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Federated Malay States Museums. 

JANUARY, 1920. 

II. Further Notes on the Aboriginal Tribes of 
Pahang. Ivor H.N.Evans .. 

III. Preliminary Report on the Exploration of a 

Rock-shelter in the Batu Kurau Parish, 
Perak. Ivor H. N. Evans . . 

IV. Cave-dwellings in Pahang. Ivor H. N. Evans . . 
V. Customs of the Camphor-hunters. Ivor H. N. 

VI. The Camphor Language of Johore and South- 
ern Pahang. R. 0. Wins ted t 

VIII. Perak Birth Customs. R. 0. Winsiedt 
IX. Upper Perak Marriage Customs. R. 0. Winsiedt 
X. Propitiating the Spirits of a District. R. O. 
XI. Indo-China and Malaya : a Review. R. 0, Winsiedt 




Federated Malay States Museums. 

JANUARY, 1920. 

II. Further Notes on the Aboriginal Tribes of 
Pahang. Ivor H. N. Evans 

III. Preliminary Report on the Exploration of a 

Rock-shelter in the Batu Kurau Parish, 
Perak. Ivor H. N. Evans 

IV. Cave-dwellings in Pahang. Ivor H. N. Evans . . 
V. Customs of the Camphor-hunters. Ivor H. N. 

VI. The Camphor Language of Johore and South- 
ern Pahang. R. 0. Winstedt 
VII. Hindu Survivals in Malay Custom. R.O. 
VIII. Perak Birth Customs. R. 0. Winstedt 
IX. Upper Perak Marriage Customs. R. 0. Winstedt 
X. Propitiating the Spirits of a District. R. O. 
XI. Indo-China and Malaya : a Review. R. 0. Winstedt 






By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 

The material contained in the present paper was ob- 
tained in March 1918 at a Negrito settlement near the Damak 
River in the Ulu Selama Parish of Perak, and from a few 
Negritos living in the neighbourhood of Grik, Upper Perak. 
With the former I stopped for ten days, pitching my tent close 
to their camp. Among them were two men whom I had met 
before, one at Kuala Kenering in Upper Perak, the other at 
Ijok in the Selama District. The latter in particular was 
extremely useful to me as, remembering that I had maintained 
friendly relations with himself and the other Ijok people, he 
assured the tribesmen that I had no hostile intentions. This 
was somewhat necessary as, though I had sent a local Malay, 
who had considerable influence with the people, to tell them 
that I was coming, and to make them a present of tobacco, 
yet I found on my arrival that all the women, and a few of 
the men, had taken to the jungle. 

Tokeh, my Ijok acquaintance, told me that the Negritos 
of the Selama Valley are called Kintak Bong or Menik Bong 
by the other tribes. He himself, he said, was a Menik Kaien 
{i.e. Krian Valley Negrito). The tribes of the Ulu Krian, of 
Ulu Selama, of Lenggong, of Kuala Kenering, and of those 
parts of Kedah nearest to Perak intermarry to a considerable 
extent, though those of I v enggong and Kuala Kenering speak 
a Northern Sakai, and the others so-called Negrito dialects. 
Thus in the neighbourhood of Ijok, according to Tokeh, there 
are Menik Gul (truly native), Menik Kaien, and Menik Lanoh * 
(Lenggong and Kenering people), but at this place they are, 
I understand, not only intermixed by marriage, but there are 
separate camps of each of the three divisions. The Menik 
Kaien are also said to have a camp near the Ayer Sauk, a 
tributary of the Plus(?), as well as some around the head- 
waters of the Krian River, their native locality. Other tribes, 
to whom Tokeh referred in the course of conversation, were 
the Menik Yup, said to live in the neighbourhood of the 
Kupang River in Kedah, the Trans-Perak River Negrito- 
Sakai of the hills (Menik Chubak), the Menik Jehai— the 

1 The Menik I^anoh call themselves Semik {Semark) Bglum or Semak 
Sabeum. The Perak River in its upper reaches is known both to the local 
Malays and to the aborigines as the Belum (or better Belong) water. Semak 

■ ■*.'■■■■:■■...■■ ".■.--. ■..:-■, ■ - ■ 

as I can make out, aborigines only. Vide Journ. of the F..M.S. Museums, 

2 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Jehehr of the Malays — at Tadoh, and the Menik Kensieu of 
Baling and of the Mahang River neighbourhood in Kedah. 

It is not worth while to give a lengthy description of the 
Negritos' camp near the Damak River as this essentially 
resembled that of some Lenggong aborigines near Gelok, 
which I have dealt with in a former paper. It may, however, 
be noted en passant that the shelters were set in an oval and 
that the married people, bachelors, and unmarried females — 
maidens, divorced women, or widows — occupied separate divi- 
sions of them, the maidens being partly screened from the 
public gaze by a slight screen of palm- leaves on the inner 
side of their particular abode. As is usual among the Negri- 
tos, each shelter contained a small platform close to which a 
fire was kept burning all night in order to warm those sleep- 
ing there. The work of thatching and building the shelters 
is, I was informed, undertaken by the women alone. 

The Negrito Gods. 

Skeat tells us that Ta' Ponn is the supreme deity of the 
Negritos of Siong in Kedah, whom he states that Vaughan 
Stevens disguises under the name of Tappern. Now though 
I have been unable to obtain any confirmation of much of 
Vaughan Stevens's work, notably of his elaborate stories 
about the patterns on the combs worn by Negrito women, 
3'et I have certainly found that there is some truth to be 
found in his writings, and in no case has more evidence of this 
come to hand than in the Ulu Selama Parish. Judging by 
what Skeat says — I have not Vaughan Stevens's original 
papers in the Globus to refer to — he seems seldom to have given 
the localities from which he obtained his information. This 
makes it exceedingly difficult to judge of his accuracy, or 
inaccuracy, but he did, at any rate, work in the Ulu Selama 
region. 1 It will be found, I think, on comparing the material 
in this, and some of the following sections— largely obtained 
from Tokeh, but also checked in part by questioning other 
Negritos— with what Vaughan Stevens, as quoted by Skeat,* 
wrote upon similar subjects, that it bears out his work to a 
considerable extent. Among the Negritos of the Damak River 
settlement I found that the principal god is called Tapern, 
and on one occasion I heard him alluded to as Tak (Ta') 
Tapern. No doubt the difference between Ta' Ponn and Tak 
Tapern is merely due to the fact that the dialect spoken by the 
Siong people differs from that of Ulu Selama. Tapern ap- 
pears to be a kind of deified tribal ancestor, for, according 
to Tokeh's story. Tapern, his wife (Jalang), his younger 
brother (Bajiaig), and Bajiaig's wife, Jamoi, escaped from the 
war between the Siamang and Mawas in which the Negritos 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs. 3 

got their frizzly heads through their hair being singed while 
they were hiding in some porcupine burrows, when the plain 
in which these were was fired by the Ma was. 1 The four were 
able to climb up to heaven because they had not had their 
hair burnt ; but the rest of the Negritos could not follow them. 
Tapern made a ladder up to heaven by shooting a series of 
darts from his blowpipe into the air. The first of these stuck 
into a black cloud, and the others ranged themselves in order 
below, so as to form steps, up which he and his three com- 
panions then climbed. Tapern is white and his father's name 
is Kukak, while his mother is named Yak Takel. Yak (grand- 
mother) t,epeh is the mother of Jalang, and Jamoi's mother 
is called Yak Manoid. These three "Grandmothers" live 
under the earth and guard the roots of the Batu Her em, the 
stone which supports the heavens— I shall have occasion to 
refer to this later on — and they can make the waters under 
the earth rise and destroy any of the Negritos who give great 
cause of offence to Tapern. Taper n's subjects, the beings of 
the heavens, are called Chinoi, and he uses them as messen- 
gers, while a personage named Jatik, who lives in the eastern 
sky, acts as his body-servant, and two others, Chapor and 
Chalog, as constables, who inform him if anyone on earth is 
committing sins. When he is angry, Tapern commands the 
stone which makes the thunder to roll over the four boards 
which meet in the centre of the heavens, one of which extends 
towards the east, one towards the west, and the other two 
towards the north and south respectively. 2 Tapern 's house 
stands at the angle where the southern and western boards 
meet. As the stone rolls along the boards, making thunder 
(kaii), a cord, which is attached to it, winds and unwinds 
itself, and this flashing cord is the lightning. The thunder 
is heard to roll from one end of the heavens to the other as 
the stone rolls over the planks. When a bad thunder-storm 
comes on, and the Negritos are frightened, they draw blood 
from the outer side of the right leg near the shin-bone and 
throw it up towards the sky saying, "L >i)>t -i ihum pek kep- 
in°\" {i.e. " Throw the blood aloft! "). 

This is as much as I learnt of Tapern and the other celes- 
tials from Tokeh and the people of the Damak River settle- 
ment, but I got a story from the Negritos of Grik which differs 
in some important respects from the legend current among 
the TJlu Selama tribe, for in it, among other pecul 
Tapern becomes the younger brother, instead of the elder. 
The tale of the Grik aborigines, which I extracted from them 
with a good deal of trouble, is as follows: — Kari 3 makes the 

7.5. Museums,***. V, pp. i 
of the Ulu Selama Negritos. Vide footnote 2 

4 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

thunder. He has long hair all over his body like a Siamang- 
monkey (Symphalangus syndactylus), but this is white, and 
shines as if it had been oiled. The hair of his head is long like 
a Malay woman's, but white. Kari and his younger brother 
Tapern, who also has white hair covering his body, went 
up to the sky. They were magicians (Halak), and before 
they ascended there was no thunder. They came on foot up 
the Perak River from its mouth on a fishing expedition. They 
stopped at the place where Gunong (Mt.) Kenderong now 
is to smoke tobacco, and the elder brother unfastened his 
fishing-line and wound it round his head, sticking his rod 
upright in the ground. The younger brother also fixed his 
rod in the ground near the elder's, but, before doing so, broke 
off the top part, and wound the line round its stump. Then 
they both returned to a shelter that they had built some little 
way down-stream to eat tubers. When they had eaten, they 
looked towards the place where they had left their rods and 
saw that two mountains (Gunong Kenderong and Gunong 
Kerunai) had arisen there; whereupon the younger brother 
said, "Our fishing-rods have become mountains!"; but his 
elder brother told him not to speak about it. The next night 
they made a circular medicine-hut and held a magical perform- 
ance : then they disappeared into the sky. It was the elder 
brother's rod which became Gunong Kenderong (the taller of 
the two mountains), and the younger brother's which became 
Gunong Kerunai. Kari and Tapern met their wives, Jamoi 
and Jalang in the sky. Yak Manoid and Yak Takel l live 
under the earth, and are the mothers of Jamoi and Jalang. 

The Creation of the World. 

According to Tokeh the earth was brought up from below 
by Tahum (the dung-beetle) in the form of a kind of powder. 2 
This Kawap, the Bear, stamped down with his paws, for, if 
he had not done so, the earth would have gone on rising till it 
almost reached the sky. 

The Sun, the Eclipse of the Moon t the Rainbow. 

Tokeh told me that the sun appeared in heaven in the 
following way : — There were once two persons, male and 
female, named Ag-Ag and Klang. The former has now 
become the Crow and the latter the Hawk. They lived in a 
house, and they had a son who was called Tanong (Dragonfly). 

One day Tanong was flitting backwards and forwards 
under the house, playing like a child, and as he did so, the 

i Yak Takel is the mother of Tapern according to the Menik Kaien; 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs. 5 

house was carried up into the air, and rose towards the sky. 
Presently Tanong's mother looked out of the door to see what 
her son was doing, and becoming dizzy on seeing that the 
house had risen far above the earth, she fell from the doorway, 
screaming like a hawk, and, while hi mid-air, became trans- 
formed into a bird of that kind. 

Soon the father also came to the door, and he too fell out, 
and became a crow. Tanong went up to the sky with the 
house. The house became the sun, and Tanong lives with 
Tapern and looks after it. The following information is also 
from Tokeh. The sun, when it sets, falls into a tunnel-like 
cave which extends under the earth and passes out through the 
far end of it each morning to appear again in the east. The 
moon when it sets also goes into this cave. 

The eclipse of the moon is caused by the sun (male) who 
is jealous of the moon (female) because she has many children 
(the stars). He, therefore, sends the Gahayup, a kind of large 
butterfly or moth, to attack her. The butterfly comes from 
the place where the sun goes down {met ketok mentis). The 
lunar eclipse is thus called "butterfly swallow" {Gahayup 
ktlud 1 ). 

The rainbow is a snake, Hwiak, which comes to drink. 

The Stone which supports the Heavens. 

The stone pillar which is thought to support the sky is 
called the Batu Hcrem. Tokeh told me that this is to be seen 
near Jinerih in Kedah, and from it to the edge of the world, in 
whatever direction, the distances are the same. The Batu 
Herem pierces the sky and supports it, and the portion which 
projects above the sky is loose, and balanced on the lower part 
at an angle. This loose part is above Tapern' s heaven, and 
is in a dark region named Ligoi. Four cords run from the 
top of it to the four quarters of the world, and the ends of 
them, which are weighted with stones called Tang-al, hang 
below the surface of the earth. The two Tang-al at the ends 
of the eastern and western cords are longer than those attached 
to the northern and southern. 

The Abode of the Dead and their Journey to it. 

The souls of the dead, which, according to Tokeh, leave 
their bodies through the big toes, go to the edge of the sea 
where the sun goes down, but for seven days they are able to 
return to their old homes. At the end of that time, those of 
the good are escorted by Mampes to an island which is called 
Belet. They pass to this over a green switch-backed bridge, 

nar eclipse (bitlan pud) is caused 

6 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

named the Balam Bacham, which spans a sea. Mampes, the 
guardian of the Balam Bacham, is like a gigantic Negrito; he 
walks with great speed, and eats the burial offerings (penitok), 
which are placed in the graves for the spirits of the dead to 
carry with them on their last journey. When the souls of 
the good have crossed the Balam Bacham, on each side of 
which grow flowers, and entered Belet, x they come to the 
Mapik- tree, where they meet those of people who have died 
previously. They cannot wear the flowers of this tree until 
they have had all the bones of their limbs broken by the 
companions who have preceded them, and have had their eyes 
turned back in theii heads, so that the pupils face inwards. 
When this has been done, they become real ghosts (kemoit) 
and are entitled to pluck the flowers of the Mapik-tree, and to 
eat its fruits; for it bears everything desirable, one branch 
beautiful flowers, another rice, a third durians, a fourth rambu- 
tan-fruits, and so on; furthermore at the base of its trunk are 
numbers of breasts from which flow milk, and to these the 
ghosts of little children set their lips. 

The spirits of the wicked, however, are set apart in 
another place, which is in sight of the abode of the good. 
They call to the spirits in Belet to help them to reach the 
Mapik-tree, but the latter take no notice. 

The above account was given to me by Tokeh. I tried 
to learn something from the Negritos of Grik with regard to 
the abode of the dead, but they either have very few beliefs 
concerning an existence after death, or would not tell me 
about them. All the information that I could obtain was 
that the souls of the dead went to the west, but whether 
their state was happy, or the reverse, they said that they did 
not know. 

The Shaman. 

The name for the Shaman among the Negritos of the Ulu 
Selama region is halak, a term which is in general use also 
among the Sakai. Tokeh said that there were no halaks in 
the settlement near the Damak River, but a local Malay told 
me subsequently that Tokeh was one himself. Whether what 
the Malay said was true or not, I do not know, but Tokeh 
got up a magical performance for me, in which he took no 
active part, to show me how such things were conducted. A 
little " medicine- hut " {panoh) % was built by planting the 
petioles of a number of palm-leaves in a circle of holes which 
had been previously made with a pointed stick. The panoh 
was supported by a slight wooden prop, which was driven 
into the earth so as to lean at the same angle as the walls of 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs. 7 

the hut. The leaves were bound together not far below their 
tops, and the support included with them. A small opening 
was left at the base of the hut in one place, through which a 
man could just pass into the interior. The performance took 
place at night, and when the " Halak " had ensconced himself 
in the hut— which was only just big enough to hold him— a 
number of other Negritos came and squatted round it. 
Thereupon the occupant started a chant, each line of which 
was taken up and repeated by the chorus outside. I noted 
that the names of Tapern, Jalong, and Jamoi, were constantly 
mentioned, as was also the Batu Her em. The chants, of 
which there were a good many, were short, and between them 
there was a silence of a minute or two, broken sometimes by 
the hut being shaken from the inside, followed bv a noise as 
if the "Halak" was striking the palm-leaf walls with the flat 
of his hand. These signs indicated the presence of the Halak' s 
spirit, though in this case, as Tokeh explained, it was only 
acting for my benefit. On the next day I got him to give me 
the names of some of the chants, these being as follows : — 

i. " Wai chentol! " 

This means "Open comb-flowers!" and refer to the 
flowers affixed to Jalang's hair-comb. Negrito women deco- 
rate their bamboo combs with sweet-smelling herbs and flowers. 
The allusion is, I understand, to these, and not to the patterns 
engraved on the combs. (Both a pattern and a flower are 
commonly termed bunga in Malay, in which language, of 
course, I communicated with the Negritos). 

2. (( Umeh, umeh batu ! " 

This is said to mean, :f Clean, clean the stone! " It is 
addressed, I was told, to the stone spirit, the stone referred to 
being the Batu Herem. 

3. " Wai, halak, ma wai ! " 
" Open, Halak, open ! " 

4. " TENANG EOHR I'UNYON herem ! " 

I was told that this means, " Come down to the tongue 
of the Batu Herem \" The "tongue" of the Batu Herem 
appears to be the end on which the detatched portion rests. 

5. " Tenwug kejuh selangin." 

" The (bead) string across (the chest of) the beautiful 
voung bachelor." A tenwug manik is a string of beads worn 
across the breast, while kejuh seems to mean "a young 
male " and selangin " beautiful." 

6. " Chem-le-chem, sudak Herem ! " 

This was said to mean " Stabbing and thrusting, sharp 
Herem ! " The Malay words used to translate chem-le-chem 
were tikam menikam. 

8 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

As far as I could gather, however, the words which are 
chanted are varied according to the taste of the halak. There 
were references in the chants that I heard to rolling up the 
mats (leb gampil) of Tapern, to the winding and unwinding of 
the cord round the thunder-stone (menang sini join, " cord 
wind pull (?)"), to the place where the sun sets, to the 
Chenoi, and to Jamoi. Tokeh told me that office of halak 
descends from father to son, the familiar spirit being, of 
course, also inherited. Fireflies {kedlud) are, he said, the 
familiars of halaks (pengkah halak). 

Dreams among the Kintak Bong and Menik Kaien are 
believed to convey warnings of good or evil fortune to come. 
For instance, a man who dreams of rubbing himself with oil 
will not go out into the jungle on the next day, as, if he does 
so, he thinks that he will be struck by a falling tree. A dieam 
that a ^ro^-monkey is attacking the sleeper indicates that a 
Malay will come to the camp and make trouble. To dream 
of holding a winnowing- tray means that a soft-tortoise will be 
caught on the next day, while to dream of finding a half 
cocoanut-shell indicates that a tortoise, of the kind which the 
Malays call kura kura, will be captured. Should a man 
dream of a tree falling towards the east, he will be taken by 
a tiger if he goes to the jungle on the following day ] ; while 
should he have a dream that he is distributing tobacco he 
will shoot a monkey with his blow-pipe. If a married man 
dreams that he is wearing a ring or bracelet of silver, his 
wife will give birth to a male child ; if a ring or bracelet of 
suasa (an alloy of copper and go 1 d), a female ; but should he 
dream that the bracelet or ring gets broken while he is wear- 
ing it, the child will die. 4 To have an unlucky dream is called 
pahad empak, this being equivalent to the Malay salah mimpi. 


The form of 

oath i 

n use am 

ong the Negritos se 

ems to 

o that 

of some 

of the Sakai 

and of 

ain Indonesia 

ns. A 

man who 

is swearing to the ti 

uth of 

e statement will say, 

« If I lie 








vachong yek ! 



branch strike me ! ' 

Tokeh stayed at home for a day whi 

le I was stoppin 

g near hi 

s camp, 

The Malays of 

regard to dream 

s about r 

ings and bracelets ; so these 

ay, very 

. Evans : Negrito Beliefs. 

A Love-spell. 

This is to he said over oil which contains chenduap- 

. The oil is to be smeared on the body or clothes of 

the wo: 

man whose affection it is desired to gain. 

Lod lod btkot. 

JU lod U Ik. 

Kilhek langod. 

S'leman kentan. 

Balok wag hilag. 

Hertik kedong sayong. 

Sog mohr takob. 

Beb-tob leheu bim. 

S'naian bleuk kom. 

Chom pales suk. 

I 1 

was unable to get any translation of this formula, and 

as far 

as I could make out its language is archaic, 1 of the 


tig words, however, I got the meanings : — 


flower. Takob hole (of nose) ( ? ) 


skin (?) of stomach. Beb-tob knock ( ? ). 


stomach. Teheu water. 


flower of a certain kind. Bim come ( ? ). 


tail. S'naian time (Mai. ketika). 

> rat. Kom frog. 


hair. Balak ivory. 


,, S'leman Solomon. 


nose. Bleuk thigh. 

The Bird-Soul and Birth Customs. 

My evidence with regard to these subjects was gathered 
from Tokeh. It appears that a certain kind of bird, which 
is called Til-tol-tapah, % is thought to announce the impending 
arrival of a child. Thus, if a Til-tol-tapah is heard calling, 
the Negritos immediately say that one of their women, or 
the wife of some Malay, is about to become pregnant. A bird 
of this species had been in the neighbourhood just before my 
arrival, and the tribesmen were, therefore, waiting for the 
fulfilment of its prophecy. Tokeh spoke of the Til-tol-tapah- 
which he said he had never seen, but only heard— as being 
the bayang (Malay), or shadow, of all the Negrito women, and 
also referred to it as the semangat bidan (Malay) or midwife's 
soul. Another bird the Chim-oi is also thought to convey 
similar intimations by means of its cry. 

ol. II, pp. 232, 233 

I Skeat also found 

s. Vide Pagan Rat 

I. Tokeh told me that tlie Malays call it A .. „-A 

the Chim-oi " Chim-iui." " Pagan Races," vol. I 

io Journal of the F.MS. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

For ten days after giving birth, as I was told, a woman 
must not step into water, nor may she eat salt, fish, or flesh. 
The flesh of the bamboo-rat is especially tabued, as, if she 
were to eat it, her child's face would grow into a resemblance 
of that of the rodent. 

While pregnant, too, a woman must not go out during 
"hot rain" (i.e. rain with sunshine), fetch water in the late 
afternoon or evening, or go to the hills alone. If she breaks 
the last prohibition, she will meet a tiger and be devoured. 


Henweh is a disastrous thunderstorm accompanied by 
floods of rain, lightning, and possibly by welling up of water 
from under the earth. Such storms, known among Sakai 
tribes as terlaik or terlain, are sent as punishment if anybody 
does any act which is particularly offensive to the gods, and 
they involve the death of the offender and his relatives, and 
the swallowing up of his home by the earth. The following 
story which I got from Tokeh, illustrates these ideas very 
well. It may be noted that such actions as copying the notes 
of certain birds are— both among the Sakai and the Negritos — 
thought to be particularly displeasing to the Powers Above. 

Some Negrito children once copied the note of a Sagwong- 
bird, 1 and there came thunder and lightning and a great 
flood, and all the Negritos there were drowned, with the 
exception of one halak, who managed to make his escape. 
For this reason the Sagwong and the Chorh must not be 
copied till the present day. Yak Iyepeh, Yak Manoid and 
Yak Takel made the waters rise from under the earth. 

Tokeh said that legendary sites of several old Negrito 
encampments, which are said to have been overwhelmed in 
this manner, are still pointed out in the neighbourhood of 
Ijok. For fear of Henweh, it is also forbidden for a man and 

which particularly enrages Tapern. They must retire to the 
jungle for the purpose. As far as I could find out, no such 
prohibition is found among the Negritos of Grik, though, for 
the same reason, sexual intercourse is not indulged in during 
the daytime. 

Tabued Days. 
Among the Menik Kaien, Tokeh told me, the sixteenth 
day of any month is tabu, and anyone who does work on it 
will meet with some misfotune, such as being struck by a 
falling tree, bitten by a snake, stung by a scorpion, or eaten 
by a tiger. Tabued days are called Hai a biak membeh-ud, 

l Said to be the bird known to the Malays as Burong sa 'kawan (Antkaco- 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs. n 

" day not lucky. " An old man, Token said, keeps count 
of the days of the month up to the sixteenth. I believe that 
this custom does not obtain among the Kintak Bong. 

The Grik Negritos told me that at the season when the 
jungle fruits are ripe rejoicings and feasting go on for one or 
two nights, the Spirit of the Sun {Hantu Mad-yis) and the wood 
spirits {Hantu NShuk) being prayed to in songs, while the 
fruit-trees are asked not to send sickness, nor to make the 
people fall while climbing. After the rejoicings there is a 
three days' tabu-period, when work is not allowable. 

Two Social Tabus. 

Among the Menik Kaien and Kintak Bong it is tabu for 
a man to speak to his mother-in law, and among the former, 
probably also among the latter, for him to mention hisbrother- 

The Giving of Names. 
As do most, if not all, of the Negrito tribes, the Menik 
Kaien and the Kintak Bong generally give their children 
names from the species of trees, or from the rivers, near which 
they were born. My friend Tokeh, for instance, was named 
after a kind of bamboo, while another man, known among 
the Negritos as Doin (a fan-palm ; Livistona cochinchinoisis), 
was for some reason called Tebu (sugar-cane) by the Malays. 

The Herald of Small-pox. 

At the time that I visited the Negritos of the Damak 
valley, they were considerably troubled about an outbreak of 
small-pox in a Mala}' village a few miles away, this disease 
being, with good reason, very much dreaded by them, since 
it has occasionally almost exterminated whole tribes. They 
said that the advent of small-pox is announced by an insect 
called Imong — a kind of cicada, as far as I could find out — and 
that they had heard its note before the outbreak in question 
had occurred. 

Some I 

It seems that, with the exception of a feast, there is no mar- 
riage ceremony among the Kintak Bong and the Menik Kaien. 
I was told by Tokeh that a man's relations generally search 
for a wife for him, while engagements seem to be occasionally 
entered into before the girl is of a ripe age ; thus it was said 
one of the men was betrothed to a girl in the settlement near 
the Damak River, but that she would not be ready for 

do not, or cannot, pronounce the letter r. We thus have kari (kareh) or kaii, 
darah (Malay) and daiah (Negrito pronunciation), etc. 

12 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

marriage for about another two rice-seasons. Divorce seems to 
be not unusual among the Kintak Bong, but, according to two 
Grik Negritos, it is not common among their people. Exo- 
gamy among the Menik Kaien and Kintak Bong seems to 
be very usual, but rarer, if my informants are to believed, 
among the Grik aborigines. I was able to gather very little 
information about the prohibited degrees with regard to 
marriage among the Kintak Bong and Menik Kaien, but 
Tokeh told me that a man might not marry- the wife of his 
deceased brother, and also that marriage between first cousins 
was forbidden. 


The Menik Kaien and Kintak Bong have a prejudice it 
can scarcely be said to amount to a tabu, against certain 
kinds of food, among them the flesh of buffaloes and fowls 
and the eggs of hens, but there appear to be also certain 
tabus connected with the eating of flesh of any kind. Thus 
Tokeh told me that it was not allowable to reduplicate the 
names of certain animals or fish when they are being eaten 
—I could not get a very clear explanation of the matter— and 
it is thus wrong to refer to a fish called betok as betok balok. 
If anyone did so he, or she, would suffer from severe intes- 
tinal disturbance. 

Musical Performances. 

Musical performances, in which the singing is accom- 
panied with bamboo stampers, are frequently held by the 
Kintak Bong. These are, I believe, at least partly performed 
with a religious intention, since Tokeh said that the people 
sang to the spirits of the banana and of gourd-plants. A 
performance of the kind was organized for my benefit and 
the following are the names of some of the songs which were 
sung :— 

Bah Tangoi, The Rambutan-fruit song. 

Bah Tepas, The Tepas-fruit song. 

Bah Changeh, The song of the Arangpara fruit. 

Bah Sempak, The song of the wild Durian (Durian 

Bah Limus, The song of the Horse-mango. 

Bah Kabang, The song of the Rambutan Kabang. 

Bah Penig, The song of the Durian Kampong fruit 
(the cultivated durian). 

Burial Customs. 

I obtained the following account of burial customs from 
Tokeh, but as I did not see either a burial or a grave, perhaps 
not too much reliance should be placed upon it. 

A corpse is buried in a side-chamber dug in the right- 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs. 13 

hand * wall of the excavation. It lies on its right side with 
the legs drawn up. The orientation of the grave is such that 
the head of the corpse points towards the north-west. A 
woman's grave is dug to a depth of her height from her feet 
to her breasts ; that of a man to a depth of his measurement 
from feet to eyebrows. Burial offerings {ptnitok) 1 of food 
and tobacco are placed in the grave in front of the corpse's 
throat, and, if the body is that of a man, two little wooden 
objects (telak)* decorated with patterns rudely drawn with 
charcoal, are planted against the body ; one of these, the 
smaller of the two, the telak dawit, or left-hand telak, is, I 
understand, always placed at the left of the body near the 
shoulder ; the other, the larger, which is called telak dateng, 
or right-hand telak, on the right of the body, and near that 
part of it in which the disease from which the man died made 
itself manifest. I was also told that three little pieces of 
wood,* striped with yellow and red, are sometimes set on the 
top of the grave, one at the head, one at the foot, and one in 
the middle. These, of which I obtained models, are shaped 
very much like the tip-cats with which English schoolboys 
sometimes play a game. 

A shelter is, it appears, built over a grave and into the 
thatch of this are pushed four pieces of white wood each 
about a foot long, by seven-eighths of an inch broad and an 
eighth of an inch in depth. 5 They are roughly decorated 
with charcoal, one side being marked with horizontal bars, 
and the other with rude cross-hatching : two of them are 
placed at one end of the shelter, and two at the other. Their 
purpose is to prevent the return of the souls of the dead to 
their homes, though Tokeh told me that they were powerless 
to restrain those of the wicked. Presumably, therefore, they 
act as notices to the ghosts of the good, telling them that 
they must not visit their surviving relatives. 

When burying a corpse, the Kintak Bong and Menik 

Chub-deh 9 kasing: 

Go first : 

Yek tekoh. 

I afterwards. 

Yinket eg ujan ; 7 

Do not give rain ; 

Yinket eg ibud (Mai. ribul) ; 

(Pagan Races, vol. II, pp. 
I models of these from Tokeh. 

14 Journal of the F.M.S. Museu 

Yinket eg kilad ' kaii. 
Do not give lightning thunder. 
The Grik Negritos told me that und 
stances they said : — 

Chub kikuie ; 
Go first; 

With regard to two phrases, said to be used at burials, 
which I got on a former occasion from the Negritos of Grik 
and Temengoh, 1 there seems to be some doubt. Sapi, a Grik 
Negrito who gave me one of them, had left the district, so I 
could not question him again. His formula was " Du ! Du ! 
Yak ! " which he said meant ' f Go ! Go ! Hear ! " A man 
whom I met at Grik in 1918, however, said that it should be 
"Dutf dut! yak!" (" Fill in, Fill in [i.e. bury), Grand- 
mother ") while a Jehehr phrase ■ ' Bai ! Dim ! Dun ! Dun ! 
Di-prak!" he said should be "Bai/ Dut! Dut! Did! 
Diprak !" (" Dig ! Fill in ! Leave ! "). 

Among the Kintak Bong and the Menik Kaien, when a 
death occurs in a camp, its inhabitants at once remove to 
another site, since they are afraid that the soul of the dead 
person may return, though sometimes, I understand, they 
erect their new shelters not far from the old spot. They live 
in fear of the spirit for se ven days, 3 during which period it 
is at liberty. At the end of that time Mampes, the guardian 
of the Balam Bacham, is thought to come and take it away. 
He, as I stated above, eats the burial offerings {penitok)* 
which the ghosts carry with them, and inspects the 
telak, which appear to act as credentials, that are buried 
with the bodies of males. When a woman dies, the other 
females in the camp are prohibited from wearing flowers and 
other decorations for seven days, until her soul has gone to 
Belet. On the expiration of seven days after a death, a 
singing performance (peningloin) takes place. In this \l. mpes 
is called upon to come and take away the soul of the dead 

Patterns on Combs and Dart-quivers. 

Though I absolutely failed to find any evidence among 
the Kintak Bong and Menik Kaien that the patterns on the 
bamboo combs which are worn by the women have any 
magical meaning or use, this was not so in the case of the 
dart-quivers. With regard to these latter, Tokeh said that 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs. 15 

they assisted the hunters, for, if there were no patterns on 
the quivers, the game would be frightened and run away, but 
as they are decorated with patterns of rice, gourds teeth of 
the lotong (leaf -monkey), etc., the souls of the animals are not 


By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 

In a former volume' of this Journal I have dealt with 
some of the aborigines of the State of Pahang. In the pre- 
sent number I treat of tribes, or parts of tribes, which I 
encountered on a journey of about two and a half months' 
duration made m June, July and August, iqi 7 . The first 
month of this expedition was chiefly devoted to cave-explo- 
ration, but I managed to see something of three aboriginal 
groups who were living near the Tekam River, and to gather 
a little information about the Sakai-Jakun of the Krau 
River: the last was passed on the Rompin and Endau 
IJZX M t ° rmer I Spent my time in Meeting articles 
made by the Jakuns who live in that neighbourhood, and in 
finding out what I could about their customs • at the latter 
I was occupied partly in working among the Malays, partly 
among the Jakuns. * *"""* 

The Tekam River District. 

> In thi s area I spent a few days on a large aboriginal clear- 
ing, which was situated not very far above Kuala Tekam, and 
about half to three-quarters of a mile from the Benta-Kuan- 
tan Road This was inhabited by two sets of people, one 
composed of Sakai-Jakun from Kemaman, being a portion of 
the same tribe that I met on the Tekai River in 1913— and in- 
cluding an old acquaintance- ; another a settlement of Bera 
Sakai-Jakun, or rather of Sea-Dyaks plus Bera Sakai-Jakun 
since two Kelekak Dyaks were the nucleus round which the 
party had grown. These two had originally, I believe been 
gutta-percha hunters, who, coming to the country as' quite 
young men, had taken wives to themselves from among the 
Bera tribe. The population of their settlement consisted 
then of themselves, their wives, and a number of offspring- 
one or two of the latter being young men of from nineteen 
to twenty-five years of age,— and a few Bera people of un- 
mixed blood. The young half-breeds were extremely in- 
telligent, and, with the exception of two who suffered from 
kurap, of pleasing appearance. Two of the men had been 
decorated by their father with Dyak tattooing, the patterns 
being mostly of the variety called Bunga Wrong (brinjal 
flowers). I was induced to visit the Tekam River bv a story 

. VII, pp. 113 and 1 

I. H. N. Evans : Tribes of Pahang. 17 

that there were Pangan in the district, told me at Kuala 
Krau by a Malay named Woh, who produced a very dark- 
skinned youth as a sample of what he could show me. This 
man had trading relations with the Kemaman aborigines. 
The third group that I visited were living in the jungle on 
the other side of the river. They were very primitive people, 
natives of the Tekam Valley, who spoke a Sakai dialect, but 
were mainly of Jakun type. 

I was informed that there was another aboriginal camp 
very much further up the Tekam River and the people of 
this were claimed by the Tekam Sakai-Jakun as being their 
friends and relations. It was to this up-stream settlement 
that Siti, the dark-skinned youth, whom I had met at Kuala 
Krau, belonged. Possibly there may be an admixture of 
Negrito blood among these people, but nothing of the kind is 
observable among their down-stream friends. 

I found that my Malay guide applied the term " Pang- 
an " to an y of the wilder tribes. The word which to his 
mind denoted a Negrito was " Batek," the name used by, or 
applied to, the true Negritos of the Cheka River. 1 

The Bera Tribe. 

These notes on the customs and beliefs of the Bera people 
were obtained from one of the young half-bloods mentioned 
above. I made it clear to him that I did not want to 
hear anything about Dyak usages ; and he replied that he 
could not tell me about them, if I did, as his father followed 
the Bera people in all such matters. His evidence, as far as 
I am able to check it against material obtained in other dis- 
tricts, seems quite reliable. 

According to the legends of the Bera Sakai-Jakun the 
souls of the dead go to the underworld, which is governed 
by two beings called Gay ah, a male and a female. The 
underworld is like that above, but the trees there bear fruit 
in abundance all the year round. 

A settlement appears, as a general rule, to be deserted 
when a death occurs. 

The ghosts of the newly dead are said to return to their 
old homes and may be heard complaining if there is no rice 
and water for them. If they are not exorcised, they will cause 
sickness among their surviving relatives. 

The Bera people think, as do the Senoi, tnat storms in- 
volving the destruction of villages and their inhabitants can 
be brought about by breaking certain tabus. These disas- 
trous and man-caused storms, known as terlain (terlaik 
among the Senoi), are thought to be brought on by imitating 
(when heard) the notes of three species of birds, which I 


18 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX. 

could not identify, the Ngat-ngok, the Terkul [ and the Patuit ; 
by burning lice in the fire ; or teasing cats, dogs, or tame 
monkeys. A female being named Ger-ang-ah is said to watch 
for infraction of these tabus and, on seeing someone commit 
an offence against them, to inform her father, Itai Malim, 
who punishes the tabu-breakers by sending one of these 
storms of rain, thunder, and lightning accompanied by a sub- 
sidence of the ground, which swallows up their houses. 

Thepunan beliefs, which I have referred to in several 
previous numbers of this Journal as being found among 
various aboriginal tribes, are also held by the Bera Sakai- 

I have never yet been able quite to make up my mind 
whether the taking of the rice-soul, among the tribes which 
perform that ceremony, is a truly indigenous custom, or 
whether it has been borrowed from the Malays. 

It must be remembered that the Negritos— the most 
primitive inhabitants of the Peninsula — do not normally plant 
rice, or carry on agricultural operations of any kind, and that 
some of the less civilised Jakun or Sakai-Jakun tribes of 
Pahang plant only root- crops (Caladium, etc.). 

The question consequently arises whether the planting 
of hili-rice by the true Sakai and by various mixed tribes is a 

; is, perhaps, worthy of note that the 
tendency generally seems to be for such rice as is planted to be 
consumed quickly after harvest, and regard as somewhat of a 
luxury, while the root-crops, and especially caladium, are re- 
garded as the mainstay of life. 

Possibly, however, rice planting may have been adopted 
from the civilised people who invaded the Peninsula from the 
North long before the advent of the Malays. To quote Pagan 
Races:— '"Mr. Bladgen has shown that there are several 
non-Malay aboriginal names for rice in the Peninsula, and 
this fact, coupled with the existence of varieties of the grain 
special to the aborigines, and with the generally aboriginal 
character of the harvest-rites argues against such words being 
borrowed from the civilised (Mohammedan) Malays." * 

Whatever may be the truth of the matter, the taking of 
rice-soul is performed by some, though not all, of the aborigi- 
nal tribes. 

My informant told me that, among the Bera people, the 
rice-souls, consisting of seven ears, are cut by the Poyang 
(magician) of the tribe after general reaping is finished. He 
carries them to the house in his arms, as if they were children, 
and walk slowly and carefully so as not to disturb them. On 
arrival there, they are placed in a basket and covered with a 

i Possibly a Trogon. It is said to have red plumage. 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Tribes of Pahang. ig 

mat. Noises must not be made in the house for three days 
for fear of frightening the rice-souls away, and, in order to 
prevent their escaping, thorny stems of the brinjal-plant are 
placed on the threshold of the house for three days. Rice is 
left in the cooking-pots for their benefit, and the necks of the 
pots are tied up with cord made from the bark of the tSrap- 
tree (Artocarpus Kunstleri). 1 

The Poyang is supposed to call seven rice-souls from the 
lower world, one to take possession of each ear of rice. 

At the time of the next sowing the rice-souls are pounded 
to flour and sprinkled over the crop in the fields. 

The following information is fragmentary, but is interest- 
ing for purposes of comparison with evidence regarding be- 
liefs and customs from other parts of the country. 

At rice-sowing the fourth day from that on which the 
operation is started is a rest-day. 

In making a new clearing the people work for three days 
at cutting away the undergrowth, and then rest for a day for 
the <f knife-blade tabu" {pantang mot icei). Similarly after 
three days spent in felling the large trees there is another rest- 
day for the "adze-blade tabu" (pantang mot bUiong). 

Magical performances among the Bera people, are, I am 
told, kept up until the fowls leave their perches in the early 

The Bera people practise circumcision, and sometimes 
call in a Malay to perform the operation. 

The Kemaman Sakai-Jakun. 

At the time of my visit these people were living in some 
wretched little huts in the j ungle close to their clearing. Some 
of them had been persuaded by theii Malay master to build 
houses in the open, but they had mostly deserted these for 
quarters in the shade, declaring that they could not bear the 
heat of the sun. They told me that their clearing was not 
held as common property, but that each man had his own 
plot, which was marked off by posts. One man of the settle- 
ment, the P&nghulu, was lying sick in a hut built on rather 
tall poles. He was suffering from fever, though he had, I 
believe, some other, and more serious, complaint. I was not 
allowed to go up into the hut to examine him as he had been 
undergoing treatment by the Poyang — my old acquaintance 
from the Tekai River— and nobody who had been absent from 
the seances was allowed to enter for seven days from the date 
on which they had been held. 

These had taken place in a wall-less hut close by, the 
Poyang sitting on a mat while chanting his spells. A musical 
accompaniment was played on a most primitive kind of stringed 

20 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vox*. IX, 

instrument, which I saw and photographed. This was a rect- 
angular frame made from four small branches of trees, with 
the ends of a couple projecting downwards to form feet. A mat 
was enclosed in the frame and was held in position by being 
slipped between rattan strings in pairs, which ran vertically, 
and were attached to the framework at top and bottom. A 
stick, for tightening the strings, was pushed between them at 
the top and passed behind the uprights of the frame. To 
play this instrument the performer squats facing the frame, 
which is usually propped against a timber of the hut, and 
pulls and releases the strings on the exposed face so as to 
make a " ticker-tack" noise on the mat. 

Though the people were not particularly communicative 
with regard to their affairs, I was able to gather a few rather 
interesting scraps of information with regard to their beliefs. 

They are very much afraid of thunderstorms, especially 
if accompanied by high winds, for on such occasions they 
think that the ghosts of the dead embark in boats and set 
sail in the sky, travelling from the west towards the east. 
The light gleaming on the varnish of their boats is seen on 
earth as lightning. 

The belief in disastrous and village-destroying storms, 
caused by the infraction of tabus, is found among the 
Kemaman people as among the Bera Sakai-Jakun. 

For fear of such storms it is forbidden to burn lice in the 
fire, or to dress up a monkey and laugh at it. 

It is said that a village "above jeram" on the Pahang 
River was once swallowed up because a storm-tabu had been 
broken, only a single post being left to mark its former site. 

With regard to punan beliefs, I was told that, if food is 
offered to anyone, but not wanted, the person to whom it was 
offered must take a little and rub it between the thumb and 
first finger of one hand, or on the inner side of the big toe. 
Sometimes both thumbs and both big toes are treated in 
this manner. 

The Kemaman aborigines said that they did not practise 

The Tckam Tribe. 

These people, as I have mentioned above, were living in 
the jungle on the south bank of the Tekam River. They had 
a very small clearing, which was planted with Caladium, and 
their tiny huts,' only slightly raised above the ground, and 
wretched in the extreme, were huddled together in a circle. 

s of the huts were of tree-bark. The floors, 
up within the huts, did not in all cases covi 
: ground being left 

edge of the platf< 

r920.] 1. H. N. Evans . Tribes of Pahang. 21 

One of theii womenkind was suckling a very beautiful little 
leaf-monkey of the species which the Malays call cMneka. 
This was perfectly at home with its foster-mother, and when 
in need of nourishment went to her and pulled down her 
sarong, which was girt up under the armpits, in order to get 
at her breasts. 

On my asking the people what was the name of their 
tribe they replied, " Orang BSrbahan" which means " wood- 
cutters." They had in their houses two or three two-piece 
wooden blowpipes which they would not sell. These they 
told me were not made by themselves, but by the tribesmen 
of the Merchong and Lepar Rivers. Their dialect, I was told, 
is almost the same as that of the Kemaman people. They 
do not move away from the vicinity of the Tekam. 

They said that they deserted the bodies of the dead, 
leaving them lying in the huts, since they were frightened of 
their ghosts. They agree with the Kemaman people in not 
practising circumcision. 

I noticed that Siti, the boy from the Ulu Tekam, who 
was living with the Kemaman tribe at the time of my visit , had 
had his ears bored for ear-rings, but that none of the other 
male aborigines that I met had undergone this operation. I 
asked him the reason for this, and he replied that his mother 
had had several male children before his birth, but that all of 
them had died. She, therefore, said that should she have 
another male child, she would pretend that it was a girl in 
order that it might survive So when he was born his mother 
had his ears pierced, as if he were a girl. 

In connection with Siti, I heard of a case of attemp- 
ted revenge due to jealousy, which is, I believe rather un- 
usual among the aboriginal tribes of the Peninsula. A 
Kemaman man and his wife had separated. After a 
while news reached the husband that Siti was on rather too 
familiar terms with the woman. He, therefore, armed him- 
self with a spear and appeared on the scene to search for 
Siti, but was restrained by Woh, who represented to him 
that, as he had divorced his wife, he had no cause for com- 
plaint, but that if he was still fond of her he had better take 
her back again. This he did, but I noticed that if the hus- 
band was away from home, Siti was constantly at the house. 

The Krau River Tribe. 

I had no opportunity of visiting any of the aboriginal 
settlements on the Krau River, my intercourse with these 
people being limited to conversations held with various 
members of the tribe who came into Kuala Krau to buy rioe, 
salt fish, tobacco, etc., while I was staying there. 

The Krau people are a mixed tribe, who speak a Sakai 
dialect. They practise circumcision, and I was told that 

22 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Malay mudin are often called in to perform the operation. 
Tattooing is known to them, and I saw one man who was 
decorated with a large crescentic mark in the middle of the 
forehead— the crescent being disposed with both horns 
upwards -and a single line on each cheek-bone. This was 
true tattooing. At Kuala Krau, too, I observed the only 
instance of decoration by scarification that I have ever yet 
seen among any of our aboriginal tribes. The youth in ques- 
tion had t\\ le of each cheek-bone. 
At first sight I thought that the marks, which were faint, 
had been made by the temporary application of the juice of 
some plant — not an uncommon practice among some tribes— 
but on making an examination and questioning the boy and 
his companions — older men than himself — I was told that they 
were permanent and were made in the following way. The 
juice of the Horse Mango {machang) tree is applied to the 
skin wherever it is wished to leave marks This has a burn- 
ing effect, and when the wound made by it has begun to heal 
under the toughened gummy juice, the scab with the gum 
adhering to it is stripped off, and a permanent scar results. 
Both tattooing proper and scarification are termed naian. 

I had little or no opportunity to go deeply into the ques- 
tion of the Krau tribe's customs or beliefs, and the only point 
worth recording that I elicited was that the price paid to a 
girl's father for her hand in marriage was twenty old worn- 
out spears, "dua-fiuloh batang ttmbing yang burok," as my 
informant told me in Malay. 

A story of an unapproachable tribe, which is said to 
dwell round the headwaters of the Krau, especially in the 
neighbourhood of the Lompat River, is of considerable interest. 
I believe that the Batek (Negritos) of the Ulu Cheka some- 
times wander into this district— they told me that they did 
themselves — but I obtained stories of a much wilder people 
from Woh, my Malay friend, and also from two of the Krau 
Valley aborigines. The wild people the latter call Cho-ben or 
Jo-ben, and they are said to use fragments of stone or sharp- 
ened stones as implements. Woh, indeed, told me that he 
came upon one of their camps, which had been deserted at 
his approach, and found there pieces of stone with which they 
had been cutting thatch (atap). One of the Krau aborigines 
said that the Cho-ben used stones fixed in the ends of sticks l 
to dig with, and that their knives were made of bamboo. 
There is also a story that the Krau Sakai once captured a 
woman of this wild tribe, who was surprised while climbing a 
tree to obtain its fruit 2 

they were, but they did not recognise 
They said that they were thunderbolt; 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Tribes of Pahang. 23 

Now I do not think that it would be wise to give too 
much credence to these stories, since it is well known what 
wonderful tales are told by both Malays and aborigines — 
especially by the former— about far-off tribes, which generally 
prove without foundation when the tribes in question are 
visited ; yet there are one or two points in them which are 

I am gradually coming to the conclusion that some, at 
any rate, of the stone implements found in the Peninsula are 
not of any great age, and it seems that there is just a possi- 
bility that very remote tribes may still use them, or at any rate 
use ohips of stone, for various purposes. The fact that legends 
of tribes still employing such implements have been previously 
recorded by de Morgan and Hale tends to show that even if it 
is not true that there are any tribes who are still practically in 
the stone age at the present day ; yet there were at a date not 
so remote but that stories with regard to their existence are 
still current. I shall have occasion, however, to refer to the 
matter again, when dealing with the results of the exploration 
of caves at Gunong Sennyum and in the neighbourhood of 
Pulau Tawar. 

The Rompin Jakun. 

While staying on the Rompin River I paid visits to two Ja- 
kun settlements, one on the river-bank at a place called Barop, 
above Pintas Limou, the other a little inland from the Malay 
village of Gading. I collected a large number of ethnographi- 
cal specimens from the Jakun, but with the exception of 
blow-pipes, which I deal with in another section of this paper, 
most of them were articles of Malay type and therefore not 
particularly worthy of note. 

The Jakun village near Gading was situated in a large 
clearing planted with Caladium, while I also noticed some 
pineapples and gourds growing there. Rice, I was told, was 
not cultivated. The Jakun themselves were not a preposses- 
sing set of people, many of them suffering from kurap and 
elephantiasis. Their houses did not present any great peculi- 
arities, being small huts, generally one-roomed, and well raised 
from the ground. 

The Jakun settlement at Barop had been made by rattan- 
gatherers, working for a Chinaman, whose boat was moored 
close by. It consisted of two huts; one— belonging to a 
Merchong Jakun— built on extremely tall poles; the other 
a wretched little hovel with the floor about a foot from the 

The Merchong man was the only male in the settelement 
at the time of my visit, the others being out in the jungle. 

Parties of Jakun, however, frequently passed up and 
down the river in boats; some going down-stream to sell 

24 Journal of the F. M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

rattans, or in search of rice and salt, others returning home 
from similar expeditions. 

The magician (Poyang) among the Rompin Jakun uses 
a switch of palas leaves in calling his Familiar Spirit. Small 
tambourines made out of half a coconut-shell covered over 
with the skin of some kind of fish are beaten during the per- 
formance of these magical rites. 

I was told that the bodies of dead Poyangs are placed 
on platforms and that their spirits go up to the sky, while 
those of ordinary people, whose bodies are buried, go to the 

When a death occurs in a village, the houses and the 
clearing in which they stand are said to be deserted for from 
ten to fifteen days, the friends and relatives of the dead 
person being afraid of the ghost. A house in which a death 
has taken place is usually not re-occupied. 

One of the Jakun whom I met on the Rompin told me 
that bodies of dead are buried lying on their backs with their 
heads pointing to the east. If this is correct, it is rather 
curious, as the Endau Jakun seem to bury their dead with 
their heads pointing to the west, which is, I believe, a much 
more usual position. 

Circumcision, the Jakun said, was not practised by them. 

The Endau Jakun. 

I visited two aboriginal settlements in the Endau Dis- 
trict, one being situated on a tributary of the Endau River, 
the Anak Endau, which debouches into it on the Pahang side 
not far from its mouth, the other close to Kuala Kumbar, 
which is also on the Pahang side of the river and some dis- 
tance above Pianggu village. The Jakun on the Anak Endau 
were fairly clean, both on their persons and houses, while 
those of Kuala Kumbar were horribly filthy, the decencies of 
life, with regard to sanitary matters, being absolutelv neglected. 
The most interesting thing that I noticed in the Kuala Kum- 
bar settlement was that the Jakun had recently captured— 
by means of birdlime— and were taming, numbers of green 
paroquets (Palcsornis longicauda). A few of these birds were 
also kept as pets in the village on the Anak Endau. The huts 
of the Kumbar people were, with one exception, which was 
built on rather high piles, only raised a little from the ground, 
and several of them had no walling in front, those of the 
Anak Endau Jakun were larger and little different from the 
houses of the poorer-class Malays of this part of Pahang 

I obtained the following details with regard to customs 
and beliefs from one of the Anak Endau Jakun. 

A man on the birth of his first child (male or female) 
becomes known as "Father of So-and-so." If his first-born 
child dies he is called still " Father of So-and-so," provided 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Tribes of Pahang. 25 

that he has another child, the name of the second child being, 
of course, substituted for that of the first: if, however, he 
has no other, he is known as Mantai. If his wife and all his 
children die, he is called Balu, and, on marrying again, this 
style is still used until he has a child, when he again becomes 
" Father of So-and-so." Similarly a woman who is, or has 
been, married, is known as Mak Anu (mother of So-and-so), 
Mantai. or Balu. My informant was called Pak Dedup, i.e. 
Father of Dedup. 

For seven days after a death nobody must beat drums, 
trade, or try to collect debts. If a creditor tries to collect a 
debt during this time, the debt is considered cancelled, and 
if he asks for his money arrogantly he is fined, now-a-days, 
I was told, twenty-five dollars, but formerly — one hundred 
and eight plates. 1 

Circumcision is, I was informed, not practised by the 
Endau Jakun.' 2 

During bad storms rubbish is collected and burnt. 

Ujan panas (" hot rain," i.e. rain while the sun is shin- 
ing) is much feared by the Endau Jakun, 

Strangers must not visit a man who is being treated for 
sickness by a Poyang and nothing made of iron may be 
brought into his house, or, if it should be, it must not be taken 
out again for three days after the Poyang has removed the 
tabu. The length of the tabu period is such as the Poyang 
may decide, and, while it is in force, nobody must break a 
gourd or a plate m the sick man's house, tap or beat its thres- 
hold, or indulge in quarrelling. 

Women who are five months gone in pregnancy may not 
kill animals of any kind, and a husband, whose wife is in this 
condition, may not kill anything from the time when his wife 
gives birth until the child is seven days old. When a child 
is born husband and wife are forbidden to eat the flesh of the 
Rusa-deer and of two species of mouse-deer (pHandok and 
kanchil) — the husband till the child is seven days old, and 
his wife as long as the child is " small." I was told that if the 
woman were to eat deer's flesh she would go mad, and run 
wh-1 like a deer. 

The marriage ceremony among the Endau Jakun appears 
to be slight and is said to be ratified by the man and woman 
eating together from the same plate. 


ndau Jakun, such fines, 

Arch vol I p "V4) who states that among the Binut "Binuas" the fine 
imposed upoil a murderer used to be sixty plates. ,.«,*.,. 

* Logan says that the " Orang Benua" among whom he includes the 

26 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

The Poyang, as among other tribes, has a Familiar Spiiit. 
My informant gave me the following names of Familiars kept 
by Poyangs whom he knew : — Bujang BSrawan (Youth Encir- 
cled by Clouds): Bujang PUangi (Rainbow Youth), Rantai 
Bunga (Chain of Flowers). Poyangs can get their Familiars 
either by inheritance or by their coming to them in dreams. 

I was told that the dead are buried lying face upwards 
and with their heads pointing to the west. A corpse is pro- 
tected by fixing seven stakes, which are afterwards covered 
over with tree-bark, slantwise across the body and just above 
it, the points of the stakes being driven into the wall of the 
grave on the left side. Food is placed on the grave on the 
day of burial, on the morning of the third day after, and 
again on the morning of the seventh day. 

A description of a Jakun grave mound (with a sketch) 
has been already given by Hervey, and is quoted by Skeat, 1 
but that which I got from the Jakun of the Anak Endau — 
I did not see a grave — may perhaps be of interest. I was told 
that a post about five feet high is set up at the foot of the 
grave. This post has fourteen notches cut in it, seven run- 
ning up one side, and seven down that opposite. The post is 
called the tangga stmangat (soul-ladder), and I was given to 
understand that the seven ascending notches represent (?) the 
surviving relations, while the descending notches represent, 
or are for the use of, the dead man's soul. Two posts called 
nisan (grave-posts) diverging at an angle of about forty-five 
degrees were, my informant said, set up close together on the 
top of the grave. This account differs in some particulars 
from that given by Hervey and from the details shown in his 
sketch. He calls the notched posts — of which he shows two — 
nisan, and the smaller posts, which according to my account 
should be nisan, he dubs tangga sfrnangai. Probably differ- 
ence of locality may account for the discrepancies, though his 
notched posts might without much difficulty be taken to be 
conventional representations of double house-steps, while the 
small uprights are placed just like Malay grave-posts [nisan). 

The three most important tribal officers among the 
Endau Jakun in order of rank are the Batin, the Mtnffin and 
the /«' klrah. The Malay Penghulu of Pianggu said that on 
the Endau the Jenang 2 — an officer found among some Jakun 
tribes was always a Malay, who was invested by the Sultan 
with authority over the aborigines. 

a ship— arrived at Kasik, the people of the village took hii 
g for pirates and all ran away into the jungle with the 
omor (doctor) ; the Bidan (midwife) and the Penghulu' & 

: the time of, or shortly after, Logan's arrival, and wai 

I. H. N. Evans : Tribes of Pahang. 

gu, in my presence, 
He stated that all the women of his settlement were frequent- 
ly seized by a kind of madness — presumably some form of 
hysteria— and that they ran off singing into the jungle, 
each woman by herself, and stopped there for several days and 
nights, finally returning almost naked, or with their clothes 
all torn to shreds. He said that the first outbreak of this 
kind occurred a few years ago, and that they were still fre- 
quenl , one usually taking place every two or three months. 
They were started by one of the women, whereupon all the 
others followed suit. 

Blowpipes from the Tekam, Krau, and 
Rompin Districts. 

The two-piece wooden blowpipes found in the hands of the 
aborigines of East and South -East Pahang are particularly 
interesting since, though a fair number of these weapons have 
now been obtained for the Federated Malay States Museums, 
there has not, up to the present, been any very definite infor- 
mation as to who are their makers. Specimens have been 
obtained from Kuantan, the Tekai Valley, Kuala Pilah, 
Negri Sembilan, and elsewhere, some of them having evidently 
been traded far from their place of origin. I saw a blowpipe 
of this type in the hands of the Bera people and another 
among the "Orang Berbahan," and, on my questioning the 
former as to where they were made, they replied that they 
weie manufactured by the tribe living on the Luit River ' near 
Lubok Paku. 

Wooden blowpipes, too, were fairly common among the 
Rompin Jakun, and I enquired of them also where these 
weapons came from. They replied that they were made by 
the wild tribe — the Orang Semlai * — which lives at some dis- 
tance from the Rompin River and towards its source, occupy- 
ing, I suppose, part at any rate of the country between the 
Rompin and the Pahang. I was, moreover, told by one man 
that the Merchong 8 people manufactured them as well. I 
thi-ik, therefore, that it is within this area that most, if not 
all, of the wooden blowpipes are produced. 

I only obtained one specimen on the Endau, and this had 
been brought from elsewhere . Furthermore , the Endau J akun 

i A tributary of the Pahang in its North bank 

2 "Orang Semlai" is a term frequently applied by tribes who speak 
Malay as their mother-tongue to those who speak Sakai dialects. Prom 

': learn of these people from the Rompin Jakun, I believe them 
to be a Sakai-speaking tribe, of mixed blood, probably with Proto-Malay 
(Jakun) characters predominating. 

3 The Merchong River reaches the sea on the East Coast between the 
Pahang and the Rompin. 

28 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

whom I met— those near the coast only— told me that they 
did not make, or use, blowpipes. 

From the Kemaman Jakun I bought a bamboo blowpipe 
with a two-piece outer tube and a spherical mouthpiece made 
of some kind of rubber, which is almost exactly similar to a 
specimen — said to be Pangan— that I got from the portion of 
the same tribe who were living near the Tekai in t 9 13, and 
have described in a former number of this Journal} 

I purchased two bamboo blowpipes and a single quiver 
from the Krau people. The former, which have conical 
mouthpieces, differ little from those of the Selangor and Negri 
Sembilan tribes, except that the outer tubes are made of two 
pieces, a short length being added to the muzzle- end in each 

The quiver has a flat-topped cover of rattan basketwork ; 
this also being like some of the quiver-covers made in 


I give below vocabularies obtained from the various 
tribes that I visited. Those from the Rompin and Endau 
Rivers contain chiefly non-Malay words. On the former a. 
somewhat full vocabulary was taken, but, as might be ex- 
pected, the majority of words that I was given were ordinary 

On the Tekam River I was lucky enough to get what 
appears to be a truly native numeral system extending to ten, 
and by compounds, sometimes partly Malay, as far as ninety- 
nine. No non-Malay numerals above seven* have, I believe, 
hitherto been recorded in the Peninsula. It seems, therefore, 
that we may now add eight (genting), nine (gentik), and ten 
mogenor (moi-genor) to the numerals found in Pahang. Com- 
pounded from the non-Malay numerals, but no doubt of later 
origin than the smaller numbers, we have mah-genor (20), 'mpek- 
genor (30), mpek-genor-moi (31), etc., while the last syllables 
of m i-blas (11), mah-blas (12), etc. are seemingly of Malay 

English-Malay. Bera Tribe. Ulu Tekam Krau Tribe. 

Head (kepala) koie koie koie. 

Ear (telinga) 'ntung untung entang. 

Eye (rnata) mot mot mat. 

Nose (hidong) muh muh M. 8 

he exception of doubtful rec 
ht, lang nine) and the " Selangor Sak.v 
ces, vol. II, p. 191 (Eight) and p. 669 (Nine). 
I M.= Malay word used. 

I. H. N. Evans : Tribes of Pahang. 


Bera Tribe. 


Krau Tribe. 

Nostril (lubang 

liang muh 

lubang mur 

i liang muh. 


Cheek (pipi) 


Mouth (mulut) 



Lip (bibir) 


getuk kenul 

Tongue (lidah) 


Tooth (gigi) 




Chin (dagu) 




Neck (leher) 




Shoulder (bahu) 


Arm (lengan) 




Elbow (siku) 




Hand (tangan) 




Thumb (ibu tangan) gaduk ti 

idok ti. 

Finger (jari) 




Finger-nail (kuku) 

ketong cheros 

, telekok ti 


Thigh (paha) 



Knee (lutut) 



koie karual. 

Shin (tulang kering) 

ji-arng tohor 

ji-arng jong ji-arng jong. 

Foot (kaki) 




Heel (tumit) 




Sole (tapak kaki) 

tapak jong 

tapak jong 

tapak jong. 

Toe (jari kaki) 

jarek jong 

jari jong 

jarek jong. 

Breast (dada) 




Back (belakang) 




Stomach (perut) 




Navel (pusat) 



Blood (darah) 


Bone (tulang) 




Skin (kulit) 




Hair (rambut) 




Tree (pokok kayu) 

koie delong 



Bough (dahan) 


Leaf (daun kayu) 

daun delong 

shalai delong s'lak nihok. 

Flower (bunga) 




Fruit (buah kayu) 




Bamboo (buloh) 




Rattan (rotan) 




Thorn (duri) 




Rice (padi) 



„ (beras) 




„ (nasi) 



Banana (pisang) 




Areca-nut (pinang) 




Durian (durian) 


Tampoi (tempui) 




30 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

English Malay. Bera Tribe. Ulu Tekam Krau Tribe. 

Rambutan (rara- 




butan) [sireh) 

Sireh-leaf (daun 




Terap-tree (pohon 




kayu terap) 

Forest (hutan) 




Yam (ubi kavu) 



„ fkeledek) 



„ (keladi) 



Crow (gagak) 


Egg (telor) 




Beak (paroh) 




Ant (semut) 



Bee (lebah) 


Fly (lalat) 


Cockroach (lipas) 




Spider (laba-laba) 


changbeung changbeung. 

Mosquito fnvamokj 


Elephant (gajah) 




Gaur (s^ladang) 




Bear (beruang) 



CiL-vrotain (napoh, 





Wild-pig (babi utan; 

I jalor 



Porcupine (landak) 



Dog (anjing) 




Tiger (harimau) 



Cat (kuching) 



Civet-cat (musang) 




Bird (burong) 


Bamboo-rat (dekan) 




Rat (tikus) 




Monkey (kera) 



„ (bSrok) 



Bat (kelawar) 


Crocodile (buaya) 


Land tortoise (kura- 

yeoh, M. 

yeoh, chul 


Fresh- water turtle 




(baning, labi-labi) 

Snake (ular) 




Frog (katak) 




Fish (ikan) 



Tail (ekor) 




Father (bapa) 

gaduk lemor 


Mother (ibu) 

gaduk kerdor 



roao.] I. H. N. Evans : Tribes of Pahang. 31 

English-Malay. Bera Tribe. Ulu Tekam Krau Tribe. 

Husband (laki, 




Wife (bini) 




Son (anak) 


Sun (mata hari) 


Moon (bulan) 




Star (bintang) 




Cloud (awan) 




Mountain (gunong) 


Hill (bukit) 




I )a\ liuht (siang hari) 




Night (malam) 



Thunder (guroh pet ii 



Wind (angin) 


Rain (hujan) 

Storm (ribut) 




Fire (api) 

Water (ayer) 



Smoke (asap) 




One (satu) 

Two (dua) 



Three (tiga) 

Four (empat) 



Five (lima) 



Six (anam) 



Seven (tujoh) 



Eight (lapan) 



Nine (sembilan) 



Ten (sa-puloh) 



Stone (batu) 


Earth (tanah) 




House (rumah) 




Roof (atap) 




Chopper (parang) 

Axe (kapak, beliong) 




Knife (pisau) 

wai lanak 

wai lanak 


Cloth (kain) 




Spear (lembing) 




Blowpipe (sumpitan] 

1 blahan 

Mouthpiece (pangkal) tebong blahan tebong seput bam blau, 

Muzzle (ujong sumpi- sud blahan 

Quiver (tabong bekas luk 

koie seput 

koie blau. 



Dart (damak) 

Journal of the F.M.S. Mus< 

Poison (ipoh) cheh cheh cheh. 

Sleep, to (tidor) jetek jetek tetiak. 

Eat, to (makan) char n'chah chichak. 

Drink, to (minum) ji-oh ji-oh oh-toh. 

Words which appear to be non-Malay, obsolete in the 
Peninsular dialects, or present slight differences from ordinary 
Malay from the Rompin and Endau Districts, and from the 
Jakun of Matang Pasir , near Pekan. Those which are marked 
with a star are all found among other tribes who speak 
Jakun dialects, and are just such as might be expected from 
the Rompin and Endau Districts. 

English-Malay. Rompin. Endau. Pekan. 

Tiger (harimau) holeh 

Dog (anjing) asu* asu. 

Wild-pig (babi utan) bangkak 

Wild-cat (kuching keruet 

Monkey (kera) kiak 

Owl (burong hantu) put 

Ant (semut) meret * meret 

Civet-cat (musang) musong 

Millipede (sepak gogok * 


Mosquito (nyamok) rengit * rengit 

Red ant (kerengga) kerenggak ' 

Terap tree (pohon- toren 

kayu temp) 

Yam (keledek) s'tila 

Thunder (guroh) tagah. 

Blowpipe (sumpitan) malan * malan. 

Mouthpiece (pangkal tebong malan 

Muzzle (mata sumpi- pohoit malan 

Quiver (tabong bekas temlahan 

Quiver-cords (tali tali temlahan 

Quiver-cover (tudongjongkup 

Dart (damak) damok 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Tribes of Pahang. 

English-Malay. Rompin. Endau. 

Point of dart (mata uyang (cf. 

damak) Malay ujong) 

Butt of dart (pang- 'habong (or 

kal damak) ftahabong) 

Among the words which are not starred, the following 
are worth noting as having, perhaps, connexion with Negrito 
or Sakai dialects: — Bangkak (pig), cf. changgak (Northern 
Sakai and Jakun); s'tila (yam), cf. tila, tilak, sila (Jakun, 
Semang, and Northern Sakai). 


By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 

In May of 1917 I visited Kampong Perak in the Batu 
Kurau Parish (Perak) with a view to searching for traces of 
ancient habitations in the rock-shelters or caves in the lime- 
stone hill, Gunong Kurau, which lies close to the village. On 
making an inspection of these, I found only one site which 
yielded any results. Neither caves nor shelters were of types 
which would be likely to prove very attractive as habitations. 
The former were either dark or damp, the latter small or 
insufficiently protected from sun and rain. Even the sole 
site at which signs of former human occupation were found, 
though it was probably the most convenient of all, was not 
protected from the sun at midday, and would, perhaps, also 
be swept by rain if the wind was from the east. The spot 
was a long but rather narrow terrace at the base of some- 
what overhanging limestone cliffs, while four or five feet 
below the terrace flowed the Kurau River. At one end of it 
was a small cave, sacred to the Malays, and called the Tiger's 
K&ramat {Klramai 'Rimau). There had been set up several of 
the long-stalked bamboo censers, which are called sangkak. At 
the other end of the terrace, which was shaded by a large 
tree was another small cave, not quite so large as that of the 
Kiramat 'Rimau. 

The remains left by the former occupants were found in 
the middle and towards the Ktramat 'Rimau end of the 
terrace. They were covered by a layer of yellowish sand 
(probably deposited by the Kurau River when in flood) from 
about six inches to a foot in depth, and formed a stratum 
about two-and-half feet thick. Below this stratum yellow 
sand was again encountered. In case there should be fur- 
ther underlying remains, I examined the river-bank where 
the terrace abutted on the stream, first trimming its face in 
order to obtain a clear section. This examination proved 
that there were no underlying deposits of interest. I had 
trial pits sunk at the end of the terrace furthest from the Kira- 
mat 'Rimau, but only yellow sand was met with. Possibly this 
part may never have been used, or the layer containing 
remains may have been eroded by the river. The date of the 
deposits in the shelter at Gunong Kurau seems to be much 
more recent than that of those discovered near Lenggong, 
which have been described in a previous paper. Bones of the 
various animals which provided food for the inhabitants were 

[Vol. IX, 1920.] I. H. N. Evans : A Rock Shelter in Perak. 35 

present in numbers, but were not so common as at Lenggong, 
where the earth was full of splinters of bone. Most of the 
bones had been broken to obtain the marrow. 

I have so far been able to distinguish bones or teeth of 
the pig-tailed macaque, crab-eating macaque, pig, bamboo- 
rat, porcupine, and soft-turtle. Large numbers of shells were 
found, nearly all of a species of Melania (kechor) which is 
common in the Kurau River. All these had the topmost 
irhorh knocked off. There were also obtained several valves 
of a species of cockle {Area sp.?) one of which was burnt, 
and six shells of marine gasteropods comprising the genera 
Phasianella, Natica, Marginella and Cyprcea. .Four of these 
were bored for suspension, while the only Cyprcea a " money 
cowrie " had its ventral surface ground away until it also could 
be hung from a cord. A tooth of a brok -monkey (?) had, as I 
found in cleaning up the specimens, also been perforated in a 
similar manner to the shells. 

Pieces of pottery were common throughout, the majority 
being of rough black or brown ware, but we also found a fair 
number of fragments of Chinese porcelain, chiefly " blue-and- 
white" and ll crackle." These, when examined by an expert, 
will, apart from other objects, be of some importance in ascer- 
taining the date of the other specimens. 

the Malays as pisau raut, two shoulderless adze-blades 
of very primitive type, a chopper-blade of the variety which 
the Malays call golok, and two rectangular pieces, one of which 
is probably the lower part of an adze-blade. 

Another find was an old East India Company' s coin of the 
s c ail ami ayam from the fact that a figure 
of a cock is depicted on its face. This bore the Mohamedan date 
1247 ; therefore, if we may judge by it, most of the other speci- 
mens must be under ninety years old. There is just a possi- 
bility that the coin, being small, may have fallen down un- 
noticed from the surface, as it was picked up when loose earth 
was being "changkoled" out of the excavation, but I have 
no reason to think that this was the case. 

We now come to the most puzzling objects met with in 
the course of our excavations. These were two neolithic-type 
stone implements, such as are often turned up by Malays 
when working in their rice fields. One of them was found 
by a coolie lying on the surface at the barren end of the ter- 
race ; it is much weathered or water- worn and is partly coated 
with stalagmitic matter. The other specimen was uncovered 
at a depth of 8 inches from the surface and is fairly well pre- 
served. What are we to make of these ? The implement from 
the surface may possibly be dismissed as having been brought 
to the place at a date later than that of the deposits, bat the 
second specimen cannot be treated in this manner. We must 

36 Journal of the F.MS. Museums. [Vol. IX, 1920.] 

either suppose, therefore, that the frequenters of the shelter 
brought it there as a curiosity or charm, having found it during 
their wanderings ; or that iron was rare among them (which 
does not seem to have been the case from the number of iron 
objects found), and that they were still using some stone tools. 1 
I incline towards the former supposition. 

A point of interest with regard to some of the specimens 
discovered was their excellent state of preservation. Fibres 
were found at a depth of two feet which were recognised by 
my coolies as being those of sugar-cane, while a small marine 
shell contained the complete skin of a hermit-crab. 

A large number of Melania shells, as well as many frag- 
ments of bone and a few of pottery, which we found under a 
large group of stalagtites depending from the rock above, were 
beautifully petrified, being so evenly coated with layers of 
lime as to still preserve all but the smallest features of their 

We did not come across any human bones, nor flakes, 
cores or other signs of stone implements having been manufac- 
tured on the site. 

Malay tradition asserts that Semang inhabited the Batu 
Kurau Parish until comparatively recent times, and there 
is still a Semang tribe at Ijok, about seventeen miles from 
Batu Kurau by road and bridle-path. The Semang seem to 
have quitted the neighbourhood of Batu Kurau owing to 
quarrels with the Malays, who were, at that time, just begin- 
ning to open up this part of the country, and to form settle- 
ments. One of my coolies, a man named Pandak Ismail, told 
me that his great-great-grandfather , Moyang Bola, who was the 
founder of Kampong Perak, had killed one or two of them on 
account of their having stolen some property, and that, on 
their leaving the district, he put a curse on any who should 
return. For this reason the Semang were afraid to come 
near Kampong Perak. Pandak's story was supported by 
other Malays to whom I talked about the matter. 

Seeing that the Semang of Lenggong still sometimes 
use, or inhabit, rock-shelters, and taking into consideration 
the apparently recent date of the objects which we obtained 
at Gunong Kurau, it seems likely that these people were the 
former occupants of the terrace which we explored. 

1 There seems to be some slight reason for thinking that a bronze or 
copper age may have succeeded that of stone in the Malay Peninsula, since 
three small copper or bronze celts have been obtained at different times and 
are now in the collections of the Federated Malay States Museums. 


By Ivor H. N.Evans, M.A. 

In June and July 19 17 I visited two districts of Pahang 
with a view to digging in the floors of certain caves in lime- 
stone hills. My first set of excavations was carried out at 
Gunong Sennyum near Kuala Krau ; the second in caves near 
the Benta-Kuantan Road, about thirteen miles from Jerantut, 
and in the direction of Kuantan. These excavations and the 
results obtained are dealt with below. I have appended some 
remarks with reference to objects obtained from cave-deposits 
in other parts of the Peninsula, and the possibility of the cave- 
dwellers having been Negritos. 

Excavations at Gunong Sennyum. 

Gunong Sennyum, a limestone hill 1,595 feet in height, is 
most conveniently reached by taking boat from Kuala Krau— 
whence it is visible— to a Malay village called Pengkalan 
Gunong. From this place a track leads, chiefly through 
jungle, to the foot of the hill, the distance being about four 

On arrival at Gunong Sennyum, I made my camp in a 
long and low cave at its base which afforded perfect protection 
from rain, though open along the outer side. The floor of 
this cave was almost entirely of naked rock, and so unsuitable 
for digging operations. During the first two or three days of 
our stay I made a few excavations in some small caves or 
shelters at the base of the hill, but did not obtain any very 
important results, though it was clear that one of these shel- 
ters, near an almost stagnant stream which issued from a 
cave, had been formerly used, since I found there a few frag- 
ments of common blue-and -white Chinese porcelain— seemingly 
modern— and a fair number of shells of Melania (sp. ?). 

On the fourth day, however, I visited a large cave, the 
Gua 'To* Long, situated immediately above that in which I was 
living. There are only twqjnethods of gaining access to it ; one 
from our camping place, by swarming up the pendent roots 
of a large Ara-tree {Ficus sp.) which grows against the face 
of the cliff ; the other by means of a ladder, after a scramble 
up a slope of earth, which is hidden from anyone in the lower 
cave by a projecting corner of rock. 

The Gua 'To' Long is a light cave of about the same length 
as that below, but with a much higher roof. 

After reaching top of the ladder, it is necessary to pass 
through a small natural archway of rock before emerging 
upon a platform, which slopes downwards. Stepping care- 

38 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

fully across this a kind of entrance hall is encountered, par- 
tially divided off from the rest of the cave by a couple of large 
stalactite pillars. Passing between these the main room of the 
cave is entered, which would be open along the whole of its 
outer side, were it not that it is partially shut in by pillars of 
similar kind. It is between two of these that access is gained 
to the cave by means of the ,4tt*-tree roots. In about the 
centre of the large compartment is the Klramat (holy place) 
'To' Long from which the cave takes its name. This is made 
to represent a Malay grave, having batu nisan (grave- stones) 
and being boarded-in at the sides. 

I do not know if there is any story current as to the 
personality of 'To' Long but all that I could find out about 
the origin of the KSramat was, that a man was said to have 
come across a coffin {ktranda) while digging in the floor of 
the cave ; whereupon the local Malays jumped to the conclu- 
sion that a body buried far away from any village, in a cave, 
must be that of some holy person, and thenceforth considered 
the place sacred. 

Unfortunately the Klramat, being in a central position, 
prevented my digging in a part of the cave-floor which I 
should much like to have opened up. 

Over the "grave" there hung a rattan cord, which was 
tied to the end of a stalactite above. To this, offerings cf ban- 
anas had, I believe, originally been attached, but several nests 
of some species of weaver-bird (burong thnpua) — one new and 
containing two eggs — had been built on its lower end. The 
large compartment of the cave terminated in a small passage, 
which was light and partly open on its outer side. 

An examination of the floor of the Gua 'To' Long, espe- 
cially at a few places where water dripped down from the 
points of stalactites, disclosed some shells of fresh-water mol- 
lusks. Concluding from the presence of these that the cave 
had been inhabited and that the contents of the shells had 
been devoured by former cave-dwellers, I opened a portion 
of the floor of the "entrance hall " some twenty feet long by 
nine feet broad, and found that solid rock was encountered 
at a depth of from three to four feet, underlying powdery 
lime-impregnated soil, which contained many relics of the 
former occupants of the cave. 

Among the objects disco verecf were the teeth and bones 
of mammals, portions of the carapaces of fresh-water turtles 
and of tortoises ; three polished stone implements (two whole, 
one a fragment); many flakes of fine-grained stone; shells of 
fresh- water mollusks ; pieces of red pigment ; grinding-stones 
for this paint, which had deeply stained them ; rough pottery ; 
a few pieces of yellow and green glazed ware ; and part of a 
human skeleton. 

From the fact that a large number of flakes occurred in 
the deposits — as man}' as four or five were often found in each 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Cave-dwellings in Pahang. 39 

sieveful of earth— I do not think that there can be any doubt 
that the people who lived in this cave understood the working 
of stone by flaking. The stone implements might, of course, 
have been either ancient objects picked up outside the caves 
and taken home by the Troglodytes, or have been obtained 
b}- barter from some other people ; but I am inclined to think 
that they were made on the spot. 

The broken implement — the cutting end of a finely polished 
stone axe — shows striae which were evidently produced by 
grinding the implement — in course of manufacture, or in 
sharpening it— on a stone, not long before it was discarded. 
The second specimen, a small chisel-like implement, which also 
shows striae, is merely a water- worn stone of convenient shape, 
which has been ground above and below at one end so as to 
produce a cutting edge. The third implement ' — also small 
and of chisel-like shape — is made from another water-worn 
stone. It, however, appears to have been much used, and 
exhil >it - no striae. In type the second and third implements are 
very similar, but the second is much the thicker of the two. 

Besides these polished, or partly polished, implements 
we discovered several pieces of hard-grained stone which showed 
primary chipping. Three of these have a roughly pear-shaped 
form, and, had they not been found in association with articles 
of polished stone, might almost have been taken for imple- 
ments of a palaeolithic type. They are roughly chipped on 
both faces, the chipping extending over almost the whole of 
them. A fourth appears to have been chipped only around 
the edges. A fifth is a water- worn pebble, also pear-shaped, 
which has been trimmed at its border only (on both faces). A 
sixth is a part of another pebble which has been dressed by 
taking off two large flakes, the result being that the piece 
remaining would seem not unsuitable for making into a fan- 
shaped axe-head. 

The flakes are mostly of fine-grained blackish stone. 
Some of them, small and sharp, may have been used as knives; 
others, which are rougher, were probably merely trimmings 
from large pebbles which were being dressed for some pur- 
pose or other. Percussion bulbs are well developed in 
many specimens, but the stone, though probably the best 
material that the cave-dwellers could obtain, is not very suit- 
able for working by chipping, and could not be expected to 
give nearly such fine results as flint, obsidian, or chert. 

Let us now see what further conclusions we may draw 
from the examination of these worked stones. 

The deposits in the cave, as I have remarked above, were 
of no great depth, and a layer of refuse with a maximum 
depth of four feet might not take many years to accumulate, 
provided that the occupation of the site was continuous. 

40 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

This, however, if the cave-dwellers were at all similar in their 
habits to present aboriginals— whether Semang, Sakai, or Jakun 
— does not seem likely, as even the tame tribes seldom stay 
longer than a year or two in one place, while the wilder 
Semang are nomadic. On the other hand, there were no 
ban en strata in the deposits, which, except where layers of 
the ashes of fires were encountered, were of a similar nature, 
from top to bottom. Barren layers, however, would, perhaps, 
scarcely be expected, if the caves were used at fairly frequent 
intervals, 1 or at a certain season of the year ; * for the rotting 
of the limestone, and its falling down as powdery deposit— the 
caves were dry in most places— must go on but slowly ; and if 
as much as six inches of this deposit accumulated between 
each visit of the cave-people, this would soon become full of 
the refuse of their feasts and of other remains. 

The flakes occurred throughout, but were commonest at 
from two to three feet, and rarest towards the bottom. 

The ground-down stone implements were found at the 
following depths, the broken, and one of the complete speci- 
mens, at about two-and-a-half feet from the surface (the total 
depth of the deposits being four feet), the other complete 
implement — the worn specimen — at two feet from the surface 
in a three-foot deposit. The roughly worked stones, also, 
were found rather in the middle layers of the floor than 
towards the top or bottom. I suppose that for want of other 
evidence we must consider these last as rejects in the course 
of manufacture, which, had they been satisfactory, would have 
been turned into polished axe-heads or chisels; but in two 
cases their shapes do not seem to lend themselves pa; 
well to the aforesaid purposes. Furthermore, it is curious 
that the two snail implements described above, which are only 
polished at their cutting edges, do not show any signs of 
chipp'ng on their rougher parts. Rudely- dressed pear-shaped 
implements might have been used as hammers for smashing 
bones to extract the marrow, but none of those found showed 
any signs of bruising at their ends, which might, perhaps, 
have been expected, had they been used for this purpose. 

I have remarked above that I discovered several pieces 
of iron-oxide ruddle and some stones which i-vidently had 
been used for grinding it up for use as paint. The simplest 
type of grindsr, and the commonest, was a water-rounded 
pebble of quartz ; of these I brought away with me six speci- 
mens. All are deeply stained with the pigment. 

Three other grinding-stones are also water-worn pebbles, 
but are of different shapes and material, and have evidently 

the shelters at Lenggong in 

$ by the Sakai-jakun of the Tekam Riv 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Cave-dwellings in Pahang. 41 

been used for — comparatively speaking — long periods, since 
those parts of the stones which have been used for rubbing 
down the pigment, are not only coloured by it, but have be- 
come flattened and smoothed by wear. One of these grinders 
is made of a fairly fine-grained black rock, similar to that of 
the flakes. It is of a convenient shape for grasping in the 
hand, and a part of its surface at one end is much worn, this 
worn surface being coloured with iron-oxide. The second is a 
somewhat spherical granite (?) pebble which has been partly 
flattened tangentially by long use ; the third, a pebble of fine- 
grained stone wilh an oval section, is deeply stained with 
ruddle, and has one face ground quite smooth. 

Bones and teeth of animals devoured by the cave-dwell- 
ers, which arc all, I believe, those of extant species, were 
fairly numerous, and I have, so far, been able to identify 
remains of pigs, deer, cattle (Bos gaurus), monkeys, soft- 
turtles and tortoises. Nearly all the bones had been broken 
to obtain the marrow, and many of the fragments , especially 
those found in layers of ashes, were charred. 

The molluscan remains comprise shells of a species of 
Melania— some of them showing traces of burning— and valves 
of a fresh- water mussel (Unio ?). The AfWama-shells were very 
numerous, and large numbers were found in every sieveful of 

We now come to the pottery ; most of this is rough brown- 
ish ware — seemingly pieces of cooking pots — roughly cross- 
hatched to form a lozenge pattern. The patterns, which in 
all cases are of the same type, though they vary in size, appear 
to have been produced by pressing a cord against the pots 
before the clay was dry ; for, in most of the pieces, the 
depressed lines of the hatching show twist-marks, and, on 
making experiment, I have been able to obtain exactly similar 
results by pressing a tightly stretched string against a pat of 
wet clay. The edges of some of the pots with this type of 
decoration are further ornamented with perpendicular lines, 
obviously made with a sharp tool. 

There is reason for thinking that some of the rougher 
pottery may have been made on the spot, since I found three 
worked lumps of clay, which appear to have been hardened 
by fire. Two of these are small hillock or moondrshaped 
pieces, and one of them still shows a finger-print. The third 
is of irregular shape, but exhibits a couple of rough markings, 
probably made with a wooden tool, or tools, while a piece has 
been pinched out of one edge between the finger and thumb 
of the right hand while its material was still soft ; thus 
leaving an indentation. 

A few small pieces of smooth and well-shaped brown ware 
were also met with, these being from the first two feet of soil. 
The unglazed pottery comprises pieces of the rims , bases and 
bodies of medium-sized vessels. Some of the shards are 

42 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

blackened with smoke, and are evidently parts of cooking 

The glazed ware, I think, we may fairly presume, was 
not made by the cave-dwellers, but obtained from some people 
in a higher state of civilization. One piece of this was dis- 
covered at a depth of two feet in a small excavation which I 
made towards the outer side of the cave in the "main hall." 
The other pieces, four in number, were obtained at depths of 
about a foot to a foot-and-a-half. Out of the five, two are 
fragments of fairly fine yellowish ware covered with a yellow- 
ish-green glaze, two, bits of rather thick pottery on which 
some slight patterns of meandering lines can still be traced. 
Only traces of green glaze — much cracked, and in a very pow- 
dery condition — are left on these two specimens. Where, 
however, it can still be seen the patterns show up as being 
darker than their ground, since they were made by engraving 
the pot before the application of the semi-transparent glaze, 
and thus, when the vessel was treated with it, they, in receiv- 
ing more than the ground, became darker coloured. The 
fifth piece of glazed ware has a yellow-green ground with some 
brownish bands running through it horizontally. 

One undoubted implement of bone was found in our larg- 
est excavation, but to what use it was put, unless to scratch 
the body or head, for which purpose bamboo pins are used at 
the present day among some Sakai and Jakun tribes, I do not 
know. It is made from a piece of a mammalian limb-bone 
of medium size which has been split longitudinally, and 
ground down (internally) at one end to a point. Two or three 
other pointed fragments of bone were also encountered, but 
it is possible that bones fractured in this manner were broken 
to get at the marrow, and were not intentionally shaped, 
though one of them rather gn 
been the case. None of the la 
of grinding or polishing. 

Several pieces of black iron-ore (haematite?) were also 
met with in our largest excavation. At first I thought that 
they might have been used in conjunction with a quartz pebble 
for obtaining fire, but, on making the experiment, I could not 
obtain any sparks. 

We now come to the associated human remains. These 
comprise a skull almost complete, with the exception of the 
jaws and other facial bones, and some pieces of limb-bones. 
One small piece of the upper jaw and a few much worn-down 
teeth were, however, found separately. The skull was resting 
with its base upon the bed-rock at a depth of three feet from 
the surface. Its condition, like that of the other human bones, 
was extremely friable, and it broke into pieces when being 
removed, but, by carefully preserving all the fragments I have 
been able to make a fair restoration of it. I think it best, 
however, not to attempt to deal at length with these remains 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Cave-dwellings in Pahang. 43 

until they can be examined by an expert in physical anthro- 
pology, but to content myself with giving a few details as their 
disposition in the soil, and any evidence that I can as to whe- 
ther they are of the same age as, or newer than, the stratum 
in which they were found. 

A layer of ashes • of considerable extent was encountered 
just above the skull, and the rest of the overlying deposits 
showed no signs of having been disturbed. I think that from 
this we may, perhaps, conclude that the remains are as old, 
or older than, the layer of ashes, and that anything above this 
layer accumulated subsequently. 

As a very large part of the skeleton is missing, it would 
not be wise to speculate as to the orientation of the body at 
burial, if, indeed, it was buried. 

In a small pit which we opened at the far end of the Gua 
'To' Long five fragments of a human skull were discovered at 
a depth of about two feet from the surface. These were not 
friable like the skull found in our large pit : the breakages of 
the bone appear to be old, and all the pieces are stained with 

Whether the caves in Gunong Sennyum are visited by 
aboriginal tribes at the present day seems doubtful. One of 
my Malay coolies, who came from Pengkalan Gunong, told 
me that they were not. Yet, possibly, such natives may have 
frequented the neighbourhood not so very long ago, for I no- 
ticed that in one place the jungle close to the mountain was 
old btlukar (secondary growth), looking as if it had formerly 
been cleared for planting rice or root-crops. 

Malays hi search of rattans sometimes occupy the long 
cave in which I camped, and to them must, most probably, 
be ascribed some of the charcoal drawings to be seen on its 
walls, especially one of a boat under sail — a sort of schooner, 
as far as I could make out. 

There are, however, some rude drawings which seem more 
likely to have been the work of aborigines, such as circles of 
dots and very crude representations of human beings. A num- 
ber of these are to be observed on the rocks near the water- 
course which I have mentioned above. 

The Kota Tongkat and other caves. 

The cave which is known as Kota Tongkat is situated in 
the limestone of a hill which lies about half a mile to the north 
of the Benta-Kuantan Road, and thirteen miles from Jeran- 
tut in the direction of Kuantan. 

Mr. Iy. Wray had previously paid a visit to caves in this 
neighbourhood' 1 and had found there signs of recent occupa- 

l It is perhaps worth noting that Mr. Wray found ashes overlying some 

44 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

tion, which comprised sleeping-platforms, hearths, bones, mol- 
luscan shells, husks of Indian corn and shells of the Mpayang 
and other jungle fruits, etc. He surmised that the "modern 
Sakai of Pahang " were responsible for the remains. In this 
connexion it is worth while to put on record the evidence of 
some Sakai-Jakun, native to the Tekam Valley, whom I visited 
after I had finished my digging work. These people told 
me that they visited the caves, and lived there for a while, 
each year at the season when the klpayang and other jungle 
fruits were ripe. 

Kota Tongkat is a large tunnel -like cave running right 
through the base of the limestone hill. It contains some beauti- 
ful stalactites and stalactitic pillars, the latter giving it the 
name of Tongkat (or BMongkat), the word meaning a prop or 
walking-stick (bMongkat, "propped up"). For some reason 
all the caves in this part of the country are known as Kota 

In the Kota Tongkat I lived and carried out most of the 
excavations. I was much hindered in my work by my three 
Malay coolies, who had been sent to me by the Pengbulu of 
Pulau Tawar. They had, I think, been turned out against 
their wills, and, it being the Fasting Month at the time, they 
made this an excuse for every kind of laziness that their in- 
genuity could devise. My men at Gunong Sennyum, on the 
other hand, served me excellently, though they too were work- 
ing during the Bulan Puasa, and, with one exception, kept 
the fast. The Pulau Tawar Malays possess, I believe, an un- 
enviable reputation for being work-shy. 

Though my men proved unsatisfactory, I thought it bet- 
ter to keep them than to dismiss them and to obtain others— 
probably equally lazy— which would have involved waste of 

Considering the small amount of ground that I was able 
to explore I was, on the whole, fairly successful. 

Excavations in the Kota Tongkat yielded pottery, a few 
bones, flakes and molluscan shells similar to those found at 
Gunong Sennyum, but nothing of special interest. As I was 
not satisfied with these results, I attempted to find other sites 
which would better repay us for our labour, and visited several 
more caves and shelters in and about the base of the hill. 
One of the former, the Kota Rawa, was a rather small light 
cave with a low roof which had an opening about thirty feet 
from the ground in a salient of the limestone cliff. Access to 
the Kota Rawa was possible in two ways, one by clambering 
up the hanging roots of an fig tree which grew against the 
cliff, and from them into the cave-mouth ; the other by pass- 
ing round the salient and effecting an entry at a low "back- 
door," after a scramble up a rocky gulley. The cave was 
well suited for a dwelling, since it was dry, light, and airy and 
could be easily defended against wild animals or human foes. 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Cave-dwellings in Pahang. 45 

Its roof was blackened by smoke and the floor was strewn 
with the hard shells of ktpayang fruits, which proved that the 
place had been inhabited fairly recently. A further examina- 
tion of the floor by scraping with our "changkols" showed 
that there were only a few inches of dusty deposit covering 
the limestone rock. In this we found some bones, which 
looked fairly new, fresh-water shells {Melania) and three small 
fragments of black stone. I scarcely dare to call these last 
flakes as they did not show any very obvious signs — such as 
bulbs of percussion — of having been struck off from larger 
pieces by human agency, but it is worth noting that their mate- 
rial was of the kind from which stone implements are frequently 
made, and, that the pieces, being of non-local rock, must have 
been brought to the spot. 

In the small cave below the front entrance to the Kota 
Rawa were the ashes of recent fires, and on digging a little 
in these we found a few bones of small mammals, shells of 
ktpayang fruits, and a worn-out iron chopper- (golok) blade. 

After exploring the Kota Rawa we paid a visit to 
another cave at the base of the hill, which is, I believe, called the 
Kota Glap — our coolies were not very sure of the names of the 
caves, since they were not particularly well acquainted with 
the neighbourhood. The Sungai Batu, a small river, washes 
the edge of, and in places partly invades, this cave, and it was 
evident from the deposits of sand which we saw, that in times 
of flood most of the cave-floor is submerged, 

The Kota Glap— the name means " the dark fort," 
though it is not particularly dark —had been recently occupied 
by rattan-gatherers, whom my coolies said were Malays, strips 
of cane, which littered the ground, bearing witness to the 
nature of their employment. Some trial excavations made in 
the floor of the cave yielded no objects of interest. 

I could not find out from my men what was the name 
of the hill, or rather hill-range, in which these caves were 
situated. Mr. h. Wray in speaking of the neighbourhood 
refers to " the caves in a limestone hill called Kota Gelanggi," 
but I was told that the Kota Gelanggi, the entrance to which 
our men could not find, is a cave, and this is supported by 
Mr. W. Cameron in his paper "Kota Glanggi " in "The 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Straits Branch." 1 

1 No. IX, pp. 153-160. Mr. Cameron ment 
Kota Tongkat, Kota Burong, Kota Glanggi 
Burong, of which I know the position, is a dai 
able bats : it is next to the Kota Tongkat. 2 

and Kota Papan. The ] 

My coolies said that 1 
d the en^ran " 

4 6 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Not being satisfied with any of these sites for digging 
purposes, I determined to make another inspection of Kota 
Tongkat, and eventually pitched upon some rock-shelters at 
the mouth of a small dark grotto close to the main cave. The 
roof at the entrance of this cave was blackened by smoke, 
and ashes on the floors of the shelters showed that they had 
been used as dwellings at a fairly recent date. 

Unfortunately excavation in these shelters, which yielded 
the best results, were not begun until the last day of my stay, 
and, as coolies for carrying baggage were difficult to obtain, I 
did not think it wise to cancel my arrangements. One day's 
work with lazy diggers did not, of course, suffice to excavate 
a large part of the ground, but we obtained several interest- 
in- specimens. The total depth of the deposits overlying 
bedrock in the shelters was from three- and-a-half to four feet. 
The first six inches from the surface consisted of recent ashes 
of fires, containing a few fragments of bones. In the soil 
underlying the ashes, we found numbers of pieces of rough pot- 
tery, flakes, shells of mollusca (species of Melania and Unio (?) ), 
a few mammalian bones, the chela of a crab, 1 a stone which 
had been used for polishing or sharpening; four small pieces 
of polished stone, presumably parts of implements ; and two 
d stones, which I take to be partly manufactured 

The flakes, some of which have well-marked character- 
istics, are mostly of a kind of hard, brownish-coloured sand- 
stone, though some are of fine-grained black rock, similar to 
that of the flakes and implements from Gunong Sennvum. 
In the shelters, flakes were found from a depth of 
below the surface to the bottom of the deposit. In Kota 
Tongkat itself they were present from close under the surface 
to almost the bottom of the deposits. 

I have not mentioned hitherto that in the Kota Tongkat 
we found that the soil containing remains left bv cave- 
dwellers extended to a depth of three feet six inches" while 
between this and the solid rock was a layer of large snail-shells 
from about four to six inches in thickness. I cannot account 
for the presence of these. 

The pieces of polished stone are all of very fine-grained 
rock, perhaps chert. Two of them are dark grey in colour, 
one, which exhibits a bulb of percussion, being a thin flake 
struck from the face of a polished stone by human agency. 
The other two pieces, one of which also shows a bulb, are pale 
grey, the piece with the bulb being the lighter coloured of 
the two. All four pieces are resistant to the corrosive action 

ig2o.] I. H. N. Evans : Cave- ,. 47 

of hydrochloric acid. These objects were found at depths of 
from two to two-and-a-half feet. 

Of the two dressed stones, which I have referred to 
above, one, which shows marks of primary flaking on either 
side, appears to be of some fine-grained sedimentary rock of 
a brownish colour ; the material of the other, of which the 
chipping is very rude, is a dark and rather coarse stone with 
a crystalline structure. 

The sharpening stone is of particular interest. It was 
found in another part of the same rock-shelter where we 
obtained the pieces of polished stone, but at a depth of only 
about a foot-and-a-half. 

This object is 17 cms. in length, is four-sided, and tapers 
to a point at one end. Its sides are channelled longitudinally 
as if small chisels or gouge-like implements had been continu- 
ally rubbed or sharpend on them. I am inclined to think 
that this stone may have been used for grinding and polishing 
small stone implements, similar to the two which we obtained 
at Gunong Sennyum. I do not know what the material of 
the specimen is. Its colour is a light yellow-ochre, and its 
grain very fine. I thought at first that it was a broken piece 
of a stalactite, but I find that it resists the action of acid. 
Three small notches have been cut in one of its edges near its 
larger end. 

Passing now to the pottery, some of this is similar to 
the cross-hatched ware from Gunong Sennyum, but there are 
also fragments decorated with parallel lines, and a few 
which have a smooth surface. The colours of the ware are 
red, brown and black. No glazed pottery was encountered, 
and no ware of any sort at a greater depth than two feet. 

One piece of ruddle was found in the rock-shelters. A 
pebble, worn to a smooth surface at one end, appears to have 
been used for rubbing down this pigment, but it is just 
possible, from its shape, that a cave-dweller might have begun 
to make it into a small chisel-like implement, and finally 
rejected it as unsuitable. As, however, slight traces of red 
pigment are still observable on the stone, this does not seem 

Bones of any kind were rather rare in the Kota Tongkat 

rock-shelters, those that we did find usually having been 

broken into small pieces. A tooth of a bSrok-monkey (Macacus 

ms), bored for suspension from a cord, was discovered 

within six inches of the surface in the layer of ashes. 

The spiral fresh-water shells {Melania sp.), in most cases, 
had had their topmost whorls broken away to facilitate the 
extraction of their contents. Those from the caves at Gunong 
Sennyum had been similarly treated. 

It is as yet premature to be at all dogmatic with regard 
to the age of objects which have been found in the caves and 
rock-shelters of the Malay Peninsula ; but a few observations 

48 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

tending to establish the ages of deposits of different districts 
in relation to one another, and to fix the age of those which 
seem to be the earliest of them, may, perhaps, not be out of 
place. We have to consider then, objects from caves or shel- 
ters from the following neighbourhoods : Gunong Cheroh, near 
Ipoh in the Kinta District of Perak; Lenggong in Upper 
Perak; Gunong Kurau, in the Larut District of Perak; 
Gunong Sennyum in the Temerloh District of Pahang; and 
Kota Tongkat in the Lipis District of the last named State. 
The caves and shelters in Gunong Cheroh were explored by 
Mr. L. Wray, the other localities by myself. 

Except in the case of the deposits at Gunong Cheroh, 
none of those which have so far been examined have exceeded 
four-and-a-half feet in depth. A point that is of some import- 
ance in estimating the age of relics from the caves is that all 
the remains of animals which have been found up to the pre- 
sent appear to be those of extant species : presumably, there- 
fore, the deposits are quite recent in the geological sense of 
the word. The stories which are current that certain abo- 
riginal tribes still use stone implements, incline me to believe 
that they are comparatively recent in the more ordinary sense 
of the word. From the presence of iron implements, Chinese 
porcelain and an East India Company's coin in the floor of 
the rock-shelter at Batu Kurau, I do not think that there can 
be much doubt that these deposits, not counting surface de- 
posits at Gunong Sennyum and Kota Tongkat. are the most 
modern of all, and, probably not more than seventy to a hun- 
dred years old. 

Having dealt with the objects from Batu Kurau, let us 
now compare the articles from other localities and see if we 
can show any reasons for thinking that any of them may be 
contemporaneous, or that one is older than the others. 

Ruddle, which I have never seen in use among present- 
day aborigines, 1 was found in all the caves and shelters on 
my list, with the exception of that at Gunong Kurau. The 
same holds good of grinding-stones stained with this pigment. 

Polished stone implements, or parts of them, were 
found in all the localities with the exception of Lenggong. 

[I do not pretend to be able to give a very satisfactory 
explanation of the occurrence of stone implements at Gunong 
Kurau in association with iron tools, unless the iron age 
followed directly that of stone, so that stone and iron imple- 

Let us now consider stones found in the cave or shelter- 
floors which show signs of having been roughly dressed to defi- 
nite shapes by means of flaking. I cannot find any of these 
amoiu? Mr. Wray's collections from Gunong Cheroh— now in 
the Perak Museum— but there are examples from the Lenggong, 
Gunong Sennyum and Kota Tongkat, though none from 
Gunong Kurau. Now with regard to objects of this kind from 
the two localities in Pahang it is not particularly difficult to 
imagine that they are uncompleted stone axe-heads which 
were rejected during manufacture owing to the stone breaking 
in an unsuitable manner, or for some other reason. The 
dressed stones from Lenggong, however, seem to be of a more 
primitive type, and it is not easy to see, if they are uncom- 
pleted implements, into what ordinary style of neolithic-type 
axe-head they were to be made. 

Passing now to the pottery from Gunong Sennyum and 
from Kota Tongkat : from both localities we have ware which 
has been decorated by pressing a cord against its surface 
before the clay hardened, and, on making a re-examination of 
some of the fragments of rough pottery from Lenggong, I 
find that they also show cross-hatching which has been pro- 
duced by this method, the marks left by the twist of the cord 
being plainly visible. Perak Malay women at the present 
day, I am told by natives of that State, sometimes make 
patterns on clay water- vessels by drawing a thread across 
them while the material is still wet, and we have at least two 
vessels in the Perak Museum which have been treated in this 
manner. Drawing a thread over a wet clay, however, merely 
leaves cuts with somewhat rounded edges, which do not show 
the twist of the cord. To reproduce these a piece of cord must 
be pressed against the surface of the vessel. I have not as 
yet been able to obtain any evidence that pressure with a 
cord is still employed by the Malays for marking pottery, but 
this does not necessarily mean to say that it is not. 

If, as seems possible, the deposits from the Lenggong 
area are of earlier date than those from Gunong Sennyum and 
Kota Tongkat, what are we to think of the former in relation 
to those of Gunong Cheroh ? In this locality the deposits 
containing relics of the cave-dwellers reached in some places 
a total depth of twelve feet, signs being present that they 
had once been considerably deeper, for Mr. Wray says that 
the floor of the cave at the time of his visit was " some six to 
eight feet lower than it had been at a previous period, this 
being clearly ' ' shown by masses of shell and bone conglomer- 
ate sticking on to the back wall at that height above the 

50 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

present level." He found no pottery in the caves—" except 
on the surface, where there was some recent Malayan pottery " 
— nor does he seam to have encountered any flakes. He does 
not give very full details as to the depths at which all the objects 
of interest were discovered, but he found a mealing-stone and 
a muller at eighteen inches from the existing surface of the 
cave-floor, and a second mealing-stone (in an adjoining cave) 
at a depth of two-and-a-half feet. He does not state very 
definitely the depth at which the human remains were found, 
but says that " some short way above them was a well defined 
hearth, and over all had, at a previous time, been a bed of 
about four feet of hard shell and bone stalagmite." ' Pre- 
sumably, therefore, they were discovered not far from the 
surface of the cave- floor. Further excavations made by 
Mr. Wray in the Gunong Cheroh caves and described in the 
Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums 9 resulted 
in the finding of a polished stone implement at a depth of two 
feet below the surface. To hazard a guess, it seems possible 
that the deeper layers of the cave floor at Gunong Cheroh 
might be older than the Lenggong deposits, while those which 
had been destroyed and those near the modern surface of the 
floor, might well be newer, since a polished stone implement 
was found at a depth of two feet below the surface. It is, 
however, quite possible that polished stone implements may 
yet be found in the Lenggong deposits, though, as far as I 
can see at present, the probabilities are rather against such a 

Now who were the people who used the caves and rock- 
shelters ? Are they now extinct, or are their modern representa- 
tives the Negritos, the Sakai or the Jakun, or all three ? Let 
us examine the situations of the sites excavated with reference 
to the present distribution of the pagan races of the Peninsula. 
Taking first the shelter at Gunong Kurau— I have already 
stated my reasons for considering the deposits in it recent— it 
is situated almost, if not quite, within the present range of 
the Negrito tribe at Ijok, and the local Malays state that 
there were Negritos living in the neighbourhood at the time 
of the founding of Kampong Perak, which would seem to 
have taken place not more than eighty years ago. The caves 
in the neighbourhood of Lenggong are still frequentlv used 
by the local tribe of Negritos, but at Gunong Cheroh near 
Ipoh, we are in the territory of pure-blooded Sakai, and, 
"as the crow flies" some twenty to thirty miles from the 
nearest Negrito '-boundary." 8 Still it is generally conceded 
that the Negritos once had a more extensive distribution than 
they have to-day. 

1920.] I. H. N. Evans : Cave- dwellings in Pahang. 51 

With regard to the sites which I excavated in the State 
of Pahang, I have already remarked that the Kota Tongkat, 
Kota Rawa and other caves are still occasionallv used by the 
Sakai-Jakun of the Tekam River, and some of the shelter 
at Gunong Sennyum may, perhaps, sometimes be visited by 
people of similar type. In both neighbourhoods, however, 
we are again not very far from regions frequented by 
Negritos. The nearest tribe, or part of a tribe, to Kota Tong- 
kat is, apparently, that which frequents the neighbourhood of 
Kuala Cheka ; but as I found two or three persons who had, 
I think, some admixture of Negrito blood, living among with 
aborigines on the Tekam River, I am inclined to believe that 
there may possibly be a Negrito tribe not many miles away. 

It seems to me, then, possible that the relics in the caves, 
with the exception, perhaps, of those near, or on the surface 
of, the floors may have been left there by Negritos, though, if 
this is so, the cave-dwellers must in some matters have been 
in a more advanced state than any of the present aborigines , 
since they appear to have been capable of working and polish 
ing stone, and even of making pottery. With this possibility 
in view it is, perhaps, worth while to see whether the habits 
and customs of the Mincopies of the Andaman Islands, who 
are of the same race, throw any light on the problem. Man 
in his papers on these people in The Journal of the Anthro- 
pological Institute states that Mincopies exhume the remains 
of the dead, which, with the exception of the skulls, after 
being cleansed in water, are broken up and strung as neck- 
laces. The skulls of the dead are painted with koi-ob and 
worn by their relatives. Koi-ob, an iron oxide pigment 
mixed with grease, is also used for ornamenting the body. 
This is interesting in view of the ruddle-stained pieces of skull 
found in the Gua 'To f Long, and of the pieces of paint which 
were found by Mr. L. Wray in the caves near Ipoh, and by 
myself in the rock-shelters at Lenggong, in the Gua 'To' Long 
and at Kota Tongkat. 

Other points of interest mentioned by Man are the use 
of flakes of stone by the Mincopies and— in relation especially 
to human teeth from I^enggong, Gunong Cheroh, and Gunong 
Sennyum— the state of these people's teeth. To quote from 
his paper : — 

"The general excellence of the teeth strikes one as 
remarkable, for not only are no precautions taken for their 
preservation, but they are used roughly, small bones being 
broken by them and food commonly eaten at almost boiling 
point. The grinding surface of the molars is generally much 
abraded ■ five or six tubercles are occasionally observed in 
the ' posterior molars, but are not all marked with equal 
distinctness ; in some cases, indeed, they are scarcely distin- 
guishable. The crowns of these teeth frequently present one 
long and comparatively even surface, and the peculiarity is, 

52 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 1920.] 

of course, due to the practice above referred to, of grinding 
hard substances with them." l 

It is possible, of course, that further examination of the 
human remains from Lenggong and Gunong Sennyum may- 
throw a considerable light on the race or races to which the 
cave-dwellers belonged, and it is particularly to be regretted 
that those found at Lenggong did not include a skull. We 
have in the Perak Museum the skulls of three aborigines, 2 
one said to be that of a Negrito ( 'b ) from the Piah River, 
ahd two of Sakai ( <b & 9 ) from the Kinta and Batang Padang 
Districts of Perak. In only one of these, the skull of the 
Sakai man, do the molar teeth show signs of wear at all 
comparable to those of the cave-people. 

A point which appears to me to be striking with regard 
to the skull from Gunong Sennyum, in comparison with our 
three skulls of present-day aborigines, is its length. Whether 
this can be due to distortion caused by earth pressure, I leave 
it for an expert in such matters to determine. 

By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 

While paying a visit to the Endau River in August of 
this year (1917), I made a list of camphor tabu words (mostly 
obtained from Malays) and elicited any further information 
that I could with regard to the customs of camphor-hunters. 

The present paper contains only that part of my work 
which deals with oust wins and beliefs: the vocabulary is 
printed on pages 60-80. 

My informants, with the exception of a Jakun man 
from whom I obtained a few words of Bahasa Kapor ', wen- 
Malays; one being a PMghulu Kapor (leader of camphor- 
hunters) ; the other a man who had been working in a sub- 
ordinate capacity. Very little, if any, camphor seems to be 
collected nowadays in the vicinity of the Endau River. 

The followers of the PSnghulu Kapor are known as his 
" Sakai." He and his "Sakai" must use the Bahasa Kapor 
while in the jungle, and, besides this, they have to obserye 
tabus of various kinds, which are more numerous and im- 
portant in the case of the Penghulu than in that of his 

The Spirit of Camphor {Bisan) 2 is female and assumes 
the form of a Cicada. She requires propitiation by the cam- 
phor-seekers, or they will return empty-handed. A sacrifice of a 
white cock is made by the PBnghidu and his <f Sakai" just at 
dusk on the first evening, after they have arrived at their 
head-quarters and built their hut, after which they partake of 
the fowl and of fulut {Oriza glutinosa) which is also offered to 
the Bisan. The Phighulu must eat in moderation of the feast, 
and may not make a second meal from its remains, if there 
are any. His "Sakai" are, however, not prohibited from 
doing so, provided that what is left over is hidden from him 
and that he has no knowledge of the matter. 

Before the feast takes place, " when the fowls go up to 
their perches, and the Cicada {Bisan) is heard,' ' the camphor- 
seekers call out {btrttriak) to the Camphor Spirit as fol- 

Bisan, Bisan! 

Bisan ulu oyer, hilir ayer, 

Plngadap chindir, ptnlkan chindir , 

Koh mambong minta 'mbin kapor yang sa-ptnoh isi. 

Koh mambong minta 'mbin kapor Sxeng-Plngllat, 

l Camphor tabu language. 
j a coefficient meaning ' ' an 

54 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [VOL. IX, 

Sieng-Kalu, Sieng-PSnSpang, 

Koh minta lau pada ai, 

Bih bulih bih, tongkat ilrang. 
This invocation is chiefly in the Bahasa Kapor, though 
it may be noted that the ordinary Malay word for "water" 
{aycr) is used instead of the Bahasa Kapor word shnplloh. 
It may be translated as follows :— 

Bisans , O Bisans ! 

Bisans of the headwaters, Bisans of the lower reaches, 

In front of the hut, behind the hut, 

We ask you to give us camphor (trees), with full con- 

We ask you to give us camphor of Singapore, 

Trengganu, and Pahang. 

We ask you to give us, 

Without fail, to-morrow morning. 
After this the Phighulu, who has gone out of the hut, 
throws into it some handfuls of rice in the husk, while his 
"Sakai" remain quietly within. 

When the feast is finished the Plnghulu recites, partly on 
camphor tabu language, an imaginary conversation between 
a Bisan (Camphor Spirit) and her mother, as follows : — 

1. Bisan. " Mak, Makf Apa pichin dalam se'mpe'- 


2. Mother. " Yak-lah, dayang, slluang badak." 

3. B. " Apa stbab slluang lari?" 

4. M. " Itu, dayang, blrnama slbarau bujang." 

5. B. "Mak, Mak! Apa pichin minSkoh batang 

6. M. " Yak-lah, dayang, 'dufian Plnghulu Mu- 


7. B. f ' Amboi, Umbut-nya, mak, pinggang Pfng- 

8. M. " Yak-lah, dayang, aik jamu Pfnghulu 

Muda Sniping blrkuah ! ' ' 
This may be translated : — 

1. B. <( Mother, Mother ! What thing is that in 

the water ? " 

2. M. " That, maiden, is a sUuang badak." 

3. B. " Why does the slluang fly ? " 

4. M. ' 'Because, maiden, of the stbarau bujang." 

5. B. "Mother, Mother! What is that thing 

that eats the trunks of the trees ? " 

6. M. "That, maiden, is the livelihood of the 

Penghulu Muda. 

7. B. " Good gracious, how pliant (thin), mo- 

ther, is the waist of the Penghulu 

H. N. Evans : Camphor-Hunters. 

One or two points in this recitation call for an explana- 
tion. Lines one, two, three, and four seem to be purpose- 
less. The selnang badak is a kind of small fish and the 
s'Cluirau is a large sort which preys upon such small-fry. 
Stbarau bujang (bachelor stbarau) is, perhaps, a distinct 
variety or species. The fifth and the following lines, how- 
ever, are not without meaning. The Bisan asks what is cut- 
ting into the tree-trunk and her mother replies that it is 
the Penghulu Kapor's axe (his livelihood). The Bisan see- 
ing the slight haft of the axe, says to her mother, "How 
thin the Penghulu's waist is ! " To this her mother replies, 
" Yes, you must feed him well with tmping (crushed rice) in 
sauce {i.e. camphor)." 

After the feast certain verses are sung, this ceremony 
being known as blrpiu. The Ptnghulu Kapor, Dolah bin 
Mapak, from whom I got a portion of my information, said 
that he could not recite them for me as it was tabu for him 
to do so. If he did, he would not get any camphor when he 
went in search of it again. Furthermore he seemed to be 
afraid that, if he broke the tabu, the Camphor Spirits might 
afflict him with sickness or some other misfortune. My chief 
informant, Dolah bin Udah, the former " Sakai," told me that 
the PZnghulu must chant the verses in the hut, and that if 
he hears one of his " Sakai " singing them at any other time, 
he fines him a chopping-knife, an adze-blade and an adze- 
haft. From him I obtained the only fragment of the btrpiu 
verses that he could remember : — 
Dart pauh l ka-plrmatang , 

Singgah mlrapat kStam * ktmudi. 
Dart jauh sahaya datang, 

Dlngar Bisan murah budi. 
From the pauh-tree to the ridge, 

Visit and fix up your rudder board. 
I come from afar, 

Hearing that Bisan is generous of heart. 

I have mentioned above that there are certain restric- 
tions by which both the Pinghulu Kapor and his "Sakai " 
are bound, but that they are more numerous in the case of 
the PZnghulu than in that of his followers. 

For the first three days of the search for camphor, none 
of those employed in it must bathe, have : 

56 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

woman, or put oil on their hair ; moreover during the whole time 
he is occupied in camphor-seeking, the PSnghuIu Kapor, whe- 
ther in the jungle, or at home in his village, must not tell a 
lie, steal " even a cent, " or have intercourse with a woman. 
It is regarded as an offence if one of the " Sakai " sleeps on 
after the Ptnghulu and his companions are astir, and he is 
forced to drink a little of Hie Pen Rutin's urine, or some 
water in which chillies have been pounded up. 

_ The PUghulu relies upon his dreams to afford him an 
indication of whether the search will prove lucky or the 
reverse, while should he, before starting on a camphor-search, 


till he is satisfied that it will have a lucky 

It is thought that if the Plnghulu Kapor dreams of carry- 
ing rice, or of a princess, a tree full of camphor will be found • 
if of carrying salt in a back-basket, or of diving into the 
river, that the party will be chased and stun- bv wasps; if 
of fighting, or of a woman being in love with "him, that 
somebody will be taken by a tiger ; if of a child wounded <>s t r 
the eyebrow, that little camphor will be obtained 
™ According to a legend there were originally seven 
Kapor, each of whom employed a different method 
of ascertaining whether a tree contained camphor, and spoke 
a slightly different Bahasa Kapor. Nowadays all the Povjudu 
Kihnr^ I was told, test a tree by smelling a chip of its wood, 
but it is said that differences in the tabu language of certain 
Penghulu are due to this seven-fold origin. 

According to one account the seven Ptnghidu who were 
brothers, were named as follows, Penghulu Chium who tried 
a tree by smelling it; Penghulu Sulor, who, I understand 
inspected the trees with a torch ; Penghulu Buboh, who looked 
for round lumps of camphor {buboh), exuding from a tree; 
Penghulu Puar who looked for small slits in the bark ( bu rr) 
which contained camphor ; Penghulu Kepang, who cut notches 
in the trees and smelt them; Penghulu Pandang, who knew 
at sight whether a tree contained camphor, and the Penghulu 
Bongsu, the youngest brother. 

Another version has it that the seven were named 
Penghulu Jangkar, Penghulu Batang, Penghulu Dahan, 
Penghulu Ranting, Penghulu Daun, Penghulu Tunggul and 
Penghulu Jala. Penghulu Jangkar tried a tree by smelling 
its roots (jangkar in the tabu language) ; Penghulu Dahan the 
branches ; Penghulu Ranting the twigs, Penghulu Daun the 
leaves, Penghulu Tunggul the base of the tree, while Penghulu 
Jala caught the tree in a casting-net (Jala) if it fell into a 

I give below a story about these seven men which was 
told to me by Penghulu Kapor, Dolah bin Mapak. The first 

The Legend of The Camphor Princess. 

All these seven Penghulus once went to the jungle, and 
six of them worked at camphor-getting ; but the seventh and 
youngest, Penghulu Bongsu, did nothing but sleep in the 
hut day and night. The six brothers came back, bringing 
with them three or four katties of camphor each evening, 
but the seventh did nothing. 

When they had been in the jungle for about fourteen 
days, the six brothers returned to their village, leaving the 
seventh behind. 

After they had gone home, Penghulu Bongsu, who had 
set off by himself to fish, espied a princess bathing in the 
stream at a place where it plunged down from a mountain. 

He walked carefully so that she should not know of his 
presence and caught her by her hair, which was seven cubits 
\hasta) long, while she was bathing in the stream. Then the 
princess said to him, ' ' Do you wish to follow me?" Penghulu 
Bongsu replied, "I wish to follow you; that is why I caught 
you by the hair" "If you wish to follow me," said the 
princess, "do not speak." 

Then the princess took him up into a camphor-tree — her 

Now after Penghulu Bongsu had been with her for seven 
days the princess asked him why he looked so sad, and 
Penghulu Bongsu replied that he was thinking of his wife 
and children — for he was married. 

So the princess asked him to bring his carrving-basket. 
She combed her hair over it, and, as she combed, the cam- 
phor fell from her hair into it, until it was full. 

Then the princess said to Penghulu Bongsu, * ' When the 
people of your village ask you where you have been keep 

After this she pointed out the way to the village, 
and Penghulu Bongsu, leaving her in the jungle, returned 
home carrying the camphor with him ; but when his brothers 
asked him whence he had got it, he was silent. 

He sold the camphor and paid his debts ; then, when 
seven days had passed, he returned to the jungle, according 
to a promise that he had made to the princess. He stayed 
with her for seven days, and at the end of that time persuaded 
her to go back to his village with him. 

When the princess arrived at the village she told Penghulu 
Bongsu to build a house for her in which she could keep 
herself shut up in safety. " For," said she, " if the Raja 
hears about me, he will kill you and try to take me for him- 
self, though I shall be able to fly away." 

Now while the princess was living in the new house that 
Penghulu Bongsu had built for her, and shortly after she had 
given birth to a female child, the Raja called Penghulu Bongsu 

58 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 1920.] 

to his palace; but, before he started, the princess said to 
him, "Whatever the Raja orders you to do, do; unless he 
tells you to sing the magical camphor chants (bSrpiu) which 
I have taught you. ' ' 

Penghulu Bongsu presented himself before the Raja, and 
the Raja ordered him to show him how he searched for cam- 
phor, and to recite the magical chants that he sang. 

Penghulu Bongsu at first refused, but on the Raja threat- 
ening to kill him, he began to sing the camphor-chants. He 
had not sung more than three verses when his wife, leaving 
the child in its swinging cradle, flew ' out of the house, in 
which she had shut herself up, through a small hole, and 
perched on a coconut-tree to wait for him. 

On Penghulu Bongsu's return, not finding his wife in the 
house, but hearing the noise, " Kok-kok-kok" which she 
made in the tree, he took his child on his back, and followed 
the sound made by the princess as she flew off into the jungle ; 
after which he was never seen again. 

[While he was cutting his way through the undergrowth 
in the jungle, he accidentally wounded his child above the 
eyebrow with his chopping knife. And that is the reason 
why, if anyone dreams of a child wounded in this way, he 
will not get much camphor.] 


The following collection of words and phrases from the 
Bahasa Kapor or Paing Kapor "The Camphor Language " is 
compiled from lists recorded by Logan ("Journal of the Indian 
Archipelago," Vol. I, p. 263), by Messrs. Lake and Kelsall 
(" J.R.A.S., S.B.No. 26, pp. 39-56), by Mr. Maartenz of the 
F .M.S. Foiest Department from Endauin 1007 (hitherto unpub- 
lished), by Mr. I. Evans of the F.M.S. Museums' Department 
from Endau in 1917 (unpublished), and by Mr. Sircom of 
the F.M.S. Civil Service from Rompin in 1911 (unpublished). 
Mr. Sircom's list is particularly full and valuable. It was 
collected from two informants, Lamang a Sakai Ptnghulu of 
Tanggong and from Kolak a PUghulu Kapor of Tilan, both 
places in the district of Rompin, Pahang. Kolak told Mr. 
Sircom that the Paing Kapor he spoke was that of Johore, 
whence his family originally came. Mr. Sircom observes, that 
the pronunciation of Malay words is sometimes distorted— 
e.g. dalam is pronounced (Dittm, plnyayap as pSnyeyip, plman- 
jang as ptmlnying, and so on. Mr. Evans found alamat pro- 
nounced ehlamat and plnghangat as pahangat. The names 
of trees and plants are not tabu, and where tabu words are not 
required Malay is employed. 

There is nothing to add to the analysis of the language 
in Skeat and Blagden's "Pagan Races/' Vol. II, pp. 414-431. 

Study of the comparative vocabulary in " Pagan Races " 
will show that a large number of words in my section D, 
would seem to have no cognate forms in the aboriginal 
dialects of the Peninsula:— a few resemble Mon words. But 
we have not solved entirely the principles on which this 
esoteric language is constructed, except in the case of words 
and phrases obviously Malay. Chtngktrat beh ptnglrip " The 
elephant-without-gnawers, the tuskless elephant" is a very 
artificial synonym for a rhinoceros, but it is intelligible. But 
take kawat " breast, old, iron pot, fathom " — here Blagden 
remarks that several distinct words seem to have been run 
together— kawat (Mai., Jav.) "wire"; kawak (Jav.) " old "; 
kawan " a measure of length for thread" to which may be 
added kawah (Mai.) " a cauldron. " Or take mambong, bisan, 
bintoh — they seem to be used as we use words like " thingamy- 
bob." Clearly the deliberate manipulation of aboriginal 
words is likely to defeat analysis. Again, the aboriginal 
dialects differ a little with almost every tribe. And here we 
have a purposely specialized vocabulary in a definite locality. 

Journal of the F.M.S. Mu 

[Voi,. IX, 

Finally, not all the aboriginal words of the Peninsula have 
been collected as yet : Messrs. Evans and Sircom have 
lately collected a quite new word gtnal, mlnglnal for " 10." 

It is improbable that many more " Camphor " words 
will be collected but, as research extends, some of those 
unidentified in this list may perhaps be explained. 

I have distinguished : — 

(A) Malay words ; 

(B) Malay words mostly artificial, a few archaic or 

no longer (e.g. nyaman) common in the language 
of the Peninsula— {ptmandak from landak, 
ptnyiku from siku, plmbahu from bahu are 
evidently intentionally artificial variants from 
simpler ordinary Malay forms) ; 

(C) Descriptive periphrases in Malay, or in Malay and 

some aboriginal word, a large class ; and 

(D) Words aboriginal, unidentified or uncertain ; refer- 

ences being given to the comparative vocabulary 
in " Pagan Races." 
Readers may compare the Patani Sea Language recorded 
by Annandale in " Fasciculi Malayenses," Part I, pp. 84-6. 
In tabu vocabularies of Patani and Pahang Malay, as well 
as in the <( Camphor Language," chewe is used for " animal." 
E— Evans. M.— Maartenz. 

K.— Lake and Kelsall. S.— Sircom. 

L.— Logan. 


aib (aiep K.) 


lopek E., K., L-, M. 

Bow, to 

mtmbongkok S. 

kapur Barus E. 

Carry, bring, take 

'mbin-E.,K. > M.(ambii 


chachat K. 


ehlamat E. (alamat Ar. 


lapan (lepen K.) 


ikan M. 


langau S. 


blngong S. 


Smpat M. 


buah K. 

Good, nice, convenient, 

nyaman S., nyamon K. 


Hit a mark, to 

singgah K. 


bolur K., bulur S. 

Ipoh (tree) 

upas K. 

chantum S. 

Lamp, light 

suloh K. 

The Camphor Language. 

Strong, hard 



Trap (of thorny flagella) 



kulit M. 
tlgap K. 
dlngkek M. 
Uga M. 
tuar K. 

bllatok M. 

. K..S. Jilek K. 

Acquainted, with ; /V 

Act, to 

phnuat K. 



blkong phiglring S. 

&w&m (tulang hiring) . 



Axe, iron, mark K., ptranchas E., K., h. 

, cf . panchong, chan- 

chopper, knife 

S. M. ; ptranchas 
pinlgap S. 



ptnyatok S. 

pat ok " to peck." 


ptngadap S. 



ptmusing S. 

Pusing " to turn 


pSmahit S. 


Burn, to ; light, 

to mUagat S. 


Chin (and beard J 

>.) ptnyagu 


Clear, bright 


ptmadang M., S. 


Climb, to 

tingkat^., K., 

ci.tingkat" upper 

ningkatM., S. 


Cut, chop, to 

mSranchas S. 

cf . c axe. ' 


ptndalam S. 


Dry, drought 

ptnylring S. 

klring ' dry. ' 


pSngabok E. 


ptnyiku M.,S. 


Fell, to 

mhnanchas, mlman- patil ' axe. ' 

itf K., mlmantir E 


plnafak jauh K., S. 

ta/>a& • sole. ' 


ptmadang ML 

padang, ladang 
" plain," s&ladang 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museum 

Ordinary Malay form. 


pSngijau S. 


mtmanlil K. 

of. muntil ' plump.' 


mubun S. 

m&mh. [head. 


ikat mubun S. 

= lit. binding the 


plnapak plnlkan S. 

ta/>«& ' sole ' ; tlkan 

Join, stick, to 

pWkat S. 

Keep, shut, to 

pinaroh S. 



phichium S. 


pinahu K. , S. 



bltkong S. 

buku ijari). 

Lengthen, to 

ptmanjang K. \kai E. panjangkan. 

Lift up, to 

tingkat M., mtnyiiii 
mlningkai S. 

1- cf. angkat, singkat. 


sural M. 



phnuntil S. 

cf. puting. 


■plmaniak M. 


Quick, (to shake) 

mtllgat K. 

cf. ligat, * quick of 
revolving tops.' 

Rise, to 

kat E. 

cf. 'lift up. to.' 

Rub, to 

kulut K. 


pSnchadok K. 

? The digger, biter. 

Sew, to 

pSnyimat K. 

cf. si mat. 


phigais S. 



plmbahu M. 


Sole ; to tread 

phtapak S. 


Swallow, to 

ptnUan S. 


Weigh, to 

ptnimbang S. 



phiyavafi S. 



plnguning S. 



Literal meaning. 


rangong S. 

The long-legged 


sa-pSnyengok S. 

At one glance. 

Alive, age, wing 

. /)fiu-^ E, K., S. 


breath, breathe 



pincho&ok M., S. 

The digger. 


6wa/& &2/a*, ptngUat Astringent. 

K.,L., S. 




blplmusing K. 

Revolving . 

1920.] R. O. Winstedt : The Camphor Language. 63 

Literal meaning. 
Back, to go btrlipat L., M. To fold. 

Bait ptngumpan plnyelah The cheating bait. 

Bamboo pVnurun S., The drooper. 

„ kayu mambong S. The hollow-wood. 

Banana bu'ah Ursikat S. The fruit in rows. 

Bark, to mtmbatok S. To cough. 

Beans buah akar K. Fruit of creepers. 

slllmah ptnyimpul S. ? The weak one that 


Lll-1> X 


tlmpat mUrapal E. 

Cuddling place. 


hlnih dahan S., 

vSeeds on branches. 

ptngurong d. M., 

Swarmers on bran- 

chewe d. L. 

Insects on branches. 


ikut {mambong) 



lopek E. 


Bite, chew, to 

ktrip, mglrep S. 

To gnaw (of mice). 


gltah K., M., S., ^-Sap. 

ngVtah S. 

shnpUoh S. 


Body, flesh, trunl 

k isi E., K., S., mam 

'.- Contents. 

of tree 

bong isi S. 

Bone, leg, shoul 

1- pinlgap K., M., S, 

,, Strengthener. 

der, tooth, but 

- p. isi S. 

tress of tree 


p&nlgap pinapak E. 

Strengthener of the 

Bosom, breasts 

ptnujur S. 

The j utter-out. 

buah p&ngadap S. 

Fruits of the chest. 


kaput puteh S. , 

White lime (or cam- 

isi ni'unbun S. 

Contents of head 

Breast, chest 

pSngadap S., pgngha- The front. 

dapan M. 

Breathe, toy., Aliv 


kaum (Ar.) K. 



plnyengok ptnjauh £ 

>. The far seer. 

Buy, to 

muning L. 

To give yellow coin. 

Care, to take 

ch&lek K. 

To open one's eyes. 


plnibar K. 

The flung. 


slllmah plngapor S. 

The kitchen tiger. 


^»«mn S. 

The climber-down. 


simpai S. 

The noose. 


pingadap M. 

(1) The front. 

j&nampar S. 

(2) ? ptnampak: cf. 
' face.' 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. 

ptmamah S. The chewer. 

plnvungkup K., s8- The coverer. 

rongkop S. 
puchok plngolek S. End of the swayer. 
buah pulau E., L. Fruit of the island. 
buah kukur L,. Fruit for the scraper. 

Mnyurop L. ? Coverer (turap). 

hangai M , mSnghang- To heat. 

ptnyepet S. The nipper. 

ptnchodok stmplloh The digger in the 

S. water. 

taiam stngkai h. The short and sharp. 

blstmplloh plningok To damp the peep- 


pirentah K. 


Damar, resin 

soloh K. 



lipat K. 

? 'coil' or f to return.' 

Dark, shade 

tongkat longsop , S., 

D -39.P 594- 




buah iauh bunyi K. 

Fruit of the far- 

Day, to 

tongkat ini S., E. 
si-tongkat S. 
v tongkat chUek S. 

D- 39, P- 574- 


kuning K. 

Yellow (coin). 



Dig, to 

pSnchodok, pichodok 

To dig with a long 



tSrus plnengok S. 

The seer-through. 

Ear, sound 

ptntngar E., K., L., 

The hearer. 


pSnyigong S. 

The pusher. 


buah S. 


„ , to lay 

bSrbuah S. 

To bear fruit. 



The white one. 


pMkat pinghangat E. The-lit-by-the-heat. 


puchokK., S. 

Tip, shoot. 


pSnengok E., K., M. 
S. pSnyengok L. ; 

, The seer. 

ptnengok jauh S. 

The far-seer. 


s#af>M* S. 

Covering film. 


/mda^> K., plnghadap 


plngampak S. 

? The seer. 

Far, of place, time awal 

? At., beginning. 

Fast, a 


? Lifting of hands 


Pangkat isi K. 

The raiser of stuffing. 

1920.] R. 0- Winstedt : The Camphor Language. 

Literal meaning. 


ibu asal S. 

Original parent. 


pSnurun(bisan) K.,S. The 

sasak K. 



P&nyampai S. 

? The tapering. 

pSngolek S. 

? The swayers. 


•gafE.,I< , M. 


pmkat E. 

, The heater. 

„ -wood 

The heated. 

„ log (puntong) 

„ plhangat E. 

The heated by fire. 


suloh penyengok S. 

Torch of the eyes. 


pingumpan E.,K.,S 

. Taker of bait. 


mamong bl 

The spiked (injap) 
The opener. 


plng&mbang M., S. ; 


Flv, a 

pingurong K , M. 


Fly, to 

bZrsayap M. 

To wing. 


plngabor S. 

The fiingers or flung. 


&«/*£ S. 

To turn back. 


plnlgap E., K 

The strengthener. 

pe>iapakM.,p. jauhS. The sole. ~ 


£Was K. 

The pungent. 


si-lunchat M. 

The leaper. 


phigUatn., gftah 

The astringent ; 


bitter of sap. 


plnadah K. 



plmuning K., L. , 

The yellow. 

plnguning S. 

/awA plri&ngar E. 


Hair (fin S.) 

'ptnitrun {Mombong) 
E., K., S. 

Droopers of the head. 



ptngolek S., sUampa\ 

i v. Finger. 

buai S. 

To swing. 


tUombong E., L. 3 
lombong M. 

? Nut. 

„ -kerchief 

,W;;;//z/ /^/o;«6oMgE. 



&««/j s. 



mambong K. (cf. />g-w 
ambong ' to bury 


- ? The empty. 


Sweet of bees. 

dahan) M. 

■ ,':' Water of 'sting- 



Water for eating. 



The drier-up. 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museun 

Literal meaning 


rengkai E., K. 

? The shrivelled. 

Ivory v. Tooth 



. The supple. 

pUifiat S. 

The folder. 

sturut M. 

? si-turut ' the 


mamboiio d.ilani K. 

The deep ? void. 


pthangat K. 

The heater. 



? Having holes. 


kidal S. 


p&nSgapS. p. ptnjauh The (distant) streng- 
S. thener. 

ning v. Day pUiling tongkat K., Circler of the sky. 
tongkat chllek S. 

. Tooth 

Loin-cloth, wearing blrsangkUit S. 

Wearing ") 

a band | p. 

trunk J 


lompat dahan M. 

Leaper on branches. 

Lungs v. Alive 

pinlrang S. 

The bright, clear. 


mabok K. 



buah blr\ambul E. 

The tufted fruit. 


kaum masin E. 

Sea relations. 


kotolK., kaum kutul Cf. kontol ' whimble- 

S., sakai ajul S. 

whamble, penis.' 


plngumbang p'ng'- 

The unfolder 

tnang K. 



«/»«s K., S. 

Milk v. water 

stmpMoh isi S. 

Water from inside. 


blrkaum S. 

? Cf. blrgaul and 

Monkey, gibbon 

lompat dahan M., 

Leaper on branches. 

limbai dahan S. 

Swinger on branches. 

Moon v. Day 

tongkat S., tongkap 
gllap K., L., *. 

ningkui - 

ok tongkat gllap 


plnchodok plnikoh 

The one that digs 

isi M. 

and eats into flesh. 


«'6m &«*W S. 
ibu'nak kawat S. 

Mother on the male 
side, old mother. 


pSnurun phnamah E. 

, Droopers of the 

K., M., S. 


ptnurun pinglrip E. 

, Droopers of the 



. O. Winstedt : The Camphor Langu 

Literal meaning. 


plmamah E., K. , D.. 

, Chewer, eater. 

plnlkoh S. 


jauh banyi L. 

Far-sounder . 


ptmentek K. 

? The driven (£a»- 
to£). [per of lice, 

Name° "^ 

phigltong S. 
isik K. 

? cf. g«w. ' The nip 


pingllap S. 

The dark. 

Nighty. Day, moon tongkat gUap L-, E. 

D. 39, P- 574- 

g&lap M. 


gUap tulus S. 

Truly dark. 

tongkat langsom S. 

„ , last 

sa-tongkat gUap 


ptnchium E. L-, K., 
M., S. 

The smeller. 

The breather. 


pSnchium S. mam- 
bong p. 

biiah pulau 

- (Hole of) the smell- 


Moisture of the coco 


pirentah K. 


kuning K. 

(Royal) yellow. 


chuie pimaut E.; 
,, scyap E. 

D. 5, p. 676. 


chuie n.,K.; 

pSnguit L. ; 

The paddler. 

pimaut K. 

The puller. 

Person, people 

/ert/»» (Ar.) E., K. 
M., S. 

,, People, family. 

Followers, serfs. 


kaki pandak L,., 

vShort legs. 

s&mongkor E., K., E 

., The grouter. 

M., S. 


si-jambul K. 

The tufted. 


P&mabok K. 



£W«s E., S. 



ptnlkan K. 

? The pusher. 

plnylpit K. . 

The nipper. 


fMJttS S. 

Downright, sincere. 


a&ar E., K., M 

, (large) liana. 



Rambutan v. Hair btiah blnurun M. 

The hairy fruit. 


plngirip K., M., S. 

The gnawer. 


ura/ L., pingurat S 

The sinew. 

plnglrek K. 

The tightener. 

Plngikat K., K.,S. 

The binder. 

„ {rotan layar) plngikat blrsayap E. 

, The winged binder. 

„ (r. batu) 

ptngikat choh-ut E. 

The stone binder. 

Journal of the F. M.S. 

Rattan (rotan tung- plngikat sa- 

gal) E. 

Read, to phnamah K 

To chew, wag the 


To fold back. 
put mohutTZ. .... 

mput E., L., Grass ; fruit of grass. 

UrgUah S. 
hlrlipat E., L., S. 

M., S., b. r. puteh S 

kanji S. Rice-gruel 

blrmamah S. To eat. w; 

Mi patS. To fold." 

ayfl^ K. Wings. 

*iimmii E., K., M., The salty. 




kumpul K. 
hlrplmamah S. 
ptnabw K., S. 
blrnyaman tulus 
npai K. 


plnyipit K. 
. Water, Foam shnploh pSmasir, 
„ phigabo-i 
ptnengok buah 
snanow ringkai S. 

Shore ^n;; ? K. 

Shoulder pSmikul S. 

tin, dollar, plmuteh K. 




p$»iSdasL.,M., S. 
sarong pumpun K. 
plnlgap mubun S. 
ptrungkup, strung- 
kup f 

Collected together. 
To wag the moutb . 
The strewn. 
Truly sweet. 
The fastener. 
The nipper. 
Salt water. 

The pungent. 
The bundled skirt. 
Bone of the head. 

Tii- t 

mlrapat E., K., S. Cuddle 

P utek S. - Bud of fruit. 

pSngasap pUangat M. Smoke of fire. 

akar E. Liana 

mlrapat jauh bunyi To cuddle with loud 

M. noise. 

orang pudas, kaum Men hot (to fight). 

p. K. 
bunga plhangat K. 
pStiahan M., S., ph 

dahan t,. 
pSnurus S. 
plnlgap plnlkan S. 

1920.] R. O. Wi 

The Camphor Language. 

Spleen v. Blood 

gumpal ptngttah S. 

A lump of blood. 

Spring, a, well 

plnengok sSmpSloh K 

. Eye of water, 
cf. (ma/a ay^r). 

Star v. Night 

plnabuY K., L., M. 

The strewn. 



The strewn lights. 

analc tongkat K. 

Children of the sky. 


lopek pthangai E. 

The fire-boat. 


pCihiuna bitntut S. 

The sharp of the tail. 


pSmanis E., L. 

The sweetener. 


£wcAo£ S. 

End, tip. 

Sun v. Day 

tongkat ttrang E., K 

L-, M., S. 
tongkat ch&lek 

, The prop of light. 

plnyengok tongkat 

tlrang E. 


blrkuning K. 

? Stake gold. 


manchong K. 



/>«/*wrwn K. 

The down-drooper. 

/>*ng#«s S. 

The brusher. 


pimamah S. 

To wag the jaws 


J8rfl^ »s> S. 

Cuddling up to a 

Tear, a 

s&mpUoh plnyengok 

Water of the eyes. 


psrungkup K. 

The overarching. 

Thumb v. Hand 

»6w ptngolek, S.,ibu 
pfnyampai S. 


/aw& bunyi tongkat K 

. Far-sounder of the 


si-limma L., sMtmak ' The weak one' s*- 

E., K., M., S. 


plngurat S. 

The sinewy. 

Tin v. Silver 


plngayal K., L, M., 

The intoxicator. 

plngayar E., S. 

(khayal Ar.). 

Tooth, beak, ivor) 

E., K., L. 

, The gnawer. 

M., S. 



pinlgap isi S. 

With strong con- 


sarowg bingkai. L. 

Ski it with rim round 
the top = ? with a 

Umbrella, flower 

pingtmbang E. 

The opener. 


pSnyakap jauh S. 

The far-speaker. 


£«/*£«/ /«w6^ S. 

The soft folder. 

Wash, bathe 

MrstmpUoh L., M. 

ta jam bunt ut E.,M.,S 

, To water one's self. 


1. Sharp of tail. 

70 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 

Literal meaning. 
Water, river sBmp&loh E., K., L., Moisture (cf. piloh). 

Wet v. wash blrstmptloh S. 

Wild ^M/a«/i. S. Distant. 

Wind v. Alive 

Yam (Amorpho pSngatal, plnggatal S. The itchy. 
phallus, k&ladi). 
\kUedek) pSmanis S. The sweet. 

isi akar S. The liana's contents. 

(ubi gadong) isi mabok, kayu m. The intoxicator. 

M.. S. 

Note.— In the left-hand column M. = 

= Malay; J. = Jakun 

>em. =Semang. 

Afraid, run, 

libun K., bllibun S.. 

, A. 42, p. Sii. 

stray, lose. 

mtlibun S., bUium 


d'binkai K. 

A. 47, p. 511. 

jUndeka M. 

A. ioi-112, p. 515. 

Ant, white 

mambong tanah M. 

? ' Hole in the^ 

7070/ S., /w/>eA S. 

A. 118, p. 515. 


t lapian 

A. 128, p. 515. 

1 M. Arm, ringer, 


{F. in, p. 603. 


\ ? — ' The rolling. 

Ask for, to 

salol S. 

A. 165-6, p. 519. 

1 M. Aunt 

«6a«g bisan S. 

Back, behind 

( ptnakan K., ^>g«g 

- B. 6, p. 521 


&«« S. 

\. Baggage, ani 

- pechem S. 

B. 16, p. 521. 

„ goods 

pechem-pechon K. 

Banana, plan- buah suguh K., 

F. 284, p. 615. 

6. ;t«gfc» S. 


^ />ww/> W « S. 

Bark, to 

«««?*< kon S. Wr&!- 
^awg E. 

■B. 59, P-525- 


charok K. 

B. 67, p. 524. 

M. Bat, a 

bisan btrsayap*E.,M. 
S., 6. bungkus E.i 
6. chhneyim S. 

, B. 72, p. 525 

1920.] R. 

O. W'l 

nstedt : The Camphor Language. 71 

?M., a fruit 

bisan blrsayap S., M. 46, p. 655. 



blrslmpUoh mambong V. Water (C) 

mengringat B. 88, p. 525. 

Be, to 

Bear, a 

plngapang M., kaum B. no, p. 526. 
pe'nge'pangS., chewe 
pangpang L. , chhig- 
lerat E. 


nirsik S. 

? M. Bear, t 

pSncJiemot K. 

Beat, prick, 

hlpang K., S., btrM- B. 121, p. 527. 


pang S. 

3 M. Bee 

bisan btrganiong ' The hanging crea- 

? M. Beetle, 

- slit nlkoh mambong B. 143, p. 529. 
kayu M. 

? M. Before 

mubun awal S. Taboo periphrasis 

? M. Belly 

mambong h., S., m. ,, „ 
bagmK.,S., kori K. B., 205-6 212, p. 523. 



? M. Bird 

bisan K., S., b. blrsa- Taboo periphrasis. 
yap E.,K.,M., S. 


mirsik E., blrkawat. B. 240, p, 535. 

pinyingup S. 

? M. Blade 


hpanch K., /^acA, B. 244, p. 535. 

/a£«to M. 
(? M) pantus plnyeng- 



pralis S. B. 263, p. 539. 

? M. ,, , barrel 

mamung S. 

? M. , muzzle 

kfpantus mamun° S. 

? M . , quiver 

mung S. 

?M. ,d 

plnlgap pralis S. 



habung S. B. 302, p. 540. 


point pUatas S. 


-sheath pakan S. 


foA sj'a/5 S. 


fo/j w^o/j S. ' Not eating.' 

? M. Boat 

kipet S. ? = fo/>d&. B. 317, p. 

? M. Bold 

ptdas mambong m£r-} Malay \- 
sek S., 6m/oA wa- 
mung S. 

? M. Bough 

mambong dahan M. ,, M 

J. Break, 


£., cAe/er S., B. 373, p. 544. 

72 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Breast plnlkoh slek S. ? The little thing, 

which is swal- 

? M. Bridge slrlniong B. 393, p. 546 ? cf. 

Brittle pantus chUiher S. ? M.-f J. 

Brother, elder afomg «/«/ S., kaum 

„ , younger a&cmg kutul S. , 
fo'saw na'jok S. 
? M.Buffalo cA«evie>«AE.,S. ( The lowing animal' 

?M. Butterfly bisan ptnyeyip (?p£- < The flying crea- 

nyapap) S. ture.' 

?M. Bullocks plngipas jauh S. Cf. ' Tail/ 

? J. Call, to Wrklui S. J G. 49, p. 620. 

Can tlrsalorS. * & «• * 55* 

Care, to take sa/or ptnyengok S. C. 26, p. 553. 
Cap (songkok) chongkop ttlombong- 


langgap K. 

Cat, civet 

mSkoh tvmang M. 

T 133, p. 739- 

„ , wild 

tumang plngabu M. 


Charcoal , 

m'rsek K. S. 

B - 240, p. 535- 

Chase v. 


i- mUagat bttroh S 


bttroh awal S. 

?M. Chest, s 


l, kawat K. 

c C. 89, p. 557. 

fathom, iron 
pot, thigh 

\ ? Malay periphra- 

M. Child (boy 

, anak bisan kUkoa M 

. S. 284, p. 716. 


J. Chopper 

wfl* S. 

Sireom's JakunVocs, 

Clean, to 

konlont K., />a«^ s 

£ 143, p. 560. 


C. 161, p. 561. 


Pomfioing K. 

C. 177, p. 562. 


pacham taiengel L,. 

B. 16, p. 521. 

? Taboo (in Jakun). 




bisan chhneyip S. 

s C. 193, P- 563 ; 

l ? ' Winged crea- 


s*'«/> E., K., L., M. 

s. isi S. 

, C 206, p. 564. 

J. Come, to ; 


btrsalor S. 

G. 43, p. 619. 


cheloien K. 

C 56, p. 675 

i.] R. O. Winstedt : The Camphor Language, 

M. Conduct 

pranchasan K. 

? f Une cut.' 

Cooked, soft 

s - 337, P- 719. 



?M. Copulate, to 

bSrkutol S., bSrba- ( 

yong E. 

C. 246, p. 566. 


ttkoh latop S. 

c - 2 5o, P- 567- 

? M. Count 

plnchuret S. 

M& J. Crack 

na'chMeher S. 

B - 373, P- 544- 

Creature, bird 

, bisan K., S. 

W. 132, p. 7 6r. 


bagin~E.,$., bakit 

1 M. L. 119, p. 649. 

M. Crow 

mambong sayap 

« The black-win 

pSngitam M. 


blrpiah S. 

C. 281, p. 568. 


s'lek K. 

C. 290, p. 568. 

leek K. 

D. 11. p. S7i. 

M - 

mtranchas ptngolek S. V. Cut, Hand ; su\ 

?M. „ 

btrmMor S. 

? ' To wear jasmi 

?M. Daughter 

anak bisan M., S. 
„ kutulS. 

V. ' Creature.' 

M. Day 

tongkat Chilean K 

D - 39, P- 574- 

?M. Dead, die, kill 

-pantus L., M., S. 

O. 39, P. 574. 




lipanch pirifngar 

K. 7. ' Blind ' suprc 

beh plnlngar S. 



ningkat S. 

Cf. f Lift up, to 

Deer (Rusa) 

c^ewe />z'w, cA. ta/>* 

«S.D. 68(b), p. 578 

„ (Kijang) 

,, /«/>*« S., 

sSlek S., sungong D. 

c^z£>£ sg/^ S.j pasing 

pP.nimbok E., 


tonjing E. 


«*£«* s'^WoA M. 

S. 187, p. 709. 


n7«s S. 

D. 106, p. 580. 


lasek K. 

D. no, p. 580. 


ftmym S. 

D. 118, p. 581. 

J- Dog 

minchor M., w**< 

"hoi D. 142-3, p. 583- 

? M. Drag 



M. Earth 
M. Eat, peck 

? M. Egret 
? M. Elephant 

? M. Enter 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol 

bisan pinchurek. 
reneh $>., awaL plnl- 
kan S. 
ream bingkai slmpiloh S. V. ' Afterwards 
„ plnangat slmpiloh S. 

mllagat tulus $., pi- V. ' Quick ' suf 

ngolek mllagat S. 
mlnlkoh slmplloh E. D. 165, p. 584. 

buah nyinyar S. 


94, P- 736. 


' Thorn.' 

tlngkalum K. 


175, p. 661 

manibon^ tauah M 

tlkoh mlnlkoh 


, E. 

29, p. 589. 

llkok; nlkohS. 

mlmboh buah M. 


34, P- 590. 

bisan pintol S. 

slglntil L.. M., 



5i. P- 591- 

gSntir E. 

fertgm pinlgap, , 


i V. 

Big > MlJ 

/>. K. 

& Bone S °' v 

jengok, 7. plnlkoh 


? M. 


? ' 


beh jingo k S. 


' Enough 

6<?A «7>a pechem S. 

f Baggage ' ; 

tongkat lorn, t. 

nak Cf 

. malum. 


live /a&or K. 


21, p. 596. 


M. Firefly 

? M. Fly 

J. Follow 

awal S. 
mllaput S. 
bagin $.,b 
pa 1 bisan 

kawat S. 
gagit S. 
Unurun b 

kutulS., bi 
salor S. 
klbok M., bintoh §., 

bintoh ho-ho S. 
slek S., pantus S. 
pldas K., blbinto K. 
slek (putek) S. 
bisan suloh S. 

F. 63, p. 600. 

F. 105, p. 602. 

' The torch creature.' 

? From sayap 'Wing.' 

jok S., I'roh, bltroh G. 43, 48, p. 619. 

1920.] R. O. Winstedt : The Camphor Language. 
J. Forest, hill, sing K., L., M., S., H. 90, p. 631 

chongkop a jul S 
pUanchas ajul S. 
jongkar E., M. 
jongkar sing M. 

V. Forest. 

f Follower,' 'servant.' 

'Sweet of the forest. 5 

Gather, to 
Ghost, oath 

jtngok S., moit S. 

anse K. 

/>«7for K. 

s'kok K., ^«m 6e/» 

hin-ong ptningol S. 
6'/oft, Wr/o£ E., S., 
chewe mek S., ch. 

G. 5, p. 616. 
G. 11, p. 616. 
G. 20, p. 617. 

G. 41, 43, p. 619-2 
' The bleating en 

Half, a 
Hand, to 



Hate, angrv, 
tired, evil, 
bad, ill, 

IV. 'Old; 'Many. 

5, p. 716. 
2, p. 626. 
I, p. 626. 

nyut S. H. 25, p. 628. 


? M. Hear, t 


yak manning S. 
ptningol, ptmubun. 
ptnyepok K. 
mambong mlrsek M 

S. m. mirisit h. 
bSchont K., S.,bScho'- 

ot S., a 

H. 52, p. 629. 
H. 61, p. 630. 
Cf. c Charcoal, Hole.' 

7 6 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. 

J. Here, come kian K. T. 90, p. 735. 

High awal S. Cf. ' Far.' 

Hill v. Forest 

Hit, meet, get, salor, bersalor, ttr- 
know. salor S 

Hold, to blplnganak S. Cf. ' Hand.' 

?M. Hole, belly, mambong K., S. ? — ' empty.' H. 

Hornbill kunmambong M. J-+M. 

J. House, nest, chinia S.. chindir E. H. 152, p. 635. 

?M. Humped, stnadan S ? Cf. Mai. sadak 

sloping of a 


Husband, ajul E., K., M., S..M. 20, p. 652 i 

male, penis kotol K., S. of. Jav. kontol, 

? M. 1 "ku mamung S , koh 

mambong E. 

J. Iron chenotK., chaotic S. 466, p. 725, ; 
I. 136, p. 639. 

Itch v. Hate, tmntoh chungkop M., I. 46, p. 640. 

skin chekos K. 

Jakuns kaum sieng K., E. Ar. + J. 

Johore sieng- Jor E. 

J. Keep £8rfcw» K. K. 5, p. 641. 

Kelantan sieng-AluK 

Kingfisher burong kawat M. 

J. Knee slntrfnt S. 

m. Knock t< 

d hues. 

Know, fetch, 

salor S. 


binto k&munyis 

, , humped 

I chilos S. 


ptmeseng K 


mUahin K. 

gemer S. 


ajul K., 

ptngagit S. 


mambong di-ira 


blrchlnlngak S. 

wyaA &m<?/j S. 


di-ptrajul S. 

fc&ro/j K. 


mUahor S., 

<#£«'** S. 

. O. Winstedt : The Ca 

L. 54 ? p. 647. 


beh jlngok 


panchurek K. 


hapas S. 


chongkop S. 


dipieng S. 


bantil S., mat 

W. 149, p. 762. 
L. 62, p. 647. 
S. 234, P- 712. 
T. 164, p. 740. 
F. 59, p 600. 


Monkey (b&r 

awal S 1 

beh rapat S 

intus S., 
Mibutn S. 
pinyuna S. 

beh plminying S. ; 

tkunM., ( 
sSlek baharu 

S., aw#& fo'saw S. 

H. 65, p. 630. 
L. 119, p. 649 & H. 
90, p. 631. 

jengok S. 
Vbisan K. 
fiin E. 
- phiyuna kun S., p. 
beh pingipas. 
piny una slek S. p. 
kre'k S. 
) piny una jimong S. 3 

chongkob E. 

kun t E., K., L., M. J 

, fete A K., fe/>e£., fe^S 

F. 'Dead.' 

Cf. Jav. £owte/ penis. 

E. 63, p. 600 & M. 

20, p. 652. 
M. 44, p. 654. 
W. 132, p. 761, 



ptrsoa M., 
pingSsop S. 
6eA «K>ti/ S. 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. '. 

Not, no 

beh K.,S. 

Not yet 

behS., awalS. 

Now, just 

tik S. 

nyonyok isi S. 

Oath v. Ghosl 

Oil, hair 

slmplloh plningol. 


klbok isi S. 

0. 15-18, p. 673. 


sia M. 

O. 30, p. 174- 

P. 32, p. 674. 


ivtam M. 

Ox ' 

chewe boh E. 

Paddle, swim 

, chuer K. 

P. 5, p, 676. 

„ , U P- 

„ ptningol 

V. f Head/ 


sieng-plngipang E. 


blrslck S. 

Palm, screw- 

daun plmuteh sing M 

. H. 90, p. 631. 

Pan {kuali) 

pakan E. 


bistin plnetekS. 


klsungkok K. 

P- 33, P- 677- 


bisan slmplloh kun S 
b. blriambul S. 


Arabic Mai. 



P. 80, p. 679. 

Pigeon, green chialai. 

P. 92-8, p. 680. 

Piss, to 

mllanchir S 

slmplloh a jul S. 
mllau slmplloh E. 




paieng K. 

P. 183, p. 684. 

Pot, earthen 

pakan K. 

P. 201, p. 685. 

,, , cooking 

feiwaf E., K., S. , bing- C. 89, p. 557- 

kai E. 


chlnlgga ibu E. 



<ft/*A S. 

P. 240, p. 686. 

Putrid, of 

c/wa/ M., poos S. 

S. 292, p. 717. 


mllaher kon S. 


chUikas S., 70& S. 

Q. 5(b), p. 687. 

Quiver mllagat bltroh S. 

Quiver cords mambong tali M. 

Rain slmplloh mllau E. R. 8, 10 p. 689. 


P&jui s , pa jo s. 

Rapid talar K.. plnglrip K. R. 30, p. 690, T. 173, 

p. 741. 
Rat, bamboo plnglrip kon S., pin- M. + J. 
chodok bagin S. 

O. Winstedt : The Camphor Language, 


"mbin kzkok K. R. 50, p. 693. 

Reed (sUin- 

daun nlkoh S. -The leaf that ct 



cMngktrat l>., M., R.o,2,p. 696. F. ] 


s&gSntil beh p$ng&- p. 604. 

rip K., B. 


ptlisok K., p&rsok S. R. 135, p. 698. 

J. Road 

jok S. j. bagin K. G. 43, p. 619. 

M. Rub 

kulut K. R 195, p. 701. 

rojol K. R. 205, p. 701. 


slmpUoh pleng S., 

ayer lior ptnyileh 

J. Sell 

piehh. S. 95, p. 705. 


ttpStisiS. . .. 

? M. Sharp 

ntkoh S., mtlagat ' (Quick) biting." 

'n&koh S. [nying S. 


beh awal S., b. plrnt- .... 


Mrajul S. I,. 31, p. 645. 


m'pior K. S. 212, p. 71 1 


Sieng-plngMat E. J.+M. 

J. Skin, bark, 

chungkop K., chong- S 2^4 p 712 


hop S. 


palin K. S. 263, p. 714 


btstlet K. 



mambong kayn BC. 


mllaoh sa-pliotin M. S. 391, p. 722 


bttrayul plntgak M. S. 31, p. 645. 


tongkat slek S. V. ' Little.' 




cho'ot S., choh-ut E. S. 466, p. 725 

Stool, to 

mingkai E. 

J. Sugar-cane 

605 S. S. 514, p. 728. 

Tear, rend 

chtleher S., dtkal S. B. 373, p. 544. 


buah ajul S., b. gantus V. ' Man ' 

ny invar E., S. T. 94 (b), p. 736. 



ibu pSnganak M. F. ' Hand.' 


pSmintoh slrongkop « Anger of the 

K. cover er.' 


toman K. T. 133, P- 739- 

T. Tired 

kabo I,. T. 147, p. 740. 


gSme-gSme S. 

J. Tongue 

/en, pHeng K., S., T. 164, p. 740. 

pZnjUer S. 


salor pSngolek S pi- V. ' Arm.' 

Journal of the F.M.S. Mu 

Tree, butt of 



VI. Up 

3 M. Upstrea 




bSrpSlipat S., btr. 
plnglrip stgHntil U, 

C 51, P- 59i- 

T. 274, p. 746. 


piningol s. S. 
kutul S., chinera 1 

pgmengeh K., 
btrklueh S. ( 

mllawoh s'pSloh len 1 

jokS., bUroh S. ( 

ptr&sop ptnekan S. 
ttrsalor S., di-pSrajul 

20, p. 749. 
8 , P- 552. 

Weak, soft 
Well, a 

pSntul K., plntol S., 

pintul L. 
maik s tnahui S. 
kaum bisan S., sakai 

kutul S., fosarc E. 
cA«e L 
, cA2fffe> E. puih S. 

chlntngkah S. 
/w*"A M. 
tongkat bagin. 

»• 337* P- 719- 
T- 173, P- 74i. 
W. 76, p. 755. 
W. 101 (b), p. 758. 

By R. O. Winstedt. 

There are twelve purificatory rites which cleanse a Brahman 
from the taint of sin derived from his parents. (Monier Williams' 
"Hinduism," 1911, pp. 59, 60; and E. Thurston's "Castes 
and Tribes of Southern India," vol. I, sub Brahman.) They 
are not always punctiliously performed and often several are 
performed together. Between these rites and the twelve main 
incidents of a Malay boy's life there is such close coincidence, 
that it would appear we may detect in those incidents, as 
elsewhere, survivals of Brahmanism underlying the Malay's 
later faith. These survivals are corroborated by the many 
Sanskrit words employed in the Malay ceremonies :— pancha- 
plrsada ' a ceremonial bathing-place ' ; pancharona ' divers- 
coloured of thread ' , and so on. 

The twelve rites are as follows :— 

(1) The ritual of consummation spoken, unless the bride 
is a child, on the last, i.e. the fourth or fifth day of the marriage 
ceremonies. After the consummation of a Malay marriage 
bride and groom are ceremonially bathed {mandi sampat Pk. ; 
mandi tolak bald) on or before the seventh day of the marriage 

ritual would naturally be merged and lost in the marriage 

(2) & (3) Two ceremonies performed together in the seventh 
or ninth month, the first to ensure the birth of a male child and 
the second the parting of the hair of the pregnant woman. 
These correspond with the Malay ceremony of mUenggang plrul. 

(4) Touching the infant's tongue thrice at birth with 
honey and ghi, with recital of a verse from the Rig Veda 
wishing the child long life and happiness. Arab and 'Indian 
Moslems do this, omitting, of course, the verse from the Rig- 
Veda. Moreover on the Malay infant's forehead is painted 
the caste-mark of the Hindu (Skeat's ' Malay Magic," p. 336). 

(5) The whispering of a name into the child's ear by the 
parents on the tenth or twelfth day. 

(6) Taking out the child in the fourth month to see the 
sun. With this may be compared the Malay custom of 
tumn ka-tanah which is everywhere observed (c//Siouck Hur- 
gronje's"The Achehnese," vol. I, p. 389). In Kelantan a 
raja's child has to be taken down from the house by three 
steps, no more, no fewer. The child is carried through a line 
of women holding lighted candles to a spot where seven gold 
plates are placed. The first plate contains magic herbs ; the 
second unhusked rice (padi); the third husked rice (bSras), the 

82 journal of the F. M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

fourth rice-paste {l&pong tawar), the fifth yellow turmeric rice 
{nasi kunyit) , the sixth earth from a grave and the seventh 
sand from the sea. Into each of these plates the child's 
feet are pressed, before he is allowed to tread the earth 
{pijak tanah) , Then he is carried up a seven-tiered stand and 
bathed. After the lustration, the stand is thrown, with the 
spirits attaching to it, into the sea. Wilkinson has described 
a Perak custom on introducing an infant to the water for the 
first time (" Incidents of Malay Life," pp. 4, 5). On return 
from that ceremony the midwife puts the infant's feet into 
trays containing cakes and 50 cents in each tray: that 
constitutes the Perak ceremony of pijak tanah, after which 
the child is put into a swinging cot for the first time. 

(7) Feeding the child with rice about the sixth 
month. I know of no corresponding Malay ceremony. 

(8) Tonsure of the hair except one lock in the third 
year :— a practice observed by Malays. On this occasion the 
Brahman clips the hair with seven strokes of the scissors: 
the Malay cuts seven locks (Skeat, "Malay Magic," 
PP. 353-4)- 

(9) Investiture with the sacred cord, when the boy is 
delivered to his guru or religious instructor with elaborate 
ritual. The Malay also hands his son over to the Koran 
teacher with considerable ceremony (Wilkinson, pp. 12-13). 

(10) Cutting off the hair at puberty. This is done by 
Malays with great ceremony before circumcision {ib. pp. 17-18). 
In Perak during the hair-cutting, a mimic battle with bundles 
of rice is waged. Sometimes before circumcision the boys 
are dressed like brides, seated on a bridal dais and have the 
henna dance performed before them. In Kelantan a torch- 
light procession goes seven times round the house of the 
chief where the circumcision is to be performed ; walls are 
removed and the procession perambulates the house without 
descending to the ground. Circumambulation is practised in 
all Brahmanical ritual. 

(11) Solemn return home on completion of religious 
studies. This also is always observed by Malavs {ib., p. 17), 
often with details that are not Moslem. Indian Moslems also 
hold a festival on these occasions. 

(12) Marriage which is full of Brahmanical ritual. 

In some parts of India, the boring of the ears also is part 
of the Brahmanical ritual. When a Malay girl has her ears 
bored, the thread used is of divers colours {pancha warna), 
having at the ends turmeric cut in the shape of a flower of 
mace : two of these flowerets adorn the thread left in each ear. 

It is true that Islam came to Malaya from India, but 
long before the coming of Islam India had left an ineffaceable 
influence on Malay life and thought. 

I am indebted to Mr. T. S. Adams for accounts of the 
Kelantan customs here described. 

1920.] R. O. Winstedt : Malay Custom. 83 

With this paper should be read my articles on " Perak 
Birth Customs " and " Upper Perak Marriage Ceremonies " in 
this Journal. 



As soon as a Malay woman is with child, she and her hus- 
band are compelled to observe certain (i) rules {pantang) to 
elude vampires injurious to the mother, (2) rules to avoid any- 
harmful influence (ktnan) on the child unborn, (3) rules to 
expedite and make safe delivery. When the woman goes 
abroad, she must carry a parang, or iron of some sort as a 
talisman against evil spirits. If the husband stir out of 
his compound after dark , he may not return direct but must 
visit some other house first to put any chance vampire fol- 
lowing him off the scent. In the event of an eclipse, the 
woman must hide under the shelf in the kitchen, a wooden 
spoon in her hand and the basket stand, in which the cook- 
ing pot generally rests, upon her head— these as weapons and 
snares against evil spirits (cf. Clifford, " Studies in Brown 
Humanity," pp. 48-50). In Malacca and Singapore, she will 
bathe under the house- ladder at this crisis, so that she may 
not give birth to a parti-coloured child, half white, half 
black. At all times, the husband of a pregnant woman must 
be circumspect in taking life : if he wantonly fracture the leg of 
a fowl, his child runs the risk of being born with a deformed 
limb— though this taboo being very inconvenient, modern 
husbands at any rate get over it by the fiction that, if the 
deed is done with deliberation and forethought, there is no 
startling of the child in the womb and so no fear of harm. 
No one may enter at the front door and pass out at the back or 
the contrary; there is only one exit from the womb, the 
"house of birth." Guests may not remain only one night in 
the house. Neither husband nor wife may sit on the top of 
the house-ladder : such blocking of a passage entails protracted 
delivery. " In selecting timber for the uprights of a Malay 
house, care must be taken to reject any log which is indented 
by the pressure of a parasitic creeper that may have wound 
round it when it was a living tree; a log so marked, used in 
building a house, will exercise unfavourable influence in child- 
birth, protracting delivery" (Sir W.lliam Maxwell, J.R.A.S., 
S.B. XI, p 19). After the engagement {pfaigk&ras, minSmpah, 
Urkirim pSrut) of the midwife in the seventh month, the 
husband may not have his hair cut till the birth has taken 
place for fear the after-birth break ; and every Friday the wife 
must bathe with limes and drink the water which drops off 
the end of her hair. 

For in the seventh month of pregnancy, there is sent to 

[Vol. IX, 1920.] R. O. Winstedt: Perak Birth Customs. 85 

the midwife (bidan) the present which Malay custom ordains 

on every occasion of formal courtesy, — 

( • Betel-tray and betel caskets, 
Made by craftsmen of Macassar, 
Wrapped in gay and fringed linen. 
S*>M-leaf on golden stalk, 
Betel-nut that's cleft in four, 
Finest lime and scented water, 
Tobacco clinging to the stem: — 
These the contents of the caskets." 

Money also may be sent, but is not compulsory, and any 
other gifts, according to the sender's fancy, suitable for the 
festivities or useful in the midwife's profession, the spices 
proper for the occasion, saffron rice, a chicken, a gourd, a 
da mar torch. In Upper Perak the midwife is presented with a 
cocoanut, a mat, three bags (kampit) of rice, and a torch (damar 
sa-bUumbong) ; and the medicine-man (pawang or bomoh) with a 
chupak of rice, 25 cents (wang sa-suku) or in the case of the rich 
$ 5 (lima hlntri mas). If the midwife is not engaged before- 
hand, she is termed bidan tarek and may charge double fees. 

In Upper Perak a curious ceremony precedes the usual 
lustration in the seventh month of a first pregnancy. A palm- 
blossom (mayang pinang mungkus) is wrapped up to represent a 
baby, with a brooch (agok) on the bosom. This doll is put on 
a tray and hung adorned with flowers in a cradle, made of 3, 
5 or 7 layers of cloth according to the rank of the parents. 
The Bidan and Pawang sprinkle rice-paste on doll and cradle ; 
and the Bidan rocks the cradle, crooning Malay quatrains. 
The doll is then handed by the Bidan to the future father, his 
wife and all the relatives in turn to nurse. Finally the doll is 
put back into the cradle and left there till the next day, when 
it is broken up and thrown into water. 

A ceremonial bathing (mSlenggang plrul or mandi sulong) 
takes place everywhere when a woman has gone seven months 
with her first child, and is the occasion of house decoration 
and feasting and of a religious chant (maulud) in praise of the 
Prophets : — these all the ordinary accompaniments of cir- 
cumcisions, marriages and funerals. During the maulud 
husband and wife are put in the middle of the company for 
the duration of three chants. The next morning, husband 
and wife will be dressed in their best and taken in procession 
down to the river. Incense is burnt and two rites observed 
which are imperative on every momentous occasion of Malay 
life, at birth, at the shaving of the child's head, at circum- 
cision, in sickness, on return from a long journey, at a chief 's 
installation, at a warrior's preparation for battle: three kinds 
of rice (Urteh, blras kunyit, bSras basah) and neutralizing rice- 
paste (ttpong iawar) are sprinkled on water ready for use. To 
sprinkle rice-paste is supposed to neutralize or sterilize all 

86 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 

evil and envious influences that may molest a person on any 
great occasion. The couple are bathed (mandi bangkar Perak ) , 
a white cloth spread over their heads, cocoanut palms waved 
seven times above them, and they are drenched with water 
charmed to avert evil and procure well-being, as at the lustra- 
tion practised after marriage. The cloth is removed and ap- 
propriated by the midwife as her perquisite. A thread (bSnang 
pUulut di-pasang fada kMua-nya lalu di-alin) is passed round 
the pair and a mirror lit by candles waved before their 
faces, at which they must stare with direct glances to avoid 
any chance of their child being squint-eyed ! Then the pro- 
cession returns to the house, where the couple sit together 
(blrsandxng) as at a marriage Shawls are spread on the 
floor ; if the patient is a raja, seven shawls must be spread • 
the pregnant woman lies on her back, so that the shawls are 
under her waist: the midwife seizes the ends of the first 
shawl and rocks her patient slowly as in a hammock, removes 
ancTs 268 the - ends , ° f the next shawl and re Peats the perform- 
The birth itself is an occasion not for seclusion but for 
the assemblage of all relatives, and neighbours. The Pa- 
wang s first care is to select a spot where the earth is will- 
ing to endure defilement; and this is done by dropping an 
axe-head or a chopper to the ground, till it chance to 
stick upright: the patient is laid on the floor above that 
spot : thorn-bushes {duri m&ngkuang, duri bulang terong asam) 
rays' tails bees' nests, a fishing-net, dummy figures (gambar 
orang sa-hUamin) are placed to scare away vampires. Some- 
times the midwife will dress as a man in trousers and head- 
kerchief like the female pawang in the Urhantu ceremony 
described by Swettenham ("Malay Sketches," XIV) A 
rattan, round which cloth has been twisted is slung for the 
patient to cling to in her throes. If deliverv is difficult re- 
course is had to the old magic., to bizarre charms, to ejacula- 
tions of orthodox belief. A medicine-man will be called to lift 
the end of the woman's hair and blow down it : the husband 
will be summoned to step to and fro across his wife's body 
and blow on her forehead or kiss her, "to condone by this 
symbolical trampling under foot any sins she may have 
committed against him." The medicine-man will enquire in 
what limb she feels weakest and hand the midwife a written 
charm to tie to that limb with a white incense-fumigated 
bandage. If the after-birth will not follow, a portion of the 
umbilical-cord is cut from the infant and tied to the patient's 
thigh— as a kind of sympathetic bait. 

After the child's birth, some religious elder is called to 
open {bllah) the child's mouth, which he does bv giving the 
child a ring smeared with sireh and cocoanut extract (santan) 
to suck. The mother is put to roast (btrdiang). A gantang 
or nee is poured into a tray, covered with clothes and the 

1920.] R. 0. Winstedt : Perak Birth Customs. 87 

infant laid on it. When the navel falls off a poultice is put 
on, mixed with pepper to make the child brave. A little 
feast of sweetmeats is prepared for children. The infant is 
removed from the tray. The rice whereon the infant lay is 
measured and omens taken as to the child's future. If the 
measure is brimming, the child will be rich ; if it is short, 
poor. The balance of the rice is given to the chickens to 
avert evil (tolak bala) After 40 days, the ' roasting' of the 
mother ceases. The midwife is paid in Upper Perak $ 2 or, if 
the infant has been troubled by ghouls [pelak fiuaka), $ 2\ 
and allowed to remove her earlier presents : in the case of 
any later child, the midwife's fee in Upper Perak is % I. 
These fees, of course, vary in different places and with differ- 
In Upper Perak names suggested by some local circum- 
stance are given at birth, and girls, for example, are named 
after a butterfly, fish and plants. Later the parents will con- 
sult a LSbai to take the child's horoscope and select a Muham- 
madan name for the child according to the date of its birth. 
The Muhammad an name selected may be used temporarily or 
permanently. The first pagan name may still be used but 
will be changed for another in the case of illness or mis- 
fortune. In Patani there are many pagan names, Beh, 
Seluang, Udang, Panji, Sari and so on. In Kelantan five or 
seven bananas are dubbed with persons' names : they are 
laid before the infant and he is given the name allotted to 
the particular banana that he first grabs. 

Though it is not connected with birth ceremonies, one 
may note that in Perak and Selangor, if a boy exactly 
resembles his father, it is usual to pierce (tindek) one of his 
ears : otherwise father or son is likely to die. The resem- 
blance of a girl to her father or of boy or girl to the mother is 

There is a rite sutwasa observed by Indian Moslems, 
when a woman arrives at the end of the seventh month of 
pregnancy, though it is simpler and differs from the elaborate 
Mil iv ceremonial; and Indian (and Arab) Moslems also get 
an elder to open an infant's mouth with honey, that he may 
learn wisdom and understanding (Herklots' " Qanoon-e- 
Islam "). But both these ceremonies are found in Brahmin- 
ism. (Monier Williams' "Hinduism" (19 11 ), PP- 59. 6o -> 

An account of " Birth Ceremonies in Perak" by Sir 
William Maxwell appears in J.R.A.S., S.B., "Notes and 
Queries," No. 3; and in Patani by Messrs. Annandale and 
Robinson, " Fasciculi Malayenses," Anthropology, Part II. 


By R. O. Winstedt. 

Betrothal is arranged as elsewhere (Wilkinson's "Inci- 
dents of Malay Life," pp. 19-20; Skeat's "Malay Magic," 
PP- 304-3 D 8). The relatives of the suitor bring sir eh in five 
layers on a tray adorned with a paper tree : on another tray 
are yellow rice, a comb, a cup of oil, a silk sarong and a ring. 
On arrival at the house yellow rice is strewn. After the 
betrothal is concluded the suitor's mother anoints and combs 
the girl's hair and gives her a present. The mahar or isi 
kahwin is $ 10 or $ 12 (nal) and the marriage is postponed, 
as is usual, for a rice-year (tahun padi) aud takes pla^e after 
the harvest {Upas mlnuai). During the period of betrothal 
the suitor's relatives (wans) support the engaged girl. The 
cost of the wedding (bManja hangus) is shared by both fami- 
lies. A favourite time for commencing the festivities, which 
take place in the home of the bride, is Sunday evening (malam 
Isnain). Parched (bSiteh) and yellow rice (btras^ kunyti), 
neutralizing rice-paste (tlpong tawar), a censer, a thread of 
divers colours (btnang pancha wama) as long as twice the 
length of a man from neck to heel and a tray are got ready. 
On the tray is placed a ring encircled by the aforesaid thread. 
A pan ang ties a white thread with a ring on the groom's neck; 
lights a candle on a cup or tray ; burns incense invoking all 
the local spirits (klramat ; charai Fat.= j£mba!ang) to be kind : 
scatters yellow rice and sprinkles the groom with neutralizing 
rice-paste and dresses his hair (blrkundai atau mlmotong 
rambut Mr and am). A matron does the same service for the 
bride. A red and a white flag (panji) are stuck on either side 
of the house-door. The parched rice, rice-paste and censer 
are carried to the top of the house-ladder and the pawang 
goes down and offers betel and parched rice and rice-paste to 
the malignant spirits who haunt the locality (hantu puaka). 
The bride is bathed in the house. The groom is taken down 
to the river. Three bamboo cressets (sangkak) are erected 
and on them tied three candles, three quids of betel, three 
cigarettes. Two large candles are stuck on the ground. A 
white flag with a candle fixed on its shaft is implanted hard by. 
The centre-piece is a palm-blossom (mayang mungkus) fixed 
erect on a vertical frame of five lathes. Two quids of betel 
(sireh) are tied by a string and placed one each side of the 
vertical palm-blossom, the centre of the string being hitched 
one third of its height up the palm-blossom. Rice-paste is 
sprinkled. Incense is burnt. The pawang sprinkles rice and 
rice-paste on the water where the groom will bathe, begging 

[Vol. IX, 1920.] R. O. Winstkdt : Marriage Ceremonies. 89 

pardon from all the spirits of earth and water {shaitan, 
jtmbalang, puaka). The candles are lit; and incense is burnt 
in the cressets. The palm-blossom is broken open . that its 
moisture may be used for the bathing ; limes and bldak are 
mixed with the water. Then the bridegroom is bathed with 
limes (bVrguriii P<\t. = h?> 'iuniu), facing downstream and hav- 
ing water thrown into his mouth. The white thread is re- 
moved from his neck and he is dressed in wedding garments — 
including a tasselled belt {gondii puncha bSrumbai), a head- 
kerchief with an aigrette (tajok ma'ai) and a creese with a 
bundle of sireh hitched to it. Commoners wear a belt of cloth 
across the shoulders termed sayap sandang. Rajas and chiefs 
will wear bracelets and armlets {gS.'ang tipis mas n 
llngan baju), on each side of the neck crescent- shaped orna- 
ments (like the dokoh), on the breast and on the back plaques 
shaped like the bunga kundor. Then the procession on ele- 
phants with painted foreheads and horses, if available, returns 
with religious chanting and singing to the bride's house, 
where men are perhaps fencing in the courtyard. The proces- 
sion is headed by men carrying flags, women bearing water 
vessels, sireh utensils and candles. On reaching the bride's 
house the groom steps down into a tray filled with water 
wherein have been placed a stone, a ring, a shaving knife, 
and a dollar. He is sprinkled with yellow rice and seated on 
a dais. Gay raiment is doffed. At night a procession {bfra- 
rak di-tabir) goes thrice round a henna tree, singing and 
firing gunpowder. The next day bathing is again practised 
and a procession forms again from the river. This revelry 
may be continued 4 or 5 days at the wedding of a chief, or 
2 or 3 in the case of a peasant. 

For the last da}- (hart lavgsong) a round dome-shaped 
building for incense {balai ph asapan) is made of bamboo or 
its posts being encircled by mats to keep in the smoke 
of the incense. It is placed in the middle of the house. 
Round it in a circle at the distance of the space between four 
house-pillars people hold up a white cloth. Within the circle 
of that cloth the bridegroom is taken in procession thrice each 
way around the balai ptr asapan, the people who are holding 
the cloth carrying it round in the direction the procession 
goes. Then the bridegroom is placed in the balai and smcked 
for a few minutes with incense. After that the bride is 
brought out and led inside the circle of white cloth to undergo 
the same ceremony. 

The bride next goes to her room. The duenna (tukang 
andam) guards the door. The panting demands entrance for 
the groom. The duenna demands payment, chukai wang sakati 
lima. The pawang presents a betel-box containing a ring and 
two or three dollars. The bridegroom is admitted and goes 
to the left of the bride. The pawang lifts the groom's left 
hand and places it on the bride's head. Next they feed one 

90 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

another with sir eh. Then 3, 5 or 7 old people paint the 
palms of the couple's hands with henna, and sprinkle rice 
and rice-paste over them. The couple lift hands in homage 
to these old ministrants. A ISbai reads prayers. After that 
bride and groom are stripped of their finery and brought 

A rice-mortar, which has been turned upside down, is 
ready in charge of an old woman. She demands payment 
for the use of it and receives a lump oipulut rice. Bride and 
groom are led round it, thrice in each direction, and there- 
after seated on a plank laid across the mortar. Bride and groom 
are each lifted thrice before they are declared duly seated. 
The pawang takes a bowl of water (batil btrsaksi), pours into 
it a little fresh cocoanut oil, and after throwing 5 grains of rice 
on to the oil, lights a candle and drops wax on to the oil and 
rice-grains. The pair are bathed in the water thus prepared to- 
gether with water from mayang pinang and flowers of the cocoa- 
nut. Seven times two matrons wave cocoanut fronds above 
their heads. Bathing accomplished, divers-coloured string is 
dropped round and over the heads of the pair three times while 
they step forward : and then under their feet and upwards three 
times while they step back. After the third time the string is 
lowered as far as their chests and severed in two places over the 
right rib of the groom and the left of the bride. The pieces 
of string are measured : if the front piece is the longer, the 
wife will obey her husband ; if the back piece is the longer, 
the husband will be ruled by his wife , if both pieces are equal, 
both will hold their own. That ceremony ended, bride and 
groom don their finery and sit in state. There is an exercise 
in Swedish drill, where the performer has to sink slowly down 
into a sqatting posture, then straighten his knees and stand 
erect, stretching his arms wide at the same time. Except 
that they have not to extend their arms and that they are held 
up by attendants, bride and groom have virtually to execute 
this exercise several times till they are seated simultaneously 
as custom requires. After that, the floral pyramid of rice be- 
fore them is broken and the embarrassed couple have to feed 
one another with their fingers. A Ubai reads prayers. 
At last curtains and mosquito-nets are lowered over them 
and the happy pair retire. On the following day ceremonial 
bathing {mandi bSrhias) is again performed, and feasting is 

On or about the seventh day of a formal wedding, after 
the hari langsong, there is another ceremonial bathing {mandi 
sampat Pk., mandi tolak bala), such as has been described by 
Skeat (" Malay Magic," p. 385, which may be a survival of 
the Brahmanical impregnation ceremony) ; but often nowa- 
days wedding celebrations are abbreviated to suit the means 
and convenience of the parties. 

At t,enggong in 1903 I saw a wedding containing most 

ig20.] R. O. Winstedt : Marriage Ceremonies. 91 

of the details that occur in the Temengor wedding ceremony, 
described above. But ignorance of the significance of the 
details had affected the ritual. On the day after the hari lang- 
song the bride and groom were made to crook little fingers 
and bathe together. Bowls, ewers, jars and pitchers stood 
filled with water : three or four young cocoanuts were sliced as 
they are sliced for drinking purposes. A black iron-pot was 
bound with plaited cocoanut fronds after the pattern called 
"centipedes' feet." The faces of the couple were smeared 
with cosmetics (btdak) and lime-water before the bathing began. 
The white cloth was piled with cocoanut fronds and the water 
poured down on the couple through the cloth. The milk of the 
cocoanuts was emptied after the water. Then the ministrants 
squirted water furiously over all present. The white cloth was 
dropped and wound round the couple. Two matrons waved co- 
coanut fronds seven times over their heads and then dropped the 
fronds for bride and groom to step to and fro across them thrice, 
before they were cast out of the house taking all ill-luck. A 
censer of incense was passed round the couple and a cord of 
parti-coloured threads passed round their necks. Of course, it 
is natural enough in a Muhammadan country that the familiari- 
ties involved in this lustration should be at the very end of the 
marriage ceremonies. But there is no doubt that the Temengor 
form has preserved the real order of ceremonies now devoid 
of significance. 

The code of Manu lays down that the most important 
part of a Brahman's wedding are the saptapadi or the leading 
of the bride three times round the sacred fire — each time in 
seven steps — the offering of burnt oblations by the bridegroom, 
the binding together of the bride and groom by a cord passed 
round their necks and the tying together of their dresses. 

Again " on the second or third day of Brahman marriage 
ceremonies, sacrifices are performed in the morning and even- 
ing and the nalagu ceremony. The couple are seated on two 
planks covered with mats and cloth, amidst a large number 
of women assembled within the pandal. In front of them, 
betel leaves, areca-nuts, fruits, flowers and turmeric paste are 
placed on a tray. The women sing songs they have learnt from 
childhood. Taking a little of the turmeric paste rendered red 
by the addition of lime (chunam), the bride makes marks by 
drawing lines on her feet. The ceremony closes with the 
waving of water coloured red with turmeric and lime and the 
distribution of betel-leaves and areca-nuts. The waving is done 
by two women who sing appropriate songs." (Thurston) 

The survival of Brahmanical custom, whether inherited 
from Langkasuka or some old kingdom of the north 01 infected 
with Siamese Buddhist ceremonial, is clear. The procession 
of bride and groom thrice round a burning censer ; the offer- 
ing of incense ; the parti-coloured cord round the bridal pair ; 
the crooking of fingers together or instead the holding by both 

92 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 1920.] 

of one handkerchief can all be traced back to the essential 
features of a Brahman's wedding. Only nowadays the mean- 
ing of the ceremonies are forgotten, so that no one sees the 
absurdity of relegating these ceremonies at convenience till 
after the hari langsong, the last day of the real wedding ! 

There is one other point of resemblance between all Malay 
and all Hindu weddings, the excessive affected modesty of the 
bride. ' ' The height of becoming conduct on the part of a 
Hindu bride is an exhibition of overwhelming modesty. She 
neither speaks nor smiles from beginning to end of the ceremony. 
While her toilet is in progress, she frequently has to be 
propped up against a wall ; and even then, if not supported on 
either hand by assistant bridesmaids — who are usually drawn 
from the elder women of the family— she allows herself to 
collapse and roll over helplessly, to the great admiration of 
the feminine portion of the family circle." (F. B. Penny's " On 
the Coromandel Coast" (1908), p. 246.) The words might be 
written of any Malay bride. 

DISTRICT {mlnjamu ntgfri). 

By R. O. Winstedt. 

The account of this ceremony was taken down at 
Temengor in Upper Perak. 

When the rice in the fields is beginning to swell to grain, 
the medicine-man (pawang) or village headman consults his 
dependants as to the desirability of propitiating the spirits of 
the district. If they agree, he collects subscriptions (inC'ipai) 
and orders everyone to bring a bushel of rice (btras sd 
and two cocoanuts {kllapa sa-tali) on the appointed day and 
at the place chosen. The choice of day and place rests with 
the medicine-man : generally he selects a Friday. 

A pink buffalo is bought. It must not have a maimed 
tail or torn ear or any blemish whatsoever. Its horns must 
be in length the span of a man's closed fist (sa-gSnggam 

On the Friday morning the whole country-side assembles. 
Candles are lit. Incense is burnt, the medicine-man uttering 
an invocation, " Ho incense ! I know your origin. From 
the brain of our Prophet came your smoke, the breath of his 
spiritual life. Go tell the medicine-men of creeks and pools, 
Pawang Muhammad, Pawang Zainal and our ancestor whose 
tomb we revere, that I am giving a feast of the meat of a pink 
buffalo with horns the span of a man's closed fist in length. ' ' 
( i( Hai klmlnyan ! Aku tahu asal-mu jadi ; pada dak M 
asap-mu jadi, nyawa ruhani-nya ! Tolona minvampaikan ka~ 
pada ToT .' ■ hamma i. 

Pawang Zainal dan To' Nek yan% m&njamu 

klrbau puteh sa glnggam tandok.") 

Next he invokes the spirits of earth and water to preserve 
all from harm : — "Allah's peace be on ye, spirits and gnomes 
of earth and water ! Here I slaughter a pink buffalo, with 
horns in length the span of a closed fist to invite the country- 
side to festival. I trust in your aid to prevent all danger 
and harm." u A's-salam a'aikiau, hai sSgala datok, jin dan 
• • ayer di-sinit Ada-lah aku 
tleh klrbau puteh, sa-g&nggam tandok ini, hlndak 
mSnjamu nlglri. Harap-lah aku, supaya Ingkau plliharakan 
dari-pada sakalian mar a dan bahaya sSita chachat chla-nya." 

Then the buffalo is slaughtered and its blood caught in a 
bamboo. The medicine-man removes and sets aside nose, 
eyes, ears, mouth, hooves, legs and shoulders, tongue, tail, 
heart and liver of the beast, after which the carcase is skinned. 
Seven kinds of food are prepared : — gulai, rlndang, kSrabu, 

94 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

pachak, slnggang {rlbus) goring dan daging mlntah. Various 
sweetmeats are added :— gewang ia-itu j>ulut di-tanak dan di- 
chanai berkiping-keping, di-jlmor, sudah Bringlalu di-goring; 
plrut ayam ia-itu tfyong di-gelek bulat-bulat lalu di-ator 
sa-akan-akan jala-jala ru,f>c-;r \ tchiL hiring di-goring juga ; 
buah mulong (undi-undi) puthri mandi ia-itu tfyong di-gelek 
; tlngah-nya slrta di-gaul dlngan inti ia-itu 
kUlapa di-champor dlngan gula ; klklras; dodol chuchor ; nasi 
-■tint puteh; pulut kuning ; bubor ranchong 
ia-itu tlpon ,,- /,... U-gunting di-masaki 

dlngan santan dan gula ; dadar ia-itu tlpong tawar sahaja di- 
goring dlngan minyak sa-akan-akan chuchor jua rupa-nya. In 
addition there are prepared parched rice ; twice seven eggs, i e. 

n. cooked and s 

25 cigarettes, whose wrappers r 

be daun palas ; maize leaves ; banana leaves ; a nipah pen ; 25 
quids of betel, and seven vessels of water. {Blrteh ; tllor ayam 
dua kahtujoh, ia-itu tujoh masak dan tujoh mlntah; r ok 

h batang daun pimbalut-nva di-haru^m bllaka dari- 

pada daun palas; daun jagong; daun pisang istimewa pula kalam 

-huloh kapor ; ayer tujoh limas.) 

The Pawang superintends the construction of a seven- 
tiered four-sided altar (gulang-gulang) made of kumbar stems ; 
the lower step as high as the mouth of a person seated on the 
ground ; the topmost tier as high as the medicine-man can con- 
veniently reach, and roofed with kumbar stems. The whole 
structure is 6 cubits square and the topmost tier 2 cubits. 
Steps go up to the bottom tier on every side. A space is 
cleared round the altar. 

Offerings are set aside to be laid on the tiers of the altar. 
The remainder of the food is eaten by those present. If there 
is a surplus of food, it may not be taken away ; those who wish 
to eat, must resort to the spot on the following day. 

The medicine-man spreads banana and other leaves on 
the tiers of the altar. Food and sweetmeats are spread on 
the five central tiers. On the topmost tier are put the blood 
of the slaughtered buffalo, the portions of the carcase set aside 
as related above, seven kinds of food, and seven vessels of 
water, seven raw eggs and seven cooked eggs. On the bottom 
tier are placed the 25 cigarettes and the 25 quids of betel 
The medicine-man's fee (pinklras) of $ 5 is wrapped in a 
white cloth and set with a bag of rice and 15 cents (pitis) on 
the top of the steps where he is to sit for the ceremony. 

The pawang bathes with limes and dons fine clothes. 
In the evening all the folk depart except the pawang and one 
or two trusted helpers. The pawang circumambulates the 
altar, burns incense and sits waving a white cloth and crying 
out an invocation :- " Allah's peace be upon you, Chang 'Teh 
Perak 'Teh ; assembly of ancients ! I give notice to all who rule 
the bays and reaches of this parish, that here I invite to a feast 
the medicine-men of ponds and estuaries, the medic 

1920.] R. O. Winstedt : Propitiating the Spirits. 95 

Muhammad, the medicine-man Zainal. This feast I give to 
protect our homes and rice-fields by swamp and hill from all 
danger and tribulation, all sickness and suffering." " A's- 
salam alaikum, hai Chang Teh, Per ah Teh, sidang wang purba 
kala ! Aku hSndak mlmblri tahu yang mlmlgang tllok rantau 
di-sini: aku hlndak mlnjamu 'Tok Pawang Kuala dlngan 'Tok 
Pawang kolam, Pawang Muhammad dan Pawang Zainal. 
Aku menjamu mtmblri makan-mu ini ; aku hhidak mtmblla 
kampong halaman dan btndang huma ; minta jauhkan dari- 
pada sakalian mar a bahaya dan sakit ptning." 

Thrice he cries Ohui, Ohui, Ohui ; then retreats three 
steps, kneels and repeats the cry four times ; after that he 
goes home. 

For seven days no one in the parish (mukim) may cause 
leaf or branch to wither ; no one may execrate anything ; no 
one may throw anything into the parish or drag anything out 
of it ; and no stranger may enter. 

A series of similar ceremonies by which the whole of the 
Perak river valley was "cleansed" of evil {pSlas ntge'ri) is des- 
cribed by Sir William Maxwell in J.R.A.S., S.B., " Notes and 
Queries," No. 3. Mr. C. O. Blagden has written an account of 
a propitiatory service seen by him in Malacca (J.R.A.S., S.B. 
1896 ; quoted in Skeat's " Malay Magic," pp. 230-235). 


Indo-China and its Primitive People. By Captain Henry 
Baudesson. London: Hutchison and Co. n.d. 

Tne linguistic affinity between Malay and a group of 
languages of Indo-China guessed by Logan, corroborated by 
Blagden and defined by Schmidt has been now accepted. 
Professor Cabaton, Aymonier and other French scholars have 
given us a Cham dictionary, and studies of the Chams their 
rehgion and history. Several writers have written on less known 
tribes of Indo-China. A useful bibliography is given in the 
work under review. Baudesson's book on the Mois and Chams 
collects further evidence in the way of customs and folk-lore— 
and the only criticism I have to offer on a delightful book 
excellently translated is that instead of seeking more parallels 
in Malayan regions the author often goes far afield to France 
and Rome and Africa. 

The Moi, who inhabit the uplands of Indo-China, are 
called Karens by the Burmans, Kha by the Laotians, Stieng 
or Puong by the Cambodians, and Moi or Man by the Annam- 
ites. They have the physical characteristics of Indo: 
which are found purest in type in the Battaks, Dyaks 

Their folk-tales bear out the physiological resemblance. 
Thev tell of the existence of beings with monkey's tails and 
a razor-edged forearm ; the Malay tulang mawas. Thev have 
the same legend as the Malays relating that the tides are due 
to the machinations of a gigantic crab. The Moi' tale of the 
Tiger and the Tortoise is an exact parallel to the Malay tale 
of the Mouse-deer and the Tortoise. The Moi tale of the 
Rabbit, the Tiger and the Elephant (p. 217) is a replica of 
the Malay Mousedeer tale (Skeat's "Fables and Folk-tales 
from an Eastern Forest," P p 45-47): the tale is of Hindu 
origin and is found in the Sukasaptati. 

Captain Baudesson compares the Moi love-sones with 
the Malay pant>:n. 

The Mois file the teeth of youths at puberty to points, 
and they pierce the ears of girls. Both sexes smear their 
teeth with a lacquer, a practice abandoned nowadays by the 
Peninsular Malay. Ladies dye their finger-nails with vermil- 
ion. Youths sleep in a special hut after puberty Betrothals 
are prefaced by formal offerings of betel. The ' avoidance ' by a 
husband of his mother-in-law and by a wife of her father-in- 
law is imperative as also for Malays. The Moi and Cham 
ke her Malay sister, is f roasted ' after child-birth. A 
Moi child is not given a name for two years ; but the naming 
is a matter of moment, decided by a medicine-man, who uses 

[Vol. IX, 1920.] Indo-China and Malaya. 97 

rice to consult the omens. If the child falls ill, the name of 
the Mo'i and Cham child, like that of a Malay, is changed as 
unlucky. Moi children's hair is kept short except for a long 
wisp. Their games (p. 73) bear a close resemblance to Malay 
children's games. For the social system. The description of 
a Moi village as an ' anarchical republic with a nominal chief '; 
the formation of leagues of several villages with obligation on 
their members to intermarry ; the communistic basis of their 
proprietary system with the exception of individual ownership 
of weapons, clothes and so on— all these find parallels among 
the Malay races, and remind one of the social system of Negeri 
Sembilan in the Peninsula. Debt-slavery is common. 

Mois use traps and snares of types similar to those used 
1 >v Malays. The Moi hunter, like the Malay, uses sympathetic 
magic to secure his game : he will prick himself with his 
arrow or imitate the contortions of a dying animal (p. 100). He 
may not eat the flesh of hare or deer for fear of becoming 
timorous ; at a boar hunt if he eats fat and oil, the animal 
will slip through his nets ; when he hunts elephants, his 
women may not cut hair or nails or the elephants will break 
through the stakes of the palissade ; and elephant-hunters 
must use a special language. It is a horrible catastrophe to 
meet with ceitain Ghouls, whose method of progression, like 
that of the Malay h nitit : ungkus, is a rolling motion like that 
of a barrel. The genii of iron-mines are propitiate! with 
religious rites. Like her Malay sister , the Moi woman lets her 
hair hang loose when she is sowing rice and clothes herself 
lightly at harvest. Illicit love brings a bad harvest on the 
guilty parties. Taboos are of every kind, royal, sacerdotal, 
sexual and proprietary. The word ' Tiger ' may not be uttered : 
a euphemism takes its place. Flint stones are venerated and 
trees (p. 129). Hair, nail-parings and so on are used by sorcer- 
ers to cast a spell on their owner. Leaves of plants of the 
genus Zingiberaceae are used in love-philters, to catch girls 
and wild beasts. A Moi follows the footsteps of his enemy 
and sticks a bamboo in his tracks to cause disease. The 
ritual of a Moi sorceress exorcising sickness (p. 154) corres- 
ponds closely with that of the Malay blrhantu ceremony. 
Divination by means of an egg is practised to discover a thief ; 
and the ordeals of water and of boiling resin are in force. 

Like the Dyaks, the Mois highly prize old earthenware 
jars. They reckon time by cutting notches on the internode 
of a bamboo, a practice from which it is surmised the Malay 
word for 10 sa puloh^sa buloh is derived. Captain Baudesson 
notes a close kinship between their art and that of the abo- 
rigines of the Malay peninsula. 

The second part of the book on the Chams is shorter, 
but fortunately we have a fairly large literature on this people 
of 130,000 souls. Formerly rulers of Champa, the Chams be- 
long to the Malayo-Polynesian race. Islam is their religion, 

98 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 

though they have passed through stages of animism and Brah- 
minism. Baudesson compares their matriarchal system with 
that of the Minangkabau Malays of NegeriSembilan. Family 
is traced through the mother, and inheritance descends in the 
female line. The woman selects her husband, and the chil- 
dren remain her property in the case of divorce. Marriage is 
concluded by confarreatio, betel however taking the place of 
rice. There obtains also, as with Malays, marriage by cap- 
ture or formal rape, where a girl's parents have been obdurate. 
At a puberty ceremony for girls, called Karoh (which Bau- 
desson surmises to have been derived from Islam) , the officiating 
priest places salt on their lips, offers a cup of water and cuts 
a piece of hair from the forehead of the chaste and from the 
nape of the wanton At a Perak Malay marriage, the chastity 
of a bride is inferred when the matron waxes seven long hairs 
of the bride and clips them: if the ends of the hair fall 
towards the bride or the stumps move, the girl is not a 
maiden ; if the contrary happen, she is virgin. Like the 
Malays, the Chams have a saying that you may as well leave 
an elephant among sugar-canes as a man alone with a girl. 
Cham and Malay mothers smear their children's faces with a 
yellow cosmetic to appease malignant spirits. 

The form of polite greeting is that observed by Malays. 
" If a man meets a friend of superior station, a due and pro- 
per sign of deference is to adjust his girdle or cross the cloth 
which fulfils the functions of trousers. If he is carrying an 
umbrella, he will hold it forward towards the person he thus 
wishes to honour. He will take the greatest care to avoid 
swinging his arms." 

The rules and taboos of searchers for eaglewood very 
closely resemble those of the camphor gatherers of Johore. 
The searchers are bound to silence. Unavoidable speech is 
metaphorical, like that of the Johore collector : an axe is " the 
wood-pecker " ; fire " the red." The women who remain be- 
hind may not quarrel, lest their husbands be molested by 
tigers or snakes. 

The Chams have Padjao or prophetesses who become 
possessed : they are thought to perform functions which 
formerly devolved on royal priestesses. They are celibate, 
chosen after probation, the choice depending on omens drawn 
from the flame of candles. The novitiate ceremony after the 
year's probation must, like a Malay Urhantu, be attended by 
the identical persons who were present at the novice's original 
admission. She is assisted by a male "Mendoun." On 
the night of initiation she resorts to a ant-heap in the moon- 
lit forest, severs a cock from head to tail, and dancing naked 
by incantations restores the fowl to life. Clifford has des- 
cribed a very similar Sakai ceremony. 

The Chams, like the Malays, use spirit-boats to waft 
away evil from a village. 

ig20.] Indo-Chtna and Malaya. 99 

Captain Baudesson's book should be in the hands of all 
comparative students of things Malayan. 




Federated Malay States Museums. 


JULY, 1920. 

XII. A Pawang's Instructions for Selecting 
Doves and Turtle- Doves. Abdu'l-Majid bin 
Haji Zainu'd-din. . .. .. . . 10: 

XIII. A Malay Bird Story. Abdu'l-Majid bin Haji 

XVI. Copyright by Killing. R. 0. Winstedt 
XVII. Rice Ceremonies in Upper Perak. R. 0. 
XVIII. Rice Ceremonies in Negri Sembilan. R. 0. 
XIX. Malay Charms. R. 0. Winstedt 
XX. Original Settlement of Pahang. H. S. Sircom 
XXI. Siamese Traces in Pahang. H. S. Sircom 
XXII. Keramat in Lower Pahang. H. 5. Sircom 



London Agent : Bernard Quaritch Ltd. 
ii, Grafton Street, New Bond Street. 


By Abdu'l-Majid bin Haji Zainu'd-din. 

Turtle-doves {kUiiir or mlrbok) are kept mainly for the 
sake of the good luck they are supposed to bring to their 
owners. Pawangs say if one of these birds sings a song 
resembling the sound of tSr-gMung-dung-dung, his lucky 
owner will soon be in possession of a gMong (godown). 
When anyone comes into possession of one of these birds, he 
is advised by the pawang to consult the omens by putting it 
into a cage together with a chupak of husked rice (bSras) 
which has been carefully measured and incensed over burning 

, with prayers for the Prophet (salawat) repeated 
over it. The cage (with the bird and rice inside) should be 
hung out for the night. Next morning the rice must be 
re-measured ; if it proves to have increased in quantity during 
the night, the bird is considered very lucky (btrtuah) • but if it 
shows decrease, then the bird is unlucky ! 

The more usual way of selecting doves and turtledoves 
is by counting the number of scales on their legs. The most 

ber is said to reach is forty-four and the least is 

ree. Both these numbers are significant of good luck. 

: and thirty-eight are considered unlucky numbers, 
but thirty-seven mark a bird that will be useful as a decov! 
The other numbers are neither very lucky nor unlucky. 

The dove (ttkukor) suitable for training for "fighting 
purposes or as a decoy should have :— 

(a) its body like a pigeon's, i.e. roundish and strong in 

build ; 

(b) the feathers of its wings long : if possible the ends 

of the feathers should cross one another, as this 
is believed to enable it to strike its adversaries 
better and harder ; 

(c) its head roundish ; 

(d) its beak thick and short ; 

(e) the black line under its eyes {chUak) small ; 

(/) its eyes small, not projecting like those of a lizard ; 
(g) the small feathers all over its body short and 

{h) one feather in its tail overlapping the others (daun 

tindeh sa-hUai) ; 
{i) its neck not too long or too small ; 
(?) the feathers on its neck {bulu rintak) broad with 

small speckles ; 

102 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi, IX, 

(k) its legs and feet thick and reddish in colour ; and 

its claws short but broad ; 
(/) a dividing line running down the middle of its 
breast ; or down the scales of its legs. 
Below I append the Malay version of these instructions :— 
Petua Pawang. 
Dari hal memileh Merbok Ketitiran dan Tekukor. 

1. Ada pun petua memileh burong mgrbok itu ia-itu 
di-bilang sisek pada kaki-nya; dan ada-lah konon-nya sa- 
korang-korang bilangan sisek itu tiga-puloh tiga banyak-nya, 
dan sa-lebeh-lgbeh-nya empat-puloh empat. Maka kedua-dua 
bilangan itu jarang terjumpa ; oleh yang demikian jadi-lah 
burong itu tgrlalu bertuah, ada-nya. 

Ada pun bilangan sisek burong yang chelaka itu ia-itu 
tiga-puloh enam dan tiga-puloh delapan. Maka jika sisek-nya 
itu tiga-puloh tujoh, jadi-lah burong itu bertuah pemikat, 

l pada Iain-lain dari-pada yang 
burong-nya tiada-lah berapa 
bertuah, dan tiada chelaka, ada-nya. 

2. Ada pun petua mengetahui dari hal chelaka atau 
b6rtuah burong ketitiran itu ia-itu apa-bila di-bgli akan dia, 
hendak-lah di-sangkutkan di-dalam sangkar-nya bersama- 
sama dengan sa-chupak beras yang telah di-sukat baik-baik 
dan di-asap dengan k&mgnyan serta di-bachakan selawat atas 
Nabi. Kemudian pada esok hari-nya di-sukat sa-mula bgras 
itu ; jika di-dapati berlebeh beras itu, maka itu-lah alamat 
burong itu bertuah ; tStapi jika korang bgras itu, ia-lah tanda 
chelaka burong itu, ada-nya. 

3. Ada pun petua dari hal memileh burong tekukor 
yang kuat berlaga dan baik di-perbuat denak ia-itu :— 

(a) badan-nya hendak-lah sa-akan-akan mgrpati ia-itu 

bulat ; 

(b) sayap-nya panjang ; jikalau dapat, biar-lah bgrsi- 

lang hujong sayap-nya itu, supaya kuat pukul- 

(c) k^pala-nya bulat ; 

{d) paroh-nya kasar lagi pendek ; 

(e) cheiak di-mata-nya itu halus ; 

(/) mata-nya kechil ; jangan t^rbenchut ka-luar ; 

(g) bulu yang halus-halus pada mgrata tuboh-nya itu 
hendak-lah bontak-bontak ; 

(h) bulu ekor-nya hgndak-lah tindeh daun sa-helai 
nama-nya, ia-itu sakalian bulu ekor-nya itu di- 
tindeh oleh sa-helai bulu sahaja ; 

(i) leher-nya jangan genting ; 

(/) bulu rgntak-nya itu hendak-lah lebar sgrta halus- 
halus rintek-nya ; 

1920.] Abdu'l-Majid : Instructions for Selecting Doves. 103 

(k) kaki-nya hendak-lah merah rupa-nya, lagi kasar 
dan jari-nya pun kasar, serta kuku-nya itu 
hendak-lah pendek-pendek lagi lebar ; 

(/) hendak-lah ada beralor di-bawah dada-nya atau 
pun pada sisek kaki-nya. 

Demikian-Jah petua-nya itu, ada-nya. 


By Abdu'itMajid bin Haji Zainu'd-din. 

Long, long ago, all the birds in the world made arrange- 
ments among themselves as to what food each species should 
live upon and what time each should go out in search of 

The pikau was to go out in the day-time and live on badi 
and the sparrow to go out at night and live on worms and 
insects. After some time the pikau discovered that padi 
was obtainable only during certain seasons and at certain 
places ; and being greedy and covetous interviewed the Mbit 
and asked him to agree to a rearrangement. TI 
wanted really to live on the worms and insects which had 
been allotted to the pipit and were available at any 
time and anywhere. The sparrow, not suspecting 
consented. After that, the sparrow went out in the day- 
time and the bustard-quail at night, the former living on 
Padt and the latter on worms and insects. The greed of 
the bustard-quail, however, soon spread terror among the 
worms and insects. At last they determined to hide as 
much as possible in the night and to appear in the dav-time 
instead. "It is true," they said, "the span, 
then eat us, but they do that only for food and not like the 
bustard-quail in order to extinguish us from the face of the 
fS a <? 1 °, UrS f ' ? 1S resolution of the worms and insects 
reduced the pikau' s diet, whereas the pipit profited by it in 
that he could get subsistence both from the padi and from 
the worms and insects. 

The pikau soon came to know of his plight ; and to this 

day it you happen to be in kampongs during the padi-haivest 

on moonlight nights, you can hear him crying in 

plaintive tones to the sparrow to give him back his padi •— 

pe-et, pe-et, pe-et, ba' padi-ku." 

By R. O. Winstedt. 

Native treatises on Minangkabau adat, which are often 
> be found in the hands of Negri Sembilan Malays, distinguish 
x occasions for the election of a tribal chief, though changed 
mes and British protection have left only the first three 
ctant in the peninsula, if indeed the others ever existed. 

I. — Voluntary Resignation of a Chief. 

as hidup btrkhalifah— -in Negri Sembilan only the first of these 
phrases is in use. They are technical phrases for the resig- 
nation of a tribal chief from age or illness ; — unless he resigns, 
a chief can be removed only by a raped of the electors for 
misconduct or old age. He calls the elders of his tribe and its 
enfranchised members and tells them his case. 

Lurah-lah dalam, 

Bukit-lah tinggi ; 

Lurah tidak t&rturuni, 

Bukit tidak tSrdaki. 

Nan jauh tidak ttrjalan, 

Nan bSrat tidak ttrpikul, 

Nan ringan tidak ttrjinjing. 
" The valleys have grown too deep for my going, the hills 
too steep for my climbing and journeys too far for my feet ; 
burdens have become too heavy for my back and light tasks 
for my fingers." The exact meaning of blrklredlaau puzzles 
those unused to adat phrase. Officers, who have not grasped 
that high Quixotic principle of Minangkabau known as 
unanimity,*' are tempted sometimes by interested 
parties to construe it, " if a tribal chief resigns, he can appoint 
whomsoever he likes as his successor." This is fundamentally 
wrong in custom. If a tribal chief is going away merely for 
a limited period, say to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, and 
desires to appoint a wakil, an attorney, to act during his 
absence, ganti huhtfr ht> ::daran as it is called, even then 
that nominee, who is commonly the elder of the tribal chief's 
\ must still have the approval of the tribe and of 
the territorial chief. If a tribal chief resigns, then he is 
hardly more than a major-domo at the election of his 
successor. He proposes a candidate. The buapa, " elders," 
in tribal council sa-rapat dlngan blsar slrta waris " in consulta- 
tion with the minor headmen and enfranchised members of 

106 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

the tribe," may indeed accept that candidate, may accept 
very rarely and for peculiar reasons a candidate from the 
same pSrut as the outgoing chief, but they have the power to 
designate any other candidate who has better claims of family 
or intelligence : 

Di-dalam blnar di-lalukan, 

Di-luar blnar di-surutkan. 
Should t 
the election i 
of tribes in the ritglri. 

'Kok sa-muafakat, kita lalukan ; 
'Kok Blum sa-muafakat, 

Kusut kita ptrsmsaikan, 

Ke'roh kita jSmehkan. 
If they find there is after all unanimity, they pass the 
candidate ; if there is not, they adjust the tangled interests 
and clear up turbid counsels. Against their decision, there 
is no appeal. The procedure in Negri Sembilan is similar. 
Sometimes a ttmbaga will claim that he and his colleagues in 
council alone can decide on a candidate. More often a 
territorial chief, undang or pSnghulu, will claim that he alone 
can choose and reject. Both sides quote Minangkabau 
scripture to their own purpose but the true procedure lies 
mid-way. The decision in disputed elections rests with the 
ptnghulu or undang in council. The territorial chief is the 
mouthpiece of his council, as witness the saying that deals 
with his power of dismissing a tribal chief :— 

Sah batal ka-pada llmbaga 

Hidup mati ka-pada undang. 
"The finding rests with the council of tribal chiefs, but 
the sentence is pronounced by the territorial chief." If 
sometimes a chief usurps the power and omits to consult his 
council, that shows how the Minangkabau constitution failed 
to solve the problem of the strong and assertive man. 
Biassed arbitrary irregular decision on the part of a chief led 
to deadlock or war. Safeguards, it is true, have been 
invented with the process of time. The people of Muar have 
often appealed against the decision of their plnghulu to the 
undang Johol ; and they have even appealed against the 
ruling of the undang to the Yamtuan. But such safeguards 
do not exist now in Rembau or Jelebu. The creation of the 
office of Yamtuan Muda in those two states show that the 
need was felt. Those high offices have been abolished and 
the British Government "crowned" instead. That govern- 
ment, having an administrative machinery of its own, can 
afford to leave the post of a tribal chief vacant for an indefi- 
nite time, till the electorate is bulat, " unanimous," can in 
fact punish the constitution with its own ridiculously 

ig20.] R. O. Winstedt : Election of a Tribal Chief. 107 

antiquated petard. If from the first there is no friction, if 
the out-going chief and the electorate are perfectly unanimous, 
bulat nan sa-golek, then the chosen candidate merely does 
homage to the territorial chief and ISmbagas, paying $14 to 
the former and $7, in bygone days the price of a buffalo, to 
the latter. It is lamentable that many offices are bought, 
the prospective allowance from government even being 
mortgaged in advance, and the adat fees in no way 
representing the money that passes hands at an election 
ibau custom has made the path of the ambitious and 
unscrupulous hard but has not prevented them altogether. 
The resignation of the out-going chief, the consultation of the 
tribal elders, the reference to the pln%hulu in council, are all 
occasions for junketting. The final homage and confirmation 
is the greatest day. 

Taboh akan di-Mntak, 

Kayn akan di-ktping, 

Junior akan di-tumbok. 
" The drum will be beaten and firewood split into billets 
and the dried rice-grain pounded in the mortar." Publicity 
is the final sanction of an elected chief. 

II.— The Death of a Tribal Chief. 

In Negri Sembilan as in Minangkabau this is known as 
patah tnmboh, hilang blrganti, "the broken grows afresh and 
the lost is replaced." It is also known as fatai, 
li-tanah ttrbalik, " the .broken grows afresh at the upturned 
clods" of the dead chief's grave, in allusion to the custom 
of choosing a successor at the obsequies of the deceased. 
In Minangkabau it is further called mati nan blrtongkat 
budi ; a phrase which seems to mean that the tongkat or 
assistant of the deceased chief can ask to be given office 
after he has slaughtered a buffalo for the funeral. 

The death and vacancy is announced to the tribe : — 
Mati rimau tinggal di-hutan ; 
Mati gajah tinggal gading-nya ; 
Mati rimau tinggal bSlang-nya ; 
Mali manusia tinggal pusaka-nya. 
" Broken a tree sprouts again, and what is lost has to be 
replaced ; so too the holder of hereditary office." 

fC The following are the traditional lines," wrote New- 
bold, " in which this custom has been handed down in Sungai 
Ujong :— 

Umor-nva pendek, langkah-nya panjang ; 
Sudah sampai klhlndak Allah, 
HSndak birkubor di-tanah merah ; 
Sa-hart 'rlanam : 

Sa-hari bMumboh, sa-hari pnihara." 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

1 One day sees the burial of our lost chief and the 
i and cherishing of his successor." 
Mali WrMrapatan : at the death of a tribal chief, the 
electors assemble, the elders, the lesser headmen, the full 
members of the tribe, both men and women. In the various 
districts of Minangkabau procedure differed slightly ; in 
Sumanik the successor had to be chosen before the body was 
taken to the grave ; in Pagar Ruyong at the graveside ; in 
Padang Genting on the day of the death; elsewhere one 
hundred days after the death. If the selected candidate 
were absent from the nt^ri, his family gave some ^?;?<r/i7, a 
creese for example, and the feast was postponed till his 
return. In Negri Sembilan, too, the election was supposed 
to be settled before the burial ; but if no decision could be 
reached, then the elder of the dead chief's own pSrut acted 
(mhnangku) till the m&nujoh hari, the funeral feast on the 
seventh day after the death, or even till the dua kali tujoh 
hari, the feast of the fourteenth day, by which time theoreti- 
cally a candidate had to be elected. As a matter of fact, 
fights at the graveside and indecent delay of the burial often 
occurred. The procedure in the case of dispute was similar 
to that for election on the resignation of a tribal chief. And 
similar, too, is the procedure under the British protectorate : 
if there is dispute, the election can be postponed indefinitely. 
At last difficulties are surmounted ; "the intricate is disen- 
tangled, the turbid cleared, the rain has ceased and the mist 

Kusut bSrsSISsai ; * 

Klroh bUrj&rneh, 

Hujan sudah tSdoh ; 

Kabus sudah ttrang. 

The newly-elected chief invites his people to a public 
feast called tabor mSluktit, the "sprinkling of the broken 
grain" for all the denizens of the courtyard, the "cocks that 
lay not eggs, the hens that cackle and the chicks that chirp." 
He sprinkles the grain as a symbol of gathering them under 
his wing and the bond of tribal unity is acknowledged in 
old-world s 

1920.] R. 0. Winstedt : Election of a Tribal Chief. 109 

III.— Revival of Lapsed Office. 

In Minangkabau this has several names : mcinban^kit nan 
tlrblnam, ''raising the submerged." mtnghnbang kain nan 
iMipat, " unfolding the folded cloth," tnVmhangunkan andika 
nan ttrtttak, ''raising a lapsed office," mcinakai bain nan 
tlrlltak, " donning discarded robes." If there is no eligible 
candidate for office or if the eligible candidate, is too youthful 
or if the electors cannot agree, then election may be post- 
poned : — pusaka itu di-sangkut, " the heritage is hung up." 
Later, choice is made as in the case of hidup bVrktredlaan. 

IV.— The Splitting up of a Chieftainship. 

This is known in Minangkabau as gadang n^nyimpang, 
as sawah gadang di-bandar-bandar as baju sa-lai di-pakai 
blrdua. If a tribe has spread and the area of its habitation 
grown wide, then all the " elders" 1 of the tribe are summoned 
and asked if the office of the tribe may be split up, one 
chief to care for the folk down-stream and another for 
those up-country. If they consent, gadang mlnvwapang 
bSrktredlaan, then all the chiefs of the suku are called, a feast 
is held and the new office created. If the title of the original 
officer is, say, Dato Jalak, that of the new will be a variation 
of it like Dato Jalak Muda. There are so many tribal officers 
in the Negri Sembilan Establishment List that this is likely 
to be an obsolete practice. Such a split may happen also 
owing to a disagreement in the tribe, when it is called gadang 
bang karna s&liseh. 

V.— Creation of a New Chieftainship. 

This is called in Minangkabau mlmplrbuat plnghulu or 

in ktpala bandar. If there arises a new settlement of 

free people from elsewhere, then a chief may be appointed 

with a title derived from that of his original family or tribe. 

He is given the gUar muda as in the last case. 

VI.— Creation of a Chieftainship for a Freedman. 

PSnghulu mtnggunting sibar baju, " the chief whose portion 
is the edge clipped off his master's coat ' ' was in Minangkabau 
the title of a freedman, who might be appointed by the elder 
(snauiak) of the family which had emancipated him, in consul- 
tation with its blood representatives kamanakan kandong or 
kamanakan di-bawah dagok. His authority extended only 
over freedmen kamm . and he was not 

reckoned among gSdang nan bSrbingkah ianah atau blsar nan 
bMengkong aw? A saying runs : — 

: rbinghah tanah 

no Journal of the F. M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 1920.] 

Sa-gSdang hamba hingga mtrdtheka. 

Sa-gSdang mlrdlheka hingga flnghulu. 
' ' A slave can become a f reedman ; a f reedman can 
become a chief." In Tanah Datar this creation was unk 
nor have I met any trace of it in the Negri Sembilan 


By R. O. Winstedt. 

Relationship by Minangkabau custom is reckoned only 
on the distaff side, and in the Minangkabau colonies of the 
Negri Sembilan the same system obtains. A mother is ttnak, 
urn or iudok 1 : her child, anak ; a grand-child, chuchit' 1 ; a 
great-grand-child, chichit ; a great-great-grand-child, pint ; and 
the two generations below are termed oneng-oneng and antah- 
antah. All women in the family of a mother's generation 
have the pangkat or standing of mother to her child. A 
grandmother is wan 3 (or in the language of strangers, dato). 
All women in the family of a grandmother's generation have 
kat of wan to her grand-child. A great-grandmother * 
is ninek ; a great-great-grandmother, 6 onyang or moyang. 
All women of those respective generations have the pangkat 
of that generation to their descendants. Hence often 
confusion. At the hearing of a claim to land three or four 
women will declare they have the same mother or grand- 
mother or great-grandmother, when several of them mean 
really to say "aunt" or "grand-aunt" or Cf great-grand- 
er unL" Only after enquiry will they condescend to definite 
terms of relationship. There are such terms. A maternal 
aunt 6 is Imak sanak ibu or indok sanak ibu ; a maternal grand- 
aunt, n-an saimk ibu; great-grand-aunt, ninek sanak ibu. 
Conversely, a nephew or niece on the mother's side is sanak 
tbu ; grand-nephew or grand-niece, sanak dato 1 ; great-grand- 
nephew or niece, sanak ninek* ; great-great-grand-nephew or 
niece, sanak moyang? As the relationship becomes remote, 
generally it becomes vague in the absence of all records 
except oral tradition ; and descendants describe themselves 

10 Badansanak jauh : all descended from the same ancestress aresaudara, 

112 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX 

is, as co-inheritors from the same female ancestress. The 
nearer relationships are very exact. The first-born in a 
Mal;i\ family is Sulong, U long or Long; the second, Angah '; 
the third, Alang or 'Lang; the fourth, Andak ; the fifth, Utch : 
the sixth, Hit am ; the seventh, Achik ; and the youngest Bongsu 
in other countries of the peninsula, but in the Negri Sembilan 
as in Minangkabau Anchu as well. These names are given to 
girls as well as to boys. With 'pa set before them 5 in the 
case of men and mak in the case of women, they serve to 
describe the exact status of a child's uncles and aunts. 
'Pa Ngah signifies for a child his second eldest uncle ; Mak 
A nchu. his youngest aunt. These nicknames, fixed as regards 
the first four and last two, but uncertain sometimes in order 
as regards the intermediate, are given alike to maternal and 
to paternal aunts and uncles. A paternal aunt younger than 
one's father and a maternal aunt younger than one's mother 
are both called indok kgchil*; a maternal uncle younger than 
one's mother or a paternal uncle younger than one's father 
are alike bapa ktchil. 

Brothers and sisters are, as everywhere in the peninsula, 
adek-bSradek, saudara; also, a description peculiar to n! 
Sembilan, kadim ; it children of the same father and mother 
they are saudara sa-indok sa-bapa or sa-kadim ; if uterine 
sanak or saudara sa-indok or sa-kadim 3 ; if of the same father 
only, saudara sa-baka or sa-kadim. An elder brother is aban«, 
elder sister, kakak ; eldest sister, kakak tua* or 'kak tua ; and 
younger brother or sister, adek. Cousinship is reckoned like 
other degrees through mothers, that is on the distaff side. A 
cousin is sanak ibu ; a female cousin, if older than oneself, 
kakak sanak ibu ; a cousin younger than oneself, adek sanak 

The term sanak corresponds to the Minangkabau term 
dusanak and describes a blood relation on the 
distaff side : children of a man by different wives or children 
of one's mother's brothers are not sanak t but saudara-, 
saudara being used of relationship on the paternal as well as 
on the maternal side. 

Even when a woman's children marry, still they \ull 
reckon their parents-in-law only on the female side. Mi nan hi 
means " son-in-law " or " daughter-in-law," both being equallv 
recognized and valuable under the adat. But in Negri 
ins " mother-in-law," and the phrase bapa 
v," is a neologism, the position not being 
included in the matriarchal conception of the family. For 

ig20.] R. O. Winstedt: Family Relationships. 113 

aunts and uncles- in-law one has not the brothers and 
sisters of one's bride's father, but those of her mother miniua 

Minangkabau custom recognizes no descent or relationship 
through males, but it has a term for the relationship of a 
father and a father's family to that of father's children. It 
calls them orang babako (Mai. Mrbaka). This nomenclature 
survives in the phrase saka haka used to express the origin of 
a person on both sides; saka describing the maternal, and 
baka the paternal side. 

In Negri vSembilan the terms of relationship employed 
by the endogamous Malays of the other peninsular states are 
used to express relationship on the paternal side The chil- 
dren of a man's sister 1 in Negri Sembilan are his an-.!/: huah. 
a phrase descriptive of descendants in the male line elsewhere 
but under the matriarchal constitution applied to a sister's 
children, because they alone are of the brother's own tribe : 
the children of a man's brother, a tie of relationship that did 
not concern the old matriarchy, are his anak saudara his 
nephews and nieces in our sense of the word but nothing to 
him, seeing that they belong to their mother's tribe, a different 
tribe altogether. A maternal aunt is Vmak sanak ibu ,* 
a paternal tmak saudara. A maternal grand-aunt is wan 
sanak ibu; a maternal or paternal grandmother and paternal 
grand-aunts are simply wan. No distinction is drawn between 
uncles 3 ; and both one's mother's brothers and one's father's 
brothers are bapa saudarii or loosely ha pa. Grandfathers* 
and grand-uncles, paternal and maternal, are all to aki. 
Cousins on the male side are {saudara) diri bapa, as dis- 
tinguished from anak sanak ibu those on one's mother's side. 
Kadim, an Arabic word, is used to denote close relationship 
alike on the distaff and on the male side. 

With his passion for family trees, the Minangkabau 
Malay never omits to allude to any relationship established 
I iy marriage. Ipar is used of brother or sister-in-law on either 
side, that is, equally of brothers and sisters of the wife and of 
brothers and sisters of the husband: ipar kadim means a 
wife's or husband's full brother or sister; ipar duai, a 
husband's or wife's cousins ; abang ipar means a brother-in- 
law older than self ; kakak ipar, a sister-in-law older than 
self; and adek ipar, a sister or brother-in-law younger than 
self. 6 The relationship between two men who have married 
sisters or two women who have married brothers 8 is known 

tuo handong, mamak qaik. 

er are his wife's andan; and ] 
j in Minangkabau. 

H4 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 1920.] 

as biras: a man speaks of his biras, meaning the husband 
of his wife's sister, a woman of her biras meaning her 
husband's brother. The relationship established between 
parents whose children have intermarried is besan. If I and 
my wife are parents of one of the parties to a marriage and 
my friend and his wife to the other, we are besan : the father 
of the child who has married my child is my wife 
jantan and the mother is my besan b&tina, and conversely. 
The relationship which exists between a husband and wife,' 
both of whom have had a child by a former marriage is besan 
sa-bantal, if those children intermarry. 

In all the states of the peninsula the marriage of first 
cousins is regarded with disfavour and is practised by hardly 
■my Malays except the rajas. In the Minangkabau colonies 
the marriage of the children of sisters is of course prohibited 
along with all forms of marriage within the tribe. But even 
Iren of brothers, though outside this ban, do not 
intermarry in Negri Sembilan, the only reason alleged being 
that on the decease of a father the uncle becomes his niece's 
wait and on the decease of father and uncle the male cousin 
becomes the wali—zn objection not really supported bv the 



In Malay folk-tales reference is often made to a practice 
of killing an artificer so that his work may remain unique 
(e.g. a boat-builder in the Hikayat Anggun ''Che Tunggal, 
Singapore, 1914, p. 32 and a tooth-filer in Awang Sidong 
Merah Muda, 2nd ed., Singapore, 1914, p. 59 '■ in each of 
which cases the fate befell the craftsman in Macassar). Is 
this expensive securing of copyright by killing an Indonesian 
custom ? It seems unlikely . The Himyarite poet, Dhu Jadan, 
mentions a famous castle, Ghumdan, whose architect, Sinni- 
mar, was " on the completion of his task slain by his employer 
lest he should produce some yet more wonderful monument 
of his skill" (Browne's "A Literary History of Persia," vol. I, 
p. 176). Was the tradition, like so much Malay tradition, of 
imported origin ? 



The following particulars were communicated ten years 
ago by a Pawang of Kampong Temengor. 

Sowing the Rice-Seed in the Nursery. 

The seed is washed and cleansed with limes the evening 
before and kept in the house for the night. Three lumps of 
yellow sweet rice, neutralising rice-paste and parched yellow 
rice and incense are prepared. 

On the afternoon of the next day when the sun is half 
way down, at waktu asar r&ndah (4-30 p.m.), all the appurten- 
ances are carried to the nursery ; the Pawang burns incense 
and, dibble (tukal) in hand, cries as follows: 
iihukitin ! Hai Nabi Allah Sulaiman raja sakalian bumi ! 
* " wcmbiri hihu ka-pada Ingkau. Aku Mndak mtmtrunkan 
:i aku. Hara-p-lah aku minta pUiharakan 
dari-pada sakalian mar a dan bahaya-nya. 

"Greetings be to thee, God's prophet Solomon, king of 
all the earth ! I would sow seed rice. I pray thee cherish 
it from all danger and hazard.' ' 

Thereafter he dibbles seven holes :— 

All other holes are dibbled outside the fence. 

The Pawang takes a handful of seed-rice, and going to 
the first hole cries : — 

A's-salam alaikum ! 

Hai Nabi Allah Sulaiman, raja sakalian bumi ! 

A's-salam alaikum, 

Hai jin tanah ! jlmbalang bumi / 

A's-salam alaikum, 

Hai bapa-ku langit ! 

A's-salam alaikum 

Hai ibu-ku bumi ! 

A 's-salam alaikum 

Hai bapa kawal ! ibu kawal ! 

Aku 'nak kirim anak-ku, anak Maharaja Chahaya, 
pada ibu-nya ; 

Aku suroh blrlayar ka-laut hitam, ka-laut hijau, ka- 
laut biru dan ka-laut ungu/ 

R. O. Winstedt : Rice Ceremonies. 117 

A ku kirimkan tnam bulan ; 

Kttujoh ka-sambut naik. 

Bukan aku mlnurunkan beneh ; 

Aku mtnurunkan padi. 
"Greetings be unto thee, God's prophet, Solomon, king 
of all the earth ! Greetings to ye, genies and gnomes of the 
soil ! Greetings to our father the Sky, and our mother the 
Earth. Greetings to the guardian father, the guardian 
mother ! I would send my child Princess Splendid to her 
mother. I would bid her sail to the sea that is black, the 
sea that is green, the sea that is blue, the sea that is purple. 
For six months I send her and in the seventh -I will welcome 
her back. It is not seed I plant : it is rice-grain." 

The Pawang puts seed into the seven holes, holding his 
breath : when he releases his breath, it must be done gently 
and he must face in another direction. After that the rest of 
the folk plant out their seed over their 1 


When the rice in the nursery is 44 days old, on a 
Saturday evening (the Moslem first day of the week) the 
Pawang or some skilled person starts the work of transplant- 
ing into the field. No invocations are used. Seven bunches 
are planted first along with a banana plant (pisang mas) and 
three blmban stems. Round this spot a square fence is 

The necessary appurtenances are got ready: — many 
coloured thread black, white, yellow and red (bSnang pancha 
warna) sprays of Sygodium scan 'fit), sugar- 

cane, bunga plpanggil, neutralising rice-paste fried in the 
form of three omelettes. Then on a Saturday or Friday 
evening, the Pawang walks into the middle of the rice-field, 
chooses seven of the finest plants, and binds them with the 
many-coloured thread, the sprays, the sugar-cane and the 
flowers. Then he proceeds round the selected plants three 
times, crying :— 

A's-salam alaikum, 

Hai jUmbalang akhir ! jSmbalang awal ! jSmbalang 

sa-ratus stmbilan-puloh ! 

Bngkau undor simpang sa-bllah ! [Sngkau. 

Kalau Ingkau ia' mlnyimpang sa-bllah , aku sumpah 

" Greetings be to ye, gnomes of latter days, gnomes of the 

beginning, gnomes one hundred and ninety ! Get ye back 

and aside ! If ye turn not aside, I will curse ye." 

Then follows a charm against molestation by genies and 

n8 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Hai Nang Tchong nama ibu! 

Tehong-Teheng nama bapa-mu! 

Nang Manyu nama anak-mu! 

Si-chantek mclek anak ptri tujoh blradek! 

Jangan tngkau usek balek padi Uras aku ! 

A ku sumpah Sngkau ! 

Engkau undor simpang sa-bllah ! 
" Nang Tehong is the name of your dam ; Tehong-Teheng 
is the name of your sire ; Nang Manyu, the name of your child. 
Pretty little fairies, seven brothers and sisters! Molest not 
my rice in ear, my rice in bin, or I will curse ye. Get ye back 
and aside." 

Then the gnomes are cursed severally and particularly : — 

Hai jSmbalang akhir ! Jlmbalang awal ! 

Jlmbalang sa-ratus s&mbilan-puloh ! 

Jlmbalang kaki ! Jlmbalang aku ! 

Jlmbalang bakul! Jimbalang batang! 

Jlmbalang bukit I Jlmbalang gunong ! 

JVmbalang padang ! Jlmbalang aku ! 

Engkau undor simpang sa-Ulah ! 

Kalau tngkau ta' undor , ku- sumpah ingkau ! 
" Ho gnomes of latter days ! Gnomes of the beginning ! 
Gnomes one hundred and ninety ! Gnomes under my feet 
and subjection! Gnomes that creep into our baskets and 
round the plant-stems! Gnomes of hill and mountain! 
Gnomes of plain ! Gnomes subject to me ! Get ye back and 
aside or I will curse ye." 

All these invocations are recited while the Pawang walks 
round the seven selected plants, awaiting evening {sSnja kala). 
When evening falls, he takes basket and reaping-knife, puts 
the three omelettes of rice-paste at the bottom of the basket 
and draws near to the rice-plant, saying : — 

i. Hai shnangat, anak-ku, Maharaja Chahaya / 

Aku kirim pada ibu awal Snam bulan, kUujoh ku- 

sambut naik : 
Sampai pSrjanjian ku-sambut naik. 
Ku-suroh bSrlayar ka-laut hitam, ka-laut hijau, ka- 
laut biru, ka-laut ungu ; 
5. Ka-bSnua Rum, ka-Wnua KVling, ka-blnua China dan 
ka-btnua Siam. 
Aku 'nak sambut ka-atas anjong istana, 
Ka-atas tilam pSrhiasan pSrmadani. 
A ku suroh chari indong pSngasoh ptngiring, 
Chari raayat bala, 
10. Tlmlnggong, Btndahara, Kuchang, Laksamana ; 

Mlnchari kuda gajah, itek atigsa, ktrbau kambing dan 

Btrhimpun timbun, gSgak glmpita. 

] R. O. Winstedt : Rice Ceremonies. 119 

Mari ka-sini! Chukup tlngkap ! 
A kit 'nak panggil 'mu mari ! 
5. Hai s&mangat, anak-ku, Maharaja Chahaya! 

Mari-lah, tnchek! Mari, tajok ! Mari, sunting! Mari, 

Aku 'nak sambut ' mu naik ka-anjong istana, 

Ka-atas tilam ptrhiasan plrmadani. 

Hai sZmangat anak-ku, Maharaja Chahaya/ 
0. Mari-lah, 'chek/ 'Nak sambut. 

Jangan-lah kasehkan indong plngasoh-mu ! 

Hai sabun puteh ! sabun hit am ! sabun hijau! sabun 
biru ! saban ungu ! sisir sa-btlah! 

Chahaya jin shaitan sisir sa-bUah! 

Chahaya yang sa-Mnar chahaya anak-ku''' 
" My soul, my child, Princess Splendid ! 
I sent you to your mother for six months, to receive 

you growing tall in the seventh month. 
The time is fulfilled, and I receive you. 
I told you to sail to the sea which is black, the sea 

which is green, the sea which is blue and the sea 

which is purple, 
To the land of Rome, to India, China and Siam. 
Now I would welcome you up into a palace hall. 
To a broidered mat and carpet. 
I would summon nurses and followers, 
Subjects and soldiers and court dignitaries for your 

Come, for all is ready ! 

I would call you hither, 

My soul, my child, Princess Splendid ! 

Come, my crown and my garland, flower of my delight ! 

I welcome you up to a palace-hall, 

To a broidered mat and carpet. 

My soul, my child, Princess Splendid! 

Come ! I would welcome you ! 

Forget your nurses. 

White and black and green and blue and purple get ye 

Brightness of genie and devil begone ! 

The real brightness is the brightness of my child." 
After the recital of this invocation the soul of the rice 
padi) will come in the form of a grasshopper or 
other insect with the sound of a breeze. If the rice-soul 
fails to appear after the invocation, lines 15-21 should be 
repeated thrice, whereupon the rice-soul is sure to appear. 
The Pawang holds his breath, closes his teeth, cuts the ears 

120 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

of the seven plants and puts them in his basket. The stalks 
whence the ears have been cut are smeared with clay " as 
medicine for their hurt from the knife ' ' and hidden under 
neighbour stalks as yet uncut. Before he leaves, the Pawang 
faces the east and touching the maimed stalks cries :— 

HaiDang'Pok/ DangMalini! 

BZrtompok dayang di-sini. 

Dang 'Pok/ Dang Malini! 

TUap dayang di-sini! 

BSrgSrak langit tujoh lapis, 

BSrgSrak anak-ku Maharaja Chahaya ! 

Ta' blrglrak langit tujoh lapis, 

Ta' blrglrak anak-ku Maharaja Chahaya! 

Blrgl'rak bumi tujoh lapis , 

Blrgtrak anak-ku Maharaja Chahaya ! 

Ta' blrglrak bumi tujoh lapis, 

Ta' bSrgSrak anak-ku Maharaja Chahaya ! 

Tlgoh saptrti batu kSras, 

Saptrti bSsi tUap-lah, 

Dari dunia datang ka-akhirat ; 

TUap sa-kali dlngan tuboh badan ayah dan bonda- 

Blrchlrai Allah dtngan Muhammad, 
Blrchlrai 'mu dlngan aku ; 
Ta' bfrchtrai Allah dlngan Muhammad , 
Ta' blrchlrai 'mu d&ngan aku. 
" Ho Dang 'Pok ! Dang Malini ! 

Grow here in clumps ! 

Establish youi selves here. 

If the seven tiers of the heavens are shaken, 

Then only shall my child Princess Splendid be shaken ; 

If the seven layers of earth be shaken, 

Then only shall my child Princess Splendid be shaken. 

Else shall she be established as rock, firm as iron, 

From this world unto the world hereafter, 

Established in limbs and body with father and mother. 

Only if the Prophet be parted from Allah, 

Shall she be parted from me." 

Finally the Pawang kisses the rice-stalks at the place 
where they are decorated with thread and sprays. 

In an account collected at Batu Kurau, in the Larut 
district of Perak, there are a few differences. The incantations 
are in debased Arabic. The seven chosen plants, it is 
explained, are not tied with the many-coloured thread and 
sprays till after the padi spirit has appeared : and that spirit 
comes in a whirl of breeze, but is thought to have taken 
fomerly the shape of a girl, Ninek KSmang. Sprays and thread 
are wound also about the edge of the basket which is to 
receive the rice-soul ears, while inside the basket are put an 

1920.] R. O. Winstedt : Rice Ceremonies. 121 

egg, a quid of betel and a lump of benzoin. A ring of 
wax is slipped over the top of the reaping-knife {kfyala tuai) 
which is then fumigated and sprinkled with yellow rice 
and rice-paste. The seven ears are wrapped in a white 
cloth before being placed in the basket. Not till three days 
after this formal taking of the seven ears that keep the 
rice-soul may the actual harvesting be started. 

The {sSmangat padi) rice-soul before it descends to earth 
is described as nur hayatu'llah and after being planted as nur 

These accounts should be compared with other accounts 
recorded in Skeat's " Malay Magic." One may note that, 
while marriage ceremonies in Upper Perak differ considerably 
from those in the south of the Peninsula, these rice cere- 
monies are those practised everywhere. 

The charms translated in this paper require little com- 
ment. "The sea that is black, the sea that is green, the sea 
that is blue and the sea that is purple" symbolize the dark 
earth of rice-fields cleared for sowing, the fields green with 
the young rice-plants and changing tint till the crop is har- 


By R. O. Winstedt. 

This account was collected in the Tampin district ten 
years ago. 

Planting out Seed. 

Neutralizing rice-paste is used along with daun ati-ati, 
gandarusa, daun ribu-ribu, daun si-dingin, daun si-puleh, and 
a lump of white clay. 

The rice-paste and the five herbs are taken and the clay 
is kneaded with water and put in a cup. Incense is burnt 
and the bundl es of herbs fumigated. Then the tips of tb e herbs 
are dipped in the clayey water, and that water is sprinkled 
over the seed before it is sown, these words being recited : — 

Tipong tawar / tipong jati 

Dap at mas birkati-kati I 

Aku minipong tawar biras padi ; 

Sudah birisi, maka minjadi. 
' ' Rice-paste without speck , 

I'll get gold by the peck, 

I charm my rice husked and in ear ; 

I'll get full grain within the year." 

The husbandman sows the seed with his left hand, 
crying :— 

A 's-salam alaikum, 
Ibu-ka burnt/ bapa-ku ayer / 
Aku minipongkan anak-ku, 
Si-dang sari, si-dang rupa sari/ 
Si-day ang siri tongkat, 
Sokong iman dalam nigiri ! 
Jangan-lah di-rosak-binasakan sM slmangat ! 
Mari-lah kita sa-ujud sa-darah sa-daging / 
Janji kita Smpat bulan Mima datang. 
Jangan Ingkau lengah di-kampong orang / 
Jangan ingkau lengah di-laman orang / 
Jangan lengah di-bUota orang / 
Jangan lengah di-mlnsiang orang ! 
Kur, sSmangat / Mari-lah pulang / 
Ini tangkal Langkesa / 
Jangan ingkau ta' tumboh. 
Aku tahu asal mula ingkau jadi : 
Uri timbuni kUuban asal mula ingkau jadi. 
" Peace be unto ye, 
Father earth, mother water ! 

R. O. Winstedt : Rice Ceremonies. 

I charm a lovely maid, 

A maid of fair countenance , 

The support and prop of the country's peace 

Hurt not nor harm her fair spirit ! 

Come! Thou and I are one flesh and blood : 

When the fourth month is past, thou shalt retun 

Linger not by men's homesteads ! 

Linger not in men's courtyards ! 

Linger not at feast of harvesters, 

Nor by the tall rushes that grow in the swamp. 

Come, my soul ! Come ! 

This is the charm of Langkesa. 

Fail not to grow up ; 

For I know whereof thou wast, made ; 

Of after-birth thou wast created." 

Planting out the Rice-Plants. 
This is the invocation :— 

Hai Langkesa ! Langkesi ! 

Diri blrlmpat, btrlima dtngan kami ! 

Jangan di-rosak di-binasikan anak kami ! 

Jikalau di-rosak. m kami, 

Di-makan btsi kawi-lah tngkau ! 

Di-timpa daulat Pagar Ruyong! 

Di-tun )h juz-lah gngkau. 

Kabulkan Allah t 
"Spirits of the field! 

Ye are four ; counting me we are five 

Hurt not nor harm my child. 

Break faith and ye shall be stricken 

By the iron that 'is sacred, 

By the majesty of Pagar Ruyong, 

By the thirty chapters of the Koran ! 

God fulfil my curse ! " 
This is the invocation used with the rice-paste :— 

Tipongtawar! tipongiati! 

Di-lltak dalam gantang dua tiga gantang 

Mlnanti bSribu kati gantang yang datang. 

Tlpong tawar ! tlpong jati ! 

Tanah tambak tamban blrisi 

Buleh bagi klhlndak hati, 

Dapat padi btribu kati. 

Jangan sakit. jangan mati, 

Kain puteh tudong puteh ; 

Blrkat Nabi Allah Ibrahim, 

BSrkat Dato' Imp at plmuru 'alum, 

BZrkai I ' ' 'Hah. 

I2 4 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

"Rice-paste without speck, 
I measure you out by the peck ; 
Two or three pecks now I pile, 
Thousands more come in a while 
Rice-paste without speck ! 
May my land yield me many a peck 
Of rice that grows sans blight or speck 
On ridges banked and fat with grain ! 
By grace of Allah's Prophet Abiaham ; 
By grace of the Elders at the four corners of the 

By grace of Muhammad Apostle of God." 

The Harvest. 

This is the invocation used to summon the rice-soul at 
harvest. While uttering it, one waves a white cloth so 
that the rice-soul shall not fall on and crush one at her 
coming : — 

Hai si-dang muri ! si-dang glmbala I si-dang tatap ! 

si-dang yas ! 
Yang di-atas bahagian aku ; 
Yang di-bawah bahagian Ingkau. 
Jangan di-rosak di-binasakan bahagian aku ; 
Jikalau di-rosak di-binasakan bahagian aku, 
Engkau di-makan Koran tiga-puloh juz / 
Itu-lah tanggongan Ingkau. 
" Spirits that peep and guard ! 
All that shows above the field is my portion 
All that lies below is your portion. 
Hurt not nor destroy my portion ; 
Else ye shall be devoured by the thirty chapters of, 

the Koran ; 
That shall be your doom. ' ' 
After that, pay one's respects to earth and water. 

Expelling Evil from the Fields. 

On p. 249 of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
Straits Branch, No. yy, 19 17, I have described the ceremony 
called bSrpuar and referred also to Mr. Blagden's account 
quoted on p. 230 of Skeat's "Malay Magic." 

Below is an invocation used : — 

Bismi '. iuihimi ! 

Hat dato, pUala bumi, jin tanah ! 

Blrhala besi ! 

Anak (?) Want, Bujang Wanif 

Anak (?) Wayan, Bujang Bandanf 

Minyiah Sngkau, jin dan shaitan! 

1920.] R. O. Winstedt : Rice Ceremonies. 125 

KudVrat Allah hVndak lalu. 
Ah Si-JVranjang ! Si-JVranjing! 
Tundok-lah Vngkau ! 
Anak harimau jantan lalu. 
Hai jin dan shaitan ! 
JVmbalang, jVmbali ! 
J angan Vngkau ka-mari mVnVmpoh larangan firman Allah 

Jikalau Vngkau mVnVmpoh larangan firman Allah taala, 

DVrhaka-lah Vngkau ka-pada zat wajibu'l-ujud. 

Aku tahu asal Vngkau jadi ; 

Tanah Bukit Si-Guntang Mahameru asal mula Vngkau 

A ndVrang akan raja Vngkau ; 
Anjami akan bapa Vngkau ; 
Yang diam di-awang-awang Si-Lcla ^i-Maniamun nama 

Vngkau ; 
Yang diam di-langit Si-Juak nama Vngkau ; 
Yang diam di-kayu am Si I irjaii nama Vngkau; 
Yang diam di-aver Si-Karakah nama Vngkau ; 
Yang die:- 1 Vngkau, 

Umanatullah kapada aku! 
Rasulu'llah akan jungongan aku! 
Kiraman Katibin akan sVnjata-ku ! 
Jibrail, Mikail, Israfil, Azrail akan saudara-ku ! 
Tujoh lapis kota bVsi tVmpat ku-diam. 

Ya Malik turun bVrpVrang mVmVliharak in diri-ku ; 

MVnurunkan doa si-panchar matahari pVnundokkan Raja 

(?) Malin. 
SVdang Raja Malin lagi tundok kind mat kapada aku, 
Kunun rayat tantVra-nya jin dan $h lit hi jVmb ilang jVmbali 

tundok kapada aku. 
AhSi-Ka ■ ■: h li I Si-Tongkat-Tongkat ! 

TVrkunchi-lah gigi Vngkau yang dVngki khianat kapada 

TVrkunchi ha'i j anting I im pa Vngkau yang bVrniat jahat 

kapada aku ! 
Aku tahu asal Vngkau jadi, 
Si-Katimuna asal Vngkau jadi, 
Ah ! Vngkau bVrsusah hati, Vngkau sVsak ! 
Engkau mi in pVchah ! 

Engkau mVnyVrudok, ponggong Vngkau burok ! 
Ninek yang diam di-tVlok rantau tanah ayer sa-rantau ulu 

sa-rantau hilir, 
Yang diam di-bukit bVlukar rimba batas gaung guntong 
Sa-kampong ulu, mata ayer , kayu bVsar, batu bVsar ! 
Bawa-lah rayat tantVra Vngkau, 
Bawa-lah anak pinak Vngkau. 
Kapada si-rendang yang bVsar ujong tanah 
Di-bawah kaki bukit Kaf. 

> Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Jangan-lah aku di-rosak di-binasakan ! 

Di-timpa daulat fu man 1/ ah . i da Sngkau ! 

KSrana aku slrta Allah dan sSrta Muhammad RasuluHlah 

SSrta anbia* Allah dan aulia Allah 

SSrta malaikat yang Smpat-puloh Smpat 

Jibrail Mikail Israfil, ; 

Aku sSrta Kuran liga-puloh juz. 

Nabi Noh yang mSmSgang burnt i 

Nabi Elias yang mSmSgang kayu, 

Nabi Khidzr yang mSmSgang batu, 

Lit nut' I- Hakim van- C Sgang bSsi, 

Nabi Sulaiman yang mSmS : ang sSgala yang hSrnyawa! 

Aku mSmohonkan bumi ayer, kayu batu, 

Tt m pat mtmbuat nSgSri kampong laman rumah tangga. 

Hai sigala yang bSrnyawa ! 

I ' '-■<■ >'' ' ■ ' li-rosak di-binasakan ! 

di-rosak di-binasakan kami, 
' - da Sngkau 

Dan bSrkat mu'jizah Mu dan anbia* 

Dan kSramat sSgala anbia' Allah 
Dan kSram a - npat-puloh Smpat 

Jibrail, Mikail, Israfil, Azrail. 
Ah ninek Karakah tua, Ninek KSbayan Bandan -bSlihara- 

kanhami! ^ 

Jangan di-rosak di-binasakan kami ! 
Jikalau di-rosak di-binasakan kami, 
DSrhaka-lah Sngkau kapada Allah ! 
J;' U •n mata Sngkau yang elah dSngki, 
Mato Sngkau di-pSchahkan Allah ! 
Jikalau tangan kaki Sngkau yang dSngki khianat 
Tangan kaki Sngkau di-patahkan Allah ; 
Jikalau hati janlong limpa Sngkau vang bSrniat dSngki 



. is probably corrupt in places, so far as 
the names of spirits goes and is full of repetition : so my 
translation is abbreviated. 

"In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate! 

Spirits of earth and soil ! 

Genies and devils ! get ye hence ! 

Make way for the might of Allah ! 

Bow down, for as a tiger I pass by. 

Genies and devils and gnomes 

Trespass not where Allah hath forbidden ; 

Else ye be traitors to Him who was from the 

I know the origin whence ye sprang : 

From the soil of Mount Mahameru ye were born, 

0.] R. O. Winstrdt : Rice Ceremonies. 127 

Bearing different names according as ye haunt 
Sky or heaven, fig, water or road. 
I have Allah's mandate : 
His Prophet is my prop ; 
The Recording Angels right for me ; 
The four Archangels are my brethren ; 
I live in a fort with seven walls of steel. 
Descend angels and protect me 
And cause my enemies to bow down. 
Locked be the teeth and heart and liver 
Of all who purpose evil against me. 
I know the origin of ye spirits of evil ; 
Ye were sprung from the serpent Si-Katimuna. 
May ye be afflicted and distressed ; 
When ye gaze, may your eyes be blinded, 
And may your going be shameful and grovelling, 
Granddam! thou who dwellest in bay and reaches, up- 
stream and down, 
Dwellest on mountain and in forest and on mound, 
In ravine and valley and spring and tree and rock ! 
Take thy soldiery, thy people, and thy children 
To the shady tree at the land's end 
At the foot of Mount Kaf . 
Keep me from harm and destruction 
Or thou shalt be smitten by the majesty of God's word. 
For God and Muhammad and His saints and Prophets 
And the Angels forty and four and the four Archangels 
Are with me. 
Noah, guardian of earth, 
Jacob, guardian of rock, 
Lukman, guardian of iron, 
Solomon, guardian of all living things 
I crave earth, water, wood and stone, 
A place to build houses and hamlets and a country. 
Ho ! all living creatures, 

We are all of one origin, all servants of God ! 
If ye harm or destroy me, 
Ye shall be smitten by the word of God, 
The miraculous power of Muhammad, 
The sanctity of His saints and prophets, 
By the four and forty angels, 
The four archangels and the thirty chapters of the 

Granddam save me from harm ! 
If thy eye offend me, God shall blind thee ; 
If thy hand molest me, God shall break it ; 
If thy heart purpose evil towards me, 
It shall be crushed by the Apostle of God." 
Finally comes a charm to open the doors of the seven 
ers of earth and the doors of the seven layers of heaven. 

3 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 1920.] 

« Hai jin kafir I jin Islam/ 

Kit a orang sa-asal, sama hamba Allah. 

Tttapi tngkau jadi dari-pada chahaya apt nuraka, 

Aku jadi dari-pada chahaya nur Muhammad ; 

Engkau anak jin Si-Katimuna, 

Aku anak chuchu nabi Allah Adam; 

Engkau ummat Nabi Sulaiman, 

Aku ummat Nabi Muhammad. 

Engkau pun hamba A llah, 

Aku pun hamba Allah. 

Jangan-lah tngkau mtnyakiti stgala ummat Muhammad ! 

Jikalau tngkau sakiii dan Sngkau binasakan stgala ummat 

Durhaka-lah tngkau kapada Allah 

Dan kapada Rasultillah 

Dan kapada sSgala anbia Allah dan aulia Allah 

Dan kapada malaikat yang tmpat-puloh tmpat, 

Jibrail, Mi kail, Israfil, Azrail. 

Ah jin dan shaitan, jtmbalang jtmbali ! 

Mlnyiah tngkau dari sin* 

Kapada si-rendang yang bSsar ujong tanah 

Di-bawah kaki Bukit Kaj. 

Jikalau tiada Ingkau mtnyiah ka-sana, 

Durhaka-lah tngkau kapada zat wajibu'l-ujud 

BaituH-Mukaddis tanah tlrjali. 

Maka hitam merah tanah ku-lttak di-gulang-gulang ; 

Bantu tanah! jlmbalang tanah! jangan tngkau mtng- 
' Genies infidel and Muslim ! 

You and I are one origin, both servants of God. 

But ye are born of hell-fire, 

And I of the light of the Prophet ; 

Ye are children of Si-Katimuna the serpent, 

I am descended from the Prophet Adam ; 

Ye are followers of the Prophet Solomon, 

I am a follower of the Prophet Muhammad. 

You and I are servants of God. 

Plague not the followers of Muhammad, 

Else ye will be traitors to God, 

To His Prophet and the four archangels 

And the angels forty and four. 

Genies and devils and gnomes ! 
Get hence to the big leafy tree at the land's end 
At the foot of Mount Kaf, 

Else ye will be traitors to Him who was from the begin- 
To God's House at Jerusalemen, the primal land. 
My altar is strewn with clods red and black : 
Genies ! gnomes ! hence! and come ye not back. 

By R. O. Winstedt. 
Part i. — Love Charms. 

Turning over an accumulation of MSS. on Malay history, 
Malay customs, Malay games and so on, I came lately across 
a collection of charms, mostly from Perak and Province 
Wellesley. I give the Malay versions with a translation. 

(i) Bab hikmat plrlmpuan di-buat kundang. Sahaya 
Abdul-Ghafar dapat dari-pada Tuan Haji Abdu'r-Rahman, 
lan-nya wang tiga ringgit, kain puteh lima hasta, 
jar-uin blnang, ascun guram, \ireli pinang. 

Ambil pasir kaki-nya alau pasir jambatan-nya atau 
muka pintu-nya. Maka ambil pula baju hitam yaani 
bulat but an Ichcr-nya ; buboh pasir itu di-dalam-nva , 
koyak kiri kanan, buat saplrti anak-anakan ; lipat dua, 
ikat dSngan bSnang tujoh warna. Maka putar sZlaiu pagi 
pltang, thxgah hari, tSngah malam. Atau stlali- 
bacha doa ini tiga kali alau tujoh kali. Insha' Allah 
taala ntschaya-lah datang ptrtmpuan itu ka-pada kita. 
Ini-lah doa-nya. 

Bismi 'llahi >r-Ra 
Burong-ku (?) si-r, 
Ck&rkana kari. 
Apa di ■ <na sa-hari-hari ? 

Minyak-ku si-minyak perak sUaseh : 
Liar mlnjadi jinak, bSrkat ku-pakai kundang si-palit 

Gila bSrahi-lah mata hati jantong najsu (si-anu) ka- 
pada aku ; 
Gila siang, gila malam, 
Gila pltang dini-hari ; 
Datang mlnylrahkan diri-nya. 
Klrana aku tahu asal (si-anu) jadi : 
Wadi madzi man* manikam, 
Darah puteh dari bapa-nya, 
Darah merah dari ibu-nya : 
Itu-lah asal (si-anu) jadi, 
Kur shnangat (si-anu) ! 
Mari-lah datang ka-pada aku 
Mlnylrahkan diri-mu, 
BSrkat doa " La ilaha illa'llah, Muhammad Rasulu- 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. 

Take sand from her footprint or her foot-bridge or 
from the front of her house-door. Take a black jacket 
oval at the neck; put the sand in the jacket; tear it 
right and left and make it up like a doll ; fold it in two 
and tie it with threads of seven colours. Turn the doll 
round every morning and evening, at mid-day, at 
midnight. Or recite this incantation continually three 
or seven times. Please God, the girl will come to you 
This is the incantation :— 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 
My bird si-mara-mara is perched on Mount Cherkana- 

What is my love doing yonder day after day ? 

The magic oil I use shines silver and black ! 

The wild becomes tame by virtue of this charm that 

In love by day, in love by night ; 
In love at eve, in love at dawn : 
Let her come and give herself to me. 
For I know whereof she was born, 
The elements of the seed that made her, 
White blood from her father's side, 
Red blood from her mother's : 
That is whereof she was born. 
Come to me , soul of my beloved ! 
Come and give thyself to me, 

By virtue of the invocation. " There is no God but 
Allah and Muhammad is His Apostle." 

(2) Sa-bagai lagi ini suatu ktmdang jua, Panah Rajuna 

Bila kita mahu tidor siang afau sinja formula bacha sa- 
kali, tlpok ba^s ' Kur slmangat si-anu." 

Bacha sampai tiga kali *niiili,y. ' tl ' kan bantal itu 
bacha bagitu juga, buat bagitu juga lalu tidor di-atas~nya. 
Buat-lah tiga kali sua' a igi dan tlngah 

hart dan pUang : insha 'llah taala, tlrlalu mustajab. Ini- 
lah doa-nya ; — 

Bismi 'llahi 'r-Rahmani 'r-Rahimi! 

Hai sahabat-ku Panah Rajuna ! 

Plrgi-lah Ingkau, 

Masok pada tangkai hali jantong hawa nafsu (si-anu), 

Kunangka tti jantong (si-anu) itu. 

Aku pair ah \gii runtoh : 

1920.] R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 131 

Aku panahkan di-i umi. 1 :<;.ii mllayang : 

Aku panahkan di-ayer, ayer tlrbang : 

Aku panahkan di-laut, taut hiring. 

Aku panahkan di-mata hati jantong (si-anu) itu. han- 
chor luloh. 

Hat, sSmangat(si-anu) ! 

Mari-lah Ingkau di-sini ka-pada aku ! 

Mart datang mlnylrahkan diri-mu ! 

Jika {si-anu) tidor, Ingkau jagakan ; 

Jika (si-anu) jaga, Ingkau jalankan 

Bawa datang blrsama-sama mtndapatkan aku : 

Kundang-kundangkan ujud-ku pada nafsu (si anu) 
siang malam 

Jika tSrbalek bumi dhigan langit, 

Boleh-lah (si-anu) blrchlrai dlngan aku ; 

BSrchSrai Allah dlngan Muhammad, 

Boleh-lah (si-anu) blrchlrai dBngan aku. 

Jika tiada tlrbalek bumi dlngan langit, 

Jika tiada blrchtrai Allah dlngan Muhammad, 

Insha' llah taala btrkat Muhammad Rasulu' Uah 

Dan hlrkat Sang Rajuna 

Nischaya gila blrahi-lah (si-anu) ka-pada aku 

Dotting i-nya ka-pada aku, 

BSrkat doa, " La ilaha ilia 'Uah, Muhammad Rasulu- 
This is another love-compelling charm, named after 
Sang Rajuna. 

Recite this charm once when retiring to sleep by day 
or evening, patting one's pillow seven times and adding 
"Come, soul of my beloved ! " Recite the charm thrice 
on every occasion : then turn over your pillow, recite it 
thrice more, tapping your pillow and adding the same 
words as before. Use the charm thrice at night and 
dawn and midday. Please God it will be most effica- 
cious. This is the charm : — 

In the name of God, the Merciful , the Compassionate ! 

Come my friend, arrow of Rajuna! 

Go pierce the heart and liver, the seat of the 
passions of my beloved ; 

Take fix my image in her heart and liver ; 

If I shoot this dart at the sky, it shall fall ; 

If I shoot it at earth, the earth shall vanish ; 

If I shoot it at the water, the water shall fly away, 

If I shoot it at the sea, the sea shall dry up, 

If I shoot it at the liver and heart of my be- 
loved, they shall dissolve. 

Come to me, soul of my beloved ! 

Come give yourself to me ! 

If she sleeps, awaken her, oh dart ! 

132 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

If she is awake, make her to come to me, 
Bring her to look for me ; 

Fix my person in her heart by day and by night ! 
Only if earth and heaven are upset, 
Can she be parted from me : 
Only if God and His Prophet are parted, 
Can she be parted from me : 
If earth and heaven are not upset, 
If God and His Prophet are not parted, 
Then by the grace of God and His Prophet, 
By the grace of Sang Rajutia, 
Assuredly my beloved shall long after me, 
Coming and giving herself to me, 
By virtue of the invocation, " There is no God 
but Allah and Muhammad is His Apostle." 
(3) Sa-bagai lagi hikmal pirhnpuan. Jika jauh sa-tSngah 
hari ptrjalanan pun, datang juga insha'llah. 

Ambit pasir kaki pMmpuan itu, bungkuskan dlngan 
kain puteh leba sa-jem ' tclu t, tmpat ptrs&gi, ikat 
dtngan hacha tiga 

kali pitta, ,'ctcipi so. ah I la sa kali putar ; atau bacha 
tiga kali, ma ka put a tuio, kali. Mtmhttat-uya itu lima 
kali sa-hari sa-maiam atau stlahi sahaja : tSrlalu baik. 

(Hamba dapat dan Enche' Kuning, orang Kllang : 
minta-nya asam gar am, duit tiga suku, kain puteh lima 
hasta, jarum sa-batang). Ini-lah doa-nya :— 
Bismi'Uahi 'r-Rahmani 'r-Rahimif 
Jhniang buloh ptrindu di-buat tungku, 
Bulohptri ■ pauhjanggi 

BSrputar-lak iman {si ami) saptrti htlayang ini„ 
Blrahi la boleh di-ubat lagi ; 

long nyawa 
Roh hlmpldu badan shnangat (si-anu) juga. 
Kur, shnangat {si-anu) ! 
Siang malam mhiaroh rindu chinta gila kapada aku 

Klrana aku tahu asal mule, {si-anu) jadi : 
Wadi madzi mani manikam, 
Darah puteh dari bapa-nya, 
Darah merah dari ibu-nya : 
Itu-lah asal mula {si-anu) jadi. 
Hai {si-anu) gila Urahi-lah Ingkau ka-pada aku, 
Datang menye'rahkan diri-mu ka-pada aku ! 
Sidi plngajar guru-ku ! 

BSrkat doa, " La ilah. ,,uid Rasulu 1 - 


20.] R. 0. Winstedt: Malay Charms. 133 

Take sand from her footprint, wrap it in a square 
of white cloth, the breadth of the span between thumb 
and first finger ; tie in thread of seven colours ; fumigate 
it with incense; recite the charm thrice, turning the 
cloth round once at each recital ; or recite it thrice, 
turning the cloth round seven times. Do this continu- 
ally or five times day and night. 

(I got this from 'Enche Kuning, a Klang man; he 
asked for limes and salt, 3 suku in cash, five yards of 
white cloth, and a needle). This is the charm :— 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 
My cooking- place is built of the magic bamboo that 
Of magic bamboo and of lodestone from the navel 

May my beloved's virtue be turned as I turn this 

cloth ! 
May she fall in love beyond cure, 
Her heart and liver and soul dizzy with love, 
The soul of her, her body and spirit ! 
Come to me, beloved ! 

Be mad with love for me only, by night and day ! 
For I know the origin whence you sprang, etc. 

(4) Sa-bagai lagi hikmat kundang. 

Ambil satu limau ; ambil pida lidi kMapa ijau sa-potong, 
chuchok ktpala limau ii iar Itbeh kiri 

kanan-nya panjang satu nfong-nya itu. 

Ada pun btnang ptngga; ' g tujoh warna. 

Dan biar Itbeh btnang itu dan ikat btnang saptrti itu juga, 
biar ttrgantong di-bawah , 'ikan-nyaitu. 

Maka ambil pula tujoh lidi taja; ' in, kiri kanan-nya 
tikam ttrus pada ptrut limau itu, kira-kira Itbeh sa-btlah 
kiri kanan-nya dua jari gantong. Marifat mlnikam itu 
mtnikam mata hati jantong nyawa roh hlmpldu. Buboh 
bunga mllor pada ujong lidi itu satu-satu. Ada pun mula 
mtmbuat-nya itu dari pitang hari thalatha ; jika sampai 
tiga hari, pada pltang jumaat. Tatkala kita mlnikamkan 
lidi, maarifatkan mtnik • -n itu. Bacha 

doa tiga kali atau tujoh kali ; sa-kali bacha sa-kali ayun, 
usap ktmlnyan. Buatii alam. Mlm- 

buat-nya di-dalam suatu ttmpat tiada boleh orang masok 
atau tidor baring. 

Hikmat ini kUurunan dari Abdullah Hamid, insha'llah 
ilrUdu mustajab. Ini-lah doa-nya : — 

Bismi'llahi 'r-Rahmani 'r-Rahimi! 

Anak litlang sa-ekor ISmpai hinggap di-ujong tanjong ! 

Rati pSrut {si-anu) sudah ku-lambai ; 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Kandong AlL'Ji, ' < >on^ Muhammad, 

Kandong baginda Rasulu'llah. 

Hat Sidi ! Turun-lah Ingkau ka-pada {si-anu) itu, 

Masok dalam fifrut-nya 

Ujudkan rupa-ku 

Di-dalam mata hati jantong nyawa roh hlmpldu 

Slmangat ujud (si-anu) ; 

Siang malam gila blrahi ka-pada aku. 

Hai sidi mani manikam yang ada ka-pada aku, 

PSrgi-lah tngkau ambil nyawa roh hlmpldu badan 

stmangat {si-anu) itu, 
Bawa datang di-sini blrsuka-ria pangku bUai ka-pada 

Suroh mlnylmbah mlnylrahkan diri-nya, 

Saplrti Siti Zulaikha dtngan Nabi Yusof 

Kabul mustajab sa-rupa kundang-ku, 

BSrkat doa, " La ilaha illa-llah, Muhammad Rasulu- 
Another love charm. 

Take a lime, pierce it with the midrib of a fallen coco- 
nut palm leaving one finger's length sticking out on either 
side whereby to hang the lime. Hang it up with thread 
of seven colours, leaving the thread also hanging loose 
an inch below the lime. Take seven sharpened midribs 
and stick them into the lime leaving two fingers' length 
projecting. The sticking of the midrib into the lime 
is to symbolize piercing the heart and liver and life 
and soul and gall of the beloved. Put jasmine on the 
ends of the midrib skewers. Do this first on Monday 
night, for three nights, and on Friday night. Imagine 
you pierce the girl's heart as you pierce the lime. 
Recite this charm three or seven times, swinging the 
lime each time you recite and fumigating it with incense. 
Do this five times a day and a night in a private place, 
where no one shall enter or sleep. 

This charm comes down from Abdullah Hamid, and 
please God is very efficacious. This is the charm :— 
"In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate ! 
A young hawk perches drooping on the headland 

awaiting prey. 
I have waved my beloved's heart and affections to 

Her spirit is confined in an enclosure 
Prepared by God and Muhammad, His Apostle. 
Ah Sidi ! come enter her affections, 
Fix my image in the heart and soul and spirit, her 
gall and liver and body and person ! 

1920.] R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 135 

Let her be mad after me night and day ! 

May the sperm and seed that is mine be efficacious 

To go and bring the life and soul and gall and body 

Here to play and sport in my lap, 

To bow and give herself to me, 

As Zulaikha gave herself to Joseph. 

So may my charm work and avail 

By grace of the invocation, '* There is no God but 
Allah and Muhammad is His Apostle." 
(5) Sa-bagai lagi hikmat kundang plrlmpuan. Pada ma- 
lam buat tiga kali, pada suatu waktu bacha tiga kali ; jikalau 
boleh, buat pagi-pagi dan tlngah hari juga : — 

Bismi'llahi' r-Rahmani' r-Rahimi I 

Hai sahabat-ku, Jin Jewa stmbawarna, 

Dan Jin Hawa mfoigtrna, 

Yang btrgUang tSmbaga, 

Yang bVrbaju b&si / 

Minta pSrgi dato' ka-pada si-anu, 

Masok dalam ptrut-nya, 

Rosakkan mat a hoti ; •;// <;;- iman si-anu, 

Chlkekkan leher-nya, 

Jangan di-btri makan, 

Jangan di-bSri minum : 

Siang malam gila bSrahi ka-pada aku ; 

Suroh mlnylmbah mlnylrahkan diri-nya. 

" Bismi "llahi" — aku makan tuboh badan (si-anu) : 

lt A' r-Rahmani "—aku tSlan mata-hati jantong (si- 

" A'r-Rahimi"—aku minum otak bSnak darah roh 

stmangat [si-anu). 
Kur stmangat (si-anu) ! 
Hai dato' Jin Mdua-nya, 
PSrgi-lah Sngkau ambilkan (si-anu) itu 
Bawa datang ka-pada aku ; 
Blrkat doa, u La ilaha ilia 'llah, Muhammad Rasul- 

Another charm to win a woman's affections. 

Recite it three times at night, thrice each time ; and if 
possible, at dawn and noon. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 
Genie of golden life ! 
Genie of bright desire ! 
Wearing bangles of brass and coat of steel ! 
Go enter the affections of my beloved, 
Seducing her eyes, her heart, her virtue ! 
Strangle her that she may neither eat nor drink, 
Being madly in love with me by day and by night. 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi<. IX, 

Bid her bow and yield herself to me. 

" In the name of God " —I devour her body ; 

" The Merciful " —I eat her heart ; 

"The Compassionate" —I drink' her life's blood 

and her brains and her spirit. 
Come to me, my soul ! 
Go Genies twain and fetch her to me 
By virtue of the invocation—" There is no God but 
God and Muhammad is His Apostle." 
(6) Bab pSmanis. 

Bismi'llahi 'r-Rahmani 'r-Rahimi ! 

Minyak minyak sSndiri, 

Minyak minyak kUapa mayang mlngurai ! 

Allah Tuhan, yang mSngasehani 

MUimpahkan chahaya-nxa burnt langit : 

Aku pakai pada diri-ku chahaya Allah, 

Chahaya Muhammad, chahaya baginda Rasulu'llah, 

Jadi chantek manis-lah rupa-ku, elok-nya gilang- 

Bukan santan dadeh yang Umak 
Bukan gula yang manis, 
Aku-lah yang Umak manis di-mata hali jantong hawa 

sSgala manusia, 
TSrharok chinta kaseh sSgala manusia ka-pada aku 

dSngan kaseh yang am at sayang ! 
Birkat aku -t:n 'alam, 

Btrkat doa, " La Huh, nmad Rasulu- 

i woman's ch armfor beauty. 

Recite it thrice over coconut oil, then use the oil. 
his is the incantation :— 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

This is essential oil, from a palm with tress-like 

God is Lord and He pities us and sheds His light 

on earth and sky ; 
I wear on my body the light God sheds, 
The light of Muhammad, Apostle of God. 
So am I sweet and lovely and shining, 
Sweeter than curds and coconut-milk, [men ; 

Sweeter than sugar in the eyes and hearts of all 
So that they are distracted with love for me 
By virtue of this oil, the pride of the world, 
And by virtue of the invocation, "There is no God 

but God and Muhammad is his Apostle." 

o.] R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 137 

(7) Bab pSrkaseh pSnurun harta orang pada kita. 

Maka kita ambil daun hhnptdu biruang panjang satu 
jari ttngah ; kita tawarkan tiga kali ; kSmudian tanamkan 
di-bawah pintu orang itu, atau pintu kita, asal boleh 
di-langkah-nya orang itu. Ini-lah doa-nya : — 


Daun ini panah Sang Rajuna : 

Aku panahkan di-gunong, gunong bllah, 

Aku panahkan di-bumi burnt ptchah ; 

Aku par, a -it roboh ; 

Aku pan.- iantong (si-anu) itu, 

Yang bal -h-lah ka-pada aku, 

Chinta gila ig (si-anu) 

Siang malum tiada boleh lupa, 

Milainkan llringat-ingat, 

Tiada boh *b$ri wang 

S8rta harta bSnda-nya ka-pada aku. 

Blrkat sakti panah Sang Rajuna : 

Blrkat doa, " La il mad Rasulu'- 


A charm to win a man's love and wealth. 

Take a leaf of the Brucea sumatrana the length of a 
ringer and a half ; recite this charm over it thrice and 
then plant it beneath the door of the person you would 
infatuate or beneath your own door if he will step over 
it. This is the incantation :— 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

This leaf is Sang Rajuna's arrow. 

Tf I shoot it at a mountain, the mountain will split : 

If I shoot it at the earth, the earth will break ; 

If I shoot it at the sky, the sky will fall ; 

I shoot it at the heart and liver of him I would in- 

And he who was a miser becomes generous, 

Madly in love with me day and night, 

Unable to forget me, 

Unsatisfied in bestowing money and property upon 

By virtue of the magic of Sang Rajuna's arrow, 
And of the invocation, " There is no God but God 
and Muhammad is His Apostle." 

(8) Sa-bagai lagi hikmat plrkaseh. 

Suratkan ka-pada k&ri '.' kain tutiip 

muka orang / rkan pula tiga 

kali, tana;;'. : itu ia-itu di- 

nimah-nya atau di-rumah kita. Ini-lah doanya: — 

5 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Gila Allah ka-pada Muhammad : 
Gila Muhammad ka-pada Allah. 
Bagai-mana Allah gila kaseh ka-pada Muhammad, 
Bagitu-lah mala hati jantong hawa natsu (si-anu) 

Datang makan minum tidor 
Dan pltang sampai pagi di-rumah aku, 
Tiada boleh suka pada rumah yang lain. 
Jika blrchlrai Allah dtngan Muhammad 
Dan bfrgtrak mayat di-dalam kubor, 
Maka boleh-lah blrgtrak mata hati jantong hawa 

nafsu (si-anu) , 
Suka makan minum tidor 
Dari pUang sampai pagi di-rumah-nya. 
Jika tiada btrchlrc ihammad, 

Dan tiada blrgtrak mayat di-dalam kubor, 
Maka tiada-lah boleh blrglrak mata hati jantong hawa 

Suka makan minum tidor 
Dari pUang sampai pagi 
Di-rumah aku, 
Saptrti mayat dalam kubor. 

Dlngan izin Allah, blrkat doa, "La ilaha illa'llah, 
Muhammad Rasulu'llah." 

Another love charm. 

Write this incantation on paper and wrap it in cere- 
ments that have covered the face of a male corpse ; 
sprinkle rice-paste over it thrice and bury it where the 
person one would charm is bound to step. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

As God loveth Muhammad and Muhammad God 

So let my lover's heart lust after me, 

So that he come and eat and drink and sleep 

From evening unto dawn at my house, 

Loathing all other resorts. 

If God and Muhammad can be parted, 

And a corpse move in the grave, 

Then only shall the Heart and desire of my lover 

Be moved to eat not or drink or sleep 

In my house from evening unto dawn. 

If God and Muhammad cannot be parted 

Or a corpse move in the grave, 

Then shall the heart and desire of my lover 

Be moved not to refrain from his longing 

To eat and drink and sleep from eve unto dawn 

In my house, like a corpse in his grave. 

By the will of God and by virtue of the invocation, 

o.] R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 139 

" There is no God but God and Muhammad is His 
(9) Bab hikmai ptrlmpuan. Mahu di-rSbus atau di-uap 
la api dalam kuali atau btlanga. 

Ambil pasir kaki-nya atau apa-apa barang-nya, rtbus. 
Tatkala mlrlbus atau mtnguap, ini-lah doa-nya. Bacha 
tiga kali atau tujoh kali, uap lima kali satu hart satu 
inalani atau stlaht. Dan lagi kata Mamu Abdu'l-Nasir, 
jikalauada inhnbuat hikmai xan-j, Ji-rtbus, boleh iawarkan 
dSngan doa ini tiga kali : ini-lah doa-nya : — 

Bismi 'llahi 'r-Raliwani ' r-Rahimi! 

Aku rlbus ini y akau uap ini 
dlngan panah kudSrat Allah, 

Aku /;.,' Allah, 

Aku mi .: maarijat Allah. 

Aku panahkan di-gunong, gunong runtoh. 

Aku panahkan di-batu, batu btlah. 

Aku path mi chayer. 

Aku panahkan di-langit, langit jatoh. 

Aku panahkan di-mata hati jantong hawa nafsu si- 

Si-anu hanchor luloh panas miang saplrti barang ini : 

Hilang-lah malu si-anu ka-pada aku t 

Gila blrahi datang mlnylrahkan diri-nya, 

Tiada boleh ka-mana-mana lagi, 

Kama aku tahu a sal inula (si-anu) jadi, 

Wadi madzi mani manikam, 

Darah puteh dari bapa-nya, 

Darah merah dari ibu-nya, 

Itu-lah asal inula si-anu jadi. 

Kur slmangat si-anu. 

Mari datang ka-pada aku stkarang ini 

Blrkat doa, " La \ Rasulu- 

A charm to win a woman's affections. 

Boiling or steaming over pot or saucepan is essential. 
Take sand from her foot-print or any possession of hers 
and boil or steam it. While doing so, recite this incan- 
tation three or seven times ; steaming the sand con- 
tinually or five times a day and a night. Mamu Abdu'l- 
Nasir saith that in using the boiled sand, one should 
recite this incantation thrice. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

I boil and steam this 

To be a dart made powerful by God 

Whose will I am bringing to pass. 

I take this with perfect knowledge of God's will. 

140 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX 

If I shoot it at a mountain , the mountain falls ; 

If I shoot it at rock, the rock splits ; 

If I shoot it at the earth, the earth dissolves ; 

If I shoot it at the sky, the sky falls ; 

I shoot it at the heart of my beloved 

And she is broken with love and hot as this sand 1 

She loses shame and comes and gives herself to! me 
And nowhere else shall she go. 
For I know whereof she was born, 
The elements of the seed that made her, 
White blood on her father's side, 
Red blood on her mother's : 
That is whereof she was born. 
Come to me my beloved ! Come now 
By virtue of the invocation, "There 
God and Muhammad is His Apostle. 
(10) Sa-bagai lagi hikmat Si-Palit Gila. Bagitu juga 

Bismi 'ilahi 'r-Rahmani ' r-Rahim ! 
A ku antokkan di-gunong, gunong runtoh ! 
Aku antokkan di-batu, batu bllah. 
Aku antokkan di-mata hati jantong hawa nafsu si-anu, 
Si-anu hanchor luloh panas stgala tuboh-nya, 
Bagai antok ini, ttrantok chinta ! 
Ingat-lah si-anu pada aku siang malam, 
Lupa-lah ia aka n Jial-nva stmua, 
Gila btrahi ha-fada aku ! 
Jika ia tidor, &rk8jttt-lah mtnjaga ; 
Jika ia jaga, mtnjadi bangun btrjalan, 
Mtnjaii ' l-rumak aku, 

Hilang takut hilang malu, 
Saplrti orang mabok arak. 
Blrkat bisa hikmat si-palit gila, 

Blrkat bisa doa, "La ilaha illa'llah, Muhammad 

A charm called ' c The touch of infatuation" It works 
like the previous charm. 

In the name of God. the Merciful, the Compassionate ! 

I strike a mountain and it falls ; 

I strike a rock and it splits asunder ; 

I strike at the heart of my beloved 

And she is broken and hot with love. 

As I strike now, let her be smitten with love 


■ night and day, 

Forgetting all else but love 

If she sleeps, let her wake and watch ; 
If she watches, let her rise and come 
Drifting witless to mv house, 

so.] R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 141 

Devoid of fear and shame as one drunk with wine 

By virtue of the power of this charm 

And the invocation, " There is no God but God and 
Muhammad is His Apostle." 
(11) Sa-bagai lagi hikmat pMmpuan. 

Ambil pasir atau tanah kaki plrlmpuan itu, atau tanah 
jalan-nya atau tanah muka pintit-nva atau klreta-nya 
atau kuda-nya : minta baik-lntik, tatkala mlngambil-nya, 
tawarkan tiga kali t buboh pada kuali atau bUanga, jtrang 
bakar siang malum uap-uap ia-itu goreng tiada blrminyak. 
Jika kita mahu tolong orang kita dari-pada-nya, maka 
mahu-lah kita tawarkan tiga kali buat tiga malam, blri 
pada orang itu suroh bakar sapMi itu juga : ini-lah doa- 
nya ajar ka-pada orang itu tatkala mlnguap itu, blrkata 

Blrkat panah Si Rajuna 

Gila-lah (si-anu) itu datang. 
Bila kita mhnbakar itu, buboh bunga mllor barang iujoh 
dllapan kuntum : pi „■;■. usu p :imlnyan. Ini-lah doa di- 
bacha, tatkala mZnguap itu :— 

Bismi niahi 'r-Rahmam 'r-Rakimi! 

Bakar bakar pasir tanah ! 

Aku bakar mata hati jantong si-anu itu. 

Bakar-ku panah Sang Rajuna. 

Aku bakarkan di-gunong, gunong rutitoh, 

Aku bakarkan dibatu, batu bllah. [anu), 

Aku bakarkan di-mata hati jantong hawa nafsu (si- 

Klna hanchor luloh panas sggala tuboh-nya 

Gila btrahi ka-pada aku, 

Tidak boleh stnang diam ; 

Saplrti pasir ini tlrbakar. 

BZnchi-lah (si-anu) ka-pada ibu bapa, 

Ka-pada saudara sahabat handai-nya ; 

Jika ia tidor, mlnjadi jaga, 

Jika ia jaga, mlmbangun bZrjalan 

Datang kapada aku 

Mtnylrahkan diri-nya : 

Hilang akal, hilang malu 

Blrkat ( n ah Sang Rajuna, 

Blrkat doa, " La ilaha illa'llah, Muhammad Rasulu- 
Another charm to win a woman's affections. 

Take sand or earth from the woman's foot-print or 
from the path or from the front of her door or from her 
carriage wheels or her pony's hoofs; put it in pot or 
saucepan, and cook it day and night, frying it with 
oil. If one prepares it for a third party, one should 
neutralize it for three nights and then give it to him 
to cook, teaching to recite this charm as it steams. 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol,. IX, 

By virtue of Sang Rajuna's arrow 

May my beloved come to me distracted with love. 
As one cooks the sand, place on it seven or eight 
jasmine buds, and at night burn benzoin. This is the 
charm to be recited, as the sand steams : — 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate ! 

Burn, burn, sand and earth ! 

I burn the heart of my beloved 

And my fire is the arrow of Sang Raj una ! 

If I burnt a mountain, it would fall; 

If I burnt rock, it would split asunder ; 

I am burning the heart of my beloved 

So that she is broken and hot with love, 

That giveth her no rest night or day, 

Burning ever as this sand burns. 

Let her cease to love parents and friends ! 

If she sleeps, awaken her ; 

If she awakes, cause her to rise and come 

Yielding herself unto me ; 

Devoid of shame and discretion ! 

By virtue of the poison of Sang Rajuna's arrow, 

By virtue of the invocation, " There is no God but 
God and Muhammad is His Apostle." 
(12) Sa-bagai lagi hikmat pgrSmpuan. 

Ambil pasir atau tanah jijak kaki-nya, buboh di-dalam 
bllanga atau kuali : buboh api, uap-lah. Dan sa-iSngah 
gSnggam lada hitam tumbok champor dan miang rlbong 
barang ttngah glnggam juga, buboh api siang malam. Ini- 
lah doa-nya : — 

Bismi 'llahi 'r-Rahmani 'r-Rahimi! 

Aku mtnggoreng anak kaki (si-anu), 

A ku mtnggoreng mata hati jantong nyawa roh hhnpl- 
du badan (si-anu) ; 

Dlngan marifat A llah 

Mata hati jantong nyawa roh hlmpMu 

Miang, sapMi Una miang rlbong, 

Panas, saplrti pasir tSrgoreng ini, 

Tiada boleh makan, 

Tiada boleh minum ; 

Lupa-lah ia akan diri-nya slrta ibu bapa-nya ( 

Sanak saudara-nya, sahabat handai-nya , 

Chinta ingat pada aku sa-orang sahaja, 
Gila bSrahi datang nitnylrahkan diri 

BSrkat doa, "La ilaha illa'llah, Muhammad Rasulu- 

Another charm for women. 

Take sand or earth from the woman's foot-print, put 
it in pot or pan and steam it. Take also half a handful 

R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

I fry the foot-print, the heart, liver, gall, life and 

soul of my beloved, 
With perfect knowledge of God's will. 
May they itch with love, as if touched with this 

bamboo ; 
Be hot with love as this sand is hot, 
So that she desire not meat and drink , 
Forgetting herself, her parents, her friends and 

Thinking only of her love for me, 
Coming infatuated and giving herself to me ; 
By virtue of the invocation, " There is no God but 

God and Muhammad is His Apostle." 

Dan lagi jikalau boleh, tlrltbeh baik di-tambah dlngan 

Bismi 'licit r-R hmani 'r-Rahimi! 

Hai sahabat-ku p&nghulu Iblis! 

Hat sSgala hantu shaitan 

Yang suka mtngachau orang ! 

Aku minta-minta-lah ka-pada dato'-dato' 

Minta plrgi-lah 

Masok ' anu) itu, 

Gorengk mg-nya, 

Saplrti pasir ini ttrgoreng ; 

Gila blrahi 'kan aku : 

Bawa datang 

Suroh m&nylmbah mlnylrahkan diri-nya, 

B&rkat buat nasi dan uap-uap 

Buboh dlkat dapor ini, 

Atau Snche' -tnche' ingat baik-baik / 

And if possible, it is better to add the following : — 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 
Friend of mine, Iblis ! and all ye ghosts and devils 
That love to trouble man ! 

I ask ye to go and enter the body of my beloved, 
Burning her heart as this sand burns, 
Fired with love for me. 
Bring her to yield herself to me ! 
By virtue of this rice and steam 
Place her here by my hearth 
Or else take ye heed ! 

4 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol,. IX, 

(13) Sa-bagai lagi. 

Ambil pasir kaki plrlmpuan yang di-kasehi itu, slrta 
tanah kubor jantan pMmpuan, dan miang rtbong : 'buboh 
dalam Mlanga bnboh api, -uapkan. Ini- 

lah doa-nya : — 

Bismi 'llahi 'r-Rahmam 'r-Rahimil 

Aku goreng pasir kaki (si-anu) itu ; 

Bukan aku goreng pasir kaki (si-anu) itu, 

Aku mlnggoreng mata hati jantong hawa nafsu {si- 

Siang malam sapfrti pasir ini tlrgoreng. 
" Kun," ka'a Allah, 

" Fa yakuti," kata Muhammad RasuUCllah. 
Panas miang batang tuboh (si-anu) itu 
Tiada boleh s&nang diam batang sa-saat 
Gila bSrahi ka-pada aku. 
" Fa yakun " kata Jibrail. 
Hai (si-anu) mari-lah datang ka-pada aku, 
Mlnye'rahkan diri 

Blrkat Jin Mukal dan Malik Mikail 
BSrkat hantu Shaitan Iblis, 

Dan blrkat doa, "La ilaha illaHlah Muhammad 
A similar charm. 

Take sand from the foot -print of the woman loved, 
and earth from the grave of a man and a woman and 
itching hair-like filaments of bamboo ; put them in a 
cooking pot and steam night and day. This is the in- 
cantation : — 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

I fry sand from the foot-print of my beloved; 
Nay ! I fry her heart and liver 
Night and day, as this sand is fried. 
' ' Let it be " says God ; 

f< And it is so," says Muhammad His Apostle. 
Let her body itch with desire 
Giving her no rest from longing for me. 
<l And it is so," says Jibrail. 
Come and give yourself to me, my beloved, 
By virtue of the geni life Mikail, 

By virtue of ghosts, devils and Iblis, 
And by virtue of the invocation, " There is no God 
but God and Muhammad is His Apostle." 
(14) Ini-lah doa pakaian pBrimpuan. 

Tawarkan tiga kali pada ubat-ubat atau kunyit, minum, 
atau pada sir eh tiga kapor lalu makan. 

O. Winstedt ; Malay Chan 

(Minta-nya Imas tlngah mayam, jar urn, tcang sa-tali 
Ini-lah doa-nya : — 

Bismi 'llahi 'r-Rahmani 'r-Rahimi! 

Rasa, rasa, rasa shurga Siti Fatimah : 

Aku pakai pada diri-ku, 

Mlslra pada slgala ujud-ku ; 

Rasa-ku masok dalam otak blnak 

Tulang slndi urat (si-anu) ; 

Llkat pada iman slndiri-nya , 

Plnoh limpah pada tnata hati jantong haw a nafsu-nya, 

Tundok I '-ami) ka-pada aku, 

Siang malam tiada bolch suka pada plrlmpuan yang 

Jika blrchlrai Allah dingan Muhammad. 

Dan blrglrak may at di-dalam kubor, 

Maka boleh-lah blrglrak tnata hati jantong hawa 

nafsu (si-anu) 
Suka pada plrlmpuan yang lain. 
Jika tiada blrchlrai Allah dlngan Muhammad, 
Dan tiada blrglrak mayat di-dalam kubor , 
Maka tiada-lah boleh blrglrak mala hati jantong 

hawa nafsu (si-anu) 
Pada plrlmpuan yang lain, 
Hanya-lah ilrbuka mata hati jantong hawa nafsu 

Jodoh klkal dlkat aku sampai mali, 

Blrkat doa, "La ilaha ilia' 11 ah, Muhamui 

to be used by a woman. 

Recite it thrice over herbal drugs or saffron and 
drink the drugs ; or recite it over quids of betel and eat 

The owner of it asked for £ a mayam of gold, a needle, 
and i tali of money. 

This is the incantation : — 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 
Let me be clothed with the heavenly joys of Siti 

Fatimah ! 
Let them spread through my body ! 
Let pleasure in them enter the brains and limbs and 

Cleaving to him close as his religion, 
Flooding his heart with passion, 
Causing him to bow down and love me, 
Caring for no other woman by night or day. 

146 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

If Muhammad can be sundered from God 
And a corpse move in the grave, 
Only then shall my lover's desire move to another. 
For the desire of his heart shall be only for me ; 
Straying nowhither he shall be my mate unto death 
Safe near me like a corpse in the grave. 
By virtue of the invocation, " There is no God but 
God and Muhammad is His Apostle." 

(15) Ini-lah lagi doa phnanggil. Hlndak-lah di-bacha 
tiga kali pada muka ayer, tatkala kita mandi :— 
Bismi 'llahi 'r-Rahmani 'r-Rahimi! 
Chahaya Allah pada tuboh-ku ! 
Mlnaikkan ma; ikam Muhammad pada tuboh-ku; 
MUlra-lah kali (si-anu) itu ka-pada aku, 
SSmbah sujud ka-pada aku, 
Jangan sa-tara hati si-anu itu. 
Alangkan gajah puteh di-sabtrang laut 
Lagi sujud mtnylmbah ka-tapak kiri-ku ! 
Sah sidi plngajaran guru! 
Sah sidi must a jab ka-pada aku ! 
Blrkat, " Lailaha illallah Muhammad Rasulu'llah." 
This is another charm to call a lover. It should be 
recited thrice over the surface of the water, before the 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 
God's glory and the light of the Prophet be on my 

Let the heart of my lover be wrapt up in me ! 

Let him kneel and bow before me ! 

Let him not stand an equal before me but subdued 

by love. 
Does not even the white elephant from over the 

Bow and do obeisance to the sole of my left foot ? 
May the teaching of my master avail 
Avail and bring to pass my desire ; 
By virtue of invocation, "There is no God but God 
and Muhammad is His Apostle." 
(16) Sa-bagai lagi. 

Hong tu ! " Run " kata Allah. 
Tujoh darah mlngglUgak di-dalam kubor 
Klna guna Si-Hampar Panas. 
Hai malaikat Impat-puloh Impai ! 
Aku pinjam Sngkau; 

o.] R. O. Winstkdt : Malay Charms. 147 

Aku suroh Ingkau plrgi ambil roh (si-anu) itu, 

Bawa kaseh sayang ka-pada aku ; 

Jika ia tidor, Ingkau jagakan ; 

Sudah iajaga, tngkau dudokkan; 

Sudah dudok, Ingkau dirikan ! 

Sudah Mr din, Ingkau rlntok rZntang, 

Bawa kaseh sayang ka-pada aku. 

Jikalau ia lupa nasi makan, 

Lupa ka-pada aku ; 

Jikalau ia lupa ayer minum, 

Lupa ka-pada aku ; 

Jikalau ia lupa kain di-pinggang, 

Lupa ka-pada aku ; 

Jikalau tiada lupa nasi makan, 

Tiada-lah ia lupa ka-pada aku ; 

Jikalau tia fa lap u Ji-pinggang, 

Tiada-lah ia lupa ka-pada aku siang dan malam, 

Malam dan siang tiada lupa ka-pada aku. 

Jikalau (engkau) mam susu ibu, 

Tiada lupa ka-pada aku. 

DSngan Urkat mlmakai doa 
" La ilaha illa'llah Muhammad Rasulullah ! 
Another love charm. 

It should be recited before a candle, the lover's name 
being mentioned. 

Om ! " Let it be," says God. 

Seven kinds of blood boil even in the grave 

When they feel my charm that brings hot love. 

Angels forty and four ! 

I borrow ye to go and fetch my lover's spirit. 

Bring him to love and long for me : 

If he sleeps, awaken him ! 

When he wakes, let him sit ! 

Sit and then rise up ! 

And do ye tug and drag him to me ! 

I,et him not forget me 

Till he forgets rice to eat, and water to drink, 

Till he forgets the cloth that is about his waist. 

If he forget not his rice 

Or the cloth that is about his waist, 

Then shall he not forget me night or day. 

Ah lover ! if ever you fed at mother's breast, 

You shall not forget me : 

For I use the invocation, ' ' There is no God but 
God and Muhammad is His Apostle." 
(17) Ini-lah ilmu duyong, nama-nya. 

Lambaikan sapu tangan sa-bUah matahari turun dan 
bacha tiga kali. Ini-lah doa-nya ': — 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 

Bismi 'llahi 'r-Rahmani y-Rahimi ! 

Hat doa-ku ; doa duyong ! 

Aku duyongkan, gunong lagi runtoh , 

Aku duyongkan, kayu lagi sSrpeh ; 

Aku duyongkan, api lagi padam; 

Aku duyongkan, ayer lagi surut ; 

Aku duyongkan, otak blnak (si-anu) itu akan chayer ; 

Btrkat aku mtmakai doa duyon a . 

Lupa 'kan kain baju-nya {si~anu), 

Baharu ia lupa 'kan aku ; 

Lupa ''kan sikat minvak 

Baharu ia lupa "kan aku ; 

Lupa ''kan tikar tlmpat tidor, 

Baharu ia lupa 'kan aku ; 

Lupa 'kan makan minum, 

Baharu ia lupa "kan aku ; 

Lupa ia aku v. Allah dan Muhammad, 

Baharu ia lupa 'kan aku ; 

Blrkat aku mlmakai doa duyong. 

Aku duyongkan, otak rfnttg'i hhnpUu paru-paru (si- 

anu) akan chayer. 
Barang di-makbulkan Allah! 
Di-n akhui ' • i 1/ uliammad ! 
Di-makbulkan bagmda Rasulu'llah; 
Aku mlnglnakan doa duyong ka-pada (si-anu), 
Sah sidi pSngajaran guru, 
Sidi muslajah ka-pada aku, 

Blrkat "La ilaha ilia Utah Muhammad Rasulu'llah." 
his is called the charm of the duyong : — 
Wave a kerchief towards the setting sun and recite 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 
Prayer of mine ! Prayer of the duyong ! 
I use the duyong charm and mountains fall, 
Timber chips, fire is quenched, water recedes, 
And the brains of my beloved melt ; 
By virtue of my charm. 
Only if she forgets her jacket and skirt, 
Will she forget me ; 
If she forgets her comb and her oil, 
Her mat whereon she sleeps, her food and drink, 
If she forgets God and Muhammad, 
Only then will she forget me ; 
By virtue of the charm I use. 
I use it and her brains, gall, lungs melt. 
God fulfil my prayer ! 
Muhammad Apostle of God fulfil it ! 
I use my charm against my beloved. 

May the teaching of my master prevail, 
Prevail and be efficacious, 
By virtue of the invocation, "There is 
but God and Muhammad is His Apostle 


A Legend communicated by Haji v Sam (of Menangka- 
bau Descent) at Tkmai. 

By H. S. Sircom. 

The first settlement in Pahang by Malays was made at 
Kuala Bera. To' Bentara Kanan of Johor met a Sakai at 
Ulu Muar who gave him a princess whom he had found in a 
bamboo {buloh bSlong). To' Bentara Kanan fearing to take 
the princess to Johor, lest the Sultan should snatch her from 
him, wandered for three years in the jungle, and a child 
was born to him in the jungle. He then went to Bgra and 
settled down and made a kampong and got three male 
children. Of these the eldest settled at Bukit Sa-Gumpal, the 
second at TSmerloh, and the youngest at Jelai : from the To' 
Bentara and his sons sprang all the Malay settlements in 

To' Bentara went from Kuala Bera to Pedah: at that 
place was a large mahang tree which was felled by his orders 
and in falling blocked the whole width of the Pahang river. 
This tree formed a dividing line ; some of To' BSntara's 
descendants went upstream ; they were the ancestors of To' 
Raja Jelai: others went downstream ; they were the ancestors 
of To' Raja Jelai : others went downstream and founded 
other settlements. The stump of the felled mahang tree was 
so large that a meal for forty people could be served on it at 
one time (40 hidang). 

The settlement of the lower reaches of the Pahang river 
was begun in this wise :— 

Two sisters came from Johor to seek their relatives at 
Kuala Bera: one was detained by the Rayat (Sakai) at 
Pahang Tua (Pahang "was then thickly populated with Sakai) ; 
the other sister was caught by the Sakai at Temiang above 
Galong, and from this event date the settlements on the 
Kemap river (Luit). 

From Luit later came To' Basir the great-grandfather of 
the present PSnghulu and founded the settlement of Temai, 
the name of which is Sakai. 

At-marhum 'Che Koris, grandfather of the present Sul- 
tan (Ahmad) was the founder of Pekan : he came from Johor. 

The settlement of Pulau Manis is so named because once 
there was an island there covered with rumput manis. 

The authority for this history was To' Kasim, the grand- 
father of 'Che Lah the present Pgnghulu of Temai. 

It is perhaps needless to add that the evidence of the 

[Vol. IX, 1920.] H. S. Sircom : Settlement of Pahang. 151 

Sijarah MUayu alone proves that there was Malacca Malay 
influence in Pahang as early as the 15th century. It would 
appear that the present legend relates to the Minangkaban 
settlement in Pahang, a portion of which formed one of the 
old Negeri Sembilan. 


By H. S. Sircom. 

I. At Sabak on the Luit river are two circular pi1 
) a bank one on either side. Dimensions : — 
Depth : about 8 feet, 4 feet of which are filled with v 
Diameter at water's edge : about 9 feet. 
Distance over bank between pits : about 15 feet 

l ) Bank ( 1 

These pits are said to be the places where Siamese 
did their cooking (? or sugar boiling), the pits having been 
hollowed out to receive cooking pots. The name of the 
place— Sabak— given on account of these pits. 

No other details are supplied; no traces of mineral 
workings near. (Visited on 23-10-1911). 

2. Some distance below Sabak is an area of several 
acres of lalang, and in it a pit (circular) about 6 feet in 
diameter, containing about 5 feet of water with an under- 
ground adit to the Luit river. The place is called " Padang 
Pengi" and Siamese occupation is attributed to it. No 
other signs of habitation. (Visited on 23-10-1911). 

3. Forest Ranger C. A. Speldewinde reports having 
visited a large clearing in the jungle on the middle waters 
of the Bebar, which is known as " Padang Siam." 

By H. S. Sircom. 

i. At Galong (Luit) is a well-known klramat consist- 
ing of two large irregular-shaped stones about 9 feet apart. 

They are supposed to mark the tomb of some holy man 
whose identity cannot be traced. 

There is a legend that people who lose their way in the 
jungle near this hlramat always come to the tomb, where 
they find sugar-cane ready cut to refresh them. 

2. At Senbut on the left bank of the Rompin a little 
below Kuala Kratong is a mound on a hill ; on the mound 
are two stones about 16 feet apart; near it is a smaller 
mound with stones about a man's height apart. 

These are said to be the tombstones respectively of a 
Sayid, one of seven brothers (of whom the man buried at 
Galong is one) and of a disciple of his. 

The tombstones are said to have removed themselves 
about 70 years ago from Kuala Aur, their original 
the reason given being that the Sayid did not like the distur- 
bance created by the marriages and births among the increas- 
ing population at Kuala Aur. 

3. At Temai (right bank of Pahang) is a tombstone (batu 
Acheh) with carving ; it is said to have been inscribed once 
with the name of Sayid Bakar, but no trace of the inscription 
now remains. Haji Sam says that this tomb is older than 
the kampong of Temai. 

- f 



Federated Malay States Museums. 


APRIL, 1921. 

XXIII. A Grave and Megaliths in Negri Sembilan 

with an Account of some Excavations. 

Ivor H. N. Evans .. .. ..155 

XXIV. Plans of the Negri Sembilan Grave and 

Megaliths with Notes. W.A.Wallace .. 175 


London Agent : Bernard Quaritch Ltd. 
//, Grafton Street, New Bond Street. 




By Ivor H. N. Evans. 

The ancient monuments at Pengkalan Kempas, Linggi, 
Negri Sembilan, collectively called Keramat Sungai Udang, 
have been known to Europeans for a considerable time, though 
I believe that no detailed description of them has yet been 
published. They stand in a small valley or depression be- 
tween two ridges and only a few chains distant from the 
Sungai Udang (Prawn River). 

The local Malays are full of stories about the monuments 
but, on questioning the older men, it is found that the truth 
is that they were discovered in the jungle only some two or 
three generations ago and that the stories are therefore of 
quite recent date. Nowadays the jungle has disappeared and 
the small reserve, in which the remains are enclosed, is sur- 
rounded by Chinese and Malay rubber holdings. 

The work of excavating and restoring the monuments 
as far as possible, some of which had suffered from ill-treat- 
ment, accidental or otherwise ; from natural decay ; or had 
fallen down owing to subsidence of the soil, was begun by me 
towards the end of July, and finished about the middle of 
October, 1919. After some clearing work had been done, but 
before any of the stones had been moved or excavations 
proper begun, a survey of the whole site was made by 
Mr. W. A. Wallace of the Federated Malay States Surveys. 
His plans and notes are published in this Journal and are 
those referred to in this paper. 

The chief remains at Keramat Sungai Udang are a 
Mohamedan tomb, an inscribed pillar and a group of carved 
granite monoliths with a platform in front of them. The 
Mohamedan tomb is, in some ways, the less interesting of 
the structures as it is possible to date it accurately ; the 
granite monoliths the more interesting since their age is pro- 

The grave is an object of veneration both to Malays and 
Chinese, and to a certain extent to Tamils. The Malays and 
Chinese make and pay vows there ; the former holding feasts 
{ktnduri), at which fiulut kunyet l figures prominently, when- 

156 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

ever the Dato' of the Keramat l has granted their requests ; 
the latter firing crackers, making offerings of fowls — sub- 
sequently taken away for consumption at home— and of 
spirituous liquors, of which the Mohamedan Dato' surely 
cannot approve, and being only restrained from offering pork 
by the interdiction of the local Malays ; furthermore thev 
defile the monument by burning candles, joss-sticks and 
" paper money "—the variety with which the Chinese placate 
spirits and the ghosts of the departed— in every available 
crack and crevice. The grave has been protected for many 
years by a palm-leaf roof. 

To return however to the granite monoliths : the main 
group of these consists of three uprights * with three dressed 
blocks of laterite 3 placed on the ground in front of them. 
The uprights have been given fanciful names by the Malays : 
one, a long, tapering, sculptured flake of granite is said to be 
the sword (PSdang) or Ktris of the Saint of the KBramat, the 
second his spoon {Sudu), and the third the rudder {K&mudi) 
of the ship in which he arrived in the country. In addition 
to these there is also a large turtle-back of granite 4 lying rather 
to one side, and two smaller granite uprights (Nos. 103 & 104, 
plan 3), one of which may perhaps have been roughly 
dressed. The Sudu was accidentally broken into two pieces 
some years ago by a falling tree (Nos. 93 and 101 in plan). I 
was able however to make a fairly good restoration of the 
stone. The same cause, too, was probably responsible for 
the fracture of a small granite monolith which originally 
stood within the outermost course of stones surrounding the 
grave. The base of this was discovered buried in its original 
position, 5 and the larger portion of the stone has now been 
joined to it and erected as it originally stood. 

The turtle-back (102), to which I have referred above, 
was found lying, flat side up, as shown in the plan, but I 
turned it over and had it placed as nearly as possible in the 
position in which it had formerly been, to one side of, and 
rather behind the K&mudi (94), as shown in a photograph 
taken some year previous to my visit. 

The blocks forming the platform in front of the three 
main uprights are all of laterite, and number three, not four, 
as in the plan The inaccuracy is due to the fact that one of 
them (100) had been much broken, and looked, in the state 
in which it was found, as if it was really two distinct blocks. 
Mr. Wallace indicated, however, that he was not sure of the 
number and form of the blocks of part of the platform by means 
of dotted lines. The shapes of several of the stones comprising 

1 granite monolith. 

I92L] I. H. N. Evans : A Grave end Megaliths. 157 

the group are, to say the least of it, remarkable and it seems 
possible that the KHris (92) may be a conventionalised phallus, 
while the Sudu (101 & 93) may, perhaps, be a representation 

Of the platform blocks, two are rectangular (99 & 100), 
one being almost square ; the third block is a rough hexagon. 
It is worthy of note that several of the granite monoliths 
show notchings, ribbings, or crenulations at their edges, num- 
bers 92 and 94 affording good examples of ribbing, while the 
turtle-back (102) is crenulate at one edge. 

The sculptured designs which stand out in somewhat 
low relief on the Klmudi (94) and the PSdang (92) are 
extremely interesting. Those on the former appear to be 
chiefly zoomorphic grotesques. At the bottom of the designs 
on the Klmudi can be distinguished an animal which appears 
to be meant for a horse or pony, while just above it is 
another zoomorph, seemingly a bird, the legs of which are 
however prolonged, one passing downwards and bending 
under the feet of the " horse " to end finally in a club-shaped 
appendage behind that animal's tail, the other curving up- 
wards to form a similar club-shaped object behind the 
' f bird's" body. It seems not impossible that the bird may 
be a crude representation of a peacock since the head bears 
a projection which is, perhaps, the peacock's crest, while the 
club-shaped appendage behind it may be meant for its tail. 
The discoidal object, too, in the centre of the stone is 
extremely interesting as it may possibly show that the con- 
structors of the monument were sun-worshippers or moon 
worshippers. 1 

The rest of the designs in relief may be, as I am inclined 
to think that they are, highly conventionalised plumes of 
feathers, or possibly phyllomorphic grotesques. 

I have yet omitted to mention the very curious projec- 
tion on the left of the stone ; this appears to be the conven- 
tionalised head of an animal of some kind. The curly 
barbule under the chin is a most peculiar feature of the 

To pass now to the Ptdang (92). There can, I think, lx.- 
no doubt at all that the lowest object represented on this is a 
dragon. The body, tail, head, and recurved horns are all 
distinctly marked, and the snout of the animal projects 
between the ribbings at the edge of the stone. 

The other sculptured objects on the stone are much more 
problematical ; that directly above the dragon is, I am pretty 
sure, an animal grotesque of some kind : looked at in one 
light it appears to be a buffalo's head with ears, nose, eyes 
and mouth fairly plainly defined; in another, part of it appears 

158 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 

to represent a bird with outspread wings, recurved and 
retracted legs, and a long tail bent somewhat to one side. 1 
Above this carving are representations of three discoidal 
objects, set triangularly, the uppermost being a plain disc, 
like that on the K&mudi, to which I have already referred. 
The lower two, which form a pair, have each a curved line 
running from their outer edges to near their centres. Next 
above the uppermost disc comes a bowed dividing ridge in 
relief, and above this again the word ' ' Allah" in Arabic charac- 
ter, and standing out in relief. After this the stone tapers to 
its curiously shaped head which can be well seen in the 

I have already put forward, with some diffidence, the 
view that the Ptdang may be a conventionalised phallus. If 
this is so, I would suggest that the portion of the stone above 
the inscription represents the glans, while the band, to which 
I have just referred, may be meant to represent the scar left 
by circumcision. 9 The whole group of stones, apart of course 
from the inscription, is absolutely foreign in design and spirit 
to the custom and teaching of Islam and there would appear 
to be fairly good reasons for considering the granite monoliths 
to be of older date than the Mohamedan grave and possibly 
antecedent to the propagation of Islam in the Malay Penin- 
sula. Only subsidiary stones to the granite monoliths are of 
latente while, in the case of the Mohamedan grave, laterite 
with the exception of four stones of Batu Acheh (a kind of 
sandstone brought from Achin), is the only material of the 
dressed blocks of which the structure is built. Furthermore 
two small granite monoliths, obviously absolutely unconnect- 
ed with the grave, stand within the quadrangle of the outer- 
most wall of laterite blocks and two others 3 just outside the 
aforesaid wall near one corner. Moreover one piece of granite, 
taken from the "older" remains, was discovered in the 
foundations of the outer wall on its down-hill side ; and an- 
other, a discoidal granite flake, presumably dressed at the 
edges, while excavating the wall between the central block 
of the grave and the outer course or wall. I think, therefore, 
that the probabilities are that the builders of the Mohamedan 
tomb found the granite monoliths already in position— probab- 
ly they were regarded with a considerable degree of rever- 
ence — and left them, in so far as possible, undisturbed even 
where they occurred on the site marked out for the tomb. 
A few pieces of granite— perhaps mere waste stuff from the 

l Dr. Bosch, Director of the Antiquarian Survey of the Dutch East 
Indies, to whom I have shown a photograph of the Ptdang, thin] 

tng may be a degenerate representation of the head of the Kala 

been practised i: 

I. H. N. Evans : A Grave and Megaliths. 159 

of the granite monuments— were however used 
in making the foundations of the tomb. 

If the above assumptions are correct, we have still to 
account for the name of God which is carved upon the PSdang. 
It is extremely unlikely that, the Arabic script or the Arabic 
word for God arrived in the Peninsula prior to the propaga- 
tion of Mohamedanism. I would suggest, therefore, that 
the builders of the tomb, followers of the Prophet, made a 
compromise between their Islamic dislike of pagan monu- 
ments and sculptures and their native fear of, and reverence 
for pre-Mohamedan holy places, and that they carved the 
word "Allah" on the Pfdang, in order to sanctify an infidel 
monument, for which, in spite of their religion, they, or the 
iImi inhabitants <>i the district, had still a considerable re- 
gard. This, at any rate, is the view taken by Wilkinson. 1 

The Mohamedanism of the Malays of the Peninsula at 
the present day is often but a thin veneer over older strata 
of Hinduism and animism, and it is common to find sacred 
spots, especially under large trees or near caves, which are 
obviously the holy places of animism, and not of Islam ; but 
which, to get round a difficulty, are sometimes said to be 
Uramat Jin— I presume Jin Islam, i.e. Mohamedan Jin % — 
m order to bestow some slight appearance of orthodoxy upon 
those who make or pay vows at them. 

Similar instances of pagan sacred wells having been an- 
nexed by the early Christians and credited to some saint are, 
of course, well known in Europe. 

What I have written above is one method of solving the 
problem, and the arguments for the inscription having been 
added to a pre-Mohamedan monument at a later date seem 
to me to be strengthened by the occurrence of granite monu- 
ments within the space occupied by the Mohamedan tomb. 

Of other possible explanations there are two; one of 
these being that the granite monuments and the tomb are 
contemporaneous 3 and that the ornamentation of the former 

story, p. 7. I certainly do no 
iscription on the perforated pfflt 

lkinson suggests. This pillar belongs to the Mohamedai 
orthodox Mohamedan inscrip 

ely might well 

t may be mentioned here i 


•it is Denevea tnat tnis pillar (which has been much used : 

tighten round the arm of any man who is rash en_ 6 „ . 
falsely when in its power." I was not told anything about false oaths 
the Malays, but was informed that the stone would retain the hand at 
of any person who had not been born in lawful wedlock. Several I 
whom I met at the k'dramat were afraid to insert their hands in the hoi 
2 There are said to be both Jin Islam and Jin Kafir, i, . Moha: 

8 This is the view taken T 
Roy.Asiat. Soc. 1917, p. 173). 

so-called" sword," were brought 

160 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi. IX, 

was produced when the people had been scarcely weaned at 
all (by Mohamedan missionaries) from the most pagan 
practices. In this case, of course, the word " Allah " would 
have been carved by the makers of the granite monoliths, 
and it must in fairness be said that an inspection of the 
characters, which stand out in relief, does not, to my mind, 
furnish any proof that it is not contemporaneous with the 
designs on the stone. 

In order to make it of later date than the carvings it is 
necessary to imagine that the part of the stone now occupied 
by the name of God formerly stood at a higher level than 
the ribbings which fringe the edges of the stone, and that 
this except for the lettering was subsequently cut away to 
its present level. The explanation is not very satisfactory, 
for, as I have mentioned above, the inscription shows no 
signs of having been added afterwards. 

The third possibility — also not very satisfying — is that 
•the granite monuments are older than the grave, but not 
older than the introduction of the religion of Islam into the 
Peninsula, and that the word " Allah " was carved upon the 
stone, at the same time as the other ornamentation, by a 
people who, though nominally Mohamedans, were, in fact, 
still pagan at heart. 1 The period, however, between the 
conversion of the first Moslem king of Malacca and the reign 
of Sultan Mansur Shah, in whose time the Mohamedan tomb 
was erected, is not long. Sultan Mohamed Shah, the first 
sovereign of Malacca to accept Mohamedanism, ascended the 
throne somewhat before the year A.D. 1403, and was recog- 
nised by the Chinese Emperor in A.D. 1405. Sultan Mansur 
Shah came to the throne about A.D. 1459.* How long the 
Malays in general, if they did so, had accepted Mohamedanism 
before the conversion of Sultan Mansur Shah, it seems 
impossible to say. 

Of the other granite monuments yet undescribed, the 
most remarkable are probably a large flat and almost circular 
object (95) which is sometimes called the Saint's Shield 
(PSrisai) and a small group of stones at the extreme edge of 
the Klramat reserve, where it now abuts on a Chinese rubber 
plantation. The PSrisai is chiefly noteworthy for the geo- 
metric designs in low relief on one surface. The top of the 
stone is marked by a small somewhat stalk-like projection ; 
below this comes a pattern which is common in Malay designs, 
and the rest of the face of the stone is, as may be seen in the 

"sword," which is of granite containing large crystals of feldspar, a type 
of rock found in the Peninsula, was made locally. The sandstone of the 
pillar (Batu A round in the country. 

1 Thus we might account both for the name of God and the carvings on 
the PMang appearing to be of the same date, and also for the occurrence of 
unrelated granite stones within the enclosure of the Mohamedan tomb. 

* Papers on Malay Sub} pp. 22 and 24. 

i92i.] I. H. N. Evans : A Grave and Megaliths. 161 

illustration, ornamented with the type of design already 
alluded to. 

The group of stones near the Chinese rubber plantation, 
when found, was in a t'ery ruinous condition. The most 
important members of it are a long flake of granite, a squared 
block of laterite and a round stone, also of laterite. The 
granite Hake had, as I was told by the local residents, 
originally stood upright between the two laterite stones and, 
when we discovered it, though fallen down one end was still 
resting between them. It appears that this monument, also, 
had been broken by a falling tree, but further damage had 
been done subsequently by a Chinese washerman who had 
broken off pieces from the upper end of the granite flake, and 
used them for supports for his cauldron. The Malays told 
me, with considerable glee, that the offender's wife had died 
not long afterwards, and that the washerman himself had 
encountered other misfortunes— all of which they ascribed to 
his sacrilegious act — and finally ran away. At the time of 
my visit, however, a brother tradesman had taken his place, 
and was still using the old stand for his cauldron. 

Having persuaded this man to move his pitch, we dis- 
covered several pieces of the granite monolith on the old site 
of his operations, but, unfortunately, several of them had 
become friable and lost their original edges owing to the 
constant heating which they had undergone. Nevetheless 
we were lucky enough to find the top ot the monolith and 
to be able to establish a join with the major portion. 

Partly below the squared laterite block, already men- 
tioned, is another seemingly undressed slab of the same 
material, the two blocks thus forming a couple of steps. 

The spherical laterite stone has a curious somewhat 
horseshoe-shaped object sculptured on it in relief; the convex 
side of the granite upright, too, appears to have had a similar 
design depicted upon it, but it is much weathered. These 
two objects are particularly interesting in view of the possible 
phallic origin of the PMang. It is possible, moreover, that, 
judging by its shape, the granite upright of this small group 
may also be meant for a rude representation of phallus. 

Of the yet undescribed granite objects there remain only 
a few to be dealt with. Three of these are loose and have 
no certain location, but I found them lying in front of the 
Mohamedan grave. What any of them represent it is extreme- 
ly difficult to say, though they have all three been shaped, 
and in the case of two a little carving has been added, on 
one in the shape of some notchings and a slight design of 
patterns, on the other notchings only. These details are well 
shown in the illustration (PI. IX). 

I have already referred to a small granite monoh* 
had been broken, but of which we found the base while ex- 
cavating the walk round the grave, which is bounded by the 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi<. IX. 

w of stones.' This, like several of the other 
stones, is crenulate at the edges and has, furthermore, a 
couple of small spur-like projections, one on either side, 'in 

addition to this, and standi] 

i somewhat larger 

monolith (44), also with crenulate edges and having some 
slight scrollmgs on one side, these being in connection with 
the crenulations. The two monuments appear to have been 
left undisturbed by the builders of the Mohamedan tomb. 

Outside the course of stones which bounds the grave are 
a few other, mostly rather unimportant, dressed, or dressed 
and carved, granite stones. Only one of these, a plain and 
short dressed post of stone (107), is shown on the plan, but 
there is also a small, somewhat shield-shaped upright adjacent 
to it, and abut in front of stone 75. Outside the outer 
course of the tomb, too, and just outside block 77 we found 
a curiously carved stone, which looks almost as if it may be 
a conventional representation of a turtle. 

To turn now to the excavation which I made, and the 
restorations that I attempted in connection with the granite 

The most important piece of work was the treatment of 
the group of stones comprising the PSdang (or A\ 
Sudu, the Ktmudi and other elements. I have already re- 
marked that all the monuments stand in a sort of little valley 
or depression between two ridges. The large group of granite 
monoliths, being nearer to the middle line of the vallev than 

the Mohamedan tomb, 

- ground, while the tomb 

is kept dry by the fact that it rests "partly on the foot of the 
adjacent ridge, partly on artificially banked-up ground. 

When I arrived at Pengkalan Kempas, I found that, with 
the exception of the few granite objects in the 
vicinity of the tomb and the small group near the rubber 
plantations, all the granite monuments had been overwhelmed 
by scrubby jungle and undergrowth, the land on win 
stood being either actually under water, or very 
The first steps, therefore, were to clear away the jungle under- 
growth and to put in ditches to carry off the water. 

The clearing of the ground took several days, and some 
f^? X % ; WaS encountered in dealing with a patch of asam 
kUubt {Zalacca conferta) the thorns of which caused the coolies 
much annoyance by constantly getting into their hands and 
^- 1 large banyan-tree, the roots of which had split 

the block of laterite forming 'the platform in 
PMang and had even penetrated the centre of 

front of the 
.. m the Mohame- 
dan tomo, also gave us considerable trouble. 

Having cleared the ground, I found a small and almost 
choked watercourse running along the bottom of 1 
valley, so I had a temporary ditch which we afterwards 

' Page. . . . 

1921.] I. H. N. Evans : A Grave and Megaliths. 163 

replaced by a properly graded larger one, put in along this 
line to carry off some of the water. When this had been done 
I had two tributary ditches driven from near the side of the 
tomb to the main ditch, so as to enclose the PUang and the 
other large monoliths of the group between them. Next, the 
ground having become sufficiently dry, the soil surrounding 
the monoliths was excavated, so as to leave them standing on 
only a small island. The material thus removed consisted of 
about a foot of humus followed by rather more than the same 
amount of white sand, under which again was a more or less 
peaty stratum , about five or six inches deep, which contained 
twigs, leaves and branches of trees. This peaty layer was in 
turn succeeded by a dark greyish clay. 

When overhead tackle had been got into position for 
lifting the monoliths, so that they might be placed on a 
cement raft, I decided to do the work bit by bit and to deal 
with the lower part of the Sudu l first. Having secured it 
firmly, ready for hoisting, I had the surrounding soil cleared 
away and found that its lower end was sunk in the ground 
to a depth of two feet only. The base of the PUang proved 
to be even less deeply embedded as it onlv reached a depth 
of ii foot. 

As these two monoliths were the most deeply set in the 
ground, if any, we may take them into consideration when 
determining the horizon of the land surface at the time when 
these monuments weie erected. I have remarked that the 
present accumulation of humus with the white sand amounts 
to a little over two feet while the bases of none of the monu- 
ments reach a greater depth than this. I am inclined to think 
that the top of the white sand was probably the surface of the 
soil at the time when the megaliths were set up unless some 
intervening layers were denuded in the period, if any, 
between the construction of the megalithic gioup and the 
deposition of the present humus. 

The view that the layer of sand, or the top of it, was the 
ancient land surface is supported by the fact tnat it contains 
numerous small fragments of charcoal, and in it were found 
the only objects of interest that we discovered while making 
our excavation around the group of monoliths. 

These comprised four small button-shaped objects of blue 
glass— one of them opaque, the other three transparent — a 
piece of greenish-grey celadon-ware, slightly ribbed on its 
convex or outer side, which looks as if it had been a part of 
a cup * ; and a lid, somewhat like that of a small teapot, of 
which the decoration is in under-glaze painting in a dark 

ttery, may, perhaps, 


J °4 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

blackish-blue on a white surface. The designs area set of 
six alternating sepals around the small knob at top of the lid 
and a sort of debased key-pattern near the edge. This piece 
of pottery is obviously Chinese. Another interesting specimen 
which was found is a little oval black stone of a similar 
nature to that which was formerly used for making stone 
implements. This is convex above, probably partly naturallv 
rounded by river-action, but has been artificially flattened by 
rubbing below. I would suggest that this was used either as 
sharpening-stone for small metal tools, or as a touch- stone. 

Before I deal in detail with the re-erection of the mono- 
liths and the measures taken to preserve them, or make any 
observations connected with their signification and, if possible, 
former use, I may as well refer here to the other objects found 
during our excavations, except those which can be definitely 
connected with the Mohamedan tomb. 

One or two objects were discovered when making the 
ditch down the centre of the valley; they comprise some 
pieces of very rough pottery— not Chinese— which contain 
■i, owing presumably to the clay of which they were 
made being of bad quality and never having been cleaned. 
iheir colour is grey with occasional red streaks. The other 
objects found in this ditch were the remains of three posts 
still in situ, their ends, which had been sharpened and har- 
dened by burning, being embedded in soil 3 J feet below 
present ground level. 

In a tributary to the main ditch which was dug in order 
to drain some of the marshy land towards the southern end 
of the Klramat reserve we came across a few other interesting 
objects, a small silver coin, 1 two small pieces of a celadon 
bowl, the lower part of a small blue-aud- white dish, and por- 
tions of two blue-and-white cups or small bowls.' All this 
pottery was obviously Chinese, the blue and white ware and 
probably the celadon as well, being of the Ming period. The 
ue is remarkable for its beauty. The glaze is a 
translucent apple-green and is crackled, while the body of 
the vessel has been decorated with incised foliate designs be- 
fore the application of the glaze. 4 

I have yet omitted to mention that while making excava- 
ti/OBS near the small group of monoliths at the edge of the 
Chinese rubber plantation we encountered the end of another 
post, and a piece of greyish-green crackled celadon was 
discovered built into the foundations for the washerman's 
copper. To proceed now to the description of the r 
tional work done : — 

The group of stones containing the Klmudi, tl 

n, it will probably be impossib 
Sir Hercules Read believes tht 
period (14th or 15th century). 

1921.] I. H. N. Evans : A Grave and Megaliths. 165 

and the Sudu was placed on a concrete raft. Few changes 
were made in the position of the stones : the Klmudi was 
raised from its recumbent position and set so as to stand at 
right angles to the line formed by the PMang and the Sudu, 
this being, as far as it is possible to tell, as it stood originally; 
while the turtle-back (102), which was found lying flat side 
uppermost, was turned over and placed in position somewhat 
behind the Klmudi. These, with the exception of planting 
ularly the PMang which was leaning at an angle 
and 1 -light straightening up of stones 92 and 104, were the 
only changes made. 

Excavation of the site revealed four large undressed blocks 
of laterite underlying the largest stone of the platform, that 
in front of the PMang, and smaller blocks under stones 99 and 
98. These were replaced as found. Furthermore pieces of 
laterite, seemingly placed there with a view to keeping the large 
perpendicular megaliths in position, were found behind the 
bases of the PMang, the Sudu and the Khnudi. 1 

With regard to the small group of stones near the boun- 
dary of the Chinese rubber plantation, these objects were 
placed on a concrete platform. The granite flake, which had 
fallen over, was set up perpendicularly, and such pieces of its 
upper end as we could fit re-joined to it. Luckily the top of 
the flake was found near the washerman's cauldron, and a join 
secured, though some portions of the stone were not discovered, 
this necessitating a somewhat free use of cement, so as to 
secure the monument against damage in the future. 

In addition to the stones already described, three outlying 
blocks of granite (Nos. 3, 4 and 5 on the plan of the reserve) 
were discovered by sounding the ground with an iron rod, and 
also a small heap of material, laterite and granite pieces (9). 
The three blocks just referred to were natural boulders of 
granite while the heap of stones contained a piece of granite 
which had apparently been a part of some monument, since 
some carving in relief — though it was not possible to identify 
the object depicted— could be discerned on it. 

To turn now to the Mohamedan tomb. This consists of 
an outer course of squared stones surrounding an inner struc- 
ture built of much larger blocks of the same material. 9 At 
one end, between the outer wall or course and the inner 
block, is a squared pillar of sandstone (Batu Acheh) which 
has a hole through it and bears on its four faces four inscrip- 
tions, two in Arabic character, two in some script which has 
not yet been identified. The two inscriptions in the unknown 

Several of these pieces of laterite were placed in these positio 

Mention may here be made of a curious little platform, consi 
locks of laterite, which projects from the outer course of stones 
the Sudu. The larger stone of this platform (96) res 

166 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 

language are shorter than those in the Arabic lettering and fill 
the spaces, one on either side, above the two openings of the 

The Arabic inscriptions, except for an orthodox Mohame- 
dan invocation at the beginning of each, are in part difficult 
to read; but it appears to "be clear from those parts of 
them which it has been possible to decipher that the tomb 
is that of one Sheikh Ahmad > who died in A.H. 872 (A D 
1467/8) in the time of Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca* (A D 
I459-A.D.. i 4 75).3 Malacca was taken by the Portuguese 
2r n t er ^"^erque in A - D - *5H, in the reign of Sultan 
Mahmud Shah, and between Sultan Mansur Shah and Sultan 
Mahmud Shah came Alaedin Riayat Shah I. 

. * have already referred to the inner part of the tomb, 
this as will be seen on referring to the plan consists of an 
outer and an inner-enclosure, both of them rectangular, and 
both constructed of very large and heavv blocks of laterite. 
I he inner chamber is the grave proper, and at its foot there 
is a capstone* of Batu Acheh (2) above a laterite block, which 
on its outer face has an Arabic inscription within a circle 
This is much worn and I have, as yet, been able to read 
nothing though it is said that a date was to be deciphered on 
it not many 3 

At the head of 

grave there is a laterite block (No 

the top of which has been rounded to resemble the Batu Acheh 
capstone referred to above. This stone also bears a circle on 
its outer, and another on its inner, surface, these correspond- 
ing in position to those on the capstone. Neither of them now 
contains any inscription. 

; the space between the inner and outer walls of 

the central block of the tomb, 

vo longer sides i 

remarkable stones, three on each side. There 
of uprights (Nos. 4, 5, 6 & 7) and two blocks which he between 
them (Nos. 13 & 18). The two pairs of uprights differ some- 
what in shape and size and there are some slight differences 
between the two horizontal blocks (13 & 18), one of them 
being rectangular in section and having a vertical band in 
ut four inches wide running from top to bottom in 
: side, while the other stone has its lower 
1 horizontal band in relief on 

side which divides the i 

about two equal 

1 " Makam Sheikh Ahmad " (the tomb of Sheikh Ahmad) 

2 " Pada zaman Sultan Shah Mansur " (in the time of Sultan llansur 

Museum for making out a large part. 

which Wilkinson refers in his 

this pillar (i.e. the perforated stone) is 

I .•■,_>! 

H. N. Evans : A Grave and Megaliths, 


ms, a vertical band of the same size running from the 
: of the top edge of the stone to join the horizontal band 
but not being continued below it. 

I will now describe the reconstructional work done and 
refer to certain interesting objects which were found in the 
course of the excavations: — 

The grave is built at the foot of a small hill, one of its 
longer sides lying towards the swampy ground which I have 
mentioned previously. The first step taken was to clear away 
the earth round the outer edging of stones. On this being 
done it was found that the edge of the structure consisted of 
two courses of squared laterite blocks, one superimposed on 
the other, the blocks of the lower layer being the largest. On 
the side directly below the hill and at the two ends of the 
structure this outer wall was reinforced by a row of laterite 
boulders placed exteriorly against the lower course of stones 
and against the earth which supported it. This feature was 
very much more marked on the side facing the swamp. Here 
the lower course of stones and the earth below it had been 
banked up with very large boulders l thus : — 

Earth level 

As far as I could ascertain, a part of the foot of the hill 
seems to have been cut away by the people who built the 
grave and a piece of made ground added on the down side to 

led here. C. Boden Kloss. 

168 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

the small platform thus created, the whole space being just 
large enough to receive the tomb. 

When the foundations of the tomb, if they may so be 
called, had been exposed and the earth on the inner side of 
the wall cleared away, the squared stones and also the 
undressed boulders were taken up and relaid, being firmly 
bound together with cement and, in the case of the squared 
blocks, placed on a concrete foundation. The next step was 
to deal with the inner and outer walls of the tomb proper, and 
here some opposition might have been encountered on the 
part of the local Malays who were working as coolies for me 
but a klnduri (feast) before starting work smoothed the u av ;' 
and the only stipulations made by the local Imam (priest)^ 
who was employed as my headman, were that the headstone 
of the grave should not be moved and that the earth in the 
central compartment, where presumably Sheikh Ahmad's body 
lies, 1 should be disturbed as little as possible when moving 
the large blocks of stone at the sides. These large stones 
both of the inner and outer wall of the central part of the 
tomb, were lifted and placed on a concrete foundation six 
inches in thickness. 

The spaces between the inner and outer walls of the cen- 
tral block were filled with earth as, of course, was also the 
central chamber. Some subsidence of the contents of the 
latter had caused the inner row of blocks to can' 
especially when they were in contact with the heavy 
(Nos. 4, 5, 6 and 7) and the two horizontal blocks" between 
the uprights (Nos. 13 and 18). The uprights and the stones 
between them, too, had followed this subsidence and had 
therefore become tilted towards the central comparl 
the grave. The inner wall of the central block of the grave 
is some few inches higher than the outer and it thus became 
apparent that the uprights must have stood on the earth 
between the two walls, impinging slightly on the outer and 
lower wall, but not on the inner. They were thus set up 
perpendicularly in this position on a thick block of cement 
which took the place of the earth removed. 

It is scarcely needful to say that no cement or plaster 
of any kind was originally used in the construction of the 
tomb. In making the restoration, however, I considered it 
necessary for the preservation of the monument to bind all 
the stones together, filling the crevices between them, which 
hitherto had only contained earth, with concrete and covering 
this with a coating of cement mixed with sand. During the 
excavation of the earth between the inner and outer walls of 
the central block we came upon three interesting objects. 
One of these was a blue-and-white porcelain, crackled Ming 

s riddled v 

: been destroyed by termiti 

1921.J I. H. N. Evans : A Grave and Megaliths. 169 

dynasty bowl with floral ornamentation. This was discovered 
just underneath the laterite block (t8) which lies between the 
two uprights, Nos. 7 and 8. It was embedded right-side-up 
and, besides earth, contained a number of little water-worn 
quartz pebbles ; but whether these were placed there inten- 
tionally or not I am not quite certain, as similar stones 
occurred in the surrounding soil though not in such numbers 
as in the earth in the bowl. This piece of porcelain must have 
been whole ; but got broken when the stone above it was 
shifted. It had evidently been placed in position and was 
not merely a piece of crockery which had been thrown awav. 
The second object discovered was the greater part, in pieces, 
of a low and rather pot-bellied Chinese vessel with a wide 
mouth. This is not of porcelain; but of a fine -rained 
yellowish clay. It is covered with a thin and flaky ivory-like 
glaze and has some underglaze patterns in rather dark blue. 
These designs are typically Chinese. 

The third object was discovered at the head of the tomb 
between stones 27 and 3. 1 This is a curiously carved piece of 
sandstone some 35 cm. in length. It was placed against the 
headstone (3) and on the top of a small squared block of 
laterite. It is difficult to say with certainty what the carved 
stone is meant to represent ; but I am inclined to think that 
it is a winged phallus, a most unorthodox object to place in 
the tomb of a Mohamedan holy -man. 

The discovery of this peculiar stone much astonished the 
Malays who were working for me, and they were inclined to 
treat it with considerable reverence, so much so that when I, 
after some difficulty, pursuaded them to try to move it and 
one man had done so without result owing to its being firmly 
cemented to the headstone with that peculiar hardened earth 
which is found in nests of the termite, they announced that 
it " didn't want to move," and that they dared not make 
further attempt. Thus I had to do this, to their minds 
dangerous piece of work, myself. When I had moved the 
stone I found that there was a hole in the block of laterite 
on which it rested : this I probed and found that it extended 
downwards for about a foot, but what its purpose can have 
been I do not know. I was prevented from fully excavating 
and temporarily removing this stone by the superstitious fears 
of the Malays. 

There seem to be some slight traces of mounds and 
ditches on the land enclosed in the reserve, and the lines of 
these, as far as the}' could be made out, may be traced in 
Mr. Wallace's smaller scale plan. 

In addition to the remains already described, there is a 
curious grave with a laterite gravestone on a hill on the other 

1 The stone marked 41 in the plan is a loose block, evidently taken from 

J 7o Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

side of the road from the Mohamedan tomb and the granite 
monoliths (number 12 in the small-scale plan). The grave is 
surrounded by an edging of laterite blocks and its orientation 
is not that of a Mohamedan tomb. 1 Whether it is of the same 
age as the granite monoliths is problematical, but, as can be 
seen from the annexed rough sketches, it presents features 
which arc strikingly similar to those of old Javanese grave- 
stones of the Hindu period which are to be seen in the Museum 
at Batavia • Possibly stones of this type are derived from 
the leaf of the Ftcus ,-, osa, the shape of the leaf being 
very clear y defined in the case of certain backstones of 
Hindu sculptures from Java (vide plate XI ). 3 

A very small, loose, gravestone of somewhat similar type 
was found lying on the side of the hill which is directly above 
vSheik Ahmad s tomb. I removed this and placed it Under 
cover of the roof over the kSramat. 

Before bringing this paper to a close it may, perhaps, be 
worth while to try and see if any comparisons can be made 
between the granite megaliths at Linggi and megalithic monu- 
ments occurring in neighbouring countries, or in those whose 
peoples have blood or other connections with the present or 
former inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula 

Megalithic monuments are found in Indonesia, as well in 
those regions of North-Eastern India which are so intimately 
connected with Indonesia and also with the Malay Penin- 
sula Alignments of stones and other megaliths are erected 
lu I ■? f\ ^ NagaS ' the Mikirs > the Ho-Mundas and 
other tribes of N.E. India.* The Khasis set up stone monu- 
ments for the following purposes :— 

(a) As seats for the spirits of the departed. 

(b) To commemorate a parent or relation. 

(c) To mark the position of tanks, the water of which is 

supposed to cleanse the ashes and bones of those 
who die unnatural deaths. 

(d) As seats for weary travellers (flat stones). 

Groups of stones of class b consist usually of 3, 5, 7 or 9 
uprights with flat table-stones in front, the uprights being 
called male and the recumbent female stones. 

In Nias standing stones are set up for the spirits of 

and difficult to find, this 
3 The silver fringes on Malay han g n /, „<J because 

tts«^s^ a ^orT:p »Vt^ e s e i^theshap " fth • s,eavesotth ' !F ' e, ' ' • " 

* (a) The Khasis. By P. R. T. Gordon, 1914. 

(b) The History of Upper Assam. By L. W. Shakespear, 1914. 

I92I.J I. H. N. Evans : A Grave and Megaliths. ifi 

ancestors to lean against and table-stones are placed for them 
to use as seats, though megaliths are erected for other pur- 
poses as well. 1 Some, but by no mean? all, of the Nias 
megaliths have a phallic significance.* 

In British North Borneo, according to my own expe- 
rience, the Dusuns sometimes place rows of stones outside 
villages, these being thought to act as a protection against 
disease ; and similar guardian stones are also found among the 
Tinguians of the Philippine Islands. 3 

Megalithic monuments occur, too, in many other islands 
of the Indian Archipelago, and an account of them, in those 
parts of Indonesia where he thinks that no cultural influences 
associated with Brahmanism, Buddhism or Islam have pene- 
trated, is to be found in W. F. Perry's Megalithic Culture of 

This author considers that certain belief and customs are 
intimately connected with the immigrants who introduced the 
megalithic culture into N.E. India and Indonesia. Among 
these are several which are still found among the Malays or 
among the wild tribes of the Peninsula, such as a belief that 
stone implements are thunderbolts,* prohibitions against 
eating the flesh of certain animals, 5 and ideas that certain 
actions which are regarded as impious will be punished by 
disaster of particular kinds happening to the offenders. 
Stories about such incidents the author calls " punishment 

In the Peninsula I know of instances of these ''punish- 
ment" beliefs among the Malays of Central Pahang, the 
Negritos of Perak, and the Sakai of South Perak. I tabulate 
the offences and the punishments which follow them below ; 
more detailed information can be gathered from previous 
numbers of this Journal : — 

Nationality. Nature of Offence. Punishment. 

Malays. Dressing up and Thunderstorms and 

laughing at a cat village swallowed by 
and dog. earth. 

f a Tinguian man making an c 

nen and children are prohibited, i 
commonly regarded as prohibited. 

172 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Nationality. Nature of Offence. Punishment. 

{b) Putting malau (stick- Sakai it is related that 

t lac) into the fire. the house of an offender 

against one of these 

(c) Teasing a monkey, tabus was struck by 

or dressing it up like lightning and swallowed 

a man and laughing by the earth, hot 

at its antics. springs arising on its 

site. His daughters 

(d) Roasting an egg in were killed by a dragon, 

the fire. and this animal and the 

daughters' leaf dresses— 

(c) Laughing at snakes the girls were probably 

or other animals. eaten— have become 

stones. This is the only 

(/) Imitating the notes of case of petrifaction for 

certain birds or the breaking a tabu that I 

noise made by the have come across in the 

cicada. Malay States. 

Negritos, {a) Copying the notes of , Thunderstorms, light- 

or killing, certain ning and floods, involv- 

kmds of birds. ing the deaths of the 

(b) Sexual intercourse offenders, 
within the camp. 

There still remains to be discussed the object for which 
the granite monoliths were erected. It is interesting to note 
that the Miklrs set up standing stones and place flat slabs in 
front of them; for the PSdang, the Sudu, and the KSmudi, 
each have a slab placed on the ground in this position, while 
these large uprights are also three in number, as among the 
Mikirs, or, if we also take into account the two smaller stones 
(103 and 104), five, also a Mikir number. Excavation at the 
main group of monoliths produced no proof that they marked 
the site of a grave or graves ; in fact rather the reverse, for 
the ground under the table-stones seemed never to have been 
disturbed previously. I am inclined therefore to think that 
*he probabilities are in favour of the Linggi monoliths being 
either memorial stones (possibly for the use of the spirits of 
the departed) or guardian stones ;— if they should be contem- 
poraneous with the tomb, memorial stones. This, however, 
would denote a great confusion of beliefs, Mohamedan and 

One other point is perhaps worth mentioning; and that 
is with regard to the blocks of stone which are placed under 
the flat slabs in front of the main group of monoliths. These 
may, of course, be merely for the purpose of preventing the 
slabs above from sinking into the ground, but it must be 

1921.] I. H. N. Evans : A Grave and Megaliths. 173 

remembered that the Khasis build small dolmens, and similar 
structures are found in Sumba. 1 The following is a description 
of a small but typical Khasi table-stone : " In front of the 
line of menhirs is a large flat table-stone resting on stone 
supports, the top of the uppermost plane being some 2 or 2 J 
feet from the ground ; this flat stone is sometimes as much as 
a foot or more thick." * From this description it looks very 
much as if the flat stones in front of the I^inggi uprights 
(menhirs) might be rather degenerate relations of the Khasi 
table-stones. In this connection it is particularly worthy of 
remark that four undressed boulders of laterite were found 
under the largest slab, i.e. that in front of the Pldang. 



Journ. F.M.S. Mus.-Vol. IX. 

journ, F.M.S. Mus — V 

journ. F.M.S. Mus.- 


-Vol. IX. 

PI. IX. 






* .' i 






w ^^ 




■ *. 


# _(£$K'.^ 


journ. F.M.S. M us.— Vol. IX. 



Rough sketch of 
laterite gravestone from I 
S. Udang. Linggi, Negri Se 

• Hindu period Java 



By W. A. Wallace, Survey Department, F.M.S. 

R = Rough stone in natural shape. 

1 together with a clay (clay probably from decomposed 
nd is heavily stained with oxide of iron. Or L may be a 

on a compass needle 

nal of the F.M.S. Museums. 


%al of the F.M.S. Ma 

Stands on end planted in upright position, 
looks at first glance as if made of concrete of 
colour and grain similar to that of a sand-concrete 
floor of the rough (not shining) kind. Scraped 
with a knife it comes off in a grey powder, like a 
pure Portland cement, or a decomposing lime 
stone. It is hard and well preserved. For size 
please see plan No. 4. 

The inscriptions on A ; B ; C and D are very clear, 
are in relief of from T ' to | inch. The surface 
of the characters is level (or flush) with the side 
surface of the stone and the spaces between the 
characters and inside the square have been cut or 
scraped down to the lower level. This stone as 
found sloped to the South with a zenith distance 

Negri Sembilan grave. 179 

of 7°8. The hole passes right thi 
and appears to ' 

bored from the North 
1 the South side to the 
centre and the two holes mi^s by about I inch 
If the stone had been a casting one would expect 
the hole made by one straight bar of wood placed 

East side. This pattern is also in relief. 

Stone No. (2) Vide plan 4. Rock, vide list of stones. The 

ornamentations and inscriptions are incised (are 
not in relief). I was informed years ago that it 
was said the inscription inside circle E gave a 
dav, a month and a year. But I cannot say if 
this be so. Stone 2 rests on top of stone 8. 

Stone No (3) Vide plan 4. Rock, vide list of stones. This 
stone is similar to stone 2. Use sketch of stone 
2 but C] p = West side. Then 

measurements of stone 3 are CD = 2' 11." LM = 
2' 61-," AB = i'g,* NO = io|,*DF = i'8," GH= 
o' II," and diameter of E = 8£," Ornamentations 

Stones Nos. (4) Vide plan 4. Rock, vide 'list of stones. Stones 
& (5) (4) and (5) are similar. These two stones as found 

leaned about 45° to the West. Had a West zenith 
distance of about -45°. Obviously these stones 
were on th their bases level and 

resting on the horizontal plane formed by the 
upper surfaces of stones 29, 25, 19, and 34. The 
West side touched the East sides of stones 10, it 
and 12 and they still do so but. the bottom West 
edges of 4 and 5 have obviously sunk. They are 
of a much better quality of rock than the others 
of the same material. 

Stones Nos. (6) Vide plan 4. Rock, vide list of stones. Rock of 
& (7) better quality. These two stones are similar but 

stone 7 has not the rectangular ornamental lines 
on South and West sides. Stone (7) rectangles 
(squares) LM are engraved lines parallel to edges 
of stone and about 2 inches in from edge. The 
bases of these stones rested in same horizontal 
plane as did stones 4 and 5. Stones 6 and 7 as 
found leaned 45 towards the East. For same 
reasons as stated for stones 4 and 5. 

Stones Nos. (8) Are rectangular and form a level rectangular 
to (12) & U4) platform. M.SX. height of upper surface of 
to (17) stone (9) = 13-62' feet and of stone (17) M.S.L- = 

13-81' feet. So this platform has a mean M.S.L. 
height of 13/77' feet. Measurements of this 
rectangle are West side i2'-5", East side I2'-i|*, 
South and 6'-9" and North end 6'-7". So mean 
length = n'-i f , Mean width = &'-8*. The hollow 
centre of this rectangle has a M.SX. height of 13 
feet and appears to be of earth. Stone 17 appears 
to have been ornamented with incised rectangular 
lines, and may have an inscription. 

180 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Stones Nos. (13) Are rectangular and rest on the same horizontal 
& (18) plane as did stones 4, 5, 6 and 7. Stone {13) leans 

to the West. Stone ( 18) leans to the East, for the 
same reasons as before stated. (Because one edge 
was resting on rock and the opposite edge on 
earth only.) 
Stones Nos. (19) Are rectangular and form a level rectangular 
to (38) platform M.S.L- height of upper surface of stone 

(19) = 13-31', of stone (25) = 13.54' of stone (29) = 
13-31', of stone (34) = 13-45', So mean M.S.L. 
heieht of this platfrom = 13-4' feet. The measure- 
ments of this platform are West side 16-82,' East 
side 16-98', North andi235', South end 12-39'. 
So mean length = 16.90', Mean width = 12-37' 
feet. The inner space between this rectangular 
platfrom and the inner rectangular platform was 
found filled with earth to the 13-foot level. 
Stones Nos. (44) Are rectangular and form a rectangular plat- 
to (91), & (113) form. M.S.L. height of upper surface of stone 
to (127) (113) = 12-14', of stone (44) = 1216', of stone (62) = 
12 14/ of stone (76) = ir6b\ So mean M.S.L- 
height of this platform = 1203', and its measure- 
ments are West side 3304', East side = 32-85', 
North end = 25- 17', South end = 24 93'. So mean 
height = 32-95', mean width = 25-05'. 
Stones Nos. (39) Are rectangular. Their surfaces being at the 
(40), (in), 12' level. The space between this outside 
(112), & (140) rectangle and the next inner rectangle was 
to (143) & (145) found filled with earth to the 12' level. 

to (152) 
Stone No. (96) Has its upper surface at the 12' level. 
Stone No. (no) Is rectangular. It was found after excavating, 
with its upper surface at about the n feet level. 
Stones Nos. (42) Are rectangular. They rest with their lower 
& (45) surfaces resting on top surfaces of stones 126, 

125 and 124, and 117 and 116 respectively. 
>s. Are also rectangular and were only discovered 

(114) to (127) after excavating. They appear to have sunk. 
vStone No. (128) Is rectangular and is at a lower level. The 

lower surface of 127 rests on top of it. 
Stone No. (41 ) Is rectangular. Its upper surface is on the same 

level as upper surface of 28 and 27, etc. 
Stone No. (144) Is of granite, it was planted upright in the 
ground and has some patterns or ornamentations 
in relief. 
Stone No. (129) Has been dressed or cut but is much decom- 

Stone No. (153) (Not shown on plans.) Was a sphere of about 
one foot diameter and had a straight hole on one 
inch diameter drilled through its centre from 
surface to surface. It was of a rock that looked 
very much like the rock described as "I/' but 
seemed more granulated. In 1910 stone 153 was 
nearly perfect but it has been systematically rubbed 
on stone 12 until stone 153 is now only about J its 

i92i.] W.A.Wallace: Negri Sembtlan grape. 181 

1910 size and is misshapen and the North top side 
of stone 12 has been practically rubbed away. 
On night of 7th August, 1919, a considerable 
amount of rubbing of these stones was done 
(between 6 p.m. and 8 a.m.) by someone (the 
Malays said the Hantu always did this) and a 
considerable amount of powdered rock left. 
From a sample of this powder, I obtained, about 
70% (bulk) sharp quartz silica sand, 10% other 
stoney matter (but could find no mica, tourmaline 
or magnetite) and 20% of a substance which 
dissolved into a dark cocoa coloured clay and 
washed off easily with water. 
Stone No. (92) (Vide plan 5). Is of granite and stands planted 
in the ground. It had exposed 7' 3" of its length 
and was 1' 9" wide half way up. Cross section 
at ground level, vide plan 3. Its East surface is 
flat and is ornamented with well cut designs in 
relief. This stone looks like a splinter from a 
large boulder of onion granite and lengthways 
is concave to the East. Stone 92 also leans 
towards the East. A plumbob was hung from 
the point A (the highest point of stone 92 : vide 
plan 5) and dropped on the centre of stone No. 
100, vide measurements on sketch plan No. 5. 
M.SX. height upper surface stone No. 100 = icr'9, 
M.S.L. height of point A = i6-'9, so AB = 6 feet. 
Please note bearings from B to the two edges of 
stone 92 (at the io-'9 level). 
Stone (93) Is of granite. It stands planted in the ground 

and had 2' 5" of its length exposed. Cross-section 
vide plan 3. This stone 93 has been broken off 
and stone No. 101 seems to be the top half of 93. 
Stone (93-101) looks like shedding from an onion 
granite boulder. 
Stone (94) Is of granite. Also seems to be from an onion 

granite boulder. It was found as shown on plan 
3 with its flat side up and its convex side down. 
It seems as if it had fallen and that it 01 
stood on end with its East end planted in the 
ground. It is ornamented with well cut patterns 
etc. in relief, on its flat surface. Length of stone 
94 = 7' 2," width 3 feet. 
Stone (95) Vide plan 5. Is £ 

standing planted in the £ 
40 towards the North. I think it is not in its 
original position, and also that originally it stood 
upright. This question could be better decided 
when the remainder of the stone has been seen. 
It is ornamented on its North face with patterns 
in relief. According to my measurements of the 
sides of the triangles, angles scale as follows :— 
/HEI = 86°, EIH_=4$ C . IHE = 4>°- jONM = 
86i° = jNMO = 45 h ■ M(W =- 4 s I • J KL = S6 1 ' 
jKLJ = ^\ z , }LJK =4f. The angles on the 

i82 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

stone however appear to me to be very accurate 
as regards right angles, etc. The discrepancy 
being caused by the fact that the surface although 
regular is slightly curved and does not form a true 
plane. Two cotton threads stretched along lines 
HE and EI had to be raised about 3 inches out 
from E in order to be drawn taut when touching I 
and H. The angle of intersection of these two 
threads gave 90 exactly (on a 6-inch protractor 
divided to ha! f degrees) . I a m of opinion that this 
diagram was cut when stone was horizontal and 
face up and that above it strings were stretched 
giving a more or less perfectly regular and rectan- 
gular pattern and that the pattern cut on the 
stone is a vertical projection of the pattern in 
string. Or say at midday followed the shadows 
of the string as projected on the stone. 

Stone No. (97) Rectangular and similar to 78, 79, etc. 

Stones Nos. (98) All of I„. and were rectangular, they form a 
(99) & (roo) platfrom or table under stone 92. Stones 98 and 
99 are much decomposed and so much so that 
measurements were not possible. Stone 100 is 
well preserved, but cracked and broken in several 
places, but all pieces are more or less in position 
and measurements were easily made.* To me 
there appears to be evidence of an old road (say 
about 15 feet wide) from (vide plan No. 1) near the 
well marked 8 to the rocks at 14 on plan I. And 
the indications follow the same grade from end to 
end. Also vide contour plans there appears to 
have been an embankment (around the main rect 
angle of stones) which has mostly disappeared. 
Date of my survey, August 8th, 1919. 

Stone No. (101) See note re stone (92) : 101 is of granite and 
appears to be the upper half of (93). 

Stone No. (102) A granite segment, probably from boulder of 
onion granite. Its upper surface (when found) is 
slightly concave. Its lower surface convex. 
Thickest at centre, say 9" to 12," and about 2" 
thick at edges. See plan 3 for position (as found) 
and shape It is 62 inches long by \y 
wide. It has been cut or dressed on all edges. 
Possibly this stone originally rested on top of 

Stones Nos. (103) Granite slabs standing planted in the ground 

and (104) (about 2 feet exposed). 
Stone No (105) A rough sphere of stone about 1 foot diameter. 

Said to be an old stone cannon ball. 
Stone No. (106) Carved in relief, is of granite. Found lying on 

1921.] W. A. Wallace : Negri Sembilan grave. 183 

Stone No. (107) Dressed or cut granite : stands planted in ground 

about 1 foot exposed. 
vStones Nos. Granite slabs (or segments) found standing 

(108) & (109) planted in the ground, exposed about 2 feet. 

Stones Nos. Of dressed L. Vide plans 1 and 5. Take 

(130) to (132) measurements by scale from plan 5. Stones 1 30 

and 132 solid cylinders, Stone 131 rectangular. 

Stone No. (r33). A splinter of granite (partly ornamented in 

relief) found lying on surface probably originally 

They are 

stood be 

mes 131 ar 

ul 132 

Stones Nos. 


•• plai 

1 r. Tl 



all of L. 

Only su 

r faces had 


of survey but thej 

r appeared 

to be 

t the rough. 

Stone N( 


Of dressed or c 

ut L. is £ 

: 39 . Vide 


Nos. 1 

Stone N< 

>• (139) 

Of dr< 

ut L. Vide plai 

plan 4 ft 

r design 


. Wallace remarks and 

shows in h 

is plai 

is that 1 

of stone 

92 (the 



e the m 

niddle of 
the tabular stone lying at its base. 

This condition is purely accidental though Mr. Wallace did 
not know it : the Pedang was in danger of falling some years ago 
and was roughly straightened and propped by a member of the 
Museums Department. 

Even, however, had the relative positions of the two stones 
not been accidental there would be no more reason probably for 
trying to read a meaning in them than there is now they are 
known to be fortuitous. — C. Bodcn I\!o$s.\ 

PLA N NO. 1 





Surnyor, ^/^t^^^ *£ 


osition of stones as found 
On 6 tj? August 191 9 


















e No. 1 

^;:n^ :L - 

Stone No. 92 


By C. Boden Kloss. 

(Plates XII— XV.) 

At the south end of Sheikh Ahmad 's grave at Pengkalan 
Kempas in Negri Sembilan (near the bank of the Linggi River 
and close to the boundary of Malacca) stands his tombstone. 

This is a quadrilateral pillar pierced near its centre by 
a hole running from side to side and bearing between its top 
and the perforation an inscription on each face. 

The east and uesl side-, which are devoid of perforation 
(pis. XIV and XV), show in Arabic-Malay the same legend: 
one version clean-cut and apparently the work of a good 
craftsman, but an illiterate man— the other the product of 
a stone-cutter both illiterate and poor. 

The north and south sides through which the perforation 
passes (pis. XII and XIII) bear legends in an unidentified 
script : but each is prefaced by the same invocation in Arabic- 
Malay as on the other sides. In this case, however, the 
records are not in duplicate though they agree with the 
others in that one, the southern, is somewhat inferior in 
workmanship. All the legends appear to have been cut at 

This stone liu- several times been referred to in print bv 
R. J. Wilkinson, 1 by R. O. Winstedt 8 ; and bv I. H. N. 
Evans 3 and W.A.Wallace. 5 

Wilkinson has nothing to say about the inscriptions. 
Winstedt states :— " The Indian lettering has never been de- 
ciphered; but the Malax inscription in Arabic lettering, evi- 
dently done locally and by an amateur carver, records that it 
marks the grave of one Shaikh Ahmad Makhtar Ramali ibni 
Marfu Talani and was erected in A.H. 872 (corresponding to 
1467 A.D.) 'in the reign of Sultan Shah Mansur.' It is 
possible that parts of the Shaikh's tomb were constructed 
locally and that other parts like the highly ornate * Sword ' * 
were brought from India, as we have seen was a common 

Winstedt has borrowed the manuscript reading of Dain 

Century Impressio 
aits Branch Royal A 

1 86 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Abdul Hamid formerly Malay Assistant, F.M.S. Museums, 
which is no longer acceptable in entirety. 

Recently I forwarded photographs of all the faces to Heer 
J. P. Moquette of Batavia (the well-known authority on 
Malay tombstones and coins) who wrote regarding them : — " I 
send a transcript of the Arabic-Malay inscription but I regret 
that I have been unable to decipher the whole. My version, 
therefore, is not decisive, for so far as regards the words 
underlined and the words omitted I have no opinion at all. 

" It is impossible, to me, to read ' Makhtar Ramali ibni 
Marfu Talani ' as given by Mr. Winstedt. 

"Both Arabic-Malay inscriptions are the same, only 
the words are not always on the same lines. My transcrip- 
tion follows the east face (pi. XIV). On the other (pi. XV) 
there is ^Uj for ^Uj and Ui for »L£. On pi. XIV after 
Mansur is a word y *a* not found on pi. XV, and incom- 
prehensible to me. 

"Reading is difficult through lack of diacritical marks 
which, too, are misplaced when present: and as for the 
names mere guess work. 

" For the second name I have written Majnun but one 
may read ^y<s^o i Mahbub, also ; and possibly many other 
names unknown to me. Makhtar is impossible. 

" Of all the words of my transcription not underlined 
I am sure : of some of the characters I have no opinion. 

i: The other inscriptions I do not understand : the letter- 

[More recently an Arab pundit of Singapore to whom the 
photographs and Mr. Moquette' s transliteration were submit- 
ted through Dr. Winstedt reads bog 'at " place " in Hue 2, 
accepts u'lkhairi in line 3 and u'llahu. Amini Amin in line 
10 ; and reads the name as Shaikh Ahmad Mahbub Tebrai 
( ^J lL ) bin Bondi ( is^y- ) Biazar ( ; , ; t « ) and j*** in 
line 9 as nasarah " may "God aid him."] 

1. Bismi' Uahi'r-RahmanVr-Rahimi 

2. <Uib ...toi'l ''<-> I^t 

C. B. Kloss : Pengkalan Kempas Tombstone. 187 

0* J^ * 

M allay ay bin . 


pada hijrah salla' 

y/ ^ yi jJL j iAc 4ill 

Alla/m' alaihi wa sallam, dMapan 

ratus tujoh puloh. 

dun tahun pada zaman-nya Sultan 
j-aL [ ? ] ^aLo *l£ ^ 
SAaA Mamur [ ? ] nasarah— 

u'llahn. A tnin ! Amin. 
e translation will be (slightly altering Heer Moquette's 

In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate ! 

This mansion of peace is a place 

of goodness, the grave of Shaikh Ahmad 

? ' in the A. H. — may prayer. 

and the peace of God be upon him.— eight 

hundred and seventy 

two years, in the time of Sultan 

Shah Mansur— may God aid him 

Amen ! Amen ! 
I was struck a couple of years ago by the superficial 
similarity between some of the undeciphered characters and 
several in modern Siamese and I sent a photograph of the 
north face (pi. XII) to our Consul-General in Bangkok Mr 
T. H. Lyle, C.M.G. 

Mr. Lyle wrote me : — " I have managed to obtain expert 
opinion on that very interesting inscription which you sug- 
gested might be old Siamese. As a result of my enquiries I 
enclose copies of letters from Professor Coedes of the Siamese 
Royal Library and from Mr. F. H. Giles who is familiar with 
Siamese, Laos, Burmese, Shan, Karen and other tongues. 

" The consensus of opinion is that the inscription shows 
old Javanese influence. It is not Siamese though several of 
the letters are clearlv recognisable to any person familiar 

with the present script " 

Professor Coedes wrote : — " I cannot decipher the in- 
scription. All I can say is that it is not Siamese. The 
characters are rather similar to those of the old Kawi alpha- 

i88 Journal of the FM.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX 

bet. If my hypothesis is right the inscription was most . 

probably made by immigrants from Java or Sumatra 

I am able to recognise most of the characters, but I have not 
sufficient knowledge of the dialect to give you any more sub- 
stantial information. ' ' 

Mr. Giles wrote:— "The characters resemble the old 
Javanese. But it must be remembered that all these further 
Indian alphabets come from a similar stock — South Indian. 1 

" I have sent the photograph to Chao I,ak Phravert, of 
Muang Bassac on the Mekong, and these are the letters he 
deciphers and considers the same as Lao (Eastern)": — 

- • ft . ft n/ v ; . 

• a u ^ n/ *) . 

u ly %i . . ft ft . . 

• * *>*!) 

v % ft *i . . . qj . . a 

• u n/ %j . . . . ^ ^ 

B N T I, 

1 letters of the pn 

! from South Annam and Cambodia (Cham) through 

lay Peninsula to Java.— C. B. K. 

1921.] C. B. Kloss : Pengkalan Kempas Tombstone. 189 

This is the first time this connection has been suggested. 

Several characters in other epigraphs of the Malay 
Peninsula seem to bear a resemblance to some of the letters 
on the Pengkalan Kempas stone: — such are some in the 
inscriptions found in Northern Province Wellesley by Colonel 
Iyow/ inscriptions found at Kedah by Colonel Low* and the 
Takuapa inscription. 8 

It may be noted that the characters of the Pengkalan 
Kempas pillar are produced by cutting away the surface of 
the stone and leaving them in relief.* The few inscriptions 
which have been discovered in the Malay Peninsula and 
those (I believe) of Indo-China and the Malaysian islands are 
on the other hand all incised. 6 

My own opinion, which I hazard though I realise its lack 
of value, is that Sheikh Ahmad was an immigrant, an 
Indian Mohammedan orlndianised Arab, and that one pair of 
inscriptions was made by his own people, the other by Malays 
amongst whom he died : and that for an explanation of the 
undeciphered characters we shall probably have to look back 
to Southern India. 

in Acheen in North Sumatra. 

These notes are written merely to "start the hare" and 
introduce the plates which it is hoped may meet the eye of 
some one capable of deciphering the inscriptions. The grave 
and the adjacent monoliths, re-discovered not long ago, are 
among the most interesting of the few antiquities of the 
Malay States and it is believed that a full knowledge of the 
legends may shed further light on their origin. 

l Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVII, 1848, pp. 63, 64, 71 ; pi. a : re-pnuu-l 
in Trubner's Oriental Miscellany: Essays relating to Indo-China, 1, 1886, 
pp. 224, 325, 231 and plate 

* op. cit.,XV T " -' 

VIII, 1849, pp. 247-9, pi. X : 
other volurn 

8 Bulletin de la Commission Archeologique de l'lndo-Chine, II. 191-. 
pp. 147-154, pi. XIII. (See also other volumes 01 
should be consulted by all interested in the ancient remains of the Malay 

tion in relief figured in 

tonolith (antea pi. V 
Raffles' " History 1 



I.S. Mus.-Vol. IX. 


Journ. F.M.S. Mus.- Vol. IX. 




Federated Malay States Museums. 


DECEMBER, 1922. 

XXVI. Further Notes on Negrito Beliefs and 

Customs. /• H. N. Evi 

XXVII. On an Examination of some Negrito 

Combs from Perak. /. H. N. Evans 

XXVIII. The Malay Fire-Piston. /. H. N. Evans 

XXIX. Malay Charms. R. O. Winstedt 

XXX. Ethnological Miscellanea. /. H. N. Evan 

XXXI. On the Ancient Structures on Kedah 


XXXIII. The Potting Industry at Kuala Tem- 

beling. /. H. N. Evans 

XXXIV. Some Malay Beliefs. Wan Lela 
XXXV. A Rock-Shelter at Gunong Pondok. 

/. H. N. Evans 
XXXVI. Ethnographical Miscellanea. i\ H. N. Evans 


London Agent: Bernard Quaritch Ltd. 
//, Grafton Street, New Bond Street. 



Federated Malay States Museums. 


JANUARY, 1920, to DECEMBER, 1922. 



PART I.— JANUARY, 1920. , 

Some Negrito Beliefs and Customs. /. H N. Evans 

III. Preliminary Report on the Exploration of a Rock-shelter 

in the Batu Kurau Parish, Perak. I. H. N. Evans . . 

IV. Cave-dwellings in Pahang. /. H. N. Evans. 

V. Customs of the Camphor-hunters. I. H. N. Evans 

VI. The Camphor Language of Johore and Southern Pahang. 
R. O. Winstedt 

VII. Hindu Survivals in Malay Custom. A'. O Winstedt 

VIII. Perak Birth Customs. R.O. Winstedt 

IX. Upper Perak Marriage Customs. R. 0. Winstedt 

X. Propitiating the Spirits of a District. R.O Winstedt 

XI. Indo-China and Malaya : a Review. R. O. Winstedt 

PART II.— JULY, 1920. 
XII. A Pawang's Instructions for Selecting Doves and Turtle- 
Doves. Abdu'l-Majid bin Haji Zainu'd-din 

XIII. A Malay Bird Story. Abdu'l-Majid bin Haji Zainu'd-din 

XIV. Election of a Tribal Chief in Negri Sembilan. R. 0. 


XV. Family Relationships in Negri Sembilan. R. 0. Winstedt 

XVI. Copyright by Killing. R. 0. Winstedt 

XVII. Rice Ceremonies in Upper Perak. R.O Winstedt 

XVIII. Rice Ceremonies in Negri Sembilan. R Winstedt 

XIX. Malay Charms. R.O. Winstedt 

XX. Original Settlement of Pahang. H. S. Sircom 

XXI. Siamese Traces in Pahang. H. S. Sircom 

XXII. Keramat in Lower Pahang. H. S. Sircom 

PART III.— APRIL, 1921. 



XXVI. Further Notes on Negrito Beliefs and Customs. 
I. H. N. Evans 
XXVII. On an Examination of Some Negrito Combs from 
Perak. 1. H. N Evans .. 
XXVIII. The Malay Fire-Piston. /. H. N. Evans 
XXIX. Malay Charms. R. 0. Winstedt 
XXX. Ethnological Miscellanea. I. H.N.Evans 
XXXI. On the Ancient Structures on Kedah Peak. I. H. N, 
XXXII. On a Find of Stone Implements at Tanjong Malim 
I H. N. Evans 
XXXIII. The Potting Industry at Kuala Tembeling. /. H.N 

XXXIV. Some Malay Beliefs. Wan Lela 
XXXV. A Rock-Shelter at Gunong Pondok. /. H. N. Evans 267 
XXXVI. Ethnographical Miscellanea. I. H.N. Evans .. 271 



Negrito " Medicine-hut," Ulu Selama, Perak. 

II-XI. Megaliths at Pengkalan Kempas, Negri Sembilan 
:il -XV. Pengkalan Kempas Tombstone. 

XVI. Objects connected with Burial, 
XVII. Model of the Batu Her em 
XVIII, XIX. Negrito Combs from Perak. 
XX. Malay Fire-Pistons. 



By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 

(Plates XVI & XVII). 

This paper is the result of ten days' work among the 
Negritos of the Ulu Selama Parish of Perak, whom I 
visited for the second time in April, 192 1. I have given 
an account of my first visit in a former number of this 
Journal (Vol. IX, Part I, pp. I-15) and what I record here 
should be read in conjunction with what I wrote previously. 
With this end in view, I have kept the same sectional 
arrangement as in the other paper. The Ulu Selama 
Negritos, the Kintak Bong, unfortunately suffered severely 
in the influenza epidemic of 1918, and the present headman 
told me that altogether twenty-seven died, mostly at 
Mahang in Kedah. There are now, according to the 
headman's statement, rather over fifty Kintak Bong left, 
most of these being, at the time of writing, in Kedah, 
while the remainder— nineteen in all— are living at Lubok 
Tapah J a Malav village about three miles distant from 
Kuala Bayor. 

The headman of the Kintak Bong at Lubok Tapah, 
known to the Malays as Jarom (needle), but to his own 
people as Mempelam (mango) was my chief informant, but 
a very useful chorus of Negritos was usually present 
when I was taking my notes, and the members of it did 
not hesitate to interrupt him when he made mistakes. 

On my former visit Tokeh, 1 a Menik Kaien, from whom I 
got most of my information, gave me a list of some of 
the Negrito groups and their places of residence. With 
much of this information Jarom agreed, but in some 
cases he said that Tokeh was incorrect. He agreed that 
the Menik Lanoh lived at Lenggong, Sumpitan and Kuala 
Kenering, 2 the Menik Gul 3 at Ijok, Selama Sub-District, the 
Menik Jehai at Tadoh, Kelantan, and the Menik Kensieu at 
Baling and Siong, Kedah, but he said that Tokeh' s statement 
with about the Menik Kaien was incorrect with regard to the 

year (192T) appended. 

people by the : ,;tak Boag run 

the road from Taiping to Selama. 

192 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

extent and situation of their territory. The Menik Kaien, 
he told me, used to range from the neighbourhood of Batu 
Kurau to Bruas, and though their name, Kaien, is the same 
as the Negrito name of the Krian River, they never had any 
conneetion with this stream. 1 

The Menik Kaien are now reduced, according to 
Mempelam, to two persons of pure (?) blood, Tokeh and 
his brother. The former has a L,anoh wife and one child 
by her. Tokeh' s story of there being Menik Kaien on 
the Ayer Sauk and in the Ulu Krian needs further investiga- 
tion The Ijok Negritos, the Menik Gul, appear to have 
been much reduced by a former epidemic of small-pox. 2 
According to Mempelam there are now less than ten of 
them left. 3 

Mempelam supplemented the tribal names given to me 
by Tokeh, to some extent. He told me that the Grik + 
Negritos were called Menik Semnam, and those of Belukar 
Semang, in Kedah, Menik Hangat. In the neighbourhood of 
the Kupang River in Kedah he said there were Kintak 5 as 
well as some Kensieu. The Kintak may, perhaps, be equi- 
valent to the Menik Yup, mentioned by my Menik Kaien in- 
formant. Mempelam said that he did not know of any such 
group. 6 Other tribal names mentioned by him were the 
Mengos, said to live near Lanih 7 in Kelantan, the Menik 
Tiong also in that State. He also referred to several Perak 
Semang-Sakai hill groups, one of which at any rate, is probab- 
ly apochryphal : these were the Menik Lalik (Ulu Temengor 
hills), Menik Chubak 8 (Ulu Piah), the Pleh, and the Batak.* 

many Menik Kaien in Upper Perak, but they' have been assimilated - 
the Lanoh and speak their dialect. There a 

•^ Journal of | v,i. V , p. 185. Messrs. Robinsc 

and Kloss state m their paper on the " Semane Pava of Tiok " that tt 
group is "rapidly approaching ex 
of Negritos appended to their pa 

many are shown more than once— he has identified j 
two as Kintak Bong, and one old man, now dead, as a Menik Kaier 
none as Menik Gul (=Semang Paya = Bianok). As far as I can mal 
out, only ten, or [duals were photographed. T6ke 

(1921) says that there is only one Menik Gul, a woman, left She liv< 
at Pantai Besar and has mar 

° A group may have more than one name, a name givi 
, and one or more given to it by other groups. Vi 

up called Menik Yup. He s 

: not as that of a tribe. 

QTadoh" D am °" iemap ' 

« The Batak of Sumatra are charged with being cann 

binary, tribe. 

1022.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs and Customs. 193 

The last are said to dwell around the head-waters of the Plus. 
They are cannibals and dwell in burrows in the ground. 
Neighbouring tribes, according to Mempelam, make offerings 
to them by pushing live babies down their burrows. 

I think that it may be as well to point out here that, in 
doing pioneer work among the Negritos, it is nearly impossible 
to avoid making a few mistakes, even when information is 
carefully checked. 

At Iyubok Tapah, and at the Damak River, in 1918, I 
was lucky to meet two exceptionally intelligent men, Mem- 
pelam and Tokeh, and, had it not been for them, the result 
of my work would probably have been very meagre, since 
the majority of the Negritos are, I think, neither very well in- 
formed with regard to the traditions of their people, nor cap- 
able of communicating what knowledge they have. 

It is generally necessary to extract information about any 
one subject piecemeal, for the Negritos easily become tired 
with mental efforts, and, when in this condition, are worse 
than useless, as they will then say the first thing that comes 
into their heads. 

A good deal of difficulty is met with in taking down words 
correctly. The first part of many words is often given loudly 
and clearly, but the voice trails off towards word-ends and 
this leads to the recorder being uncertain about last syllables. 

Another source of trouble is that, when a Negrito is 
asked to translate a word into Malay, he will, sometimes, not 
give the meaning of the word itself, but that of some other 
word which he connects with it in his mind. 

The Negrito Gods. 

I have written a good deal with regard to the Negrito 
gods in my former paper. With reference to Tapern, the 
chief of them, there appears to be a possibility that Skeat was 
right in dividing his name into Ta' (Tak, grandfather) Pern, ' 
and that my (1918) informant was wrong in speaking of 
Tak Tapern, but as, on the present occasion, Mempelam only 
told me that Tapern was equivalent to grandfather Pern after 
I had told him what Skeat had said, I am still uncertain 
about the matter and, therefore, retain my old spelling. 
Tapern, as pronounced by the Kintak Bong, certainly sounds 
like one word. 

has 'Tappe- 

e worked in Pin Selan: , 

He tells me that Tapern is 

As a matter of fact Skeat gives Ta' Ponn, 
, fo°r r the e Kintak Bong.' Vaughan Stevens 

194 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

that of Tokeh, especially iu the matter of the relationships 
between the males and the females. After a somewhat live- 
ly discussion with the " chorus " he produced the following 
scheme of relationships. As discussion was necessary, it must 
be taken that the Negritos are not very certain about the 
matter themselves. The Kintak Bong claim that, though 
the other tribes reverence these beings, they are their ances- 
tors. Here is the relationship scheme : — 

Tang-ong and Yak Manoid are husband and wife. Their 
children are Tapern and Jalang. Tak Tinjeg and Yak I v epeh 
are husband and wife. Their children are Bajiaig and Jamoi. 
Jamoi is the wife of Tapern. Jalang is the wife of Bajiaig. 
Tokeh's account makes Jalang the wife of Tapern, and Jamoi 
the wife of Bajiaig, Bajiaig being Tapern's younger brother, 
while Yak Lepeh is the mother of Jalang, and Yak Manoid 
is the mother of Jamoi. Kukak is the father of Tapern, 
while his mother is Yak Takel. Possibly the truth is that 
both stones are correct, for Tokeh was a Meuik Kaien, and 
may be following Menik Kaien tradition. l 

According to the Kintak Bong there is also another Yak 
(grandmother). Her name is Yak Kalcheng : she is, I believe, 
the grandmother of Tapern, 4 and it was she who made the 
four boards in the heavens, over which the thunder-stone rolls 
at Tapern's command. Yak Kalcheng was carried up to the 
sky by Taheum, 3 the dung-beetle, because she was very old 
and could not walk. * Tang-ong, the father of Tapern, did 
not go to heaven with the other ancestors, but remained below 
upon the earth. 

I have spoken iu my previous paper of the three grand- 
mothers who live under the earth. The Kintak Bong con- 
firmed what had been told me previously by Tokeh, but sub- 
stituted the name of Yak Kalcheng for that of Yak Takel. 
It is these grandmothers who make the waters rise from under 
the earth, causing Henweh, and Tanong (the dragonfly) carries 
the message from Tapern to Yak Manoid when people have 
committed some impious act and incurred this punishment. 
In this connection Meinpeiam supplemented my information 
with regard to the blood-offering made by Negritos when a 
bad storm arises, stating that before the blood is thrown 
upward, as described in my former paper, a little is poured 
downwards to the earth for the benefit of the " grandmothers, ' ' 
the person who makes the offerings saying, " Un Yak Kalcheng, 
Yak Manoid, tembun ajer nteng clinch h Ch r/>< ; , Chulog chigiog 

1922.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs and Customs. 195 

nteng Tapem pi-weg kaii pek-kid ' beteu ! " This is, I think, 
fairly correctly translated as follows: " Yak Kalcheng, Yak 
Manoid, come up and give advice to the ears of your grand- 
children Chapor and dialog to relate to the ears of Tapern thai 

he should make go back the- thunder to the roots ' of the 

In my former paper I have referred to the Chinoi, whom 
Tapern uses as messengers. From Mempelam I got a good 
deal of fresh information with regard to these beings. They 
are both male and female, and have many occupations. The 
female Chinoi use different words from those of the ordinary 
Kintak Bong dialect, and the males sometimes copy them. 
They bind their heads with the fibre of a creeper called by 
them chingchon". This is the same as that which the Kintak 
Bong call awih ehyim [akar jin&rok of the Malays).' 2 Among 
the beings who come to the shaman during a seance are many 
Chinoi, including, as will be seen from the lines chanted by 
him, which I give below, the Chinoi Sagar who lives on the 
bridge over which the dead pass to Belet, the Barau-bird 
Chinoi, the Argus pheasant Chinoi. In the songs, too, are men- 
tioned a male Chinoi, Menlus, who plays the Jew's-harp to 
Yak Kalcheng, the Screw-palm Chinoi, Langyau (a male 
Chinoi who lives near Iyigoi), the Tepus-plant Chinoi, the Chinoi 
who lives near the Tang-al of the Batu Herem, and others. 

Mempelam gave me some interesting details with regard 
to the Mat Chinoi. He said that a large snake— the Mat 
Chinoi— lives on the road to Tapern's house on a piece of care- 
fully smoothed ground. The snake is two fathoms long and 
ten cubits in circumference. This snake makes long, many- 
layered mats for Tapern. Some, ornamented with beautiful 
patterns, it hangs over a cross-beam, and it is under the shelter 
of these that it lives. Inside the snake are twenty or thirty 
female Chinoi of great beauty and also beautiful combs, head- 
Now there is a male Chinoi called Halak Gihmal 3 who 
lives on the back of the snake, and looks after the clothes 
and ornaments which are stored inside it. If a male Chinoi 
asks to go into the snake, Halak Gihmal tells him to make 
trial of the mats first. There are seven of these mats, hang- 
ing over a beam above the snake, and these are always open- 
ing and closing. When the male Chinoi tries to pass along the 
passage under them, they close on him, so that, unless he 
runs very quickly, he gets caught. If he manages to get 
through the mats safely he is told to enter a tobacco-box 4 of 
which the lid opens and closes rapidly. If he is lucky enough 

Literally " anus, "" bottom." Pagan Races, p. 515. At;-. IV>kei. 
■ The^nd which Malays call chitepa. This is generally watch-shaped. 

196 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

to make a safe entrance and escape — he leaves by another 
wa y — he is allowed to choose one of the female Chinoi who 
live in the snake for himself. 

The Stone which supports the Heavens. 

I have mentioned previously that the top part of this 
stone is said to be loose, and balanced on the lower portion at 
an angle. This loose piece of the Batu Herem is called Lam- 
bong. 1 Yak Kalcheng, Yak Manoid and Yak Lepeh guard 
the roots of the Batu Herem beneath the earth. 

The Chinoi are said to play in the dark region called Ligoi 
which surrounds the Lambong. 

The Rainbow: Rain. 

In my former paper the name of the rainbow snake, 
or rather snakes, for there are two of them, was incorrectly 
spelt Hwiak instead of Huyak. 

Rain , according to the Kintak Bong, is caused by a stone 
flower called Jambun which grows in the sky. There is water 
in the flower, and, when it turns downwards, the water falls 
from it as rain : when it turns upwards the weather is dry. A 
Chinoi, Liren, guards the flower. 

The abode of the Dead and their Journey to it. 

I have mentioned in my previous paper the bridge 
over which the souls of the dead pass to Belet. The name of 
this bridge should be corrected, it is Balan Bacham, not 
Balam Bacham. Bacham is, my informant told me, a fern 
which the Malays call paku ular (Blechnum orientate). * This 
plant grows at the further end of the bridge and with it the 
ghosts wreathe their heads before entering Belet. 

A female Chinoi, called Chinoi Sagar, lives at the Belet 
end of the bridge, and wreathes her head with the Bacham 
plant. When the sun rises the bridge lies true, but when it 
falls, the end of the bridge on which the Chinoi Sagar lives is 

Burial Customs. 

According to my Kintak Bong informant, Mempelam, the 
ghosts of the newly dead, before they undertake the journey 
to Belet, are sometimes heard near the new camp to which I he 
survivors have moved. They say, " Yah, Yah, Yah," and 
"Yebok, Yebok, Yebok." When they say, "Yah, Yah, 
Yah,' ' they mean that they are going away, and when they 
say, " Yebok, Yebok, Yebok," they want water. 

1922.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs and Customs. 197 

The description of the position of the corpse in the grave, 
which I obtained in 1918, seems quite correct. Mempedam 
told me that the head points to Belet, that is about north- 
west, 1 with the face looking towards the setting sun. The 
body lies on its right side with the knees drawn up. 

No articles of iron must be placed on. or in, graves or a 
tiger will come and eat the bodies. Iron is credited with 
smelling musty 2 and thus attracting tigers. Brass pots, too, 
must not be put with the corpse for the same reason. Food 
is placed in the grave near the head of the dead person. 

The only correction that appears to be necessary in what 
I wrote in my previous paper under the present heading is 
that tangkel daiim should be read instead of ielak dateng and 
tangkel dawit for telak dawit. 

With regard to the three little wooden objects placed on 
graves, which I described as being like tip-cats, the Kintak 
Bong told me that these are tiger talisman's {tangkel teiok), 
which keep these animals away from graves. 

Four small pieces of wood, which I also mentioned as 
being placed in the under side of the thatch of the grave-hut 
as warnings to the spirit not to return to its home, are, 
according to the Kintak Bong, called tangkel kemoit . ghost 

The bullroarer, of which I obtained a specimen at 
Lubok Tapah, is used as a toy by Kintak Bong children, 
but Mempelam told me that is the ghosts' Jew's-harp. 3 

The Shaman. 

I have set down a good deal of information about the 
shaman (halak) in my former paper, and I cannot add here 
much new with regard to his methods of procedure, but 
I have now been able to take down a considerable number 
of the chants which are sung in the medicine-hut (panoh) 
by the principal performer, and repeated by those outside. 
I have previously given the titles of a few of those. 

At I, ubok Tapah, through the good offices of the head- 
man of the Kintak Bong, I induced a halak named Piseng/ 
to give a magical performance. The panoh was built by 
women one afternoon, and the seance took place the same 
night. Mempelam, the headman, sat beside me the whole 
time and gave me the words of the songs as they " were 
sung, and I immediately took them down to the best of my 
ability. With Mempelam, Piseng and other Negritos, I 
afterwards corrected what I had written and obtained 
Malay translations from them of the different fragments 

x 9 8 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Probably some mistakes still remain, especially in the 
English versions, as it is extremely hard to get the Negritos 
to give word-for-word translations, and even when they 
attempt to give the general sense of a phrase or sentence 
they are not unusually incorrect. Still I have taken a 
considerable amount of trouble to insure accuracv and I 
think that any mistakes that remain are, probably, not 

During a seance the halak is possessed by many spirits, 
nearly' all Chinoi, these speak through him in the snatches 
of songs which he sings. I have indicated in each case the 
sex of the Chinoi who is supposed to be speaking, and, in 
some, have given their names and their occupations. 

Mempelam told me that the appearance of the halak be- 
come changed' when he is in the panoh. 

I cannot add much to what I have alreadv written with 
regard to the actual performance. The singing of the women 
and children, who squatted outside the panoh, and took up 
the chants given out by the halak, was both musical and 
sweet. The antics of the halak while hidden from sight with- 
in the panoh are worth alluding to. Sounds of granting 
growling, shouting, singing, chest-beating, and slap- 
the hands on the walling, proceeded from the inside 
ts under the inspiration of the 

Junkeh, 'Rem, tabek* laweh\ yek gan'ong 
Head Herem, salutations head! I hang 
(a cross- chebelhat. 

beam) moment. 

Sakan gantong dadak 'Rem. 

Bi £ hang breast Herem. 

Salutations to your head ! I will hang yet a moment 
the cross-timber of the Batu Herem. Swollen I hang on t 
breast of the Herem. 

The word sakan is said to be peculiar to the Chir 

Yam bedlat keping Taper n ; 
I go above Tapern ; 

Jagat pengweurng Yak Tanogoi 

Giddy (?) house (hut) grand-mother Rambutan. 

may be considered rude. The Chinoi asks for pardon for hanging abo^e the 

I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs and Customs. 




menulang ' 




bekau ? 

"I go above Tapern's (house); giddy at the 
Yak Tanggoi. Where is my head-dress of flowers ? 
female Chinoi who is speaking. Yam is said to h 

Eh, tongkah dai * keling-tek. 

Father, come up from under-earth. 

' Father , I ask your leave to come up from unde 
arth." It is a male Chinoi who is speaking. 

Jagok, liwon layigkak litol chenib yek. 

Old man, wander (?) step bachelor affairs I 

The sense is, I believe, " I, an old man, wish to go in search 

of my affairs." It is the tiger-spirit of the halak who is 


Lohmon piyudau b maloh menulang. 

What(?) hold magical where (?) head-dress? 

" How shall we hold a magical performance, if I have no 
head-dress ? " It is a female Chinoi who is speaking. 
Lei, keh gantong lamun H'rem. 
Spinning, I hang end Herem. 

" Spinning, I hang from the end of the Herem.' ' It is a female 
Chinoi who is speaking. 

* Kuie is the ordinary word for head, laweh is probably Chinoi language. 
•'• The Negrito form of the Malay sa 1 b'entar. 

* The Negrito form of the Malay word d&ri. The letter r is a shibboleth 

200 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 

Talis galun, 1 lei, keh gantong lamun 

Plaiting girdle, spinning, I hang end 

H'rem. Halak, leloi, tabek law eh ! 

Herein. Halak, throw up, salutations head ! 

" Plaiting a girdle, spinning, I hang at the end of the Herem. 

Salutations to your head ! Halak, I am throwing up my 

head-dress !" It is a female Chinoi who is speaking. 

Pan wer-chet, 2 tabek laweh, eh, yek 

Open(?) Come down (?), salutations head, father, I 



" When it opens, I come down. Salutations to your head ! 

father, I hang!" It is a male Chinoi who is speaking. The 

reference to " opening " is, I believe, to a hole in the end of 

the Batu Herem which opens and shuts. 




£ P Zre 

Sengak Rive 

5 in the 

is the t 

iger sp 


v on the shor< 
oi the halak \ 

Eh, eh, lungkan balan chibeh. 

Father, father, climb bridge rising sun. 

" Father, father, I have climbed the bridge of the rising sun." 
It is aChemam, a spirit of the " middle air," who is speaking. 
The sun appears to pass along a bridge after coming out of 
the passage under the earth. 

Bedlad blsangit on-on on- on. 


Open(?) door(?) come-out come-ou 

I am very uncertain about the whole of the above 
I find that, in another place, Mempelam gave me " go ' 
the meaning of bedlad; here however he translated 

1922.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliejs and Customs. 201 

" open." The meanings given for the other words are also 
suspect. A possible free transition is, " I go from the door, 
and come out, come out-" 1 It is a Chemam who is speaking. 

Bitul yek 


Id, lei ! 

Go straight I 


spin, spin! 

Yek bitul, 


held, lei, lei ! 

I go straight, 


spin, spin, spin ! 

straight, I spin, spin 

., spin ! 

I go straight, I spin, spi 

" It is the tiger spirii 

t of the 

halak which is speaking. 

Lohmon pideh, 

S unik,' 

baleh Chinoi. 

"Why do you call me, a maiden Chinoi, O interpreter ?" 
It is a female Chinoi who is speaking. The females use 
words not found in the everyday language of the Kintak 
Bong Negritos, and the males sometimes copy them. 

Miwoh mutau, yek, baleh. 

Laugh loudly hill-top, I, virgin. 

" I, a virgin, laugh loudly on the hill-tops." 3 It is the Chinoi 

Kawang (Argus Pheasant Chinoi) who is speaking. She is 


Baleh, larch tupar lindong. 

Virgin, moon fly fluttering. 

" I, a virgin, fly fluttering by moonlight."* The same Chinoi 
is speaking. Lareh is the Chinoi word for "moon.' ' 

Deh, Deh, Deh. 

This has no meaning according to MempSlam. Said by one 
of the Jaman, were- tigers, who live with the Yak (grand- 
mothers) at the base of the Batu Her em. There are many 
Jaman. This one, I was informed, is sitting at the " Rice 
Stone" near the Batu Herem towards where the sun falls. 

Amboi, Amboi, ayah hami ! 

"Oh, Oh, father ours! 

This line is in Malay. It is a Jaman who is speaking. 

that it should read, «' Bedlad (go) bZsangit (1 

up and down." 

There is a Malay word / 

202 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vor,. IX, 

Malok l menulang yek ? 


Where head-dress mine ? 

This either means " With what shall I bind my head?" or 
" Where is my head-dress ?" — I think the latter is probably 
correct. It is a female Chinoi who is speaking. 

Dordoi wai haiyah* eh loie. Tabek laweh 

Sit open bertam, father mine. Salutations head, 

arah menulang ! 

pass head-dress ! 

"I sit opening fortara-palms, O father mine. Salutations 

to your head, on my head-dress passing you !" It is a male, a 

Bertam-palm Chinoi who is speaking. He asks his father 

(the holak) to pardon him for throwing his head-dress in 

front of him. 

Malok menulang, guruk ? Babeh 


What head-dress, interpreter? Newly-married 

Tapern magiseh. 

Taperu go round. 

"Where is my head-dress, interpreter? I, newly-married, 

go round Tapern." It is a male Chinoi who is speaking. 

Jinung reng chenerkem un, eh, loie ! 

Carve slit comb that, father mine! 

" Carve and slit a comb for me, O father mine !" It is a male 
Chinoi who is speaking. 

Pau wer-chet* kejuh barau. 4 - 

From inside (?) come down (?) young male barau 
The sense of the line is, " From inside comes down a young 
male barau." It is a Barau-bird Chinoi which is speaking 

Bum Chinoi Tapern magiseh. Yeh chub 
We Chinoi Tapern go round. I go 
pek keping. 

Pagan Races, Vol. II, p. 755, - Wha 

keh (192 1) does not agree with Menipeia 
ah. He says that the latter is the 1 
: Malays call gendang batak. I would 

e Barau is the Yellow Crowned Bulbul 

1922.] I. H. N. Evans: Negrito Beliefs an 








bid in 


C ketch cm 

back to 


" Why do you call me, a virgin, going from Chelchem and buck 
to Chelchem to plunge down to earth ?" It is a male Chinoi 
who is speaking. Chelchem, Mempelam told me, is a place 
below Tapern's house which opens and shuts. 

yek tulis gampil Yak 

I plait mat Grandmother 

Jalang, vek deng. 
Jalang, I 

a mat for Yak Jalang, I see (i.e. in a ! 
a male Chinoi who is speaking. 

Ihere, there it is, the mat, see it !" A male Chinoi is speaking. 
Bedlat menulang, tabek laweh, kadeng deh / 
Going head-dress, salutations head, see it ! 

" My head-dress is going past yo 

u, salutations t< 

) your head, 

see it! This Chinoi, your slave, 

' A female 

Chinoi is speaking. 

Ha menulang keh ; yah baleh ? 
Where head-dress mine ; your maiden ? 
' Where is my headdress, the head-dress of your maiden ? 
t is a female Chinoi who is speaking. 

Eh, ram-pus \ ingat' 1 stinting' 2 Chinoi 

Father, take remembrance hair ornaments Chinoi 

palah nilam. 

shoots indigo 

04 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voh. i 

O father, do not forget hair ornaments for the Chin 
hoots of the indigo-plant." A male Chinoi is speaking. 

Kalun yek, babeh, penangkan 

Waist-cord I, married woman, shoulder-cloth 

" I, a married woman, wear a waist-cord, shoulder-cloth a 
weapons." A female Chinoi is speaking. 

Ibeh jinoring galun. 
Turn (?) enter rattan loop. 
"Turn and enter the rattan loop." Galun, I was told 
means rattan, but the ordinary Negrito word for this is awih. 
Probably the truth is that galun is equivalent to the Malay 
word gllong, a rattan loop. Reading galun as equivalent 
to gUong makes good sense , as it is a rattan skipping- rope ' 
to which reference is here made. 




•■ •■.;■;:..'• ' 



ip and down 

"I, shaking the bridge up and down, I wreathe my head 
with a head-dress of ferns." It is the Chinoi Sagar, a female, 
who is speaking. She lives, as I have related above, at the 
far end of the Balan Bacham. She says that while making 
the bridge of the dead, the Balan Bacham, spring up and 
down, she wreathes her head with the Bacham-plants which 

The Negritos seem to be fond of skipping with two per: 
ope, and one jumping, and I saw them thus amusing lis 

hose Malays that I have consulted, so far, consider that it 
iuced game. I do not know whether it is native to the S 
are of course in close contact with the Malays and would co 
l pleased them. Reference to skipping in chants com 
mi looks, however, rather as if the pastime was native, 
okeh (1921) says that there is a ••' m < mi. 1 skipping-! 

he Malaysia. 

1922.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs and Customs. 205 

" I, I am ashamed as I leap on every cross-beam." It is a 

Chinoi Ai who is speaking. The Ai is the species of leaf 
monkey which is called Presbytcs neglecfa keatii. 

That, that, father mine, one sheet, that, 

eh loie } sa f bidang ! 

father mine, one sheet ! 

" That, that one sheet is for yon, my father ; that one sheet, 
my father !" It is the Chinoi Tikar, the Mat Chinoi, who is 
speaking. Some details about the mat-weaving snake will 
be found in a previous section. 

At the end of the performance, when the Halak was 
supposed to be again becoming conscious of his surroundings, 
he said, " Beitid amed 1 penet* dikch," "very long is my 

The Bird-Soul. 

I have alluded to the Til-tol-tapah, the bird which an- 
nounces a coming birth, in my former paper. While at Lubok 
Tapah I heard a bird of this species calling on several 
occasions, but did not see it. The Negrito name for the 
bird is much more suitable than that of the Malays (kangkang 
katup) — both names are onomatopoeic. The notes are 
repeated a great number of times. The Negritos stated that 
the bird was large 3 and dark coloured with white sj 
ff like a bead necklace " on the breast. 

The Chimioi (Chim-oi of my previous paper) has now 
been identified by M&mpelam from the bird collection in the 
Perak Museum as the Yellow-crested Sultan Tit (Melanochlora 
rfa), Mempelam said that he thought this was the 
same as the Sagwong a bird whose note, according to T5keh, 
it is tabu to imitate, owing to fear of Henweh* 

A Social Tabu. 

A woman may not address, or pass in front of, her father- 
in-law ; she may not speak to him, and her shadow must 
not fall on him. One day, when I was giving some tobacco 
to the Negritos, I called one of the women, Semen, to come 
into my tent and take her share. She replied that she could 
not, as her father-in-law was sitting inside, and, in order 
to reach me, she would have to pass in front of him. The 
father-in-law then got up and changed his position in the 

hmal l~V^TjolrlalTf Ute fE ° Museums, ' 

200 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums, [Vol,. IX, 

tent, so that the woman could approach me without breaking 
the tabu. 

A man may not speak to his mother-in-law. 

The Giving of Names. 
There is nothing to add to what I wrote in my former 
paper under this heading, except some further examples of 
Negrito names. Among the Kintak Bong, besides Mempelam 
and Piseng whose names I have already explained, there 
were the following individuals : — 

Pai, a female, born at the Tapah River. Pai means 

" irrigation ditch," according to Mempelam. 
Sidim, ! born near the Sidim River in Kedah. 
Semeh, a female, born near a kemangi-shmb {semeh). 
Kising, a male, born near a ^mng-plant. 2 

Customs and Prohibitions with regard to Marriage, 

The Kintak Bong told me that they have no marriage 
ceremony, not even a feast, as Tokeh previously stated was 
the case. There is said to be a small payment made to the 
bride's relations, from $2 to $10. A man who is a suitor for 
a girl's hand usually speaks to the girl's father or elder 
brother. In the event of there being nobody in the camp 
whom a bachelor can marry, he goes in search of a wife 
either to another camp of his own people, if there is one, or 
to that of another tribe. Tokeh said that marriage between 
first cousins is prohibited, this may, perhaps, be so among 
the Menik Kaien, but the statement needs qualifying as far 
as the Kintak Bong are concerned. The rule is that first 
cousins may marry, provided that the man is the son of an 
elder brother or sister ; if he is not, they ma}^ not marry. 

Musical Performances. 

While I was at Lubok Tapah, the Negritos, at my 
request, gave a musical performance. The singing was 
accompanied by a pair of bamboo stampers, struck on a log 
of wood by one of the women, and by two pairs of ,( cast- 
anets," pieces of wood or bamboo— such as the Malays call 
chlrachap— which were beaten, one piece against another, by 
two of the youths. Singing is called feningloin. 

As in the case of performance given by the halak, I took 
down the somewhat fragmentary songs on the spot, being 
aided in this by Mempelam, and attempted translations of 
them afterwards : — 

« Probably some 

9-'2.J I. H. X. Evans : Xenrito Beliefs and Customs. 207 

Eh, minxun char ah namfak 

Father, shake up and down sun-rise see 

' Father, I shake up and down where the sunrise is seen all 
iery." It is a Sunrise Chinoi who is supposed to be speaking. 

I shake up and down. 
Senujak heniall 

Throw up to above ! 

'' I shake it up and down, grandmother mine, I, your servant, 
-halve it up and down. Throw it upwards!" I am not sure 
that this translation is correct. Mempelam told me that it 
was a male Chinoi, named Menlus, who was speaking. He 
plays the Jew's-harp to Yak Kalcheng. In the present 
instance, I understood, he is supposed to be hanging from the 
end of Yak Kalcheng' s fan, fanning her by springing up and 

Yek keh, minyun lei 

Grandmother mine, shake up and down spin 



" Grandmother mine, I shake up and down and spin as I 

hang." The same Chinoi is supposed to be speaking. 

Yek, Puyau, menang durengbung belang 
I. Basket, go (?) plunge down to 

batu dadak char ah Mdah Tanggoi. 

stone breast sunrise girl Tanggoi. 

• I, Basket, go, plunge down and stick to the stone at tl 
^reast (?) of sunrise, at the house of Tanggoi's girl." It 
:he Chinoi Puyau, the Basket Chinoi, who is supposed 1 
>e speaking. Ehyim is the name of the child of Tanggoi 1 
whom reference is made. She lives near where the sun rise 
and plaits herself a nest. _ 

ferjun jeurn (?) klawong. Lei, 

Carry on your hands kenuwak. Spinning, 

208 Journal of the F. M.S. Museums. [Vol. 

klawang. A sal kebeurh klawong. 

kenuwak. Origin fruits kenuwak. 

" Carry on your hands the kenuwak fruit. Spinning, s 
ning, cany on your hands the kenuwak. Origin of fruil 
the kenuwak ." I did not ascertain the name of the Ch 
who is supposed to be speaking. 

Mtnyun, tnenawu tapag, 

Shake up and down, bending down leaf pinnae, 


chant magical chants. 

" Shaking up and down, bending down the leaf pinnae of the 

palm, I chant magical chants." It is the Chinoi Buy ok, tra 

Pandanus,' or Screw-palm, Chinoi, who is supposed to be 

speaking. Ngabag is said to be a Chinoi word. 



\x, suspend 




Father, suspend, spin and turn (the comb), father, suspend 
!" It is the Chinoi Buyok who is supposed to be speaking 






jutkat keping chanang s yoh belang + 

bring down above plate mine near 



No satisfactory translation of the above was obtained, but it 

may mean something like this :— 

"I, Langyau attaching the thread, go above the bridge 
and spinning bring it down (?) above my plate." It is tht 
Chinoi Langyau, a male Chinoi, who lives near Ligoi. who i- 
speaking. Chanang is said to be Chinoi talk. 

Negrito Beliefs and Ci 

\ satisfactory translation of this was not obtained. The 
general sense, according to Mempelam, is, "I want to fix the 
thread to the stone." An attempted literal translation is, 
" I see there, I see, the rafters of Tapern' s house. I come 
to fasten (jam) there the thread to (near) the stone." 
Probably the same Chinoi is supposed to be speaking. 

T thrus 

ktlingrong 1 Tapern. 
mortar Tapern 
" I will thrust in and place round bud ornaments 
Lebak- plant around the mortar of Tapern." It 
Chinoi Behwak, the 7V#i«-plant Chinoi, a female 
supposed to be speaking. She makes wreaths. 

Lcdsaid bayang iliamh ketd halan nukau 

Scarlet spirit 4 sunrise go bridge house 

mak bttlang. 

want head-dress. 

:f Scarlet appears the spirit of sunrise and goes to the bridge 

where there is a house, in search of a head-dress.' ; It is the 

Chinoi Galong, the Bridge Chinoi, a female, who is supposed 

to be speaking. 

Eh, tantig klawotig penlohr 3 hiring. 

Father, bring klawong pierce fruit. 
"Father bring klawong fruits and pierce them (as charms)." 
It is a male Chinoi, called the Chinoi Taneh, who is supposed 
to be speaking. 

Weung* ramsn, dedeh, h weung. 

Winnow body, sieve, winnow. 

" I move my body like a winnowing-tray, I sift, I winnow !" 
It is a female Chinoi, a Flower Chinoi, who is supposed to be 

ng to Tokeh (1521) kelingrona is the ground under a house 

. ... 

. : 
. but ib tomid among the Kfiusieu and other 

2io Journal of the F.M.S. Museum, 

5. [VOL. IX, 

Eh, minyun balan 

Father, I shake up and down bridge 


pinkoh lawad, 

mimic song, 1 

juih ' 2 kaleh. 

bird lifting wings. 
" I shake up and down on the bridge of sunrise ; li- 
the song of a bird, lifting up its wings." It is a female 
Chinoi, a Chinoi Tang-al, who is speaking. She lives near 
the Tang-al of the Batu Herein. 

Various Beliefs and Customs, 

If a hut is to be built in the jungle, a fire is first lighted 
on the spot chosen. If the smoke from this drifts about 
without rising, another site must be selected, as, if this is 
not done, a tiger will raid the occupants of the hut, or thev 
will fall ill with fever. 

If the hornbill, which the Negritos call Kawan malik 3 
is heard at night, it is said that a tiger is coming. The same 
belief also attaches to the Kmvangkweit* when its note is 
heard after dark. 

If a squirrel in a tree falls from it near the sleeping- 
bench of a shelter, it is a sign that some one will die. 

Malays (Hemik), blood, jungle leeches and the private 
parts of a man or woman may not be mentioned when fish 
are being caught by means of tuba b -poison. These words 
are enlak, tabu. Women who are expectant may not accom- 
pany the fishing party. If these tabus are broken, the poison 
will have no effect upon the fish. 


Yak Kampeh and Piagok. 

Yak* Kampeh lived with her son, Piagok, in theSelama 

Yak Kampeh dreamt one night that she had got a son 
named Kebeurk Yihuk. 7 The next morning she went out to 
look for food, and came across a fruit hanging from a tree. 
She told her son, Piagok, to climb and take the fruit. So 
Piagok climbed the tree and threw the fruit down into his 
mother's cloth, which she held to receive it. A sound of 

1922.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs and Customs. 211 

crying was heard from the cloth, and the fruit opened, and 
a child was in it. 

Another night Piagok dreamt that he met a woman. 
So on the next morning he set out and really met her. She 
told Piagok that she wanted armlets (of rattan), Jew's- 
harps and combs. Piagok went home and made the combs ; 
and on the next day he told his mother to go to the woman's 
camp, and at night he went there himself and slept with Yak 
Tanggoi : — for that was the woman's name. 

The next morning, he went with Homoit, Tanggoi's 
youuger brother, to hunt with his blow-pipe, and, when it was 
night, they went home. Homoit was carried tied on Piagok' s 
back, above his back-basket, because his waist was only as 
big as my index finger, and he could not walk : on returning 
to the hut, his sister released him. 

On the day after Piagok went by himself through the 
jungle to Perak {i.e. the Perak River Valley) for five days, 

ud lb, 


on the next morning, and shot a pig with his 
turned and that night he had an unlucky dream. The next 
morning he and Yak Tanggoi exchanged leaves of the 
Changiun,* agreeing that if their leaves withered they also 
would be dead. 

Then Piagok went on a journey, and he found when he 
looked at his (Yak Tanggoi's) leaf, that it had shrivelled. 

Now after Piagok's departure, Yak Tanggoi had gone 
to bathe with five other women. The five women pushed 
her down into the bathing-well and drowned her, because 
they wanted Piagok for themselves. 

Piagok returned and found his wife dead, and wrapped 
her body in a mat. Then he got an iron pan and heated 
water. Next he called the five women and said to them, 
"If you like my body, come and sit here!" They came 
and sat down near him; whereupon he took the hot water 
and poured it over them, killing them all. Then there came 
Henweh* and the house turned to stone, but Piagok carried 
Yak Tanggoi's body up to the sky. 

Now there was a cousin of Piagok who lived in Perak. 
His name was To f Taseg and his wife was called Yak Hnileh. 
To' Taseg being a halak (magician) knew about Piagok, and 
came with his wife to Selama, but his younger cousin (Pia- 
gok) had gone to the sky 

To' Taseg seeing that Piagok's house had become a 
stone, transformed himself into a Chinoi, and entered it, 
his wife going in first, because he stopped to burn incense. 

212 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol,. IX , 

Yak Tanggoi came to life in the sky, and when a halak 
performs in a panoh ( "medicine-hut" ) Piagok, Yak Tanggoi, 

Tak Chemempes. 

Tak Chemempes one day turned himself into a rhino- 
ceros. A companion of his, who had gone to cut attaps in 
the jungle, saw him eating the leaves of a tree and went 
home, got his bow, returned, and shot at him, but Tak 
Chemempes caught the arrow under his "armpit" (front 
leg). Then he pretended to be dead, as if he had been 
killed by the arrow. 

The man who had shot at him went back to call his 
friends to come and cut up the rhinoceros that he had shot. 
They all went to the place and made themselves shelters 
near the " dead" rhinoceros. Five children started playing 
near the rhinoceros while their mothers were building the 
shelters, and the rhinoceros said to them, " Have you all 
come here? " and the children answered, "All of us." The 
children went to their fathers and said, " The rhinoceros 
asked us if we had all moved here." The fathers said, 
C( Don't speak minchah." 1 

Then all the people came together to cut up the rhino- 
ceros, and the rhinoceros got up, became a man, and killed 
them all, except one man who was only lamed. Then Tak 
Chemempes said, " Is there any one left ? * ' and the wounded 
man replied, "There is," so Tak Chemempes killed him too. 

Another time Tak Chemempes became a blacksmith, 
but he made his working-knives of tin. Then he called the 
people together and gave them knives, and, when they had 
gone, he went away and became the cabbage of a Taak- 

Now the people to whom he had sold the working-knives 
were shifting their camp. They came to the place where 
Tak Chemempes had become a palm-cabbage, and first one, 
and then another, climbed the tree to cut out the cabbage, 
but all were unsuccessful, until a man cut it through with a 
small knife, 3 and pushed it down, when it rolled into the 
river and became a soft-shelled turtle. 

All the people tried to catch the turtle, but it cut their 
hands. At last the man who had cut down the palm cab 
bage went down into the river, caught the turtle, and 
brought it ashore, when it immediately dug itself into the 
ground and became an elephant's-head tuber. v So they dug 

valent to the Malay word t 

u)22.J I. H, N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs and Custom.^ 213 

it up and, preparing a lire, roasted it ; and fifteen of the 
people died of stomach trouble through eating it, and fifteen 

Then Tak Chemempes became a toalang-tree with two 01 
three hundred bees' nests in it. The fifteen people who were 
left alive came across the toalang and made shelters there, so 
as to take the bees' nests. They made a ladder J up the tree 
so as to reach the nests, and, at night, a man went up carry- 
ing a torch * and a bailer 3 made of the flowering spathe of a 
Bayas--pa\m. When he got to the nests, the bees became a 
man. who cut the climber's throat, and, catching the blood 
in the bailer, let it down to the people below, saying, " There's 
lots of honey ; the bailer won't hold it all !" 

Then he called another man up to help him, and cut his 
throat too. So he called another, and another, and so on, 
until eight had been killed. At last the cocks crew, and it 
was daylight, and Tak Chemempes vanished. But the seven 
persons who were left saw their dead companions lying under 
the tree. 

Next Tak Chemempes became a crocodile and laid eggs on 
the shore of a river. A man who had been digging tubers 
came to the river to wash his hands, and, seeing the eggs, 
took them home, cooked and ate them. When night came 
the crocodile followed the man to the camp to which the eggs 
had been taken. All the people there were asleep, except 
one man and his wife. These two heard the crocodile com- 
ing, and called the men who had eaten the eggs, but could 
not wake them ; so they ran away. Then the crocodile came 
and ate up all the sleepers. 

After this Tak Chemempes became a lizard * in a tree 
near a camp. Whenever he saw anything nice cooking in the 
camp he came down from the tree, became a man, and got a 
share by telling the people that he had come from a far-away 
place. At last a girl followed him, and Tak Chemempes 
returned to his own shape and carried her off from there. 

Then he journeyed until he found some people fishing 
and tried to persuade them to go to their huts to eat their 6sh. 
But the people told him how a certain man, named Tak Taihi, 
oppressed them by taking their fish, and said that, if he could 
; their oppressor, they would collect fish for him. So 

2i 4 * Journal of the F. M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Tak Chemempes prepared rattan bindings ' large enough to go 
round his knees and elbows. Soon came the man who had 
taken the fish and asked what the bindings were for, and Tak 
Chemempes replied that they were medicine for pain- in his 
elbows and knees. Tak Taihi asked for them, saying that 
he also had pains. Tak Chemempes gave them to him, show 
ing him how to put them on with connecting pieces of woo<" 
between the elbows and knees. Then, when he was firmly 
trussed, Tak Chemempes beat him to death, and when the 
people came back from fishing they heaped together their 
fish for him. 

Next Tak Chemempes bored a hole in a tree buttress. 
making it sufficiently large for his foot to pass through easily. 
This hole he stopped with mud, so that it would not be 
noticed. When he had finished, he called his companions to 
try if they could kick a hole in a tree buttress, and they said 
that they would give him all their fish if he was able to do 
so. His companions tried to kick a hole in a buttress, but 
could not. Then Tak Chemempes kicked the buttress in the 
place which he had prepared, and his foot passed through 
it easily. So his companions brought him their fish. 

After about another two or there days his companions 
stole the girl whom he had brought with him. Tak Chemem- 
pes went in search of her, but could not find her: so he 
returned. He slept for a night, and the next day he dis- 
covered the thieves, but not the girl. He said to them, " If 
you want to become like I am, go and get some bamboos." 
So they went and got what he told them to fetch, and Tak 
Chemempes dried the bamboos for two nights over the fire. 
Then he made knives from the bamboos, and said, "If you 
want to become Mohamedans (i.e. be circumcised,) go and sit 
above the waterfall. So they went and sat above the water- 
fall. Tak Chemempes went to their wives and said, " If I am 
attacked by an evil spirit* when I circumcise your husbands, 
here is medicine to blow over me ," rf —and he gave them some 
tios. * So he went to circumcise their husbands. First he 
called one man, cut off all his genitals, and kicked him down 
into the river below, then another and so on. till all thirty of 
them were dead. Then he went back, and the wives asked 
hirn when their husbands were coming home, and he replied, 
" Perhaps to-day or to-morrow." That night he pretended 
to have an epileptic fit, 6 and all the women came together to 
blow the medicine over him. Then he beat them all to death. 

1922.] I. H. N. Evans : Negrito Beliefs and Customs. 215 

On the next day he started on a journey, and, when a 
strong wind arose, he heard a sound of loud whistling. He- 
found that the noise was made by two trees, the stems of 
which crossed one another, and were pushed together by the 
wind. Tak Chemempes climbed up into the trees and put 
his hand between them in order to take whatever it was tha* 
made the whistling, but his hand was caught between the 
trunks and there he was held until he died. 


Mampes and his wife went from Selama to Perak, and 
lived there a month. On his return, Mampes found that all 
his companions had been eaten by tigers ; now there were two 
of these animals. 

He told his wife to climb a jgrai-tree. Then he went to 
the huts where the people had died, and there he found two 
tigers. The tigers wanted to fight with him, but he stopped 
them, saying, " Wait a little, and then we will fight. I want 
to take a thorn out of my foot." He took out the thorn, and 
then, standing up, called the male tiger to fight. They 
f ought, and Mampes killed the tiger with an arrow. Then he 
called the female and she, also, was killed in the same way. 
So Mampes said, " Ah, when 1 was away you came and kilkd 
my mother and my relations, but now you have had to fight 
with me !" He returned to his wife and called to her to come 
down. Then he told her how their friends had been killed, 
and she wept when she heard of it. 

After this Mampes went to his father's camp, which was 
in another place, and told him how his mother and his com- 
panions had been eaten by tigers. He lived there for about 
three months. One day he told two of his companions to 
make a swing, and, when it was made, he sat in it and swung. 

Now there were two women (whose husband— they were 
both married to the same man — was very clever, but pre- 
tended to be dumb. Now this " dumb" man, Tak Nin, ' 
was really also Mampes, for he had made a double of himself, 
but of different appearance. 

These three, Tak Nin and his two wives, Yak Lunggyait 
and Penantun, both of whom were halak, went to the jungle, 
Tak Nin taking with him a .bow. 

They came across a bear up a tree in the jungle and Yak 
Lunggyait took the bow, placed one end on the ground, strung 
it, and gave it to Tal into shoot. The bear 

was struck and crouched on the ground, and Yak Lunggyait 
said, "Nin deurk kawat) "! 2 " Run!" said Nin to his two 
wives. Then the bear died. 

216 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

They went back and stopped for two nights at their hut. 
After this they started out again, and met an elephant, and 
Tak Nin went by himself and shot at the elephant with his 
bow, wounding him. The elephant ran away, and, when he 
had run for about two miles, ' fell down dead. v So Tak Nin 
went home with his two wives and told his companions about 
the dead elephant. Next day about twenty of them started 
off for the place where the elephant was lying. When they 
arrived, Tak Nin cut open the elephant's head and took the 
tusks. Then they went home 

Now there was a younger brother-in-law ' of Tak Nin's. 
This man was a halak, his name was Pas, 8 and he was the 
ancestor of the Muntjac, for all animals were once men. Tak 
Nin told him to speak to his (Tak Nin's) mother-in-law. * and 
ask her what he should do with the ivory. So Pas ran off to 
Tak Nin's mother-in-law' s and arrived at night, when, on com- 
ing to the entrance of the camp, he stepped on two people 
who were sleeping there. These two moved to a sleeping 
bench, which broke under their weight and they were wounded 
in their backs by the supports of the bench. 

Then Pas went straight to his mother's hut, and said, 
if My elder brother has killed an elephant," telling her to go 
the next day. The mother-in-law told the father-in-law, and 
on the following day, he and Pas went to Tak Nin's hut. 

The father-in-law took the tusks home with him and 
kept them for ten days, until a thief, named Keh, came at 
night and stole them. On the next morning the father-in-law, 
Tak Kemis, went after the thief and met him on the path. 
Then Keh put down the tusks and ran away up some rocks, 
complaining. Tak Kemis shot him with his bow, and he 
died. This Keh 6 was the ancestor of the goat-antelopes. 

Tak Kemis went home with the ivory, but one night 
another thief climbed up upon the shelf,' while five others 
watched near Tak Kemis' s head. The five took the ivory 
and ran away, while the sixth jumped down from the shelf, 
he salt into the fire in doing so. Now the five got 
away safely, but the sixth, Chigchag, broke his thigh between 
two logs. Tak Kemis found him on the next day and 
killed him. 


Hie : 

in would be prohibited by Negrito custom from speaking t 
her himself. 

6 His followers became goat-antelopes (serows). The name Keh, I b< 

■1922.] I. H.N. Evans: Negrito Beliefs dud Customs. z\j 

Wild Pigs. 

The wild pigs were once Malays who used to change 
themselves into pigs and go off into the jungle. 

There were once two Kintak Bong men, brothers. The 
eldest was stupid, but the younger was a halak. They went 
to the jungle and came across some pigs, and the elder bro- 
ther shot at one of them with an arrow ' and hit it. Then the 
" pigs " ran away to their houses and became men again, and 
the man who had been hit complained of the pain to his wife. 

Now the younger brother went to the village and saw 
I he sickman. The elder brother followed him and called out 
in the village, "This is where my arrow is," but his younger 
brother told him not to say anything. Then the " pigs" 
came and fought with them. The elder brother went home, 
but the younger remained behind and treated the sick man 
till he was well. 

Then the younger brother went home and said to thi> 
elder brother, "Do not go to the village to-morrow, if you 
do, the "pigs " will fight, and you will die." The elder bro- 
ther paid no attention to what the younger said, and went to 
the village and asked for rice. 2 They gave him rice, and 
attacked him while he was eating it, and killed him. 

His younger brother did not know about this. The next 
morning he went to the village and found his elder brother's 
body lying there. He went and moved the body, and found 
that his brother was dead. Then he took the tail of a grass- 
lizard and thrust it into his elder brother's nostrils. Where- 
upon his brother sneezed, and came to life again. Then they 

When they got home, they stepped there for two days, 
and then the elder brother went fishing and caught some fish. 
He went back to his hut. and, when he arrived, his wife 
cooked rice for him. After he had eaten, and it had become 
dark, he set out again and did not return. His younger bro- 
ther went in search of him, but could not find him, so he 
went back, and remained at his hut for fifteen days. On the 
sixteenth day he again went in search of his elder brother, 
and found him at a water spirits' 3 camp. Then the younger 

I It is often said, with truth, that the bow is the original Negrito 

weapon and that the blow-pipe has been borrowed from the Sakai. Tr.e 

bow though known to the Negritos of Pera ;- now litti. . if at all, used 

by them, but is still a favourite weapon of the Negrito-Sakai of the hills of 

The Negritos of the Perak River Valley (Lanoh) use the blow- 

siderable extent, weapons generally being obtained from the 

to-Sakai, who Mn easily obtain the long noded bamboo (B. Wrayi) 

* The Kintak Bong are at the present day, haugers-ou at Malay vil- 
es. They continually beg for rice, and often avoid doing work in pay- 

218 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

brother slept there for the night, and saw that the people of 
the hut were of a different race from human beings. 

On the next day he tried to persuade his elder brother 
to come home, but he refused. So the elder brother stopped 
there, while the vounger returned. 

A Menik Kaien Legedn. 

Told by MempElam, Headman of the Kintak Bong. 

There was once a man, a halak, who had a sou who was 
also a halak. The son had a wife. One day the son went 
out to shoot with his blow pipe. His wife took a bakong- 
fruit and roasted it in the fire, intending to give it to her 
child, who was crying for food. The bakong l fruit exploded : 
— now to burn a bakong-huit in the fire is tabu, and, if any- 
one does so, a tiger will come and eat the offender when the 
fruit explodes. On the fruit exploding, the father-in-law be- 
came startled, began to shake, and turned into a tiger and 1 
ate up his daughter-in-law. 

When the son came home, he saw what is father had 
done, and the two fought together. The son was beaten, 
because the father became very tall during the fight, and 
though he, too, became very tall, he could not attain such a 
height as his father. Then the father said to the son that 
he (the son) could not fight with him (the father) any more, 
and that the hut should become a cave in a hill. So 
the hut became a cave, and is still to be seen near Batu 
Kurau. 3 

Now Tang-oug, the father of Tapern came to the cave 
and the two men,* now called Heneng Ai, b emerged from the 
cave up to their shoulders. Then Tang-ong asked what had 
happened and the father told him how he and his son had 
fought, and asked him to tell the Menik Kaien that they 
were to keep the sixteenth day of the month — the day on 
which thev had fought— as tabu, whenever they went near 
the hill. 

(The Menik Kaien according to Mempelam, claim Batu 
Kurau as being in their territory. Only the Menik Kaien 
dialect may be talked by Negritos when going near the hill.) 

i Probably Xusum anthelmicum. 

mat Rimau, i.e. the timer's hoh 
site in uji 7 ; ride Vol. IX, p. 3 4 
ivs that Mempelam is wrong and 

Note on the Identification of Negrito Words. 

As a large number of Negrito words occur in both my 
papers on the Ulu Selama Parish, I have made an attempt 
to identify them in the comparative vocabulary at the end 
of volume II of Pagan Races. A large proportion of 
these— given in the list below, together with reference let- 
ters and numbers— has been thus traced to identical, nearly 
allied, or probably related, forms, but a considerable number 
have not been thus identified ; of these most are to be found 
in the songs of the halak or in those of the " singing perform 
ance. " There is thus a possibility that some of them are 
words which are not in everyday use, since the Chinoi— who 
are said to use special words— speak through the halak, 
while, in the "singing performance," Chinoi were also sup- 
posed to be speaking, though, in this instance, I take it, 
there was no suggestion of possession by them. 

4g-«g,crow. C277. 

A 1, monk ta keatii). M 140. 

Awih, climbing plant. R 39. 

Bat, dig. D 107. 

Balak, ivory. H 126. 

Baleh, virgin. G 28, Y 40, W 131. 

Bekau, flower. F 187. 

BSring, fruit. F 281. 

Beteu, water. W 3. 

Beiud, long. L 130. 

Bleuk, thigh. T 60. 

Bum, we (=Malay Icawan, companion). R 36. (Lataik 
bum : rot an kawan). 

Chelchem, Chelchem. c.f. perhaps, kelyeng, inside. I 

Chan, stab. C 296 (cheg). 

Chibeh, sunrise. D 33 (chewe). 

Chintol, bud. B 446. Meaning given as " comb flower " 

in my first paper. 
Dadak, breast. B 3S0. 
Dakar, where. W 8r. 
Deh, this, it. T 86. 
Deng. see. S 75. 
Deurk, run. G 44. 
Eh, father. F 45. 
Ek, stomach. B i6r. 
Empak, dream. D 158. 
Ensol, ashamed. A 158, a. 
Gampil, mat. M 63. 
Gul, swamp. H 113. 
Ha, where, what. W 77. 
Halak, shaman. M 78. 
Heneng, hole. H 107. 

o Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [ 

Heriik, tail. T 3. 

Hilud, swallow, to. S 526. 

Huyak, rainbow snake. R 16. Skeat has my 

spelling "Hwiak." 
Ibeh, turn c.f. bit, habit. T 250. 
Jagal, giddy, c.f. ja-kui. H 46. 
Kawap, bear. B 103. 
Kawong, Argus pheasant. A 129. 
Kebeurk, fruit (=Malay fo'/Y a numeral eoefhcien 

to round objects such as fruit) : F 283. 
Kedhid, firefly. W 121. 
Kedong, rat. R 33. 

Kelingtek, earth, from under. H 12 (tefc). 
Kemoit, ghost. G 18. 
Keping, above. A 5. 
KYrf, root, bottom. P 515, A 118. 
Kijing, hear. H 60. 
/\.'.'.' ', lightning. I, 97. 
tf/rmg, hawk. E 4. 
Kom, frog. F 265. 
Kuie, head. H 46. 

Kuwangkweit, bird, species of. B 222. 
Lei, spin (turn). T 267, T 251. 
Magiseh, go round. T 257. 
Makab, seize. C 48. Wrongly given as " eat ' 

first paper. 
Maloh, what. W 77. 
Menang, thread. T 96 . 
Menik, Negrito. M 25. 
Mentis (blis), go down. D 33, F 12. 
Met ke'ok, sun. D 33. 

. stomach trouble. S 468. 
Mohr, nose. N 98. 

Ngabag, magical singing performance, to hold a 
Nteng, ear. E 6. 
Oi, I (?). c.f. I 3. 
Pas, muntjac. D 76. 
Penet, tired. T 149. 
Penig. durian, cultivated. D 188 
Pideh, call. C 9. 
Piseng, banana. P 49. 

Puyau, basket, c.f. puyu, pandanus. P 27. 
Sagwong, bird, species of. B 225. 
Sempak, durian, wild. D 189. 
Sog, hair. H 1. 
Suk, hair. H 1. 
Takob, tuber. Y 2. Given as hole (of nose) (?) 

first paper. 
Tanggoi, rambutan. R 22. 
Tapag, palm leaflets. R 178. 

2.] I. H. N. Evans : Xegrito Beliefs ** 

Teiok, tiger. T 130. 
Tekoh, afterwards. A 46. 
Tembun, come up, climb. C 116. 
Til-tol-tapah, a bird. D 181. It is 
pheasant as stated by Vaughan Stev< 
Un, that, there. T 51. 
Wai, open. O 44. 
Yak, grandmother. G 86. 
Yek, I. I 1. 
Yam. I. I I. 


Made by Tokeh. 
The stem of the Batu Herem. 3 


(Plates XVIII & XIX.) 

The commonest types of comb that I have collected from 
the Kintak Bong of the Ula Selama Parish of Perak are the 
six and the eight-pattern varieties. In both of these the kinds 
of patterns, their arrangement 1 with regard to one another, 
and their comparative sizes, are all regulated by tradition. 

Let us take first of all a six-pattern comb, such as fig. A 
in the illustration. The pattern of the first panel stands by 
itself, not being reproduced elsewhere on the comb. Pattern 
2, however, recurs again in panel 6, and pattern j, in panel 
,5. The fourth pattern— different from any of the others— is 
always much larger than the rest. Now it is in accordance 
with traditions that only a few kinds of patterns are allow- 
able in panel /, and the same is true for the similar panels 2, 
and 6 } j and j, as well as for panel 4. 

In the ordinary type of eight-pattern (or eight-panel) 
comb the arrangement is similar, except that two extra 
panels, containing the same patterns as panels 2 and 6 of the 
six-pattern comb {2 and S in the eight-pattern comb) are in- 
serted , one on either side of the largest panel — panel 4 in a 
six-pattern comb. We may, therefore, since it is understood 
that an eight-pattern comb is exactly the same as a six- 
pattern, except for the addition of the two extra panels, as 
remarked, leave this type and proceed to the detailed 
examination of the patterns which are to be found on six- 
panel combs 

The whole comb is called kenait, the panels papan* and 
the boundary lines between the patterns enem. In panel 4, 
according to my Kintak Bong informant, the following pat- 
terns are allowable: "crossing jackfruit shoots" {tenwug 
tangka), " cucumber flowers," " thighs of the Monitor-lizard" 
(bletik patiu), " young moon " (wong ' kichek), " breast of the 
red-breasted hill tortoise " (sob sueh) and hilik yawin (bracken 
leaves). Probably the commonest of these is tenwug nangka 

In panels 2 and 6 the commonest pattern is kebeurk padi 
(padi grains) though tapag salag (leaflets of the Salak*) is 
5 found, as also " gourd seeds," a pattern very similar 
s " but in which the diamonds, which are often 

• Pagan JRa, 

224 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX 

shorter and broader, have a dot in the centre of each. Leaf- 
monkey's teeth (yus ai) is the almost invariable pattern in 
panels j and 5, while panel / may have pisuas chinbeg (torn- 
open cabbage of the Bertam-palm ' ), gel talung (millipedes' 
waists), and sudak taduk (spikes of the Bayas-plam ' 2 ) or sudak 
manau (spikes of the Rotan Manau 3 ). A studv of comb? 
collected in the Ulu Selama Parish and now in the Perak 
Museum—ten specimens— gives the following results :— 
Nos. 1, 2, 3. Typical eight-panel combs. 
Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7. Typical six-panel combs 
No. 8. Typical six-panel comb except that panel 2 has 
the pattern which is called " cucumber seeds," while 
panel 6 has the ordinary ,c padi grains." These two 
divisions, therefore, do not "balance" one another. 
No. 9. Typical six-pattern comb with cucumber seeds 

in panels 2 and 6. 
No. 10. An eight-panel comb. Non-typical. Evidently 
the production of a prentice hand. Three panels 
blank, and patterns, which are merely rudely engraved, 
not of the usual type. 
A very noticeable feature of Negrito decorative art as 
applied to bamboo is that, whereas the Sakai merely scratches 
the skin of the bamboo to make patterns, afterwards colour- 
ing the scratches slightly with some brownish or blackish sub- 
stance, the Negrito, to obtain more outstanding effects, often 
removes parts of the light yellow skin of the bamboo and 
colours the underlying portions a rich brown. Some patterns 
produced in this way are to be found on nearly every bamboo 
article made by the Perak Negritos, and though many de- 
signs are merely made by scratching the skin of the bamboo, 
those in which the skin has been removed give Negrito bam- 
boo articles a very distinctive appearance. When this pro- 
cess is employed the yellow skin of the bamboo may either 
form a pattern which stands out against a dark brown back 
ground, or may provide a light background which shows up a 
dark pattern. A good example of the former type of orna- 
mentation is the pattern called "padi grains:" in this the 
yellow diamond-shaped grains are in strong contrast with the 
brown background. In the "monkey teeth " pattern, on the 
other hand, the brown pattern (teeth) contrasts with a yellow 

An examination of Negrito combs from other parts of 
North Perak— -the places from which we have examples arc 
Ijok (Selama Sub-District) and Lenggong and Grik in Upper 
Perak — would seem to show that the rules stated above are 
more or less observed in these places also, for, though there are 
examples which do not conform to type, it is to be noticed 

1922 J I. H. N. Evans : Examination of Negrito Combs. 225 

that these are v 
and, probably, 
adults. According to the evidence of Tokeh ' ' a M 
Negrito living at Ijok, the traditional Negrito comb pat- 
terns were obtained from Yak Tanggoi, 2 a deified Kintak 
Bong ancestress, who now resides in the sky with Tapern. 
She it was who first taught the Negritos to make combs and 
other personal ornaments and mothers still say to their girl 
children when they are inclined to consider themselves good- 
looking, and be conceited in consequence, " You need not 
think that you are as beautiful as Yak Tanggoi." 

I have found absolutely no evidence that engraved 
combs are regarded as talismans by the Negritos of Perak, 
though the patterns on the dart-quivers are thought to make 
the game tame, so that it may easily be shot by the hunters 
with their blow-pipes. Tokeh told me, in 192 1, that the 
Negritos decorated their quivers with such patterns as they 
dreamt would prevent game becoming frightened. 

Patterns in the Illustrations. 

(a) Torn-open cabbage of the Bertam-palm [pisuas 


(b) Padi grains (kebeurk padi). 

(c) Teeth of the lotong-monkey {yus ai). 

(d) Crossing shoots of the jackfruit (tenwug nangka). 

(e) Leaflets of the Salak-palm (tapag salag). 

(f) Thighs of the Monitor-lizard [bleuh patiu). 

(g) Millipedes' waists {gel talung) . 
(h) Cucumber flowers. \ 

(i! GourTse^s 1 """ f Names obtained in Malay only. 

(k) Birds' wings. ) 

With regard to these patterns, it will be noted that there 
is a great similarity between pisuas chinbeg {a) and the design 
which I have called " Bertam pattern." Pisuas chinbeg, 
according to my informant, means ' ' torn-open cabbage of the 
Bertam-palm," while the Malay name obtained for it was 
bunga bgrtam, 3 bunga meaning either ''flower" or " pat- 

With reference to g, the name given — "millipedes' 
waists " (gel talung)— is rather doubtful. 

The patterns / {bleuk patiu) in comb C and those {d) 
termed tenwug nangka in combs A and B, are almost identical, 
though in comb A there are four dots placed in the centre of 
the diamond formed by the crossing elements of the pattern. 

I Obtained in 1921. 

* Yak Tanggoi means" Grandmother Rambutau." 

3 From a Negrito of Grik, from whom the comb was bought. 

+ Compare these two patterns with that which I have queried. 

226 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 1922.] 

I believe that the elongated diamonds of comb A are less 
typical of tenwug nangka than the form found in comb B. 

It may be remarked here that the F.M.S. Museums 
possess no examples of Negrito combs from the Eastern 
States of the Peninsula, except two, in Taiping, from the 
Batek of the Cheka River, Pahang. These two specimens 
are. however, not at all typical of Negrito art. 






By Ivor H. N. Evans. 

(Plate XX.) 

In the collection of Anthropological Bssays Presented iu 
Edward Burnett Tylor in Honour of his y 5 th Birthday is to 
be found a very full and interesting paper on the fire-piston 
by Henry Balfour. He has demonstrated that this curious 
implement is known and put to practical use in the Shan 
States and Pegu, among the Khas and Mois, in the Malay 
Peninsula, in Western Sumatra, in Java (among the Sunda- 
nese and in the Kediri Residency), in Bali, Lombok, Sum- 
bawa, Flores, parts of Borneo, and also in Mindanao and 
Luzon. In Europe the fire-piston seems first to have been 
produced in the year 1802. 

The present paper is written with the object of describ- 
ing certain specimens in the Perak Museum, Taiping, to 
which Balfour referred, but of which he had no description. ' 
There are seven specimens in the Perak Museum, and the 
three of these have been added to the collections by myself 
since his paper appeared. 

The materials used in the construction of our fire-pis- 
tons are buffalo-horn, wood and tin. The cylinders of the 
implements are all of horn or tin, the pistons sometimes of 
wood. I have seen the fire-piston in use on several occa- 
sions among the " Patani " Malays, who have flocked into 
the north of Perak from Siamese Malaya during the last 
hundred years or so, and, provided that the instrument is in 
good condition and the tinder dry, can obtain fire with it 
myself in at least two out of three attempts made. A most 
important part of the instrument is the binding of rag, near 
the distal end of the piston J which acts as a washer, and 
prevents the escape of air. This must be so adjusted that it 
allows the piston to pass smoothly down the cylinder when 
the piston head is given a sharp blow with the palm of 
the hand, and must not be so tight that there is difficulty in 
withdrawing the piston fairly quickly, nor so loose that air 
can escape from within. In museum specimens this binding, 
which is treated with beeswax in order to facilitate its passage, 
is generally out of order. 

In making fire a little piece of tinder is pushed into the 
depression, or cavity, at the distal end of the piston, that 
part of the material which is contained in the depression 
being fairly closely packed- to prevent it falling out — but a 

228 Journal of the F.MS. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

poition which projects beyond the piston end being left 
rather loose in order that it may be easily kindled by the 
spark. When the piston is ready, its distal end is inserted 
in the cylinder : the cylinder is then grasped firmly in the 
left hand, and the piston driven home by a sharp blow on 
its proximal end, extracted smartly, and the tinder is found 
to be alight. A little experience of the instrument is neces- 
sary to get the best results, especially with regard to the 
al of the piston. This must be done quickly, but 
not roughly, or the spark will be extinguished. The follow- 
ing are descriptions of our specimens :— 

(i) Fire-piston (gobeh api) with tin cylinder and wooden 
piston. Rather clumsily made. Length of cy- 
linder 8'6 cms. ; length of piston io'I cms. From 
Larut, Perak. 
(ii) Fire-piston (gobek api) with cylinder and piston both 
of buffalo horn. Length of cylinder 7-6 cms. ; 
length of piston 9-9 cms. Made at Lenggong, 
Upper Perak, in 1917 for I. H. N. Evans by a 
Malay craftsman named Ismail, 
(iii) Well-made fire-piston (gobek api) with tin cylinder 
and wooden piston. Length of cylinder 9*5 
cms. ; length of piston 10-5 cms. Collected by 
L. Wray at Pulau Tiga, Lower Perak. Mu- 
seum number 2135/06. 
(iv) Fire syringe (gobek api) with horn cylinder and 
wooden piston. An old specimen. Length of 
cylinder y6 cms. ; length of piston 89 cms. 
Collected at Lenggong, Upper Perak, by I. H. N. 
Evans. Museum number 7/17. 
(v) Fire-piston (gobek api) with both cylinder and pis- 
ton of buffalo horn. A small pouch for tinder is 
attached by a cord to the lower end of the cylin- 
der. Length of cylinder 8' 8 cms. ; length of pis- 
ton ii'o cms. Lower Perak. 
(vi) Small fire-piston (cylinder and piston both of buffa- 
lo horn) with spatula and tinder-box attached 
to it. The tinder-box. which is made from a 
nut of some kind, and has a wooden stopper, is 
tied by a string to the base of the cylinder, 
while the spatula, a French nail with the point 
beaten out, is also attached to the same part of 
the instrument. The piston and the cylinder are 
connected by a cord. Length of cylinder 48 
cms.; length of piston 5-5 cms. ''Patani. " 
Collected by G. F. Bozzolo. 
(vii) Fire- piston (gobek api) with cylinder of buffalo 
horn and piston of wood. The specimen is re- 
markable for an upturned spike proceeding from 
its base. This, when the instrument is held 

'OR H. N. Evans : The Malay Fire-Pistons. 229 

ready for use, comes up behind the fingers of the 
left hand. The top of the piston has a small 
hole in it, probably for containing tinder. 
Length of cylinder 8-4 cms. ; length of piston 
8-4 cms. Collected at Kampong Perak, Batu 
Kurau, Perak, by I. H. N. Evans in 1918. 
Museum number 61/18. 



Part II. -Miscellaneous. 

Bab mSmanggil roh. 
Hai wadi madzi, wani, manikam ! 
Aku tahulusal tn-kau kUuar 
Dari-pada lambong kiri Adam. 

KUuar-lah Ingkau datang ka-pada aku ! 
1/ ■■■■■ <>.li yang put eh . 

Jikalau Ingkau tiada kUuar, 
Durhah i-lih tngkau dari-pada Allah! 

7 uhammad! 
Btrkat, "La ilaha ilia 'llah, Muhammad Has 

Aku 'nak kattip hati yang duka ; 
Aku 'nak buka hati yang kaseh, 
Kaseh tundok ka-pada aku ! 
Ho elements of the seed of man ! 
I know the origin whence ye sprang ! 
From the left side of Adam. 
Soul of m3 r beloved ! 
Come forth and come to me ! 
Let me place thee beneath a heart 
That loves thee truly, 
If thou comest not, 
Then art thou traitor to God ! 
Then art thou traitor to Muhammad ! 
By virtue of the invocation, " There is no Goc 

Allah and Muhammad is His Prophet." 
I would close the gates of thy heart to sorrow ! 
I would open the gates of thy heart to love, 
Love that bows down to me ! 
Sa-bagai lagi. 

Jikalau tngkau tiada tengok aku, 
PcchaJi mat a ingkau ! 
Sah sidi pSngajaran guru aku ! 
Bofkat, <; La ilaha," etc. 

\ Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Voi,. IX, 

With the image in the pupil of my own ! 

If thou lookest not upon me, 

May thy eyeballs burst ! 

May the teaching of my master prevail 

By virtue of the charm, " There is no God," etc. 

(3) Sa-bagal lagi. 

Hai anak ay am ! 

Endui-tndui ! 

Mart kau-bam tUagu aku / 

Aku dudok bagai bintang chahaya ! 

Aku bSrjalan, tngkau mtmandang chahaya aku! 

Ong s'&ri manis! (?) Tang kudi 1 manis / 


Chick, my pet! 

Come drink at this well of mine ! 

I sit waiting like a shining star. 

When I walk, behold my splendour ! 

Om ! may all men behold my sweet grace. 

( 4 ) Bab pSmanis. 

Hat ayer si-r&ndam kacha ! 

Aku 'nak basoh bintang blrchahaya ! 

Chahaya Allah, chahaya Muhammad, chahaya bag-in- 
da Rasidu' llah ! 

Aku "nak cha}' ax a k£rau,< uiuka aku, 

Saperti bulan plnoh purnama Impat Mlas 

Mlmandang muka aku / 

Tundok kaseh ka-pada aku! 

Jangan sa-tara manusia dua kafu, 

Gajah hnpal kaki sa-bfrang laid 

Chari tundok ka-pada aku! 

Btrkat doa, fl La ilaha," etc. 
A charm for beauty. 

Water clear as glass ! 

I'd bathe in the brightness of a star, 

The brightness of God, the brightness of Muham- 
mad, Apostle of God ! 

I ask for brightness for my countenance, 

The brightness of the full moon of the fourteenth 

For all that look upon me. 

Let not only men that walk on legs twain ! 

Let the four-footed elephant from over the sea 

Come and bow down for love of me, 

By virtue of the invocation, "There is no God," 

I have discovered no 

2.] R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 23; 

(5) An erotic charm. 

Um chang chang ! 

Si-dang Wsi ! 

Anak h. ■ aalam ! 

Mfnjadikan btsi siang dan ma/am .' 

Kahar aku kahar iCllah ! 

Kahar aku insha 'Hah ! 

Ah kahar aku ! 

(6) Another. 

Um chang chang ! 
Ayer lior pun btsi .' 
Bulu ruma pun blsi ! 
Kulit pun Msi ! 
Darah pun btsi! 
Urat pun btsi ! 
Hat bisi tlrjalli .' 

ul back : — it lives in the belly 

Nang SSri Tani ' alam ! 
BSrusong mart ka-pada aku ! 
BSrdokong bSrkilck nhiri k.i-pada aku ! 
Di-matahari naik , 
in jatoh, 
Mari ka-pada aku! 
Di-hulu, di-hilir 
Mari ka-pada aku .' 
Di-laut di-darat 
Mari ka-pada aku ! 
Mari shnangat ayah ! 
Mari ka-pada ayah ! 
Mari burong ayah ! 
Mari ka-pada ayah 
J angan-jangan mu-klchil hati ! 
J angan-jangan mu-ke'chil rasa ! 
Hai may a ! 
Aku tahu asal Sngkau. 

•-lambong buang, 
Maya ku-balang buang. 
Ong {?) chit! 
Fa yalcun! Fa yakun! 
My child ! 

Come I provide a litter for thee ! 
Come I carry thee in my arms, under my arm ! 
Where the sun sets, 
Where the sun rises, 

Journal of the F. M.S. Museun 

Upstream and down, by sea and la 
Come unto me ! 
Come my soul to thy sire ! 
Come my birdling to thy sire ! 
Be not hurt in heart or feelings. 
Unsubstantial spirit 
I know thy origin ! 
Spirit I toss and throw ! 
Spirit I hurl and throw ! 
So be it ! So be it ! Om ! 
A charm to restore to health. 
Pulch Allah! Puleh Muhammad 
Puleh baginda Rasttlu 'llah! 
Bukan aku impunya puleh! 
Allah impunya puleh ! 
Bukan aku impunya puleh ! 
Nabi Muhammad impunya puleh ! 
Bukan aku impunya puleh ! 
Pawang Tua impunya puleh 
Bukan aku Impunya puleh! 
Pawang M.uda impunya puleh! 

Hakimu 1-hnkama impunya puleh £ 

Puleh di-otak y puleh di-tulang 

Puleh di-daging, puleh di-kulid. 

Om ! puleh ! Ah! puleh 

It is God restores to health, 

It is Muhammad, His Apostle, 

It is not I. 

It is an ancient magician, 

It is a young magician, 

But the preeminent among physician-. 
Restored to health are brains and bones, 
Restored to health are flesh and skin ! 

(9) Hai si-Kumari Mahadewi ! 
Rilang kaki siku tangan 
Dudok ingkan di-awan ^basang-basangr di-kiyang- 

Aku tilek tlrus tujoh pitala langit! 
Aku tilek tirus tujoh pitala burnt ! 
Turun-lah ingkau di-manjapada ! 
Turvm-lah buangkan giroh chilaka ftialang ! 
Bukan aku yang mimbuangkan 
fSemak sidi, semak kateleh, semak balongf 
Allah yang mimbuangkan. 
Bukan aku milipaskan ! 

O. WlXSTEDT : Malay ( harms 


sidif mtftpaskan dari-pada 

tuboh badan 

f yang sakit int. 
ioa, " La Uaha" etc. 

y a romanized version of this c 

harm and the 

by f are corrupt or at least 


Blrkat doa , 
(I have only 
words indicated 
The general meaning is clear.) 

Great virgin goddess Mahadewi ! 

Wearing anklets, armlets and bracelets ! 

Thou who sittest in the clouds of heaven ! 

I see clean through the seven layers of the sky ! 

I see clean through the seven layers of the earth ! 

Do thou descend to this world ! 

Descend and dispel evil luck and disaster ! 

It is not I but Allah 

Who dispels sickness from the body of this person 

By virtue of the invocation, " There is no God but 

Allah," etc. 
(10) t Untaja pati cha uda udi 

Ay oh ayang sayang s.inggara 

Batak Awang! Batak Awing! f 

Apa gUap gtltmat hit j an ? 

Salah musim ribut? Salah kutika ? 

Sang Baning Naning mlrtekkan tidor dan awetan. 

TSrgunchang shurga ! tSrbuka pintulawang ! 

if Sang Kaki, Sang Gantang, Sang Sifat, t 

Bapa Ratu, ibn Sun ! 

Bukan aku mlttpaskan bala pustaka! 

Sangf Kaki, Sang-f Gantang f mSlSpaskan bolt 
pustaka ! 

Bukan aku mlUpaskan bala pustaka ! 

Sang-f Kaki f BUara Guru mUlpaskan bala pustaka. 

Bukan aku mlUpaskan bala pustaka ! 

Dewa kSyangan mlltpaskan bala pustaka ! 

Bukan aku mlUpaskan bala pustaka / 

Dewa kUu \ pustaka f 

Bukan aku mS/tpaskan bala pustaka/ 

Dewa k&sa pustaka ! 

Hai anak BUara Kala ! chichit bota Shiga Gana ! 

Turun mlUpaskan bala pustaka ! 

Turun m jinl 

Turun mi 1 manusia ! 

Hai anak BUara Kala! chichit bota Singa Gana! 

Turun ka-dui c Cuiadi in iin dan shaitan dua- 
bUas bangsa 

Mmpaskau /,rt\. ruslo.ka clidaka malang ! 

MlUpaskan ka-pada bulan ini, 

Mmpaskau ka-pada hari ini, 

MUfyaskan ka-pada rumah tangga dan slgala anak 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

Mllipaskan dlngan aku ! 

Hai si-ogok-ogok ! si-egek-egek ! 

Parang Bisnu di-muka aku. 

Hai Jin, si Raja Jin ! 

Jin Sun! Jm Sen! 

Jin nan mlgang tanah ayer ! 

Jin nan mlmangku bumi! 

Pulang-lah Ingkau ka-pada tlmpat Ingkau 

Di-pusat tasek Ming runtoh, 

Di sana-lah temp at Ingkau! 

Jikalau datang dari-pada gunong, pulanz ka-gnnong! 

Dari bukit, pulang ka-bukit ! 

Dari padang pulang ka-padang ! 

Dan rimba, pulang ka-rimba ! 

Jangan Ingkau masok tapak guru aku ! 

Jikalau Ingkau masok tapak guru aku, 

Aku sumpah Ingkau dlngan pirkataan Nabi Allah 

Aku sumpah Ingkau dlngan pirkataan, "La ilaha 
ilia 'llah, Mn jui • -J Rusitlit J llah." 

Nyah ! pindah-luh Ingkau 

Dlngan blrkat doa Nabi Allah Sulaiman, 

" Allahu hak!" 
A charm to "Dispel ill-luck. 

(The first three lines are unintelligible and the names 
of some of the deities doubtful I omit them in transla- 

What is this darkness and rain ? 

Heaven is shaken and its gates open. 

It is not I that get rid of the evils of black magic, 

It is Betara Guru; it is the gods of heaven, 

It is the seven gods, the gods with supernatural 

Son of Betara Kala, grandson of Ganesha 
Descend and dispel the evils of black magic, 
The evil wrought by genies and mortals, 
Descend to earth and create twelve races of genie 

and devil ! 
Dispel the evils of black magic, all hazard and ill- 
luck ! 
Dispel them this year, this month, this day! 
Dispel them from the homes of all the sons of 

Dispel them along with me ! 
The sword of Vishnu is before my face. 
King of genies, Genie Sun and genie Sen! 
Genies in whose keeping is earth and water ! 
Genies in whose laps is the world ! 
Return ye to your place, the broken rock at the 
navel of the seas ! 

R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 237 

There is your place. 

Genies of the mountains, return to the mountains! 

Genies of the hills, return to the hills ! 

Genies of the plains, return to the plains ! 

Genies of the forest, return to the forests ! 

Enter not the line drawn by my teacher ! 

If ye enter, I will curse ye with the words of the 

Prophet Solomon ; 

I will curse ye with the creed, " There is no God 

but Allah and Muhammad is his Prophet." 
Get ye hence in virtue of the words of the Prophet 

) Plnglri gajah jantan 
Bismi 'llahi r-Rahmani-r-Rahimi ' 
Sinar mhicMrang akan muka-ku ! 
Bintang timor akan mata-ku! 
Gajah jantan akan badan-ku ! 
Harimau buas akan sandar-ku ! 
Buaya ganas k&dudokan-ku ! 
Blrkat aku mlmakai plngtri gajah jantan. 
Sah sidi plngajaran guru ! 
Sah sidi mustajab ka-pada aku ! 
Bhkat, "La ilaha ," etc. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

My countenance is the light of breaking day ! 

My eyes are the star of dawn ! 

My body is as that of a male elephant ! 

My prop is a fierce tiger ! 

My seat is a ravening crocodile ! 

By virtue of the use of this charm ! 

May the teaching of my master prevail, 

Prevail and be efficacious unto me 

By virtue of the words, •* There is no God," etc. 
(12) Phnbachaan sUiseh mar a. 

Bismi ;<uhim> .' 

Hat sakalian yang blmyawa ! 

Ulnyllisehkan Ingkau di-kiri dan di-kanan-ku ! 

Aku si-raja nyawa hlndak lalu ! 

Allah pun lalu dan Muhammad pun lalu ; 

Aku pun lalu. 
A charm to avoid danger. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 
ate ! 

Ho all ye living things 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol.. IX, 

Get ye right and left out of my path ! 

I the prince of life would pass. 

Allah passes by, Muhammad passes by, 

(13) Hai htbok hahav ! pSndekar ' alam ! 
Aku kata kiri, kivi-lah ingkau ! 
Aku kata kanan, kanan-lah engkau ! 
Ho guns and cannons ! 

If I say left, let your shots pass to the left ! 
If I say right, let your shots pass to the right ! 

(14) Bukan aku jijak atas bumi ! 

Aku pijak di-atas batu kipala sakalian yang 

minyawa ! 
Aku pakaichucka Jibrail! 
Aku pakai chucha Mikail ! 
Aku pakai chucha Israfil / 
Aku pakai chucha Azrail ! 
Aku pakai chucha baginda Ali ! 
Aku pakai chucha dzatu llah ! 
A charm to weaken a rival in fight. 

It is not on the earth that I tread ! 

I tread on the heads of all living things ! 

I use a charm to bow down a rival, 

The charm of the Four Archangels, 

The charm of Ali, 

A charm derived from Allah. 

(15) Bisnii ' llahi-r-Rahm.ini-) -Rahimi ! 
Hai harimau .' Aku tahit asal ingkau! 
Katak pura tmal Hn-kau, harimau ! 
Di-pada \rimau I 

A charm against tigers, to be recited thrice. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

Ho tiger ! I know your origin. 

Your mother, tiger, was a toad : 

On the plains of Syria you were begotten. 

(16) Hai kid hu songsang ! 
Songsang langit, songsang bumi ! 
Jin pidan* ka-jin ! 

Shaitan pulang ka-shaitan ! 
PSrbuatan orang pulang ka-pada orang I 
Hai jin Mramat ! jin kSsakti ! 
Di-pusat tasek pauh ng runtoh, 

Di-sana-lah tgmpat ingkau ! 
Jangan ingkau masok tapak guru aku! 
Jikalau ingkau masok tapak guru aku. 
Ku-sumpah engkau dingan kata, Ci La ilaha ilia 'Hal 
Muhammad Rasulu 'Hah." 

R. O. Winstedt: Malay Charms, 

Oml tawarl Sakalian ku-tawar 1 

Yahit Sulaiman iuiiahu, ' Bis m ' llah ' / 
Ho I borrow the words of the Koran 
To turn earth and heaven upside down ! 
Genies and devils return to your kind ! 
Evil wrought by mortals return to them ! 
Genies of supernatural power ! 
Your home is at the navel of the sea ! 
By the tree on the broken rock ! 
Enter not the lines drawn by my teacher ! 
Else will I curse ye with the words, " There v. 
God but Allah and Muhammad is His Apostle 
Om ! I neutralize all evil ! 
Oh ! Solomon in the name of God. 
I Bismi ' llahi-r-Rahmam-r-Rahimi 1 
Hai mi ibni jan! anak sidang Firaunf 
Engkau kn-chucha ka-pada asal mula mu jadi ! 
A ku tahu asal-mu ml !;/ jadi 

Dari-fiada lidah api nuraka asal mula mtnjadi ! 
1-m:uI tmnui ptnghuht mu ' 

Asal mala ln«kau jadi dari-pada dzuriat shaitan ! 
• ; ■ ;' inaiii manikai 

Ujud-ku ujudu'Uah! 
Si fat-kit sifatullahf 
Kata-kukata Allah! 
Jaiioau tngkau mtlalui kata-ku / 
Jangan higkau mZnglloh-ngtloli ! 
I 'ui^au ri\\\':i durhaka ka-pada aku ! 
Engkau di-kutoki Allah ! 
[ansan tugkau mtlalui kata-ku! 
Engkau di-binasakan Allah. 
Jangan gngkan mtlalui sumpa/i-ku .' 
Jikalan Zngkuu mtlalui sumkah-ku, 
Engkau di-murkai Allah ! 
Aku. I ah yang r uhammad / 

Btrkat doa, " La ilaha," etc. 

rm to ovei 

come a genie. 

In the nc 

ime of God the Merciful, the Compa 

Genie descended from Jann! sou of Pharoah 

I overcon 

ie thee by knowledge of thy origin, 

Thy origi, 

n from a tongue of hell-fire ! 

the name of thy chief. 

Thou wer 

e born from the children of devils. 

I was bor 

n from seed 

Of the substance and form of God. 

My words 

\ are God's words. 

Sigh not 1 

nor disobey my words ! 

Commit r 

lot treachery towards me ! 

2 4 o Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX 

Else thou shalt be cursed of God. 
If thou disobeyest my words, 
Thou shalt be destroyed of God. 
If thou disobeyest my curse, 
Thou shalt suffer the wrath of God. 
I am he that is called the bezoar-stone of the Pro- 
phet ! 
By virtue of the invocation, : There is no God," 
(18) Bismi Hlaln ' r-Ra ., i v-Rahimi! 
Hal tUong tawar / tlpong jati ! 
Tlpong asal mula mtnjadi ! 
Btrkat tawar chintamani klkaseh Allah 
SMang mhnagut tiada blsa, 
SMang mUilit tiada layu, 
Tulang iiitnjadi unit, urat tawar , 
Akan plnawar sakalian vang bisa ! 
Akan phiawar sakalian hantu shaitan ! 
Tawar sa-ratus slmhilan puloh ! 
Tawar sa-ribu sfmbilan-puloh ! 

Tawar Allah! tawar Muhammad/ tawar Baginda 
Rasulu Hlah ! 
A charm to be recited at all ceremonies where neutral- 
izing rice-paste is used. 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassion- 

Ho magic primal rice-paste ! 
By virtue of the wish-snake beloved of God 
Bites have no venom, 
Coiling embraces no power to kill ; 
Bones become sinews 
To charm away all venom ! 
To charm away all ghosts and devils ! 
Charms one hundred and ninety ! 
Charms one thousand and ninety ! 
Charms from God and Muhammad His Apostle ! 
(19) Hai tlpong tawar ! tSpong jati I 
Ttpong asal mula mSnjadi ! 
Turun dari hadzrat-u 'Hah 
Turun dari Imbun sa-titek ! 
Aku tahu asal mula mSnjadi 
Dari-pada ayer , aver maa'l-hayat. 
Bukan aku yang mtnawar ! 
Rasulu Hlah yang mSnawar ! 
Bukan a) m tawar ! 

Jibrail, 1 m tawar ! 

Tawar Allah sakalian pelak bahadi ! 
Tawar jlmalang puaka ! 
Tawar %a ahan Ini ' 

R. O. Wixstee 

Taicar Jari-pada kaabatu ' llah , 

Ta«ar d? m btrkat Muha ? R sulu'llah/ 

Btrkat chahava nur Allah gilang-glmilang, 

Tawar dtngan htrk ■. Izal Muhammad 

Btrkat biglnda Rasulu 'llah ! 

Tawar dtngan ha/a, " La llaha Ilia' llah,''' 

Siah-lah s <V <lian halt st/tru hah/a Jiaitan ! 

Aku laung dtngan kata, " ya hu va man hua'l/ahu' 

Primal rice-paste cool and cleansing, 

That came clown from Allah's presence, 

From a drop of dew descended ! 

From the water whence eternal 

Life comes— that your source of being ! 

'T is not I who'd cleanse and charm ! 

|T is the Apostle of God. 

"Tis not I who keep your magic qualities, 

It is the four Archangels. 
. I use God's charm against all spirits, 

Spirits that haunt persons and earth and places, 

Against all ghosts and devils in this region. 

Om! great is your virtue ! [cleanse, 

The brightness of the Prophet brings to charm to 

A charm that came from the sacred place at Mekka, 

A charm that works by the grace of Muhammad ! 

That works by the grace of the shining brightness 
of Allah ! 

That works by virtue of the Prophet's person ! 

By virtue of the creed, " There is no God but Allah." 

Hence all evils, all foes, all ghosts and devils 

For I say unto, " Thee who art the true God." 
20) Bistrn ' Rahimi ! 

Ku-mulai dtngan nama Allah. 

Bukan dtngan kuasa aku ! 

Dtngan kuasa Allah ! 

Bukan dtngan ihtndak aku ! 

Dtngan kthtndak Allah ! 

EngJcau pun sa-orang hamba Allah ! 

Aku pun sa-orang hamba Allah ! 

Masing-masing mtnchari rtztki kita ! 

Jangan-lah kita btrsakit-sakit hati ! 

Jika bar an g kthtndak-mu, 

Ptrgi-lah tngkau mUngadap ka-hadzrat Allah taala ! 

Aku-lah '.Znangaon? a, - d Ml ah taala, 

Btrkat J "La llah," etc. 
\ charm on opening ground.) [ate ! 

In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassion- 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. 15 

I begin with the name of Allah. 

It is not my power or my will that is fulfilled ; 

It is the power and will of Allah ! 

You and I are Allah's servants, 

Each seeking his daily bread ! 

Let us not be offended one with the other ! 

If there is any desire of your heart, 

Go into the presence of God most high. 

I carry out the will of God, 

By virtue of the creed, " There is no God," etc. 

(21) Bismi Ulahi-r-Rahmam-r-Rahimi ! 
A's-salam alaikum ! Hai jin hitmi gtntar ' alam ! 
Aku firman Allah taa'.a minia tanah ini ! 

Jika engkai mluihcn h un, datang pad a aku ! 
Jika bSnar pun, datang-lah pada aku .' 
Jikalau £/<; 'pada aku. 

Engkau di-hanchorkan Allah/ 
Aku-lah raja insan ! 
Btrkat, "Lailakah," etc. 
(An address to the earth-spirit on cutting soil for ric 
3s or homestead.) 

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassio 

Greetings unto you, genie of the earth, shaker 

the world ! 
I have God's mandate to ask for this soil ! 
Whether you grant my prayer or refuse, 
Come unto me or be destroyed of God. 
I am prince of mortals, 
By virtue of the creed, fi There is no God," etc. 

(22) Hai chintamani , bayang Allah! 
Kaseh ka-aku f Tundok ka-aku ! 
Aku tar oh di-dalam t aituvi sarilanff 
Yang ktchil mlnjadi btsar ! 

Yang tua mhijadi muda ! 
Yang miskin mSnjadi kaya ! 
Afa'alak! Y a Allah f 
Blrkal lamani 

Rlzlki tiada bSrputusan ; 
Gajah puteh sa-blrang laut 
Datang hantar rlz&hi ka-pada aku. 
Tujoh kali sa-hari, 
Tujoh kali sa-malam. 
Pinang sa-biji ku-makan, 
Ttlor sa-biji ku-kulum. 
Bayang ini bayang Allah ! 
Bayang ini bayang Muhammad ! 
Bayang ini di-kaseh Allah ! 
Dlngan blrkat, " La ilaha," etc. 

2.] R. O. Winstedt : Malay Charms. 243 

(A charm for drought or famine.) 
Wish-snake, shadow of Allah ! 
Love and bow down to me. 

The small grows large, the old young, the poor rich ! 
By thy doing, O God ! 
In virtue of my use of this charm 
Food cannot fail : 

The white elephant from over the sea 
Comes and brings me food 
Seven times a day, seven times a night. 
I eat a betel- nut : I suck an egg. 
This shadow is the shadow of God and of His 

This shadow is loved of God, 
In virtue of the creed, " There is no God," etc. 
(23) Hai/akutahuasalSngkau/ 

Jin janoiiQ, di-daun bakait tiga lai, 

Sa-lai ka-udara jadi fin hifau. 

Sa-lai di-pintu ri>n ! >a /</ ii jin hitam, 

Sa-lai di-laut jadi fin puteh. 

Hai fin di-tani>mg .' />/;/<<//- tngkait ka-tanfong ! 

Hai fin di-Mok ! pulang Zngkau ka-tllok ! 

Hai fin di-htting ! Pulang tngkau ka-bUing ! 

Hai fin d\A .<> -s ' pa/ai » £n°kau ka-harus ! 

Hai fin di-sungai ! pulang Sngkau ka-sungai ! 

Hai fin, ftmalang ! undor^ldh tngkau. 

Jangan '■ inan kami, 

Klrana ka n raavat Nabi 

Allah Sulaiman. 
Bukan aku yang m&ndirikan! 
Pawang tua yang mSndirikan ! 
Bukan aku yang mtndirikan ! 
Pawau, lirikanl 

Dhigan bSrkat, " La ilaha," etc. 
(Recited by pawang trapping birds, fishing and so on.) 
I know the source of you, genies ! 
From three mangrove leaves ye were sprung. 
One soared to earth and became the green genie ! 
One fell at the gate of the forest and became the 

black genie ! 
One fell in the sea and became the white genie ! 
Genies of the foreland get ye home to your foreland ! 
Genies of the bays, and of the banks ! 
Genies of the currents and of the rivers ! 
Get ye home, each to your place. 

Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol XI, 1922.] 

In virtue of the words, ''There is no God," etc. 
(24) A's-salam alaikum 

Hai f Phra sangsang f , raja di-biimi ! 

t Siu-siu f raja di-kulit burnt ! 

Raja di-langit, raja di-udara ! 

Aku tahit asal Sngkau. 

Tatkala pSchah Wuhan, 

Darah sa-titek jatoh ka-bumi 

MSnjadikau jin tana/i, jSmalang burnt 

Aku panggil Sngkau datang dlngan stglra 

Kircnh aiman. 

Mari-lah Sngkau dtngan sSgSra 

Mart ambil ■plrjamuan Sngkau 

KSrana aku minta tolong Sngkau, 

Boleh Sngkau datang dtngan sSgSra. 

Jikalau Sngkau la' datang, 

Aku sump titah Nabi Allah Sulai- 

(At opening a ma 'yong shed.) 

Greeting be unto you, 

fPhra Sangsang f prince of the earth ! 

f Siu-siu t prince of the crust of the earth, 

Prince of the sky, prince of the air ! 

I know the source whence you sprang 

When birth was beginning, 

A drop of blood fell to earth 

Creating genies of the earth, gnomes of the soil. 

I call you to come with speed 

Because the Prophet Solomon commands ye. 

Come with speed ! Come take my offering ! 

Come with speed ! For I ask your help. 

If you come not, I will curse you by commanc 
the Prophet Solomon. 
(25) Hai tSmbakau tSkoneng-koneng ! 

Mart aku tanam di-atas pongsu 

Kulit mSnjadi tulang, 

Tulang mSnjadi bain, 

Jadi kSbal aku 

DSngan kata, ' f La ilaha," etc. 

(A charm for invulnerability. One puts the tobacco 
s mouth.) 

Ho tobacco (?) 

I plant you on an anthill. 

Skin becomes bone, bone stone, 

I become invulnerable, resilient, 

By virtue of the words, " There is no God," etc. 


By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 
(A) Notes on Malay Beliefs and Customs. 

(i) Sheet lightning is called kilat gajah (elephant light- 
ning), as it is thought that when it is seen, elephants are 
ing through the distant jungle. (Malays of Batu 
Kurau Perak, and also those of Pekan, Pahang.) 

(ii) If hornets build a nest on a house, it is a sign that 
the occupants are about to leave it (Malays of Batu Kurau, 

(iii) A riddle from Pekan :— 

Ia, ia, tUapi bukan ia, tllapi ia mati Mr ana ia. 

The answer to this is an artificial spinning-bait {kachau) 
which is often made in the shape of a fish, the material 
generally being mother-of-pearl. A rough translation of the 
riddk- is :— " It's it, but not it, but they die because of it " 
(i.e. It's a fish, but not a fish, but they die because of it). 

(iv) A rain charm. — This is recited by children of 
Pekan, Pahang, when a storm appears to be approaching, 
the object being to drive away the threatening rain. Very 
probably the formula may have once been used by grown-ups 

Sana htpa *hala itek : 

Sana bahagi tuang ; sini jangan sa' titek. 

There the head of a bear ; here the head of a duck. 

Let it pour there ; but don't let's have a drop here. 

(v) The people of Matang Pasir, Linggi, whom they go 
to gather cockles {siput k&rang) will not go ashore from their 
boats at Kuala Linggi, on their way home, as they say that, 
when they do so the Kuala Linggi Malays always tell them in 
fun that some one has died, and, in consequence of this, all 
their cockles die and become unsaleable. (From a Malax of 
Matang Pasir, Linggi, Negri Sembilan.) 

(vi) The custom of burning evil-smelling rubbish of a parti- 
cular kind in order to drive away spirits is very common 
among the Malays. Raja Mutlak of Kuala Langat, Selangor 
tells me that the substances burnt are deserted birds' nests, 
rubbish from cross-roads, cobwebs and rubbish hanging from 
the floors of deserted houses. These should be burnt in an 
old wooden gantang measure which has been handed down 
for several generations (gantang pisaka). The various kinds 
of rubbish used are called rabun, but rabun also means dim- 
eyed or short-sighted. The idea seems to be that the magical 

246 Journal of the F.MS. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

objects which are burnt prevent the spirits from seeing their 
prey clearly. Different kinds of rabun are used for different 

(vii) The Linggi Malays when making vows at the 
Keramat Sungei Udang, a holy place which is much resorted 
to, have a peculiar method of divining whether their requests 
will be granted. A man takes a small stick and measures off 
a span on it with the thumb and the middle ringer of the 
right hand. The span length he cuts off, and, having done 
so, holds it in the smoke of the incense which he burns while 
making his vow. He then re- measures the stick, and, if it 
appears to be more than a span long he believes that his 
petition will be favourably heard. 

(viii) A butterflv entering a house denotes the forthcom- 
ing arrival of a visitor. (From a Malay of Parit Buntar, 


(A Malay folk-tale.) 

(I took clown the following little story— very quaint 
when told in Malay, hut most difficult to' translate into 
English— from Pandak Leman of Kampong Perak, in the 
Batu Kurau irukim of Larut, in December, 19 17, I have 
tried to follow the Malay as closely as possible, and to 
preserve the jerky method of narration, which is intended to 
represent the flight of Awang Durahman's thoughts.) 

Awang Durahman was sitting one day in a tumble-down 
hut in the rice-fields, while his mother was weeding among 
the young crop. He took two cents from his mother's sireh- 
ad, as he held them in his hand : he said to himself, 
" With this money I'll bay two eggs, one a male, the other 
a female. After a time what a lot of fowls ibere'li be- thou- 
sands ! These fowls too many ! If so, sell these fowls. Buv 
ducks. Make a big pond ; place for ducks to play. Ducks 
also many. ' Pak' ' up-stream, ' Pak ' down-stream"! f Whose 
ducks a re these?' * The ducks of Awan- Durahm in!' Ducks 
eat people's paddy. Sell the ducks ; buy goats. Many goats 
go and eat people's crops. Very much trouble! 'Whose 
goats are these ?' 'The goats of Awang Durahman!' Sell 
goats; buy oxen. Oxen not a few. ' Boh ' * up-stream, 
' Boh ' down-stream ! ' Whose oxen are these ?' ' The oxen 
of Awang Durahman!' Sell oxen; buy manv buffaloes. Milk 
them. That old woman 3 drinks lots ot milk; eats lots of 
curds. ' Whose buffaloes are these ?' 'The buffaloes of Awang 
Durahman!' Sell buffaloes; buy elephants. Elephants 
'Ruh ' * up-stream, ' Ruh' down-stream ! Get into people's 


I tell mother to load it with .lolhirs and bring it to the 
Raja's house, asking the hand of his daughter. Raja gives 
it. Raja builds a house for the marriage. When I have 
married, I sit in the balei.' 1 Play chess. Princess comes. 
' Come my lord and eat rice.' I don't want to. I give 
checkmate. 3 She comes again. She wears anklets, ch£roin; 
c/rfrin°.* ' Come my lord and eat rice.' I don't want to. 
I give checkmate. 6 She catches my hand. Digs me in the 
ribs. Dig her in the ribs." Ckokok, chokok, chokok, ckokoh, 
chokok, chokok /" 

And as Awang Durahman dug himself in the ribs, first on 
one side, and then on the other, wriggling the while, the 
posts of the hut gave way, and he came to the ground cut- 
ting his legs on a tree-stump. " What's the matter with you, 
Awang Durahman?" said his mother ' The Raja's daugh- 
ter dug me in the ribs," answered Awang Durahman. 
" Where's the Raja's daughter ? " asked his mother. " Oh, 
I was only thinking about her!" replied Awang Durahman. 

(C) Some Notes on Aborigines of Negri Sembilan. 
While engaged in making excavations at the stone 
monuments at Pengkalan Kempas in Negri Sembilan, I met 
some of the aboriginal inhabitants of the neighbourhood— 
-^ Hesisi— and paid their settlement a couple of visits. 
The following disconnected notes and short vocabulary are 
the results of my acquaintance with them. These people 
are, on the surface, now very much civilised, wearing Malay- 
fashion clothing, and no longer ordinarily making use of 
the blowpipe, of which I did not see a specimen among 

Their village of four or rive huts was situated on the 
borders of a Chinese rubber plantation, near a stream called 
Sungai Derahka, and on ground, comprising a small patch 
of jungle and some clearings, which I understand, has been 
reserved to the aborigines by Government. 

I could not discover that they have any tribal name, 
and, in asking a question as to what nationality a man be- 
longs, whether Malay or Sakai, they simply say, " Is he a 
Malay or one of us ? " . 

The tribal officers appear to be the Batin, the Jenang, 
the Jukrah and the Penghulu Balai. 

I was told that other portions of the tribe are at 
Matang Pasir (Linggi), Labu, and at Telok Kemang, in the 

248 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 

neighbourhood of Port Dickson. The last division is under 
another Batin, the Batin recognised by the Sungai Derahka 
people living at Batang Labu. 

The few details that I could obtain about their beliefs 
and customs are given below : — 

The punan beliefs, to which I have alluded in several 
former papers on the aborigines, are found among them, and 
anybody who has encountered misfortune through neglecting 
to satisfy some craving is said to have kSna sampok. 

The rice-soul (semangat bek) is cut by an old woman be- 
fore reaping begins. It consists of seven ears, which are 
taken to the house, wrapped in a cloth, and tied to one of 
the central posts. The semangat is taken early in the morn- 
ing, and immediately aftei this reaping is begun, and is con- 
tinued for three days, but the fourth day is tabu {pantang 
teturk bek), and no work must be done on it 

The rice of the semangat bek is sown before the rest of the 
seed padi. 

The circular leaf hut, according to an informant of mine 
is not used by the Poyang (shaman). He is said to hold 
shoots of the palas and of the bertam palms in his hands while 
holding a seance (sawai). The Poyang's familiar is termed 
his kenon, i.e. child. 

There seems to be little, if any, marriage ceremony, and 
divorce takes place at the wish of either party. 

For forty-four days before the birth of a child an ex- 
pectant mother must do no heavy work. 

Circumcision and incision seem not to be practised. 
In men— probably also in women— the six front teeth in 
the top jaw, the two pairs of incisors and the canines, are 
partly tilled down. The teeth in the bottom jaw are left un- 

The men whom I questioned professed agnosticism to 
me with regard to an existence after death, but, as food is 
placed on graves, I am inclined to think that thev must 
have some ideas of the soul's survival after death. 

With regard to the graves, which were mostly marked by 
wooden posts in the Malay manner, I noticed that the orien- 
tation of some of them appeared to be different from that 
of others, and, on questioning one of the inhabitants of the 
settlement, who was with me, he said that it was customary 
for the graves of the two sexes to be disposed difi 
An examination of the grave-mounds seemed to show that 
the men's graves were dug so that the bodies lay with their 
heads towards the east, and, according to my informant, 
with their faces looking towards the north, while the orien- 
tation of the women's graves, and the disposal of the bodies, 
was such that the heads pointed to the west with faces to- 
wards the north. 

Houses are deserted and burnt when a death occurs and 

rg22.] Ivor H. N. Eyaxs : Ethnological Miscclltt>n\t 
[ saw the remains of one which had been treated in this 

Adze (beliong) 

Axe (kapak) 
Back (belakang) 
Bathe, to (mandi) 
Bear (bemang) 
Bird (burong) 
Blood (darah) 
Blowpipe (sumpit 
Body (badan) 

Centipede (lipan) 
Child (anak) 

t (musang) 


Cockroach (lipas) 

Cold (sejuk) 

Cook rice, to (bertanak) 

Dart (damak) 

Deer (rusa) 

Dog (anjing) 

Ear (tetinga) 

Earth (tanah) 

Eat, to (makan) 

Elephant (gajah) 

Father (bapa) 

Fire (api) 

Fish (ikan) 

Fly (lalat) 

Foot (kaki) 

Foul (ayam) 

Girl (anak betina) 

Hair (rambut) 

Hand (tangan) 

Head (kepala) 

Hill (bukit) 

Hot (panas) 


Jungle (utan 
Knee (lutut) 
Knife (pisau) 
Leap, to (lom F ~. 
Lightning (kilat) 


dong, dok 


Journal of the F.M.S. M 

luseums. f; 



Liver (hati) 


Mosquito (nyarnok) 


Mother (mak) 

Mountain (gunong) 


Mouse-deer (pelandok) 


Neck, back of (tengkok) 


Nose (hidong) 


One (satu) 

Path (jalan) 


Pig (babi) 

Poison for darts (ipoh) 

Quiver for darts (tabong 

Sandfly (agas) 

am ait. 

Sit, to (dudok) 


Skin (kulit) 


Sleep (tidor) 


Smoke (asap) 


Squirrel (tupai) 


Stomach (perut) 


Sun (mata hari) 

Three (tiga) 

Throat (leher) 

Thunder (guroh) 


Tiger (harimau) 

Tooth (gigi) 

Tortoise (bailing) 


Turtle, soft (lelabi) 

Two (dua) 


Wood (kayu) 


By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 

It has been known for a good number of years that 
ancient remains exist on Kedah Peak. They were first dis- 
covered by Mr. F. W. Irby, Perak Trigonometrical Survey, 
in 1894, through his coolies accidentally setting fire to the 
peaty deposit ■■ hich then covered the whole of the mountain 
top. On the fire burning out, a platform about sixteen feet 
square was disclosed, this being edged with two courses of 
dressed granite blocks. A hole, with a diameter of about 
two-and-a-half feet and a depth of two feet, was found in 
centre of the platform. The space surrounding this " well ' ' 
and within the granite-edged square, was, if I understand 
Messrs. Irby's and Lefroy's reports' correctly, filled with 
bricks of roughly dressed laterite. 

In addition to the above-mentioned platform (marked A 
in Mr. Irby's plan) he found traces of nine small " hearths " 
on the southern and precipitous edge of the summit, and 
those of another platform or " large hearth," with a hole (C) 
not far from it, at the south-western end of the mountain top. 
Furthermore, he and Mr. Lefroy were able to trace the remains 
of a rubble wall running from the south-western end of the 
summit in a north-easterly direction for 160 or 170 feet, riually 
disappearing under the unburnt remainder of the peat. 
Roughly N.W. of the platform (.4), too, another hole was 
•ncountered which is marked B on their plan. 

On June 16th, 1921, accompanied by Mr. W. M. Gordon, 
Temporary Assistant, F.M.S. Museums, I started excavation 
work on the mountain. 

A preliminary inspection of the summit unfortunately 
only confirmed what I had heard previously — that the con- 
structors of the present survey beacon had plundered the 
1 I by Mr. I b , ising the stones and bricks 
so obtained in making foundations for the iron legs of the 
beacon. This act of vandalism was quite unnecessary, as 
there is plentv of the local quartz-sandstone to be obtained 
with a little trouble. 

Nearly the whole of the mountain top appearing to be 
almost bare rock, I decided to deal with the western end, the 
only part which looked at all promising, for it was here only 
that the peaty deposit remained intact, since it had not been 
burnt at the time of Mr. Irby's visit. 

252 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol.. IX, 

Starting work from the edge of the hole (B) which was 
found by Mr. Irby, the coolies cleared away the peat and 
earth to a depth of from two to two-and-a-half feet. It 
then became evident that what had appeared to be a hole 
with slighth -lev ited edge-;, was a depression in the top of a 
truncated cone, which had been constructed of rubbly bricks. 
The cone was faced with blocks of dressed granite, with 
bricks interspersed in places, on the side nearest to the plat- 
form and hole (A) discovered by Mr. Irby. Furthermore 
this sheathing was continued as a rough pavement to the 
edge of the remains of Mr. Irby's platform. The rest of the 
cone was without sheathing. Rough measurements of the 
cone are as follows : depth, after excavation to bedrock, just 
over one metre ; diameter four metres {circa). The pavement 
had a maximum breadth of four metres. 

Excavation of the depression at the apex of the cone 
resulted in the discovery of only one object of interest. This 
was a ring-stone of granite. It was encountered at a depth 
of three feet and its material is the same as that of the 
dressed granite blocks. Its exterior diameter is roughly 
23 cms., while that of the hole is 12-5 cms., the breadth oi 
the edge in any one place being roughly 5-5 cms , and the 
depth about 10 cms. 

Some burnt remains, seemingly of former vegetation , wen- 
encountered in a little bay on the north-western side of the 
pavement, close to Mr. Irby's platform. These remains 
extended also under the pavement, as was proved by digging 
away a little earth. The probability is, therefore, that the 
vegetation of the hilltop was burnt off before the pavement 
was laid. 

Charcoal was fairly common in the soil around the cone 
and pavement, but was not present in large quantities. 
Some was also met with in the hollow in the cone. 

The platform found by Mr. Irby, as remarked above, 
had been almost totally destroyed, but a rubbly brick 
foundation, on which it had rested, was laid bare when 
a small amount of humus was scraped away, and also a 
fragment of the pavement itself — composed of bricks and 
granite blocks, not of laterite— as well as three of the granite 
edging stones, still in position. Excavation of the hole in 
the centre yielded nothing of interest, as a large boulder, 
possibly merely an outcrop of the local rock was encountered 
almost immediately, and, as to have removed this, if possible, 
would have involved further destruction, I decided not to 
attempt to do so. 

When these parts of the remains had been explored, I 
turned my attention to the northern edge of the mountain- 
top in the vicinity, for here also the peaty deposit had not 
been burnt. On stripping this away we came across rubbly 
bricks embedded in earth, forming a rough platform and a 

1922.] Ivor H. N. Evans: Structures on Kcd.tli Peak. 253 

slight glacis on the slope of the hill and, in clearing the 
loose rubble, we found three fragments of stone rings, similar 
to that described above. The platform abutted on the 
remains at .4 , discovered by Mr. Irby, as well as on the 
pavement and cone unearthed by myself. The glacis may 
be the continuation of the rubble wall mentioned by Mr. 
L,efroy. All trace of this wall in the open now seems to 
have disappeared. The remains may have been plundered 
to form the foundation for the beacon, but it is more prob- 
able that they were destroyed when the present path to 
the top of the mountain was constructed. 

With regard to the row of nine so-called fire-places, men- 
tioned as running along the precipitous southern edge of the 
mountain top, very slight traces can now be seen. Mr. 
Lefroy speaks of finding " indications of nine small hearths, 
about four feet square," but I was only able to trace some of 
these and, even then, the identifications were in most cases 
doubtful, with the exception of the two near the cone (B), as 
the soil of the summit had been swept away almost to bed- 
On exploring the extreme south-western end of the sum- 
mit, a hole, apparently the same as that shown in Mr. Irby's 
plan (C), was discovered. This appeared to me to be a com- 
paratively recently-dug well. Three dressed blocks of granite 
were found near it on the surface, but these may have been 
moved to their present position at a recent date. Digging in 
the hole, which was carried down to bedrock, produced 
nothing, neither is it lined with brick as are those in the cone 
and the pavement. Indications of the large hearth marked 
on Mr. Irby's plan as lying near C are still to be seen, but 
nothing of interest was found there. 

But little restoration work could be attempted, but the 
stone and brick sheathing of the cone and the pavement were 
treated with cement, the cracks between the stone and bricks 
being filled in with this material, partly in order to preserve 
the remains against weathering, partly in order to discourage 
future plunderers. Furthermore as many of the dressed 
granite slabs as could be found— either at the base of the 
beacon, or elsewhere — were collected and placed round the 
edge of the foundations of the square platform which was 
discovered by Mr. Irby, the rest of the space between this 
and the hole (A) being filled in with pieces of brick, so as to 
form a rough reconstruction of the pavement. No cement 
was used here. Mr. Irby has put it on record that the 
granite edging of the pavement consisted of two courses, but 
we were not able to collect a sufficient number of stones to 
carry out the restoration according to his description. 

A striking fact about the materials used in the con- 
struction of the remains on Kedah Peak in their miscellaneous, 
and often fragmentary, nature. The granite blocks vary 

254 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX 3 

considerably in size and some of them are chamfered at one 
edge, the edges being sometimes rounded, sometimes angular. 
The bricks, too, were of at least three types, and, when found 
undisturbed, as in the pavement, were often merely broken 
pieces. One or two fragments show signs of glaze, but in 
the case of some, which have a blackish, shining coating on 
them, I believe that this is due to the fusion of chemicals, 
naturally present in the clay, when the bricks were baked. 
Other pieces have a light greenish crackled glaze on them, 
but the irregular nature of its distribution here again in- 
clines me to believe that the glazing is accidental and not 
intentional. One type of brick, of a light yellow clay, was, 
when first uncovered, particularly friable, but seemed to 
harden to a certain extent when exposed to the atmosphere. 

As far as I was able to observe, on the sheathed side of 
the cone and on the pavement, the materials had often been 
used without any attempt at classification and just as they 
came to hand —here a brick and there a slab of granite. No 
kind of mortar or cement was used throughout the construc- 
tion, and the work was extremely rough. Where granite 
slabs with chamfered edges were employed— there were a 
few in the pavement- I could not see that in their disposal 
any special use had been made of them. I am inclined to 
think, therefore, that from the indiscriminate use of the 
materials and their somewhat fragmentarv nature they were 
very likely obtained from some pre-existent building and 
were transported to the mountain top to be used a second 

Other points which have still to be dealt with are the 
purpose of the buildings and their age. It is much to be 
regretted that our excavations did not throw more light upon 
these two problems. It is obvious that such a mass of 
material would not have transported with so much trouble 
to the top of a high mountain unless for some reason which 
was, at any rate, sufficiently cogent to those who were 
responsible for undertaking the work. 

A suggestion has been made by Mr. Lefroy that the top 
of the mountain might possibly have been used as a sort of 
li hth. use, •' signal Eres being kept burning to guide mariners, 
om Sumatra at night," but, as he says immediately 
after this, ,f it is improbable materials such as cut granite 
and bricks would have been carried 4,000 feet up a mountain 
side to form a base for a signal fire when there was any 
quantity of sandstone, much easier to work, ready to hand." 

For myself, I feel certain that the reason for these 
structures must be sought in religion. In many religions 
there is a tendency to consider the tops of high mountains as 
sacred, and sacred mountains are recognised both in Buddhism 
and Hinduism. Now, though there is a possibility that 
rns (Malays after their conversion to Mohame- 

ig22.] Ivor H. N. Evaxs : Structures on Kedah Peak. 255 

danism) may have been responsible for the remains on Kedah 
Peak, yet there is no reason for ascribing them to a date 
after the advent of Mohamedanism, in fact rather the reverse, 
since the present Malay inhabitants of the country knew 
nothing of them until their discovery by Mr. Irby, though, 
when once discovered, they were not backward in inventing 
stories to account for them. 

Now providing that the people who built on Kedah Peak 
were the same as those who were responsible for the cutting 
of the granite slabs and the making of the bricks, they must 
have reached a stage in civilization considerably higher than 
that the present-day Malays. The probability is that, judg- 
ing by other remains which have been found in the country, 
they were by religion either Hindus or Buddhists, or both, for 
both Hinduism and Buddhism were, at one time, co-existent 
and co-operative in Java, and even in India, as they are at 
the present day in Bali, and to a small extent in Siam, where, 
though the people are more Buddhist than anything else, 
Brahmin priests are still employed in certain State cere- 

Unfortunately the objects found during excavation throw 
but little light on the date of the Kedah Peak remains. 
With the exception of some fragments of Chinese porcelain, 
ail parts of a single plate, no pottery of any kind was 
encountered, nor were any objects of bronze, iron, or other 
metal. I am, furthermore, very doubtful whether the pieces 
of Chinese porcelain, blue-and- white ware, which I ascribe 
to a late period of the Ming dynasty, are contemporaneous 
with the stone and brick remains. One fragment of the 
plate was found directly under the peaty deposit and the 
others at no great depth, chiefly near Mr. Irby's platform (.4). 
The pieces may very possibly have worked down through 
the peat to the position in which they were found. Plates of 
the type and period are still in use among Malays in out-of- 
the-way parts of the country and specimens of this and of 
older wares are often brought to the towns by hawkers of 

5, who have purchased them in the Malay Peninsula 
or Sumatra. 

An inspection of other ancient remains which may 
be discovered in Kedah is the most likely to lead to further 
knowledge about those on Kedah Peak, and, luckily, I 
have had an opportunity of visiting one other site. On 
my return from the Peak to Sungai Patani Mr. J. J. P. Davies 
of that place told me that an ancient stone statue and some 
brickwork had been found on Sungai Batu Estate, very 
kindly offering to drive us over the next day to see these 
objects of interest. Naturally I accepted his kind offer. 
( >n arriving at the estate we were shown a mound, consisting 
chiefly of laterite, whose present measurements are about 

ie by fifty-seven feet. Its height was difficult to 

256 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 1922.] 

judge owing to the fact that termites had constructed a big 
nest on the site. The mound was, I understand, originally 
more or less round in outline, but had been partly dug away 
to obtain laterite, and a square trench had also been cut 
round it. At the base of the mound, where it has been in- 
tersected by the ditch three or four courses of stones, rounded 
by river action, can be observed. These are firmly bedded 
in hard laterite. A few scattered bricks are to be seen in 
the earth above these, and a specimen which I obtained is of 
very similar type to some of those from Kedah Peak. I was 
informed that nothing of interest was found when the mound 
was prospected for laterite. 

The statue to which I have referred above was dis- 
covered about a hundred vards away, lying loose on the 
banks of a small river, the Sungai Bujang. It is obviously 
of Hindu origin, and probably represents, according to M 
Coedes, Devi, the wife of Siva, triumphing over Mahishasura. 
Ihe figure, which is 67 cms. high, is of finegrained granite 
similar to that of the dressed granite slabs on Kedah Peak' 
It is unfortunately much weathered, but, as far asil 
to judge, the treatment of the subject has been fail 
ous A dub-like object is borne in the right hand, and, on 
the left hand side, where two arms are visible one is raised 
and holds some rather crescent-shaped object, while the other 
hangs beside the body. 

Probably the mound is the remains of a small shrine 
from which the figure came. I am inclined to think that the 
people who were responsible for the structures on Kedah 
Peak were contemporaneous with those who placed the Hindu 
Statue on Sungai Batu Estate, or, if they were not that 
they plundered buildings of the Hindu peri 
work and bricks. 

What the remains on Kedah Peak are must still remain 
problematical, but I think it possible that the conical struc- 
ture may have been a dagoba, the ring-stone, perhaps, crown- 
ing its summit. The hole (A) which Mr. Irby discovered in 
the pavement presents a problem which I cannot attempt to 
solve. It appears to have been too shallow to have made a 
satisfactory well. 

rom Sungai Batu Estate, Kedal 

S*** 8?d 

Rov*^ 1 ^) 




By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 

The find of stone implements described in this paper is 
chiefly interesting in that the specimens discovered appear 
to have been either part of a hoard, or to have formed a 
portion of the stock-in-trade of an ancient factory. 

The credit for the first discovery belongs to Captain 
F. W. Howl of the Federated Malay States Railways who 
picked up a single specimen on a piece of <f made " -round 
which lies between the Kuala Lumpur and Court Roads at 
Tanjong Malim. The soil of this is said to have come from 
the site of the new Malay Teachers' College. 

Information with regard to this find was sent to me by 
the Hon'ble Mr. W. G. Maxwell, C.M.G., and, as business 
took me to Kuala Lumpur within a few days of receipt of 
the news, I, accompanied by Mr W. M. Gordon, Temporary 
Assistant, F.M.S. Museums, paid a visit to Tanjong Malim 
on the way. 

On meeting Captain Howl, he showed us a portion of 
another implement which he had picked up since his first 
discovery the original specimen was not in his possession at 
the time. We then walked to the spot where the finds had 
been made, but a somewhat extensive search proved fruit- 
less, except for the discovery of a fragment of rough pottery, 
ancient, which may, or may not, be contempo- 
raneous with the stone implements. On extending our range, 
however, to near the corner where the Court Road meets 
that which runs towards Kuala Lumpur. I at once came 
upon a small stone axe-head (No. r) the discovery being 
followed almost immediately by that of two others (Nos. 2 
and 3) by Messrs Howl and Gordon. On a further search, 
conducted a little later in the day, I picked up two more 
implements (Nos. 4 and 5) which were lying only about three 
inches apart. 

On October 20th, 192 1, about a month after my first 
search, I again visited Tanjong Malim with a view to further 
exploration of the site. On this occasion I succeeded in 
finding a portion of an implement (No. 6) and a small water- 
worn boulder, which has a concave surface on one side. 
Both objects were picked up at the site of our previous 
discoveries, and all the specimens, including those just 
mentioned . occurred within a radius of about eighteen feet. 
No other boulders were encountered on the " made " ground 
and it seems probable, from the close association of this 

258 Journal of (he F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX,' 1922.] 

object with the stone implements, that it may have been 
used as a grinding or sharpening stone. This supposition is 
strengthened by the fact that its concave surface, especially 
towards the centre, is much smoother than its other parts. 

The implements from Tanjong Malim present no very 
special points of interest and are all of types commonlv 
found in the Peninsula. The interest of the find lies, as 
remarked above, in the association of a number of specimens. 
I have heard stories of the discovery of hoards of stone 
implements before, one from a Malay of Lenggong in Upper 
Perak, one of a Malay in Pahang who told Mr. T. R. 
Hubback that he had come across a heap of stone circlets, 
and produced two as evidence, saving that he had taken four 
from the hoard, but that two had been lost. 

It was extremely unfortunate that the contractor and 
his coolies, who were responsible for the removal of the soil 
from its original site, and its deposition in its present 
position, had left Tanjong Malim before my first visit, as I 
was thus unable to question them as to whether they had 
picked up any implements or other objects of interest and 
whence they had excavated the earth. Several persons 
living in the neighbourhood asserted, however, that the soil 
had lx.-n removed from the neighbourhood of the Malav 
Training College, the construction of which had then been 
almost completed. 


vok H. X. Evans, M.A. 

An account of a similar iudu^trv on the Perak River has 
already been given by l. Wray (J.R.A.I., Vol. XXXIII, 
p. 24 et seqq) and this may be read for puiposes of compar- 

The clay used by the Kuala Tembeling potters- 
women— is, when unbaked, of a yellow colour, and, 
according to my informant is obtained from between layers 
of stone (</ ) at a place called Pasir Durian. 

After excavation, it is pressed iiuo reticulate, conical carry- 
ts I mbong) and conveyed, chiefly by boat, to the 
potters" houses. Arrived there; it is soaked' in water and 
then placed on a slab of wood— a section of a tree-trunk— 
on which it is pounded with a wooden pestle until it is 
worked into a homogeneous mass, any impurities, such as 
stones or roots, being removed while it is undergoing this 
treatment. It is then ready for use. 

No true potters' wheel is found among the Malays of 
the Peninsula, but a primitive substitute is made by the 
Tembeling people by rotating by hand a round winno-viu-- 
tray, or a flat sieve, on the above-mentioned wooden slab. 
A piece of coarse matting is placed in the tray and on this 
sufficient clay to form a pot. 

Starting work in this manner, a potter, whose house I 
visited on two occasions, made, at my request, a specimen of 
the ordinary earthen cooking-bowl (Manga). The lump of 
clay was quickly and cleverly w right hand 

until the sides and lip of the vessel had been thrown, the 
sieve, meanwhile, being rotated " against the clock " 'with 
the left. The only aid used was a piece of wet rag which 
was chiefly employed in throwing the lip of the vessel. 

the clay to harden somewhat, before removing the vessel 
from the tray in order to give it the rounded bottom which 
is general in vessels of this type. The remainder of the 
demonstration, therefore, was postponed till the next day, 
when I again visited the house. The clay of the vessel had 
by this time become a good deal drier, but, as the potter, 
explained, was not yet really sufficiently hard. However, as 

260 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol.. IX, 

I could not pay her another visit, she said that she would do 
her best. 

On resuming work, the pot was carefully removed from 
the tray, placed upside down on the potter's knee, and its 
base beaten into shape externally with a wooden implement 
(ptnepak) used like a bat, but shaped like a Malay working- 

When a sufficient degree of rotundity had been obtained, 
the bottom and sides of the vessel were scraped over on the 
outside with a knife- shaped sliver of bamboo (pCu 
order to remove superfluous clay. 

The next process was the smoothing of the outet surface 
of the pot. and this was accomplished with the aid of a 
lolishing-stone (ptnggangsar), a smooth pebble of quartz, 
such as may be picked up among the shingle of any Pahang 
river. The specimens used by potters, however, have 
generally attained a certain polish owing to constant use. 

After this a decoration of a row of short perpendicular 
lines was scored on the body of the vessel below the lip, the 
phidMak being the tool used in producing them. 

This completed the treatment of the outside of the 
vessel but the inside, particularly at the bottom, still 
remained in a rough state. In the finishing of the interior 
a rough circlet of brass was the chief implement used. This 
was like a flattened bracelet and fairly sharp at the edges. 
The implement, which is called pSngukut, was grasped firmlv 
with the right hand so that about half of it projected beyond 
the knuckles, and, with the edge of this projecting portion 
the superfluous clay on the inside of the vessel wag 
scraped away, the action being similar to that used in 
scraping out the contents of a gourd. When sufficient clay 
had been removed, the interior of the vessel was moistened 
with water with the hand and finished off with the polishing- 

The vessel was then set aside to dry, until ready for 
firing. The length of the time before firing takes place 
appears, on average, to be about a week, but a good deal 
depends on the state of the weather. Pots are kept under 
cover while drying. 

While in the neighbourhood of Kuala Tembeling, I had 
no opportunity of seeing pottery fired, but I understand that 
the vessels are heaped up, one on top of another, in a pile 
and are then protected by a four-sided structure built up of 
pieces ol wood placed across and across. Around this a 
>tack of wood is heaped up, and the whole pile ignited. The 
colour of the pottery after firing changes from yellow to red 

The chief types of vessel made are the open cooking- 
frag*), which sometimes has a cover, the water-gourd 
[labu tanah), the large cooking- pot (pirick) and the wide- 

1922.] Ivor H. N. Evans: Potting Industry. 261 

mouthed water-vessels called tlr'Cnang and lnuli dUima, the 
latter being also sometimes termed bangking. 

The water gourd is manufactured in two pieces, top and 
lower portion, the parts being carefully joined when the clav 
has dried a little. 

The plriok calls for little attention. It is unornamented. 

The tlrlnang and the buah dllima are decorated with 
patterns made with small stamps of bamboo or wood. The 
trttuu is a stoiage vessel for drinking water. A small 
pottery plate is often used to cover its mouth and on this 
rests a half-cocoanut-shaped bowl, which is used as a drink- 
ing cup. The bitah dUima fulfils the same purpose as the 
UrSnang, and also frequently has the small cup and plate as 
well as a saucer placed below it, but whereas the t&rSnang 
is a rather pot-bellied vessel with only a slight rim at its 
base, the buah dllima is taller, not nearly so broad, and has 
a well-developed foot. The name buah dUima means 
" pomegranate fruit, " and the vessel certainly has a shape 
approaching that of the fruit. As is well known, and has 
been pointed out by L. Wray, several type, of Malay 
vessels are derived from fruits which are still, with a 
little adaptation, used for the same purposes as the clay 
utensils. Thus the clay, or silver, drin'dng bowl is derived 
from the half cocoanut- shell, still commonly put to this use; 
the clay water-bottles from two species of gourd and the 
larger types of water-vessel probably from the cocoanut-shell 
water-pot, still commonly used. The pomegranate, however, 
cannot have been turned to any such used. 

By Inche Wan Lela, Pen°huln Lifts, Pahang. 

(Translated by Ivor H.N. EvaxS.) 
[The following notes are Wan I, with the 

About Stone Implements. 

Now the Malays say that thunder-bolts (i.e. stone im- 
plements) originate in the earth of the mounds made by 
" white ant." In the first place the thunder-bolts arise in 
the earth of "white ant" mounds, being made by kayak- 
kayak, that is a form of " white ant/' and these kayak-kayak, 
make them in vows and arrange them in layers, and, after a 
long time, the earth (of which they are made) becomes 
hard. Then, after the period of their concealment is fin- 
ished when lightning comes, the mounds break, and these 
stones become like bullets and strike trees, houses and and- 

human beings as well 

Malays also say that the reason why different objects 
are struck by (di-paimh, ' struck as by an arrow") thunder- 
bolts or thunder (sic) is because devils and fiends are shelter- 
ing in the place ; so that is the reason for it. 

When thunder-bolts are found by Malays, they have 
some slight uses for them— as stones for sharpening all 
kind- of small knives, or Mr is or other blades; and another 
use is to put them into the pot which holds the water for 
hathin- small children, since they say that, when they put 
one into the water, the child's body will be strong and 
moreover will not he much approached by diseases. 

Thunder-bolts, such as are black, are also used by gold- 
smiths, as touch stones, to try whether the carat of gold is 
good or not. When they rub the gold on the stone, a little 
sticks to it, and then they brush it over with acid to see if it 
is silver or brass, whieh can ceil duly be told. 

laloftheF.M.S. Museums. 

Some Pahang Beliefs. 

Now these are some of the old time tabus of the Malays 
of the interior of Pahang :— 

Supposing that anyone, on coming down from his house 
to go anywhere, trips over some object, they say the meaning 
is that whatever he wants to do will be delayed ; it will not 

Again supposing that we encounter a snake crossing 
in front of us while on a journey, whether we are travelling 
on foot or by boat : if the snake comes from the left and 
goes towards the right, they call this " the kSris plucked 
out of its sheath," and the meaning of its going in this 
way is that the result of whatever we wish to do will be 
good and will be attained quickly. Supposing, however 
the snake comes from the right and goes to the left they 
call this "the kins going into the sheath," and it- 
is that we shall be rather late in attaining our obiect in 
whatever we undertake. & J 

Another belief is that if we are going either up-stream 
or down-stream, in a pSrahu, and a monitor-lizard crosses 
in tront of us, it is a most " mischancy " animal and brings 
bad luck to the Malays, so, when we meet with one we 
immediately curse it and spit at it. 

Again if we are going up-stream or down-stream (in 
a boat) or walking and see a * * 
that means, they say, that 

There is also a superstition that if we are walking 
or going up-stream or down-stream, and a gud 

j crosses our path, wherever it may be, 
it is, so the old people say, very ill-omened and unlucky] 
and it will not be of any use to search for any kind of 
" daily bread " (rSzW), so we spit at it and curse it. 

Now the gud-gud, too, if it calls at night near a village 
or house, say the Malays, signifies that somebody in the 
village will die, because the bird' has foreseen it, and that 
too, becomes a great cause of anger to people, so they say 

Also if the owl called " Grandmother Winnower " (the 
" Tear-the Shrowd " ' owl) makes a noise near a house 
in a village at night, that also is considered very unlucky, 
and, so they say, somebody in the village will die. 

And if the burong tidor {Mgithina tiphia) calls near 

_ I [So-called owing to the noises which it makes respectively with the 

IQ22.J Wan LELA . Some Malay Beliefs. 265 

a house, that also is a great cause for anger to some Malays, 
because the bird, it seems, telis the people to die. 

Now the bird which was most praised by the Malays of 
former times was the murai ("Straits" robin"), for when it 
called anywhere near a house, and was recognised, the 
people asked it for news, saying, "What news do you bring, 
O lady ? " and if their child, relation, or mother or father 
had gone far away, and they had no news, they asked the 
bird, saying, " If so-and-so is coming back or so-and-so will 
arrive, fly away quietly." And sometimes the bird imme- 
diately flew away or it kept quite, and the information thus 
given was on occasions true; but sometimes the bird would 
not be quiet, but went on calling : then they said to it 
" Don't lie to us : if you lie, yon shall be eaten by snake or 
a civet-cat." So Malays did not like to catch or kill murai. 
and, if they got one anywhere of old, thev combed it nicely 
with oil and then loosed it, saying, " Go lady ; fly away 

By Ivor H. N. Evans, M.A. 

(Plates XXV— XXVII) 

The objects described in this paper were obtained from 
a rock-shelter in Gunong Pondok, the magnificent limestone- 
marble hill which is seen from the railway at Padang Renga- 
station and while the train is ascending the southern side of 
Bukit Berapit Pass. Excavation of the site was carried out 
by Mr. \V. M. Gordon (Temporary Assistant, F.M.S. Museums) 
in the latter part of 1921. 

The shelter in question, the Gua Kerbau (buffaloes' 
cave) lies at the base of the hill and not far to the right of 
the quarry, as it is approached from the railway station. 
The ground slopes away from the shelter, which is about 150 
feet in length with an overhang of rock of some 15' to 25'. 
and a short distance below become- marshy and, in wet wea- 
ther, flooded. I visited the excavations on three occasions 
and thus, apart from the specimens collected, know something 
of them from my own observations. Two large pits were 
dug and, in the first of these, excavations were stopped owing 
to bed-rock being encountered at a depth of fourteen feet : in 
the second excavation a depth of ten feet had been reached 
whm digging was abandoned. 

Remains due to human occupation were common 
throughout the deposits, which were generally of powdery 
light-br.nvi earth containing a good deal of lime. There 
seemed to be no strata referable to different cultures and, in 
the main, objects found near the surface were paralleled by 
those from the middle and lower parts of the pits. 

Many bones and teeth of animals were unearthed — 
remnants of the cave-dwellers feasts — and these all appear 
to be those of extant species. Among them I have been 
able to identify teeth or bones of the following : elephant 
(teeth), rhinoceros (teeth), deer (fragments of antlers), pig 
(tusk and teeth and - ..-- of carapace, etc.) 

The subject of these remains will, however, probably be 
dealt with in a separate paper. Nearly all the bones are 
much broken, as I have observed in the case of similar relics 
from other Peninsular rock-shelters and caves. The frac- 
tures were probably made in order to extract the marrow. A 
proportion of the bones are blackened by fire. 

"Shells of a specie- of Melania and of a fres 
mussel (Unto sp.) were common throughout the dep 
a considerable number of marine shells were also encountered, 
the most remarkable being some belonging to a species of 

268 Journal of the F.MS. Museums. [Vol,. IX, 

Voluta, probably Vohtta indico , while cockles [Area sp.) claws 
and others were also present. 

A number of pieces of iron-oxide ruddle were unearthed 
at varying depths, these piece- in several cases showing very 
distinct signs of having been ground down against a stone 
or other hard surface. 

A quantity of round grinding-stones and several grind- 
rag-slabs, probably for use with the former were also discov- 
ered. The grinding-stones are rounded river-worn pebbles 
of varying size, many of them deeply stained with ruddle, 
while the grinding-slabs are flattened water-worn stones 
which in some cases have deep grooved hollows in them 
owing to the constant use of the grinding-stones upon 
thein^ On two stones hollows are to be seen on both sides. 

which are fairly 

and of different 
kinds of rock. Thev are water-worn pebbles naturally 
flattened laterally, but their remarkable feature is thai thev 
have been picked, 01 ground, away in the centres on both 
sides forming depressions to give a grip to the thumb 
and index finger when grasped in the hand. The majority 
of the specimens show bruising at the edges, and I am 
inclined to believe that they were largely used for breaking 
the bones of animals killed in the chase previous to extraction 
of the marrow. The sides of some of the smoother stones 
are coloured with ruddle towards their ends, showing that 
they were used as grinding-stones for rubbi 
(probably with water) as well. 

A small neolithic-culture stone axe-head was found 
in the first excavation at a depth of from eight to nine feet. 
This implement, though unmistakable, is extremely rough— 
a piece of black stone roughly chipped to shape and ground, 
on either surface, towards the cutting edge only. 

Flakes and roughly dressed pieces of the same black 
stone as that of the above-mentioned stone axe-head were 
common and, judging by the finding of a single polished 
implement must be ascribed to a neolithic culture. The 
most typical of the chipped stones seem to fall into three 
classes, pear-shaped, rounded and rectangular. Possibly the 
rounded specimens may have been used as scrapers. 

Rough unglazed pottery was found at all depths and the 
peculiar cord-marked ware, often with diamond-shaped 
reticulations, which I have described from other shelters 
both in Perak and Pahang, was fairly common. Other 
rough pottery was ornamented with little square depressions 
set close together: these were probably, judging by the 
regularity of the impressions, made with a cross-hatched 
wooden stamp. 

Smoother pottery, approximating more or less to that 

1-922.] Evans : Rock-Shelter at Gunong Pondok 269 

still in use among the Malays was also discovered at all 
depths. Seemingly— from a scrutiny of the pieces found, 
many of which are fragments of rims — the vessels were 
mostly pipkins and water-pots. 

Fragments of porcelain, nearly all belonging to the 
celadon and crackle classes, in grey-white, apple green and a 
grey-green were encountered at various depths down to 
ten feet. Some of the pieces obtained at a depth of 
about six feet have patterns incised in the paste which are 
filled with glaze. Presumably, unless from Sawankhalok in 
Si an, the celadon and other ware is of Chinese origin. 
Some fragments of brown, glazed earthenware were also 
met with in the first six feet of earth excavated. 

Iron objects were found between six and ten feet and 
also between ten and fourteen feet. At the lesser depth 
were discovered the blade of a small working-knife, exactly 
to that which present-day Malays use for dressing 
strips of rattan cane and call pisau raut . and the tang 
of another knife-blade of the same kind. Of the specimen 
front below ten feet it is not possible to speak with certainty 
as it is much corroded by rust, but it also appears to 
be a part of a knife-blade of some kind, but of a variety 
larger than the pisau rant. 

No bronze or brass implements or utensils were met 
with, but, at a depth of seven feet in the first excavation, a 
' ' cash ' ' of Chinese type was discovered. Father Cardon of 
Taiping has kindly indentified this for me as an Annamite 
coin issued by a rebel chief named Nguyen Yan-hue (1786— 
1791). A figure of an indentical specimen can be found 
in the Journal of the Asiatic Society, North China Branch, 
Vol. XVII, Annum and Us Minor Currency, p. 192, fig. 193, 
and a description of the coin on p. 127 of the same volume. 

Human bones, comprising in some cases consider- 
able parts of skeletons, nearly all much broken, were un- 
earthed at various depths. The jaws are, however, in some 
cases nearly complete and some restoration of some of 
the skulls should also be possible. Very noticeable points are 
that the teeth are remarkably strong and without sign 
of caries, while in almost all cases both front and back teeth 
are much worn down. Filing might have accounted for this 
in regard to the canines and incisors, but this treatment can 
scarcely have been applied to the premolars and molars, 
the tubercles of which are worn away. These peculiarities 
have also been noted in the case of human teeth from other 
Peninsular rock-shelters and caves 

It is hoped that these human remains, and those pre- 
viously collected from other sites will shortly be submitted to 
a specialist in physical anthropology and that the results of 
the examination of them will be published in this Journal. 

Before bringing these notes to a conclusion, it may 

2/0 Journal of the F.M.S. Museums. [Vol. IX, 1922.] 

not be out of place to attempt some comparison between the 
objects found at Gunong Pondok and those obtained from 
other caves and shelters, to note any points of outstanding 
interest with regard to them and also to attempt to date 
them approximately. None of the locally-made objects 
from Gunong Pondok with the exception of the indented 
pounding- stones which I have described above, are of 

Sea shells have already been recorded from a rock-shel- 
ter at Batu Kurau and at Ipoh, though shells of Valuta had 
not been encountered previously. 

Ruddle was present in two caves in Pahang (at Gunong 
vSennyum and near Jerantut), at Lenggong (Perak) and 
probably at Gunong Cheroh near Ipoh— judging by the 
staining of certain srindiug-stones, while these articles and 
' >- have been recorded previously from Gunong 
Cheroh and Lenggong, flakes from the two above mentioned 
sites in Pahang, and from Lenggong, dressed (chipped) stones 
from Lenggong and from the Pahang caves, polished stone 
implements from Gunong Cheroh, the Pahang caves and 
Batu Kurau and cord-marked pottery from Pahang and 
Lenggong. I have also noted previously the 
of iron implements with those of polished stone in the 
case of the Batu Kurau shelter. 

The association of iron and stone implements would 
incline one to believe that the deposits are comparativelv 
recent, while the finding of a coin at a depth of seven 
feet places all remains above this level as being not older 
than the date of this piece of monev (between 1786 and 
1701 A.D.). 

The fragments of Chinese porcelain are also important 
witnesses with regard to age, for, though ancient pottery, 
such as is still in use among the Malays, does noi 
that objects found in association with it are of the same 
period, it does at any rate show that such objects cannot be 
of greater age. Now I am fairly certain that none of the 
porcelain from Gunong Pondok is earlier than the Sung 
dynasty (960-1259 A.D.) and probably not earlier than the 
Ming dynasty (1368-1643 A.D.). If this is so, none of the 
objects associated with it cau be older than the earliest of 
these dates. 

Journ. F.M.S. Mus.-Vol. IX. 

J I 

Gunong Pondok, Perak. 

Journ. F.M.S. Mus.-Vol. IX. 

• f • 


. F.M.S. Mus.-Vol. IX. 


Aboriginal Cusi 

Beliefs fro?n P< 


•as obtainerl in 
ai-Jakuu, who 
m the Tembelii 

was then 
ng River, 

192 1, from a Kerau River S; 
lhing just below Jeram Ampa 

The Kerau River people— speakers of a Sakai dialect— 
came, according to tradition from Johore. The bead of the 
tribe is the Batin. There was formerly only one officer of 
this rank ; now there are two. 

For offences against tribal morals or custom fines were, 
or are, levied in spears or plates. The fine for murder was 
sixty-six In the worst degree, between, for 

instance, father and daughter, is said to have been punish- 
able by a fine of one hundred and sixty spears. Other minor 
fines were — for stealing crops ? one spear and one plate ; 
unfaithfulness on a woman's part, two plates and six spears. 
Probably, judging by the abatements given below, payment 
in full of the largest fines was never enforced. 

Plates and spears also form a part of the bride-price. 
Thus the nominal payment by a suitor to a father for the 
hand of a virgin daughter is sixty spears, but actually only 
from three to six are paid , the number varying according to 
the quality of the weapons. The bride-price for a widow is 
less, the nominal number of spears being fifteen with two 
china plates. Only one spear and the two plates are paid. 

When a man divorces a woman he gives her one spear 
and one plate, while, if the woman asks for a divorce, she 
must pay back her bride-price. 

Plates and spears appear to have a sort of currency 

For three days after a death, seven little tires, contained 
in cocoanut-shell are kindled at the grave each nigh*, and 
another seven, in similar receptacles, are placed on the dead 
man's mat within the house. 

If a cat walks over a body which is awaiting burial, it 
is thought that the dead person will arise, kill the inhabi- 
tants of the house, and will then return to the burial mat 
and again become a corpse. It is also said that the dead, if 
not watched before burial, will arise and tear the living to 

A dead person before burial, and for three nights after, 
is a kcmnit : after this a hes. A hes has the appearance of 

All males are circumcised at, or before, the age of 
puberty, but the operation, though apparently performed in 
the same manner as among the Malays, is not so radical. 
The women do not undergo any corresponding rite. 

The Orang Laid of Singapore. 
While recently in Singapore (1921), I paid a short visit 
to the village of Teluk Saga, which is situated off the shore 
of Pulau Brani, and opposite Tanjong Pagar Docks. The 
settlement consists of pile-dwellings standing in shallow 
watei and its 1 [habitants are said to be descendants of the 
Oi inge Laut, or Sea Gypsies, who were almost the onlv 
inhabitants of Singapore Island at the time of its occupation 

My boatman, who himself belonged to the village 
introduced me to the oldest inhabitant, one Amil bin Onil' 
an aged, but still fairly vigorous, man who told me that he 
was already selling -orals to visitors to Singapore when there 
W « a A " LT ' le FT l Governor " there (Governor Cavanagh 
1861-1867). As he was only a boy at the time let us sav 
from twelve to fourteen years of age, he must now be in the 
neighbourhood of 70 years old. He said that his people were 


present Government offices when Raffles opened the new 
settlement, and that they migrated from there to Teluk Saga 
in Raffles' time. The head of the tribe at that d 
named Wakin, and the grandfather of Amil was among those 
who moved to Pulau Brani. I understand that the people 
of the tribe originally acted as boatmen to the Bendahara 

Amil denied that there has been, or is, much mixture of 
local or foreign blood, Malay or other, among his people 


The informatio 

from Amil is largely borne 

by evidence to be found in One Hundred Years of Simab 
(Vol. I, pp. 342 and 343). & F