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Full text of "Curtis's botanical magazine"

TO > 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

THE EARL OF CARLISLE, 

Ci)tcf CommuiiSumer of ®er #tajcjJtg'iJ moatlS, ffaveitH, Set., 

UNDER WHOSE AUSPICES 

THE KOYAL GARDENS OF KEW 

HAVE ATTAINED TO THEIR PRESENT DEGREE OP EMINENCE, 

€t)t $resfcnt Wolum 

IS DEDICATED, 

WITH SENTIMENTS OP THE HIGHEST REGARD AND ESTEEM, 

BY HIS FAITHFUL AND OBEDIENT PRIEND AND SERVANT, 

THE AUTHOR. 



CURTIS'S 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE 



COMPRISING THE 



plants; of tljt Bopai aaroens of Eriu, 



AND 



OF OTHER BOTANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN GREAT BRITAIN; 
WITH SUITABLE DESCRIPTIONS; 

BY 

SIR WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, K.H., D.C.L. Oxon. 

LL.D., F.R.S., and L.S., Vice-President of the LLnmean Society, and Director ol' the ltoyal Gardens of Kew. 

VOL. IV. 

OF THE THIRD SERIES; 

(Or Vol.LXXIV. of the Whole Work) 




•$gp%&t" '- • <ly> 



He scarce had said, when the bare earth, till then 

Desert and bare, unsightly, unadorned. 

Brought forth the tender grass, whose verdure clad 

Her universal face with pleasant green ; 

Then herbs of every leaf, that sudden dowered. 

Opening- their various colours, and made gay 

Her bosom, smelling sweet." 



LONDON: 
REEVE, BENHAM, AND REEVE, KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND. 

1848. 






LATIN 



GENERAL INDEX, 



TO 



THE PLANTS CONTAINED IN THE EOUE VOLUMES OF THE 

THIED SEEIES, 

(Or from Vol. LXXI. to LXXIV' inclusive, of 'the whole Work,) 



BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 



ro/.j No. 

73 ! W16 
7* 4384 
73 I 43(16 
7* , 4350 
74; 4353 
71 4175 
71 4312 

71 14144 
73 4359 

72 | 4210 

71 |4139 

73 j 4293 

72 | 4230 
4260 
4264 
4236 
4329 
4320 
4411 
4351 
4371 
4216 
4250 
4400 
4341 

list 

4370 
4145 
4295 
4313 
4291 
41S0 



72 
72 
72 
73 
73 
74 
74 
74 
72 
74 
74 
73 
71 
7i 
71 
73 
73 
73 
71 



Abelia flotibunda. 
Acacia argyTophyila. 

celastrifolia. 

leptoneura. 

oncinophylla. 

Achimenes argyrostigma. 

cupreata. 

hirsuta, 

ocellata. 

Adenocalymna comosum. 
Aerides odoratum. 
Juchmea discolor. 
JEgiphila grandiflora. 
.Eschinaiuhus Lobbianua. 

pulcher. 

purpurasccns. 

.E*chynaiithu9 longiflorus. 

speciosus. 

Allamamla AublctiL 
— — Schottii. 
Ailoplectus concolor. 

dichroua. 

■ rrpeos. 

Anastatic* hierochuntica. 
Aarmonc Japonica. 
Angrecum apiculatum. 

caudatum. 

distichum. 

funale. 

Anguloa Clowesii, tor. 
Anigozanthoa fuliginosa. 
pnlcherrimus. 



Vol. 

72 

74 

71 

71 

72 

7*. 

72 



No. 

4226 
4377 
4200 
4146 
4224 
4407 
4222 



74 4338 



4361 
4221 
4368 
4409 
4413 
4248 
71 i 4133 

71 4136 

72 I 4232 
71 4172 

73 • 4231 
73 j 4308 

71 4166 

72 4267 
72 I 4223 

4339 
4287 



4392 
4410 
4300 
4157 
4154 
4238 



Anona palustris. 
Anopterus glandulosus. 
Anthocercis ilicifolia. 
Aotus gracillima. 
Aphelandra aurantiaca. 
Aquilegia leptoceraa. % 
Ariopsis peltata. 
Arisaema Murrayi. 
'Aristolochia anguicida. 



srandiflora. 



Arnebia echioides. 
Asclepias Douglasii. :< 
Asystasia Coromandeliana. 
Backbousia myrtifolia. 
Barbacenia squamata. 
Barnadesia rosea. 
Begonia albo-coccinea. 
fuchsoides. 



Berberis ilicifolia. 
Bolbophyllum Careyanum. 
umbellatum. 



Bouvardia longiflora. 
Browallia speciosa. 
Bruofelsia nitida ; /3 ? 

censis. 
Burtonia pulchella. 

villosa. 

Calceolaria amplexicaulia. 

alba. 

floribunda. 



Jamai- 



Calliandra Harrisii. 



. 2 



INDEX. 



No. 

4188 

•4386 

4219 

4270 
4349 
4338 
4405 
4284 
4327 
4182 
4391 
4237 
4398 
4259 
4269 
4355 
4354 
4255 
4247 
4294 
4330 
4279 
4379 
4143 
4208 
4362 
4215 
4141 
4234 
4252 
4244 
4160 

4153 
4352 
4254 
4414 
4140 
4317 

4373 
4326 
4311 
4184 
4181 
4177 
4162 
4290 
4165 
4225 
4390 
4225 
4163 



Calliandra Tweediei. 

Cantua pyrifolia. 

Castasetum callosum ; var. gran- 

diflorum. 
Cattleya Skinneri. 
Ceropegia Cumingiana. 
Chaenestes lanceolata. 
Chirita Moonii. 

Sinensis. 

TYalkerise. 

Zevlanica. 



Cirrhopetalum fimbriatum. 
Thouarsii. 



Clematis indivisa ; var. lobata. 

smilacifolia. 

tubulosa. 



Clerodendron capitatum. 
scandens. 



sinnatum. 



Collania Andinamarcana. 
Columnea aureo-nitens. 
crassifolia. 



Cordyline Rumphii. 
Corynocarpus laevigata. 
Cryptadenia uniflora. 
Cuphea cordata. 
silenoides. 



Cycnoches Loddigesii. 
Cymbidium ocbroleucum. 
Cypripedium barbatum. 
Datura cornigera. 
Daviesia pbysodes. 
Dendrobium fimbriatum; var 

oculatum. 

moniliforme. 

secundum. 

Diastema ocbroleuca. 
Dipladenia urophylla. 
Disemma aurantia. 
Dryandra carduacea ; var. an 

gustifolia. j 

'Ecbinocactus chlorophthabnus. 

cinnabarinus. 

hexsedrophorus. 

Leeanus. 

multiflorus. 



myriostigma. 

oxygonus. 

pectiniferus. 

WiUiamsii. 

Epidendrum longicolle. 
Episcia bicolor. 
Eranthemum albiflorum. 
Eria Dillwynii. 



Vol 


No. 


72 


4274 


7- 1 


4266 


73 


4333 


71 


4202 


73 


4340 


73 


4280 


71 


4186 


72 


4205 


71 


4189 


72 


4209 


72 


4246 


72 


4233 


71 


4174 


74 


4375 


72 


4261 


72 


4218 


73 


4322 


73 


4307 


73 


4343 


71 


4185 


71 


4195 


72 


4240 


72 


4242 


72 


4217 


74 


4380 


74 


4348 


71 


4152 


73 


4342 


71 


4213 


74 


4395 


74 


4363 


71 


4171 


!72 


4258 


|71 


4179 


71 


4151 


71 


4201 


71 


4183 


71 


4192 


i 72 


4207 


74 


4401 


73 


4329 


71 


4135 


74 


4402 


74 


4347 


74 


4397 


72 


4253 


74 


4346 


73 


4310 


74 


440S 


74 


4404 


73 


4301 


73 


4305 



Escallonia Organensis. 
Eucalyptus Preissiana. 

macrocarpa. 

Evolvulus purpuro-coeruleus. 
Exacum tetragonum ; j9. bicolor. 
Exogonium Purga. 
Exostemma longiflorum. 
Fagraea obovata. 
Franciscea acuminata. 

nydrangeaefonnis. 

Friesia peduncularis. 
Fuchsia macrantha. 

serratifolia. 

spectabilis. 

Fugosia hakeaefolia. 

heterophylla. 

Gardenia longistyla. 

malleifera. 

nitida. 

Stanleyana. 

Genista (TeUne) Spachiana. 
Gesneria bulbosa ; var. lateritia. 

elbptica ; var. lutea. 

Hondensis. 

Libanensis. 

pardina. 

Schiedeana. 

trifiora. 

Gloxinia pallidiflora. 
Gmelina Rheedii. 
Goldfussia isophylla. 
Gompholobium barbigerum. 

venustum. 

Tersicolor ; var. caulibns 

purpureis. 
Govenia utriculata. 
Habrothamnus corymbosus. 

fasciculatus. 

Hebecladus biflorus. 
Heinsia jasminiflora. 
•Hibiscus ferox. 

gTossulariaefokus. 

Hindsia violacea. 
Hoya bella. 

cinnamomifoba. 

imperiabs. 

Hydrangea Japonica ; var. caeru- 

lea. 
Hypocyrta glabra. 

leucostoma. 

Iambosa Malaccensis. 
'Impatiens repens. 
Ipomaaa muricata. 
pulcbella. 



INDEX. 



/W.i 


Xo. . 


72 1 


1206 j 


Til 


1372 


;:5 


1332 1 


73! 


1325 j 


74 


4399 | 


71 ! 


uai 1 


74 


4376 1 


721 


1220 ! 


73 1 


1302 ! 


;i 


4169 




1213 ! 


72 


12U5 i 


72 1 


1256 


74 


1393 


73 


tan 


73 


1315 


73 


4324 


74 


4389 


71 


1150 


74 


1365 


71 


1132 


71 


1193 


71 


1119 


72 


1-273 


73 


1331 


74 


1358 ■ 


,'3 


1299 


73 


1292 


71 


1161 


74 


1371 


72 


4228 




1235 1 


73 


1-321 | 


72 


4201! 


72 


1211 j 


71 


1387 j 


73 


1285 1 


73 


1282 j 


72 


4257 1 


72 


4272 | 


71 


1118 


74 


1357 j 


74 


1367 | 


7* 


U06 


73 


4319 


72 


1203 


71 


1156 


73 


1297 


73 


4289 


71 


H73 


72 


1231 ! 


72 


42 H : 


72 


■ 1262 i 


74 


UH2i 



Ipomffia simplex. 
Isopogon attenuatus. 

sphaerocephalus, 

Ixora Griifithii. 

lanceolaria. 

odorata. 

Jatropha podagrica. 
Kopsia t'ruticosa. 
Laelia cinnabarina. 
Leianthus longifolius. 

umbellatus. 

Leschenaultia arcuata. 

splendens. 

Leuchtenbergia Principis. 
Leucothoe pulchra. 
Liebigia speciosa. 
Liskmthus acutangulus. 
Lituospermum canescens.» 
Lobelia thapsoidea. 
Lopimia malacophylla. 
Luculia Pinciana. 
Lycaste fulvescens. 
Lycium fuchsioides. 
Lyonia Jamaicensis. 
Malachadenia clavata. 
Mamillaria clava. 
Marsdenia maculata. 
Martynia fragrans. 
MasdevaUia fenestra ta. 
Maxillaria acicularis. 

macrobulbon. 

Warreana. 

Medinilla speciosa. 
^liltonia spectabiHs. 
Mormodes Cartoni. 
Napoleona imperiahs. 
Nepenthes Kafflesiana. 
Niphaea albo-lineata. 
Nymphaea dentata. 
Odontoglossum hastilabium. 
Oncidiuin bicallosum. 
Orothainnus Zeyheri. 
Oxypetalnm solanoides. 
Passiflora amabilis. 
Pentstemon Gordoni. 
Pcristeria Barkeri. 

Humboldtii ; var. fulva. 

Phalaenopsis amabilis. 
Pharbitis cathartica. 
Phyllarthron Bojerianum. 
Pinguicula orcbidioides. 
Pitcaimia undulatifolia. 
Pleroma elegans. 
Pk-roma Kunthianum. 



Vol. 
71 
71 
71 
74 
73 
71 
Z8 
74 
71 
71 
73 

]} 

71 
73 
72 
72 
74 
71 
72 
71 
72 
71 
73 
74 
73 
71 
74 
73 
74 
71 
74 
72 
71 
72 
71 
71 
74 
74 
71 
72 
71 
72 
73 

73 

74 
73 
72 
72 
73 
72 
74 
73 



No. 

4142 
4161 
4176 
4356 
4309 
4199 
4336 
4381 
4198 
4147 
4298 
4158 
4318 
4196 
4290 
4268 
4271 
4360 
4170 
4227 
4134 
4212 
4178 
4331 
4403 
4286 
4194 
4364 
4283 
4345 
4138 
4394 
4211 
4197 
4263 
4167 
416S 
4366 
4416 
4187 
4251 
4383 
4239 
4344 

4303 
4378 
4288 
4249 
4229 
4335 
4245 
4385 
4323 



Pleiuothallis bicariuata. 
Polystachya bracteosa. 
Porphyrocoma lanceolata. 
Primula Stuartii. 
Puya Altensteinii ; var y gigantea. 
Reevesia thyrsoidea. 
Rhododendron Javanicum. 
Nilagiricum. 



Rhynchoglossum Zeylauicum. 
Ituellia lilacina. 

Purdieana. 

Salpixantha coccinea. 
Salvia leucantha. 
Scoevola attenuata. 
Scutellaria cordifolia. 

incarnata. 

Ventenatii. 

Sida (Abutilon) integerrima. 

paeoniaenora. 

vitifolia. 

graveolens. 

Sinningia velutina. 
Siphocampylos coccineus. 

glandulosa. 

manattiaenorus. 

microstoma. 

Smeathmannia laevigata. 

pubescens. 

Smithia purpurea. 
Solandra laevis. 
Solanum macranthum 
Sonerila stricta. 
Stachytarpheta aristata. 
Stanhopea tigrina. 
Stenocarpus Cunninghami. 

[•Strelitzia augusta. 

Strobilanthes lactatus. 
Swainsona Greyana. 
Tacsonia mollissima. 
Talauma Candollii. 
Tetrazygia elaeagnoides. 
Theophrastus Jussiaei. 
ThibaucUa Pinchinchensis, j3. 
glabra. 

pulcherrima. 

Thyrsacanthus strictus. 
Tillandsia bulbosa 
Torenia Asiatica. 
edentula. 



var. picta. 



Tritonia aurea. 
Tropaeolum crenatiilorum. 
• Smithii. 



speciosum. 



4 



INDEX. 



Vol. 


No. 


73 


4337 


71 


4137 


73 


4304 


73 


4275 


73 


4278 



. 


Vol. 


No. 




Tropaeolum umbellatum. 


74 


4415 


"Vriesia glaucophylla 


Turnera ulmiflora. 


74 


4382 


speciosa. 


Vanda cristata. 


71 


4155 


WUtfieldia lateritia. 


i Victoria regia. 


74 


43% 


Weigela rosea. 



ENGLISH 

GENERAL INDEX, 



TO 



THE PLANTS CONTAINED IN THE FIRST FOUR VOLUMES 
OF THE THIRD SERIES, 

(Or from Vol. LXXI. to LXXIV. inclusive, of tlie whole Work,) 



BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 



I'nL So. 
73 +310 

73 430* 

74 4340 
74 j 43S4 
74 4350 

73 4313 
4144 
4175 

74 4350 
73 , 4393 



71 
71 



71 
11 

n 
n 
it 

71 
71 

74 
73 
7! 
73 



71 4310 
71 4330 
73 4364 
7S 433S 

73 4360 
71 ] 4336 

4330 
4133 

Mil 
4351 
4136 

4350 
4316 
4371 
4341 
4159 
4395 
71 4145 

74 : 4370 
73 4313 



Abelia, copious-flowering. 
Acacia, Celastrus-leaved. 

hook-leaved. 

-—— silver-leaved. 
— — slender-leaved. 
Achimenes, copper-leaved. 

hairy. 

silvery-spotted. 

Acnimenia, eyeletted. 
-Erhniea, two-coloured, or 

Crab's Eye. 
Adenocalymna, Hop-flowered. 
.Egipjula, large yellow-flowered. 
.Eackmanthoa, beautiful. 
™ Jong-flowered. 

afr. Lobb'a. 

— — purpluh-green. 

■ abowy. 
Air-plant, fragrant. 
AHamanda Aublrt's. 
—— large-flowered, erect. 
-VILljator Apple-tree, or Water. 
AUcjplcrtua, creeping. 

■ two coloured. 
— ' w bole-coloured. 
Ancmooc, Japan. 
•Vngnecum, apiculatcd, 
cord-like. 

two rowed. 

long-tailed. 

Anguloa, Mr. Clowes' par. 



Vol. 


No. 


t 71 


4180 


73 


4291 


74 


4377 


71 


4200 


I 71 


4146 


72 


4224 


72 


4222 


74 


4388 


74 


4361 


74 


4409 


74 


4413 


72 


4248 


71 


4133 


74 


4404 


71 


4136 


72 


4232 


71 


4172 


73 


4281 


73 


4308 


74 


4361 


71 


4166 


72 


4221 


72 


4267 


72 


4223 


73 


4339 


73 


4287 


74 


4392 


74 


4410 1 



Anigozanthus, beautiful yellow. 

sooty. 

Anopterus, glandular-leaved. 
Anthocercis, holly-leaved. 
Aotus 3 slender. 
Aphelandra, orange. 
Ariopsis, peltate. 
Arissema, Dr. Murray's. 
Aristolochia, snake. 
Arnebia, Echium-like. 
Asclepias, Douglas's. 
Asyotasia, Coromandei. 
Backhousia, Myrtle-leaved. 
Balsam, creeping. 
Barbacenia, scaly-stalked. 
Barnadesia, rose-coloured. 
Begonia, or Elephant's Ear, 

scarlet and white-flowered. 
Fuchsia-like, or Elephant's 

Ear. 
Berberry, holly-leaved. 
Birthwort. 

gigantic-flowered. 

Bolbophyllum, Dr. Careif s. 

umbelled. 

Bouvardia, long-flowered. 
Browallia, showy-flowered. 
Brunfelsia, shining leaved ; 

Jamaica var. 
Burtonia, beautiful. 
villous. 



INDEX. 



Vol. 


No. 


73 


4297 


72 


4231 


73 


4300 


71 


4157 


72 


4238 


71 


4188 


74 


4386 


72 


4219 


72 


4270 


74 


4349 


71 


4182 


73 


4284 


74 


4405 


73 


4327 


73 


4338 


74 


4391 


72 


4237 


72 


4269 


72 


4259 


74 


4398 


74 


4355 


74 


4354 


72 


4255 


72 


4247 


74 


4407 


73 


4294 


72 


4330 


73 


4279 


74 


4379 


74 


4362 


72 


4208 


71 


4143 


71 


4141 


72 


4252 


72 


4244 


71 


4160 


71 


4153 


74 


4352 


72 


4254 


74 


4414 


71 


4140 


72 


4203 


71 


4156 


73 


4317 


73 


4326 


74 


4373 


73 1 


4311 



Butterfly -plant, Indian. 
Butterwort, Orchis-like. 
Calceolaria, or Slipper-wort, 

clasping-leaved. 

white-flowered. 

Calliandria, Mr. Harris's. 

Mr. Tweedie's. 

Cantua, pear -leaved. 
Catasetum, tumour-lipped, large> 

flowered var. 
Cattleya, Mr. Skinner's. 
Ceropegia, Mr. Cumiug's 
Chirita, Ceylon. 

Chinese. 

Mr. Moon's. 

Mrs. Walker's. 

Choenestes, lanceolate-leaved. 
Cirrhopetalum, fimbriated. 

Thouai;s'. 

Clematis, tubular-flowered. 
or Virgin's Bower, smilax- 



leaved. 
— undivided-leaved 



lobed 



variety. 
Clerodendron, capitate. 

climbing. 

sinuate-leaved. 

Collania, Andinamarcana. 
Columbine, slender-spurred. 
Columnea, golden. 

thick-leaved. 

Cordyline, Eumphius. 
Corynocarpus, smooth-leaved. 
Cuphea, catch-fly. 

large red-flowered. 

Cryptadenia, solitary-flowered. 
Cymbidium, pale yellow. 
Datura, horn-bearing. 
Daviesia, hatchet-leaved. 
Dendrobium, fringe-lipped, var. 

with sanguineous eye. 

necklace-stemmed. 

one-sided. 



Vol 
71 

71 
71 
73 
71 
71 
71 

73 

71 
74 
72 
71 
72 
72 
73 
71 
73 

71 
72 
71 

72 
72 
72 



Diastema, pale yellow. 

Dipladenia, taper-pointed. 

Disemma, New Caledonia. 

Dove-flower, or Peristeria ; Mr. 
.Barker's. 

Humboldt's; tawny-fl. var. 

Dryandra, Thistle-like ; narrow- 
leaved var. 

Echinocactus, cinnabar-flowered. 

green-eyed. 

hexaedron. 



73 

72 
71 
7~ 
73 



No. 
4181 
4177 

4184 
4296 
4190 
4162 

4172 

4281 
4165 
4390 
4225 
4163 
4274 
4266 
4333 
4202 
4340 

4186 
4205 
4189 
4209 
4246 
4233 



71 


4174 


74 


4375 


72 


4261 


72 


4218 


73 


4307 


73 


4343 


73 


4322 


71 


4185 


71 


4195 


72 


4242 


72 


4217 


74 


4348 


74 


4380 


71 


4152 


73 


4342 


72 


4240 


72 


4213 


74 


4395 


74 


4363 


71 


4179 



4171 
4258 
4151 
4389 
4333 



Echinocactus, many-flowered. 

many-spotted. 

Mr. Lee's. 

Mr. William's. 

pectinated. 

sharp-angled. 

Elephant's Ear, or Begonia ; 
scarlet and white flowered. 

Euchsia-like. 

Epidendrum, long-necked. 
Episcia, two-coloured. 
Eranthemum, white-flowered. 
Eria, Dilwyn Llewelyn's. 
Escallonia, Organ-Mountain's. 
Eucalyptus, Dr. Freiss's. 

large-fruited, or Gum tree. 



Evolvulus, purple-blue flowered. 
Exacum, square-stalked ; two- 
coloured var. 
Exostemma, long-flowered. 
Fagraea, obovate-leaved. 
Eranciscea, acuminated. 
Hvdrangea-like. 



Friesia, jointed-pedicelled. 
Fuchsia, large-flowered, apeta- 
lous. 

serrated-leaved. 

showv. 



Fugosia, Hakea-leaved. 
various-leaved. 



Gardenia, clapper-bearing. 

glossy-leaved. 

long-styled. 

Lord Derbv's. 



Genista, Mr. Spach's. 

Gesneria, elliptic-leaved ; yellow 
var. 

Honda. 

leopard-spotted. 

many-flowered. 

Schiede's. 

three-flowered. 

tuberous rooted ; brick- 
coloured var. 

Gloxinia, pale-flowered. 

Gmelina, Eheede's 

Goldfussia, equal-leaved. 

Gompholobium, changeable 
purple stemmed var. 

fringe-keeled. 

graceful. 

Govenia, bladdery. 

Gromwell, hoary. 

Gum-Tree, large-fruited. 



INDEX. 



/V 
71 

;i 
:i 

72 

;s 
:» 

71 
7* 
7* 
7k 
7* 



l Xo. 
41 S3 : 

; »*oi ; 

1207 

1320 

4401 
W35 
436S • 
4402 ; 
4347 
43D7 
»253 I 

4346 

4310 
1245 

43-23 ! 
♦337 ! 
4301 ' 
4305 i 
1206 | 
4372 ! 
4332 ! 
4191 
1399 I 
1323 ; 
, 4376 ! 
4400 | 



72 


4220 1 


72 


1234 


73 


4302 J 


71 


4169 1 


*9 
1 - 


4243 


7* 


4393 


73 


1311 


73 


4263 


72 


4256 


13 


4315 


73 


4334 


71 


4150 


72 


4257 


71 


4132 


71 


4193 


71 


4149 


It 


4173 


73 


4334 


74 


4365 


7i 


4359 


74 


4408 


73 


4299 


73 


4S92 


71 


4164 


72 


4223 


72 


4235 



Ilabrothamnus, cluster-flowered. 

. corymb-flowered. 

Ilebecladius, twin-flowered, 
lleinsia, Jessamine-flowered. 
Hibiscus, Gooseberry-leaved. 

stinging. 

Hindsia, large-flowered, 
lloirmeat, poison. 
lloya, beautiful. 

cinnamon-leaved. 

imperial. 

Hydrangea. Japan ; blue flow^ 

ered var. 
Hypocyrta, shining-leaved. 

white-mouthed. 

Indian Cress, notch-petaled. 

showy. 

umbellate. 

Ipomaca, flne-leaved. 

handsome. 

simple-stalked. 

Isopogon, attenuated-leaved. 

round-headed. 

Ixora, fragrant. 

lance-leaved. 

Mrs. Griffiths'. 

Jatropha, gouty-stalked. 
Jericho, rose of. 
Kopsia, shrubby. 
Lady's Slipper, bearded. 
Laelia, cinnabar-coloured. 
Lcianthu9, long-leaved. 

umbellate. 

Leuchtenbergia, noble, <t 
Leucothoe, elegant. 
Leschenaultia, drooping. 

splendid scarlet flowered. 

Licbigia, showy. 
Lisianthus, sharp-angled. 
Lobelia, Mullein-like. 
Lotos, tooth-leaved. 
Lorolia, Mr. Pince's. 
Lv caste, tawny-flowered. 
Lynum, Fuchsia-flowered. 
Lrmna, Jamaica. 
Mslachadcnia, club-stalked. 
Malacophjlla, soft-leared. 
Munillaria, club-shaped. 
Mspie-Apple. 
Marsdrnia, •poUed-leaved. 
Martvnia, fragrant. 
Mssderallia, windowed. 
Msxillaria, large splendid. 
Mr. Wane's. 



Vol. 
74 
73 

72 
72 
74 
74 
71 
73 
71 
72 
74 
74* 
74 
74 
73 
71 

73 
7L 
72 
74 
71 
72 
73 

71 
71 
74 
73 
73 
71 
73 
74 
71 
74 
71 
73 
73 
71 
74 
71 
71 
72 
72 
74 

72 
71 
73 
72 
73 
72 
71 
74 



No. 
4374 
4321 
4204 
4214 
4387 
4384 
4138 
4282 
4148 
4272 
4357 
4367 
4406 
4368 
4319 
4156 

4289 
4173 
4262 
4412 
4142 
4241 
4285 

4161 
4176 
4356 
4280 
4309 
4199 
4336 
4381 
419S 
4400 
4147 
4298 
4318 
4196 
4360 
4134 
4170 
4227 
4212 
4403 

4331 

4178 
4286 
4268 
4299 
4271 
4154 
4364 



Maxillaria, needle-leaved. 
Medinilla, showy. 
Miltonia, showy. 
Mormodes, Carton's. 
Napoleona, imperial. 
Nasturtium, Sir James Smith's. 
Nightshade, large-flowered. 
Niphaea, white-lined. 
Oncidium, two-warted. 
Odontoglossum, halberd-leaved. 
Orothamnus, Mr. Zeyher's. 
Oxypetalum, Solanum-like. 
Passion-flower, white-crowned. 
Pelican-flower. 
Peristemon, Mr. Gordon's. 
Peristeria, or Dove-flower ; Hum- 
boldt's ; tawny-flowered var. 
Pharbitis, purging. 
Phyllarthron, Mr. Bojer's. 
Pleroma, elegant. 
Prof. Kunth's. 



Pleurothallis, double-keeled. 
Pitcairnia, broad-waved-leaved. 
Pitcher Plant, Sir Stamford 

Raffles'. 
Polystachya, bracteated. 
Porphyrocoma, lance-leaved. 
Primrose, Stuart's. 
Purga, or True Jalap. 
Puya, Attenstein's gigantic var. 
Reevesia, thyrse-flowered. 
Rhododendron, Javanese. 

Neelgherry. 

Rhynchoglossum, Ceylon. 
Rose of Jericho. 
Ruellia, lilac-flowered. 
Mr. Purdie's. 



Sage, white-flowered. 
Scaevola, attenuated-leaved. 
Sida, entire-leaved. 

heavy-scented. 

Paeony-flowered. 

vine-leaved. 

Sinningia, velvety. 
Siphocampylos, manettia- 
flowered. 

glandular. 

showy scarlet-flowered. 

small-mouthed. 



Skull-Cap, flesh-coloured. 

heart -leaved. 

Ventenat's. 

Slipper-wort, copious-flowering. 
Smeathmannia, downy. 



INDEX. 



Vol. 


No. 


71 


4194 


73 


4283 


74 


4345 


74 


4394 


71 


4197 


72 


4263 


71 


4167 


71 


4168 


74 


4366 


74 


4416 


72 


4215 


71 


4187 


72 


4251 


74 


4383 


72 


4239 


73 


4303 


73 


4344 



Smeathmannia, smooth-stalked. 
Smithia, purple-flowered. 
Solandra, smooth-leaved. 
Sonerila, upright. 
Stanhopea > tiger-spotted. 
Stenocarpus, Mr. Cunningham's 

VStrelitzia, great white. 

Strobilanthes, milky-leaved. 
Swainsona, Grey's. 
Swanwort, Mr. Loddige's. 
Tacsonia, downy-leaved. 
Talauma, De Candolle's. 
Tetrazygia, Elaeagnus-like. 
Theophrasta, Jussieu's. 
Thibaudia, beautiful. 
Pichincha ; glabrous var. 



Vol. 


No. 


74 


4878 


73 


4288 


72 


4249 


72 


4229 


73 


4385 


71 


4158 


71 


4137 


73 


4334 


72 


4211 


72 


4269 


74 


4415 


74 


4382 


73 


4275 


73 


4278 


74 


4396 


71 


4155 



Thyrse-flower, upright. 
Tillandsia, bulbous; coloured var. 
Torenia, large-flowered. 

purple-blotched. 

Tritonia, golden. 
Trumpet-Flower, scarlet. 
Turnera, Elm-leaved. 
Yanda, crested. 
Vervain, Bastard, aristate. 
Virgin's Bower, or Clematis, 

tubular-flowered. 
Vriesia, glaucous-leaved. 
showy. 

IWater-Lily, great Victoria. 

Weigela, rose-coloured. 
Whitfieldia, brick-coloured. 




■■ 



mt^u H * eve ' 



Tab. 4:545. 
SOLANDRA lvevis. 
Smooth-leaved Solandra. 

Nat. Ord. SolanejE. — Pentandria Monogtnia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx tubulosus, 3-5-fidus, persistens. Corolla hypogvna infiin- 
dibuliformi-ventricosa, limbo plicato quinquefido, lobis undulatis. Stamina 5, 
corollse tubo inserta, adscendentia, erecta ; antliera longitudinaliter dcbiscentes, 
versatdes. Ovarium incomplete 4-loculare, dissepimento altero supra medium 
<leliquescente, altero completo, prope angulum parietalem utrinque placentifero, 
placentis porrectis multi-ovulatis. Stylus simplex ; stigma subcapitatum. Bacca 
calyce demum bine fisso cincta, 4-locularis, pulposa. Semina plurima, renifonnia. 
Embryo intra albumen carnosum arcuatns. — Frutices America tropica, sarmen- 
tost ; foliis in apice ramulorum confertiwi alternis, obovato-oblonyis, integerriuili, 
subcarnosh ; jloribus terminalibus, solitariis, maxim*. Endl. 



Solandra lav is ; foliis obovato-ellipticis glaberrimis laevibus, calycis bilabiati 
tubo 5-angulato-alato labiis subeequalibus acutis, corolla? albse tubo calycem 
duplo excedente 5-eostato sursum ampliato ventricoso, ore contracto, limbi 
patentis reticulatim venosi lobis margine undulato-crispatis. 

Solandra laevis. Hortid. 



Of the four species of Solandra described by authors, not one 
accords with the present ; nor is any now in cultivation to be 
compared with it, for the size and beauty and fragrance of the 
blossoms. It was received from Messrs. Lucombe, Pince and Co., 
in November, 1847, under the name here adopted, by which it 
was obtained by those gentlemen from the Continent, without 
any indication of its introduction into Europe, or of the country 
of which it is a native : a practice unfortunately general, and 
which cannot be too strongly condemned. Messrs. Lucombe and 
Pince find its cultivation extremely easy in a moderately warm 
House, requiring nothing but the ordinary treatment of stove 
plants. Its somewhat climbing stems grow best, trailed round 
a cylindrical trellice. Young plants, not two feet high, produce 
these noble blossoms. The leaves are thick and glossy, and form 
an agreeable contrast with the coarse foliage of other Solandra. 

Descr. A shrub of dwarfish habit, two feet long, branched, 
with long and trailing branches ; branches glabrous, as is every 

JANUARY 1ST, 1848. B 



part of the plant, terete, the younger ones herbaceous, indicating 
a rapid growth. Leaves alternate, small in proportion to the 
size of the shrub, at least on those flowering branches which 
we have alone seen, oblong-oval, or somewhat obovate, acute, 
entire, smooth on both surfaces, dark green above, paler beneath, 
penninerved ; the petioles from half an inch in length, purple. 
Flowers very large, almost a foot long, solitary, terminal. What 
may be called the peduncle is extremely short and thick, jointed 
unto the apex of the branch, not half an inch in length. Calyx 
four inches long, tubular, two-lipped at the extremity, five- 
angled, the angles expanding into wings towards the lower part 
of the calyx : lips entire, acute. Corolla nearly thrice the length 
of the calyx, funnel-shaped, greenish cream-colour, white at the 
limb : the lower half of the tube is slender, striated, the upper half 
bell-shaped, but contracted at the mouth, with five ribs becoming 
very slender near the mouth and there branched and reticulated : 
limb spreading, deeply five-lobed, the lobes reticulated, singularly 
crisped and waved at the margin. Stamens included. Style 
exserted about an inch beyond the mouth of the tube. Stigma 
convex and a little dilated. 



434S. 




Tab. 4340. 
HYPOCYRTA glabra 

Shining-leaved Hypocyrta. 



Nat. Ord. Gesneriace.e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx liber profunde 5-partitus, Jobis lanceolatia integerrimis. 

Corolla tubulosa, basi postice gibba, tubo antice ventricoso, limbo 5-lobo aut 
5-dentato subaequali. Stamina 4 didynama, cum quiuto postici rudimento ex 
ima basi tubi. Antherce per paria cohau-entes. Annmitu /'j/poggi/i/s et glandula 
postica. Stigma bilobum (aut infuudibuliforme indivisum ?). Bacca globosa 
succosa 1-locularis, placentis 2 parietalibus bilobis. Semina oo oblonga out, 
ovata. — Fruticuli Brasilienses extensi et radicantes, rarius erecti. Folia oppotita 
crassiuscula. Flores axillares solitarii aut aggregati. Corollas coccinea, rosea, 
alba, aut ochroleucce. B.C. 



Hypocyrta glabra ; ereeta, fcliis ellipticis obtusis nitidis obsoletissime hirsutis 
subeuerviis brevi-petiolatis, pedunculis axillaribus aggregatis (2-3) unifloris 
basi bibracteatis, calycis lobis serratis, corollis anticis grosse ventricosis 
inferne brevissime constrictis, limbo contracto 5-dentato. 

Hypocyrta glabra. Hortnl. 



Although in words it may be difficult to define the distinction 
between the present species of Hypocyrta glabra and II. .sfr/yiUosa 
(figured at Tab. 4027 of this work), yet the two plants are clearly 
distinct, and the eye will at once detect the diflerences. I may 
observe that the present is of shorter and stouter growth, the 
stem purple ; the leaves shorter, almost exactly elliptical, obtuse, 
of a thicker texture, with very indistinct nerves, and still more 
indistinct hairs : the corollas have the lower and constricted 
portion of the tube shorter, and they want the radiating yellow 
lines around the mouth. The shape of the corolla in the H. stri- 
gillosa reminds one of the Pouter Pigeon, that of the present 
species of the Globe Fish (Diodon). It grows readily in stove 
heat, treated like other Gesneriaceous plants, and flowers in June 
and July. The Royal Gardens owe the possession of it to 
Mr. Malkoy of Liege, and it is said to have been imported from 
South America. 

Descr. Our plant has an unbranched, erect, rather stout, 
succulent, dark purple, terete stem, eight to ten inches high, very 

JANUARY 1ST, 1848. B 2 



obscurely pilose. Leaves opposite, elliptical, obtuse, on short 
petioles, glossy, entire or very obscurely serrated, to the eye 
appearing glabrous, whence the specific name, but under a lens 
showing very minute hairs on the surface and margin. Peduncles 
one to three in the axils of the leaf, longer than the petioles, 
with a pair of linear bracts at the base. Calyx with the seg- 
ments serrated. Corolla with a very short constriction at the 
base of the tube, the colour a rich scarlet, except the small 
limb, which is orange-yellow. Stamens and pistil as in H. stri- 
gillosa. 



Fig. 1. Calyx including the pistil. 2. Ovary and bifid, large, hypogynous 
'land : — magnified. 



COMPANION 



BOTANICAL MAGAZINE 



Notice o/Mr. Drummond's discover!/ of three remarkable plants 

in South- West Australia. 

We have much interesting matter to lay before our readers from 
the correspondence of Mr. Drummond ; but at this time we must 
content ourselves with a brief extract from one of his letters 
written from Cape Riche, Jan. 10, 1847, while on an extensive 
botanical journey from Swan River to King George's Sound. 

" I determined," he says, " to enjoy another view from the top 
of Mongerup. I hid our supply of flour and pork as well as I 
could, in case of a visit from the natives : I had now to bring 
water from the native well. Starting at five o'clock, I reached 
the highest summit of the hill by eleven. I ascended by the N.E. 
angle, and at about the height of 2,000 feet I found, first making 
its appearance, a splendid Banksia, with leaves more than nine 
inches long, and about five wide, irregularly jagged and sinuated 
like those of an English Oak. To this noble shrub I have given the 
specific name of Hookeri. From the remains of the flowers, they 
appear to have been scarlet. I had scarcely time to make myself 
acquainted with this fine Banksia, when I found another ex- 
ceedingly interesting and beautiful plant, a species of Genithyllis, 
growing to the size of, and having a considerable resemblance in 
habit and foliage to Beau/or tia decussata, hut with the inflorescence 
inclosed by beautiful bracts, white, and variegated with crimson 
veins ; these bracts are as elegantly formed as the petals of the 
finest tulip, and are almost as large, hanging in a bell-shaped 
form from the ends of the slender branches. I thought I could 
never gather enough of this charming plant ; and I procured 
abundance of perfect seeds. As one is obliged to employ the 
hands as well, and almost as often, as the feet, in ascending 
or descending these very steep hills, I had gone very lightly 
equipped : I was therefore compelled to use my shirt and 
neck-handkerchief (making the shirt into a bag), to bring down 
a supply of Banksia cones. Securing the load so as not to im- 



pede the use of ray hands, I reached our sleeping place at three 
o'clock, much fatigued with my load, but highly gratified ; having 
this day found at least two plants, which will continue to be 
admired while a taste for the beauties of nature remains to the 
human race." 

In another part of this letter he writes : " West Mount Barren 
was distant about ten miles. Just before I reached this sleeping 
place, and afterwards in greater abundance between it and Mount 
Barren, I found a most extraordinary plant, a species of Hakca, 
growing twelve or fourteen feet high: the true leaves of the 
plant are seven or eight inches long, jagged and sinuated as in 
Hahea undulata, but by far the most conspicuous part of the 
foliage of this superb plant are its bracts, which make their ap- 
pearance with the flower-buds. When the plant is three or 
four years old, they are borne in regular whorls, each circle or 
whorl being from seven to nine inches in height, formed of five 
rows, which have each five bracts ; the lowest bracts of the whorl 
are the broadest, and vary from four to five inches, the whole 
breadth across, in full-grown, middle-sized specimens, being 
about ten inches ; and they regularly decrease in size to the upper- 
most bracts, which are only about four inches across from outside 
to outside ; each whorl is a year's growth of the plant after it 
bears the first flowers. The variegation of these bracts is so ex- 
traordinary, that I almost fear to attempt a description. The 
first year they are yellowish-white in all the centre of the bracts, 
and the same colour appears in the veins and in the teeth, which 
grow on the margin ; the second year, what was white the 
first year has changed to a rich golden-yellow ; the third year, 
what was yellow becomes a rich orange ; and the fourth year, 
the colour of the centre of the same bracts, their veins and 
marginal teeth, are turned to a blood-red. The green, which has 
a remarkably light and luminous appearance the first year, varies 
annually to deeper and darker shades ; and the fourth year, when 
the centre of the bracts has acquired a blood-red colour, the green 
of the same series is of the richest hue, while the whorls below 
change to darker and duller shades, until they ultimately fade 
'into the dull and withered leaves of other climes. The flowers 
I have not seen : the stem and buds of the upper series, which 
are the only ones unopened, are white and velvety ; the other 
series contain seed-vessels, mostly with perfect seeds. To this, the 
most splendid vegetable production which I have ever beheld, in 
a wild or cultivated state, I have given the name of our gracious 
Queen, Hakea Victoria. It will soon be cultivated in every garden 
of note in Europe, and in many other countries. I thought it 



incumbent on me to send Hakea Victoria * in some form to my 
subscribers, and, for this plant, pressure is altogether out of the 
question, as the bracts break before they will bend in any direction. 
I tied up sixteen of the bract-bearing tops in two bundles, fastening 
them together with the creeping shoots of the Black creeper, 
Kennedya nigricans, and slung them one at each side of my old 
grey poney, Cabbine. The load, although not very heavy, was a 
most awkward one to get through the bushes, and he never bow 
anything so unwillingly. One specimen, fourteen feet high, I 
carried in my hand all the way to Cape Riche ; but notwith- 
standing all the care I took, the brilliant colours in the bracts of 
this extraordinary plant were much faded before I could get 
it to King George's Sound." 



Nelumbium Jamaicense ; re-discovered in Jamaica. 

Nearly, if not quite, a century has rolled away since Dr. Patrick 
Browne, a Naturalist and Physician resident in Jamaica, detected, 
and soon after described in his Natural History of Jamaica, a 
species of Nelumbium bearing yellow flowers, different from that 
of the East Indies, growing in certain lagoons of the island in 
question : and presenting an equally stately appearance with the 
splendid and well-known species of the Old World. Strange 
to say, notwithstanding the researches of succeeding botanists, 
neither lacking in knowledge nor zeal, the Nelumbium Jamaicense 
Jhas been sought in vain : so that all hitherto known of it has 
been through the brief account of it by Patrick Browne above 
quoted. No specimen exists, we believe we are correct in 
saying, in any Herbarium ; and, as the Nelumbium speciosum 
had disappeared from the Nile, where it was formerly known 
as a sacred emblem, so it has been by many supposed that our 
plant had been lost to Jamaica ; or others believed that Patrick 
Browne had ignorantly taken some other well-known Nymjrfia- 
aceous plant for a new Nelumbium. 

We can well conceive, then, with what pleasure our excellent 
friend, Dr. M'Fadyen of Kingston, Jamaica, must have received 
the agreeable tidings, in August last, of the re-discovery of this 

* Noble specimens of the three plants here noticed have reached our hands, 
and bear testimony to the correctness of Mr. Drummond's remarks. The 
Banksia is probably the little-known B. Solandri, Br. : the others are quite new. 



plant by James Dundas, Esq. Dr. M'Fadyen was not long in 
sending to us roots, and seeds, and beautifully dried specimens 
of this rarity, and in printing, for private distribution, a full 
description with an accurate, coloured figure (on a large folio 
size, as the subject truly deserved), and a second plate of 
analysis. It must be acknowledged, indeed, judging from a 
comparison of dried specimens in our Herbarium, that it is very 
closely allied to the Nelumbium luteam of the United States : 
and if, on further investigation, the two should prove to be 
identical, we must observe that Patrick Browne's name has the 
right of priority, although not quite unobjectionable, seeing that 
it is more frequent in North America than in Jamaica. The 
specific identity of the two, however, we are not now discussing ; 
nor do we think it necessary here to give the full and excellent 
description of the plant from Dr. M'Fadyen's Memoir : but his 
remarks are well worthy of being introduced into the supple- 
mentary pages of this Magazine. 

" I have followed Dr. Lindley," Dr. M'Fadyen remarks, " in 
describing as a horizontal submersed stem, what others have 
regarded as the root. Although it grows under the surface of 
the water, it is free from the mud or soft earth, in which the 
proper roots or fibrillar are immersed. It may be remarked 
that the internal structure of the stem more resembles that of 
the flower-stalk than that of the petiole : the former supporting 
more important and complicated organs than the latter. It may 
also be noticed that these several parts resemble in their internal 
structure, composed of cellular tissue connecting a number of 
large air tubes, that of the stem of the Cabombaceje or Water 
shields. In plants of this order the number of air tubes amounts 
to 15 or 16. On the other hand, in the Cabombace.e there 
are no spiral vessels, whereas they are remarkably distinct in the 
Nelumbace^e. 

" I have no doubt the broad rufescent band which I have de- 
scribed as traversing the under-surface of the leaf, corresponds 
to that portion which is exposed, when the leaf, in the early 
period of its growth, is folded up previous to its expansion. 

" The peculiarities of the nervation in the leaf are not so dis- 
tinctly delineated, as they might have been. The broad rufescent 
band above alluded to, is also indistinctly indicated. It is very 
obvious, however, in the recent specimen. 

" The prolonged portion of the filament is in this species linear 
and incrassated. In N. speciosum it is linear ; and in N. luteum 
club-shaped. 

" The abortive cell of the carpel, has not as yet been described 




Ml 



Tab. 4347. 
hoya c1nnamomifolia. 

Cinnamon-leaved Hoy a. 



Nat. Ord. Asclepiade^:. — Pentandrja Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx brevis, pentaphyllus. Corolla rotata plus minus ve alte 
5-fida, laciniis planis v. reflexis aestivationc valvata. Corona staminea 5-pliylla, 
foliobs depressis patentibus v. plus minusve gynostegio verlicaliter aduatis car- 
nosis angulo interiore in dentem antherse incumbentem producto. Gynostegium 
breve. Antherce membrana terminate. Masses pollinis basi affixa?, oblongse, 
compressa?, conniventes, ssepius margine pellucida3. Stigma muticum cum 
papilla media obtusa v. subapiculatum. Folliculi laeves v. appendiculis instructi, 
subpolypteri. Semina comosa. — Frutices v. sufl'rutices Indici v. Moluccani 
rarissime Africani, volubiles, scandentes aut decumbentes, foliis carnosis v. coriaceis 
v. memhranaceis,jlQribu8 umbellatis, umbellis extra-axillaribus scepim multljloris. B. C. 



Hoya cinnamomifolia ; glaberrima, volubilis, caidibus ramisque teretibus, foliis 
carnoso-coriaceis crassis ovatis acuminatis utrinque 5-nerviis, nervis su- 
perne prominentibus supra petiolum calloso-glandulosis, pedunculis bre- 
vibus, umbellis compactis multifloris, corolla glabra pallide flava, corona 
stam. foliolis ovatis acutis atro-sanguineis supra planis medio linea elevata. 



To Messrs. Veitch and Sons, again, we are indebted for the 
introduction to our stoves of this new and handsome species of 
Hoya, from Java, whence it was sent by Mr. Thos. Lobb. It 
flowered in July, 1847. It belongs to the same group of the 
genus with Hoya Pottsii, figured in our Magazine, Tab. 3425 ; 
but it has much more showy flowers, and the nervation of the 
leaves is considerably different. 

Descr. Stem long, branched, twining, terete, glabrous, here 
and there sending out short roots from various portions of its 
length. Leaves opposite, on short, very thick petioles (which 
have a callosity on the top), large, ovate, slightly peltate, acumi- 
nate, thick, between coriaceous and fleshy, the margins recurved, 
five-nerved ; the three central nerves very conspicuous both above 
and below, extending nearly to the summit, the lateral ones less 
evident. Peduncle not half the length of the leaf, bearing 
a dense hemispherical umbel of Jlowers. Flowers large, rather 
showy from the effect of the different colour of the staminal croivn. 

JANUARY 1ST, 1848. 



Corolla pale yellow-green, rotate, the segments broadly ovate, 
acute. Leaflets of the staminal crown of a deep purple blood- 
colour, ovate, acute, thick, fleshy, nearly plane above, with a 
central elevated line. 






;.>-/-<y. 




Tab. 4348. 
GESNERIA pardina. 

Leopard-spotted Gesneria. 



Nat. Ord. Gesneriace^e. — Didynamia Gynosit.kmia. 
Gen. CItar. (Vide supra, Tab. 4-217.) 



Gesneria pardina ; pubescens, caule erecto crasso subherbaceo tercti ramoso, 
foliis brevi-petiolatis ellipticis erassiusculis serratis oblique arete penninerviis 
supra glabris subreticulatis subtus precipue reticulatim miosis tomentosis, 
pedunculis axillaribus solitariis folio brevioribus, calycis tubo ovario adnato 
turbinate, laciniis amplis acuminatis patentibus, corolla? tubo curvato sursura 
(Hlatato basi superne gibboso, ore obliquo, limbo subasquali 5-lobo, lobis 
patentibus rotundatis, staminibus styloque exsertis. 



Drawn from plants in the Royal Gardens of Kew, which were 
received from Brazil through Mr. Gardner, who detected the 
species in the Organ Mountains. It is extremely different from 
any, either published, or, as I have reason to believe, culti- 
vated in our gardens : in general habit it resembles G. aggrogata 
(Bot. Mag. tab. 2725), but is much handsomer, and the spotting 
reminds one of the flowers of G. Douglasii. It blossoms, in a 
moist stove, in October. 

Descr. Stem, with us, a foot and a half high, erect, rather 
stout, terete, brown, slightly downy above, branched. Leaves 
opposite, on short, rather stout petioles, patent, elliptical-acute, 
rather thick, fleshy, strongly serrated, downy above, most so 
beneath, strongly penninerved; the nerves oblique, closely 
placed, more or less united by transverse nervelets. Peduncle 
axillary, solitary, single-flowered, shorter than the leaves, thick- 
ening gradually upwards into the turbinate tube of the calyx, 
which is adherent with the lower part of the ovary : calyx- 
segments large, acuminate, spreading. Corolla an inch and a 
half or more long, ochrey-red, yellow within, spotted, especially 
the limb and tube, internally with deep red. Tube curved, yellow, 
and with a gibbosity at the base above, upwards the tube is 
gradually dilated : mouth oblique : limb of five nearly equal, 
rounded, spreading segments. Stamens and style exserted : fla- 

JANUARV 1st, 184S. 



meals glabrous, arising from the base of the corolla : there is 
a small, subulate, fifth abortive filament between the two pairs. 
Ovary half-inferior, hairy, with five nearly equal, yellow glands. 
Stigma oblique, sub-peltate. 



Fig, 1. Pistil and gland: — magnified. 



434-9 




Tab. 4349. 
CEROPEGIA Cumingiana. 

Mr. Cuming s Ceropegia. 



Nat. Ord. Asclepiade.e. — Pentandria Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus. Corolla tubulosa, basi magis minusve ventri- 
cosa, subinfundibuliformis, limbo laciniis compressis, ligulatis, erectis, saepius 
arcuatis apiceque cohaerentibus, baud rare ciliolatis ; praefloratione valvata. Co- 
rona staminea duplici serie campanulata v. rotata, 5-10-1 5 -lobata, lobis antheris 
autepositis ssepius longioribus, ligulatis, apice saepissime approximatis connivrn- 
tibus. Anthem apice simplices, membrana destitutae. Masses pollinis erects, 
rotundatae, margine interiori pellucidae. Stigma muticum. FoUicuU rylindracei, 
laeves, pergamacei. Semina comosa. — Sutfrutices v. potius kerbs ftrwm* 
bidica v. Afncana, radice bullosa, erectce camosa aphylla v.sapius volitbilesfo- 
ltosa> ; foliis hand raro canwsulis ; jloribus pancis aggregatis v. subcory miosis, 
riroitibus purpureo-violaceo-maadatis, v. rarius concoloribus lutescentibus. DC. 



Ceropegia Cumingiana ; volubilis glabra, foliis ovatis basi subcordatis apice 
longe attenuatis acutis tenuibus, pedunculis folium medium aequantibus 
plurifloris, sepalis acutis, corolla: tubo clavato, limbi laciniis oblongis glabris 
apice cohaerentibus, coronae stam. pilosae fol. extern, brevibus bifidis inter, 
ligulato-clavatis exteriora multo superantibus conniventibus. 

Ceropegia Cumingiana. Bene, in De Cand. Prodr. v. 8. p. 643. Cuming, Herb. 
Philipp. n. 447. 



Received from Java, by Messrs. Veitch and Sons, through 
their Collector, Mr. Thos. Lobb. This is clearly the same plant 
with Mr. Cuming's No. 447, from Manilla, quite agreeing with 
his specimens in my Herbarium. The discrepancies in the de- 
scription of the staminal crown of the flower, by M. Decaisne, 
and that drawn up by me, may be accounted for from the altera- 
tion in that part of a fleshy flower by drying and pressure. A 
stove plant, flowering in August with Mr. Veitch. 

Descr. A glabrous, climbing and twining pla?it, with terete, 
rounded stems, tinged with red. Leaves opposite, on rather 
long, flexuose petioles, ovato-acuminate, somewhat membrana- 
ceous, cordate at the base, often tinged with brown and with 
the costa red. Peduncle reaching about as far as the middle of 
the leaf, terminated by a cyme of eight to ten flowers. Pedicels 
with subulate bracteas at the base. Calyx deeply five-partite : 

JANUARY 1ST, 1848. 



segments subulate, spreading. Corolla one and a half to two 
inches long : the tube contracted in the middle, cream-coloured, 
the limb chocolate purple, with a pale transverse band ; the 
segments connivent, large. Staminal crotvn double ; exterior 
of five short, obtuse, double, slightly incurved teeth ; interior of 
as many elongated, clavato-ligulate ones, connivent, three or four 
times as long as the outer : all pilose. 



Fig. 1 . Staminal crown : — magnified. 



Tab. 4350. 
acacia leptoneura. 

Slender-nerved Acacia. 



Nat. Ord. Leguminos*:. — Polygamia Polyaxdria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide Supra, Tab. 4306.) 



Acacia leptoneura ; glabra v. junior canescenti-puberula, ramulis subteretibus, 
phyllodiis strictis v. flexuosis subulatis tereti-compressis tenuissime striato- 
multinerviis muticis v. uncinato-mucronatis, pedunculis solitariis gemiuisve 
phyllodiis multoties brevioribus, eapitulis multifioris, sepalis liberis angnirtfi 
spathulatis. 

Acacia leptoneura. Benth. on Mini, in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. v. 1, p. 341. 



\ 

W bere there is space for the display, a good collection of 
New Holland Acacias exhibits some of the most interesting 
among Green-house plants. The strange variety in the phyllodia 
(or leaves as they are generally called), the profusion and fra- 
grance of their blossoms, and the season of the year when they 
are in the greatest perfection, render them eminently worthy of 
cultivation. The Swan River Settlement, investigated by the 
industry and discrimination of a Drummond, has contributed to 
the stores already in our possession from the older parts of our 
Australian Colonies ; and many of the species are eminently 
worthy of a place in our Magazine. Acacia leptoneura recom- 
mends itself by its graceful slender branches, loaded with 
deep orange-yellow heads of flowers, rather than by any striking 
character in the foliage (phyllodia) ; except when this latter is 
magnified, (as shown in a transverse section, f.3,) and then the 
circle of air-cells, one beneath each ridge or nerve of the leaf, 
becomes visible, resembling, in that respect, as well as in the 
roughness of the superficies of the leaf itself, the joint of an Equi- 
setvm. The present species flowers in April. 

Descr. A shrub, five or six feet high, with very straggling 
branches, which are terete and wavy. Phyllodia alternate, two 
to three inches long, spreading, flexuose, subulate, or rather 
filiform, with an acuminate, sharp, terete, hooked point, minutely 
and copiously nerved or striated, rough on the surface when 

•FAMARY 1st, 1848. 



seen under a magnifier : an oblong gland appears above near 
the base, and at the union with the branch is a pair of scale-like, 
obovate, membranaceous stipules. Peduncles solitary, or more 
frequently geminate from the axils of the phyllodia, but not a 
sixth part of their length ; heads many-flowered, globose, of a 
deep orange-yellow colour. Calyx of five, free, loose, minute, 
spathulate, slightly hairy sepals. Petals linear-oblong, acute. 
Stamens numerous. 



Fig. 1. Portion of a branch and phyllodhun with stipules. 2. Transverse 
section of a phyllodinm : — magnified. 



$3$4 . 




Tab. 4351. 
ALLAMANDA Schottii. 

Large-jlowcred erect Allamanda. 



Nat. Ord. Apocynacejs. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus, lobis lanceolatis oblongisve, erectis, subhifrqunli- 
bus eglandulosis. Corolla ampin, lntea ; tubo basi cylindrico angusto, versus 
mediam partem abmpte dilatato, fauce ideo campnnulata vcl iiifuiulibuliformi ; 
lobis rotundatis, Bestivatione dextrorsum contortis. Squama ucis bipartite, 
lobis oppositae, e pilis parum coadunatis eonstantes. Anthera sagittate 5, nun 
squamis verticillatae, conniventes, filamentis multo longiores. Nectarium canto* 
sum, simplex. Ovarium liberum, conicum, glabrum, 1-locularc. Or/da oo, ani- 
phitropa, placentis 2 parietalibus adfixa, rotuudata, compressa. Stylus tiliformis. 
Stigma cylindraeeum, medio coarctatum, apice bilobum, lobis conniventibus. 
Fnictus capsularis, ellipsoideo-compressus, ecliinatus, valvis 2. Semina co, 
deoratun imbricata, in utraque placenta biserialia, rotundata, compressa, margine 
membranaceo ciucta. Funiculus brevis ; embryo iutra albumen parcum cartila- 
gineum rectus ; cotyledonibus foliaceis, ovato-cordatis, funiculum hilumque dorso 
speetantibus ; radicula brevissima, acuta, supera. — Arbusculac vel frutices Ame- 
rica meridionalis, caule erecto vel subscandente, foliis verticillalis vel oppositis, raro 
apice alteruh breviter petiolatis, integris ; glandulis intra-petiolaribus simplicibus 
vel bipartite ; cymis terminalibus et axillaribm. DC. 



Allamanda Schottii ; erecta suffrutieosa, ramis pilosiusculis, foliis ternis quater- 
nisve oblongis acuminatis basi angustatis sessilibus glabris, glandidis mi- 
nutis acutis, pedunculis floribus paniculatis calyceque glabris, lobis calycis 
lanceolatis acuminatis, fauce infuudibuliformi corollae parte constricta tubi 
longiore, lobis rotundatis oblique unidentatis. 

Allamanda Schottii. Pohl, Bras. v. 1. p. 73. /. 58. Alph. Be Cand. Prodr. 
v. 9.j». 309. 

Allamanda cathartica. Schrad.in Dior. Gbtt. 1821. p. 707. 

£.; corolla? tubi parte constricta longiore. (Tab. nostr. 4351.) 



Much confusion exists with respect to the different species of 
Allamanda, of which seven are enumerated in the Prodromus 
of De Candolle. The A. cathartica of Linnaeus, which we con- 
sider to be the one represented at t. 338 of the present 
work, is called A. Linncei by Pohl, and it is distinguished as a 
species from the Allamanda of Aublet (A. Aubletii, Pohl). 
ihese are again united by Alphonse De Candolle: both have 
scandent stems. A. cathartica alone, so far as I know, had 

FEBRUARY 1 ST, 1848. C 



been introduced to our collections, till September, L847, when 
I had the pleasure of receiving a splendid specimen of a perfectly 
upright growing species from Mr. J, Stanton, Gardener to 
K. W. Barton, Esq., Springwood, Manchester. They were raised 
from seeds, sent by Mr. Graham from Brazil to Miss Barton. 
Besides the size, beauty, and copiousness of the blossoms, this 
species has the merit of flowering when little more than two 
feet high and in eight-inch pots. I think I am right in referring 
it to A. Sciottii, Pohl; though, the contracted portion of the 
tube of the corolla being longer than in that species, it seems 
better to constitute a variety of it. 

I)kscr. An erect suffruticosc plant, everywhere glabrous, sive 
the younger shoots and petioles, very fragile at the setting on of 
the leaves. The older portion of the stem is verruoose. I 
in whorls of three or tour, spreading, large, lanceolate, aeiimii, 
tapering below into a short petiole, which bears at its base sfipn- 
lary glands, small, acute. Peduncles terminal and from the 
axils of the Ieave8, bearing several flowers forming panicles. 

Pedicels short. Calya deeply cut into 1 i \ * ■ rather large, ovato* 

lanceolate, acuminate, almost leafy segment! Of ISUls, often with 
a tooth on one side. Corolkt very large, of a ric h full yellow, 

hifundibuliform i the lower half or rather less forming a uarron 

contracted tube, thence suddenly expanding into a eompanulate 
faux (of a deeper yellow in the mode) ; the Smb of five rotundafc, 
spreading segments, often with a tooth or angle on one side. 



4 352. 




n™^,Tn Ai^eve, 



Tab. 4352. 
DENDROBIUM secundum. 

One-sided Dendrobium. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^;. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Sepala membranacea, erecta vel patentia, lateralibna majoribus 
obliquis cum basi produeta columnae connatis. Petala sepalo supremo septus 
majora, nunc minora, semper membranacea. Labettum cum pede columiue arti- 
culatum vel connatum, semper sessile, indivisum vel trilobum, Beepiua membra* 
naceum, nunc appendiculatum. Columna seiniteres, basi longe produeta. An- 
them bilocularis. Pollinia 4 per paria collateralia. — Herbffi epipigte *#ne 
caulescentes, nunc rhizomate repente pseitdo-bulbifero. Folia plana, sapius venom. 
Flores solitarii fasciculati vel racemosi, speciosi. Lindl. 



-Dendrobium secundum, ; caulibus pendulis, foliis oblongis apice oblique retusis, 
racemis lateralibna terminalibusque secundis, sepalis ovatis, lateralibna basi 
in cornu longo obtuso incurvo connatis, petalis supremo paulo minoribus, 
labello integerrimo acuto apice tumido. Lindl. 

Dendrobium secundnm. Wall. Cat. n. 1996. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1291. Gem. 
et Sp. Orchid, p. 81. 

Pediloxum secundum. Plume, Bijdrag. p. 322. 



The East Indian Orchideous plants have assuredly the pre- 
eminence over those of the New World, beautiful though many of 
the latter undoubtedly are. Nor is the present Dendrobium one 
of the least handsome among the former. The leaves are copious, 
but unfortunately not on the same stem with the flowers. Den- 
drobium Kuhlii (Bot. Reg. 1847, tab. 47) is a very nearly allied 
species. Both are inhabitants of the .Malayan islands, and 
require the usual treatment of tropical Orchideous plants. 

Descr. Stems pendulous, elongated, terete, copiously jointed ; 
the joints sheathed by the deeply striated base of the foliage. 
Leaves one to each joint, oblong, or ovato-oblong, acute or 
obliquely emarginate, costate and faintly striated, firm, coriaceous. 
Flcnvers copious in long spikes, of which one or two arise from 
the extremity of a leafless stem, all drooping and secund, not 
much unlike, at first sight, those of some Hedysarum, of a deep 
full rose-colour, paler and nearly white in parts. Cylyx-sepals 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1848. C 2 

i 



narrow, ovate, acute, concave, the lateral ones running down 
into a blunt, subcorneal spur, nearly as long as the sepals. 
Petals resembling the senilis, but rather smaller. Lip nearly 
white, obovato-spathulate. Column elongated, broader upwards. 



Fig. 1. Entire flower. 2. Portion of a flower, showing the ipnr, column, 

sepal, and petal. 3. Labelluni : — Vfagntfed. 



Tab. 4353. 
acacia oncinophvlla. 

Hook-leaved Acacia. 



Nat. On!. Leuvminos.e. — Poly&amia Poltamdria. 

Gen. Char. {Tide Supra, Tab. 4306.) 



Acacia oiicinophulla ; glabra v. rcsinoso-puberula, ramulia angulatis, phyllodiis 
elongato-linearibus subulatis planis subrecurvo-mucronatis rigidis crassius- 
culis striato-trinerviis basi angnstatis, glandnla prope basin obscura, spicfa 
subgerainis breviter pedunculatis cylindricis densis, sepalis liberis spathn- 
latis. Berdh. 

Acacia oncinophylla. Lindl. Swan Riv. Bot. p. 15. Benth. on Mini, in Hook. 
Land. Journ. Bot. v. 1. p. 370. 



A very graceful Swan River species of Acacia, flowering in 
the early spring months, and scenting the atmosphere with its 
agreeable fragrance. The blossoms, in rich yellow spikes, show 
more numerous upon the branches than are even the leaves, or 
rather phylkxlia. The seeds were sent to us by Mr. Drummond. 

Descr. Shrub, with us attaining a height of seven feet, every- 
where glabrous or nearly so : branches, especially the younger 
ones, yellow-green, striated. Phyllodia scattered, sparse, linear- 
falcate, submucronato-acuminate, pungent, tapering at the base 
and at the upper edge, below furnished with an oblong 
gland. Stipules minute, subulate, deciduous. Spikes axil- 
lary, sessile, geminate, cylindrical, obtuse, shorter than the 
leaves, of a deep orange-yellow colour, densely clothed with 
flowers. Bracteas small, rotundato-ovate, hairy on the back in 
the upper half. Calyx five-fid, the lobes rounded, spreading, 
obtuse. Corolla none. Stamens very numerous, thrice as long 
as the calyx. 



Pig. 1. Portion of a branch, with stipokfl and the base of a leaf, to show the 
gland : — magnified 



FEBRUARY 1st, 18 IS. 



4-3- 14-. 




Tab. 4354. 
CLERODENURON scandbns. 

Climbing Clerodendron . 



Nat. Ord. Vb&bknaome, — Didynamia Ahsiospkuua 
Qm. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4255.) 



Clerodendron scandeus ; subpubescens, caule volubili tetragono, foliis cordato- 
ovatis acuminalis niembranaceis integemniis brevi-acuminatissimis, petiolo 
gracili basi nodoso-articulato, corymbis pedunculatis axillaribus tiTiniiialibiis 
paniculam foliosam formantibus, calycibus oblongo-turbinatis scmiquinque- 
fidis, segmentis albidis membranaceis ovatis triiiervibus, corolla; tubo 
gracillimo calyce duplo lougiore, liinbi laciniis obovatis patciitibus tubo vix 
brevioribus, stamiuibus styloque longissinie exsertis corolla; tubo triplo 
superantibus. 

Clerodendron scandens. Pal. Beauv. Fl. D'Otc. et de Ben. v. 2. p. 6. t. 62. 
Schauer in De Cand. Prodr. v. 11. p. 662. 

Clerodendron umbellatum? Poir. Cycl. 5. p. 166. 



A very pretty stove Clerodendron introduced, together with 
the following more splendid species, by Messrs. Lucombe, PSnce, 
and Co., Exeter Nursery, from Sierra Leone, through the instru- 
mentality of Mr. Whitfield. The flowers are exceedingly pretty 
and copious, and the plant is a climber, well adapted for growth 
on a balloon trellis in a pot. It flowers in December, when 
the far less beautiful blossoms have great charms. Palisot de 
Beauvois' figure (and description as far as it goes) is quite cha- 
racteristic of this plant ; but Schauer, in De Candolle, seems to 
have constructed his specific character from Poiret's C. vmbella- 
fnm, which can hardly be the same species, for neither is our 
plant " glaberrima," nor are the leaves coriaceous. 

Descr, A graceful climber, with obtusely tetragonous and 
slightly pubescent stems and branches. Leaves in remote pairs 
three or four inches long, two or more wide, ovate, entire, mem- 
branaceous, with a short but very sharp point, cordate at the 
base, more or less pubescent, especially on the nerves beneath, 
and there often tinged with purple. Pefioles slender, articulated, 
and nodose, on a projecting tooth of the stem or branch, 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 184S. 



downy. Peduncle* bearing corymbs of flowers from the axils 
(or rather above the axils — supra-axillary), and extending beyond 
the leaves; so that the several corymbs form a rather large 
panicle, leafy below. VediceU Blender, downy, bracteated. 
CalfW downy, for the most pari coloured, that i>, while more 
or less tinged with purple: the segments orate with three green 
nerves. Corolla very slightly downy, white, beautifully tinged 
with rose-colour : the kibe slender, twice as long as the calyx, 
straight: limb of five spreading obovate segments, almost 
long as the tube. Stamens and style very much exserted and 
slightly curved upwards. 



Kg. l. ('aly\ and pistil: — magnified. 




fitch., lei eb ktk 



Ree^e B eivham. Sn Jleeve. nap 



Tab. 4355. 
CLERODENDRON capitatum. 

Capitate Clerodendron. 

Nat. Ord. Verbenaceje. — Didynamia Angiospekmi a 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4255.) 



Cleropenduum capitatum ; ramis junioribus uervisquc foliorum (subtus prae- 
cipue) ferrugineo-pilosis, foliis araplis brevi-petiolatis obovato-obkmgis am- 
minatis reticulatis margine subsinuato-undulatis, pedunculo ferrugineo 
hirsuto terminali diphyllo, calycibus dense capitatis ampliatis f'oliaceo- 
membranaceis reticulatis ciliatis, corolla? (albo) tubo longissimo curvato 
piloso-glatiduloso infra apicem geniculate, limbi lobis subaxpialibus obovati* 
patentibus, staminibus stylonue longissime exsertis. 

Clerodendron capitatum. Schumacher, PI. Guiu. v. 2. p. 61. Schauer, in Ik 
Cand.Prodr. v. 11. p. 673. 

Volokameria capitata. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 384. 



There never was a period, perhaps, when so many splendid 
new plants were introduced to our stoves and greenhouses as at 
the present ; and these, it must be confessed, come very much 
through the instrumentality of our eminent and spirited Nursery- 
men, and the encouragement given by them to Collectors abroad. 
The late volumes of the Botanical Magazine will bear me out 
in this assertion ; and the subject now figured is certainly not 
among the least splendid of recent arrivals. It is from the 
collection of Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co. of Exeter, and 
was imported by them through Mr. Whitfield from Sierra Leone. 
It consequently requires stove heat, and it has the merit of 
flowering while the plants are small. 

Notwithstanding some slight discrepancies, I have every reason 
to believe this is the Volokameria capitata and equally the 
Clerodendron capitatum of Schumacher, more fully described in 
the Plants of Guinea. It is a species so little known to Botanists 
that in De Candolle's Prodromus it is placed among " species 
denuo recognoscendse." The length and spread of the corollas 
are so considerable, that at first sight the capitate character is 
not distinctly visible ; but it will be seen that the bases of 

FEBRUARY 1 ST. 1848. 



the flowers, the calyces, are collected into a dense head. The 
fragrance is no less remarkable than the beauty of the flowers 
and foliage. 

Descr. A shrub, of handsome growth, with obtusely tetragon ous 
branches ; the younger ones almost terete, herbaceous, clothed 
with spreading fuscous hairs. Leaves ample, from four or five 
inches to nearly a foot in length, the smaller ones subovate, the 
larger ones obovato-oblong, acuminate, entire, but subsinuate 
and undulate at the margin, the surface reticulated and some- 
what wrinkled, the young ones subpilose, the older ones ferru- 
ginously hairy on the nerves, especially beneath : petioles short, 
clothed with ferruginous or brown hairs. Peduncle terminal, 
hairy, like the young branches, short, bearing in our specimen 
two small leaves, and a dense head of numerous flowers : the 
great length and spread of the corollas giving the appearance of 
an umbel, or almost of a panicle, if the calyces be not inspected. 
Calyx large, lax, deeply cut into five nearly equal, erecto-patent, 
reticulated, membranaceous segments, hairy, especially at the 
margin. Corollas five inches long ! cream-white, glanduloso- 
pubescent: the tube very slender, geniculated below the limb 
(where the stamens are inserted) and then broader : limb of five 
spreading, obovate, nearly equal segments. Stamens and style 
very much exserted, the former curved upwards. 



as existing in any other of the species. It is very distinct in 
this, and I have no doubt will be found to be equally so in the 
other species. 

In the description of the embryo, it is said to be composed 
of the rudiments of the future leaf, flower, and stem. 1 lere I 
differ from Gsertner, who regards what I have described as the 
rudiments of the flower and flower-stalk, as belonging to a second 
undeveloped leaf. To this 1 object, that it would be a very 
unusual circumstance, where there are the rudiments of two cor- 
responding organs, that there should be so much dissimilarity 
and disproportion between them. On the contrary, as a leal 
and a flower invariably arise from each joint of the stem, it is 
most probable that I am correct in the description I have given. 

This interesting plant was first made known to botanists by 
Dr. Patrick Browne, an Irish physician, who resided for some 
time in this island, and, as it would appear from his writings, 
left it in 1754. During his residence, he devoted his attention 
to the natural history of the Island. He published the result of 
his observations in a folio volume, entitled " The Civil and Natural 
History of Jamaica, by Patrick Browne, M.D., illustrated with 
forty-nine Copper-plates, by Ehret, London, 1789." He informs 
us, in page 343, that the Nelumbium, (or as he styles it 
Nympilea) the Egyptian Bean, or Great Water-lily, was, in his 
time, pretty common in the lagoons beyond the Ferry. "It 
grows," he informs us, " in loose boggy ground, where the leaves 
may stand in open air, while the roots and lower part of the 
stems are plentifully supplied with moisture." Dr. Browne 
appears to have been under the impression that our plant was 
identical with the sacred Water-bean of the Egyptians. Since 
his time, the plant appears from some cause to have become 
more scarce, and to have escaped the notice of the different 
botanists who have visited this Island. It seems very unlikely that 
Swartz, Bertcro, as well as many others, should have met with 
it and passed it over without some notice. 

Since my arrival in the Island, I took every opportunity of 
searching for the plant. Dr. M'Nab, also, and Mr. Purdie, the 
collector for the Kew Gardens, now of Trinidad, frequently visited 
the locality on a similar errand, passing through the canals of the 
lagoon in a boat, without any success. Early in August, James 
Dunclas, Esq., (the manager of Taylor's Caymanas Estate,) while 
carrying out some improvements connected with the draining of 
the land of that property in the vicinity of the lagoon, unex- 
pectedly came upon this beautiful plant, and, as he had on 
former occasions, assisted in the kindest manner, our searches 



6 

for it, he immediately concluded that he had at length lighted 
on what we had been so long in search of. He collected 
specimens of the flowers and other parts of the plant, and brought 
them to my residence in Kingston. I doubt not every cultivator 
of our " fair science" must sympathise in the pleasure with which 
I regarded this beautiful Water-Lily. How much more delightful 
would be the surprise to encounter it in its native solitudes, 
where the hand of Nature has planted and reared it, amid the 
mangroves and the tall reeds, overshadowing with its magni- 
ficent leaves and flowers the still waters of the lagoon, recalling 
the description of Una in the Fairy Queen : — 

" Her ansrel-face 



As the great eye of heaven shiued bright 
And made a sunshine in the shady place." 



Some general remarks on the Flora of Ceylon ; 



GEORGE GARDNER, Esq., E.L.S. 
Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Paradenia, Ceylon . 

Although Ceylon is celebrated for the luxuriant vegetation by 
which it is covered, the plants which compose it are less known 
to botanists than those, perhaps, of any other portion of India of 
equal extent. While the history and uses of the vegetable pro- 
ductions of the possessions of the East India Company, and most 
of the islands of the Indian Archipelago, have been given to the 
world by modern botanists, those of Ceylon are at the present 
day nearly as little understood in Europe as they were one 
hundred years ago, when Linnaeus published his " Flora Zey- 
lanica," founded on collections which had been made in the 
Island by Hermann, a Dutch botanist, about seventy years be- 
fore. It is true that during the last few years the descriptions 
of several Ceylon plants have been published in different scien- 
tific periodical publications, both by Indian and European bo- 
tanists ; but although a botanical institution has been maintained 
in the colony, at the expense of Government, for upwards of 
the last thirty years, those who have superintended it have done 
almost nothing either for their own credit or the honour of the 
establishment. Since the publication of the little book of Lin- 
naeus, the only work which has been produced on Ceylon botany 
is the " Catalogue of Plants growing in Ceylon," published in 



1824, by Mr. Moon, who was the Superintendent of the Bo- 
tanical Gardens,- — a work which never was of much use, and 
which is now quite obsolete, for being merely a catalogue, there 
arc no characters by which to recognise the species he has 
enumerated. As connected with these observations, I may re- 
mark that I am at present engaged in preparing a book which 
will contain descriptions of all the vegetable productions indige- 
nous to Ceylon, at least so far as I can obtain them, illustrated 
with coloured figures of some of the more rare, beautiful, or 
useful species. This, however, will be a labour of several years 
to come, as I have still to explore different parts of the Island, 
the productions of which are totally unknown. 

The vegetation of all countries has its general character de- 
termined by two great principal causes — physical aspect anil 
climate. The former having already been detailed in the pre- 
ceding geological sketch of the Island, I shall here offer a few 
remarks on the latter. The two monsoons which occupy the 
greater part of the year, materially influence the climate. That 
from the south-west lasts generally from April to September, 
while the north-east prevails from November to February, the 
intervening periods being subject to variable winds and calms. 
The western side of the Island, which is exposed to the south- 
west monsoon, enjoys a humid and temperate climate, similar to 
that of the Malabar coast ; while the eastern, which is open to the 
north-east monsoon, has a hot and dry climate, similar to that 
of the Coromandel coast. The seasons and climates of the south- 
west and north-east portions of the Island are therefore very dif- 
ferent. While on one side of the Island the rains are falling in 
torrents, the other is suffering from drought ; and it not un- 
frequently happens that the opposite sides of a single mountain 
exhibit at the same time these opposite states of climate. 

The great variety of surface and of climate, then, which the 
Island possesses, is favourable not only to a varied, but to a 
luxuriant vegetation, especially in the central and southern dis- 
tricts. From the study of plants, taken in connexion with 
these circumstances and their various other physical conditions, 
has originated the science of Botanical Geography, one of 
the most interesting branches of botany, and which will no 
doubt throw much light on the laws which have regulated the 
production and dispersion of species. It is only of late years 
that attention has been given to this subject ; for, till the 
natural productions of different parts of the surface of the 
globe came to be investigated with the attention and accuracy 
peculiar to the present age, naturalists rested satisfied with the 



vague idea that all animals and vegetables had originally ra- 
diated from a common centre ; and that in the same parallels of 
latitude the same species would be found. This we now know 
not to be the case : it may be as safely asserted that every 
large tract of country has had its own peculiar creation of both 
plants and animals, as that two and two make four, the excep- 
tions to this general rule being accounted for by disseminating 
causes now in operation. In no other way can we account 
for Europe having a totally different class of plants from that 
part of North America which lies immediately opposite to it ; 
or for the botany of Southern Africa bearing little or no resem- 
blance to that of the same parallels in South America, or to 
that of Australia; or for many small Islands, such as that of 
St. Helena, possessing a vegetation totally different even from 
that of the nearest continent. Islands, however, in general, 
approach nearest in the nature of their productions to the 
countries to which they most nearly range in a geographical point 
of view, and this we shall find to be the case with Ceylon. 

Both the climate and the soil of the maritime parts of 
the western side of Ceylon being very similar to that of the 
Malabar coast, we find that a large proportion of the plants 
of both places are identical ; and the same holds good with 
reference to the northern and north-east coasts of Ceylon and 
the opposite Coromandel coast; although each district in 
both countries possesses species peculiar to each. A vegeta- 
tion, more or less similar to that of the coast, extends inland 
to the foot of the great mountain chain; but from thence 
upwards, a very great change takes place, and almost every 
thousand feet of elevation shows a vegetation which, though 
merging into those immediately above and beneath it, offers 
species which do not range beyond it. It is at an elevation 
of from 2,000 to 8,000 feet that the greater part of the 
species of plants peculiar to Ceylon are to be found ; but most 
of these belong to forms, that is, to natural orders or genera, 
which form part of the vegetation of neighbouring countries, 
such as the Neelgherry mountains in the peninsula of India, 
the Himalaya mountains, the high lands of Malacca, and of the 
Eastern Islands, but more particularly Java ; and I have lately 
even met with a few species indicating an affinity with the 
continent of Africa. 

I shall now offer some remarks on the nature of the vegeta- 
tion which characterizes the different botanical regions of the 
Island. The truly littoral plants of all countries present a greater 
number of identical species in widely separated localities of the 



9 

same parallels, than those of any other. This, indeed, is to be 
expected, from the fact that the ocean forms a ready medium for 
their transmission from one country to another, by means of tides, 
winds, and currents, while at the same time their seeds, unlike 
those of most other plants, are not injured by immersion in salt 
water. Most of the shrubs which inhabit the muddy shores of 
the sea, and of the salt lagoons which are so numerous towards 
the north of the Island, and which are known by the name of 
Mangroves, belong to that natural order of plants which botanists 
call Rhizophorea, a strictly intertropical tribe. My researches 
have already yielded about half-a-dozen species, all of which 
I find are common to Ceylon, the shores of the continent of 
India, and of those of the Eastern Islands; and the same 
is the case with a few other shrubs belonging to other tribes, 
such as JEgiceras fraj/rans, which extends even to the shores 
of Australia, Epithinia Malayana, Pemphis acidula, Dilivana 
ilicifolia, Lumnitzera racemosa, Thespesia populnea (the Tulip- 
tree of Ceylon), and Paritium tiliaceum, the last having a 
far more extensive geographical range than any of the others, 
for I possess specimens in my Herbarium from the shores of 
the West Indies, Brazil, and the Sandwich Islands, besides 
from various parts of India. The Cocoa-nut tree, which 
gives so marked a feature to the west coast of Ceylon, and is 
now so generally cultivated along the shores of all intertropical 
countries, is essentially a sea-side plant, and has as good claims 
to be considered indigenous to Ceylon as to any other part of 
the world. The same observations that apply to the shrubs of 
our shores, apply also to the herbaceous vegetation. 

The great flat tract extending between the sea-shore and the 
central mountain range, is possessed of a very extensive Flora ; 
but as its general character is stamped by a few species which 
are very numerous in individuals, it is to them chiefly that 
my remarks apply. In this tract a very great proportion of 
the species are identical with those of similar ones on the coasts 
of Coromandel and Malabar. The generally acid nature of its 
soil, together with its much drier climate than that of the in- 
terior, is well shown, especially in the Northern Province, by the 
more wiry and stunted nature of the trees and bushes, their 
prickly stems and branches, and the smaller size of their leaves, 
together with a much greater proportion of fleshy shrubs, such 
as Euphorbias, &c. The species which preponderate in indi- 
viduals in the Northern Province, are different kinds of Acac'm. 
mostly very thorny, the Wood Apple {Feronia Elephant um), Li- 
monia alafa, Sakadom Pcrsica (the true Mustard-tree of Scrip- 



10 

turc, a tree which extends northward and westward to the Holy 
Land, and which I was the first to point out as a native of 
Ceylon), Carissa spinarum, Gmelina Asiatica, Plcurostylia 
Wightii, Eugenia bracteata, Elaodendro?i BoxburgJiii, Ochna 
squarrosa, Cassia Fistula, Cassia Boxburghii, and Memecylon 
tinctoria. These are chiefly shrubs and small trees. The 
large trees, mostly of no great size, are two or three species 
of Terminalia, Bassia longifolia, the Margosa {Azadirachta 
Indica), the Satin-wood {Chloroxylon Swictenia), the Ceylon Oak 
{Schleicheria trijuga), the Tamarind (Tamarindus Indica), and the 
Palmyra (Borasms jtabelliformis), which is particularly abundant 
on the peninsula of Jaffna.* The mass of the herbaceous vege- 
tation belongs to the natural orders Scrophularinea, Leguminosm, 
Bubiacea, and Composite. 

Proceeding southwards through this flat country, a consi- 
derable difference in the general appearance of the vegetation is 
observed, arising, no doubt, from the greater amount of rain 
which falls during the course of the year. The trees are not 
only larger, but their foliage is heavier and of a darker hue ; and 
the numerous Acacias, which give so striking a feature to the 
north, almost disappear. Between Colombo and Galle, shrubs 
belonging to the natural order Euphorbiacea are very numerous, 
both in species and individuals, as w T ell as a variety of Babiacete, 
of which the beautiful Ixora coccinea is not the least common. 
It is only in this range that the Pitcher-plant {Nepenthes distilla- 
toria), which is not, however, peculiar to Ceylon, is met with, 
growing in moist places and supporting itself among the bushes, 
About Galle, and from thence inland, to the base of Adam's Peak, 
one of the most common shrubs is that which has been named, 
in honour of. the great Humboldt — Humboldtia laurifolia ; and 
on the low hills near Galle, a few trees are met with, which, 
farther north, do not exist under one thousand feet of elevation, 
but this is easily accounted for by the greater atmospheric 
moisture of that district. One of these trees is a new and re- 
markable species of Durian {Dnrio Ceylanicus, Mihi.) It is in 
this district that the greater number of the Sugar plantations of 
Ceylon exist. 

* Since the above was written, I have made a most important addition 
to the trees of this region, and, indeed, to the Flora of the Island, in the 
far-famed Upas tree of Java and the Moluccas (Jntiaris toxicaria), having dis- 
covered some fine large trees of it a few miles to the eastward of Kornegalle, 
early in August of the present year (1847). This discovery proves how little 
the investigation of the vegetable productions of Ceylon had been attended 
to.— (G.G.) 



4-366. 




Tab. 4356. 
PRIMULA Stuartii. 

Stuart's Primrose. 



Nat. Ord. — Primulaceje. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Con. CJmr. Calyx subcampanulatus vel tubulosus, sa?pius angulatus Vtel infla- 
tus, quinquedentatus vel quinquefidus. Corolla hypogyna, innindilniliformis 
vel hypocraterimorpha, tubo cylindraceo, brevi vel elongato, ad fauccm dilatain, 
limbo quinquefido, laciniis obtusis, emarginatis vel bifidis. Stamina quinqtM, 
corolke tubo inserta, ejusdem laciniis opposita, inclusa ; jilamenta brevissiimi ; 
ttnthera oblongse, biloculares, longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Ovarium globosum, 
uniloculare, placenta basilari substipitata. Ovula plurima, punctato-rugosn, 
prHatim amphitropa, dorso plana, ventre convexa. Capmla ovata quinquevalvis, 
valvulis integris aut bifidis apice tantum dehiscentibus. 8muu minima, nume- 
rosa. Embryo in axi albuminis carnosi. — Herbse in E/tropa et Asia imprimi t 
alpicolce, in America boreali rara?, foliis plerumque i-adicalibus, scapo thttpHci, 
noribus umbellatis, involucratis, scepmime speciosis. Endlichcr et Duly. 



Primula Stuartii ; foliis lsevibus planis late lanceolatis acutis glaberrimis subtus 
farina lutea obtectis argute serratis interdum margine revolutis in petiobun 
late alatum basi dilatatum membranaceum subvaginantem subcoarctatis, 
scapo crasso glabro fouis longiore sub involucro farinoso, involucrrmulti- 
flori polyphylli pedicellos subaequantis et illis interdum brevioris foliolis 
insequalibus e basi anguste lanceolata acuminato-elongatis obtusiusculis, 
calycis farinacei campanulato-tubulosi subultra-quinquefidi tubo dimidio 
brevioris laciniis lanceolatis subacutis, corolla? hypocraterimorphae Iobis 
obrotundis subcrenulatis vix emarginatis. Duly. 

Primula Stuartii, Wall, El. Ind. v. 2. p. 20. Duby in DC. Prodr. v. 8. p. 41. 



This beautiful perennial herbaceous Primrose is a native of 
the mountainous parts of India, having been gathered at Gossain- 
Than in Nepal, by Wallich, and on the Himalayan, at an eleva- 
tion of 9,000 feet, by Royle, who speaks of it as giving a rich 
yellow glow to those regions. The plant, from which the figure 
was taken, flowered in the garden of the Edinburgh Horticultural 
Society, under the superintendence of Mr. James M'Nab, during 
the summer of 1847, having been presented by the late Sheriff 
Spiers, in whose garden at Granton House it was raised from 
seeds, sent from India by Major Grant, 9th Lancers, during the 
spring of 1845. It was planted in a north exposed border, in 
the summer of 1846, in a mixture of loam and peat. It stood 

MARCH 1st, 1848. D 



the winter of 1846-47 unprotected, and without any artificial 
covering except its own decayed leaves. The plant did not 
produce seed. 

Descr. Plant about sixteen inches high. Leaves ten or eleven 
inches long, numerous, radical, erect, smooth, broadly lanceolate, 
acute, shining above, covered below with a yellowish mealy 
matter, or farina, (the grains of which are supported on short 
cellular prolongations), gradually ending in a sheathing petiole 
which is deeply hollowed on its upper surface ; margins of leaves 
slightly undulated with close sharp serratures, which occasionally 
point downwards and are somewhat revolute at the point ; mid- 
rib very prominent on the lower side, grooved on the upper, not 
covered with mealiness. Vernation revolute. Scape umbellate 
with numerous flowers, longer than the leaves, covered for 
about half its length from below the point where the pedicels 
diverge, with a pale, sulphur-yellow farina, similar to that on the 
leaves. Involucre polyphyllous, leaflets (one of which is at the 
base of each pedicel) lanceolate, from half to three quarters of an 
inch long, and shorter than the pedicels which are from one inch 
to one inch and a quarter in length. Calyx gamosepalous, five- 
cleft, campanulato-tubular, covered with farina, its segments 
lanceolato-acute. Corolla yellow, gamopetalous, salver-shaped, 
its tube twice as long as the calyx, narrow about the middle, 
and then expanding in a somewhat campanulate manner near its 
union with the limb, where there is a marked contraction ; limb 
of an orange tint towards the centre of the flower, with five 
grooves at the part where it joins the tube, having five segments, 
which are rounded, waved, somewhat crenate, covered with 
minute capitate hairs. Stamens five, attached to the corolla, 
free part of filaments very short, anthers opening longitudinally, 
introrse ; pollen spherical. Ovary rounded, oblong, having an 
appearance of ten teeth at its apex, indicating five bidentate 
carpels; style round; stigma capitate, obscurely five-lobed with a 
depression in the centre ; placenta free, central, with numerous 
rows of amphitropal ovules. 

W. Balfour. 



Fig.l Section of the tube of the corolla, showing the pistil and stamens. 
1. Fistil:— magnified. (The drawing as well as the description are kindly 
communicated by Professor Balfour). 



6,3S7. 




!$&.$& 



Tab. 4357. 
OROTHAMNUS Zeyheri. 

Mr. Zeyhrrs Orothammis. 



Nat. Ord. Proteace.e. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Gen. CJiar. OROTHAMNUS, Pappe, MS. Involucrum HMMTM& membra- 
naceum, polyphyllum, corollatum, calyces et stigmata superans. Beoeptaa&m 
commune planum, paleis filiformibus tectum. Calyx corollinus distincte 4-partitus, 
regularis, laciniis staminiferis basi coalitis. Stylus subulato-filiformis, stigmate 
angustato, cylindraceo, deciduo. Nux sessilis ventricosa, immatura tenuissime 
puberula. Pappe. 



Orothamnus Zeyheri. 
Orothamnus Zeyheri. Pappe, MS. 



We have on several occasions had reason to lament the loss 
to our collections of many Cape Protectees, which were once 
well known in our gardens : — they seem to have died out and 
have not been replaced ; and we may now express our regret 
that the present superb species has not yet been introduced 
alive to our collections. That it will be so ere long, we feel 
confident ; and until that period arrives our subscribers will 
not be sorry to see a faithful representation, made from a 
living plant at the Cape, by Mr. Villett, of the present truly 
beautiful new Proteacea, kindly sent to us by Dr. Pappe with 
the accompanying generic character and description. The 
plant was discovered lately by Mr. Zeyher in marshy places, on 
the summit of Hottentot's-Holland mountains, flowering in the 
month of July. We have tested the accuracy of the figure by a 
comparison with a specimen communicated at the same time ; 
but we have not had the means of making a full analysis of the 
flowers. In the system, as Dr. Pappe justly remarks, it will 
rank next to Mimetes. 

Descr. A shrub, six to eight feet high, erect, the branches 
purplish, villous. Leaves alternate on the branches, sessile, 
imbricated, numerous, entire, elliptic, membranaceous, externally 
convex, within concave, obsoletely veined, pellucido-punctate, 
glabrous, margined with purple, an inch, or an inch and a half 

MARCH 1st, 1848. D 2 



long, the apex with a coloured, callous, reflexed point. Capitula 
one to three or more at the extremity of a branch, drooping, 
bracteated. Leaves of the involucre distinct at the base, mem- 
branaceous, petaloid, rose-red: the exterior larger, oblong-obovate, 
obtuse, veined, glabrous within, externally and at the margin 
villous : the interior ones smaller, lanceolate, acuminate, very 
villous. Bracteas similar to the leaves, imbricated, oblong- 
lanceolate, externally glabrous, glossy, externally and at the 
margins densely villous. Lacinia of the calyx villous, bearded 
at the points, a little shorter than the style. Style deciduous, 
filiform, glabrous ; stiyma coloured, apiculate. Pappe. 



Fig. 1. Flower: — magnified, 



4-SJS. 






"7 jx 




_^i= 





Tab. 4358. 
MAMILLARIA Clava. 

Club-shaped Ma miliaria. 



Nat. Ord. Cacte.b. — Icosandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus ovario adherens; lobi 5-6 colorati fructum juniorem 
coronantes. Petala 5-25 a calyce vix distincta, eo longiora et cum sepalis in 
tubum concreta. Stamina filiformia, pluriserialia. Stylus filiformis. Stigma 
3-7-radiatum. Bacca laevis oblonga. Semina nidulantia. Cotyledons inmate, 
acuminata?. — Suffrutices carnosi subrotundi, aut cylindracei, lactescent^, ami MOM 
limpido repleti, aphylli, tuberculis subconicis mammaformibus spiraliler deposit is, 
apice spinulas radiantes et tomentum deciduum gerentibus obtecti. Fiona War 
basin tnamillarum sessiles, sapius in zonam transversam dispositi. Bacca oborata, 
edulis, calyce marcescente, demum deciduo, coronata. Pfeiff. 



Mamillaria Clava; simplex erecta clavato-columnaris glauco-viridis, axillis 
tomentosis, mamillis undique insertis maximis elongatis angulato-pvrami- 
datis erecto-patentibus, areolis terminalibus tomentosis, aculeis rectis elongatis 
corneis radiantibus 8-11-12, centrali 1 longiore robustiore, floribus termi- 
nalibus 2-3 majusculis, petabs stramineis apicibus serratis apicnlatis exte- 
rioribus rubescentibus. 

Mamillaria Clava. "Pfeiff. in Otto et Dietr. Allgem. Gartenzing. c.8. p. 282." 
Walp. Repert. Bot. v. 2. p. 259. 



A very striking species of Mamillaria, remarkable for its 
columnar rather than clavate form, its very prominent mamillae 
and large, glossy, straw-coloured flowers. It was received at the 
Royal Gardens of Kew under the name here retained, though it 
does not entirely correspond with the brief character of the plant 
given by Walpers, of which, moreover, the flowers seem to be 
unknown to the author. Still I preserve the name ; or upon 
similar grounds, almost every species of the genus might be 
discarded ; so difficult is it in words to define the characters of 
these strange and curious plants. It flowers in June. 

Descr. Our specimen of this plant is a foot high, columnar, 
simple, of a glaucous green colour, studded as it were on all 
sides with large, projecting, and ascending mamillcB, of a pyra- 
midal form, with bluntly angled sides, densely downy with 
white wool in the axils: the areola terminal or subterminal, 
woolly, and bearing besides from eight to eleven straight, 

MARCH, 1st, 1848. 



spreading, long, rigid spines, of a pale brown colour, and a single 
longer and stronger central one. From the extremity of this 
plant the powers appear, two or three, large, handsome, showy : 
the base is occupied by green, imbricated scales, tipped with red, 
considered the calyx, and then gradually pass into the copious, 
spreading, straw-coloured, glossy, linear-oblong, or subspathulate 
petals, serrated and mucronated at the apex ; of which the more 
exterior, however, are entire and tinged with dull red. Stamens 
numerous, orange colour. Style rather longer than the stamens : 
rays of the stigma six, yellow. 



4-35?. 




Tab. 4351). 

ACIIIMENES OCELLATA. 

Eyeletted Ackimenes. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriace^e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4312.) 



\< iiiMENES ocellata; elata erecta subsimplcx, caulc superne pubescenti-scalmi. 
foliis sublange petiolatis ovatis acuminatis grosse serratis rugosis asperis 
subtus coloratis, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis folio multo breriorilnu 
infra medium bibracteatis, floribus mitantibus, calycis tubo ovario omnino 
aduato, corolla} tubo campanulato, Iobis rotundatis subrequalibus pateutibus 
ocellatis, glandulis epigynis 5 requalibus basi unitis. 



Hoots of this beautiful new Ackimenes were sent from the 
Isthmus of Panama, by the Government Collector and Naturalist 
of H.M.S. Herald, Mr.Seemann ; and they produced their bright 
coloured flowers in the winter of 1847-8, in the stove of the 
Royal Gardens. In the early spring, however, let it be remarked, 
after our plate was finished, the blossoms became much more 
brilliant, of a deep vermillion, but with less of the white round 
the black dots; so that the name was less characteristic. It 
promises to be a great ornament to our collections, and will, in 
the summer, we cannot doubt, flourish best in a cool greenhouse. 
The leaves, too, are handsome, and of a very full green colour, 
purple below ; and a deeper purple is on the stems and petioles. 

Bescr. Moots small, tuberous, by which it is readily increased. 
Stems erect, one or two feet high, subterete, deep purple, above 
pubescenti-scabrous, the hairs appressed. Leaves opposite, large, 
ovate, acuminate, copiously reticulated with veins and wrinkled, 
the under-side purple, the margin coarsely serrated ; the upper- 
side dark shining green, scabrous. Petioles an inch or more 
long, rather thick, purple. Peduncles red, erect, slender, much 
shorter than the leaves, about as long as the internodes, having 
a pair of small, frequently unequal, green bracteas at the base. 
Calyx hairy; tube turbinate, red, adherent with the ovary; 
lachiicB broadly subulate, green, spreading. Corolla drooping, 
bright red, pubescent ; the tube campanulate, the limb of five 

march 1st, 1848. 



nearly equal, rounded, entire, spreading segments, rather copi- 
ously marked with white * spots, bearing a black dot in the 
centre (whence the specific name). Stamens a little longer 
than the tube. Anthers white, slightly cohering in two pairs : 
the rudiment of a fifth stamen is present. Style shorter than 
the stamens, thick, downy, with five nearly equal glands at the 
base, united into a ring. Stigma somewhat oblique, bifid. 

* The white of these spots, at a more advanced season, was almost obsolete. 



Fig 1. Pistil. 2. Corolla, laid open : — magnified. 



't-S60. 




Tab. 43(50. 
SIDA (Abutilon) integerrima. 

Entire-leaved Sida. 



Nat. Ord. Malvaceae.— Monodelfhia Polyandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4227.) 



Sida integerrima; subarborea, foliis orbiculari-cordatis brevitcr acuminatis supra 
glabris subtus stellato-pubescentibus subtoraentosis 5-7-nerviis Offloioo iu- 
tegerrimis longe petiolatis, stipulis lineari-subulatis deciduis, pediimuliV 
in axillis supremis foliorum solitariis unifloris petiolo longioribus infra 
apicem articulatis, calyce stellato-tomentoso hemisphaerico 5-lobo subquiu- 
quangulato lobis triangulari-acuminatis erectis rigidis, corolla? speciosa? 
petalis oblique obovato-cuneatis retusis flavis basi macula aurantiaca, ovario 
globoso, styli ramis 11. 

Malvacea. Fwicke, Herb. Nov. Grenad. n. 753. Linden, ejtisd. n. 1508. 



An old inhabitant of the stove of the Royal Gardens, but of 
whose history nothing has been preserved : by specimens, how- 
ever, in my Herbarium, from Funcke and Linden, I learn that it 
is unquestionably a native of New Grenada. Its nearest affinih 
is perhaps Sida graveolens (Bot. Mag. t. 4134), from which it 
is abundantly distinguished by its larger size, perfectly entire 
leaves, different vestiture, differently formed calyx, much greater 
spread of the flowers, and by the well-defined deep orange spots 
quite confined to the base of the petals. It flowers in May, and 
is really one of the handsomest species of the genus. 

Descr. The plant, in our stove, forms a small tree, fourteen 
to sixteen feet high, much branched above : the young branches 
are stellate-pubescent, almost tomentose. Leaves large, on long 
footstalks, a little swollen at their base, orbicular-cordate, shortly 
acuminate, five to seven-nerved, quite entire at the margin, firm 
"i texture, glabrous above, except in the young foliage, almost 
stellato-tomentose beneath. Stipules linear-subulate, soon turning 
brown and deciduous. Peduncles confined to the axils of the 
superior leaves, longer than the petioles, solitary, single-flowered, 
a little dilated upwards and articulated below the apex. Calyx 
hemispherical, tomentose, rather lax, obtuse at the base, five- 

-Makch 1st, 1848. 



436/. 




Tab. 4361. 
ARISTOLOCHIA anguicida. 

Snake- Aristolochia, or Birthwort. 

Nat. Ord. Aristoloohiace,e. — Gynandkia JIkxandhia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide svpra, Tab. 4221.) 



Aristolochia anguicida ; caule volubili striato, foliis brevi-petiolatis cordato- 
acuminatis basi sinu profundo angusto, stipulis eordato-rotundatis amplrxi- 
caulibus, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis unifloris flore longioribus. prrian- 
thii tubo basi inflato globoso reliquo infundibuliformi ore dilatato obliquo, 
labio deflexo e basi dilatata lineari-attenuato tubo sublongiore. 

Aiustolochia anguicida. Jacq. Amcen.p. 232. i. 114. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1362. 
O.I. Nov. Gen. Am. v. 2. p. 166. Spreng. Syst. Feget. v. 3. j?. 751. 



A singular and very little known species of Birthwort, native 
of New Grenada. Jacquin discovered it at Carthagena. Our 
Collector, Mr. Purdie, sent it to the Royal Gardens of Kew, 
where it first flowered in December, 1845. As the natives of 
North America employ the A. serpentaria (which M. Bosc says 
is one of the most active sudorifics known) for destroying 
serpents, and also for curing persons bitten by those reptiles, so 
the natives of South America (New Grenada) employ this for 
similar purposes. " The juice of the root," according to Jacquin, 
" mixed with the saliva by mastication, renders powerless a 
serpent of moderate size, if one or two drops are put into the 
mouth of the creature, when it may be handled for several 
hours and put into the bosom with impunity ; but after a time 
the animal recovers : a larger quantity, however, occasions its 
death. " Jacquin attributes to the odour of the root the faculty 
of driving away serpents when they approach this plant ; and 
he also relates that the juice, applied to the recent bite of a 
serpent, or taken internally, infallibly cures the patient. 

Descr. Stents long, slender, twining, striated. Leaves distant, 
on rather long, slender petioles, two to four inches long, cordato- 
acuminate, with a deep sinus at the base, entire. Stipules large, 
between cordate and rotundate, amplexicaul. Pedtntclrs axillary, 
solitary, almost as long as the leaf, bearing a single flower, in 

MARCH 1st, 1848. 



shape not much unlike our European A. Clematitis, but in colour 
very different. The base of the perianth is inflated, globose, 
almost white, the rest of the tube is infundibuliform, narrow 
below, white, spotted and reticulated with brown, the mouth 
dilated, oblique ; the lip deflexed, longer than the tube, from a 
broad base gradually tapering to a blunt point, dashed and 
transversely streaked with rich brown. 



Fig. 1. Column of Stamen and stigma : — magnified. 



4362. 




JReere ieniiim * Reere w£ 



Tab. 4:362. 

CUPHEA SILENOIDES. 

Catclifly Cuphea. 



Nat. Ord. Lythrarie.e. — Dodecanhria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4208.) 



Cuptiea silmoides; caule rnmoso adscendente una cum calycibus setis patent ibns 
fuscis hispido glutinosoque, foliis oppositis oblongo-lanceolafis ootnai bad 
sicutis hirtis supra viscosissimis, floribus ad axillas in ramido brevi siibspi- 
oatis seeundis, calyce tubuloso elongato, petalis rotundatis stipitatis binis 
duplomajoribus, capsula octosperma. Nees. 

Cuphea sdenoides. Nees in Linnaa, v. 10. Literbl. p. 71. Walp. Repert. Bot. 
v. 2. p. 107. 



A rather showy, hardy annual ; if one may use the expression 
of showy for a copiously flowering plant, whose blossoms are 
conspicuous but not brilliant; much more conspicuous, indeed, 
than that species of Silene, from which its specific name may be 
supposed to be derived, S. qiiinquevidnera. It was introduced 
some years ago to the Botanic Garden of Breslau, from Mexico, 
by Dr. Nees Von Esenbeck, through Mr. De Berghes, and has 
since become common in our gardens. It is well suited for a 
flower border, and an entire bed filled with it has a very pretty 
effect. The seeds are best raised in a hot-bed. 

Descr. A much branching plant, about a foot high, in almost 
every part clothed with spreading hairs (most copious on the 
calyces), tipped with a viscid gland. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, 
entire, obtuse, scarcely an inch long. Peduncles short, solitary, 
single-flowered, from the axils of the upper leaves, and there 
forming a leafy raceme, each with two reflexed bracteas. Calyx- 
lube red, elongated, cylindrical, furrowed, the mouth very hairy, 
with a blunt spur-like projection at the base above ; the limb 
of six spreading segments, of which five are short and acute, the 
sixth (superior one) elongated and bifid : in the sinuses of the 
six segments is a small scale, with spreading, stellated, viscid 
hairs. Petals five, spreading, rotundate, stipitate ; four (lower 
ones) smaller, deep blood-purple colour : two upper ones much 

MARCH 1st, 1848. 



larger, of the same colour, but pale at the margin. Stamen 
reaching to the mouth of the tube of the calyx. Ovary on a 
globose gland. Style subulate, included. 



Fig. 1. Flower from which the petals are removed. 2. Calyx laid open :- 
magnified. 



11 

The east side of the Island being much drier than the wot. 
its vegetation has more the character of that of the Northern 
province than of the opposite coast It must, however, be re- 
marked that, with the exception of the immediate neighbourhood 
of Trincomalee and of Batticaloa, the eastern side of the Island 
is a terra incognita to the Botanist. 

Generally speaking, the first two thousand feet of the moun- 
tain range are covered with a dense forest of large trees, cha- 
racterized by foliage of a much larger size than the low-count rv 
forests, and nearly of a uniform dark green colour ; except, 
indeed, w r hen the large Iron-wood tree [Metua Ceykutica) is 
putting forth its young leaves, which are blood red, and ;it that 
season give a remarkable aspect to the scene. To the general 
observer the trees of the next two thousand feet appear little 
different from those of the first ; but the eye of the Botanist 
can at once detect many species peculiar to each. The mass 
of the herbaceous vegetation of both is made up of Ferns, 
Scitaminea, Urticacece, Cyrtandrea and Composite. One of 
the most marked features of the second two thousand feet is 
the existence of large open grassy tracts on the sides of the 
hills, to which the natives give the name of Pattanas. Such 
tracts extend to the highest parts of the island, differing more 
or less at different elevations in the nature of their vegetation. 
Scattered through the lower ones, and giving them an orchard- 
like appearance, are two trees almost peculiar to them. They 
are the Careya arborea, and Emblica officinalis. The herba- 
ceous vegetation consists chiefly of numerous tall coarse grasses, 
growing chiefly in tufts ; the most common is the Lemon-Grass 
(Jndropqyon schoenanthus), intermingled w r ith several Composite, 
principally consisting of several species of Bhmea, Knoxia corym- 
bosa, the representative of the old and accurate historian of 
Ceylon, the broom-like Atylosia Candollii, and Impatiens Bnl- 
samina, the origin of the common garden balsam. On the 
forest land of this tract the principal Coffee estates have been 
established. 

The next two thousand feet, which bring us to an elevation 
of 6,000 feet above the level of the sea, and into a region which 
has a much lower temperature than any of the preceding, is still 
covered with forest having occasional patches of Pattana, but 
both give support to a very different vegetation. The trees are 
much smaller, closer together, and have their stems and branches 
covered with pendulous masses of lichens and mosses, and many 
kinds of small OrcJiidea. Their leaves are mostly small ; and 
their varied tints remind one of the autumnal forests of more 



12 

temperate climes. The under vegetation consists of numerous 
beautiful herbaceous and suffruticose Balsams {Impatiem), a 
great variety of suffruticose Acanthacea (Nilu), lovely and deli- 
cate Ferns of all sizes, from those scarcely a few inches in 
height to tree ones which throw up their stems surmounted 
by large masses of verdant fronds to en elevation often of twenty 
feet, and rivalling in gracefulness the Palms of the low country. 
In this range the lovely Tree-Rhododendron, so common in 
more elevated tracts, first makes its appearance. The Pattanas 
at this elevation are more spongy in their nature than those 
below : the grasses peculiar to them grow closer together, and 
are smaller and more wiry in their texture ; while the scattered 
shrubs are principally species of Hedyotis, and Osbeckia, the 
latter producing beautiful large rose-coloured flowers. 

The two thousand feet which succeed to these include the most 
elevated portions of the island, and embrace chiefly the mountain- 
tops, and the vallies or plains which divide them. The vegetation 
of this region has a still more alpine aspect, and is that which 
is possessed of the greatest interest to the Botanist, from the 
great number of European forms mixed up with those whose 
range does not extend beyond the tropics. The tree that first 
claims our attention in this range is the Rhododendron, not 
only from its great beauty, but from its vast abundance ; espe- 
cially in the open plains, which during the months of June and 
July are clouded with red from the great profusion of its 
blossoms. I have met with two well-marked varieties, if they 
are not, indeed, distinct species, of this tree. One is principally 
seen in the plains, or in their wooded margins, and is easily 
recognized by the rusty-coloured under-side of its leaves. It 
is the variety common on the open plains of the Neilgherry 
range of mountains, in the peninsula of India. The other 
variety, so far as I am aware, is peculiar to Ceylon, and always 
found in the forest, and at a greater elevation than the other. 
It is distinguished by its greater size, and the silvery under- 
side of its leaves, which are besides narrow and rounded at 
the base, not broad and cordate. Several fine trees of this 
variety occur on the ascent of Pedrotalagalla from Nuwera-Ellia, 
and close to the temple on the summit of Adam's Peak ; but the 
finest I have met with in my excursions among the mountains of 
the interior, were in crossing over Totapella, where there is a large 
forest of them, many being from 50 to 70 feet in height, and with 
stems more than three feet in diameter. In these forests are 
also to be met with some four or five species of Midtelia, the 
representatives of the Magnolias of North America, several arbo- 



/->^,. 




Tab. 4363. 
GOLDFUSSIA isophylla. 

Equal-leaved Goldfussia. 



Nat. Ord. AcanthacejE. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Cliar. Cal. 5-partitus, subasqualis. Cor. infundibuliformis, limbo quinqiie- 
fido obtuso sequali. Stamina inclusa, didynama, humiliora sa'pe bnviaama 
reflexa. Antherce nutantes ; loculi in connectivo uneinato glanduloso oblujui, 
ovati, membranaeei. Stigma simplex, subulatum, altero latere cron.ittmi, irri- 
tabile. Capsula sexangularis, bivalvis, a dissepimento facile solubilis, loculis 
infemis dispermis. Semina discoidea, retinaculis subtensa. — Friitiir* fiwfcl 
orientalis, foliis serratis penninervibus curvinervibus, nereis omnibus apicem patenti- 
bus, nee vero attingentibus. Flores panel in eapitulo bibracteolati, bracteis deci- 
ding, rarins spicati ; spica post delapsas braeteas magis elongata. Capitula />«/"//- 
culata, pedunculo simpliei v. diviso. Nees. 



Goldfussia isophylla ; foliis lanceolatis aequalibus remote serrulatis septupb- 
nerviis. Nees. 

Goldfussia isophylla. Nees in Wall. PI. As. Bar. v. 3. p. 88 ; in Be Cand. 
Prodr, v.ll.p. 176. 

Ruellia, Wall. Cat, n. 7162. 



A species in many respects allied to the well-known Goldfussia 
anisophylla (Bot. Mag. t. 3404), but at once distinguished, as 
the name implies, by the pairs of leaves being alike ; whereas in 
the last mentioned species there is a singular disparity, for, 
while one of each pair is larger and broader than any of G. iso- 
phylla, the other and opposite one is reduced to a subulate scale. 
The flowers here, too, though rather smaller, are more copious, 
and the plant being bushy, its numerous blue flowers render it 
a most desirable inmate of a stove during winter, the season of 
blossoming. It is a native of the East Indies, and was intro- 
duced by Dr. Wallich. 

Descr. A low bushy shrub, two or three feet high, copiously 
branched and spreading : branches acutely tetragonal, slightly 
swollen at the joints. Leaves opposite, glabrous, on short 
petioles, spreading, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, remotely denti- 
culato-serrate, with about six principal, lateral, oblique nerves, 
besides the costa, which, I presume, is what Nees von Esenbeck 

APRIL 1st, 1848. E 



intends to imply by the term " septuplinervia." Peduncles much 
shorter than the leaves, axillary, solitary, leafy or naked, gene- 
rally bearing about three flowers, sessile at their apex. Corolla 
more or less nutant, thin, with many plicae, variegated blue and 
white, funnel-shaped, curved, the lower part of the tube con- 
tracted : mouth oblique, of five nearly equal, rounded, emarginate 
lobes. Stamens included, hairy, lower ones very short : Anthers 
drooping, rounded. Ovary oblong, seated on a cup-shaped 
gland. Style subulate, hairy. 



Fig. 1. Stamens, as seen within the corolla. 2. One of the lower stamens. 
3. Pistil : — magnified. 






Tab. 4364. 
SMEATHMANNIA pubescens. 

Do wny Sm on Hi m a n n ia . 



Nat. Ord. Passiflore^e. — Polyandria Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4194.) 



Smeathmannia pubescens; ramis junioribus petiolis (basi glandulosis) cosia 
subtna poduncidis calyeibnsque ferrugineo-sericeis, foliis oblongis sinuato- 
dentatis basi obtusis, sepalis petalisque acutis, urceolo barbato. 

Smeathmannia pubescens. Br. in Linn. Trans, v. 13._p.221 fin note). Be Cand. 
Prodr. v. 'i. p. 322. 

Bulowia insignis? Thonn. in PL Guin. v. 2. p. 21. 



At Tab. 4194 we represented the rare Smeathmannia lavigata 
and now we have the satisfaction of figuring and describing the 
equally scarce S. pubescens, Br., a native of the same country, 
viz., Sierra Leone, and imported by the same nobleman, Lord 
Derby, through the same medium, Mr. Whitfield. It flowered, 
probably for the first time in Europe, in the stove in the Royal 
Gardens of Kew, in February, 1848. It is a more showy species 
than 8. laevigata, having larger leaves and larger blossoms, the 
latter equally destitute of fragrance. 

Descr. A tall shrub : branches terete, the younger ones, as 
well as the petioles, costa of the leaves beneath, peduncles and 
exterior sepals, clothed with silky ferruginous hairs. Leaves 
alternate, shortly petioled, oblong, coriaceous, glossy, acute, 
penninerved, sinuato-dentate, obtuse at the base. Petioles 
scarcely two lines long, thick, with from two to four pedicellated 
glands on each side of the base, shining, dark green, and very 
conspicuous. Peduncles axillary, solitary, short, single-flowered. 
Flowers large, white. Perianth of ten pieces or sepals, in two 
rows, the outer of which might be considered the calyx, but 
that they gradually pass into petals, the exterior sepal green, 
three-ribbed and hairy, the rest gradually more petaloid ; the 
inner white, all of them acute and spreading. Urceolus cup- 
april 1st, 1848. e 2 



shaped, beautifully fringed at the mouth. Ovary ovate- globose, 
hairy. Stamens about twenty, longer than the ovary, but shorter 
than the five filiform styles, which, each, terminate in a globose, 
peltate, downy stigma. 



Fig. 1. TJrceolus, stamen, and pistil: — magnified. 



£3S5. 




fitch. del ft i;+K 



Tab. 4365. 

lopimia malacophylla. 

Soft-leaved Lopimia. 



Nat. Ord. Malvaceae. — Monadelphia Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. LOPIMIA, Mart. Involucellum calyciforme, ovatum, subventri- 
cosum, primum (in aspectu) monophyllum, striatum, apice irregulariter 3-5-fidum, 
demum polyphyllum, ore contracto, corollce basia amplexante, calyccm multoties 
superans : foliolis 16-20, setaceis, bberis, approximatis, subconniventibns. 
Calyx minutus, 5-dentatus, membranaceus. Petala cuneato-spathulata, obliquu, 
limbo horizontaliter patente. Columna staminea elongata, cylindracea. Anihrrce. 
30-40, duplici serie insertse. Stigmata 10. Capsula pentacocca, "coccis clausis 
mucilagine viscidulo illinitis." 



Lopimia malacophylla. 

Lopimia malacophylla. Mart, in Nov. Act. Bonn. v. 11. p. 96. De Cand. Prodr. 
v. 1.^.458. 

Sida malacophylla. Link et Otto, Ic. Hort. Berol. t. 30. 
Pavonia velutina. St. Hil. M. Bras. Merid. v. I. p. 233. 



Sent from New Grenada by Mr. Purdie, to the Royal Gardens 
of Kew, where it flowers freely during the winter and spring 
months, and is far from being unornamental. There is a pecu- 
liar aspect in this plant among the Malvacea, which seems to 
confirm the correctness of Martius's views in making of it a new 
genus; although St. Hilaire, in his valuable 'Flora Brasilia? 
meridionalis/ refers it, and perhaps with justice, to Pavonia. A 
casual inspection, indeed, would lead us to take the involucre of 
the flower for a calyx, as Link and Otto have done, and then we 
appear to have the characters of Sida. But a more careful inves- 
tigation shows that the supposed calyx is a true involucre of many 
setaceous leaflets, which for a time cohere, apparently in conse- 
quence of the copious hairs, and afterwards become distinct ; 
and within it will be seen the minute cup-shaped calyx, so 
small, indeed, that but for its situation, external with regard to 
the corolla, it might be taken for a hypogynous gland. 

Descr. A shrub, three to five feet high in our stove, with 
rounded, downy, herbaceous branches. Leaves rather ample, 

APRIL 1st, 1848. 



cordate, acute, petiolate, crenato-dentate, very soft and downy 
on both sides. Stipules subulate, green, deciduous. Peduncles 
axillary, solitary or two or three together, shorter than the leaves, 
bracteated at the base, erect. Involucre, at first exactly resem- 
bling a calyx, ovate, somewhat inflated, densely hairy or tomen- 
tose, striated, the mouth contracted, embracing the lower part of 
the corolla, unequally three to five-toothed, eventually separating 
into fifteen or twenty subulate leaflets. Calyx exceedingly 
minute, cup-shaped, membranaceous, five-toothed, hairy. Petals 
five, long, cuneato-spathulate, oblique, rose-red, streaked with 
white in their lower half : the limb patent. Staminal tube as 
long as the petals, striated. Anthers several, in two rows. Style 
filiform, the length of the stamens ; stigmas ten. Ovary of five 
lobes. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Calyx laid open : — magnified. 



- 



4300. 




Tab. 4366. 
STROBILANTHES lactatus. 

Milky-leaved Strobilanthes. 



Nat. Ord. Acanthace;£. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Cal. subsequalis, ad basin 5-partitus, laciniis herbaccis linearibus. 
Cor. infundibuliformis, tubo in limbum campanulatum non abrupte transeunte, 
lacinite asquales v. subaequales, limbo raro subbilabiato, rotundatae v. emaiginate. 
Stam. 4, didynama, fancinm medio inserta, plemmque non prominentia. Fila- 
menta omnia in quibusdam basi membrana conjuncta, monadelpha ; in una 
specie (S. decurrente) accedit rudimentum filamenti quinti. Ant/teree oblongre, 
muticae, loculis parallebs contiguis aequalibus in quibusdam basi divergentibus, 
connectivo latiore unde anthera sagittata. Stigma subulatum, incurvum v. invo- 
lutum, dorso spongiolosum, canaliculatum. Capsula columnaris, tetragona, fere 
ad basin bilocularis, in medio tetrasperma. Dissepimentum tenue, sursum in- 
completum, adnatum, a valvulis quandoque solubile. Semina discoidea, angulata, 
in ambitu utrinque areolata, angulo juxta bilum magis prominulo, retinaculis 
uncinatis suiFulta. — Frutices et Herbae India Orientalis. Spicae magis minmve 
denm, axillares terminalesque, erectce, cernuce v. nutantes. Bractese foliaceee 
v.foliaceo-membranacea, persistentes v. caducce floresque denudantes. Bracteolse 
partes, quandoque nulla. Flores e nwjoribus teneri, carulei v. albi. Decsne. 



Strobilanthes lactatus; suffruticosus, ramis obtuse tetragonis subteretibus, 
foliis ovatis acuminatis basi acutis breviter petiolatis integerrimis glabris 
medio per totam suam longitudinem albicantibus, pedunculis solitariis axil- 
laribus vel terminabbus subbifloris bibracteatis, bracteis fobaceis, corollas 
pallide purpureo-albae limbo plicato, filamentis bberis. 

Buellia grandis. Hortidan. 



Received from the Nursery of Mr. Low, of Clapton, under the 
name of Ruellia grandis, which seems to be no- where published, 
and by no means characteristic of the plant. It is in all proba- 
bility a native of the East Indies, and has the merit of enlivening 
the stove with its pretty pale purplish-white blossoms, during 
the dead months of winter. It does not appear to be a species 
taken up by the learned Nees von Esenbeck. Its flowers, indi- 
vidually, a good deal resemble those of S. Sabinianus (Bot. Mag. 
t- 8517) j but the inflorescence is totally different ; and the leaves 
are prettily variegated with white down the centre, looking as 
if milk had been accidentally spilled upon them. 

APRIL 1st, 1848. 



Descr. Our plant scarcely equals a foot in height, branched ; 
the branches herbaceous, very obtusely four-angled. Leaves 
shortly petiolate, glabrous, ovate, acuminate, acute at the base, 
entire or slightly sinuated, purplish beneath, dark green above, 
with a broad white or milky line down the centre. Peduncles 
about two-flowered, each flower has a pair of leafy bracteas. 
Corolla with the tube funnel-shaped, contracted at the base. 
Limb of five nearly equal, spreading, obtuse segments. Stamens 
included. Filaments free. Anthers linear-oblong. Style filiform. 
Stigma oblique, subulate. 



Fig. 1. Pistil. 2. Stamens: — magnified. 



4-3G7 




RtA cLd Pl atk 



Tab. 4367. 
OXYPETALUM solanoides. 

Solanum-like Oxypetalum. 



Nat. Orel. Asclepiade^e. — Pentandria Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Cat. 5-partitus, sepalis lanceolatis acutis. Corolla tubo campanu- 
lato brevi; limbo 5-fido v. 5-partito, laciniis lanceolatis v. ligulatis patulis v. 
reflexis, prsefloratione dextrorsum torta. Corona staminea 5-phylla, foliolis tubo 
adnatis retusis marginatis v. bifidis, introrsum nudis v. denticulo v. callo auctis. 
Anthera membrana terminate. Masses pollinis oblongse v. obovatse v. raro 
basi attenuate, processubus geniculars appendicula dentiformi arrecta nigra 
auctis. Stigmatis corpusculum hneare, planiusculum. Stigma acuminatum, 
acumine elongato bipartito, ramis saepius divaricatis. Folliculi lseves v. spinis 
innocuis contortis onusti. Semina comosa. — Suffrutices America tropica, Bra- 
silienses, v. Ckilenses, volubiles, v. herbse erecta, fohis oppositis scepius pubescentibus, 
pedunculis interpetiolaribus brevibus paucifloris, jioribus majusculis interdum 
suaveolentibus, azureis, albis, ochroleucis v. virentibus. Bcsne. 



Oxypetalum solanoides ; caule subsimplici erecto pubescente, foliis lanceolatis 
v. oblongo-cordatis mucronatis acutis utrinque tomentosis petiolatis, pedun- 
culis terminalibus v. extra-axillaribus corymboso-paniculatis plurifloris, 
corollas laciniis ovato-acuminatis patentibus, coronae stam. fobolis longe 
exsertis apice alte bifidis laciniis linearibus obtusis divaricato-lyratis, anther, 
membranis obtusis, stigmate longiusculo bifido, " follicubs Hneari-oblongis 
incano-tomentosis." Dcsne. 

Oxypetalum solanoides. Hook, et Am. Bot. of Beecheys Fog. p. 289. Becaisne 
in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 8. p. 586. 

Schizostemma longifolium. Becaisne, Mud. Asclep. in Ann. Sc. Nat. 1838. 
p. 344. 



A pretty greenhouse plant, native of Rio de la Plata and 
South Brazil, with much the habit of O. cceruleum, Dcsne. 
(Tweediea versicolor, Bot. Mag. t.3630) ; but the flowers are not 
quite so large, nor are they of that bright tint which gives the 
charm to that favourite shrub. The present species blossoms 
during the summer months. 

Descr. A shrub or under-shrub, with slightly branched stem, 
weak, and with somewhat of a climbing character, everywhere 
clothed with a close, villous tomentum. Leaves oblong-cordate, 
mucronate, with a deep sinus between the lobes at the base, 
about equal in length to the petiole ; the upper ones gradually 

APRIL 1st, 1848. 



smaller and narrower, till the uppermost resemble lanceolate 
bracts. Flowers in pedunculated, few-flowered corymbs, longer 
than the leaves, and forming, in fact, an elongated, leafy panicle. 
Pedicels with minute subulate brads at the base. Calyx five- 
partite, with the segments subulato-lanceolate, half the length 
of the corolla, erect. Corolla of a dull purplish red colour, 
campanulate, but cut down almost to the base into five 
oblong-lanceolate, acute, erecto-patent lobes. Slaminal crown 
of five, ligulate, fleshy leaflets, not half the length of the corolla, 
emarginate and lengthened out on each side just below the apex 
into two awl-shaped processes, curved outwardly at the extremity : 
thus each leaflet is narrow -lyrate. Anthers with a terminal, ovate 
lobe, shorter than the ovary in our specimens. Style elongated. 
Stigma bifid. 



Tig. 1. Section of a flower, from which the calyx is removed. 2. Anther- 
case. 3. Pollen-masses. 4. More advanced ovary : magnified. 



43<?$. 




•t lith. 



Tab. 4368, 4M\9. 
ARISTOLOCHIA grandiflora. 

Pelican-flower, or Poison Ho//-nu>af. 

Nat. Ord. Abistolochieje. — Gynandria Hexandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4361.) 



Aristolochia ^raw^/fora; volubilis, foliis pubcscentibus cordatis snbacuiniiiatis, 
pedunculo solitario bracteato, perianthii maxirai I iniihli ntuiOMtati nii- 
culati pubescentis tubo inflato rcfracto medio coutracto, limbo amiilis- 
simo cordato-ovato longissime caudate 

Aristolochia grandiflora. Sw. Fl.Ind. Occ. v. 3. p. 1566 (non Vahl). Spreng. 
Syst. Vtg. v. 3. p. 752. 

Aristolochia Gigas. Lindl. Bot. Beg. 1842. t. 60. 

Aristolochia cordiflora. Mutis, MS. in II.B.K. Nov. Gen. Am. v. 2. p. 118. 
ed.fol. (sine descr.) 

Aristolochia scandens, fy-c. Br. Jama/c. p. 329. 



It is impossible to do justice to the present subject in its 
representation without devoting two quarto plates to it : — for, of 
all known flowers, this, if we measure in length, especially from 
the base to the apex, is the largest, next to the gigantic RaJJlesia ; 
it is like that, too, in the mottling and general tone of colour, 
and, what we could willingly dispense with, its disgusting odour. 
Still it amply deserves a place in our stoves ; for a large, healthy, 
well-trained specimen, with its singular blossoms, as remarkable 
before, as after, expansion, presents one of the most striking 
objects of any vegetable we are acquainted with, and the de- 
testable scent is happily not widely diffused. Our plant was 
raised from seeds sent from Jamaica by Mr. Purdie. It was 
in that island first detected by Patrick Browne, who speaks 
of it as " the large climbing Birth-wort, with variegated flowers, 
or the Poison Hog-meat," and it is there further known, as we 
learn from Lunan, by the appropriate name of Pelican-Jlower. 
A glance at a young bud (at tab. 4369) explains the reason 
of that appellation. But this species of Aristolochia is by no 
means confined to Jamaica ; and although, from the difficulty 
of drying specimens, it is rarely seen in our herbaria, there 
is reason to believe it is not uncommon in the West Indian 
islands generally, and in the northern parts of the continent 
of South America. I cannot doubt that the A. cordiflora of 
Mutis' MS., quoted by Humboldt, found upon the Magdalena, 
where " children adorn their heads with it," in lieu of a hat or 
bonnet, is the same ; and I am unable to distinguish the shadow 
of a difference in the A. Gigas of Guatemala, above quoted, from 
our plant. Indeed I possess specimens, gathered by Mr. 
Skinner in Guatemala, which in no respect whatever differ from 
the Jamaica one. Our friend Mr. Miers recognizes it as a 

APRIL 1st, 1848. 



Brazilian species ; and he was often led to compare the large 
flaccid blossoms on the bushes, to coloured pocket-handkerchiefs 
laid out to dry. The other English specific name (Poison Hog- 
meat) is given on account of its virulent nature, for though, 
says Dr. Lunan, " the plant is so abominably fetid that it is 
detested and shunned by most animals, yet when hogs venture, 
through necessity, to eat of it, it destroys them." Tussac, who 
gives a splendid figure of this plant, in his Flore des Antilles, 
relates that a whole herd of swine having been driven into 
the woods, where this Jristolochia was common, had entirely 
perished from eating the roots and young stems. 

In our stoves, where it is best planted in the ground, though 
it succeeds tolerably well on a pot-trellis, it flowers during 
most of the summer months and in autumn ; but the blossom, 
when once fully expanded, is of short duration. 

Descu. Stem and branches shrubby, climbing : young herba- 
ceous portion downy. Leaves alternate, cordate, acuminate, 
moderately downy, on rather long petioles. Peduncles lateral, 
opposite the leaf, solitary, single-flowered, striated, longer than 
the petioles, bearing a cordate perfoliate bractea near the middle, 
gradually passing into the club-shaped, sulcated, elongated, 
inferior, pedunculiform germen or ovary. Flower drooping, of 
vast size, and worthy of observation while in bud (see Tab. 4369) ; 
the younger buds, especially, are bent like a siphon in the tube, 
so as to resemble the body and neck of a bird, while the limb, 
in that state, resembles the head and beak thrown back upon 
the body, as a Pelican when that bird is at rest, whence the name : 
the gradual enlargement of the limb and extension of the tail-like 
point take away from the similarity. The fully-formed blossom 
presents a striking contrast to that of the Jristolochia anguicida, 
figured in our last Number (Tab. 4361). The tube is inflated 
and, as in the bud, bent like a siphon, but contracted in the middle 
so as to resemble a double sack, and is, as well as the whole of 
the outside of the perianth, of a pale, dingy yellow, inclining 
to- green, downy, marked in the lower portion of the tube with 
six, prominent, purplish ribs ; these branch and increase in the 
upper portion and in the limb, and everywhere anastomose with 
cross-veins, so as to present a reticulated appearance. The en- 
tirely expanded limb is broadly ovato-cordate, entire but waved 
at the margin, and terminated by a very long slender tail s the 
whole inner surface is radiated and reticulated with veins, deep 
blood-purple in the centre and within the mouth ; the rest is 
dirty white, mottled with blood-purple about the veins. The 
orifice of the tube is large, subtrigonal. Column short, bearing 
six, sessile, oblong anthers, and terminated by the six upright 
lobes of the stigma. 

Tab. 4368. Flower: — nat.size. Fig.l. Column of stigma and stamens: — nat.size. 
Tab. 4369. Branch, with leaves and flower-buds : — nat.size. 



13 

reous Myrtacece, and not a few Ternstromiacea ; the most common 
of which is the Camellia-like Gordonia Ceylanica. 

There is much here to remind the European of his native 
country. Different species of Rubies and a Barberry abound 
along the wooded margins of the plains, as well as two special 
of Viburnum or Guelder-Rose, and a shrubby St. Johns Wort 
{Hypericum Mysorense), bearing large yellow flowers. The dry 
open banks are covered with violets and fytmadis, while in 
the open plains are to be found two species of Pot cut ilia, an 
Anemone, a Geranium, two kinds of Ranunculus or Butter-cup, a 
Lady's Mantle, not unlike the Alchemilla vulgaris of England, a 
little blue star-blossomed Gentian, two species of Sun-dew or 
Drosera, a Campanula, a Valeriana, and in the bogs several kinds 
of Juncus and Carex. 

At the health-station on the plain of Newera-Ellia, which is 
about 6,200 feet above the level of the sea, there are several 
gardens where most of the vegetables of Europe grow freely. 
European fruit-trees have also been tried; but no success has 
attended the experiment, nor was such to be expected ; for 
although during the cold season the thermometer falls occasion- 
ally in the morning to nearly freezing point — the annual range 
being from 35|° to 80°, with a mean daily variation of 11°, — 
the cold is not sufficiently intense or of long enough continua- 
tion to give those trees the period of rest which they require. In 
place of losing their leaves for nearly six months of the year, the 
Peach and the Cherry are here evergreens, and are hence kept 
in such a continued state of excitement as to prevent their 
bearing. The Peach does, indeed, give a poor crop of very 
inferior quality ; but although the Cherry blossoms annually, its 
fruit never comes to perfection. 

Although the Neelgherry range, from its near geographical 
position, has more species in common with the tracts of a 
similar elevation in Ceylon than any other part of India, yet 
these, from their small numbers, are evidently only stragglers 
northward : the very great number of species peculiar to the 
mountains of Ceylon, and to them alone, proves that these 
mountains form a distinct centre of creation. This I shall illus- 
trate by a few examples from some of the better known natural 
orders and genera of plants. Beginning with Ranunculacea, we 
find three species of Ranunculus, belonging to the Flora of the 
Neelgherries, and two to that of the mountains of Ceylon, one 
species only being common to both countries. Of Magnoliace®, 
Ceylon possesses four or five species of Michelia ; all of which 
are different from the solitary one found on the Neelgherries. 



14 

Each country has a Violet peculiar to itself, with another that is 
found in them both. Both places possess about half a dozen 
species of Elceocarpea each, but only one is held in common ; 
and the same is the case with the Order to which the Tea 
belongs — Temstromiacea. The genus Impatiens, that to which 
the garden Balsam is referable, affords one of the strongest 
arguments in favour of the fact I am now illustrating ; for while 
each country contains upwards of twenty species, certainly not 
more than three are common to both, and none of the other 
Ceylon species are known to exist elsewhere. Of Rosacea we 
find that the Neelgherry range has only three species of Bubus, 
while there are no less than eight found on the mountains of 
Ceylon, three of which are peculiar to them. Both countries have 
an Alchemilla in common ; while the Agrimony of Ceylon does 
not exist on the Neelgherries, but is found abundantly on the 
Himalaya range ; and I have lately described a new species of 
Poterium from Adam's Peak, the only one which has hitherto 
been met with in India. Two species of Potentilla grow in 
Ceylon, and three on the Neelgherries, one only being seen in 
both countries. A comparison of this kind might be extended 
to a great length ; but enough has already been shown to prove 
that while the Flora of the central part of the Island has more 
affinity with that of the Neelgherries than with any other part of 
the world, yet it must have had a creation of its own, nearly 
allied, indeed, to the other in forms, but very distinct in indi- 
viduals. 

Although many of the genera found in the upland regions of 
Ceylon are common in Europe, none of the Ceylon species are 
identical with European ones. Indeed, there is not to be found 
growing really wild in the Island, a single species exactly the 
same as any European one. A few, however, have become 
more or less naturalized, having been introduced along with 
garden and other seeds. They are the common Sow-thistle 
{Sonchus oleracetis), the common Chick-weed {Stellaria media), 
the Mouse-ear Chick-weed (Cerastium vulgatuni), the Corn Spurrey 
{Spergula arvensis), and the annual Meadow-grass {Poa annua). 
All these, with the exception of the first, which is much more 
general, are nearly confined to the plain of Newera-Ellia. In 
all countries, introduced plants, which find a congenial soil and 
climate, and which produce their seeds in profusion, of a nature 
to be easily blown or carried about from place to place, are 
sure to naturalize themselves ; and often in the course of a few 
years they cannot be distinguished from the really original 
denizens of the clime. Besides those from Europe, just enume- 



15 

rated, there are many others, natives of distant tropical countries, 
which are now rapidly spreading themselves on the Island ; and 
as it is of importance to distinguish them from such U arc truly 
natives, I shall here enumerate all those species of which 1 
possess sufficient evidence to establish their exotic origin, and 
mention the countries from which they have been brought. 

The two species of Prickly Pear (Opuntia), now so common 
in dry sandy localities in the low country, are natives of the 
tropical parts of the Continent of America, as is, indeed, tlie 
whole of the Cactus tribe. The beautiful rose-coloured Peri- 
winkle {Vinca rosed), which has so completely overrun the Cin- 
namon gardens at Colombo and other similar localities, is a 
native of the island of Madagascar, though it has now perfectly 
established itself in nearly all tropical countries. The climbing 
Allamanda catliartica, with its dark green leaves and golden 
bell-shaped blossoms, is a native of the Guianas, and was no 
doubt introduced by the Dutch. The Lantanas, which are to be 
met with almost everywhere in bushy places and in hedges, are 
natives of the West Indies ; and so is the yellow-flowered Turnera 
ulmifolia, common by road-sides about Colombo. The Cape 
Gooseberry [Physalis Peruviana), now so plentiful about Ram- 
bodde and Newera-Ellia, is from the mountains of Peru. The 
Four-o'clock plant [Mirabilis Jalapd), common about Kandy, is 
a native of Mexico and the West Indies 5 and the Ipecacuanha 
plant, as it is erroneously called, {Asclepias Curassavica,) with 
its orange blossoms, and seeds with long silky tails, is a South 
American. Most of these must have been long established before 
the English took possession of the country ; but the following 
are well known to have escaped from the Botanical Gardens 
at Colombo or Peradenia during the last five-and-twenty years. 
The small white-flowered Passiflora fmtida, a perfect weed every- 
where, is a native of the West Indies and Brazil, and only 
introduced to the Island by Mr. Moon, so short a time ago as 
1824. Two species of Crotalaria — C. Brownei, a native of 
Jamaica, and C. incana, a native of the Cape of Good Hope ; 
the Mexican Coreopsis -like Cosmos caudata ; the Peruvian blue- 
flowered Nicandra pliysaloides; and the South American Sensitive- 
plant [Mimosa pudica), are not only common weeds about 
Peradenia and Kandy, but are fast extending themselves in all 
directions, the first mentioned species having now nearly reached 
M far as Rambodde on the Newera-Ellia road. Brucea Sumatrana, 
a shrubby native of the Eastern islands, and an escape from the 
Peradenia gardens, now forms part of the low jungle on the 
neighbouring Hantane range ■. and Buddleia Madagascariensis, 



16 

a native of Madagascar, and two small kinds of Passion-flower 
(P. suberosa and glaucd), both natives of the West Indies, 
are fast following. Jgeratum conyzoides, everywhere prevalent 
and one of the great pests of the Coffee Planter, is of American 
origin, though now thoroughly naturalized in all tropical countries. 
The above, though only a rapid sketch of the more prominent 
features of the vegetation of the Island of Ceylon, is sufficient to 
shew the great interest and variety of the materials of which it 
is composed, and the relation which it holds to that of other 
parts of the globe. Much, however, still remains to be done, 
before a detailed exposition can be offered to the world. 



Botanical extracts from Mr. Lows History of Borneo. 

The climate of Borneo is distinguished by constant moisture 
and moderate warmth, which keep up a perennial vegetation. 
The refreshing showers and continual but gentle heat cause the 
plants and trees to grow during the whole year, the forests being 
decked with that perpetual verdure, which confers on the 
Bornean Islands, when viewed from the sea, an aspect of un- 
exampled beauty. Shrubs of Hibiscus and flowering-trees, 
belonging to the genus Barringtonia, overhang the margin of 
the ocean ; while the far inland mountains are clothed to their 
summits with dense and rich vegetation. 

Europeans never find the climate oppressively hot. The ther- 
mometer averages 70-72° Fahr., in the mornings and evenings, 
82-85° at the hottest part of the day; 92° and 93° is the 
maximum, and the mercury very rarely attains it. 

Though no part of the world boasts such luxuriance of vege- 
table life as these Isles of the East, their soil is by no means so 
invariably fertile as the appearance of the forests would lead a 
cultivator to expect. This remark principally applies to Suma- 
tra, where moisture seems to supply the main impulse to vege- 
tation. Java is highly fertile, and what I have seen of Borneo 
appears so too. The soil of Sarawak is a rich yellow loam, 
covered with a surface of six to twelve inches of very productive 
mould, formed by the decay of the forests. It is admirably 
suited to the growth of the Sugar-cane, which attains greater 
perfection at Borneo without the slightest culture, than it exhibits 
in Ceylon under the fostering care of Europeans. I have often 
seen Sugar-canes at Sarawak eighteen feet long, abounding in the 



4-370. 




B8eTe ( Bsn.liaTn A Ueev?,inj>. 



Tab. 4370. 
ANGRiECUM caudatum. 

Long-tailed Angracum. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide*:. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4145.) 



Angr^cum caudatum; foliis loratis canaliculatis emarginatis, spica radirali 
pendula flexuosa 4-flora, labello late obovato-cuneato rostrato serrulato, 
calcare longissimo. Lindl. 

Angr^cum caudatum. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1844. 



A species of the rare genus Angreecum, with so remarkable a 
spur that, as Dr. Lindley observes, it has no parallel but in the 
Habenaria longicauda (Bot. Mag. t. 2957), and in another indivi- 
dual of the present genus, A. sesquipedale, Petit-Thouars, Orchid. 
Mascar. t. 66 and 67. It is a native of Sierra Leone, whence it 
was imported by Messrs. Loddiges of Hackney ; but it is still, 
I believe, rare in our stoves. This formed part of the late 
Mr. Clowes' rich collection, now incorporated with that of the 
Royal Gardens, where, attached to rough pieces of wood and 
suspended from the ceiling, it flowers in October. 

Descr. An Epiphyte, with large fleshy roots, from which 
(without pseudo-bulbs) immediately spring the distichous, chan- 
nelled, subcoriaceous, dark green, recurved leaves, obliquely and 
deeply notched at the apex. Racemes long, slender, zigzag, from 
the base of the leaves, about four-flowered. Floicers large, hand- 
some. Perianth spreading. Sepals and petals (the latter rather 
larger) uniform, linear-acuminate, green. Lip pure white, broadly 
obovato-cuneate, waved and crenate, with a long mucro from 
the apex ; the base has a small lamella on each side. Spur 
a span and more long, flexuous, cylindrical, a little tapering, pale 
brown, entire or notched at the apex. Column short, erect, 
thickened at the base, brownish, with a very long rostrum. 

may 1st, 1848. F 



Antlier-cme ending in a long beak, shorter than that of the 
column. 



Fig. 1. Column and Anther-case, with the base of the ovary and of the 
spur : — magnified. 



4-3 71 







Tab. 4371. 
ALLOPLECTUS concolor. 

Whole-coloured Alloplectus. 



Nat. Ord. Gesneriace^e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4216.) 



Alloplectus concolor; fruticosus erectus, foliis oblongo-ellipticis utrinque 
acuminatis integerrimis glabris, floribus (calyce corollaque) axillaribus sub- 
sessilibus aggjregatis concoloribus rubris, sepalis triangnlaribus integerrimis 
glabris, corollas hirsutissimae clavataa tubo superne insigniter ventricoso, ore 
valde obliquo, limbo crecto-patente. 



An undoubted congener with Alloplectus diochrous, (supra 
Tab. 4216,; having the same habit, but smaller flowers, calyx 
and corolla uniformly red, the latter much more ventricose 
above at the upper part of the tube, with the mouth more 
oblique. It is, we presume, an inhabitant of Brazil, having been 
sent to Kew by Mr. Galeotti in 1846, under the garden name of 
A. erioealyx, without any indication of its locality. 

Descr. Stems about two feet high, shrubby, but succulent, 
terete, scarcely branched, green tinged with purple. Leaves 
opposite, petaloid, thick, fleshy, between oblong and elliptical, 
entire, acuminated at both ends, obliquely penninerved, glabrous, 
dark green above, pale beneath. Flowers axillary, aggregated, 
sessile. Calyx lax, red, deeply cut into five triangular, 
spreading, waved segments or sepals. Corolla inserted laterally 
at the base, thus forming a blunt spur, red, very hairy (pale at 
the base) ; the tube singularly ventricose above on the upper side, 
so that the outline of that side almost represents the letter S : 
the mouth small, very oblique j the limb of five small, rounded, 

MAY 1st, 1848. F * 



moderately spreading segments : stamens included. Ovary supe- 
rior, ovate, with a large fleshy gland on the underside at the 
base. Style included. Stigma emarginate. 



Fig. 1. Corolla. 2. Pistil and hypogyno us gland : — slightly magnified. 



4-372 




Ue«?re _BeiLLuzr L k leereintf 



Tab. 4372. 

ISOPOGON ATTENUATE. 

Attenuated-leaved Isopogon. 



Nat. Ord. PROTEACEiE. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perianthium quadrifidum, tubo gracili diutius persistentc. Squatnce 
nullse hypogynae. Stylus totus deciduus. Stigma fusiforme v. cylindracoum. 
Nux sessilis, ventricosa, undique comosa. — Frutices rigidi. Folia glabra, plana, 
v.filiformia, divisa v. integerrima. Capitula terminalia, raro axillaria. Flores 
modo densissime imbricati, strobilo globoso, nwdo fastigiati, receptaculo communi 
planiuscido, paleis deciduis congestis. Br. 



Tsopogon attenuatus; foliis spatbulato-oblongis inferne longe atteimatis mucro- 
nidatis obsolete 3-nerviis ramulisque glabris summis (bracteis) strobilum 
terminalem sessilem hemispbericum longe sujjerantibus basi dilatatis, invo- 
lucri squamis exterioribus ovatis acutis glabriusculis, interioribus angustatis 
villosis, calycis lobis tubo glabro parum brevioribus villosis, stigmate iuar- 
ticulato tenui-cylindraceo glabro. Nees. 

Isopogon attenuatus. Br. Prodr. p. 366. Nees in Plant. Preiss. v. 1. p. 508. 
Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. j».460. 



A native of Lewin's-Land on the southern shores of New 
Holland, according to Mr. Brown, its first discoverer. Allan 
Cunningham collected it at King George's Sound, Preiss and 
Drammond, at Swan River. The latter sent us seeds, which 
produced flowering plants in the spring of 1847. It is a species 
nearly allied to Isopogon longifolius, Br. (figured in Bot. Reg. 
t. 900), but abundantly distinct as a species. 

Descr. With us this has formed a shrub two to three feet 
high, with rounded, glabrous, fuscous, erect branches. Leaves 
a span and more long, scattered, linear- or oblong- spathulate, 
mucronate, much tapering at the base, glabrous, coriaceous, 
obsoletely three-nerved. A few smaller leaves beneath the capi- 
tulum are villous. Capitulum terminal, hemispherical, formed 
of numerous palish yettow flowers. Scales of the involucre imbri- 
cated ; outer ones ovate, scarcely hairy ; inner ones narrower, 
villous. Perianth with the tube glabrous, except at the base, where 
it is swollen by the contained germen, and is hairy. Segments 
may 1st, 1848. 



spathulate, reflexed, more than half the length of the tube, hairy 
on the back at the apices, within bearing the linear-sagittate, 
sessile anther : Style between cylindrical and fusiform, constricted 
below the middle, yellow. 



Fig. 1 . Flower and bractea : — magnified. 



4-37:}. 




ism. I fi*evt- 



Tab. 4373. 
ECHINOCACTUS chlorophthalmus. 

Green-eyed Echinocactus. 



Nat. Ord. Cacte^. — Icosandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4124.) 



Echinocactus chlorophthalmus ; gloraeratus subglobosus viridis profunde sub- 
decem-sulcatis, tuberculis conico-hemisphaericis vix angulatis saepc confluen- 
tibus, areolis prominentibus lanatis, aculeis 10-12 acicularibus radiantibus 
rectis centrali validiore junioribus basi rubris, calycis tubo cylindraceo 
tuberculoso-squamatis, squamis v. tuberculis imbricatis apice lanatis acu- 
leatisque summis petaloideis, petalis purpureis basi pallidis, stigmatis radiis 
viridibus. 



Whatever reflections may be made on the uncouth and gro- 
tesque forms of the majority of individuals in the Cactus family, 
it must be conceded of the Echinocactus group, especially, 
that few plants can excel them in size and beauty of the blossoms. 
In the present instance a single flower equals or exceeds the 
height as well as the breadth of the entire plant ; while the glossy 
purple of the starry petals, pale at their base, with the yellow 
mass of dense anthers, and the almost emerald green of the 
eye-like stigma, cannot fail to call forth admiration. It inhabits 
Real del Monte, Mexico, it blooms in the summer months, and 
will rank next to E. hexadrophorus (vide supra, Tab. 4311). 

Descr. Nearly globose, about the size of a small orange, 
glaucous-green, clustered, with about ten or twelve deep furrows, 
the intermediate ridges divided into six to eight somewhat 
hemispherical, but very irregular mamma, at the top of which is 
a woolly areole, bearing seven to ten slender acicular spines, 
half to three-quarters of an inch long, spreading ; but the central 
one is longer and stronger than the rest : — their colour is pale 
brown, red at the base in the younger ones. Flowers large, 
solitary, from near the summit of the plant. Calyx obovato- 
cylindrical, imbricated with numerous ovate, mammillary scales, 
each terminated by a woolly areole and a tuft of small spines, 
may 1st, 1848. 



except a few of the uppermost which gradually become petaloid. 
Petals very numerous, spathulate, rather acute and serrated at 
the apex, glossy purple, white at the base. Stamens very 
numerous, compact ; anthers small, yellow. Style thick, white, 
a little longer than the stamens. Stigma of several bright green, 
erecto-patent rays. 



£3 74- 







Tab. 4374. 
MAXILLARIA acicularis. 

Needle-leaved Maxillaria. 



Nat. Ord. Orciiide^e. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4228.) 



Maxillaria acicularis; subcaulescens, pseudo-bulbis subfusiformibus sulcatis 
diphyllis basi squamosis, foliis linearibus acuminatis canaliculars dorso 
convexis, pedunculis arctissime squamosis axillaribus unifloris, perianthio 
connivente, sepalis petalisque ovatis acutis, petabs obtusioribus, lnbeflo 
indiviso oblongo obtuso disco illinito, callo lineari apice rotundato integro. 
Zindl. 

Maxillaria acieularis. Herbert MS. in Lindl.Bot. Reg. 1837, sub 1. 1986. 



This delineation was taken some years ago from flowering spe- 
cimens at Woburn. The species is a native of Brazil, and was 
first known to Dr. Lindley, through a drawing made by the late 
Hon. and Rev. William Herbert. It is not an attractive plant, 
to those who only look to size of flower or gaudy colouring as of 
value in the vegetable creation. It is a distinct and well-marked 
species, its affinity even being dubious, except, as Dr. Lindley 
observes, it be with M. uncata. 

Descr. A small plant, consisting of clusters of oblong or sub- 
fusiform pseudo-bulbs, deeply sulcated, springing from a short 
ramified stem or caudeoc, partially clothed with brown membra- 
naceous scales below, above bearing two setaceo-fusiform leaves, 
three to four inches long, dark green, grooved on the upper side, 
semi-terete on the under. Peduncle short, from the base or axil of 
a pseudo-bulb, and densely clothed with oblong, membranaceous, 
brown scales, solitary, single-flowered. Flower erect, dark blood 
or chocolate-coloured. Perianth erect (so that the flower is 
almost closed). Sepals and petals oblique or subovato-spathulate, 
obtuse : petals the same, but paler coloured, and decurrent with 
the white elongated column. Lip rather longer than the rest of 
the perianth, oblong, obscurely three-lobed, somewhat spurred 

KAT 1st, 1848. 



below, with a flattened ridge or callus at the base within. Column 
white, semi-terete, wingless. Anther-case hemispherical. Pollen- 
masses in two unequal pairs on a broad white stalk. 



"Fig. 1. Flower, with the calyx removed, — the lip forced back. 2 and 3. Pollen- 
masses. 4. Portion of a leaf: — magnified. 



17 

richest saccharine juice. The natives grow several kinds, some of 
which they assert to be the wild produce of the country ; but 
the Golden-yellow Cane, imported by the Chinese, is most 
esteemed. It is not used for making sugar ; but, the outer skin 
being removed, the inner part is chewed, and the fibrous portion 
is thrown away after the sweet juice has been thus extracted. 

Some Nutmegs, planted for an experiment by Mr. Brooke, 
grew admirably without manuring or any attention, being wholly 
left to nature and not even the weeds removed. The result 
proved that this valuable spice, which requires much care and 
cost for its production at Sincapore and Penang, may here be 
raised, as cheaply as Cocoa-nuts, viz., merely by clearing away 
the weeds. 

Some plants of Cinnamon, Nutmeg, and Clove, are growing 
now in a garden at Sarawak, and attesting the suitableness of 
its soil and climate to the production of the finer spices. 

As may be supposed, the heat and moisture of Borneo are 
too great for European fruits and vegetables in general. Some 
kinds, as French Beans, Cucumbers, Endive, Tomatos, and dtfMh 
ragus, have succeeded tolerably ; and it may be hoped that, on 
the mountains, others will do well ; and that the Settlement of 
Labuhan will never be so destitute of culinary vegetables as is 
Sincapore, where the few cabbages which are produced are 
cultivated in flower-pots and require the greatest attention. 

The Chinese in Sarawak have several gardens of native escu- 
lents near the town. The Egg-plant there yields an excellent 
fruit ; and a large Radish is much prized, which, when boiled, 
tastes like a Turnep. Sweet Potatos, Yams, Earth-md* {Araeln* 
hgpogaa), and various kinds of Pulse, Cucumbers, and pot-/";/** 
are grown for the use of Europeans ; also Sugar- Cane and Pine- 
apples for the Malays, who are averse to the trouble of culti- 
vating these esculents for themselves. Some kinds of Fern 
afford an excellent vegetable in their unopened fronds, which 
aw boiled and preferred by foreigners to most of the productions 
of the island, except the cabbage of various Palms. Though 
several sorts of Fern are eaten, the Marattia, which grows plen- 
tifully on river-sides, is preferred. 

Of all the esculent vegetables, the heart or cabbage of the 
1 'aim called Nibong, is the most esteemed. It consists of the 
whole unexpanded foliage, and is delicately white, with a very 
sweet nutty flavour. It excels the cabbage of the Cocoa-nut 
Palm, but is inferior to that of the Pinang or Areca, which, 
however, on account of the value of the tree, is very seldom 
used, the extraction of this edible part causing, invariably, the 



18 

destruction of the entire tree. The Nibong Palms are very 
plentiful near the mouths of all the rivers, and are prized also 
for house-building, &c. Their stems being quite round, un- 
branched, and generally measuring half a foot in diameter, little 
trouble is necessary, beyond felling the tree and cutting it into 
lengths. The outside rind is hard and an inch thick : the inner 
portion being, as in all Monocotyledonous stems, the most 
recently formed, is soft, and readily decays, which causes the 
Nibong to be more used by the poor than the rich inhabitants. 
Posts, formed of this tree, last only three or four years, and then 
require either support or renewal. Rafters and flooring are 
made of the hardest part. The laths for floors are bound 
together, when laid at distances of two feet asunder, by rattans ; 
a plan adopted in order that the dirt and rubbish of the house 
may fall through the interstices of the floor, and be washed 
away by the next high tide of the river. 

The Bamboo, of which the shoots are cooked by the natives 
and which the Europeans eat pickled, is as useful to the Dyaks 
as the Nibony to the Malays, and grows as abundantly in the 
interior as the other does on the coasts. There are many kinds ; 
but the most esteemed is the Large or Water Bamboo, which 
attains a height of sixty feet, and appears to thrive best in the 
rich soil of mountain-sides. Six other sorts, all much smaller, 
are still very valuable ; for they grow in more accessible places 
and have harder stems than the Large Bamboo. They are 
useful, as in India, for an infinity of purposes ; and the poor 
people, who cannot afford cooking-pots of earth or brass, even 
contrive to apply them to that use, in the following manner. 
The Malays and Dyaks cut the green Bamboo in lengths of two 
or three feet, and fill the interior with rice or meat, chopped 
into little pieces, and mixed with water. To cook the food 
properly, the fire must come exactly in contact with the Bamboo 
joint, which rests on the ground beyond ; while the green and 
hard part of the cane, touched by the flame, resists it so long, 
that the provisions are sufficiently prepared before this singular 
pot ignites. A bundle of leaves, placed in the mouth, serves for 
a lid.* These Bamboos are so valuable, that like, the fruit-trees 
planted near a village, they become individual property. 

Next in the rank of useful vegetable productions is the Cocoa- 
nut Palm, too well known to require description here. Unfor- 
tunately, the wars, which prevailed on the western coasts of 

* The rice, called Pulut, hereafter to be described, is most relished when 
thus cooked in a pot of green Bamboo. 



19 

Borneo, have nearly exterminated this noble tree ; but it still 
abounds to the northward, and is said to cover the Natunas and 
Sooloo Islands. From the former group the people of Sarawak 
derive their supply, giving in return the rice which the natives 
of the Natunas require, for they do not raise rice on those islands. 
About fifty boats, carrying from six to twenty tons each, bring 
annually to Sarawak, nuts, oil, and sugar, the productions of 
this tree. The sugar is coarse, resembling molasses, and is made 
by boiling the sap of the flower-stem. 

The Sago-Palm {Metroxylori) attains great perfection, and 
large quantities of the rough sago are sent from the west 
coast to Sincapore. The Sago of commerce is the heart of the 
plant. In the parts where it abounds it forms the chief food of 
the inhabitants, who always, however, prefer rice when they can 
procure it. The tree grows in marshy spots and rarely exceeds 
thirty feet in height. The time for collecting the sago is just 
before the tree begins to show its large, spreading, terminal 
flower-spike, which it generally does at seven or eight years old. 
While young, the stem is admirably protected by its long and 
stout spines from the wild hogs, which would otherwise destroy 
it. As it grows and the trunk hardens, the spines drop off, and 
the central farina is enclosed in the outer wood. When the 
flower and fruit are allowed to perfect themselves, which is in 
two years from the first appearance of inflorescence, the pith of 
the centre is found dried up, the leaves have fallen, and the 
plant perishes. The Sago-Palm is seldom propagated from the 
seed, which is generally unproductive; but it may be raised 
in any quantity by offsets, which are freely produced. Among 
the Dyaks who grow rice, Sago is little used for food, except in 
times of scarcity. The whole of the Sago exported from Borneo 
is in a crude state, and manufactories are established at Sinca- 
pore and Batavia for its preparation and refinement; where 
the rough article, an uninviting substance both to eye and smell, 
undergoes 7 a wonderful change, and emerges in the form of the 
Pearl Sago of commerce. 

The Arenga saccharifera, which most resembles the Sago- 
Palm in general aspect, affords the best Toddy in Borneo. It 
is extracted by cutting off the large lateral branches of fruit. 
When these are about half-grown, they are severed close to the 
division of the peduncle, and Bamboos being suspended below, 
a gallon of juice will flow daily for two months from a good tree 
with two incisions ; if care be taken to expose a fresh surface on 
the severed part, by taking off a fresh slice every morning. 
The Toddy is emptied from the bamboo twice a day : when 



20 

fresh, it forms a very agreeable beverage, though not improved 
by the Dyak custom of steeping a piece of bitter bark in it, 
which communicates its own taste to the fluid. An excellent 
and durable cordage is made from the hairy filaments which 
interweave the stem and axils of the leaves; and the same 
substance is plaited by the natives into ornaments for the arms, 
legs, and neck, which are more pleasing in their deep black hue 
and neat appearance (at least to the eyes of Europeans), than 
the beads and brass with which these people are fond of adorning 
their persons. 

The graceful Betel-nut, or Areca-nut Palm {Areca Catechu), 
does not grow in such abundance as to form an article of 
exportation : on the contrary, large quantities are imported ; 
for these trees, like the Cocoa-nuts, were destroyed during 
the wars, which, previous to Mr. Brooke's arrival, desolated 
the country. The nut is only used for chewing with the 
Ski leaves {Piper), Lime, and Gambier, a practice universal in 
the Indian Archipelago. The flowers of the Areca are deliciously 
fragrant : they are in request for all festive occasions, and are 
also considered a necessary ingredient in the medicines and 
charms employed for healing the sick : their delightful perfume, 
together with the graceful feathery foliage, borne on a slender 
and elegantly tapered stem, render this tree the universal favourite 
among the Palm tribe. 

Rattans and Canes, the produce of many species of Calamus, 
are valuable to the natives, both for home use and exportation. 
They abound in old and damp jungles, and prove very annoying 
to the pedestrian, whose clothes are caught by their strong 
curved prickles, and who can only extricate himself by stepping 
backward and carefully unhooking them. The various kinds 
differ much in size and appearance : some are so slender as 
scarcely to be observable, others are stout and rough : some are 
smooth, and others have their stems and leaves garnished with 
numerous prickles. Those called, in commerce, Malacca Canes, 
are of the larger sort. The Rattans of Borneo excel all the 
others, and are brought from the south and eastern parts of the 
islands in vast quantities, and exported to Sincaporc and Batavia, 
and thence to India and China. The natives employ them for 
baskets, mats, and cordage, and where nails are unknown they 
serve the purpose of binding the frame of a house together. 
The drug called Dragons Blood is procured from one of the 
larger rattans ; but its manufacture is exclusively confined to 
the southern and little visited parts of the island, and is therefore 
not known to Europeans. It is annually sent in large quantities 



21 

to Sincapore and Batavia, and thence to China, where it is much 
prized. The Nipa fruticans, though of humble growth among 
the Palms, is as valuable to the people of Borneo as any of its 
congeners. It is found on river-banks wherever the salt water 
reaches, and it overspreads the salt marshes for thousands of acres. 
Its chief value is for covering houses, and the roofs made of its 
leaves last for two years. Salt is procured from the ashes of the 
burnt foliage, and syrup and sugar from its flower-stalk. The 
fruit is also eaten. The plant has no stem ; but its leaves, twenty 
feet long, spring from the centre. 

The Mangrove, which inhabits the same spots as the Nipa, 
affords the best fire- wood, and a coarse bitter salt is extracted 
from its aerial roots. 

The above enumeration includes those vegetable productions 
of Borneo which are used for home consumption. A separate 
notice will be taken of such as are collected for exportation. 

{To be continued.) 



The Bath Botanic Garden, Jamaica. 

It will gratify our readers, we are sure, to know that the 
Botanic Garden of Bath, Jamaica, once a flourishing spot under 
the Directorship of Dr. Mc'Fadyen, then abandoned, or nearly 
so, for want of funds, has again revived under the charge of 
Mr. Nathaniel Wilson, aided by the active exertions of the Rev. 
Mr. Wharton and Mark J. Mc'Ken Esq., to all of whom the 
Royal Gardens of Kcw are under great obligations for most 
valuable contributions to the stoves, to the Museum, and to the 
Herbarium. We make the following extracts from the last 
report drawn up by the able and intelligent Curator i — 

"During the past year I have dispersed upwards of 4000 
plants, nearly double the number that were called for the year 
before. As those plants that have been originally introduced, 
and for many years grown in the Island, are by this time fully 
dispersed and established, it is my intention gradually to abandon 
their cultivation, which I must, from the limited extent of the 
garden, of necessity do, to make space for the reception and full 
development of the more rare sorts recently introduced. As a 
grand repository of exotic plants, it will be necessary that a 
specimen of every introduced plant be kept in the garden, but 
beyond this, as far as the old plants are concerned, it is my 



22 

intention to proceed, and I trust that this determination will 
meet with your approbation and concurrence. 

" It is exceedingly desirable for the purpose of exchanging with 
other Botanic Gardens to mutual benefit, that our native plants, 
whether timbers, dye-woods, drugs, fruits, or ornamental, should 
be cultivated. To this end my attention is now directed, and 
my views have been greatly facilitated by the addition of the 
new piece of ground, so kindly granted to me by this hon. Board. 
It is now cleared and fenced, and 1 find it, both in soil and 
situation, adapted for the purpose I have in view. 

" I continue with success to propagate that useful spice, the 
Nutmeg, which I have no doubt will ultimately become one of 
the staple products of the Island. 

" I am proud to say that it has fallen to my lot to introduce, 
within the last year, some of the most rare and valuable plants 
that ever were brought into Jamaica, including nearly all those 
I mentioned in my last report. Those of which I may truly 
boast are the Mangostan (Garcinia Mangostana), the Cinnamon 
(Cinnamonum verum), the Black Pepper (Piper nigrum), the 
vegetable Ivory, or Ivory-nut Palm (Phytelephas macrocarpa), 
the Longan (Euphoria lonr/ana), the Durion (Durio zebethimis), 
the Tonquin Bean (Dipterix odor aid), the Gamboge Tree (Xan- 
thocliymus picforius), the Camwood of Commerce (Baphia nitidd), 
the Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua), the Wax Palm (Ceroxijlou 
andicola), three new fruits of the Grenadilla kind (Passijlora 
edulis, P. incamata, P. Buonapartea), the Maltese and Manderin 
Orange, and many other noble and beautiful plants, to the 
number of eighty-six, which have themselves been only recently 
introduced into England, chiefly from the Tropics, and 1 need 
hardly say are calculated to thrive here. 

" For the cultivation of the Mangostan, which is reputed to be 
the very finest of Tropical fruits, and which will thrive best 
within the influence of sea air, Jamaica, from its insular nature, 
will doubtless be well fitted. The Durion, a fruit as large as a 
man's head, is considered of first-rate excellence ; the Longan, 
too, is much esteemed for the dessert ; the Black Pepper is a 
spice admirably adapted for (and of easy) cultivation ; the Cam- 
wood is a dye-wood of considerable value, averaging in the 
London market £16 to £18 per ton, while the Logwood obtains 
only £5 or £6. The others are better known, and need not be 
particularly mentioned here. 

" While on this part of my subject it will be proper for me, 
Gentlemen, to call your attention, and that of the community at 
large, to plants hitherto much neglected, or at best partially 



</ 3 75. 







Tab. 4375. 
fuchsia spectabilis. 

Shoxcy Fuchsia. 



Nat. Ord. Onagrarie^:. — Octaxdria Monooynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4082.) 



Fuchsia spectabilis; ramis succulatis ol)tuse angulatis, foliis ternis nmplis ovato- 
ellipticis petiolatis subacuminatis glanduloso-subdenticulatis oiiiatis suhtus 
ramisque purpureis, peduuculis petiolum aequantibus solitariis uuinoris, 
floribus intense coccineis, calyce subhypocmteriformi, tubo longo bad 
mflato-globoso, laciniis ovato-acunrinatis, petalis patentissimis subrotundis 
undulatis segnientis calycinis brevioribus, ovario oblongo sulcato, stigmate 
magno 4-lobo. 



From the collection of Messrs. Veitch and Sons, Exeter, who 
gratified the Members of the Horticultural Society by the exhi- 
bition of it at their rooms in Regent Street, April 18th, 1848, 
when the large silver medal of the Society was awarded to it. 
It was then stated to be the F. Loxensis of Humboldt, and 
one of the handsomest Fuchsias yet in cultivation, its dark 
green leaves and brilliant scarlet flowers, with which the white- 
lobed stigma nicely contrasts, rendering it extremely attractive : 
to this character of its beauty may be added the blood -red 
colour of the flowering branches, and rich purrjle of the under- 
side of the leaves, contrasted with the almost velvety rich green 
of their surface. I have only to dissent from its being con- 
sidered the F. Loxensis * of Humboldt, whose figure (pen. et 
Sp. PI. vol. vi. t. 536) is certainly quite at variance with our 
plant, as is the F. loxensis, Benth. in "Plantas Hartwegiana'." 
n. 733. The form and size of the leaves, and the size of the 
flowers, and, above all, of the stigma, are strikingly different 

* I have the pleasure of being authorized to say that Dr. Lindley is now quite 
of this opinion. He had indeed been previously misled by the wild specimen sent, 
to aid in the determination of the species, which belonged to another species, 
namely to F. Loxensk ;— a fact that has just been stated in the Gardeners' Chro- 
mcle (May 13th, ] §±8), where the species is announced as " certainly a magni- 
ncent thing : the Queen of Fuchsias." 

June 1st, lsis. O 



in the two ; and the present is assuredly a most distinct and 
undescribed species. It is not, indeed, entirely unknown to me j 
for I possess specimens of it in a collection sent by Mr. Seemann, 
of H.M.S. Herald, gathered in September, 1847, at "Pambo de 
Yeerba buena, El Equador." Mr. Veitch's plant, from Mr. Lobb, 
is probably from the same country ; though the " mountains of 
Peru " are given as the station in the Gardeners' Chronicle ; 
but the "Andes of Cuenca" is the true station, and this, I 
think, accords with Seemann's locality. Mr. Lobb himself spoke 
of it in his letter to Mr. Veitch as the " loveliest of the lovely, 
found in shady woods and growing from two to four feet high." 
Descr. A moderate sized shrub, woody below, but with the 
branches stout and succulent, obscurely three-angled and of a rich 
blood-red colour, shining, glabrous. Leaves mostly temate, six 
to eight inches long, between ovate and elliptical, petiolate, not 
tapering at the base, acute or slightly acuminate at the points, 
obscurely ciliated, entire at the margin, or only having minute 
tooth-like processes occasioned by the presence of small oblong 
glands, dark velvety green above, rich purple beneath, penni- 
nerved, the nerves nearly horizontal, but uniting within the 
margin so as to form a wavy vein, almost as in the leaves of 
Myrtacece. Petiole about an inch long, erect or spreading, 
stout, of the same colour as the branch. Stipules triangular, as 
in many Bubiacea?, between the petioles. Peduncles axillary, 
solitary, single-flowered, red, shorter than the leaves, indeed, 
scarcely longer than the petioles. Ovary between cylindrical 
and turbinate, with four furrows. Calyx between infundibuliform 
and hypocrateriform, four inches long, bright red, the tube 
swollen at the base ; limb of four spreading, ovate, acuminate 
segments, tipped with green. Petals large, deep red, nearly orbi- 
cular, waved, very patent, and pressed as it were upon the segments 
of the calyx, than which they are shorter. Stamens shorter than 
the petals, red. Style exceeding the stamens, terminated by a 
remarkably large, four-lobed stigma, rendered white, or yellowish- 
white, by the copious pollen. 



Fig. 1. Portion of a leaf, to show the tooth-like gland : — slightly magnified. 



4-376 




Tab. 437(1 
JATROPHA PODAGRICA. 

Gouty-stalked Jatrop/ta. 



Nat. Ord. EuphorbiacEjE. — Moncecia Monadelphia. 

Gen. CJiar. Mores monoici. Calyx 5-partitus aestivationc coiivolutiva. Corolla 
petala 5, calyce longiora, aestivatione convolutiva, cum glandulis 5 alternant ia. 
Stamina 8-iO ; J ttamn ti s inferne connatis, superne filiformibus libera, anthcrix 
mtrorsis bilocularibus. Fom. ovarium glandulis 5 cinctum, triloculare, loculis 
umovulatis. Styli 3, bilobi bifidive aut pluries dichotomi : stigmata SIMM. 
Capsula 3-locularis, coccis monospcrmis. — Arbores v. fniticos, ant rarvu bertm 
hetescentes, foliis allernis integris v. sarins palmatilobk, floribus axillarilms out 
terminalibm corymbosh, sape late coloratis. 



Jatropha podagrica; caule erecto ramoso ramisquebasi valdc intumeseentibns, 
foliis peltatis cordatis 5-lobis glabris lobis subovatis obtusissimis, stipulis 
glanduloso-fimbriatis, cymis longe pedunculatis terminalibus, calycis den- 
tibus obtusis, corollae lobis ovatis obtusis patentibus. 



A very remarkable new Jatrqpha from Santa Martha, New 
Grenada, with a singularly distorted stem and branches ; much 
swollen at their bases, succulent, pale greenish-brown; the 
main trunk and old branches marked with the almost obliterated 
scars of the fallen leaves, the younger portions of the branches 
of the plant, which are about an inch in thickness, showing the 
much larger scars of recently shed leaves, rendered more conspi- 
cuous by the persistent, fimbriated, and glandular stipules, one 
on each side the large scar. The cyme of flowers is large, and 
of a rich orange-scarlet. It flowers at almost all seasons of the 
year. 

Descr. Stem, in our plant, a foot and a half high, much and 
irregularly swollen at the base ; branches also swollen at the base ; 
the rest terete, green and succulent, marked with numerous pits 
or hollows whence the leaves have dropped, and with the somewhat 
palmate and deeply pinnatifid or ciliated glandular stipules. Only 
a few leaves appear at one time, and they are confined to 
the apices of the branches, on long petioles, cordate, peltate, 
five-lobed, glabrous, the lobes obtuse, entire, somewhat ovate. 
Peduncles terminal, elongated, bearing a rather large cyme of 

JUNE 1st, 1848. G 2 



numerous, rather small, orange-red, monoecious flowers : the 
females few, in the axils of the main bracteas of the peduncles. 
Calyx cup-shaped, five-lobed, the lobes erect, very obtuse. 
Corolla deeply five- or six-partite, the segments ovate, spreading. 
Stamens six to eight, yellow-, the filaments combined at the 
base, and having five glands there, united into a ring. Ovary 
ovate, with similar glands ; style short, much divided into several 
green stigmas. 



Fig. I. Male flower. %. Female ditto. 3. Transverse section of an ovary :- 
Magnified. 



4,377. 




Tab. 4377. 
ANOPTERUS GLANDULOSUS. 

Glandular-leaved Jnoplerm. 

Nat. Ord. SAxiFKAGEiE. — Hexandria Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus turbinatus imo ovario basi adnatus, lobis 6 brevibus 
aeutis persistentibus. Petala 6 lobis calycinis alterna, calyci iuserta. Stamina 
6, cum petalis inserta, iis alterna et breviora. Stylus brevis. Stigma bifidum. 
Capsula oblonga, 1-locularis, bivalvis, valvulis ab apice ad basin dehiscentibus. 
Placenta ad earum margines. Semina ovata, compressa, ala superne aucta. — 
Arbuscula glaberrima. Folia alterna ramis opposita, ovali-oblonga, utrinque 
attenuata, subsessilia, coriacea, calloso-dentata. Kacemi simplices 1-4 suhternd- 
nales. Flores inter dum 1-Jidi. DC. 



Anopterus glandulosus. 

Anopterus glandulosus. Labill. Nov. Holl. v. 4. p. 86. 1. 112. De (had. Prodr. 
v. 4. p. 6. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 133. 



A truly handsome evergreen shrub, native of Van Diemen's 
Land, and introduced to the Royal Gardens of Kew by Ronald 
Gunn, Esq. We have hitherto treated it as a greenhouse 
plant ; but in the milder parts of England, near the coast, it 
would in all probability bear the open air all the year round, 
perhaps, even about London, if trained to a wail having a good 
aspect. Its season of flowering (winter) would be unfavourable 
to the blossoming in such a situation ; but the fine dark green 
foliage, not much unlike that of Photinia serrulata, is at all 
times a recommendation. 

Descr. A shrub, with us two to three feet high, with stout, 
terete branches. Leaves chiefly at the extremities of the new 
shoots, obovato-lanceolate, shortly acuminated, tapering below 
into a short petiole, persistent, dark green, penninerved, calloso- 
serrate, the young ones glanduloso-ciliato-dentate. Racemes 
longer than the leaves, axillary, at first covered with large 
membranous, coloured, deciduous bracts. Pedicels single- 
flowered, an inch and more long, with one or more small deci- 
duous, subulate bracts. Calyx deeply six-partite; segments 
ovate, acute, persistent. Corolla of six" erecto-patent, concave, 
June 1st, 1848. 



nearly orbicular petals, rather large, white, tinged with rose- 
colour. Stamens six, nearly as long as the petals. Filaments 
subulate. Anthers ovate-oblong, yellow. Ovary ovate, one-celled, 
tapering into rather a short style. Stigma bifid. 



Fig. 1. Flower, from which the petals are removed. 2. Stamen. 3. Vertical 
section, and 4, transverse section of an ovary : — magnified. 



4-3 78. 




*•»»•. B«niajn. 



Tab. 4378. 
THYRSACANTHUS strictus. 

Upright Thyrse-jlower . 



Nat. Ord. Acanthace^e. — Diandria Monogynia. 



Gen. Char. Calyx ultra medium quinquefidus, sequalis, brevis. Corolla tola 
tubulosa vel apicem versus dilatata, incurva, mollis, limbo v. quinquelobo snl)- 
regulari v. distinctius bilabiato, labio superiore bitido, ivfmore trifido. Slawiua 
fertilia 2. Antherce biloculares, o vales, loculis parallelis, connective oblongo 
subobliquo discretis. Stamina sterilia subulata, uncinata, capitata ad basin 
fertilium, vel nulla. Stigma bidentatum. Capsula a basi ad medium depressa 
sterilisque, bine bilocularis di-tetrasperma. Semina retinacubs suffulta, discoidea. 
— Herbse vel frutices America tropica, cortice lavi laxo cohrato, foliis amplis 
cuneato-sessilibus aut in petiolum atlenuatis. Thyrsus terminalis, modo demus, 
ramis brevibus cymosis (fasciculis) oppositis vertieillos referentibus, modo laxior m 
racemum simplicem abiens. Bracteae et bracteolse parvce. Flores longiuscule 
pedicellati, coccinei. Nees. 



Thyrsacanthus strictus; fruticosus glaber, caule obtuse tetragono, foliis ob- 
longis aeuminatis in petiolum brevem attenuatis, racemo terminali elongato 
stricto simplici, pedicellis brevibus unifloris fasciculatis, fasciculis oppositis 
pseudo-verticillatis, corolla tubulosa subinfundibuliformi limbo oblique sub- 
regulari, staminibus paululum exsertis steribbus subulatis brevissimis. 

Thyrsacanthus strictus. Nees, in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 11. p. 324-. 

Thyrsacanthus Lemairianus. Nees, l.c.p.1%9. 

Eranthemum coccineum. Lemaire, " in Flore des Serres. Juin, 1847, t. 8." 

Aphelandra longiscapa, Salpixantha coccinea, et Justicia longiracemosa, 
Hort. 



Having received this really handsome stove plant from the 
continent, from different cultivators, under the garden-names 
above quoted, and these being given as synonyms to Nees ab 
Esenbeck's T. Lemairianus, we cannot doubt that it is that plant, 
of which the native country is said to be unknown. We are equally 
certain that it is the T. strictus of the learned Professor ; because 
the authentic specimen for that plant is in our Herbarium, having 
been sent from Honduras by Mr. Armstrong ; and the two are 
identical. We may observe, too, that Nees places his T. Le- 
niairianus next to T. tubaformis, of which he observes "an 
June 1st, 1848. 



forma var. T.stricti" thus showing its affinity to the latter 
species ; and lie does not appear to have seen a specimen, but 
to have drawn up his specific character from Lemaire's figure. 
It flowers in February and March, and is highly ornamental. 

Descr. A half-shrubby plant of a strict habit, two and a half 
to three feet high, including the raceme, glabrous, branched 
below. Leaves opposite, a span and more long, oblong, much 
acuminated, below decurrent into a short footstalk : the branches 
elongate into a raceme, of which the rachis is minutely downy, 
a foot to a foot and a half long, four-sided. Pedicels in pseudo- 
whorls, short, subtended by one outer small, and several inner 
very minute, subulate bracteas, shorter than the short pedicels. 
Calyx quite destitute of bracteas, purplish-red. Corolla rich 
scarlet, tubular, approaching to funnel-shaped ; limb of four, 
nearly equal, spreading segments, which are ovate, obtuse, the 
upper one bifid. Stametis exserted, oblong ; sterile filaments 
minute, subulate. Ovary oblong-ovate. Style shorter than the 
tube of the corolla. 



Pig. 1. Corolla laid open. 2. Anther. 3. Pistil: — magnified. 



4 £ 7.9. 




**•»», Benhjua. 4 



Tab. 4379. 

CORYNOCARPUS laevigata. 

Smooth-leaved Corynocarpw. 



Nat. Ord. Myrsinace^e ? — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx liber, pentaphyllus, foliolis subrotundis ciliatis concavis im- 
bricatis deciduis. Corolla petala 5, subrotunda, ciliata, calyce paulo majora 
irabricata concava. Stamina 5 e basi petalorum, cum iis alternantia ; Jilamenta 
crasso-subulata : anthera ovato-oblongaB, dorso medio affixae, introrsa3. Stammt 
stenlia fertilibus alternantia, petaloidea, spatliulata, laciniato-serrata, apice bifida. 
GUmdtila perigyriEe ad basin staminum sterilium obcordatae sessiles. Discus 
perujynus latiusculus stamina corollam ealycemque gerens. Ovarium superum 
ovatum, uniloculare : ovulum sobtarium. Stylus ovarii longitudine. Stigma 
capitatum, papillosum. " Nux turbinato-clavata, oblonga, monosperma." — 
Arbor Nova Zelandice, Ardisia? facie, ramosa ; foliis alternis petiolatis obovatis 
glaberrimis lavibus. Panicula terminalis thyrsoidea, floribus parvis albis globosis 
brevissme pedicellatis. 



Coeynocarpus laevigata. 

Corynocarpus laevigata. Forst. Prodr. n. 114. Gen. Char. 1. 16. J. Rich. 17. 

Nov. Zel. p. 365. All. Cimn. in Tayl. Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 4. p. 260. Spreng. 

Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 781. 

Merretia lucida. Sol. MSS. in Bibl. Bunks. 



A native of New Zealand, drawn from a specimen sent by the 
late Mrs. Sherbourne, from her collection at Hurst House, Lan- 
cashire, and the - only one we have seen ; so that in the absence 
of fruit, we can only speak, as Mr. Allan Cunningham and 
others have done, doubtfully, as to its place in the Natural 
System. The position of the seed alone would militate against 
its being one of the Myrsinacece, and there is a something in 
the structure of its flowers indicating an affinity very different 
from that family. Although the blossoms have little to recom- 
mend them, the plant itself " forms a tree," says Mr. Cunningham, 
u Karaka of the natives, upon which the eye of the traveller rests 
with pleasure, by reason of its rich dark glossy leaves and highly 
ornamental growth ; and it furnishes a plum-like fruit, of which 
the drupaceous coat, when fully ripe of a sweetish taste, is eaten 
by the natives. The nut or kernel also, upon being deprived (by 

j lne 1st, 1848. 



steaming and maceration in salt water) of the poisonous property 
it is said to possess, is held in considerable estimation by the 
New Zealanders, who collect and use it for food, in seasons of 
dearth. If eaten without this necessary preparation, the person 
becomes seized with severe spasmodic pains and convulsions ; 
from which the sufferer, in some cases, does not recover, but 
has been observed to die in great agony in a few hours. The 
timber is not used for any other purpose than as fire-wood, 
being of short fibre and very soft." It is a green-house plant, 
and flowers in May. 

Descr. " A tree, forty feet and more in height," with rounded 
patent branches. Leaves alternate, petiolate, obovate, rather 
obtuse, entire, glabrous and very smooth. Panicle thyreoid, 
terminal. Flowers numerous, small, nearly globose, each shortly 
pedicellate. Calyx of five imbricated, nearly orbiculate, ciliated, 
concave sepals. Petals five, suborbicular, a little longer than the 
calyx, concave, ciliated. Stamens five, alternating with five 
petaloid abortive ones, at the base of each of which is a large 
obcordate gland. All these parts now described are united by 
a perigynous disk. Ovary one. Style short, Stigma capitate, 
downy. Ovule one, suspended from the top of the cell. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Vertical section of ditto. 3. Perigynous disk, showing 
the insertion of the petals, stamens, and glands. 4. Stamen. 5. Ovary laid 
open : — magnified. 




E-eevs, Bv 



Tab. 4380. 
GESNERIA Libanensjs. 

Many -flowered Gesneria. 



Nat. Ord. Gesnehiace*.— Didynamia Angiospehmia. 
Gen. Char, ( Vide supra, Tab . 4 2 1 7 . ) 



Gesneria Libanensis ; humilis sub simplex, caule perbrevi fruticoso, foliis rosu- 
latis approximates obovato-lanceolatis glabris venoso-rugosis punctato- 
scabvis obtusis grosse insequaliter serratis, petiolis canaliculars hirsutissimis, 
pedunculis axillaribus uniiioris hirsutis petiolum aequantibus, calycis pilosi 
tubo turbinato 5-costato, lobis subfoliaceis ovatis acutis patentibus, corolla 
pilosa tubulosa medio inflata apice paulukim connata ore obliquo, limbi 
loins subfequalibus rotundatis brevibus, starainibus styloque inclusis, glan- 
dubs epigynis 5. 

IttMlKU Libanensis. " Morren, Ann. de la Soc. d'Agricult. et de Bot. v. 2. 

p. 361. t. 84." Walpers, Repert. v. 6. p. 737. 
RraDoPHYLLUM floribundnm. "VanHoutte,Fhradu Gwchshr. 2. HeftAI. /.6." 



It is much to be regretted that neither Martins nor Decaisne 
ias carried out his views of the genera of Gesneriacea? in a suffi- 
ciently comprehensive manner. Recent discoveries in South 

b- e ^° a ^ aVe brought to light a great number of species, of 
winch many are new, others ill described, and all want a 
thorough investigation. The present plant is a native of Cuba, and 
was received at the Royal Gardens of Kew from Mr. Van Houtte, 

. er the name of Bytidophyllum floribundnm ; but it neither 
coincides with that genus in character nor in habit. It appears, 
according to Walpcrs, who is our authority for the above syno- 
n ynis that it was previously described by Morren under the 
name here adopted ; but it ill agrees with true Gesneria, rather 
*itn certain West Indian species in our Herbaria (G.scabra, Sw. 
\ J?' /mmilis and acaulis, Linn.), which are referred to Conradia 
J Martius and De Candolle, though probably without sufficient 
examination. No family deserves a more thorough revision than 

1 to which our present plant belongs : the individuals of it 
ju ne 1 ST> 1848. 



are eminently beautiful, and the greater number well worth 
cultivation. 

Descr. Fruticose. Stem a few inches high, simple or very 
slightly branched, clothed with spreading rosulate foliage chiefly 
in the upper part. Leaves three or four inches long, obovato- 
lanceolate, rather firm and rigid, somewhat bullate, reticulato- 
rugose, glabrous, but rough with minute points which turn 
white when dry, the margin very unequally serrated, the under- 
side pale. Petioles short, channelled, almost shaggy with rufous 
hairs. Peduncles axillary, rather longer than the petioles, 
single-flowered, hairy, with long narrow linear bracteas at their 
base. Calyx hairy : the tube wholly adnate with the ovary, five-, 
or when more advanced, obscurely ten-angled, turbinate ; the 
limb of five ovate, somewhat leafy, acute, spreading three-nerved 
segments. Corolla half as long as the leaves, tubular, swollen 
in the middle, hairy, bright red, the extremity a little decurved, 
the mouth oblique, limb of five small, spreading, nearly equal, 
rounded, spreading, ciliated lobes. Stamens as long as the tube. 
Style shorter, with five large three-toothed glands, coadunate at 
the base. Stiyma small, two-lobed. Capsule globose, united 
with the persistent calyx, shortly two-valved. Seeds' copious, 
scrobiform. 



Fig. 1. Corolla laid open. 2 and 3. Anthers. 4. Calyx and pistil. 5. Ovary 
and epigynous gland. 6. Transverse section of an ovary : — mugnified. 



s* ^ ^fl^ 



28 

attended to ; and I would particularly mention the Sarsaparilla 
fSmilaos Sarsaparilla) a plant, so indifferent as to soil, so easy of 
cultivation, and so valuable as a remittance home, that too much 
care can scarcely be bestowed upon it : much waste land might 
be profitably cultivated with it, especially where labour is scarce, 
and the economy of it an object. 

" Another plant that deserves to be noticed is the Cotton : any 
rupture of the amicable relations now existing between the 
United States and Great Britain, would at once cause B great 
demand for it in the British Colonies. The attention of many 
individuals has already been deservedly turned towards its culti- 
vation ; and there is no reason why a plant that flourishes so 
luxuriantly should not be one of general and profitable pro- 
duction. That variety, from the undyed wool of which the 
article commonly known as Nankeen is manufactured, has been 
introduced into Jamaica ; and it will afford me much pleasure 
to distribute seeds to any person desirous of rearing it. The 
wild Cinnamon (Canella alba) and the St. Lucia Bark (Exostcmma 
CaribcBumJ , articles in demand at home, and exported from other 
parts of the West Indies, are unheeded and but little known here, 
though frequently found growing about our doors, and com- 
manding a remunerating price. 

" Trusting that I shall not trespass too much on your time, I beg 
to direct your attention to one other subject, — our quick Fences. 
These must always be matter of interest to the agricultural popu- 
lation of this island ; but though of vast importance they have 
been generally subject to much ill management in several 
ways, principally from the mode of treatment they are subjected 
to in training and pruning, and not unfrequently from the inap- 
plicability of the species of plant to a peculiar locality. Hedges 
when young should be cut back to within a little of the root, 
and the plants left at regular distances from each other, a process 
which is sure to produce a growth of strong, healthy, upright, and 
lateral shoots ; instead of w hich a young fence is cut to the height 
it is intended to remain, and lopped once a-year afterwards (instead 
of pruning), thereby causing a flow of sap to the extremities, 
which results in a growth of weak wood at the top, and bare and 
naked stems at the bottom. The logwood, orange, and lime have 
usually been the materials for fences here. In the East, the 
" Gmelina Asiatica," the " Ccesalpinia sepiaria," and the " Ses- 
bania jfigyptiaca " are chiefly employed for that purpose,and as 
these are all introduced, it would be well to have their respective 
merits tested by comparisons with the logwood, &c. The formei 
I have no doubt, is superior to any thing that has been yet tried. 



24 

" There now only remains to me the agreeable duty of recording 
my obligations to those who have in any way contributed to the 
welfare of the Garden under my care ; and I can scarcely be too 
earnest in the expression of my feelings towards Sir Wm. Jackson 
Hooker, who, while directing the first Botanic Garden in the 
world, has not been unmindful of other establishments, of vastly 
inferior importance. To this gentleman I am indebted for the 
introduction of the Mangostan, a plant which money could 
not procure, and for other productions both useful and beau- 
tiful, calculated to add greatly to the comfort and pleasure of 
the inhabitants of this island. 

" My thanks are likewise due to the Rev. Mr. Wharton, of 
whose choice collection I have freely shared ; and also to Mr. 
Purdie, the Curator of the Botanic Garden at Trinidad, from 
whom I have received seeds of many valuable plants, hitherto 
unknown in Jamaica. That old and well-regulated establishment 
promises to be of the utmost importance, by contributing many 
plants altogether unknown here, and re-establishing others which 
had been lost through the system of change in management 
to which this Garden had unfortunately been subject, whereby 
its utility was in a great measure lessened to the country." 

Nathaniel Wilson. 



Botanical extracts from Mr. Loivs History or Borneo. 

{Continued from p. 21.) 
Botanical Articles of Export from Borneo. 

Having already described the vegetable products of Borneo 
which are chiefly used in the country, we proceed to notice such 
as are principally collected for exportation. First comes the 
Camphor, called by the natives, and in commerce, Kapur Barns, 
or Barus Camphor, and so termed to distinguish it from the 
produce of the Laurus Camphora or Japan Camphor. The name 
is derived from the place, Barus in Sumatra, where it is princi- 
pally obtained and whence it was perhaps first exported. The 
true Bryohalanops Camphora, which affords the valuable drug, 
has hitherto been only found in Borneo and Sumatra : and even 
on these islands it is confined to the northern parts. Mr.Marsden 
says the tree is very common in Sumatra, in the country of the 
Battas, but does not grow south of the Line. I once detected 
some trees of Bryobalanops in Sarawak, where they were, perhaps, 



25 

common, but have been destroyed in extracting the camphor ; a 
conjecture strengthened by the fact that one of these trees on 
being felled displayed a notch in the trunk ; and it is customary 
thus to examine whether they contain camphor. On Labuhan, 
the Camphor-tree grows abundantly and is one of the noblest 
ornaments of the jungle : it has a fine straight stem, from which 
the bark separates in large flakes ; the foliage is very dense, 
forming a well-shaped head, and the trunk is often ninety feet 
high, before giving off a single branch. It is alleged that the 
younger and smaller trees produce as much camphor as the old 
and larger individuals. This substance is found in a concrete 
state in the crevices of the wood, and it can unfortunately only 
be extracted by felling the tree, which is afterwards cut into 
blocks and split with the wedges, when the camphor, which is 
white and transparent, can be easily removed. An essential oil 
also resides in the hollows of the wood and the natives crystallize 
it artificially, but the drug so obtained is not equally prized with 
that which is found naturally crystallized. The Borneans, though 
they occasionally use camphor medicinally, do not esteem it so. 
much as the Chinese. The price obtained in China for the 
produce of the Dryobalanops Camjihora, or Kapur Bams, exceeds 
that of Japan by twenty to one : but it is alleged that super- 
stition has much to do with this disproportion and that though 
the trees are dissimilar, the chemical properties of the Bornean 
and Japan Camphor are nearly the same. 

Several species of Dipterocarpiis produce a nut from which a 
fatty oil is expressed ; and the substance in question has been 
extensively vended in England under the name of Vegetable 
Tallow and Vegetable Wax. The tree most valued for yielding 
it, grows on the banks of the Sarawak river : it is about forty 
feet high, with large foliage, and branches drooping towards the 
water ; its appearance is beautiful and it bears fruit in great 
profusion and as large as a Wallnut, with two long wings to the 
seed. The natives collect and press the nuts, which yield a 
large quantity of oil, which assumes the appearance and con- 
sistency of sperm. It is at present only used for cooking ; but 
when the demand for it in Europe becomes better known in 
Borneo, the people will manufacture it more extensively. It is 
considered in England to surpass even Olive oil for lubricating 
machinery, and it has been made into excellent candles at 
Manilla. The quick growth of the tree and the profusion of 
fruit which it bears, are strong recommendations, and will 
render its culture a profitable speculation. The same species of 
Bryohalanops has been found in Java and Sumatra. 




- :2(> 

The Pangkim edule affords an oil which is eaten by the Dyaks, 
who cultivate the tree, which does not grow wild in Borneo. 
Its large fruit contains many seeds, imbedded in deleterious 
pulp. 

Wood oil is obtained from a tree of the order Myrtacea. To 
procure it, a large hole is cut in the trunk, and fire is put in, 
when the oil is attracted by the heat. The natives mix it with 
Dammar, for paying the seams of their boats, and substitute it 
for linseed oil in mingling paints ; it is considered very effectual 
in preserving wood from the effects of the weather. 

Many other esculent oils of fine quality are obtained from the 
seeds of different forest-trees, as the Niato, or Gutta Perclia, of 
the Malay Peninsula; but the people, having an extensive 
choice, take little trouble to procure them, though it cannot be 
doubted they would repay the merchant or traveller who should 
institute researches on the subject of their respective properties. 
The Gutta PercJta tree is said to be found in all the forests of 
Malacca, Borneo, and Singapore, and the adjacent islands : fortu- 
nate it is that such is the case, for the quantity is already much 
diminished. The natives have no other mode of procuring the gum 
than by felling the trees and ringing the bark at distances of 
12 to 18 inches, when a cocoa-nut shell receives the flowing sap 
from each incision. It is customary to inspissate the sap by 
boiling it, but this process is not necessary : in a short time it 
consolidates and assumes the same appearance of itself. 

The quantity of Gutta obtained from each tree is from five to 
twenty catties : the catty being equivalent to a pound and three 
quarters English weight. Its great and most valuable property 
is that of becoming soft and plastic when immersed in water 
above the temperature 150°Fahr. It may then be moulded 
into any required form, which it retains on cooling. The Malays 
manufacture it into whips, baskets, basins and jugs, shoes, traces, 
and vessels of various kinds. 

Another substance, resembling caoutchouc in its properties, 
may be obtained in large quantities in Borneo and many other 
islands, and on the Peninsula : it is the produce of a climbing 
Urceota, whose trunk grows to the size of a man's body. The 
bark, which is soft and thick with a very rough appearance, 
emits on being cut an immense flow of sap, and the tree is 
uninjured by the process. There are three kinds of it in Borneo 
and* all of them are known by the name of Jintarvan, the caout- 
chouc which they yield has been proved, by analysis, equal to 
and like that procured from the Fious elastica. The fruit, which is 
large and of a fine apricot colour, contains twelve or more seeds, 



4-381 ■ 




•am, Hn<h*ip * Un 



Tab. 4381. 
RHODODENDRON Nilagiricum. 

Neelgherry Rhododendron. 



Nat. Ord. Ericine^. — Decandeia Monooynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab.433G.) 



KnoDot>ENDRON Nilagiricum; arboreum, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis coria- 
ceis reticulatim venosis marginc revolutis supra opticas Bubtnfl dense laie 

ferrugineo-tomentosis, racemo termiuali capita to amplo, calyee parvo bre- 
vissime 5-lobo, corolla campanulata segmentis undidatis rotundatis bilobis, 
filamentis declinatis inaequalibus, ovario hirsuto 10-loculari. 

Rhododendron Nilagiricum. " Zenker, Plant. Nilag. cum /<?." Ann. 8c. Nat. 
Bot. 2nd Series, v. 6. p. 1 50. 



In no instance whatever have I seen, either in gardens or in 
native specimens, the true Rhododendron arboreum having the 
leaves covered beneath with lax, dark, rusty tomentum ; nor are 
they so described by Sir James Smith,* the original authority 
for the plant. His term is very expressive, " clothed with white 
dense downiness beneath, so compact, indeed, that it gives them 
quite a silvery aspect ;" and " folia subtus argenteo-pannosa " 
would perhaps describe the appearance better than any other 
words. Such is exactly the case with original specimens of 
Sir James Smith in my Herbarium : such are those of Dr. Wallich 
from Nepal, collected in 1821 ; and such are our friend Dr. 
Thomas Thomson's specimens, gathered at Nynee Tal, Kamaon. 
The upper surface of the leaves, too, is smooth and somewhat 
glossy, indistinctly impressed with reticulations. 

In the spring of the present year I had the pleasure of 
receiving, from Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., the fine 
specimen of Rhododendron here figured, the offspring of " seed 
sent from Nepal." So different are the leaves from those of 
R. arboreum, that I certainly considered it distinct; and, on com- 

Exotic Botany, tab. 6. See also an excellent figure of R. afboram, m Bot. 
K p g- t. 890; where the author describes the underside of the leaves as " urgentt-o- 
&doto," a character totally at variance with our plant. 
JULY 1st, 1848. H 



paring it with specimens received from the Neelgherry hills 
(" Rhododendron sp." Herb. Wight, propr. sine numero, and 
from Sir Frederick Adam), I have no hesitation in pro- 
nouncing it to be the same, and in adopting the name given to 
it by Zenker in the work above quoted. It should be observed 
that Drs. Wight and Arnott, in their distributed specimens, refer 
to "B. nokile, Wall. Cat. n. 1521 c" which is the identical 
Neelgherry plant, For my own part, with a Herbarium pretty rich 
in arborescent Rhododendra, I have seen nothing corresponding 
to this, except from the Neelgherries. But if, as there seems no 
reason to doubt, the seeds of the one here given were derived 
from Northern India (a region very remote from the Neelgherry 
chain), then it becomes a question whether Dr. Wallich's 
11 11. arbor -cum" figured in Plantse Asiatics? Rariores, (vol. ij. 
p. 23. p. 123)," var. foliis subtus ferrugineo-tomentosis, flori- 
bus albis," may not be a state of this; though the figure 
does not represent the leaves so rufous and so tomentose as in 
our plant ; nor do I think that the learned author intends to 
describe the kind of tomentum seen on R. Nilagiricum ; for he 
speaks of the difference of his plant from arboreum consisting 
only in the more or less brown colour of the leaves of the lower 
surface. In regard to the hue of the flowers I may mention 
that it varies, as is seen by my dried Neelgherry specimens, 
from deep crimson to rose colour, which latter is the state of our 
individual. 

It will be observed that we are speaking of a plant derived 
directly from Indian seeds, and not of one that has been hybri- 
dized in our gardens, which is so much done, that we stand 
a great chance of losing the original types in our collections. 

Ii. Nilagiricum is a most lovely shrub, and, what adds to its 
value, perfectly hardy, having endured several winters in the 
open ground in Messrs. Lucombe and Pince's Nursery. It 
flowered in April, 1848, in the said Nursery, and we believe it is 
the first of the species that has blossomed in this country. 

We liave the pleasure of being able to announce that another and most dis- 
tinct arborescent Rhododendron, of great beauty, with dark red or puce-coloured 
heads of flowers, large, coriaceous, glossy foliage, and with the young branches, 
peduncles, and fruit clothed with long, stiff, glandular hairs or bristles, has been 
raised from Nepal seeds, by Messrs. Francis and James Dickson, of the Upton 
Nurseries, Chester. It is the Rhododendron barbatum of Wallich, hitherto un- 
known, except by the specimens distributed by that liberal botanist from the 
herbarium. We greatly regret that we had not the opportunity of figuring this, 
when it blossomed there, in the early part of May ; for, with the splendid colour 
of the true R. arboreum, it unites the advantage of being perfectly hardy, the 
original plant having stood out of doors in the climate of Cheshire for the last 
seven years, without protection. It has also flowered at the Marquis of West- 
minster's, and we are informed that Mom*. Dickson have now plants on sale, 
at their Tptou Nurseries, Chester. 



4-S8Z. 




Tab. 4382. 
VRIESIA speciosa. 

Showy Vriesia. 



Nat. Ord. BROMELIACEiE. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Sepala tria, convoluta, ocqualia, petalis apicc revolutis (an semper?) 
breviora. Squama cuique petalo 2, semiadnatae indivisne. Stamina exserta, 
3 libera, petalorum basi inserta, 3 inter petala inserts iisquc basi eonnata : an- 
them lineaves, plana?, posticse. Ovarium semi-inferum conicura ; stigma 3-lobum, 
lobis convolutis et sinuatis, villosis. — Folia plana (seu canalieulata) , erecta. 
Flores disticki, bracteis magnis canaliculatis coloratis, Lindl. 



Vriesia speciosa ; fobis lato-oblongis obtusis cum mucrone canaliculatis integer- 
rimis glabris nudis transverse nigro-vittatis, scapo squamoso nigro-maculato, 
spica elongata coccinea, bracteis coloratis lanceolatis acuminatis arete ira- 
bricatis conduplicato-carinatis unifloris, floris albis bracteis superantibus. 

Tillandsia splcndens. Hort. Paris. 



I have little hesitation in referring this beautiful plant to 
Dr. Lindley's genus Vriesia, established on the Tillandsia psit- 
tacina, Hook., notwithstanding some slight discrepancies in the 
character. The author refers it to Tillandsia Zielico/iioides, Kunth ; 
and I think it the T. setacea, Sw. (Bot. Mag. t. 3275). All 
have flowers resembling Pitcairnia, but a very different inflo- 
rescence, firm, coloured, distichous bracteas, which constitute 
the great ornament of the plant. The leaves are here also hand- 
some, with black transverse bands. We owe the possession 
of this in the stoves of Kew to Mr. Newman of the Jardin des 
Plantes at Paris, from whom we received it under the garden 
name of Tillandsia splendens. 

Descr. Leaves radical, a span and more long, lorate-oblong, 
canaliculate, or almost semicylindrical, very concave at the base, 
the margin entire, the apex reflexed, blunt, but tipped with 
a mucro, the margin entire, colour dark green with black trans- 
verse bands. Scape arising from the centre of the leaves, a foot 
and a half long (including the spike), terete, scaly, green, with 
black spots : this is terminated by a compact, lanceolate, bright 
re d> glossy spike of numerous lanceolate, acuminate, complicato- 
compressed, carinated, closely imbricated bracts, each including 
*vu 1st, 1848 h2 



a single white flower. Flower longer than the bract, cylindrical, 
curved, soon withering. Calyx of three oblong, scarious, obtuse, 
erect sepals. Corolla of three linear-spathulate petals, with two 
scales within at the base. Stamens six, rather longer than the 
petals. Ovary almost, if not quite, superior. Style filiform, 
longer than the stamen. 



Fig. 1. Flower: — nat.size. 2. Petal. 3. Pistil: — magnified. 



43 83. 




Heev? jjgnriajn. k ?»"■ , unf ■ 



Tab. 4383. 
TETRAZYGIA el^eagnoides. 

Elaagnus-like Tetrazygia . 



Nat. Ord. Melastomace.*. — Decandiua xMonogynia. 

Cm. Char. Calgcis tubus globosus urceolatusve, limbus ultra ovarium product us, 
persistens, breve 4-(5-)dentatus. Pet. 4 (5) obovata. Stem. 4-8 (10) eequalia. 
Antherte lineares basi obtusae apice 1-porosae. Ovarium glabrum. StgUu tili- 
formis. Stigma punctiforme. Capsula baccata 4-(5-)locularis. Semma inini- 
mera cuncato-angulata, nitida, hdo lineari. — Frutices Caribm. Kami petioli 
foliaque subtits albida furfuracea aut lepidota. Folia ovalia aid oHonga diecolora 
3-nervia petiolata. Cyma trichotoma terminalis. Flores albi, ebracteolati. DC. 
(Sect. Octo-Decastemon.) 



Ietrazygia elaagnoides ; ramis teretiusculis, petiolis foliisque subtus pube 
lepidota subpulverulenta adpressa albido-nrfescentibus, foliis oblongo-ovatis 
acuminatis 3-nerviis subeoriaceis supra glabris, paniculo terminali, floribus 
3-5-meris, calycis urceolati limbo obsolete 4-5-deutato. 

Tetrazygia elseagnoides. Sw. Ind. Occ. v. 2. p. 815. Vahl, Ic. PI, Am. v. 2. 
p. 28. Rich, in Bonpl. Melast. 1. 13 ? Be Omni. Prodr. p. S. jr. 172. Spreug. 
Sgst. Veget. v. 2. p. 304. 



A West Indian plant, as are all the species of the genus. 
Our specimen was obligingly communicated from Syon House 
by Her Grace the Dowager Duchess of Northumberland, having 
been raised from Jamaica seeds. We have fine native specimens 
from Jamaica and also from Bahamas (with narrower leaves and 
more obtuse at the base). It is also found in the Danish West 
Indian islands. Had we only Swartz's original description to 
appeal to, I should have no doubt of our Jamaica plant being 
the same with that of . Swartz, except that the flowers are penta- 
nierous, instead of tetrainerous ; but the figures quoted by 
De Candolle, do represent the leaves much smaller and more 
attenuated or acute at the base than any I have seen. In other 
respects they agree. It flowered in March. 

■Descr. A moderately sized branching shrub : with the 
branches subterete, and they and the petioles and peduncles, 
calyx and underside of the leaf silvery and whitish, or pale 
brownish-green, from numerous minute, dense, furfuraceous 

JULY l STj 1843 



scales. Leaves on rather short petioles, between oblong and 
ovate, sharply acuminated, coriaceous, 3 -nerved, the nerves con- 
nected by many transverse veins ; the margin entire, the upper 
side dark green, glabrous. Panicle terminal, with many rather 
large white flowers. Calyx urceolate, slightly tuberculate, the 
limb cup-shaped, in our plant five short teeth or angles. Petals 
five, obovate, acute. Stamens ten, curved, inclined to one side. 
Filaments subulate. Anther yellow, broad, subulate, compressed, 
about as long as the filaments. Ovary five-celled. Style shorter 
than the stamens, flexuous. Stigma obtuse. 



Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Calyx and pistil : — magnified. 



\ 



Tab. 4384. 
acacia argyrophylla. 

Silver-leaved Acacia. 



Nat. Ord. Leouminosjc. — Polygamic Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. #806.) 



Acacia argyropkylla ; ramis angulatis, foliis obovato-oblongis obtusis obeoun 
peiininerviis pulcherrirac argenteo-sericeis liinc margins medium versus 
uniglaudulosis, capitulis multifloris solitariis v. racemosis, calycis laciniia 
clavatis corollisquc eiliatis. 



This species is one of the many novelties sent by Mr. Drum- 
mondjrom the Swan River Settlement, and is no less beautiful 
in the foliage (phyllodia) than in its copious large heads of deep 
yellow flowers. The phyllodia are like the leaves of Podalyria 
sericea, everywhere clothed with a glossy silky cobweb, in the 
young leaves partaking of a yellow tint. Already our shrub is 
five feet high, very much branched, of graceful and compact 
growth, with phyllodia more like leaves than those of almost any 
other species. It flowers in April. 

Descr. A tall shrub, with numerous erecto-patent branches. The 
latter are angled, the young ones silky, yellow-green. Phyllodia 
from one inch and a half to two inches and a half or more long, 
obovato-oblong, very obtuse, pointless, and opening below into a 
very short footstalk, clothed on both sides with a compact, glossy, 
silky, and silvery down, the younger leaves richly tinged with 
yellow ; the margin is a little thickened, and, about the middle 
of the upper edge, is a gland. Stipules obsolete. Heads of 
Jtowers rather large, globose, deep yellow, solitary or racemcd ; 
the racemes usually shorter than the leaves. Calyx of five 
clavate, ciliated segments. Corolla, with the petals, oblong, 
ciliated. Stamens numerous. Style about the length of the 
filaments. 



Fig. 1. Flower: — magnified. 
July 1st, 184 8. 



4,3 8.5 




Tab. 4385. 
TROPjEOLUM Smithii. 

Sir James Smith's Nasturtium. 



Nat. Ord. TeoPjEolea:. — Octandkia MoNOOYNlA. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 4337.) 



TnotMOLVU Smithii; foliis peltinerviis quinquelobo-palinatis, ngmeotu Mttttf 

mucronatis nunc incisis, stipulis profunde laciniatis, pedunculo clou gat o 
cirrhato, petalis cuneatis duobus superioribus minoribus sessilibus 3 liif'e- 
rioribus unguiculatis omnibus laciniato-ciliatis, calcare subulato rectiusculo 
calyce longiore. 

Tkop^eolum Smithii. Be Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 684. 

Trop^eolum percgrinum. Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2. p. 668. Spremj. Syd. I'eipl. r. I 
p. 226. (fide Sm. non L. Sp. PI. ed.l.) excl. Syn. Feuill. Lamarck, 111. 1.2',]. 
f. 3. Sm. in Rees. Cycl. n. 4. (non Jacq.J 



Another and very distinct and elegant species of TropcEolum, 
for the introduction of which to our gardens we are indebted to 
Messrs. Veitch and Son, and to their indefatigable collector, 
William Lobb. It is a native of high mountains in Columbia, 
whence we have copious native specimens in our Herbarium, not 
only sent by Mr. Lobb, but by Colonel Hall, who gives tin- 
elevation at Lloa, 9000 feet above the level of the sea. Tin- 
learned De Candolle has done well to discard the Linnaean name 
of peregrinum, which properly belongs to the T. aduncum of Smith 
(the " Canary Bird Flower of cottage gardens). For, what- 
ever plant Linnaeus may have intended under that name in after 
time, it is certain that he established it, in the first instance, on 
the authority of Feuillee's figure (vol. ii. p. 736. t. 42) only, 
which he quotes, and adds, " Hab. in Peru ; nondum mihi visum 
in Europa:" — and that figure is Smith's and De Candolle's 
aduncum. Treated as the Tropceolum majus and minus, there is 
every reason to believe that it will prove as hardy. It flowers 
through the summer months. 

Descr. Annual ? Boot not tuberous. Whole plant glabrous. 
Stems twining, succulent. Leaves peltate, on long, slender, 

•o-ly 1st, 1848 



twisted, cirrhiform petioles, palmately five-lobed, lobes oblong or 
lanceolate, acute and mucronate, in native specimens not un- 
frequently incised here and there. Stipules small, but fringed 
with long cilise. Peduncles axillary, solitary, filiform, twisted, 
longer than the petioles, one-flowered. Calyx coloured, dull 
brick red, terminating behind in a long, nearly straight, subulate 
spur, green at the tip : segments of the calyx ovate, acuminate, 
shorter than the petals. Petals cuneate, orange, all toothed and 
fringed, the fringe and veins red : the two upper petals small and 
sessile ; three lower the largest and unguiculate. Stamens and 
style shorter than the petals. 



Fig. 1. Upper petal. 2. Lower one : — magnified. 



1 



'h3$6 




. «t litii.. 






Tab. 4386. 
CANTUA PYRIFOLIA. 

Pear-leaved Cantua. 

Nat. Ord. Polemoniace^e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx urceolato- vel tubuloso-campanulatus 5-dcntatus v. 3-5- 
fidus. Cor. tubulosa, limbi subpatentis laciniis subsequalibus obovatis. Stamina 
prope basin tubi inserta, e tubo exserta. Discus brevis, carnosus. Ovarii hruli 
multiovulati. Capsula coriacea, trivalvis. Semina biseriatini adsccndentia, inibri- 
cata, compressa, in alam cxpansa. — Frutices v. arborcs Peruviana. Folia attract, 
crassiuscula, integerrima v. sinuato-dentata, Flores speciosi ad apices rtmontm 
tkyrsoideo-corymbosi, rarius in axillis superioribus snbsolitarii . DC. 



Cantua pyrifolia ; foliis ellipticis obovatisve petiolatis aoutis pubescenti-pilosis 
(nunc glabris) integerrimis v. grosse sinuato-dentatis dentibus aculis 
corymbis ramosis, floribus erectis incurvis, calyce bilabiato, Iabiis 2-3 -den- 
tatis, starainibus corollam duplo superantibus. 

Cantua pyrifolia. Juss. Ann. Mas. v. 3. p. 1 1 7. t. 7. Lain. Illmtr. 1. 1 06./. 1 . 
De Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 320. 

Cantua Loxensis. Willd.in Schult. Syst. Veyet. v.k.p. 369. 

Cantua flexuosa. Pers.Syn. v.l.p.\%l. 

I'eripheagmos flexuosus. Ruiz et Pav. II. Per. v. 2. p. 17. 1. 131. 



Of all the Polemoniacece, and many of them it must 
be acknowledged are very handsome, some species of the 
present genus, Cantua, are pre-eminently beautiful. We have 
now the pleasure of announcing a species reared in this country, 
for the first time, by Messrs. Veitch and Sons, at their Nursery, 
Exeter, from seeds sent by their collector, Mr. William Lobb, 
from Peru. This is, however, by no means the most showy 
of the Cantuas. C quercifolia has pure white flowers, nestled 
among leaves, as large as those of our oaks ,• and the C. buxifolia 
has deep rose-coloured blossoms, full four inches long. C. pyri- 
folia is, however, liable to vary : some of the specimens gathered 
by Mathews, as observed by De Candolle, have narrower flowers ; 
and the native specimens have more generally entire leaves, and 
somewhat more like those of a pear, than the specimen here 
%ured. It flowered in March, 1848. 

July 1st, 1848. 



Bescr. A branching shrub, with scattered, shortly petioled 
leaves varying much in size and outline, from one inch to (occa- 
sionally) three and four inches in length, elliptic or obovate, 
acute, scarcely coriaceous, entire, or sinuato-dentate, the teeth 
acute, glabrous, or with scattered hairs, so as to be indistinctly 
downy. In general, the leaves nearest the inflorescence are the 
smallest and glabrous. Corymb terminal, compound. Flowers 
rather numerous, compact. Pedicels half an inch or more long. 
Calyx cylindrical, ovate, green, tinged with brown, generally 
two-lipped: one lip has two, the other three, ciliated teeth. 
Corolla funnel-shaped, curved, yellowish-white or dark cream- 
coloured : tube longer than the calyx : limb nearly erect, of five 
broadly oval, or obovate segments. Stamens nearly twice as 
long as the corolla. Filaments curved. Anthers oblong, yellow. 
Germen ovate, on a large fleshy disk, three-celled. Style rather 
longer than the stamen. Stigma trifid. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Ovary. 3. Section of ditto : — magnified. 



&7 

enveloped in a rich reddish pulp, which is very grateful to the 
palate of a European. 

Many other Bornean trees afford a sap, which probably j n nt Ml - 
similar properties to the Gutta Percha. But till a less w astciul 
mode of procuring these substances is devised than the felling .»! 
the trees, it were no boon to the island to create a demand for 
them. 

The celebrated Upas, Antiaris Toaiicaria, is found near Sarawak, 
but it is not common. One fine specimen, which Mr. Low ex- 
amined, grew to about sixty feet high. Its bark is white, and 
the stem is propped, as it were, below, with those PT OO OM M 
resembling buttresses, which are common in the trees of tropical 
jungles. The poisonous juice exudes freely, when the ban is 
tapped; and the natives hold the Upas in much superstitious 
terror, though no authentic particulars exist of its injurious 
properties, unless when introduced into the circulation of the 
blood, when it seems undeniably among the most active of \ 
table poisons. The tree is called Bina by the Borneans : Opas 
being a name they give to the sap itself, and to all vegetable 
poisons. 

Dammar is a resinous gum, afforded by many trees, differing 
from one another and from the Bammara orientalis of " Marsden's 
Sumatra." This substance is applied to various purposes, 
caulking the seams of boats, and (when contained in Bamboos) 
for making torches : it gives a flaring and smoky light, and is 
chiefly used by the lowest classes. 

A wild kind of Cinnamon grows in Borneo, which considerably 
resembles the true Cinnamon of Ceylon. It is not collected by 
the natives. 

Cotton is raised by the Dyaks for making their cloths, and a 
sample of it, sent home to Liverpool, was pronounced of excellent 
quality. It is likely that, in process of time, its culture will be 
advantageously pursued, from the facility of exportation to China. 

Pepper has long been exported in large quantities from several 
Bornean ports, especially Bruni; but, during the disturbances 
at the latter place, the trade has dwindled away, owing to the 
expulsion of the Chinese, who to the number, it is said, of 
30,000, employed themselves exclusively in rearing the spice. 

It is a curious fact, observed by all writers on the productions 
of the East, that Pepper is universally esteemed, except by the 
people of the countries where it is grown. This remark holds 
good in Borneo, where its use in cookery is reprobated, and the 
Malays prefer a small kind of capsicum. In the beginning of 
this century, the district of Banjumasin alone, on the south 



28 

coast of Borneo, was capable of producing 1,500 tons of this 
spice. 

Coffee has been tried in the gardens of Europeans with great 
success : the berry is fine and well flavoured. The hills on the 
mainland, opposite Labuhan, are well adapted for its culture; 
for there, as in Ceylon, the grower would be spared the trouble 
and cost of raising trees among the plantations, to shade the 
Coffee bushes from the sun, a precaution which is found requisite 
in Java. In Ceylon, an altitude of between 3,000 and 4,000 
feet is the best locality for the Coffee estates ; the fruit produced 
at that height is particularly well tasted and abundant. 

Gambler (Uncarid) is not cultivated in Borneo, though it is 
occasionally seen wild : that used by the Malays for chewing 
with their Siri, is imported from Singapore, where its growth 
is said to exhaust the soil to a degree which it takes many years 
to recover. 

Tobacco is reared in small quantities ; but the people are un- 
skilful in preparing it. If a good sort were procured, and the 
proper mode of manufacturing it were known, " the Virginian 
weed " might become as profitable to the Borneans as it is to 
their neighbours of the Philippines and Java ; and the Dyaks 
would be found very willing to rear a plant with whose use they 
are acquainted. 

Besides the above imperfectly enumerated vegetable produc- 
tions, many others promise to be valuable. /Spices of several 
kinds would probably thrive ; Vanilla, for instance, which fetches 
a high price and is of easy culture. The Cocoa Tree of Manilla 
(T/ieobroma Cacao) has been tested and found to yield fruit of 
admirable quality. We have already spoken of Cotton. The 
Musa textilis, which affords the fine Manilla cordage (a kind of 
Plantain), would also thrive. Ginger grows well in all the 
native gardens, and Turmeric abounds in a wild state. 

Many kinds of oil might be produced in perfection : in short, 
there is every reason to believe that most of the precious Indian 
and Tropical products would well repay the Bornean grower. 
And now that the British settlers in this island will be acknow- 
ledged and protected by our Government at home, the spirit of 
national enterprise will shortly bring to light the immense vege- 
table resources of this privileged country. 

Many and valuable kinds of timber are produced by the 
magnificent forests of Borneo. Their botanical characters are 
little known, and it would therefore be useless to enumerate the 
native names, such as Balean, Bintangicr, Mmigris, &c, by 
which they are designated, and which would convey no single 



29 

idea to a scientific mind. Some arc useful for ship-building : 
others have a wonderful faculty of resisting the influence of 
water, the atmosphere, and even the destructive White Ante ; 
while others again produce large quantities of Vegetable Tallow. 
Charcoal, pot-ash, and pearl-ashes are yielded by burning the 
timber of others. Ebony grows in many places, and the n/ngas 
is a handsome red wood, capable of receiving a fine polish, and 
much prized at Singapore for the purpose of making ornamental 
furniture. Generally speaking, however, there are not many 
sorts of ornamental wood in the island. Several scented kinds 
are known, though few of them are collected; and those which 
the inhabitants do procure, they have not yet learned to turn to 
profit by exporting them. The Sandal-wood, though it grows 
on Timor, has not, at present, been observed in Borneo. 

Lignum Aloes, called Gam by the aborigines, is sent to Arabia 
and China, where it is purchased for making incense : it seems 
to be caused by the disease of particular trees ; for this scented 
and resinous part of the trunk is only procurable after the tree 
has been cut down and is decayed. 

Dye-stuffs and Tannin are the produce of many barks and 
fruits in these Isles of the Indian Ocean. They are, however, 
only used for home-consumption. 



The Flowers of Borneo. 

It has been said, and with much truth, that no country in the 
world produces such ravishing perfumes as the Isles of the 
Malayan Archipelago. The flowers of Borneo, in particular, arc 
as lovely aud sweet-scented as her forests are extensive and 
stately. The odours of Melur (a species of Jasmine), Champaka 
(a MicJielia), and Kananga (Uvaria) are everywhere known and 
prized. The woods also abound in shrubs and flowers, which 
delight the eye and attract the botanist's curiosity by their rich 
hues and peculiar structure. As in most tropical countries, the 
OrcJtideous Tribes are numerous and lovely ; and, especially on 
the open banks, where they enjoy their chief requisites of sun 
and moisture, these charming parasites may be seen entwining 
with their short-lived beauty the otherwise unsightly and naked 
trunks of the decaying trees. 

The genus Caloggne has the advantage of great fragrance 
besides the delicacy of its white and orange flowers ; and several 
species of Vanda abound, equalling those of the continent of 



30 

India in beauty. One kind, which produces remarkably large 
blossoms, and which has been successfully introduced into 
England, has been named by Dr. Lindley, V. Lowei, after its 
fortunate discoverer. 

Again, one kind of Cypripedium, or lady's Slipper, which 
grows in Borneo, excels all those previously known ; and while 
the genus Dendrobium, which is the pride of India, presents only 
small-flowered species in Borneo, the genus JEria is rich in 
varied and eminently beautiful kinds. Cirrhopetalon, Bolbo- 
s p/iyllum, and others of the more minute Orchidea abound, and 
are highly curious, delicate, and beautiful, compensating, by 
their interesting forms, for the want of gaudy colours and large 
size. 

To pass from Orchideous plants, of which the culture is now 
so much favoured in England, we find the same localities, namely, 
river-banks and the dense underwood of the jungles, exhibiting 
many beautiful species of Ixora and Pavetta. The former bears 
large bunches of flowers, which vary into all the intermediate 
shades, from pale orange to crimson ; while the latter presents 
tufts of delicate snow-white blossoms. Other Rubiacea abound, 
and are among the most fragrant and beautiful of the wild 
plants of Borneo. 

Perhaps no plants are more gorgeous than the different 

kinds of Rhododendron, one in particular, which Mr. Lowe has 

named after Rajah Brooke. Its large heads of flowers are 

produced in abundance all the year round, and excel in size 

those of any known species : they frequently consist of eighteen 

flowers, which are of all possible hues, from a pale and rich 

yellow to reddish salmon -colour ; when the sun shines upon 

them, these blossoms sparkle with the brilliancy of gold dust. 

Three other sorts have a fine inflorescence, one crimson, 

another red, and the third of a rich tint between these colours. 

Four species of Clerodendron adorn the banks of the Sarawak 

river t two of them, which are fragrant, bear white flowers, another 

is scarlet, and another crimson. The latter is the handsomest : 

it forms a shrub, ten feet high, each branch tipped with a large 

loose spike of rich crimson blossoms; the head of flowers is 

often three feet from the foliage, forming, with the equally 

crimson bracts and stems, a magnificent pyramid of bloom, each 

blossom relieved by its white centre and protruding stamens ; 

and the foliage is likewise ornamental, being large, dense, and 

heart-shaped. This Clerodendron, which now grows well in 

England, has been named after Captain Bethune, R.N., who 

brought it and several other fine plants from Borneo, where its 



Tab. 4387. 
NAPOLEONA imperials. 

Imperial Napoleona. 



Nat. Ord. Balvisie.e, Br. — Napoleone/E, End!. — BtoNADELPHIA 
Decandkia. 



Got. Char. Calyx adherens, coriaceus, 5-fidus, a\stivatione valvatus. Corolla 
e verticillis tribus monopetalis constans, quorum exterior inaximus, concaro- 
subhemisphaericus multiplicatus multidentatus, intermedins corona (ut in Passi- 
flora) profunde usque ad basin in lacinias tiliformes patentes fissus, iniimut 
erectus, cyathitbrmis, margine multifido iuflexo. Stamina 10 (20, Lindl.) corollas 
mterioris basi inserta, serie simplici basi monadelpha; filamentis membrannnis, 
latis, inflexis ; antheris adnatis bilocularibus. Discus annularis subcyathiformis. 
Ovarium adherens, caruosuiu, loculis 5 ; ovulis 20, eampylotropis, superpositia, 
per paria apici placentae axillis semiliberac atfixis. Stylus pentagonus, augulis 
subalatis ; stigma disciforme pentagonum 5-radiatmn, intra angulos glandiilam 
verruciformem (an verum stigma) gerens. Frutices Mali Puuici magnitndiue, 
" cortiee (in N. Fogelii) extus rubescente punctulis albis erebre consperso ; 
septis pulposis in speciminibus nostris exsiccatis et scmicollapsis et rum hitegu- 
mento seminum conglutinatis." Semina fabae magnitndiue, reniformia, exalbu- 
nunoaa ; cotyledouibus plano-convexis, radicula immersa. Lindl. — -panels mutatis. 



Napoleona imperialis; folds snbeoriaceis late oblongis acuminatis. 
Napoleona imperialis. Pal. de Beauv. PI. d'Oware tt cle Bet/in, v. 2. p. 29. /. 7 B 

(fig ura mala). Lindl. in Gard. Chron. 1844, p. ISO, I. cum lc. and Bid. H<<j. 

1844, Suppl. p. 77. 

Xvpoleona Heudelotii. Adr. deJuss. in Ann. desSc. Nat. N. S. v. 2. p. 227. 



A more than ordinary interest has attached to this plant, 
arising partly from the circumstances under which the species 
w as discovered, and partly from its name, given in honour of one 
of the most remarkable men that ever lived, and, still more, 
perhaps, from the singular structure and colour of the flower, as 
exhibited in the figure of the Baron Palisot de Beauvois ; — so 
remarkable, indeed, that doubts have been expressed of the very 
existence of the plant. 

" Bans l'an 1786 le fils d'un roi negre (writes M. de Jussieu) 
ties cotes d'Afrique, avoit ete amene en France, par un capita hie 
de vaisseau, qui, spies quelques mois de sejour, fut charge de le 



reconduire dans sa patrie, connue sous le nom d' Oware, pays 
voisin dc la ligne et limitrophe du royaume de Benin. M. de 
Beauvois, prive, par une mesure generale, d'une charge con- 
siderable de finance qu'il exercait, voulut profiter de sa libcrte 
et de cette occasion pour faire des recherches d'Histoire Natu- 
relle a Oware. II exposa ses vues a l'Academie des Sciences, 
qui les approuva, et apres avoir egalemcnt obtenu l'attache et 
l'autorisation du gouvernement, il partit a ses propres frais, avec 
le jeune noir, dont il s'etait concilie l'atfection. 

" Dans le trajet, il relacha a Lisbonne, ou il fit quelques obser- 
vations, et a Chama, sur la cote de Guinee, ou il recolta plusieurs 
])lantes curieuses, dans le temps des graines et des echantillons. 
Son arrivee a Oware fut signalee par une espece d'epidemie, 
resultant de la chaleur humide des cotes vaseuses et marecageuses 
de cc pays. Elle enleva rapidement deux hommes atfides, qu'il 
avait amenes avec lui, et successivement plusieurs autres personnes 
de l'equipage. Bientot lui-meme fut malade tres-gravement $ 
cependant son courage le soutint. Avant sa maladie, et daus 
les intervalles qui lui laisserent plusieurs rcchutes, il parcourut le 
pays d' Oware, une partie du Galbar, et alia jusqu' a Benin. II 
fit dans cliaque lieu des observations de divers genres sur les 
inceurs et les habitudes de ces peuples, sur le climat, les sites et 
les productions naturelles. II rassembla les depouilles de beau- 
coup d'animaux et recolta un grand nombre de plantes qu'il 
m'addressa pour les conserver en depot jusqu' a son retour en 
Europe. L'insalubrite du climat le forca enfin a quitter l'Afrique 
apres un sejour de quinze mois." 

" Emporte par mon zele," (says M. de Beauvois himself in his 
Flore d' Oware et de Benin) " et par mon gout dominant pour 
I'llistoire Naturelle, i'ai affronte tous les dangers : i'ai eu le 
bonneur, apres avoir vu penr plus de cinq sixiemes des Europeens 
qui y sont passes, de les surmonter tous ; et j'ai aujourd'hui la 
satisfaction d'onrir aux naturalistes le fruit de mes peines, de 
ines dangers, et de mes sacrifices multiplies." 

Among the fruits of the voyage the author justly prides 
himself upon the discovery of Napoleona imperialis, as likely 
to constitute a new order of plants, between Cucurbitacete and 
Pamijlorece. Unfortunately his analyses of the figure are not 
satisfactory ; and the colour was so unusual as to raise suspicions 
that the plant was rather the offspring of imagination than a 
reality. At length M. Ileudelot, " l'lm des martyrs de la science, 
qui, apres plusieurs annees de voyage dans l'Mrique centrale, 
finit par succomber a l'influence de ce climat si funeste mux 
Europeens," detected and sent to the Museum at Paris, a 
Xapoleona from Eonta-Dhiallon in Senegambia, of which a 
figure and description are given by M. Adrien de Jussieu in the 



**v 



Annales des Sciences above quoted. After a careful comparison 
of this plant with the plates and very imperfect specimens of 
P. de Beauvois, existing in the Herbarium of the late M. Delessert, 
M. de Jussieu, with no little hesitation, considers them dis- 
tinct, and gives the name of N. Heudelotii to the Senegambia 
plant, a locality, indeed, considerably remote from Oware and 
Benin : — at the same time, the only specific difference which 
M. de Jussieu detects is " N. imperials, flore cceruleo; et 
N. Heudelotii, flore purpureo." 

In 1843, Mr. Whitfield returned from one of his many voyages 
of Natural History research to Sierra Leone, a country, it will 
be observed, intermediate with Senegambia and Oware, and 
brought with him both living and dried specimens of Napcleona, 
the latter of which, after a most careful investigation, Dr. Lindley 
concludes to be identical with Beauvois' plant, and I think with 
justice ; for though, when recent, these flowers are described by 
Mr. Whitfield to be " apricot-coloured and crimson ; " yet the 
same traveller remarks that, when decaying, they assume a 
bluish tint : which will account for their colour, as described by 
Beauvois, " d' un beau bleu, avec un reflet violet." 

The collection of plants formed by the unfortunate Dr. Vogel 
m the last voyage up the Niger, again contains specimens of a 
IVapokona, which Drs. Hooker and Planchon, who are mainly 
charged with the publication of that collection, pronounce dis- 
tinct. Of this, as accurate a figure and description as can be 
drawn up from dried specimens, both of flower and fruit, are 
given in the 8th vol. of Hooker's Icones Plantarum, t. 800, and 
called JV. Vogelii, Hook, et Planch. 

At length, in 1848, one of the living plants, brought 
home by Mr. Whitfield and purchased by His Grace the 
late Duke of Northumberland, produced perfect flowers in 
the month of May. It was most obligingly and immediately 
sent to me, by Her Grace the Duchess Dowager, and from 
it our flowering specimen is taken. The representation of the 
fruit, it must be premised, is done from Vogel's specimens, and 
consequently belongs to the N. Vogelii. Between that plant 
and ours, however, I can point out no difference, save in the 
shape and relative size of the leaves. No correct opinion can 
be formed of the colour from the dried specimens, on which 
some stress is laid in the Icones Plantarum. In regard to the 
N. Heudelotii of M. Adrien de Jussieu, being in possession of a 
specimen gathered by M. Heudelot himself, I find the leaves 
and solitary flower so exactly to correspond with our plant, that 
I have no hesitation in pronouncing them specifically the same. 
The colour of the corolla, which the author calls purpurea, is the 

2i 



same in the dry state with that of our N. imperialis ; and the 
outer corolla is deeply toothed, as in our plant and N. Vogelii. 

It is needless to express the views of the affinities of this 
plant as stated by various writers, Beauvois, Brown, De 
Candolle, Lindley, and, lastly, M. Planchon in the Icones Planta- 
rurn, for they will be more fully given in the forthcoming " Niger 
Flora." 



Fig. 1. Section of a portion of the flower, from which the calyx-lobes and the 
outer series of the corolla are removed. Judging from this section, what is in the 
generic character called the inner of three whorls or scries of the corolla, might 
rather be considered a second and outer series of filaments, which are abortive. 
According to this view, the corolla woidd be in a double series and the stamens 
in a double series. 



4-388. 




Reeve Benham fc Ueevc imr 



Tab. 4388. 
ARISiEMA Murrayi. 

Br. Murray's Ariscema. 

« 

Nat. Ord. Aroide.e. — Mon<ecia Monandria. 

ww. Char. Spatha basi convoluta. Spadix superne nudus, interne unisexualis 
raro androgynus : organa rudimentaria supcrposita aut plerumqne nulla. Jn- 
them in filaraentis distinctis verticillatfe, loculis aut discretis aut appositis, poro 
aut rima subtrcmsversali dehiscentibus. Ovaria libera, unilocularia, ovulis 2-(i 
raro pluribus basilaribus erectis. Styli breves aut nulli. Stigmata indivis-i. 
Baccts mono- aut oligo-spermse. Semina albuminosa. Bl. • 



Ariscema Murrayi ; foliis peltatisectis, segmentis 5-6 ovato-lanceolatis aeumi- 
natis copiose penninerviis nervoque intramarginali, spathae parte inferiore 
m tubum latum connata (viridi) superiore ovata convexa subcueullata 
acuminulata alba macula transverse rubra, spadice subulato flexuoso vix 
spathae tubo longiore. 

Arum Murrayi. Graham, Cat. PI. Bombay, p. 229. 



Few of the Aroidece are more worthy of cultivation than the 
present, of which tubers were sent to us from Bombay, by 
our valued friend Mr. Law, of Tanna. It is described 
in the work above quoted, where Mr. Law observes he has fre- 
quently met with it in the valleys of the Bandsda hills, to the 
south-west of Surat. Reared in the stove, it sends up, in early 
spring, first the very delicate inflorescence and afterwards the 
leaves. Of the genus Arisama, thirty-one species are noticed 
by Blume, in the first volume of " Rumphia ;" twenty-two 
are Asiatic, six are found in North America and two in 
Brazil. 

Descr. " Tubers about the size of small potatos." Scape a 
foot and more long, terete, purplish, below sheathed, terminated 
above by a very delicate and handsome spatha, which has its 
lower half green and convolute into a tube (including the spadix) ; 
the upper half of the most delicate white, with a red ring round 
the mouth, ovate, convex, inclined over the mouth, almost 
eucullate, faintly striated, terminated by a very narrow twisted 
point. Spadix subulate, longer than the tube of the spatha, 
august 1st, 1848. 



but much shorter than the entire spatha, flexuose ; the upper 
half naked : the lower clothed with flowers, of which the lower 
portion consist of pistils, rather crowded, ovate or obtusely 
tetragonal, tapering into a short style, terminated by the trun- 
cated stigma. Above the pistils the spadix is occupied by 
numerous filaments, terminated with a whorl of three or four 
globose anthers, opening by a transverse cleft, and above these, 
at the base of the naked portion of the spadix, are a few abortive 
pistils. The leaf appears after the flower, and is borne upon a 
long terete petiole, peltate and deeply cut into five or six ovato- 
lanceolate acuminate segments, each closely penninerved, and 
there is a nerve, or vein, running along within the margin. 



Fig. 1. Spadix. 2. Stamens. 3. Pistil. 4. Ovaiy, from wln'cli the seeds 
have started : — magnified. 



4-38$. 




Eteve Benhajn. * 5< 



Tab. 4389. 

LITHOSPERMUM canescens. 

Hoary Grotmoeil. 



Nat. Ord. Boragine.k. — 1'kntandkia MoNOOTN] . 

Ge». Char. Calyx 5-partitus, lobis fequalibus. Corolla iiii'imdilmliformis aui 
rarius hypocrateriforma, pervia, fence inula, v. rariua gibbia 5 com staminibua 
alternantibus, pilosa ant lrevi, lobis subrotundis. Antherir oblongB, bievisdme 
stipitatae, plerumque inclusae. Stigma capitatum subbilobum. NueuUt ovate, 
laeves aut rugosee, basi truncate imperforatac, — Herbs mU Frutices id 
habitations diversce. Radices sape crassm eorUee rubra ft idea tmetori/g. Folia 
allerna Integra sccpim pilis timpiidbut tcabra. Finns tpicati aut ra cemoti , true- 
teolati, colore varii. DC 



Lithospermum canescens; caulibus ei'ectis herbaceis subsimplicibus molliter 
villosis, foliis sessilibus oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis canescentibus, braoteis 
conformibus, corollse aureae tubo calycem hirsutum duplo superante lobis 
rotundatis. 

Lithospermxim canescens. Lehm. Asper. v. 2. p. 305. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. v. 2. 
p. 88. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 10. p. 79. Asa Gray, Bot. North. l'». S. p. 336 
Spreng. Syst. Veg. v. I. p. 544. 

Batschia canescens. Mick. Am. v. I. p. 130. 1. 14. 

Batschia conspicua. Rich, in FranH. Journ. App. ed. 1. p. 49. 

Lithospermum conspicuum. Spreng. Syst. Veg. r. 1. p. 54 I. 



Batschia and Lithospermum are now generally considered to 
be one and the same genus. The present species is peculiar to 
North America, but has a rather extensive range, from Canada 
and the Saskatchawan in the north to Carolina in the south. 
Although a perfectly hardy plant, and well worthy of a place 
in every garden, it has only been lately introduced by Edward 
Leeds, Esq., of Manchester, through Mr. Goldie ; and our figure 
is taken from flowering specimens, kindly presented to the Royal 
Gardens by that gentleman in May, 1848. 

Descr. Hoot long, woody, abounding in purple dye. Several 
erect herbaceous stems, a span and more long, simple or only 
slightly branched above, spring from the crown of the root. 
These stems are terete, hairy. Leaves alternate, erecto-patcnt, 
sessile, oblong, lanceolate, obtuse, canescent with closely pressed 

august 1st, 1848. 



compact hairs, bract eas or floral leaves resembling them. 
Flowers in leafy second racemes. Calyx cut into five deep 
linear hairy segments, half as long as the tube of the corolla. 
Corolla large (for the genus), golden-coloured, tube infundibuli- 
form, limb of five spreading, rounded segments : within the tube 
are five small glands, and below them five small stamens. 
Ovary of four deep lobes, style included. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Corolla laid open. 3. Pistil: — magnified. 



4 .).'/(.> 









,: ■ 







#•»*- 



^V' ; * 







* 







3\tch- iel et Utk . 



£e«ve Benhsun iilleev?. imp 



Tab. 4390. 
EPISCIA BICOLOR. 

Two-coloured Episcia. 

Nat. Ord. Gesneriaoe^. — Didynamia Gymnospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx liber 5-phyllus seu 5-partitus. Corolla infiiiKlibuliforniis, 
tubo rectiusculo basi postice gibbo, limbo 5-lobo. Stamina 4 didvnania mm 
tminti postici rudimento e basi tubi. Annulm hypogynus in glandulam MMtieun 
tumons. Stigma bilamellatum. Capmla subglobosa membranaeoa bivalvis, 
placentis 2 parietabbus bilamcllatis. Semina <» oblonga. — Berba Am e ric a ns 
mottes decumbentes radiculites. Folia petiolata veni& anmtomosantibus percursa. 
Flores axillares solitarii v. cymosidi et bracteati. DC. 



Episcia bieolor; hirsute humilis decumbens, foliis petiolatis cordato-ovatis 
acutis grosse serratis impresse venosis, pedunculis petiolos subBequantibu* 
axillaribua simplicibus v. bi-tritidis gracilibus hirsutis, sepalis lineari-lanceo- 
latis apice recurvis, corolla? tubo calyce duplo longiore, ore obliquo, limbo 
subsequaliter 5-lobo, lobis rotundatis, ovario superne hirsutn. 



A very pretty Gesneriaceous plant, raised from seeds scut 
from New Grenada by our collector, Mr. Purdie. It blooms 
in the stove, and continues throwing up flowers for several 
weeks in succession, many growing together among the ample 
dark foliage, and of white colour, bordered with purple. It 
seems sufficiently to accord with the character of the genus 
Episcia, to warrant us in placing it there. 

Descr. A perennial herbaceous and somewhat creeping, as 
well as procumbent plant, with very short hairy stems. Leaves 
large, hairy, between ovate and cordate, spreading, somewhat 
glossy, acute, with large serratures all round, penninened and 
coarsely reticulated, the nerves impressed. Petioles short, hairy. 
Peduncles from the axils of the leaves and scarcely longer than 
the petioles, simple or bi-trifid and bracteated, slender, hairy, 
or rather hispid. Flowers erect, or inclined. Calyx hairy, 
deeply cleft into five nearly erect, linear-lanceolate sepals, recurved 
at the apex. Corolla with the tube rather short, white, gibbous 
on one side at the base, dilated above, tumid beneath, within 
spotted with purple, the mouth oblique ; the limb rather large, 

AUGUST 1st, 1848. 



nearly equal, white with a broad purple border, deeply five- 
lobed, the lobes rounded. Stamens inserted near the base of 
the tube : filaments didynamous, subulate, included : anthers 
approximate in two pairs ; one abortive filament is between the 
two pairs of fertile ones. Ovary free, ovate, hairy above, 
glabrous and subtetragonal below, with a large solitary gland on 
one side. Style included within the tube of the corolla : stigma 
of two furrowed spreading lips. 



Fig. 1. Corolla laid open. 2. Pistil and gland. 3. Ovary. 4. Ovary, cut 
through transversely : — magnified. 







I 



±3£>1 




.Reeve BenlLam * Reeve ,in>p. 



Tab. 4391. 

CIRRHOPETALUM fimbriatum. 

Fimbriated Cirriopetalum. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide.e. — Gynandria Mox\mm;i\ 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4237.) 



CnmuoYETALVMjimbriatum ; pseudo-bulbis glomeratis ovato-sphaericis subtctra- 
gonis, foliis subtribus ovato-lanceolatis acutis parvis, scapo radical] gracili, 
umbella pluritlora, scpalis lateralibus maxirais lineari-ligulatis acutis cohse- 
rentibus, supremo petalisque ovatis anguste acuminatis fimbriatis, labello 
parvo crasso linguiformi nudo, columna angulis cornutis edcntulis, anthera 
papillosn. 

Ctrrhopetalum fimbriatum. Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 1839, Suppl.p. 72. 

Cirrhopetalum Wallichii ? Grah. Cat. PL Bombay, p. 205. 



A rare and most lovely plant, sent by J. E. Law, Esq., to the 
Royal Gardens from Bombay, where it is said to be by no means 
common, growing on Ayeeu trees about Parr and the Rotunda 
Ghaut. Attached to masses of Sphagnum and suspended from 
a rafter of the Orchideous House, it bears its most curious 
flowers copiously in April and May. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs small, clustered, subglobose and obtusely 
angular, but tapering upwards so as to be somewhat ovate : 
most of them are leafless, but a few have about three small 
ovato-lanceolate, acute leaves at the apex. Scape from the base 
of the bulb, erect, a span long, slender, bracteated, bearing an 
umbel of spreading /lowers which are very curious in structure, 
and well worthy inspection with a microscope. The greater 
portion of the flower is constituted by the two lateral sepals, 
which stand forward, are nearly two inches long, linear or linear- 
spathulate, acute, combined by their inner edges ; the other parts 
of the flower are in comparison minute: the remaining or 
superior sepals and the petals are ovate, suddenly tapering into 
a subulate point, red, and elegantly fimbriated. Lip red, 

\ i oust 1st, 1848. 



tongue-shaped, thick, fleshy, the upper half reflexed. Column 
with two subulate horns at the upper anterior angles. Anther 
hemispherical, granulated. Pollen-masses four, of which two 
are very small. 



Fig. 1. Entire flower. 2. Column and lip. 3 and 4. Pollen-masses : — all 
more or less inagnified. 



4-392. 




ftseve, Betvhim. <i &«' 



Tab. 4392. 

BURTONIA PULCHELLA. 

Beautiful Burtonia. 



Nat. Ord. Leguminos^e. — Decandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx profunde 5-fidus. Petala 5 decidua, longitudinc euba-qualia, 
2 carinalia, dorso concreta. Ovarium dispermura. Stylus subulatus, basi dila- 
tatus. Stigma obtusum imberbe. Legume* subrotundum, modice ventricosura. 
Strophiola seniiuis nulla. — Suffrutices Amtralasici. Foliola aut folia mbulata. 
Rami tape puberidi. Pedicelli solitarii. DC. 



Burtonia pulcltella ; ramis lasvibus apice puberulis mox glabris, foliolis Ueribna 
glabris angustissime linearibus obtuse mucronatis rectis margine rcvolutis, 
pedunculis axillaribus folio brevioribus calycem sequantibus basi medioquc 
2-bracteolatis, calycis lobis margine intus pilosiusculis. Meim. 

Burtonia pulcliclla. Meisn. in PL Preiss. p. 41. 



Messrs. Lucombe and Pince have had the good fortune to 
raise three beautiful species of Burtonia, from Mr. Drunmioiid's 
Swan River seeds. One is the Burtonia conferta, D.C., figured 
in Bot. Reg. t. 1600 : a second is the charming species here 
represented : the third is B. villosa, Meisn., which, as we shall 
have the opportunity of showing, is neither inferior in size nor in 
richness of colour in the flowers to the present one. B.pulcheUa 
forms a graceful shrub, about two feet high, with slender branches, 
heath-like leaves, and the flowers copious and large, terminating 
the ramificatious. It flowers during the spring and summer 
months. 

Descr. A small shrub, with glabrous slender stems; the 
young ones herbaceous and slightly downy. Leaves sessile, 
and scattered, trifoliate ; folioles narrow-linear, obtuse, with a 
curved rather broad mucro, the margins revolute, smooth and 
glabrous. Peduncles solitary from the axils of the superior 
leaves, but so copious from the uppermost ones that the flowers 
conceal the foliage, and the inflorescence may be said to be a 
leafy spike : each peduncle is shorter than the leaf, bearing at 
the base, and near the middle, a pair of small appressed ovate 
bracts. Calyx about as long as the peduncle, campanulate, 
august 1st, 1848. 



obscurely two-lipped, green spotted with brown : the upper lip 
two, the lower three-lobed, the lobes ovate-ciliated. Flowers 
large, very beautiful. Vexillum broad, rich purple, with a yellow 
spot at the base of the lamina. Alee and vexillum deep puce 
colour. Stamens ten, free. Ovary ovate-oblong, hairy, tapering 
into a subulate style, a little longer than the stamens. Stigma 
minute, capitate. 



Fig. 1. Portion of a branch, with a leaf. 2. Portion of a leaf. 3. Peduncle 
and flower, from which the petals are removed. 4. Pistil. 5. One of the 
wings : — all more or less magnified. 



31 

flowering season is past, the C. Bethunianum does not lose all its 
charms : the crimson bracts and calyces persist, and the latter 
contain each a four-seeded berry of the richest blue colour. 

The Scitaminea, an Order of plants not much cultivated in Eng- 
land, produces some beautiful species in Borneo, especially Alpiuitc 

A fine white-flowered JBignonia is lovely and fragrant ; and 
an Uc/dtes, also found on river-banks, is handsome and endowed 
with a rich perfume. 

Melastomas grow everywhere, and supply the many-hucd 
pigeons with abundant food in the soft and pulpy fruit. 

There are several charming kinds of climbers in Borneo : 
among the most conspicuous is an undescribed Bauhinia, 
which, in December, invests the trees with large bunches of 
gaudy crimson blossoms. Hoya imperialis is very striking : its 
large rich purple flowers are relieved by an ivory-white centre. 
Various beautiful species of Combretum abound. The Order 
Cyrtandracete is rich in the genera Lysinotus and jEschynan- 
thus : the L. AucMandifS surpassing all the others in the size and 
gorgeous hue of its clustered blossoms, while its growth and 
woody stems raise it to the dignity of a shrub. 

The vegetable productions of the mountains in Borneo, are 
quite different from those above enumerated. There, the genus 
Dacrydium, and other^Zkrams, recall the Fir and Cypress of 
our northern clime. ^Herbaceous plants, some of which are 
beautiful, grow on the exposed and damp rocks ; while in mossy 
places, the charming golden-leaved Anoectocheilus and a new and 
still finer species of the same genus abound. 

No fewer than eight species of the wonderful Pitcher-plan/* 
have been discovered in the western part of Borneo. In some 
instances, the pitcher would contain more than a pint of water. 
Those of Ncpe7ith es Bqfflesiana are generally crimson . This species 
chiefly inhabits rocky islands near Singapore, and is easily known 
by its white and pulverulent stems and bushy habit, not exceeding 
four or five feet high. The largest kind found in Borneo, and which 
Mr. Low calls N. Hookeriana, inhabits deep and shaded jungles, 
where it climbs to the very tops of the trees. Its pitchers are 
nine inches long, and the lid is furnished with two broad and 
beautifully fringed wings : like N. Bafflesiana it produces two 
kinds of pitchers, one broad and crimson, the other long, 
trumpet-shaped, and of a green colour spotted with crimson ; 
while the leaves are dark green above and of a fine peach- 
coloured red beneath. 

N. ampullacea also climbs and is an inhabitant of the jungles, 
matting the ground with its shoots and only producing pitchers 



32 

on those stems which do not ascend trees. Another kind, 
approaching N. Boschiana, bears beautiful purple flowers, elegant 
foliage, and small tubular pitchers. It grows about eight feet 
high and is confined to rocky places near the sea: it is the 
handsomest of the genus. 



The Fruits of Borneo. 

* 

The fruits of the Indian Islands have long been prized, and 
though the neighbouring countries have imported and cultivated 
them, they still attain their greatest perfection in their native 
laud. 

" Malaya's nectared Mangustin," and the rich Durian, with 
the Lamed (Lancium), are among the best. The first is the 
produce of the Garcinia Mangostana, which is a tree three feet 
high, bearing large and handsome leaves, and a fruit, about the 
size of an apple : its bright crimson skin and snowy pulp have 
an inviting appearance : the flavour is highly grateful, and the 
tree bears two crops in the year. The Durian is produced by 
the tree called Durio zibet hi nm, which often attains more than 
sixty feet in height and yields fruit four times a year. To Euro- 
peans, the peculiar and strong odour of the fruit is often repulsive 
and prevents their relishing its rich flavour. The Dyaks are 
passionately fond of the Durian. Offensive as its garlic-like 
odour becomes when gathered for three or four days and sold in 
the bazaars, this fruit, when fresh, is equally agreeable to the 
taste and smell. To eat it in perfection, it must be plucked from 
the tree. Its large seeds are roasted and resemble chestnuts: the 
Dyaks preserve them carefully, to be used when the fresh Durian 
can no longer be procured. The Lansat is, perhaps, the most 
universally palatable ; the fruit is pulpy, aromatic and delicate, 
and is produced in bunches from the stem and branches of the 
tree. 

The Bread-fruit and the Jack, both species of Artocarpv*, 
grow in Borneo. A single fruit of the latter often weighs 
sixty pounds. 

A small tree of the order Sajjotacece produces a sweet subacid 
fruit, called Tampui; from which an intoxicating drink is prepared 
by the Dyaks. A species of Nepkitium is plentiful in the woods : 
it bears a very pleasant small fruit The varieties of Mango 



±333. 




Hoeve p Benha.m &. Reeve , imp . 



Tab. 4393. 
LEUCHTENBERGIA Principis. 

Noble Leuchtenbergia. 



Nat. Ord. Cacte^e. — Icosandria Monogynia. 

Gm. Char. Sepala numerosa basi ovario adnata, in tubnm elongatum concrete, 
exteriors breviora, calycinalia sparsa, media longiora subcolorata, Ultima petali- 

formia. Stamina numerosissima cum tubo concreta ; stylus crassus coluninaris ; 
stigma radiis recurvatis subdecem. Ovarium unilocularc : ovulis uumcrosissimis 
panetalibus. — Prutex carnosus, inferne sublignows, elongato-cglindraceiis, spiraliter 
mammillosus, mammillis valde ehtigatis foliiformibus fB-i-uncialiiusJ acute tri- 
quetris truncatis, (inferioribus deciduis et tunc caudex cicatricatus) apice longe 
glumaceo-spinosis, spinis exter'wribm brevioribus subdecem, centrali long'mimn, 
basi triquetra. 



Leuchtenbergia Principis. 
Leuchtenbekgia Principis, Hortulan. 



Few persons, we think, on viewing this plant when destitute 
of flower, would imagine it to belong to the Cactea. The mammilla 1 , 
have rather the appearance of the leaves of some Aloid plant, 
while the stem, looking as if formed of the persistent bases of old 
leaves, resembles that of some Cycadea. The blossom, however, 
if nothing else does, betrays its real character ; for it differs in 
no particular from that of Cereus. The whole habit of the 
plant is, however, so unlike any other Cactaceous plant, that for 
consistency's sake, if Cereus and Echinocactus are natural and 
good genera, this will constitute a genus apart ; and I willingly 
adopt a name by which this plant is said to be known upon the 
Continent, although I have failed to find the place where any 
such name is recorded. Our plants were obtained for us from 
the neighbourhood of Rio del Monte, Mexico, through the favour 
of John Taylor, Esq. It flowers in the summer months. 

Descr. Our largest plant is a foot high, its main trunk erect, 
but crooked, as thick as a man's arm, clothed with the dense 
mass of the persistent bases of old mammillae, or perhaps rather of 
the withered mammillae themselves, shrunk and reduced to a mass 
of closely pressed scales; above they gradually appear more 

SEPTEMBER 1st, 1848. K 



perfect, at first short and truncated, till the crown of the plant 
is clothed with perfectly formed mammilla resembling aloid 
leaves, four or five inches long, glaucous green, succulent, trian- 
gular, truncated at the apex, and there bearing six or seven long 
chaffy, or almost horny, linear-subulate, flexuose scales, of which 
the central one is about as long as the mammillae, and the 
others, forming a whorl round the centre, are about two or 
three inches long, spreading, triangular below. These appear 
to be after a time deciduous, for the lower withered mammillae 
are destitute of them. From near the centre of the summit of 
the plant the flowers appear, solitary, from the axil of a mammilla, 
large, sulphur-yellow. Calyx formed of a number of imbricated, 
oblong, greenish scales, gradually passing upwards into longer 
and more coloured scales, till they spread into a long ray of 
numerous, yellow, acute, linear, glossy petals, giving four inches 
and more to the diameter of the blossom. Filaments numerous, 
pale yellow, arising from below the base of the petals : anthers 
subglobose, orange. Style as long as the stamens : stigma of 
nine, spreading, downy, subulate rags, recurved at the points. 



Our plate represents a much reduced figure of our largest flowering specimen, 
and the upper portion of a plant :— natural she. 






£334-. 




B±ch.aElrt"KtK. 



.,.. Hi 






Tab. 4394. 
SONERILA stricta. 

Upright Sonerila. 

Nat. Ord. Mslastomace^e. — Triandria Monogvnia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus turbinato-trigonus, ad medium usque adherens ; 
margine libero, 3-dentato, circumscisse deciduo. Petala 3, summo calycis mar- 
gine iuserta. Stamina 3, dentibus calycinis opposita j anthera conformes, lan- 
ceolatae, basi sagittata affixre, poris 2 apicalibus dehiscentes ; connectimini aequale. 
Ovarium semi-adnatum, 3-loculare, loculis dentibus calycinis oppositis, squamis 
tribus carnosis subrotundis petalis oppositis basi cohaerentibus coronatum. 
Stylus filiformis, stiff mate obtuso. Capsula in fundo tubi calycis, squamis epigvnis 
ampliatis incrassatis coriaceis vestiti, immersa ; apice intra calycem loculicido- 
tnvalvis. Semina numerosa, recta. — Herbaa v. suffruticuli ; foliis oppositis, ple- 
rumque plus minus inaqualibus, basi Z-1-nerviis v. quandoque indefinite penni- 
nerviis, membranaceis ; racemis axillaribus terniinalibusve unilateralibus ; floribus 
majusculis, pulckre roseis v. caruleis, rarissime tetrameris. Bennett. 



Sonerila stricta ; annua, caule erecto stricto acute tetragono ramoso, foliis 
oppositis supremis quaternim.verticillatis Uneari-lanceolatis puberulis remote 
serratis uninerviis discoloribus, spicis terminalibus paucifloris, raclii ovariis- 
que obtuso trigono-cylindraceis glanduloso-pilosis. 



This, as far as I know, is the first species of the genus that 
has yet been cultivated in Europe. The seeds were received by 
Messrs. Veitch and Son of Exeter from Mr. Thomas Lobb, who 
collected them in Java. Flowering specimens were sent to me 
in May, 1848. At first sight, and especially in the leaves, this 
has very little the appearance of a Melastomaceous plant, and 
the trimerous character of the flower is at variance with most of 
the genera. It is an extremely interesting little plant, though 
it may not meet with much favour from cultivators in general. 

An admirable memoir on this genus, from the pen of Mr. 
Bennett, will be found in Horsfield's " Plantae Javanicae rariores :" 
but the present is not described among the fourteen species 
there characterized, nor do we find it in any other work. 

Descr. Hoot annual. Stem slender, tetragonous, red, erect, 
branched, a span and more high. Leaves in remote pairs, except 
the uppermost on the branches, which are in a whorl of four, all 

SEPTEMBER 1st, 1848. K 2 



of them spreading, linear-lanceolate, mucronato- acute, puberulous, 
coarsely and distantly serrated, dark green above, red-purple 
beneath. Spikes terminal, of from six to nine flowers. Calyx- 
tube adherent, trigono-cylindrical, slightly downy and with glan- 
dular hairs : the limb of three triangular teeth. Petals three, 
spreading, large, obovate, deep rose, very acute. Stamens three : 
f laments subulate : anther subulate, two-lobed at the base. Style 
filiform, declined, as long as the filaments. 



Fig. 1. Portion of the stem ami leaves. 2. Flower. 3. Stamen. 4. Section 
of ovary : — magnified 




4-3 S^. 




Btekda] 



ieeve Beriham. 4 Reeve imp 



Tab. 4395. 
GMELINA Rheedii. 

Rheedes Gmelina. 



Nat. Ord. Verbenace;e. — Didynamia Gymnospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx cyathimorphus, 4-5-dentatus, persistens, sub fruetu paulo 
auctus in autica parte ssepius glandulas nomiullas sessiles verruciformes germs. 
Corolla basi tubulosa, faucibus valde ampbatis ventricoso-campamdata, obliqna ; 
limbm patens bdabiato-quadrifidus, lobis tribus superioribus sulmmalibus supremo 
fornicato lateralibus planis, quarto infimo inaximo interdum bdobo. Stamina t, 
didynama, ascendentia, vix exserta. Anthera biloculares, loculis linearibus 
conuectivo dorsali apiee insertis postice (imprimis staminum longiorum) dis- 
tinctis, rima longitudinali dehiscentibus. Ovarium 2-3-loculare, locubs uni- 
ovulatis. Stylus filiformis ; stigma inasquabter bifidum. Drupa baccata, mono- 
pyrena, 2-4-locularis, putamine osseo basi perforato laivi. Semen erectum.— 
Frutices vel arbores interdum magna, ex India orientali ejusque Archipelago, ramis 
scepius spinosis, folds shnplicibus oppositk integerrimis lobatisve. Infiorescentia 
cymoso-paniculata ; panicida racewiformis, aut composifa e cymulis brevibus de- 
cussatis paucifioris aid cymulis ad uiiuni jloreni pedicello bibracteolato fultum re- 
ductis racemum simplicem mentiens. Bracteae scepius caducce. Corolla compicua. 
Drupa magna oblouga. Schauer in DC. 



GiiELiNA Rheedii ; subarborea biennis tota molliter pubescens, folds longe petio- 
latis rbombeo-cordatis brevi-acuminatis nunc trilobis basi (planta reeente 
obsoletissime) i 'biglandulosis subtus cinerascenti-tomentosis, thyrso multifloro, 
bracteis ovatis acutis brevissimis, calyce tomentoso subcylindraceo-hemis- 
pbaerico acute 4-dentato, corolla* extus pubescentis Hmbo amplo bilabiato 
lobis 5 subaequabbus rotundatis inferiore magis elongato margimbus (om- 
nium) reflexis. 

Cumbulc, Ebeede, Eort. Malab. v. I. p. 41. 



From the stove of the Royal Gardens of Kew, where it has been 
so long cultivated that the period of its introduction is not known, 
nor does it appear (probably from not having previously blossomed) 
to have been recognised as a Gmelina ; none of the genus having 
been recorded in either edition of the Hortus Kewensis, nor, so 
far as I know, has any been supposed to be in cultivation in 
Britain. The present one, if space be given to it, is worthy of 
a place in the stove. It flowered with us in May, 1848. 
Respecting the species I do not find it to accord with any descri- 
bed by Schauer in De Candolle. It comes nearest to G. arborea, 

SEPTEMBER IsT, 1848. 



Roxburgh, of any, but manifestly cannot be that, of which we have 
not only an accurate description in the Flora Indica, but a figure in 
the Plants of Coromandel (vol. iii. t. 246, not quoted by Decaisne); 
and the leaves and flowers are totally at variance with our plant. 
It is true that Roxburgh quotes the Cumbulu of Hort. Malab. 
as the same plant, as he has quoted the Corona Ariadnis of 
Rumphius under his Hoya Sussuela (see under our tab. 4397) with 
which it has no affinity. The plant of Rheede is indeed a faithful 
representation of our species. In my Herbarium I possess what 
is probably the same, gathered by Dr. Thomas Thomson at 
Gendwal (but without flower), and closely allied, another, if 
not the same species, identical indeed as to foliage and flowers, 
but in which the bracteas are very long, half to three-quarters 
of an inch, and subulate. 

Descr. Our plant, cramped in a pot, forms a small tree, 
thirteen or fourteen feet high, with few, straggling branches. 
Young branches downy, as are the leaves, the latter are opposite, 
on long petioles, rhombeo-cordate, that is, with the base cuneate, 
and there, though scarcely visible in the recent state, having two 
orbicular glands, the margin entire or two- to three-lobed, the 
upper side dark green, the lower grey from more copious down. 
Flowers in a thyrsus, large, handsome, bracteated ; bracteas very 
small, ovate, concave, acute. Calyx cup-shaped, too tubular to 
be called hemispherical, but approaching to it, downy. Corolla 
large, dark tawny yellow, paler and very downy externally : tube 
many times longer than the calyx, enlarged upwards : limb two- 
lipped, spreading : upper lip of two large rounded lobes, lower 
of three large lobes resembling the upper ones, except that the 
intermediate segment is more elongated, broader, and projects 
more forward ; all have the margins reflexed soon after expansion. 
Stamens didynamous; the two longer ones a little exserted. 
Ovary elliptical : style, as it were, jointed on the ovary, included : 
stigma bifid, segments subulate, unequal. 



Fig. 1. Pistil: — magnified. 







Pit*, del etliflL 



Tab. 43%. 
WEIGELA rosea. 

Hose-coloured Weigela 



Nat. Ord. Caprifoliace^. — Pentandria Monoovnia. 

Gen.CJiar. Calycis tubus ovario adnatus, lincari-pentagonus, 10-striatus, 5-lobus, 
lobis subaequalibus linearibus lanccolatisve nunc basi connatis. Corolla infuiidi- 
buliformis, fauce ampliata, scrai-5-fida, tubo laciniis cdycinia sublongicnv ban 
angustato, lobis ovato-rotundis subinsequalibus, aestivationc imbriratis. 8k 
5, inter se libera, basi eorollae adnata, corolla subbrcviora, antAerk Hsearibua 
medio insertis, rima longitudinali utrinque debiscentibus. Stylus filiformis glaber 
subexsertus. Stigma peltato-capitatum. Ovarium inferum biloculare. Ovitla 
in utroque loculo duplici seric septo placeutifero inserta, iinbricata compressa. — 
Frutices Asi<e orientalis, foliis ovatis obovatkve acuminalis brcvitcr pi-tioUitk 
serratis, floribus sessilibus, cymis nunc pedunculatis, bracteis stipuUrformibus, 
corolla purpurea. J. DC. 



Weigela rosea ; ramulis petiobs foliorum costis ovariisque pubescent i-hirtis 
foliis brevissime petiolatis oblongis acutis acuminatisque basi rotuiulatis 
argute serratis supra glabris, tloribus sessilibus axillaribus terminalibusquc 
1-3, ovario petiolo parries longiore, calyce pilosiusculo, corollas pubesei litis 
tubo obconico Umbo patulo(sub)rcgulari laciniis rotundatis filamentis glabris. 
Liudl. 

Weigela rosea. Lindl. in Jouru. ofHort. Soc. v. 1. p. 65. t. 6. Fortune, Herb. 
Chin. n. 25, A. 



A charming hardy shrub, for such it has proved to be in the 
Royal Gardens of Kew, where it flowers in the open air in May, 
even as a standard. It is also very ornamental, trained against 
a wall. As a genus, it is too near Diermlla, with which Siebold 
unites it, while on the other hand, Bunge constitutes of those 
Wetgela which have the calyx prolonged into a tube above the 
ovary (as in our species), the genus Calysphyrum. Dr. Lindley 
observes that in Diervilla the gland at the base within the corolla 
adheres to the corolla, but that in Weigela it is free. In our 
specimens it decidedly adheres to the corolla. As a species also, 
I fear, the plant is too nearly allied to Weigela {Cahjsphgnun) 
foridum, Bunge, which like the present, is cultivated in the 
gardens of the Chinese, and I can really find no difference but 
what may be fairly attributed to more or less luxuriance of 

SEPTEMBER 1ST, 1848. 



growth. Mr. Fortune has the merit of introducing this shrub 
to the Gardens of the Horticultural Society, from China, in 
1845, and it is now pretty widely dispersed. The corolla is 
remarkable for the change of colour, rose and white, hence Dr. 
Lindley aptly compares the colour of the flowers to those of the 
Chinese Crab, Pgrus spectabilis. 

Descr. A shrub with the habit of Philadelphus, the branchlets, 
petioles, and nerves of the leaves at the back hairy or ciliated. 
Leaves opposite, on short petioles, ovate, acuminate, serrate, 
much veined and reticulated, the apex and base entire. Flowers 
solitary, from the axils of the upper leaves on short branches, 
or the branch is lengthened out into a peduncle or spike of three 
or four sessile flowers. Bracteas small, opposite, subulate, ap- 
pressed. Ovary adherent with the calyx, linear, nearly cylin- 
drical, hairy. Calyx-tube prolonged above the ovary and termi- 
nating in five long, subulate, ciliated segments. Corolla generally 
deep rose without ; within paler rose-colour changing to white, gla- 
brous or nearly so. Tube funnel-shaped, with a long downy oblong 
gland attached to one side at the base within. Limb nearly regu- 
lar, of five, rounded, spreading lobes. Stamens slightly exserted. 
Anther linear, yellow. Style as long as the stamens: stigma 
peltato-capitate, somewhat two-lobed. 



Fig. 1. Pistil and part of the calyx and corolla : the latter laid open to show 
the attached gland : — magnified. 



4 397. 







i 



Tab. 4397. 
hoya imperialis. 

Imperial Hoya. 



Nat. Ord. AsclepiajdejE. — Pentandria Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx brevis pentaphyllus. Corolla rotata plus ininusve altc 5-fida, 
laciniis planis v. reflexis, aestivatione valvata. Corona staminea 5-phylla, foliolia 
depressis patentibus v. plus minusve gynostegio verticabter adnatis, camosis an- 
gulo interiore in dentem antberee incumbenteni producto. Gt/i/ostegimi/ breve. 
Antliera membrana terminatae. Massce pollinis basi affixae, oblongae, eompressae, 
conniventes, saepius margine pellucidac. Stigma muticum cum papilla media 
obtusa v. subapiculatum. Folliculi laeves v. appendicubs instructi, subpolypteri. 
Semina comosa. — Frutices v. sufFrutices Indici v. Moluccani, rarissime Africard, 
voltibiles, scandentes aut decumbentes, foliis camosis v. coriaceis v. membranaceis, 
floribus utnbellatis, umbellis extra-axillaribus scepius midtifioris. Bene. 



Hoya imperialis ; volubibs, ramis petiolis pedicellisque pubescentibus, foliis 
(spithamaeis et ultra) obovato-lanceolatis coriaceis brevissime acuminatis 
subobscure parallebm venosis, pedunculo foliis longiore flexuoso-])eudulo, 
umbeUa pluriflora, floribus maximis purpureo-fuscis nitidis, corolla? lobis 
cordato-triangularibus marginibus axillas versus pracipue reflexis fauce 
elevata libera, coronse stamineae albaB foliobs in medio arete approximatis 
compressis camosis bilobis lobo exteriore crasso dorso piano, interiore 
dentiformi lobum ext. aequante. 

Hoya imperialis. Lindl. JBot. Reg. 1846, sub.fol. 68. 

Hoya Sussuela. Roxb. Fl. Ind. v. 2. p. 31 ? 



Dr. Lindley does not say too much of this plant when he 
remarks, in the place above quoted, " this is the most noble 
climbing plant we have ever seen :" and this was spoken of the 
dried specimens we believe, aided by flowers preserved in spirits. 
With greater truth may it be said of the living plant, now that 
we have had the pleasure to see it exhibited in full flower at the 
Horticultural Fete in the Regent's Park Gardens (June, 1848), 
where it obtained the highest prize given for new plants, and 
again in the stove of the fortunate possessors of this rarity, 
Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., at their Exeter Nursery. A 
cluster of its flowers is indeed one of the most striking objects we 
have ever seen ; the leaves too are large and handsome. It is a 
Hoya with glossy fleshy leaves of a deep purplish chesnut colour, 
having the expanded flowers full three inches in diameter ! ren- 
dered more conspicuous by the ivory-white of the central column 
of fructification. It was detected in Borneo by H. Low, Jun., 
Esq., who sent living plants to the Clapton Nursery, where it 
was purchased by Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co. 

" Hoya imperialis requires a strong rich soil in order properly 
to bring out its numerous large thick flower-trusses, which are 

SEPTEMBER 1ST, 1848. 



produced from different parts of its twining stem. We have 
used a compost of equal parts of loam, rotten leaves, and peat, 
with some flakes of dry half-decayed dung intermixed, and a 
liberal supply of sand and broken crocks blended with the whole. 
The plant which we exhibited was trained round a low circular 
trellis, not exceeding three feet in height, and independently of 
the expanded truss from which the drawing was made, there 
were several others in different stages upon it. We have also 
one planted in a corner of the stove, which is twining round 
a single wire over the path, and upon this there are trusses of 
flowers ready to expand, having eleven flowers on each. This I 
think will be found to be the best method of treating it, for 
with its long pendant bunches of large flowers, overhead, it is a 
most striking object. Each individual flower lasts a very long 
time in bloom, and is highly fragrant in the evening and all the 
night. 

" I send you herewith some of the dried juice of Hoy a impe- 
rialis, it hardens almost directly after being taken from the plant, 
and flows so copiously from the wound that I cannot help thinking 
it may be found available for some useful purpose." — Pince. 

I think this will prove to be the Asclepias Sussuela of Roxburgh, 
from the Moluccas, who has erred in quoting Rumphius' 
" Sussuela," and whose specific name is consequently untenable. 
His character, brief as it is, sufficiently accords, and he describes 
the corolla as " nearly three inches in diameter." It seems to 
be a free flowerer and fragrant. 

Descr. A climber of quick growth, with rounded, downy, dark 
green branches. Leaves opposite, on short, terete, thick, downy 
footstalks, from six to nine inches long, obovato-lanceolate, 
acuminulate, coriaceous, thick, firm, slightly convex above, but 
even (not waved), with obscure, patent, rather distant, parallel 
nerves, dark green above, paler beneath, and downy on the costa. 
Peduncle extra-axillary, much longer than the leaves, terete, 
downy ; flexuose and pendent, terminated by a very large umbel 
of from nine to fourteen fragrant flowers ! each three inches in 
diameter. Pedicels downy. Calyx of five, downy, very obtuse, 
oval sepals. Corolla rotate, pale purplish, downy, within rich 
purple-brown, glossy, pale in the centre : segments spreading, 
cordato-triangular, the faux elevated, loose around the column. 
Staminal crown large, projecting, ivory white, fleshy, glossy : 
folioles two-lobed; outer lobe large, oval, compressed, flattened 
on the back, rather obtuse ; the inner forming a sharp erect 
tooth, as long as the outer lobe. 



fig. 1. Flower, the segments of the corolla being removed : — raaynijkd. 



33 

{Mangifera), Jamba {Eugenia), and Averrhoa are all more or less 
prized, and the Barangan, a kind of Chestnut, and the Pomegra- 
nate are cultivated. 

Generally speaking, the natives of Borneo pay little attention 
to the fruit-trees : they grow in the jungle, no pains are taken 
to cultivate them. In Penang and Malacca, where they are 
more valued, they yield fruit regularly twice a year, and the 
produce is in greater quantity and of superior quality. 

A few remarks may be made upon the system of Agriculture 
pursued by the Dyaks. It would naturally be supposed that 
where the main subsistence of the population is derived from 
grain, considerable care and labour would be bestowed upon 
rearing it. Such is far from being the case. The soil 
is so productive, that it yields heavy crops with hardly any more 
trouble than that of sowing the seed. It is, however, necessary 
to clear the ground first from the dense forests, and in this work 
the Dyak is assisted by all his family, the females clearing the 
brushwood, the slaves and boys felling the large trees. A few- 
dry days suffice to parch the prostrate trunks, and then they are 
set on fire, and continue to blaze till all is consumed ; and the 
frequent rains which visit Borneo, soon quench the flames and 
cool the soil. The charred portions of wood are used for 
making the Pagar or fence, which is always needful to protect 
the future crop from the attacks of deer and wild hogs ; while 
the ashes of the wood are highly valuable in fertilizing the soil. 
It is customary to select the Padi which is to be sown, from the 
very finest and largest grains of the preceeding season. Three 
or four seeds are dropped into each hole by the women and 
children ; who dig the holes with a blunt stick, at distances of 
fifteen to eighteen inches apart every way, and who then cover 
the grain by scraping over a little earth or ashes with their feet. 
Indian Com (or maize) is often sown sparingly at the same time, 
and in the same ground, with the rice ; and as it shoots and 
ripens and is harvested in three months, it causes no injury to 
the main crop. So, likewise, Gourds, Melons, and Cucumbers 
are often grown with the Padi. 

After the field is planted, a hut is alwqys built close by; 
where the owners may live while the crop requires weeding and 
during the period of harvest, 

Six or seven months from sowing, the Padi is fit to be 
gathered ; but as all the ears do not ripen together, as in a 
European corn-field, so they are severally cut off, day by day, 
till the whole are gathered ; and the process of rubbing out the 
grain proceeds continually, till all is secured. In small fields, 



34 

the rice is separated from the stalks by the hand ; but in larger 
farms, the Padi is shaken about in a sieve and thus cleared in a 
more summary manner. The custom of afterwards removing 
the husk, by pounding the rice in a mortar, prevents its ever 
keeping long ; for the grains being thus broken and their 
protecting enamel destroyed, they are quickly attacked and 
spoiled by the weevil. If kept in the husk, (in which state the 
rice is always called Padi,) the grain remains uninjured for 
many years. It is not uncommon for the soil to produce such 
enormous crops, that much is lost for want of hands to gather it. 
When this is the case, the land seems for a while exhausted, and 
the Dyaks forsake it for a period of seven years, and returning, 
begin anew the process of felling, clearing, and burning. They 
assign the custom of their ancestors for giving the ground this 
certain time of rest. 

Tobacco, Millet, a species of Mustard, the egg plant, and a 
few other vegetables are cultivated, but to a very limited extent, 
by the Dyaks and Malays. 

Among the Dyaks, two plants are held in special reverence, 
the Dractena and the Yellow Bamboo ; and these being natives 
of India may probably have been introduced from thence at the 
same time as the Brahminical worship. The former, the Dra- 
caena tenninalis, is planted round the houses together with the 
Ivory Bamboo. Beneath their shade, generally stands a little 
altar, sometimes roofed to protect it from rain, but oftener 
uncovered. The tree itself is not worshipped; but the place 
where it grows is held sacred, and no village is ever without it. 
Perhaps the graceful stems and lovely foliage first attracted 
attention, and induced the simple natives to suppose that 
objects endowed with such beauty must be special favourites of 
their gods. 

Among the Dyaks of the Sarawak river, the Pancratium 
Jmboynense, which they call Si-kudip, is highly esteemed. It 
nowhere grows wild in Borneo, and being a native of the 
Moluccas and other Islands to the eastward, it seems to argue 
that the Dyaks brought it with them when they first immigrated 
into Borneo. Its roots are preserved with jealous care, from 
the idea that the Padi crop will fail, unless one Si-kudip be 
grown in the same field. When the grain is ripe, this bulb is 
accordingly secured and preserved in the graneries, to be planted 
again the following year. The Pancratium bears a beautiful 
crown of white and fragrant flowers, on a stalk about a foot high. 

Mr. Low mentions that he saw a single specimen in one place, 
which the owner had honoured by erecting an altar of bamboo 



35 

over it whereon were laid offerings of food and water. No 
persuasion could induce the proprietor to part with it. 

The order Amaryllidc<e, to which the Pancratium belongs, is 
almost entirely absent in Borneo. If future observations con- 
firm the belief, that the venerated Si-kudip was brought to 
Borneo when that island was peopled, and that its native country 
is to the eastward, it will follow that thence came the Dyaks also. 



Sketch of the Botany of Dr. A. Wislizenus's Expedition 
from Missouri to Santa Fe, Chihuahua, Parras, Saltillo, 
Monterey, and Matamoras ; 



Dr. G. ENGELMANN. 

[At p. 391 of the London Journal of Botany for the present year, we noticed 
the Travels of Dr. Wislizenus in the countries above mentioned. We have here 
the pleasure to give Dr. Engelmann's sketch of the Botany of that Journey, 
omitting, however, the descriptions of the new plants, which will soon find a 
place in our European systematic works.] 

Dr. Wislizenus has intrusted to me his very interesting 
botanical collections, with the desire that I should describe the 
numerous novelties included in them. Gladly would I have 
done so, had not leisure been wanting, and were I not here (in 
St. Louis) cut off from large collections and libraries. As it is, 
I can only give a general view of the Flora of the regions tra- 
versed, and describe a few of the most interesting new plants 
collected ; with the apprehension, however, that some of them 
may have been published already from other sources, without 
my being aware of it. 

In examining the collections of Dr. Wislizenus, I have been 
materially aided by having it in my power to compare the plants 
which Dr. Josiah Gregg, the author of that interesting work 
" The Commerce of the Prairies," has gathered between Chi- 
huahua and the mouth of the Rio Grande, but particularly 
about Monterey and Saltillo, and a share of which, with great 
liberality, he has communicated to me. His and Dr. W.'s 
collections together, form a very fine herbarium for those regions. 
The tour of Dr. Wislizenus encompassed, as it were, the 
valley of the Rio Grande and the whole of Texas, as a glance at 



36 

the map will show. His plants partake, therefore, of the cha- 
racter of the Floras of the widely different countries which are 
separated by this valley. Indeed, the Flora of the valley of the 
Rio Grande connects the United States, the Californian, the 
Mexican, and the Texan Floras, including species or genera, or 
families, peculiar to each of these countries. 

The north-eastern portion of the route traverses the large 
western prairies, rising gradually from about 1,000 feet above 
the gulf of Mexico, near Independence, Missouri, to 4,000 feet 
west of the Cimarron river. The plants collected on the first 
part of this section, as far west as the crossings of the Arkansas 
river, are those well known as the inhabitants of our western 
plains. I mention among others, as peculiarly interesting to 
the botanist, or distinguished by giving a character to the lands- 
cape, in the order in which they were collected, Tradescantia virgi- 
nica, Phlox arislata, Oenothera missouriensis, serrulata, speciosa, 
&c, Pentstemon Cobaa, Astragalus caryocarpus, (common as far 
west as Santa Fe,) Delphinium azureum, Baptisia australis, 
Malva Papaver, Schrankia uncinata and angustata, Echinacea 
angustifolia, Aplopappus spinulosis, Gaura coccinea, Sida coccinea, 
Sophora sericea, Sesleria dactyloides, Hordeum pusillum, Engel- 
mannia pinnatifida, Pyrrhopappus grandiflorus, Gaillardia pul- 
chella* Argemone Mexicana (with very hispid stem and large 
flowers). 

The plants collected between the Arkansas and Cimarron 
rivers are rarer, some of them known to us only through Dr. 
James, who accompanied Long's expedition to those regions in 
1820. We find here Cosmidium gracile, Torr. and Gr., which 
has also been collected about Santa Fe and farther down the 
Rio Grande; Cucumis? perennis, James, found also near Santa 
Fe and about Chihuahua, and by Mr. Lindheimer in Texas; 
the petals being united about two-thirds of their length, it 
cannot be retained under the genus Cucumis; Hoffmannseggia 
Jamesii, T. and G., was also gathered on this part of the journey ; 
several species of Psoralea, Petalostemon and Astragalus ; also 
Torry's Gaura villosa, and Krameria lanceolata ; Erysimum 
asperum, which before was not known to grow so far south ; 
Polygala alba, Lygodesmia juncea. Here we also, for the first 
time, meet with Rhus trilobata, Nutt., which, farther west, becomes 
a very common plant.f A new Talinum, which I have named 

* Abundant in the sands about the Arkansas river, with beautiful flowers, 
but only about six inches high ; certainly annual. 

f Like many other plants mentioned here, it has been collected in abundant 
and beautiful specimens by Mr. A. Fendler, a young German collector, who has 



37 

T. calycinum, was found in sandy soil on the Cimarron. This 
plant has, like the nearly allied T. teretifoluim of the United 
States, a remarkable tenacity of life, so much so that specimens 
collected, pressed, and "dried," in June, 1846, when they 
reached me in August, 1847, fourteen months later, grew 
vigorously after being planted. 

Psoralea hypogaa, Nutt., was collected near Cold Spring, and 
Yucca angustifolia from here to Santa Fe. 

From Cedar creek the mountainous region commences with 
an elevation of near 5,000 feet above the Gulf, and extends to 
Santa Fe to about 7,000 feet. With the mountains we get also 
to the region of the pines and of the Cacti. Dr. Wislizenus has 
here collected two species of Pinics, both of which appear to be 
undescribed, so that I venture to give now a short account of 
them. The most interesting one, on account of its useful fruit, 
as well as its botanical associations, is the nut pine of New 
Mexico, (Pifion,) Pinus edulis, nearly related to the nut pine of 
north-eastern Mexico, Pinus osteosperma, (specimens of which 
were sent to me by Dr. Gregg, as collected on the battlefield of 
Buena Vista,) and to the nut pine of California, P. monophylla, 
Torr. and Frem. — these three species being the western repre- 
sentatives of Pinus Pinea and Cembra of the eastern continent. 

The second species, Pinus brachyptera, is the most common 
pine of New Mexico, and the most useful for timber. A third 
species, Pinus jlexilis, James, was overlooked by Dr. Wislizenus, 
but has been collected in fine specimens, by Mr. Fendler, about 
Santa Fe. Its leaves in fives and pendulous cylindrical squarrose 
cones assimilate it to Pinus Strobus ; but the seed is large and 
edible, as Dr. James has already remarked, and the leaves arc 
not serrulate and much stouter. The Pifiones, so much eaten 
in Santa Fe, appear principally to be the product of Pinus edulis. 
I shall have occasion to speak of three other pines when I come 
to the Flora of the mountains of Chihuahua. 

Linum, perenne makes its first appearance here, and continues 
to Santa Fe, as well as the justly so called Lathyrus ornatus. 
Several species of Potentilla, (Enothera, Artemisia, and Pentste- 
mon were collected in this district. 

Among the most remarkable plants met with were the Cac- 
tacece. After having observed on the Arkansas, and northeast 
of it, nothing but an Opuntia, which probably is not different 

investigated the regions about Santa Fe during last season, (1847,) and has 
made most valuable and well preserved collections, some seta of which he offers 
for sale. I shall repeatedlv be obliged to refer to him when speaking of the 
Flora of Santa Fe. 



38 

from 0. vulgaris, Dr. W. came at once, as soon as the mountain 
region and the pine woods commenced, on several beautiful and 
interesting members of this curious family, an evidence that he 
approached the favourite home of the Cactus tribe, Mexico. 

On Waggon- mound the (flowerless) specimens of a strange 
Opuntia were found, with an erect, ligneous stem, and cylindrical, 
horridly spinous, horizontal branches. The plant was here only 
five feet high, but grows about Santa Fe to the height of eight 
or ten feet, and continues to be found as far as Chihuahua and 
Parras. In the latter more favourable climate it grows to be a 
tree of twenty or thirty, and perhaps forty feet high, as Dr. W. 
informs me, and offers a beautiful aspect when covered with its 
large red flowers. It is evidently the plant which Torrey and 
James doubtfully, though incorrectly, refer to Cactus Bleo, H.B.K. 
It is nearly allied to Opuntia furiosa, Willd., but well distin- 
guished from it ; and as it appears to be undescribed, I can give 
it no more appropriate name than 0. arborescens, the tree Cactus, 
or Foconoztte, as called by the Mexicans, according to Dr. Gregg. 
The stems of the dead plant present a most singular appearance ; 
the soft parts having rotted away, a net work of woody fibres 
remains, forming a hollow tube, with very regular rhombic 
meshes, which correspond with the tubercles of the living plant. 

The first Mammillaria was also met with on Waggon-mound, 
a species nearly related to M. vivipara of the Missouri, and also 
to the Texan M. radiosa, (Engelm. in Plant. Lindh. inedit.,) but 
probably distinct from either. Mr. Pendler has collected the 
same species near Santa Fe. 

On Wolf creek the curious and beautiful Fallugia paradoxa, 
Endl., looking like a shrubby Geum, was found in flower and 
fruit ; also a (new ?) species of Streptant/ms, and an interesting 
Geranium, which I named G '. pentagynum, because of its having 
its five styles only slightly united at base, while most other 
Gerania have them united for about two-thirds or more of their 
length. 

In the prairies about Wolf creek, in an elevation of about 
6,000 and 7,000 feet, the smallest of a tribe of Cactacea was 
detected, numerous species of which were discovered in the 
course of the journey south and south-east -. several others have 
also been found in Texas. I mean those dwarfish Cerei, 
some of which have been described with the South American 
genus Echinopsis, or have been referred alternately to Cereus or 
Echinocactus, and which I propose to distinguish from all these 
under the name of Echinocereus, indicating their intermediate 
position between Cereus and Echinocactus : they approach more 



4-3JS. 




Tab. 4398. 

CLEMATIS indivisa; var. lobata. 

Undivided-leaved Clematis; lobed variety. 

Nat. Ord. Ranunculace,e.— Polyandria Polyoynia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4259.) 



Clematis indivisa ; dioica, floribus paniculatis sepalis 5-7 ellipticis otriantt 
senceo-lanatis stamina duplo superantibus, Mis tcmatis, foliolis petiolu- 
latis ovatis integris v. lobatis, adultis utrinque glabris. 

«• foliolis integris. 

Clematis indivisa. TFilld. Sp. PI. v. 2. p. 1291. De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 5. 

Ricliard, Fl. Nov. Zel. p. 288. All. Cunn. in Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 4. p. 259. 
Clematis integrifolia. Ford. Prodr. n. 231. non Linn. 
fr foliolis lobatis. (Tab. nostr. 4398.) 



This is really an ornamental and showy greenhouse plant, native 
of New Zealand, discovered by Forster, during Cook's Voyage, 
and of which seeds were sent to us by the Rev. Win. Colenso 
from the same country. Mr. Allan Cunningham found it on the 
margin of the woods on the shores of the Bay of Islands, and 
oh the Hokianga river. It quite fcstoons the trees and shrubs 
with its dense foliage and large panicles of flowers. With us it 
flowered in April, 1848. The lobed-leaved plant is evidently 
only a variety of that with undivided leaves. 

1)escr. A scandent plant, with very lengthy, terete, slightly 
striated and pubescent branches. Leaves opposite, ternate. 
Petioles connate with the base of the opposite pairs ; about two 
inches long : petiolules about an inch long, performing the func- 
tions of tendrils. Leaflets two or three inches long, subcoria- 
ceous, ovate or oblong-ovate, in the normal state entire at the 
margin, more or less downy, when mature glabrous above, 
subcordate at the base, in our variety deeply lobed, almost 
pinnatifid at the margin, the lobes broadly ovate, rather acute. 
Panicles copious, axillary, large, often a foot long, divided some- 
times from the base by opposite branches, which are striated and 
downy, bracteated at their origin, and there are tvvobracteas near 

OCTOBER 1st, 1848. L 



the middle of the pedicels. Flowers dioecious ; male only in our 
plant, drooping. Perianth large, white and cream-colour, of 
from five to seven (usually six) spreading, oblong, large, striated, 
silky (on both sides) sepals. Stamens, at first forming a com- 
pact column, with yellow filaments and deep rose-coloured 
anther. The outer ones gradually diverge and lengthen till 
they are about half as long as the sepals, and then the anthers 
are deep purple. 



4-3SS. 




Tab. 4399. 

IXORA LANCEOLARIA. 

Lance-leaved Ixora. 



Nat, Ord. Rubiace^e. — Tetrandria Monogvm \ 
Gen. Char. {Vide mpra, Tab. 4325.) 



Xxora lanceolaria; foliis brcvi-petiolatis lanceolato-acuminatis basi latioribus 
glabris, stipulis lanceolato-subulatis, corymbis trichotomis, floribus (vii ■ 
ti-albidis) laxiusculis, ovario basi bibracteolato, segmentis calyciuis linearibus 
erectis tubo longioribus, corolloe tubo gracili lobis lineari-oblongia obtusis 
demum marginibusque refiexis, filamentis exsertis, antheris liueari-subulatis 
basi bifidis, stylo longius exserto, stigmate clavato apice bifido. 

fxoRA lanceolaria. Colebr. in Roxb. Fl. Ind.p. 387. ed. Wall. v. 1. p. 397. Be 
Cand. Prodr. v. 4. ^?.488. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 409. Wight et 
Ant. Fl. Penim. hid. Or. p. 429. Wight, Ic. PL hid. Or. t. 827. 



A graceful shrub, received from the East Indies, by favour of 
the Calcutta Botanic Garden, without any name, but which 
accords so well with the description and figure above quoted of 
I. lanceolaria, that I have little hesitation in referring it to tli.it 
species. It requires the heat of a stove for its successful culti- 
vation, and then it flowers with us in April. It is an inhabitant 
of Travancore, where it was first found by Mr. Colebrooke, and 
of Courtallam, where Dr. Wight detected it, but who speaks of 
it as a rare plant. In our individual the flowers have a greenish 
tint, which are elsewhere described as white. 

Descr. A shrub with us in the young (but flowering state) 
not yet two feet high, but which, according to Roxburgh, attains 
a height of from five to seven and more feet, erect, with dicho- 
tomous, scarcely spreading, terete, slender branches. Leaves 
patent, often a span long, on short petioles, lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, somewhat coriaceous, broader at the base, with the nerves 
parallel and almost at right angles from the midrib. Stipules 
between lanceolate and subulate, rather small, erect. Corymb 
terminal (but often with a young branch arising on each side) 
pedunculate ; the peduncle bearing two small leaves like those of 
the stem. Branches trichotomous. Mowers rather lax, greenish 

OCTOBER 1st, 1848. L 2 



white. Calyx with the tube globose ; a pair of subulate stipules 
at its base ; the segments linear, erect, longer than the tube. 
Corolla with the tube three-quarters of an inch long, slender, 
uniform, lobes linear-oblong, patent, at length reflexed : the 
sides of the lobes also reflexed. Filaments a little exserted : 
Anther linear-subulate, bifid at the base, reflexed. Style longer 
than the tube of the corolla, geniculated below the clavate stigma, 
which is bifid at the apex. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil: — magnified. 



4-4-00 




Tab. 4400. 
ANASTATICA hierochuntica. 

Rose of Jericho. 

Nat. Ord. Crucifera:.— Tetradynamia Siliculosa. 

Gen. Char. Silicula longitudinalitcr dehiscens, ventricosa, valvis cornmis intus 
transverse septula horizontalia semina separaatia gcrentibus, extus ad antocm 
appendicular. Petala obovata. Semina iramarsriuata. Cotyledons plans. 
accumbentes, septo parallels. I)e Good. 



Anastatica hierochuntica. 

Anastatica hierochuntica. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 895. Jacq. Ilort. Find. t. 58. Jit. 

Hort. Km. ed. 2. v. 4. p. 79. Be Cand. Prodr. v. I. p. 185. Spreng. Syd. 

Veget. v. 3. 

Amomum Rosa Sanctae-Marite. Ionic. Bot. 258. 



Many synonymes might be added to these just adduced, if 
they were worthy of occupying the space, indicative of the 
sacredness of this plant, or of the superstitious veneration in 
which it was, and still is, held by the ignorant people inhabiting 
the country where it exists : such as " Rosa de Hiericho " of 
Dalechamp, " Rosa hierochuntica " of Commelin, &c. Respecting 
this, however, the true " Mose of Jericho," much ignorance 
prevails in our own country, and of late years among us tlio 
name has been incorrectly transferred to two very different 
plants (possessing similar hygrometric properties), as widely 
differing from this, as all are different from any real Rose, and 
coming too from widely different countries : — one, the Lycopo- 
dium lepidophylfam from western Mexico; the other, the Gapt 
of certain South African species of Fig-marigold {Mesembry- 
anthemum). 

The Rose of Jericho (as little or less like a Rose than a 
Cabbage) is a plant humble and insignificant in appearance, yet 
the attention of Eastern travellers has long been directed to it 
on account of the hygrometric property of the old withered 
annual stems, which are rolled up like a ball in dry weather, up- 
rooted by the storms of the deserts in Syria and Egypt, and drifted 
about by the winds. If rain falls, the branches are restored to 

OCTOBER 1st, 1848. 



their original direction : and again, in dry weather, they become 
involute : and this property the plant retains after many years. 
The most absurd fables have been circulated respecting the 
virtues of this plant, and greedily believed by the vulgar. The 
plant is rare in cultivation, and only preserved by annually 
securing the seeds. Our figures are made in part from speci- 
mens out of Mr. Borrer's garden, at Henfield, and in part from 
the Royal Garden of Kew. 

Descr. An annual plant, branching from the top of its some- 
what fusiform root j everywhere hoary, with dense stellated hairs. 
Leaves spathulate, the lower ones entire, the upper ones remotely 
toothed. Racemes lateral, generally arising from a little above 
the branch of a fork, erect, rigid, almost spiny, bearing seven 
or eight nearly sessile inconspicuous flowers. Calyx of four 
stellato-pubescent sepals. Petals orbicular, clawed, longer than 
the sepals. Stamens six, tetradynamous, four long, two short, 
toothless. Anthers oblong, yellow. Hypogynous glands four. 
Ovary stellato-pubescent, two-valved, each valve spuriously two- 
celled : the valves in the state of the ovary obscurely auricled, 
which auricles, in maturity, are protruded into two large, erect, 
concave appendages, as large as the valves themselves. Style 
short. Stigma dilated, umbilicated. Silicule remarkable for its 
two large orbicular ears. Each cell has two transverse almost 
orbicular seeds. 



The Plate represents a living flowering specimen, and a withered, dried one, 
as driven about the deserts : — natural size. Pig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Plower 
from which the sepals and petals are removed. \. Young fruit. 5. A ripe 
fruit. C>. The same with one valve removed. 7. Valve. 8. Seed. 9. Embyro : — 
niatjH i/ied. 




"R.we,T*anlia.3xiEe(*v¥ ltn l 



Tab. 4401. 
HIBISCUS ferox. 

Stinging Hibiscus. 

Nat. Ord. MALVACEiE.— Monadelphia Polyankki.x. 
Gen. Char. Vide supra, Tab. 4329. 



Hibiscus /6mr;subarboreus superne subramosus aculcolatus, foliis pctiolatis 
amplis nitidis orbiculari-cordatis 5-7-lobatis, subtus praecipue villosis, lobis 
acutis inciso-spinuloso-dentatis, stipulis cordato-acuminatis hcrbaccis ap- 
pressis, pedunculis axillaribus geminatis unifloris, involucri patentu foliolis 
lanceolatis sub- 10, calyce elongato tubuloso pentagono hispidissimo raise 
5-lobo demum fructifero inflato, corollae (luteal) petali3 spathulatis spira- 
hter tortis, stigmate exserto magno 5-lobo. 



One of the most distinct of the many forms of Hibiscus and 
remarkable for the copious tuberculated aculei, often tipped with 
red. It seems to have escaped the observation of every traveller 
till Mr. Purdie met with it near Iratcho in New Grenada, and 
sent home specimens and seeds. The whole plant, he observed, 
is "full of irritating spines." In four years time the plant has 
with us attained a height of many feet, clothed with such copious, 
tuberculated, rigid, short prickles as to give the appearance 
rather of some virulent nettle than an emollient Hibiscus. It is 
treated as a stove plant, and flowered in May, 1848. 

Descr. An upright growing, arborescent shrub, leafy, chiefly 
at the summit, and there slightly branched : the branches stout, 
soft and succulent, often deeply tinged with red-purple, and these 
and every part of the leaves, peduncles, involucre, and calyx, 
clothed more or less with hairs and aculei, the latter seated on a 
tubercle and not unfrequently tipped with red. Leaves on rather 
long, stoutpetioles, ample, orbiculari-cordate, shining, five- to seven- 
lobed, the lobes sharp and grossly toothed, the teeth spinulose. 
Stipules rather large, herbaceous, cordate, acuminate, appressed. 
Peduncles geminate, shorter than the petiole, single-flowered. 
Involucre of ten spreading, lanceolate, acuminate leaflets. Calyx 
two inches long, reddish, pentagonal, tubular, with five appressed 
teeth or lobes, enlarging with the fruit and becoming inflated. 

OCTOBER 1st, 1848. 



Corolla twice as long as the calyx, fulvous-yellow. Petals spa- 
thulate, spirally twisted, the apices spreading, obscurely toothed. 
Stamens with the copious anthers forming a cylinder beneath the 
large five-lobed stigma : style filiform, longer than the corolla. 
Ovary ovate, five-furrowed, five-celled, cells many-seeded with 
two rows of seeds in each cell. 



Fig. 1. Pistil. 8. Section of ovary : — magnified. 



4^4-OZ 




1 B 4D. urn) . 



Tab. 4402. 

HOYA BELLA. 

Beautiful Hoya. 



Nat. Ord. Asclepiade*:.— Pentandria Dioynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4397) 



Hoya bella ; suffruticosa diffusa (vix scandens) copiose foliosa, foliis par vis oralis 
acutis brcvissime petiolatis uninerviis supra intense viridibus subtuspallidk 
iinibollis lateralibus brevi-pedunculatis, catycis foliolis ellipticis, corolla 
rotata acute 5-angulato-lobata, coronas staminesc foliolis ovatis truncatis 
supra concavis purpureis subtus pallidis. 



The most lovely of all the Hoyas, to which a figure (as in the 
case of most flowers with much white) is little calculated to do 
justice. It cannot be called a climber, but the branches are 
diffuse, copiously leafy, so that the leaves (unlike those in H. 
carnosa) form a dark back-ground to the delicate umbels of 
flowers, with leaves in shape resembling those of a Myrtle, 
and flowers more lively and differently formed from those 
of Hoya carnosa, and most deliriously scented. The corolla 
is a purer white, and the corona a deeper purple : resembling 
an amethyst set in frosted silver. It is a native of the Taung 
Kola mountain, Moulmein, and has been imported, through 
their collector, Mr. Thomas Lobb, by Messrs. Veitch and Sons of 
Exeter, where treated like an jEschynanthus, or an epiphyte, we 
had the pleasure of seeing this " first gem of the air " blossoming 
in great perfection, in June, 1848. It is a free bloomer, and 
the flowers last many days in high beauty. 

Descr. Stems branching, weak, but copiously leafy; leaves 
opposite, scarcely so big as those of the large-leaved Myrtle, and 
nearly of the same shape, ovate, but fleshy, one-nerved, dark green 
above, paler beneath. Peduncles lateral, about as long as the 
leaf, each bearing a corymb of from eight to ten flowers. Calyx 
a little downy, of five elliptical, spreading sepals. Corolla rotate, 
convex, nearly white, waxy, with five acute angles rather than 

OCTOBER 1st, 1848. 



lobes. Alternating with these angles, and occupying the centre 
of the flower, are the five leaflets of the stamina! crown, ovate or 
rather cymbiform, concave and deep-purple on the upper face, 
pale below. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and staminal crown : — magnified. 



4-4-03. 




Etch. Met Tift, 



B..B &R,nnp ■ 



Tab. 4403. 
SIPHOCAMPYLOS manetti^eflorus. 

Manettia-jlowered Siphocampylos. 

Nat. Ord. Lobeliacsle.— Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4178.) 



Siphocampylos manettiajlorus ; erectus humilii suffmticosus, Mis brevissime 
petiolatis oblongo-ovatis obscure serratis reticulatis supra nitidis, pedunculis 
solitariis axillaribus unifloris bibracteatis folio 3-4-plo brevioribtis, florc 
longitudine foliorum, ovario tuxbinato-sulcato, calycis laciniis subulatis 
serratis, corollas tubulosse lateraliter compressae (bicoloris) limbo subaequali 
(flavo) laciniis erecto-patentibus ovato-lanceolatis. 

Siphocampylos nitidus. Hortulan. (non Pohl.) 



This very pretty plant, for the bright red and yellow corollas 
contrast well with the glossy dark green foliage, comes to the 
English gardens by way of Belgium, and we are indebted for the 
possession of the species to our friend Mr. Low of the Clapton 
Nursery. It is probably derived from New Grenada, and was 
received with the name of Siphocampylos nitidus : but this appel- 
lation is, we should think, given to it in gardens in ignorance of 
the existence of a & nitidus of Pohl (from Brazil), with which 
this has nothing to do. It is a free flowerer, and it has been 
in blossom all the spring, summer, and autumn in our stove. 

Descr. A small, erect, firm-growing plant, not exceeding a 
foot in height, suffruticose, leafy, branched. Leaves alternate, 
on short petioles or nearly sessile, from one and a half to nearly 
two inches long, rather rigid, oblongo-ovate, obscurely serrated, 
reticulated, glabrous and glossy above, more rugose from reticu- 
lations and somewhat hoary beneath. Peduncles from the axils 
of the leaves, short, not one third as long as the leaf (together with 
the flower, a little longer than the leaf), bearing two small bracts 
near the middle. Calyx a little downy ; its tube, including the 
inferior ovary, turbinate : the segments erecto-patent, remotely 
serrated, subulate, one-fourth the length of the corolla. Corolla 
s ]ightly curved, tubular for the greater part of its length, but 
singularly compressed laterally, two-coloured, red for two-thirds 

OCTOBER 1st, 1848. 



of its length from the base, the rest yellow. Limb, with five 
segments, ovato -lanceolate, nearly equal, scarcely spreading, the 
cleft above scarcely deeper than between the rest of the segments. 
Anthers terminated by tufts of hair. Stigma two-lobed. Stamens 
and style included. 



Fig. 1 . Calyx, stamens, and pistil : — magnified. 



4-4-04- . 




lia 



Tab. 4404. 
IMPATIENS repens. 

Creeping Balsam. ' 



Nat. Ord. Balsamine^e.— Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Antherce 5, nempe 3 biloculares, ante petalum superius 1-locularcs. 
Stigmata 5 coalita. Gapstfla prismatico-teretiuscula elongata, valvis a basi ad 
apicem extrorsum revolutis. Cotyledones planiusculae. Pedunculi axillarcs 
ramosi 1-multiflori. Capsula glabra. Folia alterna. Be Cand. 



'MPATIEN8 rep«w; herbacea succulenta ramosissima decumbenti-repens, foliis 
alterais petiolatis subreniformi-cordatis obsolete serratis, pedunculis axilla- 
ribus solitariis unifloris petiolo longioribus, floribus luteis, sepalis supe- 
noribus orbicularibus, inferioris cucullati calcare brevi incurvo apice iucras- 
sato, petalia lateralibus bilobis lobis inaequalibus, ovario hirsuto. 

Impatiens repens. " Moon, Cat." Wight, III. of Ind. Bot. p. 160. t. 61. 



The finest of all the yellow-flowered Balsams with which we 
are acquainted, and for the introduction of which into our stoves 
we are indebted to Mr. Gardner, of the Botanic Garden, Pera- 
denia, Ceylon. It was first detected by Mr. Moon, in shady 
vegetable soil at "Four Korles," in that island: then by Mrs. 
General Walker, and by Mr. Gardner at Allagala, at an elevation 
of 4,000 feet. It is easily increased by cuttings, flowers in May, 
June, and July, and will probably during the summer months 
be found to succeed best in the greenhouse. Of this genus, of 
which Linnaeus only knew seven species, mostly from imperfect 
figures, Dr. Wight considers that upwards of one hundred are 
natives of the East Indies alone ! That gentleman observes it is 
there eminently an alpine genus, delighting in a cool and moist 
climate; hence it is unknown on the plains of Coromandel, 
though not unfrequent in Mysore ; only abounding in the Penin- 
sula on the higher hills, participating in the western Monsoon, 
which enjoy, during the hot months, a moderate range of tempe- 
rature, with a very humid atmosphere. 

Descr. Apparently an annual, but readily kept up by cuttings, 
W*y copiously branched, straggling, procumbent, and rooting 
where it touches the ground. Branches succulent, striated 

octobeu 1st, 1848. 



Leaves alternate, rather small, on petioles scarcely longer than 
themselves, cordate, approaching to reniform, glabrous, acute, 
obsoletely serrated. Peduncles axillary, solitary, single-flowered, 
longer than the leaves. Flower large, yellow. Calyx slightly 
hairy. Lateral sepals small, ovato-lanceolate, green : two upper 
ones large, yellow, rotundate, forming a helmet : lower sepal 
large, yellow, cucullate, ending in a short horn, which is much 
incurved and clavate at the point. Lateral petals two-lobed, the 
lobes very unequal, the upper ones rounded. Filaments white, 
clavate, ciliated. Ovary hairy. 



39 

closely to Cereus, in which genus they, as well as the Echi- 
nopsis, should perhaps be included as subgenera. 

The species mentioned above is distinguished from all others 
known to me by its yellowish-green flowers, the others having 
crimson or purple flowers. I have named it, therefore, Echino- 
cereus viridiflorus. 

A careful examination of the seeds of numerous Cactacea, has 
indicated to me two principal divisions in that family : 1. Coty- 
ledons, more or less distinct, directed with their edges to the 
edge, (or towards the umbilicus,) and with their faces to the 
flattened side of the seed ; when curved, accumbent. 2. Coty- 
ledons, mostly very distinct, foliaceous, directed with their edges 
to the faces, and with their faces to the edges of the seed (or 
towards the umbilicus); when curved, incumbent, and often 
circular or spiral. 

The first class comprises Mammillaria, with a straight embryo; 
and doubtless, also, Melocactus, seeds of which, however, have 
not been examined by me; and Echinocactus, mostly with a 
curved embryo. The second class includes Echinocereus with a 
nearly straight embryo, and very short cotyledons ; Cereus, with 
a curved embryo, and foliaceous incumbent cotyledons, (probably 
also Echinopsis and Pilocereus, and perhaps JPhyllocactus and 
Epiphyllum ;) Opuntia, with a circular or spiral embryo, (circular 
and with a larger albumen in all Opuntia cylindracea ; spiral 
and with a much smaller albumen in all Opuntia elliptica, 
examined by me,) and very large cotyledons. Bhipsalis and 
Pereskia may also belong here, but were out of my reach. 

The flowers of all species belonging to the first class, with the 
doubtful exception of some Mammillaria, make their appearance 
on the growth of the same year. Those of the second class 
produce the flowers always upon the growth of the next preceding 
or former years. ' The first class may, therefore, be.distinguished 
by the name of Cactacea parallels (from the direction of the 
cotyledons), or apiciflora (from the position of the flowers). 
The second class can be named, in a corresponding manner, 
Cactacea contraria, or lateriflora. 

Echinocereus is principally distinguished from Cereus proper 
by its low growth ; its short, more or less oval stems, which are 
frequently branching at base, and thereby csespitose ; by the 
diurnal flowers, with short tubes ; by the nearly straight embryo, 
with short cotyledons. From EcMnopsis, to which some species 
have been referred, it differs also by the short-tubed diurnal 
flowers, and by the numerous filaments being adnate to the 
lower part of the tube. The species Echinocereus inhabit Texas 



40 

and the northern parts of Mexico, where Cerei proper are very 
rare. They extend even farther north than the Echinocacti, 
but appear to be excluded from the old limits of the United 
States, where the Cactus family is represented only by some 
Opuntice and Mammillarice. The southern limits of the Echi- 
nocerei are unknown to me, but I doubt whether they extend 
far in that direction; the nearly-related Echinopsides, on the 
contrary, appear to be exclusively inhabitants of South America, 
especially the La Plata countries. 

As I am speaking of the geographical distribution of the 
Cactacecs, I may as well add here that Mammillarim were found 
throughout the whole extent of Dr. Wislizenus's tour, and that 
at least four species occur in Texas. Echinocacti were observed 
only south of Santa Fe, and from there to Matamoros, but none 
on the highest mountains, which were occupied by Opuntia, 
Mammillarice, and Echinocerei ; two Echinocacti have been 
found in Texas. Only two species of true Cerei were seen ; one 
of a peculiar type about Chihuahua, and another near the mouth 
of the Rio Grande, which does not appear to differ from the 
wide-spread C. variabilis, Pfeiff. Opantiie elliptic^, as well as 
cylindracetie, were observed from New Mexico to Matamoros, 
and species of both are also found in Texas. Melocacti, Phyl- 
locacti, and other genera of Caciacea, not mentioned above, 
were not met with. 

The notes and collections of Dr. Wislizenus confirm the 
opinion of that acute observer and succesful cultivator of Cactacea, 
Prince Salm-Dyck, viz : that most species of this family have a 
very limited geographical range, the most striking exception 
being those belonging to the genus Opuntia. 

On the same day two other species of Echiaocereus were found 
in pine timber, both with beautiful deep red flowers. 

We shall have occasion to speak of others hereafter. 

After leaving Santa Fe, Dr. Wislizenus directed his course 
southward along the Rio Grande. The country was partly 
mountainous and rocky ; partly, and principally along the river, 
sandy ; on an average between 4,000 and 5,000 feet above the 
ocean. Here we find again some of the plants of the plains and 
of Texas, as Polanisia trachysperma, T. and G. ; Hoffmanseggia 
Jamesii, T. and G. An interesting Prosopis with screw-shaped 
legumes nearly allied to P. odorata, Torr. and Frem., of Cali- 
fornia, was the first shrubby mimoseous plant observed during 
the journey, a tribe which hereafter becomes more and more 
abundant ; Mentzdia sp. Cosmidium gracile, Eudoma, HeUo- 
fropiinit oirramvicurit, Mauraadia antirrhiniflora, a beautiful 



4-4-05. 




\ . . t& ti& 



Si, B ft 



Tab. 4405. 
CHIRITA Moonii. 

Mr. Moons Chirita. 



Nat. Ord. Cyrtandrace.e.— Didynamia Angiosp h;mu 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4182.) 



Chirita Moonii; subsericeo-villosa, caule suffroticoso, rami's obtuse tetragonis, 
iohis 2-4-nisque petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis apice acutiusculis obsolete 
glanduloso-serratis, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis v. binis petiolo 3-j>lo 
longioribus, sepalis lanceolato-subulatis carinatis, corolla magna extus 
pubescente. 

Chirita Moonii. Gardn. in Mem. on Didymocarp. of Ceylon, p. 19. 

Martynia lanceolate. Moon, Cat. Ceyl. PL p. 45. 



There have been few of the many visitors to the Royal Gardens 
of Kew, during the season of 1848, who have not been struck 
with the beauty of the present plant, as exhibited in our stoves, 
two to three feet in height, its leaves rather copious, opposite 
or verticillate, of a pale, pleasant green, the flowers mostly whorled 
and larger and more delicate and as highly coloured as the 
largest flowered Gloxinia : and some or other of these plants 
blossoming throughout the whole summer. The species is B 
native of Ceylon : Mr. Moon was the discoverer of it at " Pour 
Korles," and it appears in his Catalogue of Ceylon plants under 
the name of Martynia lanceolafa. It exists in my Herbarium 
among the plants of Mrs. General Walker, and Mr. Gardner 
detected it in rocks near the summit of the Hantane range and 
rightly referred it to the genus Chirita, attaching to it the name 
of the original finder. 

Descr. It forms an erect, simple or slightly branched, suffrn- 
tieose plant, two to three feet high. The branches rounded or 
obscurely tetragonal. Leaves opposite, or two to four in a whorl, 
patent, ovato-lanceolate, petiolate, rather acute, scarcely acumi- 
nate, obscurely glanduloso-serrate, penninerved, clothed with 
compact silky down, most conspicuous beneath. Petioles an inch 
long. Peduncles axillary, solitary or two together, more than 

November 1st, 1848. M 



half as long as the leaf, single-flowered, thickened upwards, and 
bearing a minute pair of opposite, subulate, appressed bracts 
above the middle. Calyx rather large, divided nearly to the 
base into five, erect, appressed, lanceolato-subulate, carinatc 
downy sepals. Corolla large, almost four inches long from the 
base to the extremity of the lower lip : the tube ventricose, 
curved a little upwards, and subcampanulate : the month ample : 
limb two-lipped, spreading, of five, subequal, rounded lobes (some- 
times only four); the upper lip two-, the lower three-lobed. 
The outside of the corolla is silky, pale purplish : limb deeper 
purple, paler within the throat, and with a broad yellow abrupt 
line on the lower side of the tube. Stamens and style included, 
resembling those of C. Waliera (Tab. 4327). 



4-Si-Of. 




Tab. 440f>. 
PASSIFLORA AMABILTS. 

JV7iite-croivned Passion-flower. 



Nat. Ord. Passiflore^e. — Monadelpiiia Pentanimua. 

Gen. Char. Calt/cis tubus brevissimus,/«tfz corona tilamentosa multiphoi ornalu. 
Bacca saepius pulposa, rarius membranacea. Be Cand. 



Passiflora amabilis ; caule gracili terete, foliis membranaceis ovatis acuta 
lategerrimis, stipulis ovatis acuminata integemmis petiolo glanduioso bre- 
vioribus, pedunculo solitario unifloro sub flore involucrato, involueri 3-phvlli 
foliolis ovato-rotundatis majusculis, sepalis petalisque conformibus (intus 
nibris), coronai filamentis subquadriseriatis (albis) periantliio brevioribus. 

Passiflora amabilis. Hortulan. 



All that we can state with certainty of the history of this 
Passion-flower is, that it was received at the Royal Gardens 
from Mr. M'Koy of Liege, under the name here given. It is 
very unlike any species yet figured or described as far 88 we can 
learn ; and it may possibly be a hybrid, one of whose parents 
may be Passiflora alata, judging from the peculiar' colour of the 
sepals and petals ; while the involucre more resembles that of 
P. quadrangular is : but the slender terete stem is at variance 
with both. It flowers in the stove in May. 

Descr. A climber of not luxuriant growth, having a terete 
stem. Leaves alternate, petiolate, ovate, very acute, entire, 
rather membranous and wavy; petiole glandular. Stipules 
shorter than the petiole, ovate, acuminate, entire. Tendril axil- 
lary, simple. Peduncle longer than the petiole, solitary, single- 
flowered, bearing below the calyx three large, broad, membranous, 
roundish-ovate, reticulated involucral leaves. Cal//cu and petals 
alike, oblong, obtuse, bright brick red within, greenish externally. 
Filamentous crown white, in four series, shorter than the peri- 
anth : tw T o outer series the longest; the filaments subulate, 

November 1st, 1848. M 2 



fleshy, unequal (the outermost smaller, often dotted with black 
towards the apex) : two innermost series small ; crowded, up- 
right, each constituting a circle of short, slender acicular fila- 
ments, equal in length, the outer erect, the inner almost hori- 
zontal, lying over the mouth of the short tube of the flower. 
Ovary on a long stipe. 






U07. 




Tab. 4407. 
aquilegia leptoceras. 

Slender-spurred Columbine. 



Nat. Ord. Ranunculace^e. — Polyandria Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Col. 5-sepalus deciduus colorato-petaloideus ; petala 5 RipenM 
hiantia bilabiata, labio superiore magno piano, interiore minimo, deorsum pro- 
ducta in calcaria totidem cava apice callosa inter sepala exserta. Owria 5. 
Capsula totidem erectse oo-sperniae stylis acuminatse. Be Cand. 



Aquilegia leptoceras; foliis radicalibus biternatis, subtus praecipue glaucis, 
foliolis late cuneatis lobatis, calcaribus longissimis rectiusculis gracilibus 
limbo cuneato subduplo longioribus, sepalis rhombeo-lanceolatis. 

Aquilegia caerulea. James in Longs Exped. to the Rocky Mount, v. 2. p. 204 et 
p. 345. (Engl. Ed.) Torr. in Rocky Mount. PI. p. 164. Torr. et Gr. Fl. 
N.Am. v. I. p. 30. 

Aquilegia leptoceras. Nutt. Journ. Acad. Fhiladelph. v. l.p. 8. 

Aquilegia macrantha. Hook, et Am. in Bot. of Beech. Voy. p. 317. p. 72. 



Raised in the Royal Gardens from seeds, collected by Mr. Burke 
m the Snake country of the Rocky Mountains ; abundant about 
Fort Hall. James, its original discoverer, detected it " between 
the head waters of the branch of the Platte called Defile Creek and 
those of the northern tributaries of the Arkansas : and Mr.Tolmie 
received specimens from a hunter, collected between Henry's 
and Fish Rivers. All these localities are in elevated regions of 
the Rocky Mountains, in about lat. 40°; and the species seems 
to be very local. Remarkable as it is for the large size of the 
flowers and the uncommon length of the spurs, we fear that as seen 
m our figure, upon a white ground, and cultivated as a solitary 
specimen, it possesses few attractions. Yet growing in masses, as 
it does on its native hills, it must present a very striking appear- 
ance; for James, in Long's Travels, asserts that "it forms a splendid 
acquisition to the Flora of the United States ;" and Mr. Burke 
m his letter from Fort Hall, dated Sept. 3rd, 1845, says, " I 
round near Medicine River a most beautiful Columbine, which 
I have never seen elsewhere, growing at the foot of a hill in rich 
ioamy soil in great abundance : the flowers very large, beauti- 

NOVEMBER 1st, 184S. 



fully white, variously tinged above with light blue. In my opinion 
it is not only the Queen of Columbines, but the most beautiful of 
all herbaceous plants, and I never felt so much pleasure in finding 
a plant before." We must therefore endeavour to increase it, 
so as to fill an entire bed with it, and we think it is eminently 
suited to such an object. In the name I have adopted for this 
plant I trust that I shall receive the sanction of the American 
botanists. A. carulea has assuredly the right of priority, and 
Mr. James does speak of the flowers as " blue :" but Nuttall de- 
scribes them as " ochroleucous ;" and, among our numerous 
specimens living and dried, white, with an ochroleucous or 
purplish green, rarely with a blue tinge (and never wholly blue 
or approaching to it) are the prevailing colours; — the name 
therefore of ccerulea tends to mislead, while that of leptoceras 
is unexceptionable. 

Descr. Boot perennial. Stem herbaceous, 1-1 \ foot high. 
Leaves chiefly radical, and those petiolate ; petioles long, twice 
ternate, glaucous, especially beneath ; the leaflets broadly cuneate, 
divided generally with three obtuse lobes, which are either simple 
or slightly divided again. Other smaller leaves spring from the 
branchings of the stem, ternate, nearly sessile, especially the 
uppermost ones. Flowers large, paniculate, often three inches 
across, their colour white, or cream-white, with a tinge of blue, 
more generally of purplish-green. Calyx of five spreading, 
rhomboid-lanceolate sepals, much longer than the petals. These 
latter are cuneate, cucullate below, each ending in a very long, 
nearly straight, slender, subulate spur, capitate at the extremity 
and twice as long as the limb. Stamens numerous, shorter 
than the petals. Anthers yellow. Styles shorter than the 
stamens. 



4-4-08. 




Tab. 4408 
IAMBOSA Malaccensis. 

Malay-Apple. 



Nat. Ord. Hyrtacejb.— Icosandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cahjck tubus turbinatus basi attenuates, faucc ultra ovarium prOr 
ducta dilatata obovata, limbo 4-fido, lobis subrotnndis. Petala i, apice faucu 
mserta, lata concava obtusa. Stamina numerosissima petalis longiora bbem 
stncta. Stylus filiformis. Stigma simplex, acutitisculum. Ovarium phirilocu- 
lare multiovulatum. Fructus 1-2-spermus calyce ampliato et bacrato grmtKMO- 
carnosus apice umbdicatus. Semen angulatum, cokfledombmi eamoso-corneis 
crassis marginibus conferruminatis, radicula subcylindrica intra ootyfedonea 
latente. — Arbores Indica. Folia opposita, brevissiidr peHoiata pellucido punctata. 
Cymaj laterales et terminates folio motto breviores pauciflora sintpliet'S, peduvllis 
lateralibus oppositis et l-temwiali. Flores ad apicem pedicelhrum articulati ebrnr- 
teolati ampli. Fructus magni edules. Be Cand. 



Iambosa Malaccensis ; folds coriaceis oblongis s. ovato-oblongis acuminatis 

basi in petiolum crassum attenuatis, cymis lateralibus subsessibbus fasci- 

culatis, floribus rubris, fructu magno turbinato. 
Iambosa Malaccensis. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 286. Wight et Am. Fl. Penins. 

Ind.Or. v. I. p. 332. 
Eugenia Malaccensis. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 672. Roxb. Fl Ind. v. 2. p. 4S3. Ic. in 

F. J. C.Mus. t. 1067. * Wall. Cat. n. 3611. Smith, Ex. Bot. t. 61. 

Iambosa purpurascens. Be Cand. Prod. v. 3. p. 286. 

Myrtus Malaccensis et M. macropbylla. Spr. Sgst. Veget. v. 2. p. 483, 484. 

Iambosa nigra. Rumph. Arnb. v. 1. t. 37 et 38./. 1. 

Nati-Schamba. Eheed. Hort. Malab. v. 1. 1. 18. 



Native of the Malay Islands. Cultivated, also, in the West 
Indies on account of its esculent, but, as it is said, not vcry 
highly flavoured fruit : and hence we suspect, and also from a 
notion that the true Malaccensis had a white flower, DeCandoIle 
has considered the excellent figure given by Sir James Smith, 
from Mr. Hibbert's collection, a new species, to which he gave 
the name of purpurascens. Our very handsome plant, sent to 
Kew by Dr. Wallich from the Calcutta Garden, flowers in the 
stove in June. 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1848. 



Desck. Our plant forms a charming shrub, six to eight feet 
high, with large, glossy, coriaceous, oblong or ovato-oblong, acu- 
minate leaves, tapering at the base into a short very thick foot- 
stalk. The cymes of richly coloured purple-red flowers, are 
sessile or nearly so, arising from the old wood just above the 
point where a pair of leaves have fallen, the rachis and pedicels 
short and thick ; hence the flowers appear fascicled. Ovary 
inferior, turbinate. Calyx-limb of three to five or six rounded, 
unequal, concave, appressed lobes. Petals four, very concave, 
orbicular-oval. Stamens very numerous. Filaments red, much 
longer than the petals. Anthers very small, globose. Style 
filiform, rather shorter than the stamens, surrounded at the base 
by an elevated four-sided ring. 



Fig. 1. Ovary and calyx, from which latter part of the ring is removed : — 
magnified. 



,09 







XB & 



Tab. 4409. 
ARNEBIA echioides. 

Echium-like Arnebia. 



Nat. Ord. Boragine^e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx fere 5-partitus basi post anthesin subcampanulatus. Corolla 
tubo elongato infundibuliformis fauce nuda, lobia subrotundis. AntJieree tubo 
insertae inclusaj. Stylus apice bifidus et stigmata ideo 2 subrotunda s.Tpius 
subbifida et in massam subglobosam 4-lobum aggregata. Nucula 4 ovatae basi 
truncatse imperforatse. — Herbse orientates, habilu Lithospermorum, sed stigmate 
dicephalo nunc i-lobo distincta. I)e Cand. 



Arnebia echioides ; caubbus erectis simphcibus pibs mollibus patentibus brevi- 
bus tectis, foliis sessilibus pube brevi moUi tomentosis obtusiusculis, radica- 
bbus oblongo-obovatis, caubnis obovato-spathulatis, spicis terminaUbus, 
bracteis foliaceis ovato-oblongis basi dilatatis calyces sequantibus, calycis 
5-partiti lobis lineari-attenuatis, corolla? tubo calyce duplo fere lougiore, 
limbo subinaequali, fauce 5-maculata, lobis subrotundis. 

Arnebia echioides. Alpli. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 10. p. 96. 

Lycopsis echioides. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 199. Lehm. Asperif. p. 270. 

Anchusa echioides. Bieb. F. Cauc. v. 1. p. 123. 

Lithospermum erectum. Fisch. et Mey. Ind. Hort. Sem. Koch, in Linnaa, 1843, 
p. 304. 

Echioides orientalis Buglossi folio. Buxb. Cent. v. 1. t.\. 



We follow M. Alphonse De Candolle, who in a late volume of 
the Prodromus has referred this plant to Arnebia, although, as 
may be seen by our figure, it does not accord in the character of 
the style : but M. De Candolle remarks : " non Lithospermum ex 
fauce non plicata, stylo apice bifido (rather stigmate bifido), fauce 
supra tubum gracilem ampliata patente et toto habitu ; non Ly- 
copsis nee Anchusa ex fauce nuda et nuce." The species, however, 
whatever may be its genus (for in an extensive natural family 
there will always be a difficulty in expressing the limits of 
genera), is a native of the Caucasian Alps and of Armenia : is 
quite hardy, flowering in the open border, or in a pot, in June 
and July, where it makes a very pretty appearance with its 
scorpioid spikes of large yellow flowers, with five deep purple, 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1848. 



well-defined spots at the throat. These spots, however, in the 
cultivated plant, are sometimes obsolete. We have raised plants 
in the Kew Gardens from seeds sent by Dr. Fischer of St. 
Petersburg. 

Descr. Boot fusiform, woody, throwing up two or more 
erect, l^afy, herbaceous stems, about a span or more high, downy 
with short hair. Leaves spreading, somewhat hoary (especially 
when dry) from the rather soft pubescence, all sessile ; radical 
leaves large, obovato-oblong, cauline ones obovato-lanceolate, all 
of them rather obtuse and becoming smaller upwards. The 
stems terminate in a branched, scorpioid, leafy spike of large 
yellow flowers; these leaves or bracteas Ovate. Calyx cylindrical, 
hairy, cut almost to the base into five, erect, linear, obtuse 
segments. Corolla between funnel- and salver-shaped, the mouth 
spreading; the tube nearly twice as long as the calyx, hairy 
within ; the limb cut into five nearly equal, rounded lobes, having 
a dark orbicular purple spot at the sinus of each pair of lobes. 
Stamens small, included. Style shorter than the tube. Stigma 
capitate, bifid. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Tube laid open, showing the stamens and pistil :- 
Magnified. 




4-MO. 




Tab. 4410. 

BURTONIA villosa. 

Villous Burtonia. 



Nat. Ord. LeguminosjE. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4392.) 



Burtonia villosa ; ramis foliis calycibusque breviter villcsis, foliolis breviUr 
petiolulatis lineari-subulatis obtusiusculis muticis margiue revolutis dcmum 
glabrescentibus punctato-scabris, pedunculis axillaribus folia subnequantibus 
calyce brevioribus basi medioque bibracteolatis. Meisn. 

Burtonia villosa. Meisn. in Lehn. Plant. Preiss. v. I. p. 41. 



It will be recollected that under our Tab. 4392, we promised 
soon to give a figure of a third rare species of Burtonia, recently 
raised from Mr. Drummond's Swan River seeds, by Messrs. Lu- 
combe, Pince, and Co., no less beautiful than those already figured; 
and we here redeem our pledge. The flowers are indeed the largest 
of all the species, and more varied in colour, from the conspi- 
cuous yellow spot at the base of the standard. The plants 
flowered in May, in the Exeter Nursery. 

Descr. A small Heath-like shrub, with the leaves horizontally 
patent, and, as well as the branches, clothed more or less copi- 
ously with hairs ; leaflets linear, obtuse, appearing to be terete 
from the closely revolute margins. Flowers numerous from the 
axils of the leaves at the extremity of the branches, and forming 
apparently an oblong leafy spike, the leaves and peduncles being 
in a great measure concealed by the flowers. Peduncle shorter 
than the leaves, bearing two minute, subulate, appressed bracts 
a little above the middle. Calyx hairy ; the tube campanulate, 
the five spreading nearly equal lobes ovate, acute. Corolla rich 
purple, but less deep than B.pulckella (Tab. 4392). The wings 
whitish at the base, and the standard with a nearly orbicular, 
pale yellow spot above the short claw. Stamens ten, free. Ovary 
ovate, hairy : style subulate, laterally compressed, hairy on the 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1848. 



upper margin -. stigma acute. Fruit a globose, hairy, one-seede^ 
legume, scarcely longer than the calyx, and terminated by the 
subulate style curved upwards. 



Fig. 1. Leaf. 2. 
4. Wing. 5. Pistil, 
less magnified. 



Section of ditto. 3. Flower with the petals removed. 
6. Seed vessel; natural size: — all except fig. 6 more or 



41 

large flowered Datura, Abronia, Hendecandra Texemis, and many 
others. Near 011a the first specimens appeared of a new species 
of Larrea, the first and most northern form of the shrubby 
Zygophyllacece, more abundant farther south. In the same 
neighbourhood the Mezquite tree or shrub was first met with, 
probably Algarolia glandulosa, T. and G. From this place the 
Mezquite was abundantly found down to Matamoros, but the 
specimens collected appear to indicate that there are at least two 
different species. 

On the next day," near Sabino, an interesting Bignoniaceous 
shrub was collected for the first time, undoubtedly the Chilopm* 
of Don, which farther south appears more abundantly. Its 
slightly twining branches, willow-like slender glutinous leaves, 
and large paler or darker red flowers, render it a very remarkable 
shrub. Dr. Gregg mentions it under the name " Mimbre," as 
one of the most beautiful shrubs of northern Mexico. The cha- 
racter given by Don, and that of De Candolle, appear defective, 
though I cannot doubt that both had our plant in view. From 
the very complete specimens obtained both by Dr. Wislizenus 
and Dr. Gregg, I am enabled to correct those errors. 

Near Albuquerque a curious Opuntia was observed ; it evi- 
dently belongs to the Opuntia cylindracece, but has short clavate 
joints, which make the name of 0. clavata most appropriate. A 
singular plant, with the habit of a Ranunculus, but nearly related 
to Saururus, was also found in this neighbourhood among grass 
on the banks of the Rio Grande. The genus has been described 
by Nuttall from specimens collected by him in California, but 
whether his Anemopsis Californica is specifically identical with 
the new Mexican plant, remains to be seen, as this last has 
regularly six-leaved involucres, about six stamens, and is per- 
fectly glabrous. 

While the last mentioned plants indicate that we approach 
another botanical region, we are surprised to meet here with 
Polygonum amphibium, common in the old and in the new 
world, and Cephalanthus occiden talis, so widely diffused in the 
United States. 

The famous desert, the Jornada del Muerto, furnished, as was 
to be expected, its quota of interesting plants. A Crucifera 
near Biscutella of Europe, but with very short styles and white 
flowers, was here met with abundantly. I had considered it as 
the type of a new genus, when I found in Hooker's London 
Journal of Botany, of February, 1845, Harvey's description of 
his new Californian genus Dithyrea, which probably must be 
made to embrace our plant as a second species. 




42 

A new species of Talinum, with single axillary flowers, was 
found for the first time in the Jornada, but was again collected 
further south, towards Chihuahua. Daka lanata, Centaurea 
Americana, Sapindus marginata, and a Bolivia, probably iden- 
tical with a new Texan species, brought to mind the Flora of 
Arkansas and Texas, while the gigantic Echinocactus Wislizeni 
reminds us again that we are approaching the Mexican plateau. 
This enormous Cactus attains generally a height of one and a half to 
two feet ; specimens three feet high were rare, but one specimen 
was found which measured four feet in height, and near seven feet 
in circumference ; its top was covered with buds, flowers, and 
fruits, in all stages of development. In size it ranges next to 
Echinocactus ingens, Zucc, specimens of which five to six feet 
high, were collected near Zimapan, in Mexico. Another Mexican 
Cactus, E.platgceras, Lem., is said to grow six, and even ten 
feet high, and proportionately thick. E Wislize7ii is therefore 
the third in size in this genus. 

From the same neighbourhood a beautiful Mammillaria was 
sent m dried, as well as living "specimens. It appears to be one 
of the few Mammillaria longimammce, though it differs in having 
purple, not yellow flowers, and stiffer spines. By the name I 
have given it, M. macromeris, I intended to indicate the unusually 
large size of different parts of the plant, the tubercles, the spines, 
and the flowers. 

In the same region a strange plant was obtained for the first 
time, but then without flowers or fruit, and which, to the casual 
observer, appeared as curious as it is puzzling to the scientific 
botanist ; single spiny sticks or stems having a soft and brittle 
wood, and a great deal of pith in the centre, one or more from 
the same root, but always without branches, eight to ten feet 
high, not more than half an inch thick, frequently overtopping 
the brush among which they were found, only towards the top 
with a few bunches of already yellow leaves. In the following 
spring the splendid crimson flowers of this plant were found by 
Dr. W. between Chihuahua and Parras, and to Dr. Gregg I am 
indebted for mature fruit, collected near Saltillo and Monterey. 
The plant proved to be a Fouquiera, two species of which have 
been found in Mexico by Humboldt ; one of them, the F.formosa, 
a branching shrub, was only known in the flowering state ; the 
other, F. spinosa, a spinous tree, only in fruit. The structure of 
the ovary of the first appeared to differ so much from that of the 
capsule of the second, that it was afterwards deemed necessary 
to distinguish both generically, and the second constituted then 
the genus Bronnia. Having both flowers and fruit of a third 



43 

Fouquiera, I am enabled to solve the difficulty to some extent, 
and prove the necessity of re-uniting Bronuia with Fouquiera. 
The flower of Fouquiera splendent, as I have named the northern 
plant, is that of a true Fouquiera, while the fruit is nearly that 
of Bronnia ! 

Towards El Paso a curious Capparidaceous plant was collected, 
which appears to be nearly allied to the Califoruian O.rysfy/i.s 
of Torrey and Fremont, and forms with it a distinct group in 
that Family, approaching very closely to Crucifera, as has been 
remarked by Professor Torrey. 

I have named this new genus WtiUeenia, in honour of its 
discoverer, w r ho has, though unaided and often embarrassed 
in different ways, done so much towards the advancement of our 
knowledge of those northern provinces of Mexico — the first na- 
turalist, it is believed, who explored the regions between Sant.i IV, 
Chihuahua, and Saltillo. From Oxystylis it is principally dis- 
tinguished by its long stipitate ovary and capsule, which latter 
is reflexed, and by the elongated racemes; it may, however, 
have to be united with that genus. 

On the mountains about El Paso, another of those cylindra- 
ceous Opuniice w r as found, but much thinner and more slender 
than both species, mentioned previously. To judge from an 
imperfect description it must be nearly related to the Mexican 
O. virgata, Hort. Berol. I have given it the name of O. vaginata, 
as the straw-coloured loose sheaths of the long spines are very 
remarkable. A new Echinocereus was also collected here, which, 
on account of its dense covering with small spines, I have named 
K. dasy acanthus. I have in cultivation one of the largest speci- 
mens seen by Dr. Wislizenus, which is one foot high. In this 
neighbourhood, Opuntia Tuna, Mill., was seen for the first time, 
and this is perhaps the most northern limit of that extensively 
diffused species, as well as of Agave Americana, another common 
Mexican plant. Both were found in greater perfection near 
Chihuahua, and from there constantly down to Monterey and 
the mouth of the Rio Grande ; the Opuntia appears to extend 
also high up in Texas. 

Together with these a Basylirion, perhaps the same as the 
Texan species, was found here, and afterwards again near Saltillo. 

From El Paso to Chihuahua, the road lies in part through a 
dreadfully arid sandhill district, where a peculiar Martynia was 
observed, and further on, through a lovely country, which, at 
that season, (August,) after the annual rains, was covered with a 
luxuriant vegetation. The elevation of the country is here 
between 4,000 and 5,000 feet above the gulf. 



44 

The rare Cevattia sinuata, which Dr. Gregg has also sent from 
Monterey, was found in this part of the journey. Here also 
occurred a perennial species of Linum, with yellow petals, so far, 
in America, the only perennial yellow flowering Linum ; it is 
distinguished by its long aristate sepals, whence the name. 
Several Oenothera, not seen before, now made their appearance ; 
different species of Gilia, a number of Nyctaginea, several Jscle- 
piadacece, Malvaceae, Cucurbitacece, Composites, and others, were 
here collected ; including a number of new species, which only 
want of time and references have for the present prevented me 
from describing. Near Lake Encinillas another Martynia was 
found, which, in its foliage, comes nearer to M. proboscidea, but 
is readily distinguished by its purple flowers. A beautiful 
yellow -flowering Bignoniaceous shrub, probably Tecoma stans, 
Juss., seen more frequently further south, was observed for the 
first time near Gallejo spring. Shrubby Algarobia were seen 
more plentifully, as also some other Mimosem. 

Here would be the proper place to introduce a notice of the 
several species of Yucca found by Dr. Wislizenus. But, unfor- 
tunately, the labels of the specimens were partly lost, so that it 
is impossible at this time to arrange leaves, flowers, and fruits 
properly. Certain it is that several species besides Yucca angus- 
tifolia, mentioned above, were seen ; that the leaves of all of 
them have filamentose edges, some with very fine, others with 
very coarse fibres on their margin ; that the majority bear juice- 
less capsules with very thin, paper-like seeds, but that one 
species produces an edible succulent fruit with very thick seeds. 
Fortunately the seeds collected by Dr. W. arrived here in the 
best condition, and some have already germinated, so that we 
may hope to raise some of these species. Yucca aloifolia, of the 
southern United States and Mexico, is said also to bear an edible 
fruit, but has serrulate leaves; we have, therefore, different 
species of Yucca with edible fruits, which may constitute a pecu- 
liar section in this genus. 

The soil appeared to be too fertile here for the production of 
Cacti ; and with the exception of some Opuntia, the only species 
collected between Paso and Chihuahua, about 100 miles south 
of the former place, was Cereus Greggii, which was peculiarly 
interesting, as it is probably the most northern form of Cereus 
proper. The specimens sent for cultivation by Dr. W. were 
unfortunately dead when they arrived here, and neither flower nor 
fruit had been obtained ; but Dr. Gregg has collected the same 
species near Cadena, south of Chihuahua, in flower, from which 
I completed the description. I could not have given it a more 



Episodes of Insect Life. 



CONTENTS 



DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



jfrffittteptm. 

BUTTERFLIES IN GENERAL. 

Various species just risen and bursting from their chrysalidan shrouds, mouut 

towards the skies or repose upon everlasting flowers. 
The lowest Butterfly to the left is the Peacock, Vanessa Io, that above is the 
Common Copper, Lyccena Phlaas, the next above is the Common Blue, 
Polyommatus Alexis, and that to the left is the same, showing its 
under-wing painting. Above these, upon the sprig of flowers, is the Lady 
of the Woods, Anthocharis Cardamines, and over this to the right is the 
Brimstone, Gonepteryx Rhamni, having the Hair-Streak Purple, Thecla 
Quercus, to the left and the Silver- washed Fritillary, Aryynnis Paphia, 
above. In the centre is the beautiful S wallow-Tail, Papilio MacAaon, 
to the right below is the Red Admiral, Vanessa Atalanta ; perched 
above, showing its under-wing, is the small Garden White, Pontia Rapa ; 
over that, a little to the left, is the Meadow Brown, Hipparchia Janira, 
and uppermost upon the flowers is the Common Copper, Lyccena Phlcras 
exhibiting its under-wing. Suspended to the branches beneath are 
numerous chrysalides, one of which exhibits the small Tortoise-shell 
Butterfly recently emerged. 
To the symbolic meaning of this picture it is scarcely needful to point, for in 
the Book of Nature, so truly described to be a Book of Emblems, the 



CONTEXTS. 



history of the fugacious Butterfly, as typifying the flight of the immor- 
tal soul, stands foremost for clearness, for exactitude, for beauty, and for 
solemn import. 



Eitlc^isntttt. 

So issue forth the Seasons. 

First we have "Winter in his merriest mood, represented by the Cricket, 
bedecked with Christmas holly, and alive with fun and jollity. By his 
right hand he holds the Brimstone Butterfly, emblem of Spring, prim- 
rose of papilions in habits and in hue. Beneath, the jocund Grasshopper 
linked to the above by a vernal wreath, figures the bright Summer 
and in the glowing Peacock Butterfly, rich in her velvet train as 
the autumnal flowers she frequents, we welcome Autumn, bearing the 
ripe sheaf and presenting her merry associate with the fruit of the vine. 

Stenuarg. 

1. THE CRICKET. INTRODUCTORY. Page. 

The House Cricket, Acheta domestica, gaining access to the milk-jug by a 
sprig of holly 3 

Episodes, then, they shall be called. 

Symbolic portrait of the author in his character of the Cricket, Acheta do- 
mestica, selecting a title for his lucubrations 11 

2. THE POINTS OF OUR HOBBY. 

The Cricket mounted on the back of a magnified May-Fly, Ephemera vul- 
gata, in search of entomological subjects 12 

To the end of time this will carry us. 

Emblems of riches, rank, and the pomps and vanities of life outweighed in 
the balance by the author's hobby of Entomology under the figure 
of a May-Fly 31 

3. FLIES IN WINTER, AND A FLY LEAF. 

A magnified representation of the House Fly, Musca domestica, crawling up 



CONTENTS. Ill 

a volume in the natural-history library. To the left is a highly 
magnified figure of the foot, and iu the centre are the larva ami pupa of 
another species much resembliug it, abundant in its impeded - 
between the membranes of dock leaves 32 

Try Lightness, friend Poet, 

A leaf of the Poet's epic failure, exposed to the critical scrutiny of a fly on its 

return to the author from a butter-shop 55 

4. THE GNAT.— A LIFE OF BUOYANCY. 

Transformation of the common Gnat, Culex pipiens, the eggs uuited iu a 
boat-like form; the aquatic larva suspended, head downwards; the 
pupa with head upwards; and, last stage of all, the pupa with the 
winged gnat emerging from it 50 

Let us strive to keep up our buoyancy. 

The buoyant Gnat Pupa, and the winged Gnat which half flies, half walks 
upon the water, figuring the light spirits which dance upon the stream 
of life, and are unsubmerged by the missiles of care 7 3 

5. THE WOOD ANT AND THE APHIDES. 

Aphides of the Oak. Two of the large brown Aphis quercus, with their 
curious suckers, and another species of the oak with the wood Ant, 
Formica rufa, in search of honey-dew, — magnified 7-i 

No one took notice of our poor dripping traveller. 

The luxuriant and well-fed Aphis, in fashionable attire and sheltered from 
the storm by her acorn-cup parasol, passes disdainfully by the starving 
but industrious Ant, seated unsheltered, naked, and solitary, on a 
toad-stool 92 



jfefiruarg. 

6. LIFE IN DEATH. 

The Tortoise-shell Butterfly, Vanessa Vrtiae. Suspended beneath the parapet 
of the wall is the chrysalis of the Cabbage Butterfly, Poulia Brat 
Above is the hairy caterpillar of the Tiger Moth, Arctia ci'ja. To the 
right are three caterpillars of the Magpie Moth, Abraxas grossularialii, 



IV CONTENTS. 

attached, as if frozen, to the branches. On the lower stems are the 
coooou of a Saw Fly, Trichiosoma lucorwn, and an old cocoon of the 
Vapourer Moth, Orgyia antiqua, employed as a winter bed for her eggs. 
Encircling a twig above the Butterfly is a bracelet-like cluster of the 
eggs of the Lackey Moth, Clisiocampa neustria 92 

In the apparent death of winter. 
The author, Acheta domestica, in his propensity for burrowing among the 
hidden secrets of nature, explores a catacomb of the chrysalides of Moths 
and Butterflies, with the view of detecting life amidst frost, and snow, 
and torpor 107 

7. A MILITARY EXPEDITION,— BATTLE OF THE AMAZONS. 
An assemblage of two species of Ants, Formica rnfa and cimicularia, illus- 
trating the mode in which the former attacks the latter, and seizes its 
larvse and pupse. In the foreground is an instance, not uncommon in 
insects, of an individual retaining its vitality after the loss of its body, 
and above are a winged male and female of the same species . . . 108 

How flows the tide of battle ? 
Ant Amazons, chieftains of Kufia, hand to hand with the citizens of Fnsca, 
fighting for the rape and rescue of infant subjects to be converted by the 
aggressors into slaves 125 

8. INSECT AERONAUTS,— SPIDERS. 

On the left, suspended by its line, is the common Garden Spider, Epeira dia- 
dema ; beneath it is the Labyrinthic Spider, Agelena labyrinthica, at the 
mouth of its hollow snare; and on the leaf adjoining is the green 
Long-bodied Spider, Tetragnatha externa. The rotund species to 
the right, and the traveller by the cable bridge, are spinners of 
geometric webs, of which a small one with its minute artificer, 
Theridion, is represented as often seen constructed within the leaf of a 
nettle. The little urn-shaped body on a leaf near the centre is a nest 
of peculiar form guarded by its ingenious weaver 126 

All seem bent upon ascension. 
A spider aeronaut ascending in his gossamer balloon 139 

9. THE FRESHWATER SIREN. 

The Great "Water Beetle, Dytiscus marginalis, and the Diving Water Spider, 



CONTENTS. V 

Argyroneta aquatica, allegorically typified above, by an armour clad 
Knight and an aquatic nymph 140 

Her mail-clad opponent his falchion plied. 
The Syren of the Poem, hideous above water, beauteous beneath it, changes 
under her adversary's thrust into the Water Spider, whose habits the tale 
is intended to illustrate. Her Knightly foe finds his insect prototype in 
the Water Beetle 153 

10. USES OF INSECTS. 

Transformation of the Silk- worm, Bombyx Mori, Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoon, 

and Male and Female Moths on the mulberry 154 

The Locust after its kind. 

A professor of the culinary art, anticipating the time when Pates de Sauterelles 
will be considered as great a luxury among the Epicures of our own 
country, as the Locust is in the present day among certain inhabitants 
of Syria, Arabia, Persia, Ethiopia, Egypt, and Barbary 171 

11. ON APHIDES. 

On the rose-buds are numerous Aphides, A. Rosa, of the natural size ; in the 
foreground are individuals of the same, winged and wingless, magnified. 
In the midst of some small Aphides on a leaf is the leach-like grub of a 
Saeva Pyrastri, thinning their numbers, and to the right is a winged 
Fly, the mature condition of the same. Another species of the genus, 
Scwva balteata, is seen above in different positions on the wing. 
To the left on a branch of elder, are individuals of the Elder Aphis, 
A. Sambucaria, beneath which is a magnified representation of the same 
attended by a Brown Ant, Formica brunnea, procuring a supply of 
honey-dew 172 

The Larva wolf in the Aphis flock. 

The part of a wolf in sheep's clothing performed by the larva of a Lace-wing 
Ely, Chrysopa perla, as it makes havoc among a flock of wool-coated 
Apple Aphides, Eriosoma lanigerum, under cover of their empty skins . 189 

12. INSECT SENSES. 
In the centre is the large green Caterpillar of a Moth, feeding on rose petals ; 



VI CONTEXTS. 

to the left the Red-tailed or Lapidary Humble Bee, Bombus la- 
pidarius, revelling in pollen, and to the right is the small Cabbage But- 
terfly, Fonda Rapa ; in the suspended case of spirally -rolled leaves is 
a smaller Caterpillar, and above are two long-homed Japan Moths, Adela 
He Geerella, communicating by antennal language 190 

The passions are expressed by sounds. 
A sentimental Grasshopper performing his moonlight serenade, whilst his 
ladye love directs her listening antenna; to the quarter whence the 
strains proceed. The light guitar furnished to the amative Gnjllus by 
Fancy, ranks not more properly as an instrument of music, than does 
that organ of sweet sounds, the gift of nature, which he plays on at 
nature's bidding 213 

13. A DEFENCE OF If ASPS. 

In the centre is the common Humble Bee, Bombus terreslris, collecting pol- 
len from the Palm Willow ; to the right is a large female Wasp, Vespa 
vulgaris, a winter survivor aud foundress of a new colony, rasping wood 
as material for her nest, and to the left is another indivi iual of the 
same, in flight, descending to the bank in which she has formed her 
burrow 214 

A widowed winter-survivor. 

Portrait of a notable insect character, a widowed Wasp, one of the few forlorn 
winter-survivors of a populous summer colony, and the destined foundress 
of a future spring settlement, weeping over the remains of a defunct 
partner, deposited in an acorn-shell 231 

14. THE ROYAL REFORM— BEES AS A BODY POLFTIC. 

Two workers and a Drone of the domestic Bee, Apis mellijiva, gathering 
honey from the nectar-yielding Broom and Wild Thyme, with the 
Queen Bee above and in the distance, as conductor of a swarm . . 232 

The at/ed Professor of the Metmerie art. 

A youthful Queen-Bee under the benevolising operation of a mesmerising 
Nurse-worker of her race, a practitioner in Phreno-magnetism : — an 



CONTEXTS. vu 

allegory of the curious process of conversion in Bee Queen-iimkiiipr, 
discovered by Schirach in his ' La Reinc des Ahcillcs ' 861 

15. MOTHS AS DESTRUCTIVES. 

On the left side of the vignette is the Lackey Moth, C/isior,iti//></ ncu.sttia, 
on the right the Gold Tail Moth, Porthesia chrysorrhaa, beneath e«ch 
of which are their respective Caterpillars, and in the centre is an Oak 
leaf with a file of infant Caterpillars of the latter species eogtged 
in stripping it of its verdure. Over this hang suspended numerous chry- 
salides of the black and yellow Ermine Moth, Yponomeida fadeUs, ■ad 
above all, in flight, is the small Green Oak Moth, Tortrix nridma, with 
its Caterpillar engaged in its ravages as a leaf-roller. Prom one of these 
scrolls protrudes the empty shell of its chrysalis, and behind this are the 
remains of leaves which it has reduced to skeletons 264 

Two Moths still lingered. 

Moths of the Banners of the tale, illustrating by the armorial bearings on the 
wings of one, and the equipage on the wings of the other, the two 
consuming principles of Pride of Birth and Pride of Show .... 283 

16. WATER DEVILS. 

The central insects, swimming on their backs are examples of the Water 
Boatmen, Notonecta glauca, the nearer one being attacked by the little 
Whirl wig Beetle, Gyrinus natator, while the other is gb'ding head 
foremost into the extended jaws of the fierce larva of the Water Beetle, 
Hydrophiltts Caraboides. On the rushes to the right is a Water Scorpion, 
Nepa cinerea. In the distance are the linear forms of two Water Mea- 
surers, Hydrometra staynorum, and below them is a Water Bug of les9 
slender growth, Velia airrens. The figures above represent the Water 
Scorpion and Water Boatman in flight 284 

lie rows with infinite speed. 
A Boat-Fly punt, with crew of diabolic aspect, queer and cruel, fit passsengers 
for Charon's ferry-boat. The captive of the party with uplifted arms re- 
presents a young and imperfect Water Scorpion, and the shadowy imp 
employed in the erection of the flag, exhibits the linear form and piercing 
proboscis of the Water-Measurer. In the head of the rower is 
depicted that of the aquatic larva of the Dragon-Fly, with face con- 
cealed by a natural mask capable of being depressed or raised, shut or 



Ul CONTENTS. 

opened at pleasure. Of the passengers seated near the prow, one has a 
nearly similar visor, whilst the female is invested with the features of the 
Boat-Fly, resembling those which form the figure-head of the boat . 301 

17. BUTTERFLIES IN GENERAL. 
Seated to the right of the Dahlia is the beautiful Red Admiral Butterfly, Va- 
nessa Atalanta, and to the left the Common Blue, Polyommatus Alexis, 
both exhibiting their under-wing painting. The Butterfly descending 
towards them is the Common Copper, Lycana phlaas. For illnstrations 
of other species treated of in this essay, see the Frontispiece ... 302 

In her hours of supposed "privacy . 

The Painted-Lady Butterfly, Cynthia Carclui, whose Memoirs deserve a 
volume to themselves, if only for the moral they teach, — 

" Such mistresses dare never come in rain 

" For fear their colours should be washed away j" 

of equal application to the summer-day flutterer of fashion, and this, 
her prototype of the insect world, the Cynthia of the Thistle, upon 
which plant she loves to regale as a spiny caterpillar, before putting 
on her butterfly attire 320 



LONDON : 

REEVE, BENIIAM, AND REEVE, KING WILLIAM STREET. STRAND. 



.///-/;. 




\n\i 



Tab. #11. 
ALLAMANDA Aubletii. 

Aublefs Allamanda. 



Nat. Ord. Apocyne,e. — Pentandria Monogynta. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4851.) 



Allamanda Aubletii ; subscandens glabra, foliis oblongo-obovatis acuminatis 
brevi-petiolatis, glandulis rainutis acutis, paniculis multinoris apbyllis, ca- 
lycis lobia lanceolatis patentibus, corolla? ruaximas tubo gracili clongato 
faucem amplo-campanulatam requante, limbi lobis rotundatis acutis hine 
basi oblique unidentatis. 

Allamanda Aubletii. Pohl. Bras, v.l.p. 74. 

Allamanda grandiflora ? Lam. Diet. v. 4. p. 601. 

Orelia grandiflora. Aubl. Guyan. v. 1. p. 271. 1. 106. 



We have the pleasure of figuring, from the rich collection of 
Messrs. Lucombe, Pince and Co., of the Exeter Nursery, what we 
consider the true Orelia grandiflora of Aublet, which has been con- 
founded with the Allamanda cathariica of Linnaeus, and which, 
as has been remarked under our Tab. 4851, Dr. Pohl distin- 
guished by the name of Aubletii. ML Alphonse De Candolle, 
it is true, has again united them, but surely incorrectly. The 
nearest affinity of this is, doubtless, with A. Schottii, especially 
that variety of it figured at our Tab. 4851. But when seen 
growing together, the whole habit, foliage, and inflorescence are 
very different. Our present species has shorter leaves, broader 
above the middle, more copious flowers on the leafless panicle, 
of a larger size though paler colour, with a wider throat to the 
corolla and more acute lobes to the limb. — It is a stove plant, 
and though too weak to support itself, it cannot be called a 
climber. It was introduced by seeds from Brazil, and raised by 
Mr. Stanton (who has pointed out its distinguishing characters,) 
at the same time with A. Pohlii ; and flowers during the summer 
months. 

Descr. A weak, but scarcely climbing shrub, with terete, 
glabrous branches, and opposite or ternate, obovato-oblong, 

DECEMBER 1st, 1848. N 



shortly petiolatc, acuminated leaves ; petioles ciliated at the back. 
Panicles axillary and terminal, leafless, many-flowered : flowers 
of a very large size, pale yellow. Calyx of five spreading, lan- 
ceolate, pale green segments, not a third the length of the narrow 
portion of the tube of the corolla. Corolla with the lower half 
of the tube very narrow ; upper half expanding into a large and 
broad bell-shaped mouth, striated and almost plaited. Limb 
very large, of five subrotund, but acute, spreading lobes, furnished 
with an oblique tooth on one side at the base. 



4 



d 



U1Z. 




Tab. 4^12. 
PLEROMA Kunthianum. 

Professor Kunttis Pleroma. 



Nat. Ord. Melastomace^e. — Decandria Monooynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tad. 4362.) 



Pleroma Kunthianum ; ramulis tetragonis petiolisque aclpresse villosis, folii* 
petiolatis ovato-ellipticis acutis 5-nerviis integerrimis supra setuloso-sc;il>ri-- 
subtus villosis sericeis adpressis pallidioribus, podicdlis hispidis axOkribufl 
et terrainalibus, calycis tubo campamdato rigide setoso bracteato, lobis 
ovatis magnis, bracteis amplis imbricatis coloratis deciduis. 

Lasiandra Kunthiana. De Catid. Prodr. v. 3. p. 128. 

Pleroma Kunthianum. Paxt.Mag. Bot. v. II. p. 125 cum Tc. 



It is saying much to remark that this is equal in beauty to 
the P. elegans of Mr. Gardner, figured in this work at Tab. 4302. 
The flowers are as large, but of a very different colour : the 
stem and branches are acutely four-angled, not terete, as in that 
species, and the young branches and even leaves, and especially 
the bracteas, are tinged with bright red, which adds to the rich 
colouring of the plant. It was raised at the Botanic Garden of 
Glasgow, from seeds which had been received from Mr. Gardner 
while on his journey in Brazil, and the Royal Gardens of Kew 
owe the possession of it to Mr. Murray. It flowers in July and 
requires the heat of the stove. 

Descr. An erect, handsome-growing shrub, copiously branched: 
the branches tetragonal, trough to the touch, with copious ap- 
pressed hairs. Leaves of a peculiarly rich velvety green, oppo- 
site, petiolate, petioles often deep red, between ovate and ellip- 
tical, acute, the older ones obtuse, five-nerved, with numerous 
transverse nervelets, above velvety to the eye, but rough with 
copious short hairs, beneath paler and clothed with silky hairs. 
Peduncles solitary, generally terminating a short branch, single- 
flowered. Flower very large. Calyx-tube ovate or turbinate, 
setose, concealed by very large, coloured, imbricated, deciduous 
bracteas ; limb of five large, green, ovate, acute segments. Petals 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1848. N ^ 



rich deep purple-red, obcordate, very broad, spreading. Stamens 
ten, five large and five small. Filaments subulate, hairy : 
anthers sickle-shaped, ending in a long tube, wrinkled on the 
upper edge, and two-horned at the base. Style curved, and, as 
well as the anthers, red. 



Tig. 1. A large and a small stamen : — magnified. 



\ 



■ ),■', 




Tab. 4413. 
ASCLEPIAS Douglasii. 

Douglas Asclepias. 

Nat. Ord. AscLEPiADEiE. — Pentandkia Digynia. 

Gen, Char. Cat. alte 5-partitus, sepalis ovatis parvis patulis. Corolla alte 5- 
partita, laciniis praefloratione valvata, primo patulis dein refractis. Corona staminea 
summo gynostegio imposita, 5-phylla, foliolis cucullatis, cucullis ovatis v. superne 
dilatatis semper e fundo processum aversum corniformem stigmati incurvum einit- 
tentibus. Anthem membrana terminatae. Massce pollinis compressae, apice 
attenuato affixae, pendulae. Stigma depressum muticmn. Follicidi pergamacei, 
laeves v. ramentacei, v. spinis innocuis onusti. Semina coniosa. — Herbae perennes, 
Americanae, prtecipue Am. Sept. ; folia opposita, verticillata, raro alterna ; um- 
bella3 interpetiolares. Dcsne. 



Asclepias Douglasii ; pubescenti-tomentosa, caule simpnci, fobis oblongis 
ovato-oblongisve acutis subtus tomentosis, pedunculis brevibus pedicellisque 
. tomentosis, umbellis multifloris, corollae laciniis ovatis acutis extus tomen- 
tosis, coronae foliolis ovatis acuminatis cornu longioribus inferae marginibus 
utrinque unidentatis. 

Asclepias Douglasii. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 53. t. 142. De Cand. Prodr. 
v. 8. p. 564. 



One of the finest of the genus Asclepias : a native of the west 
side of the Rocky Mountains, where it was detected by Douglas, 
after whom it was named. Our plant is raised from seeds sent 
in 1846 from North-west America by Mr. Burke, then Collector 
for the Royal Gardens. It first flowered in the Nursery of 
Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., Exeter, in whose garden it 
made a fine appearance in the open border. It continues a long 
time in flower. 

Descr. An erect, herbaceous plant, a foot or a foot and a half 
high, with rather stout, rounded, generally unbranched, woolly 
stems. Leaves opposite or ternately whorled, a span long, varying 
from almost ovate, or ovato-lanceolate (more rarely subcordate) to 
oblong, acute, downy above, woolly beneath. Peduncles short, and as 
well as the pedicels woolly. Umbel many-flowered. Flowers crowd- 
ed, reddish purple, tinged with green. Calyx rather small : segments 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1848. 



of the corolla large, ovate, acute, concave. Coronal leaflets very 
large, at first erect, then spreading, narrow, ovate, much acumi- 
nated, below dilated on each side into a blunt toothed horn short, 
incurved. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2 and 3. Coronal leaflets : — magnified. 



Tab. 4414. 
DIPLADENIA urophylla. 
Taper-pointed Dipladenia. 



Nat. Ord. ApocynejE. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cal. 5-partitus, lobis basi interne utrinquc 1-2-glandulosis ; 
glandulis nunc ligulatis v. squamosis. Corolla hypocraterimorpha vel tnbo basi 
cylindrico et superne infundibuliformi, circa originem staminum hispida ; fauce 
exappendiculata ; lobis sestivatione sinistrorsum convolutis. Anthene subsessiles, 
in superiore parte tubi v. medio aut sub media parte ubi tubus latior sit inserts, 
sagittate, medio stigmati adhserentes, apice acuminata? v. membrana acuta ler- 
minatae. Glandule nectarii 2, cum ovariis altemantes, obtusaj, singula? e duabus 
connatis plerumque constantes, quinta glandula in Echite uno ex ovariis epposita 
deficiente. Ovaria 2, nectario ssepius longiora, Stylus 1. Stigma globulosum, 
inferne membrana reflexa umbraculiformi (an semper ?) stipatum. FoUiculi et 
semina ut in Echite. — Prutices scandentes, v. scepius suffrutices erectce t America; 
meridionalis incolee ; foliis opposite integris, mpe angustis, utrinque basi setis 
glandulisve pluribus loco stipularum stipatis, pedicellis axillarihus nunc in racemum 
terminalem approximatis, floratione centripeta ; corollis sapius purpureis. Dcsne. 



I^ipladenia urophylla; glaberrima erecta, foliis oblongo-ovatis in acumen 
longum attenuatis longiuscule petiolatis, racemis laxis nutantibus 4-6-floris, 
laciniis calycinis subulatis, corollas tubo basi angustato dein subcampanu- 
lato, limbi lobis rotundatis acutis patentibus. 



If the number of nectarial glands constitutes the distinction 
between Echites and Diplade?iia, this must fall into the latter 
genus ; but I can, neither under that, nor under Echites, described 
by Alphonse De Candolle in his elaborate account of Apocynacea 
in the Prodromus, find any species that will accord with this. 
It is from the collection of Mr. Veitch of Exeter, who raised it 
from seeds received from the Organ Mountains, Brazil : it conse- 
quently requires stove heat. It is a handsome bushy plant, with 
copious foliage and deep salmon-coloured flowers, inclining to 
purple, which hang down gracefully among the leaves. 

Descr. Fruticose, much branched, glabrous. Branches terete, 
swollen at the joints. Leaves opposite, (the rather long petioles 
articulated on the swollen portion of the joint) between ovate and 
°blong, obtuse at the base, tapering above into a long point ; the 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1848. 



texture is submembrauaceous. Racemes on slender, drooping, 
flexuose peduncles, from the axils of the leaves. Pedicels more 
or less elongated. Calyx small, deeply five-lobed : the segments 
subulate, appressed. Corolla large, handsome ; the tube tawny 
yellow, within and without, narrow and cylindrical at the base, 
the rest narrow campanulate : the limb of five large, deep, 
salmon-coloured, rotundate, obliquely spreading, acute lobes. 
Stamens included : filaments hairy, inserted at the top of the 
narrow portion of the tube of the corolla. Anthers oblong, 
monadelphous. Ovaries two, with two large opposite glands at 
the base. Styles united : stigma large, umbraculiform, five- 
angled, with two points at the apex, concealed within the stamens. 



Fig. 1. Lower part of the tube of the corolla, showing the stamens. 2. Pistil. 
3. Ovaries and glands : — magnified. 



U.15. 




litca. iel.etiifr 



B * Inw 



Tab. 4415. 
vriesia glaucophylla. 

Glaucous-leaved Vriesia. 



Nat. Ord. Bromeliace^e. — Hexandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4382.) 



Vriesia ylaucopliylla ; foliis longissime subulatis glaucis subfarinosis, scapo 
superne ramoso, rarais e basi ad apicem disticho-bracteatis spicas formantes, 
bracteis ovato-lanceolatis conduplicato-carinatis acutis uiiifloris inferioribus 
coloratis, floribus semiexsertis, petalis pupurascentibus filanientis purpureo- 
maculatis brevioribus. 



From the interior of Santa Martha, New Grenada, whence it 
was sent by our Collector, Mr. Purdie, to the Royal Gardens of 
Kew. Suspended from a piece of wire from the beam of the 
Orchideous stove, it produced its flowering spikes in August, 
1848. I refer it to Vriesia of Dr. Lindley, with which it quite 
agrees in habit ; but the whole family of Bromeliacea require a 
careful revision, which should be accomplished through the aid 
of living specimens, were it possible. They lose much of their 
character when dried for the Herbarium, and are indeed too 
much neglected by travellers. 

Descr. A moderate-sized, Aloe-like plant, without stem: the 
leaves imbricated, round a rather tumid base, spreading, re- 
curved, a foot or a foot and a half long, from a broad, and 
rather concave base, gradually tapering into a very long slender, 
acuminated point, of a firm texture and of a bluish colour, the 
effect, as it would appear, of a subfarinose or flocculose clothing. 
Prom the centre of the plant arises the scape, red, about as thick 
as one's finger, distantly bracteated, a foot and more long, above 
divided into four or five branches or spikes, a span in length, 
clothed from the base to the summit, with large, distichous, 
complieato-carinate, very acute, closely imbricated, ovato-lanceo- 
late, rigid bracieas, the lower ones red, somewhat flocculose, the 
rest green, tinged with yellow and red. Each bears a flower, of 
which one only is quite in perfection at a time upon each spike, 

DECEMBER IsT, 1848. 



much protruded beyond the bractea, erect. Calyx of three 
greenish-white, erect, appressed membranaceous scales. Corolla 
of three convolute, purple, erect petals, almost white at the apex, 
rrotmding beyond the corolla arc six long filaments, three longer 
and three shorter, beautifully spotted, or banded with purple. 
Anthers versatile, dark purple. Style a little longer than the 
stamens. Stigmas yellow, crested. 



Fig. 1. Flower : — magnified. 



w$\ 




Tab. 4416. 

SWAINSONA Greyana. 

Greys Swainsona. 



Nat. Ord. Leguminos^:. — Diadelphia Decandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx bicallosus (?) 5-dentatus. Vexillum explanatum majus. 
Mamma diadelpha (9 et 1). Carina obtusa alis sublongior. Stigma terminate. 
stylus postice longitudinaliter barbatus, antice imberbis. Legumen turgidum.— 
ouffrutices Novae Hollandiae, Jiabitu Lessertias. Folia impari-pinnata. Eacemi 
elongak axillares. Flores purpurei aid eoccinei. Be Cand. 



owainsona Greyana ; sufi'ruticosa incano-tomentosa, foliolis 3-8-jugis obloagis 
retusis, racemia multifloris folio longioribus, calycibus lanatis bibracteatis, 
leguminibus glabris inflatis stipite androecio longiore. Lindl. 

Swainsona Greyana. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1846, t. 66. 



The finest, by far, of all the Swainsonas, and much resembling 
the handsome Cycloyyne canescens, Benth., of Swan River. The 
generic characters, however, are very different as seen upon an 
analysis of the flower, and our plant belongs to a different region 
of Australia, having been found exclusively, we believe, on the 
banks of the Murray, where it was first detected by Sir Thomas 
Mitchell, and in the neighbourhood of Port Adelaide, South 
Australia. We possess fine native specimens in a collection 
from the latter country, presented to us by the Dowager Countess 
of Stradbroke. 

The species requires the protection of a cool greenhouse, and 
would probably bear our summers in the open border. It 
blossoms from June to August, and has been cultivated most 
successfully by Mr. Ingram of the Exotic Nursery, Southampton, 
to whom we are indebted for the specimen here figured, which 
had been raised from Port Adelaide seeds. 

Descr. A half shrubby plant, about two feet high, hairy with 
short down. Stems obscurely striated, branched. Leaves, a 
span long, pinnated with about eight pairs of oblong, obtuse or 
retuse leaflets, and an odd terminal one. Stipules ovate, acumi- 
nate. Macemes often a foot long, axillary, peduncled, much longer 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1848. 



than the leaves. Pedicels bracteated. Flowers large, handsome, 
purple. Calyx cup-shaped, hoary, with an appressed bractea on 
each side at the base. Vexillum very large, with a conspicuous, 
white, eye-like spot in the centre. Ala oblong. Carina boat- 
shaped, obtuse. Stamens diadelphous (|). Anthers yellow. Ovary 
linear, stipitate. Style subulate, curved upwards, with a line of 
hairs on its upper side. 



Fig. 1. Calyx, stamens, and pistil. 2. Vexillum. 3. Ala. 4. Carina. 
5. Pistil: — magnified. 



* 



45 

appropiate name than that of the zealous and intelligent explorer 
of those far off regions. I learn from Prince Salm-Dyck that a 
Cereus, probably the same species, was sent to England by 
Mr. Potts, of Chihuahua, but his specimens also did not live ; 
they were very remarkable for having a thick turnip-shaped root, 
Neither Dr. W. nor Dr. G. having paid attention to the root, I 
am unable to say whether their specimens agree with those of 
Mr. Potts in this particular. 

Dr. Wislizenus was forced to go from Chihuahua westward to 
Cosihuiriachi. However prejudicial this involutary interruption 
of his journey may have been to the primary objects of his expe- 
dition, it appears that he could not have selected a more favourable 
field for botanical researches. Amongst the porphyry mountains 
of Cosihuiriachi and Llanos, which vary from 6,000 to 8,000 
feet in height, and their deep chasm-like valleys, a great many 
undescribed species of plants were found ; in fact almost every- 
thing collected there appears to be new ! 

Amongst the trees, I mention three species of pines, entirely 
different from those found farther north, but perhaps identical 
with some species from the Pacific coast. The most magnificent 
of these three is a species nearly related to Pinus strobus and 
Pinus flexilis, which I name P. strobiformis. Its size and growth, 
its foliage, as well as the shape of the cones, resemble the common 
white pine of the north, but the cones are two or three times as 
large, not to speak of the other differences. It only grows on the 
highest mountains of this region, of about 8,000 feet elevation, 
and attains the height of 100 to 130 feet. 

Pirns macrophylla, another inhabitant of the higher mountains 
of Chihuahua, is more common than the last ; like it, it closely 
resembles a well-known species of the United States, P. australis, 
from which it differs by its short cones, which have on each scale 
a mammillary recurved tubercle, and by having the leaves not 
only in threes, but also in fours and even in fives. It may be near 
P. occidentals of the interior of Mexico, but that has regularly 
five leaves in each sheath. 

P. Chihuahuana is the common pine of Cosihuiriachi and the 
mountains of Chihuahua, in general at an elevation of about 
7,000 feet. It grows only thirty to fifty feet high, and resembles 
somewhat P. variabilis, though sufficiently distinct. Dr. Wisli- 
zenus was unable to obtain specimens of a fourth pine, which is 
said to grow on the still higher mountains to the west, near 
Jesus-Maria, bearing cones fifteen or eighteen inches in length. 

On the highest peaks in this region a species of Arbutus was 
found, which the inhabitants call Matronia ; it is a small tree 



46 

with a smooth, red bark, bearing in November and December 
red edible berries. If it is at all distinct from A. Menziesii, 
Pursh, of the northwest coast, which it closely resembles, it ought, 
from the colour of its bark, to bear the name of A. sanguinea. 
These, together with a low scrubby oak tree, with small peren- 
nial leaves, were the only trees collected about Cosihuiriachi. 
A species of Juniperus with red berries, a Thuja, and a small- 
leaved Comma (?), all of them in fruit, were also brought from 
there. 

Between Chihuahua and Cosihuiriachi, but especially about 
the latter place, the porphyritic soil produced a number of Cac- 
tacecs, some strange Echinocacti, several Mammillaria, a few 
Opuntite, and principally a great variety of Echinocerei. One 
of the latter is completely covered with stout and long spines ; 
another has short radiating spines, closely adpressed to the 
plant ; a third has short radiating spines with single, stout black 
central ones, which project from the plant in all directions ; a 
fourth is distinguished by its longer and curved reddish radiating 
spines, with a stouter one projecting from their centre. I have 
all of these in cultivation, but have not as yet seen flowers or 
fruit from any one of them ; still they cannot but belong to 
my genus Echinocercus, to judge from analogy. 

Some Mammillaria of Cosihuiriachi are distinguished by their 
compact shape ; the tubercles are very short, globose, or even 
hemispherical, the spines strong, numerous, radiating, and ad- 
pressed, the fruits central from a woolly vertex : Mammittaria 
compacts. Another, M. gummifera, belongs together with two 
species from Texas, and from the mouth of the Rio Grande to 
tlie section Angular es, with pyramidal 4 -angled tubercles, and 
milky juice, which hardening forms a gum. A third species 
belongs to Crinita, and is a most elegant little plant with 
numerous hair-like radiating and one stout, hooked, central spine ; 
I have named it M. barbata. The specimen communicated by 
Dr. Wislizenus, the only one found, was dead when it arrived 
here, but many fruits were adhering to the plant, and I was 
thus fortunate enough to cultivate it from the seeds. 

Other remarkable Cactaceee from the State of Chihuahua, 
which have been communicated to Dr. Wislizenus by Mr. Potts, 
of Chihuahua, are not described here, as it is believed that 
Mr. P. has sent them already to England, where, no doubt long 
before this, they have been published. 

Amongst the other distinguished plants of Cosihuiriachi and 
Llanos, I cannot omit to mention a beautiful Delphinium, which 
grew abundantly here; a Silene, which is perhaps new, but 



47 

comes near to S. multicaidis, Nutt., of the Rocky mountains, 
and 8. Moginiana, DC. of Mexico j a new Boiwardia, which is 
remarkably distinct from all the other Mexican species of this 
genus by its smoothness; an Echiveria perhaps identical with 
the Californian E. caspitosa, DC. ; several Gerania, which ap- 
pear to be undescribed, one of them with white flowers; an* 
Eryngium, with the lowest leaves most elegantly pectinated, and 
the upper ones palmately divided; a Zinnia, intermediate 
between Zinnia multiflora and Z. elegans, and which last season 
grew finely near St. Louis from seeds picked from these speci- 
mens. Many other Composite have not yet been examined ; a 
Centaurea may be found to be distinct from C. Americana, so 
far the only American species of that genus, which is so exten- 
sively diffused in the old world. 

Leaving aside several Datea>, Lupini, Gilte, a Gentiana, Bnch- 
nera, Castilleja a number of Labiate, Graminea, and many 
others, I will only mention a few more, which I had time to 
study more closely. First of all, the beautiful and delicate 
Ileuchera sanguinea, probably the most southern, and certainly 
the most ornamental, species of that genus. Next in beauty 
comes the bright-flowered Pentstemon coccinem ; Lobelia mucro- 
nata, with fine red, and L. pectinata, with blue flowers. 
Amongst the most curious plants collected here is also to be 
mentioned an Eriogonum with inflated clavate internodia and 
dark red flowers. Phaseolm bilobatns is another interesting 
plant. 

In the following spring Dr. Wislizenus accompanied the 
Missouri volunteers, under Colonel Doniphan, from Chihuahua 
to Parras, Saltillo, Monterey, and Matamoras. 

Zealous as ever, he again made large collections on his tour, 
but his duties as a military surgeon occupied his time rather 
more than the naturalist should have desired. Nevertheless his 
collections are very full. Fortunately Dr. Gregg accompanied 
the same expedition, and also made rich collections in that 
almost unknown region, which we may consider as the south- 
western limits of the valley of the Rio Grande. 

Before going into the detail I will only remark here, what a 
reference to the map and sections will more fally present, that 
the country between Chihuahua and Parras has a general eleva- 
tion of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet; between Parras and Saltillo 
it rises from 5,000 to 6,000 feet, and thence it rapidly descends 
towards the lower Rio Grande. 

South of Chihuahua, a curious leafless Euphorbia was collec- 
ted, with tuberous roots and leafless stem, nevertheless apparently 



48 

a near relative of E. cyathophora. Here, for the first time, Berberis 
trifoliata, Moric., was met with, which appears to inhabit the 
whole middle and lower valley of the Rio Grande, as we find it 
again in this collection from Monterey, and Mr. Lindheimer has 
sent beautiful specimens from the Guadaloupe, in Texas. 

Echinocerei and Echinocacti appear in greater abundance. 
The re-discovery of the beautiful Echinocereus pectinatus {Eclii- 
nocactns pectinatus, Schiede., E. pectiniferus, Lem., Echinopsis 
pectinata, Salm, in part) is peculiarly interesting, as it furnishes 
the means of proving a Texan species, which has been con- 
founded with it, to be entirely distinct. The description of the 
plants (which died without producing flowers), found in several 
works, as well as in the latest publication on Cactacece, before 
me, of Foerster, Leipzig, 1846, was made, as Prince Salm in- 
formed me, from specimens sent from Chihuahua by Mr. Potts ; 
it entirely agrees with my specimen from the same region. But 
the description in Poerster's work of the flower of a specimen in 
Cassel, flowering in 1843, (not known from where obtained,) shows 
that to be identical with a Texan species, common between the 
Brazos and Nueces rivers, which I have described in Engelmann 
and Gray's Plantse Lindheimerianae, Boston Journal of Natural 
History, vol. v. p. 247, under the name of Cereus ccespitosus, 
and which should now be named Echinocereus ccespitosns. 
Echinopsis pectinata, /3. Icevior, Monv., and y. Beichenbachiana, 
Salm, are perhaps forms of this Texan plant, which varies consi- 
derably in its native country. Dr. Wislizenus has sent me a 
living specimen and dried flowers of E. pectinatus; unfortunately 
the plant met with a similar fate to those sent to England by 
Mr. Potts, and there is none now in cultivation, if I am correctly 
informed ; but I preserve the dried specimens in my herbarium, 
and have been enabled to draw up from it the description. 

Near San Pablo another Echinocereus was found, and dried 
flowers, as well as living specimens, have safely arrived here. A 
large Echinocactus was collected near Pelayo ; unfortunately no 
flowers were seen ; but the specimen brought to St. Louis is so 
far in fine condition. Of another smaller, but most elegant 
species of the same genus, Br. Wislizenus collected the living 
plant and flowers, and Dr. Gregg the ripe fruit. It is distinct 
from the other Echinocacti found in those regions by the mem- 
branaceous very thin sepaloid scales on the tube of the flower, 
and the juicy glabrous fruit, in which respect it resembles my 
E. setispinus from Texas ; E. Tecoensis, Hpfr., has a juicy fruit, 
covered with woolly and spiny scales ; E. Wislizeni and others 
have a dry fruit, covered with hard scales. 



49 

My Opuntia frutescens (Plant. Lindh. 1. c. p. 245.) which had 
been collected by Mr. Lindheimer along the Colorado and 
Guadaloupe rivers, in Texas, was also found south of Chihuahua 
by Dr. Wislizenus, and again along the route near Parras, and 
below Monterey. The suggestion made in the Plant. Lindh., 
that it may be a southern variety of O.fragilis of the Upper 
Missouri, has proved to be erroneous, as they belong to quite 
distinct sections of the genus Opuntia \ 0. frutescens, together 
with 0. vaginata, is one of the Opuntia cylindracea graciliores, 
and is apparently nearly related to 0. leptocaidis DC, but is 
easily distinguished by its strong, white, single spines, while 
the latter has three short blackish bristles. 

Agave Americana, with several relatives, was found in abun- 
dance on this part of the route ; Argemone Mexicana, white,yellow, 
or rose-coloured, was frequently met with ; Samolus ebracteatvs 
occurred in moist places thus far inland, and on these elevations, 
while before it was only known as a littoral plant ; Malvacece, 
Oenothera, Asclepiadacea, Gilice, Solanece, Justicia, shrubby 
Labiatce, were collected of many different species ; but the great 
characteristic of the country were the shrubs forming the often 
impenetrable thickets, called "chaparrals." They are mostly 
spinous, very much branched, often with remarkably small leaves, 
and not rarely with edible fruits. Amongst them many rham- 
naceous and celastraceous shrubs, and some Euphorbiacea, were 
particularly conspicuous, as well as some Mimosea, one of which 
I must not forget to mention, because it is perhaps the smallest 
shrub in this family ; not more than one or two inches high, 
with diminutive leaflets, but large purple flowers ; it was col- 
lected near Chihuahua. 

One of the most offensive of these chaparral-shrubs was the 
Kceberlinia, Zucc, called Junco, (Gregg.) ; a small tree rather 
than a shrub, about ten feet high, stem four to six inches in 
diameter ; wood hard, dark brown with white alburnum ; ter- 
minal branches green, with a dark brown spinous point, 
one to two inches long, and one and a half to two lines in dia- 
meter ; very small subulate leaves soon deciduous ; small white 
flowers in short lateral racemes; fruit not seen; in flower in 
May. It was frequently seen from south of Chihuahua to Mon- 
terey, (and Matamoros. Gregg.) 

We find here again the interesting Chilopsis mentioned above, 
also Larrea glutinosa, and another zygophyllaceous shrub, a 
true Guajacum, which appears to be an undescribed species; 
it belongs to those plants that connect the Mexican with the 
Texan flora, as we find it extending from Parras to Monterey, 



50 

and from thence to the Upper Colorado, in Texas. Tecoma Stans 
re-appeared here with smaller pubescent leaves and more alate 
petiole, through probably not distinct from the larger and 
smoother plant found below Paso. 

The beautiful Fouquiera splendens, with its panicles of long 
tubular crimson fiWers, rose here above all other shrubs ; in 
some instances it reached a height of from twenty to thirty feet, 
and perhaps more, always in single stems. 

A few species of Yucca, together with Opuntia arbor escens, 
formed almost the only trees on the arid plains. But in the 
valley of the Nazas occur stately trees of a species of JIgarobia, 
distinct from the A. glandulom of the north, with broader 
legumes, larger seeds, and few or no glands on the leaves. 

About Saltillo Echinqcactus Texensis, Hpfr., (E. Lindheimeri, 
Engelin., in Plant. Lindh. 1. c.,) was found, which extends from 
here to Matamoros, and to the Guadeloupe and Colorado, in 
Texas. The pretty Mammillaria strobiliformis grows on rocks 
near Rinconada. Hunnemannia fumaricefolia, Sweet, was col- 
lected near Saltillo, with smaller flowers, (an inch and a half in 
diameter,) and near Rinconada, with larger ones, (three inches 
in diameter) j an interesting plant, the eastern representative of 
the Californian Esch.se/ioltzia, but perennial, with a small torus, 
a different stigma, &c. 

I cannot omit introducing here a beautiful shrub discovered 
on the rocks about Agua Nueva and Buena Vista by Dr. Gregg. 
Depending upon Don's characters of Cowania as correct, I must 
consider this plant as the type of a new genus, which I have 
great pleasure to dedicate to its indefatigable discoverer, my 
friend Dr. Josiah Gregg, whose name has already been frequently 
mentioned in these pages. Greggia rupestris is a lovely, sweet- 
scented shrub, with flowers resembling roses in shape and colour, 
so that Dr. Gregg was induced to name it the " Cliff rose." 

North and north-east of Monterey we reach the lower country, 
and with it a different vegetation; here is the home of the 
shrubby Cassiea {Parkinsonia, Casparea, &c.,) aud Mimosea ; 
Sophora, Diospgros, some species of Rhus and Rhamnus are 
common here, as well as a climbing yellow-flowered Hiraa, 
while another erect, red-flowered species grows on the table- 
lands near Parras. One of the most beautiful shrubs of that 
district is Leucophgllum Texanum, Benth., with its whitish, to- 
mentose leaves, and sweet-scented blue flowers. It is common 
from San Antonio, in Texas, to Monclova, and from Cerralbo to 
Camargo, but it is not seen on the table-lands. 

Vitis bipinnata and V. incisa, well known in the south-western 



51 

parts of the United States and Texas, were also found here. 
Remarkable herbaceous plants were a Nicotiana, an Orobanche 
(on the sea-coast,) a Eustoma, several Asclepiadacea, Malvaceae, 
Cucurbitacete, Labiata>, and others. Lobelia phyllostachya has 
already been mentioned above. 

Hasty and imperfect as this notice of the collections of Dr. 
Wislizenus is, it cannot but impress the botanist with the rich- 
ness and novelty of the Flora of these countries, and invite the 
arduous explorer to further exertions. 

GEORGE ENGELMANN, M.D. 

St. Louis, December, 1847.