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Full text of "Curtis's botanical magazine"

CURTIS'S 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE, 



„,*.*»• 



COMPRISING THE 



plants of ti)t ftopal <£arfcm£! of Itfto, 

AND 

OF OTHER BOTANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN GREAT BRITAIN ; 
WITH SUITABLE DESCRIPTIONS: 

BY 

SIR WILLIAM JACKSON HOOKER, K.H., D.C.L. Oxon., 

LLJ), F.R.S. and L.S, Vice-President of the Linnean Society, and Director of the Koyal Gardens of Kew. 

AND 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE CULTUEE OE EACH SPECIES; l 
By Me. JOHN SMITH, A.L.S., 

Curator of the Royal Gardens. 



VOL. VII. 

OF THE THIRD SERI 
{Or Fol.LXXriL of the Whole Work.) 




' There breathes, for those who understand, 

A voice from every flower and tree ; 
And in the work of Nature's hand, 

Lies Nature's best philosophy ; 
For ' things invisible ' are known, 
By what the visible have shown." 



LONDON: 

REEVE AND BE Nil 
HENRIETTA STREET, ( 



GARDEN. 



1851. 




J'KI.VTKD BY BEEVE AND NICHOLS, 
KEATOOOCK COURT, STRAND. 



TO 



DR. ASA GRAY, 



PROFESSOR OF BOTANY 



UNIVERSITY OF NEW CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, 



WHOSE RECENT SOJOURN AT KEW 



HAS BUT TENDED TO INCREASE THE MUTUAL REGARD AND ESTEEM 



INDUCED BY A FORMER VISIT AND BT LONG CORRESPONDENCE, 



CJ)e $rt£tent Volume 



IS DEDICATED, 



BY HIS FAITHFUL AND AFFECTIONATE FRIEND, 

ft 



THE AUTHOR. 



Royal Gardens, Kew, 
Dec. 1st, 1851. 



INDEX, 

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Seventh 
Volume of the Third Series (or Seventy-seventh Volume of 
the Work) are alphabetically arranged. 



Plate. 

4588 Acacia hispidissima. 

4573 — — — urophylla. 

4594 Allamanda neriifolia. 
4598 Allium Caspiuni. 

4603 Amomum Grammi Paradisi. 

4595 Arbutus, mollis. 
4557 Aster Sikkimensis. 
4588 Ataccia cristata. 
4590 Berberis Darwinii. 
4605 Browallia Jamesoni. 
4555 Campanula colorata. 
4608 Camptosema rubicundum. 

4582 Cantua bimfolia. 

4596 Cathcartia villosa. 
1618 Cedronella cana. 
4611 Centrosolenia picta. 
4602 Chrysobactron Hookeri. 
4576 Cliysis aurea ; tsar, maculata. 
4619 Dendrobium cucumerinum. 
4554 Didymocarpus crinita. 
4578 Dombeya mollis. 

4568 viburniflora. 

4571 Dracaena Draco. 

4562 Echinocactus streptocaulon. 

4559 Visnaga. 

4567 Echinopsis campylacantha. 

4572 Epidendrum linearifolium. 

4606 verrucosum. 

4616 Eitz-Eoya Patagonica. 
4587 Forsytliia viridissima. 

4583 Eranciscea calycina. 
4610 Galeandra Devoniana. 
4607 Grammanthes chlorseflora. 

4574 llebecliniura ianthinum. 
1581 Helleborus atro-rubens. 



Plate. 

4556 Hydromestus maculatus. 

4615 Impatiens pulcherrima. 

4586 Ixora Javauica. 

4620 Klugia Notouiana. 
4593 Leucotlioe neriifolia. 
4561 Lilium Waltichianum. 

4569 Medinilla Javanensis. 
4577 Mormodes atro-purpurea. 
4558 Myrtus orbiculata. 
4604 Nymphaea elegans. 

4565 Passiflora penduliflora. 

4599 Pedicularis mollis. 
4601 Pentstemon Wrightii. 
4580 Persea gratissima. 

4600 Physochlaina grandiflora. 
4564 Pistia Stratiotes. 

4591 Pitcairnia exscapa. 

4622 Polygonum vacciniifoHum. 

4613 Potentilla ambigua. 
4597 Primula Sikkimensis. 

4592 Pyxidanthera barbulata. 
4585 Ranunculus spicatus. 
4609 Rhododendron Championse. 
4579 Rondeletia versicolor. 

4621 Saxifraga flagellaris. 
4560 Schcenia oppositifolia. 

4570 Sobralia sessilis. 

4614 Sphasrostema propinquum. 
4563 Tamarindus officinalis. 

4566 Thibaudia macrantha. 
4617 Ullucus tuberosus. 
4612 Vaccinium Rollisoni. 
4584 Wallichia densiflora. 
4575 Wigandia Caracasana. 



INDIA, 

In which the Bngfah Ntmesolfthepkuitf oootained in the Seventh 
tame of the Third Series {at Berenty-teventh Volume of 
the Work) are alphabetically arranged. 



Plate. 

4588 Acacia, hispid. 

pointed-leaved. 

Allamanda, oleander-leaved. 

4603 Amomum, graius of Paradise; 

or Mellegetta Pepper. 
4595 Arbutus, soft-leaved. 
r, Sikkim. 

4589 Ataccia, crested. 

4615 Balsam, handsome-flowered . 
4555 Bell-flower, deep-coloured. 

4590 Berberry, Mr. Darwin's. 
4605 Browallia, yellow-flowered. 
4559 Cactus, Yisnaga or inon- 
4608 Camptosema, ruby-flowered. 

Cantua, box-leaved. 
4596 Cathcartia, villous. 

4618 Cedronella, hoary -leaved. 
4611 Centrosolenia, painted-leavt d. 
4602 Chrysobactron, Dr. Hooker's. 
4576 Chysis, golden-flowered; spot- 
ted var. 

4585 Crowfoot, spike-fruited. 

4619 Dendrobium, cucumber. 
4554 Didymocarpus, hairy. 
4578 Dombeya, soft -leaved. 

4568 Viburnum-flowered. 

4571 Dragon's-blood tree. 
4567 Echinopsis, curve-spined. 
4562 Echinocactus, spiral-stemmed . 

4572 Epidendrum, narrow-leaved. 

4606 warted. 

4616 Fitz-Eoya, Patagonian. 
4587 Porsythia, dark-green-leaved. 
4583 Pranciscea, large-calyxed. 
4610 Galeandra, Duke of Devonshire's 

4607 Grammanthes, yellowwort- 

flowered. 



Plate 

4574 Hcbeclinium, violet. 

658] Hellebore, dark-purple-ftV\ 

4556 Hydromc- an. 

4586 Ixora, Java 

4620 Klugia, East Indian. 

I knotwecd, whortle-bcrried. 

ter. 
Leucoth-x'. oleand. r 
4561 Lily, Dr. Wallich's Nepal. 

4599 LoQMWOrt, soft-leaved Indian. 
4569 Medinilla. 

4577 ' -. black-purple. 

Myrtle, orbinilar-leaved. 
4598 Onion, Caspian. 
4565 Passion-flower, drooping-blos- 

somed. 
4580 Par, Avocado or Alligator. 
4601 Pe&UtemOD, Mr. Wright's. 

4600 -flowered. 
l."j!il Pitoainiia, steii,' 

4619 rotemilla, three-toothed lliiuu- 
layau. 
. Primrose, Sikkiin. 
4592 Pyxidanthcra, bearded. 
4609 Rhododendron, Mrs. ( 'hampion's 
4579 Eondeletia, changeable-flowered. 
4621 Saxifrage, tpider-leg 
4560 Schoenia, opposite-leaved. 
4570 Sobralia, sessile-flowered. 
461 1- Sphaerostema, Dr. WaHieb's, 
4563 Tamarind 

4566 Thibaudia, large- flowered. 
4617 Ulluco. 

4584 Wallichia, dense-flowered. 
4604 Water-Lily, elegant. 
4575 Wigandia, Cameras. 
4612 Whortleberry, Rollison's. 






4- S S 4-. 




S.e.v» Jb KicKaU. 



Tab. 4554. 

DIDYMOCARPUS crinita 

Hairy Didymocarpm. 



Nat. Orel. Cyrtandhace^. — Didynamia AiroiOBPEBHiA. 



Gen. Char. Calyx 5-fidus vel partitus. Corolla infundibuliformis, limbo 5- 
lobo subirregulari ravius bilabiato. Stamina 4, quorum 2 (rariua I) antherifera. 
dnthera reniformes. Ovarium elongatiuu. Sights lmvis. Stigma orbiculaium, 
indivisuni. Capsula siliquaeformis, bivalvis, valvis introllrxis falso-4-locularibus. 
Semina nuda, la>via, pcndula. — Suffrutices vel herbse Tndica. Folia radicalia out 
caulina, alterna ant sapius opposita, magnolia. IVdunculi axillares, ramori, mil 
dichotomo-cymosi. Mores violacei aut albi. I)e Cand. 



Didymocarpus crinita ; suft'ruticosa erccta simplex tota pilosa, cattle brovi 
villosissimo, foliis sessilibus cuneato-lanceolatis arguto-serratis v< lutinis 
subtus purpureo-rubris, pedicellis 3-5 axillaribus folio brcvioribus, calycil 
5-partiti laciniis lato-subulatis, staminibus 2 abortivis. 

Didymocarpus crinita. Jack, Mai. Misc. in Hook. Bot. Misc. r. ;>. p. 60; H in 
Linn. Trans, v. 14. p. 33. t. 3. /. 2. a-i. De Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 865\ 
Spreng. Syst. Vegei. v. 2. p. 837. 

ITknckelia crinita. Spreng. Cur. Post. p. 13. 



A lovely plant, its beauty rather depending on the leaves (which 
have a rich velvety hue, as well as a richness of cokmr, especially 
beneath) than from anything striking in the flowers. The latter 
are pure white with us (Jack says, in their native country 
suffused with blush), and they contrast well with the dark 
foliage. Flowers in August. Our plant was received from 
Baron Hugel of Vienna, but without any name. We possess, 
in our herbarium, fine native specimens, gathered by Mr. Thomas 
Lobb at Singapore, given to us by Mr. Veitch (no. 311 of 
Lobb's collection), and we find, too, that this distinguished 
cultivator exhibited flowering plants at the Horticultural 
Society's rooms in June 1847. Mr. Jack detected it at Pulo- 
Penang. 

Descii. Stem erect, scarcely a span high, densely snaggy 
with purplish hairs. Leaves opposite, broad-lanceolate, acute. 
finely dentato-serrate, all over hairy, above dark coppery green 
with a velvety lustre, beneath rich purple-red, pennmerved, 

JANUARY 1ST, 1851. 



nerves prominent beneath. Petkmnlm shorter than the lev 

from an axil (muted to r 1 1- - petk>k or to tin- midrib, J 
erect, smgle-flowered, hairy, bibrocti I ( F four deep, 

red, hroailish, Babul ' la infundibuliionu, \tn- 

tricose below the broad-spreading fi?e-lobed white lij), yellow, 
with the tube two inches long. SUihu/is included, arising from 
near the top of the tube, two "I them sterile. Antien connate. 
four-angled. Ovarii linear. //".././/. 

Cult. This singular-looking plant, a native of l'ulo-IVnang, 
should be cultivated in a warm stove, in a temperature such 
as is suited to tropical OreUdae >■«■. and other sub- 

epiphytal plants, that require ■ warm and moist atmosphere 
during their season of growth. Like most of its allies, it 
thrives in a mixture of light loam and leaf-mould or turfy peat, 
and must not be over-watered during the winter. It appears 
to be of dwarf growth, and produces BUort lateral shoots from 
amongst the leaves, which strike root readily when treated as 
cuttings. J. S. 



Kg. 1. Corolla laid open. 3. Anthn>. I and |>i-tii. I i 

the ovary with its annular gland : — ,narjmjb'<t '. 




Rick id 



&1.T. » 



Tab. 4555. 
CAMPANULA colorata. 

Deep-coloured Bell-flower. 



Nat. Ord. Campanulace,e. — Pentandria Moxogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 4-fidus. Corolla apice 5-loba vel 5-fida, saspius campanu- 
lata. Stamina 5, libera, filamentis basi latis et membranaceis. Stylus in pr»- 
floratione pilis collectoribus (excepta ima basi) tectus. Stigmata 3 vel 5, fili- 
formia. Capmla 3-5-locularis, valvis 3-5 lateraliter debiscens. Semina ovata, 
complanata vel ovoidea. — Herbse scepius perennes, nunc humiles et humifusce, nunc 
2-3,-pedales, erectce, multifiorce ; foliis radical "thus sapius forma diversis ; floribus 
terminalibus vel axillaribus : — omnes in beniisphasrio boreali. Be Cand. 



Campanula colorata ; caule ramoso pubescente, foliis sparsis ovato-lanceolatis 
acutis repando-dentatis, pedunculis elongatis terminabbus et axillaribus, 
calycis tubo piloso obconico, lobis amplis subfoliaceis triangulari-acumi- 
natis obsolete repando-dentatis, corolla tubnloso-campanulata extus pilosa, 
capsula turbinata subnutante. 

Campanula colorata. Wall, in Roxb. Fl. hid. ed. Wall. 17.2.^.101. Cat.n.1281. 
Be Cand. Prodr. v.l.p.4>T3. 

/3. Moorcroftiana ; foliis minus dentatis. Be Cand. Prodr. 

CAMPANULA^Moorcroftiana ; Wall. Cat. n. 1288. 



Raised from seeds sent by Dr. Hooker, to the Royal 
Gardens of Kew, in 1849, from Sikkim-Himalaya, elevation 
10,000 feet above the level of the sea. It seems quite hardy, 
and flowered through the autumn in the open border, even as 
late as November, when our drawing was made. It would ap- 
pear to have a very extensive range along the whole Himalaya 
chain, and on both sides. Dr. Wallich's original specimens 
were gathered at "Luclak" in 1821, as stated in his valuable 
edition of ' Mora Indica ;' afterwards, in his ' Catalogue,' the 
further stations of Nepal, Deyra Dhoon, and Kamoon are given. 
Professor De Candolle refers to it, and probably justly, Dr. 
AVallich's C. Moorcroftiana (as suggested by Dr. Wallich him- 
self) from Ladak in Thibet, and our herbarium contains speci- 
mens) not only from the above localities (presented by the Hon. 
the E. I. Company) but also from Simla and from Afghanistan. 

JANUARY 1ST, 1851. 



It i> variable in its growth, soiiu'tim. sometimes trailing. 

h< oopaoua deep-ootonred befl-floweri would render it agi 

ornament for rock-work. 

soil Perennial? Stems from a span to two feet long, 
slender, much branched, angular, villous. £00001 alternate, 

remote, broadly or ovato-lanceolate, acuminate, di-tantly toothed 
or sinuate. - attenuated into a AxoYlfnMulk, pabescent 

with scattered hairs. J' slender, mure or leas elongated 

(much so in age), terminal and axillary, single- flown ! ( ///// 
villous. Tube turbinate, five-angled : limb large, of the spread- 
ing almost fohaceous kibes , triangular-acuniinate. smaato-denl 
Corolla campanulate, deep purple, bright, tube rather elongated, 
lobes rather large, spreading. / free, 

very broad at the base. Style much longer than the stara 
Stigmas three, recurved. W. •/. //. 

Cult. This was raised from seed in the spring of the paal Year, 
and produced its flowers in the latter part of summer and au- 
tumn. From its appearance at the present tune, we have e\ 
reason to think it will prove perennial. Pew plants from the 
elevated regions within or near the tropica although in their 
native localities enduring a great degree of cold) are able, to 
resist the severity of some of our winters without some pro- 
tection. It is therefore desirable to keep plants of this Cam- 
panula in small pots, under a frame, planting them out in 
spring in the open border. J.S. 



Fig. 1. Calyx with stamens and pistil ■ — mmjniji,d 




B-tt-x. iTJii&alj uq. 



Tab. 4556. 

HYDROMESTUS maculatus. 

. M< 'iican Jlydru/iti'stm. 



Nat. Ord. Acaxthace.e. — Didvnamia Angiospekmia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx bibracteolatus, quinquepartitus, laciniis superioribus aequa- 
libus acutis, quiata postica obtusa. Corolla hypogyna, iiifimdibulifonnis, bi- 
labiata, tubo longo ; labio superiore bifido, lobis obtusis revolutis inferioris tri- 
fidi laciniis axpialibus. Spicee bracteis arete appressis, cucullatis, aqua limpida 
impletis. Stamina quatuor, sequalia, corolla? tubo inserta, barbata; antherte 
uniloculares, apice et basi lanuginoso-barbataa. Ovarium biloculare, loculis bi- 
ovulatis. Stylus simplex; stigma bilabiatum, labiis iuasqualibus. Capsula 
sessilis, tetragons, bilocularis, loculis dispermis, dissepimento incomplete, locu- 
licide bivalvis, vahoit medio septiferis. Senium discoidea, rugosa, retinaculis 
uncinatis suffulta. Sclieidio. 



Hydromestus maculatus. 

Hydromestus maculatus. Sclteidiceiler in Gartm-Zeituug, 1842. p. 28t 
Lindl. in flot. Reg. 1843. Misc. n. 46. 



Received at Kew from Mr. Lowe of the Clapton Nursery. 
According to Dr. Lindley, it was introduced from Brussels to 
our gardens. Although published by Scheidweiler in 1842, 
according to the same author, yet the genus does not seem to 
be taken up, nor the plant noticed, by Dr. Nees von Esenbeck 
in De Candolle's ' Prodromus.' It is a native of Mexico, and is 
really a handsome plant, with very glossy leaves (not spotted 
with us), bright yellow flowers, and a singularly nitid imbricated 
spike of large bracteas (like the scales on some Pine-cone), from 
which the flowers spring. 

Descr. An undershrub, according to Scheidweiler, with te- 
rete purplish branches, and opposite, large, petiolated, very 
glossy leaves, ovate or ovato-lanceolate, entire, penninerved 
(spotted, Scheidweiler). Petiole an inch to an inch and a 
half long, semiterete. Spikes solitary, terminal and axillary. 
Bracteas large, broad-ovate, carinated, bright green, imbricated 
like the scales of a cone, but in four rows. Flowers yellow. 
Calyx bibracteolate, five-partite, four of the sepals equal, the fifth 

JANUARY 1ST, 1851. 



broader, obtuse. Corolla much snorted beyond the bracteaa 

Tube narrow, funnel-shaped, a little inflated, yet lateral!} coin- 
pressed at the month ; Umb large, two-lipped ; lips spreading : 
upper one two-lobed, the lower thiee-lobed, all the lobes emar- 
ginate. Stamens four, included. Filaments hairy. Anther* 
bearded at the summit. Style also included. Stigma unequally 
bifid. W. J. H. 

Cult. A plant which requires to be grown in a warm and 
moist stove, and thrives in a mixture of light loam and 
leaf-mould. It appears to flower freely, the drawing having 
been made from a plant not more than a foot high. Being" 
like other soft-wooded Jcant/iacea, apt to become naked and 
unsightly when old, it is desirable to keep a succession of young 
plants, which are readily obtained from cuttings. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Stamens and style. 2. Anterior view of a calyx, with pistil 3 Pos- 
terior view of a calyx : — magnified. 




BtdLialBtlitk 



B-eeve fc BiaLols. imp 



Tab. 4557. 

ASTER SlKKIMENSIS. 

S'dkim Aster, or Michaelmas Daisv 



Xat. Ord. Composite. — Syngenesia Superflua. 

Gen. Char. Capitulum radiatum,^. radii ligulatis fertilibus 1-serialibus, disci 
hermaphroditis 5-dentatis. Receptaculum planum, alveolatum, alveolorum mar- 
ginibus plus minus dentatis. Involvcri squamae pluriseriales, laxsv vel imbricata?, 
apice plus minus herbaceae, imo interdum fobaceae. Ac/ianium compressum. 
Pappus pilosus, persistens, pluriseriabs, setis scabridis subinaequalibus eaeterum 
inter se similibus. — Herbs prre/uies, plereeque ex America boreali, rarius ex orbe 
veteri aut ex Amer. austr. artce, interdum svffrvticosa aut scaposa. Folia alterna, 
simplicia, Integra aut dentata. Capitula solitaria aut plurima, corymbosa seu 
paniculate. Discus yfaras, demum interdum purpurascens. Radius alius cteruleus 
purpureusve. Be Cand. 



Aster Sikkimensis ; caule erecto glabra ramoso, foliis lanceolatis glabris longe 
acuminatis spinuloso-denticulatis venoso-reticulatis, radicabbus majoribus 
sublonge petiolatis, caulinis sessilibus, corymbis amplis polycephabs folio- 
losis, peduueulis pedicellisque pubescentibus, involucri foliolis linearibus 
acuminatis subsquarrosis, tioribus purpureis, acheniis scabris. 



Raised from seeds sent by Dr. Hooker to the Royal Gardens 
of Kew from the alpine regions of Sikkim. It flowers with us 
in October, and enlivens the garden at that late season with 
its copious bright purple flowers. We propose to treat it as 
a hardy plant. It seems to have a good claim to rank with the 
genus Aster, as now limited by De Candolle, of which very few 
certain species inhabit India, and those are chiefly confined to 
the temperate climates of the north. It is remarkable of this 
and of ourAser Caubulicus (Bot. Mag. Comp. 1847, p. 34), that 
the stems form almost perfect wood the first year, three or four 
feet high, in the early winter abounding in leaf-buds, but dying 
down with our winter to the root. 

Descr. Root perennial. Stem erect, almost woody, and fra- 
grant, three or four feet high, glabrous, tereti-angular, purplish- 
brown. Leaves glabrous, lanceolate, all of them much and 
narrowly acuminated, spinuloso-serrate, with several parallel, 
very oblique nerves and numerous lesser connecting ones : lower 

JANUARY 1ST, 1851. 



leaves more thaii a span long, tapering into a flattened petiole: 

those of the stem but half toe sue, sessile and almost wmiam- 
plexicaul. Corymbs large, leafy (leaves small), with copious vapi- 
tula, which are purple. Peduncles and | downy. Invo- 

lucre of many narrow-linear, imbricated, subscariose, pnrpEflh, 
sharp scales. Receptacle alveolate and toothed. Florets of the 
ray numerous, in one series. Ovarii and fruit hispid. Pappus 
of rather few bristles. W. J. H. 

Cult. We raised this Aster from seed in 1849, and it flowered 
in the open ground during the latter part of the past summer. 
It is of a sufrraticose habit, which it would evidently maintain if 
kept in the greenhouse or under some kind of protection in 
winter, but in the open ground it has every appearance of as- 
suming the character of a hardy perennial. It is easily increased 
by cuttings of the stems, or by division of the roots. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Keceptacle and part of the involucre. 2. Floret of the ray. 8. Ditto 
of the disc : — magnified. 







Eitc^&el et Ml. 



B-eeire & Michjola , intg- 



Tab. 4558. 

MYRTUS ORBICULAR. 

Orbicular-leaved Myrtle. 



Nat. Ord. Myrtace.e. — Icosandria Polyaxdria. 

Gen. Cliar. Calyx tubo campanulato, cum ovario connato, limbo quinquefido, 
supero vel semisupero, deciduo vel rarius persistente. Corolla petala 5, calycis 
fauci inserta, ejusdem Jaciniis alterna, breviter unguiculata, orbieulata. Stamina 
20-60, cum petalis inserta, iisdem breviora vel vix longiora ; flamenta filiformia 
libera ; anthem biloculares, longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Ovarium inferum vel 
semisuperum, quadri-quinqueloculare, loculis multiovulatis. Stylus filiformis; 
stigma capitatum. Capsula infera vel semisupera, quadri-quinquelocularis, apice 
loculicide dehiscens. Semina plurima, minima, oblongo-compressa. — Frutices vel 
arbores, in Nova Hollandia et Xora Zelandia crescentes ; foliis aUt-mh, exstipu- 
latis, integerrimis ; floribus pedicellatis, solitariis, sparsis, midis v. scariose bracteo- 
latis, aldis. Endl. 



Mybtus (Jossinia) orbieulata ; foliis subsessilibus elliptico-orbicularibus coriaceis 
rigidis glabris marginibus subreflexis, pedicellis brevibus unifloris axillari- 
bus fasciculatis, calycis tubo bibracteolato, limbi dentibus brevissimis, pe- 
talis orbicularibus concavis extus punctatis, staminibus numerosissimis. 

Myrtus orbieulata. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 480. 

Eugenia orbieulata. Lam. Dist. v. 3. p. 203. 

Jossinia orbieulata. De Gaud. Prodr. v. 3. j». 337. 



A groupe of the Myrtle family, having very thick coriaceous 
leaves, axillary single-flowered peduncles, quaternary flowers, 
a bibracteolated calyx and numerous stamens, inhabiting Mau- 
ritius and the adjacent islands (Bourbon and Madagascar), 
called Bois de Nefle (Medlar- wood), or Bois de Clous, on 
account of the hardness, by the colonists of Mauritius, were 
formed into a genus {Jossinia) by Commerson, adopted by De 
Candolle ; but by other botanists these plants are incorporated 
with Myrtus, and apparently justly so. The present species is 
from Mauritius, whence it was introduced into Kevv Gardens 
in the year 1824, and raised from seeds. Its flowering season 
is November, when its Myrtle-like flowers, copiously nestled 
among the dark green foliage, exhale the most delightful fra- 
grance. 

JANUARY 1ST, 1851. 



DlSCB, A shruh, with us attaining a height "t BU feet, 
copiously branched, everywhere glabrous. /.<;/>-,■* oearl) sessile, 

between cllipta-al and orbicular, two inches long, thick and 
coriaceous, penninerved, obsoletely punctate beneath, the mar- 
gins slightly recurved. Peduncle* fasciculated, axillary, single- 
Howered, half an inch to an inch long, slightly thickened 
upwards. Calyx small, bibracteolate : tube hemisphai no- 
globose : the four teeth of the limb very short and obtuse. 
Pefak^four, orbicular, concave, yellow-white, distinctly punc- 
tated on the back. Stamens exceedingly numerous on a rather 
broad disc, a little longer than the petals. Anthers subglobos,-. 
Style subulate, rather longer than the stamens. Stigma ob- 
tuse. W. J, H. 

Cult. A stiff, branched, bushy shrub, seven feet high, and being 
a tropical plant, it requires the heat of the stove. It is a robust 
grower, thrives in any kind of light loam, and requires to be 
well supplied with water during summer. Being of a clean 
habit, and not subject to insects, it is suited for a select col- 
lection of stove-plants. It increases readily by cuttings, which 
should be planted in sand under a bell-glass, and plunged in 
bottom-heat. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Calyx and pistil : — maijn'ijicd . 



j -J ,<) 





As'- / : 






Hfc 





litch. isl it ltth. 



R«rr« HticKoTs.i»f 



Tab. 4659. 
ECHINOCACTUS Visnaga. 

Visnaga or Monster Cactus. 



Nat. Ord. Cactacej:. — Icosandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char, (fide supra, Tab. 4 m.) 



Echinocactus Visnaga ; trunco maximo late elliptico multangulato sinubus an- 
gustis profundis angulis sinuato-tuberculatis, vertice lanatissimo, areolis 
approximatis rhoinboideis umbilicato-immersis glabris palbde fuscis, aculeis 
vaKdis 4, centrali erecto longo (biuiiciali), reliquis 3 deflexis brevioribus, 
floribus copiosis, ovario elongato densissime lanato superne aculeis mollibus 
sparsis, petalis serratis Ha vis. 

Echinocactus Visnaga, Hook, in III. Lond. News, for 1846, with a figure, aitd 
in Kew Garden Guide, ?d. l.p. 53. 

Echinocactus ingens, " Zttce." Pfeiff. Eaum. Cact.p. 54 et 180? Salm-Bi/k, 
Cact. p. 21? (name only). 



One of the most remarkable plants in the Cactus-house of 
the Royal Gardens of Kew, and that which chiefly attracts the at- 
tention of strangers, is the subject of the present plate. It bears 
the name of Visnaga with us {Visnaga means a tooth-pick among 
the Mexican settlers, and the plant is so called because ' fhat 
little instrument is commonly made of its spines), and under 
that name, believing it to be a new species, we had described it 
and it was figured in the 'Illustrated News' for 1846. I had, 
at one time, been disposed to refer the species to the Echino- 
cactus ingens, of which a brief and most unsatisfactory cha- 
racter is drawn up by PfeifFer (for Zuccarini does not appear 
to have noticed it) from some "dried flowers," and a litfing 
specimen " six inches high ;" but it can scarcely be that, for the 
angles of the plant are said to be eight, the aculei nine in a 
cluster, and the petals obtuse. Our plate, at fig. 1, represents 
a very diminished figure of a specimen unfortunately no longer 
existing, but which in 1846 was an inmate of our Cactus-house, 
and apparently in high health and vigour. Its height was 
nine feet ; and it measured nine feet and a half in circumference : 
its weight a ton ! After a year of apparent health and vigour, 

JANUARY 1ST, 1851. 



it exhibited symptoms of internal injury. The inside became a 
putrid mass, and the crust, or shell, fell in with its own weight, 
Other lesser ones were already and are still in the collection, 
and the one, from which one small flowering portion is repre- 
sented of the natural size, weighs 713 lbs. ; its height is four 
feet six inches ; its longitudinal circumference ten feet nine 
inches, and its transverse ditto eight feet seven inches ; its ribs 
amount to forty-four. All our plants were procured with great 
labour, and sent many hundred miles, over the roughest country 
in the world, from San Luis Potosi, Mexico, to the coast, for 
shipping, and presented to the Royal Gardens by Fred. Staines, 
Esq. It flowers through a good part of the year, but in com- 
parison with the bulky trunk the blossoms are quite incon- 
siderable and void of beauty. 

Descr. Six to nine feet high : in shape elliptical, copiously 
angled, glaucous-green, the summit crowned with a dense mass of 
tawny wool :* furroivs deep but narrow, ridges forty to fifty, waved 
at the rather sharp edge, scarcely tubercled. Areola large, ap- 
proximate, pale brown, forming a deep depression, so crowded 
as almost to touch one another, not woolly. Spines from the 
hollows of their areolae four, strong, subulate : upper one the 
largest, erect, three lower ones patent, almost recumbent, all 
palish brown, darker near the base, strong and sharp, straight. 
Flowers copious from among the woolly mass at the summit of 
the plant. Ovary oblong or fusiform, three-fourths of it exserted 
from the wool, and covered itself by a dense mass of wool of 
the same colour; towards the summit are several scattered 
thickish bristles or soft spines. Petals numerous, spreading, 
yellow, oblong-spathulate, acute, serrated \ innermost series an 
inch or an inch and a half long. Stamens very numerous, 
crowded. Anther small, orange. Style sunk among the 
stamens. Stigma of about twelve, elongated, filiform, wavy 
lobes. The corolla remains long in a withered state, and old 
flowers are not easily deciduous. W. J. H. 

Cult. The division of Cactece to which this large species 
belongs are natives chiefly of Mexico, inhabiting dry rocky 
places and apparently deriving little nourishment from the 
ground t when we received this plant we were surprised to see 

* This wool covers the whole crown of the plant, and is a few inches deep, 
and we are much mistaken if it is not a tuft of this substance, taken from an 
Echinocactus Visnaga, which constitutes that botanical curiosity from Mexico, 
long in the possession of the late Mr. Lambert (now at the British Museum), 
known under the name of the « Muff Cactus." A small quantity taken off the 
plant may, by handling and admitting air within the staple, be distended to a 
considerable size. An entire mass from a good sized plant, thus treated, might 
be made to assume the cylindrical form of the specimen alluded to. 



the small quantity of roots, compared with the size of the plant. 
It is now growing in a round tub, half filled with drainage- 
material, the plant resting on a foundation of bricks raised in 
the middle of the tub, to prevent its sinking on account of its 
great weight. The upper portion of the tub is filled with soil, 
consisting of a mixture of loam and lime-rubbish nodules, firmly 
pressed round the base of the plant. It is kept in the Cactus- 
house, which, in order to suit tropical species, is maintained at a 
higher temperature in winter than is absolutely necessary for 
this and other Mexican species ; — we have already remarked, at 
Tab. 4486, that if Mexican Cactea could be cultivated in a house 
by themselves, they would require very little artificial heat. This 
plant has been nearly six years under our care : although it is 
apparently in a healthy state, and seems to grow, and though 
it has flowered, its increase is so small that we cannot determine 
the amount by simple measurement. Prom the tardy increase of 
what we believe to be young plants of this species (which, al- 
though now six years old from seed, are not yet more than two 
inches high and weigh barely two ounces), we infer that this 
species of Echinocachis, to arrive even at the size of what may 
be called the small specimen figured (as compared with another), 
and to assimilate the vast quantity of solid granular matter 
which it contains, must require a period of time amounting to 
many centuries. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Entire plant, very much diminished. 



v S 66 






o>, s " 



*-: 



~ 





luch id et litt. 



aer „ »,UicKoU. i »I 



Tab. 4560. 
schcenia oppositifolia. 

Opposite-leaved Schcenia. 



Nat. Ord. Composite. — Syxgexesia Superflua. 

Gen. CJiar. Capitulum multiflorum, heterogamum, floribus omnibus tubulosis, 
paucis in ambitu hermaphroditis fertilibus, ceteris centrabbus styb abortu nias- 
cubs sterilibus. Involucri cvlindrici squama pluriseriales, scariosae, sessiles, 
exteriorm breviores, exappendiculataj, iuteriores apice appendicula petaloidea 
radiante auctae. Receptaculum epaleaceum, convexiusculutn, alveolatum. Corolla 
graciles, 5-dentatae. Stylus in floribus hennapbroditis bitidus, basi bulbosus, 
rarais planiusculis apice capitellatis, in floribus niasculis simplicissimus, apice 
incrassatus. Achfenia fertilia, obovata, erostria, basi attenuata, dense seriacea, 
sterilia filiformia, uudiuscula, basi pilosa. Pappus omuium conforniis, uniserialis, 
setosus, sctis serratis vel subplumosis. Sleet:, 



Sch<BNIA oppositifolia ; berbacoa, caule hirsuto-cancscente, foliis oppositis sessi- 
libus lanceolatis aeutis, coryiubo terminali, involucri squamis intcrioribus 
longc radiantibus laete roscis, pappi sctis rigidiusculis serratis. 

Sch(EN1a oppositifolia. 8teet* in Lekm. Plant. Preiss. v. I. p. 480. 



A lovely Swan-River animal, quite equal in beauty to the 
Lawrencella rosea and to the Rhodanthe Manglcsii of the same 
colony. Seeds were sent to us by Mr. Drunimond, and our 
earliest plants blossomed in April 1S46. The genus is founded 
by Steetz ; and is nearly allied to HelicArytmm, Hcllpterum, and 
still more to Pteropogon of De Candolle, from which it is said 
to differ by the inner scales of the involucre being appendaged 
and radiant, by the many-flowered capitula, and by the central 
florets being truly male. The generic name is given in com- 
pliment to Dr. Schcen, an excellent botanical artist. 

Descr. Root small, annual, branched. Stem erect, angled, 
downy, scaly, unbranched except in the terminal inflorescence. 
Leaves opposite, connate at the base, nearly erect, linear-lanceo- 
late, obscurely three-nerved, acute, slightly downy and ciliate, 
sessile, upper ones acuminate, gradually passing into bracts. 
Flowers or capitula forming a broad handsome corymb : peduncles 
bracteated, bracts linear. Involucre subcylindrical, imbricated 
with scariose, ovate, rusty-green scales, the innermost row 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1851. 



radiate with the burg oloured, oval, spreading appenda 

exactly resembling radiate Hunt- Receptacle small, convex, 

alveolate, bearing many yell»\\ ol which the centre are 

male, with an imperfect pit&U ami style and sityma \ the outer 

ones hermaphrodite, with long recurved branches of the styles 

and conical stigmas. Achenium oblong, silky. Seta of the 
pappus as long as the corollas. Corollas all tubular, five- 
toothed W. J. II. 

Cult. This plant, a native of Western Australia, must be 
treated as a tender annual. Its seeds should be sown in spring, 
in a pot or pan of light soil, placed in moderate heat ; the 
plants, as soon as they are of sufficient size, must be trans- 
planted singly iuto small pots, and kept for a time in a close 
frame, admitting air gradually to harden them ; and as they 
become larger they must be shifted into larger pots, and, in 
order to have a greater show of flowers, four or five plants may 
be placed in one pot. When in flower they may be placed in 
the greenhouse. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Lower portion of stem: — natural si:?. 2. Receptacle of cajntulum. 
3. Inner scale of the involucre. 1. Hermaphrodite floret. 5. Male do. ••. 
Seta from the acha?uiuni: — magnified. 



4-S61. 




Tab. 4561. 
LILIUM Wallichianum. 

Dr. WaUick*8 Nepal Lily. 



Xat. Ord. Liliacet.. — Hexandria Moxogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perigonium corollinura, deciduum, hexaphyllum ; foliola basi sub- 
coliEerentia, ihfundibuliformi-campanulata, apice patentia v. revoluta, intus sulco 
nectarifero iustructa. Stamina G, perigonii foliolis basi subadhaerentia. Ovarium 
triloculare. Ovula pluriniii, biseriata, liorizontalia, anatropa. Sights terminals, 
subclavatus, rectus v. subcun atus ; stigma subtrilobum. Capsula trigona, sex- 
sulca, trilocularis, loculicido-trivalvis. Se?ni?ia plurima, biseriata, horizontalia, 
plano-coiupressa, testa lutesceute, subspongiosa, membranaceo-marginata, rhaphe 
liinc per marginem decurrente. Embrgo in axi albuminis caruosi rectus v. sigmoi- 
deus, extremitate radiculari umbilico proxima. — Herba 1 /;/ Eiiropa et Asia me- 
dia et septentrionali, in Japonia et in India 7 montibus, necnon in America boreali 
indigents, bulbosa ; foliis alternis v. subverticillatis, jloribus magniz, speciosis, 
erectis v. nutantibus. Endl. 



LiLlUM Wallichianum j caule gracili folioso apice paucifloro nunc unifloro, foliis 
sparsis numerosis valde approxiniatis linearibus acuminatissimis sessilibus, 
floribus subhypocraterifonnibus nutantibus, tubo longissirno, fauce canipan- 
ulata nuda, limbo patente. Wall. 

Lilium Wallichianum, Roem. et Schultes, Sgst. Veget. v. 7. p. 1689. KnntJi, 
Enum. Plant, v. 4. p. 267. excl. var. 0. Lindl. and Paxt. El. Gard. 1850, 
jo. 120, 121 {woodcut). 

Lilium longiflorum, Wall. Tent. Fl. Nepal, p. 40. t. 29. {not Thunb.) 



We are indebted to our friend Mr. Ferguson for a drawing 
and description of this fine and fragrant Lily, which was intro- 
duced to the Botanic Garden at Belfast by Major Madden, from 
the north of India (" Almorah"), and flowered in the autumn of 
1850. It was first discovered by Dr.Wallich at Sheopore, 
and found near Sirrinuggur by Mr. Robert Blinkworth ; the 
former gentleman gave an excellent representation in his ' Tenta- 
nien Fl. Nepalensis ' (from which we have copied the roots), under 
the name of L. longiflorum, Wall, not being aware that there 
was a L. longiflorum of Thunberg, from Japan, a species already 
in our gardens, and by some apparently confounded with this 
species, though truly and permanently, we believe, distinct. 
Schultes changed the name of our plant most properly to L. Wal- 
lichianum. We possess fine native specimens from Dr. Walhch. 

FEBRUARY 1 ST, 1851. 



m. Boots consisting of broadly ovate, scaly hdbe t often 
agg oding out branching om beneath. s erect, 

simple, rounded, 4-6 feet high. Leaves numerous on the stem, 
frequently very crowded, lanceolate, or, upper ones especially, 

linear-lanceolate, sessile, glabrous, much acuminated, particularly 
those nearest the flower, having one or two faint lines on each 
side the midrib. Flower* terminal, drooping, solitary, as in all 
the specimens, we believe, that have flowered in this country ; or 
two or three from the same point, and these umbellate, as in Dr. 
Wallich's figure, in which case the four or five upper leaves, or 
bracteas, constitute an involucre. Peduncles also bearing one or 
two lesser bracteas. Sepals nine inches or more in length, 
broadly ovato-lanceolate in the lamina, the lower part extended 
into a very long claw, which claws collectively form a long narrow 
tube, enlarging upwards, the lamina much spreading, so as to 
give the hypocrateriform character to the flower described b\\Dr. 
Wallich. This flower is fragrant, delicate cream white ; the outer 
sepals having a prominent central ridge, are more or less tinged 
with yellow and green. Stamens included. Anthers an inch and 
a quarter long, yellow. Ovary six-angled, six-celled, oblong. 
Style a good deal longer than the stamens. Stigma large, capitate, 
with three gibbous reflexed lobes. II . •/. //. 

Cult. In habit this species resembles L. lonyijlorum , specio- 
sum, &c, and grows as freely. As it is of recent introduction 
and comes from a different country, we are not yet certain that 
it will prove as hardy as the Japan species. But the latter, 
although known to be perfectly hardy, are, on account of their 
showy appearance, grown in pots as ornamental plants for the 
greenhouse in autumn ; and for this purpose the present species 
may be added to their number. In winter the bulbs (in the pots) 
should be kept in a cool place, protected from frost. Early in 
spring they should be repotted, in a mixture of rich loam, leaf- 
mould, or turfy peat, with a portion of sharp sand. The pots 
must be properly drained, and placed in a cool pit or frame ; 
at first they require but little water, but as they advance in 
growth and the heat of the season increases, they will require water 
and air to be freely given. When they begin to show flowers 
they should be placed in the greenhouse. /. S. 



Fig. 1, 2. Roots : — natural size : copied from Dr. Wallich's figures. 



4o 




B.«vi k Hit&flls , im-p ■ 



Tab. 4502. 

ECHINOCACTUS strbptocaulon. 

Spiral-stemmed Echinocactus. 



Nat. Ord. Cacte.*. — Icosandria Monootnia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4124.) 



Echinocactus streptocauhn ; ercctus (sesquipcdalis) coluninari-cyUndraceus 
12-14-sulcatus spiraliter tortus (nuuc proliferus), angulis sulcisque acutis, 
aroolis approximates nudis (lana nulla) 8-aculeatis, aculeis fuscis rectis 7 
patenti-radiatis mediocribus, unico ccntrali triplo majore verticali, floribus 
3-4 terminalibus vix spinas superantibus llavis, petalis spatkulato-lanceo- 
latis, stigmatibus 9-12-linearibus staminibus lonffioribus. 



A very distinct species of the genus Echinocactus, if we judge 
from the flowers ; but almost a Cereus in the elongated habit of 
the plant, which we purchased from Mr. Bridges, who had 
brought it from Bolivia. We find nothing like it anywhere 
described, and have named it from the remarkably spirally 
twisted character of the stem, without, however, holding our- 
selves responsible that this is a constant or permanent mark of 
distinction. It flowered in the Cactus-house of the Royal 
Gardens, in August 1845. 

Descu. Our plant is a foot and a half high, erect, columnar, 
cylindrical or a little contracted towards the base, occasionally 
proliferous, obtuse and woolly at the top, the sides fluted with 
twelve to fourteen spirally twisted, rather acute ribs, the furrows 
also acute. Areola densely crowded, often almost touching one 
another, and forming a nearly orbicular dark-coloured disc, free 
from wool, and bearing generally eight straight, palish brown 
spines : of these, seven outer are nearly equal, half an inch long, 
forming a spreading ray, while from the centre, one spine, twice 
or thrice the size of the rest, stands out vertically. From the 
woolly crown on the summit appear three or four yellow floicers, 
scarcely rising above the wool and not so long as the spines, an 
inch or an inch and a quarter in diameter, entirely of a sulphur- 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1851. 



yellow. Petals Lanceckto-^pathulate. Stamen* numerous An- 
f/trrs subglobosc. Style as long as the stamens. Stigma of many 

linear spreading rays //. ./. //. 

Cult. From some peculiarity in the nature of the Cactus 
region of Chili and Bolivia, we thul that Caciea imported from 
these countries do not so readily conform tl. - to the arti- 

ficial modes of cultivation to which they are necessarily subjected 
in this country, as allied species from Mexico. This is more 
especially the case with the Echinocactea. We learn that they 
inhabit very arid and hot places, enduring extreme drought, 
which is very obvious from the harsh, dry, and often dead-like 
appearance they present when they arrive in this country. The 
species now figured was introduced with many others about six 
years ago, by Mr. Bridges, and on inquiring of him the nature 
of their places of growth, and what mode he would recommend 
as best for cultivating them in this country, the point on which 
he laid the greatest stress was to owe (kern no water. But 
we find that even harsh, dry-looking Cactece are, like many 
other dry-climate plants, capable of assuming a freer habit of 
growth by good treatment; the difference of the growth they 
make in this country, as compared with that of their native 
country, is so great, that the top and lower part of the same 
plant, if separated, might be taken as two distinct species. It is 
probable that many Cactece from dry regions, when placed 
under the influence of a climate more favourable to vegetable 
development, will assume a different aspect, varying according 
to the degree of heat and moisture they receive. In habit this 
species approaches Cereus reductus, figured ;it Tab. 4443, and 
what is there stated as regards cultivation is suitable for this 
species. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Reduced plant. 2. Areola? with spines :—natun, 







Jitc^itl rtliflu. 



Reeve fclfiaiols, imf 



Tab. 4563. 
TAMARINDUS officinalis. 

Tamarind-tree. 



Nat. Ord. Legvminos.e. — Monadelphia Decandria. 

Gen. Char. Calycis sepala 5, basi in tubum coalita, superne libera, reflexa, 3 
oblonga, 2 inferiors in lobum nnicum latius binervosuin srepe apice bidentatum 
connata. Petala 3, cum scpalis superioribus alterna, 2 ovata, medio cucullata. 
Stamina 9-10, 2-3 longiora inter se mouadelpha, antherifera, 7 brevissima, 
sterilia. Stylus subulatus. Legumen pedicellatum, acinaciforme, compressum, 
unilocular, 3-6-spermum, valvis inter epispermium et endospermium pulposis. 
Semen ad hilum oblique truncatum, ovato-quadratum. Cotykdones basi in- 
sequales. — Arbores. Folia abrupta, pinnata, multijuga. Flores racemosi. BC. 



Tamarindus Indica. 

a. leguminibus elongatis, latitudine nempe sextuplo et ultra longioribus, 8-12- 

spermis. DC. 
Tamarindus Indica. Linn. Sp. PL p. 48. (excl. Syn. Loefl.) Roxb. Fl. Ind. 

v. 3. p. 215. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 488. Wight et Am. Fl. Penins. 

Ind. Or. v. 1. p. 285. Woodv. Med. Bot. 1. 166. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 3. 

p. 158. Lindl. Med. Bot. p. 266. 
0. leguminibus abbreviatis, latitudine nempe vix triplo longioribus. BC. 
Tamarindus occidental. Gartn. Fruct. v. 2. p. 310. 1. 146. Jacq. Amer. 

p. 10. 1. 10. 8f 1. 179./. 98. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 489. M'Fad. IL 

Jam. v. 1. p. 335. 



Most authors make two species of Tamarindus, the Indian 
kind, with long pods, and the West Indian, with short pods : 
but even those who adopt this view of the subject generally raise 
a question of their specific identity. India is probably the ab- 
original country of both, whence the species was introduced to 
Western India. Even in the East the Tamarinds of the Archipelago 
are considered the best of those of India. The Arabs called the 
tree " Tamr/iindee" or Indian Bate, from which has been derived 
the generic name Tamarindus. Our small Tamarind-tree, m the 
Royal Gardens, about fourteen feet high, whence our flowering 
specimens were taken, is probably the West Indian variety, 
and can give no idea of the general appearance of a full-grown 
tree, which all travellers agree in saying is one of the noblest 

FEBRUARY 1ST, 1851. 



objects in nature. "Tins moat magnificent tree," say* Dr. 
Roxburgh, "is one of the largest in India, with b nwet exten- 
sively spreading and shady head, or coma; tin* bark dark- 
coloured and scabrous, the wood hard, very durable, and most 

beautifully veined." Dr. MFadyen, too, observes that the tree 
is "very ornamental and affords a delightful shade." The inhabi- 
tants of the East, however, have a notion that it is dangerous 
to sleep under, and it has been remarked, as of our Beech in 
Europe, that the ground beneath is always bare, and that no 
plant seems to thrive under its branches. Its flowers have little 
beauty to boast ; they are insignificant and exhibit no bright 
colours. Our plant has not borne fruit, but flowers in the 
summer season, and generally, but not alwavs, casts its leaves 
during our winter. 

The extensive use of the pulpy fruits of the Tamarind is 
well known, as are its valuable medicinal properties. In the 
East they are preserved without sugar, being merely dried in 
the sun, when they are exported from one part of the Archipelago 
to another, and cured in salt when sent to Europe. " In the 
.West Indies," says the lamented Dr. M'Fadyen, "the pulp is 
usually packed in small kegs between layers of sugar, and hot 
syrup is poured on the whole. In order to enable them to 
keep without fermentation for a length of time, the first syrup, 
which is very acid, is poured off, and a second is .added. A 
very excellent preserve is imported from Cura?oa, made from 
the unripe pods, preserved in sugar, with the addition of 
spices." The seeds are eaten in India in times of scarcity by 
the poorer classes, the very astringent integument being first 
removed, and, then roasted or fried, are said to resemble the 
common field-bean in taste. 

Descr. A tree attaining, when fully grown, a very large size, 
with a vast, dense and bushy head of branches, thickly clothed 
with light and feathery foliage. Leaves paripinnated, with 
twelve to sixteen pairs of small, opposite, oblong, obtuse, sessile 
leaflets. Stipules small, caducous. Racemes terminal on the 
small branches in our plant, said to be sometimes lateral, few-, 
six- to eight-flowered. Calyx of four, ovate, spreading sepals; 
one, larger, being formed of two combined, all pale greenish- 
yellow, united into a tube at the base. Petals three, nearly 
equal, pale yellow, streaked with red s one more concave, the 
vexillum : two setae at the lower base at the stamens are con- 
sidered to represent the two carinal petals. Stamens nine, 
monadelphous below; only three elongated and bearing perfect 
anthers. Ovary sickle-shaped, stipitate. Style attenuated: 
stigma obtuse. Fruit an almost linear, thick, indehiscent legume. 
Pericarp withm (that is, between the epicarp and sarcocarp) 



containing a great quantity of pulp mixed with coarse fibres. 
Seeds very hard, rich brown, subrhomboidal. W. J. H. 

Cult. The Tamarind is a large, spreading, hard-wooded tree, 
a native of the East and West Indies, and, on the authority of 
the 'Hortus Kewensis/ appears to have been grown in this 
country more than 200 years ago. It requires to be kept in a 
warm stove, and thrives in a mixture of loam and leaf-mould. 
Towards the end of the winter it sheds its leaves ; it will then 
need but little water, just sufficient to keep the soil from be- 
coming quite dry, but when the young leaves begin to unfold, 
and during the summer, it must be watered freely. It can be 
increased by cuttings, but more readily by seeds, wmich are 
often received from the East and West Indies : these should be 
sown in a hotbed or a warm part of the stove, and, when about 
an inch high, transplanted into separate pots, shifting them into 
larger ones as the plants increase in size. /. S. 



Fie. 1. Stamen and two setae. 2. Pistil: — loth magnified. 



4 564-. 




liteh.dtl etlitk. 



Keeve k TJich.cu» . "Jtf ■ 



Tab. 4564. 
PISTIA Stratiotes. 

Water Lettuce. 



Nat. Ord. Aroide^e (Pistiacej:). — Monoecia Pentandria. 

Gen. Char. Spatha basi tubulosa, cum spadice connata : limbo patente, pro- 
emu spadicem superne involucrante aucto. Spadix interrupte androgynus, basi 
foemineus, apice libero masculus. Antliera 3-8, spadicis apice incrassato adnata;, 
subglobosse, sulco transverso dehiscentes. Ovarium 1, spadicis basi aduatse 
oblique insidens, 1-loculare; ovula plurima, e placenta prope basim parietali 
subhorizontaba (erecta, Blume), orthotropa. Stylus terminabs, crassus. Stigma 
subcyatbiforme. Bacca 1-locularis, poly- vel abortu oligosperma. Semina cylin- 
drica, per hilum basilare funiculo brevissimo patelliformi insidentia, testa (arillus, 
Turp.) coriacea, crassa. Embryo minimus, cylindraceus, in apice albuminis in- 
clusus ; radicula hilo e diametro opposita. — Herbae aquatica, libera, natantes, 
Jlagelliferce ; radicibus fibrosis. FoMa sessilia,- rosaceo-expansa, integerrima, ner- 
vosa. Spadices axillares, solitarii, scapo brevi suffulti. Kth. 



Pistia Stratiotes ; foliis rosulatis cuneatis retusis, nervis subtus lamellseformi- 
bus basi confluentibus, antheris 5 (an semper?), spadice antheras haud 
superante. 

Pistia Stratiotes. Linn. M. Zeyl. n. 322. Roxb. Corom. v. 3. t. 268. Ejusd. 

Fl. Tnd. v. 3. p. 331. Spreng. Syst. Veg. e. 2. p. 772. Kunth, Enum. Plant. 

v.S.p.8. (Here probably may also be referred P. iEgyptiaca, Schleid. ; 

P. crispata, El. fy Kth. ; P. minor, El. #■ Kth. ; P. occidentalis, El. 8f Kth. ; 

P. bnguiformis, El. 8f Kth. ; P. Leprieurii, El. ; P. Gaudichaudii, Schleid. ; 

P. spathulata, Mich, fy Kth. ; P. commutata, Schleid. §- Kth. ; and P. ob- 

cordata, Schleid. fy Kth. — Pistia? vivipara, Schleid., we are told, is Parkeria 

juvenilis !) 
K.ODDA-PAIL. Rheede, Hort. Malab. v. 11. p. 32. 
Plantago aquatica, &c. Rumph. Amb. v. 6. p. 74. 
Lenticula palustris, &c. Sloane, Jam. v.l.t. 2./. 2. 
Pistia aquatica, &c. P. Browne's Jam. p. 399. 



With no floral beauty to recommend it, a more delicate and 
graceful object cannot well be seen, in a tropical house, than a 
vessel of water or a tank with tufts of Pistia Stratiotes floating 
on the surface, of the tenderest green imaginable : the leaves 
arc connected together into a rose-shaped tuft, and these send 
out runners bearing other plants in all stages of growth. Dr. 
Roxburgh aptly compares them to half-grown Lettuce-plants. 

^EBKUARY 1ST, 1851. 



They continue in great beauty all summer am) autumn, and in 
early winter they show symptom of weakness or decay j but, 

with a little care, plenty of young plants may be retained for 
the following spring, when they soon revive and reproduce 
by offsets. The flowers, or inflorescence, are nestled at the base 
of the leaf, and it may easily be Been there, by some of the 
young unfolded leaves, that the spatha which encloses the flowers 
is nothing but a modified leaf, the lower sides involute, and 
bearing the stamens and pistil. These flowers possess no 
beauty. The roots are a very pretty object on a plant being 
lifted out of the water, for here, as in the Duckweed (Lemna) 
of our own country — and Pistia is sometimes called tropical 
Duckweed, — the roots descend loose into the water, with no 
necessary attachment to soil or mud, and are long and feathery. 

Like many water-plants, it has a very extended range, perhaps 
all round the world, in tropical or subtropical regions. In 
America it extends as far north as Louisiana and Mississippi 
and North Carolina. Prom Africa, I possess specimens from 
Egypt in the north, from the Niger country near the middle, 
and from Port Natal in the south. In the warm parts of India 
it seems to be universal ; and in the Malay Islands. In Antigua, 
of the West Indies, Patrick Brown tells us it is most abundant 
in all the ponds of water preserved for public use, and ki 
the water always fresh and cool, which would be greatly subject 
to putrefaction and charged with a multitude of insects, bad 
they continued exposed to the heat of the sun. The plant, 
however, is there considered acrid, and when the droughts set in 
and the waters are reduced very low (which frequently happens 
in that island), they are overheated and so impregnated with the 
particles of this vegetable, that they occasion bloody fluxes to 
such as are obliged to use them at those seasons. 

I am aware that some botanists are disposed to consider that 
there are several distinct species of Pistia, and Professor Kunth 
goes so far as to constitute two groupes, and of one groupe to 
make two subgroupes, including altogether no less than nine 
species : but the characters are wretchedly defined, and I must 
confess, that as far as can be collected from the dried state of 
the copious specimens in my herbarium, there is no reason for 
constituting more than one species. Others, however, must 
judge for themselves. Our plant here figured is derived from 
Jamaica, and quite accords with Roxburgh's from the East 
Indies j — yet Sloane's Jamaica species (Hist. t. 2. f. 2) is re- 
ferred by Kunth to his P. commutata, and Brown's Jamaica 
plant to P. obcordata. 

Descr. Each plant sends down a tuft of long, soft, feathery 
fibres, and consists of a collection of rosulate leaves, which are 



from two to four or 6Ve inches long, slightly concave in the disc, 
the apex and nun-gins reflexed, cuneate in shape, more or less 
broad and always obtuse or retuse at the apex, and more or less 
tapering at the base ; both sides are soft to the touch and velvety, 
of a delicate pale pea-green colour, with a kind of mealy down 
beneath ; both sides are marked with simple or branched parallel 
or slightly divergent lines, below more prominent, and almost 
lamellate, which unite below so as to form a thickened base. 
Their colour is generally the same as the leaf, sometimes darker, 
and in some specimens, from Mexico and from Demerara, these 
lines are of a brownish or blackish hue. From the base or axils 
of the young leaves in the centre the spathas appear, nearly 
sessile, hairy, oblong-ovate, pale yellow-green, the lower half 
having the sides convolute into a sheath, the upper half or limb 
is spreading, ovate, acute, striated; the whole length scarcely 
three-quarters of an inch. At the base of the limb within, is a 
a cup-shaped scale, green, and lobed, giving rise to a short 
column or spadix, bearing, on a level with the summit, in a 
circle, five, oblong, four-celled anthers, attached by their back 
and sessile, opening by four, small, oblong lines or pores in the 
front. Beneath this cup-shaped scale is another nearly orbicular 
and bifid one, and below that, occupying the whole length of the 
inside of the folded portion of the spatha, is situated the single 
ovary, oblong, membranous, striated, downy, one-celled, bearing 
numerous oblong ovules all along the inner axis : its upper part 
terminates in a tapering incurved style, with a capitate or almost 
cup-shaped stigma, downy at the top, and nearly reaching to the 
anthers. Many of the ovules prove abortive. The seeds, as 
described in the generic character, are well figured by Mirbel, 
in the Annates du Mus. d' Hist. Nat. p. 16. 1 17. W.J.H. 

Cult. In the West Indies this singular plant covers the surface 
of stagnant waters in the same manner as the several species 
of Lemna do in temperate countries. In this country it must be 
grown under glass, in a cistern or tank of water at a tempera- 
ture ranging in summer between 70° and 80°. The depth of the 
water, whether several feet or only a few inches, is unimportant : 
when it grows in deep water its roots do not reach the bottom. 
As it increases rapidly by producing stolons, or runners, in the 
form of rays, each of which bears a young plant, which becomes 
a new centre for producing stolons, it will, if allowed, soon 
occupy in one summer more space than can often be afforded for 
growing tropical aquatics. It will also grow freely in a small 
shallow tub or pan j and, although its natural habit is to float, yet 
it appears to thrive more luxuriantly in water only a few inches 
deep, so that the roots reach the soil : and it may be stimulated to 
grow to a size much larger than usual, by placing a thin layer 



of rich soil j rotten thing in the venel. Soft water b 

atial to its healthy cultivation, and in rammer it should be 

shaded during the middle of the day, otherwise it is apt to 

■ne yellow and to have an unhealthy appearance. J. S. 



Fig. 1. Spatha, including malt- and female inflorescence. 2. The same bid 
open vertically, showing the pistil and above it the spadix, Sec, with the 
mens. 3. Ovary cut through vertically : — magnified. 




Iitr<£h.,a«l rtlith. 



B.?eT« * HictoB. 



Tab. 4565. 
passiflora penduliflora. 

Drooping-blossomed Passion-Jlower. 



Nat. Ord. Passiflore^:. — Monadelphia Pentandria. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4406.) 



Passiflora (§ Decaloba) pendulijiora ; glabra, foliis brevi-petiolatis semi- 
orbiculari-cuneatis transversim truncatis obscure 3-lobis 3-nerviis 3-setosis 
subtus glaudulosis, pedunculis solitariis geminisve elongatis peudulis 
prope basin articulatis bibracteolatis, calycis tubo hemisphaerico 10-gibboso, 
roronae aurantiacse filamentis paucis uniserialibus clavatis erectiusculis. 

Passiflora penduliflora. Bert, in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 326. 



Apparently a very little-known Passion-flower: at any rate, 
I find no mention of it anywhere, save in the brief character of 
De Candolle above quoted. Though destitute of the varied 
colouring of many of the species of the genus, there is a grace 
and elegance in the plant that render it an object well worthy of 
cultivation : the flowers are very copious and hang downwards 
from peduncles much longer than the leaves, and these leaves 
are very singular in shape. We received our plants from the 
island of Jamaica, where, indeed, it would appear to be very 
common, judging from the copious specimens we have received 
from the late Dr. M'Fadyen and Dr. Distan, and Messrs. Purdie 
and Wilson. It flowers in spring and summer. 

Descr. A climbing glabrous shrub, with the young branches 
herbaceous and striated. Leaves copious, approximate, on very 
short petioles, varying a good deal in shape, but the general 
form is that of half an ellipsis approaching to cuneate, truncate, 
but more or less distinctly three-lobed, with three setae, three- 
nerved, with a row of five or six glands on each side the midrib. 
Tendrils simple, reddish. Peduncles solitary or geminate from 
the axil of a leaf, single-flowered, pendulous, jointed, and with 
two minute bracteoles above the base. Flower drooping, pale 
yellow-green. Calyx-tube hemispherical, ten-lobed : the five 
lobes of the limb oblong, very acute. Petals resembling the 

MARCH 1ST, 1851. 



calyx-lobes, but i little longi r /Vfei tat /■ n ui crown deep orange, 
of from twelve to fourteen short, nearly erect, club-shaped rays. 
Column of stamen* very l (, ng. nd, curved. <V 

three. //. 

Cult. About one hundred and fifty species of Passifhra are 
now described, which, with very few exceptions, are natives of 

the West Indies and the continent of America, chiefly within or 
near the tropics. Many of them have long been cultivated in 
this country, but none are sufficiently hardy to endure the low 
temperature of our winters, except the well-known and widely 
diffused Passifora ccendea, which is recorded to have been cul- 
tivated in this country 150 years ago. It is stated to be a 
native of Brazil and Peru ; its hardiness is therefore remarkable, 
seeing that we have many other speei< s from those countries, all 
of them requiring to be grown either in the greenhouse or stove. 
The present species must be grown in the stove. Being, like its 
allies, a free and rambling grower, it is well adapted for covering 
trellis-work against back walls, and for training up pillars or 
rafters"; but where so much space cannot be afforded, it will 
grow and flower freely if planted in a middle-sized pot and 
trained on a wire trellis. In order to keep it within due bounds, 
it is necessary, in winter, to prune and cut back the superfluous 
growth of the previous summer ; this will cause it to flower 
more abundantly. Any kind of light open soil suits it ; and it 
is propagated by cuttings planted under a bell-glass, and treated 
in the usual way. J. S. 



Fig. 1. Portion of the nectariferous ray : — mwjn'ifinl. 



^S6S. 




Titek., Id. st lith. 



S.e«r» & Nicholi i*f 



Tab. 4566. 

THIBAUDIA MACRANTHA. 

Large-flowered Thibaudia. 



Nat. Ord. Vacciniace/E. — Deoandkia Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4303.) 



Thibaudia macrantfia ; glaberrima, ramis divaricato-pendulis, foliis lanceolatis 
longe acurainatis integerrimis, pedunculis extra-axillaribus binis ternisve 
pendulis sursmn incrassatis, corollas rubro-lineatEe tubo arapullaoeo 5- 
angulato, ore contracto, limbi laciniis reflexis, stylo antherisque exsertis. 



We represented what we considered to be the prince of the 
East Indian Thibaudias at our Tab. 4303 {T. pulcherrima), and 
in the rich abundance of its handsome flowers it has the su- 
periority over this : but here, each individual flower is much 
larger and handsomer than in that species. We have measured 
these flowers two inches and a quarter long, and one inch in 
diameter ; the texture and marking resemble some handsome 
piece of china or porcelain. The plant is raised from seeds by 
Mr. Veitch, from Kola Mountain, Moulmain, whence they were 
sent by Mr. Thomas Lobb. It accords with many of the cha- 
racters of Thibaudia (Jyapetes, De Cand.) lorantkifolia, Wall. ; 
but that species is downy, and differs in other points. We have 
rarely seen a more truly lovely plant. It flowered in the stove 
of Messrs. Veitch in December 1850. 

Descr. A rather straggling shrub, with light brown smooth 
bark. Leaves alternate, on very short thick petioles, lanceolate, 
much acuminated, entire, glabrous, spreading. Bower* from the 
woody portion of the stem, extra-axillary. Two to three pedun- 
cles spring from the same point, and are pendent, thickened 
upwards, and red. Flowers large, and hanging down. Cah/r 
small, pale yellow. Tube short-globose, incorporated with the 
ovary, and jointed on the thickened apex of the peduncle: the 
lobes small, acute, erect. Corolla large, pure china-white, yeUow 

makck 1st, 1851. 



at the base aiul apex : the tube ampuJlaceous, five-angled; be- 
tween the angles are numerous distinct, oblique, wavj red lines, 
generally taking the shape of the letter V, and more or less 
united: the mouth of the corolla is contracted: the five acute 
lobes reflexed. Stamen* and style considerably exserted beyond 
the mouth of the corolla. Filament* very short, broad, cucullate ; 
anthers much elongated, the ci-ils above opening internally by 
a longitudinal fissure : there are no reflexed spurs at the back 
of the anthers as in our T. pidcherrima. Ovary adherent with 
the tube of the calyx, crowned by a five-lobed epigynous gland. 
Style longer thau the stamens : ttigma obtuse. //". ./. II . 

Cult. This interesting plant has not yet come into our hands, 
the only plants m this country being in the possession of Mr. 
Veitch, of the Exeter Nursery. We learn that it is an evergreen 
shrub of easy cultivation, and that it flowered when not more 
than two feet high. It is treated as a stove-plant ; but, judging 
from its allies and from its native climate, we arc inclined to 
think it will succeed in a close greenhouse ; a moist dull atmo- 
sphere being maintained in summer, and artificial heat applied 
in winter only during frost, or when there is a continuance of 
cold cloudy weather, with the thermometer seldom rising above 
40°: during such weather, the day-temperature should be kept 
at about 50°. Like many species of this family, the present is 
probably subepiphytal, deriving its chief nourishment from an 
atmosphere charged with moisture, and at a medium tempera- 
tare j such being the general character of the lower region of 
EricacecB and Vacciniacea within the tropics. /. 8. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil. 2. Stamens, seen from without. 3. Two stamens 
seen from within : — magnified. 




Txtch. IftLet liau 



Reeve fcJTichols> 



Tab. 4567. 

ECHINOPSIS CAMPYLACANTHA, 

Curve-spined Echinopsis. 



Nat. Ord. CactejE. — Icosandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4521.) 



Echixopsis campylacantha ; (subpedalis) ovato-globosus, costis 14-16 vertica- 
libus subcompressis obtusis, areolis magnis approximatis ellipticis lanatis, 
aculeis subulato-acicularibus rigidissimis flavicantibus apice brunneis ex- 
terioribus 8-10 radiantibus rectiusculis (uncialibus et ultra) centrali lon- 
gissirua (3-unciali) sursum curvata, calycibus infundibuliformibus sparsim 
squamosis, squarnis hirsutissimis. 

Echinopsis campylacantha. Pfeiff. in Salm-Dyk, Cad. Hort. Byk, p. 39. 

Echinocactus leucatithus. Gill, in Bot. Beg. 1840. i. 13 (not E. leucacanthus, 
Zncc.) 

Cereus leucanthus. Pfeiff. Enum. Cad. p. 11. 



A fine and well-marked species, with handsome flowers, 
readily distinguished by the great length of the central spine of 
the areolse, and by its taking an upward and inward curve, a 
direction to which the other radiating spines are more or less 
inclined. It is a native of the Argentine province of Mendoza, 
at the eastern foot of the Andes, where it was discovered by the 
late Dr. Gillies, and introduced by him to our Gardens, with 
many others from that region, which we fear are now mostly 
lost to us. It flowers in the spring and summer months. 

Descr. Our plants are, the largest of them, a foot high, in 
shape between ovate and globose, not unlike that of a pine- 
apple, rather acute at the top, longitudinally furrowed : rifyes 
fourteen to sixteen, considerably elevated, scarcely compressed, 
obtuse; the edges slightly tubercled or lobed. Areola ap- 
proximate, large, oval, woolly, bearing from eight to ten strong 
but rather slender spines, generally tawny, tipped with dark 
brown :— of these eight to ten form the circumference and spread 
in a stellated manner, yet having a slight curve upwards, an 
inch or rather more long ; the central spine is solitary, nearly 
three inches long, and has a remarkably upward curve towards 

march 1st, 1851. 



the apex of the plant Flower* from tin- areola. 1 near the 
Bommit of the plant, about -i\ inches long. Calveine tube 
funnel-shaped, olive-green, bearing mam A woolly %cale%\ 

the segments of Ok limb gradually passing into the spreading, 
acute, pale rose-coloured petal*. Stamens very numerous, com- 
pact Style included. 8tigma of about twelve linear, elongated 
rays. W. J. II. 

Cult. The observations respecting the culture of EcAino- 
cactea, given at Tab. 4521 and Tab. 4562, are applicable to 
this species. /. S. 



1. Rays of the stigma : — magnified, t. Entire plant : — much reduced. 



+ 568. 










mki 






i 







Fitch, lei rt 3i&_ . 



B 



^ 



Reeve fcUiciols . imj ■ 



Tab. 4568. 
dombeya viburniflora. 

Viburnum-flowered Dombeya. 



Nat. Ord. Byttnebiace.e. — Monadelphia Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-partitus, persistens, involucello triphybo unilaterab cinctus. 
Petala 5. Stamina 15-20, filamentis vix basi coalitis, 5 sterilia, 2-3 fertilia 
inter quodque sterile. Stylus 1, apice in stigmata 5 subreflexa fissus. Carpella 
5, bivalvia, 1 oo polysperma, in capsnlam arete connexa. Cotyledones contortu- 
plicatse, bifida?. Be Cand. 



Dombeya viburnijlora ; arborea, ramis petiolisque hirsutis, fobis longe petiolatis 
cordatis plerumque serrulatis supra pubescentibus subtus tomentosis, sti- 
pulis ovato-acurainatis, pedunculis elongatis, corymbis compositis, calycibus 
reflexis, pedicellis bracteisque lanatis, petalis oblique spathulatis (albis) sicci- 
tate ochraceis nitidis. 

Dombeya viburniflora. Bojer, in Ann. des Sc. Nat. 2nd Ser. p. 796. 



A native of the Coinorin Islands, near Madagascar, according 
to Professor Bojer, who introduced the tree thence to Mauritius, 
from which latter island we have received it at Kew. With us, 
confined in a tub, it has attained a height of 12-14 feet, so that 
its rather small white flowers are not very conspicuous objects. 
Its nearest affinity is with D.palmata, Wall., PI. Asiat. Rariores ; 
but the latter has seven spreading lobes to the leaves, and larger 
flowers with broader petals. It flowers with us in February. 

Descr. A tree with us attaining a height of fourteen feet or 
more, with a bushy head of copious branches : the branches and 
long petioles clothed with spreading hairs. Leaves moderately 
large, cordate, rather soft to the touch, three-lobed, the lobes 
acuminate, straight (pointing forward), serrated, with rather a 
deep sinus at the base, upper side green, downy ; under side 
pale, almost woolly : stipules rather large, ovate, acuminate, 
herbaceous, deciduous. Peduncles a span and more long, from 
the axils of the upper leaves, and bearing a compound dichoto- 
mously divided corymb of rather small white flowers. Bracteas 
and involucre ovate, caducous. Calyx of five ovato-lanceolate, re- 

MABCH 1ST, 1851. 



Hexed, woolly segments. Petals spreading, oblique and obliquely 
spathulate, white and delicate when fresh, glossy, tawny, and 
assuming a horny character when dry. fi monadelphouB, 

the tube short, soon dividing into five bundles of throe each, 
fifteen in all, and having a sterile, elongated, club-shaped fila- 
ment alternating with each bundle. Ovary globose, hairy : style 
divided almost to the base into five branches, erect : stigmas 
five, obtuse, spreading. W. J. II 

Cult. This is a soft-wooded tropical tree, of quick and robust 
growth. It requires a warm stove, and, if duly encouraged, will 
soon require more room than can often be afforded where a 
general collection of stove plants is kept. It grows freely in 
any kind of light loam, and, as its large leaves part with water 
rapidly during hot dry weather, it is necessary to supply it 
freely with water at the roots, in order to prevent the leaves 
from flagging. It is readily increased by cuttings planted 
under a bell-glass, and placed in bottom-heat. J. 8. 



Y\%. 1. Expanded flower. 2. Flower, deprived of its petals. 3. Pistil :— 

magnified. 



4-SfS. 












<n 




Fitdkld ttliftL. 



"EUeve lb Kichols imf 



Tab. 4569. 
MEDINILLA Javanensis. 

Javanese Medinilla. 



Nat. Ord. Melastomace.*. — Octandeia Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4533.) 



Medinilla Javanensis; caule fruticoso, ramis acuto-tetragonis lsevibus, foliis 
sessilibus elliptico-ovatis acutis quintupbnerviis integerrimis basi subcordatis, 
pauiculis terminalibus axillaribusve erectis strictis, bracteis obsoletis, ca- 
lycis dentibus 5 minutissimis, staminibus 10 parvis, antheris basi antice 
bi-gibbosis dorso calcaratis. 

Medinilla Javanensis. Blume, Flora, v. 14. p. 515. Walp. Repert. Bot. v. 2. 
p. 142. 

Melastoma Javanense. Blume, Bijdr. p. 1078. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 147. 



This, though correctly referred by Blume to Medinilla, has 
little of the beauty of M. speciosa and M. magnifica, and others 
of the genus ; but it forms a handsome shrub, with ample, five- 
nerved foliage. We are indebted to Messrs. Rollisons, of 
Tooting, for this plant, which they imported through their 
collector from Java, along with another species of the genus, M. 
crassifolia, which has flowered at the same time with this, viz., 
in December 1850. Inhabits the stove. 

Descr. A shrub of erect habit, with acutely four-sided, smooth 
branches. The leaves large, sessile, elliptical-ovate, acute, entire, 
five-nerved, somewhat cordate at the base, the costa red at the 
setting on of the leaf : the general colour dark green, pale and 
slightly tinged with red beneath. P article terminal and lateral 
(Blume), small, compact. Bracts small, deciduous. Calyx 
turbinate, pale flesh-colour, glabrous, with five very minute 
teeth. Petals five, obovate, pale rose-colour. Stamens small, 
ten. Filaments subulate, white. Anthers dark purple, with two 
yellowish obtuse spurs or gibbosities at the base in front, and 
one deflexed at the base behind. W. J. 11. 

MARCH 1ST, 1851. 



Cult. This plant, being a native of Java, and, like others of 
the genus, subepiphytal, requires to be grown in a moist stove. 
A mixture of light loam and Bandy peat soil, or leaf-mould, suits 
it. It should be well drained, and, as it is not a strong-rooting 
plant, care must be taken not to over-pot it. It propagates 
freely from cuttings treated in the usual way. /. JS. 



Fig. 1. Stamen : — magnified. 







Tita.i«L«tiiai_ 



Tab. 4570. 
SOBRALIA sessilis. 

Sessile-flowered Sobralia. 



Nat. Ord. Orchideje. — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4446.) 



Sobralia sessilis ; caule foliisque subtus nigro-pubescentibus, foliis sessilibus 
oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis 2 terminalibus squamseformibus acuminatis 
herbaceis, floribus sessilibus, labello rhombeo-oblongo glabro lamellis 2 
intramarginalibus prope basin. Lindl. 

Sobralia sessilis. Lindl. Bot. Reg. Misc. 1841. n. 11. Bot.Reg. 1841. 1. 17. 



A native of British Guiana, where it was discovered and im- 
ported to Messrs. Loddiges' collection about ten years ago, by 
Sir R. H. Schomburgk, and then first described by Dr. Lindley. 
It is, as he remarks, not one of the most showy of this fine 
genus. With us it flowers in October. 

Descr. Terrestrial. Stems one and a half to two feet high, 
erect, tufted, reed-like, jointed, sheathed by the base of the 
leaves and clothed with black or dark-coloured hairs. Leaves 
few, near the apex of the plant, broad-lanceolate, very much acu- 
minated, nerved and plaited, paler beneath : the two superior 
ones immediately beneath the flower are small (but unequal) and 
bracteiform. Mower solitary, terminal, larger and different in 
colour in our plant from Dr. Lindley's above quoted. Sepals 
and petals nearly white, or but slightly tinged with rose, the 
former spreading, oblong-lanceolate, acute ; the latter larger, 
broader, obtuse, and erecto-patent. Lip yellowish, deeply stained 
with rose-purple, obovato-rhomboid, tapering into a narrow 
white claw at the base, within this claw are two small white 
lamella: the margin is waved, the sides turned in. Column 
very much elongated but thicker upwards : the anther lodged in 
a cavity (clinandrium) at the top of the column. W. J. H. 

Cult. This is a species of a very pretty genus of terrestrial 

MARCH 1ST, 1851. 



Orchids, natives of tropical America, growing in hot, dry places, 
and producing their showy Sowers on the apex of slender reed- 
like stems, which rise from fascicles of thick, fleshy, interlacing 
roots. It requires to be kept in the warm division of the 
Orchid-house, and grows freely in a mixture of light loam and 
sandy peat. On account of its roots not going deep, it should 
be grown in a wide shallow pot, which must be well drained, so 
as to allow water to be given freely in summer without risk of 
the soil becoming saturated. It is increased by division of the 
roots ; but, in doing this, great caution is necessary, for, on 
account of their compact interlacing, they are not easily separated 
without injury. /. S. 



Fig. 1. The lip. 2. The column : — magnified. 



i 6 7 / 












/ 










fitch ,M 



B.ee*e Jk Nichols, w"f- 



Tab. 4571. 
DRAC/ENA Draco. 

Dragon s-blood Tree. 



Nat. Ord. AsPARAGiNEiE, Kth. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perigonium corollaceum, tubulosum, profunde sexfidum, deciduum ; 
laciniis subspathulato-linearibus, obtusis, uninerviis, aequabbus, patentissimis vel 
recurvatis. Stamina 6, fauci perigonii inserta, exserta, erecto-patula. Filanienta 
plana, anguste linearia, apice subulato-attenuata. Anthers biloculares, oblongee 
vel Kneari-oblongse, apice bilobae, basi bifida?, dorso medio affixse, introrsEe. 
Ovarium liberum, sessile, oblongum, triloculare ; ovula in loculis solitaria, sessilia, 
adscendentia, anatropa. Columna stylina filiformis, sidcato-triangularis, erecta, 
stamina superans. Stigma trilobum ; lobis rotundatis. Bacca subglobosa vel 
tripulvinato-globosa, carnoso-succulenta, 1-3-sperma. Semina subglobosa. Em- 
bryo in basi albuminis cornei ad latus externum locatus.— Caules arboreivel fruti- 
cosi, simplices vel ramosi, foliis delapsis semiannulato-cicatrizati. Folia in apice 
caulis et ramorum conferta, lanceolata vel linearia, integerrima, sape in/erne angus- 
tato-petiolata,ima basisemiamplexicaulia,striato-nervosa,pergamenea vel subcoriacea, 
glabra. Panicuke terminates, solitaria, simplices vel ramos<e,bracteata, rarissime 
ad racemum solitarium reducta. Mores pedicellati, solitarii, gemini, term vel 
quini, in ramis panicuhe racemosim dispositi, albidi, virescenti- vel flavido-albi ; 
pedicellis basi bracteolatis, superne articulatis. 



Dracena Draco ; arborea apice ramosa, foUis sessilibus amplexicauhbus lineari- 
acuminatis acutissimis, paniculis terminalibus ramosis foliaceo-bracteatis, 
ramis ternis patentissimis, floribus fasciculatis, pedicellis medio articulatis. 

Dracaena Draco. Linn. Syst. Veget.p. 275. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 2. p. 155. JZojw. 
et Sclmlt. Syst. Feget. v. 7. p. 337. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2 p. 92. Berthel 
inNov.Act.Bonn.v.W.p.m.t.M-M. Kunth, Emm. Pl.v.^.p.S. Webb 
et Berthel. Hist, des Canaries, Atlas, Geographte Bot. 3me Ser. t. 8. 

Asparagus ? Draco. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 451. 



The Dragon s-blood Tree is a plant that every one speaks of, 
which most have seen, if not the gigantic inhabitants oi the 
Canaries, yet in otir gardens at home; for there is scarcely a 
Botanic Garden in Europe which does not possess a plant ol 
greater or less size ; but a flowering plant is of very rare occur- 
rence, save in tropical or subtropical regions. Our triencl Ut. 
Mackay has had the good fortune to bring the plant to flower in 



APRIL 1st, 1851. 



the stove of the Dublin College Botanic Garden, one, too, which 
he reared himself from seeds collected at Madeira, by the Right 
Honourable George Knox, in 1810. " After it had been grown 
in a pot," says Dr. Mackay, in the remarks he presented to the 
Meeting of the British Association at Edinburgh, IS 50, " for 
ten years, it was planted out into a bed of earth in a large stove 
or hot-house. About three yean ago it became too tall for the 
house ; and, in order still to secure the plant for the collection, 
the following experiment, suggested by my intelligent first as- 
sistant, Mr. Bain, was made by him. The stem, which was 
about fifteen inches in diameter immediately under the leaves, 
and eighteen feet high, was, during six months, gradually cut 
across four feet above the root, about an inch deep at a time to 
prevent bleeding. The root and lower portion of the stem were 
then removed as being useless, and the upper portion of the 
stem suspended immediately above the former station of the 
plant. In the course of eight months, during which time it was 
kept perfectly dry, it threw out several thick aerial roots from 
the edge of the stem where it had been cut. It was then 
lowered into its former position, and had the stein and roots 
sunk four feet in dry sandy mould. This was done about a 
year and a half ago, and the plant, which is now in excellent 
health, has lately flowered, and is, I believe, the first that has 
done so in Great Britain or Ireland." 

Our good friend did not fail to send us a flowering specimen 
and leaves : but the plates of this publication are most unsuitcd 
to receive anything like a fair sample of the full-sized leaves and 
inflorescence : so that we have hence thought it better to con- 
fine our figures chiefly to analysis, and occupy the rest of the 
plate with a copy taken from the " Atlas " of Messrs. Webb and 
Berthelot's ' History of the Canary Islands/ of the celebrated 
" Dragon Tree of Orotava " as it is usually called, of which the 
drawing was made in 1790, before the great injury done to 
the tree by the storm in 1819. In the latter state, an exceed- 
ingly beautiful large plate has been published in London by 
the same gentleman (Mr. Williams) who executed Mr. Webb's 
drawings. " It is now," says M. de Humboldt, in his celebrated 
Travels, " included within the precincts of the garden of M. Eran- 
chi, in the small town of Orotava, one of the most delicious spots 
in the world. In 1799, when we climbed the peak of Teneriffe, we 
found that this enormous vegetable was forty-five feet in circumfer- 
ence a little above the root. Sir George Staunton affirms that, at 
ten feet high, its diameter is twelve feet ; its height was reckoned 
at from seventy to seventy-five feet." Some thirty years after 
Humboldt's visit, M. Berthelot (in 1819) took up his abode in 
the ruined chambers of La Casa Franchi, and gives the following 



lively picture * of the then state of the gardens and their vege- 
tation : — "Les jardins du Manoir, jadis entretenus avec luxe, et 
dont je n'ai rien dit encore, etaient livres a eux-menies : depuis 
longtemps la nature en faisait tous les frais. Les haies de 
myrte, qu'on ne taillait plus, formaient des allees couvertes oii 
venaient se refugier tous les merles des environs ; les orangers et 
les citronniers poussaient a plein vent ; les rosiers croissaient en 
buissons au milieu des orties et des ronces. Au bord d'une 
piece d'eau, trois antiques cypres et un palmier, qu'on apercevait 
de tous les points du vallon, completaient ] 'aspect romantique 
de ce site a demi sauvage. Cependant, malgre les ravages du 
temps, ces jardins avaient conserve leur plus etonnante merveille : 
un dragonier s'elevait en face de mon logement, arbre etrange 
de forme, gigantesque de port, que la tempete avait frappe sans 
pouvoir abattre. Dix hommes pouvaient a peine embrasser son 
tronc. Ce cippe prodigieux offrait a l'interieur une cavite pro- 
fonde que les siecles avaient creusee ; une porte rustique donnait 
entree dans cette grotte, dont la voute, a moitie entamee, sup- 
portait encore un enorme branchage. De longues feuilles, 
aigues comme des epees, couronnaient l'extremite des rameaux ; et 
des blanches panicules, qui s'epanouissaient en automne, venaient 
jeter un manteau de fleurs sur ce dome de verdure. Un jour, 
l'ouragan furieux ebranla la foret aerienne : on entendit un epou- 
vantable craquement ; puis tout-a-coup le tiers de la masse ra- 
meuse s'abbatit avec fracas et fit retentir la vallee. Un superbe 
laurier fut emporte dans cette debacle, et tous les arbustes des 
alentours resterent ensevelis sous des monceaux de ruines. La 
date de cet evenement est inscrite sur une plate-forme en ma- 
connerie qu'on a batie au sommet du tronc pour recouvrir la 
crevasse et prevenir l'infiltration des eaux. Le colosse mutile 
n'a rien perdu de son imposant aspect : inebranlable sur sa 
base et le front dans les nues, il poursuit le cours de sa longe- 
vity Souvent j'allais m'asseoir au pied de l'arbre seculaire dont 
Forigine se perd dans la nuit des temps. Que de generations 
ont passe sous son ombre ! Les Guanches d'Orotapala (now Oro- 
tava) le venererent comme un genie protecteur ; mais ce peuple de 
braves a subi son destin . . . depuis quatre cent ans il est aneanti, 
et le vieux dragonier, toujours de bout, brave encore les orages. 
Apres la reddition de T^neriffe (1496) il servit de jalon aux soldats 
de l'Adelantado pour le trace des lignes de partage, dans la dis- 
tribution des terres conquises. Dessine sous tous^ les aspects, 
decrit dans toutes les langues, le veteran de la vallee a tait 1 ad- 
miration des voyageurs mes devanciers. Un histonen, meta- 
morphosant cet arbre extraordinaire, en fit le dragon des Hes- 

* Webb et Berthelot, Hist. Nat. des Canaries ; Sert. Miscell. ; Sejour a l'Oro- 
tava, p. 97. 



perides, gardien des pommes d*dr; Nicolas Wonard, examinanl 

son fruit a la loupe, crut voir Boua I'enveloppe I'image du mon- 
stre fabuleux ; et les botanistes modemes, jugeant le eolosse 
par I'embryon, l'ont classe dans la famflle des Asperges." 

India is given, as well as the Canaries, by most botanical 
writers, as the native country of the Dragon's-blood, but Dr. 
Roxburgh does not include it in his ' Flora lndica,' nor does 
Dr. Wallich consider it a native; and who can gainsay such 
authorities ? The tree derives its name from a resinous exuda- 
tion, known in commerce as " Dragon's-blood," and which 
appears to have formed a considerable branch of exportation in 
the early times of the conquest of these isles, but which has 
never wholly fallen into disuse. Masses of this resin, which 
have been found in the sepulchral caves of the Guanches, would 
lead to the suspicion that the substance was employed for em- 
balming their dead. 

Descr. A description of the trunk of this tree, as seen in our 
own stoves or greenhouses, even when, as at Kew, they have 
attained a height of twenty -three feet, with the entirely unbranched 
stem scarred by the transverse lines or scars of the fallen leaves, 
with a single tuft of leaves at the top, very much resembling a 
Yucca, would give no idea of the appearance the tree puts on in 
its native isles in its maturer age. The state just mentioned is 
considered by M. Berthelot as the "first age " or infancy, which 
lasts, in their native country, from twenty-five to thirty years. 
He speaks of two other periods, " of maturity or of reproduc- 
tion ; and thirdly, the age or period of decay : " la duree des 
ces deux ages est incalculable." At the second aye, the trans- 
verse cicatrices disappear, and the trunk is covered by layers 
which adhere together and increase gradually by the formation 
of new ones : hence the trunk sensibly increases in thickness, 
owing to the rapid formation of branches, and then commences 
the flowering period. " Parvenus a cette epoque de leur per- 
fection, les Dragoniers continuent a croitre et semblent acquerir 
chaque annee une vigueur nouvelle. Par l'effet de leur robuste 
organisation ils resistent aux vents les plus impetueux, bravent 
sur un sol volcanise les rayons d'un soleil brulant et toutes les 
intemperies de l'atmosphere. C'est ainsi que, forts des avail - 
tages que la nature leur a prodigue, ils poursuivent lentement 
la longue carriere de leur existence." In the age or period of 
t/rca//, aerial roots appear, "les drageons parasites," and glan- 
dular excrescences in the interior of the trunk as large as Cocoa- 
nuts, described and figured by Berthelot (/. c. p. 785. t. 39). 

The leaves attain a length of three feet and more, and are 
very glaucous, coriaceous, firm, straight, narrow sword-shaped 
or linear, pungently acuminated, broad, somewhat sheathing 



at the base and contracted above the sheath. They vary much 
in breadth, from one to two inches, and Kunth enumerates four 
varieties depending on peculiarities of the foliage. Panicles 
from the leafy extremities of the branches, themselves leafy with 
foliaceous bracts : ultimate bracts minute. Flowers pedicelled, 
in clusters or fascicles, five or six from one point, easily caducous, 
if not fruit-bearing, owing to a joint near the middle of the 
pedicel, and the lower portion or articulation is swollen at the top 
and a little cup-shaped. Sepals pale yellowish or greenish white, 
oblong, obtuse, bearing the stamens at the base. Anthers oblong, 
two-celled. Ovary oval, glabrous, three-celled : cells with one 
ovule. Style as long as the ovary. Stigma three-lobed. Fruit 
a depressed -globose, yellow-green berry, with very thin pulp, 
one, two, or rarely three seeds coming to maturity. Seeds 
globose, pale brown. W.J. II. 

Cult. This plant is recorded to have been introduced into 
this country before 1640, and examples of it have been known 
to attain a considerable height and age, but we are not aware of 
its ever having produced flowers except under the circumstances 
stated above. In Botanic Gardens this plant is generally placed 
in a house, with Aloes, Agaves, and other succulent plants that 
thrive in a dry atmosphere and require very little water. For 
many years several specimens were kept in the old dry stove in 
the Royal Gardens, growing in large garden-pots. Their thick 
roots and the mould in the pots formed a compact ball, almost im- 
pervious to water, which at all times was but sparingly given them : 
under this treatment the plants grew and increased in height. 
In 1842, one of them, becoming too tall, was removed into a 
loftier house, adapted for the growth of tropical plants requiring 
a warm and moist air, and was shifted into a small tub. At 
that time it measured seventeen feet nine inches from the surface 
of the soil in the tub to the base of the lowest whorl of leaves ; 
it is now twenty-three feet in height, having grown five feet four 
inches in eight years, being at the rate of eight inches annually : 
this, according to our recollection of the plant thirty years ago, 
must be at least double its rate of growth when under the dry 
system of treatment. A modification of the latter, however, we 
believe to be more in accordance with the circumstances of the 
plant in its native locality. The specimen figured, Dr. Mac- 
kay informs us, was raised from seed in 1810, and at the 
time it was cut down (about three years ago) it measured 
eighteen feet in height : this gives a growth of about five inches 
annually. From the above statements, it appears that this plant 
grows slowly or rapidly according to the degree of heat and 
moisture it receives ; but when cultivated in a moist atmosphere, 
little or no water should be given to the roots. With respect to 



the successful experiment of forming a new plant, as performed 
in the College Garden, Dublin, we have to observe, that many 
caulescent species of the family to which Dracana belongs, emit 
roots from their stems, and readily form new plants when cut 
down ; and we have an example of our tallest Bracmna emitting 
roots several feet above the ground, from a part of the stem that 
had been injured. /. S. 



The chief figure on our plate represents, on a very reduced scale, the great 
Dragon-Tree of Orotava, as it appeared in 1790; copied from Webb and Ber- 
thelot's figure. Fig. 1. Portion of a leaf: — natural size. 2. Small portion of a 
panicle. 3. Flower. 4. Stamen. 5. Pistil: — natural size. 6. Transverse 
section of ovary. 8. Transverse section of a two-seeded berry. 9. Seed : — 
magnified. 




Titrt^teLet Mh. 



TleevetKiclLols.iaJ 



Tab. 4572. 
EPIDENDRUM linearifolium. 

Narrow-leaved Epidendrum. 



Nat. Ord. OrchidEjE. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Sepala patentia, subaequalia. Petala sepab's sequalia v. angus- 
tiora, rarius latiora, patentia v. reflexa. Labellum cum marginibus columna? 
omnino v. parte cormatum, limbo integro v. diviso, disco saspius calloso, costato 
v. tuberculato ; nunc in calcar productum ovario accretum et cuniculum formans. 
Columna elongata; clinandrio marginato, ssepe fimbriate Antliera carnosa, 
2— i-locularis. Pollinia 4, caudiculis totidem replicatis annexa. — Herbse (Ameri- 
cana) epiphytce, caule nunc apice v. basi pseudo-bulboso, nunc elongato apice folioso. 
Folia carnosa, rarissime venis elevatis striata. Flores spicati, racemosi, corym- 
bosi, v. paniculati, terminates v. laterales. 



Epidendrum linearifolium ; pseudo-bulbis ovatis Iambus ca^spitosis, foliis binis 
lineari-elongatis obtusis, panicula elongata laxa gracili, sepalis petalisque 
lineari-spatbulatis patentissimis, labelli purpureo-picti fere liberi trilobi 
lobis lateralibus oblongis reflexis, intermedio subarnplo rotundato integerrimo 
margine undulato, disco bicostato, columna superne biaurita. 



A native, probably, of Mexico. It was received at Kew as 
one of the collection of the late Mr. Clowes, but the name, if it 
had any, was effaced on the label. It does not appear to be any- 
where described : but its affinity is doubtless with a groupe of 
Upidendrum which I have called Encyclia, and not far removed 
from IE. gracile, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1765, from the Bahamas; 
differing, however, abundantly from it in the much more slender 
and graceful character of the whole plant, in the smaller and even 
(not corrugated) pseudo-bulbs, much narrower and longer leaves, 
and in the small lateral lobes of the labellum. The colour and 
markings of the flower are different. The lip here, and espe- 
cially the lobes, are most beautifully veined with purple. Flowers 
in June. 

Descii. Pseudo-bulbs scarcely exceeding an inch in length, 
clustered, ovate, quite even on the surface, the younger ones 
more or less sheathed with scales, bearing at their summit two 
very narrow linear leaves, 8-10 inches long, carinate, acute. 

APRIL 1st, 1851. 



The scape rises from between the two leaves, and is a foot long, 
bearing a lax slender graceful panicle of from 12— 14 jlowers. 

Sepals imd petak spreading horizontally, purple-brown, yellowish 
at the apex, very acute. Zip with its base united to the lower 
part and decurrent with the long column, the sides embracing 
and including the latter, three-lobed, yellowish- white, delicately 
lined and veined with purple ; side lobes oblong, acute, reflexed ; 
middle lobe large, rotundate, waved at the margin. Column 
yellow, with blood-red spots, biaurite in front near the summit. 
Anther-case white, with crimson spots. W. J. H. 

Cult. Epidendrum was the common name originally applied 
to the plants now called Epiphytal Orchids, of which twenty-five 
species are recorded to have been introduced into the gardens 
of this country previous to the beginning of the present century. 
A few were known in Millar's time, for under the word Epiden- 
drum, in his Dictionary, he states that these plants come from 
the West Indies, and that several kinds of soil had been tried 
for cultivating them, but without success; and he therefore 
considered it unnecessary to say more about them. There can 
be no doubt that the want of success in growing Orchids at that 
time was not entirely owing to improper soil, but rather to their 
not being placed in a suitable atmosphere. Even in our time, 
we remember seeing a very extensive collection of Brazilian 
Orchids potted in common soil, which in a short time all 
perished ; but when we also recollect that they were placed 
within a foot of a hot brick flue, that the stunted appearance of 
the other plants in the house indicated a dry atmosphere, and 
that no shading from the sun was used, we cannot be surprised 
at the death of the " Epidendrums." The name is now restricted 
to a genus which contains above 150 described species, the 
whole of which are natives of the West Indies and America, 
chiefly within or near the tropics. They vary much in size and 
aspect, some having showy flowers, while others are very incon- 
spicuous and only of interest to the botanist. The species 
figured grows and flowers freely in the tropical Orchid-house, 
attached to a block of wood suspended from the roof of the 
house ; it may also be grown in a shallow pot or pan, planted 
in turfy peat, which should be kept open with potsherds ; and, 
like other small Orchids, it should be placed near the glass, 
shading it during bright sunshine. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Column. 2. Labellum. 3. Pollen-masses : — magnified. 



4-S7S. 




Titch.,i*l«tTiai_. 



Xh» Jfc Mickals. imj> ■ 



Tab. 4573. 

acacia urophylla. 

Pointed-leaved Acacia. 



Nat. Ord. Leguminos^e. — Polygamia Polyandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4306.) 



Acacia (§ Armatae) urophylla ; glabra v. hispidula, ramulis angulatis, stipuKs 
setaceo-spinescentibus, phyllodiis petiolatis dimidiato-ovatis lanceolatisre 
obliquis subulato-acuminatis undulatis margine superiore ssepius crenato 
binerviis v. furcato-3-4-nerviis transversim venosis reticulatisve, glandula 
prope basin magna, pedunculis simplicibus (v. breviter racemosis), capi- 
tulis paucifloris glabris. Benth. 

Acacia urophylla. Benth. in Bot. Reg. 1841. Misc. n. 61. et in Hook. Bond. 

Journ. of Bot. v. 1. p. 329. Lehm. Plant. Preiss. v. 1. p. 8. 
Acacia smilacifolia. Fielding, Sertum Plantarum, t. 3. (1S43). 
£. glaberrima ; foliis pallidioribus, floribus magis luteis. 



Would that all the species of the vast groupe of phyllodineous 
Acacia were as easily defined as this. The phyllodia are here 
of a very peculiar character, generally broad ovate, subfalcate, 
almost spinescently acuminated, with longitudinal and transverse 
nerves, as in Smilax, whence the appropriate name of Mr. 
Fielding. The plant was raised from seeds sent in 1843, by 
Mr. Drummond, from the Swan River Colony (Preiss says, about 
Canning's River and the Darling range of hills). It flowers in 
January and February. 

Descr. A moderate-sized shrub, with angular branches, and, 
the young phyllodia especially, pubescenti-hirsute. Phyllodia 
obliquely ovate, slightly falcate (the edges vertical), acuminated 
into a slender setaceous or spinulose point, hairy in o, glabrous 
in our /?, the upper edge obscurely crenate, the two surfaces 
marked with three nearly equidistant nerves, united by trans- 
verse ones, tapering at the base more or less gradually into a 
rather short footstalk, which bears a conspicuous gland at its sum- 
mit above. Stipules two, minute, subulate, red, spinescent. Pe- 
duncles two to five from one axil, each much shorter than the leaf, 

APRIL 1st, 1851. 



longer than the petiole, monocephalons. Flowers few, pale 
yellow, deeper coloured in fi. Calyx and corolla each of four 
acute lobes. Stamens numerous : anthers subglobose. Ovary 
ovate, hirsute. Style filiform. W. J. II 

Cult. The genus Acacia, as now restricted, still contains 
about 400 described species, which are extensively diffused 
within the tropics of the Old and New World ; they are also 
found in some extra-tropical countries, especially in Australia, 
which country alone contains more than one-half of the known 
species. This genus, in its normal or typical form, has conju- 
gate and variously pinnated leaves, which character is common 
to all the species in their nascent or seedling state, and is per- 
manent with about one-half in all stages of their existence ; the 
other species soon lose their true leaves, their place being sup- 
plied by the petioles, which take various forms, assuming the 
appearance and performing the functions of leaves. In a few 
instances the true leaves may be seen borne on the apex of a 
broad leaf-like petiole ; but the latter is readily known by its 
not having an upper and an under surface (as in true leaves), 
the two sides being vertical and uniform. With the exception 
of two or three species, the leafless groupe are all natives of 
Australia. They are found upon all the coasts, and equally 
diffused in the interior; and by their numbers they form a 
leading feature of the vegetation, some of the species by their 
glaucous and hoary aspect giving a peculiar character to the 
landscape, generally indicative of an arid country. As the seeds 
of Acacias, like those of most of the Leguminosa, are not easily 
destroyed by long voyages, many of the species have from time 
to time been introduced into this country, more especially from the 
extra-tropical parts of Australia ; as they are, also, of easy culti- 
vation and many of them of robust growth, and very showy 
when in flower, they have become favourites in the greenhouse, 
and for planting in large conservatories. The species figured 
requires to be kept in the greenhouse: it grows freely in a 
mixture of light loam and peat, and is increased by cuttings 
treated in the usual way. J. S. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil. 3. Small portion of a leaf -.—magnified. 



4-5 74- 




3Lejre&Sii°1s™>!' 



Tab. 4574. 

HEBECLINIUM ianthinum. 

Violet Hebeclinium. 



Nat. Ord. Composit^-Eupatokiace^:. — Syngenesia iEquALis. 



Gen. Char. Capitulum multiflorum. Involucri campanulati squamae pluri- 
seriales, laxe subimbricatse, saepe in appendicem subcoloratam producta3. Recep- 
taculum elevatum, superne plano-convexum, pube brevi conferta hirsutum et ideo 
fere piloso-fimbriUiferum. Achcenia angulata. Pappus 1-serialis, pilosus, scaber. 
— Herbae australi- Americana? pubescentes. Caules teretes. Folia opposita, petio- 
lata, cor data, acuminata, dentata. Corymbi terminates compositi, conferti. Corolla? 
albcB aut rosea. — Genus affine Eupatorio, sed differt receptaculo villoso et involucri 
squamis sapius^appendiculatis. 



Hebeclinium ianthinum ; ramis petiolis pedunculis pedicellisque pube ferru- 
ginea vestitis, foliis amplis longe petiolatis rhombeo-ovatis acutis (basi 
cuneata integerrima) grosse mucronato-serratis supra pube brevissima sca- 
briusculis subtus pubescenti-canis, corymbo terminali composito polycephalo, 
capitulis ad apices ramulorum confertis ovatis multifloris ianthinis, achsenio 
angulato glabro, involucri squamis exappendiculatis. 

Conoclinium ianthinum. " Morren, in Ghent Annals, May 1849." Henfrey, 
in Gardeners' Mag. of Bot. v. 1. p. 185. 



An Eupatoroid plant, and very near, it must be confessed, to 
true Eupatorium. Professor Morren has referred it to Conocli- 
nium of De Candolle, but he, as well as Mr. Henfrey, point out 
some discrepancies, and the latter alludes to its affinity with 
Hebeclinium. In Hebeclinium native specimens of this species 
have long been in my herbarium, collected by Jurgensen and 
Linden (n. 463), not from St. Catherine, Brazil, as stated by the 
Belgian cultivator, but from Mexico, " pres de Vera Cruz et 
Zalapa " (Linden). It assuredly agrees better with Hebeclinium 
than with Conoclinium, and it is a close congener with Hebecli- 
nium macrophyllum, a common plant of Jamaica, and belongs 
to the same, or first, section of De Candolle. As a species, 
indeed, our plant differs abundantly in its large purple flowers 
and in the cuneate base to the leaf. It flowers in the winter 

APRIL 1st, 1851. 



months with us, and is then very ornamental. We owe the 
possession of our plant to Messrs. Hendersons, St. John's Wood. 

Descr. An herbaceous rather than a shrubby plant. Stem 
and branches terete, clothed with rusty down. Leaves opposite, 
on very long petioles, often a span long, ovate, but decidedly 
cuneate and entire at the base, very acute rather than acuminate, 
coarsely and often doubly serrated, the serratures mucronate. Co- 
rymb large, the capitula clustered at the ends of the branches. 
Flowers remarkable for the exceedingly long purple styles, which 
have, at first sight, almost the effect of a many-flowered ray. The 
corollas are also purple. Achenium angular. Pappus of few 
scabrous setae. W. J. H. 

Cult. A soft-wooded suffruticose plant, of easy cultivation. 
It may be grown in a pot, and flowers freely when not a foot 
high. Any kind of light open soil will suit it. It has 
hitherto been treated as a stove-plant ; but, judging from its 
affinity to Ageratum, and from its present appearance, we think 
that if planted out in the open border in the month of May, it 
will grow luxuriantly during the summer months. It increases 
readily by cuttings, treated in the usual way. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Anther: — magnified. 



■S75. 







Tab. 4575. 
WIGANDIA Caracasana. 

Caraccas Wigandia. 



Nat. Orel. Hydeoleace^e. — Pentandeia Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-sepalus, persistens. Corolla infundibuliformis. Stamina 
exserta. Styli 2, stigmatibus depresso-capitatis. Capsula bi- (potius uni-) locu- 
laris, loculicido-bivalvis. Placentce 4 (2), laminaeformes, primum eoadunatse de- 
mum libera;. — Herbse grandifolice, slrigoso-hispidissimez. Chois. 



Wigandia Caracasana ; hirta, foliis elliptico-cordatis duplicato-crenatis dentibus 
acutiusculis utrinque hirto-tomentosis, spicis apice revolutis secundifloris, ra- 
chide villoso-pubescente, sepalis lineari-lanceolatis incano-tomentosis acutis, 
corolla; tubo brevi, staminibus basi ciliato-hirtis, capsida vix incano-pubes- 
cente. 

Wigandia Caracasana. II.B.K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. Am. v. 3. p. 128. Lindl. Bot. 
Reff. tf. 1966. Roem. et Sch. Syst. Veget. v. 6. p. 190. Spreng. Syst. Veget. 
v. 1. p. 866. Choky, in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 10. t. 84. 



Native of the Caraccas, as the name implies. Introduced 
from Berlin to the English gardens. With us, it flowers in the 
stove in February, and makes a handsome appearance with its 
large pale violet flowers. Our plant is clearly the same as Dr. 
Lindley's, and Dr. Lindley's excellent figure is quoted under the 
W. Caracasana of Choisy, who had the opportunity of inspecting 
Humboldt's original specimens. But Dr. Lindley observes, 
" Planta culta in caldario orgyalis, a spontanea, quam coram habeo, 
diversa est foliis viridioribus, contextu laxiore, et aliquando costa 
venisque primariis hispidis, necnon floribus triplo majoribus." 
We find the same differences (save in the size of the flowers) 
between our cultivated plant and native specimens of what we 
believe to be specifically identical, from New Granada and from 
Trinidad. But it must be confessed that other species of Wi- 
gandia present great variations and intermediate gradations 
which render their claims to specific identity extremely doubtful. 

Descr. Stem herbaceous, hirsute, every part, even when dry 
(save the flowers), green. Leaves alternate, five or six inches 
long, on rather long, hairy petioles, elliptical cordate, acute, 
sinuate and dentate at the margin, the teeth rather sharp, 

APRIL 1st, 1851. 



pubescenti-hirsute on both sides, reticulated. Panicle or com- 
pound raceme terminal, branches patenti-hirsute, circulate, many- 
flowered. Flowers large, unilateral. Pedicels short. Calyx 
of five linear-lanceolate, hairy, erect sepals. Corolla pale violet- 
colour : the tube as short as the calyx, limb of five large, spread- 
ing, ovate, obtuse lobes, the sides a little reflexed. Filaments 
inserted near the base of the corolla. Anthers oblong, sagittate. 
Ovary oblong, one-celled, with two placentae, a transverse section 
of each of which nearly represents the letter T, the transverse 
portions meeting in the centre ; their edges chiefly bearing the 
numerous ovules. Styles two, exserted. JStiymas dilated, de- 
pressed. W. J. H. 

Cult. A soft-wooded tropical plant, requiring the heat of the 
stove. A mixture of light loam, peat, and sand suits it, but care 
must be taken to have the pot well drained. It is readily in- 
creased by cuttings, planted in sand under a bell-glass, and 
plunged in bottom-heat ; but, being of a soft nature, they must 
not receive much water till they have formed roots. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Stamen. 2. Pistil. 3. Section of ovary : — magnified. 



4-S7S. 




Tit ch, lei etTith. . 



EesveS:NicKo"Ls ini£- 



Tab. 4576. 

CHYSIS AUREA; var. MACULATA. 

Golden-Cowered Chysis ; spotted variety. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — Gynandria Monandria. 

Gen. Ctiar. Sepala paulo connata, patula; lateralia pedi producto columnar 
adnata et calcar simulantia. Petala sepalis cotiformia. Labellum trilobum, 
patulum, venis basi callosis. Columna marginata, canaliculata, rautica. Antliera 
subrotunda, opercularis, glabra. Pollinia 8, in laminani luteara semifusa, quatnor 
exterioribus tenuibus qnatuor interiora crassiora abscondentibus. BosteUmn 
laminatum, convexum. — Herbae epipJiyta, occidentales, ab arboribus pendulcc; 
caulibus Cyrtopodii depauperatis, folds 7ie?'vosis basi vaginantibus, racemis latera- 
libus multijloris. Lindl. 



Chysis aurea ; bracteis parvis concavis ovario brevioribus, sepalis petalisque 
ovatis obtusis, labelli lobis lateralibus obtusis, intermedio majore carnoso 
bilobo hypochilio plicato, lamellis 5 carnosis subcequalibus parallelis basi 
pubescentibus et utrinque 3 abis minoribus (potius venis elevatis), columna 
latissima cavnosa cymbiformi antice pubescente. Lindl. 

Chysis aiirea. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 937. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3617. 
id. sepalorum petalorumque parte superiore aureo-fusco tincta, labelli lobo medio 
purpureo-maculato. 



Sent in January 1851 from the collection of Messrs. Lucombe 
and Pince, of the Exotic Nursery, Exeter. By them it was pur- 
chased at one of Mr. Stevens's sales of Columbian Orchideae, in 
1850, where it was entered in the catalogue as the "Red Bull's- 
mouth." 

We were at first disposed to consider it a distinct species from 
C. aurea, l&vis, or bractescens, but a further investigation led to 
the conclusion that it was rather a highly coloured variety of 
C. aurea, to which, indeed, C. bractescens is very nearly allied, 
nor do I find the chief distinction which Dr. Lindley lays stress 
upon, available ; viz. that on the labellum of C. aurea there are 
five principal ridges, and three minor ones on each side, all 
downy and diverging, " while in C. bractescens there are five 
equal ridges all smooth and parallel." In our drawing of C. 
bractescens, now before us, the five ridges are all downy in their 
lower half, while in C. aurea, both a and ft the three lesser 

APRIL 1st, 1851. 



lateral ridges appear rather a kind of venation, such as is seen 
in the middle lobe also. In C. bradetcens, the bracteas are larger 
and very concave, and the flowers are larger, and the lateral 
lobes of the labellum are larger than in C. aurea. The flowers 
are very fragrant. 

Descr. We have nothing to add to onr description of C. aurea 
given at our Tab. 3617, save that in this variety the sepals and 
petals have their upper half occupied by a large orange-brown 
spot or blotch, and the middle lobe of the labellum is prettily 
spotted with purple. W. J. H. 

Cult. This beautiful epiphyte requires the temperature of the 
tropical Orchid-house. It thrives in a shallow pot or pan, filled 
with turfy peat-soil, and well drained with potsherds. The soil 
should be raised in a rounded form above the margin of the pot, 
so as to have the plant elevated, and to allow any superfluous 
waterings to pass off" freely, that the soil may not become satu- 
rated. In winter, care must be taken that the plant does not 
suffer from excess of atmospheric moisture ; it is, therefore, ad- 
visable to remove it to a colder and drier house. J. S. 



Fig. 1. Column and Lip. 2. Pollen-masses: — magnified. 



4 S 7 7. 




JUmi^S- 



Tab. 4577. 

MORMQDES atro-purpubea. 
Black-purple Mormodes. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^e, — Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 4455.) 



Mormopes atro-purpurea ; pseudo-bulbis oblongis squamis •ampHs inibricatis 
pallidis fusco-marginatis vaginatis, foliis . . . , floribus pendulis unicolo- 
ribus, sepalis petalisque arete reflexis ovato-lanceolatis marginibus revolutis, 
labelli late obcordati velutini in stipitem basi attenuati lateribus revolutis, 
columna oblique torta breviter acuminata. , 



At our Tab. 4455 we gave the very pretty and singular Mor- 
modes lentwinosa, whose flowers are pale, freckled with dark 
purple. The blossoms of the present species are of a uniform 
dark purple or blood-colour, the sepals and petals wider, the lip 
much broader and velvety with short hairs. It was commu- 
nicated in January 1851, by our friend J. Dillwyn Llewelyn, 
Esq., from his collection at Penllergare, having been purchased 
by that gentleman at one of the sales of plants of Mr. Warcewitz 
from Panama. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs clustered, oblong, striated, the old ones 
entirely sheathed by large, membranaceous, pointed scales, of a 
pale straw-colour, edged with dark brown. The leaves we have 
not seen. Scape a foot high, rounded, articulated. Flowers 
rather distant, pendulous, of a nearly uniform dark purple-brown, 
or between chocolate and blood-colour. Sepals and petals nearly 
uniform, ovato-lanceolate, their sides reflexed. The lip porrected, 
velvety with short hairs, broadly obcordate, tapering below into 
a stipes, the sides singularly revolute. Column pale, purplish- 
brown, not half the length of the lip, with which it is nearly 
parallel, but it has an oblique twist ; the apex short, acute. 
W.J.H. 

Cult. This singular species of Mormodes requires the tempe- 
rature of the warm Orchid-house. It will thrive if potted in 
may 1st, 1851. 



loose turfy peat-soil, in pots well drained. During its season of 
rest very little water must be given, and it is best to remove it 
to a cooler and drier situation, again replacing it in a warm and 
moist atmosphere when it begins to show, symptoms of growth. 
In bright summer weather it should be shaded from the 
direct ravs of the sun. /. S. 










'jX a 



4-S7&. 






, 






It- 




Eeevs * Bidtol" im P 



Tab. 4578. 

DOMBEYA mollis. 

Soft-leaved Dombeya. 



Nat. Ord. Byttneriace^:. — Monadei^phia Polyandria. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4568.) 



Dombeya mollis ; arborea, ramulis pubescenti-tomentosis, foliis amplis molliter 
pubescentibus cordatis serratis trilobis lobis acuminatissimis rectis, stipubs 
ovatis acuminatis, pedunculis elongatis tomentosis apice dichotomis umbella- 
tis, iilamentis -in tubum urceolatum unitis, petahs anguste lanceolatis falcato- 
flexuosis. 

Astrap^a molbs, Hortulan. 



The largest of our Dombeyas, attaining, in our Palm-stove, a 
height of thirty feet, with a large spreading head of branches. It is 
an undescribed species (though nearest perhaps to D. triumfettce- 
folia* Bbjer in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. xviii. p. 191) and was received 
at Kew many years ago from France, under the name of As- 
trapcea mollis. The species is remarkable for its large, soft, and 
compactly tomentose leaves, and the dense capitate umbels of 
small rose-coloured flowers with narrow petals. It flowers in 
March, and the scent resembles that of Hawthorn. 

Descr. A tree, much branched at the top, spreading ; young 
branches, petioles, leaves, peduncles, and calyces everywhere 
clothed with dense stellated down, quite soft to the touch. Leaves 
on terete petioles, often a foot long, themselves nearly as long, 
cordate with a deep sinus at the base, three-lobed, the lobes 
very much acuminated and straight (not diverging), everywhere 
sharply serrated, five- to seven-nerved. Stipules moderately 
large, ovato-acuminate. Peduncles six to eight inches long, rather 
stout, erect, two or three times forked at the apex ; each branch 

* B. triumfetteefolia ; " caule suffruticoso glabro, foliis petiolatis ovato-oblongis 
5-7-nerviis utriuque stellato-hispidis lobis acuminatis, pedunculis axillaribus bifi- 
dis, floribus corymbosis albis."— It is singular if among Bojer's seven new species 
of Dombeya, described in the above work, this should not be included. 

may 1st, 1851. 



bearing a capitate umbel of pale rose-coloured flowers. Calyx 
of five, oblong, much acuminated sepals. Petals five, lanceolate, 
acuminate, falcate, but somewhat uncinate at the apex. Fila- 
ments of the stamens united into an urceolate tube. Anthers 
fifteen, oblong. Sterile filaments linear, subpetaloid, thrice as 
long as the fertile ones. Ovary globose, stellato-hirsute. Style 
with five linear stigmas. W. J. H. 

Cult. This is an old inhabitant of the stoves in the Royal 
Gardens. Being a free and rude grower, specimens have several 
times attained a height beyond the accommodation afforded, but 
never produced flowers until, on being removed to the Palm- 
house, they had room to develope their wide-spreading branches. 
Being analogous in habit to Dombeya viburnifolia (Tab. 4508), 
it requires the same kind of treatment. /. S. 



Pig. 1. Flowers; the petals only removed. 2. Petal. 3. Pistil: — magnified. 



4-6 7 a 




„ & HiAo'ls . i"I- 



Tab. 4579. 
RONDELETIA versicolor. 

Changeable-flowered Jtondeletia. 



Nat. Ord. KcBiACEiE. — Pentandkia Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calycis tubus subglobosus, limbus 4-5-partitus, lobis obloDgis 
linearibusve acutis persistentibus. Corolla tubo cylindrico vix apice subventricoso, 
limbo patente 4-5-lobo, lobis subrotundis. Authera 4-5, in apice tubi inclusa?, 
sessiles. Stigma bifidum. Capsula globosa, calyce coronata, bilocularis, ex apice 
dehiscens in valvulas 2 ssepius apice fissas unde srepe 4-valvis videtur, nunc 
loculicido- rarius septicido-deliiscens. Placentae centrales. Semina plurima, mi- 
nima, ovato-angulata, saepe 2 tantum in loculo maturescentia. — Arbuseulae aut 
frutices omnes ex America. Folia plus minus petiolata aut subsessilia. Stipulse 
deltoidece aut lanceolato-lineares, utrinque solitaries indivisce, interdum intus hirsuta. 
Pedunculi axillares scepius trichotomi, interdum in paniculam corymbosam termi- 
nalem dispositi, rarius tri- imo uniflori. Be Cand. 



Rondeletia versicolor ; pentamera, ramuli9 foliisque junioribus sericeo-rillosis, 
foliis petiolatis ovatis acuminatis basi obtusis subcordatis (siccitate sub- 
coriaceis) supra glabriusculis subtus pnbescenti-tomentosis, stipulis late 
ovatis patentibus pubescentibus, panicula trichotoma cymosa densa, floribus 
pubescentibus, calycis tubo globoso limbi dentibus 5 parvis, corolla? tubo 
gracili infundibuliformi limbi (tubi longitudine diametro brevioris) lobis 
rotundatis disco sericeis. 



Sent by Mr. Seemann from Boqueta, Veraguas, Central Ame- 
rica, to the Royal Gardens of Kew in 1838. A handsome stove 
shrub, especially when its copious cymes of dense flowers are 
in perfection (March and April), and which are remarkable for 
the play of colours : the tube is yellow ; the limb in bud deep 
rose-colour, changing when they expand to pale rose and then to 
white, with a yellow disc, and having a two-lobed green spot in 
the centre from the colour of the stigmas, which protrude a little 
beyond the mouth. It does not correspond with any of the 
many species now described of this genus ; its nearest affinity is 
perhaps with R. cordata, Benth. {Bogeria, Planch, and Henfrey) 
from Guatemala, but that is nearly glabrous, and has sessile 
leaves, broad and cordate at the base. >} 

Descr. A moderate-sized shrub, with "very bitter bark. 

MAY 1st, 1851. 



Branches obscurely four-sided, but compressed, younger ones 
and young leaves quite silky and shining. Leaves large, deep 
green, soft and submembranaceous when fresh, more hard and 
almost coriaceous when dry, ovate, acuminate, very obtuse or 
subcordate at the base, above in the adult foliage glabrous or 
nearly so, beneath and on the petioles (half an inch long) pubes- 
centi-tomentose, paler in colour, veins pinnated, prominent, be- 
neath, a good deal reticulated, the reticulation most distinct in 
the dry state. Stipules deciduous from the older leaves, broad 
ovate, spreading, membranaceo-herbaceous, downy. Panicle 
downy, trichotomously divided and bearing numerous flowers, 
so as to form a more or less dense cyme, everywhere very downy, 
even the outside of the corollas. Calyoc-tube small, globose : 
teeth five, small. Corolla hypocrateriform ; the limb of five, 
spreading, rather wavy lobes, silky in the disc. Stamens quite 
included. Style a little exserted. Stigma two-lobed. W. J. H. 
Cult. This is a tropical evergreen shrub, flowering freely 
when not more than two feet high. It may be grown in a mix- 
ture of light loam and leaf-mould, or peat containing a portion 
of sand, well drained with potsherds. It requires a warm and 
moist, close atmosphere, and will grow more vigorously if placed 
in bottom-heat. Being an erect grower, it is desirable to stop 
the leading shoot, in order to form a bushy plant. It is readily 
increased by cuttings planted under a bell-glass and placed in 
bottom-heat. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil -.^magnified. 



±5$0 




fitckjiel et lift.. 



Eeevs ft NicTiols iaj 



Tab. 4580. 
persea gratissima. 

Avocado, or Alligator Pear. 



Nat. Ord. Laurace^e. — Enneandria Monogtnia. 

Gen. Char. Hermaphroditse (paucse diclines). Perianthium profunde sexpar- 
titum, subsequale vel inaequale, magis minusve pubeseens, persistens, demum ad 
basin fcsque evanescens. Stamina fertilia novem triplici serie, quorum tria in- 
teriora glandulis binis globosis ad basin stipata : filamenta filiformia, villosa ; 
anthera oblongse, quadrilocellatae, locellis oblongis insequalibus, sex exteriorum 
anticis, triura interiorum retro spectantibus. Staminodia tria, «apitulo distincto 
cordato-triangulari. Stigma discoideo-dilatatum. Bacca pedicello magis minusve 
incrassato subcarnoso perianthio non mutato coriaceo aut chartaceo patente 
coronato insidens, eoque denique destructo pedicellum omnino nudum coronans. 

Inflorescentia paniculata aut tkyrsoidea, in quibusdam depauperata et paucijlora, 
e squamarum gemma axillaris aut terminalis fugacium axillis, ramulis subumbelli- 
,fioris minute bracteolatis. 



Persea gratissima ; foliis ovato-oblongis obovatisve utrinque acutiusculis subtus 
reticulars pubescentibus novemcostatis glaucis, perianthii laciniis subaequa- 
libus oblongis, ovario glabriusculo, bacca pyriformi grandi. Nees. 

Persea gratissima, Geertn. de Fruct. v. 3. p. 222. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 268. 

Nees. Laurin.p. 128. Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1. 1258. 
Laurus Persea. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 529. Willd. Sp. PL v. 2. p. 480. Diet. Sc. 

Nat. v. 25. p. 342, cum ic. Tussac, Fl. des Antilles, v. 2. p. 14. t. 3. 
Prunifera arbor fructu maximo pyriformi, Shane, Jam. v. 2. p. 132. i. 222./. 2. 



The " Avocado," or " Alligator Pear," yields a fruit never, 
that I am aware, known to be produced in Europe ; nor am I 
aware that it has ever flowered in our stoves save at Syon and 
Kew. In the West Indies it is highly valued, and cultivated, 
and in tropical America generally. It is presumed to be an 
aboriginal of these countries ; though some say imported to the 
islands from the South American continent. Why called Alligator 
Pear is not very evident. Perhaps the first word is a corruption 
of Aguacate, one of the names by which, according to Ulloa, it is 
known in Lima. The fruit is pear-shaped, yellow or brownish- 
green, often tinged with deep purple. Between the skin and 
the hard seed is a pale butyraceous substance, interspersed with 
greenish veins, and this is much eaten by all classes of people ; 

MAY 1st, 1851. 



its taste somewhat resembling butter or marrow, and hence 
is called the "vegetable marrow:" and this is so rich and mild 
that most people make use of some spice or pungent substance 
to give it poignancy: and wine, sugar, lime-juice, but mostly 
pepper and salt, are used. However excellent when ripe, the 
Avocado is very dangerous if pulled and eaten before maturity j 
being known to produce fever and dysentery. " If you take 
the stone of the seed," says Barham, " and write upon a white 
wall, the letters will turn as red as blood, and never go out 
till the wall is white-washed again, and then with difficulty." 

Descr. This tree attains a moderate size, with a straight 
trunk and rough bark, handsome in full leaf. Leaves alternate, 
deciduous in our stove (and when bare of leaves or nearly so, 
in the present instance in February, is the season when it bore 
flowers), four to six inches long, ovate or oval or oblongo-ob- 
ovate, with a short acumen, moderately tapering below into a 
footstalk about three-fourths of an inch long ; the substance is 
between chartaceous and coriaceous, pinnately veined, glabrous 
above, more or less downy beneath, the margin quite entire. 
Clusters of flowers from the axils of the upper leaves or of the 
cicatrices of the leaves, peduncled. Pedicels short. Perianth 
rather small, green, downy, sexpartite : segments oval, spreading. 
Stamens nine, nearly as long as the calyx : filaments woolly ; 
anthers four-celled. The inner stamens have two capitate glands 
at the base of each. Staminodia three, resembling abortive 
stamens. Ovary downy, tapering into the style. Stigma obtuse. 
Fruit the size and shape of an ordinary pear, very pulpy, con- 
taining one large seed in the soft butyraceous pulp, ovate, its 
integument crustaceous. Albumen none. Embryo conform to 
the seed. Cotyledons very large. W. J. H. 

Cult. The Alligator Pear is extensively cultivated in the West 
Indies, especially in Jamaica. It does not appear to require any 
peculiar soil ; the specimens imported we have observed to have 
been growing in earth of a stiff clayey nature. It needs to be 
grown in a warm and moist stove : it grows freely in light loam, 
but care must be taken to have it well drained and not to over- 
water it, particularly in winter, as the roots, being of a succulent 
nature, are easily injured by any great and prolonged excess of 
moisture, especially during the period when the plant is not in 
an active state of growth; even in its state of greatest vigour 
it takes up water very sparingly. It is increased by cuttings, 
treated m the usual way. J.S. jo 

m^h r I°T"-, ?; ? ta 7 U W ? glands ' aud a staminodium. 3. Pistil:— 
7e fi l TntST ( ^ en fr ??, Ga3rtner ' and coloured from Tussac) -natural 
sue. 5. Transverse section of the same, showing the seed -.-natura size. 



'-5 81. 




Tab. 4581. 
HELLEBORUS 'atro-rubens. 

Bark-purple-fiowered Hellebore. 



Nat. Ord. Eanunculace^;. — Polyandkia Pentagynia. 



Gen. Char. Calyx persistens, 5-sepalus, sepalis subrotundis obtusis magnis 
ssepe viridibus. Petala 8-1 0, brevissima, tubulata, inferne angustiora, nectarifera. 
Stamina 30-60. Ovaria 3-10. Stigmata terminalia orbiculata. Capsula co- 
riacea. Semina dupbci serie disposita, elliptica, umbiiicata. De Cand. 



Helleborus atro-rubens ; foliis radicalibus glaberrimis pedatisectis subtus 
pallidioribus nitidis, cauKnis subsessilibus pinnatipartitis, caule subangu- 
lato bifide ramoso, sepalis subrotundis coloratis. De Cand. 

Helleborus atro-rubens. Waldst. et Kit: PL Bar. Hung, v. 3. p. 301. tf. 271. 
Be Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 47. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 659. Reichenb. 
Ic. Fl. Germ. t. 110. 



A really handsome and hardy herbaceous flowering plant, 
blossoming when flowers are more especially welcome visitors, in 
February and March. The blossoms are large, spreading, at 
first rather a dark purple (hardly dark enough to justify the 
name atro-rubens), gradually changing to green as the fruit ad- 
vances to maturity. It inhabits woods and bushy places in the 
mountain districts of Croatia, and is especially abundant about 
Korenicz. 

Descr. Boot a branched tuber or cormus, throwing down 
very numerous long fibres. Stem erect, herbaceous, dichoto- 
mously branched, glabrous, obsoletely angular. Boot-leaves 
coming to perfection after the flowers, pedate, shining, the lobes 
lanceolate, reticulated, finely serrated, shining, paler beneath. 
Stem-leaves with a sheathing base, almost sessile, less divided : 
uppermost ones or bracteas at length lanceolate, undivided. Pe- 
duncles mostly terminal and two-flowered. Sepals broad ovate, 
almost rotundate, spreading, dull but rather dark red-purple, per- 
sistent and changing to dull pale brownish-green. Petals wedge- 
shaped, a short compressed tube, open at the mouth. Stamens 

MAY 1ST, 1851. 



numerous, yellow. Pistils five. Ovaries tapering into styles 
as long as the stamens. Stigma clavate, hairy. W. J. H. 

Cult. A hardy, herbaceous^ early-flowering plant, growing 
freely in the open ground in any kind of garden soil, and readily 
increased by seeds or by division of the roots ; the latter should 
be done in autumn or early in the spring. 7. 8. 



Fig. 1. Petal (nectary of Linnaeus). 2. Pistils -.—magnified. 



4SS2. 



















f- f 




•rlet~Htk 



H t „ e tll* 1 ' i *' 



Tab. 4582. 

CANTUA BUXIFOLIA. 

Box-leaved Cantua. 



Nat. Ord. Polemoniace.*:. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4386.) 



Cantua buxifolia ; foliis subfasciculatis oblongis aut obovatis acutis v. obtusis 
basi cuneatis integerrimis v. inciso-paucidentatis glabris vel pubescentibus, 
corymbis laxis, calyce tubuloso pubescente 5-dentato corolla triplo qua- 
druplove breviore, corolla? tubo elongato strictiusculo limbo patente, stami- 
nibus subexsertis. 

Cantua buxifolia. Lam. Diet. v. 1. p. 603. lllustr. v. 1. p. 106. /. 2. Benth. 

in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 9. p. 321. Juss. in Ann. du Mus. v. 3. p. 118. t. 8. 
Cantua ovata. Cav. Ic. v. 4. p. 43. t. 363 (foliis glabris). 
Cantua tomentosa. Cav. Ic. v. 4>.p. 43. t. 364 (foliis pubescentibus). 
Cantua uniflora. Pers. Syn. PI. v. 1. p. 187- 

Periphragmos dependens. Ruiz et Pav. PL GUI. et Peruv. v. 2. p. 18. 1. 133. 
Periphragmos uniflorus. Ruizet Pav. M. Chil. et Peruv. v. 2. p. 18. 



When we spoke of this fine Cantua* (v. under Cantua pyri- 
folia, Tab. 4386) as producing flowers "full four inches long, 
and deep rose-coloured," we took our idea of colour from the 
dried specimens. Handsome as they are, with their copious 
large blossoms, they are far exceeded by the living plant, now 
happily in cultivation and flowering with Messrs. Veitch of 
Exeter. The corollas are almost crimson, the tube marked with 
longitudinal yellowish streaks. It will be difficult anywhere to 
find a more truly ornamental flowering shrub. It is a native of 
the Peruvian Andes. Our drawing was made in April 1850. 
Well may Ruiz and Pavon speak of it as " frutex, in flore spe- 
ciosa :" and no wonder that the Peruvian Indians, as the same 
authors tell us, adorn their chambers on feast-days with the gay 
blossom of this species. The ancient Indians called it the 
Magic-tree. Some of our native specimens have almost white 
flowers. 

Descr. A very much branched shrub ; the branches more or 

* Canta is the Peruvian name of this plant. 
may 1st, 1851. 



less downy. Leaves very variable, generally oblong-obovate, 
acute, tapering at the base, entire or sinuato-serrate, downy or 
glabrous. Flowers in a sort of leafy terminal corymb, drooping, 
very handsome. Calyx tubular, five-toothed, pale, membranous,' 
with dark green streaks. Corolla hypocrateriform : tube very 
long, reddish-yellow, streaked with darker red; limb of five 
spreading, obcordate, red lobes. Stamens moderately exserted : 
anthers dark purple. Ovary seated on a fleshy annulus, or ring. 
Style longer than the stamens. Stigma trifid. TF. J. H. 

Cult. An elegant flowering, branching shrub, of easy culti- 
vation, and capable of being trained into a neat bushy form. 
It proves to be a hardy greenhouse plant, and will thrive if 
potted m a mixture of light loam and peat-soil containing a 
portion of sand. It has not been long enough under our notice 
to enable us to judge of its hardiness, but, from its appearance 
and manner of growth, we believe it will grow freely in the open 
air during summer, if planted in a warm sheltered situation. 
Mr. Veitch informs us that with some slight protection it 
has withstood the two last winters in the open air, in Devon- 
shire; we may therefore infer that cultivated either as a pot or 
^ td ° or P! ant > xt ^ succeed by treating it in the same way as 
the fuchsia. It is readily propagated by cuttings treated in 
the usual way. /. S. 



Kg. 1. Pistil: — magnified. 



4-583. 




Ktik lei rt Titk 



Heeve t Nickols.imj 



Tab. 4583. 
FRANCISCEA calycina. 

Large-calyxed Franciscea. 



Nat. Ord. Scrophularine.e. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 
. Gen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 4189.) 



Franciscea calycina ; foliis obovato-oblongis ellipticisve vix acuminatis sub- 
coriaceis cauleque glaberrimis vel in nervo medio subtus hirtellis, cymis 
2-4-floris, calyce amplo tubuloso inflato glabro, corolla? tubo calycem bre- 
viter superante. 

Brunsfelsia calycina. Benth. in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 10. p. 199. 

Besleria inodora. Vellozi, Fl. Mum. 6. t. 81. 

Franciscea confertiflora. Moore, Gard. Mag. of Bot. v. 3. p. 73. 



We continue the genus Franciscea, as sanctioned by Mr. 
Miers, in the fifth volume, new series, of * Annals of Natural 
History,' for the blue-flowered species of Brunsfelsia, though we 
fear Mr. Bentham's views of the unsoundness of the generic 
distinction are too true. We find the present plant figured 
and described by Mr.Henfrey in the 'Magazine of Botany/ under 
the name of F. confertiflora, and the only synonym given is the 
Brunsfelsia confertiflora of Mr. Bentham, a species with which 
we are familiar, and of which there exists a splendid figure in 
Pohl's 'Plantarum Brasiliarum Icones :' but the figure and 
description are totally at variance with our plant. It is unques- 
tionably the F. {Brunsfelsia) calycina of Bentham, figured, 
characteristically enough, in the ' Flora Fluminensis,' and well 
distinguished by the large inflated calyx and other characters. 
As we are indebted for our plant to Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, 
and Co., Exeter Nursery, who received it from Belgium, we 
presume that the Belgian horticulturists are answerable for any- 
thing wrong in the name, though that is not implied in the 

JUNE 1st, 1851. 



'Magazine of Botany.'* It is a most loveh species, and must 
soon be a great favourite with cultivators. Our garden is 
further indebted for a flowering plant to Messrs. Henderson, 
Pme Apple Place. It forms a compact bush, blossoming readily 
when eighteen inches high : and, like other real Francisceas, 
the flowers are at first violet-blue, then white, or nearly so. 

Descr. A moderate-sized shrub, with terete, glabrous branches 
and copious evergreen foliage. Leaves alternate, on very short 
footstalks, nearly elliptical, entire, obtuse at the base, acute, or 
shortly acuminated at the point, glabrous, or with a slight degree 
of hairiness on the midrib beneath. Cymes few-flowered, gene- 
rally terminal. Pedicels thickened, as long as the calyx. Calyx 
large, elongated, tubular and inflated, glabrous, five-toothed at 
the apex. Corolla large, rich purple, with a white ring round 
the mouth of the tube, soon changing to a pale purple, and then 
almost to white. Tube curved downwards, not much longer 
than the calyx : limb oblique with regard to the tube, more than 
two inches across, of five, broadly obovato-rotundate, horizontally 
spreading and waved segments. Stamens and style quite in- 
cluded. W.J.H. * H 

Cult. A native of Brazil, and requiring to be grown in a 
warm stove. It forms a neat evergreen bushy shrub, and grows 
treely in a soil composed of about equal parts of loam, peat, and 
leai-mould, with a small portion of sand. As the production 
ot tine heads of flowers depends upon inducing a vigorous growth, 
young plants should be placed in bottom-heat, and shifted into 
larger pots as they increase in size and the pots become filled 
with roots. The pots must be well drained, and care must be 
taken not to shift the plants into pots of too large a size at 
once; for the new soil is apt to become sodden by the watering 
necessary for the supply of the roots. When this happens, it is 
best at once to remove the soil and repot the plant, using more 
caution in watering afterwards. All the species of Franciscea 
readily increase by cuttings, planted in sand under a bell-glass, 
and plunged in bottom-heat. J. S. 

* This is probably the plant alluded to in an article on the ' Culture of Fran- 
En e S« ia TK r T T^f of . the '^rdener's Chronicle,' by M. Jungb, of 
^ ; t ^ ^onferUJlora is there said "to be discovered by M. Libon, 

from ?hl A f ' ?-f lL Aphnt Was sent t0 Me ^s. Low, Clapton, and 
l ? ZdZ t tW V T y T ? e gardenS ° f En S lish ^ateurs." 1 Another 
rthtTo tL tl s Pf en of u nd e r the name of * exilia, perhaps with as much 
right to that name as the Belgian F. confertiflora. 



4-S84-. 



'3* 




Uiieve I 



Tab. 4584. 

WALLICHIA DENSIFLORA. 

Dense-Jlovjered Wallichia. 



Nat. Ord. Palmace^e. — Mon(ecia Hexandria. 

Gen. Char. Wallichia, Roxb. — Mores in caudicis multicipitis diversis spa- 
dicibus (polygamo-) monoici (aut polygamo-dioici, Griff.). Spalhee plures, pe- 
dunculanese, incomplete, distichae. Spadices deorsum evoluti, terminales et 
laterales, axe post omnium, quos ferebat, evolutionem moriente. — Masc. flores 
inferiores per paria dispositi, cum vel absque fo?minei rudimento intra 2 brac- 
teolas conchaeformes delitescente. Calyx monophyllus, tridenticulatus trilobusve, 
aut triphyllus, sepabs distinctis imbricatis. Petala 3, valvata. Stamina 6 aut 
indefinita, antlieris Knearibus. Rudimentum pistilli nullum. — Fcem. intra brac- 
teas 2 concbaeformes, solitarii aut pari masculorum effcctorum stipati (raro ex- 
cessu hermaphroditi, staminibus 3, Griff.). Calyx et corolla 3-partita. Rudi- 
menta staminum nulla aut 3. Ovarium 2- raro 3-loculare, ovubs adscendentibus. 
Stigmata 2 vel 3, brevia, sessilia. Bacca exsucca, 2- raro 1- vel 3-sperma. Albumen 
aequabile, solidum, cartdagineum. Embryo dorsabs. — Palmae humiles, multicipite 
ccespitosce. Caudices aut subnulli aut arundinacei, breves, exhaustis spadicibus 
emorientes. Frondes in subacaulibus terminales, in caudescentibus quoque latea-ales, 
pinnata, pinnis cuneatis, antice varie Mnuato-excisis lobatisve et eroso-denticulatis, 
multinerviis subtus albidis crassiusculis. Spadices laterales, axillares, ramosi vel 
simplices, intra spathas persistentes. Flores albi vel ochroleuci, foeminei viridi- 
purpurei. Baccse olivteformes, purpurea aut albidce, succo ob rhaphidum copiam 
acri pruriente. Mart. 



Wallichia (Harina) densiflora ; subacaulis, pinnis subtus albidis imis binatim 
fasciculatis rebquis sobtariis bneari-oblongis basi breviter cuneatis integer- 
rimis cseterum sinuoso-lobatis dentatisque ut plurimum eroso-serratis obtuse 
acuminatis, riorum foem. densi (div. f) dispositorum bractea obliterata, ala- 
bastro globoso, corollae segmentis obtusis depressis ovariobrevioribus. Mart. 

Wallichia densiflora. Mart. Palm. v. I. p. 189. et Suppl. p. 190. 

Wallichia oblongifolia. Griff, in Calc. Journ. v. 5. p. 486. 



A native of Assam, where it was detected by Wallich, Jenkins, 
and Masters, according to Martius ; Griffith states that the Seha- 
rampore Garden collectors found it near Darjeeling in Sikkim- 
Himalaya. Dr. Hooker remarks, it is common in damp forests 
at the foot of the Eastern Himalaya, extending at least as far 
west as Kamaon, where Dr. Thomson found it at an elevation of 

JUNE 1st, 1851. 



about 2,000 feet above the level of the sea. It is a very elegant 
Palm, and very beautiful when in fructification. The male and 
female spadices appear on the same plant, and arise from among 
a tuft of strong coarse fibres : the former enveloped in large 
imbricated spathas of a dark purple, streaked with yellow : these 
separate, and then a dense cluster of male spadices appear, of a 
nearly white colour. The male spadix is a compound spike, 
with violet-coloured ovaries. Such a plant is well suited to com- 
memorate Dr. Wallich's labours in the field of science. His 
extended knowledge and his splendid works on Indian Botany, 
his liberal contributions to Kew and to every celebrated garden 
in Europe and the Colonies, and his generous and encouraging 
bearing to every student of plants, justly entitle him to a name 
among the " Princes of the Vegetable Kingdom :" a name, too, 
given by his predecessor in the Directorship of the Calcutta 
Garden, Dr. Roxburgh. 

In as few words as we can, we must show the right that 
Roxburgh's plant * has to the name Wattichia, in preference to 
WallicUa of other botanists who have delighted to honour our 
friend by a like compliment. Though the Palm had been long 
thus named by Dr. Roxburgh, it was not published till the ap- 
pearance of the third volume of the ' Plants of Coromandel,' 
under the direction of Robert Brown, Esq., in 1821. 

In 1824, Dr. Hamilton published this identical Palm under the 
name of Harina (a name having, probably, some reference to a 
deer), in his Commentary on the Hortus Amboinensis inserted in the 
fifth volume of the Transactions of the Wernerian Society of Na- 
tural History. In 1 824, also, the late Professor De Candolle dedi- 
cated a Byttneriaceous genus to Dr. Wallich, in his ' Prodromus 
Syst. Natural. Plantar.' vol.i. ; but among errata, in the very 
last line of the volume, p. 740, he says, in explanation, though 
quite mistakingly referring to his Wallichia, " non Boxb. Cor., 
cujus Wallichia videiur Caryotae species." 

In that part of the lithographic catalogue of the E. I. Com- 
pany's Herbarium published in 1829, Dr. Wallich very properly 
altered De Candolle's Wallichia to Microchlcena, since there 
was already the good genus Wallichia of Roxburgh, established 
three years before De Candolle's work came out. 

Wallichia of W. Jack's MSS., mentioned in Dr. Carey's edi- 
tion of Roxburgh's 'Flora Indica,' vol. ii. p. 574, published in 

* In fact, Roxburgh himself had originally described the Palm in question 
under the name of Wrightia, but afterwards adopted the name Wallichia, on the 
former being applied to an Apocyneous plant by R. Brown, Esq., in 1 81 1 . But 
the name Wmjhtia is still retained for the Palm in Roxburgh's posthumous 
' Mora Indica,' published very nearly thirty years after his death. 



1824, (among additions and corrections) is Dr. Wallich's Uro- 
phyllum of the same volume. 

Wallichia of Reinwardt, in Blume's Hort. Buctenzoorg., pub- 
in 1823, p. 11 et p. 57, is Ascanthes of Blume, Bijdr. 

Wallichia, Schumacher, MSS., is noticed by Hornemann in 
the 'Danish Literary Gazette/ no. 16, for 1846, p. 247. (It is 
one of Thonning's Guinea plants.) 

The late Mr. W. Griffith has very properly adopted Rox- 
burgh's Wallichia in his account of the genus inserted in the 
' Calcutta Journal of Natural History/ vol. v. p. 482, 1845. 
And in the work on Palms by Von Martius, vol. iii. p. 315, in 
the editio posterior added to it in 1849, that author restores the 
name Wallichia (for Harina, which he had given in a previous 
volume of that magnificent work) ; subdividing Wallichia into 
two sections, namely, Harina and Ovania. W. J. H. 

Cult. It is seldom that we have an opportunity of offering 
remarks on the cultivation of Palms : this may in part be attri- 
buted to the want of show in their flowers, and the general lofti- 
ness of growth of the majority of the family. But the species 
figured may be viewed as an exception, for it is not only a dwarf 
or stemless Palm, but its large bunch of male flowers is con- 
spicuous on account of its singular-coloured spatha. Being a 
native of India, it requires the heat of a tropical stove, and 
grows freely in any kind of light garden-soil not retentive of 
water. The plant from which the drawing was made was intro- 
duced into the Royal Gardens some years ago, being then a 
small plant. As it increased in size and filled the pot with 
roots, it was duly shifted into larger pots, and ultimately into 
a plant-box two feet square, where it flowered, in the Palm- 
house. Although it produced both sexes of flowers, it did not, 
however, perfect its seeds. It may be increased by separating 
the suckers, but this must be done gradually, so as to allow the 
suckers time to have sufficient roots before they are quite sepa- 
rated from the plant. /. 8. 



Tab. 4584. Flowering plant : — much reduced. Fig. 1. Spathas of male flower 
before expansion -.—natural size. 2. Male flower and bud: — magnified. 3. 
Spike of female flowers forming fruit : — natural she. 4. Immature fruit : — mag- 
nified. 5. Transverse section of ditto : — magnified. 



4 585. 




iUtv* fc IMiols . "■£- 



Tab. 4585. 

RANUNCULUS spicatus. 

Spike-fruited Crowfoot. 



Nat. Ord. Ranunculacej:. — Polyandria Polygynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-sepalus, sepalis basi non solutis deciduis. Petala 5, rarius 
10, intus basi squamula foveolari nectarifera instructa. Stamina ovariaque plu- 
rima; caryopsides ovatse, subcompressae, in mucrtmem aut cornu semine vix 
longius desinentes, lseves, striatse, aut tuberculatse, in capitulum globosum cylin- 
draceumve dispositae. Be Cand. 



Ranunculus (§ Ranunculastrum) spicatus; fobis subhirsutis, radicalibus petio- 
latis orbiculatis trilobis imis 5-lobis dentatis, summis 3-partitis lobis in- 
tegris linearibus, caule erecto paucifloro, calyce patente, carpellorum spica 
elongata cylindrica. 

Ranunculus spicatus. Besf. PI. Atlant. v. 1. p. 438. 1. 115. Be Cand. Prodr. 
v. 1. p. 29. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 646. 

Ranunculus Olyssiponensis. Pers. Syn. PI. v. 2. p. 106. 

R. Lusitanicus, grumosa radice, &c. Tourn. Institut. 286. 



In the too great admiration of tropical botany, the hardy 
herbaceous plants of cooler regions are often lost sight of. 
The present Ranunculus has a place probably in few gardens, 
yet would prove an ornament to any, with its large showy and 
peculiarly glossy bright flowers, which moreover appear as early 
as April. It was first detected and described by Desfontaines 
as a native of Algiers, where it appears to be very common on 
the hills. We possess specimens also from Gibraltar, gathered 
by our friend Dr. Lemann. Like other species of Crowfoot, it 
is liable to vary in size and in the outline of its leaves : but our 
figure well represents the ordinary appearance of the species. 
The specific name is best understood at a later period, when the 
receptacle of capsules runs out in a long cylindrical spike. 

Descr. Boot grumose, consisting of a dense cluster of fusiform 
fleshy fibres or tubers mixed with many capillary roots. Stem a 
foot or more high (less in its wild state), hirsute with short 
spreading soft hairs. Leaves more or less hairy : the lower ones 

JUNE 1st, 1851. 



on long petioles, reniformi-orbicular, three- the lowermost five- 
lobed ; lobes cuneate, generally again three-lobed and incised or 
toothed ; upper ones nearly sessile, wedge-shaped, deeply three- 
lobed and incised, the lobes linear-cuneate. Flowers one to six 
upon a stem, on hairy, terete peduncles. Calyx of five ovate- 
oblong spreading hairy herbaceous sepals. Corolla two inches 
broad, in cultivation, of five, large, oblong, very glossy yellow 
spreading petals, with flabelliform, orange-coloured spots at the 
base. Stamens numerous, surrounding an oblong head of young 
carpels, which eventually lengthens into a narrow cylindrical 
spike.* W.J.H. 

Cult. A hardy, herbaceous, perennial plant, growing freely 
in any kind of garden-soil. It is readily increased by division 
of the roots or by seeds. J. S. 



Fig. 1. Pistil: — magnified. 



4-S#6. 



* — - y?. 




Tab. 4586. 

ixora javanica. 

Javanese Ixora. 



Nat. Ord. Rubiace^e. — Tetrandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4325.) 



Ixoba Javanica ; foliis breviter petiolatis ovato-oblongis coriaceo-membranaeeis 
brevi-acuminatis glabris basi acutis, stipulis e lata basi connata longe cus- 
pidatis, corymbo longe pedunculato trichotomo, calycis basi bibracteolati 
laciniis rotundatis brevibus erectis, corollse tubo filiformi sesquiunciali, 
limbi lobis obovato-rotundatis. 

Ixora Javanica, Be Cand. Prodr. v. 4s.p. 487. Walpers, Annal. Bot. v. l.jp. 373. 

Pavetta Javanica, Blume, Bijdr. M.p. 949. 



From the collection of Messrs. Rollison, Tooting, who imported 
this very charming species of Ixora from Java, and with whom 
it blossomed in March 1851. It is handsome in the rich coral 
colour of the branches, in the full green of its copious foliage, 
and in the large corymbs of orange-scarlet flowers. The I. Java- 
nica of Paxton, Mag. of Bot. v. 14. p. 265, is very different from 
this, and not Blume's plant. 

Descr. A shrub, glabrous in every part, with compact 
branches, which are rounded, and the younger ones at least of 
a rich coral colour. Leaves four to five or even six inches 
long, between coriaceous and membranaceous, ovate-oblong, acute 
or acuminate, entire, penninerved, and acute or more or less 
attenuated at the base, where it gradually passes into a short 
petiole, not a quarter of an inch long. Stipules from a broad con- 
nate and therefore amplexicaul base, terminating suddenly in a 
long cuspidate spine-like point. Corymb terminal, large, on a long 
peduncle, which, as well as the trichotomous branches, are deep 
coral-coloured. Calyx almost turbinate, with two small bracteoles 
at the base : the limb of four, erect, rounded, obtuse lobes. Tube 
of the corolla an inch and a half long, slender filiform, red : limb 
an inch across, deep orange-red, the lobes horizontally patent, 
obovato-rotundate. Anthers linear, when perfect lying at the 

JUNE 1st, 1851. 



mouth of the corolla, but very deciduous. Style as long as the 
tube of the corolla ; its thickened bifid stigma a little exserted 
W. J.H. 

Cult. This, like the majority of the genus, is a showy species. 
Being a native of Java, it requires to be cultivated in a warm 
and moist stove ; and this is not only necessary in order to pro- 
duce luxuriant growth, but also to prevent the plants from be- 
coming infested with insects, to which the species of this and 
other allied genera are very commonly subject, and which often 
cannot be got rid of without making the plants look very un- 
sightly and producing an unhealthy condition. Pits heated with 
fermenting stable-litter or leaves, are well suited to the growth of 
such plants as Ixora ; the confined and moist atmosphere en- 
courages a vigorous growth, and this, with the vapour arising 
from the fermenting matter, are great preventatives of the 
breeding of insects. The soil may consist of about one-half light 
loam and peat, or leaf-mould, with a small quantity of sharp 
sand, and care must be taken to drain it well, and, in shifting 
not to overpot it. This, like the rest of the genus, is readily in- 
creased by cuttings treated in the manner generally recommended 
for the propagation of hard-wooded stove plants. /. 8. 



Fig. 1. Calyx and pistil : — magnified. 



4-S87. 




P. tf.t Jemclu>ls,i» 



Tab. 4587. 

FORSYTHIA viridissima. 

.Bark-green-leaved Forsythia. 



Nat. Ord. OleacejE. — Diandria Monogynia. 

G-en. Char. Calyx brevissime campanulatus, 4-partitus, deciduus. Corolla 
subcampanulata, 4-partita, tubo brevissinfo, lobis sestivatione contortis. Stamina 
2, imo tubo inserta, inclusa. Ovarium biloculare, loculis pluriovulatis. Stylus 
brevis. Stigma capitato-bilobum. Capsula ovata, compressiuscula, sublignosa, 
corticata, biloeularis, loculicido-bivalvis, valvis medio septiferis. Semina in 
loculis numerosa (Zucc), pauca (Midi.), sub-4 (Bung.), pendula, anguste alata. 
Embryo in axi albuminis carnosi, cotyledonibm foliaceis, radicula brevi. — Frutex 
Chinensis, ramis oppositis ; gemmis squamosis ; foliis oppositis, ternis quaternisve, 
petiolatis, simplicibus vel ternato-pinnatisectis, serratis. Flores ante folia nascentes, 
e gemma solitarii,pedicellati, lutei, rubro-striati. Be Cand. 



Forsythia viridissima ; ramis erectis tetragonis, foliis simplicibus oblongis et 
oblongo-lanceolatis petiolatis versus apicem serratis dimidio inferiore in- 
tegerrimis, floribus ante folia breviter pedicellatis geminatis cernuis, sepalis 
subrotundis convexis ovarii longitudine. Lindl. 

Forsythia viridissima. Lindl. in Journ. of Hort. Soc. v. 1. p. 226, et in Bot. 
Reg. 1 84 7 . t. 3 9 . JFalp. Repert. Bot. p, 5 1 . 



The original Forsythia, established on a Chinese plant culti- 
vated in Japan, where it was introduced from China, appears to 
have been introduced into Holland in 1833 by M. V. Pistorius : 
but has never been cultivated in England. That species is 
called F. suspensa, from the fact of a common form or variety of 
it having lax pendent branches : it has ternate leaves, broad 
obovate segments to the corolla, and longer calycine lobes. Our 
plant bears the open air exceedingly well against a wall, and 
produces its copious bright yellow flowers while the leaves are yet 
but partially expanded. Introduced to Europe by Mr. Fortune. 

Descr. A branching shrub four to six feet high. Branches 
erect, angular, darkish brown. Leaves (appearing after the 
flowers) oblong or ovato-lanceolate, or altogether lanceolate, acute, 
serrated in the upper half, tapering into a short footstalk, penni- 
nerved. Peduncles short, solitary or in pairs from the sides of 
the branches, each arising from a scaly bud. Calyx deeply cut 

JUNE 1st, 1851. 



into four oval, concave, membranaceous, green lobes, as long as 
the tube of the corolla. Corolla large, yellow, rotate rather than 
campanulate; tube very short, limb of four " spreading, oblong, 
obtuse segments, everywhere glabrous. Stamens two, inserted 
near the base of the corolla, short, included. Anthers oblong. 
Ovary nearly globose. Style longer than the tube of the corolla. 
Stigma bifid. W. J. H. 

Cult. This is a shrub of recent introduction, and appears to 
be quite hardy, but, on account of its early vernation, the young 
leaves are apt to be affected by our late spring frosts. It forms 
an erect bushy shrub, grows in any kind of garden-soil, and 
increases readily by cuttings or by layers. /. 8. 

Fig. 1. Tube of the corolla, laid open. 2. Pistil. 3. Stamen -.—magnified. 



aMm 




588. 




Eot« t Nlci'Js. >nt- 



Tab. 4588. 

ACACIA HISPIDISSIMA, Be Grind. 
Hispid Acacia. 



Nat. Ord. Legumtnos.e. — Polygamia Polyandkja. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 4306.) 



Acacia hispidissima ( § Pulchellse) ; ramulis pubescentibus et piloso-hispidissimis, 
spinis axillaribus subulatis, foliorum pinnis unijugis, petiolo brevissimo sub- 
mutico, glandula longe stipitata (v.* nulla?), foliolis 5-7-jugis v. linearibus 
glabris nudis v. margine scabriusculis ciliatisve, capitulis globosis. Benth. 

Acacia hispidissima. Be Canjd. Prodr. v. 2. p. 455. Benth. is Hook. Lond. Journ. 
Bot. v. 1. p. 388. Walp. Repert. Bot. v. 1. p. 908. 

Acacia Cycnorum? Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. v.l. p. 388. Walp. 
Repert. Bot. v. 1. p. 908. 



A Swan River plant, introduced by Mr. Drumraond. There 
are four Acacias enumerated by Mr. Bentham as nearly allied to, 
and perhaps not really distinct from, each other ; A. pulchella, 
Brown, figured in Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 212 ; A. lasiocarpa, Benth.; 
A. hispidissima, DeCand. ; and B. Cycnorum, Benth.,— all from 
the Swan River settlement. Our plant accords best with the 
A. hispidissima, except that it should have pedicellated glands 
on the leaves, whereas both our native and cultivated specimens 
are destitute of them : in this particular agreeing with the A. 
Cycnorum, which, however, ought to have pubescent and not very 
hispid branches. It may thus, we think, fairly be conceded 
that A. Cycnorum and A. hispidissima are but varieties of each 
other. The present is a very handsome species, having much 
larger leaflets and much larger capitula of flowers than A. pul- 
chella, and these flowers of a rich deep yellow colour. It is, 
further, much stouter and more compactly growing than that 
species, forming very dense masses of foliage, and equally dense 
globose heads of flowers. 

Descr. A much-branching shrub, with angular branches, and 
these branches and branchlets, and peduncles too, downy and 
densely hispid with spreading hairs, varying much in length. 

JULY 1st, 1851. 



Leaves copious, nearly sessile, dark green pinna unijugate, 
bearing five to seven oblong leaflets, which are obtuse, glabrous 
or ciliated. A sharp acicular reddish spine is situated at the 
base of the leaf, and is about half its length. From the base 
of the leaf also the peduncles appear, generally in pairs, shorter 
(usually) than the leaf, and bearing a dense golden head of nume- 
rous little flowers. W. J. H. 

Cult. This showy Acacia, like most of the Australian species 
of that genus, requires the protection of the greenhouse. It 
thrives in a mixture of light loam and sandy peat-soil, and, being 
a free grower, is well adapted either for planting out in the 
conservatory border or for growing in a pot. If due attention 
is paid to training and stopping the leading shoots, it will soon 
form a neat round bushy plant, and in spring present a gay 
appearance when in flower. It is increased by seeds, which 
vegetate readily in a moderate heat. J. 8. 



Fig. L. Portion of a branch, with leaf, spine, and eapitula. 2. Leaflet : — 
magnified. 



4-58$. 




U*BT« fcHSJ 



Tab. 4589. 
ATACCIA CRISTATA. 

Crested Ataccia. 



Nat. Ord. TACcACEiE. — Hexandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Mores hermaphroditi. Perigonli corollini tubus cum ovario con- 
natus : limbus superus, sex-partitus, laciniis interioribus majoribus, reflexis, per- 
sistentibus. Stamina 6, basi laciniarum limbi inserta : filamenta lata, superne 
concavaj aniherce introrsae, biloculares, loculis discretis, parallelis, concavitati 
intus adnatis, erectis. Ovarium cum perigonii tubo connatum ; placentis parie- 
talibus tribus, bilobis, axim fere attingentibus, subtriloculare. Ovula plurima, 
amphitropa. Stylus brevis, crassus, trisulcus ; stigma capitato-trilobum, lobis 
emarginatis. Bacca semitrilocularis, polysperma. Semina lunata. Embryo mi- 
nimus, in basi albuminis carnosi ab umbilico remotus. — Herba in India orien- 
talis (Americmque tropica) humidis vigens; radice tuberosa, subconica, foliis om- 
nibus radicalibus, petiolatis, ovato-oblongis, acuminatis, venosis, integerrimis, pe- 
tiolis canaliculatis, basi subvaginantibus, scabris, scapo basi foliorum vaginis 
velato, indiviso, umbella termmali simplici, involucro subtetraphyllo, foliaceo, 
floribus pedicellatis, -pe&iceNis jiliformibiis, sterilibus intermixtis. Endl. 



Ataccia cristata ; involucri foliolis tetraphylKs duabus seriebus insertis quorum 
2 interioribus superioribus unilateralibus erectis maximis ovato-rotuudatis 
inferne longe attenuatis 2 exterioribus oppositis ovato-acuminatis patentibu&, 
pedunculis sterilibus copiosis semipedalibus, foliis oblongis, scapis petio- 
lisque erectis elongatis lsevibus. 

Ataccia cristata. Kunth, Emm. PI. v. 5.j». 466. 

Tacca cristata. Jack, Malay. Misc. in Hook. Bot. Misc. v. 2. p. 73. 

Tacca Rafflesiana. Jack, in Wall. Cat. re. 5172. 



Both Endlicher and Kunth, though they follow Presl in 
adopting this genus Ataccia for the entire-leaved species of 
Tacca, yet express their doubts as to the propriety of the sepa- 
ration. I am incompetent to pronounce, through a want of 
recent specimens of the original Tacca, on the value of the dis- 
tinctions : but, judging from the figures and dried specimens, the 
difference is more in habit than in essential character. Tacca 
has multifid leaves and tuberous roots, and may be considered 
an annual plant. Eutaccia has entire leaves, a short subterra- 
neous conical stem or caudex, quite different from the tubers of 
the former. There is no difficulty, therefore, in recognizing the 
respective genera. 

A. cristata, the subject here figured, has been long cultivated 
in the stove of the Royal Gardens of Kew, under the name of 
Tacca integrifolia, Gawl., and is a native of the Malay Islands 
and Archipelago. Tacca aspera, Roxb. (T. integrifolia, Gawl. 
in Bot. Mag. 1. 1488, and of Roxb. Coromandel plants, vol. lii. 
t. 257), from Chittagong, may be known by the short scape or 
flower-stalk, which, as well as the petioles, arc scabrous. Tacca 

JULY 1st, 1851. 



Itevis, Roxb., from " Silhet Gualpara, and Chappedong (Wall.) 
and Assam, is easily recognized by the four sessile uniform 
leaves of the involucre, and small and slender habit. Tacca 
lanceafolia, Zoll. {Ataccia, Kth.), is probably a variety of the 
latter. — All these are Indian : but I possess another and distinct 
species from Demerara, South America, with a creeping rhizoma ! 
There are few more remarkable-looking plants in cultivation than 
our Ataccia cristata. 

Descr. Root a few coarse fibres, issuing from a short, under- 
ground, conical, descending caudex or rhizoma, marked with the 
rings or scars of fallen leaves, and here and there throwing out 
small tubers or gerumse. Leaves three or four, all from this 
short caudex. Petioles semiterete, smooth : the blade oblong, 
acuminate, dark purple-green, penninerved, nerves mostly pro- 
minent beneath. Scape about as long as the leaves, erect, stout, 
angled, dark purple, smooth : terminated by a large, dark-purple, 
four-leaved, membranaceous involucre : the two outer leaflets op- 
posite, sessile, ovato-acuminate, striated, patent, two inner placed 
side by side, erect, very large, greenish, striated, reticulated, 
edged with purple ; the shape broadly ovate, acute, but tapering 
into a long, narrow, deep purple base. Peduncles numerous, 
dark purple, about two inches long, terminated each by a single 
flower, and forming a drooping unilateral umbel: these floral 
peduncles are accompanied by several (external) long, tapering, 
filiform sterile ones, six inches long, which spread out in their 
lower portion, while the rest of the tendril-like peduncle droops. 
Perianth dark purple : the tube turbinate, six-angled, for the 
greater part united with the ovary ; the limb sexpartite, suddenly 
reflexed ; the segments or lobes in two series, outer smaller, the 
inner larger, all ovato-rotundate, acute, striated, the rim of the 
mouth forming a crenated ring. Stamens six, within the mouth 
of the tube : filament broad, the margin lamellate and plaited, 
the back cohering with the perianth ; anther cucullate, two-celled : 
pollen globose. Ovary adherent with the calyx-tube, one-celled, 
having three longitudinal, furrowed, parietal placenta;, bearing 
several ovules. Style short, conical, six-furrowed. Stigma of 
three, broad obcordate, green, reflexed, plaited lobes ; the edges 
of the plaits ciliated. W. J. II, 

Cult. This singular tropical plant is of easy cultivation. It 
grows and flowers freely in a moist, warm stove. A mixture of 
light loam and peat-soil suits it, and, being a native of moist 
places, it requires a copious supply of water. It increases freely 
by offsets, which are produced from the sides of the erect 
rhizome-like caudex ; these offsets, when separated, root readily 
in small pots placed in a close moist atmosphere. J. S. 

Rg.l. Section of a flower. 2. Portion of the perianth bearing a stamen, 
-i. btylc and stigma ■.—-hHHjnified. 



4-SH 




lUsv, M 



Tab. 4590. 
BERBERIS Darwinii. 

Mr. Darwin s Berberry. 



Nat. Ord. Berberidejs. — Hexandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4308.) 



Berberis Darwinii ; ramis junioribus rufo-pubescentibus, spinis brevibus pal- 
mato-partitis, foliis rigide coriaceis nitidis discoloribus cuneatis apice tri- 
fidis margine paucidentatis dentibus lobisque spincscentibus, racemis co- 
piosis folio longiovibus, pedicellis flores vix superantibus gracilibus, baccis 
glauco-nigiicantibus (una cum stylo persistente) lageniforraibus. 

Berberis Darwinii. llook.Ic. Plant, v.1. rf. 672. Moore, Gard. Mag. of Bot. 
1851. 129 mm ic. Lindl.et Paxt. II. Garden, 1851. t. 46. 



Of all the Berberries yet known in cultivation, no one cer- 
tainly is more beautiful than the present, and, in my late visit 
paid to the two unrivalled Nurseries in Exeter, Messrs. Lucombe 
and Pince and Messrs. Veitch, it was a great treat to see this 
flourishing in the open air, in the collection of the latter (Messrs. 
Veitch), by whom it has been introduced from South Chili by 
their collector, Mr. William Lobb. The leaves are copious and 
glossy, the racemes of flowers are of a rich golden colour, and 
the peduncle and pedicels are often beautifully tinged with red. 
Its first discoverer was Mr. Darwin : and it appears to have been 
since found by every naturalist visiting Chiloe or the opposite 
coast of South Chili. 

Descr. A moderate-sized shrub, with dark brown branches', 
the younger ones clothed with rufous pubescence. Leaves co- 
pious, sessile, cuneate, coriaceous, firm and very glossy, dark 
green above, pale beneath, the apex trifid, the lobes spmescent, 
one or more spinous teeth often appear lower down from the 
apex of the leaf. Stipulary spines short, palmated, firm. Ra- 
cemes very abundant, drooping. Peduncles, pedicels, and small 
bracteas more or less tinged with red. Pedicels slender, rather 
longer than the flower. Calyx of six sepals, three outer smaller, 

JULY 1st, 1851. 



ovate, orange-red, three inner of the same size and shape (ob- 
long, concave) and colour as the petals, slightly spreading. Co- 
rolla of six, erect, moderately concave, deep golden or orange- 
coloured petals, emarginate at the apex and having two glands at 
the base within, one on each side the base of the filament. 
Stamens shorter than the petals. Anther opening by two oblong 
valves. Ovary oblong-ovate, tapering into a thickened style. 
Stigma peltate, large. W. J. H. 

Cult. This fine species of Berberry proves to be quite hardy 
in the climate of Devonshire, and forms a handsome evergreen 
bush. It is said to be found, in its native country, growing 
near the limit of the summer-line of snow, but we fear that it 
does not come from a sufficiently high southern latitude to 
warrant the supposition that it will bear with impunity the 
severity of some of our winters, except in favourable situations in 
the southern and western counties near the coast. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal and stamen. 3. Pistil -.—magnified. 



4-53: 




IU*ve * Miriu>l», at{- 



Tab. 4591. 

PITCAIRNIA exscapa. 

Stemless Pitcairnia. 



Nat. Ord. Bromeliaceje. — Hexandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4241.) 



Pitcairnia exscapa ; caule brevissimo pseudo-bulboso, foliis fere omnino radica- 
libus lineari-elongatis tenuissime longissime acuminatis integris, vaginis in- 
flatis margine superno ciliato-asperis, spicis radicalibus capitatis ovatis 
imbricatim bracteatis subsessilibus, bracteis lanceolato-acuminatis exte- 
rioribus calycibusque hirsutis spinis acicularibus nigro-fuscis intermixtis, 
petalis lineari-oblongis galeato-curvatis basi intus nectariferis. 



This very curious and rather handsome Pitcairnia was de- 
tected, as an infant plant, among some Orchidaceae purchased 
from New Grenada, by Mr. Jackson of the Kingston Nursery, 
Surrey. They were carefully reared, and our figure represents 
two of them in a flowering state. The species is remarkable for 
the great length of the very attenuated leaves, and no less 
so for the sessile and densely bracteated spike of red flowers. 
I can nowhere find such a species described. It belongs, as far 
as the structure of the flower is concerned, to the same groupe 
as Pitcairnia suaveolens, Lindl., figured in Botanical Register, 
1. 1069, that is to say, where the petals have a certain twist, 
occasioning their apices to point one way, and there is, moreover, 
a curvature there, giving a galeated character to these petals. 
We possess, from New Grenada, two other stemless and scapeless 
(or nearly so) Pitcairnias, and there, too, the bracteas are mixed 
with black spines: but in those the spines themselves bear 
short spreading spines on the sides. 

Descr. Stemless. or nearly so. A kind of pseudo-bulb is 
formed at the base of the plant, sheathed by the dilated, dark 
brown bases of the outer leaves. The leaves, therefore, may be 
said to spring from the root, and are, many of them, full three 
feet long, like those of a coarse Carex, linear, carinated exter- 
nally and gradually attenuated into a very long narrow point, quite 

JULY 1st, 1851. 



entire, glabrous, a part of the upper margin of the sheath being 
alone ciliated, rather strongly so. From the centre of these 
leaves appears a nearly sessile, ovate head oijlowers, in part con- 
cealed by numerous bracteas, imbricating each other ; the inner 
ones longer, narrower, yellowish-green, glabrous, the outer 
■brown, broader, and hairy or cobwebby : these bracteas are 
intermingled with a few strong, acicular, almost brown spines. 
Calyx quite concealed by the bracteas, yellow-green : sepals 
lanceolate, acuminate, hairy. Petals red, curved and galeate, 
bearing a notched scale at the base within. Stamens shorter 
than the petals. Ovary superior, trisulcate. Style elongated. 
Stigmas three, twisted. W. J. H. 

Ctjlt. This plant requires a warm stove, and thrives in any 
kind of light open soil not retentive of moisture. Care must be 
taken not to water it too copiously. The old roots of this 
species, like those of many of its allies, after a time lose their 
vitality, and, by their continued increase, become a nidus of 
support to the succeeding young roots ; but in cultivation it is 
advisable occasionally to turn the plant out of the pot and divest 
it entirely of the old roots, at the same time cutting away the 
lower part of the caudex, which will also be found to be dead. 
The plant on being repotted will soon emit young roots, and 
show a more vigorous growth. It is increased by offsets, and 
our plant shows at this time the appearance of producing perfect 
seeds. /. S. 



Eig. 1. Flower. 2. Petal. 3. Pistil :— magnified. 



■ 5 $2. 










Tab. 4592 
PYXIDANTHERA barbulata. 

Bearded Pyxidanthera. 



Nat. Ord. Diapensiace.e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx imbricato-tribracteatus, pentaphyllus, foliis membranaceis 
subaequalibus. Corolla hypogyna, subhypocraterimorpha, limbi qumquefidi laci- 
niis aestivatione irabricatis. Stamina 5, corollae fauci inserta, ejusdem laciniis 
alterna ; filamenta brevia, petaloidea, dilatata ; anthers biloculares, transversiin 
bivalves, valvula inferiore aristata. Discus hypogynus nullus. Ovarium trilocu- 
lare, loculis pauciovulatis. Stylus simplex ; stigma brevissime tridentatum. Fnic- 
tus : capsula 3-locularis, 3-valvis, (Torrey) oligosperma. — SufFruticulus boreali- 
americanus, repens, ramnlis assurgentibus, foliis inferioribus oppositis, superioribus 
confertim alternis, coriaceis, cuneato-lanceolatis, basi interiors barbatis, integerrimis, 
in marginem ciliatum subdecurrentibus, flore terminali solitario, inter folia sessili. 
Endlicher. 



Pyxidanthera * barbulata. 

Pyxidanthera barbulata. Mich. II. Bor. Am. v. I. p. 132. t. 17. 

Diapensia barbulata. Ell. Sketch, v. I. p. 229. Torrey, Fl. North, and Middle 
St. p. 231. 

Diapensia cuneifoba. Salisb. Paradis. Lond. sub tab. 104. Pursh, Fl. Am. 
v. I. p. 148. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 1. p. 623. 



Early in the month of May I was gratified on the arrival of the 
Royal Mail Steamer from New York, with tufts of this charming 
little plant sent me by Mr. Evans of Radnor, Delaware, gathered 
in the Pine-barrens of New Jersey, as fresh and as full of perfect 
flowers as if that day removed from the native soil. These have 
given me the means of publishing the accompanying .figure, of 
which, as far as we know, no other representation has been given 
than the very indifferent one of Michaux. The genus we think 
correctly distinguished from Diapensia by the aristate anthers 
and few-seeded capsules and habit. It is more difficult to de- 
termine the place of this little family. It clearly belongs to the 
" Corolli/Ioree," yet De Candolle has hitherto passed it by. 
Brown removes it from Convolvulacea, where Jussieu was in- 
clined to place it. Salisbury referred it to firicacete, but appa- 

* A name of Micbaux ; derived from 7rv|ir, ttv^Hos, a box, the anthers opening 
transversely, Kke the lid of a box. 
JULY 1st, 1851. 



rently with little reason ; and Endlicher says of it, " Ericaceis 
affims." Dr. Lindley places it between Loyaniacece and Stil- 
baceas—lf it should prove easy of cultivation Pyxidanthera 
would make a charming rock-plant : the rose-coloured buds are 
as pretty, nestling among the copious foliage, as the fully ex- 
panded white flowers. 

Descr. A small, tufted, procumbent, creeping, and wide- 
spreading shrub, having a long tap-root in the centre of the 
tuft: branches terete, slender, younger ones woolly. Leaves 
alternate, cuneato-oblong, very acute, almost aristate, the young 
ones woolly at their base within, and hence the specific name of 
"barbulqta." That character disappears in the older portions of 
the plant. Flowers solitary sessile, from little branches with ro- 
sulate leaves Calyx of five, concave, reddish sepals, as long as 
the tube of the corolla.. Corolla monopetalous, white : tube short- 
limb ot five rounded-cuneate, spreading, slightly crenated lobes, 
stamens in the sinuses of the corolla. Filaments broad, white, 
. almost petaloid, bearing a drooping yellow anther of. two almost 
globose lobes, opening transversely, and bearing an awn on the 
ower valve. Ovary ovate, with a thickened ring at the base, 
three-celled, few-seeded (four or five in each cell) attached to a cen- 
tra placenta Style as long as the tube of the corolla. Stigma 
ot tnree small spreading rays. W. J. IL 

Cult. We have several times received from the United States 
flowering tufts of this very small shrub; but although they have 
been placed under different kinds of treatment, both in the open 
air and under protection, we have not yet succeeded in keeping 
them long alive. Dr. Asa Gray informs us that the shrub 
grows m the warm « pine-barrens » of New Jersey, in low but 
not wet places, generally on little knolls, fully exposed to the 
sun, in a soil of pure sand mixed with vegetable mould. We 
have examined the soil in which it grows, which we find no 

n IT y m 71 S ' aDd b ^ attention the P^per degree of 
moisture and temperature can be maintained ; but as it has not 

nwlTt ° Ur r^' We infer that the wan * of ^cess * 

owmg to some pecu hanty in its nature, together with the differ- 

^t^M^rSf ° f thlS co ^^ that of its native 
locality One thing to be noticed is that our imported plants 
have certainly been very old, having (comparative^) W whw 
roots, like the old roots of a H™th t+ ; Iff ?, ° [ y 

cultivation mi^f „ I It. i Weattl - Lt ls probable that our 
^S^S^SJ^ with better success if young plants could 
be procured^either from cuttings or from seeds. I S. 

corSfa with° ?S£^^^ of the 

ovules —magnified. ' ' lransverse section of the ovary, with 



*- J #t}. 




Tab. 4593. 
LEUCOTHOE neriifolia. 

Oleander -leaved Leucothoe. 



Nat. Ord. Ericaceae. — Decandria Monogynta. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4314.) 



Leucothoe neriifolia; glaberrima, ramis teretibus (siccitate subangulatis), 
foliis cordato-oblongis subacuminatis mucronato-acutissimis pungentibus 
basi emarginatis brevissime petiolatis coriaceis subtus minute reticulatis, 
racemis axillaribus erectis (seu erecto-patentibus elongatis), rachide pedi- 
cellisque asperulis, bracteolis minutissimis, floribus secundis, corollis (cocci- 
neis) ovato-urceolatis, limbo 5-partito laciniis mediocribus patentibus acutis. 

Leucothoe neriifolia. Be Cand. Prodr. v. l.p. 605. 

Andromeda neriifolia. Schlecht. in IAnnata, v. 1. p. 522. 

Agarista neriifolia. Don, Gard. Diet. v. 3. p. 838. 

Leucothoe crassifolia. De Cand. Prodr. v. II. p. 605. 

Andromeda crassifolia. Pohl, PI. Bran. v. 2. p. 34. 

Agarista Poldii. Don, Gard. Diet. v. 3. p. 837. 



This handsome plant quite corresponds with what we believe 
to be L. neriifolia, De Cand. {Andromeda, Schlecht.), first found 
by Sellow in tropical Brazil, then by Mr. Gardner in Minas 
Geraes (n. 4989 of his Brazilian collection) ; and we equally 
believe L. crassifolia to be a mere form of the same, nor are we 
sure that the Andromeda subrotunda of Pohl, PI. Bras. vol. ii. 
p. 32. t. 121, is not also a short-leaved and short-raccmod variety 
of it. Under our L. pulchra (supra, Tab. 4314), we were in- 
duced to express an opinion derived from an inspection of our 
dried specimens, that the L. crassifolia was probably not different 
from that ; and truly, save in the shorter leaves, nearly erect 
racemes, red flowers, and somewhat shorter corolla, with a more 
distinct limb, we can hardly point out any specific distinction. 
This is worthy of a place in every greenhouse. Our flowering 
specimen was' communicated by Mr. Cunningham of Comeley 
Bank Nursery, without any history or note of its introduction. 
The ovary is remarkable for producing at its base, in all the 

august 1st, 1851. 



flowers we examined, simple or branched subulate filaments, 
which from their position may be considered abortive stamens. 

Descr. A moderate-sized shrub, with very coriaceous, ever- 
green, oblong leaves, gradually acuminated at the point and then 
ending in a mucro, the base cordate, footstalk very short, gla- 
brous on both sides, minutely reticulated beneath. Raceme 
solitary, from the upper axils of the leaves, much longer than 
they, nearly erect, very handsome. Rachis and pedicels red, 
indistinctly rugulose (under a glass) with very minute acicular 
bracteoles. Calyx red, deeply five-cleft. Corolla bright scarlet, 
between ovate and urceolate, very thick and fleshy : limb mode- 
rately large, of five, acute, spreading lobes. Stamens ten. Fila- 
ments flexuose, subulate, hairy. Anthers gibbous at the base, 
biporous. Ovary globose, five-lobed, on a five-lobed disk. Style 
jointed on the ovary, incrassated upwards. W. J. H. 

Cult. The genus Leucothoe contains above thirty described 
species : four of them are found in Madagascar and Bourbon, 
the remainder are natives of the American continent, extending 
from South Brazil to the southern states of North America. 
Those from the latter country have been known in our gardens 
under the names of Andromeda axillaris, coriacea, &c, and are 
sufficiently hardy to bear the severity of our ordinary winters ; 
but the more southern species, although natives of elevated 
regions, are not hardy enough for this climate without protection. 
The species figured is one of the latter class, and should be 
treated as a greenhouse plant. It thrives in light peat-soil well 
drained. It should be placed in a cool shadv house or pit, espe- 
cially in summer, for, like the generality of Ericaceous plants 
from elevated regions, it is apt to suffer by full exposure to the 
sun of this climate. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 3. Pistil with abortive stamens t— magnified. 



££$4-. 




Tab. 4594. 
ALLAMANDA neriifolia. 

Oleander-leaved Allamanda. 



Nat. Ord. ApocYNEiE.— Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen . Char. ( Vide supra, Tab .4351.) 



Allamanda neriifolia ; erecta glabra, foliis oblpngis brevi-petiolatis acuminatis, 
paniculis multifloris aphyllis, calycis lobis ovato-lanceolatis patentibus, 
corollas tubi parte constricta perbrevi vix calycem superante basi dilatata 
angulata reliqua (sen fauce) elongata infundibuliformi-campanulata, limbi 
lobis rotundatis acutis. 

Allamanda neriifolia. Hortul. 



Received by Messrs. Lucombe and Pince, of the Exeter Nur- 
sery, from the continent, under the name here adopted, but 
I can nowhere find it described. Its habit is extremely dif- 
ferent from that of any described species, as is the form of the 
corolla, with its singularly short contracted base of the tube, 
swollen and angled at the base, and the very elongated upper 
portion : the colour is a deep almost golden yellow, and it is 
streaked with orange. " The plant," observes Mr. Pince, " from 
which the specimen was cut, is now only three feet high. It 
commenced flowering when but eighteen inches high. The 
first and largest cluster consisted of thirty finely expanded flowers. 
I consider it one of the finest of our stove-plants, taking up little 
room, and making a noble appearance." What I saw of this 
plant in Messrs. Lucombe and Pince's Nursery, in the month of 
June, fully substantiates this praise. 

Descr. An evergreen shrub, with copious and handsome 
foliage, everywhere glabrous. Leaves oblong, on short petioles, 
acuminated, deep green above, pale and reticulated beneath. 
Panicle of many flowers, in reality terminal, but, by and by, 
lateral from innovations or young shoots which again terminate 
with clusters of flowers. Calyx of five, ovato-laneeol;tte, spread- 
ing lobes. Corolla smaller than in our A. Schottii (Tab. 4351) 
or A. Aubletii (Tab. 4411), but deeper-coloured than either, and 
elegantly streaked with orange. In shape it ia quite different 

AUGUST 1ST, 1851. 



from both, the lower and contracted portion of the tube being 
very short, swollen, and angled at the base, the rest of the tube 
or faux is bent at an angle and much elongated, between funnel- 
shaped and campanulate : the lobes are rounded, acute, spread- 
ing. Stamens and pistils quite included. W. J. IT.. 

Cult. This, like the other species of the genus, requires to be 
grown in a warm and moist stove. It is a free-growing plant of 
scandent habit, and is well adapted for planting against a back 
wall or for training up pillars : it also flowers freely when treated 
as a pot-plant, the branches being supported either by stakes or 
a wire trellis. A mixture of light loam and leaf-mould suits it ; 
and during the season of growth it needs a free supply of water. 
It is readily increased by cuttings, treated in the manner usually 
recommended for stove-plants. J. S. 



S3S. 




Tab. 4595. 
ARBUTUS mollis. 

Soft-leaved Arbutus. 



Nat. Orel. Ericace^:. — Decandbja Monogynia. 

Gen. Cliar. Calyx 5-partitus, segmentis acutis non imbricatis. Corolla glo- 
boso-urceolata, ore contracto 5-dentato. Stamina 10, inclusa, filamentis barbatis, 
antberis brevibus, loculis 1-aristatis. Stigma truncatum. Capsula 5-locularis, 
5-valvis, locuHcido-dehiscens. Placenta 5-loba. Semina elbptica, compressa, 
nitida, bylo laterali lineari (Don). — Suffrutex in hemispluera boreali sparsus gla- 
berrimus. Folia alterna, lineari- aut subovali-lanceolata, integerrima, margine 
revoluta, subtus glauco-albida, breviler petiolata. Mores subterrninales, fere um- 
bellati, pedicellati, nee ut in icone Eng. Bot. t. 713 subsessiles, etiamper maturitatem 
erecti. Braetese ovata'. Corolla? alba: aut rosea. 



Arbutus mollis ; foliis oblongis acutis subintegerrimis serratisve subtus canes- 
centi-tomentosis, racemis paniculatis tomentosis, pediceUis secundis curvatis 
bracteatis, bracteis ovatis, floribus cernuis, corolla lageniformi parte inferior! 
insigniter inflata, ore contracto, Hmbi lobis 5 rotundatis patcntibus, fila- 
mentis basi valde dilatatis hirsntissimis, ovario granulato villoso. 

Arbutus mollis. H. B.K. Nov. Gen. Am. v. 3. p. 279. Be Cand. Prodr. v. 7. 
p. 582. Spreng. Syst. Feget. v. 2. p. 286. 



A native of Mexico, and, according to Humboldt, of Guanaxato, 
and sent to our gardens by M. Van Houtte from Ghent, under the 
name we have adopted. Messrs. Humboldt and Kunth, however, 
say, " prsecedenti {A. Xalapensi) simillima ;" indeed, Mr. Ben- 
tham, under A. densiflora, H.B.K. in ' Plantse Hartwegianac,' lias 
remarked "an species plures Kunthii lmjus tantum varietates?" 
All four of that author approach very near each other, and our 
specimens show them to be very variable in the form and margin 
of the leaf, and in the more or less dense spike. This fine species 
flowers in a warm greenhouse in June. 

Descr. A handsome evergreen shrub, or perhaps small tree, 
with alternate leaves, which are coriaceous, oblong or oblongo- 
laneuolate, between acute and acuminate, the base sometimes 
acute, sometimes obtuse, the margin pretty strongly serrated, 
above glabrous or partially tomentose, beneath clothed with ash) 

w i. lst 1st, 1861. 



/ 



tomentum, or sometimes of a slightly ferruginous tint, Racemes 
terminal, forming a lax panicle, the lower ones spreading or de- 
curved. BacJiis stout, downy. Pedicels downy, curved down- 
wards, hence secund, bracteated ; bract eas small, ovate. Calyx 
small, deeply 5-fid, spreading. Corolla large, ampullaceous or 
lageniform, glabrous or downy, white or greenish rose-colour ; 
the lower portion forms an inflated ring, the rest of the tube is 
hemispherical, tapering into a short contracted mouth : limb of 
five small rounded lobes. Stamens ten : filaments singularly 
dilated a little above the base and very hairy ; anthers of two 
compressed cells, each with a decurved awn at the back. Ovary 
globose, granulated, hairy, surrounded by an hypogynous ten-lobed 
annulus. Style columnar. Stigma depresso-capitate. W. J. H. 

Cult. An Arbutus which, like the other Mexican species of the 
genus, is tolerably hardy, but not sufficiently so to enable it to 
endure the cold of our winters without some kind of protection. 
It is, therefore, necessary to treat it as a greenhouse plant. It 
grows well in a mixture of light loam and peat-soil, and may be 
increased by cuttings or seeds, or by grafting it on stocks of the 
common Arbutus or of species of allied genera. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Calyx and Pistil. 3. Stamen: — magnified. 



-S&6'. 







Tab. 4596. 
CATHCARTIA villosa. 

Villous Cathcartia. 



Nat. Ord. PAPAVERACEiE. PoLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

Gen. Char. Calyx diphyllus, foliolis sestivatione imbricatis, caducis. Corolla 
petala 4, subrotunda, hypogyna, decidua. Stamina 25-30, hypogyna : filamenta 
filiformia gracilia ; antherce terminates, oblongae, biloculares, loeulis latere longi- 
tudinaliter dehiscentibus, connectivo interposito. Ovarium cylindraceum, 5-G- 
sulcatum, uniloculare. Ovula numerosa, in placentas filiformes 5-6 intervalvu- 
lares demum Iiberas, anatropa. Stigma amplum, sessile, hemisphgericum, carao- 
sum, ovario latius, persistens, 5-6-radiatum, radiis lamelliformibus. Capsula 
erecta, striata, sih'quiformis, teres, unilocularis ad apicem, infra stigma persistens, 
fere ad basin 5-6-valvis, valvis linearibus : placentis filiformibus Hberis ad apicem 
stigmati unitis. Semina numerosa, ovalia, compressa, scrobiculata, stropliiolata, 
subcristata.— Herba annua vel biennis ex Himalaya orientali, pilis longis fulvis 
patentibus villosa. Caulis teres, subsimplex. Folia inferiora, radicalia pracipue, 
longe petiolata, cordata, subpalmatim seupedatim a-loba, lobis lobulatis, foliis supe- 
noribus sessilibus, supremis pinnatifido-lobatis. Pedunculi terminates axillaresque. 
Flores cernui. Calyx hirsutus. Petala fiava, magnitudine Papaveris Bhaeadis. 
Antherse aurantiacce. Stigma viride. 



Cathcartia villosa. Hook. fit. MS. 



Found in Sikkim-Himalaya by Dr. Hooker, and reared in the 
Royal Gardens from seeds sent by him in the winter of 1850-1. 
It flowers in June, and may be treated as a hardy annual : the 
seeds ripening in July. The long, shaggy, fulvous hairs and 
bright yellow flowers give it a handsome appearance. In its 
foliage it differs remarkably from any of the Papaveracece with 
which I am acquainted, and no less in the fruit. It has the 
stigma of Papaver, while the mode of dehiscence corresponds 
rather with that of Boemeria. We cannot question its forming 
a new genus, which is named by Dr. Hooker in compliment 
to J. F. Cathcart, Esq., B.C.S., late Judge of Tirrhoot, who 
during a residence at Darjeeling devoted his whole time to the 
illustration of the botany of that neighbourhood, and super- 
intended the execution, by native artists, at his own expense, of 
a collection of upwards of 700 folio coloured plates of Hima- 
layan plants. These drawings, which are of great botanical 

AUGUST 1ST, 1851. 



value, and embrace a multitude of new plants and others of the 
greatest beauty and rarity, are, by the liberality of their possessor, 
placed at Dr. Hooker's disposal for the illustration of the Botany 
ofSikkim. W.J. H. 

Cult. This new Papaveraceous plant was raised from seeds, 
received last year from the elevated regions of Sikkim-Himalaya. 
It appears to be a perennial-rooted plant, but we must await the 
result of next winter, in order to know whether it is sufficiently 
hardy to bear the open air of this climate. Hitherto we have 
kept it in an airy frame, where it has flowered and produced 
perfect seeds. In summer it may be planted out in the open 
air in a cool shady place ; but at the same time care must -be 
taken that it does not remain' long saturated with moisture, for, 
on account of the soft and villous nature of the leaves, a con- 
tinued excess of moisture may cause them to damp off. J. S. 



4-S.97, 




Tab. 4597. 
PRIMULA Sikkimensis. 

Sikkim Primrose. 



Nat. Ord. Primulace^. — Pentandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4550.) 



Primula (Aleuritia) Sikkimensis ; foliis obovato-oblongis obtusis rugulosis ar- 
gute duplicato-dentatis in petiolum subsequilongum attenuatis, scapo 
elongato, floribus umbellatis terminalibus, involucri foliolis lanceolatis erec- 
tis sessilibus, calycibus farinosis brevi-tubulosis 5-fidis corollae tubum sequan- 
tibus, corolla (flava) subinfundibuliformi lobis rotundatis emarginatis, an- 
theris sessilibus obtusis, ovario subgloboso, stigmate peltato-capitato. 



Mention has been already made of this pretty Primrose in 
our 'Kew Garden Miscellany/ vol. iii. p. 128, when speaking of 
the Cankrienia clirysantha of Java {Primula imperialis, Jungh. 
MS.), where it is said in a note, " Among the numerous draw- 
ings recently sent home by Dr. Hooker from Sikkim-Himalaya, 
is one of a yellow Primula that vies with the Cankrienia, and 
of which that traveller relates, ' It is the pride of all the alpine 
Primulas, inhabits wet boggy places at elevations of from 
12-17,000 feet, at Lachen and Lachong, covering acres with 
a yellow carpet in May and June.' " Seeds transmitted by Dr. 
Hooker to the Royal Gardens produced plants which flowered in 
May of the present year ; and from one of which our figure is 
taken. It is, perhaps, the tallest Primula in cultivation, and 
very different from any hitherto described. 

Descr. Stemless. Leaves all from the root, erecto-patent, 
8-9 inches to a foot long (including the petiole), obovato-oblong, 
thin and submembranaceous, but strongly reticulato- venose, not 
farinose, obtuse, the margin doubly and sharply toothed, the 
thickened midrib and nerves prominent beneath, where the hue 
is paler than above ; they taper into a long broad red petiole 
about equal in length to the leaf. Scape a foot to two feet high, 
erect, terete, pale green, bearing an umbel of lemon-yellow 

AUGUST 1st, 1851. 



(rather than golden) flowers, about the size of those of P. vul- 
garis. Involucre of 5-7 leaflets, which are sessile, slightly fari- 
nose, erect, lanceolate, a little tinged with red, about half the 
length of the pedicels. These latter are slightly spreading. 
Calyx tinged with purple, farinose, tubular-oblong, as long as 
the tube of the corolla, five-lobed about half-way down, lobes 
erect, rather obtuse. Corolla with the tube as long as the calyx, 
the limb subcampanulate, the mouth being wide, not at all con- 
tracted, naked, the lobes of the limb moderately spreading, 
roundish, emarginate. Anthers oblong, obtuse, sessile, inserted 
near the bottom of the tube. Ovary round-pyriform. Style as 
long as the tube. Stigma capitate, but depressed on the top, 
hence subpeltate. W. J. H. 

Cult. A free-growing species, partaking of the habit of the 
common Primrose, and therefore more permanent under artificial 
cultivation than . the fugacious Primula capitata from the same 
country (figured at Tab. 4550). During the winter we kept the 
young plants under the protection of a frame ; and we shall not 
know, until next winter has passed, whether this species is 
sufficiently hardy to withstand, unprotected, the cold of our 
winters. It is increased by offsets or by seeds. J. S. 



Fig. 1. Portion of corolla laid open. 2. Pistil -.—magnified. 



4-S0S. 




Tab. 4598. 
ALLIUM Caspium. 

Caspian Onion. 



Nat. Ord. Asphodele^e. — Hexandbia Mono&ynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx corollaceus, 6-sepalus, regularis, persistens ; sepala ima basi 
connata, uninervia, patentia vel campanulato-conniventia ; interiora saepe alius 
formae et longitudinis. Stamina 6, basi sepalorum inserta, exserta vel inclusa. 
Mlamenta subulato-filiformia, inferne magis miuusve dilatata, interiora saepe mem- 
branaceo-dilatata, superne ad. utrumque latus dente, lobulo vel cuspide filiformi 
instructa ; exteriora semper inappendiculata, saepe breviora et angustiora. Anthem 
biloculares, introrsae, ellipticae vel oblongae, basi sinuato-bilobae, dorso medio affixae. 
Ovarium liberum, sessile, tri- vel interdum, ob septa centrum haud attingentia, 
uniloculare ; ovula in loculis duo, adscendentia, collateralia, rarissime plura (3-6) 
vel solitaria, campylotropa (ampbitropa, EndL). Stylus filiformis, erectus. Stigma 
obtusum vel capitellatum, interdum bifidum. Capsula membranacea, trigastra, tri-, 
rarius septis incompletis unilocularis, loculicido-trivalvis ; valvis medio septifevis ; 
stylo in axi demum libero, persistente. Semina in loculis 1 vel 2, rarissime plura, 
segmentum sphaerae referentia, angulo ventrali supra basin immediate affixa, atra, 
subtilissime granuloso-punctulata ; testa membranacea, albumini carnoso adnata. 
Embryo parum excentricus (bomotropus, EndL), subperiphericus, cybndraceo-nli- 
formis, subuncinato-curvatus (falcatus, Nees ab Esenb) ; radicula juxta hilum site. 
— Herbae bulbosa, olida ; bulbus tunicatus, interdum e rhizomate horizontali enatus. 
Scapi inferne foliati vel subnudi, solidi vel Jistulosi. Folia canaliculata, semiq/- 
lindracea vel teretia, scepius cava, interdum plana, plerumque angusta. TJmbella 
terminalis, spatha 1-2-valvi membranacea marcescente cincta, interdum balbillifera. 
Mores erecti, rarius pendidi, cum pedicellis haud articulati. Kth. 



Allium (§ Moliura) Caspium; foliis oblongo-linearibus subacuminatis glaucis, 
umbella multiflora laxa ampla subglobosa, pedicellis longissimis strictis basi 
bracteolatis, sepalis oblongis obtusiusculis, staminibus sepala duplo fere 
superantibus. 

Allium Caspium, Bieb. Flo. Taur. Caucas. v. 1. p. 265. v. 3. p. 260. Pall. It. 
v. 3. p. 548. Don, Mongr. All. 85. Spreng. Syst. Veget. v. 2. p. 36. 
Kunth, Enum. PI. v.i.p. 445. 

Amabyllis Caspia, Willd. Sp. PI. v. 2. p. 62. 

Crinum Caspium, Pall. It. App.n. 135. t. Q. 



Native of the deserts of Astrachan and Tezzier. Dr. Stocks 
finds it in Scinde, and obligingly sent bulbs to the Royal 
Gardens, which flowered in May 1851. It has so little of the 
ordinary appearance of an Onion, that Willdenow called it an 

august 1st, 1851. 



Amaryllis, and Pallas a Crinum. It has, however, all the cha- 
racters of Allium and the same savory odour. 

Descr. Bulb ovate, clothed with thin membranaceous pellucid 
coats more or less tinged with red. Leaves from the lower 
portion of the .stem and from the root, linear-lanceolate, glaucous, 
slightly acuminate, sometimes waved. Stem or scape varying 
much in height, from two, it is said, to ten feet, terete, glaucous. 
Spatha of two, reflexed, membranaceous, pale brown leaves. Um- 
bel lax, a span wide, nearly globose, of very numerous pedicels, 
dense at their point of origin, (4-5 inches long) so long and so 
spreading on the lower ones, that they have a lax appearance in 
the circumference; they are slightly thickened beneath the 
flower. Perianth of six, oblong or narrow, slightly acute sepals, 
green, tinged with purplish-red. Filaments deep red, much 
longer than the sepals. Anthers oblong, of the same colour as 
the sepals. Chary slightly stipitate, globose, three-lobed. Style 
fusiform, bright red, tapering to a sharp point. W. J. H. 

Cult. A bulbous-rooted, herbaceous plant, stated to have 
been introduced above twenty years ago, but still rare in 
collections. Coming from the region of the Caspian, it may 
be expected to be quite hardy, but as the plant from which this 
figure was made came to us from Scinde, we have treated it as 
somewhat tender, having kept it in a frame during last winter. 
It flowers during the early part of the summer, and has now 
produced perfect seeds, but does not appear to increase so freely 
by the production of offsets as the generality of the species of this 
extensive genus. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Flower. 2. Pistil:— -magnified. 



4-S &&. 







Tab. 4599. 
PEDICULARIS mollis. 

Soft-leaved Indian Lousewort. 



Nat. Ord. Scrophulab,ine.e. — Didynamia Angiospekmia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx tubulosus vel campanulatus, antice et interdum posticc plus 
minus fissus, apice 2-5-dentatus, dentibus raro sequalibus, lateralibus connatis 
vel liberis, cristato-dentatis vel integris, postico sacpissime minore integrum; vel 
integerriino aut deficiente. Corolla tubus cylindricus vel ad faucem paulo am- 
pbatus ; galea compressa obtusa integra vel antice sub apice utrinque dente 
aucta vel in rostrum truncatmn vel bidentatum producta ; labium inferius basi 
suberectum, supra bicristatum, lobis 3 erectis vel ssepius patentibus vel deflexis, 
lateralibus rotundatis, intermedio minore vel rarius sequali, per sestivationem 
extimo. Stamina sub galea didynama ; filamenta omnia vel 2 postica saltern 
basi ssepius pilosa (pilis tamen in eadem specie non constantibus) ; antlierm 
transversa;, per paria vel omnes arete approximatse, loculis sequaHbus muticis vel 
in sola P. grandifiora aristatis. Capsula compressa, ovata vel lanceolata, plus 
minus falcata vel obliqua prsesertim ad apicem ; postice ab apice versus basin et 
antice ssepius brevius loculicide dehiscens, valvulis medio septiferis. Semina in 
parte inferiore capsulse lateraliter affixa, ovoidea, majuscula, testa appressa vel 
laxiuscula, foveolato-rugosa vel lseviuscula. Embryo parvus vel elongatus. 
Radicula ad apicem fructus spectans. — Herbse pleraque montance utriusque orbis, in 
hemisphterio australi perpaucce, in Siberia et in terris arcticis numeroscs. Folia 
alterna vel verticillata rarissime suboppodta, semel pluriesve pinnatim iivisa vel 
rarius simpliciter dentata, a radicalibus in Jloralia decrescentia. Flores spicati vel 
rarius racemosi, ebracteolati. FoUa Jloralia bracte&formia, integra vel incisa, rarius 
caulinis subconformia. 



Pediculakis (§ Verticillataa Erostres) mollis; erecta elata ramosa hirsuta, foliis 
semel bisve pinnatifidis, laciniis oblongo-lanceolatis inciso-dentatis, spicis 
gracilibus interruptis, calycis dentibus oblongis cristatis, corolla; tubo vix 
exserto, galea anguste oblonga recta antice rectilinea labium superante. 

Pediculakis mollis. Wall. Cat. n. 415. Benth. Scroph. Ind.p. 53, in Be Cand. 
Prodr. v. 10. p. 564. 



Mr. Bentham well observes of this Pedicularis, " Species nulli 
proxime affinis " the form of the corolla is extremely different 
from any other of the genus, and we are glad of the opportunity 
of figuring so rare a plant from living specimens. It has nowhere 
been found except by Dr. Wallich in Gossain Than, Nepal, and in 
the high mountains of Sikkim-Himalaya by Dr. Hooker : from 
seeds sent by the latter our plants were raised in the Royal Gar- 
dens of Kew. 

Descr. Root fusiform, sparingly fibrous (perennial ?). Sfrm 
erect, simple, about a foot high, terete, furrowed, clothed, as are 

SEPTEMBEE 1ST, 1851. 



the leaves and calyx, with soft glandular hairs. Leaves verticil- 
late, five to six in a whorl, lower ones petiolate, upper and floral 
ones (or bracteas especially) sessile, lanceolate, pinnate; pinna 
rather close-placed (less so in the lower leaves), ovate-lanceolate, 
pinnatifid. Spike elongated, rather contracted, consisting of 
interrupted whorls of leaves or bracteas, each with its respective 
floiccr, and about equal in length with the flowers, the upper 
ones crowded. Pedicels very short, hairy. Calyx campanulate, 
five-lobecl, the lobes reflexed, inciso-serrate, somewhat leafy. 
Corolla of a deep purple colour, slightly glanduloso-pilose. Tube 
as long as that of the calyx : the galea erect, narrow-oblong, 
obtuse, longer than the lip, the sides involute. Lip very broad, 
spreading or reflexed, cut into three deep rounded lobes, with 
three embossments or convexities on the disc. Filaments of the 
stamens subulate, glabrous. Anthers of two deep lobes. Ovary 
ovate, with a large hypogynous ring at the base. Style as well as 
the stamens included within the convolute galea. Stigma small, 
capitate. W. J. H. 

Cult. Many species of Pedicidaris are handsome, showy plants 
while in flower, quickly coming to maturity in the early part of 
summer. They grow, for the most part, in grassy, rather wet 
places, and are indicative of a poor soil. All of them are natives 
of the northern hemisphere, being extensively distributed 
throughout Europe and Northern Asia, abounding on the Hima- 
layas, a few extending as far south as the Neilgherries, and even 
Ceylon. On the continent of America one is found on the 
Columbian Andes, several in Mexico, the number of species in- 
creasing northwards throughout the temperate regions of North 
America — one or two even reaching Melville Island within 
the Arctic circle. Two are natives of Great Britain, and, 
judging from their habit and places of growth, we think that 
few, if any, of the species can be successfully cultivated in gar- 
dens. In Aiton's ' Hortus Kewensis ' eleven species are given 
as having been cultivated in this country before the beginning of 
the present century ; we have, however, seen none of them in a 
living state, and therefore suppose they had the fate of the 
species now figured, ceasing to exist after their first year. Their 
peculiar habit is against their becoming garden-plants, but many 
foreign species would probably succeed in this country if placed 
in situations similar to those in which we find our two native 
species. /. S. 



Fig. 1 Hoot-leaf :— mt. size. 2. Portion of the lower part of the stem, with 
whorl of leaves. 3. Flower. 4. Stamen. 5. Pistil -.-magnified. 



4600. 




R«w WiAol" imp 



Tab. 4600. 
PHYSOCHLAINA grandiflora. 

Large-flowered Physochlaina. 



Nat. Ord. Solanace^:. — Pentanduia Monogynia. 



Gen. Char. Physochlaina, Don {Belenia, Dene.). Calyx 5-dentatus, demum 
accrescens, urceolatus v. tubulosus. Corolla hypogyna, subcampanulata, re- 
gularis, quinqueloba, lobis rotundatis. Stamina 5, imo corollse tubo inserta, 
faucem superantia, asqualia, filamentis inferne villosis. Stylus simplex, stigmate 
papilloso depresso coronatus. Ovarium biloculare, placentariis multiovulatis. 
Capsula calyce persistente accrescente inclusa, bilocularis, apice oircumscissa, 
operculata, 'opereulo coriaceo apiculata. Semlna renifonnia. Embryo arcuatus, 
subperiphericus. — Herbae perennes in Europa orieniali et Asia indigent, foliis 
alternk, floribus paniculatis, corolla regulari. Lecaisne, sub Jideiua. 



Physochlaina grandiflora ; glanduloso-pubescens ramosa, foliis ovatis acutis 
petiolo subtriplo longionbus, paniculis terrmualibus foliosis, floribus nu- 
tantibus, calyce florifero brevi-campanulato l'ructifero cylindraceo, corolla 
paululum curvata (flavo-viridi) infundibuliforrai-campanulatu venis picta, 
staminibus corollam sequantibus, stylo exserto, stigmate depresso-capitato. 



Our garden is indebted for the seeds of this plant to Lieut. 
Strachey, who gathered them on the plains of Thibet, at an ele- 
vation of 15,000 feet above the level of the sea. I was at first 
disposed to refer it to the Belenia pratalta, Dene, in Jacquemont's 
Voy. vol. iv. p. 116. t. 120, but that figure will hardly justify 
such a conclusion. The flowers are not half the size, their calyx 
is longer and narrower, and the fructiferous calyx is too much 
elongated and curved. Be that, however, as it may (and the 
figure is evidently made from a very indifferent specimen), the 
genus, if really a good one, intended to include Hyoscyamus ori- 
entails and H.physalodes, should bear the name we have here 
adopted, given by Mr. Don to the section of Hyoscyamus to 
which those species belong. 

Descii. Root probably perennial. Stem herbaceous, a good 
deal branched, terete, clothed everywhere, as well as the foliage, 
with glandular down. Leaves alternate, petiolate, ovate, acute, 

riSMBEB 1st, 1S51. 



penninerved, thrice as long as the petiole. Panicle terminating 
the branches, leafy. Pedicels elongated. Floral leaves gra- 
dually passing into bracteas. Flowers drooping. Calyx shortly 
campanulate, sharply five-toothed, in fruit much enlarged and 
elongated, becoming tubular or cylindrical, and then erect. Co- 
rolla more than an inch long, slightly curved downwards, 
between campanulate and infundibuliform, the mouth spreading, 
the lobes short, rounded, obtuse ; the colour is yellow-green with 
a slight tinge of purple, marked with longitudinal purple lines, 
connected by oblique transverse ones. Stamens five, nearly 
equal. Filaments as long as the corolla or nearly so. Anthers 
large, pale yellow, ovate. Ovary subrotund, the upper portion, 
or that which will form the lid, contracted at its insertion. Style 
filiform, flexuose, longer than the corolla, slightly thickened up- 
wards. Stigma dilated and umbilicate, depressed. W. J. IT. 

Cult. A strong-rooted, hardy, herbaceous plant, thriving in 
any kind of garden-soil. It may be increased by dividing the 
roots, which should be done in autumn or early in the spring. 
J.S. 



Fig. 1. Section of a calyx, showing the pistil : — magnified. 



4601. 




Tab. 4601. 

PENTSTEMON Wrightii. 

Mr. Wright's Pentstemon. 



Nat. Ord. SCROPHULAKINE^E. — DlDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

Gen. Cliar. (Vide supra, Tab. 4318.) 



Pentstemon (§ Cepocosmus, Benth.) Wrightii; erectus glaber glaucus inferne 
ramosus, foliis remotis inferioribus oblongis in petiolum attenuatis, supremis 
oblongo-ovatis basi subcordatis sessilibus, racemis elongatis bracteatis, pedi- 
cellis oppositis solitariis bifloris, calycis brevi-campanulati lobis ovatis paten- 
tibus tubo sequilongis, corollae (intense rosese) tubo superne ventricoso, limbo 
obbquo amplo lobis rotundatis patentibus subsequabbus. 



This is a charming new Pentstemon, very distinct from any 
hitherto known to us, and which will prove a great acquisition 
to our gardens. It was discovered by Dr. Wright in Texas, and 
has been distributed among the very interesting dried collections 
of that gentleman, without any name, by Dr. Engelmann, who, 
we trust, will not object to its bearing the name of its discoverer. 
It flowers in June and July. 

Descr. Boot perennial ? Stem erect, including the panicle a 
foot and a half or two feet high, terete, branching from the base, 
and there rather woody, purplish-brown and scarred from the 
fallen leaves, the rest glaucous, and bearing distant pairs of 
opposite very glaucous leaves, few in number, spathulate, that is 
oblong or obovate, entire, tapering into a stalk, all except the 
uppermost pair at the base of the panicle, which are ovate, 
oblong, quite sessile, truncated or even cordate at the base. 
From above these the elongated panicle arises, a foot or more 
long, bearing several pairs of small ovate bracteas, from the axil 
of each of which is seen a 2 -flowered peduncle, with a small ovate 
bracteole at the base of each pedicel. Flower drooping. Calyx 
with minute, glandular hairs, shortly campanulate, the five acute 
entire segments spreading. Corolla deep rich rose-colour, 
slightly downy, the tube about an inch long, ventricose on the 
underside towards the mouth. Limb an inch broad, spreading 

SEPTEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



horizontally, cut to the base into five nearly equal rotundate 
lobes. Stamens included. Filaments quite glabrous, flexuose. 
Anthers large, of two deep oval lobes. Style shorter than the 
longer filaments, thickened upwards, and clothed with long 
slightly deflexed hairs on the anterior side. W. J. H. 

Cult. A fine species of Pentstemon, raised from seeds sent to 
the Royal Gardens last year. It appears to grow and flower 
freely, but we are not yet certain whether it is quite hardy. Like 
other species of the genus, it will probably be found to succeed 
best if a stock be kept in pots under a frame in winter, and 
planted out in the open ground in spring. It is increased by 
seeds, which it produces readily. /. S. 



Fig. 1 . Lower portion of the corolla with stamens and pistil : — magnified. 



WflZ. 




Tab. 4602. 
CHRYSOBACTRON Hookeri. 

Dr. Hooker s Chrysobactron. 



Nat. Ord. Asphodele;E.— Hexandkia Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Flares racemosi, nunc dioici. Flor. masc. Perianthium corolliiiuui, 
liexaphyllum ; foliola patentia, aequalia, ovato-oblonga, obtusa, medio incrassata. 
Stamina 6, hypogyna ; filamenta elongato-subulata, periantliio breviora, nuda ; an- 
therce versatiles. Ovarium ovatum, acuminatum, trisulcatum, vacuum. Flor.fcem. 
Perianthium ut in fl. masc, sed foliolis post antbesin erectis, demum decidms. 
Stamina 6, antberis incompletis. Ovarium late ovatum, profunde trisulcatum, 
triloculare, lobis dorso canabculatis, loculis bi- rarius uniovulatis. Ovula, ubi 2, 
eollateraba, funiculis brevibus infra apicem loculi angulo interiore suspensa. 
Stylus vabdus, erectus, teres. Stigma capitatum, parvum, obscure 3-6-lobum. 
Capsula ovata, trilocularis, loculicide trivatvis ; valvse coriaceo-submembranaceje, 
intus medio septiferge. Semina loculis plerumque bina, collateralia, tnquetra, 
testa atra subcrustacea ; albumen corneum ; embryo axilis, paulo curvatus, albu- 
mine parum brevior : radicula incrassata.— Herba speciosa, elata, perennu, 
Jucklandica et in insula Campbell Novaque Zelandia proveniens. Radix elongata, 
tuberibus elongatis fasciculate donata. Foba late ensiformia, basi yaginardia. 
Scapi solitarii v. plnrimi, pedales et ultra. Flores racemosi, aurantiaci. 



Chrysobactron Hookeri; fobis lineari-bgulatis acuminatis, racemis laxiiloris, 
ovario obovato, capsula basi in stipitem brevem suffulta. 

Chrysobactron Hookeri. Colenso, in litt. Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 817 {specimen 
in fruit). 



The first species of the present genus (C. Rosdi) was detected 
by Dr. Hooker in Lord Auckland's Islands, and it is figured and 
described in the ' Flora Antarctica.' It was named Chrysohactron 
" in allusion to the magnificent racemes of golden flowers ' which 
that species bears. We have the pleasure of representing here 
a second individual of the genus, far less showy indeed, from New 
Zealand, whence the roots were sent in a Wardian case by our 
valued friend Mr. Bidwill. Mr. Colenso detected it soon after. 
The former gentleman found it in the rich alluvial plain of the 
upper part of Wairu, Middle Island; the latter in the sides o 
watercourses, in the country between the Rualnne range and 
Taupo, plentiful. "It grows in great clumps in boggy places, 
and is said to cover the plain with a sheet of yellow when in 

SEriEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



bloom. Some of the masses are three feet in diameter." A 
fruiting specimen from Mr. Bidwill is given in the 'Icones 
Plantarum ' above quoted. 

Descr. " Boot with very large fleshy fibres." Leaves eighteen 
inches long, linear-ligulate, canaliculate, glaucous-green, striated, 
acuminated, rather indurated at the point, the base yellowish : 
the three or four outer ones, nearest the root, are reduced to brown 
scales. Scape quite leafless, a foot and a half to two feet and 
even thirty inches high, erect, terete, bearing at the top nu- 
merous golden-yellow flowers in a rather lax raceme. Pedicels 
erect, bracteated, bracteas ovate, with a subulate point rather 
shorter than the pedicels. Perianth of six oblong spreading 
sepals. Stamens six : filaments subulate, arising from the base of 
the sepals. Ovary obovate, with three furrows. Style subulate, 
rather longer than the ovary. Capsule oblong-obovate, mucro- 
nate, elevated on a short stipes, three-celled, six-seeded. W. J. H. 

Cult. Living roots of this plant were received in 1848, but 
it was for some time doubtful whether we should succeed in 
cultivating it. This season, however, several plants have so far 
progressed as to produce flowers. We have hitherto kept it in 
a cool frame during winter, for though it comes from an ele- 
vated region in a high southern latitude, we fear it may not be 
sufficiently hardy to bear the severity of some of our winters. 
Its representative in Europe is the well-known genus Jspko- 
delus. J. S. 



Kg. 1. Mower. 2. Pistil -—magnified. 



Tab. 4603. 
AMOMUM Granum Paradisi. 

Grains of Paradise Amomum ; or Mellegetta Pepper. 



Nat. Ord. ZingiberacejE. — Monandria Monogynia. 



Gen. Char. Calyx tubulosus, apice trifidus. Corolla tubus brevis, limbi lacmise 
exteriores laterales postica angustiores; interiores laterales nulla?; labellum 
maximum, explanatum. Filajnentum complanatum, lateribus apiceque ultra 
antheram muticam productum, lobulis duobus auctum, lobo terminali bifido. 
Ovarium inferum, triloculare. Ovula in loculorum angulo centrali plurima, 
horizontalia, anatropa. Stylus filiformis, inter antherse loculos receptus ; stigma 
infundibubforme. Capsula ssepius baccata, trilocularis, loculicido-trivalvis. Se- 
mina plurima, arillata. — Herbse inter tropicos veteris orbis indigent, species Ameri- 
cana dubia ; radicibus articulatis, repentibus, foliis bifariis, membranaceis, vaginis 
fissis, inflorescentia radicali, spicata, laxe imbricata. Endl. 



Amomum Granum Paradisi ; caulibus elongatis, foliis elliptico-lanceolatis tenuiter 
acuminatis rubro-marginatis, scapis brevissimis radicabbus bracteatis sub- 
trifloris, corolla? labello amplo rotundato pbcato-undulato. 

Amomum Grana Paradisi. Linn. Sp. PI. v.l.p.2? Pereira, Mem. of Mat. Med. 
v. 2. p. 1130.^. 234 (capsules). 

Amomum grandiflorum. Sm. Exot. Flora, v. 1. t. 111. 

Amomum exscapum. Sims, in Ann. of Pot. v. I. p. 248. 1. 13. 

Amomum Afzelii. Roscoe, in Linn. Trans, v. 8. p. 354. 



Whether or not this be what is intended as the Amomum 
Grana Paradisi of Linnaeus (" scapo brevissimo ramoso ") will 
perhaps for ever be a doubtful question. But of this we are 
certain, that our plants in the Royal Gardens, here figured, were 
raised from seeds of capsules sent to us as Malagetta Pepper or 
Grains of Paradise, from Sierra Leone, by Mr. Young ; and that 
these capsules correspond exactly with those figured in Dr. 
Pereira's admirable - Elements of Materia Medica and Thera- 
peutics/ vol. ii. p. 1130. f. 234, as "Amomum Granum Paradisi 
of Afzelius' Remed. Guineensis, vol. x. n. 1," and as A. Grana- 
Paradisi, Smith, in Rees. Cycl. vol. xxviii. art. Melegetta, as an in- 
habitant of the Guinea coast about Sierra Leone, we have not 
the smallest doubt. Equally certain it is, so far as can be judged 
from figures, that it is the A. grandiflorum of Smith in 'Exotic 

SEPTEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



Botany/ tab. Ill, "raised from seeds gathered by Afzelius at 
Sierra Leone :" nor do we hesitate to pronounce, notwithstanding 
some trifling discrepancies, that it is also the A. exscapum of Dr. 
Sims, figured and described in the first volume of « Annals of 
Botany,' p. 548. t. 13, from specimens raised by Mr. Loddigcs 
of Hackney, the seeds of which were sent by Professor Afzelius 
from Sierra Leone. A. Afzelil, Roscoe, is acknowledged to be 
identical with the A. exscapmn, Sims. Beyond the above syn- 
onyms we dare not go. Linnaeus we quote with doubt; for 
that author refers to Rheede's figure in the ■ Hortus Malabaricus/ 
and gives Madagascar, as well as Guinea, for the native country 
of the species ; to which Willdenow adds Ceylon. 

The term Melegueta or Mellegctta Pepper has been applied to 
several Zingiberaccous plants, and to this among them. " It has 
usually," Dr. Pereira observes, " been considered synonymous 
with the terms ' Grains of Paradise and Guinea grains' 
Melegueta Pepper is said to have been known in Italy before 
the discovery of the Guinea coast by the Portuguese in the 
fifteenth century. It was brought by the Moors, who used to 
cross the region of Mandingha and the deserts of Libya, and 
carry it to Mundi Barca (or Monte de Barca), a port in the 
Mediterranean. The Italians, not knowing the place of its origin, 
as it is so precious a spice, called it ' Grana Parodist.' Another 
kind of Amomum, known as Melegueta Pepper, is the A. Mele- 
gueta, Roscoe, figured: in that author's work on Scitamineous 
Plants. The flowers are small, the leaves long and narrow, and 
the fruits very large and pear-shaped. The fruits of both kinds 
seem to be indifferently employed in lieu of pepper in Western 
Africa, and are esteemed the most wholesome of spices, and 
generally used by the natives to season their food. The principal 
consumption of Grains of Paradise in Europe is in veterinary 
medicine, and to give an artificial strength to spirits, wine, beer, 
and vinegar. Although the seeds are by no means injurious, 
an act was passed in 56 Geo. III. c. 58, that no brewer or 
dealer in beer shall have in his possession or use Grains of 
Paradise, under a penalty of £200 for each offence; and no 
druggist shaU sell it to a brewer, under a penalty of £500 for 
each offence." — See Pereira. Our plants flower in the stove in 
May, and make a handsome appearance. 

Descr. Boots creeping, or rather they increase by aggregation 
of the tuberous knobs of a red colour, from which the stems arise. 
Stems sterile, two to three feet high, very red at the base, and 
dull purplish-red above from the long sheathing petioles of the 
foliage. Leaves sparse, small, and remote below, more approxi- 
mate above, yet distant, spreading obliquely, not horizontally, 
elliptical lanceolate, with a very narrow long, almost setiform 



acumen, obliquely penninerved, full green above, paler beneath, 
the margin red. Petiole auricled at the top. Scape reduced, 
very short, clothed with lax erect scales, red below and short, 
much elongated, striated, and membranaceous, and reddish- 
yellow above ; these embrace the flowers, and persist with the 
fruit. Calyx (Endl.) or exterior perianth forming a long tube 
below, cut into three oblong, erect, membranaceous segments, 
white, tinged with yellow and rose, embracing the tube of the 
inner series, which is reduced to one large segment expanding 
into a rotundate pure white, plicately undulated limb, yellow at 
the base. Filament broad, bearing one very large ovate pointed 
anther, pointing downwards, deeply two-lobed, above which the 
filament is prolonged into one short ovate erect segment and 
two lateral spreading linear-oblong ones. On each side the base 
of the filament we find two subulate processes. Ovary inferior, 
cylindrical, a little downy. Style long, filiform, passing between 
the lobes of the anther, and terminating there in an infundibuli- 
form stigma. Capsules admirably represented in Pereira, two. 
or three in a cluster at the end of the short scaly stipes, scarcely 
two inches long, powerfully aromatic, ovato-lanceolate, acumi- 
nated, brown, striated (as if shrivelled), terminated by withered 
portions of the perianth. Seeds very hot and acrid. W. J. H. 

Cult. This plant, being a native of the tropics, requires a 
warm stove, and grows freely in a mixture of light loam and 
peat-soil. Like others of the family to which it belongs, it 
has a season of rest, which is indicated by the stem and leaves 
beginning to fade ; water should then be sparingly given. In 
spring it should be repotted, in fresh soil. It is readily in- 
creased by division of the roots. /. S. 



l f ig. 1. Flower from which the segments of the perianth are removed: 

nified. 




le»vc IHkIoI' i»» 



Tab. 4604. 

NYMPILEA elegans. 

Elegant Water -Lily. 



Nat. Ord. Nymph^eacejE. — Polyandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Vide supra, Tab. 4257.) 



NymphjEA elegans ; foliis suborbicularibus repando-subdentatis basi profunde 
usque ad petioli insertionem bifidis nigro-maculatis lobis rectis sinu 
angusto subtus purpureis, sepalis 4 fusco-lineatis, petalis albis purpureo- 
cseruleo tinctis, staminibus in phalangibus sub- 15 collectis, filamentis ex- 
terioribus subpetaloideis, antheris exterioribus appendiculatis, stigmate sub- 
15-radiato. 



I can nowhere find a Nymphaa described, corresponding 
with this, which has been discovered in New Mexico by Dr. 
Wright, from whose seeds our plant was reared in the Royal 
Gardens of Kew. Its nearest affinity, perhaps, is N. ampla, Bot. 
Mag. t. 4469. Our plants flowered in the early summer in 
the tank of the tropical aquarium. The blossoms are not only 
elegant in form and colour, but fragrant also. It will be 
difficult to say to which of the divisions of De Candolle this will 
belong. It is very different from any of the section " Cfyanete" 
though its purplish -blue tint would indicate an affinity with that 
groupe. One of the most remarkable circumstances in the flower 
of this plant consists in the arrangement of the stamens in (ap- 
parently) as many phalanges as there are lobes to the stigma. I 
had not the opportunity of observing if, at a late period of in- 
florescence, they separated. 

Descr. Root unknown to me. Leaves floating, about six 
inches long, and four and a half or five broad, thus nearly or- 
bicular, plane, the margin sinuated and subdentate ; the upper 
surface dark green, the under purple, especially towards the 
margin ; both sides spotted and streaked with black, the under 
side most spotted ; the base of the leaf is cut nearly to the petiole 
into two straight or slightly diverging rather acute lobes, the 
sinus long and narrow. Petiole terete, smooth. Scape terete, 

SEPTEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



smooth, rising erect, almost a foot above the water, and bearing 
a fragrant flower at the top, nearly the size of our common white 
water-lily (Nymphaa alba). Calyx of four, spreading, oblong, 
obtusely acuminated sepals of a pale green colour, yellowish at 
the base, marked with numerous short streaks of deep brown. 
Petals twelve to fourteen, nearly of the same shape as the sepals, 
uniform or nearly so, yellowish-white, tinged with purplish-blue. 
Stamens numerous, deep yellow, inner ones short and without 
any appendage to the anther, outer ones much larger; the 
filaments broad and subpetaloid ; the anther terminated with a 
callous white point. The stamens in the fully expanded flower 
approximate in phalanges or bundles, apparently corresponding 
in the number of the bundles with the rays of the stigma. 
Ovary turbinate, bearing the petals. Stigma deep yellow, downy, 
about fifteen-rayed, under each ray a blunt glabrous tooth 
projects. W. J. H. 

Cult. A new species of water-lily, raised from seeds last year. 
It was placed in the tropical aquarium, and soon attained 
strength sufficient to enable it to bloom during the present 
summer. Being a native of Mexico, it might probably flower 
in the open-air aquarium, but in winter it will be advisable to 
place the roots beyond the reach of frost. 



Fig. 1. Outer stamen. 2. Inner ditto. 3. Pistil -.—magnified. 



4-SOS. 




Tab. 4(305. 
BROWALLIA Jamesoni. 

Yellow-Jlowered Browallia. 



Nat. Ord. ScROPIIULARINEjE — DlDYNAMIA A.NGIOSPERMIA. 

Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4339.) 



Browallia Jamesoni; fruticosa, molliter pubescens, foliis breviter petiolatis 
ovatis rugosis, floribus subcorymboso-cymosis, pedicellis calyce vix longio- 
ribus, calyce ovato-tubuloso obliquo laciniis brevibus, corolla? (flavse) laciniis 
tubo ampliato incurvo dimidio brevioribus. Benth. 

Browallia Jamesoni, Benth. in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 10". j>. 197. 



It was our privilege to publish a handsome new Broioallia in 
a recent volume, at Tab. 4339 of this work, {B. sjjeciosa) re- 
markable for the large and handsome blue flowers. We have 
now the satisfaction of giving another species of the genus, only 
recently described in De Candolle by Mr. Bentham, no less re- 
markable from the yellow colour of its rather large inflorescence. 
It is a native of New Grenada, between Mivir and Naranfus, 
whence it has been sent (together with seeds from which our 
plants were raised) by Dr. Jameson, and from Loxa by Mr. Hart- 
weg (n. 818 of his collection). The species is a very distinct one. 
Our drawing was made from a plant which flowered in the 
greenhouse at Druid's Stoke, near Bristol, the beautiful residence 
of Hector Munro, Esq., in June 1851, and where alone, so for 
as we know, the flowers have been produced. 

Descu. An erect, rather straggling shrub, 4-6 feet high ; the 
branches obscurely angular, downy. Leaves alternate, almost 
exactly ovate, on very short petioles, very obtuse, slightly downy, 
entire, penniveined, the veins united by transverse sunken vein- 
lets, giving a wrinkled appearance to the upper surface of the 
leaf, which is moreover glossy. Panicle corymbose, terminal, brac- 
teated ; bracteas resembling small leaves. Pedicels shorter than 

OCTOBER 1ST, 1851. 



the flowers. Calyx rather large, oblong-ovate, tubular, 5-lobed ; 
lobes erecto-patent. Corolla large, deep fulvous-yellow ; the tube 
paler, twice as long as the calyx, inflated below the limb : limb 
large, spreading horizontally, five-lobed, veined : lobes rounded, 
very obtuse, the lower one larger than the rest. Stamens four, 
reaching a little beyond the mouth of the tube, their structure 
as in the genus. Ovary ovate, hairy at the apex, surrounded at 
the base by a thick anmdus. Style as long as the tube of the 
corolla, a little thickened, and curved upwards. Stigma large, 
two-lipped. Capsule four-lobed. W. J. H. 

Cult. A twiggy, soft-wooded plant, in its native country 
attaining a height of from four to six feet. Being from the ele- 
vated region of New Grenada, it is sufficiently hardy to succeed 
as a greenhouse plant, but in winter it requires a temperature 
rather warmer than that of the airy greenhouse ; which, ho'wever, 
must not stimulate it into growth before the spring. A mixture 
of light loam and peat-soil suits it. It will probably be found 
to grow freely during summer in the open air, if planted against 
a wall or in a sheltered situation. It increases freely by cut- 
tings. J. S. 



Fig. I. Pistil. 2. Ovary -.—magnified. 3. Calyx and fruit -.—natural size. 
4. Capsule bursting open : — % 



4-606. 




TUtt i<i\ .t litli 



Tab. 4606. 

EPIDENDRUM verrucosum. 

Warted Bpidendrum. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide.e. — Gynandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. {Vide supra, Tab. 4107.) 



Epidendrum (Encyckum, § labello trilobo) verrucosum; pseudobulbis ovatis, 
foliis ensiformibus obtusis, scapo pedicellis' ovariisque verrucosis, raccmo 
nutante, sepalis petalisque lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis, labelli trilobi loins 
lateralibus subfalcatis acutis nanis intermedio ovali crenulato basi serrato 
bilamellato, columna alis 2 nanis truncatis. Lindl. 

Epidendrum verrucosum. Lindl. Bot, lleg. 1844. t. 51. 



A very lovely species of Bpidendrum of the Eneyclia-groupe, 
fragrant as well as handsome, a native of Mexico, imported from 
that country by Messrs. Loddiges. The very fine specimen here 
represented flowered in the Royal Gardens of Kew in July 
1851. 

Descr. Pseudo-bulbs ovate, clustered, the flowering ones 
narrow-ovate, smooth, dark green, and more or less sheathed with 
scales or the fibrous remains of them ; the older ones larger, paler 
coloured, broader, wrinkled, and naked. Leaves two, from the 
apex of the bulb, from ten inches to a foot long, broad-linear or 
loriform, one-nerved, obtuse. From the axil of these leaves the 
scape arises, as thick as a goose-quill and warted, except where 
it is covered with the sheathing bracteas, when nearly as long 
as the leaves gracefully drooping, and bearing a branching 
panicle of large lilac and white flowers. Branches and ovary 
also minutely warted. Sepals and petals, each two inches long, 
linear-lanceolate, uniform, spreading horizontally. Lip more 
than two inches long, pendent, three-lobed ; lateral lobes oblong, 
subfalcate, half-embracing the column; middle lobe obovate, 
subrhomboid, very large, acuminulate, streaked and lined with 
dark red, the margin crenulate, the disc white, bearing two 
lamellae. Column as long as the lateral lobes of the lip, deep 

OCTOBER 1ST, 1851. 



lilac, with a short white wing on each side beneath the anther. 
Anther-case hemispherical. W. J. H. 

Cult. This Epidendrum is similar in habit and manner of 
growth to E. linearifolium, figured at Tab. 4572, but is a much 
larger and more robust species. It grows freely in the tropical 
Orchid-house. It may be planted in loose turfy soil, in pots half- 
filled with drainage materials ; and it is advisable to raise the 
soil a little above the margin of the pot, to prevent it from 
remaining too long wet, which will sometimes happen from the 
necessary watering and syringing, and which is especially de- 
trimental in winter. /. S. 



4-&07 







Tab. 4607. 
GRAMMANTHES chlor^flora. 

Yellowwort-fowered Grammanthes. 



Nat. Ord. Crassulace*;.— Pentandria Pektagynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx campanulas, 5-fidus, erectus. Corolla f^^^ 
calycis lomritudine, lobis 5 rarius 6 ovalibus expansis. Stamina 5-6 lobis alterna, 
Jubo inserta et inclusa. Spurn* nullas. CarpelU 5.-Herbaa annua, oppo- 
StfoZ. Ma omto-obhnga, remota, plana, sessilia. Plores eymoso-corymbosi. 
Be Cand. 



Grammanthes chlorafiora ; foliis ovato-oblongis. 

Grammanthes cblcmeflora. Haw. Rem. p. 18 (sub. nam. gen. Vauantlns). Be 

Cand. Prodr.v. 3. p. 392. 
Grammanthes gentianoides ? Be Cand. Prodr. v. 3. p. 393. 
CRASSuLAgentianoides? lam. Bid. v. 2. p. 175. 

Crassula retroflexa. Thunb. Cap. p. 282. <* Sort. Km. ei. 8. t,. 2 ,. 194. 
Crassula dicbotoma. I**. J***, * 6. ,. 86. Ait. Sort. Kerc. ed. 1. r. 1. 

j>. 392. 



&«•»«,«», a genus properly separated fa.fa*"« 
named from its having the appearance of a letter V inverted) m 
scribed npon the base of the segments of the corol a_ Two species 
are described by De Candolle, but with great doubts a to M 
brinsr reallv distinct We have combined them : for the torm 
o h^eaK^rate, seems to afford no character , and £« 
is no reason to think the flowers are Ww m the ft ^ ™ules 
as described by Lamarck. Ecklon and Zeyher have given three 

ad OmTrernfpiant is certainly a very pretty thing, a native of 

Lars? ^t^airt^ a 

summer, it is seen covered with flowers 01 rwo y 

they first expand they are P°» J^^^b "our 
gradually becoming deep tawny, or almost wuuuy 

with a yellow eye. 



OCTOBER 1ST, 1851. 



Descjr. An annual, humble, tufted plant, everywhere glaucous. 
Stems much branched dichotomously, slender. Leaves opposite, 
exactly ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse, thick and fleshy, grooved 
or concave above. Flowers generally in pairs, forming a leafy 
corymb. Pedicels varying in length, often shorter than the 
calyx. Calyx campanulate, fleshy, glaucous, with five slightly 
patent, ovate lobes. Corolla with a tube as long as the calyx ; 
limb large, spreading, of five ovate segments, bright yellow, with 
an inverted letter V of a deep blood-colour on each : finally, the 
whole limb becomes deep blood-colour, paler and orange towards 
the apices. Stamens five. Filaments inserted in the tube of the 
corolla, and alternate with the lacinice, included. Anthers oblong. 
Ovaries five, elongated, narrow, naked at the base, tapering above 
into a style as long as the tube of the corolla. Stigma globose. 
IF. J. If. 

'Cult. This pretty annual requires to be raised under glass. 
The seeds should be sown about the middle of March, in a shal- 
low pot or seed-pan filled with light soil, and placed in a close 
frame. Being very minute, they need no covering of soil ; a 
slight pressure with the back of the hand is sufficient to fix them. 
In watering, care must be taken not to disturb the surface of the 
soil and displace the germinating seeds by the force of the water. 
In order to prevent this, it is advisable to place the pot in a pan, 
with just sufficient water in it to keep the surface of the soil 
moist. After germination the young plants must not be over- 
watered, for, being of a succulent nature, they are liable to damp 
off. When they are of sufficient strength they should be thinned 
out into other pots, or planted in patches in the open border 
about the end of May. J. S. 



Pig. 1. Portion of corolla and stamens. 2. Portion of calyx and pistils: — 

magnified. 



16 0$. 




Tab. 4608. 
CAMPTOSEMA rubicundum. 

Ruby-flowered Camptosema. 



Nat. Ord. Leguminos.e.— Diadelphia Decandria. 

Gen Char. Camptosema, Hook, et Am. (Bionia, Mart.) Calyx minute bi- 
bracteolatus, campanulatus, suba^qualiter 4-fidus; lobis ovatis acuminatis su- 
periore latiore. Corolla petala alalia, obtusa, longe unguiculata; vexillo et 
carina basi longiuscule deorsum bi-, alis uni-calloso-dentatis. Vexillum reflexum, 
ovato-oblongum; ate anguste oblonge; carina "basi fere ad summum biceps, 
elliptico-oblonga. Stamina diadelpha (9 et 1), eorollam subaequantm. PuMm 
corolla longius. Germen longe stipitatum, pubescens, 8-10-ovulatum Stylus 
subulatus, glaber, genuine longior, rectiusculus. Stigma parvum , obtusum. 
Legumen lineari-oblongum, sericeo-pubescens, polyspermy, stipite (ut in ger- 
mine) ealycem sequante, stylo subulate longe acumina um.-lmtex voluoths 
glaber Brasilia australis. Folia um, v. tnfoliolata ; foliola basi bishpellata. 



Camptosema rubicundum; scandens frnticosum glabrum folus tnfcHatn, 
foliolis ellipticis apice retusis intermedio longe petiolulato, racemis com- 
poses axillaris folio multoties longioribus, pediceUis ealycem vix requan- 
tibus. 

Camptosema rubicundum. Hook, et Am. in Bot. Misc. v. Z. p. 201. Walp. 
Repert. v. 1. p. 761, and v. 5. p. 532. 

Kennedya splendens. « Cat. Hort. Bollicill. et Mulhaus 1851 Meisn. Plant, 
Preiss. v.l.p. 89 (in nota). Walp. Repert. Bot. v. 5. p. 530. 



A very handsome climber, long ago described from dried 
specimens in the 'Botanical Miscellany/ and for some time cul- 
tivated in Germany, and since in England as "fennedya splen- 
de'nsr It was so named, as we learn from Mr. Bcntham by 
Meisner, who cautiously observes, « Onginis ignote; while 
Dr. Walpers confidently says, "Hab. in Nova Hollandia It 
has the habit of a New Holland Kennedya, but it is a native ot 
southern Brazil and the adjacent Argentine provinces. It is 
only lately that, being trained immediately under the glass ol 
the Palm-stove, it has yielded flowers with us. lhe racemes 
remind one of those of Laburnum or of Wistaria Sinensis, but 
they are of a deep ruby -red colour. 

OCTOBER 1ST, 1851. 



Descr. A climbing shrub of great length; the older portions 
of the stem as thick as one's finger, and reticulated, as it were, 
with pits or hollows in the oblong areoles. Young leafy branches 
slender, terete, herbaceous, glabrous. Leaves distant, on long 
petioles, trifoliolate; leaflets petiolulate, oblong or oblong-elliptical, 
retuse, glabrous, glaucous beneath. Racemes on rather long 
peduncles, compound, eight to ten inches in length, drooping, 
many-flowered. Calyx with two small bracteas at the base, 
tubular-campanulate, somewhat two-lipped and irregularly four- 
to six-lobed. Petals of the corolla deep ruby-red, nearly equal. 
Vexilhm partially reflexed, ovate, clawed, with two blunt teeth 
at the base of the lamina. Ala and carina oblong, clawed, each 
petal with a blunt tooth at the base of the lamina. Stamens 
diadelphous (9 and 1). Ovary linear, on a long stipes, and 
tapering into a subulate style. Legumen three inches long, 
stipitate, compressed, downy, acute. W. J. II. 

Cult. A stove-climber, well adapted for training up rafters 
or on trellis-work, and which grows freely, especially if planted 
in a bed of good rich soil. Where there is not sufficient room for 
it to extend, it may be treated as a pot-plant, and trained upon 
.a trellis fixed to the pot ; but we have not found it, either way, 
to flower very readily. It may be increased by cuttings, placed 
in heat under a bell-glass. /. S. 



Fig. 1. VexiUum. 2. Ala. 3. Carina. 4. Stamens surrounding the pistil. 
5. Pistil : — all more or less magnified. 6. Legumen : — natural size. 



4- SOS, 




Q etlith. 



fLeeve S • 



Tab. 4609. 
RHODODENDRON Champions. 

Mrs. Champions Rhododendron. 



Nat. Ord. Ericaceae. — Decandria Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. (Fide supra, Tab. 4336.) 



Khododendron Championce ; foliis lanceolatis brevi-anguste acuminatis reticu- 
latis planis supra glabris margine costa nervisque subtus piloso-scaberrimis, 
ramulis junioribus petiolis pedunculis calycibus lineari-subulatis fractibusque 
pilis longis glandulosis rigidis hispidis, corollis reticulatis limbo patente pro- 
funde .5-lobo, bracteis viscosissimis. 



We know from experience that there is no surer way of 
having a new and beautiful plant introduced to our Gardens, 
than by publishing a figure and giving its locality. Hence we 
are induced, as upon some former occasions in this work, to ex- 
hibit a species not yet in cultivation, but for the accuracy of the 
figure of which we can vouch, by a comparison of the drawing of a 
Chinese artist with native specimens; both the one and the 
other being also accompanied by notes drawn up on the spot, and 
sent us by Captain Champion of the 95th Regiment, who made 
extensive collections of plants in Ceylon, and afterwards in Hong- 
Kong. In compliment to his amiable and accomplished lady, 
whose partiality for plants equals that of her husband, and who 
accompanied him on many of his botanizing excursions, we 
have named the species. Captain Champion considered it allied 
to B.formosum,Wa\\., from Khasya, figured in our Tab. 4457; and 
so it is in some respects, but abundantly distinct in the form and 
vestiture of the leaves, in its large glutinous bracts, in the form 
of the calyx, in the ovary and fruit, and especially in the co- 
pious, long, glandular bristles of the branchlets, petioles, pe- 
duncles, calyx, and fruit. It was found by Captain and Mrs. 
Champion, growing abundantly among rocks, in a ravine at Fort 
Victoria, Hong-Kong, April 28, 1849. 

Descr. A shrub nearly seven feet high ; branches terete, di- 
chotomous ; younger ones clothed with long, spreading, glandular 

OCTOBER 1ST, 1851. 



bristles. Leaves much confined to the apex of the branches, 
shortly petioled (petiole glandular-bristly), lanceolate, shortly 
acuminate, reticulated, plane at the margin, dark green above, 
rather rusty-coloured beneath, the margin and costa and veins and 
veinlets clothed beneath and rough with short, harsh, bristly hairs. 
Flower-buds at first enclosed in a strobilus of large, imbricated, 
very glutinous, deciduous bracteas. Umbels four- to six-flowered. 
Peduncles hispid with glandular hairs. Calyx, especially the 
margins, equally hispid, deeply cleft to the base into four erect, 
almost linear-subulate, rather long segments or sepals. Corolla 
four inches across, tube rather short, campanulate, white. Limb 
four inches across, deeply cut into five obovate-oblong, obtuse, 
unequal-veined segments, the upper one the broadest: the 
ground-colour in our figure is white, the lobes, especially the apex 
and margins, are tinged with delicate rose-colour. But there is 
another state of the flower described by Captain Champion 
as the more usual colour, " delicate white, the upper lip pale 
yellow towards the centre, and copiously dotted with ochre." 
Stamens ten. Filaments much protruded, slightly curved up- 
wards. Style equalling the stamens in length. Stigma a de- 
pressed disc. Capsule five- to six-celled, elongated, nearly two 
inches long and three lines wide, cylindrical, straight, clothed 
with glandular bristles, " dehiscing from the base upwards, 
but remaining attached to the central axis." W. J. H. 

Cult. This Rhododendron is not yet to be seen in a living 
state in this country ; but, as the seeds of Rhododendrons, like 
most of the Ericacecs, do not suffer much during their transmission 
from distant countries, we hope we shall soon have another 
added to the many new species lately raised by us from the 
seeds collected by Dr. Hooker in Sikkim-Himalaya. /. 8. 



1%. 1. Capsule : — natural size. 



We gladly occupy an otherwise vacant space by some notes of Captain 
Champion on the other Ericacea (including Vacciniece) of Hong-Kong. 
Of Azaleas the best-known species are — 

1. A. Indica, var. phcenicea, which is of common occurrence in Hong-Kong in 
ravines. It flowers early in spring, and towards March appears in great beauty 
about waterfalls, by the side of streams, and on rocks or mountains, especially 
towards the eastern side of the island. 

Still more common is the 

2. Azalea squamata, one of Mr. Fortune's species, producing a few flowers 
early m winter, but bursting into luxuriant blossom when the fogs and humid 



atmosphere about February and March have set in. Its lilac blossoms in mass 
look well at a distance, but the shrub, being then r 
not on near approach the gay appearance which I 
presents. 



On the Black Mountains grows a third species, new to Hong-Kong, but pre- 
viously described by Mr. Fortune, from more northern China — the 

3. A. ovata, of Dr. Lindley, I believe : it there flowers in March with A. In- 
dica and A. squamata. It has almost rotate flowers, white with dark purple 
specks on the centre and adjoining lobes. 

4. Azalea, sp. nov., myrtifolia (quite distinct from A. ovata). A shrub 
4-5 feet high, much branched ; twigs longer than in A. squamata, and shorter 
than in A. Indica, quite smooth, cinereous, and striated with silver or pink- 
brown. Leaves alternate, crowded towards the extremities of the branchlets, 
short-petioled, from ovate to oblong or slightly rhomboid (largest 1 inch 
long by 6 lines broad), usually slightly emarginate at apex, with the midrib often 
prolonged into an acumen, quite smooth, bright green above, glaucous or pale 
beneath, and grossly reticulately veined. Flowers terminal, solitary or in pairs, 
from an elongate, ovate whorl of yellowish, or slightly glutinous, permanent 
scales ; these scales ovate, smooth. Flowers in bud campanulate. Corolla, when 
expanded, 1 inch 2 lines to 1-| inch in diameter, almost rotate, and cleft to near 
the base. Segments five, oblong, two upper slightly largest, pure white, the 
three lower with dark violet specks. Stamens five. Filaments hairy. Anthers 
opening by terminal pores. Style long, curved. Stigma clavate and ten-lobed 
at the apex. Calyx and pedicel pinkish, glutinous, puberulous, the former small. 
Capsule five-celled, above three lines in length, globosely ovate. 

Hab. Black Mountain, Hong-Kong, on rocks with A. squamata (Lind. !) and 
A. Indica (L.), March 1849, when it was first seen by Lieut.-Col. Eyre of the 
Royal Artillery. 

1. Unkyanthus reticulatus is a beautiful shrub, and its branches, detached from 
the stem, continue in blossom for a long period if placed in water. . It blooms 
about Christmas, and is much used by the Chinese for ornamenting their dwell- 
ing-houses. 

The only remaining plants of the family to be noticed are an arboreous 

1. Vaccinium, with white flowers, of common occurrence in the woods of the 
Happy Valley. 

2. Vaccinium, sp. nov. near V. bracteatum (Thunb., a Japanese species), 
but differing in the racemes being shorter (1 to \\ inch long) and not secund. 
Racemes axillary, shorter than the glabrous, acute, serrated leaves; bracteas lan- 
ceolate, bristle-serrated; pedicels furnished with one or two alternate, minute, awl- 
shaped bracteoles. Native of Hong-Kong, growing to a small tree. Flowers 
in July and August, and fruit in September. Branches smooth, angular while 
young. Corollas slightly bell-shaped, nearly cyhndrical, white. Leaves evergreen. 
A pretty species. Calyx five-toothed. Limb of corolla with five short reflexed 
segments, scarce one-tenth part of the tube. Anthers of the ten stamens horned, 
but not spurred. Style the length of the corolla, linear. Berry five-celled, many- 
seeded, blue when ripe. 

J. G. Champion. 

Portsmouth, August 1851. 




«.JL 



Reeve & 



Tab. 4610. 
GALEANDRA Devoniana. 

DuJce of Devonshire's Galeandra. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — Gynandbia Monandbia. 

Gen. CJiar. Perianthium patens, petalis sepalisque subsequalibus ascendentibus. 
Labellum infundibuliforme, indivisum v. obsolete trilobnm, ecalcaratum, intus 
lamellis (4) auctum. Columna erecta, membranaceo-alata, clinandrio declivi. 
Pollinia 2, postice excavata, caudicula brevi glandulse brevi diyergenti-bilobse 
adnata. — Herbse terrestres, et epiphyte, caulibus foliatis, racemis terminalibus. 
Lindl. 



Galeandra Devoniana ; caule erecto simplici tereti polyphyllo, foliis lanceolatis 
3-nerviis, racemo sessili erecto multifloro, labelli lamina ovata obtusa cre- 
nulata lamellis 4 pone basin, antherse crista carnosa rotundata pubescente. 
Lindl. 

Galeandra Devoniana. Schomb. in Lindl. Sert. Orchid, tab. 37. 



One of the finest and, we believe, in collections the rarest of 
South American Orchidese. It was first detected by Schomburgk 
on the Rio Negro, a river which discharges itself into the 
Amazon ; and Mr. Spruce has been so fortunate as to meet with 
it in the same locality, and we received a Wardian case from 
him in July, of the present year 1851, containing the flower- 
ing specimen in excellent condition, which we here represent. 
Schomburgk saw it growing five to six feet high, and in clusters 
or patches from ten to twelve feet in circumference. 

Descr. Stems uniform to the base (no pseudo-bulbs), clus- 
tered, three to five or six feet high, scaly below, leafy above : 
leaves much sheathing at the base, linear-ensiform, acuminated, 
striated, glabrous, membranaceous. Panicle terminal, with few 
but large flowers; brandies and peduncles bracteated. Sepals 
and petals spreading and slightly ascending, lanceolate, striated, 
darkish-purple, green at the margin and at the base externally. 
Lip very large, projecting, white, tipped and streaked with 
purple, broadlv obovate, obscurely three-lobed, the sides meeting 
so as to form' a lax tube around the column, intermediate or 

OCTOBER 1ST, 1851. 



spreading, deflexed, retuse : near the base within are four 
lamellae. Column within the tube-like portion of the labellum, 
slightly winged at the margin. Anther with a large, downy, erect 
crest. W. J. H. 

Cult. This is a tropical terrestrial Orchid, and therefore re- 
quires to be kept in a warm stove or Orchideous house. It may 
be potted in turfy peat-soil made rather firm in the pot, and 
well drained. In winter it must be so placed as not to suffer 
from excess of moisture, either in the atmosphere or in the 
soil. /. S. 



Eig. 1. Column. 2, 3. Pollen-masses : — magnified. 



4-ffii, 




;1 etfuct 



H.eevc < 



Tab. 4611. 
CENTROSOLENIA picta. 

Painted-leaved Centrosolenia. 



Nat. Ord. GeSNERIACEjE. — Didynamia Gymnospermia. 
Gen. Char. {Fide supra, Tab. 4552.) 



Centrosolenia picta ; foliis subsequalibus ovalibus obovatisve velutinis pictis 
(jimioribus prEecipue) crenato-serratis longe petiolatis, corollae hirsute lobis 
obscure crenatis, staminum filamentis apice lorige hirsutis. 



Sent by Mr. Spruce, from the banks of the Amazon, to the 
Royal Gardens of Kew. It is remarkable for its beautifully 
painted, blotched or mottled leaves. Its flowers are large and 
white, destitute of the long fringe to the limb so characteristic 
of our C. glabra (Tab. 4552), and the opposite leaves are here 
nearly equal in size. 

Descr. A procumbent and creeping plant, growing in- dense 
tufts. Stems branched, cylindrical, fleshy, downy. Leaves op- 
posite, on long, terete footstalks, oval or obovate, rather fleshy, 
crenato-serrate, unequal in size, hirsutely velvety on both sides, 
penninerved and reticulated, the nerves very prominent beneath ; 
above, many of the leaves are blotched with brown and paler 
green. Peduncles axillary, clustered, single-flowered, bracteated, 
shorter than the calyx. Bracteas linear, acuminate. Calyx 
deeply five-partite, the segments lanceolate, acuminate, inciso- 
serrate, much shorter than the corolla. Corolla hirsute, large, 
white : the tube elongated, infimdibulifonn, running down at the 
base into a blunt spur : limb of five, spreading, rounded lobes, 
obscurely crenated at the margin. Stamens four, didynamous, 
included ; filaments subulato-fUiform, united into a membrane 
below, above clothed with long spreading hairs; anthers sub- 
globose. Ovary oblong-ovate, somewhat curved, with two oppo- 
site glands at the base : one larger than the other and ovate. 
Style elongated, stout, columnar, downy : stigma somewhat capi- 
tate, notched. W. J. H. 

Cult. A native of tropical America, and, like its allies, of a 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



succulent, decumbent habit. It grows freely in a warm and 
moist atmosphere, such as is suitable for tropical Orchids. A 
mixture of light peat-soil and leaf-mould suits it. The pot or 
pan must be well drained; and during winter, an excess of 
moisture must be guarded against. It increases readily from 
cuttings, which root quickly if placed in a warm frame, without 
the aid of a bell-glass. /. JS. 



Pig. 1. Portion of the lower part of the corolla, with stamens. 2. Pistil and 
hypogynous glands : — magnified. 



4-61 'Z. 




cK del et iitTn_ 



TLeeVP A Kic"kols, 1»£ • 



Tab. 4612. 

VACCINIUM Rollisoni. 

Rollisons Whortleberry. 



Nat. Ord. Vaccinie^:. — Decandbia Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx ovario adnatus, limbo libero 4-5-partito partitionibus den- 
tiformibus, rarius integerrimo. Corolla campanulata, urceolata v. cyb'ndrica, 
limbo 4-5-fido sa3pius reflexo. Stamina corolla? lobis numero dupla, limbo caly- 
cis mserta, ssepe inclusa, interdum exserta ; antheree sa)pius apice bifida?, dorso 
bipartita? aut muticae. Stylus erectus, staminibus longior; stigma obtusum. 
Bacca calyce vestita, 4- aut 5-locularis loculis polyspermis, rarissime 10-locularis 
loculis monospermis. — Frutices aut suffrutices, rar'ms arbusculae. Folia sparsa. 
Flores axillares, gemini terni v. racemosi, bracteati. Corolla? albidce aut coccineas. 



V accinium (Mutica?) Rollisoni ; erectum, glabrum, ramulis angulatis, foliis ob- 
oyato-cuneatis brevissime petiolatis coriaceis sempervirentibus saepe retusis 
nitidis, margine integerrimis subrecurvis oblique penninerviis reticularis 
subtus pallidis, racemis terminalibus paucifloris bracteatis nunc bracteo- 
latisque, bracteis longitudine pedicellorum, floribus nutantibus, corollis 
(coccineis) elongato-urceolatis, limbi lobis 5 recurvis. 



Prom the collection of Messrs. Rollisons, Tooting Nursery, 
where it produced its rich scarlet flowers in August 1851. In- 
troduced by their collector, who found it growing on the lava of 
the " Silent Volcanoes " of Java, on the highest land in the 
island. We have specimens of the same from Salak mountain, 
Java, from Mr. Thomas Lobb. It forms a handsome evergreen 
bush, with glossy Box-like leaves, and what is wanted in the 
number of flowers, is compensated by their beauty of colour. 
It does not appear to be anywhere described, either under 
Vaccinium or Agapetes. It is not Agapetes microphylla, Junghuns, 
for that has leaves three to four inches long. 

Descr. A small shrub, two feet or more high, erect, glabrous, 
much branched, the branches erect, somewhat angular, slightly 
hairy, everywhere leafy. Leaves about three-quarters of an inch 
long, alternate, spreading, obovate, subcuneate, coriaceous,, ever- 
green, glossy, entire, sometimes retuse, tapering below into a 
short petiole, penninerved, the nerves very oblique, reticulated, 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



especially when dry, paler and smoother beneath, almost glau- 
cous. Racemes nearly sessile, always terminal, four- to six- 
flowered. Pedicels bracteate, a little hirsute, spreading, jointed 
at the insertion of the ovary, furnished at the base with a large, 
deciduous, membranaceous bractea, as long as the pedicel, and 
sometimes having a bracteole above the base. Ovary small, 
globose. Flowers drooping. Calycine lobes five, ovate, acute. 
Corolla rich scarlet, glabrous, urceolate, but tapering upwards 
to the contracted mouth: limb of five, reflected, short, acute 
lobes. Stamens ten; filaments broad-subulate, very hairy; 
anthers short, oblong, muticous, opening by two pores. Style, 
as well as the stamens, included, surrounded at the base by a 
large epigynous ring. W. J. H. 

Cult. A neat evergreen shrub which requires to be treated 
as a green-house plant. In the summer it may be placed in 
the open air in a shady place. Like the rest of this tribe of 
plants, it thrives in light sandy peat-soil, and is readily increased 
by cuttings. /. S. 



Fig.l. Flower, pedicel, and bract. 2. Stamen. 3. Calyx and pistil:— 
magnified. 



4-613. 




Fitch, del etlith_. 



leeve b Nichols , im}. 



Tab. 4613. 
POTENTILLA ambigua. 

Three-toothed Himalayan Potentilla. 



Nat. Ord. Rosacea. — Icosandria Polygynia. 

Gen. Char. Tubus concavus : limbus 4-5-fidus, extus 4-5-bracteolatus. Petal* 
4-5. Stamina plurima. Carpella plurima, stylo lateral! donata m receptaculo 
procumbente persistente exsucco capitata. Semen appensum.— Herbse aut sui- 
frutices, foliis composUis, stipulis petiolis admtis, floribus albis, luteis, ranter ruom. 



Be Cand, 



Potentilla ambigua ; hirsuta, caule ascendente paucifloro basi fruticuloso, fobs 
ternato-palmatisectis, segmentis obovatis tridentatis, stipubs ovatis acute 
integerrimis 3-dentatisve, bracteolis calycinis obovatis, petalis (luteis) ob- 
ovatis calycem sequautibus (v. superantibus). Camb. 

Potentilla ambigua. Camb. in Jacquem. Ind. Or. Bot.p. 51. t 62. Walp. Mepert. 
Bot. v. 2. p. 27. 



A well-marked, hardy, Himalayan species of Potentilla with 
a compact habit and large yellow flowers, produced abundantly 
during the summer months. Jacquemont detected it in fissures 
of rocks in Kanaor, near Rogui, elev. 9,000 feet, m about lat. 
32° long E 78£°, where it was likewise found by Capt. Henry 
Strachey ; thence it appears to extend eastward through Nepal to 
Sikkim-Himalaya, where it was found by Dr. Hooker ui woods 
at an elevation of from 12-13,000 feet above the level of the sea. 
Its nearest affinity is with P. eriocarpa, Wall.; but there the stem 
is scarcely leafy, and the leaflets are longer and much more 

divided. , , -, 

Descr. From a woody perennial root, many closely-placed 
stems diverge : they are ascending, six inches to a foot long, fre- 
quently purole, leafy, clothed with soft silky hairs, as is, more 
or less, every part of the plant, leaves on longish petioles 
(which have two large, ovate, usually entire stipules at the base) 
ternate; leaflets cuneato-obovate, trifid at the apex, of a nrmisn 
texture, glaucous beneath, the lateral ones sessile, the terminal 
one on a short petiolule. Peduncles slender, terminal, single- 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



flowered. Flowers large, yellow. Calyx with five large, obovate, 
spreading bracteas, glaucous beneath, entire. Petals large, rather 
obcordate than obovate. Stamens about twenty. Receptacles of 
the numerous ovaries distinct, very silky, subglobose. Ovaries 
also clothed with very long silky hairs. W. J. H. 

Cult. A native of the elevated regions of the Himalaya, and 
sufficiently hardy to endure the cold of this climate during 
the last winter. Till it has stood the test of a severe winter, 
however, it may be desirable to keep a few plants in pots under 
protection, for, being of a suffruticose habit, it may probably 
suffer from severe frost. It is a free-growing species, increasing 
rapidly by its stoloniferous roots, and soon forming a large patch. 
It continues to flower until late in the autumn. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Vertical section of a flower from which the petals are removed: — 
magnified. 



4-614- 




Heeve A If-.. 



Tab. 4614. 

SPILEROSTEMA propinquum. 

Dr. Walliclis Sp/icerostema. 



Nat. Ord. Schizandbace.*. — Dicecia Polyandbia. 



Gen. Char. Sphserostema, Bl. Kadsurse sp., Wall. — Mores unisexuales, 
mouoid vel dioici. Corolla petala 9-15, ordine subternario in series 3-5 alter- 
nates imbricata, erecto-conniventia vel patentia, toro imo inserta, crassiuscula ; 
seriei externse ceteris plus minus magnitudine inferiora et tenuiora, ssepe inae- 
qualia bracteolisque subconformia, calycina; omnia decidua. — Plobes pcem. 
Ovaria plurima, toro conico insidentia, confertissima, ovata, obtiqua, subgibbosa, 
unUocularia. Ovula duo, parietina, ex angulo centrali dependentia. Styli nulli ; 
stigmata totidem atque ovaria, ad eorundem faciem extremam lateralia. Carpella 
numerosissima, in toro valde elongato carnoso spicatim disposita, distinctissima, 
subglobosa v. obovato-globosa, in stipitem crassum brevissimum plerumque at- 
tenuata, caeterum cum dlis Kadsuree quoad fabricam omnino conniventia. Bl. 



Sph-EBOstema prop inquum ; dioicum, foliis ovatis denticulatis acuminatissimis, 
pedunculis axillaribus solitariis fasciculatisve bracteohs sparsis tectis petiolo 
longioribus, staminibus omnibus receptaculo connatis. 

SphjEeostema propinquum. Blume, Schisandr. p. 14. 

Kadsuba propinqua. Wall. Tent. Fl. Nep. p. 11. t. 15. 



We regret that we have only the male flowers of this interest- 
ing plant to represent ; but that is of the less consequence since 
we have so good a representation of the fertile flowers and of the 
fruit in Dr. Wallich's excellent ' Tentamen Florae Nepalensis 
Illustratae,' above quoted. Our figure was taken from a plant 
that flowered in the stove of the Royal Gardens of Kew, in June 
1851. Dr. Wallich, to whom we are indebted for our plants, 
discovered the species on Sheopore and other hills at Lankoo, 
Nepal. Dr. Hooker found it frequent at from 7-9,000 feet in 
Sikkim-Himalaya. It is a handsome and fragrant shrub : the 
natives eat the fruit, which consists of many berries attached to 
a receptacle : the latter elongates itself as the fruit advances to 
maturity, when the whole resembles a long bunch of red currants. 

Descr. A much branching, twiggy, somewhat climbing 
shrub, glabrous. Leaves alternate, on short petioles, ovate, 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



much and finely acuminated, denticulate at the margin, penni- 
nerved, rather glaucous beneath. Peduncles longer than the 
petioles, axillary, single-flowered, solitary, or two to five or six 
in a fascicle, bearing several remote appressed acuminate brac- 
teoles. Male forcers with nine sepals, arranged in threes ; the 
three outer smaller and calyciform, the six inner petaloid, cori- 
aceous, rotundate, spreading, pale yellow, corolloid. In the 
centre of the male flower is a globose, fleshy receptacle, pale 
yellow, with from twelve to sixteen short transverse clefts, form- 
ing so many blunt erect teeth, within each of which is situated 
a sessile anther, opening towards the centre by two longitudinal 
fissures, one in each cell. — Female flowers, according to Dr. 
Wallich, with sepals as in the male. Ovaries very small, nu- 
merous, fleshy, ovate, imbricated into a subglobose mass. Style 
none. Berries globose, fleshy, numerous, smooth, scarlet, two- 
seeded, arranged in a cylindrical spike, six inches long, with the 
racliis slightly compressed, muricated as it were by the numerous 
tubercles to which the berries were attached. W. J. H. 

Cult. Although not conspicuous as a showy flowering plant, 
yet the smooth leaves, general neat habit, and free growth of 
this species, make it worthy of cultivation. It is well adapted 
for training up rafters or on trellis- work. The plant from which 
the drawing was made is growing luxuriantly in light loam, and 
trained against the glass in the PalnT-stove ; it will also succeed 
in a warm green-house. It increases freely by cuttings placed 
under a bell-glass, and treated in the usual way. /. 8. 



Kg. 1. Anther seen from within. 2. Eeceptacle of stamens cut through 
vertically. 3. Eeceptacle entire: — all more or less magnified. 



4-6-15 







Tab. 4615. 

IMPATIENS PULCHERRIMA. 

Handsome-flowered Balsam. 



Nat. Ord. BalsaminejE.— Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Anther a 5, nempe 3 bilocidares, 2 ante petalum superius unilo- 
culares. Stamina 5 coalita, valvis a basi ad apicem extrorsum revolutis. Coty- 
ledones planiusculfe. Peduncidi axillares, ramosi, multiflori. Capsula glabrae.— 
Folia alter na. Be Cand. 



Impatiens pulcherrima ; caule erecto herbaceo glabro simplici vel ramoso, 
foliis altemis longiuscule petiolatis ovatis acunrinatis crenato-serratis serra- 
turis setigeris supra hispido-scabris subtus glaucis glaberrimis, pedunculis 
axillaribus binis v. terms uninoris folio dimidio brevioribus, sepalis latera- 
libus minutis subulatis posteriore amplo orbiculari apice bifido dorso medio 
aculeato-cuspidato anteriore cucullato mucronato basi in calcar ffliforme 
pedicello longius contracto, petalis fere ad basin divisis segraentis cuiieato- 
obovatis apice bilobis segmento anteriore ampliore, fructu medio puberulo 
demum glabrato ovato-oblongo obtusissime rostrato 13-14-spermo, pedi- 
cellis fructiferis erectis apice cernuis. Dalzell. 

Impatiens pulcherrima. Dalzell, Contrib. to the Bab. of Western India, in Hook. 
Kern Gard. Misc. v. %. p. 37. 



One of the finest of the Indian Balsams, of which, so numerous 
are the species, that however long is the specific character above 
given by our excellent friend Mr. Dalzell, it is perhaps necessary 
for the distinguishing a new species, till the whole genus shall 
have been elaborated and divided into sections, on clear and 
tangible distinctions. 

Be that as it may, our figure will confirm the accuracy of 
Mr. Dalzell's specific character. That gentleman found the 
plant near Warree, in the Southern Concon, Bombay, and seeds 
were sent to us in 1850. The plants continued to bear flowers 
during most of the summer months. W. J. It. 

Cult. Like the other tropical species of Impatiens, a succulent, 
tender annual. The seeds should be sown in spring, and if 
placed in a gentle heat they will soon vegetate. When the 
young plants are of sufficient strength, they must be potted 
singly in small pots, and duly shifted into larger ones as they 
increase in size, which they will do rapidly if supplied with 

NOVEMBER 1 ST, 1851. 



rich soil and plenty of water, and kept in a close pit or frame. 
A few may be planted in the open air in a sheltered place ; but 
they are liable to suffer from too free an exposure to the winds 
and rain of this climate. Our plants have not perfected their 
seeds ; and we fear that young plants from cuttings will be diffi- 
cult to keep alive through the winter. /. S. 



4-SSS. 










Tab. 4616. 
FITZ-ROYA Patagonica. 

Patagonian Fitz-Boya. 



Nat. Ord. Conifebje (§ Thuiopside^e).— Mongecia Polyandeia. 

Gen. Char. Fitz-Roya, EooJc.fil. Fl. Masc. ? F<em. Amenta solitaria, 

sessilia, globosa, ramulis brevibus terminalia. Squama 6 (3 aliae abortivse, ter- 
minales, minutaB, tuberculiformes), imbricatae, in duas series insertse, ovato-orbi- 
culares, crassa?, coriacese, dorso supra medium spina brevi recurvata ; 3 exteriores 
minores, magis patentes, steriles ; interiores erectse, ovuliferse. Ooula 3 ad 
basin singula squama;. Fructus : Strobilus amentum semulans ; squama fructi- 
feree trispermas. Semina orbiculari-subbiloba, alato-compressa.— Arbor semper- 
virens Patagonica, ramosissima. Folia decussata, quaterna, parva, oblonga vel 
ovata, acutiuscula, concava, dorso carinata, lineisque duabus depresses glaucis, de- 
currentia, juniora patentia, statu adulto erecto-patentia, imbricata, breviora. 



Fitz-Roya Patagonica. 

Fitz-Roya Patagonica. Hook. fit. in Herb. Hook. Lindl. in Paxtons Flower- 
Garden, v. 2. p. 147. n. 387. 



Specimens of this fine subantarctic tree, collected during the 
voyage of Capt. Robert Fitz-Roy, in H.M. surveying ship Beagle, 
were long ago examined and the fruit analyzed, and sketched, and 
named Fitz-Boya in compliment to that distinguished scien- 
tific officer. Nothing more seems to have been known of it till 
Mr. W. Lobb was sent by Messrs. Veitch and Son on his enter- 
prising botanical mission in South America. There, on the 
Pacific side of Patagonia, this " magnificent " tree was met with 
in abundance. The seeds have been successfully reared ; and 
although the plants are yet but small they bear female cones 
abundantly, and prove to be perfectly hardy ; and Dr. Lmdley 
very justly observes, that the " ■ Saxe-Gothaa conspicua, Fitz-Boya 
Patagonica, Libocedrus tetragona, and Podocarpus nubicola" all 
now flourishing in the open air in Mr. Veitch's Nursery, " are 
the four most interesting Coniferce for this country, after Arau- 
caria imbricata, which South America produces." 

Descr. We are not able from personal knowledge to describe 

NOVEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



the full-sized tree. The young, flourishing, fruit-bearing plants, 
from a foot to a foot and a half high, vary remarkably in 
appearance, the younger and even cone-bearing ones having the 
leaves very patent and lax, a second form having them mode- 
rately lax and patent, while a third form (and of this kind are the 
dried specimens sent home by Mr. Lobb) have the leaves almost 
erect, and closely imbricated, and shorter than the other kinds. 
In all cases the leaves are quaternate, decurrent, so as to give 
a furrowed character to the branchlets, oblong or ovate, dark 
green, concave above, keeled beneath, and on each side the 
keel or midrib having a pale glaucous depressed line, less con- 
spicuous and shorter in the more imbricated variety. The male 
flowers we have not seen. The nature of the cones, or strobili, 
will be best understood by our figures. — The genus is most 
allied to Thuiopsis of Siebold and Zuccarini ; but it has only six 
scales to the cone, three of them seed-bearing, and each scale 
including only three seeds. The foliage is extremely different 
from Thuja and TJiuiopsis, uniform and spreading on all sides in 
Fitz-Boya. W.J.H. 

Cult. The absence of any extensive breadth of land in the 
high latitudes of the southern hemisphere, readily accounts for 
the paucity of large trees sufficiently hardy to thrive in the open 
air of this country. Certain species of Eucalyptus and Acacia 
from Van Diemen's Land, and a few shrubs from New Zealand 
and Chili, endure our ordinary winters and continue to flourish 
for a time, the Eucalypti even showing fair prospect of 
becoming stately trees ; but a winter more than commonly severe 
proves fatal to them. Even the Araucaria imbricata does not 
always sustain without injury the cold of some of our winters. 
But as Fitz-Boya'iis found much farther south than the Araucaria 
and ascends to the limit of perpetual snow, we may reasonably 
hope to find it bear with impunity the lowest degree of cold to 
which it will be subject in this climate. /. 8. 



Fig. 1. Branch of the usual appearance in the dried specimens sent home. 
2. Leaves of the same. 3. Branch with leaves moderately patent. 4. Co- 
niferous branch from Mr. Veitch's nursery. 5. Leaves of the same. 6. Stro- 
bilus, or cone. 7. The same, the three lower empty scales and one of the upper 
ones, and one of the three small terminal scales or tubercles, being removed. 8. 
A scale separated from the cone with its three seeds. 9. Seed. 10. The three 
small terminal tubercles : — all but figures 1, 2, 3, 4, more or less magnified. 



-G17. 




B.eev» ft"' 



Tab. 4617. 
ullucus tuberosus. 

UIluco. 



Nat. Ord. Basellace^e. — Pentandria Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Fvores membranacei. Calyx exterior apertus, inferne cum inte- 
nore longiore coalitus, bipartitus; laciniis sequalibus,' aristatis v. setiferis. 
Stamina inclusa, inferne in urceolum subcarnosum calyci adnatum inter se coalita ; 
filamentorum pars libera e basi calycis exserta, breviuscula, subulata, erecta; 
antliera ovatse. Ovarium subovatum. Stylus breviusculus, teres, apicem versus 
subincrassatus. Stigma superficies extrema styli. Fructtis ovoideus, calycibus 
immutatis inferne involutus. Pericarpium baccatum. Semen verticale. — Herba 
Peruviana. Caules carnosi. Folia alterna, petiolata, integerrima, carnosa, sul- 
nervosa. Flores pedicellati, in spicas simplices aut subramosas dispositi. Spicae 
breves, pauciflora, lata, angulatim fiexuosm. Bractese remotiuscuke, valde intequa- 
les, inferior es basi pedicelli : bractea inferior magna, elongata, persistens ; superiores 
apice pedicelli minutissima, cumfructibus decidua. Moa. 



Ullucus tuberosus. 

Ullucus tuberosus. " Lozano, inSenan. Nuov. Grenad. 1809.^7. 185." Be Cand. 
Prodr. v. 3. p. 360. " Moa. BM. Univ. Genev. 1849." 

Melloca tuberosa. Lindl. Garden. Chron. 1847. p. 685, and 1848.jp. 828. (fig.) 
andinMed.Sr (Econ.Bot.p.l5$.f.2%$. Moa. in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 13.^.225. 

Melloca Peruviana. Moq.in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 13. p. 225. 

Melloca tuberosa? Moq. in Be Cand. Prodr. v. 13. p. 224. 

Basella tuberosa. H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. Am. v. 2. p. 189. 



The present plant is deserving of a figure in our Magazine, 
in part as a botanical curiosity, and in part as yielding tubers 
which are eaten in Peru, and which, in times of the potato-panic, 
have been introduced to Europe, with the vain hope of its 
proving a succedaneum for that invaluable esculent. During the 
prevalence of the famine occasioned by the failure of the Potato, 
various attempts were made to cultivate what might be con- 
sidered a substitute for it, but altogether without success. 
Whatever the vegetable might be, either our climate was not 
suited to it, or the substance obtained from it was worthless, or 
not agreeable to the English palate : — none was found to answer. 
For a time the UIluco claimed the public attention, by the in- 
troduction of its tubers, through Professor Jameson of Quito, 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



to the Horticultural Society of London, as recorded in the ' Gar- 
deners' Chronicle' for 1847, p. 685. The plant is there rightly 
referred by Dr. Lindley to the BascUa tuberosa, H. B. K., a " native 
of the cool regions of Popayan and Pasto ;" but that able botanist, 
seeing at once the distinguishing characters, constituted of it anew 
genus, Mettoca, the tubers being largely consumed by the Indian 
population under the name of " Melloco" It had, however, been 
previously described, as early as 1809, under the name of Ullucus. 
M. Louis Vilmorin gave a very interesting account of his attempts 
to cultivate this plant in France,* and he remarked a curious 
phenomenon, in the plant's throwing out thread-like branches, 
which run over the plants or on the ground, and enter the soil to 
develope themselves into tubers. The largest of our tubers are 
about the size of a hasel-nut, of a rich yellowish colour and firm 
waxy texture. Mr. Pentland describes this plant as cultivated 
throughout the elevated regions of the Andes of Peru and Bo- 
livia (11,000-13,000 feet) under the name of " Oca quina." The 
tubers are chiefly used by the Indians in the preparation of 
" CAuno," by alternately freezing them and steeping, by which they 
are changed into an amylaceous substance. 

Descr. Moot fibrous, annual ; but bearing, as does the Potato, 
numerous fleshy, yellow, firm tubers, varying in size from that of 
a pea to a good-sized hasel-nut. Stems prostrate, one to two feet 
long, procumbent, or ascending rather than scandent, and with 
a disposition to twine, moderately branched, glabrous, as is the 
whole plant : stem and branches rooting here and there, thick, 
succulent, watery, brittle, very angular, red, streaked with yellow. 
Leaves alternate on long petioles, cordate-reniform, acute, veined, 
entire, penninerved, somewhat fleshy, glossy : petioles longer 
than the leaves, thick, grooved, almost winged at the margin and 
there red. Peduncles about as long as the petiole, axillary, soli- 
tary, with a long setaceous bractea at the base, bearing flowers in 
a raceme from below the middle to the apex. Pedicels about a 
line long, red, subtended by subulate bracteas about their own 
length. Floral bracteas (outer calyx of Moquin) two, large, op- 
posite, red, orbicular, membranaceous lobes, green in the lower 
half, which is united to the perianth. Sepals five, membrana- 
ceous, yellow, glossy, spreading, cordato-ovate, tapering into a 
long, subulate, flexuose tail. Stamens five, small, yellow ; fila- 
ments very short, subulate, united at the base into a ring, which 
combines with the five sepals ; anthers of two cup-shaped cells, 
each opening by a pore at the top. Ovary obovato-globose, green. 
Style short, green. Stigma obtuse. The fruit I have not seen. 
All our flowers prove abortive. W. J. H. 

* Sec ' Gardeners' Chronicle,' 1848, p. 828. 



Cult. A succulent, herbaceous plant, growing luxuriantly in 
the open air during the summer and autumn. Its singular 
flowers are small and make no show ; it is, therefore, chiefly 
interesting to the botanist, or as a plant for the gardens of the 
curious. Being easily affected by frost, it is necessary to take 
up the tubers about the end of October, and keep them in store 
till April: they should then be planted in the open air. It 
requires no particular treatment, growing as freely in the shade 
as when fully exposed to the sun. /. S. 



Fig. 1. Root with tubers : — natural me. 2. Flowers and bracteas on a portion 
of the raceme. 3. Stamen. 4. Pistil -.—magnified. 




.ichols.imp 



Tab. 4618. 
CEDRONELLA cana. 

Hoary-leaved Cedronella. 



ft 
Nat. Ord. Labiate. — Didynamia Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx tubulosus v. campanulatus, ore subsequali v. obliquo 5-denta- 
to. Corolla tubo exserto, intus nuda, fauce dilatata, limbo bilabiato, labio supe- 
rior recto subplano emarginato-bifido, inferiore trifido, lobo medio maximo. 
Stamina 4, adscendentia, didvnama, iaferioribus brevioribus ; anthera bilocula- 
res, loculis parallelis. Stylus apice suba;qualiter bifidus, lobis subulatis apice 
stigmatiferis. Nuculce sicca?, lseves.— Herba? vel frutices. Verticdlastri m spica 
v. racemo terminali approximatl . Folia floralia bracteceformia. Bracteae parvce 
setacece. Benth. 



Cedronella cana ; erecta elata, foliis cordato- inferioribus subhastato-ovatis 
acutiuscidis integerrimis vel grosse dentatis minutissime pubescenti-incams, 
verticillastris multifloris in spicam longam multifloram approximatis, calyce 
tubuloso. 



Mr. Bentham has long ago referred the Gardoquia Mexicana 
H. B. K. (G. betonicoides, LindL, and Graham in Bot. Mag.t. 
3860), to the genus Cedronella. The two genera are, however, m 
different sections of the Labiata. From that species our present 
one, detected by Mr. Charles Wright in an expedition from 
Western Texas to El Pasco, New Mexico, and no. 474 of that 
gentleman's distributed collections, differs in the entirely 
glaucous stem and leaves, occasioned by a minute hoary pubes- 
cence, scarcely visible except in the recent plant, in the much 
smaller, more numerous, and shorter] leaves, quite entire among 
and much below the whorls of flowers. Like that, however, 
the leaves abound in fragrant oil-dots. It flowers in the summer 
months and makes a handsome appearance in the flower-border. 

Descu. Two and a half to three feet high, much branched, 
especially at the base : branches opposite, square, hoary with 
very minute pubescence. Leaves small and entire, hoary in the 
upper part of the stem and near and about the flowers, and there 
numerous and approximate, ovate or ovato-lanceolate ; lower 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



down larger, and cordato-ovate, or even approaching to hastate 
all rather obtuse, scarcely ever acuminated, and then but slightly 
so, more or less strongly dentato-serrate, the teeth never reaching 
to the point. Whorls of flowers in axillary racemes, shortly 
pedunculate, the flowers pointing upwards. Calyx tubular, with 
five narrow, almost subulate, or subulato-lanceolate, erect teeth. 
Corolla almost exactly as in the C. Mexicana, represented in 
Bot. Mag. t. 3860. W.J.H. 

Cult. A hard-steirfmed herbaceous plant, of suffruticose habit ; 
the stems growing in a compact manner, and producing nume- 
rous spikes of showy flowers, which make it worthy of cultivation 
for the border. It appears to be quite hardy, and grows freely 
in common garden-soil. It may be increased by division of the 
roots, or by cuttings taken from the lower part of the stems. /. 8. 



Fig. 1. Ovary with the hypogynous disc : — magnified. 



/ 6/. 9 




Tab, 4619. 

DENDROBIUM cucumerinum. 

Cucumber Dendrobium. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^e.— Gynandria Monandria. 
Gen. CJiar. {Vide supra, Tab. 4352.) 



Dendrobium cucumerinum ; nanum intricatum csespitosuin, ramis brevissimis 
articulatis cylindraceis monophyllis, foliis oblongis teretibus seriatim tuber- 
culatis, pedunculis brevissimis 3-(5-)floris, sepalis petalisque linearibus 
acuminatis obtusis, labelli trilobi lobis lateraUbus triangularibus intermedio 
ovato crispato lamellis 5 (3) undulatis in medio, clinandrio denticulato. 
Lindl. 

Dendrobium cucumerinum. M'Leay, in Lindl. Bot. Meg. 1842. Jfisc. 63. Lindl. 
Bot. Beg. 1843. t. 37. 



Exactly as our specimen of this curious plant was, by the 
kindness of Capt. Philip King, R.N., received by us from Aus- 
tralia, we have represented it, growing from the same branch ot 
a tree that it was imported upon in a good flowering state. 
The flowers, though large in proportion to the plant, are far 
from showy. The remarkable feature of the plant is the close 
resemblance the leaves (as Dr. Lindley is inclined to consider 
them) rather than pseudo-bulbs, bear to a collection of little 
tuberculated cucumbers or rather girkins; if they are pseudo-bulbs, 
then this plant bears no real leaves. That they are not pseudo- 
bulbs seems the more probable, from the fact that the peduncles 
do not spring from any portion of them. Our drawing was made 
in March 1851, in the Orchideous House of the Kew Gardens. 

Descr. Epiphytal. Stem branched, creeping and running 
prostrate over the trunks or branches of trees, about as thick as 
a small goose-quill, flexuose, jointed, striated. Boots short, thick, 
white, wrinkled. Leaves oblong, terete, two inches long, obtuse 
at both ends, of a dark somewhat glaucous green, embossed with 
fleshy tubercles arranged in longitudinal lines. Flowers three 
to five, white or cream-colour, streaked with purple, borne in ra- 
cemes which arise from articulations of the stem. Peduncle short, 
with very minute purple bracteas. Sepals and petals nearly 



DECEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



alike, linear, subsecund : spur very obtuse. Lip almost spathu- 
late, acuminate, indistinctly three-lobed, lateral lobes incurved, 
middle lobe lobed and crenulated at the margin ■ the disc bears 
(m our plants) three membranous plates, which become lobed 
and undulated in the middle lobe of the labellum. Column 
short, toothed at the margin of the clinandrium. Ovary tu- 
bercled at the angles. JF. J. H. 

Cult. This singular plant is one of the few epiphytal Orchids 
that are natives of New Holland. They are chiefly found beyond 
the tropic on the eastern coast, in a climate where they often 
endure great drought, some growing on trees fully exposed to 
the sun. They are generally of a rigid, dry habit, and often do 
not thrive well under cultivation in this country. The present 
species is usually imported growing on the smaller branches of 
trees, to which it is firmly fixed by its roots. We find it thrive 
best in a house or pit that receives no artificial heat, except 
sufficient to keep out frost. /. 8. 



Fig. 1. Ovary, and column with its base decurrent to form the spur. 2 La- 
bellum. 3. Pollen-masses -.--magnified. 



4 620. 




iUevj 4 Si 



Tab. 4620. 
KLUGIA Notoniana. 

East Indian Klugia. 



Nat. Ord. CyrtandracejE. — Dldynamia Angiospermia. 



Gen. Char. Calyx laxe tubulosus, basi ingequalis, nunc superne gibbus, penta- 
ptero-pentagonus, 5-fidus, lobis sestivatione valvata, alis seu plicis tubi cum lobis 
altera antibus. Corolla personata, tnho subcvlindrico, fauce clausa, labio su- 
periore abbreviato bilobo, inferiore producto indiviso vel semitrilobo (ex Schlecht.) 
indiviso (Br.). Stamina corollas tubo inserta, iuclusa, 4 fertilia, didynama, absque 
rudimento quinti; antherce biloculares, reniformes, in coronulam coha?rentes. 
Ovarium disco annulari completo ciuctum, uniloculare, placentis 2 parietalibus 
bilobis utrinque multiovulatis. Stigma depresso-capitatuin, simplex. Capsula 
ovata, calyce inclusa, valvis 2 medio placentiferis. Semina 00, elliptico-ob- 
longa, sulcata, transversim rugulosa. — Herbse annua, in Asia tropica et Mexico ob- 
servalte, habitu, folus et inflorescentia Ehyncboglossi, a quo differunt solum antheris 
4. Folia tenerrima, alterna, valde incequalia, oblongo-ovata, acuminata, subintegra 
vel repando-denticulata, pube minuta subgrumosa subtus crebre punctulata. Flores 
racemosi, subsecundi, carulei. 



Klugia Notoniana ; caule carnosulo hinc linea dense villosa notato, foliis basi 
dimidiato-cordatis, calyce 5-angulato, angulo superiore prope basin cristato. 

Klugia Notoniana. Be Cand. Prodr. v. §.p. 276. Gard.in Calc. Joum.qfSc. — 
Wight, Ic. Plant. Ind. Or. v. 4. t. 1353. 

Wulpenia Notoniana. Wall. Tent. Fl. Nepal, in MS. p. 46. Cat. n. 409. 

Glossanthus Notoniana. Br. inHorsf. Fl. Jav.p. 121. (without descr.) 

Glossanthus Malabarica. Klein, in Benth. Scroph. Ind.p. 57. Wall. Cat. n. 6394. 

Glossanthus Zeylanica. Br. in Horsf. 1. c. ? (without descr.) 



The genus Klugia of Schlechtendal in 'Linnaea' (1833), the 
same with Glossanthus of Klein (1835) and of Brown, was 
founded on a Mexican plant ; but a congener, if not congeners, 
are found in India : the present is one of them, remarkable for 
the great obliquity of the base of the leaf, and the brilliant colour 
of the blue flowers. Our living plants were received from Ceylon, 
through the kindness of our valued friend Mr. Thwaites, of the 
Botanic Gardens, Peradenia. Hence we suspect it may be the 
Glossanthus Zeylanica of Mr. Brown, 1. c, without description. 
It is, however, certainly the Wulfenia Notoniana of Dr. Wallich, 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



and consequently GhttatUkm NoUmiema of Mr. Brown, and 
Klugia Notoniana of De Candolle, whose name we here adopt. 
It is abundant in the Neilgherry hills, and flowers in the stove 
in September. 

Descr. Annual, herbaceous, succulent. AVhole plqnt more or 
less hairy : on the stems the hairs are chiefly confined to a line 
on one side, most distinct in the ends of the branches. Leaves 
alternate, petiolated, entire or slightly serrated, semicordate, 
acuminate, very unequal at the base, strongly penninerved. Ra- 
cemes opposite the leaves, many-flowered ; the flowers secund and 
all pointing downwards, each pedicel bearing a small linear brac- 
tea. Calyx ovate, acuminate, five-cleft, five-angled, the angle 
more or less winged, upper angle generally most so and crested. 
Corolla large, very unequally bilabiate, rich, very deep blue, 
yellow near the base. Upper lip small, bidentate, lower broad 
and elliptical, entire, waved, with two cavities near the base, more 
than an inch long. Stamens four. Ovary immersed in a fleshy 
cup. W.J.H. 

Cult. A soft-stemmed tropical plant, of low decumbent habit, 
and producing roots from the under side of the stem. It is at this 
time growing and flowering freely in a warm stove. A mixture 
of light loam and peat-soil suits it, and it appears to love moisture ; 
it is, however, liable to suffer by an excess of moisture in the 
atmosphere of the house in the winter, and more particularly 
towards the spring, as by that time its powers have become ex- 
hausted and it is apt to damp off. /. 8. 



Fig. 1. Pistil and hypogynous cup. 2. Calyx: — magnified. 



Tab. 4621. 
SAXIFRAGA flagellars. 

Spider-legged Saxifrage. 



Nat. Ord. Saxifragace^:.— Decandria Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-sepalus, sepalis plus minus inter se et ssepe cum ovario 
coalitis. Fetala 5, rariter irregukria, breviter unguiculata, integra. Stamina 10, 
5 sepalis, 5 petalis opposita; anther* biloculares. Capsula calyci adnata vel libera ; 
carpella 2, seepe usque ad stylum coalita. Semina numerosa, rugosa v. lajvia, in 
pluribus seriebus disposita. Spermodermium ultra nucleum ovoideum non pro- 
ductum.— Rerbss perennes v. annua, scepissime valde polymorphs ineadem specie. 
Flores seepius paniculati, vel corymbosi, abortu solitarii. Be Cand. 



SAXiFRAGA/a^ara ; flagellis filiformibus apice prolifens, caule erecto sim- 
plici 1-3-floro calycibusque glanduloso-pilosis, foliis radicalibus caubmsque 
obovato-spathidatis glanduloso-ciliatis, petalis persistentibus capsula fere 
omnino supera longioribus. 

Saxifraga flagellaris. Willd. ex Sternb. Rev. Sax. p. 25. t. 6. Br. Chlor. 
Melv. p. 15. Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cam. Suppl. p. 291. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. v. 1. 
p. 253. t. 87. Torrey and Gray, N. Am. Flora, v. 2. p. 564. 

Saxifraga aspera. Bieb.Fl. Taur. Cauc. v. 1.^.314 (excl. syn.). 

Saxifraga setigera. Fursh, Am. Bor. v. 1. p. 312. 



Not one of the many expeditions that have gone out to dis- 
cover a " north-west passage," or in search of the many brave 
and excellent officers and men of the Erebus and Terror whose 
fate is yet unknown to us, but has prosecuted researches m 
various branches of natural history— botany in particular. The 
flora of the Arctic regions, consequently, is as well known as 
that of any portion of civilized Europe. Living plants from 
those regions are always desiderata, for our climate, especially m 
the latitude and in the proximity of London, is very unsmted to 
their preservation, and they soon perish. A box filled with 
various growing plants, has been collected at Cornwallis Island, 
and sent to the Royal Gardens of Kew, by Capt.N. Penny com- 
manding the ship Albert, in conjunction with his very intelligent 
medical officer, Dr. Sutherland, and among them this curious and 
rare Saxifrage in a flowering state. It is drawn and lithographed 
and now published in little more than a month from its being 
landed in England, in October 1851. The present species of 
Saxifraga inhabits the Caucasian and Altaic Alps, as well as the 
Rocky Mountains of North America in about lat. 42 , to Melville 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



Island in the extreme north and Behring's Straits to the west. 
Closely allied species are found in the Himalaya. It has received 
the appropriate name of the Spider-plant from the sailors of our 
Arctic Expeditions. 

Descr. From a perpendicular, somewhat fusiform and fibrous 
bearing root, there diverge in all directions a number of filiform 
slightly pubescent stolones, bearing gemmae or young plants at 
the extremity, which send down radicles, and thus plant a colony 
of new individuals around the parent. From the centre or top 
of this root arises a solitary, erect, leafy stem, with crowded rosu- 
late leaves at the base and more distant ones above. These are 
spathulate, spreading, the upper ones more oblong, all of them 
ciliated at the margin, the cilia glanduliferous. At the summit 
is sometimes a solitary flower ; sometimes a cluster or umbel of 
from three to five. Calyx of five ciliated sepals, very much re- 
sembling the leaves in shape and texture, but smaller ; equally 
glanduloso-ciliate. Petals obovate, yellow, five-nerved, shortly 
unguiculate. Stamens ten, shorter than the petals; anthers 
small, nearly globose. Ovary broad-ovate, almost entirely su- 
perior. Stigmas ciliated. W. J. H. 

Cult. This diminutive plant will, we fear, like most Arctic 
plants, not last long in cultivation, owing to the impracticability 
of placing it under conditions of climate similar to those of its 
native countries. It there remains, for about ten months of the 
year, in a dormant state, buried under snow ; on the melting of 
which it springs immediately into growth, and, being stimulated 
by the warmth and continuous light of the sun during the short 
Arctic summer, comes rapidly to maturity, producing flowers 
and multiplying by means of viviparous stolons. During this 
short period the soil is thawed to a depth of from eighteen inches 
to two feet, the earth below remaining in a frozen state 
throughout the year, showing that vegetable life in the Arctic 
regions is entirely dependent upon solar influence. Such being 
the circumstances amidst which this plant lives, it should be kept 
in a state of rest during winter, which, under the influence 
of our varying temperature, is difficult ; for even if this and 
other Arctic plants are placed, in winter, in what we call a cool 
temperature, we still find them in a growing state, by which 
they become weak and soon exhaust themselves. J. S. 



*!&££*£ ** 3 " ^ ^ ** 4 - ^-flowered va, :- 



4G2Z 




P-fetrve & Nichols inrp 



Tab. 4622. 

POLYGONUM VACCINIIFOLIUM. 

Wliortle-berried Knotweed. 



Nat. Ord. PolygonejE. — Octandkia Tkigynia.- 

Gen. Char. Mores hermapbroditi v. abortu polygami. Perigonium seepissime 
coloratum, quinquefidum, rarius tri-quadrifidum, laciniis interdum insequalibus 
demum plerumque auctum. Stamina 5 v. 8, perigonii laciniis singulatiin v. in- 
terioribus etiam geminatim opposita, rarissime 4 v. 9 ; filamenta subulata ; anthera 
ovatae, didymaj, versatiles. Glanduke perigynse v. rarius hypogynae, staminibus 
alternae, interdum nullse. Ovarium uniloculare, compressum v. triquetrum ; 
ovulum unicum, basilare, ortbotropum. Styli bi-trifidi, interdum subnulli. Stig- 
mata capitata. Achenium lenticulare v. triquctrum, perigonio inclusum. Semen 
acbenio conforme, erectum. Embryo albuminis farinacei v. cornei angulum am- 
biens, antitropus, leviter arcuatus ; cotyledonibus incumbentibus anguste linearibus, 
v. accumbentibus foliaceis latis, albuminis sulco receptis ; radicula longiuscula 
supera. — Herbse cosmopolite, inter tropicos rariores, annua? v. perennes, interdum 
suffrutescentes, nonnulla aquatics, quadam volubiles ; foliis alternis, petiolatis v. 
sessilibus, integerrimis v. sinuatis, interdum crispato-undulatis, nonnunquam pel- 
lucido-pwictatis, ocbreis membranaceis laxiu'sculis, floribus spicatis racemosis v. 
paniculatis, interdum- subcapitatis, bracteis nunc ochreis conformibus, nunc infun- 
dibuliformi-turbinatis. Midi. 



Polygonum vacciniifolium ; glaberrimum radicans fruticulosum ramosum de- 
cumbens, rarais copiosis erectis spiciferis, foliis approximatis ovatis in petio- 
lum brevem attenuatis, racemis copiosis terminabbus lateribusque multiflo- 
ris, sepaUs 5 (intense roseis), stylis 3-4, ochreis setaceo-fissis. * 

Polygonum vacciniifobum. Wall. Cat. n. 1695. Moaner in Wall. PI. Asiat. 
Ear. v. 3. p. 54. Royle, Bot. Himal.p. 317. t. 80./. 2. 



Apparently a common Himalayan plant. Dr. Wallich's col- 
lector, Blinkworth, first discovered it at Bhuddrinath (n. 1695 
of the E. I. C.'s catalogue.) Major Madden found it extending 
from Buschur to Kumaoon, at elevations varying from 11,000 to 
13,000 feet above the level of the sea; and Dr. Thomson as well 
as Dr. Hooker met with it both in Eastern and Western Himalaya. 
We owe its introduction to this country, where it proves perfectly 
hardy, to Dr. Royle, and we have since raised plants from Dr. 
Hooker's seeds; and certainly a bed filled with this easily-in- 
creased plant is as pretty an object as can well be imagined. 
The leaves are quite concealed by the copious spikes of bright 
rose-coloured flowers, which continue blooming from August till 

DECEMBER 1ST, 1851. 



November uninterruptedly. We are much mistaken if this will 
not become a great favourite in our gardens as a bedding-out 
plant, especially where autumn flowers are desirable. 

Dsscft. Roots very woody, perennial, much divided and de- 
lding deep into the soil. Stems varying in length, from five to 
six inches to a foot-and-a-half, extensively branched, procumbent, 
rooting ; the branches ascending and spicigerous. Leaves more or 
less approximate, generally much so, spreading, ovate, acute, 
glabrous, as is every part of the plant, tapering rather suddenly 
into a short petiole, dark green above, pale and almost glaucous 
beneath. Ochrece sheathing, membranous, pale brown, striated, 
torn into long subulate laciniae at the apex. Spikes or spiciform 
racemes two to three inches long, terminal and lateral, of nu- 
merous crowded, bright rose-coloured flowers. Pedicels short, 
sharply triangular. Sepals five, ovate, eventually spreading. 
Stamens eight to ten. Styles three. Ovary small, ovate, acutely 
trigonal. W. J. H. 

Cult. This Himalayan plant has proved sufficiently hardy to 
bear the open air of this climate. It is a low-growing neat plant, 
and, by its numerous slender stems trailing along the ground 
and rooting at the joints, it soon forms a spreading compact 
patch. It is well adapted for the front part of rockwork, in 
situations where it will not be subject to drought in summer. 
«/. o. 



Fig. 1. Bud and flower: — magnified.