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plants ot tfre l\opal @arfcen* of Beto, 





F.R.S., F.L.S., etc., 



(Or Vol. CXr.ofthe Whole Work.) 



1 What more felicitie can fall to ch 
Than to enjoy delight with libertie, 

And to be lord of all the workes of Nature, 
To raine in th' aire from earth to highest skie, 

To fecrt on flowers and weeds of glorious feature. 


1 RftQ 


Mo. Bot Gar.. 


LO!»T>0!f : 




ISAAC BAYLEY BALFOUR, D.Sc, M.D., F.B.S., &c, &c, 

Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. 

My dear Balfour, 

When, in 1872, I dedicated to my old and valued 
friend, your father, the Ninety-eighth Volume of the 
Botanical Magazine, your career as a student of Botany 
in the University of Edinburgh encouraged me to hope 
that I might live to add your name to those of the dis- 
tinguished cultivators of that science whose services as 
such it has been my father's and my own privilege to 
commemorate in successive volumes of this work. 

My hopes have been abundantly realized. As an in- 
vestigator of the Natural History of Rodriguez and of 
Socotra, and as a describer of the vegetation of those re- 
markable islands, you have shown yourself to be a very 
able botanist. As Professor of Botany successively in the 
Universities of Glasgow and of Oxford, you have left your 
mark on the museums and gardens of those venerable insti- 
tutions ; and it only remains for me to express the hope that 
the arduous duties of the chair you now hold, the greatest 
and most influential Botanical Chair in the Queen's do- 
minions, may leave you leisure to continue as you began 
to reap laurels in the field of original research. 

Believe me, my dear Balfour, 

Sincerely yours, 


ROTAI (IatiDENS, Kf.vt, 
Jleccmler Ut, 1889. 



Tab. 7033. 

Native of New Grenada. 

Nat. Ord, Leguminos.e. — Tribe Amhebstieje. 
Genus Beownea, Jacq. ; (JBenth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 577.) 

Beownea macrochilia ; ranvulis petiolis petiolulisque brevibus ferrugineo-lanatis, 
foliolis 5-jugis oblongis obovato-oblongis oblanceolatisve caudato-acuminatis 
glaberrimis, capitulis maximis basin versus trunci sessilibus multi-densifloris, 
bracteis exterioribus amplis rotundatis interioribus oblanceolato-spathulatis 
pubescentibus, bracteolis 2 in tubum 2-fidura connatis, calycis lobis liberis v. 
varie connatis, petalis staminibus multoties brevioribus anguste unguiculatis 
oblongis obovatisve vexillo 2-fido, staminibus 10-12 longissimis, ovano 

B. macrophylla, Masters in Gard. Chron. 1873, p. 777, fig. 149; The Garden, 
vol. xv. p. 436, t. 182. 

B. antioquensis, Linden Catal. No. xxiii. p. 3 (name only). 

By far the handsomest of hitherto known Browneas, 
though from the habit, hereafter to be alluded to, of 
bearing its flowers at the base of the trunk, and of their 
short duration, it is little likely to be cultivated for its 
flowers. Dr. Masters, who was the first to describe it, 
adopting the name it bore in the garden of its owner, Mr. 
Crawford of Lakeville, near Cork, states that he strongly 
suspects it to be B. cauliflora, Poepp. and Endlicher, a 
native of Peru, which he says differs in the white flower 
and more numerous (fifteen) stamens ; but far more im- 
portant characters than these are the perfectly glabrous 
branches and petioles of B. cauliflora, its leaves not being 
acuminate, its very small heads, its short calyx-tube, and 
its silky petals. B. cauliflora is further a native of 
Maynas in the Peruvian Andes, whilst Linden's name 
for B. macrophylla shows it to be a native of New 

Shortly before his lamented death, Mr. Crawford, whose 
gardens are celebrated for the number of fine plants that 
have flowered there for the first time, notably several 
species of Brownea, and the Magnolia Campbellii (Tab. 
nost. 6703), wrote of this plant that it grew in a lean-to 

JANUARY 1ST, 1889. 

house with a high stage on which are Cattleias, Lsslias, 

and other Orchids, that shut out much of the light, and 

most of the flowers seemed to prefer the dark, and grow 
close to the ground in the darkest part of the houa 
also that it blossomed first in the coldest weather, and the 
blossoms lasted for only two days. The heads of flowers 
attain a circumference of three feet, and ripe seeds have 
been produced that germinated and produced young plai 
Mr. Crawford further succeeded in crossing it with /'. 
grandiceps, the result of which is a great improvement on 
grandiceps, the flowers lasting longer than those of the 

The specimen figured here was sent to Kew in March 
last by Mr. Crawford very shortly before his death. Dr. 
Masters describes the tree as being (in 1877) about thirty 
feet high and unbranched for ten feet. A specimen of 
the same plant in the Kew Herbarium is marked as collected 
in Antioquia by Mr. Jervise. 

Descr. A small tree, attaining thirty feet in height in 
Mr. Crawford's garden, with a crooked trunk. Branches, 
petioles and petiolules clothed with a dense brown tomen- 
tum. Lea ves about a foot long ; petiole terete, slender; 
leaflets about five pairs, eight inches long and less, very 
shortly petioluled, from oblong to oblanceolate, contracted 
into a long acumiuate point, quite smooth and glabrous ; 
nerves eight to ten pairs. Heads of flowers eight to ten 
inches in diameter, sessile on the trunk towards its bast 1 . 
Outer bracts two to three inches broad, rounded, silky 
externally ; inner bracts narrowly spathulate, pubescent, 
longer than the calyces ; bracteoles connate in a tvvo-lobed 
funnel-shaped tube. Calyx one inch long, scarlet ; lobes 
five, lanceolate, free or variously connate. Petals twice as 
long as the calyx, claws very slender, as long as the oblong 
scarlet blade, dorsal two-fid, the others rounded at the 
top. Stamens ten to twelve, two and a half inches long, 
scarlet. Ovary stipitate, very narrowly fusiform, tomen- 
tose.— J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Flower with bracteoles; 2, inner bract; 3, calyx; 4, standard; 5, 
stauiinal insertion ; <> and 7, anthers ; 8, pistil .—all enlarged. 

Tab. 7034. 

OLEARIA insignis. 
Native of New Zealand. 

Nat. Ord. Composite. — Tribe AsTEBOiTJEiE. 
Genus Oleabi.*, Manch. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gin. PI. vol. ii. p. 276.) 

Oleabia insignis ; frutex robustus, ramulis crassis petiolis foliis subtus pedun- 
culisque dense niveo- v. rufo-tomentosis, foliis petiolatis crasse coriaceis 
oblongis obovatisve obtusis basi cuneatis v. subeordatis supra demum glaber- 
rimis nitidis, pedunculis elongatis crassis monocepbalis, involucri subglobosi 
tomentosi bracteis nuinerosissimis dense imbricatis subulato-lanceolatis exte- 
rioribus obtusis, intimis apicibus acerosis recurvis, floribus radii numerosis, 
ligulis 2-3-seriatis 3-dentatis, pappi setis rufis sequilongis scabridis apicibus 
subclavellatis, acbeniis gracilibus dense sericeis. 

0. insignis, Ilook.f. Ft. Nov, Zel. vol. ii. p. 331; Handb. of New Zeald. Flora 
p. 125 ; The Garden, vol. xxxiv. p. 534, t. 678. 

The genus Olearia, including Eurj/bia, represents, to- 
gether with the scarcely distinguishable Gehnisia, in 
Australia and New Zealand, the Asters of the north tem- 
perate regions and the Felicias of South Africa ; and 
except by the terete achenes of Olearia and its shrubby 
or even arboreous habit, it is difficult to distinguish it 
botanically from Aster. Of all the many species of Olearia, 
however, none departs so widely from Aster as does the 
one here figured, which in its great ovoid involucre with 
the bracts in very many series, and its uniseriate pappus 
of perfectly equal hairs, rather clubbed at the tip, departs 
a good deal from the typical Olearias. It belongs to the 
group Eriotriche of the genus, in which the hairs are 
neither stellate nor fixed by the middle, but from a matted 
mass of wool. 

0. insignis is a native of rocky river banks in the north 
part of the Middle Island, as in the province of Nelson, 
where it was discovered by Captain D. Rough about 1850. 
It has also been gathered on the banks of the Warrau river 
in the north-east part of the same island, occurring from the 
sea-level to 5000 feet elevation. The specimen figured 
was presented by that most excellent horticulturist and 

JANUARY 1ST, 1889. 

valued correspondent of Kew, Hen- Max Leichtlin of Baden 
Baden, in July of last year. 

Desce. A low tabular-Leaded, verv robust bush. Branch- 
lets as thick as the middle finger, "as well as the petioles 
leaves beneath and midrib above, peduncles and involucres, 
densely clothed with white or pale red-brown felted hairs! 
Leaves four to six inches long, elliptic oblong or obovate, 
obtuse, quite entire, thickly coriaceous, at first woolly 
above, at length quite glabrous smooth and shining ; base 
acute, obtuse or subcordate ; petiole very stout, terete, 
halt to one and a half inches long, nerves very obscure on 
both surfaces. Peduncles axillary or subterminal, one- very 
rarely more-flowered, four to six inches long, as thick as 
a goose-quill, usually with one or two small narrow leaves 
on the upper part. Head an inch in diameter, subglobose 
narrowed upwards ; bracts very many, small, appressed! 
imbricate m many series, lanceolate, outer obtuse, upper- 
most with needle-like recurved points. Flowers of ra y verv 
many m two or more series, white; ray linear, half an 
inch long, three-toothed; disk flowers narrowly tubular 
yellow, five-toothed. Achenes slender, silky, the upper- 
most hairs more rigid and lengthened like an outer pappus, 
but quite smooth; pappus of one row of rigid white or 
rufous scabrid bristles slightly thickened at the tips.— 

Fig. 1, Flower of the ray ; 2 do of the rlkL- - s u • r 
5, .tyle-ann. -.-all enlarged. ' ' Ulr ° f ^W™ ; 4 ' anth < 


Tab. 7035. 
rosa incarnata. 

Native of France. 

Nat. Old. Rosacea. — Tribe Bose.e. 
Genus Eosa, Linn. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. i. p. 625.) 

Rosa incarnata ; ramulis inermibus strictis snperne petiolisqne glanduloso-pubes- 
centibus, stipulis magnis ellipticis glandulosis, foliolis 3-5 subsessilibns 
ellipticis supra viridibus subtus pallidis glaucescentibus, nervis validis plua 
minusve marginibusque duplicato-serrulatis glandulosis, pedunculis solitariis 
paucisve calycibusque sericeo-glandulosis, calycis tubo ovoideo utrinque an- 
gustato, sepalis lanceolatis longe acuminatis tribus pinnatifidis, disco par- 
vulo, stylis liberis hispidis, corolla majuscula bete rosea. 

E. incarnata. Mill. Gard. Diet. Ed. 1, Eosa No. 28, Ed. 3, Eosa No. 19 ; Boreau 
hi. Centr.Fr. Ed. 2, p. 218; Orepin in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. vol. xv. 
p. 244 ; Desef/line in Men. Soc. Acad. Maine et Loire, p. 72, et extra, p. 32 ; 
Fourreau Cat. PI. Cours de Phone, p. 73. 

It seems incredible that a plant growing wild in several 
parts of France, and which, was recognized in English 
gardens two hundred and forty-eight years ago, and named 
and described in a standard work a hundred and seventeen 
years ago, should have, as it were, passed entirely out of the 
knowledge of horticulturists and botanists till the latter half 
of tlie present century. Yet such is the history of the 
Rosa incarnata, of Miller, enumerated under this name in 
the first edition of that author's Gardener's Dictionary, 
published in 1731, and described in the third edition 
(1771) of the same work. Nor is this its earliest recogni- 
tion, for Miller in his first edition (1737) cites Parkinson's 
Herbal published in 1640, where (p. 1019,) allusion is made 
to " the Trachynia,-; our pale red rose which Lugdunensis 
saith the French call Rosa incarnata. but Camerarius in 
horto saith it is a purple rose of a deeper or blackish rose- 
red colour with a pale violet colour mixed therewith, &c." 
In Parkinson's Herbal (1656) I find "2. Rosa incarnata, 
the Carnation Rose," to which is added " RosaBelgica sive 
vitrea." On the other hand, Miller in his first edition 
cites Rosa Belgica sive vitrea " as another plant, and in 
his third edition he describes it as having a prickly stalk." 

jakxjaky 1st, 1889, 

Parkinson describes /?. incarnate as " very thick and 
double, very variable in the flower, some paler as if blasted, 
-which cometh not casually but naturally to this Rose " 
The best flowers he says are "of a bright Murrey colour, 
near unto the velvet Rose, but nothing so dark in 

Miller calls it the Blush Rose (a name now usurped by 
R. alba), and adds that it flowers with the York and 
Lancaster roses, after the Damask, but before the Pro- 

I can find no notice of the Rosa incarnata of Miller in 
any subsequent systematic botanical or horticultural work 
till ] 857, when Boreau resuscitated it in the second edition 
of his Flore du Centre de la France, since which it has 
been recognized by all authors on the genus. There is 
indeed a variety of alba, Linn., called incarnata, establish <1 
by Persoon, and taken up by De Candolle in the Pro- 
dromus (vol. ii. p. 622), where it is identified with the 
" Rose cuisse de Nymphe " of French gardeners; but l\. 
alba has very different foliage from incarnata, and can 
never have been confounded with it. This, however, ac- 
counts for Steudel referring Miller's incarnata doubtfully 
to R. alba. 

Rosa incarnata is one of the GallicancB group of Orepin, 
the latest and most learned writer on the genus, and is 
nearest to R. gallica, of which some botanists may be 
supposed, to regard it as a variety. This may account in 
part for its being overlooked as a species, but not for the 
omission of the name in all descriptive works. Crepin 
diagnoses it by the unarmed petioles, elliptic-ovate leaflets 
pale and pubescent beneath with glandular doubly serrate 
margins, and the ovoid glandular calyx-tubes. It is a 
native of various widely separated districts in France, and 
is also found near Geneva. Lastly, Mr. Baker has referred 
me to the figure of the rose "Baroness Rothschild," 
figured in Paul's " Rose Garden," Ed. 9, p. 262, a hybrid 
perpetual, as perhaps nearly related to R. incarnata. 

The specimen figured was kindly communicated by the 
Rev. Canon Ellacombe, whose collection of species of Rosa 
is famous, and has contributed largely to that of Kew. — 

i'ig. 1, Fruit of the natural size; 2, achene, enlarged. 

Tab. 7036. 

STREPTOCARPUS parviflora. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Nat. Old. Cybtandbace.e. — Tribe CvBTANDBEiE. 
Genus Streptocabpus, Lindl.; (Benih. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 1023.) 

Stbeptocabpus parviflora ; laxe lanuginosa, foliis paucis terraa appressis sub.*e?- 
silibus patulis ovatis obtusis crenatis bullatis, scapia gracilibus plurifloris, 
bracteis minutis, calycis segmentis minoribus erectis, corollas tubo leute curvo 
purpureo glanduloso-piloso. lobis rotundatis albis. 

S. parviflora, E. Meyer Ztcei PJl. Docum. p. 152 (nomen tantum) (non Bot. 
Mag. t. 0636) ; 'C. B. Clarke, Monogr, Cyrtand. 152. 

At Tab. 6636 of this work a plant is figured under the 
name of Streptocarpus paroifiora, which, though evidently 
most closely allied to that here figured, has quite lately 
been regarded as a different species. This latter is, ac- 
cording to Mr. Clarke, the most recent monographer of 
the genus, probably S. lutea of Clarke, of which that 
author says " S. parviflorce forsan varietas." Of 8, 
-parviflora there is no authentic description, nor are there 
specimens in the Herbarium at Kew so named by its 
author, but now that both the reputed 8. parviflora of E. 
Meyer, and the plant figured for it at t. 6636 are known 
in cultivation, the diagnosis of the two is easy ; the true 
IS. parviflora is densely shaggy all over except the corolla, 
the leaves are appressed to the ground, much broader, 
ovate and spreading, the flowers rather larger, and the 
corolla lobes are orbicular, the corolla-tube is also narrower 
in proportion to the size of the flower. In all other 
respects the species are very similar. The only native 
specimens in the Kew Herbarium of the true parviflora 
are one very poor one collected by Harvey at Uitenhage 
and labelled by him S. Bhexii j3., and very fine ones from 
an altitude of 3900 feet on the Graaf Reinet Mountains, 
collected by Mr. Boms. According to Mr. Clarke it has 

JANUARY 1st, 1889. 

a very wide range indeed in South Africa, from the Cape 
district to Grahamstown and Natal. 

The subject of the present plate was raised from seed 
brought by Mr. Watson, sub-curator of the Royal Gardens, 
from the immediate vicinity of Grahamstown in 1887. 

Descr. "Whole plant except the corolla shaggy with soft 
hairs. Leaves several from the root, four to six inches 
long, spreading, sessile or subsessile, ovate, obtuse, ereuate, 
bullate, dark green above, nearly white beneath. Scapes 
several, six to ten inches high, reddish ; flowers sub- 
cymosely racemed; pedicels slender and as well as the 
calyx, corolla-tube and ovary glandular-pubescent ; bracts 
small, subulate. Calyx one-sixth of an inch long ; seg- 
ments linear, erect. Corolla-tube two-thirds of an inch 
long, slightly recurved, purplish without and within ; limb 
as broad, flat, lobes orbicular, white, slightly unequal. — 
/. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Calyx and ovary ; 2, corolla laid open ; 3 and i, stamens: — all enlarged. 


jntBrodks I 

Tab. 7037. 

Native of Java. 

Nat. Ord. Okchipe.2e. — Tribe Nbottie.e. 
Genus Macodes, Blume ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 602.) 

'N.a.coves javanica ; foliis parvis petiolatis elliptico-ovatis acutis, supra saturate 
viridibus lineolis albis pulcherrime transverse striolatis, subtus pallidis carneo- 
marmoratis, scapo stricto pauci-vaginato, spica niultiflora floribusque glandu- 
loso-pubescentibus, bracteis ovato-lanceolatis carneis ovarium sequantibus, 
sepalis ovato-rotundatis obtusis, petalis lineari-oblongis falcatis obtusis, la- 
belio supero parvo basi late ventricoso intus prope margines 2-calloso, lobis 
lateralibus parvis, terminali angusto spathulato piano, columna brevi 2-alata, 
rostello elongato, clinandrio cyatbiformi. 

Argyrorchis javanica, Blume Orchid. Archip. Ind. p. 120, t. SI and 56 E (forma 

I have been much perplexed as to the identification of 
the subject of this plate, which appears to me to be a true 
Macodes, differing from M. Petola, Lindley, in its robust 
habit, larger thicker leaves, with green longitudinal nerves, 
though crossed like M. Petola with white ones. It bears 
the name at Kew of Argyrorchis javanica, Blume, and 
turning to Blume's figure of that plant (Orchid. Ind.), 
it closely resembles it in everything but the shape of the 
lip : in the accompanying description, Blume describes the 
petals as cohering with the dorsal sepal, and this I find to 
be the case, though they are very easily removable. It is 
less easy to account for his description of the lip as 
narrow, erect, undivided and altogether like the petals. 
Such a lip is an anomaly in the whole tribe of Orchids to 
which Argyrorchis belongs, and may be put down to a 
monstrous (or Peloria) condition, in which case Argyrorchis 
would be referable to Macodes, as is indeed suggested by 
Bentham in a note under the genus Selenipedium (Gen. PL 
vol. iii. p. 335). 

Bentham in the Genera Plantarum has regarded Macodes 
as a monotypic genus, no doubt overlooking the three 
described by Reichenbach in his " Xenia," to which the 
present is an addition. 

The beauty of M. javanica resides in the deep green 

JANUARY 1ST, 1889. 

velvety leaves, the light-green longitudinal nerves of 
which are united by groups of transverse snow-white 
irregular streaks, much like those of DichorUandra 
mosaica, but more delicate. It is a native of Java, 
and flowered in the Royal Gardens in May of last year, 
having been sent by the Director of the Buitenzorg 

Desce. An erect rather succulent glandular pubescent 
herb, twelve to eighteen inches high ; roots fibrous, fleshy. 
Stem below the leaves four to six inches high, as thick as 
a swan's quill, pale reddish clothed with short sheaths that 
are sometimes terminated by a reduced leaf-blade. Leaves 
three to five, approximate, elliptic, acute, narrowed into a 
short stout petiole with a short amplexicaul sheath, upper 
surface very dark velvety green with green parallel nerves 
and groups of delicate white undulating cross striola 1 , 
under surface and petiole pale ties] 1 -coloured with white 
nerves and irregular cross bars. Scape strict with one 
or two flesh-coloured sheaths. Spike four inches long, 
lax-flowered ; bracts lanceolate, flesh-coloured, as long as 
the ovaries which are green and one-third of an inch long. 
Perianth half an inch in diameter ; lateral sepals spreading, 
broadly ovate, obtuse, bright orange-red with white midrib 
and tips ; petals, lanceolate, falcate, ap pressed one on each 
side of the dorsal sepal which is rather the largest of thethi 
Lip superior, small, sessile in the centre of the flower, 
yellowish white, consisting of a pitcher-shaped sac with 
rounded ears between which is a small deflexed spathulate 
flat midlobe; there are two globose glands just within 
the margin of the pitcher, one on each side. Column 
short, stout, with a long rostellum, membranous wings, 
and a cup-shaped clinandrium. — J. I). II. 

Fig- 1) Flower ; 2, petal ; 3, lip ; 4, side view of the same, showing one of the 
glands ; 5, top of ovary and column ; 6, column seen in front :— all enlarged 



Vii i'.:mt Brooks,!) ay &San Imp 

Tab. 7038. 

Native of South Africa 

'Nat. Ord. Scitamine;e. — Tribe Muses. 
Genus Stkelitzia, Alt. ; {Benth. et Hooh.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 606.) 

Steelttzia Nicolai; caudice elato, foliis erectis lamina petiolo eqtrilonga 
elliptico-oblonga obtusa basi cuneata rotundata v. subcordata, ecapo brevissiuio 
robusto, bracteis 5-6 pedalibus cymbiformibua acuminatis griseo-brumeis, 
pedicellis chassis roseis, sepalis subs&qnalibus concavis lanceolatis acuminatis. 
petalo exteriore brevissimo ovato-rotundato mueronato, lateralibus in laminam 
sagittatam cairuleam connatis. 

S. Nicolai, Hegel Sf Korner in Gartenfl. 1858, p. 265, t. 23-i ; Korner hi 
Mittheil. der Muss. G-arienb. vol. i. p. 54, cum To. ; Jovet in Rev. IFortic. 
1888, p. 117; Fl. de Serres xiii. 1356 ; Gard. Chron. 1888, pt. ii. p. 6 ( J5. 

The date of introduction of this fine plant, which, seeing 
the stature it has attained, must have been cultivated in 
European Botanical Gardens for a great many years, is 
unknown ; nor has its native locality in South Africa been 
ascertained. In habit and foliage it so closely resembles 
the familiar S. Augusta (see Bot. Mag. t. 4107), that 
before it flowered it was naturally supposed to be that 
plant. 8. Augusta was introduced in 1791 by Francis 
Masson, but there is no record of where he procured the 
plant. Thunberg, who discovered S. Augusta during his 
travels in S. Africa (1772 — 1775), gives as its habitat, in his 
Prodromus Flora Capensis, the Pisang River in Anteniqua 
Land. These names I do not find in any map or gazeteer, 
but I presume .the latter to be the Oliphant River from 
the following facts. Burchell, the famous botanical traveller 
in South Africa, never met with 8. Augusta except in the 
Cape Town Botanical Gardens, but he says that its Dutch 
name is *' Welde Pisang," the wild Plantain, Pisang being 
the Malay name of the Plantain, which this Strelitzia 
resembles in foliage, and Thunberg's Anteniqua may be 
assumed to be the region of the Onteniqua Mountains, 
through which the Oliphant River flows. This identifica- 
tion of the river is confirmed by a reference to the valuable 

FdBRUAUY 1st, 1889. 

work of another South African botanical traveller, the late 
James Backhouse, the founder of the famous Nurseries 
at York. In his instructive and interesting " Visit to 
Mauritius and South Africa," which he undertook for 
philanthropic purposes, Backhouse only once mentions 
seeing Strelitzia Augusta, and that was at Plattenberg Bay, 
a bay on the coast some 300 miles east of Cape Town, and 
where the Oliphant River falls into the sea. It would be 
as interesting to know the geographical area occupied by 
8. Augusta as to discover that of 8. Nicolai. 

8. Nicolai differs from 8. Augusta in its larger bracts 
and flowers, and in the hastate combined petals, which 
are further of a pale blue colour. (In 8. Augusta these are 
round at the base and white.) It seems to have been first 
noticed as a distinct species in the Imperial Gardens of 
St. Petersburgh, where it flowered in 1858, and was named 
by Kegel and Korne after the Emperor Nicholas. It is 
alluded to in a note in the Gardener's Chronicle under 
the name of flf. Augusta, which note brought a state- 
ment from M. Henriquez of the Coimbra Botanical 
Garden (Portugal), to the effect that the same plant flowers 
annually there. It must be left to the botanists of South 
Africa to discover its native country, and whether the 
few characters that distinguish it from 8. Augusta are 
constant or not. The plant from which the accompanying 
figure was taken had a stem twenty-five feet high, and 
flowered in the winter months. In European Gardens it 
is treated as a green-house plant, in respect of which I 
may state that 8. Augusta which was figured in this work 
from a specimen that flowered in the Palm House, also 
throve and flowered regularly for many years in the 
Temperate House. — J". D. H. 

Fig. 1, Flowers with the sepals narrowed, showing the two comhined and small 
free petal ; 2, apex of combined petals stamens and style : both of the natural 



VmccrttBionksDay &_ Sanlmp 

L Reeve 3cC° Lccrdon 

Tab. 7039. 
STYRAX Ohassia. 

Native of Japan and Gorea. 

Nat. Ord. Stybacej;. 
Genus Sttrax, Linn. ; (Bent//, et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. ii. p. 669.) 

Sttbax Ohassia ; frutex v. arbuscula, ramulis foliisque subtus tomentellis, folf is 
breviter petiolatis aliis oblongo-rotundatis obtusis inregfrrimis v. obscure 
denticulatis aliis rmilto majoribus orbicularibus supra medium grosse sinuato- 
dentatis, racemis terminalibus multifloris simplicibus, floribus pendulis, 
calycis tubo subcampanulato inaequaliter 5-dentato, petalis oblongis obtusis 
imbricatis, staminibus glabris, antberis filamento sequilongis, capsula obovoidea 
Crustacea tomentella. 

S, Obassia, Sieb. Sf Zuce. Fl. Japon. vol. i. p. 93, t. 46, A. DC. Prodr. vol. viii. 
p 260; Franch. $■ Savat. Enum. PL Jap. vol. i. p. 309; Miquel Prolus. 
Fl.Jap. p. 265 ; Qard. Chrou. 1888, ii. p. 131, f. 12 ; Joum. of Horticul- 
ture, 1888, p. 513, f. 73. 

One of the most attractive of the many hardy shrubs 
introduced within late years from Japan, where it is a 
native of the southern mountains of Kiusiu and Sikok. 
It has also been detected in Corea by Wilford, when collect- 
ing for the Royal Gardens of Kew in 1859. Siebold, who 
discovered it in Japan, attributes to it no other property 
but its scent of Hyacinths, he gives it the native name of 
" Obassia," which is rendered " Owo batsya " by Franchet 
and Savatier in their enumeration of Japan plants. 

The difference in size and form of the leaves is re- 
markable, the larger attaining ten inches in diameter, and 
occurring sometimes at the apex of the branches, at others 
alternately with the smaller. The petiole presents the 
remarkable character of sheathing the leaf-buds, as in 
Liriodendron, Platanus and other widely separated genera 
of plants. 

The specimen figured is one exhibited by Messrs. Veitch 
at a fortnightly meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society 
in June, 1888, and kindly communicated for figuring in 
this work. The racemes which are represented in the 
Gardener's Chronicle as erect with suberect flowers is in 

Febhuahy 1st, 1889. 

our specimen inclined with pendulous secund flowers, as 
in the description and plate of Siebold and Zuccarini. 

A shrub or small tree; branches slender and leaves 
beneath covered with stellate clown. Leaves of two forms, 
the larger orbicular or orbicular-oblong, six to ten inches 
in diameter, coarsely sinuate-toothed above the middle, 
denticulate towards the base, petiole one inch ; the smaller 
more shortly petioled, two to four inches long, broadly 
oblong, green above, nearly white beneath, with'often red- 
brown hairs on the nerves. Racemes terminal, four to 
seven inches long, very shortly peduncled, laxly many- 
flowered ; bracts small, caducous ; pedicels half an inch 
long. Mowers snow-white, secund, drooping, about one 
and a half inches broad. Calyx subcampanulate, green, 
terete, minutely rather unequally five-toothed, stellately 
downy. Petals oblong, obtuse, concave, strongly imbricate. 
Stamen united in a tube at the base with the petals, 
glabrous; anthers as long as the filaments or shorter. 
Ovary partly superior, tip hemispheric, puberulous ; style 
filiform; stigma simple. Capsule one inch long, ovoid, 
crustaceous, bursting from the base upwards, girt below by 
the enlarged calyx. Seed ellipsoid.—./. D. II. 

Pig. I Calyx and style ; 2, flower laid open; 3 and 4, stamens ; 5, ovary with 
part ot the calyx removed ; 6, fruit .—all hut f. 6 enlarged. * 


A AncentBvooks,5ayiicSorvl 

% Reeve &. C° London 

Tab. 7040. 
IRIS Mbda. 

Nn live of Persia. 

Nat. Ord. Ibidem. — Tribe Mob-EEJE. 
Genus Ieis, Linn. ; (Benih. et Book.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 686.) 

Ibis (Pogoniris) Meda; rhizomate breviter repente, foliis basalibus brevibus 
linearibus glaucescentibus, caule monocephalo foliis suba?quilongo, spathse 
valvis binis contiguis Janceolatis herbaceis, pedieello subnullo, periantbii tubo 
ovario requilongo limbi segmentis luteo-viridulis ubique venis brunneis decora- 
tis, exterioribus oblongo-cuneatis supra medium patulis barba centrali densa 
lutea brunneo maiginata decoratis, interioribus erectis oblongis unguiculatis , 
styli ramis latis cristis parvis deltoideis. 

Iris Meda, Stapfin Bot. Ercjeb. Polak P.rpedlt. Pers. p. 20. 

This is a well-marked new Iris, which was discovered in 
Persia in the year 1882 by the Austrian traveller, Polak, 
and introduced by him to Vienna. Its nearest alliance is 
with the South European Iris Ghamceiris of Bertoloni, of 
which the flower in the type is yellow, and of which there 
are two fine violet varieties, one of which, I. olbiensis, 
Henon, was figured, Bot. Mag. t. 6110. Probably the 
present species will be also found to be variable in colour, 
as in the original description violet and lilac are mentioned. 
It is said to flower in its native home at the middle of 
May, and this was also the case with the plant in Eno-land. 
Our drawing was made from a plant grown at Shelford 
by Professor Michael Foster. 

Desck. Rhizome short-creeping, weaker than that of I. 
pumila. Basal leaves about four, linear, glaucescent, not 
more than three or four inches long at the flowering time. 
Stem one-headed, about as long as the leaves. Spathe 
one-flowered; valves contiguous, lanceolate, herbaceous, 
two or two and a half inches long ; pedicels scarcely any. 
Ovary cylindrical, under an inch long; perianth-tube 
green, cylindrical, as long as the ovary ; segments of the 
limb (in our plant) greenish-yellow, copiously veined from 
top to bottom with brown ; outer segments oblong-cuneate, 

February 1st, 1889. 

reflexing from half- way down, brown in the centre, with a 
dense yellow beard ; inner segments as long as the outer, 
rather narrower, oblong-unguiculate, erect. Style-branches 
broad and convex on the back ; crests small, deltoid, 
crenate. Anther linear, longer than the filament. — /. G. 

Fig. 1, Stamen ; fig. 2, style-branch, with its crests : — both enlarged. 


"VmcerttBrociks Day & 

Tab. 7041. 

OPUNTIA Rafinesquii. 
Native of the United States of America. 

Nat. Ord. Cacte.e. 
Genus Opcntia, Mill. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 851.) 

Opuntia (ellipticae) Rafinesquii ; diffusa, radice fibrosa, articulis obovatis v, 
suborbiculatis, foliis subulatis patulis, papillis subremotis albido v. griseo- 
villosis setas graciles gerentibus plerisqueinermibus, aculeis paucis saepissime 
marginalibus validis rectis albis uno alterave graciliore deflexo adjecto, 
alabastris conicis acutis, ovario clavato pulvillis 20-25 griseo-villosis rufo- 
setosis instructo, sepalis sub 13 oblanceolatis acuminatis interioribus petaloideo- 
marginatis cuspidatis, petalis 10-13 obovatis erosis denticulatis sulphureis, 
stigmatibus 7-8 erectis pallide flavis, bacca obovoidea subnuda pulposa pur- 
purascente, umbilico infundibulari, seininibus compressis. 

0. Rafinesquii, Engelm. in Pacific Sail. Hep. vol. iv. p. 41, t. 10, f. 3-5, t. 22, 
f. 7, 8; Svnop*. Cart. p. 296; Bot. Works, -p. 143, 164; Tarry Bot. Bull. 
vol. ii. t. 31 ; Lemaire III. Hurt. 15, Misc. 49 cum Ic. ; Haage $f Schmidt 
in Eev. Sortie. 1868, p. 90, f. 10, 11 ; Gray Man. Bot. N. U. S. p. 185 ; 
Porter Flor. Colorad. p. 49 ; Forst. Handb. Cact. p. 923, fig. 126; Hemsley 
in Garden, vol. xi. p. 274. 

O. macrantha & O. ccespitosa, Baf. in Bull. Bot. Genev. 1830, p. 216 ; Fl. Med. 
vol. ii. p. 247 ; Pjeiff. Enum. Cact. p. 146. 

O. vulgaris, Torr. fy Gr. FL JV. Am. vol. i. p. 535 in part ; Fmerson Trees of 
Mastachius. p. 424, 

O. vulgaris, var. ? Rafinesquii, Gray Man. Bot. Fd. 2, p. 136. 

Cactus Opuntia, Torrey Fl. IS. States, p. 466 in part. 

The fact that Cacti are sufficiently hardy to bear English 
winters has long been known, and is set forth in this work 
when figuring Opuntia Vulgaris (Cactus Opuntia, t. 2393), 
but it is comparatively of late that their cultivation in 
the open air with protection from damp only in the winter 
months has been successfully pursued to any extent; and 
when the number of large and brilliantly flowered species 
that inhabit countries to which such treatment in England 
is well adapted is considered, a very great development of 
this branch of Horticulture is to be anticipated. O. Ra- 
finesquii has a wide range in North America, from Wisconsin 
in the north and Kentucky in the east, and probably to 
Louisiana and Texas in the south and west. For a full 
February 1st, 1889. 

account of the species and its numerous forms, I must 
refer to Engelmann's works enumerated above, and from 
which the characters of this species are derived. Dr. 
Engelmann enumerates no fewer than fifty Opuntias, natives 
of the United States of America, of which Rafinesquii is 
the most widely distributed and, as might be expected, the 
most variable. It comprises five local forms, of which 
three are western and two eastern. The latter are var. 
microsperma, which has usually been confounded with 0. 
■vulgaris, and var. grandiflora, a native of Texas. The 
plant here figured is no doubt the first of these, distinguished 
by its large flowers, which are often red in the centre, and 
few spines (which are sometimes entirely absent). 

The plant with which 0. Rafinesquii was so long con- 
founded is the 0. vulgaris, the only American species°north 
of Mexico with which Linnaeus was acquainted; it is 
confined to the west of North America, east of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, where it extends from Massachusetts 
to Florida, and is the eastern representative of Rafinesquii, 
which is only found to the westward of that range. 
Engelmann distinguishes vulgaris from the latter plant by 
its smaller size, paler colour, small pulvilia, usual absence 
of spines, smaller flowers with less numerous parts, and 
especially by the short thick and more or less appressed 

^0. Rafinesquii has been cultivated for many years at 
Kew, flowering annually all through the summer. It was 
no doubt one of the many contributions of Cacti received 
from the late Henry Shaw of St. Louis, the founder of the 
Shaw Botanical Gardens and School of Botany in that 
city, and to whose munificence botanists owe the publica- 
tion of the collected works of G. Engelmann. — J. D. H. 

Fig. 1 and 2, Stamens ; 3, style and stigmas ; 4 and 5, seeds :— all enlarged. 

L Reeve & C° London 

Tab. 7042. 
DENDROBIUM gracilicaule. 

Native of Eastern Australia. 

Nat. Ord. Obchide^:. — Tribe Epidendbe^:. 
Genus Dendbobium, Sw. ; {Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii.) 

Dendrobium (Stachyobium) gracilicaule : caulibus fastigiatis 3-6 pollicaribus 
teretibus simplicibus plurivaginatis basi vix tumidis apice 3-5-foIiatis, foliis 
oblongo-lanceolatis apice 2-fidis, scapis caulibus apbyllis subterminalibus foliis 
brevioribus gracilibus nutantibus laxifloris, racemis 8-10 floris, bracteis 
minutis, floribus flavis, sepalis purpureo-maculatis dorsali lineari-oblongo 
obtuso, lateralibus oblongo-lanceolatis falcatis obtuso, mento rotundato, petalis 
lineari-oblongis obtusis falcatis labello sepalis breviore, lobis lateralibus 
rotundatis erectis, terminali reniformi nudo disco inter lobos laterales 

D. gracilicaule, F. Muell. Fragm. Phyt. Austral, vol. i. p. 179; Benth. Fl. 
Austral, vol. vi. p. 281. 

D. brisbanense, Beichb.f. in Walp. Ann. vi. 299. 

D. elongatum, Cunn. in Bot. Beg. xxv. (1839), Misc. 33 ; Lindl. I. c. xxvii. (1841 
p. 21 (non Lindl. Gen. Sf Sp. Orchid.). 

D. gracilicaule so closely resembles D. Kingianum, also 
a Queensland plant, that by Herbarium specimens it is 
not easy to distinguish them ; when growing, however, they 
look widely different, as may be seen by comparing 
Plate 4527 of this work with that here given. In D. 
Kingianum the stems form elongated cones, the sheaths of 
which are deciduous and the internodes are much longer, 
the leaves are shorter, of a darker green, the flowers appear 
along with the leaves, though this is probably an inconstant 
character, the racemes are longer than the leaves, the 
flowers are larger, longer, and pedicelled, the sepals and 
petals purple, and the mentum longer and incurved. On 
the other hand, Mr. Watson, the Assistant-Curator of Kew, 
informs me that D. Kingianum is a very variable species, 
wherefore the above differential character must be received 
with caution. Though placed by Lindley and Bentham 
in the Flora Australiensis in the section Dendrocory?ie, J). 
elongatum cannot be regarded as related to the Indian 

FEBEtTABY 1ST, 1889. 

plants upon which that section was founded. In the 
Genera Plantarum it is rightly referred to Stachyobium. 

D. gracilicaule is a native of Moreton Bay in Queensland, 
of the Macleay and Clarence rivers in New South Wales, 
and of Lord Howe's Island. It is an inconspicuous species, 
and probably often overlooked. The specimen here figured 
was received in 1883 from Mr. J. F. Roberts, nurseryman 
of Kew, near Melbourne, Australia, and the drawing was 
made in March of last year. 

Descr. Stems tufted, four to eight inches high, as thick 
as a goosequill, cylindric, with a slightly thickened base, 
clothed with membranous sheaths. Leaves three to five 
at the top of the stem, sessile, four to five inches long, 
oblong-lanceolate, tip bifid, yellow green, flaccid. Scape 
slender, from close to the summit of the stem, flower- 
ing after the fall of the leaf in the cultivated plant, but 
not constantly in the wild state. Raceme six- to ten- 
flowered, nodding; bracts minute; flowers very shortly 
pedicelled, pedicel with the ovary half an inch long. 
Flowers pale yellow. Sepals spotted purple, dorsal oblong, 
obtuse, lateral falcately oblong-lanceolate, obtuse. Mentum 
rounded. Petals linear-oblong, obtuse, unspotted. Lip 
shorter than the sepals, greenish-yellow ; lateral lobes 
rounded, erect, midlobe reniform, smooth ; disk between 
the lateral lobes with three longitudinal plates. — ,7. IK II. 

Fig. 1, Column and lip ; '2, column; 3, anther; 4, pollinia -.—all enlarged. 


L Reeve 


Tab. 7043. 
lilium nepalense. 

Native of the Central Himalayas. 

Nat. Ord. Liliace^e. — Tribe Tulipe*. 
Genus Lilium, Linn.; (Benth. et Roolc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 816. 

Lilitjm: (Archeliricm) nepalense; bulbo rbizoma proferente, caule stricto 
erecto 2-3-pedali, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis alternis sessilibns 
viridibus lucidis 5-nervatis, floribus 1-5 racemosis vel corymbosis, braeteis 
foliaceis interdum verticillatis, pedicellis cernuis, perianthio magno in- 
fundibulari extus luteo-viridulo intus luteo deorsum nigro-purpureo 
suffuso, segmentis oblanceolato-oblongis acutis sub anthesin supra 
medium falcatis, staminibus limbo distincte brevioribus, stylo antheras 

L. nepalense, D. Don in Trans. Wern. Soc. vol. iii. p. 412 ; Prodr. Fl. Nep. 
p. 52 ; Wallick Plant. Asiat. Bar. vol. iii. p. 67, t. 291 ; Cat. No. 5078 ; 
Kunth Enum. vol. iv. p. 267; Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xiv. p. 2'M ; 
Elices Monogr. tab. 5 B. 

L. ochroleucum, Wallich in Herb. Lindley. 

Since Lilies have been so much in favour, this has been 
the only Indian species which we did not possess in 
cultivation. It is so very distinct both botanically and 
horticulturally, that when it was imported by Messrs. 
Hugh Low and Co., and exhibited in flower last autumn 
at the Royal Horticultural Society, it created quite a 
sensation, and received a first-class certificate. Woodcuts 
of it have been given in the " Journal of Horticulture " 
and the " Gardener's Chronicle," and a coloured plate in 
the " Garden." It was discovered by Wallich's collectors 
more than fifty years ago in the high mountains of Nepaul. 
The plant imported by Messrs. Low well represents 
"VValiich's type. In my monograph in the Journal of the 
Linnean Society, I referred to the same species dried 
specimens gathered by Dr. Thomson in Garwhal, by 
Strachey and Winterbottom at Naini Tal, and by Jacque- 
mont at Simla. These require further investigation in a 
living state. We are indebted to Messrs. Low both for a 
March 1st, 1889. 

living plant, and for the flowering specimens from which 
our drawing was made. 

Descb. Bulb, in the only specimen I have seen, sending 
out a slender rhizome. .erect, terete, two 

or three feet long, with leaves scattered up to the in- 
florescence, but only distant and rudimentary in the lower 
third. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, eh asile, alternate, 
reaching a length of four or six inches, tapering gradually 
from the middle to both ends, firm in texture for the 
genus, bright green and glossy above, with two vertical 
nerves on each side of the midrib. Flowers one to five, 
racemose or corymbose, with the foliaceous bracts some- 
times congested into a whorl ; pedicels ascending, cernu- 
ous. Perianth four or five inches long, greenish-yellow 
outside, yellow within, flushed, except in the upper third, 
with purplish-black ; segments oblanceolate-oblong, acute, 
narrowed gradually from above the middle to the base 
and point, reflexing when the flower is fully expanded only 
in the upper half or third. Stamens above an inch shorter 
than the perianth-segments; filaments filiform, purplish- 
black; anthers nearly an inch long. Ovary cylindrical; 
style overtopping the stamens; stigma capitate. — J. &• 

Fig. 1, Back view of anther; 2, front view of anther; ?>, pistil com- 
plete : — all enlarged. 


Tab. 70 U. 
SARCOCHILUS lUntpbbcts. 

Native of Burma. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide.^. — Tribe VandejE. 
Genus SARCOcmixs, Br.; {Benth. et Hoo&.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. £75.) 

Sarcochii/ts Juniferus ; acaulis, radicibus nirmerosissiniis elongatis compressis, 
foliis rarissime evolutis, pedunculo rachi racemi et ovario hirtellis squamis 
paucis ovatis acutis instrncto, racemo elongato decurvo multifloro, bracteis 
ovatis membranaceis, ovario bvevi, sepalis petalisque consimilibus ellip- 
ticis obtusis flavis aurantiaco maculatis, labello albo carnoso in calcem 
dorso obtusum producto, lobis lateralibus magnis erectis ovato-oblongis 
obtusis ; lobo medio minuto revoluto ovato, disco papillose inter lobos 
laterales crasse bicarinato, anthera heraispherica 3-calcarata, calcaribus 
2 lateral' bus setaceis antico breviore robustiore, polliniis 2 globosis stipite 
elongato lineari affixis. 

S. luniferus, Benth. mss. 

Thrixspernram luniferum, Beickb.f. in Gard. Chron. 1868, p. 786. 

Sarcochilus, as reconstituted in the " Genera Plantarum," 
consists of a very difficult group of thirty or forty Indian, 
Malayan, Australian, and Pacific Island Orchids, differing 
greatly in habit, and out of which some eight or ten genera 
had been differentiated before a better knowledge of their 
characters, and the discovery of other species modifying the 
value of these characters, suggested the propriety of uniting 
all under one genus. For this genus Reichenbach 
proposed to adopt the name of Thrixspermum, Loureiro 
(1790), as being anterior to Sarcochilus, Blume (1810), 
a course which Bentham did not adopt in the " Genera 
Plantarum," on the very sufficient grounds that the name 
is utterly bad in construction, and because the description 
of the latter is so incomplete that it would have been 
impossible to have recognized the plant intended by it, 
but for a scrap preserved in Loureiro's Herbarium 
preserved in the British Museum. On the other hand, 
Sarcochilus has been recognized by all authors for three- 
quarters of a century. Many species have been described 
under that generic name ; and there is a well-known genus 
of Tiliacew, Trichospermum, Blume. 

March 1st, 1889. 

Professor Reichenbach, who first described 8. lunif 
remarks that the curious spurs or tails in the anther are 
not peculiar to it, but are found in a Yiti species. The 
very appropriate specific name which he gave to 
the Burmese plant refers to the form of the lip as seen 
on a front view. In its ordinary state leaves are not 
developed, but Mr. Watson informs me that one specimen 
at Kew bore several small leaves, and Mr. Parish notes 
that in its native state leaves occasionally appear. 

S. lunif erus was discovered by the Rev. Mr. Parish near 
Moulmein in Tenasserim, and was introduced by Messrs. 
Veitch in 1868. The plant here figured was sent by 
Dr. King from the Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, in 
1887, and flowered in the following year. 

Descr. Leaves in the ordinary state of the plant none. 
Roots very many, three to five inches long, flattened, one- 
sixth of an inch broad. Peduncle one to two inches long, 
stout, decurved, hispidulous, as are the rachis of the 
raceme and ovary, green, purple-spotted, with two to 
three white ovate acute scales. Raceme three to five 
inches long, drooping, many-flowered ; bracts minute, 
ovate, membranous; ovary very short; flowers half an inch 
m diameter. Sepals elliptic-oblong, obtuse, and similar 
petals yellow spotted with orange. Lip white, saccate, 
with large erect ovate obtuse side-lobes, a minute recurved 
mid-lobe, and two thick ridges on the papillose disk. 
Anther hemispheric, with a straight lateral marginal 
horizontal setiform spur on each side, and a much shorter 
one m front. Pollinia two, globose, on a long linear 
stipes.—/. D. H. ° 

+^ Flg ' 1 i- Colu ^ and U P ; 2 > front view of lip and column ; 3, Up viewed from 
the position of the column; 4 and 5, anther ; 6 and 7, polliuia :— all enlarged. 

^ \* 

'? London. 

Tab. 7045. 

STUARTIA Pseudo-camellia. 
Native of Japan. 

Nat. Ord. Tee.nstkcem:iace.e. — Tribe Goedonie^e. 
Genus Stuartia, Linn. ; (Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL vol. i. p. 185.) 

Stuartia Pseudo-camellia ; ramulis foliisqne glabris, foliis breviter petiolatis 
elliptico-lanceolatis acutis v. acuminatis subserratis, floribus amplis sub- 
globosis, sepalis obovato-rotuudatis serrulatis ciliatis extus dense sericeo- 
lanuginosis, petalis late cuneato-obovatis concavis crenato-dentatis dorso 
marginibus exceptis sericeo-lanuginosis, ovario sericeo-tornentoso, stylis 
elongatis glabris alte connatis, capsula late ovoideo-ellipsoidea, valvis 

S. Pseudo-camellia. Maximov. in Bull. Acad. Pefersb. 1867, 429; Mel. Biolnq. 
vol. vi. p. 201 (1867) ; Franchet & Savat. Fnum. Plant. Jap. vol. i. p. 60; 
Gard. Chron. 1888, vol. i. 187, f. 22 ; Ito PI. Bot. Gard. Koishik. vol. ii. 
t. 23. 

S. grandiflora, Siebold, ex Briot in Rev. Ilorticole, 1879, p. 430, cum Ic. 

A congener of the North Carolinan Stuartia pentagyna, 
L'Herit(Tab.nost. 3918), an old favourite in shrubberies and 
gardens, but which, like so many other beautiful deciduous- 
leaved North American trees and shrubs, has been so 
entirely neglected of late years, that its name is not to be 
found in Decaisne and Naudin's " Handbook of Hardy 
Trees, Shrubs, and Herbaceous Plants." A reference to the 
plate of the American plant cited above shows that the 
name of grandiflora adopted by the " Revue Horticole " was 
not well chosen for the Japanese species, for the flowers 
of its American congener are almost twice as large. 
The genus Stuartia possesses an interest in being one of 
those that prove incontestably the close relationship between 
the Floras of Japan and of the Eastern United States, there 
being two species in each of those countries. For the 
synonym S. grandiflora (published twelve years after that 
of Maximo vicz) I can find no authority but the " Revue 
Horticole," which attributes it to Siebold, but gives 
neither date nor place of publication ; it is hence probably 
Majbcji 1st, 1889. 

a previously unpublished name. According to the same 
authority, the plant had been for some yours previously (to 
1879) in cultivation on the Continent, it having seeded in 
1878 with Messrs. Thibaut and Keteleer, at Sceaux. 

The specimen from which the plate here given was taken 
was exhibited at a meeting of the Royal Horticultural 
Society by Messrs. Veitch, to whom I am indebted for the 
opportunity of figuring it. The plant flowers in July, is 
quite hardy, and a valuable acquisition to the Fruticetum 

Descb. A dense shrub ; branchlets and leaves glabrous. 
Leaves two to three inches long, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, 
finely serrate, many-nerved, yellowish-green above, paler 
beneath ; petiole a quarter to one-third of an inch 
long. Flowers axillary, solitary, globose, about two inches 
in diameter, white, pedicel half an inch long ; bracts 
close under the calyx, ovate, acute, shorter than the sepals. 
Sepals orbicular, obovate, obtuse, serrulate, coriaceous, 
closely imbricate, densely silky. Petals orbicular, very 
concave, margin irregularly crenate, back densely silky 
within the margin. Stamens very many, incurved ; anthers 
small, orbicular, orange-coloured. Ovary oblong, densely 
silkily villous, narrowed into a long, erect, columnar 
glabrous style, formed of the connate styles of the five- 
celled ovary; stigmas short, recurved. Capsule one inch 
long, turgidly ovoid ; valves beaked, margins recurved after 
dehiscence. — J. D. H. 

Figs. 1 and 2, Front and back views of anthers ; 3, ovary ; 4 transverse 
section of do. ; 5, ovule : — all enlarged. 





L Bfieve &C° London. 

Tab. 7046. 
opuntta polyacantha. 

Native of the United States. 

Nat. Ord. Cacte.*:. 
Genus OnMTTU, Mill. ; (Benth. et Hook./. Gen. PL vol. i. p. 851.) 

Opuntia (Elhpticse) polyacant ha ; prostrata, radice fibrosa, articnlis adscen- 
dentibus ellipticis ovatis obovatisve compressis, foliis minutis subulatis, 
pulyillis snbconfertis_ pallide tomentosis setosis et armatis, acnleis radi- 
antibus albidis 1-5 interioribus longioribus patulis albidis v. rufescenti- 
bus, floribus sulphureis raro purpurascentibus, ovario obovoideo pulvillis 
aculeatis instructo, sepalis tubi ad 13 interioribus obovatis, petalis 12-20 
obovato-orbiculatis retusis apiculatis, stigmatibus 5-8 viridibus in capi- 
tnlnm profunde sulcatum dispositis, bacca ovoidea v. subglobosa pulvillis 
albo-tomentosis setosisque instructa, seminibus maguis late et subacute 

O. polyacantha, RawortJi Suppl. Plant. Succulent, p. 82 (1819). 

O. missouriensis, DC. Prodi: vol. iii. p. 472 ; Engelmann in Proc. Amer. Acad. 

vol. iii. p. 299; in Bot. Whipple Exped vol. iv. p 41, t. xiv. ; In Hot. 

Ai/u/'s Exped. vol. iii. p. 118; in Bot. Simpson's Exped. p. 412 ; in Bot. 

n heelers Exped. p. 129. 

Cactus ferox, Nutt. Gen. N. Amer. PL 296, non Willd. 

This is the third hardy Opuntla figured in the Botanical 
Magazine, the others being 0. vulgaris (Tab. 2393) and 0. 
Rafinesquii (Tab. 7041). It was discovered by Nuttall on 
the Upper Missouri in 1811, and called by him Cactus fer ox, 
a specific name that might well have been retained, for 
Engelmann states that the original form greatly deserves 
it, were it not that there is an earlier G. ferox, of Willdenow, 
a native of tropical America, which also being an Opuntla 
claims the name. The present plant was first published by 
Haworth in 1811 under the very appropriate name of 0. 
polyacantha, which was changed to 0. missouriensis by 
-De Candolle for no assigned reason. In this De Candolle 
has been followed by Engelmann in his various works on 
the American Cacti, who strangely altogether omits any 
reference to Haworth's name or work. According to the 
last-named author, it was cultivated at Chelsea, in 1814. 

Opuntla polyacantha is a very wide-spread and variable 

March 1st. 1889. 

species. Engelmann describes it most fully in liis account 
of the Cacti of Whipple's Expedition along the 35th parallel, 
where however, through some oversight, he places it in the 
section with tuberous roots, whilst describing these as 
fibrous. He there states that it extends from the Upper 
Missouri to the 49thdegreeof X. Lat.,and westwardsfromthe 
Missouri to 112° E. In later publications he gives the Salt 
Lake Valley, where it ascends to (3500 ft., and New Mexico. 
In Kew Herbarium there are species from the plains of the 
Sacketchawan in Lat. 52° N., collected by Bourgeau, and 
from British Colombia, between the "Walla "Walla and 
Colvile, collected by Lyall. 

Engelmann distinguishes six varieties, by the form of 
the joints, number length and colour of the spines, size of 
the berry, and size and margins of the seeds, but I fail to 
refer the Kew plant definitely to any one of these more 
than another. The Kew specimens flowered in the Royal 
Gardens in a cold frame during the summer months. It 
had stood unprotected for a good many years without 
flowering:. — /. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Cluster of spines ; 2, back, and 3, front view of stamens ; 4, stigmas 
— all enlarged. 

• 1/47. 

M.S. dei,E.Bates lith 

; Day &. Sanlmp 

L Reeve &. 0°. London 

Tab. 7047. 
chironia peduncularis. 

Native of South Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Gextiane^e. — Tribe Chikonie^. 
Genus Chiroxia, Linn.; (Benth et BZooh.f. Gen. PL vol. ii. p. 805.) 

Chironia peduncularis ; perennig, suffruticosa, decumbens, ramis teretibus, 
foliis sessilibus e basi cordata v. rotundata ovato-lanceolatis acutis v. 
acuminatis trinerviis, floribus longe pedicellatis amplis, calycis lobia 
lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis, corolla? tubo terete, limbi rubro-purpurei 
lobis ovatis acuminatis tubum asquantibus, antberis linearibns erectis 
filamento longioribus, capsnla oblongo-lanceolata exsucca. 

C. peduncularis, Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1803 ; Griseb. in DC. Prodr. vol. ix. 
p. 39. 

C. latifolia, E. Meyer Comm. PL Afr. Austr.fasc. ii. p. 178. 

C. trinervia, Ann. de Flore de Pomone, t. 158. 

C. trinervis, Paxt. Mag. vol. iii. t. 149. 

C. Barclayana, Sort. 

A native of South Africa, where it has a very wide 
range indeed on the eastern side of the continent, from 
Algoa Bay in 34° S., north-eastward to Zululand in 
Lat. 28° S., inhabiting moist ground, where it forms a 
weak trailing or spreading bush. Of its original intro- 
duction into this country, nothing is known. Lindley, who 
first described it in 1835, speaks of it as a plant cultivated 
in gardens under the name of G. trinervis (not of Linnasus), 
and of which the native country was unknown. From 
that time it seems to have gone out of cultivation, which is 
the more remarkable, for Lindley states that " nothing can 
be easier than its management, as it grows in any kind of 
soil, will thrive out of doors in summer, and will survive 
the winter without injury in a very indifferent greenhouse ; 
further, that it is propagated easily by cuttings, and is covered 
with a succession of purple flowers from July to October." 
No doubt its straggling habit is not in its favour ; but 
this would yield to skilful treatment. 

Like so many of the species of the Gentianece, and all 
the Chironias, G. peduncularis contains a very strong 

Maech 1st, 1889. 

bitter, which, as Lindley remarks, is most remarkable, even 
among its bitter neighbours. I find that this property is 
not retained in the Herbarium specimens. Another curious 
remark concerning it is contained in a note by Burchell, 
the South African traveller, namely, that " the flowers 
expand in the Herbarium." I suppose he means that they 
retain life after the death of the foliage. 

This is the fourth species of Cape Chironia figured in 
this work, and is the handsomest of them all ; the others 
are C. baccifera, Linn. (tab. 233), G. linoides, Linn. (tab. 
-511), and C.frutescens, Linn. (tab. 37), to which C. de- 
cussata, Yent. (tab. 707), and C. angustifolia, Sims (tab. 
818), have been reduced as varieties, and together placed 
in another genus (Orphium, E. Mey.). The fact of all 
these appearing in the very early numbers of this Magazine, 
and none since, is evidence of the favour in which Cape 
plants were held in the beginning of the century, and their 
subsequent abandonment, together with the flue-heated 
houses in which they throve. The reintroduction of C. 
pedunmlaris is due to Mr. Watson, sub-curator of Kew, who 
collected seeds of it during a visit to Algoa Bay in 1887, 
from plants growing amongst grass in very wet sandy soil 
close to the sea-shore. It also grows far inland. — 
J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Corolla laid open ; 2, front, and 3, buck view of stamens ; 1, c ilyx and 
ovary : — all enlarged. 


Tab. 7048. 

EREMOSTACHYS laciniata, 
Native of Western Asia. 

Nat. Ord. Labiate.— Tribe Stachyde^b. 
Genus Eremostachys, Bunge ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. ii. p. 1215.) 

Ebemostachys (Phlomoides) laciniata ; caule robnsto elato in spicam elongatam 
densissime albo-lanatam desinente, foltis radicalibus amplissimis petiolatis 
bipinnatisectis glabriusculis, segmentis oblongo- v. lineari-lanceolatis ineiso- 
serratis, caulinis sessilibus diminutis, floralibus ovato-oblongis flores sub- 
eequantibus, verticillastris numerosisinultifloris subremotis, bracteis lineari- 
lanceolatis, floiibus sessilibus magnis, ealyce tubuloso-campanulato dense 
floccoso, ore truncato, dentibus rectis brevissimis spinescentibus, corolla 
ochroleuca v. luride purpurea, galea villosa. 

E. laciniata, Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. vol. ii. p. 416 (in Adnot.) ; Benth. in DC. 
Prodr. vol. xii. p. 547 ; Boiss. PL Orient, vol. iv. p. 793 ; C. A. Meyer Ind. 
PL Caucas. p. 96 ; LindL in Bot. Reg. 1845, p. 52 ; Reqel Gartenfl. vol. viii. 
p. 33, t. 249 ; LindL 8f Paxt. Fl. Gard. vol. ii. p. 83, fig. 176. 

P. raacrocheila, Jaub. 8f Spach. III. PL Orient, vol. v. p. 13. 

E. iberica, Visiani in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 3, vol. vii. p. 380. 

Phlomis laciniata, Linn. Sp. PL p. 819; Ait. Sort. Kew. Ed. 2, vol. iii. p. 408; 

Sweet. Brit. Fl. Gard. vol. i. t, 84. 
Moluccella lanigera, Poir. Fncyel. Suppl. vol. iii. p. 722. 

Though never hitherto figured in the Botanical Magazine, 
this noble hardy perennial has been long cultivated in 
England, having been introduced by Philip Miller in 1731 
from the Levant, and described in the first edition of 
Miller's Gardener's Dictionary as " The Eastern Jerusalem 
Sage with jagged leaves." It is the easternmost repre- 
sentative of a genus that extends into Siberia, Afghanistan, 
and Central Asia, but it has itself a narrow distributional 
area, being confined to the southern Caucasian region on 
the north, reappearing in the Levant, where it occurs 
throughout the length of Syria and Palestine, and extends 
a little way westward into the ancient Cilicia (the modern 

Our plant flowered in the Royal Gardens in June of last 
year, and presented a very striking appearance. 

Desce. A stately herbaceous perennial. Stem one to 

Ar-uiL 1st, 1889. 

three feet high including the spike, robust, leafy, clothed 
with flocculent white wool, as thick as the thumb at the 
base. Radical leaves two feet long and a foot broad, ovate 
in outline, glabrous, bipinnatipartite ; segments oblong- or 
linear-lanceolate, inciso-serrate, green above, much paler 
beneath ; cauline leaves smaller, sessile and less com- 
pound ; floral ovate, inciso-pinnatifid, as long as the flowers. 
Whorls many, rather distant, many-flowered; bracts 
lanceolate. Calyx three-fourths of an inch long, tubular- 
campannlate, terete, densely flocculent; mouth truncate 
with five minute bristles or teeth. Corolla nearly two 
inches long, pale dull-red purple, with a bright-red mid- 
lobe of the lower lip, villous, especially the galeate upper 
lip ; tube glabrous ; side-lobes of lower lip broad, disk 
between them dull yellow. Stamens glabrous. Ovary 
hispid.—/. D. H. 

Figr. 1, Section of calyx, showing the ovary ; 2, corolla with the lower lip 
removed; 3, stamens in position; 4 and 5, stamens : — all but Jig. 2 enlarged. 


1. .Reeve &. ( ] 

,J > Tab. 7049. 


Native of Khorasan. 

Nat. Ord. Kanunculace.e.— Tribe Hellebobe.2E. 
Grenus Delphinium, Linn. ; {Benth. et JLooh.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 9.) 

Delphinium (Delpbinastrum) Zalil; perenne, erectum, puberulum, caule subsim- 
plici, foliis tri- triter-natipartitis lacinia media interdum pinnatipartita supe- 
rioribus simplicioribus supremis bracteisve simplicibus, segmentis linearibus- 
acuminatis rigidis, marginibus recurvis, petiolo- basi non dilatato, racemis 
laxifloris, floribus primulinis, pedicellis pubescentibus, sepalis late ovatis 
obtusis, calcare recto sepalis a?quilongo, apice attenuato, petalis angustis 
2-fidis intus barbatulis, filamentis puberulis basi dilatatis, carpellis 3 glabris, 
stylo recto, folliculis 3 oblongis 5-costatis reticulatisque glabris, seminibus 
subquadratis transverse fimbriato-lamellatis. 

D. Zalil, Aitcliison Jr Se\nsJey in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. 2, vol. iii. p. 30, t. 3 ; 
Vien Lllust. Gartenzeit, vol.xiii. (1888) p. 12, cum Ic. xylog. 

As a plant of economic value, this is one of the most 
interesting discoveries of the Affghan Delimitation Com- 
mission, and our knowledge of it is due to the fact that 
the Indian Government directed a competent botanist, 
Dr. Aitchison, F.R.S., to accompany that important 
geographical operation. In the work cited above, Dr. 
Aitchison (p. 31) thus describes the Persian Zalil : " This 
plant forms a great portion of the herbage of the rolling 
downs of the Badghis ; in the vicinity of Gulran it was in 
great abundance, and when in blossom gave a wondrous 
golden hue to the pastures. In many localities in Khorasan 
above 3000 feet* it is equally common. The flowers are 
collected largely for exportation, chiefly to Persia, for 
dyeing silk ; they are also exported from Herat, through 
Affghanistan to Northern India, to be employed as a dye, 
as well as to 'be used in medicine." In another place 
(p. 20) Dr. Aitchison, speaking of the vegetation of 
Badghis, says, "T^or a short period the hillocks are tinted 
an exquisite blue by the flowers of Gentiana Olivieri, which 
is, as Boissier noted, a hot country Gentian. This is 
followed by Delphinium Zalil, a perennial, which throws 

April 1st, 1889. 

up a spike of bright yellow blossom, two feet in height. 
Its showy blossoms suddenly cover the downs, which they 

illuminate with their brilliant colouring, affording a sight 
never to be forgotten." 

The fact of D. Zalil affording a dye-stuff is one of many 
evidences of our ignorance of the materials used in the 
industrial arts of the East. It is reasonable to suppose 
that the flowers have been an article of commerce for 
ages, and yet I am unable to find any allusion to the 
subject in books devoted to the Economic Botany of India 
or to its manufactures. It is to be hoped that this may 
meet the eye of some intelligent official in the British 
Indian service, who might ascertain to what purpose the 
imported Zalil is put. 

B. Zalil does not accord well with any section of 
Delphinastrum, as these are defined by Boissier. Regel, 
who was consulted as to its affinity, and whose great 
knowledge of Oriental plants is unquestioned, pro- 
nounced it to be possibly D. ochroleucum, a Soongarian 
species, reduced by Boissier (vol. i. p. 89) to a form of the 
polymorphous I), hybridum, which has white, blue, and 
scarlet flowers ; but that species belongs to the division 
with a dilated base of the petiole, with the lower petals 
equalling or exceeding the sepals, and with other discordant 
characters ; yet I know no nearer affinity. 

The specimen figured was raised from seed sent to 
Kew by Dr. Aitchison in September, 1886, and which 
flowered in July of last year. — J. D. II. 

Fig. 1 and 2, Petals ; 3, carpels : — all enlarged. 


I. "Reeve 

Tab. 7050. 
IRIS Barnuile. 
Native of Armenia. 

Nat. Ord. Ibidem. — Tribe Mob^:e;e. 
Genus Ibis, Linn. ; {Benth. et Hooh.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 686.) 

Ibis Barnv.mce ; rhizomate brevi, foliis linearibus complicatis glaucescentibus 
semipedalibus, caule brevi monocephalo, spatbse valvis lanceolatis post anthesin 
herbaceis, perianthii tubo ovario ssquilongo, limbo saturate purpnreo seg- 
mentis exterioribus atro-purpureis obovato-cuneatis reflexis barba diffusa pilis 
luteis purpureo-capitatis prseditis, segmentis interioribus orbiculari-unguiculatis 
erectis conniventibus exterioribus majoribus, antheris filamento longioribus, 
styli ramis latis dorso convexis cristis deltoideis, capsulis ellipsoideo-trigonis, 
serainibus magnis conspicue strophiolatis. 

I. Barnumse, Foster Sf Baker in Gard. Chron. 1888, vol. ii. p. 182. 

During the last ten years our knowledge of Irises hag 
been greatly enlarged, and instead of about a hundred 
species for the whole of the north temperate zone, we 
now know a hundred and forty or a hundred and fifty, 
most of which are in cultivation. A large proportion of 
the new discoveries have been made in different parts of 
Asia. The present plant is a very handsome and distinct 
novelty. It was sent to Professor Foster by Mrs. Barnum, 
of the American Mission at Kharput, from the hills two 
hours distant from Van in Armenia. It has a distinctly 
concentrated beard, as in the common German Irises, and 
the colour of the flower is dark purple, without veins of 
a distinctly different shade; but in other respects, in its 
mode of growth, habit, and leaves, it agrees with the 
section Oncocychis, all the species of which inhabit the 
Oriental region. Our drawing was made from speci- 
mens sent by Professor Foster at the beginning of last 

Desce. Rhizome likethat of an Oncocychis, shortly creeping 
with the new buds soon detaching themselves from the 
old stock. Produced leaves five or six to a tuft, linear, 
complicate, pale glaucous green, strongly ribbed, half a 

Apml 1st, 1889. 

foot long at the flowering time. Stem one to six inches 
long, one-headed, bearing a single reduced leaf. Spathes 
one-flowered; valves lanceolate, t^vo or two and a half 
inches long, herbaceous till after the flower fades. Or«r<i 
cylindrical-trigonous, under an inch long, shortly pedi- 
cellate. Perianth-tube as long as the ovary; limb dark 
purple; outer segments obovate-cuneate, purplish-black, 
about two inches long by an inch broad, reflexing from 
naif-way down, furnished down the claw with a beard of 
yellow hairs tipped with purple ; inner segments orbicular- 
unguiculate, erect, connivent, larger and brighter-coloured 
than the outer. Style-branches above an inch long, very 
convex on the back; crests deltoid. Capsule ellipsoid- 
trigonous. Seeds large, with a conspicuous pale strophiole. 
J. (jr. Bafcer. 

Fig. 1 Front view of anther; 2, back view of anther; 3, top of style-branch, 
with crests -.—all more or less enlarged. 


Tab. 7051. 
CALANDRINIA oppositifolia. 

Native of Oregon and California. 

Nat. Ord. Pobtulace.e. 
Genus Calandbinia, H. B. Sf K. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 158.) 

Calandeinia oppositifolia ; perennis, radice fusiformi carnoso, foliis radicalibus 
confertis oblanceolatis obtusis, caulinis inferioribus oppositis v. suboppositis, 
caulibus scapisve elongatis prostratis longe nudis, apicibus ascendentibns 
paucifloris, floribus amplis longe pedicellatis, bracteis parvis, sepalis orbi- 
cularibus dentatis eglandulosis, petalis 10 lineari-oblongis, stigmatibus 5, 
seminibus estropbiolatis. 

C. oppositifolia, S. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. xx. p. 355; A. Gray I. e. 
vol. xxii. p. 276 (sub C. Cotyledon). 

Of the genus Calandrinia (of which upwards of sixty 
species are known) several have been figured in this work, 
chiefly South American, some of which, as G. grandiflora^ 
Lindl., t. 3369, and G. speciosa, Lindl., t. 3379, are large- 
flowered and very handsome plants. These, however, are 
warm country annuals with five petals, whereas G. oppo- 
sitifolia belongs to a small section of the genus that in- 
habits mountain regions in North America, with perennial 
fleshy roots, and six to ten petals, and differs further in 
having smooth shining seeds. 

G. oppositifolia is a native of the mountains of Oregon 
and ISlorth California, and closely resembles G. Cotyledon, 
another species of those regions, differing chiefly in habit. 
The delicacy of its white blossom is its great recommenda- 
tion to the Horticulturist. The plants here figured were 
raised from seed sent from the Harvard Botanical Gardens, 
which flowered in the Royal Gardens in the summer of last 

Descb. Root fusiform, fleshy, crown throwing out a tuft 
of leaves and prostrate terete fleshy flowering stems, which 
are six to ten inches long, few-flowered, about as thick as 
a crow-quill, greenish-white, and succulent. Leaves two 
to four inches long, the few on the flowering stems opposite 

Apeil 1st, 1889. 

orsubopposite, oblanceolate, obtuse, narrowed into short 
thick petiole, green and glistening above from the cellular 
surface, paler beneath. Flowers three to four on each 
flowering stem, very irregularly placed towards its ascend- 
ing apex, two inches in diameter, pearly-white ; pedicels 
very variable in length, one to three inches. Calyx of 
two rounded sepals, connate to the middle, the free part 
denticulate. Petals ten, linear-oblong or obovate, obtuse, 
somewhat recurved. Stamens not very numerous; fila- 
ments slender, connate in a ring at the base of the corolla ; 
anthers small, linear-oblong. Ovary obovoid ; style short, 
with five stigmatic erect branches. Seeds on a free basilar 
placenta, smooth, estrophiolate. — J. D. E. 

Fig. 1, Calyx with ovary; 2, stamens; 3, dorsal view of an anther; 4, ovary; 
5, young seeds on placenta ; 6, young seed :— all enlarged. 

Tad. 7052. 


Native of Mexico. 

Nat. Ord. Passiflobe.e. — Tribe Passifloee^:. 
Ger>t,s Pasmfloea, Linn. ; {Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. i. p. 810.) 

Passifloba (Granadilla) Hahnii ; glaberrima, ramulis gracillimis, foliispetiolatis 
peltatis late ovatis acutis 2-nerviis utrinque ad apices nervorum minute dentatis 
supra viridibus subtus pallidefusco-purpureis et reticulatim nervosis, marginead 
basin glandulis rubris ornato, stipulis reniformibus denticulatis, floribus axil- 
laribus solitariis pendulis longe gracile pedicellatis, bracteis 2 late ovato- 
cordatis apiculatis, sepalis petalisque subsequilongis ovato-oblongis apicibus 
rotundatis, corona exteriore e filamentis flexuosis apice clavellatis aurantiacis, 
interiore e membrana sulcata margine inflexo, ovario gynophoro brevi sessile. 

P. Hahnii, Masters in Mart. Fl. Bras. Passifl. p. 535 ; in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
vol. xxxvii. p. 628; in Jour*. Eort. Soc. No. iv. p. 144; in Gard. Chron. 
1871, p. 73, and 1878, pt, ii. p. 304, fig. 55; Icon iterat in 1879, pt. ii. 
p. 505, f. 81 ; T. Moore in Florist. Sf Pomolog. 1883, p. 161, t. 597. 

Disemma Hahnii, Fournier in Rev. Sortie. 1869, p. 430, cum Jc. 

A very elegant Passion-flower, of which the exact native 
locality is unknown, though there is no reason to doubt 
the authority of the French Gardens, from which it was 
introduced into England, and which give it the wide 
country of Mexico. It was first described as a species of 
Disemmain 1869 by Fournier, from specimens that flowered 
in the Jardin de Plantes, and of which seeds were sent 
from Mexico by its col]ector, M. Hahn. Disemma, which 
had latterly been regarded as a section of Passifiora, has 
been abolished by Dr. Masters in his exhaustive work on 
the PassifloreoB (Contribution to the Natural History of 
the PassiUoracece, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvii. 598) ; and P. 
Hahnii is there relegated to a section of his sub-genus 
Granadilla, differing from the true Granadillas in the 
folded fringed edges of the membranous corona. 

The specimen figured flowered in the Royal Gardens 
in the summer of last year. 

Desce. A lofty climber, quite glabrous. Branches very 
slender, pendulous, terete. Leaves about three inches 
long by two and a half broad, petioled, peltate, membranous, 

Apbil 1st, 1889. 

broadly ovate, acute, three-nerved, quite entire except a 
minute marginal tooth at the termination of each nerve ; 
base rounded or retuse, with a series of minute marginal 
red glands ; dull green above, beneath dull red-purple and 
reticulately veined, nerves very slender; petiole one to 
one and a half inches, slender, eglandular. Stipules three- 
quarters of an inch to one inch broad, sessile, reniform, 
denticulate, pale purplish and reticulate ; bracts two, 
appressed to the flower, sessile, broadly ovate, apiculate, 
subcordate, half the length of the sepals, pale purplish 
and reticulate. Tendrils axillary, very slender. Flowers 
solitary, axillary, pendulous, long-pedicelled, three inches 
in diameter. Sepals ovate-oblong, tip rounded, concave, 
very pale green, with three green nerves on the back. 
Petalslike the sepals, but whiter. Outer corona of several 
series of orange-yellow flexuous filaments three-quarters 
of an inch long, with clavate tips; inner corona a low 
sulcate crenate intiexed membrane with thickened margins. 
Gynophore short ; ovary subglobose, sessile on a short 
gynophore, and styles green, glabrous. — /. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Vertical section of corona; 2, filaments of corona ; 3, part of the mem- 
brane of the inner corona seen from within : — all enlarged. 


Tab. 7053. 

LICUALA Veitchii. 

Native of Borneo. 

Nat. Ord. Palmes.— Tribe Coryphk e. 
Genus Licuala, Thunh. ; {Benth. ct Hooh.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 928.) 

Licuala Veitchii; foliis amplis breviter petiolatis orbiculari-flabellatis con- 
vexis phcis innumeris leviter arcuatis bete viridibus ima basi rotundata, 
marginibna breviter fissis, segmentia if uncialil)us oblongis obtuse 2- 
ndis, petiolo lamina multoties breviore depresso trigono supra concavo 
subtus carinato, ligula brevissima, marginibus crebre breviter spinosis, 
vagina brevi, spadice gracili elonpato, spathis tubuloaifl viridibus breviter 
fissis, ramulis floriferis distantibus 2-3-pollicaribus laxifloris, floribus 
parvis sessilibus, calycis viridis lobis triangularibus, petalis triangnlari- 
ovatis coriaceis apicibus inflexis, filamentis latis in tubum cylindraceum 
truncatum connatis apicibus liberis subulatis, antberis parvis ovatis, 
ovario turbinate, stylo brevi subulato. 

L. Veitchii, Watson in Gard. Chron. 1886, pt. i. p. 139 (nomen tantum). 

Pritcbardia grandis, Veitch Cat. 1885, p. 54. 

A singularly beautiful Palm, from the close and regular 
folds of its large almost orbicular bright green convex 
leaves, which having short petioles form a compact crown 
on the top of the caudex. It was, according to Mr. "Watson 
(1. c), introduced by Messrs. Veitch, who distributed it 
under the impression that it was a species of Pri.tchardia. 
According to a note accompanying a dried leaf from 
Messrs. Veitch (sent to Kew, 1883), and preserved in the 
Herbarium of Kew, it is a native of Sarawak in Borneo, 
whence it was introduced by Mr. Curtis, then collecting 
for Messrs. Veitch, and now superintendent of the Bo- 
tanical Garden in Penang. 

The plant here figured was presented to the Koyal 
Gardens by Messrs. Veitch in 1885, and flowered in De- 
cember, 1887. Being probably far from fully developed, 
the dimensions of the caudex, leaf, and petiole will pro- 
bably exceed in a fully grown plant those given in the 
following description. 

Descr. Stem in the Kew specimen (about seven years 
old) very short. Leaves nearly two feet in diameter, 

May 1st, 1889. 

suborbicular but somewhat cuneate in the lower third, 
rounded at the insertion of the petiole, convex, bright 
green and glossy, regularly plicate in slightly curved lines, 
with about thirty acute folds on each side of the mesial 
line, and with as many oblong obtusely bifid free tips one- 
half to two-thirds of an inch long extending along the 
upper two-thirds of the leaf ; petiole flattened, six to ten 
inches long and half an inch broad, concave above, obtusely 
trigonous beneath, sides armed with short stout curved 
prickles; ligule very short, broadly triangular; sheath 
short, not fibrous. Spadix fourteen inches long, slender, 
terete, green, bearing six or eight rather distant flowering 
branches, three to four inches long ; basal spathe short ; 
sheaths below the flowering branches two to three inches 
long, tubular, hardly swollen, coriaceous, green with short 
bifid scarious mouths. Flowers rather distant upon the 
branches of the spadix, about one-third of an inch long, 
sessile on the green terete rachis. Calyx cupular, three- 
lobed ; tube green, lobes brown. Petals twice as long as 
the calyx, coriaceous, triangular-ovate, with inflexed tips. 
Stamens six, filaments very broad below and connate m a 
truncate tube, tips free, very short and slender ; anthers 
ovoid. Ovary turbinate, top broadly truncate ; style subu- 
late, short, erect ; stigma simple. — J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Flower; 2, the same with the calyx lobes and petals removed; 
3 and 4, anthers and free portion of filaments ; 5, vertical section of flower, 
showing insertion of petals, staminal tube, and the ovary : — all enlarged. 



L Reeve &C° London. 

Yxntcnt Brooks Day&Scm, Imp. 

Tab. 7054. 

SMIL AX oekata. 

(S. officinalis, Hanbury § Fliickiger.) 
Native of Mexico. 

Nat. Ord. Liliace^:. — Tribe SmilacejE. 
Genua Smilax, Linn. ; (Benth. et KooTc.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 763.) 

Smilax (Eusmilax) ornata ; frutex robustus, alte scandens, multicaulis, gla- 
berrimus, sparsim aculeatus, ramis ramulisque acute tetragonis, aculeis 
rectis v. recurvis, foliis amplis 6-10 poll, longis breviuscule petiolatis 
ovato-oblongis acumiuatis 5-7-nerviis basi profunde et ssepe insequaliter 
(junioribus leviter) cordatis, petiolo et interdum costa subtns pauci- 
aculeato, vagina angusta bicirrhosa, umbellis in paniculas breves laxas dis- 
positis, floribus viridibus longiuscule pedicellatis, perianthii foliolis re- 
curvis obtusis, exterioribus ovato-oblongis, interioribus angustioribus 
lineari-oblongis, staminibus 6, filanientis dorso gibbosis antheras obtuse 
apiculatas subaequantibus. 

S. ornata? Lemaire III. Sortie, vol. xii. t. 439; A. DC. Monogr. Smilac. p. 211. 

S. macrophylla, var. maculata, h\o r t Verschaffelt. {vat: variegata, Sort. 

S. officinalis, Hanb. 8f FlucJc . Pharmacogr. Ed. 2, p. 704 (in note) ; Bentley fy 
Trimen Med. Plant, vol. iv. t. 289 (non Kanth in liumb. § Bonpl. Nov. 
Gen. fy 8p. vol. i. p. 271 . 

It is with regret that I have to introduce the subject of 
the present plate as having been by the distinguished 
authors of the " Pharmacographia " incorrectly referred to 
the Smilax officinalis of Kunth ; that is, to the plant which 
is believed to produce one of the Sarsaparillas of com- 
merce. That it was regarded as identical by such com- 
petent authorities as Hanbury and Fliickiger, and following 
them, by Bentley and Trimen, is not to be wondered at 
when the chaotic state of our knowledge of the Sarsaparilla- 
producing plants is considered ; for of these not one is even 
approximately known to botanists. It may be well, there- 
fore, before going further, to state briefly what is known 
of this subject, as given in detail by Hanbury and Fliickiger 
in their " Pharmacologia," and by Bentley and Trimen in 
" Medicinal Plants." 

Humboldt was the first to obtain specimens of a 
genuine Sarsaparilla-yielding Smilax (which were, how- 

June 1st, 1889. A 

ever, without flower or fruit). They were collected in 
1805 at the village of Bajorque, on the Magdalena 
River, New Grenada, in about Lat. 70° N., and were 
described by Kunth as Smilax officinalis. The illustrious 
traveller says of it, that the root was at that time exported 
from Mom pax and Cartagena to Jamaica and Cadiz. Tn 
1853 the late botanical collector De Warzewicz visited 
Bajorque (or rather its site, for the village had been 
washed away), and sent leaves and roots of Humboldt's 
plant to Mr. Hanbury, with the information that it was 
no longer collected for exportation. Of these specimens 
Mr. Hanbury says that the root agrees with that of the 
Jamaica Sarsaparilla * of commerce. In 1853, and pre- 
viously in 1851, the same collector had sent roots, stem, 
leaves, and fruit of a Smilax called Sarza pallida, or Sarson, 
from the Cordillera of Cheriqui in Costa Rica, which Mr. 
Hanbury found to agree, in so far as comparison was 
possible, with the Bajorque plant, and the root to be 
undistinguishable from the "Jamaica Sarsaparilla" of the 
shops. In 1869 Mr. White, of Medillin, in New Grenada, 
sent to one of the authors of the Pharmacographia leaves 
and roots of a Sarsaparilla collected at Patia, which appa- 
rently belonged to the same species. More recently Mr. 
Hanbury obtained from the Government Gardens of Cas- 
tleton, in Jamaica, specimens, without flower or fruit, of 
the plant cultivated there, with a view to medicinal use, 
and of which he says that the leaves and square stem 
exactly agree with the Bajorque plant, but that the root is 
far more amylaceous than the so-called " Jamaica Sarsa- 
parilla " of commerce. Lastly, a plant was received at 
Kew from Mr. B. S. Williams, of Holloway, with the, 
garden name of Smilax rnaerophylla variegata, which Mr. 
Hanbury, judging from the stem and leaf, believed to be 
the S. officinalis of Humboldt. He mentions it as such in 
the first edition of the Pharmacographia, in a note to p. 643 
(Ed. 2, p. 707), where he says that the root agrees in appear- 
ance and structure with " Jamaica Sarsaparilla." This is 
the plant figured as 8. officinalis by Bentley and Trimeo 
from Kew specimens, and which, having now flowered for 

' * It must be borne in mind that the term "Jamaica Sarsaparilla " does not 
imply that the drug so called comes from Jamaica, where no officinal Sarna- 
parilla is indigenous, and where its cultivation is limited, and of comparatively 
modern date. 

the first time in Europe, is here figured in the Botanical 
Magazine. Lastly, there are at Kew five living plants of 
-the "real Sarsaparilla of Caraccas," sent in 1879 by 
Dr. Ernst of that city, which, however, have never 

Of all the plants here alluded to the flowers of one alone 
are known, and these are the males only of Mr. Williams' 
8. macrophylla ($. officinalis of Hanfcmry). It is therefore 
impossible to say positively whether more than two species 
are alluded to, and as a last resource, resort must be had 
to stem and leaves alone. For this purpose I have collected 
all the materials available to me, which consist of (1) 
Mr. Hanbury's collections, kindly lent for the purpose by 
the Pharmaceutical Society through Mr. Holmes ; (2) 
tracings of Humboldt's specimens of Kunth's 8. officinalis, 
which are preserved in the Herbarium of the Jardin de 
Plantes, Paris, made for me by favour of M. Bureau, and 
there is a similar tracing made by Mr. Hanbury in his col- 
lection ; (3) a tracing of Bonpland's specimens, gathered 
at the same time and in the same spot as his companion's 
(Humboldt's) ; (4) a leaf of Warzewicz's plant from 
Cherrqui; (5) the two species (Williams' and Ernst's) 
cultivated at Kew. Commencing with the tracings of 
Humboldt's specimens, these represent a terete branch, a 
leaf exactly corresponding with that of Mr. Williams' 
plant, but along with them is represented a detached 
elliptic-lanceolate leaf, acute at the base, whilst the tracing 
of Bonpland's specimens represents only two slender 
branches with all the leaves elliptic-lanceolate and acute at 
the base. From this it would appear that Kunth's 
8. officinalis bears leaves of both forms. Unfortunately 
for the identification of Mr. Williams' plant with Kunth's, 
the latter has 4 angled branches and bears no elliptic 
leaves, either on young plants growing in the Economic 
House, or in specimens 40 ft. high growing in the Palm 
House ; and this precludes my identifying it with Kunth's 
8. officinalis. On the other hand, Dr. Ernst's Caraccas 
plant has the upper leaves of the branches like those of the 
tracings of officinalis-, whilst the lower leaves would appear 
to be less broad and less deeply cordate. In the latter 
respect the leaf of Ernst's plant best accords with War- 
zewicz's Cheriqui Sarsaparilla ; and a leaf of Warzewicz's 

a 2 

iii the Kew Herbarium, after being carefully compared 
with the specimens of 8. officinalis in the Jardin des Plantes 
by A. de Candolle andBentham, has recorded on an accom- 
panying ticket, " Echantillon precieuse que nous avons 
compare, M. Bentham et moi, avec le type de Humboldt 
et Bonpland dans l'herbier de Paris. II est semblable, 
sauf la tige plus anguleux que les rameaux." The latter is 
perhaps not a very strong character, but such as it is, it is 
not shared by Williams' plant, of which the branches are 
as angular as the stem ; whilst in Ernst's plant the stems 
are nearly terete throughout. 

It remains to notice the Sarsaparilla cultivated in 
Jamaica. It is referred to in the annual Reports of the 
Director (Mr. Morris) of Public Gardens of the Island for 
1883 and 1884 as being cultivated in a small district of the 
parish of St. Elizabeth, and having produced female flowers 
only. It is there grown like the yam, is increased by off- 
shoots, and the root is collected two and a half years after 
planting. The yield was then valued at about 50/. per 
acre. According to the Pharmacographia, 1747 lbs. 
were imported into England from Jamaica in 1870, and 
1290 lbs. in 1871 ; but its colour was so pale, and sub- 
stance so amylaceous, that it found little favour. Mr. 
Morris (now Assistant-Director of Kew) informs me that 
there is still a considerable export of the roots, and that 
the cultivation is very profitable. In Mr. Hanbury's 
specimens the stem is strongly quadrangular, the leaves 
like those of the Caraccas and Cheriqui plant (narrower 
and less cordate than the 8. ornata). 

It is a singular fact that, though the importation of Sar- 
saparilla into Europe dates from before the middle of 
the sixteenth century, and that now no fewer than eight 
kinds, from as many parts of tropical America, are brought 
to European markets, not one should be even approxi- 
mately botanically known. It may therefore serve some 
purpose that I should indicate the principal parts of the 
American continent from which the drug is, or was till 
lately, exported, for attention may thereby be drawn by 
residents to the importance of sending living plants and 
good dried specimens in male and female flower and fruit, 
if possible, of all to Kew, for growth and determination. 
They are, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, New 

Grenada (both from the Magdalena River and Guayaquil), 
Venezuela, and the Amazons Kiver. To these must be 
added, as Mr. Holmes informs me, Lima (in Peru). 

8. ornata was, as above stated, sent by Messrs. Williams, 
under the name of 8. macrophylla variegata, to Kew, 
where the original plant has attained the height of 40 ft. 
The leaves of young plants, and of. these alone, are 
mottled with white, whence the varietal name. It was no 
doubt procured from Belgium, for it is 8. macrophylla 
maculata of VerschafTelt's establishment. It was pub- 
lished as 8. ornata ? by Lemaire in the Illustration Hor- 
ticole, who says of it, the plant was sent from Mexico to 
M. Verschaffelt by Ghiesbrecht, the celebrated botanical 
traveller. The note of interrogation after the name was 
intended to denote that it may not have been a new species, 
though unidentifiable. Though the species here figured is 
unquestionably the above 8. ornata, there are two cha- 
racters attributed to it which I fail to find in the Kew 
plant, namely, large deltoid amplexicaul stipules, and the 
leaf base rarely, in a young state, cuneate. 

To conclude, I am disposed to think that 8. officinalis, 
the cultivated Jamaica Sarsaparilla, Ernst's true Sarsa- 
parilla of Caraccas, and 8. ornata will prove to be as many 
different species ; but that without male, and probably 
also female flowers of each, it is impossible to say more on 
this head. 

8. ornata flowered in the Palm House at Kew for the 
first time in June of last year, after having been grow- 
ing vigorously for about twenty years. — J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Male flower ; 2 and 3, stamens : — all enlarged. 


M.S.ael,E Bates ith. 


L.Reeve & C? London, 

Tab. 7055. 
PENTSTEMON rotundifolius. 

Native of North Mexico. 

Nat. Ord. Scrophtjlarine^. — Tribe ChelonEjE. 
Genus Pentstemon, Mitchell; (Benth. ct HooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 940.) 

Pentstemon (Genuini) rotundifolius ; glaucus, caule gracili elongato foliisque 
glaberrimis/foliis inferioribus petiolatis ovato-rotundatis obtusis supe- 
rioribus sessifibus late ovato-cordatis, floribus pendulis longe gracile pedi- 
cellatis in paniculas amplas laxifloras dispositis, sepalis late ovatis obtnsis, 
corolla tubuloso-infundibulari 1\ poll, longa pilosa _ aurantiaco-rubra, 
lobis ovato-rotundatis apiculatis, filamentis glaberrimis, staminodio fili- 
formi clavellato glaberrimo. 

P.' rotundifolius, A- Gray in Proo. Amer. Acad. vol. xrii. p. 307 ; Deicar in 
Gard. Citron. 1888, vol. ii. p. 264, fig. 31 ; S. Watson in Garden and Forest, 
vol. i. p. 472, f. 73. 

P. rotundifolius is stated by its founder, A. Gray, but 
doubtingly, to be a member of the group of the genus 
which contains P. centranthifolius, Benth., of California, 
figured in this work at Tab. 5142; but from which it 
differs notably in habit, in the sparingly leafy stem, and 
above all in the inflorescence, which in P. centranthifolius 
forms a long narrow bracteate thyrsus. They agree 
closely, however, in floral characters, in the naked stamens, 
the coriaceous foliage, slender staminode, and in the de- 
hiscence of the anthers, the cells of which are confluent at 
the apex. P. rotundifolius is a native of the Chihahua 
province of Northern Mexico, a wild inhospitable country, 
infested bv hostile Indians, traversed by a branch of the 
Rocky Mountains, and only lately explored, botanically and 
geographically. This country has yielded a rich harvest of 
fine plants, including a peculiar species of Pine (P. chiha- 
huana, Engelm.), and large collections have been formed 
there by C. G. Pringle, which engaged the attention of 
Dr. Gray during the later years of his laborious life, and 
are described in his Sertum Chihahuense,' published in the 
Proceedings of the American Academy of Sciences (yols.xxi. 
and xxii.). Amongst these is the subject of this plate, 

May 1st, 1889. 

discovered in 1886 by Pringle, growing pendent from the 
seams of dry rocks, on the Mapula Mountains, chiefly on 
faces not exposed to the sun. 

The specimen here figured was received from Mr. 
Thompson of Ipswich, the introducer of so many rare and 
interesting Californian plants, including the Pentstemon 
centranthifolws and various congeners. It flowered m the 
herbaceous ground of the Eoyal Gardens in June, 1888, and 
continued in flower throughout the summer and autumn. 

Descr. A hardy glaucous perennial, two feet high. 
Stem branched from the base; branches decumbent or 
pendulous, smooth, terete, glabrous, sparingly leafy. 
Leaves, lower petioled, one and a half to two inches long, 
orbicular-ovate, obtuse/ very thick and leathery, base 
rounded; petiole stout, longer than the blade; upper 
leaves smaller, sessile, nearly orbicular and deeply cordate. 
Inflorescence a very lax long-branched panicle with drooping 
long-pedicelled flowers; pedicels one to one and a half 
inches long, glabrous. Flowers as long as the pedicels. 
Sepals ovate, acute, glabrous. Corolla tubular, gradually 
dilated upwards, and slightly swollen above the middle, 
ochreous red, laxly pubescent ; lobes short, orbicular- ovate, 
or very broadly obovate, apiculate, yellow within and 
bordered with red. Filaments slender, quite glabrous; 
anther cells shortly oblong, divaricated, confluent at the top, 
forming a hippocrepiform continuous suture; staminode 
filiform, rather shorter than the stamen, tip clavellate. 
Ovary quite glabrous. — /. I). H. 

Tig. 1, Calyx and style ; 2, corolla laid open; 3 and panthers; 5, ovary 
and disk : — all enlarged. 


M.S. dei,E Bates, liUi 

L Heeve &.C9. Lcmdoiv 

"Vincent BrooVDay & Sonjmp. 

Tab. 7056. 

SAXIFRAG-A latepetiolata. 
Native of Spain. 

Nat. Ord. Saxifragaceje. — Tribe Saxifbage.e. 
Genus Saxifraga, Linn.; (JBenth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PL vol. i. p. 635.) 

Saxifbaga (Nephrophyllum) latepetiolata; erecta, robusta, ebulbifera, tota 
cinereo-viridis et glandnloso-villosa, caiile robuato subsucculento folioso, 
foliis infimis rosulatis longe et late petiolatis, petiolo e basi ad apicem 
sensim dilatato superne concavo, lamina profnnde 3-loba, lobis cuneatis 
grosse crenatis y. lobulatis, supremis brevius petiolatis flabelliformibus, 
floralibus sessilibus_ oblongis, floribus ad apices ramorum congestis albis 
erectis breviter pedicellatis, calycis lobis oblongis obtusis, petalis sepalis 
yix duplo longioribus cuneato-obovatis S-nerviis, staminibus inclusis, ovario 
infero, stylis erectis, stigmatibiis capitatis. 

S. latepetiolata, Wilkomm 8f Lange, Prodr. Flor. Hisf. vol. iii. p. 120 ; 
Wilkomm 111. PI. Risp. vol. i. p. 7, t. 6. 

S. geranioides, var. /3. irrigua, WUk. in Bot. Zeit. 1847, p. 431. 

A remarkable species, owing to the great breadth of the 
petioles ; and according to its author an extremely rare 
plant, having hitherto been found only on one mountain 
in Spain, the Sierra Sta. Maria, one of the Cerro de Chiva 
range in Valentia, at an elevation of about 5000 feet above 
the sea. There it is very rare, growing with a closely 
allied species, 8. Cossoniana, Wilk., from which it differs 
in the shortly pedicelled flowers, small petals, and the 
absence of bulbs in the basal leaf sheaths. The Kew and 
native specimens are of an ashy-grey colour, but Wilkomm, 
describing the native specimens, says that the stem and 
leaves beneath are reddish. Its affinity is with the Pyrenean 
8. geranioides, to which species it was originally referred 
by its author. 

The Royal Grardens are indebted to M. Barbey of 
Valleyres, Canton Vaud, who obligingly sent seeds in 1887, 
which produced plants that flowered in the open ground 
in April, 1888, and continued flowering till September. 

Descr. A hardy biennial, of a grey-green colour, clothed 

Mat 1st, 1889. 

with long soft gland-tipped hairs, very viscid. Stem eight 
to twelve inches high, terete, very robust, but rather 
succulent. Leaves ; lower densely rosulate, upper attenuate, 
and all very broadly petioled ; petiole two inches long, 
gradually dilated from the base to the insertion of the 
blade, where it is one-third of an inch broad ; upper surface 
concave, margins raised ; blade reniform, deeply three- 
lobed, or with the lateral lobes bifid and then five-lobed ; 
lobes cuneately flabelliform, coarsely crenate or lobulate ; 
upper leaves shortly petioled, simply flabelliform, or cunei- 
form ; uppermost or floral sessile, narrow, entire. Flowers 
rather crowded at the ends of the branches, shortly pedi- 
celled, about half an inch in diameter. Calyx-lobes linear- 
oblong, obtuse, tips spreading or recurved. Petals hardly 
twice as long as the sepals, cuneate-obovate, white. Sta- 
mens included ; ovary sunk in the calyx-tube ; styles two, 
erect, elongate, subulate ; stigmas capitellate. — /. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Flower; 2, anther; 3, ovary and styles : — all enlarged. 



\i v=CT i,Brooks r Day&' 

L3lee\B & 09 London 

Tab. 7057. 
LAPORTEA moboidis. 

Native of Queensland. 

.Nat. Ord. Urticaceje. — Tribe Ubticm. 
Genua Laportka. Gaud.; (Benth. of NooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. Hi. p. 383. 

Laportea (Sarcopus) tnoroides ; frutex setulis acerrime urentibus pilosa, 
ramis crassis, foliis late ovato-cordatis subpeltatis acuminatis dentato- 
serratis pubescentibus villosisve, paniculis axillaribus binis foliis spb- 
aequilongis, floribus monoicis masculis minutis fasciculatis breviter 
pedicellatis 2-bracteolatis, perianthio 4-fido, femineis in capitula globosa 
congestis, perianthii sepalis extimis minimis, intimis multo majoribus 
cucullatis demum carnoso-incrassatis et purpureas stigmate longiusculo, 
acbenio compresso oblique ovoideo, endocarpio leviter tuberculato. 

L. moroides, Wedd. Monogr. Urtic. p. 142; and in DC. Prodr. vol. vii. pt. i. 
p. 88; Benth. FI. Austral, vol. vi. p. 192. 

Urtica moroides. Jferh. A. Cunningham. 

This is one of two or more virulently stinging nettles 
that infest the humid forests of Eastern tropical and sub- 
tropical Australia, and of which equally virulent species 
inhabit tropical Asia. It was discovered in Queensland 
by A. Cunningham, and has been since found by various 
collectors between Lat. 18° and 20° N. It is remarkable 
for the fine vinous colour of the fruiting female perianth, 
the two inner sepals of which gradually becoming fleshy 
form when ripe a globose appendage to the achene, like 
that of the mulberry, which they further resemble by 
being collected into heads. Bailey and Gordou figure 
this plant in their interesting little work, " Plants re- 
puted injurious to Stock" (Brisbane, 1887), give a rude 
figure of it, and say that its native name is Gyrupia, 
and that the virulent effects of its stinging hairs have 
in North Queensland frequently caused the death of 
horses. The plant is described as a shrub or small tree in 
its native country, but the Kew plant formed a simple 
erect stout stem two feet high, with a short crown of leaves 
at the top, and numerous panicles of flowers from the axils 

May 1st. 1889. 

of the fallen leaves. The upper pairs of panicles were all 
female, the lower pairs were male. 

This interesting plant, which is called the Poison-tree in 
Queensland, was received from Dr. de Regel, of the 
Botanical Gardens of St. Petersburg, in March, 1887 ; it 
flowered in a stove soon after, and the drawing of the 
fruit was made in April, 1888. In July of the same year 
it flowered again, bearing both male and female flowers. 
The fruit remains on the plant in a plump condition for 
nearly a year. 

Descr, A large shrub or small tree, clothed with 
very fine virulently stinging hairs. Leaves six to eight 
inches long, broadly ovate-cordate with an acute sinus 
often peltately attached to the petiole, acuminate, coarsely 
serrate, pubescent or villous especially beneath, bright 
green above with purplish depressed nerves, paler and 
3'ellowish beneath with prominent nerves ; petiole shorter 
than the blade. Panicles of flowers in pairs from the 
axils of the lowest leaves or scars of fallen leaves, pe- 
duncled, about as long as the leaves, drooping, pendulous 
in fruit ; male panicles few and below the females. Male 
flowers minute, shortly pedicelled, pedicel bibracteolate ; 
perianth four-cleft, four-audrous, lobes obtuse; stylode 
minute; anthers exserted. Female flowers very minute, in 
minute globose heads on zigzag branchlets of the panicle; 
very shortly pedicelled; two outer sepals most minute, 
two upper hooded, enlarging in fruit, becoming fleshy, purple, 
shiny, and almost concealing the small achene. ' Achenes 
green, flattened, obliquely ovoid, rather beaked ; endocarp 
covered with low tubercles. — J. f). If. 

Fig. 1, Male flowers and bracteoles ; 2, male fl. expanded ; 3, female flowers ; 
4 and 5, fruits ; 6, inner sepal ; 7 and 8, immature and mature achenes: — all 


Vincent Brooks Day & Sanjxqp 

Tab. 7058. 
sobralia leucoxantha. 

Native of Costa Rica. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^;. — Tribe Neottie/E. 
Genus Sobkalia, Ruiz. 8f Pav.; (Bentk. et HooTc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 390. 

Sobealia leucoxantha ; caule 2-3-pedali, foliis 6-pollicaribus lanceolatis v. 
ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, vaginis verruculosis, floribus maximis, brac- 
teis lanceolatis asperis, sepalis 3-pollicaribus lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis 
lateralibus falcato-decurvis albis, petalis brevioribus et latioribus elliptico- 
oblongis obtusis albis marginibus undnlatis, labelli tubo ventrieoso, lamina 
orbiculari alba fauce aurea marginibus crenato-undulatis apice 2-loba, 
basi intus aurantiaco-striolata, columna tubo labelli involuta apice 3- 

S. leneoxantba, Beichb. f. Beitr. Orchid. Centr. Amer. p. 68. Warner Sf 
Williams Orchid Alb. t. 271. 

Of the many species of this fine genus (upwards of 
fifty are known), this is one of the largest flowered; its 
rivals being S. macrantha (Tab. 4446), S. Fenzliana, 
Reiclib. f. in Bot. Zeit. 1852, p. 714, and 8. xantholeuca, 
Hort. It is very closely allied to the first of these, and 
differs chiefly in the very much smaller limb of the lip, 
and in the pure white colour of all parts of the flower 
except the disk of the lip. Minor differences are the nar- 
rower leaves of 8. leucoxantha, and the rough or minutely 
warted leaf-sheaths and bracts. Both are natives of the 
Central American States, 8. macrantha of Guatemala, and 
8. leucoxantha of Costa Rica, near Porto Blanco, whence 
it was imported by Messrs. Sanders of St. Albans, to 
whom we also owe the Angrcecum Germinyanum figured 
in this number. It has flowered in the tropical Orchid 

Desce. Stems tufted, reed-like, leafy, about 3 feet high, 
clothed with appressed rough leaf-sheaths. Leaves four to 
six inches long by one and a quarter to one and a half 
inches broad, sessile on the sheath, lanceolate, finely 
acuminate, closely plaited. Floral bracts lanceolate, one 

June 1st, 1889. 

to two inches long, rough. Flowers six to seven inches 
in diameter. Sepals linear-lanceolate, spreading and re- 
curved, nearly one inch broad in the broadest part, pure 
white. Petals shorter, broader and more oblong than the 
sepals, obtuse, margins undulate from beyond the middle 
to the tip, pure white. Lip with the ventricose tube two 
inches long, embracing the column ; limb two and a half 
inches in diameter, spreading and recurved, nearly circular 
in outline with a deep notch in front, margin deeply irre- 
gularly notched and waved, white, with the disk and interior 
of the tube suffused with golden yellow and a few brownish 
stripes. Column an inch long, deeply three-toothed at the 
tip.— J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Front, and 2, lack view of column ; 3 and 4, pollinia: — all enlarged. 


Tab. 7059. 
ENKIANTHUS campanulatus. 

Native of Japan. 

Nat. Ord. Erice^:. — Tribe Andromedejs. 
Genus Enkianthus, Lour. ; (Bentk. et BZoolc.f. Gen. PL vol. ii. p. 588.) 

Enkianthus campanulatus; arboreus, ramis verticillatis, foliis petiolatis 
ellipticis utrinque acutis argute serrulatis apice callosis, racemis sub- 
corymbiformibus nutantibus, pedicellis pubescentibus pedunculum supe- 
rantibus,sepalis lanceolatis, corolla? cylindraceo-campanulatae lobisbrevibus 
rotundatis, genitalibus inclusis, filamentis villosulis, antheris glabris apice 
reflexo-bisetosis, ovario glabro, eapsulis e pednnculo deflexo erectis, breviter 
cylindraceis, seminibus scobiformibus triquetris lamellato-cristatis. 

Andromeda campanulata, Miquel in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. vol. i. p. 31 ; 
Prolus. Fl. Jap. p. 94. 3£aximovicz in Mel. Biol. vol. viii. p. 618 ; in Hegel 
Gartenfl. vol. xxii. (1873), p. 3, t. 747. Franch.fy Sav. Enum. Plant. Jap. 
vol. i. p. 284. 

The genus Enkianthus, of which six or seven species 
are known, is peculiar to the warm temperate and sub- 
tropical regions of Eastern Asia, extending in the extreme 
east from North Japan to South China, whilst to the west 
it is confined to the Eastern Himalaya. No doubt our 
ignorance botanically of "Western China accounts for its 
non-appearance hitherto between such widely remote 
longitudes as the Eastern Himalaya (Long. 90 E.), where 
E. himalaicus (Tab. 6460) was discovered, and E. quin- 
queflorus (Tab. 1649), which is a native of South China 
(in Long. 115 E.). 

As a genus Enkianthus differs from Andromeda techni- 
cally only in the seeds, which are large with a lamellate 
winged testa, whilst in the latter genus they are small 
with an appressed smooth testa. On the other hand, in 
habit these genera widely differ, Enkianthus being really 
much more closely allied to Pieris, in which the spurs of 
the anthers are inserted at the back of the anther close 
to the insertion of the fiJament. Of Enkianthus itself there 
are two principal groups ; one, of which E. japonicus (Tab. 
5822) and E. quinquefiorus (Tab. 1649) are the representa- 
Jmn 1st, 1889. 

tives, has the corolla with five basal gibbosities and the 
fruiting pedicels erect ; the other, which includes the genus 
Meisteria, Sieb. and Zncc. (founded on the serrate lobes 
of the corolla), and which includes also E. himalaicus (Tab. 
6460) and E. camp&nulatus, has the corolla equal at the 
base, and deilexed fruiting pedicels. 

Enkianthus campanulatus is a native of Northern Japan, 
and has been found in the vicinity of Hakodadi by various 
collectors. In the more southern provinces of the kingdom 
it seems to be known only in cultivation. As a species it 
is hardly distinguishable from E. himalaicus, which has 
ferruginous hairs on the leaves beneath when young, 
longer filaments, pubescent anthers, ovary and style, and 
rather shorter broader capsules. The flowers of E. hima- 
laicus are of a more ochreous-red. The specimen here 
represented was communicated in May of last year by 
Messrs. Veitch, who procured the plant from Japan, 
through their collector, Mr. Maries ; it flowered in the 
Coombe Wood Nursery, and is perfectly hardy. 

Descr. A small deciduous leaved tree ; branches slender ; 
bark light brown. Leaves fascicled at the tips of the 
branches, one and a half to two inches long, shortly 
petioled, elliptic-ovate, subacute, finely serrulate, narrowed 
into a short glabrous or slightly hairy petiole, base acute, 
tip glandular. Flowers in axillary pendulous sessile ab- 
breviated puberulous or glabrous racemes ; pedicels one- 
half to three-quarters of an inch. Sepals lanceolate, half 
the length of the corolla, pubescent. Corolla a third of 
an inch in diameter, shortly campanulate, shortly five- 
lobed, dark red, with three darker nerves on the tube 
answering to each lobe, base rounded; lobes rounded, 
spreading. Stamens very short, filaments subulate from 
a large dilated base, villous ; anthers glabrous, awns as 
long as the cells. Ovary glabrous ; style included. Cap- 
sule one-third of an inch long. 

Fig. 1, Leaf, of the natural size ; 2, flower; ii and 4, stamens ; 5, pistil : — 
all enlarged. 


d, J NBt 

Vmoant - 

Tab. 7060. 


Native of the Eastern Himalaya. 

Xat. Ord. Orchide^e.— Tribe Epidendre^e. 
Genus Spathoglottis, JBlume; {Bentk. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 511. 

Spathoglottis ixioides, pseudobulbis parvis depresso-conicis fere nudis, folio 
solitario gramineo tenuissimo basi vaginisque tubulosis puberulis, scapo 
gracili 1-2-flore bractea vaginante appressa puberula, floribus aureis, 
sepalis petalisque subaequalibus elliptico-ovatis obtusis puberulis, labello 
inter lobos laterales obtusos saccato, lobo medio obcordato basi utrinque 
appendiculato v. auriculato, disco 2-calloso puberulo. 

S. ixioides, Lindl. in Wall. Cat. No. 3745 ; Gen. § Sp. Orchid, p. 120 ; in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. iii. p. 22. 

Pachystoma Josephi, Reichb. fil. in Walp. Rep. vol. vi. p. 464. 

Cymbidium ixioides, Don Prodr. Fl. Nep. p. 36. 

A very graceful terrestrial Orchid, discovered by Dr. 
Wallich in Nepal in 1821. It is not uncommon in the 
adjacent province of Sikkim, where it grows on mossy or 
grassy banks at an elevation of 6000 to 10,000 feet above 
the sea. Being gregarious in habit, it is a great ornament. 
Though in so far as at present known, it is confined to the 
Himalaya, it may prove to be a variety of the Khasian 
8. pubescens, Lindl., which extends eastwards into China 
(S. Fortunei, Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 1845, t. 19), and south- 
wards to Burma. It differs in the more numerous flowers, 
more pubescent sepals and saccate midlobe of the lip. 

Besides 8. ixioides, there are seven Indian species of this 
genus, all well worthy of cultivation ; one indeed, A. Wrayi 
(nob. in Fl. Brit. Ind. ined.), a native of Perak in the 
Malayan Peninsula, is a magnificent plant, with a flowering 
stem a foot and a half high, and flower two and a half 
inches across, of a bright golden colour. It is found at 
elevations of 4000 to 5000 feet. 

The plants of S. ixioides figured were received from 
Mr. Gammie of Darjeeling in 1881, through Mr. Elwes, 
to both of which gentlemen Botany and Horticulture are 

June 1st, 1889. 

deeply indebted for the introduction of Eastern Hima- 
layan plants. They flower annually about midsummer, and 
are grown in a pan of Sphagnum and peat, treated with 
abundance of water in the warmer months and with 
drought in winter. 

Dkscr. Pseudobidbs the size of a small hazel-nut, ovoid, 
coated with fibrous remains of sheaths. Leaves two to 
three from each pseudobulb, eight to eighteen inches long, 
enclosed at the base in a tubular pubescent purplish 
sheath about an inch long, very narrow and grass- 
like, plaited. Scapes from separate pseudobulbs, as long 
as the leaves or shorter, very slender, erect, naked, one- to 
two-flowered ; bracts appressed, ovate-lanceolate, sheathing 
the base of the pedicel. Flowers nodding, three-quarters 
to one and a quarter inch in diameter, bright golden yellow, 
with reddish specks on the disk of the lip. Sepals and 
petals subequal, ovate-oblong, subacute. Lip as long as 
the sepals ; hypochile saccate, with the large obtuse side- 
lobes erect, incurved, striated with red within ; epichile 
obcordate, with a tooth-like process or appendage or a 
rounded auricle at each side of the base ; disk of lip with 
two short raised smooth ridges at the base of the epichile, 
and a line of hairs on each side between the side-lobes. 
Column narrowly winged above. — /. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Side view, and 2, front view of lip; 3, column; 4, anther; 5, pol- 
hma : — all enlarged. 


Vincent Broolrs fia 

I ondon 

Tab. 7061. 
ANG-RjECUM Germinyanum. 

Native of Madagascar. 

Nat. Ord. OrchidEjE.— Tribe Vande^e. 
Genus Angr;ectjm, Thouars ; (Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 583.) 

Angr^cum (Macronra) Germinyanum; caule robusto elongaio scandente 
folioso. foliis disticbis oblongis apice 2-lobis basi cordato-semiamplexi- 
caulibns, floribus amplis axillaribus solitariis, psdunculo gracili folio 
multo breviore, sepalis 2-pollicaribus filiformibus decurvis,petalis consimi- 
libus sed brevioribus et angustioribu^, labello quadrato angulis obtusis 
apice in caudam filiformem repente angustato, columna brevissima. 

A. Germinyanum, Hort. Sanders. 

Mr. Sanders of St. Albans, the introducer of this beautiful 
Orchid, has been so good as to send me the following 
information regarding it. Angrcecum Germinyanum was 
named after Count Adrien de Germiny, G-onville, France, 
an ardent lover of Orchids. It was discovered in 1886 in 
the interior of Madagascar, in the same forests with 
Phajus tuberculosus and Humbloti, by Messrs. Sanders' 
collector, Leon Humblot. The fact of its coming from a 
hitherto unexplored part of Madagascar abounding in 
novelties, together with Mr. Hirmblot's assurance that 
it was new and different from any other Angrcecum that 
he had seen, appeared to warrant the giving a specific 
name to the plant, though then in a flowerless state. Mr. 
Sanders further informs me that there were about twenty 
plants of it imported, of which nearly all must have 
perished, as he had heard nothing of any of them. 

It is, therefore, a peculiar satisfaction to the authorities 
of Kew that the plant of this fine species which Mr. 
Sanders liberally presented to Kew in 1886 should have 
flourished in that establishment. It flowered in May of 
last year, and again in the spring of this year. As may 
be supposed from its native habitat, it was grown in a 
very moist tropical house, fastened to a soft piece of fern- 

Jose 1st, 1889. 

Descr. Stem twelve to eighteen inches long, stout, scan- 
dent, with long vermiform banded roots from the nodes, 
leafy ; nodes short, about half an inch long. Leaves alter- 
nate, distichous, spreading, one and a half to two inches 
long, sessile by a subcordate semi-amplexicaul base, linear- 
oblong, unequally two-lobed, very thick, bright green, 
margins recurved. Floiuers pure white, solitary on short 
slender axillary peduncles that are much shorter than the 
leaves ; pedicel with the ovary two-thirds to one inch 
long, two-bracteolate at the base. Sepals two and a half 
to three inches long, elongate-subulate from a narrowly 
lanceolate base, the lateral shortly spreading and then 
pendulous. Petals like the sepals, but shorter and more 
slender, pendulous. Lip quadrate, with, rounded angles, 
an inch broad and rather less in length, sides reflexed, 
anterior margin suddenly contracted in the middle into 
a subulate at length filiform recurved tail an inch long ; 
disk with depression at the insertion of the spur, which is 
slender, about twice as long as the sepals and flexuous. 
Column very short, two-winged in front; polliniapyriforrn. 
—J. D. H. 

Fi^.l, Column and base of lip; 2, the same viewed in front; 3, anther; 
4, pollinia : — all enlarged. 


mc.ent Brc 

an Imp 

L Reeve & C c '- : 

Tab. 7062. 

SOLANUM pensile. 

Native of South America. 

Nat. Ord. Solanace.e. — Tribe Solane.e. 
Genus Solanum, Linn. ; (Benth. et Sook.f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 888.) 

Solanum pensile ; scandens, sarmentosum, inerme, ramulis teretibus pubescenti- 
tomentosis, foliis ovatis v. ovato-cordatis acutis v. obtuse acuminatis 
glaberrimis supra lucidis, paniculae pendube ramis simplicibus elongatis 
divaricato-recurvis mnltifloris, pedicellis breviusculis, calycis bemispberici 
dentibus minutis, corollae amplse violaceas extus puberulse laciniis hneari- 
bus recurvis apicibus incurvis, filamento unico caeteris duplo longiore, 
antberis consimilibus linearibus poris minutis terminalibus dehiscentibus, 
ovario conico glabro, stylo puberulo, bacca globosa violacea glabra, seini- 
nibus lentiformibus. 

S. pensile, Sentdntin Mart. Fl. Bras fate. vi. Solan, p. 50; Dunal in DC. 
Prodr. vol. xiii. pt. i. pp. 84 and 679. 

S. laetum, Miquel Stirj). Surinam. 139 (non Kunze). 

S. sempervirens, Dunal I. c. p. 88. 

S. pendulum, Link mss. (non Ruiz. 8f Pav.). 

S. scandens, Sehomb. mss. 

S. ametbystinum, Poiteau mss. 

Witheringia pendula, JRoem. Sf Sch. Syst. vol. iii. p. 422. 

Though botanically a well-known species, this lovely 
plant was unknown to gardens till sent to Kew in 1887 
from the George Town (Demerara) Botanical Gardens by 
Mr. Jenman. It belongs to a section of the genus aptly 
called Subdulcamara by Dunal, the general resemblance of 
the species to the common 8. dulcamara of our hedges 
being very obvious, the chief difference from the true 
Dulcamara' being in the inflorescence, which in the latter 
is axillary or alar and corymbose, whereas in 8. pensile and 
its allies it is terminal and panicled. 

8. pensile is a native of English, Dutch, and French 
Guiana. It has also been found on the Amazons River 
from Para up to the Solimoes River, a branch of the 
Amazons, by Spruce. There are also specimens in the 
Kew Herbarium from Miers gathered iu the Orgau 
Mountains (Rio do Janeiro), where, however, it may have 
June 1st, 18ri9. 

been cultivated, as no other collector has sent, it from 
that part of Brazil. 

8. pensile requires a tropical stove, where it grows with 
great rapidity, for the Kew plant, which was received from 
Demerara in 1887, flowered in May, 1888. 

Descr. A tall slender branched unarmed climbar; 
branches terete; branchlets pubescent. Leaves two to 
four inches long, ovate or cordate-ovate, subacute or 
obtusely acuminate, quite entire, bright green and shining 
above, paler beneath with brownish nerves ; petiole one- 
half to two-thirds of an inch long. Panicles large, terminal, 
loosely subpyramidal, pendulous, pubescent ; branches 
alternate, distichous, recurved or ascending, four to seven 
inches long, many-flowered; flowers subsecund, shortly 
pedicelled. Calyx one-fourth of an inch long, shortly cam- 
panulate, terete, five-toothed, brown, pubescent. Corolla 
one and a half inches in diameter, bright violet-blue with 
a white star-shaped eye; segments lanceolate with in- 
curved tips, spreading and recurved, pubescent externally. 
Stamens five, filaments of four much shorter than the 
anthers, of the fifth twice as long as the others ; anthers 
one-third of an inch long, linear-oblong, straight, erect and 
contiguous, dehiscing by minute terminal pores. Ovary 
glabrous ; style erect, pubescent. Berry globose, the size 
of a large pea, purple, shining. — /. B. H. 

Fig 1, Calyx and stamens ; 2 and 3, short and long stamens ; 4, pistil :— 
all enlarged. 

M.S.deL.E. Bates lrth 



Tab. 7068. 

Native of the Malay Islands. 

Nat. Ord. Pa.vhank i . 
o'enus Paxdajtct, Litni.f.; {Benth. ei Sook.f. G*n, PI. vol. iii. p. 949.) 

Pakdakus labyrinthieut ; fruticosus, 10-20-pedalis, caudicibus oramu sparse 

tuberculatis ramosis erecto-patentibus radices aerias ralid&g crnittentibns, 
foliis spiraliter trifariis anguste linearibus 2-3-ped. longifl 1 \ poll, latis 
marginibus costaque snbtus spinulis subcurvis armatis supra lucidis snbtus 
elauco-viridibus, spathis syncarpiis longioribus concavis ovato lanceolatin 
spinuloso-ciliatis, syncarpiis 3-4 poll, longis ad apicem pedunculi decurvi 
confertis sessilibus ellipsoideo-oblongis, drupis cmferti^simis pollicaribns 
anguste oblongis infra medium compressis aureie dein elongato-hiMni- 
spbericis 4-gonis rubris ungue (stigmate) brevi furcata caduca papillain 
relinquente terminatis, putamioe crasso semitereti. 

P. labyrinrhicus, Kurz. in Miq. Ann. Mm. Lttifd. But. ii. 53; Stem. Jonrw. 
Bot. vol. v. (1867), p. 103; Journ. At. Soc. ft-,,,, v..l. KXXYTO. (1889) pt.2, 
p. 147; Bot. Zeit. vol. Hi. (1869), p. 451 ; Baff.f. in Journ. Lin 

vol. xvii. p. 49 ; Soling Laub. in F.innaa, vol. xlii. j>. 10. 

I am indebted to Dr. Balfour for the identification of 
this handsome Pandanus with the Snmatran Pandanw 
labyrmthicus, of which there are fruits in the Museum ;u 
Kcw, communicated by the late D. Hanbury, who received 
them from the Botanical Gardens of Buitenzong, Java. 
A plant of it has been in cultivation at Kew for 
many years, }mt its origin is unknown. Tt differs some- 
what from the description of P. labyrinthicus in the 
much fewer aerial roots, which arc said in the native plant 
to be so numerous and interlaced as to ban sted 

the specific name. Tin's is, however, a very variable 
character, naturally depending on climate and humidity. It 
was most probably received at Kew from the Buitenzopg 
Gardens many years ago, and may be a native of other of 
the Malayan Islands besides Sumatra. Kurz has (in the 
Bengal Journal of the Asiatic Society) referred ir to the 
section Rykia, of which the type is P.furca&iis, R >xb , a com- 
mon Indian species; but in P. fureaius the dmpe is crowned 
by a much larger and more persistent forked daw, which 

Jn.v 1st. 1889. 

latter is so deciduous in /'. labyrinthicus, that all traces of 
it are lost as the fruit ripens. Solms Laubach regards P. 
labyrinth icus as very near P. nitidits, Kurz {in Journ. As. 
Soc. Beng. 1869, 147, Solms in Linncea xlii. 18), which is 
described as having the leaves shining on both surfaces, 
solitary erect fruits, and drupes with a shining incurved 
acute style terminated by an oblique subcordate stigma. 

P. labyrinthicus was received and long cultivated at 
Kew under the name of P. cer amicus, a native of the 
Moluccas very imperfectly known. It fruited in the Palm 
House in December, 1888, after which the plant died, but 
not till a sucker was saved to form a future plant. 

It may be stated here that Pandanus unguifer of this 
work (Tab. 6347) has been determined by Dr.' Balfour to 
be the P. minor, Herb. Ham., of Wallich's Herbarium 
(No. 8592), an unpublished species found by Buchanan 
Hamilton in Bengal. 

Descb. Plant at Kew ten feet high, consisting of one 
suberect main trunk about six inches in diameter, and 
closely ringed, together with several ascending branches 
from the base ; aerial roots few. Leaves two to three feet 
long by one and a half inches broad, finely acuminate, 
margin and more or less of the costa spiny, spines short 
nearly straight. Peduncle of the female about six inches 
long, decurved in fruit, bearing at the apex three to six 
syncarpia. Lower bract below the syncarpia leaf -like; 
those next the syncarpia three to five inches long, broadly 
ovate-oblong, acuminate, very concave, margins and mid- 
rib at the back closely spmulose. Syncarpia two and a 
half to three and a half inches long, sessile, broadly ellip- 
soid ; drupes one inch long, closely packed, narrowly 
oblong, lower half golden yellow, compressed, upper elon- 
gate dome-shaped, four-angled, bright orange-red, capped 
by the pulvinate remains of the style; putamen thick, 
flattened on one side. — J. D. E. 

■Fig. 1, Drupe; 2, transverse section of the same : — both enlarged. 



L Reeve & C<= London. 

iftrvcenL Brooks 15ay s 

Tab. 7064. 
SYRINGA villosa. 

Native of Northern China. 

Nat. Ord. Oleace.e. — Tribe Syringed. 
Genus Sykinga, Linn. ; (Benth. et HooJc.f f Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 675.) 

Sybinga villosa ; fmtex gracilis, foliis late ellipticis ovatisve obtusis basi 
rotundatis rarius cuneatis subtua glaucescentibus, costa nervisque villosis 
rarius glaberrirois, nervis patentibus, thyrsis breviusculis erectis, floribus 
sessilibus pallide roseo-lilacinis, calycis dentibus brevibus ovatis subacutis, 
corollse tubo longitudine vario, lobis obtusis marginibus crassis incurvis, 
capsula cylindraceo-oblonga obtusa. 

S. villosa, VaJd Enum. vol. i. p. 38; DC Prodr. vol. viii. p. 283; Francliet 
PI. David, p. 204; Decne. in Nouv. Arch. Mus. Ser. 2, p. 41 ; Helmsl. in 
Jburn. Linn. Soc. vol. xsvi. p. 83 ; Sargent in Gard. fy Forest. 1888, 
p. 222, aud p. 520, fig. 83. 

S. pubescens, Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1840, p. 73; Hance in Journ. 
Bot. 1875, p. 133 ; Sargent I. c. 414, fig. 67. 

The specific name of villosa is unfortunately chosen for 
this plant ; what villousness it possesses is confined to the 
lower parts of the costa of the leaf beneath, and to the 
bases of the main nerves ; such as it is, it is deciduous 
and often totally absent, even on the young leaves. This 
is the case with the specimen here figured, in which I 
find mere traces of hairs on some leaves and none on 
others. In some Chinese specimens, on the other hand, 
the villousness is conspicuous in the positions indicated, 
and consists of long spreading silvery bairs. 

North China is evidently the headquarters of the genus 
Syringa. Helmsley, in his valuable " Enumeration of 
Chinese Plants," published in the Linnsean Society's 
Journal, cited above, mentions six species from that 
country, and there are others in the Kew Herbarium, of 
which the specimens are too imperfect for determination. 
Of these $. oblata, Lindl., is the nearest allied to 8. villosa, 
and may be distinguished by its robust habit and more 
or less cordate leaves, which are green beneath and have 
no villous hairs. 

8. olllosa is a native of the Chihli province of China, 
July 1st, 1880. 

occurring on mountains near Pekin, where it was dis- 
covered by the early Jesuit missionary, Father d'Incarville, 
previous to 1740, who sent specimens to Jussieu that are 
preserved in the Museum of the Jardin de Plantes at 

It has been more recently collected by Dr. Bret- 
schneider, the learned physician to the Russian Em- 
bassy, on mountains near Pekin, and by Dr. Bullock of 
the English Embassy. Its introduction into cultivation 
is due to Dr. Bretschneider, who sent seeds to Kew and 
elsewhere in 1880. Plants raised from these seeds flowered 
for the first time in Kew in May, 1888. It need not be 
said of a North Chinese shrub that it is perfectly hardy, 
and it is as fragrant as the common lilac. The corolla is 
exceedingly variable in length of tube, which sometimes 
exceeds half an inch. 

Desce. An erect shrub, glabrous except the leaves 
beneath ; branches covered with brown bark ; branchlets 
slender, red-brown. Leaves one and a half to two inches 
long and sometimes nearly as broad, very broadly ovate 
or elliptic, or almost orbicular, obtuse ; base rounded or 
cuneate, dark green above, subglaucous beneath, and 
with more or less deciduous villous pubescence towards 
the base, or quite glabrous ; margins towards the base 
obscurely ciliate ; petiole a quarter to one-half of an inch, 
slender, red-brown. Thyrses two to three inches long, 
erect, sessile, branched at the very base, subcylindric ; 
rachis and branches red-brown ; flowers sessile, suberect, 
pale rose-lilac. Calyx-lobes broadly ovate. Corolla-tube 
very variable in length, a quarter to one-half of an inch 
long, cylindric ; lobes oblong, obtuse, margins thick in- 
flexed. Stamens small, placed one-third way down the 
tube. Ouary globose; style short, stigma narrowly ob- 
long, notched. Capsule half or two-thirds of an inch 
long, narrowly oblong, obtuse, cylindric. — J. D. E. 

Kg. 1, Flowers ; 2, calyx, style, and stigma ; 3, corolla laid open ; 4, 
anther ; 5, ovary :— all more or less enlarged. 




M.S deI,E.Babes,l i tli. 

L Tteeve & C° London- 

Tab. 70G5. 


Native of Neiv Zealand, 

Nat. Ord. Composite. — Tribe Asteroidk.i:. 
Genua Oleakia, Moench ; {Benth. et JZool-.f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 276* 

Oleauia macrodonta, arbor parva, ramis patentibus, ramulis paniculis foliisqne 
subtus appresse albo-pubescentibus, foliis petiolatis coriaceis oblongi.s 
lineari-oblongisve acutis v. acuminatis grosse dentatis, basi rotundatis, 
nervis numerosis supra depressis cum costa obtusangulum efficientibus, 
corymbis terminalibus amplis mnlti-densifloris, capitulis 7} poll, diam., 
involncri late carupanulati bracteis paucis pubescenti-pilosis, floribns radii 
10-30 ligulis oblongis, disci paucis rufescentibus, pappi setis uniseriatis, 
acbeniis pilosis. 

O. macrodonta, Baler In Gard. Chron. 1884, vol. i. p. 604, and 1886, vol. ii- 
p. 304, fig. 62. 

O. dentata, Book.f. in Handbook of Neto Zeald. Flora, p. 126. 

Eurybia dentata, var. a, HooJc.f. Fl. Nov. Zeald. vol. i. p. 118. 

One of the numerous Daisy trees of New Zealand, and 
perhaps the most conspicuous from the great abundance of 
its broad white corymbs, which terminate every branchlet, 
and together cover the plant with a white sheet of flowers. 
I originally described it in the Flora Novas Zelandias under 
Burybia (as E. dentata), a genus separated by Cassini from 
Olearia by its uniseriate pappus, and retained by De Can- 
dolle. A further study of the Australian and New Zealand 
species of the two genera convinced me that they could 
not be kept apart, and I united them in the Handbook of 
the New Zealand Flora, where I inadvertently retained the 
specific name of dentata, overlooking the fact that it was 
preoccupied for an Australian species. In consequence of 
this, Mr. Baker, in the " Gardener's Chronicle," changed 
the name to 0. macrodonta ; but whether this will be main- 
tained is doubtful, for 0. macrodonta is so closely allied to 
my O. ilicifolia, that further material may prove that they 
are one and the same species, in which case the latter 
name will claim precedence. Such are the difficulties 
as to nomenclature that beset the pioneers of Floras, 
July 1st, 1889. 

which have to be elaborated from the examination of, 
often solitary, Herbarium specimens. 

0. macro'donta differs from 0. ilicifolia in the larger 
leaves with rounded bases, which turn a pale buff when 
dried. Both are natives of the mountainous districts of 
the Northern Island, where (on the Ruahine range) they 
were discovered by Colenso ; they both extend through 
the Southern Island to Otago ; and both smell faintly of 
musk. 0. macrodonta is the larger plant of the two, 
attaining twenty feet in height and spread of branches, 
with a trunk thirty inches in diameter : its wood affords 
a poor veneer. 

The specimen here figured was from a plant presented 
to Kew by W. E. Griimbleton, Esq., of Belgrove, Co. Cork, 
which flowered on a south wall in June, 1888, where it 
had stood without protection for three years. 

Descr. A tree about twenty feet high, with spreading 
branches, smelling faintly of musk ; branchlets, leaves 
beneath and corymbs covered with an appressed subsilvery 
pubescence. Leaves alternate, petioled, three to four 
inches long, coriaceous, oblong or linear-oblong, acute or 
acuminate, subsinuately sharply deeply toothed; base 
rounded or cuneate, above dark green (young pubescent), 
with many impressed nerves that form an obtuse angle 
with the midrib ; petiole one to one and a half inches long, 
stout, reddish. Corymbs six inches and upwards in 
diameter, profusely branched, more or less flat-topped. 
Heads half an inch in diameter and more; involucre cam- 
panulate ; bracts few, oblong, subacute, pubescent, greenish 
with brown tips. Bay-flowers ten to thirty, with oblong 
three-toothed ligules ; disk-flowers few, reddish; pappus 
of one series of rigid scabrid white or reddish hairs. 
Achene cylindric, pubescent. — /. D~ H. 

Fig. 1, Flower of the ray; 2, pappus hair; 3, flower of the disk; 4, 
stamens ; 5, style-arms : — all enlarged. 


Rjecve & C °, L cmdort. 

ViacentBrocaisDay & 3on,Imp. 

Tab. 7066. 
DISA LACEKA, var. multifida. 
Native of Cape Town. 

Nat. Ord. Obchideje. — Tribe Ophbyde.e. 
Genus Disa, Berg ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 630.) 

Disa (Herschelia) lacera ; erecta, glabra, foliis radicalibus anguste gramineis 
scapo flexuoso laxe 2-6-floro brevioribus, vaginis paucis bracteisque late 
ovatis acuminatis membranaceis, sepalis lateralibus ovato-oblongis sub- 
acutis patentibus, dorsali galeato ore orbiculari, calcare brevi conico, petalis 
columnar adnatis e basi late auriculata repente angustatis geniculars 
apice attenuato spinescente integerrimo, labello ovato-oblongo obtuso 
piano integerrimo crenato v. fimbriato. 

D. lacera, Swart* in Act Holm. 1800, p. 212 ; Willd. Sp PL vol. iv. p. 50; 
Tliunb. Fl. Cap. p. 12; Lindl. Gen. 8f Sp. Orchid. 354; Journ. of 
BTorticult. 1888, p. 221, fig. 24. Bolus in Journ. Linn. Soc vol. xxv. p. 202. 

Var. multifida ; lip fimbriate nearly to tbe base, N. E. Brown in Gard. 
Chron. 1888, vol. ii. p. 664. 

I follow Mr. N. E. Brown in referring this plant to a form 
of Swartz's Disa lacera, because it agrees with the species 
so named in the Kew Herbarium, and which Lindlej has 
accepted as the type of D. lacera, and notwithstanding the 
discrepancy admitted by Mr. Brown himself, namely, that 
I), lacera is described by Thunberg as a white-flowered 
plant. Unfortunately, authentic specimens of D. lacera are 
not known to exist ; there are none in Swartz's or Thun- 
berg's Herbaria, and Sparrman is cited as the discoverer of 
the species. Another point in favour of this determination 
is, that the typical lacera is described as having the lip fim- 
briated at the tip only, and such is the case with some of 
the specimens in the Kew Herbarium, whilst in others it is 
fimbriated or crenate all round, and there are all degrees 
of intermediates in this character. Lindley describes the 
leaves as rigidand contorted, and the sepals as all terminating 
in a point {cum acumine), neither of which characters are 
apparent in our cultivated specimens, where the leaves are 
straight and the dorsal sepal rather obtuse. 

The plant here figured was brought to Kew Prom Cape 

July 1st, 1889. 

Town, by Mr. Watson (Assistant Curator of Kew), and was 
presented to the Royal Gardens by Professor MacOwan, the 
Superintendent of the Cape Town Botanical Gardens, with 
the information that it had quite recently been brought 
down from Table Mountain. Mr. Bolus, however, who 
happened to be in England at the time of its flowering, and 
was engaged on his admirable work on the Orchids of the 
Cape Peninsula, having examined it, did not recognize it as 
a plant of that region of South Africa, and suspected that 
there was some mistake as to its being: a Table Mountain 
plant. Its reference to D. lacera would confirm Mr. Bolus' 
suspicion, for that plant is a native of the Uitenhage and 
Graham's Town districts, upwards of 300 miles from Cape 
Town, whence there are excellent specimens in the Kew 
Herbarium, collected by Mr. MacOwan himself. No doubt 
it was in that region that Sparrman discovered it, for lie 
travelled into the interior of South Africa in about 1780, 
after having circumnavigated the globe with Cook on his 
second voyage. 

D. lacera is the first of the section Herschelia to be 
figured in this work. The sectional name is classical ; it 
was proposed as a genus by Lindley, for the beautiful 
D. graminifolia, Ker (a native of Table Mountain), in honour 
of the distinguished astronomer, Sir John Herschel, who was 
at that time making his catalogue of the Southern stars at 
Cape Town, and who was a devoted lover and cultivator of 
Orchids. Of this D. graminifolia (Herschelia ccelestis) 
Lindley says, " Species haec pulcherrima colore cceli aus- 
tralis intense cceruleo superbiens." Mr. Bolus adds to his 
description of it that it is the commonest species in the 
Cape Peninsula, and attracts universal observation by its 
colour and brilliancy, but that, in spite of repeated efforts, 
it does not appear to have been successfully grown in 
England.—/. B. If. 

Fig. 1, Top of ovary, base of lip, petals and column j 2, petals, lip and 

lumn : 3 and 4. nnlKr,;-! . „/7 a „i„».„„.i 

column ; 3 and 4, pollinia :— all enlarged 


L rlesve & CfJLondon. 

\Bnceirt, Brooks 3ay& Son, Imp 

Tab. 7067. 

Native of Child. 

Nat. Ord. Kosace.32.— Tribe Quillajeje. 
Genus Eucryphia, Cavanilles ; {Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 615.) 

Eucrypuia pinnatifolia, arbuscula glabra, foliis pinnatis cum impari, foliolis 
1-5-jugis sessilibns ovato-lanceolatis acutis crenato-dentatis supra saturate 
viridibus lucidis subtus pallidis, terminali petiolnlato, stipulis oblongo- 
lauceolatis subacutis deciduis, floribus amplis breviter pedunculatis, 
sepalis par vis late oblongis, petalis orbiculari-obovatis concavis, stamini- 
bus perplnrimis disco v. toro tenui insertis, filamentis capillaribus, antberis 
minutis, ovario pubescente, sty lis numerosis filiformibns. 

E. pinnatifolia, Gay Flor. Chil. vol. i. p. 352, t. 8 ; Gard. Ghron. 1880, vol. i. 
p. 337 ; The Garden, Dec. 1877; Walp. Ann. vol. i. p. 113. 

Eagus glutinosa, Poepp. 8f Endl. Nov. Gen. fy Sp. vol. ii. p. 68, t. 194. 

The germs Eucryphia, founded on another Chilian 
species with simple leaves, has not yet found a generally 
accepted abiding place in the " Systema Plantarum." 
Spach placed it in Hypericinece ; Endlicher at the end of 
Ghlcenacem; Bentham and Planchon referred it to Cunoniacee, 
a tribe of Saarifragece; C. Gay constituted of it a distinct 
family, Eucryphiece ; in the Genera Plantarum I have 
referred it to Quillajece, another tribe of Saxifragece, in 
which I am followed byBaillon; and finally Maximovicz, in 
his learned " Adnotationes ad Spirseaceas," inclines to 
regard it as nearer Tiliacece and Elceocarpece. The genus 
is remarkable as being confined to Tasmania and Chili, 
and was independently described from the former country 
by Labillardiere as Carpodontos. Only three species of it 
are known, two simple-leaved ones, and that here figured 
with pinnated leaves, which is the only one hitherto intro- 
duced into Europe. 

E. 'pinnatifolia appears to be a very local plant, being 
confined, as far as is known, to the Cordillera of Concep- 
cion, where it forms a bushy tree about ten feet high, and 
is called . Nirrhe by the people. It was introduced into 

July 1st, 1889. 

cultivation by Messrs. Veitch and Sons, and seems to be 
perfectly hardy. The specimen here figured was kindly 
sent for this work by R. Milne Redhead, Esq., F.L.S. of 
Holden Clough, Clitheroe (author of a paper on the Botany 
of Sinai in the Linnaean Journal) in September last, with 
the observation that the stamens persist after the petals 
have fallen away, and are in themselves very ornamental. 

Descr. A small glabrous tree or large shrub, attaining 
ten feet in height, much branched ; branches and branchlets 
stout. Leaves crowded towards the ends of the branchlets, 
three to six inches long, pinnate; petiole short and 
rachis slender ; leaflets in one to five pairs ; lateral one and 
a half to two inches long, sessile by a rounded base, 
oblong-lanceolate, acute, crenate-toothed or -serrate, dark 
shiny green above, paler beneath ; terminal leaflet rather 
longer, petiolulate; stipules half an inch long, oblong- 
lanceolate, deciduous. Flowers shortly stoutly peduncled, 
two and a half to three inches in diameter, pure white. 
Sepals very small, broadly oblong, obtuse, coriaceous, 
green, deciduous. Petals orbicular- obovate, concave. 
Stamens very numerous, inserted in many series on a torus 
that supports the ovary ; filaments capillary, shorter than 
the petals ; anthers very small, orbicular. Ovary oblong, 
pubescent, many-celled ; styles very many, filiform, 
longer than the ovary ; stigmas minute. Capsule oblong, 
two- thirds of an inch long. — J. D. E. 

Figs. 1 and 2, Stamens ; 3, disk and ovary: 4, vertical section of ovary ■.— 
all enlarged. * 


L.Reeve &.C9 LondoT 

Tab. 7068. 

Native of Zululand and Namaqua Land. 

Nat. Ord. Asclepiade^e. — Tribe STAFEUEiE. 
Germs Stapelia, Linn. ; {Benth. et lloolc.f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 78 k) 

Stapelia (figantea; ramis e caule valido procumbent e erectis clavatis 4-8 poll, 
longis 1~1\ poll, crassis 4-gonis pubescentibns, angulis compressis den- 
tatis, dentibus brevibus erectis, pedicellis pollicaribus crassis tomentosis, 
corolla 12-14 poll, diametr., pilis rufis erectis sericeis molliter hirsnta 
flavida lineolis fusco-rnbris creberrime fasciata, laciniis caudato-acu- 
minatis, corona atropurpurea, exterioris sqaamis lineari-oblongis apice 
3-lobis, lobis lateralibus rotundatis intermedio ovato v. calcariforrne, 
interioris segmentis in rostra erecta productis, rostris dorso in alas 
verticales obtusas integerrimas dilatatis. 

S. gigantea, N. E. Brown in Gard. Chron. 1877, vol. i. p. 684 and 693, fig. 112, 
and 1888, vol. ii. p. 728, fig. 101. 

This, some Rafflesias arid certain species of Aristolochia 
are the largest-flowered members of the vegetable kingdom, 
and, what is curious, all are most fetid and have lurid 
colours. They agree in no other characters ; they differ 
altogether in habit and botanical affinity; and they 
inhabit widely distant parts of the world, namely, South 
Africa, Malaya, and Brazil. 

The Giant Stapelia is a native of Zululand, where it was 
discovered by Mr. R. W. Plant, a collector, some thirty 
years ago, and sent by him to the Botanical Gardens of 
I)' Urban, whence it was introduced into England by Mr. 
Cooper. It has also been collected by Gerrard, and there 
is a drawing of it in the Kew Herbarium, made by Mr. 
Sanderson of Natal, and specimens from the I'mveloo 
River; and what is most curious, Mr. Brown informs me 
that he has received from Professor Macowan, of the (' 
Town Botanical Gardens, a living specimen of the same 
species collected in Namaqua Land, on the opposite side 
of the African continent. In this respect it is exceptional, 
for the species of this genus for the most part occupy 
limited areas ; in other words, are as a rule local. 
August 1st, 1889. 

The specimen here represented was sent by Sir George 
MacLeay from his rich collection at Pendell Court, 
where it flowered in October of last year ; and is a cutting 
from the original plant imported by Mr. Cooper. There 
is a specimen of it in the Royal Gardens, where it has not 
flowered as yet. 

Descr. Stem as thick as the thumb, terete ; branches 
erect, pubescent, pale green, four to eight inches long 
by one to nearly two broad, four-angled, obtuse ; angles 
compressed, rather acute, with small erect teeth, sides 
between the angles shallowly concave. Pedicels very 
stout, about one inch long, tomentose. Calyx-lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, tomentose. Corolla twelve to fourteen inches 
broad, closely covered with erect soft hyaline hairs that 
are red brown over the whole surface of the corolla, but 
white and transparent on the margins of the segments, 
under surface yellowish mottled with green, upper dull 
yellowish with close-set short narrow undulate red-brown 
bars; central area three to three and a half inches in 
diameter, concave, margins rounded; segments ovate- 
lanceolate, gradually tapering into long points. Corona 
small, very dark red-purple ; outer of five panduriformly- 
oblong spreading scales three-lobed at the top, the side 
lobes short rounded, the midlobe produced into a short 
spur; inner corona of five erect spiniform processes, 
each produced at the back into a quite entire obtuse wing. 

Fig. 1, Corona; 2, scale of outer corona ; 3, segment of inner corona; 4 
and 5, pollinia with their corpuscles: — all enlarged. 



Tab. 7069. 

CATASETUM Garneitianum. 

Native of the Amazons River. 

Nat. Ord. Obchide^;. — Tribe Vande^:. 
Genus Catasetum, Rich. ; {Benth. et Sook.f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 551.) 

Catasetum Garneitianum ; pnmilum, pseudobulbis ovoideis deirmm fusiformi- 
bus yagmatis, foliis lanceolatis acuminatis 3-nerviis, racemis erectis 
paucifloris foliis longioribus, bracteis ovato-lauceolatis ovariis pedicellatis 
multobrevioribus, perianthio fusco-purpureo albo-fasciato, sepalis oblono'o- 
janceolatis acutis concavis lateralibus deflexis dorsali petalisque erectis, 
labello lineari albo dorso medium versus gibboso, marginibns infra 
medium apiceque truncato ciliis longis crassis patentibus pectiuato, 
columna elongata pallide virescente rubro-punctulata apice iucurva. 

C Gamettianum, Rolfe in Gard. Chron. 1888, vol. ii. p. 692. 

In habit and floral characters this species has, as Mr. 

Rolfe remarks, strong affinities with G. barbatum (My- 
anthus barbatus, Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1778), and especially 
to its var. proboscoidrum, Lindl. I.e. 1841, t. 5, f. 3. 
From both it differs in the much paler flowers with broad 
bars of brown-purple on the sepals and petals. In the 
true barbatum the scape is red brown, the sepals and petals 
green spotted with purple, the lip is shorter, of a dirty 
rose colour, and fringed all round with cilia, and the back 
of the column is blood-red. In var. probosemdeum the 
petals are also green, spotted and partly barred with 
purple, the lip longer than the sepals, green, and its 
margins crinite with long cilia. It is, in fact, almost as 
different from barbatum true as the latter is from Gamet- 
tianum. Another closely allied species is G. cornutum, 
Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 1840, Misc. No. 182, and 1841, t. 5, 
1. 2, which with the sepals and petals of var. proboscoideum 
has a short triangular green purple-spotted ovate lip, and 
the cilia reduced to stout blunt processes. Still another 
is lanciferum, Lindl. 1. c. f. 5, which has the sepals and 
petals of cornutum, and a lip approaching in shape to 
that of G. Garneitianum, but green, broader at the base, 

August 1st, 1889. 

and with much longer cilia ; Lindley suggests its being a 
variety of G. barbatum. A comparison of these excellent 
drawings in the Register suggests that lanciferum, bar- 
batum, and cornutum may be local forms of one variable 
species, and Garnctiiaimm another, but very closely allied 
species, possibly to be connected by intermediates not 
hitherto known on cultivation. As to their localities, 
Garnettianum, barbatum, var. 2i r °boscoideum> and lanci- 
ferum are natives of Brazil, the latter from the province 
of Goyaz, and the variety from Sertao ; whereas G. bar- 
batum itself and G. cornutum are native in Demerara, the 
latter of the Massarony River, near the Falls of Wapo- 

More interesting in a scientific point of view than the 
variations in the perianth of Cataseta, is the now well- 
known sexual dimorphism of almost all the species of the 
genus. This dimorphism was misinterpreted by Mr. 
Darwin. The subject has been lately investigated by Mr. 
Rolfe, Assistant in the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens, 
and the results have been read before the Linnasan Society, 
and alluded to in the " Gardener's Chronicle," 1889, i. 407. 
Mr. Rolfe divides the genus into four sections, of which 
he has been so good as to give me the hitherto unpublished 
characters. They are : — 

1. Eucatasetum. Flowers unisexual. Column of S 
with a pair of deflexed filaments. Lip of both sexes 

2. Myanthus. Flowers unisexual. Column of <? as in 
Eucatasetum. Lip of c? anticous, of ? posticous. 

3. Ecirrhosce. Flowers unisexual. Column of male 
without filaments ( ? flower unknown). 

4. Pseudo-catasetum. Flowers hermaphrodite. 

G. Garnettianum belongs to the second section. The 
figure of it here given is from a plant presented to the 
Royal Gardens by P. F. Garnett, Esq., of South Bank, 
Grassendale, Liverpool, who received it from the Amazons 
River in North Brazil in 1888. It flowered in a tropical 
house at Kew in the month of November. — /. D. S. 

Fig. 1, Lip and column ; 2, pollinia : — both enlarged. 


.del, IN 5 

Vincent Brooks,Day & 

L Reeve 8lC? London 

Tab. 7070. 
geevillea aspleniifolia. 

Native of New South Wales. 

Nat. Ord. Pb.oteace.e. — Tribe Geeviliee^:. 
Genus Gxievillea, Brown ; [Bentli. et PEooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 180.) 

Gkevillea (Helbegyne) aspleniifolia; frutex gracilis v. arbuscula, ramulis 
novellis sericeo-puberulis, foliis elongato-Hneari-lanceolatis acutis mucro- 
natisve integerrimis serratis pinnatifidisve, supra glabris penninerviis, 
subtus albo- v. fulvo-sericeis enerviis costa prominula, racemis 1-2- 
pollicaribus sessilibus v. pedunculatis terminalibus v. in axillis supremis, 
floribus secundis breviter pedicellatis racbi periantbioque extus tomen- 
tosis, periantbii tubo angnsto limbo revoluto subgloboso, toro recto 
glandula semi-annulari, ovario subsessili villoso, stylo gracili glabro] 
stigmate obliquo convexo. 

G. aspleniifolia, Knight on Cult, of Protece, p. 120; Brown in Trans. linn. 
Soc. vol. x. p. 175 ; Prodr. p. 379 ; Meissn. in DC. Prodr. vol. xiv. p. 376 ; 
Benth. PI. Austral, vol. v. p. 435. 

G. longifolia, Broicn Prot. Nov. p. 22 ; Meissn. I. c. 

G. Yan Houtteana, Hort. 

It is much to be wished that the cultivation of the more 
beautiful and singular Protectees of the Cape and Australia, 
which may be said to have been in abeyance for nearly a 
century, should be resumed. Miller in his " Gardener's 
Dictionary," Ed. 1770, has only three species. Aiton in 
the first edition of " Hortus Kewensis " (1789) enumerates 
sixty-four, and in the second (1811) this is increased to 
114. The late J. Smith, who was Curator of the Eoyal 
Gardens from 1822 to 1864, states in his interesting 
" Eecords of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens " that of the 
sixty-four species which are recorded in the first edition 
of " Hortus Kewensis," forty of that number were in 1823 
living in the garden, since which (that is, between 1823 
and 1864) the Kew collection had been increased to 154. 
The number now is short of this (about 120), the Capo 
species being fewer in number ; they are, however, replaced 
in point of horticultural interest by handsomer Australian 

Grevillea aspleniifolia is a native of various parts of the 
colony of Few South Wales. The first specimens sent to 
England were from Caley, who was directed to proceed to 
August 1st, 1880. 

that colony in 1801 by Sir Joseph Banks, as collector for 
Kew, and who spent ten years there. The name and 
accompanying description first appear in a work published 
with the date 1809, entitled " On the Cultivation of Proteas," 
by Charles Knight, in which no fewer than 254 species 
of the Order are described, and, as might be inferred from 
the title of the work, though it is not so stated, were 
then in cultivation in England. Knight was a Nurseryman 
in King's Road, Chelsea, and it is generally admitted that 
Salisbury was the author of the descriptions, though neither 
is this stated in the work, which is quoted by Meissner 
and others as by " Knight and Salisbury." It is pre- 
sumable that the descriptions published by Knight were 
drawn up in the Banksian Herbarium from materials pre- 
pared by Brown for his " Flora Australiensis," for in Brown's 
paper " On the Proteaceaa of Jussieu," read before the 
Linnsean Society in July, 1809, P. aspleniifulia appears as 
a species with no citation of other authority, but with the 
observation that it exists in the Banksian Herbarium ; 
whereas in the " Prodromus Floras Novas Hollandia?," 
published only a year later, Knight's work is cited as the 
authority for the name, and Caley as the discoverer of 
the species. Those who are cognizant of the rivalries of 
the botanists of the early part of this century, and espe- 
cially as regards the publication of Australian plants, will 
draw their own conclusion as to the real authorship of the 

Desce. A shrub or small tree, twelve to fifteen feet 
high ; branches slender, young minutely silky. Leaves 
four to ten inches, shortly petioled, linear-lanceolate, entire 
toothed serrate or pinnatifid, glabrous and bright green 
above ; beneath silky, white or fulvous ; midrib distinct. 
Racemes one to two inches long, erect, sessile or shortly 
peduncled, slender, terminal or subterminal, minutely 
tomentose ; flowers secund, shortly pedicelled. Perianth 
one-half to two-thirds of an inch long, silkily pubescent, 
pale pink streaked with red ; tube cylindric; limb re volute, 
subglobose. Torus short, nearly straight ; gland small, 
tumid, semi-annular. Ovary shortly stipitate, villous; style 
long, bright red, stigma oblique. — /. I). H. 

Fig. 1, Flower; 2, vertical section of perianth; 3, ovary and gland :— all 



Tab. 707 J. 
BERBERIS angulosa. 

Native of the Himalaya. 

Nat. Ord. BEKBERiDEiE.— Tribe Beebeee^:. 
Genus Berberis, Linn.; (Bentk. etRook.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 43.) 

Behbhris angulom; friitex erecttis, ramulis erectis virgatis strictis pubernlis 
spims J-5-fidis, folua deciduig 1-lJ-pollicaribus obovatis oblanceolatisve 
margmibus mcrassatis integerrimis v. distanter spinuloso-subserratis 
apice rotnndatis acutisve muticis v. aristulatia, floribus majusculis soli' 
tarns, pedicellis decurvis, sepalis extimis oblongis interioribus ffiquiloneis 
sed multoties angnstioribns, baccis magnis globoso-obovoideis rubris 5-7- 
spermis, stigmate subsessili pulvinato. 

B. angulosa Wall Cat .1475 ex parte. Rook. f. Sf Thorns. Fl. Indie, 227- 
Mook.f. Fl. Brit. Lid. vol. i. p. 111. .' 

Berberis anguhsa is a rare Himalayan species, and one 
of the largest flowered and fruited of the thirteen found 
in that mountain range ; it is also one of the most distinct, 
though referred by Lindley to the racemose B. aristata, 
which he has by error published as B. umbellata, Wall. 
(Bot. Reg. 1844, t. 44). It was discovered early in the 
century by Mr. Blinkworth in Kumaon, and gathered later 
by Wallich in Nepal, and by myself in the adjacent pro- 
vince of Sikkim, at elevations of 11,000 to 13,000 feet. 
The only evidence of its occurring elsewhere in the 
Himalaya is the specimen here figured, which was sent in 
flower to Kew by Thomas Acton, Esq., of Kilmacurragh, 
Rathdrum, Ireland, in May 1888, and the fruit in October 
of the same year, with the information that it was raised 
from seed obtained from Cashmir by his brother, Colonel 
Ball Acton. In the Kew Herbarium there are specimens 
raised from seed sent to the Edinburgh Botanical Garden 
by Mr. Gumbleton in 1885, and others sent to Kew by 
Mr. Gumbleton himself in 1887. 

In Sikkim B. angulosa forms a shrub four feet high and 
more, often accompanying the beautiful little B. concinna 
(Plate 4744). It grows at a greater elevation than any 
other of the larger shrubby species except B. macrosepala 

August 1st, 1889. 

(Plate 47 44), and forms a striking object in autumn from 
the rich golden yellow and red colouring of the foliage. 
The fruit is eatable, being less acid than in the common 
species of Europe and Asia. 

Descr. An erect bush, four feet high and upwards, 
with stout angled and grooved erect puberulous branches ; 
spines three- to five-branched, slender. Leaves deciduous, 
fascicled, one to one and a half inches long, sessile or 
narrowed into a short petiole, obovate or oblanceolate, 
quite entire or with a few spinous teeth on the thickened 
margin, tip rounded, apiculate or aristate, thinly coriaceous, 
often puberulous beneath, opaque above, rather shining 
beneath, scarlet and j^ellow in decay. Peduncles solitary 
or fascicled, very rarely two-fld., decurved, about two- 
thirds of an inch long. Mower one-half to two-thirds of 
an inch in diameter, pale golden yellow. Outer sepals 
narrowly oblong, inner as long but nearly twice as broad ; 
petals obovate, tip rounded, pale yellow. Berry two-thirds 
of an inch long, globosely obovoicl, scarlet, five- to six- 
seeded ; style very short or 0, stigma pulvinate. — 
J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Petal ; 2, stamen; 3, ovary .- — all enlarged. 


del, J .TT Fitch irth 


Tab. 7072. 
ANOIGANTHUS breviflorus. 

Native of Cape Colony and Natal. 

Nat. Ord. Amahyliide*. — Tribe A>iakylle.¥.. 
Genus Anoiganthus, Bake?" ; (Bent A. et SooTc.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 722.; 

Anoigantiius breviflorus ; bulbo ovoideo tuuicia brnnneis membranaceis supra 
collum productis, foliis synantbiis anguste loratis, viridibus erectia 
glabris, pedunculo tereti, umbellis 2-10-floris pedicellis elongatis, spathse 
valvis binis lauceolatis magnis, perianthio luteo, tubo brevi infundibulari 
segmentis oblongo-lanceolatis ascendentibus tubo 3-4-plo longioribua, 
staminibus diatincte biseriatis filamentis brevibus, fructu oblongo. 

A. breviflorus, Baker in Journ. Bot. 1878, p. 76; Handb. Amaryll, p. 27. 

Cyrtanthus breviflorus, Marr. The*. Cap. vol. ii. p. 25, t. 139. 

This is a very acceptable addition to our stock of culti- 
vated Cape bulbs. Tt appears to have been first gathered 
by Krauss in Natal about 1840, and has since been found 
to be spread through all the eastern regions of Cape Colony, 
ascending the mountains to five thousand or six thousand 
feet. It was first described and figured by Dr. Harvey in 
1863. He placed it in the genus Cyrtanthus, but it differs 
widely from the true Gyrtanthi, both in its perianth and 
stamens. Our plants grown at Kew were received from 
Mr. J. M. Wood, of the Natal Botanic Garden, and from 
Mr. R. W. Adlam. With us it grows and flowers freely 
in an open border where it is protected from frost, and 
has matured a good supply of seed. Our drawing was 
made from a plant that flowered at Kew last July. I 
formerly thought that there were two species, but now 
regard them as extreme forms of one. 

Descr. Bulb ovoid ; outer tunics membranous, brown, 
produced for some distance above its neck. Leaves three 
or four to a bidb, contemporary with the flowers, narrow 
lorate, obtuse, a foot or a foot and a half long, half or 
three-quarters of an inch broad, green, glabrous, channelled 
down the face. Peduncle subterete, half a foot or a foot 
long. Flowers from two to ten in an umbel ; pedicels one 
Auglst 1st, 1889. 

or two inches long ; spathe-valves two, large, lanceolate. 
Ovary oblong-trigonous, green, with many superposed 
ovules in each cell. Perianth bright yellow, an inch or an 
inch and a half long; segments oblong-lanceolate, three 
or four times as long as the funnel-shaped tube. Stamens 
erect, inserted in two distinct rows, one at the throat of 
the perianth-tube, and the other above the middle of it. 
Style overtopping the anthers, tricuspidate at the tip. 
Capsule oblong, an inch long, loculicidally three-valved 
down to the base. Seeds flat, oblong, black. — J. G. 

Fig. 1, A flower, cut open, life-size ; 2, back view of anther; 3, front view 
of anther ; 4, apex of style, with stigmas : — all enlarged. 


.• \.' 


Tab. 7073. 


Native of Venezuela. 

Nat. Ord. Aeistolocuiace^.— Tribe Aki.sto[,o<iiik.e. 
Genus Aristolochia, Linn.; (Benth. et llooh.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 123.) 

Amstolochia (Bilabiata?) Mans ; glaberrima, caule gracili volnbili, foliis 
reniformibus subtus glaucescentibus, sinu lato prof'undo, auriculis rottm- 
datis, pseudostipulis sessilibus reniformibus, floribus longe 
ma<?nis, perianthii utriculo obovoideo-obconico inflato (ventriculiformi) 
sordide rubro-purpnreo basi viridi, nervis viridibus costato, intus infra 
faucem discis 2 auriculaaformibus pubescentibus instructo, tubo brcvi 
intus villoso, labio superiore longissimo inferiore longiore ensiformi 
recto v. subrecurvo acuminato pallide brunneo costis Mavis, superiore 
longe unguiculato in lamina m amplam orbiculatam 2-fidam brunneo 
irroratam repente ampliato, staminibus 6. 

A. hians, Willd. in Mem. Soc. d. Nat. Mosc. vol. ii. (1809), p. 100, t. 5; 
Duchartre in DC. Prodr. vol. xv. pt. i. p. 472 ; N.J3. Broun in Gard. 
Chron. 1887, vol. i. p. 40. 

Howardia hians, Klotzsch in Monatsb. Bcrl. Acad. 1859, p. (!17. 

A near ally of A. brasiliensis, Mart, and Zucc. (A. orni- 
tJiocephala, Hook. Tab. nostr. 4120), -differing chiefly in 
the much longer upper lip of the perianth ; the flowers 
also are less brightly coloured. It is a native of Venezuela, 
whence there are specimens in the Kew Herbarium col- 
lected near Tovar by Fendler in 1854-5, and by E. Otto 
in 1859. There is also a specimen from South Brazil 
collected in St. Catharina by Fritz Mueller, which has by 
accident been in Martius's Flora Brasiliensis referred to 
A. brasiliensis. It may not be indigenous in S. Brazil. 
It has been long cultivated in Kew, and flowers in the 
months of August and September. The flowers emit a 
strong stench, as is the case with its allies. 

Descr. A lofty glabrous twining climber; stems terete. 
Leaves petioled, three to five inches in diameter, rounded- 
reniform, with a broad deep sinus and rounded auricles, 
bright green above, pale or subglaucous beneath, and 
closely reticulated ; petiole two to four inches long ; sti- 
pules one-half to one inch broad, sessile, reniform. /'/• 

axillary, solitary; peduncle three to five inches long. 
Utricle of perianth the form of the human stomach, two 
to two and a half inches long, green at the base, dirty 
purple beyond it with broad dull-green ribs, glandular 
within on the concave surface, and with two collateral 
suborbicular auricle-like pubescent disks or calli just 
within the throat on the opposite side to the glandular ; 
tube short, villous within ; upper lip five to eight inches 
long, sword-shaped, acuminate, slightly recurved, pale brown 
with broad yellow ribs ; lower lip clawed, the claw about 
one inch long by one-third of an inch broad, linear, keeled 
by a stout midrib, waved, clouded with brown and yellow, 
suddenly dilating into a suborbicular two-lobed limb three 
to four inches in diameter, which is yellowish reticulate 
with red -brown nerves on the under surface, and brown 
mottled with darker brown on the upper. Stamens six ; 
anthers obtuse. Capsule five inches long, clavate, nar- 
rowed into a long stipes. — /. D. II. 

Fig. 1, Ventricle and tube of perianth, laid open, showing the glandular 
surfaces, pubescent disks, and column of stamens ; 2, portion of the glandular 
surface ; 3, staminal column : — all but fig. 1 enlarged. 


Tab. 7074. 
EUCALYPTUS steicta. 

Native of New South Wales. 

Nat. Ord. Myetacej:. — Tribe Leptosperme^. 
Genus Eucalyptus, IS Her. ; (Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 707.) 

Eucalyptus (Ren antherae) strict a ; frntex v. arbor parva, foliis linearibus v. 
lineari-lanceolatis crassiusculis utrinque nitidis venis obscuris obliquis, 
pedunculis solitariis brevibus teretiusculis 4-8-floris, floribus parvis 
breviuscule pedicellatis, alabastris ovoideis, calyce vix £ poll, diam., 
operculo tubo breviore depresso-hemispherico v. conico granulato, sta- 
minibus calycem subasquantibus alabastro inflexis, antheris minutis 
globoso-renit'ormibus, loculis parallelis demum rimis divergentibus dehis- 
centibus, fructu -J poll. diam. globoso-truncata lsevi, oris margine acuta, 
valvis capsules inclusis. 

E. stricta, Sieber in Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post., p. 195 ; DC. Prodr. vol. iii. 

p. 218 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, vol. iii. p. 217 (excl. syn.). 
E. virgata, Sieher I. c. p. 195 ; DC. 1. c. p. 217. 
E. cneorifolia, DC. Mem. Myrt. t. 9. 
E. Luehmaniana, F. Muell. Fragm. Pliyt. vol. xi. p. 38. 

~Ro genus in the vegetable kingdom contains species 
more variable, or more difficult to define, than Eucalyptus, 
and of this E. stricta is a conspicuous example ; for 
amongst the many forms of it preserved in the Herbarium 
of Kew, and which present leaves varying from linear to 
elliptic-lanceolate, from two to five inches long, and from 
a quarter to upwards of half an inch broad, and from obtuse 
to acute or acuminate, there is none at all resembling that 
here figured in the slender long pendulous branches and 
very narrow flexuous leaves. These differences in characters 
and habit may, however, be attributed to the difference in 
respect of humidity of the Temperate House at Kew in 
which the specimen figured was grown, and the compara- 
tively dry climate of New South Wales. 

In his most valuable " Eucalyptographia," Baron von 
Mueller has discussed the intricate synonymy of this 
variable species, and corrects some of Mr. Bentham's 
observations, into the details of which it is not necessary 
to go here. Of these the most important point is that 
whereas in the Flora Australiensis E. stricta is referred to 

September 1st, 1889. 

the section Micrantherce, Mueller places it under his 
BenanthercB characterized by the anthers opening upwards 
by divergent slits. 

The present is the eighth species of the genus figured 
in the Botanical Magazine, the others being E. amygdalina, 
Lab., t. 3260; E. cocci/era, Hook, f., t. 4637; E. cornuta, 
Lab., t. 6140 ; E. macrocarpa, Hook., t. 4333 ; E. Preis- 
siana, Schau., t. 4266 ; E. pulverulenta, Sims, t. 2087; and 
E. splachuiearpa, Hook., t. 4036. Of these E. splachnicarpa 
is referable to E. caloplnjlla, Br. 

Eucalyptus stricta is a not uncommon shrub or small 
tree in New South Wales, and I gathered it myself on the 
road from Sydney to Botany Bay in 1841. It occurs from 
near the coast to an elevation of 4000 feet on the Blue 
Mountains, occasionally attaining a height of fifty feet in 
the lower levels, and a diameter of trunk of ten inches ; 
more often, however, it forms a bush or small tree three 
to twenty feet in height. The Colonial names for it, 
according to Bentham, are Muzzle-wood and Green-back 
Gum-tree, but Von Mueller confines the name of Muzzle- 
wood to E. stellulata. The wood makes a good fuel, and 
the tree yields a good deal of kino, an astringent resin 
which abounds in other species. The specimen here 
figured is from a plant about thirty feet high in the Tem- 
perate House at Kew, raised from seed probably sent by 
that indefatigable correspondent of the Gardens, Baron 
von Mueller.— J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Portion of leaf; 2, bud with operculum removed; 3, operculum; 
4 and 5, front and back view of stamen ; 6, calyx after the fall of the stamen ; 
7, fruit, from Herbarium specimens : — all but Jig. 7 enlarged. 


L Re ere >, 

Tad. 7075. 

Native of the Western Himalaya. 

Nat. Ord. Berberide.e. — Tribe Beeeeee^:. 
Genus Berberis, Linn.; (BentL et Kooh.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 43.1 

Berberis Zycium; frutex glaberrimus, ramulis gracilibus, spinis 3-fidis, 
foliis fascicolatis oblanceolatis apiculatis integerrimis rarius spinuloso- 
dentatis rigidiusculis subtus pallidis glancis, racemis gracilibus multi- 
flora, floribus gracile pedicellatis, sepalis 3 minutis 3 
interioribus petalja obovatia dimidio minoribus, baccia ellipsoideis sub- 
acutis, stylo brevi gracili, stigraate parvo pulvinato. 

B. Lycium, Boyle in, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xvii. p. 91, and III. Plant. Himal 
p. 64 (c.rrl. st/n.) ; Finch. Sf Hanburv Pliarmacoqr. p. 34 ; Dmiry Useful PI 
of India, p. 76; Brandis Fur. Fl. p. 12; Stewart Pan jab PI p 7- 
Hook.f Sf Thorns. Fl. Ind. p. 225 ; Rook.f Fl. Brit. In d. vol. i. p. HO. ' 

B. elegans, Hort. 

B. aurahuacensis, Hort. Froehel. 

A very interesting plant, the subject of a learned 
treatise by the late Dr. Boyle, published in the Transac- 
tions of the Linnean Society, in which it is shown to be 
one ^ of the species of Barberry that yields the Indian 
Lycium of Dioscorides. The latter author mentions two 
species of Lycium as used for diseases of the eyes, a 
Grecian and an Indian, of which the latter is the most 
efficacious; and the key to the identification of the Indian 
Lycium with the genus Berberis is the fact of Dioscorides 
giving it the Arabian name of llooziz, which is the equi- 
valent for the Hindoo Rusot, and this again is the name 
applied to the various Indian species of Berberis which are 
used in native practice for diseases of the eye. 

Referring to its use, Dr. Royle says, " The rusot is at 
the present day procurable in every bazaar in India, and 
is used by native practitioners, who are fond of applying 
it both in incipient and chronic inflammation of the eye, 
and in the latter state both simply and in combination 
with opium and alum. It is sometimes prescribed by 
European practitioners; and I have heard that it was 
found very efficacious by Mr. M'Dowell in the ophthalmia 
of soldiers who had returned from the expedition to 

September Lst, 1889. 

Egypt. I have myself occasionally prescribed it, and the 
native mode of application makes it peculiarly eligible in 
cases succeeding acute inflammation, when the eye remains 
much, swollen. The extract is by native practitioners in 
such cases rubbed into a proper consistence with a little 
water, sometimes with the addition of opium and alum, 
and applied in a thick layer over the swollen eyelids ; the 
addition of a little oil I have found preferable, as prevent- 
ing the too rapid desiccation. Patients generally express 
themselves as experiencing considerable relief from the 
application." To this may be added that it is a recog- 
nized drug of the Official Pharmacopoeia of India, and is 
used by natives in the treatment of fevers of all kinds, 
diarrhoea, dyspepsia, and general debility. 

A most interesting account of the history of the Indian 
Lycium is contained in the Pharmacographia of Fliickiger 
and Hanbury, where it is stated that it is mentioned by 
the author of the Periplus, who lived about the first century, 
as an export from the Indies, and that in the second century 
a duty was levied on it at the Roman custom house of 
Alexandria ; also that it was preserved in singular little 
jars which are now to be found in collections of Greek 

The other species of Indian Berberis employed for this 
purpose are B. aristata, asiatica, and nepalensis, and the 
drug is an extract of the wood of the stem and root, called 
in Hindoo medicine dar-huld. 

Berberis Lycium has a wide range in the Himalaya, 
from Kumaon westward to Kashmir, at elevations of 3000 
to 9000 feet, and has been also found beyond the Indus 
in the province of Hazara. The fruit, which is of a beautiful 
purple colour and covered with a delicate bloom, is eatable, 
and as I have been informed is exported in a dried state. 
In habit the species resembles B. vulgaris, also a Western 
Himalajran plant, but the leaves are coriaceous, the berries 
terete, of a very different colour, and the style is quite 
distinct. The specimen figured is from a plant growing 
in the arboretum of the Royal G-ardens, which flowers in 
June and fruits in September. — J. D. 1L 

Fig. 1, Flower ; 2, petal and stamen ; 3, anther dehisced ; 4, ovary ; 5 seed •■ 
-all enlarged. 







*S§ l^jR! ^" 

I ^ 




Tab. 7076. 
EREMURUS himalaicus. 

Native of the Western Himalayas. 

Nat. Ord. LiLiACEiE. — Tribe Asphodele.ze. 
Genua Eremurus, M. Bleb. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 787.) 

Eremeri'S liimalaicus ; fibris radicalibus carnosis, foliis lanceolatis bipedalibus 
ilaccidis obscure ciliatis, pedunculo stricto foliis duplo longiori, racemo 
denso 1-2-pedali, pedicellis strictis flore longioribus apice articnlatis, 
bracteis parvis lineari-subulatis, periantbii segmentis oblongis albis dis- 
tincte fusco-vittatis, genitalibus perianthio asquilongis, seminibus brunneis 
acute angulatis. 

E. himalaicns, Baker in Jburn. Linn. Soc. vol. xv. p. 283 ; Begel Descr. fasc. ix. 
p. 30; Gard. Chron. N. S. 1881, vol. i. p. 50, tig. 11. 

About thirty species of this fine genus are now known, 
at least twenty of which have been discovered during the 
last generation in Central Asia. The present is the only 
species known in the Himalayas, and it is perfectly distinct 
from E. Olgce of Turkestan, which Dr. Regel has doubted. 
It is a very striking plant, reaching a height of six or 
seven feet, with hundreds of pure white flowers, with 
segments narrowly banded with brown. Although it is 
widely spread in the "Western Himalayas, at a height from 
seven thousand to ten thousand feet above sea-level, and 
produces seed freely, it does not appear to have been 
introduced into cultivation till within the last ten years. 
It was flowered by the late Rev. H. Harpur Crewe in 1881. 
Our drawing was made in the herbaceous ground at Kew 
last June. Mr. W. E. Gumbleton, who has cultivated 
several of the species in the south-west of Ireland, informs 
us that this is the first of all of them to come into flower, 
beginning, with him, at the middle of May. 

Descr. Root-fibres fleshy, cylindrical, densely fascicled. 
Leaves many in a dense radical rosette, lanceolate, flaccid, 
obscurely ciliated, reaching a length of two feet or more. 
Peduncle terete, stiffly erect, twice as long as the leaves, 
bearing only a few empty bracts, llaccme dense, one or 
two feet long, three or four inches in diameter when fully 
expanded; pedicels ascending or spreading, articulated 

September 1st, 1889. 

at the tip, the lower an inch or more long ; bracts small, 
linear-subulate. Expanded floicer an inch in diameter ; 
segments oblong, pure white, with a distinct one-nerved 
keel of brown. Stamens as long as the perianth-segments ; 
filaments filiform ; anthers small, oblong, yellow. Ovary 
globose ; style as long as the stamens. Capsule subglobose, 
half an inch in diameter. Seeds brown, acutely angled. — 
J. G. Baker. 

Fig. 1, Bract ; 2, front view of anther ; 3, back view of anther ; 4, pistil : — 
all enlarged. 

Tab. 7077. 

Native of the Eastern Himalaya. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide.5:. — Tribe Vande^e. 
Genus Arachnanthe, Blume ; (Benth. et BZooTc.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 572.) 

Abachnantue Clarkei; caule stibcompresso, foliis loratis apice 2-lobis lobis 
rotundatis, pedunculo foliis breviore robusto 2-3-flore vaginis appressis, 
iioribus amplis aurantiacis cinnamomeo fasciatis, sepalo dorsali erecto 
elongato lineari sursum sensim ampliato obtuso,_ lateralibus petalisque 
consimilibus sed falcato-decurvis, labelli pallide cinnamomei _ aurantiaco 
Btriati breviter unguiculati lobis lateralibus rotundatis incurvis, terminali 
subquadrato 3-fido, disco lamellato 7-9-carinato. 

A. Clarkei, Bolfe in Gard. Chron. 1888, vol. ii. p. 567. 

Esmeralda Clarkei, Beichb. f. in Gard. Chron. 1886, vol. ii. p. 552. 

Vanda Clarkei, JV. E. Br. in Kew Bull. 1888, p. 112. 

The genus Arachnanthe was established by Blume in 
his beautiful work, " Rumphia," where it replaces his 
older name of Arachnis, published in the Bijdragen, which 
he proposed for the Epidendrum Flos Aeris of Linnaeus, 
and to which he gave the name of Arachnis moschifera. 
The latter is a magnificent Orchid supposed to be a native 
of Japan, being figured in Koempfer's Amoenitates 
(p. 868), but which is more probably only cultivated in 
that archipelago. It has been collected in Borneo, Java, 
and in the Malay Peninsula, at Perak, by the collectors sent 
by Dr. King from the Calcutta Botanical Gardens. 

The nearest ally of A. Clarlei is A. Gathcarti (Benth. 
in Gren. Plant, iii. 573), the Vanda Cathcarti, Hook. 1, 
figured in this work (Tab. 5845), upon which Reichenbach 
founded the genus Esmeralda, distinguishing it from Vanda 
by the lip being articulate with the column and mobile. 
To this character may be added the flat leaves of a flaccidly 
coriaceous consistence, and twisted at the base so as to 
lie all in one place. In the true Vandas the leaves are, 
when not terete, typically rigidly coriaceous, recurved 
and keeled. Bentham was the first to reduce Esmeralda 

September 1st, 1889. 

to Arachnanthe, adding to it Vanda Lowii (Tab. ">I7 : i) 
and the genera, ArJnj rich in in, Lindl. in Paxt. Fl. Gard. vol. i. 
p. 142 (RenahtheraHlinguiSylleichb. f. Xen. Orchid, vol. i. 
p. 88 and 240, t. 4), and J . Breda (Aerides Seulingi, 

Blume). To these there is to be added a very fine species 
discovered by the late Dr. Maingay in Malacca, and which 
I propose to call A. Maingayi. It has flowers two inches 
in diameter, in spreading panicles sometimes three feet 
loog, and broadly obovate lateral sepals ; its colours are 
not recorded, but it is no doubt well worth cultivation. 

Arachnanthe Clarlcei was discovered by the indefatigable 
botanist whose labours it commemorates, in the Sikkim 
Himalaya at an elevation of 6000 feet (not 8000, as stated 
by Reichenbach). There are two beautiful figures of it 
made in Sikkim in a collection of Orchid drawings kindly 
lent by Dr. King, of the Calcutta Botanical Gardens; a 
third of a flower alone, in the Kew collection of drawings, 
was made by the late Dr. Jerdon, and marked as from 
Bhotan and the Khasia Hills (the latter I should think 
very doubtful) ; a fourth occurs in a collection of drawings 
(also belonging to the Calcutta Botanical Gardens) made 
by the late Mr. Simons in the Bhotan Hills. The specimen 
figured flowered in the Royal Gardens, Kew, in September 
of last year, and was received from Mr. Pantling, who 
collected it in Sikkim.— J. D. II. 

Fig. 1, Lip ; 2, column ; 3, anther ; 4 and 5, pollinia, with their remarkable 
strap : — all enlarged. 


L/Rae ■ anebon.. 

San frnp 

Tab. 7078. 

Native of Singapore. 

Nat. Ord. Liliace^. — Tribe Deacvexe.Tl. 
Genus Dkaosha, Linn.; {Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 779.) 

DeaCjKNA marmorata ; fruticosa, caule elongato simplici, foliis sessilibns lan- 
ceolatis magnis confertis recurvatis plicatis albo-marmoratis, floribus in 
pamculam angustam ramis brevibus ascendentibus dense racemosis dis- 
poses, pedieellis brevibus medio articulatis, bracteis brevibus suborbicu- 
laribus, perianthii segmentis tubo cylindrico longioribus, staminibu8 
segmentis aequilongis. 

This fine new tropical species of Dracaena was received 
in a living state at Xew in 1882 from the Botanic 
Garden of Singapore. It flowered with us for the first 
time in the early months of 1888. It is allied to D. 
arborea, Stnithii and Cardleyi, the last a new species 
named after and discovered by the late Mr. Cantley, for 
some time Curator of the Singapore Garden, which has 
not yet been introduced into cultivation in Europe. The 
most striking characteristic of the present plant from a 
horticultural point of view is its very large sessile plicate 
bright green leaves, copiously marbled with white. Our 
drawing was made from the plant that flowered in the 
ralm House at Kew. 

Djescb. Stem simple, elongated. Leaves crowded, sessile, 
lanceolate, recurved, plicate, bright green, copiously 
marbled with white, reaching a length of three feet and a 
breadth of nearly four inches at the middle, with a midrib 
which is very distinct towards the base but lost towards 
the tip. Panicle narrow, erect, reaching a length of one 
and a half or two feet, with many short erecto-patent 
densely racemose branches ; pedicels a quarter or a third 
ol an inch long, not more than two in a cluster ; bracts 
pniaJl suborbicular. Perianth greenish-white, under an 
mch long; tube subcylindrical ; segments twice as lono- as 

OtTOBE?t 1st, 1889. 

the tube. Stamens as long as the perianth-segments, in- 
serted at the throat of the tube. Style with ovary finally 
an inch long; stigma capitate. — J. G. Bar 

Fig. 1, An unexpanded flower ; 2, perianth cut open, with stamens ; 3, flower 
complete; 4, pistil:— all enlarged. 


7mcerttBrocKS,^aY 5 

on imp 

L Reeve & C c . London. 

Tab. 7079. 

A. PRIMULA pusilla. 

B. PRIMULA petiolabis, var. nana. 

Natives of the Himalaya. 

Nat. Ord. Primulaceje. — Tribe Primule^e. 
Genus Primula, Linn.; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 631.) 

A. Primula pusilla ; parvula, dense caaspitosa, foliis rosnlatis patenti- 
recurvis spathulatis oblanceolatisve obtusis pinnatifido-dentatis denti- 
bus recurvis supra canis subtns puberulis, costa crassa, scapo gracili, 
floribns capitatis, bracteis ovato-lanceolatis calycibusque asquilongis 
glauduloso-farinaceis, calyce ad medium 5-fido lobis acutis erectis corolla3 
tubum brevem aequantibus, corollas purpureae lobis patentibus obcordatis 
f auce dense villosa, staminibus basi tubi insertis, ovario depresso globoso, 
stylo incluso.. 

P. pusilla, Wall, in Soxb. Fl. Ind. Ed. Carey $ Wall. vol. ii. p. 22 ; Wall. 

Cat. No. 609 ; Tent. Fl. Nep. t. 32 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vol. iii. p. 492 ; 

Duby in DC. Prodr. vol. viii. p. 42 ; Mem. Prim. t. 1, f. 2. 
P. hnmilis, Steud. Nomencl. Fd. ii. p. 395. 
Androsace primuloides, Don Prodr. Fl. Nep. p. 81. 
A. primulina, Spreng. Syst. Veg. Cur. post. p. 56. 

A very common plant in moist situations in the Alpine 
region of the Himalaya, at elevations of 13,000 to 
16,000 feet, from the province of Kumaon eastwards to 
Sikkim, and it no doubt extends theDce into Bhotan, and 
possibly into the Alps of Western China. Forming con- 
siderable tufts, its sapphire-blue flowers are very attractive. 
Unlike so many of its congeners, it is remarkable for its 
never varying from the type here figured throughout its 
wide range of distribution; and may always be distin- 
guished from its many dwarf Himalayan allies by the thick 
ring of woolly hairs at the mouth of the corolla-tube. The 
plant figured was raised at Kew from seeds sent by the 
Director of the Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta, in 
1886, and it flowered in May, 1888. It may be well to 
mention that it must not be confounded with the North 
American P. pusilla of Goldie (Tab. nost. 3620), published 
a very few years earlier than Wsllich.'s pusilla, and which is 

October 1st, 1889. 

rightly referred to the earlier published P. mlstasslnica, 
Mich. (Tab. nosfc. 2973), itself placed by many authors 
under the widely distributed P.farinosa, L. — J. D. 11. 

B. P. petiolaris; glabra v. pnberula interdum farinosa, foliis dense rosulatis 
membranaceis polymorpbis erosis dentatis crenulatisve sessilibus v. petio- 
latis, floribus longiuscule pedicellatis sessilibus v. in scapum umbellatis, 
calycis dentibus acutis, corolla? alba? rosea? v. pallide purpurea? tubo infun- 
dibulari calyce longiore, ore obscure annulato, limbi plani lobis obcordatis 
rotundatisve emarginatis 2-tidis crenatis dentatisve, ovario globoso acuto, 
capsula globosa calycis tubo dilatato immersa, seminibus majusculis 
subglobosis atris papillosis. 

P. petiolaris, Wall, in Roxh. Fl. Ind. Ed. Carey $( Wall, vol ii. p. 22 ; Tent. 
Fl. Nepal, t. 31 ; Cat. No. 603 ; Duly in DC. Prodr. vol. viii. p. 37 ; 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind, vol. iii. p. 493. P. tridentata, Don Prodr. Fl. 
Xep. p. 77. P. sessilis, Boyle mas. 

Var. nana, Hook. f. I. c. ; foliis sessilibus v. breviter petiolatis obovato- 
oblongis v. spathulatis, scapo v. brevissimo, corolla) lobis obcordatis 
iutegris v. dentatis. 

P. nana, Wall. I. c. p. 23 ; Cat. No. 212. ? Primula, Griff. Ic. Plant. Asiat. 
t. 485, i. 2. 

One of the commonest and most variable Primroses in 
India, or perhaps in the world, abounding under innumer- 
able forms throughout the Himalaya, at elevations of 8000 
to 14,000 feet from Garwhal to Bhotan ; varying from a 
dwarf alpine no bigger than a penny piece with sessile 
leaves and flowers, to a coarse herb with long-petioled 
spathulate obovate or orbicular-cordate leaves a span long, 
and umbelled flowers on a stout scape; add to this that 
some forms are glabrous, others have the young parts 
clothed with bright sulphur-coloured meal, and that the 
corolla varies in length of tube from one-sixth to two- 
thirds of an inch, and its limb from one-third to one and 
a half inch broad, with lobes entire crenate toothed and 
even lacerate. The variety here figured is referable to 
the form I have called nana, in which, however, the 
corolla-lobes are more often deeply toothed ; it is found 
throughout the range of the species at elevations of 10,000 
to 14,000 feet, and flowers in spring. The Royal Gardens 
are indebted to Professor Michael Foster, F.R.S., for plants 
of var. nana, which flowered in April of the present year.— 
J. 1). II. 

Ficr. A. P. pusilla. Fig. 1, leaf under-surface ; 2, flower; 3, calyx and 
bract ; 4, corolla laid open ; 5, ovary : — all enlarged. . 

Fig. B. P. petiolaris, var. nana. Fig. 1, bracts and pedicels; I, cayx, 
3, corolla laid open; 4, ovary -.—all enlarged. 



Tab. 7080. 
FRITILLARIA bucharica. 

Native of Central Asia. 

Nat. Ord. Liliace,£. — Tribe Tulipe.e. 
Genus Fbitillaria, Linn. ; {Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 817.) 

Fbitillaria (S/iinopetalum) bucharica ; bulbo globoso squamis panois car- 
nosis ovatis, caule tereti ad apicem foliato, foliis pluribua sessilibus lan- 
ceolatis alternis, racemo laxo plurifloro, pedicel is ascendentibus flore 
Bubaequilongis, bracteis magnis foliaceis linearibus vel lanceolatis, peri- 
antbio campanulato albo-viridulo segmentis oblongis, nectario basali 
magno lineari viridulo, staminibus periantbio duplo brevioribus, antheris 
oblon^is, filamentis puberulis, ovario apice 6-cornuto, stylo cylindrico 
ovario aequilongn, stigmate capitate 

F. bucharica, Hegel Descr. Plant. Nov. fuse. ix. t. 3 ; Gartenfl. vol. xxxiii. 
p. 321, t. 1171. 

This is another of the many interesting hardy bulbous 
plants which have been brought into cultivation by the 
recent Russian explorers in Central Asia. It was discovered 
by Albert Regel in Eastern Bokhara, at elevations of 4000 to 
0000 feet, and belongs to the small sub-genus Bhinopetalum, 
which is distinguished from the true Fritillaries by its 
pale untessellated flowers, entire style, and deeply im- 
pressed nectarial foveoles, which sometimes project on the 
back of the segments of the perianth, so as to resemble a 
rudimentary horn. The other species of the same sub- 
genus are F. Karelini (Plate 6406) and F. Seiverzoivi (Plate 
0371). Our drawing was made from a plant which was 
flowered by Mr. Elwes at Cirencester last April. 

Descu. Bulb globose, formed of several fleshy ovate 
white scales. Stem terete, about a foot long. Leaves 
many, sessile, alternate, lanceolate, three or four inches 
long. Inflorescence a lax many-flowered raceme ; pedicels 
ascending, about as long as the flowers; bracts large, 
foliaceous, linear or lanceolate. Perianth greenish-white, 
campanulate, under an inch long, not at all tessellated; 
segments oblong, with a large deeply impressed greenish 
linear nectarial foveole. Stamens half as long as the 

Octobeb 1st, 1889. 

perianth; anthers oblong; filaments pubescent. Ovary 
with six horns at the apex ; style entire, subulate, as long 
as the ovary; stigma capitate. — J. 0. Baker. 

Fig. 1, Perianth-segment, viewed from inside; 2, front view of stamen ; 3, 
buck view of stamen; -4, pistil complete : — all more or less enlarged. 


^csat Brooks Tjay&Soal 

LUeeve & C ? london. 

Tab. 7081. 

iris paeadoxa. 

Native of the Caucasus and Northern Persia. 

Nat. Ord. Ibidem. — Tribe^. 
Genus Iris, Linn. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 686.) 

Iris (Oncoci/chts) paradoxa; rhizomate breviter repente, foliia linearibus 
glaucis confertis, caule monocenhalo foliis breviori, spatbaj valvis mem- 
branaceis, penanthn tubo brevi, segmentis exterioribus patulis, limbo 
brevissimo, ungue diffuse barbato, segmentis interioribus magnis erectis 
obovatis breviter unguiculatis, styli ratnis dorso convexis cristis apicali- 
bus parvis deltoideis, antheris linearibus filamentis longioribus. 

I. paradoxa. Steven in Mem. Soc. Natur. Mosc. vol. v. p. 355 • M. Bieb Fl 

!*?£ ^T V -° l £ l P ' 41 ; LedelK FL Ross - voL iY - P- 105 J Reaei Gartenfl. 
t. 386, B. 3 ; in Trans. Sort. Soc. Buss. 1863, t. 42, fig. 3 ; The Garden, 
vol. xxxii. p. 584, cum Ic. ; Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xvi. p 142 

i This very curious Iris has long been known in cultiva- 
tion, but is still very rare. It closely resembles its better 
known neighbour Iris iberica (Bot. Mag. tab. 5847) in 
habit, leaves, and the inner segments of the perianth, 
which in both species vary in colour from white to lilac ; 
but the outer segments of the perianth are quite peculiar 
and different from that of any other Iris in being reduced 
to a mere tip and narrow margin to the diffusely-bearded 
claw. All the species of the sub-genus Oncocydus are re- 
stricted to the arid regions of Western Asia, one or other 
of them extending all the way from the borders of Egypt 
northward to the Caucasus. Our drawing was made from 
a plant flowered by Mr. R. I. Lynch at the Cambridge 
Botanical Gardens last May. It also flowered at Kew at 
about the same time. 

Descr. Bootstock short. Produced leaves four or five, 
crowded at the base of the flowering stem, linear,' 
glaucous, at most half a foot long. Flowering stem 
one-headed, terete, shorter than the leaves. Spathe-valoes 
large, ventricose, oblong, greenish-white, withered at the 

October 1st, 1889. 

tip at the flowering time. Pedicel and perianth-tube 
short ; ovary cylindrical ; outer segments of the perianth 
spreading horizontally, about an inch long, copiously 
veined with brownish-black on a pale brown groundwork, 
reduced to a mere tip and margin to the diffusely-bearded 
claw ; inner segments of the perianth erect, large, lilac or 
white, obovate, narrowed suddenly to a short claw. Style- 
branches very convex on the back; apical crests small, 
deltoid. Anthers linear, longer than the filaments. — J. G. 

Fig. 1, Front view of stamen ; 2, back view of stamen ; 3, apex of style- 
arm, with stigma and crests -.—all enlarged. 



I Reeve & C°Iondon. 

Tab. 7082. 
shortia oalacifolia. 

Native of Carolina. 

Nat. Ord. Diapensiace-s;. — Tribe Gaxacine.e. 
Genus Shortia, Torr. Sf Gr. ; {Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PL vol. ii. p. 620.) 

Shortia galacifolia ; glaberrima, casspitosa, foliis longe petiolatis orbiculari- 
bus v. basi subcordatis repando-denticulatis lticidis, scapis perplurimis 
foliis lonpfioribus supra medium vaginatis rubris 1-floris, floribus nutanti- 
bus 1-2-bracteatis, braeteis calycibusque rubris, sepalis oblougis obtusis 
erectis, corolla infundibulari-campanulata alba, lobis ovato-oblongis 
grosse crenatis, filamentis crassis tubo corollas adnatis apicibus liberis, 
antheris incurvis horizontalibus, counectivo lato crasso, loculis marginali- 
bus augustis, staminodiis basin fere tubi corolla? insertis ovatis inflexis 
villosis, ovario glaberrimo, stylo recto persistente, stigmateminuto 3-lobo 

S. galacifolia, Torr. Sf_ Gr. in Amer. Journ, Se. vol. xliii. p. 48 ; Ser. ii. vol. 
xlv. p. 402 ; Ser. iii. vol. xvi. p. 483 ; Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. viii. 
p. 246; in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. vi. vol. vii. p. 171, t. 15; Synopt. Flor. 
N. Am. vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 53 and 399; Spraque Sf Goodale, Wild Fl. 
of N.Am. p. 107, t. 24; Masters in Gard. Chron. 1881, vol. i. p. 596, 
fig. 109 ; Sargent in Garden and Forest, 1888, p. 506, fig. 80. 

One of the most interesting of North American plantss 
on account of its history, its great rarity, and of the 
geographical distribution of the genus to which it belongs, 
which consists of only two species, the present and an 
almost undistinguishable congener, a native of Japan. 
Shortia is thus one of the most striking proofs of that 
kinship of the Floras of Eastern Temperate Asia and 
Eastern North America, to the exclusion of Western 
America, through the study of which Asa Gray has thrown 
so much light on the past history of the vegetation of the 
northern hemisphere. 

The following history of Shortia galacifolia is from the 
pen of Professor Sargent, as published in the Garden and 
Forest. " The great interest of Shortia is found in the 
history of this plant during the past century, and in the 
fact that of all the plants studied and described and 
classified by Asa Gray, this little herb most excited his 
interest. . . . Professor Gray was in Europe in 1839, and 
when examining the Herbarium of the elder Michaux, 
October 1st, 1889. 

preserved in the Museum at Paris, he found an unnamed 
specimen of a plant, with the habit of a Pyrola and the 
foliage of Galax, of which only the leaves and a single 
fruit were preserved, and which had been collected, the 
label stated, in the Haute* Montagues de Garolinie. This 
specimen at once arrested his attention, and after his 
return two years later from his first botanical journey in 
the Carolina Mountains, where he had searched in vain for 
Michaux's plant, he ventured to describe it, and to point 
out its probable affinities, dedicating it to Dr. C. W. Short, 
the author of a Catalogue of the plants of Kentucky." 

" Nothing more was seen of Shortia for a long time, 
although no botanists ever visited the mountains of 
Carolina, and the number in 1866 was considerable, with- 
out carrying a special commission from Cambridge to 
bring back a specimen of Michaux's little plant, in which 
Dr. Gray's interest became stronger than ever, when, 
studying in 1858 a collection of Maximovicz's Japan plants, 
he recognized in that botanist's Schizocodon uniflorus 
another species of Shortia, almost identical with the Carolina 
plant. These specimens, while they confirmed the validity 
of the genus, threw no further light on the Carolina plant, 
which botanists now hunted for more assiduously than 
ever in all the region in which Michaux was supposed to 
have travelled." 

In fine, " the search was given up as almost hopeless, 
when, in May 1887, Shortia was found accidentally by a 
youth upon the banks of the Catawba river, near the 
town of Marion, in McDowell County, N. Carolina, at a 
considerable distance from the high mountains to which 
Michaux's label assigned the plant." 

Professor Sargent then proceeds to give an account of 
his own re-discovery of Shortia in Michaux's original 
habitat, to which he was led for the purpose of gaining 
some insight into the origin of Michaux's Magnolia cordata. 
It was during a journey of Michaux's to get roots of this 
latter plant that he visited the head waters of the Keowee, 
and, though weakened by sickness and hunger, he pro- 
ceeded to explore the mountains. On the day of his 
arrival he discovered what he called a nouvel arbuste a. f. 
denteles rampant sur la Montague. Beading Micbaux s 
mss. Journal preserved in the Library of the American 

Philosophical Society, this note of Michaux's interested 
Professor Sargent, and he determined to hunt for the 
arbuste as well as for the Magnolia, little suspecting what 
the former would prove to be. After finding the spot 
where Michaux had camped in December, 1788, and 
following a path that the old traveller must have traversed 
just 100 years before, he discovered the arbuste with 
denticulate leaves, and this to be no other than Shortia 

Soon after the re-discovery of Shortia by Mr. Hyam, it 
was widely distributed in America; for, as Professor 
Sargent tells us, "that enterprising young man reaped a 
rich harvest during a year or two by selling plants (and 
it is to be feared by exterminating them) at extravagant 
prices." The credit of flowering it for the first time in 
England is due to our indefatigable correspondent, Mr. 
Elwes, who received plants of it from Professor Sargent, 
and to whom the Royal Gardens are indebted for that here 
figured, which was exhibited at the Royal Horticultural 
Society's Exhibition in the spring of this year. Plants of 
it have also flowered at Kew, received from Mr. F. L. 
Temple, of Shady-hill Nurseries, Cambridge, U.S.A. 

As an object of garden culture Shortia will no doubt prove 
a favourite, for it appears to be easily grown and readily 
propagated. A specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Elwes 
early in this year was planted under a clump of Scotch 
firs in a peaty soil near Sunningdale, and has thriven 
luxuriantly, side by side with Liuncea borealis and Trien- 
talis europcea. The flowers have been described as 
rose-coloured, but they are correctly figured as pure 
white in Sprague and Goodale's " Wild Flowers of North 
America;" and so they are in the specimens that have- 
flowered in England. The leaves turn a deep port- wine 
red in autumn, and nothing can exceed the charm of 
the abundant drooping snowdrop-like flowers on red 
scapes as they appear amongst the deep green shining 
spring foliage. — J. D. //. 

Fig. 1, Calyx; 2, corolla laid open; 3, staminode; 4, atamea ; 5, ovary; 
6, transverse section of do. :- all enlarged. 



^ucerlBrooks.Dc^^Son &np 

Tab. 7083. 
CARLUDOVICA rotundifolia. 

Native of Costa llica. 

Nat. Or J. Cyclanthaceje. — Tribe Cabi/odovicbje. 
Genus Carludovica, Buiz fy Pav.; {Benth.ct Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 953.) 

Carltjdovica rotundifolia ; foliorum lamina 4 ped. diametr. semi-orbiculari 
basi cordata fere 3-partita v. segmento medio fisso 4-partita, segmentis 
multifidis, petiolo 6-8-pedali tenuiter furfuraceo, scapo pedali, spadice 
8 poll, longo cylindraceo, fl. masc. compresso cuneato, staminibus innu- 
meris, fl. fcem. perianthii minuti segmentis ovatis apiculatis, stami- 
nodiis longissimi8 gracillimis tortis, stylis depresso-globosis radiantibns, 
stigmatibus pulvinatis, syncarpio 6-8 pollicari decurvo cylindraceo. 

C. rotundifolia, Wendland mss. 

This noble species is nearly allied io the well-known C. 
palmata. (of the leaves of which Panama hats are manu- 
factured), from which it differs in its much larger size, the 
leaf being at least four feet broad, and the petiole six to 
nine feet high, as against a leaf hardly three feet broad, and 
a petiole four feet high in G. palmata; moreover, the latter 
again, which is smooth, glossy, and little over one-third of an 
inch in diameter in C. palmata, is in this nearly two-thirds 
of an inch in diameter, and of a dull green, opaque, and 
covered with a very thin coat of furfuraceous pubes- 
cence that is very fugacious. Traces of a similar pubes- 
cence are to be found out at the top of the very young 
petiole of G. palmata. Then again the spadix, which in the 
last-named species is only four inches long, in this is eight 
inches with a scape nearly an inch in diameter. Lastly, 
the staminodes of G. palmata are very stout, and only one 
inch long, whereas those of the present species are filiform, 
and at least six inches long. 

In the above comparison I have relied for the characters 
of G. palmata upon the beautiful figures and description 
given by Drude in Martiu's Flora of Brazil, Cyclanth. 
p. 234, t. 54 and 55, fig. 2. The name palmata is, how- 
ever, probably very loosely applied, and to more than one 
species of Garlndorira, for specimens so named, received 
from the Botanical Gardens of Jamaica, are undoubtedly ( '. 

November 1st. 18bP. 

G. rotundi/olia was received by the Royal Gardens from 
Dr. Wendland, Director of the Herrenhausen Gardens, 
which are perhaps the richest in Europe in Cyclanthacece 
and Palms. It is a native of Costa Rica, and flowered in 
the Palm House at Kew for the first time in 1876. 

Descr. Leaves very many from the root ; petiole eight to 
nine feet high and two-thirds of an inch in diameter, nearly 
terete, dark green clothed with a minute furfuraceous 
evanescent pubescence ; blade of leaf four feet and up- 
wards in diameter, half-orbicular, base cordate, three- 
partite or through the fission of the middle segment four- 
partite ; segments broadly cuneate, margin multifid, the 
lobules one inch in diameter, acuminate, bright and shiny 
green above, three-nerved and opaque beneath, the lateral 
nerves towards the outer margin of the middle segment. 
Scape about a foot high, strict, erect in flower, nearly one 
inch in diameter. Spadix eight inches long, densely clothed 
with interlaced tortuous very slender staminodes six to 
eight inches long. Male flowers about half an inch long, 
broadly cuneiform, compressed ; perianth segments many, 
very minute, ovate, apiculate; stamens minute, erect, 
crowded ; filaments very short ; anthers linear- oblong. 
Fern, flowers confluent ; perianth segments four, minute, 
ovate, apiculate. Styles four, depressed, obliquely and 
gibbously globose or ovoid, each crowned with a pulvinate 
stigma. Fruiting spadix seven inches long by one and a 
half broad, decurved, terete, tessellate, greenish-brown 
without, bright orange-red within ; fruits cohering in a 
mass which breaks away from the scarlet pitted axis, 
exposing the ripe carpels in a fleshy bright orange-red mass. 
—J. B. H. 

Fig. 1, Male flower ; 2, perianth segments of male ; 3 and 4, anthers ; 5, fern, 
flower with one staminode ; 6, the same more advanced and the staminodes 
cut away : — all enlarged. 


M.S. del, J.N.Fitdi.Iitlu 


L Reeve & C° London. 

Tab. 7084. 
IRIS Bakeriana. 

Native of Armenia. 

Nat. Ord. Ibidem. — Tribe Mobjee.e. 
Genus Ieis, Linn. ; (Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 686.) 

Iris (Xiphion) Bakeriana ; bulbo ovoideo tunicis fibroso-reticulatis, foliis 3-4 
subulatis mucronatis cavis glaucescentibna conspicue 8-costatis vagina 
membranacea communi vestitis, floribus solitariis subsessilibns, spathis 
elongatis cylindricis, valvis lanceolatis apice membranaceis, perianthii tubo 
elongato exserto, segmentis exterioribus lamina ovata retlexa sursnm et 
margine saturate violacea deorsum pallida punctis par vis violaceis 
decorata et linea lutea carinata ungue ascendente triplo breviori, seg- 
mentis interioribus oblanceolatis lilacinis, styli cristis magnis sub- 

This beautiful new species is a native of Armenia, and 
for its discovery we are indebted to the Rev. Gr. F. Gates, 
of the American Mission. It flowers in February and 
March, and some, if not all the blooms are strongly and 
delightfully fragrant, with the odour of violets. It comes 
very near I. reticulata, but the cylindrical, not tetragonal, 
leaves clearly differentiate it as a distinct species. As 
minor differences may be noted the absence of any marked 
crest or ridge on the fall, the more ovate and more pointed 
blade of the fall and the flange at its base. The coloura- 
tion, though approached by that of the variety of reticulata 
known as cyanea, is very distinct. I am convinced that 
when it becomes well known it will prove a great favourite. 
This and the fact of morphological interest, that though 
so closely allied to reticulata, it differs in not possessing 
what we were led to regard as a fundamental character of 
reticulata, the tetragonal leaves, have led me to name it 
after one who has done so much to advance our knowledge 
of Iris, my friend, Mr. J. Gr. Baker. The drawing was 
made from plants that flowered at Shelford in February 
and March. 

Descr. Bulb small, ovoicl, the outer coats formed of 
strong parallel fibres connected by short oblique meshes. 
November 1st, 1889. 

Lea res three or four to a bulb, subulate, hollow, furnished 
with eight conspicuous ridges in long spirals, glaucous 
green, a fifth of an inch in diameter, six or nine inches 
long at the flowering time, finally a foot or more long, 
furnished as in /. reticulata with a horny tip, and the 
whole invested at the base with a membranous sheath. 
Flower single, with only a short peduncle buried during 
flowering but subsequently raising the ripe capsule to 
the surface of the soil ; spathe cylindrical ; valves un- 
equal, lanceolate, greenish by reason of their conspicuous 
green veins. Perianth-tube about three inches long, ex- 
serted a little from the spathe. Outer segments with a 
long obovate-elliptical claw, separated by a constriction 
from the small reflexed ovate blade. The blade is in the 
upper half and on its edges an intense pure violet in the 
lower part is marked with small violet spots on a creamy- 
white ground, and is furnished with an inconspicuous yellow 
streak not raised into a ridge ; the latter is prolonged down 
the claw; this latter is marked by oblique parallel lilac streaks 
on a pale ground. Inner segments rather shorter, erect, 
oblanceolate, plain lilac. Style-bra, iches an inch long; 
crests large, subquadrate, lilac. Anthers violet, equal in 
length to the filaments ; pollen yellow.— M. Fatter. 

Fig. 1. Section of the leaf; 2, face of anther; 3, back of anther; 4, branch 
of style : — all enlarged. 



lucent Brooks Day &Soxi,Iiup. 

Tab. 7085. 

xylobium leontoglossum. 
Native of New Grenada. 

Xat. Ord. Orchides. — Tribe Yande^e. 
Genus Maxillaria, Lindl.; (Benth. et Soolc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 547.) 

XTLOBTDK leontoglossum ; pseudobulbis confertis fusiformibus, folio petiolato 
elliptico-lanceolato acuto plicato, scapo robusto vaginato inclinato, 
vaginis laxis acutis, racemo oblongo v. cylindraceo nutante densifloro, 
bracteis minutis triangularibus, pedicellis breviasimis, floribus flavis rubro- 
pnnctatis, sepalo dorsali oblongo acuto, lateralibus oblongo-lanceolatis 
basi gibbis, mento rotundato, labelli oblongi lobis lateralibus angustis 
apice rotundatis apicibus loboque terminali rotundato carnoso granulatis, 
disco hypochili 3-carinato. 

X. leontoglossum, Benth. in Gen. Plant, vol. iii. p. 547 ; Bolfe in Gard. Chron. 
1889, i. 458. 

Maxillaria leontoglossa, Beiehb. f. in Bonpland. vol. iii. p. 67 ; Wain. Ann. 
vi. 509. 

Xylobium, Lindl., is an offshoot of the vast American 
assemblage of Orchids formerly included under Maxillaria. 
It was proposed by Lindley in 1823 for the reception of 
his Maxillaria squalens (Dendrobium squalens, Bot. Reg. 
t. 732), and the sole character given was, that there were 
only two pollen-masses. Later, in 1832, in an enumeration 
of Maxillarieai under M. decolor (Bot. Reg. t. 1549), 
Lindley reduced his Xylobium to a section of Maxillaria, 
characterized by the superior lip alone, nothing being said 
of the pollen ; and in the same year, in the " Genera et 
Species Orchidearum," its reduction is upheld on the same 

In this Magazine my predecessor, in describing M. 
squalens (Plate 2955), observes that Xylobium differs in 
no way from Maxillaria; and Reichenbach in Walper's 
Annales characterizes it as a section of Maxillaria, by the 
spicate inflorescence alone, paying no regard to the foliage, 
position of the lip, or pollen. Finally, in the Genera 
Plantarum Xylobium is restored by Bentham to generic rank, 
and placed next to Bifrenaria in the subtribe Gyrtopodiece 
on account of its plicate leaves, Maxillaria being placed in 
Maxillarica', which have coriaceous leaves ; its distinctive 

November 1st, 1889. 

characters being its habit, many-flowered spike, and some- 
times longer stipes of the pollen, no notice being taken 
of the position of the lip. 

In the endeavour to settle this question of the generic 
validity of Xylobium, I have relied chiefly on the species 
figured in this Magazine and other illustrated works, for to 
make an exhaustive examination of the sixteen species 
described under Xylobium, a,nd the hundred under Maxillaria, 
could not under the circumstances be undertaken. The 
result is, that the plicate leaves, superior lip, and spicate 
flowers of the former genus are its absolute characters as 
distinguishing it from Maxillaria, for I find no difference 
whatever in their pollen-masses, which in species of both 
genera may consist of two pairs, or of one pair only by the 
coherence or confluence of those of each pair; and the pol- 
linia are sessile on the scale in most species. 

With regard to Bifrenaria, it differs from Xylobium, in 
so far as I have examined materials, in its few-flowered 
scape, inferior lip, and usually two stipitate pollinia. 

Xylobium leontoglossum has a wide range in South 
America. It was discovered by Mathews, in Peru, upwards 
of half a century ago, and has been collected in various 
parts of New Grenada, from St. Martha and Ocaiia south- 
wards, and in Equador, by subsequent travellers. It has 
been imported on several occasions. 

The Eoyal Gardens are indebted to Messrs. Sander for 
the plant from which the accompanying figure was taken, 
and which flowered in March of the present year. The 
species varies greatly in the length and breadth of the 
leaves, which sometimes attain nearly three feet in length 
and four to five in breadth. — J. B. H. 

Fig 1, Column and lip ; 2, lip; 3, column; 4, anther; 5 and 6, pollen :— 
all enlarged. 



VmcentBrooKs Day & SorJrtip 

I Bjeeve & C°London. 

Tab. 7086. 

Native of Java. 

Nat. Ord. Ob.chxde.e. — Tribe Epidendkejb. 
Genus Phajus, Lour. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 512.) 

Phajus (Limatodes) pauciflorus ; caule gracili erecto basi demum pseudo- 
bnlboso inferne vaginato apicem versus foliato, foliis _ elliptico-lanceolatis 
attenuato-acuniinatis plicatis 7-9-nerviis, vaginis valide costatis, racemis 
caulinis brevibus paucifloris breviter pedunculatis, bracteis oblongo- 
lanceolatis ovariis brevioribus, floribus nutantibus pallide _ stramineip, 
sepalis conniventibus ovato-lanceolatis acutis, petalis elliptico-oblongis 
acutis apicibus recurvis, labello panduriformi marginibus inferne recurvis 
columnam non amplectantibus, apice rotundato apiculatov.3-dentato,basin 
versus rubro striato, calcare ovario a3quilongo incurvo, rostello subelongato. 

P. pauciflorus, Blume Orchid. Archipel. Ind. p. 11, t. 4 A, B, and t. 11 A ; 
M us. Bot. Lugd. Bat. vol. ii. p. 181. 

Limatodes pauciflora, Blume Bijd. 375, fig. lxii. ; Lindl. Gen. Sf Sp. Orchid 
253 ; in Part. Fl. Gard. t. 81 ; Fol. Orchid, Limatodes, p. 1 ; Walp. Ann. 
vol. vi. p. 921. 

L. punctata, Lindl. Fol. Orchid. Limatodes. 

Phajus pauciflorus belongs to a section of the genus 
with small flowers which are produced upon the stem, and 
not amongst the leaves or on tall scapes from the base of 
the old pseudobulbs a.s in others of this genus. In this 
respect, as also in the form of the lip, it approaches those 
Indian species of Galanthe in which the lip is at the base 
of the column, and which render it very difficult to give 
technical characters for the separation of the two genera. 
Lindley indeed, while retaining P. pauciflorus in Phajus, 
redescribed it as a Limatodes under the name of L. 
punctatus. Blume, who established the genus Limatodes, 
subsequently reduced it to a section of Phajus, in which 
he is followed by Bentham in the Genera Plantarum, 
distinguishing it by the lateral racemes, broad column, 
and elongate rostellum. The very narrow side lobes of 
the lip, which do not either in Phajus proper or Limatodes 
embrace the column, is almost peculiar in this species. 

The remarkable difference in habit and perianth dis- 

Novjembek 1st, 1889. 

played by plants admittedly belonging to Phajus is well 
illustrated by the specimens figured in this work. (1) The 
typical species with scapes from the rhizome, spreading 
sepals and petals, and the lip embraced by the column, 
include P. grandifolius (Bletia Tankervillice, Plate 1924; 
P. bicolor, Plate 4078, and P. Walliehii, Plate 7023; (2) 
The species with the habit of growth of (1), but the 
perianth connivent, P. maculatus, Plate 3960 (which is 
also Bletia Woodfordii, Plate 2719), and P. Blumei, var. 
Bernnysii, Plate 6032 ; (3) Species with leafy stems and 
terminal racemes, P. albus (Plate 3991). (4) Species 
with lateral racemes, a closed perianth, the column 
hardly embraced by the lip and the rostellum elongate, 
to which belong P. pa%teifioru$ and P. crispus, Blume, 
both Javanese. To these two last alone the sectional 
name of Limatodes applies, for Limatodes rosea, Plate 
5312, and L. gracilis, Plate 4714, are both true species 
of Calanthe, having the very short column of that genus, 
which alone distinguishes it from Phajus. 

P. pauciflorus is a native of Java. The specimen here 
figured was received from the Gardens of Buitenzong in 
1887, and flowered in the Royal Gardens, Kew, in May of 
the present year. — /. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Lip and column ; 2, column and anther ; 3, anther viewed in front ; 
4, pollinia : — all enlarged. 


.del, J.N.Fitch,lith 

L. 'Reeve. 

Tab. 7087. 
GERBERA Jamesoni. 

Native of the Transvaal. 

Nat. Ord. Composite. — Tribe Mutisiace.e. 
Genus Gerbera, Gronov. ; (Bent It. et Hoolc.f, Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 497.J 

Ge rbera Jamesoni; niveo-tomentosa, foliis longe petiolatis ambiter obovatis 
runcinato-pirmatifidis, lobo terminali late ovato subacuto marginibus 
undulatis et grosse irregulariter angulato-lobulatis, lateralibus cuneato- 
obovatis sinnbus rotundatis ; scapo nudo valido foliis longiore, capitulo 
amplo, involucri campaimlati lanati bracteis lanceolatis appressis 
acuminatis, floribus radii 20-30 uniseriatis, ligulis elongatis angustis 
apice 3-denticulatis, floribus disci ligulis brevissimis recurvis, acbaeniis 
erostratis teretiusculis puberulis, pappi setis scabrellis. 

C. Jamesoni, Bolus ruts. — Gard. Chron. 1889, i. 772, tig. 122. 

A very handsome plant, which, if it will resist the 
untimely frosts of our uncertain climate, will prove a great 
addition to the herbaceous garden. It belongs to a genus 
of about twenty species, of which I believe none have been 
in cultivation till now ; though most of them inhabit South 
Africa, but a few are natives of North India and of 
Central and Eastern Asia. The present species was dis- 
covered in the Transvaal by the collector Rehman, about 
1878, and subsequently by Mr. Jameson in the gold-field 
districts of Barbertown. It has also been collected by 
Mr. Wood, of the Natal Botanical Gardens, and by W. 
Nelson, on the Latrobe river. Its habit is bold, the 
petioles being erect, and the leaf-blade spreading, whilst 
the stout scape bearing a very large head with brilliantly 
coloured ra}^s rises far above the crown foliage. The 
name Jamesoni is proposed for this beautiful species by 
Mr. Bolus, F. L.S.j who has sent to Kew excellent speci- 
mens collected by himself. The colour of the rays must 
be much brighter in its native country than here, for that 
gentleman describes them as flame-coloured. The specimen 
here figured was sent by Mr. Wood, of the Natal Botanical 
Gardens, in 1888, and flowered in spring of the present 

November 1st. 1889. 

Descr. All parts covered with soft hairs, and the mature 
leaves clothed beneath with a show-white tomentum. 
Leaves numerous from the perennial rootstock, petiole 
six to eight inches, tall, erect ; blade five to ten inches 
long by two to three broad, runcinately pinnatifid 
with the margins of the lobes undulate and cut into 
unequally sinuately toothed obtuse or acute lobules. 
Scapes ten to eighteen inches long, stout, naked. Head 
solitary, suberect, three to four inches broad across the 
rays. Involucre three-quarters of an inch long, campanu- 
late, woolly, base intruded ; bracts lanceolate, appressed. 
Flowers of the ray in one series, about thirty, narrowly 
ligulate, three-toothed, dull yellow beneath, bright orange 
or flame-coloured above ; tube very short ; bipartite inner 
lobe very small, revolute. Flowers of the small disk 
minute, with very short segments. Achenes of the ray and 
disc similar, terete (when young) and puberulous ; pappus 
rather short, very minutely scaberulous, white. — /. /). H. 

Fig. 1, Kay flower ; 2, disk flower ; 3, hair of pappus ; 4, stamens ; 5, style 
and stigmas : — all enlarged. 


.L Reeve & C° London. 

"Vincent Br ool<s,D ay &. Sonlmg 

Tab. 7088. 


Native of Jamaica. 

Nat. Ord. Palmes. — Tribe Cojiyl'uk.k. 
Genus Thrinax, Linn.f. ; (Jienth. ct Sook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. y. 930.; 

Thrinax excelsa; caudice elato creberrime annulato, petiolo 5-7-pedali, 
vagina tomento floccoso fnlvo densissrime lanata, lamiua orbiculari 6-ped. 
diametro ad tertiam partem multifida subtus obscure argentata, laciniis 
40-50 ad basin 2|-3 poll, latis ensiformibus acuminatis 7-nerviis, ligula 
triangulari viridi, spadice 3-4-pedali decurvo paniculatim ramoso, ramulis 
5-6 pollicaribus glaberrimis recurvis, spathis 6-8 poll, longis cylindraceis 
appressis obtusis tenuiter fusco-furfuraceis, perianthio late campauulato 
brevissime 6-lobulato lobulis apiculatis, aatheris lineari-oolongis, fila- 
mentis longioribus, ovario ellipsoideo, stylo brevi, fructu globoso pallido 
pericarpo spongioso, semine globoso. 

Thrinax excelsa, Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Lul. p. 515, an Lodd. Cat. Palms 
(1849) ? 

This beautiful Palm has been cultivated for many years 
in the Palm House of the Royal Gardens under the name 
Thrinax excelsa of Loddiges ; but on what authority has 
not been handed down. The specimen is, no doubt, one 
of two mentioned by J. Smith in his " Records of Kew " 
(1880) as being old plants in 1823, and of which he Bays 
the native country is doubtful. Latterly the Kew plant 
in question has been fathered on Jamaica, and as such this 
very specimen is described by Grisebach in Ins Flora of 
the British West Indies. And that this is a correct view 
of its fatherland is supported by the fact that there is in 
Kew Herbarium a dried specimen of a spadix perfectly 
according with that of the spadix of the plant here figured, 
sent by Mr. Jenman (when Superintendent of the Jamaica 
Botanical Garden) from woods in the interior of that island. 
Loddiges, on the other hand, gives Cayenne as the native 
country of his T. excelsa, a country from which no TKri 
is now in cultivation. This point of locality may, I fear, 
never be cleared up, for Loddiges' catalogue contains no 
description, and a mark attached to the name T. excelsa 
implies that it was a solitary specimen. Furthern, 
Loddiges' collection having been long since dispersed, there 

'b 1 
He< EMBER 1: 

is no hope of ascertaining either whether his plant was 
really from Cayenne, or whether it was specifically identical 
with the Kew T. excelsa. Under those circumstances, my 
obvious course is to adopt the name of T. excelsa, Griseb. 
Loddiges ?). 

"When described by Grisebach (in 1864), the height of 
the stem was seven feet seven inches, and its diameter 
eight inches ; since which it has added three feet three 
inches to its stature, and two inches to its diameter. The 
spread of the crown, which consists of about twenty-four 
leaves, is twenty feet ; the length of the petiole is seven 
feet, and the diameter of the leaves about six feet. 

Referring to Patrick Brown's History of Jamaica 
(p. 191), 1 find a description of a Palm that answers to 
this, or to T. parviflora, and which probably includes both ; 
it is the Palmete Royale or Palmeto Thatch. Brown says 
of it, " It covers whole fields in many parts of the island, 
growing both on the rocky hills and low moist places near 
the sea, but seems to thrive best in the former. The trunk 
is called Thatch pole ; it stands water well, being never 
corroded or touched -by worms. The petioles are very 
tough, and are, when split, used for a thousand purposes." 

Mr. Jenman sends, besides the spadix of T. excelsa, 
specimens of T. parviflora, of which he says that the former 
grows on limestone rocks in the interior forests of the 
island, the latter grows on the sea-coast and prefers 

T. excelsa flowered in May in the Palm House of the 
Royal Gardens, and the flowering was followed in No- 
vember by fully formed globose pale yellowish-white fruits, 
about half an inch in diameter, with a rather thick dry 
spongy pericarp and a globose seed, which, however, con- 
tained no perfect embryo. — J. I). H. 

Pig. 1, Branches of flowering spadix and flower ; 2, section of ovary, both 
enlarged ; 3, portion of spadix with young fruit, of the natural size. 




UReeve & 0° 

Tab. 7089. 
TIGRIDIA Pringlei. 

Nat ice of Northern Mexico. 

Nat. Ord. Iride.e. — Tribe Mob^eej:. 
Genus Tigridia, Juss. ; (Benth. et Ifool-.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 690.) 

Tigridia Pringlei; cormo parvo globoso, canle mcraocephalo, foliis 3-4alternis 
ensiformibaa plieatis, Bpathn valvis exterioribus subsequilongis viridibns, 
perianthii segmentis exterioribus lamina magna patula splendide san- 
guinea pneditis, segmentis interioribus lamina perparva ovata lutearubro- 
maculata, styli rainis antberis asquilongis, capsnlis clavatis. 

T. Pringlei, 8. Wats, in Garden and Forest, vol. i. (1888), p. 388, fig. 61 ; 
Gard. Chron. 1888, vol. ii. p. 322. 

This new Tigridia is very nearly allied to the old well- 
known Tigridia Pavonia (Ferraria Paronia, Bot. Mag. 
t. 532). Its principal botanical difference lies in the size 
and shape of the blade of the inner segments of the 
perianth. From a garden point of view it will be wel- 
comed on account of the brilliant scarlet colour of the 
large spreading blade of the outer segments of its perianth. 
The first specimen received at Kew came in August, 1883, 
from Mr. A, Buchan Hepburn, who procured the plant 
from a height of six thousand feet on the Sierra Madre, 
in Northern Mexico. It was rediscovered in 1887 by Mr. 
C. G. Pringle in the province of Chihuahua, and intro- 
duced by him to the Botanical Garden of Cambridge in 
Massachusetts. As T. Pawiiia is confined to Central and 
Southern Mexico, it is very likely that T. Pringlei will 
prove more hardy in our English gardens. Our drawing 
was made from a plant that was presented to the Koyal 
Gardens in 1888 by Messrs. Pringle and Horsford of 
Vermont, U.S.A., and flowered at Kew last July. 

Descr. Corm small, globose; root-fibres cylindrical. 
Stem one or two feet high, bearing a single terminal cluster 
of flowers and three or four alternate ensiform plicate 
leaves, which are nearly an inch broad at the middle, and 
taper gradually to the base and apex. Spathes three 
inches long, containing five or six flowers, which open in 
Dscxmbzk 1st, 1889. 

succession; outer valves subequal, green, lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate; pedicels nearly as long as the outer 
spathe-valves. Expanded perianth four inches in diameter ; 
segments connivent in a cup at the base, spreading above 
it ; outer segments with a bright scarlet unspotted ovate 
blade, and a broad cuneate claw, spotted with red on a 
yellow ground ; inner segments with a similarly spotted 
ovate claw and a very small ovate yellow blade, spotted 
with red. Filaments united in a long cylindrical column ; 
anthers linear, basifixed, half an inch long. Style-branches 
as long as the anthers, emarginate at the apex. Capsule 
clavate, obtusely angled, two or three inches long.— J. G. 

Fig. l,Top of column of filaments, anthers and style-branches ; 2, back view 
of anther : — both enlarged. 

M S.delJ.lIPitcKli'Eh. 

LUbhvb &_C°Loadorv. 

VmcentRroolis;Day& Son Imp 

Tab. 7090. 


Native of Tropical America. 

Nat. Ord. Nysiph^eace^e. — Tribe CabombEjE. 
Genus Cabomba, Aublet ; ( HooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 46.) 

Caisomba aquatica ; foliis ellipticis, fioribus flavis, petiolis pedicellisqtie pn- 

0. aquatica, Aub. PI. Guian. vol. i. p. 321, t. 121 ; Lamh. Diet. vol. i. p. 526 • 
III. Gen. t. 261 ; DC. Syst.Veg. vol. ii. p. 36 ; Prodr. vol. i. p. 112 ; Richard 
Anal, det Fr. pp. 63, 6-i, t. 1, f. 83 ; A. Gray Ann. Lye. New York, vol. iv. 
p. 46; Canary in Mart. Fl. Bras. fasc. lxxvii. p. 138, t. 37, f. 1-24. 

Neetris aquatica, Willd. Sjo. PI. vol. ii. 248 ; Pers. Synods, p. 394. 

A very interesting water-plant, belonging to a tribe of 
the Natural Order Nymjjhceacece, which tribe consists of but 
two genera, the present with two (or perhaps more) species, 
and Brasenia with but one. Of the two genera the latter 
is the most interesting, from the fact of the singular dis- 
tribution of its solitary species, B. peltata. This, after 
being known for many years as confined to North America 
and Eastern Australia, was found by Griffith in a single 
spot in the East Bengal (where also it was gathered, in 1850, 
by Dr. Thomson and myself), and it has since been found to 
exist very locally in Japan and Western Africa. In having 
this wide distribution it resembles many water-plants, 
but in being local wherever found, it differs from, almost 

Of the species of Cabomba, four only are well defined. 
One, that here figured, is spread over the still waters of the 
South American continent from Mexico to South Brazil. 
Its exact northern limit is not known, but in the southern 
United States it is replaced by G. caroliniana, A. Gray, 
which differs in the very much narrower leaves, white 
flowers, and short anthers. The two others are C. piau- 
Mensis, Gardn., and 0. Warmwgii, Caspary, both natives 
of Brazil. 

The specimen of C. aquatica here figured was raised 
from seeds sent from Demarara to the Royal Gardens by 

Decembek 1st, 1889. 

Mr. Jenman, Superintendent of the George Town Botanical 
Garden in 1888, and which flowered in April of the present 
year. Mr. Watson informs me that the flowers last for but 
one day, and that none appeared after May. 

Descb. Stems very long, rooting in the mud, branching 
under water and giving off leaves of two forms, submerged 
and floating, both petioled ; submerged leaves circular in 
outline, two to three inches in diameter, five-partite, the 
segments flabelliform di-tri-chotomously cut into filiform 
green laciniaa, petiole half to one inch long, glabrous; 
floating leaves longer petioled, peltate, elliptic, one and 
a half to two inches in the longest diameter, quite entire, 
bright green above with a red spot at the insertion of the 
petiole, young purplish red beneath, old with mottled 
purple margins. Peduncles axillary, longer than the 
petioles, stout, green, upper part rising above the water 
and bearing a solitary pale yellow flower half an inch in 
diameter. Sepals three, obovate-oblong obtuse. Petal* 
three, as long as the sepals, broadly clawed, ovate cordate 
obtuse. Stamens six, hypogynous, anthers linear-oblong 
rather shorter than the filaments. Carpels one to three, 
free, fusiform, pubescent, narrowed into as many short 
styles, with terminal papillose stigmata ; ovules two to 
three, pendulous from the walls of the carpels. Ripq 
carpels about one-third of an inch long, crowned with the 
persistent styles and stigmas, coriaceous, indehiscent. 
Seeds two to three. — J. I). H. 

Fig. 1, Flower ; 2, petal ; 3 and 4, stamens ; 5, young fruit ; 6, a carpel laid 
open showing the ovules : — all enlarged. 



irooteDay &. Son Imp- 

: .-:. 

Tab. 7091. 

Native of Western Tropical Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Aroide^e. — Tribe Pythonie.e, 
Genus Amokpiiophallus, Blume; (Bentk. et HooJc.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 970.) 

AMOBPHOPfjALLrs (Hydrosme) Eichleri; folio 3-secto segmentis lateralibus 
2-partitis terminali 3-partito partitionibus pinnatifidis v. pinnatisectis, 
foliolis utrinque 2-3-oblongis ovatis obovatisve acuminatis basi cuneatis 
marginibus undulatis, rachibus late alatis, petiolo tereti laevi viridi, 
pedunculo brevissimo vaginis latis laxis membranaceis spatham aequan- 
tibus, spatha? tubo hemispherico subventricoso sordide albo ore obliquo, 
intus sanguineo-purpureo infra oram albo, margine dilatato recurvo 
irregnlariter lobulato et imdulato fusco-purpureo, spadice subsessili, 
parte feminea brevi, rloribus parvis, parte mascula cylindraoea latea, 
appendice erecto 4-5-pollicari eiongato conoideo basi angustato sub- 
rugoso pallide brunneo, ovariis depresso-globosis 2-3 locnlaribus, stigmata 
majuscnlo subgloboso sessili 2-3-lobuIato, stamiaibus cuneitoraiibus. 

Hydrosme Eichleri, Bugler Aracea (No. 1U), p. 283, 1. 10. 

According to Eugler's monograph, A. Eichleri is a 
native of the Island Fiirst Bismarck, in the river Congo, 
whence Jiving roots were sent in 1880 by Herr Teusz to 
the Royal Botanical Gardens of Berlin, where the plant 
first flowered in April, 1882. In 1888 a tuber was received 
at Ivew from Berlin, which sent np a flowering stem in 
March of the present year, to be followed by a leaf which 
was fully developed at the end of May. Except in that 
the leaf is much more fully developed, the sheaths (cata- 
phylls) at the base of the flowering stem very much larger 
than in Eugler's excellent figure, and the stigmas distinctly 
lobulate, there is no difference between, the Berlin and 
Kew specimen. Like its congeners, the plant emits a 
horrible stench when flowering. 

Dbsob. Tuber depressed globose, rose-coloured (Engler). 
Petiole eighteen inches high, cylindric, smooth, green ; leaf- 
blade trisect, divisions shortly petiolulate, a span long, 
the lateral bisect, the middle one trisect ; segments pin- 
natifid, rachis broadly unequally winged from the base 
upwards; leaflets two to three pair, sessile by a broad 

Dei EMBEJ3 1ST, 1889. 

base, elliptic-ovate, acuminate, or the lower obovate, dark 
green with impressed nerves, margins beyond the intra- 
marginal nerve undulate, terminal three or four inches 
long, lateral shorter less acute. / le very short, 

green, sheaths as long as the spathe, lax, very broadly ovate, 
acute, concave. Spathe one and a half inch high, and as 
broad across the hemispheric dirty-white striated tube ; 
mouth rather contracted, oblique, margin broadly everted 
prolonged at one side into a broad tongue-shaped obtuse 
limb, waved and irregularly crenate or lobulate, dull red 
brown ; interior of spathe mottled with bright red from 
the base to within half an inch of the everted margin, the 
intervening space dull white. Spadix nearly six inches high, 
erect ; female portion very short ; male longer, cylindric, 
nearly an inch long; appendix an elongate dull pale brown 
rugose subacute cone contracted towards the base. Sta- 
mens densely crowded, cuneiform with rounded angles, 
yellowish, two-celled. Ovaries minute, sessile, green, de- 
pressed globose, two- to three-celled ; cells one-ovulcd ; 
stigma globose, two- to three-lobed. — J. J). IL 

Fig. 1, Keduced plant ; 2, portion of leaf; 3, inflorescence,'/ the natural 
size; 4, base of spadix; h, stamen; 6, ovary ; 7, vertical section of the same. 
Fig. 2 and 4-7, all enlarged. 



■SincaritSwAs^ kScnfisp 

L Reeve &.C? London. 

Tab. 7092. 
CLINTONIA Andeewsiana. 

Native of California. 

Nat. Ord. LuiACEiE. — Tribe Medeole-e. 
Genus Clintoxia, Rafin.; {Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 832.) 

Clintonia Andrewsiana ; caule sesquipedali, foliis 4 magnis oblongis acutis 
sessilibus prope basin aggregatis, unico reducto mediali, rloribus in 
umbellam terminalem multifloram 2-3 paucifloris lateralibns ssepissime 
additis dispositis, pedicellis pubescentibus ilore subaaquilongis, bracteis 
parvis lanceolatis, perianthio rubro-purpureo segmentis oblanceolato- 
oblongis basi leviter gibbosis, staminibus perianthio brevioribus filamentis 
pilosis, ovario oblongo, stylo ovario a^quilongo. 

C Andrewsiana, Torrey Bot. Whipple, p. 94; Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
vol. xiv. p. 585 ; S. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. xiv. p. 272 ; Bot. Calif. 
vol. ii. p. 180. 

C. Andrewsii, Wood in Proc. Acad. Philad. 1868, p. 174. 

Clintonia is a genus of baccate Liliacese, which contains 
six species, four of which are North American and two 
East Asiatic. This is the only species in which the 
flowers are at all showy. In all the others they are 
greenish-white. Two of them were figured long ago in 
the Botanical Magazine (Tabs. 1155 and 1403), both under 
the name of Smilacina borealis. C. Andrewsiana is very local, 
being confined to the coast ranges of California, from Hum- 
boldt County to Santa Cruz. No specimen existed at Kew, 
either in the herbarium or the garden till very lately. 
Our drawing was made from two plants that flowered last 
June, one in the herbaceous ground at Kew, and the other 
in the Botanic Garden at Edinburgh, from which it was 
kindly sent to the Eoyal Gardens by Professor Bayley 
Balfour. It requires to be grown in a shady position in 
a bog or peat-bed. 

Desce. Bootstock a short slender rhizome. Stem about 
a foot and a half long, bearing near its base four sessile 
oblong acute glabrous leaves six or eight inches long, and 
a single much smaller leaf at the middle. Flowers nu- 
merous, forming a dense terminal umbel, with usually 
two or three others lower down on the peduncle ; pedicels 
December 1st, 1889. 

pubescent, about as long :\s the flowers ; bracts small, 
lanceolate. Perianth dark claret-purple, half an inch long; 
segments oblanceolate-oblong, obscurely gibbous at the 
base, falcate from below the middle. S much shorter 

than the perianth; filaments pilose; anthers oblong. 
Ovar]i oblong, with eight or ten ovules in each cell; style 
as long as the ovarv ; stigma capitate. Fruit baccate. — 
J. G. Baker. 

Fig. 1, Front view of anther ; 2, back view of anther ; 3, pistil ; 4, horizontal 
section of ovary : — all more or less enlarged. 


To Vol XLV. of the Third Series, or Vol. CXV r . of the 

whole Work. 

7091 Amorphophalus Eichleri. 
7061 Angraecum Germinyanum. 

7072 Anoiganthus breviflorus. 
7077 Aracbnantbe Clarkei. 

7073 Aristolo-chia hians. 
7071 Berberis angulosa. 
7075 Berberis Lycium. 
7033 Brownea macrophylla. 
7090 Cabomba aquatica. 
7051 Calandrinia oppositifolia. 
7083 Carludovica rotundifolia. 
7069 Cafcasetum Garnettianu ui. 

7047 Chironia peduncularis. 
7092 CHntonia Andrewsiana. 
7049 Delphinium Zalil. 

7042 Dendrobiuin gracilicaule. 

7066 Disa lacera, var. multifida. 
7078 Dracaena marmorata. 
7059 Enkianthus campanulatus. 

7048 Eremostachys Iaciniata. 
7076 Eremurus bimalaicus. 
7074 Eucalyptus stricta. 

7067 Eucryphia pinnatifolia. 

7080 Fritillaria bucharica. 
7087 Gerbera Jamesoni. 
7070 Grevillea aspleniifolia. 
7084 Iris Bakeriana. 

7050 Iris Barnumae. 
7040 Iris Heda. 

7081 Iris paradc-xa. 
7057 Laportea moroides. 

7053 Licuala Veitchii. 
7043 Lilium nepalense. 
7037 Macodes javanica. 
7034 Olearia insignis. 
7065 Olearia macrodonta. 
7046 Opuntia polyaeantha. 
7011 Opuntia Rafinesquii. 
7063 Pandanus labyrinthicus. 
7052 Passiflora Habnii. 

7055 Pentstemon rotundifolius. 
7086 Pbajus pauciflorus. 
7079 Primula (A) pusilla, 

(B) petiolaris, var. nana. 
7035 Rosa incarnata. 
7044 Sarcochilus luniferus. 

7056 Saxifraga latepetiolata. 
7082 Sbortia galacifolia. 
7054 Smilax ornata. 

7058 Sobralia leucoxantba. 
7062 Solanum pensile. 
7060 Spatboglottis ixioides. 
7068 Stapelia gigantea. 

7038 Strelitzia Nicolai. 

7036 Sfcreptocarpus parriflora. 
7045 Stuartia Pseudo-camellia. 

7039 Styrax Obassia. 
7064 Syringa villosa. 
7088 Thrinax excelsa. 
70»9 Tigridia Pringlei. 

70S5 XyJobium leontoglossum.