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Full text of "Curtis's botanical magazine"

CUBTIS'S 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE, 






COMPRISING THE 



Pants of tfje 2&op_ai <§aroens of Itefo, 



OF OTHER BOTANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN GREAT BRITAIN, 
WITH SUITABLE DESCRIPTIONS; 



JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., C.B., P.E.S., F.L.8., &c. 

D.C.L. OXON., LL.D. CANTAB., CORRESPONDENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. 

VOL. XXXII. 

OF THE THIRD SERIES; 
(Or Vol. OIL of the whole Work.) 




' ™ P laces > then - »nd in all seasons, 

Flowers expand their light and soul-like wings, 
leaching us by most persuasive reasons 
How akin they are to human things. 

LON&tfBlLOW. «' Voice* of the Night." 



o 



LONDON : 
L. EEEVE & CO., 5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1876. 

[AH Rights reserved.] 



Mo. 



DEDICATION. 



This volume of the Botanical Magazine is dedicated 
to Mr. William Thompson, of Ipswich, to whose zeal 
in introducing, and intelligent skill in raising, hardy 
American plants, and especially those of the Western 
United States, European gardeners in general, and the 
Botanical Magazine in particular, are indebted for many 
most interesting and ornamental novelties, 

By his faithful friend, 

JOSEPH D. HOOKER. 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 
Dec. 1st, 1876. 



Qfyixls §txiti, 

No. 373. 



VOL. XXXII. JANUARY. 

OR NO. JLOo7 OF THE ENTIRE WORK 



Price 3s. 6d. coloured, 2s. €d. plain. 



CURTIS'S 

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE, 



COMPRISING 



THE PLANTS OF THE ROYAL GARDENS OF KEW, 

AND OF OTHER BOTANICAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN GREAT BRITAIN, 
WITH SUITABLE DESCRIPTIONS; 



JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., C.B., P.R.S., F.L.S., &c. 

director of fyz ftOBal 3Sota«tc ©artJrn3 al BeSo. 




Xature and Art to adorn the page combine, 
And fUnrera exotic grace our nortliern clime. 



LONDON: 
L. REEVE & CO., 5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1876. 

[All right; raerved.] 



Now Beady, Part III., 10s. 6d., also Vol. I., complete, cloth, 323. 

FLORA OF INDIA. 

By Dr. HOOKER, C.B., F.R.S. Assisted by various Botanists. 

L. Eeeyb and Co., 5, Henrietta Street, Covent G arden. 

Now Ready, complete in one Vol. Royal ito, with 48 Coloured Plates, 
Cloth, Gilt Edges, 63*. 

ORCHIDS, 

AND 

How to Grow them in India and other Tropical 

Climates. 

By SAMUEL' JENNINGS, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., 

Late Vice-President of the Agri-Horticultural Society of India. 
Handsome Cloth C ases for Bindin g, 2s. 6d, each. 

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INCLUDING ITS 

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By JOHN CHARLES MELLISS, A.I.C.E., F.G.S., F.L.S., 

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RE-ISSDE of the THIRD SERIES of the BOTANICAL MA GAZINE. 

Now ready, Vols. I. to XXV., price 42s. each (to Subscribers for the entire 
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THE BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. Third Series. By Sir William 
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EOYAL BOTANIC SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



ARRANGEMENTS FOR 1876. 

EXHIBITION OF SPRING FLOWERS. 

WEDNESDAYS, March 29 ; Apbil 26. 

EXHIBITION OF CLEMATIS, 

From George Jackman and Son, Woking Nursery, Surrey. 

DAILY, May 1 to May 23. 

SUMMER EXHIBITIONS OF PLANTS. 

WEDNESDAYS, May 24 ; June 21. 

SPECIAL EVENING FETE. 

WEDNESDAY, July 5. 

PROMENADES. 

EVERY WEDNESDAY in May, June, Jcly, and the first two WEDNESDAYS 

in August, excepting May 24, June 21, July 5. 

LECTURES. 

In the Museum, at 4 o'clock precisely. 

FRIDAYS, May 12, 19, 26; June 2, 9, 16, 23,30, 



Tab. 6206. 

CUCUMIS sativus, var. Stkkimensis. 
Cultivated in the Himalaya Mountains. 



Nat. Ord. CuCUrbitace.e. — Tribe Cucumemne.e. 
Genua Cucomis, Linn. (Berth, et Hook./., Gen. Plant, vol. i., p. 826). 



COOUMU sativus, Linn., Naudin in Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, vol. xi., p. 27. 

Var. Sikkimensis, fructu clavato cylindraceo v. obtuse 3-gono lfnvi v. obscure 

pustulato colore ochreo plagia parvia brunncia densisaimo tesaellato, pla- 

centis 3-5, came albo. 

Concombre de Sikkim, Naud., I.e., 28. 



This singular form of the common Cucumber, though very 
commonly cultivated in the Eastern Himalaya Mountains, 
appears never to have been noticed horticulturally or botani- 
cally till I found it in Sikkim in 1848, and whence I brought 
drawings and specimens to England. These were described 
by M. Naudin in 1859, in his essay on the species and 
varieties of Cucumis in the " Annales des Sciences Naturelles," 
under the name of Concombre de Sikkim, and he says of it 
that it is the most remarkable variety of the common 
Cucumber known to him, whether for the length or for the 
bulk of its fruit, which I have found to attain one and a 
quarter foot in length and a girth of fifteen inches. It is 
grown in all parts of the Sikkim and in the Nepal Himalaya, 
up to 5000 feet elevation, in prodigious quantities. It ripens 
in July and August, or earlier at lower elevations, when the 
fruits are sold in the markets and eaten raw by the natives 
of all ages, as well as cooked. So abundant were they in the 
year 1848, that for days together I saw gnawed fruits lying 
by the natives' paths by thousands, and every man, woman, 
and child seemed engaged throughout the day in devouring 
them. How far westward its cultivation extends I do not 
know ; Mr. Ilodgson informed me that it was as common in 
Central Nepal as in Sikkim, but curiously enough I find no 
notice of it in Royle's exhaustive work on the useful plants 
of the Western Himalaya, though he mentions the Cucumber 
as being commonly cultivated. " 

January 1st, 187C. 



The Sikkim Cucumber was first fruited iu England by 
Major Trevor Clarke, who believed that ho had fertilised it 
with the pollen of the Telegraph Cucumber. By some 
blunder, perhaps owing to the Melon-like appearance of 
Major Trevor Clarke's fruit, which was sent to Ivew, and from 
which plants were raised, it is described in the " Gardener's 
Chronicle "(1875, vol.iv., p. 206-7.) as a hybrid between the 
Melon and the Cucumber — a cross which has never been 
effected. On its fruiting at Kew shortly afterwards, I recog- 
nised it as my Sikkim plant, and the statement as to its hybrid 
origin was corrected in a succeeding number of the Chronicle 
(1 875, vol. iv., p. 303). It flowered in the Tropical Economic 
House in July, and the fruit ripened in August, when it 
attracted great attention from its size, singular form, and 
colour. The English-grown specimens have three placentas, 
but five was as common a number in Sikkim, and I have 
observed a tendency in old fruits to split longitudinally into 
three or five fleshy pieces. 

In connection with this subject I may mention here that 
the origin of the common Cucumber, which is supposed to be 
unknown, is in all probability the C. IlardwicJcii, Royle, of 
the Himalaya Mountains, which inhabits the sub-tropical 
region of the range from Kumaon to Sikkim. This opinion, 
founded on specimens gathered by myself in the latter country, 
is also adopted by M. Naudin, upon the same materials 
(Ann. Sc. Nat., I.e., p. 30). The flowers and leaves of the 
two plants are almost identical, but the fruit of C. Hardwichii 
is small, smooth, and very bitter; it is, however, striped with 
white and green, a very usual character with the Sikkim 
cultivated Cucumbers. 

Some cultivated Ceylon forms of Cucumber, of which Dr 
Ihwaites has supplied me with drawings, approach those of 
the Ooncombrc de Sikkim, but arc much smaller, arc striped 
with green and yellow-brown, and the mottling is not so 
tessellated.— J. D. II ° 



F JLkZtrJ!j^ * e *> ^ 8ti ^^ 2 > °*n of S bud ope*, .Hi 



stamens -.—both magnified, 



Tab. 6207. 
NICOTIANA Tabacum, var. fruticosa. 

Introduced from Guinea and the Brazil*. 



Nat. Ord. Solan.ece^:. — Tribe Cestbine^;, 
Genus Nicotiana, Linn. (Benth. ct Hook./., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 900 ined,}. 



Nicotiana Tahacum, var. fruticosa, glutinoso-pubescens, caulc erectorobustosim- 
pliciusculo folioso basi frutescente, foliis sessilibua panduriformi-lanceolatis 
acuminatis semiamplexicaulibus, inferioribus basi auriculatis, marginibus 
basin versus obscure undulatis v. sinuatis, floribus paniculatis pediccllatis, 
bractcis linearibus, calycibus J-f-pollicaribus ovoideis 5-fidis, lobis ercctis 
acuminatis, corolla infundibular! pallide rosea limbi 5-fidi lobis triangularibus 
acutis, capsula ovoidea calyceni superante, seminibus fere Iambus. 

N. fruticosa, Linn. Sp. PL, vol. i., p. 25S ; Lehm. Nicot., p. 23 ; Dunal in DC. 
Prod., vol. xiii., pars 1, p. 558. 

Nicotiana foliis lanceolatis acutis, &c, Mill. Gard. Diet.; Figures, t. 185, fig. 1. 



A very little known plant, though introduced into Eng- 
land in the middle of last century, and admirably figured by 
Philip Miller, F.E.S., Gardener to the Apothecaries Company's 
Botanic Garden at Chelsea, in his fine folio work illustrative 
of " the most Beautiful, Useful and Uncommon Plants pub- 
lished in his ' Gardener's Dictionary.' " Miller describes it as 
growing naturally in Guinea, whence he received the seeds, 
and as being cultivated in the Brazils and sent to Europe 
under the name of "Sweet-scented Tobacco.'' Dunal, in 
Do Candollc's " Prodromus," gives the Capo of Good Hope as 
its native country on the authority of Linnams, where, how- 
ever, no species of the genus has been found in a wild state. 
For my own part I cannot doubt its being a native of South 
America, as are all the Tabacum group, and that it has been 
from thence introduced into Africa and probably elsewhere. 
I regret to say that I do not know whence our Kew plant was 
derived ; it appeared amongst a miscellaneous set of Tobaccos 
grown for exhibition in the Economic House, and is supposed 
to have been sown as Latakta Tobacco from Syria. There are 
in the Kew Herbarium two cultivated specimens named N. 
fruticosa — one no doubt the true plant) from Gouan'- 

January 1st, 1S70, 



Herbarium ; and the other, from the St. Petersburg Botanic 
Garden, has slender petioles, a character ascribed to the 
species by Dunal, but at variance with Miller's figure and 
description and with our plants. Miller describes it as 
annual, growing four or five feet high ; but our plant, being 
in a cool house, has survived the last and will, I think, sur- 
vive this winter. N. fruticosa differs from N. Tabacum only in 
the shrubby base of its stem and its narrower leaves, and 
I think, as Linnseus did, it is a variety of the common 
Tobacco, which it resembles in habit and inflorescence. The 
type specimen in the Linnean Herbarium, however, ap- 
proaches the ordinary form of N. Tabacum more closely 
than either the present plant or that figured by Miller. 
It flowered in September in a cool greenhouse, the plant 
being two feet high. 

Descr. Stem two feet high and upwards, clammily pubes- 
cent, as is the whole plant, stout, erect, simple, woody at the 
base. Leaves a foot long and under, sessile, panduriform- 
lanccolate, acuminate, sessile, the upper semiamplexicaul, 
the lower auricled at the base, margins slightly waved, chiefly 
towards the base. Flowers in terminal panicles, pedicelled, 
inclined ; bracts linear. Calyx ovoid, 5-cleft, one-third to 
two-thirds of an inch long, lobes acuminate. Corolla-tube 
twice as long as the calyx ; limb one to one and a quarter 
inch broad, pale rose-coloured ; lobes broad, acute. Capsule 
exceeding the calyx, ovoid. Seeds minute, very obscurely 
reticulate. — J. D. II. 



Fig. 1, Corolla laid open ; 2, pistil :—both magnified. 



6208. 




is i)dy s.bon imp 



Tab. G208. 
MASDEVALLIA EPHIPPIUM. 

Native of New Grenada. 



Nat. Ord. ORCiiiDKiE.— Tribe Pleckotiiallide.e. 
Genus Masdevallia, Iiuk et Pav. (Lindi., Gen. et Sp. Orchid., p. VJ2), 



Masdevallia Ephippium ; foliis cum pctiolo 5-7 pollicaribus, lamina angustc 
elliptico-oblonga obtusa apice recurvo in petiolum validum breviorem 
angustata, medio supcrne canaliculato et subtus valide costato, nervia 
lateralibua 2, scapo valido triquetro folia longe supcrante, bractea obovata 
compressa complicata apiculata, sepalo dorsali parvo rotundato in caudam 
flexuosam 5-pollicarem reflexam abrupte angustato flavo, latcralibus in 
laminam cymbiformem costatam rufo-castaneam cuneatis, apicibus in caudas 
4-pollicares flavas basi contiguas dein divaricatas abrupte angustatis, petalia 
columnam vix superantibus late linearibus apice 3-dentatia, labcllo ungui- 
culato, lamina oblonga apiculata brunneo-maculata, ungue apici 2-auriculata. 

M. Ephippium, Reichb. f. in Bot. Zeit., 1873, p. 390 ; Xenia Orchid., vol. IL, 
p. 213, t. 195 ; Gard. Chron., 1874, p. 372. 

M. Trochilus, Lind. et Andre, Rev, Ilortic., t. 180. 



Dr. Eeichenbach, to whom I am indebted for the references 
to this species, observes of it that it is a highly curious one ; 
and it is indeed very different from any hitherto figured in 
this work, especially in the lateral sepals, that form a deeply 
concave bowl-shaped body, of a remarkable rufous-brown 
colour, and arc thoroughly united even to the base of their 
long tail-like tips, which curve away from one another in a 
singular manner. The inside of the united sepals is, more- 
over, traversed by five corrugated ribs or keels, that meet at 
the apex of the body, leaving deep concavities between them. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. T. Barber, of the Old Hall, 
Spondon, Derby, for the opportunity of figuring this fine 
species, which he sent to Kcw in March last, with the infor- 
mation that it was grown in a house with a day temperature 
of G5 dog. Fahr., and a night one of 52 deg. to 00 dcg., and 
was watered but sparingly, a flower having been spoiled 
previously by over-watering. Dr. Eeichenbach states that it 
was first discovered at Loxa by the late Dr. Krausc, who sent 
it to Messrs; Backhouse, and that it has subsequently been 

Jajtcabt 1st, 1 



obtained from Antioquia and Medellin by Mr. Wallis and 
others. 

Descr. A remarkably robust species. Leaves, witb the 
petiole, 5-7 inches long; blade, 1-1 J inch in diameter; nar- 
rowly elliptic-oblong, with an obtuse recurved tip; 3-nerved, 
grooved down the centre above, with a strong midrib and two 
lateral nerves beneath ; base narrowed into the petiole, which 
is 2-3 inches long. Peduncle a foot high, very stout, flexuous, 
sharply 3-4-angled ; bracts 1 inch long, obovate, complicate, 
compressed, apiculate. Floiver nearly a foot long, from the 
tip of the upper to that of cither lateral sepal. Upper sepal 
small, l inch in diameter, orbicular, yellow with faint brown 
cloudings, suddenly contracted into a long reflexed yellow 
slender tail. Lateral sepals cuneate, with a deep boat-shaped, 
almost hemispheric chestnut-brown cup, 1^ inch in length 
and 1 inch in diameter, with 5 ridges, which are green out- 
side, but deeper and wrinkled within ; tips of the sepals 
cuneate at the base, then diverging, 5 inches long, yellow. 
Petals straight, broadly linear, 3-toothcd at the tip, rather 
longer than the column. Lip very small, red-brown, and 
speckled ; claw stout, straight, as long as the oblong, apiculate, 

toothed blade, at the base of which are two lobules 

J. D. IL 



Fig. 1, Flower with a lateral sepal removed ; 2, column and petal ; 3, lip :— 

nli magnified. 







WHRtii 






Tab. 0200. 
BLANDFORDIA flammea, var. tkinceps. 
Native of New South Wales. 



Nat. Ord. Liliace^e. — Tribe Hemerocallideje. 
Genus Blandfordia, Smith (Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. xi., p. 36i). 



HvAVHiFonmxJlammea, var. princeps; foliis disticlus angustc linearibus, venis 
exsculpti3 6-8, marginibus distincte serrulatis, caule podali foliis depauperatis 
bracteato, corynibo 4-10-floro, bracteis parvis lanceolatis, pcdicellis ascen- 
dentibus 1-2 poll, longis, pcrianthio splcndidc cocciuco 2| poll, longo 
regulariter infundibulari, segmentis luteis ovato-deltoideis imbricati3, fila- 
mentis dcclinatis infra medium tubi inscrtis, pistillo incluso, gynophoro 
clougato ovario triquetro roquilongo. 

1?. princeps, Hort. Bull; Floral Mag.N.S., tab. 170. 



Botanically not more than a variety of B. flammea, Bot. 
Mag., tab. 4819, from which it differs by its larger flowers, 
with the tube of the perianth narrowed gradually from the 
throat to the base, and passing so gradually into the pedicel 
that it is difficult to see, without cutting it open, where one 
stops and the other begins, and by its included pistil. For 
horticultural purposes it is a much finer plant, the bright 
crimson of the tube and pedicel forming a very effective con- 
trast with the bright yellow of the segments ; so that, size of 
flower and colouring both taken into account, it may safely 
be said to be for decorative purposes the finest of the known 
Blandfordias. It was introduced by Mr. William Bull from 
New South Wales, about 1873, and was exhibited by him at 
South Kensington in the summer of 1875. 

Descr. Root-fibres fleshy, cylindrical. Leaves about a 
dozen, distichous, stiff, subercct, a foot long, under a quarter 
of an inch broad, with six to eight strong ribs and a distinctly 
serrulate border. Scape a foot high, bracteatcd by several 
reduced leaves. Flowers four to ten in a corymb, on ascend- 
ing bright red pedicels one to two inches long. Bracts small, 
lanceolate. Perianth pendulous, regularly funnel-shaped, 
expanded gradually from the base to a throat under an inch 
broad, the tube bright crimson on the outside, the yellow 
ovate-deltoid segments three-eighths to half an inch broad 
and deep. Stamens inserted below the middle of the tube 

JANT'AliV 1st, 1876. 



and reaching to its throat; filaments filiform, dcclinate ; 
anthers small, oblong. Pistil reaching to the throat of 
the tube at the flowering time ; gynophore as long as the 
triquetrous ovary. — J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1, Complete pistil -.slightly magnified. 




6Z10. 





Vincent Brooks L ay &.S oulith ' 



Tab. 6210. 

ANDROSACE SARMENTOSA. 

Native of the Himalaya. 



Nat. Ord. Primulace^:.— Tribe Primuleje. 
Genua Androsace, Linn. (Benih. et Hook./., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 632 ined.). 



Androsace sarmentosa, laxa sericeo-pilosa, sarmentis elongatis nudia undique ab 
caule perbrevi patentibus robustis, declinatis apicibus tantum foliosia, caule 
brevissimo, foliis dense rosulatis obovato-lanceolatia obtuaia integerrimis 
in petiolum brevem angustatis, scapo erecto, involucri foliolia numerosis 
angustis latisve interdum foliaceis, calycis lobis oblongis obtusis, corolla; 
tnbo brevi globoso, limbi rosei lobis patentibus rotundatis, ore albido forni- 
cibus clauso, capsula oblonga calycem superante. 

A. sarmentosa, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind. Ed. Carey, vol. ii., p. 14 ; Cat., n. 614 ; 
Chois. in DC. Prod., vol. viii., p. 49. 



An interesting addition to the collection of rock-work 
plants, hardy and a very free grower. It is a native of the loftier 
regions of the Western Himalaya, and was first found in Central 
Nepal, whence it was sent to Dr. Wallich, then in Calcutta, 
about the year 1820, by the Resident at the Nepalese Court, 
the Hon. E. Gardner. Since that period it has been found 
further west by Mr. Edgeworth, in Kumaon, at an elevation 
of 11-12,000 feet, and on the ZojiLaPass, north of Kashmir, 
by Dr. Thomson, at about the same height above the sea. 
Our plant was raised from seed collected by Dr. Belle w (who 
accompanied Forsyth's mission to Yarkand), at the same 
locality as Dr. Thomson's came from, and it was flowered first 
and beautifully by Mr. Isaac Anderson Henry, at Hay Lodge. 
Trinity, Edinburgh, and subsequently at Kew, but in far less 
perfection than in the northern clime. As a spring bloomer, 
flowering in April, it will prove a most welcome accession to 
the hardy herbaceous border, and it is propagated with great 
ease by its runners, which spread all round the plant and hang 
over the sides of the pot in profusion. As a species, A. sarmen- 
tosa in the form figured differs much from any other 
Androsace, but amongst the varieties of the far more common 
A. lanuginosa, Wall. (Tab. nost. 4005), which inhabits the 
same country and elevations, are some that are with difficulty 

JAnvary 16T, 1876. 



distinguished. As a rule, however, A. lanuginosa is a far 
more densely silky plant, almost silvery- white, with a tufted 
habit, spreading branches, and very leafy runners that branch 
again and again; its leaves too are more acute. Choisy 
reduces lanuginosa to sarmentosa, not even considering it to be 
a variety ; but I cannot think that he would have done this 
had he had sufficient materials to work with. 

Descr. More or less clothed with lax, spreading, silky 
hairs. Stem very short. Runners numerous from the axils 
of the leaves, spreading all round, four to six inches long, 
decimate, red-purple, quite leafless except at the tips, which 
bear heads of rosulate leaves. Leaves rosulate, densely 
crowded, the lower on the very short stem smaller, imbricate, 
and recurved, the upper one to two inches long, oblanceolate, 
obtuse, narrowed into the short petiole. Scape usually solitary, 
erect, many-flowered. Involucre of many leaflets, which are 
extremely variable in shape and size, sometimes small and 
linear, at others broad and leaf-like. Pedicels slender. Calyx- 
lobes oblong, obtuse. Corolla one-third to two-thirds of an 
inch in diameter, rose-coloured, deeper towards the disk, 
which is pale yellow ; mouth almost closed by the thickened 
scales ; lobes rounded, quite entire. Capsule oblong, longer 
than the calyx. — J. D. R. 



Fig. 1, Flower ; 2, corolla laid open ; 3, calyx laid open, showing the 
pistil -.—all magnified. 



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6ZT1. 







Tab. 6211. 

CROCUS Weldeni. 

Native of Dalmatia. 

Nat. Ord. Iiudace.e.— Tribe Ixie.e. 
Genus Crocus, Linn. {Baker in Gard. Cliron., 1873). 



Crocus Weldeni; vernabs, cormi tunicis membranaceis supra basin circumscissis, 
spatha basali nulla, foliis 4-5 synanthiis angustis vittatis margine revolutis, 
spathse propria) valvis oppositis lanceolatis, perianthii tubo albo, limbi 
segmentis oblongis facie albis, exterioribus dorso purpureo tinctis nullo 
modo striatis, fauce glabra concolori, antberis citrinis, filamentis brevibus 
albis glabris, stigmatibus integria fulvis. 

C. Weldeni, (Hoppe?), Bot. Zeit., 1840, p. 208; /. Gay, Herb. 

C. biflorus, Visiani, Fl. Balm., i., 119, non Miller. 

C. annulatus, var. albus, Herbert in Journ. Hort. Soc, vol. ii., p. 208. 



This can scarcely be considered as more than a variety of 
Crocus biflorus, with which it agrees in time of flowering, 
leaves, and eorm-strueture. The flower is less showy than 
those of either the old garden biflorus or the two wild Italian 
varieties {lineatus and pusillus), being entirely without stripes, 
concolorous at the throat, and white, except that the three 
onter segments are marked on the outside with a more or less 
decided hue of slaty-purple. It is a native of the limestone 
hills of Dalmatia, flowering in January and February. In 
our English gardens it does not expand till March. The 
drawing was made from specimens that flowered at Kew in 
1874, which were presented to the garden by the Rev. H. 
Harpur-Crewe, who received it from Trieste from Major 
R. F. Burton. 

Descr. Vernal. Corm globose, the numerous membranous 
tunics slitting off just above the base, and sliced into lanceo- 
late teeth at the top. Basal spailw none. Leaves four to 
five, contemporary with the flower, very narrow, distinctly 
vittate. Proper spathe of two equal lanceolate valves. 
Tube of perianth white, one and a half to two inches long ; 
segments of limb oblong, about an inch deep, white inside, 

Fbhrvary 1st, 1876. 



the three outer with a more or less decided dash of slaty- 
purple on the back, the throat glabrous and concolorous. 
Anthers lemon-yellow, half an inch long, much exceeding the 
white glabrous filaments. Stigma fulvous, overtopping the 
stamens, with three entire clavate branches. — J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1, Outer tunic of corm ; 2, portion of leaf; 3, stigmaa : — all magnified. 



62 n. 







I V Son Mi 



Tab. 6212. 
STAPELIA olivacea. 

Native of South Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Asclepiade^.— Tribe Stapelieje. 
Genus Stapelia, Linn. (Berth, et Hook, f., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., 784 ined.). 



Stapelia olivacea ; ramis rectis gracilioribus minute puberulis 3-5-pollicaribua 
cinereo-virentibua purpureo-maculatis tetragonis angulia obtusia ad inser- 
tiones dentonim transversim constrictis, dentibus parvia triangularibua 
appresaia, floribua ramos ad imos juniores insitis minime pedunculatis, 
calycia puberuli segmentis minimi8 subulatis, corolla foetidiaaima diametro 
aeaquipollicari profunde quinquefida extus sordide viridi puberula, intua 
glabra rugia crebria instructa olivaceo-brunnea lobia ovatia acutia 5-nerviis 
albo-cihatis, coronse exterioria aquamia anguste oblongis acutia purpureo- 
brunneia linea centrali ornatis, interioris duplo longioribus cornubua falcato- 
subulatis instructia attenuatis paullo recurvis omnibua purpureo-brunneis. 

S. olivacea, N. E. Brown in Gard. Chron., 1875, iii., p. 136. 



This interesting species appears to have been known for 
some little time in gardens as Stapelia eruciformis, although 
there seems to be some doubt whether that name does not 
belong to another species (Gard. Chron., 1875, iii., p. 206). 
It was sent to Kew by H.E. Sir Henry Barkly in April, 
1874, where it flowered in September following, and was first 
described by Mr. Brown, assistant in the Herbarium of the 
Eoyal Gardens, in the " Gardener's Chronicle " in January 
of last year. The following description is in great part 
adopted from Mr. Brown. 

Descr. Stems erect, rather slender, branching at the 
base, minutely puberulous, three to five inches high, three- 
eighths to half an inch thick, tetragonal,- with rounded angles, 
transversely constricted at the base of the minute lanceolate 
appressed teeth, greyish green, becoming blotched with purple 
on full exposure to the sun. Flowers two to six from the 
bases of the younger branches ; peduncles two to three lines 
long, puberulous, green. Calyx five-partite, puberulous ; seg- 
ments two to two and a half lines long, subulate. Corolla very 
fcetid, about one and a half inch in diameter, dull green and 
puberulous externally, glabrous within, with numerous 
crowded brown transverse rugae on a dark olive-green or 

February 1st, 18"6. 



sometimes pale olive ground ; lobes ovate, acute, recurved, 
five-nerved, fringed with white hairs. Scales of external 
corona narrowly oblong, one-eighth of an inch long, dark 
purple-brown, with a smooth polished central line ; scales of 
inner corona twice as long, attenuate, dark purple-brown, 
with falcate-subulate dorsal processes. — W. T. T. D. 



Fig. 1, Portion of branch; 2, section of corolla with corona, the dorsal 
processes of the segments of the inner series have not been made sufficiently 
distinct from the segments of the outer series ; 3, pollen-masses :— all magnified. 



6Z13 









k Son lath 



Tab. 6213. 
cypella peruviana. 

Native of Peru. 



Nat. Ord. Iridacee.— Tribe IridEjE. 
Genus Cypella, Herb. {Klatt in Litmasa, vol. xxxi., p. 538). 



Cypella peruviana; bulbo ovoideo tunicato, foliis 2-3 caulinis membranaceis 
linearibus plicatis, spathis solitariis 2-3-floris tenninalibus, spathae valvia 
membranaceis arete convolutis, ovario parvo cylindrico, perianthii limbo 
magno luteo prope basin rubro-brunneo maculato, segmentis ad basin liberis 
exterioribus patulis rotundato-unguiculatis, interioribua multo minoribus pan- 
duriformibus convolutis medio facie pilosis, stigmatibus luteis petaloideis 
bifidis, staminibus erectis stylo adpressis. 



This handsome Irid, new so far as I can make out, was 
introduced in 1874 by Messrs. Veitch from the Peruvian 
Andes. It does not agree with the six species of Cypella 
described by Klatt in his monograph above cited either in 
habit or precisely in stigma. They are all natives of Brazil, 
and have spathes produced from the side of great ensiform 
iris-like leaves. Here the habit is substantially that of 
Phalocallis, Polia, or Beatonia, but in all these the stigmas 
are materially different. These South American Irids are 
very difficult to study, the flowers being so fugacious in a 
living state, and seldom represented in a satisfactory manner 
in herbarium specimens. We have in the Kew Herbarium 
specimens of either the same plant or a closely allied one 
from the temperate region of the Bolivian Andes, in grassy 
places, near Sorata, gathered by Mandon. 

Descr. Bulb ovoid, clothed with scarious brown tunics. 
Basal leaves vanished by the time the plant flowers. Stem- 
leaves two to three, linear, six to nine inches long, one-half 
to three-quarters inch broad, narrowed gradually from the 
middle to both ends, glabrous, papyraceous, plicate. Flowers 
two to three in a solitary stalked terminal cluster, fugacious, 
and appearing in succession from the spathe. Spathe-valves 
two, membranous, tightly convolute round the pedicels. 
Ovary green, fusiform, half an inch long. Limb bright yellow, 
maculate at the base with red-brown, the divisions free 
down to the ovary, the outer three much the largest, 

FbBRDAKY If-T, 1*7*. 



straight, spreading, with a round limb and a cuneate claw, 
the inner three panduriform, convolute, with a round re- 
flexed blade, strap-shaped centre pilose on the face, and a 
navicular claw. Genitalia forming an erect column. Stigmata 
bifid, petaloid, bright yellow, with a third small process 
between the two large iris-like divisions. Stamens pressed 
against the style, the short filaments nearly or quite free. — 
J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1, Inner segment of perianth -.—magnified. 



Tab. 6214. 



Pescatoria Dayana, var. rhodacra. 



Native of New Granada. 



Nat. Ord. OrchidEvE. — Tribe Vande^e. 

Genus Pescatoria (Reich, f. in Mohl et Schlecht. Bot. ZeiL, vol. x., p. 667 

[1852] ). 



Pescatoria Dayana, var. rhodacra; pseudobulbis 0, foliis sessilibus anguste 
oblauceolato-oblongis acuminatis, pedunculis brevibus validis 1-floris, 
bracteis brevibus viridibus oblique truncatis, floribus 2 J poll, diametr., 
sepalis oblongis obtusis concavds niveis apicibus sanguineis, petalis triente 
minoribus obovatis concavis dorso sub apice roseis, labello explanato ungue 
brevi lamina rotundata convexa alba roseo suffusa, crista crassa semi- 
circulari plicata violacea, columna crassa naviculari exalata alba, anthera 
coccinea, stigmate luteo. 

P. Dayana, var. rhodacra, Rchb.f. in Gard. Chron., 1874, pt. 2, p. 226. 



The nearest ally of this Orchid is assuredly the Huntley a 
cerina, Lindl. (Tab. nost. 5598), which differs conspicuously 
in colour and in the form of the semi-circular callus at the 
base of the limb of the lip, and which is referred, along with 
other species of Pescatoria, to a section of the old genus 
Zygopetalum, Hook., by the younger Reichenbach, in the 
sixth volume of Walper's " Annales," p. 651. The said 
section is, however, characterised by having a slender semi- 
cylindric column, whilst the column both of P. cerina 
and of P. Dayana is broad and boat-shaped, as in Bollea 
(Reichenbach's first section of Zygopetalum). In the present 
state of Orchidology it is not possible for the Botanist or the 
Horticulturist to speak with confidence of generic limits in 
any considerable group. I have retained this under Pescatoria, 
following Reichenbach (in the "Gardener's Chronicle," 
I.e.), by whom the genus (usually wrongly written Pcscatorea) 
was founded. As above observed, however, this genus has 
been referred by him to Zygopetalum as long ago as 1861, 
together with Bollea, Warscewiczella, Warrea, Kefersteinia, 
and Promeneea. 

Pescatoria Dayana has several varieties in cultivation, 
depending on the markings on the perianth being absent, 

February 1st, 1876. 



or violet, or green, or red. That here figured was 
communicated by Messrs. Veitch in September, 1874, 
and a perfectly similar plant, but without red tips to the 
sepals and petals, was sent by Mr. Bull the previous 
June. 

Descr. Stems tufted, without pseudobulbs, the short 
thickened leaf-sheaths below the articulation not appearing to 
become fleshy and to perform the functions of a pseudobulb. 
Leaves six to ten inches long by two inches broad, narrowly 
oblanceolate-oblong, acuminate, keeled, obscurely nerved. 
Peduncle one-flowered, stout, two to three inches long, green 
with one small green obliquely truncated bract towards the 
middle, and a much larger brown appressed one embracing 
the ovary. Flowers two inches and a half in diameter. 
Sepals oblong, obtuse, concave, white, with bright red tips. 
Petals one-third smaller, obovate, obtuse, with rosy spots at the 
tip on the back. Lip orbicular, with a short; claw and convex 
limb, which is white suffused with crimson; at the base 
of the limb is a deep semi-circular canal bounding a semi- 
lunar violet plaited callus. Column short, broad, stout, not 
winged, white, with a crimson anther and vellow stigma. — 
J. D.H. J 5 



Fig. 1, Lip -.—magnified. 



6215 








m 






w 



-y 




.>av!<Sa[>Imp 



Tab. 6215. 

YIBURNUM DILATATUM. 

Native of Japan. 

Nat. Ord. CAPRiFOLiACte^. — Tribe Sambuce^. 
Genus Viburnum, Linn. (Benih et Hook./., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 3). 



Viburnum dilatatum ; ramulis petiolis inflorescentia nervisque foliorum subtU8 
substrigoso-hirtis, foliis petiolatis ovato- v. obovato- orbicularis obtuse 
acuminatis grosse dentatis subrugosis, stipulis 0, cymis multifloris breviter 
v. longius pedunculatis, floribus omnibus consimilibus, calycis lobis rotun- 
datis ciliatis, corollse rotatse lobis rotundatis dorso pilosis, filamentis corollam 
superantibus, stigmate obtuse-trilobio, fructu ovoideo compressissimo. 

V. dilatatum, Thunb., Fl. Jap., p. 124 ; DC. Prod., vol. iv., p. 329 ; Sieb. et 
Zucc, Fl. Jap., vol. i., p. 172 ; A. Gray, Pot. Japan, p. 393 (excl. Syn. 
V. erosi) ; Miguel, Prol. FL Jap., 154. 



A very handsome hardy shrub, with apparently a wide 
distribution in Japan, having been collected in various 
localities from Nagasaki and Yokohama to Hakodadi — that 
is, nearly throughout the length of the archipelago. 

The genus Viburnum is well represented in Japan, and 
there are several species that have not yet been introduced 
into Europe. Thunberg, in 1787, described no less than nine 
Japanese ones, and Miquel, in his " Prolusio Floras Japonicae," 
enumerates twelve. Several of these are very widely spread 
over the northern hemisphere ; amongst them is our Guelder 
Rose (V. Opulus), also the American V. lantanoides, which 
extends into the Himalaya. The long-known V. odora- 
tissimum of our garden also extends into India, being found 
in the Khasia Mountains. V. Sandankewa again, figured in 
our last year's volume (Tab. 6172), is very closely allied to 
a Himalayan species. 

V. dilatatum was introduced by Messrs. Veitch, who sent 
flowering specimens for figuring 'to Kew in June last, with 
the information that it is perfectly hardy. It is omitted in 
Oersted's monograph of the genus (Kiob. Yidensk. Meddel., 
1860.) 

Descr. A shrub with the young branches, petioles, 
inflorescence, and nerves of leaves beneath clothed with 
rigid, white, simple, and forked, rather spreading hairs, 

February 1st, 1876. 



which become tomentose in the axils of the petioles, of 
the branches of the panicles, and of the nerves of the leaves 
where they join the midrib. Leaves very variable in size and 
shape, two to five inches long, often as broad, orbicular or 
orbicular-ovate or obovate, usually abruptly terminating in 
an obtuse point, coarsely toothed, slightly hairy on both 
surfaces ; nerves numerous, nearly parallel ; base rounded or 
cordate at the junction with the petiole, which is rarely more 
than half an inch long ; stipules none. Cymes sessile or on 
stout peduncles, much branched, two to six inches in 
diameter. Flowers white, very shortly pedicelled, one-third 
of an inch in diameter. Calyx pilose, tube obscure, lobes 
orbicular. Corolla rotate, lobes orbicular, hairy on the back. 
Stamens exserted. Style stout, curved, stigma three-lobed. 
Fruit ovate, much flattened, about one-third of an inch long, 
crowned by the persistent calyx-lobes and style. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flowers; 2, the same with the corolla removed : — both magnified. 



ti'216 




*> m~-J 



Tab. 6216. 
SENECIO (Kleinia) choedifolia. 

Native of South Africa. 



Nat. Ord. Composite.— Tribe Senecionide^. 
Genus Senecio, Linn. (Benih. et Hook.f., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 446). 



Senecio (Kleinia) chordifolia ; suffruticosa, glaberrima, caule gracih erecto sim- 
pliusculo, foliis 7-10-pollicaribus chordifonnibus teretibus subacute, cymis 
elongatis laxis remote furcatis paucifloris, ramis erectis 3-5-polhcanbus, 
bracteis ad axillas parvis subulatis, capitulis H pollicaribus angustis 
cylindracei8 basi bracteolis paucis patentibua setaceis instructs, foliohs ad 
15 linearibus acuminatis marginibus membranaceis, flonbus flavis, coroliae 
lobis brevibus, styli ramis apice truncatis, achenio cylindraceo pubescente. 



A very curious succulent Groundsel, remarkable for the 
great length of its simple, terete, cylindrical leaves, which 
droop from the long, slender branches, and for the lax, 
slender, very few-flowered cymes. I find no species described 
in Harvey and Sonder's " Flora of the Cape " with which it 
can be confounded, though it is evidently nearest to Kleinia 
crassulwfolia, DC. (not of Baker in Saunders' Eefug., vol. 1., 
t. 7), in which, however, the leaves are only two to three 
inches long. , 

The Kleinias of Haworth, and, following him, ot l)e 
Candolle and Harvey, are, with the exception of one or two 
North African and Arabian species, all South African, and 
comprise two sets of plants. Of these one set has conical 
tips to the style-arms, and often a more rigid pappus ; the 
other has truncated tips to the style-arms and a soft pappus. 
To the former, which differs in no way from the Indian genus 
Notonia, belong K. Anteruphorbium (figured in last year s 
volume of the Magazine, Tab. 6099, under Senecio) and A. 
fulgens (Tab. nost. 5590); whilst to the latter belongs K. 
Haworthii (Tab. nost. 6063, Senecio), together with this and 
other species. Bentham (Gen. Plant., vol. n., p. 44J) lias 
rightly merged Kleinia into Senecio, and noted its passing 
into Notonia, which latter genus must no doubt tollow it , 
the Indian plant being regarded as an outlier of this succulent 

Fbbrvary 1st, 1876. 



group of Senecio, which extends from Marocco and the Canary 
Islands to Arabia, and thence to India. 

S. chordifolia is one of Mr. Cooper's South African dis- 
coveries; he found it at Busghersdorf, in the Albert province, 
in 1861. It flowered at Kew in July, 1874 ; the specimen 
was presented by Mr. Kennedy. 

Descr. A very slender, glabrous, fleshy plant, about a 
foot high, with a very sparingly branched stem that is woody 
towards the base. Leaves seven to ten inches long by a 
quarter of an inch in diameter, acute, cylindric, but flattened 
above towards the base, terete, smooth, pale green, drooping. 
Cymes very slender, six to ten inches long, sparingly forked, 
the branches erect, very long, with small subulate green 
bracts at the forks ; terminal pedicels slender, two to three 
inches long, lateral very short. Heads very few, two-thirds 
of an inch long, narrow. Involucre green, with a few bristle- 
shaped, spreading bracteoles at the base ; leaflets about six- 
teen, linear, acute, with membranous margins. Flowers 
yellow. Corolla-lobes very short. Style-arms truncate. 
Pappus very soft, white, and slender. Achenes slender, 
pubescent. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Whole plant, reduced; 2, branch, leaves, and cyme, of the natural size 
3, flower ; 4, stamen ; and 5, style-arms :— all magnified. 



COLONIAL AND FOEEIGN FLORAS. 



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62/7 




. 






Tab. G217. 
CYPRIPEDIUM Roezll 

Native of New Grenada. 

Nat. Ord. Orcrtdeje. — Tribe Cypripedieje. 
Genus Cypiufedium, Linn. (Endl. Gen. Plant., p. 220). 



Cypripedium (Selenipedium) Roezli ; foliis distichis elongato-lignlatia 2-pedalibu3 
2 poll, latis attenuato-acuminatis carinatis, scapo viridi multifloro vaginato, 
vaginis appressis, bracteis erecto-patentibus lanceolatis acuminatis ovarium 
superantibus, sepalo dorsali ovato-lanceolato acuto rubro-purpurascente, 
lateralibus in laminam ovato-oblongam obtusam labello rcquilongo supposi- 
tam connatis carneis, petalis sepalis duplo longioribus horizontaliter 
patentibus anguste linearibus pallidis rubro-marginatis, labello oblongo 
flavo-viridi, ore amplo margine auriculato, staminodio triangulari-cordato 
margine purpureo-villoso, ovario 3-loculari. 

Selenipedium Roezli, Ecltb. f. in Kegel Gartenfl., 1871, 1C3, t. 714, et 1878, 
97, t. 754. 

Cypripedium Roezli, III. Hort. N. S., t. 138. 



The nearest ally of this magnificent species is undoubtedly 
C. long i i folium (Tab. nost. 5970), which differs in its much 
smaller stature, narrower leaves, spreading sheaths of the 
purple scape, shorter, more obtuse dorsal sepals, and colour 
of the flower. In all essential characters they agree very 
closely indeed, and the almost identical structure and form of 
the lip and sexual apparatus suggest the possibility of their 
being races between which intermediates will be found. For 
horticultural purposes 0. Roezli is incomparably the finest of 
the two, not only in colour, but on account of its size, it 
being by far the largest of the genus hitherto discovered. 
Probably these species would hybridise with facility, but I 
see nothing to be gained by such a proceeding, C. longifoUum 
presenting no one superiority but the bright red colour of its 
scape. 

Cypripedium Roezli is a native of New Grenada, where it 
was found by Eoezl on the banks of the Dagua river, which, 
according to Kegel, occupies a valley between two ranges of 
the Andes. I find, however, no such river on the map, but 
a small towTi of Dagua on the western declivity of the Andes, 

March 1st, 1876. 



near the Bay of Choco. The specimen here figured flowered 
at Messrs. Yeitch's establishment in January, 1874. It is said 
to flower perennially and profusely, a statement inconsistent 
with the habits of any plants in continuous health, but 
which, if taken with the caution to be used in accepting the 
laudatory advertisements of choice plants, may be regarded 
as evidence of its being a very free ilowerer. 

Descr. Quite glabrous. Leaves two feet long and up- 
wards, nearly two inches broad, strap-shaped, narrowed into 
a point, keeled, deep green above, pale beneath. Scape 
sometimes three feet high, strict, green, many-flowered, 
sheaths appressed. Bracts three inches long, green, strict, 
erecto-patent, lanceolate, acuminate, compressed, rather 
exceeding the ovary. Flowers very large, five inches long 
from the tip of the dorsal sepal to that of the combined 
lateral ones, and seven inches broad across the petals. Dorsal 
sepal ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, waved, yellowish-green, 
with a suffused rose-purple border ; two lateral sepals com- 
bined into an ovate-oblong, obtuse, flesh-coloured, concave 
limb. Petals narrowly linear-lanceolate, horizontal, with 
bright red-purple border and tip. Lip three inches long ; 
saccate portion green, half the length of the whole, with 
auriclcd sides and truncate mouth ; edges of lip above the 
sac inflexed, with flat, dirty yellow surfaces speckled with pale 
red. Staminodes triangular- cordate, with red-purple villous 
margins. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Lateral, and 2, side "view of staminoile : — magnified. 



6m 







Tab. 6218. 
ANTHURIUM Saundersu. 

Native of Brazil ? 



Nat. Ord. Auoioe^. — Tribe Oeontie.e. 
Genua Anthurium, Schott (Prodr. Syst. Aroid., p. 486}. 




wiivjxio i -^ oiiuacasniuus o-puiucariDus augusce imeaii-iiiucuuiiiua f pun. u»uu> 
caudato-acuminatis integerrimis incurvis, peadunculo pollicari, spatba 
2-pollicari ovato-lanceolata alba spadice sequilongo, stigmate seasili obtuse 



The number of species of Anthurium appears to be very 
great, no less than 180 being enumerated in Schott's Prod- 
roraus. The humid forests of America, from Mexico to 
South Brazil, on both coasts, abound in species of varied form 
and statnre, from herbs a few inches high to gigantic climbers 
that by their weight bring forest trees to the ground. For 
hot-house culture, where perennial green foliage is required, 
no genus of plants is more commendable, because of the 
bright glossy foliage that attracts no insects and harbours 
few, the little care they require in culture, and the bad treat- 
ment they will endure and yet live. The Kew collection of 
them, which contains upwards of seventy species, besides 
varieties, has long been celebrated, though it never equalled 
that at the Imperial Gardens, Schoenbrunn, near Vienna, 
when under the directorship of the late Professor Schott, who 
made the collection and study of Aroids the labour of a life- 
time. 

Anthurium Saundersii was received from the rich collection 
of W. W. Saunders, Esq., but with no information as to its 
native country, under the name of A. coriaceum, Lind. ; but 
it widely differs from Endlicher's plant of that name, and 
approaches more nearly to A. Ottoniamm, Kunth., also a 
native of Brazil, and to one called A. jatrophcvfolium, in the 
Kew collection, a name I have not found in any publication. 

Descr. Stem as thick as a swan's quill, climbing, about 

March 1st, 1876. 



two feet in our plant, terete, rooting at the nodes. Leaves 
digitate ; petiole about six inches long, slender, terete, with 
an oblong thickened joint at the top ; leaflets about eight, 
eight to ten inches long, very narrow, linear-lanceolate, about 
half an inch broad, narrowed at the tip into long, slender, 
incurved points, and at the base into very short, channelled 
stalks, dark green above, the intra-marginal nerve connected 
with the midrib by regular, spreading, delicate venules, paler 
beneath. Peduncle about an inch long, stout, erect. Spathe 
two inches long, ovate-lanceolate, greenish- white. Sjmdix as 
long as the spathe, stout, sessile, purplish when the flowers 
are fully expanded. Filaments very broadly oblong; anthers 
broad, with rather large pores. Ovary broadly ovoid ; stigma 
sessile, square, with obtuse angles. — J.D. H. 



Fig. 1 , Flowers seen from above; 2, side view of a flower; 3, ovary : — alt 
magnified. 



6X7.9. 




' 



*-• Vincent BToriksDay 5cm Imp 



Tab. 6219. 

EPISCIA ERYTHROPUS. 

Native of New Grenada. 

Nat. Ord. Gesnerace^e. — Tribe Cyrtandre^e. 
Genus Episcia, Mart. (Benin, et Hook./., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 1006 bik*.). 



Episcia (Centrosolenia) erythropus ; glabriuscula, caule brevi, foliis 6-8-polli- 
caribus oblanceolatis caudato-acuminatis basi decurrente angustatis 
insequaliter dentieulatis petiolo costaque sanguineis sparse setulosis supra 
lrete viridibua subtus rubro-suffusis, pedunculis numerosia axillaribus 1-2- 
pollicaribus gracilibus 1-floris, ealycis segmentis subulato-lanceolatis, corollse 
pallide carnes tubo pollicari angusto basi saccato intus aurantiaco maculato 
fauce vix inflata, limbi plani obliqui lobis aequalibus rotundatis, ovario 
pubescente. 

Though evidently belonging to the Centrosolenia section 
of the genus Episcia, I have failed to identify this with any 
described species, or to match it with any specimen in the 
Kew Herbarium. The genus has a wide range, from Mexico 
to South Brazil, and most of its members are referable to the 
same section as this, which is distinguished by the absence of 
surculi, fascicled flowers, narrow calyx-lobes, and saccate base 
of the corolla-tube — a character evident in those members of 
the same section that are figured in this work, namely, 
E. chontalensis, Tab. 5925, and Centrosolenia glabra and picta, 
Tabs. 4552 and 4611. 

The genus Episcia has been remodelled by Mr. Bentham 
for the forthcoming part of the " Genera Plantarum," and 
divided into six sections, all figured in this magazine, and 
answering to the following genera of authors ; namely, his 
own genus Centrosolenia, which includes Trichodrymonia of 
Oersted; Nautilo-calyx of Linden (Tab. 4675); and five 
genera of Hanstein, viz., Physodeira (Tab. 4390), Cyrtodara 
(Tabs. 4312, 6136, 5195), Alsobia (Tab. 4089), and Skiophda 
(Tabs. 4720, 4866). As thus reconstructed, Episcia ^ very 
nearly accords as to limits with those assigned by Martius to 
it on its establishment. Episcia erythropus was introduced 
from New Grenada by Messrs. Yeitch, who sent the plant for 
figuring in March, 1874. 

Descr. Nearly glabrous, except a few scattered hairs on 

March Ibt, 1876. 



the petiole, midrib, and principal nerves beneath the leaf. 
Stem very short, stont. Leaves snbradical, a foot long, 
oblanceolate, candate- acuminate, decurrent on the stout 
petiole, irregularly toothed, bright green above, pale and 
suffused with red beneath, midrib and short petiole very 
stout, blood-red, nerves many, arching, also red. Flowers 
fascicled in the axils of the leaves, on slender single-flowered 
peduncles about one to two inches long. Calyx divisions 
subulate-lanceolate, quite entire, green. Corolla pale flesh- 
coloured, with orange-purple spots within the yellow throat 
and tube ; tube over one inch long, rather slender, with a 
saccate gibbosity at the base ; limb three-quarters of an inch 
in diameter, oblique, nearly flat ; lobes orbicular. Anthers 
short. Ovary pubescent. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Corolla laid open ; 2, pistil and disk : — both magnified. 



GZZO 




* 



Tab. 6220. 
TALINUM Abnotii. 

Native of South Africa. 



Nat. Ord. Portulace.«. 
Genus Talinum, Adans. (Benth. et Hook./., Gen. Plant., vol. i., p. 157). 



Talinum Arnotii; caudice robusto ligneo, ramis annotinis pedalibus, foliis 
brevissime petiolatis late oblongo-orbiculatis apiculatis basi et apice rotun- 
datis, floribus axillaribus, pedunculis foliis 2-3-plo longioribus, floribus fere 
1 poll diametro. 



This is one of a collection of plants of a very remarkable 
habit, which was sent to Kew in 1867 by the Hon. David 
Arnot, then Commissioner for the Griqua States, and residing 
at Eskdale, Albania. For the most part they presented more 
or less cylindrical or spindle-shaped woody stocks, of almost 
stony hardness, which serve as reservoirs of moisture and 
nourishing matter during the scorching droughts of the dry, 
stony district they inhabit. Of these some remained for 
several years in the stove before they showed any signs of 
life, and when they did so they proved to belong to very 
different natural Orders. Some were Asclepiadew of the 
genus Ceropegia and its allies, others Cucurbitacece, others 
ConvolvulacecD, and still others Geraniacece, Leguminosa, and 
Toriulacece, to which latter belongs the subject of the present 
plate, which, though imported as above stated in 1867, did 
not flower till six years afterwards. 

The genus Talinum is represented in South Africa by a 
widely diffused species, the old T. caffrum (to which the 
present is perhaps, too, nearly allied), which differs in the 
narrow leaves contracted at both ends, and, judging from 
dried specimens, the much smaller flowers. The only other 
Old World species is T. cuneifolium, Willd, a native ot 
Tropical Africa and Arabia, which extends eastwards into 
Western India. It has leaves more like those of T. Arnoin 
than are those of T. caffrum, but they are cuneatc at the 
base, and the flowers are racemose. . 

Desce. Trunk or root-ttock live to eight inches long, 

Makhc 1st, lS7tf. 



cylindric, woody, one to two inches in diameter, covered with 
light brown bark. Branches a foot long, erect, soft, succu- 
lent, cylindric, slender, sparingly divided, green. Leaves 
attenuate, almost sessile, one and a half inches long and 
nearly as broad, broadly orbicular-oblong, rounded at both 
ends, apiculate at the tip, smaller upwards, green, fleshy, 
margins quite entire, slightly recurved. Peduncles axillary, 
one-flowered, longer than the leaves, spreading, with a small 
bract, and sometimes a rudimentary flower-bud above the 
middle. Flowers one inch in diameter. Sepals ovate, acute, 
green. Petals obovate, acute, pale golden yellow. Stamens 
half the length of the sepals. Ovary almost globose ; stylo 
short ; stigmas slender, recurved. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Peduncle and flower; 2, ovary; 3, transverse section of ditto: — 
viagnified. 



622J. 




Brooks Do 



Tab. 6221. 
bouchea pseudogervao. 

Native of Brazil. 



Nat. Ord. Verbenace.e.— Tribe Verbene.e. 
Genus Bouchea, Cham. (Benth. et Hook, f., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 1144 /W.). 



Bouchea pseudogervao ; herbacea, annua, glabra, ramis obtuse 4-gonis, foliis 
petiolatis ovatis v. elliptico- v. ovato- acuminatis grosse argute serratis serra- 
turis apiculatis, spicis demum elongatis strictis, floribus brevissime pedicel- 
latis, bracteis parvis subulatis, calycibus elongatis rachi appressis dentibus 
subulatis, corollae tubo gracili curvo, lobis 2 superioribus minoribus inferiore 
ceteris majore omnibus late ovato-oblongis apice rotundatis, capsula calycem 
subsequante. 

B. pseudogervao, Cham, in Linnma, vol. vii., p. 254 ; Schauer in DC. Prod., 
vol. xi., p. 557; et in Mart. Fl. Bras. Verbenac, p. 195. 

Verbena pseudogervao, St. Hil. Plant. Us. Bras., t. 40. 

V. fluminnensis, Velloz. Fl. Flum. y vol. i., t. 38. 



An annual herb, often becoming almost shrubby at the 
base, widely distributed throughout the warmer parts of the 
South American continent, from Peru to the province of St. 
Paul, in South Brazil, inhabiting woods, waste places, and 
rubbish heaps. 

The genus Bouchea is closely allied to Verbena and Stachy- 
tarpha (see Tabs. 4211 and 5538, Stachytarpheeta), differing 
from the former in the two- (not four-) celled fruit, and from 
the latter in having four (not two) anthers, and in the position 
of the anther-cells, which are collateral (not pressed end to 
end). About sixteen species are known, natives of the 
Tropics of the Old and New Worlds and of South Africa.^ 

The name pseudogervao, literally "False Vervain,'' is 
derived from the likeness of this species to the Gervao, or 
common Verbena of South America. St. Hilaire remarks that 
the bruised leaves have a bad smell, notwithstanding which 
" quelques personnes, frappees de sa ressemblance avec le 
veritable Gervao, ont essaye de s'en servir egalement pour 
remplacer le the" ; mais la boisson qu'elle fournit n'a rien qui 
flatte le goiit." 

The plant here figured was raised from seeds imported 

March 1st, 1876. 



from Peru, and flowered by Messrs. Veitch in September, 
1874. The species varies greatly in the size of the corolla, 
some of those in the Herbarium having the limb not half an 
inch in diameter. 

Descr. An annual, nearly glabrous herb. Stems obtusely 
4-gonous, two to five feet high, green. Leaves opposite, 
petioled, ovate or elliptic-ovate, acuminate, narrowed into the 
petiole, coarsely, sharply serrate, the serratures mucronate, 
dark green and rugose above, paler beneath. Spike terminal, 
six to ten inches long, slender, strict, glabrous or puberulous; 
bracts ovate-subulate, green, appressed, much shorter than 
the calyx ; pedicels very short and stout. Calyx appressed 
to the rachis, two-thirds of an inch long, slender, slightly 
curved, tubular, with five small subulate teeth. Corolla-tube 
very slender, curved, twice as long as the calyx ; limb an 
inch and a half in diameter, pale red-purple; lobes spreading, 
broadly orbicular-oblong, tips rounded, two upper smallest, 
lower largest. Filaments short, anthers ovate. Ovary narrow, 
ovoid. Capsule shorter than or slightly exceeding the calyx. 
— J. D. II 



Fig. 1, Calyx, style, and stigma; '2, portion of corolla-tube and stamen; 3, 
ovary : — all magnified. 



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ARRANGEMENTS FOR 1876. 

EXHIBITION OF SPRING FLOWERS. 

WEDNESDAY, April 26. 

EXHIBITION OF CLEMATIS, 

From George Jackman and Sox, Woking Nursery, Surrey. 

DAILY, May 1 to May 23. 

SUMMER EXHIBITIONS OF PLANTS. 

WEDNESDAYS, May 24 ; June 21. 

SPECIAL EVENING FBTE. 

WEDNESDAY, July 5. 

PROMENADES. 

EVERY WEDNESDAY in May, June, Jcly, and the first two WEDNESDAY; 

in August, excepting May 24, June 21, July 5. 

LECTURES. 

In the Museum, at 4 o'clock precisely. 
FRIDAYS, Ma Juxe2, 9, 16, 23,30 



6222 







Brocks Day & Soalrap 



Tab. G222. 
SACCOLABIUM Hendersonianum. 

Native of Borneo. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide;E.— Tribe Vande^. 
Genus Saccolabium, Blume (Lindl. Gen. ct Sp. Orchid., p. 220). 



Saccolabium Hendersonianum ; caule brevissimo, foliis crassis distichis ligulatis 
subacutis carinatis apice integerrimis, racemo breviter peduncuiato cyuii- 
draceo multifloro, rachi glauca, bracteis parvis triangulares, noribus ^ pern, 
diam. roseia, sepalo dorsali orbiculato concavo, lateralibus longionDua Jjreo 
obovato-oblongis apice rotundatis, petalis sepalo dorsah sequilongis obovaus, 
labeUo ad calcar cylindraceum compressum pallidum rectum o»>u»um 
reducto, ore 3-dentato v. 3-cuspidato, columna brevissima, caudicuia recta 
subulata. 

S. Hendersonianum, Reichb.f. in Gard. Chron. N.S. (1875), vol. iv., p. 356. 



Dr. Keichenbach, in describing this bright-coloured species 
as a very curious and beautiful plant, further states that it is 
difficult to assign it a place amongst the known species, 
adding that it will be compared by beginners with tf. 
ampullaceum (Tab. nost. 5595) and 8. miniatum of Lmdl - (£> 
which might be added the S. miniatum of this work (lab. 
5326), which I have reason to believe is the true 6. 
curvifolium). All these species have, however, a distinct lip 
of a linear form, an organ reduced in 8. Hendersonianum to 
obscure teeth at the mouth of the spur, as in 8 .roseum and 
compressum. I am indebted to my friend Dr Reichcnbacli 
for identifying the plant, and to Messrs. E G. Henderson 
and Sons, of the Wellington Road Nurseries, for the oppor- 
tunity of figuring it. It was imported from Borneo, and 
flowered in 1874 ; but Dr. Reichenbach informs me that it 
has been in Europe ever since the year 1862. . 

Descr. Stem very short. Leaves four to six inches long, 
distichous, curved and spreading in various directions, very 
coriaceous, ligulate, subacute, but obscurely t™" 10 ^ * l "£ 
tip through the recurved tip being deeply channelled pale 
oreen. Raceme as long as the leaves, shortly peduncled, 



Apiui. 1st, 1S76 



stiff, cylindric, many-flowered ; flowers crowded ; peduncle 
and rachis pale green and glaucous ; bracts small, triangular. 
Perianth two-thirds of an inch long from the tip of the upper 
sepal to that of the spur ; bright rose-red, except the almost 
white spur. Dorsal sepals orbicular, concave ; lateral ones 
larger, obovate-oblong, with broad, rounded tips, and a dark 
rose-purple spot at their bases. Petals obovate, with rounded 
tips, smaller than the lateral sepals. Lip reduced to three 
teeth at the mouth of the cylindric, compressed, obtuse, 
straight spur, which is slightly falcate and rather contracted 
below the mouth. Column very short, with a slender, 
subulate rostellum. — J. D. II. 



Fig. 1, Flower; 2, spur and column -.—both magnified. 



6ZZ3. 



M^ih 






ys§ '"■ 













■J: 



'•■. '^Mir- 




1 



VmceirLBrooksLa. 



Tab. 6223. 

SEDUM PULCHELLUM. 

Native of the United States. 

Nat. Ord. Crassulace.e. 
Genus Sedum, Linn. (Benth. et Hook./., Gen. Plant., vol. i., p. 659). 



Sedum -pulchellum ; glaberrimum, ramis assurgentibus simpliciusculis foliosis, foIii3 
sessilibus erecto- v. recurvo- patentibus cylindraceis obtusis basi auriculatis 
auriculis obtusis v. in cornua divergentia productis, cymis umbellatis v. 
paniculatis 3-6-pollicaribua radiatis v. patento-recurvis simplicibus v. basi 
ramosis densifloris fructiferis erectis, floribus sessilibus secuudis, bracteis 
linearibus, petalis linearibus obtusis v. subacutis sepalis ovato-lanceolatis 
obtusis duplo longioribus, glandulis parvia truncatis, ovariis cylindraceo- 
oblongis in stylos subulatos longiusculos attenuatis. 

S. pulchellum, Michx. Fl. Bor. Am., vol. i., p. 277 ; Torr. et Gr. Fl. N. Am., 
vol. i., p. 559 ; Walp. Rep., vol. ii., p. 263 ; A. Gray, Man. Bot. N. U.S., 
p. 172 ; Gard. Chron., 1874, ii., p. 552, cum ic. xylog. 

8. pulchellum, DC. Prod., vol. iii., p. 403. 



The Stone-crops form one of the most attractive and 
easily cultivated features of the garden rock-work, and a vast 
number of ornamental species have still to be introduced. 
Upwards of twenty were cultivated at Kew in 1810, and 
described in Aiton's "Hortus Kewensis"; the number now 
grown is about fifty, amongst which that here figured is one of 
the most attractive. It is a native of the mountains of the 
United States, from Virginia to Georgia, growing in rocky 
places. 

The fine specimen here figured was sent by the Ecv. Mr. 
Ellacombe from his rich and admirably-named collection at 
Bitton Yicarage, between Bristol and Bath, one of the most 
favoured climates and soils in Britain for a general collection 
of the herbaceous plants of temperate climates, and of which 
advantages its accomplished occupant makes the best use. 
It flowers both at Bitton and Kew in July, and must not be 
confounded (as pointed out by Dr. Masters in the " Gardener's 
Chronicle ? ') with two plants commonly known in gardens as 
S. pulchellum, namely, S. sexangulare and S. Lijdium. 

Desce. Quite glabrous. Stems four to eight inches high, 



April 1st, 187G. 



abruptly ascending from the base, flcxuous,. terete, simple 
above, leafy. Leaves half to one inch long, scattered, sessile, 
cylindric, obtuse, smooth, pale green, the base produced into 
two longer or shorter ears, which sometimes form obtuse, 
spreading spurs. Cymes umbellately spreading from the top 
of the stem, or more rarely paniculately arranged along its 
upper half, three to six inches long, recurved, slender, very 
many-flowered, erect in fruit. Flowers nearly half an inch 
in diameter, quite sessile, 8-merous, except the central one 
in the forks, which is 10-merous ; bracts linear, green, nearly 
equalling the petals. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, obtuse. Petals 
twice as long, linear, subacute, rose-purple. Stamens shorter 
than the petals ; anthers purple-brown. Glands small, 
square, emarginate. Ovaries rather shorter than the stamens, 
cylindric, oblong, narrowed into slender, subulate, suberect 
styles.— J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Leaf ; 2, flowers ; 3, glands and carpels ; 4, fruit: — all magnified. 



6Z24 







Tab. 6224. 
11YP0ESTES AB1STATA. 

■««r 

Natm Of South Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Acanthaceje— Tribe Justicie^e. 
Genua Hypoestes, Br. (Benth. et Hook./., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 1122) 



IIypoestes aristata ; pubescens v. villosa, caule erecto ramoso, ramulis 4-goms, 
foliis petiolatia ovatia acutis integerrimis aubtus prcecrpue pubescenti-piio m, 
capitulia verticillatis inferioribua axillaribus auperionbua »»b^icate«, 
bracteia foliaceia, involucria ovato-lanceolatia longe ^ te ^^™J5?" 
connatia 1-3-floria calyce multo longioribua birtis, aepa is subulatis, corollae 
tubo elongate gracili piloso fauce senaim ampliato, labio antico integro 
acuto, postico elliptic* ad medium 3-lobato, stantibus labna dimidio 
brevioribu8, atyli lobis linearibua recurvis. 

H. aristata, Soland. in Poem, et Sen. Syst, vol. L, p. HO; Nee, in DC. Prod., 
vol. xi., p. 509. 

H. pluuioaa, Eckl. et Meyer in Herb. DregL 

Justicia aristata, Vahl, Symb., vol. ii., p. 2 ; Enum., vol. i., p. HO. 



The genus Hypoestes consists of some forty South African, 
Indian, and Australian plants, many of them weedy m habit 
and far from attractive in flower, to which, however, the 
subject of the present plate forms a conspicuous exception, 
being remarkable for its bright purple flowers, which are 
produced in profusion, and are prettily striped and spotted 
on the upper lip. It is a native of extra-tropical boutli 
Africa, from Algoa Bay to Natal, and is common m 
shrubberies. Nees, in De Candolle's "Prodromus gives 
Delagoa Bay (Forbes) as a habitat ; but this is a mistake lor 
Algoa Bay, where, as well as in the first-named locality, 
Forbes collected plants for the Horticultural Society in tnc 
year 1822. It would no doubt form an attractive warn 
greenhouse plant if properly treated as to wintering, tor, like 
all Cape plants, it must have a season of almost absolute rest. 
The specimen here figured flowered at Messrs. Veitcli s 
establishment in February, 1874. . . 

Desck. An erect, branched herb, two to three feet high, 



Atkil 1st 



more or less softly pubescent or almost villous throughout. 
Stems green, obtusely quadrangular, rather tumid at the 
nodes. Leaves two to three inches long, petioled, ovate, acute, 
quite entire, acute rarely cordate or rounded at the base, 
membranous, dark green, faintly pubescent above, and 
still more so beneath. Flowers in axillary clusters, which, 
being more crowded upwards, are there disposed in 
terminal stout spikes, enclosed singly or in pairs or threes in 
an involucre of two lanceolate, concave bracts, which terminate 
in long awns. Calyx of five subulate segments, much smaller 
than the bracts. Corolla one inch long, rose-purple ; tube 
slender, pubescent, expanding into a narrowly campanulate 
throat ; lips shorter than the tube ; upper elliptic, cleft to the 
middle into three acute lobes, the lateral lobes striped and 
the middle one spotted with purple ; lower lip much smaller, 
linear-lanceolate, acute, revolute, striped with white. Stamens 
shortly exserted ; anthers small, one-celled. Style with 
spreading, linear lobes. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower; 2, anther; 3, ovary, calyx, and involucre; 4 and 5, ovary 
and disk ; 6, vertical section of ditto : — all magnified. 




el w bfh 



tr&Smfap 



Tab. 6225. 

AINSLL&A Walkeri, 

Native of Hong-Kong. 



Nat. Ord. Composite.— Tribe Mutisiace^;. 
Genua AlNSLia:A, DC. {Benth. et Hook./., Gen. Plant,, vol. ii., p. 493). 



Ainsllea Walkeri; glaberrima inflorescentia puberula, caule simplici erecto basi 
folioso, foliis erecto-recurvis lineari-ligulatis aristato-acuminatis a medio 
basin versus sensim. angustatis apices versus pauci-spinuloso dentatis, pani- 
cula erecta elongata contracta, racbi rigida, ramis filiformibus infimia 
foliaceo-bracteatis apices versus florif eris, capitulis laxis patentibus et cernuis 
brevissime pedicellatis 2-3-floris, involucri bracteis ovatodanceolatis acu- 
minatia, corolla alba lobis 5 linearibus obtusis, antheris roseo-purpureia, 
acbaenio parvo superne setoso, pappi setis scabridis rigidis f uscis. 



A most graceful little plant, belonging to a very little 
known genus that inhabits the mountains of North-eastern 
India, China, and Japan, and of which only one species had 
been found in Hong-Kong until the discovery of the species 
here figured, by Capt. A. L. Walker when Brigade-Major in 
the island. Both species are instances of the wonderful 
localisation of the plants of that little island, which has been 
so well discussed by Bentham in his Flora of Hong-Kong. A. 
fragrans, the kind already described, and which has broad, 
radical leaves, has been found on Victoria Peak, where it is so 
rare as to have been gathered by only one collector. The exact 
locality of A, Walkeri is not known, but as it has escaped the 
notice of such keen collectors as Champion, Hinds, Hance, 
Wright, Seeman, Wilford, and others, it cannot but be very 
rare and local. Though only containing twenty-nine square 
miles, the diminutive island of Hong-Kong contains upwards 
of 1000 native species of Flowering Plants and Ferns, which 
is only one-third less than the British Islands possess. Many 
of the most striking of these are more rare even than the 
Ainsliacas. Thus, speaking of the trees, Bentham states of 
one that only three trees of it are known in the island ; of 
another that it was seen but once ; and of a third that its 
existence is only known from a specimen picked out of a 

Ai-ril 1st, 1876. 



faggot of wood which a Chinaman was carrying home ! 
Such facts as these, coupled with Capt. Walker's discovery of 
this Ainslicea, render it more than probable that not a few 
novelties still lurk in this little British possession. 

Ainsliwa Walkeri was communicated by Mrs. Walker, of 
Chase Cottage, Enfield, with whom it flowered for the first 
time in December last, the plant being then three years old. 

Descr. A rigid, erect herb, a foot high, glabrous below, 
slightly pubescent in the inflorescence. Stem cylindric, 
green, leafy below, above terminating in a strict rachis 
bearing many very slender, erecto-patent, floriferous branches. 
Leaves erect and recurved, three to four inches long, narrow 
ligulate, but narrowed from beyond the middle to the base, 
keeled, dark green, terminated by a short bristle and several 
very acute, subterminal teeth. Branches of panicle one to 
two inches long, the lower with foliaceous, the upper with 
minute subulate bracts. Heads very shortly pedicelled, few 
together towards the tips of the branches, horizontal or 
drooping. Involucre narrow, its scales ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, green. Flowers about three. Corolla white, with 
five linear, spreading lobes. Anthers pale red-purple. Achene 
short, with stiff, scabrid, discoloured pappus. — J. D. JI. 



Fig. 1, Head ; 2, flower from the same : — both magnified. 



Tab. 6226. 
DENDROBIUM fuscatum. 

Native of the Eastern Himalaya. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^e.— Tribe Dendrobie^e. 
Genus Dendrobium, Swartz {Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 74). 



Dendrobium fuscatum ; caulibus fasciculatis elongatis robustis undique foliatis 
subcylindraceis sulcatis, nodis non incrassatis, foliis distichis lanceolatis v. 
ovato-lanceolatis longe acuminatis striato-nervosis, racemis elongatis pen- 
dulis multifloris, rachi angulatim flexuoso, bracteis parvis lineari-oblongis 
obtusis appressis viridibus, pedicellis gracilibus, floribua 2 poll, diametr., 
sepalis petalisque consimilibus late oblongis obtusis incurvo-patentibus 
aurantiacis marginibus nudis, labello sepalis breviore late oblato cucullato 
villoso et fimbriato aureo plagis duobus purpureis basin versus, marginibus 
recurvis, mento brevi obtuso, columna brevissinia. 

D. fuscatum, Lindl. in Journ. Linn. Soc, Aug. 1858, p. 8. 



Lindley places this fine plant in his section Holochrym, 
correctly noticing its affinity with D. chrysanthum (Bot. 
Mag., t. 1299), from which, however, it differs totally in 
inflorescence and in wanting the crenated wings on the back 
of the sepals and petals. In my apprehension it is still 
nearer to D. fimbriatum, Hook. (Tab. nost 4160), a native of 
the same countries, but which has larger flowers and narrower 
leaves, and a much more rigid rachis of the raceme. The 
double spot on the labellum of D. fuscatum might be supposed 
to indicate a specific difference between this and D. fim- 
briatum ; but whereas the type of the latter species has a 
whole-coloured lip, the var. oculatum (Bot. Mag. supra) has 
a large blotch, which, if divided into two, would represent the 
markings of D. fuscatum. 

D. fuscatum was first known from specimens collected by 
myself in the hot valleys of the Sikkim Himalaya and the 
Khasia Mountains in 1818-1850, where it is far from 
uncommon. A fine drawing of it (by a native artist) exists 
in the Cathcart collection of Himalayan plants at Kew, and 
represents many racemes from one stem, one of which has 
fifteen flowers, all of a much deeper orange, almost orange- 
brown, colour than in our figure. The specimen here figured 

Apeil 1st, 1876. 



flowered in the garden of F. Currey, Esq., F.K.S., Sec. L.S., 
in April, 1864, and was imported, I believe, from the Khasia 
Mountains. 

Descr. Stems tufted, two to three feet long, nearly 
cylindric, grooved, leafy throughout, the nodes one to two 
inches long, not swollen, green. Leaves four to six inches 
long, sessile, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, very acuminate, 
striate, sheath short. Racemes numerous from the leafless 
nodes, four to seven inches long, drooping, shortly pedicelled, 
6-1 5 -flowered ; rachis very slender, zig-zag ; pedicels one inch 
long ; bracts linear-oblong, obtuse, appressed, green. Ovary 
small. Perianth two inches in diameter, dark orange-yellow, 
with two purple spots at the base of the lip. Sepals and 
petals nearly equal and similar, broadly oblong, obtuse, 
spreading, somewhat concave and incurved, margins quite 
entire ; lateral sepals produced behind into a short, obtuse 
spur. Lip shorter than the sepals, oblate-orbicular, with a 
recurved entire limb that is villous on the surface and 
fimbriate on the margin. Column very short. — J. D. H. 



62Z7 




ISncentBroc 



Tab. 6227. 
ALLIUM anceps. 

Native of California. 



Nat. Ord. Liliace^e. — Tribe Allied. 
Genus Allium, Linn. (Regel, Mon. Alliorum, 1875). 



Allium anceps t; bulbo solitario ovoideo tunicis membranaceis, scapo brevi lato 
acuto ancipite, foliia loratis glabris viridibus carnoso-herbaceis caule longiori- 
bus, spathae valvis 2-3 membranaceis brevibus deltoideis, umbellis densis 
30-100-floris, pedicellis flore longioribus, perianthii saturate purpurei seg- 
ments linearibus acutis flore expanso supra basin patulis, staminibus leviter 
exsertis, capsulis globosis vix cristatis. 

A. anceps, Kellogg in Proc. Calif. Acad., vol. ii., p. 109, t. 32 ; S. Wats. Eot., 40th 
Parall, p. 352 et 488, tab. 36, fig. 4-6 ; Regel, Mon. All., P- 251. 



This is a very curious species of Allium, remarkable for 
its dwarf habit, broad, flat, acutely-angular stems, and very 
dense umbels of bright purple flowers with acute segments. 
It inhabits the Sierra Nevada portion of the Eocky 
Mountains, both upon the Californian and Nevadan sides, at 
an elevation above sea-level of from four to five thousand 
feet ; and of course, like all the other known species of the 
genus — now, according to Dr. Regel's estimate, above 250 in 
number— is quite hardy in England in the open air. The 
plate was drawn from specimens sent by Messrs. Veitch, with 
whom it flowered in May, 1875. Our single dried specimen 
at Eew was gathered at Cisco by Dr. Bolander. There are 
two other species of similar habit in the same region, viz., 
A. falcifolium, Hook. & Arn., and A. Tolmiei, Baker MSS., 
the latter described as a variety of A. Douglasii in Hooker's 
" Flora Boreali- Americana," vol. ii., p. 185. 

Descr. Bulb solitary, ovoid, with membranous tunics. 
Scape two to four inches high, flat, acutely edged, one-sixth 
to one-quarter of an inch broad. ^Leaves two, leaving the 
scape at the base, lorate, thick, fleshy, falcate, glabrous, six 
to nine inches long, one-half to three-quarters of an inch 
broad. Valves of the spathe two or three, membranous, 
deltoid, shorter than the umbel, tinged with red. Flowers 



April 1st, 1876. 



thirty to one hundred, in a dense umbel; pedicels one- 
quarter to half an inch long. Perianth bright purple, one- 
third of an inch deep, the linear acute divisions spreading 
horizontally above a permanent basal cup. Stamens finally 
just exserted ; filaments uniform, subulate ; anthers oblong. 
Capsule globose, scarcely at all crested on the back of the 
valves ; seeds usually two in a cell. — J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1, A single flower ; 2, pistil : — 6of^ magnified. 



COLONIAL AND FOREIGN FLORAS. 



Flora Yitiensis; a Description of the Plants of the Viti or 
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Berthold Seemann, F.L.S. Eoyal 4to, 100 Coloured Plates, complete in one vol., 
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Flora of India. By Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.B.S., and others. Parts 

I. to III., 10s. 6d. each. ■ Vol. I., 32s. 

Flora Capensis; a Systematic Description of the Plants of the 

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Professor of Botany in the University of Dublin, and Otto Wilhelm Sondek, Ph.D. 
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Flora of Tropical Africa. By Daniel Oliver, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

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Tab. G228. 
HOODIA Gordoni. 

Native of Little Namaqualand . 
Nat. Ord. Asclepiadace^e. — Tribe Stapelie.e. 



Gen. Char.— Calyx brevis, 5-partitus, foliolis acuminatis basi glandulis minutis 
interpositis. CoroZZa tuboparvo, limbo maximodilatatoconcavosaepiusdemum 
explanato membranaceo nervoso obsolete 5-lobo, lobis abrupte apiculatis. 
Corona duplex, cyathiformis vel rotata ; exterior tubo stamineo septis affixa, 
5-partita, segmentis latis cavis bifidia vel plus minusve 2-lobis; interior 
squamis 5 septis antherisque basi adnatis oblongis incumbentibus. 
Antherce breves, oblongse, inappendiculatse, stigmati incumbentes et semi- 
immersas. Pollinia erecta, semi-orbicularia, funiculo appendice membranacea 
lanceolata munito. Stigma vertice subplanum. Folliculi utrinque acuminati, 
lseves. — Herbse cactiformes Africa? australis et tropica incolce. 

Hoodia Gordoni; corolla diametro 4-pollicari demum explanata intus glabra, 
coronse exterioris segmentis oblongis obscure bilobis. 

H. Gordoni, Sweet Hort. Brit., 2nd ed., p. 359. 

Stapelia Gordoni, Mass. Stap. Nov., p. 24, pi. 40 ; Don Gen. Syst., vol. iv., p. 11C. 

Monothylaceum Gordoni, Don. I.e. 

Scytanthus Gordoni, Hook. Ic, pi. 625. 



This very remarkable plant was discovered near the 
Orange Eiver by Colonel Gordon. He made a drawing on the 
spot, which Masson published in his " Stapeliae Novse " (1 796). 
For nearly half a century nothing more was known of it than 
this figure, which seemed so extraordinary " that our Stapeha- 
growers used to speak of it as a fiction." The plant, however, 
was rediscovered in quantity by Mr. Burke, a gardener of the 
Earl of Derby, who was sent out at that nobleman's expense 
to accompany Mr. Zeyher on an expedition for collecting 
plants and animals. Living plants were cultivated at Know- 
sley, Lancashire, Lord Derby's seat, but I am not aware that 
they ever flowered, the plate published in the " Icones 
Plantarum " being based upon Mr. Burke's dried specimens, 
presented with his other botanical collections to Sir. W. 
Hooker, and now in the Herbarium of the Eoyal Gardens. 

In 1874 H.E. Sir H. Barkly, the Governor of the Cape, 

May 1st, 1876. 



obtained from Henkries, near the Orange River, two fine 
specimens of this plant. One unfortunately died, but the 
other reached Kew in perfect condition, having been carefully 
suspended in a wooden box without earth. Sir Henry 
Barkly remarks that plants of Hoodia as well as Piaran- 
thus usually have a single tap-root with branchlets spreading 
out laterally at some depth, and that they often die when 
transplanted. The Kew plant appeared at first to be in 
excellent health, and after flowering in 1875 (for the first 
time, I believe, in Europe) made some growth, but at the 
beginning of the present year it rotted off at the crown with- 
out apparent cause. 

Descr. Stems numerous from the crown, erect or some- 
what spreading, cylindric, slightly branched, leafless, younger 
portions with closely-set spirally-arranged tubercles, ulti- 
mately confluent into prominent longitudinal ridges ; tubercles 
with a strong slightly-deflexed prickle swollen at the base. 
Flowers produced near the apex of the branches, 1-3-together, 
shortly petiolate. Calyx short, five-partite ; segments acumi- 
nate, with minute glands interposed between each pair. Corolla 
with a very short tube ; limb about four inches in diameter, at 
first slightly concave, ultimately nearly flat or even reflexed, 
obsoletely five-lobed ; lobes abruptly apiculate, membranous, 
with pale radiating nerves, pale brownish flesh-coloured, 
glabrous. Corona double ; exterior spreading, adnate to the 
staminal tube by five vertical septa, five-lobed, lobes oblong, 
concave, obscurely bilobed ; interior of five narrowly oblong 
incumbent scales adnate to the septa and the base of the 
anthers. Anthers short, oblong, inappendiculate, incumbent 
on the stigma and half-immersed in it. Stigma flattened at 
the apex. Pollen-masses erect. Follicles in pairs, tapering to 
each end, smooth. — W. T. T. D. 



Fig. 1, Reduced sketch of whole plant; 2, flowering-stem, natural size; 3, 
gynostemium from side ; 4, gynostemhnn from above ; 5, pollen-masses :-3-5 
are magnified analyses from flowers of Hoodia Currori preserved in spirit. 



6Z29 




■ 



Tab. 6229. 
ODONTOGLOSSUM pe^nitens. 

Native of New Grenada. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Tribe Vande^. 
Genus Odontoglossum, H. B. et K. (Lindl. Fol Orchid., Oaontoghssum). 



OdontoGlossum (Xanthoglossum) prcenitens; pseudobulbis elongato-oblongis 
anguatis coinpressis, foliis 6-8-pollicaribus Uneari-oblanceolatis acutis subtus 
carinatis enerviis, scapo gracili 6-8-flore, bracteis parvis acutia, floribus 2 
poll, diametr. aureis plagis latis fusco-purpureia, sepalia petalisque sub- 
similibus elliptico-lanceolatis acuminatis marginibus subundulatia, labelli 
ungue lineari-obcuneato albo basi utrinque 2-corniculato, lamina auborbi- 
culata crispata denticulata callis basi 2 corniiformibus porrectia et 
lamella lata denticulata disco adnata aucta, columna auriculata ecirrosa. 

O. prgenitens, Reichb.f. in Gard. Chron., N.S., vol. iii. (1875), p. 524. 



Reichenbach describes this as an interesting addition to 
our knowledge of Odontoglossa, allied to 0. triumpham, but 
with smaller flowers, and as suggesting the suspicion that it 
might prove to be a hybrid between that species and 0. tri- 
pudians : it however differed in the shape of the lip so much that 
he was obliged to abandon this idea. On the other hand, this 
justly celebrated Orchidologist speaks doubtfully of the specific 
value of 0. prcenitens in saying that it " may prove as good a 
species as 0. nevadense." 

0. prcenitens is a native of New Grenada, whence it was 
collected by Mr. Gustave Wallis for Messrs. Yeitch, who 
forwarded the specimen here figured in April, 1875. 

Descr, Pseudo-bulbs two inches long, narrowly oblong, 
slender, much flattened, with acute margins. Leaves six 
to eight inches long, recurved, narrow, linear-oblanceolate, 
acute, narrowed towards the base and there concave, nearly 
flat above, keeled at the back, dark green. Scape together 
with the raceme as long as the leaves, slender, inclined, six 
to eight-flowered, green ; bracts one quarter of an inch long, 
appressed to the pedicel, which with the ovary is from an 
inch to an inch and a half long. Flowers lax, two inchesin 
diameter, of a bright golden yellow and shining surface, with 

May 1st, 1876. 



irregular transverse blotches of brown-purple on all the seg- 
ments. Sepals and petals nearly equal and similar, elliptic- 
lanceolate, acuminate, rather waved. Column clawed ; claw 
linear-obcuneate, with a pair of horned calli on each side 
towards the base, its thickened disk terminating in two 
nearly horizontal horns that are as it were inserted at the 
base of the blade and project over it ; blade orbieular-reni- 
form, with a crumpled and toothed margin, and bearing on 
its disk a thickened plate with a toothed margin concentric 
with the margin of the lip itself. Column with short, broad 
anricles. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Side, and 2, front view of column and lip : — both magnified. 



6Z3C 










Tab. 6230. 
VITEX Lindeni. 

Native of Neio Grenada ? 

Nat. Ord. VerbenacejE. — Tribe Vitice^:. 
Genus Vitex, Linn. {Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 1154). 



Vitex Lindeni; frutex ramulis gracilibus junioribus et inflorescentia cano- 
puberulis, foliis 3-5-foliolatis, foliolia sesailibu9 ellipticis v. elliptico-obovatis 
abrupte acuminatis glaberrimis mernbranaceis, cymis axillaribus longe 
peduuculatis capitulffiformibus paucifloris, floribus brevissime pedicellatis, 
bracteis minutis, calyce cylindraceo-campanulato* breviter aequaliter 
5-dentato puberulo, corollae pallide violacea? tubo calyce ter longiore, limb 
plani labiis patentibus convexis superiore minore 2-lobo lobis'ovatis obtusis, 
inferiore 3-lobo lobis orbiculatis, genitabbus breviter exsertis, connectivo 
globoso, stigmatis lobis subulatis. 



Apparently a shrub or small shrubby tree, cultivated in the 
Palm House at Kew during the last three years, received 
from Mr. Linden in 1872, and a native presumably of New 
Grenada. It is closely allied to V. capitata, Yahl., of 
Trinidad, and V. Schomburgkiana, Schauer, of British Guiana ; 
differing from the former in the much shorter, broader leaf- 
lets without the caudate apices, and from the latter in wanting 
the soft tomentum of the leaves and branchlets, and from 
both in the more cylindric calyx. It flowers annually at 
Kew about the month of May. 

Descr. Stem erect, branches cylindric and covered with 
white bark. Branches very spreading, leafy towards the 
apex; branchlets covered with a very fine gray hoary 
pubescence, as is the whole inflorescence. Leaves opposite, 
three to five-foliolate ; petiole slender, one to three inches 
long ; leaflets sessile, as long as or longer than the petiole, 
elliptic or elliptic-obovate, with a rather abruptly narrowed 
point, quite entire, glabrous on both surfaces, membranous, 
pale green. Cymes in the opposite axils, capitate, on very 
slender naked peduncles that are much longer than the 
petioles, three to six-flowered. Flowers sessile or very shortly 
pedicelled, with a minute bract at the apex of the pedicel. 
Calyx about one-eighth of an inch long, between cylindric 

May 1st. 1876. 



and campanulate, five-toothed, hoary. Corolla-tube three 
times as long as the calyx, externally pale violet, streaked 
■with purple within. Limb two-thirds of an inch in diameter, 
pale violet, very spreading ; upper lip of two convex broadly- 
ovate lobes smaller than the lower lip, which has three nearly 
orbicular convex lobes. Stamens slightly exserted ; filaments 
inserted at a ring of hairs in the corolla-tube ; anthers blue, 
cells divaricate, connective globose. Ovary obovoid, sessile, 
slender ; stigma two-toothed. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Corolla laid open ; 2, anther ; 3, pedicel and calyx ; 4, ovary ;— all 

magnified. 



6Z31 



- 












Tab. 6231. 
CALCEOLAKIA tenella. 

Native of Chili. 



Nat. Ord. SCROPHULARiACEiE. — Tribe. Calceolarie.e. 
Genus Calceolaria, Linn. (Benth. et Hooh.f. Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 929). 



Calceolaria (Eucalceolaria) tenella ; pusilla, perennis, herbacea, prostrata, 
superne viscidula, ramia decumbentibus radicantibus, foliis brevissime petio- 
latis ovatia orbiculatisve subacutis marginibus recurvis v. planis integerrimis 
v. remote crenatia utrinque viridibus, corymbis subsessilibua v. pedunculatis 
laxe paucifloris, calycia laciniis late triangulari- ovatia subacutis puberulia, 
corollse glabra) labiis alte connatis auperiore concavo calycem superante, 
inferiore duplo majore orbiculato valde inflato ad medium aperto. 

C. tenella, Peep, et Endl. Nov. Gen. et Sp., vol. iii., p. 76, t. 287 ; Benth. in DC. 
Prodr., vol. x., p. 214 ; C. Gay, Flor. Chil, vol. v., p. 193. 



A very elegant little plant, of a bright glossy green, with 
pale golden flowers spotted with red within the corolla. It 
was discovered by the German traveller Poeppig in 1823, 
and gathered subsequently by the English botanical collector, 
Bridges, growing in sandy places and on wet rocks near the 
rivers of the Andes, and in Valdivia, and has since been col- 
lected by Lechler, Philippi, and various other botanists, up to 
an elevation of 4-5000 ft. 

Seeds of it were sent by Mr. G. Downton, when travelling 
for Messrs. Veitch, from which the specimen here figured 
was raised in 1873. It appears to be quite hardy, and like 
many other Chilian plants yet to be introduced, including 
not a few Calceolarias, it will prove an attractive ornament 
to the rock-garden. 

Descr. A diffuse, leafy, straggling, perennial kerb, more 
or less clothed with a fine viscid pubescence on the in- 
florescence, branchlets, and sometimes on the leaves. Branches 
slender, prostrate and rooting, with ascending branchlets. 
Leaves in loose or close-set pairs, shortly petioled or sessile, 
one-fourth to one-third of an inch long, ovate or orbicular- 
ovate, subacute, quite entire or distantly crcnate, green on 
both surfaces. Corymbs few-flowered/ terminating the branch- 

Ma\ 1st. 1878, 



lets, subsessile or on elongated slender peduncles, which are 
sometimes six inches long, and simple or dichotomously 
branched ; bracts of lower flowers leaf-like, of upper smaller, 
oblong. Flowers pedicelled, yellow, about half an inch long, 
shortly pedicelled, golden-yellow, with orange-red spots within 
the lower lip. Sepals triangular-ovate, obtuse or subacute, 
puberulous and viscid. Corolla glabrous, upper lip trans- 
versely oblong or reniform, inflated, united for three-fourths 
of its margins with the lower, which is three times as large, 
suborbicular, inflated. Capsule broadly ovoid, with a con- 
tracted, upcurved, obtuse apex hardly exceeding the calyx. 
Seeds very minute, red-brown, cylindric-oblong, abruptly 
apiculate at the rounded apices, grooved, and minutely trans- 
versely striolate. — J. D. H. 



Figs. 1, 2, and 3, Front, oblique, and lateral views of flower : — magnified. 



623Z 










Tab. 6232. 
ARUNDO conspicua. 

Native of New Zealand. 



Nat. Ord. Gramineje —Tribe Arundine.e. 
Genus Arundo, Linn. {Endl. Gen. Plant., p. 91.) 



Arundo conspicua ; dense caespitosa, culmis cum foliis basi crassitie digitis, 
foliis effusis erecto-recurvis angustis crassis coriaceis concavis laevibus mar- 
ginibus involutis scaberulis, apicibus longissimis scabridis, costa subtus 
valida, vaginis creberrime sulcatis, ligula e fasciculo pilorum tenuissimorum, 
culmis floriferis 3-8-pedalibus, panicula 1-2-pedali effusa copiose ramosa, 
ramis pendulis, spiculis § poll, longis pallide stramineis nitidis 1-3-floris, 
glumis vacuis sequalibus longissime acuminatis, glumis floriferis in aristam 
gracillimam tortam spiculam tequantem attenuatis basi pilis sericeis elongatis 
instructis, palea oblonga glumis mulloties minore. 

A. conspicua, Forst. Prodr., n. 48 ; Willi. Sp. PI., vol. i., p. 456 ; Hook.f. Flor- 
Nov. Zel., vol. i., p. 299; Handbook of N. Zealand Flor., p. 331. 

A. australis, A. Rich Voy. " Astrolabe," vol. i., p. 121 ; A. Cun. in Hook. Comp. 
Bot. Mag. vol. ii., p. 371. 

A. Richardi, Endl. 

A. Kakao, Steud. Synops. Glumac, vol. i.. p. 134. 

CalamaGROSTIS conspicua, Gmel. Syst., vol. i., p. 172 ; Kunth Enum. Plant., vol. 
i., p. 238. 

Achnatherum conspicuum, Pal. Beauv. Essais, p. 20. 

Gtnerium? zelanicum, Steud. I.e., p. 198. 



This, which is perhaps the most beautiful Grass known to 
me, is, though long ago introduced into England through 
Kew, now for the first time figured in any work. It was 
discovered by Banks and Solander during Cook's first voyage, 
and gathered during his second voyage by Forster, who 
published it in his " Floruit insularum austraham rrodro- 
mus " in 1786. It abounds throughout the Island of JNew 
Zealand, from the Bay of Islands to Otago, and w the 
Chatham Islands, growing in wet places, but » found in no 
other part of the world. It is the Toe Toe and Kakaho of 
the natives, who use the culms for lining their houses with a 
kind of reed-matting. 

Though long grown and increased, and a most ornamental 
plant for greenhouse and conservatory culture, holding its 

Mat 1st, 1876. 



splendid shining panicles for months, it is seldom, used for 
indoor decoration, and is rarely seen in the open border, 
where it resists an ordinary winter. In general habit it 
resembles the Gynerium argenteum, but is smaller and incom- 
parably more attractive, both from its elegant habit and the 
brilliant lustre of its pale straw-coloured silky spikelets. It 
was introduced into Kew about *the year 1843, I believe by 
the late Dr. Sinclair, R.N., and holds its flowers almost 
throughout the year. 

Descr. Tufts three to five feet across, circular, the leaves 
drooping gracefully all round. Culms as thick as the thumb 
at the base. Leaves two to four feet long, very slender, 
involute, coriaceous, deeply closely channelled, upper surface 
margins and long slender point scabrid ; sheath quite smooth 
and shining ; ligule of very soft silky hairs. Flowering- 
culm three to eight feet high, strict, leafy, the leaves re- 
flexed. Panicle inclined, one to two feet long, drooping, with 
innumerable pendulous branches all hanging to one side; 
branches whorled, and branchlets very slender, smooth. 
Spikelets pedicelled, two-thirds of an inch long, slender, 
one to three-flowered, with sometimes a fourth imperfect 
flower, pale straw-coloured. Empty glumes nearly equal, mem- 
branous, narrow-lanceolate, ending in almost capillary awns. 
Flowering-glumes also narrow-lanceolate, ending in twisted 
capillary awns that equal those of the empty glumes, 
surrounded at the base by long silky hairs. Palea oblong, 
short.— J. D. H. 



Fig. 1. Diminished view of a portion of a plant ; 2, portion of leaf, and 3, of 
, panicle, of the natural size ; 4, margin of leaf, magnified. 



Now Eeadt, in one vol. 8vo, with Maps, Coloured Plates, and Photo- 
graphic Views, price 21s. 

NATAL: 

A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE COLONY, 

INCLUDING ITS 

NATURAL FEATURES, PRODUCTIONS, INDUSTRIAL 
CONDITION AND PROSPECTS. 

BY 

HENRY BROOKS, 

FOR MANY YEARS A RESIDENT IN THE COLONY. 

EDITED BY 

DR. R. J. MANN, F.R.A.S., F.R.GKS., 

Late Superintendent of Education in the Colony. 



CONTENTS. 



I. Geographical Position and Character. 

II. Geological .Formation. 

III. Climate. 

IV. Wild Animal Life. 

V. Indigenous Vegetable Productions. 

VI. Early History. 

VII. British Colonisation and Rule. 

Mil. Social Progress and Prospects. 



ILL USTRATIONS. , 

PLATE 

1. Frontispiece. View on the Palmiet River, near Westville. 

2. Physical and Topographical Map of the Colony. 

3. Plan of the Inner Bay or Harbour. ' 

4. Sandstone Wall on the shoulder of Pietermaritzburg Table 

Mountain. 

5. Mines at the Diamond Fields on the Vaal River. 

6. The Valley of the Umgeni from Table Mountain. 

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13. Thunbergia Natalitia. 

14. Portrait of Lanpalibalele, Chief of the Amahlubi Kaffirs. 

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16. Kranzkop ; overlooking the Tugela Valley. 

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6233. 




.■.sBayttJoalnp 



Tab. 623^. 

MONOPYLE racemosa. 

Native of New Grenada. 



Nat. Ord. Gesneeacf.e.— Tribe Gesneke.e. 
Genus MONOPYLE, Moritz; (Jknth. et Hook. /., Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 997). 



Monopyle raceviosa, tenuiter pubescens, caule erecto, foliis petiolatis ovatis v. 
ovato-lanceolatia acuminatis serrulatis basi ;vqualibus acutis, racemo dense 
multifloro erecto, bracteis parvis oblongis recurvis, pedicellis calycem 
aequantibus, calycis lobis ovato-rotundatis obtusis patentibus superiore 
minore, corolla) albse tubo lato ventricoso iuferne gibbo, ore raodice con- 
tracto, liinbi brevis patentis lobis brevibus recurvis 3 inferioribus irregu- 
lariter inciso-dentatis. 

Monopyle racemosa, Benth. in Hook. Ic. PI, sub tab. 1198. 



A very handsome gesneraceous plant, referred by Beutham 

to a South American genns, of which no species has pre- 
viously been figured, or perhaps even cultivated in England, 
though, judging from the dried specimens of the six or eight 
known kinds, all are beautiful things and well worthy ol 
stove cultivation. In the form of the corolla and its toothing 
31. racemosa approaches nearer to the true Gloxinias than to 
the other species of Monopyle, nor has it the unequal pair oi 
leaves or unequally-based leaves that prevail in the latter 
genus. The American genera of Gesneracete, however, present 
unusual difficulties in respect to their limitation, and it 
remains to be seen whether the fruit of MonopyU racemosa 
resembles that of its supposed congeners in its very narrow 
clavate form. , , 

M. racemosa was raised from New Grenadan seeds \p 
Messrs. Veitch, who sent the specimen here figured m 
determination in July of last year. . . 

Descr. A rather stout herb, clothed throughout witu 
a soft pubescence. Stem cylindric, dark brown-purple. 
leaves rather close-set, opposite, petioled, pairs equal, o\ate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, serrulate, base equal and subacute, uppei 
surface bright pale green ; petiole a quarter to halt an incii 
long, reddish, with a bright pale-green swollen blotch ai 
its base, upon which blotch is an eye-like purple ooi 

Ji.ne 1st, 1876. 



on each side, forming a curious contrast to the dark stem. 
Raceme stout, erect, terminal, many-flowered, simple or 
compound at the base ; raehis stout, green ; bracts small, 
oblong^ obtuse, recurved, green ; pedicels about a quarter 
of an inch long. Calyx-tube hemispheric; limb expanded, 
of five unequal broadly- ovate obtuse lobes, the upper 
smallest. ^ Corolla white, one inch long, three-quarters of 
an inch in diameter across the broadest part of the ven- 
tricose tube, which is slightly curved and gibbous on the 
under side ; limb three-quarters of an inch broad, short, 
recurved, five-lobed, the lobes very broad, truncated, the 
three lower irregularly and rather deeply toothed ; obscurely 
spotted within. Stamens included, filaments slender, curved ; 
anthers cohering cross-wise, small, two-celled, with lon- 
gitudinal dehiscence; staminode minute, subulate. Disk 
depressed. Style short, curved; stigma obtuse.— J. D. H. 

Fig 1, Pedicel, calyx -limb, disk, and style ; 2, corolla laid open -.—both 
enlarged. ' ' ^ 



,.;•;;/. 







Ta'h 0234. 
DRACAENA Saposchmkowi. 

Native country unknown. 

.. — M 

Nat. Ord. Liliack,*:.— Suborder AsparagaCe^e..— Tribe. Drac.ene.*;. 
Genus Dracjena, Vand. : (Baker in Journ. Linn. Sue, vol. xiv., p. 523.) 



Dracaena Saposchmkowi; arborea, dichotomiter ramosa, foliis dense rosulatis 
sessilibus ensiformibus tripedalibus subcoriaceis viridibus, marginibus eon- 
coloribus, costa ad faciem inferiorem prater apicera perspicua, paniculae 
ampla? pedunculata? deltoidese ramis deflexis, bracteis minutis deltoideis, 
pedicellis 2-6-nis prope apicem articulati*, perianthio albido-viridulo 4 lin. 
longo, segmentis ligulatis tubo campanulato 3-4-plo superantibus, genitali- 
bus inclusis. 

D. Saposchnikowi, Hegel Gartenflora, vol. xx., p. 323, tab. 705 ; Jievis, p. 39 ; 
Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc., vol. xiv., p. 528. 



This is a species of tall, tree-like habit, of which the native 
country is unknown. It has been long in the Eew collection, 
but did not flower till the spring of 1875. The plant was 
described and named by Dr. Regel in 1871, from specimens 
which flowered in the garden of the Russian gentleman after 
whom it is named, who procured it from Herr Wagner, of 
Riga. It has close allies both in Tropical Asia and Tropical 
Africa. It is remarkable for its very dense rosettes of rigid, 
sword-shaped leaves, and for its very small flowers, which, 
although the panicle is ample and diffuse, are less than those 
of any other known species. 

Descr. Trunk arborescent, reaching in the Kew plant a 
height of ten feet, repeatedly forked when fully developed. 
leaves in a very dense rosette at the end of the branches, 
Bessile, ensiforra, reaching a length of two and a half to three 
feet, one and a half inch' broad at the middle, narrowed to 
less than an inch above the dilated base, bright greeny firm 
in texture, with a concolorous edge, and a midrib which is 
distinctly marked on the lower side except towards the tip. 
Flower* in ample, deflexed, deltoid, peduncled panicles with 
decurved branches; pedicels two to six in a cluster, one- 
eighth to one-sixth of an inch long, articulated just belowthe 
tip: bracts deltoid or lanceolate, whitish, usually shorter 

•Tinf 1st, 1876. 



than the pedicels. Perianth greenish-white, cylindrical, one- 
quarter to one-third of an inch long, the ligulate, spreading 
segments three or four times as long as the campanulate tube. 
Stamens inserted at the throat of the tube, shorter than the 
segments. Style included ; stigma obscurely tnree-lobed. — 
J. G. Baker. 



6255 




\tamLBrooks Bay & Son In? 



Tab. 6235. 
COTYLEDON TERETIFOLU. 

Native of South Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Cr.assulace.£. 
Genus Cotyledon, Linn.; (Benth. et Hook./., Gen. Plant., vol. i., p. 659). 



Cotyledon (Paniculatse)' teretifolia ; glanduloao-pubescena v. tomentosa, caule 
robusto ascendente, foliis aeasilibua hexastiche oppositis 2-5-pollicaribus 
subcylindraceis crasae camosis apicibua subspathulato-rotundati3 et dis- 
coloribus, pedunculo crasso erecto nudo v. foliis paucia oppositis alternisve 
instructo, cyma effusa ramia patentibus, calycis lobia triangulari-ovatia, 
corolla; aureae tubo brevi, lobia elongatia Uneari-oblongi3 acutia patenti- 
recurvia, filamentis conniventibua exsertis, glandulia hypogyniB parvis, car- 
pellia in stylos elongatoa apice patentes attenuatia, stigmatibua capitellatis. 

Crassula teretifolia, Thunb. Prod. Fl. Cap., p. 83 ; DC. Prod., vol. iii., p. 397; 
Harv. et Sond. Fl. Cap., vol. ii., p. 373. 



The Cape Crassulacese, once the favourites of the green- 
house, have, with the exception of some gaudy Crassulas, 
long gone out of fashion amongst cultivators, or are relegated 
to the specialist or botanist. Nevertheless, they comprise a 
series of as beautiful and easily cultivated plants as any group 
of the vegetable kingdom, and that their day will dawn again 
is certain. Already, indeed, the rich collection in the Suc- 
culent House at Kew has many admirers, and, thanks espe- 
cially to this and to the example and liberality of Mr. Wilson 
Saunders, the number of cultivators of this class of plants who 
regularly correspond with Kew is very considerable. 

The genus Cotyledon, which is represented in England only 
by the curious Navel- wort, so common on the walls and rocks of 
the south and west coasts of the British Isles, and in Europe, 
North Africa, and West Asia by a few other species, attains its 
maximum of development in South Africa, where upwards of 
twenty species are known, and from whence not a small 
number have been so imperfectly described that they cannot be 
identified ; for, indeed, it is a genus that can only be studied 
upon living specimens. In South Africa it is chiefly confined 
to the south-western corner of the continent, most of the 
species occurring in the Cape Town district. To this 

Junb 1st, 1876. 



C. teretifolia is rather an exception, it being found as far to 
the east as the province of Graaf Eeinet and Somerset, where 
it forms an undershrub on the hills. Living specimens have 
been received at Kew from Mr. Wilson Saunders in 1873, 
and from the late Mr. D. Hanbury, which flower in the month 
of July. 

Descr. A branching undershrub, clothed with a more or 
less dense pubescence of short, soft hairs, which are glandular 
on the inflorescence especially. Branches as thick as the 
finger, and a foot or more long. Leaves opposite, in six series 
round the branches, three to eight inches long, cylindric or 
nearly so, contracted towards the sessile base, rather expanded 
towards the tip into a triangularly rounded discoloured apex, 
the old ones obscurely flattened and channelled down the 
middle, pale green except the red-brown apex. Peduncle six 
to eighteen inches high, stout, terete, naked, or with one or 
two opposite or alternate small leaves. Cyme four to ten 
inches in diameter, nearly flat-topped; bracts scattered, 
linear, deciduous ; pedicels spreading, half to one and a half 
inch long. Calyx-tube obscure, lobes of variable length and 
breadth, triangular-ovate, acute, glandular. Corolla bright 
yellow, tube rather longer than the calyx-lobes, five-angled; 
limb of five spreading and reflexed narrow acute segments, 
which are glandular on the back. Stamens erect, exserted, 
with the filaments slender and conniving by their middle ; 
anthers very small. Hypogynous glands minute, emarginate. 
Carpels elongate, narrowed into slender styles with radiating 
tips ; stigma capitate. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower; 2, carpels and hypogynous glands:— both magnified. 



6236 




: i\£ho.daUh 



IfincenLBiookEl i 



Tab. 6236. 
milla leichtlinii. 

Native of Chilian Andes. 



Nat. Ord. Liliace^e. — Tribe Milled. 
Genus Milla, Cav. ; (Bake?' in Journ. Linn. Soc., xi., 378). 



Mill A Leichtlinii; cormo magno globoso collo elongato, foliis 5-6 synanthiis 
erectiB loratis viridibus obtusis facie canaliculars urabellas superantibus, 
scapis brevissimis, umbellis 1-3-floris, spathse valvis 1-2 lanceoiatis mem- 
branaceis, pedicellis crassis brevissimis, perianthii rotati tubo cylindrico 
viridulo pollicari, segmentis albis oblongis patulis tubo duplo breyioribus 
dorso viridi vittatis, staminibus prope faucem tubi obscure biseriatia 
antheris parvis oblongis, ovario oblongo, stylo elongato, stigmate obscure 
tricuspidato. 

M. Leichtlinii, Baker in (lard. Ckron., 1875, p. 234. 



This is a very distinct new species of Milla. It is a 
native of the Chilian Andes, and was imported to Europe by 
our indefatigable correspondent, Max Leichtlin, Esq., who 
presented a living plant and seeds to the Kew collection, 
where it flowered at the latter end of January, 1874. It is 
quite hardy, and the flowers are slightly fragrant. In struc- 
ture it comes near M. porrifolia, Baker (Bot. Mag., t. o9'J7), 
but the habit is totally different, the peduncles and pedicels 
being so short as to mix up the flowers amongst the leaves 
near the surface of the soil, and here the flower is much 
larger, with a tube twice as long as the segments, instead oi 
only a third or half as long. There is a M. sessiliflora in 
Chili of similar habit to the present species, which has not 
yet been introduced, with leaves a line broad and solitary 
flowers with narrow segments. 

Descr. Corm globose, an inch thick, sending out copious 
radical fibres, and furnished with a long, thick neck sheathed 
by the bases of the outer leaves. Produced leaves about half- 
a-dozen to a cluster, contemporary with the flowers and over- 
topping them, erect, glabrous, bright green, lorate, obtuse, 
three to four inches long, a quarter of an inch bread. 
channelled down the face. Umbels two to three to a corm, 

JrxB 1st. L876. 



each one to three-flowered, the peduncle not rising above the 
surface of the soil ; spathe one and a half inch long, formed 
of one or two lanceolate, membranous valves ; pedicels very- 
short. Perianth rotate, one and a half to one and three- 
quarters of an inch long, with a greenish cylindrical tube 
twice as long as the oblong, spreading segments, which are 
pure white on the face, but marked with a distinct green 
keel down the back. Stamens obscurely biseriate, inserted 
near the throat of the tube ; filaments flattened, greenish, 
a quarter of an inch long; anthers small, oblong, yellow, 
versatile. Ovary oblong, sessile, with very numerous hori- 
zontal ovules in each cell; style filiform, reaching to the 
throat of the tube ; stigma obscurely tricuspidate. Capsule 
oblong, membranous, half an inch long. Seeds black, sub- 
globose.— J". G. Baker. 




■ a: hi? ' 



Vincent Broote Day & Son tap 



Tab. 6237. 
ODONTOGLOSSUM Hallii. 

Native of Peru and New Grenada. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^c. — Tribe Vande.e. 
Genua OdONTOGLOSsum, II. B. et K. ; {Lindl. Fol. Orchid., Odontoylo&sum). 



ODOntoglossum (Euodontoglossum) Hallii; pseudobulbis ovatis compressis- 
marginibus acutis, foliis pedalibus ensiformibus acuminatis basi angustatis, 
scapo gracili elougato, racemo multifloro laxo nutante, bracteis ovato- 
lanceolatis acuminatis, sepalis petalisque consimilibus oblongo-lanceolatis 
caudato- acuminatis aureis badio late fasciatis, labelli albi maculis 5 san- 
guineis notati lobis lateralibus angustis erosis terminali dilatato transverse 
oblongo eroso apice emarginato in sinu aristato, disco basi cristis 2 pec- 
tinatis ornato, coluinnae alia apicis versus pectinatis. 

Odontoglossum Hallii, Lindl. in Bot. Reg., sub t. 1992 ; Fol. Orchid., Odontogloss., 
p. 3 ; Bateman Monog. Odontogloss., t. 21 ; Walp. Annal., vol. vi., p. »2* ; 
Reich. Xen. Orchid., vol. i., p. 63. 



Though differing somewhat in marking and slightly in 
characters from the typical form of 0. Hallii figured by 
Bateman, this must unquestionably be referred to that most 
variable species ; the only other to which it is allied being 
0. luteo-purpureum, Lindl. (Bateman, I.e., t. 17), which it 
approaches in the more pectinate wings of the column and 
in the broad terminal lobe of the lip, whilst it differs from 
the latter plant in the colour of the flowers and the much 
smaller bracts. I cannot, however, doubt that these two sup- 
posed species are referable to varieties of one, as a consider- 
ation of the varieties they severally exhibit tends to show. 
Mr Bateman indicates the clawed sepals and petals as chiefly 
distinguishing 0. Hallii from luteo-purpureum, but I can find 
no difference in this respect either in his drawings or in 
native specimens; in fact, those organs are not clawed in 
either species. 

O. Hallii is a native of the Temperate Cordilleras of 
Peru and New Grenada, where it attains an elevation of 
eight thousand feet. The specimen here figured was flowered 
by Messrs. Backhouse, of York, in March, 1866. 

Descr. Pseudobulbs three to five inches long, ovate, 

Junb 1st, 18/6. 



compressed, with acute margins. Leaves a foot long, ensi- 
form, acuminate, narrowed to the base, channelled in front, 
keeled on the back, deep green. Scape one to two feet long, 
slender; raceme as long, many-flowered; bracts ovate- 
acuminate, much shorter than the pedicel, which, with the 
ovary, is an inch long. Perianth three inches in diameter. 
Sepals and petals spreading, subsimilar, elliptic-lanceolate, 
caudate-acuminate, with recurved points, golden yellow, 
with broad transverse bands and spots of rich yellow-brown. 
Lip fiddle-shaped in outline, white, with a broad heart- 
shaped blood-red spot on the disk of the middle lobe, and 
two smaller ones on each side of the lateral lobes, margins 
erose all round ; lateral lobes narrow, terminal, much dilated, 
transversely oblong, emarginate, with a short awn in the 
sinus; disk with two parallel pectinate crests extending 
from the base of the column between the lateral lobes, the 
spines of the crests curving forwards and outwards. Column 
white, its wings near the apex pectinate, with a few decurved 
spines. — J. D. H. 



Fig 1, Column and lip -.—enlarged. 



6238 




tckidelel Lith 



Tab. 6238. 
HEPTAPLEURUM polybotrtum. 

Native of Java. 



Nat. Ord. AbaliacejE. — Series Panacea. 
Genua Heptapleurum, Gcertn. ; (Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. Plant., vol. i., p. 942). 



Heptapleurum polybotryum ; subacandens, fere glaberrimum, caule elato gracili 
simpliciusculo verrucoso, foliis gracile petiolatia digitatis, foliolis 5-7 petio- 
lulatis oblongo-ellipticia -ovatia v. -obovatia caudato-acuminatis integerrimis 
basi cuneatis v. rotundatia, petiolo gracili basin versus verrucoao, petiolulis 
basi incrassatis apice subarticulatis, stipula axillari, racemis axillaribus et ad 
apicem caulis subverticillatim confertis elongatis gracilibus, pedunculis 
gracilibus, umbellulis 8-16-floris, floribus parvis 5-andris, calycis henri- 
spberici limbos obsoletos, petalis ovatis calyptratim cohserentibus, filamentia 
elongatis, antheris parvis didymis, stigmatibus 5 papillasformibus. 

Heptapleurum polybotryum, Seem. Journ. Bot., vol. iii., p. 78. 
Paratropia polybotrya, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat., vol. i., pars, i., p. 755. 
P. Tesymanniana, Hort. 
? Sciodaphyllum subavene, Blume Bijd., p. 876. 



A very handsome, free-growing plant, of the large tropical 
family of which the common Ivy is one of the few northern 
representatives. The genus to which it belongs, long and 
well known under the name of Paratropia (a name which 
must give way to the prior one of Heptapleurum), comprises 
upwards of sixty species, all natives of the Old World, some 
of which are amongst the most common and handsome trees 
of the Indian forests, being remarkable for the density of 
their evergreen foliage. 

IT. polybotryum is a native of the mountain forests of 
Java, where it attains the elevation of four thousand three 
hundred feet, and whence specimens from various collectors are 
preserved in the Ke w Herbarium. It has been long in cultivation 
at Kew 5 having been received in 1860from the late Dr. Miquel, 
at that time Professor of Botany, and in charge of the Botanic 
Gardens of Utrecht. It flowers in the winter months, and is 
probably common in Continental gardens, as it appears in 
Linden's catalogue under the name of Paratropia Teysman- 
niana, the provisional name under which it was received at 
Kew from Dr. Miquel. 

JtfNK 1st 1876. 



Desce. A slender, sparingly-branched, large shrub that 
climbs or supports itself amongst the surrounding trees of the 
forest, and in cultivation requires the support of a rafter or 
stout staff, glabrous, except the young racemes, which have a 
minute, scattered, and very deciduous stellate pubescence. 
Stem covered with hemispheric warts. Leaves alternate, 
digitate; stipule axillary, with its concavity to the stem, 
embracing the base of the raceme ; petiole five to eight inches 
long, slender, swollen at the base and apex, warted in the 
lower half ; leaflets five to seven, six to eight inches long, 
petiolulate, oblong-ovate -obovate- or -oblong, caudate-acumi- 
nate, quite entire, base rounded or cuneate ; petiolule half to 
one and a half inch long, slender, almost globose at the base. 
Racemes a foot and upwards long, solitary and axillary or 
terminal and crowded, slender, spreading ; bracts very deci- 
duous ; peduncles slender, half to three-quarters of an inch 
long ; pedicels quarter of an inch long, also slender. Floivers 
small, green. Calyx-tube one tenth of an inch long, hemi- 
spheric ; limb none. Petals as long as the calyx-tube, ovate, 
cohering into a cap. Filaments slender, spreading, four times 
as long as the petals ; anthers small, didymous. Ovary five- 
celled ; stigmas reduced to hemispheric papillae. Fruit the 
size of a pepper-corn, globose, five-celled. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1. Reduced view of whole plant ; 2, portion of leaf -stem, with leaf and 
inflorescence of the natural size ; 3, flower ; 4, the same with the petals cohering 
in a cap around the anthers ; 5, the same with the petals removed ; 6, transverse 
section of ovary :— all magnified. 



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BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 

CONTENTS OF No. 378, JUNE. 1876. 

Tab. 6233.— MONOPYLE RACEMOSA. 
„ 6234.— ERACJ3NA SAPOSCHNIEOWI. 
,, 6235.— COTYLEDON TEEETIEOLIA. 
„ 6236.— MILLA LEICHTLLNIL 
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„ 6238.— HEPTAPLEEREM POLVBOTRYEM. 
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NATURAL FEATURES, PRODUCTIONS, INDUSTRIAL 
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BY 

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FOB MANY YEARS A RESIDENT IN THE COLON T. 
EDITED BY 

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CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER 


I. 


Geographical Position and Character. 


II. 


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IV. 


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V. 


Indigenous Vegetable Productions. 


VI. 


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VII. 


British Colonisation and Rule. 


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13. Thunbergia Natalita. 

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6Z39 




W Filch del tilth 



'Jay&Soainp 



Tab. 6239. 

COSMIBUENA obtusifolia, var. latifolia. 

Native of Neiv Grenada: 



Nat. Ord. lRubiace.e.— Tribe Cinchoneje. 
Genus CoSmibuena, Ruiz et Pav. (Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 40}. 



Cosmibuena obtusifolia ; glaberrima, foliis late elliptico-ovatia obtusia coriaceis 
stipulis magnis oblongis, floribus subcorymbosis pedicellatis, calycis limbo 
cylindraceo insequaliter 5-dentato v. 5-lobo, corollse albse tubo elongato fauce 
ampliato, limbi lobia oblongis apice rotundatis imbricatis, antheris sessilibus 
apicibus exsertis, disco conico truncato, stigmatibus brevibua obtusia. 

C. obtusifolia, Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Per. et Chil., vol. iii., p. 3. 

Buena obtusifolia, DC. Prod., vol. iii., p. 356; Klotzsch. in Mayne Arzneig.,, 
vol. xiv., t. 15. 

Cinchona grandiflora, Ruiz et Pav. I.e., vol. ii., p. 55, t. 198. 

Var. latifolia, calycia limbo cylindraceo 5 lobo lobis oblongis obtusis. 

Buena latifolia, Benth. Plant. Hartweg., p. 191 ; Walp. Rep., vol. vi., p. 69. 



This handsome plant seems to be widely spread in the hot 
valleys of the Andes of Canca in New Grenada to Tarapoto 
in Peru, forming a beautiful small tree, twenty to thirty feet 
high, with white fragrant flowers and a slightly bitter bark. 
It varies very much in the size and form of the calyx-limb, 
so much, in short, that I long hesitated before referring the 
form here figured with that figured by Ruiz and Pavon, in 
which the calyx-limb is not half the size, and has short, very 
acute teeth. Specimens from nine different localities preserved 
intheKew Herbarium display an almost perfect transition 
from a calyx-limb upwards of half an inch long with 
obtuse lobes, to one not one-sixth of an inch long with acute 
teeth. The flowers, too, vary greatly in size, lhose ol var. 
latifolia are the largest of any, and most numerous mtne 
corymb. In the " Genera Plantarum," vol. u., p. 40 i nave 
described the aestivation of the corolla as contorted and 
twisted either to the right or the left ; in the fresh specimens 
I find them to be twisted and imbricate, whence 1 suspeci 



July 1st, 1876. 



that this character, so constant in Rubiacew as a rule, is in this 
genus an inconstant one. 

C. obtusifolia was sent to Kew by M. Linden, of Brussels, 
under the name of Cascarilla grandifolia, which I do not 
find in any publication ; it grew to a considerable size m the 
Palm House, but never flowered. A cutting, however, given 
to Mr. Howard and placed in a stove, speedily flowered, and 
from it the accompanying drawing was made. 

The Peruvians, according to Mr. Spruce, call this plant 
" Azahar-sisa," because the flowers smell like" Agua de 
Azahar" (orange-water.) 

Bescr. A small glabrous tree. Leaves opposite, petioled, 
three to six inches long, elliptic or rarely more or less ovate 
or obovate, rounded at the tip, coriaceous, narrowed into the 
petiole, which is one to one and a half inch long ; under- 
surface pale, nerves obscure. Flowers in terminal cymes, 
peduncles stout, one half to three-quarters of an inch long. 
Calyx-iube obconic or clavate ; limb half an inch long, 
cylindric, coriaceous, deciduous, 5-fid above the middle, lobes 
obtuse, unequal. Corolla white, very odorous ; tube three 
inches long, somewhat dilated for half an inch at the throat ; 
limb spreading, segments five, oblong, rounded at the tip, 
suffused with red on the outer surface, imbricate and twisted 
in bud, with two segments inner and one outer. Stamens 
sessile in the throat of the corolla, long, narrow, their tips 
exserted. Dish conical; style slender; stigma bifid. — 
J. D. H. 



Fig. I, Estivation of corolla-lobes; 2, upper part of corolla laid open ; 8, 
ovary, disk, Btyle, and stigma ; 4, transverse section of ovary : — all enlarged. 



6Z40 







'tis, Day JtSonlmp 



Tab. 6240. 
PESCATOKIA LAMELLOSA. 

Native of New Grenada. 

Nat. Ord. OrCHide.e.— Tribe Vandm. 
tienua Pescatoria, Reich, f. in MoJil et Schkcht. Bot. Zdt., vol. x.,p, 667 (1852). 



Pescatoria lamellosa ; pseudobulbis 0, foliis pedalibus sessilibus auguste lanceo- 
latiB acuminatis basi angustatis, pedunculis validis 1-floris, bracteis oblongis 
appressis viridibus, floribus 2£ poll, diam., sepalis flavo-viridibus, dorsali 
elliptico, lateralibus majoribus oblongis acutis, petalis concoloribus spathu- 
lato-oblongis acutis, labello lamina ovato-orbiculari convexo strainineo, 
crista elevata semicirculari creberrime laniellata, lamellis aurantiacia et 
brunneis, column a crassa, antice rufo- striata. 

Pescatoria lamellosa, Reich./, in Gard. Chro?t., vol. iv., 1875, p. 225. 



I have again followed my friend, the younger Eeichen- 
bach, in keeping up his genus Pescatoria (often wrongly 
spelled Pescatorea), adopting his reference of P. lamellosa to 
that genus in the " Gardener's Chronicle" of last year, though 
inclining more strongly than ever to adhere to the course he 
adopted in 1861 of reducing Pescatoria to Zygopetalum (see 
observations made on figure of P. Day ana, tab. 6214). 
P. lamellosa is not nearly so handsome a species as the last- 
named, though sufficiently attractive j it flowered at Yeitch's 
establishment in August of last year, to which the plants 
were sent by its discoverer, Mr. Wallis, from New Grenada. 

Descr. Densely tufted. Pseudobulbs none. Leaves a 
foot long by one to two inches broad, narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, narrowed to the base, membranous, five-ribbed ; the 
sheath one to one and a half inches long, hardly broader than 
the base of the blade, green, striated. Peduncles solitary, 
stout, three inches long, with two appressed oblong obtuse 
green obliquely truncate sheaths, and a similar bract ap- 
pressed to the ovary. Flower two and a half inches in 
diameter, of a nearly uniform yellow-green colour, except the 
lip, which is yellowish-white with an orange and brown 
crest. Dorsal sepal elliptic, acute; lateral larger, oblong. 
Petals spathulate, oblong, acute. Lip nearly orbicular in 

Jult I»T, 1876. 



outline, with a cordate base ; limb concave with, decurved 
margins ; crest semicircular, much raised, formed of narrow 
close-set concentric plates streaked orange and brown. 
Column very stout, curved, striated down the broad face. — 
J. D. H. 

Fig 1, Column ; 2, lip -.— both enlarged. 



.;;•// 




VmcfiniBrooksDa, 



Tab. 6241. 

COREOPSIS (TUCKERMA.NNIA) MAKITMA. 
Native of California. 



Nat. Ord. Composite. — Tribe HelianthoidejE. 
Geau9 Coreopsis, Linn. {Benth. et Hook./. Gen. Plant., vol. ii., p. 885). 



Coreopsis (Tuckermannia) maritima ; perennis, glaberrima, caule elato robuato, 
foliis sparsia bipinnatifidis, seginentis recurvo-divaricatis anguste linearibus 
acutis integerrimis, pedunculia validis 1-floris, capitulis aurei8 3-3 \ poll, 
diam., involucri exterioris bracteis 6-8 herbaceia patentibua anguate 
lineari-oblongis, interioria bracteis membranaceis 8-10 2-seriatis appresaia 
oblongis obtusis coloratis, receptaculi paleis lineari-lanceolatia acuininatia, 
fl. radii ad 20 foetnineis, ligulis late lineari-oblongis minute 3-dentatis, fl. 
disci tubo angusto medio barbellato limbo parvo, achasniis calvia com- 
pressis laevibu3. 

C. (Tuckermannia) maritima, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. New Ser., vol. vii., 
p. 363 ; Torr. et Gray, Fl. N. Am., vol. ii., p 355. 

Leptogtke maritima, A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts fy Sc, vol. vii., p. 358. 



A native of maritime rocks in California, where it was 
discovered by Nuttall in 1834-5, and introduced by him into 
American gardens, and from whom we have dried specimens 
collected at St. Barbara and at Utah. There are also 
specimens in the Hookerian Herbarium, collected earlier still 
by Coulter, but from what precise locality is not indicated. 
The specimens here figured were received from Mr. Thompson, 
of Ipswich, and flowered both at Kew and at Ipswich in 
September, 1873-4. It is described as a perennial in America, 
but is of annual duration in this country. It must not be 
confounded with the Leptogyne maritima, A. Gray (fide Noblet 
in Rev. Hortic, 1873, p. 330), a plant of similar habit, but 
with very much broader and shorter ovate outer involucral 
bracts, and six to nine very much broader ray flowers, and 
which is nothing but Agarista calliopsidea, A. Gray, a genus 
referred to a section of Coreopsis in the "Genera Plantarum," 
but which Prof. Gray still regards as distinct. 

It is to be observed that the character of the outer invo- 
lucre of C. maritima agrees with that of Leptogyne as 

Jult liT, 1876. 



described by Torrey and Gray, and not with that of Tucker- 
mannia. 

Desce. A robust branched perennial, three to four feet 
high, everywhere quite glabrous. Stems and branches smooth, 
terete. Leaves scattered, four to ten inches long, spreading 
and recurved, bipinnatifid ; segments lax, recurved, and di- 
varicate, linear, acute, bright-green. Peduncles stout, four to 
eight inches long, one-beaded. Heads golden-yellow, three 
to four inches in diameter, sweet-scented. Involucre double ; 
outer of six to eight spreading, green, herbaceous, linear, acute 
bracts ; inner of two series of oblong, obtuse, membranous, 
very appressed, coloured bracts. Receptacle covered with 
linear-lanceolate acuminate palese as long as the disk flowers. 
Flowers of the ray about twenty, female ; corolla-tube short, 
limb linear-oblong, one-third of an inch broad, minutely three- 
toothed at the rounded tip ; flowers of disk crowded ; tube 
slender, with a ring of hairs about the middle, limb small, 
five-toothed. Achenes oblong, compressed, smooth, without 
a trace of pappus. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower of ray- 2, do. of disk; 3, palea of receptacle : -a U enlarged. 



Tab. 6242. 
TULIPA Hageri. 

Native of Greece. 

Nat. Ord. Liliace.e. — Tribe Tulipe.e. 
Geaus Tulipa, Linn. {Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. xiv., p. 275). 



Tulipa Hageri ; bulbo ovoideo tunicis membranaceis brunneis glabris, caule 
glabro semipedali unifloro, foliis 4-5 viridibus glabris liaeari-loratis acutis 
facie canaliculars nullo modo undulatis, perianthio inodoro erecto cam- 
panulato seginentis conformibus oblongis acutis splendide coccineis ba8i 
macula rhomboidea magna atro-purpurea luteo-marginata prseditis, stamini- 
bus perianthio duplo brevioribus filamentis applanatis basi penicillatis, 
ovario cylindrico stigmatibus parvis. 

Tulipa Hageri, Held, in Kegel Gartenflora, vol. xxiii., p. 97, tab. 790. 



This is a very handsome and distinct new species. It is 
the first of the small group which, in the monograph of the 
genus above cited, I have called Saxatiles, which has been 
introduced into cultivation. These Saxatiles are intermediate 
between the old well-known Gesneriance and Si/lvestres, com- 
bining the showy bright scarlet or crimson flowers of the first 
with the narrow uncrisped leaves and filaments bearded 
at the base of the second. By its equal acute perianth- 
segments and large distinctly bordered basal blotch this 
recalls T. boetica to mind, but it has the character of leaf and 
stamen just mentioned, and both leaf and scape are quite 
free from pubescence. It was discovered by Dr. Von Held- 
reich in 1862 on the hills of the Parnes range in Attica, 
growing with T. Orphanidea, at an elevation of 1600 feet 
above sea-level, and is included in his " Herbarium Grsecum 
Normale," no. 811. The drawing was made from a specimen 
presented by Mr. Elwes to the Kew collection, which was in 
full flower on the 24th of April of the present year, and we 
have also received it from the Kev. H. N. Ellacombe and 
Kev. H. Harpur-Crewe. 

Descr. Bulb ovoid, under an inch thick, with dark brown 
glabrous membranous tunics. Stem half a foot high, terete, 

July Ut, 1876. 



glabrous, one-flowered. Leaves four or five to a stem, all 
springing from its lower half, erect, linear-lorate, acute, 
green, glabrous, not at all crisped, the lowest half a foot 
long by half or five-eighths of an inch broad, the others 
smaller. Perianth erect, inodorous, broadly campanulate, an 
inch and a quarter deep ; both rows of segments alike in 
shape, oblong, acute, half or five-eighths of an inch broad at 
the middle, puberulous at the tip, deep crimson on the face, 
tinged with yellow on the outside, with a rhomboid purple- 
black blotch with a distinct yellow border occupying the 
whole breadth of the claw and reaching a third of the way 
up. Stamens half as long as the perianth, purple-black, the* 
linear filament hairy at the base and rather shorter than the 
ligulate anther. Ovary clavate, shorter than the stamens, 
narrowed to the point, and tipped with three small stigmas. — 
J. G. Baker. 




WPitfi . 



Tab. 6243. 
MOKICANDIA sonchifolia. 

Native of Northern China. 



Nat. Ord. CrcciferjE. — Tribe Brassice.s. 
Genus Moricandia, DC. (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. Plant., vol. i., p. 85). 



Moricandia sonchifolia ; erecta, ramosa, glabra, foliis sessilibus basi auriculatis, 
radicalibus lyrato-pinnatisectis segmentis sinuato-dentatis, caulinis obovato- 
oblongis v. panduraeformibus subacutis, floribus racemosis violaceis ebract- 
eatis gracile pedicellatis, sepalis erectis coloratis lateralibus basi saccatis, 
pctalis aniplis patulis longe unguiculatis lamina late obovata, siliquis longis- 
simis angustis obtuse 4-gonis, valvis carinatis, septo membranaceo foveolato, 
stylo gracili elongato, stigmatibus in conum conniventibus, seminibus 
1-seriatis 

Orychophragmus sonchifolius, Bunge, Enum. Plant Cliin. Bor., p. 7 ; Walp. 
Rep., vol. i., p. 187. 



This very showy Crucifer, though described as long ago 
as 1832, has hitherto been known only from dried specimens 
collected by its discoverer, the veteran traveller and botanist, 
Professor Bunge, of Dorpat, who accompanied a Kussian 
mission to Pekin from Siberia in 1831. It is a hardy 
annual, remarkable for the bright colour and delicacy 
of its corolla, and being easy of cultivation is likely to 
become as great an acquisition as its near ally, the old garden 
favourite, the European M. arvensis (Tab. nost. 3007), which 
has been in cultivation since 1739. Another species is the 
beautiful M. Ramburii (Tab. nost. 4947), a native of Spain. 
When describing the Crucifer ce for the " Genera Plantarum " 
I had only imperfect specimens of Orychophragmus^ and I 
retained the genus as defined by Bunge; with the more 
complete materials now before me I have no hesitation in 
replacing it in Moricandia, to which genus, indeed, Bunge 
had in the first instance referred 0. sonchifolia. 

The Eoyal Gardens are indebted to Dr. Playfair, late 
medical officer attached to the Embassy at Pekin, for seeds of 
this plant, which flowered in March of the present year. 

Descr. A slender, branched, glabrous, leafy annual, one 

July 1st, 1876. 



to two feet high. Leaves sessile, acutely auricled at the 
base ; radical early withering, lyrately-pinnatisect ; terminal 
lobe cordate, lateral lobes in four to five pairs, small, sessile, 
all sinuate-toothed ; cauline leaves obovate-oblong or pandu- 
raeform, subacute, sinuate-toothed. Flowers one and a quarter 
inch in diameter, in lax terminal racemes, pale violet-blue, or 
slender ebracteate pedicels. Calyx three-quarters of an inch 
long ; sepals coloured, the two lateral saccate at the base. 
Petals with claws as long as the sepals; blade orbicular- 
obovate, spreading. Anthers linear, yellow. Pod three to 
four inches long, obtusely four-angled, narrow, nearly 
straight; valves keeled, slender; septum membranous, per- 
forated ; style slender, subulate ; stigmas combined into a 
conical tip. Seeds one-seriate, small, oblong, in one row; 
cotyledons conduplicate.— J. D. E. 



Fig. 1, Stamens and pistil : 2, pod ; 3, seeds ; 4, seed : -all but/. 3 enlarged. 



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Tab. 6239.— COSMIBTJENAOBTFSIFOLIA, tab. LATIFOLIA. 
„ 6240.— PESCATORIA LA1IELLOSA. 
„ 6241.— COREOPSIS (TUCKERMAXNIA) MARITI1TA. 
„ 6242.— TITLIPA HAGERI. 
„ 6243.-MORICANDIA SONCHIFOLIA. 

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INCLTJDING ITS 

NATURAL FEATURES, PROD POTIONS, INDUSTRIAL 
CONDITION AND PROSPECTS. 

BY 

HENRY BROOKS, 

FOR MANY YEARS A RESIDENT IN THE COLONY. 
EDITED BY 

DR. R. J. MANN, F.R.A.S., F.R.S . 

LATE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION IN THE COLONY. 

CONTEN T~sT 

CHAPTER 

I. Geographical Position and Character. 

II. Geological Formation. 

III. Climate. 

IV. Wild Animal Life. 

V. Indigenous Vegetable Productions. 

* I. Early History. 

VII. British Colonisation and Rule. 

VIII. Social Progress and Prosi 

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, d r topographical Map of the Colony 

I rmer Bay or Harbour. 

' .11 on the shoulder of Pietermaritzbur* Tabl j Hon 
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r ,, ¥%&£ fr ° m T * ble fountain. 
' • ■ t the Umgeni. 

?eniai Ho wick. 

1 1. Arduinia graudiflora - Amatungulu 

12. Scarlet Cyrtantb.ua - Flame- lil\\ 

13. Thunbergi ; 

14. Portrait of Langalibalele. Huef ofth. a ki l- rr « 

; he Amahlubi Kaffirs. 

Id. Kranzkop ; overlooking the Tuffttln V n 

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Tab. 6244. 
BONGAEDIA Eauwolfii. 

Native of Western Asia. 



Nat. Ord. Bereeriue/E. — Tiibe Berbeke/e. 
Genus Bonoardia, C. A. Meyer (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. Plant, vol. i. p. *8). 



Bonoardta Eauwolfii : acaulis glaberrima, glaucescens, rliizomate tuberoso, foliis 
longe petiolatis omnibus radicalibus patentibus impari-pinnatisectis, foliolis 
oppositis 3-4-nisve 3-8-jugis obovatis v. obcuneatis 3-rarius 5-lobis, lobis 
acutis y. obtusis, scapis crasiusculis paniculatim ramosis multifloris, bracteis 
oblongis obtusis, floribus aureis, sepalis 3 exterioribus brevibus orbiculatis 
viridibus, petalis interioribus obovato-obcuneatis crenato-dentatis. 

B. Rauwolfii, O. A. Meyer, Verz. Pfl. Cauc. p. 174; Walp. Rep. vol. i. p. 100; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. vol. i. p. 80 ; Floral Cabinet, vol. iii. t. 98 ; Henslow in Botanist, 
vol. i. t. 50 ; Hook.f. et Thorns. Fl. £nd. vol. i. p. 230. 

B. Olivieri, G. A. Meyer, 1. c. 

B. Chrysogonum, Spaeh, Hist. Plant. Plum. vol. viii. p. 65; Griseb. Fl. Rumd. 
vol. i. p. 201; Jaub. et Spaeh, III. PI Orient t. 396; Bois. Fl. Orient, vol. 
i. p. 99. 

Chrysogonum Dioscoridis, Rauwolf, Itin. p. 119, cum Ic. 

Leontice Chrysogonum, Linn. Hort. Cliff, p. 122 ; Willd. Sp. PI. vol. iii. t. 1 lis ; 
DC. Prod. vol. i. p. 109 ; Ait. Hort. Ken-, ed. 2, vol. ii, p. 372. 



This singular plant, a herbaceous Barberry it may be called, 
has on several occasions been introduced into cultivation in 
England, but never been kept long. Aiton, in the l Hortus 
Kewensis,' mentions it as having been introduced from the 
Levant before 1740, long before which, in 1573, it was de- 
scribed by Eauwolf as the true Chrysogonum of Dioscorides, in 
a chapter of his travels devoted to "A short and plain 
" narration of plants which I gathered during my stay at 
" Halepo, in and around about it, not without great trouble 
"and danger, which I glued upon paper very carefully.'' 
(Rap) 

Bongardia Rauivolfii has a very wide range in geographical 
distribution, from the islands of the Greek Archipelago (Chios 
and Rhodes), through Asia Minor, Syria, and Persia, to 
Affghanistan and Beluchistan. In Syria and Persia it is said 
to be found in cornfields and to be used as an acid pot-herb. 



A 



Plants of it have been received at Kew from Max Leichtlin, 
of Carlsruhe ; and from K". Elwes, Esq., the latter of which 
flowered in the spring of the present year in the open border. 
Desce. Quite glabrous. Bootstock a depressed subter- 
ranean sphere, from the size of a nut to a small apple, pale 
yellow-brown, with stout root-fibres from the periphery. 
Leaves 4-10 inches long, all radical, spreading and recurved, 
pinnate, rachis slender ; pinnules 3-8 pair, opposite, or 
ternate or whorled (from the fission of one or more of each 
pair), very variable in size and form, 1-1^ inch long, sessile, 
obcuneate or oblong, trifid rarely entire ; lobes acute or 
obtuse, base rounded or wedge-shaped, green and often red- 
purple towards the base. Scape stout, 4-10 inches high, 
paniculately branched ; bracts oblong, obtuse, deciduous, 
pedicels curved. Flowers drooping, f-1 inch in diameter ; 
outer sepals 3, nearly orbicular, greenish bordered with 
pink ; inner and petals very much larger, obcuneate-obovate, 
crenate, golden-yellow. Filaments short ; anthers linear- 
oblong, with linear recurved valves. Ovary ovoid, wrinkled; 
style very short; stigma peltate, lobed ; ovules 5-G, in- 
clined on long, stout, curved, basal funicles. Capsule blad- 
dery, several-seeded. — J.D.H. 



Fig. 1, Petal ; 2, stamen ; 3, outer sepals, disk, and ovary ; 4, vertical section of 
ovary: — all enlarged. 



6M5 




■VkcentBrook Day & Sob 1* 



Tab. 6245. 
DUVALIA polita. 

Native of South Africa. 



Nat. Orel. Asclkpiadk.k. — Tribe Stapelie.e. 

Genus Duvalia, Haw. (Synops. PI. Succ. p. 44, — Benih. and Hook./. Gen. 
Plant, vol. ii. p 784). 



Duvalia poll ta; humilis, glabra, caulibus ramisque decumbentibus radicantibus 
elongato-clavatis 6-angulatis, angulis obtusis dentatis, dentibus longis 
subulatis patentibus, utrinque basi denticula parva prpeditis, floribus aggre- 
gates circiter 3-4 e mediis summisve ramulis, pedicellis pollicaribus, sepalis 
subulatis glabris, corolla diametro pollicari fusco-purpurea nitidissima lobis 
ovatis acuminatis erecto-patentibus apice recurvatis, marginibus parum 
replicatis basi pilis longis clavatis purpureis fimbriatis, faucis annulo 
minutissime scabro pallidiore, corona exteriore sordide rubro-purpurea. 
interiore sordide aurantiaca: 

Duvalia polita, N. E. Brown, in ' Gardeners' Chronicle,' 1876, vol. vi. p. 130. 



The plant here figured and described is one which flowered 
in the Eoyal Gardens, Kew, in the summer of 1874 and is 
now coming into flower again. Its history and the precise 
locality from which it came are unknown, although not 
uncommonly cultivated by Stapelia growers under the names 
Stapelia polita and 8. echinata... With the exception of 
Duvalia Corderoyi (Tab. nos. t, 6082) it is the finest of the 
genus, and is remarkable on account of its regularly 6 -angled 
stems and very shining corolla, the lobes of which are less 
replicate than those of any other species in the genus. 

Desce. Stems and branches elongate, 2-3 inches long, 
about \ in. thick, somewhat clavate, especially when young, 
more or less decumbent and rooting, (not so erect as in the 
figure), glabrous, dull green or purplish, 6 -angled ; angles 
obtuse, toothed ; teeth long and spreading, subulate, fur- 
nished at their base with a minute tooth on each Bide. 
Flowers 3-4 together, opening successively ; pedicels about 
1 inch long, glabrous, purplish. Calyx-lobes subulate, J 
inch long, glabrous, dull green. Corolla 1 inch in diameter ; 



lobes ovate-acuminate, erect-spreading, a little recurved at 
the apex, brownish-purple, very smooth and polished, the 
margins very slightly folded back and fringed towards their 
base with long, vibratile, clavate, purple hairs; annulus 
(orb-) very minutely scabrid, a little paler than the lobes 
(but not so pale as in the figure), and opaque. Outer 
corona chocolate-red or dark purplish-red ; processes of inner 
corona dull orange. PoUen-masses dull yellowish. N. E. 
Brown. 



Fig. 1 and 2, Teeth on angles of brandies ; 3, flower : 4, pollen-masses ; all 
magnified. 



GZ46 




"Vincent Broote Day & Son Imp 



Tab. 6246. 
eulophia macrostachta. 

Native of Ceylon. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide.*:. — Tribe Vaxde.e. 
Genua Etilophta, Linrfl. (Gen. et 8p. Orchid, p. 18.) 



Eulophia macrottachya ; pseudobulbis elongatis articulatis sulcatis, foliis oblongo- 
lanceolatis acuminatis plicatis subtricostatis, scapo simpKci radicabi foliis 
longiore, vaginis elongatis appressis, racemo stricto multifloro, bracteis subu- 
latis, sepalis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis viridibus, lateralibus patentibus, 
dorsali fornicato, petalis sepalo dorsali consimilibus porrectis, labello latiore 
qxiiim Lingo nureo rubro striato obtuse 3-lobo, lobis recurvis lateralibus bre- 
vibua intermedio e basi lata oblongo apice rotundato, disco basi 2-lamellato, 
calcare brevi subgloboso 2-lobo, columni brevi. 

E. macrostachya, Lindl. (Jen. et 8p. Orchid, p. 183 ; Bot. Reg. t. 1972 ; Wight, 
Jr. PI. Ind.Or.i. 1667-8; Tkteaitei Emm. PI. Zeyl, p. 301; Walp. Ann. 

Vol. vi. p. ()■!(). 



A very graceful Orchid, introduced into the Horticultural 
Gardens from those of Peradenia by Mr. Watson, their then 
superintendent, so long ago as 1837, and more recently sent 
to England by Dr. Thwaites, from whose specimens cultivated 
at Kew the drawing now reproduced was made in 1860, and 
who states that it is not uncommon in the central province of 
the island, ascending to 4000 ft. It is also, according to 
Wight, a native of the eastern slopes of the Keilgherry 
Mountains. Lindley describes it as one of the easiest-grown 
of Orchids, flowering late, and producing fresh flowers till 
Christmas ; ours bloomed first in January, 1864. 

Descr. Pseudobulbs 3 to 5 inches long, elongate conical, 
terete, striated, formed of 3-6 superposed green cylindric 
joints, the basal sending down very thick cylindric roots. 
Leaves about 2 from the top of the pseudobulb, 6-10 inches 
long, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, contracted into a petiole, 
membraneous, plaited, about 3-ribbed. Scape springing from 
the side of the base of the pseudobulb, 1-1| feet high, strict, 
erect, red-brown, with two or three cylindric appressed 
obtuse sheaths. Raceme 4-8 inches long, many-flowered, 
strict, erect; bracts subulate. Flotvcrs shortly pcdicelled, 



about an inch in diameter across the lateral sepals, erecto-patent. 
Sepals green, upper lanceolate, acuminate, arched, lateral rather 
broader spreading. Petals like the dorsal sepal, arched and 
projecting forward. Lip very concave, golden-yellow with 
red-purple stripes on the disk, broader than long, obtusely 
shallowly 3-lobed; lobes all recurved, lateral rounded, terminal 
shortly oblong, rounded at the end ; disk with 2 small 
bracts; spur globose, 2-lobed, green. Column short. — 
J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Side, and 2, front view of flower ; :?, lip; 4, column: — all enlarged. 



6Z47. 



Qte* 










Tab. 6247. 

LEUCOTHOE Davlsle. 

Native of California. 

Nat. Ord. Ericace.e. — Tribe Axdeomede.e. 
Genus Leucothoe, Don. {Bentli et Hooh.fil. Gen. Plant, vol. ii., p. 584). 



Leucothok DavisuB; frutex subglaber senipervirens. foliis breviter petiolatis ob- 
longis coriaceis nitidis viridibus obscure serratis subacutis vel obtusis, 
racemis subsessilibus erectis nnmerosis axillaribus terminalibusque, peclicellis 
flore brevioribus floriferis cernuis fructiferis ascendentibus, bracteis minutis 
oblongis scariosis, bracteolis lanceolatis, calycis segmentis lanceolatis persist- 
entibus basi brevissime coalitis, corolla? urceolatse albaj dentibus parvis 
patulis deltoideis, genitalibus inclusis, eapsulis niembranaceis depresso-glo- 
bosis, seminibus turgidis asperis. 

Leucothoe Davisiae, Torrey ; A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. vii. p. 400 ; 
Bot. Calif, vol. i. p. 455. 

L. Lobbii, Hook. M88. 



This handsome evergreen ericaceous shrub was discovered 
in 1853, by Mr. William Lobb, on the Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains of California, at an elevation of 5000 feet. It was sent 
by him to Messrs. Veitch, and distributed by them under the 
name of Leucothoe Lobbii It was gathered again in the same 
tract by Miss N. J. Davis, after whom it was named by Dr. 
Torrey, and this name has been adopted by Dr. Asa Gray m 
the proceedings of the American Academy, and in the valu- 
able work on the botany of California, of which we have just 
received the first volume. It is the only species of the 
genus which has been found on the western side of the 
American continent. From the two well-known and long- 
cultivated species of the Eastern States (L. axillaris and 
Catesbcci), it differs by its shorter nearly entire much less 
pointed leaves, and by having its larger and handsomer flowers 
aggregated into a panicle at the end of the branches. So 
that, horticulturally, it is a decidedly finer plant, and of course, 
coming from such an elevation, it may be safely relied upon 
as quite hardy. 

Desce. A close-growing shrub, nearly glabrous m all its 
parts. Loaves oblong, coriaceous, bright green, subacute or 



obtuse, rather rounded at the base, obscurely serrated, 1^-2^ 
inches long, paler on the under side, and reticulated with the 
raised veins and veinlets ; petiole £— § i n - l° n g> channelled 
down the face. Flowers in nearly sessile, rather close erect 
racemes 3-4 inches long, from the axils of the upper 
leaves and end of the branches above the leaves, so 
that they form a close terminal panicles ; pedicel J-J in. 
long, cernuous in the flowering, ascending in the fruiting 
stage ; bracts minute, oblong, scariose, enclosing a couple of 
smaller lanceolate bracteoles of the same texture, placed near 
the base of the pedicel. Calyx broadly campanulate, scariose, 
persistent, the five lanceolate segments joined only at the 
very base. Corolla white, urceolate, J in. long, with five 
spreading deltoid teeth. Stamens included within the corolla ; 
anther-cells bifid at the tip, where they open by a large pore. 
Ovary depresso-globose. Style entire, with an obscurely 5- 
lobed capitate stigma. Capsule small, umbilicate, depresso- 
globose, membranous. Seed turgid, with a loose rough testa, 

J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1, Portion of rachis of a raceme, with a pendulous flower ; 2, flower, with 
corolla taken away; 3, a single stamen: — all magnified. 



6248 










Tab. 6248. 
AGAVE Bottemi. 

Native of Mexico. 



Nat. Ord. Amaryixidace*:. — Tribe Agaves, Linn. 
Agave, {Jacobi in Hamburg Oartenzeitung, vols. xs.et seq.) 
4 

Agave (Littaa) Botterii ; acaulis, foliis 40-50 oblongov. oblanceolato-spathulatis 
coriaceo-carnosis pallide vix glauco-viridibus medio poll, crassis facie conca- 
vis, apice in spinam atram pungentem productis margine dentibus del- 
toideis corneis fusco-nigris erebris antrorsum falcatis armatis, scapo robusto 
4-pedali, floribus geminis in spicam magnam cylindricam confertis, bracteis 
lanceolatis cuspidatis, bracteolis lanceolatis parvis, perianthio viridulo in- 
fundibolari bi-pollicari tubo ovario breviore, segmentis oblongo-lanceolatis 
diu ascendentibus, genitalibus perianthio subduplo longioribus. 



This plant was sent a long time ago from Mexico by 
M. Botteri to Mr. Wilson Saunders, and I knew it for many 
years in the Eeigate collection. When this was dispersed 
it was purchased by Mr. J. T. Peacock, with whom it 
flowered, at Sudbury House, Hammersmith, in the spring of 
1875. I have not been able to refer it to any of the species 
described in the elaborate monograph of the late General 
Von Jacobi. It is a Littcea as regards inflorescence, and, 
according to his classification, founded on characters, falls 
into the group " Subcoriaceas," which combines the small 
teeth of the " Aloidese," with a much thinner leaf^ with the 
firmer texture of the large-spined panicled species of the 
series of which A. americana and Scolymus are best known 
representatives. Its nearest neighbours are A. densiflora. 
Hook, in Bot. Mag., t. 5006, the plant called A. Keratto, 
by Salmdyck and Jacobi (which is not the original Keratto 
of Miller), and A. xalapensis, Eoezl ; Jacobi Monog., 72, 
which I cannot distinguish from A. polyacantha u Ha worth," 
K. Koch ; but in all these the leaves are at least five or six 
times as long as broad, oblanceolate, not oblanceolate-oblong. 

Descr. Leaves 40-50 in a sessile rosette, oblanceolate- or ob- 
long-spathulate, two feet long, six to eight inches broad above 
the middle, narrowed gradually to a pungent dark-coloured 
channelled spine half an inch long, and downwards to a breadth 

B 



of 4-5 inches above the dilated base, one eighth of an inch thick 
in the centre, rigidly coriaceous in texture, concave on the face, 
pale green and hardly at all glaucous when mature, the margin 
armed with close deltoid upcurved horny teeth about one eighth 
of an inch long. Scape stout, twice as long as the leaves, hidden 
by the adpressed linear bract-like leaves. Inflorescence a dense 
spike, longer than the leaves ; flowers in pairs ; primary bracts 
lanceolate, with a long cusp ; bracteoles small, lanceolate. 
Ovary oblong. Perianth green, funnel-shaped, two inches long, 
with a distinct funnel-shaped tube half an inch long ; seg- 
ments oblong-lanceolate, permanently ascending, nearly an 
inch long. Stamens inserted near the throat of the tube ; fila- 
ments subulate two and a half inches long ; anthers red, an 
inch long. Style three and a half inches long, stigma capitate. 

J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1. The whole plant, much reduced; 2, a single leaf, much reduced; 3, 
portion of the edge of the leaf, with teeth, natural she ; 4, pair of flowers, with 
bract and bracteoles, natural size. 



G249 




'H Fjti.de! e*u«h 



^centBrooteE at 8* Soaiap 



Tab. 6249. 
GAMOLEPIS EURY0P0IDES. 

Native of South Africa. 



Nat. Ord. Composite. — Tribe Senecionideje. 
Gamolepis, Less. (Benih et Hook, Gen. PL vol. ii. p. 452. 



Gamolepis euri/opoides ; fructicosa, erecta, glaberrima raniis foliosis, foliis confertis 
patuli3 breviter petiolatis ad medium v. infra 3-fidis, lobis linearibus subacutis, 
pedunculis gracilibus pedunculis bis-terve longioribus, capitubs 1-1$ poll, 
diam., involucri bemispherici bracteis 1-seriatis fere Hberis late oblongis 
subacutis, fl. radii ad 8-10 ligulis oblongis, acheniis lineari-obovoideis multi- 
costatis glaberrimis. 

G. euryopoides, DC. Prod. vol. vi. p. 41 ; Harv. et Sond. Fl. Cap. vol. iii. p. 157- 



Gamolepis is a South African genus of Composita?, num- 
bering about twelve species, of which none but that now 
figured have hitherto been known to be in cultivation. Most 
of them are shrubby perennials suited for greenhouse culture ; 
and a few are of very singular habit, resembling in their 
foliage heaths, lycopods, and mosses. The G. polytrichoides 
is the most remarkable of these; it is a very slender branched 
shrub, whose branches are uniformly clothed with crowded 
spreading and recurved needle-shaped leaves, and bear at their 
tips a capillary pedicel terminated by a minute flower ; the re- 
semblance of the plant to a gigantic moss is almost deceptive ; 
it is a native of grassy places near Gfrahamstown and is well 
worth introducing into England. 

The genus Gamolepis was placed in Anthemidea) previous to 
Bentham's revision of the Order for the ' Genera Plantarum,' by 
whom it is rightly placed in Senecionidece and near to Senecio 
itself, from which it differs in the absence of pappus ; its 
nearest ally is Euryops, after which the present species is 
named. 

G. euryopoides is a native of the mountains of British 
Caffraria, Uitenhage, and Albany, at about 2000 ft. elevation; 
it was raised at Kew from seed sent by Mr. Tuck, of the 
Grahamstown Botanic Gardens, in 1868, and flowers annually 
on the Cape shelf of the temperate-house. 



Descr. An erect quite glabrous branched shrub from one 
to two feet high : branches erect, leafy. . Leaves crowded, 
about an inch long, spreading, trifid to about the middle, 
contracted below the narrow subacute linear lobes into a narrow 
petiole-like blade ; lobes 2-nerved, rather fleshy. Peduncles 
terminal, very slender, two to four times as long as the leaves. 
Beads an inch and upwards in diameter, bright-yellow. In- 
volucre hemispherical, of one row of about 8-10 oblong suba- 
cute green bracts, that are nearly free. Ray flowers^ about 
8-10, female; tube short, very narrowly oblong, minutely 
3-toothed at the tip. Disk flowers short, tube campanulate 
above, with 5 spreading and recurved lobes. Jchenes linear- 
oblong, closely many -ribbed, quite glabrous. 



Fig. 1, Ray- ; and 2, disk-flowers -.—both enlarged. 



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BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 

CONTENTS OF No. 380. AUGUST, 1876. 

Tab. 6244.— BONGAEDIA RATJWOLFII. 
„ 6245.— DUYALIA POLITA. 
„ 6246.— ETJLOPHTA MACROSTACHYA. 
„ 6247.— LET7COTHOE DAYISLE. 
„ 6248.— AGAVE BOTTEEII. 
„ 6249.— GAMOLEPIS EUEYOPOIDES. 

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NATAL: 

A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTON OF THE COLONY, 

JSCLTJBIXO ITS 

NATURAL FEATURES, PRODUCTIONS, INDUSTRIAL 

CONDITION, AND PROSPECTS. 

BY 

HENRY BROOKS, 

TOE MANX YEARS A RESIDENT IN THE COLONY. 
EDITED BY 

DR. E. J. MANN, F.EA.S., E.E S. 

LATE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION IN THE COLONY. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER 

I. Geographical Position and Character. 
II. Geological Formation. 

III. Climate. 

IV. Wild Animal Life. 

V. Indigenous Vegetable Productions. 
VI. Early History. 
YII. British Colonisation and Rule. 
VIII. Social Progress and Prospects. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PLATE 

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2. Physical and Topograph deal Map of the Colony. 

3. Plan of the Inner Bay or Harbour. 

4. Sandstone Wall on the shoulder of Pietermaritzburg Table Mountain. 

5. Mines at the Diamond Fields on the Vaal River. 

6. The Valley of the Umgeni from Table Mountain. 

7. The Lower Falls of the Umgeni. 

8. Great Fall of the Umgeni at Howick. 

9. Glade at Ahceville, with Wild Bananas and Date-palms. 

10. Euphorbia Cmpat-Medusse. 

11. Arduinia grandifiora— Amatungulu. 

12. Scarlet Cyrtanthus— Flame-lily. 

13. Thunbergia ISatalita. 

14. Portrait of Langa be Amahlubi Kaffirs. 

15. Mission on the Hii Jam. 

16. Kranzkop; overlooking the T 



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62fi0 







"Vincentftioob. Day & 



Tab. 6250. 
liltum phillipixexse. 

Native of the Philippine Islands. 

Nat. Orel. Liliace.*:. — Tribe tclipe.e. 
Genus Lilium, Linn. {Baker in Journ. Linn. 8oc. vol. xiv. p. 225J. 



Ltlium (Eulirion) pJtiUppinente ; bulbo subgloboso, squamis magnis lanceolatis, 
caule gracili tereti glabro sesquipedali vel bipedali unifloro. foliis 30-40 
sparsis laxe dispositis anguste linearibus acutis uninerviis viridibus glabris 
ereeto-patentibus margine revolutis, periantliii albi borizontalis suaveolentis 
segmentis oblanceolatis supra medium in tubum anguste infundibularem diu 
imbricatis, quarto superiori latioribus flore expanso falcatis, interioribus lati- 
oribus, staminibus ex tubo protrusis, antheris parvis oblongis, polline luteo, 
ovario cylindrico, stylo stamina superante apice stigmatoso profunde trilo- 
bato. 

L. pliilippinense, Baker in Gard. Ohron. 1^73, p. 114, fig. 243 ; Journ. Linn. Soc. 
vol. xiv. p. 228. 

This fine plant comes very near Z. longiflorum, Thunb, of 
Japan and China, and may prove to be an extreme variety 
of that species. The characters mainly relied upon to 
distinguish it are the very narrow one-nerved leaves and 
extravagantly elongated tube formed by the permanently 
imbricated claws of the perianth segments, in which, as in 
its allies, only the distinctlv-raised keel of the inner divisions 
is visible. It is a native" of the Phillippines and was sent 
by Mr. Wallis to Messrs. Veitch, and first flowered by them 
in August, 1873. Whether it will prove hardy still remains 
to be seen, but the mountains in the Philippines are said 
to reach a height of ten thousand feet. Botanically it is 
interesting as showing the extreme development of the 
peculiarities that mark the " Eulirion " group. 

Descr. Bulb subglobose, perennial, with large lanceolate 
scales. Stem one and a half to two feet high, slender, terete, 
glabrous, plain green or slightly mottled with purple. 
Leaves thirty or forty, scattered laxly all down the stem 
from within a short distance of the solitary flower to the 
base, narrow linear, sessile, falcate-ascending, three to tour 
inches long, one-eighth to one-sixth inch broad at tne 
middle, acute, bright green, glabrous, with only tne 
midvein distinct, the edges narrowly decurved, and not 



at all ciliated. Flotver solitary horizontal, permanently 
funnel-shaped, pure white with only a tinge of green on 
the outside near the base, sweet-scented, seven to ten 
inches long, the divisions remaining permanently im- 
bricated in the lower three-quarters, spreading falcately in 
the upper quarter, the three inner about two inches, and the 
three outer an inch and a half broad. Stamens a little ex- 
serted from the tube ; anthers oblong, one fourth of an inch 
long ; pollen yellow. Ovary cylindrical ; style decimate, 
overtopping the filaments, deeply three-lobed at the stigma- 
tose tip. — J. G-. Baker. 



Fig. 1. Ovary and base of style, natural size. 



GZ51 




-AaD^Son** 



Tab. 6251. 
lycaste lasioglossa. 

Native of Guatemala. 

Nat. Orel. Ouchide.k. — Tribe Yandex. 
Genus Lycaste, Lind\. {Bot. Reg., 1843 ; Misc. p. 14). 



Lycaste lasiogloasa ; pseudobulbis ovoideis compressis, foUis membranaceis ellip- 
tico-lanceolatis acuminatis plicatis, scapo viridi supra medium-vaginato, 
vagina viridi acuminata, bractea ovario breviore virescente obtusa, sepalis 
patentibus anguste oblongis acutis pallide testaceis lateralibus ima basi 
araneoso-pilosis, petalis sepalis ter brevioribus oblongis obtusis fornicatis 
aureis apicibus recurvis, labello petalis requilongo aureo purpureo-punctato 
lobis lateralibus angustis obliquis obtusis, mento brevissimo, intermedio 
oblongo-ligulato obtuse dense hirsuto, disco callo inter lobis laterale trian- 
gulari, ovato apice obtuso 2-denticulato, columna elongata gracili aptera. 

L. lasioglossa, Beichb. f. in Qttrd. Chwn. 1872, p. 215. 



Prof. Eeichenbach remarks of this species that it looks as 
if intermediate between L. Schillereana and L. macrophylla, 
having the general aspect of the last, and the short petals of 
the first, but differing totally from both in the peculiar lip, 
the bearded middle lobe of which is quite a novel feature in 
the genus. 

Lycaste was established by Lindley, 1843, to include nine 
orchids, of which most had previously been placed in 
Maxillaria, but which differ from that genus in the great 
dissimilarity between the sepals and petals. The name is, 
however, introduced by the author in the previous year's 
volume (1842, Misc. No. 9G), without description or an 
allusion to its being then used for the first time. In ISO 1, 
the number of species is increased to twenty-four, according 
to Eeichenbach's enumeration in Walper's Annalen (vol. vi. 
p. GOO), of which number comparatively few are figured in 
Horticultural works, the genus being no great favourite 
amongst orchid growers. 

Lycaste lasioglossa, so named from the hairy lip, is a native 
of Guatemala, from whence it was imported by Messrs. 
Veitch, to whom I am indebted for the opportunity of 
figuring it. 



Descr. Pseudohilbs three inches long, ovoid, compressed, 
grooved, green. Leaves 8-12 inches long, elliptic-lanceolate, 
acuminate, plaited, narrowed into a broad petiole, bright 
green. Scape stout, with an erect herbaceous acuminate 
sheath above the middle. Bract shorter than the ovary, 
appressed, obtuse. Flower five inches long from the tip 
of the dorsal to that of either lateral sepal, inclined. 
Sepals spreading, narrow oblong, subacute, rather dull 
cinDamon-brown, hairy at the base within, margins 
recurved. Petals about one-third the length of the sepals, 
arched, concave with rounded spreading tips, golden-yellow. 
Lip about equalling the sepals, narrow, golden-yellow with 
purple specks on the midlobe ; lateral lobes narrow, short, 
obtuse, ciliate, recurved ; midlobe oblong, obtuse, clothed in 
the upper surface with long soft interlaced hairs ; callus in 
the disk ovate, pointing forward, minutely notched at the 
tip. Column slender, margins not winged. — J. D. II. 



Fig. 1, Column; 2, lip: — both enlarged. 



6Z5Z 




ftti id 



^aAB.ocoaa.ySani? 



Tab. 6252. 
BEGONIA Davisii. 

Native of Peru. 



Nat. Ord. Begoniace^e. 
Genus Begonia, Linn. [Bentk. and Hook. f. Gen. Plant, vol.i. p.'84'l). 

Begonia (Huszia) Davisii ; berbacea, acaulis, radice tuberoso, foliis oblique 
oyato-cordatis subacutis supra nitidis pilosis pilis sparsis erectis rigidis mar- 
ginibus leviter lobulatis crenulatisque, nervis basi radiantibus, costa pen- 
ninervi, petiolo brevi robusto hirsuto, scapis folia excedentibus apice 3-floris 
rubris, bracteis late ovatis membranaceis ciliatis coccineis, floribus longi- 
uscule pedicellatis, tetrapetalis coccineis $ majoribus, petalis 2 exterioribus 
late ovatis, interioribus oblongis latioribus, staminibus 8-10 brevibus 
declinatis, antheris oblongis filamenta senuantibus, fl. ? ovario 3-ptero, 
alis lateralibus brevibus angubs obtusis, dorsali elongato-triangulari acuta, 
stylis 3, stigmatibus brevibus hippocrepiformibus, placenta bifida. 

B. Davisii, Hort. Veitch. 



The Andean Begonias of the group to which B. Feitchii, 
(tab. ^ 5663), B. rosceflor (tab. 5680, and B. Clarkei, 
tab. 5675), though all discovered within the last ten or 
twelve years, have already with their hybrids (inter se 
and with others) become the most brilliant ornaments of 
the conservatory and rock-garden. To these must now be 
added the subject of the present plate, which, from its com- 
pact habit and brilliant colouring, will probably eclipse the 
others. It was discovered in Peru, near Chupe, at an eleva- 
tion of 10,000 feet, by Mr. Davis when collecting for Messrs. 
Veitch, and it flowered in their establishment in July of 
the present year. 

Under B. Veitchii (tab. 5663) I stated my expectation that 
it would in all probability prove hardy in the South- West 
of England, it having withstood a temperature of 25°Fahr. in 
Mr. Veitch' s gardens ; neither it, however, nor its allies have 
proved capable of withstanding the combined effects of cold 
and damp on the rock-garden at Kew, where, after flowering 
superbly during the summer months, they disappeared before 
the following spring. As B. Davisii inhabits the same 
county and elevation as B. Veitchii it may be expected to be 
tender. There is fortunately no 'difficulty in housing the 
tuberous rooted Begonias of this class during winter ; their 



summer growth is always vigorous and rapid ; and they are 
profuse bloomers. 

Descr. Stemless. Root tuberous. Leaves all radical, 
spreading, broadly obliquely ovate-cordate, or almost orbicular, 
subacute, glossy above, and furnished with stiff erect scattered 
hairs, more glabrous and red beneath, margins shall owly 
lobulate and crenulate, basal nerves radiating from the top of 
the petiole, midrib penninerved ; petiole short, stout, hirsute. 
Scapes longer than the leaves, bright-red, glabrous, simple, 
3-nowered; bracts 2 at the base of the pedicels, broadly 
oblong, concave, crimson, ciliate. Flowers ternate pedicelled, 
the two lateral female, the central rather larger and male, 
about one and a half inches in diameter ; petals 4, crim- 
son, the outer ovate very obtuse, the inner rather smaller, 
oblong. Stamens 8-10-small, filaments almost free, as long 
as the oblong anthers. Ovary 3-winged ; lateral wings short, 
obtuse ; dorsal long, triangular acute ; styles 3, with twisted 
short horse-shoe-shaped stigmas ; placenta bifid. — /. D. H. 



Fig 1, Female flower with petals removed ; ■>, stamens : — both enlarged- 



6253. 




IV 



MOTtBrooteDaHsaalas 



Tab. 6253. 

DKACiENA FRiracosA. 
Native country unknown. 



Nat. Orel. Liliace*. — Suborder Asparagace^:. 
Genus Dracaena, Vand, {Baker, in Journ. Linn. SdO. vol. xiv. p. 523). 



Dracaena frutieom ; 10-15-pedalis, foliis sessilibus secus ramos elongates laxe 
dispositis lanceolatis acutis pedalibus vel sesquepedabbus, medio 12-15 
Un., supra basin 6-9 lin. latis viridibus menibranaceo-coriaceis, superioribus 
ascendentibus, inferioribus patulis, costa prater apicem perspicua, marginibus 
concoloribus, paniculis amplis deltoideis, racemis modice densis, bracteis 
minutis albidis lanceolatis, pedicellis brevibus apice articulatis infimis 3-4- 
nis, periantbii albi subpollicaris segmentis tubuin superantibus, staminibus 
periantliio vix brevioribus, stigmate demum exserto. 

I>. fruticosa, K. Koch, Woehemchrift, 1867, p. 236 ; Baker in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vol. xiv. p. 582. 

D. ensifolia, Kegel, Gartenjiora, 1864, p. 321; tab. 151, 1871, p. 138, non Wallich. 



This fine species is now widely spread in cultivation, but 
its native country has never been satisfactorily ascertained. 
It does not exist amongst the extensive set of wild specimens 
from various parts of tropical Africa, and preserved in the 
Kew herbarium. It was supposed by Dr. Eegel to be 
identical with Wallich' s J), ensifolia, but that is clearly the same 
as Eoxburgh's D. angustifolia, as I have ascertained from the 
examination of Wallich's original specimens, distributed as 
No. 5143 of his great Indian herbarium. The present plant 
has the general habit and lax leaves of the Mauritian and 
tropical African B. reflexa. Lam., but is more robust, with 
larger leaves and flowers, and a longer perianth tube. The 
plate was drawn from a plant that flowered in the Palm 
House at Kew in April, 1862. 

Desck. Stems ten or fifteen feet high, erect, simple or 
branched. Leaves laxly disposed over a space of several feet, the 
upper ascending, the lower spreading, clasping half way round 
the branch at the base, lanceolate a foot or even a foot-and-a- 
half long, an inch or an inch and a quarter broad at the 
middle, narrowed gradually to an acute point, and to half an 
inch broad above the base, inoderatelv firm in texture, bright 



green, the midrib distinct except at the very tip, the margins 
concolorous. Panicle ample, deltoid, with a moderately dense 
terminal raceme half a foot long, and smaller spreading or 
ascending side ones ; bracts minnte, membranous, whitish, 
lanceolate or deltoid ; pedicels one sixth to one fourth in. 
long, articulated at the tip, the lower ones often clustered 
in threes or fours. Perianth whitish, about an inch long, the 
reflexiug divisions exceeding the tube. Stamens about as long 
as the perianth. Stigma obscurely three-lobed, finally ex- 
serted. — J. G. Baker. 



.Fig. 1, Complete flower, with tip of pedicel; 2, pistil complete: — both magnified. 



6254 




"WFitdidd^Uh 



TfincffitBroQksDayS.Scfiinp 



Tab. 6:254. 

ONCIDIUM STEAMINEUM. 

Native of Mexico. 

Nat. Ord. Obohh>&£. — Tribe Vandeje. 
Genus Oncidium, Swartz, (Lindl. Fol. Orchid. Oncidium) 



ONciDiUM(Paucituberculatse) siramineum ; pseudobulbis 0, foliis oblongo-lanceolntis 
in petiolum brevem crassum angustatis subacutis crasse coriaceis dorso secus 
costam obtusis concoloribus, panicula breviuscula nutante densiflora, floribus 
pedicellatis f- poll. diam. albis aurantiaco-maculatis, bracteobs parvis, sepalie 
rotundatis petalisque consimilibus margine crispatis, labelli breviter unguicu- 
lati lobis lateralibus oblongis falcato-recurvis carnosis intermedio substipitato 
reniformi longioribus, disci tuberculis 2 2 -lobis v. 4 plus minusve per paria 
confluentibuSi columnar brevis alis carnosidis decurvis. 

O. stramineum, Lindl. in Bot.Reg. 1838, Mine. No. 03 ; 1840, t. 14; Fol Orchid, 
et Oncid., p. 36 ; Walp. Ann. vol. vi. p. 776. 

O. Columbse, O. Columbia?, et O. Lindeni, Hort. (fid. Rchb.f.) 

Lindley describes this, in the miscellaneous notices to vol. 24 
of the Register, as one of the first plants sent to the Horti- 
cultural Society by Hartweg, when collecting for that esta- 
blishment, and as being a stove epiphyte and native of Za- 
cuapan, near Vera Cruz ; but in the description published two 
years afterwards with the figure, he states that it will not 
bear the heat given to the West India Oncidia, for that in heat 
its leaves are small and flowers imperfectly developed, whereas 
under cooler treatment it flourished. This latter statement, 
coupled with the fact that it was found in company with a rare 
Berberry, raised the suspicion that it rather came from the 
mountainous parts of Mexico than the hot damp neighbour- 
hood of Vera Cruz. A reference to Bentham's " Plantae Ilart- 
wegianse," (p. 29), favoured this view, for amongst the plants 
gathered by Hartweg at Zacuapan (a Zaquapan) were species of 
Monotropa, Lobelia and Escobedia, all temperate forms ; and on 
reference to the extracts of Hartweg's journals, published in 
the Horticultural Society's Transactions (Ser. 2, vol.iii.p.116), 
I find that Zacuapan is a village elevated 3000 feet on the 
eastern slopes of Orizaba (itself 17,000 feet high), with a 
temperate climate and the richest vegetation in Mexico. I 
do not find the name Zaquapan in any map accessible to me, 



but there is a town of Zacualpan in the mountainous district 
of Mexico, about 65 miles S.S.W. of the capital. 

O. stramineum belongs to a small section of the genus, and 
according to Lindley, is easily recognised by its rigid un- 
spotted leaves, not keeled at the back ; its flowers have a faint 
primrose odour. The specimen here figured first flowered at 
Kew in May, 1866, when the accompanying drawing was 
made. 

Desce. Pseudobulbs none. Leaves six to eight inches long, 
oblong-lanceolate, subacute, contracted into a short stout 
petiole, very rigid, thick and coriaceous, uniformly deep 
green, hardly keeled at the back, which is rounded down 
the middle line, and not acute at all. Panicle stout, in- 
clined to drooping, more or less branched ; peduncle short, 
stout ; flowers crowded ; pedicels and ovary together half an 
inch long, slender ; bracts minute. Flowers three quarters of 
an inch across, white speckled with red on the lateral sepals, 
lip, and column. Sepals and petals widely spreading, almost 
orbicular, crisped, fleshy, dorsal sepal concave. Lip very 
shortly clawed; lateral lobes oblong, obtuse, falcately re- 
curved, with the upper margin recurved ; middle-lobe, 
shortly broadly stipitate, kidney -shaped, smaller than the 
lateral lobes ; warts on the disk, 2 on each side, more or less 
confluent in pairs. Column short, with broad wings. — J. D. H* 



Fig. 1, Flower; 2, the sanie with sepals and petals removed : — both enlarged. 



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BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 

CONTENTS OF No. 381, SEPTEMBER, 1876. 

Tab. 6250.— LILIUM PHILLIPINENSE. 
„ 6251.— LYCASTE LASIOGLOSSA. 
„ 6252.-BEGONIA DAVISII. 
„ 6253.— DBAC^ENA EEUTICOSA. 
„ 6254.— ONCIDIUM STEAMINEUM. 

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CONDITIO!*, AND PROSPECTS. 

BY 

HENRY BROOKS, 

FOE HAN'Y YEABS A BBSIDE2TT IN THE COLONY. 
EDITED BY 

DE. E. J. MANN, F.EA.S, E.B S. 

LATE SUPEBiJfTENDENT OE EDUCATION IS THE COLONY. 



CONTENTS: 

CHAPTEB 

I. Geographical Position and Character. 
II. Geological Formation. 

III. Climate. 

IV. Wild Animal Life. 

V. Indigenous Vegetable Productions. 
VI. Early History. 
VII. British Colonisation and Eule. 
VIII. Social Progress and Prospects. 



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3. Plan of the Inner Bay or Harbour. 

4. Sandstone Wall on the shoulder of Pietermaritzburg Table Mountain. 

5. Mines at the Diamond Fields on the Vaal Eiver. 

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7. The Lower Falls of the TJmgeni. 

8. Great Fall of the TJmgeni at Howick. 

9. Glade at Aliceville, with Wild Bananas and Date-palms. 

10. Euphorbia Caput-Medusse. 

11. Ardumia grandiflora — Amatungulu. 

12. Scarlet Cyrtanthus— Flame-lily. 

13. Thunbergia Natalita. 

14 Portrait of Langalibalele, Chief of the Amahlubi Kaffirs. 

■assion on the Hills near Verulam. 
16. Kranzkop ; overlooking the Tugela Valley. 



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C>255. 




m 






Tab. 6255. 
SEEAPIAS papilionaceo-lingtja (hybrid). 

Native of Southern France. 



Nat. Ord. ORCHiDEjE.-srTribe Ophrydeje. 
Genus Serapias, Linn. {Lindl. Gen. and Sp. Qrehid. p. 377). 



Serapias papilionaoeo-lingua ; foliis anguste lauceolatis, bracteis flores Kquantibua 
v. superuntibus, spica brevluscula 5-6-flore, sepalis ovatis subacutis 
patciitibus pallide virescentibus roseo-sufl'usis, petalis liberis sepalifl couco- 
loribus et subpequantibus late ovatis subacutis, labello late cordato 3-lobo 
lrete purpureo marginibus crenulatis, lobis rotundatis, lateralibus magnis 
intermedio mirtore, columna brevi appendice brevissimo ovato terminata. 

8. papilionaceo-lingua, Barla, Flore lUutst. de Nice et des Alpet Maritime*, p. 34. 
t. 22, f. 4-8. 

S. triloba, Viv. Ann. Bol. vol. i. pars 2, p. 186, et Fl. ltd. Fragm. p. 11. t. 12. f. 1. 

Lindl. Gen. and Sp. Orchid, p. 378. Koch, S,/nops. FL Germ. ed. 2. p. 799. 
Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ, p. 9 et 171. t. 438. Farlat. Fl. Ital. vol. ui. p. 433. 

Isias triloba, De Not. in Mem. del' Acad. R. delle Scienz. di Torino, 1844, ser. 2. 
vol. vi. cum le. 



This very rare remarkable terrestrial Orchid is presumed to 
be a natural hybrid between Serapias Lingua, Linn. (tab. 
Hort. 5868 B) and Orchis papilionacea, Linn., having been 
found in considerable abundance growing in company with 
those plants, and with Serapias longipctala, Poll (a species 
closely allied to i". Lingua). The morphological characters 
upon which its hybrid origin are believed to be well founded 
are the free petals, the fine purple colour of the lip, differ- 
ing entirely from that of any Serapias, its crenulated margin 
and its large lateral lobes; to these I should add as 
of greater importance than any of them, the short stout 
column and its very small short broad ovate beak, which 
beak, in all the known species of Serapias, is linear and as 
long as or longer than the column. 

This hybrid was first found near Genoa, and subsequently 
at Berre, near Nice, and other places on the Riviera, as well 
as near Trieste and Lucca, and there are Herbarian specimens 
at Kew from the department of Gers, in France. It must 
not be confounded with a very closely allied hybrid between 
0. laxiflora and Serapias cordigera, which has been found as 



far north as Vannes iu Brittany. I am indebted to Mr. 
Elwes for the specimen here figured which he received from 
M. Max Leichtlin, of Carlsruhe. 

Descr. Tuber globose ; one sessile the other shortly stalked. 
Stem a foot or more high and leaves pale green, unspotted. 
Leaves narrow, lanceolate, acuminate. Spikes short, 5-6- 
flowered ; bracts equalling or exceeding the flowers, green and 
pink, purple. Floiver lj-lf inch long from the tip of the 
dorsal sepal to that of the lip. Sepals and petals pale green 
and pale purple, veined ; the petals erect, free, broader than 
usual in Serapias, spreading and recurved. Lip large, broadly 
cordate, bright red-purple margins crenulate ; base with 
two tubercles on the very short claw ; lateral lobes rounded, 
larger than the mid-lobe which is almost orbicular. Column 
short, stout, its apex produced into a small broadly ovate 
appendage. — J. D. H, 



Fig. 1, Column and lip; 2, pollen -masses : — both enlarged. 



£256 







TinicentBrooasDar & Soni? 



Tab. 6256. 

OXALIS ENNEAPHYLLA. 
Native of Fuegia and the Falkland TsJavdy 



Nat. Ord. GeraniacejB. — Tribe OxALiDfcS. 
Genus Oxalts, Linn. (Benth and Hook.f. Gen. Plant, vol. i. p. 276). 



Ox.u.rs mneaphytta, acaulis, rhizomate crasso repente bulbifero squamoso, foliis 
longe petiolatia 0-20-foliolatis, petiolo basi scarioso-stipulato, foliolifl radianti- 
bus glaucisplus minnsve pnbescentibus cuneato-obcordatis 2-lobis, pedunculis 
petiolo sequilongis 1-floris 2-bracteolatis, floribus amplis albis, sepalis 
sericeis villosisve apicibus interdum bipunctatis, stylis lrirsutis. 

O. enneapbylla, Oav. 1c. vol. v. p. 7. t. 411 ; Gaud, in Ann. 8oc. Nat. vol. v. p-105, 
ot in Freyo. Voy. Bot. p. 137 ; D' UrviUe'm Mem. Soc. Linn. Par. vol. v. p. filfi; 
DO. Prod. vol. i. p. 702 ; Hook. Iv. PI. t -194; Hook.f. Fl. Anturct. vol. i. 
pars i- p. 253. 

Vinaigrette, Pernetty, Voy. vol. ii. p. 54. 



In the Flora Antarctica I have described this plant as the 
pride of the Falkland Islands, where it grows in such pro- 
fusion at Berkeley Sound, on banks overhanging the sea, as 
to cover them with a mantle of snowy white in the spring 
month of November ; adding that it is an excellent antiscor- 
butic and agreeable pot herb, though too acid to be used 
except in tarts and puddings. 

When the above was written this plant was supposed 
to be confined to the Falkland Islands ; it was, however, 
found in the Straits of Magellan by D'Urville's Expedi- 
tion, and by Lechler at Cape Negro, also in the Strait*. It 
must, however, be a very rare and local Antarctic American 
plant, as it escaped the notice of all other Fuegian collectors, and 
is not included in Gay's " Flora of Chili," where many species 
of the genus are described. There is another Fuegian Oxalis 
closely allied to our English 0. Acetosella. As in the last-named 
plant the flowers of 0. cnneaphylla are dimorphic, one form (that 
here figured) having the stamens much longer than the styles ; 
while in the other the styles far exceed the stamens, as de- 
scribed in De Candolle's Prodromus. This dimorphic 
condition, now so well recognised as a common phenomenon 
amongst flowering plants, is subservient to the purpose of 



cross-fertilization. The specimen here figured was brought 
to Kew along with other plants in a Ward's case by 
H. M. S. Challenger, from the Falklands in June last, and 
flowered in July ; it is a very small individual, full grown 
ones often having petioles and peduncles 6-9 inches long, 
and three whorls of leaflets. It will unquestionably prove 
a beautiful and interesting rock-work plant, requiring, how- 
ever, coolness and moisture for successful cultivation. 

Descr. PootstocJc 1 to 2 inches long, nodose, simple or 
branched, clothed with scarious stipular leaf-sheaths, tip 
villous. Leaves numerous, glabrous pilose or silky, petiole 
4-6 inches long, obscurely jointed above the stipule ; leaflets 
9-20, whorled, usually 2-seriate, obcordate, glaucous, 
rather fleshy; stipules linear, scarious, red-brown. Pe- 
duncles equalling the petioles, 2-bracteolate above the middle ; 
bracteoles scarious. Flowers solitary, 1-1 \ inch in diameter. 
Sepals lanceolate, subacute, ciliate, with at times 2 black 
dots towards the apex. Petals much exceeding the sepals, 
obovate-obcordate, spreading, white or pale rose-coloured, 
with purple veins. Stamens 1 0, alternately long and short, 
erect. Styles 5, stigmas capitate. Capsule oblong, silky. — 
J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Top of peduncle, bracteoles, and flower, with petals removed ; 
2, stamen and pistil; 3, pistil : — all enlarged. 




ezivr 






[lay &* c 



The binder is requested to cancel the description of 
Tab. (5257. Laurentia carnosula, and to sub- 
stitute for it the accompanying, 6257. Dowxingia 

PULCHELLA. 



Tab. 6257. 

DOWNINGIA PULCHELLA. 

Native of California. 



Nat, Ord. Cam panui,A(je<e.— Tribe Lobelieje. 
Genus Downingia, Torrey. (BentJi. et Hook.f. Gen. Plant, vol. ii. p. 550). 



Downingia pulchdla; glaberrima, erecta v. diffuse ramosa, foliis caninsulis 
linciiri-lanceolatis acutis v. subobtusis integerrimis, floribus axillaribus 
sessilibus, calycis tubo elongate, lirabi lobis linearibus, corolla? tubo brevi, 
labii superioris 2-partiti segmentis ovato-lanceolatis, labii inferions late 
quadrati 'i-lobi lobis rotundatis, capsula lineari 1-W pollicari. 

D. pulchella, Ton: in Paeif. Rep. vol. iv. p. 110. A. Gray in Bot. Geol. Sun: 
Calif, vol. i. p. 4 14, (1876). 

(Ji.ixtonu pulchella, Lindl. in Sot. Reg. t. 1909; Bon in Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 
Ser. 2, t. 412. . 



A very elegant little annual, a native of marshy places, river- 
banks, and springs in N.W. America, from British Columbia 
to California ; introduced by Douglas almost half a century 
ago, but long lost to cultivation. It has again been intro- 
duced by our excellent contributor, Mr. Thompson, of 
Ipswich, who flowered it in July, 1875, and to whom I am 
indebted for the specimen here figured. 

The genus Downingia contains two supposed Western 
American species and a Chilian one. The other North Ameri- 
can species is the D. elegans, Torr. (Clmtonia elcgans, Lmdi. in 
Bot. Reg. 1. 1241, of which 0. corymbosa, A. DC. Prod. vol. vn. 
p. 347, is a form.) This I find it quite impossible to dis- 
tinguish by Herbarium specimen or drawings fro mD. pulchella. 
Asa Gray, who is the last describer of the species, and whose 
authority on North American plants is so high that it almost 
compels acceptance of his views, keeps the two distinct m the 
recently published < Flora of California,' saying that they are 
very like one another, but that the leaves of pulchella 
are mostly narrower and obtuse, the divisions of its upper lip 
ovate-lanceolate or oblong (not lanceolate), and that the 
lower lip is much dilated and deeply 3-lobed with a large 
white or yellowish centre (that of D. elegans having a 
broad white spot). 

The Chilian species again is known only from dried speci- 



mens, and these precisely resemble the Califomian in all 
apparent characters of habit, foliage, flower, and fruit, except 
that, according to Bentham in the Genera Plantarum, the latter 
appears to dehisce by one suture instead of two or three. 
1 nnd, however, great variability in the dehiscence of the 
capsules ofB.pukhella; and as the seeds of the Califomian and 
Unlian plants are otherwise identical, there are no apparent 
grounds for the separation. If the union of these be 
connrmed, it will add another to the already numerous list of 
plants common to Chili and temperate Western S. America, 
which are absent in intermediate latitudes. 

Descb. A very variable, perfectly glabrous annual, erect 
or prostrate or ascending, with stout or slender branches from 
yne root o-18 inches long. Leaves emarginate one half to one 
men long, opposite or alternate, fleshy, sessile, linear, linear- 
oblong, or ovate-oblong, acute or obtuse, quite entire. 
Flowers very variable in size, sessile, axillary in the upper 
eaves forming leafy racemes. Caly X -tube linear, exceeding 
%rn7r? ; z t fi ™> ^ear-oblong, obtuse, fleshy spreading 
arl I?" 1 T5 m . d ; ameter > P al ° violet-blue, with a yellow 
area surrounded with a white border on the lower lip ; 

diti/ P ^r\° bCOn i C; *" Ver ^ spading; npper smaller 
segment ■ w ^ m *° , tw ° near1 ^ Parallel lanceolate obtuse 
ffw' 'Tk T!t J ? r f Gr ' near1 ^ ^ uadrat ^ but loader 
neariv iU 1 ° 1' *", ° beS Y& * ° btuSe " <W one to 
manfsi^T eS r ? ng ' ^ obtusel F 3 " an g led , I'^ed, 
2£ "P^g longitudinally into 2-3 membranous 

a to^h tr r l r- Se i ds minute ' sh ° r % ****** ™*» 

at both ends; testa smooth, pale brown.— J.J). H. 

Fig. 1, Flower, magnified. 



6238 




^fincantBrooks I 



Tab. 6258. 

MASDEVALLIA polystiota. 

Native of Northern Peru. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Tribe PleurothallidEjE. 
Genus Masdevallta, Ruiz and Pan. (Li mil. 0m. and $p. Orchid, p. 192). 



Masdevallia polystiota ; foliis obovato-lanceolatis in petiolum gracilem angustatis 
apice 2-dentatis, scapis gracilibus folia excedentibus nudis, floribus racemosis 
niveis purpureo-pnnctatis, bracteis lanceolatis ovaria asquantibus, sepalorum 
tubo breviter campanulato basivalde gibbo et tumido intus puberulo, lobis semi- 
circularibus erosis in caudas patentes duplo longiores abrupte angustatis, 
petalis parvis falcato-oblongis apices versus erosis, labello linguseformi 
apicem versus in lobum terminalem sequilatum undulatum rotundatum 
desinente, disco obscure carinato, columna superne serrata. 

M. polystiota, Beichb. f. in Gard. Chron. 1874, vol. i. p. 338, and ii. 290. 



This sparkling little Masdevallia is one of three brought 
to notice by Reichenbach in the Gardeners' Chronicle, as 
having been imported from Pern by Mr. Ortgies of the 
Botanic Gardens of Zurich ; all of these are natives of the 
temperate region of the Andes in Northern Pern, and were 
discovered by Mr. Roezl ; of these the subject of the plate 
flowered simultaneously with Messrs. Veitch, and in the Prince 
Carl Egon zu Fiirstenberg's Garden at Donaueschingen. Our 
drawing was, however, made from a plant that flowered with 
Mr. Green, of Eeigate, in March of last year. Mr. Roezl in- 
formed Dr. Reichenbach that he had found tufts of this 
species with twenty racemes of flowers ; and that it was quite 
like Odontoglossum ncevium or 0. bland urn. 

Descr. Densely tufted. Leaves with the petiole four to five 
inches long, obovate-oblaneeolate, narrowed into the slender 
petiole, 2-toothed at the tip, bright green, 3-nerved, chan- 
nelled down the middle; basal sheaths short, appressed, 
greenish. Scapes numerous, slender, exceeding the leaves, 
naked, 5-6-flowered ; bracts lanceolate, exceeding the ovary, 
pedicels short. Ovary short, turgid, with three oxenulate 
angles. Flowers \\ inch in diameter from the tip of the 



dorsal to that of either lateral sepal, white speckled with 
purple. Tube of cuneate sepals \ inch long, shortly campanu- 
late, incurved, very tumidly gibbous below, 3 -angled, 
angles keeled ; free parts of sepals almost semi-circular, con- 
cave, erose on the margins, tips suddenly contracted into 
slender spreading yellow tails that are twice as long as the 
rest of the perianth. Petals linear-oblong, falcate, apiculate, 
toothed below the apex in front. Lip tongue-shaped, recurved, 
suddenly contracted towards the tip, which consists of a 
nearly orbicular-terminal lobe, which is of the same diameter 
as the rest of the lip ; disk obscurely carinate. Column with 
serrated margins above. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower; 2, the same with the perianth cut longitudinally ; 3, column, 
ovary, and claw of lip ; 4, limb of lip : — all enlarged, 



6259 







Tab. 6259. 
CALLIPHRURIA Hartwegiana. 

Native of New Granada. 



Nat. Ord. Amarylltdaceje. — Tribe Pancratie^. 
Genus Calliphruria, Herbert, (Kunth. Enum. PI. vol. v. p. 692). 



Calliphruria Hartwegiana ; bulbo ovoideo stolonifero, tunicis brunneis mem- 
branaceis, foliis oblongo-spathulatis acutis firmis glabris viridibus distincte 
petiolatis, caule tereti pedali, umbellis 6-8-floris, bracteis parvis lineanbus 
membranaceis, pedicellis flore brevioribus, ovario globoso, periantbii albi 
tubo infundibulari segmentis oblongis gp.quilongo, stamiuibus limbo bre- 
vioribus, stylo exserto apice stigmatoso distincte tricuspidato. 

C. Hartwegiana, Herbert in Bot. Reg. 1844, Misc. no. 83 ; Kunth. Enum. PI 
vol. v. p. 692). 



This plant is still the only known species of the genus. Of 
familiar types it comes nearest Eucharis and Eurycles, but 
besides the technical distinction, which depends mainly on the 
stamens (which here are constructed on the same plan as in 
the section Porrum of the genus Allium, but all six quite 
uniform), our plant is constructed throughout upon a smaller 
scale, with firmer narrower leaves, and flowers not above an 
inch in diameter when expanded. It was discovered by 
Hartweg about 1842, amongst the mountains of the province 
of Bogota in New Granada, and has lately been imported by 
Mr. William Bull, from one of whose specimens the present 
figure was made in July, 1874. 

Descr. Bulb ovoid, an inch thick, copiously stoloniferous, 
with brown membranous tunics. Leaves about four in a 
rosette, cotemporary with the flowers, oblong-spathulate, 
acute, firm and rather coriaceous in texture, bright green, 
glabrous, narrowed into a distinct petiole two to three inches 
long, which is flat on the face and rounded on the back. 
Scape terete, about a foot long ; umbels 6-8-flowered ; bracts 
small, membranous, linear ; pedicels one half to three fourths 



of an inch long. Perianth white, funnel-shaped, an inch 
long, the oblong segments, which spread almost horizon- 
tally when fully expanded, as long as the tube. Stamens 
six, inserted on the same level at the throat of the tube. 
Filaments petaloid, with three large linear teeth at the top, 
the middle one of which bears the yellow ligulate versatile 
anther. Ovary globose; ovules two to three in a cell. 
Style filiform, exserted, straight, distinctly tricuspidate 
at the stigmatose tip. — J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1, Entire flower cut open; 2, a single anther; 3, horizontal section of 
ovary : — *t/l magnified. 



CZ60 




W l-HchcWctWh 



Tfinceal"BrooWDaf«'SaB- ta, P 



Tab. 6260. 
ICACINA Mannii. 

Native of Old Calabar, 



Nat. Ord. Olacine^e. — Tribe Icacinejk. 
Genus Icactna, A. Jim (Benth. and Hooh.f. Gen. Plant- vol. i. p. 352). 



Icacina Mannii ; frutex scandens, ramis gracilibus glabris, foliis breviter petiolatis 
ellipticis caudato-aciuninatis integerrimis basi rotundatis membranaceis 
glaberrimis v. costa subtus et petiolo pubendis, costa nervisque remotis 
gracilibus, floribus in cyraas fasciculatas v. dichotoraas axillares brevissime 
pedunculatas sericeo-hirsutas dispositis flavis, bracteis niinutis, calycis lobis 
nvatis, petalis extus sericeis intus barba transversa excepta glabris, stigmate 
punctiformi. 

I. Mannii, Oliv. Fl. Trop, Afr. vol. i. p. 357. 

The genus Icacina consists of but few species, all as 
far as hitherto observed, natives of Western Tropical Africa ; 
their uses, if any, are unknown, and they vary much in habit. 
The type of the genus /. senegalensis, Juss, has terminal long- 
peduncled panicled cymes of flowers, as described in the 
generic character published in the "Genera Plantaruin." 
Since that work appeared, however, other species have been 
added by Professor Oliver, from West African collections, 
in one of which the flowers are in axillary dichotomously 
branched very spreading cymes, whilst in another, the sub- 
ject of the present plate, the inflorescence is reduced to almost 
sessile fascicles, which, however, on careful examination, are 
found to be reducible to shortly peduncled forked cymes. 
/. Mannii is a native of the Gulf of Guinea, where it was dis- 
covered at Old Calabar by Mr. Gustav Mann (now Inspector 
of India-rubber Forests in Assam), when collecting for the 
Royal Gardens in 1863; he, however, sent no living specimens. 
In 1865 its large tuberous roots were sent by the Rev. Mr. 
Thompson, to Mr. Clark, of the Glasgow Botanical Garden, 
which flowered in October, 1870, and from which the accom- 
panying drawing was made. 

Descr. Root a large tuber 0-12 inches in diameter (Clark). 



Stem slender, climbing, terete, glabrous. Leaves alternate, five to 
seven inches long (twelve in young plants), shortly petioled, 
elliptic, abruptly narrowed into a long point, rounded at the 
base, quite entire, membranous, glabrous, or with the midrib 
beneath and petiole puberulous ; nerves few, distant, slender. 
Cymes silky, axillary, very short, solitary or fascicled, di- 
chotomously branched ; bracts minute, lanceolate. Flowers about 
one quarter of an inch long. Calyx 5-lobed, silky; lobes 
broad, ovate, much shorter than the corolla. Petals linear- 
oblong, yellow, externally silky, glabrous within, except 
the transverse beard of flexuous hairs across the middle. 
Stamens exserted, filaments slender. Ovary silky, narrowed 
into a slender style ; stigma a minute point. — J. B. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower; 2, petal; 3, stamen; 4, ovary; 5, vertical, and 6, transverse 
sections of ditto : — all enlarged. 



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By JOHN CHARLES MELLISS, A.I.C.E., F.G.S., F.L.S., 

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A SERIES OF PHOTO-PRINTS FROM WORKS OF ART. 
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ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS, 1876. 

FINE ART PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



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BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 

CONTENTS OF No. 382, OCTOBER, 1876. 

Tab. 6255.— SEEAPIAS PAPILIONA CEO-LIN GTTA 
(hybrid) . 
6256.— OXALIS ENNEAPHYLLA. 
6257.— LAUEENTIA CAENOSTTLA. 
6258.— MASDEVALLIA POLYSTICTA. 
6259.— CALLIPHEUEIA HAETWEGrlANA. 
6260.— ICAC1NA MANNII. 

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NATAL: 

A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTON OF THE COLONY, 

INCLUDING ITS 

NATURAL FEATURES, PRODUCTIONS, INDUSTRIAL 
CONDITION, AND PROSPECTS. 

BY 

HEN BY BROOKS, 

FOE MANY YEAES A BESIDENT IN THE COLONY. 
EDITED BT 

DE. E, J. MANN, E.EA.S., E.E.S. 

LATE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION IN THE COLONY. 

CONTEXTS: 

CHAPTEE 

I. Geographical Position and Character. 
II. Geological Formation. 

III. Climate. 

IV. Wild Animal Life. 

V. Indigenous Vegetable Productions. 
VI. Early History. 
VII. British Colonisation and Rule. 
VIII. Social Progress and Pros j h 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

A IE 

I. Frontispiece. View on the Palmiet River, near Westville. 

vsieal and Topoj >p of the Colony. 

<5. Plan of the Inner Bay or Harbour. 

e Wall on the shoulder of Pietermaritzhurg Table Mouatain. 

5. Mines at the Diamond Fields on the Vaal River. 

6. The Valley of the Umgeni from Table Mountain. 

7. The Lower Falls of the Umgeni. 

8. Great Fall of the Umgeni at Howicli. 

9. Glade at Aliceville, with Wild Bananas and Date-palms. 
10. Euphorbia Caput-Med 

II. Arduinia graij gulu. 

12. Scarlet Cvrtaiiti: ill v. 

13. Thunbergia Natalita. 

14 Portrait of I • f of the An 'Irs. 

i on the HU .lam. 

16. Krar. 

L. : Garden. 



No. 383. 



VOL. XXXII. NOVEMBER. 



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1873, 12s. 6d. 
Berghuis. Niederlandischer Obstgarten, in German and French, the Text by Gavere and 
Kosh, illustrated with 120 beautifully coloured plates of Fruit, drawn from Nature, 2 volumes, 
4to., newly halfbov.nd morocco, Groningen, 1868, £3 15s. 
Berkeley (Rev. M. J.) Handbook of British Mosses of the British Isles, 24 coloured plates, 

demy 8vo., cloth, 1863, 16s. (pub. 21s.) 
Berkeley( Rev. M. J.) Tntrociaction to Cryptogamic Botany, 157iwoodcuts, 8vo., cloth boards, 

1857, 8s. 6d. (pub. 20s.) 
Berkeley (Rev. M. J.) Outlines of British Fungology, 24 coloured plates, demy 8vo., cloth, 

21o. (pub. 30s.) 
Bernays(L.A.) The Olive and its products j with 17 illustrations,80 pp., 8vo., sewed, Brisbane, 

1872,2s. 
Blackwell (E.) A Curious Herbal, with 500 coloured plates of the Plants used in Physic, with 
description ; 2 volumes, folio, calf neat, sound copy, 1739, £2 10s. 
An original copy coloured by the Author. 
Bloxam (Rev. A.) A collection of British Rubi, about 60 species and varieties, carefully dried 

and named, and habitat given, small folio, £1 10s. 
Bloxam (Rev. A.) Wild British Roses, about 40 species and varieties,classified and named from 
Baker's Monograph of the Roses, small folio, boards, £1. The specimens finely mounted and in 
hne condition. 
Bolton (James) Filices Britannicae 4to., with 81 coloured plates, cloth, good copy, 2ls. 
Brewer (James) Fiora of Reigate, 12mo., cloth, new, with map, 1856, 3s. 
uroofc (Richard) Cyclopaedia of Botany, and complete book of Herbs, forming a History and 
Description of all Plants, British and Foreign, which are known to be useful to Man. 600 
coloured engravings of Plants, 2 volumes, 8m, cloth, gilt, 1868, 14s. 
.t»rown (J.) Forester, a practical Treatise on the planting rearing and management of 
■R^™ ^r eeS ' "yd 8t °, ha] f bound, illustrated, 1861, 24s. (published 31s. 6d.) 
•Drown manual of Hotany (Anatomical and Physiological), for the Use of Students, numer- 
ous engravings, thick volume, 8vo, cloth, 1874, lis. 
2*1876 ^ I ^ boi8ement in France; or Records of the Replanting of the Alps, 8vo, 

Burbidge(F. W.) Domestic Horticalfcure,2nd edition,revised and enlarged, with illustrations, 
post Svo, cloth, 1S76, 6s. 6d. 

fi£ur^nf 8 pi Us f Ul ai } d - O™™*^ 1 Plants, upwards of 250 beautiful and accurate coloured 

^5£S ta C^^,^i^S1g^ , ^ < £r 0,lt * ^ copioU3 Descriptions ' 2 

S ( u**^,' ?°? w Bnttono-Americaniu, or a Collection of Shrubs and Trees of North 
1763, &td? mate ° f En &**> 14 coloured .plates, imperial 4to, calf, 

W. Wesley, 28, EsserStoetTstrand, London. No. 16. 



BOOK CIRCULAR. 5 

BOTANY. 

Catlow(Agnes) Popular Field Botany, a Description of the Plants most common to the various 
localities of the British Isles, 80 finely coloured figures, square 8vo, cloth, 1852, 7s. 6d., 
(published 10s. 6d.) 

Catlow (Agnes) Popular Garden Botany, coloured plates, royal 16mo, 1855, 5s., (published 
10s. 6d.) 

Catlow (Agnes) Popular Greenhouse Botany, many coloured plates, royal lGmo., doth,<>ilt, 
1857, 5s., (published 10s. 6d.) 

Chanter (<J.) Ferny Combes; a Ramble after Ferns in the Glens and Valleys of Devon3 
shire, 3rd edition, 8 coloured plates, and map of the county, foolscap 8vo., 4s. 6d. 

Church. — Floral Calendar, compiled by E. Curley, illustrated on every page, w ith magnified! 
scroll work borders and vignettes designed by W. R, Tymms, 4to cloth, 1869, 9s., (published 21s) 

Clayton (J.) Flora Virginica exhibens Plantas in Virginia crescentes, observavit J. F„ Grono- 
vius, ito., map, Lugduni Bat, 1762, 8s. 6d. 

Clerk (P. K.) A Botanical Lexicon of Vegetable Physiology, 8vo, cloth, 1837, 5s. 

Coles (W.) Plants, Fruits, Herbs,and Flowers, History of, with their Wholesome Virtues and 
Cures, 4to, 1657, 10s. 

Cooke(M.C.) Handbook of the British Fungi,with full descriptions of all the species and illus- 
trations of the Genera, 1 coloured plate and about 400 wood engravings, 2 thick volumes, 8vo, 
sewed, 1870-1, £1. 

Cooke (M.C.) Rust. Smut, Mildew, and Mould, an introduction to the study of Microscopic 
Fungi, with nearly 300 figures by J. E. Sowerby, mostly coloured, foolscap 8vo., cloth, 
1865, 4s. 

Corda (A. C. J.) Beitrage zur Flora der Vorwelt, sixty plates, imperial 4to., boards, Fragse, 
1845, £1 10s. 

Corda (A.C.J.) Tcones Fungorum hucusque cognitorum, 6 volumes, folio cum 64 (abb. aen. 
cart, Pragse, 1837-54, £14. 

Volumes 1—5 are an exact facsimile of the orginal work, to which the original edition of volume 
6 is added. 

Coppi (F.) Monogr. ed iconografia della Terramara r]i Gorzano ossia monumenti preistorici 
ec. 2 voll. Modena 1871 — 74. in-4. gr. c. 66 tavole. — Opera premiata. £2 10s. 

Cosson (E.) etDurieu, Exploration Scientifique de l'Algeria, contenantBotanique parCosson 
et Duiieu De Maisonneuve, with 90 fine large beautifully coWved plates, 3 vols, imperial 4to, 
half bound morocco, cloth sides, 1854-67, ±'7 15s. (published 450f.) 

Cowell (M.H.) Flora of Kent, with the flowering periods, &c, 8vo, maps, boards, 1839, 3s. 6d. 

Crombie (Rev. J., M.A.) Geological Relations of the Alpine Flora of Great Britain, 8vo, 
pp 20, 2s. 

Curtis (W.) Botanical Magazine, General Index to the Plants, contained in the first 53 
volumes (old series complete) with portrait and memoirs of the Author, royal 8vo., board*, 
1828, 7s. 6d. 

Curtis (W.) Botanical Magazine or Flower Garden Displayed,from the commencement in 1787 
to 1864, including the Continuations by Sir W. J. Hooker, and the 2 Indexes, with upwards of 
5500 beautifully coloured plates, 92 volumes, 8vo. bound in 67, calf neat, £80, 17871864 (the 
original cost was nearly £160.) 

Curtis (W.) Botanical Magazine,or Flower Garden Displayed.from its commencement in 1787 
to 1811, 32 in 16 volumes, large 8vo, with 1328 colouied plates. £2 17s. 6d. 

Curtis ( W.) Botanical Magazine, or Flower Garden displnyed, volumes 1 to 27 inclusive, con- 
taining 1117 beautiful coloured plates of flowers, with descriptions, bound in 14 volumes royal 
8vo. old marbl&l calf, gilt, very nice set, 1793-1817, £2 5s. 

Curtis (W.) Botanical Magazine, 22 volumes half bound in 11, the 20th volume has the genexS 
index, 1790, £2 10s. 

Curtis (W.) Botanical Magazine, Companion to the ; being a Journal containing sucli inter- 
esting Botanical Information as does no; come within the prescribed limits of the Magazine, by 
W. Jackson Hooker, with tine coloured plates and portraits, 2 volumes, royul Svo., calj mat, 
1835-6, £1 Is. 

Curtis (W.) Flora Londinensis,compris ngthe History of Plants indigenous to Great iiriiam, 
their Uses, Economy, etc. with the Addi ions by Graves and Sir W. Jaukson Hooker, the draw- 
ings made by Sowerby, Sydenham,Edwaias,and Lindley, upwards of 650 large and finely engraved 
plates, all beautifully coloured, complete in 4 large thick volumes, royal folio, half-bound calfyiu, 
top edges gilt, fine set, 1777-1835, £16 16.,. «.-,,- i 

Curtis (W.) Flora Lonoinensis; or Plates and Descriptions of such Plants as GrowW ildm tiie 
Environs of London, with their Places of Growth and Times of Flowering, their several I »eu in 
Medicine, etc. 413 plates, exhibiting the full natural size of each Plant, with magnified dissec- 
tions of the parts of fructification, etc. All beautifully coloured, 2 thick volumes, royai lolio, 
half bound, rough edges, entirely uncut, 1777-99, £4. i 

Curtis (W.) Lectures on Botany, portrait and numerous coloured plates, 3 volumes, royai 
1805, 10s. 6d. 

W. Weiley, 28, Essex Street, Strand, London. No. 16. 



6 NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENTIFIC 

BOTAfNT. 
Curtis (W. ) Practical Observations on the British Grasses, especially such as are best adapted 
to the Laying Down or Improving of Meadows and Pastures, coloured plates, royal 8vo., boards, 
1805, 4s. 
Darwin (E.) The Botanic Garden ; a Poem with Philosophical Notes, 2 volumes, 8vo, calf, 

1799, 3s. 6d. 
Daubeny (C.) Essay on the Trees and Shrubs of thefAncients, 8vo., Oxford 1865, 8s. 6d. 
Davies (W.) "Welsh Botanology, part 1, Catalogue of the Native Plants of the Isle of Angel- 
gey, in Latin, English, and Welsh, 8vo, boards uncut, 1813, 6s. 6d. 
Deakin (R.) Florigraphia Britannica, or Descriptions of the Flowering Plants, and Ferns of 
Great Britain, with upwards of 1000 finely engraved Figures of Flowers, etc., 4 volumes, 8vo, 
grained calf, nice set, 1841-48, £2 15s. 
De Candolle (A. P. ) and Sprengel (K. ) Elements of the Philosophy of Plants, containing the 

Principles of Scientific Botany. 8vo, half cloth, 1821, 4s. 
De Candolle (A. P.) Astragalogia nempe Astragali, Biserulae ot Oxytropidis nee non Phacse 
colutee et lessertise, historia iconibus illustrata, 50 fine plates by P. J. Redoute, folio, half-calf, 
Parisiis (Didot), 1802, 10s. 6d. (published £6 6s.) 
De Candolle (A. P.) Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, sive Enumeratio con- 
tracta Ordinum, Generum, Specierumque Plantarum, hucusque cognitarum, juxta Methodi Natu- 
ralis Normas digesta, 17 volumes, 8vo, paper binding, new, uncut, Paris, 1824-73, £12 complete, 
(published at £15). 
De Candolle (A. P.) Prodromus, H.W.Buek's Index to the above, 3 volumes, 8 vo.jvfzwa', £2 10s. 
De Candolle (A.P.) Vegetable Organography, or Description of the Organs of Plants, translated 
by Kingdon, 23 plates containing many figures, 2 volumes, 8vo, cloth, 1841, 8s. 6d. (published 
£1 8s.) 
Dietrich (D.) Synopsis Plantarum, seu Enumeratio systematica Plantarum adhuc Cognitarum, 

etc., 5 thick vols, 8vo, half -morocco, neat, scarce, Vimarias, 1839-52, £2. 
Dillenius (J. J.) Historia Muscorum in qua circiter, 600 species Veteres et Novoe ad sua genera 
relatae describuntur et Iconibus illustrantur, 4to, Ch. Max, a fine copv, Russia extra, Oxon., 1741 
£2 12s. 6d. ' VJ 

Dillenius (J. J.) Historia Muscorum, a general History of Land and Water Mosses and Corals, 

with 85 plates, containing aboiit 1000 figures drawn from nature, royal 4to, cloth, 1768, 15s. 
Don (Gh) General System of Gardening and Botany, 4 thick volumes, 4to, boards, 1831-37. 

18s. 6d. (published at £14). 
Donn (James) Hortus Cantabrigiensis ; An Accented Catalogue of Indigenous and Exotic 
Plants Cultivated in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, with additions, etc., by Pursh and Lindley, 
8vo, morocco, 1823, 4s. - • 

Dunster (Rev. H. P., M.A.,) The Young Collector's Handybook of Botany, 66 wood en- 
gravings, 3s. * 

Baton (Prof A.) Manual of Botany for North America, containing Generic and Specific descrip- 
tions of the Indigenous Plants and Common Cultivated Exotics growing North of the Gulf of 
Mexico, 6th edition, thick post 8vo, calf, 1833, 3s. 6d. 

Edmondston (T.) Flora of Shetland ; comprehending a list of the Flowering and Cryptogamic 

TwSferS* i Re i? arl « on Topography, Geology, and Climate, post 8vo, cloth, 1845, 3s. 

Edwards (S.)The Botanical Register. Edited by John Lindley, Ph. D. , F. R. S. , and L. S. 

5S^iS^£!™ d plates - New ^ ries - 9 vAne3 bound ** "^W* 

B n^ff r r^ ( ^5 eW ?°T!i C Gjrfej, atahrtrfvMi 133 plates, coloured with the greatest exact- 
wSSL f jTX^ri? y S 7^ en ^ m Edward8 « 2 volumes, royal 4 to, calf, gilt edges, 1812, £1 Is. 
K£™i,5^£ P r n I e ^ a "S? stan ™ d «* Bread Fruit, 4 to, with plates, i 7 75, fr 6d * 
E MT^ 

~M~12 N T^ atl °ni BV wZ b if \ 5L Celastri neen . Mit 10 Taf. - d. Nervation der Bombaccen, 

Ettin^snauIen^C %^ ^ n ? k ^ t *? *» i Lor ^ thaceen - M. 15 Taf. 4. Wien 1857-71, 12s. 5«L 

munf der XSw P^ B J att -S£lette der Dikotyledonen u. die Untersuchung u. Bestim- 

KotyUl^^^ - 95 ™- ^ Naturselbstdrucku. 276 

^syssssi iSsssz t^s^s s^w ion of Timber ; Pomona ' 

SSS£U&£ ^ DiSC ° Ur8e ° f ^'%^^£&*a* of Timber, portrait, 
"SSiJ^ 8?^^^ iL*^^ ■»* <>f the propagation of Timber 

numerous Ine plates and portra it ol EveChvT S°^f ^ ^ Hunter ' 2 V ° lumeS ' ^ 4t °"' 
Falconer (H. ) Teak Forests of the T™, - y ^^^ozzi, calf, 1786, £1 15s, 

Calcutta, 1852, 7s?6<L Tenassenm Provinces, 8vo., coloured map and plates, cloth, 



W. We1.v, »8, £„« BtMft> itrJUld$ u ^ Wt ^ lf 



BOOK CIRCULAR. ? 

BOTANY. 

Feilding (H. S.) and Gardner (G.) Sertum Plantarum, or drawings and descriptions of ra-ro 

and undescribed plants from the Authors Hebarium, with 75 plates, 8vo., boards, 1844, o». 
Fischer (B. L.) Synopsis Astragalorum Tragacantharum, &c. An elaborate monograph of thl* 

section of the genus Astragalus, in which 175 species are described and 33 are figured, Morcow, 
1853, sewed, 6s. 
Fitzgerald (R. D.) Australian Orchids, Part I, 7*plates and pages of text, large folio, 

price 20s. plain. 25s. coloured. Sidney, printed for the Government. 
Floral Magazine complete, containing Figures and Descriptions of popular Garden Flowers, by 

the Rev. H. H. Dombrain, 560 beautifully executed plates, accurately drawn, and »plendid)y 

coloured. 10 volumes, royal 8vo., cloth boards new, 1861-71, £11 lis (pub. £18 7s. 6d.) 
Flore des Serreset desJardinsderEurope,Annalesgeneralesd'Horticulture,20volumes,roy«l 

8vo , containing 2145 beautifully coloured plates, and over 2000 woodcuts (published, unbound art 

£30.) half green morocco, the last two volumes as issued, Gand, 1845-74, £26 10s 
Forbes (J.) Kortus Woburnensis, a descriptive Catalogue of upwards of Six Thousand Orna- 

mental Plants, cultivated at Woburn Abbey, numerous engravings, thick royal 8vo. calf gilt, 

1833, 10s. 6d. 
Forbes (J.);Pinetum Woburnense : a catalogue of Coniferous PlantsTin the collection of the Duke 

of Bedford, at Woburn Abbey ; systematically arranged by J. Forbes, imperial, 8vo., front 

and 68 coloured plates of the size of two pages, cloth, 1839, £18 18s. 
ForBter (T. F. ) Flora Tonbrigensis ; or a Catalogue of Plants growing wild in the neighbourhood 

of Tonbridge Wells, a Guide to the Central Flora of Kent and Sussex, with additions by Z. 

Forster, coloured plates, post 8vo., Tonbridge Wells, 1842, 5s. 
Fortune (R.) Journey to the Tea Countries ofjChina, with notices of the Tea Plantations in the- 

Himalaya Mountains, 17 illustrations, 8vo., cloth boards, 1852, 7s. 6d. (pub. 15s.) 
Francis (G. W.) An Analysis of the British Ferns, with their Allies ; 5th edition, revised 

and enlarged by Arthur Henfrey, F.R S., with numerous engravings, 8vo., cloth, 1855, 5s. 
Garidel (M.) Histoire des Plantes qui naissent en Provence et aux environs d Aix, &c, folio, 

large paper, fine plates, Paris, 1719, 12s. 6d. . 

Gatty (A.) British Seaweeds, drawn from Professor Harvey's " Phycologia Bntannica, with 

descriptions, an Amateur's Synopsis, Rules for laying on Seaweeds, an Order for arranging them 

in the Herbarium, and an Appendix of New Species, by Mrs. Alfred Gatty, illustrated with 1 80 

coloured plates, containing 384 figures, in 2 volumes, super-royal 8vo., cloth, £1 12* 

(pub. £2 10a.) „, .__ 

Gerarde (J. ) Catalogue of his Garden. Catalogus Arborum, Fruticum ac Plantarum in Horto 

Johannia Gerardi, civis et chirurgi Londinensis, nascentium : ex off. Arnoldi Hatfield, Ix>ndon, 

1599, 27s. 6d. . , , , 

Gibson (G. S.) Flora of Essex, 8vo., doth, good copy, with map and plates, 1862, 5s. 
Gray (Asa) Botanical Text-Book, or Introduction to Scientific Botany, 1100 woodcuts, Bvo., 

cluth boards, New York, 1850, 5s. „ „ 

Gray (Asa) Botany of the Northern United States, thick, small 8vo., doth, 1S48, 5s. 
Gray (S. O.) British Seaweeds : an Introduction to the Study of Marine Algx of Great Britain, 

Ireland, and the Channel Islands, crown 8vo., cloth, 16 coloured plates. 8s. M. (pub lUe. bd .] 
Gray (Asa) First Lessons in Botany and Vegetable Physiology, with a Glossary of 

Terms, 8vo , half bound neat, New York, 1857, 6s. . , „,._, _j,v 

Gray (A.) Natural Arrangement of British Plants, according to their relations to each other, with 

their Uses, time of Flowering, &c. , 2 thi.k volumes, 8vo., 1821, 9s. bd. , , VUnt . n t 

Greville (R..K ) Alg<e Britannic*, or Descriptions of the Marine and other Inarticulated F plants of 

the British Islands of the Order Algae, 19 fine plates, containing several hundred bcautifu / 

coloured figures, 1836, 24s. (pub. £2 2s.) , _ _.,.■■-, nf rvimirurumto 

8vo., half morocco extra, gilt leaves, 1823-8, £6 10s. . VAitAmrok arrtrwrd 

Greville (R.K.) Flora Edinensis, or a Description of Plants growing re.^FMbnbur{,h, arran«rtl 

according to the Linnean System, plates, 8vo., boards, Edinburgh, 1 , Society on the 

Grew (Dr. Nehemiab) Anatomy of Plants : Lectures read before the koynl Soc.ety on Ue 

Philosophical History <.f Plants, with 83 plates, folio, fine copy, calf, wo*, • • 
Gnesbach (A.) Flora of the British West Indian Islands, demy 8vo , doth, 1864, /.i 10.. (p« 

Hanbur^Daniel) Science Papers, Chiefly Pharmacological and Botanical.edited with Memo*, 

by Joseph lnco, 8vo., pp. 540, 1876, 14s. ,. m ,tir Description of tbe P'ants «f 

larvey < W .H. ) and t onder ( O. W . ) Flora Capensis, a systematic >c«npnon 



Harvey (W.H.)and t onder (O.W.) Flora Capensis, a systematic «£"*' 2 " fc , 

the Cape Col<my and Port Natal, v. lume 1-3, 8vo., 1859 -to, "^ d ^ criptions of all the Britiah 

Harvey (Professor) Manual of the British Marine Alg*. ^'^ured plate., tl 8.. 6d. 
Species of Seaweeds, with plates to illustrate the Genera, ovo -» e coloured plate*, imperi*! 

Harvey ( W. H. ) Nereis Australis ; or Algae of the Southern Ocean, 50 ^ v 

8vo., sewed, 1»47, £2 2a. 



W. Wesley, 28, Essex'Street, Strand, london. So. 18. 



8 NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENTIFIC 

botany: 

Harvey (W. H ) Nereis Boreali- Americana ; or History of the Marine Algae of the Atlantic 
and Pacific coasts, 3 parts complete, forming one volnme. thick royal 4to., 50 coloured plates, 
uncut, scarce, Washington, Smithsonian, Institution, 1851-8, £2 10s. 
Harvey (W. H.) Phycologia Australica ; or a History of Australian Seaweeds, 300 finely 
coloured plates,, each with several figures of the more characteristic Marine Algse of Australasia, 
with Descriptions and a Synopsis of all known Australian Algae, 5 volumes, royal 8vo., cloth, 
1858-63, £5 17s. 6d. (pub. £7 13s.) >-? ;•/..■ , > 

Harvey (W. H.) Phycologia Britannica, or History of British Seaweeds, containing Figures, 
generic and specific Characters, Synonymes and Descriptions of all the Species of the British 
Algae, nearly 400 beautifully coloured plates, 4 volumes, royal 8vo., cloth, 1846-51, £5 17s. 
6d. ('pub. £7 10s.) 
Hassall (A. H.) History of the British Freshwater Algae, including the Desmidese and 

Diatomacese, 103 coloured plates, 2 volumes, 8vo., cloth, scarce, £4 4s. 
Hassard (Annie) Floral Decorations for the Dwelling House. A practical Guide to the 

Home Arrangement of Plants and Flowers, with numerous Illustrations, crown 8vo., 5s. 
Heath (F. G. ) The Fern Paradise : A Plea for the culture of Ferns, 2nd edition, post 8vo., 

pp. 312, 1876, 6s. 
Hedwig (J.) Species Muscorum Frondosorum descriptor et Tabulis asneis coloratis illustrate 
opus posthumum ; supplementum quartum a F. Schwaegrichen, a thin 4to. volume, boards, fine 
coloured plates, numbered from ccci. to ecexxv. complete, with index, and uncut, Lips. 1842, 
15s. 
Helmsley (W. B.) Handbook of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, and Herbaceous Plants ; containing 
Descriptions, &c. , of the Best Species in Cultivation ; with Cultural Details, Comparative Har- 
diness, suitability for particular positions, &c. Ijllp 
Hibberd (S.) The Ferri Garden, how to make, Keep, and enjoy it, or Fern Culture made easy, 

8vo, cloth gilt, with coloured plates and engravings, 1872, 3s. 
Hibberd (S. ) New and Rare Beautiful Leaved Plants, containing 54 coloured plates, executed 

expressly for this work, super-royal 8vo, cloth, 17s. 6d. (published at £1 5s.) 
Hibberd (S. ) Rose Book, comprising the Best Methods of Cultivating the Rose, either in the 

open ground or under glass, crown 8vo, cloth, numerous plates, 1874, 6s. 
Hill (John) The British Herbal ; An History of Plants and Trees, Natives of Britain, Culti- 
vated for Use, or raised for Beauty, many plates, some partly coloured, folio, rough calf, 
1756, 15s. 
Hobkirk (C.P.) Synopsis of British Mosses, containing Descriptions of all the Genera and 
Species (with localities of the rarer ones) found in Great Britain and Ireland, demy 8vo, 
cloth, 7s. 6d. 
Hoffman (G. F.) Deutschland's Flora oder Botanisches Taschenbuch. Cryptomie Zweyter 

Theil. 14 coloured plates, small square, Erlangen, 1795, 2s. 
Hoffmann (D. G. F.) Vegetabilia Cryptogama, plates, 410, calf, 1787, 15s. 

(Prof. H.) Icones Analyticae Fungorum, over 20 plates, partly coloured, each 

containing several figures, 4 parts, royal 4to, complete, and Index Fungorum, royal 8vo, tewed, 
Giessen, 1861, Lipsias, 1863, £3 7s. 6d. 
Hofmeister (W.) Germination, Development, and Fructification of the Higher Cryptogamia 

(and Coniferae), translated by F. Currey, with 65 microscopic plates, thick 8vo, 1862, 17s. 6d. 
Hooker (Dr. J. D.) and Cathcart (J. F.) Illustrations of Himalyan Plants, 24 fine large 
and beautifully coloured plates, with descriptions, royal folio, boards, 1855, £3 10s., (published 
at £5 5s.) 
Hooker (Dr. J. D.) Flora Antarctica ; the Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M's Dis- 
covery Ships Erebus and Terror, in the years 1839-1843, under the Command of Captain J. C. 
Ross, illustrated by 198 plates of beautifully coloured figures, 2 volumes royal 4to, cloth, 1847, 
£7 7s. (published at £10 15s.) 
Hooker (Dr. J. D.) Flora of Australia, its Origin, Affinities, and Distribution; being an In- 
troductory Essay to the Flora of Tasmania, 4to^ sewed, 1859, 7s. 6d., (published at 10s.) 
Hooker (Dr. J. D.) Flora of British India, Paits 1 and 2, 8vo, sewed, 1872-74, 18s. (pub- 
lished at 21a.) 
H £° k | r * (Dr " fii?"} F 10 ? J r asmami ? (Dicotyledones, Monocotyledones, and Acotyledones) 
fe^i ^^WMfPj "™^ Sh, 'P s Erebus and Terror in the years 
1839-1843,illustratedby 200 cooured plates and upwards of 4,500 Microscopic Analyses, 2 volumes, 
royal 4to, new cloth, £12 12s. (published at £17 10a.) 
Booker (Dr. J D) Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, a Description of the Native Plants 
of New Zealand and Islands, Chatham, Kerma. Lee Aimtin^ r«««, u 11 a Ttr„„«„o^o 8w> 
cloth boanls, 1867, 18s. 6U (published at 30s.) ' AUCk andj Cam P bell > and Macquane, 8vo, 

Hooker (Dr. J. D.) Himalayan Journal, or Notes of a Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and 

iss£ iSs aT& • p ute ' 2 voiumes ' 8vo > d ° th boar «*> ** edition > very 



W. W«U 7 . 88, Eh« Btrwt, Str»nd,.Ioiufcm. ( »o. 1«. 



BOOK CIRCULAR. p 

BOTANY. 
Hooker (Dr. J. D.) Icones Plantarum : or Figures with Descriptive Characters and Remarks 

of New and Rare Plants selected from the Kew Herbarium, 3rd series, volume 2, part 4, 25 

plates, 8vo, 8s. ; volume 2, complete, 100 plates, 1876, 32s. 
Hooker (Dr J. D.) Rhododendrons of Sikkim-Himalaya, being an Account, Botanical and 

Geographical, &c., from Drawings by Dr. Hooker, 30 beautifully coloured plates, folio, cloth 

boards, 1849, £3 10s. (published at £4 14s. 6d.) 
Hooker (Sir "W. J.) and Arnott (Gr. A. WO British Flora, comprising the Flowering 

Plants and Ferns, seventh edition, enlarged, with plates, thick foolscap, 8vo, cloth, 1855, 8s. 6d. 
Hooker (Sir W. J.) and Arnott (G. A. W.) British Flora, comprising the Flowenng 

Plants and Ferns, seventh edition, enlarged, with coloured plates, thick 12mo, half calf, 

1855, 15s. _ , ^ . . , 

Hooker (Sir W. J.) and Greville (R. K.) Icones Fihcum, or Figures and Descriptions of 

Ferns, 240 large and beautifully coloured plates, 2 volumes, folio, half morocco extra, gilt edges, 

1829-30, £8 8s (published at £25 4s.) . . .' ., ',. 

Hooker (Sir W. J.) British Ferns, Coloured Figures, and Descriptions of the Fructification 

and Venation of the Ferns of Great Britain and Ireland, 66 finely coloured plates by Fitch, 

Toy&l 8vo, cloth, £1 10s (published at £2 2s.) , 

Hooker (Sir W. J.) Exotic Flora, containing Figures and Descriptions of new and rare r-xotic 

Plants, with Kemarks upon their Characters, Natural Orders, Culture, &c, with 232 beautifully 

coloured plates, 3 volumes, royal 8vo, cloth, 1823, £3 17s. 6d. (published at £15.) 
Hooker (Sir W. J.) Filices Exoticse, coloured Figures and Descriptions of Exotic Perns, ioo 

coloured plates, royal 4to, £5 5s. (published at £6 lis.) *• ' 

Hooker (Sir W. J.) Flora Scotica, arranged both according to the Artificial and Natural 

methods, 8vo, half bound, 1821, 3s 6d. ,1 . . XT ,, , 

Hooker (Sir W. J.) Garden Ferns ; or, Coloured Figures and Descriptions, with the Needlul 

Analyses of the Fructification and Venation, of a Selection of Exotic Ferns, adapted for Cultiva 

tion in the Garden, Hothouse, and Conservatory, royal 8vo, 64 coloured plates, £1 10s. (pubiisned 

HookerWr W. J.) Icones Plantarum ; or Figures and Descriptions of New and Rare Plants, 
toth series complete, 1000 fine plates, 6 volumes in cloth, 4 sewed (1 damaged at beginning), to- 
gether 10 volumes 8vo, scarce, 1837-54, £3 15s. Od. (published at £14). 

Hooker (Sir W. J.) Icones Plantarum, volume io, containing an Index to thewiioieio 
volumes, unbound, folded, and carefully collated, 1854, 10s. 




or uoxany, new series, ne*"iv lov tugiaviiiga m nuc fuuu'i - -r^rr: •, j. pie ic„ \ 
together 10 volumes 8vo, Cloth and half calf , 1834-47, £4 10s. (published a t £1 6 lbs) 
Hooker (Sir W. J.) Musci Exotici ; or Figures and Descriptions of F°"«n Mo^esand other 
Cryptogamus Subjects, several thousand figures on 226 plates, 2 volumes, 8vo, cloth, UU», 

Hooker W W. J.) Musci Exotici, numerous fine plates, 2 volumes, *™'Mfcalf, ^ 
Also Three Fasciculi, containing 100 New Zealand Mosses, with numerous specimens of other 
Foreign Mosses, mounted and named, 1818, £2 10s. g lth 

Hooker (Sir W. J.) Niger Flora, with 2 views, a map, and 50 plates, uncut, ovu, 

HookerVr W. J.) Second Century of Ferns, being Figures, with brirfD^ti^of One 
Hundred new, rare/or imperfectly known Species of Ferris, from various J^^^^ocm, 
finely coloured plates, with magnified figures, a large thick volume unpens 



Hooker (Sir W. J.) Tour in Iceland, with the Appendix contemmg "« iu*u 

Poetry, &c, map, coloured and other engravings, 2 volumes 8vo., ^™V^£ w et mves ti- 

Horsfield (T.) Plantse Javanic<e Rariores, quas in Insula i^^ S ^ ved 'pi&s and large 
gavit : descr. J. J. Bennett et R, Brown, with 52 large and nnely engra *• 
map, imperial 4to, half morocco, 1838-52, £1 18s. , , p rocee dings, numerous 

Horticultural Society's Journal, new series complete, witntne^ Uf calf Mat, 

fine coloured and other Engravings of Fruits, Flowers, 4c., 9 volumes, „ 
1846-55, £1 18s. . TT .. ,ij_,mi Society. 

This work is a continuation to the Transactions of the HortacuKurai »> j ^ fine co]oured 

Hulme (J. E.) Plant Form, a Series of Sketches from Naturj 100 ^ fl ^ (puWi-hed 
plates, containing a great number of examples, small folio, cum w »< 
at £2 15s.) , . i„ Rhexias de l'Amerique, avec 

Humboldt et Bonpland, Monographes des Melastomaces, et oe *V atlM folio, halfmv 

Observations, portfand 75 engravings, beautifully coloured alter na*vu » 
rocco, wants title, Paris, 1806, 20s. 

W. Weiley, 28, Em« Stmt, 8tr«d, Lou**. *>• l6< 

. r 



io NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENTIFIC 

BOTANY. 

Hussey (T. J.) Illustrations of British Mycology, containing Figures and Descriptions of the 
Funguses of Great Britain (the 2nd series), 50 beautifully coloured p!ates, royal 4to, cloth boards, 
1855, £3 3s. (published at £4 10s.) 
Irvine (A.) The illustrated Handbook of the British Plants, wood engravings, post 8vo., 

cloth gilt, 1858, 5s. 6d. 
Jackson. (M. E.) The Florist's Manual ; or, Hints for the coastmction of a gay flower 

Garden, 6 coloured plates, small 8vo., boards, 1822, 2s. (published 5s. 6d.) 
Jacob (E.) Plantce Favershamienses, or Catalogue of Faversham Plants, i2mo., with plates, 

1777, 3s. 6d. 
Jennings (S.) Orchids, and how to grow them in India and other Tropical Climates, illus- 
trated by 48 finely coloured plates, 4to., extra, cloth boards, gilt edges, 1875, £2 5s. (published 
£3 3s.) 
Johnstone (G.) Flora of Berwick-on-Tweed, plates, 2 volumes, post 8vo., 4s. od. 
Jones (Rev. J. P.) and Kingston (J. F.) Flora Devoniensis, or a descriptive Catalogue of 

Plants growing wild in Devonshire, 8vo., 1829, 6s. (published 16s.) 
Kelaart (E. F.) Flora Calpensis. Contributions to the Botany and Topography of Gibraltar 

and its neighbourhood, 8vo., with plan and views of the Rock, cloth gilt, new, 1846, 5s. 
Kirby (Mary and Elizabeth) Trees, a popular account of their Nature and uses, engravings, 

cloth, gilt, 1873, 3s. 6d. (published 5s.) 
Knapp (E. H.) Botanical Chart of British Flowering Plants and Ferns, 8vo., cloth, 1846, 3s. 
Knapp (F. H.) Gramina Britannica, or representations of British Grasses, with descriptions, 

119 finely coloured plates, 4to., cloth, 1842, £1 5s. (published £3 10s.) 
Knight (J.) Natural Order of the Protereas ; the cultivation of the plants belonging to it, 

their generic and specific Characters, &c, 4to., half bound, 1809, 6s. 
Lambert (Ed.) Botanique avec 202 figures, l2mo., half bound, 1864, 3s. 
Landsborough (Rev. D.) Popular History of British Seaweeds, and Notices of some of the 

Freshwater Algse, coloured plates, square 12mo., 1851, 4s. 6d. (published 10s. 6d.) 
Lankester (Mrs.) The British Ferns (a plain and easy account of.) Together with their 
Classification. Arrangement of Genera, Structure and Functions, directions for out-door and 
in-door Cultivation, &c, fully illustrated, price 4s., coloured by hand. 
Lees (Edwin) Botany of the Malvern Hills, in the counties of Worcester, Hereford, and 
Gloucester ; with the precise Stations of the rarer plants and observations on the Geology and 
natural History of the district, post 8vo., cloth, 1843, 2s. 6d. 
Leighton Rev. (M.A., F.L.S.) Flora of Shropshire, 8vo., new, 1841, 10s. 6d. 
Le Maout (E.) and Decaisne (J.) A general system of Botany, Descriptive and Analytical. 
Translated by Mrs. Hooker. The orders arranged, with Synopsis by J. D. Hooker, 2nd edition, 
4to., pp. 1066, 1876, 28s. 6d. 
Liebmann (F.) Ferns of Mexico, 4to., new, boards, uncut, Copenhagen, 1849, 9s. 
Lightfoot, Flora- Scotica; or the Plants and Ferns of Scotland, and the Hebrides, 2 volumes, 

8vo., plates, half-calf, scarce, 1792, 6s. 6d. 
Lindley and Hutton. Fossil Flora of Great Britain ; or, Figures and Description of the 
Vegetable Remains, found in a Fossil State in this Country, 3 volumes, royal 8vo. , 250 plates 
coloured, half morocco, 1837, £4 12s. 
Lindley (Dr. J.) and Moore (T.) Treasury of Botany, a popular Dictionary of the vegetable 
kingdom, with a Gloasary of Terms, 20 plates and 274 woodcuts, 2 volumes, foolscap 8vo., cloth, 
10s. 
Lindley (Dr. J.) Ladies' Botany, an Introduction to the Study of that Science, 2 volumes, 

with 100 coloured plates, 8vo. cloth boards, 1830, 18s. 6d., published £2 10s.) 
Lindley (Dr. J.) Vegetable Kingdom ; or the Structure, Classifications, and uses of Plants, 

upwards of 500 illustrations, stout volume, 8vo., cloth boards, 1846, 15s. ^d. (published 36s.) 
Linnean Society Transactions ; 2nd series, Botany, vol. 1, part 2, 82 pp., 10 plates, 410., 
sewed, 1875, 12s. Contents : Origin of Prevailing Systems of Phyllotaxis, by Rev. G. Henslow, 
— Barringtoniaceae, by John Miers, F.R.S. 
Linnean Society, Transactions of the. Second series. Botany, volume I, part the third, 1876, 
4to. , pp. 119-167, 4 coloured plates and 1 plain plate, price 12s. Contents : Collection of Fungi 
made by S. Kurz, Calcutta, by F. Currey, Growth of Female Flower Stalk of Vallisneria spiralis 
Linn, by A. W. Bennett. Growth of Flower Stalk of the Hyacinth, by A. W. Bennett. New 
British Lichens, by Rev. "W. A. Leighton. Hygroscopic Mechanism, by which certain seeds are 
enabled to bury themselves in the ground by Francis Darwin. 
Lidnsay (W. L.) Popular History of British Lichens, an account of their Structure, Uses, 
4c., 22 coloured plates, exhibiting several hundred figures, square crown, 8vo., cloth, 1856, 
<■-. 
Loddiges' Botanical Cabinet, consisting of coloured Delineation of Plants from all Countries, 
with a short account of each, Directions for Management, &c 2000 beautiful engraving by G. 
Cooke coloured, 20 volumes,foolscap 8 vo., new half morocco extra full gilt backs,gUt leaves, 1818, 
4c, £15 15s. (published £2o, unbound) a fine copy of this elegant work. 

W. W*l»y, 88, Esmx Strwt, 8tr*nd, London. No. 16. 



BOOK CIRCULAR. n 

BOTANY. 

Loudon (J. C.) Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, or, the Trees and Shrubs of Britain 
Pictorially and Botanically Delineated, with upwards of 2500 engravings, 8 volumes, 8vo., cloth 
boards, 1845, £4 14s. 6d. (pub. £10 10s. ) 

Loudon (J. C. ) Encyclopaedia of Gardening ; comprising the Theory and Practice of Horti- 
culture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape Gardening, with 1000 woodcuts, 8vo. , 18s. 

Loudon (J. C.) Encyclopaedia of Plants; comprising the specific Character, Description, 
Culture, History, &c, of all the plants found in Great Britain, with upwards of 12000 woodcuts, 
8vo., 42s. 

Loudon. (J. C.) Encyclopaedia of Trees and Shrubs of Great Britain, Scientifically "and Popu. 
larly described, 2000 woodcuts, stout volume, 8vo., cloth boards, 1842, 22s. (pub. £2 10s.) 

Loudon (Mrs.) British Wild Flowers, illustrated by 6o beautifully coloured plates, with 
descriptions, 4to. , cloth boards, 1859, 38s. (pub. £3 3s. ) 

Loudoas' Ladies' Flower Garden of Ornamental Annuals, illustrated with an extensive series 
of plates beautifully coloured, the original edition, 4to., half calf, neat, 1840, £1 14s. 

Lowe (E. J.) Beautiful- Leaved Plants ; describing the most beautiful leaved plants in cultiva- 
tion in this country, by E. J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.S., assisted by W. Howard, F.H.S., with 60 
coloured illustrations, in one volume, super royal 8vo., cloth, 13s. 6d. (pub. £1 Is.) 

Lowe (E. J.) Natural History of British and Exotic Ferns, 479 finely coloured plates, 8 vols., 
super-royal 8vo., cloth, £3 15s. (pub. £6 6s.) 

Lowe (E. J.) Ferns, British and Exotic, complete, with 479 accurate and beautifully coloured 
plates of Ferns, 8 handsome vols., royal 8vo., half morocco eoctra, gilt edges, 1867, £6 10s. 

Lowe (E. J, ) Natural History of British Grasses, illustrated with 74 finely coloured plates, in 
1 volume, super-royal 8vo., cloth, 1858, 13s. 6d. (published at £1 Is.) 

Lowe (E. J.) Natural History of New and Rare Ferns, containing Species and Varieties not 
included in 'Ferns, British and Exotic,' 72 coloured plates and woodcuts, super-royal 8vo, cloth, 
13s. 6d. (published at £1 Is.) 

Lowe (E. J.) Our Native Ferns and their Varieties, illustrated with 79 coloured plates and 
909 wood engravings, in 2 volumes, royal 8vo., cloth, £1 8s. (published £2 2s ) 

Lowe (R. T.) Fauna et Flora Maderse et Portus Sancti ; two Memoirs on the Fems, Flower- 
ing Plants, and Land Shells of Maderia and Porto Santo, with Appendix, small 8vo., 2 folding 
plates of Shells, boards, 1851, 3s. 

Lyon (P.) Obserations on the Barrenness of Fruit Trees, and the means of Prevention and 
Cure, plate 8vo., luilf calf, 1873, 2s. 

Lyon (J. C.) Practical Treatise on the management of Orchidaceous Plants, 8vo., cuts, gilt 
edges, 1845, 2s. 

Marschall a Bieberstein (L. B. F.) Flora Taurico Caucasica, 3 volumes, Charkovise 
1808-19 8. maj. (39 M.) £1 5s. . . e „ , 

Maund (B.) Botanic Garden, or highly-finished representations and descriptions of Hardy 
Ornamintal Flowering Plants of Great Britain, the large and thick paper edition with 7M 
plates, beautifully coloured after nature, printed on separate leavys of tine drawing paper, witn 
ornamental borders, in 15 volumes 4to., whole bound in green morocco, fine set, lb2o-J\>, to los 

Maund (B.) Orchard and Garden Fruits, their description, History, and Management, beauti- 
fully coloured plates, small 4to., cloth, 5s. , _, . . , , 

Maund (B.) and Henslowe— The Botanist, or figures of Ornamental Plants, with descrip- 
tions, 200 large beautifully coloured plates of rare and beautiful plants, 4 volumes, small 4to., 
calf, gilt, large paper, 1838-50 £1 5s. , . , , x , ,. , ,„ . „_,i 

Medical Botany, or History of Plants in the Materia Medica of the London Edinburgh and 
Dublin Pharmacopoeias, arranged according to their Linnean System, with 138 beautifully col- 
oured plates, 2 volumes, royal 8 vo., half calf , 1821, 10s. 6d. _ p m . Tr«t ami 

Menzies (William) Deputy Surveyor of Winsor Fosests and Park, «f., *oi^t ire«ana 
Woodland Scenery, as described in Ancient and Modern Poets, with Twenty Chromohthographio 
Plates, folio, £4 10s. (published £5 5s.) „_ „ . . „_ . Ini ... K dmwn 

Meredith (L. A.) My Bush Friends in Tasmania, native Flowers, Berries and Insects, dra«n 
and described by, 14 coloured plates, folio, cloth, gilt, 16s. 6d. _. BaHm nlitp* 

Meyen (Dr.) Neues System der Pflanzen-Phisiologie with large and elaborate folding plates, 
3 volumes, 8vo., newly half bound, uncut, Berlin, 1837-9, £1 Is. . ,..._„ • rkneMM with 

Meyrick (W.) Herbal, Describing all Medicinal Plants, and their Virtues m D.scases, wun 
14 coloured plates of several figures, each, 8vo., calf, Birmingham 1 <*V"r. f th Linaxan 

Millar (H.) A Guide to Botany ; or, a Familiar Illustration of the Principles ol tne L.nna. 
Classification, 6 coloured plates, post 8vo., 2s. (published 7s.) n , 1 . vomme H 

M'lntoshs Book of the Garden; volume I., Articultund and , °™ mental oy J^ , <^A 
Practical Gardening ; with nearly 2,000 engravings ; 2 large thick volume., royal Wft, W 
gilt, 1855, £2 (published at £4 10s.) , . . Winter Flora of the 

Mogridge (J. T.) Contributions to the Flora of Mentone and to a J- ^ 

Riviera, including the Coast from Marseilles to Genoe, about iw cwi»u v 
doth,£2 15s. (published £3 3s.) 

W. Wealev, 88, Essex Street Strand. London. Vo, 16. 



12 NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENTIFIC 

BOTANY. 

Moore (Thomas, F.LS.) The Elements of Botany for Families and Schools. Eleventh 

edition, revised, foolscap 8vo., with 154 woodcuts, 2s. 6d. 
Moore (T.) History of the British Ferns and the Allied Plants, comprising the Club-mosses 

Pepperworts, and Horesetails, with numerous beautifully coloured plates, 1862 5s. 6d. (pub! 

10s. 6d.) 
Moore (T., Curator of Chelsea Botanic Gardens) Field Botanist's Companion, a Familiar 

Account of the Wild Flowers of the British Isles, 24 finely coloured plates, 8vo., cloth boards 

1862, lis. 6d. (pub. 16s.) 
Morison Plantarum Historia Unaversalis Oxoniensis, many plates, 3 volumes, in 2 folio 

calf K \ ery neat, Oxon, 1715, 14s. 
Mortier (M. Bdu) Monographie des Ronces (Rubi) de la Flore Beige, 8vo., sewed, 1863, 2s. 
Mudie (R.) Botanic Annual ; Illustrations of the Structure, Habits, Geography, Classifications, 

and Uses of Plants, plates, 8vo. ( 1832, 3s. *> r j> 

Newman (E.) History of British Ferns: third edition, numerous fine wood engravings, 8vo , 

cloth, Van Voorst, 1854, 14s. b 6 ' ' 

Newton (J.) Herbal : Prints and English Names of several thousand trees, shrubs, plants, 

flowers, exotics, &c, not to be found (many of them) in Gerard or Johnson, 176 plates of figures, 

portraits, &c, 1806, 5s. 6d. 
Nevins (J. B.) Nature and Structure of the Fruit of the Cruciferce, with plate, 8vo., 1867, 2s. 
Oiseaux Mellivores ou Suce-fleurs du Bresil. S. 1. ni d. pet. in fol, 12 plchs. color d'une 

execut. fort belle, avec autant de feuilles de texte lithogr. — Ouvr. qui n'est pas entr§ en 

commerce. £1 17s. 6d. 
Oliver (Prof. D.) Flora of Tropical Africa, 2 volumes, 8vo., cloth boards, 1868-71 30s. (pub. 

01 / Ve ^' D ' °-) Lessons in Elementary Botany, with nearly 200 illustrations, new edition, i8mo., 
4s. First Book of Indian Botany, with numerous illustrations extra foolscap 8vo., 6s. 

Ornamental Flower Garden and Shubbery, or descriptions of the most beautiful and curious 
k lowering Plants and Shrubs, selected from the Works of Sweet and Don, with recent additions, 

■D De! i r tit large coloured plates, six volumes, imperial 8vo., cloth, 1852-3-4, £2 7s. 6d. 

Paul ( W. ) Rose Garden ; their History, an Account of the Practices Adopted in their Cul- 
tivation an Airangement of the most Esteemed Varieties in the various Bose Gardens, &c, 14 
coloured plates and woodcuts, royal 8vo., cloth, 1848, 10s. 6d. 

Paxton's Botanical Dictionary, comprising the Names, History, and Culture of all Plants in 
Britain, by S. Hereman, 8vo., cloth, 1868, 16s. 

Paxton's Magazine of Botany, 600 fine coloured plates, 12 volumes, royal 8vo., half morocco, 
gilt edges, 1834-46, £7 10s. 

Paxton (Sir J.) Magazine of Botany and Register of Flowering Plants, a Complete Set, 
£K? nearly 8 9° beautifull y coloured figures of flowers, 16 volumes, royal 8vo., 

half morocco, very neat, gilt leaves, 1834-49, £15 15s. (pub. £29.) 

Persoon (i.e. A. Richard) Synopsis Plantarum, seu Enchiridion Botanicum, complectens 
Jtnumerasionem, systematicam Specierum hucusque cognitarum, fine paper, 2 volumes, i2mo., 
calf, very scarce, Paris, 1805-7, 10s. 6d. F F ' 

PhfrH™^' ? rmiam ) Calendarium Botanicum, plates, 8vo., boards, 1810, 2s. 

^G^JZzrziTimi' an Historical and Bomanicai Account ° f Fruits known 

^^C^a^ltUSs^ * thC PlantS ° f Indk ' Sdentific and NatiTC nameS ' 8V °" 
P (?ub S i^e!) 1 ' 1511 GraS ' CS ' l6 coloured P lates ' and w °od engravings, crown 8vo., cloth, 9s. 

P1 8vo 6 ! JS,^Mpub F i e r6d L f C ° POds ' and Equiseta ' I7 coloured P lates and 55 ™> dcuts > crown 

^d^aL^S^ and how to distinguish them, 1 8 fine col- 

oured plates, small 8vo., cloth boards, 1863, 4s. 6d. (pub 6s ) 

Str? l uc\fer ( ^' ) nn 1 rl n l a " 'rt ^Ei™ A Ustriaci - Oesterreichs Holzpflanzen : B a ume, 
SSc ""(JiffS ^ Wien mL f0L m> 164 ° Abbildungen auf P 80 Tfln. in Natur- 

l?*l %: Sfc^^SSa&S Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado > United states ' 8vo " 

Sii^^ Hulfsbuch zur Auffindg. u. Bestimmg. der 

^SSI^T™^^^- 1 ^^,^^"- ■* If* i? den T&t gedr. (Holzschr.) 




and Ferns of Great Britain, and 
plates, be^tTf'ulTv ^£^£^7? SlftaAft T^™*' "^ ^ ^ ""* 
PnoUxp. (H.) Syfva Flonfera, 2 volumes, Svo'? fa^g *£, 

W. Wetlev, 88, Emx Street, Strand, London. No. 16. 



BOOK CIRCULAR. 13 

BOTANY. 

Pratt (A.) Ferns of Great Britain and their Allies, illustrated with 41 finely coloured plates, 

8vo., doth boards, 7s. (pub. 12s.) 
Pratt (A.) Wild Flowers, with 192 coloured plates, 3 volumes, l2mo., 9s. 6d. (pub. 

Rabenhorst (Dr. L.) Cryptogamen Sammlung Eine systemat. Uebersicht iib. das Reich 
der sog. Cryptogamen m. illustr. welche den in Kiirze gehaltenen Text klar veranschaulichen. 
Sect. Pilze. gr 4. (64 pi. m. getroctneten Pilanzen u 35 .S. Text m. eingedr. Holzschn. Dresden, 

Fungi EuropEei exsiccata Klotzsihii herbarii vivi mycologici continuatio. Ed nova. Ser. II. 

centuria 1. (resp. centuria 21) gr. 4. (69 Bl. m. 100 getrocteten Planzen) cart, Dresden, 1876, 30s. 
Ralph (T. S.) Icones Carpologicae ; or, Figures and Descriptions of Fruits and Seeds, 40 

plates, 4to., boards, 1849,6s. T . . „, „., 

Band (E. S.) Orchids : A Description of the Species and Varieties grown at Glen Ridge, 

near Boston, crown 8vo., Newport. 18s. 
Redoute et De Candolle, Histoire des Plantes Grasses, printed on vellum paper, upwards of 

160 fine large plates, beautifully coloured after Nature, 2 volumes royal folio, morocco extra 

Paris, 1790, £4 10s. ' 

Reid (H.) Outlines of Medical Botany, comprising the Characters and Properties of the 

various orders of Plants, post 8vo., plates, cloth, 1839, 3s 6d. 
Rennie(J.) Magazine of Botany and Gardening, comprising an extensive series of beautifully 

coloured plates of Flowers, Fruits, and Cryptogamia, with descriptions, and on the Practice of 

their Cultivation, 5 volumes, 4to., cloth extra, 1833, £1 5s. 
Repton (H.) Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, coloured 

plates with moveable slips, imperial 4to., half russia, 1803, £2. 
Rhind (W ) History of the Vegetable Kingdom, embracing the Physiology of Plants, with 

their uses to Man and the Lower Animals, and their application in the Arts, Manufactures, and 

Domestic Economy, illustrated by several hundred wood and steel engravings, many coloured, 

thick imperial, 8vo., half roan, 1860, 18s. , . , , , 

Robson (J.E.) Botanical Labels (A Series of) ; for labelling Herbaria adapted to the names 

in the London Catalogue of Plants and the Manuals of Professor Babington and Dr. Hooker. 

with extra labels for all new species and varieties recorded in the recent volumes of the Journal of 

Botany and the Exchange Club Reports. With Index. In all, 3,576 labels, price 5s. 
Robinson (W.) Hardy Flowers— Descriptions of upwards of 1300 of the most ornamental 

species, with directions for their Arrangement, Culture, &c„ post 8vo., doth, 1871, 4s. 6d. 
Rossiter First Book of Botany, a complete Compendium of acquiring a knowledge of 

Botany, and Glossary of Names, 12mo., numerous plates, cloth, 1866, 2s. 6d. 
Rottbol (C. F.) Descriptiones et Icones rariores et pro maxima parte Novas llantas 

illustrantes. Folio, with 21 plates, half -bound morocco, gilt tops, Hafnife, 1773, 9s. 
Rouillius (Gal.) Historia Generalis Plantarum, in libros xviii. per certas classes artihciosas 

digesta. 2 thick volumes, folio, with many fine woodcuts, old calf, neat, scarce, Lugd., 

Royle (Dr.) Fibrous Plants of India fitted for Cordage, Clothing, and Paper ; with an account 
of the Cultivation and Preparation of Flax, Hemp, and their Substitutes, 8vo., doth, scarce, 1855, 
£1 7s 

Royle" (J. F.) Botany and other branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountain, 
and the Flora of Cashmere, 100 fine plates of Plants, Animab&c. coloured after Nature, 2 
volumes, imperial 4to., half -morocco, gilt top, 1839, £4 (pub. £12 1-s.) 

Royle (J. F.) Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of the Natural History of the 
Himalayan Mountains and of the Flora of Cashmere, complete in 11 parts, atlas 4to., 100 
beautifully coloured plates, 1833-40, £4 (pub. £11.) . ,. T 

Rumphii (G. E.) Herbarium Amboinense et adjacentibusrepenuntur Insulis, curaet studio J. 
Burmanni. Folio, with numerous fine plates, half -bound morocco, gdt tops, scarce, Amst., 17M, 
14s ■ u 

Roxburgh (W ) Flora Indica ; or Description of Indian Plants, edited by Carey, with 
a IdSld dicriptfons by N.' Wallich, 3 volumes, 8vo., best edition, half rus„a, very rare, 

B^Cii?Ro^% containing 184 extremely beautiful coloured .plates of nil species of 
Roses, with Descriptions in French, 3 large volumes, royal 8vo, ffj^™£%g%gt 
U*vt*\ tastefully gilt backs, by Wright ; an elegant copy of tins charming work, I life, IW>, 

Sa^cSraotp.^A.rBryothecaeTarvisinae centuria. Centuria di Muschi Trevigiani disseccati 

Treviso 1867, 4. c. 100 specc. exsicc. £1 10s. 
— Mycologiae Venetae specimen. P. 1873. 8.-maj. c. 14 tabb. color. 12s. 6d. 



W. Wesley, 28, Essex Street, Strand, London. Ko. 18. 



14 BOOK CIRCLLAR. 

BOTANY. 
Sachs (J.) Text Book of Botany : Morphological and Physiological, translated by A. W. 

Bennett, and W. T. T. Dyer, 461 wood engravings, royal 8vo., half morocco, top edges gilt, 1875, 

26s. 6d. (published 31a. 6d.) 
Salmon (Dr. William) Botanologia ; the English Herbal, or History of Plants. Folio, with 

frontispiece and very numerous cuts, fine copy, calf neat, 1710, £1 12s. 6d. 
Schnizlein (A.) Inconographia Familiarum Naturalium Regni Vegetabilis, with description 

in Latin and German, more than 300 plates, containing several thousand figures partially 

coloured anri plain, 4 volumes 4to., complete in 20 parts as published, Bonn. 1843-70 £4 17s. 6d. 
Schleiden (M. J.) Principles of Scientific Botany ; or, Botany as an Inductive Science, edited 

by Dr. Lankester. 8vo., cloth, 1849, 6s. 6d. (published 21s.) 
Scoffern (Dr. J.) Outlines of Botany, including Descriptions of Mosses, Lichens, Fungi, 

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i,: til 




• 






Tab. 6261. 
ANTHURIUM Bakeri. 

Native of Costa Rica. 



Nat. Ord. Arotdeje.— Tribe Orontie.f.. 
Genus An mumuM, Schott (Prod. Sijst. Arohl. p. 486). 



Anthuriosi (Erylliropodium) Baked; cauclice brevi radicante, foliis lf-2-pedali- 
bus anguste elliptico-lanceolatis acumiaatia coriaceis 3-ncrviis, basi angus- 
tatis, petiolo subtereti a-5-pollicari, geiuoirio$-pollicari,nerTO medio medioori 
lateralibus gracilibus, nervulis erecto-patentibus, pedunculo petiolum longe 
superante, spatha 1^-pollicari oblonga apice rotundata reflexa viridi basi DOB 
amplectente, spadice subsessili v. breviter pedunctUata 8-poUioari obtasp, 
periantbii segmentis cubicis, filamentis late oblongis, antheris miuutis, ovario 
ovoideo, stigmate discoideo sessili, fructibus ovoidcis ftpiculatia oorallinifl 
spadicem valde incrassatum et elongatum dense obtegentabos, ovarii tooolia 
1-ovulatis. 

The vast genus Anthurium, contains upwards of ISO spe- 
cies (as enumerated by Schott in his Prodromus) all natives of 
tropical America, and of which between -50 and 60 were 
known to that author in a living state, chiefly from specimens 
grown in the rich collection at the Imperial Palace of 
Schcenbrun (Vienna) and obtained principally by himself. 
At Kew, which is also rich in tropical Aroids, nearly one hun- 
dred species of this genus are now in cultivation, forming one 
of the principal ornaments of the Aroid-house, where, for 
number of species, beauty and variety of form of foliage, 
they dispute the palm with the Philodendrons. They are 
plants easy of cultivation if supplied with shade, moisture, 
and a high temperature, and being remarkably free from 
insect-pest they are well adapted for stove culture. 

A. BaJceri was imported from Costa Rica by Mr. Bull, who 
presented it to the Royal Gardens, where it flowered first m 
June, 1872. I am indebted to Mr. J. G. Baker, whose name it 
bears, for notes made upon the living plant when in flower. 
I have referred it to Schott's section Erythropodwm, though 
its peduncle is not red, both because it agrees best with_ that 
section in character, and because its nearest ally is A. Urvii- 
leanum. Schott, which is placed there by its author. 

Descr. Stem short, stout, sending forth numerous stout 
root-fibres. Leaves crowded at the top of the stem, narrowly 



linear, elliptic-lanceolate, accuminate, 1^ to 2 feet long by 
2 2-J in. broad, narrowed to the base, leathery ; midrib 
stout ; intra-marginal nerves slender, united to the midrib by 
numerous erecto-patent nervules ; petiole much shorter than 
the blade, plano-convex, abruptly dilated at the base ; arti- 
culation at the top about J in. long. Peduncle larger than 
the petiole, green, slender. Spa the 1^-2 in. long, oblong, 
rounded at the tip, green, renexed, base not sheathing. 
Spadix (flowering) 3 in. long by J in. in diameter, pale 
yellow green. Perianth-segments cubical with acute angles 
and flat tops. Filaments broadly oblong ; anthers very 
small. Ovary ovoid, with a sessile discoid stigma, 2-celled ; 
cells 1-ovuled. Fruiting spadix 6-8 in. long and 1| in. 
diameter ; rachis very stout, fleshy, pink. Fruits the size of a 
small pea, ovoid, acute, scarlet, 2-seeded. — J.D.H. 



Fig. 1, Flowers from spadix viewed from above; 2, side view of a flower; 8, 
stamen and ovary ; 4, fruit ; 5, transverse section of ditto : — all enlarged. 



6Z6Z 







"\SnceotBrooks Day kScmlmp 



Tab. 6262. 
MASDEVALLIA ionocharis. 

Native of Peru. 



Nat. Ord. OrchidevE. — Tribe Pleurothalltdeje. 
Genus Masdevallia, Ruiz and Pau. (Lindl. Gen. and Sp. Orchid, p. 192). 



Masdevalt.ta ionocharis ; parvula, dense Cfespitosa, foliis cum petiolo 3-4-polli- 
caribus, lamina elliptico-lanceolata acuta, apice tridenticulato, scapis foliis 
subsequilongis gracilibus, bractea tubulosa appressa pedicello breviore, 
periantbio £-poll. longo campanulato albo-sanguineo 3-lobo, lobis lutis 
abrupte caudatis, candibus tubo aequilongis straniineis, petalis oblongis basi 
antice auriculatis apices versus obtusos crenatis, labelli inclusi ungue 
uncinato, lamina linguaeformi apiculata basi cordata disco 2-carinato, columna 
marginibus fere integris. 

M. ionocharis, Reichb.f. in Gard, Chron. 1875, p. 388. 



The number of Masdevallia in cultivation increases yearly ; 
in 1830 but three species were known to science, and these 
only from books, drawings, and dried specimens; 36 are 
enumerated in the 5th volume of ' Walpers' Annalen ', pub- 
lished in 1861, and the number is largely increased since 
then ; of all the known species, probably a third are grown 
in Europe, and known only by cultivated specimens. 

M. ionocharis is one of the smaller species of the genus, 
and is remarkable for .the bright colouring of the flowers that 
are abundantly produced in autumn. It was made known by 
Dr. Reichenbach, who published it from specimens discovered 
by Mr. Davis in Peru, and flowered by Messrs. Veitch in the 
Royal Exotic Nurseries, to whom the Royal Gardens are 
indebted for the specimens here figured, which flowered in 
September, 1875. 

Bescr. Densely tufted. Leaves with the petiole 3-4 inches 
long, the blade elliptic-lanceolate, keeled, nerveless; apex 
with 3 minute teeth ; base contracted into a petiole one inch 
long or upwards. Scapes numerous, about as long as the 
leaves, slender, erect ; bract tubular, appressed, shorter than 
the pedicel. Flower white, blotched with red-purple, about 
i in. long. Sepals combined into a campanulate 3-lobed tube, 



which is yellowish and keeled on the back; lobes semi- 
circular, each suddenly contracted into a narrow yellow 
obtuse rather nexuous tail about as long as the tube. Petals 
oblong, auricled at the base in front, equalling the column, 
obtusely toothed at the tip. Lip included ; claw uncinate ; 
limb tongue-shaped, cordate at the base, apiculate at the tip, 
with two keels down the disk. Column with entire margins. — 
J.D.H. 



Fig. 1, Pedicel, bract, and Slower ; 2, flower with the sepals recurved ; 3, column 
and claw of lip ; 4, limb of lip : — all enlarged. 



6263. 




WfttA rMsl Lift 



VincentBroufe.-Ddv tSaaJi 



Tab. 6263. 

LIBEBTIA PANICULATA. 
Native of South-East Australia. 



Nat. Ord. Irtde.e. — Tribe CyfBLLEje. 
Genus Ltbeptja, Spreng. (Benth. Ft. Austral, vol. vi. p. 412). 



Lirertia paniculata; rhizomate brevi, caule breviusculo, foliis distichis basi 
imbricatis elongato-linearibus acuminatis planiusculis carinatis striato- 
nervosis marginibus laevibus, scapo 1^~ 3-pedali stricto erecto compresso- 
angulato ramoso subglanduloso glabrove, ramis suberectis floriferis umbel- 
latis, bracteia rae mbranaceo-scariosis erectis inferioribus elongatis vaginanti- 
bus subulatis, superioribus brevioribus, pedicellis insequilongis, perianthii 
segmentis obovato-oblongis albidis, filamentis infra medium connatis. 

L. paniculata, Spreng. Syst. v. i. p. 168. Benth. Fl. Austral, vol. vi. p. 413. 

Sisyrinchium paniculatum, Brown, Prod. p. 305; F. Muell. Fragment, vol. vii. p. 91. 

Renealmta paniculata, Brown I.e. Addend. 

NematosttcxMa paniculatum, Dietr. Sp. PL vol. ii. p. 510. 



A very elegant and free- flowering greenhouse plant, which 
has been long cultivated at Kew, having been raised from 
New South Wales seeds. It flowers early in spring. The 
genus to which it belongs is confined to Australia, New 
Zealand, and extra-tropical South America, and contains only 
3 or 4 species ; it is thus one of several instances of a close 
botanical relationship between these distant countries. In 
North America the genus is represented by its near ally 
Sisyrinchium, and which it so much resembles that Brown, 
who first described this species, referred it to that genus, a 
view adopted by F. Mueller, though abandoned by Brown 
in the Addenda to his Prodromus. Bcntham keeps it distinct on 
{he grounds adduced by Brown, to which he adds that of the 
inflorescence. The umbellate appearance of the inflorescence 
is due to the common peduncle on which the pedicels are 
arranged being very short indeed ; a close examination shows 
that each pedicel has a bracteole affixed to it, as in other 
Iridece (see Benth. /. c.) 

R. paniculata is a native of various hilly districts of New 
South Wales and of the Australian Alps in Victoria. 

Descr. RooMock short, terminated by a tuft of distichous 



grassy foliage. Leaves f in. to 1 foot long by J—| in. broad, 
narrow linear, acnminate, nerved and keeled, margin qnite 
entire. Stem or scape 1 to 2 ft. high, slender, compressed, 
with or without a lanceolate-subulate leaf below th.Q in- 
florescence. Panicle long, irregular ; branches distant, alter- 
nate, almost erect, with a submembranous erect sheathing 
subulate-lanceolate bract at the base of each. Flowers sub- 
umbellate ; umbels with short, broad, membraneous bracts ; 
pedicels with a bracteole opposite their insertion, strict, 
slender, lengthening after flowering, jointed under the flower. 
Perianth f in. diameter, segment horizontal, narrowly ob- 
long, obtuse, white. Filaments erect, slender, connate at the 
base ; anthers ellipsoid, yellow. Ovary obovoid ; style short, 
stigmas 3 spreading horizontally, subulate tips papillose. 
Capsule nearly globose, membranous. Seeds numerous, 
small, angular. — J.D.H. 



Fig. 1, Stamens, ovary, style, and stigmas ; 2, the same with the stamens 
removed; 3, tranverse section of ovary: — all enlarged. 



6im 







^nmitBroalEDayfcScakP 



Tab. 6264. 
FEITILLARIA kecurva. 

Native of California: 

Nat. Ord. Liliace^e.— -Trite TcuPEiE. 
Genus Fritillauia, Linn. {Baker in Jouni. Linn. Soc. vol. xiv. p. 251). 



Fiutillaiua (Liliorliiza) recurva; bulbo magno squamoso, caule glabro erecto 
semipedali ad bipedali, foliis 6-12 prope medium caulis impositis sessilibus 
linearibus inferioribus verticillatis, superioribus sparsis, floribus 2-8 laxe 
racemosis cemuis vel superioribus ascendentibus, pedicellis flore brevioribus, 
bracteis linearibus foliaceis, periantliii infundibulari-campanulati coccineo- 
lutei segmentis oblongo-oblanceolatis subacutis subsequalibus prope basin 
foveola obscura anguste oblonga praeditis, ovario clavato, stylo ovario duplo 
longiore apice stigmatoso obscure tricuspidato. 

F. recurva, Benth. PL Hartiveg., p. 340 ; Wood in Proe. Acad. Phil. 1808, p. 167 ; 
Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xiv. p. 272. 



In colour this is the finest of all the Fritillaries, the red being 
as bright as that of a lily, and intermixed, especially in the 
inside of the flower, with bright yellow. It is a native of 
California, and belongs to the small group of Fritillaries with 
lily-like bulbs. It was first described by Mr. Bentham from 
specimens gathered in 1848 by Hartweg on the mountains 
of Sacramento, and has since been collected by Fremont, 
Jeffrey, and many others. We first received specimens, 
cultivated in Europe from Max LeicHtlin, Esq., in 1870. 
Our stock at Kew was received in 1875 from Mr. Sargent, of 
the Botanic Gardens at Harvard. The specimens drawn were 
grown in a pot, and are unusually small. In England it 
flowers early in May, or at the latter part of April. 

Desce. Bulb globose, squamose, sending out copious 
radicular fibres all round the base. Stem erect, glabrous, 
purple mottled with green, varying from J foot to 2 feet in 
height, leaves 6 to 12, placed all near the middle of the 
stem ; the lower ones in whorls of 3 or 4 each, the upper 
ones scattered ; all linear, sessile, ascending, glabrous, green, 
2-4 in. long. Flowers 2 to 8 in a terminal raceme, drooping 
or the upper ascending. Pedicels shorter than the flowers, 
each subtended by a single bract, which is like an ordinary 
leaf in shape and texture, but smaller. Perianth l-\\ in. 



long, between funnel-shaped and bell-shaped, bright scarlet 
on the outside ; in the inside spotted with scarlet on a yellow 
ground ; segments subequal, oblanceolate-oblong, subacute, 
reflexing at the tip when expanded, furnished with an 
obscure, narrow, oblong nectary at the base. Stamens rather 
shorter than the perianth; anthers small, yellow, oblong. 
Ovary clavate ; style twice as long as the ovary, obscurely 
3 lobed at the stigmatose tip. — J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1, Outer segment of perianth; 2, inner segment of perianth; S, stigmas 
and upper part of style :—all magnified. 




L Brooks Day** Son ifflF 



Tab. 6265. 
ODONTOGLOSSUM l;eve. 

Native of Guatemala. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Tribe Vandbjb. 
Genus Odontoglossum, H. B. and K. (Lindl. Fol. Orchid, Odontoglossum). 



Odontoglossum (Isanthum) lave ; pseudobulbis magnis late ovatis ancipitibus, 
foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis, scapo suberecto valido elongato, bracteis 
parvis late ovatis appressis scariosis, floribus laxe racemoso-paniculatis, 
periantbio 2 -poll, diametr., sepalo dorsali petalisque adscendentibus, sepalis 
lateralibus deflexis omnibus consimilibus lineari-oblongis subacutis sessilibus 
cinnamomeis aureo-fasciatis, labello subsessili panduriforme medio recurvo 
albo disco violaceo 3-carinato, columna apice ala angusta cincta. 

O. Iseve, Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 1844, t. 39; Fol, Orchid. Odontogl. p. 18; Walp, 
Ann. v. vi. p. 842. 



One of the earliest introduced species of the genus, having 
been sent to England from Guatemala by both Mr. Skinner 
and Hartweg, and having flowered in the Horticultural 
Society's Gardens early in 1842. It is fairly well figured in 
the ' Botanical Begister,' but evidently from a plant not so 
well grown as ours, its pseudobulb being grooved, as if 
they had shrunk, the leaves being smaller and the flowers 
duller coloured. It has two described closely allied congeners 
published since as Odontaglossa, viz., 0. Karwinskei, Rchb. f. 
(Oncidium. Lindl. Sert. sub. tab. 20 ; Cytrochilium, Lindl in 
Bot. Reg. sub. tab. 1992 ; Miltonia, Lindl. in Journ. Hort. Soc. 
vol. iv. p. 83, cum ic.) ; and 0. Eeichencheimii, Lindl. and 
Rchb.f. I.e.) which are probably both forms of the same plant. 

0. Iwve has flowered at Zew repeatedly ; for the first time 
in June, 1864, from plants imported from Guatemala ; it is 
very fragrant. 

Descr. Pseudobulbs 3-4 in. long by 2 to 2| in. broad, 
compressed with acute edges, smooth, green. Leaves 6-10 
in. long, oblong-lanceolate, acute Scape long, strict, stout. 
Flowers numerous, in racemes that are slightly branched at 
the base ; branches suberect, rachis strict stout ; bracts small, 
broad, scarious, appressed. Flowers 2 to 2| in. from the tip 



of the dorsal to that of either lateral sepal. Sepals and petals 
nearly equal, divaricating, linear-oblong, acute, flat, cinnamon- 
brown, banded with yellow, the dorsal and petals ascending, 
the lateral sepals deflexed. Lip smaller and shorter than the 
sepals, sessile, fiddle-shaped, recurved from the middle ; white 
for the half towards the extremity, violet in the other half, 
with 5 white ridges. Column winged at the tip only around 
the stigma and anthers. — J.D.H. 



Fig. 1, lip ; 2, column : — both enlarged. 



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BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 

CONTENTS OF No. 383, NOVEMBER, 1876. 



Tab. 6261.— ANTHTTEIUM BAKEEI. 
„ 6262.— MASDEVALLIA IONOCHAEIS. 
„ 6263.— LIBEETIA PANICTJLATA. 
„ 6264.— FEITILLAEIA EECTTEVA. 
„ 6265.— ODONTOGLOSSUM L^EVE. 

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EDITED BY 

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LATE SCPEBINTENDENT OF EDUCATION IN THE COLONY. 



CONTENTS: 

CHAPTER 

I. Geographical Position and Character. 
II. Geological Formation. 

III. Climate. 

IV. Wild Animal Life. 

V. Indigenous Vegetable Productions. 
VI. Early History. 
VII. British Colonisation and Rule. 
VIII. Social Progress and Prospects. 



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9. Glade at Aliceville, with Wild Bananas and Date-palms. 

10. Euphorbia Caput-Medusas. 

11. Arduinia grandillora — Amatungulu. 

12. Scarlet Cyrtanthus— Flame-lily. 

13. Thunbergia Natulita. 

14. Portrait of Langalibalele, Chief of the Amahlubi Kaffirs. 

on the Hills near Verulam. 
16. Kranzkop j overlooking the Tugeia Vallev. 

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6Z66 




/jDceutBrooKsBay kSoniip 



Tab. G266. 
MIEABILIS MULTIFLOIU. 

Native of New Mexico and California. 



Nat. Orel. Nyctagtne.e. — Tribe Mirabii.ee. 
Genus Mibabilts, Linn.; {Endl. Gen. Plant, p. 811). 



MrRABiLTs midtijlora, erecta, robusta, glanduloso-pubescens, caulibus obtuse 4-gonis 
divaricatim ramosis, nodis tumidis, foliis oppositis ovato-orbiculatis ovatisve 
acutis v. acuminatis basi rotundatis cordatis v. cordato-2-lobis, floribus mag- 
nis terminalibus, involucris pedunculatis pollicaribus cyathiformibus v. cam- 
panulatis 4-7 floris, lobis late ovatis, perianthii 2-pollicaris tubo infundibili- 
forme, limbi explanati lobis rotundatis, staminibus srepius 5 periantbio sequi- 
longis. 

M. multiflora, A. Gray, in Bot. U.S. and Mex. Bound. Exped. p- 169 ; Porter and 
Coulter, Synops. Flor. Colorado, p. 115. 

Oxybaphus multiflorus, Ton: in Ann. New York Lye. vol. ii. p. 237. 

Quamoclfdion nmltiflormn, Torr. A. Gray in Hillim. Journ. ser. 2, vol. xv. 
p. 321. 

Nyctaginia? Torrevana, Chris, in DC. Prod. vol. xiii. part 2, p. 430. 



This strikingly beautiful plant was raised from Californian 
seeds by Mr. Thompson, of Ipswich, who sent flowering spe- 
cimens to Kew in July of the present year. It has appa- 
rently an extensive range, from the forks of the Platte river, 
in lat. 42° K, where it was discovered by Dr. James in 1 820, 
to Mexico, where it was found near Zacatecas, in lat. 23°, 
by Coulter, and subsequently in New Mexico by Wright and 
Fendler. I cannot but, however, suspect some mistake as 
regards the Mexican locality, no other botanist has found 
it nearly so far south ; and as Coulter collected it also from 
California, it is possible that there has been a misplacement 
°f tickets, or a confusion of his bundles of plants, which were 
arranged and distributed after his death by Dr. Harvey, the 
late accomplished and indefatigable keeper of the Herbarium 
of Trinity College, Dublin (of which Dr. Coulter was Professor 
of Botany). The perianth lobes, which are described as 
acuminate by Torrey, Porter, and Coulter, are retuse in our 
specimens. 



Descr. A tall stout much-branched herb, clothed every- 
where with a glandular pubescence, which varies much in 
quantity. Branches obscurely quadrangular, divaricating, 
tumid at the nodes. Leaves, 3-4 inches long, opposite, 
petioled, ovate, orbicular- ovate, or ovate-cordate, acute or 
acuminate, rarely obtuse, sometimes 2-lobed at the base, 
rather thick, quite entire, nerves spreading ; petiole stout. 
Flowers in terminal panicles with opposite branches, four to 
seven together, in the green cup-shaped or bell-shaped 
peduncled involucre, which is about 1 inch long, and has 
4 to 5 short broad acute or obtuse erect lobes. Perianth 
bright purple ; tube 2 inches long, funnel-shaped ; limb flat, 
5-lobed, lobes rounded notched at the tip. Stamens 5-6, 
hardly exserted ; anthers small, yellow. Style very long and 
slender ; stigma capitate. — J. I). H. 



Fig. 1, Ovary and style of the natural $ize. 



6Z67 







Tab. 6267. 
turbiea obtusifolia.. 

Native of South Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Meliace.*:. — Tribe Melik.i;. 
Genus Tvkbjba, Linn (Bettth. et J look. f. Gen. Plant, vol. i. p. 881). 



TuKRiEA obtusifolia; glaberrima, ramia virgatis, foliis 1-2-pollicaribus obovatis v. ob- 
laneeolatis obtusis integris v. obtuse 3-lobis basi angustatis subsessilibus v. 
breviter petiolatis, nervis obscuris, floribus solitariis v. paucis pedunculatis, 
calycis glaberrimi dentibus acutis, petalis 1-li-pollicaribus longe unguieu- 
latis anguste spathulatis, tubo stamineo anguste cylindraceo, ore multitido, 
segmentis subulatis stellatim patentibus, ovario 5-loculari, stigmate mallei- 
forme truncato sulcato, eapsula globosa 3-valvi coriacea, seminibus dorso- 
rotundatis. 

T. obtusifolia, Hochst. in Flora, vol. xxvii.^ws 1, p. 296 ; Harv.ei 8<md. hi. Cop. 
vol. i., p. 245 ; Oliver, Fl. Trap. Afric. vol. i. p. 881. 



A native of woods and bushy places in the eastern districts 
of South Africa, extending from Albany to Natal, apparently 
most common in the eastward ; it also occurs as far north as 
Lake Ngamo in latitude 21° south, where it was gathered 
by McCabe, and in Sechualis country, the specimens from 
whence have narrower leaves. 

The genus Turraa consists of pretty white-flowered shrubs 
and small trees of tropical Asia and Africa ; about sixteen 
species are known. T. obtusifolia was raised from seeds scut 
to the Eoyal Garden by H. Hutton, Esq., of Graafrcinet, in 
1872, which flowered in the present year. 

Descr. A shrub 4-6 feet high, with slender strict branches, 
everywhere except the young foliage, quite glabrous. Leaves 
alternate and fascicled, three-quarters to one and a quarter or 
one and a half inches long, obovate or ob-lanceolate, obtuse, 
entire or obtusely 3- rarely 5-lobed above the middle, gradu- 
ally nan-owed into a very short petiole, bright green, nerves 
obscure. Flowers inodorous, axillary, solitary or a few 
fascicled together ; peduncles slender, with minute bracts at 
the base ; much shorter than the leaves. Calyx small, cam- 



panulate, shortly 5-toothed, glabrous. Petals one to one and 
a half inches long, with long slender erect claws gradually 
dilating into a spathulate or oblong or elliptic obtuse entire 
or obscurely sinuate spreading limb. Staminal-tube shorter 
than the petals, slender, slightly dilated upwards ; mouth 
fimbriate, the numerous subulate segments spreading like a 
star ; anthers small, oblong, obtuse. Stigma mallet-shaped, 
truncate, sides grooved, top glandular. Ovary 5-celled. Cap- 
sule as big as a small hazel, glabrous, black, coriaceous, valves 
white inside. Seeds rather large, convex on the back. — 
J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower with petals removed; 2, portion of mouth of staminal tubes 
with anthers and processes; 8, stigma; 4, ovary ; 5, transverse section of ditto :— 
all enlarged. 



6168. 




•%^ 



"»^r,^S*7<'" 



ai I t 



VracffliilrooJssPar'' '^^ 



Tab. G268. 
MASDEVALLIA triaristella. 

Native of Costa Rica. 



Nat. Ord. Orchitole. — Tribe Pleurothallide/k. 
Genus Masdevallia, Ruiz et Pav. {Limll. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 102) 



Masdevallu triaristella ; parvula, dense caespitosa, foliis cum petiolo perbrevi 
1-lJ-pollicaribus strictis subulatis teretibus apiculatis antice canaliculatis, 
scapis folia excedentibus 1-2-iioris capillaribusvemiculosis.vaginisparvisre- 
motis, sepalo dorsali ovato concavo in caudam flexuosam lamina triplo longiorc 
producto, lateralibus in laminam navicularem lineari-oblongam apice emar- 
ginatam utrinque ultra medium cauda flexuosa instructam connatis, petalis 
oblongo-linearibus apice obtuse 3-dentatis, labello linguaaformi basi profonde 
2-lobo, columna clavata. 

M. triaristellata, Rekhb.f. inOard. Ohron. (1878), p. 220 et 55!) (lc. xylog.) 



Dr. Beichenbach "well remarks of this singular little plant, 
that it constitutes (with another unnamed one in his herbarium) 
an entirely new section of Masdevallia, to be called Triari- 
stella> ) and which he tells me forms a curious approach to 
Restrepia. Of the latter genus two species have been figured 
in this work ; R. Lansbergii, tab. 5257, and R. elegans, t. 5966 ; 
a comparison of them with M. triaristella clearly shows the 
relationship indicated by Dr. Eeichenbach ; still the different 
form of the petals and club-shaped tails of Restrepia abund- 
antly separates the two genera. 

Masdevallia triaristella was discovered in Costa Rica by 
Endres, and flowered by Messrs. Veitch, who forwarded the 
specimen for figuring in this work in September last. 

Descr. Dwarf, densely tufted. Leaves erect, 1 to 1 \ inch 
long, slender, subulate and narrowed to both ends, cylindric, 
channelled down the face; petiolar portion very short, 
sheathed. Scapes 1-2-flowered, very slender and rigid, al- 
most capillary, rough with minute warts, bearing two or more 
distant short appressed sheathes which are truncate at the 
mouth. Flowers nearly an inch long, red-brown with yellow 
tails and the sepals suffused with yellow towards the 
base. Ovary very short. Dorsal sepal small, ovate, concave, 



suddenly contracted into a flexuous ascending tail about half 
an inch long ; lateral sepals combined into a linear-oblong 
boat-shaped straight limb which is notched at the tip, and 
bears on each margin beyond the middle a flexuous filiform 
tail of about the same length as that of the dorsal sepal. 
Petals linear- oblong, erect, obtusely 3- toothed at the tip. 
Lip tongue-shaped, recurved and with recurved margins, 
deeply 2-lobed at the base, grooved down the centre. Column 
club-shaped. — /. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Leaf; 2, transverse section of do. ; 3, top of scape and flower ; 4, lateral 
view of flower; 5, do. with sepals removed: — all enlarged. 




W Fitch del el Luth 



Tab. 6269. 

MUSCAEI ^STIVALE. 

Native country unknown. 

Nat. Orel. Liliace^:. — Tribe. Hyacinthejk. 
Genus Muscari, Tourn. (Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc.vol. xi, p. 411)- 



Moscari (Moscharia) cestivale ; bulbo ovoideo tunicato, foliis 5-6 anguste 
linearibus viridibus pedalibus facie profunde canaliculatis, scape- semipedali 
maculato, racerao subspicato 30- 40-iloro superne denso, floribus inferiori- 
bus luteis, superioribus purpurascentibus, bracteis minutis linearibus, pen- 
anthio oblongo infra oram angustam 6-umbonato dentibus minutis patuhs 
deltoideis, staminibus biseriatis antheris purpureis, stylo cylindrico ovano 
oblongo breviore. 



This is a near neighbour of that old and well-known garden 
favourite, the Musk Hyacinth, Muscari moschatum, of which 
the typical form is figured, Bot. Mag. tab. 734, and a yellow 
flowered variety, the M. macrocarpum of Sweet, at tab. 
1565. Besides its botanical characters, our present plant 
differs from moschatum by its faint scent and much later time 
of flowering. It came from the rich bulb collection of H. J. 
Elwes, Esq., of Miserdine House, Cirencester. The drawing 
having been made from specimens that flowered in his 
garden at the middle of June, 1875. He procured it from 
Messrs. Haage and Schmidt, of Erfurt, and does not know its 
exact country, but no doubt, like its allies, it comes from 
some part of the rich Oriental region. Another curious form 
which he brought to Kew at the same time, I have already 
described in the Gardeners' Chronicle, under the name of 
M. moschatum, var. creticum. 

Descr. Bulb ovoid, an inch and a half in diameter, 
with brown membranous tunics. Leaves five or six, con- 
temporary with the flowers, narrow linear, about a foot 
long, one sixth to one fourth inch broad, bright green, 
fleshy glabrous, deeply channelled down the face. Scape 
firm, terete, half a foot long, erect, mottled with purple. 
Raceme subspicato, the upper flowers being quite sessile, 
and only the lower ones furnished with very short pedicels 



three to four inches long, 30-40 flowered, the lower flowers 
yellow with green ribs, the upper ones tinged with purple; 
bracts minute, linear. Perianth oblong, one fifth to one 
fourth in. long, furnished with six prominences below the 
very narrow throat, from which the six minute deltoid 
segments are recurved. Stamens biseriate, the three lower 
inserted about the middle of the tube ; filaments short, 
incurved; anthers roundish, lilac-purple. Pistil about 
half as long as the perianth. Style shorter than the ob- 
long ovary ; stigma capitate. — J. G. Baker. 



Fig. 1, Perianth complete ; fig. 2, vertical section of the same : — both enlarged. 



GZ70 




Wfitdr 



Tab. 6270. 
MONARDELLA macrantha. 

Native of California. 

Nat. Ord. ~Lmrt,T]E. — Tribe Satureixet:. 
Genus Monardella, Bettth. (BentJi. et Hook.f. Gen, Plant, vol. ii. p. 1185). 



Monardella maoraniha ; perennis, pubescens y. puberula, rhizomate repon- 
te, caulibus depressia procumbentibus v. ascendentibus, foliis ovatis obtusis 
integerrimis, iloribus capita tis, bracteda ovatis obtusis viridibus, caiyoe 
elongato-oblongo, dentibus ovatis acutis, corolla? cocci nea? tubo longe exserto, 
lobis liueari-oblongis subacutis, antberarum loculis brevibus divaricatis. 

M. macrantha, A. Gray in Proo. Amer. Acad, Arts and Sc. vol. xi. p. 100, (Jan. 
1876) et in Botany of California, 593. 



A very beautiful, highly aromatic Californian plant, 
described by Asa Gray very recently, and apparently local, 
as he gives but three localities for it, namely, the Cuiamaca 
Mountains, near Julian city, and north-east of San 
Diego. Our cultivated specimens differ from Gray's descrip- 
tion in the close heads of flowers, in the corolla not reaching 
an inch and a half in length, and in its brighter colour, being 
more scarlet than orange-red. It was raised by Messrs. 
Veitch from Californian seeds, and flowered in October of 
the present year. 

The genus Monardella is confined to temperate N.W. 
America, and is the largest of the order Labial a in that 
region, numbering eleven species, and representing in a degree 
the Origanums (Marjorams) of the old world. The rarity of 
this very large order in temperate N. America is one of the 
characteristic features of the flora of that wide region of the 
globe, and it is the more anomalous when it is considered that 
the climate of California especially would appear to be peculiarly 
adapted to those highly aromatic plants, which abound in the 
analogous climates of the old world. The same remark 
applies to the natural order Umbellifera, which abound in simi- 
lar climates of the old world. 

Descr. A low perennial, with creeping rootstock and slender 
cylindric tufted stems that are procumbent or ascending, more 
or less pubescent or almost glabrate. Leaves small, one half to 



three-quarters of an inch long, petioled, ovate, obtuse, quite en- 
tire ; petiole shorter than the blade, spreading or recurved ; 
, bracteal leaves sessile, like the cauline, but more membranous 
and pubescent, green or almost white. Flowers ten to 
twenty in a close sessile terminal head. Calyx one half of an 
inch long, narrowly oblong or rather inflated below, green, 
striate, terete, tomentose ; teeth 5, short, erect, ovate, acute. 
Corolla slender, scarlet ; tube three times as long as the 
calyx, rather inflated above ; lobes oblong-lanceolate, not 
one-third the length of the tube. Stamens exserted ; 
anthers small, lobes broadly-oblong, divaricate. Ovary 
small, on a nearly equal disk ; style slender ; stigma 2-hd. 
— J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower ; 2, the same with the corolla laid open ; Z, tip of filament and 
anther; 4, ovary disk and base of style : — all enlarged. 




VmcralBrooissDa 



Tab. 6271. 
KEKAMAOTHUS Kirkii. 



Nat. Ord. Passiflore^.. — Trite Modecce^e. 
New Genus Kemaranthus, Hook. f. 



Flares unisexuales. F1. 3. Calycis tubus elongato-urecolatus ; lobi 5, breves, erecti, 
imbricati. Petala 5, medio tubo calycis inserta, inclusa, parva, filiformi-subu- 
lata. Annulus coronalis e cornubus 5-6 fundo calycis inserta, recurva. Sta- 
mina 5-6,fundo calycis inserta, filamentis brevibus subulatis basi connatis; an- 
thems Kneari-oblongffi, apiculatse. Ovarii rudimentum minutum. Fl. ? Peri- 
antliium et corona maris. Staminodia subulata. Ovarium globosum, stipita- 
tum ; stylus brevis, Ij-fidus, stigmatibus plumosis ; ovula placentis 3 amp.. 
Bacoa g'lobosa, indehiscens, coriaceae, polyspermae. Semina compressa, arillo 
sacciformi inclusa ; testa Crustacea, foveolata. Frutex Zanzibaricus herba- 
eeus, tomentosus, canlibus e radiee magna paueis erectis erassis subsimplieibus 
riridibus. Folia alterna, ovato- v. eordato orbieulata sulmnuato-dentata, mci- 
lia. Stipulre subulata;. Cirrhi 0. Pedunculi axilla res, 1-pauciflori, robusti, 
bracteolis paueis subulatis. Flores semipollicares, erecti, virides, cum pedicello 
artieulati. Baccae mole pomi parvi. 

Keramanthcs Kirkii. Hook. f. 



Male specimens of this very singular plant have been in 
cultivation at Kew for some years, whose flowers were so 
entirely similar to those of Modecca, whilst it differs so 
remarkably in habit from that genus that I have hitherto 
hesitated to publish it. 

The female flower I know only from a sketch made on the 
spot by its discoverer, Dr. Kirk, who has also sketched the 
fruit, but without signifying whether it is dehiscent or not ; 
the former are, like the males, identical with those of Modecea^ 
but the fruit differs according both to the appearance as re- 
presented by Dr. Kirk, and to a description which Dr. Masters 
informs me is attached to a very imperfect specimen pre- 
served in the Paris Museum, in being baccate. This descrip- 
tion is by Boivin, who gathered the plant at Zanzibar, and 
says of the fruit that is a globose berry, smooth, indehiscent, 
size of an apricot, dry, coriaceous externally, and of a chesnut 
colour. I am informed by Dr. Ascherson that there are also 
specimens in the Berlin Herbarium, collected by Hildebrant, 
which have been examined by Professor Braun, and referred 
to Modecca. 

Having regard to the baccate fruit, the remarkable habit, 
absence of tendrils, and conspicuous stipules, I am disposed 



to regard this as a new genus, and to call it E'er a man thus, in 
allusion to the pitcher-like form of the calyx. 

Keramantkus Kirtei is stated by Dr. Kirk to be very com- 
mon at Zanzibar, where it is planter!, like the Jatropha 
OureaSj to mark the site of graves. It flowers at Ivew during 
the greater part of the year ; our tallest plant is 2 feet high. 

Desce. Softly tomentose, with weak spreading hairs. 
Stems 3 to 4 feet high, numerous from the root, strict, erect, 
as thick as the arm at the base, tapering upwards, cylindric, 
green and herbaceous but perennial, simple or sparingly 
branched, leaf-scars small remote. Leaves towards the top of 
the stems, alternate, spreading, petioled, two to four inches in 
diameter, orbicular- ovate, obtuse, usually deeply cordate at 
the base, obscurely sinuate-toothed, soft, pale bright-green ; 
nerves very prominent beneath ; petiole shorter than the blade, 
peltatefy attached. Stymies lateral, subulate, entire or lacerate. 
Flowers in axillary 2-3-flowered erect peduncles, which are 
shorter than the petiole ; pedicels one half to two inches 
long, erect, jointed below the perianth, with 1-2 subulate 
bracteoles at the base. Calyx one to one and a half inch 
long, oblong-urceolate, green, fleshy, tomentose, rounded at 
the base, terete ; lobes 5 small, triangular-ovate, tomentose 
on the thickened margins. Petals- included, inserted half- 
way down the calyx-tube, distant, linear-subulate, ciliate 
and sometimes cleft in the male flower (glabrous in the fe- 
male fl. Kirk). Corona of 5-6 recurved hooked processes at 
the base of the perianth, and placed opposite to the stamens. 
stamens m the male fl. 5 or 6 (reduced to subulate stami- 
nodes m the female, Kirk) ; filaments subulate, connate at the 
base ; anthers linear-oblong, apicuiate. Ovary in the female fl., 
globose, stipitate (reduced to a minute ovoid body in the 
male). Styles 3, united at the base ; stigmas capitate plumose ; 
plaeentas 3 ; ovules numerous, horizontal, funicle not very 
long. _ Fruit one to one and a half inches in diameter, globose, 
drooping, mdehiscent, coriaceous, ma D y-seeded. Seeds nume- 
rous, one-half inch long, oblong, flattened, enclosed in the 
sac-like fleshy aril, which is truncate at the summit ; testa 
scrobiculate — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1. Male flower cut vertically -.—enlarged. 



INDEX 

To Vol. XXXII. of the Thied Series, or Vol. CII. of 

the Work. 



PL 




PL 


6248 


Agave Botterii. 


6271 


6225 


Ainsliaea "Walked. 


6247 


6227 


Allium anceps. 


6263 


6210 


Androsace sarmentosa. 


6250 


6218 


Anthurium Sauudersii. 


6251 


6261 


Antburium Bakeri. 


6208 


6232 


Arundo conspicua. 


6258 


6252 


Begonia Davisii. 


6262 


6209 


Blandfordia flammea, var. 


6268 




princeps. 


6236 


6244 


Bongardia Bauwolfii. 


6266 


6221 


Bouchea pseudogervao. 


6270 


6231 


Calceolaria tenella. 


6233 


6259 


Callipbruria Hartwegiana. 


6243 


6241 


Coreopsis (Tuckermannia) 


6269 




maritima. 


6207 


6239 


Cosmibuena obtusifolia, var. 






latifolia. 


6229 


6235 


Cotyledon teretifolia. 


6237 


6211 


Crocus Weldeni. 


6265 


6206 


Cucuinis sativus, var. Sik- 


6254 




kimensis. 


6256 


6213 


Cypella Peruviana. 


6214 


6217 


Cypripedium Koezli. 




6226 


Dendrobium fuscatum. 


6240 


6257 


Downingia pulchella. 


6222 


6234 


Dracaena Saposchnikowi. 




6253 


Dracaena fruticosa. 


6223 


6245 


Duvalia polita. 


6216 


6219 


Episcia erytbropus. 


6255 


6246 


Eulopbia macrostacbya. 




6264 


Fritillaria recurva. 


6212 


6249 


G-amolepis euryopoides. 


6220 


6238 


Heptapleurum poly botry urn. I 


6242 


6228 


Hoodia G-ordoni. 


6267 


6224 


Hypoestes aristata. 


6215 


6260 


Icacina Mannii. 


6230 



Keramanthus Kirkii. 

Leucotboe Davisiae. 

Libertia paniculata. 

Lilium Pbillipinense. 

Lycaste lasioglossa. 

Masdevallia ephippiuin. 

Masdevallia polysticta. 

Masdevallia ionocbaris. 

Masdevallia triaristella. 

Milla Leichtlinii. 

Mirabilis multiflora. 

Monardella macrantha. 

Monopyle racemosa. 

Moricandia soncbifolia. 

Muscari aestivale. 

Nicotiana tabacum, var. 
fruticosa. 

Odontoglossum praeuitens. 

Odontoglossum Hallii. 

Odontoglossum la3ve. 

Oncidium stra'mineum. 

Oxalis enneapbylla. 

Pescatoria Dayana, var. 

rhodacra. 
Pescatoria lamellosa. 
Saccolabium Hendersonia- 

num, 
Sedum pulchellum . 
Senecio (kleinia) cbordifolia. 
Serapias papilionaceo-lingua 

(bybrid). 
Stapelia olivacea. 
Talinum Arnotii. 
Tulipa Hageri. 
Turrsea obtusifolia. 
Viburnum dilatatum. 
Vitex Lindeui. 



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Tab. 6266.— MIEABILIS MTTLTIFLOKA. 
„ 6267.— TTTKKjEA OBTUSIFOLIA. 
„ 626S.— MASDEYALLIA T R1AEISTELL A. 
„ 6269.— MUSCAEI JESTIYALE. 
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NATAL: 

A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTON OF THE COLONY, 

INCLUDING ITS 

NATURAL FEATURES, PRODUCTIONS, INDUSTRIAL 

CONDITION, AND PROSPECTS. 

BY 

HENRY BROOKS, 

EOE MAST YEABS A BBSIDENT IIT THE COLONY. 
EDITED BY 

DR. E. J. MANX, E.R.A.S., E.R.S. 

BATE SrPEBI>"TEXDE>*T OF EDUCATION IN TUB COLONY. 

CON TEN i?8 

CHAl 

I. Geographical Position and Character 
II. Geological Formation. 
III. Climate. 

IV. ■ \:fe. 

V. L oduptions. 



VIII. Social Pi 



ILL U ST RATI 



• Mountain. 



asandDat 



nahlubi I