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Full text of "Curtis's botanical magazine."

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

SIR MOtWTSTUART ELPHINSTONE GRANT DUFF, 

G.C.S.I., CLE., F.E.S. and L.S., &c, 
President of the Royal Geographical Society. 

My bear Grant Duff, — 

Let me claim the privilege of dedicating to you 
the 117th Volume of the Botanical Magazine, as a slight 
acknowledgment of the valuable services which you ren- 
dered to Botany and to Horticulture when Under-Secretary 
of State, first for India and then for the Colonies, and 
latterly when Governor of the Madras Presidency; to 
which I would add, in memory of our long friendship, and 
of our delightful rambles at home and abroad, in pursuit 
of our favourite science. 

Believe me, 

Most sincerely yours, 

JOS. D. HOOKER, 
The Camp, Sunningdale, 
December 1st, 1891. 



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Tab. 7153, 4, 5. 
AMORPHOPHALLUS Titanum. 

Native of Sumatra. 



Nat. Ord. Aroide^:.— Tribe Pythoni*:^. 
Genus AiiOEPHOPHALLUS, Blume ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 971.) 



Ahorphophallus (Brachyspatba) Titanum ; tubere maximo depresso-globoso, 
folii petiolo 16-pedali lam albo-punctato, lamina ambita 30-45-pedali 
triseeta, segmentis di-tri-sectis dichotome pinnatisectis pinnatifidisectisve 
ultimis ovato-oblongia caudato-acuminatis, sinnbns angnstissimis, supra 
laete viridibus nervis impressis subtus pallidioribas, pedanculo brevi 
crasso albo-punctato, spatha juniore cataphyllis oblongis luride viridibus 
albo punctatis vestila, matura? tubo crasso infundibulari-flavo virescente 
in laminam late campanulatam rubro-purpnream expanso, lamina 3-4 
ped. diam. ambitu recurva plicata marginibus grosse inasqualiter dentatis, 
spadice spatha sub duplo longiore 5-pedali crasso stricto erecto, appendice 
quam inflorescentia triplo longiore a basi ad apiceoi sensim attenuato 
pallide am - eo-flavo laevi, inflorescentiis tubo spathee inclusis 10 poll, diam., 
feminea e ovariis globosis sessilibus dissitis 2-3-locularibus in stylos duplo 
longiores contractis, stigmatibus globosis, loculis 1-ovulatis, ovulis 
basilaribus infl. masc. e antberis sessilibus confertis ellipsoideis 2-porosis, 
baccis ovoideis rubris 1-2-spermis, seminibus plano-convexis. 

A. Titanum, Seccari in Bull. Soc. Toscan. di Ortic. 1879, p. 46 ; Arcangeli ia 
Nuov. Giom. Bot. Ital. vol. xi. (1879), p. 217 ; Engler, Monog. Arac. p. 643 ; 
Masters in Gard. Ghron. 1886. ii. p. 432, figs. 88 and 89 ; 1889, i. p. 746 
and 804, figs. 119 and 120; 1889, ii. 19, figs. 3, 5, 6 ; Beccari in Ball. 
Soc. Toscan. di Ortic. Ser. 2, vol. iv. 1889, p. 250, 266, t. viii. et Schneider 
in Le Jardin. 1889, p. 178. (cum Ic. ex Journ. Hort. vol. lxxxii. p. 6, f. 2, 
Herat.) 

Conopballns Titanum, Beccari in Bull. Soc, Tosc. di Ortic. 1878, p. 271, 
291 ; Masters in Gard. Chron. 1878, p. 788, fig. 127. 



The earliest account of this wonderful plant that reached 
Europe, is contained in an article under the title " Una 
Pianta Maravigliosa," communicated by Signor Fenzi of 
Florence, to the Royal Tuscan Society of Horticulture, in 
September, 1878 (Bull. Soc. Toscan. di Ortic. 1878, 
p. 271). It consists of the contents of a letter addressed 
from Sumatra by the illustrious traveller and botanist, 
Dr. Beccari, to his friend the Marchese Corsi Salviati, 
in which he announces the discovery of a gigantic 
aroid, probably belonging to the genus Co7iophaUus i and 
gives some details of its huge dimensions. It was shortly 
afterwards followed by another article under the title of 

January 1st, 1891. 



Co7iophallus ? Titanum in the same Journal, p. 290, and 
from the same sources, giving fuller details as to its 
fruiting condition and foliage, together with a sketch of 
the plant in its flowering state. Together with this infor- 
mation Dr. Beccari sent both tubers and seeds to the 
Marchese. As regards the tubers the result was unfor- 
tunate ; for, according to the law of 1875, making pro- 
vision against the introduction of the vine disease (Phyl- 
lorera), the tubers were detained at Marseilles till they 
rotted. The seeds, on the other hand, arrived in good 
condition, and germinated in the Marchese's garden, 
whence some very young plants were transmitted to Kew 
by that nobleman, at Dr. Beccari's request. 

In 1878 the accounts received from Dr. Beccari were 
communicated by Signor Fenzi to the " Gardener's 
Chronicle," published in December of the same year (vol. 
1878, ii. pp. 596 and 788), together with a copy of the 
sketch of the flowering plant. 

In the following year a full botanical account of the 
plant was drawn up from Dr. Beccari's notes by Prof. 
Arcangeli, which appeared in the new Journal of the 
Botanical Society of Italy (vol. xi. p. 217) under the title 
of " L'Amorphophallus Titanum, Beccari, illustrato di G. 
Arcangeli" {Gonophallus being regarded by botanists 
as a section of the latter genus). Before proceeding 
further with the history of this bulky vegetable I shall give 
Dr. Beccari's account of its discovery, extracted from 
his article in the Bulletin of the Royal Tuscan Society of 
Horticulture, vol. iv. (1889), p. 250, with a figure copied 
by permission of Dr. Hogg from the Journal of Horti- 
culture. 

" It was on the 6th of August, 1878, at Ajer Mantcior, 
in the Padang Province of Sumatra, that I found the 
leaves of this extraordinary plant. Shortly afterwards, 
being at Kaju Tanam, a place not far from Ajer Mantcior, 
and there informed that the Amorphophallus was common 
on the surrounding hills, I offered a large reward to any 
one who would bring me a flower. This promise produced 
a more speedy effect than I could have hoped for, for on 
the 5th of September, towards midday, I had the satis- 
faction of possessing a flower of this marvel. 

" The single flower (or more correctly inflorescence) with 



the tuber (from which it springs almost directly), form 
together so ponderous a mass, that for the purpose of 
transporting it, it had to be lashed to along pole, the ends 
of which were placed on the shoulders of two men. To 
give an idea of the size of this gigantic flower, it is enough 
to say that a man standing upright can barely reach the 
top of the spadix with his hand, which occupies the centre 
of the flower, and that with open arms he can scarcely 
reach half way round the circumference of the funnel- 
shaped spathe from the bottom of which the spadix 
arises." 

Signor Beccari then proceeds to describe the flowering, 
&c, of the Amorphophallus at Kew, but as Mr. Watson, to 
whom the honour of growing and flowering the plant is due, 
has been so good as to furnish me with a more detailed 
account of the same, I pass over that part of the narrative, 
and proceed to Signor Beccari's description of the fruiting 
plant. " The spadix in this condition is another wonder 
of the vegetable kingdom. It forms a cylindric column 
more than three feet three inches in height and six 
inches in diameter, green marbled with white, and bearing 
in its upper part (the male and sterile part (appendage). 
having decayed and fallen away), a mass of berries pressed 
together, the whole forming a stout cylindric body, nearly 
two feet long. But for its size the fruiting spadix resembles 
that of Arum itallcum. Each fruit is as large as a small 
cherry, rather elongate, smooth and carmine red in 
colour ; it encloses one to three seeds, each enveloped in a 
copious pulp." 

The Sumatran name of this Amorphojihalliis is Grrubi, 
Krubi, and Krubut, names which the natives give to other 
aroids. The tubers are said to be edible, but it is not known 
how they are prepared for food. With regard to its con- 
ditions of growth, the position of Ajer Mantcior, on the 
west coast of Sumatra, is 364 metr. (1183 feet), and of 
Kaju Tanam, 135 metr. (440 feet) above the sea; the 
atmosphere is perennially humid ; the mean highest and 
lowest temperatures at the former locality are 25° and 32° 
cent, (77°— 89° Fahrt.) in the shade, rarely falling to 22° 
and rising to 35° (71° and 95° Fahrt.). The plant courts a 
deep shade, and a light soil. 

Unimpeachable as is Dr. Beccari's character for scientific 



accuracy, it is satisfactory to have had, before it flowered 
and leafed at Kew, a full confirmation of his account of the 
dimensions of a plant so marvellously exceeding all others 
of its kind ; and this is supplied by the naturalist and 
traveller, Forbes, who is the only other European known 
to have seen this plant iu its native state. He says, in 
his " Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago," 
at page 175, that he found the Amorphophallus in the 
Barisan range, growing in a sandy soil, the biggest 
specimen measuring seventeen feet in height; and again 
at page 227, when on the Kling river he met with the 
largest tubers ever yet recorded, being six feet six inches 
m circumference, and the stem (presumably the petiole) at 
the base, two feet seven inches in circumference, the whole 
being a load for twelve men. 

Shortly after Signor Beccari's return to Italy from the 
East^ the Marchese Corsi Salviati caused a full-sized 
drawing of this giant to be made under Dr. Beccari's 
supervision, and of this he presented (in 1881) a copy 
to Kew, where it forms a most striking feature in the 
ceiling of the fine hall devoted to the collection of timbers 
&c, and is certainly the most surprising of the many 
wonders of the vegetable kingdom that are there displayed 
Ine dimensions of the picture (which has no margin) are 
eighteen feet by fifteen feet six inches, it represents a leaf 
ot the lull size, growing out of the ground, and under- 
neath it two Sumatrans carrying a flowering specimen 
lashed to a pole. 

Before proceeding to give Mr. Watson's account of the 
treatment and flowering of this plant at Kew, it is not out 
ot place to consider its position amongst the recognized 
wonders of the vegetable kingdom. These may be for 
convenience divided into the Morphological and Physio- 
logical ; under the first of which the Titan comes, and 
under a subdivision characterized by bulk, and the attain- 
ment of this in respect of all the organs (except perhaps 
the root as regard time, and the pollen, and ovules as 
regards dimensions) in a marvellously short time. In 
structure it differs only specifically from a dozen other 
Amorphophalh many of which are very big, and grow as 
fast, but they do not attain so portentous a bulk, and none 



exceeds the others in this respect so vastly. For comparison 
Professor Arcangeli has given the size of the largest 
congener hitherto discovered, curiously enough a native of 
the same island, namely A. Gigas, Teysm. and Binnend, 
the length of the petiole and peduncle of which is six and a 
half feet, and of the spadix three feet three inches. It 
differs from Titanum in the long peduncle, and in having a 
broad, open spathe. Along with which should be mentioned 
(as is in the Gardener's Chronicle, 1878, p. 788), the 
allied Nicaraguan gigantic aroid Godwinia Gigas(Tab. 6048) 
of this work, of which the tuber attains two feet two 
inches in circumference and a weight of over seven pounds, 
the petiole a height of ten feet, and the leaf ten feet in cir- 
cumference, the peduncle four feet in length, and spathe 
one foot eight inches. There are also gigantic aroids of 
which little is known in tropical Africa, but there is no 
reason to suppose that they rival the Asiatic Amorphophalli. 
In one point alone our Titan surpasses all other plants, and 
that is in the rapid development of tissue in a single leaf. 
I can think of none in which so great an amount is pro- 
duced and brought to maturity in so short a time. The 
largest leaved plants occur amongst the Palms, and next 
to them come the Musas ; their leaves in many instances 
far surpass in dimensions and weight those of Titan, but 
they are not formed so rapidly, and are comparatively 
slow of maturation. 

Lastly, the flower of Rafflesia Arnoldi, a native of 
Sumatra, well known for its gigantic size, has been 
alluded to as dwarfed in comparison with that of this 
Amorphophallu8 s but a single hermaphrodite flower of 
Rafflesia is far more remarkable as a flower than is the 
inflorescence of this aroid as such, and the two are not in 
any way further comparable than that each is gigantic. 

The following account of the development and flowering 
of A. Titanum at Kew has been kindly drawn up for me 
by Mr. Watson, Assistant Curator of the Royal Gardens, 
who- reared it from infancy to its full stature. Unfor- 
tunately the flowering stage was so rapid that it was wit- 
nessed by few, and by them at the expense of enduring an 
atrocious stench, resembling that of Bulbophyllum Beccarii 
(Tab. 6507), which rendered the tropical Orchid house at 



Kew unendurable during its flowering in 1881. I should 
be wanting in gratitude if I did not here express my deep 
obligation to the talented artist of this work (Miss Smith), 
who, in her efforts to do justice by her pencil to these 
plants, suffered in each case a prolonged martyrdom that 
terminated in illness in the case of the orchid. 

"The plant of Amorplwphallus Titanum, which flowered 
at Kew in June, 1889, was received by Sir Joseph Hooker 
from Dr. 0. Beccari, through the Marchese Corsi Salviati, 
of Sesto, near Florence, exactly ten years . previously 
(June, 1879). It was then a small seedling, which had 
been raised in the Botanical Gardens at Florence from 
seeds forwarded by Dr. Beccari soon after he discovered 
the plant in Sumatra in 1877. 

" The plant at Kew was grown in a stove along with 
other tropical tuberous aroids until it became too large for 
the house, when it was removed to the house where the 
Victoria regia is grown. Here it was placed on an in- 
verted pot in the tank, the water in wdiich in summer was 
heated to about 80° Fahr. Although deciduous, like the 
other Amorphophalli, yet A. Titanum sometimes retained 
its leaf fully twelve months, or even more. On the leaf 
decaying the tuber was taken out of the soil, washed, and 
buried in clean moist silver sand, and kept in a temperature 
of about 70°. It was repotted in rich loamy soil as soon 
as it began to push into fresh growth. 

" In the spring of 1887 the tuber w r as three feet nine 
inches in circumference and ten inches deep. The new 
leaf pushed through the soil in the first week in June, and 
grew so rapidly that in about six weeks it was mature. 
The dimensions of the plant at that time were as follows : — 
Along with them are the dimensions of wild examples as 
measured by Dr. Beccari " (to which I have added the 
measurements by Forbes. — j. d. h.) : — 





Circumference 
of tuber. 


Height of 

petiole. 


C i rcnmf erence 

of petiole at 

base. 


Circumference 

of petiole at 

apes. 


Circumfer- 
ence of loaf- 
blade. 


Kew plant, 1887 . 
Native plants (Bec- 
cari) . 
Forbes . 


ft. in. 
3 9 

5 

6 6 


ft. in. 
6 6 

10 
17 


ft. in. 

1 10 

3 

2 7 


ft. in. 
1 1 


ft. 
26 

45 



" Iii 1888 the leaf was even larger, the spread of the 
blade being twelve feet, the stalk eight feet high and nine 
inches in diameter at the base. 

" The tuber was weighed in March, 1889, before being 
repotted, it was fifty-seven pounds in weight, and measured 
eighteen inches in diameter, by twelve inches in depth, 
In the early stages of growth there was no perceptible 
difference between the development of the flower-bud and 
a leaf-bud, both being enclosed in a large sheath which 
withers and falls off early. By June 5th, however, the top 
of the spathe pushed through the sheath ; after which the 
inflorescence grew in height about three inches per day, 
and reached its full development on June 21st. Its 
ultimate height was six feet nine inches. The peduncle 
was eighteen inches high, the spathe three feet long and four 
feet across the mouth, and the spadix five feet long by ten 
inches in diameter at the thickest part above the flowers. 

" The spathe began to unfold at five p.m., was fully 
expanded by half-past six; and at eight p.m. it had begun 
to close again, and by eleven o'clock it had entirely 
closed. The stench emitted by the flowers was very 
powerful, and suggested a mixture of rotten fish and burnt 
sugar. Many blue-bottle flies were attracted by it. The 
smell had ceased within forty-eight hours after the spathe 
unfolded. By fixing a wire crinoline inside the spathe it 
was made to keep something like its natural appearance 
until it began to wither. 

"All the roots died after the flower was over, and on 
again weighing the tuber it was found to have lost nine 
pounds in weight as a result of the production of the huge 
inflorescence. 

" At the present time (November, 1890), the plant is in 
full leaf, and although not quite so large as it was previous 
to flowering, it is perfectly sound and promising. The 
present leaf is nearly thirteen months old." 

It remains to indicate the position of A. Titanum in the 
genus Amorphophallus, which contains about fifteen well 
defined species, all tropical Asiatic and Malayan. Of 
these, one, the common Indian A. campanulatus, is sup- 
posed to extend to New Guinea and the Fiji Islands, and 
to occur also in Madagascar ; but as it is not possible to 
identify such plants without living specimens or good 



drawings, of which there are none of this species from the 
islands above mentioned, it is not safe to infer that it has 
so exceptional a distribution. It is the type of the genus, 
and of the first section, Gandarum, distinguished by its 
short peduncle, very broad open campanulate spathe, 
short thick appendix of the spadix, and globose ovaries 
with long styles. (See t. 2812 and t. 5187 of this Maga- 
zine.) In the second section Brachyspatha the peduncle is 
elongated, the spathe short, the appendage of the spadix 
very long, acute, and the style short. To this section 
belongs the A. (Proteiophallus) Bivieri of this Magazine 
(t. 6295). The third section Conophallus has a long or 
short peduncle, a spathe with a convolute tube gradually 
contracted into a concave limb, a thick conical appendix, 
and sessile stigma. To it belongs A. bulbifer (Arum bulbi- 
ferum, t. 2072 and t ; 2508). From these definitions it 
will be seen that A. Titanum does not agree with any, but 
that it comes nearest to Brachyspatha, in which Engler has 
placed it, and I think rightly, provided the sectional 
character be slightly modified by disregarding the length 
of the style and form of the appendages of the spadix?— 
J. B. E. ^ 



Plate 7153. Flowering plant of Amorpliophcrtlus Titanum about one-eighth 
of the natural size. 

Plate 7154. Leaf and petiole of the same one-tenth of the natural size, and 
portion of the apex of a segment of the natural size. 

Plate 7155. Touug inflorescence of the same the day before expansion, one- 
ninth of the natural size. Fig. 1, Portion of spadix with male and female 
flowers of the natural size ; figs. 2 and 3, stamens ; fig. 4, longitudinal, and 
5, transverse section of an ovary ; figs. 6 and 7, ovules i—figs. 2-7 enlarged. 



7156 







Vmcenl E 



Tab. 7156. 
DIPLADENIA illostris. Var. glabra. 
Native of Brazil. 



Nat. Ord. Apocynaceje. — Tribe Ecijitideje. 
Genas Dipladexia, Alph. DG.; {Bentli. et Hook. f. Gen. PL vol.ii. p. 72C.) 



Dipladenia (Eudipladenia) illustris ; glabra pubescens v. velutino-pubescens, 
foliis exstipulatis breviter petiolatis oblongin rotundatisve obtusis v. sub- 
acutis coriaceis basi rotundatis v. subcordatis multinerviis, racemis 
terminalibus 4-8-floris, bracteis snbulato-lanceolatis pedicellis multoties 
brevioribus, sepalis subulatis, corollas tubo ad medium auguste cylindraceo 
deiti infundibulari, limbo 3-3 £ poll. diam. rosei lobis orbiculari-ovatis 
obtusis, filamentis brevissimis tomeatosis, stigmate conoideo 5-costato 
basi intruso 5-lobo. 

D. illustris, Alph. DG. inProdr. vol. viii.p. 483 ; Muell. Arg. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
vol. vi. pt. 1, p. 125. 

D. Gardneriana, Alph. DC. I. c. 

D. Rosa campestris, Lem. in Fl. des Serves, t. 256. 

Ecliites illustris, Vellozo Flor. Flum. vol. iii. t. 49 ; text, p. 114. 

E. vetienosa, Mart. Ex. Stadelm. in Flora, 1841, Beibl. p. 66; Alph. DC. I. c. 

470. 

Var. glabra ; tota glabra. 

T). illustris, var. glabra, Muell. Arg. 1. c. t. xxxyiii. 
D. Alexicaca, Alph. D.G. I. c. p. 484. Mart. Ex. 
D. androsasmifolia, Alph. DC. I. c. p. 484. 
Eckites Alexicaca, Mart. Ex. Stadelm. I. c. p. 63. 



Of the species of Dipladenia figured in this Magazine, 
D. illustris is very closely allied to two, namely, I), acu- 
minata, t. 4828, which has large branched stipular pro- 
cesses, very much larger flowers with narrower more acute 
corolla-lobes and a more cylindric upper half of the tube, 
and D. splendent {Ecliites splendens, t. 3976), which has a 
shorter corolla-tube, and acuminate leaves, cordate at the 
base. Both these differ further from D. illustris in their 
membraneous leaves with distant arching nerves. Of the 
few other plants figured in this work under Dipladenia, 
two do not belong to the genus, namely J). Harrisii, 
t. 4825, which is an Odontadenia, having amongst other 
differential characters a cupular erect disk surrounding 
the ovary, and a very different calyx and stigma, and 
Jakuabt 1st, 1891. 



D. flava, t. 4702, a species of Urechites, which is distin- 
guished by the long twisted tips of the anther, and the 
stigma of Odontadenia and Echites. 

D. illustris is a native of Brazil, where it has a 
very wide range, from the province of Bahia in the north 
to that of St. Paul in the south. Specimens are in 
the Kew Herbarium, collected in Central Brazil by M. 
Glaziou, Director of Public Parks, &c. It is an ex- 
ceedingly variable plant as to foliage, and Mueller has 
devoted a page to its diversity of form and clothing, from 
oblong to orbicular and from perfectly glabrous, as in the 
form here figured, to softly tomentose or almost woolly. 
D. Gardneria?m is a form with sparingly pubescent oblong 
leaves, but not otherwise distinguishable. D. illustris is 
likely to be confounded with another Brazilian coriaceous 
leaved species, D. gentianoides, in which the lower cylindric 
portion of the calyx is only one-fourth or one-third as long 
as the upper, which is more inflated and subcylindric. The 
fruit of D. illustris consists of two long perfectly straight 
acuminate follicles, eight to ten inches long, not so thick 
as a goose-quill. The plant has been described as poi- 
sonous to cattle. 

The specimen figured was sent by Messrs. Sander, of 
St. Albans, in July of this year. — /. I). H. 



Fig 1, Calyx, tube of corolla and stamens ; 2 and 3, stamens; 4, pistil — 
all enlarged. * 



BRITISH, COLONIAL, AND FOREIGN 
FLORAS. 



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Tab. 7157. 
MAGNOLIA Watsoni. 

Na t ive of Jaj >an. 

Nat. Ord. MAGNOLIACE^. — Tribe Magjjolie.e. 
Genus Magnolia, Linn.; (Benth. and Hook.f. 6 en. PI. vol. i. p. 18.) 



Magnolia Watsoni ; glaberrima, foliis breviuseule petiolatis oblongis obova- 
tisve subacutis v. cuspidatis undulatis basi cuneatis v. roduntatis supra 
saturate viridibus luteo marginatis subtus pallidis junioribus sericeis, 
nervis utrinque 10-15 arcuatis impressis costaque navidis, floribus odoratis 
foliis coetaneis 5-6 poll, diam., sepalis oblongis v. lineari-oblongis concavis 
demum reflexis roseis v. pallide purpureie, petalis late obovatis concavis 
obtusis patentibus albidis, staruinibus numerosissimis multiseriatis 
recurvis, rilamentis sanguineis antberas lineares obtusas sordide carneas 
sequantibus, gynostegio oblongo crasse stipitato, carpellis lanceolatis 
acuminatis evectis lente recurvis, stigmatibus linearibus. 



It is with considerable hesitation that I propose the 
subject of this plate as a new species of Magnolia, consider- 
ing how imperfectly described are the Chinese and Japanese 
members of this genus. That it is not M. parviflora is 
obvious, as the size of the flowers implies. Of this latter 
I have seen a good dried specimen, and an excellent figure 
by Keisuke Ito (" Figures and Descriptions of Plants in 
the Koishikawa Botanical Gardens (Tokio) " by Keisuke 
Ito, Professor of Botany in the University of Tokio, vol. i. 
t. 13), and these perfectly agree with the description pub- 
lished by iSiebold and Zuccarini, who ascribe to it small 
orbicular-obovate cuspidate membranous deciduous leaves 
with few nerves (6-8 pairs), and small flowers with long 
slender pedicels. M. Watsoni is much nearer M. hypo- 
leuca Sieb. and Zucc. (Keisuke Ito, t. 14) which is a 
larger plant with robust branches, large oblong leaves 
densely pruinose and thinly hairy beneath, and more or 
less biennial in duration. I have the pleasure of naming 
it after Mr. W. Watson, the Assistant-Curator of the Royal 
Gardens, to whose skill and care the Botanical Magazine 
is indebted for the flowering of so many of the interesting 
plants depicted in its plates. 

February 1st. 189L 



M. Watsoni was purchased for the Royal Gardens from 
the Japanese Court of the Paris Exhibition in 1889, and 
flowered in the open ground at Kew in June of last year. 
The flowers had a powerful odour of Calycanthus. 

Descr. A small tree, flowering and leafing at the same 
time ; branchlets smooth, terete, annulate. Leaves four to 
seven inches long by two to three and a half broad, elliptic- 
or obovate-oblong or orbicular-obovate, obtuse or cuspidate, 
somewhat waved, deep green above with yellow margins and 
nerves, paler beneath and when young clothed with fine 
silky appressed hairs, base rounded or cuneate ; nerves 
ten to fifteen pairs, arched, deeply impressed above ; petiole 
one half to one inch long. Flowers solitary, terminal, 
very shortly peduncled, five to six inches in diameter. 
Sepals oblong or linear-oblong, subacute or obtuse, very 
concave, rose-coloured or pale-purplish on the back, at 
length deflexed. Petals broadly obovate, obtuse, unequal, 
very concave, spreading, cream-coloured. Stamens very 
numerous, in many series, recurved, forming a broad ring 
round and incumbent on the petals, about one-third of the 
latter in length ; filaments blood-red, as long as the linear, 
dirty reddish-yellow anthers. Pistil an oblong mass of 
closely imbricating lanceolate carpels narrowed into slightly 
recurved styles, and terminating a very stout columnar 
stipes; stigmas linear, decurrent on the inner face of the 
style.— J. D. H. 

Figs. 1 and 2, front and back view of stare ens; 3, style of carpel :— both 
enlarged. 



7158 




^^^^^^^^^ 



Tail 7158. 
OATASETUM piwbriatum. 

Native of Brazil. 

"Nat Ord. Ohchide^:. — Tribe Van ni:/i;. 
Genus Oatasetum, L. C. Rick.; (Bentk. et. Hook.f. Gen. Plant, vol. iii. p. 551.] 



Catasetum finibriatum ; foliis 10-12-pollicaribus lanceolatis acuminatis, racemo 
pendulo multifloro, bracteis lanceolatis, pedicellis 1— \\ pollicaribus, 
sepalis albis roseo creberrime fasciolatis, dorsali erecto lineari acuminato 
concavo, lateralibus sub labio deflexis lanceolatis acuminatis marginibus 
revolutis, petalis oblanceolatis sepalis sequilongis et concoloribus, labello 
amplo lato flabelliforrai margine anteriore recurvo pectinatim fimbriato, 
disco antice in processum dentiformem producto medio concavo sac- 
culum calcariforme latum conicam obtusum formante albo lateribus 
prope basin utrinque rubro fasciolatis, columna alba rubro-punctata in 
rostrum acuminatum producta, cirrhis breviusculis deflexis. 

C. finibriatum, Lindl. in Paxt. Fl. Gard. vol. i. p. 124, cum Ic. Xyl. 84 ; 

Walp. Ann. vol. vi. p. 569; Rolfe in Gard. Chron. 1889, ii. p. 406. 
Myanthus fimbriatus, Morten in Ann. de Gand., vol. iv. (1848), p. 453, t. 232. 



G. finibriatum has been long in cultivation on the Con- 
tinent and in this country. It was exhibited (and won 
a gold medal it is said) at the Brussels National Horti- 
cultural Exhibition of 1848, by Madame Legrelle, who 
introduced it from Brazil, and it was shortly afterwards 
figured in the Annates de Gand, and in Paxton's Maga- 
zine. According to the Belgian reports it excited extra- 
ordinary attention "pendant trois jours plus de 100,000 
yeux se fixerent sur cette etrange et admirable gynandre, 
dont le parfum enibaumait la salle." Upon which Lindley 
sententiously remarks, " In this country people would 
hardly have remarked it." 

Reichenbach has described (Gard. Chron. 1881, pt. 1, 
p. 498) a variety of it (var. fissum), grown by Makoy, of 
Liege, as having a deeper divided lip, and toothed petals 
spotted with purple on a light ground. This variety has 
recently been figured in the Revue de I'llort. Beige (vol. 
xiv. 1888, p. 273), and described by Count O. de Kerchove ; 
but except in the dark red brown scape and rachis of the 

Febklary 1st, 1891. 



panicle there is little difference between this variety and 
that here figured. Other varieties are described as having 
rose-red flowers ; and one, var. viridulum, Reichb. f. (in 
Gard. Chron. 1887, ii. 272), as having green flowers spotted 
with reddish-purple. The specimen here figured was 
obtained from Messrs. F. Sander & Co., of St. Albans, in 
the spring of 1889, and flowered in the Royal Gardens 
in October of last year. It was received as var. platyp- 
terum, Reichb. f. (in Gard. Chron. 1889, i. 168), which is 
described as having a garlic green lip. 

Descr. Pseudohdbs two to three inches long, sheathed. 
Leaves many, subsessile, eight to twelve inches long by 
three to four broad, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, seven- 
to nine-nerved. Raceme pendulous, eight- to nine-fld. ; 
peduncle terete, green, about as long as the inflorescence ; 
flowers about an inch apart ; bracts lanceolate, half an inch 
long, appressed to the pedicel, which with the ovary is one 
and a half inch long. Flowers two and a half inches 
long from the tip of the dorsal to those of the lateral 
sepals; sepals white or pale yellowish, closely barred with 
red ; dorsal erect, slightly incurved, linear-lanceolate, acu- 
minate, concave, channelled down the back ; lateral, de- 
flexed under the lip, lanceolate, acuminate, margins broadly 
revolute. Petals as long as and conniving with the 
dorsal sepal, oblanceolate, acuminate, coloured like the 
sepals. Lip very large, cowslip yellow, very broadly 
flabellate, retuse, the margin in front deeply laciniate, 
the sides towards the base revolute, and faintly barred 
with red, the disk excavated and forming an obtuse conical 
sac or spur ; between the mouth of the sac and retuse apex 
of the lip is a thickened triangular obtuse callus. Column 
large, ending in a long beak, pale yellowish, speckled with 
red; bristles slender, deflexed and incurved. Anther 
large, elongate, conical ; pollen-masses large, oblong ; 
strap broad, with inflexed margins, disc at base rounded. 
—J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Column ; 2, anther ; 3, pollen :— all enlarged. 



715$ 




■ Rtd-Jrth 



\mcentBraoksJ)ay&SonJriip 



Tab. 7159. 
RHODODENDRON" scabbifoliom. 

Native of Western China. 



Nat. Ord. Ericaceae. — Tribe Rhodorejs. 
Genus Rhododendron, Linn. ; (Benth. and Hooh. f. Gen. PL vol. ii. p. 599.) 



Rhododendron scabrifolium ; ramulis robustis strictis hispido-setosis, foliis 
breviterpetiolatislanceolatisv.obloDgo-lanceolatisutrinqueacutiscoriaceis 
margimbus subrecurvis supra scabrido-pnbescentibns suturate viridibus 
subtus dense lepidotis nervis validis arcuatis hispidulis, floribus in cymas 
terannales dispositis longiuscule pedicellatis, pedicellis hispidulis basi 
bracteis imbricatis scariosia oblongis velatis, calycis parvi hispidi et 
lepidoti lobis parvis ovatis acutis, corolte late campanulate tubo brevi, 
lobis 5 oblongis obtusis patentibus, staminibus 10 filaraentis glaberrimis 
corollaj lobis aaquilongis, ovario ovoideo tereti hispido et depidoto 5- 
loculan, stylo gracili basi piloso, stigmate capitato crenato. 

R. scabrifolium, Franchet in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, vol. xxxiii. p. 236 ; Forbes 
& Hemsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. vol. xxvi. p. 30. 



This is one of the numerous recently discovered Rhodo- 
dendrons of Western China, to which allusion was made 
when describing R. Boothii (t. 7149). It formed one of a 
collection of thirty-six Chinese species (all but two of them 
previously unknown) sent to Paris by the Abbe Delavay, 
chiefly from the mountains of Yun-nan. They are de- 
scribed by M. Franchet, in the Bulletin of the Botanical 
Society of France, and all referred to one section of the 
genus proposed by him under the name of Chonlastron 
(from x°™°v, a little barrel, and aarpov, a star, in allusion 
to the form of the corolla tube). This section is described 
as having persistent leaves, thirteen to fourteen long ex- 
serted stamens, and an infundibular corolla with a narrow 
cylindric tube as long as the lobes ; some of which characters 
are not conspicuous in R. scabrifolium. 

t R. scabrifolium was discovered at an elevation of about 
eight thousand feet, on the mountains above Lankong, in 
the province of Yun-nan. Seedlings of it were obtained 
by Kew from the Jardin des Plantes, in the spring of 
1888, which flowered in April, 1890. Along with it were 
received plants of R. cilitcalyx, decorum, Delavayi, fasti- 
!/iat>im, hybridum, lacteum, and racemosumn a ^ from the 
•same source. 

1'i:iuu-auy 1st. 1891. 



Desce. A small rigid shrub, hispidly hairy all over, 
except the bracts, corolla, stamens, and style ; branches 
strict terete. Leaves two and a half to three and a half 
inches long, elliptic- or oblong-lanceolate, acute at both 
ends, with the costa excurrent at the tip, margins ciliate 
slightly recurved, scabridly hispid above, with about seven 
pairs of impressed arched nerves which are very prominent 
and hispid beneath, under surface pale green, covered 
with minute lepidote scales ; petiole very short. Flowers in 
loose terminal sub-umbellate fascicles ; pedicels one to one 
and a half inch long, surrounded at the base by oblong 
scarious convex sub-acute imbricating pubescent yellowish 
bracts a quarter to one-third of an inch long. Calyx very 
small, hispid and lepidote, five-cleft, lobes ovate, acute. 
Corolla one and a half inch in diameter, white flushed with 
pink, tube short, campanulate; lobes oblong, obtuse, spread- 
ing, about twice as long as the tube. Stamens ten ; filaments 
glabrous, slender and spreading, nearly as long as the 
corolla-lobes ; anthers small. Ovary small, ovoid, five- 
celled, hispid and lepidote ; style decimate, slender, hairy 
towards the base ; stigma rather large, depressed-capitate, 
crenate. Capsule about twice the length of the calyx, 
oblong, obtuse, hispid. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Apex of leaf, seeu from beneath, showing the lepidote scales and ex- 
current costa ; 2, calyx and ovary ; 3, anther ; 4, ovary ; 5, transverse section 
ot the same ; 6, calyx and very youug fruit :— all but Jig. 6 enlarged. 



Tab. 7160. 
TRICUSPIDARIA dependent 

Native of Chili. 

K"at. Ord. Tiliace.e. — Tribe ELAEOCARrJu:. 
Genus TsiCUSFIDABIA, Suiz §• Pav.; (Benth. Hoolc.f. 8f Gen PI., vol. i. p. 240.) 



Trictjspidaria dependens, Puiz <§• Pav. Syst.Fl. Peruv. S( Gkil. 112 (1798) ; Gen. 
PL Ft. Per. St Chil. 64, t. 36; Ic. tried, t. 403; DC. Prodi: vol. i. p. 520; 
C. Gay Fl. Chil. vol. i. p. 338 ; Hook. Bot. Misc. vol. iii. p. 155 ; Miers 
Contrib. vol. ii. p. 186. 

T. Patagua, Miers Contrib. vol. ii. p, 182. 

Tricuspis depetidens, Pers. Syn. vol. ii. p. 9. 

Crinodendron Patagua, Car. Diss. vol. v. p. 300, t. 158 (1793); Hook. Bot. 
Misc. vol. iii. p. 156, t, ICO ; Miers Contrib. vol. ii. p. 187, t. 82. 

O. Hookerianum, Miers Contrib. I. c. p. 189, t. 83. 

Patagua (Cinodendrou) Mol. Chil. ; Ed. Angl. vol. i. p. 146. 



A small tree, attaining the height of thirty feet, appa- 
rently widely spread in the Chilian valleys, from Santiago 
in Lat. 34° S. to the island of Chiloe in Lat. 44° S. It 
was first noticed by Molina, who alludes to it in his 
" Saggio sulla storia Naturale del Chili," published in 
Bologna in 1782, a work translated into German, French, 
and English, and was subsequently described by Cavanilles 
from a drawing given him by Molina, as Crinodendron 
Patagua, a name which would be entitled to adoption 
were it not that the description is so imperfect and mis- 
leading that no botanist could have recognized the plant 
by it. This has led to its rejection by the elder De Candolle 
and most subsequent authors, for that given by Ruiz and 
Pavon. The late Mr. Miers, indeed, regarded Cusjtidaria 
and Crinodendron as distinct genera, and further attempted 
to distinguish two species of Tricwpidaria, namely a T. 
dependent, R. & P., from South Chili, and T. Patagua, 
Miers (T. dependens, Boole. Bot. 3Jisc. ; Crinodendron 
Patagua, Molina and C. Gay), a native of the central pro- 
vinces of Chili. The genus Crinodendron he confines to the 
C. Patagua, of Hook. Bot. Misc. (not of Molina), and 
names it C. Hookerianum, giving it the geographical area 
of South Chili and the Island of Chiloe. 

BAVABX 1ST, 1891. 



C. Gay in his Flora of Chili, describes the Patagua as 
inhabiting valleys of the Cordillera between Concepcion 
and Santiago, at an elevation of three thousand seven hun- 
dred feet, and says that the wood is very white, good, and 
much used for building and joiners' work; but that it 
must not be confounded with the Patagua of Valdivia, 
which is a species of Arrayan with wood of a bad quality. 
Molina says the flowers are fragrant, and gives the dimen- 
sions of the trunk as such that four men can scarcely 
encompass it ; but this last statement Miers discredits. 

A plant of Tricuspidaria dependents has long been culti- 
vated in the Temperate House at Kew, and flowers in 
spring. Its history is unknown. Mr. Watson informs 
me that the buds are very slowly developed, being formed 
in September, and then being as large as peas, but not fully 
developing till the following April, after which they remain 
tor at least a month on the tree. 

Descr. A small tree ; branchlets, petioles, peduncles and 
calyx pubescent. Leaves three to five inches long, oppo- 
site and alternate, shortly petioled, lanceolate, acuminate, 
serrulate nerves strong beneath. Flowers axillary, solitary, 
long peduncled, pendulous ; peduncle ebracteate, two to 
two and a half inches long, stout, green speckled with red. 
Bepals five, pubescent, greenish-red, variously cohering and 
forming an irregularly dehiscent calyx. Corolla one to one 
and a quarter inch long, urceolate, blood-red, deeply ten 
grooved; petals linear, very fleshy, in duplicate-valvate, 
three-toothed at the tip, deeply inflexed margins and stout 
mia-rib within pubescent, base bisaccate. Stamens fifteen, 
inserted on a thickened hypogynous glandular disk, ten 
outer situated on the glands, five inner eglandular at the 
base ; filaments slender, incurved, glabrous; anthers linear, 
as long as the filaments, pubescent, obtusely four-ane-led. 
Ovary villous, five-celled, cells many-ovuled. Style elon- 
gate, subulate, stigma minute.— J. I). H. 



Fig 1, Calyx; 2, petal seen from within; 3, disk, stamen, and pistil; 
4, anther ; o, disk and ovary ; 6, vertical section of ovary -.-all enlarged. 



1161. 




' JH JitAlrth 



"/mcer-tBroo:-: 



Tab. 7161. 

ANGRiECUM FRAGRANS. 

Native of Bourbon and the Mauritius. 

Nat. Ord. OrchidejE. — Tribe Vande^e. 
Genus Angr.ecum, Thouars ; (Benth. & Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 583.) 



AxgRjECTjm fragrans; caxxle crassitie penuse olorinie, foliis 3-4-pollicaribus 
patenti-recurvis iinearibua lineari-obloogisve, apice 2-lobis lobia rotaa- 
datis, pedunculis unifloris foliis brevioribus suberectis 2-3-vaginatis, 
sepalis petalisque consimilibus patenti-recurvis linearibus obtusis albis, 
labello nastato-lanceolato, calcare gracili decurvo sepalis piullo lougiore, 
coiumna brevi lateribus subauriculatis, polliniis apicem versus stipitis 
plani oblongi indivisi sessilibus. 

A. fragrans, Thouars Orchid. lies Afric. t. 54 ; ; A. Rich- Orchid. Maar. 69; 
Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orchid, p. 246. 

^Erobion fragrans, Spreng. Syst. Veg. vol. ii. p. 716. 

xEranthus fragrans, Heichb. f. in TValp. Ann. vol. vi. p. 899; S. Moore i,i 
Baker Fl. Maurit. p. 350. 



The interest attached to this little orchid is due to the 
persistent Vanilla-like odour of the leaves when dry, which 
has led to its use as a tea in Bourbon, the Mauritius, 
and even to some extent in France. According to a 
notice in the Gardener's Chronicle (1850, p. 599) of an 
article on this plant by a M. Gobley, communicated to 
the Chemical Gazette, it is considered a digestive, and 
even recommended in diseases of the respiratory organs. 
The popular name is variously spelled Fahame, Faham, 
Fahan, Fahon, Fahum, and Faam, of the origin of which 
I have no information. It is a native of both Bourbon 
and the Mauritius, from which last-named island plants 
were received in 1887 at Kew, from Mr. Home, F.L.S., 
director of the Botanical Gardens, Pamplemousses, which 
flowered in January of last year, and were very sweet 
scented. 

With regard to the genus sEranthus to which A. frag- 
rant is referred by Reichenbach and in the Flora of Mauri- 
tius, it is to be observed that it was founded by Lindley 
as JSranthes (altered to JEranthus in Veg. Kingd.), for the 
Dendrvbium Arachnites of Thouars (Orch. Afr. t. 88), and 
another species, A. grand-iflora (Bot. Reg. t. 817 ; Bot. 

February 1st, 1891. 



Mag. t. 6034, misspelt Acranthus), to which he incautiously 
added as a third a true Angrcecum, the A. sesquipedale, 
Thouars. Of these the two first differ notably from 
Angrcecum in habit and form of flower, in the elongate 
foot of the column, and the singular spur, and as Bentham 
remarks (Gen. Plant, hi. 576), they are more allied to 
Mrides than to Angrcecum. Reichenbach, on the other 
hand, has without comment (WaJp. Ann. vol. vi. 899) 
introduced a crowd of genuine Angrceca, including fragrans, 
together with species of other very different genera, into 
JEranthus, Reichb. f., but omitting both Lindley's species, 
though at the same time citing JEranthus, Lindl., as a 
synonym of his JEranthus. 

Descr. Stem six to ten inches long or more, about as 
thick as a goose-quill, scandent. Leaves few, towards 
the top of the stem, three to four inches long, by half to 
three-quarters of an inch broad, spreading and recurved, 
lorate, deeply two-lobed at the tip, lobes rounded, deeply 
channelled down the centre, margins recurved. Flowers 
solitary, axillary or supra-axillary; peduncle ascending 
or erect, with the ovary two to two and a half inches 
long, rather stout, sheaths and sheathing bract appressed. 
Flowers two inches in diameter across the sepals, pure 
white, fragrant; sepals and petals linear, spreading and 
recurved, obtuse. Lip about as long as the sepals, hastately 
lanceolate, acute, grooved down the centre ; spur slender, 
rather longer than the sepals, green. Column very short, 
sides subauricled; anther hemispheric, ridged on the 
crown; pollinia attached one on each side of the acute 
apex of an oblong entire strap.— J. D. H. 



. Fl |' c 1 ' F ,l° w . er with ihe se P als and Petals removed ; 2, column ; 3, anther; 
4 and 5, pollinia :— all enlarged. 



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7163. 




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VmceutBroaks^ay-S 



Tab. 7162-3. 
ENCEPHALARTOS Altensteinii. 

Native of South Africa. 



Nat. Ord. C re ade.*:.— -Tribe Encephalaete,e. 
Genus Encephalartos, Lehm.; (Berth, et SooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 445.) 



Encephelartos Altensteinii ; trunco robuato apice plus minus villoso 
folua numerosissimis breviter petiolatis, petiolo subcylindraceo demum 
glabrato, rachi dorso rotundato, facie bicanaliculato, foliolis numerosissi 
mis sessilibus lmeari-oblongis pungentibus inermibus v. utrinqne pauci 
spinulosis la3te vindibus, strobilo masculo elongato-ovoideo v subclavato 
squamis mfenoribus et intermediis in conum crassum truncatum tetra' 
gonum productis, supenonbus longioribus elongatis, strobilo foemineo 
maximo subsessih ovoideo, squamis in conum crassum quadratum trunca 
turn apice villosum rugosum productis, seminibus oblongis trigonis aneulo 
interiore acuto lateralibus rotundatis. 

E. Altensteinii, Lehm. Pugill. vi. p. 11, f. 4, 5 (1834) ; Otto, et Dietr Allaem 
Gartenzeit. 1834, pp. 85, 86, 88, tt. 4, 5 ; Miauel Monogr. Gycad p 51 e 't 
in Lmnaa, vol. xix. p. 420, t. 5 ; et Prodr. Gycad. p. 10, 22 ; DeVriese 
Bescr. et Fig. des Plantes Nottv. du Jarditi de Lei/den, 1807 t 1 2 3 • 
Oudeman. Medd. Enceph. Alt. 1863, p. 1 ; Alpk, DG. Prodr vo'l xvi pt ii' 

^'J?' 2 '\ M " ste ^J-! 1 a aT £- Ghr0n - 1876 ' P L "• P- 392 ' % s - 80. 81, 82, and 
1887, pt. 11. p. 281, fig. 66. 

E. Marumii, De Vriese in Tijdschr. Nat. Gesch. vol. v. p. 188. 



The cone of Encephalartos Altensteinii here figured was 
the second sent to the Royal Gardens of Kew, by W H 
Tillett, Esq., of Sprowston, Norwich. The first, which 
arrived about thirteen years ago, had been left too loner on 
the plant and hence was received in too dilapidated a state 
for drawing. The second (none having been formed in the 
interval) was received in February of last year in excellent 
condition. In each case the cone was about eighteen 
inches long by thirty in circumference, and was preceded 
by a tier of leaves formed in the previous year. It was 
accompanied by a photograph of the plant, which is repro- 
duced on Plate 7163. Judging from the photograph, Mr. 
Tillett's plant precisely accords, except in size, with the 
specimens growing at Kew, the largest of which is nearly 
six feet in height with a diameter of trunk about ten inches. 
March 1st. 1891. 



The first description of the female cone of this noble 
Cycad in England was published by Dr. Masters in the 
" Gardener's Chronicle " for 1876, with excellent figures 
of the whole plant (male and female), its cones of both 
sexes, and leaves, from specimens that flowered in Mr. Bull's 
nursery. Except in its smaller size (twelve inches long 
by five and a half inches diameter, those of the cone here 
figured being eighteen inches long and ten inches diameter), 
and in the crowns of the scales being smooth and 
glabrous, and not at all tubercled, there is no appreciable 
difference between Mr. Bull's cone and Mr. Tillett's ; and 
as the female cones were unknown when the species was 
first described, it is impossible to say which best accords 
with that of the type of the species. 

An ample collection of . available materials for a 
knowledge of Encephalarti has been collected by Mr. 
Thiselton Dyer, and is deposited at Kew. This reper- 
torium includes a photograph of a female cone referred 
to E. Altensteinii, seventeen inches high and thirteen 
inches diameter, of an exactly oblong form, that was 
produced in the Botanic Garden of Grahamstown ; in it 
the tips of scales are rugosely tubercled all over, and 
the truncate area is much less distinctly defined. There 
are also photographs of specimens with three cones from 
Sir Thomas Shepstone's garden at Natal ; these photo- 
graphs were numbered 43 and 73 in the Catalogue of 
Photographs in the Natal Department of the Colonial 
Exhibition of 1886, and are accompanied by notes from 
Mr. G. T. Ferneyhaugh, to the effect that one of the plants 
is supposed to be two hundred years old, and had produced 
cones for the first time (presumably after its being planted 
in Sir T. Shepstone's garden) ; and that the cones some- 
times weigh thirty to forty pounds, and that the seeds of 
Encephalarti are valued for snuff-boxes by the natives of 
Natal. 

Another very complete description, with illustrations, of 
E. Altensteinii is that of De Vriese in his "Description of 
new and rare plants that flowered in the Botanic Garden of 
Leyden." The figure which he gives of the female cone and 
its scales precisely accords with Mr. Tillett's plant in the 
tubercles and their woolly apices. De Vriese states that 
the species was named after a German Maecenas of Science, 



" M. le Oomte d'Altenstein, Chancellor efc Ministre d'JEtat 
de S.M. le Roi de Prusse." 

^ With regard to the geographical distribution of the 
South African Encephalarti, there is little information to 
be had. I find, however, in the Kew collection above 
alluded to, the notice of a meeting of the Phytologists 
Club (see Phytologist, 1852, p. 613) at which extracts 
were read from a letter from Charles Zeyher, dated Cape- 
town, April, 1852, to the effect that '• E. Altensteinii is 
found in woods on the Boschman's River, not far from the 
virgin forests of Olifant's Hoek, where also E. tridentatus is 
found, but sparingly; " that is in the district of Albany, 
and not far from the sea-coast. Nor are there available 
authentic accounts of the height to which the species 
attain. In cultivation E. Altensteinii attains nearly six feet 
at Kew and elsewhere, with a diameter of ten inches to a 
foot, and the leaves are five feet in length; but that some 
species attain a very much greater height would appear 
from a letter addressed to me by the late Mr. Charles 
Meller, when in charge of the Botanical Gardens in 
Mauritius. Mr. Meller had returned from a visit to Natal, 
where he had been informed by Mr. Sanderson of a huge 
Encephalartos, which the latter gentleman had met with in 
a secluded valley of Natal, about thirty miles from the sea, 
the trunk of which measured sixteen feet before branching, 
and twenty-five to the crown, which was formed of five 
branches. It is probably E. Altensteinii. — J. D. U. 



Tab. 7162, Cone and leaves of Mr. Tillett's plant, the cone reduced to one 
half of the natural size, the leaves of the natural size, as are fig. 1, the crowns 
of the scales ; 2, upper and under surface of scales removed with the seeds, 
and f. 4, vertical section of seed. 

Tab. 7163, Reduced sketch of Mr. Tillett's plants, from a photograph ; and 
leaflets of the natural size from the Kew plant. 




71&f 



• del J. 



ftncext£roaksDav& Sordino 



Tab. 7164. 
MASDEVALLIA macbura. 

Native of the Andes of New Granada. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Tribe Epidendbej:. 
Germs Masdevalua, Ruiz. & Par.; (Benth. & Hook.f. Gen. PI vol. iii. p. 492.) 



Masdevallia (Coriaceae) macruraj dense caespitosa, foliis obovato-spathu- 
latis obtusis in petiolum validum angustatis, pedunculis erectis validis 
ioliis asqmlongis umrlons, flore ad apicem pedunculi sessili amplo, bractea 
concava, penantbn carnosi tubo brevi campanulato, extus purpureo intus 
roseo rubropunctato, sepis e basi triangulari-ovata alte 7-carinata in 
caudas longissimas flavidas angustatis, carinis verrucosis, petalis carnos-s 
oblanceolato-oblongis subacutis dorso carinatis, labello lineari-oblon^o basi 
cordate, apice carnoso recurvo papillose, columna apice membranacea 

CUCUilcttcl. 

M. macrura, Reichb.f. in Gard. Chron. 1874, pt. i. p. 240 and 1877 nf ! 
p. 12, f. 2 ; in Linncea, vol. xli. (1877), p. 11 ' ' P 

A discovery of the late Mr. Benedict Eoezl in New 
Grenada, possessing as its describer (Prof essor Reichenbach) 
says, some considerable ornamental merits. This was in 
1874 ; in 1877 a much fuller account of it (with a good 
figure) was given in the "Gardener's Chronicle," where 
it is stated that the tails of the sepals vary greatly in 
length, from a little over four to six inches, in eighteen 
specimens examined. Its most remarkable character is 
the presence of prominent nerves covered with numerous 
dark purple warts in the interior of the perianth. 

The plant figured was obtained from Mr. W. Lee, Down- 
side, Leatherhead, in 1887, and flowered at Kew in 
January, 1890. 

Desce. Stems short, densely tufted, sheathed, bearing a 
solitary leaf and scape. Leaves with the stout petiole °six 
to ten inches long, spathulately oblanceolate, two to three 
inches broad, very coriaceous, keeled dorsally, tip rounded 
entire or notched ; petiole half as long as the blade or shorter, 
keeled at the back; basal sheaths several, large, obliquely 
obtusely truncate. Peduncle shorter than the leaf, stout, 
erect, one-fid., green, slightly curved. Flower large, eight 

Makch 1st, 1891. 



inches long from the tip of the erect dorsal sepal to those 
of the deflexed lateral sepals, sessile on the top of the 
peduncle ; bracts cucullate, truncate, green, sheathing the 
short ovary and the base of the perianth. Sepals coriaceous 
connate below in a short, broadly carnpanulate tube, 
which is bright red purple externally ; segments broadly 
triangular- ovate, two-thirds of an inch wide at the base, 
dull red within with dark purple spots, narrowed into long 
slender yellow cylindric tails, the dorsal erect, the lateral 
pendulous, strongly seven-ribbed without and within, the 
ribs smooth without, warted within. Lip linear-obiong, 
base cordate, tip fleshy, obtuse, recurved, papillose. Petals 
oblanceolate, truncate. — J. D. //. 



Fig. 1, Petals, lip, and column in situ ; 2, column ; 3, anther ; 4, pollinia : — 
all enlarged. 



7161 




J-HJltxi 



Tab. 7165. 

MASDEVALLIA punctata. 

Native of the Andes of New Granada ? 

Nat. Ord. Orchide.e. — Tribe Epidendreje. 

Genus Masdevallia, "Ruiz §Pav.; (~Benth. et Hooh.f. df Gen PL, vol. iii. 

p. 492.) 



Masdevallia punctata ; dense csespitosa, foliis petiolatis elliptico-lanceolatis 
acuminatis, pedunculis subaequilongis gracillimis pendulis 1-plarifloris 
pluri-vaginatis, perianthio incurvo latiore quam longo luride flavido cre- 
berrime sanguineo punctato, sepalo dorsali araplo ovato incurvo in 
caudam rigidam angustato dorso crasse 3-costato, sepaiis lateralibus 
divaricatis et incurvis falcato-ovato-lanceolatis obtusis, basi gibbis apice 
seta mucronatis, petalis dolabriformibus acutis, labello lineari recurvo. 

M. punctata, Bolfe in Gard. Ohron. 1888, pt. ii. p. 323. 



Mr. Rolfe, the founder of this pretty little species, 
describes it as belonging to a small group of the genus in 
which the lip is superior in relation to the axis of the 
inflorescence, and as most nearly allied to M. swerticefolia, 
Reichb. f. (Gard. Chrou., 1880, ii. 390). From the last- 
named plant it differs in the much larger flower and the 
elongate falcately decurved lateral sepals, which give the 
very broad flower somewhat the appearance of a bison's 
head. M. swerticefolia is further described as having soft 
leaves, sepals with slender recurved tails, and a sagittate lip 
serrulate in front. The plant was procured from Messrs. 
Backhouse and Sons of York, in 1888, and flowered at Kew 
in the same year. Its precise native country is unknown, 
but is presumably the Andes of New Granada. 

Desck. Densely tufted. Leaves three to five inches long, 
by three-fourths to one inch broad, elliptic-lanceolate, sub- 
acute, narrowed below into a petiole one-third to half inch 
long, which is embraced at the base by a single tubular 
brownish sheath, very coriaceous, bright green. Peduncles 
.about as long as the leaves, very slender, pendulous, 
purplish, one to three or four flowered, the flowers appear- 
ing one at a time ; sheaths three to four, about one-sixth of 
an inch long, acute. Flowers ascending, strongly incurved; 
about a third of an inch across the lateral sepals; bracts 

Mabch L-i. 1891. 



very small; ovary short, red; perianth with a hemispheric 
base, dull yellowish, thickly speckled with crimson. Dorsal 
sepal very broadly ovate, concave, narrowed into a long 
stiff incurved tail, thickly five-ribbed on the back. Lateral 
sepals spreading horizontally, falcately incurved, ovate- 
lanceolate from a gibbous base, and with a filiform ex- 
current process within the tip. Petals hatchet-shaped; 
that is subdimidiate-ovate in form, narrowed at the base, 
acute. Lip linear-oblong, recurved, yellow upwards. 
Column three-toothed. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower ; 2, the same with the sepals narrowed ; 3, column : 4 and 5- 
anther : — all enlarged. 



7166. 




l-S.deUIiRtchrih. 



JSncantSr ooisDav 3c Son>? 



Tab. 7166. 
CLEMATIS kStanleyi. 

Native of the Transvaal. 

Nat Orel. Banunculace^e. — Tribe Clematide^e. 
Genus Clematis, Linn.; {Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 3.) 



Clematis Stanleyi; erecta, robusta, molliter albo-villosa, foliis ternatisectis, 
foliolis laxis deusisve cuneato-obovatis v. -linearibus obtusis v. acutis, 
iloribus solitariis longe et crasse pedunculitis amplis nutantibus, sepalis 
4 ovato-rotundatis subacutis valide costatis marginibus uadulatis intus 
et extus sericeo-villosis albis v. pallide purpureis, staminibus numero- 
sissimis, filamentis aericeis antheras lineares longioribus, ovariis stylis 
que sericeo-plumosis. 

C. Stanleyi, Hook. Ic. PI. t. 589; Harv. & Sond. Fl, Cap. vol. i. p. 3 ; 
Watson in Gard. C/iron. 1890 ; pt. ii. p. 326; Garden Sc Forest, vol iii 
p. 513. 



Few genera of plants present such remarkable divergences 
in habit and flowers as Clematis, and the subject of the 
present plate shows, perhaps, in this respect the greatest 
departure from the prevalent characters of its congeners. 
In fact it more resembles an Anemone in foliage and flower, 
though no species of that genus has so shrubby a habit ; 
and the North American A. patens is its nearest counter- 
part in general appearance. Mr. Watson, indeed, informs 
me that as grown at Kew the leaves are sometimes alter- 
nate, a singular fact, which if confirmed, would leave 
nothing whereby to distinguish the two genera from one 
another but the valvate petals of Clematis, these being 
imbricate in Anemone. 

C. Stanleyi, whilst always retaining its erect robust habit, 
is a very variable plant as to foliage, whether in its native 
state or in cultivation. The leaves are sometimes only a 
few inches long, crowded and with closely packed sessile 
leaflets not a fourth of an inch long ; in others the leaves 
are four to six inches long, with linear segments ; in the 
cultivated form here figured the lower leaves are a span 
long and upwards ; deltoid, with petiolulate segments an 
inch to an inch and a half long. The peduncles of the 
March 1st, 1891. 



flower are always erect with the flowers drooping, they 
vary from two to three inches long in dwarf compact leaved 
native specimens, to eight and ten inches in the cultivated, 
and the flowers vary from one to nearly three inches in 
diameter, and in colour from white to pink-purple. The 
sepals expand widely before falling off. 

According to the " Flora Capensis " G. Stanleyi was 
discovered by Miss Owen, in Zululand, in 1840. It was 
refound in about 1842 by Mr. Burke, a collector sent out 
to South Africa under the joint auspices of the Royal 
Gardens of Kew and the Lord Derby (grandfather of the 
present Earl), whose gardens and menagerie at Knowsley 
were famous nearly half a century ago, but of which the 
menagerie was broken up at his death, and the gardens 
were no longer kept up on a botanical footing. Mr. Burke 
foundthe plant at Macalisberg, in about the centre of 
what is now the Transvaal, and it has been collected in 
the same region and in Natal by the late Mr. Sanderson, 
by Mr. Nelson, and Dr. A. Rehmann. 

The specimen here figured was raised from seed sent to 
Kew by Mr. B. E. Galpin, of Barbertown in the Transvaal. 
Plants of it flowered freely in the summer both in an open 
sunny border and in the greenhouse at Kew, and ripened 
seed. The roots, Mr. Watson informs me, are flesh y like 
those of G. vitalba.—J. I). H. 



Fig. 1 and 2, stamens ; 3, carpel -.—both enlarged. 



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Tab. 7162-3.-ENCEPHALASTOS ALTENSTEINII. 
„ 7164.— MASDEVALLIA MACRURA. 
„ 7165.— MASDEVALLIA PUNCTATA. 
„ 7166.— CLEMATIS STAXLEYI. 

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Tab. 7107. 
vanilla planifolia. 
Native of Mexico. 

Nat. Ord. OfiCuiDE_. Tribe Neottie_ 
Genus Vanilla, Swartz. (Benth. & Ilook.f. Gen. Plant vol. iii. p. 590). 



Vanilla plunifolia; caule robusto tereti, foliia breviter crasso petiolatis 
oblongo-lanceolatis longe acuminatis crassis nervis obscuris, rncemis 
multifloria breviter pedunculatis, rachi crassa, pedieellis incnrvis, floribus 
amplis flavesceiitibus, sepalis petalisque oblanceolatis labelli tubo bucci- 
niformi intus penicillo columnar anteposito instructo, limbi parri lobis re- 
volutis crenulatis lateralibus brevibus intermedio retuso creberrime striato- 
carinato carinis crenulatis, coluinna antice villosa capsula 8-9-pollicari. 

V. planifolia, Andrews Bot. Rep. vol. viii. t. 538; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 7.V3 ; 
Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orchid, p. 435; Blume, HumpMa, vol. i. p. 198, t. 68; 
Hayne Arzneigew. vol. xiv. t. 22 ; Morrcn, in hull. Acad. S'r. Bruxellet 
iv. (1837) 225 j xvii. (1850) 108; in Com/des Rendu Am-/. Fr. (1838) 489; 
• Berg, et Sch. Offic. Geivdcfise, vol. xxiii. t. a, b ; Tklttil, Etudes sur la 
Vanilla, 1874; De Vriese, Be Vaniehe. p. 22; Kohler Medxz. Pflanz.; 
Benth. & Trim. Med. PL vol. iii. t. 272; Fliick. & llaubury Pharma- 
cograph. Ed. 2, p. 657. 

V. viridiflora, Blume Bijdr. p. 422. 

Myrobroma fragrans, Salisb. Farad. Lond. t. 82. 

Vanilla flore viridi et albo, fructu nigrescente, Plum. Nov. Gen. PI. Am. 25 
(1703). 

Araeo aromatico, Hernandez Thesaur., Rev. Med. Nov. BTup. 38 (1651), with 

fi g- . 

An excellent account of the History of the Vanilla is 
given in Hanbury and Fliickiger's Pharmacographia cited 
above, from which I have taken the following account. 
According to these authors it was found to be n^cd by the 
natives of Mexico as a condiment to chocolate on' the 
occupation of that country by the Spaniards, who intro- 
duced it into Europe. The first botanical notice of it is by 
Clusius, in his " Exoticorum Libri," lib. iii. c. 18, 72 
(1C05), who received a specimen of it from Morgan, 
apothecary to Queen Elizabeth, in 1602, and who described 
it as " Lobus oblongus aromaticus," without being aware 
of its native country or uses. It was, however, known 
much earlier to Hernandez, for the figure in his Thesau- 
rus, which appeared in 1651, was one of a series of 1200 
executed at great cost in Mexico, by order of the King of 

Aphil 1st, 1891. 



Spain, daring the previous century. In 1703 Plumier first 
gives it the name of Vanilla, that being the name in use in 
Mexico by the Spaniards ; and he enumerates three species, 
distinguishing planifolia by its white or green flower and 
black fruit. At the end of the seventeenth century it was 
imported into France through Spain, and used for flavour- 
ing chocolate and scenting tobacco. In 1721 it had a 
place in the London Pharmacopoeia, but gradually dis- 
appeared from the druggists' shops, finding a refuge with 
increasing favour with the confectioners. For many years 
the principal imports were from Mexico, but latterly the 
French, Dutch, and English colonies, especially Bourbon, 
Java, the Mauritius, and Honduras, chiefly meet the 
European demand. 

Of the numerous published figures of V. planifolia one 
alone much resembles the one here given, and that is W. 
Hooker s (not a connection of the former Editor of this 
Magazine) in Salisbury's Paradisus, and which is excellent. 
It was taken from the plant first cultivated in this country 
(m the garden of the Rt. Hon. Charles Greville, at Pad- 
cnngton). The original figure of Andrews' Repository, 
taken from the same plant a few years earlier, is represented 
as having smaller very dark green leaves, and much smaller 
blueish white flowers with shorter sepals and petals. 
Loddiges figure resembles that of Andrews'; and what 
is more strange, so does that given by Bentley and Trimen, 
which is stated to be drawn from a Kew plant. So great 
is the difference between Andrews' figure and that here 
gn en that were it not that Hooker's is said to be drawn 
trom the same plant as Andrews', I should doubt their 
specific identity. In colour the flowers evidently vary 
±rom greenish-white to yellow, and they may vary con- 

tVnl r V n S]Z f als0 ' The fi §' ure here given was made 
t om a Kew plant in May, 1890, obtained originally from 
the Duke of Northumberland's Gardens at, lion House. 
un numerous occasions, during the last ten years, the Sion 
Wouse plants as also the Kew plants obtained from them, 
nave produced mature pods. These are about eight 



or 

nnsaosa f, 

icteristic aroma of true vanilla.— J". D. H. 



nine inches long, somewhat slender, and possess the 
characteristic nmmn ^f +v,„~ «.~~ni_ r ti tt 1 



iidl 1W rt -° n °i \ and co , lnmn ; 2 ' tQ P of columQ and ™tb.er ; 3, back, 
all, iiout view of untlw.— all c?ilar>jed. 



Tab. 7168. 
as arum geophilum. 

Native of Southern China. 

Nat. Ord. Akistolochie.*:. 
Genus Asarum, Linn.; (Benth. et Hooh.f. Gen. PI., vol. iii. p. 122.) 



Asarum geophilum ; sparse hirsutuin, caudice robusto repente, foliis alternis 
craase petiolatis rotundato-cordatis obtusis ciliatis laride viridibus Baperne 
nervis albidis reticulatis, floribus axillaribus, pedunculis crassis decurvis, 
ovario infero late hemispherico, calycis tubo brevi intus hirsuto, ore 
breviter annulato, limbo 3-lobo atro-purpure albo pnnctato molliter 
setuloso aureo marginato, lobis ovato-rotundatis antico majore, antheris 
oblongis cormectivo producto obfcuso, stylo brevi alte 6-sulcato, stigmatibus 
brevibus decurrentibus. 

A. geophilum, Hemsl. in Gcird. Citron. 1890, vol. i. p. 422. 



Under Asarum caudigerum, figured in plate 7126 of this 
work, I alluded to the many accessions to this curious 
genus which had been discovered of late years in China, 
from which country alone Mr. Hemsley informs me that 
eight species are known. Amongst these species there are 
very great differences both in mode of growth and floral 
structure. Thus A. geophilum differs from its congeners in 
its elongate branching rhizome with distant alternate 
leaves ; A. caudigerum in its binate leaves, with pairs of 
large green sheaths (cataphylla) at the base, in the caudate 
perianth lobes and triseriate stamina ; A. macrantha (Plate 
7022) in its crowded large flowers, and the mouth of the 
perianth being almost closed by a horizontal lamina, as in 
its near ally A. virginicum (Heterotropis asaroides, Tab. 
3746). There are further great modifications in the forms 
of the stamens and styles in the various species ; and in the 
ovary which may be wholly inferior or almost superior. 

On these and other modifications A. Braun and Duchar- 
tre have laid the foundation of four sections of the genus 
(see DC. Prodr. vol. xv. pt. i. p. 423), which are for the most 
part natural, but which will require considerable modifica- 
tion, and the addition of others, to receive the numerous 
species which have to be added to the ten described in 
the Prodromus. 

A?K1L 1st, 1891. 



Asarum geophilum was procured by Mr. Ford, Superin- 
tendent of the Hong-Kong Botanical Gardens, from the 
province of Kwantung in Southern China in 1888. Living 
plants, from which the accompanying drawing was made^ 
were sent to Kew by that zealous explorer, and flowered 
in a cool greenhouse in November, 1889. 

Descb. Whole plant more or less softly hairy. Root- 
stock as thick as a swan's quill, creeping and branching, 
red-brown, as are the petioles, leaf-nerves beneath, and 
peduncles. Leaves alternate, distant, three to four inches 
in diameter, orbicular-cordate, obtuse, ciliate, deep green 
above with closely reticulate white nerves, pale green 
beneath; petiole two to three inches long, stout. Flowers 
axillary, solitary ; peduncle stout, about half an inch long, 
decurved. Flowers an inch in diameter; ovary broadly 
hemispheric, wholly inferior. Perianth-tube short, and as 
well as the flat lobes, covered with soft setee; mouth 
constricted, annulate; lobes three, orbicular-ovate, obtuse, 
dark red-purple with white spots, and margined with 
golden yellow, the anticous rather longer than the others. 
btamens equal, filaments short ; anthers oblong, connec- 
tive produced into an obtuse cone. Style short, deeply 
laterally six-cleft, with short decurrent stigmas.—/ D H 



a/efjaljed™ ^ ^ ^ Pe " anth rem ° Ved ; 2 and 3 ' stameTls > 4 - st J Ie : " 



7169 










Tab. 7169. 

EPIDENDRUM Scepteum. 

Native of Venezuela and New Grenada. 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^e. — Tribe EriDENDKE^;. 
Genua Epidendritm, Linn.; (Bentli. & Hooh.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 528.) 



Epidendrxjm (Aulizeum) Sceptrum ; pseudobulbis stipitatis elongatis apices 
versus paucifoliatis, foliis erecto-recurvis loriformibus apicibus rotun- 
datis emarginatis v. breviter 2-lobis, racemo basi spathaceo elato stricto 
nmltifloro, bracteis minutis ovatis, pedicellis cum ovariis 1-1 £ pollicaribus 
strictis, floribus 1-1 i poll. diam. aureis rubro-purpureo maculatis, 
sepalis lanceolatis acutis, petalis latioribus spathulato-oblanceolatia 
acutis, labello columnar adnato trapezoideo angulis obtusis glaberrimo 
basi pulvinato, columna brevi viridi, clinandrio trilobo. 

E, Sceptrum, Lindl. Orchid. Linden. No. 50; Fol. Orchid. Epidendrum, p. 36, 
No. Ill ; Reichb.f. in Bonpland, vol. ii. p. 281 ; in Walp. Hep vol vi' 
p. 353. 

A very striking species, and -with a rather wide dis- 
tribution for an epiphytic Orchid; extending along the 
coast ranges of the Caribbean Sea, from Cumana, where 
it was found by Linden at an elevation of 6500 feet, to 
Santa Martha, in New Grenada, and to Ocaiia in the interior 
of the same republic. It belongs to a section of the genus 
in which the lip is more or less adnate to the whole length 
of the column (less in this species), and with few leaves at 
the top of the pseudobulb, and terminal inflorescence. Of 
species figured in this work it comes nearest to E. vrm'e- 
gatum (Plates 3151) of which E. coriaceum (Plate 3595) is 
undoubtedly a variety, and not a very marked one. 

E. Sceptrum was first flowered in this country by the 
late Mr. "Warner, who sent a flowering raceme to Kew in 
1864. Sir Trevor Lawrence again flowered it in 1888, and 
presented the plant to Kew, from which the accompany- 
ing figure was made in September, 1889. 

Desce. llootstoch creeping, rigid. Pseudobulbs stipitate, 
a span to a foot long, very narrowly fusiform, nearly an 
inch in diameter, slightly compressed, clothed at the base 
with a lanceolate brown sheath ; stipes one to two inches 

April 1st, 1891. 



long, clothed at first with short imbricating brown sheaths ; 
a small oblong pseuclobulb usually crowns the larger one, 
and bears the flowering raceme. Leaves one to three at 
the tips of the pseudobulb, a span to a span and a half 
long, about an inch, in breadth, erect and recurved, strap- 
shaped, bright green, coriaceous, tip rounded and notched, 
or two-lobed, lobes rounded. Raceme about a foot long, 
strict, erect, very many-flowered, rachis pale green ; 
peduncle short, with a narrow brown basal sheath ; bracts 
an eighth of an inch long, ovate, green; pedicels with 
ovary an inch to an inch and a half long, rather slender, 
strict, spreading. Perianth one to one and a quarter 
inches broad, bright yellow blotched with red-purple. 
Sepals spreading, lanceolate, acute. Petals broader, 
oblanceolate or subspathulate, acute. Lip adnate to the 
column for about one half the length of the latter, trapezi- 
form with obtuse angles, golden yellow with confluent 
purple blotches towards the tip ; disk glabrous, thickened 
towards the base. Column rather short, green, top three- 
lobed. Anther didymous ; pollinia connate. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Lip ; 2, column; 3, anther; 4 and 5, pollinia :— all enlarged. 



7/70 




IS.del, J-KFrtdi hth 



vs Day & Son imp 



Tab. 7170. 
FURCRJEA BEDiNGHAUsir. 

Native of Mexico. 

Nat. Ord. Amari'llide.1!. — Tribe Agaves. 
Genus Furck^a, Vent.; (Benth. et Hoolc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 739.) 



Fubcr.ea Bedinghausii; caulescens, foliis dense rosulatia ensiformibus 3-4- 
pedalibns recurvatis facie lfevibua dorso scabris valde glaucescentibus 
marginibus denticulatis, floribus in paniculam amplam ramia elongatia 
pendulis compositis dispositia, pedicellis brevibus aggregatis apice articu- 
latis, bracteis parvis scariosia, ovario cylindrico, perianthio albo aegmentis 
interioribus oblongis exterioribua lineari-oblongis dorso viridi tinctia, 
staminibus periantbio brevioribus filamentia valde strumosis, piatillo 
staminibas sequilongo. 

F. Bedingbansii, K. Koch. Wochen. 1863, 233 ; E. Morren in Belt/. Hort. 
1863, 327, witb figure ; Baker in Gard. Chron. 1879, vol. i. p. 656 ; Handb. 
Amaryll. p. 203. 

F. Eoezlii, Andre in Rev. Hort. 1887, p. 353, fig. 1. 

Eoezlia bulbifera, Boezl. in Belg. Hort. 1883, p. 133 (name only). 



. UUa-v*CO< 



This is a most distinct and interesting species of Fur- 
crcea, with the habit of a dwarf form of F. longwva, but 
with leaves resembling those of a Besclwrneria in their 
texture and denticulate margin. It was discovered by 
Roezl in the year 1860 on Mount Acasca, which is situated - 
seven or eight German miles south of the city of Mexico, 
and was introduced by him into cultivation. It was first 
flowered in 1863 by M. Bedinghaus of Mods, in Belgium, 
after whom it was named by Dr. Karl Koch. It is now 
widely spread in gardens, and has borne a variety of names 
in garden catalogues, such as Yucca Parmentieri, Y. argyro- 
phylla, Y. Toneliana, and Boezlia rcgia. It has been 
flowered more than once in the open air in Scilly by Mr. 
Dorrien Smith, and in various places in England, always 
under cover so far as I know. Our drawing was made 
from a plant flowered in the summer of 1890 by E. H. 
AVoodball, Esq., of St. Nicholas House, Scarborough. 

Descr. Trunk reaching sometimes a length of five or six 
feet below the rosette and a diameter of six or nine inches. 

ArKiL 1st, 1891. 



Leaves in a dense rosette, ensiform, three or four feet long, 
three or four inches broad at the middle, narrowed gra- 
dually to the point and to an inch above the dilated base, 
recurved, nearly smooth, and but little glaucous on the 
upper surface, very glaucus and scabrous on the under 
surface, with minutely denticulate edges. Peduncle stiffly 
erect, about as long as the leaves. Inflorescence a lax 
panicle ten or twelve feet long, with many long pendulous 
compound branches ; pedicels short, aggregated, articulated 
at the apex; bracts small, brown, membranous. Ovary 
cylindrical, under an inch long. Expanded perianth two 
inches in diameter, white; inner segments oblong; outer 
linear-oblong, tinted with green outside. Stamens shorter 
than the perianth ; filaments very strumose in the lower 
bait ; anthers versatile. Pistil as long as the stamens ; 
lower part of the style strumose and deeply trisulcate ; 
upper part subulate. —.7. G. Baker. 



-S.V £M2£^Ji£5^iSS' ■ * • *» 




del,J.N.Rtc 



^^ 



Tab. 7171. 
ROSA Banksue. 

Native of China. 

"Nat. Ord. Rosacea. — Tribe Rose,*:. 
Genus Rosa, Linn.; {Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 625.) 



Rosa Bank sice ; alte scandens, glaberrima, eglandulosa, Itevis, caulc acnleato 
ranmlis inermibns, foliis 3-5-foliolatis, foliolis clliptico- v. ovato-lanceo- 
latis acutis v. subacutis serrulatis v. crenato-serrulatis Iambus, stipulis 
angnste linearibus setaceisve demum deciduis, umbellis mnltifloris, 
floribus inter minoribns aureis, pedicellia gracilibus, calycia tnbo brevi 
subgloboso, lobis breviusculis lanceolato-subulatis integerrimis v. obscure 
snbserrulatia deciduis intus puberulis, petalis obcordatis concavis, 
filamentia gracilibus, autberis aureis, carpellis pilosis, stylis exsertis stig- 
matibusque capitatia liberis, fructibua parvis globosia, carne parca, 
carpellis maturis ad 8 triquetris glabris. 

R. Banksise, B. Br. in Ait. JTort. Kew. Ed. ii. vol. iii. p. 258; Lindl. Monogr. 
Bos. t. 131 ; Bot. Mar/, t. 1954 (var. alba) ; Bed. et Thor. Ros. vol. ii. 
p. 43, cum Ic. ; Bot. 'Beg. t. 1105, et t. 397 (var. alba) ; BO. Prodr. 
vol. ii. p. 001; Jlems-l. in Joum. Linn. Son. xxiii. p. 248. — Flores in 
omnibus pleni. 

R. Banksiana, Abel, Narr.Journ. Chin. p. 160. 

R. biennis, Poxh. Sort. Beng. p. 38; Fl. Ind. vol. ii. p. 576. 



Under the description of Rosa rnultiflora (Plate 7119), I 
mentioned that I hoped soon to figure in this work another 
rose that had long been known in cultivation, but only in 
late years in its single state, R. Banksice. Thanks to the 
Rev. Canon Ellacombe I am now able to do this ; and 
though I have nothing absolutely novel to add to the 
history of this beautiful plant, T may accompany the 
figure with a brief risumi of what has been recorded. 

Rosa Banksim was first described in 1871 by It. Brown, 
in Aiton's Hortus Kewensis, where it is stated to have 
been introduced into England (presumably to Kew) from 
China in 1807 by Mr. William Kerr. It is not stated 
whether the plant was white- or yellow-fld., nor whether 
single or double fid. That it was however the white and 
double fid. is certain, for the next published account of it 
is in the volume for 1818 of the Botanical Magazine, 
where it is represented (Plate 1954) in this condition, the 
specimen having been obtained from Sir Joseph Banks' 
garden at Springrove, Tsleworth (now the residence of Mr. 
Pears, the energetic manufacturer of soap). Though 
April 1st, 1891. 



delicate, it at once became a favourite under the name of 
" The Lady Banks' rose," or the " Rose without a thorn," 
the latter a hardly correct name. In 1819 it was figured 
in the Botanical Register (Plate 397) in the same white 
double condition, and from the same garden, where it had 
attained twenty feet in height or more, and with the remark 
that the single flowered variety had been found by Dr. 
Abel growing on the walls of Nankin. In 1820 Lindley's 
admirable Monograph of Roses was published, in which 
the double white again appears as the only form known. 
In 1827 the double yellow is for the first time figured, and 
by Lindley in the volume of the Botanical Register (Plate 
1105), with the observation that the first indication of its 
existence is to be found in a note (overlooked when 
elaborating the Monograph) in Roxburgh's Hortus Ben- 
galensis, where under the name of R. inermis both the 
double white and double yellow are alluded to with their 
Chinese names, as they were also in the Roxburghian MSS., 
preserved in the Banksian library. It was on discovering 
this, after the publication of the Monograph of Roses, that 
the Royal Horticultural Society, of which Lindley was 
secretary, directed Mr. John Damper Parks (who was 
being sent to China in 1823 by the Society) to obtain the 
yellow form, which he did, returning with it in 1824. Dr. 
Lindley describes it as, on the whole, a more desirable 
plant than the white variety, being more hardy, flowering 
more freely, and having deeper green leaves, but adds that 
it is less fragrant. The only other early notice of this 
plant is by Dr. Abel in his narrative of his travels in 
China, to which country he went as physician to Lord 
Macartney's embassy. Abel mentions it as R. Banlsiana. 
Indigenous specimens of R. Banhsicc are in the Kew 
Herbarium collected in the Ichang province on the 
JNan-to Mountains by Dr. Henry, and in Yun-nan, 
by the Abbe" Delavay, also from Japan (Siebold). The 
single yellow form was sent to Kew by Mr. Hanbury, from 
his magnificent garden of the Palazzo Orengo, near Men- 
tone, in 1871, and by Messrs. Paul and Son, from Ches- 
hunt, m 1887. As stated above, the specimen figured is 
from Canon Ellacombe's garden at Bitton, near Bath, 
where it is quite hardy.— J. B. H. 

Fig. 1, Stamen; 2, vertical section of calyx-tube, ahowing carpels; 
<i, carpels -.—all enlarged. 



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7772. 



c .^ z 







Tab. 7172. 
yucca rupic0la. 

Native of Southern United States and Mexico. 



Nat. Ord. Liliace^e. Tribe Dracene^e. 
Genus Yucca, Linn. (Benth. & Hook.f. Gen. Plant, vol. iii. p. 778). 



Yucca ritpicola; subacaulis, foliis pluribus dense rosulatis ensiformibus 
rigidis viridibus 1^-2-pedalibus apice pungentibus marginibas corneis 
minute serrulatis, pedunculo foliis longiori, floribus in paniculam amplam 
laxam oblongam dispositis ramis ascendentibus, pedicellis brevibus apice 
articulatis, bracteis ovatis scariosis, periantbio magno campanulatoalbido 
segmentis acutis ovatis vel oblongis, staminibus ovario sequilongis fila- 
mentis muricatis, stylo ovario cylindrico-trigono breviori stigmatibus 
parvis, fructu capsulari oblongo rostrato, seminibus teauibus. 

Y. rupicola, Scheeh in Linnaa, vol. xxiii. (1850) p. 143 ; Engelm. Monogr 
p. 48 ; 8. Wats, in Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. xiv. p. 253 ; Baker in Gard 
Chron. 1870, p. 828 ; Joum. Linn. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 222. 

Y. lutescens, Carriere in Rev. Hort. vol. vii. (1858), p. 579. 

Y. tortifolia, Lindheim. inedit. 



There are three distinct types of Yucca in leaf-character. 
The first group has the leaf margined with minute horny 
teeth, the second with a narrow entire brown horny border, 
whilst in the third the margin breaks up into slender wiry 
threads. The present plant is the only species of the first 
group which is hardy anywhere in England. It is a native 
of Texas, New Mexico, and the northern provinces of 
Mexico. It was gathered lately by Mr. C. Gr. Prino-l e 
on rocky hills near Chihuahua, flowering in the middle °of 
April and producing fruit in May. It was introduced 
into cultivation by M. Trecul, from Texas, about the 
year 1850, but is still rare in English gardens. Our 
drawing was made from a plant which flowered with 
Canon Ellacombe at Bitton in the autumn of 1890. 

Desce. Nearly or quite acaulescent. Leaves densely 
rosulate, pale green, ensiform, stiffly suberect. above two 
feet long, an inch and a half broad at the middle, narrowed 
gradually to a long pungent point and to half an inch 
above the clasping base, margined with a minutely-toothed 
horny brown border. Peduncle stout, erect, a little longer 

May 1st, 1891. 



than the leaves. Panicle lax, oblong, five or six feet long ; 
branches slender, ascending, the lower a foot or more 
long ; pedicels half or three-quarters of an incli long, 
articulated at the apex; bracts moderately large, ovate, 
brown, scariose. Perianth drooping, campanulate, milk 
white, two inches or more long ; segments acute, the outer 
oblong, the inner broader, ovate. Stamens as long as the 
ovary ; filaments cylindrical, densely minutely muricated ; 
anthers emarginate at both the apex and base. Ovary 
cylindrical-trigonous, above half an inch long; style shorter 
than the ovary ; stigmas small. Fruit hard, dry, oblong, 
rostrate, an inch and a half long. Seeds thin. — J. G. 
Baker. 

Fig. 1, Margin of the leaf ; 2 and 3, stamens; 4, pistil: — all more or less 
enlarged. 



7173. 




M.S.deL,J.N.Ktch,lith 



Vincent BrooteDay;-- 



Tab. 7173. 
HERMANNIA ceistata. 

Native of South Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Stekculiacfje. — Tribe HermanniejE. 
Genus Hermannia, Linn.; (Benth. & Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 223.) 



Herkannia cristata: fruti cuius scabride stellatim-pubescens, laxe foliosus, 
foliis subsessilibus oblongis v. oblongo-lanceolatis acutis crenato-serratis 
basi rotundatis v. cuneatis, stipulis subulatis, floribus axillaribus, pedi- 
cellis gracilibus, bracteis minimis, calycis campanulati lobis triangularibus 
acutis v. acuminatis, petalis unguiculatis limbo suborbiculari, iilamentis 
spathuiato-oblanceolatis acutis ciliatis, antberis petala subsequantibus 
angustis acuminatis, capsula subspberica tomentosa angulis processubus 
filiformibus incurvis demum rigidis pectinatim cristatis. 

H. cristata, Bolus in Journ. Linn. Soc. ; Bot. vol. xxv. p. 156. 



The Hermannice are natives of Africa (chiefly South 
(Africa with a few Mexican and Texan. Upwards of seventy 
species are known from the first named country. Few are 
possessed of any beauty, though in the old days of dry 
stove and greenhouse cultivation, some of the more attrac- 
tive found favour in what was called the " Cape House." 
Twenty-six species are enumerated in the Hortus 
Kewensis as to be found in English gardens at the 
beginning of the century, and five are figured in early 
volumes of this work, of which H. flammea (Tab. 1349) 
deserves a place in any conservatory. And the same may 
be said of the species here figured, which is, botanically, a 
very curious one, inasmuch as, as Mr. Bolus (an excellent 
South African botanist and the author of the species) 
points out, it differs from all its South African con- 
geners (known to him), and approaches the American 
H. texana in the broad crests of its capsule. 

H. cristata is a native of the eastern districts of South 
Africa and has a wide range, from the Transvaal to Griqua- 
land, Natal, the Orange Free State, and Basuto-land — that 
is half across the continent, in lat. 29 S. Mr. Bolus 
describes the flowers of native specimens as of a beautiful 
crimson, a hue which they have not attained under the 

May 1st, 1891. 



gloomier skies of Kew. The plant was discovered by the 
late Dr. Sutherland near the Klip river, alt. three thousand 
five hundred to four thousand five hundred feet, in 1858, 
and has been subsequently collected by many travellers. 
Ihe specimen here figured was raised from seeds sent to 
the Royal Gardens in May, 1890, by Mr. E. E. Galpin, of 
-barberton, Transvaal, and it flowered in the Cape House 
m autumn of the same year. 

Descb. Roughly pubescent with stellate hairs. Boot- 
stock woody, sending up ascending stems twelve to eighteen 
inches high that are simple or branched from the base, and 
are sparsely leafy throughout. Leaves one to one and a half 
inch long, sessile or shortly petioled, linear- oblong, acute, 
crenate-serrate or toothed, pale green; stipules minute 
mear-subulate. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper 
eaves cernuous; pedicels slender, one-half to one inch 
long ; bracts minute, setaceous. Calyx half an inch long, 

acZwl V T 8 / ke : led ' green ; l0bes Angular, acute or 
sleXl l f\ tW1Ce , aS l0D S as tbe W with a 

the Zv™T< ?7 and ° rbiGular bri S ht brick ^ed Hmb, 
oukte g »l 1 ^ reCUrVed * ***»"*• Bpathulate 

five wb ' d ^ S l V V r Tr0W n> acumin ate, ciliate. Ovary 
Zt\ZTtt^ t^' , ° apsule one " half to nearly an 

SS2:s^ angles pectiJte * 

5, y *ng ltl:~i!uX S ge7 d **> *> d ° rSa1 ' and 4 > VeDtral ™ of stamen ; 



7174. 




M.S.dfil,Jlf.FitcViitL 



"Vmcen.tBroaka.Dajr* 



Tab. 7174. 
WAHLENBERGIA unduiata. 

Native of South Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Campanulace-e. — Tribe Campanulace^. 
Genus Wahlenbergia, Schrad. ; (Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 555.) 



Wahlenbergia unduiata; decumbens, hispida v. glabriuscula, caulibus e 
rhizomatetuberoso elongatis superne ramosis inferne foliosis, foliis parvis 
sessilibus linearibus v. lineari-lanceolatis crenatis acutia undulatia 
setaceo-ciliatis marginibua cartilagineis, pedunculis elongatis gracilibua 
calycis glabri tubo anguste obconico striato, lobis subulato-lanceolatis 
ciliatis glabrisve, corolla infundibuliformi-campanulata tubo lobis caly- 
ciDis duplo longiore, lobis ovatis acutis, filamentis a basi ampla obovata 
marginibus recurvis ciliata repente filiformibus, antheris lineari-oblongis, 
capsula obconica. 

W. unduiata, Cham, in Linnaa, vol. viii. p. 194 ; A. DC. Monog. Campan, 
p. 148, and in DC. Prodr. vol. vii. p. 435 ; Harv. & Sond. Fl. Cap. vol. iii. 
p. 579. 

W. bilocularis, A.DC. in DC. Prodr. 1. c. p. 439. 

W. striata, A.DC. 1. c. p. 439. 

W. Chamissoniana, G. Don. Gen. Syst. Gard. vol. iii. p. 740 ; A.DC. 1. c. p. 439. 

Campanulata unduiata, Linn. fit. Suppl. p. 142 ; Thunb. Prodr. Flor. Cap. 
p. 39 ; Flor. Cap., Ed. Schult. p. 173. 

C. glabrata, Herl, Banks, ex A.DC. I. c. 



Mr. Watson, the Assistant-Curator of the Royal Gardens, 
who brought seeds of this beautiful plant from near King 
William's Town in South Africa, in 1887, informs me that 
it grows in masses in marsh-lands, the stems supporting 
one another, and the whole forming a beautiful picture, 
suggestive of a group of Campanulas. The species 
appears to be a widely diffused one in South Africa, ex- 
tending from the Transvaal westwards to the Orange Free 
State, and southward to Plettenburg Bay. In the Natal 
mountains it ascends to six thousand feet (Sutherland). 
It is described by Sonder as a rigid annual, but Mr. Watson 
found that it had a tuberous rootstock. From its habit it 
is well adapted for pot culture as a hanging plant ; the 
branches descending on all sides, with ascending tips 
loaded with bright blue flowers. The specimen figured 
flowered in a cool house of the Royal Gardens in June, 

May 1m, 1891. 



1890, having been raised from Mr. Watson's seeds in 
1887. 

Desce. Rootstoch tuberous, woody. Stems very many, 
one to two feet long, slender, branched above, leafy below, 
decumbent and ascending, glabrous or sparingly setose. 
Leaves spreading, sessile, undulate, one to two inches long, 
linear-oblong, acute, base semi-amplexicaul, dark green with 
a ciliate cartilaginous margin, and a few bristles on the 
surface. Flower on long slender curved terminal branches, 
very variable ; size one-half to one inch long, violet blue. 
Calyw obconical, striate, lobes subulate-lanceolate, green, 
glabrous or ciliate towards the base. Corolla narrowly 
campanulate, tube about twice as long as the calyx-lobes ; 
lobes ovate, acuminate. Filaments filiform above, base 
greatly and suddenly dilated into a large obovate or obcor- 
date lamina with recurved ciliate margins ; anthers linear- 
oblong. Style hardly longer than the stamens; stigma 
stout, recurved. Capsule obconic, a fourth to one-half an 
inch long, ten-nerved. — /. D. E. 



Fig. 1, Top of ovary, with stamens and style ; 2, stamen -.—both enlarged. 



7/75. 




M.S.del,J.KFitch,lith 






Tab. 7175. 
PITCAIRNIA Roezlii. 

Native of South America. 

Nat. Ord. Broheliace.e. — Tribe Pitcaienie^:. 
Genus Pitcairnia, L'Herit.; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL, vol. iii. p. 665.) 



Pitcairnia Roezlii; acaulis, foliis distincte petiolatis laaceolatis chartaceis 
integria facie viridibus dorso tenuiter albido-lepidotis, pedunculoerecto 
elongato, floribus splendide rubris in racemum simplicem subdensum 
dispositis, pedicellis ascendentibus, bracteis magnis lanceolatis, sepalia 
lanceolatis, petalis calyce 2-3-plo longioribus basi haud appendiculatis, 
genitalibus petalis subsequilongis. 

P. Eoezlii, E. Morren in Belg. Hort. vol. xxxv. (1885) p. 285, tab. 18-19 ; 
Baker Ifandb. Bromel. p. 106. 



There is a large number of Pitcairnias with red flowers 
which resemble one another closely both in habit and 
characters. The present plant, which has only been intro- 
duced into cultivation within the last ten years, is one of 
the finest of them. It is marked by its distinctly-petioled 
comparatively broad leaves and long simple racemes of 
bright scarlet flowers, which remain in perfection for a 
long time. It was one of the last Bromeliads that were 
described and figured by the late Professor Edouard Morren. 
Like so many other garden plants there is some doubt as 
to its exact native country. Professor Morren thought 
that he had received it through M. Binot from the Organ 
Mountains, near Rio Janeiro. Our plant was sent from 
Caracas to Herr F. Worlie, of Hamburgh, and by him 
given to Dr. Goeze, of the Botanic Garden at Greifswald, 
in Pomerani-i. Dr. Goeze presented a plant to the Royal 
Gardens, Kew, and from this, when it flowered last 
autumn, our drawing was made. It has also been sup- 
posed to have been gathered in the Andes of Peru by 
Roezl, after whom it was named. 

Descr. Acaulescent. Leaves about a dozen in a tuft, 
with a channelled petiole six or nine inches long, and an 
entire recurving chartaceous blade two or three feet long, 

May 1st, 1891. 



an inch broad at the middle, narrowed gradually to the 
petiole and acuminate apex, bright green on the face, 
thinly coated with whitish lepidote, scales beneath ; out- 
side rudimentary leaves without any prickles on the 
margin. Peduncle stiffly erect, nearly as long as the leaves. 
Raceme simple, erect, moderately dense, six or nine inches 
long; axis bright red and slightly cottony; pedicels 
ascending, half an inch long, bracts lanceolate-acuminate, 
longer than the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, bright red, 
an inch long. Petals lanceolate-spathulate, more than 
twice as long as the calyx, not scaled at the base. 
Stamen* 'nearly as long as the petals; anthers linear, 
basinxed. Ovary ovoid, but little immersed; style long, 
nntorm; stigmas much twisted.—/. Q Baker 



anSL 1 ; ?^X£1£S£ ***** *> PetaI ' **"" 3and * 



7176. 




MS deiJ.N.F: 



VmcentBrooks,Day«'Son>P 



R„ o ra T^„J, 



Tab. 7176. 

CCELOGYNE, Kossiana, 

Native of Burma. 



"Nat. Ord. OiichidEjE. — Tribe Epidendee^e. 
Genus Ccelogyne, LindL; (Benth. et HooTc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 518.) 



CffiLOGYNE (Eucoelogyne) Bossiana ; pseudobulbis magnis ovoideis 8-10- 
sulcatis, foliis petiolatis elliptico-lanceolatis, scapo e basi pseudobulbi 
brevi yalido decurvo dein erecto vaginis brevibus coriaceis arete 
appressis imbricatis tecto, racemo brevi erecto paucifloro, bracteis lanceo- 
latis ovaria subajquantibus caducis, sepalis anguste lanceolatis acutis 
petalisque linearibus obtusis albis, labello angusto hypochilo testaceo 
cristis 2 crenatis percurso, angulis (lobis lateralibus obscuris) rotundatis, 
epichilo parvo ovato revoluto, columna apice obtuse triloba. 

C. Rossiana, Beichb.f. in Gourd. Clwon. 1884, vol. ii. p. 808; Rolfe in Gard. 
Ghron. 1889, pt. ii. p. 650 ; Veitch Man. Orchid. Ccelogyne, p. 48 ; Hook.f. 
Fl. Brit. Tnd. vol. v. p. 843, vi. p. 193. 



When describing the Ccelogynes for the Flora of British 
India, 1 knew this plant only from the description of 
Reichenbach, which did not enable me to classify it under 
the new arrangement of the species which I gave in that 
work. I, however, suggested its affinity to be with G. 
flaccida, from which it differs in the remarkable decurved 
and then erect stout scape clothed from the base to the 
flowers with rigid green short obtuse closely imbricating 
sheaths. The erect few-fid. raceme brings it nearer to 
C. lentiginosa, also a native of Tenasserim, as does the 
scape sheathed throughout its length ; but this latter 
species differs from G. Rossiana in the four-angled pseudo- 
bulb, pale green petals, and the large broad shortly clawed 
epichile of the lip, which is blotched with orange. G. 
Rossiana was introduced from Tenasserim by the Rev. C. 
Parish, by whom plants were sent to Kew in 1878. In 
1884 Mr. Ross, of Castagnolo, near Florence, flowered 
plants of it procured also from Burma (probably Tenas- 
serim) ; ^and it was named after that skilful cultivator by 
Dr. Reichenbach in the same year. The plant from which 
the accompanying drawing was made flowererl in the Royal 
Gardens in December, 1889. 

May 1st, 1891. 



Descb. Rhizome very stout, creeping, as thick as a 
swan's quill, clothed with short brown sheaths. Vseu&o- 
bulbs variable in size, when full-grown upwards of three 
inches long by nearly two broad, ovoid-oblong, green, deeply 
eight- to ten-grooved, naked except a few bristly remains of 
former sheaths at the base. Leaves two, six to ten inches 
long by two broad, elliptic- lanceolate, acuminate, strongly 
five-nerved, narrowed into a petiole two to three inches 
long Scape from the base of the pseudobulb, very stout, 
decurved then ascending, densely clothed with closely 
imbricating short green rounded sheaths from the base 
to the flowers. Raceme two to three inches long, 
slender, erect, three- to four-flowered ; bracts three- 
quarters of an inch long, lanceolate, brown, deciduous ; 
pedicels with ovary about as long as the bracts. Flowers 
nearly two inches broad, pure white except the brown 
sides of the lip, and its yellow terminal lobes. Sepals 
narrowly lanceolate, acute. Petals as long, narrowly 
linear, obtuse. Lip narrow, side lobes very short, disk 
with two crenate ridges ; midlobe small, ovate, revolute. 
Column three-lobed at the top ; anther conical, obtuse.— 
J. D. H. 



enfar*'} *"* ^ V ' 6WS ° f * he Hp ' 3 ' column ' 4 ' anther ; 5, pollinia :— all 



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CONTENTS OF No. 557, MAY, 1891. 



Tab. 7172.— YUCCA RUFRICOLA. 
„ 7173— HERMANNIA CRISTATA. 
M 7174.— WAHLENBERGIA TJNDTJLATA. 
„ 7175.— PITCAIRNTA ROEZLII. 
„ 7176.— CCELOGYNE, ROSSIANA. 



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Tab. 7177. 
L1LIUM Henjjti. 

Native of Central China. 

Nat. Ord. Liliace^e. — Tribe Tuxipe.b. 
Genus Lilium, Linn.; (Benth. et HooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 816.) 



LiLirjM (Arcbelirion) Henryi ; bulbo magno globoso, caule 2-3-pedali crebre 
foliato, foliis sessilibus lucidis inferiorilms longis lanceolatis superioribus 
ovatis, bulbillis axillaribus nnllis, floribus paucis Jaxe corymbosis, perianthii 
lutei segmentis lanceolatis e basi recurvatis punctis minutis rubro-brun- 
neis decoratis et prope basin papillis coucoloribus praeditis, starninibii-5 
elongatis arcuatis, stylo arcuato atamiaibus breviore, fructu oblongo verti- 
caliter 6-sulcato. 

L. Henryi, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1888, vol. iv. p. 660 ; 1890, vol. vizi. p. 380, 
with figure. 

This fine new lily is one of the many interesting plants 
which have been discovered by Dr. Augustine Henry, who 
during the last ten years has sent home very large collec- 
tions from Western China. At the present time he is 
engaged at Kew upon the distribution of his collections, 
and he has kindly furnished me with the following notes 
upon it. 

" Lilium Henryi only occurs, so far as I have observed, in 
two situations, both near the town of Ichang in the Hupeh 
province. I saw no trace of it in my journeyings through 
the higher mountains of that province, and the portion of 
Szechwan bordering on it, in the year 1888. 

It occurs on the grassy slopes of precipices, at an altitude 
of two hundred to two thousand feet above sea-level. A 
few specimens occur on the eastern side of the dome, a 
mass of conglomerate which rises to about one thousand 
eight hundred feet, and which lies ten miles south of 
Ichang. The plant is very plentiful on the right bank of 
the Ichang gorge, between the villages of Ping-shan-pa 
and Shih-pi-shan, and on the grassy slopes of the lime- 
stone cliffs inland from the last-named village, from which 
the path leads up to the Taout monastery named Yang-tai- 
kuan. It does not occur in the ravines, where L. longi- 
florum and Brownii are very common. It flowers in the 
last half of J uly. 

Jr.NK 1st, 1891. 



I procured bulbs in March, 1889, which were kindly- 
forwarded to Kew by Mr. Clias. Ford of the Hong-Kong 
Botanic Gardens." 

It was from one of these bulbs, which flowered at Kew 
for the first time in August, 1889, that our drawing was 
made. 

Descb. Bulb large, globose; scales oblong, fleshy, the 
o iter two or three inches long by an inch broad. Stem 
three feet long below the inflorescence, bearing about thirty 
sessile leaves without any bulbillas in their axils. Lower 
leaves lanceolate, reaching a length of six or eight inches ; 
upper growing gradually smaller; uppermost ovate, not 
above an inch long. Flowers few, arranged in a lax corymb 
with long simple or forked branches. Perianth bright yellow, 
two or three inches long ; segments lanceolate, reflexing 
when expanded from near the base, furnished with numerous 
minute red-brown spots and towards the base with a green 
keel and a few large clavate bright yellow papilla?. 
Stamens equally arcuate, nearly as long as the perianth 
segments; anthers linear; pollen dark orange. Style 
arcuate, shorter than the stamens. Capsule oblong, pro- 
minently six-sulcate.— J. G. Baker. 



J&i*' Anther,fr ° ntvieff; 2 ' anther > b *<* view; 3, pistil complete:-*" 




■chlrfh 



VincentBroaks,Dayi'. 



Tab. 7178. 
CYPRIPEDIUM Klotzschiaxuit. 

Native of British Guiana. 



Xat. Ord. Orchide^. — Tribe Cypripedie^e. 
Genus Cypripedium, Linn.; (Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 63 i.) 



Cypripedium (Selenipedium) Klotzschianum; rhizomate repente, foliis pe- 
dalibus vix ^ poll, latis rigidis caricinis acuminatis carinatis glaberrimis, 
scapo glamiuloso-birsuto purpureo 2-3-vaginato 2-3-floro, bracteis oblongo- 
lanceolatis erectis appressis, ovario pubesceute, sepalis pallidia roseo 
striatis glanduloso-pilosis,dorsaliovato-lanceolato,lateralibus in laminam 
cymbiformem subacutam labello subpositam confluentibus, petalis sepalia 
concoloribus efc duplo longioribus linearibus tortis, labello viridi-flavo 
oyato-oblongo ore contracto, stamine sterili 3-lobo lobis lateralibus 
divaricatis falcatis marginibus parpureo-villosis. 

0. Klotzschianum, Reichb. f. ex Rich. SchomhurgJc Versuch. Faun. 8c Flor. 
Brit. Guian. p. 1069 (1848) ; in Linncea, vol. xxii. (1849) p. 811 ; Veitch. 
Man. Orchid, pt. iv. p. 63. 

C. Schomburgkianum, Klotzsch & Reichh. f. fid. Rich. Schomburgk, "Remi- 
niscence of British Guiana " (Adelaide, 1876), p. 59. 
Selenipedium Klotzschianum, Reichb. f. Xen. Orchid, vol. i. p. 3. 



G. Klotzschianum was discovered in British Guiana during 
the late Sir Eobt. Schomburgk's second exploring expedition 
into that country, when accompanied by his brother Richard, 
late Director of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens, the news 
of whose lamented death has only this month reached 
England. Eichard Schomburgk was attached to his 
brother's party as a naturalist in behalf of the Prussian 
Government, and admirably he performed his duties as such, 
to the great enrichment of the botanical museums of 
Europe. In his charming " Botanical Reminiscences of 
British Guiana," printed thirty years after the event, and 
published in Adelaide in 1876, at p. 59, when describing 
the magnificent scenery of the falls of the River Rue, 
Schomburgk, dwelling on the luxuriance of the mosses and 
ferns, goes on to say, " Even the crevices of the slippery 
masses of jasper were not without living vestments of 
small luxuriant vegetating ferns and Jungermannias, which 
in more or less dense turf-like masses adhered to the red 

Jixk 1st, 1891. 



wall. Cypripedium Schomburgkianum (Klotzsch and 
Reichb.), and the pretty Angelonia salicaricvfolia, Humb. 
and Bonpl., had taken their places in the crevices. The 
vegetation of both sides of the banks consisted of Qualea 
rosea, Auhl., Kielmeyera angustifolia, Pohl., Gomphia and 
Vochysia, -white flowering species of Psidium and Laarus, 
above which rose proud slender palms, gracefully moved 
by the pressure of the air from the falling waters." 

It will be observed that the original intention was to 
have named this elegant species after Schomburgk, with 
Klotzsch's and Reichenbach's names as joint authorities, 
and the latter author seems to have overlooked this in call- 
ing it after his collaborateur. The plant has been collected 
by Mr. Im. Thurn during his celebrated ascent of 
Koraima in 1885, and living plants were imported into 
England by Messrs. Sander and Co. in the following year. 
m With regard to the affinities of this species. Veitch says 
in the manual, that " though when not in' flower it is 
scarcely distinguishable from 0. caricinum, the nearest 
ammty of the species is undoubtedly with C. Lindleyanum," 
a species a so discovered by Schomburgk and in the same 
region 1 he broad leaves, two to two and a half inches, 
much larger flowers, reticulate lip, and quadrate stami- 
node, at once distinguish Lindleyanum from Klotzschianum. 
In conformity with Veitch's manual I have retained the 

ZXfl^ '".I tllG ° ld £ enus Cypripedium, though its 
undoubtedly three-celled ovary technically places it in 
belenipedmm having no hesitation in considering that the 
latter genus shoud be referred to the former as a section. 

ine specimen figured flowered in the Eoyal Gardens, 
£Z'm 0cto £ er a of ]ast year; it was obtained in 1889 
Irom Messrs. F. Sander & Co. of St. Albans.-/. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Statninnode, enlarged. 



7179 




eUN.Prtdilth 



^entiroota^ay&Sanlmp. 



Tab. 7170. 
APHELANDRA Blanchetiana. 

Native of Brazil. 

Nat. Ord. Acanthace*:. Tribe Justicie.e. 
Genus Aphelandra, Br. (Benth. & Hook.f. Gen. Plant, vol. ii. p. 1 103). 



APHELANDBA (Strobilorhachis) Blanchetiana ; glaberrima, caule eras jo eh to, 
foliia ovatis acntis basi in petiolum anpustatis multinerviis, spica sesfcili, 
bracteis li-pollicaribus erecto-patentibus lineari-oblongis mucronatis 
supra medium sanguineis, bracteolis parvis eetaceis, sepalis scariosis 
aequilongis dorsali hneari subacute, lateralibus lineari-lanceolatis acumi- 
nata quam anticis subduplo lalioribus, corolla? aureas tubo sepalis 
aequilongo lente curvo bracteis breviore, fauce brevi inflata, labio superiore 
erecto subrecurvo oblongo obtuse 2-lobo, inferioris asquilongi lobis lineari- 
oblongis obtusis revolutis lateralibus angnstioribus, antheris exsertis laxe 
lanuginosis, stylo exserto, stigmate parvo infundibulare ore iutegro 
ciliolato. 

A. amoena, Bull. Cat. New &c. Plants, 1888, p. 7. 

Strobilorhachis Blancheliana, Nees in Mart. Fl. Bras/1, vol. ix. p. 89. 



From a comparison of Mr. Bull's plant with a specimen in 
the Kew Herbarium of Strobilorhachis Blanchetiana of Nees, 
so named by that author himself, I think there can be no 
doubt of their identity, though there is a difference in the 
number and closeness of the nerves of the leaf, these being 
more numerous and stronger in the cultivated plant. The 
leaves are the same in size and form, are similarly variegated 
and are narrowed below into a winged base or petiole. Iu 
Martiu's Flora Brasiliensis, Nees describes the stem ns very 
stout and herbaceous ; this is remarkably the case in the 
cultivated plant, the stem of which is as thick as the 
forefinger, and upwards of two feet in length ; the leaves 
are described as with twenty pairs of nerves, but there are 
not so many in the dried specimen, and there are more 
in Mr. Bull's plant, in which, too, they are more spreading. 
The spikes are described as three, sessile, in A. Blanchetiana, 
the median a foot long and the two lateral smaller. Tho 
bracts are identical in size and shape in both, and are de- 
scribed by Nees as rose-coloured and the flowers as yellow. 

The genus Strobilorhachis was established by Link, 

Jdki 1st, 1891. 



Klotzsch and Otto in their " Icones PJantarum Rariorum," 
upon A. glabra, Nees, and A.prismatica (species since united 
byXees himself), havinglong highly- coloured spikes, quadri- 
fariously imbricating bracts, and a campanulate throat to 
the corolla, to which is added in De Candolle's Prodromus 
and Martiu's Flora, that of the stigma being compressed, 
funnel-shaped and two-lobed in StrobilorhacMs, whilst it is 
simply two-toothed in Aphelandra. These characters are, 
however, neither clear nor constant. As will be seen in the 
plate here given, the stigma of A. Blanchetiana is funnel- 
shaped, but quite entire. I find this organ to vary much 
in this genus. 

In Martiu's Flora A. Blanchetiana is stated to be a native 
of Bahia. The specimen in Kew Herbarium was collected 
in the province of Ilheos, by Moricand (n. 2087). Mr. 
Bull gives Brazil as its native country, and the name 
amoena, given when the plant was in leaf only, in allusion to 
the very attractive foliage, which is variegated with silver- 
gray on each side of the midrib and primary veins. The 
plant here figured, which was received from Mr. Bull, 
flowered in the Royal Gardens, Kew, in August of last year. 
—J. D.E. 6 J 



5 JS nl'^ alyX and „ br » cte olf8 and style; 2 and 3, anthers; 4, stigma; 
o, disk and ovary -.—all enlarged. 



7180 




■ BroolcDay&Sonlm 



Tab. 7180. 
EDGEWORTHIA Gardneri, 

Native of the Himalaya. 

Nat. Ord. Thymelaeace.e. — Tribe Euthymele^e. 
Genus Edgeworthia, Meissn.; {Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI., vol. v. p. 194) 



Edgworthia Gardneri; frutex ramosus subsericeo-villosus, foliis 3-5-polH- 
caribus ellipticis v. elliptico-lanceolatis acutis v. acuminatis supra glabris 
subtus sericeis, petiolo J-J poll, longo, floribusin capitula globosa, see e ilia 
v. breviter pedunculata congestis sessilibus aureis suaveolentibus, bracteis 
brevibus linearibus, perianthii tubo J-f poll, longo, sericeo-villoso, lobia 4 
tubo multo brevioribas late ovatis rotundatisve intus glaberrimis, fila- 
mentis brevibus, antheris obiongis, ovario apice villoso, stylo villoso! 

E. Gardneri, Meissn. in DenJcschr. Regensb. Bot. Geselsch. vol. iii. p. 380, t 6 • 
in DC. Prodr. v. xiv. pt. ii. p. £.43 ; Hook.f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vol. v. p. 195.' 

E. chrysantha, Lindl. in Journ. Ilort. Soc. vol. i. (1846) p. 148 ; Bot. Beg 
1847, t. 48; Meissn. in DC. I.e.; Fl. des Serves, t. 289; Gamble Man 
Ind. Timb. p. 314; Trees, Shrubs, &c, of Barjeeling, p. 67. 

E. papyrifera, Zuccar. in Abhandl. Math. Phys. Kl. Bair. Acad. v. iv. pt. 3, 
p. 199 ; Sieb. & Zucc. Fam. Nat. Jap. p. 694 ; Miquel Prolus. Fl. Jap. 
p. 299 ; Franch. & Sav. Enum. Fl. Jap. vol. i. p. 405. 

Daphne Gardneri, Wall, in As. Research, vol. xiii. p. 388, t. 9 ; Cat. No. 1044; 
Bon Prodr. Fl. Nep. 69. 

D. papyrifera, Sieb. in Act. Batav. vol. xii. p. 24. 



The earliest account of this plant in any European work 
(for it has been long known to the Japanese) is WalJich's 
excellent description find figure of it in the Asiatic Society's 
Researches, where it is stated to be a native of Nepal, and 
where it occurs wild, and is also cultivated for its beauty 
and perfume, and for the value of the bark, from which the 
finest kind of " Nepal paper " is prepared. It is singular 
that Wallich's account of it should have escaped the notice of 
Royle, whose " Illustrations of the Flora of the Himalaya," 
which is a veritable microcosm of the useful plants of India, 
contains no allusion to Daphne Gardneri; nor is it in- 
cluded in Drury's " Useful Plants," another comprehen- 
sive work on the economic plants of India, which has gone 
through two editions. This is no doubt partly to be 
accounted for by the fact that the common sort of so- 
called " Nepal paper " is made from another species of 

Jvsz 1st, 1891. 



Daphne (D. canvabina, "Wall., D. papyracea, Meissn.) 
of wider distribution in the Himalayas, and whioh extends 
into the British provinces west of Nepal, where the Edge- 
worthia does not exist. Both plants are indeed found in 
Nepal, but the latter alone yields the material for the finest 
paper. Nor is its use confined to Nepal, the Edgeworthia 
extends eastwards into China and Japan, in both of which 
countries its value as a paper-making material is well 
known. Lindley figured it in 184-7 from a plant sent by 
Fortune from Chusan to the Horticultural Society, but 
he makes no allusion to its uses. Franchet and Savatier, 
on the other hand, who include it in their Enumeration of 
Japan Plants, say that it is wild in Nippon, but most com- 
monly to be found cultivated for making the best kind of 
paper. 

The genus Edgeworthia contains but one species, and 
differs from Daphne only in the slight characters of a 
longer style and stigma. It commemorates the botanical 
labours of a distinguished member of the India Civil 
Service, the late M. P. Edgeworth, F.L.S., youngest 
brother of Maria Edgeworth. The specific name was given 
in honour of the Honourable Edward Gardner, Political 
Kesident in Nepal, a valuable correspondent of the Calcutta 
Botanic Gardens, who first drew attention to the Edge- 
worthia as furnishing a paper-making material of the best 
quality. 

The specimen here figured is from a very young plant, 
raised from seed sent early in 1887 by Mr. Gammie, 
manager of the Government Cinchona Plantations, Dar- 
jeehng, and which produced plants that flowered in the 
present year. When full grown it makes a very handsome 
greenhouse shrub. I remember a specimen at Kew some 
thirty years ago that formed a round ball several feet in 
diameter covered with leaves and balls of sweet-scented 
golden flowers.—/. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Perianth laid open ; 2 and 3, anthers ; 4, ovary ; 5, vertical section 
ditto:— alleyihtmed. J 



of ditto:— all enlarged 



7/81 




Vincent Brooks ; L>ay S 



Ij. Reeve & Cot , 



Tab. 7181. 
COLCHICUM Sibthorpii. 

Native of Greece. 



Nat. Ord. Liliace^. — Tribe Oolchice;e. 
Genus Colchicum, Linn.; (Benth. & Hooh.f. Gen. PI vol. iii. p. 821.) 



CoLcnicuM Sibthorpii ; cormo ovoideo magno tunicis saturate brunneis, foliis 
5-6 vernalibus suberectis lineari-oblongis obtusis planis, floribus au- 
tumnalibus, spatbse ore obliquo lilacino, perianthii tubo elongato albido, 
limbo campanulato segmentis oblongis obtusis distincte tessellatis, 
antheris magnis Iinearibus luteis, stigmate oblongo. 

C. Sibthorpii, Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xvii. p. 427. 

0. latifolium, Sibth. 8f Smith Fl. Graca, t. 350, as regards the flowers only ; 
Bolts. Fl. Orient, vnl. v. p. 159. 



This is by far the finest of all the Colchicums which are 
in cultivation. It inhabits the mountains of Greece and 
Macedonia, ascending to five thousand feet above the sea- 
level. It agrees with G. variegatnm and Parkinsoni in its 
distinctly tessellated flowers, but the segments of the 
perianth are much broader, and the leaves, like those of 
G. autwmnale, suberect, obtuse and not at all undulated. 
It is the plant which is figured by Sibthorp and Smith in 
the " Flora Graaca " under the name of 6. latifolium, but 
they figure the flowers only, and their description of the 
leaves, on which the name latifolium is founded, refers to 
the totally different non-tessellated broad-leaved C. hy- 
zantirwm (Bot. Mag., tab. 1122). The present plant has 
only been introduced very lately into cultivation in this 
country. Our drawing was made from plants which pro- 
duced flowers in the Royal Gardens, Kew, la3t October and 
leaves at the end of February. The corms were received 
from Herr Max Leichtlin in August, 1890, and flowered 
freely in the open border. 

Dbsoe. Conn large, ovoid ; tunics chartaceous, dark 
brown. Leaves five or six, produced with the fruit in 
spring, linear-oblong, suberect, dull green, not at all un- 
dulated, finally a foot or more long, an inch and a half or 

Jijxe 1st, 1891. 



two inches broad above the middle, narrowed gradually to 
the base. Flowers bright mauve-lilac, one to five to a 
cluster, autumnal. Spathe lax, cylindrical, striped with 
green; throat oblique, tinged with lilac. Perianth with a 
stout white tube three or four inches long ; limb campanu- 
late; segments oblong, obtuse, two inches long, distinctly 
tessellated inside. Stamens more than half as long as the 
perianth- segments ; anthers large, linear, yellow. Styles 
more or less overtopping the anthers ; stigmas oblong. — 
J. G. Baker. 



. i , l |?- !> Front vi ew of anther ; 2, back view of anther ; 3, apex of style 
with stigma -.—all enlarged. 



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Tab. 7182. 
MUSA Basjoo. 

Native of the Liu-Kiu Archipelago. 

Nat. Ord. Scitamine.e. — Tribe M usem. 
Genus Mcsa, Linn.; (Benth. et Hooh.f. Gen. PL, vol. iii. p. 655.) 



Musa Basjoo ; caudice cylindrico elongato, foliis paucis oblongis viridibus 
8-9-pedalibus petiolo crasso pedali marginibus ad basin alatis, pedunculo 
crasso patulo subpedali, floribua in spicam densam subcernuam aggregates, 
bracteis oblongis subcoriaceis brunneis, floribus foemiaeis biseriatia 
12-15-nis bracteis deciduis, masculorum bracteis arete imbricatis per- 
sistentibus, petalo ovato acuminato caljce breviter quinquedentato vix 
breviori, fructu oblongo-trigono. 

M. Basjoo, Sieb. & Zucc. in Verhand. Batav. Genoot. 12 deel. (1830) p. 18 
{name only) ; Franch. & Savat. Enum. Plant. Jap. vol. ii. p. 20 tin note) ; 
So Mokou Zoussetz, vol. iii. tab. 1 ; Kurz. in Journ. Agric. Hort. Soc. Ind. 
N.S. vol. v. p. 164. 

M. japonica, BTort. Veitch; Beo. Hort. 1889, p. 401. 



The present plant has entirely the habit and general 
characters of Musa sapientum, but differs from all the very 
numerous forms of the cultivated Plantains and Bananas, 
botanically, by having a petal nearly or quite as long as 
the spathaceous calyx, and climatically by being able to 
flower and fruit under a lower temperature. The plant 
from which our drawing and description were made 
flowered freely and developed its fruit to full size, but 
without ripening, in the large temperate house at Kew, 
side by side with Musa Ensete. In identifying it with 
Musa Basjoo I rely mainly upon the figure in the 80 
Mokou Zoussetz, as neither Siebold and Zuccarini, nor 
Franchet and Savatier give a description. It is said to 
be a native of the Liu-Kiu Archipelago, which stretches 
from Japan nearly down to Formosa, and to be cultivated 
frequently in the south of Japan for the sake of the fibre 
of its leaves, like M. tcxtilis in the Philippine Islands. It 
was introduced from Japan into cultivation in Eng- 
land, by Messrs. Veitch, through their collector, M. 
Maries. Plants of it were grown for several years 
in the open air in their nursery at Coombe Wood. Our 

July 1st, 1891. 



drawing was made from a plant received from Messrs. 
Veitoh that flowered at Kew in the temperate house last 



summer. 



A monograph of the genus Musa is much wanted. There 
is an excellent paper, by the late Dr. Sagot, in the Journal 
of the Society of Horticulture of France for 1887, and, 
Kurz began m the Journal of the Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society of India, for 1878, a paper which was cut 
short in an early stage by his death, but there is nothing 
of the character of a botanical monograph of later date 
than Horamnow's " Prodromus Monographic Scitami- 
nearum," which was published in 1882, and it is now 
quite out of date so far as this genus is concerned. 

JDescb. Trunk cylindrical, reaching a length of nine feet 
and a diameter of seven inches in the plant drawn, and 
producing suckers like M. sapientum. Leaves few in a 
tutt ; blade oblong, bright green, eight or nine feet long by 
aoout two teet broad, with the two sides hanging down from 
the green midrib ; petiole stout, a foot long, with the edges 
winged down to the base. Peduncle stout? arcuate, a foot 
ZtJP Sm ° 0t \ tw ° inches in diameter; spike dense, 
oftn,^ ^ 1 ^' ^ op a f00t and h alf long ; clusters 
tilZl * tW ,° r f0ur > containing each twelve or 

ciduons Z erS ar T gG ? in two rows > ^btended by a de- 
inche o °r Ce ° 1 8 i ° ad ° bl0n S bl wnbract eight or twelve 
Itent InT ^l 6 C u SterS ei ^ hfc or te *> their bracts per- 
tTotnZ, r ' mhnCated ' Gal V* wliitish, spathaceous, 
ovli?t F' ^-^thed at the apex. Produced petal 

T:;iTTt^Tl: r c r ite v°^ r th \f x - 

trip-onnn« ok f?v • e cal ^ x - Unripe fruit oblong- 
-J G BafeT mCheS lon - ^ ^^ in diameter * 



Thetractls'from oninff? f"* 5 3 ^ stamen of male flower rather enlarged. 
rom one of the lower clusters, drawn half its length and breadth. 



7m 




©W01 



RS.del,J.WP,txhteh 



%lofln tBro<to^* S 



Tab. 7183. 

HIBISCUS VENUSTUS. 

Native of Tahiti 1 

Nat. Ord. Malvace^:. — Tribe Hibisce,e. 
Genua Hibiscus, Linn.; (Bentli. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. i. p. 267.) 



Hibiscus (Ketmia) venustus ; fruticosus, totus cano-stellato-tomentosus, 
ramis robustis, foliis amplis longe petiolatis inferioribus 12-18 poll, latis 
orbicularibus breviter 5-7-lobis, basi profunde cordatis, pedunculia 
robustis, floribus amplis albia, epicalycis foliolia calyci feqnilongis fere 
liberis ovato-oblongis subacutis patulis, calycia subinflati lobia brevibaa 
obtusia 3-nerviia, petalia calyce triplo longioribus obovatis nervosia 
ciliolatia albis basi roseo suffusis, filamentis brevibus, antheria rubris, 
stigmatibus inclusis clavatis sanguineis, capsulis seminibusque hirsutis. 

H. venustus, Bhime JBijdr. 71. 

Abelmoschus venustus, Walp. Sep. Bot. vol. i. p. 309. 



A magnificent species, of which the native country is 
doubtful. It was first described by Blume from specimens 
cultivated in Java, where it occurs with both single and 
double flowers, under the native name of Waru Landake. 
There is a specimen of it in the Kew Herbarium collected 
by the late Dr. Horsfield, in Java, differing in no respects 
from that here figured, except in that the bracts of the 
epicalyx are rather narrower. Its nearest ally is the 
common H. mutabilis of India and Malaya, which differs 
in the lobes of the epicalyx being cut into linear segments. 
In Walper's " Kepertorium " H. venustus is erroneously re- 
ferred to the section Abelmoschus of Hibiscus, in which the 
calyx is spathaceous. 

The specimen figured is from a plant grown by A. 
Kingsmill, Esq., of Harrow, an ardent horticulturalist, and 
a correspondent of the Royal Gardens, and is supposed to 
have been procured from the island of Tahiti, It flowered 
in January, 1879. 

Descr. A large shrub, everywhere clothed with a short 
close pubescence of stellate hairs; branches stout, terete. 
Leaves petioled, the lower very large, reaching eighteen 
inches in diameter, nearly orbicular in outline, seven-lobed 
and deeply cordate at the base, the upper three to five- 
lobed ; lobes in all broadly triangular, acute, irregularly 

July 1st, 1891. 



crenate; nerves five to seven, spreading from the top of 
the petiole, strong beneath ; upper surface dark green, 
lower pale ; petiole terete, stout, of the lower leaves six 
to eight inches long, of the upper shorter. Peduncles three 
to four inches long, one-fid., stout, erect or inclined. 
Flowers inclined, three inches in diameter. Epicalyxoi 
five green ovate-oblong spreading segments slightly ad- 
hering at the base. Calyx short, rather inflated, shortly 
five-lobed; lobes broadly triangular, obtuse, strongly three- 
nerved. Petals one and a half inch long, broadly obovate, 
cihate, strongly nerved, . white or pale cream-coloured, 
suffused with pink at the base. Staminal column short ; 
filaments about one quarter of an inch long, whitish, 
anthers yellow. Style short, with five large spathulate 
recurved bright-red stigmas. Capsule two-thirds of an 
inch long, hirsute. Seeds small, reniform, hairy.— J. D. B. 



4 Sfn^n 1 ^ *- 01 Ie A ! Win g tn « under surface; 2, stamen; 3, ovary; 
% transferee section of ditto -.—all enlarged. 




7184 






\&icentBroo]ffiX)ay* 



Tab. 7184 
SYNADENIUM arborescens. 

Native of Natal. 

Nat. Ord. Euphobiace^e. — Tribe Euphorbieje. 
Genus Synadenium, Boiss.; (Benth. et Hook./. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 261.) 



Syn adenium arborescens ; fruticosum, caule ramisque crassis f oliis subsessilibus 
cuneato-obovatis subacutis v.apiculatis obscure crenulatis supra saturate 
viridibus lucidis nervis reticularis subtus pallidis, cymis foliis brevioribus, 
involucris breviter pedicellatis 2-bracteatis, bracteis quadratis involucrum 
sequantibus pedicellisque puberulis. 

S. arborescens, Boiss. in DC. Prodr. v. xv. pt. ii. p. 187. 

Euphorbia arborescens, E. Mey. in Drege. Docum. p. 184 (non Poxb.). 

E. cupularis, Boiss. Cent. Ewph. p. 23. 



I assume the subject of this plate to be the Synadenium 
arborescens of Boissier, a native of Natal, of which I have 
seen no authentic specimens, and which is hitherto the only 
described species known from that country, although it 
differs a little from Boissier's ptherwise excellent description 
in the form of the bracts that enclose the involucre and other 
minute characters. The bracts in Boissier's plant are said 
to be velvety, ovate, and mucronulate; but in this they are 
quadrate, truncate and nearly glabrous. Further, I do not 
find in the Kew plant that the fern, flower is enclosed in a 
membranous tube, which is indeed a generic character. 
It must, however, be borne in mind that the analyses of 
the inflorescence of dried specimens of these succulents is 
a very hazardous operation, and I hesitate to found a 
species on characters of organs so minute and so liable to 
distortion. On the other hand, there may be more than one 
species of Synadenium in Natal. The genus extends into 
tropical Africa (see S. Grantii, t. 5633) and Madagascar. 

S. arborescens has long been in cultivation at Kew, having 
been received from the late J. Sanderson, Esq., of Natal, 
to whom the Eoyal Gardens are indebted for many interest- 
ing and ornamental plants figured in this work. It flowered 
in November in the succulent house. 

Descb. A glabrous succulent shrub four feet high, 

July 1st, 1891. 



with spreading terete branches ; branchlets nearly as thick 
as the little finger, bluish-green, speckled with white, tips 
obtuse. Leaves towards the tips of the branches, three to 
three and a half inches long, spreading and drooping, sub- 
sessile, fleshy, cuneately obovate, apiculate, obscurely crenu- 
late, very dark-green and shining above with spreading 
nerves and reticulate nervules, pale blue-green and 
quite smooth beneath, with a strong midrib and no visible 
nerves. Cymes in the axils of the uppermost leaves and 
about half their length, di- trichotomously branched; 
peduncle half to three-quarter inch long, as thick as a 
small goose-quill, dark-green, speckled with white like 
the branches, glabrous; pedicels one-quarter of an. inch 
long, puberulous ; bracts at the forks and base of the in- 
volucres opposite, quadrate, concave, puberulous, as long 
as the involucre, all pale green. Involucre one-quarter to 
one-third of an inch in diameter, yellow, formed of five mem- 
branous hyaline quadrate scales with lacerate tips, connate 
at the base, and seated in a fleshy hemispheric cup which 
is crenulate on the margin within (this cup answers to the 
large glands on the involucre of Euphorbia, which are here 
confluent). _ Male fl. (each of a single stipitate stamen) 
numerous, in five fascicles opposite the involucral scales, 
mixed with linear hairy lacerate bracteoles. Fern. ft. a 
stipitate trigonous pistil (often imperfect) in the centre 
of the involucre, with a short style swollen in the middle, 
and three diverging stigmas, each forked at the tip.— 
J. D. H. 

F ig- 1, Branch of cyme with two bracts at the fork, and an involucre with 
its two bracts ; 2, involucre with the cup removed ; 3, vertical section of 
involucre showing the cup, the involucre scale, male flowers, and female 
nowers ; 4, scale of involucre :— all enlarged. 




1185 



- *kgve&C,°T. m ;u, 



Afocertt Brooks Day & 



Tab. 7185. 
MASDEVALLIA platyglossa. 

Native of New Grenada? 

Nat. Ord. Obchide.e. Tribe Epidendbe^. 
Genus Masdevallia, Ruiz. Sf Pav. (Benth. & Hook.f. Gen. Plant vol. iii. p. 492). 



Masdevallia (Coriacese) platyglossa; casspitosa, foliis petiolatis oblongo- v. 
elliptico-laneeolatis v. oblanceolatis subacutis coriaceis dorso carinatis, 
petiolo basi vagina tubulosa brunnea instructo, pedanculis foliis aequi- 
longis pendulis v. decurvis robustis 2-3-vaginatis 1-2-floris, vaginis 
tubulosis oblique truucatis, floribns intra bracteam tubulosam truncatam 
pedicellatis, perianthio alte 9-costato pallide flavo, sepalis coriaceis infra 
medium in tubum inflatum hemisphericum gibbosum basi subtruncatum 
connatis, dorsali triangulari-ovato acuminato recurvo, lateralibus paullo 
brevioribus, petalis columnaa asquilongis oblique quadratis late uuguicu- 
latis, labello sessili oblongo piano apice rotundato ultra medium granulato, 
columna apice crenata. 

M. platyglossa, Pekhb.f. in Gard. Chron. 1882, ii. 252. 



The nearest ally of M. platyglossa is M. coriacea, Lindl. 
(M. Bruch-mulleri Hort.), which differs in the more slender 
scapes, longer apices of the sepals, and very stout petiole, 
and, according both to preserved specimens and to the 
figure given in Karsten's Flora of Columbia, in the erect 
scapes. The native country of M. platyglossa is not known, 
but as its nearest ally is from Bogota, it will probably prove 
to be New Grenada. It was first described by Reichenbach 
from a plant which flowered in 1882 in the rich collection 
of Sir Trevor Lawrence, to whom the Royal Gardens of 
Kew are indebted for the specimen here figured, which 
flowered in July, 1888. 

Descr. Densely tufted. Leaves three to four inches 
long, oblong- or elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate, acute, 
coriaceous, keeled at the back, narrowed into a slender 
petiole one to two inches long, which is closely invested at 
the base by a cylindric brown truncate sheath. Scapes 
as long as the leaves or longer, one- rarely two-fld., pen- 
dulous or decurved, as thick as a crow-quill, bearing about 
three tubular loose sheaths a third to half an inch long, of 
a pale greenish-yellow colour with obliquely truncate pink 

Jri.v 1st, 1891. 



sheaths. Bracts like the sheaths of the scape, but broader. 
Flower shortly pedicelled, pale yellow, except the ovary 
which is streaked with bright red. Perianth about an inch 
long and nearly as broad ; sepals coriaceous, strongly three- 
ribbed, united for about a third of their length into an in- 
flated very gibbous cup with an almost truncate base ; 
dorsal sepal triangular- ovate, acuminate, recurved, lateral 
rather narrower and shorter. Petals erect on each side of 
the column, and as long as the latter, linear, dilating into 
an obliquely tetragonal limb. Lip sessile, broadly oblong, 
nearly flat, yellow suffused with red-brown, obscurely three- 
nerved towards the base, tip rounded, distal third above 
granulate. Column stout, apex dilated, rounded and 
irregularly crenate. Pollinia ovoid. — /. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Petals, lip, and column; 2, column; 3, anther; 1, pollinia -.—all 
enlarged. 




7186 



fcddtfK 



Vincent Broo^Dav- 



Tab. 7 J 86. 
STENOGLOTTIS longifolta. 

Native of Natal. 

Nat. Ord. Orciiide^. — Tribe Ophryde;l\ 
Genus Stenoglottis, Lindl.; (Bentk. & Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 622.) 



Stenoglottis longifolia; foliis numerosis ensiformibus acuminatis marginibus 
undulatis concoloribus, v. nigromaculatis scapo robusto bracteis numerosis 
lanceolatis dorso purpureo maculatis instructo, spica multiflora, bracteis 
ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis recurvis herbaceis ovario brevioribus, sepalis 
late ovatis obtusis, petalis minoribus ei-osis, labello lineari apicem versus 
trifido lobis sxibulatis intermedio paullo longiore lateralibus bifidis. 

S. fimbriata, Lindl. var. ; N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. 1889, v. ii. p. 438. 



The genus Stenoglottis has hitherto been represented by 
a single species, S. fimbriata, Lindl. (Tab. 5872), also a 
native of Natal, with much shorter oblong leaves narrowed 
at the base and blotched with black, a very slender scape 
with few erect narrow bracts, and much fewer and smaller 
more secund flowers, the lateral lobes of the lip of which 
are entire. Notwithstanding these differences, it is 
suggested to me by Mr. N. E. Brown, who has carefully 
studied the plant of both species in the Gardens, that they 
may prove forms of one, for disregarding the great differ- 
ence in size, the principal difference between them is in 
the form of the leaves. Mr. Watson, on the other hand, who 
has both species under cultivation, at Kew, informs 
me that they keep quite distinct. In the Genera 
Plantarum (vol. iii. p. 622), and in the Journal of the 
Linnasan Society (vol. xviii. p. 533), Stenoglottis is regarded 
by Bentham as being perhaps too nearly allied to Her- 
mmium, assuming that the glands of the poilinia are naked 
as in that genus ; but in both S. fimbriata and longifolia, 
the glands, which are very minute, appear to me to be 
contained in pouches formed by folds of the rostellum. If 
this is so, the position of the genus is not in the subtribe 
Habenarieai, but in Ophrydeas. This character of the naked 
or pouched glands of the poilinia is often very difficult of 

July 1st, 189]. 



detection, and when examining the species of Habenaria 
for the Flora of British India, it appeared to me that in some 
of the minuter Indian species, the glands, which are nor- 
mally naked in the genus, were really hidden under a fold of 
the rostellum. Except in wanting a spur, I should regard 
btenogloths as referable rather to Habenaria than to Her- 
minium; but as the latter genus passes by insensible gra- 
dations into Habenaria, it may be a question whether, 
except from difference of habit, all these might not be 
combined. 



The column and its appendages are not accurately 
described either by Lindley or in the " Genera Plant arum." 
1 hey are very difficult of examination in dried specimens, 
but the analyses in Tabs. 5872 and 7186 of this work may, 
1 think be depended on, agreeing as they do in all essential 
points though made by different artists. The column is 
exceedingly short, with two parallel anther cells separated 
at the base by a very short triangular erect rostellum. On 
either s lde of the anther is a short adnate staminode, with 

iher U ^L aP f e ^' and ?t g from the base of &* column on 
fo ^hotf l ] G r ° Stell r there P r °3 ecfc two erect styli- 
bHtt™ f ^ ° Dg aS the anther itself > *U°h I assume to 
someSf^n P1 T SS !?' maSmuch as I fi »* them to be 
IZeZT.Z T lth adberent P° llen 8™™' Similar 

Kl 8 ™ P f re f nt ln man ^ Habenarias, varying greatly 
IniatPrr fr^^Ple tubercles on the column to 

^et^iS^ ^ ° f ^ * - ™ 

KewTfS* \ ngi £ li £ WaS Sent t0 tne Eoyal Gardens of 
BoHnionl f / ^ W ° od > Cu ™tor °* the Durban 

It flowerorl^ ^ Nata1 ' alon £ with P lants of S. fimbriate. 
it nowered m September, 1889.—/. £. H. 

thf stami L°de S 0f a nd a 8ti!iS a a ^ d C ° lumn ; 2 ' U P i 3 > side view of column showing 
cesses spread ont »l5 , Processes ; 4, front view of do., with the pro- 
?^%LSr^T gal8 ° the «wtdlnm; 5, pollinium and gland -.all 



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7187. 







Vincent Brooks, Day &So 



L "Reeve &C° 1 ,Oj\dor t . 



Tab. 7187. 
FAR AD A YA splendi da. 

Native of Queensland. 

Nat. Ord. Verbenace^. — Tribe Vitice/E. 
Genus Faradaya, F. Muell.; (Benth. <fc Hook. f. Gen. PI. vol. ii. p. 1154.) 



Faradaya sjylendida ; frutex glaberrimus alte scaudens, foliis amplis ojjpositis 
longe petiolatis ovatis acumiDatis basi 3-nerviis rotundatis v. cordatis, 
loete viridibus lucidis penninerviis, ima basi inter nervos glanduliferis, 
cymis terminalibus laxe multiiloris, pedunculis bracteolatis, bracteolis 
minutis oppositis, calyce oblongo spathaceo valvatim 2dabiato, corollas 
albas tubo calyce duplo longiore angaste infundibulari, lobis 4 oblongis 
obtnsis patulis, staminibns 4 filamentis corollas limbo longioribusj*antheris 
parvis oblongis, ovario brevi 4-lobo pubescente, stylo gracillimo apice 
bifido. 

F. splendida, F. Muell. Fragm.vol. v. p. 212 ; Benth. Fl. Austral, vol. v. p. 69. 



A very handsome tropical climber, dedicated by Baron 
von Mueller to the renowned physicist, Michael Faraday, in 
the following terms : " Genus exiimium ornavi nomine 
illustrissimi Michaelis Faraday. D.C.L., LL.D., Chemiiu 
in regio institute Britannias Professoris Fulleriani, philo- 
sophi per orbem celebrati." 

When discovered it was supposed to be monotvpic, but 
two additional species have been since made known, one 
from the Fiji Islands, F. vitiensis (Seem. Fl. Viti, t. 44) ; 
the other from New Guinea, is described by Baron Mueller 
as F. temifolia. The genus is closely allied to Vitex, dif- 
fering chiefly in the spathaceous two-lobed calyx and lobed 
ovary. F. splendida was first collected at Rockingham 
Bay, by Mr. Dallachy, and has since been found (in 1873) 
much further north, in the Cape York Peninsula, by Mr. 
"W. Hann, about thirty miles from the coast, when collect- 
ing for the Queensland Government. Mr. Hann describes 
the fruit as of the size, shape, and colour of a hen's e°-o- } 
and containing a very acrid kernel. 

F. splendida was sent to the Royal Gardens, Kew, 
from those of Brisbane in 1879 ; it now forms a climber 
in the Palm-House, the branches of which extend for 
August 1st, 1891, 



some distance along the gallery rail, and almost reach 
the top of the house, 60 ft. above the ground. It is 
conspicuous by its handsome bright green foliage, and 
copious panicles of very fragrant snow-white flowers, 
which first appeared in September of last year. ^ The allied 
F. papuana of New Guinea is also in cultivation at Kew, 
but has not yet flowered. 

Descr. A tall, perfectly glabrous climber, with bright 

green terete rather soft branchlets, which, as well as the 

petioles and branches of the cyme, are streaked or spotted 

with white. Leaves six to eighteen inches long, ovate or 

oblong-ovate, accuminate, bright green, reticulated beneath, 

penninerved and three-nerved at the rounded or cordate 

base, where are situated some large orbicular glands, 

visible on both surfaces ; petiole three to six inches long, 

terete* Cyme laxly trichotomously branched, nearly a 

foot across ; peduncles three-quarters to one inch long, 

with several pairs of minute bracts distant from the flower. 

Floivers jointed on the peduncles, very shortly pedicelled. 

Calyx an inch long, oblong, green, at length splitting into 

two valves. Corolla white, tube not twice as long as the 

calyx, narrowly funnel-shaped ; lobes four, as long as the 

tube, oblong, tips rounded. Filaments straight, longer 

than the corolla-lobes, subequal, erect, slightly hairy below 

the middle ; anthers small, yellow. Ovary short, broad, 

four-lobed, pubescent, four-celled ; cells one-ovuled ; style 

very slender, as long as the filaments, tip bifid.— /. B. H. 



Fig. 1, Calyx in the act of splitting ; 2, calyx with one-half removed, show- 
ing the ovary and style; 3 and 4 anthers ; 5, ovary and pedicel ; 6, transverse 
section of ovary :— all enlaraed. 



' ovary :— all enlarged. 



7188. 




T &\cent I 



L.P.eeve&C c ; 



Tab. 7188. 

CYPRIPEDIUM CALIFORNICUM. 

Native of California, 

Nat. Ord. Ouchide^e. Tribe Cypripedie.s. 
Genus Cypripedium, Linn. (Benth. & Hook.f. Gen. Plant, vol. iii. p. C34). 



Cypripedium (Foliosfe) californicum; glanduloso-puberulum, pluriflorum, 
foliis ovato-oblongis lanceolatisve acutis multinerviis, bracteis foliaceis 
florea multo longioribus, sepalo dorsali erecto elliptico subacuto, lateralibus 
cotmatis labello subpositis, petalis sepalis reqnilongis lineari-obloDgis 
subacntis, labello obovoideo globoso intus basi piloso, staminodio sub- 
Bessili reniformi, stigmate parvo quadrato, capsulis reflexis. 

C. californicum, A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. vol. vii. p. 389 ; 8. Wats. Bot. 
Calif, vol. ii. p. 138. 



The plicate-leaved Cypripedia are confined to the north 
temperate regions, and are for the most part natives of 
North America, where ten species occur, eight of them on 
the east side of the continent, and two, both different from 
the eastern species, on the west side. In Europe, on the 
other hand, there is but one species, the British 0. Gal- 
ceolus, which extends into Asia, and is represented in the 
Himalaya by C. cordigerum, distinguished more by colour 
than by better characters. In the same mountain range 
the Asiatic G. macranthon appears, which extends into 
Northern Asia and Japan. Of other plaited-leaved species 
two differ from their congeners in having two opposite 
leaves on the stem ; they are G. elegans, Reichb. f. of the 
Sikkim Himalaya, and the fan-leaved G.japonicum, which is, 
from the singularity of the foliage, of all the most desirable 
to have in cultivation. 

Of the North American species G. californicum is nearest 
in habit to Cpasserinum, Richardson, a plant known to me 
only from specimens collected in latitude fifty-eight degrees 
North by Sir John Richardson, when accompanying Sir 
John Franklin's expedition to the Polar Sea more than 
half a century ago. In size and form of flower, foliage, 
&c, G, passerinum and californicum are identical, but the 

August 1st, 1891. 



first named is single-flowered and has a very different and 
oblong staminode. 

C. californicum is confined to the northern parts of the 
state of California, where it inhabits damp woods and 
open swamps, growing with Darlingtonia in the valley of 
the Sacramento river. The only other Californian species, 
the sweet-scented G. montanum, Dongl. (G. occidentale, 
Wats.), has not been introduced into Europe. 

For the specimen of G. californicum, here figured, I am 
indebted to W. E. Gumbleton, Esq., of Belgrove, Co. Cork, 
with whom it flowered in May of last year. 

Desce. Glandular-puberulous. Stem one to two feet, 
leafy throughout. Leaves three to four inches long, from 
broadly ovate to lanceolate, acute, many-nerved. Flowers 
in the axils of large leafy bracts, one to one and a quar- 
ter inches across the petals, sessile ; ovary decurved. 
Sepals pale brownish yellow ; dorsal erect, elliptic, sub- 
acute, five-ribbed; lateral completely united into an 
entire boat-shaped acute limb under the lip. Petals as 
long as the sepals, spreading, linear-oblong, obtuse, dull 
yellow. Lip rather longer than the sepals, obovoidly 
globose, hairy at the base within, white with a little pink 
on the inverted lips and obscurely spotted with pale brown. 
Staminode subsessile, broader than long, reniformly ob- 
cordate, rather longer than the small quadrate stigma. 
Capsule two-thirds of an inch long, oblong, reflexed.— 
J • D. IT, 



q SL 1, T «P of ovary, column, and section of Up; 2, column seen in front; 
3, tront, and 4, back view of stamen -.-all enlarged. 



im 




M.S4el,JNFitcMith. 



JrodoiDay&Sc 



L. Reeve &.C° London- 



Tab. 7189. 

PLEUROTHALLIS immersa. 

Native of New Grenada. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide.e. — Tribe Epidendre.e. 
Genua Plettrothallis, B. Br. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 488.) 



Pletjkothallis (Elongate) immersa ; caudice repente, caulibus brevibus 
vaginitis, foliis oblanceolatis subacutis breviter petiolatis, Rcapo solitario 
gracili folio longiore basi sulco medio folii abscondito, vaginis paucis bre- 
vibus appressis acutis, racerno elongato nutante multifloro, floribus 
secundis penduhs fusco-purpureis, bracteis parvis lanceolatis, sepalis 
rectis hnean-oblongis dorso alte cariuatis intus pubescentibns, lateralibus 
■ in lammam doreali ffiquilongam sed paullo latiorem apice bideutatam 
coalitis petalis parvis columns aaquilongis spadellreforraibus obtusis, 
labello oblongo obtuso recurvo granulato, carinis 2 crassis la3vibus percurso. 

P. immersa, Lindl. et Reiehb.f. in Bonplandia, vol. iii. p. 223 ; in Walp Ann 
Bot vol. vi. p. 177; Lindl. Fol. Orchid. PhurotJiall. p. 38, «. 236' •' Rolfe 
in Gard. Chron. 1889, vol. i. p. 74. ■* 



The division of the immense genus Pleurothallis (it 
contains upwards of 350 species) into natural groups 
characterized by limitable characters presents great diffi- 
culties, and the labours of Lindley, Reichenbach, and 
Bentham in this direction are not harmonious. Thus 
Reichenbach, in Walper's Annals, refers P. immersa to a 
group of which the type is PL chamensls, but as he has 
some thirty or forty of such types, and gives no charac- 
ters for his types, nothing definite is gained thereby. 
He further says that P. immersa is allied to P. bicarinata, 
a species that nowhere appears in his enumeration ; it is 
however figured in this work (t. 4142) and shows no very 
close affinity with P. immersa, except in that the sepals 
are keeled at the back. Lindley in his " Folia Orchidacea," 
places P. immersa in the group Apodce Ccvspitosw, with 
which as that group is defined by both himself and 
Bentham it appears to me to be altogether at variance ; 
the Apodce being minute tufted species of altogether 
different habit. According to Bentham's grouping of the 
species (in Gen. Plant.) it falls naturally into his first 
division of Elongates floribvndce, having an elongate many- 

Auoust 1st, 1891. 



fid. raceme longer than the leaves and secund flowers, 
wherein is included P. bicarinata. 

P. immersa is a native of New Grenada, where it was 
discovered by Linden. Its name is derived from the 
character of the lower part of the scape being firmly 
wedged into the central furrow towards the base of the 
leaf and being thus completely concealed. The specimen 
figured was contributed from the rich orchid collection of 
the Glasnevin Gardens, and flowered in the Royal Gardens, 
Kew, in March of last year. 

, Descb. Rootstoch shortly creeping, sending up short 
single-leaved stems about an inch high, that are clothed 
with two acute brown sheaths. Leaves three to six inches 
long, oblanceolate, acute, tapering into a short petiole, 
deeply grooved down the centre. Scape longer than the 
leaf, green, very slender, its base tightly gripped for over 
two inches by the base of the leaf ; sheaths of scape few, 
short, appressed, acute, brown. Raceme four to six inches 
long, drooping, many-fld. ; bracts small, tubular, acute, 
shorter than the pedicels. Flowers pendulous (from the 
decurved ovary and pedicel) two-thirds of an inch long, 

brown-purple, two-lipped, pubescent within; lips straight, 
oblong, upper (dorsal sepal) acute, strongly keeled, lower 
(ot the two lateral sepals) as long, bifid at the tip. Petals 
one-fourth the length of the sepals, paddle-shaped, as long 
as the column. Lip recurved, oblong, obtuse, granulate 
on the surface with two elevated longitudinal smooth 
ridges. Column with a mucronate tip as lone- as the petals 
and lip.—/. D. H . 



5 lw-6-^ihJ' 7 l0W ?v 8 - ; 3 ' do :, with sepals removed; 4, column and lip; 
o, up, o, anther; 7, polhma:— all enlarged. 



790. 




.4k 

M.S.del,J.N.Fitch,lith. 



YmcentBroaW^ayScScr.top. 



Tab. 7190. 

SYNANTHERIAS sylvatioa. 

Native of India. 

Nat. Ord. AnoiDEiE. — Tribe Pythonie^e. 
Genus Synantijerias, Schott.; (Benth. et Hook./. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 972.) 



SYNANTH£HiA8*yJi>atoca; folio longe petiolato pedatisecto, segmentis late- 
rahbus dichotomis intermedioque irregularite sectis pinnatifidis v. 
bipmnatifidis, laciniis ultimis lanceolatis lineari-lanceolatisve, pedunculo 
gracili striato, spatha brevi cylindraceo-campanulata oblique hiante acuta 
y. apiculata fusco-viridi irrorato-maculata, spadice breviter stipitata, 
mil. mascula cylmdracea exserta, staminibus sparsis v. varie aggregatig' 
femmea brevi inclusa, ovariis globosis 2-3-locularibus, organia neutris 
uniseriatia oblongia depressis rugosis, appeudice caudiformi valde 
elongato palhde brunneo, basi paullo incrassato. 

S. sylvatica, Schott Gen. Aroid. t. -28 ; Prodr. Syst. Avoid, p. 176 ; Enohr 
Monog. Arac. p. 320. F ' ^ r 

Brachyspatha sylvatica, Schott Synops. Aroid. p. 35 ; Engler I.e. 314. 
B. zeylanica, Schott Syn. Aroid. p. 36. 

Amorpbophallua zeylanicus, Blume Bumph. vol. i. p. 148; TAwaites Enum. 
p. 335. 

A. sylvaticus, Kunth. Enum. vol. iii. p. 34 ; Bah. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. p. 259. 

Arum sylvaticum, Boxb. Fl. Ind. vol. iii. p. 511; Wight Ic. PI. Ind 
Or. t. 802. 

Arum polypbyllum, &a., Herman Hort. Lugd. Bat. 60. 

Arum foliia palmatis, &c, Van Boyen Hort. Lugd. Bat. vii. p. 2. 

Dracunculua zeylanicus polyphyllus 0, Linn. F. Zeylan. p. 198 et 422. 

Dracontium caule immaculato, &c, Hermann Parad. Batav. p. 88. 



After a careful comparison of the specimen in the 
Kew Herbarium with the description and drawings of 
Roxburgh, Schott, Engler, and the plant here drawn, 
I am convinced that all refer to the same plant. Dis- 
regarding the descriptions of the authors of the last 
century (which I have extracted from Blume), it is first 
and excellently described and figured by Roxburgh in the 
collection of drawings which he had made in India 
(now at Kew), and the figure is copied in "Wight's 
Icones." In it the so-called neuter flowers are each repre- 
sented in their positions between the male and female 
inflorescences, and are described as smooth irregular 
glandular bodies. It is the presence of these whioh dis- 
AuotrsT 1st, 1891. 



tinguishes Synantherias irom Amorphophallw ; and it was 
owing to their being overlooked, or disregarded, that led 
to the plant being placed in the latter genus by Blume. 
In one respect only the specimen here figured differs from 
Synantherias (as also from Amorphophallus) and that is in 
the anthers not being collected round a disk, but scattered 
irregularly over the surface of the spadix. This, however, 
is in accord with Roxburgh's drawing and description, 
which are the authorities for Synantherias; the fact being 
that the character is a very unstable one, the anthers being 
only partially aggregate in Ceylon specimens, and densely 
so in Bombay ones. 

Whether Synantherias should be retained as a distinct 
genus, or be referred to the section Brachyspatha of Amor- 
phophallus (with which it agrees in all other characters 
except the presence of neuter organs), or form a separate 
section of the latter genus, is a doubtful matter. It is very 
closely allied to the Javanese A. (Brachyspatha) variabilis, 
-Blume, and until more is known of its immediate allies, it 
may remain where Schott and Engler have left it. 

tf. sylvatica is probably widely spread in the Deccan 
Peninsula; Roxburgh had it brought to him at Samulkote, 
where he cultivated it, from the mountains of the Oircars ; 
IMlzell and Gibson state that it is common in the Southern 
uoncan, and there are specimens in Kew Herbarium from 

V^y a ala ? ar - Accordi *g to a note of Schott's in 
iinglei a Aracea^m. zeylanicus is a native of Java as well 

last centur * ** WaS discoyered in the middle of the 

p Q L he Pk n t ^ ere % ured was sent from the Botanical 
gardens, Ceylon, to those of Kew in 1886, where it 

Oollf ?J? St ° Ve in Ma ^ 1890 > and ^nt up a leaf in 
October of the same year.—/. D. H. 



3. OTarv' V ri i ^ni m ^ Z W l th male ' female ' imd neater flowers ! 2 » 8tamen > 
>. oraiy , 4, vertical section of ditto -.-all enlarged. 




77,9/. 



ch.lith. 



VincentBrocV 



I. .Reeve & C° London. 



Tab. 7191. 

REHMANNIA (Trianophora) rupestris. 
Native of China. 



Nat. Ord. Sciiophularine.e. — Tribe Digitale*. 
Genus Reiimannia, Libosch.; (Benth. et Hooh.f. Gen. PL, vol. ii. p. 960.) 



Reiimaxkia (Trianophora) rupestris ; tota albo-lanuginosa v. glabrata, cau- 
libus ramosis ramisque crassiusculis pendulis, foliis orbiculari-ovatis 
obtusis grossis crenatis nervis subtus crassis, floribus in axillis solitariis 
sessilibus v. in ramos subracemosis, bracteolis 2 linearibus, calycis cylin- 
dracei alte 10-costati lobis brevissimis erectis 3-fidis, corolla? laxe glan- 
duloso-pilosa? tnbo elongato lente curvo calyce triplo longiore, lobis tubo 
multo brevioribus rotundatis, ovario 2-loculari, capsula (placentis septicide 
solutis) 1-loculari, seminibus minimis. 

R. rupestris, Helmsl. in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 195. 



Mr. Hemsley in describing this remarkable plant observes 
that it differs essentially from all the other species of the 
genus in the thick usually woolly leaves on long petioles, 
and in the multifid calyx. Hitherto one species of the 
genus alone had been in cultivation, Ii. glutinosa, Libosch 
(li, chinensis, tab. 3653), a reference to the plate of which 
shows how widely different these two are in these and other 
respects. The genus is now known to consist of six or 
seven species, natives of China, Formosa, and Japan. Its 
systematic position was considered uncertain, whether re- 
ferable to Gyrtandracece or Scrophularmece according as 
whether the ovary is one-celled with parietal placentation, 
or two-celled with the placentas on the septum. Judging 
from the placentation of R. rupestris and that of B. 
angulata, Hemsl. (R. glutinosa, var. angulata, Oliv. in 
Hook. Ic. Plant t. 1589), the placentas appear to meet 
in the axis of the young ovary and be there united, but to 
separate afterwards ; and as the habit, aastivation of the 
corolla, and other characters of the genus ally it to the 
tribe Dig it niece of Scrophitlarinece, its position in the latter 
order has been, no doubt rightly, generally conceded. 

R. rupestris was discovered by Mr. A. Henry in the 
province of Hupeh, growing only in almost inaccessible 
August 1st. 1891. 



places, on the face of mouDtain cliffs. It bears the Chinese 
name of Ai-pai-ts'ai, or Cliff Cabbage, and is much esteemed 
as a medical simple. Mr. Henry in his notes states that 
the flowers are rose-coloured, when it may be assumed 
that they vary in colour, as they are decidedly pale cowslip 
yellow as grown at Kew, with a faint pinkish flush on the 
back of the corolla tube, and the throat is dotted with red 
on each side within. 

I may suggest Trianophora (a Greek name for Neptune's 
Trident), as a sectional name for this plant, in allusion to 
the trifid calyx teeth, deferring the question of its form- 
ing a genus distinct from Rehmannia until the genus is 
more fully represented, as it will doubtless be by additions 
from unexplored China. 

The plant here figured was raised from seed taken from 
a specimen collected by Dr. Henry. It flowered in a cool 
greenhouse of the Royal Gardens in August, 1888, and 
died after flowering.— J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower viewed dorsally ; 2, calyx and style ; 3, portion of corolla 
with stamens; 4 and 5, anthers; 6, ovary; 7, sketch of the whole plant 
reduced ; all but fig. 1 enlarged. 



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Tab. 7192. 

HERITIERA maceophylla. 
Native of the East Indies. 

Nat. Ord. Stebculiace^e. — Tribe SterculiEjE. 
Genus Heritiera, Ait.; (Bentk. et Hook. f. Gen. Plant, vol. i. p. 219.) 



Heritiera macrophylla, ; arborea, ramulis foliis subtus petiolisque argenteo- 
lepidotis, foliis amplis longe petiolatis oblongis v. oblongo-lanceolatis 
acuminatis penninerviis basi cuneatis v. rotundatis 3-nerviis paniculis 
foliis brevioribus pubescentibus, calycis urceolato-campanulati 5-7-lobi 
lobis acutis, fractibus oblique subglobosis rostratis, rostro compresso 
uncinato. 

H. macrophylla, Wall, ex Voigt Sort. Suburb. Calcutt. (1845), 103 ; Kurz For. 
Fl. Brit. Burm. vol. i. p. 141 ; in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xlii. pt. ii. 
p. 61 ; in Trim. Journ. Bot. N.S. vol. iii. (1874), p. 66, t. 141, f. 7 ; Pierre, 
Flore Forest. Cochinch. t. 204. 

Trochetia P contracta, Wall. Cat. n. 1162. 



Heritiera macrophylla has been long known in cultivation 
as the Looking-glass plant, under which name it has been 
widely distributed from Kew, where it forms a conspicuous 
feature in the Palm House, for its handsome foliage, bright 
green above and opaquely silvery beneath, like the silver- 
ing of the back surface of a mirror. It was, however, 
assumed to be a variety of the common tropical Asiatic 
littoral E. Uttoralis, Dryand, and as such it is included by 
Dr. Masters, in the Flora of British India (vol. i. p. 363), as 
a synonym, R. macrophylla, Hort., of that species. It had, 
however, previously (in 1845) been recorded as a species 
of Wallich's, by "Voigt, in his " Hortus Suburbanus Cal- 
cuttensis," but without any description, which latter did 
not appear till 1845, when Kurz gave a fresh account of it 
in the " Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," and 
almost contemporaneously in the " Forest Flora of British 
Burma,' ' both published after the citation of the plant in 
the Flora of British India. For the synonym Trochetia ? 
contracta, Wall., I am indebted to a note under if. Uttoralis 
by Dr. King in the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society 
(vol. lx. pi. ii. p. 80), where that author alludes to H. 
macrophylla as very distinct from H. Uttoralis. 

September 1st, 1891. 



H. macvopliylla is a rather large evergreen tree, a native 
of the forests of Eastern Bengal, Silhet, Munnepore, 
Chittagong, and Tenasserim. In India, unlike H. littoralls, 
it does not affect the sea coast or tidal swamps, but in 
Cambodia, according to Pierre, it is a coast plant and 
inhabits the delta of the Mekong river. It differs from the 
last named species in the much larger size of the longer 
petioled, more acuminate leaves, and especially in the fruit, 
which instead of being oblong, polished, and winged with 
a compressed rounded apex, is nearly globose, rough, and 
furnished with an abrupt flattened beak. The fruit, 
indeed, is the main character, for the leaves of both species 
vary extremely in size, form, and length of petiole. 

II. littoralis, which forms a small tree in the tidal 
estuaries of India, Eastern Africa, the Malayan, Australian 
and Pacific Islands, was long in cultivation at Kew, having 
been introduced by Sir Joseph Banks in 1780. I remem- 
ber it there as a stunted pot-plant, and its being discarded 
in favour of II. macrophylla, which, as mentioned above, 
was supposed to be a more vigorous form of the same 
species. In the Sunderbunds H. littoralis, called Sundri by 
tne Bengalis, forms the chief arboreous vegetation, and 
affords a hard tough, durable wood that sinks in water, 
much used for firewood, furniture, and boat-building. It 
&as the peculiarity of sending up tough shoots like tent- 
pegs trom the roots all round the parent plant, that render 
* a king through a Sundri forest very trying. 

J niid no allusion to H. macrophylla in any of the Indian 
J orest works or reports to which I have access, though if 
its timber has properties approaching those of the Sundri it 
I' i ?; 0n 5 c . counfc of th ° greater size of the tree, prove 
valuable, and its cultivation be attempted.—/. D. H. 



2 ma^fWr^ °? flowerin g.P£!"cle with two males and one female flower; 
-all enla^ej. ' ™ 5 4 ' a * ther ; 5 ' 0Yar y » 6 ' a car P el cut longitudinally : 



71.93 




tf.S.del.J.N.Rtdh.hth. 



^T.centBrooK 



I Reeve &C° London. 



Tab. 7193. 

TULIPA SlNTENESII. 
Native of Armenia. 

Nat. Ord. Liliace.*:.— Tribe Tulipe.e. 
Genus Tulipa, Linn.; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. Plant., vol. iii. p. 818.) 



Tclipa Smtenesii; bulbo magno globoso tunlcis exterioribus iutus dense stri- 
gosis, tolus 4 confertis lanceolatis Bscendentibna glaucisglabris.pedimculo 
brevissimo stricto glabro, perianthio campanulas, segments couf orniibus 
oblongw acutis mtus splendide rubris basi conspicue ni^-ro maculatis 
stantibus penantbio triplo brevioribus, ovario cylindiico-tri«ono Btiir- 
matibus parvis. ° h 

T. Sintenesii, Baler in Gard. Cliron. 1891, vol. i. p. 330. 



This new dwarf tulip belongs to the Gesneriana group, 
it comes nearest to T. undulatifolia (Bot. Mao- tab 6308) 
and T. Eichleri (Bot. Mag. tab. 6191) differing from the 
former by its less acuminate perianth-segments and flat 
leaves, and from the latter by its dwarf habit and narrow 
perianth-segments. It was discovered by the collector 
after whom it is named, who has travelled extensively 
during the last three years in Turkish Armenia and sent 
home many interesting novelties, both in a living and dried 
state. It was collected at Schuschnass, near Erzeroum 
and a stock of bulbs was sent to Herr Max Leichtlin, of 
Baden Baden Our drawing was made from a plant that 
flowered at Kew m March, which was raised from one of 
the bulbs which he presented to the Royal Gardens. 

Descr. Bulb globose, an inch in diameter ; outer tunics 
brown, membranous, very hairy inside, but the hairs not 
at all loose and woolly, as in T. montana. Leaves four, 
crowded, lanceolate, ascending, glaucous, glabrous the 
outer half a foot long, an inch broad. Peduncle very short 
stiffly erect, glabrous. Perianth campanulate, two inches 
long; segments nearly uniform in shape, oblong, acute 
dull pale glaucous red outside, bright scarlet inside, with a 
large black blotch on the claw, with an obscure yellow 
Septeiubeb. 1st, 1891. 



border. Stamens one-third the length of the perianth; 
filaments short, black, glabrous at the base; anthers 
linear. Ovary cylindrical-trigonous, as long as the sta- 
mens ; stigmas very small. — J. G. Baler. 



Figs. 1 and 2, stamens ; 3, ovary : — all enlarged. 




MS.dd,J.NP£tdiJith 



^icsntBroote^&Sonlmp 



Tab. 7194. 

CITRUS AURANTIUM, var. Bercamia. 
The Bergamot Orange. 



Nat. Ord. Kutace.e. Tribe Aukantie^. 
Genus Citrus, Linn. (BentA. & JETook.f. Gen. Plant, vol. i. p. 305). 



Citrus Aurantium, var. Bergamia ; arborea, laxe ramosa, ramulis ssepius 
inermibus, summis angulatis viridibus, foliis ovato-oblongis acutis inte- 
gerriniis, petiolo simplici v. anguste alato, floribus inter minoribas albis, 
fructibus majusculis globosis v. pyriformibuspallide aurantiacis, glandulis 
minutis depressia, carne pallida acidula, cellulis valde elongatis. 

C Aurantium, var. Bergamia, Wight & Am. Prodr. Flor. Penins. Ind. Or. 
p. 98 ; Brandis For. Fl. N.W. & Cent. Ind. pp. 52, 572; Hook.f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. vol. i. p. 515. 

C. Limetta, var., DC. Prodr. vol. i. p. 539. 

C. Bergamia, Risso et Poiteau Hist. Orang. p. Ill, t. 53-56 ; Ed. ii. p. 82 ; 

Benth. & Trim. Med. PI. vol. i. t. 52 ; Pereira Met. Med. vol. ii. pt. ii. 

p. 2032 ; Fluckiger & Hanbury, Pharmacograph. Ed. ii. p. 121. 

C. Aurantium Bergamium, Duham. Traite des Arbres, Ed. Nov. vol. vii. p. 98, 

t. 26, f. 3. 
C. Limomum Bergamotta, Duham. 1. c. p. 81. 
C. Limetta mela-rosa, Duham. I. c. p. 75, t. 35, f. 1 ; C. Bergamia, p. 76 ; 

C. Bergamia stellata, p. 76, t. 31, f. 1 ; Bergamia Peretta, p. 76, t. 24/2. 



The Bergamot or Bergamotte Orange is a tolerably dis- 
tinct race or variety of the common orange (Citrus 
Aurantium), though better distinguished by its properties 
than by botanical characters, these last being very variable. 
It resembles the Lemon in its large pale fruit, in the 
elongated cells of the flesh, and in its acidity ; but the tree 
is very much less spiny, the young shoots are green, the 
petioles are only slightly, if at all, winged, and the much 
smaller flowers are hermaphrodite and pure white, and as 
well as the rhind are deliciously sweet-scented, having a very 
peculiar subaromatic odour. It is one of the three principal 
races of the orange proper (as distinguished from the lemons 
and limes, see plates 6745 and 6807 of this work), the others 
being the sweet orange, which is found truly wild in hot 
valleys of the Eastern Himalaya, and the Deccan Peninsula ; 
the Bigaradia (bitter or Seville orange) which, like the sweet 

September 1st, 1891. 



orange, has larger convex surface glands of the fruit, those 
of the Bergamot being convex or depressed. There is no 
record or tradition of the origin of either the Bergamot or 
Bigaradia, though they may probably have been differen- 
tiated in Persia, where the passion for scents being uni- 
versal, that of a variety or shoot of the orange differing so 
greatly in strength and quality of odour as the Bergamot 
does from its allies, would be sure to attract attention and 
lead to the propagation of the race. It has been assumed 
by Gallesio to be a hybrid between the sweet orange and 
lemon, but there are no definite grounds for the assump- 
tion. 

According to Fliickiger and Hanbury the Bergamot 
orange appeared in Europe in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, and the essential oil from it is included in 
a list of the stores of a Griessen apothecary in 1688. The 
first precise notice of it is contained in a little book called 
"Le Parfumeur Francois," printed at Lyons in 1693. 
The author, Le Sieur Barbe, says that the oil is obtained 
from the fruits of a lemon tree grafted on the stem of a 
Bergamot pear. Risso and Poiteau, in their splendid 
"Histoire Naturelle du Orange" (Paris, 1818), class the 
Bergamot amongst the true oranges (G. Aurantium) and 
enumerate three varieties, namely — var. torulosa, with 
pyriform ribbed fruit; var. parva, with small globose 
fruit; and var. Mellarosa, with a rounded depressed fruit, 
ribbed on the sides and areolate at the top ; the latter they 
regard as intermediate between the Bigarade and Berga- 
mot. Loiseleur Deslongchamps, on the other hand, in the 
enlarged edition of Duhamel Traite des Arbres, &c. 
(Paris, 1808), treats of Bergamots under the three species 
G. Aurantium, Limetta and Limonum, as cited amongst 
the synonyms enumerated above. He gives the name 
u Orange Bergamotte " only to G. Aurantium Bergamium* 
and of the C. Limetta Bergamia he says that is cultivated 
hardly anywhere but at Nice, and there for the manu- 
facture of the delicious bon-bons called " Bergamottes." 

Oil or essence of Bergamot is the product for obtaining 
which the Bergamot orange is cultivated. It is used only 
in perfumery and confectionery, and may be extracted by 
distillation, or by sponging the surface of the fruit, or by 
a machine which crushes the surface of the skin and thus 



forces the oil from the oil glands. For this purpose the fruit 
is gathered when still green, in November and December, 
and one hundred fruits are said to yield two and a half to 
three ounces of oil. Calabria is the country where the 
cultivation of the tree and manufacture of the oil is chiefly 
carried on, and in a less degree Sicily and the Riviera. 
The name Bergamot is derived from the Italian Bergamotta, 
a pear, and from the shape of the fruit ; the Bergamotte 
pear itself is from the town of Bergamo, where, however, 
the Bergamot orange is not cultivated. For the specimen 
figured I am indebted to Thos. Hanbury, Esq., F.L.S., of 
the Palazzo Orengo, La Mortala, near Mentone, in whose 
splendid gardens the Bergamot fruits freely and ripens in 
early spring. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Fruit j 2, the same cut transversely; 3, surface gland: — all of the 
natural size. 



7195 




Tab. 7195. 
IMPATIENS MIRABILIS. 

Native of Langhawi Island. 



Nat. Ord. Gekaniace^s. — Tribe Balsamine^:. 
Genus Imfatiens, Linn.; (Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 277.) 



Impatiens mirabilis ; caule orgyali columnari crasso cylindraceo apice folioso, 
foliis confertis longe petiolatis amplis subcarnosis ovatis crenatis costa 
crassa, petiolo valido alato, racemis brevibus axillaribus erectis pauci- 
floris aimplicibus v. basi ramosis, pedunculo valido, floribus magnis aureis, 
sepalis 3, lateralibus elliptico-oblongis acutis concavis, postico brevi 
amplo hemispherico calcare brevi incurvo, petalo antico rotundato v. 
transverse oblongo, petalis lateralibus in unum porrectum trilobum 
coalitis, lobis lateralibus rotundatis erectis concavis, intermedio angustiore 
oblongo piano bipartito segmentis oblongis apice rotundatis. 



It would be difficult to conceive a wider departure from 
the habit of its genus than this remarkable plant presents. 
It is an undoubted Impatiens, but whereas the other species 
of that large genus are weak succulent annuals, or low 
branched perenials, /. mirabilis possesses an erect naked 
trunk that attains in its native country to four feet in height, 
and the thickness of a man's leg, crowned with a tuft of 
many large, long petioled, fleshy, spreading leaves, nearly 
a foot long, from the axils of which spring erect 
racemes of golden flowers, larger by far than in most other 
members of the genus known to me, but singularly uncouth 
in form. 

In the absence of fruit it is not possible to determine 
the nearest affinity of Impatiens mirabilis, but it probably 
belongs to the section of the genus with short ellipsoid or 
oblong capsules turgid in the middle, to which the Malayan 
and Deccan Peninsular species almost exclusively belong; the 
other section, with linear or clavate capsules being almost 
exclusively Himalayan. In its very stout perennial stem it 
approaches the members of a little group of thick-stemmed 
Nilghiri species to which I applied the term " Epiphyticse" 
in the Flora of British India, but these are very small 
prostrate plants, with usually swollen internodes, and have 

September 1st, 1891. * 



flowers with the posticous saccate sepal inflated and much 
larger than the rest of the flower ; one of them, /. Jerdonm, 
is figured at Tab. 4739 of this work. 

The specimen here figured was communicated by Messrs. 
Veitch in August, 1890, with the information that it came 
from Penang, but as there are specimens in the Kew 
Herbarium collected by its discoverer, Mr. C. Curtis, the 
Superintendent of the Penang Gardens, in the Island of 
Langkawi, off the east coast of Sumatra, it is probable that 
the latter is its native country, and that Mr. Veitch' s infor- 
mation refers to the fact of his plant having been sent to 
England from Penang (no doubt by Mr. Curtis). In a 
note accompanying Mr. Curtis' Herbarium specimens (No. 
1678), the plant is stated to form a shrub three to four 
feet high, with a stem as thick as a man's leg, and very 
brittle, and that it inhabits limestone rocks. It is not 
stated whether it branches or not. Messrs. Veitch's 
specimen was about six inches high, with a strictly columnar 
simple trunk, gibbous at the base, greenish on the sur- 
face, and two-thirds of an inch in diameter. Plants of it 
m the Royal Gardens, sent by Mr. Curtis, have also simple 
stems, but they vary a good deal in shape, some being 
dilated and turnip-shaped in the lower half. The leaves 
vary from ovate to oblong, and attain ten inches in length. 
—J. D. H, 



Fig. 1, Sepal; 2, stamen -.—both, enlarged. 




1196 



MS.delJN.Rtchlitk 



TfincarttJfrooteDay &SanImp 



Tab. 7196. 
PHAL^NOPSIS Esmeralda. 

Native of Cochin China. 

Nat. Ord. Okchide^:. — Tribe Vande.,£. 
Genus Piial.enopsis, Blume ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 573.) 



Phauknopsis Esmeralda; foliis 4-8-pollicaribus oblongis acutis, pedunculo 
elongate suberecto, racemo 6-10 floro erecto, floribus 1— li poll, latia roseis 
albis purpureisve, sepalis lateralibus late triangulari-ovatis base late pede 
columnar adnatis, dorsali spathulato obovato, petalis obovatis sepalo 
dorsali paullo minoribus, labello unguiculato 3-lobo, lobis lateralibus 
oblongis obovatis rotundatisve erectis, terminali lato obtuso, disco 
inter lobos laterales calloso, ungue utrinque auricula parva elongata 
instructa, columna crassa basi dilatata. 

P. Esmeralda, Beichb. f. in Gard. Chron. 1874, vol. ii. p.'582; Revue Horticol. 
1877, p. 106, 107, fig. 17-19; Floral Mag. 1879, t. 358; Orchidoph. 1881, 
p. 9, cum Ic. ; Warner & Williams, Orchid. Alb. vol. vii. t. 321 ; Bolfe in 
Gard. Chron. 1886, vol. ii. p. 276 ; Rook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vol. vi. p. 31 ; 
Veitch. Man. Orchid, part vii. p. 27. 

P. antennifera, Beichb. /. in Gard. Chron. 1879, vol. i. 398 ; 1882, vol. ii. 520 ; 
Bolfe I.e. 1886, vol. ii. p. 176. 

P. Regnieriana, Beichb. f. 1. c. 1877, vol. ii. p. 746. 

P. Buissoniana, Beichb. f. 1. c. 1888, vol. ii. p. 295. 



I share the opinion expressed by Messrs. Rolf e and Veitch, 
that the four species cited above are really one and the same, 
varying a good deal in the size of the flower, and greatly 
in colouring, from a dark purple, as figured by Warner and 
Williams in their Orchid Album, to pale purple as in the 
plate in the Floral Magazine, and to white with red streaks 
in the lip as described by Mr. Rolfe in his var. candidula. 
In fact, as remarked in Veitch' s Manual, " the colour 
variations are too numerous to admit of separate notice." 
Further, as observed in the same excellent work, P. 
Esmeralda differs from all other described species of 
Phalsenopsis in several very important points, especially the 
erect many-flowered racemes, and the structure of the lip, 
which is clawed and bears no cirrhi either at the apex or 
on the disk, but two narrow auricles (called cirrhi by 
Veitch) on the very pronounced claw, one on each side, like 
the small supplementary lobes of Trichoglottis. I very 
much doubt indeed if these so-called cirrhi of P. 

September 1st, 1891. 



Esmeralda represent those of other species of the genus, 
but this is a morphological question requiring a comparative 
study of the development of the lip of Phalmnopsis and 
allied genera for its satisfactory determination. They 
may represent the two small lateral lobes of the lip of 
P. Parishii, in which case the so-called cirrhi of the 
lip of P. Esmeralda are mere dilations of the mid-lobe. 
Describing the lip of P. Esmeralda in the Flora of British 
India, from dried specimens, I have said that the disk 
presents a two-awned callus in front of the auricles (cirrhi) ; 
in the living plant I find the callus but not the awns. With 
regard to the auricles they vary much in shape, straight 
and almost subulate in the specimen here drawn, to falcate 
and subpathulate in others. 

P. Esmeralda was introduced from Cochin China in 1874 
by M. G-odefroy. It has also been found in Cambodia and 
in the Island of Langkawi between Sumatra and the 
Malayan Peninsula. It is also a reputed native of Burma. 
The specimen here figured was received from M. A. 
Kegnier, of Avenue de Marigny, of Fontenay sous Bois, 
Seine, the importer of P. Buissoniana and P. Regnieriana ; 
it flowered in the Royal Gardens in November, 1890. 
/. P. E. 



Fig. 1, Flower with the sepals and petals removed ; 2, column and its foot ; 
3, anther ; 4 and 5, pollinia -.—all enlarged. 



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Tab. 7192.— HERITIERA MACROPHYLLA. 
„ 7193.— TULIPA SINTENESII. 
„ 7194.— CITRUS ATJRANTTUM, ear. BERGAMIA. 
„ 7195.— IMPATIENS MIRABILIS. 

„ 7196.— TIIAL.EXOr.Sis ESMERALDA. 

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Tab. 7197. 
yucca filifera. 

Native of North-East Mexico. 

Nat. Ord. Liliace.e. — Tribe Drac^ne^:. 
Genus Yucca, Linn.; (Benth. et Rodk.f. Gen. Plant., vol. iii. p. 778.) 



Yucca filifera; trunco arboreo valido ramoso, foliis ensifornribus dense 
rosulatis pedalibus vel sesquipedalibus filis margin alibus copiosis, floribus 
in paniculam angustam saepissime pendulam dispositis, bracteis ovatis 
scariosis, pedicellis flore brevioribus apice articulatis, perianthii aegmentis 
ovatis vel oblongis acutis exterioribus angustioribus, staminibus perianthio 
subtriplo brevioribus, filamentis clavatis arcuatis puberulis, antheris 
oblongis parvis, fructu oblongo baccato, seminibus crassis. 

Y filifera, Chaband in Rev. Sortie. 1876, p. 439, fig. 97 ; 1880, p. 376 ; 1884, 
p. 53 ; Gard. Ghron. 1888, vol. i. p. 743, fig. 97; p. 751, fig. 100; Sargent 
in Garden and Forest, vol. i. (1888) p. 78, figs. 13-14. 

Y. baccata var. australis, Engelm. Monogr. Yucca, p. 44 ; Baker in Jourw 
Linn. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 229. 



This is by far the finest of the filiferous Yuccas. The 
fullest account of it is contained in Professor Sargent's 
paper in the " Garden and Forest " for 1888 above cited. 
It was discovered in 1840 by Dr. Gregg near Saltillo in 
North-East Mexico, but was not introduced into cultivation 
till long afterwards. Professor Sargent writes about it as 
follows : — " Yucca filifera is a conspicuous object on the 
arid plains which rise from the Eio Grande to the foothills 
of the Sierra Madre. The great panicles of white flowers 
can be seen for miles in the clear atmosphere of that 
region, and look like gleaming waterfalls pouring out from 
the end of the branches. It first appears about fifty miles 
south of the Rio Grande, where, with the beautiful white- 
flowered Cordia Boissieri in the depression of the plain, it 
forms an open picturesque forest which extends almost to 
the valley of Monterey. The ' Palma ' is common in the 
plains between Saltillo and Parras. It was seen by Dr. 
Parry as far south as San Louis Potosi, and no doubt will 
be found to extend widely over the high dry plains of 
north-eastern Mexico." 

The history of the plant from w T hich our figure was 

October 1st, 1891. 



drawn is very remarkable. The trunk was sent to Kew in 
October, 1888, by Mr. C. G-. Pringle, from Monterey, 
through Professor Sargent. When it arrived at Kew it 
appeared to be quite dead, and the trunk was consequently 
placed in the Museum of Economic Botany. After re- 
maining there two years it put out rudimentary leaves and 
an inflorescence, and on being transferred to the Temperate 
House these were fully developed in September, 1890. 
The leaves are shorter than in the wild type and the 
panicle is erect and less dense. 

Desce. Trunk finally arborescent and copiously t branched; 
in our plant simple, cylindrical, fifteen feet long. Leaves 
densely rosulate, ensiform, thinner and smaller than in 
Y. baccata, a foot or a foot and a half long, with copious 
fine recurving threads splitting off from the margin. 
Panicle in our plant erect, but in the fully-developed wild 
plant drooping, four or six feet long by eighteen or twenty 
inches broad, very dense ; pedicels articulated at the apex ; 
bracts large, ovate, scariose. Perianth white, campanulate, 
an inch or an inch and a half long ; segments ovate or 
oblong, acute, the three outer much narrower than the 
three inner. Stamens about a third as long as the perianth ; 
filaments clavate, arcuate, pubescent; anthers small, 
oblong. Pistil overtopping the anthers. Fruit oblong, 
baccate, two inches or more long, pendulous, often con- 
stricted on the side towards the stem. Seeds black, often 
more than a line in thickness.— J". G. Baler. 



Fig. 1, Stamen ; 2, stamens surrounding the pistil ; 3, pistil :— all enlarged. 



7198 




M.S.del,J.N.Rtcklith. 



VmceTHBrootePay&Sanlwp 



Tab. 7198. 
CIRRHOPETALUM Collettil 

Native of the Shan States. 



Nat. Ord. Obchide.e.— Tribe EpiDENDEEiE. 
Genus Ciuehopetalum, IAndl. ; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 504.) 



Cibkhopetaltjm ColUttii ; rhizomate robusto, pseudobulbis 4-lobis, folio 
elliptico- v. oblongo-lanceolato, scapo robusto deflexo 5-6 flore, bracteis 
subulato-lanceolatis, floribus maguis aurantiacis rubro striatia, sepalo 
dorsah triangulari-ovato caudato, cauda, marginibusque paleis mem- 
branaceis elongatis mobilibus creberrime onustia, sepalis lateralibus 
dorsah pluries longioribus in caudas gracillimas sensim angustatis, 
petalis ovato-rotundatia acuminatis apicibua fasciculo palearum instructis' 
labello breviter stipitato oblongo obtuso iacraasato recurvo, columns 
loDgiuscula apicem versus utrinque arista decurva instructa. 

C. Coliettii, Kemd. in Hook.f. Fl. Brit. Int. vol. vi. p. 773 ; in Journ. Linn 
boc. vol. xxvm. p. 131, t. 20 (errore Collettianum). 



na 



Cirrhopetalum Coliettii is certainly in many respects the 
most singular species of the genus hitherto discovered, 
though in so far as its peculiarities of structure are con- 
cerned, these differ only in degree of development from what 
obtain in species already known. Thus, as Mr. Hemsley 
well observes, G. Coliettii is nearest in affinity to 0. orna- 
tissimam of the Eastern Himalaya, in which the petals are 
tipped with a bunch of slender mobile red paleae. It is 
also nearly allied to C. fimbriatum of Bombay, figured at 
tab. 4391 of this work, the dorsal sepals and petals of 
which are margined with long slender palea3 attached, as in 
the plant here figured, by so minute a point as to be in 
constant motion. In neither of these, however, are the 
palefe dilated, cuneiform and lacerate, as are the terminal 
and often the lateral ones of the dorsal sepal of C. Coliettii, 
and in those of the bundle that tips the petals. 

Mr. Hemsley has pointed out to me a peculiarity in the 
mode of growth of this species, in that the flowering 
scape is not formed at the base of a fully formed pseudo^ 
bulb, but is developed together with a young leaf which 
afterwards forms a pseudobulb, and is enclosed in sheaths 
with it, as shown in the drawing. I observe the same 
October 1st, 1891. 



phenomena in Bulbophyllum fusco-purpuream, but not in 
any other species of Bulbophyllum or Girrhopetalum that I 
have examined, though it no doubt may occur in others. 

The flowering of this beautiful plant enables me to 
correct two errors that have crept into the descriptions 
which were made from dried specimens. One of these 
(in the Flora of British India) describes the pseudobulbs 
as very small ; the other (in the Linnean Journal) figures 
and describes the peduncle as erect. 

G. Collettii was discovered by Major-General Collett, 
C.B., F.L.S., in the Southern Shan hills, when on service 
there during the late Burmese war, and is one of a fine 
collection of plants, amounting to upwards of seven 
hundred species, of which twelve per cent, were new, made 
chiefly by this distinguished oflicer in that previously 
unvisited and indeed inaccessible region. These are 
enumerated, with descriptions of the new species, by Mr 
Hemsley m the Journal of the Linnean Society cited above ; 
and the enumeration is prefaced by a valuable essay 
(accompanied by a good map) on the climate and vege- 
tation of the LShan hills, by General Collett himself. 
Amongst other plants the Girrhopetalum is noted as 
nignly curious, and meriting notice ; the flower, which 
is inodorous, being "remarkable for the extremely long 
attenuated sepals, which are highly mobile and are wafted 
about by the slightest breath of air; and for the flower 
being also furnished with a number of little streamers or 
banner-like appendages, which, as Darwin remarks of an 
allied Bulbophyllum (B. lemniscatum, Plate 5961), when 
blown by a breath of wind wriggle about in a very odd 
manner. J 

< Another plant discovered by General Collett is Bosa 
gigantea, Collett (Hemsley, I.e. 55, t. 9), a white-flowered 
species allied to B. indica, with flowers five inches in 
diameter and which is flourishing at Kew, though it has 
not as yet flowered. 

Live plants of Girrhopetalum Collettii were sent to the 
itoyal Gardens by its discoverer in 1888, where the 
plant Aere figured flowered in May of the present year.— 



5 loWr^Tt 1 !l pal; ?' petal ; 3 ' P alea from the latter; 4, column and lip ; 
a, column ; 6, anther ; 7, pollinia -.-all enlarged. 




7199 



Sdd .TNTHrkUl, 



iQksDay 



Tab. 7199. 

NAPOLEONA Mieksii. 

Native of tropical West Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Myrtace.e. Tribe Lecythidejl. 
Genus Napoleona, Beauv. [Benth. & Hook./. Gen. Plant, vol. i. p. 723). 



Napoleona Miersii; glaberrima, foliis obovato-oblongis obtuse cuspidatis 
remote sinuato crenatis membranaceis basi rotundatis cuneatisve, glan- 
dulis marginalibus ad crenas distinctis, nervis utrinque 7-10 immersis, 
corolla orbiculari circa 40-dentata et costata extus flava costis basi roseis', 
mtustncolora, zona exteriore flavida, interiore rosea, intima alba, corona 
extenore, e fibs ad 70 albis patulis, interiore membrana suberecta alba 
ad medium multifida lacinns ad 40 acutis incurvis, intima (staminiea) 
arete lnflexa 20-fida. lacinns apice triangulares 10 antheriferis per 
paria dispositis, 10 anantheris per paria interpositis. 



The genus Napoleona, which in the structure of its 
flowers is one of the most curious of flowering plants, 
consists of about eight known species, all confined to 
tropical Western Africa, between Senegal and Angola. 
Owing to the rarity of specimens in Herbaria and under 
cultivation, and the imperfect description and figures 
given by the author of the genus of the only species 
known to him (N. imperialis, Palisot de Beauvois, " Flore 
d Oware et de Benin," vol. ii. p. 30, t. 78), much difficulty has 
been experienced in determining the species. This has been 
attempted by the late Mr. Miers, F.R.S., who, in 1874, 
presented to the Linnean Society an elaborate and valuable 
paper on the genus, of which he described seven species 

^°u ^/ol^ figU y ed in this ma S azine as #• imperiolis 
(lab. 4d87), but which, as had been previously shown, was 
not the plant so named by Palisot de Beauvois, but a very 
different one, subsequently named N. Whitfieldii, after its 
discoverer. By an oversight Miers has misrepresented the 
authorship and confused the synonymy of this species (Whit- 
fieldii), attributing it to Lindley, and citing for it that 
author's description of it in the " Gardener's Chronicle " the 
" Botanical Register," and " Vegetable Kingdom," in all 
which Lindley assumed it to be N. imperialis. The real 
author of the name N. Whitfieldii is Lemaire,who published 
October 1st, 1891. 



it in his " Flore des Serres," Ser. i. vol. i. (1845) p. 4, in 
which work it was subsequently figured by Van Houtte, 
vol. iv. (1848) t. 386, 387, the figure being copied, without 
acknowledgment, from that in this Magazine. It was 
subsequently very badly figured in the Revue Horticole, 
1853, p. 301, t. 16, with an excellent description by 
Decaisne, who was the first (and hitherto the only) 
botanist who recognized the true structure of the 
staminal corona, which, like that of JV. Miersii, consists of 
twenty filaments in clusters of four, of which the two outer 
are alone antheriferous ; in other words, there are ten 
antheriferous filaments approximate in pairs, with as many 
interposed anantherous, also in pairs. Lindley had de- 
scribed twenty antheriferous stamens, Miers correctly notes 
ten, but does not give their arrangement, 

It remains to give the characters by which the species 
which I have named after my late friend, the monographer 
of the genus, may be distinguished from the very nearly 
allied species which he has described. These are N". 
Whitfieldii (which Miersii was supposed to be), N. 
aispidata, and N. Mannii. From all of these K Miersii is 
distinguished by the pale membranous more obovate leaves 
with faint sunk nerves; further from the first (see t. 
4387) by the much fewer larger teeth of the corolla, the 
pale rose zone within the outer one, the white filaments of 
the outer corona, and the longer and white colour of the 
i >rect inner corona. Miers describes the teeth of the corolla 
oi II hiffiddii as only forty, and the filaments of the corona 
as scarlet, neither of which is correct. N. cuspidata is 
described by Miers as having a purple forty-toothed 
corolla with a pale yellow margin, yellow filaments of the 
outer corona, and the twenty filaments of the staminal 
corona as all antheriferous (which latter, however, I did 
not find to be the case in the only flower which I have 
examined). JV. Mannii, a Fernando Po species, appears to 
me to be the nearest to N. Miersii, but besides the differ- 
ence of foliage the flowers are much smaller ; it is 
described by Miers as having only thirty teeth to the 
wholly yellow corolla, and with all the filaments (twenty) 
antheriferous; but this latter is not the case in the flower 
1 examined, where the ten antheriferous flaments were 
irregularly disposed. The examination of this species, and 



comparison of it with the dried specimens of others in the 
Herbarium, has convinced me that much remains to be 
done towards determining and defining accurately the 
available materials of this curious genus. N. Miersii forms 
a shrub in the Palm House of the Royal Gardens. It was 
received from the Eoyal Botanical Gardens of Edinburgh 
in 1886, and flowered in October, 1890.— J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Vertical mesial section through flower ; 2, portion of staminal 
corona; 3, stamen; 4, ovary; — all enlarged. 



\ 



7200 




KS.del.J.N.RtdvlitK 



T»BBcertt Brooks .Day I 



Tab. 7200. 
ETJCRYPHIA Billaedieri var. Milligani. 

Native of Tasman la. 



Nat. Ord. Rosacea. — Tribe Quillaje.e. 
Genus Eucryphia, Cavanilles; (Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. vol. i. p. 615.) 



Etjcetphia Billardieri ; frutex v. arbor glaberrima, foliis oppositis simplicibus 
breviter petiolatis oblongis lineari-oblongisve obtusis integemmis coriaceis 
subtus glaucescentibus, floribus albis breviter pedunculatis. 

E. Billardieri, Spack. Hist. Nat. Veg. vol. v. p. 344; Hooh.f.Fl. Tasman 
vol. i. p. 54 ; Benth. Fl. Austral.vol. ii" p. 446. 

Carpodontos lucida, Labill. Voy. Terr. Austr. vol. ii. p 16 t. 18- Fl STov 
Holl. vol. ii. p. 122 ; DC. Prodr. vol. i. p. 556. 

Var. Milligani ; frutescens, foliia minoribus lineari-oblongis confertis, rloribu* 
mmoribus. 

E. Milligani, Hook.f. Fl. Tasman. I. e. t. 8. 



Under E. piimatifolia, at Tab. 7067 of this work, I have 
remarked upon the various opinions that have been held 
as to the position in the Natural system to which this 
very remarkable genus should be referred, HypeHcinea, 
Chlaenacece, Saxifragece, Rosacea?, or Tiliacece';. to which 
might be added with as much reason as some of the above 
TervstroemiacecE. The fact is that Eucryphia has no 
hitherto recognized undoubted near relatives in the vege- 
table kingdom, and having regard to the two most notice- 
able points in its history and structure, namely that it is 
confined to Chili and Australia, and that of the three 
known species two have simple and one pinnate leaves, it 
may well be regarded as the evidence of a vegetation 
different from that now existing, which flourished when 
there was either direct or interrupted land communication 
between the temperate regions of Australia and South 
America. 

In the Flora of Tasmania I regarded var. Milligani as a 
species distinct from E. Billardieri, from which it differs 
hi the much smaller size of all its parts, and shorter more 
obtuse leaves; it also inhabits higher elevations and never 
attains the stature, sometimes one hundred feet, that E. 
Billardieri does. Bentham, however, in the Australian 

October 1st, 1891. 



Flora, having examined intermediate forms, unhesitatingly 
unites them, no doubt rightly. For nearly a century E. 
Billardieri was the only known Australian species, and 
the genus was supposed to be confined to Tasmania in the 
Old World ; but comparatively recently, since the publi- 
cation of Bentham's Flora Australiensis, Sir Ferdinand 
Mueller has published a Continental Australian species, 

E. Moorei (Fragment. Phyt. Austral, vol. iv. p. 2), a native 
of New South Wales. 

The plant figured was raised from seed sent in 1884 by 

F. Abbott, Esq., of the Botanical Gardens, Hobartown, 
Tasmania. It flowered for the first time in June of the 
present year. — J. J). H. 



Fig. 1, Calyptriform calyx; 2 and 3, stamens; 4, ovary; 5, transverse 
section ot the same .—all enlarged. 



7201 




Tab. 7201. 
EPIPHYLLUM Gaebtnebi. 

Native of Brazil. 

Xat. Ord. Cacte^e. — Tribe Echinocacte^e. 
Genus Epiphylitjm, Pfeiff.; (Bent/i. et HooJc.f. Gen. Plant., vol. i. p. 850.) 



Epiphyllum Gaertneri; internodiis 2-3 pollicaribus 1-1J poll, latis late 
truucatis crenatis crenispiliferis, passim tuberculis longepiliferisinstnictis, 
floribus terminalibus binis speciosissimis sanguineis coeruleo micantibus, 
calyce brevi vaginato inequaliter lobato basi pilis elongatis cincto, 
petalis anguste lanceolatis acuminatis patent! recvurvis, staminibus nume- 
rosissimis, filamentis capillaribus, antheris minutis oblongis confertis, 
stigmatibus 5 lineari-elongatis patentibus. 

Epiphyllum Kussellianum, var. Gaertneri, Begel Gartenflor. v. 1844, p. 323, 
t. 1172 ; Carriers, in JSev. Sortie. 1887, p. 516, cum Ic. chromolith. ; Pape 
in WittmaeJc. Gartenflor. 1890, p. 581 ; Pynaert in Rev. Hortic. Beige, 
1889,114; Font. Gad. -p. 873. 

E. Makoyarmm, Hort. ex Pynaert. in Rev. Hortic. Belg. 229, cum Ic. ; The 
Garden, 1889. p. 375 ; Hamburg Garten & Blumenz.1889, p. 419 ; Journ. 
of Hortic. 1889, p. 352, cum Ic. ; W. Wats. \in Rev. Hortic. Beige, I.e. 267 ; 
Kew Bulletin, 1890; App. ii. p. 45. 



Unaccountably as it appears to me, this brilliant species 
was for long supposed to be a variety of Epiphyllum 
Russell 'ianum, Hook., figured in this Magazine half a century 
ago (Plate 3717), a plant that has ever since been a 
universal favourite with all lovers of horticulture. 

From E. Russellianurn, E. Gaertneri differs in its much 
larger, broader, thicker crenulate articulations, which arc 
broadly truncate at the top, regularly crenate on the sides, 
and with tufts of long hairs both in the crenatures and 
around the bases of the flowers ; the flowers present even 
more important differences, in the brilliant colouring, 
length, and narrowness of the petals, in the almost 
terete (not broadly winged) calyx tubes, in the very 
numerous stamens with clustered minute anthers, and in 
the long spreading stigmas. 

I have followed previous authors in retaining this 
plant in Epiphyllum, though having regard only to the 
technical character employed to distinguish that genus from 
Phyllocadus (the very oblique two-lipped flower of the 

October 1st, 1891. 



original E. truncatum), it would appear to be properly 
referred to the latter. I am, however, very doubtful 
whether the two genera can be retained ; for if so, it must 
be on other characters than the above. In one point the 
three Epipliylla agree, and that is the terminal position of 
the flowers, solitary in E. truncatum and Bussellianum, 
binate in Gaertneri, but whereas the first and last of these 
have very numerous stamens with minute clustered anthers 
and long slender stigmas, E. Bussellianum has few stamens 
of unequal length, with long distant anthers and short 
stigmas. Reviewing the species of Phyllocactus figured in 
this Magazine, they all have flowers inserted in the cre- 
natures of the articulations, but they display very great 
variations in the length of the calyx tube, the obliquity of 
the flower (but never so oblique as in E. truncatum, or two- 
lipped), the number of stamens, size and aggregation of 
the anthers, and in the number and length of the stigmas. 

I have retained the name of Gaertneri for this plant, as 
that originally proposed, though only as a variety. E. 
Makoyanum was a mere name in Makoy's Catalogue, and 
was adopted by Pynaert under the impression that it was 
a different species from Gaertneri, which, however, he 
alludes to when treating of Makoyanum, but gives no 
characters for either differing from Bussellianum. 

According to Regel, who published it in 1884, E. 
Gaertneri was introduced by Messrs. Haage and Schmidt 
from the province of Minas Geraes, in Brazil. According 
to Pynaert Mr. Makoy imported it, also from Brazil, in 
1888. The specimen here figured was obtained from 
Messrs. de Smet, of Ghent, and flowered in a stove of the 
Royal Gardens in April of the present year. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Bud; 2 and 3, stamen; 4, stigma : — all enlarged. 



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CONTENTS OF No. 562, OCTOBER, 1891. 



Tab. 7197.— YUCCA FILIFERA. 
„ 7198— CIERHOPETALUM COLLETTII. 
., 7199.— NAPOLEONA MIERSII. 

„ 7200.— EUCRYPHIA BILLARDIERI oar. MILLIGANI. 
„ 7201.— EPIPHYLLUM GAERTXERI. 

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be year 1891, • 
. k* Qta may be had on annlieation to the 1 



7202. 




TfincentBroolc5,Day & Son Imp. 



XReevB 3c C° London. 



Tab. 7202. 

DBYMOPHLCEUS appendiculata. 
Native of the Malayan Archipelago. 



Nat. Ord. Palm.e. — Tribe Arece^e. 
Genua Dryhophlceus, Zippel (Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PL vol. iii. p. 892.) 



Drymophlceus (Endrymopbloens) appendiculata; caudice 6-10 pedali, folns 
paucia terminalibus 5-6 ped. longis arcuato-patentibua, petiulo H pedali 
aemitereti, rachi trigona fusco-furfuracea, aegmentis 14-20 alternis ses- 
ailibus 8-10 poll, longis cuneato-trapezoideia inasquilateris apice irregu- 
lariter lobatiaet erosis subtus concoloribus segmentoterminali nabelliformi, 
spadicibus infra-foliaceia breviter pedunculatis 10-12 poll, longis et latia 
laxifloria, racbi craasa, ramia simplieibus patentibus, spatbis 3-4 remotia 
lanceolatia 6-7 poll, longis demum 1'uacis ; fl. masc. v. hermaphrod. sepalis 
orbiculatis, petalia i poll, longia baai connatia lanceolatia craaae coriaceia, 
staminibua 30-40 petalia sequilongis baai ovarii adnatia, filamentia fili- 
formibus, antberis oblongia, stylo elougato filiibrmi, stig mate oblongo 
tridentato; 11. kem. minimis globosia, sepalia petalisque orbiculatis erosia, 
ovario oblongo apice rotundato, baccis \-% poll, longis ovoideo-oblongis 
ima basi periantbio emarcido parvulo cinctia lasvibus pallide rubris, 
albumine solido aequabili. 

D. appendiculata, Scheff. in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. vol. i. p. 52 et 197. 

D. olivseformiss, W. Wats, in Gard. & Forest, July, 1891, p. 330, f. 57. 

Ptychosperma appendiculata, Blume Rumph. p. 122, t. 84 and 119 ; Miquel. 
Fl. Ind. Bat. vol. iii. p. 30 ; Griff. Palms of Brit. E. Ind. t. 142 A (Ic. 
Blume iterat.). 

Seaforthia jaculatoria Mart. Nat. Hist. Palm. p. 186 et 314. 

Areca olivaeformia, ft gracilis, Giseke Prael. Ord. Nat. p.t80. 

A. vaginata, Giseke I. c. 

Triartea P monogyna, Zipp. Bijd. Nat. Wet. vol. v. p. 178. 

Saguastbi, sp. Humph. Herb. Amboin. vol. i. p. 68. 



Drymophloeus is a tropical genus of small palms, consist- 
ing of about a dozen species, scattered oyer the torrid 
regions of the Old World, from the Malayan Peninsula to 
the Pacific Islands, inclusive of New Guinea and Northern 
Australia. None have as yet been found in British India, 
though two are figured in Griffith's " Palms of the British 
East Indies" as species of Ptychosperma (t. 242 A, B). 
These are, however, unacknowledged copies of Blume's 
figures, the one (t. 242 A) of Pt. appendiculata, and the 
other (t. 242 B) of his Pt. olivceformis, made no doubt by 

NOVEMBER 1st, 1891. 



Griffith for his own use, and introduced, through inad- 
vertence, into his work by the editor of his works. I am 
indebted for the older synonymy of D. appendiculata to 
Blume's Kumphia. 

D. appendiculata is a native of the Island of Gilolo, one 
of the Moluccas, and of New Guinea ; its nearest ally is 
D. olivrpformis, Scheff., which differs in having narrower 
leaflets, and the fruit half immersed in the greatly enlarged 
perianth. The plant here figured was received under the 
latter name from Dr. Wendland, of the Royal Botanical 
Gardens of Herrenhausen, Hanover. It flowered for the 
first time in the Palm House at Kew in June, 1890, when 
the trunks were three feet high and one and a half inches 
in diameter, and fruited in the autumn of the same year. 
T-he plant probably attains much larger dimensions. As 
far as is recorded, the Drymophlm are not used for any 
other purpose than for house-building.— J. D. H. 



^Zf\ forhe J 1 : m apli.) flower unexpanded ; 2, the same expanded ; 3, the 

same cut open vertically; 4, stamens; 5, fern, flower; 6, sepal; 7, ovary; 
», the same cut off vertically -.-all greatly enlarged . 






7203 




M.S.del.J.NPitdiHth. 



VmcentBroote Day *■ S™^ 



Tab. 7203. 
PINGUECULA lutea. 

Native of the Southern United States. 



Nat. Ord. LentibulakiejE. 
Genug Pinguicula, Linn.; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. Plant., vol. ii. p. 988.) 



Pinguicula lutea; foliia brevibus sessilibus oblongo-ovatis obtusis, scapis 
calyceque glanduloso-pubescentibus, sepalia lineari-oblongis, corollas 
aureas tubo late infundibulari in calcar decurvum asquilongum v. 
brevius decurvum subulatum coutracto, limbi lobis subaaqualibus 
integris 2-lobis v. inaaqualiter 4-lobulatis, palato iucrasnato genitalibua- 
que gland uloso-pilosis, capsula ovoidea acuta calycem vix superante. 

P. lutea, Walt. Fl. Carolin. p. 63; Michaux Fl. JBor. Am. vol. i. p 11 ; 
Puroh Fl. Am. Sept. vol. i. p. 14; Kerin Bot.Reg. t. 126 ; A. DC JProdr. 
vol. viii. p. 32 ; Ckapm. Fl. 8. XI. States, 284 ; A. Gray Synopt. Fl. 
V. States, vol. ii. pt. 2, p. 318. 

P. edentula, Hook. Escot. Fl. t. 16. 

P. campanulata, Lamk. in Journ. Hist. Nat. 1792, p. 336, t. 18, f. 1. 

BiiANDONiA, ReicJih. Conspect. p. 127. 



A native of the Southern United States of North 
America, from North Carolina to Louisiana and Florida, 
where it is common in low pine barrens. It is an exceed- 
ingly variable plant in the size of all its parts, and especially 
in the obtuse toothing of the lobes of the corolla. A form 
with the corolla-lobes quite entire has been described by 
my father as P. edentula in the " Exotic Botany," and 
which is considered by other botanists as a distinct variety ; 
but A. De Candolle, who retains it as a variety, says of 
P. lutea that in some specimens of lutea sent by M. 
Michaux the lobes are all four-toothed, whilst in the figure 
in the Botanical Register the upper are simply obcordate 
and the lower four- toothed, and in specimens communi- 
cated by A. Gray all are entire ; to which should be added 
that in the Flora Exotica figure, the type of edentula, 
they are all obcordate. In dimensions the corolla varies 
from half an inch to an inch and a half in diameter. 

P. lutea differs from all others of the genus in the nearly 
regular, not two-lipped, corolla and its yellow colour, upon 

Novejiber 1st, 1891. 



which characters the elder Reichenbach founded the genus 
Brandonia. A. Gray, indeed, suggests the possibility 
of the var. edentula being a hybrid with P. pumila, 
Michx., a species with pale violet flowers varying to 
white, a native of the same localities as P. lutea, and in 
which the corolla limb is more regular than in the com- 
mon form of that organ in the genus, though still distinctly 
two-lipped; but besides the colour of the flowers, the base 
of the corolla of that plant is saccate and the capsule 
globose. 

The late Mr. Nuttall was the first to send P. lutea to 
England, in 1816, where it was flowered by Messrs. 
Colville in their nurseries, King's Road, Chelsea; their 
plants, however, did not attain half the size of these here 
figured, which were obtained by the Royal Gardens from 
the United States Botanical Garden of Washington. They 
were received in March, and flowered in the following May 
of this year, under the same treatment as Sarracenias and 
Cape Droseras. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Longitudinal section of the corolla ; 2, top of scape, stamens, and 
ovary -.—all enlarged. 



1204 




del.J.'N.PAdiMh 



VmcentBroate^&Sor. IinP 



Tab. 7204 
ANGR^CQM fastuosum. 

Native of Madagascar. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide.e. — Tribe VandejE. 
Genus Angk.ecum, Thou.; (Bentk. & HooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 583.) 



An grmcvu fastuosum ; acaule, foliis confertia oblongis apice rotundatis v. 
emarginatis crasse coriaceis supra luride virescentibus rubro marginatis 
subtus pallidioribus medio costatis, peduaculo foliis breviore crasso 
cylindraceo obtuso paucifloro, bracteis caducis, floribus 1£ poll, diam., 
sepalo dorsali oblongo-lanceolato obtuso, lateralibus pauflo majoribus', 
petalis ovato-lanceolatis sepalis lateralibus sequilongis, labello oblongo 
apice 2-dentato medio carina lata convexa percurso, calcare filiformi 
flavido labelloplusduplo longiore, columna minuta latiuscula bicamerata, 
anthera mitriiormi, polliniis minutis didymis, caudiculis filiformibus 
rostello iucumbentibus, glaudulis tenuiter cylindraceis caudiculis cras- 
sioribus et fereduplo longioribus calcare absconditis. 

A. fastuosum, Reichb.f. in Gard. Chron. 1881, vol. ii. p. 748, 844: 1885, vol i 
p. 533, fig. 96. 



A very singular species, quite unlike any other hitherto 
described, remarkable, according to Reichenbach, for the 
rugged surface of the leaves and the variable form of sepal 
and lip. In his first account of the plant, in the Gardener's 
Chronicle for 1881, vol. ii. p. 748, Reichenbach (from speci- 
mens imported by Leon Hublot) describes it as having leaves 
bilobed and as rugose on the upper surface as the bulb 
of Eriopsis rutidobulbon, slender filiform sepals and petals 
two to three inches long, and a lip narrower than these, 
characters which it is impossible to conceive being appli- 
cable to any form of the plant here figured. In a subsequent 
notice, at p. 844 of the same volume, he speaks of a plant 
of A. fastuosum obtained from Sir Trevor Laurence as 
equal to his type in all details, but having an obovate 
rounded lip, instead of a narrow acute one, and suggests 
either that M. Hublot's plant was a pelorioid form, or that 
there are two species closely alike. There is no modifica- 
tion of his description of the rugose leaves or of the slender 
filiform petals two to three inches long, and were it not 
for the figure of the plant, from a specimen in Sir T. 
Laurence's collection, ~ given by Dr. Masters in the 

NOVEMBEB 1ST, 1891. 



Gardener's Chronicle for 1885 (vol. i. p. 533, fig. 9G) 
Reichenbach's fastuosum must have been relegated to the 
limbo of indeterminable species. With that figure ours 
perfectly accords, except in that the leaves of the latter 
are merely notched at the tip, and the lip is more oblong 
obtusely toothed at the tip, and with a very broad low 
median thickened band or ridge from the base to the tip. 
The rugosity of the leaf occurs only after flowering, and is 
hardly preceptible in the Kew plant. 

The most remarkable character of A. fastuosum (though 
it may be common to other Angraoeca) is the great length 
of the glands of the minute didymous pollinia, which are 
cylindric, almost twice as long as, aud much thicker than, 
the filiform caudicles, and are concealed within the spur, 
whence no doubt they are abstracted by insects in search 
of the honey in the spur. 

A. fastuosum was received by Messrs Sander and Co., of 
St. Albans, and flowered in the Royal Gardens in May of 
this year, and continued to flower till the middle of 
September. 

I am at a loss to account for the specific name of 
fastuosum, the plant being a very modest one, and by no 
means suggestive of pride or scorn.— J. JD. H, 



Fig. 1, Front view of base of lip and column ; 2, side view of top of ovary 
column and base of lip with top of spur ; 3 and 4, front and back view of 
anther; 5, pollinia :— all greatly enlarged. 



7205 



X 





b& A A 

tnfllW 

I f i 



M.S.del ; J.l!f.Pi.tdilrth. 



VincentErooV 



Tab. 7205. 
cereus procumbens. 

Native of Mexico. 

"Nat. Ord. Cacte,e. — Tribe Echinocacte^e. 
Genus Cereus, Haw.; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. Plant., vol. i. p. 849.) 



Cereus (Echinocereus) procumbens ; humilis, caule subterete v. 4-5-gono 
ramosissimo articulato glauco-virescente, tuberculis distinctis spiralibns 
seu 4-5-faris, areolis parvis orbicularis, aculeis 4-7 radiantibus brevibua 
rigidis albis apice fuscis, centrali nullo v. longiore, floribtis sub apice 
ramoram lateralibus amplis, ovarii pulvillis sub 25 albido-villosis 
aculeolos rigidos 6-9 breves variegatos gerentibus, sepalis tubi exte- 
noribus 12-15 aculeoliferis, superioribus sub 15 lineari-lanceolatis 
acuminatis,_ petalis 18-30 roseis patulis lineari-spathulatis acutis v. 
obtusis erosis v. integris, staminibus densissimis, antheris minutis flavis' 
stigmatibus 10-14 viridibus, bacca ovoidea, semiuibus parvulis lenti- 
calaribus basi bilo oblongo truncatis verruculosis. 

C. procumbens, Engelm. in Plant. Fendler, 50 (1810) j Plant. Lindheim 
pt. n. (1850) p. 203 ; Synqps. of Cartas of U. States, &c. p. 30; CacUe Mex. 
Bound. Surv. p. 38, t. 59, f. 1-11 ; Trelease & A. Gray, Bot. Works of 
G. Engelman, pp. 114, 120, 139, 200, t. 59, fig. 1-11 ; Young Fl. Texas, 
p. £io. 

The beautiful plaut here figured, though undoubtedly 
the Cereus procumbens, differs in a few points from the 
elaborate description of the accomplished monographer of 
North American cacti, in the larger flowers with more 
numerous petals, rose (not violet) in colour, in the pale 
glaucous green colour (not " perviridis "), in the great 
length of the central spine of the pulvilli, which Engelman 
describes as either absent or hardly longer than the radi- 
ating spines. The only species with which it could be 
confounded is C. Berlandieri, Engelm., a native of the 
adjoining district of Southern Texas, but that species has 
very narrow, almost linear, petals. 

G. procumbens is a native of the neighbourhood of Mata- 
mores in Mexico, a town on the banks of the Rio Grande 
del Norte, which separates Texas from Mexico, and is 
about thirty miles from the embouchure of that river. 
Plants of it were purchased for the Royal Gardens from 
Mr. J. H. Erkener, of San Antonio in Texas, in 1885 
which flowered in May of the present year. 
November 1st, 1891. 



Mr. Watson informs me that the species of Echiiiocereus, 
even if grown in full sunshine, very rarely flower under 
cultivation at Kew, though they grow freely. That here 
figured was kept dry for nearly half the year. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Pulvillus and spores ; 2, calyx segments ; 3, stamen ; 4, stigma : — 
all enlarged. 



7206 




KS.aeWN.Pitdi.lith, 



V^r^.T^uks.DaykSanJny 



Tab. 7206. 
disa tkipetaloides. 

Native of South Africa. 

Nat. Ord. Orchide^. — Tribe Opiiryde^:. 
Genus Disa, Berg. ; (Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 630.) 



Disa (Eudisa) tripetaloides ; glaberriina, foliis gramineis v. anguste lineari- 
oblongis acuminatis dorso carinatis, scapo elongato stricto erecto vaginato, 
vaginis appressis acuminatis, spicis laxifloris, bracteis lanceolatis acumi- 
natis ovario basi vaginato brevioribus viridibus, ovario torto, floribusalbis 
roseo suffusis 1 poll, latis, sepalo dorsali galeato subhemispherico in 
calcar breviore rectum constricto intus sanguineo-maculato, sepalis 
lateralibiis alaaformibus rotundato-obovatis obscure maculatis, petalis 
carnosis galea inclusis lineari-oblongis apicibus incurvis rubro fasciatis, 
labello minuto lineari, columna incurva antice concava basi bigibba, 
rostello breviter bifido, anthera reflexa apice unguiculata, polliniis pyri- 
formibus bilobis, caudicula breve, glandula minuta. 

D. tripetaloides, N. E. Brown in Gard. Chron. 1889, vol. i. p. 360 ; Masters 
I. c. 1890, vol. i. p. 766, fig. 127. 

Orchis tripetaloides, Linn. Suppl. p. 198 ; Syst. Veg. Ed. xiv. p. 807. 

D. excelsa, Thunb. El. Cap. 14 in part. 

D. venosa, Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orchid. 357, non Swartz. 



Mr. Brown, in his description of this plant, says that 
though an old one it is now published for the first time 
under a new name. It is the Orchis tripetaloides of the 
younger Linnasus, discovered by Thunberg at the Cape of 
Good Hope a century ago, but was confused by its 
discoverer in his Herbarium and Flora with his Disa excelsa, 
which again is compounded of the leaves of D. tripetaloides 
and the stem and flowers of another plant. Lindley, in 
his Genera and Species of Orchidese, has wrongly referred 
the D. tripetaloides, Lindl., to Disa venosa of Swartz, a very 
different plant, which has again been confused with D. 
racemosa. 

The above is the result of Mr. N. E. Brown's examina- 
tion of the Herbarium of Thunberg, which was generously 
lent to the Royal Gardens of Kew by the University of 
Upsala (through the instrumentality of Professor Theod. 
Fries) for the purpose of identifying the Orchids ; and the 
results of which will, it is hoped, soon be published. 
November 1st, 1891. 



Mr. Watson informs me that the D. triyetaloides and D. 
racemosa are very easily cultivated at Kew, where D. 
grandiflora is almost a failure ; as also that Messrs. Veitch 
have raised seedlings from crossing it with D. grandiflora, 
as they also have from crossing D. racemosa with grandi- 
flora, the latter cross being named D. Veitchii. 

There remains only to add that D. tripetaloides is a 
native of the Southern and Eastern districts of the Cape 
Colony, from a little East of Table Bay to the Southern 
districts of the Natal Colony, growing with D. xenosa on 
marshy ground. It was introduced into cultivation by Mr. 
James O'Brien, of Harrow-on-the-Hill ; it is a fleshy-rooted 
plant of as easy cultivation and propagation by stoves as a 
Primrose. The specimens figured flowered in a cool house 
in the Eoyal Gardens. The plant is very hardy, having 
been frozen hard in a cold frame without injury. Its 
flowering season lasts for three months. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Top of ovary, lip, and column, -with the anther removed ; 2, petal ; 
3, column with anther ; 4, polliuium : — all enlarged. 



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Tab. 7202.-DRYMOPHLCEUS APPENDICULATA. 
„ 7203.— PINGUICULA LUTEA. 
„ 7204— ANGR^ECUM FASTUOSUM. 
„ 7205.— CEREUS PROCUMBENS. 
„ 7206.— DISA TRIPETALOIDES. 

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JOURNAL OF BOTANY, 



BRIT I: 



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LND K< >REIGN. Edited by JAMES BRITTEN, F.L. S. 

inal ai our leading British Botanists, Notices of Books, 

:id Botani attention is now 

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ttion to the Public 



1W1 




,Day&.Son]iBp 






Tab. 7207. 
agave albicans. 

Native of Mexico. 

Nat. OrJ. Amaryllide;e. Tribe Agave.e. 
Genus Agave, Linn. (Senth. A Hook. f. Gen. Plant, vol. iii. p. r38.) 



Agave (Littasa) albicans ; acaulis, foliis 20-30 dense rosula*tis oblanceolato- 
spathulatis carnoso-coriaceis persistenter srlaucescentibus, apiia termioali 
haudpungente, aculeis marginalibus crebris minutis deltoideis, peduaculo 
stricto foliis 3-1-plo longiore foliis reluctis pluribas scariosis adpressis 
praedito, floribus in spicam densam oblongam congest/is, bractei-! magais 
binceolatis acuminatis, perianthii segmentis oblongis int is brunneis 
tubum duplo superantibus, stamiaibus segmeatis 3-l-plo loa^ioribus. 

A. albicans, Jacobi Vers. Syst. Ord. Agav. p. 137; Baker in Qard. Chron. 1887, 

vol. ii. p. 717, fig. 138*; Handb. Amiryll. p. 191. 
A. Ousselgbemiana, Jacobi Nachtrag. p. 156. 
A. micracantha, var. albidior, Salm-dycJc in Bonplaniia, vol. vii. p. 87. 



Of these comparatively soft-leaved tender Agaves, which 
compose the group called " Aloidce" only two species, viz. 
A. Celsiana, tab. 4934, and A. Sartorii, tab. 6292, have 
yet been figured in the " Botanical Magazine." My 
estimate of the total number of species at present known is 
thirty, but many of these have been described from very 
imperfect material and are not known in flower. The 
present plant is closely allied to A. micracantha Salm-dyck 
(figured in the " Refugium Botanicum " of Saunders, tab. 
327), and scarcely more than a variety of that species in a 
broad sense. It was introduced into cultivation about 
1860, and if, as I believe, A. Ousselghemiana, of the 
Belgian gardens, is identical with it, was first flowered by 
Count Kerchove d'Ousselghem in 1867. In England it 
was flowered by Mr. Justus Corderoy, at Blewbury, in 
1887. Our drawing was made from a plant that flowered 
in the Succulent House at Kew, in May, 1891, and was 
purchased in 1889 at the sale of the late Mr. J. T. Peacock's 
collection of Succulent plants. 

Desck. Acaulescent. Leaves twenty to thirty in a dense 
rosette, oblanceolate-spathulate, twelve or fifteen inches 
lonjj, three or four inches broad at the middle, narrowed to 
two or two and a half inches above the dilated base, com' 

Dw km her 1st, 1891. 



paratively soft and pliable in texture, persistently glaucous 
on both surfaces, tipped with a soft brownish spine an inch 
long, closely margined with minute unequal deltoid brownish 
prickles. Peduncle stiffly erect, three or four times as 
long as the leaves, furnished with copious erect lanceolate- 
acuminate scariose bract-leaves. Spike oblong, one and a 
half or two feet long, half a foot in diameter when fully 
expanded ; flowers in pairs, subtended by a large lanceo- 
late-acuminate scariose bract. Perianth, including the 
ovary, an inch and a half long, green outside ; segments 
oblong, brown inside, above half an inch long, twice as long 
as the funnel-shaped tube. Stamens three or four times as 
long as the perianth-segments. Style developed after the 
stamens, finally reaching up to the anthers. — J. G. Baker. 



Kg. 1, Margin of leaf ; 2, a flower cut open ; 3, horizontal section of 
ovary -.—all enlarged. 



7208. 




Vu-.centBrooKs^ay. ; - 






Tab. 7208. 
BULBOPHYLLUM macranthuii. 

Native of Burma and the Malayan Archipelago* 



Nat. Ord. Orchideje. — Tribe Epidendre^;. 
Genus Bulbophylltjm, Thou.; (Benth. & RooJc.f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 501.) 



BuLbophyllum madranthum ; rhizomate robasto eloiigato, psendobulbis 
sparsis ovoideis teretibua vestigiis scopseformibus vaginarum cinctis, 
foliis breviter petiolatis lineari-obkragis bideatatis crasse coriaceis, 
pedunculia 1-floris basi vaginatis nudis, floribus amplis reversis pur- 
pureo maculatis, periantbio patente, sepalis subaequalibus, dorsali ovato- 
lanceolato, lateralibus couniventibus dimidiato-ovatis obtuse acuminatis, 
petalis sepalo dorsali conformibus sed paullo minoribus, labello breviter 
stipitato unguiculato recurvo basi truncato sub-biauriculato, columna 
brevi apice utrinque dilatete. 

B. macrantbum, Lindl. in Bot. Beg. 1844, f. 13; Walp. Ann. Bot. vol. vi. 
f. 245 ; Ridley in Ann. But. iv. (1890) p. 335, t. xxii. fig. 1-6 j Hook. f. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. Vol. v. p. 753. 

Sarcopodium macranthum, Lindl. in Baxt. Fl. Gai'd. vol. i. p. 155, cum la 
Fol. Orchid., Sarcopod. p. 3. 



This is one of the single-flowered species of Bulbophyllum 
-with large usually spreading petals, to which Lindley gave the 
same Sarcopodium, and in which the peduncle of flower is 
really an elongated pedicel, starting from the rhizome at the 
base of the pseudobulb, the true peduncle being suppressed. 
Lindley 's' figure of it in the Botanical Register represents 
the lateral sepals as of the same uniform dull blue-purple 
colour as the dorsal and petals ; the fact is that the flower? 
change colour after expansion, being first of a vinous red 
but the dorsal sepal and petals becoming dull blue-purple 
with broad spots of a dark blue, and the lateral sepals 
yellowish speckled with bright red on the outer half. 
Lindley figures the foot of the column as not produced 
beyond the insertion of the lateral sepals, and so I have 
described it in the Flora of British India, but in the 
specimen here figured it is produced into a distinct stipes 
to the lip. 

The fertilization of B. macranthum is the subject of a 

very interesting paper by Mr. H. N. Ridley, M.A., F.L.S., 

Superintendent of the Botanical Gardens, Singapore, 

published in the Annals of Botany cited above, and which 

December 1st. 1891. 



is effected by a small dipterous insect. The following is 
the substance of his elaborate description of the opera- 
tion : — 

" The insect usually commences by licking the upper 
part of the sepals, and eventually settles down on the 
front of the lateral sepals, and commences to lick them. 
As long as it is at work on the narrow upper part of the 
sepals, it can hold on to their edges, but when it gets to 
the broad part it cannot reach across. Its feet then slip 
from the glassy surface, and it clutches wildly at the lip. 
Immediately its weight falls, upon the lip, the latter 
suddenly drops back, pitching the insect stern first into 
the column, between its arms, which have enough 
springyness in them to separate a little, and then close 
tightly on the body of the captive. The insect strikes the 
gland of the pollinia with the upper part of its abdomen, 
and the pollinia become fixed with exact precision upon the 
first segment of that organ ; the lower part of the abdomen 
generally adhering to the stigma. The lip, released by 
the fly, instantly returns to its original position, and the 
insect is left struggling on its back in the arms of the 
column. Soon, however, it releases itself, and flies away 
with the pollen on its back, and, repeating the process on 
another flower, places the pollen on its stigma. For 
further interesting details I must refer to Mr. Ridley's 
paper and its illustrations of the process. 

B. macranthum would appear to have a very wide range. 
1 here are specimens in the Kew Herbarium collected by 
the Rev. Mr. Parish in Tenasserim at an elevation of three 
thousand six hundred and thirty-six feet. That figured by 
-Undley (and Mr. Ridley's) are from Singapore. The 
specimen here figured, and which was received from Mr. 
i sqq mer ' g arclener at Flotbeck Park, near Hamburg, in 
t«88, was said to have been imported from Java. It 
flowered in the Royal Garden in May, 1890.— J. D. If. 

1 ^'i 1 ' T °. P of ° var y> column and lip; 2 and 3, view of lip; 4, column ; 
o, anther ; b, pollinia -.—all enlarged. 



7209 




MS.asUiKfitdiTith 



-fecentBroote^ & Son, 5np 



L Reeve &C° London. 



Tab. 7209. 
TROCHETIA Blackburniana. 

Native of the Mauritius. 

"Nat. Ord. Sterculiacej;. — Tribe Dombeye^e. 
Genus Tkochetia, DC; (Benth. et Hook.f. Gen. Plant., vol. i. p. 222.) 



Teochetia Blachburnianoj; f rutex v. arbuscula, ramulis petiolis costis foliorum 
pedanculisque pilis stellatis ferrugineo-furfuraceia, foliis longe petiolatis 
elliptico- v. obovato-oblongis acutis integerrimis v. crenato-serratis a basi 
7-costatis, basi subcordatis, supra tete viridibus sparse lepidotis subtus 
pallidis, pedunculis supra-axillaribus unifloris 2-bracteolatis petiolo 
longioribus decurvis, floribus amplis campanulatis, sepalis elongatis lan- 
ceolatis dorso puberulis, petalis convolatis oblique obovato-rotundatis 
infra medium albis roseo venosis apicibus sanguineis, antheris 30 
linearibus in apicem columnse stamineee plicatas subsessilibus, ovario 
stellatim tomeatello, stigmatibus brevissimis. 

T. Blackburniana, Bojer Sort. Maurit.41 (name only) ; Baker, Fl.Maurit. 29. 



Trochetia is one of the most interesting genera of plants, 
on account of its unique distribution ; the few species 
which it contains being, with the exception of one found 
in Madagascar, confined to the two oceanic Islands of St. 
Helena in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mauritius in the 
Indian. The species are thus separated by nearly two 
thousand miles of ocean as well as by the interposed con- 
tinent of Africa, which covers as many miles of latitude. 
There are four Mauritian species, of which one alone has 
flowered and been figured in this country, the T. triflora, 
DC. (T. grandifiora, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1844, t. 21), with 
white corymbose flowers larger than those of T. Black- 
burniana, and twenty anthers ; it blossomed at Syon 
House in 1844, and is no doubt long lost. As far as is 
known the Mauritian species are all still to be found in more 
or less abundance in the virgin forests of the higher parts 
of that island. It is very different in the case of the two 
St. Helena species, T. melanoxylon, Benth. {Pentapet.es 
Erythroxylon, Tab. 1000 of this work), and T. Erythroxylon, 
Benth. {Melhania Erythroxylon). 

Of these the first has been extinct for many years in the 

Dscbmbeb 1st, 1891. 



Island, and was last known in a living state only as culti- 
vated in the Palm House at Kew, and Mr. Melliss, in his 
excellent work " A Physical, Historical and Descriptive 
Account of St. Helena," published in 1875, says of it, that 
weather-beaten stems of it were then still to be found deeply 
imbedded in the surface soil over a considerable portion of 
the Island. Of T. Erythroxylon the same author states 
that there were at that time still two or three plants of it 
growing amongst the Cabbage trees of Diana's Peak and 
High Peak, but that the individuals were quickly disappear- 
ing, adding that a few (perhaps seventeen or eighteen in all) 
were still cultivated in the Island. I have since heard that 
but one native tree of it alone remains. As is well known, 
the destruction of the forest that once clothed the Island 
of St. Helena is due to indiscriminate felling for fire- 
wood, and the introduction of goats. 

T. Blaclcburniana was sent for figuring in this work by 
Mr. F. W. Burbidge, M.A., Curator of the Trinity College 
Botanical Gardens, Dublin, where it flowered in May of 
this year. — J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Stellate hairs of the stem and leaves ; 2, bud with peduncle and 
bracts, from a sketch by Mr. Burbidge; 3, petal; 4, staminal column; 
5, group of 3 anthers ; 6, portion of the staminal column showing the sta- 
minodes; 7, ovary; 8, transverse section of do. ; 9, stellate hairs from do. : — 
all but fig. 2 enlarged. 



7210 




7 J.N.Fitditrth 






Tab. 7210. 
VERONICA Lavaudiana. 

Native of New Zealand. 

Nat. Ord. ScROPHtTLAHiNE^E. Tribe Digitale,*:. 1 
Genus Vebonica, Linn.; (Benth. et Hooh.f. Gen. Plant., vol. ii. p. 964.) 



Yeronica (Hebe) Lavaudiana ; fruticulus ramosus foliosus, ramulis crassius- 
culis foliisque glaberrimis, foliis parvis patulis spathulato- v. obovato- 
rotundatis coriaceis breviter crasse petiolatis crenatis viridibus margi- 
nibus sanguineis, floribus albis in corymbos terminates amplos densi- 
floros crasse pedunculatos dispositis sessilibus, bracteis ovatia obtusis 
sepalisque requilongis glanduloso-pilosis tubo corolla? paullo brevioribus, 
corolla? lobis tubo subasquilongis patenti-recurvis, postico majore orbi- 
culato, lateralibus oblongis obtusis, antico ovato obtuso, hlamentis 
brevibus, antheris majusculis vix exsertis, ovario obcordato glaberrimo, 
stylo gracili longe exserto, stigmate capitellato, capsula minuta oblongo- 
ovoidea obtusa calycem subaequante. 

V. Lavaudiana, Baoul Choix des Plantes de la Nouv. Zel. p. 16, t. 10; JTook. 
f. Fl. New Zealand, vol. i. p. 195; Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, 
p. 214; Gard. Chron. 1891, i. 934, f. 154. 



The numerous New Zealand Veronicas are being rapidly 
introduced into this country, chiefly through the agency of 
Mr. Armstrong, of the Botanical Gardens, Christ Church, 
Canterbury, and are destined to hold a prominent position 
in the Rock Gardens of amateurs. As is well known, the 
genus is the prominent botanical feature of the under- 
shrubbery of the New Zealand Archipelago, from the 
Northern Cape to the Antarctic Islands ; and it is a very 
singular fact that the most arboreous member of the whole 
genus, V. elliptica, Forst. (V. decussata Ait. Tab. 242), 
which attains twenty feet in height, is the most southern 
of all, extending from Otago to Campbell's Island, in Lat. 
52£ south, and in Tierra del Fuego to nearly 56° south. 

In the " Handbook of the New Zealand Flora," published 
(the first part) in 1864, I described forty species, all 
peculiar to the group except the aforesaid V. elliptica, and 
the common British V. Anagallis, which inhabits many 
parts of the world. That number has been brought up to 
sixty by Mr. J. B. Armstrong, who has published a tabular 
resume of the species in the Transactions of the New Zea- 
Dxcbxbeb 1st, 1891. 



land Institute. la a very interesting account of the genus 
as found in New Zealand, which prefaces his tables, Mr. 
Armstrong states that except Goprosma no other enters so 
largely into the composition of the Floral scenery ; that all 
the species are worthy of cultivation, and that this genus 
alone would be sufficient to give interest and variety to the 
botany of the country. He goes on to state that no other 
genus presents such extreme variability ; but that he does not 
attribute this to hybridization, for that after an examination 
of between four thousand and five thousand specimens, and 
a careful experimentation in the largest existing collection 
of cultivated species, that in the Christ Church Botanical 
Gardens, he is convinced that self-fertilization is the rule 
in the genus, and that the theory of hybrids is untenable. 
The seedlings, he says, invariably resemble their parent, 
but sports occur which reproduce their own characters, 
and that this process has given rise to the greater number 
of the known New Zealand forms. He further adds that 
the cultivated plants in New Zealand (presumably Euro- 
pean) are all liable to sport, and that the introduced weeds 
are nearly all self-fertilized. 

V. Lavaudiana was discovered in 1^40 at Akaroa, by 
M. Eaoul, Surgeon on board the French corvette, L'Aube, 
and is beautifully figured in his " Choix des Plantes de la 
Nouv. Zealand." It is also a native of the Canterbury plains, 
where it was collected by Dr. Lyall, F.L.S., Surgeon and 
Naturalist of H.M.S. Acheron, when surveying the islands, 
and by subsequent botanists. It was introduced into this 
country previous to 1880 by the late Isaac Anderson 
Henry, Esq., of Trinity, Edinburgh, who sent me a small 
flowering branch of it in that year, and the specimen here 
figured was kindly forwarded for figuring by Mr. Burbidge, 
M.A., F.L.S., Curator of the College Botanical Gardens, 
Dublin, in May of last year.— J. D. H. 



Fig. 1, Flower; 2, calyx and bracts; d, corolla and stamens; 4 and 5, 
stamens ; 6, pistil :— all enlarged. 



72// 







-Brooks.Day&Sontap 



L.Reeve &.C? London 



Tab. 7211. 

ARISiEMA ANOMALUM. 
Native of the Malay Peninsula 

Nat. Ord. Aroide^e. — Tribe Auine^e. 
Genua Aris.ejia, Mart. ; (Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. vol. iii. p. 965.) 



AiusjEMa anomalum; rhizomate deformi plurifoliato et plurifloro, foliis 
scapisque remotis, vaginis elongatis, petiolo gracili 3- rarius 5-foliato, 
foliolis aubsessilibus conformibus ovatis teauiter acuminatis nervoais, 
scapo petiolo ffiquilongo v. longiore pallido brunneo 3triato, spathae 
tubo cylindraceo pallido fusso-purpureo faaciato, limbo brevi dilatato 
galeato-fornicato incurvo acuminato acumine ascendente, oria margiaibus 
latiuscule evertis et recurvia, apadicibus masculia v. androgynia, organibns 
neutria aupra maacula v. cum iia immixtis aubulatis, fl. misc. parvis 
stipitatis tetrathecis, ovariis dense congestis globoaia, stigmate seasili 
penicillato, ovulis numerosia, appendice parte florifera spadicia asquilonga 
sessili subulata inclusa. 

A. anomalum, Hemsl. ia Journ. Bot. 18S7, p. 205; N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. 
1890, vol. i. p. 321. 



In mode of growth this Ariscema, as Mr. Brown pointed 
out in the Gardener's Chronicle, differs from all others 
hitherto described, for instead of having a solitary annual 
tuber, it presents an elongated stout subterranean root- 
stock, which bears tubers (or tuberous branches) of 
irregular shape that give origin some to a leaf, others to a 
flowering scape. And as the rootstock continues to grow 
for a long period (at least under cultivation) and the leaves 
are of longer duration than the flowers, the whole plant 
presents the remarkable phenomenon of being always in 
leaf, and often in flower also. Further information re- 
garding the periodicity of leafing and flowering would be 
very interesting, and especially as to whether the develop- 
ment of leaf and flower are cotemporaneous, and if not in 
what order they appear. As far as it is at present known 
the rhizome bears leaves and flowers alternately, though in 
some cases both may proceed from one branch or tuber of 
the rhizome. M. Hemsley suggests that Ariscema Wrayi 
(Tab. 7105), may have the same root structure. Mr. 
Brown, who has made a careful study of the living plant, 

December 1st 1891. 



describes the lateral leaflets as sometimes bipartite, show- 
ing a tendency in the leaf to become digitate. Another 
anomalous feature in A. anomalum is the stigma, which is 
not capitate as usual in the genus, but composed of a 
pencil of spreading hairs. 

A. anomalum was discovered by Mr. Curtis, of the 
Botanical Garden, Penang, in the Laret Islands, in the 
Straits of Malacca, from whom tubers were received in 
1883 which flowered in the Royal Gardens in March, 1890. 
—J. D. H. 

Fig. 1, Male spadix; 2, male flower; 3, androgynous spadix; 4, ovary; 
5, the same cut open vertically ; 6, ovale : — all enlarged. 



INDEX 

To Vol. XLVII. of the Third Series, or Vol. CXVII. of 
the whole Work. 



7207 Agave albicans. 

7153, 4, 5 Amorphophallus Tita- 
num. 

7204 Angraecum fastuosum. 
7161 Angraecum fragrans. 
7179 Aphelandra Blanchetiana. 
7211 Arisaeraa anomalum. 
7168 Asarum geophilum. 

7208 Bulbophylluin macranthum. 
7158 Catasetum fimbr latum. 

7205 Cereus procumbens. 
7198 Cirrbopetalum Collettii. 
7194 Citrus Aurantium, var. Ber- 

gamia. 

7166 Clematis Stanley!. 

7176 Coelogyne Rossiana. 

7181 Colchicum Sibthorpii. 

7188 Cypripedium californicum. 

7178 Cypripedium Klotzschianum. 

7156 Dipladenia illustris, var. gla- 
bra. 

7206 Disa tripetaloides. 

7202 Drymophloeus appendiculata. 
7180 Edgeworthia Gardneri. 
7162, 3 Encephalartos Altensteinii. 

7169 Epidendrum Sceptrum. 
7201 Epiphyllum Gaertneri. 
7200 Eucryphia Billardieri, var. 

Milligani. 
7187 Faradaya splendida, 

7170 Furcrasa Bedinghausii. 



7192 Heritiera macrophylla. 
7173 Hermannia cristata. 

7183 Hibiscus venustus. 
7195 Impatiens mirabilis. 
7177 Lilium Henry i. 
7157 Magnolia Watsoni. 

7164 Masdevallia macrura. 

7185 Masdevallia platyglossa. 

7165 Masdevallia punctata. 
7182 Musa Basjoo. 

7199 Napoleona Miersii. 

71 90 Phalsenopsis Esmeralda. 
7203 Pinguicula lutea. 

7175 Pitcairnia Roezlii. 

7189 Pleurothallis immersa. 

7191 Rehmannia (Trianophora) ru- 

pestris. 

7159 Rhododendron scabrifolium. 

7171 Rosa Banksise. 

7186 Stenoglottis longifolia. 

7184 Synadenium arborescens. 

7190 Synantherias sylvatica. 

7160 T r icuspidaria depende ns . 

7209 Trocbetia Blackburniana. 
7193 Tulipa Sintenesii. 

7167 Vanilla planifolia. 

7210 Veronica Lavaudiana. 
7174 "Wahlenbergia undulata. 
7197 Yucca filifera. 

7172 Yucca rupicola. 



BRITISH, COLONIAL, AND FOREIGN 
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THE BRITISH MOSS-FLORA. Monographs of the Families of 

British Mosses, illustrated by Plates of all the species, with Microscopical 
details of their structure. By R. BbaithwaitEj M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I., 
with 45 Plates, 50s. Part XI., 8s. Part XII., 7s. Part XIIL, 6s. 

FLORA of BRITISH INDIA Bv Sir J. D. Hooker, F.R.S., 

and others. Parts I. to XIIL, 10s. 6d, each Parts XIV. to XVII., 
9s each. Vols. I. to IV., 32s. each. Vol. V, 38s. 

FLORA. AUSTRALIENSIS : a Description of the Plants of the 

Australian Territorv. By G. Bentham, F.E.S., F.L.S., assisted by F 
Muellek, F.R.S. Vols. I. to VI., 20s. each. Vol. VII., 24s. Published 
under the auspices of the several Governments of Australia. 

FLORA of MAURITIUS and the SEYCHELLES: a Descrip- 
tion of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of those Islands. By J. G. Baker, 
F.L.S. Complete in 1 vol., 24s. Published under the authority of the 
Colonial Government of Mauritius. . < 

FLORA CAPENSIS : a Systematic Description of the Plants of 
the Cape Colony, Caffraria, and Port Natal. By William H Harvey M D., 
F.R.S., and Otto Wilhelm Sonder, Ph.D. Vols. I. and II., each 12s. 

FLORA of TROPICAL AFRICA. By Daniel Oliver, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. Vols. I. to IIL, each 20s. Published under the authority of the 

FimCommissioner of Her Maiesty's Works. 

HANDBOOK of the NEW ZEALAND FLORA : a Systematic 

Description of the Native Plants of New Zealand, and the Chatham, 
Kermadec's, Lord Auckland's, Campbell's, and Macquarne s Islands. By 
Sir J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. Published under the auspices of the Government 
of that Colony. Complete 42s. rarrvr A "KT TOT A WTlS "R„ 

FLORA of the BRITISH WEST INDIAN INLANDS By 

\2s. Published under the auspices of the becre- 
fir' n ' e3, -r-vi 

FT , STGENSIS: a Description of the Flowering 

' Plants and For- of the Island of Hongkong. By George Bentham, 
F L S. With a Map of the Island and Supplement by Dr. Hance, 18s. 
Published under the* authority of Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. The Supplement, separately, 2s. «*. 

ON the FLORA of AUSTRALIA : its Origin, Affinities, and 

Distribution. By Sir J. D. Hooker, F.R.S. 10s. 

CONTRIBUTIONS to THE FLORA of MENTC^E and 

to a Winter Flora of the Riviera, including Che coast from Marseilles to 
Genoa By J. Tkahkune Moggridge. Royal 8vo. Complete in 1 vol. 
99 Coloured Plates, 63s. 

1.. "REEVE A <'<>.. 5, If Ljardeii 



MM* 



BOTANICAL MAGAZINE. 

CONTENTS OF No. 564, DECEMBER, 1891. 



Tab. 7207.— AGAVE ALBICANS. 
„ 7208.— BULBOPHXXLUM MACBANTHUM 

m 7209— TROCHETIA BLACKBURNIANA. 
n 7210.— VERONICA LAVANDIANA. 
„ 7211.— ARISiEMA ANOMALTJM. 

L. Reeve & Co., 5, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, 

Now ready, Part VIII., with 8 Coloured Plate?, 15s. 

LEPIDOPTERA INDICA. 

By F. MOORE, F.Z.S. 
Prospectus, with First List of Subscribers, can be had on application to the Publishers. 



L. Reeve & Co., 5, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 



Now ready, New Edition, Revised by Sir J. D. Hookeb, 10*. 6d. 

HANDBOOK of the BRITISH FLORA: 

A Description of the Flowering Plants and Ferns Indigenous 
to or Naturalized in the British Isles. 

By GEORGE BE NTH AM, F.R.S, 

oth Edition, Revised by Sir J. D. Hookeb, C.B., K.C.S.I., F.R.S., &c. 



Now ready. 2nd Edition, with 1311 Wood Engravings, 10.s. Gd. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BRITISH FLORA : 

A Series of Wood Engravings, with Dissections, of British Plants. 
Drawn m W. H. FITCH, F.L.S., and W. G. SMITH, F.L.S. 

ting an Illustrated Companion to Bentham's "Handbook," and other British Floras. 



Now Ready, price 8t. plain, 10s. coloured, Parts LIL, LJIL, completing the 
Large paper Illustrated Edition, of the 

COLEOPTERAof the BRITISH ISLANDS. 

BY THE 

REV. ('AXON FOWLER, M.A., F.L.S., 

Edition, containing the Adephaga (Cicindelida?, 
e),the Hydrophilidse, an Introduction, two structural 
. Vol. II., Staphylinidse. 
V., \Qs. 

2 Si ruetitral and 36 Coloured Fled 
- 5&; Vol TIL, irith 28 Coloured Plates, I 
-. Vol. V 



III. II 



t, Covent 



prwtkd btoimiit Axn aiv:sDTO!r, id., ST. .ro;> cuuimu, b.c.