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Full text of "Edwards's botanical register."

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EDWARDS'S ' =n 

BOTANICAL REGISTER: 




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AJjS^tuJ S^Q^^i^^ 



OR, 



V.A 



ORNAMENTAL FLOWER-GARDEN 



AND SHRUBBERY: 



coxsisTiNG or 



COLOURED FIGUEES OF PLANTS AND SHRUBS, 



CULTIVATED IN BRITISH GARDENS; 



ACCOMPANIED BY THEIR 



Inslnrq, I'tst j'Jlftlinli nf tentnirat in Cultinntinn, '^c^rn|ingnlinn, h. 



EDITED 



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By JOHN LINDLEY, Pli. D. F.R.S. and L.S 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY -IN UNIVERSITY COLLECxE, LONDON, 

AND THE ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

VICE SECRETARY TO THE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

5jC.. ^'C. (5fC. 



NEW SERIES, 

COMPLETE IN TEN VOLUMES 

VOL. 11. m 



MISSOURI 

BO^ " m C A I . 

GARDEN. 



L O N D O X : 
JAMES RIDGWAY AND SONS, PICCADILLY 



MBGCCXXXIX. 






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STANHOPEA tigrina. 



• 



Tiger-flowered Stanhopea. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. Orchidace^, § VANDE^aE. 
STANHOPEA. Bot Reg.foL 1529. 



S, tigrina ; hypochilio subrotundo intus lamellis glandulosis radlato, nietachilil 
cornubus falcatis porrectis epichilii tridentati longitudine, sepalis lateralibus 
maxirais subrotundo-oblongis petalis multo latioribus. 

S. tigrina. Bateman Orchid. Mex. et Guatem. t. 7. 



The species of Stanhopea are so much alike, except in 
their flowers, that it is rarely necessary to introduce their 
organs of vegetation into the description of them. . It is in 
the flowers that their differences are apparent, and especially 
in the labellum, if colour is disregarded. 

The present beautiful species is characterised by having, 
the epichilium shallowly 3-lobed, in which respect it corre- 
sponds with no other hitherto discovered, except S. sacci^ta, 
which is extremely different. The inner surface of the hypo- 
chilium will also be found very remarkable, being broken up 
into glandular lamellae, which radiate from the base of a kind 
of ovate tooth which is itself directed towards the cavity they 
occupy. Fig. 1. represents this structure. 

The flowers of S. tigrina are larger and handsomer than 
those of any other known species, even exceeding those of 
the magnificent S. X>evoniensis ; this is sufficiently apparent 
from the annexed figure, in which nevertheless the colours 
are by no means so brilliant as in the plate of this plant in 
Mr. Bateman's magnificent work on the Orchidacese of 
Mexico and Guatemala. 

January, 1839. b 



3 



w 



4 

For the opportunity of publishing it I have to thank 
Messrs. RoUissons of Tooting, with whom it flowered in 
August last. Mr; Bateman states that it was originally im- 
ported from the neighbourhood of Xalapa by Messrs. Lowe 
and Co. ; and that it is among the easiest of the genus to 
cultivate. 

The fragrance of the flowers is very peculiar, resembling 
a mixture of Melon and Vanilla. 

If this plant is cultivated in a pot, it must be raised con- 
siderably above the level of the rim, not only to prevent its 
suffering from too much water, but also that its flower, which 
is pendulous, may be seen with advantage. The best method 
is to hang it up in a basket. The soil should be the same 
for this as for other orchidaceous plants, but when put into 



a basket it is found useful to place a little moss (sphagnum) 



9 



round the soil ; this 




s It moist, and the roots seem to 



thrive in it. The only other circumstance necessary to be 
noticed is, that it must be kept perfectly dry when not in 
a growing state ; it will be found to push much more vigor- 
ously when this is attended to. 



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* LEYCESTERIA formosa. 



Beautiful Leycesteria. 



PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat. Ord. CAPRlFOLlACEiE. 

T 

LEYCESTERIA, Wallicb. Calyx 5-partitus, inaequalis, persistens. 
Corolla regularls, infundibularis, tubo basl hinc gibbo. Stamina 5, exserta. 
Ovarium 5-loculare ; loculis omnibus polyspermis. Stigma capitatum. Bacca 
calyce coronata. 



irmosa. Wallich Plant, as. rar. vol. II. p. 21. t. 120. id. in Roxh. j 
ind. 2. 181. DeCand. prodr. 4. 338. Endl. yen. pi. 55S.no. 3335, 

Folia inferiora in surculis rohustioribus seepe tripartita vel triloba. 



"This charming shrub," says Dr. Wallich, " grows wild 
on the highest mountains surrounding the valley of Nepal, 
blossoming from April to October. I have also had it from 
much more northerly situations towards Gossain Than. 
According to my friend Dr. Govan, it is found in abundance 
at an elevation seldom less than 8000 feet above the plains, 
among the pine and oak forests of Bishuhur, as at nuttoo, 
and at Desoo in the Thakooraee of Kioonthul, blossoming 
from June till August, and called by the natives Nulkuroo. 
The stem is said to grow from ten to twelve feet high, from 
an inch to an inch and a third in diameter. Berries dark 
purple, approaching to black. 



Dr. Royle speaks of it as common in Nepal and Kemaon 



»♦ 



k- 

* 



as well as in Sirmore, at elevations of from 6000 to 7000 
feet. 



* So named by Dr. Wallich after his friend William Leycester, Esq. chief 
judge of the principal native court under the Bengal Presidency, a zealous friend 
of horticulture. 



1 
^ 

1 



From the account given of this plant hy Dr. Wallich, 
and from the bright scarlet colour represented in that eminent 
Botanist's P/aw^« asiaticce rariores as belonging to the bracts, 
it was expected that this would prove a most ornamental 
addition to our gardens. But it must be confessed that it 
does not justify that expectation. 



It h 



be 



d 



m 



gard 



of the Horticultural 



Society from seeds procured from India by Dr. Royle, and 



proves 



b 



a 



hardy 



pable of sustaining 



severest cold of last winter without protection 



B 



Its 



leaves are a pale dull g 



it has a rambling ineleg 



mode of growth, and the colour of the bracts 



brighter 



plate 



than what is. represented in the accompanying 



It appears impatient of dryness, becomes yellow and un- 
healthy in front of a south wall, but flourishes in an expo- 
sure to the east or west. It multiplies freely by cuttings 
or layers, and will probably before long produce its berries. 



Although not yet so handsome as was 



pated 



Leycesteria may become more ornamental as it grows old 



and acquires 



size. The best method of improving 



in the shade 



most 



the appearance of the plant will be to station it where, with 
out being exposed to a very dry atmosphere, it is fully under 
the influence of light. If gi 

likely to be a beautiful object. 

Fig. 1 . shews the appearance of the ovary upon a trans- 
verse section, with five cells, each containing a similar number 
of ovules arranged in a double row. 




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XEROXES longifolia 






Long-leaved Xerotes 



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DICECIA HEXANDRIA. 



Nat. ord, Juncace^. 



XEROTESy R. Br. Flores dioici. Perianthium sexpartitum. MasC. 
Petala tantum, nunc etiam sepala, basi connata. Stamina 6, perigyna. F<em. 
Sepala et Petala distincta aut in cyathum carnosum connata. Stamina quasi 
completa, sed sterilia. Ovarium superum, tristylum, 3-loculare; loculis mono- 
spermis, ovulis peltatis. Capsula nitida, 3-locularis, 3-spenna, epicarpio ab 
endocarpio spbnt^ secedente, dehiscentia loculicida. Semina peltata, albumine 
corneo, emhryone Intra basin albuminis cylindraceo. Herbae rigidcBy vultu 



varice. 



X. longifolia; acaulis, foliis elongatis linearibus corlaceis strlctis apice eroso- 
dentatis: marginibus scabris (?), panlcuHs lanceolatis subcoarctatis ; ramis 
oppositis, scapo planiusculo. R. Brown prodr. 262, 

Lomandra longifolia. Lahillard. nov. holl. 1. 92. ^ 119. 



Acaulis. 



"olia rigida, dura^ ensiformiay margine 
apus compressus, tenuis^ erectus^ foliis 
multlfloris: Bracteas bracteoljeque line 
florihusque longiores. Flores foemin 



/ - - - - - f 

is suffulto. Sepala fetalis 
paulo minora, in serie omninb externa ordinata. Stamina 6, quorum sepalina 
petalinis paulo inferiils inseruntur. Ovarium obovatum, 3-loculare ; ovulis 
carnosis, solitariis, peltatis. Styli 3, approximati, clavati, apice divergentes. 
Capsula sicca, testacea, ovata, nitida, 3-valvis, loculicido-dehiscens ; epi- 
carpio cartilagineo separabili reflexo, endocarpio duro ligneo contractili. 
Semina pallida, oblonga, albumine duro, corneo, embryone cylindraceo intra 
basin albuminis latente. 



This plant is a hard, dry, evergreen-leaved, herbaceous 
plant, Exhibiting a state of the Rush-tribe when they assume 
a state materially different from that of their type. It in- 



* So named by Dr. Brown, from ^ripoQ dry, in allusion I presume to the 
aridity of the foliage. 



habits Van Diemen's Land, wh 



it is common in various 



throughout 



colony, forming large tufts. Its 



th 



quite smooth at the edge, in which respect it differs fi 



definition of Dr. Bro 



yet I presume 



must be h 



X. longifolia, for he says it is a native of Van Diemen's Land, 
and I have seen no other species among the rich collections 
formed in that colony by Mr. Gunn (whose number 336 it 
is), and others. 

It is a plant of no beauty ; but its leaves are so hard and 
tough, that it deserves enquiry whether they will not yield 
a fibre capable of being advantageously manufactured into 
cordage. I know 



nothing 



which in the unmanufactured 
state promises better, by the powerful resistance offered to 
the force employed to break it. 

i 

In this country it is a half-hardy herbaceous plant, which 
will grow in any soil and under any circumstances, and 
would no doubt succeed in the most barren places in a mild 
country. 

Why Labillardiere's name of Lomandra should have been 
changed to Xerotes I do not know ; but as Xerotes itself 
must certainly be broken up into at least two genera, it is to 
be hoped that the original name will be retained for this, v 

Fig. 1. is a vertical section of a female flower; 2. is a 
vertical and 3. a transverse section of the ovary. 



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* CALANDRINIA discolor 



Discoloured Calandrinia. 



POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA 



Nat. ord. Portulacace^e. 
CALANDRINIA. Bot. Reg. foL 1194: 



C. discolor ; caule suffruticoso, foliis camosis obovatis obtusls in petiolum an- 
gustatis, racemo cernuo secundo, pedunculis defloratis deflexis, petalis calyce 

plurl^s longioribus. 
Fades omnino C. grandiflorce, qu& difFert foliis magis obtusls, subtus saepe dis- 

coloribus, floribus multo majoribus. 



A most beautiful plant, introduced from the Berlin Bota- 
nic Garden in 1835, by the Horticultural Society, and though 
apparently a half-shrubby plant, capable of being treated 
with advantage as an annual. In all its habits and in its 
appearance it much resembles C. grandiflora, but is much 
handsomer, the flowers being three times as large, and re- 
maining expanded all day long, whether in sunshine or 
shade, while those of C. grandiflora open only in the sun- 
shine. It has probably been published in some continental 
botanical work, but I have not succeeded in meeting with 
any account of it. 

It is a very showy half-hardy species, growing about 



and a half or two feet high, in any rich garden soil, and 



flowering from the end o? June until destroyed by the frost 



autumn 



The seeds, which are produced in abundance, should be 
n about the beginning of March, and treated in the same 



See Botanical Register, fol. 1194 



those of other half-hardy 



that 



IS 



say 



should be raised on heat, and when the plants are larg 



three 



gh they should be potted off 



small pots, putting 

four plants into each, and finally they should be 

planted out, about the end of May, as the least frost destroys 



bear 



a 



towards 



them when young, although they 
the end of the year. 

They require to be planted rather thickly in beds, wh( 
they will become one of the greatest ornaments of the flow 
garden ; the flowers opening early in the morning and n 
closing until the afternoon. 



It may also be raised by sowing the seeds 



m 



the 



border, about the middle of May, but the plants will be 

in flowering, and not 

transplanted. 



op 



so fi 



those raised on heat and 



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BRASAVOLA Martfana 



Dr, Von Martins^ Brasavola. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. OflCHIDACEiE, § EpiDKNDRE^. 

BRASAVOLA. Bot. Register , fol. 1465. 



B. Martiana ; labello ovali ^aut ovato) acuminato cUiato-dentato sessili; petalis 
sepalisque lineari-Ianceolatis acuminatis longioribus, clinandrlo cucullato 
inciso. Bot. Reg. fol. 1914. in textu. 

Folia longa, teretia, suprd sulcis trihus exarata, racemo suhcorymboso 
duplh longiora. Pedunculi Iceves, teretes, sepalis longiores, pone hasin fusco- 
purpureo tincta. Sepala et petala lineari-lanceolata, subtegualia, patula. 
Labellum ovatum aut ovale, acuminatum, fimhriatum, hasi luteum ; ungtie 
brevi columncB appresso. Columna apice cucullata, injlexa, fimbriata. 



This very distinct species of a small but interesting genus, 
imported from Berbice by Messrs. Loddiges, was originally 
discovered by Dr. Von Martius on the banks of the Rio 
Negro in Brazil, and it was from dried specimens in his her- 
barium that I first described it. 

B. cucullata and B. amazonica are the only other species 
yet known with a fringed labellum ; the former has much 
larger flowers, and a lip of an entirely different form ; the 
latter has a one-sided raceme, and a labellum contracted in 
the middle so as to be distinctly divided into a hypochilium 
and epichilium. 

All the Brasavolas yet described by Botanists now exist 
in this country, with the exception of B. subulifolia^ a fine 
species inhabiting Nevis, with very slender subulate leaves, 
and the B. amazonica above named. The former might 
easily be procured; the latter is beyond the reach of ordi- '^ 

nary travellers, occupying the branches of trees surrounding 
lake " Egen,'' one of the offsprings of the Amazons. 



1839 



c 



9 

Fig. 1. represents the column, seen in front, with the 
fringed clinandrium or anther-bed. 

This genus seems to delight in a rough and stony soil, 
not too retentive of moisture. This circumstance should 
therefore be kept in view when the species are potted or 
shifted. The soil should consist of rough peat, well mixed 
with broken bricks or small stones, and the pots must be 
well drained at the bottom. They do not seem to require 
so much water as is commonly given to most plants belong- 
ing to this order, but in other circumstances the treatment 
should be the same. Some cultivators prefer tying their 
plants to pieces of wood, and suspending them from the roof 
of the stove, but upon the whole they can hardly be said to 
succeed so well under that treatment as in pots, particularly 
if they have plenty of pot-room. All the species are propa- 
gated by division of the rhizoma. 



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STATIC E arborea. 



Tree Statice. 



PENTANDRIA VE^TAGYT!iIA 



Nat. ordn Plumbaginace^. 
STATICE. Bot. Reg.foL 1450 



S. arborea ; caule arborescente, foliis ovatis obtusis mucronatls basi angustatis, 
panicula composite termlnali, rami's paniculse alato-ancipitibus. Willd. 
enum. 1. 337. R. Sf S. syst. vi. 797. 



\ 



It is hopeless in works of this kind to do justice to the 
beauty of a plant like this ; and I am unfortunately obliged 
to apologize for the annexed figure being even more imper- 
fect than it need to be, owing to the want of skill of a new 
engraver eniployed to execute it. This is the more vexatious 
as the drawing which had been prepared was excellent of its 
kind, and because the plant itself is probably the most 
strikingly ornamental of all that are in cultivation as green- 
house plants. At one of those great meetings in the garden 
of the Horticultural Society, which have given so remarkable 
an impulse to the art of gardening, there was a specimen of 
this species, from the nursery of Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, 
and Co. six feet high, and covered with large clusters of 
flowers, the brilliancy of whose blue, neither precious stones 
npr metallic preparations could even approach ; for which a 
gold medal, an unusual mark of distinction, was awarded. 

The introduction of this noble plant io our gardens is 
due, I believe, to P. B. Webb, Esq. When Von Buch 
visited the Canaries he only found it in gardens about 
Orotava, and he believed it to be extinct in its native places ; 
and in truth it is amongst the most local and rare of all 
known plants. It is only on a few rocks, called the islets of 

Februarvj 1839. d 



J' 



■ I 



Burgado, which seem as if broken off from the coast^ of 
Teneriffe by some violent convulsion of nature, carrying 
with them on their summits a little earth, that this rare plant 
is found, surrounded on every side by the ocean, (see Webb 
and Berthelloty vues pkytostatiques, t. 8. f. 3.) and only a few 
yards removed from its surface. 

The temperature of the climate in which it grows is 
described as varying between 60° and 86° Fahr., the air 
being cooled by breezes from N.N.W. and E.N.E. ; the sky 
is seldom overcast, there is little rain, except from November 
to January, when it falls in heavy showers ; the soil is com- 
posed of volcanic tufa, basalt, scoria, and sheets of lava in a 
state of decomposition. But although the quantity of rain 
which falls is small, the air of the islets inhabited by Statice 
arborea must be constantly moist, in consequence of evapo- 
ration from the surface of the sea. 

If I were asked by a person desirous to distinguish him- 
self as a cultivator of beautiful and uncommon plants, to 
name some genus, little known, rich in species, with flowers 
of brilliant and permanent colours, with a foliage unlike the 
" quotidianae formas " of every day plants, and at the same 
time which would require great skill in the management, I 
should certainly name Statice ; and if a Botanist were to 
make a similar enquiry,- his object being to investigate the 
distinctions of a curious genus, whose species are in great 
need of illustration, the answer would still be Statice. No 
one can have walked along the skirts of a salt marsh in 
England, occupied by our native '* Sea Lavender," without 
being struck with the beauty of its flat panicles of gay blue 
flowers, and yet the Statice Lhnonium is one of the least 
attractive of the genus ; it is upon the exotic species that 
the attention of the Horticulturist should be fixed ; a short 
account of a few of the less known kinds will make this 
more evident. S. tubiflora, a dwarf plant found near Alexan- 
dria, bears multitudes of round heads of large lilac flowers ; 
S, (Bgyptiaca, another dwarf plant found in the isthmus of 
Suez and in other parts of Egypt, has large pallid blossoms ; 
S. sinuata, from Palestine, has when well grown blue flowers 
as large as sixpences ; S. emarginata is a beautiful little plant 
from the clifls of Gibraltar ; 8. monopetala is a showy species, 









i" 



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t 



growing a foot or two high, near Narbonne, and elsewhere 
in the basin of the Mediterranean ; S. spicata, with its dense 
cylindrical heads of small white flowers, is one 



i^ers, is one of the 
plants found by Colonel Chesney in his expedition 



the Euphrates, and inhabits the sh 



of the Caspian ; S 



scabra is one of the most interesting of Cape herbaceous pi 



and finally Mount Taurus and 



red 



th the brilliant flowers of 



Bithynian OU^mp 



curious 



are 



Statices 



Echinus and 



Of what other European g 



not 



cultivated, could so much be said ? and the subject is by 
means exhausted. 



Th 



present species is a shrub well adapted for planting 
ed or borders of a conservatory, growing three or 



in the bed or bord 

four feet high, in an equal mixture of 



oam 



and peat 

It strikes freely from 

gs of the young shoots, whenever such can be obtained. 



and flowering from April to J 



It is best treated as an ind 

it is injured by a few degrees of frost 




even in summer, as 



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SENECIO cruentus. 



Blood-red Senecio. 



SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA. 



AsTERACE^ (CoMPOSiTiE — SENECioMDEiE, DeCandolle) 
SENECIO. Bot. Reg. t. 1342. 



S. cruentus ; caule herbaceo erecto piloslusculo, foliis petiolo alato basi auricu- 
lato limbo cordato angulato denticulate utrinque pilosiusculo subtills pur- 
pureo, capitulis coryrabosis, pedicelHs subbracteolatis, involucri squamis 
15-16, ligulis 10-12. DeCand. Prodr. vi. 410. 

Cineraria aurita. Andr. hot. rep. t. 24, 

Cineraria cruenta. VHerit. sert. angL 26. Vent. malm. 99» 



The many beautiful varieties of Cineraria, as they are 
miscalled, which render greenhouses so gay in the spring, 
and which are brought to such a high degree of perfec- 
tion by Mr. Henderson of Pine Apple Place, are either 
referable to this species of Senecio, or are produced between 
it and S. maderensis ^ (the Cineraria aurita of the gardens). 
It is now therefore difficult to find a specimen exhibiting the 

appearance of the species in its natural state, unchanged by 
culture. I am therefore glad to have the opportunity of 
producing a figure made from a plant raised froru seed 
collected in Teneriflfe by Philip Barker Webb, Esq. ; and at 
the same time of stating to what kind of climate the species 
is exposed in its native country. 

Messrs. Webb and Berthellot, in their valuable account 
of the Canaries, recognize three principal modifications of 
climate, the lower, intermediate, and upper. Statke arhorea, 
the subject of the last plate, belongs to the first, the' nature 
of which has been already explained ; Senecio cruentus be- 
longs to the second. This zone extends from 1500 to 5000 
feet above the sea, with a climate varying on the north and 



_ . x> 



south sides of the mountains. It is on the northern side that 
>Si. cruentus is found, inhabiting groves of Laurels, Myrica 
Faya, Arbutus, Heaths, Ilex, and other shrubs, among which 
the Sweet Chesnut, and downy-leaved Oak are naturalized, 
and associating with species of Convolvulus, Ranunculus, 
Rubus, Geraniums, Strawberries, Violets, and similar plants. 
In these regions the air is moist, the sky is almost always 
overcast with clouds, especially during the day, while in 
the summer time fogs and mists are common, and in winter 
storms and heavy rains ; there is no frost, and when snow 
falls upon the upper limits of the zone it melts immediately. 
The surface of the country is broken up into valleys and 
mountains, and the soil, although volcanic, is well covered 
with mould. How different this is from ordinary notions 
of the climate of the Canaries I need not say ; it is obvious 
that if plants from such situations are treated as if they were 
the natives of an arid and sun-baked land, no success could 
possibly be obtained. In fact its treatment is that of a green- 
house plant, loving moderate temperature, and more moisture 
than usual when growing. 

It is a half-hardy greenhouse perennial, of easy culture, 
growing well in any rich garden soil, and well adapted for 
arly forcing, flowering nearly all the year. It is increased 



either by cuttings made of the young shoots in summer, or 



by division of the old plants early in the autumn. The 

cuttings, when rooted on the divisions of the old plants, 

should be transferred to small pots, and kept shut up close in 

a cold frame or pit for a week or ten days, shading them if 

the sun is very strong, and shifting them afterwards, as they 

require it, into larger pots ; no artificial heat is necessary, 

except to keep out frost during winter. The principal 

thing to be attended to is the keeping the plants free from 

the green fly, which may be done by gentle fumigation, for 

if the fly is once allowed to remain until the leaves begin to 

curl, it will be impossible to remedy the evil, and the very 

best plants may be spoiled in a single week by neglecting to 

smoke them, particularly if artificial heat is used in spring 
for forcing. 



I 



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Mis&DroLke del' 



y^h-hjJ.Ridciway /6c^ Been d nil/ Feb ^J. 1^59 



8 



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MAXILLARIA tenuifolia 



Slender-leaved Maxillaria. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. Orchidace^, § Vande^. 
MAXILLARIA. Bot. Register, foL 897. 



r 



M. tenuifolia ; caulescens, pseudobulbis ovato-oblongis corapressls monophyllis 
squamis longlorlbus, foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis recurvis, pedunculls 
axillarlbus solitariis basi squamatis, ovarlo denudato arcuato, floribus cemuis, 
sepalis ovato-lanceolatis inargine revolutis subaequalibus reflexis lateralibus 
basi subsequalibus, petalis ovatis obtusis conniventibus, labello oblongo in- 
diviso apice ovat'o reflexo infra apicem utrihque contracto, callo disci oblongo 
integerrimo. Bot. Reg. sub folio, 1986. 



A native of Mexico, in the vicinity of Vera Cruz, where 
found by Mr, Theodore Hartweg, an excellent natu- 



ralist, employed by the Horticultural Society of Lond 
Mexico, upon a mission which would have already produced 
most important additions to our gardens, had not his collec- 
tions been unfortunately detained at Tampico in consequence 
of the French blockade of that port. 

The species inhabits trees in Mexico, and probably is 
local, as it does not appear in any of the collections brought 
from the interior of the country. It belongs to the first or 
axillifloral section of the genus, the distinctive character of 
which is to have caulescent stems, covered with pseudo-bulbs, 
and having the flowers appearing from the axils of scales 
covering the stem. These, which are the most genuine form 
of Maxillaria, are the least beautiful part of the genus, and 
constitute a perfectly natural group, at first sight very diffe- 
rent from the kinds which, like M. aromatica, have naked 
pseudo-bulbs rising immediately from the surface of the 
earth. But, upon comparing the two sections with each 
other, it will be found that the only essential difi'erence be- 
♦ tween them consists in the one having erect and the other 
prostrate rhizomata ; the scales, or imperfect leaves, of the 



) 



axilliflorous section being more developed than in the scapi- 
gerous species, in consequence of their being more exposed 
to light. Perhaps the genus should be limited to the species 
which form the two sections now mentioned, the spathaceous 
species being excluded, and such as M, Warreana and costata 
being either formed into a new genus or referred to Peristeria, 
whose character would then require to be modified ; perhaps 
also such genera as Bifrenaria and Dicrypta would be better 
reduced to Maxillaria, with which, if newly limited, they 
would agree in habit. But these are points upon which it 
will be more easy to decide when a larger number of species 
shall have been correctly studied. 

The present species is [very pretty when in flower, and, 
from its freshness and greenness when in leaf only, is well 
worth cultivation, especially as it is one of the easiest to 
manage. It succeeds in a warm damp stove, in a pot 
with a block of wood thrust into the soil, and the long 
branching rhizoma tied to it. It grows almost equally well 
when tied to a wooden block, and suspended from the rafters 
of the stove. It bears without injury a quantity of water at 
its roots, and must also be freely syringed overhead. Amongst 
orchidaceous plants, none are more easily multiplied, as it 
throws out numerous pseudo-bulbs and roots, which, if taken 
carefully off, and subjected to the above treatment, will soon 
become vigorous growing plants. 



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9 



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* GUAIACUM officinale. 



Common Lignum Vitce. 



DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA 



Nat. ord. Zygophyllace^. 

GUAIACUM Plumier, Calyx 5-phyllus, insequalis; sepalts obtusls* 
Petala 5, unguiculata. Stamina 10, nuda. Ovarium 2-5-loculare, stipitatum, 
ovulis fuiucolo longo pendulis, rostratis. Stylus 1 ; stigma simplex. Capsula 
lignea, 2-5-locularis, angulata, polysperma. Semina pendula. Albumen rimu- 
losum. 



# 



pedicellis floribus pariim longioribus, ovarlo biloculari. 

ficinale. Linn. sp. pi. 546. Swartz. obs. 168. Macfadyens Flore 

p. 187. Lindley Fl. Med. no. 440. DeCand. prodr. 1. 707. 



There are few species more worth cultivation than this, 
which nevertheless is seldom seen, except in curious collec- 
tions. It is a neat and singular-looking stove plant, with 
bright light green leaves, and it blossoms regularly about 
midsummer, producing its brilliant blue flowers in abun- 
dance. The accompanying figure was made in the garden 
of the Horticultural Society. • 

r 

i 

If we were to judge, merely from the technical characters 
to be found in books, this would not be the species to which 



the name of G. officinale belongs ; but it will be found by 



any one who will investigate the matter, that there is no 
little confusion among the few species or supposed species of 
this genus, and that the characters assigned to them in the 
writings of systematical Botanists require modification and a 
better adjustment. Whether or not this species really pro- 
daces Lignum Vitae, as is asserted, may admit of some doubt; 
for it grows extremely slowly, and it is scarcely to be 



* Guayac, the American name 

February/, 1839. e 



believed that it will form a tree from 40 to 50 feet high, as 
that of Lignum Vitae is reported to be ; Dr. Macfadyen indeed 
expressly states that it does not grow more than 12 feet high. 
In the Flora of Jamaica of this Botanist, p. 187, is an account 
of the species, from w^hich the following is an extract : 

" The bark of this tree is thick and smooth, of a greyish 
colour. The wood is very hard, heavy, so as to sink in 
water; to the taste slightly bitter, inodorous, (but when 
lited giving out a slight fragrant smell). It takes a fine 
polish, and turns well. It is much used where solidity is an 
object, such as for ship-blocks, bed-rollers, pestles, &c. The 
centre of the wood is an obscure green, and is the part which 



the larger proportion of resin : the outer la\ 



o 



sap IS more yellow, lighter, and contains very little of the 



resm. 



(( 



The Gum-resin, known by the name of the Gum 



semi 



Guaiacum, is produced from this tree. It is friabl 
transparent, of a brownish green, light, and diffuses in burn 



ing a somewhat agreeable odour. It has a slight degree of 



bitterness, and produces a smarting or burning sensation in 
the fauces. It dissolves entirely in alcohol ; and partially in 
water. Oxalic acid is produced by treating it with nitric 
acid. It either flowers spontaneously and concretes in tears, 
or IS obtained by incisions. This latter operation is per- 
formed m May, and the juice, as it flows out, is concreted by 
the sun-. It may also be procured by sawing the wood into 
billets, and boring a hole longitudinally through them, so 
that when one end of the billet is laid on the fire, the ^um 
flows readily from the other, and is collected in a calabash 
or gourd. It may also be obtained by boiling the chips or 
raspings in salt water, when the gum will separate from the 
wood and rise to the surface. 

The Spaniards first imported the Guaiacum wood from 

America into Europe in the year 1 508. It had the reputation 

being antisyphihtic, and the names holy wood, and the 

wood of life were given to it, and it was in such esteem as to 

be^sold at the rate of seven dollars the pound. It was in the 

K '• 'T*^-'?? ^^ ^^^^' ^^ consequence of the cele- 
brated warrior Van Hutten having been cured by it, after 

eleven unsuccessful attempts to remove the symptoms he 



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laboured under by means of mercury. This mineral was at 
that time not administered to the wealthy or great, but the 
use of it was confined to cases occurring among the com- 
monalty. Gradually, however, it came to supersede the 
Guaiacum, so that the latter has, in a great measure, fallen 
into disuse. It is still, however, considered as a diaphoretic 
and alterative." 

t 

Lignum Vitae is the hardest and heaviest wood that is 
known, its specific gravity being 1.333. It will break like a 



min 



d can never be split. The latter property 



doubtless owing to the singular manner in which the woody 
tubes cross each other diagonally, forming a mass so compact 
as to have no cleavage. 

Guaiacum officinale is a genuine stove plant, requiring to 
be grown in a high temperature, with plenty of water to its 
roots, and showers over its leaves. It succeeds well if potted 
in a mixture of rich loam and peat, but, like most other 
stove and greenhouse plants, prefers being planted out. 

It does not strike freely at all seasons ; the best time to 
take off cuttings is early in the spring, when the plant is 
beginning to grow. In selecting them, a little of the ripened 
w^ood of the present year should be left upon them, which 
prevents their damping off. They may then be plunged in 
bottom heat under a bell-glass, and they will strike root in a 
few weeks. 

Of the dissections, fig. 1 . represents the aestivation of the 
calyx ; 2. the stamens and pistil ; 3. a transverse section of 
the ovary ; 4. a vertical section of the same, with the ovules 
in their natural position ; and 5. an ovule apart. 



I 



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GERANILJM tuberosum; var. ramosum. 



Tuberous Geranium, branched variety. 



DECANDRIA PEHTAGYKIA 



Nat. ord. Geraniaceje. 
GERANIUM. LinncBus 



G. tuberosum ; radice subglobosa, caule simplici erecto nudo v. medio diphyllo, 



terminali 




patenti trichotoma glanduloso-pilosa, petalis emarginatis, staminibus liberis : 
filamentis recurvis pilosis alternis majoribus. Flora Greeca, t. 659. cum 
synonymis. 

Var. ramosum ; caule folioso ramoso, pedunculis sub-geminis saepius axillaribus. 



This curious Geranium is a hardy herbaceous plant, with 
fleshy roots the size of a walnut. It is met with in the 
kingdom of Naples, which seems its most western limit, and 
it occurs as far to the eastward as the Euphrates, where it 
was met with in abundance by Col. Chesney. In the fields 
of Greece and some of the islands of the Archipelago it is 
common, and it occurs to the north as far as the Crimea. 

Usually its stem is quite simple, and produces two or 
three radical leaves, above which it rises to the height of five 
or six inches, where it forms a pair of opposite leaves, fron 
between which rises the cyme of purple flowers. Such is 
the state of the plant in my specimens from Smyrna, the 
Volga, Naples, and the Euphrates ; so I find it m others 
dried many years ago in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, 
and in Sibthorp's Greek Herbarium, and it is so described 
by all systematic Botanists. The plant now figured, collected 
near Potenza by the Hon. W. F. Strangways, is however 
quite different, branching from its very base like other 



I 



/ 



Geraniums 



n which accoun 
peculiar variety 



I 



have thought it desirable 



♦ - 

This is supposed to be the first sort of Geranium described 



by Dioscorides, the root of which that author 



and eatable 



It is a hardy perennial, growing 



any good rich 



garden soil, flowering the greater part of summer, and 



creased 
the 



-, — . ^ ^^^y^ gicatci ^jaii VI summer, and m- 

ther m spring or autumn by seeds or division of 



-*? 




Ju;.. '■')rr,L3,d^ 



9i.ScottsO: 



^cts <!'- 6 /J j^^d^woj/ 16 g '^EcaMh/ F.-.dii . m g 



.«A 



11 



EPIDENDRUM variegatum. 



Variegated Epidendrum. 



^\ 



$,'. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. Ord. ORCHIDACEiE, § EpiDENDREiE. 

EPIDENDR UM. Bot. Reg. foL 1 7. 



E. variegatum ; pseudobulbis oblongis compressis 2-3-phyllis, foliis oblongo- 
lanceolatis obtusis, racemo simplici tenninali, sepalis petalisque obovatis ob- 
tusis corlaceis, labello postico subrotundo acuto : callo baseos concavo 
emarginato dente coluinnse posticd obtusa. 

E. variegatum. Bot. Mag. t. 3151. 

E. coriaceum. Id. t. 3595. a variety. 



A native of Brazil, whence it has long since been imported, 
so that it now common in collections of Orchidaceae, where 
it is valued for the delicious fragrance of its flowers, resem- 
bling nothing so much as Lily of the Valley. The figure 
now published was made many years ago in the collection of 
Messrs. Loddiges. 

In many respects it agrees with E. lancifolium a Mexican 



and E. crassilabium a Per 
both 



species ; but it differs from 



in having the fleshy tooth, placed at the back of the 
anther, quite entire, blunt and rounded, not to mention other 
marks of distinction. Like E. fragrans it is very subject to 
variation, as must be obvious to any one who has remarked 
the peculiarities of the imported plants, which from time 



me 



fl 



m 



ly any 



of which are 
the Botanical 



exactly alike". Of these one is figured in 
Magazine under the name of E. coiiaceum. 

In general the sepals and petals are marked with distinct 
purple blotches, on a pale green ground ; but sometimes they 



richly dotted, and 



nally are cream-coloured, with 



4 

4l 



only a few specks of purple. I am also disposed to regard 
as another variety a plant found by M. Descourtilz near llha 
Grande in Brazil, on fallen trees, in the midst of sandy plains, 
fully exposed to the sun. In this the leaves and pseudo- 
bulbs are very narrow, and the flowers are a pale dull dirty 
yellow, with narrow linear-lanceolate segments. It forms 

t. 67 of Baron Delessert's unpublished figures of Brazilian 
Orchidaceae. 



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MAXILLARIA vitelllna. 



Yellow racemose Maxillaria 



r n 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA 



Nat. ord. Orchidace^, § Vande^e. 

MAXILLARIA. Fl. Peruv. 



M 



in petiolum canaliculatum angustatis, racerao cernuo radicali foliorum lon- 
gitudine, labelli cuneati trilobi lobis lateralibus acutis anticfe crenulatis 
intermedio bilobo rotundato cordato crenulato, tuberculo disci trilobo obtu- 
slssimo, ungue pubescente. Bot. Reg. 1838, misc, no. 1 16. 



A Brazilian epiphyte, allied to M. racemosa^ which differs 
in having an undivided labellum, a hairy column, and in 
many other circumstances. 

M. aureO'fulva^ another beautiful plant related to this, 
and well figured in the Botanical Magazine, t. 3269, has an 
acuminate even lip, little differing in form from the sepals 
. and petals. It is the " Epidendre Limodore " of Descourtilz, 
and was found by that traveller in great abundance upon 
fallen trees encumbering the sandy plain through which the 
great public road passes from Bananal to Ilha Grande. 

The exact locality of this is unknown. It was imported 
by Messrs. LoddigeSj with whom it flowered in June, 1838. 

x 

It requires the temperature and humidity of the moist 
Stove. After it has periected its pseudo-bulbs for the season, 
it should be kept perfectly dry for a considerable length of 
time ; and, if convenient, removed to a cooler house. This 
will make it grow and flower freely when it is brought back 
to the moist stove. In all other respects, its treatment should 

March y 1839. v . 



• 



be the same as is practised with other tropical plants of this 
very extensive order. 



Any of the back pseudo-bulbs, such as are represented 
in the plate, by being taken off will form plants, but the froftt 
ones are by far the best. 



'^j 



Th 



IS genus IS 



that it is difficult 



for those most familiar with the species to avoid errors in 



publishing 



are 



may be permitted to obser 



pposed to be new ones. 



I therefore 



for the purpose of 



cizing, but for the sake of preventing, if possible, th 
venience of multiplying names, that the M. Henchmanni of 
the Bot, Magazine, t. 3614, is one of the forms of M. varia- 



bilis. M. jpumila of the same work, t. 3613 
M. uncata, that although from the fig 



IS so very neai 
seems different 



desirable to re-examine it, and I shall be glad 
from some of my correspondents. 



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ALSTROMERIA Ligtu 

The Ligtu. 



HEXANDRIA UO^OGY^IA. 

Nat, ord. Amaryllidac 




ALSTROMERIA. Eo^. Reg. vol. 17. p. 1410. 

A. Ligtu ; foHis lineari-lanceolatls acuminatis glabris apice subcirrhosis, pedun- 
cuHs corymbosis subbifloris foliis loiigioribus, sepalis obovatis emarginatis 
mucrone inteijecto, petalis 2 posticls spathulatis apiculatis. 

Hemerocallis floribus purpurasceniibus striatis vulgo Ligtu. Feuillee obs. 

710. t. 4. 

A. Ligtiu Linn. sp. pLA62. FL Peruv. 3. p. 59. Romer et Schultes^ 6. 

735. Herbert Amaryllid. 9^, 
A. Feuillseana. Meyer in Reliq. Hc^^k. 2. 122. 

_ « 

Caulis in spontanea Ul^-pedalis, adscendens, simplex^ in cultd 3-pedalis 
et ultra. Folia linearia et lineari-lanceolata^ alterna, torsione resupinata 
aut omninh recta, sub corymbo vert\cillata, Pedunculi corymbosi, scepius 



bijlori, nunc triflcri, foliis 



if^ 



Sepala membranacea, 



viridi mterposito, alba, purpurea pallidissimo suffusa. Petala postica i>pa- 
thulata erecfa, apiculata, basi alba sangulneo punctata, apice sanguinea, 
medio lutea sanguinco obliqud et interrupt^ vittata. 



How the figure of the Ligtu given by Feuillee, barbarous 
as it is, could have been supposed to represent the Brazilian 
plant called in gardens Alstromeria Ligtu, which is in fact 
the A. caryophyllcBa of Jacqui'n, it passes my skill to dis- 
cover. This is a distinctly marked species, the characteristics 
of which are the long-branched peduncles, and the obovate 
or obcordate sepals ; to which may be added, that the latter 
are little if at all serrated. 

A. Ligtu is so named because, according to Feuillee, it 
is called *' Ligtu "in Chile; dried specimens from that 
country are not uncommon in herbaria, and the plant pro- 
bably exists in many gardens, although not distinguished 
from either A, Pelegrina or pulchra. The former differs in its 
short, one-flowered, rigid, peduncles ; the latter in its shorter 
flowers, and spathulate rather than obcordate, serrated 
sepals. The accompanying figure was obtained from a plant 
in the possession of Charles Barclay, Esq. of Bury Hill, in 
July, 1838. It was exhibited at one of the great meetings 
in the Garden of the Horticultural Society, where it was 
conspicuous among many beautiful species for the delicacy 
of its flowers and their large size. 



In his elaborate account of Amaryllidacese, Mr. Herbert 
notices four varieties of this plant. But I conceive that one 
of them (No. 2.), the A, lineatiflora is more referable to 
A. pulchra than to Ligtu, if it is not diflPerent from both ; 
and another (No. 4.), noticed from dried specimens in my 
herbarium, to A. Pelegrina. 

It is not intelligible why those very beautiful flowers 
should not be more generally cultivated, for surely there is 
no genus more likely to reward the care of a skilful gar- 
dener. It would appear however that they are not general 
favourites, for although the Horticultural Society have en- 
couraged the growth of them by assigning the genus a 
separate place in the list of objects for which medals are 
offered at their Garden meetings, yet there has at present 
been little competition. For the information of those who 
are disposed to turn their attention to the subject, and 
who have the opportunity of procuring new species from 
South America, where the most showy species still remain 
to be introduced, the following extract is taken from 
Mr.. Herbert's excellent work. 

** Being chiefly natives of alpine situations, these beau- 
tiful plants require free air, and (with the exception of 
Caryophyllacea amongst those we possess) very little pro- 
tection, except from severe frost. A. Hookeri, planted in 
front of one of my stoves, formed a large patch, the foliage 
resisting all frost in that situation, and flowered throughout 
the summer ; but the two last dry summers have greatly re- 
duced it. They are very thirsty plants in the season of their 
growth, and should be abundantly watered in dry weather 



time 



" A. psittacina, as well as haemantha and aurantiaca, 
flowers well in the open ground, if covered with straw or a 
thick coat of leaves in the winter. The soil should be light, 
and the tubers set pretty deep ; and any heading that would 
throw the wet off in the winter will be found advantageous. 
It is absolutely necessary to pick the slugs off the border, 
which will otherwise devour every shoot at its first appear- 
ance above ground ; and it will be found advantageous to 
cover the bed in the spring with dry sawdust, which the 
slugs do not like to crawl over, and will keep moisture in 
the ground. A top covering of peat is also disagreeable to 
slugs, which I find very troublesome in biting the flower- 
stalks of Gladioli on sandy loam, but they rarely do so on a 
border of black earth." 



I 





r - 




14 



* HUNTLEY A Meleagns 

Speckled Huntley a. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRId 



Nat. ord. OrchidacEjE, § Vande^. 
HUNTLEYA. Bot. Reg.fol. 1991 intextu 



Meleagris ; sepalis petalisque ovatis acuminatis tessellatis, labello subcon- 
forrai unguiculato concavo crista baseos fimbriata, columnae cucullo crenato. 
ntleya Meleagris. Bot. Reg. l. c. 1 838. misc. no. 20. 



This is at present one of the rarest of the epiphytes in 
cultivation, the only specimen I have seen being that now 
figured, which flowered with Messrs. Rollissons in July, 1838. 
Its blossoms are much yellower and less tessellated with 
purple than in the Brazilian drawing from which the species 
was first described, and it is not improbable that it will be 
found to vary in this respect. The whole surface of the 
flowers had quite the appearance of being glazed. 

The following is M. Descourtilz's account of the plant, a 
little reduced from his manuscript in M. Delessert's copy. 

Rootstock as thick as the little finger, green, cylindrical, 
with white rootlets on the under-side. Leaves alternate, in 
two opposite rows, forming a very much compressed fan ; 
above they are bright green and smooth, beneath they are 
bluish green, with paler and projecting longitudinal veins. 
These leaves are a foot or more long, and about an inch 
wide ; from the axil of the lowest of them rises a cylindrical 
pale green peduncle, with two opposite bracts near the 

middle. 

The flower is large, terminal, solitary, having five petals, 
broad at the base, with a white claw, and a claret-coloured 
ground on the inside, which is sometimes speckled with 

* So pftHea bv Mr. Bateraan, in compliment to the Rev. Mr. Huntley, a 



zealous collector of rare plants. 



greenish pink, and always marked by longitudinal lines 
connected by other transverse ones, which thus form nume- 
rous elevations, and make the flower look like a draught- 
board. The two lower sepals have their inner edge at the 
base rolled inwards like a horn. The labellum is triangular 
tongue-shaped, of a pure ivory while, bordered with deep 
purple, and nerved with a deeper tint. Its edges are turned 
downwards, and it is attached to the base of the column by 
a narrow white claw. At the origin of the claw is a crescent- 
shaped plate, hollowed out at its upper edge, and fringed 
with long stiff white hairs, which furrow downwards all the 
part that supports them. 

This charming plant is found in gloomy damp woods on 
the banks of the Rio de Pirapitinga, in the district of Bananal. 
It is scentless, and flowers in June. 

Mr. Rollisson assures me that he received his specimen 
from the same country as that which produced the Zyno- 
petaLon cochleare, figured in this work, plate 1857- if so I 
must have been misinformed as to Trinidad being the native 
country of the latter. I am the more disposed to believe 
that such was really the fact, because I find a drawing of 
what is apparently a luxuriant specimen of Z. cochleare 
among M. Descourtilz's collection, fathered in Brazil 1 the 
hit hTm^ ' r separating the province of St. Paul's from 
that ot Minas Geraes, and known by the name of the Manti 
queiras, where it flowers in the hottest seaso^! 

It thrives very well in the orchideous-house at Tootine^ 

ttTl T''^^''-' ''• ^'^' ^^^"^^^^^ ^ith moisture an^d 
the temperature is in winter from 60° to 70" Fahr and in 

summer from 70» to 90°. The house is of course weii shad d 
from the bright rays of the summer's sun. Like other kfnds 
of orchidaceous plants with thick fleshy roots, this requires 

svriret't' ^"'"'^*^ '^ "^*^^' ^^^ ^^-"Id beTeely 
nn?tp?c 11 •? f'''''' '"^ ^ P^*' ^"* ^^^^d probably succeed 

Sv LTf i '^ ^"^l^P' '! '^' ^''^''' P^^t of those with 
Meshy roots do much better in that way. 



15 




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0^44/^ /^y, J'/&^cc^, ,/ogM^^axdjU'^if'. 



^ylioA^Ay/ '^^S3 ^ . ^/- ^olA^sIo/^^ 



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15 



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DIANTHUS ferrugineus. 



Yellow Pink. 



DECANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. Silenace^e. 

DIANTHUS. Bot. Reg. vol. U.fol. 1548. 



T} . ferrugineus ; herbaceus, floribus aggregatis, bracteis spinescentlbus squarrosis 
propriis calyce brevloribus, petalis flavis cuneatis dentatis, foliis linearibus 
margine Isevibus basi long^ connatis. 

D. ferrugineus. Linn, mantiss.- 563. DeCand. prodr. 1. 356. Tenore 
Sylloge 207. 



Among the many beautiful species of Dianthus which 
the lovers of hardy herbaceous plants possess, that now 
figured is one of the rarest and most remarkable, on account 
of its flowers being of a clear pale yellow, instead of white or 
pink as is more usual. 

It is nearly allied to D. carthusianorum, from which it 
differs in the squarrose character of its bracts, and its smooth 
edge leaves, as well as in the colour of the petals. 

Whether it is to their intermixture with this, or the little 
known D. ochroleucus of the Levant, that some of the more 
precious varieties of Piccotees and Carnations owe their 
yellow, iS unknown ; this is, however, so rare a colour 
in the genus, that the effect has probably been produced by 
either one or the other. 

The specimen figured was given me by Henry Fox 
Talbot, Esq. Its seeds were brought from the Botanic 
Garden, Florence, hf the Hon. W. F. Strangways. 

This is a delicate biit very neat hardy perennial, growing 
from twelve to eighteen inches high, in any light rich soil 
and rather dry situation, flowering about July or August. 






n 



It may be increased either by seeds sown in the spring 
or by pipings in autumn ; but, like Dianthus Libanotis, ii 



suff 



ery 



much, and is often entirely destroyed, if 



protected from the wet in autumn and winter by a hand 




It is a native of Calabria, the Abruzzi, and other parts of 
the kingdom of Naples; and also it is said of the Apennines. 




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16 



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ONCIDIUM luridum ; rar. guttatiim. 



Mr. Boyd's Oncidium. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA 



Nat. ord. Orchidace^, § VANDEiE 
ONCIDIUM. Swartz. 



O. luridum. Gen, et Sp. Orch. p. 201, 
/3 guttatnm ; sepalis petalisque luteis sanguineo-maculatis. 
Epidendrnm guttatum. Linn. sp. pL 1351, 
Cymbidium guttatum. Willd. sp. pL 4. 102. 
Oncidium Bovdii. hort. 




That this is the long lost Epidendrum guttatum of Linnaeus, 
Jamaica plant, unknown to Swartz, who so carefully in- 
stigated the Botany and especially the Orchidaceous plants 
the island, I do not doubt. The name luridum ought 
therefore in strictness to be abolished ; but that of guttatum 
applies so generally to the whole genus, that there would be 
more inconvenience than advantage in the measure. 

It was imported from Jamaica by Messrs. Rollissons, to 
whom I am obliged for the specimen from which the figure 
has been taken. Certainly, O. Lanceanum and Forbesii alone 
excepted, this is the most beautiful plant of the genus yet in 
our gardens ; the richness of its colours, the profusion of its 
flowers, and its stately growth, for it is from three to four 
feet high, would even make it doubtful whether it does not 
rival the former species, only it wants the aromatic odour. 

In structure it differs nothing from 0. luridum^ so far as 
I can ascertain. 

It requires to be cultivated in the orchidaceous-house or 
moist stove, either suspended from the roof, or elevated above 

March, 1839. o 



the surface of the pot. It should be placed in the warmest 
part of the stove, and its roots in particular freely syringed. 
The soil should be turfy peat, kept open with broken bricks 
or pots, to allow a free passage for the water. Water must 
be given more freely at certain seasons than at others ; but it 
does not require such a long period of rest as Catasetums 
and plants of that kind, and therefore may be kept almost 
(jontinually growing. 

It is multiplied by division, the front shoots making the 
best plants. 

w 

So little is correctly known concerning the native habits 
of the great order of Orchidaceous epiphytes, that I gladly 
avail myself of a vacant space to give the following localities 
of some other Oncidiums, as stated by M. Descourtilz in 

his MSS. 

h 

Oncidium cUiatum. Flowers in September, in lowwoods^ sur- 
rounding the table-land (plateaux) of the neighbourhood 
of Bananal. 

Oncidium iridifolium. Found in Brazil, exclusively on 
branches of the Orange 

The fruit is large, and has six large transparent wings. 

common in the province of St. Paul's, about the 



i 



and Lemon, flowering in April. 



Very 

town of Bom Jesus de Bananal, choosing in preference dry 
"places exposed to the sun. 

Oncidium puhes. Thin forests, surrounding the table-land 
near Bom Jesus de Bananal, flowering in the month of 



M 



ay 



Oncidium divaricatum. 



Trunks of the highest trees, in 



elevated mountains of the Serra das Argoas in the district 
of Ilha Grande, flowering in February. 



<t 





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17 



1 -. 



MAXILLARIA stapelioides 

StapeliaMke Maxillaria. 



GYi\ANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. Orchidace/E, § Vande^!?. 
MAXILLARIA. Fl. Peruv. 



M. stapelioides ; pseudobulbis ovatis tetragonis 1-2-phyIlis, foliis tenulbus lan- 
ceolatis patentibus pallid^ glaucis reticulatis, pedunculo diiFuso bifloro, 
sepalis petalisque subrotundo-ovatis acutis patulis subsequalibus, labello ob- 
longo trilobo ; laciniis lateralibus erectis liuearibus obliquis obtusis inter- 
media ovato-oblonga basi cucuUata, cristi transversa flexuosa carnosa infills 
dente carnoso ovato aucta. 

M. stapelioides. Lind. et Otto abbild. U I. f. 52. Gen. etSp. arch. 146. 



This is one of the Brazilian Maxillarias, whose pseudo- 
bulbous habit separates them in appearance so widel}^ from 
the caulescent species upon which the genus was originally 
founded. For remarks upon this point, the reader is referred 
to plate 8 of the present volume. 

r 

The species whose singular speckled flowers have sug- 
gested the comparison with a Stapelia, inhabits the Organ 
Mountains, where it was found by Mr. Gardner, (No. Q^l); 
but it was long before obtained from Brazil by the director 
of the Berlin Garden, by whom it was named. It is now 
common in collections, where it is at once recognized by its 
pallid glaucous thin leaves, which look as if suffering under 
the attack of red spider. It is one of the most easy species 
to cultivate. 

Brazil will doubtless be found to contain many such 
plants. M. Rollissoni {Bot. Reg. 1838, t. 40) is one, and a 
plant called by Descourtilz " Epidendre Jonquille," because ' 
of its colour not its smell, for it is scentless, is another. 



M. 



This was also f6un(f in the Organ Mountains by Mr. Gardner, 
from whom I have a specimen (No. 652), and as it is pro- 
bably already in this country, it may as well be named and 
characterized. The unpublished name of Jonquil is so likely 
to lead to misconception, that I make no excuse for changing 
it to 

xanthina; pseudobulbis ovalibus tetragoms 1-2-phyllis, foliis anguste lan- 
ceolatis, pedunculis ascendentibus unifloris pedicello sterili terminatis, 
bractea ovat^ mucronata cucullata, sepalis petalisque oblongis acutis patu- 
lis suba^qualibus, labello oblongo trilobo laciniis lateralibus erectis llnearibus 
obtusisslmis integris intermedia bilabiata : labio superiore carnoso abbreviate 
truncato o-dentato inferiore oblongo acuto. 

This is very different from both M. aromatica and jRoUissonii 
M. Descourtilz found it on the high mountains of Ilha 
Grande, on the side towards the sea, and exposed to the 
rising sun. He does not say whether it occurs on trees or 
on the ground. 







/^/ 



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J/^yr^:^ f fa3p 



$. 3m'j^aJf jO< 



18 



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* HOYA coriacea. 



Thick-leaved Hoy a. 



■ PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 

i 

r 

Nat. ord. Asclepiadace^. 

HOYA. R. Br. Corolla rotata, 5-fida. Corona staminea 5-phylla, 

foliolis depressis patentibus carnosis, angulo intenore proclucto in dentem an- 
therae iiicumbentem. Anth€r<B membrana terminatae. Masses pollinis basi 
affixae, connlventes, compressae. Stigma muticum, vel subapiculatum. Folliculi 

leeves. Semina comosa. Fnitlces aut sufFrutices, volubiles, scandentes^ 

aut decumbentes. Folia opposita, carnosa v. membranacea. Umbellae late- 
rales, multiflorce. Wight Contributions to the Botany of India, p. 35. 



\ 



H. coriacea ; fohis subvenosis ovalibus acutis v. acuminatis conaceis glabris, 
corolla intiis sericea. Blume Bijdr. 1063? 

SufFrutex. Caulis teres, glaber. Folia glabra^ subcoriaceaj ovaliay 
acuta, venosa nee nervata, sitprd atroviridia^ infrd. pallida. Umbellae rnul* 
tiJlorWy pedu7iculat{e,pendul(Ey axillares ; pedicellis glabris ; his^ciQi^ minutisy 
squamceforinibuSj tomentosis involucratce. Flores albidi ; corolla rotaidj 
rejlexd^ intus pubescente, basi tomentosdy laciniis linearibus acuminatis. 
Corona staminea glaberrima ; foliolis utrinque acuminatis. Antherse oblongce^ 
obtus<Bj membrand brevi bidentatd terminates. PoUinia erecta, glanduld 
simplici exsulcd. 






A very pretty stove plant, sent by Mr. Cuming to Messrs. 
Loddiges, from Manilla; it flowered for the first time in 
August 1838. 

The genus Hoya is a large one, the species of which 
abound in the southern parts of India, and are but imper- 
fectly known to Botanists. Dr. Wight mentions twenty as 
found in Hindostan and the neighbouring islands ; to which 
Dr. Blume adds nine more. The characters of the latter 
are so very short that it is impossible to ascertain, in the 



• Named in compliment to Mr. James Hoy, for many years tKe Botanical 
Gardener to the Duke of Northumberland at Syon House. 



April, 1839. 



H 



■-'■ ■ 



absence of authentic specimens, whether a plant correspond- 
ing with those characters is really the one intended ; for dis- 
tinctions expressed in such brief terms may apply to several 
different species and not be peculiar to one only. For this 
reason I am in doubt whether the plant now figured is really 
the H. coriacea, although I perceive no difference between 
it and Dr. Blume's definition of that species. It is to be 
hoped that this and all such points will be settled by M. 
Decaisne, who, fortunately for science, has undertaken the 
elaboration of the natural order Asclepiadacese for DeCan- 
dolle's Prodromus. 

^ 

Fig. 1. represents an anther viewed from the inside; and 
fig. 2. a pair of pollen-masses adhering to their common 

gland. 

. • ' .... ^ ^ • 

This curious species seems to be nearly parasitical in its 
habits. Messrs. Loddiges grow it in the Orchideous house, 
the block of wood upon which it was imported, — this is 



placed in a pot, and surrounded with 



It will g 



any light soil, the chief thing in its cultivation being a warm 
and moist atmosphere. 



It does not send 



from 



stem like the other 



species, and is found at present rather difficult to propag 



Howe 



there 



little patience either by cuttings or lay 



doubt of its being multiplied with 



♦ 



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19 



— U ^ U 4P. U 

EPACRIS impressa; 2;«r. parviflora 



SmalUJlowered Pitted Epacris 



PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. Epacridace^. 

EPACRIS. BoK Reg. vol. 18. foL 1531. 



E, impressa ; ramulls pubescentibus, foliis sessilibus ovatis acuminatis pungen- 
tibus margine scabriuscuHs subtus obsolete nervosis, floribus axillaribus soli- 
tariis pendulis subsesslllbus, sepalis acutis margine lanulosis, corolla cylin- 
dracei recta basi foveattl. 

E. impressa. Lab, nov. holL L 43. t. 58. R. Brown prodr. 407, Sweet Jl. 
australas. t. 4. Lodd. Bat. Cab. t 1691. Bot. Mag. t. 3407. 

/3. parviflora ; foliis acutissimis pungentibus margine scabris, corolla; atro-roseae 
tubo cylindraceo limbi laciniis acutissimis. 



The supposed species of Epacris from Van Diemen's 
Land are so very difficult to limit, that it is not improbable 
that many of them are mere varieties of €ach other. It 
must be obvious enough to any one who is acquainted with 
them in gardens, that the same parcel of wild seeds yields 
strikingly different individuals ; and this is conformable to 
what occurs in their native haunts. 

/ 

Mr. Gunn, whose accurate observations are invaluable 
as regards the Botany of Van Diemen's Land, and who has 
studied these plants with considerable attention, has lately 
sent over numerous wild specimens of what he regards as 
one species, concerning which he observes, that " the colours 
vary from a deep red, through all the paler shades of blush, 
to pure white, so that colour constitutes no distinction ; size 
is as variable." He distinguishes four chief varieties, viz. 
1. red flowering, tall; 2. red flowering, dwarf; 3. white 
flowering, tall ; 4. white flowering, dwarf; in addition to 
which many others might be named. 



i 



I 

That which is now figured was sent from New Holland 



to his house at York by Mr. James Backhouse, under the 
name of E. ruscifoUa ; but that species, as defined by Dr. 
Brown, has stalked leaves, and it. is to be inferred, from the 
way in which the definition in the Prodromus is constructed, 
that it has pedunculate flowers. The latter circumstance is 
so variable, that no importance can be attached to it ; the 
former appears more stable ; but in the absence of authen- 
tically named specimens, it is impossible to form a correct 
opinion as to whether JE. ruscifoUa is, or is not, one of the 
varieties of E. impressa. The plant now figured is certainly 
nothing more. 

The natural season for flowering, for these plants, is our 
winter ; they begin to blossom in August, and are not out of 
flower before the following March. For this reason they 
are so particularly well suited for the ornament of green- 
houses in the winter ; and those who wish to possess ari 
abundance of flowers at that season, will find it in general 
less difficult to obtain them from these natives of the anti- 
podes than from the species inhabiting the northern hemi- 
sphere, which can only be brought into bloom by great skill 
in the art of forcing. 

Cuttings of this species should be taken ofi" in the early 
part of spring, inserted in silver sand, and placed under a 
l)ell-glass. They should then be put upon a cool shelf or 
frame, and allowed to remain there until they begin to root. 
They may then be potted ofl" in very sandy peat, and shaded 
for a few days from bright sunshine. 

The treatment in the greenhouse should be precisely the 
same as is practised with other well-known species. Like 
the Cape heaths this is easily injured by neglecting to give it 
a supply of water, or by removing it carelessly from one 
place to another. 



1 



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fff^di^r^xu f(oq of/xxxxxMJJi^ Jf-nU f 1&2>Q) 



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20 



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DENDROBIUM aureum; var. pallidum 



Golden-flowered Dendrohium ; pale variety 



GYNANDRIA MOJV^JVDBJi 

Nat. ord. Orchidace-j;, § MALAXiDEiG. 
DENDROBIUM. Bot. Reg. vol. l.fol. 548. 



D. aureum; caulibus teretibus clavatls internodiis brevibus, foHis lineari-oblongis 
apice obliqiiis emarglnatis, pedunculis subbifloris aggregatis lateralibus, se- 
palis llneari-ovatis acuminatis obtusis, petalis latioribus ovatis acutis undu- 
latis, labello ovall undulato obtusiusculo indiviso medio serrulato per axim 
pubescente. 

D. aureum. Gen. 8c Sp. Orck. p. 78. 



A native of Ceylon, where it was first found by Mr. 
Macrae growing upon trees, near Nuera Ellia, flowering in 
January. It has since been frequently imported, and is 
occasionally seen in the collections of this country. The 
accompanying drawing was made in the Nursery of the 
Messrs. Loddiges, in March 1838. 

The species varies with pale yellow and white flowers, 
the latter being what is here represented. In both varieties 
the fragrance is remarkable, forming a something interme- 
diate between violets and primroses. 

The materials from which it was first described were 
very imperfect, and consequently various alterations and 
emendations in the specific character have become necessary, 
and are now made. 

The magnified figure represents the labellum seen from 
the inside. 

It is propagated in the same way, and requires precisely 
the same treatment as D. crumenatum, described at t. 22 of 
this volume. The side shoot with the roots represented in 
the figure, if taken carefully off, would make an excellent 
plant. 



* 

*• 




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9iLmjL/J/J oifi. ' / /fi 39 



21 



^ ' 



PENTSTEMON barbatum; var. carneum 



Flesh-coloured bearded Pentstemon. 



/ 



DIDYNAMIA ilNGIOSPEBMJ.4 



1 , 

Nat. ord. Scrophulariace^. 
PENTSTEMON. EoL Reg. vol. 13. fol. 1121 



r 

P. barbatum ; glaucum, foliis integemmis radicalibus spathulatis petiolatls acutis 
caulinls sessillbus lanceolatis, floribus pendulis panlculatis, labio inferlore 
corolIsB barbato revoluto tripartito. 

a. foliis latioribus radicalibus inagis spathulatis corollis coccineis. 

Chelone barbata. Cavan. ic. III. 22. t. 242. £ot. Register^ vol. 2. fol. 116. 

/3. foliis angustioribus longioribus, corollis cameis. 



In a fresh state this pretty Mexican plant looks nnlike 
the old Pentstemon barbatum ; the colour of its flowers, 
especially, and its long narrow leaves giving it a peculiar 
aspect. Upon being dried, however, which is one of the 
great tests of species, its distinctions disappear for the most 
part, and it is no longer separable from its original type. 

It was raised from seed presented to the Horticultural 
Society by George Frederick Dickson, Esq. and is a hardy 
perennial, only suffering from excess of moisture during 
winter, growing from two to three feet high, in any rich 
garden soil, and flowering in July and August. 

It is increased readily by cuttings, in the autumn, or by 
seeds, which should be sown in pots, as soon as they are 
ripe, and protected from the wet in winter. The seeds will 
not vegetate before the spring, and as the old plants become 
exhausted in flowering, and are very subject to damp off in 
winter, it is best to raise young plants from cuttings every 
autumn, and also to protect the old ones with a hand-glass 
during winter. 

It may appear necessary to offer some explanation of 
having changed the name of this plant from Chelone to 



Pentstemon. These two genera have been divided by the 
former having woolly anthers, and the latter smooth ones ; 
and supposing that this were really the essential distinction 
between them, the subject of this notice would belong to 
Pentstemon. Others have distinguished the genera by the 
form of the flower, ascribing to Chelone a corolla short, 
inflated, and contracted at the orifice, with winged seeds; 
and to Pentstemon a funnel-shaped corolla, with angular 
seeds; in this view of the subject the latter would still be the 
station of the present species. It is only when the genera 
Chelone and Pentstemon are merged into one, in which case 
the former name supersedes the latter, that Chelone can be 
the proper appellation of our plant; and this combination is, 
it is needless to say, any thing rather than a judicious one. 
1 therefore agree with Mr, Bentham ( Scrophulariacece indicce, 
p. 7.) in striking out of the genus Chelone all the plants 
hitherto referred to it, with the exception of C. Lyonii, 
glabra, ohliqua, and nemorosa, and in placing all the others 
in Pentstemon. 



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DENDROBIUM crumenatum. 



Sweet Club-stemmed Dendrohium. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. Qrchidace^, § Malaxide^ 



y 



OBIUM. Bot. Register, vol. 7. fol 



D. crumenatum; caulibus ca^spitosis erectis basi incrassatis teretibus, foliis ovato- 
oblongis obtusis emarginatis, racemo terminali (3-5) multifloro, sepalis pe- 
, talisque oyatis acuminatis subundulatis conformibus, labello cucullato tri- 
lobo : lobis laterallbus truncatis intermedlo ovato acuto, disco lamellato. 

Angraecum crumenatum. Rumph. herb. amb. VL 105. t. 47./. 2: 

Onychium crumenatum. Blum, Bijdr. p. 326. 

Dendrobium crumenatum. Swartz. Willd. sp.pL no. 20. HorL Trans. VIL 
p. 10. Gen.etSp. orch.p. 88. 



w « 



A native of 



various parts of the Indian Archipelago, 
where it inhabits the branches of trees : this species has 
long been known to Botanists from the figure given by 
Rumphius, and by specimens which travellers, attracted by 
its delicious perfume, have from time to time sent to Europe. 



Dr. Blume found 



Java 



Batavia, and 



the 



of the little island of Nusa Kambanga ; and the late Si 



Stamford Raffles met with it in Sumat 



Rumphius gives 



no locality for it, referring from the body of his work to a 
description in the Appendix or Auctuarium, where, how- 
ever, nothing is to be found except a back reference to the 
body of the work : it is doubtless however an inhabitant of 



Am 



oyna 



The 



specimen now figured was sent 




Mr 



Nightingale from Ceylon to his Grace the Duke of Northum 



berland, in whose 
1837 



at Syon it flowered 



August 



According to Blume it varies with white and pink flowers 



and with leaves more or less oblong and 



It 



1839 



I 



of the easiest of the genus to manage, and well repays the 
cultivator for the trouble he bestows upon it. 



Why it is called 

am unable to state. 



crumenatum, (literally purse-shaped) I 
Rumphius, with whom the name origi 



nated, gives no explanation ; but in one place he calls it A. 
crumenatum, and in another AngrcBcumangustis crumenis. 

Fig. 1. represents a side view of the labellum; 2. the 
column, and 3. the pollen-masses. 

The species is easily multiplied by taking side shoots from 
the old plant ; sometimes young shoots wdll grow from the 
stem instead of flowers ; these, if taken off" carefully and laid 
upon warm damp moss, will, in a short time, make excellent 
plants. Its cultivation is simple. It belongs to that class of 
plants which have a period of growth and a period of rest. 



All that is requisite, is the temperature of the 
plentiful supply of water during the growing 



this 

house 

perfectly dry, when 



stove, and a 

Lson. When 

past, the plant should be remfoved to a cooler 

least to the coolest part of the house, and kept 



and form its flower-buds 



wood will harden 



It may afterward 



brought into the warmest part of the stove, when the 
will be a profusion of flowers. 



be 



i 



m 



'23 




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I' 
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23 



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SALVIA patens. 

Large Blue Mexican Sage. 



DIANDRIA MO^OGYlilA. 



Nat. ord. Lamiace^, or Labiate. 
SALVIA. Bot. Register y vol. 18. foL 1554 



4 
4 



§ 7. LoNGiFLOR^, ccerulese. Bentham lab. 276. 

I 

S. patens ; radlce tuberosa, foliis cordatis aut hastatis ovato-oblongis suprk pi- 
losis subtus pubescentibus florallbus lanceolato-linearibus, verticillastris re- 
tnotis subbiflorisjfloribus maximis, galea falcata, labelli trllobilobis lateralibus 
minutis acutis intermedio transverse concavo subangulato emarginato. 

S. patens. Cav. tc. V. 33. /• 454. Bentham Labiat. 295. Id. in hort. trans, 
n, $. IL 222. t. X. 

S. SDectabllis. H. B. K. n. a. sv. vL II. 304. 



Of this, the finest of the genus, a beautiful figure has 
been published in the last part of 'the Transactions of the 
Horticultural Society of London, together with an account 
of it by Mr. Bentham. 

Instead of referring to that account I avail myself of a 
manuscript communication upon the subject, for which I am 
indebted to my excellent correspondent Mr. W. B. Booth, 
of whose drawing the annexed is a copy. 

Specimens were sent me last autumn by Mr. Rogers of 
Southampton, Messrs. Lowe and Co. of Clapton, and Mr. 
Pontey of Plymouth. 

" My knowledge of this handsome species of Salvia was 
first derived from a plant exhibited at the Meeting of the 
Cornwall Horticultural Society at Truro, in July, 1838, by 
John Penberthy Magor, Esq. of Penventon, near Redruth, 
to whom I am indebted for the specimens from which the 
accompanying figure and description were taken. It is a 
native of Mexico, from whence roots of it, in a dried state, 
were forwarded to this country in the spring of 1838, one of 
which shortly afterwards produced its magnificent flowers in 
Mr. Magor's garden, and has continued to do so in an airy 
greenhouse ever since. It is one of the largest blue flowering 
kinds yet introduced, and is a valuable addition to the 
splendid assortment of Mexican Salvias which we already 

possess. 

^^ Root perennial, fasciculated, fleshy and fibrous, very 

much resembling that of an Alstromeria, and in this respect 
differing from most other Salvias with which I am ac- 
quainted. The old tubers decay after planting, and are 
succeeded by new ones, which are long and slender, and of 



a pale brown colour. Stems shrubby, upright and much 
branched, from two and a half to three feet high, but pro- 
bably larger when grown in the open border. Leaves three- 
lobed, or more probably hastate, rounded at the base, with 
obtuse points, and finely serrated at the edges. Those of the 
stem have channelled hairy footstalks, from two and a half 
to three inches long, and are besides much larger than the 
rest, usually measuring about four inches in length, and 
nearly the same from the point of one lobe across to the 
other. The smaller leaves have short footstalks, and are 
narrow in proportion to their length ; the latter varies from 
two to two inches and a half, while they are only about one 
inch and a half in breadth. All of them are of a deep green, 
strongly reticulated, and densely clothed with soft hairy 
pubescence. Bracts linear-lanceolate, three-nerved, and 
about an inch long. Pedicels scarcely half the length of 
the bracteas, round, and of a paler green than the leaves. 
Calyx somewhat campanulate, two-lipped, both of them acu- 
minate, and tinged with brown at the point. The upper lip 
is larger and rather longer than the lower one, which is bifid. 
The Flowers are produced in loose, erect, terminal spikes, 
containing upwards of sixteen on each. They are large and 
handsome, of a deep purplish blue, and come in pairs at each 
joint. The upper lip, which extends horizontally, is much 
arched and compressed. It measures about two inches in 
length, from the calyx to the point, and its breadth in the 
middle of the arch, from which it diminishes both ways, is 
about half an inch. The edges are a pale blue. The lower 
lip is three-lobed, and hangs nearly at right angles with the 
upper, which it exceeds a little in length. The middle 
lobe is the largest, and measures one inch and a quarter 
across. It is round and spreadiug, somewhat undulated 
at the margin, and notched in the middle. The lateral lobes 
are revolute at the edges, and about an inch in length. 
The opening of the throat is marked by three small white 
stripes on each side. Stamens filiform, curved, and together 
with the styUt which is rather longer and more slender, 
concealed by the upper lip. At the base they are slightly 
gibbous, and unite into a small spathulate process, which 
projects a little below the junction with the two bodies that 
attaches them to the lip. Ovarium four-lobed, containing 
one erect seed in each, and enclosed by the calyx, which 
contracts at the mouth after the flowers drop. 

" The plant, perhaps, is seen to most advantage when cul- 
tivated in the greenhouse, its large blue flowers being liable 
to be iniured by high winds, if exposed in the open border ; 
although, like the other Salvias, it will grow in any rich 



garden soil. It increases easily from cuttings, or by seeds, 



which are freely produced. In the course of a short time 
it will no doubt become common." 



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ECHINOCACTUS Scopa, 



The Broom Cactus. 



ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



t 



Nat. ord. Cactaceje, 

ECHINOCACTUS. DeCand. Prodr. 3.461. Revue de$ Cactces, 



p. 35. 



E. Scopa ; caule oblongo multicostato, fasciculis spinarum approximatis basi lana- 
tis, subuHs extimis 30 40-debnibus albis centralibus 3-4 purpurascentibus 
rigidis, petalis biseriatis luteisapice serratis. 

Cactus Scopa. Link enum, plant, hort. heroL ii. 21. 

Cereus Scopa. Princeps Salm-Dyck in DeCand. prodr. iii. 464. 

Echinocactus Scopa. Hort. BeroLJide Pfeiffer Cact. p. 66. 



A native of Brazil, whence it was many years since sent 
to Prussia, and thence distributed through other parts of 
Europe. It derives its name of the Broom Cactus from 
having the hairs of its stem so long and stiff as to resemble 
that instrument. Dr. Pfeiffer mentions two varieties, one 
with all the hairs white, the other with the central ones 
purple, as in the accompanying figure. 

The latter was taken from a specimen which flowered in 
the valuable collection of Thomas Harris, Esq. of Kingsbuiy; 

Some explanation of my having placed this plant and the 
two species formerly represented in this work, in the same 
genus, seems to be required. After eliminating the Melo- 
cacti because of their producing their flowers in the woolly 
receptacle peculiar to those plants, the Maminillarias on 
account of their tubercles not being confluent into ridges, 
and the Opuntias because of their rotate flowers and leafy 
spiny sepals, there remains a considerable number of species 
formerly included under the old genus Cactus, which modern 
writers have divided between the two genera Cereus and 
Echinocactus. Now this partition may be effected in two 



Mai/, 1839. 



K 



ways ; either the whole of the species with ribbed, and round 
or oblong stems may be placed in Echinocactus, and the rest 
in Cereus, without regard to the flowers; or all the long 
flowered species may be placed in Cereus, and those with 
short flowers in Echinocactus, without regard to habit. In 
either case there are difiiculties, for there are species whose 
flowers are intermediate between the long-tubed and short- 
tubed forms, and others whose stems are intermediate between 
the round and the cylindrical, or flattened or long condition. 
On this account it seems to me better to take the stem as the 
distinctive character, because it is the most obvious, unless it 
should be thought better to combine Echinocactus and 
Cereus into one genus. 

The seeds should be sown in silver-sand and very slightly 
covered ; they should then be placed in a dry bottom heat 



d covered with a bell-gl 
potted in pots of 



The young plants should be 

drained, and chiefly 



d 



d. Afterwards the soil used should never be too rich 



mixed with broken stones 



bricks. The plant 



may be preserved in a cool dry house where the temperature 
is very low, but a slight bottom heat in the growing seas 
will always be found to suit it best. 

J' 

It seldom sends out shoots from its sides, and therefore 
is difficult to obtiain cuttings ; but where propagation 
more consequence than a specimen plant, it should be 



IS 



of 



send 



hen the top part will form one plant, and the bottom 

of the cut. Cuttings 



shoots from the 



des 



should be treated precisely in the same way as seedling 



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* MATTHIOLA odoratlssima. 



Sweetest Evening Stock 



TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA. 

* 

Nat, ord. Brassicace-«:, or Crucifer-e. 

MATTHIOLA. R. Brown. Calyx erectus, basi bisaccatus. Petala 
unguiculata, limbo patente obovato aut oblongo. Stamina libera, edentula, 
longlora subdilatata. Siliqua teres vel compressa, elongata, bilocularis, bivalvis, 
stigmate connivenle bilobo, lobis dorse vel incrassatis vel comigeris. Semina 



compressa, l-serialia, saspiiis marginata. Cotyledones planae, accumbentes. 
DeCand.syst. veg. 2. 162. 



§ 



/ 



M 



rascentes. Siliquce apice non tricuspidat<ej stigmatum dorsis crassis 
gibbisve non verb in cornua excrescentibus. DC. 1. c, 

*doratissima ; caule erecto ramoso, foliis tomentosis pub'*«=^'*"*^^^^"«=^'* ilpntatis 
pinnatifidlsve, siliquis compressis puberuHs. JDC /. c. 



M. odoratissima. Brown in hart. Kew. 4. 120, Bot. mag. t. 1711. 

Hesperis odoratissima. Poir. suppL iii. 195. 

Cheiranthus odoratissimus. Bieb.fi. taur. cauc. 2. 122. suppL 444. 



This is one of the many interesting plants which have 
ceased to be cultivated, and have resigned their place to newer 
species. It is one of those Stocks which DeCandolle called 
Luperiae, or sad coloured, because their flowers have ift all 
cases a dull heavy appearance, in consequence of the mixture 
of purple and yellow in the petals, but which in general 
possess the curious property of becoming deliciously fragrant 
towards evening. 

In a wild state this plant inhabits the calcareous moun- 
tains of the Crimea, stony places of the eastern Caucasus, 



* Named after Peter Andrew MatthioH, the laborious commentator upon 
Dioscorides. 



d the rocky ground about Tiflis in Iberia, and also of 
1- coast of the province of Baku. 

When cultivated it is a half-hardy biennial, growing from 



about Ma\ 



high in any strong rich soil, and flowering 



4 

The seeds should be sown about the end of May, in pots, 
and placed in a cold frame ; the plants, when large enough, 
should be transferred to small pots, putting two or three 
plants- into each pot, and shifting them afterwards, as they 
require it ; and finally, they should be placed in an airy part 
of the green-house during winter, for the damp or a few de- 
grees of frost soon destroy them. 



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26 



I 



L^LIA furfuracea. 



J 



Scurfy-stalked Lcelia. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRId. 



Nat. Ord. OrCHIDACE^, § EPIDENDKEiE. 

LMLIA. Botanical Register^ vol. 2\.foL 1751 



4 \ 



I - b 

Tj. furfuracea ; pseu^obulbls ovatis striatis submonophylHs, foliis anguste ob- 
longis erectls acutis scapo multo brevloribus, scapo unifloro (?) tereti, brae- 
tels oblongis membranaceis acutis, sepalis lanceolatis acuminatis patentissi- 
mis, petalis subrhombeis lanceolatis undulatis sublobafis, labelli trilobi bila- 
mellati lobis lateralibus erectis rotundatis truncatis intermedio oblongo revo- 
luto, ovario glandulis nigris furfuraceo. 



This plant was imported by Mr. Barker of Birmingham, 
from whom I received it in November 1838, as a new species. 
It is very like L. autumnalis, represented in the next plate, 
but its pseudo-bulbs are merely ovate and slightly furrowed, 
instead of having a long neck and being deeply furrowed ; 
the leaves are solitary or in pairs, and not in twos or threes; 
they are erect and straight, not spreading and curved j the 
flowers have little or no smell ; the petals are so much more 
undulated as to appear lobed, and they are distinctly rhom- 
boidal, and finally the ovary is closely covered with black 
mealy glands. It would seem moreover that the scape does 
not bear more than one flower instead of several, but of this 
I cannot so well judge. 

It was found near Oaxaca, by Count Karwinski, and is 
probably not uncommon in collections, large quantities 
having been received by various persons from Mexico, espe- 
cially by the Horticultural Society, who have distributed it 
among their fellows. 

A. and B. are varieties diflfering in colour, but apparently 
in nothing more. Tlie species is figured in the next plate to 



L. autumnalis, in order that the differences between the two 
species may be the more readily perceived. 

The cultivation of this species, in so far as our knowledge 
extends, is rather difficult. It probably proceeds from the 
nearly uniform temperature of our stoves in this country, 
differing so much from the temperature to which plants are 
subjected, at considerable elevations in tropical regions. 

r 

There are many plants which belong to this order, the 
peculiar treatment of which is now perfectly understood, and 
which consists in removing them from the stove, and placing 
them in a cooler house for several months every season ; some 
of the species of Bletia are examples of this. 

The present species should be cultivated in a cooler house 
than is generally used for Orchidaceous plants, and subjected 

to considerable variations of temperature by being at certain 
seasons kept in the greenhouse. 



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LjjELIA autumnalis. 



Autumnal Lcelia. 



GYJ^ANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. Orchidace^, § Epidendre^. , 

LMLIA. Botanical Register j vol. 21. foL 1751. 



£#. autumnalis ; pseudobulbis ovatis teretibus costatis apice attenuatis 2-3-phyl- 
lis, foliis oblongo-linearibus patentissimis scapo multo brevloribus, scapo 
teretl apice subsexjBoro, bracteis oblongis membranaceis acutis, sepalis lan- 
ceolatls acuminatis patentissimis, petalis oblongo-lanceolatis undulatis, labelli 
trilobi bilamellati lobis lateralibus erectis rotundatis truncatis intermedio 
oblongo-lanceolato apice reflexo, ovario glabro. 

Bletia autumnalis. La Llave et Lexarz. nov. veg. descr, 2. 19. 

L. autumnalis. Gen. et Sp. Orch. p. 115. Bateman Orch. Mexic. et 

Guatemal. t. 9. 



A very fragrant and beautiful plant, imported from 
Mexico of late years, and now not uncommon in gardens. 
A considerable number of it has been given away among 



the Fellows of the Society by order of the Council of the 



Horticultural Society of London. 

ft 

The specimen now figured was taken from a plant which 
flowered at Woburn, and which was sent me by the Duke 
of Bedford. 

I have nothing to add to the following account extracted 
from Mr. Bateman's magnificent work on the Orchidaceous 
plants of Mexico and Guatemala. 

" The genus Laelia may be regarded as one of the most 
ornamental of its tribe, since pleasing colours, graceful 
habit, long duration, and delicious perfume, in short, all the 
essentials of floral beauty, seem to be combined in its various 
species. Of these, five or six are alreadjr known, of which 
the one now represented, however charming it may be, is, 







perhaps, the least interesting; for it is far surpassed 
L. grandiflora (the Flor de Corpus of Mechoacan) in t._. 
magnitude of its flowers, and by L. anceps and some un- 
published species, in the brilliancy of its colours. Bein 
found at a considerable elevation they all thrive best in 
moderate temperature, and require to be high-potted, as by 
that means the roots are more likely to be retained in a 
healthy state, and are better able to withstand the extremes 
of heat and moisture which, even in the most carefully con- 
ducted establishments, will sometimes occur, and which we 
have found excessively injurious to Lselias, Cattleyas, and 
species of some allied genera. In winter they should be 
very sparingly watered, and kept in almost a dormant state. 
L. autumnalis flowers both in this country and its own, at 
the season which its name implies." 

F 

^ In the Garden of the Horticultural Society its cultivation 

is found extremely simple. When plants are received they 

are tied to a block of wood, and kept perfectly dry until 

they begin to send out roots, and manifest other signs of 

growth. They are then freely syringed two or three times 

a day, and this practice is continued until the growing 

season is past. They are then removed to a cooler house 

with a drier^atmosphere, in which they are allowed to winter, 

and when this season is over, the above treatment is again 
renewed. ■, ° 



It is multiplied in the usual way; the front shoots make 
best plants. 



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28 



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* TRICHINItJM alopecuroideum 



Foxtail Trickinium. 



t 



MONADELPHIA PENTANDRIA. 



Nat. Ord, AMARANTHACEiE. 

TRICHINIUM. R. Br. Flores hermaphroditi, tribracteati, Perigo- 
nium 5-phyllum, foliolis llnearibus. Stamina 5, basi connata ; filamenta fili- 
fortnia; antherae biloculares ; staminodiainterjecta nulla. Ovarium uniloculare, 
uniovulatum : stylus simplex; stigma capitatum. Utriculus evalvis monosper- 
mus, perigonii foliolis basi conniventibus, apice patulis, plumosis inclusus. 
Semen lenticular i-reniforme ; testa crustaceS. Embryo annularis, peripbericus, 

albumen farinaceum cingens ; radiculd centrifuga. Herbae annucB v.perennes, 

in Nova HoUandia intra et extra tropicos provenientes ; foliis alternis, flori- 
bus terminalibus capitatis r, spicatis^ bracteis scariosis nitentibus. Endl. 
gen. plant, no. 1963. 



\ 



t 

f 



T. alopecuroideum ; caule ramose sulcato glabro, foliis lanceolatis subtiis sca- 
briusculis integris vel denticulatis, spicis cylindraceis elongatis, bracteis ro- 
tundatis, calycibus herbaceis sursum calvis acutis, rachi pilosS, cyatbo 
staminum dentato. 

T. alopecuroideum. LindL in Mitchell's Australian expeditions^ vol. ii. 

13. e^. 2. 



The singular genus to which this species belongs is ex- 
clusively Australian, Six species only are described by Dr. 
Brown, but many more are known, and their number \»ill 
probably be found considerable. It is remarkable for the 
great quantity of delicate knotted hairs with which the 
densely spiked or capitate flowers are covered. 

That now figured, the first which has been known to 
flower in Europe, was raised from Swan River seeds by 
Robert Mangles, Esq. of Sunning Hill ; I possess wild speci- 
mens from the same country, for which I am indebted to 



/ 



; 



* rpt'xtvoc, composed of hairs, in allusion to the shaggy flowers. 



May 



h 



1 



straggling hairs, one of which is seen magnified at 



Captain James Mangles, and to Mr. Toward, gardener to 
H.R.H. the Duchess of Gloucester. It was also met with 
by Major Sir T. L. Mitchell, during his important expedition 
to the Rivers Darling and Murray in the year 1836, and 
was named by me in the note to his account of the proceed- 
ings of his party. 

It is a half-hardy annual, flowering abundantly in the 
open border during tlie summer, and although not appearing 
very pretty in a plate, is sufficiently striking to deserve 
cultivation, for the surface of its flowers is glossy like those 
of the cockscomb. 

Fig. 1. is a magnified view of a single flower ; fig. 2. re- 
presents the cup, stamens and ovary, whose style is clothed 
with 

fig. 4. ; and fig. 3. exhibits a section of an ovary, with the 
ovule and the funiculus, from whose end it hangs suspended. 

At Swan River are two other species, whose beauty would 
make them most desirable plants to introduce ; as neither 
of them are described, I beg to name the one after my ex- 
cellent friend Captain James Mangles, R.N. to whom I am 
indebted for a fine collection of dried New Holland plants, 
and the other after His Excellency Sir James Stirling, who 
has done so much for the introduction of new plants to 
England during his government of the Swan River colony. 

Tr. Manglesii ; caulibus simplicibus ascendentibus sulcatxs foliisque spathulatis 
acutis undulatis glabris, capitulis maximis ovatis, bracteis lineari-lanceolatis 
acuminatis, sepalis aplce erosis et serrulatis calvis basi pilis densissimis lana- 

tis, cyatho staminutn integerrimo brevissimo, stylo glabro. Heads three 

* inches across. Flowers pink at the tips, silvery at the base. 

Tr, Slirlingii; caulibus flexuosis ramosis puberulis, foliis linearl-oblongis acutis- 
simis sessilibus, capitulis sphaericis subsolitariis. bracteis subrotundis cuspi- 
datis, sepalis truncatis ad apicem usque villosis intus basi lanatis, cyatho 
staminum brevissimo integerrimo. — — Heads rather less than an inch and a 
half across, silvery, just tinged with pink. 







6/ 



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29 



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SALVIA confertiflora. 



Close-Jiowered Sage. 



DIANDRIA MO'NOGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. Lamiace^, or Labiate. 
SALVIA. Bot. Register, vol. 18. fol. 1554 



V 



§ 



Erianthce. Bentham lab. 273. 



mfertiflora ; caule fruticoso tomentoso, foliis petiolatis ovato-oblongis acu- 
tiusculis crenatis basi cuneatis supra rugosis subtils albo-tomentosis, flora- 
libus nanis ovatis acuminatis reflexis v. deciduls, racemis elongatis, verticil- 
lastris dens6 multifloris, calycibus corollisque fulvosanguineis lanatis his 



duplo tantiim longloribus ; limbi conniventis lobo intermedio integro, con- 
nectlvis deflexis dilatatis abbreviatis connatis hinc ciliatis, stylo glabro. 
S. confertiflora. Bentham lahiat. '276. 



This Sage is one of the many Brazilian species which d 



introduction to our gardens 



It 



found 



Rio 



Janeiro by Mr. Macrae, while in the service of the Horticul- 
tural Society, and in other parts of the empire by Sellow and 
Pohl. It belongs to a small section of the genus with short 
woolly flowers, the only other species of which, as yet in 
srardens, is the Salvia leucantha of Mexico. 

Its flowers are so bright and numerous as to render the 



o 



plant a conspicuous object during the autumn month 



which time 



blossoms. Whether 



fficiently 



hardy to live out of doors in the summer is uncertam. 

The figure was taken from a plant presented to the Horti 
cultural Society by John Dillwyn Llewellyn, Esq. 

The leaves have rather a heavy disagreeable smell of 

peculiar nature, tesc 
Dead-nettle and Sorrel 



mbling perhaps a combination of the 



This species may be cultivated either in a greenhouse, or 



planted out in a rich border during the summer months. 



It 



however seen in its greatest beauty when grown in a ho 



hich is intermediate between a greenh 



that is, where the temperature in winter and spring 



and stove ; 



below 55° of Fahr. It delight 



composed of 



equal parts of loam and peat, mixed with a portion of manu 



d 



d 



great quantity of 



d will require, when grow 



ntly 



a 



are 



Of all the species of Salvia this is the most easy both to 

d propagate. If cuttings of the young shoots 



d in sand, they will soon make 



pi 



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30 



w w 



* P^ONIA Brownii. 



Douglas^ Californian Pceony. 



\ 



POLYANDRIA DI-PENTAGYNIA. 






Nat. ord. Ranunculacble. 

PMONIA. Botanical Registery vol. L fol 



§ On^pia. 

P. Brownii ; herbacea, carpellis 5 glabenrlmis erectis, foliis utrinque glabris bi- 
ternatis, foliolis tematim divisis pinnatifidlsfe laciniatis, sepalis subrotundis 



convexis petalis subrotundis coriaceis longiorlbus. 



r» 



^f 



Hook 



Torrey and Gray Flora 



Petala circiter sex, coriacea, subrotunda, sanguinea, margine lutea, 
sepala breviora. Discus carnosus, elevaius, lobatus, Folliculi 5, quorum 
pars tantum perfecta, coriacea, rugosa, Icevia, obovata. Testa seminum 
sicca, nee succulenta. 



This extremely rare and very curious plant was intro- 
duced several years ago by the Horticultural Society, to 
which it was sent by Mr. Douglas. It is a singular instance 
of a genus hitherto exclusively Asiatic or European, appear- 
ing in the New World under a form different from its ordi- 
nary state, and yet as it seems too similar to be separated. 
Since the discovery of this by Douglas, a second species has 
been found in Upper California by Nuttall. The two form 
a section of Pagonia, characterized by short leathery petals, 
a lobed fleshy disk, and a dry not succulent seed coat. 

Douglas found it near the limits of perpetual snow, on 
the subalpine range of Mount Hood in North West America ; 
according to Torrey and Gray it was met with by Nuttall 



Jumy 1839. 



* See Botanical Register, fol. 1208 



M 



east of the Blue Mountains of Oregon, not in subalpine 
situations. 

It is a hardy perennial, with tuberous roots like those of 
the common Paeony, but much smaller ; it grows little more 
than a foot high, and flowers about the middle of May. It 
may be increased like the other Pseonies, either by seeds or 
by division of the roots. 

It seems rather difficult to keep, for the old roots sent 
home by Douglas, as well as all the young ones raised from 



seeds and given away 




the Horticultural Society, have 



died, the only plant now alive 



being 



that in the Society's 



Garden, where it grows vigorously, planted in a mixture of 
silver sand, peat, and a small portion of loam, more than 



one-half of the whole mixture being sand. It is kept in a 



north aspect, where the sun only shines on the plant a few 

hours during the middle of the day in summer, and not at all 

in winter, and where the temperature is not subject to very 

great variation during summer. The plants which perished 

died chiefly during the hotter part of summer and autumn, 

when fully exposed to the sun. It seems necessary that they 

should be covered in winter with a hand glass to keep the 
roots rather dry. 






Sj 




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31 



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W W— 



LUPINUS Hartwegii. 



Mr, Hartweg's Lupine. 



DIADELPHIA DECANDEIA. 



Nat. ord. Leguminos^, § Papilionace^ 
L UPINUS. Bot. Reg. vol. G.fol. 457. 



L. Hartwegii ; annuus pilosus, stipulis setaceis, foliolis 7-9 oblongis obtusis, 

racerao elongato multifloro, bracteis setaceis plumosis Aoribus inapertis 
duplo longloribus, bracteolis calycis setaceis longissimis, carina imberbi. 

Caulis 2-pedalis, erectus, pilis longis vestitus. Folia etiam pilosissima, 
laxe tamen nee dense. Bracteae citissime deciduce, more L. plumosi longis- 
sima. Flores ccerulei, vexillo medio rosea ; carind imberbi. 



This very fine plant differs from L. plumosus not only in 
its annual duration and brilliant blue flowers, but also in its 
obtuse green leaves and much longer hairs. It was sent to 
the Horticultural Society by Mr. Hartweg, after whom it is 
named, and it has since been extensively distributed among 
the Fellows of the Society. 

It was found growing in corn-fields, and appears to be 
different from all the Mexican species described by Schlech- 
tendahl in the Linnaea. 

It is a very fine half-hardy annual, growing from two to 
three feet high, and flowering freely from the end of June 
until destroyed by frost in the autumn, if planted in any 



'i good rich 



The seeds should be sown in pots about the beginning of 
April and placed in the greenhouse for a few days until the 
plants come up, when they should be removed to a cold pit 
or frame, and when large enough should be potted into 



small pots^ putting four plants into each pot, and finally they 
should be planted out, when the danger of the May frosts is 
over ; a little frost destroys them when young, but not when 
old in the autumn. 



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32 



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. ^ 



PHILADELPHUS Gordonianus. 



Gordons Philadelphus. 



ICOSANDRIA TETRAGYNIA. 



t 



^i- 
-i 



I 



Nat. ord. Philadelphace^, 

PHILADELPHUS. Botanical Register, vol. l.fol. 570 



P. Gordonianus ; rami's pendulis testaceis, ramuHs pubescentibus, foliis ovatis 
acutis grosse dentatis subtils pilosis, racemis compactis 5-9-floris terminali- 
bus, ovario semisupero, stylo 4-partito, calycibus fructus patentissimis. 

P. Gordonianus. Bot. Reg. 1838, misc. no. 23. 



A hardy shrub found by Mr. Douglas on the banks of 
the Columbia River, where it forms part of the underwood. 
It was raised many years since by the Horticultural Society, 
and has been extensively distributed. It is the latest speci 



that fl 



grows from eight to ten feet high, and has 
almost a weeping appearance in consequence of producing 
numerous slender side shoots. 

The leaves are bright green, rather small, ovate, pointed, 

sely serrated. The flowers 



3-nerved 



the base, and 
pure white, in close bunches of from five 



ly scentless, and are produced 



uch great pro 



fusion that this is one of the handsomest of hardy decid 
shrubs. The fruit is large, smooth, with the lobes of the 
calyx broad and nearly horizontal. 

It is readily known by its small deeply serrated leaves, 
its nearly superior fruit, its broad spreading calyx, and by 
the compact manner in which its flowers are arranged. 

It is a very showy shrub, growing in any soil, and very 
hardy, not having been at all injured by the severe winter 
of 1837-8. It flowers about the end oi July, and maybe 
increased from seeds or by cutting off the half- ripened shoots 
about August, when they strike as freely as the commoH 



Willow. This is the latest of all the species in flower, and 
the most showy. 

It has been named in compliment to Mr. George Gordon, 
who has the charge of the Hardy department in the Garden 
of the Horticultural Society, and who has paid particular 
attention to the difficult genus of which this forms a part. 



p 



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33 



-. U 



- U 



* ASAGR^A officinalis. 



Spike-jlowered Asagrcea. 



* * 



HEX AND RI A TRIGYNIA. 



- r 



Nat. ord. Melanthace^, 



GRJEA 



F lor es poly gamu racemosi, nudi. Periantkium G-paxtitum, 
foliolis linearibus aveniis subaequalibus, basi excavatis nectarlfluis, staminibus 
iM — Stamina altern^ breviora ; antherls cordatis, quasi umlocularibus, 



fequalibu 



Ovaria 3, simplicissima, in stigma obscurum at- 



post dehiscentiam clypeolatis 

Folliculi tresj^acuminati, cliartacei ; seminibus acinaciformibus^ cor- 



tenuata. 



rugatis^ alatis. Herbae bulbos<Bj foliis gramineisj florlbus parvis^ pallidis^ 

dense racemosis. 



AsAGRiEA officinalis. 

Veratrum officinale. Schlecht. in Linncea, vi. 45. 

Helonias officinalis. Don. in Edinb. new phil. journ. Oct. 1832. p. 234. 

Lindl. Jl. med. 586. 

Herba bullosa^ foliis gramineis^ subcarinatis^ viridibus, margine aspe^ 
riusculiSy scapi A-S-pedalis longitudine. Scapus teres. Racemus semipe- 
dalis, densissima, stricta, spicceformis. Flores albi, basi hracted rotundatd 
suffulti. Antheras lutece, basi cordatce^ bivalves^ uniloculares^ demUm cly^ 
peatim peltatce (loculis binis apice confluentibus) . 






1 

This half-hardy bulbous plant was received by the Horti- 
cultural Society from Mr. Hartweg, who found it in Mexico, 
in the neighbourhood of Vera Cruz, where it was called 
Sahadilla. It is no doubt the plant found by Deppe and 
Schiede on the eastern side of the Mexican Andes, near 
Barranca de Tioselo, by the Hacienda de la Laguna, in rocky 
places, and is probably that from which the Sabadilla seeds 
of commerce are, at least in part, procured. 

It is however neither a Veratrum as Schlechtendahl sup- 



* 



Mel 



upon 



North America, now publishing 



• 



I 



posed, nor a Helonias as Professor Don has imagined, but a 
quite distinct genus of Melanthacese, differing from both 
those genera and from all others with which it is necessary 
to compare it, in the segments of the perianthium having a 
nectarifluous excavation at the base. Independently of this 
it differs from Helonias and Xerophyllum in having clypeo- 
late anthers, from Amianthium in its short stamens, and 
from Schoenocaulon in its whole habit. 

In cultivation it is a half-hardy bulb, growing about 



four or five feet high 
in September or October 
Tigridia pavonia. 



g rich soil, and flowenng 
requires the same treatment as 



Fig. 1 . is a flower magnified ; 2. one of the 



pals 



3. 4. different 
fruit ; 7. a seed 



of the anther; 5. the ovary 5 6. a ripe 






^ 



^ * 



\ 



• 



^ / 



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34 



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BESS ERA elegans 

Elegant Bessera. 



MONADELPHIA HEXANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. LiLiACEiE. 



latum 



ItesJiL Umbella. Perianthium pendulum, campanU- 



nata, sequalia, regularia, exserta. 



Stamina basi in urceolum epipetalum con- 



ascendentibus ; stigma obsolete trllobum, pubescens. ICapsuL 
thio stipata, septicido-trivalvis. Semina compressa, testa memb] 



spermis 



] 



B. elegans; urceolo staraineo inter stamina unidentato, filamentis pubescentibus 
styli longitudine. 



This charming plant was originally found by Count 
Karwinsky at Saltepec in Mexico ; it was first sent to this 
country by John Parkinson, Esq. H. B. M.'s Consul in 
Mexico, and from a specimen in the possession of John 
Rogers, Esq. Jun. of Sevenoaks, the accompanying drawing 
was made. Recently a large packet of what is believed to 
be it has been received by the Horticultural Society from 

Mr. Hartweg. 

* 

A second species has already been published by Mr. Her- 
bert in this work in the year 1832, under the name ofPharium 
fistulosum (fol. 1546), but the latter generic name must £ve 
way to that of Bessera, which dates from January, 1829. 



Mr Herbert's species apparently differs not only m the 
colour of the flowers, but in having the staminal cup un- 
toothed, the filaments smooth, and the style longer than the 
stamens. 

I did not see the leaves of this species ; Mr Rogers de- 
scribes them to me as two, two feet long, cyhndrical with a 



So named after Dr..Besser. Professor of Botany at Brody, and author of 



enumeration 

June. 1839. 



N 



furrow on one side, deep green not glaucous, and about 
twice as thick as the scape, which is two feet high. He also 
states, that when first the anthers burst the pollen is bluish 
grey, but it becomes yellow after a day or so exposure to 
light and air ; and the pollen of the first flowers was darker 
than that of the later ones. The first flower expanded 
September 12th, and it was still in beauty in October. The 
bulb is tunicated, obconical, and about the size of a Crocus. 

Little is as yet known of the habits or cultivation of the 

plant. Although perhaps hardy it is more advisable that 

it should be grown in pots in the greenhouse, or planted out 

in a conservatory. If planted out in a cold pit or frame, it 

should be well protected in severe weather. If it ripens its 

seeds, they ought to be sown in light soil, and in order that 

they may germinate more readily they may be plunged in 
bottom 




in a frame that is nearly exhausted. As the 
first year's bulbs will be small they ought not to be dis- 
turbed in the seed pot, and should be kept perfectly dry 
after the growing season is past. As soon as they are pretty 
strong, they may be potted off" in a mixture of peat and sand, 
and then the only thing to be attended to will be to give 
them a free supply of water while growing, and to keep them 
perfectly dry and cool when the leaves wither and drop ofl", 
until the next season. 



Itl J -^ tj 




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/- 



Ui 



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5. ^-^daww^ 16C) %:cadU/.i^ .//me / /SZ[) 



^ 0lh<)(/"tAdcij^ ,*«. 



35 



ERIA ferruginea, 



Rusty JEria. 



GYNANDRTA MON ANURIA 



Nat. ord. Orchidace;e, § MalaXide*. 
ERIA. Botanical Register, vol II. foL 904. 



ferruginea 



rruqinea i cauuuuo vcicnuuo «*.,**.«*««*« .-£, , -- — o , 

racemo erecto laterall multlfloro basi squamato, bracteis ovatis acutis ovario 

!n__- .:„- T.-^,,' -:i.,,o ioViz>ni IrtKic IntPrfllihns erertis truncatis mtennedio 



termediis 



J 



This very distinct species wa^imported from Calcutta 
by Messrs. Loddiges, and flowered at Hackney in March, 
1838. I have no information as to the ^art of India which 
it inhabits. 

+ 

It is not handsome, but it is very distinct, has a particu- 
larly deep green foliage, and the smooth delicate pink petals 
form a striking contrast with the coarse green shaggy sepals. 
The lip (fig. 1.) is most singularly crested, and looks more 
like the edge of some cowrie shell than the petal of a flower. 

It is propagated like all other orchidaceous plants, 
namely, by divisions of the rhizoma The soil used m its 
cultivation is- turfy peat, well mixed with broken bricks ; 
and the pot should have plenty of drainage. Its treatment 
Generally is similar to that which has been frequently re- 
fommenid for plants of this description The house m 
which it is grown must be well shaded from bright sun- 



shine in summer 





c <y''-^^A' J'Mo'/ie^ ^^^6 " 




■i'ycA' 



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36 



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CYNOGLOSSUM ccelestinum. 



Blue and White Hounds-tongue. 



PENTANDEIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. Boraginace^. 

CYNOGLOSSUM, Linn. Calyx 5-partItus. Corolla hypogyna, in- 
fundlbuliformis, fauce fornlcibus 5 claus^, limbi quinquefidi laciniis obtusis. Ora- 
rium 4-Iobum. Stylus simplex. Stigma subcapitatum. Nuces 4, distinctae, 
depresssB, echinatae, umbilico dorsall styli basi pyramidats insertae.— — Herbas 
inextratropicis,primis hemisphcera bore alts obvice ; racerrm s^piils ebractea- 
tis, nunc bracteatis, bracteis inter dum foliiformibus. Endlich. gen. b5U. 



C. ccelestinum ; pubescens, foUIs caulinis ovatis acutis basi cuneatis radicalibus 
cordatis ovatis long& petlolatis, racerais ebracteatis, calycis lacinus tubum 
corollae seauantibus. nucibus mareinatis : basi et margine (et interdutn linea 



dorsali) glochidiatis. 



Herba perenwis, \^-2-pedalis, pubescens, subscaber, maleolens. Foba 
radicalia cordafa, ovata, suprd. callis subepidermoidalibus scaftra ; caulina 
ovato-oblonga, acuta, basi cuneata, nullo modo amplexicaulia. Kacemi 
scBpiUs bisbijidi, ebracteati, flore solitario subsessili in dichotomiis. Calyx 
pubescens, laciniis obtusiusculis tubi corolla: longittidine. Corolla cyanea, 
margine alba; laciniis undulatis obtusis, dorso pallidis. Nuces membrana- 
ceo-marginatcB ; cavitate dorsali glabrd v. glochidibus qutbusdam rnmutis 
sparsis aut lineatis conspersd ; margine lateribusque glochidibus majonbus 



obsitis. 



This plant is a hardy biennial, and probably inhabits 
some part of the North of India, though it does not appear 
in the collections of either Dr. Royle or Dr. Walhch. It 
was raised by the Horticultural Society from seeds presented 
by John Nimmo, Esq. of Bombay, and flowered for the first 
time in August, 1838. It is a very pretty species, but its 
smell is heavy and unpleasant. 

It differs from C. undnatum in its fruit, and in the leaves 
not beine: at all acpminate ; from C. mkroglochm, longiflorum, 
and grandiflorum in the cauline leaves not being rounded at 



Juhj, 1839. 



o 



the base ; and from C. glochidiatum in its smaller flowers, 

and mnch less hairy, as well as broader and more cordate 
leaves. 



The seeds should be 



K 

at two different 



the 



first about the beginning of June, the second about a month 



lat 
the 



The plants should be treated in the same 



man 



Giant or Brompton Stocks, part of them being 
placed where they are to remain, and the rest being potted 
for protection in a cold pit or frame during the winter. 



4 ' 




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37 



DENDRObIUM Jenkinsii 

Captain Jenkins's Dendrobium, 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 

Orchidace^, § Malaxideje. 

OBIUM. Botanical Regisier, vol. 7. /bZ 



D. Jenkinsii ; pseudobulbis aggregatis oblongis tetragonis mono'phyllis, foliis 
oblongis coriaceis marginatis retusis, pedunculis subradlcalibus unifloris vel 
racemosis, sepalis ovatis obtusis petalis mult6 minoribus, labello cucullato 
rotundato basi pari!im producto limbo dilatato serrato villoso emarglnato. 

p. Jenkinsii. Wallich. in titt. ■ " ■ 



This pretty plant has been sent by Dr. Wallich to many 
persons in this country, and is now by no means uncommon. 
The accompanying drawing was made in September, 1838, 
from a plant in the possession of Messrs. Loddiges, and I 
have since received it from other places. To Sir Charles 
Lemon I am indebted for the following account of the species 
from the pen of Dr. Wallich. 

** This elegant little Orchidaceous plant grows in large 
tufts on trees. The pseudo-bulbs are densely aggregated 
on a creeping rhizoma, oblpng, marked with one or two 
rings and vestiges of sheaths, about an inch long, each 
bearing an oblong, shining, coriaceous, obtuse, sometimes 
slightly retuse, sessile leaf, about IJ inch long, sometimes a 
little longer. Flowers spreading, large, yellow, inodorous, 
on long and slender peduncles, geminate from the side of 
the pseudo-bulb on a very short cylindric common peduncle, 
having a few scales at its base. Partial peduncles filiform, 
two or three inches long. Sepals and petals obtuse ; the 
latter broadest, oval. Lip very large, reniform, retuse, 
slightly pubescent and ciliate, measuring nearly an inch 
across, almost sessile, a little channelled at the base, other- 
wise spreading flat. 

f 

"I received the plant from Capt. Jenkins in November, 
1836. He had obtained it at Gualpara. It flowered finely 
at this garden in the middle of March following. I have 
since had abundant supplies from the same liberal and 
indefatigable source. 



" I am very happy in dedicating this very distinct species 
to my valued friend Capt. Jenkins, to whom this garden, the 
cause of botany, and science generally, are deeply indebted. 

" The flowers are larger than those of D. aggregatum of 
Roxburgh, to which it bears a slight resemblance." 



pers 



The species shews in a striking manner the impropriety 
of generically separating the pseudo-bulbous Dendrobia from 
those with slender stems, notwithstanding the dissimilarity 
in their appearance. Here we have a plant with the pseudo- 
bulbs consisting, in the majority of instances, of a single 
internode, hardened, become four-cornered, and as dissimilar 
as possible from the same part of the stem of Dendrobium 
Pierardi ; but in D. aggregatum, figured in this work, 
t. 1695, several internodes (3) together constitute a body 
altogether intermediate in nature between a pseudo-bulb 
and ordinary stem, and similar transitions from one to the 
other occur in D. densiflorum, fol. 1828, and D. Griffithianum. 
all which are so nearly allied to each oth 
unacquainted with all of them may possibly mistake one 

u if ^^^^^* ^^ prevent this the following distinctions in 
the labellum will be found certain. 

? 

p. JenUnsii. Labellum broader than lonff, repand, 
slightly two-lobed, shaggy, serrated. 

D. aggregatum. Labellum broader than long, scarcely 
Travy, undivided, downy only near the base. 

D . densiflorum. Labellum cordate, repand, two-lobed, 
retlexed at the point, serrated. 

D Griffithianum. Labellum ovate, slightly hastate, 
serrated, downy, except near the edges. 

This species is more difficult to cultivate than those 
kinds with long free-growing stems. It is frequently seen 
m an unhealthy state, owing to its being grown in a pot, 
and subjected to a uniform high degree of temperature. 
Ihe best way to insure its success/is, to tie it to a block of 
wood with a piece of turfy peat attached to it, and suspend 
It from the rafter of the house. There it must be well 
syringed at least twice a day, so long as it continues to grow, 
and afterwards it may be removed to a cooler house. In 
tact It never requires so much heat as those species with 
long trailing stems. . 

It is propagated in the usual wav. 



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38 



LILIUM Thunbergianum 

t 

Thunherg^s Orange Lily, 



HEXANDRIA MOSOGYNIA. 

Nat. ord. LiLiACEiB. 

LILIUM. Botanical Register, vol. 2. fol. 132 



L. 



altemis superlorlbus verticillatis, floribus termmalibus erectis, penanthii la- 
ciniis scssillbus patentibus apice revolutis intus glabris staminlbus multo 



Ionij;iorIbus. 

L. Thunbergianum. Romer $• SchuUes syst. ve 
L. bulbiferum. Thunb. in act. soc. Linn. Land. 
L. philadelpbicum. Id. f.. jap. 135. 



This noble Lily was drawn in the nurserj of Messrs. 
Rollissons, in June 1838, and is one of those introduced to 
Europe from Japan, by Dr. Siebold. It was originally 
found by Thunberg, who first referred it to L. philadelphi- 
cum, although its sepals and petals are sessile, and subse- 
quently to L. bulbiferum, although it has no bulbs, and 19 

also destitute of the papillae which render the inside of the 
flower of that species scabrous. It is doubtless a distinct 

species. 

In the volume of this work for 1837, fol. 2000 another 
fine species is figured ; and in the same place will be found 
a short account of the other Lilies natives of the same coun tiy 
Since that time I have received Siebold's beautiful Flora 
Japonica, in which L. speciosum and a vane tv are figured, 
with the following remarks, which the rarity of that work m 
England will justify my producing at second band. 

- Among more than 20 kinds of Lily brought by mc 
from Japan to Europe, and deposited m the Botanic Garden 
at Ghent are the varieties of L. speciosum now represented. 
To thaf with flowers rose-coloured, blotched with purple, I 



i 



give the name of X. spedosum KcBmpferi, because it was the 
indefatigable botanist Kaempfer who first made it known to 
Europeans. For the second, with pure white flowers, I pre- 
serve the Japanese name Tametomo, which it bears in its own 
country, in consequence of having been first brought by that 
hero from the Loo choo islands, as the Japanese assert. The 
beauty and fragrance of the flowers of these two kinds rank 
them among the most magnificent of their genus ; I should 
even say that L. speciosum Kaempferi stood at the head of 
them all, if a variety of Lilium longiflorum, which I have 
seen in Japan, with flowers often 8 or 10 inches long, did 
not dispute the palm, on account of its sweetness. 



" L. speciosum KcBinpferi is cultivated all over Japan as 
an ornamental plant. Its true country is probably China, or 
rather Korai, if we may judge from its name Korai-juri, or 
Korai-lily. It flowers in May and June ; in the Botanic 
Garden at Ghent, it did not flower in 1832 (the first time in 
Europe) till August. Like other kinds of Lily it is freely 
propagated by scales ; it does not however bear bulbs in the 
axils of the leaves. It succeeds very well in a cold green- 
house, and even in the open air, if protected." 

The variety Tametomo, although it has pleased some 
Botanists to make a peculiar species of it, under the name of 
Z.. eximmm, diff^ers, nevertheless, only in its flowers being 
quite white, and the leaves rather more distinctly stalked. 
According to some of the Japanese botanists it is found wild, 
not only m the Loo choo islands, but also in the north of 
Japan ; but it has, perhaps, been confounded with L. japoni- 
cum, which is often wild in those countries."— i^/ora Japonica, 

I presume the Lilies called by the Belgians L, Lehrous- 
sardi and L. punctatum, are both varieties of L. speciosum. 

In cultivation this is a handsome frame or half-hardy 
bulb, growing about three feet high, and flowering from the 
beginning of July to the end of September, according to the 
manner in which it is treated. The bulbs should be fresh 
potted or planted in a pit, well protected from wet, late in 
the autumn, or very early in the spring, in a mixture of 

sandy-peat, loam, iand a small portion of well-rotted dung or 
leaf mould. ^ 



r 



f 



The soil in the pots or pit in which the fresh hnlbs 



planted, should be kept dry 



they begin to grow, when 



should be given, but rather sparingly at first, as there 
is more damage done to fresh imported or fresh potted bulbs 
by over watering, or keeping them damp during 



hile they 
taken together 



a dormant state, than by all other 



The plant may be increased freely from every scale which 
the old bulb is composed of. These if separated, potted in 
sand, and placed in a gentle heat, will soon make plants, but 
they will not flower for two or three years. 



sp 




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39 



PHILADELPHUS laxus. 



Weak-branched Syringa. 



X 




ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. Philadelphace^. 

PHILADELPHUS. Botanical Register , vol. 1 . fol. 570. 



P. laxu^ ; ramis debllibus pendulis atrofuscis, folns ovatig acummatis j>ilosiuscu- 
lis acut^ dentatis basi cuneatis supremis linearibus inteo[errimis, floribus 
subsolitariis, stylo 4-partIto staminibus longiore, calycis laciniis fructu 
elongatis patentissimis. 

P. laxus. Schrad. in DC. prodr. iii. 206. Loudon Arboret. Brit. 2. 954. ic. 

? P. ffrandiflorus. Elliott Fl. South Carolin. 1. 538. 



Whatever may be thought of some of the supposed 
species of Philadelphus now cultivated in gardens, there can 
be no doubt, I should think, of this being quite distinct from 
all others. It is occasionally received from North America, 
in a live state, and yet there is no certain trace of the plant 
in the writings of North American Botanists. 

It is a hardy shrub, like all the rest of the genus, but less 
hardy than most others, wherefore it may be supposed to be 
a native of the Southern States of the American Union ; but 
upon turning to Elliott's Flora of Carolina, where some 



information concerning it may be expected, it turns out that 



only P. inodorus and grandiflorus are mentioned by that 
author. It is, however, possible that P. laxus is what is 
meant by the latter name ; and if so, the species *' grows 
along the margins of rivers in the upper part of Georgia and 
Carolina ; common near Columbia." 

The leaves are smaller than is usual in the genus, very 
sharp-pointed, with the toothings unusually sharp ; the 
uppermost leaves become gradually narrower, till those im- 

Juhj. 1839. ' 



mediately bel 



il 



are, not unfrequently, linear 



and entire ; their upper surface is bright green, with a few 



fine hairs, the under 



much more closely covered 



The 



flowers are white, most commonly solitary, and almost desti 



of smell 



The species forms a straggling bush, not more than five 

feet high, but covering double that space upon the ground 

with its long slender deep-brown shoots. As it leafs early 

the young shoots are apt to be killed by frost, and if this 

takes place there will be no flowers, because it is from the 

ends of the lateral shoots that blossoms always appear in this 
genus. 



I 




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40 



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CROCUS speciosus 



Showy Autun^n Crocus. 



TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. Iridace^. 

CROCUS. Botanical Register, vol. n.foL 1416 



C. speciosus ; foliis hysteranthiis, vaginS. radical! subbiflora, perianthii ventricosi 
obovati laciniis omnibus penicillatis, stylo erecto antheris longiore, stigma- 
tibus linearibus multifidis, cormi tunicis lentis lasvibus. 

C- speciosus. Eng. Bot. SuppL t, 2752. Host, FL austr. 1. 43. Baumgari. 
enum. Transylv. 1. 60. 



This beautiful autumn Crocus is one of those neglected 
flowers whicli ought to abound in every select garden. 
It blossoms in October, is quite hardy, and can scarcely be 
said to require cultivation. It was communicated for this 
work from the nursery of Messrs. Osborn and Co. of Fulham, 
who have it for sale. 

I' 

According to Mr. Wilson it is naturalized in a meadow- 
near Warrington, where it flowers in SejDtember; and in 
the opinion of this Botanist it is only distinguishable from 
C. nudiflorus by its long style. 

In English Botany it is referred to the C. speciosus of 



/ 



Bieberstein, upon the authority of Sir Wm. Hook 



Ifth 



IS 



ctly done, the species will inhabit the woods of th 



Crimea, under trees, and the grassy h 
Caucasus; and I do not perceive any 



of 



g 



Eastern 
the short 



B 



g 



by Bieberstein at 



v 



th this plant 



1 find the opinion of Mr. Herbert, who has studied 



the genus with care, opposed to this conclusion, I forb 
quote any synonyms beyond those concerning 



hich there 



doubt 



It is certainly a native of most of the forests and 



orchards of Transylvania, whence I have a 



Id 



specimen 



ed C. nudiflorus, collected by Dr. Baumgarten himself 



cordin^ 



to Host 



found by the late Dr. Sadler 



the outskirts of woods in various parts of Hungary 

Mr. Strangways saw it cultivated at Naples, under the 
name of Crocus speciosus. 



» 






// 





ijjd 



^I) n.aJ, 



& c/c/ ' 



SUL' Ly / %io 










41 



* INGA HamsiT 



Mr. Harris s Inga. 



POLYGAMIA rOYANDlUA 



Nat. ord. L£GUMiNOSi£, § Mimose^. 
INGA. Botanical Register, vol. 2.foL 129. 



L Harrisii ; (Hymenfleodea) scandens, inermiSy follis conjugato-pinimtlspilosiSy 

f)innis bijugis, foliolo interlore jugi inferioris deficicnte cceteris obovato-ob- 
ongis obiiquls subcordatis, pedunculis solitarlis petiolorum longitudlne, 
floribus capitatis, 

Frutex scandens, viridis^ pilosus. Pctloli semipollicareSy pedunculis 
paulo breviores. Foliola subcBqualia, fere 2-pollicaria. Capitula subviginti* 
Jlora. Calyx ohconicuSj albuSy laciniis viridihuSy rotundatis, convexis, glan- 
dulosis. Corolla monopetala^ turbinatay rosea, viridi limbata^ laciniis rotun- 
datis glabris. Stamina ultra corollam monadelpha ; filamentis poUicem 
longis basi albis ultra medium pur pur eis. 



A pretty climbing shrub, imported from Mexico by 
Thomas Harris, Esq. of Kingsbury, a most zealous collector 
of rare plants, in compliment to whom it is named. 

It seems distinct from all the published species of this 
large genus ; approaching Inga canescens in character, but 
with much larger leaves, shorter peduncles, and smaller 
flowers. The crimson silken tassels of stamens are very 
graceful and pretty. 

The drawing was made in Mr. Harris's collection in 
February last. 

Like many Mexican plants, this species grows best in a 
house where the temperature is a little higher than in a 
common greenhouse. It delights in a rich fresh soil, which 



• 



appears in the work of Marcgraaf upon Braz 



appears to be the vemaailar appeflation of certam 



which It is now applied. 

Auaust, 1839 



Q 



may be formed with a mixture of good loam and peat, and 
about one-fourth of pure sand. 

^ 

The best time to strike cuttings is when it begins to grow 
vigorously. All that is requisite is to insert them in silver- 
sand, and to cover them with a bell-glass. 





42 




■- ^^^:/ ^'3/wt./i€^ c/e/. ^ 



7%l.ly,/f^ 



/ 



^. 



^^^/^ _ v/^^ vf. pJSSp. 



9 



f\ » — *■ 



■ 'A' 



-V 



\* 



'■ - * 



42 



ONCIDIUM pulvinatum. 



The Cushion Onddium, 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA 



Nat. Ord, OrCHIDACEJE, § VANDEiE. 

ONCIDIUM. Stvartz. 



O . pulvinatum ; panicula ramosissimS divaricatS, sepalis obovatis laterallbus 
liberis, petalis conformlbus acutis, labelli lobis subaequalibus intermedio bi- 
lobo undulato lateralibus erenatls rotundatis crispis, disco pulvinato villosls- 
simo, columnEB alis rotundatis. Bot. Reg. 1838. misc. no. 115. 



axi 



rente rectiusculo pennce corvince crassitudine, ramis simplicibus ramosisque 
divaricatis geniculatimflexuosis, internodiis pollicaribus bracteis ref radii 
membranaceis acutis pluries longioribus. Flores O. divaricati si?nillimi, 
lut^i in medio sanguineo guttati. 



m 

One of the largest of the Oncidia, vieing with O. altissi- 
mum in stature, its panicle being 8 or 9 feet long, of which 
one of the smaller branches only is represented in the accom- 
panying plate, and resembling O, divaricatum in the struc- 
ture, colour, and size of its flower. It however differs from 
that species in its lip having the middle lobe largest, not 
smallest ; and in the cushion at its base being much more 
villous and equally convex, not divided into equal quarters. 
The lateral lobes of the lip are also crisp in this species, not 
plain, as in O. divaricatum. 



In the specimen before me th 



in 



the middle, about as thick as a crow's quill, gently wavy, 
and so weak as to be unable to support its flowers without 
the assistance of neighbouring objects. At regular distances 
from this proceed the branches, which are either simple or 
themselves branched, and zigzag in a remarkable manner; 
the whole forming an entangled mass of inflorescence. 

It is a native of Rio Janeiro, whence it was sent to Mr. 



V 



Richard Harrison, of Aighburgh, in the year 1834, by his 
brother, Mr. William Harrison. 

K 

The treatment frequently recommended for orchidaceous 
plants of this kind, will be found to suit the present. Like 
the. greater number of species in the extensive genus to 
which it belongs, it succeeds best if hung up in a basket, 
or tied to a block of wood, and suspended from the rafters of 
the stove. The only things to be noticed in this system of 
cultivation, is, first to tie some good turfy peat to the block 
along with the plant; and secondly, to syringe freely, as 
the plants are apt to get too dry. 



I 




/ - 



rf' 



V 



/, 



/ 



/•/ 



^ 



// 



.-/ 



/ -1 



43 



\J ^_ %J W 



GOMPHOLOBIUM versicolor 



Changeable Gompholohium. 



DECANDRIA MONOGYmA 

Nat Ord, Leguminos-^; Papilionace^, 
GOMPHOLOBIUM. Supra vol. 6.foL 484 



G. versicolor; caule erecto, folils breviter petlolatis trifoHolatis : folioHs Iinearibus 
mucronatis glabris margine revolutis, racemo laxo paucifloro, calycis laciniis 
oblongo-linearibus cuspidatis extiis glabris intiis pubescentibus^ carina 
glabra. Supra miscelL no. 62. 

SufFnitex debilis, glaber, ramis subangulatis Jlexuosis. Folia trifolio" 
lata, petiolo stipulis setaceis cequali vel hreviore; foliolis Iinearibus, mucro- 
natiSy margine revolutis, omninb aveniis et uniformibus. Racemi terminales, 
^'Z-fioriy peduncults capillaribus Jlexuosis subangulatis clavatis; bracteolae 
setacecBy distantes. Calyx extus glaber, intils lined tomentosd intramarginali 
circumdatus ; lacmiis oblongis mucronatis subcequalibus. Flores Jusco-san- 
guineiy (Btate pallescentes ; vexillo reniformi, undulato^ alls duplb longiore^ 
valdk transverso, bilobo: lobis imbricatis. Stamina {eqnalia, glabra. 



This little Swan-river, and therefore Greenhouse, shrub, 
with pretty brownish crimson flowers, becoming paler after a 
short expansion, was introduced by Robert Mangles, Esq. of 
Sunning Hill, to whom I am obliged for the accompanying 

figure. 

There are three species of Gompholobium, with this 
habit, very much like each other, and difficult to distinguish, 
if indeed they are distinct. One of them is the G. tenue of this 
work, fol. 1615, with yellow flowers; it has in a wild state 
the petioles longer than the stipules, and the peduncles seem 
to be usually one-flowered. The second is G. sparsum of 
Mr. Allan Cunningham, found by that zealous botanist at 
King George's Sound ; it has the dark flowers of G. versicolor, 
and its short petioles ; but its branches are more angular, 
the leaves are distinctly veiny on the upper side, and those 
near the bottom of the branches are much shorter and broader 
than the others. The third is the G. versicobr, which differs 



♦ 



from G. fenue in its short petioles, and subraccmose dark 
flowers ; and from G. sparsum in the leaflets not being at all 
veiny, and all equal sized. 

This species strikes readily from cuttings, either in 
autumn or in spring, if they are put into a pot of sand and 
covered with a bell-glass. The soil most congenial to its 
growth is peat and sand, with about one-fourth of good loam. 
When the plant is young its top should be taken ofl", it will 
then send out several lateral shoots, and by topping some of 
these, it will soon form a handsome bush. It is as easily 
cultivated as the more common G. polymorphum. Of course 
it requires the protection of the greenhouse. 






^ 



'■^ 



# 



m 




^/^^ 



^ 



:v-. 



/ // 



y 



y - 



^-^-» 






.-^^ 



■:i IT — ^^- -—- - Mj _ bj _, ,- 



44 



W Ki 



BURLINGTONIA maculata 



Spotted Burlingtonia . 



GYNANDJRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. Orchidace^, § Yxsv>em. 

B URLINGTONIA . Botanical Register, vol. 23. fol. 1 927 



B. maculata ; racemis pendulis, sepalo antenore emarginato : supremo sepalisque 
ovato-oblongis undulatis acutis, lamellis labelli cristatis dentatis, laLello 
bilobo undulato denticulate versus unguem lacero, foliis lineari-lanceolatls. 

Pseudobulbi ovules compressi monophylli basi aphy Hi ; foliis lineari-lan- 
ceolatis striatis rectis. Pedunculi penduli, racemosi, foliorum longitudine; 
bracteis ovario dimidio brevioribus. Floras odorati, lutei, cinnamomeo colore 
maculati, in genere parvi ; labellum cateris longius, basi album, lamellis 
3 intequaliter dentatis carnosis parallelis antice abrupt^ truncatis. Columna 
ungue labelli brevior eique appressa, clavata, semiteres, apice utrinque 
bicomis sanguinea. 



A sweet-scented epiphyte, obtained from Brazil by Messrs. 



Loddiges, with whom it flowered in May, 1 838. It is very 
distinct from all the species of this genus previously known, 
and is, I hope, an omen of there being many more yet to dis- 
cover. It confirms the generic character originally given, 
and removes all doubt about the distinctness of Burlingtonia 
from Rodriguezia. 

In cultivating this plant, it should be tied to a block of 
wood and suspended from the rafters of the orchidaceous 
house. If a little piece of turfy peat is tied to the block 
along with it, it is of considerable service in keeping the 
roots moist. In the growing season it will require to be 
syringed freely two or three times every day, and shaded 
from bright sunshine. When it is not growing, water must 
be given very sparingly. 

If this treatment is practised it will flower freely. 



Fig. 1. is a view of the two connate anterior sepals ; 2. is 
the column and lip, shewing the lamellae and laceraled 



margin of the 

apex of the column 
masses 



togeth 



the crimson teeth at the 
the caudicula, gland, and pollen 



of the latter being divided across to shew that 



really a plate rolled up 



I 



( 



45 



SENECIO populifolius ; var. lacteus 



,■ 



Milk-white Poplar-leaved Senedo. 



^ SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SVPERFLUA 

+ 

Nat. ord. Aster ace^, or Composite. 
SENECIO. Linn, 



S. populifolius ; fmticosus foliis petiolatis cordatis ovatis acutis denticulatis 
supra adultis glaberrimis subtis ramisque cano-tomentosis, capitulis corym- 
bosis glabris, pedicellis tenuissim^ bracteolatis, involucri squamis 12-15, 
ligulis circiter 10. DeCand. prodr» vu 409. 

Cacalia appendiculata. Linn.f. suppL 352. Willd. sp. pL 3. 1729. 

Cineraria populifolia. VHerit. sert angL 26. 

Cineraria appendiculata. Pair. suppL 2, 263. 

Var. C. lactea. Willd. enum, suppL 59. 



A little known greenhouse shrub, which, now that the 
growth of the Cineraria-like Senecios has become so suc- 
cessful, deserves to be brought to notice, either for cultivation 
in its original purity, or for the purpose of producing hybrid 
intermixtures. No coloured figure of it has previously ap- 
peared, but it appears from DeCandolle's Prodromus that 
it is to form the subject of one of the outline engravings 
illustrative of Webb and Berthellot's '' Flore des Isle 



C 



f> 



It is a native of the Canaries, in woods on the isle of 



Palma, whence it was sent b}^ Mr. Philip Barker Webb 



his Gardener at Milford, near Godalming ; and the drawing 
now published was made so long since as June, in the year 
1832, from a plant communicated to me by Mr. Young, now 
nurseryman of that place. 

1 

DeCandolle considers it a variety of the yellow C. populi- 
folia. 

The species is best treated as a half-hardy perennial ; it 
grows freely in any rich soil, and. flowers during a great 

August, 1839. k 







I 



part of the year, particularly in the spring. It may be in- 
creased from cuttings of the young shoots, or by dividing the 



old pi 



the autumn 



d it requires about the same 



treatment as the herbaceous kinds of Calceolaria 
specimens are as much as four feet high 



Strong 



/ 



! 




Jtu^^^/i^/Ce^ ^^^ 




cvf /^^^^^'^^, ::^, Uc'cM^x^Y^^c 



C<^U( 



^J^'^ 



^/iii'Ac^a/f 




46 



POLYGONUM amplexicaule 

Stem- clasping Polygonum. 




OCT AND RI A TRYGYNIA 



Nat, ord. Polygonace^. 
POLYGONUM. Linn. . 



J 

J-m 



P. amplexicaule (Bistorta) ; caule erecto, follis radlcalibus long^ petiolati** cor- 
datis ovatls acuminatis crenulatis integrisque costa subtiis tomentosa ; supre- 
mis amplexicaulibus, spicis elongatis acuminatis multiflorls, bracteis ovatis 
acuminatis imbricatis margine scariosis, calyce petaloideo laciniis ovalibus 
obtusis, staminibus 8 exsertis, 

P. amplexicaule. Donprodr.fi. nep. 70. Meisner monogr. Polyg. 51. in 
Wall. pi. as. rar. iii. 54, Babington in Linn, trans, xviii, 96. Bat. 
Reg. 1838. misc. no. 117. 

P. speciosura. Meisn. I. c. 53. Wall. cat. no. 1716. ! 

P. arabiguum. Id. 

P. oxyphyllum. Id. Wall. cat. no. 1715. ! 
P. petiolatum. Don. L c. 



\ 



* 

This seems to be a common Nepalese plant, varying 
in appearance like all species very extensively dispersed, and 
consequently divided into several spurious species upon the 
supposed evidence of dried specimens. Mr. Babington has 
rightly reduced to their true value the P. oxyphyllum and 
amhiguum of Meisner, and I add without hesitation the 
P. speciosum of the same author, which does not merit dis- 
tinction even as a variety. 

The seeds from which this was raised were received by 
fche Horticultural Society from Dr. Falconer, the superinten- 
dent of the Botanical Garden of Saharunpur, as has already 
been briefly stated in this work, (volume for 1838, no. 117 
of the miscellaneous matter). No varieties were seen 
among the seedlings, and it is probable that the differences 
which have been remarked among the dried specimens were 
produced by local causes. 



1 



i 



1 



i- ■ -^- 



The species is very pretty and graceful, from the 



ab 



"ins w^ich tff' ''TH'^'T ^""^ *^ Himalayan moun- 
to our gardens. °^ '''™^' """^ """" ''« ^^ '<>^^n^^.i^o. 



liould be treated 



m July and August 



may be with 



reach of 



amphibious plant, so that 




It 

roots 



e water; it is therefore well 



dantpH f..v r.7 .• . «atei , n is tfteretc 

dapted foi plantmg on the margins of lakes or pond 



/ 




// 



' ^ 



/ 






'// 



'^ 



/ 



/O / 



/ ' 



47 



«» W 



» " 



* BAUHINIA corymbosa. 

Corymh-jiowering Bauhinia. 



TRIANDKIA MONOGYmA, or DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA, orPENTANDRiA 

MONQGYNIA, or MONANDRIA MONOGYNlA; or MONADELPHIA 

MONANDRIA, TRIANDRIA, PENTANDRIA, or DECANDRIA. 

Nat. ord. Fabacb^, or LEGUMmoSiE, § Cassieje. 
BAUHINIA, Linn. Botanical Register^ vol. 14. t. 1133»' 



H' 



§ III. Symphyopoda, DC. 

B. corymbosa; ramis teretlbus cirrhiferis, follis cordatis subtiis in nervis petiolis 
ramulis calyclbus rufo-pubescentibus, foliolis semiovallbus infra medium 
concretis 3-nerviis, staminibus 3 petala ovata undulata unguiculata sub- 

mm 



aequantibus. 



fl 



DeCand. prodr. 2. 515. 



A Chinese shrub, long since brought into this country 
but resisting all attempts to flower it until September, 1838, 
when its beautiful clusters were produced abundantly 
greenhouse at Redleaf 



Mr. Wells, in the note that 



panied the specimens, tells me that he has 



had 



or 



twelve years 



In Chinese drawings, especially those be 



longing to the Horticultural Society, this 
loaded with flowers, and in ' 
of the handsomest obi 



presented 



ch a condition it must be 



nature. As 



has 



begun to fructify, its period of adolescence may be considered 
to have arrived, and therefore cuttings from Mr. Wells's 
plant will probably continue to yield blossoms regularly, and 
in more and more abundance every year. 

1 have compared the plant with authentic specimens from 
the Botanic Garden, Calcutta, and have thus assured myself 
of the identity 'of this and the plant of Dr. Roxburgh. I 



• So named by linn^us after the two great Botanists John and Caspar 
Bauhin of Basle, who are typified by the twin leaves peculiar to this genus. 

Sentemhei'. 1839. - ^ 



have, however, been obliged to correct the specific character 
given by M. DeCandolle, which is in 



some measure 



with the plant 
Dr. Roxburgh 



this " a very extensive delicate spe- 
cies ;" it has scarcely any thing, he says, that deserves the 
name of stem, but its " many slender branchlets and branches 
climb and spread in every direction to an extent of many 
fathoms, running over high trees, &c." 

It will succeed best in a house where the temperature is 
something below that of a common damp stove. The soil 
should be fresh and rich, composed of a mixture of peat, 



loam, and decayed manure 



The best way to grow 



give Its roots plenty of room, by planting it out in a border; 

where this cannot be done, it should have as much pot-room 
as possible. 

It may be propagated either by layers or cuttings. 

^ The lover of the Linnean classification of plants and ad- 
mirer of its precision, will I am sure be delighted to see how 



this genus Bauhinia accords 



divisions 



referring to the station assigned to it above, it will be 
that It suits equally well no fewer than eight of the L 
Classes or orders. 



Up 




M 



I 



'3 




-y 






y,; 



/• ^e.ii 



Q 9.^. 



J 



A^ 



48 



* ODONTOGLOSSUM R6ssii 



Hoss^s Odontoglossum. 



s 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord, ORCHioACEiE, § Vande^. 



■ 4 



'i 



ODONTOGLOSSUM, Kunth. S^e/^a^a lateralia patula libera, Labellum 
planum, unguiculatum, ascendens, Iiaibo reflexo diviso dentato apice angustato ; 
basl concavum cristS bilamellata rar6 fimbriata sjepiiis antic^ bidentatd auctum. 
Columna elongata, apice auriculata aut aptera. Sertum Orchidaceum, t, 25. 



Odontoglossum Eossii; pseudobulbis ovatis caespitosis ancipitibus monophylHs, 






foliis oblongo-lanceolatis scapo radical! subbifloro longioribus, bracteis mem- 
branaceis carinatis acuminatis, sepalis lineari-lanceolatis carinatis acuminatis 
patentibus, petalis obiongis obtusis revolutis, labello subrotundo-ovato emar- 
ginato undulate lamellis unguis conflucntibus rotundatis denticulis 2 ante- 
rioribus obtusis, cojumna aptera pubescente. Sertum Orchid, t. 25. 



Pseudobulbi compressi, vaginis marcescentibus breviores. Folia erecta, 
bipollicaria, lanceolata^ striata^ vix coriacea, scapo longiora. Scapus erectuSy 
radicalis, medio nudus aut squama solitarid auctus, subbi/iorus ; pedunculis 
medio vaginalis. Flores 2 uncias lati, erecli ; sepalis paten tissimis, lanceo- 
latiSy luteo-viridibus fusco maculatis ; petalis albis basi purpurea guttatis ; 
labello candidoy purissimOf sub lente rninutissimi pubescente^ ungue 3 lineas 
tongo columnd apterd velutind paulh breviore. LamellsB labeili carnosa^y an^ 
ticl connatcBy fronte bidentatce, lutece^ intus sanguineo striatce. Stigma pMr- 
pureo-marginatum. 



A charming plant, sent to Mr. Barker from Mexico by 
his collector Mr. Ross, after whom it is named. The bright 
white lip, lying as it were in the centre of a rich green 
yellow and blue star of three points, produces a peculiarly 
beautiful and unusual appearance. 

Many of the species of this genus are however handsomer, 
and few less beautiful, than this ; let us therefore hope 
that Mr. Hartweg will succeed in procuring them for the 



the labellum at the base. * 



tongu 



Horticultural Society, now that he is engaged in exploring 
the rich neighbourhood of Oaxaca, the head-quarters of 
Mexican Orchidacese. Odontoglossum nebulosum has flowers 
nine inches in circumference, those of O. Cervantesii are 
much like O. Rossii, but larger and richer coloured, and 
both these are from the south-west of Mexico. 

It requires to be cultivated in a warm damp stove, where 
it may either be potted in the usual way, or, which is prefer- 
able, suspended from the roof upon a block of wood. 

Like other Orchidace^ it may be multiplied by dividing 
its pseudo-bulbs. 



/f 



M 



A 




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cy 



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fj^- 



J' " ta** , 



rJd 



yC 




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49 



4 

CHOROZtMA varmm. 



Various-lcavcd Chorozcma, 



DECANnniA uoyr*c.ysJA. 




Nai. Ord. Fabacba or LmmiNoui, $ Pai'iuunac 

CttOnOZEMA. Botanical lU/uter, toL li,/oL9SG. 



C. varium ; fblitt tubartnilibus •uLrutundoswdAtu unduUtui Wfkuum^^eaX^ 
intcgruqti" p'ltwii i titHim, rMfOiw medtt multifloH* fuiiis fMtd^ loajliwflHK, 
oiljrcibua bati obituu pHonf tubo d«nubu»<}iM tubaqittlibw. vrntkmm 

U Bot. lUg. 1 839. muetU. ho. 63. 

Legtinien ^-polUcarr, obovatum, iMjtutum, nhpubftemu, mtik trnmfrrr- 
$i$ approximatu etcvatis im wemtrt evametctntihmi, intut gLtbrum. 
cSrciter 20, oUvacettt ouea, lavigata, tfrani .Vi7«* wutgrnUmdimt. 




Of the beautiful Flora of tlie Swan River Colony I pro- 
pose so Foon to give ail account in tJic forthcoming Appendix 
an<l Index to this work, that it is unnccc«siTT to say mom 

on this occasion than that this plant is one of iti prctti««i 
ornaments. 

It was introduced in the year 1S37 hj Mr. ijmart, wIia 
ffare seeds of it, marked " >'ntivc pra,** to the Ilortiailtwrml 
Society, in whose garden it wai speedily rai«H, pioduring 
two or three varieties, one of which has \\u' leiTat •Imost 
entirely free from spiny toothing!, biit not diflVrrntin tny 
other rc«pcct. In its own couninr it mn< Ih? a vcnr f^ 
plant, for i do not find it in an^ ol the coUi^timtt of dried 
!»p€cimens which I have cxammed, emeepting Jri that »cnl 
home by Mr. Drummond in the conrie of the 1/ 
nnd CTcn there it only occun in Iragmente, with the npe 

s adhering to them. 

With respect to ita culliration, Mr. Fortune, who raised 
» tlie Garden of th*» Horticultural Societr. and whose siili- 




sequent management of 
me the following note. 



very successful, has given 



was 



In th6 autumn of 1837 the seed of this beautiful plant 



hausted 



It 



light 



and placed in a fram 



igetated, and 



nearly 



potted in fresh ligh 



sand 



composed of two-thirds peat and one-third loam and 
v^t/^ . was soon after placed in a cool pit, and regularly 
shifted mto a larger pot as it required it. Under thi? treat- 
ment It grew freely, and was covered with its beautiful 
nowers for several 
year. 



months in the early part of the present 



« 



The only particular thing 



must always have plenty of air and not too much 



that 



otherwise 
flowering 



very apt to damp off at its neck soon after 



it 



usual 



It is easily propagated from cuttings, treated in the 



way 



L 

nr./J?^ plant exhibited by Mr. Halley of Blackheath, at 
^w/ J^^f "gs of the Horticultural Society in Regent 

^iven 'nn'T'^ '^' ^.""^'^^'^ ^""'^e Silver Medk which is 
lZ^^ Z ! ^^casions exclusively for new ornamental 

public. ^ ^'"'*^' ''^^^' previously exhibited to the 

I 

to shew k.'i " "^^^""'^ "'*, ""* °^ *•>« segments turned back 
the ovlry "^ ^^ ''^'" ' ?• " ^ loniitudinal. section of 



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* FUNKiA SiebSldi 



SiehoMs Funkia. 



/ 



HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA 



Nat, ord. Liliace^e. 

FUNKIA, Spreng. Perigonium corollinum, tubulosum; tubo brevi 
Umbo sex-partito, subbilabiato, connivente v. patentiusculo. Stamina 6, basi 
limbi inserta, subfasciculatim declinata. Ovarium triloculare. Ovula plurima 
biseriata, adscendentia, anatropa. Stylus filiformis, declinatus; stigma subtrio-o- 
num, laeve. Capsula oblongo-prismatica, trilocularis, locuHcido-trlvalvis. Se^ 
mina plurima, ascendentia", plano-compressa ; testd membranacea, nigra, laxa, in 
alam apice longiorem producta, raphe inter testam libera, adscendente. iSw- 
bryones plures, dimidio albumine longiores, inter communem cavitatem axilem 

paralleli, extremitatibus ra^icularibus incrassatis umbilico proximis. Herb© in 

China et Japonica obvice ; radice ^broso-fasciculatd^ foliis radicalibus petio^ 
latiSy ovatis cordatisvCy acuminaiis^ plicato-nervosis, caulinis nullis, v. sub' 
sessilibusy floribus racemosis candidis v. coeruleis. Endl. gen.pLno. 1100. 



F. Sieboldi; foliis oblongis acuminatis multinerviis subtiis glaucis, raceme denso 
secundomultifloro, floribus pendulis clavato-infundibularibus, pedicellis brac- 
teis erectis brevioribus. 

F. Sieboldiana. Bot. Mag. t. 3663. ' 

Hemerocallis Sieboldiana. Bot. Cab. t. 1869. 

BractesB unciales et ultrd, ovatce, acutce, herbaccie, punctis pellucidis 
sine ordine nofata*, pedicellis duplh longiores. Alabastrus apice ventricosus, 
ovalis, versus basin attenuatus teres. Stigma capitatum^ obsolete trilobum, 
incurvum^ ultra perianthium extensum^ incurvatum. Ovula citb post peri" 
anthii delapsum alata. 



Thi§ very pretty herbaceous plant is one of Dr. v. Siebold's 
acquisitions in Japan, and has now become rather common 
in the collections near London. It differs from the old spe- 
cies of the gardens {Hemerocallis ccerulea now Funkia ovata, 
and Hemerocallis Japonica or alba now Funkia suhcordata) 



* 



So named by Sprengel, after Henry Christian Funck, a German Crypto- 



gamic Botanist, who lived in the early part of the present century. 



n its much smaller and more numerous flowers, which are 
neither blue nor white, but of a pale lilac colour. 

^ It proves a hardy perennial, growing about a foot high 
m any rich garden soil, particularly if planted in a situation 
which IS rather dry during the winter, but well supplied 
with moisture during the growing season, and rather shaded 
irom the mid-day sun. 

It flowers about the end of June, each flower lasting but 

for one day, but the others come out in succession for several 
days. 



h 



The plant is increased freely by dividing the old roots, 
when m a dormant state, or by seeds (which it produces 
freely) sown in the spring. Seedling plants will not flower 
beiore the second season. 

Fig. 1. represents the stamens and pistil, the floral enve- 
lopes being removed ; 2. is a transverse section of the ovary : 
3. is a vertical section of the same part ; 4. is an ovule a little 
advanced towards the state of a seed. 

The accompanying figure was taken from specimens com- 
municated by Robert Mangles, Esq. of Sunning Hill. 



s/ 



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V X 



A^ 



(/■ 



— ■' y 



^v 



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y 



51 



GONGORA fulva. 



Tawny-flowered Gongora 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. Orchidace^, § Vande^. 
GONGORA, Fl. Peruv. Botanical Register, vol. 19. fol. 1616. 



fulva; hypochilii convex! cornubus lateralibus elongatls capitatis aristis 
ceis. enichilio acuminato seauUonpo. oedicellis columna tnv\b loneiorlbu 



The drawing of this plant has been lying in my portfolio 
since the month of July, 1 836, when I received a specimen 
from Mr. Barker with the following memorandum. 

" The leaves of the plant are very similar in form to the 
Gongora maculata, but are somewhat larger, and perhaps a 
little finer or thinner. The bulbs are deeply ribbed, and 
a little longer than maculata. It is highly fragrant, scenting 
the whole house; the scent approaches nearer that of the 
violet than any thing I know." 

Mr. Barker considered the plant a variety of Gongora 
maculata, already figured in this work at fol. 1616; and 
perhaps rightly. But at the same time, till we have a more 
certain knowledge of the value of the differences found in 
the flowers of Orchidaceous plants, it seems necessary to dis- 
tinguish it specifically. In addition to the peculiarities ad- 
verted to in the above memorandum, and the darker colour, 
the flowers of this are not more than half the size of G. ma- 
culata, and the raceme is far more contracted, in consequence 
of the shortness of the pedicels. I also find that the lateral 
horns of the hypochilium are terminated by a round dilated 
head ; as is represented in the magnified flower of the ac- 
companying plate. 



September, 1839 



T 



MISSOURI 
BOTANICAL, 

GARDEN. 




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52 



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* ZICHYA tricolor 

Three-coloured Zichya. 



DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 

Nat. ord, Fabaceje, or Papilionace-e. 

ZICHYA {Hugel msc!) Calyx campanulatus bilabiatus^ labio superiore 
bidentato, inferiore tripartito. Caroline vexillum unguiculatum, late orbiculatum, 
emarginatum, reflexum, basi biappendiculatum, alis longius. Aloe oblongae, ca- 
rinas ultra medium adhaerentes. Carina incurva, obtusa, alls brevior v. subasqui- 
longa. Stamina distincte diadelpha^ filamento vexillari basi recto inarticulato. 
AnthercB uniformes. Fagina disci nulla. Ovarium pluriovulatum. Stylus 
brevis, adscendens, superne in stigma subcapitatum, saepius dilatatum v. breviter 
appendiculatum desinens. Legumen oblongo-lineare, compressum, coriaceum, 
sutura seminifera incrassata, intus isthmis cellulosis multiloculare, Semina stro- 

phiolata. Frutices volubiles. Folia pinnatim trijbliolata, foliolis stipel- 

latis. Pedunculi axillares, apice umbellatim multijlori. Bracteae et stipulae 
parvcBj rarius foliaceiB. Calyces scepius pilis fuscis villosi. Corolla coccinea. 
Bentham in Hugel's Arch. t. 1. 



Z, tricolor ; foliolis ovato-oblongis obtusis utrinque proecipu^ subtils serlcels, 
calycibus pilis appressis ferrugineis villosis, vexillo cuneato^ alis carina ob- 
tusissima longloribus, stigmate mlnuto. 

Caules volubiles^ pilis appressis rufescentibus sericei. Folia trifoliolata, 
utrinque sericea; petiolo dense piloso ; stipulls triangularibus, subtils villosis, 
suprd glabris sulcatis ; foliolis exacts ovato-oblongis, obtusis, apiculaiiSy ne 
minimi quidem angulatis vel retusis, lateralibus petiolatis. Pedunculi axil- 



foliis lonqiores, sericei, ji 



Calyx pilis ap* 



tato, inferiore trifido, Vexillum cuneatum, retusum, angulis rotundatis, 
supra unguem bicallosum, amcen^ lateritium, basi luteo biocellatum ; Alae 
roseae, obtuste, patulce, carinS. atropurpured obtusissimd longiores. Stamina 
diadelpha, inter se cequalia. Ovarium lineare, pubescens ; stylo a'asso, com- 
presso, glaberrimo, sursiim incurvo et subulato ; stigmate viinuto^ capitato. 



The genus Zichya has been formed by Baron Hiigel at 
the expense of the older genus Kennedya, by separating from 
it the species figured in this work under the name of 
Kennedya inophylla (fol. 1431), dilatata (fol. 1526), and 
glahrdia (fol. 1838), together with the K. coccinea of Ventenat, 
and by adding to it a pretty new species, from Swan River, 
which he has named Z. Molly. The genus thus constituted 
forms a very natural group, and one which, from its graceful 
twining habit, is particularly well suited to ornament green- 
houses. 



♦ So named by Baron Hiigel, in compliment to the Countess Molly Zichy- 



Ferraris, now Princess Metternich, 



The plant now figured was sent me by Mr. Younff, nur- 
seryman of Milford near Godaiming ; it is nearly related 
to Z. dilatata, from which it differs in the following par- 
ticulars : the leaflets are not in the slightest degree angular 
but exactly ovate oblong ; they are not retuse, but simply 
obtuse ; and they are downy on the upper side : the flowers 
are m looser heads, and the calyx is closely covered with 
brown hairs not shaggy with spreading black hairs ; besides 
which the flowers are not of one uniform colour, except the 
basal spots of the vexillum, on the contrary the keel is deep 

purple the wings are bright rose colour, and the vexillum is 
a bright brick red. 

To the six species now defined I have to add a seventh, 
for which I am indebted to Captain Mangles, who received 
the specimens from Swan River; and which, from the nar- 
rowness of Its leaves, may be called Z. angustifolia.* 

thel^if P?^""* T^ ^! increased by seeds, or by cuttings of 

and oot^'^'^r'^^^n'Pr^' ^"^^^^^ ^^ ^ P^* -^ silver- 
hot bed Fn ""ir "" ¥f ^««' ^^^ Pl^^ed on a moderate 

the sand IhJT^^ if '^? '^"^°^^ ^^^" ^'^'^^ "«^^ of 
vountL^r -^ ff"^""'^ '^ ""^^^^ o^ the roots of the 

unhef ifhv oi ^ i "t^ '""'"' *^^^ *« ^^^t^r ^«d become 
Should ha^^e A ^V r''"^ 1^^"^*^ ^ben first potted off 
s ronler the son T ^ u-^^' f^^^ ^^^1' but as they become 
arte^^^^^ ^^'^ ^^^^ Pitted should have a 

thofe b^elon^^^^^^ ^^^P^-*' like nearly all 

rather dry situa^tion. ^'^""'^^"^*' P^^^^^« ^ strong soil and 

houJe'Lrirnt STfew f ^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^" 
where air is adrnS T^\ ^ ^^^''^^^ ^^ove freezing, but 

damp/ ArS'tafTs^laTt - '^^' '^ '^^^ ^4 V^^ 
hardy greenhouse nT«nf« ^ • ipj^^rious to most of the 

them to begt o:rowW I. ""°^ ^^"x.*"^' ^^^^"^^ ^^ ^^"^^^ 
power on ve^ptftTnnl ^ '?'^° ^^^^ ^be sun has little 

wilT bear a &? I "' '^' '^"^^ ^^^^°^^« '^'^ P^^^t^ 
circulatLn ofS Li Pf^^^^ *% have a free 

flC>wered, thej Tayrjet ou't'Td ^^^-^^^ P^-^^ b-e 
care than waLrnJ, .-i of doors, and require no other 

into largerCt ti^^^^^^^^^ tbey should be shifted 

greenhouse r^irfr^int:; ""'^ '^'^^^ '^^^^ P^^ ^^*^ *^^ 



cingustifolia 



pnesertina 



stigmate 



IS villosis unguibus 
longloribus, ovario 



a3 




y f' . / /^-^ ^' 



^ /£; J^cax/Ufy Oel. " / 



53 



W U 



DAUBENYA fulva. 



Tawny Dauhenya. 



HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. Liliace^. 

DAUBENYA. Botanical Register, voLxxuJbL 1813 



D. fulva ; folils petiolatis ovalibus basi convolutis, capitulo pedunculate, den- 
tibus labil posterioris distantibus, anteriore longe unguiculato. 

Perianthium tubulosum, ore vald^ obliquo, bilabiate ; labio perlpherico longfe 
unguiculato trilobo ; postico nano lacinia intermedia dentiformi. Stamina 
6, basi laciniarum perianthii inserta ; aiitheris erectis, introrsis, basi fixis. 
Ovarium uniloculare, cum stylo continuum, placentis tribus parietalibus, 

axin attingentibus, utrinqueserie simplici polyspermis ; stigma simplex. 

Planta bulbosa^ Africana, diphylla^ Massonice facie; foliis ovalibus 
leviter striatiSy basi cuctdlatis ^ Scapus centralis^ foliis brevior, floribus 
suhverticillatim capitalist bracteis membranaceis, cucullaiis 

Bulbus omnino Hyacintlii orient alis facie y sed minor. Folia ovaliaj 
obtusa, basi convoluta, limbo A-5 pollices longo. Scapus cejitr alts, 2-pollica- 
risy teres, nudus ; racemo subverticillafo, denso, capituliformif muliiforo. 
Bractese membranacece^ oblongcBy cucullatof, tubo perianthii breviores. Pe- 
rianthii tubus ^arM5, 2 lineas longus^ teres; limbus 1^ pollicem longus, 
6'lobuSy quam maxime irregularis ; lobus posticus parvus^ erectuSj dentin 
formis ; 2 proximi paulb alterios in limbum, triangulares^ acutiy patentes ; 
turn tres alteri, longo intervallo distantes et quasi unguiculati, labiuin capi* 
tuli peripheriam spectans efformanty 2'lobum, coccineum^ laciniis obovatis 
concavis suhcequalihus. Stamina laciniis perianthii opposita^ ^equalia ; an- 
theris linearibus^ erectis, introrsis, utrinque bilobis. Ovarium l-loculare, 
placentis 3 parietalibus 6-8-spermis, basi approximatis , sursum distantibus 
effoetis ; in stylum cavum, cum ovarii cavitate continuum, ad stigma usque 
Hmplicissimum punctiforme protractum. 



For a knowledge of this most remarkable plant I am 
indebted to Robert Barchard, Esq. of East Hill, Wandsworth, 
in whose garden it was observed in flower by Professor Royle. 
It had been received from the Cape o'f Good Hope, with 
other bulbs, but was believed to have been collected some- 
where on the East Coast of Africa or in Madagascar. 

October^ 1839. v 



It forms a new species of the very singular genus Dau- 
benya, the original of which was published in this work 
some years ago {^Dauhenya aurea^ vol. xxi. fol. 1813) ; but 
it throws no new light upon the affinities of the genus, which 
must still be supposed to be with Massonia. 

i 

+ 

The irregularity observable in the perianth of Dauhenya 
aurea, is here carried still further, existing to as great an 
extent as in the most oblique forms of Babiana among 
Iridacese ; and it adds one to the many already known facts 
leading to the conclusion that irregularity in the floral enve- 
lopes cannot alone be taken as a sound mark of ordinal dis- 
tinction. Certainly Liliacese has been hitherto regarded as 
one of the most regular-flowered of orders, and yet here is 
a case in which irregularity in the flower is carried almost 
as far as the suppression of a part of the floral segments. 
It will doubtless be found, whenever the limitation of natural 
orders is reduced to any principles, and ceases to be arbi- 
trary, that every large order contains irregular and regular 
flowered genera, and that the greatest value that can be 
assigned to such a circumstance is that of characterizing 
some division of the order. 

— ^ 

Among Exogens ItanunculacecBj Papaveracem, ViolacecBi 
Geraniacece, BrasslcacecBy ApiacecBj Asteracem, Campanulacecs^ 
BoraginacecBj CaprifoliaceceyMalpighiacece, and a great many 
others have both regular and irregular flowers ; Scropku- 
lariacecB with irregular flowers therefore should not be divided 
from SolanacecB, any more than among Amaryllidacecs Hip- 
peastrum from Vallota. 

i 

In the accompanying figure 1 . represents a flower, mag- 
nified ; 2. an ovary, style, and stigma; 3. a transverse 
section of the ovary. 



J 
■1 



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t 



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54 



U W . 



L^LIA albida. 



White-Jlowered Lcelia 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRId. 



NaL Ord. OrCHIDACE^, § EpiDENDREiE. 

LMLIA. Botanical Register, vol. 2 1 .foL 1 751 . 



■ r 

L. allida ; pseudo-bulbis ovalibus diphyllis, foliis Hnearibus acutis spica mul- 
tidora 4-pI6 brevioribus, sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis vel subacumi- 
natis petalisque latioribus acutis, omnibus apicibus reflexis fortiter mucro- 
nulatis; labelli alt^ trilobi tricostati lobis lateralibus erectis rotundatis 
intermedio duplo majore subrotundo obscure apiculato reflexo. Bateman 
in litt. Botaiiical Register, 1839, misc. no. 4. 

Pseudobulbi ovati, sulcati, diphyllu Folia angusth lanceolata, erecto- 
patula, scape breviora. Racemus erectus, Z-5-fiorus. Bractese ovatce^ durce, 
ohtusmy sessiles, nance. Sepala Candida^ apice rosea, oblongo'lanceolata, 
patula. Petala breviora, oblonga, obtusiora, revoluta, concolora. Labellum 
obovatum, trilobum, S-lamellatum : laciniis lateralibus obtusis intermedio ob- 
tmo apiculato undulato rubescente multb brevioribus; lamellce labelli lutece, 
purpureo-punctatce. Columna elongata, glabra. 



Oaxaca is the head-quarters of Orchidaceae, in the king- 
dom of Mexico. It was there that Count Karwinski found 
the greater part of the species, of which specimens were 
brought home by him to Munich j it is there that the majo- 
rity of European collectors have obtained the best part of 
what they have sent home ; and where, lately, Mr. Hartweg 
has got together not fewer than 140 species for the Horticul- 
tural Society. 

Oaxaca is the native country of this lovely plant, a notice 
of which has already been inserted in the present work, and 
than which none is more worthy of a figure ; for its flowers 
are as sweet as a bed of primroses, which in fact they much 
resemble in odour. Count Karwinski found it near St. Pedro, 
in cool places, according to the herbarium of Dr. Von Martins, 
in which wild specimens exist. 



I 

-I 

i 
A 



It was originally sent me by Mr. Bateman ; and I have 
since had it from Thomas Harris, Esq. of Kingsbury, who 
bought it, along with numerous Cacti, from a French col- 
lector who visited London two years ago. The pseudo-bulbs 
were so much like those of Lcelia autwnnalis, that, when the 
latter reached London from Mr. Hartweg, it was thought to 
be the same species. 

F 

It is the only Laelia as yet discovered with white flowers. 



^ 



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55 



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* AGAVE saponaria 



The Soap Aloe, 



HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

Nat. ord. Amaryllidace^, § Agave^b. 

AG A VE. Botanical Register, vol. 14. fol. 1145 



A. saponaria; acaulis, inermis, glaucescens, rhizomate crasso carnoso, 
teneris lanceolatis acumlnatis semiamplexicaullbus, spicft simpllcl, br 
acumioatis ovario brevloribus (perlanthii laclniis revolutis). Bota 
Register for 1838, misc.no. 141. ^ 






A full description of this plant having been already given 
the present work, it is needless to repeat it. 

Mr. Skinner is related to have found it used as a substi- 
te for soap in Peru^ where he saw it growing on a sandy 
ain ; it seems however to be Mexican ; and to be vei 
early the same as the Polianthes mexicana of Zuccarir 
which is described as having white flowers, and is probably 
an allied species. That it is an Agave admits I think of no 
doubt; but, unlike those gigantic species with which we are 
most familiar, it flowers readily and does not then perish, 
but continues to grow without suflering ; in fact it is a true 
perennial, while the others are analogous to annuals. 

If this species should furnish a fibre capable of being 
used by the manufacturer, it will then, like the Maguc7/y its 
near ally, both produce a material from which linen may be 
woven, and assist in washing it afterwards. 

Its cultivation is very simple. When it is in a growing 
state it should be placed in a temperature a little higher than 

• Ayavoi admirable, in allusion to the raanj useful purposes to wbich the 
genus is applicable. 



common greenh 



It never requires much water, and 



m the winter months may be kept nearly dry. The soil 
used in potting should be fresh loam mixed with a consider- 
able quantity of sand. 

When seeds are procured they should be sown in light 



soil, and placed in a little heat, where they 
freely. 



getat 





o-'.. 



s/ 5>^^ . /, 



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56 



W * 



* LUPINUS Barken. 

f 

Jlfr, Barker's Lupine. 



DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 



.1 



L UP IN US. 



§ 



fol. 



L. Barkeri; annuus, pubescens, foliolis septenatis obovatis obtusis subtus pilo- 
siusculis, stipulis adnatis setaceis pilosis, racemis verticillatis multifloris, 
alabastris rostratis distantlbus tomentosis bractels subulatis deciduis pilosis 
paulo brevioribus, calyce bracteolato : labiis utrisque acuminatis superiore 
bidentato. 



To the crowd of species of this most difficult genus a 
new one is added with some hesitation; and, till the specific 
marks of the genus are better understood, it will be im- 
possible to feel quite sure that varieties are not introduced 
under the name of species. 

I must confess, however, that I can find no recorded 
plant to which the present can be referred, as a probable 
variety. It approaches nearest to Z. elegans of this work, 
lol. 1581, and to L. leptocarpus of Mr. Bentham, but it 
seems to diflfer from both those plants in the somewhat re- 
markable character of the flower-buds being separated from 
each other by a considerable distance even when quite young, 
rrom Z. Hartwegii, which is Z. bilineatus of Mr. Bentham's 
** Plantaa Hartwegianae," and which is I fear too near Z. 
inexicanusy the short deciduous bracts and freedom from 
villosity sufficiently separate this plant. 

It was obtained from Mexico by George Barker, Esq. of 
Birmingham, and is worthy of bearing his name, fo^ it is a 
very handsome species. 

It may be treated either as a half-hardy annual, or as a 




* See Botanical Register, fol. J 198. 



It 



biennial ; and, like Lupinus Hartwegii, flowers from the end 
of June until destroyed by frost in the autumn. 

If treated as an annual the seeds should be sown as early 
as possible (February), so that the plants may have a long 
season before them ; but if managed as a biennial, the seeds 
should be sown the previous year, about the beginning of 
August; kept in pots protected from frost during winter, 
and planted out in the open borders about the middle of 
May. It makes large plants, growing nearly three feet high, 
and flowering profusely all the autumn. 







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ONCIDIUM truUiferum. 



Trowel-lipped Onddium. 



* t 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA 



Nat. ord. Orchxdace^, § Vande^. 

ONCIDIUM. Botanical Register, vol. 13. t. 1758. 



truUiferum; pseudobulbis elongatis ovalibus comoressis 2-3-phjrllis foUis 
ovalibus fere aequalibus, scapo radicali rigido semel ramoso, sepalis laterali- 
bus distinctis superioribus petalisque obtusis concavis, labelli lobis lateralibus 



rotundatis intermedio 



depress^ laevi antic^ dente ascendcnte serrato apice appendiculato, columnae 
alis integenimis ovatis obtusis. 



This addition to the extensive genus Oncidium is a native 
of Brazil, whence it was imported by Messrs. Loddiges, with 
whom it flowered in September, 1838. 

The pseudo-bulbs are represented much diminished in 
the accompanying plate ; they are in fact six mches long, 
and the leaves themselves are scarcely longer ; they are 
pressed almost flat, so that although fourteen or fifteen Imes 
broad, they are not more than three lines thick (fig. 2.). 

The scape is stiff", erect, and branched in a simply pin- 
nated manner, each branch being covered with flowers from 
the base to the apex. The figure of the bp (fig. l.J is very 
uncommon : its middle lobe is produced into a segment mucli 
like a bricklayer's trowel, at the base of which there stands 
a strong tooth ascending, notched at the side, and terminatea 
by a little notched appendage ; this tooth rests by its back 
upon a tumour covered with regular warts, and forming the 
centre of three such tumours, the lateral ones standing nearer 
the base of the labellum, with a smooth wartless hollow be- 
tween them. 

In cultivation it requires the damp stove. It is e^ijv 
managed ; growing freely either in a pot with the usual soil, 

October, 1839. 



I 

or suspended from the roof upon a block of wood. In either 
way, but particularly in the latter, it must be freely syringed 
during the growing season. 

It is propagated in the same way as other plants of this 
kind. 



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58 



^ \^ 



* AMYGDALUS incana. 



Hoary -leaved Almond. 



-■* 



ICOSANDRIA MOIiOGYNlA. 



Rosacea, § 



AMYGDALUS, 



A. incana ; foliis obovatis oblonglsque serratis subtus i"?^"^*7^^*^'j^^ 

1. 1 _ -..1. „•:• ^ui° — ;o KarKa/»PiQ tnmfintosis. Details emarffinatis 



tubo calycis brevioribus. 
A. incana. Pall.Jl. Ross. p. 

A. nana. 7iar. incana. LoudoTl 



oblongi 



+ i 



A rare and very pretty hardy shrub, inhabiting the range 

of Cau^^ruror op^n plafns nei the foot of the Promon'ory 
near Teflis, imoni rocks. It is readily known from ^. na«a 

by its leav^ covered thickly with hoanness beneath , never 

tfieless it has been thought to be a vanety o^^*' ^P^j^f^: 

This was the opinion of Guldenstadt who iirst «1> c"™'^^ .t 
but it was not adopted by Pallas who first P"^'''nf Jj 
M. DeCandoUe has omitted the p ant inh.s Pj^o^^^^"^' ,^^^ 
Mr. Loudon in his Arboretum Britanmcum, n»t havmS ^^ 

the species, and being perhaps influenced by PaUas 
figure of A. nana, adopted the views of Guldenstadt. 

No two species can however be more truly distinct ! and 

the characters by which they are d.stingmshed namely -^e 
obovate coarsely serrated leaves hoary beneath long do^^ 

calyx, and short petals, of the one and the fi^ly «e"f^«° 
\Jj. ,n,nnt.h on both sides, short smooth calyx, and ong 



leaves smooth on Doin siucs, =..>^.. --- - ., , ■ 

petals, of the other, I find to be ''■"f"'™"^/^; the la" 
In m; specimens from the Caucasus, sent me by tne 

M. D^ KLtine and Mr. Prescot, and m od^r^ fr^^mj^ben^- 

whioli I owe to the liberality ot the imperial 




* See Botanical Register, fol. 1160. 






I 



St. Petersburg!!, all the features of the Garden plant are 
exactly preserved. 

For the possession of it the Horticultural Society is in- 
debted to Sir Oswald Moseley, Bart, in whose shrubbery at 
Rolleston Hall I first saw it growing in 1 837. 

It is a hardy middle sized shrub, flowering about the 
beginning of May, and growing well in any rather strong 
rich soil, but not in a damp situation. 

It is increased by budding on the common plum stock 
about the middle or end of July. 

The plant in the Garden of the Society was not in the 
least injured by the severe winter of 1837-8. 



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59 



— W 



FABIANA imbricatci. 



Imbricated Fabiana. 



PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. Solanace^. 

FABIANA. Ruiz Sf Pavon. Calyx tnhuhsus semiquinquefidus. Co- 
rolla hypogyna, infundibularis, tubo sensim ampliato, Umbo plicato leviter^ qum- 
quelobo. ^Stamina 5, imo corollae tubo inserta, inclusa,^ insequilonga, apice in- 
curva ; antheris longitudinaliter debiscentibus. Discus bilobus carnosus. ^ Ova- 
rium biloculare, placentis dissepimento adnatis, multlovulatis; stylus simplex, 
apice incurvus : stigma obliquura. Capsula calyce persistente inclusa, bilocu- 
laris, septicido-bivalvis, valvis apice blfidis, placentas coadunatas nutantibus. 
Semina plurima, subglobosa. Embryo intra albumen camosum subperiphericus, 

arcuatus. SufFrutices austro-americani, viscosi v. resinosi ; ioUis alternis 

sparsis v. imhricatis ; pedunculis suh-axillaribus v. extra- axillaribuSy soil- 
tariis, unifloris. Endlicher genera, no. 3838, paucis mutatis. 



F. imbricata; foliis squamsefoimibus imbrlcatls obtusis, floribus sessilibus. 
F.imbrlcata. K. Peruv. II. p. 12. t. 122. 



' This pretty little shrub was originally discovered in Chili 
by Dombej^ from whose herbarium specimens are now before 
me. It was first published in the Flora Peruviana, havmg 
been found by the botanists attached to the Spanish survey 
of Western South America, in plains and on the sandy banks 
of streams in the same country. Recently it was met with 
plentifully by Mr. Cuming, of whose dried plants it is 
no. 140. 

It forms a small bright green shrub, with the habit of a 
Tamarisk, or rather of a Thuja, and when in flower is loaded 
with snow-white blossoms resembling those of some heath ; 
it may be in fact regarded as a genus of Solanaceae with the 
habit of Ericaceae. 

It is not easy to deny the justice of the views of Schykofsky 
and Schleiden regarding placentation in such plants as this 



• 



Novemher 



y 



♦ 



\ 

is; for we find the placentae distinctly separate from the 
carpellary leaves, and to all appearance constituting a forma- 
tion with a central origin. It can hardly indeed be doubted 
that the central placentation is of very common occurrence ; 
indeed I suspect we shall find upon more exact enquiry that 
the placentary matter is not always confined to the interior 
of the ovary, but that it occasionally finds its way to the 
outside, in which case it becomes the stigmatic tissue, and is 
surrounded hy the apex of the style either in the form of a sort 
of toothing as in Impatiens, or like a rim as in Ericaceae, 
or as what botanists call the stigmatic indusium in Goode- 
niaceae, &c. . . 

+ 

Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co. of Exeter supplied me 

with a flowering specimen of this plant in May of the present 

year ; and I have also had it from Messrs. RoUissons of 
Tooting. 

It is multiplied by cuttings or seed in the same manner 
as Cape heaths ; and must be cultivated in the greenhouse 
or pit, sufficiently protected from frost in winter. The situa- 
tion in which it is placed should be near the glass, and 
where it can have plenty of air. In the summer months it 
should be turned out of doors, but not exposed to too bright 
sunshine. In other respects it may be treated as common 

greenhouse plants. The soil which suits it best is peat and 
sand. 

Fig. 1. represents a magnified view of the entire flower • 
2. IS a stamen; 3. is an ovary, with its double two-lobed 
crimson disk ; 4. represents the same part cut through trans- 
versely, and shews that one of the cells of the ovary is much 
smaller than the other. 



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PATERSONIA sappliirina. 



Sapphire Patersonia. 



MONADELPHIA TRIANDIUAI 



NaL ord. Iridace^. 

PATERSONIJ. Botanical Register, vol l.fol. 51 



F 

F 

P. sapphirina; foliis Hnearibus virldibus scapoque glabris junioribus tenuissime 
ciliatis : strils sequalibus, scapo foliorum longitudine, spathjs multifloris 
carina interiorum tomentosa, stigmate erecto, antheris isoscelo-triangularlbus. 

Folia bipedalia et ultra, 1 lineas lata; striis (equalihus ; junior a pilis 
minutis ciliata citb deciduis. Capsulae oblongce, angust<B,trigon(B, apice et 
ongulis cum perianthii basi persistente tomentosa; locuUcido-trivalves, pa- 
lyspermce. Semina atra^ ascendentia, oblonga, mutud pressione angulata, 
tenuissime acustriata, angulo centrali loculoruni adnata^ sine ullo column<B 
centralis vestigio ; raphe tenuis; cbalaza elevata subfungosa ; B^hximen cor- 
neum, amylo plenum, oleosum, revera album, sed luce testee violaced trans- 
mssd quasi violaceum ; embryo minimus in cavitate hilo proximd obliqud 
inclusus. 



A beautiful herbaceous plant, requiring the simplest 
greenhouse cultivation, and inhabiting the Swan River 
Colony, whence its seeds were obtained by Mr.^ Mangles. 



Unfortunately the brilliant sapphire flowers, to which colours 
fail to do justice, are of short duration : a large plant will 
however produce numerous flower-heads, and these, by the 
number of their blossoms, compensate for their ephemeral 



existence. 



The species now represented difl'ers from all mentioned 
in Dr. Brown's Prodromus, and in the account ot bwan 



So named by Dr. Brown, as he tells us. in honour of his ''very dear 



iriend, William Paterson, a celebrated 
Wales 



This was doubtless an excellent reason for naming some New Holland plant after 
Colonel Paterson, but none for doing so at the expense of M. Lab.llardierc, who 
first called this cenus Genosiris, 



Ri 



Register 




leaves and scape, which 



described in the Appendix to the Botanical 

course of publication, in its long narrow 



quite destitute of hairiness 



pt when the former are very young, at which time they are 
fringed with delicate down. Besides these there exists at 
the Swan River a species, of which I have a specimen, that 
I presume to be new, but which I am unable to publish with 
confidence as such, which must be by far the handsomest of 
all ; its scape is two feet high, and much longer than the 
leaves, which are glaucous, red-edged, smooth, and half an 
inch broad. Specimens were sent home by Mr. Drrtmmond, 
from whom the seed might be readily obtained, if this de- 
scription, brief as it is, were transmitted to hifri. 

The only description of the seed which I have seen is in 
Endlicher's Genera, no. 1234, where it is said to have an 
ile embryo shorter than the fleshy albumen. Such, however, 
by no means the structure of this species, of which the ripe 
seeds have a very minute embryo lying in an oblique cavity 
of the albumen, in the redon of the hilum. 



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61 



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CLEMATIS lathyrifolia. 

1 

Large-flowered erect Clematis. 



POLYANDRIA POLYGYRIA. 



Nat. Ord. RANONCULACE.E. 

CLEM A TIS. Botanical Register, vol. 2.fol. 97 



m m 

C. lathyrifolia; herbacea, erecta, folHs pinnatis: foliolis ovato-lanceolatis in- 
tegerrimis 2-3-lobisve, corymbis paniculatis, sepalis 4-5 obovatis tomentosis, 

carpellis cum caud^ villosis, 
C. lathyrifolia. Besser. sec. Reichenbachfl. excurs. germ. 2. 734. 



The two common hardy herbaceous plants, Cle 



and angustifolia , although placed 



great distance from 



each other in M. DeCandolle's distribution of the geti 
nevertheless so nearly related that there can be no doubt ot 
their immediate affinity. In fact they cannot be distm- 

" the Prodromus, 

C. angusti- 



guished by the characters given them 
which are almost equally applicable " 
folia is said to ha\ 



flower only on a common stalk 
which is never the case in the garden specimens, neither do 
I find it so in my wild specimens of the supposed variety 



C. lasiantha from Dahuna 



The real distinction between 



them consists, as Reichenbach has 



observed, in the 



leaves and hairy carpels of one, as compared with the 

broad ovate leaves and smooth carpels of the other. 

But to which are we to refer the present plant ? Reichen- 
bach considers it a mere variety of C. erecta, which is im- 
possible, for it has the leaves and fruit of C. angustifoha ; but 
it will not arrange exactly with the latter plant, for its flowers 

ymbose panicle, and are much larger, and 



whole aspect is different 



the size of its flowers 



espondswith the above-mentioned C. lasiantha, which seems 



good species, and not a mere 



ty of C. angusiifolia 



This may indeed be 



garded as a variety of C. lasiantha 



but it wants the wool in which the flower-buds of that speci 



eloped 

What its native country may be I am unable 

"d by Reichenbach to have received i1 



name from 



that writer's Enu 



it 

Professor Besser; but it is not noticed 

meration of the plants of Podolia, Bessarabia, and other 
dismemberments of the ancient kingdom of Poland, nor do 

I find a trace of it in any book except Reichenbach's Enume- 
ration, above quoted. 

I have only seen it in the garden of the Horticultural 
Society, where it was received from the late Mr. Fischer, of 
the Gottingen garden, under the name here adopted. 

It is a very showy hardy perennial, growing three or four 
feet high in any good garden soil, and flowering freely from 

June to August. 

lislon of the old plant when 
m a dormant state, or by seeds, which should be sown in the 
spring ; the seedlings will not flower before the second 
season. 

It is rather a straggling plant if left to nature ; but if 
tied up regularly to a stake, it makes a beautiful object in a 
flower garden. 



It is increased freely by di 



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62 



CYRTOCHlLUM mystaclnvm. 

Whiskered Curvelip. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



Nat. ord. Orchidace^, § VANDEiE. 

CYRTOCHlLUM. Botanical Register^ vol. 19. foL 1627 



Cyrtochilum mystacinum ; pseudobulbis ovalibus compressis corrugatis mono- 
phyllis basi polyphyllis, foliis ligulatis acutis planiusculis cannatis scapo 
ramoso mult6 brevioribus, bracteis lanceolatis pedunculis duplo brevioribus, 
scpalis petalisque ovatis acuminatis, labello unguiculato cordato obovato-lan- 
ceolato subrepando piano apice reflexo medio pubescente basi obsolete 
lamellato, columnse alls multifidis. Bot. Register^ 1838. mi^c. no. 38. 

Pseudobulbi ovules, corrugati^ compressiy intra bases foliorum latentes 
vaginantium ; ipsi monophylli. Folia ensiformiay carinatOy acuta^ avenia^ 
erecta^ scapo composito-racemoso multb breviora. Bracteae acuminatcB ^ spha- 
celatcBy ferh naviculares, majores 6-7 lin. longce. Pedicelli bracteis majori- 
btis cequaleSy minoribus longiores. Ovarium pedicello suo multb brevius. 
Flores lutei, unicoloresy distantes. Sepala lineariay acuminata ; lateralibus 
labello suppositis. Petala conformia, sed latiora. Labellum unguiculatum, 
cordatumy obovatumy acumine recurvo : columnd subparallelum eique basi 
ddnatum ; ungue calloso obsolete lamellato apice dentato. Columna cla- 
vata ; alis laceris, appendice ante stigma emarginato. 



A notice of this rare plant has already been given in the 
volume of the present work for 1838, among the miscellaneous 
matter, no. 38 ; where by a misprint the flowers are de- 



scribed as being " bright yellow white'Colouvedy'* instead of 
" bright yellow whole-coloured.^^ 

It is a native of Peru, whence it was obtained by Richard 
Harrison, Esq. of Aighburgh, with whom it produced its 
flowers' in the latter end of 1837. It is a genuine species of 
the genus, having the base of the lip united to the face of 
the lower part of the column, a circumstance overlooked 
in the separate figure of the column in the accompanying 
figure, which is otherwise correct. 



This species will require to be cultivated in the moist 
stove, but will .probably succeed best when the temperature 
is rather lower than it commonly is in this kind of liouse. 

' - % 

4 

It should be potted in brown turfy peat well drained, and 
treated as other plants of this kind. 

It is multiplied by division. 



U 



63 





3t^cA'^. del^ 



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63 



V 



h 




SCILLA pratensis. 

MeadfOW Squill. 



HEXANDRIA MOl^OGYNIA. 



Nat. ord. LiLlACEJB. 

SCIL L A . Botanical Register, vol 1 6. fol. 1 355. 



•atensis ; foliis pluribus proteranthiis ensiformibus canaliculatis subundulatis 
scapo glabro longioribus, racemo elongate bracteolis minimis scariosis, pe- 



nibus longioribus. 
S. pratensis. Waldst. 8f 

Reichenh.fl. excur 



linearibus 



For specimens of this rare Squill I am indebted to the 
Honourable W. F. Strangways, in whose garden at Abbots- 
berry it flowers in June. It is a beautiful little rock plant, 
quite hardy, and a welcome addition to our gardens from 
flowering after the spring bulbs are gone, and before the 
autumnal species appear. 

By those authors who have noticed the plant it has been 
compared with Sc, italica, but it is in reality much more 
closely allied to Sc. autumnalis, from which it diflfers in 
having evident bracts, a perfectly smooth not scabrous scape, 
and in its time of flowering. 

It is a native of Croatia, in fields and meadows by the 
side of the river Korenicza, and especially near the village 
of that name, flowering in the beginning of June. 

Like most plants with bulbous roots it requires a rich 
sandy soil to grow in, with plenty of moisture during the 
growing season, and to be either protected from wet during 
the time of rest or to be taken up after growing, but not 
before the leaves become yellow ; as cutting the leaves off 
bulbous plants before the new bulbs are perfectly matured 

Novemher, 1839. ■ 



is very injurious, although a common practice, in order to 
prevent the unsightly appearance of Crocuses, Hyacinths, 
Squills, Ornithogalums, and all such early flowering plants, 
because they become shabby during the early part of summer. 



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64 



DENDROBIUM formSsum. 



Beautiful Tree-hloom. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 



DENDROBIUM 



§ 



fol 



D . formosum ; caulibus teretibus pendulis pilosis, foliis distichis ovatis apice 
obliqu^ emarginatis obtusis, racemo brevi terminali 4-5-floro, bracteis bre- 
vibus ovatis, (floribus maximis), sepalis oblongis acutis: lateralibus basi 
Jonge productis, petalis duplo latioribus acutis, Jabello obovato dilatato 
retuso cum basi columnse in calcar obtusum connato. Lindley in Wall. 
PL As. Ear. p. 34. t. 39. 

D. formosum. Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 485. Wall. Cat. no. 1998. 



4 

This magnificent species flowered at Chatsworth, in May 
1838, and the drawing on the opposite page was then made 
from a specimen given me by his Grace the Duke of Devon- 
shire. As a white flowered epiphyte, it is almost unrivalled 
among Asiatic Orchidacese, the Phalcenopsis amaUlis being 
the only one that can enter into comparison with it. 

i 

It has been already amply described by Drs. Roxburgh 
and Wallich ; the former tells us he found it on trees in the 
forests of Sylhet, and in the Garrow mountains, flowering in 
April and May. 



It was gathered by Dr. Wallich on the mountains of 





Nepal and Sylhet ; also in the province of Martaban near 
Moulmein, and in Tavoy on the Tenasserim coast, flowerir 
and fruiting in both the dry and rainy seasons. Mr. Gri 
fith also met with it on trees in damp places in the ne 
bourhood of Moulmein ; so that its range is unusually ex- 
tensive for plants of this kind ; it does not however appear 
to belong to .the Flora of the Indian Archipelago. Dr. 
Wallich says it grows generally in large tufts upon trees, 






or sometimes on rocks ; the flowers possessing a delightful 
though faint perfume. 

The best way to cultivate the plant, is to suspend it 
from the rafters of the stove. It should have plenty of 
good turfy peat to nourish its roots, and must be freely 
watered and syringed during its growing season. When 
that period is over, it should be kept dry and cool. This 
treatment will retain it in health and vigour, and make it 
flower freely. 



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66 



* GRAMMATOPHYLLUM multifl6rum. 



xL 



Many -flowered Letter-leaf. 



GYNANDRIA MONANDRIA. 

NaL ord. Orchidace^, § Vande^e. 

GRAMMATOPHYLLUM Blume; Perianthium exj)lanatum, patens, 
sepalis petalisque subsequalibus. Lahellum cum columna artlculatum, nanum, 
trilobum, cucullatum. Columna arcuata, erecta, semiteres, basi callosa. ^w- 
thera subbilocularis. Pollinia 2, globosa, basi sulcata, in extremitatibus glan- 
dules arcuatae sessilia.- Herbaep2p%^a, caulescens. Caules simpliceSy incras-' 

sati. Folia linearia, distichay striata. Pedunculi radicaleSy hngisstmiy (v. 
ferminales?) multiflori. Flores speciosissimu Gen. et Sp. Orch. p, 173. 



I. 



G. multiflomm ; racenao erecto longlssimo niultifloro, bracteis ovato-oblongls 
obtusis squamiformibus dorso convexis, sepalis oblongls obtusiusculis planis, 
petalis acutis subconformibus angustioribus, labelli trilobi pubescentis nnedio 
nirsuti lobo intermedio piano oblongo rotundato lateralibus erectis subfalcatis, 
jugo in medio carnoso elevato ad basin lobi intermedii interrupto in lamellas 
4 simplices cis apicem evanescentes producto, columnae margine supra basin 
elevato flexuoso incurvo foveam altam obconicam clrcumdante. Botanical 

' Register, 1835, misc. «o. 80. 



For this noble Orchidaceous plant now figured we are 
indebted to the exertions of Mr. Hugh Cuming, who dis- 
covered it in Manilla, and sent it to his customers in England. 
I am not aware of its having flowered anywhere except with 
Mr. Bateman, who sent me in May, 1838, the specimen, of 
which the annexed plate represents the upper part; the 
whole raceme was upwards of two feet long, and bore forty- 
eight flowers, each about an inch and half in diameter. 

The plant has very much the aspect of a gigantic Cymhi- 
dium, with long coriaceous leaves, distichous at the base, 
and in fact there is not much to separate Grammatophyllum 



* 



leaves of the flower. 



\kov a leaf, in allusion to the marking 



December, 1839. 2 a 





from that genus ; the principal mark of distinction yet re- 
marked consists in the gland of the pollen-masses, which in 
Cymbidium is triangular, and in the present genus is 
crescent-shaped, with one pollen-mass on each extremity of 
the crescent. I observe however that the base of the column 
is rolled up so as to form a fistular cavity, or cuniculus, near 
the base of the labellum ; but I am uncertain whether to 
regard this as a generic character or not. 

It was hoped, when this plant was imported, that it 
would prove the famous Letter-plant of Amboyna, Java, and 
the neighbouring coast, so called because its flowers are 
marked with deep brown stains arranged upon a pale ground 
so as to resemble grotesque characters. In this however we 
have been disappointed, " as, notwithstanding the noble ap- ^ 

pearance of this, it is very inferior to the Letter-plant. Of 
that I have before me a single flower from Dr. Wallich*s 
Herbarium, gathered at Pulo Binding, in Cochin China, by 
Mr. Finlayson, which must have been four inches from the 
tip of one sepal to that of the opposite petal, or a foot in cir- 
cumference ! 

As the species is in this natural order among the easiest 
to cultivate, it is well worth possession, even in a small col- 
lection, notwithstanding that the flowers want richness of 
colour : it is probable however that they will improve in this 
respect. 



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66 



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TULIPA maleolens. 



F 

Strong-smelling Tulip. 



T 



HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat, ord. Liliace^^ 

TUIAV Ay Botanical Register, Vol U.foL 1143 



T. maleolens ; caule foliis breviore glabro, folils lanceolatis canaliculatis margine 
undulatis ciliatls, petalis exterioribus longiorlbus ovatis \. ovato-oblongis 
acuminatis, interioribus oblongo-ellipticis obtusis ; macula baseos lat^ rhom- 
boidea emarginata, Bertoloni in litt. et Reboul nonnulL sp* tulip* not. p. 
9, et Appendix sec. B'dmer et Schultes Syst. veg. vii. 376. 



For this r?tre tulip I am obliged to the Hon.W. F. Strang- 
ways, who communicated specimens from Abbotsbury, in 
May, 1838. 

According to Bertoloni the leaves are lanceolate, taper- 
pointed, regularly wavy and glaucous. The flower is red, 
deeper than in Oculus solis and prcBCOx ; in the inside crim- 
son red and shining, on the outside pale red. When in 
flower it exhales an unpleasant but weak smell. The spot 
at the bottom of the petals is short, truncated at the apex 
and emarginate, purplish with a yellow border, larger on 
the sepals than on the petals. The filaments are deep 
purple, and at the very tip light green. 

Mr. Strangways considers this plant to be " only a variety 
of T. Oculus solis ; it is the smallest and most delicate ; the 
bulb wool!]/ as in the others. It is remarkable for its dark, 
rather than bright, cherry-coloured petals, with a pale straw- 
coloured border surrounding the dark eye which that tribe 
of Tulips has ; this eye is of a dark greyish purple, and its 
pale edge is broader and generally more defined than in the 
other cognate Tulips. It approaches more nearly to the 
Tulip of the Euphrates (which I cultivate near it) than any 



other Italian Tulip does. A double variety is said to be in 
the Florentine gardens. 



" It is found 
under S. Miniato ; 
at S. Margherita 
class. 



ear Florence in the fields and vineyards 

and at a greater distance and in quantity 

It is the latest flowering Tulip of its 



" The leaves are glaucous, more or less waved, sometimes 
much so. Its bad scent is not always present." 

\ 

Mr. Strangways adds, that " the Aleppo Tulip is distinct 
from that of the Euphrates ; and proves to be precisely the 
Italian Oculus solis v. Raddiana, which seems the most gene- 
rally dispersed type of 0. solis." 




i 

r 

\ 



67 



V/ \J\/ 



♦ ARBUTUS laurifolia.. 



Laurel-leaved Strawberry tree. 



DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



Nat. Ord. Ericace^. 

ARBUTUS. Botanical Register, vol. \\.fol. 113 



A. laurifolia ; foliis petiolatis oblongis obtusis glabris serrulatis, racemis compo- 
sitis pilosis, bracteis infimis squamEeformibus imbricatis, pedicellis glabrius- 
culis, corolla medio constricta dimidia inferiore corrugata membranacea. 

A. laurifolia, Linn. Suppl. 238, fide Dom. Lambert. 



This plant was introduced from Mexico by the last Lord 
Napier, and given to Mr. Lambert, who is of opinion that 
it is the true A. laurifolia of Linnaeus' Supplement, a very 
obscure plant, said to inhabit North America, concerning 
which no one seems to have much information. Pursh sup- 
posed that it was from the North-west Coast, if so it must 
be the A. Menziesii of that Botanist, and the A. procera of 
this work, fol. 1753. Sir William Hooker concurs in the 
opinion that it was from the West Coast, because no true 
Arbutus has been seen on the east side of the Rocky moun- 
tains ; but he distinguishes it from A, Menziesii. 

For my own part it seems more likely that Linnaeus 
should have seen some Mexican specimen, than that any 
north-west American should have come under his inspection, 
and if so, this is probably the plant he intended. 

Be this as it may, the present species is certainly very 
distinct from A. Andrachne, although it also has a bark 
which peels off when old ; the much less coriaceous and 
smaller leaves, and the very peculiar form of the corolla 
affording abundant marks of discrimination ; the contraction 



• See folio 1753. 



-i 




round the middle of the corolla is so distinctly marked, 
that in some positions it looks as if the upper greenish firm 
conical end, were a separate organ from the white shrivelled 
base. 

From A. Menziesii itself, it is so much less different, that 
I had at one time thought they must be the same. It ap- 
pears however, upon a more exact comparison, that while 
the whole raceme of A. Menziesii is covered with a fine 
delicate down which extends all over the pedicels, the latter 
in this species are nearly glabrous, and the remainder of the 
raceme coarsely downy. The lower bracts of A. Menziesii 
are spreading and foliaceous, of A. laurifolia scale-like, im- 
bricated, and closely pressed to the branch. The leaves too 
of the former are much smaller and thinner than those of 
the latter. 



*fl 




3 . W. 11 



2.W.II. 






68 



PENTLANDIA miniata, var, 2. Sulivanica. 



Red-lead-coloured Pentlandia, Commodore Sulivan's variety 



HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

Nat. ord. Amaryllidace^, § Oporanthiformes, scapo solido, tnbo non 
coronatOy seminibus testaceis. 

PENTLANDIA, Herbert. Ferlanthium cernuum tubo infra subcylindrico 
' tenui curvatulo superne ventricos^ ovali limbo brevi reflex^ semipatente regulari, 
filamenta recta subsequalia filiformia tubi regionis ventricosse medio inseparabiliter 
inserta, stylus rectus tenuis stigmate incrassato, antherse medio afBxae versatiles. 
Flant(B AndincB bulho ovato superne angmtato, foliis hysteranthiis margine in 
oriundo rejlexh compresso serius eocplicato lanceolate august o-ovalibus petiolo, 

crassOy germine curvatulo trigone oblongo utrinque attenuato fronte declivi. 
W. H 



* 

V. miniata ; umbella 4-6-flora, folio attenuate subacuto (unico ?), scape tereti 
subpedali glaucescente, spatha bivalvi acuta ebracteata, pedunculis 4-6 in- 
aequalibus subsesquiuncialibus, periantbio subbiunciali miniato : tubi tertia 
parte tenui sordida, sepalls ovatis, petalis basi angustatis (pedunculate- cor- 
datis) limbum c,irciter f unciae longum staminibus semunciam stylo f unc. 
superantibus, polHne aureo. 

Var. 1. Lacunosa; tubo 6-costato angustiore media parte constrlcto, lacunis 
ssepe externis intiis gibbosis subrotundis in spatiis interstamineis, foliis H 
nncise latis. Ex Quispicancha prope urbem Cusco Peruvise. Fig. 1,2, 

3, W.H. 

Var. Sulivanica ; tubo latiore non constricto neque lacunoso ; (colore satura- 
tiore ?) Ex Americse meridionalis regione Occidentali loco incerto. W.H. 



** The first variety of this bright-coloured phmt was found 
at Quispicancha, near Cusco in Peru, and sent to Spoflforth 
under the name of Red Narcissus by J. B. Pentland, Esq. 
H. B. M.'s consul-general, together with several other bulbs, 
(^some of which are apparently of the same genus) and seeds, 
amongst which were those of the splendid Erythrina, called 
Pisonai by the natives, , The genus Pentlandia is named in 
compliment to his exertions to introduce the vegetable pro- 
ductions of Peru into this country. Figs. 1,2, 3, W. H. re- 
present a flower, the internal view of the same, and the leaf 



of an offset of var. 1 ; the full grown leaf, usually, if not 
always, solitary, would have been too long for the plate ; its 
width is ll-]6ths of an inch. It is distinsfuished from v. 2. 



by a slenderer tube, constricted towards the lower extremity 
of the ventricose part, and by remarkable round pits, which 
appear in the inside like knobs, mostly two to each flower 
in the spaces between the insertion of the filaments. V. 2. 
was sketched and described by Mr. Booth, the intelligent 
gardener of Sir C. Lemon, from a specimen sent to him by 
Mrs. Sulivan from Flushing, near Falmouth, with another 
from Miss Warren of the same place, as the produce of bulbs 
procured by Commodore Sulivan during his command on 
the W. coast of S. America in 1837. Both varieties flowered 
in August, 1839 ; v. 2. with four, v. 1. with six flowers, not 
long after the decay of the leaf. A second bulb of v. 1. 
shewed flower towards the end of September. The scape 
was about a foot high ; the circumference of the tube of 
V. 2. measured an inch and half. The anthers are oblong, 
and attached near the middle. The narrow part of the tube 
is of a dirty colour, between green and red ; the rest of the 
flower of V. 1. is precisely of the colour of red lead, of v. 2. 
according to Mr. Booth's drawing, darker. When the sketch 
of Stenomesson croceum, Bot. Mag. 3615, was shewn to me, 
I was asked whether it was not Pancratium coccineum of 
Ruiz, and I answered that its form agreed better with Dom- 
bey's croceum, understanding from the question that the 
flower had been ascertained to have the cup of Pancratiform 
plants, and thinking that I saw a six-toothed cup in the 
figure. Since the discovery of an allied genus without cup 
on examining the figure, I believe the artist did not mean to 
represent any cup, but merely six ribs to the limb with 
obhque margins, and I suspect that the plant was P. miniata, 
if so, very incorrectly sketched. The section with solid 
scape, shelly seeds, and tube without a cup, slides into the 
cup-bearing Pancratiform section by the affinity of Pentlandia 
to CJrceolina and Stenomesson, and of Oporanthus to Chli- 
danthus and Clinanthus, (a name for which I propose to sub- 
stitute Clitanthes) the three latter with linear, the three former 
with petiolated leaves, marginally compressed backwards* 



The leaves of Griffinla are compressed forwards. 



\ 



/^^ 



.3 





c/. / 




^ 









' y^u:^":. 



<^^-U/i^ 






tU . A/'a^z^Ufyi^ . ,^^y 



69 



A W^ 



* DIPLOPELTIS Hugelii. 

Baron HugeVs Diplopeltis. 



POLYGAiMIA MONCECIA. 

Nat. ord. SAPiNDACEiE. 

DIPLOPELTIS. i^/ore^ polygamo-monoecl. Sepala 5, eestivatlone im- 
bricata. Petala 4, versus latus superlus florls flexa, aestivatione imbncata. 
Discus dimidiatus, posticus, carnosus, truncatus, denticulatus, declivis. Stamina 
ssepius 8, hypogyna, ascendentia, in floribus fosmineis sterilia nana. Ovanum 
superum, 2-a-loculare, inflatum; ovula cuique loculo duo, funlculis proprlis 
elongatis ascendentia ; stylus tortilis, simplex. (Capsula 3-locularis, 3-parti- 
bilis, loculis monospermis ; semina e funiculo longiusculo in arillum minimum 
expanse erecta. Embryo exalbuminosus, curvatus: cotyledones spiraliter convo- 
lutae, Endl.) 



Ti^ Hugelii; cinerea, pilosa, ramis teretibus, foliis cuneatis obtusis gross^ den 
tatis basi nunc pmnatifidis, panicula tenninali glandulosa, capsula obcor 
data cinerea glandulosa aptera. 



A short notice of this very pretty plant has already been 
given at No. 70 of the miscellaneous matter of the present 
\'olume. For its introduction we are indebted to Mr. An- 
drew Toward, gardener to H. R. H. the Duchess of Glou- 
cester ; who obtained its seeds from the Swan River, where, 
according to Baron Hugel, it is found about the town of 
Freemantle ; it had been previously raised at Vienna in 
that noble traveller's garden. 

•m 

It proves to be a hardy greenhouse shrub, growing about 
3 feet high, and flowering in April and May. It requires 
the same treatment as such Cape plants as Hebenstreitias, 
striking freely from cuttings of the young wood, and will 
bear to be planted out in the open border in summer. 

What gives this plant a very great interest, quite inde- 
pendent of its pretty appearance, is the difficulty of deter- 
mining in a satisfactory manner its natural affinities. It is 
one of those anomalous forms which stand intermediate as it 



* From ^trXrjc double, and jnXrt] a buckler ; but the application of the name 



does not occur to me. 



^ 

^t 



were between more distinctly marked forms of structure, 
connecting them with each other, but not very obviously 
corresponding with any. 

It was originally supposed to be a Rutaceous plant, and 
the twisted style, the definite numbers among the several 
floral envelopes, and the few seeded ovary favoured this sup- 
position ; but when it was more exactly examined, the inde- 
hiscent fruit, unsymmetrical flowers, curved embryo, great 
hypogynous disk at the back of the stamens, and undotted 
leaves, were opposed to the opinion of its forming part of 
that order. 

Upon the publication of his Enumeration of Baron Hugel's 
plants, Dr. Endlicher stationed the genus among Sapindacese, 
led to that conclusion it is to be presumed, by its unsym- 
metrical polygamous flowers, large disk, frequently 3-celled 
ovary, as also by the structure of the embryo, and the trace 



of an arillus found upon the seed. Its habits, however 



correspond so ill with Sapindacese, that nothing but a very 



exammation of characters would have led to its beinjr 
stationed in that order. 

F 

In the place above quoted, I suggested that it would 
prove to be an anomalous form of Capparidacese ; my reasons 
for which were, that it has altogether the habit of a Cleome, 
that its stipitate ovary, glandular hairs, declinate stamens' 
and especially its large dimidiate disk, are all in accordance 
with that order, with which the seeds do not materially 
disagree in structure. The objections however, to a reference 
of Diplopeltis to Capparidaceae, namely, the discrepancy 
between the number of the sepals and petals, and the pluri- 
locular ovary are great ; the latter in particular, in our 
present ignorance of the true value of characters, forms an 
obstacle to which the mere habit of a plant and circumstances 
of external structure are not equivalent. 

Upon the whole then I would agree to referrino- Diplo- 
peltis to Sapindaceae, because it is more like that order than 
any thing else, but being stationed there it must be regarded 
as an outlying genus, tending to connect the order very 
closely with Capparidaceae. 

Fig. 1 is a male flower, deprived of its petals ; 2 is d 
temale m the same state ; 3. is a vertical section of the ovarv. 






\ 



before their full developement. Pentlandia has no connect- 
ing membrane, and the filaments, when pulled, snap off 
at the point of insertion. Urceolina has a membrane adhering 
to the tube, but partible, and its edge discernible between 
the filaments; Stenomesson a free and dentate cup. Pent- 
landia and Stenomesson in habit and foliage are closely akin ; 
Urceolina flowers from between the leaves. Oporanthus (of 
which I have a two-flowered scape with two ripe capsules) 
has a naked tube, Chlidanthus a connecting irregularly den- 
tate membrane adhering to the tube, but partible ; Clitanthes 
a cup as perfect as that of Stenomesson. Urceolina and Chli- 
danthus, in which the cup is not manifest, but adhesive and 
imperfect or rather rudimentary, are therefore points from 
which the two sections diverge. The only known genera of 
this section are Pentlandia, Oporanthus, Sternebergia, and 
Gethyllis. Carpodetes has no immediate connexion with 
Stenomesson, with which Mr. Ker wished to unite it, but if it 
could merge in any other genus, that would be Coburghia, 
which in that case, having the priority, it would rather 
supersede." 

For the whole of this article I have to express my obli- 
gations to the Honourable and Rev. William Herbert. 



December, 1839. ? B 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES 



*^* The Botanical memoranda published in the last 
volume of this work under the above title, have enabled me 
to bring before the public no fewer than 183 plants, the 
greater part of which are new, in addition to the 68 of which 
figures were published ; so that no fewer than 251 plants 
have been the subject of illustration during a single year. 
I have reason to believe that this arrangement has proved 
advantageous to the purchasers of the Botanical Register, 
since it has been the means of informing them what the real 
character is of the new plants whose names are found in sale 
catalogues, and of enabling them to judge how far they may 
be deserving of being purchased. 

The experiment having thus far succeeded, it is now 
proposed to commence what I hope will be found an im- 
provement upon the plan, by adding to the notices of plants 
a short account of such new booh or netv discoveries, &c. in 
Horticulture and Botany, as are of sufficient importance or 
interest to deserve to be recorded. In order to gain space 
for this addition, a little alteration in the typographical 
arrangements has been found necessary. 



1. FLEUROTHALLIS pectinata ; folio oblongo acuto cochleato glauco caule 
ancipltl breviore, spica simplici disticha in folium prona eoque breviore, 
bracteis membranaceis cucullatis ovarii longitudine, sepalis pubescentibus 
elongatis intermedio lineari lateralibus latioribus basi ventricosis approxl- 
matis omnino liberis, petalis lineari-lanceolatis, labello unguiculato oblongo 
basi pectinate apice truncato denticulato. 

A curious species, resembling P. prolifera in habit. It 
was obtained from Rio Janeiro by Messrs. Loddiges. The 
flowers are sea green, with a few deep purple spots at the 
base of the labellum. The leaf is so firm, and so much 
hollowed out, that it is capable of holding water, as if it were 
made of metal. 

A. January, 1839. ** 



2 



— \J \J ^ SJ 



fovea ta 



bngionbus, bracteis hneanbus sphacelatis ovario longioribus, sepalis peta- 
is^ue lineari-oblongis obtusiuscuHs, labello postico oblongo apice trilobo • 
lacmia media rotundata carnosa excavata, disco ter aut ^uinquies sulcato. 

A new species from Demerara, for which I am obliged 
to Messrs Loddiges. It is very near M. squalens, but has a 
ditterent lip, and its flowers are of a pale uniform dull straw 
colour. They have a faint, and not unpleasant, smell. 



3. 



\J 



sj \j%a 



strupifolia 



_-_.- „,, ^i^y^.^u, , luiiu luugissimo conaceo obtuso lorato 

piano, racemis brevibus fasciculatis pendulis, floribus hiantibus pubescenti- 
bus, sepalo intermedio oblongo apice carnoso revoluto lateralibus semicon- 
iiatis majonbus porrectis intiis maculis pilosis (!) notatis,petalis rhombeo- 
lineanbus acutis, labello oblongo obtuso concavo nudo. 

This IS the most remarkable species of the genus I have 
yet seen. Its leaves are like leather thongs, and full eighteen 
inches long. The flowers are dull purple and white, with 
patches of short deep purple hairs on the inside of the lower 
sepals. It was imported from Rio by Messrs. Loddiges 



--_ w u ^ v> ^J 



L/ELIA 



acuminatis Detahsaue lationhns amiH'c r.»v,*,;u„« :_!!,.__ n . - . 



atis pe absque lationbus acutis, omnibus apiclbus reflexis fortiter 
, ulatis ; labelhalte tri obi, tricostati lobis lateralibus erectis rotundatis 

mtermedio duplo majore subrotundo obscure apiculato reflexo. Bateman 



mucron 



in litt. 



<c 



A native of the environs of Oaxaca, whence 



me this 



spring by the Messrs. Sadler of that pi 



was 



diflferent 



Its colour IS quite a novelty in the genus, all the other 
specie^ bearing rose-coloured or lilac flowers. It has the 
graceful appearance of L. autumnalis, from which it can - 
-—cely be distinguished in habit. Its flowers are very 
-nf m their form (as well as colour) from all the other 
species ; they are about two inches across, sweet-scented, and 
excepting a bright yellow streak down the centre of the lip 
and a few crimson dots at its base, are of a uniform semi- 
transparent white. It appears to be of easy cultivation, and 
the most free flowering individual of the genus." The fore 
going memorandum has been communicated to me by Mr 
iJateman. I have also received the plant from Mr. Harris* */ 

It will be figured hereafter in this work 




3 



h 

5. BOLBOPHYLLUM fuscum ; pseudobulbis oblongis obtuse tetratronis 
diphyllis, foliis lineari-oblongis patentibus emarginatis, spica pedunculata 
disticha ancipiti glabrd pendula, bracteis ovatis cucullatis acutis coloratis 
distantibus florum longitudine sepalls triangukribus acutis, labello trilobo 
carnoso lacinia intermedia convexa rotundata lateralibus brevioribus magis 
membranaceis acutis serrulatis. 

Nearly related to B. tetragonum, like which species it is 
a native of Sierra Leone. The flowers are a deep dull 
chocolate colour, and are chiefly remarkable for the beauty 
of their anatomical structure. Like Liparis pendula they 
are studded with large transparent cells, containing raphides 
m cubical parcels, and they are moreover filled with short 
spiral vessels, so closely filled with air that it is difficult to 
drive it out even with the aid of the air-pump. Imported by 
Messrs. Loddiges. 



^ ^^^ WW WWW 

6. QUEKETTIA microscopica. A very singular little 
plant, with the habit of a Pleurothallis, and the pollen- 
masses of a Vandeous Orchidacea ; more nearly allied to 
Rodriguezia than to any thing else, but quite different in 
habit, and essentially distinguished by its cylindrical peri- 
anth, and labellum not only parallel with the auriculate 
column throughout its whole length, but excavated at the 
base, and furnished there with two callosities like those of 
Spiranthes. Its leaves are terete, subulate, about three 
inches long, and beautifully mottled with light green, deep 
green, and purple. 

Although this little plant is only a few inches high, and 
has no attractions for the vulgar eye, it is in some respects 
one of the most interesting I know, if examined microsco- 
pically. Nothing can be more beautiful than the fabric of 
the leaves below the epidermis, and it undoubtedly deserves 
more examination in this respect than I am at present able 
to give it. The flowers abound in raphides, clustered in 
cells larger than those which surround them, and of a diffe- 
rent colour, so that the flower, when examined with low 
powers of the microscope, looks as if it were dotted. I have 
observed this already in Liparis pendula {Bot. Reg. 1838, 
misc. no. 128.), and in Bolbophyllura fuscum, and it will 
probably be found a common structure in the sepals and 
petals of Orchidaceae, as we already know it is in their leaves 

and stems. The caudicula is excellently adapted to shew 



/ 



4 



the cellular 



of that part, and to 



plain 



pon 



what 



plan it is formed in other cases. 

QuEKETTiA (§ Vandeae). Perianthium cylindraceum, sepalis linearibus sequali- 
bus basi gibbosis lateralibus connatis, petalis linearibus sequilongis- Label- 
lum oblongum, integrum, muticum, cum labello parallelum, basi excavatum 
bicallosum. Columna semlteres, erecta, apice utrinque auriculata. Anthera 
unilocularis. Pollinia 2, postic^ excavata; caudicula lineari, glanduld 

minuta. Folia teretia maculosa. Panicula capillaris, 3-pollicaris. Flores 

parvi, flavi. Sepala linearia obtusa et labellum oblongum acutuni cellula- 
rum majorum lutearum In medio raphidophorarum copia repleta. Columna 



linearis, petalorum fere longitudine, auriculis acutis inflexis. 



Itg 



me 



great pi 



to name this 



plant 



after Edwin J. Quekett, Esq. F.L.S. an excellent Botanical 
observer, and one of our "most skilful vegetable anatomists. 
I am already indebted to that gentleman for some valuable 



facts concerning raphid 



plant, therefore, in which these 



ystals form a conspicuous part of the structure, may not be 
inappropriately selected to bear his name. 



*. KJ \J 



7. CYCLOSIA maculata, (Klotzsch in AUgem. Gartenzeitung,no.39. 1838.) 
a supposed new Mexican Orchidaceous plant, appears to be Mormodes 
pardina Bateman in Bot. Reg. 1838. Twi^c. no* 176. 



GRUNDZUGE, &c. 



^f 



Endllcher. A pamphlet, Vienna, 1838. 

In consequence of the great resemblance between the 
pollen of perfect plants, and the spores (or seeds) of crypto- 



gamic plants, an opinion has 



pollen d 



in Germany 



the 



possess any specific fertilizing influence 



has hitherto been believed, but that it is the seed of a 
plant in its youngest condition, and that it strikes into the 
stigma its roots, the tips of which eventually reach the 



d there complete the 



Schleiden and Wydl 



Mr. Endlicher declares himself 



have ^^i"eatly published their ideas upon this subject, and 

an advocate of the same 
In the papers of the former physiologists, the 
supposed fertilizing influence of the pollen was disposed of; 
but no attempt was made to shew in what the said influence 



views. 



des, if not in the pollen 



M 



r. 



Endlicher suppl 



this 



omission by assigning that function to the papillae of the 
stigma. 






5 

A Flora of North America ; arranged according to the Natural System, by 
John Torrey and Asa Gray. "Vol. 1. part I. New York, July 1838. 

The poor compilation by Pursli, and the meagre Flora 
Boreali-Americana of Michaux, are the only general works 
yet published upon the Flora of that vast part of the North 
American continent which lies north of Mexico ; and neither 
of these works was written by an American. Most extensive 
materials for giving a good account of those varied regions 
have been accumulating for many years ; several excellent 
local Floras have been published in the United States, Sir 
Wm. Hooker's valuable work, the Flora Boreali-Americana, 
is a mine of information concerning the species inhabiting 
the British possessions, and the journeys of Douglas, Drum- 
mond, Nuttall, Coulter, and others, have produced a very 
considerable amount of information, of which little is yet 
published, concerning the Southern and once Spanish terri- 
tories. It is the purpose of Drs. Torrey and Gray to consoli- 
date these materials into three closely-printed octavo volumes, 
of about 550 pages each ; and, to judge from the previous 
writings of these eminent Botanists, and from the present 
work, the task could not have been undertaken by more 
able men. I have as yet seen the first part only, which ex- 
tends from Ranunculacese to Caryophyllaceas in De Can- 
dolle's arrangement. It is written wholly in English, and 
is full of valuable original observations upon species, genera, 
and natural orders. The following is an interesting fact : 
ISfelumhium luteum. " The tubers resemble those of the sweet 
potatoe, when boiled are as farinaceous and agreeable as the 
potatoe, and are employed for food by the Osage and other 
Western Indians." It is to be hoped that future numbers 
will contain more such remarks upon the useful qualities of 
plants, a subject which systematical Botanists have too often 
the bad habit of neglecting. People in this country will 
be surprised to find that our American friends suppose 
Berberis repens to be a variety of B. aquifolium ! 

f 

House of Representatives^ 25th Congress^ 2nd Session, Rep. no. 564. Dr. 

Henry Perrine. Tropical Plants. 

This is an 8vo. pamphlet of 99 pages, containing various 
letters, reports, &c. connected with a memorial to the House 
of Representatives of the United States by Dr. Henry Perrine, 
consul of the United States at Campeachy, praying that the 
House will grant him a tract of land iti Florida, " for the 



.» 



.1 



\' 



f. 



6 

encouragement of the growth of new and important agricul- 
tural products, exotic vegetables, and tropical plants." 
Such a document as this affords the best evidence of the care 
with which the American government attends to whatever 
may increase its resources, or contribute to the welfare of its 
people. It is noticed here partly for the intrinsic value of 
the information it contains, and partly because it may serve 
to shew to other governments that Botany leads to something 
of more practical importance than collecting dried speci- 
mens, or writing technical descriptions of species ; both very 
useful things in their way, but not the most likely to inte- 
rest those who have the charge of public affairs. 

It appears that while Dr. Perrine was consul at Cam- 
peachy and Tabasco, he was officially instructed, by a circular 
from the United States Treasury, to aid the desire of the 
general government to introduce into the United States all 
such foreign trees and plants, of whatever nature, as might 
give promise, under proper cultivation, of flourishing and 
becoming useful. In obedience to these instructions, Dr. 
Perrine devoted his time and funds to enquiring into the 
resources of the provinces where he was stationed, and thus 
was led to acquire a knowledge of many very valuable facts, 
notwithstanding the extreme reluctance of the inhabitants to 
give Europeans any information concerning the natural pro- 
ductions of their country. Many useful plants and seeds 
were sent home from time to time; and, upon his return, 
the memorialist applied for the grant of a township in East 
Florida, south of 26° N. L. in which his experiments could 
be conducted ; and Congress acceded to his prayer. The 
Americans are therefore about to commence a grand experi- 
ment upon improving their almost uninhabited and worthless 
southern territories, of which they have between eighteen 
and twenty millions of acres ; and from the energy and good 
sense of Dr. Perrine, it could hardly have been intrusted to 
more able hands. In one part of his memorial there is the 
following passage, which deserves attention from those who 
are interested in tropical improvements. " Many valuable 
vegetables of the tropics do actually propagate themselves in 
the worst soils and situations, in the sun and in the shade, 
where they arrive either by accident or design ; and for other 
profitable plants of the tropics, which require human skill 
and care, moisture is the equivalent to manure. Tropical 



-*.- 




It r 



7 

cultivation essentially consists in appropriate irrigation, wliicli 
goes far to counterbalance the sterility of the soil." 

The following are extracts selected from among Dr. 
Perrine's reports : — 

The Agave Americana is still called by travellers the 
American aloe; and Doctor Mease, with them, has been 
misled to suppose that this plant produces the Sisal hemp, 
and the Pita a much finer material : but the Agave Ameri- 
cana is dedicated to a very different production — the cele- 
brated drink called * Pulque,* derived from the sap of its 
stem ; and hence Maguey de Pulque is its common name in 
Mexico. A direct tax on the consumption of this beverage 
forms an important item in the revenue of that country. 
* The entry duties paid in the three cities of Mexico, Tolusa, 
and Puebla, amounted, in 1793, to the sum of 817;739 
piastres/ Humboldt was correct in affirming of the Maguey 
de Pulque, ' that its cultivation has real advantages over the 

cultivation of maize, grain, and potatoes ; that it is neither 
affected by drought nor hail, nor the excessive cold which 
prevails in winter on the higher cordilleras of Mexico ; that 
it grows in the most arid grounds, and frequently on banks 
of rocks hardly covered with vegetable earth ; and that it is 
one of the most useful of all the productions with which 
nature has supplied the mountaineers of equinoctial America.* 
But it is not true that the same plant produces the very fine, 
very strong, and very long fibres, known by the name of 
Pita, from which the most beautiful sewing thread is made ; 
nor does it furnish those coarser fibres for twine and cordage,, 
resembling Manilla, but denominated Sisal hemp. If tropical 
hemp be an admissible term for the latter, the former may be 
honoured with the distinction of tropical flax. The Ixtla, 
whose thin leaves afford the pita, grows wild in the shade of 
the fertile forests of Tabasco. The Sosquil 6 Henequin, whose 
thick leaves yield the Sisal hemp, is cultivated in the sun of 
the sterile plains of Yucatan. The stem of neither supplies 
the drink which constitutes the principal value of the Agave 
Americana ; nevertheless, a variety of the Maguey de Pulque 
does grow on the tropical shores of the Gulf of Mexico, from 
which the highland soldiers have occasionally extracted their 
favourite beverage. Some of the cultivated Magueys 
brought from a plantation on the mountains to the garden of 
a gentleman in Campeachy, are there flourishing, notwith- 



J. 



8 

standing the difference in climate, and have produced shoots, 
which were by me transmitted to New Orleans. Humboldt 
says that this plant has becoQie wild since the sixteenth cen- 
tury throughout all the South of Europe, the Canary Islands, 
and the Coast of Africa ; and this fact supports my decided 
opinion that all the valuable species of the same genus may 
be successfully cultivated in our Southern States. 

" Two varieties of that species, which I take the liberty 
to christen Agave Sisalanay have long been cultivated in the 
vicinity of Merida, on an extensive scale. Different quantities 
and qualities of fibres are obtained from several kinds of 'sos- 
quiV which grow spontaneously through the whole peninsula 
of Yucatan ; but the planters give the preference to the Sacqui 
and Yaxqui of the natives, or the whitish and greenish * Hene- 
quen.* The young plants are placed about twelve Spanish 
feet apart, and during the first two years some labour is em- 
ployed to destroy the weeds between them. In the third 
year, the cutting of the lower rows of leaves is commenced, 
and every four months the operation is repeated. Each 
robust plant will thus give about seventy-five leaves annually, 
from which are extracted about seven pounds and a half of 
fibres, and will continue yielding these crops from five to ten 
years in succession ; it is, however, generally cut down as 
soon as one of the shoots from its roots has grown sufficiently 
to supply its place : its other offspring are previously re- 
moved to form new plantations. The hardiness of the snoots 
may be inferred from the fact that they are exposed to the 
sun fifteen or twenty days ' to cicatrize their wounds,' as a 
necessary preparation for replanting. The simplicity of their 
cultivation may be conceived from the statement that there 
is not a hoe, nor a spade, nor a harrow, nor a plough, em- 
ployed in the agriculture of all Yucatan. The facility of 
extracting the fibres from their leaves is shewn by the rude- 
ness of the instruments which are used by natives for that 
purpose : a triangular stick of hard wood, with sharp edges, 
from 24 to 27 inches long, and from one to two inches thick. 



fil 



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is with them an equivalent to the shaving-knife of the 
curriers, by which they scrape away from each side of the 
leaf, on a board resting against the breast, the cuticle and H 

pulpy substance that covers the fibres. Another mode of 
accomplishing the same object is, by pressing the sharp 
semilunar extremity of a long flat stick against any fixed sur- 



i 



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9 



I face upon a narrow longitudinal strip of the leaf, which is 

then drawn through by the unemployed hand. The length, 
weight, strength, and other qualities of the fibres, as well as 
the labour of separating them, vary with the magnitude, age, 
and position of the leaves ; but, when extracted, a few hours' 
exposure to the sun completes the preparation of the Sisal 
hemp for manufactures and commerce. 

" The above brief sketch will shew that the bales of ex- 
ported Sisal hemp may contain materials of very different 
qualities ; and that hence the opinions of its merits expressed 
by our merchants, our manufacturers, and our scientific men, 
must vary with the parcels that fall into their hands. The 
fibres of a single cultivated variety of the Agave Sisalana 
might be assorted like cotton for the foreign market, with 
denominations and prices corresponding to their relative 
value ; but the collectors for exportation, unconscious of the 
true interests of themselves or their country, not merely 
mingle the whole products of both the Sacqui and the Yaxqui, 
but add inferior qualities, obtained from wild varieties of the 
same, and even of different species ; and injure still further 
the reputation of this sample abroad, by including the worst 
proceeds of its imperfect dressings. 

" The peninsula of Yucatan embraces the worst soils of 
any province of Mexico. It is principally composed of arid, 
cavernous limestone, and has not a river, brook, or spring 
within several hundred miles of the coast, beginning at 
Campeachy and running thence north to Sisal, east to Cape 
Catoche, and south down to Bacalar. Nature has, however, 
compensated the aridity of both soil and air by bestowing 
upon the indolent inhabitants very valuable plants, princi- 
pally composed of large succulent leaves, or long fleshy and 
fibrous leaves, which propagate themselves both on the stony 
surfaces of the interior and the sandy shores of the coast. 
Those species and varieties whose living leaves yield supe- 
rior substitutes for hemp, are the most remarkable, and the 
ants themselves are embraced by the natives under the 
generic name of Henequen. As the Spanish j has the sound 
of our h, the white or Spanish Mexicans frequently write the 
common name thus, Jenequen for Henequen. The coarse 
foliaceous fibres obtained from the green leaves of all the 
species are called by the generic name of Sosquil. The 
equivalent to this Mexican term for coarse foliaceous fibres 

A. January f 1839. ^ 




sm 



10 

is generally Grass-hemp in the mouth of an American. 
There are two varieties of cultivated Henequen, called Yash- 
qui and Sacqui by the natives ; or the Greenish Henequen 
and the Whitish Henequen in the translation of the Spaniards. 
Both these are embraced by me under the denomination of 
Agave Sisalana. Taking the Yashqui for the type, its 
generic characters are as follows : corol bell-form ; segments 
converging and longer than the tube. Filaments very long, 
awl-shaped, and inserted into the base of the segments at or 
near the top of the tube. Style not half as long as the 
stamens, and is even very little elevated above the segments 
of the corol when its three-lobed stigma receives the pollen 
from the bursting anthers. The corol, stamens, and style 
continue all permanent on the germ ; and the germ itself 
becomes a cylindrical capsule, which, opening at the top in 
three divisions, even splits the dried tube of the corol. Its 
specific character is sufficiently denoted by the 
of the edges of the leaves of the Yashqui. Indeed, when 
very young, it greatly resembles o'ur indigenous Petre, or 
Yucca gloriosa of the Southern States. The leaves will 
average three feet long, yet they are frequently five feet long, 
with a thorn at the point. I once took the exact dimensions 
of a leaf five feet long. At fifteen inches from the point it 
was four inches wide and one-eighth of an inch thick ; at 
thirty inches it was five inches wide and two-eighths of an 
inch thick ; at forty-five inches again only four inches wide, 
but three-eighths of an inch thick ; and at radical end 
merely three inches wide yet four-eighths of an inch thick. 
It will grow in any arid soil or situation, and propagate 
itself without cultivation. When the young plants are placed 
at six feet apart, the mature plants, after the second or third 
ear, will produce, at the very least, 1200 pounds of Sisal 
emp per acre. If it be the Sacqui, it will produce double 
that quantity. Two or three files of the lowest leaves may 
be cut two or three times yearly from the same plant, at any 
season, for several years, and for ever from the shoots which 
supply its place. From the letter of Don Santiago Mendez, 
Vice-Governor of Yucatan, sufficient data can be obtained to 
calculate the profit of a plantation of Sisal hemp. The paper 
of the Henequen Plant Company of Yucatan calculates the 
expense and profits of 36,000 plants as follows : total expense 
at the end of three years, 4541 dollars; total produce of the 
third year, 9015 dollars; divisible gains, 4479 dollars. 




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''Pita de Guataca. — This plant grows wild in the greatest 
abundance, in the vicinity of the village of Guataca, in the 
province of Carthagena, where its leaves attain a length of 
nine to twelve feet, and a thickness of three to four inches. 
These leaves are linear-lanceolate, with recurved spines along 
the margins. The fruit is a triangular one-celled capsule, 
with iew seeds. The leaves exceed in length those of the 
Bromelia Penguin, and of the Bromelia Karatas, both com- 
mon plants in the West Indies ; but in length and strength 
of foliaceous fibres, the Pita de Guataca excels both. It 
was introduced into Jamaica in 1831, with the view of pro- 
pagating it in the dry sandy savannahs of that island, which 
are at present uncultivated and unproductive. This fibrous 
substitute for hemp is preferred to common hemp, on account 
of its superiority in lightness, strength, and durability, 
especially under the influence of water or moisture, 
point of offal, compared with common hemp, the advantage 
is enormous in favour of the Pita hemp. 

" It has been calculated that three tons of Pita will make 
as much cordage, sail, or other cloth, as fifteen tons of 
undressed hemp. In 1834 the quantity of hemp and flax, 
from Russia into England alone, was estimated at 25,000 
tons ; by substituting Pita, at least 74,000 acres of the 
actual wastes of the West India colonies would be put under 
lucrative culture. As to the difference in weight, between 
equal bulks of Pita and common hemp, Dr. Hamilton has 
ascertained it to be one-sixth in favour of the Pita ; and 
hence, taking the weight of the standing and running rig- 
ging of a man-of-war made of hemp at twelve tons, a reduc- 
tion of two tons in the top weight would be effected by the 
substitution of Pita. Under the operation of the emanci- 
pating laws in the British West Indies, the white planters 
will be forced to propagate fibrous-leaved plants on their 
poorest soils, especially because in their preparation for 
market, horse power can be substituted more profitably and 
certainly for human power. Doctor Hamilton supposes this 
Pita de Guataca to belong to a genus between Guzmannia 
and Pourrettia. He speaks also of another plant, called 
Pita de Sola, which grows in large quantities at Sola, is 
probably a species of Agave, and yields coarser, browner, or 
inferior fibres." 



B. February, 1839. ^ 



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12 



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Frozen potatoes are usually, after being thawed, thrown 
away as altogether unfit for food, even for cattle ; they are 
found to have acquired an acrid taste, and the makers of 
starch know by experience that they do not yield more than 
3 or 4 per cent, of starch instead of 16 or 17 per cent, which 
they furnish in their uninjured state. M. Payen endeavoured 
to ascertain the cause of this difference. It might be 
supposed that the effect of a thaw would be to alter the 
amylaceous matter, in consequence of which it might become 
soluble. But M. Payen satisfied himself, by exact and 
positive experiments, that thawed potatoes and those in the 
natural state each contain exactly the same proportion of 
soluble and insoluble matter. This being so, there ought to 
be as much starch in a potatoe after being frozen as before ; 
and consequently M. Payen suspected that the loss of starch 
experienced by the starch-maker in frozen potatoes was 
owing to some mechanical obstacle which opposes the ex- 
traction and separation of this substance. This idea was 
confirmed by a microscopical examination of the tissue of 
the potatoe, thawed and rasped down. We know that the 
starch is contained in the cells or vesicles of parenchyma, of 
which the potatoe is composed ; the rasp, by tearing open 
the cells, sets the starch at liberty. It is obvious that if the 
rasp produces such an effect, the cells must be fixed firmly in 
the tissue ; otherwise they would be only torn asunder 
the teeth of the rasp, and the starch which they contain 
could not get out of the cells. Now M. Payen discovered 
that this actually happens when a potatoe is successively 





FROZEN POTATOES. 

I 

T 

I 

In a memoir laid some months ago before the Institute 
of France, M. Payen, the celebrated chemist, made some j 

valuable observations upon the subject of frozen Potatoes, 
which are lisually considered useless, and are consequently 
thrown away. As it appears from his investigations that 
Potatoes are in no material degree injured by frost, but that 
they are as nutritious after being frozen as before, and in 
some respects more useful as food, I translate literally the 
report made to the Institute by Messrs. Turpin and Dutrochet 
upon a subject of such vast importance to mankind ; pre- 
mising only that it is the starch of the Potatoe which gives 
it its nutritive qualities. 



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13 

frozen and thawed ; the cells forming the tissue are separated 
from each other and lose their cohesion, instead of being 
firmly agglutinated together as in their sound state ; and 
consequently the rasp is unable to tear the cells in pieces, 
but separates them from each other whole, without allowing 
the starch they contain to escape. A small number only of 
the cells are lacerated, and it is they which yield what starch 
the manufacturer obtains from them, a quantity which 
scarcely amounts to 3 per cent. The principal part of the 
starch remains locked up in the pulp which is thrown away. 
M. Payen was led incidentally to notice the different 
proportions of starch lodged in the different parts of a 
potatoe ; and he found that the smallest quantity exists in 
the centre, which is separated by a circular row of fibres from 
the outer part, which is the true bark of the tuber. The 
latter, or cortical part, which abounds in starch, is divided 
from the epidermis by a thinner tissue, in which is almost 
exclusively deposited the acrid and venomous matter of the 
plant, and which is entirely without starch. 

This observation explained to M. Payen the cause of 
frozen potatoes being acrid and strong tasted. In their sound 
state the acrid matter contained in the rind of the potatoe is 
not mixed with the other fluids of the parenchyma of the 
tuber ; but when frost has separated the cells of the paren- 
chyma, the fluid then extra vasated flows into their interstices, 
and the acrid and venomous matter dissolved by them par- 
takes of the general" diffusion ; it is the physical effect of 
tendency which fluids placed in contact have to mix with 



Proceeding from these observations M. Payen has ex- 
amined in what manner frozen potatoes can be turned to 
some useful purpose. As they have not lost any part of their 
starch, they ought to preserve, after being thawed, all their 
alimentary qualities, if they are quickly dried after h 
been properly prepared. M. D'Orbigny states, that in 
this mode of preserving potatoes for food is commonly em- 
ployed. The Peruvians cause the tubers to be frozen on 
their mountains, and then bring them down into their valleys, 
k^ where the heat rapidly dries them ; and in this state of d 



Peru 



time 



they preserve tfreir nutritive property for an indefinit 



It would therefore appear not only that potatoes when 



14 



frozen may be advantageously employed for food if rapidly 
dried ; but the still more important consequence is to be de- 
duced from the observations of M. Pay en, that by killing 
potatoes by exposure to frost, and then rapidly drying them, 
the superabundance of a good potatoe harvest may be pre- 
served to meet the wants of a deficient crop in future years. 



^ W V 



8. OBERONIA recurva; acaulis, foliis brevlbus acutis, racemo recurvo mul- 
tifloro, bracteis ovatis integris, petalls obovatis subdentatis, labello subro- 
tundo quadrilobo denticulato mucrone interjecto* 

Bombay has produced this curious little plant, which was 
sent overland to Messrs. Loddiges. It has a pendulous ra- 
ceme, scarcely more than an inch long, consisting of minute 
densely imbricated green flowers. Its nearest affinity seems 
to be with O. Wightiana^ m. an unpublished species from 
Madras, of which the following is the character. 



^ %J K0 ^ W 



9. OBERONIA Wightiana; acaulis, foliis ensiformibus, racemo erecto multi- 
floro, bracteis ovatis integris, petalis linearibus, labelli quadrilobi lobis late- 
talibus rotundatls integris intermediis elongatis truncatis apice denticulatis. 



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sculo 



ter carinato basi subcordato petiolo acute canaliculate univaginato breviore, 
sepalis linearibus aequalibus lateralibus carinatis ad apicem fer^ connatis, 
sepalis lineari-obovatis minut^ serratis glabris, labello obovato carnoso medio 
exarato denticulo inflexo utrinque prope basin. 

A native of Brazil, and imported by Messrs. Loddiges. 
The leaf is five inches long, the petiole six, with a large 
withered sheath in the middle. The flowers are dull greenish 
yellow, not unlike those of P. saurocepkala. 



V \/ V w 



SCHOMBURGKIA marginata. • 

This most beautiful Orchidaceous plant, of which there 
figure in the Sertum Orchidaceum, t. 13, and of which 



j^j 



10. MEGACLINIUM oa:3/pferum; pseudobulbls monopliyllis acutissim^ 4-5- 
gonis oblongis, folio oblongo coriaceo caulis sine rachi longitudine, rachi 
ensiformi arcuati crispata apice tetragona pyramldali, bracteis reflexis, sepalis j 

lateralibus ovatis intermedio lineari acuminatissimo, petalis nanis linearibus ^ , 

falcatis, labello crasso linguiformi apice recurvo margine pone basin fimbriato. 

A fine species of this very curious genus, obtained from 
Sierra Leone by Messrs. Loddiges. It is most nearly related 
to M. maximum^ from which its sharp-angled pseudo-bulbs 
at once distinguish it. 







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SO many plants were brought to England in 1834 by Mr. 
Lance, has at length flowered in this country, with Thomas 
Brocklehurst, Esq. of the Fence near Macclesfield, who re- 
cently imported it from Surinam. The flowers were much 
paler in their colours than those of the plant in its native 
country, but this was doubtless owing to the dark season of 
the year. 



^ W — 



f. 13. EPIDENDRUM (HORMIDIUM) unijlorum; rhizomate moniliformi, 

floribus solitariis, sepalis petalisque linearibus acuminatis incurvis, labello 
trilobo columnse adnato laciniis lateralibus rotundatis erectis intermedia tri- 
angulari acuminata, sepalis lateralibus labello suppositis eique adnatis. 

A Mexican plant of no beauty, with yellowish green 
flowers, imported by George Barker, Esq. of Birmingham. 

The genus Epidendrum I once thought very natural ; 
but it is now becoming so very extensive, that it comprehends 
plants with extremely different habits, and it is daily be- 
coming more desirable for it to be divided. But great as is 
the diversity of appearance among the species, there is a 
singular uniformity in the structure of their flowers, and it 
is not a little remarkable that such differences as exist can 
scarcely be said to be connected with corresponding diffe- 
rences in the organs of vegetation ; so that, as far as I am 
at present able to discover, if Epidendrum is broken up, by 
means of characters taken from such modifications as are 
employed for the definition of other genera, the new groups 
are scarcely more natural than the old one. For this reason 
I have suppressed the genera Auliza and Amphiglottis 
of Salisbury, and the Encyclia of Sir William Hooker, as 
genera depending upon mere differences of habit and not of 
fructification. For instance, Encyclia has the labellum sepa- 
rate from the column ; and if this were always connected 
with the pseudo-bulbous stem and panicled inflorescence of 
many of the species, it would be an excellent charactei 
but E. equitans, smarag dinum, and others, have the disunited 
lip with an entirely different mode of growth ; this is espe- 
cially the case with the beautiful E. bicor7iutum. So with 
Auliza of Salisbury, the type of which is E, ciliare ; this 
^ supposed genus was distinguished by there being a long 

fistular cavity proceeding from the base of the lip down the 
ovary, or, in other words, by its labellum being calcarate, 
and the calcar consolidated with the ovary, as happens in 



• # 



I 




f 



16 

Pelargonium ; but the same character exists in E. vedcatiim^ 
which has no resemblance to JE. ciliare. With regard to the 
Mexican plant recently published by Messrs. Knowles and 
Westcott under the name of Prosthecia or Epithecia glaucay 
I fear it must be united with Epidendrum, for it does not 
differ from the greater part of the Encyclia division in 

any essential circumstance; the columna is by no means 
" nana '' in the sense in which that word is employed by 
Botanists, and the process at the back of the apex of the 
column is common in numerous species of Epidendrum^ 
{rigidum for instance) ; and is what, when thinned away, 
forms a hard or petaloid scale at the back of the column in 
such plants as E. ciliarGy clavatum^ noctuvnum^ cucullatum^ 
and many others. 

It is for reasons of this kind that I hesitate actually to 
separate the curious little plant which has given rise to these 
remarks. Its necklace-shaped pseudo- bulbs placed upon a 
creeping rhizoma give it a peculiar habit, and have suggested 

its name, (op/ioy, a necklace) ; and it is capable of being 
defined with apparent precision by the union of the anterior 
sepals with the base of the labellum, to which I know of no 
parallel in the genus Epidendrum, except in the case of 
Epidendrum pygmceuin and E. ccBspitosumy plants with a 
similar habit, and no doubt belonging to the same section, 
subgenus, or genus, whichever Hormidium may eventually 
become. 



^ \j ^ w 



^ diflora ; folio (piano ?) anguste lanceolate rigido la- 
bello maximo subrotundo-quadrato acuminato ungue longiore, sepalis peta- 
lisque linearibus acuminatissimis. 

Flowers of this, which is much the finest species of 
Brasavola yet known, have been lately received from Hon- 
duras by the Hon. W. F. Strangways. The limb of the 
labellum, which is white, is considerably larger than a half- 
crown, and the sepals and petals are nearly three inches 
long. Those who have commercial relations with Belize 
should make a point of obtaining this beautiful plant from 
their correspondents. It resembles a gigantic specimen of 
Br, nodosa. 



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15. PONERA graminifolia, (Nemaconia gramlnlfolia, Knowles and fVestcott, 
Floral Cabinet, p. 127); foliis lineari-lanceolatis planis, labello oblongo 
acuto apice recurvo. 

In the Genera and Species of Orchidaceous plants, p. 113, 
a genus was established under the name of Ponera, (from 

7roi/rjpo9, miserable, vile, alluding to the wretched appearance 
of the species) from a Mexican plant in the herbarium of 
Mr. Lambert. As I had originally no opportunity of criti- 
cally examining the structure of the plant, further than was 
aflbrded by the dissection of a single dried flower, its cha- 
racter was not very complete ; and I presume the trifling 
difierences which exist between this species and the descrip- 
tion in the above work, are owing to imperfect observations 
in the latter case. They have however led Messrs. Knowles 
and Westcott to suppose that this plant forms a new genus, 
an error which I hasten to correct. Having received flowers 
of it from Mr. Barker, I find that it agrees in every essential 
particular with the structure of P. juncifolia; so nearly 
indeed that, if the leaves of the two were not very different, 
some doubt might be entertained of their being specifically 
diflTerent. P. graminifolia is a plant of no beauty, and .is 
chiefly remarkable for having the scabrous stems, which are 
so conspicuous in the elegant Arpophyllum spicatum from the 
same country. 

16. ARPOPHYLLUM spicatum, La Llave. 

One of the most graceful and beautiful of the Mexican 
Orchidaceae; it has recently reached England in a living state. 
The stem is slender, and a foot or foot and half high, with 
the sheaths as rough as shagreen leather ; it is terminated 
by one long curved leaf, from the axil of which there curves, 
in an opposite direction, a dense spike of pink or pale purple 
flowers. It is a species of great rarity even in Mexico, 
where it has hitherto been only seen at Sultepec and near 
Arimbaro, growing upon trees. The genus belongs to Epi- 
dendreae, near Ponera, and not to Vandeae. 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY'S GARDEN. 

All who are interested in the cultivation of exotic plants, 
will be glad to learn that the Horticultural Society of London 
are about to erect a most extensive conservatory in their 
garden at Chiswick. The range will be nearly 500 het 



J. 




18 



L 

long, running east and west, with a front both to the north 



and south ; the roof will be constructed entirely of iron, 
glazed with patent sheet glass, and will have the form of a 
Gothic arch. The west wing, rather more than 180 feet 
long and 27 feet high, has been contracted for by Messrs. 
D. and E. Baileys of Holborn, and will probably be com- 
pleted by the middle of May. The whole range, when 
executed, will be one of the most extensive in the world. 
No association of individuals has ever introduced so large a 
quantity of beautiful and useful plants into this country, as 
have been procured by the funds of the Horticultural Society 
of London ; but those plants have necessarily been confined 
very much to hardy species, in consequence of the want of 
extensive glass-houses. It is now to be expected that green- 
house and stove plants, especially the former, will become a 
great object of attention with the Society ; the effect of which 
will doubtless be to improve the ornamental character of 
tender plants in the same degree as that of hardy collections. 
Few persons know how many objects are within their reach, 
the beauty of which is far beyond any thing now in our 
gardens, and that only require space in which to grow them. 
The following account of the Pisonai, which it is to be hoped 
will be one of the first novelties established in the Society's 
new conservatory, will serve to illustrate this assertion. 

" The Pisonai Tree. — This is one of the most magnificent 



trees, both in 



foliage 



and flower, perhaps that exists. 



It 



appears to have been introduced during the Inca dynasty 
into the vallies of Cusco, where, in a climate the mean tem- 
perature of which is 60° Fahr., it attains such a size as I 
nave never witnessed in the largest of our European forest 
trees. It was generally planted about villages ; in that of 
Yucay, the country residence of the latter Incas, eight leagues 
from Cusco, there exist specimens of it five fathoms in cir- 
cumference, and nearly seventy feet high ; the foliage, of a 
deep green, is thick and spreading, the leaf in shape some- 
thing like the Cinchonas; it flowers in December, and is 
then one mass of carnation colour. I think it might be 
naturalized in the south of Europe, and in our greenhouses ; 
the elevation of the places where I have seen it grow to the 
greatest size, above the sea, are respectively 9500 arid 9680 
feet." — Extract of a letter from J, B. Pentlandy Esq. to the 
Hon. W. F. Strangways. 




« 



1 



> 



^ 
h 




^ 




i 




^ 

* 



JM 



I»- 





■\ 







19 



^ %J%J 



17. HUNTLEYA violacea. Sertum Orchid, t. 26. i7ied. 

Of this superb plant a specimen has flowered with Messrs. 
Loddiges, which will be figured in the Sertum in the course 
of a few months. The flowers are a deep rich violet, darker 
than the darkest part of Zyzopetalum Mackaii; they are 
between two and three inches in diameter, and are tipped 
with greenish yellow, melting downwards into white, which 
soon confounds itself with the general tint of rich violet. 

^ 

18. JUNIPER US squamosa (Wallich). 

This fine species of Indian Juniper has been raised in the 
garden of the Horticultural Society. It has remarkably 
rigid leaves, curved inwards at the point; is described by 
Dr. Royle as extremely common on such mountains as Choor 
and Kedarkanta, at the height of 1 1,000 feet, and elsewhere; 
and is no doubt quite hardy. 



\J SJ ^ \J 



19. HOVEA crispa ; ramis gracilibus pilosis, folHs ovato-oblongis mucronatis 
margine crispis utrinque pilosis, pedunculis subternis petiolorum longitu- 
dine, bracteolis sub calyce setaceis, calyce villoso, ovario pedicellate glabro 

4-spermo. 

A native of the Swan River Colony, raised two years ago 
in the garden of R. Mangles, Esq. at Sunning Hill ; it forms 
a bush two feet high, with si^all purple flowers, usually 
growing in threes, and producing a pretty effect. It flowers 
in February. I do not find it among the dried collections 
from this colony. 



%/ K^ SJ \A/ 



20. CHEIROSTYLiS parvifolia; foliis ultra vaginam petlolatis ovatis acutis 
undulatis, labelli apice subrotundo 4-dentato callis baseos bipartitis, columna 
minima processibus rectis liberis ipsi aequalibus. 

Herba tenera, zeylanica, 3-pollicans; caule stricto, tereti, retrorsum plloso apice 



nudo bracteato. Folia 4, distantia, supern^ sensim minora ; vaginata, 
glabra, ultra vaginam petiolata ; limbo ovato, undulato, acuto, rubro-viridi, 
4 lineas longo. Floras 3, terminales, minuti, albi, pedicellati, corymbosi ; 
bracteis linearibus acuralnatis rufis, pedicellis longioribus. Ovarium ob- 
pyramidale, piloso-glandulosum. Sepala clausa ultra medium connata, 
glabra, basi paulo ventricosa, obtusiuscula, apice virentia. Petala retror- 
sum falcata, retusa, sepalo supremo agglutinata. Lahellum sepalis parum 
lon<Tius, liberum, canaliculatum, versus apicem constrictum, apice subro- 
^ tundum, concavum, trilobum : lobis lateralibus emarginatls; callis baseos 

incurvis, lucidis, subvirentibus, bipartitis. Ante columnam processus duo, 
liberi, erecti,carnosi,stigmatislongitudine,eiqueomnind parallel!. Columna 
minima, libera, basi labelli fere abdita, sligmate bipartito. ^ Pollima 4, pul- 
verea, glandulae lineari acutae inter brachia stigmatis prominent!, agglutinata. 



C. March, 1839. 



d 



20 

This very interesting, but inconspicuous plant was ob- 
tained by Messrs. Loddiges from Ceylon. It is a new species 
of the genus Cheirostylis, of which one only had been before 
described by Dr. Blume, and of that I have never been so 
fortunate as to see specimens. In general aspect it is like 
a minute Goody era, G. querceticola for instance; but it differs 
from that genus, firstly, in having the sepals united into a 
tube enclosing the petals and labellum; secondly, in the ab- 
sence of a pouch from the lip, and, as far as has yet been 
observed, from all other genera of Neottiese in having a pair 
of fleshy processes, analogous to what we find in Habenaria, 
standing freely in front of the column. This fact is the more 
interesting to those who occupy themselves with organo- 
graphy, because it proves that the calli found so constantly 
at the base of the lip of Spiranthes are not analogous to those 
processes as might be suspected : for in this Cheirostylis the 
calli and processes are both present. 



"■ \J 



21. SCAPHYGLOTTIS reflexa ; foliis semlteretibus supra planis sulcatis 
apice integerrimis, sepalis lateralibus ovato-triangularibus reflexis, petalis 
linearibus obtusis, labello oblongo-emarginato obtusissimo undulato medio 
refracto. 

A branching, straggling plant, with slender leaves, and 

solitary, pale, dull-yellow flowers, with a crimson stain along 

the middle of the lip. Like the rest of the genus it is a 

species quite destitute of beauty. It was obtained by Messrs. 
Loddiges from Demerara. 



— \J \4 WWW 



22. MACRADENIA Tww/ica ,- foliis coriacels linearl-lanceolatis dorso convexis, 
racemo prostrate trifloro bracteis oblongis obtusis cucuUatis pedicellis a?qua- 
libus, labello cordato-ovato acuto basi cucullato medio transversa calloso, 
clinandrio serrate, rostello mutico. 

Folia solitarla, Hneafi-lanceolata, coriacea, avenia, dorso convexa, caulibus bre- 
vibus compressis teretibus insidentia. Racemus radicalis, 3-flofus, debilis ; 
bracteis brevibus, cucullatls, striatis, sphacelatis. Flares sordid^ albi, 
rubro levissimfe tinctse. Sepala et peiala cequalia, linearia, acuta, expla- 
nato-patentia*. Labellum cum columna parallelum, nee articulatuiri, cordato- 
ovatum, acutum, basi cucuUatum ; callo elevato canaliculate transverse. Co- 
himna semiteres, labello duplo brevier ; clinandrio cucullato denticulate. 
Anthera parva, in fundo cuculli, 2-locularis, crlstata. Pollinia 2, cau- 
dicula brevi lineari. Rostellum nuUo mode elonoratum. 

A small plant, with dingy white flowers, which flowered 
with Mr. Knight, of the King's Road, in- August 1835. It 
is said to be a native of Trinidad. It is chiefly remarkable 
for beinoj destitute of the attenuated rostellum and conse- 



\ 



/ 





21 

quent prolongation of, the anther point, from which the name 
of the genus was formed by Dr. Brown. 



23. PINUS docarpa. Scliiede. 

As cones of this species of Pinus have lately been re- 
ceived by the Horticultural Society from Mepcico, and distri- 
buted among the Fellows, I extract the following particulars 
concerning it from the account given of the species by 
Professor Schlechtendahl. 

It was found by Schiede in abundance between Ario and 
the volcano of Jorullo, not merely in the usual pine region, 
but also in w^arm districts, in company with the Fan Palm. 
It forms a tree from 30 to 40 feet high. The leaves are from 
eight to eleven inches long ; the cones grow singly, and the 
species is nearly related to Pinus MontezumcB. 

It is to be presumed that it will prove one of the less 
hardy species. 



24. PINUS Llaveana. Schiede. 



This species, now for some time in England, and which 
resisted the winter so well in 1837-8, although it looks more 
like a shrub than a tree in our gardens, is stated by the same 
author to form a tree 30 feet high, Schiede found whole 
woods of it betw^een Zimapan and Real del Oro, and also 
cultivated occasionally in gardens. The seeds are sold in 
the markets of Mexico 'dsplgnons^ and are said to be excel- 
lent.' Professor Schlechtendahl states that the cone figured 
in Mr. Loudon's Arboretum Britannicum, as belonging to 
this species, is probably that of Pinus patula. The true cone 
is given in the Pinetum Woburnense. 



ORCHIDACE^ OF BRAZIL. 



The following is a free translation of M. Descourtilz's 
M^S. account of the Orchidaceae of Brazil, and I am sure it 
will be read with interest by every one occupied, in however 
slight a degree, in the cultivation of this singular and beau- 



^ tiful race of plants. 



It is in the bosom of the vast solitudes of America that 
these, the most diversified of plants, spring up, flower, and 
perish. The entire life of a man, though devoted to their 







22 

epecial study, would never finish their examination, so prodi- 
gious is the variety of their species, many of which are only 
seen after the fall of the protector upon which they lived. 

There is no part of Brazil, no latitude, no elevation above 
the sea, where are not to be found Orchidaceae as different 
from each other as the conditions under which they grow. 
Some bask in the heat of the plains, others luxuriate in the 
agreeable freshness of a stream of water, attaching them- 



selves to the branches of the trees which cover the waves 
with a verdant grotto ; and others, real children of the mist, 
delight in a drizzling atmosphere, and support with ease 
the violence of stormy winds, and the often icy coldness of 
the Serras, whether stationed within a few feet of the earth,^ 
or swinging in the air from the boughs, of the ancient 
patriarchs of the forest. Some grow in deep recesses and 
gloomy arcades, where there is a perpetual circulation 
of a damp and heated atmosphere; others, on the contrary, 
prefer the open glades, or Ro^as, where some fallen trees, 
whose own foliage has perished, supply them with a scantj'^ 
but sufficient nourishment. 

It is impossible to form an idea of a tropical forest by the 
woods of Europe, where the ivy is the only parasite which 
finds a permanent support. The Sertoes^ or virgin woods, 
which cover a part of America, present the traveller with 
scenery incomparable for its majestic character, and rich 
variety. Who is there that would not be astonished at find- 
ing himself amidst a vegetation, of which each individual 
struggles with its neighbour for existence, darting up, eagerly ! 

searching for the light of a cloudless sun and a purer air, ^ 

only to be found at a prodigious elevation, and leaving dark- ' 

ness and water at their feet. It is here that trees of patri- 
archal age perish in the embrace of enormous climbers which 
overwhelm and bear them down, and which are some- 
times carried overhead like cables, in other cases interlaced 
like the meshes of a net, and not unfrequently stand like 
lofty leaf-capped columns of spiral open-work, after the trees 
about which they have writhed themselves have fallen to decay 
within their grasp. 

Amidst this forest of ropes of sylvan rigging, grow in- 
numerable Ferns, which hang down in plumes, or festoons, or 
the gayest lacework, vast quantities of Araceous plants, and 
especially Tillandsias, forming broad patches of verdure 




A 



I 

F 



23 

upon a sombre ground. In the midst of airy garlands of 
Aristolochias, Bignonias, Convolvuluses, and Passion-flowers 
live the Orehidaceae, each particular species of which seems 
^. to haunt its own peculiar plant. Thus the Epidendrum of the 

""^ Cinchona refuses to live in the branches of the Lecythis and 

Couratari, notwithstanding that the seeds of these epiphytes 
are scattered indiscriminately by the wind. Other tribes 
again are always from free Orehidaceae, as the huge trunks 
of Malvaceous trees, Isoras, Carolineas, Plantains, and Palms. 
It is chiefly at the time of flowering that Orehidaceae 
become remarkable in their native haunts, and then less 
for the diversity of their forms, or the gaudiness of their 
colours, than for the exquisite perfume which most of them 
exhale. It is thus that I have often been led to the disco- 
very of charming species, lurking amidst the foliage, and 
w^hich my eye would never have detected. 

Changes of seasons are announced with the greatest regu- 
larity by the Orchidaceous epiphytes, many of which expand 
their blossoms amidst hurricanes and torrents of rain which 
deluge the earth at certain seasons ; but seem struck with 
torpor when the sky recovers its serenity. 

HORSE CHESNUTS POISONOUS. 

It is not often that facts in natural history can be gleaned 
from novels; the following note however, furnished by Dr. 
Bird, upon the ^sculus Ohiotensis figured in this work, 
plate 51, for the year 1838, is so remarkable that it deserves 
to be brought under the notice of naturalists ; the more espe- 
cially because it affords an additional reason for recombining 
the natural order ^sculaceaB with the often poisonous Sapin- 
daceae. 



Vt 



" The Buck-eye, or American Horse Chesnut, seems to 
be universally considered in the West a mortal poison ; both 
fruit and leaves. Cattle affected by it, are said to ^lay many 
remarkable antics, as if intoxicated, turning, twisting, and 
rolling about and around, until death closes their agonies.'' 
JVick of the Wood, vol. 1 . p. 225. JSngl. ed. 

Pinetum Woburnense, or a Catalogue of the Coniferous Plants in the col- 
lection of the Duke of Bedford at JVoburn Abbey, systematically 
arranged. 1839. 

Under the modest title of *' Catalogue" this work, of 
which only 100 copies have beeii printed for private distri- 



^V 



i 



24 

bution, contains a detailed account ,of all the species of 
Coniferae known to cultivators. It forms an imperial 8yo. 
volume of 226 pages, and is illustrated by 67 coloured plates, 
exclusive of a frontispiece representing a fine old specimen 
of the Silver Fir, in the park at Woburn, lithographed after 
a charming drawing by Lady Charles Russell. This new 
proof of the generous spirit .with whjch the Puke of Bedford 
promotes his favourite science, is the more acceptable at the 
present time, ^when so many persons are cultivating those 
majestic fornjs .qf vegetation in which the Coniferous .grder 
abounds, and when so much attention has been excited by 
their exceeding beauty as objects of forest scenery, indepen- 
dently of their value to the landholder as a source of wealth, 
not second even to that of the Oak. 

Hoy al Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Proceedings of the 

Committee of Commerce and Agriculture, 1831. 

This is a most important and interesting document. In 
the year 1837, or thereabouts, some active members of this 
Society began to call the attention of the Council to the 
great importance of ascertaining the best method of develop- 
ing the commercial resources of India ; and in pursuance of 
their recommendations money was subscribed, and a Com- 
mittee was appointed to conduct the enquiry. It is sufficient 
to say that Sir Charles Forbes was Chairman, and Mr. Holt 



Mackenzie, Professor Royle, General Briggs, Col. Sykes, &c. 



Members of this Committee, to shew the importance that was 
attached to the subject, and the excellent materials of which the 
sub-5issociation consisted. Subsequently Mr. Holt Macken- 
zie became Chairman, and Professor Royle, Secretary ; the 
organization of the Committee was completed, Mr. Edward 
Solly, Jun. an excellent chemist, was appointed assistant, and 
business was entered upon in earnest. The proceedings of 
the year 1 838 form the subject of the pamphlet at the head 
of this article, and he must be blind indeed who does not 
see that there was urgent necessity for its formation. India 
is the most extensive of all our foreign possessions, its soil and 
climate the most varied, and its resources at least as ample 
as those of the whole continent of North America. And yet 
the natural powers of the country have been brought so little 
into action, that a person ignorant of facts might well con- 
clude that her resources were nothing. Whether we look to 
those productions of the soil which require a temperate 



) 



^ 



:^ 



•25 

4 

climate, o^ to such as demand the heat and rains of the 
tropics, all have been alike neglected with the exception of 
Sugar and Indigo. For Tea we have continued to trust to the 
Chinese, although vast regions in our own possession are 
suitable to its production, and we probably would have still* 
remained supine had not the Chinese monopoly been wisely 
broken through. The raw Cotton of Bengal has, with a few 
exceptions, been the most worthless in the market; in 1833 
that of Surat was sold in the Liverpool market as low as 4|c?. 
a pound, while the worst Carthagena Cotton was worth Id. 
a lb. ; and in 1832 little more than 18,000,000 lbs. of East 
India Cotton was consumed in England and Scotland, while 
the consumption of American Cotton amounted at the same 
time to above 212 millions of pounds. And so of Tobacco; 
while in the year 1834 nearly 21 millions of pounds paid 



duty in the United Kingdom, the importation from the Easf 



Indies was so small that there was in the market no price 
for Indian samples. {Macculloch^ And yet there cannot be 
the slightest doubt that India alone might have furnished the 
whole British consumption of these articles, if their cultiva- 



^ tion had been properly directed. 



The subjects which have hitherto received the attention 
of the Committee are in the first place Caoutchouc. This 
valuable substance has as yet been obtained chiefly from 
Para ; and when in the year 1828 samples of it were sent 
from Assam to one of the principal agency houses at Calcutta, 
no opinion could be given of its value, although it was at 
that time selling in London at two shillings a pound. But 
in Sylhet, one of thfe poorest and niost unproductive of our 
Indian provinces, there are forests of trees yielding i\n^ sub- 
stance, as was long since stated by Dr. Roxburgh, and no\^ 
that attention has been called to its value, it appears that 
'•several individuals are engaged in collecting it, and that 
enough will be doubtless procured to meet all the demands 
of this country." One person alone is reported to have col- 
lected 80,000 lbs. weight in a single year, in Lower Assam. 

Other subjects of enquiry have been the vegetable secre- 
tions yielding tamtin, in which India is known to abound, 
the production of cotton, silky salt fish, medicinal plants, timber, 
lime j nice; oil seeds, dyeing substances, 8cc. and it would appear 
that in all these branches of trade India possesses ample re- 
sources well adapted to commercial purposes. 



e 



i -u r 



26 

It is to be hoped that such an enquiry as this will be 
amply supported, for it is when applied to such purposes as 
are comprehended in the investigations of this Committee, 
that science really becomes of value to mankind. If the 
Committee continue their exertions with energy and discre- 
tion for only a few years, they will have done more to render 
India happy and wealthy than all the other devices of state 
policy put together. ' 

Illustrations of the Botany and other branches of the Natural History of 

the Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of Cashinere, By J, F. 
Royle, M.D. Part X. 4to, 

The preceding remarks were written when a copy of this 
work reached me. The part now published is the last but one, 
and the last is promised in a very short time. Dr. Royle is the 
Secretary of the Indian Committee above mentioned, and it 
is already well known that the important results arrived at 
are mainly owing to his energy and perseverance, combined 
with an extensive knowledge of India itself. That the latter is 
of no common kind is amply shewn by the work in question, 
which unquestionably contains a greater amount of valuable 
practical information upon useful matters, than any work yet 
written upon the foreign possessions of any other European 
power. The following are extracts interesting to horticul- 
turists. 

Walnut. The common Walnut, J. regia, extends from 

Greece and Asia Minor over Lebanon and Persia, probably 
all along the Hindookoosh to the Himalayas. It is abundant 
in Cashmere, Sirmore, Kemaon, and Nepal. The Persian 
name of the Walnut fruit is chuhar-mughz (four brains). 

Quercus semecarpifoliay the Khursoo of the hill people, is 
found in the Himalayas as high as the limits of forests. It 
is a beautiful species, and would be quite hardy in England. 

Betula Bkojputtra, and other noble species of Birch, oc- 
cupy the loftiest situations on mountains. They also would 
be hardy. 

Poplars. P. ciliata and P. pyriformis are two fine new 
species. It is stated that what we call the Lombardy Poplar 
is a native of the East ; it is said in Persian works to be 
found in Dailim and Tinkaboom, near the south shore of 
the Caspian. Dr. Royle found it common in India in gardens 
to the north of the Jumna, whither it had been introduced 
from the Punjab, and he thinks there is little doubt that, 



i 



27 



K 



,a 




^ 



instead of being a hybrid, as some, or of American origin, 
as other writers have supposed, it was brought to Europe 
from some Eastern country, in former times, when the com- 
munication b^ the East, and interchange of commodities was 
greater than m recent times. 

Conifer (B. Of these the following Pines are enumerated ; 
1. P. longifoliay called cheer, sullah, and thansa, occupies the 
lowest elevations of the Himalaya ; this accounts for its being 
too tender for England. 2. Surul, either a distinct variety 
of the last, or a new species. 3. Cheer, a fir found by Mr. 
Shore near Almorah, which is also possibly different from 
P. longifolia. 4. P. nepalensis, a supposed variety of Pinaster, 
lately found by the collector of His Grace the Duke of Devon- 
shire. 5. P. excelsuy kuel of the natives of Sir more and 
Gurwhal, now common and hardy in England. 6. A va- 
riety or species related to this, found at Bunipa and Toka in 
Nepal. 7. P. Smithiana, a doubtful species, the authority 
for which is a figure in Ur. Wallich's plantce Asiaiica rariores. 

8. P, Khutrow or Morinda, now common in our collections. 

9. P. BrunoJiiana, a species related to the Hemlock Spruce ; 
a rare plant, found in Nepal, on the northern descent of 
Sheopore, on Gossainthan, and on the southern borders of the 
Bhotea pergunnah of Kemaon, where it is called tan-shing. 

10. P. Gerardiana, the neoza of the natives, entirely con- 
fined to the northern and drier face of the Himalaya, to 
the south of 32** of latitude ; but more to the north, found also 
on the southern face of the mountains. For this species seed of 
P, longifolia has been hitherto received in England, where it 
is extremely rare, existing only, as far as I know, at Rolles- 
ton in Staffordshire, the seat of Sir Oswald Moseley. II. The 
chilgoztty of Kunawur, beyond Rampore, along the banks of 
the Sutlej, from 5000 to 10,000 feet of elevation ; supposed 
by some to be the same as the neoza, because both have edible 
seeds, but upon insufficient testimony. 12. The deodar, the 
most valuable of all the Indian species, and the laigest 
known, being the deiudar of Avicenna; it is found at 
elevations of from 7000 to 12,000 feet, in Nepal, 
Kemaon, and as far as Cashmere. 13. Abies Webbiana, 
now so well known in this country, called chilrow, gobrea, 
sallur, and oonum, a species which grows to a great size, and 
forms one of the principal ornaments of the forests at con- 
siderable elevations. 14. Abies Pindrotu, a magnificent 

D. April f 1839. « 




h ' "r_-" 



y 



28 

species even to the limits of forest, at present unknown m 
England, and employed in the hills, along with the Deodar, 

for building purposes. 

■ I have been particular in quoting the native names of 
these valuable plants, in order to enable persons resident in 
England, the more readily to ask their correspondents for 
them. 

Roscoea alpina. A curious and very pretty little plant, 
with bright blue flowers, found at the height of 9000 feet 
and more, where, lik^ the snow-drop in European countries 
in early spring, it pushes up immediately after the rains, in 
places where the snow has just melted. This most interesting 
species would doubtless be hardy in England ; it is a most 
curious deviation in its habits from the usual tenderness of 

Scitaminese. 

Of Iris several species are found in the Himalayas, some 

of which are very pretty. 

DERIVATION OF THE WORD MYRTLE. 

At Gilan in Persia there is a spring surrounded by 
myrtle bushes, and held in great veneration. The sacred 
character of the myrtle {murt as it is called in Persia, from 

which was borrowed the Greek iivpros) I believe to have 

originated in the East. Its connexion with the worship of 

Venus is well known, and it is a curious relic of ancient 

observances, that, at the present day, wherever the myrtle 

bush is found among the Kurdish mountains (and it is very 

rare) a sort of mystic reverence is attached to the spot, which 

the people are altogether unable to explain. — Major Rawlin- 

sons March from Zohah to Khuzistan^ in Journal of Geog. 
Soc. ix. 43. 

Recherches sur Vanalyse et la Composition chimiques de la Betterave ti 
sucrcy par Eugene Peligot ; et sur V organization anatomique de cette 
racincy par J. Decaisne. Paris, 1839. 8vo. 

The cultivation of Beet root has not much importance in 
this country, where colonial sugar, for political reasons, 
enjoys a monopoly of consumption ; but to those who in 
other countries occupy themselves with the manufacture of 
Beet root sugar, this pamphlet will be read with great inte- A^ 

rest. It is full of curious and valuable research. The 
best variety for cultivation appears on the whole to be the 
" White Silesian." The principal obstacle to the manufac- 





^ ^i 



# 



\ 



f 



29 



ture of the sugar arises from the presence of great quantities 
of raphides, that is internal microscopical crystals, (not of 
oxalate of lime) ; it appears that such crystals are found ex- 
^ clusively in the parenchyma of the ascending part of thb 

plant ; that is to say, in the above-ground part of the root, 
and in the stems and leaves. The quantity of such crystals 
is affected essentially by the soil in which the plants are 



cultivated ; in highly manured, rich soil, frequently watered, 
they are found to exist to the amount of 1^ per cent., which 
was rather more than the quantity of sugar contained in the 
leaves examined. The sugar was found by M. Decaisne to be 
secreted exclusively in the parenchyma, and in a limpid state. 

Illustrations of Indian Botany, by Robert Wight, M.D, 4to. Madras, 1838 5 
published in numbers, each containing 8 coloured plates, with appropriate 
letter-press. 

Of this work six numbers have reached me. It is 
executed on the plan of Royle's Illustrations, and is intended 
to bring the Botany of India before the people of India in a 
cheap and interesting shape, an object which there can be 
no doubt that it will accomplish. The price is so moderate 
^' that it is secure of a remunerating sale, and there is there- 

fore no room to doubt that Dr. Wight will complete his 
undertaking. The plates are executed in lithography, and 
are characteristic of the plants ; if they want the neatness 
and finish of European works, they fully answer the purpose 
for which they are destined. It is impossible not to regard 
this work as one of the man}'^ means which are now silently, 
but surely, working in harmony towards the great national 
end of improving the resources of the British possessions in 
India. One of the great obstacles to this important object, 
so far as the vegetable kingdom is concerned, has been the 
difficulty of ascertaining to what plants the native names o{ 
useful products really apply. Like all vernacular names, 
those of India are uncertain and unstable ; the same nanie 
being given to one plant in one province, and to another in 
some other province. One of the results of Dr. Wight's work 
- will be to enable residents in India to give plants their scien- 
tific names, and thus to render certain and precise what must 
^ otherwise be most uncertain and deceptive. 

Among the more curious plants illustrated in the first 
six numbers, are species of the genera Acrotrema, Schuma- 
cheria, Hydnocarpus, Xanthophyllum, Hugonia, Hopea, 



« 




30 

Opilia, and Hebradendron. Among the useful plants are 
Berberis tinctoria of the Neelgherry Hills, which is stated, 
upon the authority of Vauquelin, to be inferior to few woods - 
for dyeing yellow ; on the plate representing this species are 
three squares coloured to imitate the cloths dyed with the 
plant in India ; one is pale clear yellow, a second pale green, 
the third light greenish blue. 

r-R ANKINCENSE OF SIERRA LEONE. 

The " Bungo," or Frankincense tree, is an evergreen, 
and one of the most graceful in an African forest ; it grows 
in great abundance in the colony and in the neighbourhood, 
and is generally found in rather elevated situations ; its 
foliage is a very dark green, the leaf smooth and pointed, 
and not large ; the trunk, which is rather smooth at first, is 
then curiously marked with white patches, which make the 
tree very remarkable at a distance. The lower stem is almost 
invariably perfectly straight, and at the height of 20 or 25 
feet usually branches off; the range of height of the trees I 
have seen may be from 40 to 60 feet ; when aged the bark 
becomes rugged, very thick, and the white patches dis- 
appear; the flower is very simple, white and small. I do 
not recollect ever seeing any seed ; the natives have a notion 
that the tree cannot be propagated except by nature (un- 
assisted). I made some attempts, but did not succeed. 

The tree (and especially the branches) is subject to the 
ravages of an insect, which must be of considerable size, 
from the holes it bores in every direction being commonly 
about half an inch in diameter ; the operations of this insect 
' occasion the production of the " Bungo " in very consider- 
able quantities ; sometimes no doubt the gum drops pure 
from the tree, but the chief supply is mixed up with woody 
particles resembling sawdust, and is forced from the holes 
by the insect, and gathered from the grass and ground by 
the natives. When fresh the gum is of a light reddish 
colour, translucent and very fragrant, soft and adhesive. 

The native Timmanee women use the gum, powdered 
and mixed with palm oil, as a kind of perfume, and it is 
commonly sold in the market of Freetown (without .any pre- j 

vious preparation) for this purpose. "* 

The gum, when burnt on a red hot plate of iron, gives 
forth a very grateful and highly aromatic odour; by some it 



/ 



.,-^ 



J J J JJ' 



31 






/ 



I 

r 




pposed to be the true " Thus." I do not consider myself 



qualified to offer any opinion in 



pect. The wood 



makes excellent fuel ; the perfume it diffuses whilst burning 
is extremely agreeable to most persons. I do not know that 
it is applied to any other purpose. — Extract of a letter from 
M. S. Melville, Esq. of Stirling] to James Bandinel, Esq. ; 
dated March 2nd, 1839. 



\J w 



*> U 



25. CCELOGYNE ocellata. (Gen. et Sp. Orch. AO.) 

This beautiful plant has just flowered imperfectly with 
Messrs. Loddidges, who imported it from India. The sepals 
and petals are pure white ; the lip is also white, but it has 
two very bright orange yellow spots on each lateral lobe, 
and two others smaller, and of the same colour at the base of 
the middle lobe, besides which there are some lateral streaks 
of brown. The column is bordered with brilliant orange 
yellow. The crests of the lip are three, which converge 
towards the base of the middle lobe, and there the lateral ones 
diverge again over a pair of convexities, beyond which they 
disappear ; on each side of them, at the base of the said con- 
vexities, and on the outside, is an additional short curled 
crest. The flowers grow in erect racemes about six inches 
long, and are themselves an inch or more long. 



26. DENDROBIUM linguceforme. (Swartz.) 

I have formerly received this curious plant m flower from 
various collections, but never in such perfection as from the 
garden of Richard Harrison, Esq. oi Aighburgh, who cul- 
tivates it upon the decayed branch of a tree. It inhabits 
the country near Sydney, in New South Wales, where it was 
found by the earliest Botanists who visited that colony. It 
has hard, thick tongue-shaped leaves, lying flat upon the 
rhizoma which creeps upon the rock or tree it grows on; 
they have the texture of an Aloe, and probably indicate that 
the species does not inhabit damp shaded places, but rather 
such hot dry situations as Mr. Cunningham assigns to 
Dendrobium oemulum and undulatum ; see Bot. Register, 
fol. 1699, for observations upon the culture of these plants. 
The flowers are greenish white, with long slender sepals and 



petal 



and appear from the young ends of the rhizomata. 



They have no smell, nor any feature of beauty. 




^ 



w. 



32 



^ W m^ \^ \J 



27. SARCOCHILUS olivacetis ; foliis oblongis membranaceis falcatis apice 
acutis integris, racemo flexuoso angulato 4-5-floro nutante, sepalis lineari- 
obovatis obtusis: intermediolatiorepetalisqueconformibus minoribus columuse 
dorso adnatis, labelli cum columna producta articulati lobo medio minima 
transverse rotundato lateralibus acuminatis ; disco callis variis crassis rotun- 
datis tuberculato. 

A New Holland epiphyte of no beauty, imported by Messrs. 
Loddiges. It is very nearly the same as S. parviflorus, 
from which it principally differs in its leaves being broader 
and not emarginate at the point. The flowers are small and 
yellowish orange green. 



^ \J 



28. HOYF, A pungens. (Hiigel enum. p. 36. Botanlsch. Archiv. t. ?.) 

For specimens of this beautiful plant I am indebted to 
Robert Mangles, Esq. who raised it from Swan River seeds. 
A figure of it has already been given in Baron Hugel's Bo- 
tanisches Archiv. It forms a small bush, with narrow leaves 
resembling those of Rosemary, but terminated by a slender 
pungent spine. The flowers grow singly in the axils of the 
upper leaves, and are of the most intense cobalt blue. I find 



upon comparing the garden plant with wild specimens given 



me by Captain James Mangles, that, as is usual with Swan 
River plants, the cultivated specimens are much finer than 
the wild ones. 



— W— _.. V\«_ 



29. DENDROBIUM teretifolium. (R. Brown prodr. nov. holl. 189.) 

This curious plant, which is . well defined by Dr. Brown, 
has lately flowered with Messrs. Loddiges. It is a small 
creeping species, with deep green fleshy taper leaves, between 
two and three inches long, and solitary flowers of a dull 
yellow, streaked and spotted with dull purple ; the labellum 
is white. It is a plant of no beauty. 

As the importation of New Holland Orchidaceous epiphytes 
has taken place to some extent, it is desirable that there 



should now be made known an account of several species first 
discovered by Mr. Allan Cunningham, and of which 



given me by my indefatigable friend in June 1834. 
The credit of his discoveries will thus be secured to their 
author, those who may import the plants will be able to 
determine their names, and to ascertain whether they are new 
or not, and there will be the additional advantage of proving 
that no species of striking beauty are to be expected from 
this part of the world, as none of those found by Mr. Cun- 
ningham can be considered more than Botanical curiosities. 



A 




/- 



\ 



p 



33 



NOTES OF ORCHIDACEOUS EPIPHYTES of NEW SOUTH WALES. 

By Allan Cunninghamy Esq. 

30. DENDROBIUM tetragonum; caulibus gracilibus erectis elongatis quadran- 

gularibus apice clavatis 2-3-phyllis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis acutis undulatis 
striatis s. nervosis glabris racemo terminall 2-4-floro longioribus, foliolis pe- 
rianthli elongato-linearibus patentibus, labello vittato : disco tricarinato, 
lobo medio dilatato subcordato acuto. 

An epipliyte, hanging loosely from the stems of small 
trees, in dry shaded woods, Moreton Bay. June 1828. 

31. DENDROBIUM forizYe. (Perhaps a Polystachya.)? 

On the upper branches of the loftiest trees of Flindersia 
australis, 100 feet high ; in shaded woods, Brisbane River, 
Moreton Bay. Oct. 1824. June 1828. 

32. DENDROBIUM? pygm<cum. (D. Caleyi, Cunn. in Bot. Mag. Corn- 
pan. II. 377.) 

On rocks in the Illawarra district. Flowers not known. 

p 

33. DENDROBIUM elo7igatum / caulibus articulatis teretibus sulcatis elon- 



* 



gatis erectis 4-57phyllis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis acutiusculis apice obllqui 
emarginatis, racemo terminali 3-10-floro, foliolis periantliii ovatis obtusius- 
culis, labelli disco 3-carinato lobo intermedio lato cordiformi. 

On trees in shaded dark woods, on the banks of the 
Brisbane River. Sept. 1828. 

34. DENDROBIUM pugtoniforme ; caulibus repentibus nodoso-articulatis 
radicalibus setoso-stipulatis, foliis elliptico-lanceolatis apice attenuatis acutis 
carnosis infra fere convexis carinatis Isevibus nitentibus, floribus (resupina- 
tis) subsolitariis axillaribus, perianthii foliolis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis pa- 
tentibus, labello longitudinaliter tricarinato, lobo intermedio dilatato undulato- 
crispato apice acuto recurvato. 

A beautiful epiphyte, hanging loosely from the stems of 
trees, so as to swing freely to the wind that sweeps through 
the forests on the summit of the belt of mountain bounding 
the coast district of Illawarra, on the west (lat, 341 S.) and 
flowering in August. 1818. 

Ohs. This species approaches so near D. rigidum Br. 
prodr. (not of Gen. et Sp. Orch. p. 86. n. $1) that I have 
often viewed it as the same plant which was described by 
Mr. Brown, from a figure in the Banksian collection. It now 
appears to me distinct. 

^ 

35. DENDROBIUM ? crassulcefoUum. ^ 

Of this I have no specimens or description. It 



growing 



of the Blue Mountains. Never 



seen in flower. The pseudobulbs are oval and one-leafed 
the leaf is small and oval. 



^ 






# 



34 

36. DENDROBIUM ? complanatum. 

An epiphyte growing in tufts. It has a flattened base, 
and cultriform distichous leaves : the whole plant, although 
healthy, is of a yellow green colour. On dead trees, in jk 

shaded woods, at Moreton Bay. 1828. Flowers not seen. 

37. CYMBIDIUM iridifolium ; folils elongato-linearlbus, racemis multifloris 
bracteatis, perianthii foliolis patentibus (exterioribus tribus ellipticis obtusls) 
labello 3-lobato : lobo intermedio linguiformi disco ecarlnato glanduloso- 
punctato nitido. 

On decayed trunks of trees in large masses, damp shaded 
woods on the Brisbane River. July 1828. This plant was 
alive at Kew. 

38. CYMBIDIUM ? ; caule radicante scandente, follis alternis lanceolatis 

acutis subcarnosis, racemis axillaribus laxis, fol. perianthii conniventibus 
labello carnoso 3-lobato, basi cavo. 

A Vanda looking plant, in habit very much like V. tereti- 
folia. Lindl. Coll. hot. t, 6. Can it be Epidendrum triste, 
Forst. which that Botanist discovered in New Caledonia ? My 
plant, of which I only detected a single specimen, was hang- 
ing to the thin laminated bark of the trunk of Callistemon 
rigidum, in small open savannahs, subject to inundation ; 
near the banks of the Brisbane River. Sept. 1829. 

w 

- J ^ 

39. CALANTHE veratrifolia. R. Br. 

In August ] 822, whilst on an excursion to the Illawarra, 
a coast district on the south of Port Jackson, I met with a 
plant in dark shaded woods, which I introduced to Kew, in 
the following year, considering it a Bletia. It soon after- 
wards flowered in that collection, and was then ascertained 
to differ in no one respect from the Java plant. They have 
repeatedly been in flower together since that period, and on a 
close critical examination of the two plants, no difference 
could be discovered, excepting that the Australian plant is 
not so purely white in the flower as the Java one; their 
identity is therefore clearly determined. Illawarra district, 
near Port Jackson, (lat. 34?. S.) is therefore another locality. 

40. PHAJUS grandifolius. Loureiro. 

This plant I discovered in Sept. 1824, growing in exten- 
sive swamps at the back of the beach, on the shores of More- 
ton Bay, in lat. 27|, from whence I sent a large tub of the 
plant to Kew, where, on flowering, it proved to be identical 
with the old Limodorum Tankervilliae ; and of its flower 
M. Bauer made a drawing. Moreton Bay therefore is ano- 
ther locality. 





A 



35 



I 




> 



— U ^ 



41. DENDROBIUM //eyweJwMOT. Gen. «& Sp. Orch. p. 90. 

This very pretty species has flowered imperfectly with 
Messrs. Loddiges, who received it from Bombay by the over- 
land conveyance. Its exact locality was not before known, 
the specimens in Heyne's herbarium, where I found the 
species, affording no information upon that point. In a 
healthy state the plant forms a tuft of slender clavate stems, 
from four to six inches high, loosely covered with the 
withered sheaths of leaves that have fallen off. From all 
sides there appear in the flowering season slender spreading 
racemes about three inches long, having each from five to 
nine smallish white flowers, with a greenish-yellow lip beau- 
tifully streaked with violet; they have no smell. 



j^ \J \J ^ \> 



42. L^LIA majatis. Lindl. mss. {Cattleya Grakami. Gen. & Sp. 
Orch. 116.) 

This plant, the Flor de Mayo of the natives of San 

Bartolo, and the adjoining parts of Mexico, has lately been 

received by the Horticultural Society of London from Mr. 

Hartweg, who found it on the mountains near Leon, growing 

"^ upon oak trees, at the height of 8000 feet, where it some- 

•^^^ times freezes. I possess specimens (No. 3.) given me by 

Prof. Schlechtendahl, gathered by Dr. Schiede in the same 
situations. It is one of the most beautiful of the whole order ; 
a dried flower now before me, of a bright violet colour, mea- 
sures nearly five inches from the tip of one petal to that of 
another, and when fresh I have no doubt the expansion of 
the flower was as much as six inches. The labellum is still 
nearly two inches and a half long. Many plants of this mag- 
nificent species have been given away by the Horticultural 
Society; but it proves exceedingly difficult of cultivation. 

43. OCTOMERIA tridentata; folio ovali-lanceolato crassissimo acuto, floribus 
fasciculatis, labello oblongo basi angustato apice tridentato auriculd utrinque . 
rotundat^ inflexa : lamellis obsoletis. 

F 

A Demerara plant of no beauty. The flowers are bright 
yellow ; the leaves are remarkably thick and hard. 

44. POLYSTACHYA affinis. Gen. et Sp. Orch. p. 73. f 

_ ^ 

This has lately flowered with Messrs. Loddiges, who im- 
ported it from Sierra Leone. It proves extremely different 
from P. puberula, of which 1 once thought it might be a 

E. May, 1839. / 



I 



« 



1 



36 

variety, and has larger flowers than any of the racemose 
species of the genus. Sir W. Hooker has observed a gland 
and caudicula in my Polystachya macrantha (Bot. Mag. t. 
3707.), which is probably the DendroUum galeatum of 
Swartz ; I had previously noted the same thing in P. ramu- 
losa (Bot. Reg. 1838. misc. no, 144.), and I find a similar 
structure in the present species ; it is therefore probable that 
the genus Polystachya should be placed in Vandese, among 
the genera belonging to which subdivision a better station 
may be found for it than next to Dendrobiura. 



M \/ V 



45. ISOCHILUS lividum : pseudobulbis fusiformibns attenuatis squamis pal* 

lidis membranaceis arct^ vestitis, follis solitariis linearibus apice obscur^ 
2-3-(lentatis, racemo capillari secundo nutante subtrifloro folio multb bre- 
viore, sepalis petalisque ovatis concavis patulis, labello cordato revoluto 
apice foveato basi mellifero. 

A small dingy-flowered plant, imported from Mexico by 
George Barker, Esq. of Birmingham. Its livid semitrans- 
parent flowers, and slender pedicels, are accompanied by 
spindle-shaped pseudobulbs, tightly covered with sheaths, 
resembling in colour the external skin of the onion which 
gardeners call " the silver-skinned." 



— <j ^ 



46. DENDROBiUM macrophyllum ; folils ovato-oblongis obtusis nervosis 
basI subcordatis, sepalis lanceolatis lateralibus pariitn productis, petalls ob- 
longls acutis, labello pubescente convoluto denticulato subunguiculato ovato 
callo baseos elevato transverse obsolete trilobo. 

This, the handsomest of the Dendrobia, has been received 
by Messrs. Loddiges from Manilla, where it was found by- 
Mr. Cuming. The flowers are nine inches in circumference, 
aud will probably be still larger when the plant becomes 
more healthy. The sepals and petals are a clear and bright 
rose-colour, the lip is downy and deeply stained with two 
large broad blood-red blotches at its base. • 



\^ \S vv W 



47. CATTLEYA superha; foliis ovato-oblongis obtusis conacels marginatis 

caule clavato brevioribus, sepalis oblongis acutiuscuHs, petalis lanceolatis 
acutis membranaceis duplo latioribus, labelli trilobi cucullati lobis lateralibus 
acutis: intermedio transverso piano denticulato emarginato subunguiculato 
basi venis elevatis rugoso; callis duobus pone basin. Sertum OrcJiida- 



ceum, t. 22. 



This magnificent sweet-scented Cattleya has been found 
in British Guayana by Mr. Schomburgk, who sent a live 
plant of it to Messrs. Loddiges, and a drawing to the Linnean 









s 




37 

Society, by permission of which a figure has been published 

in the Sertum Orchidaceum. The flowers, if not so large as 

those of Cattleya Mossiae, are, from the richness of their 

colours, inferior to none in beauty. According to Mr. 

Schomburgk, the plant appears peculiar to the 3rd or 4th 

degree of N. Lat. ; it is not to be met with in the Essequibo 

north of the mouth of the Rnpununy ; from thence it is found 

southwards on trees which skirt the banks of the brooks and 

. rivers which meander through the savannahs. He discovered 

only a few solitary specimens in the Essequibo south of the 

Cayuwini, and none at the equator. The Caribees call it; 

Oponopodoli, or Ducksmouth^ the Macoosees Masame. It is 

very fragrant ; the odour in the morning is said to become 

too powerful in a confined place ; the splendid flowers last 

from three to four weeks. 

Although only now brought into notice, the species was 
many years since discovered by Dr. Von Martius, who found 
it near Taruma on the banks of the Rio Negro, in woods at 
the Barra de Rio Negro, and in forests near Para. It is 
readily distinguished from all previously described species 
by its three-lobed lip with acute lateral segments, the middle 
lobe being flat, toothletted and emarginate, and by the 
cluster of elevated veins at the junction of the epichilium 
and hypochilium. 

4%. SKLYIA patens. Tab. 23. of this volume. 

The first importer of this valuable plant was inadver- 
tently stated to be Mr. Rogers of Southampton instead of 
Mr. W. B. Page of the same place. In the account of this 
species in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society the 
fact is given correctly, and I now hasten to correct an acci- 
dental error which, if unaltered, would deprive Mr. Page 
of the credit which he deserves for having first introduced 
this great ornament to our gardens. 

49. DEUTZIA corymbosa (Wall. cat. no. 3652); folils ovato-oWongls acu- 
minatis serratis sparse stellatira pilosis, floribus cymosis 4-5-gynis, dente 
intermedio staminum lateralibus aequali, fructibus pisiformibus lepidotis. 

A new hardy Himalayan shrub, flowers of which were 
produced in the garden of the Horticultural Society in March 
last, in the greenhouse. They are white, about half the 
size of those of D. scabra, lemon-scented, and arranged in 
copious cymes, which appear, from the dried wild specimens 



:i<. 



^ 



38 



before me, to form in great abundance when the plant is 
vigorous. Upon one branch 18 inches long I count seven 
clusters, each of which has on an average forty blossoms. 
It was received under the name of D. canescens. 



* - _ w - 



50. EPIDENDRUM glumaceum ; pseudobulbis ovatis apice angustatis di- 
phyllis, folils angust^ oblongis patentibus, racemo termlnali cylindraceo e 
squamis glumaceis acuminatissimis pedunculo longibribus erumpente, sepa- 
lis linearlbus petalisque lineari-lanceolatis acuminatissimis, labello obovata 
acuminate convexo integerrimo basi unicalloso. " 

A Brazilian plant very near E. fragrans, from which it 
differs in the form of the lip, and in the colour of the 
flowers, which are white delicately striped with pink. .It 
is a pretty species, with a raceme about five inches long. 



_ WW 



point, where it is white, with five small equidistant spots, of 
which the three in the middle are bright orange colour, and 
the two side ones, which are much more indistinct, dull 
purple. Mr. Miers tells me that he found it flowering in 
the month of February on the Organ Mountains, at two 
distant intervals from 3000 to 3500 feet above the level of 
the sea ; at the lower one in an exposed situation on a bank, 
at the higher, in a wood upon a quantity of rich mould in 
the hollow of a decaying tree. 



<. U i- 



VI micranthum (Gen. et Sp. Orch. p. 220.) 

This curious little plant has flowered with Messrs. 
Loddiges. Its flowers are pale violet, with the limb of the 
labellum much darker. It should rather be referred to the 
genus Cleisostoma. 



r 

i 



5L GOVENIA Gardneri (Hookev in Bot. Mag. t. 3660); scapo obtus^ tetra- 
gono medio vaginato, racemo elongate floribus post anthesin refractis, brac- 
teis oblongis herbaceis ovarii dimidio longitudlne, sepalis petalisque ovatis 
obtuslusculis, labello ovato acuto nudo apice maculis 5 marginalibus notato 
lineis duabus convexis convergentibus in medio, anthera cornu brevi inflexo. 

I # , , . . . - - 

The figure of this plant in the Botanical Magazine seems 
to have been taken from a specimen out of health, for the 
colour of the flowers and their markings are by no means 
such as I find them in a specimen now before me, for which 
I have to thank my friend John Miers, Esq. F. L. S. of 
14, Hans Place, Chelsea. The flowers are pure white ; the 
petals are delicately spotted with violet dots inside ; the lip i 

is downy at the base, and yellowish-green, except at th 







39 



J 



— V 



.ON striatum (Dickson in Botanist ined.)', foliis trilobis serratia 
glabriusculis basi subcordatis : lobis acuminatis, pedunculls capillaribus lon- 
gisslmis, floribus carnpanulatis petalis retusis, sty lis 8. 

This south Brazilian species has found its way into many 
gardens in England, having been received from the Glasgow 
collection. It is a greenhouse shrub of the easiest culture, 
and of great beauty, being covered all the year long with a 
profusion of bell-shaped orange flowers, strongly veined with 
crimson, and dependent from long slender stalks. The finest 
specimens I have seen have been those belonging to John 
Sheepshanks, Esq. of Blackheath. It appears nearly related 
to A. elegans of Auguste de St. Hiliare. 



54. CYRTOCHILUM stellatum ; pseudobulbis dlphyllis ovalibus compressis 
striatis Inter squamas lanceolatas cariiiatas axillaribus, foliis ligulatis obtusis 
aveniis scapo multo brevloribus, scape tereti erecto basi vaginato, racemo 
distiobo multifloro, bracteis carinatis convolutis acuminatis glumaceis ovario 
longioribus, sepalis petalisqae lineari-obovatis acutis stellatis, labello oblongo 
undulate acute basi canaliculate striate, alis columns acinaciformibus inte- 
gerrimis. SerCum Orchidaceum, plate 7 . 

This noble species, nearly related to C. flavescens of the 
Botanical Register, t. 1627, but diflering in its much larger 
flowers, the sepals of which are by no means acuminated, but 
only drawn to a sharp point; in the greater breadth of the 
pseudo-bulbs; in its stature being four tinles as great; and 
in the labellura being white instead of yellow, has lately 
flowered in the Nursery of Mr. J. Youell, Nurseryman, of 

Great Yarmouth. 

M. Descourtilz found it dispersed through the districts of 
Macahe and Bananal. It flowers in September and remains 
in that state till the end of January. It difl'uses but a weak 
perfume, but the beautiful spikes, which seen at a distance 
make it resemble a mass of verdure strewed with large stars, 
render it a most remarkable object. 



55. EYSENHARDTIA amorphoides, Humb. JBonpl. et Kunth nov. gen. 
et sp.pl. n. 489. t. 592. 

Seeds of this beautiful shrub having been distributed by 
the Horticultural Society, and a few plants raised from seeds 
obtained from Mexico by Geo. Frederick Dickson, Esq. in 
1837, having proved perfectly hardy, it is desirable to give a 
short account of it. It inhabits the mountains of Mexico, 
where it forms a small tree, with small pinnated leaves, like 



40 

those of an Acacia, but distinctly marked with glandular dot- 
ting; a very unusual case among Leguminous plants. The 
twigs are short, and so closely set upon the branches as to 
form a dense mass of foliage ; each is terminated by an erect 
compact spike, from two to three inches long, of white or pale 
yellow flowers, which although not larger than those of a 
Spirsea, nevertheless from their abundance must produce a 
beautiful appearance. 



Genera Plantarum secundum Ordines naturales disposita ; auctore Stephana 

Endlicher. Vindobonas, 4 to. 

There has been no Genera Plantarum published since 
that of Jussieu in 1789, with the exception of reprints, and 
the worthless compilation by Sprengel ; and during the long 
interval that has since elapsed, the science of Botany has 
grown from a dwarf of almost Lilliputian dimensions to the 
stature of an Anak. The number of genera recognized by 
Jussieu was something less than 2000 ; the list of genera 
at the end of the 2nd edition of my Natural System of Botany 
in 1836, was 7840, and many more have to be added. The 
publication of a new digest of the genera of plants, with their 
characters as limited by the best authorities, or defined by 
original observation, had therefore become a work of the 
greatest necessity' to all persons occupied with the study of 
the science; but it was at the same time so difficult, that no 
person could be found with energy enough to attempt its ex- 
ecution, till Dr. Endlicher, of Vienna, a learned man and an 
excellent Botanist, with the Imperial libraries and collections 
of that capital to assist him, seriously set himself to accom- 
plish this great purpose. 

In August, 1836, the first part of the work made its ap- 
pearance, written in Latin, and arranged according to a 
system peculiar to the author. It contained the characters 
of the classes, sub-classes, and natural orders and genera, 
written with an elegance of language too seldom found in the 
works of modem Botanists. It was accompanied by a " Conr 
spectus diagnosticus," or short abstract of the distinctive 
characters of the classes, orders, &c. and a copious Index ; 
and subsequently a " Conspectus dispositionis," or arranged 
Catalogue of the names of the classes, orders, &c. has been 
commenced. The work has now reached the tenth part, and 
the last genus is numbered 4.583. How many more parts 




i 



41 

J 

are to be expected is not known ; but supposing the whole 
number of genera known to Dr. Endlicher to be 8000, it may 
be supposed that the work will be brought to a close in seven 
or eight more parts, or in about a year and a half. The 
period of its completion will form an era in the history of 
systematical Botany. Independently of its great importance 
on account of the singular skill and care with which it is 
written, it possesses an additional value in consequence of 
the numerous references to books in which descriptions and 
figures of the" genera may be found. 

Simultaneously with this great work the same indefati- 
gable author is publishing an Iconographia Generum plan- 
tarum, or illustrations of the genera described by him. It 
appears in 4to. or folio parts, with uncoloured figures exe- 
cuted in outline by artists of the highest eminence. Seven 
parts have now appeared, and the number of the last plate is 
84. Independently of the other important materials of 
which Dr. Endlicher is able to avail himself for this work, he 
has access to the beautiful series of drawings of New Holland 
plants, executed by Mr. Ferdinand Bauer during Flinders's 
ij. expedition, and bought by the Austrian government upon his 

^ death. The originals are somewhere in this country, but 

where deposited I am not at present able to state. It is well 
known that in 1813 an attempt was made by Mr. Bauer to 
publish them in this country, but no effectual support was 
afforded him by either the men of science or the government 
of the day ; and although the plates were engraved with his 
own hand, and with exquisite skill, the publication never 
proceeded beyond three numbers. It is impossible not to 
feel it a national disgrace that such valuable materials, col- 
lected at the cost of the English government, should only- 
make their appearance nearly thirty years after their acqui- 
sition, and then by the energy and zeal of a learned foreigner. 

A Flora of North America, SfC. SfC. by John Torrey and Asa Gray, vol. i. 

part li. See page 5 of this volume. 

The second part of this valuable work has reached Eng- 
land. It proceeds from Caryophylleae to the middle of 
Leguminosae, in the order of DeCandolle's arrangement, and 
like its predecessor, exhibits equal care and talent in the 
determination and definition of the genera and species. It 
is rich in new species from California and Oregon, collected 



? 



42 

by Mr. Nuttall, and among other interesting matter, includes 

the following new genera. 

Styphonia, an Anacardiaceous tree from California. 

Oreophila, a Celastraceoiis plant, named Ilex myrsinites 

by Pursh, and Myginda myrtifolia by Nuttall, DeCandolle, 

and others. 

AsTROPHiA, a Leguminous plant from the Oregon, related 

to Lathy rus and Orobus. 

HoMALOBus, a Leguminous genus, composed of several 
herbaceous species, with the habit of Phaca and nearly the 
legumes of Vicia ; to this are referred the Phaca nigrescens of 
Hooker, and Orobus dispar of Nuttall. 

Kentrophyta, consisting of two Leguminous plants, from 
the hills of the Platte, allied to the last. 

Chapmannia, another Leguminous plant, related to Stylo- 
santhes on the one hand, and to Arachis on the other, found 
at Tampa bay in East Florida. 

Among other things relating to species, it appears that- 
the Ceanothus azureus of our gardens, is not the plant so 
named by Desfontaines, which came from Mexico, but the 
C. thyrsijiorus of Eschscholtz, a Californian species. 

CLIMATE OF BRAZILIAN ORCHIDACE^. 

" Although this is the summer season, the thermometer 
has never been higher than 84° in the shade at noon, — it 
ranges from 68 to 75" and is seldom higher : but after a few 
days continued rain, I have observed it as low as 62°. In the 
winter season it sometimes descends to 32° during the night. 
All the European vegetables grow pretty well, as also several 
fruits, such as the apple, the fig, the grape, the olive, and 
peach. The tea plant thrives well, but it is too cold for the 
orange and the coffee ; the plants themselves grow luxuri- 
antly, but their fruits do not come to perfection." — Extract 
of a letter to George WaileSy Esq. of Newcastle^ from Mr. 
Gardner, dated January, 1837, and written amongst the 
Organ Mountains, at an elevation of 3 100 feet. 

• HABITS OF BRAZILIAN PARASITES. 

The destruction of a tree in these woods does not 
lessen the abundance of vegetable life. Ou every blasted 
stem which had lost its own bark and leaves, a crop of para- 
sites had succeeded, and covered the naked wood with their 



i 






i 



f 





Ki>^ 



43 

no less luxuriant leaves and flowers. Of these the different 
species of air-plants and Tillandsias were most remarkable, 
The first were no less singular than beautiful ; they attach 
themselves to the dry est and most sapless surface, and bloom 
as if issuing from the richest soils. A specimen of one of 
these, which I thought curious, I threw into my portmanteau, 
where it was forgotten ; and some months after, in unfolding 
some linen, I was astonished to find a rich scarlet flower, of 
the gynandrous class, in full blow j it had not only lived, but 
vegetated and blossomed, though so long secluded from air, 
light, and humidity. Every withered tree here was covered 
with them, bearing flowers of all hues, from the brightest 
yellow to the deepest scarlet. They are easily propagated by 
transplanting; and my good friend, Col. Cunningham, had 
all the trees in his garden at Boto Fogo covered with them. 
The Tillandsia is not less extraordinary. — It also grows on 
sapless trees, and never on the ground. Its seeds are fur- 
nished, on the crown, with a long filmy fibre, like the thread 
of a gossamer. As they ripen, they are detached, and driven 
with the wind, having the long thread streaming behind 
them. When they meet with the obstruction of a withered 
branch, the thread is caught, and revolving round, the seed 
at length comes into fixed contact with the surface, where it 
soon vegetates, and supplies the naked arm with a new fo- 
liage. Here it grows, like the common plant of a pine apple, 
and shoots from its centre a long spike of bright scarlet blos- 
soms. In some species (Tillandsia utriculata, and lingulata) 
the leaves are protuberant below, and form vessels like 
pitchers, which catch and retain the rain water, furnishing 
cool and limpid draughts to the heated traveller, in elevations 
where no water is to be found. The quantity of fluid con- 
tained in these reservoirs is sometimes very considerable ; and 
in attempting to reach the flower stem, I have been often 
drenched by upsetting the plant." — Walsh's Notices of Brazil, 
2nd vol. page 306. 



DENDROBIUM Paxtoni ; cauTibus teretibus sulcatis, foliis ovato-kn- 
ceolatis acuminatls apice hinc obsolete emarginatis, pedunculls bifloris, sepa- 
lis oblongls acutis lateralibus basi patiim productis, petalislationbus obo- 
vatis acutis serrulatls, labello unguiculato ovato coucavo indlviso villoso 
inargine multifido fimbriato. 

This beautiful new Dendrobium has orange-yellow 

F. June, 1839. 9 



I 

^ 



44 

flowers, with a deep brown spot in the middle of the lip. 
It is related to _D. chrysanthum^ from which it differs in 
having the petals serrated, and in the surface and margin of 
the labellum. It was found at Pundua, at the foot of the 
Khoseea hills of India, by Mr. John Gibson, at that time 
employed as collector to His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, 
and at whose request it was named after Mr. Paxton. It 
was sent me from Chatsworth in April last. 



-, \d -. \j 



51. PHOLIDOTA articulata; Gen, et Sp. Orch. p. 38. 

This plant has been introduced to Chatsw^orth by Mr. 
Gibson. It is of no beauty; its flowers are small and dirty 
white, with a little yellow. It is different in habit from the 
common Pholidota imbricata^ the stem being jointed like an 
.Otochilus, and not pseudo-bulbous. 



— \d Kj iy_ 



58. PHAIUS Wallichii. Lindl. In Wall.pl. as, rar. t. 158. 

Another addition to the Chatsworth collection, made by 
Mr. Gibson during his stay in India. The specimen sent 
me was a good deal damaged, but it appeared to be as stately 
and beautiful a plant as the common P. grandifolius. 



^ - ^ — V/ W U 



59. TKIGONIDIUM tenue (Lodd. cat, no. 582.); pseudobulbis ovalibus 

compressis monophyllis, folio ensiformi acutissimo scapo erecto tenui lon- 
giore, sepalis reflexis acutissimis, labello oblongo obtuse trilobo glabro apice 
J reflexo medio appendice piano obovato emarginato adnato acute. 

A brownish purple species with a slender habit, intro- 
duced from Demerara by Messrs. Loddiges, with whom it 
flowered in May. 

60. SCAPHYGLOTTIS sfeilata ; (Loddiges in litt.) pseudobulbis fusifonni- 

bus, foliis linearlbus canaliculatis obtusis emarginatis, fasciculis sessilibus 
tenninalibus, sepalis linearibus secundis patentibus petalis conformibus an- 

gustioribus, labello cuneato trilobo lobis lateralibus rotundatis intermedio 
acutiusculo. 

This species nearly resembles Scaphyglottis violacea, 
(Bot. Reg. t. 1901) from which it difl'ers in having larger 
flowers with spreading segments, and the lateral lobes of the 
lip as large as the middle lobe. It is a native of Demerara, 

whence it was obtained by Messrs. Loddiges. 



K/ W -. t^ 



61. ISOTROPIS striata. (Bentham in Angel's Enum. pi. p. 28.) 

This is a very pretty little greenhouse shrub. The stem 
is soft, and slightly downy, the leaves oval, apiculate, convex 






45 

with arevolute edge, the flowers papilionaceous, clear orange 
yellow, with rich deep crimson forked veins, even more dis- 
tinctly marked than those of Abutilou striatum. It is a 
native of Swan River, and was communicated by Robert 
Mangles, Esq. of Sunning Hill. 

F. 

62. GOMPHOLOBIUM versicolor; caule erecto, follis breviter petiolatis 

3-foliolatis, foliolis linearlbus mucronatis glabris margine revolutis, racemo 
laxo paucifloro, calycis laciniis oblongo-linearibus cuspidatis extils glabris 
intils pubesceutibus, carina glabra. 

A smooth, neat-looking, climbing shrub, obtained by 
R. Mangles, Esq. from Swan River, where it appears to be 
common. The stems are round, erect, and smooth; the 
leaves have a firm texture; and the flowers are large, red- 
dish-yellow changing to a deep chocolate red. 

63. CHOROZEMA varium (Bentliam mss.); foliis subsessllibus subrotundo- 

cordatis undulatis spinoso-dentatis integrisque pubescentibus, racemis erectis 
multifloris foliis paulo longioribus, caljcibus basi obtusis pilosis tubo denti- 
busque subeequalibus. 

This is perhaps the handsomest shrub yet obtained from 
Swan River, whence seeds have been received both by the 
Horticultural Society and private individuals. Its foliage 
is compact, neat, and of a pleasant greenish grey colour ; the 
flowers are gaily painted with orange and crimson. It is a 
greenhouse shrub of the easiest culture, and will make an 
admirable conservatory plant. It flowers from March through 
the summer months. 

64. ACACIA cyanophJUa; pbyllodlis linean-lanceolatis vel elongate -oblongis 
undulatis obtusis glaucis basi vald^ angustatis supra basin glandulosis, capi- 
tulis racemosis axillaribus phyllodio mult6 brevioribus, ovano glabro. 

A fine new species of Acacia from Swan River, with long 
glaucous leaves, and a profusion of axillary racemes of yellow 
flowers. It was raised by the Horticultural Society from 
seeds presented by Mr. Smart, to whom we are also mdebted 
for the introduction of the beautiful Chorozema vanum. 
None of the long-leaved Australasian Acacias have such 
glaucous w^avy leaves as this. 



SJ \^ 



65. AGANISIA pulckella 



A very pretty new genus of Vandeous Orchidacea^, sent 
; Mr Rrntherton from Demerara to Messrs. Loddiges. It 



by Mr. Brotherton 



i6 

has a creeping rhizoma, with distant slender pseudo-bulbs, 
each tipped by a single leaf, and cream-coloured delicate 
flowers, resembling those of some Maxillarias in form. The 
genus is distinguished from Maxillaria by the brown sepals 
not being oblique at the base, and by the nature of the 
pollen-masses ; from Encnemis it differs in the form of the 
flowers, and in their regularity. It may be thus defined. 

■ * . 

AGANISIA. Perianthium patens, sequale ; sepalis lateralibxis haud basi pro- 
ductis. Labellum liberum, mobile, indivisum, concavum, hypochilio parvo 

, . concavo, ab epichilio crista transversa glandulosa diviso- Columna erecta, 

semiteres, marginata, apice utrinque brachio acuto patulo aucta. Anthera 
ecristata. Rostellum elongatum. PoUinia 4, collateralia, per paria con- 

nata (oo oo) caudicula lineari, glandula parva ovali.— ^ Rhizoma repens, 

pseudobulbosa. Pseudobulbi monophylli. Racemus erectus, radicalis, 

3-4-florus, follis multo brevior. 1, Aganisia pulchella. Pseudobulbi 

attenuati. Folia oblongo-lanceolata, acuta, plicata. Sepala et petala ob- 
longa, acuta, ocbroleuca. Labellum oblongum, obtusum, concavum, crista 
lutea. Brachia columnge oblique bidentata, acuta. 



. \> w 



66. GOVENIA lagenophora ; pseudobulbo ovato vagin^ lagenajforml utrlcu- 
lata incluso, petlolis tetragonis, racemo longissimo multifloro, labello ovato 
obluso omrilno glabro, sepalis petallsque obtusis. 

For this very distinct and curious species of Govenia I am 

indebted to John Rogers, Esq. Jun. who imported it from 

Mexico, and has obligingly furnished me with the following 
note concerning it. 

" Root a solitary tuber ; the old not perishing until the 

new one is nearly full grown, but then dying away com-? 

pletely ; about the size of a duck's egg, forming abovcr 

ground, and of a bright green, marked with the scars of 

three or four sheaths. The innermost sheath which sur- 

4 

mounts the tuber is entire, and resembles a Florence flask in 
shape ; it is about eight inches high, two to three in diameter 
at the base, and three-quarters at its throat ; translucent, or 
semi-transparent, containing about one-third of a pint of 
water. 

" Leaves two, opposite, lanceolate ovate, eighteen inches 
long by four to five broad ; articulated with their petiole 
just at the top of the pitcher. The petioles are acutely four- 
angled, sheathing, so that their transverse section is an 
equilateral rhomboid, with concave sides. The flower-stem 
rises from the bulb, within the pitcher, and opposite to the 
midrib of the outer leaf; about three feet high, bearing 
from forty to fifty flowers, which expand rapidly, and con- 




( 



I 



■ VT 




> 



f 




• 



47 



tinue long in perfection, exhaling in the forenoon the odour 
of Habenaria bifolia. 



^ ^ 



** The pitcher is generally full of water, all the rain and 
dew which falls on the leaves being conducted into it ; and 
it is apparently absorbed by the plant, as, if not replenished, 
it disappears tnore rapidly than evaporation would account 
for. 

" The fibres are simple, proceeding from the base of the 
tuber, and have a tendency to rise and run on the surface of 
the ground. The plant evidently delights in water when 
growing, and is apparently a native of bogs or swamps/' 

Upon comparing this with Swartz's account of his Cymbi- 
dium utriculatum, no doubt can remain of that plant being 
another species of Govenia, differing from the present chiefly 
in having a pubescent scape, and succulent white flowers ; 
it will therefore have to be added to this genus under the 
name of Govenia utriculata. 



M W 



67. BRASAVOLA glauca ; foliis coriaceis oblongis obtusis planiusculis 
glaucis, spatha uniflorS, sepalis petalisque lineari-Ianceolati's obtusis her- 
baceis, labello subsessili subrotundo acuto margine lobato, clinandrio den- 
tate denti dorsali dpice glanduloso. 

A most curious Orchidaceous plant, obtained near Veril 
Cruz for the Horticultural Society by Mr. Hartweg. Its 
habit is so much that of a Cattleya that till it flowered it was 
expected to belong to that genus. It however proves to be 
a Brasavola,' with very large flowers. A figure of it is in 
preparation for Mr. Bateman's noble work on the plants of 
this order from Mexico and Guatemala. 



V - WW- . ,. « «•« 



68. ONCIDIUM 

natis, scapb longissimo paniculate, sepalis subrotundis unguiculatis laterali- 
bus basi connatis petalisque crispis sublobatis, labelli trilobi subcrispi verni- 
cati lobis subaequalibus intermedio retuso cuneato, crista ovata convexa corru- 
gata, columnae alis rotundatis sublobatis anthera puberula. 

A noble species of this showy genus, with the habit of 
Oncidium carthaginense, but with straw-coloured flowers 
stained with crimson blotches. It was imported from La 
Guayra by Messrs. Loddiges. 

V 

'^ 69. CYMBIDiUM bicolor. Gen. et Sp. Orch. p. 164. 

This has flowered with Messrs. Loddiges, who imported 
it from deylon. It proves to be a handsome species, with 



48 

flowers like those of C. alorifolium, only streaked and stained 
with very deep crimson. The species is readily distinguished 
by having a sac at the base of the lip. 



^ \J^ 



10. BlFhOFELTlS Huge Hi. Endl. enum. p. 13. 

For a living specimen of this beautiful and most curious 
herbaceous plant I am indebted to Mr. Toward, Gardener to 
H.R.H. the Duchess of Gloucester at Bagshot. It is in its 
present state a foot and half high, with corymbose panicles 
of pink flowers, resembling those of a Cleome. It will be 
speedily figured in this work, when I shall endeavour to shew 
that it is an anomalous form of Capparidaceae rather than of 
Sapindaceae, to which order the learned Dr. Endlicher has 

referred it. 



CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD IN PLANTS. 

Some years ago, Professor Schultz, of Berlin, called the 
attention of Botanists to the existence in plants of motion 
in a particular fluid, called by him latex, analogous to the 
blood of animals, through a system of vessels previously un- 
examined. At a later period he brought the subject before 
the Academy of Sciences of Paris, and his memoir upon the 
subject received the Montyon prize.. Notwithstanding the 
exact manner in which Professor Schultz described this new 
circulating system, and the great importance of the facts he 
narrated, the question has attracted but little attention till 



lately, the common opinion among vegetable physiologists in 



this country having been, that there was some mistake in 
observations which had been made. 

There can, however, be no doubt upon the subject, now 
that the circulation has been seen by so many persons in 
England, and the interest belonging to the inquiry is so 
great as to induce me to give the following abstract of a 
paper recently published upon this subject by Professor 
Schultz in the Annates des Sciences, vol. 10. p, 327, new 
series. - 

After adverting to the advanced state of the engravings 
with which the Academy of Sciences intend to accompany 
the original memoir, the printing of which was about to 
commence in September last, the author observes, that some 
persons have confounded the motion of cyclosis in the vessels 
dispersed through the cellular tissue beyond the focus of 



\ 



^ 



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i 



't 



49 

'Circulation, with the movement of rotation in the lower 
plants. In his Memoir he had made known two sorts of 
circulation quite distinct from each other"; the one existing 
in homorganic plants, that is, in plants composed exclusively 
of a homogeneous cellular tissue, of which each cell represents 
and contains the whole vital actions of the plant : a circulation 
which, on account of the separate gyrating motion in each 
cell, he had called rotatim; the other peculiar to heterorganic 
plants, namely, to those provided with a double system of 
vessels united by a cellular system, in which reside exclu- 
sively the functions of formation : this last circulation is that 
to which he had confined the name cyclosis, because of the 
currents of fluid enclosed in veSSels ramifying in a reticu- 
lated manner, so as to form circles linked to each other and 
cohering by anastomoses. 

Both Brown and Amici, without attending to cyclosis, 
have published some interesting observations upon the motion 
of the juice in the cellular hairs of several heterorganic plants, 
(provided with laticiferous vessels) ; and Slack, in repeating 
the observations of Brown upon the hairs of Trddescantia 
virginica, established for the first time, in a positive manner, 
a comparison between this circulation in the hairs and the 
rotation in homorganic plants. Mr. Slack correctly observed 
that these hairs are not cellules composed of a simple mem- 
brane, but that they consist of a double tissue, the one exte- 
rior, the other interior, and that the circulation takes place 
between their two membranes. He also noticed that this 
motion in hairs does not merely consist of two currents re- 
turning upon themselves, but rather of numerous canals 
united by reticulating anastomoses. Mr. Slack therefore 
described a case of true cyclosis, but he was unacquainted 
with the nature and the different degrees of developement 
of the laticiferous system. 

More recently these observations have been repeated by 
Meyen, but although one should have expected that an ob- 
server acquainted with the real nature of cyclosis, would, at 
the first glance, have distinguished that kind of circulation 
from rotation, Meyen, on the contrary, adopts the idea of 
Slack, and ev^n pushes his false comparison still further, by 
attempting to refute the unquestionable accuracy of the ob- 
servations made by the latter Botanist, when he stated that 
the circulation does not take place in the interior of a cell, 



50 

4 

but in the space between a double tissue. Most assuredly 
this refutation is altogether hypothetical. M. Meyen justly 
observed that it is impossible for a true rotation to occur in 
cavities enclosed within a double tissue ; but instead of ad- 
mitting the reticulated currents between such tissue to be 
referable to cyclosis, he preferred asserting that the observa 



of Brown and Slack 
be more correct that their observations, their 



gh nothing 



alone being false. 

If we adopt the opinion of M. Meyen, we niust allow that 
heterorganic plants, provided with a laticiferous system, have 
two sorts of circulation in the same individual, viz. cyclosis 
and rotation ; without understanding what relation or con- 
nection there can be, either between the two circulations 
themselves, or between the two circulations and the system 
of spiral vessels. Such contradictions are inexplicable except 
upon the supposition that M. Meyen is unacquainted with 
the different forms, situation, extent, and the degrees of de- 
velopement of laticiferous tissue ; especially that of the capil- 
lary form, the sides of which are often not discernible in th6 
midst of the cellular tissue;, on account of their extreme 
tenuity and glassy transparency ; and it is this circumstance 
that has so often prevented observers admitting, in a general 
manner, the existence of vessels for the conveyance of latex. 

The author then proceeded to offer some observations 
upon two cases of cyclosis, of which drawings accompanied 
his paper. The first was Commelina coelestis ; of this a live 
stem was represented cut through the middle of a vascular 
bundle longitudinally. By the side of the spiral vessels a 
focus of ci/closis was indicated; this focus consisted of a 
bundle of laticiferous vessels, very delicate and filamentous, 
united together compactly in the form of a network with 
very long meshes, in which were seen cuf rents of latex 
ascending and descending. Moreover, at the side of the 
focus, in the midst of the cellular tissue, the cyclosis was 
shewn in distinct currents, and the same thing was visible 
between the cells of a hair. The currents of latex, separated 
either in the cellular tissue of the stem, or iti the hairs, werfe 
not separated in each cell, nor isolated in the cellular mass, 
but connected with the focus of circulation at certain points, 
so that all the latex circulating in the cellular tissue and 
hairs took its origin in the focus of cyclosis. 



) 



J 



\ 



J^ 




,V 



T 



r 



the 



51 

The second case was that of Campanula rapunculoides, 
the latex of which being milky, is better suited for observa- 
tion. In the hair of this plant was shewn the same reticu- 
lated connection of the currents of latex as is observable in 

)r of the plant, whether near the focus of cyclosis 
cellular tissue. This circulation of a milky fluid 
was in all respects the same as that observed in Comrnelina, 
Tradescantia, and other plants whose latex is not milky. 
Thus all these acts of circulation take place in a system of 
vessels in the form of a very fine network surrounding the 
cells, and even traversing their interior in various directions; 
and this allows us at once to distinguish cyclosis from the 
rotation of homorganic plants. The former is never isolated 
in a cell, but always forms a part of a reticulated system be- 
longing to several cells. 

With regard to anastomoses in the laticiferous tissue, M. 
Schultz referred to his numerous drawings for abundant 
proof of their universal existence where cj'closis occurs. The 
knowledge of this plexus throws great light upon the direc- 
tion of thecurrents of cyclosis in the interior of the parenchyma 
of living plants, where the sides of the vessels cannot be 
distinguished any more than in animals, in which doubts 
have been often entertained as to the existence of vessels in 
the system of the surface. It may be as impossible in plants 
as in animals to separate the vessels in every part, but there 
is no reason why we should not take a part for the whole in 

the one case as well as the other. 

In conclusion, the author expressed his belief that a 
general law in the organization of plants, as in animals, con- 
stitutes two great divisions in the vegetable kingdom — the 
homorganic and the heterorganic — and that it is chiefly from 
variations in the system of circulation that those internal 
changes of organization takes place, the results of which are 
the different grades of developement in the natural divisions 
of the vegetable kingdom ; while in the animal kingdom it 
is principally on the nervous system that the general types 
of natural divisions are founded. 



1 



G. July, 1839. * 



% 

\ 



52. 



VEGETATION OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE AND VAN 

DIEMEN'S LAND. 

Extract from a letter written by a Lady at Hobart Town iti January, 1839. 

" How I thought of you at the Cape, that Paradise of 
flowers ! though the first bloom was over on our arrival, yet 
enough was left to shew what had been, nor without seeing 
can you imagine the profusion ; there are actually no weeds. 
Our favourite little blue Lobelia is the chickweed of the 
place, the ditches and all damp places are filled with Cape 
Lilies, Heaths of all colours, the Erica, I believe coccinea, 
growing very high, Diosmas, Crassulas, &c. &c. I saw a 
great deal of the Cape, we were above a fortnight there, 
and travelled above a hundred and eighty miles into the 
interior. With the general appearance of the country I was 
disappointed, there are no trees. The silver treCj a Protea, 
is the highest indigenous plant that I saw. There are oaks 
in and about Cape Town, Constantia, Wyneberg, &c. and in* 
deed wherever a house is built, a few trees are planted for 
shade, but the country for miles has nothing higher than 
heath, and for the greater part of the year is sterile looking. 
But in the season the whole face is covered with flowers ; and 
such a face ! fancy acres of heaths, of all colours, interspersed 
with Gladioles, Ixias, Watsonias, Babianas, Lachenalias, &c. 
without end, all growing and flourishing in their native 
luxuriance. Some bunches of Mesembry anthem urns near 
Sir Lowry Cole's pass were actually too bright to look at. I 
lived in one constant whirl of delight, that extacy in which 
we behold perfection. I could not see fast enough. Most 
of the Ixias were out of bloom, but their remains were like 
patches of a hay-field in seed, only the stems closer together. 
Myrtle hedges were eight and ten feet high ; the one I saw 
at Sir John HerschelPs must have been more, and as close 
and substantial as our best holly hedges. We visited Villette's, 
and Baron Ludwig's garden, but where the whole country is 
a garden, these were of less interest. The Melia Azedarach, 
with its sweet lilac blossoms, is a beautiful and ornamental 
tree which I did not see wild. We visited the Constantias ; 
Great Constantia is beautiful, the soil is white, and looks 
like lime and sand intimately mixed. I thought of our 
gardener's recommendation of lime rubbish for vines. 

To the Cape, Van Diemen's Land is a direct contrast. 





i 



"53 



V 






This is a country of hills, fringed to the very top, and per- 
haps about the thickest vegetation in the world. All is ever- 
green, and one dense mass of gloom. At first sight it is 
sombre enough, but like a dark beauty it has its charms. 
The wood is chiefly " gum" (Eucalyptus), growing to an 
immense height, and throwing its long white arms about in 
a wild Salvator style. The young "gums" are beautiful, 
and their new shoots of reddish brown lightening into a paler 
hue, and deepening into myrtle green, with the light new 
shoots of the "wattle'* (Acacia), give a rich beauty of co- 
louring, delightful to the eye of a painter. Nature here must 
be painted to the life, there is nothing to soften. 

" There is a harshness and dryness in the texture of 
vegetation here that is very peculiar ; even their kangaroo 
grass (Anthistiriaaustralis), which is considered so nourish- 
ing, is hard and hairy, or rather wiry. The flowering shrubs 
are extremely pretty, but the flowers are very small. The 
Epacris impressa is in great quantities every where ; but 
Heaths have not aa yet been successfully cultivated here, and 
there are none native. The soil is very dry. But cultiva- 
tion of any kind is only creeping in j a Horticultural Society 
has this last year been formed at Launceston, and it is to 
be hoped knowledge and emulation may thus be excited ; 
hitherto sheep, sheep, from one end of the country to^ the 
other, with little more cultivation than each farm requires, 
land cheap, and labour dear, have caused this state of 
things : but the minimum price of land is now raised, and 
most of it is so bad that its value is far below that. Settlers 
must now rent from the great landholders, and the resources 
of the country must be made available. With science and 
judgment every thing and any thing may be done here : 
wherever English trees are planted there they flourish, but 
they are few and far between. The Sweetbriar is now 
seen in the woods, and grows to an immense size. Tiie 
quantity of flowers and fruit, such as they are, is beyond 
belief, but there are none of the best kinds. Think of grafts 
here bearing the first year : an earnest of what might be. 
I succeeded in bringing here alive, but in bad health, the 
^' Lilies of the. Valley which you gave me ; four leaves are 

green, the only morsel in the Southern hemisphere." 



54 



-. \A 



7 1 . DICHjS) A ochracea ; fplUs linearibus acut'is carinatis, pedunculis follorura 
fer^ longitudine, bractea cucullata ovarii longltudlne, sepalis petalisque ob- 
longis acutis, labello subrotundo rhomboideo sessili, columna pilosa, clinan- 
drio membrauaceo-marginato, anthera bigibbosa. 

A small Demerara plant, with narrow leaves, and pale 
yellow-ochre-coloured flowers. It is next D. graminoidesj 
which differs in having smaller flowers with very short 
peduncles, and both shorter and flatter leaves^ Messrs, 
Loddiges obtained it from Demerara. 



^ w . w 



72. GREVILLEA Thelemaniana\ foliis trifido-pinnatifidis, laciniis linearibus 
subtus blsnlcatis submiicronatis junioribus appress^ subpubescentibus,racemo 
denso. Hugel in Hit. ^ x 

A beautiful New Holland shrub, with numerous racemes 
of crimson flowers, and narrow pinnatifid leaves. It has 



tly been raised at Vienna by Baron Hugel, to whom I 



debted for a knowledge of this and several other 
species now existing in his very valuable collection. It 
belongs to Brown's section of Grevillea proper* 



* WW 



73. CONOSTYLIS juncca ; perlgonio intus glabro, scapis indivisis capitulo 
vix longioribus, foliis teretiusculis Isevibus. Hugel in litt. 

A rigid herbaceous plant, with leaves from six Inches to 
a foot long, at the base of which grow heads of campa- 
nulate erect flowers. The tube of the perianth is yellowish 
green, covered with harsh hairs ; the limb is divided into 
six, equal, acuminate segments, deep yellow at the base, 
whitish at the point, the stamens are six, and inserted equally 



into the throat of the perianth. It is a pretty greenhouse 



herbaceous plant, found on the south coast of New Holland 
by Baron Hugel, and raised at Vienna, where it has flowered. 



w \J ^ W 



74. ACACIA cuneata. Bentb. in Hugel's enumeratio, p. 42. 

This plant, from the Swan River, has been raised at 
Vienna by Baron Hugel. It appears, from a drawing that 
has been sent me, to have glaucous wedge-shaped truncated 
phyllodia, and solitary yellow capitula, whose peduncle is 
nearly half the length of the leaf It does not entirely agree 
with the definition given by Mr. Bentham, in the work above 
quoted, both the angles of the phyllodia being tipped with a 
spine, the midrib forking above the middle, each of its arms 
being directed towards an angle, and the peduncles being 




H 



\ 



V 



65 



much longer than the stipules, as well as much shorter than 
the phyllodia. 



« W 



75. THYSANOTUS isantherus. R. Brown Prodr. 139. 



Hug 



This fine species has lately flowered at Vienna with Baroii 



It is a greenhouse herbaceous plant, with 



V 



leaves, rushy stems, 



1-U 



ery 



foot high, and large purpl 



fringed flowers. It is one of the handsomest of the genus 



-• \J 



76. ONCiDlUM unicorne; pseudobulbis ovalibus compressis diphyllis, foliis 
oblongo-linearibus recurvis, racemo composito ramis divaricatis rectiusculis, 
sepalis lateralibus in unum concavum emarginatum connatis, petalis obovatis 
undulatis, labelli lobis lateralibus nanis intermedioque emarginato rotttndatb^ 
disco basi transverse elevato antic^ cornu ascendente compresso subfalcato 
acuto, alis columnse angustis obsoletis. 

This is a pretty little species, with a compound straggling 
raceme of pale yellow flowers. The singular horn on the lip, 
to which it owes its name of the *' Unicorn," at once dis- 
tinguishes it from all species previously described. Messrs. 
Rollissons imported it from Rio, and flowered it three weeks 
since. 



4k \J~m 



77. EPIDENDRUM Candollei; pseudobulbis spbaericis, scapo pamculato, 
sepalis petalisque obovato-oblongis, labelli liberi trilobi cucuUati lobo medio 
crispo acuminato, disco elevato calloso sulcato pubescente. 



Th 



first knowledg 



; I had of this plant was from M. 
Alphonse DeCandolle, who shewed me a drawing of a very 
imperfect specimen that had flowered at Geneva, and which 
I took for a variety of Ep. asperum. Subsequently the same 
species has flowered with Messrs. Loddiges, and I find that 
it is distinct. The flowers are dull brown, with a dull yellow 



ip, striped with the same 



It is a Mexican plant 



V .. 



GLAUCIUM 



DC. prodr. 1. 122. 



This plant, a native of Asia Minor, and of Rhodes 
common biennial, under the name of G. elegans 



It 



handsome poppy-red flowers 



large, but much richer 



than those of the common horned poppies 



SJ * 



Perofskian 



Fischer & Meyer Ind. iv. p. 36. 



This very pretty hardy annual plant, with bright orange 
sweet-scented flowers, has been raised in the garden of the 
Horticultural Society, from seeds collected in the north of 



fi 



56 



India by \Dr. Falconer. It was originally obtained from 
Caubul by some of the Russian emissaries in that kingdom, 
and sent from the St. Petersburgh garden to England. 



80. PAPAVER amcenum; caule simplicl glabemmo, foliis glaucis oblongis 
sessilibus plnnatifidis serratis, capsula obovatS, stipitata glabra, stigmate 
7-radiato. 



A beautiful annual poppy, raised by the Horticultural 



Society from seed sent from the north of India by Dr 
Falconer. Its leaves are smooth and glaucous ; its petals i 
most brilliant verRjilion pink with a whitish base. 



. W mm, S^ 



81. PIMELEA prostrata. Vahl. enum. 1. 306. 

r 

This is a little shrub, with small decussating glaucous 
smooth leaves, hairy branches, and little lateral heads of 
white flowers, called in the gardens P. novcB zelandice. It 
is said to be a native of arid mountains in New Zealand. 
Its appearance is neat and pretty, but by no means showy. 



MALVA 



« w 



This beautiful hardy annual, a native of Algiers, has 
lately been recovered by the French, who have dispersed it 
under the name of the Zebra Mallow. It has pale blush 
flowers, deeply stained with rich purple veins. The plant 
usually sold in the seed-shops under the name of M. mau- 
ritiana is only a large state of M. sylvestris ; and this, 

beautiful as it is, seems to be nothing more than a variety of 
that species. 



W \/ ^ W 



perfoliata. Roxb. hprt. beng. 34. 

An annual, with small pink flowers of very little beauty, 
It has been raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society 
from seeds collected in the north of India by Dr. Falconer. 



V \# «. 



84. CENTA UREA j3u/cra. DC. prodr. vii. 578. 

This most beautiful annual has been raised in the garden 
of the Horticultural Society from seeds collected in the 
north of India by Dr. Falconer. The leaves are narrow and 
hoary. The scales of the involucre are green, bordered with 
a silvery pectinated margin; the flowers are the deepest 
blue in the circumference and violet in the centre. No 

plant can be more worthy of cultivation as a hardy annual. 



■1 




^ 



N 



7 







*L- 



57 



85. VERONICA /omosa. R. Br. prodr. 290. - 

This pretty small-leafed shrub, white-flowered, evergreen 

and hardy, inhabiting the highest mountains of Van Diemen's 

ifi Land, has lately flowered in the garden of the Horticultural 

Society. Its power of existing in water only is quite extra- 
ordinary ; I have a specimen now before me, of which a 
twig placed in a vial of water has lived six weeks, ripened 
its seeds, and is now as fresh and healthy as it was at first. 



\ 



Genera et Species Gentianearum^ adjectis observationibus quibusdam phyto- 



Tubingen, 1839, pp.364. 



M.D. 8vo. Stuttgart and 




F 

The extensive order of Gentianaceous plants, notwith 
standing the difficulty or even impossibility of cultivatir 
many of the species, is very interesting to the Botanist, hot 
on account of the beauty and variety of a large proportion 
of the genera, and because of the difficulty of determining 
their limits and of reconciling the discordant opinions of 
systematical writers upon that subject. 
f^^ When, therefore, Dr. Grisebach undertook the elabora- 

tion of the order, the result of which is now before us, his 
task was one of no common kind, and had he addressed 
himself to it with less patience, or fewer materials, or a less 
clear perception of the true principles of generic limitation, 
his work might have been a useful compilation for other 
Botanists, but could not have taken the high station among 
philosophical systematical writings, to which this has un- 
questionably a claim. 

The materials at the author's disposal have been the rich 

herbaria of Chamisso, Kunth and other Berlin botanists, 
the miscellaneous collections of Sir Wm. Hooker and other 
strangers, the Indian species of Wight and Arnott, the Cape 
herbarium of Ecklon, and other collections of considerable 

importance. 

The natural character of the ordef, ^s regards the organs 
of both vegetation and reproduction, is given at considerable 
length, and is followed by some interesting morphological 
observations. These relate to the anatomy of the nodes of 
the stem, the inflorescence, and the organization of the 
flower. The author distinguishes two kinds of nodes in 



^ 



n 



5S 



dicotyledonous plants, one the nodus integer, from all parts 

of which the fibrovascular tissue proceeds into the leaf; 

the other the nodus partialis, where the fibrovascular tissue 

passes into the leaf at one point only. The nodus integer 

is universal in the order, and Dr. Grisebach considers that > 

by this character Gentianacese are certainly known from 

Cinchonacese, Spigeliaceae, and others. 

The organization of the flower of Swertia perennis and 
Gentiana lutea, is traced from the earliest period when it is 
distinctly visible up to the state of maturity. He finds the 
petals originally distinct, although eventually consolidated 
into a monopetalous corolla; the stamens distinct from the 
corolla, and exactly like nascent leaves, although eventually 
adherent to the petals; and the carpels also distinct; the con- 
solidation of all these parts takes place subsequently, and 
when the flower bud is about a line long. The placentation 
of Gentiana lutea is from the beginning marginal to a car- 
pel, and consequently at variance with the modern views of 
Schleiden and Schykofsky, who deny the truth of the theory 
that the origin of ovules is from the margin of carpellary 
leaves, and refer all placentation to the growing point. 

The author next considers the limits, principles of division, 
and affinities of the order; he admits the small natural order 
Columelliacese, and proposes a new order {Bolivariacea ) to 
include Bolivaria and Menodora. The geographical dis- 
tribution of the order is considered at length, and at the same 
time several general questions of interest in Botanical 
geography are discussed at considerable length. It is found 
that in all 343 Gentianaceous plants are known, and that the 
only parts of the world in which some one or other does not 
occur, are some islands in the Pacific, the tropical parts of 
New Holland, Timor, Sumatra, and some other parts of the 
Polynesian Flora, the deserts of Africa, the littoral of Vene- 
zuela ; and that they have scarcely been found on the moun- 
tains of Southern Europe. Of the species, 210 are tropical 
and 133 are extratropical. 

The order is divided into 40 genera, distributed througlr 
seven tribes; the detailed account of which is preceded by an 
excellent analytical table of the genera, tribes and species. 
Of Exacum 13 species are enumerated, of the beautiful genus 
Sabbatia 11, of Erythraea 17, of Lisianthus 33, and of Gen- 
tiana, to which are reduced most of the genera separated by 





m 



f 





I 



59 

Professor Don and some other modern Botanists, there are 
125 species. Professor Don's genera Ophelia and Agathotes 
are combined, and 15 species of the two are described. 
Finally, our wild Villarsia nymphoides is referred, with some 
others, to the genus Limnanthemum of Gmelin, distinguished 
from the true Villarsias by its indehiscent fruit. 



«- W . 



85. DENDROBIUM itcawera^ttwi; caulibus fusiformibus, foliis Ilneari-Ian- 
ceolatis apice obliqu^ bidentatis, pedunculis lateralibus squamatis 4-floris, 
floribus concavis subcarnosis, sepalis petalisque subrotundo-ovatis acutis, 
labelli trilobi lacinia intermedia rotundata apiculati carnosa lateralibus trlan- 
gularibus acutis brevlore, columnae facie excavatS, semibiloculari. 

A native of the north of India, whence it was brought by 
Mr. Gibson for the Duke of Devonshire. I am indebted to 
George Barker, Esq. of Birmingham, for a specimen. The 
stems appear to grow nearly upright, and are rather short, 
fusiform and furrowed when old. The flowers are a little 
smaller than those of Maxillaria stapelioides, and like them 
in form ; their colour is dull yellow, spotted and streaked 
with purple. In the specimen 1 examined the flowers grew 
in fours, on a very short peduncle, closely covered with 
ovate concave bracts, speckled with purple. The excavation 
of the face of the column, and its division into two cells are 
remarkable. 



86. GONGOR A nigrifa ; hypochilii convexl cornubus lateralibus ascendentlbus 
abbreviatis aristis setaceis, epichilio acuminato apice uncinato breviore. 

This is much the darkest of the Gongoras, the appear- 
ance of the flowers being like that of the deepest puce- 
coloured velvet. It is very nearly the same as G. atropur- 
purea, but the lower half of the lip is convex not concave, 
longer than the upper half not shorter, and the horns at its 
sides are very short. It was imported from Demerara by 
S. Rucker, Esq. Jun. who informs me that the smell is quite 
different from that of G. atropurpurea. 



« U \/ W ^ 



87. SPIRiEA cmeifolia . Wallich cat. no. 699. (S. canescens. Don prodr, 
fi. nep. 227. DeCand. prodr. 2. 544. 

This is a pretty and very hardy shrub, found in the cold 
parts of India, and recently introduced by the Honourable 
Court of Directors of the East India Company, by whom 
seeds were given to the Horticultural Society. It forms 



H 



t 



v' 



60 



at present an erect bush, with downy angular arching 
stems, from which proceed numerous short, stiff branches, 



terminated by close corymbose panicles of downy white 



^ \J . W SJ\J 



88. SPIRiEA vaccmlifolia.- Don prodr. 227. DC. prodr. 2. 546. 

This has also been obtained from the same quarter as the 
last; and is equally hardy. It forms a small shrub, with 
small brown, nearly smooth branches, leaves ovate, serrated, 
sometimes unequally, light green above, glaucous beneath, 
and small compact corymbose downy panicles of white 
flowers, with flat roundish petals. 




flowers. The petals are round, entire, and nearly flat. The J^ 

leaves are small, thick, downy, wedge-shaped, and either 
crenated near the point or undivided ; they are bright green 
on the upper side, and glaucous beneath, with nothing of a 
canescent appearance, which is only visible when they are 
dried ; wherefore, independently of all other reasons, Dr. 
Wallich's name is to be preferred to that of Professor Don. 



89. SPIR-^A Inxljiora ; fruticosa, ramis debillbus teretibus velutinis, foIHs 
glabris ovatis crenatis long^ petiolatis subtils glaucis, paniculis laxis vlllosis, 
petalis reflexis. 

With the two last was received this third species, which 
has hitherto been undcscribed. It resembles S. vacciniifolia 
in the form of the leaves, and the colour of their underside, 
but they are long-stalked and rather glaucous above, and the 
flowers are arranged in large, loose, shaggy panicles ; the 
petals are moreover reflexed. The species differs from S. 
fastigiata. Wall, in the leaves having much longer stalks, 
being more ovate, with crenatures rather than taper-pointed 
serratures, and in the panicles being much more lax. 

90. MEDICAGO clypeata; foHolis rhombeis obovatis apiculatis versus apicem 
cleiiticulatis, stipulis pinnatifidis, pedunculls subtrlfloris, leguminibus depres- 
SIS biconvexis pentacyclis venosis marglne tenuibus Isevibus. 

Quite a new form of Medicago, allied to M. rugosa, im- 
ported from the north of India by the East India Company. 
It has no beauty, but it is curious on account of the singular 
form of the fruit, which approaches in appearance those ^ 

species called '^Snails" in the seed-shops. 



f 






61 



«. ^ W W «tt 



91. PHAIUS bicolor. Lindl. g. et sp. orch. p. 128. Serlum Orchida- 



C€um. t.25. 



This, which is one of the handsomest species in the fine 
genus to which it belongs, has flowered with Messrs. Loddiges, 
who imported it from Ceylon. Its sepals and petals are, in 
that island, a very bright deep red, and the lip is yellow; but 
owing to unhealthiness or some other cause the colours of 
Messrs. Loddiges' plant were by no means of their native 
brilliancy : for it is certain that they are fully as bright and 
rich as in the figure in the Sertum Orchidaceum. 



- w « w 



92. GOODYERA rubicunda (Neottia rubicunda. Blume Bijdr.p. 408). 

This plant has flowered with Messrs. Loddiges, who re- 
ceived it from Manilla, from Mr. Cuming. It has the habit 
of Goodyera procera, but is smaller ; the scape and spike 
are rather more than a foot high, downy, and of a dull 
cinnamon brown. The flowers are also downy and of the 
same colour, with the exception of the lip, which is white, 
and densely fringed inside with glandular hairs. The 
whole of Blume's 3rd section of Neottia appears to belong 
to Goodyera. 



. 1/ W ^ W 



93. MAXILLARIA lentiginosa; bracteis lat^ ovatis acuminatis, labelli lobo 

medio ovato-oblongo obtuso, crista transversa medio processu quadrato tri- 
dentato aucta, anthera; apice incurvo ; alioquin M. stapelioidi similis. 

■ ^ 

A plant very like Maxillaria stapelioides ; but the sepals 
are more acute, the purple spots redder, more distinct, and 
less run into bars ; the lip is of the same colour as the petals, 
and its transverse crest has a square three-toothed process 
in the middle. , Imported from Brazil by Messrs. Loddiges. 

94. VANDA congesta ; foliis oblongis coriaceis apice obllquis mucronulatl.s, 

spicis capitatis subsessilibus, perianthio carnoso fraglH, sepalis oblongo-line- 
aribus petalisque lineari-spathulatis obtusissimis, labello oblongo Iimbo sub- 
deltoideo crenulato papilloso basi excavate pubescente, columnse angulis 
inucronatis. 

A small yellow and brown-flowered species from Ceylon, 
communicated by Messrs. Loddiges. It is near V. multiflora 
in the structure of the flowers, bat the dense inflorescence 
and bearded sac of the labellum are obvious marks of dis- 
tinction. 



A 

1 

■1 



62 






MEXICAN PINES. 

Among the collections of seeds formed in 1838 in the 
mountainous districts north of Mexico, by Mr. Hartweg, for 
the Horticultural Society, are many species of Pinus, among 
which six are quite new. As the Society is about to distri- 
bute the seeds of these plants, it is desirable that they should 
in the first instance be described, in order that no confusion 
may be hereafter introduced among the garden plants. They 
may therefore bear the following names. 



95. PINUS Hartwegil; tetraphylla, foliis secundariis angustissimis pnmarus 
membranaceis elongatis scariosis, strobilis pendulis oblongis obtusis aggre- 
gatis ; squamis apirce transversis medio depressis umbonatis ecarinatis ura- 
bone recto rotundato, seminibus subrotundis cuneatis ala testacea 4-pl6 
brevioribus. 

The cones are about four inches long, and about two 
inches or rather more in diameter, of a clear greyish brown, 
and as broad at the one end as the other. The branches are 

^ 

very stout, like those of P. palustris. The leaves are almost 
invariably in fours, and rather more than six inches long. 
Mr. Hartweg sent it from the " Campanario," where he found 
it forming a tree 40 or 50 feet high, and beginning to appear 
where the Oyamel, or Abies religiosa, ceases. 



plant 



be hoped be soon augmented by this truly regal 




96. PINUS Devoniana; pentapTiylla, foliis longissimis, ramis crassissimis, 

strobilis pendulis solitariis corniforniibus obtusis : squamis apice rotundatis f 

rbomboidcis linea transversa paulo elevata opacis griseis medio abrupte um- 
bonatis obtusis Isevigalis, seminibus obovatis ala nigrlcante quintuple 
brevioribus. 

This noble species is the " Pino bianco," or '* P. real," of 
the Mexicans. Mr. Hartweg describes it as a hardy tree 
from 60 to 80 feet high, found on the Ocotillo between Real 
del Monte and Regla. The cones are from nine to ten 
inches long, curved, about three inches in diameter near the 
base, and tapering till they are not more than one inch and 
three-quarters broad at the point. The young shoots are 
nearly an inch in diameter, and look very like those of Pinus 
palustris. It is w^orthy of bearing the name of His Grace 
the Duke of Devonshire, whose arboretum at Chatsworth ^ 



63 



te W 



97. PINUS Rvssellia7ia ; pQntaphylla, folils longissimis, strobilis cloiigatis 
horizontalibus subcernuis verticillatis rectiusculis sessillbus : squamis apice 
rhomboldeis pyramitlatls rectis obtusis, seminibus oblongis ala nigricante 
4-pl6 brevioribus. 

Found on the road from San Pedro to S. Pablo, near 
Real del Monte. It differs from P. Devoniana in its cones 
being shorter, not pendulous, nor curved, with the ends of 
the scales distinctly pyramidal. The cones are from seven 
to eight inches long, about two inches wide near the base, 
and almost acute at the upper end. I trust to be excused in 
the eyes of His Grace the Duke of Bedford, if I propose to 
attach the name of Russell to this fine species. 



•» W 



98. PINUS Twacro/jA^/ZZa; pentaphylla, foliis longissimis, strobilis rectis hori- 
zontalibus ovatis elongatis solitariis : squamis apice transversis rhomboideis 
runcinatis, seminibus subrhomboideis rugosis alS testacea 4-pl6 brevioribus. 

The leaves of t|iis are from fourteen to fifteen inches 
long; the cones grow singly, and are about six or seven 
inches long, about three inches broad near the base, and 
taper gradually into an obtuse point. The species differs 
from P. Russelliana in the longer leaves and shorter and 
stouter cones, the ends of whose scales are strongly hooked 
backwards. Mr. Hartweg found a single tree, of small size, 
on the *' Ocotillo." 



99. PINUS pseudostrobus ; pentaphylla, foliis'tenuissimis glaucescentibus, stro- 
bilus ovalibus verticillatis horizontalibus ; squamis apice rhomboideis py- 
ramidatis erectis rectiusculis linea elevatS transversa, seminibus ovalibus ala 
nigrescente quadruple v. quintuple brevioribus. 

Mr. Hartweg describes this as allied to Pinus Devoniana, 
but quite distinct and resembling P. Strobus in habit ; he 
found it very common at Anganguco, about 8000 feet above 
the sea. The leaves are fine and glaucous, like those of the 
Weymouth Pine. The cones are about four inches long, by 
an inch and half in breadth over the middle. 



lOO. PINUS apulcensis; pentaphylla, foliis tenuibus abbreviatis ramisque 
glaucis, strobilis pendulis verticillatis ovatis acutis: squamis rhomboideis 
pyramidatis rectis nunc elongatis medio constrictis^ seminibus ovalibus ala 
lineari quadruple brevioribus. 

The short leaves and very glaucous shoots distinguish 
this, independently of the ovate cones, covered closely with 

pyramidal elevations, which are sometimes prolonged and 



64 

contracted iu the middle, especially those near the points of 
the cones. The leaves are not more than six inches long, 
the cones are about four inches long, and very regularly 
ovate. Mr. Hartweg found it in ravines near Apulco grow- 
ing fifty feet high. 



WWW 



101. CUPRESSUS thurifera (Schlechtendahl) ; 

Found near Anganguco and Tlalpuxahua, forming a tree 
50 to 60 feet high ; 



W \J 



102. JUNIPERUS tetragona (Schlechtendahl); 

a beautiful shrub, with quadrangular branches and small 
glaucous fruit, making a bush from four to five feet high, on 
the road from Real del Monte to Chico ; 



Www * w 



103. JUNIPERUS /accida (Schlechtendahl) ; 

a beautiful small tree from 15 to 20 feet high, with 
weeping branches and glaucous fruit as large as a hazel 
nut, from the neighbourhood of Regla; and 



WWW « U 



(Schiede) 



an upright shrub or small tree, with large greenish, irre- 
gularly oblong fruit, producing a resin like Sandarach in the 
Real del Monte mountains ; have also been received by the 
Society, and their seeds are in the course of distribution to 
the Fellows. 



Notes upon the Plants that produce some of the fcetid gum-resins of the 

Materia Medica. 

There is so much uncertainty in the source from which 
the foetid gum resins are obtained, the origin of Galbanum 
and Sagapenum being unknown, that of AsafcRtida disputed, 
and that of Ammoniacum dependent upon evidence which 
requires confirmation, that any new information upon this 
subject is of interest. Through the kindness of the Honour- 
able W". F. Strangways, I have been put in possession of 
some new evidence collected in Persia by Sir John McNiell, 
and it is so satisfactory as to deserve to be made known. 

105. Ammoniacum is certainly produced, as Professor 

Don states, by Dorema ammoniacum, it having been found 



^ 



-■&• 



\^ 



1 



& 



65. 

sticking in abundance to the inflorescence of a specimen 
gathered in flower, between Ghorian ,and Khaff. It is un- 
doubtedly the secretion of the plant, and has been obligingly 
identified for me by Mr. Pereira. It is however deservii 
notice that a lump of Gum Ammoniac itself, from the 
neighbourhood of Ghorian, was mixed with numerous fruits 
of a Ferula, but not with one of the Dorema. 

106. The discrepancy between the statements of Pallas 
and Kaempfer, as to the origin of Asafoetida, is not settled ; 
Sir J. McNiell's collection not answering to the statements 
of either. Three samples of Asafoetida fruit were sent home, 
none of which belong either to F. persica or F. asafoetida ; 
one of the samples is near the former species, but the fruit is 
broader and larger, corresponding with it however in thick- 
ness, and in the almost total want of a thin margin; the 
other two samples are diflerent from each other, as well 
as from fruit formerly sent from Persia, and described by me 
in the Flora Medica, No. 97, as those of the true F. asafoetida; 
they more resemble the F. Hooshee, No. 100 of the same 
work, but are larger, and have their dorsal vittae much 
elevated and undulated. From this I think we must con- 
clude that Asafoetida is collected indiscriminately from 

I various species of Ferula found wild in Persia, and that it is 

not the produce of any one species in particular. 

107. Of Galbanum, what has been thought to be the 
fruit has been described by Professor Don, from specimens 
found sticking to samples of the imported drug ; but there 
is nothing to shew that the drug and the fruit belonged to 
each other, and I think that the evidence now in my pos- 
session renders it probable that there was no connection 
between the two. Sir J. McNiell sent home specimens 
of a plant called a 2nd sort of ammoniacum, gathered near 
Durrood, June 27, 1838, to the branches of which are sticking 
lumps of a pale yellow waxy gum resin, which I took for 
Galbanum, and upon which Mr. Pereira, who has examined 
it, makes the following remark: — " It is not asafoetida; it is 
not ammoniacum ; neither does it accord with either galba- 

K- num or sagapenum, as met with in the shops or in my 

museum. Both these substances, however, vary somewhat in 
their properties, and therefore I could not deny the identity 



i 



66 



of your sample with some specimens of either of them 



Of 



certainly 



the four foetid gum resins above referred 
proaches Galbanum the nearest." 

■ n 

From this it is I think clear, that the species in question, 
if not the origin of Galbanum, must be very near it. Now 
its fruit has no resemblance to that called Galbanum by Pro- 
fessor Don, and in fact the plant itself is new to science. 
At first I took the specimens for a new kind of Opopanax, 
supposing my fruit to be very young ; for they are in no small 
degree like that of Opopanax shortly after flowering; but 
when I found them containing solidified albumen, no doubt 
could be entertained of their being in nearly a perfect state. 
This plant, instead of being a neighbour of Ferula and Opo- 
panax, must be stationed somewhere in the neighbourhood of 
Smyrniura, from all whose related genera it is essentially dis- 
tinguished by the surface and vittas of the fruit. The following 
name and character are what I would propose for its future 
designation. 



108. 



OPOIDIA. 



* 

Flores polygami. Calyx obsoletus, 5-dentatus, aequalis. Petala ovata, acumi- 
nata, acumine inflexo. Fructus teres, ovalis* Mericarpia jugis 3 primariis 
anguld^ obcuros referentibus : valleculls planis. Vittae jugomm primano- 
rum solitariffi rnmutse, secundariorum maximse solitarise, commissurales duaj 



maximae duaeque obsoletae. Semen involutum. 



Herba erecta, mlnut^ 



scabra. " Folia lata bipinnata. Umbellae terminales et laterales compositse. 
Involucrum universale subnuUum, partiale polyphyllum. Flores pallide 
flavi. '. • . 

Opoidia galbqnifera, Hab, In Persia, provIncIS. Khorasan prope Durrood. 

Folia biplrmata, bijuga, petlolo glabro. caeteriim scabriuscula; foliolis oblongis, 
obtusis, serrulatis, decurrentibus, Opopanacis facie* Caulis elatus, robus- 
i\js, glaber; umbellis quibusdam sessilibus lu axilla ramorum, quibusdam 
termlnallDus pedunculatis ; radii umbellarura umbellulls 3-pl6 longiores. 
In vol. uniy. nullum, aut parcum, foliolis ovatis membranaceo-marginatls ; 
partiale polyphyllum, conforme. Umbellulae patulkfi, pedicellis fructyi dupl6 
longioribus, Petala albida, ovata, parva, acumine lineari acuto inflexo. 
Discus $ clypeatus, decagonus, fere astylus. Fructus junioris teretis 
ovalis basi paul6 angustati juga primaria anguli tantum obsoleti, quorum 
lateralia marginantia, valleculis planis. Albumen intiis sulcatum, dorso 
alt^ exaratum ad vittas 4 maximas recipiendas; vittae sub jugis minimae In 
medio pericarpii; commissurales duae maximas antesulcum albuminis, dues 
minlmas in medio inter axin et margluem. 



i 



ttb 



67 



) 






k 



w, w *«« 



109. ANGRiECUM armeniacum; caulescens, foliis distichis canallculatis 
apice obliqu^ et acut^ bidentatls, spiels lateralibus horizontalibus secundis, 
fiepalis ovatis, petalis linearibus, labelli 3-lobi laciniis lateralibus acuminatis 
intermedia triangulari longioribus, calcare pendulo clavato basi compresso 
calyce duplo longiore. 

This very singular plant is a native of Sierra Leone, 
whence it has been obtained by Messrs. Loddiges. Its 
flowers are of a uniform' apricot-colour, small, secund, and 
closely arranged in a horizontal lateral spike. The habit is 
that of a Saccolabium. It is very distinct from all that have 
before been seen, but has some affinity with Angraecum 
mystacinum. The spur is twice as long as the calyx, com- 
pressed at the base, and then inflated a little so as to appear 
clavate. 



110. 



(Vandeae). 

Flos resupinatus. Sepala lateralia connata, apice reflexa libera, galeam for- 
mantia ; dors^e cordatum acuminatum. Petala minima, squamaeformia, 
rotundata. Labellum carnosum, margine revolutum, basi mucronatum, cum 
pede elongate columnse sepalis lateralibus galeatis adnatae articulatum. 
Cplumna antice bicirrhosa, basi long^ producta, stigmate linear! oblongo. 
•Anthera 2-Iocularis, decidua. Pollinia 2, ceracea, sessilia, glandula molli, 

. , cubica, nuda, Herba repens, pseudobulbis monophyllis, scapo radicali, 

floribus carnosis galeatis- 

MALACHENIA clavata. 

Rbizoma repens. Pseudobuibi subglobosi, monopbylH. Folia angust^ 
ovaliaj carnosa. Scapus radicalis, foliis ter longior, erectns, teres, apice da- 
vatus, subbiflorus; axi spicse articulata : internodiis clavatis. Spica termi- 



nalis, pauciflora, Bracteae membranaceaf, ferrugineae, reflexae. Ovarium 
brevissimum. Flores obscur^ virides purpureo maculatu Sepala lateralia 
acuminata, apice revoluta, basi obscur^ semisagittata ; supremum subcorda- 
tum : sinu lato inter sepala. Petala squamiformia, rotundata, obsoleta. 
Glandula polliniorum mollis, subcubica, cinnamomea, cui pollinia leviter 



annectantur. 



This very singular plant was given to Mr. Bateman by 
Mr. Wm. Hooper of Lambeth, who received it from Rio in 
1836. It is a remarkable genus, resembling Megaclinium 
in some respects, but belonging; in reality to Vandeae, among 
which it is marked by the nearly total absence of petals, 
the cirrhate column, and the soft fleshy cinnamon-coloured 
gland, to which a pair of reniform pollen-masses are slightly 
attached. In this division of Orchidaceae it is uncertain 
where it must stand ; probably other genera still und 
covered will connect it with 

i 

present be done. 

-T. Septemberj 1839. 



J 



the system better than can at 



k 



f . 



I 

1 



68 



The scape is about nine inches long; the flowers are 
fleshy, dull green, slightly spotted with purple. The labellum 



1 



fleshy body with revolute edges, concave only 



the upper side, and* with two little mucronate processes at 
the base, one on each side. 



^ \J '^ * w 



111. SE^ECIO odoratus. Horn. hort. Jiafn. 2. 80d. DC. prodr.vi. 311. 

Why this is called " sweet-scented ".is unintelligible, for 
it has no smell. It is a glaucous herbaceous plant, with 
simple terete stems, rising in a crowd from the crown of the 
root, and growing one and a half to two feet high. The 
leaves are firm like those of an evergreen bush, oblong, 
toothed, auriculate, and covered with a thick blue bloom, 
which however readily rubs off, when they become bright 
green and shining; they are not however acuminate, as 
DeCandolle describes them, in the garden plant. The 
flower-heads are yellow, small, scentless, rayless, and ar- 
ranged in corymbose panicles ; and although destitute of 
individual beauty, they form rather a pretty effect by the 
neatness of their figure, their abundance, and the contrast 
of their colour with that of the leaves. I leave this plant in. 
Senecio, observing, however, that its receptacle is alveolate, 
and the alveoli bordered by a deep irregularly toothed border, 
which gives the receptacle the appearance of being paleate. 
The plant has flowered in the garden of the Horticultural 
Society, where it has been raised from seeds collected in the 
south-east interior of New Holland by Major Sir Thomas 
Mitchell. 



WW ^ SJ 



112, EURYBIA glutinosa; fruticosa, undique puncticulis elevatis cinereis 
scabriuscula, ramis subangulatis glutinosis calvis, foliis linearibus ntrinque 
viridibus obtusis margine rotundatis nee revolutis, pedunculis corymbosis 
monocephalis foliorum longitudine, invol. cylindracei squamis ovato-liueari- 
bus apice obtusis herbaceis margine membranaceis, radio 9-12-floro invo- 
lucro longiore, 

A native of Van Diemen^s Land, where its seeds were 
collected by Mr. Bunce, who sent them to the Horticultural 
Society, It forms an erect shrub, closely covered with long 
narrow leaves like those of rosemary in form, and produces 
in the month of August, at the end of its young shoots, from 
three to five heads of flowers, whose starry ray is long and 
a clear pale violet. It is a pretty addition to the Conserva- 
tory, This species is nearly related to Muryhia ledifolia^ a 



i' 



!^ 



/ S 



69 

species partly described by M. DeCandolle from specimens 
collected by Mr. Guiin, (no. 284), and sent him b^ me ; but 
it differs from that plant in not having shaggy involucres, 
and in its leaves, which are longer and thinner, not being 
revolute at the margin, &c. In habit it is more like E. glan- 
dulosa, DC. also a Van Diemen's Land plant ; but the latter 
species has numerous campanulate flower-heads and a short 
ray. All the green parts of this plant are covered by specks 
of a whitish viscid exudation. 



^ WW 



113. STANHOPEA oculata. Botanical Register, t. 1800. 

Var. Barkeriana; sepalis petalis et columns dorso purpureo maculatls, hypo- 
chilii sacco discolore. 

This is a remarkable variety of S. oculata, obtained from 
Mexico by Mr. Barker. It looks like S. insignis with the 
lip of S. oculata, and is very handsome. The sepals, petals, 
and column are covered with numerous purple freckles rather 
than spots, which, as the flower fades, run together, as if 
their colouring matter were dissolved ; so that at last the 
flower becomes of a dull wine-red tint. 



mm V 



114. PORTULACA grandiflora ; rutila. Hooker in Botanical Magazine, 
t. 2885. 

This is a beautiful variety of a greenhouse perennial, of 
whose brilliancy the figure above quoted in the Botanical 
Magazine gives an inadequate idea. The flowers are the 
richest crimson, more bright than even P. Gilliesii, and they 
are nearly as large as a half-crown when full blown. The 
plant is succulent, with long cylindrical leaves, and will only 
expand its blossoms under sunshine ; but as it is easily culti- 
vated that circumstance signifies little, and when it does open 
it is a magnificent object. The plants I am describing have 
been raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society, from 
seed sent from Florence by the Hon. Frederick Thelluson. 
The species is a native of Mendoza. 



^ U %d \J \J 



long if alius (A 



culatis acuminatis coriaceis glanduloso-punctatis minutissime pubescentibus 
floribus plunks longiorlbus, corolla toraentosa : limbo subtequaliter 5-par- 
tito, ovario biloculari. 

A shrub, discovered many years ago by Mr. Allan Cun- 
ningham, in the interior of New Holland, and latterly again 

met with by Major Sir Thomas Mitchell, by whose people it 






70 

was called " Lemon Haws," on account of the odour of its 
flesliy fruit. It forms a small bush, flowering in its native 
country in March, but here in the month of August. The 
leaves are long, very narrow, coriaceous, conspicuously 
marked with glandular dots, and apparently smooth, until 
they are examined by a microscope, when they are seen to 
be covered with fine short close-pressed hairs. The flowers 
are about an inch long, single or in pairs in the axils of the 
leaves, downy, and of a dull greenish red colour, with the 
stamens a little projecting. In both this and the next the 
ovary is bilocular. The corolla of Stenochilus, although 
formed upon the same plan as that of other labiate flowers, 
differs in this, that the four upper lobes grow into an upper 
lip, and that which is usually the middle lobe of the lower 
lip forms by itself the whole lower lip, which is rolled back 
Upon itself. 



«^ W . U 



o 



116. STENOCHILUS incanns; tota pilis minimis stellatis incano-tomentosa, 
foliis ovali-lanceolatis obtusis in petiplum angustatis impunctatis, corolla 
tomentosa utrinque glanduiis prninosa : labio superiore cymbiformi ^uadri- 
dentato inferiore semilibero revoluto multo longiore, ovarlo biloculari. 

Another shrub resulting; from Sir Thomas Mitchell's last 
journey into the south-east interior of New Holland, for 
which the Society is indebted to that distinguished officer. 
It forms a gray bush, looking like an olive, or some leafless 
Acacia, and is covered closely with a short white down, con- 

of stellate hairs ; a circumstance deserving of atten- 
tion in such a natural order as that of Myoporaceae. The 
flowers are solitary, axillary, and rather more than an inch 
long. The corolla is dull green, with the upper lip com-, 
pressed, slightly toothed at the point, beyond which the 
stamens project a. little, and much longer than the lower lip. 
The leaves have not the transparent dots of the last species 
at all distinctly ; but traces of dots may be found upon 
cutting into the leaves. The whole surface of the corolla is 
studded with beautiful but microscopical pin-headed trans- 
parent glandular hairs. 



w \^ w u ' 



117. ASTERACANTHA longifolia. Nees in Wall, plant. As. rar. iii. 
p. 90. 

This is a handsome greenhouse herbaceous perennial, 
seeds of which ^ere sent to the Horticultural Society by 
Mr. McCulloch, one of the gardeners to His Highness the 



I 



I 



r 



I 

f 



71 



Pacha of Egypt. It forms a bright rich green bushy plant, 
with long thin rough-haired opposite lanceolate leaves, 
which are auricled and amplexicaul, and in their axils it 
bears whorls of gay blue labiate flowers. If care is taken 
^ to reduce the vigour of leaves, by not giving the plant too 

much shade and moisture, it becomes very handsome ; but if 
it is permitted to " run to leaf" too much, its beauty is con- 
siderably impaired. 

Two circumstances connected with this Asteracantha de- 
serve particular notice. The whorls of leaves are in sixes, 
two of the leaves being larger than the other four. The 
largest leaves are the ordinary leaves of the stem, and each 
forms at its axil a short cluster of flowers ; below which two 
other leaves, smaller than the first, make their appearance at 
right angles with the latter, so that there are three leaves, 
two small and one large, on each side of the stem. 

But the stem leaves attempt in the first instance to pro- 
duce an ordinary branch from their axils ; in this however 
they do not succeed : the branch is abortive, and remains in 
the form of a spine ; the secondary leaves also attempt each 



i> for itself to produce axillary branches, with a like want of 



success, and a similar result, spines being produced instead 
and hence each whorl of flowers is surrounded bv six 



spines, forming a star : whence the name of Asteracantha 
(acTTTjp, a star, aKavOa, a spine) has been contrived. 

118. CIRRHOPETALtlM nutans; psendobulbis ovato-subrotundis rugosis, 
foliis ovato-subrotundis emarginatis coriaceis hurai pronis, scapo erecto 
elongate, umbella multiflora nutante, bracteis linearibus acuminatis, sepalls 
glaberrimis : supremo acuminato lateralibus linearibus ligulatis vix acutis, 
petalis ovatis acutis serrulatisj labello obtuso convexo bicristato, columnae 
angulis obsolete bidentatis. 

A pretty little epiphyte, sent to Messrs. Loddiges from 
Manilla by Mr. Gumming. It has a nodding umbel of pale 
straw-coloured flowers, at the end of a weak scape about six 
inches high. The leaves are from an inch and half to two 
inches long, -very thick, emarginate, and lying almost flat 
upon the ground. The species is very near C. Wallichii, a 
Nepalese plant, the specific character of which in the Genera 
and Species of Orchidaceous plants is erroneous, in conse- 
quence of bad specimens and an Indian drawing having been 

misunderstood. It is necessary to correct the definition of 
that species as follows. ^ 



] 



72 



i 



V V 



119, CIRRHOPETALUM Wallichn (Gen. et sp. orch. p. 59,); folus ku- 

ceolatis apice fissis scapi erecti longitudine, racemo multifloro 2)endulo, 
bracteis linearlbus acumlnatis, scpalis glaberrimis supremo acuminato la- 
teralibus linearibus ligulatis vix acutis, petalis acuminatis subciliatis, 



labello 



\J %j ^ <* ^ 

120. CIRRHOPETALUM Jimhriatum; pseudobulbis ovatfs subtetragonis, 

foliis ovalibus , scapo erecto, bracteis linearibus acuminatis, um- 

bell^ multiflora, sepalis lateralibus ligulatis vix acutis cohaerentibus supremo 
petalisque ovatis acuminatis firabriatis, labello crasso linguiformi nudo ob- 
tuse, columnae angulis cornutis edentulis, antherS papillosa. 

A very pretty new species of this curious genus, with the 
long lower green sepals united into a channelled rather stiff 
strap, while the upper sepal and the petals are broken up at 
the margin into beautiful purple fringes. It is extremely 
different from all the species previously known, and was im- 
ported from Bombay by Messrs. Loddiges. In both this 
and C. nutans the pollen-masses are four in number, and 
collateral, all adhering together, with the interior pair much 
smaller than the two outer. 



-k \^ 



— \/ 



121. CIRRH^A saci 

gulos costatis^ foliis oblongis plicatis sub-septem-costatis in pseudobulbos 
omnino sessilibus, scapo pendulo trigono, racemo multifloro, sepalis oblongis 
obtusis lateralibus margine revolutis, petalis lineari-lanceolatis obtusis basi 
teretibus compressis, labelli lobo medio galeato saccato. 



This 



IS a very 



disti 



Cirrhaea, for which I have to 
Bedford, by whose directions 



species of the curious genus 

thank His Grace the Duke of 
it was sent me from Woburn. 



where it flowered in August. From all the previously knc 
species it differs in the middle 'lobe of the lip being concj 
and having very much the form of that of many Saty 
It has the general appearance of the other species, but 

nearly a foot long, and the dull yello 



raceme 



green 



flowers are twice as large as those of any before discovered 
It has been figured in the Botanical Magazine under the 
name of C. fusco-lutea, which is a different plant. 



— w* 



122. CYTISUS Weldenii. Host.Jl. austr.2. 339. 

Baron Jacquin, in a letter I have recently received, ex- 
presses his surprise at the opinion given in one of our Eng- 
lish books that this species is the same as C. Laburnum or 
C. alpinus. He says it is impossible to confound a plant hav- 
ing erect racemes, which do not droop even when in fruit, and 



1 



73 

ovate-roundish leaflets, with either the one or the other of 
those species. He adds, that the plant, when not in flower, 
is more likely to be confounded with Anagyris fcetiday as has 
actually happened. It is however only fair to remark, that 
^ in our gardens this C. Weldenii has much the appearance of 

a Laburnum, and that it has never yet flowered that I am 
aware of ; so that a person unacquainted with Host's book 
might easily fall into the error which has actually occurred. 
It is well known that the seeds of Laburnum are poison- 
ous, fatal accidents having occurred to children who have 
incautiously eaten them. C. Weldenii appears to possess 
this deleterious quality in a more concentrated state, for, 
according to Baron Welden, the smell of the flowers causes 
headache, and the milk of goats which feed upon the flowers 
produces the same efi*ect, only more severely, upon those who 
drink it. • 



/• 







f 



Vi U KJ WW 



I- 



This Himalayan plant has flowered in the garden of the 
Horticultural Society, where it has been raised from seeds 
received from the East India Company. It proves to be a 
hoary perennial of little beauty, with long slender pallid or 
white flowers, arranged in long-stalked cymes. 



\> \A# 



124. IPOM(EA longifolia. Bentham Plant. Hartweg. p. \6. , 

Of all the flowers yet received from Mr. Hartweg by the 
Horticultural Society this is one of the finest. The stems 
are erect, not twining, and the flowers grow singly in the 
axils of the long entire grey leaves. The corolla is white, 
with a delicate noyau smell, and is as large as that of Calo- 
nyction bona nox. It is a perennial, with a fleshy tuber-like 
root, and has lately blossomed in the Society's Garden. It 
will probably do very well out of doors in summer, but it 
will require such protection as is given to the Dahlia in 

winter. 



•• w — 



SOLANUM candidum; (acanthophorum) caule fruticoso vlllosissimo 



artnato 



tosis subtiis incanis venis utrinque petiolisque vUlosis aculeatis, racemis ses- 
silibus lanatls distichis sub folio natis rachi aculeata, calycibus 5-lobi3 

inermibus. 

Amono- the crowd of Solana now scattered over many 
books, it is almost impracticable to ascertain whether a foreign 



1 



^ 



74 

^ 

species is new or not. This however seems to have been 
hitherto omitted by systematists. It is a fine, noble-looking 
shrub, with leaves a foot long and nine inches broad, and 
clusters of large handsome pure white flowers. It was re- 
ceived from Mexico by George Barker, Esq. who presented 
it to the Horticultural Society, in whose garden it is kept in 
the stove. 




STARCH ON THE OUTSIDE OF POLLEN-GRAINS. 

In the Annals of Natural History, vol. iii. p. 127, there 
is a report of a memoir upon pollen, read before the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh, by M. Giraud, in which memoir the 
author states that there are " minute opaque bodies on the 
surface of the pollen of Polemouium coeruleum, which, when 
immersed in water, appear to be possessed of spontaneous 
motion." Having lately been led to examine the structure 
of pollen, I took the opportunity of enquiring into the nature 
of that to which M. Giraud ascribes so singular a property. 
I had no difficulty in finding the bodies spoken of, for they 
are from ^^ to f^ of an inch in diameter, thickly stud the 
surface of the pollen-grain, which is itself about ^ of an inch 
in diameter, and are readily detached if the grains are 
placed in water, when they float about, turning upon their 
onger axis, with the same kind of motion as is seen in the 
molecules contained in the interior of the pollen. They vary 
in form from oblong to spheroidal, but I do not find them 
opaque ; on the contrary they are transparent, like grains of 
faecula, and so much like them, in certain states, that I felt 
persuaded from the first moment of seeing them that they 
were really of that nature. The application of iodine imme- 
diately gave them a pale blue colour ; so that if this agent 
is in all cases a test of starch, the bodies seen by M. Giraud 
must be of that nature. * I regard this as a circumstance of 
some physiological interest, for I am not aware that amyla- 
ceous granules have been before detected on the outside of 
any vegetable organ. Pollen, indeed, being developed in 
the interior of the anther, and produced as it would seem 
by a disintegration of the parenchyma forming the mass 
of that organ, cannot strictly be compared to any part of a 
plant except to the individual cells or tubes constituting the 
elementary tissue ; nevertheless it is equally novel to find 
focula secreted in the intercellular passages, its situation 



75 



having been always hitherto assigned to the interior of cells, 
where it is supposed to be formed by those vital forces of 



plants which carry on the functions of digestion and assimi 

lation. Are we to suppose this faecula to be the residuum of 

f the contents of the mother cells, the intersection of which 

produces the grains of pollen, and within which the latter 



organized 



w 

Flora de Filipinos. Segun el sistema sexual de Linneo. Por el P. Fr. 

Manuel Blanco, Agustino Calzado. Manila, 1837. 

This is a thick square 4to. of SS7 pages, upon the plants 
inhabiting the fertile and richly-wooded islands called the 
Philippines. It commences with a short preface explaining 
what has already been written upon the same subject by others; 
and a sketch of the principles of the Linnaean classification, 
with a glossary of botanical terms: the whole occupying Ixxviii 
additional pages of introduction. The body of the work 
consists of descriptions of plants in Spanish, each filling on 
an average about three-fourths of a page, so that the whole 
number of species introduced may be estimated at about 
1 1 00. Of these a great proportion are referred to Linnaean 
plants, it is needless to say, with but little probability of their 
belonging to them; and there are, moreover, many new 
species. From the want of books the author has been unable 
to give any synonymy, which is much to be regretted, as the 
work contains a good deal of information concerning the 
uses of plants. Of new genera 17 are specially named, 
besides which others, in the opinion of the author less cer- 
tainly new, are introduced and described, but are mentioned 
by their native names only. Thus, at the head of Pentan- 
dria Monogynia, stands a plant called Bitlag, which, the 
author thinks, may be the same as Mayepea. The new genera, 
and the natural orders to which they possibly belong are the 

following : 

Azaola, p. 402 — Sapotacea. 

Balingayum, p. 187 — Placed near Gronoma 



Calius, ^ 
the Index. 

Cobamba, p. 510 — Verbenacece. 

Enrila, p. 709—? ? 
Lumanaja, p. 821 ^-Euphorhiact 

Lunasia, p. TSS—^Euphorbiacea 

jr. October, 1839- 



page^ to which it is referred 



/ 



1^ 



I 



« 



76 

Malaisia, p. 7S9—Urticac€a. 
Mamboga, p. 140 — Cinchonacece. 
Manungala, p. 306 — Simarubaceee ' 



cholera. 

Palaquium, p. 403 — SapotacecB. 

Quilamum, p. 851 — ? ? 

Quilesia, p. 176 — Olacacece? 

Soala, p. 437 — Clvmacece? 

Sulipa, p. 497 — CinchonacecB ? Placed in Didynamia Angiospemiia. 

Tala, p. 484 — Scrophulariace<je. 

Tayotum, p. 105 — Apocynacece. 

For the opportunity of examining this curious work I am 
indebted to the Hon. W. F. Strangways, by whom it has been 
presented to the library of the Horticultural Society. 



V 



PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

L 

In the present state of Systematical Botany every day 
may be said to throw some new light upon the principles 
of classification, and every new book to contain something 
important with reference to the plan upon which the vege- 
table kingdom is organized. While however improvements 
in the secondary details of classification are thus continually 
indicated, it is only here and there that any step is taken to 
interfere with the classes or primary groups of plants ; indeed 
there can now be little doubt that in their most essential par- 
ticulars these fundamental portions of the natural system are 
but little open to alteration; that the great divisions of 
Exogensy Endogens and Acrogens are essentially different from 
each other, no botanist will attempt to deny. But it is not 
therefore certain that they do not in themselves contain the 
types of other fundamental divisions, or in other words, that 
they do not represent three great plans of structure, each of 
which includes modifications of a much higher grade than 
such as are employed for the definition of natural orders. If 
this be so, it will be necessary to augment the number of pri- 
mary divisions of the Vegetable Kingdom, and that an ex- 
tended view of vegetable structure shews that necessity to 
exist, may now I think be proved. 

Jussieu admits three primary groups only, namely 
1. Dicotyledons, 2. Monocotyledons, and 3. Acotyledons, which 
are equivalent to the modern 1. Exogens, 2. Endogens, and 
3. Acrogens, 



—\ -> ^+- Jp-^L^ -■ 




•r 







77 ' 

r 

It was however in course of time discovefed that each of 

these groups contained plants as essentially different from 

each other in physiological circumstances as the primary 

groups themselves, and hence each has been subdivided, 

and the number of classes increased to six, in the following 
manner. 

t - ■ 

1. In Exogens there are two totally different modes in 
which the influence of the pollen is communicated to the seed. 
The larger part of this primary group consists of plants pro- 
vided with the apparatus called style and stigma, through 
which the pollen-tubes are introduced into the ovary in the 
act of fertilization. But others are so constructed that the 
pollen falls immediately upon the seeds, without the intro- 
duction of any intermediate apparatus; a peculiarity analogous 
to what occurs among reptiles in the Animal Kingdom. And 
as was to have been anticipated, the plants in which this sin- 
gular habit occurs prove, upon being collected together, to 
form a group having no direct affinity with those among which 
they had been previously associated. Hence Exogens have 
been broken upi into 1. AngiospermSj or those having an 
ovary, style, and stigmaj and 2. GymnospermSy which have 
neither. 

2. Among Endogens^ in like manner, two modes of propa- 
gation have been discovered, essentially different from each 
other. In the major part of them the result of the fertiliza- 
tion of their seed is the production of an embryo, having one 
point Upon its surface predestined to become a stem, and 
another to become a root ; besides which their elementary or- 
ganization includes vascular tissue in abundance. But others, 
although in a high state of developement, are wholly or nearly 
destitute of vascular tissue, and where their seed is fertilized, 
instead of an embryo being formed, the issue is a mass of 
sporules, or reproductive bodies, analogous to those which 
Acrogens have instead of seeds. The old class of Endogens 
required therefore to be replaced by 3. Spermogens, whose 
organs of propagation are seeds, and 4. Sporogensy commonly 
called Rhizanths, whose reproductive bodies are spores. 

3. Among Acrogens also two modes of growth occur, so 
essentially different from each other that they evidently repre- 
sent different kinds of vegetation. In some of them there is 

a distinct axis of growth, or stem and root, symmetrically 



78 

clothed with leaves ; in others they are irregular cellular ex- 
pansions, destitute of true leaves ; in the former we find a 
trace of something equivalent to the sexes of Exogens and 
Endogens, in the latter all indications of the kind disappear. 
Thus are formed the two groups now called 5. CormophyteSy 
where there is a stem and leaves, &c., and 6. Thallophytes, 
where there is no separation of those parts. 

To what extent dismemberments of the three classes of 
Jussieu may be further carried, there is no evidence to shew ; 
it is not however probable that they are capable of much 
further increase. For with a few exceptions, the affinities of 
the six primary groups now indicated are too continuous and 
complete to allow us to suppose that any great physiological 
or fundamental differences of organization exist among them. 
Upon the few exceptions that do exist I propose to offer some 
observations. 

Among Angiospermous Exogens the Natural orders Aris" 
tolochiacecB, N epenthacecB ^ LardizdbalacecBy MenispermacecBy 
PiperacecB, and some others allied to the latter, stand isolated, 
as it were, in whatever part of the group they are stationed, 
having no obvious affinity with any other orders ; for we can 
only regard the approximation oi Menispermacece to Anonacece, 
&c. as the result of altogether artificial considerations, ^ow 
all these orders agree in one remarkable circumstance. In- 
stead of their wood being formed by zone deposited over zone, 
season after season, as is the case in the great mass of Exo- 
gens, they never have more than one zone of woody matter, 
to whatever age they may have arrived. Whether their 
wood itself is formed exactly in the same way as that of other 
Exogens, namely, by a gradual external addition of stratum 
upon stratum, is doubtful ; it is probable that they have a 
mode of growth of their own, analogous to that of Aristolo- 
chia, in which the wood when young is augmented by the 
successive introduction of wedge upon wedge of wood between 
wedges originally placed concentrically around a medullary 
axis. Such plants as these agree with Exogens in their Dico- 
tyledonous embryo, and in general appearance, but their 
mode of growth is an approach to that of some Endogens to 
be presently noticed, and I therefore think they ought to be 
regarded as a fundamental group, which from the homoge- 
neity of the wood may be called Homogens, for the sake of 



^ 



A 





I ■ 

i 



t. 



I 



f 



79 



contrasting their structure with the concentrically zoned 
growth of other Exogens, to which the collective name of 
Cydogens may be applied. In this manner Exogens are 
composed of three classes, 1. Angiosperms, 2. Gymnospermsy 
and 3. Homogens. 

Among Endogens I find a group of exactly the same 
nature as the last, and differing from the mass of the order in 
nearly the same manner. The peculiar habit of Smilax and 
some other Endogens, which no one would suppose from their 
general appearance to belong to that class, some time since 
led me to propose the separation of them into a group which 
was called the Retose, But as I had no better character for 
it than the reticulated leaves, nobody seems to have adopted 
it, and it has been regarded as an unnecessary separation of 
plants essentially the same ; an opinion to which, in the ab- 
sence of better evidence than I have before been able to offer, 
there has been nothing to oppose beyond the conviction that 
the Retose group is in nature well founded, although its true 
characters may have been undiscovered. It now however 
appears that Smilax and its allies have the wood of their 
stem arranged upon a plan extremely similar to that of Ho- 
mogens ; and consequently they will constitute, not a subdi- 
vision of Endogens as I formerly supposed, but a new class or 
primary group. If the annual branches of a Smilax are exa- 
mined, there is nothing in their internal structure at variance 
with that of a stem of Asparagus ; they are exactly Endoge- 
nous ; but in the rhizoma of the whole genus (take the Sarsa- 
parilla of the shops for instance) the wood is disposed in a 
compact circle, below a cortical integument, and surrounding 
a true pith ; so that the rhizoma or permanent part of the stem 
is that of a Homogen. In Dioscorea alata the stem is formed 
of eight fibrovascular wedges placed in pairs, with their backs 
touching the bark, surrounding a central pith and having 
wide medullary plates between them ; in fact, when the stems 
of this plant are in a state of decay, the eight fibrovascular 
wedges may be pulled asunder, like those of a Menisperma- 
ceous plant. In Testudinaria elepkantipes the structure of the 
stem is of nearly the same kind ; several bundles of fibrovas- 
cular tissue form a circle surrounding a pith, and pierced 
with broad medullary processes. Lapageria and Philesia 

have each a zone of wood below their bark, and a central pith 



4 



80 

in which the common fibrovascular bundles of Endogens are 
disposed ; a tendency to which is also observable in Smilax. 
RoxhurgMa I have not had an opportunity of examining. It 
seems therefore clear that what I have elsewhere called the 
Retose group is composed of plants whose mode of growth 
is essentially different from that of Endogens in general ; and 
that the species composing it stand in the same relation to 
the mass of Endogens, as Homogens to the mass of Exogens. 
For these reasons it appears that Endogens contain three dis- 
tinct types of organization, namely Spermogens and Sporogens, 
or Rhizanths, of which the former consists 1. of true Endo- 
gens with striated inarticulated leaves, and 2. of false Endo- 
gens with reticulated disarticulating leaves, the first of which 

may be named Ptychogen^t and the second Dictyogens, 

From these considerations we learn that of the three 
primary divisions of the Vegetable Kingdom, recognized by 
Jussieu, two require to be broken up into three each, and the 
other into two ; making eight in all. The mutual relations 
of which with each other and the Animal Kingdom may be 
expressed thus : 

Angiosperms. 

Homogens. Dictyogens. 

Gymnosperms. Ptychogens. 

Cormophytes. Sporogens. 

Thallophytes. 

* 

(^Animal Acrita Kingdom.) 

i 

On the opposite page is an analytical arrangement of the 
classes, intended to bring their distinctions more plainly 
into view. 



' PRIMARY DIVISIONS IN THE 



i 



VEGETABLE KINGDOM 



-\ 



Division I. EXOGENS 



1st State, % 

SEXUAL, or FLO WEEING PLANTS 




Cyclogens 




Class I. Angiosperms. 



Class TI. GVMNOSPERMS 



Class III. HoMOGENS. 









Division IL ENDOGENS 




Spermogens 




Class IV. DiCTYOGENS. 



Class V, Ptychogens. 



Class VI. Sporogens, 

(JRMzanths) ^ 



\ 



4 

2nd State. 



ESEXUAL, or FLOWERLESS PLANTS, Division III. ACROGENS 



f Class VII. CORMOPHYTES. 



Class VIII. Thallophytes 




* 



i 



t 



^ X 



A 



82 



126. CODONOPSIS lurida; foliis cordatis serratls pllosmsculis utrinque 



serrulatis 



corollae aequalibus basi integerrlmis. 

A foetid twining milking annual, with large green flowers 



It is 



a 



of 



slightly dotted with purple in the inside 
the northern parts of India, whence seeds were sent to the 
Horticultural Society by Dr. Falconer. As a twining Cam- 
panulaceous plant it is closely allied to Canarina ; but it has 
none of its beauty. 



«. W 



127. SALVIA Moorcroftiana. Wall.—Benth. Lab. p. 228. 

This plant has been raised in the garden of the Horticul- 
tural Society, from seeds sent from India by Dr. Falconer ; 
it proves a herbaceous species resembling S. Sclarea, with 
very large leaves, cordate at the base, woolly underneath, and 
pale light blue flowers about one-half the size of that species. 



CYNOGLOSSUM 

p. 306. 



Wall.— Benth. in Royle's lUustr. 



A straggling herbaceous plant about three feet high, of a 
loose inelegant mode of growth, and not much covered with 
leaves, which are sessile, ovate, oblong, acute, and bright 



green 



The flowers are rather small, but of a most 



blue, and therefore well suited to gather for the sake of orna- 
menting sitting-rooms. It is quite hardy, and was raised by 
the Horticultural Society from seeds sent from India by Dr. 
Falconer. 



129. APLOTAXIS albescens. DC. prodr. vi. 540. 

A handsome herbaceous plant, native of the northern 
provinces of India, whence it has been lately introduced by 
the East India Company, through Dr. Falconer. It forms a 
bush about three feet high, with long lanceolate deep green 
leaves, hoary with down on the under-side. The flower- 
heads are arranged in a panicled manner, and are 
with pale bright purple blossoms. 



narrow 



130. MALVA lucida ; annua, glaberrima, lucida, foliis superioribus cuneatis 



mmis cordatis. floribus axill 



culatis, calycibus reticulatis. 

A Himalayan, apparently annual, plant, resembling the 

common M. sylvestris^ but having all the herbage bright 






I*--" '.J W f-K -^^ 



H 



83 

green, and very lucid, without a trace of hairs, while the 
upper leaves, and indeed all except the lowermost, are wedo-e- 
shaped, 3-lobed, obtuse and serrated ; with the base, which is 
cordate, quite entire. The flowers are a rich deep purple. 
It will make a good annual for shrubberies and roughly 
kept places. 

4 

131, LEPTODERMIS lanceolata. Wallich in Roxb. fl- Ind. 2. 191. 
DeCand, prodr. iv. 462. 

This plant proves to be a small shrub, with ovate briglit 
green strongly feather-veined leaves, and pale yellow flowers, 
tinged with purple; it is something like a cream-coloured 
Bouvardia. In the garden of the Horticultural Society it 
seems nearly, if not quite, hardy. 

132. SOLLYA linearis; foliis glaberrimis linearibus et lineari-lanceoktls ob- 
tusiusculis, cymis multifloris nutantibus glabris, fructibus oblongis. 

This third species" of the beautiful genus Solly a has been 
lately added" to our collections by Robert Mangles, Esq. of 
Sunning-hill. The specimens which have as yet flowered 
are weak, and by no means what it may be expected that 
they will become. In wild specimens before me, for 
which I am indebted to Mr. Toward, gardener to H. R. H. 
the Duchess of Gloucester, I see as many as 1 1 flowers in a 
cluster, and a single branch has 5 such clusters. The flowers 
are of the deepest and richest blue. This plant diff'ers from 
S. heterophylla in having its leaves linear, or at the most 
linear-lanceolate, without any trace of toothings upon their 
margin ; the stigma is less distinctly two-lobed, and the fruit 
is much shorter and thicker, so as to have an oblong instead 
of a narrow terete figure. It is much to be desired that 
Sollya angustifoliay the ' Billardiera fusiformis of Labillar- 
diere, should be procured for our gardens ; it is said to be 
found in Van Diemen*s Land, and to have hairy leaves, dis- 
tinctly veined, and large blue flowers. 



» -. U » w i/ 



133. HOTEIA japonica. Morren §• Decalsne Ann. sc. 2nd ser. 11. 317. t. 
J 1 . Spiraea barbata. Bot. Reg. t. '2011. Aslilbe rivularis. Don prodr. 
fl. nep. 210. 

'^ At length an opportunity has ariseij of examining ripe 

seeds of this plant, which have been obtained from India by 
Dr. Falconer, and I find that they have an abundance of 
fleshy albumen, surrounding a straight cylindrical embryo 



Z-1839. 



m 



% 

^ 



84 



rather more than half their length. The seeds are scobiform, \ 

quite smooth, not at all reticulated, with a lax testa, which is 
prolonged at each end into a tapering withered sac, but fits 
pretty tight to the seed in the middle. Each seed, including 
its testa, is rather more than half a line long. 



134. COTYLEDON cristata. Haworthin Phil. Mag. 1827. p. 123. DC. 
prodr.3. 399. • 

For this little known plant I am obliged to William Brent, 
Esq. of Walworth, who obtained it from the Botanical Gar- 
den of Leyden, and succeeded in flowering it. It is very 
well described by Haworth, so far as his account of it goes; 
but since M. DeCandoUe regarded it as one of the species in- 
sufficiently known, it deserves to be noticed more particularly. 
The stem is very short, and closely covered with leaves, 
from between the touching bases of which there proceeds a 



number of light brown threads, described by Haworth as 



rufous hairs, but in reality withered roots, emitted by the 
leaves; but perishing aifter exposure to the air. The leaves 
themselves have a singular form ; they are described techni- 
cally as being wedge-shaped, triangular, stalked, and ter- 
minated by a curled crest ; but in more homely terms they 
look very like a jelly-bag, or a filter sewed up at the upper 
edge, and thrown on its side so as to acquire a flattened 
figure ; they are covered with very short hairs, which are 
obtuse, and placed perpendicularly upon the epidermis, so 
that the leaves have a surface like that of fine woollen cloth. 
I find nothing like the furfuraceous hairiness described by 
Haworth, who mistook for scurfiness a great number of pallid 
specks, indicating subcutaneous air chambers, with which the 
epidermis is thickly studded. The flowering stem is an erect 
spike, about three feet high, covered with close-pressed slen- 
der green flowers, tipped with pink, about half an inch long, 
and rather longer than the internodes. The corolla is com- 
pletely monopetalous, the limb only, which is revolute, being 
divided into five segments. The stamens grow to the sides 
of the corolla, those opposite the petals being a little longer 
than the others. The carpels are distinct, slender, rather 

downy near the base ; the scales beneath them are white, and 
emarginate. 

The plant is a very curious species, but it has nothing 
beautiful in its appearance. 



* 



85 



135. EPIDENDRUM inversum ; pseudobulbis elongatis compressls, fuliis 
loratis canaliculatis obtusis, spica terminali sub-6-floro, bracteis brcvibus 
ovatis acuminatis, ovario triquetro, sepalis petalisque patentibus llncari-lan- 
j ceolatis ct>nvexis subsequalibus, labello adnato oblongo acuminato basi con- 

vexo ecalloso, columna obtuse 3-dentata, antherae cardinis appendice ob- 
longa denticulata. 

A Brazilian epiphyte, nearly related to Epidendrum fra- 
grans, for which I am obliged to Messrs. Loddiges. The 
flowers are straw-coloured, with a few purple streaks on the 
column and at the base of the lip, and have a heavy not 
very pleasant smell, something like that of Ground ivy 
{Glechomci). Of this form of the genus Epidendrum, of 
which E. fragrans may be selected as the type, there are 
now several species on record, and it is probable that many 
more remain to be discovered ; I am already acquainted im- 
perfectly with more than one undescribed 'species. It will 
therefore be necessary to provide a distinct section for such 
species, to which the name of Osmophytum may be assigned, 
in allusion to their being usually scented plants. 



— \J 



136. IPOMCEA Purga, Wenderoth : Schlecht. in Linnsea, viii. 515. Lindley 
Flora medica, no. 809. 

This beautiful plant, whose fleshy root is one of the 
species from which the principal suj)ply of Jalap is derived, 
has been obtained from Mexico by several persons j and has 
lately flowered with Thomas Harris, Esq. of Kingsbury. Its 
slender flowers are of a rich crimson colour, and about four 
inches long. All Botanical observations upon the species I 
reserve till I can publish a figure of the plant ; but as it is 
already in the possession of many persons, and will soon 
become common, I am unwilling to keep back the following 

useful notes upon its cultivation, for which I am indebted to 
Mr, D. Beaton, Mr. Harris's intelligent gardener. 

" It seems to require a cool atmosphere and plenty of 
room at the roots, and yet the latter are neither numerous 
nor strong. In the stove it grows too vigorously, without 
any disposition to flower. I had one plant in a pot all this 
season in the orange house, but if I had turned it out against 
the front of the stove I have no doubt it would have suc- 
ceeded better in regard to flowering. To keep the roots or 
tubers dry from November to March, then to force them 
slightly, and afterwards to harden thcin, so as to stand the 






86 



open air by the end of May, would, I think, be the best 
way of getting it into fine bloorn. Last season a dry root 
from Xalapa was planted out of doors about the beginning 
of June, and by the end of September about two dozen 
flowers were ready to expand, but being in the open garden 
it was then too cold for them to open." 



\> w w ^ o 



137. SPECKLINIA obovala; folio coriaceo obovato emarginato basi angus- 
tato canaliculato caule longiore, spicis brevibus fasciculatis, floribus glaber- 
rimis, sepalis petalisque linearibus acuminatis, labello linear! abrupt^ acuto 
medio paululilm constricto, columna cucullata alata subdentata, 

A small Brazilian plant, with the appearance of a Pleuro- 
thallis. The leaver are obovate and very thick ; the flowers 
are small, pale yellow, scentless, and in numerous fascicled 
short spikes. 

138. RODRIGUEZIA laxiflora; pseudobulbis ancipitibus ovalibus, foliis 
lineari-lanceolatis acutissimis, racemo laxo cernuo, bracteis ovario subaequa* 
libus, labelli recurvi obsolete bicristati appendice ungui sequali, sepalo an- 
tico angusto cuneato bifido postico petalisque planis. 

I received this plant as long since as the year 1834, from 
Mr. Bateman, who first distinguished it from R. planifolia 
and recurva ; since that time it has been found in the Organ 
mountains of Brazil by Mr. Gardner, of whose herbarium it 
is no. 654 ; and I have recently observed it in the 



of Messrs. Loddiges. It is a pale green-flowered species 



much smaller than those just mentioned, with a very 
nodding spike, on which the flowers are generally arranged 
at considerable intervals; not always however, for I have 
specimens with the inflorescence as compact as that of R. 
secunda. 



«. o \/ 



J 39. RODRIGUEZIA crispa; sepaTIs omnibus liberis petalisque undulato- 
crispis, labelli bicristati appendice ungue mult5 breviore. 

This is the finest of the green -flowered species, and is 
remarkable for the crisped appearance of its flowers, which 
are sea-green bordered with yellow. Their fragrance is deli- 
cious, resembling that of Primroses. It is a native of Brazil. 



CATASETUM 



u w — 



mlbus lacerls, columna apice proboscidiformi ; cirrhis deflexis columna 



longioribus. 



For this novelty I am obliged to George Wailes, Esq. of 
Newcastle, who received it from Mr. Gardner, marked 
*'No. 2, new, found growing on a small species of Palm, 



87 



s. 



near Sertao." The plant is nearly related to Catasefum cer- 
nuum and harbatum, from which its deeply lacerated lip, and 
the longer proboscis of the column, seem to distinguish it; 
it may however be a mere variety of the latter species. ' 

Mr. Wailes observes, that *' it is somewhat like Cafase- 
turn trifidum in growth ; the flower-stem is about ten inches 
high, rather drooping, with the upper part of a pinkish 
hue. The flowers in two specimens are nine in number, 
though in one the rudiments of two or three others are appa- 
rent, but probably owing to the weakness of the plant they 
have not come forward. When well established we may 
expect finer specimens " 

The same plant has been communicated to me by Mr. 
Herbert. 

I have received from the Honourable and Rev. W. 
Herbert the following notices of new. Amaryllidaceous plants. 

141. CLITANTHES. Herbert. Perianthium suberectum tiibo angust^ subin- 
fundibuliformi, limbo brevl regulari, corona libera staminiferS, filamentis 



5J 



— — -— — ■ - ^ - - — - J 

poUine elongato-ovali, Plantc 
teranthiis angustis linearibus. 



gracili 



parvo ovato, fc 



I.e. humilis. Scapus uniflonis pedunculus et spathae pars inferior vaginis 
foliorum subterraneis ssepissime latentes ; germen oblongum f unc, perian- 
tbium 2f unc. luteum limbo sub-f unc. coronS. \ unc. filamenta obliquS 
alata dentiformia apice tenui, antherse oblongse \ unc. folia viridia subacuta 
3-5-unc. \ unc. pliis miniis lata. Ex Palcamayo provinci^E Tarmm in 
Peruvia montibus alt. 9600 ped. a dom. J. Maclean iecta. 

2. C. Macleanica. Scapus uniflorus sex unc. liber, pedunculus f-I|^ unc. 
spatha circ. biuncialis, germen lat^ ovalis f unc. vel ultra, perianthium bi- 
unciale luteum -Kmbo Is unc. corona ^ "uc- filamenta gracilia \ unc. antherse 
\ unc. stylus stamina superans limbo vix |^ unc. brevlor, folia viridia sub- 
acuta subpedalia f-^ unc. lata basi cylindraceo-vaginante. Ex PeruvicD 
montibus J in loco 11000 ped, alt. infra Checlam et supra '^ San Mateo^* 
a dom. /. Maclean lecta. 

3. C. lutea. (Clinantbus luteus. Herb. Amar.) Scapus biflorus circ. 3^ 
unc, liber, spatha circ. '2^ unc. pedunculi ingequales, germen subrotundum 
Qath ovale), perianthium If unc. luteum limbo f unc. corona brevi, fila- 
menta obliqu^ alata dentiformia apice tenui, antherae circiter ^ unc. folia 
viridia circ. 6-unc. -jri lata basi cylindraceo-vaginante. Ex Peruvus mon* 
tibusy a Ruiz et Pavon lecta. 

The name CHnanthus, which was given from the obliquity 
which the flowers in Ruiz's specimen of his undescribed 
Pancratium luteum had taken in drying, is changed for Cli- 
tanthes, from kXctv9, a mountainous declivity, and ai;0o9y a 
flower. The genus is founded specially onC. humilis, of which 
the tube is quite erect. Bulbs and specimens of humilis and 



88 
Macleanica were collected in December, 1838, by John 



* Maclean, Esq. of Lima, in his excursion across the Cordillera 
on the western slope, and obligingly sent by him to SpofForth, 
together with several others of equal interest. 



^ W 



142, ISM EN E defiexa. Folia subpedalia acuta If unc. lata virldia basi cylin- 
draceo-va^inantia, scapus anceps, spatha marcescens tubum biuncialem pallide 
virentem curvatulum vix sequans, limbus albus reflexns rlx 4-uncialis sepalis 
angustis mucrone petala obtusa parum latiora superantibus, corona ampla 
horizontalis laciniis duabus infenoribus adpressa tnuncialis lobis recurvis 
lacero-truncatis dentibus filiformibus alba fundum versus virens, filamenta 
alba 1^5- unc. vol ultra, superiora pendule on coronse adpressa, inferiora connU 
ventia, stylus coronam 2 unc. superans stigmate parvulo. Planta Ismeni 
calathinse similis odore subgrato. In jugo montium Peruvise San Mateo 

dicto.— W. H. 

A bulb of this new species of Ismene, found by J, Mac- 
lean, Esq. on the Quebrada de San Mateo at the elevation of 
10,984 feet, flowered in the greenhouse at SpofForth in July, 
1839, having been potted in white sand with a small admix- 
ture of light loam, in consequence of the bulbs having been 
recognized as a species of Ismene by their appearance. It 
forms a connecting link between the original species of 
Ismene and the genus Elisena, by the adpression of its cup to 
the lower segments of the limb, and the greater length of the 
filaments, of which the three upper instead of dipping into 
the cup lie across its mouth. Elisena longipetala has pre- 
cisely the growth and habit of an Ismene, and a bulb of 
ringens (P. ringens of Ruiz) lately received from Lima, has 
entirely the aspect and habit of I. calathina, with a sheathing 
column, contrary to the representation in the F4ora Peruviana. 

A variety of I. amancaes has the lobes of the cup united, 
so as to form an entire margin, projecting beyond the point 
of the insertion of the filaments. It seems therefore very 
probable, that, when better understood, the genus Elisena 
will merge in Ismene. Every Ismene delights in white 
sand, every Hymenocallis in strong alluvial soil, and immer- 
sion in water.— W. H, 



«. _«. o ^ %s 



143. L^LIA ^aua ; pseudobulbis ovallbus 1-2-phyllis foliis carnosis coriaceis 
planis subconvexis breviorlbus, scapo erecto foliis longiore squamulis qui- 
busdam distantibus vaginato apice paucifloro bracteis minimis acutis, sepalis 
petalisque oblongo-linearibus obtusis, labelli lobo medio crispo recurvo 
lateralibus obtusis undulatls multo longiore. 

" This plant, I believe, is a native of Mexico, from 
whence it was brought several years ago, and added to Sir 



w' 



I' 










89 

* 

Charles Lemon's collection at Carclew, where it flowered 
for the first time in the autumn of 1839. 

" Pseudo-bulbs erect, roundish oblong, from two to three 
inches high, and about two and half or three inches in cir- 
cumference at the base, from which they taper upwards and 
become one or two-leaved. Thev are smooth and of a deep 
shining green, nearly all concealed by several large, imbri- 
cated, thin, brown-coloured leafy scales. Leaves from three 
to five inches long, and about an inch broad, oblong lanceo- 
late acute, very thick and stiff", recurved both at the point 
and edges, and of a dark green colour. Scape about a foot 
high, rising from the crown of the pseudo-bulb between the 
two leaves, round and erect, pale green, bearing three or 
four flowers near the top, with a small, persistent, acute 
hractea at the base of each, and a sinrrle brown-coloured 



sheath an inch long at its. junction with the bulb. Pedicels 
nearly erect, an inch in length, somewhat clavate and chan- 
nelled, and of a pale green. Flowers bright yellow, open- 
ing one at a time, and remaining expanded for a fortnight 
or three weeks. Sepals spreading, oblong-lanceolate, bluntish 
at the point, about an inch or more in length, and a quarter 
of an inch in breadth. Petals similar in form and colour to 
the sepals, but exceeding them a little in size. Labellum 
rather shorter than the petals, three-lobed, the middle one 
is recurved and undulated at the margin in the way of Catt- 
leya crispa, with two raised longitudinal processes forming 
a sort of groove down the centre. The two lateral lobes are 
erect, with thejr edges plain, and meet above the column so 
as almost to conceal it. Column triangular, or nearly so, the 
upper edge only being a little rounder than the other. 
Pollen-masses eight, contained in four distinct cells, which 
on being opened exhibit on either side of the middle partition 
two pairs of roundish compressed waxy bodies attached to 
one another by a small elastic membrane. 

*' The plant requires the same treatment as other Orchi- 
dacese, thriving pretty well in moss and decayed vegetable 

mould." . . ' 

For the above memorandum and accurate description of 

this quite new species I am indebted to Mr. Booth. The^ 
plant is nearly allied % L. cinnaharina, but it appears to 
be of a smaller size, with much more coriaceous leaves; 
the flowers are a clear pure yellow, and not a brilliant 



90 

cinnabar colour, and the lateral lobes of the lip are obtuse^ 
not acute. 



\J \J ** W 



144. ECHEANDIA temiflora, Orteg. dec. pi. p. 90 Redout, liliacees, 6. t. 

313. (Conanthera Echeandia. Pers. syn. 1.370. Link & Otto I cones 
plant, rar. t. 3. Anlhericum rejiexum. Cav. ic. iii. t. 241.) 



" This singular plant was among a collection received by 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. M.P. in 1837, from Mr. John 
Rule, Superintendant of the Real del Monte Mines, Mexico, 
. in the neighbourhood of which it is probably a native. It 
flowered in the greenhouse at Carclew in June 1839, and 
continued during July and August to send out a succession 
of five or six flowers daily. It promises to produce seeds 
by which there is every chance of its being increased. 

^^ Leaves radical, sheathing, nearly erect, of a glaucous 
green, linear-lanceolate acute, from 12 to 18 inches long, 
and rather more than an inch wide, diminishing to a long 
narrow point. The middle is somewhat fleshy and chan- 
nelled; the edges slightly undulated and recurved. The 
flower-stem rises on one side from among the leaves, and 
attains the height of from three to four feet. It is round and 
branching, with a long lanceolate, acute, sheathing, pale 
green bract at the base of each branch. The flowers are 
of a golden yellow, produced in clusters, alternating with 
one another on the stem, and containing three, sometimes 
six, flowers in each ; issuing singly from among several small 
brownish ovate acuminate bracteas. Flower buds ovate-ob- 
long, pointed at both ends, greenish yellow. When they 
first make their appearance they are erect, but the day before 
opening they droop. Pedicels of a pale green, about an 
inch long, round and slender, with a small joint near the 
base. Sepals nedrly all of one length ; the three outer ones 
are more pointed, and narrower, than the rest, and have 
each three greenish veins down the centre. The inner sepals 
are oblong lanceolate, bluntish at the point, and with the 
outer ones taper very much towards the base. They are all 
more or less twisted and rolled back. They open in the 
morning and remain expanded for about eight or ten hours, 
after which they gradually close up and decay. Filaments 
short, enlarging outwardly, so as to Hfeive the appearance of 
being slightly bearded. Anthers oblong, closely connected 
together, of a deeper yellow than the filaments and tapering 



iv 



; 



i .-. 



91 

towards the point, which is terminated by the style exceed- 
ing them a little in length. St?/Ie round filiform. Capsule 
triangular, nearly erect, roundish-oblong, three celled, with 
the appearance of having many seeds in each." 

For this notice also I am indebted to Mr. Booth. The 
plant is rather handsome ; its rhizoma is tuberous, its stem 
about two feet high, its flowers a yellowish apricot-colour, 
and in all respects it has much the aspect of a yellow 
Asphodel. 



145. 



^ WW 



) 



discoloribus, labello linguaeformi linea media elevata villosa, antherae mar- 
gine angulisque papillosis. 

For this addition to the genus Dicrypta I am indebted to 
Messrs. Loddiges, who imported it from Demerara. It is 
remarkable for the deep purple colour of the underside of the 
leaves, and its lip has a thick villous line running from the 
base almost to the apex. The flowers are orange-coloured, 
about the size of those of X). Baueri, and the species is alto- 
gether handsomer. 



146. OCTOMERIA diaphana ; folio ovato convexo acuto, squamis caulis 
equitantibus superioribus majoribus, floribus solltariis, sepalis petalisque 
ovatis acutissimis diaphanis, labello trideiitato margine subcnspo lineis 
duabus elevatls. 

A small but pretty species of this genus, with white 
transparent scentless flowers. It is readily known by the 
form of the leaves, and the large equitant sheaths that invest 
the upper part of the stem. Imported from Brazil by Messrs. 
Loddiges. 



\j \j W ^ W 



147. FERNANDEZIA lunifera; foliis obtusis petalis incurvis falcatis redu- 

{)Hcatis obtusis emarginatis, labelli 5-lobi disco tuberculaio laciniis infimis 
inearibus falcatis petalorum longitudine lateralibus nanis rotundatis inter- 
media dilatata biloba, columna a dorso compressa latiore quam longa dentata, 
stigmate verticali rimasformi. 

A pretty and quite new species, resembling F, elegans in 
its foliage, but the flowers are thrice as large, and quite 
differently formed, especially as regards the great extension 
of a pair of supernumerary lobes situated at the base of the 
labellum, where they stemd erect like two curved horns. It 
was imported by Messrs. Loddiges from Brazil, where it was 
first discovered by M. Descourtilz, who in his MSS. states 
that it grows upon trees, forming tufts of verdure, which from 



3/- 1839. 



n 



92 



I 




distance remind one of the box of Europe. It is exceed- 
ly common near Bananal. From the singular form of the 
lip he called it Epidendre anthropomorphe, or the Man Epi- 
dendrum, in allusion to the Man Orchis of Europe. Dr. 
von Martins also found it in woods near llheos. 



^ \J \J \J \J ^J 



148, MAXILLARIA acutifolia; pseudobulbis angustis ovallbus compressis 
monophyllis, folio oblongo-lanceolato acumiiiato, pedunculis unifloris radU 
calibus vaginatis, bractea carinata ovario longlore, sepalis petalisque oblongls, 
labello lineari-oblongo retuso emarginato medio pubescente apice glabro 
utrinque versus basin lacinia brevi acutei incurva aucto. 

A species resembling M. rufescensy and having brownish 
orange flowers with little beauty. In the collection of Messrs. 
Loddiges from Demerara. 



» W ~ W \J^ 



149. ONCIDIUM Forbesii; Hooker in Bot. Mag. t. 3705. 

For a specimen of this rare and handsome plant I am 
indebted to James W. Duller, Esq. of Downes near Exeter, 
who observes that it resembles Oncidium crispum more than 
any of the species he has seen, but is much more beautiful, 
having the petals gaily edged with bright yellow, and some 
of the sepals barred with the same colour. The plant has a 
large panicle and very gay appearance. I must however add, 
that I find the ground colour of the flowers very much 
browner than in the figure in the Botanical Magazine, in my 
copy of which it is brick red ! The bidentation of the wings 
of the column is a variable circumstance, but the appendages 
of the base of the lip are constantly as represented and de- 
scribed by Sir Wm. Hooker. 



— K> — 



150. ONCIDIUM excavatum ; Sertum Orchidaceum, sub t. 25. 

This fine Peruvian plant has flowered with Messrs. Lod- 
diges ; it has yellow flowers, spotted with brown, and is easily 
inown by the base of the labellum being vety convex, a little 
hollowed out in front, and excavated with a deep pit on the 
under side. The petals and lower sepals are much more 
acute than in my wild specimens from Chachapoyas, and it 
is probable that the specific character will require modifi- 
cation . 

151. CCELOGYNE elata; Genera and Species of Orchidaceous plants, p. 40, 

This fine species has lately flowered in the garden of the 
Horticultural Society, where it had been received from Dr. 



\ 



93 




Wallich. The leaves are more than a foot long ; the scape 
is terminal upon a large oblong pseudo-bulb, and is termi- 
nated by a sheath formed of numerous imbricated bracts, out 
K of which appear eight or nine white flowers, stained with 

yellow near the point of the lip, and having an unpleasant 
smell, very like that of the Barberry blossom. 



- \j\j 



152. BATATAS betacea ; foHis ovatis cordatis angulatis et subquinquelobis 
acutis, racemo contracto composito, sepalis acuminatis, tubo corollee lirubo 
cifculari longiore^ radice fusiformi sanguinea. 

This is a very handsome twiner, and seems likely to rival 

Ipomcea Horsfallice, from which it differs not only in habit, 

but in the colour of the flowers, which are a very delicate 

pale violet, with a much deeper purple eye. A drawing of 

it was sent me in March last by the Rev. J. B. Reade of 

Clapham, with a letter informing me that it had flowered 

with his friend Mr. Waterhouse of Halifax, who " states that 

' the root is a tdberous one, and came accidentally among 

some Orchidaceous plants from Demerara, and possesses the 

peculiarity of being exactly similar to Beet Root, with the 

same purplish red colour." Lately I again received a notice 

of it, with a figure, and the following additional particulars, 

from Mr. William May, Nurseryman, Ripon, who has it 

for sale. 

" The Gardener to Mr. Waterhouse says that it is a most 

profuse bloomer, and prefers the cool part of the plant stove ; 
he states that he tried two plants of it, the one at the cool 
end near the door and farthest from the fire, and the other 
at the warmest end nearer the fire ; in the former of which 
he finds it succeed much better and bloom much more freely 
than at the end nearest the fire. From this circumstance he 
thinks it will be a greenhouse and not a stove plant. Since 
it has been in my possession I have had it in various tempe- 
ratures, and find it prefer the greenhouse, where it has plenty ' 
of air ; but having had it only two months during summer, 
I am not authorized in saying it is decidedly a greenhouse 

plant." 

153. ODONTOGLOSSUM Clowesii; pseudobulbis ovallbus diphyllis, foliis 
ensiformibus angustis erectisscapolongioribus, racemo paucifloro^ corymboso, 
bractcis minimis setaceis, sepalis petalisque lanceolatis aequalibus, labelli 
cordati medio constrict! apice subrotundo acuto basi lamellis 5 inaequallbus 
abruptls quincunciallbus aucto, 

A very handsome Orchidaceous plant, for which I am 



94 
indebted to the Rev. John Clowes of Broushton, a most 



zealous and successful Horticulturist, who received it from 
the Organ mountains of Brazil a few years since. Its flower- 
stem is about a foot high, and is terminated by four or five 
large starry flowers, yellow mottled with brown, while the 
lip is white with a rich violet base. A drawing of it, by 
Miss Mearns, will appear shortly in this work. 



w v^^ 



154. CATASETUM /ow^(/o^?M7rt; foliis longlsslmis gramlnels, racemo cylin- 
draceo pendulo multifloro, sepalis ovatis subrotundis petalorum conformium 
dorso applicitis, labello urceolari a tergo incurvo limbo truncate apiculato 
Intus cereaceo glabro margine fimbriate. 

This plant is in several collections where Demerara Or- 
chidaceae are grown, and is known as the long-leaved Cate- 
setura which never flowers. It has however at last yielded 
to the good management of Valentine Morris, Esq. of the 
Retreat, Battersea, where it has produced its blossoms abun- 



dantly. It is too large a plant to suit the pages of the 



Botanical Register, and will therefore appear in the 7th fasci- 
culus of the Sertum Orchidaceum, now in preparation. The 
flowers are bright orange, a little bordered with violet, and 



appear in a drooping raceme, over which they are closely 
packed for the length of a foot or more ; they are extremely 
beautiful, and the species is beyond all comparison the hand- 
somest of its genus. 



-'-^ -^ 



^ ia 



^ XT «- vr 

155. PLEUROTH ALLIS scairi/jes ; folio lineari-lanceolato apice tridentato 
caule longiore, vagina pilosa caulis medium subaequante, flore solitario 
pubeseente, ovario tomentoso, sepalis (juam petala triplo-longioribus acutis 
lateralibus connatis, labello spatbulato rotundato. 

A curious little plant, transmitted to me by Mr. Booth 
with the following note. 

" For specimens of this singular plant I am indebted to 
Michael Williams, Esq. of Trevince, who informed me that 
he received it in 1837, with some other Brazilian plants, 
from Lieut. Downey of H. M. Packet establishment at 
Falmouth, and that it has been successfully cultivated in a 
shaded part of the stove, attached to a small bit of wood, and 
kept very moist. 

" The whole plant does not exceed five inches in height. 
The stem, which is one-leaved, is about two inches long, hard 
and round, with a groove on one side, and having for half 
its length a thin, pubescent, brownish covering, thickly 



i 



-4 



95 

marked with darker spots. Leaves upright, from two to 
three inches long, lanceolate acute, thick and leathery, nearly 
flat, of a deep green above, a little paler beneath, and some- 
what rusty. Flowers one or two, ver}^ small, of a dull dingy 
yellow, striated with reddish purple lines, and issuing from 
a thin, keel-shaped, acute, brownish, spotted spathe at the 
base of the leaf. Pedicels short and round, nearly sessile, 
with a small acuminate, spotted bractea. Sepals two, the 
upper one slightly arched, lanceolate acute ; the lower one 
similar to the other, but rather larger and more hollowed at 
the base. Petals ovate, acuminate, thin, and shining, striated 
like the sepals, and about half their length. Lahellum dull 
reddish purple, a little longer than the petals, spathulate, 
and rounded at the point. Column very short, nearly con- 
cealed by the upper sepal and the two petals which support 
it on either side." 



.♦ 



THE END 



NOnWAN AM) SKtEN, I'lUXTEUS, MAIDEN LANE, COVENT CAHDrV. 



INDEX 



TO THE 



BOTANICAL REGISTER 



For 1839. 



J-^ 



Abutilon striatum 
Acacia cyanophylla 




cuneata 



Agauisia pulcliella 
Agave saponaria • 

Alstromeria Ligtu 
Ammoniacum 
Amygdalus incana 
Angroecum armeniacuin 
Aplotaxls albescens 
Arbutus laurifolia • 
Arpophyllum spicatum 
Asafoetlda 
Asagrsea officinalis 
Asteracantha longifolia 
Batatas betacea 

Baubinia corymbosa 
Bessera elegans . 
Bolbopbyllum fuscum 
Brasavola martlana 



glaiica 
grandiflora 



Burllngtonia maculata 
Calandrinia discolor 
Calanthe reratrifolia 
Catasetum proboscideum 

longifolium 
Cattleya superba 

Centaurea pulclira 
Cheirostylis parvifolia ' 

Chorozeraa varium 

Cirrbopetalum nutans 

— Wallichii 



limbriatum 



CirrbsDa saccata 
Clematis lathyrifolia 



Plate. Misc. \ 

53 



64 

74 



• • 



55 
13 



58 



67 



33 



47 
34 



5 



44 

4 



49 



61 



105 



109 
129 



16 
106 



117 
152 



5 



67 

14 






39 
140 
154 

47 

84 

20 

63 

118 

119 

120 

121 



Clitanthus humilis, &c 
Codonopsis lurida 
Ccelogyne data 




oculata 



Conostylis j uncea 
Cotyledon cristatum 
Crocus speciosus 
Cupressus thurifera 
Cyclosia maculata 
Cymbidium iridlfolium 



bicolor 



Cyrtochilum mystacinum 



stellatum 



CynogJossum coelestinum 
glochidiatum 



Cytlsus Weldeni 
Daubenya fulva 
Dendrobium bicameratum 



Heyncanum 

macrophyllum 

Pax ton! 

formosum 

aureum, pallidum 

crumenatum 

Jcnkinsii 

lingnn?rorme 

terctifolium 

tetragonam 

tortile 

pygmceum 

elongatum 
pugioniforme 
crassulae folium 
complanatum 



Deutzia corymbosa 
Diplotaxis Hugelii 



Plate. Misc, 



141 



40 



62 



2Q 



53 



• « 



64 

20 

22 

37 



69 



126 

151 

25 

73 

134 



101 

7 

37 
69 



54 



128 
122 



86 
41 
46 




I.I 



26 

30 
31 
32 
33 
34 

35 
36 
49 
70 



I 



NDEX FOR 1839. 



Plate. Misc. 



Diantlius ferrugineus 
l)icrypta discolor 
Dichaea ochracea 
Hcheandia temiflora 
Hchinocactus Scopa 
Encyclia, note upon • 
Epacris impressa, var. 
Epidendrum variegatum 
-* crlumaceum 



Candollei 
inversum 
uniflorum 



Eria ferruginea « 

Erysimum Perofskianum 

Eurybia glutinosa 

Eysenhardtia amorphoides 

Fabiana imbricala 

Fernandezia lunifera 

Funkia Sieboldi < 

Galbanum • 

Geranium tuberosum 
Glaucium rubrum 

Gompbolobium versicolor 

Goodyera rubicunda 

Gongora fulva 

— nigrita 

Govenia Gardner! 4 



lagenophora 



Grammatophyllum multiflorum 
Grevillea Thielemanniana 
Guaiacum officinale 
Ilormidium 

Hoteiajaponica • 

Ilovea crJspa 



pungens 
Hoya coriacea 
Huntleya Mcleagris 



violacea 



Inga Harrisii 
Ipomsea longifolla 

- Purga 
Isochilus Uvidum 
Isotropis striata 
Ismene deflexa 

Juniperus tetragona 

flaecida 



15 



• • 



24 



19 
11 



• • 



• 4 



• • 



35 



• • 



59 



50 



10 



43 



* # 



51 



65 



9 



18 
14 



41 



• • 



• • 



4 • 



145 

71 
144 



13 



50 

77 

135 

13 



79 

112 

55 



147 



107 



78 
62 
92 



86 
51 
66 



72 



13 

133 

19 

28 



17 



124 

136 

45 

61 
142 

102 
103 



Juniperus mexicana 



squamosa 



Lselia furfuracea 



- autumnalis 



- albida 

- flara 

- majalis 



Leptodermis lanceolata 
Leycesteria Formosa . 
Lilium Thunbergianum 
Lomandra, note upon 
Lupinus Hartwegii . 

Barker! . 

bilineatus (note) 

mexicanus (note) 



Macradenia mutica 
Malachadenia clavata 
Malva lucida 



mauritiana 



Mathiola odoratissima 
Maxillaria tenuifolia 



- Titellina . 

- stapelioides 

- xanthina (note) 

- foveata 

- acutifolia • 

leutiginosa 

Medicago clypeata 

Megaclinium oxypterum 

Mormodes pardina • 

Nemaconia gracilifolia 

Nepeta salviiBfolia 

Oberonia recutva 



Wightiana 



Odontofflossum Rossii 



- Clowesii 



Octomeria diapliana 



tridentata 



Oncidium luridum, guttatum 

pulvinatum 



truUiferum 

Forbesii 

excavatum 



sangumeum 
tmicorne 



Opoidia galbanifera 



Plate. MUc 

104 



• • 



26 

27 
54 



2 

38 
3 
31 
56 
56 
56 



• • 



25 

8 
12 

17 
17 



• • 



• • 



« • 



16 
42 
57 



# • 



18 



4 

143 

42 

131 



22 
110 

130 

82 



2 

148 
93 



90 
10 

7 

15 

123 

8 
9 

48 

153 

146 
43 



4 « 



149 

150 

J 

68 

76 

107 







ifiDEX pon 1839. 



Paeonia (Onsepla) Brownii 
Patersonia sapphirina 
Papaver amoenum 
Pentlandia miniata 
Pentstemon barbatum carneum 
Phaius grandifolius . - 

bicolor 



' Wallichii 



Philadelplius Gordonianus 



- lax us 



Pholidota articulata 
Pimelea prostraja 
Pleurothallis pectinata 

- strupifolia 

- bicarinata 

- scabripes 




Polystachya affinis . 
Polygonum amplexicaule 
Ponera graminifolia . 
Portulaca Thellusonii 
Pious oocarpa • 

Llaveana 

- Hartwegii 

- Devoniana * 



- Russelliana 



- macrophylla 

- pseudostrobus 



- apulcensis 

Quekettia microscopica 
Sodriguezia iaxiflora 



crisp a 
Salvia Moorcroftii 



patens 



Plate. Misc, 

30 



60 



68 
21 



32 
39 



tf • 



• # 



« • 



46 



% • 



m # 



23 



80 



Plata, Mi»c, 



40 
01 

58 



57 

81 

I 

3 

11 

155 

44 



15 

114 
23 

24 

95 

96 
97 

98 

99 

100 

6 

138 

139 

127 

48 






Salvia confertiflora 
Saccolabium micrantlium 
Sarcochilus olivaceus 
Saponaria perfoliata 
Scaphyglottis reflexa 

stellata 
Schomburgkia marginata 
Scilla pratensis , . 

Senccio populifolius, lacteus 

cruentus * 






odoratus 



Solanum candidum 
Sollya linearis 
Spiraea cuneifolia 
vacciniifolia 



Iaxiflora 



Specklinia obovata 
Statice arborea 
Stanhopea tigrina 

- oculata 



Stenochilus longifolius 



mean us 



I 



Tbysanotus isantherus 
Trigonidium tenue 

Trichinium alopecuroideum 

— Manglesii (note) 

— - Stirlingii (note) 
Tulipa maleolens • 
Vanda congesta • 
Veronica formosa 
Xerotes longifolia 
Zichya tricolor 

angustifolia (note) 



J9 



03 
45 

7 



• • 



• % 



m % 



6 



1 



28 
28 
28 



• • 



3 

52 

6i 



52 

27 
S3 
21 
60 
12 



111 

125 

132 

87 

88 

89 

137 



113 
115 
116 

76 
59 



94 
85 



MISCELLANEOUS MATTER. 



Decaisne 



Cordage Plants, some account of . 

Circulation of the latex in Plants 
Cape of Good Hope, notes on its Vegetation 
Endllcher's theory of vegetable fertilization 

Genera Plantarum 



Frozen Potatoes 

Frankincense tree of Sierra Leone 

Flora de Filipinas, Blanco's 



Page 
28 

5 
48 
62 

4 

40 
12 
30 
75 



INDEX FOR 1839. 



GentiaTOceaB; Grisebach's Monograph of . . 

Hair-like roots of Cotyledon cristatum 
Horse-chesnuts, poisonous . . « 

Horticultural Society's Garden . . '. 

Myrtle, derivation of the name 

Orchidacese of Brazil, their habits . . - 

Perrine on acclimatizing tropical plants in the United States 
Pisonai tree . • . . . • 

Plnetum Woburnense . • . 

Primary distribution of the Vegetable Kingdom . . 

Proceedings of the Royal Asiatic Society ... 

Pollen covered with starch . . 

Royle's Illustrations of the Botany, &c, of the Himalayas 
Starch on the outside of pollen grains . . . 

Torrey and Gray's Flora of N. America . • . 

Wight's Illustrations of Indian Botany • • . 






* r 



* I, 



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Page 

57 
84 
23 

17 

28 

42. 21 

5 

18 
23 

76 

24 
. 74 
26 
74 
42.2 
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