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Full text of "New illustration of the sexual system of Carolus von Linnaeus ?and the temple of Flora, or garden of nature."

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In Eastern Language high and mighty Potentates are 
compared to lofty Trees which afford Food and Shade to the sun-burnt 
Traveller. In the more temperate Regions of the Earth, Kings and 
Princes are contemplated as the Sun, which sheds his benign Radiance 
everywhere, inspiring each Object with new Life and Refreshment: 
by the Concurrence, therefore, of all Nations, the great Attribute of 
Sovereignty is Protection; from conferring of which by Your Most 
Gracious Majesty, the Science of Botany in Great Britain chiefly 
owes its present Advancement ; and this NEW ILLUSTRATION of 
the SEXUAL SYSTEM of the great LINN^US, its Foundation; 
which in Point of Magnificence is intended to exceed all other Works 
of a similar Nature on the Continent, and to be not only a National 
Honour, but an Eternal Memorial of that Patronage which is granted 
to Botany by Your Most Gracious Majesty. From the unbounded 
Protection, so liberally bestowed by an august King, and the best of 
Queens, all the ufeful and ornamental Sciences, with the pleasing Arts 
of Painting, and Engraving, have reached their pre-eminence; nor have 
the English Nation less reason now to be proud also of their superiority 
in Type and Paper. 

Whilst the honourable Exertions of a great Nation have been 
lately concentrated to embellish and illustrate the Fancy of Poets, or 
Sacred and Historic Truth ; the Science of Botany, advanced as it is 
by Linnaeus, and subsequent authors, and by the glowing imaginations 

of modern Poets, who have improved on Ovidian Metamorphosis, 
seemed, likewise, to have a claim to enlist the fine Arts into her 


In the humble hope, that this Work, which in its progress has 
received the smile of the munificent Alexander, Emperor of Russia, 
will not be found altogether unworthy of your Majesty's countenance, 
and deeply impressed with the highest consideration of that Honour 
graciously conferred upon me by your Majesty's most generous 

I have the Honour to subscribe myself, 

With the highest Gratitude, and profoundest Veneration, 

Your Majesty's most obliged, devoted, 

And dutiful Subject, 





Jb LOWERS, although apparently so diversified, consist but oifive Pa 

rts : 

1. 1 he rl STI LLU M, in the Centre, 1 Both projecting bodies, being extensions according to Linnaeus, 

II. The Stamen, exterior to this.* f the first of the P ith > and the other of the wood - 

The Pistillum is discriminated by a swollen base, which is the seed-vessel, or Germen, 
which being opened discloses the seeds. The Stamen is discriminated by having a part 
which forms the pollen, or coloured farina, called an Anther by botanists. 

A perfect Pistillum is composed of three Parts. 

1. The Stigma, at top, rarely absent, though sometimes obscure/ 

2. The Style, elevating the Stigma, not absolutely essential/ 

3. The Germen, or seed-vessel, always present/ 

A perfect Stamen is composed of two Parts: 

1. The Anther, at top, containing the fertilizing pollen, always present. 

2. The Filament, elevating the anther, not so essential, being absent in some flowers.* 

For the protection and nourishment of the Sexual Organs of vegetables, (viz. the Pistilla 
and Stamina) Nature has furnished two other Parts. 

111. 1 he COROLLA, interior, | Both expanded bodies, being expansions, according to Linneeus, 
W. The CALYX exterior/ f the first °f the baric, and the latter of the rind. 

These are discriminated not only by their respective situations, but by the greater delicacy of 
the Corolla compared with the Calyx, which last is usually green. These parts are not 
absolutely essential, some Flowers being destitute of one,' or both of them. 

As an appendage to the Corolla,* there is found in some plants, 

V. The Nectarium, for the secreting, and containing of honey. 

Vegetable Inpregnation is thus performed. The farina secreted by the anthers of 
flowers, passes on the stigma of the pistillum, and is there absorbed, and carried to the seeds, 
which it renders fertile, as is confirmed by numerous observations and experiments. 

1 The Pistillum is very conspicuous in the White Lily, and in the Night-blowing Cereus, as also in the American Aloe. 

h The six Stamina are seen extremely well in the White Lily and Aloe, as are also the five stamina in the Blue Passion-Jlower. 

c The White Lily furnishes an example of a perfect Pistillum, as also the Night-blowing Cereus. 

d As in the Meadia. It is extremely distinct in the Tulip, Lily, and Passion-flower. 

e Vide the plate of Tulips, where you will find a Pistillum in the centre without the Style, also the Poppy, whose Stigma is like 
a Parapluis. The Style is very conspicuous in the Lily, Cereus, and Passion-Jlower. 

J For This Part vide the Aloe, Cereus, Lily, and Passion-flower. 

g Vide the plate of the Canna. The Filament is very observable in the Lily, Aloe, Cereus, &c. as well as the Anther, with its Pollen- 

h These Two Parts are finely displayed in the Blue Passion-Jlower, the Calyx of that climbing plant having a hook at the 
extremitv of the back of the five leaves, constituting the Calyx. — Vide also the Meadia, Cereus, Sec. 

1 The lilaceous tribe have no Calyx : see the Superb Lily; vide also the Begonia. 

k The radiance, or glory, of the Blue Passion-Jlower is a fine example of the Nectarium ; vide also the cup of the Renealmia 
and Limodorum. 


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J. he term Calyx, like our words, horse, bird, dog, habitation, is a generic word, including 
several distinct kinds, thus : 

I. Perianth (Perianthium), is the outer expanded covering of a flower,... the most common 

kind of Calyx,... usually green,... sometimes coloured,... contiguous to the corolla,... pro- 
tecting the organs for reproduction in their infant-state,... sometimes caducous,... often 
abiding with the fruit,... and sometimes even serving the office of pericarp,... usually single, 
...occasionally double,... not unfrequently very obscure,... or wholly deficient. 

II. Involucre (Involucrum) , is a calyx remote from the flower,... most commonly stationed 
at the foot of a general, or partial, umbel. 

III. Spathe (Spatha), a species of calyx, which first involves the infant-flowers like a sheath, 
and then opens longitudinally. 

IV. Glume (Gluma), the outer valves, or husk of corn, or grass, enclosing one, or more, 

V. Ament {Amentum), small chaffy scales, protecting the florets placed on a thread-like 
common receptacle. 

VI. Calyptra (Calyptra), the covering of a moss, placed over it, like a cap or bonnet. 

VII. Volve (Volva), a membrane, which involves the fungus in its infant-state, and which 
afterwards appears in a lacerated form on the foot-stalk. 

Botanical Terms* applicable to the Calyx. 

Peculiar (Proprius), belonging to a single flower.. ..Common (Communis), common to 
several flowers. ...Beneath (Inferus), placed beneath the Germen.... Above (Superus), above 
the Germen.... Monophyllous (Monophyllus) , consisting of one leaf....DiPHYLLous (Di- 
phyllus), of two leaves.... Triphyllous (Triphyllus), of three leaves.... Tetrappiyllous (Tetra- 
phyllus), of four leaves, and so on to Polyphyllous (Poly phyllus), composed of many leaves. 
...Intire (Integer), having the border, or edge of the leaf even.. ..Toothed (Dentatus), cut 
into teeth. ...Partite (Partitus), divided into segments.... Reflexed (Reflexus), bent back.... 
Imbricated (Imbricatus) , having the leaves placed over one another like the tiles of a house. 

* All or most of these terms are illustrated in our " Picturesque Botanical Plates," and are more fully explained in our " Philosophy of 

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The term Corolla is a compound idea, made up of several distinct notions, as 

I. Bell-shaped (Campanulata) , hollowed internally like a bell, often ventricose, or swollen 

at the sides, and without a tube. 

II. Wheel-shaped (Rotata), slightly hollow, or the border flat, and with so little tube as to 

resemble a wheel on the ground. 

III. Funnel-shaped (Infundibuliformis), having the border of the Corolla like a cone, and 
placed upon a tube, so as to resemble a funnel. 

IV. Salver-shaped {Hypocrateriformis), having the corner of the Corolla flat, and placed 
upon a tube, resembling a salver. 

V. Ringent (Ringens), having the border of the Corolla like two lips, and these open, 

placed upon a tube, resembling a person gaping. 

VI. Personate (Personata), having the border of the Corolla like the lips, the mouth 
closed, greatly resembling the snout of an animal, also placed upon a tube. 

VII. Tubular (Tubularis) , when the floret of a compound flower ends in a tube, the border 

being five-cleft. 

VIII. Li gu late (Ligulata), when the Corolla of the floret is linear, i. e. resembles the 

strap of a shoe. 

IX. Cruciform (Cruciata), having four petals, placed like a St. Andrew's cross. 

X. Rosaceous (Rosacea), having five, or more petals, not fleshy, orbicularly placed. 

XI. Liliaceous (Liliaced), having six, or more petals, fleshy, placed also in a circle. 

XII. Papilionaceous (Papilionacea), having four petals, of different shapes and sizes, placed 
so as to resemble a butterfly on the wing. 

Botanical Terms applicable to the Corolla. 

Monopetalous (Monopetala) , composed of one petal only.... Polypetalous (Polypetala), 
composed of two or more petals.... Simple (Simplex), not a compound flower.. ..Compound 
(Composita), made up of distinct florets on a common receptacle.... Rayed (Radiata), having 
tubular florets in the disk or center, and ligulate in the ray or circumference.... Tubular (Tii- 
bularis), having florets ending in a tube.. ..Ligulate (Ligulata), having the petal linear like a 
strap... Regular (Regularis), with all the parts proportionate.... Irregular (Irregularis), having 
all the parts disproportionate.... Ventri cose (Ventricosa) , swollen at the sides.. ..Conical (In- 
fimdibuliformis), like a cone... .Linear (Linearis), having the sides parallel.... Tube (Tubus), 
the inferior narrow hollow part of a monopetalous corolla.... Claw (Unguis), the inferior narrow 
flat part of a polypetalous corolla.... Limb (Limbus), the upper part of a monopetalous corolla... 
Lamina, or Border (Lamina), the upper flat part of a polypetalous corolla. ...Banner (Vex- 
illum), the upper petal of a papilionaceous flower.... Wings (Alee), the side petals of ditto.... 
Keel (Carina), the under petal, shaped like a boat, of ditto.. ..Toothed (Dentata), the edge 
cut into teeth. ...Cleft (Fissa), cut into small segments... .Partite (Partita), cut into deep seg- 
ments A Segment (Lacinia), the cut portions of the corolla, larger than teeth. 


The term Nectary, like the Corolla, is also a complex idea, like our words pigeon, dog, 
made up of many different individuals, here indeed too numerous and diversified, to be distri- 
buted under heads, for every singular appearance in different parts of the flower, even uncon- 
nected with the corolla, or whatever is not corolla, whether it secretes honey, or not, is called 
by botanists, the Nectary. 

The following are among the more prominent examples. 

1. A spur, or horn, {Nect. corniculatum), as in Larkspur {Delphinium). 

2. A small open cup (Cyathus apertus), small hollow cups, circularly ranged in the inte- 

rior of the flower, as in Hellebore [Helleborus). 

3. A cup closed by a lid {Cyathus damns), a similar arrangement of nectaries, as in the 

preceding, but closed with a lid, as in Devil in the Bush {Nigella). 

4. Like the cut finger of a glove {Ned. companulatum) , hollowed like the finger of a glove 

cut off, but depending, as in Renealmia, Limodorum. 

5. Like a funnel {Ned. infundibuliforme), as in Narcissus. 

6. Like a slipper {Ned. calceiforme), as in Lady's Slipper {Cypripedium). 

7. A simple cavity {Fovea excavata), an excavation at the base of each petal, as in Crown 

Imperial {Fritillaria). 

8. A naked channel (Linea longitndinalis excavata), an hollow longitudinal groove, in a petal, 

as in White Lily [Lilium Album). 

9. Villous projections {Ned. barbatum), numerous villi placed upon the petal, as in some 

species of Iris. 

10. Filaments without anthers, imitating stamina {Filamenta sine antheris, veluti stamina), 

filiform projections like stamina, each terminated with a clasper, as in Arum. 

11. Petal-like {Ned. petalum mentiens), as in Snow-drop {Galanthus), and Trollius. 

12. Resembling a nest of doves {Columbulos referens), five cornuted nectaries, the whole 

resembling much a nest of doves, as in Columbine {Aquilegia). 

13. Resembling Dolphins {Figuram Delphini repmsentans), like a Dolphin elevated on a 

pillar or filament, as in Monkshood {Aconitum). 

14. Like a tongue {Veluti lingua), as in Indian Reed {Canna Indica). 

15. Resembling rays of glory {Filamenta versicolorata in orbem posita), projections in the form 

of rays of glory, as in the several Passion-flowers. 

16. Giving the appearance of various animals {Ned. formam animalium mentiens), as in the 

several Orchises. 

17. A naked scale {Squama nuda), as in Ranunculus and Willow. 

18. A fringed scale {Squama fimbriata) , as in Parnassia. 

19. Glands upon the stamens {Glandidce Jilamentis adspersd), as in Dittany {Didamnus). 

20. Glands at the insertion of stamens {Glandule jilamentis posits), as in the Stock. 


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1 en different sorts of Pericarps, or Seed-vessels, are enumerated by botanists. 

I. Drupe (Drupa), is a pulpy seed-vessel... encompassing a stone, or nut. 

II. Pome (Pomu??i), is a pulpy seed-vessel... not enclosing a stone, or nut.. .in the middle of 

which are radiated cells for the reception of seeds. 

III. Berry (Bacca), is a pulpy seed- vessel... without radiated cells in the center... having the 
seeds irregularly dispersed throughout the pulp. 

IV. Follicle (Folliculus), is a membranous seed- vessel... of one valve... opening longitudinally, 
i. e. on the side... and having no apparent suture for fastening or attaching the seeds 
within it. 

V. Silique (Siliqua), is a membranous seed-vessel... of two valves, with a dissepiment inter- 

vening... seeds attached alternately to the upper and under sutures... seed-vessel longer 
than broad... flowers cruciform. 

VI. Silicle (Silicula), has the same definition as the last... except that the seed-vessel is 
rather broader than long. 

VII. Legume (Legumen), is a membranous seed-vessel... of two valves.. .no dissepiment... seeds 
attached to the superior suture only. .. flowers papilionaceous. 

VIII. Capsule (Capsula), is a membranous seed- vessel... varying in the number of valves... 
without the characters of Pericarps IV. V. VI. VII. as defined above... splits in a deter- 
minate manner into valves. 

IX. Nut (Nux), a hard stone, or shell, enclosing a kernel... but without a pulpy covering, 
in which case it would be a Drupe. 

X. Strobile (Strobilus), is a seed-vessel composed of ligneous scales, which embrace the seeds 

within their bosom. 

Terms applicable to the different Pericarps. 

Valves (Valvule), the external pieces forming the sides of the seed-vessel. .. Sutures (Suture), 
the edges, or margins, by which the valves are connected... Column (Columella), a central point 
of union of the partitions in the seed-vessel... Partitions (Dissepimenta) , the divisions of the seed- 
vessel into cells... Cells (Loculamenta) , hollow places for the reception of the seeds... One-seeded 
(Monospermus)... Two-seeded (Dispermus), and so on. 


X he seeds present so great a diversity of appearance,, that they cannot, like the Calyx, 
Corolla, or Pericarp, be grouped into distinct assemblages, but must be presented to the 
reader individually, of which the following are some of the most striking examples. 

1. A double seed, each resembling a boat {Semen duplex, naviculce formam represent cms), as 

in the umbelliferae. 

2. Kidney-shaped, with heptagon and pentagon cells (Reniforme, cellulis pentagonis et hepta- 

gonis), as in Poppy-seed {Semen Papaveris). 

3. Ovate (Ovatum), shaped like an egg, as in Eye-bright {Euphrasia). 

4. Globular (Globosum), as in the Pea (Pisum), and Coriander (Coriandrum). 

5. Square (Tetragonum) , having four sides, as in Foxglove {Digitalis). 

6. Triangular (Triangulare) , having three sides, as in Tansy {Tanacetum). 

7. Cylindric (Oblongum), oblong, as in St. John's-wort (Hypericum). 

8. Resembling a particular shell {Figuram concha mentiens), as in Wood-sorrel (Oxalis). 

9. Ditto, as in Purslane {Portnlaca). 

10. Ditto, as in Cinquefoil (Potentilla). 

11. Resembling the head of a monkey {Figuram cynocephali repmsentans), as in the Cocoa-nut. 

12. A single crown {Corona simplex), as in Ragwort {Senecio). 

13. A double crown (Corona duplex), as in Holy Thistle {Centaurea Benedicta). 

14. A shuttle-cock {Corona pennacea), as in Dandelion {Leontodon). 

Terms applicable to the Seed. 

Aril (Arillus), the outer coat of the seed.... Eye {Hilum), an oblong scar, marking the 
place where the seed was affixed by an umbilical cord to the seed-vessel. ...Heart {Corculum), 
the rudiment of the young plant within the seed. ...Plume {Plumula), the ascending part of the 
corcule, or infant stem. ...Radicle {Radicula), the descending part, or infant root. ...Cotyle- 
dons {Cotyledones), the side-lobes, furnishing nourishment to the corculum.... Seminal leaves 
(Folia Seminalia), the first leaves of the plantule, serving the office of cotyledons, or lobes.... 
Pappus {Pappus), a feathery crown. ...Stipe (Stipes), a thread connecting the pappus to the 

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It is certain that the Sexes of Plants could not altogether escape the observance of the most 
ancient investigators of Nature, and even must have struck some philosophers of modern times: 
for Nature has furnished this phenomenon to be contemplated in almost every plant; for it 
must be allowed, that scarce any one can be found devoid of it. 

In the remotest period of time, the Arabians derived their principal support from the Date- 
bearing Palm, the Persians from the Pistachia Nut, the inhabitants of the Archipelago 
from the Fig, and those of Chios cultivated the Mastich Tree. In all these it was necessary 
to attend to the Sexual Distinction, in order to promote the efficacy of the male as respects the 
female flowers, and hence they could not altogether be ignorant of a circumstance so exceed- 
ingly evident, certainly, .as far as regards these trees. 

But if truly we contemplate the fate of Botanical Science, we shall easily discover the rea- 
son why this theory continued so long obscured in darkness. 

The writings of the ancients testify, that Botany was at a low ebb, when Mathematics and 
Astronomy had made considerable advancement. 

After the regeneration of letters, it was the first endeavour of botanists to separate and in- 
vestigate amongst the ruins the broken fragments of botanical science; in which endeavour, when 
they perceived that not much riches were to be collected, at length they turned their researches 
into Nature herself, and began to describe plants from actual observation, until they were so 
overwhelmed with their number, that they even despaired to number up the species growing 
in their own gardens, especially when both Indies poured in daily so great a profusion, that 
properly to name them all, no memory was sufficient. 

At last, Systematic* endeavoured to describe all plants, with regard to their fructification, 
and to arrange them into their several companies ; nor have they ceased this attention even to 
the present time. 

But when these systematic writers were particularly busy about the Corolla, which especially 
courts the eye, and the Fruit, which has the greatest use, it happened that they paid little 
attention to the minuter parts of plants, until they perceived that the larger parts were of them- 
selves insufficient to discriminate so many plants, which daily increased the army of Flora. 

This induced the more modern Botanists to investigate all those parts most minutely, which 
are to be met with in the f rue tif cation, and they esteemed their labours not unrepaid, if from 
thence they could construct true and convenient characters. 

Amongst these the Stamina and Pistilla, although generally small bodies, and on that ac- 
count neglected by former persons with contemptuous pride, were found so important, that there 
is no flower to be met with devoid of these parts. 

a After- 

Afterwards, these corpuscules were esteemed of great moment, and on them particular names 
were imposed ; and, moreover, all the several parts of fructification were carefully described. 

Exactly to pronounce who first discovered the Sexes of Plants would be a task of the greatest 
difficulty, and of. no real utility. For many inventions have increased by degrees, just as a 
river, which at first springs from a small rivulet, several of which run into a single channel, till 
at length it becomes augmented so as to bear the largest ships. 

This knowledge of Sexual Distinction cannot be denied to the ancient cultivators of Palms, * 

* Old Parkinson, who wrote his « Theatre of Plants" in 1640, speaking of the Palm, says, « the Date is the fruit of this tree, the best 
kinds are called regirt, as being diet fit for kings. The ancient writers have set down many things of the date-tree, < that there are male and 
female, and that to make them bear, they must be near each other, or else they will not bear,' but I pray you account this among the rest 

of their fables." 

It is worthy of enquiry, whether the ancients really understood the meaning of the distinction of the date-tree into male and female, 

as it is at present understood. Quotations will, I think, settle fully this point. 

6'txv cLvfii to v <$»> JvojetitvTSs Av <T7r« V «V fa rl oivbos SuSfc £tus S \& t t'ovtb X v5» x«i to *fio( *u\ tov Kwugrif x<£\x<tb\v<ti ««« v T 5 xxprrS rijj 9*- 
Xuaq, xcev tSto wa^ij, StxjvipBi xat ax wno&aXXzu 

" When the male Palm is in vigour, the spatha is cut, whence the flowers proceed, as soon as it contains the down, flowers, and dust,^ 
and they shake this over the fruit of the. female tree, and from that sprinkling, it turns out, that none drop their fruits, but all perfect them." 
Theoph. Hist. Plant. Lib. ii. c. 9. 

How near had Pliny hit the mark! 

" Arboribus, immo potius omnibus qua terra gignat, herbisque etiam, utrumque sexum esse, diligentissimi Naturae scrutatores tradunt : 
nullis tamen arboribus manifestius quam Palmis. Sine maribus non gignere foeminas sponte edito nemore confirmant : circaque singulos 
plures nutare in earn pronas blandioribus comis. Ilium erectis hispidum Afflatu Visuque ipso et Pukere etiam reliquas maritare: hujus Arbore 
excisa viduas post sterilescere Foeminas. Adeoque est Veneris intellectus, ut Coitus etiam excogitatus sit ab Homine, ex Maribus Flore ac 
Lanugine, interim vero tantum Pulvere insperso Foeminis." 

" All trees, or rather in all things which the earth produces, even in herbs, the most diligent enquiries into Nature report, * there be 
two sexes ;' but in none more evident than in Palms. It is confirmed, that the wild female Palms do not produce fruit without the assist- 
ance of the male, and for this purpose the females bend their boughs to him for mutual embrace. He also marries with the other female 
palms by gentle sighings, tender looks, and the dispersion of a. powder. This male tree being cut down, the widowed females afterwards 
become sterile. This love in plants has been observed by men who imitate it, and by the scattering of flowers and down of the male, or 
even only by the dispersion of the powder, upon the females." Plinii Nat. Hist. Lib. xiii. c. 4. 

'O Ss (powfc \pd, xxt Spifiiug, e tip (poi'vix©*, uq <&XcopBVT?voq bv To~q Tsupyixoiq xutu (f>rj<r), xx) » rrr^oTBpov ircuxr&Tcti tv irc§V, Buq uv uvtyiv Bpcapav^ irxpx- 
pLV§r,<rctiTO. 'igt yap ISeiv to SbvSpov \7r1XBKup1piBvov xxi py (peoov rrjv Mlxv (3tx<riv, piyjSt xapvotpopSv. txto a XuvSavsi tov ysupyov, aXX ti pizv sf>a koci egocTat TBKptxigi- 
rxi, dyvou Sb 7ro)a' Six Trupwrfjo (asv < &> Qoivixuv, irpXXuv, xa\ iraXiv 67ri tijv spuira bitxvicov, xxi Bpx7f]opt,sv©* th\ X B 'g*> ooxet (piXypiccTi otrinp SixxovsTv. noix ob (poivmoq 

lg-1 XVTfj TToS-©- a-Viptulm TDOTTOV TIVX TV} TUV •VTttSuV Xx\ TV} TUV %S(fwV, Uq UV TJ? £<Vo(, VSVOSt, TTOOq IxtlVOV yxp UTTO&XbtTBI, Xa) BIZ IxetVOV 7T(>0g(>lQ&> W0~7TBp 0~TTBV6i!0~Ol 

lavTyv liriolliflu ax;©* Sv ytvSTu) ty} epdtrij, Tit yBupyv Qvvsxuq dufjofiivn tS apptv&>, xx\ tx\ %Blpxq aura •&poa-TTBXxZ > ov\<&> tt\ epuy.ivt]' fixXigu ej tijv xvdniv b^bXuv 
utto Tr}q Q-urd'^Yiq tS appBv©^, \v§i}(ru Big tt\v xetpaXrjv ~v,q Iputryq. Stu yap Tirpxuvsi tov epu]a, xxt Xomov jj (poivifc ay\ot'iQoptevvi xaXXtg-ov xapwcv oktbi. 

" Palm trees possess the passion of love, and indeed most ardently, as Florentinus delivers in his Georgics, nor can this passion be 
extinguished until they meet. The female in love droops her head, nor is the basis firm, nor does she then produce fruit. This the farmers 
notice, they are conscious she is in love, endeavour to console her, and when she meets with the male plant she loves, she elevates herself, 
. and they appear to embrace by mutual kisses. And the male plant also displays his affections, extends his arms, and as it were gazes at the 
object of his love, extends his roots to hers, and thus embraces her. The cure of this love, when the two are at a distance, is applied by 
countrymen, who bring the arms or hands of the lover to his mistress, and thus the male flowers : are placed on the head of the female tree. 
This mitigates the wastings from the flame of love, and the rejoicing^/bmaZe then bears fruit." Geoponic Lib. X. C. 4. 

llepi oe tuv (pvruv Xtyao'i TTatosq o~o<puv, xai ptu-jov eXByov tov Xoyov Btvai, bi ttjj Tratosq BXByov ytupyuv. o ob Xoyoq aXXo \jlbv aXXn Qutov egav. tu ce CpoivtKi tov 
'bputu fxaXXov ito%\ttv. Xtyao-i Sb tov f/.\v dg'pBvu tuv QotviKUV, tov Se SyXvv- o up'pyiv Sv tS SyXeoq epx, xdv o SyXxq ctvuxicrptevoq ui{ Ty Tt\q (pVTBiaq o-Tavu, o BgaqTyq 
o ccpprjv avxivBTui. o-vviriTtv ouv o yBupyoq ttjv X\j7ri]v t£ <pvTU' xa\ Biq t$v tS %wo/k TTBoiUTr^v dvixSuv, etpopa. <nZ vbvbvkbv. xXivetui yap siq to soupisvov' xai pta^wv, 9"£- 

PXTTEUBl t5 (pVTX TT\V V01T0V. 7TT0p§0V ydp tS SqXtOq (pOiVtXOq Xx{3uV, Biq TTjV TX dgpBVOq KUpSlUV IvTl^TjO'lV, XU.) dvBI^V^B piBV 7^ If/U^W T« QVTii. TO $B tTUpLX XTIO^Vt[0'XOV 

•naXiv ave£u7Tygvi<rtv, xx) EpxvBq-y, ypupov E7rt ti\ Tijq epuptivviq o-vpnrXoxy xx) tuto Igt ydpcoq Qvtuv. 

" As it respects plants, it is the opinion of philosophers, which otherwise would be esteemed a fable, to which also farmers subscribe, 
that plants are taken in love with one another, and feel all the disappointment of love. They report that there are male and female. The 
female tree desires the male, and if she happens to be at a distance from the male, she pines away. On which account the farmer under- 
standing the malady, as a cure plants the male on a loftier spot, from which he looks down upon his beloved female, inclining to her his 
boughs ; or he places on the highest branch a bough of the male-tree in flower, the sight of which recreates her mind, recruits her dying 
body, and revives her even by a partial embrace. Such are the Nuptials of Plants." Achilles. Tatius. C. 17. p. 88. 

Hence those much admired lines of Claudian, who most happily introduces a notice of this Love betwixt Plants in his description of the 
retreat of Venus into the Island of Cyprus. 

Vivunt in Venerem Frondes, omnisque vicissim 

Felix Arbor amat, nutant ad mvitua Palm^b 

Faedera: Populeo suspirat Populus ictu: 

Et Platani Platanis, Alnoque assibilat Alnus. 

Claudian. Epith. p. 177. 
As a confirmation how little the ancients understood the true doctrine of the sexes of plants, Theophrastus mentions a male and female 
Peony and Fern, in which last certainly there could be no knowledge of the sexes in plants. He also expressly calls the fig, vine, and 
pomegranate, female plants in Book I. Chap IX. " Cur Feminae magis Masculi augescunt." " Why female plants grow more than the 
male plants." Aristotle and Pliny also say, " that the male plants differ only from the female plants in being taller, and more vigorous 
withal! It would be, therefore, absurd to attribute a knowledge of the sexes of plants to the ancients. " Ferat Palmam qui meruit." 


these persons equally understood the Sexual Relationship of the Fig,* and likewise in the 

* Theophrastus, in his Second Book " De Causis Plantarum," has Chapter XIT. " De Caprificatione et culicibus," where this peculiar 
process, known by the name of Caprification, is given. 

Heroditus, whom Cicero calls the father of history, mentions distinctly the caprification of the fig. Herod, KXeia. 

Pliny also accurately describes the same process under the title " De Caprificatione " " On Caprification:' Plinii Hist. Nat. 
Lib. XII. Cap. IV. 

Plutarch, and other authors of antiquity, relate the same circumstances as are practised at this day in the Archipelago and in Italy. But 
the best account we have of this curious practice is from Tournefort, in a Memoir read before the Academy of Science at Paris in 1705, the 
substance of which is as follows. 

" Of the thirty species or varieties of the domestic Jig-tree, which are cultivated in France, Spain, and Italy, there are but two culti- 
vated in the Archipelago. The first species is called ornos, from the old Greek erinos, which answers to caprificus in Latin, and signifies a 
wild fig-tree. The second is the domestic or garden fig-tree. The former bears successively, in the same year, three sorts of fruit, called 
fornites, cratitires, and orni ; which, though not good to eat, are found absolutely necessary towards ripening those of the garden-fig. 
These fruits have a sleek even skin; are of a deep green colour; and contain in their dry and mealy inside several male and female flowers 
placed upon distinct foot-stalks, the former above the latter. The fornites appear in August, and continue to November without ripening : 
in these are bred small worms, which turn to a sort of gnats nowhere to be seen but about these trees. In October and November, these 
gnats of themselves make a puncture into the second fruit, which is called cratitires. These do not shew themselves till towards the end of 
September, The fornites gradually fall away after the gnats are gone ; the cratitires, on the contrary, remain on the tree till May, and in- 
close the eggs deposited by the gnats when they pricked them. In May, the third sort of fruit, called orni, begins to be produced by the 
wild fig-trees. This is much bigger than the other two ; and when it grows to a certain size, and its bud begins to open, it is pricked in 
that part by the gnats of the cratitires, which are strong enough to go from one fruit to another to deposit their eggs. It sometimes happens 
that the gnats of the cratitires are slow to come forth in ceitain parts, while the orni in those very parts are disposed to receive them. In 
this case, the husbandman is obliged to look for the cratitires in another part, and fix them at the ends of the branches of those fig-trees 
whose orni are in a fit disposition to be pricked by the gnats. If they miss the opportunity, the orni fall, and the gnats of the cratitires fly 
away. None but those that are well acquainted with the culture know the critical moment of doing this ; and in order to know it, their 
eye is perpetually fixed on the bud of the fig; for that part not only indicates the time that the prickers are to issue forth, but also when 
the fig is to be successfully pricked: if the bud is too hard and compact, the gnat cannot lay its eggs; and the fig drops when the bud is 
too open. 

" The use of all these three sorts of fruit is to ripen the fruit of the garden fig-tree, in the following manner. During the months of 
June and July, the peasants take the orni, at the time their gnats are ready to break out, and carry them to the garden fig-trees : if they do 
not nick the moment, the orni fall ; and the fruit of the domestic fig-tree, not ripening, will in a very little time drop in like manner. The 
peasants are so well acquainted with these precious moments, that, every morning, in making their inspection, they only transfer to their 
garden fig-trees such orni as are well conditioned, otherwise they lose their crop. In this case, however, they have one remedy, though an 
indifferent one ; which is, to strew over the garden fig-trees another plant in whose fruit there is also a species of gnats which answer the 
purpose in some measure." 

Linnaeus thus explains the rationale of this practice. "The caprificus, or wild fig, is the male plant, and the cultivated fig the female. 
The flowers are disposed within the cavity of the receptacle, which is so close shut, that often it will scarce admit the end of a common 
needle through the pore in its extremity. Now the fig-flies, which are of the ichneumon kind, being transformed, and furnished with 
wings, about the time the farina of the male fig is ripe, make their escape from those male figs, and being wholly covered with their dust, 
after copulation, they seek for a place to lay their eggs, and flying to every one of the female figs, they enter their cavities, which are filled 
with pistilla from all sides, by which means they must necessarily brush off that farina, or male dust, with which they were covered, and 
thus the seeds are impregnated." It is true, the female fig can ripen its fruit, though the seeds are not impregnated, because this fruit is not 
a pericarpium, or seed vessel, but only a receptacle : so also the hop, mulberry, strawberry, and blite, can produce fruit, even though 
their seeds do not ripen, because their fruit is nothing but a receptacle or calyx. Some botanists who were ignorant of this, seeing those 
trees produce fruit without previous impregnation, thought they had found an unanswerable argument against the generation of plants; but 
they did not consider, that the fruit of the fig is not a seed vessel, but a common receptacle. Yet it appears, that the fruit of the fig, if the 
seeds are impregnated, grow to a much larger size than those which are not ; which Tournefort also observed; for he tells us, that a fig-tree, 
in Franche Compte, where there is no caprification, produced every year only 25 pounds weight of figs; but that another of the same size in 
one of the islands of the Archipelago, produced yearly 280 pounds weight of figs, which is above ten times the quantity of the other. This 
age hath clearly refuted the opinion of Camerarius, who maintained that the seeds of figs never produced any plants. For Linnaeus tells 
us, that fig trees are raised every year in Holland from the seeds, provided the fruit is brought from Italy. But if the fruit grew in France, 
England, Germany, or Sweden, where there are no wild figs, the seeds produce nothing; on the other hand, if those seeds are sown, which 
grew in Italy or the Greek islands, where the male fig abounds, the plants spring up with ease, putting forth leaves, which at first are like 
those of the mallow. The same experiment was tried with good success in the Upsal garden in the year l ?44." 

Yet still it would be a difficulty for us to imagine, that such refined knowledge was in the breasts of the ancients. 
Tournefort, in explanation of this practice, says, " The prickers contribute to the maturity of the fruit of the garden fig-tree by causing 
them to extravasate the nutritious juices, the vessels inclosing which they tear asunder, or perhaps too, when depositing their eggs, they 
leave some sort of ferment, which gently agitates the milk of the fig." 

This is also nearly the explanation of Theophrastus, to whom a knowledge of the sexes of plants is attributed, in his chapter " De Ca- 
prificatione," on Caprification. " Cum autem morsu crebro culices ora ficuum aperuerint, humorem absumunt supervacuum, et aditum li- 
berum auris prasbent, et omni poma spirantia efficiunt." 

" By the numerous piercings of the flies, outlets are made in the figs, by which the superfluous moisture is drained, a free passage to the 
air afforded, and breathing pores effected." Tiieoph. B. II. C. XII. 

Like some of our modern gardeners, who are in the habit of applying the male flowers to the female in the cucumber plant raised under 
glasses, in order to ensure a produce; so the ancients performed the like operation on their palms, pistachias, and figs, and in the same way, 
but without knowing, or even thinking, of the sexes in plants at the time. 


Pistacia,* certainly as far as respects these trees, who always had the custom of suspending 
the male flowers over the female in order to obtain fruit. 

Nor can it be denied that the most ancient writers have expressly made mention of the Sexes 
in Plants. § But how little true knowledge they possessed upon this subject, and upon what 
slender foundations it was built, appears from this, that they often mention males wad females, as 
separate in plants, where no such distinction existed. \ 

Nay, after the revival of letters, even in the last century, Botanists had so imbibed this 
ancient error, that even eminent teachers of the art so badly discriminated the Sexes, that they 
often called that a male which was the female plant,;}: which cannot better demonstrate their entire 
unacquaintance with the subject. 

* The Turpentine Tree, the Terebenthus Indica of Theophrastus, p. 401, is thus mentioned by Pliny. " Syria Terebinthum 
habet. Mascula est sine fructu. Feeminarum duo species; alteri fructus ruber lends magnitudine, alteri pallidus." 

" In Syria is produced the turpentine tree. The male bears no fruit. The female is of two kinds, the one has red grains of the size of 
peas, the other sort produces a pale fruit." Plin. Book XIII. Chap. TV. 

This would be decisive, as proving Pliny's knowledge of the sexes of plants, but unfortunately for him, there is found in the same 
book, the following passage : 

" Etiam Rhus Syria? mascula fert. sterili faemina." 

" Also in Syria is produced the Rhus, or Sumach, the male of which hears fruit, but the female is barren." 

Bocconi, who wrote in 1607, notices the male and female Turpentine Tree. " E perche in sacca et in Agrigento osservai due 
albere di Pistacchi, differenti una dall altero, e distinti dai paesani contituto do maschio et femina" " I observed in Agrigentum two trees 
of the Pistachia, or Turpentine Tree, differing from each other, which the peasants distinguish by the title of male awl female." 

I shall produce now a modern authority. 

" In the garden of the Austin Friars I saw several large Pistachia nut-trees, called in Sicilian, Scornabecco, and the fruit, Fastugo. 
These trees are of Linnseus's Class Dioecia, Order Pentandria, and produce male and female flowers upon different distinct plants. The 
latter prove barren and useless, unless rendered fruitful by the aspersion of the farina from a male plant, and, therefore, the purposes of fe- 
cundity can only be answered by trees of different sexes being set near each other. In these gardens are many of the female kind, and only 
one of the male, which has small, oblong, blunt leaves, of a dusky green, the flowers thick, and in bunches ; the female blossoms are more 
scattered, the leaves larger, harder and rounder, and of a lighter colour. The male flowers first, and some gardeners pluck them when shut, 
dry them, and afterwards sprinkle the dust over the female tree. But the method usually followed in Sicily, when the trees are far asunder, 
is to wait till the female buds are open, and then to gather bunches of the male blossoms ready to blow ; these are stuck into a pot of moist 
mould and hung upon the female tree, till they are quite dry and empty; this operation is called Tuchiare, and never fails to produce fruc- 
tification." Swinburne's Travels, Vol. iii. p. 386. 2d Ed. 8vo. 1~qo. 

Although I may seem to anticipate the train of reasoning of Linnaeus, I cannot forbear relating here a story respecting the Turpentine 
Tree (Pistachia Terebinthus) recorded by Duhamel. 

" In the garden of Mons. De la Serre, in the Rue de St. Jaque at Paris, there grew a female turpentine tree, which flowered every 
year, but which furnished him no fruit capable of vegetation. This was a very sensible mortification to the owner, who being ignorant of the 
doctrine of the sexes of plants, had laboured very hard to obtain an increase of that tree. 

" Mess. Duhamel and Jussieu very properly took away all blame from the elements, and promised him they would soon procure him 
the pleasure he desired. They sent him a male turpentine tree, which was very much loaded with Blossoms. It was according to their 
direction planted near to the female turpentine tree. That year it produced a great quantity of fruit well conditioned, and such as, when 
planted, rose with facility. Being removed, his female turpentine tree became barren as before." 

Some gardeners in Sicily, according to Swinburne, have ingeniously contrived the art of budding the male tree upon the female, by 
which means the two sexes are placed together upon the same tree. 

§ The ancients certainly had no true knowledge of the Sexes of Plants, as at this day understood, as I have proved in the last note, 
and elsewhere ; this indeed Linnaeus, in the very next passage, seems to admit. Although these facts were thus daily obtruded on their 
senses, inattentive to the structure of flowers, and ignorant of the offices of the several parts, they remained unacquainted with the true 
operations of Nature in this phenomenon, though daily presented to their observation. 

*j- As the male Peony, male Cistus, male Fern, male Orchis, male Veronica, male Abrotanum, &c. 

+ The Mercurialis Perennis, our common Dogs Mercury, is thus described by J. Bauiiin. « Ex foliorum alis, famince quidem 
ligulce rectae emicant, tenues, quas verticillatim seu in spica ambiunt flosculi glomerati muscosi, qui in quatuor foliola herbida sese explicantes 
cirros apiculorum luteolorum aut herbidorum ostentant, nullo succedento semine pereuntes. Marl autem ex eisdem alis breves pediculi ori- 
untur, quorum singulis testiculata bursala, nonnihil compressa, hirsutaque insidet, gemina semina includem." Our countryman Ray 
could not let this pass unnoticed, who, in vol. i. lib. iv, chap. v. " De Mercurial!," remarks, « In hac descriptione J. Bauhinus vulgarem 
opinionem sequitur, Mercurialem sterilem pro fcemina, et fertilem pro mari accipiens : cum e contra rationi consonum sit et aliarum rerum 
naturalium analogiae, ut sterilis dicatur mas, fertilis fcemina. Fcemina enim est in omni genere quae fcetificat et fructum edit." " In this 
description John Bauhine follows the vulgar error, taking the barren Mercury for the female, and the fertile as the male : fork is contrary 
to sound judgment, and the analogy of other productions in nature, to call that which is barren, the female ; and that which produces, the 
male. The female in all plants is that which swells, and produces seeds." Also in another chapter, when speaking of the Spinach, " vol i 
chap. iv. De Spinachia," he corrects again the vulgar error of making "the spiked flowers into the female, and the sessile ones into the 
male, also that the male and female plants were distinct species." Plis words are « Spinachia fcemina, seu sterilis, perperam pro specie 
diversa a Casp. Bauhino ponitur, cum ex eodem cum fertili semine proveniat." 


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The Eno-lish report, that their MILLINGTON* was the first true discoverer of this doctrine, 

* Linnaeus would not have so slightly mentioned this immortal discovery of the Sexes of Plants made by our illustrious countryman 
MILLINGTON, Savilian Professor (probably Sedleian Lecturer on Natural History) at Oxford, and afterwards President of the Royal College 
of Physicians (a'name not even mentioned in the Encyclopedia Londinensis, or Biographia Britannica), but henceforth to be esteemed, like 
that of the memorable Harvey, or Jenner, had he been able to read the admirable account written in English of that important discovery, 
as it is given us by the learned Grew, in his " Account of the Anatomy of Flowers, prosecuted with the bare eye, and with the microscope," 
being a discourse read before the Royal Society Nov. g, 1676, in which he thus clearly explains this matter. 

" The Attire I find to be of two kinds, Seminiforme and Florid. That which 1 call Scmini forme, is made up of two general parts, 
chives and semets, one upon each chive. These semets (as I take leave to call them) have the appearance, especially in many flowers, of so 
many little seeds ;'but are quite another kind of body. For, upon enquiry, we find that these semets, though they seem to be solid, and for 
some time after their first formation, are entire ; yet are they really hollow ; and their side, or sides, which were at first entire, at length 
crack asunder: and that moreover the concave of each semet is not a mere vacuity, but filled up with a number of minute particles, in form 
of a powder. Which, though common to all semets, yet in some, and particularly those of a tulip or a lily, being larger, is more distinctly 

" These semets are sometimes fastened so, as to stand erect above their chive, as those of larks-heel Sometimes, and I think usually, 
so as to hang a little down by the middle, in the manner and figure of a kidney, as in mallows. Their cleft or crack is sometimes single, 
but for the most part double: at these clefts it is that they disburse their powders; which as they start out, and stand betwixt the two lips 
of each cleft, have some resemblance to the common sculpture of a pomegranate with its seeds looking out at the cleft of its rind. This must 
be observed when the clefts are recently made, which usually is before the expansion of the flower. 

" The particles of these powders, though like those of meal or other dust, they appear not easily to have any regular shape; yet upon 
strict observation, especially with the assistance even of an indifferent glass, it doth appear, that they are a congeries, usually, of so many per- 
fect globes or globulets ; sometimes of other figures, but always regular. That which obscures their figure is their being so small : in dogs- 
mercury, borage, and very many more plants, they are extremely so. In mallows, and some others, more fairly visible. 

" Some of these powders are yellow, as in dogs-mercury, goats-rue, &c. and some of other colours : but most of them I think are 
white ; and those of yellow henbane very elegant, the disbursed powders whereof, to the naked eye, are white as snow ; but each globulet, 
through a glass, transparent as crystal ; which is not a fallacy from the glass, but what we see in all transparent bodies whatsoever, lying in 

a powder or small particles together. 

" The use of the attire, how contemptibly soever we may look upon it, is certainly great. And though for our own use we value the 
leaves of the flower, or the foliation, most; yet of all the three parts, this in some respects is the choicest, as for whose sake and service the 
other two are made. The use hereof, as to ornament and distinction, is unquestionable ; but this is not all. As for distinction, though, by 
the help of glasses, we may make it to extend far; yet in a passant view, which is all we usually make, we cannot so well. As for ornament, 
and particularly in reference to the semets* we may ask, If for that merely these were meant, then why should they be so made as to break 
open, or to contain any thing within them ? Since their beauty would be as good if they were not hollow ; and is better before they crack 

and burst open, than afterwards. 

" Other uses hereof therefore we must acknowledge, and may observe. One is, for food ; for ornament and distinction to us, and for 
food to other animals. I will not say, but that it may serve even to these for distinction too, that they may be able to know one plant from 
another, and in their flight or progress settle where they like best : and that therefore the varieties of these small parts are many, and well 
observed by them, which we take no notice of. Yet the finding out of food is but in order to enjoy it : which, that it is provided for a vast 
number of little animals in the attires of all flowers, observation persuades us to believe. For why else are they evermore here found ? Go 
from one flower to another, great and small, you shall meet with none untaken up with these guests. In some, and particularly the sun- 
flower, where the parts of the attire, and the animals for which they provide, are larger, the matter is more visible. We must not think, 
that Almighty God hath left any of the whole family of his creatures unprovided for ; but as the Great Master, somewhere or other carveth 
out to all ; and that for a great number of these little folk, he hath stored up their peculiar provisions in the attires of flowers ; each flower 
thus becoming their lodging and their dining-room, both in one. 

" Wherein the particular parts of the attire may be more distinctly serviceable, this to one animal, and that to another, I cannot say : or 
to the same animal, as a bee, whether this for the honey, another for their bread, a third for the wax : or whether all only suck from hence 
some juice; or some may not also carry some of the parts, as of the globulets, wholly away. 

" But this is only the secondary use of the attire. But the primary and chief use of the attire' (anther) ". is such, as hath respect to 
the plant itself; and so appears to be very great and necessary. Because, even those plants which have no flower or foliature, are yet some 
way or other attired; either with the seminiform, or the florid attire. So that it seems to perform its service to the seed, as the foliature, to 
the fruit. In discourse hereof with our learned Savilian Professor, Sir Thomas MILLINGTON, he told me, he ' conceived that the attire 
doth serve as the male, for the generation of the seed.' 

Grew goes on. " When the semet" (anther) " ripens, it lets fall the contained powder" (farina), " which particles of powder" 
(farina) " themselves burst, and let loose a finer powder" (pollen), " which performs the office of male, and being carried to the seed-case" 
(germen) " imparts to the seeds a prolific virtue." Vide Grew's Anatomy, p. 171. Nothing, therefore, can be clearer than that both MIL- 
LINGTON and GREW frst perfectly knew the sexes of plants. 

Doctor Pulteney also, in his « Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany," is willing to grant the merit of this 
great discovery to Grew in preference to Millington. Probably this high merit should be equally shared by both. 

" Whether," says he, " the true idea of the Sexual Process originated with Sir Thomas Millington, to whom it has been usually 
ascribed, may justly admit of a doubt; since Sir Thomas has left no written testimony on the subject; and Dr. Grew's mention of him does 
not imply that he actually received the idea from him. Add to this, that Mr. Ray, in the summary view of all Grew's discoveries, which 
he has prefixed to his " History of Plants," does not mention Sir Thomas Millington's name. Interested as we must suppose Mr. Ray to 
have been, in every discovery relating to vegetables, and candid as he was in his general conduct to the learned, it is not likely that he should 
have failed, in this instance, to render praise where it was so justly due. When we further recollect, that Dr. Grew had been some years 
engaged in those microscopical experiments, on the anatomy of plants, which have rendered his name estimable 'with all posterity, that whilst 
he was thus employed in studying so intimately the organization of vegetables, and had observed, that in whatsoever parts the flower might 
be deficient, the attire is ever present, is it not strange that the true idea of its use should have been suggested to him ?" 

c if 

if it be allowed to call him an inventor, who understands the thing, but has not taught it in writing. 
They contend that about the year 1676, he saw the whole mystery, and, in truth, not long after* 
GREW and RAY/f both Englishmen, explained this matter farther. 

* It perhaps may be objected to Linnaeus, that he did not clearly comprehend why this discovery is attributed to Millington, but it 
is a known fact, that Linn^us was unacquainted with the English language, and, therefore, could only receive his knowledge from the 
report of others. The whole story has been fully explained in the last note. 

f Our illustrious countryman Ray was made, by the writings of Grew, a complete convert to the doctrine of the Sexes of Plants. In 
his "Historia Plantarum," •* History of Plants," published in 1686, Book I. Chap. X. " De floribus Plantarwn, et primo de eorum Par- 
tibus." " The Flowers of Plants and of their Parts." Speaking of the stamina, he expressly says, " Grevius noster non hunc tantum usum 
stamina praestare opinatur, sed et pollinem ilium seu globulos quibus apices praegnantes sunt, quosque per maturitatem effundunt, spermatis 
masculini instar seminibus foecundandis inservire existimat ; ac proinde maximam plantarum partem utriusque sexus participem esse. Quod 
non adeo incredibile videri debet, cum et in Animalium genere nonnulla androgyna observantur, ut v. g. Cochlea; terrestres ; quamvis quidem 
in seipsis non generent, quo a plantis differunt. Nee obstat, quod particular haa (si modo sperma sint aut spermati analogs) in uterum aut 
semina non penetrent, nam et in piscibus externe tantum ovis jam editis inspergitur genitura, nee in ullo animalium genere, quod sciam, 
ovarium intrat, at ne uterum, quidem ipsum in plerisque, sed solus ejus halitus et effluvia subtilia sufficiunt ad ova foecundanda, et embryon 
intus conclusum vivificandum. 

" Hare si ita sint, non similitudine aliqua duntaxat, sed revera et stricte" loquendo sexu differunt planta; illae, quarum alia; semen absque 
flore, aliae (ab ejusdem plantae semine ortae) florem absque semine producunt. Tales sunt in Arborum genere Palrna dactylifera, Salices 
pleraeque ex nostra observatione, et secundum Plinium etiam Cedrus major : in Plerbarum, Lupulus salictarius, Cannabis, Cynocrambe, 
Mercurialis, Phyllon, Urtica, Spinachia, Sesamoides Clusii, aliaque non pauca. 

" D. Grevii sententiam magnopere confirmant, quae de Palma dactylifera a Veteribus et Recentioribus traduntur, nimirum fceminas non 
omnino fructificare, nisi mas juxta ipsas consitus fuerit : quin et pulverem maris fcemina; aspersum earn fcecundiorem reddere. Ni enim 
iEgyptii hoc fecerint (inquit Prosper Alpinus) sine dubio fcemina; vel nullos fructus ferent, vel quos ferent non retinebunt, neque hi matu- 
rescent. At inquies in arenosis et desertis, ubi nemo maris pulverem seu pollinem florum foemineo fcetui aspergit, fceminae nihilominus fcecunda* 
sunt, lmmo verb ventorum beneficio, qui pulverem manum foeminis afflant." 

" Our countryman Grew supposes the stamina to perform the office of the male, and that the farina with which the anthers are filled, 
and which separates from them when mature, serves the purpose of fructifying the pistillum, or female; and that the majority of plants are 
bisexual ; that is, contain both sexes in the same corolla. Not that plants, like the snail, and some other species of animals, are andro- 
gynous, but are sufficient of themselves to produce their kind. Nor is there occasion, that the farina should pass into the germen to the 
seeds, but only an halitus, or subtile effluvia, which is capable of itself to vivify the included embrios. 

" Besides bisexual flowers, there are also others strictly unisexual, having the two sexes apart, for from the same sort of seed there 
shall spring up two plants, whereof one shall bear only stamens or males, and the other only pistils or females. Of this kind are the date- 
bearing palms, according to Pliny the large cedar, and from our own observation many of the willows ; and in herbs, the hop, hemp, mer- 
cury, nettle, spinach, and a great many others. 

" What is reported by the ancients and moderns greatly confirm this opinion of Grew, respecting the date-bearing palm, that the 
females do not fructify, unless the male be placed near them, or the farina of the male be dispersed over the female flowers (Plin. Hist. 
Nat. Lib. 13. C. 4.) Unless the same was performed in Egypt, without doubt the females would produce no fruit, or what they had they 
would drop, or not ripen (Prosper Alpinus Lib. de Plant iEGYPT.) It may be objected that dates are found in uninhabited spots, but 
here the farina is wafted to the females by means of the wind." 

He, however, modestly ends with " Opinio autem hasc de usu pollinis praedicti ulteriori adhuc confirmatione indiget ; nos ut verisimilem 
tantum admittimus." " This opinion of Grew, of the use of the pollen before mentioned, wants yet more decided proofs ; we can only 
admit the doctrine as extremely probable." But this was only his cautious manner of writing, as in the following passage, Lib. iv. Hist, 
p. 156. where he treats of Herbs, " quarum fructus a floribus totis plantis distant, seu de Sexu distinctis." " On herbs, whose fruit is pro- 
duced on plants separate from the male flowers, which are produced on other plants of the same kind," he writes "Planta; hac sectione com- 
prehensa;, si sexu revera non differant, prout nos opinamur, umbram saltern aut similitudinem quandam sexus obtinent, cum in eadem specie 
nonnulla; natura steriles sint, et seminis infeecundae ; alia; fertiles et semine prasgnantes. Has nonnulli mares vocant, illas fceminas : alii rec- 
tius illas mares faciunt, has fceminas. Semina enim plantarum Animalium ovis respondent, qua; fcemina; pariunt, non mares. C. Bauhinus 
quas nos sexu tantum diversas statuimus, specie distinctas facit : minus recto ; cum ex ejusdem planta; semine utraeque oriantur : Eequo enim 
jure Virum et Fceminam species hominis distinctas facere potuisset." 

" Plants comprehended in this section, if they do not differ in sexes, a doctrine which we maintain, nevertheless they possess at least 
the shade or similitude of sexes, since in the same species of plants some are found barren, produce no seed; whilst others are fertile, pro- 
ducing seed. The latter some have called males, the former females : others, of which number we are, more justly make the barren males 
and the seed-bearing females. For the seeds of plants correspond to the eggs of animals, and what produces these are called females, not 
males. Caspar Bauhine has made into distinct species, what we have given as only differing in sex, and badly, for from the same seed 
both sexes spring ; for with equal propriety might the man and woman be made distinct species." 

" In his subsequent work, " Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Britannicarum." " A Methodical Synopsis of British Plants," published 
in 168Q, p. 52. when making the same class of British plants, where the sexes are distinct, in the proem, he openly declares, " Hinc col- 
ligitur stamina non esse partem otiosam et superfluam, sed potius valde utilem et necessariam. Hinc enim confirmatur sententia opinan- 
tium pulverem in apicibus staminum contentum, spermatis masculini vicem praestare." Hence it may be collected, that the stamina are not 
an idle and superfluous part, but, on the contrary, very useful and necessary. This class of flowers confirms the opinion of those, who teach 
that the dust contained in the anthers of the stamina performs the office of the male.'" 

I have been the more elaborate in this note to wipe away a very prevailing opinion, that our countryman Ray had doubts respecting the 
sexes of plants, because he hinted, as expressed above, that this doctrine should be established by experiments, as is here done by Linnaeus. 
Ray's works throughout evince a true knowledge of the Sexes of Plants, and this doctrine owes much, as Linnaeus allows, to both Grew 
and Ray. 


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lft.'Pdfsion -flower. 

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Land, m. Pnhli/li.d bv />' Thcrntcn.Aiiqujt 180 

CAMERARIUS, * and several others after him, f have well explained this doctrine : 

* Camerarius, Professor at Tubingen, in his book " De Sexu Plantarum," " On the Sexes of Plants," published in 1694, acknow- 
ledges, " that he first became convinced of the truth of this doctrine by perusing what had been written on this subject by Grew, and after- 
wards by Ray, to whom he attributes the honour of establishing this important discovery." His experiments were only on the Maize, the 
Mulberry, the llicinus, and the Mercury; the three first of which he deprived of the stamen-bearing, or male flowers, and the last he 
separated from its correspondent female, and found that the seeds produced in each instance did not vegetate. 

f In 1703, Mr. Samuel Morland, desirous, as it should seem, of extending the Lewenhookian system of generation into the vegetable 
kingdom, produced a paper before the Royal Society, in which he advances—that the farina is a congeries of plants, one of which'must be 
conveyed through the style into every ovum, or seed, before it can become prolific. He founded his opinion " from observing an opening 
in the arillus, or husk, of the bean, situate near where the plantule is found lodged, which he conceived was formed on purpose for the ad- 
mission of a globule of the farina, which so disposed became the plantule." The refutation of this opinion will presently appear. 

In 1711, was read, " A Dissertation on the Structure and Use of the Parts of Flowers," by Mons. Geoffroy, before the Royal Aca- 
demy of Science at Paris, where several curious remarks on the Farina, and some experiments on the Sexes of Plants, are given. 

Speakinw of the farina, Mons. Geoffroy says, " It would be difficult to describe all the different figures of the farina; for however small, 
each corpuscle has a regular, determinate, and constant figure. In the general run this figure is oval, with a groove the whole length, re- 
sembling a grain of corn, or a seed of coffee, as in the Bryony, &c. But, 

1. In that of the St. John's Wort, Hypericum Vulgare, of Caspar Bauhine's Pinax. (Hypericum Perforatum, Lin.) appear like oval 

bodies, pointed at their extremities, and swelled in the middle. 

2. In that of the Trefoil, Melilotus officinarum Germania;, C. B. P. (Trifolium officinale, Lin.) like a cylinder, having a band running 

its length. 

3. That of the Violet, Viola Montana tricolor odoratissima, C. B. P. (Viola grandifiora, Lin.) presents a prism with four irregular sides, 

transparent, and reflecting different forms. 

4. That of the Borage, Borago floribus caeruleis, J. B. (Borago officinalis, Lin.) are likewise cylinders, but compressed in the middle, 

and shining in three different distinct spots. 

5. That of the Comfrey, Symphytum, Consolida major, C. B. P. (Symphytum officinale, Lin.) represents two crystal balls attached 


6. That of the Sycamore, Acer montanum candidum, C. B. P. (Acer Pseudo-Platanus, Lin.) presents a perfect cross. 

7. That of the Lily, Lilium album vulgare, J. B. (Lilium candidum, Lin.) an oblong oval, pointed at both ends, and with a groove its 

whole length. 

8. That of the Jonquil, Narcissus juncifolius, luteus, minor, C. B. P. (Narcissus Jonquilla, Lin.) have the form of a kidney. 

q. That of the Spider-wort, Ephemerum Virginiacum, flore casrules majori, J. R. H. (Tradescantia Virginica, Lin.) resembles a 


10. That of the Euphorbia, Tethymalus Characias angustifolius, C. B. P. (Euphorbia Characias, Lin.) and of the Palma Christi, Ricinus 
Vulgaris, C. B. P. an ovoid figure, with a rising its whole length. 

11. That of the Acanthus, Acanthus rarioribus et brevioribus aculeis munitus, J. R. H. (Acanthus mollis, Lin.) 

12. That of the Spanish Broom, Genista Juncea, J. B. ^Spartium junceum, Lin.) are oblong, rounded at their extremities, and has 

two bands, being two luminous eminences. 

13. That of the Tuberose, Hyacinthus Indicus, (Tuberosus, flore Hyacinthi orientalis, C. B. P. Polyanthes Tuberosa, Lin.) swelled in 

the middle, so as to make a prism with three sides. 

14. That of the Campanula Campanula pyramidalis, altissima, J. R. H. are round transparent, with light eminences, and a luminous 
point in the center. 

15. That of the Passion-flower, Granadilla Polyphyllos fructu ovato, J. R. H. (Passiflora ccerulea, Lin.) are nearly round, with small 
risings over the surface. 

16. That of the Pink, Caryophyllus sylvestris calidarum regionum, J. R. H. are round, the surface a regular mosaic. 

17. That of the Geranium, Geranium sanguineum maximo flore, C. B. P. round, with a kind of navel, as in the apple. 

18. That of the Pompion, Melepepo compressus, C. B. P. (Cucurbiia Melopepo, Lin.) are round, with short pointed eminences. 
]Q. That of the Sun-flower, and Marsh Cakha, Caltha palustus, have the surface covered with hairs. 

20, That of the Althea riretescens (Lavatera Olbia, Lin.) and the Convolvulus purpureus, C. B. P. (Convolvulus hederacius, Lin.) have 
the surface covered with very short eminences. 
After many observations on the Sexes of Plants, he relates the following experiment. 

I raised several plants of Maize, or Turkey corn, which on the summit of its branch produces male, or stameniferous flowers, and the 
fruit is enclosed in a leafy sheath. 

I removed the stamina with all the care imaginable, as soon as they shewed themselves, and before the pistilliferous flowers appeared. 
Upon most of these plants so served, the spike, after growing to a certain size, dried up, and the grains were withered, or only a few 
"•rains 1 attained its proper size, and these, but thinly scattered along the rachis, which might probably arise from imperfect castration. 
The same event occurred to him with the Dog's Mercury. 
As to the manner of the embryo being conveyed into the seed, he accords entirely with Morland. He says, " that the best microscopes 
can never discover the plantule, or embrio, in the early stage of the pistillum, nor even when more advanced, unless the farina has reached 
the stigma of the pistillum." His w^ords are, " En effet, si Ton examine dans les plantes legumineuses, le pistile, ou cette partie qui devient 
la gousse, avant que la fleur soit encore eclose, et qu'apres l'avoir debarrassee des feiiilles et des etamines, on la regarde au Soleil avec un mi- 
croscope, on y remarque tres aisement les petites vesicules vertes et transparentes qui doivent devenir les graines placees dans leur ordre naturel, 
et dans lesquelles on ne distingue rien autre chose que l'enveloppe ou l'ecorce de la graine. En continuant d'observ r er pendant plusieurs jours 
de suite dans d'autres fleurs a mesure qu'elles avancent, on remarque que ces vesicules grossissent et se remplissent d'une liqueur claire dans 
laquelle, lorsque les poussieres se sont repandiies et lorsque les feiiilles de la fleur sont tombees, on commence a appercevoir un petit point ou 

a It was a pity he had not tried the experiment of sowing these grains. 

d globule 

globule verdatre qui y rlotte librement. On n'apperooit encore rien d'organise dans ce petit corps, mais avec le temps et a mesure qu'il grossit, 
on y distingue pen a peu deux petites feiiilles comme deux cornes. La liqueur se consomme insensiblement a mesure que ce petit corps gros- 
sit ; et la graine etant deveniie tout a fait opaque, en l'ouvrant on trouve sa cavite remplie de la petite plante en raccourci, composee du germe 
ou de la plumule, de la radicule et des lobes de la Feve ou du Pois. 

" Si au contraire dans les pivoines a fleurs doubles, qui sont tout a fait denuees d'etamines et de sommets, on examine les graines qu'elles 
produisent, soit qu'elles soient avortees ou qu'elles ne la soient pas; on les trouve vuides contenant seulement quelques membranes dissechees 
et sans aucune apparence de germe, semblables en cela a l'oeuf d'une poule qui n'a point ete feconde. En effet, s'il y eut eu un germe dans 
ces membranes, n'auroit-il pas du grossir a proportion de ces enveloppes, et devenir tres sensible. 

« En suivant cette conjecture, il n'est pas difficile de determiner de quelle maniere le germe entre dans cette vesicule; car outre que la 
cavite du pistile s'etend depuis son extremite jusqu'aux embryons des graines, ces vesicules ont encore une petite ouverture pres de leur attache 
qui se trouve a l'extremite du conduit du pistile; ensorte que le petit grain de poussiere pent tomber naturellement par cette ouverture dans la 
cavite ou espece de cicatricule reste encore asses sensible dans la pluspart des graines : on l'appercoit tres aisement sans le secours du microscope 
dans les Fois, dans les Feves et dans les Phaseoles. 

" La racinc du petit germe est tout proche de cette ouverture, et c'est par cette raeme ouverture qu'elle sort, lorsque la graine vient k 


Next in order follows the boastful Bradley, who published his " New Improvement in Planting and Gardening, both Philosophical and 
Practical," in 1721. He writes, " Mr. Morland has, in Phil. Trans. No. 287, anno 1703, given us to understand how the dust of the 
apices in flowers (i. e. the male sperm) is conveyed into the germen or vasculum seminale of a plant, by which means the seeds therein con- 
tained are impregnated. I then made it my business to search after this truth, and have had good fortune enough to bring it to demonstration 
bv several experiments ; since which, a gentleman of Paris has printed something of the same nature, in the Hist, de V Acad, de Sciences, for 
the years 1711 and 1712, which were published about ten years ago. 

" But to come to the point ; the lily being a flower more generally known than any other, and its generative organs being large and ex- 
posed, I shall from thence endeavour to explain the method which nature makes use of to impregnate the seeds of that and every other plant, 
and by which means the several species of vegetables have been continued to the world. 

" The flower of the lily has six leaves or petals, which are set on upon the summit of the footstalk ; they serve to guard the parts of 
generation from the injuries of the weather; and as they are of no other use that I know of, so it is not necessary that I should place them in 

the figure. 

" B is the mouth of the pistillum, or passage which leads into the germen C, in which are three ovaries filled with little eggs or rudi- 
ments of seeds, such as we find in the ovaria of animals ; but these eggs will decay and come to nothing, unless they are impregnated by the 
farina fa cundans or male seed of the same plant, or one of the same sort. 

" From D to E is a stamen of the lily, through which the male seed of the plant is conveyed to be perfected in the apex F, where, by 
the sun's heat, it ripens and bursts forth in very minute particles like dust ; some particles of which powder falling upon the orifice B, is 
either conveyed from thence into the germen C, or by its magnetic virtue, draws the nourishment, with great force, from the other parts of 
the plant into the embryos of the fruit, and makes them swell. 

" Now, that the farina fcecundans or male dust has a magnetic virtue, is evident ; for it is that only which bees gather and lodge in the 
cavities of their hind legs to make their Avax with ; and it is well known, that wax, when it is warm, will attract to it any light body. 
But again, if the particles of this powder should be required by Nature to pass into the ovaries of the plant, and even into the several 
eggs or seeds there contained, we may easily perceive, if we split the pistillum of a flower, that Nature has provided a sufficient passage for it 
into the uterus, or germen. 

" In the first figure I have only given a design of one stamen with its apex, to prevent mistakes in my explanation; but the flower of 
every lily has six of the same figure and use, which are placed round about the pistillum, or female organ ; so that it is almost impossible it 
should escape from receiving some of the male dust (or farina fazcundans) falling upon it. 

" In this and other flowers of the like nature, the pistillum is always so placed, that the apices (anthers) which surround it, are either 
equal in height with it, or above it ; so that their dust falls naturally upon it. And when we observe it to be longer than the apices, we may 
then conjecture that the fruit has begun to form itself, and has no longer occasion for the male dust. And it is likewise observable, that as 
soon as this work of production is performed, the male organs, together with the leaves or covering, fall off, and the pipe leading to the ger- 
men begins to shrink. 

" We may farther remark, that the top of the pistillum in every flower, is either covered with a sort of velvet tunick, or emits a gummy 
liquor, the better to catch the dust of the apices (anthers). 

" And now, as we may find in the description I have given of the lily, that the germen is within the flower; so, on the other hand, the 
germen of a rose is without the flower, at the bottom of the petals or flower-leaves. And likewise in fruit trees, the cherries, plums, and 
some others, have their utricles within their flowers ; and the gooseberry, currant, apples and pears, on the outside or bottom of their flowers. 
But farther; although Nature has designed the dust of the apices to fecundate the pistillum contained in the flowers of plants, yet we ob- 
serve that in some plants, the male and female organs are remote from each other. As, for example, the Gourd, Pomp ion, Melon, Cucumber, 
and all of that race, have blossoms distinctly, male and female, upon the same plant. The male blossoms may be distinguished from the 
others, in that they have not any pistil rudiment of fruit about them, but have only a large thrum covered with dust in their middle : the 
female blossom of these has a pistillum within the petals or flower-leaves, and the rudiment of their fruit always apparent at the bottom of the 
flower before it opens : and so in like manner all nut-bearing, and, I think, mast-bearing trees, have their catkins or male blossoms remote 
from the female flow T ers. 

" The oak, for example, which blossoms in May, has its male flowers distinct from the acorns ; we find strings of little farinaceous flowers 
in great abundance, as in the second figure marked G, remote from the rudiments of the acorns or fruit, marked H. And so likewise in the 
Walnut, Chesnut, Hazel, Pine, Cypress, and even the Mulberry, Aspen, and others. I have observed that some sorts of Willows change 
their Sex every year, by producing only male blossoms or catkins one year, and the other following, strings of female blossoms, which, if 
they then happened to be near enough some flowering male, will produce seeds. 

" When we view, with a good microscope, the male dust of any single plant, we find every particle of it to be of the same size and 
figure; but in some cases it is of three colours, as in the tulip, where it is yellow, green, and black ; but as plants differ from one another in 
their figures and qualities, so are the figures of their several dusts greatly different from each other: a grain of the dust of Geranium San- 
guineum, maximojlore, of C. B. P. is like a bead of a necklace with a hole through it. 

" The 

" The farina of the Corona Soils perennls, Flore et Semlne maxlmls, Hort. Ludg. Bat. is a globe set with thorns ; that of the Ricinus 
Vulgaris, C. B. P. is of the figure of a grain of Wheat. 

" And the Acer Montanum Candidum of C. B. P. affords a dust of the figure of a cross : and in like manner does the farina of every 
plant differ in its shape from the rest. 

" The female organs of generation in plants are best seen in large fruits, without the trouble of the microscope ; such as the fruit of the 
Pompion or Melon, where, with the natural eye, we may discover the vessels distinctly, which make the tunic or covering of each ovary: 
we may see how the seeds are joined to it, and by what end they receive their nourishment. And again, between the several ovaries 
enclosed in that fruit, we may very easily perceive the hollow, or passage, through which the farina fcecundans has passed to impregnate 

the seeds. 

" It may perhaps be objected against this hypothesis, that there are many flowers which hang downwards, as the Crown Imperial, the 
Cyclamen, &c. and that their pistils cannot receive the farina fcecundans upon them : but if we observe that the pistils of these flowers are 
always more prominent, or somewhat longer than the dusty apices which surround them, we may easily conceive that the glutinous matter 
and velvet covering on the extremities of the pistils, may be capable enough of receiving and holding some of the powder as it falls ; and 
whether the intromission of the farina fcecundans be requisite or not, its lodgment on the mouth of the pistillum may, by virtue of its at- 
tractive quality, perhaps fecundate the seeds contained in the germen : I am sure, in the production of animals, there are yet greater difficul- 
ties to encounter with ; and it may be, if the analogy between plants and animals was more enquired after by the learned, they might dis- 
cover many new things which would be serviceable to the preservation and benefit of animal bodies, as this knowledge will be to the im- 
provement of the vegetable world. 

" I shall now proceed to what I call the demonstrative part of this system. I made my first experiment upon the tulip, which I chose 
rather than any other plant, because it seldom misses to produce seed. Several years ago I had the conveniency of a large garden, wherein 
there was a considerable bed of tulips in one part, containing about four hundred roots : in another part of it, very remote from the former, 
were twelve tulips in perfect health. At the first opening of the twelve, which I was very careful to observe, I cautiously took out of them 
all their apices (anthers), before the farina fcecundans was ripe, or any ways appeared: these tulips being thus castrated, bore no seed that 
summer; while, on the other hand, every one of the four hundred plants, which I had let alone produced seed." 

Blair, in his " Botanical Essays," in that " On the Generation of Plants," has collected the opinions of all former writers, and added his 
own, in refutation of the embryo being constituted in the particles of farina. He has added no experiments of his own on the Sexes of 

Next follows our illustrious Miller, in the Gardener's Dictionary, published in 1/30, under the word " Generation." After detailing 
the different sentiments and opinions advanced on this subject, he ends by relating his own experiments. 

" I shall conclude with mentioning a few experiments of my own, which I communicated to Dr. Patrick Blair, which he improved as a 
proof of his opinion of effluvia ; and Mr. Bradley also, as a proof of the farina entering the germen in substance, and leave the curious enquirer 
to determine on that side of the question, which reason and experiment shall influence him. 

" [ separated the male plants of a bed of spinage from the female, and the consequence was, that the seed did swell to the usual bigness; 
but when sowed, it did not grow afterwards : and searching into the seed, I found it wanted the Punctum Vitce. 

" I set twelve tulips by themselves, about six or seven yards from any other; and as soon as they blew, I took out the stamina so very 
carefully, that I scattered none of the male dust; and about two days afterwards I saw bees working on a bed of tulips, where I did not take 
out the stamina ; and when they came out, they were loaded with dust on their bodies and legs, and I saw them fly to the tulips, where I 
had taken out the stamina ; and when they came out, I found they had left behind them sufficient to impregnate these flowers, for they bore 
good ripe seeds. But by a piece of gauze put over the flowers the experiment is found to answer. 

" In a letter communicated by Paul Dudley, Esq. to the Royal Society, wrote from New England, he mentions the interchanging of the 
colours of the Indian wheat, if the various colours are planted in rows near each other ; but if they are planted separately, they constantly 
keep to their own colour: and this interchanging of colours has been observed, when the distance between the rows of corn has been several 
yards; though he says, if there happens to be a high board fence between the different coloured corns, the alteration of colours is entirely 

Cucumbers do always produce male and female flowers upon different parts of the same plant : the male flower (which appears upon a 
slender footstalk, and has a slender column in the middle, covered with an orange-coloured farina) is by the gardeners commonly called 
false blossoms, and are sometimes by unskilful persons pulled off soon after they appear, supposing that they weaken the plants if suffered to 
remain, which is a very great mistake : for in order to try this experiment, I planted four rowss of cucumber plants in a place pretty far distant 
from any other; and when the flowers began to appear, I constantly pulled off all the male flowers from time to time before they opened: 
the consequence was, that all the young fruit dropt off soon after they appeared, and not one single fruit remained to grow to any size, 
though the vines were equally strong with those which I had planted in another place, where I suffered all the flowers to remain upon them, 
from which I had a great quantity of fruit. 

" From these, and many other experiments, it is very plain, that there is a neceffity that the embryo of the female flower should be im- 
pregnated by the farina or male dust, in order to render the fruit perfect ; but how, or in what manner it is performed, is what we can only 
guess at, since in the generation of animals, our greatest naturalists differ very much in their opinions, nor can any of them ascertain any 
particular method how it is performed. 

" Some persons have objected to the theory of the generation, as here laid down, because they have observed some female plants produce 
fruit, without having been impregnated by the male. 

" It is certain, that the female plants may produce fruit without the impregnation of the male ; but it is not certain, that this fruit or 
seed will, if sown, produce another plant. What has been so often related by travellers and historians, of the necessity of the male palm- 
tree being near the female, in order to render it fruitful, hath been, it is supposed, fully refuted by Father Labat, in his account of Africa, 
where he has treated of the several sorts of palms : he says, that he observed, in Martinico, a large palm-tree, which grew by the side of a 
convent, which produced fruit in plenty, though there was no other palm-tree growing within two leagues of this ; but he also observed, that 
none of these fruit would grow, though they had made many trials of them ; so that they were obliged to procure some fruit from Barbary, 
in order to propagate these trees. He likewise adds, that the fruit which grew on this female tree, never ripened so perfectly, nor was so 
well tasted, as those which came from trees which had stood near some of the male. Therefore we may conclude, that the fruit or seed may 
be produced by the female plants of most kinds, without the assistance of the male sperm, which may appear to sight perfect, and fit to 
produce other plants ; but if we examine the seeds, we shall find that most of them have not the germ, or little plant inclosed, nor will 
grow, if they are sown. 

e " From 

But none better than V A ILL ANT, t the great French botanist, who, in his academic 

" From a repeated number of experiments, in separating the male from the female plants, I have always observed, that where it has been 
done in time, and with proper care, so as that there could have been none of the farina fcecundans of the male plant scattered on the female; 
that though the female plants have produced sometimes fair seeds to appearance, yet, when they have been carefully sown, there has not 
been one plant produced from them. 

+ The honour of the discovery of the Sexes in Plants is always torn from our countrymen, and given by the French to Vail- 
lant. In that famous Poem, a published in Vaillant's " Botanicon Parisiense" " Be Connubiis Florum," the poet gives this honour to 

«' Callibus insistat veterum pede turba sequaci, 
Vulgaresque animae, servum genus ; at sibi stravit 
Intactum Valiantus iter. Qua callidus arte 
Dirigat in flores etiam sua tela Cupido 
Vidit, et herbarum detexit primus a mores. 

Macencroe, M. D." 

There are also other pieces of poetry which preface this work to the same effect : 

" Omnibus in terris qucesitum ad Florea regna, 
Et nemo in terris inveniebat iter; 
At nunc si patuit, si flos hie masculus, ille, 
Famineus, vel mas fczmineusque simul; 
Arma viri melius si stamina credimus esse 

Pistillum melius conjugis esse tubam, 
Nee latet, inque tubas inque ova ut fulguris instar 

Mane ferax rigidi staminis aura ruat ; 
Audiat Elysiis haec Tournefortus in arvis. 
Inventum decus est hoc Valiante tuum. 

Demetrius de la Croix, M. D." 


" L'ingenieux Vaillant grand partizan de Flore, 

Epia la Nature, et la prit sur le fait ; 

Par un souffle subtil it vit les fleurs eclore, 

Et de leur tendre amour le mystere secret. 

Louis Badon de la Riviere." 

And, in order to fix this honour more permanently on Vaillant, under his portrait is engraved, 

" Hie primus ante alios Florum Connubia vidit." 

We do not mean to deny the knowledge Vaillant had of this subject, for he has presented us, in his discourse " De Structura Florum, 
horum Differentia, Usuque Partium," " On the structure of Flowers, their Variety, and the Uses of the component Parts," published in 17 18, 
with a very florid description of the Marriage of Plants, and his particular observations on the Parietaria (Pellitory of the Wall), of which, 
for the sake of the curious and inquisitive reader, we shall make a short extract. 

" Quoties autem accideret, ut in eadem stirpe flores gerantur simul, quorum hi foeminina tantum, illi autem masculina et foeminina con- 
juncta, organa cingunt, arrectio, tumorque organorum masculinorum in hisce tarn subito contingit, ut lobuli gemma; flosculosae cedant illorum 
impetui, atque hinc inde semet expandant mirabili mehercule velocitate. Etenim eodem hocce momento libidinosa haec ingenia nihil ardentius 
cogitant, nisi ut violentos luxuriei affectus expleant, neque citius libera se et expedita experiuntur, quin extemplo quam vehementissime foe- 
cundam explodant, omnemque uno impetu ejaculentur, genituram, diffusa nimirum pulverulenta nubecula spargente quaquaversum foecunda- 
tionem arvi genitalis. Verum, quam rara, quam mira, catastrophe ! ipso hoc foecundandi ardore adeo semet exhausta dolent, ut ipso, quo 
prolem vitam donant, momento sibimet mortem parant praesentissimam ! 

" Neque vel hie tamen Scena clauditur. Quid ergo ? Vix venereus hie lusus absolutus est, quin ilico florum labia, aut lobuli, ad se invi- 
cem accedant eodem quidem, quo a se mutub recesserant, celeritatis impetu, veteremque ita formam statim renovent. Ita quidem, ut difficil- 
limum foret credere, flores hosce ullam vim passos esse, nisi vel ipse actum hunc vidisset oculus, vel adhuc cerneret caduca sceleta magnani- 
morum heroum, qui hanc pugnaverant pugnam ; clara quippe haec gestae fortiter rei monumenta supersunt aliquamdiu erecta in campo conflic- 
tus, aut Aplustrium instar Jacularios experiuntur lusus volitantis Zephyri. 

Apparatum huncce artificiosum facile spectare datur in Parietaria. Sed accedas oportet hora sacra. Veneri ! Aurora est, qua; favet et 
adspirat diversorum in plantis sexuum voluptatibus, congressibusque ; ubi verb agere forte renuunt satis opportune ex voto Tui observantis 
cogere vel sic poteris, aciculae apice leniter modb stimules. Si enim matura jam hisce aetas lusibus, opus tantum erit quam blandissime unum 
elevare lobulorum, statimque spectaculo quam jucundissimo oblectaberis ; filamenta quippe, vel manubria staminum ex arcuato hactenus incur- 
voque flexu in erectum arriguntur situm, ut vi acta violenta; tumque liquidb spectatur singulare quodque et tectum, quod in exercitio hocce 
peragitur venereo. Vaillant Sermo de Florum Structura, p. 9." A property not less extraordinary has been discovered in other plants. 

The learned Founder and President of the Linnaean Society, London, Dr. Smith, read a paper " On the Irritability in the Stamina of 
the Barberry, &c." before the Royal Society, Feb. 14, 1/88. 

" The stamina of such of the flowers of the Barberry (Barberis Communis) as were open were bent backwards to each petal, and 
sheltered themselves under their concave tips. No shaking of the branch appeared to have any effect upon them. With a very small bit of 

■ This very interesting Poem, containing 525 lines, was written by Dr. Grant, an Irish student at Paris, under a masked name. It has been since published alone by 
White, edited by Sir Richard Clayton, Bart. 


oration published by Boerhaave, shewed that he knew this thing accurately, although he has 
not demonstrated it by actual experiments. 

From that period, that is from the year 1718, many have attempted to raise up this rock, 
especially the author of the Sexual System, who had supposed that the thing itself was clear, 
and already established from his various labours, although Pontedera* has indeed attempted to 
refute it. 

stick I gently touched the inside of one of the filaments, which instantly sprung from the petal with considerable force, striking its anthera 
against the stigma. I repeated the experiment a great number of times ; in each flower touching one filament after another, till the anthers of 
all six were brought together in the center over the stigma. 

" I took home with me three branches laden with flowers, and placed them in ajar of water, and in the evening tried the experiment on 
some of these flowers, then standing in my room, with the same success. 

" In order to discover in what particular part of the filaments this irritability resided, I cut off one of the petals with a very fine pair of 
scissars, so carefully as not to touch the stamen which stood next it : then, with an extremely slender piece of quill I touched the outside of 
the filament which had been next the petal, stroking it from top to bottom ; but it remained perfectly immoveable. With the same instru- 
ment I then touched the back of the anthera, then its top, its edges, and at last its inside ; still without any effect. But the quill being 
carried from the anthera down the inside of the filament, it no sooner touched that part than the stamen sprung forwards with great vigour 
to the stigma. This was often repeated with a blunt needle, a fine bristle, a feather, and several other things, which could not possibly in- 
jure the structure of the part, and always with the same effect. 

" To some of the anthera I applied a pair of scissars, so as to bend their respective filaments with sufficient force to make them touch the 
stio-ma; but this did not produce the proper contraction of the filament. The incurvation remained only so long as the instrument was ap- 
plied; on its being removed, the stamen returned to the petal by its natural elasticity. But on the scissars being applied to the irritable part, 
the anthera immediately flew to the stigma, and remained there. A very sudden and smart shock given to any part of a stamen would, 
however, sometimes have the same effect as touching the irritable part. 

" Hence it is evident, that the motion above described was owing to an high degree of irritability in the side of each filament, next the ger- 
men, by which, when touched, it contracts, that side becomes shorter than the other, and consequently the filament is bent towards the 
germen. I could not discover any thing particular in the structure of that or any other part of the filament. 

" This irritability is perceptible in stamina of all ages, and not merely in those which are just about discharging their pollen. In some 
flowers, which were only so far expanded that they would barely admit a bristle, and whose anthera? were not near bursting, the filaments 
appeared almost as irritable as in flowers fully opened; and in several old flowers, some of whose petals with the stamina adhering to 
them were falling off, the remaining filaments, and even those which were already fallen to the ground, proved full as irritable as any I 

had examined. 

" From some flowers I carefully removed the germen, without touching the filaments, and then applied a bristle to one of them, which 
immediately contracted, and the stigma being out of its way, it was bent quite over to the opposite side of the flower. 

" Observing the stamina in some flowers which had been irritated returning to their original situations in the hollows of the petals, I found 
the same thing happened to all of them sooner or later. I then touched some filaments which had perfectly resumed their former stations, 
and found them contract with as much facility as before. This was repeated three or four times on the same filament. I attempted to stimu- 
late, in the midst of their progress, some which were returning, but not always with success ; a few of them only were slightly affected by 

the touch. 

" The purpose which this curious contrivance of Nature answers in the private ceconomy of the plant, seems not hard to be discovered. 
When the stamina stand in their original position, their anthera? are effectually sheltered from rain by the concavity of the petals. Thus 
probably they remain till some insect, coming to extract honey from the base of the flower, thrusts itself between their filaments, 
and almost unavoidably touches them in the most irritable part : and thus the impregnation of the germen is performed ; and as it is 
chiefly in fine sunny weather that insects are on the wing, the pollen is also in such weather most fit for the purpose of impregna- 

" The Barberry is not the only plant which exhibits this phenomenon. The stamina of Cactus Tuna, a kind of Indian Fig, are like- 
wise very irritable. These stamina are long and slender, standing in great numbers round the inside of the flower. If a quill or feather be 
drawn through them, they begin in the space of two or three seconds to lie down gently on one side, and in a short time they are all recum- 
bent at the bottom of the flower." 

* Pontidera was professor of Botany at Pisa, and published, in 1772, his " Anthologia, sive De Floris Natura." " A Discourse on the 
Nature of Flowers." In his preface he expresses that his chief design in this publication was to repress the prevailing belief of the Sexes of 
Plants. " Quin etiam cum multos videam praeclare indolis juvenes turn veterum, turn recentiorum potissimum traditionibus ita allici, ut per- 
facile imperita et infirmiora ingenia in iis ipsis rei Botanicse principiis decipi possint, succurrendum esse, et totis viribus providendum, ne latius 
malum diducatur, judicavi. Quod sane et illis, quas in horto anno superiore habui, dissertationibus ex parte praestiti, auditores meos subinde 
monendo, ut ab illis opinionibus, qua? ingenii specie blandiuntur, caverent. Perfacile siquidem juvenilis etas inventiunculis, qua? novitate 
alliciunt, capitur, quibus semel imbuta per omne vitae tempus saspenumero eas servat. Et revera non video quid aliud huic potius timere de- 
beamus, quam cum homines auctoritate eximia, ut animos rerum imperitos ad se convertant, et alliciant, ita loquuntur: esse stirpes in mares, 
in foeminas, in androgynas distributas; partesque illas, quas in deliciis habemus, floresque vocamus, nihil aliud esse, nisi generations organa: 
dari in plantis, ut Plinii verbis utar, Veneris intellectum, maresque afflatu quodam, et pulvere etiam faiminas maritare ? Quis istos, qui 
hrec se ab aliis non accepisse, sed vidisse profitentur, qui conjugii tempora tradunt, qui rationem, quas frigidae in Venerem stirpes solicitentur, 
docent, etiamsi iis non omnino assentiatur, tamen non legendos ediscendosque judicabit ? Quo exemplo alii incitati illis sese adjicient. Quare 
eveniet, ut vel hujusmodi opinionibus sese obnoxios tradant, illisque perpetuo adhasreant, de quibus jam actum esse supra indicavimus ; vel 
ut vanas et commenticias rejiciant, atque una totam rem Botanica in contemptu habeant. His itaque de causis maturandum esse cognovi. 
Quapropter libellum anno proxime elapso de hujusmodi rebus conscriptum." 

" ' / . His 

His method of refuting the sexes of plants is too curious wholly to omit noticing. In Chapter XXVI. " De Tubae usu," " On the Office 
of the Style," he gives us the following opinion : " Tuba hoc praecipuum munus exhibere mihi videtur, ut per ipsam aer in fructus cavitatem 
delatus contentos succos in motum cieat, quo facilius complicati seminis partes subire valeant. Hoc autem ex eo patet, primum quod aer per- 
necessarius est, ut ob ipsius compressionem seminis angustias humores ingrediantur, deinde quod nihil aliud, nisi aer, in fructus cavitatem per 
tubas potest admitti. Nam, si apicum corpuscula juxta quorundam Philosophantium sententiam per tubas in uterum deferri conjiciamus, 
statim gummitiones ilia;, pilorum ordines, fistula;, et viarum angustia ab hac opinione revocant ; si vero ad illos accedimus, qui non apicum 
corpuscula, sed volatilem succum in apicibus contentum excipi a tubarum fistulis tradunt, statim cur tanta machinatione via ilia munita fuerit, 
menti obversatur. Idcirco, etiamsi apices, qui in plurimis plantis non reperiuntur, semper reperiri, et apicum succum ad semina foecundanda 
per tubarum fistulas in fructus cavitatem, et ad embryonis principium penetrare ultro darem atque concederem, adhuc tamen de canaliculi mu- 
nere inquirendum esset. Neque tamen Tournefortii sententia, qui inutiles partes secerni, et extra fructum amandari per tubas opinatus est, 
valeret. Nam, si lenti et resinati succi, pili, fistula;, et tenuissimi canaliculi quidquid deorsum illabitur, sisti cogunt, quamvis corpora omia 
naturaliter suopte pondere deorsum ferantur, multo facilius, si quid sursum ascenderet, prohibitum nemo negabit. Accedit etiam, ut nullum 
corpus, nisi proprio motu cieatur, ut in animantibus contingit, tam facile sursum ferri valeat. Nihil igitur, nisi aer, per tubas aut ingredi aut 
egredi potest. Hinc itaque patet cur evulsa tuba sine maturitate contabescat fructus; nullus enim amplius partibus contractis, aeris ingressus 
fit, cujus ope seminis partes explicari possint. Evenit etiam saepenumero ut tubarum extremitas vel maligno rore, vel nocturno frigore, aut 
pruinis, qua; primo vere aliquando contingunt, ita afficiatur, ut, contortis fibrillis, claudatur foramen. Tunc itaque tenelli embryones acerbi 
decidunt, et pars magna vindemia; perit, inutilesque segetes metuntur. Quapropter, ne hoc tam crebro contingeret, crassiores in extremitate 
tubos fabrefecit natura, plurimis utriculis resinato succo refertis, quo frigoris vis retunderetur, circumpositis." 

" That the office of the style is to convey air to the seeds, and cause a fermentation — that the stigma is filled with resinous juices to 
soften the severity of frost, and hinder insects from penetrating its pores — that the removal of the style causes the abortion of the seeds, or its 
decay by frost, only from want of the proper spiracula, for the admission of air." 

Speaking of the stamina he places their use " as props to give a greater stability to the pistillum, and also that they form a nutritious 
fluid, which is prepared in the anthers, and which descends down the filaments, and so enters the germen." 

" Saepius Pistillum staminibus, apicibusque Natura fulcivit, atque circumsepsit, ut in Malva, Althaea, in Papilionaceis floribus, in quibus 
vel a vagina stamina excipiuntur tubas, ut in flosculosis proprie dicto et lingulato, vel a petalo ut in semiflosculosis." Chap. XXV. 

He ridicules the notion that Nature leaves her productions to the chance of the winds. " Why," says he, " should we fabricate new 
waj'S ? Why have recourse to the unstable air ? Why fly to the atmosphere ? Why implore the assisting aid of winds ? when a more natural 
explanation offers, a shorter and surer journey, by which the nutriment is conveyed to the fruit without the sportings of the winds ? Indeed, 
it is not at all probable, that as the other parts of the flower are fabricated with so much skill and caution, that in her chief and principal con- 
cern, she should prove so extremely dull and thoughtless." 

' Consideranti mihi saepenumero, num natura; expediret, si apicum corpuscula vel saltern apicum liquor per tubam ad embryonem trans- 
mitterentur, quod a nonnullis litteris proditum suo loco explicandum reservamus, cum multa occurrunt, turn potissimum staminum dispo- 
sitio, qua; me, quo minus cum illorum opinione meam conjungam, etiam invitum abducunt. Non enim rationi consentaneum esse videtur, 
quod apicum corpuscula, medio aere, et ventis adjuvantibus, ad pistillum deferantur, et per pistillum ad embryonem, cum in omnibus floribus 
stamina ita disposita ac collocata videam, ut nullo negotio apicum succus ad embryonem per stamen, cui apices adhaerent, transmitti possit. 
Cur enim nobis novas fingimus vias ? Cur ad aerem confugimus ? Cur ventorum manus imploramus, si naturalis, si brevissima via reperitur, 
per quam liquores nullum passi aeris, ventorumque ludibrium ad fructum afficiendum deferantur? Numquid dubitamus, quin potius ipsi pistillo, 
quam staminibus naturae industria adhaesissent apices, si per pistillum illorum succus embryonem fuisset subiturus? Non enim verisimilc est, 
cum caetera in flore et in plantis summa industria, consilioque summo constituisset, in re praecipua, et tam necessaria, adeo hebetem, inertem- 
que fuisse naturam. Mihi contra quam maxime solors et industria videtur, cum hoc, quern videbimus, ordine stamina ita disposuerit, ut inde 
appareat, hoc opus nequaquam neglexisse. Nam in iis, quos in exemplum assumemus, floribus subest divinum ingenium, et vera naturae vis, 
Quod quidem aperte demonstrat, hoc spectasse, et id egisse, non illud a veri similitudine alienum, quod multis laudibus nobis extulerunt. 
Inncipio itaque stamina vel embryonis receptaculo, vel ramulo, cui embryo adhaeret, affixit, quo facilius apicum liquor ab utriculis egressus 
per stamen, purus, non aeris, non pluviae, non roris inclementia male affectus ad embryonem evolvendum transiret. Deinde stamina mirabili 
consiho firmavit, munivitque, ne deorsum aut sinistrorsum inclinata canaliculos contraherent, liquoremque descendentem prohiberent, aut in 
via cogerent sisti. In omnibus igitur floribus monopetalis, quoniam hi in partes nequaquam secti firmiter receptaculo affiguntur, interiori 
florum paricti adhaerent stamina per intervallum digesta, et una cum petalis receptaculo insident. 

The argument drawn from the mutilation of the stamen, as well as the pistillum he has thus evaded. 
He enters next upon more slippery ground, where the sexes of flowers are placed apart. 

First of the Fructification of the Palms. He observes, 

J . " That these produce fruit in deserts, where no art is employed." 

■' Etsi satis superque id quod nunc proponimus, expositum atque explanatum sit, tamen, quoniam saepe eo contingere videmus, quae nulla 
ratione attingenda sunt, breviter adhuc inquirendum judico, num in aliqua regione Palma ita nascantur, ut nisi a sterilibus Palrnis ipsarum 
cmbryones afficerentur, nunquam hi maturitatem haberent. Quare de Palmis in iEgypto et circumpositis provinciis nascentibus, et de por- 
tentosa ilia Palmarum cultura est disserendum. Sed ante omnia illud explanare aggrediar, ut ostendam, Palmas dactyliferas extra iEgyp- 
tum sine illo cultu (quo scilicet sterilium Palmarum flores, hianti foeminae spathaa inseruntur), nisi id regionis temeque conditione prohibeatur, 
palmulas ad maturitatem perducere. Nam quod in Graecia fructum ad maturitatem non perducant Palma;, id hac de causa contingere judico, 
videlicet vel quod Graecia non ita calidiori plaga; subjecta sit, ut Palmarum natura requirit, vel quod in solo minus apto plantentur, vel deni- 
que quod cultus ahenus adhibeatur. Etenim etiam cultum plurimum ad Palmarum fertilitatem conferre, auctorum monumenta testantur ; et 
saepe quae stenles habita; sunt, et propterea neglecta; jacebant, cum cultus accessisset, repente foecundae evaserunt, fructus quam uberrimos 
ferentes. Lnde Palma ilia in agro Hydruntino, postquam, recisis, quibus undequaque adumbrabatur, arboribus, aeris et Solis vim propius 
excepit, vegetior reddita fructus edere coepit, cum antea neglecta sterilis permansisset. Hoc autem magis verisimile videtur, quam quod pro- 
cerior facta, masculae Palma; Brundusii sitae auram maritalem ex alto hausisset. Hanc historiam Pontanus ex vulgari opinione poetice ilh 

travit ad hunc modum : 


Brundusii latis longe viret ardua terris 

Arbor Idumaeis usque petita locis. 
Altera Hydruntinis in saltibus aemula Palmae, 

Ilia virum referens, hasc muliebre decus. 
Non uno crevere solo, distantibus agris, 

Nulla loci facies, nee socialis amor. 


Permansit sine prole diu, sine fructibus arbor 

Utraque, frondosis et sine fruge comis. 
Ast postquam patulos fuderunt brachia ramos, 

Coepere et coelo liberiore frui, 
Frondosique apices se conspexere, virique 

Ilia sui vultus, conjugis ille suae 
Hausere et blandum venis sitientibus ignem, 

Optatos foetus sponte tulere sua: 
Ornarunt ramos gemmis, mirabile dictn, 

Implevere suos melle liquente favos. 

Verum ad hanc sententiam loqui solis Poetis conceditur. Caeterum mirifice libero et patulo non opaco solo coli gaudet Palma. Argu- 
mentum ex Suetonio Tranquillo in Augusti Imperatoris vita habemus de Palma in Mundae saltibus reperta, quae, recisis adumbrantibus arbo- 
ribus, cum ipsa jam annosa fibras nimium contractas diducere non posset et crescere, tamen ut vegetior facta stolonem protruxit, qui citissime 
adolescens matrem superavit. ' Apud Mundam,' inquit, ' Divus Julius castris locum capiens, cum sylvam cederet, arborem Palmas repertam 
conservari, ut omen victorias jussit. Ex ea continuo nata soboles adeo in paucis diebus adolevit, ut non asquipararet modo matricem, verum 
etiam obtegeret, frequentareturque Columbarum nidis : quamvis id avium genus duram et asperam frondem maxime vitet.' Evenit igitur, ut 
Palmas etiam ob cultus negligentiam steriles saspenumero habitas sint. 

Quare nos hoc in loco de Pal mis quas peculiares regiones sponte ferunt, tantum dicere aggredimur. Ecquis itaque hujusmodi in desertis 
et vestas solitudinis Arabias regionibus cultum ilium qualis in iEgypto et circumpositis provinciis, Palmis adhibitum unquam meminerit ? 
' Haud credendam' (verba sunt Guilandini apud Prosperum Alpinum) 'istam Palmarum conceptionem, quas fit arte a te narrata, arguere videntur 
innumeri dactyli, qui in Arabias desertis feruntur; in quibus sylvestrium Palmarum sylvas reperiuntur, quas sine hominum cultu optimos 
fructus ac copiosos producunt, retinent, ac maturant.' Hasc autem ita valida est ratio, ut impar ad refellendum Alpinus ad ventorum provi- 
dentiam se se converterit. ' Arabes,' ait, 'Palmarum cultus periti respondebunt, Palmarum foecunditatem in Arabias desertis, licet arte non fiat 
(quando in his locis has arbores, ut dictum est, sine ulla cultura fructus producant) adjuvare ventos, marium e ramis pulveres floresque ad 
ramos fosminarum asportantes.' Nam cur in iEgypto hoc sini cultu non fit ? Numquid venti in cultis regionibus ita dociles non sunt, 
ut in desertis ?" 

II. " That the reason why art is usually employed, is to carry JLles to the female flowers to pierce the spathas for the admission of air, 
or to convey the nutriment secreted in the anthers to the pistil lum. 

" That caprification is used, rests wholly on the authority of the father of history, Herodotus, in contradiction to all modern 

" Nunc autem summam Dei Opt. Max. providentiam mirari subit, qui divino profecto beneficio illis populis ut esset, quo vitam susten- 
tarent, succurrendum judicavit. Nam cum succus qui in peculiaria vascula colligitur vel ob partes quibus componitur, vel quod nimis crassus 
quam par est, ita afFectus ad palmulas fortasse deferatur, ut palmulas quidem explicentur, et crescant, sed ad maturitatem nulla ratione perduci 
possint, immaturas ac inutiles ad terram delabuntur. Hinc itaque peculiare Culicum genus creatum fuisse opinor qui sterilium Palmarum 
floribus innascerenfur : hi ad fructiferarum embryones delati eos terebrant, inutili succo viam aperiunt, aerem et solem quibus lenti crassique 
utriculorum succi subigantur, inferunt, partesque Medico veluti quodam morsu ita afficiunt, ut poma omnia retineantur, et perfectionem ha- 
beant. Quare Palmarum cultores, ut propius culices nascantur, inter foscundas et fructiferas Palmas steriles et floriferas ordinare solent, siquas 
longius sitas sunt, funibus appensis, per quos Culices repere possint, conjungere, turn sterilium spadices abscissos per fructiferarum spathas 
distribuere, florumque pulverem atque una Culices super hiantes spathas discutere. Hanc Palmarum per Culices culturam vetustissimus Auctor 
Herodotus, dum per illas regiones iter faceret, diligentissime omnia rimando princeps deprchendit, litterisque ad hunc modum mandavit in 
KXeicc, ita liber lnsci'lbltur : enri oe <r(pt (poivutig 7rt$vxoT£g avd itccv to ireSt'ov, ol irXtvung clvtuv, Kptpirotyopoi, sz tuv vtj (mix kcci ol vov ttj pcsXi 7roiovvTxt' rag 
irvrteuv Tpovov Qtpxirtvvan' rco re o\XXx y^ tpotvixuv Tag epcrtvxg eXXyveg xx\is<ri, tztov tov kxoitov TrspiSsvvi Trjtri &xXuvy\$opoKn tm (potvixwv, \vx "nwruiyriTxi 
a(p\ -\iyjv tyjv pocXotvov e<rduvuv, xoct pcrj UTragperi o xaprrcg o r£ <poiv,x^>. Yyvx yap Sij (papain sv tw xap-nu ol epcreveg, xaOaTTSp ly\ ol oXvvSoi. hoc est: ' In 
Babylonis agris Palmas magna ex parte fructiferas proveniunt, ex quibus non solum vinum, mel, cibum conficiunter, sed etiam eodem modo, 
quo Ficus, curantur. Harum uti aliarum arborum masculas Grasci vocant, quarum fructus Palmas fructiferas alligant, ut earum fructus ma- 
turet Culex subiens, ne ex arbore is defluat ; ferunt enim Palmarum mares Culices, quemadmodum Caprifici.' En itaque quo pacto sine apicum 
affectione, sine ullo conjugio Palmis fructiferis, ne palmulas ante maturitatem amittant, per hos fyyvxg succurritur. Quo profecto Herodoti 
testimonio confirmatum habemus, neque in iEgypto, et in circumpositis provinciis Palmas fructiferas a sterilibus affici. Neque Bodasi a Stapel 
sententia laudabilis apparet, qui Herodoti fidem derogans magis Theophrasto utpote Botanico, quam Herodoto Historico credendum esse sta- 
tuit. ' Nemo,' inquit, ' facile negabit, Theophrasto hac in re majorem deberi fidem, quam Herodoto. Historicus Herodotus; Botanicus Theo- 
phrastus : cuilibet vero in sua arte credendum.' Numquid Historico mentiri licet, Botanico nequaquam ? Mihi contra videtur fides quam am- 
plissima esse Herodoto habenda, turn quod naturali modo caprificationis exemplo, qua et ilia tempestate et hoc etiam tempore in tota Grascia 
nihil clarius percipitur, istam Palmarum culturam explicaverit, turn potissimum quod non ea quas ab aliis percotando acceperat, sed quas ipse 
viderat, scripta relinquerit. Theophrastus vero ex aliorum relatione ea Palmarum conjugia litteris mandavit, ut et ipse fassus est : ^ yup, in- 
quit, lv QxCuXuvi tpato-iv, oTTis ol (poivixtg ire<pv)tu<n. Quas ad hunc modum redduntur : ' quippe apud Babylonem, ubi Palmas nascuntur, sic esse 
affirmant.' Caprificantur itaque Palmas in iEgypto, in Syria, et alibi, quemadmodum in Grascia Ficus, ut Culices qui masculas Palmas floribus 
innascuntur, ad fructiferas poma delati ea terebrent, et ut ad maturitatem perducantur, prasstant. Ideo etiam spathas circunquaque abscin- 
duntur, ut per vulnus succi pars egeratur, et sole ac aere molliusculi embryones facilius frui possint." 

III. " That some of the Palms produce fruit, where there are no stamina, in corresponding plants, as the Toddapanna." 

" Sed quid argumenta quasro, quando res clara et manifesta in Palmis quartas difFerentias habetur ? Toddapanna petalis apicibusque desti- 
tuta fructus producit quotannis, neque tamen in eodem genere alia adest cognata et maritalis Palma, a quibus effluvia ad illam trans- 

This rests upon the authority of a bad figure and description in the Hortus Malabaricus, and several other plants in that work are repre- 
sented without stamina, and yet made to produce fruit, probably from the painter's taking his picture of the flower when the stamina had 
fallen off. Such are the futile objections raised against this doctrine! 

As some may feel curious to learn yet more the train of reasoning against the sexes of plants, I shall proceed on to his explanation of the 
other unisexual flowers. 

" Quinque genera flore imperfecto instructa, quorum species alias fructum, alias apices ferunt, perpendenda aggredior, Morum nempe, 
Juniperum, Ficum, Cannabim, et Lupulum, in quibus hoc prasstare conabor, ut sine cognatarum stirpium apicibus embryonem perfectum 
fieri ostendam. Hoc si exitu perfeccro, de reliquis cunctis, quas brevitatis gratia prastermitto, id ostendisse pro certo habebo. 

§• Morns 

" Morus itaque perraro in eadem stirpe in qua fructus, ut constituit Tourncfortius, amenta producit, (hoc enim in una tantum specie 
observavi) sed plerunque in peculiar! planta, quae prreter apices nihil aliud gignit. Qure vero Moras fructum producit, cum tuba tantum do- 
natum habet. Cum porro fructifera Mori passim occurrant, sterile* tamen stirpes infrequentes sunt, ct plerunque quadragmta aut sexaginta 
stadiis distare eas inter se vidi. Nam, cum sterilis vermibus nutriendis minus aptas frondes producat, coloni qui sobolem propagari hac rationc 
ignorant, cum fertilis Mori stolones cum sua terra evulsos plantantes mergis utantur, ei non solum cultum ahquem non exhibent, sed ve 
extirpant vel in feccundas inserunt. Quare perraro occurrit, neque in cultis, sed ut casu a fertilis Mori semine jacto nascitur, aut secus agro- 
rum lacunas cernitur, aut inter vepreta. Ex iis itaque tarn paucis sterilibus Moris innumerable corporum seminahum effluvia emanare 
necesse est, quibus magnum hoc circunfusi aeris spatium ita repleatur, ut non solum Mori qure minori intervallo distant, sed etiam illre quae 
quam longissimo spatio seponuntur, eandem corpusculorum partem accipiant, et requaliter foecundentur. Ad quod prrestandum non solum 
apices, sed neque ipsre frondes, rami, truncus, et radix, si in apicum corpuscula abirent, sufficient. Prreterea cum in his regionibus fertile* 
Mori plures sint, ut Morus alba J. B. l. 119, Morus fructu albo, minori, ex albo purpurascente Tournef. Inst. R. Herb. 58() Morus 
fructu nigro C. B. Pin. 45g, sterilis, ut mihi hactenus compertum est, una tantum, qui fieri potest, ut apicum corpuscula, qua; eadem ma- 
teria constant, paternumque (ut ita dicam) spiritum gerunt, dissimilibus speciebus nullam vim communicent, ex qua aliqua sequatur in fructu 
dissimilitudo? Semper enim eadem figura, colore, et magnitudine crescit ? Quod fane in omnibus animantibus contra fit. 

Sed de Moro jam satis: transeamus ad Juniperum, cujus genus inter eas quoque plantas est collocandum, quarum aha amenta producunt, 
alire fructum. Qua; agitur julos sive amenta gignit, ea primo vere fundit. Fertilis autem a vere fructum edere incipit, neque per restatem 
cessat, sed novos semper fructus emittit. Nascitur autem promiscue in montibus utraque; saepe tamen in hortos transferuntur, et seorsum 
magno adeo spatio cultas vidimus, ut same inter fertilem et sterilem triginta stadiorum spatium aut quadraginta intercederet. Cum igitur 
Juniperus fertilis tota restate baccis onusta reperiatur, quarum alire jam maturre sunt, alire acerbre, nonnullae minores, multre minuscules, 
qure tamen omnes subinde crescunt, et maturitatem habent, necesse est, ut seminalia sterilis effluvia a vends jugiter subministrentur, quibus 
affecti embrjones se se explicare possint. At unde hrec depromentur, cum sterilis primo vere floreat, et semel tantum, ejusque seminalis 
pulvisculus turn a ventis turn a pluviis dissipatus sit ? Nullam itaque in Juniperus fieri apicum eommunicationem apparet, sed Juniperus fer- 
tilis ob earn, qua, ut indicaturus sum, oleosa et volatili materia referta est, suos explicat embrjones, et ad perfectionem perducit. 

Sequitur tertio loco de Ficu disputatio, in quo profecto genere non obscura est apicum natura ; nam Ficus sativa (quam in tcrtio libro 
clarius et plcnius exponemus) sine apicibus quibus privatur, poma producit, qure semper maturitatem habent: at Caprificus grossos fert, in 
quibus stamina apicesque occultantur, qui tamen nunquam coqui, perficique possunt, Mud etiam accedit, ut tubre in pomorum cavitate positre 
sint, et ita carne undequaque circunsepiantur, ut clarissime appareat, naturam hoc potissimum spectasse, nequ id crassioris corporis, viis undi- 
que interceptis, extrinsecus adveniens admitteretur. Nam, cum in aliis stirpibus tubarum oscula in aere patula reliquisset, ut facilius aer in 
fructus cavitatem ferretur, in Ficubus tubas ab aere subduxit, et in fructus cavitate seposuit, uno tantum relicto in fundo foramine, qua aer 
ingressus tubas embrjonesque contentos liquores in motum cieret. Neque tamen apices adjecit, ut in sylvestrium Ficuum genere, ne fortasse 
apicum pulvisculo dulcissima caro male affecta gustatu minus grata evaderet. Quin eos in grossis collocavit, ne a ventis, quorum patrocinio 
tota hrec opinio innititur, ulla apicum corpuscula ad ilia poma deferrentur. Quare sive Ficus apices gignentes spectemus, qure sane perraro 
occurrunt, neque enim in Italia, ut in Grrecia ficetis interseruntur ; sive eas qure apicibus privantur, ab apicibus embrjones nequaquam affici 
manifestum relinquitur, certumque. 

Nunc de Cannabe dicamus. Dividitur Cannabis in duas species, in Cannabim mar em J. B. 3. 447, et in Cannabim sterilem Bod. 
Tempt. 535, qure passim in agris cultre occurrunt, non seorsum nascentes, ut de aliis demonstratum est, sed simul ; nam ex fertilis semine 
jacto utraque nascitur. Cannabis porro sterilis citius quam fertilis fruticat, et utriculos, quibus apices includuntur, exhibet, deinde, nisi 
carpatur, contabescit. Quare coloni cam metunt, quoniam arescendo ineptior evadit, relictis foecundis stirpibus, qure facile, nondum etiam 
editis fructibus, viridiore colore, grandioribus ramis, densioribusque foliis internoscuntur. Hre autem stirpes nullo sterilis pulvisculo affectre 
quam uberrimos fructus producunt. Quin longo usu apud colonos exploratum esse accepi, cum steriles Cannabes fructiferis insertre rehn- 
quuntur, cultoribus fructiferas mitius respondere ; quoniam liberiore aere frui nequeunt, densissimre siquidem hre stirpes seminantur. 

Restat Lupuli ratio. Dure quoque in hoc genere occurrunt Lupuli, una qure amenta producit, et vocatur Lupulus foemina Cam. Epit. 
931; altera sine amentis fructus ferens, quam marem Lupulum Casp. Bauhino auctore Pin. 298 nuncupant. Fcecundari autem marem a 
■sterilis Lupuli pulvisculo tradunt. Qua autem rationc hoc contingeret, cum a nemine doceremur, extiterunt nonnulli qui ad hunc modum 
fieri posse opinati sunt. Ex Insulis Sequanre et Matronre, in quibus Lupulus sterilis nascitur, ventorum ope apicum corpuscula ad Hortum 
Regium Parisiensem, in quo Lupulus mas colitur, deferuntur. Accedente vero aura maritali, Lupuli fructiferre embrjones qui naturaliter 
deorsum pendent, erigunt se se, et squamre, qure ita positre sunt, ut illabentem pluviam hinc et hinc ab embrjonibus declinent, se expandunt; 
tunc tubre patentibus osculis hiant, 

' Exceptantque leves auras, et srepe sine ullis 
Conjugiis vento gravidic (mirabile dictu!)' 

fiunt. Sed hre ex Philosophicis fontibus haustre sententire non videntur. Nee enim his difficultatibus nobilissima naturre opera involvenda 
sunt. Ego tamen hrec omnia, qure nulla ratione fieri posse apparet, ultro darem atque concederem, si illud explanaretur, quod profecto me 
fugit, qua ratione ex suis involucris embrjones protrudantur, quibus succis grandiusculi facti tubas explicent, Hrec enim seminalia corpus- 
cula intra fructus cavitatem deferri non possunt, nisi per tubas; tubre autem se se explicare nequeunt, nisi intra fructum succi ingrediantur. 
Quare, antequam ad embrjones deferantur seminalia corpuscula, embrjones esse jam fcecundos, necesse est ut fateamur, Verum hoc de Palmis 
agentes plenius et clarius explanabimus. 

Concludatur itaque Morum, Juniperum, Ficurn, Cannabim, Lupulum sine apicum pulvisculo fructus gignere, et ad maturitatem per- 
ducere. Si igitur hoc luce clarius esse ostendi, necesse est ut plantas sine apicibus fcecundari fateamur." To condense his reasoning. 

His first argument is derived from the Mulberry. He sajs, " There are many kinds of these, and if there was anj truth in the mar- 
riage of plants, these bj intermixing would give a cross-breed, whereas each sort alwajs produces its own kind" 

Had Pontcdera made the experiment, he would have found the hybrid breed he speaks against. 

Of the Juniper he mentions, " that the female plant often produces at a very considerable distance from the male trees." Hence he 
concludes, " That the plant is so replete with volatile oil j materials, that this is sufficient of itself to feed the embrjos, without the assistance 
of the nutritive anthers, so necessarj in other flowers." 

A more careful observation, and direct experiment, would have shewn that the insulated Juniper-tree would not produce its berrj. 

Respecting the Fig, he makes caprification to depend upon the flies admitting air to the embrjos, or to the convejance from them, of 
the nutritive juices from the male, or wild fig. 

Of the Hemp he denies " that the intermixture of the male and female plants has anj erFect." 


And this Doctrine, more recently yet, the learned Alston has endeavoured to overturn. 


Linnaeus's direct experiment in this Essay proves the fallacy here. Of the Hop, he says, « that the female produces its cones of flowers 
equally well when separated from the male plant, as Tournefort found in the Royal Gardens of Paris." This arose from the cone of the hop 
being a calyx, which grows equally in both instances; but the seeds so produced have not been found to vegetate. 

The reader now sees upon what flimsy ground the opposition to the sexes of plants is founded, and is enabled to form his own conclusion, 
as to the truth of this doctrine, so admirably confirmed as it has been by LINNvEUS. 

Linnaeus, in the Hortus Ciiffortiauus, page 441, however, does his opponent ample justice as an accurate botanist. < Clanssimus Pon_ 
ted era, qui oculatissimus est auctor, et in examinando flores nulli inferior" 

* The arguments against the sexes of plants, very similar to those of Pontedera, are collected by the ingenious Professor Alston, in his 
« Tyrocinium Botanicum," and in a Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants, to be found in the first volume of the " Edinburgh Physical and 
Literary Essays." In page 250 of that essay, Alston says, « I shall pass a variety of later authors who have treated on this subject ; and 
come to the most strenuous defender of the sexes of plants, who has collected all the arguments for it that perhaps can be advanced, and pre- 
tends to have demonstrated it fully: I mean the famous and very learned Carolus Linnaeus, professor of medicine and botany in the university 
of Upsal, fellow of a great many philosophical societies ; and certainly one of the greatest botanists of this age. For this great man thus 
writes: « Antheras et stigmata constituere sexum plantarum, a palmicolis, Millingtono, Grewio, Rayo, Camerano, Godofredo, Morlando, 
Vaillantio, Blairio, Jussievio, Bradleyo, Royeno, Logano, &c. detectum, descriptum, et pro infalhbili assumptum : Nee ullum, apertis 
oculis considerantem cujuscunque plantae flores, latere protest; quod demonstratum in Sponsalibus Plantarum, Upsahae 1746, in 4to.' And 
elsewhere, « Generationem vegetabilium fieri, mediante pollinis antherarum illapsu supra stigmata nuda, quo rumpitur pollen, efflatque auram 
seminalem, quse absorbetur ab humore stigmatis ; quod confirmat oculus, proportio, locus, tempus, pluviae, palmicolae, flores nutantes, sub- 
mersi, syngenesia; immo omnium florum genuina consideratio." 

" Yet I cannot help thinking this doctrine not capable of demonstration, far less that the genuina consideratio of any flower can make 
it probable : Camerarius himself doubted of it ; Tournefort disbelieved it ; and Pontedera uses many arguments to refute it." 

In order to do away all belief in the sexes of plants, he relates the following experiments. 

1. "In the spring 1737, I transplanted three sets of the common Spinage, long before it could be known whether they were flowering 
or seed-bearing plants, from a little bed on which they were raised, into a place of the garden, full eighty yards distant, and almost directly 
south ; there being two hawthorn and three holly hedges, all pretty thick and tall, between them and their seed-bed ; and no other spinage 
in the garden, nor so near them by far : all the three proved fertile plants, and ripened plenty of seeds. I sowed them ; they grew and 
prospered as well as any spinage-seed possibly could do. This, I own, made me at first call in question the sexes of plants, which I formerly 

too implicitly believed. 

2. " The same year, a few plants of the common hemp, which I had raised for a specimen from the seed, being accidentally destroyed 
when very young; and finding afterwards, about the end of June, a pretty strong but late plant of Hemp, growing in the inclosure to the 
east of Holyrood-house, commonly called the Bowling-green, by itself: I caused great care to be taken of it, there not being that year any 
hemp raised within a mile of it, that I could find. This plant grew luxuriantly; and, though bad weather in the autumn made me pluck it 
up a little too soon, yet I got about thirty good seeds from it, which the succeeding spring produced as thriving male and female plants, as 
if the mother-hemp had stood surrounded with males. And, 

3. " In the spring 1741, I carried two young seedling plants of the French Mercury, long before there was any in flower, from the city 
physic-garden, the only place where it was then to be found in this country, to the king's garden at the Abbey; which are more than seven 
hundred yards distant from one another, with many high houses, trees, hedges, and part of a hill between them : and planted one of them 
in one inclosure, where it was shaded from the sun the greatest part of the day; and the other, in another, twenty-five yards distant, exposed 
to the south and west. Both plants ripened fertile seeds ; and the last shed them so plentifully, that it proved a troublesome weed for several 
years, though none of the species was to be found in that garden, for more than twenty years preceding." 

In answer to such stubborn facts, it were to be wished, that the learned professor had continued from year to year these experiments, 
and multiplied them, and under different circumstances, and then he would have fixed conviction on the mind. As the case now stands, 
these experiments are contradicted by the experiments of Millar recorded in his Dictionary, under article Generation, also by those of Lin- 
naeus in this Essay. 

His experiments on the Spinach and Dogs Mercury, (of the Hemp we shall speak when we come to Linnaeus's experiment on that 
plant), were either defective as not being made sufficiently apart for the winds, or insects, to perform the office of bridegroom; or, as later 
observers remark, that even on Pistilliferous plants, males will occasionally appear, especially in the Spinach, and hence the fallacy of the 
experiments, when they turn out contrary to the Sexes of Plants. 

Speaking of the Spinach, Baron De Gleichen, in his " Observations Microscopiques," says, " J'ai aussi fait avec cette plante 1' expe- 
rience ordinaire, en 6tant les plantes males, pour empecher les plantes femelles d'etre fecondees. Dans ce dessein j'ai pris environ quarante 
grains de la semence herissee, et au lieu de les semer, je les ai mis en terre en rang piece per piece separement, dans une distance asses con- 
siderable l'un de l'autre. Aussitot que je decouvris une plante male, je l'arrachai, et l'ecartai, jusqu'a ce que mes plantes furent enfin reduites 
au nombre de douze, des quelles je fus bien assure, que ce n'etoit que des femelles. Je visitai bien souvent ces plantes, et j'ouvris de terns en 
terns quelques ceufs seminaux, que j'examinai a l'aide du Microscope, et que je trouvai premierement tous vuides, et bientot apres tous fe- 
condes. Aussitot je visitai mes plantes encore une fois bien soigneusement pour voir, s'il n'y avoit pas parmi ellcs quelque amant cache. Mais 
sans decouvrir une seule plante male, je fus bien surpris de voir, que presque la moitie de mes plantes etoient des Hermaphrodites, dont les 
vaisseaux de la poussiere avoient pousse en grand nombre entre les fleurs femelles. J'ordonnai d'abord a mon jardinier de chercher sur une 
grande couche d'un autre jardin, semee d'epinars, s'il y trouveroit ces Hermaphrodites, et elles ne manquerent pas la non plus, et pro- 
duirent de la semence meure, aussi bien que celles-la. Je la cueillis soigneusement, la semai l'annee suivante et j'en relirai en plus grande 
partie des Diphytes avec quelques Hermaphrodites. J'aurois fait plutot cette decouverte, et par la je me serois dispense de faire une experience 
superflue, si je n'avois pas ignore alors, ce que j'ai lu dans la suite dans la remarque a la Planche XL. de l'ceuvre de Blakwell, savoir que 
Camerarius avoit trouve plus d\ine fois, mais pourtant pas trop souvent, des Hermaphrodites parmi les plantes d'Epinars. Cependant 
cette nouvelle experience sert a nous rendre plus attentifs, et a nous dessiler les yeux dans des pareils essais. Mr. Moller, qui s'est avise de 
combattre le Systeme de fecondation, en appellant aussi a la semence feconde, qu'il avoit obtenue d'une seule plante d'Epinars trouvee par 
hazard parmi les plantes de pastenade, n'auroit pas eu cette vaine joye, s'il avoit examine cette plante plus souvent et avec plus d'attention, 

*g que 

In order rightly to understand this subject, it is necessary properly to comprehend the nature 
of vegetable bodies. 

This will be best understood, if we trace downwards the great Chain of Nature ; that is, if 
we begin with man, next consider quadrupeds, then birds, fishes, reptiles, worms, insects, and 
lastly, descend to vegetables. 

que probablement il n' a pas fait. II est aussi vraisemblable, que ce qui arrive ici parmi les plantes d'Epinars, arrive plus souvent parmi les 
Diphytes, et je ne crois pas me tromper, en supposant, que ma plante de Chanvre XCVIII. que j'avois quittee femelle et trouvee male quelque 
terns apres, a ete' sujette a la meme metamorphose. Nous avons vu en son lieu la meme chose dans les Monophytes, comme dans le Mays et 
dans la noisette, ou ce changement de sexe est plus concevable, que celui des Diphytes, puisque dans celles-la il peut dependre d'une confusion 
ou d'une distribution irreguliere de la seve male et femelle et des organes sexuels, qui se trouvent ensemble dans la meme plante, mais dans 
celles-ci, c est a dire dans les Diphytes, ou chaque plante est pourvue de ses propres vaisseaux et de ses organes sexuels, ce changement devient 
un enigme du quel j'abondonne l'explication aux Botanistes, que leur metier oblige a instruire le monde la dessus. Aussi jugeront-ils cette 
peine tres necessaire, s'ils considerent les consequences importantes, qu'on en peut tirer au sujet de la generation, et que Mr. Linnaeus nous a 
fait entrevoir par sa conjecture. Car ce Savant a soupconne, que le sexe originaire de toutes les plantes etoit celui des Hermaphrodites." 

Spalanzani, a philosopher of the highest character, after numerous experiments on bisexual flowers, where he found that removing the 
anthers produced always barrenness of the seeds, proceeded upon those plants which staggered Alston. Like that professor, he experienced 
a contradiction to the general doctrine, but confesses an accident not very uncommon in the unisexual flowers, viz. the occasional production 
of stamina amongst the females. " It has been observed," says Spalanzani, " by Linnaeus, Haller, Duhamel, and others, that male flowers 
are not very infrequently found upon female individuals : a root of spinach, of which I shall speak below, furnished me with a remarkable 
instance; and the hemp in question is subject to the same accident, as I was informed by Mr. Bonnet, in a letter dated August 15, 1 778. 
The letter gave me notice of an experiment which he undertook upon hemp, after I had communicated mine to him. The paragraph to which 
I allude is the following : " I began this year some experiments upon hemp. I have followed the method which I employed for rearing the 
insects on plants in solitude. My plants were covered with large tubes of glass, hermetically sealed at the top, and with the bottom sunk in the 
earth. But fortune did not favour me — instead of a female I had a male plant in one instance, and in another a plant of great expectation, 
after putting forth many flowers with pistils, produced some with stamina, close to the former, which totally disconcerted the experiment." 

Speaking of the spinach he found the same thing. " In one of my daily visits to my three plants, I perceived upon one individual an 
unexpected conjunction of male and female flowers, growing close together, and forming very elegant groups. The blossoms with pistils 
were very conspicuous, but those with stamina were so little advanced, that they could not be distinguished by the naked eye. Both sorts 
appeared to be equally numerous, but the union extended only to two branches— all the rest bore female blossoms only. I may here inci- 
dentally remark, that the great abundance of the male flowers, in the present case, is a very singular phenomenon. I have read in botanical 
writers, that a few male flowers are sometimes found in company with females, but never that they amount to an equal number, a circum- 
stance that excited my admiration with respect to this individual; for I counted two hundred and seventy-five male buds." 

But all his experiments on the Dogs Mercury, or French Mercury, turned out according to the now prevailing opinion. 

The next and last plant producing male and female individuals, on which I made experiment, is the Mercurialis Annua (French 
Mercury). Five very small plants were removed from a garden, on the 22d of August, into five pots. They were managed in the same 
manner as the spinach during the winter (xxxn), and were all so far advanced at the beginning of spring, that there was no difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing the males from the females; of the latter there were three, and these alone were preserved. By the 24th of March blossoms with 
pistds appeared upon several branches, growing out of the axilla? of the leaves, and in a few days more the number was exceedingly increased. 
They were borne upon short flower-stalks, and, as usual, consisted of two small seeds or spherical anthers. They were of a green colour 
and hairy. But here the event was just contrary to what happened in hemp and spinach. The greater part of the blossoms dropped prematurely; 
of the few that remained the seeds grew for some time, but fell before they were ripe, and when sown, they did not spring. As this took 
place before the male plants in the gardens and the fields about Pavia were in flower, I began to suppose mercury to be one of those numerous 
vegetables, which cannot propagate the species without the powder of the stamina. Meanwhile my three plants continued to put forth new 
branches, and the old ones, instead of withering, vegetated with great vigour; but still the seeds dropped prematurely. This gradual evo- 
lution and production of fresh branches, was of such long continuance, that they shewed no tendency to decay, but were producing blossoms 
with pistils when the mercury in the fields was in flower. I therefore began to entertain hopes, that the seeds now put forth, and those 
which should follow, would succeed better than the earlier seeds, more especially as the pots were exposed to the open air upon a window, 
and looked into a garden, in which grew several male individuals of this species. But my expectations were disappointed : as long as the 
three plants continued to thrive, the seeds dropped almost as soon as they appeared; nor did one of those that were sown ever come up. I 
repeated the experiment two succeeding years with the same event. 

It therefore became necessary to vary the mode of conducting it. Being more confirmed in my suspicion, that the sterility arose from 
want of pollen, which, though it was at no great distance, did not reach my plants, I determined to bring it nearer ; without, however 
setting individuals of the different sexes in the same place. Two male plants of mercury, reared the next year in two pots, were placed on 
the outside of a window, and two females growing likewise in pots, were set on the outside of another window. Both windows belonged 
to one room, and had the same aspect. The four roots of mercury were nearly of the same age, and of the same size. And I waited with 
great anxiety to see whether the females, on account of their vicinity, would be impregnated by the males. The seeds were constantly fall- 
ing, but not in such abundance as in the former experiment, when the males were at a much greater distance. Those which adhered went on 
thriving, and seemed as if they would ripen; and they did accordingly arrive at maturity, and, what is of more consequence, were more 
productive ; for soon after I had sown them in a pot, I had the pleasure of seeing them spring. It therefore appeared probable that the 
vicinity of the males to the females had been instrumental in occasioning fecundation: their influence could scarce be derived from any source 
besides the action of the contiguous pollen. ' 

' This experiment obviously required another: it was proper to bring the different individuals nearer to each other; I accordingly placed 
two males and two females upon the same window. It now became manifest, how much influence the approximation of the two sexes 
has upon fecundation. The two females retained almost all the seeds which were produced at this time, exceeding an hundred The seeds 
grew perfectly ripe, and when put into the ground, were unfolded into as many plants." 


In the more perfect animals are many instruments,, and various senses, which are denied to 
the lower tribes of animated beings. 

Thus Serpents and Fishes have no feet. 

There is no nose in Insects and Worms. 

There are many Worms without eyes. 

Thus the farther we descend in this chain,* the more simple the last links will appear ; 
so that in worms, as the Tarnia, Gordius, and Lumbricus, many parts are wanting which 
appear in higher animals, hence called perfect, and in the remotest limits of the animal king- 
dom, we observe the Zoophyta nearly approaching the vegetable, having diffused branches, 
radical at the base, unfolding into flowers, in one word, more like to a plant than an 
animal, unless in this they approach the higher order of animals, that by means of nerves 
they have voluntary movement., hence these animal flowers have sensation, and vibrate without 
the medium of the external air, which affords motion to plants, some of these being placed in 

* For a full account of the " Chain of Nature," vide the admirable " Contemplation of Nature," by the Philosopher Bonnet, who 
has ably discussed this subject. But the different functions of animated beings will be seen at one view in the following table. 









bD i 

ja < 

One or more stomachs, easily dis- 
tinguishable from the oesophagus- 
and intestinal canal 

A stomach distinguishable only by 
certain expansions from the ceso-- 
phagus and intestinal canal. . . . 

An alimentary canal, not distin- 
guishable into oesophagus, sto- 
mach, and intestines 

Neither stomach nor intestines . . . 










£ aj 



U ,Q 


3 ra 







By vessels beginning from internal 


| Quadrupeds. 

Cetaceous animals. 
I Birds 

Crustaceous animals. 
^Oviparous quadrupeds. 


Cartilaginous fishes. 
^Fishes, properly so called. 
' Insects. 

' Zoophytes. 


Cetaceous animals 

Oviparous quadrupeds. 
<( Serpents. 

Cartilaginous fishes. 
Fishes, properly so called. 

Crustaceous animals. 
_ Worms. 
By vessels opening on the external } pT . -ivt TC , 
surface j 

C f Man. 

j Having a heart with two ventricles J Quadrupeds. 

and tivo auricles \ Cetaceous animals. 

J ( Birds. 

"^ With one ventricle divided into se- C Oviparous quadrupeds. 

I veial cavities and two auricles. . \ Serpents. 

j With one vent dele and one auricle] Cartilaginous fishes. 
L [ risues, properly so called. 

f Crustaceous animals. 
Whose heart is formed of one Ion- j Insects, 
gitudinal vessel, tuberous and J Worms. 

contractile, in which there is a j Insotnecrustaceousanimalsthere 
p j ! w hitish fluid instead of blood.. . \ is observed something resem- 
? L I bling a heart. 

w C In which no heart has been yet~\ 
•5 g ) observed, but only vessels filled ( Zoophytes. 
£ E^ "S with juices of a nature different (PLANTS. 
' from that of blood J 

By lungs free from all adhesion, ) ~ ', 

and spungy i Quadrupeds. 

( Cataceous animals. 
By lungs free from all adhesion, ( Oviparous quadrupeds, 
vesicular and muscular ....... 1 Serpents. 

By lungs adhering to the ribs, and i ,,. 

provided with appendages i 

i Cartilaginous fishes. 

, By gills of different forms J Fishes, properly so called. 

^ Crustaceous animals. 
By stigmata, or holes in different C Insects. 

rings ^ Earth-worms. 

By an opening called trachea, or ") . 

by external fringes j Aquatic-worms. 

By trachea PLANTS. 

In which there have been disco-') 

vered neither stigmata nor tra- > Polypes, 
cheae. \ 




J eP.§ J There are no bodies in which secretions") A11 , . 
N.I :> 1 \ are not carried on. f A11 havin S anl 









ID i 


External and cetaceous . 


Cetaceous animals. 

Internal and osseous J Birds. 

! Oviparous quadrupeds. 
j Serpents. 

(_ Fishes, properly so called. 
% ■§ i Internal ' and cartilaginous Cartilaginous fishes. 

™\ 2 External and corneous r Perfect insects. 

(. Lithophytes. 

{Crustaceous animals. 
The greatest part of Zoophytes. 
^External and ligneous Plants. 

( Insects in their first state. 

Which have no skeleton J Worms. 

(_ Polypes. 

f Men. 

Viviparous ^ Quadrupeds. 

( Cetaceous animals. 

Oviparous quadrupeds. 


Cartilaginous fishes. 

Fishes, properly so called. 


Crustaceous animals. 
i Worms. 
L Plants 
C Worms. 
Which propagate also by slips.. . < Polypes. 


^Greatest part of insects in the 

A body wholly muscular or con-) first state of their tr.tnsforma- 

tractile "S , * lon - 

' ' " i Worms. 


Cetaceous animals. 

Muscles covering the skeleton <J ?„ . S- 

Oviparous quadrupeds. 

Cartilaginous fishes. 
I Fishes, properly so called. 

A skeleton covering the muscles.. . < Perfect insects. 

i Crustaceous animals. 

No muscular power PLANTS. 













Oviparous, whether the evolution 
of the eggs takes place within or.> 
without the female. 

' bo * — ' * 

Nerves and brain easily distinguish- 
able from the spinal marrow.. . 



r fMan. 

Cetaceous animals. 

Oviparous quadrupeds. 

Cartilaginous fishes. 
.Fishes, properly so called. 
JNerves and brain scarcely distin- ( Insects. 

guishable from the spinal mar- < Crustaceous animals 

r ° w (.Worms. 

In which there have not yet been ) „ 

discoverednerve^,irai«,or*pz«a/! \ Zoophytes. 
marrow \ * LANTS. 




the abysses of the sea, as the Serratula, which has been so admirably illustrated in the works of 

Plants so nearly approach the lower tribe of Zoophyte, that it is hardly possible to distin- 
guish the one from the other. 

Plants have no stomach or intestinal tube, but absorb fluids by their roots, and also through- 
out their whole surface. Hence a small cutting of a branch placed in water imbibes nourish- 
ment at its several pores. So neither the stomach nor intestines of the Sertularix or Polypi have 
yet been demonstrated. Plants have no heart, yet they have vessels in which flows the sap, which 
rises to the extreme branches, so neither can any heart be discovered in this lower tribe of animals. 

Hence it appears, that the vegetable kingdom only differs from the animal in having no nerves 
for voluntary movement.* 

He who inquires into the generation of plants, should also consider what passes in the animal 
kingdom. We see insects undergo a metamorphosis, and when this is accomplished, these 
become sexual. And when these have undergone this change, for example, the butterflies, they 
are not more dissimilar from their eruca, or larva, than flowers are to their plants. 

The moth of the silk-worm has no mouth, and after its metamorphosis its whole employment is 
to propagate its kind.f 

* In the " Philosophia Botanica," Linnaeus makes the same discrimination, " Lapides crescunt. Vegetabilia crescunt et vivunt. 
Animalia crescunt, vivunt et sentiunt." That is, Minerals grow. Vegetables grow and live. Animals grow, live, and feel. The per- 
ceptivity, or feeling of plants, has been maintained by some writers, as Dr. Percival and the Bishop of LandafF. Vide the learned Bishop's 
" Chemical Essays," vol. v. p. 158; also the " Philosophy of Botany," chapter " On the supposed Perceptivity of Plants." 

f Caterpillars may be easily distinguished from worms or maggots, by the number of their feet; and by their producing butterflies 
or moths. When the sun calls up vegetation, and vivifies the various eggs of insects, the caterpillars are the first that are seen, upon almost 
every vegetable and tree, eating its leaves, and preparing for a state of greater perfection. They have feet both before and behind; which 
not only enable them to move forward by a sort of steps made by their fore and hinder parts, but also to climb up vegetables, and to stretch 
themselves out from the boughs and stalks, to reaeh their food at a distance. All of this class have from eight feet, at the least, to sixteen ; 
and this may serve to distinguish them from the worm tribe. The animal into which they are converted, is always a butterfly or a moth ; 
and these are always distinguished from other flies, by having their wings covered over with a painted dust, which gives them such various 
beauty. The wings of flies are transparent, as we see in the common flesh-fly; while those of beetles are hard, like horn; from such the 
wing of a butterfly may be easily distinguished; and words would obscure their differences. 

The life of a caterpillar seems one continued succession of changes ; and it is seen to throw off one skin only to assume another ; which 
also is divested in its turn : and thus for eight or ten times successively. We must not, however, confound this changing of the skin with 
the great metamorphosis which it is afterwards to undergo. The throwing off one skin, and assuming another, seems, in comparison, but a 
slight operation among these animals; this is but the work of a day; the other is the great adventure of their lives. Indeed, this faculty of 
changing the skin, is not peculiar to caterpillars only, but is common to all the insect kind ; and even to some animals that claim a higher 
rank in nature. We have seen the lobster and the crab out-growing their first shells, and then bursting from their confinement, in order to 
assume a covering more roomy and convenient. 

With respect to caterpillars, many of them change their skins five or six times in a season; and this covering, when cast ofF, often seems 
so complete, that many might mistake the empty skin for the real insect. Among the hairy caterpillars, for instance, the cast skin is covered 
with hair; the feet, as well gristly as membraneous, remain fixed to it; even the parts which nothing but a microscope can discover, are 
visible in it; in short, all the parts of the head; not only the skull, but the teeth. 

In proportion as the time approaches in which the caterpillar is to cast its old skin, its colours become more feeble, the skin seems to 
wither and grow dry, and in some measure resembles a leaf, when it is no longer supplied with moisture from the stock. At that time, the 
insect begins to find itself under a necessity of changing; and it is not effected without violent labour, and perhaps pain. A day or two 
before the critical hour approaches, the insect ceases to eat, loses its usual activity, and seems to rest immoveable. It seeks some place to 
remain in security; and no longer timorous, seems regardless even to the touch. It is now and then seen to bend itself and elevate its back ; 
again it stretches to its utmost extent: it sometimes lifts up the head, and then lets it fall again; it sometimes waves it three or four times 
from side to side, and then remains in quiet. At length, some of the rings of its body, particularly the first and second, are seen to swell 
considerably, the old skin distends and bursts, till, by repeated swellings and contractions in every ring, the animal disengages itself, and 
creeps from its inconvenient covering. 

How laborious soever this operation may be, it is performed in the space of a minute ; and the animal, having thrown ofF its old skin, 
seems to enjoy new vigour, as well as having acquired colouring and beauty. Sometimes it happens that it makes a new appearance, and 
colours very different from the old. Those that are hairy, still preserve their covering; although their ancient skin seems not to have lost a 
single hair ; every hair appears to have been drawn, like a sword from the scabbard. However, the fact is, that a new crop of hair grows 
between the old skin and the new, and probably helps to throw ofF the external covering. 

The caterpillar having in this manner continued for several days feeding, and at intervals casting its skin, begins at last to prepare for its 


Iii the same manner all plants undergo a metamorphosis, they shake off their larva state, and 

change into an aurelia. It is most probable that, from the beginning, all the parts of the butterfly lay hid in this insect, in its reptile 
state; but it required time to bring them to perfection; and a large quantity of food, to enable the animal to undergo all the changes requisite 
for throwing off these skins, which seemed to clog the butterfly form. However, when the caterpillar has fed sufficiently, and the parts of 
the future butterfly have formed themselves beneath its skin, it is then time for it to make its first great and principal change into an aurelia, 
or a chrysalis, as some have chosen to call it; during which, as was observed, it seems to remain for several days, or even months, without 
life or motion. 

Preparatory to this important change, the caterpillar most usually quits the plant, or the tree on which it fed; or at least attaches itself 
to the stalk or the stem, more gladly than the leaves. It forsakes its food, and prepares, by fasting, to undergo its transmutation. In this 
period, all the food it has taken is thoroughly digested ; and it often voids even the internal membrane which lined its intestines. Some of 
this tribe, at this period also, are seen entirely to change colour; and the vivacity of the tints in all, seem faded. Those of them which are 
capable of spinning themselves a web, set about this operation; those which have already spun, await the change in the best manner they are 
able. The web or cone, with which some cover themselves, hides the aurelia contained within from the view; but in others, where it is 
more transparent, the caterpillar, when it has done spinning, strikes into it the claws of the two feet under the tail, and afterwards forces in 
the tail itself, by contracting those claws, and violently striking the feet one against the other. If, however, they be taken from their web 
at this time, they appear in a state of great languor; and, being incapable of walking, remain on that spot where they are placed. In this 
condition they remain one or two days, preparing to change into an aurelia ; somewhat in the manner they made preparations for changing 
their skin. They then appear with their bodies bent into a bow, which they now and then are seen to straiten : they make no use of their 
legs ; but if they attempt to change place, do it by the contortions of their body. In proportion as their change into an aurelia approaches, 
their body becomes more and more bent ; while their extensions and convulsive contractions become more frequent. The hinder end of the 
body is the part which the animal first disengages from its caterpillar skin; that part of the skin remains empty, while the body is drawn up 
contractedly towards the head. In the same manner they disengage themselves from the two succeeding rings; so that the animal is then 
lodged entirely in the fore part of its caterpillar covering : that half which is abandoned, remains flaccid and empty ; while the fore part, on 
the contrary, is swollen and distended. The animal, having thus quitted the hinder part of its skin to drive itself up into the fore part, still 
continues to heave and work as before ; so that the skull is soon seen to burst into three pieces, and a longitudinal opening is made in the three 
first rings of the body, through which the insect thrusts forth its naked body, with strong efforts. Thus at last, it entirely gets free from its 
caterpillar skin, and for ever forsakes its reptile form. 

The caterpillar, thus stripped of its skin for the last time, is now become an aurelia ; in which the parts of the future butterfly are all 
visible; but in so soft a state, that the smallest touch can discompose them. The animal is now become helpless and motionless; but only 
waits for the assistance of the air to dry up the moisture on its surface, and supply it with a crust capable of resisting external injuries. Im- 
mediately after being stripped of its caterpillar skin, it is of a green colour, especially in those parts which are distended by an extraordinary 
afflux of animal moisture ; but in ten or twelve hours after being thus exposed, its parts harden, the air forms its external covering into a firm 
crust, and in about four-and-twenty hours, the aurelia may be handled without endangering the little, animal that is thus left in so defence- 
less a situation. Such is the history of the little pod or cone that is found so common by every path-way, sticking to nettles, and sometimes 
shining like polished gold. From the beautiful and resplendent colour, with which it is thus sometimes adorned, some authors have called it 
a Chrysalis, implying a creature made of gold. 

Such are the efforts by which these little animals prepare for a state of perfection; but their care is still greater to provide themselves a 
secure retreat, during this season of their imbecility. It would seem like erecting themselves a monument, where they were to rest secure, 
until Nature had called them into a new and more improved existence. For this purpose, some spin themselves a cone or web, in which 
they he secure till they have arrived at maturity: others, that cannot spin so copious a covering, suspend themselves by the tail, in some re- 
treat where they are not likely to meet disturbances. Some mix sand with their gummy and moist webs, and thus make themselves a secure 
incrustation ; while others, before their change, bury themselves in the ground, and thus avoid the numerous dangers that might attend them. 
One would imagine that they were conscious of the precise time of their continuance in their aurelia state; since their little sepulchres, 
with respect to the solidity of the building, are proportioned to such duration. Those that are to lie in that state of existence but a few days, 
make choice of some tender leaf, which they render still more pliant by diffusing a kind of glue upon it ; the leaf thus gradually curls up, 
and withering as it enfolds, the insect wraps itself within, as in a mantle, till the genial warmth of the sun enables it to struggle for new 
life, and burst from its confinement. Others, whose time of transformation is also near at hand, fasten their tails to a tree, or to the first 
worm-hole they meet, in a beam, and wait in that defenceless situation. Such caterpillars, on the other hand, as are seen to lie several 
months in their aurelia state, act with much greater circumspection. Most of them mix their web with sand, and thus make themselves a 
strong covering : others build in wood, which serves them in the nature of a coffin. Such as have made the leaves of willows their favourite 
food, break the tender twigs of them first into small pieces, then pound them as it were to powder; and, by means of their glutinous silk, 
make a kind of paste, in which they wrap themselves up. Many are the forms which these animals assume in this helpless state. 

The aurelia, though it bears a different external appearance, nevertheless contains within it all the parts of the butterfly in perfect 
formation ; and laying each in a very orderly manner, though in the smallest compass. These, however, are so fast and tender, that it is 
impossible to examine without discomposing them. When either by warmth, or increasing vigour, the parts have acquired the necessary 
force and solidity, the butterfly then seeks to disembarrass itself of those bands which kept it so long in confinement. Some insects continue 
under the form of an aurelia not above ten days ; some twenty; some several months ; and even for a year together. 

The butterfly, however, does not continue so long under the form of an aurelia, as one would be apt to imagine. In general, those 
caterpillars that provide themselves with cones, continue within them but a few days after the cone is completely finished. Some, however, 
remain buried in this artificial covering for eight or nine months, without taking the smallest sustenance during the whole time : and though 
in the caterpillar state no animals were so voracious, when thus transformed they appear a miracle of abstinence. In all, sooner or later, the 
butterfly bursts from its prison ; not only that natural prison which is formed by the skin of the aurelia, but also from that artificial one of 
silk, or any other substance in which it has enclosed itself. 

The efforts which the butterfly makes to get free from its aurelia state, are by no means so violent as those which the insect had in 
changing from the caterpillar into the aurelia. The quantity of moisture surrounding the butterfly is by no means so great as that attending 
its former change ; and the shell of the aurelia is so dry, that it may be cracked between the fingers. 

If the animal be shut up within a cone, the butterfly always gets rid of the natural internal skin of the aurelia, before it eats its way 

' l through 

are seen naked in the flower, whose only business then is to increase and multiply its kind: for the 
exit of the butterfly from the larva, and the evolution of >wm is accomplished in the same 


The outer bark (cortex) splits, and is converted into a permanent CALYX, which becomes 

the outer covering of the flower, and protects the tender fruit. 

The inner bark (liber) more pliant, and diaphanous, is further extended into the CO- 
ROLLA adorned with colours, which placed like the wings of the butterfly, through the me- 
dium of the air, vibrates and nutters, which motion otherwise it would not be able to procure. 

But the principal parts of the flowering body are the STAMINA and PISTILLA, so much 
so, that no flower can be said to be without them. This appears to be the case up to the pre- 
sent time, in the examination of so many thousands of flowers, so that there exists no true 
flower, which does not possess these two organs. 

The STAMINA derive their origin from the ligneous substance (cortical part), which was 

formerly the inner bark (liber). 

This appears most evident in the asarum (asarabacca), whose twelve stamina proceed from 

twelve fibres found in the composition of the inner bark. 

Flowers with a plenitude of corolla (double flowers) illustrate this doctrine, where the stamina, 
by receiving too much nutriment, are so softened and dissolved, that these become actual petals, 
for the ligneous substance in them is thereby converted into the soft nature of the liber, whence 
petals were, as we saw before, derived. 

All stamina possess vessels containing farina, which indeed they discharge, but not without 
the strictest observance of the laws of Nature. 

through the external covering which its own industry has formed round it. In order to observe the matter in which it thus gets rid of the 
aurelia covering, we must cut open the cone, and then we shall have an opportunity of discovering the insect's efforts to emancipate itself 
from its natural shell. When this operation begins, there seems to be a violent agitation in the humours contained within the little animal s 
body Its fluids seem driven, by an hasty fermentation, through all the vessels ; while it labours violently with its legs, and makes several 
other violent struggles to get free. As all these motions concur with the growth of the insect's wings and body, it is impossible that the 
brittle skin which covers it should longer resist : it at length gives way, by bursting into four distinct and regular pieces. The skm of the 
head and legs first separates ; then the skin at the back flies open, and dividing into two regular portions, disengages the back and wings : 
then there likewise happens another rupture in that portion which covered the rings of the back of the aurelia. After this, the butterfly as 
if fatigued with its struggles, remains very quiet for some time, with its wings pointed downwards, and its legs fixed in the skin which it 
had just thrown off. At first sight the animal, just set free, and permitted the future use of its wings, seems to want them entirely: they 
take up such little room, that one would wonder where they were hidden. But soon after, they expand so rapidly, that the eye can scarce 
attend their unfolding, From reaching scarce half the length of the body, they acquire, in a most wonderful manner, their full extent and 
bigness, so as to be each five times larger than they were before. Nor is it the wings alone that are thus increased : all their spots and paint- 
ings, before so minute as to be scarce discernible, are proportionably extended; so that, what a few minutes before seemed only a number of 
confused, unmeaning points, now become distinct and most beautiful ornaments. Nor are the wings, when they are thus expanded, un- 
folded in the manner in which earwigs and grasshoppers display theirs, who unfurl them like a lady's fan : on the contrary, those of butter- 
flies actually grow to their natural size in this very short space. The wing, at the instant it is freed from its late confinement, is considerably 
thicker than afterwards ; so that it spreads in all dimensions, growing thinner as it becomes broader. If one of the wings be plucked from 
the animal just set free, it may be spread by the fingers, and it will soon become as broad as the other, which has been left behind. As the 
wings extend themselves so suddenly, they have not yet had time to dry ; and accordingly appear like pieces of wet paper, soft, and full of 
wrinkles. In about half an hour they are perfectly dry, their wrinkles entirely disappear, and the little animal assumes all its splendor. 

Those aurelias which are enclosed within a cone, find their exit more difficult, as they have still another prison to break through : this, 
however, they perform in a short time ; for the butterfly, freed from its aurelia skin, butts with its head violently against the walls of its 
artificial prison ; and probably with its eyes, that are rough and like a file, it rubs the internal surface away ; till it is at last seen bursting its 
way into Open light; and, in less than a quarter of an hour, the animal acquires its full perfection. 

Thus, to use the words of Swammerdam, we see a little insignificant creature distinguished, in its last birth, with qualifications and 
ornaments, which man, during his stay upon earth, can never even hope to acquire. The butterfly, to enjoy life, needs no other food but 
the dews of heaven ; and the honeyed juices which are distilled from every flower. The pageantry of princes cannot equal the ornaments 
with which it is invested ; nor the rich colouring that embellishes its wings. The skies are the butterfly s proper habitation, and the air its 
element : whilst man comes into the world naked, and often roves about without habitation or shelter ; exposed, on one hand, to the heat of 
the sun ; and, on the other, to the damps and exhalations of the earth ; both alike enemies of his happiness and existence. — A strong proof 
that, while this little animal is raised to its greatest height, we are as yet, in this world, only candidates for perfection ! 


Of these vessels, which are called anthers, the figures, the cells, the modes of opening, are 
no less accurately defined, than the capsules of fruits, and the farina, like seeds, has its precise 
magnitude, colour, and figure. 

The PISTILLUM derives its origin from the medullary substance in plants, and therefore is 
placed in the center of each flower; and in this part are always found the rudiments of the seed, 
which advances by degrees into a fruit. 

This part is called the Germen, to which is always affixed another part, which is named 
Stigma, and is most in vigour at the period of flowering. 

The medullary, is the most essential part in vegetables, and is multiplied and extended ad 
infinitum, so that whenever this is lost, the plant of necessity must die. 

When considering this subject, we must carefully avoid being led into error by two seeming 
objections; first, as regards the culms of grasses, and other hollow stems, where the medullary 
part will be found to line the inner part of the bark; and, secondly, in large trees, where the 
trunk is altogether solid, but here the extreme branches have their necessary medulla. 

Thus vegetables, like insects, are changed by a metamorphosis, and with this distinction only, 
that flowers remain fixed to one spot, nor are they furnished with chylopoietic viscera, as with 
most insects, and these are also fed by the parent plants to which they are attached. 

Thus it is, that the Cortex is changed into the CALYX; the Liber into the COROLLA; 
the Wood into the STAMINA; and the Medulla into the PISTILLUM.* 

Thus it is, that the fructification exhibits the common parts of plants naked and unfolded. 
Thus it is, that fructification puts an end to growth in that part where it springs, otherwise 
it would have shot forward into branches, and so on, ad infinitum, but now becomes expended 
here by explicating new and distinct animated bodies, with their seeds. 

And since the seeds are the medulla naked in the germen, and this medulla requires to be fed 
and increased by the cortical substance, (whence all nourishment and growth proceeds in plants, 
as we'll as animals), hence these seeds cannot advance a step without this necessary aid from that 
active supporter of life, which these have become separated from. 

Hence the medullary seeds require to receive the cortical covering from the farina in the anthers, 
which, as we have proved before, is derived from the Cortex (outer bark). How this invest- 
ment takes place has been variously explained. 

MoRLANDf and others assert, led to it by the doctrine of Leuwenhook, that the farm a 
enters by the stigma, passes along the style, and then pervades the tender rudiments of the 

That this doctrine is not founded in fact, appears from several observations. 
A most evident contradiction is furnished by the Amaryllis Formosissima (Jacobean 
Amaryllis), which explains this mysterious circumstance. 

The flower of the Amaryllis, when produced in the hot-house, has its pistillum pointing 
downwards, when from its stigma there oozes about midday a limpid clear drop, which shortly in- 
creases to such a size, that one expects every instant to see it fall. 

* This doctrine of Linnaeus is considered at full in our « Philosophy of Botany," to which we refer the reader. 
f The arguments of Morland are stated at length in our " Philosophy of Botany" 


By degrees, about three or four o'clock, it is reabsorbed into the style, and entirely vanishes, 
until the following day, about ten o'clock, when it again begins to appear, and attains its full 
perfection about midday ; and afterwards a second time, by a scarce perceptible decrease, it 
returns whence it originated. 

Now each particle of farina possesses, enclosed by an elastic membrane, a fine aura, 
which escapes oftentimes with a vehement explosion, when this farina is made to fall on warm 
water, although so subtile in its nature, as nearly to escape detection by the naked eye. 

Hence it is, if we agitate some of the anthers over the stigma of this Amaryllis, so that 
their contained farina shall meet this limpid drop, we shall soon see, as I have often experi- 
enced, the globules of the farina lose their determinate shape, assume irregular broken forms, 
and the clear fluid on the stigma become clouded and yellow, and even opake streaks may be ob- 
served running along the style towards the embryo-seeds. Immediately after this the whole liquid 
drop on the stigma entirely disappears. 

Another evident example is furnished also by the Mirabilis [Marvel of Peru), whose farina 
is so very coarse, that each globule nearly exceeds the dimensions of the style itself, along which 
therefore, only the subtle aura, or pollen, can pass, leaving behind the reliquiae of the farina, or 
membranous covering, in broken fragments on the stigma, as in the former instance.* 

When the plants are in flower the farina falls from the anthers, and is dispersed, just as seeds 
escape from their plants, the fruit being ripe.f 

At the time of flowering, or what is the same, when the farina is shedding, the stigma ap- 
pears on the pistillum most vivid, and moistened with dew, certainly at some part of the day. 

The stamina either surround this stigma, or, if the flowers nod, the pistillum curls upwards, % 
so that the farina may the more readily fall upon the stigma, upon which it is not only affixed by 
its dew, but in that moisture split, and made to discharge the fructifying aura, or pollen. This 
mixing with the lymph of the stigma, is then absorbed, and carried down to the embryo-seeds. 

* Grew had before explained this in the same way as Linnaeus, " In discourse hereof with Sir Thomas Millington, I observed, that 
it was very credible that the powder, or farina, by falling upon the pistillum did communicate to the seeds a prolific virtue, that they did not 
enter in gross substance, but only some subtile and vivific effluvia, to which the visible powder is but a vehicle" 

\ Some of these have the remarkable property, like the seed-vessel of the noli me tangere (balsam), the wood sorrel, &c. to ejaculate 
their farina to a distance. The kalmias have their stamina enclosed in nitches of the corolla, and hence the filaments are curled like a bow, 
so that when the curve is at the utmost, the anthers are liberated from their cells, and the farina spirted over the pistillum. 

The stamina of the Parietaria are also held in such a constrained curved position by the leaves of the calyx, that as soon as the latter 
become fully expanded, or are by any means removed, the stamina, being very elastic, fly up, and throw their pollen about with great force. 
I have lately, says Doctor Smith, observed a similar circumstance in the flowers of Medicago falcata. In this plant the organs of generation 
are held in a straight position by the carina of the flower, notwithstanding the strong tendency of the infant germen to assume its proper fal- 
cated form. At length when the germen becomes stronger, and the carina more open, it obtains its liberty by a sudden spring, in consequence 
of which the pollen is plentifully scattered about the stigma. The germen may at pleasure be set at liberty by nipping the flower so as gently 
to open the carina, and the same effect will be produced. 

J This motion of the pistillum in every stage of the flower is beautifully illustrated in our Picturesque Botanical Plate of the Lilium 
Superbum (Superb Lily), one of the Martagore lilies. But in no example does it appear more evident than in the Gloriosa Superba 
(Superb Lily), where the pistillum bends at right angles in order to approach nearer the anthers. Also in the Spartium Scoparium 
(Common Broom) the pistillum bends itself spirally, like a French horn, in order to approach nearer to the males. Vide our Account and 
Plate of the Meadia (American Cowslip). 

Linn^us might have noticed here the contrivances of Nature, where the pistilla rise above the stamina. These may be beautifully 
observed in our superb plate of the Passiflora Ccbrulea (Common Passion-flower), where the three upright stigmata curl downwards 
till they come into contact with the stamina. The same may be observed in the Nigella (Devil in the Bush), and the Epilobium (Rose- 
bay JFillow-herb), &c. , 



*In the month of January of this year the Antholyza Cunonia (Scarlet-flowered Antholyza) 
flowered in a pot placed in the window of my dining-room, but it produced me no fruit, because 
the confined air had not power to waft the farina to the stigmas. 

Observing about midday one of the stigmas very dewy, I plucked off, by means of a fine pair 
of forceps, an anther, and gently brought it into contact with it. The spike remained eight or 
ten days longer adorned with flowers. 

Then, indeed, cutting the stem in order to preserve it as a specimen in my herbarium, I 
observed a fruit in that single flower, over which I had placed the anther, which had swollen to 
the size of a bean. 


The Ixia Chinensis (Chinese Ixid) flowered in the stove, the windows being shut, and all 
the flowers had abortive fruit. 

I therefore took away the anthers from the flowers of another Ixia, and with these I sprinkled 
two of the flowers, and the following day only one stigma of a third flower. 

The germina remained only in these three flowers, which swelled and bore seed; but, indeed, 
the fruit was in one of these three matured only in one cell. 


The exterior petals of the Ornithogalum (Star of Bethlehem) so closely connive, that 

although they admit air to the germen, they scarcely suffer the intrusion of the farina arising 

from another flower. This daily presented new flowers furnishing fruit, nor did fecundation fail 

in any one instance. I therefore carefully, with a bent hook, removed the anthers from a single 

flower, and, as I had expected, it happened, that this single flower proved abortive. 

After eight days I repeated the same experiment, and with a similar result. 


The Nicotiana fruticosa (Shrubby Tobacco) was growing in a garden-pot, and produced 
flowers and fruit most abundantly. 

From a flower newly opening, I extracted the anthers which had not yet burst, and removed 
at the same time all the other flowers. 

The germen here neither produced a fruit, nor swelled. 


The Aspiiodelus fistulosus {Onion-leaved Asphodel) growing in an urn, I removed to one 
corner of the garden, and from one of the flowers which opened on that same day, I withdrew 
the anthers. 

Hence that germen proved abortive. 

* This dissertation is divided into heads, or sections ; and the first section relates to the Bisexual Flowers, or flowers where the two 
sexes are in the same corolla. 

k On 

On another day I repeated the same experiment,, and by using a flower furnished from 
another quarter of the garden, I sprinkled the pistillum of this with its farina. 
Hence this germen proved fruitful. 


From a Chelidonium corniculatum (Scarlet-horned Poppy) growing in a remote quarter 
of the garden, I removed all the anthers in a flower which first appeared, and then carefully 
plucked away all the rest of the flowers. 

On another day I made a similar experiment, but over the pistillum of this last I sprinkled 
the farina taken from another flower of the same species. 

The result was, that the first flower produced no seed. 

From the second experiment I obtained perfect fruit. 


These Experiments decisively prove that the Anthers are the male organs in plants, and 
perfectly disprove the opinion of some who have taught, that the Stamina are those parts of the 
fructification, which only separate excrementitious matter.* 



What might have convinced them on the contrary, is the universal appearance of the Stamina 
and Pistilla in all flowers, for none want these organs, although many flowers are devoid of Calyx, 
and many even have neither Calyx or Corolla, as the Hippuris.\ 


All farmers know, that when rain falls upon the rye in flowers, \ it washes off the Farina on 
the Anthers, and hence occasions many glumes in the spike to be empty of seeds. 


Even gardeners remark the same every year in their fruit-bearing trees. The flowers, by long- 
exposure to rain, from this cause disappoint the expectation of fruit. § 


Aquatic plants at the time of flowering rise above the water, for no other purpose than that 
the Farina may reach the Stigma unimpaired, for after impregnation they dip under water. || 

* This is levelled against the illustrious Tournefort, who held this doctrine, as did Alston. 

f This is also an argument in favour of the Sexes of Plants used by Ray. " The flowers of plants may want their ornamental parts, 
as the calyx and Petals, but none are found to want the apices' (stamina), Sylloge Stirp extra Britan. 

J The anthers of rye hang out beyond the flower, and if rain falls while it is in flower, the dust is clotted, and hence the husbandmen 
do truly predict a bad crop ; but the same holds not with barley, where the anthers lie close within the husk. 

§ This especially applies to the cherry, whose anthers become mature all at once ; but in the apple and pear the numerous anthers ripen 
at different periods. Hence gardeners are disappointed of fruitful seeds, who at this time make much use of the watering pot, unless they 
# apply the water in a pan beneath, as many are in the habit of doing. 

|j Vide our account of the Nyjnphcea Nelumbo. 


The Nymph^ea alba (White Water-Lily) every day in the morning rises from the water and 
opens its flower, so that at midday it rises above the surface, by means of its peduncles, nearly 
three inches. 

In the evening it is entirely closed, and shut up, when it sinks into its watery bed. 

It is about four o'clock in the evening when it first contracts its flower, and it passes the 
whole night under water, which was observed two thousand years back, in the time of Theo- 
phrastus, who observed this in the Nymph^a Lotus, a plant so resembling our Nymphia, 
that it scarcely can be distinguished from it, unless in its foliage, which is toothed in the 


Thus Theophrastus hath written in his History of Plants (Book 4. Chap. 10.) concerning 

the Lotus. 

" They report, that its head and flowers sink into the Euphrates, and descend even to the 
middle of the night, and sink to that depth, that even at daybreak it cannot be reached with 
the extended arm ; then it returns, and emerges out of the waves, and opens its flowers more 
and more to the rising sun, advancing through the day, and the flower being completely ex- 
panded, it even then rises higher, so that at length it reaches to a considerable height above the 

The same is nearly the custom of our White Nymph^a.* 


Many flowers are closed at night and before the coming on of rain ; but the farina being shed, 
they remain afterwards always open.f 

* It is still open to doubt, whether this beautiful history of the Nymphjea Lotus be not a fable. (Vide the Account of our Picturesque 
Botanical Plate of the Nymph^a Nelumbo). Might not the dipping of the flowers after impregnation ; with their closing in the evening, 
being then covered by an unattractive calyx, before fecundation ; give birth to the belief, that the full-blown flowers of the Nymphjeas do 
actually immerse, and rise again for several successive mornings ? Still, however, it cannot fail to strike the observer, that the peduncles, or 
flower-stalks, hang at right angles to the root, and thus elevate themselves so as to reach different heights, so that the flowers shall be above 
the water, however swollen. 

But the greatest prodigy in this way, is the Vallisneria, which grows plentifully in the rivers of Italy. The female plant, for the sexes 
are upon different plants, has a spiral stem, like a screw, which it contracts or unwinds, according to the depth of the currents it inhabits. 
The male has a short stalk, which snaps asunder, and the male flowers being liberated from the plant then expand, and swim on the surface 
of the water, and are conveyed in this way often to distant brides, with whom they celebrate their nuptials. 

f Several plants, especially those with compound yellow flowers, nod, and during the whole day turn their flowers towards the sun ; 
to wit, to the east in the morning, to the south at noon, and to the west toward evening ; which is very observable in the sonchus arvensis, 
the sow-thistle. And I believe every body knows, that a great part of plants in a serene sky expand their flowers, and, as it were, with 
cheerful looks behold the light of the sun ; but before rain they shut them up ; e. g. the Tulip. The flowers of the Draba Alpina, Alpine 
whitlow grass, the Parthenium foliis ovatis crenatis, bastard fever-few with egg-shaped crenated leaves, and the trientalis, or winter- 
green, hang down in the night, as if the plants were asleep, lest rain or the moist air should injure the fertilizing dust. The trefoils, and 
one species of wood-sorrel, shut up or double their leaves before storms and tempests, but in a serene sky expand or unfold them, so that the 
husbandman can pretty clearly foretell tempests from them. And it is well known that the Bauhinia, or mountain ebony, sensitive plants, 
and Cassia, observe the same rule. The flowers of goats-beard open in the morning at the approach of the sun, and shut about noon; hence 
it is called John-go-to-bed-at-noon. Parkinsonia, tamarind tree, Mschynomene, or bastard sensitive plant, and several others of the diadel- 
phia class, in serene weather, expand their leaves in the day-time, and contract them in the night. The tamarind tree is said, by Alpinus 
and Acosta, to enfold within its leaves the flowers or fruit every night, to guard them from cold or rain. 

Hence the Horologe, or Botanical Watch, is formed from numerous plants, of which the following are those most common in this 
country. Leontodon taraxacum, Dandelion, opens at 5—0, closes at 8—9. Hieracium pilosella, Mouse-ear Hawkweed, opens 
at 8, closes at 2. Sonchus l^vis, smooth Sow-thistle, at 5 and at ]l — 12. Lactuca sativa, cultivated Lettice, at 7 and 10. Tra- 
gopogon l ut e u m, yellow Goatsbeard, at 3 — 5 and at 9 — 10. Lapsana, Nipplewort, at 5 — 6 and at 10— l. Nymph^a alba, white 
water Lily, at 7 and 5. Papaver nudicaule, naked Poppy, at 6 and at 7. Hemerocallis fulva, tawny Day-lily, at 5 and at 7—8. 
Convolvulus, at 5—6. Malva, Mallow, at 9 — 10, and at 1. Arenarea purpurea, purple Sandwort, at 9—10, and at 2—3. 

I Anagalis, 


In what manner the Parnassia and Saxifrage approach their Anthers to the Stigmas is 
well known.* 


The Ruta Graveolens {Common Rut), a very familiar plant, moves one of its Anthers 
every day over its short Pistillum, until each of them, in order, has deposited its Farina.f 


The Ornithogalum Nutans (Neapolitan Star-flower) has six broad Stamina conniving in 
the form of a bell, of which the three exterior are shorter than the others by one half, so that it 
would appear that the Anthers of these could never pass their Farina over the Stigma, but 
Nature, with admirable wisdom, has turned the anthers inwards towards the bell, the shorter 
ones becoming first mature, so that they do actually accomplish their office. J 

II. A day would sooner fail me than examples, § but I pass these by* and hasten to the con- 
sideration of the unisexual flowers. 


Several species of Momordica (Cucumbers) which are cultivated with us, like other Indian 
vegetables, in close stoves, have there very frequently produced female flowers, and these, al- 
though at first very flourishing, in a short time have begun to wither, nor have they produced 
seed, until I instructed the gardener, as soon as he should discover a female flower, to pluck a 
male, and place it over the female flower. By this art, for a certainty, we have produced fruit, 

Anagallis, Pimpernel, at 7—8. Portulaca hortensis, garden Purslain, at 9— 10, and at 11 — 12. Dianthus prolifer, proli- 
ferous Pink, at 8, and at 1. Cichoreum, Succory, at 4 — 5. Hypoch^eris, at 6—7, and at 4 — 5. Crepis, at 4 — 5, and at 10 — 11. 
Picris, at 4 — 5, and at 12. Field Calendula, at 9, and at 3. African Calendula, at 7, and at 3 — 4. 

So in almost all sorts of flowers we see how they expand or open by the heat of the sun, but in the evening, and in a moist state of the 
air, they close or contract their flowers, lest the moisture getting to the dust of the antherce should coagulate the same, and render it incapable 
of being blown on the stigmata : but (which is indeed wonderful!) when once the fecundation is over, the flowers neither contract in the 
day, in the evening, nor yet against rain. 

* It is a pleasing sight to see the stamina in many flowers advance over the pistillum. In the Parnassia, and Saxifrage, the stamina 
regularly rise, but after impregnation the stamina fall back in a circle. I have often witnessed this in the several Sempervivums (house- 
leeks), where the six more mature stamina advance to the central females, then they retreat, and the remaining six next advance, as regular 
as with a troop of horse, and then the whole twelve fall back in a circle. 

f I examined, says the illustrious Dr. Smith, the Ruta Chalepensis (African Rue), which differs very little from the common Rue, 
and found many of the stamina in the position which Linnaeus describes, holding their antherae over the stigma ; while those which had not 
yet come to the stigma were lying back upon the petals, as well as those which, having already performed their office, had returned to their 
original situation. Trying with a quill to stimulate the stamina, I found them all quite devoid of irritability. They are stout, strong, conical 
bodies, and cannot, "without breaking, be forced out of the position in which they happen to be. The same phenomenon has been observed 
in several other flowers ; but it is no where more striking, or more easily examined, than in the Rue. Vide Tracts on Natural History, 
p. 171. 

J Where there are several stamina in a flower, these are often of a disproportionate size, and then the lower tier become first mature, 
and embrace the young pistillum, which increasing in growth, in a few days after celebrates her amours with the taller beaux. Thus the 
Lychnis Flos Cuculi (Meadow Lychnis) has ten stamina, of disproportionate sizes, five of which arrive at their maturity before the other 
five. The same may be seen in our common Blue Bell (Hyacinthus). The position of the anthers on their filaments as respects the pis- 
tillum, is worthy also of observation. Vide our Picturesque Plate of the Rhododendron Ponticum (Pontic Rhododendron) which illus- 
trates both these observations. 

§ The reader will find a great many other examples among our Select Plants. 


and such is our present confidence, that we could pledge ourselves to make any female flower 
fixed upon, fertile* 


In the month of April I sowed Hemp-seed (Canabis) in two pots. 

The young plants came up in such abundance, that each pot contained thirty, or forty, 


I placed both to the light on a window-seat, but in opposite parts of the house, so that all 

communication was necessarily prevented. 

In both situations the Hemp flourished greatly. 

In one of the pots I suffered the male and female plants to grow together, to flourish, and 
produce fruit, which was ripe in the month of June, and afterwards being macerated in water, 
and committed to the earth, shot up within twelve days. 

But in the second I plucked up all the male plants as soon as they had advanced, so that I 
could discern the anther-bearing males from the pistil-bearing females. 

The surviving females indeed flourished, and copiously presented their long pistils, but the 
flowers remained a very long time, as if all that length of time in expectation of marriage; so 
that in the mean time in the other pot the fruit had reached maturity, and the pistils, in a quite 
different way, had instantly faded, after the males had discharged their farina. 

Undoubtedly this is a pleasing sight, and very much to be admired, that the unmarried 
females in so opposite a way retained their pistilla green and flourishing, nor first allowed these 

* The Cucumber affords a familiar example of the Sexes of Plants, for it produces on the same trailing branches flowers male and 

female ; that is, some of the flowers have only stamina (no pistillum), and others again only the pistilla, without the stamens, and being 

cultivated under glass for early produce, it is a known fact, that gardeners are obliged to pluck the males, or stameniferous flowers, and 

place them in the corollas of the females, or pistilliferous flowers. This process is thus celebrated by the illustrious Cowper in his poem 

called " The Garden." 

Plants have their sexes, and when Summer shines 

The Bee transports the fertilizing meal 

From flower to flower, and e'en the breathing air 

Wafts the rich prize to its appointed use. 

Not so when Jointer scowls. Assistant art 

Then acts in Nature's office, brings to pass 

The glad espousals, and ensures the crop. 

It is curious to observe, that all stameniferous, or male flowers, produce honey. 

One of the most singular ways of the fecundation of plants through insects, we have in the Aristolochia Clematitis (Common 
Birthwort). It has a linguiform corolla, which at its inferior part is spherical, towards the top it becomes long and tubular, and its margins 
end in a flat and spearpointed extremity. The pistil is placed in the round cavity of the corol, the germen of which is surrounded by 
six anthers, which are shorter than the germen itself. The germen has no style, but is provided with an hexagonal stigma, which is very 
shallow, and on its upper surface has imbibing pores. The anthers cannot empty the pollen upon the stigma, as the flower stands always 
straight upright during the period of flowering. The jmllen therefore must necessarily fall to the bottom of the flower without being used, 
if no insects come near the flower. And indeed if it be tried, and all insects kept from the flower by a thin, but firmly closed piece of gauze, 
no seeds will be formed. It happens indeed not unfrequently, that as it is a particular insect which impregnates the flowers, when it is wanting 
or not able to find the flower, this last withers without. having a single seed. This insect is the Tipula pennicornis. The round bottom of 
the flower is, in its interior, quite smooth, but the tubular extremity is lined with dense hair, every one of which is turned towards the interior, 
so as to form a kind of funnel, through which the insect may very easily enter; but cannot without great difficulty return, and is obliged to 
remain in the cavity. "Uneasy to be confined in so small a space, it creeps constantly to and fro, and so deposits the pollen on the stigma. 
After this is done, the flower sinks, the hair, which obstructed the passage, shrinks and adheres closely to the sides of the flower; by which 
means the insect gets free. Who but must admire the wise provision of Nature in fecundating this seemingly trifling flower! 

m to 

to collapse, before that they had been a very long while exposed for the access of the male 
farina * 

And, lastly, when these virgin plants began to be affected with age, I diligently searched 
along with several botanists for all the calyxes, and I found these large and flourishing, but the 
seeds, as many as were found, were yellow, compressed, membranaceous, dry, not exhibiting 
the slightest trace of cotyledons or pulp.f 


The Clutia Pulchella [Broad-leaved Clutia) was also, during the months of June and 
July, kept in the same window of my room. 

The male and female plants were in different pots. 

The female in consequence abounded in fruit, and indeed, not a single flower dropt 

Then I separated the pots to different windows in the same room, nevertheless, all the female 
flowers produced perfect fruit. 

I lately removed the male altogether, and only left the female plant, having first removed all 
the former, and newly expanded, flowers. 

From the axilla of each leaf there daily appeared fresh ones, which remained for the space 
of eight or twelve days, but afterwards the peduncles turning yellow, they fell off empty of 

A friend, a botanist, who was delighted with this experiment with myself, one day per- 
suaded me, that I should bring a single male flower from the stove in the garden, which he 

* Linnaeus elsewhere observes, « The act of flowering seems greatly to exhaust the living principle. In the moth and butterfly it may 
be observed, how after marriage the wings droop, and life expires. But if this butterfly be confined like a nun in a convent it will survive 
many months. So annual plants will become biennial; if they do not happen to blow the first year, they will resist the cold of winter as 
the pinks, lychnises, &c. even to the third winter, but once having blown, they soon after perish. 

The Musa (Plantain) often lives to an hundred years: but having once opened its flowers, no art or experience teaches how to save this 
superb plant from perishing that same year. 

The Cortpha (Fan Palm) was sterile for thirty-five years, and grew to the height of seventy feet, and in four months it rose to thirty 
teet in height, and produced fruit that same year, which being accomplished, the whole plant died. Hort. Cliff. 482 

The La v atera Arborea (Tree Lavatera) rises to the height of a pear-tree, supporting readily the colds of winter, but having once out 
forth any blossom, neither the friendly hand of the gardener, nor stoves, nor attention, can save it from perishing in the com W w i nter 
Lin. Amaen. Acad. Tom. i. 375. 6 VV1 " LC1, 

The same remark holds good as respects the Agave Americana (American Aloe) ; vide the description accompanying our Picturesque 
Botanical Plate of that superb plant. J b 4 UC 

Hence it is that all double flowers last so much longer than single, and that tulips deprived of their anthers retain for a great while their 
corolla-leaves. 6 c iucu 

t This experiment of the Hemp has been repeated by Spaiabzahi, and a contrary conclusion drawn; bnt the plants new in dW. 
where cordage was made, and where Hemp was cnltivated in the neighbourhood-bit in sequestered spots in (he country where I have 
prosecuted these exponents the results have been exactly as recorded by Linneeus. Vide our " Philosophy of Botany," Jen "L esT 
nments of Spalanzam, and the confutation of them, will be recorded at considerable length. Care however must h V ,1 >, 

female Hemp no males arc found interspersed amongst the female flowers, a common Lusus Naturie; and even it has LI ""' a" u 

z female plant has in course of time produced only male flowers, and vice versa. John Bauhihe (Hist Plant torn i n ITlT""^' i 
whole fructification of a Palm, which he saw growing at Montpclier, and which not only produced branches of male flowers h I, TT , 
ones bearing dates. Ray tells us in his History of Plants, (vol. ii. p. , M4 .) that he himself saw, many yea s ate this 1^ ti^T 

mentioned by Banhine. This variety in the fructification has been noticed by several other authors. VeZrnT^lTlTl 
(Chap, iv p. US.), mentioning that class of trees which are male and female in different parts of the IZ'L Z « TW . tTH 
trees, when they have for many years produced flowers without fruit, afterwards sometimes will produce fru wi Z n't fl„ t 5 

thinks, •• should be farther enquired into." This, since Jungius's time, has been done, and it has been found th „ ' , 

this class arc wholly male, while young ; but as they advance in age, they have flower of both sell and aftei H , "^ ' T f "' 

This fact MlLLER has frequently himsdf observed in the MulblryJee; and the Cheva Z 72 o I 2 £ ^""fr*"*- 
whatever relates to botany, has observed, that a large Lent.scus (Mastich Tree) in his garfen for thirl v,^T H i ^ 7** " 
flowers, but that for three years past, it had also produced plenty of fruit. J " " ''^ Pr ° dUCed ° n '- V " mh 


placed in contact with a female flower recently open, and tied this flower with a piece of red 
silk to know it again. 

The next day I removed the male flower, and this one germen indeed remained, and pro- 
duced fruit. 

After the experiment, I took another male flower from the stove, and by means of a slender 
forceps, I removed from it one of its Anthers, and having scratched it gently with the knib of a 
pen, I took care that a little of its farina might fall upon one of the Stigma, having guarded the 
remaining two stigmata by a cap made by an hollow roll of paper. 

This Germen also grew to a fruit of the ordinary size, and afterwards being transversely 
dissected, it alone produced a large seed in one of the three cells, the other two being empty. 

The other flowers, not having suffered impregnation, every one of them, becoming withered, 

The repetition of this experiment is also as readily to be repeated as the former. 


-." ■ ■ 

The Jatropha Urens (Stinging Jatropha) flowers every year in my hot-house, but the 
female flowers have preceded the males, and before eight days they lost their petals, and faded, 
before the male flowers were expanded. 

Hence not only they produced no fruit, but the floivers themselves dropt. 
Thus it happened that, until the year 1152, we could obtain no fruit of the Jatropha. 

But in this year, the male flowers were in vigour upon a taller tree, at the precise time the 
females appeared on a small Jatropha growing in a pot. 

This pot I placed under the tree producing male flowers, and in this manner I accomplished, 
that the female flowers produced seed, which, being sown in the earth, grew. 

Two years after I placed these male flowers under a piece of paper, until the Farina had 
fallen upon it, which I preserved rolled up, if I recollect right, for four or five weeks, when 
this same Jatropha on another branch produced female flowers. 

Then I sprinkled that Farina so long preserved in paper upon three flowers, the only ones at 
that time expanded. 

These three female flowers only became fruitful, whereas all the other flowers which appeared 
in the same corymbus fell off abortive* 

I have frequently since amused myself by taking the male Farina from one plant, which 
by sprinkling upon the females of another, I have always found the seeds thereby rendered 
fruitful. + 

* The same experiment was made on the Jatropha Imperialis (Imperial Jatropha), and with exactly the same result. The male 
flowers usually occupy the upper part of the plant, and are soon to be distinguished from the females. 

f A similar experiment was made on the Begonia Nitida (oblique -leaved Begonia), which forms one of our Picturesque Botanical 
coloured plates, where the male and female flowers are very readily distinguished from each other, even at their first appearance, the males 
having a corolla consisting of four petals, the females of five, which gave the same confirmation of the Sexual Hypothesis. 



The Datisca cannabina {Smooth-stalked Bastard Hemp) was raised from seed about ten 

years ago in my garden. 

It abounded in flowers, but these being females, therefore proved abortive. 
In order to obtain a male plant I procured some seeds from Paris. 

These also grew well, but what vexed me was, they all proved females, and, therefore, 
produced me also flowers without fruit. 

At length, in the year 1757, I procured other seeds. 
Out of these some plants were males, and in the year 1758 flowered. 

These I removed into a border very remote from the females. 
Therefore, when the male flowers were mature for shedding their Farina, I held a * paper 
under them, and gently agitated the loose spike of flowers with my finger, until the whole surface 
was nearly covered with yellow Farina. 

I carried this to the female flowers, which were produced in another part of the garden, and 

sprinkled it over them. 

The result was, these female flowers alone ripened their fruits where I had dispersed the 
Farina, and their seeds attained their due magnitude ; but in all the rest, being fertilized by no 
Farina, there appeared not a vestige of any seeds.f 


The Phoznix Dactylifera {Date-bearing Palm) a long time flowered at Berlin, but pro- 
duced no fruit. 

* Koelreuter, a famous experimental botanist, sent, from Karlsruhe to Gleditsh, the farina of the male chamxrops humilis 
by post, with which, by means of a camel's-hair brush, he impregnated a female -plant in his garden, and, for the first time, obtained ripe 
seeds, from which he raised young plants. 

+ Sometimes, however, under such circumstances, the seeds arrive at their due magnitude, but, as was long since observed, are 


" Mr. Jacob Bobart, overseer of the Physic Garden at Oxford, about thirty-eight years ago, which was before the doctrine of the different 
sexes of plants was well understood, herborising in the country, observed a plant of the Lychnis Sylvestris simplex, whose flowers, though 
they had stamina, yet there were no apices; and rinding this not in one, but in all the flowers upon the same plant, this made him imagine it 
might be a new species, and therefore he marked the plant, and took care to have it preserved till the seeds were ripe ; and he at length pro- 
cured them full hard and firm, and to outward appearance Remplis des germe (as Mr. Geoffroy has it). He failed not to sow them in his 
o-arden next season in a proper place, but there was never a plant which sprung up. 

I had this account from the celebrated Dr. Sherard, at whose desire I have inserted it, and both of them being persons of such esteem, 
and so good credit, I may venture to say it sets the opinion of the different sexes of plants upon another footing than it is received by most of 
our modern authors; for this imports that it is not the nourishment of the gross substance of the seed itself, which is hereby meant, nor the 
increase of the seed-vessel, which is thereby designed, for, as is observed, a hen can lay an egg without previous congress with the cock, and 
this shall be the same for colour, taste, (when new-laid) smell, bigness, with another egg which has the tread (as they call it), i. e. that 
has been fecundated by the Materies Seminalis Masculina ; but the difference appears when both are put under the hen to be hatched, the 
one shall pullulate or chit, and the other shall become fetid and rot. 

The Lychnis Dioica {Wild Red Lychnis) being made by me the subject of experiment, gave additional confirmation of the Sexes 
of Plants." Vide Blair on the Generation of Plants, in his Botanical Essays. 

The learned Dr. Hope, late professor of botany in the university of Edinburgh, a strenuous advocate for the sexes of plants, made the 
following experiment. He found of this Lychnis dioica two kinds, the white and the red ; and he was convinced (as are since this time Pro- 
fessor Martyn and Mr. Curtis) that these are not varieties, but distinct species, and that the white never produces naturally red flowers. He 
placed under the same bell the red and the white Lychnis Dioica, the one a male and the other a female plant, and the bell terminated in a 
tube for the admission of air, but filled with moss, to hinder the access of any other farina; and from this white female Lychnis he obtained 
seeds, which produced him some red Lychnises. Vide Note * in the description of the Carnation to our Picturesque Plate, where the doctrine 
of the Sexes of Plants is further confirmed by observations on that flower. 


Some of the male flowers, from a tree flourishing at Leipsic, were sent by the post, and in 
this way fruit was obtained, and some of these I planted in my own garden, and they germinated, 
and at this present time are in a very flourishing state.* 

Kjempher has long since reported, how necessary it was found by the nations in the East, 
who live by the fruit of the Palm-tree, and are the true Lotophagi, to plant a few male plants 
amongst the female trees, if they expected any harvest ; hence, upon an invasion, they were 
led to cut down the males, that the enemy might feel a want of provisions, and sometimes this 
destruction was made as a vengeance upon a resisting country. f 

* This curious account of the date-bearing Palm is to be met with in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. xlvii. p. 169, including a letter 
which was read to that society May 2, 1751, with some ingenious observations on that subject by one of the members of that learned societv, 
Doctor Watson, to whom it was addressed. 

Professor Mylius's letter to Dr. Watson, dated at Berlin, Feb. 20, 1750—51. " The Sex of Plants is very well confirmed, by an 
experiment that has been made here on the Palma major foliis flab elliformibus. There is a great tree of this kind in the garden of the Royal 
Academy. It has flowered and bore fruit these thirty years, but the fruit never ripened, and, when planted, it did not vegetate. The palm- 
tree, as you know, is a Planta Dicecia, that is, one of those in which the male and female parts of generation are upon different plants. We 
having therefore no male plants, the flowers of our female were never impregnated with the farina of the male. There is a male plant of this 
kind in the garden at Leipsic, twenty German miles from Berlin. We procured from thence, in April 1749, a branch of male flowers, and 
suspended it over our female ones ; and our experiment succeeded so well, that our palm-tree produced more than an hundred perfectly ripe 
fruit ; from which we have already eleven young palm-trees. This experiment was repeated last year, and our palm-tree bore above two 
thousand ripe fruit. As I do not remember a like experiment, I thought it convenient to mention it to you ; and, if you think proper, be 
pleased to communicate it to the Royal Society." 

f As Linnaeus aimed at brevity in this dissertation, we have here, as concisely as possible, commented upon his text, hoping that our 
readers will not feel fatigued by our enlarging a little upon so very curious a topic by renewing again the subject of the Palm. 

" The palm-tree grows very high forming one stem. — A sort of bough shoots out and bears the fruit in a kind of sheath, which opens as it 
grows. The male bears a large bunch something like millet, which is full of a white flower, and unless the young fruit of the female is im- 
pregnated with it, the fruit is good for nought; and to secure it they tie a piece of this fruit of the male to every bearing branch of the female. 
Strabo observes that the palm-tree in Judea did not bear fruit, as at present; which probably may be owing to their not having the male 
tree; concerning which I could get no information. But the fruit of the female tree, without the male, drops off, or comes to no per- 
fection." Vide Pocock's Description of the Eaft, vol. i. 206. 

"On the morning of the 2lft, I had the pleasure of seeing from my window one of the most remarkable sights in nature. A female palm 
(Phoenix dactylifera Linneei) had in the night put forth its blossoms from the spatha ; I went thither at sun-rise to see it, whilst the dew was 
yet falling. I saw a gardener, the proprietor of the palm, climbing up the palm, which equalled our largest firs in height. He had a bunch 
of male flowers with which he powdered the female, and by these means fecundated them." Vide Hasselquist's Voyages and Travels in the 
Levant, English Transl. p. 112. 

" The first thing I did after my arrival in Egypt, was to see the Date-tree, the ornament and a great part of the riches of this country. It 
had already blossomed, but I had, nevertheless, the pleasure of seeing how the Arabs assist its fecundation, and by that means secure to 
themselves a plentiful harvest of a vegetable, which was so important to them, and known to them, many centuries before any botanist 
dreamed of the different sexes in vegetables. The gardener informed me of this before I had time to inquire, and would shew me, as a very 
curious thing, the male and female of the Date or Palm-tree ; nor could he conceive how I, a Frank, lately arrived, could know it before ; 
for, says he, all who have yet come from Europe to see this country, have regarded this relation either as a fable or a miracle. The Arab, 
seeing me inclined to be further informed, accompanied me and my French interpreter to a Palm-tree, which was very full of young fruit, 
and had by him been wedded or fecundated with the male, when both were in blossom. This the Arabs do in the following manner : when 
the spadix has a. female flower that comes out of its spatha, they search on a tree that has male flowers, which they know by experience for 
a spadix which has not yet burst out of its spatha: this they open, take out the spadix, and cut it lengthways in several pieces, but take 
care not to hurt the flowers. A piece of this spadix, with male flowers, they put lengthways between the small branches of the spadix 
which hath female flowers, and then lay a leaf of a Palm over the branches. In this situation I yet saw the greatest part of the spadices 
which bore their young fruit ; but the male flowers which were put between were withered. The Arab besides gave me the following 
anecdotes: First, unless they, in this manner, wed and fecundate the Date-tree, it bears no fruit. Secondly, they always take the 
precaution to preserve some unopened spathce with male flowers, from one year to another, to be applied for this purpose, in case the male 
flowers should miscarry or suffer damage. Thirdly, if they permit the spadix of the male flowers to burst or come out, it becomes useless 
for fecundation : it must have its male dust, (these were the words of the Arab), which is lost in the same moment the blossoms burst out 
of their case. Therefore the person, who cultivates Date-trees, must be careful to hit the right time of assisting their fecundation, which is 
almost the only article in their cultivation. Fourthly, on opening the spatha, he finds all the male flowers full of a liquid, which resembles 
the finest dew; it is of a sweet and pleasant taste, resembling much the taste of fresh dates ; but much more refined and aromatic : this was 
likewise confirmed by my interpreter, who hath lived thirty-two years in Egypt, and therefore had opportunities enough of tasting both the 
nectar of the blossoms, and the fresh dates. 

•' Thus much have I learned of this wonderful work of Nature, in a country where it may be seen every year. I shall have the honour to 
give a relation of the use, and divers other qualities of the Date-tree, at some other opportunity." Vide Hasselquist's Letters to Linnaeus. 

" In one of our excursions we had an opportunity of observing a curious process in the vegetable world. It has already been observed by 
naturalists, but is too uncommon to be known to readers of every class. The Date-trees were now in blossom ; and we remarked the Arabs 
to be busied about the branches. It is necessary to ingraft all fruit-trees to obtain good fruit . but the propagation of the Date is in another 



The experiments on the Maize related by Logan are perfectly conclusive.* 


„r, and intimately resembles that of the animal creation. There is a male as well as a female Date-tree, which are distinguished from 
each other by the colour and shape of the blossoms. The male-tree yields no fruit; but the gardener must be careful, every spring, to cull 
as many blossoms from the male as will serve his purpose. One of these at least he must inwrap and bind up in the blossom of the female- 
tree ; without which she will prove as barren as the male" Vide Irwin's Series of Adventures in the Course of a Voyage up the Red Sea. 

8vo. Edit. 1787- 

Sonnini, the latest traveller in Egypt, gives us the following account of the uses of the Date-tree. 
" Among the trees of Egypt there is none more widely dispersed than the Date-tree : it is every where to be found, in the Theba'is and in 
the Delta ; in the sands as well as in the cultivated districts. Although it requires little culture, it yields a considerable profit, on account of 
the immense consumption of its fruit. The date varies in quality ; that which is produced in the environs of Rosetta is delicious, and boats 
are laden with it for the market of Cairo. 

" To climb trees which have no branches but at their top, and the straight and slender stem of which cannot support a ladder, the Egyp- 
tians employ a sort of girth fastened to a rope, that they pass round the tree. On this girth they seat themselves, and rest their weight ; 
then, with the assistance of their feet, and holding the cord in both hands, they contrive to force the noose suddenly upwards, so as to catch 
the rugged protuberances with which the stem is symmetrically studded, and formed at the origin of the branch-like leaves, that are annually 
cut. By means of these successive springs, the people of this country reach the top of the Date-tree, where, sitting, they work at their ease, 
either impregnating the females, or gathering the clusters of fruit : they afterwards descend in the same manner. 

" The dates are not the only produce of this species of Palm-tree ; from hard beating its bark, its branch-like leaves, as well as the rind of 
its clusters of fruit, threads are obtained, from which are manufactured ropes and sails for boats. The leaves serve likewise for making 
baskets and other articles. The very long rib of the branches, or leaves, is called in Arabic dsjerid. From its combined lightness and solidity, 
it is employed by the Mamaluks, in their military exercises, as javelins, which they throw at each other from their horses when at full speed." 
Vide Sonnini's Travels into Egypt, 4to. Ed. 1800. p. 400. 

* His book is entitled, " Experiments and Reflections on the Generation of Plants, by James Logan, President of the Council, and 
Chief Justice of the Province of Pensilvania," and was published in 1739. From this Essay I shall extract what the ingenious author has 
related respecting the Maize, or Indian Corn. 

" As several doubts had formerly occurred to me in respect to the generation both of plants and animals, when I first heard of the Farina 
foecundans, or impregnating male dust, I conceived great hopes that these would be easily solved, and the whole of this intricate affair 
receive considerable light from the discovery. And as I had long ago observed, with surprise, the singular way of growth of our Indian 
Wheat or Maize, I judged it, of all the plants I had seen, or perhaps of any that Nature produces, the most proper one for experiments of 

this kind. 

Indian Wheat grows to the height of six, eight, and sometimes ten feet. At the top of the stalk it bears a thready tuft or tassel (called 
by Malpighi, Muscarium) furnished with apices, which yield the farina. From the joints of the stalk below, the ears grow out, which 
are six, eight, ten, and sometimes even twelve inches long. These consist of a pretty solid substance, about an inch thick, set quite round 
with grains regularly disposed in rows, in a very beautiful manner. Generally there are eight such rows, often ten, sometimes twelve ; and 
I once saw sixteen : there are commonly forty grains in each row, more or less ; which, in their first rudiments, and whilst the stalk they 
grow upon is soft and tender, may justly be called the ova or eggs : to each ovum there adheres a white, fine, smooth filament, which, ex- 
cepting that it is hollow, resembles a thread of silk. These filaments are disposed one by one in order, betwixt the rows from that end where 
the ear rises from the stalk to the other, where they creep from under the case that incloses the ear, and make their appearance, in the open 
air, in a bundle or skein : their colour in this part is mostly whitish, though sometimes a little yellow, red, or purple, according to the nature 
of the plant they grow from : these filaments, as I formerly suspected, are the real styles of the eggs. 

Intending therefore to make some experiments on this plant, towards the end of April I planted four or five grains on hillocks, as is usual 
in sowing maize, in each corner of a little garden I had in town, which was about forty feet wide, and eighty long. About the beginning 
of August, when the plants were full grown, and the tufts on the top, and the ears on the stem, had acquired their full extent, I cut off 
these tufts from every plant on one hillock. On another, without meddling with the tufts, I gently opened the leaves that covered the ears, 
and cut away from some all the styles, and then closed the leaves again ; from others a quarter part, from others one half, and from others 
three quarters, and left the rest untouched. I covered another ear, before the skein of styles appeared out of the case, with a piece of very 
fine and soft muslin, but so loosely, that its growth could not be injured ; and whilst the furzy texture of the muslin suffered it to receive 
all the benefit of the sun, air, and showers, the farina was effectually secluded. I left the plants on the fourth hillock, as I did these, except 
in the circumstances above-mentioned, unmolested, till they were fully ripe. 

After the beginning of October, when it was time to inquire into the success of my experiments, I made the following observations. In 
the first hillock, where I had cut off all the tufts, the ears, whilst they remained covered with their husks, looked indeed very well, but were 
small, and felt light when handled; and not one perfect grain to be found in them, except in one large ear, which grew out somewhat farther 
from the stalk than usual, and on that side too which faced another hillock in a quarter from whence our strongest winds most commonly 
blow : in this ear alone I found about twenty grains which were full grown and ripe. I attributed this to some farina brought by the wind 
from a distant plant. In those ears from which I had plucked off some of the styles, I found just so many ripe grains as I had left styles 
untouched. In those covered with muslin, not one ripe grain was to be seen : the empty or barren eggs were nothing but mere dry 


From these experiments, which I made with the utmost care and circumspection, as well as from those made by a great many other 
persons, it is very plain that this farina, emitted from the summits of the stamina, is the true male seed, and absolutely necessary to render the 
grain fertile. A truth which, however certain, yet was unknown till the present age : the discoverer of this grand secret of Nature, therefore, 
ought ever to be remembered with due applause. Sir Thomas Mjllington, sometime Savilian Professor, seems first to have taken notice 


To relate more examples would fatigue the reader unnecessarily.* 

All Nature proclaims the truth of this doctrine, and every flower of every sortf might be 
adduced as a witness in its favour. The day would sooner fail me than matter. 

III. Leaving innumerable other proofs behind, from both bisexual and unisexual flowers, I 
hasten to the consideration of hybrid, or mule plants, a subject indeed meriting every attention. 

Some have ascribed every thing to the female, after Harvey. 
Others again to the male, after Lewenhock. 

As for myself, I ascribe the offspring to both, which the production of mules does confirm. 
To instance this, there are two different kinds of mules. 

From the mare and male ass proceeds the most useful mule, which in its gentle nature resem- 
bles its mother; but in its mane and tail, and cross on its back, the ass. This animal, which 
fetches an high price in Spain, is called Hinnus.J 

of it, before or about the year 1676, according to the account which Dr. Grew gave, in a lecture read before the Royal Society the 9th of 
November the same year. (See Grew's Works, p. 161, 171.) Malpighi no where, that I know of, mentions its use. And Grew him- 
self, though he allows it necessary for fecundation, yet did not suspect that it entered the germen: but M. Morland, about twenty years 
after, asserted that it entered the germen through the canal of the style. (See Phil. Trans. No. 287.) I once only saw a small grain in the 
middle of this canal ; nor is it to be doubted, but that stricter inquiries will discover more of them passing the same way." 

This doctrine by Morland has been refuted by Linnaeus, from his observations on the Amaryllis and Marvel of Peru, before recorded. 
Such as may be curious to see the reasonings upon which Morland founded this opinion, will please to consult our ' Philosophy of 

* The reader will call to mind, that the author of the prize dissertation was required to produce chiefly new facts. The Question was 
Pro Prcemio proposita " Sexum Plantarum argumentis et experimentis novis, praeter adhuc jam cognita, vel corroborare, vel impugnare, prae- 
missa expositione historica et physica omnium Plants partium, quae aliquid ad fecundationem et perfectionem seminis et perfectionem seminis 
et fructus confeme creduntur." So that the beautiful proofs of the Sexes of Plants, which were before known, he could not properly intro- 
duce into this dissertation, which will form an apology for the number and length of some of our Notes. The subject is considered more at 
large in our " Philosophy of Botany." 

f It has always been an interesting subject of enquiry, to all philosophical admirers of the Sexual System, whether the numerous and 
intricate tribes of plants, which, on account of the obscurity of their fructifications, were all put together by Linnaeus into the class called 
Cryptogamia, were really endowed with flowers and seeds, like other vegetables, or totally destitute of both. Much has been written on 
the subject of Mosses. Many botanists denied their having any flowers, or sexual organs, as Tournefort, Adanson, and Necker. The 
last-mentioned author writes in a very singular and decisive style concerning them. " Whatever," says he, " has been, or can in future be 
said of the sexes and copulation of Mosses, we are determined to consider as a fiction and a dream." Linnaeus and Dillenius, more philo- 
sophical than this writer, judged from observation and analogy, that Mosses were neither destitute of flowers or seed; they even thought they 
had discovered both, but proved to be mistaken. Micheli was the first who observed the real stamina and pistilla in Mosses, but his 
observations were neglected, and scarcely credited by subsequent authors, till the truly ingenious and accurate Dr. Hedwig, of Leipsic, pub- 
lished his History of Mosses in 1782, in which he demonstrates the parts of fructification of a large number of Mosses, in so satisfactory a 
manner, and illustrates the structure and economy of these minute plants so completely, that there cannot be a doubt remaining on the sub- 
ject. He proves that the capsula of Dillenius, (the anthera of Linn^us) which both those authors considered as producing the impreg- 
nating pollen, is in fact the fruit, and the powder which it contains, the seed; and that the male flowers are what Linnaeus and others took 
for the female. The celebrated Schreber had before suspected this to be the case. See his Dissertation on the Phascwn. 

" This opinion is now adopted by all scientific botanists; and it has been anxiously wished that Dr. Hedwig would prosecute his enquiries 
through the other orders of the Cryptogamia. This he has been employed in doing ; and we are happy to communicate, upon the best autho- 
rity, some account of his discoveries, published in a prize dissertation at Petersburgh, which has not yet reached this kingdom. In this work 
Dr. Hedwig illustrates the fructification of Filices, Alga, Mufci, and Fungi, in thirty-seven plates. The Equisetum is referred by him to 
the class Tetrandria Monogynia. The anthera, or male organs of the Agaric, he found on the inside of the uolva, which covers the lamella 
while the fungus is young, and afterwards generally becomes an annulus round the stem. The pistilla are situated in the lamella. The 
scutellce of the Lichens, he is persuaded, are capsules of the seed, and that the tubercula of the Lichenes tuherculati have been first scutella; 
in which opinion every one who has studied this genus of plants will probably agree with him. The cilia of Lichex ciliaris he believes to 
be roots; probably those of many other species which resemble it are so likewise. His favourite axiom is " Omnis planta ex semiae," as that 
of Harvey was ' Omne animal ex ovo.' " Dr. Smith. 

+ In the Rev. Mr. Townsend's " Journey through Spain," a work replete with useful science and agreeable remarks, and in every part 
perfectly to be depended upon, speaking of these mules, he entertains us with the following observations. 

" I prolonged my stay at the Escurial, chiefly for the purpose of being present at the Batida, or royal hunt, of which there are four 
every year. This was ordered for the 28th of November, previous to the departure of the court. 

" On the day appointed, Mr. Liston had the goodness to place me with the Neapolitan ambassador, who, as representing one of the 
family, gave a sumptuous repast upon the occasion ; and in his carriage I proceeded to the scene of action. It was an extensive plain, with 
a rising ground commanding it, and, at the distance of about half a mile from this eminence, rose a little wood, in which the king, with his 

p three 

From the female ass and horse the other kind of mule is engendered,, with a disposition as 
obstinate as the ass, but the beauty and outward appearance of the horse. 

Experience also shews us, that if the male goat of Angora marries with the she goat, the kid, 

. the offspring of that intercourse, will inherit the external structure and valuable coat of its father; 

whereas, if the marriage is reversed, the kid so produced will have the vile, worthless hair of its 


The breed from Spanish rams and Swedish ewes will resemble the Spanish sheep in wool, 
stature, and external form ; and have the hardiness of Swedish sheep. An English ram without 
horns, and a Swedish horned ewe, will produce sheep without horns. 

I shall now call the attention of my readers to only three or four vegetable mules, the origin 
of which I have witnessed myself. 

three sons, were hid, attended by their servants. For many days previous to this, two thousand men had been dispersed in parties over the 
whole country to disturb the game, and to drive it towards the common centre, by patroling night and day, and constantly, yet slowly, 
drawing nearer to each other. Soon after we had occupied our station on a rising ground, we began to see the deer at a vast distance bound- 
ing over the plain from every quarter, and making towards the fatal spot. As they approached, we heard, faintly at first, then more dis- 
tinctly, the sound of guns, and saw the confusion of the game, moving quick in all directions, but changing their course at every instant, as 
if uncertain where to look for safety. When the scouring parties (usually about two thousand) came first in sight, they appeared to be sepa- 
rated by intervals, and to confine the game merely by their shouts and by the firing of their arms; but as they advanced upon the plain they 
formed a wall, and as they drew nearer, they strengthened this by the doubling of their ranks, compelling thus the game to pass in vast 
droves before the royal marksmen. Then began the carnage ; and for more than a quarter of an hour the firing was incessant. Some of the 
deer, who had either more discernment than the rest, or a better memory; who were actuated by stronger fears, or, perhaps, by more exalted 
courage, absolutely refused to proceed, when they approached the ambuscade ; and, making a quick turn, notwithstanding the shouts, the 
motions, and the firing of the guards, they leaped clean over their redoubled ranks, and escaped into the woods. 

" When the firing ceased, the carriages all advanced towards the wood, and the company alighted to pay their compliments, and to view 
the game. We found part of it spread in two rows upon the field of battle, and the king, with his sons, surveying it. The game-keepers 
were returning loaded with such as had been mortally wounded, but had yet escaped to a considerable distance ; and, as fast as they arrived, 
they deposited the spoil at the sovereign's feet. Having the curiosity to count the numbers, I found one hundred and forty-five deer, with 
one wild boar. Whilst thus engaged, I heard a murmur, and saw every one in motion. Directing my attention to the spot to which all 
were pressing, I saw at a distance a little company coming with a boar tied neck and heels together, and flung upon a pole. As they ap- 
proached ; the monarch and his sons, arming themselves afresh, drew up in a line, and standing at a convenient distance, the burthen was 
deposited ; the cords, one after another, were cut ; and the poor crippled animal was assaying to move, when a well directed volley freed 
him from his fears. 

" The expence of that day's sport was reckoned at three hundred thousand reals, or, in sterling, three thousand pounds. 

" In the evening the game, as usual, was all deposited in the room where the king took his supper, and there the family ambassadors 
attended to pay their compliments. By family ambassadors are understood those of Naples, Portugal, and France, who having more free 
access, and being expected to pay more minute attention, think it incumbent upon them to express their interest in every thing which gives 
him pleasure, and not only congratulate him upon these great occasions, but each night, whilst he is at supper, make inquiries, and after- 
wards inform their friends what the king has killed. 

" Mr. Liston, desirous of quitting the Escurial previous to the departure of the court, ordered a Cache de Colleras to be ready the day 
after the Batida. This precaution is taken by the foreign ministers to secure mules, because, when the court is in motion, no less than 
twenty thousand being required for their use, the whole country is laid under an arrest, and neither horse nor mule can be obtained for any 
other purpose. 

" In this little journey I was exceedingly diverted and surprised with the docility of the mules and the agility of their drivers. I had 
travelled all the way from Barcelona to Madrid in a Coche de Colleras, with seven mules, and both at that time, and on subsequent occasions, 
had been struck with the quickness of understanding in the mule, and of motion in the driver ; but till this expedition I had no idea to what 
extent it might be carried. The two coachmen sit upon the box, and, of the six mules, none but the two nearest have reins to guide them ; 
the four leaders being perfectly at liberty, and governed only by the voice. Thus harnessed, they go upon the gallop the whole way, and 
when they come to any short turning, whether to the right or to the left, they instantly obey the word, and move all together, bending to 
it like a spring. As all must undergo tuition, and require frequently some correction ; should any one refuse the collar, or not keep up exactly 
with the rest, whether it be, for example, Coronela or Capitana ; the name pronounced with a degree 6f vehemence, rapidly in the three 
first syllables and slowly in the last, being sufficient to awaken attention, and to secure obedience, the ears are raised, and the mule instantly 
exerts her strength. But, should there be any failure in obedience, one of the men springs furious from the box, quickly overtakes the 
offending mule, and thrashes her without mercy; then, in the twinkling of an eye, leaps upon the box again, and calmly finishes the tale he 
had been telling his companion. In this journey I thought I had learnt the names of all the mules, yet one, which frequently occurred, 
created some confusion, because I could not find to which individual it belonged, nor could I distinctly make out the name itself. It sounded 
like Cagliostra, and led me to imagine that the animal wsls so named after the famous impostor Cagliostro, only suiting the termination to 
the sex, because the mules in harness are usually females. In a subsequent journey the whole difficulty vanished, and my high estimation of 
the mule, in point of sagacity, was confirmed. The w^ord in question, when distinctly spoken, was aquella otra ; that is, you other also ; 
and then supposing Coronela and Capitana to be pairs, if the coachman had been calling to the former by name, aquella otra became appli- 
cable to the latter, and was equally efficacious as the smartest stroke of a long whip; but if he had been chiding Capitana, in that case, 
aquella otra acted as a stimulus to Coronela, and produced in her the most prompt obedience." 



The Veronica Spuria {Bastard Veronica) is derived from the Veronica maritima {Sea 
Veronica) for its mother, and the Verbena officinalis {Officinal Vervein) for its father. 
It agrees with its mother in fructification, and in foliage it resembles the father. 
It is not to be raised by seeds, but may easily be produced by means of layers. 


The Delphinium Hybridum {Hybrid Larkspur) was produced in that quarter of the 
garden where the Delphinium Elatum {Bee Larkspur) and Aconitum Napellus {Common 
Monk's-hood) grew together. 

It resembles its mother most in the fructification, (the Larkspur,) and its father in its stately 
form, and appearance of its foliage. 

Owing its origin to plants so nearly allied to each other, it is easily propagated by seeds. 


The Hieracium Hybridum {Mule Hawkweed) was gathered in 1763 in our Alps by 

From its thick brown woolly calyx ; from the bractece, as well as in every other part of the 
fructification, it so perfectly resembles its mother the Apargia Taraxici {Alpine Apargia) that 
no tyro but would at once perceive the plant ; but in the smoothness of the leaves^ by its teeth, 
and whole structure, it so manifestly resembles the father, the Leontodon {Dandelion), that no 
one can hesitate whence the same was derived. 


The Tragopogon Hybridum {Hybrid Goafs-beard) after two years appeared in the 
garden, where the Tragopogon Pratense {Common Goafs-beard), and Tragopogon Porri- 
folius {Purple Goaf s-beard) grew together. 

Last year, as the Tragopogon Pratensis {Common Goafs-beard) was in flower, I 
castrated the flowers in bloom, and sprinkled their widowed pistilla with the farina obtained 
from the Tragopogon Porrifolius {Purple Goafs-beard) and I obtained seeds, that being sown 
produced, in 1759, the Tragopogon Hybridum {Bastard Goafs-beard), as before described, 
the seeds of which I now send. 


He who has once seen the Achyranthus Aspera {Rough Achyranthus), its spike, the 
parts of the flower, its peculiarly formed nectary, and fructiferous reflexed calyxes, would readily 
believe, that no one could be mistaken in naming the same the Achyranthus Indica 
{Indian Achyranthus) ; but seeing its broad obtuse, undulated foliage, before flowering, the 
same person would as positively have pronounced the same to be the Xanthium Stru- 
ma r i u m [Small Burdock) . 

q I could 

I could name, unless I had chosen to adopt brevity, a multitude of other hybrid plants. 

It is more than probable, that Nature at first created but a few species, and by the inter- 
mixture of these arose the extensive genera, or families of plants, and even by the union of 
nearly allied genera, other kinds were produced : for Nature proceeds « from simple to more 


The variety of plants arises, I think, chiefly from sexual intercourse : for, unless this were 
the case when removed into different quarters, and changed in their soil, the variety of the 
Species would return to their original appearance; but nothing of this sort takes place, as is daily 
seen in our most esteemed varieties of culinary plants. 

, Koelreuter, who for thirty years made experhttentsupon plants, ^^^^£^,£££2 

species of plants into another;" which shews, that in seeds as well as in buds, the embryon proceeds 

of the subsequent mature plant is in part dependent on the female. T nharro\ wit h the farina of the Nicotiana Panicu- 

M. Koelreuter impregnated a stigma of the Nicotiana Rustic a (Common English Tobacco) with 

lata (Panicled Tobacco), and obtained prolific seeds from it. ; mnre ™ at in<r their pistilla with the farina of the Nicoti- 

With the plants, which sprung from these seeds, he repeated the experiment, impregnating pistma 

ana Paniculata. imnrpcrnate them for many generations with the farina of the 

As the mixed plants, which he thus produced, were prolific, he « n .magnate he™ J g 

n— r*™- - d ** " ™ n r;:::t Lrlh X' r fl^ lie m**** «. 

year 1782. 

The JluZe Plants which have been ascertained are extremely numerous. 

M. Asclepias Vincetoxicum 

F. Cynanchum Acutum 

M. Primula Integrifolia 

F. Cortusa Mathioli 

M. Papaver Rhaeas 

F. Chelidonium Corniculatum. . 

M. Dracocephalum Thymiflorum 

F. Nepeta Sibirica « ... 

M Brassica Eruca 

F. Sinapis Alba 

M. Acta?.a Spicata 

F. Rhus Toxicodendron 

Mother, Arctotis tristis 7 Bastard, Arctotis Calendula. 

Father, Calendula pluvialis ) 

{ B. Asclepias Nigra. 

\ B. Primula Corlusoides. 

\ B. Chelidonium Hybridum. 

7 B. Dracocephalum Nutans. 

X B. Brassica Pesicaria. 

7 B. Actcea Spicata Alba. 

M. Trifolium Repens 7 B. Trifolium Hybridum. 

F. Trifolium Pratense 3 

X B. Rhus Vernix. 

X B. Tussilago Hybrida. 

\ B. Urtica Balearica. 

X B. Thalictrum Contortum. 

X B. Alchimilla Hybrida. 

\ B. Veronica Hybrida. 

X B. Mentha Crispa. 

Mother, Poterium Sanguisorba I Bastard, Poterium Hybridum. 

Father, Agrimonia Eupatoria J 

M. Saponaria Officinalis I B. Saponaria Hybrida. 

F. Gentiana Aliqua J 

F. Aquilegia Vulgaris I B. Aquilegia Canadensis. 

M. Fumaria Sempervirens ) 

F. Blitum Capitatum I B. Blitum Virgatum. 

M Che nonodium Rubrum 3 


Coch'earia Glastifolia. 

M. Rhus Toxicodendron 

F. Rhus Copallium 

M. Tussilago Petasites 

F. Tussilago Alba 

M. Urtica Pilulifera 

F Urtica Dioica 

M. Thalictrum Aquilegifolium . 

F. Thalictrum Minus 

M. Alchimilla Alpina 

F. Alchimilla Vulgaris 

M. Veronica Spicata 

F. Veronica Officinalis 

M. Mentha Spicata. 

B. Arundo Arenaria. 

F. Mentha Aquatica 

M. Menyanthes Trifoliata. . . . ' X b. Menyanthes Nymphceides. 

F. Nymphsea Lutea J 

M. Chenopodium Rubrum. 

M. Cochlearia Officinalis . 

F. Brassica Orientalis. . . . 

M. Arundo Epigejos 

F. Elymus Arenarius 

M. Helianthus Annuus. . 
F. Helianthus Tuberosus. 

M. Cyanus Orientalis. . . . 
F. Centaurea Aliqua .... 
M. Carduus Oleraceus... 
F. Carduus Serratuloides. 
M. Dipsacus Fullonum. . 

F. Dipsacus Pilsous 

M. Pyrola Rotundifolia 7 _g t p yr ola Minor. 

F. Pyrola Secunda J 

M. Thalictrum Minus 1 5. Thalictrum Angustifolium. 

F. Thalictrum Flavum J 

M. Iris Graminea. . . 

F. Iris Sibirica 

M. Carduus Crispus. 
F. Carduus Nutans. 

M. Di 
F. Geum 

M. Urtica. . 
F. Parietaria. 

[■ B. Helianthus Multifiorus. 

> B. Centaurea Moschata. 

> B. Carduus Tataricus. 

> B. Dipsacus Laciniatus. 

( B. Iris Spuria. 

I B. Carduus Acanthoides. 

ryas Octopetala 7 B j) r y as Pentapetala. 

:um Aliquod J 


Urtica Alienata. 

the Peloria. 

One of the most extraordinary hybrids, unless it ean be better referred to some of those very remarkable sportings of Nature, is seen in 

This hybrid is so named from the Greek word „,x. r , wonder, or astonishment, for when first presented to Linmeus by one of his 

lhis hybrid is so nameo Antirrhinum Likaria (Common Toad-flax) in the shape of its leaves, its manner 

^£^^^Z£g^ZZ£^£m*. with one spur-like neetary, and four uneouat stamina, had five 

^ZuIZ^aZ^X a corolla formed „ke an inverted funnel, with the neck of it revolutc, more nearly, therefore, resent- 

bling EaicA {Heath) in its fructification, but yet differing from this as to the number of stamina. 

T3 • 7 f/ nm A\*t\nrt P-enera it cannot be propagated by seeds, but only by cuttings. 

Being a mule from distinct genera, can IPS ' d ^ ^ Common Blue Passion> hence it most 

the several Passion-flowers, and description 

Vide also our 

-nowers, anu. ucsuipuw«> . , 

Notes to the description of the Carnation, where a Mule Pink is in one of the notes particularly mentioned. 


? Here then is a new field open for botanists,, and a number of new varieties may be 
raised by artificial impregnation,^ and if what I have written meets with your approba- 

\ A new cabbage is described in the Bath Agriculture, Vol. I. Art. 4. which is said to fatten a beast six weeks sooner than turneps. 
It is there said, " that the sort of cabbage principally raised, is the tallow-loaf, or drum-headed cabbage ; but it being too tender to bear 
sharp frost, I planted some of this sort and the common purple-cabbage used for pickling, (it being the hardiest I am acquainted with) 
alternately; and when the seed-pods were perfectly formed, I cut down the purple, and left the other for seed. This had the desired effect, 
and produced a mixt stock of a deep green colour with purple veins, retaining the size of the drum head, and acquiring the hardiness of 

the purple." 

In another curious paper of the Bath Society, Vol. V. p. 38. Mr. Wimpey relates, that he planted a field with garden-beans in rows 
about three feet asunder in the following order, mazagan, white-blossom, long-podded, Sandwich-toker, and Windsor -beans. The maza- 
gan and white-blossom were thrashed first, when to his great surprise he found many new species of beans ; those from the mazagan were 
mottled black and white; the white blossoms were brown and 3 r ellow instead of their natural black; and they were both much larger 
than usual. 

Mr. Knight has given a curious experiment of his impregnating the stigmas of the pea-blossoms of one variety with the farina of another. 
He says, Vide his Treatise on ihe Apple and Pear, p. 42, " Blossoms of a small white garden-pea, in which the males had previously been de- 
stroyed, were impregnated with the farina of a large clay-coloured kind with purple blossoms. The produce of the seeds thus obtained were 
of a dark grey colour, but these having no fixed habits, were soon changed by cultivation into a numerous variety of very large and extremely 
luxuriant white ones ; which were not only much larger and more productive than the original white ones, but the number of seeds in each 
pod was increased from seven or eight, to eight or nine, and not unfrequently to ten. The newly made grey kinds 1 found were easily made 
white again by impregnating their blossoms with the farina of another white kind. In this experiment the seeds, which grew towards the 
point of the pod, and were by position first exposed to the action of the male, would sometimes produce seeds like it in colour, whilst those 
at the other end would follow the female. 

" In other instances the whole produce of the pod would take the colour of one or other of the parents; and I had once an instance in 
which two peas at one end of a pod produced white seeds like the male, two at the other end grey ones like the female, and the central seeds 
took the intermediate shade, a clay colour. Something very similar appears to take place in animals, which produce many young ones at a 
birth, when the male and female are of opposite colours. From some very imperfect experiments I have made, I am led to suspect that con- 
siderable advantages would be found to arise from the use of new or regenerated varieties of wheat, and these are easily obtained, as this plant 
readily sports in varieties, whenever different kinds are sown together." 

This practice of the very ingenious Mr. Knight is not, however, a new one, for it was recommended by Bradley as far back 
as 1736. 

" By this knowledge," says Bradley, " we may perhaps alter the property and taste of any fruit, by impregnating the one with the 
farina of another of the same class : as, for example, a Codlin with a Pearmain, which will occasion the Codlin so impregnated to last a 
longer time than usual, and be of a sharper taste; or if the winter fruits should be fecundated with the dust of the summer kinds, they will 
decay before their usual time : and it is from this accidental coupling of the farina of one with the other, that in an orchard where there is 
variety of apples, even the fruit gathered from the same tree differ in their flavour and times of ripening : and moreover, the seeds of those 
apples so generated, being changed by that means from their natural qualities, wall produce different kinds of fruits, if they are sown. 

" It is from this accidental coupling, that proceeds the numberless varieties of fruits and flowers which are raised every day from seed. 
The yellow and purple Auriculas, which were the first we had in England, coupling with one another, produced seed which gave us other 
varieties ; which again mixing their qualities in like manner, has afforded us, by little and little, the numberless variations which we see at 
this day in every curious flower-garden ; for I have saved the seeds of near a hundred plain Auriculas, whose flowers were of one colour, and 
stood remote from others, and that seed I remember to have produced no variety: but on the other hand, where I have saved the seed of such 
plain Auriculas as have stood together, and were differing in their colours, that seed has furnished me with great varieties, different from the 
mother plants. I believe I need not explain how the male dust of plants may be conveyed by air from the one to another, by which this gene- 
ration and production of new plants is brought about; but I shall hint by the bye, to such as plant orchards for cyder, that they ought to 
plant only one sort of apple in those orchards; and that such plantations be likewise remote from other kinds of apples, whose farina would 
else certainly spoil the cyder-fruit, by ripening some sooner, and others later, which would occasion almost a continual ferment in the liquor, 
and never permit it to settle or grow fine. 

" Moreover, a curious person may, by this knowledge, produce such rare kinds of plants, as have not yet been heard of, by making 
choice of two plants for his purpose, as near alike in their parts, but chiefly in their flowers or seed-vessels : for example, the Carnation and 
Sweet William are in some respects alike ; the farina of the one will impregnate the other, and the seed so enlivened will produce a plant 
differing from either, as may now be seen in the garden of Mr. Thomas Fairchild of Hoxton, a plant neither Sweet William nor Carnation, 
but resembling both equally, which was raised from the seed of a Carnation that had been impregnated by the farina of the Sweet William. 
These couplings are not unlike that of the mare with the ass, which produces the mule ; and in regard to generation, are also the same with 
mules, if of different kinds, not being able to multiply their species, no more than other monsters generated in the same manner. 

" We may learn from hence, that the fruit of any tree may be adulterated as well by the farina of one of the same sort, which perhaps 
may be sickly, and of a dwarf kind, as by the dust of some other kind near akin to it, and worse than itself. Now, as such couplings may 
be very frequent in common woods, so would I recommend the choice of seed to be made only from such plants or timber-trees as excel in 
greatness, or other good qualities, and are far distant from others of meaner sorts, which might degenerate their seeds, and cross our expec- 
tations when they come to grow up; and this is as necessary to be observed among vegetables, to maintain their good qualities in the young 
plants they are to produce, as it is in the breeding of game-cocks, spaniels, or running-horses ." 

There is an apple described in Bradley's work, which is said to have one side of it a sweet fruit, which boils soft, and the other side a 
sour fruit, which boils hard. This Mr. Bradley so long ago as the year 1721 ingeniously ascribes to the farina of one of these apples impreg- 
nating the other ; which would seem the more probable, if we consider, that each division of an apple is a separate womb, and may therefore 
have a separate impregnation, like puppies of different kinds in one litter. The same is said to have occurred in oranges and lemons, and grapes 
of different colours. 

I have seen myself a curious instance of a Nectarine Tree produce its fruit half Nectarine half Peach. 


tion, I shall consecrate the remainder of my days to making these experiments, so much re- 

commended from their agreeable results. 

Duhamel has also greatly extended our knowledge on this curious and interesting subject. 

« On sait que la plupart des fruits que les Jardiniers appellent nouveaux, ne paroissent etre que des composes de fruits plus anciens. Le 
Colmar; par exemple, qui passe chez les Jardiniers pour etre venu d'un pepin de bon-chretkn, paroit effectivement etre compose du bon-chre- 

tien et de la bergamotte d'automne. 

« Je suis persuade que si l'on goutoit avec une grande attention les fruits d'especes nouvelks, on trouveroit plusieurs exemples de pareils 
metifs: j'avoue neanmoins qu'il se trouve des fruits d'un gouc et d'une forme tellement extraordinaire, qu'il seroit difficile d'en assigner 
l'origine; mais ces exemples rares ne sont pas capables de detruire ma conjecture, puisque ces bizarreries peuvent etre occasionnees 
par un melange des deux seves ; d'autant plus que dans les animaux, entre les chiens par exemple, la meme incertitude arrive fre- 


" Le contraire de cette observation se presenle dans certains fruits, ou les especes sont assez distinctes pour qu'on puisse manger un 
quartier d'un fruit separement de celui avec lequel il est joint lors de la fecondation. Tel est, par exemple, dans les oranges, l'espece que l'on 
nomme improprement monstre, qui sur le meme arbre produit des bigarades, des citrons, et des balotins separes, ou meme rassembles par 
quartiers dans le meme fruit : telle est aussi cette espece de raisin qui produit sur un meme cep des grappes rouges et des grappes blanches, 
et sur une meme grappe des grains rouges et des grains blancs ; ou d'autres, dont les grains sont par moitie, ou meme par quartiers rouges 
et blancs. Je crois pouvoir attribuer ces varietes au melange des poussieres des etamines. II arrive tres-frequemment que dans la meme 
porte'e, une chienne met bas des petits dont les uns tiennent entierement de leur mere, les autres du pere, et d'autres tiennent de tous les deux; 
ou tellement confondues, qu'aucune de leurs parties ne ressemble exactement aux memes parties ni du pere ni du la mere, ni d'une facon assez 
distincte pour qu'une partie de leur corps ressemble au pere, et l'autre a la mere : ce que je puis assurer, c'est que j'ai tente sans succes tous les 
moyens que les Auteurs proposent comme propres a operer ces bizarreries de la nature. 

" Je pense done qu'on peut avoir recourse a la meme conjecture, pour rendre raison des varietes infinies que fournissent certains genres 
deplantes; puisqu'elles sont d'autant plus frequentes, que les differentes especes d'un meme genre se trouvent rassemblees en plus grand 
nombre : au lieu que les plantes d'un meme genre qui croissent a la campagne, etant en quelque facon isolees, ne donnent aucune variete. Je 

vais en rapporter des exemples. 

" Personne n'ignore que tous les Coquelicots qui croissent naturellement dans les campagnes, portent des fleurs rouges; que les Prime- 
veres des pres ont des fleurs couleur de citron ; et que ces memes plantes transplanted dans nos jardins nous fournissent une quantite prodi- 
gieuse de varietes. D'ou peut venir cette difference? Je l'attribue a cette fecondation d'une plante par une autre; et je vais rapporter une 
experience qui pourra convaincre que cette cause existe reellement dans la nature. 

" Je suppose qu'on leve dans un pre une talle de ces Prime-vercs, qui ne portent constamment que des fleurs couleur de citron ; qu'on 
divise cette talle en deux, qu'une moitie soit plantee dans un lieu elogne de toute autre espece de Prime-veres, et l'autre dans un jardin, au 
milieu d'une plate-bande ou l'on aura eleve une grande suite de Primeveres de toutes couleurs : il est certain que ces deux talks produiront, 
comme dans les pres, des fleurs couleur de citron ; mais si l'on ramasse ensuite les graines que fourniront ces deux talks, et qu'on les seme 
separement; on remarquera 1°. Que les pieds qui viendront des semences qui auront ete produites par le pied qui e"toit reste isok, ne don- 
neront que des fleurs jaunes pareilks a celles des pres, parce que ces graines n'auront pu etre fecondees que par elks-mcmes; au lieu que les 
pieds qui viendront de la talle qu'on aura elevee dans la plate-bande, produiront quelques varietes ; par la raison que quelques semences auront 
pu etre fecondees par d'autres pieds voisins. Je dis qu'on n'aura que quelques varietes, parce que la plupart des embryons auront ete fecondes 
par les etamines de la plante meme; et que d'ailleurs plusieurs qui auront ete fecondes par les pieds voisins, conserveront neanmoins une dis- 
position a tenir de la nature du pied qui les aura produits. 

« Je crois qu'on peut attribuer a une pareilk cause, le succes qu'ont eu quelques Fleuristes qui se sont procure par le moyen des semences 
de belles varietes ; puisque rien n'est plus propre a les occasionner que le soin particulier que prennent certains curieux de meler les especes 
dans leurs planches de Tulippes, d'Oreilks d'ours, de Semi-doubles, &c. Leur intention est, a la verite, de frapper la vue par une diversite et 
un email qui est toujours plus agreable qu'une uniformite dans les couleurs ; mais ils se procurent, sans le savoir, un avantage qu'ils ont souvent 
attribue a differentes infusions dans lesquelks ils avoient mis tremper leurs graines, a quelques couleurs qu'ils meloient dans la terre de leur 
jardin, a des objets differemment colores qu'ils presentment a leurs plantes, ou enfin, a une faveur singuliere du hazard qu'ils se croyoient 
personnelk. J'ai essaye sans succes ces infusions et ces melanges de couleurs, et j'ai cru qu'il n'etoit pas besoin d'experiences pour detruire les 
deux autres moyens. 

" Les Observateurs attentifs peuvent trouver dans les potagers beaucoup d' exemples des varietes dont nous venons de parkr, et cesser 
d'attribuer a la nature de leur terrein, ces changements qu'ils experiment en disant, que leurs plantes degenerent. J'en vais rapporter un ex- 
emple qui est sans doute bien frappant. 

" Nous cultivons dans nos potagers, la Rave-corail, qui est cette rave rouge qu'on eleve aux environs de Paris : nous cultivons aussi une 
rave blanche et moins delicate, qu'on nomme Raifort a Orleans ; enfin, des Radix blancs et des Radix gris. Quand nous semons des graines 
de ces plantes que nous tirons des pays ou elks sont communement cultivees, nous recueillons ces racines tres-parfaites chacune dans leur 
espece; mais comme nous avons souvent remarque que les semences que nous recueillons dans nos potagers nous donnoient des metifs qui 
tenoient plus ou moins de ces differentes racines, nous avons pris le parti de planter fort eloignes les uns des autres, les pieds que nous destinons 
a nous fournir de la graine ; au moyen de quoi nos especes se conservent plus constamment les memes : cette observation que nous avons pare- 
ilkment faite sur les Carottes pales, jaunes et rouges, confirme bien fortement ce que nous avons dit qui peut resulter du melange des pous- 

" Aprcs cela, il est tres-facile de concevoir quelle prodigieuse multitude de varietes doit naitre de ces differents melanges : en effet lorsque 
la poussiere des etamines d'une Oreille-d'ours rouge aura feconde une Oreille-d'ours blanche, la graine qui en viendra doit necessaire- 
ment produire des pieds dont les petales seront non-seukment rouges ou blancs, ou panaches de rouge et de blanc, mais encore dont les em- 
bryons et les poussieres des etamines participeront de l'un et de l'autre pied ; ensorte qu'une de ces plantes n'a plus besoin, pour etra panache'e, 
d'etre dans la suite fecondee par une autre, puisqu'elk se trouvera posseder non-seukment la disposition des parties propres a produire le rouge 
et le blanc, mais encore celle d'operer differents melanges de ces deux couleurs, lesquelks combinees ensemble pourront faire differentes coupes 
de nuances fort agreables a la vue. 

" Je 

I shall not tire your patience any longer, having, I hope, demonstrated the Sexes of Plants* 
by every kind of argument, even by that of Hybrid Plants, which I hold to be the most con- 

« Je pourrois faire Implication de ce que je viens de dire au jaune, au bleu, au rouge et au verd ; mais je crois en avoir assez dit pour faire 
entendre que la multitude des varietes est aussi etendue que peuvent l'etre les combinaisons qui resultent de ces differents melanges ; et nen 
n'est plus conforme a ce que l'on peut observer dans la multiplication des animaux. J'ai eu chez moi des paons bleus, qui, a chaque couvee, 
donnoient des paons blancs et des paons bleus, parce que cette race avoit ete produite par un paon blanc et une paone bleue. J'ain vu chez 
M le Marquis de Gouvernet, un paon d'une beaute admirable, dont le plumage etoit en partie blanc, et en partie bleu. Enfin, comme je 1 ai 
deja dit, deux chiens de differente espece produiront des metifs : ces metifs en produiront d'autres ; et ces divers melanges occasionneront par 
la suite une prodigieuse quantite de varietes." 

* This question on the Sexes of Plants, so honourably proposed by the Imperial Academy, was destined to end this controversy, and 
much to the honour of that great Nation, Sigesbeck, who had furiously written against the Sexual System, and was Professor of Botany at 
Petersburgh, not being able to reply, was rejected from among the Members of the Imperial Academy, and afterwards humbly solicited 
Linneeus to become a superintendant, or head gardener, at Upsal. Linnaeus, who never wished to triumph over a fallen enemy, named a plant 
Sigesbeckia, in honour of this fallen Professor. 



TOMKIWS /<■/■'/' 

Cooper Jadpi 

. , 

lonJvn PiM.ihr.l by D^Thomtim Juru i i 

[.inn i lis in ii ts Lapi jd Dress. 

ItunL-itrlcn Sri/.//' ' 

' v s [•■ ' ■ - : v in s Lapland Dki 

■/// //// ?>/"//// s/s/t 

\ s s 

// Kiriosbury Setup ' 


JT ir'd by the charms of Nature's reign, 

View the bold sage advent'rous stray: 
Rude storms around him rage in vain, 

And torrents cross his dang'rous way. 

Alone beside the roaring main 

'Mid shelving rocks he loves to roam, 
Where craggy cliffs, and caverns wide, 

Re-bellow to the whitening foam. 

Nor flies the fowl, nor mid the deeps 

Swim in bright maze the silver brood, 
Nor springs the plant, nor insect creeps, 

That can his piercing glance elude. 

New scenes his raptur'd sight surveys 

Amid Lapponia's peaceful soil; 
And while with ardent zeal he strays, 

Fair science crowns his pleasing toil. 

Through many a forest dark and drear, 

O'er many a desert's trackless side, 
With fearless foot he ranges round 

With Heaven and Nature for his guide. 

Now to yon mountain's airy height 

With look elate behold him rise, 
And view with still increas'd delight 

A midnight sun illume the skies. 

The simple swain with wond'ring eye 

Beholds him spring with eager bound ; 
Chase with fleet steps the noxious fly, 

Or pore upon the moss-clad ground. 

Now down Lulea's haunted stream 

His vent'rous bark pursues its way, 
While round the waving meteors gleam, 

And cataracts urge their dashing spray. 

Hail Nature's boast! triumphant sage! 

Whom distant cent'ries shall admire ; 
Whose name, rever'd through ev'ry age, 

Shall never but with time expire ! 



JLiNNiEus was ushered into the world in the month of May, 1707, and, as this great Naturalist 
observes in his Diary, " his parents received their first-born with joy, and devoted the greatest 
attention to impressing on his mind the love of virtue, both by precept and example. The 
same thing that is said of a poet, < Nascitur non fit,' may be, without impropriety, applied to 
the subject of this memoir. From the very time that he first left his cradle, he almost lived in 
his father's garden, which was planted with some of the rarer shrubs and flowers ; and thus were 
kindled, before he had well left his mother's arms, those sparks, which afterwards produced 
such a blaze/' As he advanced in youth, it is mentioned in the Diary, " that he never ceased 
harassing his father with questions about the names, qualities, and nature of every plant he saw, 
and often used to enquire more than even his father, who was an expert botanist, was able to 
answer." « Whilst at school," the Diary continues, " he employed his play hours hunting after 
plants," hence he was called ec The Little Botanist." He had made an Herbarium u at this 
early period," and " his plants were classed after the system of Tournefort." From school he 
went to " the university of Lund." Thence he removed to the famous university of " Upsal." 
Here an accident brought him early into notice. " In the autumn of the year 1729, 
Linnjeus was examining very intensely some plants in the Academic Garden, when Celsus, a 
venerable Divine, happened to have repaired thither for the same purpose. They fell into con- 
versation, and Celsus was so struck with admiration at the vast knowledge of plants discovered 
by Linn^us, that he requested him to bring his Herbarium along with him, which was even then 
very rich, and live with him free of every expense." Linn^us frankly observes in his Diary, 
" that in the library of Celsus he first saw a review in the Leipsic Commentaries of Vaillant's 
< Discourse on the Structure of Flowers/ which strongly inculcates the Sexes of Plants* and 
that this induced him to be more attentive to the Stamina and Pistilla in flowers, and that after 
minute and diligent examination, he found them to vary even as much as the Petals themselves ; 
upon which last circumstance the famous system of Tournefort is founded." The result of this 
extended enquiry Linnaeus committed to writing, and Celsus was so pleased with this manu- 
script treatise on the Sexes of Plants, that he sent it to Rudbec, the Professor of Botany at 
Upsal, who expressed much approbation, and in consequence desired Linnaeus to be sent to him. 
The result of their meeting was the appointment of Linn^us as lecturer in the room of Rudbec, 
who was now too far advanced in years to continue lecturing. Linn^us, therefore, gave his 
first public lecture in that university in the spring of 1730, and although only twenty-three years 
of age, was received by the pupils with every flattering mark of approbation ; and Rudbec 
appointed him also tutor to his sons, and he enjoyed, in the house of the aged professor, every 

* The discovery of th* Sexes of Plants is often arrogated by the French to Vai LLANT , but justly belongs to our own countryman Sir 

m2L™:t::::' Vide a note to our transiation of Linrws - **»**« « *• *■* WW ***« *, ;m&5 

this discovery is given. 

opportunity of further improvement. Rudbec had formerly travelled over Lapland in the year 
1679, at the command of Charles XI. but his journal was destroyed by the great fire at Upsal 
in 1702; but the ancient professor, with the garrulity of old age, would often discourse with him 
of his " young encounters," what he had seen, the new plants he had discovered, and he 
kindled up an ardent desire in the youthful mind of Linnaeus to visit those regions. Provi- 
dence appears always to have interfered for his advancement. Gustavus Adolphus, the 
reigning monarch, had directed the Royal Academy of Sweden to appoint some person to explore 
the natural productions of the Arctic Regions. Every eye was on this occasion naturally turned 
towards Linn^us, and, notwithstanding the sacrifice, even Rudbec wished to see his former 
labours revive by those of his successor. Linnjjus had even at this period planned out his 
Sexual System, but no body of plants had been arranged under it, which was another great 
stimulus to the active enterprizing mind of Linnaeus to accept the lure of ambition held out by 
the Royal Academy. Accoutred as he appears in our painting, he visited the whole of Lapland 
in the year 1732. 

Solus Hyperboreas glacies, Tanaimque nivalem, 
Arvaque Rhipseis nunquam viduata pruinis 


Virg. Georg. 

This gave origin to his first immortal work, the " Flora Lapponica," where Linnaeus relin- 
quished all former systems, and arranged the Northern Plants he had collected according to 
their Sexes, which greatly excited the attention of the botanist, and the world, towards THE 


This system at first had to encounter the opposition of men of the highest literary eminence 
in every country. In Russia it met with a most violent and bigotted opposition from Sigesbeck; 
in Germany, the envious resentment of Heister ; in France, the ridicule of Buffon; in Swit- 
zerland, the enlightened, but still prejudiced, rejection of Haller ; in Italy, the decided and 
laborious opposition of Pontedera; and in England, the sarcastic and futile objections of 
Alston ; whilst at home it was much opposed from the general envy of merit. But it soon 
triumphed over every obstacle, and notwithstanding the celebrated works of a Tournefort 
and a Jussieu, it is, even at this day, received as the predominant system in France, a country 
justly celebrated for the number of its learned men, and the general thirst after real knowledge, 
and great encouragement to science, and men of letters, but suspected of being extremely 
national; whilst in Russia, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and England, although there are fifty- 
two different systems of Botany, and we can boast of a Ray, yet the Sexual one is the only 
System that is universally adopted. 

* The reader must feel gratified at being informed, that " A View of the Life and Writings of Limueus," was some time back published by 
the late learned Dr Pultenet, of which admirable performance a new edition has lately appeared, with very considerable additions and 
improvements, by his very ingenious and no less learned nephew, Dr. Mato«, Vice-President of the Linmean Society, in which the Diary 
complete, from the MS. of Linn^us, may be seen, which cannot fail to interest every person who has any taste for science, or regard for 
extraordinary talents, and pre-eminent virtne. For further, and foil particulars, respecting the life of so transcendent a genius, we must 
beg leave to refer to that excellent work, and also to « Travels into Lapland," a translation of which, from Lihnjeus s MS. will shortly be 
published by the illustrious President of the Linmean Society, Dr. Smith. 







The method of Analysis is called by Logicians, that of invention, for it is the mode in 
which knowledge is acquired, and shews the progressive steps by which we advance in the 
acquisition of complex ideas. Here we are taught to compare, to reason, to determine, to adopt, 
and separate ; and, finally, in this way we arrive at certain conclusions, or truth. It is a mode 
admirably calculated for the exercise and strengthening of our reasoning powers, being the same 
also as that pursued by Mathematicians. 

Thus then is the systematic study of Botany one of the best books of logic, or reasoning, in 
the world; or, as some persons might wish to degrade it, a manly sort of Puzzle, but surely 
as instructive as it is amusing! 

A person who is in the pursuit of the Class and Order of any unknown flower may be said 
to be upon a BOTANICAL JOURNEY, and the plant being his Directory, if he can read the 
botanical characters impressed on it by the pen of Nature, he will certainly, following system, 
very soon arrive at his journey's end. 

In our first start we have two c Comparisons' to make, 

I. Whether the Sexes are e visible/ or 
II. Whether the Sexes are e invisible/ 

That is, whether the naked eye can discern the Pistillum and Stamina, or not. 

If e the sexes are not visible/ he has already reached the object of his destination, the plant, 
whose fructification he holds in his hand, comes under Class XXIV. * CRYPTOGAMIA' of 

If, on the reverse, < the sexes were visible/.... that is, the Stamina and Pistil/a apparent to 
sight... .he has now three Comparisons to make, which may be called the e second stage' of his 
Journey. He has carefully to examine 

* Vide Plate of the Analysis of the Sexual System. 

a I. Whether 

I, Whether the flowers are e Bisexual/ 
II. Whether the flowers are c Unisexual/ or 
III. Whether the flowers are e Mixed/ 
By c Bisexual' plants are underftood such, whose flowers have their Stamina and Pistilla (the 
male and female parts of Plants) inclosed within the same corolla. 

By f Unisexual/ such as produce flowers with the Stamina and Pistilla placed in different 

Lastly, by e Mixed/ is understood a mixture of the two kinds of flowers, e Bisexual/ and 
f Unisexual/ 

Having made tho necessary examination, if the Sexes are e mixed/ he is at once arrived 
at his journey's end, his plant is of the Class XXIII. POLYGAMIA. 

If e Unisexual/ he has one of two roads to take, 

I. The two Sexes are either e on the same plant/ or 
II. The two Sexes are e on different plants/ 

That is, Stamen-bearing flowers. (male flowers) and Pistil-bearing flowers (female flowers) are 
in the former instance to be found on the same plant, produced from the same root,... and in the 
latter case, the correspondent male and female flowers, are found on different plants, produced 
on different roots. 

His plant being as the directing post, he reads the botanical inscription, and discovers his 
plant to come either under the Class XXII. < DICECIA/ or Class XXI. < MONGECIA/ 

But if the flower was Bisexual, he has another course to take, and he has to see, 

I. Whether the e Anthers' are ' separate/ or 

II. Whether the c Anthers' are e united/ 

If he finds five c Anthers united' round the Pistillum, he has reached the object of his 
destination, namely Class XX. < SYNGENESIA/ 

If the e Anthers' were e separate/ he has to advance a 'fourth stage,' and to see, 
I. Whether the e Filaments' are c separate/ or 
II. Whether the e Filaments ' are ' united with each other/ or, 
III. Whether the ' Filaments ' are e united with the pistillum.' 
If the Filaments arise from any part of the Pistillum, or from a pedicle (column) elevating the 
Pistillum, the plant is then of Class XIX. ' GYNANDMA.' 

If the c Filaments are united with each other/ (these being joined together with a mem- 
brane), they are either, 

I. All of them united, ' forming one body/ or, 
II. Divided into ' two parcels/ making two bodies, or, 
III. Divided into f three, or more parcels/ each parcel being united. 
If united together, but forming ' three, or more parcels/ the flower falls under the Class 
XVIII. < POLYADELPHIA/...if forming < two bodies/ under Class XVII. < DIADELPHIA/ 
...and only < one body/ Class XVI. < MONODELPHIA/ 

But if the { Filaments' were s separate/ he has to examine, 

I. Whether these are ' proportionably long/ or, 
II. Whether these are of " different lengths.' 


Of different lengths relate only to four or six stamina.. .If his flower has ' six stamina/ 
and of these he finds e four long and two short, he has reached his destination, Class XV. 
< TETRAD YNAMIA/... if ' four stamina/ e two' of these < being long and < two short/ 
he discovers his plant to be of the Class XIV. < DIDYNAMIA/ 

If his flower falls under none of the former considerations, he has an easy task now assigned 
him, only count ' numbers/ but if these amount to s twenty or more stamina/ he has also to 
attend to c insertion.* 

I. Whether e inserted on the calyx or corolla, or, 
II. Whether e inserted on the receptacle/ 
If ' inserted on the receptacle/ the Class is XIII. ' POLYANDRIA/...and if on the 
calyx or corolla, Class XII. ' ICOSANDRIA/ 

The other comparisons are equally easy, as Class XT. < DODECANDRIA, twelve to 
nineteen stamina/... Class X. ' DECANDRIA, ten stamina/... Class IX. < ENNEANDRIA. 
nine stamina.'... .Class VIII. < OCTANDRIA, eight stamina/.... Class VII. < HEPTAN- 
DRIA, seven stamina.'... Class VI. < HEXANDRIA, six stamina.'... Class V. < PEN- 

TANDRIA, five stamina.' Class IV. ' T£TRANDRIA ? four stamina/.... Class III. 

< TRIANDRIA, three stamina/.... Class II. ' DIANDRIA, two stamina.'.... Class I. < MO- 

NANDRIA, one stamen.' 

After this Analysis or Separation, the student should take the classes in the reverse order, 
commencing with Class I. MONANDRIA, and ending with Class XXIV. CRYPTOGA- 

* Vide our Synthesis of the Classes and Orders of the Sexual System, immediately following the Table of Analysis . 

^> imt Wltxal K'cpxwntatto n of the ^ exx\<\\ ^ y$Um. 

>- — - - . c , ^-^ 


^ u; ' v ^, CJLASSES 

i S l a i nc 1 1 . 

. fi ■! i'hi/i Comparison . 


.Proportion ably 

1 on g; 

' S lainin ;i. 


3 S la in in a. 

4 S taiu i n a . 

5 Stamina. 


6 S ta mi n a. 

I /I'.nuii/.ntiJ 


Second Stage,. 

r? Comparison. 


with the Sexe s 

Anther s 

7 S tami n a. 


8 Stain ina. 

t hi<i/ii/rid 

9 S ta in i n a. 

io S t.amiua. 

12 to 19 S tamina. 

2 o, o r tap re 

S tami n a. 


1 n s e rt ed on i ii e 
Calyx or Corolla. 


Inserted not on 

the C aJvx,l)ii ( o n 

the Receptacle. 


or, of dif'fe rent 
Le n s>'tJi s. 

4 Stamin a, 2 above. 

/ )h/l/ Ihllll III 

6 Stain in a, 1 above 



or, Filaments 

united with each 


Forming', one Bod.35 


Two Bo die s; 


Three Bodies. 


or.witb the I'istilliim. 


or.Anlliers united 




or, U ni s e xu a 1; 



or, M ixed. 


The two Sexes on 
the same I'l a 11 1 ; 

or, on di I'l'e real 








\ * 








DlOi C I A. 






or, I n vi s i hi e. 


fa,) Stamina and PisOla perceptible-. /> Stamina and Pistill,, not discernible., oj Stamina and I'lsii/I,, i„ the ,■„,,„■ Corolla.. HI Flowers having ihe Stamina and PistOla 
separate Corollas, r' Unisexual flowers also Bisexual, 'fjjs fowls have ,/„■„■ toes welled. ,, /1 should le added,**- fixed upon a pillar elevating the PisaOum . 

ON Itn'm! 

Ii \ 1 .1 slice of Cork stands for u Corolla or Calyx. 

upon a pi/ 

11 fin for ,i Stamen i IK with a Piece of fori- at ihr point for a Pistuaan. 

To.UKI.WS- for. 


London I'lltll.r/,,;! /„■ / ),* ?/„,,/,/, ,„ ./„/„/,„.,. ., ,»., 



Section i.Tiii'. Orders of the following thirteen Cfafses i.monandkia . ii.Diamhua. ui .Thixndbia. iv. Tetrandrla . v. Pentandrl\.\T.Hexandria ."VH.HEBTAHDRIA .vdi.Octandria . rx.ENNEANDRiA.X . DeCandria . xi .Dodec axdri a .sii_ 
[coSAsnDHJA.xm.PoLYANDRiA.are takenfrom the NUMBER of PisnLLA.,and&/miha& in Gynia, asthe Chdies did m Andria, wilh the Greek Wumerrdsbrereeduigilhus, 


i . Monogynia , One /'is///////// . 

II . DlGYNIA , TWO T/sl/77/ . 

III. Tuygyma, 27/ /rr J'/'s////// . 

IV. TETRAGYNIA, /'(>///' l'/s//7/i/ . 

v . Pentagyxi a , Five J'is////i/ . 

Tl . HEXAGYNIA, SlX J'/s///// . 

vii. Beftagynia, Seven J'/s///// . 

VSl. OCTOC.YN1A, A'////// lid//// . 

IX . l'A'XIiACY.MA, X///( /'/s///// . 

X . DBCAGYNIA, '/'<// I'/s/ll/t/ . 

AM . DODECAGYNIA, 7'u'lll V l'is//7/i/ . 

All . POLYGYNIA , .17///// l'/'s////l/ . 

Sect, h . Clafs. xiv. Dtdynamia has //< OiiDHK s , taken from tfu Situation <>/' i/k Seeds. 

1 . Gymnospermia Xt//,-it7 Seeds. 

ii . angiospermia, Covered' Seeds (Seeds Capsuled. J 

SEct.m.r/^/,v xv. Ti.tkadyxamia./y/.',' its OREERSdrom a difference i/i du Shape of the Sebdvessel. 


i . Stliculosa , /'>// a Sdtcle i a dtvad Jbd './ 

n . Sii.iqu ()sa , fbd i/ Siuaue fa long Pod .) 

SECTJV. £2^^,X$TMO"NODELFBIAXOT.DL^BLPBL4J£Vni. POLYADELrilLY.^V C 7i//s XIX V/dc SECT. vju/so Clap} .XX.GYNANDRIA. have their ORDERS til/ii'/i /'m/ll ///< NUMBER of STAMINA; thus , 


i . Monandria, One .S /////n// 

ii . DiANimiA, 7'w/i Stamina 

ui . Triandbia, Three Stamina-, ?■ so on,as /// /l/r first Ihirleen Clcdses, to 

JOE . POLYANDRIA , Till///// .'/' ///i'/'i' S/////////I/ . US ///Sl/lfd H// l//i' /iWifll/l/l' 

Tor here the Pistilla , Seed.or Seedve/st 7 furnished no subdivisions, hence di< nece/suy <>J having recourse to the Number alone , <///d Number wilh INSERTIONS of the Stamina , 
sect A 7 . C/o/s xix SYNGENESIA has us ORDERS taken from the NATURE of the YLOWER.andio understand this well // in// be nece/sarg /<• point it out bg an Analysis . 


all t//i Florets the saaib i . 

( Bisexual .) 


/ Compound 
Composed o/ 

Florets having 
Five Anthers 
i Conniving 

Each Floret having 
No Peculiar Calyx 




Florets diversified, 
some Bisexual, others 


Bisexual /// the 

Disk, PERFECTr- 

Pistil-flowers /// the 

J{<///, PERFECT II . 


R'stdflowers oi the 

in . 



Bisexual /// //n 
7)/.d,-,\)s\VV.\K\'VVX 7/o/r(s in //, /'////, PERFECT. 




Each Floret having 


ISinsCompoundbut having the. Character of the Clafs, Vivu ANTHERS conniving v . 

sect .vi . (///sis. xxi moxckcla. xxn DioiciA. tu/r thezr Orders from- the number , and other Peculiarities, of the. Stamina., as eap/cuhed ui our Analysis of the Clafses, thus 


I . AIOXANDIUA . One ■ S/1////1/I . 

11 - DiA.MJitiA 7'ni' S/11/11//K1, those t'li/sis subdividing tnefreceedmg da/ses down &> 

xix . Gynandiua '?:. Stamina arising irom the Rsallum . 

XX . SY-NGENE SIA S . l/i///</s ///d/cd . 

For i/s we descendwiA. the CLA8 have the fireeminciice 0/ those placed above them,, and hence what would otherwise h/rr been Classes, become ORDERS, wilh the Clafsical AppeUaaofuThis seeming and perplexing incongruity is 
Obviated id our REFORMED SEXUAL .System for afidl eapla/la/ion of w/i/r/i , Vide our philosophy of Botany. 

Sect .vii .thus in C///s xxiii . 1'oi.vga-MIA ivc have ORDERS . 

1 . 
n . 
111 . 

1 . 

AlOA (EC1A , ()/„■ //(,///////'/>// . 

DI03CIA, Two //(//i/i//io//s . 

Tricecia T///ir Saiihzh'ons . 

sect.x'iii .Clafs XXIV Crypto gam i.\ ./as Jour Orders . 

FJXICES, fr/v/s . 

n . Misci . 

Mofses ■ 


in . mx\m. , Sif/llrids. 

iv. Fungi Funguses . 

. VoTJSS. 
fa) yd/in// /'idt/gtuit//,(l/j Superfluous Folggamg, both lands of Florets bearing Seeds, fo) Disappointed Polygamy, the Florets in the Disk only producing 
S<id,(d) .Xrri'/sn/y /'idi/i/i//////, F/oiTts in //;r 7d/// outproducing Seed,(e) 'l7/i '.reader may be starded at seeing Order to "Mo"ncecia, or 
Dubcxa., S&ixs apart ,/>/// he should now be informed, that the. number of Stamina is redeemed abvaysjrom the filaments , barren Anthers, count for Nothing, 
i//ii/ that barren list/lias, also count for Wothing ,thus then dun- is on separate Plants, a Female or /'is/d bearing 
v\.yvv\.\, »/////>/// Stamina, and also another of the sn/w land Hvdudngjive Stamina, tlie Style /n/v 
is very long, bearing die Stamina from the middle, but there is no Germerv, 
hence improperly belongs to dafs xxn dickcia . order 

(i YXANUItlA . 

/. oruUm . FubUshed fy II'.' Thornton January ; . tOoj 


I. Classes derived from the Consideration of the Number of Stamens. 

Class I. Monandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. 

Class II. Diandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. 

Class III. Triandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. 

Class IV. Tetrandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Tetragynia. 

Class V. Pentandria \Ozterl. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia, Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Tetragynia. 

I Order V. Pentagynia. Order VI. Polygynia. 

Class VI. Hexandria ("Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Tetragynia. Order V 

I Polygynia. 

Class VII. Heptandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Tetragynia. Order IV. Heptagynia. 

Class VIII. Octandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Tetragynia. 

Class IX. Enneandria Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Trigynia. Order III. Hexagynia. 

Class X. Decandria ("Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Pentagynia. 

\ Order V. Decagynia. 8J 

Class XL Dodecandria ("Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Pentagynia 

I Order V. Dodecagynia. 

II. CWes derived from the Consideration of Number and Insertion. 

Class XII. Icosandria ("Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Pentagynia 

I Order V. Polygynia. hJ 

Class XIII. Polyandria ("Order I. Monogynia. Order II. Digynia. Order III. Trigynia. Order IV. Tetragynia Order V 

I Pentagynia. Order VI. Hexagynia. Order VII. Polygynia. 

III. Classes derived from the Consideration of Number and Proport 

Class XIV. Didtn amia Order I. Gymnospermia. Order II. Angiospermia. 

Class XV. Tetradynamia Order I. Siliculosa. Order II. Siliqi 



IV. Classes deiived from the Consideration of Union. 

fW YVT tvt S° V ^ V r}\ Tl 'i a n £ ri " a - 0rder IL Penta ^ria. Order III. Octandria. Order IV. Enneandria 

Class XVI. Monadelphia j Order V De^drm. Order VI. JE/ideamd™. Order VII. Dodecandria. oX TllT 

(. Polyandria. 

Class XVII. Diadelphia Order I. Pentandria. Order II. Hexandria. Order II. Octandria. Order IV Decandria 

Class XVIII. Polyadelphia Order I. Pentandria. Order II. Icosandria. Order III. Polyandria. 

™ VTV ^ fOrder I. Diandria. Order II. Triandria. Order III. Tetrandria. Order IV Pentandria 

Class XIX. Gynandria <^ Order V HeWnVz. Order VI. 2W<H«. Order VII. Dodecandria Order V 1 T 

v. Polyandria. 

Class XX. Syngenesia 1°"% ^^f «?"««*. Order II. Po/ygwmV* s^erfe. Order III. Polygamia frustranea 

I Order IV. PoZj^/ma «e««nV, Order V. Polygamia segregata. Order VI. MomgamTa. 

V. Classes derived from the Consideration of Separation. yyt A/r f° rder n L Mort ; andria - Order IL Diandria. Order III. Triandria. Order IV. Tetrandria Order V 

Class XXI. Mohoicia J ^"'m °?f^ *T^ 0rder V1L *•**»**• Order VIlTpolyanZia. 

K. Order IX. Monadelphia. Order X. Syngenesia. Order XI. Gynandria. 

(Order -I. Monandria. Order II. Diandria. Order III. Triandria. Order IV. Tetrandria Order V 
Class XXII. Dicecia 5 Pentawirm. Order VI. Hexandria. Order VII. Octandria. Order VIII Enneandria 

1 ? r , /• i )e I rar? ™* ° rderX - dodecandria. Order XL Polyandria. Order XII. M>™' 
C delphia. Order XIII. Syngenesia. Order XIV. Gynandria. 

Class XXIII. Polygamia Order I. MoncBcia. Order II. D/teda. Order III. Tricecia. 

VI. y4 CW derived from the Consideration of Concealment. 
Class XIV. Cryptogamia Order I. Filices. Order II. Musci. Order III. Alga. Order IV. Fungi. 



I. Monandria one Stamen. 

II. Diandria two Stamina. 

III. Triandria three Stamina 

IV. Tetrandria four Stamina. 

V. Pentandria five Stamina. 

VI. Hexandria six Stamina. 

VII. Heptandria seven Stamina. 

VIII. Octandria eight Stamina. 

IX. Enneandria nine Stamina. 

X. Decandria ten Stamina. 

XI. Dodecandria twelve to nineteen Stamina. 

XII. Polyandria twenty or more Stamina. 

XIII. Cryptogamia concealed Stamina. 













I. Orders taken from the Number of Pistilla. 

Monogynia one Pistillum. 

Digynia two Pistilla. 

Trigynia three Pistilla. 

Tetragynia four Pistilla. 

Pentagynia fire Pistilla. 

Hexagynia six Pistilla. 

Heptagynia seven Pistilla. 

Octogynia eight Pistilla. 

Enneagynia nine Pistilla. 

Decagynia ten Pistilla. 

Dodecagynia twelve to nineteen Pistilla. 

Polygyria twenty, or more Pistilla. 

Class Cryptogamia has the natural orders, I 


II. Or 

ders taken from some curious particularity in the Stamina. 

Didynamia four Stamina, two long, two short. 

Tetradynamia ... six Stamina, four long, two short. 

S twenty, or more Stamina, inserted on the 

1 Calyx or Corolla. 

Monadelphia filaments united in one body. 

Diadelplua filaments united, forming two bodies. 

Polyadelphia . . . {^^ United ' f ° rmin S three or more 

Syngenesia five anthers united. 

Gynandria Stamina arising from the Pistil. 

("Stamina apart from the Pistil on the same 
\ plant. 


XV. Icosandria 




XXI. Monaicia 




Diacia f Stamina apart from the Pistil on different 
1 plants. 

Polygamia bisexual flowers, and unisexual. 

II. Musci. III. Algte. 

IV. Fungi. 


I. The Class IV. Tetrandria, being a numerous one, Linnaeus chose to separate it into two, and an opportunity presented itself from the 

consideration of the differences which occur in plants having four stamina, from the -pro-portion of these. Didynamia expresses this 
difference ; and the flowers are either ringent or personate, a natural tribe. But as all the ringcnt flowers are not included in the class 
Didynamia, some coming under Class II. Diandria, there can be no good reason for not. making this real division of a class into an 
Order. The System hence becomes more easy and regular, and in fact frequently , more natural. 

II. The Class VI. Hexandria, also readily separates into two parts, from the like consideration of the proportion in the stamina and Tetra- 

dynamia contains the natural tribe of cruciform plants. 

III. The Class XIII. Polyandria, also readily divides into twc parts, from the consideration of the insertion of the stamina, and one of 
these, the Icosandria, of . Linnaeus, possesses many edible fruits, but as it is not altogether a natural class, therefore no one can regret 
seeing this part distinguished as an order. 

IV. In the Monadelphia of Linnasus, many of the numerical names, which had been used to characterize the Classes, are employed to dis- 
tinguish the Orders, or subdivisions, as Pentandria, Decandria, &c. and hence arises a confusion unavoidably perplexing to the young 
student, and which our Method, as is evident, completely removes. The same observation applies to the Classes Diadelplua, Polyadel- 
phia, Gynandria, Monoecia, Dicecia, where the same (may I call it so) impropriety occurs. This class in Linnaeus is not natural 
but being made into orders, many of them then become natural as orders, as the Columnifer^e. 

V. The Papilionaceous Flowers, as they are generally termed, form the Order Decandria in the Class Diadelphia of Linnaeus • but the 

author, unwilling, as it would seem, to make any breach in so natural an assemblage of plants, has so far deviated from the principles of 
his System, as to refer to that Class several genera, which strictly belong to the preceding Class, being in fact Monadelpliious. This 
inconvenience is entirely obviated in the present scheme, where Monadelphia and Diadelphia constitute two successive Orders in our 
Class X. Decandria. 

Polyadelphia is a small, and, as Doctor Smith observes, " rather an unnatural class." Most persons are shocked to see Citrus, the 
orange, in this class, and not in the Icosandria class; for Linnjeus describes it of the Class XVIII. Polyadelphia Order III. Icos- 
andria. Now in our Reformed Sexual System, it comes under Class XIII. Polyandria, Order Icosandria, in juxta-position with 
other edible fruits, in the subdivision Polyadelphia. 

Class V. Pentandria, a very numerous class, is subdivided by Syngenesia, and so formed into two classes by Linnaeus, the latter 
of which, however, as containing an order Monogamia, is not therefore altogether a natural class. We obviate this by making Syn- 
genesia an order, and the subdivision Polygamia to contain the natural tribe of compound flowers; whilst, under another subdivision, 
Monogamia, many plants, not having compound flowers, arrange themfelves. 

VIII. Against Gynandria, which Doctor Smith calls, " an odd and miscellaneous class," there lies the same objection, as we observed 
above, as against the Class Diadelphia, the numerical names of Classes being applied to Orders. In our scheme, Class II. Diandria, 
has an Order Gynandria, which contains the natural tribe of Orchises; and thus the mind is delighted to see a natural assemblage 
embraced in an order, if not in a class. The separation of the remainder cannot be regretted, as not possessing amongst each other the 
smallest affinity. 

IX. Mon(ecia is a miscellaneous class, and borrows the names of its secondary divisions from most of the other classes, as Monandria, Di- 
andria, &c. nay even from Monadelphia, Syngenesia, and Gynandria ; for all these become, in Linn^eus's Sexual System, Orders. 
In our scheme, Class Triandria, Order Monacia, contains mostly grasses, hence we retain this natural assemblage in the same class 
at least, if not in the same order. 

X. Diozcia. The same remarks apply here, as in Monoscia. 

XI. Polygamia subdivides the classes Mon&cia and Dicecia ; therefore in the logic of science it is in reality an order. 




Pascitur in vivis livor, post fata qtjiescit 
tum suis ex meritis cuique tuetur honos. 

i5ome apology is certainly necessary, after any endeavour to reform so celebrated and established a System, as the Sexual System of the illus- 
trious Linnaeus. Many alterations in this system have been attempted. The enlightened pupil of Linnaeus, Thunberg, abolished the classes 
XX. Gynandria, XXI. Moncecia, XXII. Dicecia, and XXIII. Polygamia. Gmelin, Professor at Gottingen, to the alterations introduced 
by Thunberg, in publishing a new edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae, added the abolition of Class XII. Icosandria ; and the no less cele- 
brated Dr. Smith, preserving the rest of the System entire, has abolished Order V. Monogamia in Class IX. Syngenesia, and Class XIII. Po- 
lygamia. " To his Class Polygamia," says Dr. Smith, " many students of tropical plants justly objected in his lifetime, and he, as well as 
his son, listened to their observations." Dr. Withering, in his Arrangement of British Plants, has followed the system of Gmelin. Pro- 
fessor Martyn, speaking of the changes introduced by Schreber, in his new edition of Linnaeus's Genera Plantarum, says, that his reduc- 
tion of Class XX. Gynandria, appears " reasonable," yet the singularity of the Order Diandria surely demanded a separate place to itself. 
But when he comes to mention the incorporation by Gmelin of the Class Icosandria into the Polyandria, he declares this change to be 
" abominable." 

I am aware, that venturing to reform in such a degree the Sexual System, as I have done, will bring upon me, with some, much severe 
reproach. I am conscious, indeed, as well as others, that the credit of the Sexual System of Linnaeus, as an invention, surpasses all power 
of praise, and hence has found enthusiastic admirers ; and with timid hands I have ventured to take to pieces the superstructure he raised, 
and build up from the old materials, which I have carefully and religiously preserved, a new edifice, suited to modern improvement and 
convenience ; hoping, however, that those who may, hereafter, publish the works of Linnaeus, will edite the Sexual System as delivered by 
himself, and not bring forward, in the works said to be those of Linnaeus, what he never either thought or wrote. For a full defence of the 
Reformed Sexual System vide my " Practical Botany, being a New Illustration of the Genera of Plants, with dissections of each Genus," 
where this subject has been particularly considered and discussed. 

In a word, as by system is only meant a plan to facilitate the acquirement of the knowledge of plants, the more easy this is contrived 
to accomplish the proposed end, the better such a system will be accounted ; and I have endeavoured so to contrive this, that I hope no longer 
any very great obstacles can arise in the way of the student, and that this will plead my excuse with a discerning and indulgent public for 
venturing to step out of the beaten path, to attempt the reformation of a system which has conferred immortal honour upon the inventor, 
and received the general plaudits and admiration of the learned throughout Europe. It appeared to me more advisable to reform the whole, 
than to make any partial amendments ; either to adopt the system as delivered to us by Linnaeus, or to have the present system, as erected 
out of the materials of the old ; a system which I hope may not moulder, like the other systems,* into the sand of which they were composed, 
but resemble the youthful Phosnix arising from the ashes of its parent, or as a rock in the midst of the ocean, may remain until " the wreck 
of matter and the crush of worlds." 

It is certainly a great satisfaction for me to find, that although the learned and venerable Professor Martyn has long openly disapproved 
of the changes made in the Sexual System by the several Reformers, yet he writes to me — 


" I by no means disapprove of your new attempt to render the Sexual System, by the manner in which you have done it, an easier 
medium of attaining a knowledge of Plants; and have been long convinced in my own mind, that we strive in vain to unite a natural with 
an artificial arrangement. Upon your plan, I see no impropriety in bringing the orchideje into the Second Class; nor can I even object to 
your altering, as you have done, the separated classes of Linnaeus, Icosandria and Polyandria. Your method is ably considered through- 
out; for along with you I hold our great Master's System as sacred, and can never approve of those greater alterations" (he might have said 
mutilations) " which some of his pupils have made, so differently is to be estimated the conduct of persons engaged in the same object." 

The Rev. Doctor Milne, the learned author of " A Botanical Dictionary" writes to me — 


" Your Reformed Schem'e of the Linnxan System has my entire approbation. It possesses all the admirable and elegant simplicity of 
that of Rivinus, which has always been a great favourite with me, from the steady adherence of the author to the Principles of his Method, 
and is eminently adapted for practice. Your remarks respecting the Sexual System are truly excellent; your New Illustration admirable." 

Doctor Shaw, of the British Museum, a gentleman not less eminent as a botanist, than a naturalist, declares, " that he believes had 
Linnaeus been alive, the Reformed Sexual System would be that which he himself would have instantly adopted." 

Similar are the flattering opinions also of several other distinguished botanists, who have expressed their approval of the Reformed Sexual 
System. But with extreme diffidence I fubmit it to the judgment of the world. 

* Not less than fifty-two systems of Botany have been published, several of them of very considerable merit, but not practical/}/ good, hence most of them are now forgotten. 


T H I..R D. 


With Flowers the Graces bind their golden hair, 

And Flowery Wreaths consenting Lovers wear. 

Flowers, the sole luxury which nature knew 

In Eden's pure and guiltless Garden grew. 

To loftier forms are rougher tasks assign'd ; 

The sheltering Oak resists the stormy wind, 

The tougher Yew repels th' invading foe, 

And the tall Fines for future navies grow ; 

But this soft family, to cares unknown, 

Were born for pleasure and delight alone, 

Gay without toil, and lovely without art, 

They spring to cheer the sense and glad the heart 


Tbmkins fcrip. 

Vincent fculp. 








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' ■ . ■ .-.,•' by DT Tharntcn.May i. 


Milton has given us a fine description of the most perfect garden. 

Through Eden went a river large, 

Nor chang'd his course, but through the shaggy hill 
Pass'd underneath ingulph'd, for God had thrown 
That mountain as this garden mound, high rais'd 

Upon the rapid current 

from that sapphire fount the crisped brooks 

Rolling on orient pearl, and sands of gold, 
With mazy error under pendent shades, 
Ran fruitfulness, visiting each plant, 
Flowers worthy of Paradise, which not nice art 
In beds and curious knots, but Nature's boon 
Pour'd forth profuse on hill, and dale, and plain, 
Both where the morning sun first warmly smote 
The open field, and where the unpierc'd shade 

Imbrown'd the noon-tide bow'rs Thus was this place 

A happy seat of various view 

So in our picturesque botanical plates the reader must not expect to see yew trees 
cut into various forms, long avenues of upright timber, gravel-walks meeting to some circular 
bason of water, or a cascade playing its forced part, statues stationed at the four corners of a 
smooth carpet of turf, labyrinths, boats on the water fashioned like a swan, cards to keep the 
calyxes from bursting, upright sticks, and regular disposition, that place where Leisure 


In trim garden takes his pleasure" 

But each scenery is appropriated to the subject. Thus in the night-blowing Cereus you have 
the moon playing on the dimpled water, and the turret-clock points XII, the hour at night 
when this flower is in its full expanse. In the large-flowering Mimosa, first discovered on the 
mountains of Jamaica, you have the humming birds of that country, and one of the aborigines 
struck with astonishment at the peculiarities of the plant. In the Canada Lily there is expressed 
the shade it delights in, with a sky whose clouds yet contain snow within their bosom. In the 
narrow-leaved Kalmia, which comes forth under the same zone, but at an earlier season, the 
mountains are still covered with their fleecy mantle. The nodding Renealmia, on the con- 
trary, has a warm sky, and cocoa-nut trees skirt the distant scenery. The Auricula is repre- 
sented as flourishing on Alpine mountains, when the utility of their banner becomes conspicuous. 
In the Dodecatheon, or American Cowslip, a sea view is given, and a vessel bearing a flag 
of that country: the same is shewn by a butterfly in the plates of the oblique-leaved Begonia; 
and the Pontic Rhododendron. In the Chinese Limodoron, and the Indian Canna, are 
represented the pagodas of the East. The Tulips and Hyacinths are placed in Holland, 
where these flowers are particularly cultivated, embellishing a level country. The Aloe erects, 
in contrast, its stately form among mountains, and the height and shape of the whole plant 
may be seen in the back-ground. In the maggot-bearing Stapelia you will find represented 
a green African snake, and a blow-fly in the act of depositing her eggs in the flower, with the 
maggots produced from this cause. The clouds are disturbed, and every thing looks wild and 
sombre about the dragon Arum, a plant equally poisonous as foetid. In the white Lily, where 
a dark back-ground was obliged to be introduced to relieve the flower, there is a break, pre- 
sentino* to the view a temple, the only kind of architecture that can be admitted in a garden. 
Hence the several species of Passion-flowers are seen clambering up pillars, reaching to 
different heights. As each of these beauties of the vegetable race are carefully dissected, it is 
hoped, that the rigid botanist will excuse the author, who, striving at universal approbation, has 

thus endeavoured to unite the 

" Utile Dulci." 



<' aldwall satif) 



Ihe introduction of Flora, Ceres, and iEscuLAPius, is emblematic of the advantages 
derived from the study of the science of Botany, as in the works of Linnaeus, to physic, agrL 
culture, and as an elegant pursuit for Ladies. Cupid is represented in allusion to the sexual 
system, invented by Linnaeus. The Zephyr above denotes Spring, the season most favourable 
to the study of Botany. The fair forms of Flora and of Cupid, with the bust of Linn^us, 
cannot fail to disclose to the eye of the observer the magic pencil of a Russel; and the figures 
of jEsculapius and Ceres, the nervous and masterly strokes of an Opie. 


Sacred to great LINNAEUS' honour' d name,, 
A laurel grove perpetuates his fame, 
Where deck'd in honest pride by Sculpture's hand, 
See rival nations* bid his image stand, 
The foremost of the human race to rise, 
Nor servile flattery this, or base disguise. 
Crowds, now retiring, leave the hallow'd place, 
When Sol's bright car has run its daily race, 
And gold-fring'd pearly clouds dissolve away, 
And evening veils the glaring face of day. 

Then, first, the sprightly, subtle boy, 

Beauty's offspring, winged LOVE, 

Bounding on in wanton joy, 

Springs forward to the laurel grove, 

And grateful traces on the stone 

In golden lines his tribute gay f , 

Proud thus indelibly to own 

The triumphs of his tender sway, 

* In allusion to the bust of Linnaeus, which was first raised in the botanic garden of Edinburgh by the botanical Professor. 


as was also done in the year 1790, in the botanic garden at Paris, by a decree of the National Assembly. 

f The lines which Cupid writes on the pedestal are as follow: 

All animated Nature owns my sway, 

Earth, sea, and air, my potent laws obey, 

And thou, divine Linnaeus, trac'd my reign 

O'er trees, and shrubs, and Flora's beauteous train, 

Proved them obedient to my soft controul, 

And gaily breathe an aromatic soul. 

Charlotte Lenox. 

TV 1< dv was invited by the late illustrious Dr. Samuel Johnson, to meet all his literary acquaintances. After dinner, the Doctor gave, 
« To the Muses," and as one of them, he publickly crowned this celebrated authoress with bays. Vide Life of Johnson prefixed to his 
stupendous Dictionary. 


Light fantastic, and elegantly free, 
Next FLORA, blue-ey'd goddess, jocund, see, 
In snow-white vesture, half -pellucid, drest, 
Through whose thin folds, by Zephyrus carest, 
A form celestial presses to the sight 
In graceful symmetry. As Venus bright 
She moves, that lively goddess of desire ! 
But looks the vestal maid to check the fire, 
And breathes the rapturous delight of sense, 
And smiles with beaming grace of innocence. 
She weaves her varied wreath 
In artless, sweet simplicity, 
While every flower her feet beneath 
Springs upward to felicity, 
Happy if pluck'd by Flora's hand, 
Their several tints, by skill when wrought, 
Of sweets will form a blooming band ; 
A garland to the sage she brought. 


Then nut-brown CERES, as she walks along, 
Trilling in rustic phrase her ev'ning song, 
When from the plenteous harvest she returns, 
Bearing the yellow wealth which labour earns, 
Quick from the summit of the hill she spies 
The honour'd bust, and soon a wreath she ties, 
A golden chaplet, choice reward of heaven ! 
Unfading crown, to mortals rarely given, 
And hastes away to join the lovely pair, 
And pay with gratitude her homage there. 
By the sparkling of her eye, 
Of the darkest hazel hue ; 
By her forehead arched high, 
And tawny freckles not a few, 
The village maid is clearly seen, 
Flush'd in ruddy glow of health, 
Beauteous goddess of the plain, 
Fruitful source of all our wealth. 



Last, reverend age with sober step appears, 

And perfect praise to great LINNAEUS rears; 

For lo! where sapient ^SCULAPIUS nigh 

Lifts with delight the warm enraptur'd eye, 

And owns the debt his science owes to thee, 

Great Northern Genius, Sire of Botany ! 

The knotty staff, the twining serpent, tell 

Apollo's favour'd son, denoting well 

The difficulties, and the cunning art 

Requir'd to parry Death's envenom'd dart. 
Thus hoary WISDOM * here combines 
And each their proper homage joins, 
Unrivall'd S W EDE ! thy worth to prove. 
Thus manly ADMIRATION stands, 
And CUPID writes immortal fame, 
While FEMALES use with lavish hands 
Their flowers in honour of thy name. 

Samuel Hull Wilcock. 

* iEsculapius. f Flora. £ Ceres. § Cupid. 

^RcinagU SenTAJt/Lpinx. 1 

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doc'l T " bCe ° S " SgeS,ed " yGm »"" S " T —» n™«»». and this 

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occasioned U.„„ , „ ite . dissetta , ion „„ ^ ^.^ ^ • 

honourable award. 

Teeming with Nature's lively hues, 
I bid thee welcome, genial spring! 
While fancy wakes her thousand lyres, 
And woods and vales responsive sing. 

She comes; lo! winter scowls away; 
Harmonious forms start forth to view, 
Nymphs tripping light in circles gay, 
Deck'd in their robes of virgin hue. 

Then I, on am'rous sportings bent, 

Like a sly archer take my stand; 

Wide through the world my shafts are sent; 

And ev'ry creature owns my hand. 

First man, the lord of all below, 
A captive sinks beneath my dart; 
And lovely woman, made to glow, 
Yields the dominion of her heart. 

Through sea and earth and boundless sky, 
The fond subjection all must prove, 
Whether they swim the stream or fly, 
Mountain or vale or forest rove. 

Nor less the Gardens sweet domain, 
The mossy heath and verdant mead, 
The tow 'ring hill, the level plain, 
And fields with blooming life o'erspread. 

George Dyer. 





Odi profanum Valgus, et arceo. 


O, come not here, ye proud, whose breasts infold 

Th' insatiate wish of glory, or of gold ; 

O come not ye, whose wrinkled foreheads wear 

Th' eternal frown of envy, or of care ; 

For YOU no Dryad decks her fragrant bowers, 

For YOU her sparkling urn no Naiad pours; 

Unmark'd by YOU light Graces skim the green, 

And hov'ring Cupids aim their shafts unseen. — 

But THOU, whose Mind the well-attemper'd ray 
Of taste, and virtue, lights with purer day, 
Whose finer Sense each soft vibration owns, 
With sweet responsive sympathy of tones ; 
For THEE sweet Cereas and Renealmias glow, 
And other plants their curious structure shew; 
For THEE my Failles nurse the varied Wreath; 
My Rivers murmur, and my Zephyrs breathe; 
My painted Birds their vivid plumes unfold, 
And Insects wave their little wings of gold— 
So the fair Flower expands her lucid form 
To meet the Sun, and shuts it to the Storm. 


Pettier pinx: 

WWard /■:„,„■,„■.;■/.■ ///:.// //,. VuJccofYork.j-rulp.' 

London-Published by DTTTiornton.Sept'. iSoq. 


In viewing with attention the works of Nature, we cannot fail to notice the highest degree of 
perfection and harmony of parts. In the animal creation, when the morning is but dawning, 
we have first the plaintive matin of the robin ; as the sun becomes nearer the horizon, the wake- 
ful lark, on vibrating wing, gives his cheerful song ; the sun once fully risen, and all the warblers 
of the forest unite in the vocal concert; after a pause, the sun declining, the nightingale joins 
the robin, but with a song in a much more plaintive strain, and she finally ends in a solo; a and 
when utter darkness closes the scene, the frog croaks, the owl screeches, and all partakes of 
the solemnitv of night. An African scene at this late hour is dreadful indeed 1 Besides the 
hissing of serpents, there are the continual barkings of the wolf and jackall, the yell of the 
tyger, hyaena, and panther, and the roaring of the lion, appalling every heart with fear. 


January 26. The Snow-Drop (Galanthus nivalis) flowers. 

With the same judicious harmonizing of parts, the first flower that appears on the verge of 
winter is the Snow-Drop, of a pale white, with a little green in the three central petals, whose 
form the poetess thus elegantly depicts. 

Poets still, in graceful numbers, 

May the glowing Roses choose; 
But the Snow-Drop's simple beauty 

Better suits an humble muse. 

Earliest bud that decks the garden, 

Fairest of the fragrant race, 
First-born child of vernal Flora, 

Seeking mild, thy lowly place. 

* The plaintive song of Philomela is thus beautifully described by Virgil. Orpheus laments the loss of Eurydice for seven whole 

The rocks were mov'd with pity to his moans, 

Trees bent their heads to hear him sing his wrongs, 

Fierce tygers couch'd around, and loll'd their fawning tongues. 

So, close in poplar shades, her children gone, 

The mother Nightingale laments alone; 

Whose nest some prying boy had found, and thence 

By stealth convey'd th' unfeather'd innocence. 

Thus she supplies the night with mournful strains, 

And melancholy music fills the plains. 

Though no warm, or murmuring zephyr, 
Fan thy leaves with balmy wing: 

Pleas'd, we hail thee, spotless blossom, 
Herald of the infant Spring. 

Through the cold, and cheerless season, 
Soft thy tender form expands, 

Safe in unaspiring graces, 

Foremost of the bloomy bands. 

White-rob'd flow'r, in lonely beauty, 

Rising from a wintry bed ; 
Chilling winds, and blasts ungenial, 

Rudely threatening round thy head. 

Silv ry bud, thy pensile foliage, 
Seems the angry blaft to fear; 

Yet secure, thy tender texture 
Ornaments the rising year. 

No warm tints, or vivid colouring, 
Paints thy bells with gaudy pride ; 

Mildly charm' d, we seek thy fragrance 
Where no thorns insidious hide. 

Tis not thine, with flaunting beauty, 

To attract the roving sight ; 
Nature, from her varied wardrobe, 

Chose thy vest of purest white. 

White, as falls the fleecy shower, 
Thy soft form in sweetness grows; 

Not more fair the valley's treasure, 
Nor more sweet, her Lily blows. 

Drooping harbinger of Flora, 
Simply are thy blossoms drest ; 

Artless, as the gentle virtues, 

Mansion'd in the blameless breast. 

Cordelia Skeeles. 

January 28, the Crocxjs (Crocus vernusj flowers. 

The Spirng Crocus (Crocus vemus) in its wild state in Switzerland is not yellow,, but 
white,, with a purple base, according to Haller. In England it is of a pale purple colour. 

Like the Snow-Drop, it is first protected by a sheath, or spatha, and lies near the ground. 
Its transmutation from a human form is mentioned by Ovid in the fourth book of his Meta- 

Its congener, the Autumnal Crocus (Crocus Autumnalis) is also of a purple colour, as 
best suited to this season of the year; nor does it blow till most plants begin to fade, and run to 

Say, what im pells, amidst surrounding snow 
CongeaFd, the Crocus' yellow bud to blow? 
Say, what retards, amidst the summer blaze, 
Th* autumnal bulb, till pale, declining days? — 
The God of Seasons, whose pervading power 
Controls the sun, or sheds the fleecy shower, 
He bids each Flower his quickn'ing word obey, 
Or to each lingering bloom enjoins delay. 


February 1, the Winter Hellebore (Helleborus hiemalisj flowers. 

Nature assumes now a more towering aspect, but still there is the same delicate white as in 
the preceding month, and the Winter Hellebore presents us with flowers that have five 
broad white petals, which afterwards turn to a dull green. 

As yon gay clouds, which canopy the skies, 
Change their thin forms, and lose their lucid dyes, 
So the soft bloom of beauty's early charms 
Fades in our eyes, and withers in our arms. 
Bright as the silvery plume, or pearly shell, 
The fairest rose, or lily's virgin bell, 
The snowy Hellebore attractive shone; 
Pleased every sage, and every shepherd won : 
Round the gay sisters press the enamour'd bands, 
And seek with soft solicitude their hands.— 
Ere while how changed!— in dim suffusion lies 
The glance divine, that lightened in their eyes ; 
Cold are those lips, where smiles seductive hung, 
And the weak accents linger on their tongue.— 
As each fair feature turns to livid green, 
Disgust with face averted shuts the scene., 



arch 1, the Spubge Laurel (Daphne Laureola) flowers. 

This beautiful Evergreen, a native of our happy island, and of the other parts of Europe, 
resembling the palm-tree in miniature, early puts forth its flowers, and as if by intention, these 
are of a pale dull green, to give more dignity to its leaves and berries, destined to crown the 
brow of the warrior victorious in his country's cause, or the poet, who chants these victories, 

or sings the attributes of Plants. 

The earliest of Apollo's loves was she, 
Whom not blind Fortune, but the dire decree 
Of angry Cupid, forc'd him to desire: 
Daphne her name, and Peneus was her sire. 
Swell'd with the pride, that new success attends, 
He sees the stripling, while his bow he bends, 
And thus insults him: " Thou lascivious Boy, 
" Are arms like these for children to employ? 
i( Know, such atchievements are my proper claim; 
ic Due to my vigour, and unerring aim: 
" Resistless are my shafts, and Python late, 
" In such a featber'd death, has found his fate. 
ef Take up the torch, and lay my weapons by/' 

To whom the son of Venus thus replied. 
" Phozbus, thy shafts are sure on all beside, 
ss But mine on Phozbus, mine the fame shall be 
" On all thy conquests, when I conquer thee/' 

He said, and soaring, swiftly wingM his flight; 
Nor stopt but on Parnassus' airy height. 
Two different shafts he from his quiver draws; 
One to repel desire, and one to cause. 
One shaft is pointed with refulgent gold, 
To bribe the love, and make the lover bold ; 
One blunt, and tipt with lead, whose base allay 
Provokes disdain, and drives desire away. 
The blunted bolt against the Nymph he drest; 
But with the sharp transfixt Apollo's breast. 

Th' enamour'd Deity pursues the chace; 
The scornful damsel shuns his loath'd embrace; 
In hunting beasts of prey her youth employs; 
And Phcebus rivals in her rural joys. 
With naked neck she goes, and shoulders bare; 
And with a fillet binds her flowing hair. 
By many suitors sought, she mocks their pains, 
And still her vow'd virginity maintains. 
Impatient of a yoke, the name of bride 
She shuns, .and hates the joys she never tried. 
On wilds, and woods, she fixes her desire: 
Nor knows what youth, and kindly love, inspire. 

Her father chides her oft: e( Thou ow'st/' says he, 

<e A husband to thyself, a son to me." 

She, like a crime, abhors the nuptial bed: 

She glows with blushes, and she hangs her head. 

Then casting round his neck her tender arms, 

Sooths him with blandishments, and filial charms. 

" Give me, my lord/' she said, " to live, and die, 

ce A spotless maid, without the marriage tie. 

ee 'Tis but a small request; I beg no more 

te Than what Diana's father gave before/' 

The good old sire was soften'd to consent, 

But said her wish would prove her punishment; 

For so much youth, and so much beauty joined, 

Opposed the state, which her desires designed. 

The God of Light, aspiring to her bed, 
Hopes what he seeks, with flattering fancies fed ; 
And as in empty fields the stubble burns, 
Or nightly travellers, when day returns, 
Their useless torches on dry hedges throw, 
That catch the flames, and kindle all the row; 
So burns the god, consuming in desire, 
And feeding in his breast a fruitless fire. 
Her well-tun/d neck he viewed (her neck was bare), 
And on her shoulders her disheverd hair; 
" Oh were it deck'd," said he, " with what a grace 
ee Would every waving curl become her face!" 
He view'd her eyes, like heav nly lamps that shone, 
He viewed her lips, too sweet to view alone, 
Her taper fingers, and her panting breast ; 
He praises all he sees, and for the rest 


Swift as the wind, the damsel fled away, 

Nor did for these alluring speeches stay. 

ee Stay, Nymph/' he cried, " I follow, not a foe. 

" Thus from the lion trips the trembling doe ; 

« Thus from the wolf the frightened lamb removes, 

" And, from pursuing falcons, fearful doves. 

" Thou shun st a god, and shun st a god that loves. 

Ah, lest some thorn should pierce thy tender foot, 

Or thou shouldst fall in flying my pursuit! 

To sharp uneven ways thy steps decline; 

Abate thy speed, and I will bate of mine. 
" Yet think from whom thou dost so rashly fly; 
« Not basely born, nor shepherd's swain am I. 
« Perhaps thou know'st not my superior state; 

And from that ignorance proceeds thy hate. 

Me Claros, Delphi, Tenedos, obey; 
" These hands the Patareian sceptre sway. 





f f 



" The King of Gods my father: what shall be, 

te Or is, or ever was, in fate, I see. 

ie Mine is th' invention of the charming lyre; 

<e Sweet notes, and heav'nly numbers, I inspire. 

" Sure is my bow, unerring is my dart; 

" But, ah! more deadly his, who pierc'd my heart. 

Sf Med'cine is mine; what herbs and simples grow 

te In fields and forests, all their pow'rs I know; 

" And am the great physician call'd, below. 

" Alas that fields and forests can afford 

<f No remedies to heal their love-sick lord! 

" To cure the pains of love no plant avails; 

te And his own physic, the physician fails/' 

She heard not half, so furiously she flies; 
And on her ear th' imperfect accent dies. 
Fear gave her wings; and as she fled, the wind 
Increasing, spread her flowing hair behind; 
And left her legs and thighs expos' d to view: 
Which made the God more eager to pursue. 
The God was young, and was too hotly bent 
To lose his time in empty compliment: 
But led by love, and fir'd with such a sight, 
Impetuously pursued his near delight. 
As when th' impatient greyhound slipt from far, 
Bounds o'er the glebe to course the fearful hare, 
She in her speed does all her safety lay; 
And he with double speed pursues the prey; 
She 'scapes, and for the neighboring covert strives, 
And, gaining shelter, doubts if yet she lives. 
If little things with great we may compare, 
Such was the God, and such the flying Fair; 
She, urg'd by fear, her feet did swiftly move, 
But he more swiftly, who was urg'd by love. 
He gathers ground upon her in the chace: 
Now breathes upon her hair, with nearer pace; 
And just is fastening on the wish'd embrace. 
The Nymph grew pale, and in a mortal fright, 
Tir'd with the labonr of so long a flight, 
And now despairing, cast a mournful look 
Upon the streams of her paternal brook : 
" O help," she cried, ie in this extremest need! 
" If water gods are deities indeed : 
" Gape earth, and this unhappy wretch intomb; 
" Or change my form, whence all my sorrows come. 
Scarce had she finished, when her feet she found 
Benumb'd with cold, and fastened to the ground: 
A filmy rind about her body grows ; 
Her hair to leaves, her arms extend to boughs : 

The Nymph is all into a Laurel gone ; 

The smoothness of her skin remains alone. 

Yet Phcebus loves her still, and casting round 

Her bole his arms, some little warmth he found. 

The tree still panted in th' unfinished part; 

Not wholly vegetive, and heav'd her heart. 

He fixt his lips upon the trembling rind; 

It swerv'd aside, and his embrace declined. 

To whom the God, " Because thou canst not be 

" My Mistress, I espouse thee for my Tree: 

e( Be thou the prize of honour a?id renown, 

ee The deathless Poet, a?id the Poem, crown. 

ct Thou shalt the Roman feftivals adorn, 

ce And, after Poets, be by Victors worn. 

ie Thou shalt returning Casar's triumph grace ; 

f e When pomps shall in a long procession pass. 

<( Wreath' d on the posts before his palace wait ; 

te And be the sacred guardian of the gate. 

ee Secure from thunder, and unharm'd by Jove, 
Unfading as tti immortal pow' rs above: 
And as the locks of Phcebus are unshorn, 

" So shall perpetual green thy boughs adorn." . 

The grateful Tree was pleas'd with what he said, 

And shook the shady honours of her head. 




March 15, the Sweet Violet {Viola odorataj, flowers. 

The Violet, although blue, yet partakes of the sombre, suited to the season; and this 
kind is of one uniform colour, without any markings; hence her metamorphosis is thus poeti- 
cally depicted. 

This flower, so fame reports, was once a maid, 

Her name Ianthis, of Diana's train, 

The sweetest Nymph that ever trod the plain, 

Whom, while Phereean flocks the Virgin fed, 

Apollo saw, and courted to his bed; 

But sued in vain; the timid Virgin fled 

To woods herself, and her complaints she bore, 

And sought Protection from Diana's pow'r, 

Who thus advis'd — ct Be sure from mountains fly, 

" Phozbus loves mountains, and an open sky/' 

To vales and shady springs she fled amain, 

Beneath dark thickets sought to hide in vain; 

Phcebus her virtue and her flight admir'd, 

The more the Virgin fled, the more the God was fir'd. 

To Diana did the Nymph again repair, 

When Delia thus—" Since Beauty's such a snare, 

"" Ah! rather perish that destructive Grace!" 
And straight with dusky blue she stain'd her face. 
Discolour'd thus, an humbler state she prov'd, 
Not now so fair, yet still by Delia lov'd. 
Changed to a Violet, with this praise she meets, 
Persisting chaste, she keeps her former sweets. 


Another species of Violet, the tricolor, has the markings, like the Greek name of the 
renowned warrior Ajax; hence the origin to the poetic fancy of the metamorphofis of that 
great Hero to this flower. 

Ajax, being disappointed of the armour of Achilles, decreed to Ulysses, destroys himself. 
His death is related thus. 

He who could often, and alone, withstand 

The foe, the fire, and Jove's own partial hand, 

Now cannot his unmaster'd grief sustain, 

But yields to rage, to madness, and distain; , 

Then snatching out his falchion, " Thou/' said he, 

te Art mine; Ulysses lays no claim to thee. 

€e O often tried, and ever trusty sword, 

" Now do thy last kind office to thy lord : 

" 'Tis Ajax who requests thy aid, to show 

" None but himself, himself could overthrow:" 

He said, and with so good a will to die, 

Did to his breast the fatal point apply. 

It found his heart, a way till then unknown, 

Where never weapon entered, but his own. 

No hands could force it thence, so fix'd it stood, 

Till out it rush'd, expell'd by streams of spouting blood. 

The fruitful blood produced a Flow' it , which grew 

On a green stem, and of a purple hue : 

Like his, whom unaware Apollo slew: 

Inscribed in both, the letters are the same, 

But those express the grief, and these the name. 


March 20, the Sow-Bread (Cyclamen), flowers. 

This beautiful Flower is of a delicate white, with a little border of purple about the brim of 
its pendulous cup. As it ripens its seeds, the peduncle bends towards the ground more and 
more, until it actually has penetrated into the earth, and deposited her treasures there for the 
ensuing season. 

The gentle Cyclamen, with dewy eye, 
Breathes o'er her lifeless babe the parting sigh ; 
And, bending low to earth, with pious hands, 
Inhumes her dear departed in the sands. 

///i',1 sMX 

_/,;,,/,,,,,_./},/•/'.,/<><//>>> //:''' //*.»„ /■■.■ wo 

ie Sioeel Nursling! withering in thy tender hour, 
" Oh, sleeps she cries, ft and rise a fairer Flower!" 
So when the plague o'er London's gasping crowds 
Shook her dank wing, and steer'd her murky clouds; 
When o'er the friendless bier no rites were read, 
No dirge slow-chanted, and no pall out-spread; 
While Death and Night fill'd up the naked throng, 
And Silence drove their ebon cars along; 
Six lovely daughters, and their father, swept 
To the throng' d grave Cleone saw, and wept; 
Her tender mind, with meek Religion fraught, 
Drank all-resigned Affliction's bitter draught ; 
Alive and listening to the whisper' d groan 
Of others' woes, neglectful of her own, 
One smiling Boy, her last sweet hope, she warms, 
Hush'd on her bosom, circled in her arms, 
Daughter of Woe! ere morn, in vain caress'd, 
Clung the cold babe upon thy milkless breast ; 
With feeble cries thy last sad aid requir'd, 
Stretch'd its stiff limbs, and on thy lap expir'd ! 
Long with, wide eye-lids on her child she gaz'd, 
And long to heaven their tearless orbs she rais'd, 
Then with slow step and throbbing heart she found 
Where Chartreufe open'd deep his holy ground; 
Bore her last treasure through the midnight gloom, 
And kneeling dropt it in the mighty tomb. 


March 30, the Daisy fBellis perennis} flowers. 

The date of the appearance of flowers is not very exact, as depending upon many circum- 
stances, but it enables us to assemble together the chief flowers of the spring, as are marked out 
by poets, and to elucidate our comparison of those flowers to the morning twilight. Although the 
common Daisy has a tinge of red in its petals, it is so slight, as only to set off in contrast the 
more general white appearance. The rustic Caledonian bard thus paints it. 

To a Daisy, on turning one down with the plough in March 1786. 

Wee, modest, crimson-tipped flow'r, 
Thou's met me in an evil hour; 
For I maun crush among the stoure 

Thy slender stem; 
To spare thee now is past my pow'r, 

Thou bonie gem.* 

* How similar is this to the sentiment of our immortal bard Shakspeare on a grander occasion. Othello, jealous of his wife, the fair 
Desdemona, resolves to kill her. When about to commit the fatal act, upon seeing her, he relinquishes his cruel purpose of destroying her 
with the sword he held in his hand, but resolves to smother her 


Alas ! its no thy neebor sweet 
The bonie larke, companion meet ! 
Bending thee 'mang the dewy weet! 

WV speckFd breast,, 
When upward-springing, blythe, to greet 

The purpling East. 

Cauld blew the bitter-biting North 
Upon thy early humble birth; 
Yet cheerfully thou glinted forth 

Amid the storm, 
Scarce reared above the parent earth 

Thy tender form. 

The flaunting flow'rs our gardens yield, 
High sheltering woods and wa's maun shield; 
But thou, beneath the random bield 

O' clod or stane, 
Adorns the histie stibble-field, 

Unseen, alane. 

There, in thy scanty mantle clad, 
Thy snawie boso?n sun-ward spread, 
Thou lifts thy unassuming head 

In humble guise; 
But now the share uptears thy bed, 

And low thou lies. 

April 1, the Anemony flowers. 

The Wood Anemony ( Anemone nemorosa) flowers when the twittering swallow first makes 
her appearance, and still, like the other spring flowers, it presents us with the delicate white 
petal, but much increased in magnitude, and only expands these, according to ancient obser- 

I'll not shed her blood, 

Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, 
And smooth as monumental alabaster; 
Yet she must die, or she'll betray more men. 
Put out the light, and then 

meaning his resolve to smother her. As Othello approaches the two candles to extinguish them, he falls into the following natural train 
of reflections. 6 

Put out the light! 

If I quench thee, thou flaming minister, 

I can again thy former light restore, 

Should I repent; but once put out thy light, 

Thou cunning'st pattern of excelling nature, 

I know not where is that Promethean heat, 

That can thy light re-lumine. 

When I have pluck'd thy rose, 

I cannot give it vital growth again; 

It needs must wither. 





vation, when the wind blows, but the fact is, it is of Greek derivation, from its appearance in a 
month subject to a variety of winds. 

All wan and shivering in the leafless glade, 

The sad Anemony reclined her head; J 

Grief on her cheeks had paled the roseate hue, 

And her sweet eye-lids dropped with pearly dew. 

Breathe, gentle air! from cherub-lips impart 

Thy balmy influence to my anguished heart; 

Thou, whose soft voice calls forth the tender blooms, 

Whose pencil paints them, and whose breath perfumes; 
" O chase the Fiend of Frost, with leaden mace, 
" Who seals in death-like sleep our hapless race; 
" Melt his hard heart, release his iron hand, 

And give my ivory petals to expand; 

So may each bud, that decks the brow of spring, 

Shed all its incense on thy wafting wing!" 
To her fond prayer propitious Zephyr yields, 
Sweeps on his sliding shell through azure fields, 
O'er her fair mansion waves his whispering wand, 
And gives her ivory petals to expand, 
Gives with new life her filial train to rise, 
And hail with kindling smiles the genial skies. ; 

So shines the Nymph in beauty's blooming pride, \ 
When Zephyr wafts her deep calash aside, 
Tears with rude kiss her bosom's gauzy veil, 
And flings her fluttering kerchief to the gale. 
So bright, the folding canopy undrawn, 
Glides the gilt Landau o'er the velvet lawn; 
Of beaux and belles displays the glittering throng, 
And soft airs fan them as they roll along. 





Not many days after the appearance of the swallow, a second Herald of the return of 
Spring comes to us, the Nightingale {Luscinia.} 

Borne on the warm wing of the western gale, , 

How tremulously sweet is heard to float 
Through the green budding trees that fringe the vale, 
„ The early Nightingale's prelusive note, 

'Tis Hope's instinctive power that through the grove 

Tells, how benignant Heaven revives the earth; 
'Tis the soft voice of young and timid love 

That calls these melting sounds of sweetness forth. 

Charlotte Smith. 

April 12, the Cowslip (Primula verisj flowers, when the Cuckoo 


This herb, usually esteemed " as the sweet emblem of renovated Nature/' so cheerfully 
culled in every field, rises upon a slender scape, and hangs beautifully its tawny cups upon 
numerous peduncles, which issue from a common centre. 


Now Daisies pied, and Vikts blue, 

And Lady-smocks all silver white, 
And Cuckoo-buds of yellow hue, 

Do paint the meadows with delight; 
And cuckoo now on every tree 
Mocks married men, for thus sings he, 

Cuckoo! Cuckoo! — O word of fear, 

Ungrateful to a married ear! 



Hail, beauteous stranger of the wood, 

Attendant on the Spring ! 
Now heaven repairs thy rural seat, 

And woods thy welcome sing. 

Soon as the cowslip decks the green 

Thy certain voice we hear; 
Hast thou a star to guide thy path, 

Or mark the rolling year? 

Delightful visitant! with thee 

I hail the time of flowers, 
When heaven is fill'd with music sweet 

Of birds among the bow rs. 

The school-boy, wandering in the wood 

To pull the flowers so gay, 

Starts, thy curious voice to hear, 

And imitates thy lay.* 


* Besides the discovery of the Vaccine Disease as a substitute for the small pox, we are indebted to Dr. Jenner for a very curious and inf. 
resting history of the Cuckoo. This learned naturalist says the male only has the note of love. Being destined to remain but a short per oi 
in our island the hen bird deposits her eggs in another s nest as if conscious that fate impelled her to fly before the period of their hatch ng 
Ihe young Cuckoo follows afterwards, and has a conformation peculiar to itself. There is a hollow on the back, upon which it seats the 
other birds of a different sort and thus placed, its next step is to raise itself, and turning on one side to shelve the nest, which it enjoys alone 
When the hollow in the back is no longer wanted it is filled up, and the young cuckoo is then shaped like other birds. The note of the 
Bittern among the reeds, from a pec mated claw, which it strikes against the reeds, of one of the dictations, is another doubtful point sett ed 
by the acute observation ot this illustrious benefactor of mankind, and promoter of the science of natural history For a full account of tl 
several discoveries vide my work, entitled Facts decisive in favour of the Co W Pox , w ith the Evidence delivered vefore the Honourable 
the Committee of the House of Commons, and the Philosophical Transactions. wvutuuiv 

April 16, the Daffodil (Narcissus poeticus) flowers. 

As the spring advances, the Daffodil erects itself on a more elevated peduncle, whose 
flower is pale yellow, and has six petals affixed to a cup-like nectary. From the delicacy of 
these flowers the ancients drew the poetic fancy of a beautiful youth converted into this flower. 

There stands a fountain in a darksome wood, 

Nor stained with falling leaves nor rising mud; 

Untroubled by the breath of winds it rests, 

Unsully'd by the touch of men or beasts ; 

High bow'rs of shady trees above it grow, 

And rising grass and cheerful flow'rs blow. 

Pleas'd with the form and coolness of the place, 

And over-heated by the morning chace, 

Narcissus on the grassy verdure lies, 

But whilst within the chrystal fount he tries 

To quench his heat, he feels new fires arise: 

For as his own bright image he surveyed, 

He fell in love with the fantastic shade; 

And o'er the fair resemblance hung unmov'd, 

Nor knew, proud youth! it was himself he lov'd. 

The well-turn'd neck and shoulders he descries, 

The spacious forehead, and the sparkling eyes ; 

The hand that Bacchus might not scorn to show, 

And hair that round Apollo's head might flow; 

With all the purple youthfulness of face, 

That gently blushes in the wat'ry glass. 

By his own flames consumed the lover lies, 

And gives himself the wound by which he dies. 

To the cold water oft he joins his lips, 

Oft catching at the beauteous shade he dips, 

His arms, as often from himself he slips, 

Nor knows he who it is his arms pursue 

With eager clasps, and loves he knows not who. 

Still o'er the fountain's wat'ry gleam he stood, 

Heedless of sleep, and negligent of food, 

Still view'd his face, and languished as he view'd. 

At length he rais'd his head, and thus began 

To vent his griefs, and tell the woods his pain. 

e{ You trees," cries he, ee and thou surrounding grove, 

" Who oft have been the kindly scenes of love, 

" Tell me, if e'er within your shades did lie 

" A youth so tortur'd, so perplex'd as I ? 

" I, who before me see the charming fair, 

es Whilst there she stands, and yet she stands not there: 

se In such a maze of love my thoughts are lost, 

te And yet no bulwark'd town, nor distant coast, 



« Preserve the beauteous fair from being seen, 

" Nor mountains dire, nor oceans flow between. 

" A shallow water hinders my embrace; 

*f And yet the lovely mimic wears a face 

fe That kindly smiles; and when I bend to join 

" My lips to hers, she fondly bends to mine. 

u Hear, gentle maid, and pity my complaint, 

" Come from thy well, thou fair inhabitant. 

" My charms an easy conquest have obtained 

" O'er other hearts, by thee alone disdain'd. 

" But why should I despair? I'm sure she burns 

" With equal flames, and languishes by turns. 

" Whene'er I stoop, she kindly bends to me, 

tf And when my arms I stretch, the same does she. 

" Her eye with pleasure on my face she keeps, 

" She smiles my smiles, and when I weep she weeps. 

" When e'er I speak, her moving lips appear 

'* To utter something, which I cannot hear.— 

" Ah wretched me ! I now begin too late 
" To find out all the long-perplex'd deceit; 
It is myself I love, myself I see; 
The gay delusion is a part of me. 
" I kindle up the fires by which I burn, 
" And my own beauties from the well return. 
" Whom should I court? how utter my complaint? 
Enjoyment but produces my restraint, 
And too much plenty makes me die for want. 
How gladly would I from myself remove! 
6e And at a distance set the thing I love. 
My breast is warm'd with such unusual fire, 
I wish him absent whom I most desire. 
And now I faint with grief; my fate draws nigh; 
In all the pride of blooming youth I die. 
Death will the sorrows of my heart relieve. 
Oh might the visionary youth survive, 
I should with joy my latest breath resign ! 
" But oh ! I see his fate involv'd in mine." 

This said, the weeping youth again return'd 
To the clear fountain, where again he burn'd; 
His tears defaced the surface of the well, 
With circle after circle, as they fell: 
And now the lovely face but half appears, 
O'errun with wrinkles, and deform'd with tears. 
Ah whither," cries Narcissus, « dost thou fly? 
Let me still feed the flame by which I die ; 
Let me still see, though I'm no further blest." 
Then rends his garments off, and beats his breast: 














His naked bosom redden'd with the blow, 

In such a blush as purple clusters show, 

Ere yet the sun's autumnal heats refine 

Their sprightly juice,, and mellow it to wine. 

The glowing beauties of his breast he spies, 

And with a new redoubled passion dies. 

As wax dissolves, as ice begins to run, 

And trickle into drops before the sun; 

So melts the Youth, and languishes away, 

His beauty withers, and his limbs decay ; 

And none of those attractive charms remain, 

To which the slighted Echo su'd in vain. 

She saw him in his present misery, 

Whom, spight of all her wrongs, she griev'd to see. 

She answer' d sadly to the lover's moan, 

Sigh'd back his sighs, and groan'd to every groan; 

" Ah youth! belov'd in vain/' Narcissus cries; 

" Ah youth! belov'd in vain/ J the Nymph replies. 

" Farewel," says he; the parting sound scarce fell 

From his faint lips, but she replied " Farewell 

Then on th' wholesome earth he gasping lies, 

Till death shuts up those self-admiring eyes. 

To the cold shades his flitting ghost retires, 

And in the Stygian waves itself admires. 

For him the Naiads and the Dryads mourn, 

Whom the sad Echo answers in her turn ; 

And now the Sister-nymphs prepare his urn ; 

When, looking for his corpse, they only found 

A rising Stalk, with yellow Blossoms crown d. 


April 20, the Hyacinth (Hyacinthus) flowers. 

This plant, like most of the others of spring extraction, in its wild state, hangs down its 
azure bells, and having a delightful scent, is one of the most agreeable gifts that Providence has 
bestowed upon mortals, whom the enraptured admirer of Flowers thus elegantly invites. 


Child of the Spring, thou charming Flow'r, 

No longer in confinement lie, 
Arise to light, thy form discover, 

Rival the azure of the sky. 

The rains are gone, the storms are o'er; 

Winter retires to make thee way : , 

Come then, thou sweetly blooming flow'r ; 

Come, lovely stranger, come away. 

The sun is dress'd in beaming smiles, 
To give thy beauties to the day: 

Young zephyrs wait with gentlest gales, 
To fan thy bosom as they play. 


From the plaintive air it assumes in its wild state, arose to the imagination of the poet the 
fancy of a Youth converted into this flower. 

I die, I die, young Hyacinth us said, b 

Sunk on the earth, and droop'd his lovely head. 

Quick to his aid distressed Apollo flew, 

And round the hero's neck his arms he threw. 

But whilst he held him to his throbbing breast, 

And all the anguish of his soul exprest, 

His polish'd limbs by strange enchantment's pow r 

Shoot into buds, and blossom into flow'r; 

His auburn locks in verdant foliage flow, 

And wreaths of azure florets shade his brow. 


Although the Hyacinth cannot boast of a vestment of crimson, and variety of stripes, yet is 
this flower, from its early appearance, and the effe& that cultivation produces on it, made one 
of the most pleasing gifts proceeding from the Deity. Botanists have usually affected to despise 
double flowers, forgetful that the benevolence of the Almighty is best displayed in such produc- 
tions, and have branded them by the appellation of Monsters. They are, however, useful, not 
only as agreeable objects, but scientifically, proving most satisfactorily the doctrine of the sexes 
of plants; for the Hyacinth in its natural state has six Stamina and one Pistillum, and is pro- 
ductive ; the Petals are likewise six; but in a cultivated state the flowers cease to be pendu- 
lous, and the Petals are so considerably multiplied, as to constitute the whole of the flower, and 
there is neither Stamina nor Pistillum, and consequently no propagation by seeds, but merely 
by offsets from the bulbs. The Double White Hyacinth has been denominated La Heroine; 
that which is double and all of a light blue, Globe Terrestre. The Diana Van Epheson 
is a double White Hyacinth, with small red spots; and Velour Purpre is the dark double 
Blue Hyacinth with green at the edges of the petals; and the Single dark Blue is named Don 

b Hyacinthus was accidentally struck by a quoit slung by Apollo, and killed on the spot. He was converted into the flower that bears 
his name, and Apollo's grief was allayed by viewing the beauties of this charming flower. Vide Ovid's Metamorphosis. 

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_ Sr;/, /,'//, //str/t./// ,// /■///J. < /A'////<w, y r/,'/rr /'! AW. 


The Rose (Rosa) is esteemed as a Spring Flower, whose attendants have been before de- 
scribed, and she moves at the head of this long procession of vegetable beauties, pouring out 
her mcense to * lom with all the grace and dignity of majesty. Nature has given her a vest 
of purest : white, and also imperial robes of the brightest searlet; and that no rude hand should 
tear her from her nch domain, she is protected by myriads of soldiers, who present on every 
side their naked and sharp swords against the daring invader. 

This flower is ranked of the class Polyandria, order Polygynia, of Linnams. 

Not the bright sun-flow Vs top of burnished gold, 

The yellow jonquil, vary-colour'd pink, 

The lily dress'd with innocence and grace, 

The wild-born daisy, and the violet blue, 

Or the fair primrose, that at spring s advance 

Seems to grow pale, when from her green lap thrown 

So many glittering rivals rise around; 

Not the sweet twining woodbine, hearts-ease rich 

Purpled with gold-dropt velvet, or the fair, 

But humble snow-drop, beaming through the mist 

Like the big tear for lov'd Adonis slain, 

Through the fring d eye-lids of the Queen of Love ! 

Catch my admiring eye, like thy pure flow V, 

Emblem of infant innocence, sweet Rose ! 


The Red Rose is styled the Queen of Flowers in a charming Arabic Ode* by Hafiz. 

Now is the season, Roses gay 
Light purple-tinctur'd blooms display: 
When fathers thus their sons invite 
To the fair bowers of delight, 

Time will your sprightliness destroy, 
" Then give the present hours to joy; 

* This translation is from the Latin of Sir William Jones It is th f 
consists chiefly of Nightingales in cages, which bird is not to be met with in u/jjTrf Tndi^' ' he "^ ^ **** '° *" ^ IndieS 





Assemble all,, convivial join, 

The sacred carpet* sell for wine. 
ee And while you feel the fanning breeze, 

Which whispers through the waving trees, 

Pray, that some damsel here may stray, 

Love the director of her way, 
ee And to her health and charms divine, 
" Quaff goblets of enlivening wine. 
fe Is fortune cruel ? Then go suit, 
6S To querulous complaint, the lute ; 
te From the touched strings make music float, 
e: On air in soft melodious note. 

When first you see in fragrant bowers 

The Rose, resplendent Queen of Flowers! 

Then let the goblets brimful shine, 
"" With bright nectareous racy wine ! 
" Wine can the tender pangs remove, 

And cause forgetfulness in love. 

The sweetly warbling Nightingale,^ 

With melody fills every dale. 

How can she cease, sweet bird of Spring! 

'Mid budding Roses perch'd to sing?" 








* The Mahommedans prostrate themselves upon a carpet at the hour of prayer, hence held sacred. 

+ In the East, where every thing is, from the fervor of a lively imagination, painted in hieroglyphic characters, the return 
of the Nightingale from Egypt to Persia, and the flowering of the Rose, as the characteristics of spring, gave rise most proba- 
bly to the hybrid, so frequently described in Oriental poetry. 

Thus the sweet Nightingale in eastern bowers 
On quivering pinion woos the Queen of Flowers; 
Inhales her fragrance, as he hangs in air, 
And melts with melody the blushing fair;— 
Half -rose, half-bird, a beauteous Monster springs, 
Waves his thin leaves, and clasps his glossy wings. 
Long horrent thorns his slender legs surround, 
And tendril-talons root him to the ground; 
Green films of rind his wrinkled neck o'erspread, 
And crimson petals crown his curled head. 
To the sweet Zephyrs soft warbling as they move 
In songs of love he thrills the vocal grove. 
Departing Euening stays her beamy star, 
And still Night lingers in his ebon car; 
While on white wings descending Houries throng, 
And drink the floods of odour and of song. 


Both the Swallow and Nightingale in the winter months retire to Egypt. Anacreon thus addresses the Swallow. 


Once in each revolving year, 
Gentle bird! we find thee here. 
When Nature wears her summer vest, 
Thou com'st to weave thy simple nest; 
But when the chilling winter lowers, 
Again thou seek'st the genial bowers 
Of Memphis, or the shores of Nile, 
Where constant hours of verdure smile. 

An ac r eon thus celebrates the Rose, which it was the custom among the ancients to 
throw into bowls of wine, and make chaplets of to adorn the Bacchanalians. 

Buds of Roses, virgin flowers, 

Cull'd from Cupid's balmy bowers, 

In the bowl of Bacchus steep, 

Till with crimson drops they weep, 

Twine the Rose, the garland twine, 

Every leaf distilling wine ; 

Drink and smile, and let us think 

That we were born to smile and drink. 

Rose! thou art the sweetest flower 

That ever dxank the purple shower ; 

Rose! thou are the fondest child 

Of dimpled Spring, the Wood-Nymph wild ! 

Even the Gods, who walk the sky, 

Are amorous of thy scented sigh. 

Cupid too, in Paphian shades, 

His hair with rosy fillet braids, 

When with the blushing nimble Graces, 

The merry winding dance he traces. 

There is another Ode of Anacreon in praise of the Rose, extremely beautiful, P-ivin* an 
account of its birth. 

See the young, the timid Spring 
Gives to the breeze her spangled wing; 
While virgin Graces, warm with may, 
Fling Roses o'er her dewy way. 
The murmuring billows of the deep 
Have languished into silent sleep; 
And mark ! the flitting sea-birds lave 
Their plumes in yon reflecting wave ; 
And cranes from hoary winter fly, 
To flutter in a kinder sky ; 
Now the genial star of day 
Dissolves the murky clouds away, 
And cultured field, and winding stream, 
Are sweetly tissued by his beam. 
When Spring bedecks the dewy scene, 
How sweet to walk the velvet green, 

That the Nightingale retires to Egypt is confirmed by Sonnini in his Travels into Upper and Lower E ev pt « I •« 

says this Traveller, « with several Nightingales, who frequent the most shady thickets in the vicinity of the water Th "^ ' 
« silent in Egypt, which they leave in spring, to warble out their songs of love, and hail her arrival in other countries ^ " 
The female birds appear with us always a few days before the males are seen. They reach Italy usually on the twenty-fourth 
of March, and visit our isle by the second of April. J 1 "" 1L " 

And hear the Zephyr's languid sighs, 

As o'er the scented mead he flies! 

How sweet to mark the pouting vine, 

Ready to fall in tears of wine! 

How sweet the voice of love to hear, 

And softly whisper in the ear. 

Where the embowering Roses meet, 

Oh ! is not this divinely sweet ? 

While thus we chaunt the wreathed Spring, 

Resplendent Rose! to thee well sing; 

Resplendent Rose, the flower of 'flowers, 

Whose breath perfumes Olympus' bowers ; 

Whose virgin blush, of chasten'd dye, 

Enchants so much our mortal eye.— 

When pleasure's bloomy season glows, 

The Graces love to twine the Rose ; 

The Rose is warm Di one's bliss! 

And flushes like Dione's kiss! 

Oft has the Poet's magic tongue 

The Rose's fair luxuriance sung; 

And long the Muses, heav'nly maids, 

Have rear'd it in their tuneful shades, 

When, at the early glance of morn. 

It sleeps upon the glittering thorn. 

Tis sweet to dare the tangled fence, 

To cull the timid flowret thence, 

And wipe with tender hand away 

The tear that on its blushes lay. 

Tis sweet to hold the infant stems, 

Yet dropping with Aurora's gems, 

And fresh inhale the spicy sighs 

That from the weeping buds arise. 

When revel reigns, when mirth is high, 

And Bacchus beams in every eye, 

Our rosy fillets scent exhale, 

And fill with balm the panting gale ! 

Oh ! there is nought in nature bright, 

Where Roses do shed their light! 

When morning paints the orient skies, 

Her fingers burn with roseate dyes! 

The nymphs display the Rose's charms, 

It mantles o'er their graceful arms; 

Through Cytherea's form it glows, 

And mingles with the living snows !— 

Oh! Whence could such a plant have sprung! 

Attend, for thus the tale is sung. 

When, rising from the silvery stream, 

Effusing beauty's warmest gleam, 

Venus f appear'd, in flushing hues, 

Mellow'd by ocean's briny dews ; — 

When, in the starry courts above, 

The pregnant brain of mighty Jove 

Disclos'd the Nymph of azure glance, 

The Nymph who shakes the martial lance. J 

Then, then, in strange eventful hour, 

The Earth § produced an infant flower, 

Which sprung, with blushing tinctures drest, 

And wanton d o'er its parent's breast. — 

The Gods beheld this brilliant birth, 

And hail'd the Rose, the boon of earth. 

With nectar drops, a ruby tide, 

The sweetly orient buds they dy'd ; 

+ Anacreon, with exquisite grace, in another Ode describes this birth of Venus, and represents the goddess as swimming on the 

soft wave. 

Light as the leaf, that summer's breeze 

Has wafted o'er the glassy seas, 

She floats upon the ocean's breast, 

Which undulates in sleepy rest, 

And stealing on, she gently pillows 

Her bosom on the amorous billows ; 

Her bosom, like the humid rose, 

Her neck, like dewy-sparkling snows, 

Illume the liquid path she traces, 

And burn within the stream's embraces! 

In languid luxury soft she glides, 

Encircled by the azure tides; 

Then, from their Queen's inspiring glance, 

The Dolphins o'er the green sea dance, , 

Bearing in triumph young Desire, 

And baby Love with smiles of fire. 

While, sparkling on the silver waves, 

The tenants of the briny caves 

Around the pomp in eddies play, 

And gleam along the watery way. Moore. 

This is certainly more beautiful than the usual delineation of Venus rising up out of the sea. 

With rosy fingers, as uncurl'd they hung 
Round her fair brow, her golden locks she wrung; 
O'er the smooth surge on silver sandals stood, 
And look'd enchantment on the dazzled flood. 
The bright drops, rolling from her lifted arms, 
In slow meanders wander o'er her charms, 
Seek round her snowy neck their lucid track, 
Pearl her white shoulders, gem her ivory back, 
Round her fine waist and swelling bosom swim, 
And star with glittering brine each crystal limb. 
Th' immortal form enamour'd Nature hail'd, 
And Beauty blaz'd to heaven and earth unveil'd. 


t Pallas, or Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom, is represented as proceeding from the brain of Jove, completely armed. For the origin 
of the fable of Venus arising from the sea, vide our Philosophy of Botany, page 134; and for this fable, note * to the Verses on the 
Nymphea Nelumbo, by Sir William Jones, who describes the birth of Maia, the Minerva of the Asiatics. " She is represented with blue 
eyes," says Bacon, "to shew the soft persuasion of words; and all armed, with a shield covered with snakes, to express the pathetic 
power of all-overcoming eloquence. Her bird is the owl, to point out the sedateness of wisdom." 

§ When the Sea produced Venus; Jupiter Minerva; then the Earth produced the Rose. How exquisite the compliment ! 

And bade them bloom, the flowers divine 
Of him * who sheds the teemino- vine • 
And bade them on the spangled thorn 
Expand their bosom to the morn. 


Sappho, the Lesbian Poetess, gives us another origin, and elegantly represents the white 
rose as converted into the red, from the emotions of the heart suffusing the face of love. 

If Jove would give the leafy bowers 
A queen for all their world of flowers, 
The Rose would be the choice of Jove, 
And reign the queen of every grove. 
Sweetest child of weeping morning, 
Gem, the vest of earth adorning, 
Eye of flow'rets, glow of lawns, 
Bud of beauty, nurs'd by dawns : 
Soft the soul of love it breathes, 
Cypria's brow with magic wreaths ; 
And to the Zephyr s warm caresses 
Diffuses all its verdant tresses, 
Till, glowing with the wanton's play, 
It blushes a diviner ray! 


The origin of the red rose is differently accounted for by Catullus, who describes it as 
proceeding from the blood of Venus falling upon the white rose, as her tender feet were torn 
by its thorns in attempting to rescue Adonis from the jealous resentment of Mars. 

While the enamour'd queen of joy 

Flies to protect her lovely boy, 
On whom the jealous war-god rushes ; 

She treads upon a thorny rose, 

And, while the wound with crimson flows, 
The snowy flow' ret feels her blood, and blushes. 


intoT^!' Vir'loLl^X^eTNdulf "*"' ^ "" a " dentS °°' **> ""^ ' hemS * eS W " h roSeS > but «»* *» 

They wove the Lotus band to deck 

And grace with sweets the blooming neck; 

And every guest, to shade his head, 

Three charming little chaplets spread; 

And one was of Egyptian leaf, 

The rest were roses, fair and brief. 

Then from the sparkling vase profound 

To all on flow'ry beds around, 

A sprightly Nymph of heavenly shape, 

Pour'd the rich weepings of the grape. 


Tempora sectilibus cinguntur tota coronis, 
Et latet injecta splendida mensa rosa. 


The fugaciousness of the charms of the rose was made with the ancients* a reason for 
enjoying the present hour. 


Ye flow'rs that drink the morning dew, 

Roses, that court the sunny ray, 
Connubial leagu'd, your tribes renew, 

And bid them all their charms display. 

Bid them to shine the parterre's pride, 

Or on the fragrant hedge -row gleam, 
Or bending from the green -bank side, 

Kiss their own beauties in the stream. 

Ah ! why should they, a fading race, 

Be niggard of their sweetest bloom ? 
That earth, whence they shall rise in grace, 

That earth shall soon become their tomb. 

Another Archer lies unseen ; 

Ne'er from their mark his arrows stray — 
And Love shall drop his arrows keen, 

And leave to Death a trembling prey. 

Thus Man his proudest glory shews ; 

Thus soon his proudest glory dies ; 
Like the young plant awhile he glows ; 

Like the frail flow'r lives, shines, and dies. 

* " Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die." Or, in the real language of Anacreon, 

The women tell me every day, 
That all my bloom has past away. 
' Behold,' the pretty wantons cry, 
• Behold this mirror with a sigh ; 
' The locks upon thy brow are few, 
' And, like the rest, are withering too!' 
Whether decline has thinn'd my hair, 
I'm sure I neither know nor care; 
But this I know, and this I feel, 
As onward to the tomb I steal, 
That still as death approaches nearer, 
The joys of life are sweeter, dearer; 
And had I but an hour to live, 
That little hour to bliss I'd give! 
Then surely, Care, thou can'st not twine 
Thy fetters round a soul like mine; 
No, no ! the heart that feels with me, 
Can never be a slave to thee! 
And oh! before the vital thrill, 
Which trembles at my heart, is still, 
I'll gather joy's luxuriant flow'rs, 
And yield with bliss my fading hours; 
Venus shall make my winter bloom, 
And Bacchus dance me to the tomb. 


Hear then the Muse-Thou short-liv'd race, 
Urge not your fleeting hours away, 

Crowd not with cares your little space ; 
Wise is the man who lives his day. 

George Dyer. 

to tht loltf damiUm \ " marHage S ° ng ' ANACREON COm P ares the bride to the red rose; 
-ott. I suppose, which has am ong us the common appellation of the Hardens Blush. 

To thee, the Queen* of nymphs divine, 
Fairest of all that fairest shine! 
To thee, thou blooming young Desire f 
Who ruVst the world with darts of fire! 
And oh ! thou Nuptial Power, % to thee 
Who bear st of life the guardian key ! 
Breathing my soul in fragrant praise, 
And weaving wild my votive lays, 
To thee, Queen! I wake the lyre, 
To thee, thou blushing young Desire! 
And oh ! for thee, thou Nuptial Power! 
Come and illume this genial hour. 
Look on thy bride, impassion'd boy ! 
And while thy lambent glance of joy 
Plays over all her blushing charms, 
Belay not ; snatch her to thine arms, 
Before the lovely, trembling prey, 
Like a young birdling, wings away. 
Oh, Statocles! impassion'd youth! 
Dear to the Queen of amorous truth. 
And dear to her, whose yielding zone 
Will soon resign her all thine own ; 
Turn to Myrilla, turn thine eye, 
Breathe to Myrilla, breathe thy sigh ! 
To those bewitching beauties turn, 
For thee they mantle, flush, and burn !— 
Not more the Rose, the queen of flowers, 
Out-blushes all the glow of bowers, 
Than she unrivall'd bloom discloses, 
The sweetest Rose, where all are Roses!— 
Oh ! may the Sun, § benignant, shed 
His blandest influence o'er thy bed ; 
And foster there an infant tree, 
To blush like her, and look like thee, f 


* Venus - f Cupid. + H 

:, which was held at the father's house the hri^« /'" , f men * . . § Apollo 

H After the feast, which was held at the father's house the K,; i * Hymen. § Apollo, 

by a,, the relations on both sides, and a, of attend^ w^Ti ht Z ^ ,"* ™ "*, ""* ° f "* ™™* —- P-ied 
the marriage-chamber, where the bride washed her feet After this ceremonv th K . mUS ' C ' '"' W ^ the ^ were inducted to 

room , when the Epithalaminm or Nnptial Song, was snng in hononr of , he D air 7 gr0 °'" Tf* "* ^ The attendants lef < <>*= 
children. The same ceremony was also in nse among the Jews Zm XT V ^^/T'""'^ ^ <he wish of the inheritance of 

to the Rose of Sharon. **' ' Salm XLV ' ls a S °"S <* *» kind. The bride of Solomon is compared 

The married are resembled by Metastasio to the young Rose, which the lover places 
in the bosom of his mistress., first stript of thorns. 

Thou virgin Rose! whose op'ning leaves so fair, 

The dawn has nourish'd with her balmy dews; 
While softest whispers of the morning air 

Call'd forth the blushes of thy vermeil hues. 

That cautious hand, which cropt thy youthful pride, 

Transplants thy honours, where from hurt secure, 
Stript of each thorn offensive to thy side, 

Thy nobler part alone shall bloom mature. 

Thus thou, a flower, exempt from change of skies, 
By storms and torrents unassail'd, shall rise, 

And scorn the winter colds, and summer heats: 
A guard more faithful then thy growth shall tend, 
By whom thou may'st in tranquil union blend 

Eternal beauties with eternal sweets. 



Sacred to beauty's Queen, hail lovely flow'r! 
How sweet the fragance of thy scented bow'r ! 
In graceful folds thy milk-white vestments flow, 
Or a pale blush o'erspreads thy modest brow. 
Bound thy fair form what crowds of flatt'rers stand; 
Praise thy fine shape, and court thy snowy hand. 
Ah, simple maid! thy charms will soon decay, 
Will fade and wither at the close of day! 

Frances Arabella Rowden. 

The decay of the charms of the Rose very properly leads to serious and moral reflections, 


The pride of ev'ry grove I chose, 

The Violet sweet, and Lily fair, 
The dappled Pink, and blushing Rose, 

To deck my charming Chloe's hair. 

At morn the nymph vouchsaf'd to place 

Upon her brow the various wreath ; 
The flow'rs less blooming than her face, 

The scent less fragrant than her breath. 

The flow'rs she wore along the day: 
And ev'ry nymph and shepherd said, 

' That in her hair they look'd more gay 
' Than growing in their native bed.' 

Undrest at ev'ning, when she found 
Their odours lost, their colours past; 

She chang'd her look, and on the ground 
Her garland and her eye she cast. 

That eye dropt sense distinct and clear, 
As any Muse's tongue could speak; 

When from its lid a pearly tear 

Ran trickling down her beauteous cheek. 

Dissembling what I knew too well, 
< My Love, my Life,' said I, < explain 

' This change of humour; pr'ythee tell: 
' That falling tear, what does it mean?' 

She smil'd, she sigh'd ; and to the flow'rs 
Pointing, the lovely Moralist said : 

' See, friend ! in some few fleeting hours, 
' See yonder, what a change is made. 

' What though each Grace around me play, 

' Each Beauty bloom for you ; 
4 Warm as the blush of rising May, 

' And sparkling as the dew: 

' Ah me ! the blooming pride of May, 
< And that of Beauty are but one: 

' At Morn both flourish bright and gay, 
' Both fade at Ev'ning, pale and gone. 

' So pass the Beauties of our prime, 

' That e'en in blooming die ; 
' So, shrinking at the blast of Time, 

' The treach'rous Graces fly. 


And to the following. 

Awake, my fair, the morning springs, 
The dew-drops glance around; 

The heifer lows, the blackbird sings, 
The echoing vales resound. 

The simple sweets would Stella taste, 
That breathing morning yields; 

The fragrance of the flow'ry waste, 
And freshness of the fields: 

By uplands, and the greenwood- side, 

We'll take our early way, 
And view the valley spreading wide, 

And opening with the day. 

Nor uninstructive shall the scene 

Unfold its charms in vain; 
The fallow brown, the meadow green, 

The mountain and the plain. 

Each dew-drop glist'ning on the thorn, 

And trembling to its fall ; 
Each blush that paints the Rose of morn 

In fancy's ear shall call: 

4 O ye, in youth and beauty's pride, 

4 Who lightly dance along; 
' While laughter frolics at your side, 

' And rapture tunes your song! 

' What though each grace around you play, 
' Each beauty bloom for you ; 

' Warm as the blush of rising day, 
4 And sparkling as the dew: 

4 The blush that glows so gaily now, 

' But glows to disappear ; 
4 And, quiv'ring from the bending bough, 

* Soon breaks the pearly tear ! 

' So pass the beauties of your prime, 

' That e'en in blooming die ; 
' So, shrinking at the blast of time, 

' The treach'rous graces fly. 

' Let those, my Stella, slight the strain, 

' Who fear to find it true ; 
' Each fair, of transient beauty vain, 

' And youth as transient too ! 


4 With charms that win beyond the sight, 

' And hold the willing heart, 
' My Stella shall await their flight, 

' Nor sigh when they depart. 

' Still graces shall remain behind, 

' And beauties still controul 
4 The graces of the polish'd mind, 

' And beauties of the soul. 



JF rutt of Aurora's tears, fair Rose! 

On whose soft leaves fond Zephyrs play, 
Queen of flow rs! thy buds disclose, 

And give thy fragrance to the day: 

Unveil thy transient charms: — Ah, no! 

A little be thy bloom delay'd, 
Since the same hour that bids thee blow, 

Shall see thee droop thy languid head! 

But go, and on Themira's breast, 

Find, happy flower! thy throne and tomb; 
While, jealous of a fate so blest, 

How shall I envy thee thy doom 


Should some rude hand approach thee there, 
Guard the sweet shrine thou wilt adorn: 

Ah, punish those who rashly dare, 
And for my rivals keep thy thorn, 

Love shall himself thy boughs compose, 
And bid thy wanton leaves divide ; 

He'll shew thee how, my lovely Rose, 
To deck her bosom, not to hide. 

And thou shalt tell the cruel maid 

How frail are Youth and Beauty s charms 

And teach her, ere her own shall fade, 
To give them to her lover s arms. 

From the French of Cardinal de Bernis, 
by Charlotte Smith. 




utern Winter hence with all his train removes, 
And cheerful skies and limpid streams are seen; 

Thick sprouting foliage decorates the groves, 
Reviving herbage robes the fields with green. 

God of day,* whose genial power 

Revives the buried seed, 
That fills with foliage ev'ry bower, 

With verdure ev'ry mead, 

Bid all thy vernal breezes fly, 

Diffusing mildness through the sky; 
Giye the soft season to our drooping plains, 
Refreshed with rosy dew and salutary rains. 

Enough has Winter s hand severe 

Chastis'd this dreary coast; 
And chill'd the tender dawning year 

With desolating frost. 

Give but thy vital beams to play, 
These ice -wrought scenes will melt away, 
And mix'd in sprightly dance, the blooming powers 
Will wake the drowsy Spring; the Spring the flowers. 
In virtue then let's emulate the blest above, 
And like the Spri?ig display benevolence and love. 







JVIild Season of the infant Year! 
Soon as thy tender buds appear, 

I feel my bosom glow; 
It glows, to see thy germs of life, 
Spite of each elemental strife, 

Burst through surrounding snow. 

With joy, beneath thy influence bland, 
I mark each vernal leaf expand, 

Presageful of the bloom; 
The livelier tint of ev'ry bow'r, 
The daily growth of ev'ry flow'r, 

Each exquisite perfume. 

Now, grateful for the genial skies, 
To Heaven the mingled odours rise, 

And bring it's blessings down; 
An added vigour, ev'ry day, 
A richer foliage, boasts each spray, 

Nor dreads the tempest's frown. 

Know, Spring! though winds tyrannic join, 
And all the elements combine, 

Thy progress to dispute; 
The humblest plant, by Heav'n decreed 
To live for ever in it's seed, 

Shall never fail of fruit. 

Blest Season ! thy benignant pow'r 
Extend to ev'ry Human Flow'r, 

And aid the growth of Mind ; 
Till, vigour crowning ev'ry part, 
The richer incense of the heart 

Bring bliss for all mankind. 

Then, though the stormy Passions blow, 
Impelling Man to prove Man's foe, 

On War's * destructive plain ; 
Reason the Nations shall address, 
The sanguinary rage repress, 

And Peace Perpetual reign. 


u ^ nut nurinP- one of the most cruel wars that ever desolated the world, in which it was decreed by the 
* Tins work was brought ou during ^one of the ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ „ The ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

"ft T^t NAPOLEON, no" cTn'nfw^the Empire of Trance, endeavours to confer the whole of civilized Europe. 

One murder makes a villain, 

Millions a hero.— Princes are privileg'd 

To kill; and numbers sanctify the crime. 

Ah! why will Kings forget that they are men? 

Why delight in human sacrifice? why burst the ties 

Of nature, that should knit their souls together 

In one soft bond of amity and love ? 

Yet still they breathe destruction, still go on 

Inhumanly ingenious to find out 

New pains for life, new terrors for the grave; 

Artificers of death ! Still Monarchs dream 

Of universal empire growing up 

From universal ruin.— Blast the design, 

Great God of Hosts! nor let thy creatures fall 

Unpitied victims at ambitions shrine. 

Bishop Porteus. 

Such conduct in mortal man is, iudeed, truly astouishiug. " Man, armed with a little brief authority, does that, which makes 
angels weep!" 

Behold! how God denounces his vengeance against such Destroyers of Mankind. 


Worthy to be read by all Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Rulers. 

« The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet; the trees break forth into a joyful shout, even the fir-trees rejoice over thee, and the 
cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art fallen, no feller is come up against us. „ „ , ^ ,, u a- a . ua 

« How art thou fallen from heaven, O APOLLYON, the destroyer! How art thou cut off from the earth, ^ou who didst subdue 
the nations ! For thou hast said in thine heart, < I will be like the Most High.'-Yet art thou brought down to the mansions of the 

dead, and to the sides of the pit. 

« Then will it be said, < Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that shook the kingdoms? lhat made the world as a 

wilderness, and destroyed the cities?' . 

« AH the kings of the nations lie in glory, every one in his own sepulchre. But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable 

branch- and as a carcase trodden under foot." 

« Thou shalt not, O Ring, be joined with them in burial. -BECAUSE THOU HAST DESTROYED THE LAND, AND 

SLAIN THE PEOPLE." Isaiah, Chap. XIV. 




Spring! thy impatient bloom restrain, 
Nor wake so soon thy genial pow'r, 

For deeds of death must hail thy reign, 
And clouds of fate around thee low'r. 

Ah ! not in all thy store of charms 

Can gen'rous hearts their comfort find, 

Or lull to peace the dread alarms 

Which rack the friends of human kind. 

In vain thy balmy breath to me 

Scents with its sweets the ev'ning gale; 

In vain the violet's charms I see, 
Or fondly mark thy primrose pale. 

To me thy softest zephyrs breathe 
Of sorrow's soul -distracting tone, 

To me thy most attractive wreath 

Seems ting'd with human blood alone. 

Arrest thy steps, thou source of love, 
Thou genial friend of joy and life! 

Let not thy smile propitious prove 

To works of carnage, scenes of strife. 

Bid Winter all his frowns recall, 
And back his icy footsteps trace ; 

Again the soil in frost inthrall, 

And check the War -fiend's murd'rous chace. 

Ah fruitless prayer! thy hand divine 
Must on the teeming season lead, 

And (contrast dire!) at war's red shrine 
Must let unnumber'd victims bleed. 





JlAear ye yon Bell, its sullen sound that flings 
In solemn cadence o'er the echoing vale ? — 

To every ear a gloomy thought it brings, 

Mirth laughs no more, e'en Valour's spirits fail — 

But hark! the knell is drown'd — tempestuous floats 
On the swoln breeze the tumult of the war ; 

Shrill sound the cheering trumpet's martial notes, 
And loud the battery thunders from afar: 

With kindling flame reviving Valour hears, 

Strong beats his breast ; while e'en the coward slave, 

Stung by the rousing peal, forgets his fears, 
Pants for the field, and fancies he is brave. 

Oh say, why this, ye wise! — the death-bell shows 
What Fate has done ; not urges Fate's decrees — 

Marks but one victim snatch'd from human woes, 
Bent by chill age, perhaps, or pale disease. 

But shouting squadrons at the trumpet's breath 
O'er mangled thousands urge their furious way; 

The thundering battery sweeps to instant death 
Its slaughter'd myriads from the light of day. 

Not worn with pain, not struck by palsied age, 
The ripen d harvest of the greedy tomb ; 

Timeless they fall in manhood's glowing prime, 

Health's vigorous hour, or youth's ingenuous bloom! 

Henry James Pye, 





JlAow mild the Sun's meridian rays! 

How blue the Heavens! how soft the Breeze 
That o'er the waving forest plays, 
And gently curls the ripling seas! 
But soon Novembers, wint'ry hour, 
Arm'd with the Tempest's tyrant power, 
Shall rouse the clouds' embattled host, 
Sweep from the woods their leafy pride, 
And dash the wave's infuriate tide 
Against the howling coast! 

So in each Ship's stupendous womb, 
Now gently floating on the deep, 
Peaceful, as in the silent tomb 
The Demo?is of Destruction sleep ; 
But wak'd by Wars terrific roar, 
Prompt o'er each desolated shore 
Their hell- directed flight to urge, 

And leading Slaughter's horrid train, 
With hecatombs of warriors slain, 
To load th' empurpled surge ! 

What though at warlike Gallia's chiefs* 
The spear of vengeance Britain aims, 

* It is really astonishing to think with what coolness the majority of mankind talk of war. They only consider it as a natural evil, 
and that Almighty God wills it, and, therefore, man must submit to it as such. Now, surely, that cannot be said, of the Best of Beings, 
which one would be ashamed to ascribe to the worst, and to call that a natural evil, which arises out of the human heart alone, is a want 
of judgment and of reason. The origin of wars proceeds from the ignorant ambition of rulers, forgetful of the people's good. 

In the natural world, our bountiful Creator hath formed different soils, and appointed different climates, whereby the 
inhabitants of different countries may supply each other with their respective fruits aud products, so that by exciting a reciprocal 
indushy, they may carry on an intercourse mutually beneficial, and universally benevolent. 

Nay more, even where there is no remarkable difference of soil or of climates, we find a great difference of talents; and, if I maybe 
allowed the expression, a wonderful variety of strata in the human mind. — Thus, for example, the alteration of latitude between Norwich 
and Manchester, and the variation of soil, are not worth naming; moreover, the materials made use of in both places, wool, flax, and silk, 
are just the same; yet 50 different are the productions of their respective looms, that countries which are thousands of miles apart could 
hardly exhibit a greater contrast. —Now had Norwich and Manchester been the capitals of two neighbouring kingdoms, instead of love and 
union, we should have heard of nothing but jealousies and wars; each would have prognosticated, that the flourishing state of the one 
portended the downfal of the other; each would have had their respective complaints, uttered in the most doleful accents, concerning their 
own loss of trade, and of the formidable progress of their rivals; and, if the respective governments were in any degree popular, each would 
have had a set of patriots and orators closing their inflammatory harangues with a " DELENDA est Carthago." — " We must destroy our 
" rivals, our competitors and commercial enemies, or be destroyed by them; for our interests are opposite, and can never coincide." — And 
yet, notwithstanding all these canting phrases, it is as clear as the meridian sun, that in case these cities had belonged to different kingdoms 
( France and England for example) there would then have been no more need for either of them to have gone to war than there is at 

In short, if mankind would but open their eyes, they might plainly see, that there is no one argument for inducing different 
nations to fight for the sake of trade, but which would equally oblige every country, town, village, nay, and every shop among our- 
selves, to be engaged in civil and intestine wars for the same end: nor, on the contrary, is there any motive of interest or advantage 
that can be urged for restraining the parts of the same government from these unnatural and foolish contests, but which would con- 
clude equally strong against separate and independent nations making war with each other on the like pretext. 


Shall she ?iot mourn the PEOPLE'S griefs, 
Their dying sons, their weeping dames? — 
Nor shall she ev'n with tearless eye 
Yon gallant Navy e'er descry 

Returning o'er the western flood, 

For, ah ! the laurel's greenest bough 
That ever crown'd Victorias brow 
Is surely ting'd with Hood! 

Though blaze the splendid fires around, 

Though Arcs of Triumph proudly rise, 
Though Fame her loudest Paean sound, 
And notes of Conquest rend the skies, — 
Alas! in some sequester'd cell 
Her slaughter'd lover's funeral knell 
In every shout the Virgin hears ! 
And as the strain of victory flows, 
More swell the widow'd Matrons woes, 
And faster fall her tears ! 

Though from this cliff while Fancy views 

Yon squadrons darken half the main, 
She dress in Glory's brightest hues 
The pride of Albion's naval reign, 
Yet, as Reflection's mirror shows 
Th' attendant scene of death and woes, 
Th' exulting hopes of conquest cease, 
She turns from War?, delusive form 
To deprecate th' impending storm, 

And breathes her vows for PEACE, f 

Henry James Pye, Poet Laur eat. 

Moreover, the instinct of curiosity, and the thirst of novelty, which are so universally implanted in human nature, whereby various 
nations and different people so ardently wish to be customers to each other, is another proof that the curious manufactures of one nation 
will never want a vent among the richer inhabitants of another, provided they are reasonably cheap and good; so that the richer one nation 
is, the more it has to spare, and the more it will certainly lay out on the produce and manufactures of its ingenious neighbour.— Do you 
object to this? Do you envy the wealth, or repine at the prosperity, of the nations around you?— If you do, consider what is the con- 
sequence, viz. that you wish to keep a shop, but hope to have only beggars for your customers. 

As things are thus constituted by God, it is really astonishing to think with what applause and eclat the feats of conquerors, in- 
human monsters', are transmitted down, in all tlie pomp of prose and verse, to distant generations: nay, let a prince hut feed his 
subjects with the empty diet of military fame, it matters not what he does besides, in regard to themselves as well as others; for the 
lives and liberties, and every thing that can render society a blessing, are willingly offered up as a sacrifice to this idol, glory.— 
Were the facts to be examined into, you would find, perhaps without a single exception, that the greatest conquerors abroad have 
proved the heaviest tyrants at home. —How ever, as victory, like charity, covereth a multitude of sins, thus it comes to pass that reason- 
able beings will be content to be slaves themselves, provided they may enslave others; and while the people can look up to the glorious 
hero on the throne, they will be dazzled with the splendour that surrounds him, and forget the deeds of the oppressor. Fide our Philo- 
sophy of Politics, chapter on War, vol. ii. p. 83. 

f How sweetly does the poet endeavour to bring kings and people to a right knowledge respecting War, depicting the miseries it creates 
in language that cannot fail to move the heart, and at the moment of expected victory deplores its bloody trophies, and "breathes the 
vow for PEACE ! " Yet I hope it will be understood, that neither the Poet Laureat, nor myself, wish to inculcate pusillanimity. « Dulce 
et decorum est pro patria mori."— We deplore only that ambition and folly in rulers which create Wars, from jealousy of trade, or for 
territorial aggrandisement ! 










From our Queen, centered upon the throne, are seen to radiate every heavenly virtue. How 
pathetically and eloquently does this virtuous princess, equally adored now as then, plead for 
her Native Land, to the King of Prussia, forcibly depicting to him the real horrors of War! 

To his Majesty the King of Prussia. 

May it please your Majesty, 

I am at a loss, whether I should congratulate, or condole with you, on your 
late victory; since the same success, which hath covered you with laurels, has overspread the 
country of Mecklenburgh with desolation. I know, Sire, that it seems unbecoming my Sex, in 
this age of vicious refinement, to feel for one's country, to lament the horrors of war, even to wish 
for the return of peace. I know you may think it more properly my province to study the arts of 
pleasing, or to inspect subjects of a more domestic nature. But however unbecoming it may be 
in me, I cannot resist the desire of interceding for this unhappy people. 

It was but a few years ago, that this territory wore the most pleasing appearance; the country 
was cultivated, the peasant looked cheerful, and the towns abounded with riches and festivity. 
What an alteration, at present, from so charming a scene ! I am not expert at description, nor 
can my fancy add any horrors to the picture; but these are such that even conquerors themselves 
would weep at the hideous prospects now before me ! 

The whole country (my dear country!) lies one frightful waste, presenting only objects to 
excite terror, pity, and despair. The business of the husbandman and the shepherd are quite 
discontinued. The husbandman and the shepherd are become soldiers themselves, and help to 

ravage the soil they formerly cultivated. The towns are inhabited only by old men, women, and 
children— -perhaps here and there a warrior, by wounds or loss of blood rendered unfit for service, 
left at his door; his little children hang around, ask an history of every wound, and grow them- 
selves soldiers before they find strength for the field. But this were nothing, did we not feel the 
alternate insolence of either army, as it happens to advance or retreat in pursuing the operations 
of the campaigns. It is impossible to express the confusion which even those who call them- 
selves our friends create. Even those from whom we might expect redress, oppress us with new 
calamities. From your high station, therefore, it is that we expect relief. To you, even women 
and children may complain, whose humanity stoops to the meanest petition, and whose power 
is capable of repressing the greatest injustice. 


Princess of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz. 

The same just and benevolent Sentiments, which do honour to both the head and heart, 

to suit this work, are here clothed in a poetic dress. 


While conquest seats you on the throne of fame, 

And martial deeds immortalize your name, 

On burnish'd arms, while glory brightly beams, 

And fields victorious fill the monarch's dreams; 

Trembling I view whence all that glory springs 

Which crowns the awful brows of hero-kings; 

Shock'd I behold the source whence dart those rays 

Which shine on victors, and round conqu'rors blaze; 

And fondly anxious, praises to bestow, 

Reluctant swell the stream of general woe; 

For e'en those laurels which your brows entwine, 

Your triumphs crown, and bid your conquests shine, 

Meant as immortal trophies to adorn, 

Were from my country's bleeding bowels torn. 

While, in what's truly brave, and greatly bold, 

You outstrip heroes dignify'd of old; 

My native Mecklenburgh, a prey to arms, 

In desolation finds her ruin'd charms: 

No more her plains their plenteous verdure yield, 

No longer Ceres decks the golden field; 

Through all her bounds dark scenes of horror rise, 

Despair's loud yell, and Sorrow's frantic cries. 

Conscious I am, great Sire, the patriot's theme 
In my weak sex may unbecoming seem; 
For, in an age so viciously refin'd, 
By folly blinded, to caprice resign'd, 
Perhaps you deem the very name of arms, 
The thought of rapine, and of war's alarms, 
Of slaughter by contending armies made, 
Of burnish'd swords in deathful feats display'd, 
Of mourning widows, and of bleeding swains, 
Of burning towns, and desolated plains,— 
Perhaps you deem such themes were ne'er design'd 
To occupy the tender female mind; 
Ordain'd to study only how to please, 
And court the prospect of domestic ease: 
Yet oh! forgive, while patriot virtue fires, 
And soft humanity the strain inspires: 
Forgive, great Sire, if sorrowing I unfold 
Each dismal scene which my sad eyes behold ; 
And, while the natives of my country bleed, 
The cause of suff'ring worth I dare to plead. 

The radiant sun rolls on its swift career, 
But not remote beam'd forth that joyful year, 
When o'er proud Mecklenhurglis belov'd domain 
Fair plenty smil'd on every fertile plain : 
The placid months serenely fled away, 
The fields were fruitful, and the groves were gay. 
But now, alas ! my streaming sorroios flow, 
Now, my dear country is one scene of woe ; 
Depopulation makes a frightful void, 
The peasant flies, or lingering is destroy'd: 
Where'er, in anguish, roll my aching eyes, 
All the dire horrors of the war arise ; 
The devastations of the martial train, 
With streaming gore empurple ev'ry plain : 
With native blood the swollen rivers glide, 
And to the ocean roll a crimson tide; 
While into camps the fertile fields are made, 
And thickest woods can scarce from danger shade; 
Woods where afflicted families retire, 
To shun the slaught'ring sword or raging fire. 
In vain they seek their weary eyes to close; 
Or if exhausted strength induce repose, 
Oppressive terrors agitate the soul, 
And fancy hears the battle's thunder roll. 
A famish'd child lifts up its streaming eyes, 
" Food, food! I perish!" the pale infant cries; 
The fainting mother ready to expire, 
Replies with tears, and supplicates the sire : 
The sire, unable to afford relief, 
Stands a distracted monument of grief; 
With blended sighs they mourn their hapless doom, 
And envy their loved babe the sheltering tomb. 


Now wing'd by fear no husbandman remains, 
By culture to restore the ravaged plains ; 
No gentle shepherd tends his fleecy care, 
Both rash to war, the rage of battle dare; 
And soldiers grown, oh! dire reverse of fate, 
Destroy those fields their labours till'd so late ! 
With anguish'd hearts the women sit and wail, 
As fears for husbands, or for sons prevail: 
Perchance a warrior here and there is found, 
Debarr'd the field by many a rankling wound; 
Round him the curious children fondly swarm, 
Hang on his tongue, and at his tale grow warm; 
The hist'ry of each aching wound desire, 
Devour each word, and catch congenial fire ; 
And while the hero, in impressive strain, 
Recites the wonders of the bloody plain, 
The steed's loud neighing, and the clank of arms. 
The thund'ring drum that beats to war's alarms, 
The clanging trumpet and the cannon's roar, 
The dying groans, and fields of streaming gore, 
The little audience high erect their crests, 
While martial ardours warm their glowing breasts. 
To us our friends, as fatal as our foes, 
These also swell the torrent of our woes ; 
Advancing or retreating squadrons spread 
Unbounded ravage, where their footsteps tread. 
To you, great Sire, we make our fond appeal, 
Whose justice only can our sufferings heal ; 
To you e'en helpless females may complain, 
Nor shed their tears, nor plead their cause in vain; 
And trembling babes, midst many a heart- felt sigh, 
With confidence lift up th' imploring eye. 
To you whose kind humanity stoops down, 
From all the dazzling grandeur of a crown, 
To shield the peasant in his lowly shed, 
To raise misfortune from her painful bed, 
To guard the meanest Avho for j ustice press, 
And grant the humblest supplicant redress, 
To you a nation's pray'rs united rise; 
Act like the great vice-gerent of the skies; 
Relieve our suff'rings, War's dire rage restrain, 
And o'er our grateful hearts for ever reign. 



Come, gentle Venus ! and assuage 
A warring world, a bleeding age; 
For nature lives beneath thy ray, 
The wintry tempests haste away, 
A lucid calm invests the sea, 
Thy native deep is full of thee; 
And flowering earth, where'er you fly, 
Is all o'er spring, all sun the sky. 
A genial spirit warms the breeze; 
Unseen, amid the blooming trees, 
The feather 'd lovers tune their throat, 
The desart growls a soften'd note, 
Glad o'er the meads the cattle bound, 
And Love and Harmony go round. 

But chief into the human heart 
You strike the dear delicious dart; 
You teach us pleasing pangs to know, 
To languish in luxurious woe, 
To feel the generous passions rise, 
Grow good by gazing, mild by sighs; 
Each happy moment to improve, 
And fill the happy year with Love. 

Come, thou delight of heaven and earth ! 
To whom all creatures owe their birth; 
Oh come, sweet-smiling! tender, come! 
And yet prevent man's wretched doom. 
For long the furious God of War 
Has crush'd him with his iron car, 
Has rag'd along the smiling plains, 
Has bathed them with his cruel stains, 
Has fixed the youth in torpid sleep, 
And made the widow'd virgin weep. 
Let Mars now feel thy wonted charms ; 
Oh take him to thy twining arms ! 
And while thy bosom heaves to his, 
While deep he prints the humid kiss, 
Ah then! his stormy heart controul, 
And sigh thyself into his soul. 

Thy son too, Cupid, we implore, 
To leave the green Idalian shore. 
Be he, sweet God! our only foe; 
Long let him draw the twanging bow, 
Transfix us with his golden darts, 
Pour all his quiver on our hearts, 
With gentler anguish make us sigh, 
And teach us sweeter deaths to die. 






(^urst be Ambition! to its lures we owe 

The greatest ills that mortals bear below; 

Curst by the maid torn from her lover's side, 

By the pale widow curst, too short a bride; 

By mothers curst, when floods of tears they shed, 

And scatter useless ROSES on the dead. 

Curst by the hind, when to the spoils he yields 

His year's whole sweat, and vainly ripen'd fields. 

E'en by the christian curst, whose mind can glow, 

And kindly feel for universal woe. — 

But hark ! I hear more friendly shouts resound, 

And social clarions mix their sprightly sound; 

Sweet- smiling PEACE descends from heav'n above, 

Creating joy, with harmony, and love. 

The British flags are furl'd, the troops disband, 

And scatter'd armies seek their native land; 

The raptur'd mother hails her son's return; 

The love-worn maiden ceases now to mourn, 

And in ecstatic trance the lovers burn ; 

The soft'ning arts now rear their drooping head; 

No longer grieves the country for its dead; 

The hind in comfort tills his native soil, 

And the glad earth repays his active toil; 

Now flocks ascend the breach without a wound, 

Or crop the bastion, turn'd to fruitful ground, 

While shepherds sleep, along the rampart laid, 

Or pipe beneath the formidable shade. — 

The alter'd scene now sooths my soul to rest, 

And wears each dreadful image from the breast. 

* Alluding to the Peace made by the illustrious Addington, which, it is hoped, will prove permanent, for the happiness 
of present and future generations. 


//■ ! i 2./S03. // ; . • 


1 he Carnation, so deservedly esteemed both for its superior beauty and rich spicy odour,* must 
certainly have been unknown to the ancients, or it would have been described by naturalists as 
the rival of the Rose, and as such sung by poets. In its wild state it has five small red petals, 
and attracts no notice from its beauty, nor has it in that state any scent. So the Eastern Tulip, 
in its wild state, is of one uniform red. Art accomplishes all the rest. Then it is this Flower 
deserves the appellation given it by botanists, Dianthus, the Flower of Jove, f Some have 
affected to despise the Florist's care, and hence these beautiful nurselings are denominated 
by them Monsters, i because the petals are augmented, as in the double Rose, at the expense 

* In fair Italics bosom born, 

Dianthus spreads his fringed ray; 
And glowing 'mid the purpled morn, 
Adds fragrance to the new-born day. 

Oft by some mould'ring time-worn tower 
Or classic stream he loves to rove, 

Where dancing nymphs and satyrs blithe 
Once listen'd to the notes of love. 

Sweet flower, beneath thy natal sky 
No fav 'ring smiles a thy scents invite; 

To Britain's worthier region fly, 

And "paint her meadows with delight." 


a The modern Italians, from whatever cause, are said to hold all perfumes, even those of Flowers, in aversion; 
perhaps from a dread of some subtle poison being thus administered, of which numerous (though not very 
credible) instances occur in the tales of other times : — 40,000 persons, in the period of the Roman republic, 
are recorded in one year as having perished by poison. Vide my Philosophy of Politics, vol. i. p. 2;4, 

f From A<a?, of Jove, avQos, the flower. 

X Linnaeus, who terms such flowers Monsters, thus deridingly describes the Florist. " Such, by an over-great study and assiduous 
inspection, have discovered such amazing wonders in flowers, as no man, the most clear-sighted in the world, could ever discern, but those 
who are versed in this study. The grand objects of their attention are the most beautiful flowers, such as Tulips, Hyacinths, Anemonies, 
Ranunculuses, Pinks, Carnations, Auriculas, and Polyanthuses. To the hidden varieties of these flowers they have given such pompous names 
as excite wonder and astonishment, and are really ridiculous. These men cultivate a science peculiar to themselves, the mysteries of which 
are only known to the adepts; nor can such knowledge be worth the attention of the botanist; wherefore let no sound botanist ever enter 
into their societies.''' 

Some apology, however, may be made for the Florist. " Not he alone is to be esteemed a benefactor to mankind who makes a useful 
discovery, but he also who can point out and recommend an innocent pleasure. Of this kind are the pleasures arising from the observation 
of Nature, highly agreeable to every taste uncorrupted by vicious indulgence. 

' There will always be many in a rich and civilized country who, as they are born to the enjoyment of competent estates, engage not in 
business civil or professional; but the restless mind must either find or make an object; pleasure, therefore, becomes to the unemployed a 
serious pursuit. Whatever is its essence, and whatever the declaimer may urge against it, pleasure will be sought by all who possess the 
liberty of election. It becomes then incumbent on the moralist not only to urge the performance of duty, but to exhibit objects that please, 
without enervating the mind, and gratify without corrupting the principles. 

" Rural scenes, of almost every kind, are delightful to the mind of man. The verdant plain, the flowery mead, the meandering stream, 
the playful lamb, the warbling of birds, are all capable of exciting emotions gently agreeable. But the misfortune is, that the greater part 
are hurried on in the career of life with too great rapidity to be able to give attention to that which solicits no passion. The darkest habi- 
tation in the dirtiest street of the metropolis, where money can be earned, has greater charms with many than the groves of Hagley. 

" Yet the patron of refined pleasure, the elegant Epicurus, fixed the seat of his enjoyment in a garden. He thought a tranquil spot, 
furnished with the united sweets of art and nature, the best adapted to delicate repose. And even the severer philosophers of antiquity 
were wont to discourse under the shade of a spreading tree, in some cultivated plantation. 

< It is obvious, on intuition, that Nature often intended solely to please the eye in her vegetable productions. She decorates the floweret 
that springs beneath our feet in all the perfection of external beauty. She has clothed the garden with a constant succession of various hues; 
even the leaves of the tree undergo a pleasing vicissitude. The fresh verdure they exhibit in the spring, the various shades they assume iri 
summer, the yellow and russet tinge of autumn, and the nakedness of winter, afford a constant pleasure to a fine imagination. From 
the snowdrop to the moss-rose, the flower-garden displays an infinite variety of shape and colour. The taste of the florist has been ridiculed 



of the Stamina, and often of the Pis tilla. Shakspeare notices this strange effect produced 
by art. 

Pee. Sir, the year is growing ancient, 

Not yet on summer's death, nor on the birth 

Of trembling winter; the fairest flowers o tli season 


Are our Carnations, and streak 'd Gitty -flowers, 
Which some call Nature's Bastards: — of that kind 
Our rustic garden's barren, and I care not 
To get slips of them. 

as trifling, yet surely without reason. Did Nature bring forth the Tulip and the Hyacinth, the Rose and the Carnation, to be neglected by the 
haughty pretender to superior reason? To omit a single social duty for the cultivation of a Polyanthus were ridiculous as well as criminal; 
but to pass by the beauties lavished before us, without observing them, is no less ingratitude than stupidity. A bad heart finds little amuse- 
ment but in a communication with the active world, where scope is given for the indulgence of malignant passions; but an amiable dispo- 
sition is commonly known by a taste for the beauties of the vegetable creation." Knox. 

Herbs and flowers may be regarded by some persons as objects of inferior consideration in philosophy; but every thing must be great 
which hath God for its author. To him all the parts of Nature are equally related. The flowers of the earth can raise our thoughts up to 
the Creator of the world as effectually as the stars of heaven; and till we make this use of both, we cannot be said to think properly of 
either. The contemplation of Nature should always be seasoned with a mixture of devotion, the highest faculty of the human mind, by 
which alone contemplation is improved, and dignified, and directed to its proper object. — With this devotion, the study of flowers seems 
to restore man in his fallen state to a participation of that felicity which he enjoyed while innocent in Paradise." — Nothing indeed proves 
more satisfactorily a benevolent Deity than the variety he hath established in flowers, even amongst the same species. What a blaze of 
light bursts in upon the inquiring mind respecting the intentions of this Deity ! A full proof of the existence, wisdom, and never-ceasing 
agency of a presiding Power — kind and good — an Almighty Power! — Our inimitable Harvey bursts out into these rapturous expressions 
at the sight of a flower garden : 

" What colours, what charming colours, are here! these, so nobly bold; and those, so delicately languid. What a glow is enkindled in 
some! what a gloss shines upon others! In one, methinks, I see the ruby with her bleeding radiance; in another the sapphire, with her sky- 
tinctured blue; in all, such an exquisite richness of dyes, as no other set of paintings in the universe can boast. — With what a masterly skill 
is every one of the varying tints disposed! Here, they seem to be thrown on with an easy dash of security and freedom; there, they are 
adjusted by the nicest touches of art and accuracy. Those which form the ground are always so judiciously chosen as to heighten the lustre 
of the superadded figures, while the verdure of the impalement, or the shadings of the foliage, impart new liveliness to the whole. Indeed, 
whether they are blended or arranged, softened or contrasted, they are manifestly under the conduct of a taste that never mistakes, a felicity 
that never falls short of the very perfection of elegance. — Fine, inimitably fine, is the texture of the web on which these shining treasures 
are displayed. What are the labours of the Persian looms, of the boasted commodities of Brussels, compared with these curious manufac- 
tures of Nature? Compared with these, the most admired chintzes lose their reputation; even superfine cambrics appear coarse as canvas in 
their presence. 

" What an inchanting situation is this! One can scarce be melancholy within the atmosphere of flowers. Such lively hues, and delicious 
odours, not only address themselves agreeably to the senses, but touch, with a surprising delicacy, the sweetest movements of the mind. 

" How often have I felt them dissipate the gloom of thought, and transfuse a sudden gaiety through the dejected spirit! I cannot wonder 
that kings descend from their thrones, to walk amidst blooming ivory and gold; or retire from the most sumptuous feast, to be recreated 
with the more refined sweets of the garden. I cannot wonder that queens forego, for a while, the compliments of a nation, to receive the 
tribute of the parterre; or withdraw from all the glitter of a court, to be attended with the more splendid equipage of a bed of flowers. 

" What a surprising variety is observable among the flowery tribes! how has the bountiful hand of Providence diversified these nicest 
pieces of his workmanship! added the charms of an endless novelty to all their other perfections! — A constant uniformity would soon render 
the entertainment tiresome, or insipid; therefore every species is formed on a separate plan, and exhibits something entirely new. The 
fashion spreads not from family to family; but every one has a mode of its own, which is truly original. The most cursory glance perceives 
an apparent difference, as well as a peculiar delicacy, in the airs and habits, the attitude and lineaments of every distinct class. 

" Some rear their heads with a majestic mien, and overlook, like sovereigns or nobles, the whole parterre. Others seem more moderate 
in their aims, and advance only to the middle stations; a genius turned for heraldry might term them the gentry of the border. While 
others, free from all aspiring views, creep unambitiously on the ground, and look like the commonalty of the kind. — Some are intersected 
with elegant stripes, or studded with radiant spots. Some affect to be genteelly powdered, or neatly fringed; while others are plain in their 
aspect, unaffected in their dress, and content to please with a naked simplicity. Some assume the monarch's purple, some look most 
becoming in the virgin's white; but black, doleful black, has no admittance into the wardrobe of Nature. The weeds of mourning would 
be a manifest indecorum, when Summer holds an universal festival. She would now inspire none but delightful ideas; and therefore always 
makes her appearance in some amiable suit. Here stands a warrior, clad with crimson; there sits a magistrate, robed in scarlet; and yonder 
struts a pretty fellow, that seems to have dipped his plumes in the rainbow, and glitters in all the gay colours of that resplendent arch. 
Some rise into a curious cup, or fall into a set of beautiful bells; some spread themselves in a swelling tuft, or crowd into a delicious cluster. 
In some, the predominant stain softens, by the gentlest diminutions, till it has even stole away from itself. The eye is amused at the agree- 
able delusion, and we wonder to find ourselves insensibly decoyed into a quite different lustre. In others, you would think the fine tinges 
were emulous of pre-eminence. Disdaining to mingle, they confront one another, with the resolution of rivals, determined to dispute the 
prize of beauty; while each is improved, by the opposition, into the highest vivacity of complexion. 

" How manifold are thy works, OLord!" multiplied even to a prodigy: yet "in wisdom," consummate wisdom, "hast thou made them 
all." How I admire the vastness of the contrivance, and the exactness of the execution! Man, feeble man, with difficulty accomplishes a 
single work. Hardly, and after many efforts, does he arrive at a tolerable imitation of some one production of Nature. But the Almighty 
Artist spoke millions of substances into instantaneous being; the whole collection wonderfully various, and each individual completely 


Pol. Wherefore, gentle maiden, 

Do you neglect them? 
Per. For I have heard it said, 

There is an art, which in their piedness shares 

With great creating Nature. 
Pol. Say, there be: 

Yet Nature is perverted by no mean, 

For Nature makes that mean : so, over that Art, 

Which Nature makes; you see, sweet maid, we marry 

A gentle scyon to the wildest stock, 

And make conceive a bark of baser kind 

A bud of nobler race. This is an Art 

Which does me?id Nature, change it rather, but 

The Art itself is Nature. || 

The Florist, in fact, raises this fine assemblage of plants from seed, and the botanist should 
excuse him his care, when he can draw from his labours the strongest arguments in favour of 
the sexes of plants. 

" This admirable flower is of all others the most delightful, as well for its agreeable scent as 
for its beautiful colours. The varieties of it are hardly to be numbered, every year producing 
new sorts raised from seed. Some of the choicest kinds are kept up by slips, layers, or cuttings, 
but no seeds are to be obtained from these, for, after a few years propagation in this way, they 
indeed flower, yet, even if a pistillum be formed, and any seeds are produced, these are always 
found to be abortive. § Most of the other double flowers, such as have increased corollas, are 

j| " I am persuaded," says Linnaeus, in his Sponsalia Plantarum, " from many considerations, that those numerous and most valuable 
varieties of plants, which are daily seen adorning our gardens, or are used for culinary purposes, have been produced by the intermixture of 
species; for I cannot give my assent to the opinion of those who imagine all varieties to have been occasioned by a change of soil. If this 
were the case, the plants would return to their original form, provided they were removed to their original situation." The following is a 
curious anecdote, recorded by Ray, which confirms this doctrine. 

" Baal, a gardener at Brentford, having cultivated a remarkably fine cabbage, sold a large quantity of the seeds to several gardeners about 
the suburbs of London. They committed these to the ground after the usual manner, but instead of the sort Baal had made them believe 
would spring up, they proved to be chiefly the Brassica Longifolia instead of the Florida. His incensed customers in a body instantly 
commenced in Westminster-hall a prosecution against him. The unfortunate man being unable to prove his innocence before the judges, 
the court found him guilty of fraud, and he was condemned not only to restore the price given for the seeds, but was likewise obliged to 
pay each gardener for his loss of time, and for the ground that had been uselessly occupied. His character and circumstances were in con- 
sequence ruined; the robust health of the innocent man becoming gradually impaired, he paid an untimely debt to Nature. Had the judges 
been at all apprized of the sexual hypothesis, or had this honest man known, from careful observation, the use of the farina in rendering the 
pistillum productive, Baal would not have been found guilty of a crime, but the accident would have been attributed to the true cause, the 
fortuitous impregnation of the Brassica Florida by the farina of the Brassica Longifolia growing in its neighbourhood." 

This fact is proved by Miller, the illustrious author of the Gardener s Dictionary, now rendered a work of the very first eminence by 
the learned and very valuable additions of Professor Martyn, in the last edition, which, to use the panegyric of Linnaeus, " merits rather 
the appellation of a philosophic and botanical Dictionary for Botanists." 

Miller planted out three distinct rows of cabbages. In the first row he put a dozen of red cabbages; in the second a dozen of white; 
and in the third a dozen of savoys. As soon as these had done flowering he cut them all down, save one savoy, the seeds of which he 
carefully preserved. These seeds produced him red cabbages, white cabbages, savoys, some savoys with red ribs, and in some a mixture 
of all the three sorts in the same plant. This is a curious botanical fact, which the truly ingenious Mr. Knight is now turning to a valu- 
able account for the improvement of our apples and other fruits. 

§ This doctrine is thus expressed by Dr. Darwin : 

So grafted trees with shadowy summits rise, 

Spread their fair blossoms, and perfume the skies; 

Till canker taints the vegetable blood, 

Mines round the bark, and feeds upon the wood. 

So, years successive, from perennial roots 

The wire or bulb with lessen'd vigour shoots, 

Till curled leaves or barren flowers betray 

A waning lineage, verging to decay; 

Or till, amended by connubial powers, 

Rise seedling progenies from sexual flowers. 

b also 

also barren, for the organs for reproduction are lost in the multiplication of the petals. You 
must, therefore, select seed from a carnation raised itself from seed, not from layers, and from such 
also whose flowers shew a perfect pistillum. And as the dust of one flower will impregnate and 
enliven that of another, and from such couplings the seeds are so changed as to produce plants 
changing from the mother plant (as I have proved in my chapter on the Generation of Plants). 
This consideration leads me to advise the curious florists to plant of every sort of his best 
carnations in beds, on a line in the middle, and on each side of them to set at least two rows of 
single ones of choice colours, and among them also some plants of Pinks and Sweet-williams, which 
are of the same genus." Vide Bradley, Professor of Botany, on Gardening, p. 122, published 

in 1T27. 

By this latter part of the experiment Fairchild produced his Mule Pink, which the eye 

at once discovers to be betwixt a Sweet-william and a Pink. 

Caryo's sweet smile Dianthus proud admires, 

And gazing burns with unallow'd desires ; 

With sighs and sorrows her compassion moves, 

And wins the damsel to illict loves. 

So, in her wane of beauty, Ninon won 

With fatal smiles her gay unconscious son— 

Clasp'd in his arms, she own'd a mother's name,— 

" Desist, rash youth! restrain your impious flame; 

" First on that bed your infant-form was press'd, 

" Born by my throes, and nurtur'd at my breast." — 

Back as from death he sprung, with wild amaze 

Fierce on the fair he fix'd his ardent gaze; 

Dropp'd on one knee, his frantic arms outspread, 

And stole a guilty glance towards the bed; 

Then breath'd from quivering lips a whisper'd vow, 

And bent on heaven his pale repentant brow; 

" Thus, thus ! " he cried, and plung'd the furious dart, 

And life and love gush'd mingled from his heart. 


The " sound" botanist will also find no plant that can better illustrate the calyx. 

He should indeed suffer each person to enjoy his own peculiar pleasure. There are some 
rigid men who even condemn this pursuit altogether, having not taste enough to relish the 
beauties of the creation. The poet thus reproves them : 

Why brand these pleasures with the name 
Of soft, unsocial toils, of indolence and shame? 
Search but the garden, or the wood; 
Let yon admir'd Carnation own, 
Not all was meant for raiment or for food, 
Not all for needful use alone : 
There, while the seeds of future blossoms dwell, 
'Tis colour d for the sight, perfum d to please the smell, 


Why knows the Nightingale to sing? 

Why flows the Vines nectareous juice ? 
Why shines with paint the Linnets wing? 

For sustenance alone? for use? 
For preservation ? Every sphere 
Shall bid fair Pleasure's rightful claim appear. 
And sure there seem of human kind 

Some born to shun the solemn strife ; 
Some for amusive tasks design'd, 
To sooth the certain ills of life ; 
Grace its lone vales with many a budding rose, 

New founts of bliss disclose, 
Call forth refreshing shades, and decorate repose. 


Florists distinguish Carnations into four divisions : 

1. Flakes, of two colours only, and their stripes large, going quite through the petals 

2. Painted Ladies, having the petals of a red, or purple, on the upper part only, and the 

under side of a clear white. 

3. Bizarre*, flowers striped or variegated with three or four different shades of colour 

4. Piquetles, a white or yellow ground, edges toothed and spotted, or, to use the flonst s ex- 

pression, pounced, with scarlet, red, or purple. 
In our Plate of these Carnations * there are two purple Flakes; the upper ,s Palmer s 
Duchess oe Dorset, and the lowest one Palmer's Defiance -.--there are two scarlet 
Bizarres; that on the right is Caustin's British Monarch, and the center one, a paler red 
is Midwinter's Duchess of Wurtemberg -.--likewise there are two Piquetles; the red 
Piquette is Davey's Defiance, and the purple one the Princess of Wales. 

desirous of giving every information and encouragement to the Botanist. 

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Linn^us makes the Auricula a species of Primula (Primula Auricula). Tournefort con- 
stitutes it into a separate genus. Being a native of the Alps, hence, in our Picture, it is seated 
near a chain of tremendous mountains. It is called by old Parkinson the Mountain Cowslip, also 
the Bears-ear; the latter name from its leaves, which are fleshy, and round at top, being thought 
to resemble the ear of that animal. Its flowers are in an umbel, placed upon a fleshy, upright, 
scape ; and Nature, in her bounty, has provided here a general involucre, which is a strong ser- 
rated leaf, often raised aloft like a banner, at the back of the flowers, so as to receive the shocks 
from the winds, which otherwise would dash them against the mountain's side. The proper calyx 
is tubular, and five-toothed, shorter than the corolla, which is also a tube gradually widening 
upwards, spreading out into an extensive border. This border has a round white circle 
surrounding the neck of the tube. In this circumstance all Auriculas agree. It is the other 
half of the border that constitutes the varieties in this flower. In some this is of an uniform 
purple, or yellow, the most common kind, and of little value; these sorts are by florists called 
selfs ; the purple one in our Picture is Redmans Metropolitan, the yellow the Egyptian ; some- 
times this is not of one uniform colour, being found of a bright purple, with lighter dashes 
intermixed, and the edge of an apple green, when it has the appellation of Cockup's Eclipse, 
from the florist who first raised it ; and when this strikes into a deeper ground colour, almost 
inclining to black, with more of the green, and the edges more emarginate, the former being 
more completely circular, and this less so, it is called Grimes s Privateer.* In its wild state 
these flowers are much smaller, and have five stamina. The Auricula was cultivated in our 
gardens so early as 1597. It comes under Class V. Pentandria, Five Males, Order Mono- 
gynia, One Female, ofLiNNiEus. 

Queen of the snowy Alps, in glittering pride 
She rears her palace on the mountain's side; 
There, as bright sun -beams light her spangled throne, 
Attendant sylphs the aerial Empress own, 
Expand their purple plumes, and raised in air, 
Wave their green banners to protect the fair. 
Imperial Beauty with resistless sway 
Tames the rude bears, and bids their tribes obey, 
Roar round each crystall'd cliff and moss -girt plain, 
And guard in shaggy troops her bright domain. 
Delighted Boreas views her from afar, 
And drives in stormy state his ebon car; 
Low at her feet the boist'rous Monarch bows, 
And breathes his passion 'mid descending snows, 
While timid Zephyr flies through fields of air, 
Scarce daring to approach the hill -encircled fair; 


* For a plant to he fine, or a flower for Florists, the scape, or leg, must be strong, upright, and rise one half above the foliage; the pe- 
duncles, or fingers, must not be less than seven, and properly spread the flowers; the cluster, or truss of flowers, should be close and 
regular, forming together a kind of ball, and, though close and compacted, each flower should, as near as possible, be distinct from each 
other. With respect to the flowers themselves, the tube, or cup, should be lemon-coloured ; the stamina, or thrums, strong, and numer- 
ous enough to fill properly the cup and conniving; the inner margin, or eye, a clear distinct white; external to this circle, the ground colour, 
rich and bold, the edge nearest the eye determinate, the outer part running into the edging, pencilled into the lacing, the green clear, some- 
what emarginate, which part is called the lacing. These should be all proportionate, nearly equalling one another. 


As each individual Tulip shews a marked variety, so when grouped together, you have a striking 
display of the wonderful power of the beneficent Creator, who has placed these beautiful objects 
before us, for our recreation, and admiration ! Enveloped between two transparent skins is found 
the colouring ingredients, so admirably disposed in a pulpy body, constituting the interior structure 
of each petal ! How much does the imitative power of painting fall short in trying to represent these 
ravishing beauties of the vegetable world ! 

For who indeed can paint 

Like Nature? Can Imagination boast, 

Amid his gay creation, lines like these ? 

And can he mix them with that matchless skill, 

And lay them on so delicately fine, 

And make these varied marks so just and true, 

That each shall tell the name denoting 

Its peculiar birth? 

The most cursory glance may indeed shew us that diversity which Tulips exhibit : but it will 
require our nearer approaches to discover the distinctions in the habits, attitude, and lineaments, of 
the several species which have given occasion to the appellations invented by florists. 

Most prominent in our group, you see a tulip, named after that unfortunate French monarch, 
Touts XVI, then in the meridian of his glory; and it rises above the rest with princely 
majesty, the edges of whose petals are stained with black, which is the true emblem of sorrow. 
It finely displays the six Stamina placed around the Pistillum in the centre and its three interior, 
and three exterior petals."— The next Tulip in dignity has its six petals of a firmer structure, and is 
bordered with dark purple, so that the most rigid critic might excuse the fancy of the florist, who has 
named this flower after the man§ e Justum et tenacem propositi/— Beneath these is La Majes- 
tieuse, whose edges are clear, but it possesses an extensive blue purple stripe in the centre of each 
petal.— The Carnation Tulip is called by Botanists La Triomphe Royale, which for beauty 
of its pencilled stripes certainly triumphs over all the rest.— Beneath this is the Gloria Mundi, 
whose yellow ground is an emblem of sublunary perfection. Its decisive dark purple lines at the edges, 
or in the centre of the petals at their top, together with its stately position, sufficiently characterize this 
individual.— The two remaining Tulips have been newly raised by Davey and Mason, and were 
named by me, after two very distinguished patrons of this work, Her Grace the Duchess of 
Devonshire, + no less eminent for her fine sense and expressive beauty,— than Earl Spencer, || 
for his memorable conduct of our navy, which has eclipsed, under his administration, even the glory of 
our ancestors, which was previously imagined to exceed almost the bounds of human credibility. 

* Hence it comes under the Class Hexandria, Order Monogynia ; six males and one female. 


+ The Tulip on the top is the DUCHESS of DEVONSHIRE, and has fine dashes of a red purple on a pale straw ground. 

II This Tulip, the EARL SPENCER, is characterised by its numerous fine pencilled purple stripes throughout the petals. 

P. S. Tulips with a white ground florists designate by the title of Bybloemen, and with a yellow ground by the name of Bizarre. So great once was 
the rage in Holland for Tulips, that the Burgomasters found it necessary to enact a law, that no one should give more than forty pounds for a 
Tulip ! Even in England, at this time, the LOUIS sells for forty Guineas, and the WASHINGTON for ten ! 


As the juices of the Turnip are wholly exhausted in the formation of the stem, leaves, and 
flowers, of the plant, so annually does the tunicated bulb of the Tulip expend itself in the 
production of its flower, and the formation of other bulbs, which contain the Tulips for the 
succeeding years in Embryo. Only open one of these young bulbs in any month of Winter, 
and you will see in Miniature the perfect flower destined in future to charm the admiring eye. 
This curious fact has afforded scope to a great poet for one of the most brilliant compositions 
in the English language. 

When o'er the cultur'd lawns and dreary wastes 

Retiring Autumn flings her howling blasts, 

Bends in tumultuous waves the struggling woods, 

And show'rs their leafy honours on the floods, 

In with'ring heaps collects the flowery spoil, 

And each chill insect sinks beneath the soil: 

Quick hears fairTuLiPA the loud alarms, 

And folds her infant closer in her arms; 

Soft plays affection round her bosom's throne, 

And guards its life, forgetful of her own. — 

So wings the wounded deer her headlong flight, 

Pierc'd by some ambush'd archer of the night, 

Shoots to the woodlands with her bounding: fawn, 
And drops of blood bedew the conscious lawn ; 
There, hid in shades, she shuns the cheerM clay, 
Hangs o'er her young, and weeps her life away, — 
So stood Eliza on the wood-crown'd height, 
O'er Minden's plain, spectatress of the fight; 
Sought with bold eye, amid the bloody strife, 
Her dearer self, the partner of her life; 
From hill to hill the rushing host pursu'd, 
And view'd his banner, or believ'd she view'd. 
Pleas'd with the distant roar with quicker tread, 
Fast by her hand one lisping boy she led ; 
And one fair girl, amid the loud alarm, 
Slept on her kerchief, cradled by her arm; 
While round her brows bright beams of honour dart, 
And love's warm eddies circle round her heart. 
Near and more near th' intrepid beauty press'd, 
Saw through the driving smoke his dancing crest; 
Heard th' exulting shout, "they run! they run!" 
" Great God ! " she cried, " he's safe ! the battle's won ! " 
A ball now hisses through the airy tides, 
(Some fury wing'd it, and some dsemon guides,) 
Parts the fine locks her graceful head that deck, 
Wounds her fair ear, and sinks into her neck: 
The red stream, issuing from her azure veins, 
Dyes her white veil, her ivory bosom stains. 
" Ah me!" she cried, and, sinking on the ground, 
Kiss'd her dear babes, regardless of the wound: 
" O cease not yet to beat, thou vital urn; 
" Wait, gushing life, oh! wait my Love's return: 
" Oh! spare, ye war-hounds, spare their tender age 
" On me, on me," she cried, " exhaust your rage." 
Hoarse barks the wolf, the vulture screams from far, 
The angel Pity shuns the walks of war. 
Then with weak arms her weeping bales caress'd, 
And, sighing, hid them in her bloodstain! d vest. 


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1 his is one of the many lovely productions imported from the Cape of Good Hope, introduced 
into our gardens by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. K.B. the illustrious and most indefatigable pro- 
moter of the science of Natural History. Its leaves are coriaceous and spoon-shaped, often undu- 
lated at the base, inwardly of a deep green, and outwardly beautifully glaucous. The flowers are 
of a bright orange, tripetalled, enclosed at first by two long membranous calyx leaves, which drop 
as the flower rises from the common spatha, and these appear in succession, each retiring back- 
ward, to give place to other flowers. These three petals of the corolla encompass the beautiful 
nectarium, which is diphyllous, that is, composed of two leaves, one shaped like an anchor ex- 
teriourly, and hollowed interiourly, inclosing in a groove the five stamina, remarkable for lono- 
anthers, through which duplicature also passes the style, whose triangular and pointed stigma, 
finally reaching beyond the bifid end of this part of the nectary, makes the anchor resemblance 
perfect. The other petal of the nectary is smaller, shaped like a cowl, and hooked. Nature 
here seems to aim at deception, the beaked spatha, upon its long and round stalk, or scape, 
gives the similitude of the head of some species of crane, and the flowers above feign its top- 
knot; and even the expert botanist at first sight might imagine that the purple nectary on one 
side was a stamen, with its barbed anther, and on the other the stigma, as in the orchis tribe : but 
upon dissection all this confusion vanishes, and it easily arranges under Class V. Pentandria, 
Order I. Monogynia, of Linnaeus, each flower possessing five stamina, and one pistillum. We 
have been so fortunate as to be favoured with the following Verses on this Plant by the present 
Poet Laureate. 

On Afric's southern steep, where Gamas sail 

To the tempestuous clime was first unfurl'd, 
Courting with ample sweep the dangerous gale, 

And op'd to Europe's sons the Eastern World, 

Heroes, beyond the Demi -Gods of Greece, 

By Jason led, and urg'd by Orpheus' lyre, 
Seeking, through wilder seas a richer fleece, 

While warlike Camoens* wak'd the epic wire. 

Oft as the Genius of the stormy main 

From the high promontory view'd the wave, 
He saw with daring prow Britannia's train, 

The angry winds and mountain surges brave, 

George's parental sway and Albion's laws 

Spreading where Ammon's empire never spread, 
To Thames' blest stream her stores while Commerce draws 

From Ganges' Bramin groves and Indus' bed : 

Sudden, a buoyant Ve^el meets his eyes, 

Not launch'd by thirst of wealth, or hope of fame, 
Science alone directs the bold emprise, 

Her eye their cynosure, her smile their aim. 

Hex favourite Votary from the lap of ease, 

From Pleasure's syren voice, and Fortune's store, 
Steers by unpeopled coasts, through pathless seas, 

The expanded Scenes of Nature to explore. 

* A famous Portuguese Poet, Author of the Lousiad. 

Amid her shapes minute while others pry, 

Scanning the myriads on the herbs' green top, 

Or mark intent, with microscopic eye, 

The monsters writhing in the liquid drop ; 

Advent'rous Banks! * her bolder march pursues, 
Through the rude desert, and the billowy storm, 

And 'mid the elemental conflict views 
The mighty wonders of her awful form. 

Now 'mid the rigour of antarctic frost, 

Where the chill stream of life scarce keeps its way; 
Now where the day-star on the sultry coast 

At noon-tide sheds th' insufferable ray ; 

Uncheck'd by danger, unsubdu'd by toil, 

He climbs where mountains rise on mountains roll'd, 

Nor seeks the ores that glow beneath the soil, 
But " views the mine without a wish for gold." 

His pride, on every land, in every clime, 

From the low shrub that clothes the arid plain, 

To where the cedar waves her boughs sublime, 
Careful to trace the vegetable reign. 

Crown of his labours! this imperial flower, 
Wafted from burning Afric's rugged scene, 

'Neath Britain's better skies, in happier hour, 
Enjoys the patronage of Britain's Queen! 

Grac'd by her JVame,f its shining petals boast 
Above the rest to charm her favouring eyes, 

Though Flora brings from every clime her host 
Of various odours and of varied dyes.^ 

While Royal Nymphs,§ fair as the Oreade race 
Who trod Eurota's brink, or Cynthus' brow, 

Snatch from the wreck of time each fleeting grace, 
And bid its leaves with bloom peremiial glow ! 

James Henry Pye. 

* The Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks went with Captain Cook round the world, in order to explore the scenes of nature, 
and has since nourished the Maecenas of Botany and Natural History, which may be compared to a very tender plant, requiring the 
fostering aid of rich individuals, who employ their substance, not in pomp and vain amusements, but in the better pursuit of knowledge 
and an eternal fame. « I have often," says the elegant St. Pierre, " been astonished at our indifference respecting the applause of 
those who have introduced useful plants into their country, the sight or fruit of which are to this day so delightful. The names of these 
public benefactors are chiefly unknown, whilst their benefits pass from generation to generation: whereas those of the destroyers of the 
human race are handed down to us in every page, as if we took more account of our enemies than of our friends. The ancients did not, 
however act in this way. Plutarch observes that Ceres and Bacchus, who were mortals, attained to the rank of Gods from the univer- 
sal and lasting blessings, which they procured to mankind: whereas Hercules, Theseus, and other Heroes, rose only to the rank of 
demi-gods, their good achievements being but of a temporary and partial nature. Pliny, the great Roman naturalist, informs us with 
no small degree of exultation, that of the eight species of cherries known in Italy in his time, one was styled Plinian, after the name of 
one of his relations, who had introduced it. The other species of this very fruit bore the names of the most illustrious families, being- 
denominated the Julian, Apronian, Actian, and Cgecilian. He informs us, that it was Lucullus who, after the defeat of Mithridates, trans- 
ported from the kingdom of Pontus the first Cherry Trees into Italy, from whence they were propagated in less than an hundred and 
twenty years over all Europe, England not excepted, then peopled by Barbarians. He also mentions Pompey and Vespasian as bearing 
in their triumphs the trees of the conquered countries, producing a remembrance of their victories more useful and durable than columns 
of brass or marble. 

f This plant was named by Sir Joseph Banks in honour of Her present Majesty ; who, together with the Princesses, cultivate the 
Science of Botany, and have attained a proficiency in this science, such as none, that I know of, in the inferior ranks have equalled. 

+ Virgins attendant on Diana. 

§ There is not a plant in the Gardens of Kew (which contain all the choicest productions of the habitable globe) but has been either 
drawn by her gracious Majesty, or some of the Princesses, with a grace and skill which reflect on these personages the highest honour. 

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O R, 


1 M^ T'aT m ' menti ° nS thC ALOE " bdn S brou § ht from South America into Spain. 

ton V ♦ P 1S ^P re A S f nted to h ave flowered at Lambeth, and two other plants in 1714, atHamp- 

emSr 7Q0 !', T ° m WhiCh ^ re P rcsentati0 » ^ taken flowered in the month of Sep 

tembe , 1790, at Smith s nursery, at Dalston, near Hackney. It was supposed to be about 70 years 
old at winch tune, it displayed its scape, or trunk, arising from the center of the leaves, increasing 
with aston.8h.Dg rapidity, until it reached nearly the height of 30 feet, resembling the mast of a ship 
and there projected from its summit, at proportionate distances, 13 great branches, at each of whose 
enmities were found from 80 to 100 flowers, on proper peduncles, or flower-stalks, of different 
cngths, that each flower might have its due position as to light and heat, exciting in each beholder 
the idea of a vast chandelier. Had these flowers possessed the brilliancy of the Cereus, or Torch- 
Thistle, the resemblance indeed had been exact; although in themselves these ave but little claim to 
beauty, yet they exhibit remarkably well the Pistillum in the center of the flower, with the Germen 
inferior, that is beneath the Corolla, which is monopetalous, and sexfid, or divided into six segments 
which arc united at their base, and are of a greenish-yellow colour. Perhaps in warmer climates' 
where they are natives, these flowers might possess greater splendor, for lilies are styled by Linnaeus 
the beaux and belles of the vegetable world. Or has Nature rather chosen to give them the cha- 
racters of funereal pomp, and therefore, rightly avoided all flippancy of colouring: for the Agave 
or American Aloe, when arrived at maturity, the scape, or stem, supporting the flowers, with the 
flowers themselves, derive their nourishment from the succulent leaves beneath, and as these advance 
hose decay, and finally, the seeds being perfected, the stygma, style, corolla, and anthers, with their 
tilaments, even the peduncles, and the scape, with its branches, perish.* 

Having been favoured with the following complimentary lines on the representation given of the 
Agave, I am happy m having permission to lay them before my readers, who are the best judges 
how tar my humble endeavours may merit the Poet's commendation. ' 

Nurs'd by a length of rolling years 

Her stately form Agave rears, 

Protracting still with wise delay, 

The glory follow'd by decay, 

Till, nrg'd by time's resistless date, 
Nobly She braves her destined fate, 
And, conscious of the approaching doom, 
Bursts forth impatient into bloom; 
While, rich from all their curving stems, 
Profusely shoot the golden gems; 
Then fading 'midst admiring eyes, 
The vegetable Martyr dies.... 
But, flow'rmg thus at THY command, 
Unchang'd her finish'd form shall stand ; 
And glorying in perennial bloom, 
Shall 4mile through agea yet to come. 

Dr. Shaw. 

to^^^^S^JS^*^ 8 f* T MrfuI *« tta ~ - — "* As a defence it bids defiance to al. 

.he P ,ace of h e m ;; Z SSir T^ZZZ^^ZT;, S' :r te 'T fi *T r* manufactured ' can s ^ 

rightly tapped, from three to four hundred gallons of sap tuay be xlcted whTch I ar J f T^f ""^ °''. P ' nS ' " "^'^ • Whc " 

pulp, which serves all the purposes of soap The ligneous stem t It ' T ' h I T T J'" 6 ' ° r * ""^ ^'^ mduC ' d t0 a 

distds from the fiowers, when cohected, ^^ic^^^ZjS^T^^S " "" ^ ""* "^ 

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1 his lovely Tree rises by the banks of rivers to the height of near twenty feet. Its leaves are 
alternate, strongly veined in the midrib exteriorly, but channelled in the inside. Like the 
Indian Canna they constitute a part of the stalk. In its first stage the bads are enveloped within 
a leafy sheath, in the centre, supporting at its top a small leaf. The inside is of a beautiful 
crimson. The flower then shoots out a real spatha consisting of two leaves of a light green, 
elegantly running into crimson. These drop, when the buds all appear regularly disposed like 
the tiles of a house, of a beautiful white, tipt with crimson. They then appear glossy, and as if 
formed of the most perfect wax. From an absolute depending position, the flower-stalk gra- 
dually becomes nodding, the protecting leaf in the centre of the plant, withers, and from the 
bottom upwards the flowers take a contrary direction, the buds each turning back as they open, 
displaying a lovely assemblage of the most captivating flowers. To understand this flower well 
we must have recourse to the dissection. The flowers are not single but in pairs. The first 
envelope drops, when the advancing flower with a bud by its side appears. The second envelope 
is permanent, and wrinkled at the edges, half the length of the calyx, of a single piece with 
a division through its whole length, throughout of a bright crimson. This is seen along with the 
Pistillum, and is seated above the germen. The Corolla consists of a single fleshy petal divided 
into three segments, whereof the upper segment, resembles a hood, is twice the size of the two 
under, strongly emarginate, and deeply marked with crimson, whereas the two under ones are only 
half the size, less decidedly emarginate, with only a blush of red near their summits, divided by 
a line of white in the centre. Under the upper segment and attached to its base is the filament, 
ending in a twin or double anther. Here we remark a singular contrivance of Nature not to fail 
of her purpose, the filament is not only grooved, but there is an hollow in the centre of the 
anther, through which the pistillum passes, and growing longer than the stamen, the flower there- 
fore depends. The germen beneath is slightly covered with down, and becomes an oblong berry, 
filled with seeds, which is preserved by the natives of Surinam, and is accounted a great deli- 
cacy. The Pistillum is also further fixed within the tube of the Nectary, resembling in form 
somewhat, that of the Limodoron, or the petal of our Digitalis, but this is of a beautiful 
yellow, exquisitely streaked with red, and deeply tinged at its base, and this is continually distilling 
honey into the water, which creates a plaintive sound. It comes under the first Class, and first 
Order of Linn^us. We were favoured on this plant with the following exquisite lines, by a 
lady, whose fine poetry, I am happy to announce, will again appear in the course of this work. 

Bright Renealmia! why in pensive grace 

Bend o'er th' enamour'd stream thy lovely face? 

Still to the wave thus bow thy glowing head, 

And give thy image to its liquid bed. — 

Less beauteous forms might view with conscious pride 

Their hues reflected in the glassy tide; 

Whilst thou, fair plant ! but think'st thy fading near, 

Droop'st in thy bloom, and shedd'st a spicy tear. 

Cordelia Sheeles. 



O R, 


This plant is called by Linnaeus large-flowering Cactus, on account of the comparative largeness 
of its flower, which, in its native country, Jamaica, is often more than a foot in diameter. It has 
the appellation also of Night-blowing Cereus from its opening its beautiful flowers after sun-set 
Others have styled it the Thorch Thistle, from the armature about its pentangular, articulated, and 
chmbmg stem, which is leafless, succulent, and exhibits to the observer a figure equally 
grotesque as terrific, with flowers possessing actually the blazing appearance of a torch. I have 
sometimes seen in our hot-houses twenty or thirty of these flowers expanded in the same evening 
emitting all the while a fine balsamic odour. The calyx is monophyllous, that is, consisting of one 
piece, which is deeply cleft into segments, called by botanists lacinie, which are of a bright orange 
and gradually dimmish in size, becoming real squama, or scales, before they reach the mermen or 
seed-vessel, which is villous, or covered with numerous hairs. The petals, or flower-leaves of the 
corolla, are twenty in number, of a snowy whiteness, and arranged in tiers, are less pointed and 
concave than the lacinice, having each extremity armed with a hook. These two expansions 
Limus figuratively calls the nuptial bed. From the germen at the bottom of the cup arises a 
long tube, named by botanists the style, which terminates in a many-cleft stigma. These 3 parts 
form what is termed the pistillum, or female; around whom, in clusters, are the stamina, or males 
composed of curvilinear filaments, crowned by their anther*. These take their origin from the 
calyx; hence this plant comes under the Class Icosandria and Order Monogynia of Linnaeus- 
and in the reformed System, Class Many Stamina, Order Filaments inserted into the 
Calyx. The Cereus is thus personified by Dr. Darwin in his Loves of the Plants. 

Refulgent CEREA! the dusky hour 

She seeks with pensive step the mountain -bower, 

Bright as the blush of rising morn, and warms 

The dull cold eye of midnight with her charms. 

There to the skies she lifts her pencil'd brows, 

Opes her fair lips, and breathes her virgin vows; 

Eyes the white zenith; counts the suns that roll 

Their distant fires, and blaze around the pole; 

Or marks where Jove directs his glittering car 

O'er Heaven's blue vault,... Herself a brighter star. 

...There as soft zephyrs sweep with pausing airs 

Thy snowy neck, and part thy shadowy hairs, 

Sweet Maid of Night! to Cynthia's sober beams 

Glows thy warm cheek, thy polish'd bosom gleams. t% 

In crowds around thee gaze the admiring swains, 

And guard in silence the enchanted plains; 

Drop the still tear, or breathe the impassion'd sigh, 

And drink inebriate rapture from thine eye. 

■■" — - ''///>/f. ■//,-<■/ />>/'/ /./MOO, A/' A ■//,,,;,,/,, 


O R, 


The oblique-leaved Begonia is native of America, and was introduced into our hot-houses in the 

year 1777, by Dr. William Brown. This ornamental shrub, which rises from three to five feet 

has numerous leaves, oblique, very smooth, laterally heart-shaped, waved, terminating acute Its 

flowers afford a beautiful example of the Sexes of Plants, being male and female. The male flowers 

are discriminated by having only four petals, the upper and under are large, and the side petals 

small, all inversely cordate. In the centre of the flower are the numerous stamina. The female 

flowers are readily distinguished by having five, equal, lanceolate, petals, and a tricuspidate pistillum 

in the centre, with the germen, or seed-vessel, three-winged, inferior. Nature, as if extremely 

solicitous for this enchanting work of her hand, has with tender care involved the embryo-flowers 

within a fine membranaceous//™, or bractea, whose office of protection being served, drops 

leaving the central parts of the flowers (or organs for reproduction) protected by their petals' 

1 he male flowers are in clusters, and occupy the superior part of the plant, for the more favourable 

dispersion of the fructifying^//^; while the female flowers are found beneath on dichotomous or 

forked, peduncles, or stalks. The Begonia comes under the class Moncecia of Linneeus, order 

Polyandria, and in the reformed system, Class Many Stamina, Order Stamen-Flowers 

and Pistil-flowers, on tpie same Plant. 

Where mid Columbia's gaily-tinctur'd skies 

Her mountains blue in distant ranges rise, 

And o'er the deepening shades and crystal springs, 

Triumphant Cupid waves his purple wings, 

The fair Begonia in her verdant bower 

With conscious blushes owns his sovereign power: 

Conceals her secret wish by coy disdain; 

Yet eyes with look oblique some fav'rite swain : 

Around her soft retreat, with joy elate, 

Her numerous Lovers urge the gay debate, 

Besiege the easy Fair with honey 'd tales, 

And tell their passion to the laughing Gales, 

In frolic mirth their hopes and fears impart, 

And win by turns her dissipated heart *. . . . 

So Galatea from her shepherd swain 

Tripp'd archly wanton o'er the flowery plain, 

And laughing soft, with well- dissembled mien, 

Flew to the shades, yet wishing to be deen. 

Dr. Shaw. 

* Linnreos characterize, the Begonia thus, Folia cordata, altero latere obliterate. Having Leaves heart-shaped, one Lol-e nearly obliterated. 




xxh, happy insect, free from care, 

Thou sportest in the flutt'ring breeze; 

Wild as the fragrant mountain air, 
And playful as the waving trees. 

When morning glimmers in the east; 

Thou wander'st o'er the dewy ground, 
To sip the wild thyme's honey'd feast, 

Whose sweet breath scatters perfume round. 

At noon thou suck'st the thistly mead, 

Where, with companions blythe and gay, 

Upon the nectar'd flowers to feed, 
And sport the sultry hours away. 

And when the sun's last beam is fled, 
And ev'ning sheds her pearly tears, 

Thou sinkest to thy blossom'd bed, 
Slumb'ring again till morn appears. 

Ah! happy insect! once like thine 
My heedless moments pass'd away; 

No lengthen'd sigh of grief was mine: 
No tears then chill'd the glowing day. 

I wander'd carelessly along 

The wild wood paths and shady bowers ; 
Gave to the murmuring winds my song, 

And gather'd wreaths of simple flowers, 

Yes: then, gay Flutterer! like thee 
I danc'd where sportive Fancy led: — 

Such Joy no longer smiles for me, 

E'en Hope's delusive dreams are fled. 

b. Ji/. 

* An American Butterfly is introduced into this Picture, to denote the Country of which the Begonia is native. 

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Thxs beautiful shrub is native of both the East and West Indies. It was introduced into our 
gardens in 1769, by Mr. Norman. It is found frequent in the mountains of Jamaica: hence one 
of the aborigines gazing at, and admiring its flowers. It sleeps at regular periods by closing its 
two corresponding leaflets together; and the flowers are so rapid in their growth, as to give to 
them also the appearance of spontaneous motion, Nature having well dissembled in this 
of vegetables the high attributes of sensation, and of action. Growing to the size of a mode- 
rate tree, it is not armed with spines as many of its congeners, nor does it possess, like the 
Mimosa Pudica (the common Sensitive-Plant), the power of retracting its branches, so as 
to set the whole plant into general motion npon the rude approach of an invader. Drilling 
honey, it is the indulgent parent of the humming bird, and Nature has been so anxious for the 
preservation of this tribe, that besides multiplying the number of males (stamina) to one p.stillum, 
or female, there are also several of its flowers which possess only a clustre of males. Hence it 
arranges in the Class XXIII. Polvgamxa. Order 1. MoaaciAof Linnams. It is thns per- 
sonified by the late Dr. Darwin. 

Fill'd with nice sense the chaste Mimosa stands, 

From each rude touch withdraws her timid hands: 

Oft, as light clouds o'erpass the summer glade, 

Alarm'd she trembles at the moving shade;* 

And feels, alive through all her tender form, 

The whisper'd murmurs of the gathering storm ; 

Shuts her sweet eyelids to approaching night, 

And hails with freshen'd charms the rising light. 

Many a suitor woos the blushing maid. 

Each swears by him she ne'er can be betray'd. 

At last, she melts, and sighs, in verdant bow'rs, 

And yields to Cupid's all triumphant pow'rs.— 

So hapless Desdemona, fair and young, 

Won by Othello s captivating tongue, 

Hung o'er each strange and piteous tale, distrest, 

Then sunk enamour'd on his sooty breast. 


* Desdemona is represented by Shakspeare, as one so chaste, « as to tremble even at the sight of her own shadow. 



(jtay Flutter er of the changeful plume, 
Born in Columbian wilds to stray, 

Where Nature boasts perpetual bloom, 
And smiles unconscious of decay, 

Thy favour'd Race on lucid wing 

From flower to flower, from grove to grove, 
Like living gems are seen to spring, 

And thro' the vivid landscape rove. 

Where bending o'er the fragrant field, 
Mimosas t quiv'ring branches sweep, 

Deep in their downy nest conceal'd 
Secure thy speckled infants sleep. 

The sun thy friend, the flower thy bed, 

Thy drink the nectar of its cell, 
Luxuriant Nature smiling round, 

What Muse thy varying joys can tell? 

Had but Ana cr eon's fate allow'd 
Thy life and brighter charms to see, 

His fam'd Cicada had been scorn'd, 
And thou his better deity! 


* There are several species of the Humming Bird, but the smallest variety is of the size of an hazel-nut. It is inconceivable how much 
these add to the high finishing and beauty of a fine western landscape. As soon as the sun is risen, the Humming Birds, of different kinds 
are seen fluttering about the flowers, without ever lighting upon them. Their wings are in such rapid motion, that it is impossible to discern 
their precise colours, except their glittering. They are never still, but continually in motion, visiting flower after flower, and extracting its 
honey by a forky tongue, which they throw out like the proboscis of the bee, and commit their thefts in the gentlest manner. The constant 
division of the air creates a pleasing murmuring noise, and gives them their appellation. They sleep perched upon flowers, and hang their 
little nests in air, at the extremity of a small twig, lined with cotton, laying two eggs of a dazzling white, here and there speckled with 
yellow, and feed their young with the same sweet food as nourishes themselves. 

f The Mimosas are the natural denizens of South America, although the grandifloru was first met with, I believe, in China. 

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All the Passifloras claim the admiring eye, nor is this, though the most common, as thriving 
well out of doors, the least attractive. It was discovered in the Brazils, and its wonders were 
soon proclaimed to Christian kingdoms as representing the Passion of our Lord, whence its pre- 
sent appellation. The leaves were said exactly to resemble the spear that pierced our Saviour's 
side ; the tendrils, the cords that bound his hands, or the whips that scourged him ; the ten 
petals the apostles, Judas having betrayed, and Peter deserted ; the pillar in the center was the 
cross or tree ; the stamina, the hammers ; the styles, the nails ; the inner circle about the central 
pillar, the crown of thorns; the radiance, the glory; the white in the flower, the emblem of 
purity; and the blue, the type of heaven. On one of the species, the Passiflora alata, even drops 
of blood were seen upon the cross or tree. The flower was three days open, and then dis- 
appeared, denoting the resurrection. At last this wondrous flower was brought from the Brazils 
to Europe, and became a denizon of our gardens in the year 1699. We shall now examine 
this plant 'botanically. It is a climbing plant, remarkable for the growth of its shoots, rising in 
a few months above fifteen feet. The stem is round and fluted. At distinct distances proceed 
two stipules half-moon-shaped, on each side the leaf which is palmate, that is, divided into five 
pointed lobes, and the lesser lobe is often sublobed. From out the axilla of the petiolus of the 
leaf proceed first the Jlower, and next a tendril. The first stage of the flower is protected by a 
calyx, which, as afterwards appearing somewhat remote from the flower, is called an involucre; 
this is composed of three intire orbicular leaves, paler than the common leaves, and half the 
size of the true calyx, which opens by degrees, displaying how curiously the organs for repro- 
duction are enwrapped within its coverings. The calyx leaves are exteriorly green, and termi- 
nate with a hook, but as these leaves are united at their base, it is in fact monophyllous (a single 
leaf), divided into five segments. The croolla consists of five distinct fleshy petals. The Nec- 
tary beautifully radiates over these, and consists of two rows of threads, arising purple, then 
they possess a circular band of white, and terminate in blue interspersed with spots. There is 
next a ditch or hollow, in the middle of which arises an upright row of short purple threads ; then 
appears a mound of coalesced white threads, which detach into short purple threads converging 
around the column. At the basis of this column, so protected, lies the cell, in which the honey 
is deposited, and a gland may be found in the center of this cell for the purpose of secreting 
the honey. There is also a lid affixed to the column, which covers the honey-cell. At a short 
distance up this column proceed the fivejS laments. These are broad, and become arched; and 
at each end is a hook, to which are attached the back of the oblong anthers, which occasions 
them very readily to vibrate at every breath of wind. The anthers on their under sides have 
two bags filled with farina, each of which opens in the center like a portmanteau. At the 
place of insertion of the five stamina is the germen, whence proceed the three styles, upright, 
as may be seen at the first opening of the flower, and then gradually depending more and more 

for the purpose of impregnation. The styles, which are three, are dotted, and each terminate 
in a club-shaped yellow stigma. As soon as the intention of Nature is accomplished, all this 
clock-work of the flower ceases, and withers, except the germen, which increases, and forms 
into an oblong egg-shaped fruit, at first protected by the involucre, full of seeds inclosed 
in a subacid refreshing pulp. It comes under the Class XX. Gynandria, and Order L 
Pentandria, of LlNN^US. 

The following fine lines are from the pen of an amiable and most beautiful young Lady. 

By Faith sublim'd, fair Passiflora steers 

Her Pilgrimage along this Vale of Tears, 

The hopes of heaven alone her thoughts employ, 

Christ is her glory, and the cross her joy. — 

As the deep organ sounds the hallow'd strain 

With solemn step proceeds the pious train. 

In polish'd censers, wrought with wondrous care, 

Five cherub boys the holy incense bear, 

Three pious virgins form her holy train 
Join in her pray'rs, and weep the " Lamb that's slain" 
With solemn step they tread the cloister's gloom, 
Seek its deep shade, and commune with the tomb. 
Hark ! from the walls what sacred anthem sounds 
With hymns of praise the vaulted roof resounds ! 


" He died ! he died !— The Saviour of mankind, 
. " To save our souls, his spotless life resign'd; 

" Yes! low, with humble grace, th' Almighty's Son 

" Bow'd to the cross, and cried, ' Thy will be done.' 

" Astonished Nature trembled at the sight, 

" And veil'd the guilty land in shades of night. 

" In lofty mountains roll'd the mighty flood, 

" Earth op'd her jaws, and drank his precious blood. 

' Redemptions ours,'' re-echoed through her caves; 

" The dead are rous'd, and burst their silent graves; 

" In hollow tones each from his vault replies, 

( We slept in peace secure with God to rise: 

" Death vanquish'd fled, and sought his fell abode ; 

" Sin blush'd with shame, and hid her face from God, 

" While Mercy, rising from the throne of grace, 

" Pronounc'd free pardon to a sinful race."— 

Oh! may that cross on which our Saviour died 
Subdue our passions, and our guilty pride ! 
That we amidst the general wreck shall rise 

Preserv'd for purer worlds, and brighter skies, 
Mount the bless'd seats of Harmony and Love, 
Be crown'd with bliss, and live with GOD above. 

Frances Arabella Rowde 


} /(<//<//■'/.//>// (A:/ 

/<■>/////>//. _ '///•//.)//<■(/ /■// 




This beautiful tribe of plants we owe to the discovery of a new world. They grow luxuriant 
in various parts of that continent, but are chiefly to be met with in South America. Murucuia 
is the ancient American name; and this is retained by Tournefort, but is dropped by Linnaeus. 
Elegantly hanging on its peduncle, or footstalk, the Alata Passion-flower far surpasses all its 
kindred both as to the elegance and brilliancy of its appearance. It exhibits much more of 
majesty than the rest, and discloses a trait in nature which has often puzzled shallow philoso- 
phers. In the quadrangular and blue passion-flowers you saw an involucrum consisting of three 
large concave orbicular leaves protecting the flower in the early stage; here we possess only 
three small serrated spear-shaped leaves, which affords abundant proof that use is not always 
the plan of nature, but that she indulges sometimes in ornament. Thus we have nipples which 
answer no other end but as a correspondence with our better halves. So also the stipules on 
the stalk are equally small, and, consequently, cannot serve the purpose of protection; but in 
such instances, we may remark, that nature is oeconomic. As another essential difference, we 
cannot fail to notice the double radiance, serving as a most elegant Indian parasol to ward off 
the piercing rays of an ardent sun from the organs destined to reproduce the species. Here 
the Filaments, Anthers, and Pistillum are compressed into =a smaller space; and the Nectarium 
is first defended by small teeth placed in several rows, and as if this was not a sufficient guard, 
nature has also formed a complete barrier, by a thick membraneous expansion closely locking 
up this reservoir of nectar. The Alata Passion-flower was first introduced into the English gar- 
den by Mr. Malcolm, in 1773. It, of course, arranges under the same class and order as the 
other Passion-flowers, and exhibits to a fervent imagination the same fancy of a crucifix- 
and here we might add, that the column in the centre is spotted as if stained with blood. 

Beneath the covert of o'erarching trees 

Bright Murucuia woos the cooling breeze. 

The passing Indian turns th' admiring eye, 

Smit by the glories of her crimson dye, 

And stops, in pleas'd attention, to survey 

Her vivid leaves and variegated ray. — 

But loftier thoughts the rising mind inspire 

When warm devotion lends her holy fire. 

Haply amid the convent's virgin train, 

Bosom'd in shades beyond the western main, 

At rosy morn, or evening's silent hour, 

Some fair Enthusiast views the tainted flower: 

When lo! to rapt imagination's eye 

Springs the sad scene of darken'd Calvary! 

The thorny crown the heavenly brows around, ~l 

The scourging thongs, the galling cords that bound, > 

And nails that pierc'd with agonizing wound. J 

Sudden she lifts to heaven her ardent eye 

In silent gaze and solemn ecstacy; 

Then, fill'd with timid hope and holy fear, 

Drops on the flower a consecrated tear. 


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S/oo'/y/far/? , //■////■ / /<902 




1 his climbing plant, introduced from Jamaica into our gardens in 1768, by Philip Miller is 
supposed to be a variety of the Alata, or winged Passion-flower. Like it, the stem is quadrangular 
and winged, as the shaft of an arrow; and if it be allowed to use the same fancy as Linmeus 
sometimes indulged, we should conjecture it to be an hybrid, betwixt the common blue Passion- 
flower, and the Alata, or winged. The involucre most resembles the blue Passion-flower; the pro- 
per calyx, and petals of the corolla, the alata ; the radiance lies flat on the corolla, as with the 
common ; but in size, and configuration, resembles most the alata ; whilst the inner part of the nec- 
tary, and stamina, bear an higher affinity to the alata. The leaf also most resembles the alata, with 
the tendril. As with the other Passion Flowers, it brings to mind the Mysteries of our religion. 

At length the fated term of many years 

The world's desire have brought, and lo! a God appears.... 

The Heav'nly babe the Virgin mother bears, 

And her fond looks confess the parent's cares; 

The pleasing burden on her breast she lays, 

Hangs o'er his charms, and with a tear surveys; 

The infant smiles, to her fond bosom prest, 

And wantons, sportive, on the mother's breast ; 

A radiant glory speaks him all divine, 

And in the Child the beams of Godhead shine 

Now time, alas ! far other views disclose. . . 
The blackest comprehensive scene of woes. 
See where man's voluntary sacrifice; 
He bows his head, and God, the Saviour, dies!... 
Fixt to the cross, his healing arms are bound, 
While copious mercy streams from every woimd: 
Mark the blood- drops that life exhausted roll, 
And the strong Pang, that rends the yielding soul! 
As all death's tortures, with severe delay, 
Exult and riot in the noblest prey:... 
Lo! the bright Sun, his chariot backward drivn, 
Blots out the day, and perishes from Heavn: 
Earth, trembling from her entrails, bears a part, 
And the rent Rock upbraids mans stubborn heart. 
The yawning Grave reveals his gloomy reign, 
And the cold clay -clad Bead start into life again! 


wi ( h Vkriera I I "d VCS . 

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O R, 


The White Lily with variegated leaves is native of Persia, where it majestically presents its 
finely-polished bosom to the all-enlivening sun, the object of worship in eastern nations. Plow 
contrasted is this flower with our humble Lily of the Valley, which even hides its delicate pen- 
dulous head from the feeble rays of the spring! The White Lily has, however, like all other lilies, 
a corolla (or nuptial bed), consisting of six petals, three inward and three outward. The interior 
petals are artfully double-grooved on the back, to receive the edges of the three exterior petals, 
for the greater security, before expansion, of the organs for reproducing the species, which are 
the six stamina (or males), each composed of a filament, elevating an anther, bicapsular, or consist- 
ing of two cells, or bags, containing the yellow farina, for rendering prolific the seeds contained 
within the pistillum (or female), the next part to be described, which has a three-cornered 
stigma, sitting upon a very conspicuous style, whose base is a triangular germen, containing the 
embryo-seeds.... The White Lily comes under the Class Hexandria, and Order Monogynia, 
of Linnaeus, and in the reformed System, Class Six Males, Order One Female. It has 
been selected by us as illustrating, in the clearest manner, the parts of fructification, more 
especially when we add to it, a knowledge of the blue Passion-flower, and the Night-blowing 
Cereus. Our blessed Saviour thus alludes to it, when addressing his faint-hearted 

Behold the rising lily's <mowy grace; 

Observe the various vegetable race; 

They neither toil nor spin, but careless grow, 

Yet see how warm they blush! how bright they glow! 

What royal vestments can with them compare! 

What king so splendid, or what queen so fair!... 

If, ceaseless, thus the birds of heav'n he feeds, 
If o'er the fields 4uch lucid robed he spreads, 
Will he not care for you, ye faithless, say? 
Is he unmindful? or ye less than they? 


If it be allowed to mix with sacred profane poetry, we would willingly add the admired 
verses of an old English bard, taken from "his Book of Plants." 

Such as the lovely Swan appears 

When rising from the Trent or Thame, 
And as aloft his plumes he rears 

Darkens the less beauteous stream: 

So when this joyfuljlow'r is born, 

And does its native glories show ; 
Her clouded rivals she does scorn ; 

They're all but foils where lilies grow. 

Soon as the infant comes to light 

With harmless milk alone 'tis fed ; 
That from the innocence of white 

A gentle temper may be bred. 

The milky teat is first apply'd 

To fiercest creatures of the earth, 
But she can boast a greater pride, 

A Goddess milk producd her birth*. 

When Juno in the days of yore 

Did with the great Alcides teem, 
Of milk the Goddess had such store, 

The nectar from her breast did stream, 

Whitening beyond the pow'r of art 

The pavement where it lay, 
Yet through the crevices some part 

Made shift to find its way. 

The Earth forthwith did pregnant prove 

With lily jlow'rs supply'd, 
That scarce the milky way above 

With her in whiteness vy'd. 

Thus did the race of Man arise, 

When sparks of heav'nly fire 
Breaking through crannies of the skies, 

Did Earth's dull mass inspire. 

Happy those souls that can with me 

Their native white retain; 
Preserve their heav'nly purity 9 

And wear no guilty stain. 

Peace in such habit comes array'd, 

This dress her Daughters wear ; 
Hope and Joy in white are clad, 

In sable weeds Despair. 

Thus Beauty, Truth, and Chastity 

Attired we always find, 
With inward Love these robes agree, 

With Virtue are conjoined. 

Nature on many Flow rs beside 

Bestows a dusky white; 
On this SHEplac'd her greatest pride 

And spread it o'er with Light. Cowley. 

and ZmuttlT* Mllk ^ JUN ° (Hke ^ ^ thC Vlrgin ° n ^ H ° 17 ThiStlC) " ^ t0 haVC F ° dUCed b ° th thC Ga ^> « M% ** 


O R, 


The Superb Lily is a native of North America, and was first introduced into England in 1738, 
by Peter Collinson, Esq. It was then called the great yellow-flowering Martagon, and dis- 
tinguished from the purple, or common Turkscap, by having its leaves scattered, instead of 
being placed in a whorl. Its flowers rise in the form of a stately pyramid by very long pedun- 
culi, or footstalks, each issuing from an axilla of the stem-leaf. In common with the liliaceous 
tribe, it has no calyx, a fleshy corolla, consisting of six petals, which, like the other Martagons, at 
first beautifully involve the organs for reproduction, and then become reflected, and curl more 
and more back, as the six stamina and pist ilium advance towards perfection. At this period 
the anthers, like a double folding door, roll back their partitions, to disperse the fecundating 
pollen for the impregnation of the pistillum. We then behold these parts decay in progression, 
the grand purpose of Nature being fulfilled, and the peduncles, or flower-stalks, which were 
before elegantly pendent, become rigidly erect. As the pericarp, or seed-vessel, ripens, its 
three valves gradually separate, finely exhibiting that interlacement of Jibres, which sowed 
these parts together before maturity. In our picturesque plate the reader will find the northern 
sky and shade which this plant requires, a circumstance happily caught at by the poet in making 
his allegorical allusion to our flower. 

Fann'd by the summer gale, a Foplar stood 

Beside the margin of the silver flood; 

Beneath its playful gently-wav'ring shade 

A Lily proud her dazzling bloom display'd ! 

The flow'r complain'd, that stretching o'er her head 

The dark'ning tree her broadest umbrage spread. 

Not unattentive to the mournful strain, 

The master heard his fav'rite flower complain: 

The steady axe soon urg'd the fatal wound, 

And bow'd the stately Poplar to the ground! 

The Lily boastful now in full display 

Gave all her beauty to the garish day. 

But soon, her triumph ceas'd. ..the mid-day beam 

Pour'cl on her tender frame a scorching stream. 

The plant then sick'ning, drooping, languid, pale, 

Call'd the soft show'r, and call'd the cooling gale; 

But no soft show'r, nor gale with cooling breath, 

Approach'd to save her from untimely death. 





This" extremely foetid poisonous * plant will not admit of sober description. Let us therefore 
personify it. 

She f comes peeping from her purple crest with mischief fraught: from her green covert 
projects a horrid spear of darkest jet, which she brandishes aloft: issuing from her nostrils 
flies a noisome vapour infecting the ambient air: her hundred arms are interspersed with 
white,, as in the garments of the inquisition; and on her swollen trunk are observed the 
speckles of a mighty dragon : her sex is strangely intermingled with the opposite ! t confusion 
dire! — all framed for horror; or kind to warn the traveller that hex fruits axe poison-berries, 
grateful to the sight but fatal to the taste, such is the plan of Providence, and such her 
wise resolves. 

" Thy soul's first hope! thy mother's sweetest joy !" 

Cried tender Laura, as she kiss'd her boy, 
" Oh wander not where Dragon Arum show'rs 
" Her baleful dews, and twines her purple flow'rs, 
" Lest round thy neck she throw her snaring arms, 
" Sap thy life's blood, and riot on thy charms. 
" Her shining terry, as the ruby bright, 
" Might please thy taste, and tempt thy eager sight: 
" Trust not this specious veil; beneath its guise, 
" In honey'd streams a fatal pouon lies." 

So Vice allures with Virtues pleasing song, 
And charms her victims with a Siren d tongue. 

Frances Arabella Rowden. 

* From the root, however, of this plant, a powerful and useful sternutatory may be made. 

t In this description the author has had in view the fancy of the ancients respecting that being whom they represented as hostile to man. 

'ti%ei Se xoc) woXuVuf 
K«i' 7roXi;%£(/5, u osivoTg 
KpvTfjofxevoc ho^ois 
KaXxo7riSi 'Epwv$. 

Lo! with unnumber'd hands, and countless feet, 
The Fury comes, her destin'd prey to meet ; 
Deep in the covert hid. — 


t Linngeus places this plant in the class Gynandria, other authors refer it to Moncecia, and in our reformed system it comes under the 
class Many Males, order, flowers spathed. 

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Dispersed over the arid* wilds of Africa, in pyramidal forms, issue the fleshy stems, desti- 
tute of leaves, of the Hirsute Stapelia. These stems are on every side armed with hooks like 
claws. The juices of this plant are so acrid, that the smart these occasion on the tongue will be 
sensible a long while, and even fatal, if tasted beyond a certain proportion. Nature has well 
marked it of the natural order, the Lurid, or poisonous, for the corolla, which is deeply cleft into 
five segments, is of a dusky purple, and dingy yellow, and speckled like the belly of a serpent, 
besides being fringed with hairs, which gives to this flower something of an animal appearance. 
It has likewise so strong a scent, resembling carrion, that blow-flies in abundance hover round it; 
and mistaking the corolla for flesh, deposit there their eggs, which are soon converted into real 
maggots, adding to the horror of the scene, some being seen writhing among the purple hairs 
of the flower, and others already dead for want of food, the vegetable in this rare instance de- 
ceiving and overcoming the animal creation. The star-like appearance in the centre is the Nec- 
tary, mingled with the five Stamina, and two Pistilla. Hence it arranges under the class Pen- 
tandria, order Digynia, of Linnaeus. We have been favoured with the following fine poetic 
effusion from the masterly pen of Dr. Shaw on this plant. 

'Mid the wild heights of Afric's stormy cape, 

The fell Stapelia rears her Gorgon shape; 

Spreads her rough arms, and turns, with scowling eye, 

Her bearded visage to the thund 'ring sky. 

To magic rites she bends her wayward care, 

And with unholy vapours taints the air, 

Distils with fatal art each secret bane, 

And gathers all the poisons of the plain. 

By native instinct round her drear abode 

Glides the green snake, or crawls the shapeless toad. 

Lur'd to the hag, by horrid spells subdued, 

The care-craz'd mother brings her num'rous brood, 

Hears the smooth tale, and trusts, in evil hour, 

The tender offspring to her guardian pow'r. 

The subtle fiend assumes a softer air, 

And falsely smiles, and feigns a mother's care: 

But gone the parent, 'mid the cavern's gloom 

The dire E?ichantress drags them to their doom; 

In pining atrophy to yield their breath, 

And slowly languish in the arms of death; 

Till, dried each wasted limb, each haggard eye, 

Their shrivell'd forms her hideous rites supply. 

No soft remorse her fell resolves can stay, 

Born of the rocks, as pitiless as they! 

So foul Canidia,\ with malignant joy , 

Watch'd the slow progress of the buried boy ; 

So dire Erichtho* fraught with spells accurst, 

Feign'd pious cares, and murder d while she nurst! 

So fierce Medea§ with relentless eye, 

And soul unmovd, beheld her children die ; 

And ruthless plung'd, by demon rage possess'd, 

The fatal dagger in each infant breast; 


* The Stapelias in our hot-houses never require to be watered. | Hor. Epod. 5. % Lucan. lib. 6. § Ovid. Epist. xiii- 

Reinai/h- SaC.AILA. ffnc! 

i.Telul ?oVwi 

U. Pitcher Plant 

ju.Fenutf Fh~ Tr<i/> 

Sui/rrr/and Scut/) ■ 



London .Pitbluhtd by J)' ' Thornton, Jut? i.iSoo. 




jl he generality of these plants,, inhabitants of South America, are parasitical, and growing at 
the roots of trees, shoot their stems upwards to a considerable height, which at every joint pro- 
duce fresh roots, extending like the Taenia, * and being voluble, attach themselves firmly to 
their stems and branches, and by exhausting these of their sap, finally deprive them of life. 
Our specimen, the Fetid Pothos, is an inhabitant of North America, and was introduced into 
this country by Peter Collin son, in the year 1763, and it shews first its spatha, which is of 
a yellow colour dashed with purple stripes, (the indications of poison), like an arum, inclosing 
a short spadix, on which are placed chequer-wise the sessile flowers, each of which possesses four 
stamina and one pistillum; hence it arranges under the Class Gynandria, Order Tetandria, 
and vice versa, as respects our Reformed Sexual System. The leaves, which we need not men- 
tion here, appear after the flowers. As the growth of its congeners is by rooting joints, so this 
poisonous herb is amazingly extended by suckers, and thus the Fetid Pothos spreads over a 
vast extent of bog, filling its whole atmosphere with poisonous exhalations, 

Placed where no nutmeg scents the vernal gales, 
Nor towering plaintain shades the mid-day vales; 
No grassy mantle hides the sable hills, 
No flow'ry chaplet crowns the trickling rills ; 
Nor tufted moss, nor leathery lichen creeps 
In russet tapestry o'er the crumbling steeps. 
No step retreating, on the sand impress'd, 
Invites the visit of a second guest ; 
No refluent fin th' unpeopled stream divides, 
No revolant pinion cleaves the airy tides ; 
Fierce in dread silence on the blasted heath 
Fell Pothos sits, the hydra-plant of death. 
Lo ! from one root, th' envenom'd soil below, 
A thousand vegetative serpents f grow; 
With horrid look the Hooded Monster spreads 
O'er ten square leagues his far- diverging heads; 
Or in one trunk entwists his tangled form, 
Looks o'er the clouds, and hisses to the storm. 
Steep 'd in fell poison, as his sharp teeth part, 
A thousand tongues in quick vibration dart; 
Snatch the proud Eagle towering o'er the heath, 
Or pounce the Lion as he stalks beneath ; — 
Here at his root two scion-demons dwell, 
Breathe the faint hiss, or try the shriller yell; 
Rise, flutt'ring in the air on callow wings, 
And aim at insect-prey their lesser stings. 


* So the lone Tania, as he grows, prolongs 

His flatten'd form with young adherent throngs.— Darwin. 
The Tape-worm dwells in the intestines of men and animals, and grows old at one extremity only, producing an infinite series of young 
ones at the other; the separate joints have been called Gourd-worms, each of which possesses a mouth of its own, with organs of digestion. 
These produce a dreadful emaciation of the body, from the quantity of chyle they rob the constitution of, and finally death. 

f This genus was anciently called Dracontium, from Draco, a dragon; and our specimen was named Dracontium Fcetidum. Vide 
Miller's Dictionary, the charming edition of it, by Martyn. 




This plant, so singular for its leaves and flowers, is native of Virginia, and grows in bogs, or 
shallow water. It was introduced into our gardens in the year 1752. The leaves in their 
infant state are flat, tapering, and of one compact substance; but at a certain age, at the top 
the appearance of a lid is seen, bent down, or rather then resembling the upper bill of a bird; 
afterwards the leaf opens from within until it enlarges itself into a triangular hollow vase, when 
the lid turns back, taking the form of a friar's cowl. This contains water, and in droughts it is 
said that the lid falls down over the mouth of the tube, serving as a covering to it, to prevent 
the exhalation. It is called the Pitcher- Plant, because small birds repair to it, and drink out of 
the hollow leaf. It is also named the Side-Saddle flower, from its flower being supposed to 
resemble a woman's pillion. The leaves, as well as flowers, are radical. Each/or^ris elevated 
on a long scape. It is defended by a double calyx. The outer consists of three small leaves: 
the inner of five orbicular green leaves. The petals of the corolla are five, more oblong, of a 
pale yellow. The stamina are numerous, and lie concealed under the target-formed stigma of the 
pistillum, which perishing, with the stamina, leaves the swollen germen on the elevated scape. 
The concealment of courtship here has furnished the poet with the following beautiful lines. 

In vain a num'rous race of gentle swains 

To Sarrace?iia pour'd their tender strains: 

In vain their ardent pray'r, their artless lay; 

Of tyrant vice she fell the hapless prey. — 

A libertine bred in the school of lies 

With lawless passion to the beauty flies; 

Gain'd her weak heart, and soon he turn'd from thence, 

Scarce having yet indulged his eager sense; 

Then the fell Furies, sailing through the air, 

Aim their keen weapons at the tortur'd fair; 

Scorn in her bleeding bosom strikes his dart, 

And sad Repentance writhes around her heart. 

Remorse her stinging snakes in fury throws, 

And Madness heightens her exalted woes. — 

Poor injur d suffrer! bid adieu to peace; 

Not in this world of sin thy pangs will cease: 

Not till kind Mercy takes thee to her breast, 

And bears thy spirit to the realms of rest. 

Frances Arabella Rowden. 




Ihe Sacracenia is said, by Bartram, in his Travels into North America, to contain a 
quantity of pure limpid water; and to open its lid when this reservoir is nearly empty, and close 
it when full. He mentions, also, his having tasted this water, and it was clear, limpid, and 
refreshing as the morning dew. Examining into the interior of these pitcher-like leaves, he 
found them beset with short stiff hairs, which all pointed downwards, and (very like our mouse- 
traps) allow a passage for entrance, but all return is denied, and hence the Sacracenia has the 
property of destroying insects. But in this it is far surpassed by another bog-plant, introduced 
among us in 1765, called, for this very circumstance, Muscipula, the fly -catcher', and Dionjea, 
a name for Venus, on account of its beautiful white flowers, which rise in a general umbel, from a 
long scape, each flower being terminal, consisting of five milk-white petals, ten stamina, and one 
pistillum, somewhat resembling the Geranium. Its radical leaves, which are in circular order, 
are of a most extraordinary construction, having the peduncles winged,* and exactly similar in 
shape and contrivance to our rat-trap, with spikes in the center, and teeth around, also baited 
from glands which distil honey. No sooner does a deluded insect touch this honey, than the 
trap instantly closes, and with such swiftness, as never to miss its prey, and with such a spring 
as to defy all exertions for escape, and only opens when the insect is dead, when it expands 

again for fresh murders ! 

Haste, glittering Insect, tenant of the air, 

Oh steer from hence, your rapid course afar! 

With tend'rest words, sweet becks, and nods, and smiles, 

Should Dion^a lure you to her toils, 

Caught by her art in vain you try your pow'r, 

A certain death awaits you at that hour; 

On you will Rivals point the furious dart, 

And plunge th' envenom d weapon in your heart! 

* We are inclined to this opinion, from observing the structure of the leaves of the Drosera Rotundifolia (Round-leaved Sundew), 

a native of our climate, which has also irritable round leaves, but on long plain peduncles or footstalks, whose traps are also toothed, and on 

each tooth day and night hangs a clammy globule, which looks like dew, hence its English appellation. It has Five Stamina and Five 

Pistilla. The Poet thus celebrates it. 

Queen of the Marsh, imperial Drosera treads 

Rush-fringed banks, and moss embroider'd beds; 

Redundant folds of glossy silk surround 

Her slender waist, and trail upon the ground; 

Five sister-nymphs collect with graceful ease, 

Or spread the floating purple to the breeze; 

Andjive fair youths with duteous love comply 

With each soft mandate of her moving eye. 

As with sweet grace her snowy neck she bows, 

A zone of diamonds trembles round her brows; 

Bright shines the silver halo, as she turns; 

And, as she steps, the living lustre burns. 




Ah ! fleeting race! soon thy hour's fled, 
Soon the earth is cover'd with thy dead, 

Thy myriad people soon are gone ; 
And frolic mirth 's no longer seen, 
Ah ! soon ye fill th' insatiate tomb, 

It scarce remains that ye have been! 

Thus struck with wonder I behold 
Man's thoughtless race, in error bold, 

Forget, nay scorn, the laws of Death; 
With these no projects coincide, 
Nor vows, nor toils, nor hopes, can guide, 

Each thinks he draws immortal breath ! 

Each, blind to Fates approaching hour, 
Intrigues or fights for wealth or pow'r, 

And slumVring dangers dare provoke : 
And he who, tott'ring, scarce sustains 
A century's age, plans future gains, 

And feels an unexpected stroke! 

Go on, unbridled, desperate band, 

Scorn rocks, gulphs, winds, search sea and land, 

And spoil new worlds, wherever found: 
Seize, haste to seize the glittWing prize, 
And sighs, and tears, and prayrs despise, 

Nor spare the temples holy ground! 

They go, succeed; but look again, 
The desperate band you seek in vain, 

JVow trod in dust, the peasant's scorn : 
But who that saw their treasures swell, 
That heard ill insatiate crew rebel, 

Would eer have thought them mortal born? 

See the world's Victor mount his car; 
Blood marks his progress wide and far, 

Sure he shall reign while ages fly: 
No; vanish'd like a morning cloud, 
The Hero was but just allow'd 

To fight, to conquer, and to die. 

And is it true, I ask with dread, 
That Nations, heap'd on Nations, bled 

Beneath his chariot's fervid wheel, 
With trophies to adorn the spot, 
Where his pale corse is left to rot, 

And doom'd the hungry reptile's meal? 

Yes! Fortune, weary'd with her play, 
Her toy, this hero, casts away; 

No haughty thoughts now fill his breast!— 
How changed his look!— how pale!— how cold!- 
Next made a spectre to behold 

In realms — where he shall never rest! 


* Man other plants beside the Catchfly Dionaea are inimical to this fugacious race, as the Sarracenia, Silene, Androsymum, &c. 

r , 

/•„,//;„ /,',//,:,/,,,/ /? t/ _ v. . J/, ,<</,.,>, ^ /,v. '/," / /(/'?. 




In the dreary season of winter, nature has partially indulged the eye with ever-greens, the 
presage of the resurrection of animated beings, and of the returning zephyr; and none of this 
class claims our attention, for the beauty of its flowers, and wisdom of its contrivance, more 
than the Pontic Rhododendron, which was introduced into our gardens from the Levant 
in 1763. The flower is funnel-shaped beneath, and then expands into the resemblance of five 
Petals, which, in fact, are only five Lacinite, or Segments, of a monopetalous Corolla. The upper 
Segment performs the office of Nectary, is grooved in the middle, and so fertile is this part in 
the formation of honey, that you may observe a sweet globule in almost every expanded 
flower. From the cup of the corolla issue ten Stamina, the Filaments of each are beset with 
fine hairs, and are curvilinear, in order better to perform the useful office of dispersing the 
Farina on the Pistillum, which is contained in two Cells, each of which open at tops. The 
Pistillum takes the same elegant curve as the Stamina: but when impregnation has been 
accomplished, what appeared before a cluster of flowers, the stamina and corollas having withered, 
now is seen entirely to consist of pistilla, each one displaying its pentagonal germen, the style, 
and stigma, and assuming its distinguished rank; and Nature now delights us with the art shewn 
in adjusting their respective places around the stem. Nor was the kind intention of Provident 
Nature less conspicuous in the infant state of the flower, when each bud was protected by 
a corresponding Stipule, which, as it ceased its utility, fell from off* the stem, gradually unfolding 
to the admiring eye of the spectator, a superb group of purple crowning flowers, which, as 
being hardy natives of wild situations, cast an air of dignity over such solitary scenes. 

O'er pine-clad hills, and dusky plains, 

In silent state Rhodonia reigns, 

And spreads, in beauty's softest bloom, 

Her purple glories through the gloom. 


There, by the solemn scene enchanted, 

The melancholy maiden strays; 
And by dark streams and fountains haunted, 

Well pleas'd each rocky wild surveys: 
To her more fair those shadowy bowers 
Than glittering halls and castled tow'rs. 

Nor, happy less, who thus unknown, 
Can call the woods and shades his own ! 
And, wand'ring o'er the moss-clad plain, 
At will indulge the pensive strain! 
Array'd in smiles, array'd in terrors, 

Great Nature's awful form admire, 
And from the world, and all its errors, 

In silent dignity retire! 



Jjeneath the meadow's flowery breast 
The Wild -Bee* builds her humble nest, 
And, anxious, to her mossy dome 
Conveys her gather'd treasures home. 
Each opening gem that scents the field 
She bids its choicest fragrance yield ; 
Bright Pimpernel, of lively hue, 
Fair Speedwell, rich in varied blue ; 
And Orchis, clad in speckled bloom, 
And the sweet Trefoil's soft perfume ; 
And Etiphrasy, of modest mein, 
And Meadow -sweet, the vernal queen. 
Sometimes amid the garde?is maze 
Secure the little Plunderer strays ; 
Robs the gay Roses blushing dell ; 
Hangs in the Lily's silver bell ; 
Or from Rhodonia s purple flower 
Culls sweets to fill her waxen bower. — 
So lives the happy rural Maid, 
By no ambitious wishes sway'd; 
Fair tenant of the peaceful grove, 
Content with industry and love ! 


* Bees, besides extracting from flowers honey and wax, in a way that no chemist, however great their art, could accomplish, in re- 
turn, perform the office of bridegroom to flowers, by the conveyance of the fertilizing meal from one flower to another. 

The Humble Bee, which we have introduced into our picture, differs, we believe, in manners from the common, or domestic bee, only 
by forming its nest under ground. Its cells are in the shape of acorns, attached to each other by a waxen thread, so as to resemble in the 
total a bunch of grapes; but here the presiding Queen is without wings, and smooth, and being all over of a shining black, may be compared 
to the Queen of Ethiopia. Each morning she sends out one of her subjects, who instantly obeys; and making a buzzing noise at the gate of 
the hive for near half an hour, by the motion of the wings alone, rouses from their slumbers the rest, who obey this summons, and then pro- 
ceed to their several useful labours for the commonwealth. The Queen daily visits each cell, and always proceeds with several in her suit, 
and the rest make room for her to pass, when she directs the whole plan of operations. This insect is too nearly allied to flowers not to have 
found admission amongst them, and being once introduced, there needs no apology with the sentimental reader for delaying his attention a 
little, by a slight and elegant poetic effusion, even on an insect ! 

fir ,'/s/f '/,/<>// /// 

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O R, 

M E A D I A. 

It has its present appellation from its native country, and from the resemblance its growth bears 
to the ordinary Cowslip, possessing, like it, leaves radical, and an erect scape or flower-stem* '. From the 
summit of the scape, which is fringed round with numerous small and regular leaves, the peduncles 
or flower-stalks, as in umbelliferous plants, issue in every direction, each bearing a very beautiful 
flower. These consist of a Calyx composed of one leaf, divided into five regular green segments, 
which at first embrace the young flower, and afterwards expand; a Corolla consisting of five delicate 
lilac segments, which, like those of the Calyx, first enclose the more essential parts, the organs for 
reproduction, which having acquired a due perfection, then beautifully reflect themselves, in order 
that these may have a due quantity of light and heat. The organs for reproduction are the five 
Stamina, which issue through the mouth or tube of the Corolla; each filament being firmly pressed by as 
many nectaria, leaving however free the barb-like Anthers, which curiously clasp each other, the 
two opposite hollows on the sides firmly fitting together, for the protection of the fecundating/tf n/^, 
which, when these separate, is thrown forth with a spring upon the Pistillum, proceeding from the 
centre of the flower. When these are longer than the Stamina, Nature usually adopts the device 
of forming, as we see here, pendulous flowers. We have yet further to remark the unceasing care 
of Providence, whilst Nature appeared to be only industrious to make the habitation of man gay 
and delightful, she was carrying on her principal design, being intent upon the continuance, and 
preservation, of the species. The story of the American Cows lit fully explains this. For the seeds 
becoming impregnated, those segments, which looked the other day so charming, separate in disor- 
der, shrink, and wither ; the Stamina seceding from each other, with their empty Anthers, perish ; 
even the Stigma and Style become dry; crowning the fruitful Germen, which increases day by day; 
now we may observe the reflected segments of the Calyx to assume their first form, closing round 
each prolific Germen ; and the Peduncles, which were before bent downwards, moving with every 
Zephyr, gradually become rigid and erect, giving to the plant in this stage as much of form and 
stiffness, as it had before of lightness and elegance £ In its perfect state it might easily raise to 
our fancy the image of a vegetable sky-rocket in different periods of explosion, or some might conceive 
it to resemble a number of light shuttlecocks, fluttering in the air. This plant Mr. Catesby in his 
natural history of Carolina called Meadia, after the famous Dr. Mead, which appellation Linnaeus 
has rejected, styling it in his works, Dodecathon (the twelve Heathen Gods), on account of the 
singular beauty, and number of its flowers. It comes under his Class V. Pentandria, five 
males, Order I. Monogynia, one female, and in our reformed system, Class Five Stamina, 
Order, One Pistillum. It is thus elegantly personified by Dr. Darwin. 

Meadia's soft chains five suppliant beaux confess, 
And hand in hand the laughing belle address ; 
Alike to all, she bows with wanton air, 
Rolls her dark eye, and waves her golden hair. 


* What a difference in this scape compared with that of the American Aloe ! 
+ The instinct-like actions of the Meadia have a great resemblance to those of the Superb Lily before described. 

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This beautiful shrub was introduced into our gardens from North America by Peter Collinson, 
Esq. in 1T36. It grows to two feet in height, and sends out several upright branches, which 
are beset with flowers like a cluster of bees. Each flower is rotate, and possesses a pistillum in 
the centre, surrounded by ten males, or stamina. The filaments are like the radii of a wheel, 
and the anthers are each inclosed in niches of the corolla. As these filaments increase they 
form a bow, and when the elasticity is superior to the resistance of the niches enclosing the 
anthers, each in turn springs forth, ejaculating the pollen over the pistillum in the centre. The 
contrivance of nature, in this instance, to continue on the species is worthy our thought and 
admiration. It comes under Class Decandria, ten male, Order Monogynia, one female, 
of Linn^us. We have been so fortunate as to be favoured by the following beautiful lines on 
this plant, which afforded to the poet an opportunity of a very grand comparison. 

High rise the cloud-capp'd hills where Kalmia glows 

With dazzling beauty, 'mid a waste of <5?wws, 

O'er the wild scene she casts a smiling eye, 

The earth her bed, the skies her canopy. — 

Thus from the north, in undulating streams. 

Glance after glance, the polar radiance gleams, 

Or, in expanding glare, at noon of night. 

Fills the red zenith with unbounded light. 

Quick fly the timid herds in wild amaze, 

While arms unseen clash dreadful 'mid the blaze. 

Th' affrighted shepherd to his cot retires, 

Nor dares to gaze upon the quiv'ring fires: 

The crouching dogs their master's feet surround, 

And, fix'd by fear, lie torpid on the ground: 

Loud shrieks the screaming owl, and flits away, 

Scar'd by the lustre of unlook'd-for day : 

E'en the grim wolf his nightly prey forsakes, 

And silent in his gloomy cavern quakes, 

Till skies serene their starry groupes display, 

And each terrific phantom dies away. 


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This beautiful plant was introduced into our gardens in 1778 by Dr. Fothergill, who obtained 
the seeds from China. Its Latin specific name was given it in honour of the Countess of Tanker- 
ville, a cultivator of flowers, the elegant and refined pleasure of virtuous and noble minds. Its 
leaves are ensate, plaited, and often somewhat revolute. The flowers are elegantly disposed 
upon the scape, three together at the base, then opposite, and clustered above. In their infant 
state these are protected by a green spatha, which drops as the flowers advance; these then beau- 
tifully unfold their five brooding petals, which are white above, but of a brown red beneath, 
elegantly contrasting with a bell-shape nectary, exteriorly white at its base, but marked with a 
dark purple at its mouth, and of a lighter tinge. The inside of the tube itself is of a dark purple, 
but a pale line runs along its centre towards the horn : this conceals the organs of generation, 
which are curiously fashioned, for as in the Orchis tribe, the anthers are twin, depending, and 
lodged within cells, closely connected with the stigma, which is supported by a fleshy style, but the 
germen is exterior. It comes under the class of Gynandria, Order Diandria, of Linnaeus. 

Sweet Flower, whose modest beauties blow 

Deep in the green and silent vale, 
Where willows, bending o'er the stream, 

Wave gently to the passing gale! 

So, in thy native Sina's shades, 

Like thee, sequester d and serene, 
Soft smiling sit her pensive maids, 

Pleas'd with the solitary scene. 

There, list'ning to some magic tale, 

Of fabled bliss, or fancied woe, 
They deck with art the silken veil, 

Or tend the flowers that round them blow. 

From moss -clad rocks and tangled shades 

The murmuring waters roll around; 
Sweep through the gardens green arcades, 

And shine along the varied ground. 

On waving boughs the plumy race 

Sweet carol from the blossom'd spray; 
While, glittering in each pictur'd vase, 

The golden-scaled beauties play. 

Domestic cares and duteous love 

In turn their tender thoughts employ; 
And form within their green alcove 

A happiness that cannot cloy. 


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This beautiful plant is native of warm climates, and was early introduced into our gardens, 
even as far back as the time of Gerard, who mentions it as growing in his garden in 1596. 
From a tuberous, horizontal, knotty root, proceed several stalks, which in their early state, are 
protected by the young leaves, which are beautifully convoluted, and open at top, but as the 'stem 
rises, these take their position around it, alternate, spreading out to the extent of a foot in 
length, and half a foot in breadth, channelled, undulated, with parallel nerves running to the 
membranous edges; the leaves at their bases encompass the stem. The flowers at first are all 
covered by a common green Spatha, this afterwards embraces the lower part of the flower-stalk- 
the flowers are in spikes, often two together, first protected by a small oblong Involucre, ana 
another, by its side, resembling a small leaf; the Perianth consists of three small, concave spear- 
hke, coloured leaves ; the Corolla is sexpartite, the three outer lacinia., or segments, are concave 
spear-hke, thrice the length of the leaves of the perianth ; and the three inner lacinia; are twice 
the length of these, two of them ascending, one turned to the side, often bifid, forming a kind of 
upper hp, or helmet, protecting the Nectary, which is also deeply bipartite, the upper lacinia 
of which contains both the sessile Anther, and the spatulate Pistil ; its extreme part is first 
ascending, then rather revolute, but the under lacinia is revolute in a contrary direction to the 
other, and forms, as it were, the under lip of this pseudo-ringent Flower. Impregnation being 
performed, the flower (as it is called) being gone by, the swollen Germen next appears beset with 
points, crowned with the three-leaved perianth above, and the two scaly leaves below, or invo- 
lucres, and it afterwards becomes a rough Capsule, three-sided, three-celled, containing a triple 
row of seeds, the size of a large pea, black, shining, so hard as to be used as shot by the Indians 
and by the Roman Catholics as beads, for making their Rosaries. It comes under Class I of 
LiNNiEus. Monandria, one husband, and Order I. Monogynxa, one wife. We have been 
so fortunate as to be favoured with the following most elegant and appropriate lines on this 
beautiful flower by a poet, who has often before very kindly obliged us. 

Where sacred Ganges * proudly rolls 
O'er Indian plains his winding way, 
By rubied rocks and arching shades f, 
Impervious to the glare of day, 

Bright Camw, veil'd in Tyrian robe, 
Views her lov'd lord with duteous eye; 
Together both united bloom, 
And both together fade and die.— 

Thus, where Benares' ^ lofty towers 
Frown on her Ganges' subject wave, 
Some faithful widow'd bride repairs, 
Resolv'd the raging fire to brave. 

True to her plighted virgin vow 
She seeks the altar's radiant blaze, 
Her ardent prayers to Brahma § pours, 
And calm approaching death surveys. 

With India's gorgeous gems adorn'd, 
And all her flowers, which loveliest blow: 
" Begin," she cries, " the solemn rites, 
" And bid the fires around me glow. 

" A cheerful victim at that shrine 
" Where nuptial truth can conquer pain, 
" Around my brows rich garlands twine, 
" With roses strew the hallow'd plain. 

" Near yon deep grove the pyre ascends, 
" Where, pale in death, Calindus lies ; 
" Soon shall these arms, no more withheld, 
" Embrace him in his kindred skies. 

" Friends of my youth, your plaints forbear, 
" Nor with a tear these rites profane ; 
" Ere long, the sun, that now declines, 
" Shall see me 'midst the sainted train. 

" Mother, my last embrace receive ; 
" Take, sisters, take this parting kiss: 
" A glorious martyr decks your race, 
" And leaves you for the realms of bliss. 

" Hark! from the clouds his voice I hear; 
" Celestial visions round me fly! 
" I see the radiant shape appear, 
" His image beckons from the sky. 

" Haste, holy Bramins ! light the blaze 
" That bears me to my parted love : 
" I fly, his seraph form to meet, 
" And join him in the realms above ||." 



<e After the mournful sacrifice, the ashes of the faithful widow are collected and deposited in 
an urn, and placed in the family sepulchre ; and it is both an affecting and interesting sight 
to see the Hindoos proceeding in groups, carrying flowers in their hands, which they spread 
over the tomb of the deceased, at the same time they chaunt solemn songs in honour of the 




Ah say, why tearful is the sadden'd eye? 

Why weeps pale Sorrow o'er the mournful tomb? 

Is it that Death's dark cloud with deep'ning gloom 
Has swept Life's cheerful morn and smiling sky? 
Yet, sorrowing Pair, whose fond parental breasts 

Still mourn departed loveliness and worth; 
Yet, yet look up to where your Angel rests, 

And mounts secure from all the woes of earth ! 

And thou, lorn Sister, lovelier in thy tears, 
O wipe the liquid sorrow from thy brow ; 

And thou, Companion of her once gay years, 
Smile that a Seraph claims thy friendship now; 


For in robes of glory beaming 
High she trips the azure ground, 
Where, in sounds of rapture streaming 
All the harps of Heav'n resound ! 

Falls, in strains of music dying, 
Streams, that warble as they flow, 
Symphonies in Zephyrs sighing, 
Ever breathing soft and slow; 

Fields, that know no winter dreary, 
Groves, to heav'nly musing dear, 
There her charm'd eye never weary, 
Never tir'd her ravish'd ear ! 


Lift, lift, fond Pair, the drooping head ; 
O let the Smiles, so soon that fled, 

Again salute th' enliven'd Morn ! 
Hush, hush Affection's mournful sigh, 
And wipe from out the tear-dew'd eye 

The pearls that Woe's pale cheek adorn. 


Ye Choirs of Harmony on high, 
Who tune the spheres that charm the sky, 
For ever rolling round th' eternal throne; 
Quick with your magic sounds unfold 
Yon portals of celestial gold; — 
A Sister Minstrel comes to claim her own. 
Haste, bring the vest of shining white, 
The glitt'ring harp, and crown of light, 
And pour a flood of radiance on her way! — 
She comes, she comes ! upon her brow 
Life beams immortal triumph now ; 
Her eyelids open on eternal day! 


Hark, how the golden lyres around 
Roll all the majesty of sound, 
As loud she hails her native sky! 
Now wide upon the raptur'd sight 
Burst beatific visions bright ; 
Death binds her lovely form no more ; 
She bursts the bonds that chain'd before, 
And puts on — immortality. 



^ol'z^l^Vy^rr^z ::;;" r ; ted t M ages not oniy ° n accomt ° f <** *«— ° f m. *«.. *** *<** „ ot 

performance of certain religious ceremonies. All p ' , Z Zc I TT? . ^ ^^ *** eSteemed necess ^ in the 
so than others, to which places thousands rest C 1 ^ 7T * * ^ ""' ^ particUl " ? arts are «*»»'*«« '° * ■»<« 
AttlBttte, Vol. I. p. 239 Certai " SeaS ° nS ° f the ? ear < ln order t0 P°rify themselves. Vide Maurices Indian 

Thut ySSrSn £^f Pain " ng arC Ca " ed ki " dred artS: ""< '^ fo ™« Centimes rises superior to the powers of the latte, 

' Now Fame, tremendous fiend! without delay, 
Through Lybian cities took her rapid way; 
Fame, the swift plague, that every moment grows, 
And gains new strength and vigour as she goes. 
First small with fear, she swells to wond'rous size, 
And stalks on earth, and tow'rs above the skies; 
Whom, in her wrath, to heav'n, the teeming earth 
Produc'd the last of her gigantic birth; 
A monster huge, and dreadful to the eye, 
With rapid feet to run, or wings to fly, 
Beneath her plumes the various fury bears 
A thousand piercing eyes and list'ning ears; X 

And with a thousand mouths and babbling tongues appears. ) 
Thund'ring by night through heav'n and earth she flies, 
No golden slumbers seal her watchful eyes; 
On tow'rs or battlements she sits by day, 
And shakes whole realms with terror and dismay." 

' So counsell'd he, and both together went 
Into the thickest wood; there soon they chose 
The fig-tree; not that tree for fruit renown'd, 
But such as at this day to Indians known, 
In Malabar and Decan spreads her arms, 
Branching so broad and long, that in the ground 
The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow 
About the mother tree, a pillar d shade, 
High overarcKd, and echoing walks between; 
There oft the Indian herdsman, shunning heat, 
Shelters in cool, and tends his pasturing herds." 

Par. Lost, Book ix. 

t Benares' lofty towers.] Benares is one of the most ancient cities of Tndn^n . a„A 1 -a 

to the shore of the Ganges, into which stream, according to the account of Tavcrnicr a reeular mlTnfZ 7 } J , , C C '° Se 

from the gates of the pagoda. The body of this temple is°constructed in the form o avas c °r ss alt lc to the f " ' "'"S.^'fy d ™» 
cupola in the centre of the building, but somewhat pyramidal towards the summit and I the 1 f , dementS ' W " h a ^ hi S h 

cross there is a tower, to which there is an ascent on the outside, with ba conTcT at' stated dsLT^ "T7 w ° f ^ *"* *"* ° f the 
river, and adjacent country. That execrable spirit of bigotry, which actuated th y. ' T^ M ? UM ™ WS ° f the <%' tte 

of the Hindoo faith to pollute this venerable fabric, and insull the re.ig o 7 Ba lna 'in ts moTf ' ."T . ^'^ '*"' 
in the sanctuary the most wanton acts of atrocity, he levelled this venerable paTodTl th „ T T ^ **" """^ C ° mmkted 

Mahommedan minarets, or mosnues, the height of the former pagoda 7b h^ForTcr *£Z££LT? "* * ™7 *" < W ° ™* 
•• at the distance of eight miles, strongly attracts the eye of the traveller who app aches B™ ™ on th "f T * "* ** ^ 
which, from their elevated height, seem to look down with triumph and exultation on th full d pride Ld 7 Z T ^ '"""'"• "* 
flourishing city and university." Vide Maurices Indian Antiquities, Vol. HI. p. 32 P degraded deVotlorl of this ° nce 


§ To Brahma pours.] The subject is so extremely interesting, that of the ereat God himself rt,» „. a c 
present, and omnipotent, that the reader will forgive our entering widelv here into the di.e, 7 7 ■" " g ' omniscient > °n>ni- 

in aU Nations the wise have worshipped one only supreme Go!, but £ vulgar thep^Z tuaZmZ '' e% ''°"' " **" '° *"" "*' 

The wisest among the Hindoos believe that there exists one sunrpt™ R n/ i u .u , uurwmes. 

sented with four heads, as denoting omnipresence and ZZ^Zt^ i^^^ZT *?'"" ** ****■ ^ h «*~ 
god most probably alluding to the actions of creating, upholding, and annihilating, or changut ™s InTof the ^ * ^'T™ 
almighty power, u represented in sculpture with three heads. The countenances of R» . „? ' . v 7 godhead, armed with 

of Sn E v A severe and vengeful. They occasionally, according to their ce T sep ar te i^o tb ?"" "" ^ ^ ^"^ ™ d that 

following their tradition, nine several times, on earth, for th! sake of mankind reSPeCt ' Ve PCTS ° DS ' a " d VeESNU has W^<b 

In the Geeta, or holy book, there will be found this sublime address to Bkahme « Thn n • u d • 
V m and S EE v A , the prime Creator, the eternal God, the God of gods. Thou art tac^^flSSffiS SjH^ foAh^ 

at thy word, an 

ud, are transient. Thou art before all other gods, the «J- Poorush 'he ^^^^S^El? 
things, and art worthy above ah to be known! thou art the head abode and ^thee tmW ft - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ rf 

The tree God, says the learned author of Ind.anAnt.qmUe ^revealed UP and ^ Deity fa ^ radian{ g , ory 

truth, without being eonfounded by the blaze; for them al one they ™d 'he y ^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^ and 

(y . From the vulgar eye this doctrine was kept mvmlably secret, m ^ mQre pardcu , arIy 

was one of the persons of the Tnn.ty, to whom pray «» ^^ Acount o/ a „,foo Theology in the last Note to 

Fide Maurices Indian Antiquities, Vol. 11. p. 71- * ee J 

of his uni 
Brahma was one 
the Carina. 


■ r x ■ J fWis a fraement of the theology of the Magi. This historian mentions, " that the 
Plutarch has left us, in of ^^°^*^££ G„d MtthLs and the Goddess Mtthea sometimes as two ema- 
ancient Persians adored but one sole supreme Deity but they eonsKle ^ ^ 0romazes , because 

nations from his substance, and at other times as the M produces ^^J^rL the end of the spring, and that of Mtth.a. 
he was never to be forgotten : but the ^.^*g££^™ b^ "omen performed all the priestly functions, and the men did 
about the beginning of autumn. During the first, which lasted .tm day v This , tion o( the two sexes was 

not assist at it; as, on the other hand, the women were not admitted ^° *e c debra ,on ^^ 

thought necessary, in order to preserve the soul from aU ^^^^^ attfme Deity. « God is the first of all incor- 
There is a fragment of Zoroaster preserved to us by Eusebms, wh.c P or ^ ^ ^ fa ^ author rf aU 

but spirits become visible. In the midst of this .mmensity is th grea ^ > . J Qod MyTHEAS] or the second , spirit , 

where; but it is there that he is manifested after a more glo <™™»™- ^ N * ^ the most sublime intelligences; in the lower 

and under him the Goddess Mtthea: around then throne in the y 6 

spheres are an endless number of Genii of all the different orders. 


. P^auch, in his treatise of Isrs and Osiats, tells us + " that the theoiogyofthe Egyptian, ™*^^££JE£, 
the other vulgar and literal; and consequently that ^"-^ «* J says , that Osta.s Signifies the active 

^ : z^^*^^^°^^ °- *• fct -— of his p — the raodel °" plan by 

Wh The h ; ^SSe^SeSL God. In the Temple of Keith there is found this inscription, - I am one, 

^LTa^^rC-s, indeed, gave the names of Gods r ^tX^^^^S ffJ!^ 
form, dissolve, and seatter the divine Nature into rivers, winds, vegetable o ^°~\^ and shuttle , are the weaver. Such 

inline, that the sails, *^5+^£^g$$Z^ tuey give the name of Gods to beings of an insensible, 
senseless notions are an indignity to the heavenly powers, w y V and tQ be eived by OU r senses, 

doctrine of the first Egyptians with regard to the divine Natuie. „ The ian philosoph ers 

0»,o»», who was cotemporary with Plutarch, '^T^^M^I^ -Lover to the people but under a veil of fables 
have sublime notions with regard to the divine Nature which they keep secret and never P ^ ^ f 

and allegories. Ce.sus is like a man who has travel ed lrt c , ftiat^oun try ; and ft ^ «ta - ^ ^.^ ^ ^ ^ 
^l^m^: S £ ££££ ^rrtLl those religions see into the sense and true meaning of them, whilst 
the vuLlr go no farther than the exterior symbol, and see only the bark that eovers them. 


The learned among the Greeks had also true notions of God. First, of the Poets. 

Orpheus rises to this sublime description of the unknown <*°<»- ^ and of every thing that is 

- There is one U nWn, exalted above; and prior ^^>T^^L expresf 'only one and the same Power, who formed 
below the aether. This exalted Being is Lite, Light, and W isaon , 

3,1 ^SIS-^ "-*— • - the indecent allegories with whkh he ° ften dishon ° urS ^ dlVine "' 

has several sublime conceptions of the supreme God. 

First, of the Place of God. . , ,,. 

« O Father of mankind, superior lord ! 

On lofty Ida's holy hill ador'd; 

Who in the highest heavn has fix'd thy throne, 

Supreme of Gods! unbounded and alone." 

r II. vn. 241. 

i w 1 „„ nnder Zoroastee's name. Doubtless they are not genuine ; but they contain the most ancient 
* N8 ~, W** it is thus that M.thkas is called in the oracles wh.h PJ^-^^M aU lhe Platonists of I thifd century, 
traditions, and the style of the Easter, theology, accordmg to Ps ELLU s, P.BTHO P § ^ ^^ ^ Ub ^ p . n . 

f Plut. de Isid. 8c Osir. p.s<>4. + Au f Secondly, 

Secondly, his Power, 

The Sire of Gods his awful silence broke, 
The heav'ns attentive trembled as he spoke 
" Celestial states, immortal Gods! give ear, 
Hear our decree, and rev'rence what ye hear, 
The fix'd decree which not all heav'n can move, 
Thou fate! fulfil it; and ye pow'rs approve! 
Let him who doubts me, dread the dire abodes; 
And know th' Almighty is the God of Gods. 
League all your forces then, ye pow'rs above, 
Join all, and try the omnipotence of Jove: 
Let down a golden everlasting chain, 

Whose strong embrace holds heav'n, and earth, and main: 
Strive all, of mortal and immortal birth, 
To drag, by this, the Thund'rer down to earth: 
Ye strive in vain ! If I but stretch this hand, 
I heave the Gods, the Ocean, and the Land; 
I fix the chain to great Olympus' height, 
And the vast world hangs trembling in my sight! 
For such I reign, unbounded and above; 
And such are men, and Gods, compar'd to Jove." 

Th' Almighty spoke, nor durst the Pow'rs reply, 
A rev'rend horror silenc'd all the sky; 
Trembling they stood before the sovereign's look; 
At length his best-belov'd, the pow'r of Wisdom spoke. 

" Oh first and greatest! God by Gods ador'd! 
We own thy might, our father and our Lord!" 

II. Book VIII. 1. 5. 

From the Greeks let us go to the Romans. 

" O muse," says Horace, " pursuant to the custom of our ancestors, let us celebrate first the great Jove, who rules over Gods and men 
the earth, the seas, and the whole universe: there is nothing greater than him, nothing that is like, nothing that is equal to him!"* 

Let us pass from the poets to the philosophers, and begin with Thales the Milesian, chief of the Ionic school, f who lived above six 
hundred years before the birth of Christ. We have none of his works now left: but we have some of his sayings, which have been trans- 
mitted down to us by the most venerable writers of antiquity. < God is the most ancient of all beings : he is the author of the universe 
which is full of wonders: J he is the Mind which brought the chaos out of confusion into order ;§ he is without beginning and without ending 
and nothing is hid from him;|| nothing can resist the force of Fate; but this Fate is nothing but the immutable reason and eternal power of 

Pythagoras is the second great philosopher, and chief of the Italic school. These are the notions of the Deity which he entertained 

' ** God is not the object of any of our senses, but invisible, purely intelligible, and supremely intelligent. His spirit is truth his 
raiment is light, ff He is the universal Spirit that pervades and diffuseth itself over all nature. All beings receive their life from him 
J J There is but one only God. He is the sole Principle, the Light of heaven, the Father of all; he produces every thing, he orders and 
disposes every thing; he is the reason, the life, and the motion of all beings.§§ 

Socrates was condemned to death for disbelieving in the Gods. He was, however, no, atheist, for Zenophon has given us an excellent 
abridgment of the Theology of that Philosopher. It is perhaps the most important piece we have of antiquity. It contains the conversation 
of Socrates with Aristodemus, who doubted of the existence of a God. Socrates makes him at first take notice of all the characters of 
design, of art, and of wisdom, that appear all over the universe, and particularly in the mechanism of the human body. «« Do you believe "|||| 
says he then to Aristodemus, " can you believe, that you are the only intelligent being? You know that you possess but a little particle of 
that matter which composes the world, a small portion of that water which moistens it, a spark of that flame which animates it. Is under- 
standing peculiar to you alone? Have you so engrossed and confined it to yourself, that it is to be found no where else? Does blind chance 
work every thing, and is there no such thing as wisdom besides what you have?" Aristodemus having replied, « that he did not see that wise 
Architect of the Universe;' Socrates answers him: " Neitherdo you see the soul which governs your own body, and regulates all its motions. 
You might as well conclude that you do nothing yourself with design and reason, as maintain that every thing is done bv blind chance in the 
universe." Aristodemus at length acknowledged a supreme Being, is still in doubt as to Providence; < not being able to comprehend how 
the Deity can see every thing at once.' Socrates replies, " If the spirit that resides in your body moves and disposes it at its pleasure, why 
should not that sovereign Wisdom which presides over the universe be able likewise to regulate and order every thing as it pleases? If your 
eye can see objects at the distance of several furlongs; why should not the eye of God be able to see every thing at once! If your soul can 
think at the same time upon what is at Athens, in Egypt, and in Sicily, why should not the divine Mind be able to take care of every thing, 
being every where present to his work?". Socrates perceiving at last that the infidelity of Aristodemus did not arise so much from his 
reasoning as from his debility of intellect, concludes with these words: " O Aristodemus! apply yourself sincerely to cultivate knowledge 
your mind will be enlarged, and then all your doubts will be removed!" 

Plato, a disciple of Socrates, follows the same principles. He lived about the hundredth Olympiad, at a time when the doctrine of 
Democritus had made a great progress at Athens. The design of all his Theology is to give us noble sentiments of the Deity, to shew us 
that souls were condemned to animate mortal bodies, in order to expiate faults they had committed in a pre-existent state; and, in fine to 
teach that social love is the only way to restore us to our first glory and perfection. He despises all the tenets of the Athenian superstition and 
endeavours to purge religion of them. The chief object of this Philosopher is man in his immortal capacity; he speaks of him in his politic 
one, only to shew that the shorter way to immortality is to discharge all the duties of civil and social life from the pure love of virtue. 

Plato, in the beginning of his Timaeus, distinguishes between the Being which is eternal, and beings which have been made.^f And in 
another of his dialogues he defines ' God the efficient cause which makes men exist that had no being before:' a definition which shews that he 

* B. 1. Ode 12. t Flor, Olyrnp. 1. % ^>' l0 S- Laert - vita T1,al - Kb. 1. § Cicer. de Nat. Deor. lib. l. p. 1113. Edit. Amst. 1661. 

|| S. Clem. Alex. Strom, v. IF Stob. Eel. Phys. cap. 8. ** Plut. Vita Num. and Diog. Laert. lib. 12. ff Vit. Pyth. Po'rpliyr! 

XX Lact. Inst. lib. 5. §§ S. Just. Cohort. 1. ad. Grac. p. 18. |||| Xen. Mem. Soc. Ed. Basil. 1579- lib 1. p. 573. 

H1I T< ri ov fiiv ah], yeveffiv Si ovuiyjiv kou n to yifvopeyov piv, qv Ss ovSymre. 

had an idea of creation. Nor is it at all surprising that he should have this idea, since it implies no contradiction, In reality, when God 
creates, he does not draw a being out of nothing, nor out of matter upon which he works; but he makes something exist which did not exist 
before.* The idea of infinite Power necessarilj supposes that of being able to produce new substances as well as new forms. To make a 
substance exist, which did not exist before, has nothing in it more inconceivable than the making a form exist which was not before; for in 
both cases there is a new reality produced ; and whatever difficulties there are in conceiving the passage from nothing to being, they are as 
puzzling in the one as the other. As therefore it cannot be denied but that there is a moving power, though we do not conceive how it acts; 
so neither must we deny that there is a creating power, because we have not a clear idea of it. 

To return to Plato. He first considers the Deity in his eternal beatitude before the production of finite beings. He says frequently, like 
the Egyptians, ' That this first source the Deity is surrounded with brightness, which no mortal eye can bear, and that this inaccessible 
God is to be adored only by silence.' (Thus our poet Thomson. ' But I lose myself in him, in light ineffable: come then expres- 
sive silence, muse His praise!') It is this first principle which he calls in several places the Being, the Unity, and the supreme Good;^ 
the same in the intelligent world, that the sun is in the visible world. He afterwards represents to us this first Being as sallying out of his 
Unity to consider all the various manners by which he might represent himself exteriorly; and thus the ideal world, comprehending the 
ideas of all things, and the forms which result thence,' was in the divine understanding. Plato also distinguishes between the supreme 
Good and that Wisdom which is only an emanation from him. ' That which presents truth to the mind,' says he, ' and that which gives us 
reason, is the supreme Good. He is the cause and source of wisdom. J He hath begotten it like himself. As the light is not the sun, but an 
emanation from it; so truth is not the first Principle, but his emanation.' And this is what he calls the Wisdom or the Logos. And lastly, 
he considers the first Mover displaying his power to form real beings, resembling those archetypal ideas. He stiles him ' § The Energy, or 
sovereign Architect who created the universe and the Gods, and who does whatsoever he pleases in heaven, on the earth, and in the shades 
below.' He calls him likewise, ' Psyche, or the soul which pervades over the world, rather than the soul of the world;' to denote that this 
soul does not make a part of the universe, but animates it, and gives it all its forms and movements. Sometimes he considers the three divine 
attributes as three causes, at other times as three beings, and often as three Gods: but he affirms that they are all but one sole Divinity; that 
there is no essential difference between them; that the second is the resemblance of the first, and the third of the second; that they are not 
three Gods, but one: and that they differ only as the sun, the rays, and the light. || 

In other places, and especially in the Timasus Locrus,^[ Plato speaks of three other Principles, which he calls, idea, ' v rx?;, Ajct^tuj. By 
the first he understands the archetypal ideas contained in the divine Intellect: by the second, a primary matter, uniform, sluggish, inert, 
without figure or division, but capable of receiving all forms and motions: by the third, the visible universe, bounded, corruptible, consisting 
of various parts; and this he stiles the son, the effect, and the work of the idea as the primitive father, and of the "TXtj as the universal mother 
of whatever exists. We ought never to confound these three principles of nature with the three forms of the Divinity, which he calls 
Agathos, Logos, and Psyche; the sovereign Good, which is the principle of Deity, the Intellect which drew the plan of the world, and 
the Energy which executed it. 

Aristotle, Plato's disciple, and chief of the Peripatetic Philosophers, calls God** ' The eternal and self-existing Being, the most noble 
of all things, a spirit entirely distinct from matter, without extension, without division, without parts, and without succession; who under- 
stands every thing by one single act, and continuing himself immoveable, gives motion to all things, and enjoys in himself a perfect happiness, 
as knowing and contemplating himself with infinite satisfaction.' In his metaphysics he lays it down for a principle,f f " That God is a 
supreme Intelligence which acts with order, proportion, and design; and is the source of all that is good, excellent, and just.' In his treatise 
of the soul, he says, ' That the supreme Mind J J is by its nature prior to all beings, that he has a sovereign dominion over all.' And in other 
places he says, §§ ' That the first Principle is neither the fire, nor the earth, nor the water, nor any thing that is the object of sense; but that 
a spiritual substance is the cause of the universe, and the source of all the order and all the beauties, as well as of all the motions and all the 
forms which we so much admire in it.' 

Cicero, when in the height of argument, forget the popular creed, and gave loose to his own sentiment, and thus speaks of God. 
Illl " According to the opinion of the wisest and greatest men, says this Philosopher, the law is not an invention of human understanding, 
or the arbitrary constitution of men, but flows from the eternal Reason that governs the universe. The rape which Tarquin committed upon 
Lucretia, continues he, was not less criminal in its nature, because there was not at that time any written law at Rome against such sort 
of violences. The tyrant was guilty of a breach of the eternal law, the obligation whereof did not commence from the time it was written, 
but from the time it was made. Now its origin is as ancient as the divine Intellect: for the true, the primitive, and the supreme law is 
nothing but the sovereign reason of the great Jove. This law, says he in another place, %% is universal, eternal, immutable. It does not 
vary according to times and places. It is not different now from what it was formerly. The same immortal law is a rule to all nations, 
because it has no author but the one only God who brought it forth and promulged it.' 

St. Paul, when at Athens, mentions that there was a statue, with an inscription, denoting it to be the unknown God. 

To come at last to Seneca the Stoic. He was Nero's tutor, and lived in an age when Christianity was not in credit enough to engage 
the heathens to borrow any philosophical principles from thence. *f ' It is of very little consequence,' says he, ' by what name you call the 
first Nature, and the divine Reason that presides over the universe, and fills all the parts of it. He is still the same God. He is called Jupiter 
Stator, not as historians say, because he stopped the Roman armies as they were flying, but because he is the constant support of all beings. 
They may call him Fate, because he is the first cause on which all others depend. We Stoics call him sometimes Father Bacchus, because 
he is the universal life that animates nature; Hercules, because his power is invincible: Mercury, because he is the eternal Reason, Order, 
and Wisdom. You may give him as many names as you please, provided you allow but one sole Principle every where present.' 

That the Greeks and Romans had a knov/ledge of God is certain. Jupiter is, according to their philosophers, the soul of the world, who 
takes different names, according to the different effects which he produces. In the ethereal spaces he is called Jupiter, in the air Juno, in 
the sea Neptune, in the earth Pluto, in hell Proserpine, in the element of fire Vulcan, in the sun Phcebus, in divination Apollo, in 
war Mars, in the vintage Bacchus, in the harvest Ceres, in the forest Diana, and in the sciences Minerva. All that crowd of Gods and 
Goddesses are onlv the same Jupiter, whose different powers and attributes are expressed by different names. It is therefore evident, by 
the testimony of prophane poets, Heathen philosophers, and fathers of the church, that the Pagans acknowledge one sole supreme Deity. 
The Orientals, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, all were agreed universally in allowing this sublime truth. 

But can we believe, that several gods were not the objects of popular worship, and that the common people had a knowledge of the one 
only God? Did they see through the veil, which concealed the omnipotent, and only Being? Did they not worship the creature for the 
Creator, a multitude of allegoric, and ideal, unexisting, Beings, instead of the former of the Universe, the Lord of All !! Vide the Travels of 
Cyrus, by Ramsay, and Abbe Pluche's origin of the Heathen Religion, in his Histoire du ciel considere selon les idees des Poetes, &c. 

* n<W7jr»ttjy •e£<ra.v sfapev e~yai Suvafuv^ tii d'v avfut yiyrtfleu «<? fMj itptrepov ovm 6'stepov yiyvericu. Plat. Sophist, p. 1S5. Ed. Franc . 1602. 
+ De Repub. lib. 6. p'a^e 686. t ® e Repub. lib. 6. p. 687. Tourov ro/wy favai fte Kiym *h ™" dyaSov Sxyovov w rayattv iy^sv dvclXoyov torn. 

S Plat de Repub lib. 10. p. 749. ^mpyis and not fyuouftov fum y-y^ iirc/woopv, and not eyxdfffuos. || See Cudworth Intellect. Syst. p. 580. to .390. 

<T Tim Loc P 1089 ** Arist. Ed. Paris 1629- Metapb. lib. xiv. cap. 7- p. 1000. ft Metaph. lib. xiv. cap. 10. p. 1005. ft Id. de Anim. lib. 1. cap. 7. p. C>2S. 

|| Metaph. lib. 1. cap. 2. & 3. p. 844, S45. |||| Cic. de Leg. lib.2. p. 1 194. f 1[ Frag, of the Repub. of Cicero preserved by Lactam, lib. vi. c. 8. 

*f Senec. Edit. Ant. a Lipsio 16S2. de Bene!', lib. iv. p. 311. 

I! Haste, 

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/,,,,/. s,.^ y,i//'.j/,,,/^ /,, ' /. ;,\/>./. /■</ y ' ■ j/ . .<, j <si 




In hot climates, where water is the best boon of Heaven, flourish the several kinds of Nym- 
phaeas. These present the purest colours, and are of an azure blue, or blushing red, or pale 
yellow, the three primary colours, and also of a dazzling white, all which majestically, (different 
from our humble aquatics), rise with their foliage above the surface of the flood, and present 
their luxuriant leaves to the vaulted heavens. Nature, as if designing these plants to be the 
masterpiece of her creative power, besides superior grace and beauty, has also added utility ; 
for the seed-vessels contain nourishing food for man, as also the roots, which produce, as will be 
hereafter shewn, the profitable potatoe. As the Egyptians worshipped whatever was useful, 
they accounted these plants sacred ; in their feasts they crowned themselves with the flowers, 
and their altars are decorated with the same. The Egyptian Ceres has the seed-vessel of the 
blue lotos in her hand, which the Romans corrupted into the poppy; and sometimes also that 
of the Nelumbo, which the Greeks mistook for the horn of Amalthea. The subject of this 
narrative, however, relates wholly to the Nymphaea Nelumbo, which some modern naturalists, 
instead of reckoning as a Nymphaea, have formed it into a distinct genus ; for its calyx, instead 
of being large, consists of four narrow leaves, and the corolla is more multiplied than in the 
other water-lilies, and, wholly unlike other nymphaeas, it has stamina with anthers, on long and 
slender filaments, and its seed-vessel, like an inverted cone, is flat at the top, and pierced with 
hollows, like an honey-comb, for the reception of its beans, or seeds. 

The following Eastern Hymn transfused into the English tongue by Sir William Jones, gives 
us the antiquity of the flower of the Nelumbium, as received among the Asiatics: 


Spirit of spirits, who, through every part 
Of space expanded and of endless time, 
Beyond the stretch of lab'ring thought sublime, 
Bade uproar into beauteous order start, 

Before heaven was, thou art: 
Ere spheres beneath us rolled, or spheres above, 
Ere earth in firmamental ether hung, 
Thou sat'st alone; till, through thy mystic love, 
Things unexisting to existence sprung,' 

And grateful descant sung. 


* The mythology of the Hindoos referred all to one primitive God. 

What first impell'd thee to exert thy might? 
Goodness* unlimited. — What glorious light 
Thy power directed? Wisdom without bound. — 
What proved it first? Oh! guide my fancy right; 

Oh! raise from cumbrous ground, 

My soul in rapture drowned, 
That fearless it may soar on wings of fire; 
For thou, who only know'st, thou only canst inspire. 

First an all-potent, all-pervading sound 
Bade flow the waters^- — and the waters flowed, 
Exulting in their measureless abode, 
Diffusive, multitudinous, profound, 
Above, beneath, around. 

Then o'er the vast expanse, primordial wind% 
Breathed gently till a lucid bubble rose, 
Which grew in perfect shape an Egg§ refined; 
Created substance no such lustre shews, 

Earth no such beauty knows. 
Above the warring waves it danced elate, 
Till from its bursting shell, with lovely state, 
A form cerulean fluttered o'er the deep, 
Brightest of beings, greatest of the great, 

Who not as mortals steep 

Their eyes in dewy sleep, 

* They rose to that sublime conception, God is Love. 

f From chaos the/lux of water is the first action or energy. 

:[. The next creation by the Deity is the wind. " And the Spirit of God moved on the face of the deep." Moses. 

§ Thus the Greeks, but with less grandeur, represent their Cupid as coming out of the great Egg of Night, which floated in 
Chaos and was broken by the horns of the celestial Bull. He is represented winged, and by his arms and torch pierced and vivified 
all things, producing every where life and joy. This Cupid is called Eros, or Divine Love. " At this time," says Aristophanes, 
" sable- winged Night produced an Egg, from whence sprung up, like a blossom, Eros, the lovely, the desirable, with his glossy 
golden wings." 

Thus when the Egg of Night, on Chaos hurl'd, 
Burst, and disclosed the cradle of the world ; 
First from the gaping shell refulgent sprung 

Immortal Love, his bow celestial strung; 

O'er the wide waste his gaudy wings unfold, 
Beam his soft smiles, and wave his curls of gold ; — 
With silver darts he pierced the kindling frame 
And lit with torch divine the ever-living flame." 




But, pensive, on the lotos-leaf* he lay, 
Which blossomed at his touch, and shed a golden ray.f 
Hail primal blossom! hail empyreal gem! — 
Kemel or Pedma, or whate'er high name 
Delight thee, say what powerful Godhead came, 
With graceful stole, and beamy diadem, 
Forth from the verdant stem? — 

Full-gifted Brahma, — Rapt in solemn thought, 
He stood, and round his eyes fire-darting threw: 
But, whilst his viewless origin he sought, 
One plain he saw of living waters, blue, 
Their spring, nor sum, he knew. 

Then, in th' expanded leaf again retired, 
With restless thought, for hours he inquired 
What were his powers, by whom, and why conferred : 
With doubts perplexed, with keen impatience fired, 

He rose, — and rising, heard 

Th' unknown, all-knowing word — 
"Brahma! no more in vain research persist: 
" My veil thou canst not move. Go, hid all forms exist."* 

* Did the appearance of water naturally suggest without creation a Nelumbium, or lotos, in it ? The leaf is large and hollow, in shape 
like an umbrella inverted by the wind, and as if fashioned for the reception of a God. 

+ The first action of Brahma, was the creation of the flower of the Nelumbium. Sir William Jones uses, perhaps, the word golden 
for beautiful. Is the yellow Nelumbium a native of any other climate than America ? With a painter's licence, I have introduced the white, 
red, and yellow together, and placed them all in Egypt, which occasioned the following beautiful impromptu lines to be returned me 
upon presenting the first impression from the above plate to a charming poet. 


Fair offspring of benignant Nile 

Watering old Egypt's fertile plains, 
Where cloudless skies diffuse their smile 

O'er long lost glory's rude remains; 

Here, nursed amid fictitious waves, 

Its head thy sacred blossom rears ; 
While, smiling by thy kindred side, 

Nelumbia's rosy form appears. 

And, wafted o'er th' Atlantic main, 

From far Columbia's purling streams, 
Thy younger sister joins the train, 

And, bright in golden beauty, gleams. 

But say; could painting's magic power 

Catch these bright tints of nature's loom? 
Did Nile or Ganges rear the flower, — 

Or Thornton bid its beauties bloom? 


+ By his own energies, and the creation of things, he would rise to comprehend somewhat of the King of Kings, the God of Gods, 
the Invisible Being, by, and in whom, are all things. 


Then Brahma his own mind surveyed, 
Ere spirits were infused, ox forms displayed, 
As mortal eyes, if finite we compare 
With infinite, in brightest mirrors gaze, 
Swift, as is thought *, a shape supremely fair 
Rose into being, with a boundless blaze 

That fifty suns might daze. 
Primeval Maya was the Goddess named, 
Who, to her lord with love divine f 9 inflamed, 
Her thoughts divulged, with richest wisdom filled, 
From which this gorgeous universe he framed ; 

For when great Brahme willed 

Unnumbered worlds to build 
From unity diversified^, he sprang, 
Then gay Creation laughed, and procreant Nature rang. 


Omniscient spirit! whose all-ruling power 
Bids from each sense bright emanations § beam; 
Glows in the rainbow; sparkles in the stream |[ ; 
Smiles in the bud * ; and glistens in the flower 

That crowns each vernal bower ; 
Sighs in the gale ; and warbles in the throat 
Of every bird that hails the blooming spring, 
Or tells his loves in many a liquid note, 
Whilst envious artists touch the rival string, 

Till rocks and forests ring; 
Breathes in rich fragrance from the sandal-grove, 
Or where the precious musk-deer, playful, rove; 
In dulcet juice from clustering fruit distils; 
And burns salubrious in the tasteful clove ; 
Soft banks and verdurous hills 
Thy present influence fills; 
In air, in floods, in caverns, woods, and plains, 
Thy will inspirits all, thy sovereign Maya f reigns. 


* A fine conception of the first operation of the heavenly mind. 

f BRAHME is believed by the Hindoos to be neuter, Brahma and Mai a are masculine and feminine. 
X Still all is referred to God, or Brahme. 
§ In sluggish matter there is no thought. 
| Not properties existent in matter. 

* Smiles in the bud! how enchanting the whole account ! 

f Maia (the Minerva of the Greeks, who is said by them to have been born from the head of Jupiter), means sovereign 'oodness and 
wisdom. The Hindoos believe also in an evil spirit which wars against the innocent joys of life, and produces the miseries incident to h 
nity, and all the convulsions of nature, and Brahma is employed, sometimes appearing upon earth, to counteract this evil There 
is a fine Hindoo Avatar, or descent of Brahma, representing the deluge, when Brahma appears in the shape of a fish, and having 
procured from the body of Typhon, the holy books, presents them to Brahme. 



On the Nelumbium, as related to Egypt, I have been favoured with the following lines from a 
well known poet, almost equally distinguished as the last for his deep mythological acquaintance 
with the ancient and modern eastern world. 

Emblem sublime of that primordial pow'r,* 
That on the vast abyss of chaos mov'd, 

What pen shall paint thy charms, majestic flow'r! 
By mortals honour'd and by gods belov'd ! 

From Ethiopia's lofty mountains roll'd, 
Where Nile's proud stream through gladden'd Egypt pours,"f- 

* The Spirit of God brooding over the chaos, and animating matter, is mentioned by Moses; and in the Egyptian and Hindoo cosmo- 
gony the Lotos is an emblem of that circumstance. 

■f The Nelumbium, Faba iEgyptica, or Sacred Egyptian Bean, is not to be met with at present in Egypt. That it was an inhabitant 
there we learn from the following particular: " Alexander, Avhen he reached," says his historian Arrian, " the river Indus, believed he had 
discovered a branch of the Nile. This mighty stream was called Indus, from the country it passes through, as the Nile is called iEgyptus by 
Homer, and both originated from the same source; and he was confirmed in this from finding crocodiles in the stream of the Indus, and beans 
growing on its banks similar to those which grew on the shores of the Nile." Arrian, lib. 6. cap. 1. We have also other proofs. 

Parkinson, who published in 1640, gives us the following account, p. 375. " The Beane of Egypt, which some call the Beane of Pontus 
saith Dioscorides (but Theophrastus mentioneth neither Egypt nor Pontus, but only calleth it a beane) groweth in lakes and standing waters 
(plentifully in Egypt saith Dioscorides, which Theophrastus speaketh not of) in Asia, that is in Syria and Cilicia, but there, saith Theophras- 
tus, it doth hardly perfect its fruite, but about Torona, in the lake, in the country of Calcidicum, it cometh to perfection, and beareth very 
large leaves (like those of the butter-burre, saith Dioscorides); the stalke, saith Dioscorides, is a cubite long; Theophrastus saith the longest 
is foure cubits high, of the bigness of ones finger, like unto a soft reede, but without joynts : it beareth a flower twice as large as that of the 
poppy (with double flowers, for so I interpret in plenum caput, the words of Theophrastus), of the colour of the rose ; after which is past cometh 
a round head called ciborion, or cibottion, that is, a small caske (yet Athenaeus saith that a kinde of drinking cup was so called also, whose 
forme peradventure was like this fruite here expressed), not unlike to the comb which waspes do make, wherein is contained thirty cells at 
the most, and in every cell or division thereof groweth a beane, whose toppe riseth higher than the cell wherein it is enclosed, whose kernell 
is bitter; which say they, the inhabitants thereabouts put into clay, and thrust downe to the bottome of the water, with long poles, that it 
may abide therein and thereby make their increase: the roote is very thicke and great, like unto that of the reede, but (Theophrastus add- 
eth, which Dioscorides hath not) full of cruell prickes or thornes, and therefore saith he, the crocodile refuses to come near it, least he should 
runne against the prickes thereof with his eyes, wherewith he cannot see well, and is called colocasia as Dioscorides maketh mention, but not 
Theophrastus, which is used to be eaten either raw or otherwayes dressed, that is sodden or roasted. The beanes, saith Dioscorides, are eaten 
while they are fresh and greene, but grow hard and blacke when they are old, being somewhat bigger than an ordinary beane, which saith 
Dioscorides (Theophrastus making no mention of any qualities or virtues of them), have an astringent or binding faculty, and thereby pro- 
fitable to the stomacke, and helpeth those that have the fluxe of the stomacke and the belly, and the bloody fluxe, the meale or flower of 
them strawed upon meate, &c. or taken in broth: the husks whereof, saith he, doth more good, being boyled in sweete wine, the middle 
part of the beane, which is greene and bitter, being bruised and boyled in rosewater, and dropped into the eares, easeth the paines of them. 
Thus farre Theophrastus and Dioscorides. Now the description of Clusius his strange fruite is thus, as he setteth it downe: This fruite did 
resemble a very large poppy head, cut off at the toppe, and consisted of a rough or wrinkled skinny substance, of a brownish colour some- 
what light, whose circumference at the top was nine inches, and growing lesser and lesser by degrees unto the stalkes, which as it seemed 
did sustaine the flower, after which came this fruite, for there appeared certaine markes of the flower, where it did abide ; the upper part 
hereof was smooth and plaine, having twenty-four holes or cells therein, placed in a certaine order, like unto the combe of waspes; in every 
one whereof was one nut, like unto a small akorne, almost an inch long, and an inche thicke in compasse, whose toppe was browne, endino- 
in a point, like as an akorne doth, the lower part having an hole or hollow place, Avhere it should seeme the footstalke upheld it, while it was 
in its place, whose kernell was rancid or mouldy; thus farre Clusius. Let me here also bring in an eye witness or two, of this plant's grow- 
ing in the ile of Java, Dr. Justus Heurnius, both divine and physition for the Dutch factory in the kingdome or ile of Java, sent into Hol- 
land a small booke or collection of certaine herbes, &c. growing in that country, Avith the virtues and uses, whereunto the naturals did apply 
them (which booke, as I understand by my good friends, Dr. Daniel Heringhooke, and Dr. William Parkins, both English, is kept in the 
university library at Leyden, in a close cupbord, having a glasse window before it, through which any one may reade so much thereof as 
lyeth open), at the end whereof is one by him set downe, under the name of Nymphcea glandifera, thus described: the huske or cup (saith he) 
is rugged or full of wrinkles, yet soft, loose and spungye, like a musroome, and of a greene colour, divided into twelve or fourteen cells (Clu- 
sius his figure hath twenty-four) or places, in every one whereof is contained one fruite like unto an akorne, of a blackish purple colour on 
the outside, and very white within, the taste whereof is astringent, and somewhat bitter withal, like akornes, but rough and spongie; it grow- 
eth in moorish places, and by river's banckes: the leaves are wondrous great, and like unto those of the water lilly, and so is the flower also 
of a very strong smell, like unto the oyle of aniseedes: thus farre Dr. Heurnius, whose description in my judgment is so punctuall to those 
of Dioscorides and Theophrastus aforesaid, the description of the roote onely wanting, that I shall not neede further to comment upon it, 
every ones judgment, though meane, I suppose being able by comparing to agree in the parts. It is probable that Clusius, having seene this 
booke and the figure hereof annexed to the description, might soone pronounce it (as I doe here) to be the true Faba Mgyptica of the ancients: 
there is no mention made in that booke of Heurnius by what name the Javaneses or Malayos doe call it. The other eye witnesse hereof is 
Mr. William Fincham, an English merchant, as he is recorded in Mr. Purchas his fourth booke of Pilgrimes, chap. iv. sect. v. p. 429, that 

In raptur'd strains thy praise was hymn'd of old,* 
And still resounds on Ganges' faithful shores. -f 

Within thy fair corolla's full-blown bell^ 
Long since th' immortals fix'd their fond abode ; 

There day's bright source, Osiris,^ lov'd to dwell. 
While by his side enamour'd Isis glow'd. 

saitli he often did eate of the fruite of a certaine herbe growing in a great brooke or lake, two or three courses or miles lono, on the north- 
west side of Fettipore, which is about twelve courses from Agra, in the dominions of the great Mogoll, called Surra t or Guzurrat, in the East 
Indies, which the people call Camolachachery, describing it to be like a goblet, flat at the head, containing divers nuts or akornes within it. 
I have here set downe these things, as well to show you mine owne observations after Clusius and others, that assuredly this is the true Faba 
JEgyptica of the ancients, as to provoke some of our nation to be as industrious as the Hollanders, by whose care in their travels this was first 
made known to us, to search out such rare fruites as grow in the parts of their abode, and either communicate them to such as are expe- 
rienced, or having penned them to publish their labours in print, if it may be, which I hold to be better, according to Mr. Fincham's example, 
whose observations have given so great an illustration in this matter, as well as in other things, by me also remembered elsewhere in this 

* Paganism at first arose from gratitude, and the adoration of this flower, as will be presently shown, proceeded chiefly from this cause. 
Among the Egyptians, animals as well as flowers, which were useful, were among the objects of worship. Cicero judiciously remarks, " that 
no animals were held sacred by the Egyptians, but such as merited regard from their extraordinary utility." The same sentiment holds ex- 
actly with regard to their sacred plants. 

" iEgyptii nullam belluam, nisi ob aliquam utilitatem quam ex ea caperent, consecrarunt velut Ibes, maximam vim serpentium confici- 
unt, cum sint-aves excelsae, cruribus rigidis, corneo proceroque rostro; avertunt pestem ab iEgypto, cum volucres angues, ex vastitate Lybiee, 
vento Africo invectas, internciunt atque consumunt, ex quo fit ut illse nee morsu vivae noceant nee odore mortuae ; earn ob rem invocantur ab 
iEgyptiis Ibes/' Cic. de Nat. Deor, lib. 1. 

The idols belonging to the aborigines Egyptians were birds, and beasts, and plants, Avhich the Phoenicians altered, by adding a man's head 
or body, and thence formed those motley deities, commonly considered as the Egyptian deities. Vide Origin of Hieroglyphics and the My- 
thology of the Ancients, by the Bishop of Clogher, p. 14. 

The only objection urged against this opinion, so favourable to the ancient Egyptian superstition, is the worship of the crocodile. " The 
inhabitants of Thebes consider the crocodile as a sacred animal. One of these creatures is rendered tame, and attended with the greatest care 
and veneration. His food is prescribed and regulated according to the directions in their sacred books. He is adorned with earrings made of 
gold, and precious stones, as well as a sort of bracelet upon his fore feet," &c. Herodotus. But it is probable he was worshipped as the great 
Typhon, or emblem of destructive power; and it is to be observed, that this superstition was peculiar to Thebes; whereas the Lotos, the 
Ibis, the Ichneumon, the Cow, &c. were held in superstitious veneration in every part of Egypt. 

•f* When Sir William Jones was at dinner on the borders of the Ganges, some of his people, at his desire, brought him the Nelumbium, 
when all his Indian attendants immediately fell upon their faces, and paid adoration to this plant. 

% The flower of the Nelumbium is bell-shaped, somewhat resembling our Water Lily, and its flowers are in circles, which as these expand 
emit a most agreeable odour. 

§ The ancient Egyptians, like the primitive Persians, worshipped the sun and moon, or rather their deities, whence so many benefits issued 
to mankind. We are almost tempted to forgive that superstition which could believe these planets the abodes of a god and a goddess, whom 
they denominated by the names of Osiris and Iris. They sometimes quitted their supreme abodes, and came down upon earth and enjoyed 
themselves, by riding on a stately flower above the waters, blown about by the zephyrs ; nor can we much wonder at such superstition, since 
we have had our fairies, and Anacreon the Greek poet describes Cupid alike diminutive. 

As late I sought the spangled bowers, 
To cull a wreath of matin flowers, 
Where many an early rose was weeping, 
In one I found the urchin sleeping: 
I caught the boy, a goblet's tide 
Was richly mantling by my side; 
I caught him by his doAvny wing, 
And whelm'd him in the racy spring. 
Oh! then I drank the poison'd bowl, 
And love now nestles in my soul; 
Yes, yes, my soul is Cupid's nest, 
I feel him fluttering in my breast. 


Thus the Roman poet Virgil invokes the sun and moon as deities: 

Vos, O clarissima mundi 

Lumina, labentem ccelo qui ducitis annum, 
Liber, et alma Ceres. 

Lycaon, whose wickedness was fabled to have hastened the destruction of the old world, was the father of Callisto. Her charms engaged 

the affections of Jupiter, but his jealous consort having discovered the amour, changed her into a bear, in which shape she is placed by 


Hence, not unconscious to his orient beam, 
At dawn's first blush thy shining petals spread ; 

Drink deep th' effulgence of the solar stream, 
And, as he mounts, still brighter glories shed.* 

. • • , i! i j ri. .1 , TC t i 1P w ifp n f Orpntius to withhold from this new constellation the 

Jupiter in the sphere. Juno remaining implacable, prevailed upon lethys, the wile ot Uceanus, 10 

privilege of setting beneath the waters of the sea. Hyg. Poet. Astron. lib. ii. 

Homer paints the assembly of the Gods retiring each to his respective star at the tall ot day. 

Thus the blest Gods the genial clay prolong 

In feasts ambrosial and celestial song. 

Apollo tun'd the lyre, the Muses round 

With voice alternate aid the silver sound. 

Meantime the radiant sun, to mortal sight 

Descending swift, roll'd down the rapid light. 

Then to their starry domes the Gods depart, 

The shining documents of Vulcan's art: 

Jove on his couch reclin'd his awful head, 

And Juno slumber d on the golden bed. 

Iliad, I. 

Thus Augustus Caesar is invoked by Virgil, as one who will become a new constellation. 

And, chiefly thou, whose undetermin' d state 
Is yet the business of the Gods' debate ; 
Whether in after times to be deelar'd 
The patron of the world, and Rome's peculiar guard, 
Or o'er the fruits and seasons to preside, 
And the round circuit of the year to guide. 
Pow'rful of blessings, which thou strew'st around, 
And with thy Goddess Mother's myrtle crown'd. 
Or wilt thou, C;esar, choose the wat'ry reign, 
To smooth the surges, and correct the main ? 
Then mariners in storms to thee shall pray, 
E'en utmost Thule shall thy pow'r obey; 
And Neptune shall resign the trident of the sea, 
The wat'ry virgins for thy bed shall strive, 
And Tethys all her waves in dowry give; 
Or wilt thou bless our summers with thy rays, 
And seated near the balance, poise the days, 
Where in the void of heav'n a space is free, 
* Betwixt the Scorpion and the Maid, for thee, 

The Scorpion ready to receive thy laws, 
Yields half his region, and contracts his claws. 

Georg. Book I. 

Each separate planet and star had its deity, hence the ancient doctrines of Astrology or predicting the fature fortunes of each as in- 
fluencelby tne star under which each person was born. Instead of supposing such influence to anse from he Go. or Goddess (a better 
notion) Priding over each star, the superstitious mind imagined the influence to come from mert masses of matter. Thus Mdton m com- 
phance wTth the°doctrines of the times, describes the AnMtGHTT, after the fall of man, comm.sstomng hts Angels to produce several changes 
in nature, and to sully the beauty and perfection of this nether world. 

To the blank moon 

Her office they prescribed, to th' other five 

Their planetary motions and aspects 

In sextile, square, and trine, and opposite, 

Of noxious efficacy, and when to jo«i 

In synod unbenign ; and taught the fix'd 

Their influence malignant when to shower. 

* Theonhrastus gives the following account of the Nelumbium in his history of plants. << It withdraws its flowers in the evening into the 
Euphtat ^continue to descend" till midnight, to so great a depth, that at daybreak they are out of the reach of he hand; after wheh 
S^'ds gradually again, and in the course of the morning appears above water, and expands tts flowers, nsmg higher and Jnghe ttH 
1^^ feet in hefght above the surface." Book iv. chap. 10. This descent and subsequent ascent of the Nelumbmm ,s fully credited 
bv I m nZ and is even applied by him to our common Water Lily; but it probably arose from mtstakmg the drppmg under water winch 
Z^ZZe \Z impregnation of the germen, and the ascent of the virgin flowers the following morning, which was mistook for the closed 
ones del" ended yeirday.-Bn, the flower opens and expands just as the day advances, and shuts up about four m the evenmg. 

When, at their noontide height, his fervid rays, 
Tn a bright deluge burst on Cairo's spires, 

With what new lustre then thy beauties blaze, 
Full of the god, and radiant with his fires ! 

Brilliant thyself, in stole of dazzling white* 
Thy sister plants more gaudy robes infold ; 

This flames in red, and that, intensely bright, 
Amid th' illumin'd waters burns in gold.f 

To brave the tropic's fiery beam is thine, 
Till in the distant west his splendors fade; 

Then, too, thy beauty and thy fire decline, 
With morn to rise, in lovelier charms array'd. 

What mystic treasures, in thy form conceal'd, 
Perpetual transport to the sage supply; 

Where nature, in her deep designs reveal'd, 
Awes wondering man, and charms th' exploring eye. 

In thy prolific vase, and fertile seeds, 

Are trac'd her grand regenerative pow'rs ;J 

Life, springing warm, from loath'd putrescence, breeds, 
And lovelier germs shoot forth, and brighter flow'rs. 

Thus, from Arabia borne, on golden wings, 
The Phoenix on the Sun's bright altar dies ; § 

But from his flaming bed, refulgent, springs, 

And cleaves, with bolder plume, the sapphire skies. 

* The subject of this poem is the white Nelumbium, which I saw in fine flower in the Royal gardens at Kew last August. The same 
Cowley says of the white lily, it seemed clothed in light . 

f There are three varieties of this plant, or if we constitute it, with Ju'ssieu, into a genus separate from the Nymphaeas, by the term Ne- 
lumbium, or if we make it, with Linnaeus, of the genus Nymphaea, we shall then have three distinct species of this beautiful aquatic, the red 
white, and yellow. The leaves are in the shape, and of the size of an inverted umbrella, and majestically expand above the surface of the 
stream. The flowers rise gracefully among the foliage, and altogether constitute one of the grandest and most lovely objects in the creation. 
The white is dazzling, the red, and yellow, pure and unmixed. 

% This plant, says a great mycologist, grows in the water; and, amongst its broad leaves, puts forth a flower, in the centre of which is 
formed the seed-vessel, shaped like a bell or inverted cone, and punctuated on the top with little cavities or cells, in which the seeds grow to 
maturity, decay, and again shoot forth; for, the orifices of these cells being too small to let the seeds drop out, when ripe, new plants germinate 
in the places where they are formed, the bulb of the vessel serving as a matrix to nourish them, until they acquire such a degree of magni- 
tude as to burst it open and release themselves; after which, like other aquatic weeds, they take root wherever the current deposits them 
This plant, therefore, being thus productive of itself, and vegetating from its own matrice, without being fostered in the earth, was naturally 
adopted as the symbol of the productive power of the Deity upon the waters. See Mr. Knight's Work, p. 85. The fact, however, is that as 
with some few other seeds, the cotyledons, or seminal leaves, early manifest themselves, as in the radish, where the rudiments of the young 
plant may at any time be seen, and in that state are deposited into the soft prolific bosom of the earth, where they readily take instant root 

§ Dr. Darwin, in his Temple of Nature, says, p. 162, " that the Phoenix rising from its own ashes is an hieroglyphic emblem of the destruc- 
tion and resuscitation of all things. It is represented with the Dog-star over its head. 

" So when Arabia's bird, with age oppress'd, 
Consumes delighted on his spicy nest, 
A filial Paoenix from his ashes springs, 
Crown'd with a star, on renovated wings; 
Ascends exulting from his funeral flame, 
And soars, and shines, another, and the same." 


Nor food to the enlighten d mind alone,- 
Substantial nutriment thy root * bestow'd, 

In famine's vulture fangs did Egypt groan, 
From thy rich bounteous horn f abundance flow'd. 

* We learn from Herodotus, " that the Egyptians were fed by the root of the different Nymphaas which flourish in the waters of the 
Nile." He distinctly points out the two kinds. The one he describes « as producing a root of the size and shape of an apple, which kind 
had a seed-vessel of the form and shape of a poppy, containing seeds as small as millet, of which bread was made. This Lotos he discrimi- 
nates « as resembling most a lily." He next speaks of « the other Lotos, whose flower is also of the lily kind, but more resembling the full- 
blown rose, the fruit of which imitates the nest of a wasp, and contains seeds of the size of an olive, and good to eat. Euterpe, ch. 20. 

Theophrastus equally well describes both sorts. Speaking of the common Nympheeas he says, « The fruit is equal in size to a arge 
poppy, and contains a great number of seeds similar to grains of millet. The Egyptians deposit the fruit in heaps, and suffer the vessels to 
putrefy: they then separate the seeds by washing them in the Nile, dry them, and make them into bread. The root, which is called corswn, 
is round and of the size of a guinea. Its rind is black, and like that' of a chestnut. It is of a fine white in the inside, and is eaten either raw 
or boiled." Hist, of Plants, Book iv. Chap. 10. 

Sonnini a most intelligent traveller and learned naturalist, mentions, « that at the present day, the roots of the Lotos furnish the 
common people with their chief sustenance. The large tubers are gathered as the waters subside, and dried, and then eaten, boiled or roasted, 
like our potatoes, which they resemble in taste, but are more mealy." Travels into Egypt. 

The roots of all the sorts are admitted by the Chinese to their tables, and the ponds and lakes are cultivated with the Nelumbium, which 
is one principal cause of the abundant population of that country. " In whatever way prepared it is equally pleasant and wholesome. Great 
quantities are pickled with salt and vinegar, which is then eaten with rice. Reduced to powder by grating, like our potatoe, it makes a most 
excellent flour." Embassy to China by Lord Macartney. 

+ The horn-like appearance of the seed-vessel of the Nelumbium so exactly resembles the Cornucopia of the ancients, that the Grecian 
Horn of Plenty seems to have been derived from this source. Their tradition states, that the nurse of Jupiter was the goat Amalthea, (a 
name derived from «>x0e«J«, to nourish), who for her services was afterwards turned into a star, and presented with the Cornucopia. The 
first food of man being bread and milk, gave origin to this Grecian fable, for their Ceres was nothing more than a corruption of the Egyptian 
Isis, who is represented in the temples of Egypt with the seed-vessel of the Nelumbium in her hand. Sometimes in Egyptian sculpture their 
Iris or Ceres, is seen with the seed-vessel of the Nelumbium in the left arm, and some ears of corn intermixed with the seed-vessel of either 
the Nymphjea'cserulea, or Nymphsa Lotos, in the right. The Greeks and Romans, who borrowed their religion chiefly from the Egyptians, 
not only mistook the Cornucopia for a real horn, but also the seed-vessel of the Lotos for that of the Poppy, to which it bears much resem- 

an< The Egyptian Isis holds in her right hand a sphere, for the Egyptian priests taught that the earth was round (such was the doctrine of 
Pythagoras) this the more refined Greeks converted into a sickle, when she became their Ceres ; and to represent the earth, they sometimes 
adorned her head with a turret, when she became Magna Dea, or Cybele; and instead of the cornucopia they increased the number of her 
breasts when she was made to represent abundant Nature. m 

That the Greeks derived their deities from the Egyptians we have not only the probability from the resemblance, but the direct confession 
of Herodotus, who visited the priests of both Heliopolis and Thebes; and he declares, "that the Grecian Theology is derived from the 

Egyptian." Herod. Lib. ii. p. 80. 

As Isis was supposed by the Egyptians to inhabit the mnnn, as ndris <hd thp sun (the Apollo and Bacchus of the Greeks), hence they 
placed a crescent on her head when she became their Diana. Her chastity they fancied from the pale brightness or chill of the Moon, for 
as the Egyptian gods had each their wives and concubines, according to Eastern manners, the produce of Osiris and Isis was Orus, the 

Mercury of the Greeks. • # . 

Sometimes Orus is represented in Egyptian sculpture as a simple boy, sometimes, however, he is Anubis, or the Barking Dog, with a 

Caduceus in his hand, and wings to his feet. _ > 

The Egyptians, a race dealing in symbols, designed by Anubis vigilance, and at the commencement of the overflow of the Nile their priests 
presented this figure to them as a warning ; the wings on the feet denoted the rapidity of the flood ; the caduceus, the generation of serpents 
by the waters ; and its two wings, the Etesian, or west wind, which sets in at that time. 

The more refined Greeks did not at all relish such a figure of a god, and for the head of a dog they^ substituted a cap, and for the two 
ears placed two wings on the cap, covering a human head, but the other parts resemble the Egyptian figure. 

The seed-vessel of the Nelumbium, will furnish us also with another key to unlock the stores of ancient knowledge. Pythagoras, the 
introducer amongst his countrymen of the Metempsychosis, and who taught in symbols, has prohibited his disciples from eating beans, they 
might eat peas, but not beans ; and in order to reconcile this seeming strange interdiction, " abstain from beans," has been interpreted to 
keep from political disputes, which were decided by lot ; but Doctor Priestley says it is meant in the obvious sense of the words, as being very 
fattening food, and is a caution against corpulency. But as his golden rules were symbols, I am inclined to think that he alluded to the 
Egyptian bean. " Abstain from beans," meant against the indulging in any luxury to the detriment of the people ; for by eating only thirty 
beans, thirty plants were destroyed, which would have furnished tubers (potatoes) for as many families, and this plant was dispersed by the 
bounty of Providence on the shores of the Nile, as food for the common people, and not sown by mortal hands. Hence it was, Egypt, abound- 
ing also in corn, became the granary of the world, and its store-houses furnished the neighbouring nations ; and hence it was that the Romans 
represented on their medals Ceres, with a ship by her side, as denoting the transport of corn from Egypt. 

To prove the rarity of the Nelumbium even in the time of Adrian, Athenaeus relates {Deipnosoph. lib. iii. p. 73.) that it changed its 
appellation into the Antinoian flower. " A poet," says this historian, " presented the emperor Adrian with the rose Lotos {Nelumbium) 
as a rarity, and accounts for its produce from the blood of that terrible lion called Antinoian, which had committed great devastation in 
Lybia, and was finally killed in Egypt by Adrian in hunting." 

Strabo relates, that the Nelumbium was once very common in Egypt, and that during festivals on the water the barges rowed under the 
shade of its immense leaves, which greatly resemble a Thessalian cap. {Lib. xvii.) 

D Did 

Did raging pestilence her shores invade 
Wafted from burning Lybia's sultry plains, 

Thy cooling seeds the ardent thirst allay'd 
And check'd the fervor of the throbbing veins. 


Arm'd with thy foliage in the cool of day 
Safe down the Nile the happy Memphians glide; 

The charm'd Leviathanf forgets his prey, 
And sports, innoxious, on the sacred tide.J 

Hence the immortal race§ in Thebes || rever'd, 
Thy praise the theme of endless rapture made; 

Thy image on an hundred columns rear'd, 
And veiPd their altars with thine hallow'd shade. 

* " The roots and seeds of the Nelumbium," says Loureiro, « are both sapid and wholesome. These are aeeounted cnnl.W ,„A , *, and are fonnd a specific against extreme thirst, diarrhoea, tenesmus, vomiting, and too great in3 heat • g S 

, hi bad a great did, £ ^Z^^Z^^Z^ 1^^^^^ 

^X^^^^t^ ^^ ^ C V egetatedOUt ° fitSOWnm ^ ^Nelumbium, J^ZSJSi 
within spheres, the true system of the world, so little did the Egyptians merit to be satyrized by Juvenal, P 

Porrum et Cepe nefas violare et frangere morsu. 
O Sanctas gentes, quibus haec nascuntur in hortis 
Numina ! 

|| Thevenot, a modern French traveller, thus describes aucicui Thebes. •■ The works of tho Fo-™^™ »» .u- j - , 

« were canted to withstand the corroding tooth of time: their statnes were colossal! S^^SE S^TpE? 
and sought to strike the eve at a distance, but never also failed to gratify it by correctness of proportion. In the SaM (whtt wis a "entlv 
called Theba.s ) have been discovered emples and palaces, at this day almost entire, where these colnmns and statues a e inn!"" The 
admiration of the traveller ,s particularly excited by a palace, the remains of which seem to have subsisted only to eclipse the gkry of alHhe 
noblest modern works of art. Four alleys, extending farther than the eye can reach, and bounded, on each side bv snhinxes of n ZZ 
as rare as their size is remarkable serve as avenues to fonr porticoes of most astonishing height. How magnfficenfl how tupendons T 
deed, those who have described to us th.s prodigious edifice, have not had time to examine its whole exLt, nor are they even tr tain of 
having seen the half of its beauties ; but all that they did see was truly wonderful 7 certain ot 

" A saloon which apparently formed the middle of this superb palace, was supported by more than an hundred columns, the circumference 
of each of which could not be spanned by six men with extended arms. These columns were lofty in proportion and intersnerTed ^ h 
obelisks which so many revo v.„g ages have not been able to overthrow. Even the colours, which, from their nature soonest experience the 
power of time, are still unfaded among the ruins of this admirable edifice, and display all their original brilliancy; so well mdXpt kn lw 
how to impress the stamp of immortality on all her productions." ^SIF Know 

The city which the Greeks call Thebes, the Egyptians Diospolis, (says Diodorus, lib. i. par. 2.) was in circuit an hundred and fort, 
Z ,' f" Wlt \? tdy f d '"f r gni&ent ' empleS - and rkh d ° nati0nS - lt ™ "°< °^ he »«t ^SS - nobl city f 
tXfworl " 6 ° f kS W£alth anQ grandCUr WaS S ° Celebrated in a » *«* ^ Homer has taken norice of it L 

' " " *" - - - no ova. ®jj£aj 
AiyvTfji'ocg, o9t -urXei's-a jopoig h xj^fiujet xutui, 
AiQ exoflopTrvXoi eicri, hriKOtnoi S" cev Ikcc^v 
'AvEgeg l^oixvBva-i 'i7T7roi<ri xcc) ox&<T<piv. V. 381, 

Though others affirm it had not an hundred gates, but as many vast porches to the principal temple; and that the city was called Hundred- 
gated, only as having many gates. Yet it is certain it furnished twenty thousand chariots of war ; for there were an hundred s'aUes along he 
river, from Memphis to Thebes towards Libya, each of which contained two hundred horses, the ruins whereof are shewn athisdym 
princes from time to „me made it then care to beautify and enlarge this city, to which none under the sun was equal in the manv and ma! 


nificent treasures of gold, silver, and ivory; with innumerable colossuses, and obelisques of one entire stone. There were four temples admir- 
able in beauty and greatness, the most ancient of which was in circuit thirteen stadia, and five-and-forty cubits in height, with a wall of 
four-and-tv/enty feet broad." 

What history records of the buildings of the Egyptians would surpass credibility, were it not attested by their monuments, which 
remain to this day. Egypt is a scene of antiquities; walking among ruins, the traveller forgets the present to contemplate the past, and, 
amid the traces of a degenerate race, marks the remains of a mighty nation. Their buildings are still sublime. The Pyramids of Egypt have 
always ranked among the wonders of the world. Three of them still remain, at the distance of some leagues from Grand Cairo, where 
Memphis formerly stood. The largest of the three, called the Great Pyramid, forms a square, each side of whose base is 660 feet. The 
circumference is 2640 feet. The basis covers eleven acres of ground. The perpendicular height is about 450 feet; if measured obliquely, 700. 
The summit, which viewed from below appears a point, is a platform, each side of which is 18 feet long. The stones with which this 
enormous edifice was built were 30 feet in length. A hundred thousand workmen were constantly employed in carrying on this amazing 
structure Thirty years were spent in erecting this immense fabric. The sum expended for food to the workmen amounted to 1600 talents, 
which, comparing the value of money in those days with what it is at present, amounts to more than two hundred thousand pounds 


The original destination of these most ancient monuments of human ingenuity, and which are likely to last coeval with the works of 
Nature according to the testimony of all antiquity, was to contain the embalmed bodies of the first monarchs of Egypt. The observation of 
Strabo' that towards the middle of the height of one of the sides, by raising a stone, an oblique passage is opened, which leads to the coffin 
of a king in the centre of the pyramid, forms a striking proof of the ancient belief on this subject, and is confirmed by every observation 
which has been made on these stupendous structures. The Egyptians not only believed in the immortality of the soul, but also in the re- 
animation of the body, after a long period of years : hence their extraordinary attention to embalm and preserve the uncorrupted bodies of 

their departed heroes and deceased friends. 

These majestic monuments descend from an unknown antiquity. Herodotus, who wrote 2000 years ago, speaks with as much uncer- 
tainty about the time when they were constructed as we do at present. 

Other proofs remain of their very high antiquity. While all the remarkable edifices in Egypt are covered with hieroglyphical inscrip- 
tions no traces of that Egyptian mode of writing appears on the pyramids, because they were erected before hieroglyphical writing was cul- 
tivated. A stronger proof of their age still remains. The general idea of Egyptian architecture was entirely taken from the pyramids; which 
nothing but their high veneration for them, increased by their remote antiquity, could possibly have occasioned ; since the figure of these 
fabrics so well adapted to triumph over time, is inconvenient for habitable structures, whether public or private. Yet we find, from the 
ancient ruins of the Higher Egypt, that all the buildings, without exception, were raised on the model of the pyramids. We are surprised to 
find not only their ports, their doors, but even the walls of their towns, inclining to this form. 

The Labyrinth was, if possible, more astonishing than the pyramids. The same circuit of walls inclosed 3000 apartments, twelve of 
which were of a particular form and beauty. They communicated with each other by so many turns and windings, that without a guide the 
traveller was lost. One half of the chambers was under ground : the labyrinth terminated in a pyramid forty fathoms high. 

The Obelisks are in the same grand style, but of a singular composition. The first models were erected by Sesostris, as monuments 
of his victories- they consisted of one piece of granite, and were 180 feet high. The Romans, in the era of their grandeur, transported 
some of these monuments to their city; two of them still remain, and, for their antiquity and grandeur, rank among the greatest curiosities 

^Works of a similar form, or in the same style with the pyramids of Egypt, were found at Babylon, and in several parts of the east. 
The fine arts are imitative : the great original is nature. In the early periods of society, before the earth is cultivated and im- 
proved by the human hand, the works of nature strike by their greatness, rather than please by their beauty: hence an incorrect idea of 
crrandeur prevails in the first compositions of all nations of whatever kind. Aiming at the vast and the gigantic, they study to fill the eye, 

rather than to please it. . . . 

But what astonishes us most is, that these massy piles actually related to Astronomy, for these were in truth gnomons for astronomical 
purposes • and it is equally certain that their pyramids corresponded exactly to the four cardinal points. They were the first people of anti- 
quity who adjusted the length of the year to the annual revolution of the sun, and determined it to consist of 305 days, and six hours. From 
them the Greeks, and other nations, learned the true duration of the solar year. They seem to have attained a right notion of the system of 
nature- for they' called the moon an ethereal earth, affirmed the fixed stars to be fire, and placed the sun immoveable in the centre of the 
world ' round whom the inferior planets revolved. This system Pythagoras introduced into Greece, and communicated to his disciples. 

Before I conclude with the account of the gigantic architecture of the Egyptians taken chiefly from the Travels of Pocock, the reader may 
possibly not be displeased if I state here the dimensions of a vast colossal Statue, which Pocock discovered in some ruins, which he has ably 
described and accurately measured. It will rescue from the suspicion of hyperbole the account given by Niebuhr, of the dimensions of the 
errand bust in the Elephanta cavern, the centre face of which alone measured in length five feet ; that of the same face the nose measured one 
f t and a half; that the width, from the ear only to the middle of the nose, was three feet four inches; and that the stupendous breadth 
oTthe" whole figure, between the shoulders, was near twenty feet. Vide Maurices Indian Antiquities, with a Plate of this Bust and 

description, in Vol. III. p. 220. 

" This large colossal statue," says Dr. Pocock, " is broken about the middle of the trunk : the head is six feet broad : from the top of the 
head to the bottom of the neck it measures eleven feet, and so it does from the bottom of the neck to the navel. It is twenty-one feet broad 
at the shoulders, the ear is three feet long and one foot four inches broad, and the foot is four feet eight inches broad." In another court of 
this ruined temple he saw the remains of " two statues of black granite : that to the west, which is in a sitting posture, measured, from the 
hands only to the elbow, five feet ; and thence to the shoulder four feet. The statue, on the east, is three feet five inches long in the foot : 
lying at a distance from it was the head, with the cap : it is three feet six inches long ; and the ear is one foot in length." If admiration 
should be excited in the mind of the reader, on perusing the account of the dimensions of these statues, to what an exalted point will his 
astonishment be elevated, when he casts his eye upon the subsequent page, descriptive of the celebrated statue of Memnon, standing upon a 
edestal, which is alone above thirty feet in height, and in width near twenty feet ! I need not acquaint the classical reader, that this is the 
famous statue erected in the temple"of Serapis, which is affirmed, on the first appulse of the beam of the orient sun, to have emitted a dis- 
tinctly audible sound. It is represented, by Dr. Pocock, as composed of a particular sort of porous dark granite, such as he never saw before, 
and much resembling the eagle-stone. The statue itself is broken; but of the whole amazing mass, the fabrication of which one would think 
must have exhausted a quarry, some idea may be formed from the magnitude of the leg and foot, still remaining entire. Of these an engrav- 

E ing, 

But far beyond the bounds of Afric borne, 
Thy honors flourish'd mid Thibetian snows, 

Thy flowers the Lamas* gilded shrine adorn, 
And Brahmf and Buddhat on thy flow'r repose. 

mg, entirely covered with the inscriptions of Greek and Roman travellers, who bore their attestation to its having sent forth such a sound on 
the rising of the sun, (this arose probably from Egyptian priestcraft), appears opposite to page uo of his first volume- and he found the 
height ot the leg, « from the bottom of the foot to the top of the knee, to be about nineteen feet ; from the bottom of the foot to the ankle 
two feet six inches ; to the top of the instep, four feet ; the foot itself being five feet broad, and the leg four feet in depth " 

Stupendous as these mensurations must appear, even these appear comparatively small, when we consider what is related in Plinv con 
cermng the wonderful Sphynx; for that writer affirms, that the head was no less than one hundred and two feet in circumference • that 
the figure itself was sixty-two feet high from the belly to the crown of the head ; and that its entire length was 143 feet This figure also had 
its meaning. It related to the inundation, or overflowing of the Nile, which happened in the middle of the month Leo (the Lion) and 
reached to the month Virgo (the Virgin). He who could discover the anigma was honoured by the priests, and this produced the fabulous 
story among the Greeks, of QEdipus. 

If we look for the origin of our Architecture, we shall also find it to proceed from the Egyptian. Their pillars are our columns, taken from 
their palms; and our orders (the capitals) are its branches, which arise from the top; sometimes the Lotos, in forming even the column appears- 
and in ornamenting their walls and ceiling the Lotos has the principal share. However staggering, what is with us called the Rose, is the Lotos • 
and our honeysuckle is the infant plantule of the Lotos arising from its matrix, or seed-vessel. Sonnini, p. 5Q2 of his Travels mistook this 
representation in the temple of Dendera, « for that of a proliferous flower, which he could not account for." « The Egyptians'" says Delile 
Member of the Egyptian Institute, « not unfrequently represent the leaves of the Lotos of the same size as the flowers, although the y are 
much larger, and omit the marks of indentation ; but I once saw at Latopolis the Lotos represented with indented leaves. The seed-vessel of 
the white and blue Lotos may be also distinguished in some of the Egyptian sculptures." 

In the 'Memoirs de l'Academie des Inscriptions, et Belles Lettres, anno 1790,' he also mentions, « that Barthelemy describes a very 
ancient Egyptian mosaic, representing the flowers, seed-vessel, and leaves of the Nelumbium, very correctly performed, of which a paintino- 
has been made by Bartholi in exactly the same colours, as may be seen in the library of the Pantheon, where it is deposited " 

In the sculptures of the representations of religious ceremonies, the priests are seen holding in their hands the Nelumbium when approach 
mg the Idol, as do their servants, who are usually represented behind, having the tail of a monkey, to shew, I suspect, degradation All 
the Nymphaeas, as furnishing food, were equally held sacred. Vide our Notes on the Nympheea Coeruiea. 

* Lama is the sovereign pontiff, or rather God, of the Asiatic Tartars, inhabiting the country of Barantola. The lama is not only adored 
by the inhabitants of the country, but also by the kings of Tartary, who send him rich presents, and go in pilgrimage to pay him adoration 
calling him lama congiu, i. e. « God, the everlasting father of heaven." He is never to be seen but in a secret place of his palace, amidst a 
great number of lamps, sitting cross-legged upon a cushion, and adorned all over with gold and precious stones; where at a distance they 
prostrate themselves before him, it not being lawful for any to kiss even his feet. He is called the great lama, or lama of lamas ; that is 
"God of Gods." The orthodox opinion is, that when the grand lama seems to die either of old age or infirmity, his soul in fact only 
quits a crazy habitation to look for another younger or better; and it is discovered again in the body of some child, by certain tokens known 
only to the lamas or priests, in which order he always appears. 

A long account of the ceremonies attending the inauguration of the infant lama in Thibet, may be seen in the first volume of the 
Asiatic Researches. 

f An account of Brahma is given in a note to the Canna Indica, and of his marriage with Main in our history of the Blue Lotos. This 
god is seated on the flat surface of the seed-vessel of the Nelumbium, in the same manner as Osiris is represented in Egyptian sculpture! hold- 
ing a whip in his hand, which denoted his driving the chariot of the sun. In other sculptures, where he is represented as the god of the sun, 
he drives twelve horses in hand, which are certainly meant for the twelve signs of the zodiac, which symbols the more refined Greeks have 
lost in their more elegant representation of Phoebus. 

+ One of the most remarkable innovators in the religion of the Brahmins was Buddha, who is generally supposed to be the Fo of the Chi- 
nese, the Xaca of Japan, and the Odin of the north of Europe. His worship prevails in India beyond the Ganges. He is the ninth avatar, or 
appearance of Vishnoo upon earth, and this is supposed to have happened in 1027 before Christ. A religion very similar to this is that of 'the 
Lamas of Thibet. 

In the " Asiatic Researches" is a translation of a Sanscrit inscription on a stone at the entrance of a temple at Boodha Gaya, by Mr. 
Wilkins, as follows. " In the midst of a wild and dreadful forest, flourishing with trees of sweet-scented flowers, and abounding in fruits 
and roots, infested with lions and tigers, destitute of human society, and frequented by the Moonees, resided Bood-dha, the Author of Hap- 
piness, and a portion of Narayan. This Deity Haree, who is the Lord Hareesa, the possessor of all, appeared in this ocean of natural 
Beings at the close of the Devapara, and beginning of the Kalee Yoog. lie who is omnipresent, and everlastingly to be contemplated, the 
Supreme Being, the Eternal One, the Divinity worthy to be adored by the most praise-worthy of mankind, and who appeared here with a 
portion of his divine nature. 

For once upon a time the illustrious Amara, renowned amongst men, coming here, discovered the place of the Supreme Being, Bood-dha, 
in the great forest. The wise Amara endeavoured to render the God Bood-dha propitious by superior service ; and he remained in the forest 
for the space cf twelve years, feeding upon roots and fruits, and sleeping upon the bare earth; and he performed the vow of a Moonee, and 
was without transgression. He performed acts of severe mortification, for he was a man of infinite resolution, with a compassionate heart. 
One night he had a vision, and heard a voice saying, < Name whatever boon thou wantest.' Amara having heard this, was astonished, and 
with due reverence he replied, < First, give me a visitation, and then grant me such a boon.' He had another dream in the same night, and the 
voice said, ' How can there be any apparition in the Kalee Yoog? The same reward may be obtained from the sight of an image, or from 
the worship of an image, as may be derived from the immediate visitation of a deity.' Having heard this, he caused an image of the Supreme 
Spirit Bood-dha to be made, and he worshipped it, according to the law, with perfumes, incenses, and the like; and he thus "lorified the 


Where'er fair Science dawn'd on Asias shore, 
Where'er her hallow'd voice Devotion raised, 

We see thee graven on the shining ore, 
And on a thousand sparkling gems emblazed, 


name of that Supreme Being, the incarnation of a portion of Vbshnoo : ' Reverence he unto thee in the form of Bood-dha! Reverence be 
unto the Lord of the Earth? Reverence be unto thee, an incarnation of the Deity and the Eternal One! Reverence be unto thee, O God, in 
the form of the God of Mercy : the dispeller of pain and trouble, the Lord of all things, the Deity who overcometh the sins of the Katee 
Yoog, the Guardian of the Universe, the Emblem of mercy toward those who serve thee — Cm ! the possessor of all things in vital form ! 
Thou art Brahma, Veshnoo, and Mahea! Thou art Lord of the Universe! Thou art, under the form of all things, moveable and immove- 
able, the possessor of the whole! and thus I adore thee. Reverence be unto the Bestower of Salvation, and Resheekesa, the Ruler of the 
Faculties ! Reverence be unto thee (Kesava) the Destroyer of the Evil Spirit Kesee ! O, Damordara, shew me favour ! Thou art he who 
resteth upon the face of the milky ocean, and who lieth upon the serpent Sesd. Thou art Treevielcrama, who at three strides encompassed 
the Earth! I adore thee, who art celebrated by a thousand names, and under various forms, in the shape of Bood-dha, the God of Mercy! 
Be propitious, O Most High God!' 

" Having thus worshipped the Guardian of Mankind, he became like one of the just. He joyfully caused a holy temple to be built, of a 
wonderful construction, and therein were set up the divine foot of Veshnoo, for ever purifier of the sins of mankind, the images of the Pan- 
doos, and of the descents of Veshnoo : and in like manner of Brahma, and the rest of the divinities. 

" This place is renowned ; and it is celebrated by the name of Bood-dha Gaya. The forefathers of him who shall perform the ceremony 
of the Sradlia at this place shall obtain salvation. 

" A crime of an hundred fold shall undoubtedly be expiated from a sight thereof, of a thousand fold from a touch thereof, and of a hun- 
dred thousand fold from worshipping thereof. But where is the use of saying so much of the great virtues of this place ? Even the hosts of 
heaven worship it with joyful service both day and night." 

Brahma, Vishnu, Surya, and Ganesa, are each seated upon the Lotos ; and Ganga is painted walking on her own river, holding a 
Lotos in each hand. Vide Dissertation on the Gods of Greece, Italy, and India, in the Asiatic Researches, by Sir William Jones, Vol. I. 
p. 221. 

Kasmpfer has given us a curious representation of the goddess Quanwon sitting upon this aquatic plant. In one part of his work he de- 
scribed her, as having eight little children placed round her head, six of whom formed a sort of crown, while the two others were larger than 
the rest, (Kcempfer's Japan, p. 595.) ; and in another part of the same work, speaking of a different statue of the same goddess, he observes, 
that " seven smaller idols adorned her head, like a crown or garland, whereby is denoted, that she was the happy mother of many a deified 
hero : nay, the Japanese look upon this idol, as an emblematical representation of the birth of the gods in general. (Kaempfer s Japan, 
p. 542.) Barrow remarks, in his account of the embassy, " that when the Shing-moo, or holy mother, is represented in Chinese temples, 
she generally holds a flower of the Nelumbium in her hand ; and when sitting she is usually placed upon its large peltate leaf:" and proceeds 
to observe, p. 47-4, " that in China few temples are without some representation of the Nelumbium. Sometimes the Shing-moo is painted as 
standing upon its leaves in the middle of a lake;" and that in one temple he observed the intelligent mother seated upon its leaf, which had 
been hewn out of the living rock. 

In the " Songs of Jayadeua," the several kinds of Lotos are very frequently mentioned. " Thou, whose eyes sparkle as the Blue Lotos 
agitated by the breeze, and whose lips are as the Red Lotos in full bloom. Those beautiful blue eyes are become, through thy resentment, 
like the petals of the Crimson Lotos : Oh! tinge with their effulgence these my limbs reclining on a bed of soft White Lotos leaves, that they 
may glow like the arrows of Love pointed with flowers. My locks are decked with the deep azure of Water Lilies, my dress is a robe of 
pale yellow, which resembles the golden dust of the Water Lily scattered over its blue petals." Vide Asiatic Researches, p. 185. In all 
Persian songs, Dipuc [Cupid) is represented as pointing his arrows with the petals of the Red Lotos. 

Among the rites and ceremonies of the Hindus, a kind of religious Almanac translated by Sir William Jones, is the following passage. 
"On this lunar day Sereswati, or Isa," (the Ism of the Egyptians), *' the Goddess of Arts and Eloquence is to be worshipped with offer- 
ings of perfumes, flowers, and dressed rice. Even the implements of writing, and written books, are to be treated with reverence, and not 
used on this festival. This meditation is to be used. May Sereswati, the Goddess of Speech, enable us to attain all possible felicity; she 
who wears on her locks a beautiful half moon, which shines with a pale, but exquisite lustre ; whose body bends through the weight of her 
full breasts ; who sits reclined on the White Lotos ; and from the Crimson Lotos" (Lotos is used for beauty) " of her hands infuses radiance 
on the instruments of writing, and books produced through her favour." Vide Asiatic Researches, Vol. iii. p. 722. 


Cupid derives from thee his glowing fires, 
And with thy radiant petals points his dart, 

He fills the ardent soul with fond desires, 
And softly steals upon the yielding heart. 

Whatever grace can youthful beauty shew, 
Whether the glitt 'ring eye, or brow above, 

From thee, the cheering thought is made to glow, 
Thyself the agent of all-pow'rful love. 

I cannot dismiss these notes without here testifying generally my obligations to the learned labours of the Rev. Mr. Maurice in his 
" Indian Antiquities," a work of the greatest classical skill, profoundest research, and most elegant diction. Where the conjectures are my 
own, I have indeed inserted them with the utmost diffidence, trusting in the liberality and candour of my readers. 


MpB^B SgBSagiffffi^gffiSsBmSTflwBra F >vl I t l WUIMWHWa 

sr ,//,/<■ '/.>t>// // ///.i/ 


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In our Picturesque Plate, we have introduced a distant view of Aboukir, and the waters of the 
Nile, where the Blue Lotos is found in great abundance, and which tends much to enliven the 
scene. As the flood subsides, its tuberous roots afford a nourishment nearly resembling our 
Potatoe, but more mealy. It has an exterior calyx, consisting of four green leaves, internally 
coloured blue ; numerous corolla leaves, of the finest azure colour, a number of stamina, with 
yellow filaments , tipt with blue anthers, and an orbicular pistillum, crowned with a stigma radiated 
like our Poppy, and turning like it to a pericarp filled with innumerable small seeds. The leaves 
not being crenated, as with the White Lotos (Nymph;ea Lotos), it more nearly corresponds 
with our common White Lily. It comes under the Class Polyandria, Order Monogynia, 
of Linnaeus. 

It was surely a most extraordinary sight, to observe the proud conqueror of Egypt presiding 
over a literary association to promote science, and most attentively listening to, and applauding 
a discourse read by Julius Ccesar Savigni,* on those sacred Nymph^eas which embellish the 
shores of Egypt; little then did his arrogant soul imagine, that at that time on the buoyant 
wave was floating the thunder of the British arms, which Providence had destined to annihilate 
his proud army, and take from it its famed standard impiously called 'Invincible.' Little then 
did HE dream, that a bloodyf diadem would soon encircle his brow, and that he would feel 
never satiated with human honours, his mind becoming a dreadful prey to a cursed, a senseless, 
and wicked ambition. 


CHILD OF THE SUN ! why droops thy withering head, 

While high in Leo flames thy radiant sire ; 

With Egypt's glory is thy glory fled, 

And with her genius quench'd thy native fire? — 

Far direr than her desert's burning wind, 
Gaul's furious legions sweep yon ravaged vale, 
Death stalks before, grim famine howls behind, 
And screams of horror load the tainted gale. 

Such are the pompous appellations the French assumed, as their Christian names, and it was ridiculous enough for a pretended 
republican to usurp the name of an usurper! 

f The needless and atrocious murder of the Duke D'Enghien, by torch-light, in the Bois de Boulogne, appals every heart with horror! 

A Far 

Nile's crimson'd waves with blood polluted roll, 
Her groves, her fanes, devouring fire consumes ; 
But mark ! Slow rising near the distant pole, 
A sudden splendour all her shores illumes! 

Fatal to GAUL— 'tis BRITAIN'S rising star 
That in the South the bright ascendant gains, 
Resplendent as her Dog Star shines from far, 
And with new fervour fires the Lybian plains. 

A race, as Egypt's ancient warriors* brave, 
For her insulted sons indignant glows, 
Defies the tropic storm, the faithless wave, 
And hurls destruction on their haughty foes. 

Exulting to his source old NILUS hears 
The deepening thunder of the British line -J", 
Again its lovely head the Lotos rears, 
Again the fields in rainbow glories shine. 

Still wider, beauteous plant, thy leaves extend, 

Nor dread the eye of an admiring Muse, 

In union with the rising song ascend, 

Spread all thy charms, and all thy sweets diffuse. 

* The Egyptians were formerly a martial race, and the ancient city of Thebes so rich, that Achilles, in Homer, introduces the temptation 
of such an acquisition! 

Not all proud Thebes' unrivall'd walls contain, 

The world's great Empress on th' ^Egyptian plain, 

(That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states, 

And pours her heroes thro' an hundred gates, 

Two hundred horsemen, and two hundred cars 

From each wide portal issuing to the wars); 

Tho' bribes were heap'd on bribes, in number more 

Than dust in fields, or sands along the shore; 

Should all these offers for my friendship call ; ; 

Tis he that offers, and I scorn them all. 

Atrides' daughter never shall be led 

(An ill-match'd consort) to Achilles' bed ; 

Like golden Venus tho' she charm'd the heart, 

And vy'd with Pallas in the works of art. 

Some greater Greek let those high nuptials grace, 

I hate alliance with a tyrant's race. 

Strabo informs us, that the kings of Thebes extended their conquests even as far as Scythia, Bactria, and India. 

f The account given by Nelson of his Naval Victory, deserves to be written in letters of gold, for the religious and manly spirit 

it breathes. 

Vanguard, off the Mouth of the Nile, August 3, 1798. 


" Almighty God has blessed his Majesty's arms in the late battle by a great victory over the fleet of the enemy, 
whom I attacked at sun-set on the first of August off the Mouth of the Nile. The enemy were mored in a strong line of battle for defending 
the entrance of the Bay (of Shoals), flanked by numerous gun-boats, four frigates, and a battery of guns and mortars on an island in their 
van ; but nothing could withstand the squadron your Lordship did me the honour to place under my command. Their high state of discipline 
is well known to you ; and with the judgment of the captains, together with their valour, and that of the officers and men of every descrip- 
tion, it was absolutely irresistible. 

" Could any thing from my pen add to the character of the captains, I would write it with pleasure, but that is impossible. 

" I have to regret the loss of Captain Westcott, of the Majestic, who was killed early in the action ; but the ship was continued to 
be so well fought by her first lieutenant, Mr. Cuthbert, that I have given him an order to command her till your Lordship's pleasure 

is known. 

" The 

Of that bold race, beneath the Pleiads born, 
To chaunt thy praise a Northern Bard aspires, 
Nor with more ardour, erst at early dawn, 
The Theban minstrels smote their votive lyres. 

For oh! can climes th' excursive genius bound? 
No. 'Mid Siberia bursts the heav'n-taught strain; 
At either pole the Muses' songs resound, 
And snows descend and whirlwinds rage in vain. 

Four thousand summers have thy pride survey'd 
Thy Pharaohs moulder in their marble tombs: 
Oblivion's wing the pyramids shall shade, 
But thy fair family unfading blooms! 

Still 'mid these ruin'd towers, admir'd, rever'd, 
Wave high thy foliage, and secure expand, 
These vast but crumbling piles by men were rear'd, 
But thou wert form'd by an immortal hand. 

With Nature's charms alone thy charms shall fade, 
With being's self thy beauteous tribe decline; 
Oh! living, may thy flow'rs my temples shade, 
And decorate, when dead, my envied shrine. 


" The ships of the enemy, all but their two rear ships, are nearly dismasted : and those two, with two frigates, I am sorry to say, made 
their escape ; nor was it, I assure you, in my power to prevent them. Captain Hood most handsomely endeavoured to do it; but I had no 
ship in a condition to support the Zealous, and I was obliged to call her in. 

" The support and assistance I have received from Captain Berry cannot be sufficiently expressed ; I was wounded in the head, and 
obliged to be carried off the deck, but the service suffered no loss by that event, Captain Berry was fully equal to the important service then 
going on, and to him I must beg leave to refer you for every information relative to this victory. He will present you with the flag of the 
second in command, that of the commander in chief being burnt in the L'Orient. 

" Herewith I transmit you lists of the killed and wounded, and the lines of battle of ourselves and the French. 

" I have the honour to be, &c. 





1. Culloden Captain T. Troubridge 74 

2. Theseus Captain R. W. Miller 74 

3. Alexander Captain Alex. J. Ball 74 

4 Vanguard { ReaT Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson. . ? y . 
\ Captain Edward Berry j ' 

5. Minotaur Captain Thomas Louis 74 

6. Le ander Captain T. B. Thompson 50 

7. Swiftsure Captain B. Hallowell 74 

8. Audacious Captain Davidge Gould 74 

Defence Captain John Peyton 74 

Zealous Captain Samuel Hood 74 

Orion Captain Sir James Saumarez 74 

Goliath Captain Thomas Foley 74 

Majestic Captain G. B. Westcott 74 

14. Bellerophon Captain H. D. E. Darby 74 

La Mutine, Brig 


Officers, Seamen, and Marines, killed and wounded 895. 



• 590 

• 590 

• 590 

• 595 

. 640 

. 343 

. 59O 

. 59O 

■ 590 

. 590 

• 590 
. 590 

• 590 
. 5CJ8 



T ^ Guns. 

1. Le Guerrier Taken 74 

2. Le Conquerant L Taken 74 

• '■'.'.. 74. '. 

3. Le Spartiate Taken 

4. L'AauiLON , . Taken 74 

5 Le Souverain Peuple Taken , 74 

6. Le Franklin Blanquet, 1st. Contre Amiral . . . .Taken 80 

7- L'Orient Brueys, Admiral and Commander in Chief. . Burnt . 120 

8. Le Tonant Taken 

9. L'Heureux Taken 

10. Le Timoleon Burnt 

1 1. Le Mercure Taken 

12. Le Guillaume Tell . . . Villeneuve, 2d. Contre Amiral Escaped 

13. Le Genereux Escaped 

14. La Diane Frigate Escaped 

15. La Justice . . .Ditto Escaped . . , 44 

1 6. L Artemise . . . Ditto Burnt ° 35 

17. La Serieuse Dismasted and sunk ...'..'. 36 



. 300 



To this triumph, not long after was added the famous battle at Aboukir, near Alexandria, in which the brave Abercrombie fell, 
after which the French army in Egypt surrendered to the British. In the Gazette account of this battle, Lord Hutchinson gives us an 
affecting account of the death of Abercrombie. " Few more severe battles have been fought. We have sustained an irreparable loss in the 
person of our never-sufficiently to be lamented Commander in Chief, who was mortally wounded in this battle, and died March 28, 1801. I 
believe he was wounded early, but he concealed his situation from those about him, and continued in the field, giving his orders with that 
coolness and perspicuity, which had ever marked his character, till long after the action was over, when he fainted through loss of blood. 
Were it permitted for a soldier to regret any one who has fallen in the service of his country, I might be excused for lamenting him more than 
any other person ; but it is some consolation to those who tenderly loved him, that as his life was honourable, so was his death glorious. His 
memory henceforth will be recorded in the annals of his country— will be sacred to every British soldier— and embalmed in the recollection of 
a grateful posterity." 



It is taught in Eastern Mythology, which is the same nearly as the Egyptian, that Ma 
who was first created by Brahma, by whom in concert all other things were formed on the 
watery abyss, was seated on the Blue Lotos, and thus gently wafted to Brahma. 



While Brahma pensive on the Lotos lay 

Warm'd by the bright orient beams of day, 

Transporting visions in his fancy roll, 

Creation rushes on his raptur'd soul, 

Before his view the forms of beings move, 

And all the Deity dissolves in love; 

By one vast stretch of thought bright MAIA sprung, 

Maia, the wise, the blooming, and the young: 

On the Blue Lotos sat the beauteous Queen 

Who look'd enchantment o'er the dazzling scene, 

With out-stretch'd arms the Goddess seem'd to swim, 

And mov'd alternate every pliant limb; 

Now on the Lotos velvet margin stood 

And view'd her graceful image in the flood; 

Amaz'd, she wonders at her form so bright, 

Seen in the radiance of reflected light ; 

Down her fair neck, and o'er her bosom roll'd, 

In sweetest negligence, her locks of gold; 

Round her fine form the dim transparence play'd, 

And shew'd the beauties, that it seem'd to shade:— 

Wave after wave, the Azure Lotos bore 

As though impatient for some destin'd shore, 

Around the flower the fanning Zephyrs play 

And speed the buoyant vessel on its way, 

While gently thrilling thro' her raptur'd frame 

With kindling life, shot Love's voluptuous flame. 

The God and Goddess meet — With transport fired, 

Delighted each the other's charms admired! 

Enamour'd Brahma gaz'd with fond surprize, 

And drank delicious passion from her eyes; 

Marks her white neck beneath the gauze's fold, 

Her ivory shoulders, and her locks of gold; 

Drinks with mute ecstacy the transient glow; 

Which warms and tints her bosom's rising snow; 

Watches each nascent smile and fleeting grace, 

The dimples playing in her blooming face; 

Views the fine mazes of the curls, that break 

Round her fair ear, and shade her damask cheek; 


Drinks the pure fragrance of her breath, and sips 
With tenderest*touch the roses of her lips; 
Invites her to partake his throne, his bed, 
And binds the gemm'd Tiara round her head; — 
And now, on fire, th' impatient Brahma press'd 
The blooming Goddess to his fervent breast, 
The conscious Fair betrays her soft alarms, 
Sinks with warm blush into his clasping arms, 
Yields to his fond caress with wanton play, 
And sweet, reluctant, amorous delay. 


The Blue Lotos, by affording to the inhabitants of Egypt,* from its root, and seed-vessel, 
a nutritious food, was properly considered by them as an Emblem of Celestial Love. 

Where Nile's proud waves roll slowly to the main, 

Thro' the fam'd land that knows no falling shower, 
In modest charms above the wat'ry plain 

All bright emerges the mysterious flower. 

And while her guardian sire *f* with soft supplies 

Feeds the glad earth, and wakes her green-rob'd brood, 

She meets the tincture of the answering skies, 
And spreads cerulean lustre o'er the flood. 

Touch'd by the floating sapphire's starry vest, 

The hoary Sage to raise devotion strove; 
And bade the beauteous blossom stand confess'd 

The sacred symbol of celestial love. 

Hence, to the dim recesses of the fane 

He bears the gather'd sweets each rising morn : 
From Is is' neck descends the flowery chain, 

And flowery wreaths Osiris' brows adorn. 

' Benignant pair! to mortals still be good: 

Still let old Nil us feel your guiding power! 
O'er our parch'd plains extend his fattening flood, 

And bear upon his breast your sacred flower! 

' And while with pious care our trembling hand 

To Heaven's high praise this holy rite ordains, 
Accept these tributes of a grateful land, 

And bless with fav'ring smiles th' Egyptian plains.' 


* The Lotos was equally sacred in Egypt as in India. Vide notes to the history of the Nelumbium. 

+ The Lotos is to this day called Arais del Nil, Daughters of the Nile, and Nile is derived from Nila, blue; and 7ro]a^oc, potamos, 
the Greek word for any large river, used also for the Nile, is derived from the Sanscrit word Pa dm a, the name for the Blue Lotos. 




It was my original idea, had the times been propitious, to have greatly enlarged this part of the 
work, and presented the world with seventy Picturesque Botanical coloured Plates, in 
which case another distribution of them would have been made, and every class illustrated by 
select examples of the most interesting flowers, accurately described, and immortalized by poetry: 
but during the progress of this expensive work, with the exception of a few months respite, infu- 
riate mar has constantly and violently raged, which, like a devouring conflagration, destroys 
every thing before it ; commerce, agriculture, and the Arts, all the sources of public prosperity, 
and private happiness, are by it dried up and annihilated. The once moderately rich very justly 
now complain they are exhausted through taxes laid on them to pay armed men to diffuse 
rapine, fire, and murder, over civilized Europe. One Monarch dares, in the face of that religion 
which teaches no difference among men, to wage universal war only from motives of a cursed am- 
bition ! All kinds of crimes are now every hour accomplishing on the ensanguined theatre of 
cruel War ! The earth is inundated with human blood ! The man of sensibility, his heart over- 
whelmed with grief, and shame, beholds such atrocious scenes with horror! There is no counter- 
part in nature to compare with such Men. Tygers do not even gorge themselves with the 
blood of Tygers! 


Cognatis maculis similis fera 

Juvenal. . 

O that Kings and Princes of the earth, would hear the voice of exalted Reason, and learn 

TRUE GLORY does not consist in extent of dominion, but in the prosperity and happiness 
of any given number of subjects : 

Under the present pressure of calamitous circumstances, it would be wrong for me to tres- 
pass any longer upon the purses of a public-spirited body of subscribers, most of whom would, I 
am certain, generously have acquiesced in my original more extensive scheme, even in these awful 
times; yet some few might have seriously felt the additional price; therefore, I trust, a candid and 
enlightened public, will cheerfully accept what I have been able to perform, and will at least 
allow me this honour, which is all I request, 








THORNTON, while polish'd Darwin tells 
The loves of FLORA'S gaudy train, 

'Tis thine to guard from time's decay 
The fading glories of her reign. 

Thy GARDEN of perpetual bloom 

No change of threatening skies can fear ; 

Nor dashing rains, nor chilling blasts, 
Can reach the lovely fav'rites here. 

Bright TULIPA in form as fair 
As on the lap of Nature shines ; 

As gaily spreads each opening flow'r, 
As soft each varying tint combines; 

Whether in Asia's sun-bright soil 

The Nymph her crimson chalice b rears, 

Or mid Batavia's fost'ring clime c 
In every added charm appears. 

Here view august, in conscious pride, 
AGAVE lift her standard high ; 

Swell in full pomp her cluster'd flowers, 
Resolv'd to triumph ere she die. 

There CEREA, rich in countless charms, 
Spreads to the moon her golden ray; 

Nor fears that, ere yon orb descends, 
Each blooming grace should fade away. 

Behold, in realms of endless spring, 
MIMOSA'S beauteous form arise; 

While, circling round on festive wing, 
The ruby-throated spoiler flies. 

Here, floating to the evening air, 
Fair PASSIFLORA scents the gale ; 

Expands her crowns of sapphire blue, 
And softly waves her petals pale. 

NATURE, well pleas'd at Art's success, 

Each imitative grace shall see; 
And FLORA with approving smile 

Shall twine her choicest Wreaths for THEE. 



» Alluding to the CANNA INDICA. 

« Alluding to the Group of HYACINTHS. 






Oh! Bards of Athens! for your classic rage, 
Or Rubens' fire, to warm the kindling page; 
Then like those vivid tints my Song should glow, 
And Thornton's praise in noblest numbers flow; 
Fervent as his should roll the breathing line, 
The radiant colouring, and the rich design. 

From orient regions where the tropic ray 
Lights beauty's beams, and pours the glowing day, 
To where th' eternal snows of winter spread, 
And ice -clad mountains rear their lofty head, 
Thy daring hand hath cull'd the loveliest flow'rs 
To deck delighted Albion s happier bow'rs; 
On each proud page in varied radiance bright, 
The Muse exulting feasts her raptur'd sight; 
For ever fresh those flow'rs; for ever fair! 
The rage of E?wy and of Time shall dare. 
Around thy couch their branching tendrils wave, 
And cast their fragrant shadows o'er thy grave. 

Beneath the Pleiads, taught by thee to bloom, 
While Fancy fondly drinks their rich perfume, 
A second Paradise our senses greets, 
And Asia wafts us all her world of sweets. 

To Thornton loudly strike th' applausive string, 
'Mid desert wastes who bids an Eden spring, 
On canvass bids the glowing landscape rise, 
Each plant fair blooming 'mid its native skies ; 
Whether dark clouds the angry heav'ns deform 
Where round the Cape loud howls th' incessant storm; 
Or Genius waving high her magic wand, 
Bids all Arabia's purple blooms expand; 

Or pours the Ganges thro' the wide spread plain, 
In foaming torrents rushing to the main. 
By thee transported from the farthest pole 
Where the slow Bears their frozen circuit roll 
We tread the region parch'd by Sinus' ray, 
Where the bright Lotos basks in floods of day ; 
Or pensive wander by Columbian streams, 
Where everlasting summer pours its beams; 
Along her vast but rich savannas rove, 
Or trace the mazes of the boundless grove, 
Where thousand birds their painted plumes unfold, 
And crests that blaze with azure and with gold ; 
Where Nature's pencil lights her brightest dies, 
And all Brasilia flames before our eyes. 

Though, o'er her head the southern whirlwind rave, 
Secure, behold! superb Strelit%ia wave; 
While amidst barren rocks and arctic snows 
Fair Kalmia in refulgent beauty glows: — 
Lo ! Cereus faithful to th' appointed hour, 
With glory's beams illumes the midnight hour; 
Ah fleeting beams ! ere Phoebus darts his rays, 
Wither'd thy beauty, and extinct its blaze ! 
Not so yon Aloe, on whose tow'ring head 
An hundred years their fost'ring dews have shed ; 
Not so the Glories that these leaves illume, 
Whose splendid tints for centuries shall bloom! 

Fain would the Muse each beauteous Plant rehearse, 
And sing their glories in immortal verse ; 
But who shall paint them with a pow'r like thine, 
Tis in thy page those glories brightest shine! — 
So lovely in their form, so bright their hue, 
And in such dazzling groups they charm the view ! 
The Muse astonish'd drops her feeble lyre, 
And baffled Art gives way to Nature's fire ;— 
That fire is thine — in every leaf it burns, 
And imitation's noblest efforts spurns. 
The mighty Work complete, through ALBION's bounds 
Thy name is echoed, and thy fame resounds; 
Exulting Science weaves the deathless bays, 
And rival Monarchs swell the note of Praise. 









(J for some bow'ry nook, 'midst Nature's scenes 

Of purest blossoms and unsullied greens ; 

A still, small, Home that I may call my own, 

My joy, my pride, my palace, and my throne; 

With yet a dinner, sav'd by frugal care, 

A social platter for a friend to share! 

Thus pray'd the Muse, a Poet's wish to crown 

Upon a Poet's wish no Muse can frown ! 

The pray'r was heard; and soon, by Fancy's aid, 

A nook was chosen, and a Cot was made. 

Streams, groves, and gardens, deck'd the smiling bound — 

A Paradise of sweets — on Fairy ground. 

Quick, Friendship came, with Fortune at his side, 
To realize the Song and Poet's pride, 
A bow'ry nook was given* 'midst Nature's scenes 
Of purest blossoms and unsullied greens. 


* Mr. Pratt, the admired author of " Sympathy," and other well known poems, excited from his works such lively interest, that, as a sub- 
scription to his last production, " Harvest Home," a noble-minded stranger sent him the title deeds of a Cottage, with a piece of ground 
attached to it, near to his own domain. 

" Accept," a generous stranger said, — 

Touch'd by the pages he had read, 

" Accept, since you at length have found 

Joy-giving Health on Hampshire ground ; 

Hampshire, where Health delights to reign, 

The Goddess of the Wood and Plain : 

Accept a little sylvan spot, 

Where you may build your Poet's Cot: 

Nay where, already cut and dried, 

A river running close beside, 

With valley low and mountain high, 

And many a capability, 

A Cot you'll find, which little care 

And no great cost may soon repair : 

That Cot is yours, and garden ground; 

And all the pleasant scene around." 

From p. 104 of Harvest Home. 

My Subscription was as one author to another, which produced unsolicited the present Panegyric on an humble first attempt to raise a 
Temple to Flora— by a Garden of Nature. Compact 

Compact the spot, it prov'd her happiest pow'r ; 

She knew 'twas good, and bless'd each opening flower. 

See ! who that loves from Jealousy is free? 

Flora now felt it — tho' a Goddess she. 

All « out of doors" she eyed with fond delight; 

(For all her fragrant children were in sight:) 

Her Pi?ik, her Rose, her Hyaci?iths were there, 
Shedding delightful odours through the air. 

Touch'd by the sweet enchantment of the scene, 
She deign'd a visit to the charms within: 
The Cot she enter'd ; there beheld her flowers, 
Tho' cropt, still breathing all her balmy powers : 
Lovely 'midst thorns her Brier, and Roses gay, 
And many a petal charming in decay. 

Yet as around she cast her raptur'd eye, 

Bright'ning the walls, she saw a fresh supply: 

Some gifts of yesterday began to fade, 

But sweets new-pluck'd were blooming in their stead. 

" All these," she cried, " are mine; and this fair spot 

" Shall henceforth boast the name of Flora's Cot. 

" This Renealmia, this lov'd Snowdrop too, 

" Display my magic Touch and matchless Hue ; 

" This tender Sensitive, this Aloe, sweet, 

" Cereus and Cyclamen all Art defeat. 

" Yes, mine are all the lovely train I see, — 

" Unrivall'd Flora's beauteous Family." 

Self-charm'd she paus'd, — but soon, advancing near, 
Art's pow'rful Magic on the Walls appear ; 
Another Flora seems to breathe and glow, 
Lotus unfold, and love-sick Kalmia blow. 
The Goddess gaz'd, and mad'ning with the smart, 
Felt the fierce anguish of a Jealous Heart. 

" And shall a mortal Pencil thus presume," 
She cried, " to emulate my heav'nly Bloom? 
" Shall my own offspring thus untimely die, 
" And Art's frail progeny thus flourish nigh? 
" Shall these erect a Temple of their own, 
" And I ascend a poor divided Throne? 

" Forbid it Nature! " Nature rose to view: 

To meet whose arms the angry Goddess flew : 

Then told her tale, then pointed to the flowers 

Whereon proud Art had lavish'd all her powers : 

Till more indignant, as she more survey 'd 

The imitation nice of light and shade, rp, , 

Th' unfolding leaf, the soft bud newly burst, 

A second Flora vieing with the first. 

" These!" she exclaim'd,— " these flowers should be mine. 

" Taken, O Nature, from thy holy shrine: 

" I, only I, should such rich tints bestow, 

" I, only I, should give that kindling glow. 

" Hold!" said the Sister- Goddess,— " the desire 
" Thus to paint the charms which we inspire, 
" Demands our praise— 'tis incense at our shrine, 
" And Art but proves our Empire more divine. 
" Art's noblest eifbrt but makes known our Fame ; 
" Different our realms, our Worship is the same, 
" To both does heavn-born Genius bend the knee!" 
Theu Flora smil'd, and all was Harmony. 





^Esculapius, Flora, Ceres and Cupid, 


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('Being proportion- 
ably long, 


f Stamens feparate from each 
other and the Piftillum ; 




Firft Comparifons. 

With the Sexes -s 



" i Stamen. 


2 Stamina. 

3 Stamina. 

4 Stamina. 

5 Stamina. 

6 Stamina. 

( Hexandria) 

7 Stamina. 

( Heptandria) 

8 Stamina. 

9 Stamina. 

lo Stamina. 

12 to 19 Stamina. 


20, or more Stamina< 

Inferted on the Ca- 
lyx (Icofandria) 

Inferted on the Re- 










J a 


> < 




Or, Invifible. 


["4 Stamina, 2 above, 
Or, of different J (Didynamia) 
Lengths. < 6 Stamina, 4 above, 

|_ (Tetr adynamia) 

14 [DIDYNAMIA. i. 

? ft 


3 K* 

Or United, by th 

Forming one Body, 
( Monodelphia) 
ieir Filaments J Two Bodies, 
ing; ' (Diadelphia) 

Three Bodies, 



By the Anthers coalefcing ; 

Or by conjunction with the 


f The two Sexes, on the fame 
Or, Unifexual, < ?hiu ' (Monxcia) 

_0n different Plants. (Dicecia) 

Or, Mixed, 





sifMONCECIA. -| 

22[DICECIA./. I 




* I. The Orders of the firft 13 Classes, are taken from the number of Piftilla, and terminate in gvnia as the Claffe. did in »»A '« :u \u n , 

Order I. is Monoovnia, one Piftillum, Order II. D.cynia, two Piftilla, and fo on, T.ior.if , T.x ! 1 P t "^ $ PreCed '' nS ' ^^ 

OCTOCVNIA, 8, En N EACYNI A> 9 , DeC.CYNIA, 10, DoDEC A CYNI A , I2 , PoLYCYNI A , many ^ l£TRA " NIA '4, ^NTA« N IA, 6f H.XACVN IA .6 f H.PX A CV NIAf7 . 

*. II. Clafs i 4 , Didynamza, has the Orders I. Gymnospermia, naked feeds, and Order II. Angiospermia, covered feeds (feeds in a capfule). 

c. III. Clafs 15, TETRADYNAMi.shas two Orders taken from the fhape of the pod, I.Siliculosa nod a Uirb h m ^. ,1 1 

than broad. * hculosa, pod ajtacfc, broader than long, and II. Siliouosa, pod a/% C , pod longer 

r AU the Florets alike ORDERS. 

I. Polygamia -equalis. 

"Included in a common Calyx, <{ 
each Floret having no Ca- 
lyx of its own. 

■ fBifexual, perfeQ in the difk. f PiftlUflowe " in the "* P erfea - IL Polvoamxa superflua. 


Flowers com- -^ 

_ Florets diverfified. ^ 

1 Piftil-flowers in the ray imper- 
ii fed (no Stigma). 

Each Floret, befides the com- 
mon Calyx, has a Calyx pecu- 
liar to itfelf. - 

III. Polygamia prustranea. 

Biiexual, lmperfeQ in the difkl 
h (no Stigma to the Piftillum. )J Piftil- 

flowers in the ray perfeQ. IV. Polygamia necess A ri A . 

_Not compound, but having the claffical character. 

" ~ " V. Polygamia segregata. 

— — VI. Monogamia. 
/ VI. Clafs. Clafs 21, 22, Moncecia, Dicecia, take their Orders from the number, or other peculiarities of ,1,. c, ■ « ■ 

more than feven, then comes Monodelphia, Syngenesia, Gynandrh, for as we defcend < it t ir u ^ " Heptandria feven Stamina » Polyuria 
them; thusifaplantisboth^Wco«5and^ M nir OM 5alfo, it comes under the Clafs n,. a I M they overcome, or have the pre-eminence of thofe above 

tECIA » anc * the Order Gynandria. 
g. VI. So in Polygamia, Clafs 23, we have the Orders I. Moncecia, II. Dicecia, and III. Trice 

h. VII. Clafs 24, Cryptogamia, has four Orders: I. Filices, Ferns; II. Musci MnfTV»« ttt a 

, Musci.Moffes; III. Alg,e, Sea- Weeds; IV. Fungi, Fungufes. 

In the REFORMED SYSTEM the Gaffes are Amplified by making them according to the M„^ r c 

Piftilla; and hence the 13th to the 23d Clafs are now reduced into the other Claffes or OH, p.T" 3 ' !"? fr ° m takin S a11 the ° rders from thc Peculiarities of the 
Linnaeus. ° r Urders - c 'afs 13 of the Reformed System is therefore the Cryptogamia of 

London, publiflied by Dr. Thornton, February ,, ,802, as thc Aft dircft*. 

New Illustra tion o fthe Sexu al S ystem of ... Linnae us 

Thornton. Robert 


Missouri Botanical Garden 

St. I ouis. MO 


The lull leather laeed-in binding was very worn. The 
leather was powdery despite heavy oiling. Parts of the 
finish side ofthe leather were missing from the boards 
and spine. The leather was lifting in places. The joints 
had been crudely repaired. The board attachment was 
strong. The corners were fully exposed. The endbands 
were missing. Endleaves that matched the pastedowns 
were loose in the volume. They were smaller than the 
text block. The sewing was oversewn. Most of the 
pages were dirty and discolored. Some pages had tears 
al the edges. Others were chipped at the edges. The 
leaf facing the plate to be exhibited had many small 
edge tears. The paper was probably brittle at the edges. 
The oversewing created physical stress close to the 
spine when the volume was used. A text leaf that was 
smaller than the text block was loose in the back ofthe 


freatment was documented with color slides. The 
volume was collated and disbound retaining the original 
sewing. The head, tail, and pages were dry cleaned 
where necessary. Tears were mended and folds 
guarded where necessary with Japanese kozo paper and 
wheat starch paste. A loose text leaf was incorporated 
into the text block. The sewing was reinforced. 
Handmade paper endsheets with linen hinges were 
attached. The volume was bound in full cloth using a 
split board structure and titled using a gold-stamped 
leather label. The previous binding was housed in a 
phase box 

Northeast Document Conservation Center 

February 2003 


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