful plants, 


which are sold at a trifling price to the public, and numbers of 
foreign trees and vegetables have been successfully introduced. 
The result is that hundreds of thousands of trees and plants 
of all descriptions have been dispersed throughout the island, 
at a very moderate cost to the Government. Dr. Gardner is 
likewise engaged in the preparation of a Flora Ceylanica, a work 
which will contain descriptions of all the plants indigenous to the 
island, so far as he can obtain them, and thus make known to 
the scientific world, the history and uses of the vegetable pro- 
ductions of a region, with which the botanists of Europe are less 
acquainted than any other portion of India of equal extent. 

On the Native Cloth and on the Kava of the South Sea 


(In a letter from Capt. Sir EVERARD HOME, Bart.. R.N.) 

The Plantations in the Island of Tongataboo, the largest of 
the Friendly group, consist principally of Yams, Taro, and the 
Paper Mulberry. From the bark of the latter, taken when the 
stem is about two inches in diameter, the cloth is prepared with 
which both sexes of the inhabitants are clothed ; and it is thus 
made. After being soaked in water it is laid upon a log of wood, 
which is about as large as the axle-tree of a large cart, small 
at each end, both extremities supported on the ground by three 
small pieces of wood, two being laid parallel to each other and 
to the main log, the third is laid across ; the ends of the log 
thus rest upon the cross pieces, which raise it three or four 
inches from the ground, according to the thickness of the 
pieces of wood which support it. The bark, when placed upon 
the log, is beaten out by the women with an instrument made 
of heavy wood, something like a rolling-pin, except that it is 
square from the handle, which is round. The beating commences 
at daylight in the morning and continues, without ceasing, 
until three in the afternoon, unless the women are working 
against time, some great event, such as a marriage, causing 
increased exertion, when they go on until dark. The noise caused 
by the beaters is loud and musical ; they keep time in the opera- 
tion ; two or four beaters are usually at work in every house, 
or under a shed formed for the purpose in the enclosed court- 
yard which surrounds each dwelling, so that the women of 
Tonga make more noise than those of any place I ever visited. 


When the bark is beaten out it is called " Tapa ", and the breadths 
are pasted together with paste made of the flour of Arrow-root 
or Taro. When dried, it is printed, after which it is called 
"Gnato". The pattern is devised by the King's family, the 
type or pattern is raised upon the leaf of the Pandanus, and, 
contrary to other prints, the side which receives the stamp is the 
wrong side, the reverse being the right side. King Josiah Tubo, 
to show what could be produced in this way, had a piece of 
cloth made, which was, as I am informed, two miles in length 
and 120 feet wide. When finished, it was necessary to spread 
it, and the ground had to be cleared to display it upon. When 
the first piece was cut off there was a great feast of pigs and 
yams ; it was all distributed, and the specimen sent to the 
Garden is a part of it.* It is worn round the waist in a large 
fold, covering the body from above the hips to the knees, and is 
secured round the middle by a girdle of mat or tapa. The only 
distinction in dress of the King or his sons, consists in the 
girdle, which is of Tapa, in the raw state, and of a dull white 
colour. By loosing the girdle the cloth can be drawn over the 
whole body, and is so worn in rainy weather. 

In some islands, as at the Navigators, it is made, not by 
beating, but by scraping or pressing out with cockle shells upon 
a flat board, held between the knees 5 this operation is performed 
by the water side, and the cloth is kept constantly wet ; but 
it is of inferior quality. 


When on a visit to the Tue Tonga, at Tonga-ta-boo, this 
Chief asked me if I would have some Kava, saying he knew we 
did not drink it, but, if I pleased, he would have some made ; 
which offer I accepted. This great man, whose person is held 
sacred by the natives, sat upon the mat which covered the floor 
of the house, his back resting against one of the pillars which 
support the roof. The centre of the room was a clear space ; the 
opposite side was filled with natives, who sat in silence, forming a 
semi-circle before him. They sit cross-legged like the Turks. A 
man being called from amongst them, crouched down in a most 
humble manner as he received his orders from the Tue Tonga, 
and having with his right hand touched both his (the Tue Tonga's) 

* Among many valuable contributions made by Sir Everard Home, to our 
Botanical Museum at Kew, are specimens of this cloth and the apparatus 101 
preparing it. — Ed. 


feet, which were tucked up under his hams, started on his errand. 
He shortly returned carrying a large plant of the Kava (a species 
of Pepper, Piper methysticum, L.), under his arm. It appeared 
just as it had been taken from the ground, the leaves, only, 
having been removed from the stems, they were about three 
feet long and ten or twelve in number, an inch in diameter 
at the base, and tapering toward the end. He brought the 
plant in a stooping posture, holding it in both his hands, the 
root towards me, and, having thrown it gently down upon the 
mat before me, withdrew. After it had lain upon the ground a 
few seconds, it was removed by the man who brought it, to the 
opposite end of the hall. A large bowl * of wood, having four 
short thick legs of the same, was taken down from a pillar 
of the house, against which it hung, and was placed before a 
young man, I believe the son of the Tue Tonga, the handsomest 
and the chief person in the assembly, who sat in the centre of 
the front row of those who filled the space opposite to us. A 
long bone (?) which I took to be the tooth of a narwhal, was 
then brought in, with which the root was broken and divided 
into separate pieces, the man holding the bone in a vertical posi- 
tion and pounding the root, also held upright, with the broad 
end of it, which done, the bone was taken out again, and 
the portions of root and stems, about six inches long, were 
distributed to the persons who sat on each side of the bowl, 
who, after scraping off the earth which adhered to the roots, 
and cleaning it well with the fibres of the cocoa-nut husk, 
broke off portions with their teeth and commenced chewing 
it. Whilst this part of the operation was performing, I was 
engaged in conversation with the Chief, and answering his 
questions. Presently after two men arrived, bearing upon a 
pole between them two baskets, one of which contained a baked 
pig and yams, the other, parcels of a kind of jelly made of 
arrow-root mixed with the juice of sugar-cane: these parcels 
were tied up in portions of the leaves of Banana, and were about 
as large as a good-sized pudding; they were about eight or 
ten in number. The appearance of the dish was not inviting, 
but upon experiment, being hungry, it was by no means to be 
despised. The pig was sent to the boat. There was enough, 
in all, for at least twenty people. 

The Kava root being masticated, the young man who presided 
over the bowl first threw his mouthfull into it : those who were 

* The bowl, and specimens of the Pepper, or Kava plant, are deposited in the 
Museum of the Royal Gardens. — Ed. 

l (l 

near enough flung in what they had chewed, and those who sat 
farther off put their morsels into small dishes made of Banana 
leaves, which were handed round to receive them, and their con- 
tents being all collected in the bowl, water was brought in cala- 
bashes, about six in number, containing together about two 
gallons, or perhaps more. The water being poured into the bowl, 
the young man with his hands commenced mixing the masticated 
mash with the water ; when this was thoroughly done, he took 
a large bunch of fibres of the bark of a tree called Fow (a 
Hibiscus?), resembling coarse tow: this he spread with both 
his hands along the margin of the bowl opposite to him, and 
drew it through the liquor, which had the effect of straining it, 
bringing away all broken fibres and pieces of the root, these 
being retained in the Fow, which was well wrung over the bowl, 
and the process was repeated until the liquor was free from frag- 
ments, which were all retained in the centre of the Fow. All this 
was done slowly, and with an air of ceremony. Small square 
cups, which would contain ahout half a pint or less, made of the 
leaf of the Banana, were then produced, and the Fow being filled 
with Kava from the bowl, over which the cup is held, the liquor 
ran from it into the vessel. The first dish was brought to me. 
Etiquette, of which I was ignorant, requires that it should be 
drunk off, and the cup thrown into the centre of the room. I 
tasted it, and handed the cup to Tue Tonga, who immediately 
sent it to be filled up, as if that which I had taken had dimi- 
nished the quantity : he then drank it off, and threw the cup 
towards the bowl. Others were served, a person calling out 
to whom it was to be carried ; otherwise, the whole was 
performed in silence. Each, as he drank off his cup, threw it 
into the middle of the floor, towards the bowl; they were all 
served sitting. There is, I believe, in all things respecting 
Kava, as much etiquette as in any ceremonies in the stiffest 
court in Europe; and we, who do not know and follow 
them, are by these people considered as deficient in politeness 
and refinement as they would be at London or Paris in the 
best societies. This, however, is to be said, that in decency 
and propriety of manners, if not to say elegance, some of 
these natives would set an example which might be followed 
with advantage by many at the above-named places. When 
the Kava was finished, the bowl was wiped with Fow, which was 
frequently wrung. With it the young man wiped his hands and 
arms, and then, having shaken it well, hung it up to dry, and 
the bowl resumed its station against the pillar of the house. 
There is a property in this vegetable, which, after frequent 


use stains the bowl to a colour resembling bronze, so much so 
that the first I saw I believed to be made of that metal. The 
taste is pungent and unpleasant, leaving an uncomfortable huski- 
ness in the throat. 

The Romish priests who are upon the island, drink Kava with 
the natives with whom they reside. The Tue Tonga is a pagan ; 
but King Josiah and those who have been converted to Christianity 
have left it off, at the desire of the Protestant Missionaries. In 
Wallis's Island the French pilot, who is a respectable person, 
drinks Kava from choice, which he makes by stamping the root 
in a mortar. At the Feejee Group it is so scarce, that a man 
about to sail from Tonga for those islands, provided himself 
with as much as would fill a moderate-sized cart, which was to 
answer all purposes of barter, &c. The yams of the Feejees are 
the best in the South Seas. 

At Wallis's Island I met the King, walking from his house 
in which he had slept to that in which he was to pass the day. 
A root of Kava, without the stems, was carried slung upon a 
pole before him • it was broken up and brewed as soon as he 
arrived, exactly in the same manner as at Tonga, except that 
those who had to chew the root washed their mouths before 
commencing their office ; there also the principal person present, 
next to himself, prepared the mixture. 

Under the shade of a tree upon the Island of Vavou I saw a 
Kava party of the poorest sort : it consisted of an old man and 
five or six others ; they had but a very small piece of dry root, 
yet they used as much solemnity in making the beverage as at 
the house of the Tue Tonga, so that it was a ridiculous spectacle.