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Registered Charity No. 1092399 

Patron: HRH The Prince of Wales 

Officers and Committee from March 2004 

President: Dr A.F. Dyer, 499 Lanark Road West, Balerno, Edinburgh EH 14 7AL 


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BULLETIN MAR 2 2 2005 



Vol. 6 2004 No. 3 


*A Garden of British Ferns' 

Alastair C. Wardlaw 

(Presented after the AGM at The Natural History Museum. I ondon, 20 March 2004.) 

It was adder's tongue that started my interest in ferns. The year was 1945 when I was 15, 
and the place was a grassy bank beside the towpath of the Stockport-Macclesfield Canal in 
Cheshire. I was with my father. Claude \\ Wardlaw . who needed some Ophioglossum for a 
practical class at Manchester University where he was Professor of Cryptogamic Botany. 
He showed me the first adder's tongue, after which it was a challenge for me to find more. 
Soon I got my eye in and thereafter enjoyed the fun of the chase, looking for the elusive 
spikes in the smothering vegetation. In 1947, another early triumph was finding moonwort 
during a family holiday in Appin. Argyll. About 55 years later I had just as much pleasure 
on a BPS field excursion in 2002 with Barry Wright, looking for Botrychium lunaria on the 
roadside verges of the North York Moors. 

In my late teens I bought second-hand, for three shillings and sixpence, the two volumes of 
Lowe's Our Native Ferns (1867). There I read about the crested (fen) buckler fern, Lastrea 
(now Dryopteris) cristata, having a site in a Cheshire bog. But when I went there on my 
bike, a 50-mile round trip, the land had been drained and the bog was no more; likewise 
^ _^^__ ' ts anticipated inhabitant. The words 


yet in the public vocabulary but I took on 

'■ * * 

board, albeit subconsciously, the idea that 

*^r ; ~ 

some of Britain's rare ferns in special 


habitats were being extinguished. 



1 I then did little with ferns until the mid- 

1960s, when Jackie and I were married 


with three young children and had a house 

and garden in suburban Toronto. Canada. 

Pki W 

On family rambles into the Canadian bush 




it was a delight to discover that B. lunaria 
occurred in Ontario and that there were 



several other species of Botrychium to be 



sought, and also that D. cristata, which I 
| had never found in Britain, was relatively 

common in Ontario. I grew some of the 
! ordinary ferns of the Ontario countryside 
1 in our Toronto garden for several years. 

Leaving Toronto in 1970, we came to live in Glasgow in a Victorian house with a 
mature 0.4-acre garden. It contained numerous 'weed' plants of Athyrium filix- 
femina, and a single proliferous cultivar of Polystichum setiferum, which is still here. 
From time to time I grew some of the common wild ferns, but this was very sporadic 
as I was too busy professionally. Around 1985 however, I became aware of the 
feasibility of growing ferns from spores, which I then collected on annual trips to 
Canada. I also discovered that there were specialist nurseries in Britain where I could 
buy a wide range of native British species and cultivars, and also foreign ferns. The 
number of different ferns in the garden then increased rapidly, by culture from spores 
and by purchase. 

One of the lessons learned at that time was that ferns from diverse habitats and 
distant geographic regions could be grown side by side in our Glasgow garden. For 
example. Dryopteris marginalis and Adiantum pedatum are natives of eastern Canada 
(and USA), while Polystichum munitum and Polypodium scouleri are restricted to 
British Columbia and the Pacific North-West. These two locales are 2,000 miles 
apart, and much further still from Glasgow, yet all four species grow just as well as 
native British ferns in our garden. This I find fascinating because of the questions 
raised about fern adaptation, and how the native fern floras of different regions of the 
world became established in the first place, and then maintained. 
Up until 1991 my then 46 years of interest in ferns had been essentially private and 
solitary, with no social dimension. Then quite by accident a local friend, Prof. Jim 
Dickson who happened to be a member of the BPS, mentioned The British 
Pteridological Society, which I should join. It was like pulling back the curtain in a 
theatre and revealing a stage filled with interesting characters talking enthusiastically 
about ferns. Space here does not allow the dozens of names I would like to mention, 

simply say that I feel extremely grateful to the numerous members of the Society 
who have taught me so much about how to find, identify, grow and enjoy ferns, and 
who have become such steadfast friends. It has therefore been an extraordinary 
honour and privilege to have had the opportunity to serve the Society as President 
these last Lhree years, in succession to Martin Rickard. I especially thank all 
members of the Committee during this time, for their support, guidance and above 
all, patience! 

After joining the BPS in 1991, I regularly asked for an allocation of spores from the 
Spore Exchange. Within a few years, from that source and by gift and purchase, the 
garden contained most of the native British ferns and many cultivars, as well as 
numerous foreign species. Now, with D. cristata to be seen each day in the garden, I 
feel I have come a long way from the unproductive bike ride of 1947 to visit its 
extinct Victorian site in a Cheshire bog. Strangely, despite its rarity in the wild, 
D. crista* is not difficult to keep in a garden, and the same may be said of the 
majority of other native fern species, including most rarities. A few species do, 
however require special microhabitats and simply will not survive in the open 
garden. 1 therefore built transparent enclosures, with percolating ground water, to 
; . A. obovatum subsp. lanceolatum, Anogramma leptophylla 
and the filmy ferns. At the time of this writing the only native British species not in 
the collection is Ophioglossum lusitanicum. 

especially satisfying to grow Athyrium flexile, a gift from Dr Heather 

Jl,° CCUrS . ' n the Wlld onl y at elevations above 2,000 feet, where it spends 

nder snow, whereas in our garden it lives close to sea 

•evel, with only 

occasional and short-lived snow. It is the only 

Scotland, which makes it special. I have to confess sonic disappointment about its 
now-accepted taxonomic placement as Athyrium distentifolium var. flexile, rather 
than as a species in its own right. This assignment is because A. distentifolium and its 
\ ar. flexile differ only at a single genetic locus and are capable o\~ interbreed ing. with 
production of fertile offspring. Yet to a field botanist, the major differences in frond 
morphology are consistent with the two taxa being separated as 'good' species. 
Query: how many other 'good' species in the various fern floras are actually just 
varieties? Only meticulous breeding experiments, such as Heather's, could tell. 
Until about 1997 it had not occurred to me that my fern garden had much relevance 
to conservation, as such. However, a new awareness was opened up by a visit from 
Cameron Carmichael, one of the Co-ordinators in Scotland for the National Council 
for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (NCCPG). He suggested that my 
collection would qualify as a National Collection of Ferns (British), and sure enough 
it did in 1999, after 1 had made a formal application. In compiling my species list, 1 
noted that nearly 40% of native British fern species are rare, vulnerable or 
threatened, mainly through loss of habitat. This focused on the question of in situ 
versus ex situ conservation, i.e. respectively, preserving intact the whole of the wild 
habitat that contains the species, as against keeping the species alive through 
horticulture (and/or storage of spores). Thus what with me had started as a gardening 
hobby collection of native British ferns had become an example of ex situ 

it seems likely that such collections may become 
increasingly attractive as insurance against loss of those species whose wild habitats 
are threatened. According to some pessimists (are they realists?), if present trends 
continue, the whole of Britain will eventually consist of nothing but built-up areas 
and highways, intensively managed farmland, and national parks. Whether or not this 
happens, I hope the BPS will encourage other National Collections of British Ferns, 
especially as many members already have extensive collections in their gardens. 
The conservation of cultivars is a separate and perhaps more important u 
we are to avoid the tragic extinguishing of native fern varieties, such as occurred 
after World War 2 when major collections were thoughtlessly destroyed. 
Although ferns are common in the British countryside, the number of different species 
is quite small. In fact, there are only about 53 native species, the exact figure depending 
on whether certain taxa are treated as full species, subspecies or varieties. This flora is 
therefore very modest when compared, for example, with Japan's 600+ species of ferns. 
A major causative factor in Britain was what might be called 'plant ethnic cleansing', 
brought about by the Pleistocene glaciations, which Japan escaped. Thus the 10,000 
years since the last ice retreated from Britain may not have been long enough for 
restoration of a presumably larger pre-glaciation flora. I am therefore investigating just 
how wide a range of temperate foreign species might grow in Glasgow. These activities 
are directed at creating a "Garden of Potentially British Ferns', which may even come 
within striking distance of Japan's 600+ species. 

I cannot end without saying something about tree-ferns, especially as Dicksonia 
antarctica is now a naturalised alien and represented in my garden. It was Martin 
Rickard who introduced me to these fascinating plants and who has been a sustaining 

successor as President is Dr Adrian Dyer. Unlike me, he is a professional 
pteridologist with a worldwide reputation and I am confident that the Society will 
prosper with his leadership. 



Introduction Yvonne Golding & Graham Ackers 

Trinidad lies at the southern end of the huge sweep of Caribbean islands and is situated just 
seven miles off the coast of Venezuela. Being just 10° north of the equator it falls into the 
tropical zone. Geologically, Trinidad was formed from deltaic deposits dumped by the 
Orinoco River; it is composed solely of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Only 10,000 
years ago Trinidad was joined by a land bridge to the mainland. As a consequence it has a 
very rich fauna and flora derived mainly from South America but also from the Lesser 
Antilles. Climatically the island enjoys an average temperature of 32°C, which drops by 
around 5°C at night, although it gets much cooler than this with altitude. When we visited in 
January (reputedly the dry season) we experienced quite a range of temperatures (although 
never cold) and endured some quite heavy showers, after which humidity reached 100%, 
but then one part of the island can experience quite different weather from another. The 
northern part of the island is dominated by a range of mountains running east-west (the 
Northern Range), which is covered in forest and rises to over 900m in places. Other ranges 
of lower altitude occur in the middle (Central Range) and in the south (Trinity Hills). 
Swamps occur around the coast, the best known being the Caroni Swamp lying just south of 
the capital, Port of Spain. The rest of the island consists of undulating plains and savanna, 
some of which have been significantly transformed by agriculture. 

Having completed the journal editing of the Trinidad and Tobago fern checklist in 2000 
(Baksh-Comeau, 2000), Josephine Camus of the Natural History Museum suggested the 
idea of a BPS field excursion to Trinidad, and we agreed with Yasmin Comeau that this 
should go ahead in January 2004. A few initial comments on the excursion logistics would 
be appropriate. The party stayed at the Pax Guest House in the southern foothills of the 
Northern Range, this being an ideal location for most of the sites visited. The Guest House 
is part of the Mount St Benedict Monastery Estate, the managers having effected a guest 
house conversion with a quaintly colonial feel. The accommodation is ideal for people and 
parties undertaking ecological pursuits, as exemplified by the deployment of various bird 
feeders in the gardens. Our transport was a combination of minibus and private vehicles, 
including very valuable 4x4s. Yasmin organised the daily excursion sites, on each of which 
we were accompanied by a combination of guides - Yasmin herself, her husband Paul 
aeau, Winston Johnson (Senior Technician at the Herbarium), Dan Jaggernauth and 

Edmund Charles. The 

presence of these people was essential to us, as the majority of the 
»«» wuuiu nave oeen impossible to follow without expert local knowledge. 
The BPS party members were Graham Ackers, Patrick Acock, Roland Ennos, Yvonne 
lichael Hayward, Jennifer Ide, Elise Knox-Thomas, Andrew Leonard, Frank 
McGavigan, Martin Rickard, Paul Ripley and Lesley Williams. 

The sites visited are numbered in the section headings below and the species table (p. 191), 
and coincide with the site locations map (p. 190). The literature we used to help identify the 
ferns included Yasmin's checklist (see above), a ring-bound book illustrations 
mnallv prepared by John Mickel for a student course (Mickel, 1985), and a Lesser 
full flora of the Trinidad ferns has yet to be produced, 
o the Trinidadian environment was gleaned from Jermy, 

responsibility fc 
inevitably show 

on longer BPS excursions, different members of the party took 

i recording and reporting individual days, and s 
variations in style, content and length! 

National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago (Friday 9th) \ vonn« ( iolding 

On our first morning we were welcomed to The National Herbarium o\' Timid. id and 
Tobago by Yasmin, who is the curator. She gave us an informative talk aboul the Iumop, 
and development of the herbarium. The Herbarium was established in 1887 by John H. 
Hart, the superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Port of Spam, For sixty years it 
was managed by the Department of Agriculture based in St Clair, Port of Spain. In 1947 it 
was transferred to the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, now the Faculty of Science 
and Agriculture. The Herbarium, which gained national status in 1972. operates from the 
Sir Frank Stockdale Building on the St Augustine campus o( I he I imersin of the West 
Indies. Overall the herbarium contains about 70.000 specimens (including c. 3,000 
pteridophytes), some of which date back to 1 844. It is an excellent resource. The current 
checklist of pteridophytes numbers 302 species with eight varieties or subspecies in 2"" 
families and 77 genera. Of these, 282 species are believed to be indigenous to Trinidad and 
Tobago. This reinforced our belief that we were clearly going to hav e a productive trip! 
Then followed a fascinating lecture about the vegetation of Trinidad given by Paul ( 'omeau 
Paul is a plant community ecologist, and taught ecology at UWI. Originally from Canada, 
he studied for his PhD with David Bellamy at Durham before coming to Hie West Indies 
and meeting Yasmin, who later became his wife. 
Although not a large island (approaching 2.000 square mile: 
has a wide range of natural vegetation types; 1 8% is covered 
is dwindling. It contains four types of forest - evergreen, semi-evergreen, deciduous and 
littoral woodland. The main habitats are lower montane forest (250-750m) with an 
abundance of ferns, montane rain forests (confined to altitudes 750-840m) with plenty of 
epiphytes and tall tree-ferns, some elfin woodland <840-925m) characterised by trees with 
short, gnarled stems with palms and tree-ferns, brackish swamps containing three genera of 
mangrove, fresh water swamps with many palms, herbaceous swamps, savanna surrounded 
by marsh forest, and grassland. 

Our itinerary was to include all these vegetation types. We were promised ten-metre high 
tree-ferns in the montane forests. By this time we were in a highly excitable state at the 
prospect of what was to come. After a good lunch at the university we returned to our 
excellent guest house and set off on our first tropical walk up Mount St Benedict. 
Site 1, Mount St Benedict (Friday 9th) Graham Ackers 

This walk we did alone, without any of our guides, and we managed not to get lost! 
Reaching the start of the trail involved a short but steep walk along paved roads within the 
monastery estate. Ferns observed on the walls were Pteris villata, Nephmlepis hiscrratu 
and Pityrogramma calomelanos. We reached the Old Donkey Trail, which initially runs 
along the side of a steep valley in closed canopy forest, which appeared to be fairly dry. 
Ferns seen were Blechnum 
delightful Anemia species and Lygodium v 
the humidity level increased noticeably and so did the presence of ferns, some very large - 
Cvclopcitis semiconLna. Lastreopsis effusa and Tectaria incisa were particularly striking. 
Of more modest size, P<>: s occurred on the stream bridge. Ferns 

present both on the higher path and by the stream were Bolbitis portoricensis and 
Thelyptehs tetragona. After crossing the stone bridge, the path wound up the other side of 
the valley; this section appeared even dryer than the first. Despite this, one filmy fern, 
Trichomanes pinnatum was seen and also the scrambling Lygodium volubile. The trail 
reached a pine forest plantation, at which point we turned round and retraced our steps. A 
total of six species of Adiantum was recorded from along the whole of the trail. A very 
attractive leaflet describing the trail was available from the guest house (although its main 
focus was birds and butterflies, not much help with fern identifications!) 

Site 2, Morne Bleu (Saturday 10th) Pat Acock 

After a fair drive we reached our destination, the top of the ridge west of Morne Bleu. 
While waiting for the whole convoy to arrive we busied ourselves identifying the ferns of 
the woodland edge. For those new to the tropics the two gleicheniaceous ferns 
Dicranopteris pect nata and ( Hi i i i nia remota were of special interest although there were 
also cyatheas and Hypolepis repens. The rain started coming down but was compensated for 
by the arrival of a spectacular blue humming bird. We were joined by Yasmin and Paul 
Comeau and many colleagues from departments as diverse as geology, forestry and 
anthropology. Howard Griffiths from Cambridge University, who was studying gas 

Eventually we sat down for h 
were joined by our guide, Edmund. 

around where we were, while others 
went on with Edmund, who hacked his 
way forward to reach the summit of 
As we moved upwards we 

-11 as a large group of the spectacular (as the name suggests) Trichomanes elegans. 

stietTt 1 " 8 t0 ^ VChlCleS " largC C00 ' b ° X awaited us ' Ml of fruit J uices as weU aS thC 
through ou^TedmTm" 08 - ^^ ^ ddighted with the day ' we spent the evening S ° rting 

^MorugaBouffe (Sunday 1 

^ochoy Hlg hway to San Fernando Then 

planned! After a very early breakfast we set off along 

inland through sugar c 

south of the island to the Moruga Mora Forest, about nine kilometres east-north-east of 
Moruga, along the Moruga River. A previous reconnoitre had shown that the intended track 
was overgrown and considered too dangerous to attempt because of possible hidden mud 
volcano vents in the ground. A hunters' trail was followed instead. 

After parking the vans near a 'nodding donkey' oil well, which captured our interest for a 
while, we started through degenerate secondary forest. The more common trees of this 
forest included Guazuma ulmifolia. Cupunhi umcruunu. Cccropiu peltam. the shrub-like 

the trees in the forest, it alone is (usually) without climbing \incs and epiphytes. Directly 
above some of the leaf scars along its trunk, which can reach a height of 20m, is a pit 
through which ants of the genus Azteca gain access to a cavity below, in which thc> li\e. 
The plant secretes globules of energy-rich glycogen at the leaf base, which is used by the 
ants, and which, in turn, keep the tree free from vines and epiphytes. The ground flora was 
dominated by Helkonia species, particularly the large H. bihai (wild plantain), with its 
banana-like leaves and large terminal inflorescence. Heliconias are typically found in 
secondary forests in Trinidad, many of which have succeeded abandoned cocoa and coffee 
plantations. The degeneration of the secondary forest at Moruga is the result of the 
! of the forest by the pipe-laying activities of the oil company. Ferns were not 
>us in this secondary forest and the number ol specie-- was small. Growing 
along the trackside was a Thelyptehs and occasionally Tectaria incisa was seen in the 
general vegel atio . er bank. 

After an hour's trek through the secondary forest, the vegetation suddenly changed and we 
entered a Mora forest. Unlike the typical diverse tropical forest, the trees are substantially a 
mono-specific stand, eighty percent of the tree cover being Mora excelsa (mora). On the 
forest floor, emerging from their extraordinarily large, bean-like seeds, were mora saplings 
with uniquely pale, vertically hanging leaves. Palms dominated the subcanopy of this 
primary forest, Roystonea oleracea being common. The trees frequently support lianas and 
epiphytes, although the latter were not as prolific as had been observed in other forest types 
we visited. The forest is liable to regular flooding, with the result that the ground vegetation 
is open. Ferns were far more common than in the secondary forest, but the diversity in 
terms of number of species and life forms was low. Certainly ferns \ 
component of the ground community. Terrestrial ferns recorded wen 
(stream and river banks), A. macrophyllum (moist rocky I 
pinnae of which are glaucous blue underneath), A. obliquum (common), A. polyphyllum 
(introduced as an ornamental), A. pidverulentum (frequent along path, fertile when well 
inside the forest), A. villosum (common on banks and hillsides). Ly^ndium venustum ( only 
small, young plants seen), Selaginella sp. (specimen to be identified stems rooting at their 
tip), S. muscosa (in damp areas along the path), Thelyptehs dentata (introduced), 
T. poiteana (by the path, common), T. permata (banks), T. serrata (wetter areas of the forest 
floor) and T. tetragona (banks, common). Epiphytes that we identified on tree trunks were 
Asplenium serratum (A. nidus look-alike), Dicranoglossum desvauxii (on mossy tree trunks, 
small, dichotomously forking, tufted, sori at tip of each lobe), Niphidium crassifolium 
(another Asplenium nidus look-alike from a distance) and Microgramma acatellela 
(frequently seen on fallen trees). 

Unfortunately, after three hours of hard walking along a very muddy, slippery track we still 
had not reached our first objective and so it was decided to abandon the intended 
programme, which eventually would have brought us to the Moruga Bouffe, a large and 
active mud volcano area. After a rest for lunch, we decided to return the way we had come 
for fear of not being out of the forest before darkness fell. On returning to the vans, a single 
specimen of Pityrogramma calomelanos was found at the parking area. 

To assuage our disappointment at not seeing the Moruga Bouffe, the most inaccessible of the 
mud- volcanoes of Trinidad but said to be the most spectacular, our drivers kindly rushed us to 
the Devil's Woodyard mud volcanoes near Princes Town. However, these were merely metre- 
high mounds hardly oozing mud! Victor Quesnel, a native Trinidadian, could not 
"Fancy bringing these people to what must be the most unspectacular site in Trinidadr 
It was a very tired party that finally arrived back, late and hungry, at the hotel. 
Site 4, Aripo Savanna, & Site 5, Marsh Forest (Monday 12th) Andrew Leonard & Paul Ripley 
This was supposed to be an easy day after the extraordinary exertions of the previous two 

as usual. Our minibus driver then stopped at the Arima crossroads so that we could buy our 
lunch at the roadside roti stalls. At 10.30 we arrived at the first site, Aripo Savannas Scientific 
Reserve. After a short hot walk in the sun, we entered the relative cool of a shady forest. 
Epiphytic polypodiums and track-side Lindsaea stricta var. stricta were the features here. 
Following our guide, Dan Jaggernauth, we proceeded to walk towards a river where the fern 
'inella plana prominent, together with Adiantum and cyatheas. 
; river, we found a colony of bats waiting to be photographed, 
across the savanna. This was 
characteristic stands of the Moriche palm 
Ditches contained water at the time of our visit but this area must 
become parched in the dry season. Andrew luckily spotted a mouse opossum (locally 
manicou grozier), which posed in a bush for us for several minutes. 

t what ferns we had seen during the 

Site 6, Cerro del Aripo to Peak Two, and Site 7, Cerro del Aripo to Peak Five (Tuesday 13th) 
Frank McGavigan & Michael Hayward 

J Aripo, at 940m, is the highest point in Trinidad. The programme warned "All Day 
"^ strenuous", and so it proved. The approach starts on La Laja Road, which soon 
becomes impassable for vehicles (the area is sparsely populated and therefore lacks 
htical clout to encourage resurfacing). We continued on foot in blazing sun for 
two hours before reaching the trail proper. Paul Comeau said it would take another four 
nours to reach the top with its Elfin Forest, characterised by a low tree canopy, constant wet 
nuance of mosses and ferns. It was already 11.00 a.m. so it looked unlikely 

( envd 

• but when Dan Jaggernaul 

could we resist the attempt? So the pa 
™n .. Pat, Paul and Frank, accompanied by Howard Griffiths i 

Hailey (an amphibian special 
others, led by Yasmin and F 

on the high trail to Peak Five (the highest peak), whil 
explored the lower slopes of Peak Two in more detail. 

on the me T bef ° re dark the Upper part y P romised t0 blinker 

up- But of course the temptation was too great. Almost immediately we spotted 

inctomanesosmundoides, which we had been sen the week, and 

fern Ttf * K ma S nif,cent fiI my ferns of the size and beauty of our own Killarney 

, out tar more abundant. Indeed we became quite blase about them. The trail, which Dan 

neakfrX 8 *" redlSC0Ver b * hackin g his way through the bush. 

branch t< 

very steep and always muddy and slippery. But don't think of grabbing a 

steady yourself because 

many of the palms and tree-ferns a 
J is always the possibility of 

others with biting a 

four poisonous snakes or the occasional tu_ 

ctedtH^T ^ SCt by Dan ' fems were exa ™^ Photographs t 
collected and valiantly earned back by Pat for later identification (over h diffei 

came when Andrew ., ■ , | |,j s beautiful fen is covered with fine 

: immediately called it the 'mm tern") with a soli texture to the fronds (unlike most 
! tough and hard to the touch). It is quite a rarity in Trinidad. ha\ ing onh 
J e of these by Yasmin on this very trail - probably the s 

ri the past. Near the top Paul spotted Ehpho K hssum , rimtum (one 
Ithat day). This one had large. o\ate (pointed paddle-shaped), simple 
uonus some :ou x /uumm in size with a black bristly stipe - very impressive. As we not lu-hci the 
tree-ferns grew taller, one right at the final summit being some ten metres high. These were almost 
certainly the endemic Cyathcu sagittihlia although the height o\' the fronds made exact 
identification impossible. There are six Cyathea species in Trinidad. w ith ( sagittifolia abundant in 

made it to the top in two and a half hours - a very creditable performance according to Dan. 
The second group took a more leisurely pace along the same track as far as Peak Two. where 
we lunched and spent over an hour in wl t b r lubbed 'tree-fern heaven'. Iveiy 

view across the plateau of this, the second highest peak in the group, or down the steep 
approach slopes, revealed numerous Cyathea sagittifolia. On the slopes there were many 
single-stemmed tree-ferns whose trunks, perhaps ten centimetres in diameter, seemed too 
narrow to be able to support their great height. On the plateau many of the tree-terns had 
multiple stems arising from a common base, with an occasional branching trunk; this habit 
may be the result of damage from a hurricane in earlier years. Although it was not possible to 
verify the identities of the tallest specimens, no cyatheas other then C. sagittifolia were 
identified on this peak. The climbing ferns Polybotiya osmundacea and Salpichlaena vohtbUu 
festooned many of the hardwood trees, together with multiple small climbing potypodftims, 
whilst lianas hung down from the canopy and bromeliads were everywhere. Almost all tree 
boles were home to one or more Trichomanes species. T. crispum being the most common. 

On our return through the lower montane forest we found many delightful spots with an 
abundance of fern species. Yvonne pointed out Asplenium cirrhatum, whose elongated 
frond tips root to form daughter plants without bulbil formation. Within five metres 
were arboreal specimens of the rather skeletal Polypodium loriceum, small climbing 
polypodiums, two Danaea. Cnemidaha and numerous filmy ferns with three Trichomanes 
species intermingled on a single tree trunk! 


indelible mem 

both groups arrived 
ories of the delights 

1 back at 
of this tr 

the vehicles at the same 

time, bo,h wM ,heir 

National Herbarium of Trinidad & Tobago (Wednesday 14th) Yvonne Golding 

& Graham Ackers 

After our strenuous trip to Cerro del Aripo the day before, some of us hobbled into the 
herbarium for a quiet morning devoted to identifying some of the material we had gathered 
over the previous few days. Personally. I (Yvonne) had become fascinated by some 
pteridophytes that quite honestly looked like angiosperms; sometimes only the tell-tale 
pattern of sporangia on the underside of leaves identified these plants as ferns. Examples 
were some Tectaria species, Hypodenis brownii. a magnificent fern, and Thetyptem 
poiteana, which looks nothing like our British thelypterid beech fern! 
Inspecting the herbarium material conveyed to us much more information than the literature 
we were using, and in some ways it was a pity that we were unable to make more use of the 
herbarium, but our schedule was fairly hectic! As well as checking ferns, we were able to 
inspect other departmental reference material, especially books and maps. Also, thanks to 
the staff in the herbarium, we fortified ourselves with coffees and lunch. 


In the late afternoon we took a trip in a flat-bottomed boat through the Caroni Swamp, which is 
situated just south of the capital, Port of Spain. This area (6,000 hectares or 15,000 acres) is 
protected and designated as a bird sanctuary; 157 species of bird are to be found here. Our 
boatman was very knowledgeable and had a keen eye, identifying birds as they flew over and 
spotting animals hidden in the mangroves. He stopped near a clump of fern but we were unable to 
identify it from the boat (later deliberations led to the conclusion that it was Blechnum serrulatum). 
On the way out to the main lagoon we saw the three species of mangrove with mangrove 
oysters and crabs living on the tangled mass of stilt roots. We saw two Cook's tree boas, 
one filling a hole in a tree and one coiled on a branch above us. These boas, although 
reaching five to six feet, are harmless, to humans at least. Our boatman showed us 
numerous differe ng by a vegetated island, where we sat and waited for 

the 'floor show' to begin. People travel the world to see flocks of scarlet ibis come to roost 
in the trees of the Caroni Swamp. They fly 40 miles every night from the Venezuelan 
mainland to find sanctuary here. The brilliant scarlet colour is derived from carotenoids 
found in the crustaceans on which the birds feed. Along with the ibis come flocks of snowy 
egrets skimming the surface of the lagoon. It is a magnificent sight guaranteed to melt the 
heart of even the most fervent ferner; it was truly a reflective moment. 
By this time it was getting dark and our boatman expertly navigated the canals back to the 
landing stage. In the light of his floodlight we had an unexpected sighting of a caiman, five 
to six feet in length, floundering near the bank in the wash of the boat. A pretty exciting 
finish to what was an unforgettable trip, despite the lack of ferns. 
Site 9, North Oropouche (Thursday 15th) Pat Acock 

ter exertions we travelled to the east of the Northern Range, 
™c ine nnai part of our minibus ride was made more exciting by the recent extraction of 
gravel, the passage of large lorries had broken off one side of a bridge and caused considerable 
mage and muddying of the access road. As soon as we left the vehicles, Pityrogramtna 

I } 1 t was s 
evergreen forest ( 
very different 
which we had experienced before, and 

small juvenile plants of which were 
initially speculated by a number of us 
:n we reached 

spleenwort that lives n 

with occasional fertile fronds produced 

when the water level drops, Asplenium 


Many now took the opportunity of a 

swim in a small pool in the river. 

After lunch Martin showed us a fallen 

tree, straddled across the river and 

under which many of us had swum, 

' : 

herminieri, E. rigidum, E. pteropus, 
Oleandra articulata and a few 
polypodiums and Trichomanes. 

Site 10, Asa Wright South of the Col, & Site 1 1, North of the Col (Friday 16th) Martin Rickard 

This was a day set aside as spare time, but such was the appeal of the beautiful Trinidadian 
forests and their ferns in particular that the vast majority of our party opted for a day largely 
like its predecessors. After an early start our minibus took us up to the Asa Wright bird 
sanctuary. This is a residential centre set deep in the steep forested hills, with terraces 
overlooking magnificent views and with a wonderful array of birds continually flitting in and 
out of view. Half the party decided to stay here for a couple of hours while a small group of the 
most hard-headed fern enthusiasts (Pat Acock, Andrew Leonard, Paul Ripley and I) set off up 
the road examining the fern-festooned banks. Until we reached the col we were in full sun on 
the south side of the Mome Bleu Ridge, but ferns abounded. Most were by now becoming 

iir steps and approaching 
the cars, we encountered a man who 
thoughl that we might have some influence with the j 
and the gravel extraction butted right up to his 
to help but sympathised with his position. Whilst waiting for the r 
one or two of us looked at the damage the extraction was causing and were able 
one of the palms, normally deep in the forest, to find it had Potypodium tris 
nany plants of Vittaha lineata c 

island was Phlebodh 
the flora changed; 
bulbiferous tip, T. 
spicant, T. crispum 

member all their names!) bu 
miliar as a houseplant in the UK. Once over the col 
:re common, e.g. Trichomanes pinnatum with its 
ct sporing fronds strangely reminiscent of BU ■ hnun 
not unlike Potypodium vulgare, and T. diaphanum 
To me. the Hymenophyllaceae were the jewel in the 

Trinidadian fern crown - all 

■•. .v ■■ ■ .. ■ .■■•. ■■■■ ■-■■.,■ ■ 

r bird-watching colleagues. 
j than snail's pace, 
slow enough to wish we were walking but too fast to identify the goodies as we passed. 

bathe in the Caribbean from a sandy, palm-fringed beach at Maracas Bay. Great - except 
that our visit coincided with a prolonged tropical cloudburst! After lunch we drove on 
round the moun urn from the minibus, to make a brief 

shopping stop in Port of Spain before returning to the hotel. 
Site 12, Soho Caves (Saturday 17th) Andrew Leonard & Paul Ripley 

Standing: Paul Comeau, Pat 
Beresford, J 

Outside The National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago 

Acock, Bolapersad Rampartap (; 
n Rickard, Frank McGavigan, ' 

I cslc\ \\ illiaim. Michael Hayward, Elise Knox-Thomas, Paul Ripley, Jennifer k„, . . . 
Kncdrng: Peter Harris, Winston Johnson, Dan Juggemauth. \ . ish i M< li u in ed. Reginald Potter, 

we nad to get up for an early breakfast so we could get to the university for a quick group 
photograph. This was a popular day as we were joined by about 15 locals, making this our 
largest party of the excursion. We left the university at 8.20 a.m. and set off in one minibus 
and five cars. The condition of the local road near the start point was too bad for our driver 
to take his minibus, so the British contingent had a half hour walk uphill in the searing heat 
to meet the locals who had the courage to drive their cars over the potholes. Shortly 
afterwards the heavens opened and we set off along the main trail in a tremendous 
downpour that continued for the next hour. We start© I h the mud in a 

orest, the ferns getting increasingly exotic as we proceeded. After 90 minutes we came to 
an area with large limestone rocks. This was our first encounter with a limestone area and 
r>T W u er u, m ? ny mterestin S and new ferns to find, im rul aspleniums. 

Other highlights included, surprisingly, Didymochlaena truncatula, Hvpociems brown. 

Afterwards we - a a of the « bole excursion, 

the giant Pteris gigantea. Looking like tree-terns without a trunk. the\ had fronds up to 
three metres in length. After a few false starts, our group eventually found the caves that we 
were looking for. Emanating from one ea\e were the most fearful cries created by the 
resident oil birds. Locals say these are the spirits of their ancestors calling. A few of us 
descended into the cave. It was like entering hell, pitch black except for our torchlight, the 
ground covered in guano and strange wb ds bad brought back from 

their night-time forays. Deep inside the ca\e the buds, in some panic, (lew about our heads 
as attempts were made to photograph them. The torch of one of the locals failed and we 
were left in total darkness before the other local managed to find his torch. We made our 
way slowly back to the cars, where we all met up again and found that one group bad made 
the difficult journey all the wa> to the better-known Soho Caves. Trekking in these forests 
is hazardous - tracks become obscured very quickly. Keeping up with our guides as they 
blazed their trial was imperative. Another of our groups unfortunately did not find any 

On our way home, we stopped at the university to : 
excellent guides - Dan and Winston. This was the first night we were too tired and dim to 
identify ferns before going to bed. 

Site 13, Maracas Valley (Sunday 18th) Frank McGavigan & Michael Hayward 

This was our final day and by popular demand due to be a leisurely one. In the morning we 
\ isited Judith Procope's garden to see ferns in a tropical garden context. For many years Judith 
led the Trinidad and Tobago Horticultural Society delegation to Chelsea, winning several gold 
medals. Hers is not specifically a fem garden but she uses ferns liberally both as highpoints 
and background to her stunning display of tropical plants. Enormous hanging baskets of 
Platycerium, Davallia, and Phlebodium are strategically placed under trees and other shady 
places. As in many tropical gardens, van Is over a metre in 

length, thrive as 'fillers' in the borders, and in a small formal pond by the house she has a floating 
fern (Salvinia). After a hectic week of fern hunting in the wild this was our only opportunity to 
see cultivated ferns in a domestic setting, and a very relaxed and pleasant visit it was. 
Not so relaxed, was our afternoon trip to Maracas Falls. We added considerably to the 
distance we had to walk in the afternoon sun by believing an astute, entrepreneurial ten year 
old who said that the road was impassable for vehicles and we would be better to park at his 
house for a fee of $10TT. One had to admire his cheek. 

The walk to the Falls was uphill all the way, hot and sticky, and not particularly ferny by 
Trinidad standards but adiantums, selaginellas and Blechnum occidentale were common by 
the roadside The first new fern to be found, on the steep rocky bank by the upper part of 
the track, was the diminutive Hemionitis palmata. Overlooked at first, it proved to be quite 
common when we got our eyes in. After much searching, the delicate Blechnum gracile was 
also found in these banks. There was a notable absence of Cyathea from the upper woods, 
probably the result of harvesting for the orchid compost trade in past years from this readily 
accessible site but a few Cnemidaria spectabilis with very short trunks were found. 
As we reached the falls, an open hillock covered by the tall-growing Selaginella plana was 
an impressive sight. The view of the waterfall itself was quite magnificent. At 95 metres 
high and with the water volume not yet diminished by the oncoming dry season the sight 
was spectacular. Asplenium monodon was found around the basin of the falls. One of 
Trinidad's many religious cults was holding a small ceremony but seemed to have no objection 
to being joined in the water by the BPS, perhaps recognising a fellow minority group. 

t having the c 

s particularly pleased t< 

d promote the value and wonders of the n 

• The logistics worked extremely well, and grateful thanks are due to Yasmin and Paul 

Comeau, Winston Johnson and the other members of Yasmin' s herbarium staff, our two 

extremely fit guides Dan and Edmund, our minibus driver Jeewan, and party member 

Prank McGavigan, who borrowed his sister-in-law's car to help with the transport. 

Thanks also to the managers of the Pax Guest House, Gerald and Oda, for making our 

stay so enjoyable and furnishing us with fine meals. 

Notes on the fern species table Graham Ackers & Martin Rickard 

he species list that follows was prepared by Pat Acock (many thanks Pat!) from all of our 

records. To most of us the tropical fern flora was a new experience. Many i 

s nine sessions u^.Mi^l ia«< a„ ini « ewI1M Wp 

1 indispensable guide b 

records to be checked. 

: able to check doubtful 1 

lar difficulties were encountered with adiantums, thelypteri 

'atheas (fronds difficult to reach). Unlikely records 

caution and should r 

:cessarily 1 

as occurring in Trinidad 


checklist (Baksh-Comeau, 2000) Yasmin recognises 302 ferns 
Tobago, and we have listed 148. Names are as per Yasmin's 
with names used by John Mickel in brackets where the genus and/or species 
was absent from Yasmin's list. Pteris ensiformis 'Victoriae', noted at Site 12, 
uoes not appear in either list and had presumably escaped from cultivation. 

Baksh-Comeau, YS.^OOO. Checklist of the Pteridophytes of Trinidad & Tobago. Fern Gaz. 
1985. Cytotaxonomic studies of the ferns of Trinidad. 1. The climate, geology, and 

M . k J. uZboJ n'S r 3 3 h 1 f 7 rticular reference to the eco, °gy of fems - BulL Br Mus - 

Arnold Arboretum, Mas 

. (Ed.) Flora of ti 

Sue l: Mount St Benedict 

Site 2: Morne Bleu 

Site 3: Moruga Bouffe 

Site 4: Aripo Savanna 

Site 5: Marsh Forest 

Site 6: Cerro del Aripo to Peak 

Site 7: Cerro del Aripo to Peak 

Site 8: Caroni Bird Sanctuary (n< 

Site 9: North Oropouche 

Site 10: Asa Wight South of the Col 

: B. semtlatum also at Site 8. Caroni Bird Sanctuary 



























Adiantopsis radiata 

\diantum latifolium 






A. macrophyllum 

A. obliquum 

A. petiolatum 


A. pulverulentum 

A. tetraphyllum 

A. villosum 

Anemia pastinacaria 


A. phvllitidis 

Asplenium cirrhatum (A. acutiserratum) 

A monodon(A auritum) 




Blechnum gracile (B. fraxineum) 

Blotiella lindeniana (-) 



Campyloneurum phyllitidis ( PolvrKKlmm I 

Cnemidaria ^peetabilis 








C. microphyllodes 

C. sagittifolia 




C. surinamensis (C. hirsuta) 

Cyclodium meniscioides 



Cvctopeltis semicordata 

D. fendleri) 

D.Jeprieurii (D. elliptica) 

D. nodosa 



Site Site Site Site J 

Site Site Site Site 

Dicra nogloss um des vauxii 

Di dymoc hlaena truncatula 
Dip lazium centrip etale 














Pityrogramma calomclanos 

Pleopcltis astrolcpis (Polvpodium) 


P. osmundacea 






Polypodium dulce (P. sororium) 

P. lonceum 

P. polypodioides 

P. triseriale 





Pteri.s ensiformis 'Victoriae' 

P. vittata 



Saccoloma inaequale 

Schizaea elegans 

Selaginella diffusa 

S. muscosa 



T. incisa 

T. plantaginea 

Thelypteris decussata 


T. dentata 

T. glandulosa 

T. macrophylla 

T. patens 



T. reptans 


T. tetragona 

T. diaphanum (T. hymenophylloides) 

T. elegans 





T. osmundoides 




T. polvpodioides 

T. rigidum 


T. trigonum var. fimbriatum (T. superbum) 

Triplophyllum funestum (( tenitis 




Vittaria gramimfolia 

V lincata i Antrophyum) 



Michael Hayward (Saturday) & Leonard Winning (Sunday) 

Eleven members met on the outskirts of Southampton under a rather overcast sky to 
explore Lord's Wood, a mixed coniferous and deciduous plantation of over 50 hectares 
just south of the M27 (41/398160). Pteridium aquilinum on the outskirts of the wood 
soon gave way to the dominant ferns, Dryopteris carthusiana, D. dilatata and many 
Uhyrium filix-femina, including plants with deep red stipes. The prime object of our 
search in the woods was the delicate Equisetum sylvaticum and a number of colonies 
were soon found. Leaving the woods, which are under threat from proposed development 
of a new campus for the University of Southampton, we explored a small stream with 
lightly wooded banks by Beaulieu Close, one kilometre south of Lord's Wood. Brushing 
aside the brambles and nettles we found the large colony of Equisetum hyemale. Many 
stems were topped with the classical 'crown' of teeth shed from the sheaths as the stem 
grows. It was interesting to compare plants of garden-centre origin later in the day, and 
ssion about the true identity of the commercial plants, which 

The Dibden church car park (41/397087) yielded E. arvense and more Pteridium 
< quilinun . which from now onwards was a constant roadside feature of the heath and 
woodland ot the New Forest. Polypodium vulgare grew high on the church wall. 
Asplemum scolopendrium and A. trichomonas subsp. quadrivalent were quite plentiful 
at lower levels. Dibden is the only recorded New Forest site foi .1 ceterach, which 
grows on a dwarf retaining wall opposite the church entrance. We found the wall now 
largely overgrown with ivy from the sloping ground above and only a single remaining 
plant of A. ceterach was found. A gardener in the church graveyard assured us that he 
recoler ^ *""* ** iVy ' S ° * remainS t0 be Seen Whether ° n n0t the COl ° ny Wi " 

The next stop was for lunch at a local pub outside Beaulieu. The sun was now shining 
brightly, remaining so for the rest of the weekend. On the wall separating Beaulieu church 
trom the estate there is a large colony of Polypodium cambricum (41/388026). As last 
season s growth was very withered and the new season's growth had only just started, no 
sporangia were available to study, so the species status of the polypody had to be taken on 
rust Wis is a site to visit later in the year. Asplemum ruta-muraria and A. trichomams 
valens were abundant on the churchyard perimeter wall, together with a few 


top was the old airfield site o 
> the first patch of Ophioghi 

^ - '-■'■■■ " , ,,. 

irehing for 30 minutes we failed to find any. 

i by now clear that v 

r a feast of ferns and fern allies on this meeting and 

strea H "^ disappoint At Cr °cltford Bridge (40/350990) there is a small clear 

on th?c me l n§ aCr ° SS the heath with a number of shallow pools with wooded margins 

^^770 1££ h r h h i the car pa *' ™** man * smai1 orchids ^ wa ? 

rernoni«, * i . azoncum - As wel1 as the many fertile spikes, we soon came to 

another T ^ l ^ of ™™V°™Z I***, frequently sited as pairs facing one 

- metres from the O. azoricum colony were typical larger plants of 

e car park and the stream we found / <////s. rum uiimih ui 
and £. arvense. Growing in 10-20cm of water in the pools beside the stream were main 
plants of E.fluvUirilf with its drinking-straw-like Moms thai collapse when genth squeezed. 
In the mud beside the stream, trampled with hoof prints o\ the New Forest ponies, was a 
colony of Pilularia globulifera, many 'pills' clearly visible to the naked eye on the surface 
of the mud, with further colonies later found by the ponds upstream. Many varieties of 
damselfly and a few dragonflies flitted over the stream and shoals of small fish were seen 
On the far bank of the stream, by the bridge, was the fourth Equisctum for the site. 
E. palustre. 

i brief stop in Warborne Lane, Boldre (40/335975), where a number o\~ large 
sctiferum lined the hanks o\' the narrow lane. Large plants oi~ Asplenium 

i grew in shade > 

, buckler ferns. Of 

I a very large polypody growing on a wall in the lane. There was 
d whether this was a hybrid, but no firm conclusions were reached. 
The final site was Spinners Garden (40/325978), where we were given a conducted tour by 
the very knowledgeable Kevin Hughes. The one hectare woodland garden, on a slope 
overlooking the Ly.n.ngton River, was full of quality planting. We concentrated on the 
many British and foreign ferns and there was much discussion about the provenance ol 
some of the large blechnums. Kevin told us that his large Duksonia anion ma specimens. 
sheltered by the woodland, are given no extra protection during the winter and survive 
unscathed Several members were later tempted by the choice plants for sale in the nursery 
section of the garden. More members were tempted back to tea and cakes at the house of 
Ashley and Jo Basil, where we also enjoyed the good company and the ferns in the garden. 

Spinners Garden, P 

Jurgie Schedler, Ashley Basil, Howard Matthews, Patrick Acock, Leonard Winning, 
Alison Evans. Michael Ha\ ward. Jo Basil, Graham Ackers, Kevin Hughes, Ann Robbins 

After tea we dispersed in various directions, a small hardy group being led by Andrew 
Leonard to Beaulieu Road Station, where we walked for a further hour in the evening sun 
amongst the sundews, bog asphodels and cotton grass of the heathland. Lycopodiella 
inundata has been reported from this area but despite our best endeavours we failed to find 
any, finally retiring to the local pub for our evening meal after a remarkable day's ferning. 


Sunday morning was warm and bright, and the group met under gorgeous blue skies al 
Wilverley Inclosure (41/245005) amidst the mixed aromas of firs and bracken. We followed a 
trail down to the bottom of the valley, occasional Dnoptei 
interrupting the otherwise continuous bracken. Following a small s 
valley we saw Bkchnum spicani and I ■ both growing in abundance 

along the shaded banks. Also common were Dryopteris affinis subsp. affinis and D. carthusiana, 
with occasional iyopteris aroused interest and 

after some discussion was thought probably to be D. x deweveri. We continued to follow the 
stream, our walk made more interesting by the continual obstacles of fallen trees, vigorous 
bracken and small tributary channels, until we eventually found a healthy patch of D. aemula. 
Proceeding out of the valley we came to Wootton Coppice (41/240003), a knee-deep bog, 
which explained our leader's change from flip-flops to Wellingtons that morning, the necessity 
of which he neglected to promulgate in advance! The whole area was extremely wet, as some 
of the party discovered, but making use of a fallen silver birch we were able to get into a 
magnificent colony of Osmunda regalis. Fertile fronds were found in such abundance that 
some members of the party found themselves choking as they brushed past. We returned to our 
starting point via a different route, gently climbing the hillside and examining more D. affinis. 
Much debate was entered into, but the general conclusion was that it was all subsp. affinis. 
After our hearty walk we were fortified by a ere 
Tea Rooms, followed by i 

icolopem < 
seen growing on the remains of the platform. A further 
exploration in the adjacent Holmsley Inc 
(41/230004) revealed an extensive colony of Thehm 


Returning to the cars, we began mov 
along the Lyndhurst Road, stopping 
Slade (41/270065) to see Ophiogloss 
On entering through the gate we wer 
delighted to find a very well developed v _. 
high) Ophioglossum, apparently O. vulgc 
However, we moved on further into the slade to see 
'the site' at our leader's insistence. We found a large 
number of O. azoricum distributed around the edge 
of a grassy clearing, the diminutive stature of these 
curious ferns once again reducing the party to 
various indecorous postures in attempts to get that 
perfect photograph! 

detour that proved 

• From James Hill 

James Hill, pausing momentarily at the New Forest Reptile Centre - 

■ ii-jM , 

we walked to Wood Crates, detouring to s 
ia. Andrew led us into another bog (though not as wet as 
bundant Phegopteris connectitis, growing freely besides 
'mding stream (41/270084). We re rj and he a de d towards the final 

only progressing 200 yards before getting sidetracked for refreshments. Suitably 
to Shave Wood (41/2951 2" in the same style as 

had begun, with equisetums - this ti 

clearing lull of Oreopteris limbospe, 
the Osmunda site), this time to see 

refreshed, we c 

K£S3i, h i ?! Ne " Forest P'-doph y ,e flora, ,he group dispersed, bu. 

B iouew ior a most enjoyable and interesting meeting. 

ISLES OF SCILLY - 25-28 June 
(Organisers: Ian Bennallick & Rosemary Parslow) 

A few BPS members met up early on the Friday morning at Newlyn Harbour to catch RM\ 
Scillonian III to travel from Penzance to St Mary's in the hks ot" Scilh A few had> 
stayed overnight in Penzance and had explored the town walls for \arious ferns. Whilst 
queuing for the boat a few A.spk nium »uiruw > could he admired on the quay wall. Pat and 
Grace Acock, Andrew Leonard, Christine Mullins. John Edgington, Ian Bennallick and 
Jonathan Crowe soon found each other and settled on taking the trip on the top deck of the 
ferry, exposed to what the elements could throw at us! Thankfully the weather was sunny 
and calm. Alter only a couple of hours the islands came into view, a low, green and rocky 
archipelago surrounded by the bluest of seas and whitest of beaches. I he Scillonian sailed 
through Crow Sound between the islands of St Martin's, famous for its white sand beaches 
and waved heath, Tresco, with its famous gardens, and St Mary's, the largest and most 
populated island. 

Meeting us off the ferry in Hugh Town on St Mary's was our guide for the weekend, 
Rosemary Parslow, who has been the Botanical Society of the British Isles recorder for the 
islands for eighteen years, and has visited about half of the 150 uninhabited islands and 
islets, including about forty that have greenery on them! Once everyone had settled into 
their lodgings and guesthouses and had a quick lunch, we gathered in a small amenity 
garden in the town centre (00/90351053). The Scillonian party were joined by Mary 
Ghullam, Alison Paul, Bruce Brown, Adrian and Janet Dyer and Roger Golding. Rosemary 
gave the group a brief introductory talk on the history, climate, vegetation and 
idiosyncrasies of the islands. Whilst it is at first glance a very relaxed and laid back place to 
live, one soon notices the frenetic pace at which the locals live their lives, and drive their 
cars! The islands are heavily dependent on tourists, especially as the traditional industries of 
flower growing, particularly bulbs, and fishing are dwindling. Rosemary also gave us the 
bad news that due to the very dry spring (seven weeks with no rain), some of the ferns - the 
Ophioglossum species we had hoped to see - would probably not be visible. 
We chose to walk along the harbour, admiring the stunning views north towards Tresco and 
St Martin's and noting Asplenium marinum on the sea walls. Our route took us through the 
Lower Moors Nature Reserve (00/912107), part of the Isles of Scilly Wildlife Trust 

opened up, which has benefited the marsh plants. A few large clumps of Osmunda regalis 

were admired, as well as Athyrxum filix-femina and Polyp,, Jium una -fee turn under the grey 

willow (Salix cinerea subsp. olci folia) scrub. There is an old record of Dryopteris 

carthusiana for the area, but our brief look did not reveal any. 

At the southern end of the moors we reached Old Town and Old Town Bay (00/914101), a 

broad crescent o\~ sandy beach and rocky shore. Walking along the coast path at Porth 

Minick (00/ 917100) we stopped by a site for house holly fern. Cyrtomium falcatum, which 

was growing happily betwe- 

naturalised populatio 

some of the brighte: 

species' ability to invade similar habitats in the Azores soon had us pondering whether it 

could become a pest here but the plants looked so battered and beaten it seemed unlikely in 

the near future. We continued along the cliffs past the end of the airport runway toward 

Salakee Down (00/925100). Several fine plants of Aspler 

the rocks, with some having rather large fronds. The clouds v 

omen, as our quarry for the downs here was small adder's tonj 

It usually grows in small damp hollows between the waved heath - 


s dry spring none was found, much to our 
f Porth Hellick (00/925105) we 

''-invaded heath, which had been recently 

managed by the IOSWT. Heavily rollers dragged behind a quad bike are used to crush the 
bracken stipes, thus weakening the growth. Burning and cutting are also used but rolling 
— w ~r of years the < * 

I igour of the bracken, having a beneficial effect on the surrounding heath flora, with more 
diversity in the open areas. Rosemary had also noted that where tall bracken and trees had 
been cleared in recent years, Polystichum setiferum, considered a great rarity in recent 
decades, had appeared. 

A short diversion was made up the lane towards Salakee (00/921106) to see a long- 
naturalised stand of Chilean brake, Blechnum cordatum, in a ditch under some elms 
Asplenium scolopendrium, Dryopteris filix-mas and P, ; , ere also found 

lid be noted that the vast majority of mature trees on the Isles of Scilly are elm, 
this being the tree to seemingly withstand the frequent gales and as yet unaffected by Dutch 
elm disease, which has so far not reached the islands. The elms were once thought to be 
English elm (Ulmus procera), which is absent in Cornwall (Cornish elm U minor subsp 

?Tf U ?n thC COmm ° n dm there) but recent material examined has al ™st all proved 
to be U.xhollandica. 

l^om\l^tXZ rds Hug , h Town we passed along the typical,y Scil,oman granite 

walls (00/918109) that held many plants of Asplenium obovatum subsp. lanceolatum as well 
-nigrum in places; although possible hybrids were looked for, none was 

Saturday, the group took one of the launches to arguably the 
islands, St Agnes. Separated from the other islands in the archipelago 
ry rough channel, St Agnes, being the south-westernmost 
nost isolated and is many people's favourite. It also has 
Ophioglossum lusitanicum. This appears around Christmas- 
u.. t were no chances of seeing it in mid-June, but it would usually 
possible to see O. azoricum. Admiring the smaller island of Gugh on the 
siern side ot St Agnes, tenuously joined by a tombolo, a mobile sand bar that the sea 
' *■■ cr -u high tide, the group alighted from the boat. Walking up the small lane 
rjlt 8 h pT ( T 84 ° 84) ' ^ ™ e P lantS of Asplenium Lvaturn subsp. 
tnsts noTf u P ° diUm imerJeCtUm WerC Seen in the g ranite walls " Admittedly St 
Agnes is not a fern hotspot with only about a dozen fern species. However, to the visitor 

quick d'etour ^IT^ T* '^ com P ensates - R ^mary had managed to arrange a 
around a friend s bulb field, full of fruiting whistling jacks {Gladiolus 
««), to have a look for a few rare arable weeds. Small-flowered 
btuteonll 7 ^"f^"' s ™U-flowered tree-mallow and toothed medick were seen 
decline Th T,r^ , acken - Th,s has invaded much of the Scillies where grazing has 
ex Pt on T A h ! T ^ ^ ^ * braCken if ,eft and so ™ °" * ^ ™ n ° 
ZlZw rr f g f£atUre ° n the Sdl,ieS is the wa y that «* shrubby species, 

Euonl Pltt ° Sporum ^assifolium from New Zealand/but also Coprosma repens, 

^^vz^^tr^ fr ? temperate parts ° f the lrid are used 

exposure LZ 1 heSC Shelter the sma11 fields from the extremes of winter 

ow profilfanH h St ° ne - Walled hed 8« are where ferns survive best. Due to their 

*»" ;he islands are also susceptible to higher levels of 

-ighbouring wetter Cornwall 


cleared. ( 
of O. lus 

i only extreme conditions the group e 

the southernmost tip of St Agnes, Rosemary showed the group the classic site 
micum, on the heathland on Wingletang Down (00/8807) where John Raven 
it in 1950. O. azork tun, whk I ave been up was not seen. 

'here it grows having been browned to a crisp by drought. Lunch was taken 
large rock overlooking the sea. beside a cam where a huge colony of Asplcmum 
as growing. A very pleasant walk around Horse Point and into Wingletang Baj 
jf the more intrepid a chance to look on Horse Point (00/882070) for what must 

southed} British colon} <<j I v >.■■■ nu, ■rinn m I his was located! The bay had 

: beach flora including sea kale, Crambe maritime and sea rocket. CukiU 

Isles of Scilly, St Agnes, near > 

et & Adrian Dyer, Jonathan Crowe. Christine Mullins, Grace Acock, Alison Paul, 
l, Mary Ghullam, Andrew Leonard. Rosemary Parslow. Roger Golding, Bruce Brown 

A quick stop was made for a cream tea at the Coastguard houses, accompanied by very 
tame house sparrows taking the crumbs off our plates. Birds are tame on the islands and 
it is not unusual to have song thrushes and blackbirds merrily feeding on the grassy paths 
only feet away. The group walked back to Porth Conger and the quay, via Big Pool 
(00/878086) near where Ophioglossum vulgatum had been recorded in the past. It was 

As the misty rain descended, we took the 'tripper' boat for a quick, but invigorating trip 
back across St Mary's Sound. This gave us an appetite that was again fully satiated by the 
Bishop and Wolfs hearty evening meals. Afterwards, Alison, Bruce, Christine and Ian 
walked around the walls of the Garrison to look for possible Asplenium x sarniense 
{A. adiantum-nigrum x A. obovatum subsp. lanceolatum) - Rosemary had already alerted us 
to the fact that there were intermediate-looking plants on the walls. The sun was rapidly but 
colourfully setting and the light diminishing, but a quick walk resulted in some material 
1 History Museum. 

Sunday's weather was better, despite shower ( 
chance to explore the famous Abbey Gardens v 
azoricum on Appletree Banks (00/893139) beckoned. After a gloriously bracing short t 
trip to New Grimsby, dodging the short sharp showers and boat spray, we landed. Tresco 
sparkled in the intense sunshine, and on the road towards the garden the many unusual and 
exotic plants gave an air of otherworldliness to the place: familiar but unknown. 
Through Abbey Wood we searched for (and found) Dicksonia antarctica and Blechnum 
cordatum. Pat had details of a mystery fern that had been seen in a clearing earlier in the 
year by another visitor and after a small search it was thought to be Woodwardia radicans. 
A fourth well established alien, spreading over the ground in the same area, was 
Microsorum pustulatum {Phymatosorus diversifolius). A record for Dryopteris aemula is 
known from Tresco and the shaded banks in Abbey Wood (00/892144) seemed to be the 
most likely place for finding it, but the habitat wasn't quite right. Native ferns recorded in 
the woods were Dryopteris dilatata, D.filix-mas, D. affinis subspp. affinis and borreri, 
Osmanda regalis and Polypodium vulgare. 

In the gardens we had a quick snack and then just as we wanted to explore the gardens, a 
tropical downpour made us scatter for cover, some of us into the surreal shelter of Valhalla, 
the museum of ship's figureheads. We pressed on, passing some fine stands of Blechnum 
cordatum, and found the fernery (00/896142). The rain ceased and with true Scillonian 
6 bright sunshine returned and the sky cleared to a brilliant blue. Steam started 
nsmg from the garden. The quick, almost tropical changes emphasised the reason why the 
plants do so well in the garden. Hummingbird hawkmoths soon hovered around and the 
sterlings and sparrows returned to feeding from the exotic green-flowered puyas and the 
phormiums. The group explored the rest of the gardens and slowly walked back to New 
Grimsby to catch the boat back to St Mary's. 


Abbey Gardens, Tresco, Isles of Scilly 

nIfp GOld T, g ' Ia " Bennallick < An drew Leonard, Pat Acock, Alison Paul, 
Koper, Mary Ghullam, John l-dginy,,,,,. Jonathan ( rowe, Bruce Brown 

lovely view back over the Harbour towards Hugh Town. On the way b 

o the restaurant we 

stopped to admire a few plants oi Asplenium ruhi-mururUi on the wall of Pat and Graces 

lodgings, the only place where it grows on St Man V A delicious meal was followed by a vote 

of thanks to Ian and Rosemary for organising the weekend ( >n the way to 01 

r from the restaurant 

some of the group saw Mk i <• v.Miionton neai the lifeboat station. 

The ferry to Penzance was leaving at 4.30 p.m., so Monday was ; 

a choice of either 

exploring other parts of St Mary's or relaxing. A smaller group dei 

:ided to explore a 

further island, St Martins. Admittedly the island was not going to be 

a fern hotspot, but 

there was enough time to walk a fair part of the island and enjoy its 

wild and unspoilt than Tresco, less crowded than St Mary's and less exposed than St 

Agnes. It could be said to be the perfect island, and is certainly many | 

people's favourite. 

On the way to the Daymark on Chapel Down (00/941160) in the e 

eastern part of the 

island, a few walls had Asplenium trichomanes subsp. qinnlriwilcns. 1 he waved heath on 

Chapel Down was wind-clipped and the rocky outcrops around the cl 

iffs were explored 

for more A. marinum. A quick look around the churchyard proved it 

to be fern -free but 

on meeting Andrew back at the quay, we learned that he had red 

muraria on a wall in Middle Town. This species is extremely rare on the Sallies | ho 

party met back at Hugh Town in time to catch Scillonian III, and lu 

was smooth for the trip back to Penzance. 

To make full use of the week i anyone who was interested to stop off 

in the evening on the route back home through Cornwall at the newly discovered ( 'ystupteris 

diaphana site at Polbrock (20/01356950), south of Wadebridge. North of the bridge hundreds 

(probably thousands) of fronds were found for 

about one kilometre on the vertical faces of the 

bank of the River Camel, especially where there 

remaining members left for their journeys 

The number of native species of fern on the 
Isles of Scilly is 26, with an additional six 
established alien species. The Isles of Scilly 
are not exactly a rich place for those 
pteridologists who like large numbers of 
species and plants, but due to the climatic 
conditions, exposure, soils and geology, they 
are extremely interesting for studying ferns 
'living on the edge', and seeing why ferns 
grow where they do in this archipelago. To 

and NHM colleagues that of the material 
collected on Saturday night, some proved to 
be Asplenium x sarniense. Although it was 
thought possible that it could occur in a 
place like the Isles of Scilly, this was the 
first time it has been found in Britain outside 
the Channel Islands. Surely it is now only a 
matter of time before it is found in Cornwall. 
A wonderful discovery to end a lovely. 


Alastair & Jackie Wardlaw's Garden (26/544719) - (Saturday a.m.) Graham Ackers 

The first event of this long weekend field meeting was a visit to Alastair and Jackie Wardlaw's 
garden in Bearsden, a suburb to the north-west of Glasgow. Several members of the party 
had spent the previous week at the Edinburgh conference 'Ferns for the 21st Century'. 
Whilst indoors, the weather had been fine, so it was a somewhat cruel irony that this outdoor 
activity should be accompanied by continuous rain, only varying throughout the morning in 
its intensity. However, this is what ferns enjoy, and the somewhat oceanic location of this 
garden doubtless contributes to the opulence of many of the ferns being grown. 
Alastair greeted us by directing us to his greenhouse, where he handed out a most attractive 
and informative leaflet describing his NCCPG National Collection of British Ferns. Out of a 
possible total of 53 species, Alastair has amassed 52 (only Ophioglossum lusitanicum being 
absent), as well as a considerable number of hybrids and cultivars. These are all scattered 
around the garden in appropriate habitats, and Alastair is well known for his creativity in 
attempting to grow the 'difficult' British natives. For example, Adiantum capillus-vemris, 
Asplenium obovatum subsp. lanceolatum, A. marinum, Hymenophyllum timbrigense, 
H. wilsonii and Trichomanes speciosum are all confined to small concrete boxes with 
plastic covers to maintain humidity and a more even temperature regime (all the boxes 
contained a thermometer). Some non-British ferns also receive similar treatment (e.g. New 
Zealand Leptopteris and Hymenophyllum), and one could not help noticing the rolls of 
bubble wrap by the shed awaiting winter deployment around the tree-ferns. These are also 
of particular interest to Alastair, who has a number of well grown specimens out in the 
garden (e.g. Cyathea australis, Dicksonia antarctica, D. fibrosa). Containing a number of 
less hardy potted ferns (e.g. Blechnum colensoi, B.fraseri) is a large circular-framed 
structure with corrugated plastic sides, which is obviously covered over in winter. But 
perhaps my favourite man-made habitat was the circular plastic sheath around the stipes of 
a Dryopteris mbn imestone pavement gryke! 

Group at Alastair Wardlaw's garden 

, Andy MacGregor, Frank McGavigan, Jean & Kevin Robinson, Jerry Taylor, 
get Laue, Carl Taylor, Heather McHaffie, Klaus Mehltreter, Alastair Wardlaw, 
:hell, Robert Sykes, Martin Rickard. Adrian Dyer. ( ami & John Mickel 

Most of the ferns growing 'free' were in fine condition, and there were far too main to 
mention individually, but those that particular!) struck a chord with me were a vcr\ "fine 
Polystichum hmchitis. large (at least in cultivation terms) plants oUkmundu cinnumomca 
and O. claytoniana, and the rare (to me at least) ferns Dcpurin pwnosoru. Pohstnluun 
deltodon and Blechnum microphyllum. All the ferns in the garden were displayed with the 
benefit of professionally produced plant labels. 

The Wardlaws proved most hospitable hosts, with very welcome morning coffee, and a fine 
lunch-time buffet spread. We departed around 1.30 p.m.. either for the next phase of the 
field trip, or to travel elsewhere. Apart from the BPS 'Brits', it was very pleasant to have 
some overseas members (from the Edinburgh conference) on this garden visit - John and 
Carol Mickel, Carl and Jerry Taylor and Klaus Mehltreter. 

Culzean Castle (26/233103) - (Saturday p.m.) Pat Acock 

On leaving Alastair's garden we had some very exact instructions to take us through the 
suburbs of Glasgow. They worked like a dream and we arrived at Culzean Castle almost on 
schedule. This beautiful building is set in many acres of woodland with some walled 
gardens but with time at a premium we certainly could not do the grounds justice. 
Our contingent unfortunately lost a little time parking in the wrong car | 
between the two we saw a number of spleenworts on the walls of the t 
scolopendrium, A. trichomanes, A. adiantum-nigrum and A i 
our guests from overseas. We skirted the gardens in an attempt to join up with the rest of the 
party and walked in the woodlands where we were able to find Dryopteris qffinis, IX filix-mas 
and some very good candidates for D. x complexa. A disturbance in the woods enabled us to 
locate the rest of the party. On retracing our steps towards the garden we discovered a group of 
Dicksonia antarctica of some age but despite hunting around we could not find any sporelings. 
In the walled garden on a rockery many interesting cultivars were spotted including a \ er\ line 
Dryopteris filix-mas 'Linearis Polydactyla'. Below this, stretching to a wall some 50 yards 
away, were swathes of ferns such as Onoclea sensibilis, Matteuccia stmlhiopteris and other 
commonly grown cultivars and hardy aliens set out in large groups of the same fern which 
was really very effective. One strange item in the comer of the greenhouse was a single 
large plant of I -.frame. 

We then had a long drive but it was made pleasant by the really lovely coastal scenery of this 
south-western comer of Scotland. We finally reached the Tigh na Mara Hotel at Sandhead, 
. en of us later gathered to discuss the da\ 'si for the next day. 

Logan Botanic Garden (25/096428) - (Sunday a.m.) Alastair Wardlaw 

The sign at the entrance road into Logan boldly asserts that it is 'Scotland's most exotic 
garden', a reasonable claim in my opinion. Located on the Galloway Peninsula 14 miles 
south of Stranraer, Logan benefits from several factors that together make it very special. 
As with the exotic gardens of Cornwall, Logan enjoys the wanning influence of the North 
Atlantic Drift current, whose downside is winter gales. But Logan is well protected from 
wind, both by a tall stone wall enclosing the central area and by a thick shelter belt of trees 
outside. Through being managed by the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE), Logan 
'i links. These include an a 

spores. In 2003, the glasshouses at RBGE could 
imens of the South African tree-fern Cyathea 
to Logan for outdoor mailing. To see these as lawn specimens, 
utside was one of the highlights of our visit. 

hrubs, such as diverse Ostet 

)bage palms, eucalypts and tree-ferns. As for the latter, Logan has 
long been known for its assemblage of tall-trunked Dicksonia antarctica growing right out in 
the open, and long before RBGE acquired the garden in 1969. Under these tree-ferns was a 
dense monocull tm labulare, but 

which Colin Belton told us should now be called B. violaceum. Nearby we saw a genuine 
ft tabulate grown from South African spores, with leathery fronds in a rosette and starting to 
trunk. At the edge of the grove of D. antarctica was a single Dicksonia fibrosa, looking 
smaller and more restrained in its habit. Space and reader's patience does not allow a listing of 
all the exotic ferns at Logan, but fern enthusiasts should look out for Woodwa d idc 
Polystichwnfalciih mi ' )d Pyrrosia rupestris. 

Outside the walled garden we strolled through the 12-acre woodland garden planted with 
exotic trees and shrubs. There we saw at least another dozen species of foreign ferns, 
including large specimens of Lophosoria quadripinnata from central and South America, 
Tlnrsoptcris eiegans from the Juan Fernandez Islands and Culcita macrocarpa from south- 
west Europe and the Macaronesian islands. The tree-ferns in the dappled shade of this 
woodland were Cyathea dealbata, C. australis, Dicksonia lanata and D. squarrosa, as well 
as more D. antarctica. Our well spent morning ended with a lunch at the attractive salad bar 
in the garden and a purchasing of plants from the shop. 

? planting of Cyathea dregei at Logan Botanic ( 

Part of the a 

Dunskey Glen (15/995555) - (Sunday p.m.) Andy MacGregor 

After takmg our fill of foreign ferns at Logan Botanic Gardens, we made our way up to 
Dunskey Glen, just north of Portpatrick on the west coast. The Glen is a steep, wooded 
ig the policies of Dunskey House to the sea, and we hoped its sheltered aspect 
and maritime location would turn up some nice natives. 


by Dunskey Home Farm than Frank 

it we had no sooner gathered in the car pa 
Uy, spied with his naked eye a near-invisib 
i distant and put up a cry of "Aspleniu 

■maybe". Close-to it turned 

me common-or-garden A. trichomanes subsp. quadrivalent, A. r 

* mterjectum - identifiable by its lack of a dark annulus apparently 

Just as we were huddled around the wall, the estate's owner appeared. Thank fulls, he had 
been expecting us. Major Orr-Ewing, his wife and their friend Mrs Nicholson set of\ 
through the woods with us, seeking pteridological enlightenment. We passed lirsi through 
Nursery Wood, an old mixed plantation with mam healths u\eh elms and which proved a 
happy environment for raising some of the commoner woodland ferns. Amongst the usual 
suspects - Blechnum spicant. Dryopteris filix-mas. IX affinis. IX dihitata. Athyrium filix- 
femina (present in both red- and green-stemmed forms) were some nice specimens oi 
Polystichum setiferum, whose distinguishing characteristics we explained to our hosts. 
Descending into Dunskey Glen itself, we crossed the river via a small stone bridge. At this 
point, Frank redeemed himself by spotting some {sph-nium scolopcndrium clinging to the 
sheer sides of the ravine some way below. To confirm his find, a few of us brought into action 
our binoculars, countering any possible misconception that we had brought them for \icwing 
birds. Further down the glen the flora indicated further mineral enrichment on the valley 
slopes, with much of either side dominated by a huge colony of Equisetum tehmitciu. I he 
horsetail freak amongst us (i.e. me) was left awestruck for some minutes while the rest made 
a bid for the shore. On the way, a few of us gathered excitedly around a striking hrvophn*. 
that we thought might be either D. expansa or just a very luxuriant D dilatata. I ndecided. 
we emerged by the sea to find the advance party strewn about the rocks \anousl> admiring 
isplenhan marinum and A. adiantum-nigrum or lying back enjoying the sun. Adrian Dyer, 
Alastair Wardlaw and Martin Rickard had meanwhile discovered growing on rocks some 
pinnules and which Martin 
had christened P. interjectum var. obtusatum. Not quite a new species, but good enough to 

The Hills Wood, Dumfries (25/928732) - (Monday a.m.) Frank McGavigan 

Adrian Dyer used to bring his students to this site on field trips as it contains a fair 
representation of the Scottish fern flora, so it seemed a good place to bring our visitors from 
England and America. The route started in a delightful old railway cutting containing 
Asplenium scolopcmlrium. A. trichomuncs. I. adiaiititm-nigrum. Athyrium tilix-fcmina. 
Diyoph ri.s filix-nim and Polystn hum * t <,\ ■:■■•> . among others. 

The path then separated from the course of the old railway, entering more open deciduous 
woodland with Pteridium aquilinum and Dryopteris affinis much in evidence. Beside the 
path, what had once been a shady woodland hollow had been transformed into an 
impenetrable thicket by the fall of a massive sycamore tree, which had allowed a wholesale 
invasion of bracken, nettles, brambles and Himalayan balsam. Adrian assured us that 
Phegopteris connectilis, G) ■■ atom were to be 

found somewhere in this jungle but how to locate them? We had forgotten about the 
resourcefulness of Mr Acock. Pioneer Pat plunged in, oblivious to stings and prickles, 
beating a path through the nettles and brambles more or less with his bare hands. He quickly 
found the Polystichum and oak fern beside a stream, spotting Polypodium vulgare on the 
fallen tree in passing, and with a little more effort located the beech fern. 
Rejoining the main path we climbed the hill into planted coniferous forest with a ground 
racken, with occasional clumps of Oreopteris 
le path then followed a circular route back to the 
starting point. A most enjoyable and relaxed morning: what's the odd nettle sting or 
bramble scratch to the dedicated fern enthusiast? 
Mennock Pass, B797 (26/853103) - (Monday p.m.) Frank McGavigan 

highly successful weekend. We had come to this lonely glen near Wanlockhead, Scotland's 
highest village, to see one species Cryptogramma crispa - and what a sight it was. On the 

north side of the gle 
about the only living thing in the scree is pars 
feet high by three across. During our visit the 
almost totally obscured the vegetative fronds 
Taylor joked that they must have evolved the 

e almost to the roadside and just 

covered with fertile fronds that 
They looked so happy that Carl 
was certainly true that some of the 

plants had clearly been long-established, quite surprising really given the very loose nature 
of the scree, composed as it was of quite small-sized rocks and completely lacking any more 
solid matter to act as a stabilising force. On the higher, acidic slopes of Scotland's 
mountains parsley fern is relatively common, though it usually requires some fairly arduous 
walking to reach it, but seldom have I seen it so abundant and in such massive clumps as 
here, and you hardly need to get out of your car. It was fitting to end this wonderful 
weekend with what Carl would have called this "Holy Cow!' 

it" *-*ir^ 

rl Taylor and Cryptogramma crispa - Mennock Pass 


On Friday evening we met at our centre for the weekend, the Riverside Inn, Aymestrey, 

! he i 

5 of the weekends 

>v others in the group. 

e introduced to our co-leaders for the weekend, Martin Rickard a 

6 " v WV1C '""uuucea to our co-leaders tor the we 

e Jermy. Martin reminded us that Edward Newman had had a relative in the area anu « 

ii S ^ i?c!. SlteS WC WCre t0 Visit are mentione d >n his History of British Ferns of 1840, 

544 and 1 854. Our task for the morning was to go into Aymestrey Quarry (32/425655) and 

terns and try to re-establish the records for Phegopteris connectilis and 

is- Along the floor of the quarry we soon discovered many of the 

mmon terns including Polystichum aculeatum, Oreopteris limbosperma and Asplenium 

3k We , had dedded t0 break int0 two 8 rou P s < Wlth Clive workin S with thC 

fiX^rr , not wanting to ° much strenu ° us effort and the rest free to rove 

further afield. The latter group soon tn ls abo ve a dry 

waterfall but probably reduced in numbers sinc^Tf Z ^S£# of the 
Tups h d n c N " k ^^ l0CatCd ^'^ocarpium dryopteru 

groups had come across good candidates for Dryopt, us. , , lilf>l 

, Ba& 

After lunch at the inn we moved on to Shobdon Wood (32 404643), where Newman also 

Climbing up a dry streambed we once again found G. dryopteris and a little further on. in a 
very similar niche as the morning, we added P. connectilia to the list, along with man) of 

gaps in the conifer canopies and reduced in number since Newman's time. 
Our final port of call was Gatley Long Coppice (32 430683). where we found fewer of the 
common ferns but were able to refind the one site for Diyoptcris uemuhi for this part of the 
country. Martin explained that it was thought to have been brought in with the conifers either 
as a spore or as a small plant and became established on the stump of an old tree. There were 
now three small crowns left, but with the old stump deteriorating they may not last much longer 
At the evening meal, a reunion of the 'Jimmy Dyce Dining Club", 28 of us enjoyed an 
evening of small talk and good company, concluded very late by a slide-show of Martin's 
recent trip to the Azores with special reference to tree-ferns. 

On Sunday morning we made our way to High Vinnals car park (32 474732). This very hot 
day saw us walking gently through the forest where we were rewarded very quickly b\ tour 
horsetails within fifty yards. These were Equisetum arvense, E sylvatu urn, E. tclmutcia and 
E. jluviatile. Further into the wood we came to a small boggy area where D/rop/cri* 
dilatata and D. carthusiana grew together and it was not long before we were shown the 
hybrid D. xdeweveri by Clive Jenny. Retracing our steps we returned to the ears to dine 
deeper into the forest where we found D. qffinis subsp. qffinis and on the slopes we soon 
ig a little i < rraham Ackers 

I did not add any new species and so (crossing into Shropshire) we went on to 
t Whitcliffe (32/505743), overlooking Ludlow, for lunch. A search of the 
meadow a 

Clee Hill (32/595774). We were provided with a list of ferns for the hill, including mam we 
had not seen earlier in the weekend. Lower down on the spoil heaps we had to go on our knees 
to trace Botrychium lunaria. Once we had got our eye in we soon found a small group of them. 
We then went to the top of the hill, where Clive set u> ■ <■/> oreades in 

acres of very uneven scree. With the aid of a GPS we found D. oreades at the grid reference 
Clive had given us, amongst scree along 

Dryopteris dilatata. Back-tracking, we came across Martin, who showed us Huperzia selago; 
Nick Hards found a further colony at 32592781. Phegopteris eonneeiilis. Gynmocarpium 
dryopteris and additional plants of A oreades were also seen. Martin had a grid reference for 
Cryptogramma crispa. Even I was amazed when we arrived at the spot with the appropriate 
GPS reading and looked down to see our quest at my feet, especially as it was the only plant 
we could find of it. Further searching the scree, Paul Ripley found a good candidate for 
Dryopteris qffinis subsp. cambrensis. After this, most of the party dispersed homeward, whilst 
a few went back to Martin's for tea. Martin told us that while descending Titterstone Clee Hill 
he had spotted a colony of Equisetum x litorale (confirmed by Pat Acock) at the first cattle 

Suitably refreshed, we went to see P 
a new fern garden that will requir 

looked, the more one reah 
many in a short space of time. 

The weekend was most splendid, with something for everyone. About thirty people attended 
ghout their stay in this beautiful part of the country. 


Prior to 1990, the only overseas BPS field meeting had been t< 
years, however, the Society has visited other European locations, the N 
and longer-haul venues in New Zealand and Chile. This upsurge in overseas meetings has 
been enabled by a combination of relatively cheap air fares, folks having more disposable 
income, and a greater knowledge of foreign floras by amateur and professional 
pteridologists both in the UK and the countries in question. Recently, the Society organised 
very successful meetings in Seattle/Washington (August 2003) and Trinidad (January 
2004). Both these field meetings had one thing in common the willingness and expertise 
of the local organisers. In Seattle this was Sue Olsen and her team, and in Trinidad Yasmin 
Baksh-Comeau and her team. The excellence of the local organisation rendered the roles of 
the UK organisers (Pat Acock for Seattle and me for Trinidad) relatively straightforward. 
The morning session of this meeting was given over to accounts of these meetings. In his 
i presented an enjoyable travelogue of the Seattle meeting, 

slides , 

visited, including Perry Creek, various fern gardens, eastern Cascades, Mount Rainier, the 
Olympic National Park, Mount St Helens, and ending with the farewell dinner in a 
penthouse suite overlooking Lake Washington. A much fuller account of this meeting 
appeared in the BPS Bulletin for 2003. 

I then presented some slides of the Trinidad meeting, showing amongst other things the 
colonial style guest house where we stayed, various forest shots and the associated ferns, 
and muddy tracks and muddy people! Although not strictly fern related activities, visits to 
the Carom Swamp (to see the scarlet ibises), Soho Caves (to see the oilbirds), the Asa 
Wright Centre and a tropical garden were most enjoyable. 

Several participants in the Trinidad meeting were using digital cameras, so it seemed 
opportune to invite a couple of them to show some of their images on a digital projector. 
Michael Hayward's photographs included many ferns (some excellent close-ups such as the 
fertile fronds of Lygodium vematum), some birds (capturing a shot of scarlet ibis in very 
low light), reptiles, and various scenes. Andrew Leonard showed a great variety of images, 
some from his subsequent visit to Tobago. As well as ferns and related material, included 
were such subjects as artfully arranged stall vegetables, statues of Hindu gods, and young 
local girls! One of the great benefits of digital photography is the ability to discard without 
cost all unsuccessful images, so the number of photogn i i s not an issue. 

Taking advantage of this, Andrew took very many (flash) images of oilbirds in the darkness 
to show a superb shot of a hovering bird. A similar approach 
a bat in the darkness of its roost under a river bridge. 
First in the afternoon was the AGM, with its usual interesting accounts from the various 
officers of their activities during the year. Having served his three year term of office, 
Alastair Wardlaw retired from his Presidency at this AGM and, as is traditional, gave his 
Retiring President's Address after a tea break. The subject for this is entirely the choice of 
the Presenter, and Alastair chose to highlight his own garden in a talk entitled 'A Garden of 
ntish Ferns . His presentation contained several themes, including the effect of ice ages on 
anonal tern floras, local climatic considerations, the construction of growing micro- 
V?r»r t0r n themore mar g inal garden subjects, and his British ferns, which constitute an 
W H t C °" eCt,0n - HlS garden obvio "sly holds much fascination, and we could look 
P lanned as P^ of the BPS Scottish meeting in July. 

achieved a fine close 

forward t 

; again held at the Natural llistoiy \lu 
Alison Paul for her single-handed c 
are due also to Bryan and Gill Smith, and Steve and I 
merchandise and booksales respectively. And finally, many I 
contributed to an excellent meeting. 

Introduction Jennifer Ide 

Dr Stephen Jury welcomed the Society and members ot the I ni\crsit\ who had joined us 
for the day to the Plant Sciences Laboratories of the I ni\crsit> ot Reading. The meeting 
was arranged with two sessions of papers under the headings The Gametophyte in I 
and 77;i Potential <>/ the Sporophyl 
Jennifer Ide opened 

; day. She highlighted t 
aspects of the biology and ecology of the cycle that would be discussed i 
speakers o 
The Gam 

Deviant Life-Cycles 

Although pteridophytes are unique amongst land plants in possessing I 
typically alternates between free-living generations of different ploidy 1 
chromosome complements present per cell, there are, however, a range ot species that 
deviate from tins norm. Some complete the e>ele. inn .."■, r\entionally. while in others the 
cycle is interrupted for long periods, or in a very few cases breaks down completely. 
Agamosporous species superficially seem conventional but instead of cycling h 
gametophyte and diploid sporophyte generatic 

throughout. This is achieved by abnormalities in the cell division process c 
production, such that half the usual numbers of spores h 
chromosomes are produced. This is necessarily coupled with \ 
reproduction and generation of the new sporophyte directly from the sterile gametophyte 
tissue. Two broad categories of these apomictic taxa have been recognised, which are 
named after their initial describers (Dopp-Manton and Braithwaite), but each system has 
evolved independently in separate disparate fern lineages. The former is more frequent, not 
least because of its greater ability to be transmitted through hybridisation, a feature not 
available to the latter due to male sterility. Reasons for its development were considered. 
Life-cycle breakdown occurs at the edges of a range, often as a consequence of the 
dissimilarity of the generations and their respective tolerances to environmental factors. 
This is most marked in those taxa that produce 'independent gametophytes', which persist 
in extreme cases in the complete absence of a known sporophyte generation, such as some 
Vittaria species, and the characters necessary for this system to exist and the factors that 
may have led to its development were discussed. 

Gender Determination Jennifer Ide 

Although the haploid gametophyte is potentially bisexual and therefore : elt-tertili ing, 
electrophoretic studies on isozymes and studies on recessive lethal genes have shown that 

ferns are prima homozygosity ; 

] t d r sssive lethals. 
Several breeding strategies have evolved to avoid intragametophytic selfing. The presence 
of sporophytu [< id, has been found in a number of ferns, 

and obligate bisexuality, though widespread in plants generally, is only found in the 
hetcrosporous ferns and fern allies. The most common method is found in homosporous 
ferns and is mediated by the production of antheridiogen, a pheromone that promotes the 
avoidance of bisexuality. Produced by large, meristematic, chordate gametophytes, it 
promotes the production of antheridia in neighbouring, small, achordate gametophytes. Four 
variations in sexual breeding patterns involving antheridiogen have been identified, each being 
peculiar to particular species. However, field studies have shown that within a species, sexual 
strategies may vary both between populations and between individuals within a population and 
these appear to be genetically controlled. The absence of genetic self-incompatibility and the 
selfing in ferns has an obvious advantage 
at times of reduced population size. The production of antheridiogen 
control. Laboratory and field studies have shown that spore 
densities and soil topography are important in determining gender composition, fertilisation 
success and mate competition, by promoting asynchronoi c t on and development. 

! he significance of the diversity of breeding systems for the habitat range, and therefore the 
geographical range, of homosporous ferns was commented on. 

Spore Banks and Endangered Ferns Adrian Dyer 

Cultured soil samples have revealed the existence of natural soil spore banks, reservoirs of live 
but dormant spores buried in the soil. They occur for many different species and in a wide range 
of habitats to depths of over a metre, and a single soil sample may contain at least nine species. 
Although it is not known how long spores can survive in the soil, many British species have a 
persistent spore bank, present all-year-round. Movement through the soil is probably mainly 
mediated by percolating water. Persistent spore banks may allow establishment throughout the 
year as well as reduction of genetic erosion in declining populations. Soil spore banks make 
possible the accidental introduction of alien species in mud on boots. 

After describing the evidence for spore banks and their nature, Adrian went on to explain 
their potential role in conservation, through in situ soil disturbance and habitat manipulation or 
as a source of material collected for ex situ conservation collections. Artificial spore banks, 
spores stored in artificial conditions, also have a role in conservation. Low temperature and 
moist conditions are known to extend spore longevity but there is urgent need for research 
into spore ageing and the effects of storage conditions on a range of species. 
Naturally Occurring Hybrids Johannes Vogel 

The results of extensive investigations into the origin and history of naturally occurring 
hybrids were described The -success' of these polyploid plants in relation to their diploid 
progenitors is attributed to their ability to maintain higher levels of heterozygosity, in 
expressing less inbreeding depression, and their often polyphyletic origins. This mode of 
formation incorporates genetic diversity from multiple progenitor populations into the 
po yploid 'species', thus leading to a broad sampling of ancestral diversity into the 
polyploid gene pool. With more than 50 taxa, Asplenium is the most species rich fern genus 
in burope. Half of these rock ferns are diploid and they are ancestral to all European 
polyploids. Of these 50% are auto- or segmental allopolyploids and 50% are allotetraploids. 
VVitluhe help of a recently completed phylogenetic study, Johannes explained that he and 

; able to put the different breeding systems, substrate specificities and 

tions into a wider evolutionary context. 

polyploid c 

A prominent example of a European allotetraploid i: 

';. m1\ confined to s 

to Europe and British ( 

A. trichomanes are widespread and abundant in the Northern \ 
that demonstrate that A. aditlterinum and other European allopolyploid t 
the attributes that arc associated with polyploidy as a success story, they arc not as 

and his team argue that in Europe, during the relatively short (in evolutionary timescales) 
interglacials, neo-allopolyploids are often not able to tree themselves ecological!) and 
genetically from their diploid ancestors. Therefore the\ are confined to narrow ecological 
niches, have fragmented populations, are prone to genetic drift and or habitat destruction 
and thus are ephemeral. With A. aditlterinum being confined to serpentine outcrops, there 
are a manageable number of sites and plants to investigate, and it is possible to assess how 
often the taxon has evolved via hybridisation and subsequent polyploidisation. 

The Potential of the S 

Vegetative Propagation Martin Rickard 

Martin Rickard combined what p 

on methods of vegetative j 

stressed the importance of vegetative reproduction as often t 

named cultivars. 

Propagation in a Commercial Nursery Neil 1 1mm 

Neil Timm, landscape gardener and fern nurseryman, described his methods of propagating 

ferns on a large scale for his nursery. Of the three main methods of propagation, division was of 

limited use to the nurseryman, even for plants that did not come true from spores, because ol the 

small yield and the large number of stock plants required. Possible exceptions were Pilularia. 

Matteuccia, and perhaps Ophioglossum if an easier method of growing it could be found. 

Growing from spores was the ideal way to propagate plants. Few stock plants were needed, the 

spores needed little storage space and the output was large. The prothalli were hardy and 

[ recommended John 1 
Finally, little extra care or skill input was required other than the need 
of the strictures of 

>ugh, and no special 

Barry Wright's method of growing ferns from spores, much to the amusement of the a 

nore specifically, in vitro meristem culture - had the potential to s 

some of the problems of the previous two methods, especially with plants that were only, or 
preferably, propagated by division. The major problem was that the small sales volume o\ ferns, 
unlike some flowering plants, does not yield sufficient income to justify the expense and high 
skills input for the annual propagation of the large numbers required. When used, the tendency 
is for the market to be flooded with a particular fern once every three to five years, then it is 
not seen again for a period because the need to cover the costs means selling large volumes. 
(This happens with some flowering plants also.) Is there a niche here for a cottage industry? 
Sporophyte Varieties Martin Rickard 

Rather than talk specifically about the diversity and historical origin of sporophyte varieties, 
Martin enthusiastically illustrated the diversity of the pteridophyte sporophyte with 

. is recent trips to Taiwan and fern gardens in Germany. 
The BPS Spore Exchange: A Scientific Approach Barry Wright 

Barry began his talk by explaining that the spore exchange, which he and his wife run on 
behalf of the Society, is not a spore gene bank. The purpose of the exchange is to receive 
donations of spores and distribute them among members. They currently retain any 


remaining spores indefinitely and have effectively developed a growing archive of species 
and varieties. All are maintained at 4°C in airtight boxes in a dedicated fridge. Two 
limitations have to be realised by recipients of spores: the identity of the spores received by 
the exchange cannot be guaranteed, nor is it possible to determine their viability. 
Barry and Anne have endeavoured to adopt a scientific approach to maintaining the spore 
exchange in that spores are cleaned and prepared on receipt, and a systematic numbering 
system is used for the donations. They aim to minimise contamination of the samples 
whilst preparing them for the exchange, but the purity of the spores received cannot be 
guaranteed. They also maintain a reference collection of microscope slides made from 
selected species sent in by members. This enables the checking of the purity and identity of 
the spores sent in. One additional scientific exercise they are undertaking is attempting to 
ty of spores sent out, and to that end they have been collecting 
— ^99 on the germination success of spores received. The 
spores dating back to 1997. Members can elect to have 
5 the alternative taxa that they are asked to list on their 
the Spore Exchange can be found in the Pteridologist (2004) 
Vol. 4 Part 3, pp. 90-91.) 


The four demonstrations ran simultaneously, each being repeated three times. 
Growing Ferns from Spores Patrick Acock 

Patrick explained: "After 25 years of growing ferns from spores, using different composts 
and innumerable methods found in old copies of the Gazette and fern books, with very 
ees ot success, I decided to try Barry Wright's method, "The Wright Way To 
Irron Spores . From his first trial, he has consistently had 90-95% germination rates, with 
any failures usually resulting from initially poor spore material. The method's strength lies 
m the tact that the sporophytes live in a closed environment until one is ready to deal with 
them. (This leaflet is available from B. Wright.) 

Cleaning Fern Spores Barry Wright 

7 iTe°c Strated thC meth0d that he and Al ™ use for cleaning fern spores for inclusion 
in me BPfc Spore Exchange. It is a relatively simple process, the essentials of which are a 
sneet ot glass and a Stanley knife blade. Basically, the technique relies on the smaller 
spores sticking more firmly to the glass than the sporangia when the glass is moved from 
f™L J ] h f mg ,ndined at 45 °" h is then P° sslble to carefully remove the sporangia 

from the outside of the spore mass leaving a relatively clean spore sample in the centre of 
me glass. (A full description can be found in Pteridologist (1999) Vol. 3 Part 4, pp. 62-64.) 
The Spore Reference Collection Barry Wrigh t 

As part of the BPS spore exchange, Barry Wright has built up and maintains a reference 
hvZT °f miC 'T pe S,ldes of s P or es. The spores are mounted m DMHF (Dimethyl- 

^^TcSr^^'^ 4 first they are prepared by stick,n s them to a f,im ° f 

The HMHP Y a dC and nnSmg them Wlth alcoho1 to remove any hydrophobic coating. 
donaZ fa m0Untan h S ^^ "* ** SMe labe " ed with the three "P art number of y ™ ° f 
them tn lu T!u nUn l and d ° nor number - The collection, among other things, enables 
mem to check the identity of some of the donations and comoare donations of the same 
species from different donors. A full descnp ion 

Sotmlu r °! C0Pe r 0Uk ' CXCept f ° r the DMHF - whldl * ' !l,l '- l! " 
demonstraw i, ^ , "^ aS a " alternativ e- On behalf of Barry s 
demonstrated how to make slides of spores by their method. 
Many thanks to Stephen Jury and his team for their hospitality. 


Moonwort Survey, Yorkshire Dales - 15 May 

Building on previous surveys, \ 

Park (NYMNP) to the Yorkshire Dales in the hope of fir 

(Botrychium lunaria) colonies on suitable roadside verges i 

preliminary reconnoitre of the area revealed that there were certainly locations where i 

be found. As in the past, we decided to do methodical survey work along both sides ol 'as mam 

roads as we could to determine the location, extent and density of moonwort colonies. 

Armed with our GPS devices and maps I took the assembled enthusiasts to one of the better 

locations for moonwort on the road between Leyburn in Wensleydale and Grinton in 

Swaledale. The site chosen was also adjacent to an old mine working (44/058962). Mining 

spoil heaps seem to be an additional association for moonwort in the Dales and NYMNP 

areas. Having 'got our eye in' we all went our separate ways to do different road sections. 

meeting up at the pub in Grinton for lunch. From here we dispersed along other sections ,.| 

road to complete the picture as far as we could in a single day's effort. 

The stretch surveyed was from about 44/076942 to 44/052968, all above 300m. The team 

recorded a good distribution of colonies of varying sizes on both sides of the road, 

especially near old mine workings. The other section we studied was between 44 044973 

and 44/037956 (300 to 450m) on the Grinton to Redmire road. This was stuffed full of 

moonwort. At one point I had to decide how to record whether clumps were discrete or part 

of a larger colony. I decided to count ten paces after seeing the last spike. If I saw another 

before then, I assumed it was part of the same colony and re-started my count. On this basis. 

there was one section on the western side of the road where the colony continued for about 

125 metres with spikes at less than seven metres (ten paces). 

There were other outlying records made by both Bruce Brown and myself, indicating that 

moonwort is as common on Dales verges as it has proved to be in the NYMNP. Curiously, we 

only located two individual blades of add* 

day. One was on the Leyburn side of the moor at 44/07348 94530 and the other on the Grinton 

side at 44/05618 96573. Annoyingly, the location on the Leyburn side, although GPS- 

referenced, proved very difficult to take the team back to. You try finding an adder's tongue 

blade that is 2.5cm x 2cm and green in several square metres of lush green turf. The plant on 

the Grinton side was easier to re-locate as it was close to a road sign. The elevation of both 

sites was about 300m. An excellent day, especially as we avoided the rain this year. 

So keen is my team of moonworters, that John and Brenda Wilson and I revisited the NYMNP 

on 29 May to 'join the dots' from our previous surveys. There were a number of sections we 

had not looked at because of the way individuals worked their sections, i.e. they started a long 

way apart and time ran out before they n 

wise, mostly, and also for Bi 

So, it looks as though we're on for another session next year. If anyone else wants to join us 

and get the funny looks from passing tourists (some even stop and ask what we are doing!) as 

you slowly walk along looking as if you've lost a contact lens or your wedding ring, please 

feel free. It's much more fun on a Saturday afternoon than, dare I say, watching football! 

Walesby Wood, Market Rasen, Lincolnshire - 19 June Neil Timm 

On an unexpectedly bright morning, seven members of the Leeds and District Group 
assembled at (53/11718 90603) on Walesby Lane, just outside Market Rasen in central 
Lincolnshire. The intention for the morning was to explore a green lane and the surrounding 


woodlands. It soon proved, however, to be a morning of surprises, not least for me as 
organiser. The area is mainly forestry plantation on a site that was formerly old sandy heath 
and it proved to be much richer than I anticipated following the winter reconnoitre. Within 
'—f yards of entering the lane the deep, shady ditches on each side gave us Dryopteris 
uisetum arvense, and the group was able to confirm that several 
i during the pre-meeting reconnoitre were indeed P. vulgare. 
eri was also found, surprisingly, as it was thought 
k for it deeper in the wood, and a further pleasant surprise 
itorale was found growing by the lane side (53/1 1878 90507). 
»d and added Pteridium aquilinum (of course) to the list, thoudi 
) add Dryopteris affinis subsp. off bus (53 12119 
nbers explored a small stream to the right of the 
track we were following, they saw Athyriwn till -' mum. but this was soon topped by our 
chairman, Barry Wnght, who, bravely plunging up to his neck into a muddy tangle of brambles 
and nettles, managed to find Blcchi um v „ ,„/ rhis was a great find as its apparent absence had 
seemed strange since it is to be found in most of the surrounding woods. A little further on some 
members found Dryopteris carthusiana growing with the D. dilatata, interesting in itself but 
also adding to members' growing speculation that the hybrid D. x deweveri might also be found. 
This, however, proved too much of a challenge, it still being early in June, though there were 
is that roused much interest. The wood had not quite finished with surprises yet, as 
vs limbosperma now turned up just at the side of the forestry track 
3 far for the morning to a healthy twelve. 

However. Dryopteris uttt 

occurred when 

We then moved into the i 

90752). Shortly afterwards, when some r 

(53 1 2409 91079). b 

John Wilso 

■«■ iu.j0 and having now found all we could reasonably hope for in 
SX iura. 8 ? ^ lt mlght bC P ° SSlble t0 flt in a " «*■ st °P before lunch at an 
to tlTe ar f Z LT °" ^ ° Uhe Wolck W ^ "<- «"** ""* 

the Vikm 2 Wav 1 UP H° n t0 ^ nCarby escar P™"> Newton. Beside 

about Tt (5^42970? < T* ^^ We f ° Und m ° ld ba ™ with the ,0 ° k rf a <*»** 
exposed waft site nyvTT"" '" qUanUty ' *>W** Mr-mas and, unusually for an 
^andexpl^oMr ;^ 8 ^ 1 * 6 ^^^ 11 ' * "««« « -nt, tempted to go 
adm ire thetndscape, w ? I *" ** "^^ ° f the Wolds for flowcrin « ^ "* 
, mie others were more tempted by the promise of a pub lunch. 

Binbrook for a tour of the garden and greenh 
the ferns, which had often been grown from s 
Having been fortified by i 
challenges and readily agreed to my proposal 

entered a small area of densely o\ergro\\n \\o< 

leep. dank and term vale, 
gs. Ihesc are apparently 
s hanging from the trees 

exceptionally well grown, including some hart's tongue that were a ; j<hhI ""deni tall. All the 
members present agreed thai this was a classic fern site and a line end to the day. that was well 
worth the effort of entry. 

Woods North of Sheffield, South Yorkshire - 1 7 July Paul Ruston 

Our first call was Cilen How Park in the upper Don \ alley, a few kilometres north of 
Sheffield. Glen How, covering about 19 acres, is a small park by comparison with other 
Sheffield parks and is thickly wooded with beech, oak. willow scrub and plained 

Six of us assembled at the car park (43/296942) where we immediately spotted Athyriwn fUix- 
femina, Dtyopteris Jilnhi III >.-//;.< iiul /' \ Mibsp \>rreri growing at the foot of a 

stone boundary wall. A young and immature Polypodium (without sporangia), possibly 
P. vulgare, was seen growing on the wall top. Blechmm spit-ant was noticed down by the 
watercourse. Just a short distance from the Glen How Tower a large Osmtmda regalis 
(possibly planted) was seen in close proximity to very tall plants of Dryopteris affinis, a most 
pleasing combination. A very foliose form of D. affinis was also seen close by, with large, 
deeply crenate pinna segments clearly projecting at an angle from the plane of the blade. This 
was later identified by Ken Trewren as D. x complexa nothosubsp. complexa. 
Beyond New Mill Bridge (a narrow and ancient packhorse bridge, moved to this location from 
the Ewden Valley in 1927, prior to reservoir construction there) the glen narrows with 
increasing steepness. We followed a path that took us to the head of the glen, passing 
Polystichum setiferum on the way. When at the head, a curious Dryopteris filix-mas with 
elongated pinna segments was seen and examined; sori were present but spore development 
was incomplete. There is a park record for Gymnocarpium dryopteris so, with this in mind, we 
decided to follow the stream back to the bridge. Not a simple task; the stream descended the 
ravine in a series of steep waterfalls and the whole place was knee-deep in leaf litter and fallen 
trees. During our descent into the abyss we came across many very leafy Dryopteris affinis 
subsp. borreri-type plants; it was suggested that these very distinct ferns were perhaps the 
progeny of some variety planted in the lower regions of the park at some time in the past. Even 
the D. dilatata here looked very distinct in the dimming light from those seen lower down the 
glen, the blades dark blue-green and the long, thick stipes covered with large black scales. A 
spring was seen to flush through a sandstone outcrop that was overgrown with vegetation 
creating a sort of cave; we examined this for Trk homant s ypeewsum gametophyte but with a 
negative result. We returned to the stone bridge without locating the oak fern. It may have been 
recorded where the waterfalls are. Ropes and brave volunteers are required for that adventure. 
A short drive over the moors took us close to High Bradfield in the Upper Loxley Valley 
(43/268925) where lunch was taken. A short walk to Rocher End Brook took us through the 
churchyard where a stone retaining wall supported Asplenh 

.': ;:;. ■.■-:,.'.■!:' 

filix-mas grew around the ancient church. Having cut deeply through the soft sandstone and 
shale, Rocher Brook flows through a steep-sided ravine, the much harder millstone grit having 
formed moderate-sized waterfalls (43/265929). The banks and waterfalls are the sites of some 
very large Dtyupteris affmis. Unfortunately the heavy rain had made conditions underfoot 
extremel) difficult; a few fearless members managed to slither down the slippery bank side to 
view the ferns. A walk up the stream-bed revealed plenty more of the same, along with 

We next drove over to Smallfields (43/258927) and walked to Agden Bog, noting some of 
the ferns previously seen including an abundance of bracken. 

E. arvcnse were seen, along with one smaJ nerma. The stone bridge at 

Agden Dike was seen to support a good colony ot I Hum, At Emlin 

Dike (43/248927) we saw Blechnum spiccmt and many very tall and robust Dryoptem 
affmis down by the watercourse. The riverside here was strewn with large angular blocks of 
millstone grit forming deep and dark recesses, making perfect habitats for Trichomatm 
speciosum gametophyte. A search with the help of torches quickly revealed the luminous 
green glow of a small patch of the gametophyte growing on the rock at the back of a narrow 

Our last call was to Royds Clough (43/259900). Although thickly planted with mature 
spruce trees, the clough has still retained colonies of Equisetum sylvaticum. A few shoots of 
/:. arvcnse and one solitary shoot of E. fluviatile were seen in the surrounding fields. To 
finish a long day's ferning we climbed over a wall and then down to where a stream (Wet 
Shaw Dike 43/259902) issues from a culvert beneath the road. Several plants of 
Polystichum aculeutum were growing in 
unusual species to find in this predominantly acidic a 

Chellow Dean, Bradford, West Yorkshire - 14 August 

/ day during a very v 

met in the morning for a three kilometre woodland walk to and 
constructed to service the rapidly expanding town of Bradford in the mid 19th century. 
Disused for many years, the whole site is now a local nature reserve and SSI, situated just over 
two miles from the city centre. The woodland path from the car park follows a ditch that 
becomes a small stream with Dryopteris dilatata, D. filix-mas and Athyrium filix-femina as 
well as Pteridium aquilinum, all plentiful. A small clearing across the stream was seen to 
support an extensive colony ot Equisetum sylvaticum and exploration of this wet area revealed 
a single plant of Oreopteris limbosperma (44/25736 89705) that was previously unknown from 
this site. Further on in a more open area a large colony ot Equisetum arvense was encountered. 
The path on the western side of the reservoirs was notable for Blechnum spicant and a clump 
of Dryopteris affmis that we collectively agreed was most probably subsp. borreri. 
It was at the far end, after crossing the dam of the lower reservoir, that the reason for bringing 
the group to this site became self-evident. On the walls of the spillway were Asplenium cetcrach. 
\ adumtum-mgnm, A. mta-muraria, and in the spillway itself was a good colony of 
A. scolopendrium 'Crispum'. But this was just the starter. The height from the water to the path 
on top of the eastern wall of the lower reservoir varies from about two to four metres, and for a 
distance of about 300 metres this wall was prolifically covered in these aspleniums. though the 
mm here was the normal form. At the southern end I cetera, h clearly dominated, 
with a gradual transition towards the north to an area dominated bv I adiantum nigrum with 
hardly any A. ceterach, possibly due to the shade from ft the water at the 

base ol the wall at this end. A few small plants of Dryopteris affmis subsp. affmis were found on 
e wall there, and at the very end, as the wall end, in ihe .,.,-v. hank .,t ihe base of the upper 
oam, a small colony ot Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadm alens was discovered. 

After our pub lunch in the village of Harden (44 0SN37S) uc 
beck to the caravan site, admiring some astonishing!) luxuriant i 
the other side of ;l m Goitstock Wood 

Dryopteris affinis-, the hybrid /). x eomple.xa. This p 

to be correct as it had many aborted spores, and Ken lieu ten later determined it 
nothosubsp. comptexa. A little further on and encroaching onto the path in a 
vulnerable position was a single plant of D.filix-mas 'Depauperata'. The supporting v 
the Coppice Pond above the road held a small plant of D. affinis subsp. affinis and a 
the edges of the pond on both sides of the path, extending into the woodland, were 
colonies of D. x deweveh and we wondered if this was an under-recorded fern. 

Bell Bank 

(44/103390) site of Trichomanes speciosum to see the gametophyte, it was back to the cars 
for the short journey. There were three specific locations I wanted to show our now much 
depleted group and after scrambling around over unstable wet mossy rocks, tuning the 
presence here of Polystichum aculeatum, a new plant for the day, we had the satisfaction of 
seeing the gametophyte abundantly at all three spots and I had the distinct pleasure of 
hearing Barry's gasp of astonishment at our final stop! A nice finale to a very enjoyable day. 

Hack Falls, near Ripon, North Yorkshire - 4 September Barry Wright 

2004 is the twentieth anniversary of the formation of our local group. On 8th September in 
our inaugural year we had a meeting in some local woodland at Hack Falls, Grewelthorpe, 
near Ripon. Subsequent to this we visited the woods in 1991 and 1995. I felt it was a fitting 
tribute to the band of loyal members that founded the local group that we should revisit the 
site this year. The nearest date that we could get to the original was 4th September. 
It was a shame that our founding leader. Jack Bouckley, was unable to join us, but we were 
thinking about him as 14 of us made our way through the wood. Although I was a founder 
member, I unfortunately did not attend that particular meeting. However, Bob Adams was 
not only a founder member but was also present on that first visit to Hack Falls. It is curious 
to note in Jack's account of the meeting that he reported Bob as being "one of our younger 
members". This, amazingly, is still the case 20 years later! Over the three previous visits 
made to the woods we had chalked up a grand total of 1 7 species of fern. When we arrived 
on 4th September I set the challenge of trying to find three additional species so that we 
could say we had found 20 species on our 20th anniversary. 

both acidic and calcareous substrates in various locations throughout. Of particular note is a 
large block of tufa (44/23390 76987) not far from the entrance to the wood. This magical 
place, for a fern lover, supports good stands of A. scolopendrium along with abundant 
Polystichum setiferum. Here we all posed for the group photo, trying not to sink into the 

. down to the rivei m an undignified manner. 

Hack Falls - Leeds & District Group's 20th Anniversary meeting 

Martin Harrison, Paul Ruston, Ken Trewren, Eric Beery, Bob Adams, Alison Evans. 

Barry Wright, Mathew Adamson, Brian Byrne, Shelagh Smethurst, Bruce Brown, 

Brian Smethurst, John Wilson, Chris Evans & Bracken 

Not much further down the valley on the opposite bank to the footpath is an extensive stand 
of Phegoptehs connectilis (44/23455 77166). In 1984 this was recorded as covering "about 
30 square yards", and was pointed out by the meeting leader, the late Dr Sledge. We 
continued our descent, pausing at a folly made of mortared tufa blocks. It supported a 
colony of Pofypodium vulgare, we think. Not even the 'younger member' was prepared to 
scale the walls to check! I then left the group on the path to scramble up the steep river-bed 
to reach a fallen tree spanning its banks (44/23567 77193) to collect another Polypodia* 
) be P. interjectum. Nearby was a distinctive form of Dryopteris affinis, 
) try and get the numbers up to the target of 20) as 

'foliosum (Ken Trewren's name for it). This is a very c 

form that 'us mere mortals' in the Leeds group can now easily recognise from 20 paces. 
From here we completed the descent to Hack Falls themselves, a singularly unspectacular 
waterfeU even with a good flow of water. Then we moved upstream to the lunch spot on a 
sandy beach, ticking off Polystichum aculeatum and Equisetum telmateia on the way. After 
unch we continued, trying to relocate a record of Gymnocarpium dryopteris made by 
another of our 'younger members', Ann Robbins. This we failed to find. 
On our way back from the beach we had been instructed by Jack Bouckley to look out for 
\t a rest stop near a tree stump I looked out across the wood and 
casually enquired whether the Polystichum in the distance was worth looking at. It turned 
77^ \vu l ° Se dUSter ° f R ****** P - aculeatum and a large P. x bicknellii (4403A47 
* hat a superb opportunity for Ken to give us a teaching workshop on tips for 
' steps along the main path we found one of the large 

Next * 


:am of the falls. We considered looking for Trichomanes ,pcciosiiin 
iidn't seem to be deep dark holes. Ken was undaunted and quickly 
i strange spot with T. speciosum growing in a relatively well-lit site 



December 2004 

Please remember to notify the Membership Secretary of any changes of postal o 
e-mail addresses. 

Amendments to this list will be published in future issues of the Bulletin. 


H denotes Honorary Member 

Ackers, Mr R.G. & Miss L.A.M [orsham Road, Walliswood, Surrey RH5 5RL 

Acock. Mr P.J., 13 Star Lane, St Mary Cray, Kent BR5 3LJ 

Adam, Mrs S.K., 7 Elm Road, Evvell Village, Surrey KT17 2EU 

Adams, Mr R., 17 Kirkby Aveni HG4 2DR 

Adkins, Dr M.S. & Mr P.J., 1 Streamside, Fleet, Hants. GU51 3LX 

Aguraiuja, Miss R., Kloostrimetsa Tee 52, Tallinn, EE-0019, Estonia 

Aikman, Mr N., 26 Silver End Road, Haynes, Beds. MK45 3PP. 

Akeroyd, Dr J.R., Lawn Cotfe urj . \\ ilts SP3 6SG 

Alexander, Mr W., 28 Mount Eagle Rise, Leopardstown Heights, Dublin 18, Eire, 

Allen, Ms C, 8 Walworth Terrace, White Plains, New York 10606-2706, USA 

* Andersen, Mr B.R., Syrenvej 23, 4600 Koge, Denmark 

• Anderson, Mr J.D., Inverewe Garden, Poolewe, Wester Ross IV22 2LG, Scotland 

Andrew, Mr S.M., 46 Middle Pal el TA18 8BE. 

Andrews, Mr S.C., 199, Roman Road, East Ham, London E6 3SJ 
Applebee, Mr B.J., Flat 5, The Newlands, 148 Shilton Road, Barwell, Leics. LE9 8BN 
Archer, Mr R.( , \ 5 Ay 40065, USA. ralpharchcrw 

Arduino, Dr P., Strada Tuscanese, Viterbo, 1-01 100, Italy, 
: Amanz Ayuso, Mr S., Paseo del Prado no. 1 , Talavero De La Reina, Toledo 45600, Spain, 
*- w G.C., Clarence House, Higher Downgate, Callington, Cornwall PL 17 8HL. 

Atkinson, Miss W.J., Botany Section, Liverpool Museum, William Brown Street, Liverpool, Merseyside 

L3 8EN. 
Awmack, Miss C.S., 1 16 Cowper Street, Luton, Beds. LU1 3SE. 
Baggott, MrM.A. & Mrs L.C., The Nutshell, Canon From, hire HR8 2TB 

Room 8, 6, Old Park Road, Palmers Green, London N13 4RE 
Baker, Mrs R., 1 Clarke Wood Close, Wiswell, Clitheroe, Lanes. BB7 9BX 
Ball.MrP.G., 33 Clovelly Drive. Newburgh. Lanes. WAS 71. V 
Bannister, Mr W.D., The Fernery, 10 Maple Way, Royston, Herts. SG8 7DH 
Barcelona, Dr J.F., Pteridologj S ae s 1 itecutive House, 

P.Burgos St, Manila, Philippines 
Barker. Miss J., 103 Portland Street, Derby, Derbys. DE3 8QD 
Barnes. Mr P.G., Alltgoch, Llangeitho, Tregaron, Ceredigion SY25 6TT, Wales 
Barton, Mr P.E., 191 Smedley Street, Matlock, Derbys. DE4 3JA 
Basil, Mrs J., 14 Royden Lane, Boldre, Hants. S041 8PE 
Bass, Mr L. & Ms K Banbury, Oxon. 0X16 7FG 

>f> 100, Italy 
Batten, Dr D.J., Institute of Earth Studies, UCW I m , , sY23 3DB, Wales 

Baxter Mr W.D. 307 Riverdale I Jlllia 22656-2120, USA 

ow, Edinburgh, EH3 5BB, Scotland 
Beauchamp, Dr R.D., 2 The Grove, Ickenham, Uxbridge, Middx. UB10 8QH 

Beaufoy, Miss A., 98 Tuddenham Road, Ipswich, Suffolk IP4 2SZ 

rS"™"^ ,? J^' Gertrude Road, Norwich Norfolk NR3 
Meeson Mr R B.C. 29 Meadow Rise, Broadstone, Poole, Dorset BH18 9ED 
Parkwood Road, Calverley. Pudse\ . \\ ,m Vorks. LS28 5PH 
.'-■ '.' " ;. ' ' • ' ' _ • = ,.;•.■! ■: ,..,::.■ ^^--u^ 

IZ^V ^ w VP * **• Devon PL19 9DH 

Bennert Prof. H.W Lehrstuhl fur Spezicllc B U Bochum, Bochum, D-44780, 

Germany. Wilfried.M hum de 

BeS m v V? 4 Rad " | --' ham - Essex SSI7 7SX 

Rerri^M^A n S IT* M " de Nansout ^ Asnieres, Haute de Seine 92600, France 

Be™ ul R " L r T r r C1 ° Se ' T ° rqua > • ' K 

BS^wr fta ? nR ° ad ' Manail,,n Pl " !l "> I'' ^1 S ' <»<" mi! ,/ 

: Wales 
' Blott Mr S F i»h a S° ad ' Eastbour ne, East Sussex BN21 2PG 
uiott, Mr S.E., 18 Harpenden Close, Bedford, Beds. MK41 9RG 

Bobrov, Mr A.E., Bot. Inst, of Acad, of Sci. of USSR. Prof. Popov Mum :. s.nni IVicr.bure. pro::. Russia 
: Bomford, Mr J., 42 Herons Way, Pembury, Tonbridge, Kent TN2 4DN 
Border, Mr M.G., 118 Westfield Lane, St Leonards-on-Sea. East Sussex TN37 7NQ 
Borwick, Mrs E., 40 Hatton Road, Luncarty, Perths. PHI 3UZ, Scotland 

Bouckley, Mr J.H., 209 Woodfield Road, Harrogate, North Yorks. HG1 4JE. JBouckley a 
Boudrie, Mr M., 16 rue des Arenes, Limoges, 87000, France 

Bowyer, Mr J., 9 Hevfields Cottar, riitemor Road. I ittensor. Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs. STI2 9HG 
Braithwaite. Dr A F..4 Kendal l")ri\e. BecMoii. Nottingham, Notts. NG9 3AW 
Bremer, Mr P.. Roelm-sbeek 1. Zwolle. 8033 BM, Netherlands. 
Brock. Mr T.J.. 108 Rushes Road. Petersfield, Hants. GU32 3AS 
Brooks, Ms CD., Honeysuckle Cottage, Hoxne Road, Denham. Eye, Suffolk IP21 5DF. 

Brotherton, Mr C.S., 43 Shakespeare Road. Sedgley, Dudley. West Midlands DY3 3B.I. 

Brown, Mr B.N., 4 Bank Parade, Otley. West Yorks. LS21 3m Bruce Brown ,/ 

Brown, DrD.H., 38 Laurie Crescent, llenlea/e. Bristol. Avon BS9 4T A 

Brown, Mr N.H., Treborth Botanic Garden, University College of North Wales, Bangor. ( i\\ \ nedd 
LL57 2RQ, Wales 

Brown, Mr R.F., Woodstde Cottage. Bardsea. I Kei-ton. C umhria 1.A12 9QY 

Brownsey, Dr P.J., Museum of New Zealand. P.O Bo\ 467. \\ cllmgton. New Zealand 
' Bryant, Dr J.B., 36 St John's Avenue, Burgess Hill, West Sussex RH1 5 8HH 
' Bryson, Mr D.J., 54 Ferndown, Northwood Hills, Middx. HA6 1PH 

Buds. Mr B.. I vr Ardd. Nant Gwynant, Beddgelert, Gwynedd LL55 4NW, Wales, barrier 

Buhr, Mr H., Baekbjcr» 5. Graasten. Dk-h300, Denmark 

Bujnoch, Mr W., Neuwiese 13, Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz D-54296, Germain buiuatncn/ t-onlmc.dc 

Bungard, Dr S.J.. Ceol-na-Mara, Wesl Suisnish. Isle of Raasay, By Kyle, Isle of Skye IV40 8NX. 
Scotland, raasw isl (a 

* Burka, Mr I., 2 Csiki U., Szekesfehervar, 8000, Hungary 

Burton. Mr R.. 29 Whitehouse A\ . - ks. LEI 1 2PN 

Busb\ . Mr A.R., C ro/iers'. 16 Kirby Corner Road, Canley, Coventry, West Midlands CV4 8GD 

Bushen, Mrs D.J., Halsway Nurseries, Crou c i sel TA4 4BB 

Bj field. Mr A.l . 2 1 Fishos Road. Totton, Southampton, Hants. SO40 9HW. 

Byrne, Mr B.K., 82 Low Ash, Shipley, West Yorks. BD18 1JH ' 

Cadinouche, Mr Y.A., 15 Bourbon Street, Port-Louis, 

Cameron, Mr J.B.C., P.O.Box 30156, Nairobi, Kenya 

Carmichael, Dr D.S., Ridgway House, Ridgway Lane, Colyton, Devon EX24 6RP. 
Carter, Ms A.B., 86B Balmoral Avenue. Belfast. BT9 6NY, Northern Ireland 
I artwrmht. Mr R.F.. 13 Pen--. \. - WR10 2EW 

Cass. Mr V. Orchard End. Dublin Road, Rishangle. Eye. Suffolk IP23 7QB 

( hate am Mi P . 2~ Rue des Ba tants Be i geiiL 45 1 I 

Chater, Mr A.O., Windover, Penyrangor, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 1BJ, Wales 
' Chen, MrC.C. No. 12. L in. - raovuan. raiwan 325. Taiwan, R.O.C. 
Chicken, Dr E., Corner House, Scarborough Road, Driffield, East Yorks. Y025 5EH 
Chinnery, Dr L.E., Dept.of Biological & Chemical Sciences, University of the West Indies, POB 64. 

Bridgetown, Barbados, 
Chiou. Dr W.L.. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. 53 Nan-Hai Road, Taipei, 100, Taiwan. R.O.C. 
Chuey, Dr C.F., Dept of Biological Science, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio 44555. 

' Claffey, Mrs J.E., Brookside, Paddock Lane - LN4 1LB 

Clare.'Mr P.J.. 6 Fei nough, Tunbndge Wells. Kent TN4 OTD 

Clavton. Mr 11. G.. 2 The Dene. Nettleham. Lincoln. Lines. LN2 2LS. 

* Clokie, Dr M.R.J., 54 Adderley Road. Leicester. Leics. LE2 1WB 
Cogan, Mr B.H., Oakside, The Street. Catfield, Norfolk NR29 5AZ 

s E . 6 kenmoor Close, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT3 6JZ 
Cole, Mr R. & M^ P I 2" Knig tshridge Road Mes>mgham Scunthorpe, Lines. DN 17 3RA. 
Coleman, Dr J.N ■ - A castle upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear NE7 7UY. 

Collins, Mr M.R., Long Leys Farm, Leys Road, Cumnor, Oxford, Oxon. 0X2 9QG 
Collinson, Dr M.E., Dept. of GeoK.<j\ . R- ■! H.-l\- '-.o & Bedford New College, University of 

London, Eghai 

Colville, Dr B. & Dr A., Poolfoot, Clappersgate, Ambleside, Cumbria LA22 9NE 
Conran, Mr A.E.M., Mm Menai, Siliwen Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2BS, Wales 
Cook. Mrs N.A.. 1 1367 Eastside Road, Hamersville, Ohio 45130, USA 

* Cook. Mr T.S.. Stallis Cottage. 4 Royal Oak Lane. Middleton Cheney . Banbury . Oxon. 0X17 2LX 
Cooke, Mr B., Quanyside, Back Western Hill, Durham, County Durham DH1 4RG 

Cooke, Mr R.J.. 15. Conduit Road, Stamford, Lines. PE9 1QQ 

Copson, Mr R. & Mrs D., 18 Westham Street. P ancs. LAI 3AU 

Corcoran. Ms C.R.L. & Mr R.P.S. Barnwell, 3 Bryn Place, Llanelli, Carmarthenshire SA15 2PE, Wales 

Coudret, Dr C, 35 Rue Riqu .ec. 

Coughlin, Mrs R., 17 Alvechurch Highway, Lydiate Ash, Bromsgrove, Worcs. B60 1NZ 

Coveny, Mr R., c/o National Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, New South Wales 2000, 
Craddock, Mr M.J . ,V: Mrs I I 40 Russell Dri c \mptlull Bed. \1K45 2TX 

* Crawford, Mr M.R., Ford House, Station Roa 1 N22 5XB 
Crawford, Mr R . 1 1 Pearson I I Al 1 8QA 
Crichton, Mr A., Carrowgarry, Beltra, Sligo, Eire 

Cridland, DrN.A., 7 fcris ( lose, Long 1 [anborough, Witney, Oxon. OX29 8JN. 
Crowe, Mr J.P.. Kell vigavenny, Gwent NP7 8BB, Wales. 

Crowther, Prof. D. & Mrs N.. 1 6 1 1 

Croxford, Mr A.W., Bryn Hyfryd, Llangaffo Road, Holland Arms, Gaerwen, Anglesey LL60 6LL, Wales 
Cubas, Dr P., Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad 

Complutense, Madrid, 28040, Spain. 
Dadd, Mr R., 21 Embrook Road, Wokingham, Berks. RG41 1HF. 

* Danielsen, Mr I., Karlstr. 27, Hj 1785, Germany 

Davies, Dr C.E., Hirondelle House, Grindon. Staffs. S J 13 7TP cliffda\ ics2n<>3<« 
Davies, Mr D., Ty'r Ysgol, Rhandirmwyn, Llanymddyfri, Sir Gaerfyrddin SA20 OPA, Wales 
Davies, Mr H.L., 66 Link Lane, Wallington, Surrey SM6 9DZ 
Davies, Dr W.A.D., The Rectory, 56 Lichfield Road, Stone, Staffs. ST15 8PG 
de Winter, Dhr. W.P., Plevierenweide 82, Nl-6708 Bx Wageningen, Netherlands. 
'• Deans, Mr R. & Mrs J., 86A Clophill Road, Maulden, Beds. MK45 2AD 
Delahaye, Miss M.F., 19 Lindsey Street, Epping, Essex CM 16 6RB 
Delbecque, Mr Y.E.M., Stephensonstraat 17, Den Haag, 2561 XP, Netherlands 
Dennison, Mr J.A. & Mrs V., Ballyculhane, Kildimo. Co. Limerick. Lire. jim.dcnnison'</ 
Dickinson, MrT.M, 3 Prospect Road, Wellington. I 

Dickman, Mr A.J., 22 Finchfield, Parnwell, Peterborough, Cambs. PE1 4YG 
Dickson, Mrs J., 1 Beechwood Avenue, Milber, Newton Abbot, Devon TQ12 4LJ 
Diekjobst, Dr H., Im Waldchen 3, Oberhambach, D-55765, Germany 
Diggens, Mr R., 3 Roedeer Copse, Haslemere, Surrey GU27 1RF 
Downey, Mr G, 31 Greenway, Frinton on Sea, Essex CO 13 9AL 
Drewett, Mrs H.L.J., Bryn-y-groes, Howey, Llandrindod Wells, Powys LD1 5RE, Wales 
Dufourd, Mr M., 2137 Av. Roger Salengro, Chaville, 92370, France, 
Duncan, Mr W., Strathmore Cottage, Drumeldne, Upper Largo, Fife KY8 6JD, Scotland 
Dunham, Ms S.J., Rothamsted Research, AEN Division, Harpenden, Herts. AL5 2JQ 
Dupree, DrP., Department of Biochemistry, Cambridge University. Cambridge, Cambs CB2 IQV\ 
Durkin, Mr J.L., 25 May Avenue, Winlaton Mill, Blaydon, Tyne & Wear NE21 6SF. Dui kinjl ' uol com 
Dyer, Dr A.F., 499 Lanark Road West, Balemo, Edinburgh, EH 14 7AL, Scotland. 
Earnshaw, Dr M., 2 Kings Terrace, Brough. h i CA17 4BU 

Eddie, Dr W.M.M., 20 Gosford Place, Edinburgh, EH6 4BH, Scotland, 
Edgar, Mr I.R.H., Hendre, Abererch, Pwllheli. < iwvnedd. \\ ales, nvan </ 
Edgmgton, Prof. J.A., 19 Mecklenburgh Square, London W( I \ 2AD. Ugap 1 J6<3 
Edwards, Dr D.S it> of Brunei Darussalam, Tungku Link, BE1410, Brunei, 

SE Asia. 
Edwards, Mr G.G., 14 North Feus. Upper Largo. Le\en. Fife KY8 6ER, Scotland, 
tdwards, Mr T.C.T., Bonmgale Nurseries, Holyhead Road, Albrighton, Wolverhampton, West 

Midlands WV7 3AE. tim.edwards@boningale co uk 
cn an '^ ISSj - H - 4 ' o,ks.S7 2GE 

& Mrs, 39 West Square, London SE1 1 4SP. 
Endicott Mrs R.A., The Chippings, St Andrews Road, St,, merset TA5 1TE 

11. Mr A.J., First Flat, Top Floor, 69 St Leonards H 9SB, Scotland 

660 Shortwood Street, Charles I i 2, USA 

* Etherington, Mr L. & Mrs M.J 8 I ross, Stafts. ST17 ODB 

Evans, Dr A.J., Sprin Road, Earbv. Lanes. BB 1 8 6NE. ACL.Evans@btintt 

Eyre. Mr S.S.. Venn Bridge Lodge. Venn Bridge Hill. Chenton Bishop. Devon EX6 6HD 
F.zaun. Mr O.. 955 Chemin du Pints. Roquefort-Les-Pins. 06330, France 
Fairweather. Mr G., 3 Bear Street, i oucrhoiwc. Burnley. Lanes. BB12 6NQ 

1 Fidler, Dr N.Y., Mt Lofty Botanic Garden, 16 Lampert Road. Piccadilly. S.A. 5154, Australia 
Filet, Mr G., de chez Bardin, Saint-Sulpice-Les-Feuilles, 87160, France 

' Finch, Mr J.A..:: Victoria ^ ME7 1EW 

Finch. Dr R.A., 68 Holbrook Road, Cambridge, Cambs. CB1 7ST 
Flanagan, Dr D.I., 5 Poplar Terrace, Markington, Harrogate, North Yorks. HG3 3NN. 

. Y061 1UB. azufletcher./ 
■ Foran,MrM.,214L 
Forseate. Mr M.B.. 58 Shalstone Road, Mortlake, London SW14 7HR 
Forster, Herr S., Rote-Kreuz-Str. 40. Weinhohla. D-0 1689. Germany 

s D., 43 Queensberry Avenue, Hartlepool, Cleveland TS26 9NW 

i Road, Edinburgh, EH9 2AG, Scotland, grant fortune u BTIntemet com 
Ir K., 21 Chaucer Street, Kingsley Park, Northampton, Northants. NN2 7HW 
s P.M.A., c/o Natural History Section, Bolton Museum & Art Gallery, Le Mans Crescent, 

■ 1 tedemann. Mr C, Goldarnmernwce 6, Moerfelden-Walldorf. D-64546, Germany 
Freshwater, Mr P.B., 43 Corstorphine Road, Murrayfield, Edinburgh. EH 12 5QQ. Scotland. 

Fyfe, Mr W.P & Mrs K.M.S, Ascog Hall, Isle of Bute, Argyll PA20 9EU. Scotland 
Gardner, Mr R.C., 25 Coneybury View, Broseley, Shropshire TF12 5AX. Robin882Gardw 
Garrett, Mr P., 7 R< lonSp*, Warwicks. C\'32 7HT 

Garstang, Mrs M. & Mr J., Choi >ria LA12 7RQ 

► George. Dr J.D. & Prof. J.J., Sabeli a £ 5 nhm.a. uk 

Ghullam, Mrs M.P., 5 Beech Drive, Cromer Road. North \\ alsham, Norfolk NR28 OBZ 
(lias. Mr M, 77 Howard Street, Apt. 2202, M4X 1J9, Toronto. Ontario, Canada. gias72 a 

k, Cumbria CA12 5QB 
Gibby, Dr M., Ron , . -turgh, EH3 5LR Scotland. 

Gibson, Dr J. A., Foremount 1 1 
Giles, Mr N.R., Rumsey Gardens, 117 Dr* ooville, Hants. P08 OPD 

\; ■: ics. PR25 1YL 

Gill, Mrs A.V.. Dak 

Gillet, Prof. C, 1 1 Rue Havmont, Erpent, 5101, 
Gilman, Mr A V P.O-Box 82 ! 58-0082, USA 

GodrivvMrC.L.., 14 Torridon Clc^, Sinfin Moor, Derby, Derbys. DE24 9U. CLlfTORD.GODFRt •, a 
Godfrey, Mr T., An Oiseann, Ord, Teangue, Isle of Sk> c 1 ,i 

Golding, Mr R., 50A Bullingdon Road, Oxford, Oxon. 0X4 1QJ. 

e SK17 6NH 
Gooderham, Dr K., 4A Utandi I " l ■ Scotland 

< .ood-A m. Mr D.. 128 Shay Lane, Walton, Wakefield, West Yorks. WF2 6LB 
Goudey, Mr C, 25 Cozens Road, Lara, Victoria 3212, Australia 

. \; , 

Goulding, Mr R.V. & Mrs D.J.. 239a ( B5 4RL 

Gowen, Dr S.R., The Walnuts, ^ IP22 1BN. 

Graham, Mrs B M Pohx P ( mwaU PL24 2TW 

Grant, Mr M L , 57 Beales Road, Bookhan Kl 23 4NA. 

Graty Mr D I N( )4 2LH 

Gray, Mr I & Mrs E., 34 Rafborn Grove, Salendine Nook, Huddersfield, West Yorks. HD3 3UB. 

Gray, Ms L., 4 Dykes Lane, Copmanthorpe. York, North Yorks. \ 

Green, Mr P.R, Monksilver, 72 Boxgrove Road, Guildtbrd, Surrey GUI 1UD. p 

Green. Miss \ .. Honeysuckle Cottage, Halstead Road, Aldham, Colchester, Essex C06 3PP 

Gre\ die. Dr K.L.. Creigle. Llangoed, Beaumaris, Anglesey LL58 8SD. Wales 

' ' : 
Griml Mr P.1 Upp« Blaeon, Fosse Way, Chesterton, Leamington Spa, Warwicks. CV33 9JP. 
Grimshaw, Dr J.M., Sycamore Cottage, Colesbourne. nr Cheltenham, Glos. GL53 9NP 
Grue, Mr J.D., Briarfield, Moss Lane, Broadbottom, Hyde, Cheshire SK14 6BD. 

Lubienski, Mr M., Wodantal 28, 45529 Hattinger 

Lynch, Mr P. A., 7 Fairview Avenue, Earley, Rea< _ 

Macbeth, Ms M.A., 41 Babbacombe Gardens, Ilford, Essex IG4 5LZ 

Macer, Mr N.J., Kenton, Cowle Road, Stroud, Glos. GL5 2JR. 

MacGregor, Mr A.S., 58 Hawthorn Avenue, Bearsden, Glasgow, Strathclyde G61 3NQ, Scotland 

Maerz, Mr G., Postfach 150308, Stuttgart, D-70076, Germany 

Mandeville, Ms S., 723 Crest Lane, Springfield, Oregon 97477, USA. 

Mandt, Mrs D.P., 12616 Ibbetson Ave., Downey, California 90242-5050, USA 

Manwell, Mr A.W., 24 Craigen Aberdeenshire AB35 5ZB, Scotland 

Man/e. Mr P.T., 11 Stands] hwood, Oxon. 0X7 6EJ 

* Marchant, Mr E.L. & Mrs M.B., 30 Langport Drive, Vicars Cross, Chester, Cheshire CH3 5LY 
Marsden, Mrs P., 24 Holltagl West Yorks. WF4 3NR 
Martin. Dr. I.V., 39 Hmsl I B i , SK10 5LT 

* Martin, Mrs L.V., 17 Vale Street, Kettering, Northants. NN16 9EB 

Martin, Mrs M. & Mr A.Q., 207 Broadway, Peterborough, Cambs. PE1 4DS. 
Martin, Mr S., 25. ! 

Martineau, Mr P., 425, Rg 6 Ouest, Evain, Quebec JOZ 1YO, Canada, 
Martinelli, Dr S.D., Old Farm Cottage, Olmstead Green, Castle Camps, Cambridge, Cambs. CB1 6TW 

* Martz, - 'Germany 

Mason, Mrs E.O., Dial Park, Chaddesley Corbett, Kidderminster, Worcs. DY10 4QB. 

Masuyama, Dr S., Dept. of Mathematics, Tokyo 

Suginami-ku, Tokyo, 167-8585, Japan 
Mattheij, Mr W.M., Molenstraat 40, Ijzendoorn, 4053 HE, Netherlands, wiel.mal 
Matthews, Mr H.W., 39 Map). . \1iddx. HA2 8DG. howard 

Matthews, Mr M.G., 56 Stanford Road, Ashchurch. Tewkesbury, Glos. GL20 8QU. 
Maxted, Dr N.W., School of Biological Sciences, Univei .igbaston, 

Birmingham Bl 

May, Miss T.L., 144 Roseholme, Maidstone, Kent ME 16 8DT 
- Mayall, Mr P., 55 Pennine Dm e, " ; cs. OL16 3HG 

McCarthy, Mrs W., 5 Ty'n-y-Coed, Great Orme, Llandudno, Conwy LL30 2QA, Wales 
McGavigan, Mr F., 12 Glenbank Avenue, Lenzie, Glasgow, Strathclyde G66 5 A A, Scotland. 

frank a 
McHaffie, Dr H.S.. 180 Granton Road, Edinburgh, EH5 1AH, Scotland, 
McLean, Mr I.C., 28A Boscombe Road. Worcester Park. Surrev KT4 8PL 
McLeod, Mr D.M., Dunvegan, 10 Lowndes Street, Barrhead, Strathclyde G78 2QX, Scotland 

Mr D.W., Shaw Bank, Naddle, Keswick, Cumbria CA12 4TF 
Medd, Mrs S.H.. L r , u , n Thorpe, York, North Yorks. Y043 3PA. 

ant 46, Heerhugowaard, 1703 EW, Netherlands 
Mehltreter, Dr K, Institute de Ecologia A.C., km 2.5 antigua carretera a Coatapec No 351, 

Congregacion El Haya, Xalapa 91070, Veracruz, Mexico. 
Mellor, Mr A.J., 4 Damson I ^ Yorks. Y025 9TH 

Mellor, Mr P.R., The Elms, Elmbeds Road, Poynton, Cheshire SKI 2 1TG 
Memtt. Mr Ml... 12 Lyme Gn .. ■ re WA14 2AD 

Merryweather. Dr J.W., 'The U bins', Auchtertyre, By Kyle Of Lochalsh, Invernessshire IV40 8EG, 
Mickel, Dr J.T., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-5126, USA 
Middleton, Mr D.N., 44 Hull Road, Hedon, East Yorks. HU12 8DF 
Mi es, Mrs M., Trewollack, St Mawes, Truro, Cornwall TR2 5AD 
Mi les, Mr M.J 17 Lawrence Avenue, Chaddesden, Derby, Derbys. DE2 1 4RD 
Milne, Mr R, Little Park House. P: S A62 4AS, Wales 

Mmvitch,MrJ.S., Little Chiswick House, 2 Conie r\vu 

: Scotland 
Mya^aki,MrH.,Matsuyama73,Jimokuji-chyo,Ama-gun,A,d, - , 

Monaghan, Mr A., 1 8 Bicknell Road, Camberwell, London SE5 9A V 

Montgomery Dr J.D., Ecology III, Inc., 804 Salem Blvd., Bern ick, Pcnns> Kama 1 8603-6838, USA 
Moodie Mr L.G.W., 8 Bank Street, Dumfries, Dumfriesshire DG1 2NS, Scotland 
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Cardiff, S. Glamorgan CF 10 3YE, Wales 
Moore, Mr S-J. Lab. of Plant Taxonomy, Herbarium, Dept. of Biology, College of Science, Nat'l Taiwan 

Normal University 

' 1 . Taipei 1 16, Taiwan, RO.C. s 

Morgan, Mr C.W., WhkmoK X37 9HB 

Morgan, Mr M., 6 Enville Close. WaUall. V\ cm MullaiuU V\ S — I 1 mamotcan n 

Morgan. Mr R.G., 1, Lastingham Close, West Knighton. Leicester. Leics. LE2 6JF 

Morton, Mr R.L., School of Horticulture, Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB. 
Mosley, Mr S.P., 42, Old Fold View, Barnet, Herts. EN5 4EB 
Mullin, Mrs F.M., Midfield Cottage, Lower Simpson Fold. Blackburn Road. Higher Wheelton. 

Chorley, Lanes. PR6 8HL 
Mullins, Miss CM., 4 St Cenydd Road. Heath, Cardiff, S. Glamorgan CF14 4HX, Wales 
Mundy, DrN.L, 12 Bogs Gap Lane, Steeple Morden. Herts. SG8 OPN. mm2){a 
Munvard. Mr C.E., 'The Ferns', Hillbrae, Methlick, Ellon, Aberdeenshire AB41 OHE, Scotland. 

Munyard, Mr S.J. & Mrs K., 234 Harold Road, Hastings. East Sussex TN35 5NG 
Murphy, Mr A.J., The Old Smithy, Dolgran, Pencader, Carmarthenshire SA39 9BY, Wales 
Murphy, Miss RJ.,S 

Muse,MrA.P.,26D mcSY12 9QA 

Myhrvovld, Dr N.P., 1756 NE 1 14th Ave SE, Suite 1 10, Bellevue. Washington 98004, USA 
Nakamura, Dr T.. 1-2-1-803 Ohkura. Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 157-0074, Japan 
Nakato, Dr N., Narahashi 1-363, Higashiyamato-shi, Tokyo, 207. Japan 
Neal, Mrs J., Llwncelyn. C ii ,. wysSY20 8SS, Wales 

*Needham,MrE.,c.oDerro\\.kclli-A -M Icok. I rum. ( onmall rR3 oO/ 
Needham, MrR.A, Pike House, George Lane, Cinderford, Glos .(.1 14 M I ..boh needham «, 
Nelson, Mr M.A., Mailing Cottage, 84 High Street, Lindfield. West Sussex RHlr. 2HP. 

nel son_mark_a@hotmail . com 
Neuroth, Dr R.N., Warthestrasse 5 a, Montabaur, D-56410, Germany. Rainer.Neuroth a t-onlmc de 
Newbould, Mrs J.P., 26 Morestall Drive, Cirencester, Glos. GL7 1TF 
Newman, Mrs C.H., Warrens Cottage. Pound Lane. Upotterv. Honiton. Devon EX 14 9QB 
Nicholson, Mr B., 4 Exmouth Close, Hethersett, Norwich. Norfolk NR9 3LF. blnfu 
Nielsen, Mr J.H., Sortsoevej 60, Sortsoe Strand, Stubbekoebing, 4850, Denmark 
Nieuwkoop, Dr J.A.W., Vluchtheuvelstraat 6, Dreumel, NL 6621 BK Netherlands. j_e_nieuwkoopta 
Nimmo-Smith, Mrs M.E., 201 Chesterton Road, Cambridge, Cambs. CB4 1 AH 
Noonan, Mr J., 12, Vernon Road, Chester, Cheshire CHI 4JS 
Norman, Mrs SM 1" ( rot h i _ Give c x 

Norton, Mrs R., Bramble Cottage, Lower Broad Oak Road, West Hill. Ottery St Maw. Devon EX1 1 1XH 
NPK Landscapes, Attn. Dr K.C. Chambers. Grove Hill, Old Edinburgh Road. Minigaff, Newton 

Stewart, Wigtownshire DG8 6PL, Scotland 
DrNJL, Thornton Hoi "' 
Ococks, Mr S.R. & Mrs R. 

Ogden, Mr A.H. & Mrs V.H., 9 The Drive, Hopwood. 
Ollgaard, Dr B., Tokkerbakken 9, Risskov, DK-8240, 
Olney, Mrs A Bag End Stoatley Hollow, Bunch Lane. Haslemere. Surrey GU27 1AQ 
Oloyede, Mr F.A., Botany Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State 00234, Nigeria. . «„«,„»„,, 

Olsen, Mrs S.S., Foliage Gardens, 2003 128th Avenue S.E., Bellevue, Washington 98005, USA. 
Orbell, Mrs J.I., 21 Leicester Road, Barnet, Herts. EN5 5EW 
O'Shea, Mr B.J., 141 Fawnbrake Avenue, London SE24 OBG 
Ottway, Mr B., 87 Woodfield, Knocknacarra, Galway, Co. Galwa> I 
Outen,MrAR 14 Knit i\ C los. ( 1 Mh alUUsur^Rll . 
Page, Dr C.N., Halgarrick Lodge, Quenchwell, Camon Downs, Truro, Cornwall TR3 6LN. 

Palmer MdJdJ>Ti9 iulu. Hawaii 96822-2007, USA 

Pangua, Dr E., Departmento de Biologia Vegetal L, Facultad de Biologia, Ciudad Umversitana, 

Madrid. 2s - - nes 

Parker, Mr G., 9 Cotherstone Road, Newton Hall, Durham. County Durham DH1 5YN 
Parris, Dr B S., 2 1 James Kemp I - ands, New Zealand 

* Parslow, Mrs R., 17 St Michael's Road, Ponsanooth, Truro. Cornwall TR3 7ED 
Partridge, Mr R., 26 Park Clos ■ V\ >6 7DA 

Part dgc MrR.< 40al - e knoll, Beckenham, Kent BR3 5UD. r 

Pasek, Mr S.R. & Ms D.M. Pasek-Atkinson, 29 Kingrove Avenue, Chilwell, Beeston, ] 
' Notts. NG9 4DQ. 1 

Paul, Miss A.M., Dept of Botany, The > 
: Pearson, Mr M.D., 10 Orchard View Road, Ashgate, Chesterfield, Derbys. 5 

Pedersen, Mrs K.N., Agernvej 95, Beder, DK 8 

Peeters, Mr H., Rue du Chateau 84A, Bousval, 1470, Belgium 

Peroni, Dott. G., Via Roma 23, Viggiu, 21059, Italy, 

Petch. Mr R.. 35 Offenham Road. E\esham, Worcs. WR11 5DX 

Peters, Dr B., Schleswiger Str. 83, Suderbrarup, D-24392, Germany, 

Peters. Dr .).. 31 Jacks Road, Saltcoats, Ayrshire KA21 5SH, Scotland. 
* Petty, Mr J.S.F., 3 Carrs Crescent, Formby, Liverpool, Merseyside L37 2EU 

, 2F/R 237 Victoria Road, Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire AB1 1 9NQ, Scotland. 

Prof. R.E.G., Via Cantagrilli 2, Montagnana Val di Pesa, Firenze, 50020, Italy 
Pickering, Mrs L., 6 Bedale Road, Market Weighton, York, North Yorks. Y04 3DN 
Piearce, DrT.G., 9 Hawthorn Close, Brookhouse, Lancaster, Lanes. LA2 9NR. 
v ; . 

SY21 8ET, Wales 
Pierozynski, Dr W., 25 Mayflower Way, Farnham Common, Bucks. SL2 3TU 
Pigott, MrA.C. &MrsM.. k i!'!4 5RB 

Plant. Mr S.W.. 71 Bittell Road, Barnt Green, Birmingham B45 8LX 
Plattord. Mr R.J., 9 Wayero- 1>tcr , Essex RM14 1LZ 

* Podaras. Mr P.C., 158 IB Ellis Hollow Road, Ithaca, New York 14850, USA 
Pohl. Mr H.G., Place de Baileux, 33, Baileux, 6464, Belgium 

Polkey Prof C.E 12 E21 7EE. 

Pollock. Dr R. & Dr H.B., 23 Coach Road, Warton, Carnforth, Lanes. LA5 9PR. 
Ponder, Mr L.J., 71 Station Road, North Walsham, Norfolk NR28 OBW 
Pope, Mr S., 37 Devonshire Place, Brighton, East Sussex BN2 1QB 
Porter, Mrs B.. 1 Hazel Close, Marple, Stockport, Cheshire SK6 7QT 
Porter, Mr M.S.. ? Wcm V :!| „ mikcsporter . C 

Powis, Mrs R.A., 16 Cherry Orchard, Old Wives Lees, Canterbury, Kent CT4 8BQ. 
Prado, Dr J Institute de Botanica, Segao de Briologia e Pteridologia, C.P.4005, Sao Paulo, Sao 

Paulo C LP' ". 

Mr R., 32 Rue des Salle- -] 400. France. 

Pretty, Mrs S. 

Price, Dr M.G..P.O.E 

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Prior rlWv rS frV n Mr CJ " nstown > Dorchester, Dorset DT2 9LE 

Pryor, Dr K.\ .. 5 N , w j 

Pvn M T 5 ^^', 01 ^ 6 C ° Urt ' West Monkton < Taunton > Somerset TA2 8QT 
Emma J ssexSSOOPX 

yuinn, ivir in. a.. t>Ub Shirland Road London W9 2JA 

E^l^??^ ?* llerts.AL3 

r, Berks. SL4 2BU 
'Z^XS™"^ CampUS B ° X 265 ' University ° f C0,0rad °' B ° Ulder ' 
Rasbach, Mrs H., Datscherstrasse 
i H., 44 Rue du E 
a J"? u° rth Avenue ' Larbert < Stirlingshire , ^ . 
R?ch M A r \ Wl ^ h T au g h ' ' \rgyll PA32 

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V> [ ;^ , ; ee Cottage, Kyre, Tenbury Wells, Worcs. WR15 <XR\\ nckiern , hotma.l.eom 
RitrPM 4 P 

Rpley Mr P H '^bo^gh Close, Ramsbottom, Bury, Lanes. BLO 9YU 

TN1IQV ane Road, Tonbridge, Kent 

Ritchie m n 9 ?L paul - n P le y@ ah W)vaTtis.coin 

Robbins Mrs A K^H ?" ^u' ^^ C] °^ High Car1 ^ UlverSt ° n ' Cumbm ^ °" 
Roberts, Dr B.E 9 Udvw^MeT^ by Doncaster, South Yorks. DN10 6AD 
Roberts Mr DM 1 Barlev Ho P ' ^ WeSt Y ° rks - LS8 2LZ 

• i., barley Close, Frampton Cotterell, Bristol, Avon BS17 2ED 

' - • - ■ - 

Robinson, Mr K.J. & Mrs J., Morven, 32 King Street, Newton Stewart. Wigtownshire DCS <A\). Scotland 

Robinson, Mr K.S., Ivy Cottage, Ixworth K I P3 1 I QY. " 

Rockett, Mr P.B., 9 Abbotts Way, Riverside. V 1 6 4JZ. a 

Rogers, Mr C.J., No 1 Fingest Cottage, Bolter End, High Wycombe, Bucks. HP 1 4 3LR. 
Rose, Mr M.H.W. & Mrs E.M.. kilrawxk Gardens. Durrus. Co. Cork. Eire 
Roskam, Mr H.C., Valkstraat 19, Utrecht, 3514 TG, Netherlands 
Rotherham, Dr I.D., 42 School Lane, Norton. Sheffield, South Yorks. S8 8 
Round, Ms H., R.H.S. Garden, Rosemoor, Great Torrington, Devon EX38 8PH. helenr./ 
Rowland, Mr N.A., Long Acre Cottage, South Marsh. Charlton Musgrove, Wincanton, Somerset BA9 8EX 
Rumsey, Dr F.J., Botany Department, The Natural History Museum. Cromwell Road. London SW7 5BD. 

Riink, Mr: 

5 K., Mooni 

4, Tartu, 50412, 


Russ, Mr : 

B.F., 9 Cross 

thead. Ormskirk. Lanes. L40 6JD 

lr P.I. & Mrs 

; E., 15 Perigree 

Road. Woodseats, Sheffield. Soutl 

Sahashi, Dr N., Shoyaku Kenkyushitsi 

li, Yakugaku-Bu, Toho Daigaku. 2- 

n 274, J r 

v House, 49. B ■'. 5 combe, Bucks. HP12 3PG 

Samuel, Mr E.S., 3, Glenview, Ynysddu, Crosskeys, Gwent NP1 1 7LG, Wales 
Sanchez, Dr C, Jardin Botanico Nacional, Carretera del Rocio km 3,5, Calabazar, Boyeros. Ciudad 

de la HabanaCP 19230, Cuba 
Sanchez, Dr T., C.I Cuevas Morenas No.41, El Palmar.Teror, Gran Canana 35330. Spain 

H.. 38 Cotswold Avenue, Rayleigh. Essex SS6 8 An 
Saunders, Dr G.C., School of Chemistry, The Queen's University of Belfast, David Keir Building. 

Belfast, BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland 
Savage, Mr S.R.B., Church Farm, Wrockwardine, Wellington, Telford, Shropshire TF6 5DG. 
Savage, Mr W.E., Dragon Cross, 10 Chestnul Beds. LU7 7TR 

„ Crawford, High Street, Spetisbury, Blandford Forum, Dorset DTI 1 9DP. 

Schieb, Mr C.-J., Peter-Franzen-Str. 19, Koeln, 50827. Germany 

Schieber. Mr J.R., 1621 Chinqu.:; isylvama 18966-1719, USA 

Schmitt. Mi I Huiwcij 2. i .rJ^l^ -<< is. Germany 

Schout, Mr M Pr Beatrixstraat 1 7, 43 1 1 Bt Bruinisse. N 

»elL 1 fa) A-irds Heath, West Sussex RH16 1JG. schrodei 
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Schwartz, Mr D K , 9715 Chirtsey Way, Bakt 2-5617, USA 

Scott. Mr D I 19 \bbotts Gro\ c. Peterborough, Cambs. PE4 5BP 
Scott. Mr W.. New Easterhoull. Castle Street. Scalloway, Shetland ZE1 OTP, Scotland 

Searle, Mr M.G., Oak Lodge, 108 Cumnor Hill, Oxford, Oxon. OX2 9HY 
Sears. Dr E.J., R.S.P.B., The Lodge. Sandy, Beds. SG19 
Sells, Mr W.F., 'Llamedos' au B, «* 

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Slum. Mr \ I ' s~3 

Midtkld D iStoplord 1 .mer^i ,l Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL 

Shepherd, Mr H.C., 30 Lingmoor Road, Bolton, Lanes. BL15EA , „ 

' Sin-ei M. P.. Suessenbrunnerstr. 64/5/3. Vienna 22" \umi PM^ 
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Smart, Mr D.. 3 Silver Terrace, i \eter. Devon EX4 4JE 
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Tony@queei - „ „ 

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Jtromness, Orkney KW16 3JP, Scotland 
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Snudden, Mr M.J., Kimsburv House. Moor Street, Saul. Glos. GL2 7LQ 
Sp nuei. Ms C, 3985 South Galloway Drive, Memphis, Tennessee 381 1 
Spray. Mr M.. Hillside. Aston Bridge Road, Pludds, p— --»-- 

Mrs I.A., Woodlands Cottage, Summerbridge, Harrogate, North Yorks. HG3 4BT 
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ket, Suffolk 

Storev, Ms l.N.J. , North House, Hayes Road, Bromley, Kent BR2 9AF 
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StriMcs . Mr M.J., 8 St George's Road, Truro, Cornwall TR1 3JE 
Stringer, Mr G., 179 Red Far, HP 

Stringer, Dr R.N., Vendreth. v - ' v ■ Wales 

Struck. Prof P.. Bornstrasse 25. Hamburg 13, D-20146, Germany, 
Suddes, Mr A., 69, Baydale Road, Darlington, County Durham DL3 8JT 
Sxkes. Mr R.W. & Mrs S., Ormandy House, Crosthwaite, Kendal, Cumbria LA8 8BP 
Taggart, Mr J.H.K., The Linn Co1 eh. Dunbartonshire G84 ONR, Scotland 

Takamiya, Dr M -dry of Science, Kumamoto University, 

Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan. 

Tattersall, Mr B.G., 262 Staines R ittj 

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Tavlor. Mr F.. 12 Madin Street. New \ S42 6EH 

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Thomas, Mr S., Hen Ardd, Carreg Y Garth, Rhiwlas, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 4HD, Wales 
Thompson, Mil ,11. Wales. 

Thompson, Mrs S . ' si. Fife DD6 9BB, Scotland 

Thomsit, Mr G., 37 Belgra\ e Roa n El 1 3QW 

rhomvon MrR.M Ma ieid. SiKltu {'. « « .' i n otth. Lanes. LA5 OAG. 
Thorn, Mr R., 456 I' , urg, L- 1940, Luxembourg 

Timm, Mr R.N., The Fern Nursery, Grimsby Road, Binbrook, Lines. LN8 6DH. 

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Tinker, Dr M 1 1 . holm, Dumfriesshire DG13 OEE, Scotland. 

Treganowan. Mi .' uswick, London W4 3HH. 

Tregudda, Ms M.M., 124 Tottenhall Road, London N13 6DG 

Trewren, Mr K.,2 S North Yorks. Y021 1UX. 

Troy, Mr M. A, 3 Farleigh Place. \ I ; 1 1 

Tuck, Mr L.M., 16 Wyndham Road, Canton. ( FU 9EJ, Wales 

! • M - ' ' ■ . 

Turner, Dr D., 39, Karen Close, Bideford, Devon EX39 4PQ 
Turner, Dr L . I -ton, Oxon. 0X49 5JW 

Twyman, Mr P., P.S.L., 1 1 Finsen Road, London SE5 9AX 
Unett, Major R., 15 Belmont Gardens, Bradford, West Yorks. BD1 2 OHJ 

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' V eismanis, Mr A.. Apes 6 - 6, Aluksne, LV-4301, Latvia. , , 

Veldkamp, Mr J., Tweede Spa : 

Vervloesem, Mr L., De Roest d'Alkemadelaa _„- RpJ 

\ tear. Mr P.M. & Mrs A.M., Laurel Cottage. I t lants RG- / «" 

Vincent, Dr M.A., Herbarium, Department of B ershy, Oxford, 

Ohio 45056, USA. 

! ..iKlonSW" 5KD 
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Walkden, Mr I.J., Lower Hill Farm, Tockholes, Darwen, Lanes. BB3 ONF. ian.walkdento tin\ 
Walker, Dr T.G., 25 Lyndhurst Road. Benton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne & Wear NE12 9NT 

. Mr D., 10 Cluny Drive, Bearsden. Glasgow, Strathclyde G61 2JG. Scotland 
Wallis, Mr H.W., 25 Langton Avenue, Ewell, Epsom, Surrey KT17 1LD 
Walls.MrR.M.&MrsJ., 16 Lei, KH6 3LR.K 

■Wahcr. MrS.. 12 Adams Went mtsNNML 

Ward, Mr F.G., 19 High Street, Starbeck, Harrogate, North Yorks. HG2 7HX. 1 
Wardlaw, Prof. A.C., 92 Drymen Road, Bearsden, Glasgow, Strathclyde ( 
Warner, Mr S., 46 Kites Nest Lane, Lightpill, Stroud, Glos. GL5 3PJ 

1 PL26 8XF 

Weedon, Mr G., 8 Cathay Gardens, Dibden, Southampton, Hants. S045 5TY 
Weiss, Dr W.. Bol mgen, D-91054, Germany. 
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Whalley, Dr P., Norwood Cottages, w Church Road. Leckhampton, Cheltenham, Glos. GL53 OPR. 
Wheatley, Dr T., Mote Croft, Church Lane, Horsted Keynes, West Sussex RH 1 7 7AY. trevw«/ P a\ ilion eo uk 
White, Mrs A.L., 59 Whitebridges. Houston. Devon LX14 2RZ 

White, Mr B., 34 Noble Way, Sunbury, Victoria 3429. Australia. Barry White 
White, Mr L., The Nook, New Ri im, West Sussex RH13 7AU 

Wilkins, Mr G. & Mrs J.. I 26 Cranbrook Road. Acomb, York, North Yorks. Y02 5SH 
W ;lliam>. Mr B. & Mrs C.B., Sira, Whilton, Daventrv, Northants. NN1 1 5NN. 
Willmot, Dr A., 2 Kedleston Close, Allestree, Derby, Derbys. DE3 2RA 
Wilmshurst. Mr R.W.. 94 Croston Road. Garstanu. Lanes. PR3 1HR 

Wilson, Mr J. & Mrs B., 49 Elveley Dnve, West Ella, Hull, E. Yorks. HU 10 7RX. wilsonj(S 
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Wilson, Prof. K.A., P.O.Box 195 i 2. Los -' '512, USA 

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i, California 9 
Yasuda, Mr K., Dept of Biology, Faculty of Education, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Ohkubo, 

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Yesilyurt, Mrs J.< - uden Flat, London W14 8RT. 

Voroi. Miss R.. I) 1415. Sun Lmht Pastral. 5-Bangai, 7-221 Shin-matsudo, Matsudo-Shi. i 
Zenkteler, Dr E., University of Poznan, Dept. General Botany, Al. Niepodleglosci 14, Poznan, 61-713, 

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Zimberoff, Mr S., Santa Rosa Tropicals. P.O.Box6183, Santa Rosa, California 95406. USA serge a srtrop com 
Zimrner, Prof. B, Botanischer Garten u '" 

14195, Germany, 
Zink, Dr M.J., Hackstr. 19, D - 67657, 1 


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Eng hsh Heritage, 37 Tanner Row, York. \ , B 

cSpEMUA 011 ReS ° UrCe SerViC£S ' N ° rthminster House ' Northminster, Peterborough, 

FaTuhad L de a rtn niVe Ni S1 ?' P ,° B f ^ BudapeSt ' H " 1364 < Hui W 

. The Library, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, I NS, USA 

SorS. UriJerVtv I h ^' ^ R ° ad ' Peterbo ™gh, Cambs. PE2 9NP 

EuS'?? HHb ? l " ,! MavsachusettsO2l38-2020,USA 

ME^^^T* Man - ' 2233, USA 

^oProf. S.S. I 

■, Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala, 147 002, 1 

N ^ ^ B.I mi 14 \Wuu \ ]]" Russia 

g, Republic of Chi 

versity of Tokyo, 

Botanicum Bi-jun Yao, Exchange Library, Aaidcmi;,"smica' K-imW." Republic of China 
Library, Ames, Iowa 5001 1-0001. USA 

Japanese Pteridological Society c/o 

Hakusan 3-7-1, Bunkyo'-Ku Tokvo 

SasSsiW W 1 ! de t L r ParC de ' a Tete'd^OrTLyon Cedex 06, F-69459, France 
Kansas University Watson Libra, ^ „ : ,- 

K. . LA9 4RQ 

Kinokuniya Co Ltd, Cosmoplaza 1-1 1-9. Ml « a. Chiba, 262-0033. Japan 

.search New Zealand, P.O.Box o<>. Lincoln. Canterbury. 8 1 52, New Zealand 
.. -t>it\ I ibrary, P.O.Box 248, University Road, Leicester, Leics. LEI 9QD 
Library of Congress, 10 First Street SE, Washington Dc, 20540, USA 
Lmncan Society. Burlington House. Piccadilly. London Wl 

': ! ; ■.....■. ^■■•- " : \ 

Los Angeles International Fern Soc, P.O.Box 90943, Pasadena, California 91 109-0943, USA 

. 1 MA Lac i icncias. I lemeroieca. ( ampiis I ni\ I eatinos s/n, Malaga, 29071, Spain 
Manchester University.. lohn Ry lands Lihtary . ( )\tbrd Road. Manchester M13 9PP 
Melbourne University Library, 780 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia 
Michigan State University, 100 Library, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1048, USA 
Michigan I Dive 4S 109-1079. USA 

Missouri Botanical Garden Library, P.O.Box 299, St Louis, Missouri 63166, USA 
Musee Botanique Cantonal, 14bis Avenue de Cour, Lausanne, CH 1007, Switzerland 

•■■■,.« uuer.CP 39, 75231 

Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Library, P.O.Box 467, Wellington, New Zealand 

Private Bag dOl, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 
National Botank 'ana Pratap Marg, Lucknow. Uttar Pradesh 226001. India 

National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park. Cardiff, S. Glamorgan CF10 3NP, Wales 
\ational I ii ml ni\er> \ Librars.No 1 Sec 4. Roosevelt Rd. I aipei 1 06, Taiwan, ROC 
Natural Histon \ ir\ & Info Services, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD 

Nederlandse Varenveremging, RP.Huibers, Dwarspad 15, 1721 BP Broek op L~~ ~ ,:: 
Nelson Fern Si gton, 9 Bay View Road, t' 

New York Botanical Garden, Luesther T. Mertz Library, ™ nA ' 

York 10458-5153, USA ^ , 

■.. ■ : ■ 

North Carolina I Inr BH, N. Carolina 27514-8890, USA 

Plant Sciences I ,han . ' Moid 1 ni\ ersiis I '■ < >«>n. OX1 3RB 

Prague Botanic . Sad\omi 134. I'raha M"l tMU /ech Republic 

Publication Processing [SI, 3501 Marke " 4 - USA 

Queensland Herbarium Library, Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mt Coot-tha, Mt Coot-tha Road, 

Toowong, Queensland QLD 4066, Australia 
Real Jardin Botanico, Bibliotcca, Plaza de M - Spain 

RHS Garden, The Library, Harlow Carr, Crag Lane, Harrogate, North Yorks. HG3 1QB 
Royal Botanic Garden, Inverleith Row. Edinl and 

Royal Botanic (jar . *™> ^nnnA 7 ' Australia 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Mrs MacQuaries Road, Sydney, New South Wales 2000, Australia 
Royal Botanic Gard ey TW9 3AE 

ibrary, 80 Vincent Square, I 

, London SW1P2PE 

i, California 92037, 1 

San Diego Fern Society, Dr Robin Halley, 

Schweizeris. Vereinigung der Farnfreunde, Dr J J Schneller, Inst, fur Systematise Bot., Zolhkerstr. 

Senckenbergis! -ell., Abtlg., Zeitschriften-Tauschverkehr, Senckenberg- 

Anlage 25, 6 Frankfurt, D-60325, Germany 
Sir Harold Hillier Gardens, Jermyn's 1 ane. \mptlekl. Hants S051 0QA 
Societas Botanica %*"*tf'm w 

Southport FlowerS k. Southport, Mersey side PR8 2BZ 

Super Channel Enterprise Corp., c/o Museum of * B-478, Taipei, 1 10, Taiwan, ROC 

Swets Blackwell Ltd., P.O.Box 142, Abingdon, Oxon. OX14 1GY . 

Tasmanian Fern & f '" ]°?fl AuStial,a 

Trebah Garden Lrust. Attn Danen Dickey l ornWa " , s \\ ^ { 

rulane Uni> ersitj W Llbrar y- New ° rlea "'; ^T^ , ^ USA 

Turku Univ ersity, H ! HN l°^ 4 c T™ *JT, , A 

; • ■ 

.e^,tanas'n.Madnd280m Spain 
ie. Prof. R.Viane, Ledeganckstraat 35 u Gent, B-9000 Belgium 
Leiden, 2300 RA, Netherlands 
rary, 700 Baker Building, 1 10 21st Avenue South, Nashville, Tennessee 
37203-2408, USA ft0in ^ ITCA 

Washington University Libraries, Box 352900, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA ,. ^ t ,. 
West Australia Fern Society, Mrs G Bromley, 73 Point Walter Road Bicton, Western Australia 6157, Australia 

British Pteridological Society 

Patron: HRH The Prince of Wales 


Officers and Committee December 2004 


Dr A.F. Dyer 


A.R. Busby, M.H. Rickard Prof. 

B.A. Thomas 

Honorary General Secretary: 


Tel./Fax: 020 8850 3218 


A. Leonard 

Tel.: 02392 752740 

Membership Secretary: 

M.S. Porter 

Tel.: 016973 43086 

Meetings Secretary: 

P.J. Acock 

Conservation Officer/Recorder: 

R.J. Cooke 

Editor of the Bulletin: 

Miss A.M. Paul 

Editors of the Fern Gazette: 


Editor of the Pteridologist: 

Dr J.W. Merry weather 

Editor of BPS WWW Site: 

A.C. Pigott 

Elected Committee Members: 

R.G. Ackers, S.E. Czeladzinski, 

DrY.C.Golding, M.L.Grant 

F. McGavigan, S.J. Munyard. 

P.H. Ripley, Dr F.J. Rumsey, 

B.D. Smith 

Booksales Organiser: 

S.J. Munyard 

flortk iiltund Information Officer 

v A.R. Busby Horticul 


A.R. Busby 

Merchandise Organisers: 

Mr B.D. & Mrs G. Smith 

Plant Exchange Organisers: 

R.G. Ackers 

Spore Exchange Organisers: 

Mr B. & Mrs A. Wright 

Back Numbers of Journals sales: 

P.J. Acock 

Trustees of Greenfield 

& Centenary Funds: 

Dr A.F. Dyer, Miss J.M. Ide, 

A. Leonard 

Regional Group Organisers 

Leeds & District: 

B. Wright 

South-East England: 

P.H. Ripley 


B.R. Stevenson 

North- West England: 

R.W. Sykes 


I.J. Bennallick 


F. McGavigan 

Special Interest Group Organise 


Prof. A.C. Wardlaw 

Foreign Hardy Ferns: 

A.R Busby 

Filmy Ferns: 

S.J. Munyard 

(44/23863 77120). It was also in some dark spots. We trekked up a steep path to see 
of Polypodiwn vulgare growing through bilberry. And a stunning 
) impress anyone but me, was probably the only plant of Oreopteris 
limbosperma in the whole wood (44/23827 76957). Can't please everyone! 
Then we went back to the Tufa to do a tally to include the common species: / dryopteris filL\-ma<. 

■'•..■■...'■ ■ 

subspp. affinis and borreri and, if are we allowed, morphotype atsolens. Total \ L l Baek at the 
cars, Ken was able to confirm our twentieth taxon, Dryopteris \ < i mplexa ooAosubsp. critica. 
My personal thanks to a great bunch of fernies for making our anniversary trip such fun and 
so rewarding. Here's to the next twenty years. And if Bob Adams is still 'one of our 
youngest members' I think I'll resign! 


Central London - 4 September Paul Riple> 

Morning coffee in the square of Burlington House (home to the Royal Acadeim. Ro\al 
Astronomical Society, etc., etc.) set the right tone for this meeting, which was attended b> 
14 members. We were pleased to welcome Gill and Bryan Smith from Suffolk, and 
Jonathan Bryant, attending his first BPS meeting. John Edgington was our leader and he led 
us expertly on a tour of three quite different parts of central London. 

The walls enclosing the stairwells of basement flats appear to be excellent habitats for ferns 
and all the ferns found on our mini-tour of the West End were in these sites. In Burlington 
Square itself a beautiful specimen of Adiantum raddianum was growing. Along New Bond 
Street we found Dryopteris filix-mas, and in Grosvenor Street. Pteridium ac/uilmum and 
Asplenium scolopendrium. Near the intersection of Gilbert Street and Weighhouse Street we 
again found A. scolopendrium and Dryopteris filix-mas, together with Adiantum raddianum. 
At the intersection of Weighhouse Street and Duke Street D. filix-mas and A scolopendrium 
were growing, the latter favouring the white glazed tiles beloved by the Edwardians. We 
should mention a small private garden in Gilbert Street where Pofystichum tsus-simensetf), 
Athyrium fill i turn setiferum variety had been planted to good effect. 

Back to the basement stairwells and perhaps our most surprising find, in North Row. 
Mayfair, was Pellaea fa/cata, growing with Pteris cretica var. albo-lineata and D. filix-mas. 
We now left the West End for the City and, having found Potypodium linterjectum in 
Carter Lane, took our lunch in 'Postman's Park', just by St Paul's cathedral. This park was 
the subject of an article in the recent Pteridologist. Several good specimens of Dicksonia 

intcr/cc turn. A short walk took i 

Roman Wall itself (or Victorian reconstructions extensions of it). In St Alphage - Gardens 

we found Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens, A. scolopendrium and 

nigrum, and along London Wall (the road) itself we found the above together 

muraria (surprisingly rare in London) and - wonderfully - several plants of A. 

Returning to the West End, in Melcombe Street (off Baker Street) we found A 

and A. scolopendrium. Just round the comer in Glentworth Street, Pteris tremui 

ceterach, A. ruta-muraria and Dryopteris dilatata were growing. We also made the 

acquaintance of a (supra-terrestrial) flat dweller who proudly showed us in her window-box a 

fine Pofystichum variety ('Gracillimum'?) obtained from Martin Rickard. 

We then took the tube to Kings Cross and Islington, John Edgington' s 'home patch'. After 

observing Polypodium interjectum and Asplenium ruta-muraria in Wharton Street we came 

i the floor of the 


We now visited two churchyards, originally created as burial grounds for newly-built 
churches nearby, but now converted into gardens. In St Andrews churchyard, off Grays Inn 
Road, we found Hum. Finally, in 

St Georges Gardens we found our richest collection yet. Dryopteris filix-mas, D. dilatata, 

None of us expected to see such a feast of ferns (or such a variety of habitats) and our 
admiration and thanks go to John for his encyclopaedic knowledge of London and its flora, 
meticulous preparation and for guiding us along a complicated itinerary to perfection. 

North of Bournemouth - 18 September (Leader: Robin Walls) Pat Acock 

About twenty members and guests met at the interesting Avon Causeway Hotel (40/136976), 
an old station with a Pullman car as part of the dining facility. Robin introduced us to the 
gathered company and explained the nature of the area and a little of its history. 
Setting off along the trackway we had not gone far when Robin found in the puddles coral- 
necklace, Illecebrum verticillatum. This unusual little plant is virtually confined to Cornwall 
and Hampshire and only in the latter county is it showing signs of expansion; this was a further 
extension of its range. Turning into the woodland through the bracken we were immediately 
exposed to Dryopteris carthusiana and D. dilatata. Moving slightly downhill we reached a 
small stream and in the marshy ground around it we saw Osmunda regalis. Amongst the larger 
plants we found a few sporelings. We were then in a flattish area of damp woodland drained 
by a couple of streams. Here the D. carthusiana and D. dilatata were growing closely and 
luxuriantly. The search was on for the hybrid and after eliminating many candidates we did 
find three that we felt were sufficiently intermediate and had the right characters to qualify as 
D.xdeweveri. Working our way further upstream we added D. filix-mas and D. affims before 
coming across large clumps of Osmunda regalis and then Karen Munyard found some 
Blechnum spicant. Back on the original path we found many more plants of coral-necklace and 
then a large colony of Equisetum fluviatile in a swampy area off the path. Reaching the rear of 
the inn we discovered Asplenium ruta-muraria in the surrounding walls. 
Following lunch we made our way to Troublefield Dorset Wildlife Trust Reserve (40/125977). 
Here we saw many of the morning's species in a more natural woodland habitat where many 
of the ferns grew more vigorously, with one O. regalis seven to eight feet tall. We were also 
able to convince ourselves that the Dryopteris affims was subsp. affinis. 
We then set off for Robin's house and were delighted by the tea that Robin and Jennifer 
provided. On a BPS meeting you always know when you have arrived at the right house 
because the front garden is very different to that of the neighbours, the ferns being tell-tale 
signs. Around the back there were many more ferns and discussions took place as to exactly 
what they were. Amongst many gems there was a large clump of Dryopteris x sarvelae. 
'Was' being the operative word, as Robin generously broke up the clump and many of us 
came away with a crown to try back at home. Our thanks go to Robin, Jennifer and their 
family for an interesting day and a pleasant relaxing tea to round it off. 

Galleywood Common and Tim Pyner's Garden, Essex - 9 October Paul Ripley 

An excellent gathering of 19 members, the number swelled by some of the East Anglia group, 
assembled at Galleywood Common, near Chelmsford (52/704021). This apparently 
unpromising dry woodland yielded some delights. In an unexpected boggy area, a very large 
colony ot Equisetum syhaticum was nourishing, together with some large, handsome 
Dryopteris carthusiana. The question of the existence of the hybrid D. x deweveri was raised, 
5 spot Equisetum arvense, Athyrium filix-femina and 
abundant everywhere, but in the higher 


• ..: ' 

Most people had brought picnic lunches, which was fortunate since the nearest pub had no 
food and apparently no beer. 

collection of Australian and I s 

micro-climate. I was particularly impressed 1 

11 nudum. B. discolor and II Ihiviutilc. Some very good Lastreopsis species and Cyathca dculbaiu 

also caught my eye. Other plants of note were Asplenium ohtusatum and I obion^ifoiinm. 

Diyoprt'ris piicijica. Pohpodium scouleri, Pteris wallichuma and (ilcu haiui microphvlhi. all 

- - • - ' 

that he grows in his garden. After an excellent tea, we were able to watch some of Tim's and 
Howard Matthews' slides of the Azores and Madeira respectively, and also some digital pictures 
of Trinidad and the GEP meeting in Liguria, Italy, as well as a preview from Andrew Leonard 
of the recently published book (on CD) on Davallia. Thanks to all who contributed. 
Our especial thanks go to Tim, his daughter Morgan and other helpers for a fantastic tea. 
and to Tim for his preparation and generosity and for giving us the privilege of seeing a 
really knowledgeable specialist's garden and plants, many of which one would not see 
outdoors anywhere else in the northern hemisphere. 


Indoor Meeting, Little Thurlow, Suffolk - 25 January Howard Matthews 

On a beautifully sunny winter's day that made one hope that spring and uncurling croziers 
were, perhaps, not too distant, nine members of the East Anglian group travelled from near 
and far to meet in the huge sitting room of the 1 7th-century home of our hostess, Mary 
Hilton. The speaker for the afternoon was our member Tim Pyner. who is a self-taught 
amateur botanist with an interest in all plants from mosses upwards. He is not only keen on 
fieldwork, recording and leading meetings, but also enjoys growing plants, especially 
experimenting with supposedly tender ones outside (with a great deal of success, as anyone 
who has seen the ferns in his Essex garden will testify). 

We were to be entertained with a show of slides taken by Tim during the December 2002 BPS 
field meeting in Tenerife, followed by more shot in October 2003 on an informal non-BPS 
meeting in Madeira. The two islands are part of a group known collectively as Macaronesia. 
situated off the Atlantic coast of northern Africa, though Tenerife is better known as one of the 
Canary Islands. Formed by volcanic activity millions of years ago, and with no land 
connection with adjacent Africa, the islands contain many endemic plant species. Additionally, 
the climate is likened to year-round spring, though this varies with altitude and aspect. 
Tenerife rises sharply from the sea to the 3,718m peak of El Teide, the highest summit in all of 
the islands. From sea level to about 760m there is a xerophytic zone, particularly on the south 
side, with a little rain in the winter only. Between this and 1,250m is a continually mild and 
damp cloud zone, more so on the north side, with lush forest vegetation. Above 1,250m this 
merges into a less damp sub-alpine zone. Setting the scene with some general \ iews o\ the 
mountainous landscape, Tim apologised for the quality of some of his slides, explaining that his 
camera failed and he continued with a newly purchased one that he was not used to. I think 
anyone present would have been hard pressed to spot any difference, for the slides were all of a 
high standard. We were shown Trichomcmes speciosum growing with fronds up to thirty 
centimetres long, so common in places it was almost like a weed on the humid forest floor, 
while the majestic Woodwardia radiccms produced fronds up to three metres long. Frequent, but 
easily c 

like ivy leaves. Its more com e w as quite common in a wide 

range of habitats. Other notai- uicrocarpa (rare), Diplazium 

caudatum (con Is up to two metres long) and a 

rare endemic. < \ -green form of the European rustyback). 

By contrast with the wet forest, a fifty-year-old lava field supported plants of Cheilanthes 
/>///< Ih'lhi. Xotholacna maninhie and i Kr a ini , m ,;■ , '.w\. among others. 
After a short refreshment break, Tim introduced Madeira. Lying about 275 miles north of the 
( amines, it. too, enjoys year-round warm temperatures, and has similar climatic zones to 
Tenerife, but overall it receives much more rainfall. There are no desert areas, and the lower 
levels are cultivated, mainly on terraces, there being no flat land, while higher country is clothed 
with laurel forest. The banks of an irrigation system called levadas make relatively easy walking 
routes. While about twenty percent of Madeira's wild flora is endemic, the island is also home to 

stunning shots of the jagged skylines, we moved on to the ferns. Scribbling furiously, I filled no 
fewer than five pages of my notebook with names and brief notes. I cannot possibly do them all 
justice w ithout producing anything more than a long list, so a small selection follows. Asplenium 
moiuiiithcs. Stegnogmmma pozoi and Sdaginclla dcnticulatu were found beside levadas. 
A special trip was made to one such waterway to view one of Madeira's rarest ferns, a solitary 
Asplenium scolopendriuml Another rarity was A. septentrionale, found with difficulty in 

levada banks and as a layer beneath bracken. Endemic species included D. maderensis and 
D. aitoniana, Asplenium anceps (like A. trichomanes but with membranous wings along the 
base of the rachis), A. blegnamense (Madeira's rustyback) and Potystichum falcinellum. Pteris 
incompleta was seen with fronds up to 1.5m in length, while Trichomanes speciosum and 
Elaphoglossum semicylindricum were found growing as epiphytes. Aliens included Doodia 
caudata, Pityrogramma colon plus a Cyathea cooperi that 

grew on the side of a mountain far from any garden. 

The slides were mouth-watering, and the same adjective has to be applied to the marvellous 
tea that followed. All thanks go to Tim for his interesting talk and slides, and to Mary for 
hosting the occasion. I personally drove many miles to this meeting and I feel it was well 
worth it; I would therefore urge other members, many of whom must live a lot closer than I 
do, to make the effort to attend future such meetings, for there is no better way of rekindling 
one's enthusiasm for ferns at an otherwise drab time of the year. 

The Plantation Garden, Norwich, The Garden in an Orchard, Bergh Apton 
and Thornham Magna Walled Garden, Norfolk - 23 May Tim Pyner 

Eight members rendezvoused at the first site for the day. The Plantation Garden, 4 Earlham 
Road, Norwich, dates from the mid- 19th Century when the owner, Henry Trevor, decided 
to create a garden in an abandoned chalk quarry. Over a period of 40 years the gardens 
evolved into an outstanding showpiece. Styled on Italian Renaissance designs, terraces, 
water features and rockeries surrounded a splendid fountain. The garden contained many 
architectural features along with eight glasshouses of various sizes. Following the death of 
Henry Trevor in 1897 the gardens gradually declined and by 1980 the garden was totally 
overgrown. In 1980 a preservation trust was formed to save and restore the garden. The 
gardens have now been cleared of undergrowth and many of the architectural features have 
restored including the magnificent fountain. This has been achieved entirely by 
1 of whom were working as we wandered a 
Of course our main purpose was to record the ferns, many having t 

having arrived naturally. The latter group included Polvpodmm mhr/cctnm which was thriving 
near the top of the fountain and Asplenium * .. frequent c 
the nlantfvt fern* „„™ »u„™ *. L :,.. Li^_:_ 

volunteers, i 

■■.■;..■■. ..■:■,...■.■..■ 

All the ferns were growing well in the sheltered conditions of the g 
potential for some more adventurous planting. The garden is situatei 
is a quiet and cool oasis to those who know it. The Trust and volun 

Jen back to s< 

Our second visit of the morning was to The Garden in an Orchard, which is located at Bergh 
Apton \ 1 th t of Norwich. This is a fascinating j 

. plants. As the day was turning i 
refreshments provided by the owners, Mr and Mrs Robert Boardman. Mr Boardman then look 
us on a tour of his garden, which is situated around and through an orchard, allowing meadow 
areas to be a conspicuous feature whilst blending perfectly with their setting. There is also a long 
willow arch along one side, which gives shelter. This had recently been cut back but we were 
told that several metres of growth would be evident by the end of the summer. Mr Boardman, an 
RHS Committee member, was a mine of information about the rare and interesting plants he 
grows. He pointed out that despite the garden being in a hot and dry location one particular fern 
was constantly appearing as sporelings. Some of these he allows to reach full size and ue were 
able to identify them as Dryopteris dilatata. Other ferns are planted under trees and appear to be 
growing well. These included Polystichum setiferum and cultivars, P. munimm. P. pohhUpinimm. 

n meeting at 

a group of vol Nic. It c 

surrounded by woodland. A large greenhouse has pride of place along one wall and has been 
fully restored with the help of a Heritage Lottery Fund grant. Nic has stocked one section with a 
superb collection of pelargoniums. The other main section houses a collection of ferns. These 
are mainly grown in containers and consist of various hardy and tender species that have been 
obtained from a variety of sources. Some were wrongly or unnamed and we were able to label these 
for Nic. Most of the ferns were common species but a few such as Bkchnum mvae-zelanfiae and 
B. nudum were more unusual. There were nice specimens of Dicksoniu antarctica, D. squarrosa, 
Davallia trichoma, loklcs. D. o tf U , and Plu u mb > tm Die greenhouse i> light nd 
airy and the ferns were chosen to provide a cool and lush environment. In this they were succeeding 
admirably and I look forward to seeing the collection develop in the future. 
We left The Walled Garden and, at his invitation, drove to Nic's own garden where 
refreshments were provided. Nic has a small collection of ferns in containers including 
good examples of Cyathea cooperi and a beautiful C. tomentosissima. Nic is a skilled 
craftsman and we were shown a superb reproduction of a Victorian Wardian Case that he 
had designed and built himself. The day ended with everyone feeling very satisfied with the 
standard of the gardens we visited. A special thank you to Mr and Mrs Boardman and to 
Nic Cass and his family for their kind hospitality. 

Thorpe Hall, Thorpe-le-Soken, and June and Gerry Downey's Garden, 
Frinton-on-Sea, Essex - 19 June Barrie Stevenson 

Continuing our traditional annual joint field meeting, the East Anglian Group invited the South 
East Group to a garden visit at Thorpe-le-Soken, led by Jerry Bowdrey, Curator of Natural 
History for Colchester Museums. The Hall itself has been demolished but other buildings on 
the site are in commercial use and the previously neglected gardens have been sympathetically 
restored. The fact that the grounds are not open to the general public means that the area has 
become a haven for wildlife; over 70 types of beetle have been recorded, for example, and 
during our visit vigilant members found a grass-snake with a vole in its jaws. The Estate was 
owned by Lord and Lady Byng of Vimy, and Lady Byng (who was a member of RHS Floral 
Committee B) developed the garden in the late 1920s and early 1930s. She collected plants 

r original plantings exist to this day. We began 
o greenhouse. On the north-facing outer 
surface of the supporting wall was a small colony of ferns comprising Asplenium 
scolopendrium, I. trichoma tnd a few young 

plants of Diyopterisfilix-mas. All these were suffering as a result of a few days of hot, dry 
weather. However, further stands of D. fdix-mas within the greenhouse were thriving in the deep 
soil of the overgrown beds, the broken panes of glass allowing rain to moisten the soil beneath. 

:. On the margins of the lake were several stands of Osmunda r 
its of O. regalis 'Cristata', while Matteuccia struthioptem and 
rounded by sporelings. Zelkova carpinifolia, a superb 
)ryopteris dilatata. At the further end of the lake we 
i that afforded a view through trees of the entire length of the 
: lake a small stream ran through a large and impressive rockery, 
i this area had encouraged a good selection of ferns, including 
s of Osmunda regalis and Onoclea sensibilis and in the damp areas Athyrium filix- 
tcmma reached enormous proportions. Also apparent were Equisetum arvensc. E. tdmateia and 
Phridmm aquilnumi. At least three fern cultivars were recognised: Asplenium scolopendrium 
I urcatum" and 'Cristatum' and Dryopteris fdix-mas 'Cristata Martindale'. 
After a picnic lunch we made a brief visit to deciduous woodland a short distance from the 
garden and found not only male and lady ferns, bracken and broad buckler fern but also a 
single specimen of Dryopteris affinis subsp. qffinis, which is uncommon in Essex. 
We are most grateful to Jerry Bowdrey for initiating and leading this visit. 

i-east of Clacton-on-Sea) to visit the garden of June and 
Gerry Downey, last visited by the groups in 2001. The front garden is not entirely conventional 
as the main feature is a gravel garden, meticulously raked into rippling waves in the Japanese 
manner. At first glance the lawn, trees and colourful herbaceous borders of the garden beyond 
the house are very much more in the English tradition but the quirky and decorative vegetable- 
t includes a waterfall are it 

Gerry Downey's Garden, Frinton-on-Sea, Essex 

Paul Ripley, Geoffrey Winder, Tim Pyner, Peter Clare, Patrick Acock, 
try & June Downey, Jack Hubert, Marti Martin, Peter Tindley, Andy Martin 


the hedge of Gr grows across the width of the garden. Hidden away from 

view is an area of greenhouses, shade-frames, bulb-frames, beds, borders and pots galore. 
Gerry is a plantaholic of the first water and his collections of ferns and alpines (he is a keen 
member of the AGS) are staj From an alpine house where cushion 

alpines rub shoulders with various Pellaea and Cheilanthes to the shaded greenhouse 
containing hanging baskets of Davallia; from shade-frames that shelter many rare ferns raised 
from spores to outdoor beds suited to acid-loving plants, this garden is packed with rarities thai 
are in fine fettle as a result of careful consideration of the right conditions to suit every plant. 
We are most grateful to Gerry and June for their kind hospitality, which was much 
appreciated by the 19 enthusiastic members who attended this full and varied meeting. 

Thorndon Country Park, Harts Wood and The Magnolias, Brentwood, Essex 
- 12 September Anne Bea».fo> 

Fifteen members from the East Anglian and South East groups forgathered on a fine though 
windy day at Thorndon Country Park, south of Brentwood, in search of woodland species 

and hoping perhaps 1 

The area visited is 

part of the old Thorndon Hall estate (access: 51/604915), which comprises ancient and 
managed woodlands, parkland and common. The tree canopy, with main specimen-, ot 
venerable age, includes sweet chestnut, birch, larch, Scots pine, rowan, beech, oak. 
hornbeam and ash, with some rhododendrons, cherry laurel and holly; the understore) 18 
mainly bramble. The soil has acid pockets with sandy, pebbly areas overlying London clay 
and the district at its highest point of about 300 feet overlooks the lower Thames valley. 
The recent drv spell had drained away excess surface water, but the plant life had benefited 
i exhibited spring-1 

. We explored the temporarily dry course 

of a small stream, and nearby a 

its banks found well grown specimens ot Di > " ^ <* >™ Wlth D "^" ;/v ^ ul s1 

„,, L1/Ju , , ,,-/ .- nd ' ' «> thmed 

in the damper areas and, to our delight, we found several sturdy plants of Oreoptens 
limbosperma. The largest one, though, was in danger of being swampedb" ■— 
we did not find any young plants. However, for it to be 
when it had been feared extinct in Essex, made our day. 
After our picnic lunch, we visited the adjacent Hartswood v 
of hard fem occurs. We saw fine specimens, together with so 
Our afternoon concluded by visiting 'The Magnolias', Roger and Linda Hammond's 
unusual and delightful garden in nearby St John's Avenue. It is a long narrow plot of just 
under half an acre, which slopes down and incorporates several ponds. In the garden one is 
suddenly transported from suburban Essex into a sub-tropical forest such is the luxuriance 
and height of growth of plants in this micro-climate. Ferns include British names and 
,aUs (plus the cristate form). Mam «, < n, s,n,//,„ .,* n, 
Dryopteris ervthrosora, D. cycadina, Woodvardia spec 

antarctica, D. squarrosa. Atln , ,un , ub < ^ a. — fW„w on species and hybrids and. in 
a reptile house, some lovely undulate Asplenium icolopendrmm varieties. 
We thank the Hammonds for allowing us to see this lovely place and 

) Tim Pyner for leading 

ind Barrie and Rosemary Stevenson for a 

hard work in making our East Anglian meetings as pleasurable as 
Autumn Indoor Meeting, Barrow, Suffolk -17 October 

At the time of writing we anticipate an interesting meeting a 
Geoffrey Winder. The garden will be bursting with ferns that h 

as a result of the wet summer, and later cyclamen and colchicum should still be in evidence. 
Indoors we shall have a lively display of artefacts and will be transported on various ferny 
forays as we watch slides from the Azores, Madeira, Washington and Trinidad and digital 
images of various BPS national field meetings. Two traditions that will no doubt be most 
successful are the bring-and-buy fern sale and the splendid spread of refreshments. 


Roudsea Wood NNR, Cumbria - 19 June a.m. Mike Porter 

Eighteen members gathered for the first outdoor meeting of the year at the entrance to this 
famous Nature Reserve (34/329827) south-west of Haverthwaite on a grey but generally dry 
morning. Roudsea Wood is notable because it lies on two ridges of contrasting rock type, one 
ot limestone and the other of acid slate supporting very different communities of plants and 
animals. Between the ridges is a shallow wet valley with alder woodland and a small tarn and 
further interest is added by the close proximity of the sea, most of the reserve being at or only 
slightly above sea-level. A wide range of species grows here, most notably the great yellow 
sedge (Carexflava) at what was, until recently, thought to be its only site in the country. 

. ent on the pathside leading into the reserve 1 
femma, Dryopteris filix-mas, D.dilatata and D.affinis (subspp. affinis and borreri) being 
present in profusion. A little further along the track we encountered the first extensive stand of 
/V-.yvcm conncctihs. a fern that we were to see in great quantities and varied habitats 
throughout the morning. Having moved down into the wet valley separating the two ridges we 

si of the real specialities of Roudsea - a small colon) 
looking healthy but not easy to find in the dense and rather 

l.palusms is very rare in Cumbria, occurring in only three other sites. Not far from the small 
tarn we were able to examine fine stands of Osmunda regalis, which were in excellent condition 
with the fruiting spikes just starting to ripen. In contrast to / palusb is, this supert, fern is not 
infrequent in the damp woods of south Cumbria where conditions are obviously very much to its 
liking Continuing along the wet valley, past more stands of Phegopteris connectilis and small 
quantities of Blechnum spicant, we came upon a large area of Drvopteris dilatata and 
A carthusiana Among these were a number of plants that appeared intermediate between the 
o and much debate arose as to whether these were hybrids (D. x deweveri) or simply atypical 
forms of Ddatata and D. carthusiana. Later, in (separate) examinations of the fronds, Bruce 
Brown and I found that many of the spores were colourless and misshapen, seeming to confirm 
ftat at least some of the plants present were D. x deweveri. The stroll back to the cars past low, 
wooded limestone crags gave us Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalent 
A^scolopendrium and Polypodium vulgare. A bonus was provided when w 
mHT °5 1Ce u an i d ) Were Sh0wn a sma11 col °ny of Ophioglossum vulgc 
outside the office building on the edge of an area where there had been a small 

Rusland Valley, Cumbria 

19 Ju 

The area of the u 

Robert Sykes 

d Valley that we visited after lunch was formerly a sequenc 
drl inl H ? S ' ^° Wn l0CaUy 3S m ° SSeS - The y are not w hat they were, having 1 
Ranged tells nttat 1^ ** "** ™ S "^ bd ° neS l ° the Nat, ° nal Park ^ 
restore them. Meanwhile ii 

i are being felled a 

'isit to this site in 1980 (BPS Bulletin 2(2): 74) - 
nng was very rough an ferns few". On 

-esawonthemossDr^, s curthu.nun, l> J :1a, a, a, D. filix-mas, Osmunda 

2004 v,sfw g P tenS n Co r Cnl "- Pofyp ° """ : ' ' Unum. On our 

-004 visu we saw all those, except the b . pody , J d added Ath yrium 

mum spiccmt, Dryopteris afthm and (haptens hmbosperma. These are 
:h a place. In fern terms it is the royal fern that makes it special; we rex isited 
the magnificent plant that Jimmy reported (34/336884). For the record there is another stand to 
the north (34/336888), which we did not visit on this occasion, and a superb range of at least 
25 clumps, each of many crowns, further south near Low Hay Bridge (34/337877). 
We also saw some roe deer and a small pearl bordered Miliary butterfly, which, according to the 
local Butterfly Conservation officer is a new site record. We were generous!) entertained at the end 
of the day by John and Marion Williams in their newly created garden overlooking the rix er I ex en 

Arnside Knott and Grubbins Wood, Cumbria - 3 July Frances Haigh 

Arnside Knott is a partially wooded limestone hill on the edge of Morecambe Bay. Twenty 
members met there (34/450774) and went seeking their first fern. Gymnoi-arpium 
robertianum. A large colony was found growing in a stony area on north-facing grassland, 
but we could find no trace of a second smaller patch recorded as being there. 
Then we went into the woods on the lower slopes of the hill (passing plenty of Ptaidtum 
■ ■ n<> 'mum) until we came to a shallow depression supporting a good spread of Phegopteris 
connectilis, together with a few small plants of Bleclmum \/>/< ant. Atfn hum tilix -femmu and 
Dryopteris dilatata. The nearby entrance to a small fissure cave provided a dixersion 
though there were no ferns around it. Further on, and dropping down into deeper woodland. 
we came to some mature oaks and tall native small-leaved limes (Tiliu cordata). Now there 
was plenty more Phegopteris connectilis in large lush patches, together with good 
specimens of Oreopteris limbosperma, Dryopteris jilix-mas. D. uffinis. some i 
aculeatum and more Blechnum spicant and Athyrium filix-femina. Finally, having r 
badger's sett, we came to four good sized colonies of Gymnocarpium diyopteris. a 
had the opportunity to compare it with the G. robertianum seen earlier. 

North-West Group at Grubbins Wood, Arnside 

Frances Haigh, Chris Evans, Ann Haskins, Alison Evans, Shelagh & I 

Michael Hayward, Marion Williams, Roy Copson, Dennis Hothersal 

John Grue, Harvey Shepherd, Penny Ingham, John Bens 

After lunch we moved to Grubbins Wood (34/444777). This reserve, cl 
managed by Cumbria Wildlife Trust, also lies on limestone though the sc 

Much ot it is yew-dominated woodland, giving deep shade with little growing beneath, but a large 
number of ferns have been recorded here. The ones we found included Asplenium adiantum- 
>wn<m growing in a cleft in limestone rocks, and in a small open space. Bleclmum spicam 
Ihropuris Jilatata, D. filLx-mas and At/iv , inil ,| K . lop ,„ thc nonh d|ft 

offered good views ofPo/vsrn hum v, ntcrum. which is plentiful on the slopes below and an outcrop 
of limestone gave some Asplenium trichomcmes subsp. quadrivalens. A ruta-mtuw i md t tc>> 
fronds of Dnopn, s s ' w „„<„„, Then .10 tai m 1 < w, . - , ,/ ./cr/v was discovered 

As we moved to the valley we came within view of the steep bank densely covered « ifl I 9* mm 
scolopendrmm that is a feature of the reserve and we enjoyed ourselves in spottin- \ .1 n, -. „ 
form. Amongst other ferns seen in this region were Polystichum aculeatum and Dnopn \ ..'•.•■. 
Most of the group then went back to the cars, but four of us decided to walk the half mile to check 
on the Adiantum capillus-veneris nearer Arnside. It is always a pleasure to see this fern, which 
yearly seems to cover a larger area. A pot of tea in a nearby cafe neatly rounded off the day. 

Dunnerdale and Broughton Mills, Cumbria - 4 August jack Garstang 

tal960, Jimmy Dyce and Reginald Kaye discovered a congested variety of Polystichum 
Mills. In 1980 Reg Kaye presented a plant to Cynthia Kelsall as an 
^Ttu ^ °^ COlleCtl ° n rffl ***« at the Lakela " d Horticultural Society 
ttk!^ 'Broughton Mills'. Unfortunately 

I off after struggling to survive for several years. Our hopes for the day 
Zovlrl' T , a P ° C ° Py ° f " herbariUm S P 6Cimen and a blt ^ luck. W e might 
side of he Tt 1 . P , " ga u nSt US WaS th£ f3Ct * at Brou g ht ™ Mills is a large area of the south 
Duddon F^ V h 7' W , Ch mnS S ° Uth " WeSt fr0m the Dunnerdale Fells down to meet the 
£ land Enc o "1 *" * ^ and l ^ haVe not altercd «™* *e purprestunng days of 
L^de^^t ^^ fr °f b ™ Shmg b ° th S ' deS ° f y ° Ur Car ' the abiHty t0 
the son2 f r V 3 " eCeSS,ty - W,th this in mind the eleven members who met in 

the square of Broughton-in-Furness squeezed themselves into three vehicles. 

WwTlTf* fed ° f ^ VaHey ^ 3 PleaSant Stro11 ah ^ ldc Ha ^ Lane Beck 
• D.dilatata and l^pM. n returned to 

Tumm! off th aS! C T ? ** HaWk P ' antatIOn on the lower sl «P^ of Broughton Moor. 

^ ,— - »he '-alls" closed m, forming a tunnel of DrvapJis fihx^ 

the way up the valley until 

34 '9 9 I ^ ^L^ TrCe W ° rth Beck lnto the F —try Commission parking area 

comlZ?' B L al ° ng * e b£Ck 3nd ar ° Und the h ^ g a - us Phegopteris 

^^^-^zzz^^ subsp - qJr lvLs > A ' 

ner up the beck we crossed over on ancient stepping s 
^ ,,K ^"» o a derelict bu.lding and found Crvptogramma crispa and 
J*»* Our walk followed the road through the plantation, which had been well 
. e rZl » Shm Z under -^orey of predominantly Dryopieris affims group and 
4 17? ° n StCep Sl ° pes of the Hawk - with br acken and D. dilatata on 
^^^h^V 1 * ClfCU]ar r ° Ute thr ° Ugh the woods a ™ nd the Hawk brought us 
time ror a convivial riverside picnic. 

us o'veVthr^veTLicldP Sf ^ 'T ** Broughton Mills arca ^ a hump-backed bridge took 
The bridge (34/222906? ^ unnerd ale, where we parked on the roadside by Hesketh Hall, 
also .4 rutamura k A ^ * t0 SeVml fine colonies of Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, 
we found our n, P ^"^"^ and /'„/,■,»*/,„,„ /,,/^r/,//,;. Nearby 

was a good cofonv of unit ^^J ust tw » ^> l„„d> nvcr.Kk plants; further along 
luttJte We h/d b Tl P ° ly P° dlum - ««d tentified as />.x 

' . selh ! b^ " W ° U,d bC thC area for * -^ : »'"' l5 ' J '"" " hlW 

^^^^^^^T 86 ^ fln ' Shcd at the d -s of the Blacksmith's Arms, 
refreshments and a good chat to finish off a very pleasant day. 

High Cross Lodge, Hartsop and Penrith, Cumbria - 4 September Mike Porter 

Fifteen members met at the entrance to High Cross Lodge (35/406013) on a rather damp and 
drizzly morning to examine the ferns of this idyllically situated garden, close to the village of 
Troutbeck in the Lake District. Linda Orchant, who owns and cultivates the garden, gave us a 
guided tour and told us about conditions in the garden and her plans for the future. The 
sheltering trees and southerly aspect ensure very good growing conditions and the gentle slope 
greatly reduces any problem with frost. At the time of our visit the garden was looking von 
fine and the plants were in excellent condition. Pride of place went to the Dicksonia antan in a 

tely healthy and. somewhat surprisingly, completely at 
etting. What was even more surprising was that they receive no 

; mildness of parts of the Lake District or an indication 
that global warming is setting in? Among the other ferns in the garden were Athyrium filix- 
! Athyrium mponicum "Picmm". nryoprcri\ crvthra\ara with 

setiferwn 'Plumosum Bevis' and the glossy leaved 
Polystichum polyblepharum. A number of native ferns, including \splcnium scolopciulrium. 
A. ceterach, Dryopteris affinis subsp. affinis and (hwunJa ivya/is added to the variety present 
This garden, which has many other attractions beside ferns, is open several times a year as part 
of the National Gardens Scheme and is definitely worth a visit. 

Having left High Cross Lodge we drove over Kirkstone Pass, noting large quantities of 
roadside Cryptogramma chspa, and down to Hartsop where lunch was taken in a rather wet 
and crowded car park (35/402134). However, as the afternoon progressed, the clouds lifted 
and the sun came through to give us a fine, dry afternoon with sparkling \ iews ol the lelN 
around the head of Ullswater. We checked the stone bridge over the Goldrill Beck, finding 
good quantities of Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadriva/ens and A. ruta-muraria and a 
large clump of Polypodium which, on later examination under the microscope, turned out to 
be P. inter jectum. A walk through woods along the shore of Brotherswater gave us the 
usual common ferns, Athyrium filix-femina. Dryopteris dilatata. D. filix-mas. D. affinis 
(subspp. affinis and borreri) and much Oreopteris limbosperma. There were also a few 
small patches of Cryptogramma crispa on rocky outcrops outside the wooded area and. on 
the wall of a barn, a dense covering of Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivaiens, A. ruta- 
muraria and Polypodium vulgare. A disused mine-working on the fellside nearby was home 
to quantities of ( i staph ris fragilis. much of it extremely vigorous and well grown. The 
stroll back to the "cars produced our final fern of the walk, a small patch of Phegopteris 
connectilis growing by the trackside. 

The final part of the day was a visit to the garden of Robert Crawford, a member of the BPS 
for nearly thirty years and a stalwart of the North-West group since r~ 
Following a drive along Ullswater and crafty manoeuvring through Penrith 
Robert's garden in the afternoon sunshine to admire his collection of ferns, < 
an impressive range of tree-ferns. Penrith is some distance from the coast an 
from hard winters, so Robert has to protect his tree-ferns at the first sign oi iiusi. ne nas 
developed a system of wrapping only the top half of his two dicksomas, D. antarctica and 
D. fibrosa, with straw and waterproof covering but has to protect the whole of the cyatheas, 
C austral, s. ( d<.a >\il, < ■ '/v and ( smithii This is done by placing a wooden 

■ ■ . 

i trunk and packing polystyrene s 

i around it inside the r. 

That all his tree-terns, including the distinctly tender C. dealbata and ( '. medullaris, have so 
far survived the rigours of several Penrith winters speaks volumes not only for the 
effectiveness of his system but also for his devotion to duty! A special delight of Robert's 
garden is the high quality of the plants present, demonstrated by specimens oi Athyrium 
filix-femina 'Victoriae' and 'Plumosum Axminster', Polystichum setiferum 'Plumosum Bevis' 
and Asplenium ceterach amongst others. By now the September sun was shining warmly 
and we were able to enjoy a delicious tea, kindly provided by Robert's wife, Karen, while 
sitting in the garden discussing ferns and making plans for future meetings. 

North-West Group in Robert Crawford's garden 

Standing: Denise Copson, John Grue, Joan Hindle, Harvey Shepherd, Michael Hayward, 

Dennis Hothersall, Roy Copson, John & Susan Hughes, Karen Crawford & Kyle, Jane Howe 

In front: Robert Crawford, Melville Thomson 

AGM, Holehird, Windermere, Cumbria - 9 October Frances Haigh 

Once again Holehird, with its attractive gardens, was the venue for the North West Group's 
annual lecture day and AGM, attended by 37 members. The morning's talk, presented by 
Adrian Dyer, was a stimulating and informative account of the background to the taxonomic 
uncertainties around Dryopteris affinis. Adrian's clear descriptions helped us to understand 
how the differences have arisen within this group of ferns but he said that a much clearer 
picture of genetics throughout the complex was still needed In the end we weren't always to 
teel obliged to try to name those examples we came across on our field studies! 
Lunchtime gave the opportunity to examine a number of ferny exhibits. Cynthia Kelsall's 
herbarium specimen of Polystichum setiferum 'Broughton Mills' was compared with the 
Pafystichum recently acquired by Jack Garstang. Were they identical? Despite many 
similarities we couldn't be certain. 

During the business part of the day it was decided that Robert Sykes would take over 

coordination of the group, with help from Elizabeth Crowther. 

Michael Hayward's talk on 'Fern hunting in Macaronesia' followed. This lively and 

interesting account of recent meets in Tenerife, Madeira and the Azores gave us a chance to 

see Michael's magnificent slides illustrating a wide variety of ferns, and including luxuriant 

growths ot Trwhomanes speciosum, found in many different habitats in these islands. 

The potted fern competition attracted interesting entries as usual. The winners were Michael 

™ s a h h atlve sh fern) w,th a Dryopteris cristat ^ "™y she P herd ( fera s rown frora 

nlen2 y AT Pet,t0r) ** * '' « fcra > ** * 

splendid Nephrons exaltata 'Whitman*'. Mike Porter won the ferny word puzzle. 

Many thanks to the speakers and all those who helped make this a pleasant and successful day- 


As with 2003, 2004 saw a varied selection of field meetings covering all parts of the ■ 
Several were organised as chances to re-survey some tetrads for the BSB1 Local ( 
survey, particularly in West Cornwall (v.c. 1). Two weekends were organised to 
bryophytes, as demanded by a small but ever-growing band of local botanists keen o 
fascinating plants. Other groups also organised meetings in which the Botanical Ci 
Group and its members played a part. The meeting organised for the BPS on the I 
Scilly in June is reported on page 197 of this Bulletin- this was the only n 
specifically looking at ferns. However, ferns are recorded at all our meetings, ani 
good new localities were found for Oreopteris limbosperma, Equisetum tch, 
Pilulaha globulifera and Dryopteris carthusiana. The following is a brief rundi 

Indoor meeting, Fraddon - 10 January 

A large group met at Fraddon Village Hall to discuss the coming year's events and to 
review 2003. Several displays were brought along, including Rosemary Parslows excellent 
photos of Ophioglossum lusitanicum and O. azohcum from St Agnes, Isles of Scilly, and 
Rose Murphy's display of Cystopteris diaphana. 

Chapel Porth, Perranporth (10/7251), Camperdown Farm, Bodmin Moor (20/1279) 
and Polbrock, near Wadebridge (20/0169) - 24-25 April 

This weekend was organised for members interested in bryophytes and was led by Mark 
Pool, BBS recorder for Devon. No ferns of note were seen on Saturday but on Sunday we 
saw a luxuriance of species at Polbrock. The most notable fern seen was Cystopteris 
diaphana, which was in abundance along the banks of the River Camel, where it was 
observed growing around the tree roots of riverside trees, with many young sporelings 
growing in otherwise bare vertical banks. The populations had been observed in February 
2004, with the river in flood, their small submerged fronds waving with the eddying 
currents. On the rocky wooded banks were good numbers of Polystichum setiferum. 
Asplenium scolopendrium, A. trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens, Dryopteris dilatata, and 
some huge shuttlecocks of D. affinis subspp. affmis and borreri. 

Colliford Lake, Bodmin Moor (20/1872 & 20/1873) - Wednesday 26 May 

Four members spent this afternoon in brilliant sunshine along the edge of Cornwall's largest 
reservoir, Colliford, on Bodmin Moor. We were also joined by a camera crew from the 
BBC Gardeners' World team who wanted to film some field botanists recording in the wild 
for a programme on native plants. During some of the footage we managed to mention the 
BPS and this was included in the final programme. Colliford reservoir was constructed in 
the 1970s, flooding a large area of moor and pasture, and a part falls within a tetrad that 
needed surveying for the BSBI Local Change survey. The aim of the day was also to look 
fof Botrychium lunaria, which was last seen in 1987 during a previous survey, in short 

sheep-grazed pasture. This i 

i Cornwall. 

seen in 1995 on Kit Hill (20/3771). It \ 
'ery dry spring and hungry sheep, it was not promising! Despite thorough searching no 
>lants were seen. However, we did re-locate some plants of Oreopteris limbosperma, and a 
lew locality for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens on a long-forgotten wall. 

We Head (10/9137) and Kiberick Cove (10/9237 & 10/9238), South Cornwall 
-Wednesday 14 July 

rhis meeting was organised as a Cornwall Invertebrate Group meeting, but a few attending 
ilso recorded the ferns. The cliffs here are a mix of basalt (Dolerite) and shales, with small 

outcrop t pentine and loi a. These rocks 

are a continuance of the serpentine and gabbro rocks found at the Lizard peninsula to the 
south-west. Asplenium marinum and A. obovatum subsp. lanceolatum were seen on the 
cliffs and between rocks and most surprising was the discovery of Equisetum telmateia in a 
seepage area half-way up the cliff at the back of Kiberick Cove (10/925381). This is a 
completely new locality and indeed new for 10/93, but it shares a similar cliff seepage 
habitat as that found on the east coast of the Lizard, where it also shares similar geology. 
E. telmateia is a very rare species in Cornwall, being native only to these cliff localities. 

Bishop's Wood area (10/8248 & 10/8348), north of Truro - Saturday 17 July 

Another meeting surveying for the BSBI Local Change survey took place in pleasant and 
publicly accessible Forestry Commission-owned Bishop's Wood and St Clement Woods 
north of Truro. A small population of // %ense grows on a north-east 

facing rock-face on a wooded bank in the woods (10/831486). This was checked to see how 
the spring drought had affected it, but luckily, due in part to the persistent rain on the day, 
the plants, though clearly affected by earlier spring drought, were recovering. No other 
populations have yet been discovered in the surrounding woods but it could possibly exist 
in similar habitats nearby. It is always worth checking rocky outcrops and shaded 
woodlands with rock outcrops for this species in Cornwall as in recent years it has been 
found in sites not recorded for many years, including Helman Tor (20/0661), Hustyn Wood 
(10/9968) and College Wood (10/7733). Osmunda regalis was found in wet woodland 
nearby (10/829483) as well as Dryopteris carthusiana, D. dilatata and their hybrid, D. x 
Jen even, which was re-located by Matt Stribley who was the first to find the hybrid at this 
site only a few years before. 

Dodman Point (20/0039), South Cornwall - Wednesday 1 1 August 

This meeting was intended as a general botanical survey of Dodman Point, a beautiful 
headland owned by the National Trust on the south coast of Cornwall south-west of St 
Austell. A number of different habitats were explored, including maritime cliff. Grazing by 
Dexter cattle had recently been introduced on the coastal heath, which had become very 
overgrown with scrub; whilst checking out their only drinking supply - an old well on the 
side of the cliff - a small population of Osmunda regalis was found at 20/000394. This 
proved to be new for the hectad 20/03. 

Cardinham Woods (20/1067), near Bodmin - Wednesday 6 October 

Cardinham Woods, Forestry Commission woodland south-east of Bodmin, were visited 
as part of a conifer identification workshop in conjunction with the Environmental 
Records Centre for Corn' 
attending were i 
lifers can be 

previously existed at 
reappears, and ferns 

Isles of Scilly (ERCCIS). Again, a number of those 
were members of the BPS, so a list of ferns seen was made. Land planted with 
— Cresting habitat for ferns in Cornwall, especially where there 
- where areas have been clear-felled. The vegetation that had 


especially on old heathland, more often I 
among the first colonisers. Athvrium filix 

Imbosperma was found in small numbers along a forest ride at 20/106675. In the last 
couple of years this species has been found ,n similar places in other managed 
woodlands conifer and broad-leaved, in East Cornwall, sometimes in completely new 
localities. In the past local botanists thought of it a. a species ..| .tie unsules on open 
moorland but these new discoveries are prompt,,,, lunhc, . „ 1, . ,„ other woodland. 
ZZT C n° f tKl l SP£CieS d ° eS Seem to rela ^» ^turbance and or clearance that 
provides at least a little extra light in woodland. 


A fern identification workshop was held by ERCCIS at the Cornwall Wildlife I rust 
reserve south of Bodmin at Helman Tor and Breney Common. For the 20 people on the 
course, a good selection of ferns in all their different shapes and stages were seen. It was 
also encouraging to the beginners that on an average day's walk in Cornwall they would 
probably encounter 10-15 species out of approximately 40. not many to learn to identity 
compared with flowering plants! Before we could leave the car park on the afternoon walk in 
the field, Asplenium ruta-muraha, A. thchomanes subsp. quadrivalent, A. scolopenarium, 
A. udiuntum-nigram and Potypodium intcrjectum were admired on the Lowertown 
Chapel lime-mortared granite wall at 20/052612. Along the hedgebanks were Polysfu hum 
setiferum, Dryopteris dilatata, D.filix-mas and Potypodium vulgare. The group walked 
through the wet Salix cinerea subsp. oleifolia woodland at Breney Common, a low-h ing 
area around a granite tor, previously extensively tin-streamed. Tin streaming was 
widespread in parts of Cornwall where tin-rich alluvial deposits were dug out and the tin 
extracted. The area turned over has developed into a mosaic of heath, wet woodland, 
pools and bogs rich in wildlife. We added Equisetum iJuvnitilc. / /hilnstre. E. arvcusc 
and £. x litorale, and in a small stream a small population of Pilularia ^tohuli/cru was 
found. Following a boardwalk through hummocky ground and Pteridium aquilinum- 
dominated scrub, Blechnum spicant, Dryopteris carthusiana, D. affinis subspp. 
and borreri and huge specimens of Osmunda regalis were admired, 
track up to Helman Tor, a granite outcrop with many fine views, w< 
some patches oi rigense between the granite i 

and marvelled at how thin each frond was. A search for Asplenium c 
lanceolatum along a granite-walled lane proved fruitless a: 
growth had obscured the crevices between each stone. Walking bad 
through Breney Common, many stream-side specimens of Dryoptet 
checked to see if they could in fact be D. aemula, but none of them proved t 
although it grows on hedgebanks nearby. 

Rare Plant Register 

The majority of the recording trips planned by the Botanical Cornwall Group for 2005 and 
2006 will be target surveys for checking records and sites of records of the rarer species of 
flowering plants and ferns found in Cornwall. Some of Cornwall's rarest species are 
pteridophytes restricted to only one or two sites: Lycopodiella inundata, Gymnocarpium 
dryopteris and Thelypteris palustris. Cornwall also has populations of taxa of some national 
importance including Isoetes histrix and Asplenium obovatum subsp. lanceolatum. 

i rare plant register for Cornwall towards the end of 2006. 

ing decided but as a start all the records for species found in 
I to guide targeted recording for sites not seen since 1990, 
e species that are Nationally Rare or Nationally Scarce. About 30,000 records 
are being assessed and the number of species included will probably be around 200, 
including ferns. Existing records have been grouped by 10km x 10km square to make 
searching in local areas more efficient. If you would like to help in any of the surveys or 
would like to attend any meetings, please contact me. 

I should also like to request that any records of ferns (and flowering plants) that you may 
have made on visits to Cornwall but have not yet submitted to the BSBI recorders for the 
last few years (Rosaline Murphy, Ian Bennallick (East Cornwall) or Dr Colin French (West 
Cornwall)), be sent to me. I will incorporate your records into the rare plant register and 
Pass them on to the relevant recorder. 

Lenzie and Bearsden, Glasgow - 6 March Frank Mc< ,a\ i»an 

(Participants: Adrian Dyer, Grant Fortune, Tim Godfrey, Yvonne Golding, Keith Gooderham, Frank 
Katzer, Frank McGavigan, Heather McHaffie, Duncan McLeod, Mike Taylor, Alastair Wardlaw.) 
Lenzie Moss (26/646718) is an acidic, raised bog, once used for peat extraction but now 
being preserved as a wildlife habitat. Around the edges where the water table has 
dropped scrub birch is taking over, making the perfect habitat for Dryopteris dilatata. As 
you might expect, this species is abundant, almost to the total exclusion of other 
pteridophytes, though on our walk round we did spot isolated D.ftlix-mas and D. affinis. 
This early in the year we were only finding winter-green fronds, so other things might 
have been missed, for examp we know is present, and 

there was no si- t has been reported from here in the past, 

presumably on the more open, drier areas. 

Bearsden, for not only does Alastair hold t 

around the world. On this occasion I was particularly s 
an elongated P. lonchitis) but no doubt the others hat 

Our aim was to see Alastair' s elaborate methods of winter protection for his tree-ferns. 

temperature buffers (see 2003 Pteridologist 4(2)), just about every conceivable form of 
protection is used. Unfortunately, cold winds in January had desiccated the fronds but with 
signs of new growth apparent it was clear the protection was successful in keeping the ferns 

showed us an Asplenium hybridisation 

A. ruta-muraria x A. trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens 

A. scolopendriumxA. adiantum-nigrum 

A. scolopendriumxA. trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens 

A. scolopendriumxA. ceterach 
Each attempted hybridisation was done in a separate seed tray of sterilised compost 
containing 64 attempted matings in an 8x8 array, spaced about one centimetre apart. At each 
of the mating sites a few prothalli of one species were pressed up against a few of the other 
species so as to allow mating. At the time of our visit, the matings had been incubated for 
13 months with abundant small sporophytes in each tray, but mostly they were of one or 
other of the parent species rather than an obvious hybrid. However, some of the sporophytes 
were too small to be identifiable with certainty and the experiment therefore needs more 
time. We await the final results with fascinated interest. 

The final two hours of the day were given over to slide presentations. Firstly, Yvonne 
Golding, by pulling together photographs from three participants in the recent BPS 
Trinidad trip, gave an excellent flavour of the huge variety of ferns experienced, along 
with some of the other flora and fauna. By clever use of Powerpoint software she had 
named each species on screen, thus avoiding interruptions for clarification. After a 
delicious and substantial tea from Jackie Wardlaw, we finished with a light-hearted 

Fife-22May Frank Mc(;a\i«an & Miki- I a> lor 

{Participants: Jean Calder, Grant Fortune, Tim Godfrey. Frank Katzer. Andrew MacGregor. 
Frank McGavigan, Heather McHaffie, Ian Ross, Mike Taylor.) 

Despite frequent east winds, BPS member Willie Duncan has created a haven for ferns in 
his garden at Drumeldrie (37/441033). He led us through his labyrinth of outdoor rooms 
and enclosures, each full of delights - two huge clumps of Adumtum pedatum, Dead) 
three feet high and as much across, a fine specimen of Asplenhm fColopendriHM 
'Crispum Bolton's Nobile', Polystichum falcinellum, similar to but clearly different from 
P. munitum, /' m Richard Kayse', originally found in 1668 and 

propagated by division ever since, the delicate looking but very hardy Asplenium 
dareoides, a stand of surprisingly well-behaved Matteuccia struthiopteris. genuine 
Athyrium filix-femina Victoriae', and many more. Willie skilfully blends his ferns with 
other plants, too numerous to mention here, except trilliums to die for and a quite 
magnificent Arisaema sikokianum, as primeval-looking as any fern. 
St Andrews Botanic Garden (37/502161) is very different, much larger of course and 
more open, without Willie's secret enclosures and dense planting. There are various 
hardy ferns scattered about the grounds but the best of the ferns are in the glasshouses. 
The one marked 'Fernery' held a very plumose soft shield fern, marked only as 
Polystichum setiferum cv., while the tropical orchid house was full of pteridological 
interest: Platycerium, Davallia, Pyrrosia and Cyathea cooperi pushing the roof off. but 
the heat soon drove us back outside to the coolness of the pond where we were attracted 
by a beautiful clump of blue poppies, marked Meconopsis 'Willie Duncan', a fitting 
tribute to a superb horticulturalist. 

At Dura Den (37/415145) we met at Kemback Church Hall where Heather 
immediately found Dryopteris filix-mas, D. dilatata and Pteridium aquilinum on the 
bank alongside the Hall. Beside the stream alongside the car park there was a 
Dryopteris affinis growing on a fallen sycamore branch, which was identified as 
subsp. borreri, and Asplenium scolopendrium was seen on the opposite bank. Our 
foray was in mixed woodland on the steep sides of a small burn. We entered the 
wood by climbing up alongside a waterfall during which we saw Polypodium vulgar* 
growing on a sandstone block, and Athyrium filix-femina and Polystichum aculeatum 
were quickly found beside the burn, with a small quantity of Blechnum spicant 
growing on a ledge above the burn. There was plenty of Dryopteris affinis and 
D. filix-mas in the woods and several discussions were held on the subspecies of the 
former or even hybrids between the two. However, the generaUonclusion reached 
was that the fronds were too immature to be reliably identi" 

t during the walk Heathei 

I strangers c 

the life-cycle of ferns and how it differed from that of other vascular plants, at the 
end of which they thanked her and quickly moved on. Near the end of the wood we 
noticed a small stand of Athyrium filix-femina with purple rachis and Heather pointed 
out the diploid variety of the lesser celandine. 

On the way back we passed Kemback Cemetery, where Asplenium adiantum-nigrum 
was spotted growing on the wall. No exotic or unusual ferns \ 
(we had seen them earlier) but the walk in 
Perfect end to a highly successful day. 


Loch Loch, Perthshire (27/988744) - 26 June Frank McGavigan 

(Participants: Bob Callow, Yvonne Golding, Frank Katzer, Frank McGavigan, and sundry 
I im er.sitv of Manchester students on a course at Kindrogan Field Centre.) 
To go on a fern foray in Scotland and not come across Pteridium aquilinum is quite 
remarkable, but the strangely named Loch Loch, at an altitude of 450 metres, is above the 
bracken line this tar north and for once we could not add the eagle fern to our tally. But we 
did sec eaules, and from as close as we are ever likely to get as they flew directly over our 
\ chicles and hovered above a nearby wood in search of prey. 

That was before we parked (we had got permission to park on a private estate) and began the 
long five and a half mile trek to our destination. On the way we noted Bleehnum spkant, 
(hvoptens limhos/KTina. Etpiisetum palustre and clumps of Dryopteris affinis subsp. affinis, 
standing out like beacons of brilliant yellow-green in the drabber landscape. Loch Loch itself 
is a beautiful spot between two scree-covered slopes in the lee of Beinn a' Ghlo. Not that we 
could see this famous triple-peaked mountain, shrouded as it was in rain-sodden cloud, and 
indeed by the time we arrived the rain was falling on us midsummer in Scotland. 
The scree on the east side of the loch is a mixture of calcareous and other rock, so that as 
well as the ferns we would expect to find on an acidic Scottish hillside Dryopteris 
oreades, D. dilatata, D. affinis and Athyrimn filix-femina, there were also the lime-likers - 
some beautiful clumps of Polystichum lonchitis, tucked in crevices out of reach of bestial 
nibblers, Asplenium viride, A. ruta-muraria, A. trichomanes, and at least one plant of 
P< i\ v//< hum aculeatum. Cystopteris frav 

cotmectilis were also found sheltering among the rocks. This was the tally that we arrived 
at, though not everyone saw everything as the weather was not conducive to scrambling 
1 out the very rare (in Britain) Oxytropus campestre, with 
; leaves and pale yellow pea flowers, a beautiful thing. 
As the rain steadily worsened, Frank and 1 decided to head back before we were totally 
drenched. After all, hot baths were considerably further away for us than for those staying 
at Kindrogan. But this is a site well worth another visit in better weather. We might even 
see those eagles again. 

Isle of Skye and Attadale - 18-19 September Frank McGavigan 

(Participants: Roland Ennos, Carl Farmer, Tim Godfrey, Yvonne Golding, Frank Katzer, Frank 
McGavigan, Andy MacGregor, James Merryweather, Mike Taylor, Alastair and Jackie Wardlaw.) 
The forecast was for rain but Saturday had plenty of sunny periods between the showers 
with the Cuillin drifting in and out of view among the swirling clouds. We started at Ord 
(18/616134), where a small limestone outcrop on the shore revealed four aspleniums 
(A. ruta-muraria, A. adiantum-nigrum, A. scolopendrium and A. trichomanes subsp. 
quadrivalens) with Pteridium aquilinum in close proximity. Then we went into more 
typically acidic terrain in search of filmy ferns, passing on the way Oreopteris 
limbosperma, Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris filix-mas, Bleehnum spicant and a nice 
patch of grass of Parnassus (not a grass at all, of course, but a glistening white flower). 
In scrubby birch woodland we found Phegopteris connect His, a photogenic plant of 
Dryopteris aemula, and D. affinis, both subspp. affinis and horreri. James held a quick 
tutorial on the differences between the two, emphasising the need to look for a suite of 

characters ( 

i way the indusium splits, the 

fronds, the erectness of the plant, etc.). No one characteristic could be described as typical 
of one subspecies or another. Once you get your eye in, the two Hvmenophyllum are easier 
to distinguish. H. wilsonii has pointed, untoothed sori. and on //. tunhrigensc the son are 

On the way back we found Asplenium viride and A. trie hamulus subsp uiuulri\ ulcus, again 
on limestone outcrops, before inspecting Tim's garden where his collection of ferns was much 
, Especially nice were Polystichtim v 

Polystichum aculeatum, wc c\ e mps of the / 

roadway. Then, again with a bit of searching, and strange!) at a lower altitude, we tound tour 
plants of Polystichum lonchitis. I cannot think of two more attractive terns to end the day on. 
Sunday saw us hunting in the rain for horsetails - abundant on Skye. We searched the 
roadside to the south of the Old Man of Storr car park (18/507529) for Equisctum 
>ut success but did find E. palustrc. E. jlmmtilc. E. urvensc. E tchmitcni. 
I little further north, the star find of the day. E. x font-queri, the hybrid between 
E. telmateia and E. palustre - a real stunner with a strikingly yellow-green colour ( arl. 
who had led us to these sites, then took us to Penifiler (18 485413) to look at E hyemaU: 
E svlvaticum, and E. fluviatile. Anyone interested in Skye should visit Carls website 
« w w - which has some beautiful close-up photos of the local flora. 
By now the rain was relentless and our visit to Attadale Gardens in Strathcarron on the 
mainland (18/926391) could have been a wash-out, except that the garden is so beautiful 
and the fern collection so magnificent that we did not mind the weather. The garden has 
been described fully in Pteridologist (2004. 4(3)) and in any case there are too many ferns 
to detail here. Sufficient to say that among those inherited from Peter Hainsworth was the 
gem I have been looking for for years - Dtyopteris neorosthomiu with large, jet-black 
scales on the rachis. We encouraged Geoff Stephenson, the Head Gardener, to sow spores 
and promised to come back to purchase the plants. 


The AFS invites all readers of this Bulletin to join the 
to visit the AFS website: Regular i 

times a year, a newsletter published for those who are interesteu in ^ ^ B , 

them and expanding their knowledge of ferns. Journal members also receive the scientific 

quarterly Amen mbership costs $19 and S32 per annum respective y or 

members residing outside USA, Canada or Mexico, including postage for airmail-assisted 

delivery. For particulars please write to Dr George Yatskievych Missouri Botanical Garden. 

P.O. Box 299, St Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, USA ( Online 

credit card payment is now available for the AFS via the AFS website. 

AFS SUBSCRIPTION PAYMENTS: Our societies have an exchange arrangement whereby 

members of the BPS can pay their AFS subscription through the BPS Membership Secretary and 

rimtu. t . i j ZV f.u-, nmcnpptive mem'^ should contact 

wee versa. To ta«. -ptctive memoer* teaming 

Mr M.S. Porter, 5 West Avenue, Wigton, Cumbria CA7 9LG (Membership^ 

Group of European Pteridologists (GEP) Excursion 

Liguria, Italy - 12-16 April Pat Acock 

Our GEP Organiser, Ronnie Viane, had arranged with local botanist, Remo Bemardello, 
who has worked in this beautiful part of Italy professionally for many years, to lead this 
year's excursion. In collaboration with colleague Dino Marchetti, Remo led us to many 
interesting sites on some interesting substrates over the next three days. Principally we were 
looking at Asplenium, it being a little early for many of the other ferns. 
We met as usual over Monday dinner and were able to catch up with many old friends and 
this year, more especially, a large number of new members and Italian botanists, adding up 
to about forty people. 

On Tuesday we headed into the mountains north of Sestri Levante. While waiting for the 
convoy to reassemble, someone with bright eyes spotted Equisetum ramosissimum m the 
orchard beside the road. We then drove on to the first of three sites for the day. In Libiola, a 
mining area known from Roman times and with connections in London, we found 
Anogramma leptophylla, Asplenium onopteris, A. adiantum-nigrum and the hybrid A. x 
ticinense all growing in profusion on the spoil heap from the serpentine workings. From a 
tunnel a continuous draft of warm air came from the depths of the earth and above the 
entrance Nephrolepis cordifolia had managed to find a niche in which to proliferate. In a 
small gully on the other side of the valley we were able to see a variety of ferns, including 
Polypodium cambricum, which is rather common in these parts, as well as P. interjectum 
and the possible hybrid P.xshivasiae. Cyrtomium falcatum, Adiantum capillus-veneris, 
Dryopteris affinis subsp. cambrensis and Selaginella denticulata were also found. 
After lunch we moved on to another mining area with iron-rich, hard metamorphic rock. On 
the railway track we were able to spot straight away Asplenium x altemijolium growing with 
A. septentrionale. On the rock wall was also Cheilanthes tinaei and Notholaena marantae 
but these were incidental to the finding of Asplenium foreziense, a most special fern and 
quite rare at this location. Another alien. Pteris cretka, was found in a large cave. 
After a splendid dinner we had a slide-show from Remo, who showed a large number of the 
rarer hybrid spleenworts he had found in this area. 

On Wednesday we looked at another alien in the town, Pteris vittata, before meeting Dr 
Alberto Girani, the director of the Parco Naturale di Portofino in S. Margherita Ligure. After 
giving us a brief description of the Park, Dr Girani came with us to Cape Portofino. After a 
short walk the substrate changed to a calcareous conglomerate and after a scramble through an 
old tunnel we soon started seeing Asplenium petrarchae subsp. petrarchae. Beyond the tunne 
we came to a wall where the outstanding fern of the day, A.fontanum, was growing well. 
Our final day, Thursday, saw us near the cemetery of Sestri Levante. Above the cemetery, 
on a retaining bank in an olive orchard, we were able to see A. obovatum subjjfc 
lanceolatum. We then followed an interesting trail with fine views of the Costa del Castello. 
We moved on to another serpentine area, hoping to find the serpentine form of A. adUmt ^ f 
nigrum but we were not successful on this occasion. The rain had driven a few back to * " ,r 

r hunting before our final d 

t of us made our way to Sestri where there was just t 

: for a little 

this was once again a well organised and delightful coming together ot turu ^ fc 
Pteridologists. In 2005 we hope to be in Brittany. If you are interested in joining the GbK 
annual excursion please contact Prof. Ronnie Viane, Dept. of Morphology, Systematicsa" 
Ecology, Section: Pteridology, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, Gent, B-9000 Belgium. "; Tel. & Fax: +329-2645057. 

[ -mail: 


BBC GARDENERS' WORLD LIVE! - 16-20 June A.R. Busby 

On arrival at Hall 17, I was pleased to see that the staging was ready, even if it was in the 
wrong place again. A few minutes of hurried activity with hammer and nails had the stand 
much as I wanted it. In spite of careful cultivation I again had difficulty finding iboul 
twenty ferns of reasonable standard to grace the show bench; a couple of 'star players' 
failed to make the grade and I was obliged to use two rather unsuitable stand-bys. 
The ferns used on this year's stand were: Adiantum palatum. A. suhpumilum. Asplcnium 
scolopendrium, A. scolopendrium 'Crispum', A. trichomanes, Athyrium filix-fcmma. 

niponkum 'Pictum', Dryoptehs affinis 'Polydactyla' and 'Stableri". D. crvthmsora. /). fih.\- 

mas, D.filix-mas Cristata Group and 'Crispa Congesta', D. dilatata 'Crispa Whiteside". 

D.oreades, Gymnocarpium dryopteris 'Plumosuirf, Matteuccia tfruthiopteris. Osmunda 

regalis, Polystichum setiferum, P. setiferum 'Divisilobum' and 'Plumosum Bevis". 

It was most encouraging to be visited by several members of the Society, including Mick 

and Linda Craddock, Ron and Pat Cole, Clive and Doreen Brotherton, Elise Knox-Thomas. 

Peter Lamb, Tim Godfrey and Mark Morgan. My thanks to Maurice and Vilma Green, Alan 

Ogden, Bryan and Gill Smith, Ray and Brenda Smith, Alan Ogden and Jeff Whysall for 

helping me to man the stand. 

SOUTHPORT FLOWER SHOW - 19-22 August A.R. Busby 

This year marked the 75th anniversary of Southport Show and to celebrate this feet, 2004 

was to be a four day event. A show lasting four days had been tried before but proved to be 

extremely unpopular with the exhibitors. I had understood that four days this year was to be 

a one-off, but the dates for the 2005 show reveal that it is to be another four-day event. It 

will be interesting to see how the exhibitors respond to ibis fait accompli. 

Southport usually waits until the Show is underway before inflicting any deluge on the 

show-ground, however, this year it could not wait and exhibitors arrived on the set-up day 

to very boggy ground and large lakes of water. The show staff did their best with boarding 

and liberal quantities of shredded bark, but those without gumboots got their feet wet. 

It was encouraging to see an increased number of exhibits staged in the competitive classes 

largely due to the efforts of a new exhibitor. Overall presentation was good, but it was sad 

to see another disqualification due to misinterpretation of the rules. 

The prize-winners are listed below. The judge was A.R. Busby. 

Class 6 Individual Championship: Four hardy, two greenhouse and two foreign hardy 

ferns: 1 st B. Russ, 2nd M. Hayward, 3rd I. Rawson (3 entries) 
Class 7 Three Hardy British Ferns (three distinct species not varieties): 2nd I. Rawson 

Class 8 One^reign Fern Hardy in Great Britain: 1st B. Russ, 2nd M. Hayward, 

3rd I. Rawson (4 entries) 
Class 9 Three Polypodium (distinct varieties): (no entries) 
Class 10 Three Polystichum (distinct varieties): (1 entry - disqualified) 
Class 11 Three Uhyrtum (distinct varieties): 1st M. Hayward (2 entries) 
Class 12 Three Asplenium (excluding A. scolopendrium): 1st M. Hayward (2 entries) 
Class 13 One British Fern (any kind or variety): 1st M. Hayward, 2nd I. Rawson. 

3rd B. Russ (4 entries) 


Class 14 One Greenhouse Fern: 1st H.J. Abbott, 2nd D. Need, 3rd M. Hayward (5 entries) 
Class 1 5 Three Asplenium scolopendrium (3 distinct varieties): ( 1 entry; no award given) 
Points are no longer awarded to winners. The exhibitor with the most wins in all classes 
except class six receives the Happiland Trophy. This year's winner was Dr Michael 
Hayward. The BPS Championship Cup for Class Six was won by Mr Brian Russ. Two ferns 
exhibited by Michael Hayward are worth a mention: a fine example of Asplenium 
flaccidum, to my knowledge the first time this has been exhibited at Southport, and 
Uhyrium niponicwn 'Silver Falls', exhibited without a blemish - SUPERB! 
I would like to express my thanks to the following members who took the trouble to make 
long journeys to see the show and spend a few minutes chatting to us on the stand: Brian 
Russ, Peter Lamb, Susan ( os, Joan Hindle, Andrew Jamieson and 

Trevor and Sue Piearce. My special thanks to Ann Gill, Ray and Brenda Smith and Rita 
Baker for their valued support, and to Michael Hayward, who not only gave unstinting 
service on the stand, but was kind enough to invite us to his home for supper and a tour of 
his very ferny garden on the Friday evening. We all came away carrying treasures and 
memories of a very special Southport Show. 
The dates of next year's Show are the 18th to 21st August 2005. 

This was my last year organising the Society stand and matters are in hand to find someone 
to take over. We are always short of help on the stand so if any members have just a few 
hours to spare I would be very pleased to pass on any offers of help to the new organiser. If 
any members are interested in showing ferns at the Southport Show, I will still be pleased to 
1 pitfalls of competitive showing. For a show schedule please 
i Park, Rotten Row, Southport, PR8 2BZ. 

I r 





rhon, curtesy of Southport Flower Show Ltd 

Mark Michelmore congratulates Matt Busby on his retirement from exhibiting at 
Southport Show after 3 1 > oars 

Mtchael Hayward, Ray Smith, Mark Michelmore (Chief Hxecutive of Southport Flower Show Ltd), 
A.R. (Matt) Busby and Tim I immcrm.ui « !■ i man of Show) 


ANNUAL GENERAL MFF [TNG 2005 - The I02nd AGM will take place on Saturday 
19th March 2005 at the University of Manchester's School of Biological Sciences Botanical 
Experimental Grounds, Whitworth Lane, Fallowfield, Manchester M 14 2HB at 14.00 hrs. 
COMMITTEE VACANCIES - In accordance with paragraph 3, section 3 of the Soeien \ 
Constitution, three vacancies will occur due to the retirement of two of the longest >er\mg 
unfilled vacancy. Nominations are invited from Societ> 
ral Meeting in 2005. The names oi the 
nominees, proposers and seconders, together with a letter from the nominee indicating 
his/her willingness to serve, should reach the General Secretary before the AGM Mem hers 
with a potential interest in serving as an elected Committee member and who wish to 
know more of the duties and responsibilities are invited to contact the Secretary. 
SUBSCRIPTIONS 2005 - Members are reminded that subscriptions were due on 1st January 
2005 and should be paid to the Membership Secretary. Cheques should be made payable to 
'The British Pteridological Society'. Current rates are given inside the front cover of this issue. 
Payment can be made by Credit Card - see renewal form. Standing Order forms arc nrmk-d 
on the reverse of renewal forms and are also available from the Membership Secretary and the 
BPS website ( Standing Orders may be paid on 1st January or 1st 
February. In either case, membership is deemed to be from 1st January to 3 1st December. 
Members are reminded that according to Clause 1 1 of the Constitution \ [ny membt r failing 
to pay his subscription within six calendar months of its becoming due shall be liable to 
have his name removed from the List of Members of this Society"'. Defaulting members who 
do not amend their Standing Orders with their bank and are still paying at the old rate shall 
be notified that they will not receive the Fern Gazette until such time as their Standing 
Orders are updated. Members still paying even earlier rates shall be notified that their name 
will be removed from the Membership List until such times as Standing Orders are updated 
or cancelled. Any monies received from old Standing Orders will be treated as a donation. 
GIFT AID - Since 2003 the BPS has been a registered charity. This enables us to claim 
back from the Inland Revenue 28p for every pound paid in the annual subscription for each 
member who authorises us to do so. By August 2004 164 members had returned a Gift Aid 
form and thus the Society benefited by just over £900. (In 2003 the sum was just over £670 
based on authorisation by 122 members.) While this is obviously an extremely valuable 
addition to the S me, it could be a considerably more. There are probably 

a further 300-350 members on whose subscriptions the Society could claim Gift Aid if these 
members authorised it. This could lead to perhaps another £1,500 per annum. All that is 
required is a minimal amount of form filling (about one minute) and a second class stamp. 
Even better, the form has only to be filled in once. The forms are retained by the Gift Aid 
Secretary and the same ones used year after year to make the claim. 
The small number of provisos are set out below: 

1. Gift Aid is available only to members who reside in the UK. 

2. Members on whose subscription Gift Aid is claimed must be paying income tax or 
capital gains tax at least equal to the amount claimed. 

3. Members whose subscriptions are allowed as an expense in connection with their 
employment may not claim Gift Aid. (We have learned of this only very recently. 
Members in this position who have already sent in their authorisation should let the Gift 
Aid Secretary know so that no further claims are made on their behalf.) 

Pl'BUCATIONS BY AIRMAIL - Our journals can be sent by airmail to overseas 
members provided that they advise the Membership Secretary and pay an additional 
subscription to cover airmail postage. See inside front cover for rates. 
attending Society field meetings should be aware of the Society's Safety Code (see 2000 
Bulletin >o): 275), as well as the Code of Conduct for the Conservation and Enjoyment of 
Wild Plants (see 1999 Bulletin 5(4): 199), and are required to sign a Declaration form. 
Copies of these documents can be obtained from the Meetings Secretary or BPS website. 
GREENFIELD FUND - This fund, set up as a memorial to one of our Society's great fern 
growers, Percy Greenfield, is used to finance approved projects, helping with the cost of 
necessary equipment, books and travel expenses. Percy Greenfield's interest leaned very 
much towards the non-scientific side of our activities and it is felt that 1 

CENTENARY FUND - This fund is used to promote the study of all aspects of 
pteridophytes - horticultural, scientific and educational, whether by amateurs, students or 
professional pteridologists. As such its scope is much broader and more flexible than the 
Greenfield Fund. Applications will normally be dealt with once a year and should be 
submitted by 1st November. Anyone wishing to avail themselves of this fund should 
contact the Hon. General Secretary for further information. 

SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS - There are three Special Interest Groups. For further 
information please send a stamped addressed envelope to the organisers: 
Tree-ferns: Prof. A.C. Wardlaw, 92 Drymen Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 2SY. 
Foreign Hardy Ferns: A.R. (Matt) Busby, 16 Kirby Comer Road, Canley, Coventry CV4 8GD. 
Filmy Ferns: S.J. Munyard, 234 Harold Road, Hastings, East Sussex TN35 5NG. 
Alternatively the organisers may be contacted by e-mail:,, 

MEMBERS INFORMATION SERVICE - Members often require information and 
advice on many aspects of pteridophytes but are reluctant to ask or simply do not know 
where to obtain help. Queries from members on any aspects of the biology, identification or 
cultivation of ferns or fern allies should be sent, with three first class stamps, to the 
Horticultural Information Officer. 

READING CIRCLE - The Society operates a reading circle for the American Fern 
Journal, a quarterly publication containing much information for those seriously interested 
in ferns. The Fiddlehead Forum, which publishes many 'ferny' items of interest to the 
amateur grower, accompanies it. To receive these journals contact the Horticultural 
Information Officer. 

exchanges journals with many other fern societies in the world. We have a collection of 
journals/newsletters from societies in the United States (2), Australia (3), New Zealand, 
India and the Netherlands. If members would like to browse these, they are welcome to get 
in touch with the Back Numbers Organiser for a list of our holdings. The journals can then 
be borrowed for just the cost of postage both ways. 

BA< K M MBKRS OF .KM R\ VI s Our Back Numbers arc ahsays a good source of 

Pteridological information. They contain articles written by an array o\' authors on 

interesting fern subjects. You can have a sample pack of six journals i'or £6. A full list of 

journal parts stocked is available from Pat Acock. 

E-MAIL ADDRESSES - These have been published for the first tunc, as agreed, for 

members who (1) have a stable e-mail address that is unlikely to change in the immediate 

future, and (2) keep up-to-date with their e-mail messages. Supplementary lists will be 

published in the Bulletin. Members who wish to have their e-mail address added, changed 

or removed are requested to inform the Membership Secretary BY E-MAIL at: 

BPS WEBSITE - (Hosted by The Natural History Museum.) In today's 

internet-oriented world, it is increasingly important for the Society' to sec the website as a majoi 

means of communication. The website provides information for the membership, but it is also. 

and perhaps more importantly, a 'shop-window' to present the Society and pteridolo© to the 

wider world. Our aim is to mak 

about pteridophytes and pteridology. We have recently f 

the Website Editor. This group will help to clarify the objectives for our 

the work necessary to achieve those objectives. Members with views on what the website should 

provide and with offers to help with content should contact the Web Site Editor. Anthony Pigott. 

BPS E-MAIL LIST - Members are reminded that there is an e-mail group or list" for BPS 

of ferns, for which another list such as FERNS would be more appropriate. 

Website under 'Links'. Send a blank e-mail to: to 

subscribe. Unless your real name is obvious from your e-mail address, please send an e-mail 

at the same time to in order to identify yourself as a BPS 

member. Members are encouraged to join as the potential benefits are greater with a fuller 

participation. Contact the BPS Webmaster for further information. 

BPS VIDEO 'BRITISH FERNS' - This twenty-five minute video shows most of the 

s British ferns growing i 

ind the broad range of habitats they ( 
cters for each species. 
Schering Agriculture and the National Museum of Wales funded the video. It is i 

BPS FIRST MINUTE BOOK This historical i 

Minutes from the inception of the Society in 1 

CD ROM at £10 per copy, including postage. Place your order tl 

BRITISH WILDLIFE - Concessionary individual subscriptions to British Wildlife 

magazine are available to BPS members. 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY - Our Society is affdiated to the RHS, enabling 

a limited number of members to enjoy certain privileges in connection with RHS Shows, 

competitions and services. 

PAYMENT OF EXPENSES - Documents setting out the Rules of Conduct for the 

Treasurer (BPS/T/1), the Rules for Seeking Re-imbursement of Personal Travelling and 

Administrative Expenses by officers and members acting on behalf of the Society 

(BPS/T/2), and the Authorities for Payment (BPS/T/3) can be obtained from the Honorary 

Treasurer on request. 

COPYRIGHT - All contributors to the BPS journals and webpage are requ 
agreement assigning ownership of copyright of the article, photograph etc. tc 
has the aim of safeguarding the contributors' work from unlawful copying a 
not stop contributors from using their own work elsewhere provided that the 
the original source of publication. 

MERCHANDISE - Do you have a BPS sweatshirt, tee-shirt or polo shirt? These are all 
dark green with a small embroidered BPS logo in yellow. Other items, such as BPS ties, 
metal badges, ferny greetings cards, bookmarks, pens and mugs, are also for sale. Can't find 
your order form? Contact the Merchandise Organisers or look on the website for details. 
The Organisers also welcome suggestions for new stock. 

THE FUTURE OF BOOKSALES - Steve Munyard regretfully needs to relinquish his role 
as Booksales Organiser, so we are looking for volunteers to take over for 2005. Would you be 
interested? There is the possibility of splitting management of BPS Special Publications from 
the sale of other new/second-hand books. Contact Steve to find out what is involved. 
SOUTHPORT FLOWER SHOW - Why not spend a few hours or a day helping man the 
Society's stand? You do not need to be an expert on ferns or fern growing, just prepared to 
spend a few hours or a day with us. Expenses are available, as well as free entry to the 
Show. Details are available from Michael Hayward, 6 Far Moss Road, Blundellsands, 
Liverpool, Merseyside L23 8TQ. 
DESTINATION OF PTER1DOPHYTE RECORDS - Members are reminded that 
records of ferns and fern allies in the wild should be sent to the appropriate Botanical 
Society of the British Isles (BSBI) Vice-county recorders, whose addresses are available 
from the BSBI website or BSBI yearbook, which is available to BSBI members. For those 
without access to the Internet or yearbook, records may be sent to the Conservation Officer 
who will forward them to the BSBI. These records are stored centrally at the Biological 
Records Centre, and can be accessed by the BPS. 

NURSERY ADVERTISEMENTS - Members with nurseries that offer ferns are reminded 
that they may place an advertisement in the Bulletin, Ptehdologist and on the website, free 
of charge, in return for the inclusion of a note about the Society in their catalogues. A 
suitable form of words is available from the Secretary. The Website Editor can add a 
suitable image of a plant or the nursery against the nursery's details, if it is wanted. The 
leaflet Where to see ferns is soon to be revised. If members wish their nursery to be 
included, please contact the Hon. Gen. Secretary. 

THE HARDY FERN FOUNDATION - The Hardy Fern Foundation was founded in 1989 
to establish a comprehensive collection of the world's hardy ferns for display, testing, 
evaluation, public education and introduction to the gardening and horticultural community. 
Many rare and unusual species, hybrids and varieties are being propagated from spores and 
tested in selected environments for their different degrees of hardiness and ornamental 
garden value. Membership costs just $25 for regular members or $30 for family 
membership. Members receive a first-rate introductory pack, a quarterly journal and access 
to their spore exchange. 

A reciprocal arrangement has been set up to make payment easier. Those wishing to join or 
renew their subscription for 2005 should contact Pat Acock, 13 Star Lane, St Mary Cray, 
Kent BR5 3LJ as soon as possible after reading this notice and will be informed of the 
current membership rate in pounds. The contact in the USA is Michelle Bundy, 16038 46th 
Ave, South, Tukwila, WA 98188 USA. 

AMERICAN FERN SOCIETY - The AFS has had a reciprocal payment arrangement with the 
BPS for many years through their respective Membership Secretaries. See AFS advert on p. 237. 


MINUTES of the 101st Annual General Meeting of the British Pteridological Soeiet\ held 

at the Natural History Museum. London, on Saturday 20th March 2004 at 14.00 hours. 

IN THE CHAIR: The President. Prof. A.C. Wardlaw. 

PRESENT: Mr R.G. Ackers, Mr P.J. Acock, Mr C. Brotherton. Mr A.R. Busb) . 

Miss J.M. Camus, DrA.FDyer, Prof. J.A. Edgington, Mr R.L. Goldmg. Dr Y.C ". Golding. 

Dr M. Hayward, Mrs R. Hibbs. Miss J.M. Ide, Ms E. Knox-Thomas, Mr A. Leonard. 

Mr H.W. Matthews, Mr F. McGavigan, Dr J.W. Merryweather. Mr S.J. & Mrs k Mum ard. 

MrA.H. Ogden, Mr C.E. Polkey, Mr M.S. Porter. Miss A.M. Paul. Mr M.H. Rickard. 

Mr P.H. Ripley, Mr B.D. & Mrs G. Smith, Mr B.R. Stevenson, Mr R.W. Sykes. Mrs J. Wardlaw. 

Miss L.A.M. Williams, Mr L.H. Winning. 

Item 1 - APOLOGIES FOR ABSENCE: Mr R.J. Cooke, Dr M. Gibby. Dr N J Hards. 

Mr A.C. Jermy, Dr S.D. Martinelli. Mrs R. Stevenson. Dr T.G. Walker. 

Item 2 - APPROVAL OF MINUTES: The Minutes of the 100th Annual General Meeting 

held on Saturday 22nd March 2003, and published in the 2003 Bulletin (Vol. 6. No 2) \sere 

approved (proposed by Dr A.F. Dyer, seconded by Miss A.M. Paul) and signed by the 

Item 3 - MATTERS ARISING: None. 


I had hoped that this report would be shorter than in previous years, but on going through 

the Minutes of your Committee's meetings in 2003, 1 found that this would not be so. 

live for the Society is now well under way 
. (Matt) Busby our Archivist. (See his report 
for more details.) A mission statement on the purpose of the archives has been prepared, 
which will provide the Archivist with a focus on the material to be kept. 
PUBLICATIONS: Our President has done more than his fair share of work during his 
presidency, taking on the unforgiving task of keeping the publications afloat as well as his 
perhaps, therefore, not unexpected that he feels he rightly deserves 
a rest and has offered his relation as Acting Chairman of the Publications s 

. ta nee and regret the Committee must respect his wishes. 
It was considered invidious that anyone who had accepted the responsibility of becoming a 
Committee member, and ex-officio a Trustee of the Society, should have to go to the 
Treasurer for permission to claim expenses for attending Committee meetings. It was also 
unacceptable that some Committee members should be discriminated against financially 
because of the distance of their home from London, where most Committee meetings are 
held, and that a member should feel unable to accept nomination as a Committee member 
for financial reasons. However, if every Committee member claimed their expenses tor 
attending meetings it could lead to an unsustainable depletion of the Society's finances. 
A small Working Party, consisting of A.C. Wardlaw (President 

J.A. Thomas (Vice-President) fc 

e implications ol 

p ^ and to make recommendations for changes to the Rules for 

Seeking Reimbursement of Personal Travelling and Administrative Expenses. The terms of 
reference include considering the number of Committee meetings per year, the venue of 
meetings, the size of the Committee and the most efficient ways of havingj 
the possibility of setting up conference telephone links to e 


SOCIETY'S INSURANCE POLICY: R.G. Ackers finished his review on the insu 
implications of the Society being a charity. The Committee agreed his proposal to cor 
the policy held with the Royal and Sun Alliance Insurance Co. as part of a group p 
arranged by the North West Naturalists' Union for voluntary r 
policy is for Public Liability only, to a sum of five millio 
£40 plus annual membership fee to the NWNU of £10. 

The Committee agreed R.G. Ackers' recommendation not to take out a much more 
expensive policy that would give protection against libel and accepted the proposal that 
articles for journals should be checked for possible libellous content by other persons in 
addition to the editor. However, the original policy not to take out protection against libel is 
now being reviewed as part of a 'doomsday scenario', i.e. someone taking action over an 
event that was not covered by insurance and which, if successful, would drain the Society 
of its financial resources and might also render the Trustees liable. 

ATTENDANCE OF MINORS AT FIELD MEETINGS: A young teenage member has been 
B the past year and concern was expressed about the insurance 
implications of the attendance of minors at meetings. Our current insurance policy contains no 
exclusion clause regarding minors and it has been ascertained that there is no p 
problem. However, it was agreed, again as part of our 'best practice' policy, that when a minor 
I by his/her legal guardian, the legal guardian must sign a 
: agrees to the minor attending the meeting and also that he/she agrees 
that one named person acts in loco parentis. The 'responsible adult' must also sign the form. 
FERN ATLAS SUBCOMMITTEE: Following publication of the BSBI's New Atlas of the 
British & Irish Flora (2002), the Fern Atlas Subcommittee, which has lain dormant for a 
number of years, is preparing to resume activity. The subcommittee (Chairman, A.C. Pigott) 
is currently reviewing its objectives and formulating the best way forward; we hope to have 
news of significant progress next year. 

NCCPG FERN COLLECTIONS: Last year I reported that the Society had become a member of 
the NCCPG as part of an initiative to encourage members to create National Collections of ferns. 
S.E. Czeladzinski presented a paper to the Committee setting out the current position on 
national collections of ferns recognised by the NCCPG, suggesting collections that the Society 
should aim to see added, and the advantages to the Society of having collections held by its 
members. It was felt that cultivar collections would be particularly valuable. S.E. Czeladzinski 
is currently seeking and negotiating sites where collections might be held. 
MAILING OF NOTICES: As the Bulletin was unlikely to be published before March, it 
was agreed that a separate mailing of the usual inserts would be made well before Christmas 
and the meetings programme would be put on the website. This would give members much 
longer than usual notice of the meetings for the coming year and should enable them to 
avoid conflicting commitments more easily. The value of this early posting would be seen 
in the numbers attending meetings. 

SALE OF MEMBERSHIP LIST: A request to rent the Society's Membership list for the 
purpose of promoting pteridophyte publications was received from The New York Botanical 
Garden Press. It was agreed that as a matter of principle the Society would not sell details of 
its membership to another organisation or individual. In this particular instance, it was 
agreed to distribute fliers with one of our publications for a cost negotiated with the Press. 
FIRST AID COURSES: As part of the Society's policy to implement best practice 
wherever possible as a "hallmark of a well run Charity", suitable First Aid courses were 
investigated. Unfortunately, the BPS could not afford to pay for training for interested 
leaders of field meetings. However, the Committee decided it wished to encourage leaders 


destination for field records of pteridophytes made by members. The ( 

and confirmed the present arrangements and these are reiterated in the Svcrctan- \ \otcs ii 

the recent issue of the Bulletin (Vol. 6, Part 2, 2003), where more details can be found 

EXPIRY OF PATRONAGE: The good news! The five-year period of the patronage b) 
HRH The Prince of Wales has come to an end, and we are pleased to report that the Prince 
has agreed to continue as Patron of the Society for a further period. We hear thai be reall) 

The Secretary's report was approved, proposed by M.H. Rickard, seconded by M.S. Porter. 
Item 5 - REPORT OF THE HONORARY TREASURER (A. Leonard): The Treasurer 
presented the provisional accounts for the year ending 31st December 2003. He explained 
that the accounts had yet to be finalised and contained projected values. 
In answer to a suggestion from the floor, the Treasurer agreed that the Merchandise and 
Booksales Accounts could also be published in full. He would resolve the matter with the 
respective Managers in time for next year's statement. 

The Finance report was accepted unanimously; proposed by R.W. Sykes, seconded by 
P.H. Ripley. (For the final accounts see page 255.) 

consistency of BPS membership never fails to amaze me! Practically every year the Society 
gains about 75 new members (76 in 2001, 76 in 2002 and 77 in 2003) while between 20 and 
30 members resign and about 50 lapse. In these circumstances it is perhaps not surprising 
that our numbers remain fairly constant; in outstanding years we top 800 but in most 
years our membership is in the high 700s, usually between 770 and 790. It takes 
something startling to change the pattern - in 2000 Martin Rickard published the 
Plantfmder's Guide to Garden Ferns and we had over 100 new members, while in 2002 
when membership subscription rates went up, nearly 40 members resigned and membership 
numbers fell by about 35. Nevertheless, these variations are over a very small range and we 
are maintaining our numbers well, probably better than many specialist societies of 
comparable size. 

For 2003 the details were: 34 Complimentary or Honorary members, 15 Student members, 
63 Family members, 85 Subscribers and 593 'Ordinary' members, giving 790 members in 
all, our third highest membership total. As noted above, 77 new members joined the 

Last year, whik .- ;: . 

of the different amounts of time taken for this task. When things are straightforward - an up- 
to-date Standing Order or a correctly made-out cheque - it takes one minute to find the name 
on the database and enter details. Credit card payments take longer to deal with, as special 
forms have to be filled in, so this may be three minutes per member. However, when a 
Standing Order has not been brought up-to-date or personal reminders have to be sent out, 
the amount of time to be spent soars to at least ten minutes per member and this is doubled 
if there is no response to the first reminder. I reckon, therefore, that it takes me half as long 
to process the details for the 600 plus members who pay correctly as it does for the 150 plus 
members who don't. My grateful thanks to the 600 members who pay correctly! 
STATEMENT CONCERNING GIFT AID: When the BPS was registered as a charity it 
became possible for us to claim Gift Aid on each member's subscriptions - so long as that 
member is paying some income tax. The Inland Revenue repays us 28 pence for every 
pound paid in as membership subscription. Thus for each Full Member paying £20 we 
receive £5.60, for each Optional Member paying £16 we receive £4.48, for each Student 
Member paying £10 we receive £2.80, for each Subscriber paying £33 we receive £9.24 and 
for each Family Member making an additional payment of £2 we receive £0.56. 

Gift Aid is, of course, note 

: have up to about 550 eligible 

members. Last year 122 members sent in their forms authorising us to claim Gift Aid with 
the result that the Society was £673.68 better off. However, 122 is roughly a quarter of all 
eligible members. I suspect we could benefit by about £2,500 per year if all members filled 
in the form. So please, if you didn't fill in your form last year can you do so this year? It 
will cost you nothing (apart, perhaps, from a 2nd class stamp) and there is a minimal 
amount of form filling to do: viz. First Name, Surname, Address and Postcode. Finally, once it 
is done it doesn't have to be done again. I can use the form year after year to make the claims. 
After a brief exchange of information about Gift Aid it was agreed that efforts should be 
made to encourage the three-quarters of the membership who could be entitled to Gift Aid 
their subscriptions but had not done so, to do so, possibly via an article in the Pteridologist 
and/or by a statement in the Secretarial Notes in the Bulletin. 

Approval of the report was proposed by J.W. Merryweather, seconded by A.M. Paul and 
accepted unanimously. 

(RJ. Cooke): I have very little to report this year in terms of my activities on behalf of the 
BPS, so I thought I would update members on progress of one of the issues I have 
previously discussed, the re-introduction of Woodsia ilvensis to several sites in the uplands 
o Britain, and I am grateful to Heather McHaffie for providing me with this summary. All 
*• mtroduced and re-introduced populations at four sites continue to be monitored. 


plants are producing s 

s dry condit 

yet no sporelings have been found. This, of o 
*y aspen to tneir long term survival. This research is producing many interesting results, 
as with all research it raises as many questions as it answers and I am looking forward 
eading the full results, which I understand will appear in the Pteridologist. 

you may know that I am also the BSBI referee for Polypodium, and I know c 

members also act as BSBI referees. My 

1 polypodiums and their hybrids from several sites not recorded in the new Plant 

ZZe<\T^\ th ^ 1S , the C3Se W ' th 0ther ferns ' and ' think w e now have to begin to plan an 

w^th kT C ^ ° nC W3S Published in 1978 < 14 y^s after the BSBI atlas. 1 hope that 

should v t0 CC a SeC ° nd edit '° n rather sooner than 20,5! In doin g so ' howeVer ' WC 

make use of technology and in particular our web site. We have a Fern Atlas 

i the BPS and we now need to consider how best to stimulate additional recot 
suits widely accessible. Members of the BPS have a ke\ role here and I hop 
2 will be able to provide further guidance in the not-too-distant future 
Item 8 - SUBCOMMITTEE (Permanent) REPORTS: 

8.1 - Meetings Subcommittee (P.J. Acock): Personally. I cannot remember a 
when we have had such a diverse and interesting collection of meetings. Thanks to the 
work put in by the leaders of each meeting, those attending found it difficult to 
superlatives to describe them. We started with a well-attended AGM with a line 
informative collection of talks on fern classification, which prompted lively discussion. 
Steve and Karen Munyard's excursion to SW Ireland was like the best family holid; 
with ferns. In the evening we shared the (" ' 

lounge of a large house, the base for the meeting. It was a truly magnificent e 

great company and superb o 

Barry Thomas led a 

people were treated to more ferns, interesting talks and cream teas than one could imagine 

could be packed into a weekend! Joy Neal regally entertained the whole group to the 

delights of her garden and home cooking when the group visited on the Saturda> afternoon 

After more than two years of planning, Sue Olsen and the Hardy Fern Foundation led us on 

one of our most ambitious tours yet. From registration at the University of Seattle to the 

farewell dinner, we were whisked from one delight to another in the most carelulK 

organised tour of a most beautiful part of the USA. 

We tried a new venture last year to actively encourage people to support Matt Busby at the 

Southport Flower Show. Although the number of attendees was disappointing, the weekend 

was enjoyable and a trip to the Show definitely can be recommended. The Show celebrates 

its 75th year this year (2004). 

i o round off the year, Graham Ackers, Alastair Wardlaw and Bob Johns arranged a tree- 
fern workshop at Kew that attracted members from all corners of the kingdom. They came 
in droves and were not disappointed. Sixty members and friends delighted in getting their 
heads around the subject from all sorts of angles and over 20 gathered at a Thai restaurant 

superb weather, good company, but above a 

by the leaders and, in some cases sizeable t 

that will go down in the memories of all tl 

8.2 - Publications Si u< ( >MM1 i i i i | Prof. A.C. Wardlaw): As in previous years, the President 

served as Acting Chairman of this Committee pending other arrangements. No meetings took place 

ler publications are progressively being supplied to printing firms as 
-educes the costs of production, as compared with 
iormer times when the printer would make printing plates for the illustrations, do the page 
make-up and send the Editor the page-proofs for correction. The new procedures allow 
greater editorial control, but are more demanding of time, skills and computer equipment 
than in the past. The Society is therefore much indebted to those individuals who serve as 
today's Editors, and who give freely of their time and expertise to produce the publications. 
which are so widely appreciated. 


8.2.1 - Bulletin. The 2003 Bulletin, only recently printed, again has 88 pages. The 
exceptionally large size reflects the steadily increasing activities of the Regional Groups, 
and four National Field meetings, two of which were overseas, and the inclusion of more 
photographs. This size may be compared with the 1997 Bulletin when only 56 pages were 
needed, and 1993, when 44 pages sufficed. Contributors are requested to send their reports 
and photographs as early as possible to facilitate earlier publication. Miss A.M. Paul 
continues the expert and dedicated service she has delivered to the Society for many years 
as Editor of the Bulletin. 

8.2.2 - The Fern Gazette: In April 2003, Parts 6, 7 and 8 of Volume 16 were issued as a 
single 230-page volume containing the Proceedings of the 2001 Guildford Symposium on 
Fern Flora Worldwide: Threats and Responses. This especially large volume was edited by Dr 
A.F. Dyer, Dr E. Sheffield and Prof. A.C. Wardlaw and was dedicated to Mr A.C. Jermy on 
the occasion of his 70th birthday. It contained a preface by HRH The Prince of Wales. In 
December 2003 the first Part of Volume 17 was issued by the new joint Editors, Dr M. Gibby 
and Mr A. Leonard. It is expected that future issues will contain the Proceedings of the 
forthcoming Symposium Ferns for the 21st Century, to be held at the Royal Botanic Garden 
Edinburgh in July 2004. Under active discussion is a proposal to encourage submission of 
review articles, in addition to the original papers that the Journal currently attracts. 

8.2.3 - Pteridologist. Volume 4, Part 2 of the new A4-size Pteridologist was produced 
as a 35-page issue in 2003. The Editor, Dr J. W. Merryweather, is to be congratulated for his 
initiative and designer talents in this very attractive product. As in the previous issue, the 
Tree Fern Newsletter (No. 9) was included as a feature of the magazine. The editor still 
requests plenty of short articles, brief notes, news and letters as well as a constant supply of 
major articles. New authors are encouraged to contribute. 

8.2.4 - Worldwide Web Site: Mr A.C. Pigott continues to manage the Society's site on 
the Worldwide Web and is always on the lookout for new material. Members are referred to 
his article published in a previous Bulletin (Vol. 5(5): 276. 2000). 

8.2.5 - Other Publica tions and Special Publica tions: - Index for Pteridologist: Mr M. Searle finished compiling the indexes for the first 
three volumes of Pteridologist, i.e. from 1984 until 2001 inclusive. The text is now being 
edited and will be issued as a booklet of approximately 43 pages of double-column format. 

These indexes v 

persons and places in this journal during the first 18 years of its existence. Publication and 
distribution of the combined indexes is expected during 2004 and the Committee approved 
that all current members should be sent a free copy. - Index for Bulletin: Mr J. Crowe completed a draft index to volumes 1-5 of the 
BPS Bulletin. This now needs to be edited and formatted for publication as a booklet of 
approximately 28 pages. We hope to be able to print and distribute copies of this very 
useful publication to members before the next AGM. - Polystichum: Variation in the British Shield Ferns, by J.W. Dyce, expanded and 
updated by Robert Sykes, Martin Rickard & Peter Barnes: This BPS Special Publication (No. 
7) has been many years in preparation from the incomplete manuscript left by Jimmy Dyce at 
the time of his death in 1996. The three Editors have had the major task of collecting 
illustrations of all the cultivars of the British polystichums, and revising the text left by the 
author. The work is in the final stages of preparation and will run to about 90 A4-size pages. 
The exact form of publication, particularly the number of colour pictures, is still under 
discussion. Hopefully this very attractive and authoritative volume will be published during 2004. - BPS Leaflets: The BPS Membership leaflet is being revised and twe 
leaflets, Getting Help from Your Society and An Introductory Selection of Books 

on Ferns 

and Fern Allies are being prepared for publication. We also plan to revise Where to See 
Ferns. Mrs R. Hibbs has produced draft designs for consideration by the Publications 
Subcommittee. We expect that these will all be made available both as hard cop> and on .he 

Discussion: There were queries and discussion f 
the recent issue of the Bulletin was 'a jol 

. Merryweather said that he would find it helpful t 

e index for the Pteridologist free to all members. The following proposal v 
e meeting and accepted 31:2 against: "In principle, the meeting agrees that the index to 
°teridologist should be free to current members of the Society unless the cost was 
, and that the matter should be referred to the Committee" M.S. Porter 
proposed, and R. Hibbs seconded a similar proposal for the index to the Bulletin, which was 
accepted unanimously. The Treasurer requested that cost estimates should be available 
when the Committee discussed the matter. R.W. Sykes further suggested that if the cost for 
either of the indexes was not over £1,000, then they should be distributed free to all current 
members receiving the respective journals. This latter suggestion was not put to the 

8.3 - Fern Varieties Nomenclature Subcommittee: No report. 
Item 9 - SUBCOMMITTEE (ad hoc) REPORTS: 

9.1 - Fern Atlas Subcommittee: No report. See Secretary's Report, Item 4. 

10.1 - Archivist (A.R. Busby): The archive consists of mainly three types of material: 
1. Correspondence and photographs, 2. A colour-slide collection and 3. Pressed fronds. 
During this last year I have been able to list most of the correspondence and photographs. 
They are now kept in numbered file boxes. At some future date this material will be sorted 
into chronological order. I hope to list the colour-slide collection some time this year. The 
major task will be the sorting and examining of several hundred pressed fronds so that those 
considered worth keeping can be mounted. 

A.R. Busby was asked if he had the material held by the previous Archivist, Nigel Hall. He 
replied that he had contacted Nigel Hall, requesting that the material be passed to him so that it 
could be integrated with the material already in the new archive. He was still waiting for it. 

10.2 - Booksales (S.J. Munyard): Sales of books were steady for 2003, with more 
second-hand titles available than in 2002. BPS publications still sell steadily but sales of the 
Centenary titles remain very slow. A number of new titles are now in stock. As I will be 
giving up Booksales by the end of 2004 I am preparing a sale catalogue to reduce the 
number of non-fern titles for the person taking over this task. 

10.3 - Merchandise (B.D. & G. Smith): We have now been running merchandise for 
several years and 2003 was our best year yet. Overall, sales income amounted to nearly 

much better this year than last year, when income was only about £200? 

Over the year we made an effort to improve the range of BPS items. We produced a new 

improved merchandise list and we attended some venues where we were able to show 

people what they can buy. The new items introduced in 2003 BPS mugs, embroidered 

sweatshirts, embroidered polo shirts and the ever-expanding range of Anne Wright's lovely 

greetings cards - all proved popular, and sales are going well. 

We updated the merchandise list in April and it now occupies a full two pages (at least, one 

page of items and one page of order form). As new advertising ventures, a copy of the list 

was placed on the BPS Web page, and we also put a small article in Pteridologist about 

merchandising. Copies of the new list were also mailed to members towards the end of the 

summer. All of these have helped with sales. 

As for face-to-face selling, we made use of two national meetings (Ireland and Wales), and 

the very successful tree-fern meeting 1 

clothing items to the general p 

World Live! show last June. 

So what of the future? Following the tradition established last year of launching new items 

at the AGM, we have yet more new goodies to tempt you this year. These include new 

bookmarks with a 'guess the fern' frond, BPS pens, the BPS fern video, and more new 

designs of Anne's greetings cards. We've also updated the Merchandise List and hopefully 

everyone received a copy with their Bulletin- you can also find it on the Web page. 

Finally, if anyone has any ideas for items of a 'ferny' nature that they would like to see, 

please do let us know. 

A.R. Busby raised the possibility of a calendar, which the managers had previously suggested 
at a Committee meeting. They replied that calendars were still a possibility but it was necessary 
to start their production in time to commence sales in June or July of the previous year. 
10.4 - Plant Exchange (R.G. Ackers): The present Plant Exchange List has remained 
current for the whole of 2003. The last version was number 5, and was sent to e-mail 
participants in May 2003. 

To determine whether the 'wants list' addition to the scheme should be continued, a 
is distributed in December 2003 asking participants if they had received 
ants', and requesting feedback on the scheme as a whole. The results of the survey 

Total number of wants in list 67 

Total fulfilled H 

Total unfulfilled 33 

! of 25% occurred, probably a reasonable result considering that some of 
' obscure, some participants understandably trying to obtain rarities. 

ine present system ; 
wider audience could be achieved by publishing z 
being considered. From the questionnaire ad hoc c 
favourable, with few suggestions for changes. 

The intention 
distributed 1 

a new list in tl 1 | or new offers and wants was 

Wft the Bulletin last week. This set a 'deadline' of 31st March for potential 
"in view of the Bulletin being distributed later than I had anticipated, 
line to the end of April, after which the new list will be produced. 

111.5 S.'ori Ext II vm.e (B. & A. Wright): The exchange continued to be a popular sen ,ee 
offered to members with 148 requests being received and processed, resulting in the sending out 
of 2,548 packets of spores. Of these, 114 requests were from UK members (Ingland <'\ 
Scotland 13, Wales 6) and 53 from overseas. This reaffirms the international nature o\ our 
exchange. The overseas requests were from Australia ( 1 ). Austna 1 1 ). Belgium (1) ( /cch Republic 
(1), Denmark (2). Lire (2). Estonia 1 1 ). France (3), Germany (5), Luxembourg ( 1 ), Mauritius ( 1 ). 
Netherlands (1), Norway (1), Poland (2), Spain (1). Sri Lanka 1 1 1. Sweden 1 1 ). USA (9). 
Of the 649 taxa on the 2003 list we had requests for 575 t 
discarding spores after three years, we expect a steady i 
the list. There is obviously a balance between ta: 
each year, but we still seem to be adding steadily to the list. 

During 2003, 37 donors made 491 donations to top up the spore bank (some taxa were 
duplicated). Without donations there would not be an exchange. We are grateful for all the 
spores we receive. To plagiarise a famous author, "all spores are equal, but some are more 
equal than others". We are occasionally saddened by the efforts of some of our donors 
They obviously go to great lengths to collect spores for the exchange only for us to find that 
there are few, if any, spores present in the sample they sent in. On other occasions, the 
donor has used sticky tape to seal round the edges of the packet. onl\ to result in the \ast 
majority of spores sticking to the tape and leaving so few spores free inside the packet that 
it is not worth our while including them in the list. It is not fair to criticise these donors and 
we do not wish to offend or discourage them in any way, but we do feel we should let them 
know that they have not provided something we can use. We make the best of what we 
receive and are happy to get spores in almost any condition, but we do hope that the donor 
has enough skill and has taken care to ensure that we can actually use their donation. 
We still have to contend with the phytosanitary certificates of our US requesters, but this 
does not seem to be posing any great problem to date. One minor problem we noticed 
during the year was that there were occasions when fresh spores were in relatively short 
supply and the next freshest spores were more than four years old. We did not know what to 
do in this situation as we did not know what the requester would have preferred. We could 
either have given them the old spores of the taxon they were requesting, or we could have 
moved on to the next taxon on their list. The plan for the 2004 list is to give requesters the 
option to receive old spores of their preferred taxon or fresher spores of an alternative. 
Hopefully we can find a way of p 

A. Leonard and P.H. Ripley suggested that a spore-collectir 
the national programme of meetings, might be appropriate. 

10.6 - Horticultural Information Officer (A.R. Busby): I received tour requests 
for information in 2003. Three were requests from students of botany (one NDH student 
and two from Degree students) asking for information on various aspects of pteridology. 
The fourth was a question on germinating spores of Ophioglossum. All requests were dealt 
with to the satisfaction of the enquirers. 

EXAMINERS: Election OF President: Prof. Alastair C. Wardlaw, having served his three- 
year term of office, retired at this meeting. The Committee had nominated Dr Adrian F. Dyer 
to be President for the next three years and he was elected unanimously. Dr Dyer, on accepting 
the Presidency, thanked Prof. Wardlaw for his effective leadership and unstinting hard work 
on behalf of the Society. During his presidency, and in many cases due to his personal 
involvement, the Society had made significant advances in several areas of its activity. 

I Vice-President and was 
his period of office. 


Election of Officers and Committee Members: The present officers of the Society 
were all eligible to stand for re-election and had indicated their willingness to stand. Of the 
present elected members of the Committee, Dr A.F. Dyer, Ms E. Knox-Thomas and Mr 
R.W. Sykes retired, being the longest serving members of the Committee (elected 2001). 
The Chairman thanked them for their service to the Society. It was proposed by A.F. Dyer 
and seconded by Miss A.M. Paul that the officers and those elected Committee members 
eligible for re-election be elected en bloc. The vote was unanimously in favour. 
Election of New Committee Members: The following members were nominated for 
election to the Committee: Mr Graham Ackers, Mr Frank MacGavigan, Dr Fred Rumsey. 
and Mr Bryan Smith. There were five vacancies. No further nominations were received 
from the floor. It was proposed by M.S. Porter and seconded by Mrs R. Hibbs that the 
nominees be elected en bloc. This was accepted unanimously. 

Election of Independent Examiners: Mr G.K. Hoare indicated that he did not wish to 
stand for election again as an Independent Examiner and was thanked for his services in 
2003. Dr N.J. Hards, proposed by the Committee, was re-elected unanimously. 
Dr Y.C. Golding proposed from the floor that the biographical details of the President-elect 
be given on the election notice. This was seconded by M.H. Rickard and accepted 
unanimously by the meeting. 

Item 12 - STANSFIELD MEDAL: Prof. A.C. Wardlaw said that the Stansfield Medal, 
the highest award the Society could give, was rarely awarded. It gave him immense 
pleasure to award the medal, at this meeting, to Mr Martin H. Rickard. He had probably 
done more to popularise the cultivation of ferns than anyone in the recent history of the 
Society and the culmination of his work has been the runaway success of his recent book, 
The Plantfmder 's Guide to Garden Ferns. 

sure that Jimmy Dyce would have been pleased. (See citation f 
Item 13 - ANY OTHER BUSINESS: There being no 
>n the Chairman declared the meeting closed at 15.4 

Notes to the Accounts 

1. The accounts reflect the subscriptions actually received in the year. 

2. BPS Booksales had assets of £5,712.00 (£5,712.60) at 31.12.2003. 

3. The Society made no grants in 2003. 

4. The Society received £673.68 from the Inland Revenue in the form of Gift Aid. 

5. The numbers of copies of publications are shown on either side of the title. 

6. The Society made a loss in 2003. This was because we produced four volumes of the Fern 
Gazette (instead of the usual two volumes). We also set up a separate account for merchandising 
with an initud grant of £2,000.00. The situation will need to be monitored for 2004. 

Andrew Leonard, Honorary Treasurer 

I have examined the books and records of the British Pteridological Society for the year 
ending 31 December 2003, and can certify that this still n accordance 

s records maintained by the Honorary Treasurer. 

Dr Nick Hards, 










Printing & Stationery 




Subscriptions to Societies 
Plant & Spore Exchanges 

9 aoo 

I..I \| | \|'| \M s 


0.00 Grant 0.00 

0.00 Donation to Fund 43.00 

8.00 171 World of Ferns 171 0.00 


78.25 Interest 64.35 

0.00 Grant 0.00 

£2,129.67 Total in Greenfield Fund £2. 194.02 


227.11 Interest 198.85 

203.57 Offprints 306.81 

112.00 310 Cultivation & Propagation 296 61.00 

30.60 813 History of British Pteridology 809 22.20 

18.00 427 BPS Abstracts & Papers 426 7.50 

CD Rom - BPS Minute Book 75 54.96 

5,954.30 Brought forward from previous year 6580.68 

£6,580.68 Total in Publications Account £7265.75 

'Ferns for the 21st Century' - A Retrospect 
(A Grant from the Centenary Fund) 

I have just come back from a five-day symposium on 'Ferns for the 21st Century', held at 
the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Scotland on 12-16 July 2004. Although still having 
my dose of jetlag, it feels good to reminisce on the fact that I actually was with people 
around the world who spoke the same language as I do (I mean ferns), even for such a short 
time. My grateful thanks go to the Organising Committee, in particular Dr Mary Gibby, 
Director of Science at RBGE, who built a bridge between me and my sponsor, the British 
Pteridological Society, of which I am a member. Through a grant from the Centenary Fund 
to the conference, the BPS was mainly responsible financially for my presence at the 

During the symposium, I presented a paper on 'Noteworthy pteridophyte discoveries, 
collections, and observations from the lowland karst forest of Bohol ] 
forests of Luzon, Philippines'. This 
symposium, catering for different 
fossils, molecular systematics and v 
different papers made me realise how much I had to catch up in terms of using molecular 
tools to under.! i story or phytogeny of pteridophytes. It introduced me 

to some avenues that I, as a pteridologist from a tropical archipelago where 10% or more of 
the earth's 'ferns' are actually present, can explore and study, either in my capacity as the 
tern curator of the Philippine National Herbarium (PNH) or with students and other future 
ptendologists as an adviser or committee member. I learned first hand from the experts how 
* *JTfZ ??■ \ Tr l chomams sl but rather a Hymenophyllum si based on 
J "insects prey on ferns in the forests of Mexico, and how 

ol leagues from l 

trying to piece together the 'footprints' that the fern 

ances ors lett behind ,n Apple Bay. On the other hand, the herbarium workshop convened 
oy Alison Paul of the Natural History Museum (BM) was an opportunity for us fern 
curators to exchange experiences and knowledge of how to maximise use of specimens but 
with minimum damage to them, given different environmental conditions, pest problems, 
resources and user attitudes. 

Although I had to miss the fern excursion to Holyrood Park and Roslin Glen to have more 
.tually examine Philippine fern collections in the herbarium of the RBGE (E), I 

have to admit that i 

t because there are many i 

ferns there, especially those collected in the mid 1800s. Given another week or two, I could 
have annotated and updated some names - perhaps a good excuse for another visit to 
Edinburgh in the future! 

My trip to Edinburgh not only successfully accomplished the scientific aspect of it but also 
was a get together of like minds, some of them old friends, many new acquaintances, and 
FHinh ». P A SPeCtl T e CO " aborators - Additionally, my personal experience of Scotland and 
tdn Durgh the weekend after the symposium enriched my understanding of the unique 
olZtl A ^ n3ti0n haS 3nd put int0 P^Pective my understanding of my own 

people and country. This trip surely crossed the racial. financial, cultura . geographical and, 
fhe w IH- ge b ° UndaneS in the exchan g e of scientific knowledge among biologists around 

Mary, and thanks BPS for s 

c and towards 

Stansfield Medal - Martin H. Richard 

It was resolved by the committee of the British Pteridological Society in 1937 that a medal 
would be awarded in memory of F.W. Stansfield "to persons contributing to tlw 
advancement of the fern culf\ It is rarely given and is the Society's highest award. A 
Stansfield Medal was awarded to Martin Rickard last year, and this is an attempt to 
summarise his contribution to 'the fern cult' and to the Society. 

His major contributions to spreading the good news about ferns have been his fern 
nursery and his books. He started the nursery. Rickard's Hardy Ferns, with his wife 
Hazel in 1988, and he ran it initially with her and latterly on his own until he sold it to 
Dick Hayward in 2003. He assembled a substantial catalogue and many of us walked 
round his tunnels with asft md some envy. He hit a moment when 

ferns suddenly became fashionable - or did he create that moment' He certain!) fuelled 
it, and was responsible in particular for a surge in the popularity of tree-ferns in 
cultivation in this country. 

His displays at the major shows introduced ferns to a wider public, and were \er\ 
successful in their own right: among other triumphs, he won 36 Gold Medals of the 
Royal Horticultural Society, and the Tudor Rose at Hampton Court (the largest annual 
flower show in the world) for the best display in the show (1996). In 2003 he was 
deservedly awarded the RHS Gold Veitch Memorial Medal for advancement of science 
and horticulture. 

i Rickard (right) receives Stansfield Medal from Alastair Wardlaw. March 2004 

His book, The Plantfinder's Guide to Garden Ferns (2000), is a magisterial review of ferns 
hardy in this country, covering both the many cultivars so avidly sought out and bred in the 
nineteenth century, and numerous exotics from the temperate regions of the world, many of 
them introduced by him. It is a remarkable book, which can stand unashamed beside the 
works of some of his great predecessors in the field, Lowe, Druery and Kaye. Indeed his 
treatment of cultivars (particularly the polypodiums) is arguably better: his text is both 
informative and readable, he does not permit himself useless descriptions like Druery's 
■very fine form', and his illustrations, with the advantage of modern photography, are more 
generous. Would that h 

Wisley guide, Ferns, for the RHS in 2003, and r 
Garden and Country Life and of course in our own journals. 

It started in the 1960s. Tony Worland and Martin were fellow students on day release on the 
Special Botany degree course at the Cambridge Tech. They used to go off botanising 
together. In 1965 Martin bought the Observer's Book of Ferns on holiday in Grasmere, and 
in 1968 Tony Worland persuaded him to join the BPS. In 1969 he went on his first meet to 
Arran and met among others Jimmy Dyce, Henry Schollick and Fred Jackson, and 
discovered to his surprise and pleasure that wide age gaps are irrelevant when there is a 

He soon made his mark: in 1970 he v 
first article for the British Fern Gazette on woodsias. This was a wide-ranging review of the 
history of woodsias in Britain, and was founded on a study of the 19th-century literature 
and herbarium records around the country. Perhaps that was the stimulus for the fine library 
he has built up over the years. He has a deep sense of the history - and continuity - of 
ferning; typical that on his recent meet in Herefordshire, he had us all searching 
(successfully) for beech fern, because his hero Edward Newman had "found it abundantly 
near Amestrey quarry" in about 1850. 

There was a period in the 1970s, when he went out each year to France for the summer in 
connection with his professional work on plant diseases, and hosted a succession of fellow 
members, exploring the local fern flora and enjoying the good French wines. 
He edited the Bulletin from 1979 to 1983 and was the founder editor of the Pteridologist 
from 1984 to 1993. That is 15 years editing a major Society journal, and he did it extremely 
well. The Pteridologist was a new idea (largely his idea I suspect) "aimed at improving our 
service to growers and other enthusiasts". It is hard now for this grower and enthusiast to 
imagine pteridological life without it. He has been a Vice-President from 1991 to the 
s presidency, 1997-2000. 

: field, or looking round a garden he will say modestly 
d admit freely what he does not know; he always finds 
1 and query. He has a very sharp eye; just a bit maddening the 
vould have dearly loved to find yourself. He has 
r the years, among them Polypodium australe 'Hornet 
i Polystichum setiferum, parent of the handsome 'Leinthall Starkes', and 
Blechnum spicant 'Rickard's Serrate'. He has also raised new cultivars, such as P. australe 
'Diadem' and Athyrium filix-femina 'Kalothrix'. 

Finally I must add this: Martin is congenial company; sadly one does not get medals for 
being congenial, but, as it did for his old friend and mentor Jimmy Dyce, it enhances his 
skill in encouraging the rest of us members of the Society, customers, friends - and 
sharing his experience and understanding. No-one in his generation has contributed more to 



Audrey Piggott had been very interested in ferns s 
Botany, and went on tc 

and household science. With her husband Charles (John), an agronomist with the British ( olomal 
Service, she travelled over much of the world, including Sn I ank.i. I cuador. Australia. 
Zimbabwe and Malaysia, making pteridophyte collections in all of them, but more especially 
in West Mala> - >re. For nearly 20 years (until I l 'M u hen 

they set up home in Devon) she spent many weekends there with her husband (and sometimes 
with their children) collecting pteridophytes. These she prepared and 

labelled, her husband taking many transparencies of the specimens before the\ were pressed 

Holttum happily confirmed or renamed them. A large and nuituaIN helpful correspondence 
about ferns took place between them. These letters are preserved in the RBG Kew Archives. 

Ferns of Malaya (1954 and 
of living plants at several 
ferns in rainforest will kne 
thousands, and of critically 

1968). It is copiously illustrated by 
magnifications per species. Anyon 

named material too, is very rare. 

Audrey and Charles were i 

nembers of the BPS from 1976 to 

t good shots; to achieve 

IM,f I .hs.inU 

JEFF WHYSALL 1 946 - 2004 

Midland members will be saddened to learn of the death of Jeff Whysall, who joined the 
BPS in 1984. In spite of a serious illness that kept him away from meetings during 2003, 
apparent successful treatment meant that he was able to help us on the Society stand at the 
BBC Gardeners' World Live! Show at the NEC this year. 

Jeff was a keen and knowledgeable plantsman whose passion was propagation. Always 
taking keen advantage of our Society's spore exchange, he was constantly sowing spores in 
his greenhouse. His garden housed a goodly selection of British and foreign hardy ferns and 
he had several genera of exotic ferns in his greenhouse. Ferns were not his only passion. He 


We were also sorry to learn of the death of the following memh 

Mr John Arnold of Bedfordshire (2003) 

Mr Cliff A.J. Christie of Oxfordshire (2003) 

Mrs Joan Crichton of Sligo, Eire (1985) 

Mrs Barbara V. Harris of Devon (2003) 

Dr Martin G. Kaye of Hampshire (2003) 

Mr Thomas A. McLellan of Oxfordshire (1990) 

Mr Ken H. Pfeiffer of Hampshire ( 1 997) 

Mr vllan McG. Stirling of Glasgow ( 1 97 1 ); obituary will be published in the 2005 Bulletin. 


Meetings Secretary: 

R.G. Ackers, N.J. Hards, J.M. Ide, A. Leonard, P.H. Ripley 
n Day - New Forest, Hampshire 
Andy Byfield 
- Mon. 14 March Overseas Field Meeting - Cataluna, Spain 

Leader: Andrew Leonard 

Sat. 19 March AGM & Spring Indoor Meeting - Manchester 

Leader: Graham Ackers (NB: Contact Graham for more info 

Sat. 4 - Sun. 5 June Weekend Field Meeting - Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire 

Leader: Barry Thomas 

Tues. 28 June - Fri. 8 July Overseas Field Meeting with Hardv Fern Foundation - 

Philadelphia, USA 

Leader: John D. Scott 

Sat. 1 6 - Sun. 1 7 July Weekend Field Meeting - Oxfordshire 

Leader: Nick Hards 

Thurs. 1 8 - Sun. 21 Aug. *Southport Flower Show: BPS Stand 

Further Info.: Michael Hay ward 
Sat. 10 - Sun. 1 1 Sept. Weekend Field Meeting - Norfolk 

Leader: Bryan Smith 

Sat. 19 Nov. Autumn Meeting - Polystichum Seminar & Workshop - 

The Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey 

* Event supported by, but not organised by, the BPS. 

of these and other meetings of interest to members, including information 
"ie separate Meetings Programme sheet. This can be sent to 

Regional Meetings 

For details of additional meetings in the following areas, please contact the regional 

organisers, enclosing a stamped addressed envelope. 

Leeds & District B. Wright, 130 Prince Rupert Drive, Tockwith, York Y026 7PU 

South-East England P.H. Ripley, North Lodge, Dene Park Gardens, Shipbourne Road, 

Tonbridge,KentTNll 9NS; e-mail: 
East Anglia B.R. Stevenson, Willow Cottage, Cowlinge, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 9QB 

North-West England R.W. Sykes, Ormandy House, Crosthwaite, Kendal, Cumbria LA8 8BP 

Cornwall U . Bennallick, Lower Polmorla St, Wenn, Bodmin, Cornwall PL30 5PE 

Scotland p. McGavigan, 12 Glenbank Avenue, Lenzie, Glasgow G66 5AA 


DISCLAIMER: Views expressed by contributors to The British Pteridological 

Society Bulletin 

B not necessarily those of the British Pteridological Society. 

3 1753 00323 9644 

Honeybourne Road, Pebworth, nr Stratford on Avon, Warwickshire I \ I7WCI 

Hardy and tender ferns 

Begonias, Gloxinias, Hederas, Hydrangeas, Primroses, Arum Lilies 

and plants for the cool greenhouse 

Catalogue on request 


Hardy and half hardy ferns 
Carreg y Fedwen, Sling, Tregarth, nr Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 4RP 

Please send stamped addressed envelope for list 


Specialising in North American and British hardy fen 

Judith Jones 

P.O. Box 1090, Gold Bar, Washington 98251, USA 

Send two International Reply Coupons for catalogue 


R.N. Timm 

The Fern Nursery, Grimsby Road, Binbrook, Lincolnshire L\3 6DH 

Please send stamped addressed envelope for list 


Oakington Road, Cottenham, Cambridge CB4 8TVV 

Hardy British and foreign ferns 

(together with over 700 choice herbaceous and woody plants) 

Please send six first class stamps for catalogue