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Full text of "Illustrations of Himalayan plants ?chiefly selected from drawings made for the late J.F. Cathcart, Esq.re of the Bengal Civil Service /the descriptions and analyses by J.D. Hooker ; the plates executed by W.H. Fitch."

LLUSTRATION 




OF 

















s. 



v^ 



LONDON : 



LOVELL REEVE 



HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN 



1855. 



1 .' 




Fitdi del. etlith . 



Vincent Brooivs Imp 



I 



TO 



THE HONOURABLE SIR JAMES W. COLVILE, 



KNT., 



PTTIS]!fE JUDGE IK TUB SUPREME COUBT OE CALCUTTA, ETC., 



PRESIDENT OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL 



« 



AKB 



THE HONOURABLE SIR LAURENCE PEEL 



i 



KNT 



CHIEB' JUDGE IN THE STJPEEME COTJBT OP CALCUTTA, ETC., 



PRESIDENT OF THE AGRI-HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY OF INDIA 



^m Mrnh m MttsuukX 



m ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THEIE EMINENT SERVICES IN PROMOTING THE 



DIFFUSION OF SCIENCE AND 



OF HORTICULTURE IN INDIA, 



BY THEIR FAITHFUL AND OBLIGED FRIEND 



JOSEPH D. HOOKER 



EoTAL Gaudeks, Kew, 

June 30, 1S55. 



>' 



c-l 



LIST 



OF 



SUBSCRIBERS. 



HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN, 1 Copy. 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE ALBERT, 1 Copy. 



Copies, 

The Most Noble the Marquis Dalhousie 1 

The Right Hon. Earl Eitzwilliam 3 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Burlington 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Verulam 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Eosslyn . 

The Eight Hon. Lord Braybrooke 

The Eight Hon. Lord Henniker • , 

The Eight Hon. Lord Harris 



The Dowager Countess of Caledon 
The Eajah of Burdwan .... 



The Honourable the East India Company ..... 30 

The Government of India^ Bengal 10 

Cambridge University Library 

Edinburgh University Library 

The Eoyal Library^ Berlin . 



r 

The Corporation of Liverpool 

The Library^ Marlborough House 

The Library, London Institution 

The University Library, Gottingen 

The Mercantile Library Association, New York . . . • 

1 

The Astor Library, New York . 

The Library of the Imperial Botanic Gardens, St. Pe- 



tersburg 



The Metcalfe Library, Calcutta . . . 
The Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta 
Professor Balfour, F.L.S., Edinburgh . 



George Balfour, Esq., Bengal Civil Service 
A. K. Barclay, Esq., F.E.S., Bury Hill . 
Sir E. Barlow, Bart., Bengal Civil Service 
Joshua Bates, Esq., London 



J. H. Batten, Esq., Bengal Civil Service 

r" 
I 

W. Bean, Esq., Bqpgal Civil Service 

Mrs. Belfield, Primley Hall, Torquay 

Thomas Bell, Esq., E.E.S., London 

W. Bell, Esq., Bengal Civil Service 2 



Mrs. E. L. Blackburn 



William Blvtlie, Esq., Ilollandbank 



Copies. 

W. Borrer, Esq., F.L.S., Henfield 

John Brightwen, Esq., Great Yarmouth 

Thomas Brightwen, Esq., Great Yarmouth 

h 

Dr. Campbell, Superintendent of Dorjiling, Bengal . , 

Thomas Carnegy, Esq., of Craigie 

Sir John Cathcart, Bart., Chertsey ........ 

Elias Cathcart, Esq., Auchindrane, Ayr 

Miss Cathcart, of AUoway 10 

Dr. Cleghorn, Madras Medical Service 

h 

Thomas Coates, Esq., Ferguslie 



Miss Marianne Colston 



Sir James W. Colvilc, Judge of Supreme Court, Calcutta . 
J. E. Colvin, Esq., Bengal Civil Service, Lieutenant-Go- 



vernor, Agra 



Mrs. Gibson Craig, Edinburgh . 

A, 

The Eev. Sir Thomas Gery Cullum, Bart., Hardwick . 
Charles Darwin, Esq., F.E.S., Down ...... 

Professor Daubeny, F.E.S., Oxford 

M. Alphonse De CandoUe, Geneva 



L. L. Dillwyn, Esq., F.L.S., Swansea ..... 
M. P. Edgeworth, Esq., F.L.S., Bengal Civil Service 
J. B. Elliott, Esq., Bengal Civil Service .... 
Walter Elliott, Esq., Madras Civil Service . . . 
G. E. Frere, Esq., F.B.S., Roydon Hall .... 

J. P. Gassiott, Esq., F.B.S., Clapham 

William Gourlie, Esq., F.L.S. , Glasgow .... 
J. E. Gowen, Esq., F.H.S., London 

■ 

Miss Graham, Limekills, E. Kilbride ..... 
John Gray, Esq., Greenock . . . . . . . . 



John Gray, Esq., Wheatficld, Lancashire . . . 

L 

Arthur Grote, Esq., F.L.S., Bengal Civil Service 

J. H. Gurney, Esq., M.P., Catton 

Lady Jane Hamilton, Eozelle 



Eobert Hanbury, Esq., London 

C. Harland, Esq., Bengal Medical Service 
The Eev. Professor Henslow, F.L.S., Hitcham 
Miss Henslow, Hitcham 



2 
1 



^ 



X 



LIST OE SUBSCRIBERS. 



Mrs. HensloW; sen., Bildestone 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq., F.L.S., Doijiling, Bengal 
Brian Hodgson, Esq., Arnheim, Holland . . 
John Eliot Howard, Esq 



Copies. 

1 

2 



R. Hudson, Esq., F.R.S., Clapham 

W. Jameson, Esq., M.D., Saharunpore Botanic Gardens . 
T, P. Aston Key, Esq., Bengal Civil Service, Patna . . 
Dr. Lindley, E.R.S., Turnham Green 



J. D. Llewellyn, Esq., F.R.S., Penllegare 
George Lock, Esq., Bengal Civil Service 
John Luscombe, Esq., E.H.S. . . . 



Dr. Mackay, LL.D., Dublin . . . '. . . 
Dr. Macrae, Bengal Medical Service . . . 
D. E. M'Leod, Esq., Bengal Civil Service . . 
Arthur Malet, Esq., Bengal Civil Service . . 

Miss Martin, Edinburgh 

Mrs. Mason, Copt Hall . 

Messrs. W. Masters and Son, Canterbury 
A. J. Moffatt Mills, Esq., Bengal Civil Service 
John Murray, Esq., Albemarle Street . . . 
Sameed Nath, Bengal Hurkura, Calcutta . . 
Major Nation, Bengal Army 

L 

Joseph Nield, Esq., M.P., London .... 



Copies. 



T. Oldham, Esq., F.R.S., Calcutta ........ 

Sir Laurence Peel, Chief Justice, Calcutta 

Dr. Percy, F.R.S., Museum of Practical Geology . . . 
Mrs. Rawdon, Larkfield, Eastbourne ....... 

Colonel E. A. Reid, C.B., Madras Army 

H. C. Rothery, Esq., E.L.S., London . 

Sigismund Rucker, Esq., E.H.S., Wandsworth .... 

W. W. Saunders, Esq., F.R.S., Wandsworth .... 

Captain Walker S. Sherwill, Bengal Army ..... 

E. Silvester, Esq., North Hall, Chorley ...... 

Captain Baird Smith, Bengal Army ....... 

R. H. Solly, Esq., F.R.S., London 

John Strachey, Esq., Bengal Civil Service ..... 

The Right Hon. Laurence Sulivan, E.H.S., Fulham . . 
Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S., Calcutta ...... 

Cuthbert Thornhill, Esq., Bengal Civil Service .... 

* 

J. S. Torrens, Esq., Bengal Civil Service 

M. Ambroise Verschaffelt, Ghent. 

The Rev. Dr. Whewell, E.R.S., Cambridge . . . . . 

Dr. R. Wight, E.R.S., Grazely, Reading ...... 

J. R. Withecombe, Esq., Bengal Medical Service . . . 

r 

James Yates, Esq., E.R.S., Highgate 



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DU 





ION. 



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I HAVE had a double object in publisMng the present Work : one is to pay sucb a tribute to the memory of 
my friend, the late Mr. Cathcart, as should ensure the association of his name with the progress of Indian 
Botany ; the other, to record the services he has rendered to that science by having caused a magnificent 

h 

series of coloured drawings of Himalayan plants to be made in a previously almost unknown part of 
that mountain-range, and which since his death has been presented, through me, to the Hoyal Gardens of 
Kew, by his sister, Miss Cathcart, of AUoway. 

These objects, it appeared to myself and to Mr. Cathcart's friends, would be best attained by publishing 

9 

a limited series of the drawings, in such a form as should convey to the patrons of Botany and Horticulture 
in this country and in India some idea of the beauty and interest of that Mora to whose illustration Mr, 
Cathcart so zealously and liberally devoted his time and means. In carrying out these views, I have been 

r 

SO fortunate as to secure the services of Mr. Mtch, who has redrawn aU the Plates, availing himself of my 

■ q 

L 

preserved specimens and analyses, and, by his own unrivalled skill in seizing the natural characters of plants, 
has corrected the stiffness and want of botanical knowledge displayed by the native artists who executed 
most of the originals. ' 

I have endeavoured to choose such subjects as combine scientific interest with remarkable beauty in 
form or colour, or some other qualification that would render them eminently worthy of cultivation in Eng- 
land, and can only regret that I am obliged to limit myself to so small a selection ; the drawings in question, 
of which there are nearly one thousand, affording ample materials for a large series of equal beauty and 



ovelty with those 



published. To make this volume a better illustration of a mountain Elora, I have 



added a few figures of alpine plants which were found at greater elevations than Mr. Cathcart was enabled 
to visit, and these are reproduced by Mr. Fitch from drawings of my own. 

J ■ 

Mr. Cathcart was an ardent amateur, a man of a highly cultivated mind ; naturally of a retiring 
disposition, he loved science for its own sake ; and the hope that the fruits of his labours would benefit others 
as much as the prosecution of them gratified his tastes for what was curious and beautiful in nature, was the 
mainspring of his actions. His zeal was singularly unobtrusive, so that few even of the cultivators of science 
in India were aware of the extent of his exertions : his pursuits were, however, weU known to a wide circle 



>> 



t » 

u 



INTRODUCTION 



of friends in tliat countiy, by wliom he was held in high esteem, and who, though they might not share his 
tastes, coidd appreciate his devotion to them. To such, a brief notice of his life and labours will, I am 
assured, be acceptable, no less than to aU men of science, who, whether or not they may labour in the same 
country and devote themselves to the same pursuit, look for some record of a man whose services wiU be 
deservedly praised so long as Botany is cultivated. I may add, too, that I hope Mr. Cathcart's example wiU 
yet find many followers amongst the members of that branch of the service to which he was so long attached, 

r 

L 

a branch of which aU the members have the means, and all, at one period or other of their career, the time, 

h 

to devote to the advancement of some department of science, whether as amateurs or as students. 

The late James F. Cathcart was the youngest child of the Honourable David Cathcart, of Alloway, 
Judge in the Supreme Court of Session and Justiciary of Scotland ; he was born at Edinburgh, 19th 

+ 

February, 1802, and educated at the High School of that city. In 1818 he was sent to HoUand with a 
brother, an LL.D. of the University of Leyden, at the famous Botanic Garden of which ancient seat of 
learning he imbibed his first love of Botany. On his return to Scotland he met with the warmest en- 
couragement from his maternal grandfather, Dr. Mure, a botanist of considerable attainments, residing in 
Ayrshire, in whose house young Cathcart found an excellent Hortus Siccus and botanical library. His time 
was passed partly in Ayrshire and partly at Edinburgh, where he availed himself of the lectures of Dr. 
Jamieson, the Professor of Natural History, and Dr, Eutherford, the Professor of Botany. 

r 

After being appointed to the Civil Service, Mr. Cathcart passed through the usual course of studies at 
Hayleybury ; and before leaving for Calcutta in 1822 he spent some time in Paris, chiefly pursuing his 

r 

favourite science at the Jardin des Plantes. 

In India Mr. Cathcart devoted aU his hours of relaxation to the study of plants, birds, and insects, 
observing diligently, training his native servants to coUect, and sending seeds home to his friends in exchange 
for books. His health, however, never robust, soon gave way, and he was early obliged to repair to the Cape 
of Good Hope, on sick leave. In 1833 he took advantage of his three years' furlough to return to Europe, 

X 

briaging with him a fine Hortus Siccus, which he presented to the Boyal Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh. 
Natural History still occupied him in his native country, and he devoted himself with peculiar pleasure to a 
re-examination of the woods, glens, and mountains of the south of Scotland. In 1835 he travelled in 
Erance, Switzerland, and Italy, spending the winter of 1835-6 in Eome, shortly after which he returned 
to Bengal. Here his health quickly failed him, and after a short visit to Dorjiling, he repaired a second 
time to the Cape of Good Hope (about the year 1839), where he remained nearly a year, diligently coUectiag 

minerals and plants. 

/ 

career, Mr. Cathcart's health gave way a third time, and he 



Towards the close of his long Indian career, 
obtained leave to spend the last few months of his period of service at Dorjiling, intending to stay there for 

r 

a year or more, if the cliinate suited him. His main object in doing this was to study at leisure the rich and 

\ 

r 

varied flora of that then almost unknown portion of the Himalaya, and in the hope (as he afterwards told 

> 

me) of forwarding my views, by employing his artists in illustrating the botany of that country, which he 

knew 1 was then exploring. 



INTRODUCTION. 



m 



I shall never forget the pleasure our -first meeting afforded 



It was in the forests of the outer 



-B 



of mountains, on his arrival : he 



was toilins" up the steep ascent to Dorjiling, walking beside his pony 



o 



himself and his servant laden with flowering plants and ferns, as I was descending on an excursion to 

Our conference was very brief, but it was an earnest of many 



the Terai, at the foot of the mountains 



long 



On my return to Dorjiling a few weeks afterwards, I found Mr. Cathcart occupying a larg 



house, surrounded by a broad verandah, from which baskets of Orchids, etc., were suspended, and on the 



floor of which living plants of all kinds were piled in profui 



He had already established a corps of 



Lepcha collectors, who scoured the neighbouring forests, descending to 2000 feet, and ascending to 8000 
bringing every plant that was to be found in flower ; and in his house were two artists busily at work. 



He 



told me his plans, and invited my co-operation ; he intended to procure more artists, the best that could 
be obtained, from Calcutta, especially those skilled ones, who had been trained under WaUich and Griffith 

r 

in the Eotanic Garden, and to draw every plant of interest that he or I could procure. Knowing that a 
Flora of the Himalaya was a work which I contemplated, he most liberally offered me the use of all the 
drawings on my return to England, and expressed a wish that I should direct his artists to the plants best 
worth figuring, and instruct them in perspective, and in drawing the microscopic details, the points in 
which native artists are mainly deficient. 



y 



Mr. Cathcart continued to reside at DorjiHng and in the neighbourhood till the winter of 1850 ; during 
the latter part of the time he kept as many as six artists steadily employed, and accumulated a collection of 

4 

nearly one thousand drawings. For the last year he resided at Leebong, a singularly beautiful spot, about 
1000 feet below Dorjiling and 6000 feet above the sea. His house occupied a mountain spur that projected 

-r~ 

from that on which Dorjiling is built, overhanging the steep forest-clad gorge of the Great Eunjeet river, 
5000 feet below, and descending in steep jungly slopes on either hand. Through these forests he had caused 
the natives to cut paths, directing their operations with all the taste and judgment of an experienced and 
skilful landscape gardener. These openings led through the tangled jungle, and wound amongst tall trunks 



of giant timber-trees, which 



clothed with climbing Pahns, wild Vines, Peppers, FotJws, Eodg 



and Ij^omma, and laden with masses of Orchids and Perns, suddenly emerging on eminences commanding 
views of two hundred miles of snowy mountains, rising range behind range in dazzling beauty, and again 
descending by zigzags to cascades fringed with Perns and Mosses, and leading thence along the margins of 
rippHng streams, overshadowed by Tree-Perns, Bamboos, and wild Plantains. 

In such scenes Mr. Cathcart passed nearly two years, spending the whole day, when fine, in the open 



air. 



His health not permitting of his taking strong 



his explorations were confined to the patl 



along which he could ride his pony ; and his habit was to have his meals prepared for him at some favourite 
spot in the forest, where he might tranquilly admire the beauties of the surrounding vegetation and the 
grandeur of the distant prospect, and at which his collectors would rendezvous with baskets fuU of rare and 

F 

beautiful plants, which were poured out on the grass 
artists. 



at his feet, and selections made from them for the 



In February, 1851, on my own return to Calcutta, previous to embarking for England, I found Mr 



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IV 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cathcart residing at Garden Eeach, opposite the Eotanic Gardens. He had quitted Dorjiling a few weeks 
before, and the period of his service having expired, he proposed to leave India in the following month, 
sending the drawings to me, but spending some months on the Continent himself. He desired me to retain 
them tiU his arrival, when he proposed to expend £1000 on illustrating a work similar to the Sikkim- 
Himalaya Rhododendrons, and to distribute it to the principal botanists and scientific establishments in. 



Europe, and for this work I had offered to contribute the descriptive matter from my 



manuscripts 



and collections. 



On the 7th of February I saw my friend for the last time ; he signalled a happy voyage to me from 



the balcony of his house, as the steamer rapidly bore me down the Hoogly on my homeward way. He 
followed me to Europe, but not to England ; for he died suddenly of apoplexy, at Lausanne, in Switzerland, 
on the 8th of July, 1851, in his forty-ninth year. 

It remains to record my obligations to my late friend's family for that liberal assistance without which 

■ 

I could not have undertaken the present work ; and to the many friends who have come forward as subscribers 
to it. Science is not yet self-supporting ; it requires the countenance of amateurs no less than the severe 

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studies of proficients to ensure its progress. "Works like the present must appeal to the lovers of art and 

■ ■ \ 

horticulture, the latter of whom are mainly indebted to the labours of Botanists for the objects that afford 

■ - ' , -I, 

them their greatest and most rational delight. Innumerable are the opportunities enjoyed by the cultivators 

- 

of Horticultnre and Eotany of mutually aiding one another: indeed, neither pursuit can exist alone, and 
still less can they be advanced independently. It has been one of my purest sources of gratification to find, 

d ■ ■ ^ 

that the fruits of my own Himalayan journeys (in the prosecution of which abstract science was my primary 

r 
4 , 

object) have been both appreciated by the lovers of gardening, and have afforded to Mr. Eitch the means 

■ ■ 

of executing, in the " Illustrations of Sikkim Ehododendrons," a series of drawings that have been justly 

I 

pronounced as of unrivalled excellence in an artistic point of view. 

No pains have been spared by the same incomparable Eotanical Artist to render the Plates now pub- 
Hshed worthy of imitation, as combining scientific accuracy in the truthful representation of details with 



graceful grouping in perspective, judgment in 

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upon stone. 




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and colouring, and freedom with delicacy in drawing 



EXPLANATION 



OF THE 



PLANTS FIGURED ON THE TITLE-PAGE 



The following Sikkim-Himalayan plants have been reduced and grouped hj Mr. Eitch, chiefly from 
Mr. Cathcart's drawings. 

1. In the centre of the title-page, Cathcartia villosa. 

2. In the centre of the group of flowers, two flowers of Magnolia CamphelUi. 

To the left : 

3. A stem of the mountain Bamboo, on the left-hand side of the title-page. 

4. Codompsis injlata, climbing round the middle part of the Eamboo stem. 

5. Bactylicapnos tJialictrifolia (in fruit) round the lower part of the Bamboo stem. 

6. Meconopsis Nepalensis (yellow panicle of flowers), next to the Bamboo leaves. 

r 

7. Arisama, species undescribed ; purple-hooded Arum, with two trifoliolate leaves ; beneath the Meconop 

8. Brnhus rosafolius, red fruit, below the left-hand Arisama leaf. 

9. Buhis calycimis, red fruit, below 7, and across the bottom of the Bamboo stem. 

10. Rhododendron Dalhousm (white), to the left of the Magnolia CamphelUi (2). 

11. Bhododendron Ilodgsoni, to the right of 9. 

12. Bhododendron fulgens, to the left of 9, and immediately above the Buhus (8). 
18. Bhododendron ceruginosum^ a few flowers above the head of B. fulgens. 

14. Vaccinium salignum, below B. DalhotmcB. 

15. Calanthe, species?, leaf and pale purple flower, to the right of 14. 

16. Cceloggne cristata, to the right of 15. 

17. Codogyne ocellata, a single flower, above 16, and a little to the right of it. 

18. Codogyne Hooheriana, two purplish flowers and leaves, below the Magnolia petals 

To the right of the Magnolia : 

19. A stem of a mountain Rattan cane, Calamus, on the right-hand side of the title-page. 

20. Purple-flowered Ipomma (species unknown), elevation 5-0000 feet, and 

21. Hodgsonia heteroclita, both climbing round the Palm stem. 

22. Meconopsis simplicifolia (blue), between the leaves and flowers of the Hodgsonia. 

23. Bhododendron AucMandii, large white-flowered, to the right of the Magnolia. 

24. Bhododendron Thomsoni, var. candelalrum, between the Magnolia and B. Aucklandii (beneath the 

word "villosa"). 

25. Bhododendron Thomsoni (scarlet), between B. Auchlandii and the Hodgsonia leaf. 

26. BuIms flaviis , " yeUow Raspberry," below Bhododendron Thomsoni. 

27. JDactylicapnos thalictrifolia, in flower and fruit (see also 4), at the extreme right hand, lower corner. 

28. jEschynanthus Peelii, to right of Bhododendron Auchlandii. 

I 

29. Calanthe veratrifolia (pale lilac), below Bhododendron Auchlandii. 

30. Cmlogyne prcecox (purple), below 27. 




4 



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J.D.H.iel..W:ELtc'h.litli . 



"^cent BrooKS irapv 



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'i(ME^ 




° '™. Tffili 






(CjLrMm.,j 




MALE PLANT, 



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PLATE I. 



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HODGSONIA 



HETEROCLITA, u.f. et t. 



• I 



Nat. Ord. Cucurbitace^e. 



Gen 



■Fl. Mas. Calycis tubus elongatus ; limbus patcriformis, 5-gonus. Petala 

n ■ 

patentia, apice tmncata, fimbriato-lobata ; lobis longissimis, tortis, pendul 



basi calycis limbo 



triadelpha. Anth 



monadelplige ; loculis linearibus 



Fl. Tcem 



sed basi ovario sphscrico adhserens 



Corolla 



maris. Ovarium 



sequans 



Stio 



Placentm 3, parietales, basi utrinq 



lobum 



Stylus elongatus, tubum caly 



Bacca depresso-glob 



pulpa dura repleta. Semina per paria 



minore plerumque 



Testa ligriosa, reticulatim 



Endouleura crassissima, suberosa 



Embryo exalbuminosus 



brevis ; plumula lobata. — Caulis alte scandens, ramosus. 



Polia alterna, sempervirentia, coriacea, palmatiloba. Flores mayni, extus rufo-brunnei, velutiiii v. puberuli 



masculi spicati, basi hradeati : foeminei 



^ 



later ales ^ ^-^-jid\ 



Petioli elongaii. Cirrlii 



HoDGSONiA heteroclita {Hook.JiL et Thorns, in Troeeedings of the Linnean Society, No. LIV. Nov 

glaberrimis, calycis lobis dorso glandula cornea, petalis obcuneatis fimbriis longissimis toi 



foliis 3-5 -lobis 



seminibus oblongis testa profund 



•Tricliosanthes heteroclita, Hoxb. Fl, 



Wall Cat. No 



grandiflora, Wall. Cat. No 



Hab. In sylvis densis montium inferiorum Sikkim-Himalayae, ad alt. 5500 ped. ascendens; Assam, mont. Kliasia ; Silhet 

Chittagong ; Penang ; Java ? Fl. May, June. 



This magnificent plant is one of the most curious and beautiM of the whole natural family to which it 
belongs, and was therefore selected by Dr. Thomson and myself to bear the name of E. H. Hodgson, Esq., 
E.L.S., of Dorjiling, in the Sikkim-Himalaya, a gentleman whose scientific services in the Himalaya of Nipal 
and Sikkim justly merit this honour, and in whose hospitable residence my examination of this splendid plant 
was conducted. 



I h L 

Hodgsonia is very common in many parts of Eastern Bengal, but has not hitherto been cultivated in 
England ; it once flourished in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens, but has long since been lost there. Its geo- 
graphical distribution is very extensive, as it appears to range from almost the level of the sea in the island 



of Penang, lat. 6 N., to 5000 feet in the Sikkim-Himalaya, lat. 27° N. ; at the latter elevation, however, 
inhabiting the deepest and most sheltered valleys of the outer range. It is probably also a native of Java, 



for it 



agrees tolerably with the descriptions of several species of Trichosanthes described by Dr. Blume. 
The stems are slender lianas, frequently one hundred feet long; they climb the forest trees, and their 
branching ends, matted together, and covered with leaves, sometimes form dense hanging screens of bright 



green foliage. The large flowers appear in May, and are very deciduous, the males falling whoUy 



away 



and the females breaking off just above the ovary ; these flowers may often be seen strewing the ground in 
abundance in the forest, when the plant itself cannot be recognized amidst the canopy of vegetation above 
the traveller's head. The great melon-like fruit, called " Kathior-pot" by the Lepchas, ripens in autumn 
and winter. Its coarse, hard, green pulp exudes a gummy fluid in great abundance, but is austere and un- 



eatable. The embryo is wMte, of the texture of an almond, and mucb esteemed, tbougb it lias but little 



flavour 



Some of tbe botanical cbaracters of tMs plant are most remarkable. The flower in all respects resembles 
that of a TricTiosanthes, but the ovary and fruit wholly differ from that genus, and ally it more to " the 



East African genus Telfc 



The placentae are decidedly marginal, and the two collateral ovules 



at the base of each side of each placenta, contract an adhesion, and together form only one seed with two 
cells, and often two embryos, though one is freq^uently imperfect. A further botanical account of it will be 

F ' 

found in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. 

» The name heteroclita was given by Dr. Roxburgh to this plant (which he, not being acquainted with 
the fruit, supposed to belong to TricJiosantJies), m allusion to its differing considerably from the genus to 
which he referred it ; we have retained the name, because its fruit proves it to be even more heteroclite, or 

F 

anomalous, as regards the natural family to which it belongs. 

- 

This plant, when introduced into England, will require an almost tropical heat and damp in summer, 
but not in winter, when it ought to be kept more cool and dry. 



-1 I 



Plate I. Male plant of Hodgsonia heteroclita, of 



-i 



Fig. 1 . Longitudinal section of the calyx-tube, showin 



tlie anthers 
and stigmal 



Fig. 2. Ovary of a female flower, with a longitudinal section of its calyx-tube, showing the styl 



Pig 



Transverse section of an ovary, showing the six pairs of parietal 



magnified. 



,-\ 



- 1 



h- 



» 



f 



-.. • ■ 



rkte II. 



V • 




* 



I..D.H.del..W"Iitcii-litK. 



Vincent Brooks imp, 









t?Tj\r| 



M Kk 



'""'^% 




FEMALE PLANT. 



J 



PLATE II. 



HODGSONIA HETEROCLITA, H.f.et t. 



(t'emale plant.) 



See Description opposite Plate I. 



/ 



Plate III. 




6 



J.D.H dfil . "W. Htxib Hlh 



"\^ceiit Brofjks Imp 




IX 






\n 



\] ,-: 





©It 








■y- 



I J 



J h 



PLATE III. 



HODGSONIA HETEROCLITA, H.f. a T. 



(PRUIT.) 



See Description oj)posite Plate I. 



/ 



^ 



k 



^ 



i 




ate IV 



^ 



J-D.Iioolker anal W. Fitch lith 



YinQunl Brooks Ii 



m 



P 



wfir r^wrn^r ^i 



iL^ 



.mimMA. cAMPii; 



V-7 






9 



/ 



PLATE IV. 



MAGNOLIA 



CAMPBELLII, H.f. et T. 



(eloweeing plant.) 



Nat. Ord. MAGNOLiACEiE. 



■ 

Arbor excelsa, foliis ovalibus vel ovatis utrinque glaberrimis vel subtus albo-sericeis, floribus ante folia 



ipathis dense fusco-pilosis, petalis 
sylvis den sis Himalayae exterior! 



pellis 



Hooh.fil. et Thorns, Mora 
ped. : Sikkim, Bhotan. M. Aprili, 




/ 



TMs superb tree, wMcli forms so conspicuous a feature in tlie scenery and vegetation of 



Dorj ilin g 



chosen by Dr. Thomson and myself to commemorate the eminent services of our friend Dr. Campbell, Resi 
dent at Dorjiling, in connection with the rise and progress of that important Sanatarium, as also his 



many 



contributions to our knowledge of the geography and natural productions, arts, manufactures, and races of 
the Nipal and Sikkim Himalaya. 

The Magnolia Camplellii was discovered by Dr. GriflSth in Ehotan ; it is a We forest-tree, aboundino- 
on the outer ranges of Sikkhn, at elevations of 8-10,000 feet, appearing on the road above Pacheem, and 
thence ascending to the top of Sinchul, 8000 feet, and Tonglo, 10,000 feet ;" though occa 



iionally 



seen on 



the central ranges at the same elevations, it is much less frequent. The trunk is straight, often eighty feet 
high and twelve to twenty in girth, covered with black bark ; the wood is soft and almost useless. 



The 



flowers are produced abundantly in April, at the end of aU the branches, when the tree is as yet perfectly 
leafless ; they vary from white to deep rose-colour, or aLnost crimson, and in size from six to ten inches ; the 
scent is faint. In May the tree is in full leaf, and the fruit ripens in October, when a few smaU, and 
often deformed, flowers are sometimes produced. The flowering branch drawn in Mr. Cathcart's coHection is 



nearly twice as large as that represented here 



Young plants have the leaves perfectly glabrous ; those of 



older trees are more or less silky on the under surface. 

V 

There are two other species of this genus in India ; one [M. glolosa, H.f. et T.) has hitherto only been 
found in the interior valleys of Sikkim, where it inhabits the skirts of woods, at 9-10,000 feet elevation; it 
is a smaU, also deciduous-leaved tree, with globose flowers, snow-white, and as large as a smaU fist, which 
appear with the leaves in June, and are very sweet-scented. 



It 



closely allied to the Japanese M. 



spicua of 



our gardens. The third Indian specie^, M, sphenocarpa, Roxburgh (Coromandel Plants, vol. iii. 

■ 

pL 200), is a native of Chittagong, the Khasia mountains, and Mpal, where it inhabits subtropical valleys. 
The if. Camphellii and glohosa would no doubt prove hardy in England, but if. sphenocarpa will require 
an almost tropical heat. 




Plate IV. Flowering specimen of Magnolia Camphellii. Fig. 1. Flower with the perianth removed, showing the stamens 



and spike of ovaries. 2. Stamens. 



3. Stigma: — magnified. 




^ f 



.1 



W.Fitcli.del etkl.JD.H.aaial. 



^■ 



iQct-ni: ^tdjaS Inxp 




3i(&^ 



N 





J\ 



liA 




BULm 



9 






it. 








t 



J 



PLATE V. 



I 



MAGNOLIA 



CAMPBELLII, ///. et T. 



(iRUITING PLANT IN POLIAGE.) 



See Description opposite Plate IV, 



Plate V. represents a branch with leaves and ripe fruit ; behind is an old leaf ; to the left, two full-grown trees, sixty 
inety feet high, in leaf. Kg. 1. Seeds, of the natural size. 2. A 



seed 



Vertical 



of the testa of 



Vertical 



with its outer fleshy covering removed, showing inside the endopleura, containing albumen and embryo 

sections of seed, showing the red, fleshy, outer layer of testa, the black crustaceous coat of the same, the albumen, and 

F 

minute embryo. 6. Embryo -.—aU 





..clX6 




T 




<> 



W.YMi del.eLlith . JD.H.a.iial 





W¥ 




9 211 




m^ 



o 



"l-s 



f 

I 

i 



i 

/ 



Vincent Broods Imi) 






1 J 



■^ 



I 



PLATE VI. 



TALAUMA 



HODGSONI, H.f. et T. 



Nat. Ord. MAGNOLiACEiE. 



Arbor mediocris, foliis obovato-oblongis coriaceis glabris margine subsinuatis, floribus terminalibus solitariis, 

■ ^- " interioribus minoribus, fructu magno, carpellis subtetragonis argute rostratis diametro ti 



ipali 



longitudinalem excedente, rachi profimde excavata, foveolis rotundatis 
In sylvis densis Himalayas exterioris, regione subtrop 



•Hooh. fil. et Thorns. Flora L 



ped. Fl. April 




This is not an uncommon plant in the Sikkim forests 



r 

at Khersiong and below Leebong, where it 



B 



close to the road, forming a smaU tree, twenty to forty feet high, flowering in AprH, and alway 



densely clothed with its large, handsome 



young plants. The flowers 



•green leaves, which attain a very great 



size m 



very fragrant and aromatic ; though they do not 



pand much, they 



exceedingly handsome, from the rich plum-bloom on the purple outer sepals, contrasting with the ivoiy 
whiteness of the inner ones : 



and worthless 



all the pieces of the flower are thick, hard, and fleshy 



The wood is very soft 



F 

Talauma Eodgsoni flourishes in a stiff clay soH, as do almost all the Himalay 
would require to be grown in a conservatory heated in winter. 




, and 




Plate VI. Flowering branch of Talauma Hodponl, with a full-grown leaf of a young 



Fig. 1. Stamens and column of 
Longitudinal section of ovary 



2. Stamen. 3. Transverse 



behind, of 



of 



Pollen 



ijied. 



Rip 



Ovary 



showing the woody alveolate axis and insertion of the seed 



and 11, transverse sections of 



«> 



Endopl 



d 



Vertical section of albumen and embry 



The same with most of the carpels removed, 

•e. 10. Vertical, 
ura {very highly 



Seeds 



— all of the natural si 
13. Portion of endopl 



Embry 



ified. 



i 



\ 



y 



J 






i 



WFitdiM. JDEanal . 



"W'nceiit. .tk-oo^KS TiDp 



■S\iT TT fT""^ TR 



llLi^vi^^ 




IT^HA 




1/1 



A, ^.A, ^ 



^TTTT^r^ 



dllU^J 




^ fT5 fS) TTR 



01 o II 4t 1 



'V 



r 



PLATE VII. 



MICHELIA CATRCARTII, H/. et T. 



Nat. Ord. MAGNOLiACEiE. 



Arbor excelsa, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis utrinque secus costam pilosis c^terum glabris, floribus 

amplis, sepalis cum petalis novem, staminibus gynoecium fere superantibus, carpellis dense spicatis, 
Thorns. Mora Indica. ?;. 1. «. 79 



fil- 



I 



Hab. In sylvis Himalaya orientalis exterioris, regione temperata : Sikkim, alt. 5-6000 ped. M. April 




This is a very common tree on the outer range of the Sikkim-IIimalaya, from 5-6000 feet, beyond 
which elevation it rarely ascends. It is conspicuous in April from the abundance of blossoms mth which in 
some years the branches are covered, appearing as if snowed upon ; as is the case with its allies, however, 
the trees flower much more freely at some seasons than at others. The leaves are only partiaUy shed in 
winter, the new ones being put forth during or immediately after flowering, in April and May. It has 
hitherto been found nowhere but in Sikkim, and bears the name of Mr. Cathcart, around whose residence at 
Leebong, near Dorjiling, some fine trees of it stood ; these were about sixty feet high, and had straight 
trunks, and rather short branches. The wood is good, and used for household purposes by the Bengali 
carpenters, who give it the name of Champa, which is also commonly applied to several other species of 
Magnoliacea. 

The MicMia CatJicartii is weU adapted for a large conservatory, being almost an evergreen, and always 
leafy ; it is not, however, so showy nor hardy as the M. exceha, which is the common white-flowered species 
of Dorjiling, and is also found in Nipal and the Khasia mountains. M. exceha forms a tree as lofty as 
Magnolia Camplellii, bears white fragrant flowers, four to five inches in diameter, and is almost leafless in 
winter; it would probably prove hardy in England. In the spring of 1849 it flowered so profusely when stiU 
akiost leafless, that Sinchul mountain appeared for many days as if a snow-shower had faUen across a belt of 

1000 feet in height, just below the summit. The other six Indian species of MicJielia are chiefly tropical or 
subtropical trees. 



, ^ ^ -^ -^ ^ - ,, ,,,,-^.,-1 r-, 1-^ ,-^ ,-^ ^-^ .^ .^ ^ «. « ^, ^\./-S, ^ _ ^ _. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ w-w-,,i,i,^-,,i.#-*<-*<^«.— . _, _. -_ _ 



Plate VII. Fig. 1. Stmncns. 2. Pollen. 3. Gynoecium. i . G^r^A -.-all maffnifled. 5 . Ripe fruit :-««tor«/ «« 

7, 8. ?,<xAi -.—natural size. 9, 10. Longitudinal sections of seeds. II. Section of albumen. 12. Embryo: 

all magnijied. 




T- 



V 



I— ' 



J D,TI. del , et anal . 7/. Pitch lit]i . 



Viiicc-m ."To.:,ks 






TiTQ.y/s iinp 



^^E(L- 







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T* 



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a}1 




9 



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"f^ 






H 
I 



PLATE VIII. 



MECONOPSIS 



SIMPLICIFOLIA, ///. et T. 



Nat. Ord, Papaverace^. 



Herba scaposa, tota patentim hispido-pilosa setis scapi decurvis, foliis omnibus radicalibus laiiceolatis in petiolum ang 



scapis 1-floris, floribus nutantibus violaceis, capsula 
Papaver simplicifolium, Don, Prodr. Flor. Nep. p. 1 



Hooh. JiL et Thorns. Flora Indica 



Wc 



Hab. In Himalaya alpina central! et orientali; Nipalia ad Gossain-than, Wallich ; Sikkim, alt. 12 



Mai. Jun 



000 ped 



Fl 



I 



-\ 



The present is tlie most beautiful and conspicuous of all tlie alpine flowers of Sikkim, if not of the 
whole Himalaya, and is very common in rocky and gravelly places, at 12,000 feet elevation and upwards, 
where it expands its delicate blossoms in May, exposed to the violent winds and snow-storms of those inhos- 
pitable regions. It was originally discovered by Dr. "WaUich's collectors in Central Nipal, but has not been 
found further west in the Himalaya. The accompanying Plate is from a drawing of my own. 

in the Himalaya, the present and the M, 



There are only two scapig 



species of 




horridula, H.f. et T. The latter has only been found in Sikkim ; it is a smaller plant than that figured here 



more densely covered with harsh prickles, which pierce the skin when the plant is handled, and has verj 
many scapes, with smaller, paler purple flowers ; it is one of the most alpine plants in the world, and I have 
gathered it at upwards of 17,000 feet elevation, where very little other vegetation was to be met with. 

■ 

AU the Himalayan species of Meconopsis differ from the European Welsh Poppy (Jf. Camhrica) in 



having a much longer style, and would hence be referred by some authors to the Am 



genus Styl 



phomm, Nutt. ; but that genus is itself perhaps not really distinct from Meconopsis, and differs in the valves 

4 

of the capsule dehiscing down to the base. 

Meconopsis simplicifolia would no doubt succeed perfectly weU in an open border or rockwork, provided 

A, 

it be kept damp and cool, and not exposed to too long-continued sunshine. 



</^r\^\. 



VIIL Pig. 1, Hairs of the scape, i 
all magnified. 7. Ripe capsule. 8. 
11. Loneitudinal section of albumen 



Stamen. 3. Pollen. 



Ovary 



Seeds : — 5otk natural size. 
12. Embryo : — all maq 



of ovary 



Ovule 



Seed 



The same, with the testa removed 



iiied. 



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PLATE IX 



MECONOPSIS 



NIPALENSIS, DC. 



\ 



Nat. Ord. Pap averages. 



't 



Herba elata, robusta, tota setis patentibus 



pubeque stellata sicco aurea obtccta, foliis caulinis sessilibus linearibus 



oblanceolatisve sinuato-lobatis, floribus aureis racemosis, pedicellis elongatis patentibus, capsula 



ippressis pubeque 



dense obsita. 



10-valvi 



Indica, v. I. p. 253. Papaver paniculatum, Don, Frod. FL Nep. p. 197 

Hab. In sylvis Himalayas centralis et orientalis temperatse : Nipal ad Gosain 

Fl. Mai. Jun. 



Be CandoUe, Prodromus, v. \. p. 121 ; Hooh.jil. et Tlioms. Flora 



Wall. Cat. 8123 A 



Sikkim 



ped 



sj \.rv 



■N^^. 



'"V^ V< 



'v.'X.*' *W/' *_- 



"i 



*-'\^*^\> v^*v^,^V'^^Av''^ 



This superb plant, when seen from a distance, resembles a small yellow Hollyhock 



It was discovered 



by Dr. Wallich's coUectors in Nipal, and I found it in the damp interior valleys of Sikkim, growin- amidst 



.nk and luxuriant herbage on the skirts of Silver-Mr forests (Ah 



WeUiand), at 10-11,000 feet above 



the level of the sea. 



five feet high 



The 



accompanying figure is taken from a sketch of my own, of a specimen that 



The whole plant, like its congeners, abounds in a bright, chrome-yeUow, fetid, acrid juice, 
and is considered to be highly poisonous. 

There is another and scarcely less beautiful species of this genus in Sikkim, with a much more branched 

I b 

many-flowered panicle and smaUer blue-purple flowers ; it is found at equal elevations on the outer ranges 

* 

abundant on the top of Tonglo ; it is the M. JFalUcMi, Hook. (Eot. Mag. 



of Sikkim and Nipal, and 



pi. 4668), and has flowered at Kew, from seeds which I sent to England in 1848 



The present plant has 



also vegetated at Kew from seeds which I sent home in the foUowing year, but has not flowered 



Two 



other panicled species of Meconopsis inhabit the mor 



* 

Western Himalaya, the M. aculeata, Eoyl 



and 



M. rohusta, H.f. et T., both very beautiful plants, neither of which have hitherto been introduced into 
England. The single-flowered species I have alluded to under the previous Plate. 



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magnified. 



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PLATE X. 



DECAISNEA 



INSIGNIS, BI. et T. 



r 

Nat. Ord. LARDIZABALEiE. 



Char. Gen. 



subimbr 



JPetala 



masc. monadelpha, tubo 



draceo, antheris oblon 




indefinita 



processum subulatum producto ; in hermapliroditis parva, antlieris parvis, filamentis liberis brevibus 
b disciformi obliqua. Ovula numerosa, placentis 2 filiformibus sutura ventrali approximatis inserta 



FoUictdi pulpa repleti 



nitida 



definita, biserialia, horizontalia, obovata, compressa ; testa 



■Prutex erectus, suhsimpkcV ; foliis imparl 



Decaisnea insignis, ///. et T. ; foliis patentibus impari-pinnatis, petiolo basi articulate, foliolis 

lanceolatis acuminatis subtus glaucis, floribus polygamo-dioicis racemosis, sepalis linca] 
nosis cylindricis recurvis.— 7ioo/^.//. et Thorns, in Linn. Soc. Proc. 1854, et in Flora Ind\ 



•ppositis 



Hab. In Himalaya orieiitali interiore, rcgione tempcrata : Sikkim et Bhot 



pcd. FL Mai. ; fr. Oct 



The genus Decaisnea is on many accounts one of the most remarkable in the Himalaya mountains, for 
it belongs to a very limited and peculiar Natural Order, of which all the other known species are climbing 



plants, and it differs in other and more important characters from its alii 



It inhabits wooded valley 



the central regions of the Himalaya, and has not hitherto been found near Dorjiling. I gathered it first 
in the Lachen and Lachoong valleys, at elevations of 7-8000 feet ; and afterwards at Chola, where it 
ascends to nearly 10,000. Its green flowers appear in May, and are scarcely visible amongst the leaves ; 



the fruit, on the other hand, which ripens in October, is very conspicuous and handsome, of 



pale yell 



colour, and full of a white juicy pulp, that is very sAveet and pleasant ; its fruit 



gerly sought after by 



the Lepchas, who call the plant " Nomorchi," and it is the " Loodooma" of the natives of Bhotan 



Dr. Grifiith was the discoverer of this plant, which he called Slacl 



his manuscript journals 



(Itinerary Notes, p. 187), after an eminent microscopical observer; but before his death he transferred that 
name to a genus of Palms. Dr. Thomson and I have dedicated it to our friend Professor Decaisne, of Paris 
one of the most learned botanists of the present day, and the author of a monograph of the natural family to 



which this plant belongs, which is a model of sagacity in botanical investigation 



Decaisnea is well worthy 



of cultivation in England, for the sake of the fruit alone ; it would require protection from the spring frosts 
but wiU no doubt prove otherwise hardy. 



Many of the botanical peculiarities of Decaisnea are extremely 



Such 



especially the erect 



J— ^ 

habit, and the pinnated leaves jointed at the base of each pair of leaflets, as in the pinnate Berberries. 
The pith is very large, in which respect, as in habit and general appearance, it much resembles an Aralia- 
ceous plant. The ovules, instead of growing from the surface of the cavity of the ovary, as in the allied 
Himalayan genus EollhdlUa, are confined to two placentse near the ventral suture, and instead of being 
orthotropous and imbedded in cavities of the fleshy ovary, they are superficial and anatropous. As the 



. / 



■ 

fruit ripens, a dense, firm, transparent pulp is developed from all the inner surface of the fruit, supplied 



with vessels from the 



■pel ; this pulp closely invests the seeds, but does not form 



organic adhesion 



with them, and a cavity is also left in the axis of the carpel 



The fruit of 



an allied and abundant Himalayan plant is also eaten in Sikkim, the EollhdlUa latifoUa, 
"Wall. ; it is the " Kole-pot" of the Lepchas, and has been long known in English gardens under the name 

■ 

of Stauntonia latifolia ; it is not nearly so palatable a fruit as that of Decaisnea, being mealy and insipid. 



Fig. 1. Diminished sketch of Decaisnea removed from the dense forests in which 



Stamens of 



Sepal. 4. 
hermaphrodite flower 



hermaph 



g 



Flowers 



12. Ovules : 



magnified. 



Carpel 
13. T] 



of carpel 



Pollen. 7. Stamens and 
ransverse section of carpel 



11, 



section of ripe carpel, natural size. 



Seeds, natural size. 



Seed with the testa removed. 17. Longitudinal section of albumen. 18. Embryo : — all magnified. 



r- ' 



> 



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1 



T 



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I 



^ 



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VP 




i-KT^ 



ILJi 





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XX 




V ^r\i 



U-F i 



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05 




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PLATE XT. 



DUABANGA 



SONNERATIOIDES, iiam 



Nat. Ord. Lythrarie^. 



Arbor elata, ramis horizontalibus verticillatis, ramulis tetragonis petiolos communes mentientibiis. Mis oppositis disticliis 



subsessilibus patcntibus oblonds acuminatis b 



subtus glaucescentibus 



paniculis 



axiUaribus terminalibusque, pedunculis teretibus, floribus amplis albis, calyce crasso 6-fido segmcntis 6 acutis,. 



petalis obovatis unguiculatis undulat 



lobato, capsula rotundata 6-8-valvi. 



subulatis, anthcris curvis lineari-oblongis, styl 



DuABANGA somieratioides, Hamilt 



Commentary on the ' Ilortus Malabaricus' 



in 



Lagerstroemia grandiflora, Boxh. Hort. Benn. n. 38. Floi 



Linn. Soc. Trans, v. 22. p. 111. 



Nat. Gen. ser. 3. z;. 2. «. 84, Brock 



Indica, v. 2. j». 503 ; Be Candolle, Mem 



ospartium, Griff. MSS. 



Hab. In sjlvis tropicis ad basin Himalayse orientalis provinciamm Bliotan et Sikkim ; in montibus 

Tenasserim. Fl. Aprili. 




A very remarkable plant, forming, from its peculiarity of habit, a singular feature in its native forests. 
The trunk is erect, forty to eighty feet high, undivided, or sometimes forking from the base, and the lower 



limbs spread drooping from the trunk: these 



long, slender, sparingly branched, and the branches 



are 



-^ 



Owing to the leaves beinff arransfed in two ranks 



a compound leaf; the leaves 



further often 



four-angled, loosely covered with large spreading leaves. 

r 

the slender branches resemble petioles, bearing pimije of 
recurved, and are deep green above, and ahnost white beneath. The large blossoms expand in April, and 
exhale a rank fetid odour, something like asafoetida, when they first burst, but become inodorous before the 
petals drop. The stamens are aU bent inwards in bud. The fruit is as large as a smaU apple, and is well 
described both by Hamilton and Eoxburgh. 

Buahanga was first made known by Dr. Eoxburgh, who procured plants of it from Chittagong for the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta, and prepared an exceUent description, published after his death, in the ' Elora 
Indica;' it has also been fully described by Hamilton in his Commentary on the 'Hortus Malabaricus,' in 



• 

the seventeenth volume of the Linnsea 



Transactions. The tree 



will 



called "Door" by the Lepchas, and 



require stove heat in this country during the summer : in the winter, and previous to flowering, it 



should be kept much drier. The wood is valueless, white, and soft 




Plate XL Fig. 1. Petal. 2. Stamen. 3. Pollen 



stamens removed 



Transverse section of 



Flower 
ovary. 




li portions of 
Young fruit. 



calyx, the petals, and most of the 
Half-ripe seed: — all more or less 



/ 



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PLATE XII. 



AUCUBA HIMALAICA, ///. et T. 



Nat. Ord. CoRNEiE. 



9 

Frutex 5-7-pedalis, ramis ramulisque teretibus ultimis appresse pubescentibus, foliis lanceolatis long 



V, subintegerrimis, junioribus appresse sericeis, paniculse ramis ramulisque 
petalis ovatis subciliatis longe acuminatis, filamentis brevibus, bacca oblong 



pilosis, calycis limbo 



densis Himalayse orientalis temperatse ; Sikkim, alt. 7 



ped. Fl. Mai 



The only hitlierto described species of Aucula is the well-known A. Ja^onica of our gardens, tlie 
igated-leaved variety of wMcli has been in cultivation in Europe for many years : of this the female 



plant alone is cultivated, the male 



having been introduced into this country 



"For an account of 



the latter we are indebted to Siebold and Zuccarini, ' Elora of Japan,' where both sexes are well figured. 
In all important characters the Japan and Himalayan plants resemble one another very closely indeed, the 
only difiPerences which I have been able to detect, and which I doubtfully regard as constant, being that 
the Himalayan species has considerably longer and narrower leaves, with longer narrower points, and long 
acuminate points to the petals. These characters, together with the immense geographical distance between 

F 

the native localities of the two, have induced Dr. Thomson and myself to consider the present as distinct. 
It must not be overlooked, however, that these differences are only of degree ; for though the acuminate points 

J 

of the petals may be considered of more importance than the similar character of the leaves, these differences 
are analogous in each organ ; and the petals being modified leaves, a character of the former is often found 
to be repeated in the latter. It is very possible that this Aucuba extends to the northward and eastward 
in Central Asia, along the lofty chain of snowy humid mountains which bound China on the west ; and that 
specimens from the countries which are intermediate between Japan and Sikkim would be found to unite 

L 

the characters of both species, and prove them to be varieties of one. 



The Aucuba Himalaica is one of the many striking 



of botanical affinity between the temperate 



■ n 

flora of the Himalaya, and especially of the Eastern Himalaya, and China and Japan, and which afiinity is 

r 

not shared by the flora of Europe ; of this other instances are EnUanthus, SMmmia, Camellia^ Beutzia, 
Helwingia, 8tachyunis ; besides Panax^ Hydrangea, Biclytra, Kadsura, Hollhollia, Magnolia, Sassafras, and 
Trillmm, which eight latter are also common to North America. AIL these genera become scarce in the 
"Western Himalaya, few of them reaching Kashmir ; whereas, on the other hand, many European trees and 
shrubs, not natives of China, Japan, and North America, are abundant in the Western Himalaya, few of 
which advance so far east as Sikkim. 



t 



J 

Tlie Himalayan Jucuha inliabits elevations of 7000-10,000 feet, but is only found on the outer wetter 



ranges of Sikkim, so tliat it would probably require protection from tlie 



spring frosts of England 



It 



delights in very humid spots, where Mosses and Lichens hang from its branches 




XII. Fig. 1. Male flowers. 2. Petal. 3. Stamen 



calyj 
fruit 



Anther. 5. Pollen. 6. Pcmale flower. 6. Hair from 



7. Flower with petals removed. 8. Vertical section of 



9, 



• 



Ovules. 11. Vertical section of 



Embrvo 



Seed with its funiculus, etc. 13. Transverse section of seed 
1 6 . Albumen : — all IdgJily magnified. 



14 



gitudinal section of 



d 



-:' 



J 



-,aic 








^\WW^ 



VPitoh deL-etlith 



l/^ncsTit Srooks Tirrp . 



f?,F 



lOJ 






Z-A ^\.:_-» 




•Al 













77^ yr IT 



9 




J? 



a^ 



UaoH (So=. 



F1 




o 



PLATE XIII. 



BEGONIA 



CATHCARTII 



9 



H.f, et T, 



Nat. Ord. Begoniace^. 



Caulescens 



pedalis, monoica, caulibus petiolis pedunculisque squamis ovatis acmninatis reflexis paleaceis, stipulis 

alternis petiolatis oblique ovato-oblongis acuminatis basi profundi 



obloneris eroso-dentatis reflexis, foliis 



V 



sequaliter bilobo-cordatis grosse insequaliter serratis lobulis serrulatis supra glaberrimis paleaceis vel nudis lucidis 
subtus secus costam nervosque primarios squamosis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris supra medium bibracteolatis, 
bracteolis ovatis concavis, floribus amplis albis superioribus masculis, perianthii segmentis ovatis obtusis exterioribus 



dorso subsquamosis, staminibus perp 
placentis dissepiment© adnatis lobulatis 



densis 



bicruribus, ovario 3-alato 2-loculari paleaceo 



Hab. In sylvis densis Himalayse orientalis temperatae : Sikkim 



ped. Fl. temp, pi 




This noble species is not uncommon in woods near Dorjiling, but I liave never seen it abundantly, and 
seldom of so great a size as the specimen represented in the Plate. Like its congeners, it varies extremely 



stature, becoming very dwarf and diminutive in all its parts 



dry soil and exposed situation 



It 



appears to belong to Flaty centrum of Klotzsch, according to that author's definition of the genera into which 
he divides Begonia. 

Most of the Himalayan Begonias, of which there are about a dozen known species, are confined to the 
eastern parts of that mountain range, and are not abundant anywhere to the westward of Sikkim, where 
eight or ten species are fomid. In the Khasia mountains they are extremely abundant. The stems of many 
are eaten cooked, being pleasantly acid ; and such are made into a sauce for pork, and other greasy meats, by 
the native inhabitants of Sikkim. 

Begonia CatJicartii would no doubt succeed well in a cool, damp Fern-liouse, and prove a great acquisi- 
tion. Witli the exception of tlie Mowing {B. gemmipara), it is the most hardy of the Sikkim species. 



Plate XIII. ¥m. L 2, 3. Stamens. 4. Pollen. 



Ovary and stig 



Transverse section of ovary 



magnified. 






'iu 



.1 




£ latx 





r 



S 




W.FitAdd.etlitli. 



lucent Iji- ookf. Inip 










2^ 





4^-^ 





9 




fo 



C 





'- 



PLATE XIY 



4 t 



BEGONIA 



GEMMIPARA, H.f. et T. 



Nat. Ord. Begoniace^. 



Caulescens, ^ioica, glaberrima, radice tuberosa, caule simplici, stipulis brevibus oblongis obtusis, foliis petiolatis ovatis tri- 



angulari-ovatis oblongisve varie insequaliter palmatilobis subintegrisvc pagina supcriore interdum subpilosa basi 

* 

cordato-bilobis, lobis acutis grosse irregulariter serratis nervis primariis palmatis, stipulis ad axillas gemmiferis. 



■^ 



pedunculis axillaribus brevibus 1-2-floris supra medium bibracteatis, bracteis amplis orbiculatis concavis, perianthii 
segmentis orbiculatis obtusis concavis, filamentis brevibus basi in columnam brevem coadunatis, antheris obovatis 
truncatis, ovario 3-loculari 3-alato alis supcrne in cornua erecta obtusa dilatatis, placentis alte bifidis, stylis 
obcuneatis, stigmatibus truncatis bilobisve, 

Hab. In sylvis densis Himalayae orientalis temperatae ; Sikkim, alt. 7-10,000 ped. FL tempore pluvioso. 



't 



■"-.ii 



1. 

A very singular species, without mucli beauty to recommend it, but remarkable for the development 
of bodies in the axils of the leaves of both the male and female individuals, which are quite unlike any 
other organs of the plant, and whose exact nature I am unable to discover. I first found the species near 
Dorjiling, in the autumn of 1848, but it appeared to be rare, and some observations which I had begun upon 
the functions of the axiUary bodies were left unfinished when I had to leave that station for the interior. I 
again found the same plant when travelling in the interior of Sikkim, in August, 1849, growing at the foot 
of Eir-trees [Abies SmitJiiana and Brunoniana), in the Lachoong valley, at 8-9000 feet elevation, but the 
specimens were much smaller than the Dorjiling ones, and the leaves covered with silver spots, Kke those of 

na. In almost every individual a clavate, truncate, or wedge-shaped body grew 



the common B. argyrostigma. 

t- 

close to the petiole of one or more of the leaves, or rather from the axil of one of the stipules ; it consisted of 
a quadrate, club-shaped, fleshy mass, surrounded with imbricating orbicular bracts, and was divided at the top 

r 

into four, eight, or twelve cup-shaped compartments," with much regularity. In these were seated a variable 

r 

number (but generally four, or a multiple of four) of oblong, green, fleshy, terete bodies, or gemmules, with 
narrowed tapering pedicels, sunk into a common receptacle ; each had two bracteolse at its base, and a few 



^ 



■* 



minute terminal scales at the very apex. I examined very many of them microscopically, but found no 
contents beyond cellular tissue, full of chlorophyll grains ; amongst Mr. Cathcart's drawings, however, there 
is a transverse section of one (fig. 9 of the accompanying Plate) with five enclosed cavities or bodies. 

In the very many specimens that I examined, I found no material deviation from the above type of 
structure, and none at all that suggested any explanation of their nature or origin. Their position, being 
axiUary to the stipule and not to the petiole, is curious, as is their being equally prevalent in the male 
and female individuals, and both in the large succulent specimens from the damp climate of Dorjiling, and 
in those from the much drier and more alpine woods of Lachoong, in the interior of the province. The ten- 
dency to a quaternary arrangement of the parts is also curious, and suggests their being more analogous to 

W 

the male flower (which is always tetramerous) than to the female. The two bracteolse at the base of each 



) 



"^ 



of tlie contained ovoid bodies would furtter suggest the reference of these to modified flowers, and the scales 
at their summit to their being imperfect inferior ovaria, with undeveloped perianth and stigmata ; but I can 
only ofPer these observations as rude analogies, nor, until their functions are discovered, is it probable that 
much light wiU be thrown on their relationship to other parts of the plant. I traced their growth from a 
very early stage, when the scales closed over the ovoid bodies, but at no period did I discover any point 
of structure that explained their origin or nature. Amongst the dried specimens I have found some 

with the female flowers monstrous ; these have no inferior ovary, but two stigmata, which are dilated and 

4 

• > 

excavated at the base, and bear numerous cellular papilla?, resembling imperfect and very deformed ovules 
scattered over the surface of the concavity, and attached to its margins. The petals are also sometimes de- 

* 

formed, and bear similar papiUse on their inner faces. These malformations appear to exhibit a tendency in 
the perianth to become inferior, or rather in the flowers to develop superior ovaria ; but the membranous 
nature of the parts prevents their being satisfactorily analysed in specimens that have been dried. 

The Begonia have probably a great tendency to become viviparous, as is the case with many other 
plants of very succulent tissues. Thus Yon Martins describes (in the Transactions of the Eoyal Bavarian 
Society of Munich ; see also Hook. Journ. Bot. iv. 206) a species under the name of B. ^liyllomaniaca, 
which develops thousands of leaflets on its stem and branches, and these, on being planted, become new 
individuals. This fact, however, seems analogous to the weU-known property of BryopTiylUim and other 
plants, and is of a totally different nature from that presented by B. gemmipara. 

r 

The Begonia gemmipara cannot be called an ornamental plant; I have nevertheless ventured to intro- 



duce it into this work, as beiner 



Ci 



of the most curious and anomalous that I met with in Mr. Cathcart 



collection of drawings ; and in point of interest and novelty it is well deserving the attention of every 
lover of plants. 



Plate XIV. Kg. 1. Male flower 



Stamens. 3. Female flower 



Ovary and styl 



Transverse section of ovary 



Gemmule from the axiUary bodies. 7. Vertical section of ditto 



Very immatm'e ditto 



Transverse 



of ditto, from Mr. Cathcart 



magnijied. 



■^ 



' Plate 





/ 



¥. Pitcti del , et litk . 



Viiicen.t 61001:3 Imp 




9 








MSIUM 





=r^ 




M¥ 




9 



?\ 



:^ 




.Oii. ol^£ 



c^ rn 



o 




9 









V7" 








9 








•* ' 



PLATE XY. A. 



r 



VACCINIUM SALIGNUM, ///. et T. 



Nat. Ord. VACCiNiACEiE. 



_ • 

Epiphyticum, glaberrimum, sempervirens, ramis teretibus foliosis, foliis undiquc inscrtis breviter pctiolatis anguste 

lanccolatis longe acuminatis basi angustatis integcrrimis coriaceis subtus glaucesccntibus costa prominiila m 



bus sicco subrecurvis, racemis pendulis axillaribus et e ramis ortis, pcdunculo 



floro g 



gracilibus superne sensim incrassatis, calycis tubo urccolato obscure pentagono lobis brevibus subulatis, corolla 
tubuloso-campanulata elongata 5-gona angulis subincrassatis breviter 5-loba lobis ovatis acuminatis recurvis, fila- 



mentis brevibus dilatatis apice pubescentibus, antheris long 
Hab. In sylvis densis temperatis et subtropicis Himalaya orientalis 



Bhotan, alt. 4-7000 ped. Fl. Aprili 



The genus Vaccinkm, wbicb is mostly represented in nortbern climates by deciduous-leaved shrubs 



with small flowers, assumes a very different habit and appearance in the tropical momitains of both the Old 
and New World. In the lower eastern Himalaya, Malay Peninsula, Java, and other of the Malayan islands, 
especially, there is an extensive section— to which the two species here figured belong— which could hardly 
be recognized as having much afiinity with the Whortleberry of our moors. They are all epiphytical 
shrubs, having the lower part of the stem often swelling out into a prostrate trunk, as thick as the human 
arm or leg, and sending out branching fibrous roots that attach it to the limb of the tree upon which it 
grows. These trunks are soft and spongy internally, and are reservoirs of moisture and nutriment ; they 
send out a few slender, generally pendulous branches, which bear often gorgeous flowers. 



Botanists have endeavoured to separate these generically from the northern species of the 



g 



but the characters by which the extreme forms have been distinguished are found to be prevalent in such 
different degrees in the various species, that they have been abandoned by Dr. Wight, who has worked up 
the Indian species in his ' Icones Plantarum Indise OrientaHs.' Dr. Klotzsch, of Eerlin, however, takes a 
very different view of the ^lue of these characters, and has distributed the Indian Vaccinia under five 
genera (Linngea, vol. xxiv.). The present does not strictly agree with his characters of any of these, but 
from its affinity with V. odontocemm, Wight, it will probably be referred to Caligula. 

■ 

It is a singular fact, that though the Vaccinia of this habit and character are so very prevalent from 
Nipal westward to the mountains of Bhotan and Khasia, and thence southward along those of the Malayan 
Peninsula to Java, they are whoUy unknown in the peninsula of India, and in Ceylon, where, however, some 
of the terrestrial shrubby species grow. The leaves of the present species are used as a substitute for tea 
by the natives of Sikkim. It was discovered in Bhotan by Dr. Griffith. 



XV. A. Fig. 1. Pedicel, calyx, and style. 2. Stamen. 3. Tissue of the cell of the anther, with pollen-grains 

4. Tissue of tube of anther. 5. Transverse section of ovary. 6. Ovule : — all magnified. 



n 

L 



PLATE XY. B. 



1 , 



VACCINIUM 



SERF ENS, mght 



Nat. Ord. VAcciNiACEiE. 



Epiphyticum, dependens, sempervirens, totum foliis exceptis glanduloso-hispidum, ramis gracilibus, foliis parvis patulis 



subdistichis brevissime petiolatis ovatis acuminatis basi rotundatis supra medium serratis apice 



ipidat 



berrimis convexis coriaceis enerviis costa obscura, floribus solitariis axillaribus pendulis, pedicellis foliis longioribus 
infra medium bibracteolatis, calycis tubo 5-alato lobis brevibus obtusis, corolla tubulosa pubescente subventricosa 
obscure 5-gona fauce contracta lobis brevibus recurvis, staminibus fere ut in F. saligno. 



Vaccinium serpens, Wiglit, Ic. Plant. Ind. Or. t. 1183. 
Pentapterygium serpens, Klotzsch in Linncea, v. 24<.jp. 47. 

Hab. In sylvis tropicis et temperatis Himalayae orientalis: Bhotan et Sikkim 



7000 ped. (Fl. Aprili, Maio 



Tbis is one of tbe most beautiful species of tbe splendid section of Vaccinium to wbicb it belongs. 



It 



was discovered by Griffitb in Bbotan, and found abundantly in Sikkim by Dr. Tbomson and myself, inbabit 
ing tbe limbs of lofty trees at various elevations between 3000 and 7000 feet elevation. 



It is one of the 



very few plants tbat inbabit bott tbe tropical and temperate zones of the Himalaya, a peculiarity wliicli 
is no doubt partly accounted for by tbe fact of tbe bumid regions it affects being singularly equable in 

■ 

temperature. 

Botli tMs and tlie V. salignum would no doubt succeed in our conservatories, on rockwork or pieces of 

wood, for both occasionally grow on tbe ground in rocky places in tbe Himalaya. 



Plate XV. B. Fig. 1. Portion of stem and 



men 



Pedicel, calyx, and style 
section of ovary : 



Glandular bairs of pedicel 



Sta- 



ijied. 



/ 



/ 



Plate 





N- 




V\r.Tilxh. ad. et Iith. , 



ViricerLC Brooks lin 



p 





o 



€IE.A(nX 






Aj\ 





9 




oilo 




\7m 




o 




9 



(CdDBdl) 








Llv. 




HCA 



9 







ii. o 



C . (C oIMIFIL ATi 



•2- 



.c 







iFo & T 



o 



PLATE XYI. A, 



J 



CODONOPSIS (LEPTOCODON) GRACILIS, ii.f. a 




Nat. Ord. Campanulace^e. 



Ilerba gracillima volubilis glauca glaberrima tenella, foliis longe petiolatis ovatis ovato-rotimdatisve obtusis grosse crenato- 

lobatis flaccidis, pedicellis gracilibus plerumque extra-alaribus, caljcis tubo obconico, lobis obovatis subdcntatis 
obtusis, corolla tubulosa supra medium ampliata limbo truncato obscure 5-lobo, ovario semisupcro glandulis 5 



staminibus alternantibus 



paucis dissepimentis adnatis axi remotis, stylo g 



trilobo extus hispido, fructu inferne coriaceo supra calycem sicco subchartaceo trivalvi in conum acuminatum 
producto, seminibus anguste oblongis, testa nitida. 

IIab. In sylvis humidis temperatis Himalayae orientalis : Sikkim, alt. 5-7000 ped. M. Maio. 



Nothing can exceed the beauty and delicacy of this little plant, which is of rare occurrence in Silikim, 

r 

inhabiting watercourses in very dense shaded woods, and covering bushes with its pale, translucent, mem- 
branous foliage and pale blue flowers. Like all its congeners, it is fall of milky juice, and exhales a pecu- 
liar strong and very disagreeable odour when bruised, much like that of the Eue in character. 

This and the two other species figured with it, are very singular plants, all so closely allied in many 
important botanical characters that I do not doubt their belonging to one genus, but all presentino- such 
important differences in structural characters that many botanists will doubtless separate them. Thus the 
present species has flowers that seldom arise from the axils of the leaves, their pedicels being adnate with 
the stem above them ; a half-inferior ovary, with five stipitate glands between the stamens ; a membranous 
corolla, with a tubular base, dilated throat, and slightly expanded truncated limb ; a three-celled ovary, with 
few ovules attached to the dissepiments, but removed from the axis. The fruit is conical, both above and 
below the calyx, coriaceous below it, dry rather horny and three-valved above it, and the seeds have a 

L 

polished testa. To this the subgeneric name of Leptocodon may be applied, in allusion to the narrow bell- 
shaped corolla. 

i 

In the C. Javanica the calyx is wholly inferior, and the corolla superior ; the corolla is herbaceous, very 
broadly campanulate, with five spreading lobes ; the ovary has no stipitate glands, is three- to five-celled, 

F 

with fleshy axillary placentae projecting into each cell, and covered with ovules ; the fruit is a pulpy, trun- 
cated, indehiscent berry, and the seeds are covered with a reticulated testa. This belongs to the genus 
Campanumcea of Blume. 

In the C. inflata the calyx is wholly superior ; the corolla ventricose and herbaceous ; the ovary has no 
stipitate glands ; the fruit is a fleshy berry, with three horny valves at the summit, as in C. gracilis, but the 
placentation and seeds are as in C. Javanica. To the species with flowers constructed upon this type the 

subgeneric name Eucodonopsis may be retained, as it was to these especially that Dr. Wallich applied the 
name of Codonopsis originally. 



AU tlie above species agree in their twining liabit, milky juice, strong odour wlien bruised, flower-stalks 

h 

I 

inserted opposite tlie petioles or above tkem, the structure of the styles, stigmata, stamens, and in the pecu- 
liar ramification of the young leaf-bearing T)ranches, which often resemble compound leaves. There are, 
however, other species of the genus which unite the above characters more or less, or present such modifi- 
cations of them that it is impossible to separate them generically ; of these several are erect plants, and two 
of them tropical, the G. truncata, Wall., aiid G. parviflora, "Wall., the latter of which is the Gamjianumma 
Gelebica of Blume, and has the calyx often removed far below the ovary on the pedicel, whilst the corolla 
is still superior. To these the name Gyclocodon has been applied by Griffith, and it may be retained as 

aU the other known species, which consist 
of erect alpine plants with terminal floAvers, resembling those of Eucodonopsis in all essential points. 

The genus or group Codonopsis, as thus restricted, consists of about fourteen species, inhabiting central 
and south-eastern Asia, from Soongaria and Afghanistan, the Himalaya, and Tibet, in the extreme north- 
west, to Ehotan, the Khasia Mountains, and Malayan Peninsula, and two of them being also found in 



a subgeneric name. A fourth subgenus, Glossocomia, includes 



Java 



It is unknown in the peninsula of India and Ceyl 



One species is perhaps Dahurean and Chinese 



if, as is probable, the Platycodon grandiflomm, Alph. DC, is referable to it. The genus is farther remark 



able for its comparatively narrow range in geographical area and wide 



altitude; for species are 



found at all elevations, from 3000 to 10,000 feet, and in aU clunates, from very wet to very dry 



..^vy^. 



Plate XVI. A. Pig. 1. Flower with the corolla and stamens removed. 



2. Stigma. 



3. Pollen-collectors and pollen 



4. Pollen-grains. 5. Transverse section of ovary. 6. Ripe fruit. 7. Seed. 8. Vertical section of ripe fruit 

9. Embryo : — all magnified. 



^ 






\ 



o 



PLATE XVI. £. 



CODONOPSIS (CAMPANUMCEA) JAVANICA, h/. et t. 



Nat. Ord. Campanulace^. 



Herba volubilis glaberrima, foliis oppositis et alternis ovato-cordatis acutis crenatis, pedunculis axillaribus et lateralibus 



floris, calyce infero 



lobo lobis lineari-oblongis patentibus, corolla supera late campanulata limbo 5-lobo 



patente, bacca supera subglobosa angulata 
adnatis, seminibus oblongis testa reticulata 



placentis crassis axillarib 



Campanumcea Javanica, Bhme, Bijdr. p, 276; JlpL DC. Mon. Camp. p. 118; DC. Prodr. v. 8. p. 423. 



Hab. In fruticetis Himalayae orientalis temperatae et subtrop 



Sikkim 



ped. ; necnon in montibus Khasiae 



alt. 5 



ped., et in Java. FL tempore pi 



# 



* 



r 

A very elegant climber, remarkable for its wide range in geographical distribution, the Javanese 
specimens being identical witb tbe Sikkim ones. The leaves are very variable in shape, especially at the 
cordate base, the lobes of which have a narrow or broad sinus. 



Plate XVL B. Fig. 1. Mower with a portion of the calyx and corolla removed 



.1 

Nearly ripe fruit 



Transverse 



of a five-celled : and 4, of a three-celled 



Seed \—all maanified. 



PLATE XVI. C. 



CODONOPSIS (EUCODONOPSIS) INFLATA, R.f. et t. 



Nat. Ord. Campanulace^ 



Herba volubilis glaberrima, foliis alternis 



cordatis 



pedunculis oppositifoliis 1-floris, 



Jycis tubo acute 10-gono limbo supero, corolla subampuUacea 5-loba lobis breviusculis, bacca 
apice truncata apice valvis 3 incompletis cbartaceis dehiscente, seminibus reticulatis. 



5 



Hab. In sylvis temperatis Himalay: 



Sikkim, alt. 5 



ped. Fl. tempore pi 




This in habit closely resembles the C. Javanica, but is a very different plant ; Uke it, the temperature 

■ 

suited to it is easily obtained in any greenhouse where sufficient heat and moisture may be preserved in 
the summer, which is its flowering season. 



■v 



Plate XVL C. Pig. 1. Plower with part of the calyx and corolla removed. 2. Transverse section of ovary 



Pruit 



Seed 



magnified. 



( 



\ 



• 



Plate 




\ 




J 



W':hiai ia 



ri. 



■th 



"Viriceiit Broots fmp 







YMAIfTMlD 






V f 









^ 1 



< 



1 ! 



1 



i 






■T7 

I I 

: I 



9 






r rp 



f'^ 



c 



4Xs 



!71 



J 



JJ. 



( 1 



PLATE XVII. 



iESCHYNANTHES 



PEELII, H.f. et T. 



Nat. Ord. Cyrtandrace^. 



Epiphyt 



2 



pedalis, parcc ramosa, glaberrima, caulibus teretibus basi lignosis, foliis petiolatis 



ge acuminatis integerrimis basi rotimdatis obtusisve coriaceis, pedunculis terminalibus elongatis apice bifloris 



bibracteatis, bracteis amplis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis, floribus pedicellatis, calycis profunde 4-.partit 
oblongis obtusis corolla ter brevioribus. 



Hab. In sylvis temperatis Himalayse 



Sikkim 



ped. Fl. tempore pi 



This splendid species inhabits a greater elevation and cooler climate than any other known to me 



It 



used to grow on the lofty trees of the JiUapahar, behind Dorjiling, before the forests were so thinned that 
the situation became too exposed for it. It is at the same time one of the most brilliantly coloured species 
known, the peduncles, pedicels, bracts, and flowers being of the same vivid red colour, and the leaves a deep 
glossy green above, and pale beneath. A very similar plant inhabits lower levels on the Khasia mountains 



but bears many flowers in each pair of bracts, and has long 
variety of this. 



narrower leaves ; it may, however, be only 



"v> •^•^jsj^jyj-^^- 



-^■J-^j/^^-Kj'- 



■<^\j '^ \j 



■■vj *J '^^-J 



Plate XVIL Fig. L Corolla laid open. 2. Pistil 3. Transverse 

all {Jjutjig. 4) magnified. 



of ovary 



Capsules 



Seeds 



\ 



D 





I. 




\ 



cM\l^- 






^litGii ai.diiyi. 



4 

l^ncent Brooks Tt-r- 



jm~j. 





LU 






VT- 




EI A 












9 







O 





Z 







• 



J^ 



/ 



PLATE XVIII. 



BUDDLEIA COLVILET s.f. et t. 



L 



Nat. Ord. Scrophularine^ 



Prutex V. arbuscula erecta 10-pedalis ramosa, ramis teretibus, ramulis subangulatis, ultimis paniculis foliisque junioribus 



V*' 



pubescenti-tomentosis, foliis breve petiolatis lanceolatis acuminatis obscure crenato-serratis, paniculis terminalibus 
axillaribus et supra-axillaribus pendulis multifloris, bracteolis ad basin pedicellorum subulatis, floribus breve pedi- 
cellatis subternis coccineis, calyce bemispliserico breviter 4-dentato tomentoso, corolla calyce 4-5 -plo longiore tubu- 
loso-campanulata, tubo cylindraceo, limbo 4-fido lobis amplis patentibus rotundatis eroso-dentatis, capsulis erectis 
ovato-oblongis acuminatis tomentosis calyce duplo vel triplo longioribus, seminibus testa laxa reticulata 3-alata. 



Hab. In sylvis temperatis Himalayse orientalis : Sikkim, alt. 9-12,000 ped. FL 



^ 



This is very unlike any other Asiatic species of Buddleia in its size and form of flower, colour, and the 
locality it inhabits, its congeners being almost without exception tropical or subtropical plants ; in several 
respects it more closely resembles some of the species of tlie Andes, but it bas no rival anywbere for beauty 

h 

and graceful babit. It is abundant towards tbe summit of Tonglo, from 9000 feet to tbe top (10,000), and 

4 

I 

is also frequent in tbe Lacben and Lacboong valleys at similar elevations ; even ascending to 12,000 feet. 

Tbis will probably prove perfectly bardy, as I bave found it in very exposed places as well as in woods ; 
and from tbe abundance of its flowers and its lasting some weeks in bloom, it would be a most desirable addi- 
tion to our gardens. Tbe Plate was made from a sketcb of my own. 



y 






Plate XVIII. Tig. 1. Corolla cut open. 2. Stamens. 3. Pollen. 4. Calyx, ovary, and style. 5. Ovary. 6. Transverse 

section of ovary. 7. Ovule. 8. Seeds, natural size. 9. Seed. 10. Longitudinal section of seed. II. Albumen, 



with its coat removed from the testa. 12. Vertical 



yo : — all but Jiff, 8 magnified. 



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PLATE XIX. 



i^ 



RHEUM NOBILE, Hf. et t. 



Nat. Ord. Polygone^. 



Herba elata 3-5-pedalis columiiaris, radice elongato-fusiformi, rhizomate crasso brevi, caule erecto sulcato simplici bracteis 

reflexis deorsum imbricatis membranaceis omnino velato, foliis radicalibus rosulatis breve crasse petiolatis ovato- 
obloiigis obtusis integerrimis basi cuneatis nervis flabellatis, caulinis orbiculatis brevius pedicellatis reeurvis in 
bracteis repente desinentibus, bracteis stramineis translucidis convexis bullatis marginibus roseis, stipulis maximis 
membranaceis rubris, paniculis brevibus axillaribus compositis e basi flabellatim ramosis intra stipulas nidulantibiis 
et bracteis omnino velatis, floribus viridibus pedicellatis, sepalis 6 aequalibus oblongis obtusis, staminibus 6, ovario 



breviter stipitato compresso v. trigono, stylis 2-4, stigmatibus capitatis, achaenio 2--4-alato lateribus tuberculatis. 



Hab. In rupibus abruptis alpinis Himalayse orientalis: Sikkim, alt. 13-15,000 ped. Fl 



The present is certainly the most striking of the many fine alpine plants of Sikkim ; and though in 

■ 

every botanical character, as also in the acid juice of the stem, a genuine Hhubarb, it differs so remarkably 

I 

in habit and general appearance from any of its congeners, that at first sight it could not be recognized as 
one of them. I first saw it from a distance of fuUy a mile, dotting the black clifPs of the Lachen vaUey at 

14,000 feet elevation, in inaccessible situations, and was quite at a loss to conceive what it could be ; nor 

w 

was it till I had turned back the curious bracteal leaves and examined the flowers that I was persuaded 

of its being a true Ehubarb. 

The individual plants of Bheum nobile are upwards of a yard high, and form conical towers of the 

most delicate, straw-coloured, shining, semi-transparent, concave, imbricating bracts, the upper of which 
have pink edges; the large, bright glossy, shining green radical leaves, with red petioles and nerves, 
forming a broad base to the whole. On turning up the bracts, the beautiful membranous, fragile, pink 
stipules are seen, like red silver-paper, and within these again the short branched panicles of insignificant 
green flowers. The root is very long, often many feet, and winds amongst the rocks ; it is as thick as the 
arm, and bright yellow inside. After flowering the stem lengthens, the bracts separate one from another, 
become coarse red-brown, withered and torn ; finally, as the fruit ripens, they fall away, leaving a ragged- 
looking stem, covered with panicles of deep brown pendulous fruits. In the winter, these naked black stems, 
projecting from the beetling cliffs, or towering above the snow, are in dismal keeping with the surrounding 
desolation of that season. 

The stems of this plant (called " Chuka" by the inhabitants) are pleasantly acid, and much eaten ; the 
hollow of the stem contains a good deal of Limpid water. 

The accompanying drawing is taken from a sketch of the whole plant, of the natural size, which I took. 






and wMcli covers two folio sheets of paper (that is, four times the area of the Plate) . The seeds which I sent 

to Kew, grew and some of the plants lived two years ; they should be planted in peat soil and rockwork, 
a^d kept very cool and damp. 




XIX. rk. 1. Flower. 2. Stamen. 



Pollen 



Ovaria 



fruit . 



10. Transverse sections of 



Embryo 



. of ovar 
agnijied. 



7. Ovule 



8. Ripe 



^^ 



6 



-\ 



13^ 
I 



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PLATE XX 



QUERCUS LAMELLOSA, Waii. 



Nat. Ord. Cupulifer^e. 



Arbor 



pcd. diametro stricto erecto superne ramoso, coma oblonga, ramis mediocribiis, ramulis vcliitino 
plis coriaccis breve petiolatis elliptico-ovatis lanceolatisvc acumfnatis grosse argute subspinuloso 



serratis multinerviis superne 

fa3miiiea brevi pauciflora spicata, stigmatibus 3 capitatis vix exsertis, involucris maximis subo-bbosfs 



viridibus subtus argenteis glaucisve, mfloresccntia mascula ignota decidua, 



lamellosis lamellis concentricis 10-16 



inibus 




entibus, glande late ovato-oblonga apice sericca, embryone 



uperioribus incurvis glandem 



In Himalay 



ped. : Nipal 



fr. Nov 




4 

The present is one of the commonest trees about DorjUing, and is certainly by far the noblest species of 
Oak known, whether for the size of the foliage or acorns, their texture and colour, or the imposing appear- 



of the tree, which has a taU, straight, solid trunk, forty to sixty feet high, and an oblong 



crown as 



much above it 



The leaves are hardly persistent during the winter, though the tree is at no time destitute 



of foliage : the wood is indifferent 



As with our common European forest trees, the fruit is produced 



much greater abundance in some seasons than at others; in the winter of 1848-49 it was so abundant that 



it 



dang 



to ride along the roads near Dorjiling, the hard round 



stumble 
cotyledc 



acorns causing the horses to 



Most of these decayed where they feU, nor did any that I sent to England germinate, for the 



very fleshy, and the plumule sprouts as soon as the 




This is, indeed, the 



with most of the Indian Oaks, of which there 



very few of which have been introduced into this country 



posed to the heat of the 
are about thirty species. 




\ 



Plate XX. Fig. 1. Young 






An old acorn, cut vertically 



Gland 



Seed 



tyledons 



Transverse section of 



^/ 




..ate 




A 




-^ 



,9 



W.YitJ^ a.cl. etlitL. 



"Kncent Ero(ab Iurp 












<i 




ii 



PTT^ 





■tt- 



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» 



PLATE XXI. 



LARIX GRIFFITHII, H.f. et T. 



Nat. Ord. ConifervE. 



Arbor 20-60-pedalis, trunco gracili 1-2 ped. diametro, coma conica, ramis arcuatis apicibus pendulis, ramulis longissimis 

dependentibus, foliis linearibus, conis masculis oblongo-cylindraceis, antheris subquadrato-orbiculatis unguiculatis 
connectivo apice eroso-dentato, ungue dilatato, conis focmineis erectis cjlindraceis obtusis, bracteis subulatis elon- 
gatis reflexis deorsum imbricatis squamis orbiculatis concavis triplo longioribus, conis maturis 4-5-pollicaribus 



ylindraceis obtusis, bracteis persistentibus subsquarrosis, seminibus oblongis ala oblonga multoties brevioribus 



Hab. In sylvis temperatis Himalayse orientalis interioris, alt. 8-12,000 ped. : Nipalia 

Maio ; fr. Oct. 



Fl 



This very distinct and graceful Larch bears tlie name of its discoverer, Mr. W. Griffith, one of the most 
active and promising of the many naturalists who have devoted their energies and sacrificed their Hves to 
the pursuit of botany in India. It was Mr. Griffith's wish that his name should be recorded by one of the 
Himalayan Conifera, but the species to which he hoped it would have been attached {P. excelsa) had been 
known and named long before he found it. That indefatigable botanist discovered the present species in 
Western Bhotan, towards the confines of Sikkim; I gathered it abundantly in the interior vaUeys of 
Sikkim and Eastern Mpal, and was assured by the natives of the latter country that it prevails as far west 
as the sources of the Dud Kosi river. It is a remarkable fact that neither this species nor the AUes 
Bmnoniana are found on the outer or even central ranges of Sikkim, but only in the interior, though both 
aifect a much lower level than AUes WebUana, which abounds on the outer and central ranges, wherever 
these attain 10,000 to 11,000 feet elevation. 

4 

Larix GriffitUi grows to a height of sixty feet in deep vaUeys, but it prefers the dry, rocky, ancient 
moraines formed by glaciers that have centuries ago retired to higher levels in the mountains ; and it also 
grows on grassy slopes, where the drainage is good. It is remarkable for its very slender habit, sparse 
foliage, and very long, lithe, cord-Hke, pendulous branchlets, that are set in motion by the slightest 

w 

breeze, and in a heavy gale are so completely blown to one side that the tree appears lop-sided. The erect 
cones are much larger than those of any hitherto described Larch, and further differ from any others in their 
numerous scales, and in their long, reflexed, persistent bracts, which are placed at the back of every scale in 
this species, but which in the others are only seen on the lowest scales of all. 

r 

The wood of this tree is soft, white, and very indifferent ; it is called Sah, or Saar, by the Lepchas, 



and also by the Tibetans and Bhoteas. Seeds which I sent to Kew germinated readily, and the young 
plants are now three to four feet high. Some have withstood the late severe winter (1854-5) with no 



protection, whilst others have been quite killed : a difference I am inclined to attribute to some of my seeds 
having been gathered from plants which grew at 8000 feet, and others at nearly 13,000 feet elevation. 



Plate XXL J. Male branch. 1 

and bracts. 9. Ripe cone. 

more or less magnified. 



remale branch. Fig. 1, 2, 3. Anthers. 4. Pollen. 



Young 



and bracts 



seeds 



The 



7, 8. Scales 
9. and 12) 



1^ 



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PLATE XXII. 



\ 



CYRTOSIA (ERYTHRORCHIS) LINDLEYANA, hi. et t. 



Nat. Ord. Orchidejs. 



Ilcrba robusta elata aphylla, rhizomate elongate torto fibras crassas simplices tortuosas obtusas emittente, ad nodos 

squamoso, apice incrassato in caulem crcctum 2-3-pedalem solidum desinentc, caule glabro cylindraceo basin 
versus squamato, squamis ovato-oblongis basi lata insertis obtusis, panicula laxc ramosa, ramis paucis horizonta- 

5-10-floris, floribus spicatis basi bractcolatis, ovario cylindraceo periantliio 



3-5-costatis v. 



libus basi bracteatis pubescentibus 5-10 

sequilongo velutino tomentoso, periantbii subglobosi sepalis exterioribus oblongis obtusis 
subalatis costis flexuosis, petalis oblongo-rotundatis marginc crispatis, labello ovato-oblongo concavo lateribus erectis 
V. incurvis marginibus eroso-fimbriatis extus glabro intus barbato subpaleaceo, columna arcuata apice utrinque bi- 
dentata glaberrima antice plana, stigmate transverso, anthera conico-oblonga recurva extus papilloso-tuberculata 
basi biloba biloculari loculis hippocrepiformibus, poUiniis 2 liippocrcpiformibus cylindraceis laxe granulatis, granulis 
lobosis ternis quaternisve, capsulis magnis pcndulis obtuse trigonis primum carnosis dcmum valvis 3 tarde deliis- 
centibus, seminibus late alatis. 




PoGOCHiLus, Falconer, MSS. 



Hab. In sylvis temperatis Himalayse orientalis et montibus Khasiae 



7000 ped. Fl 



The subject of the present Plate is certainly the most remarkable Orchid in the Himalaya, if not in aU 
India, and belongs to a small genus, native of the Eastern Himalaya, the Khasia mountains, and the 
Malayan Islands. This was established by Blume on a Javanese plant with pulpy indehiscent fruit and 

■- 

wingless seeds, of which two species are figured in his ' Elora Java3 ;' since then the same learned author 
has proposed another generic name {JErytlirorclm) for an allied plant agreeing with C. Lindleyi in having 



/ 



dehiscent fruit and winged seeds. After a careful study of these, however, Dr. Thomson and I have come 

r 

to the conclusion that the above characters are not of generic importance, being unaccompanied with any 
diiferences of habit, and the characters themselves being subject to considerable modification in the several 
species ; thus the fruit of (7. Lindleyana is very fleshy, and presents no trace of dehiscence until old and 
dry, when the valves often do not separate wholly, and the breadth of the wing of the seeds is a very 
variable character in this species, whilst others have much narrower wings. 

Though so different in habit, Cyrtosia is very nearly allied to Vanilla, a genus having a somewhat 
similar poUen-mass and three-valved fleshy capsule, without the intermediate pieces so conspicuous in the 

\ 

I 

ordinary type of Orchideous fruit. The hairs of the ovarium are branched and cellular. The tissues of the 
plant abound in a viscid fluid, and are formed of loose cellular tissue, fuU of oblong and quadrate cells, con- 
taining raphides, and traversed by stout woody bundles ; the latter are composed of spirally marked tubes, 
long superimposed cells with dotted walls, very broad trachea3, and thick-walled woody tubes, with their 



\ 



A 



The three 



sides perforated by pores surrounded by discs, much resembling the woody tissue of Conifem. 

placentae of the ovary are very broad and slightly convex, studded with innumerable anatropous ovules of 



the form and structure common to Orclddea, and along the back of eacli placenta is a dense mass of white 
conducting tissue ? formed of delicate white, transparent, mucilaginous tubes. 

Cyrtoda Lindleyana is not uncommon near Dorjiling. None of the seeds I sent to Calcutta or to 
England germinated, nor did the roots which I dug up live, either at Dorjiling or Calcutta. I never could 
trace any parasitic attachment between its roots and those of the other plants with which it grew, nor am I 
aware that a parasitic attachment has been proved to exist in any Orchid. I have also sought in vain for 
such iQ Listera Nidus-avis. 

The plant is dedicated by Dr. Thomson and myself to our friend Dr. Lindley, who has laboured so 
long and successfully in investigating the structure and affinities of the extremely difficult Natural Order to 
which it belongs, and who has kindly undertaken the determination and description of our Indian species 

L 

for his admirable work the ' Folia Orchidacea.' 



Plate XXII. Fig. 1. Labellum, 2, 3. Front and side view of column. 4. Anther, seen from below. 5. Pollen-mass, 



9. Placenta, with conducting 



6. Grains of pollen. 7. Transverse section of ovary. 8. Hairs from ovary. 

tissue? at the back of its lobes. 10. Ovule. 11. Transverse section of ripe capsule. 12. Seed. 13. Seed with 

the wings and testa removed in front. 14. Cellular tissue of stem, and raphides. 15. Vascular tissue. 16. Cells 

with raphides: — all {hut fig. 12) magnified. 



1 



."- 




W.Fitdi lith . 



'Viii'^eat Bxooka Irjip 





[TT^TT 



fl 




Nvr 



/^S ^':- 



9 ^ 



Liim 








PLATE XXIII 



VANDA CATHCARTI, Undi 



Nat. Ord. Orchide^. 



Longe caulescens, foliis lineari-oblongis planis subundulatis apice rotundatis oblique bilobis 

brevioribus, sepalis petalisque oblongis rotundatis sessilibus asqualibus, labello co 



basi mutico auriculato, 



auriculis nanis rotundatis lobo intermedio cordato obtuso margine elevato tomentoso rug 



bicostato 



ante auriculam carnosissimo. 



Fol Or 



Hab. In vallibus calidis Himalay 



Sikkim 



■4000 ped. Fl. Aprili 



■ 

Dr. Lindlej says of this that " no more remarkable OrcKid Las been found in Northern India :" and 



^ 



tliougli not so showy as the gorgeous BendroUa (chrymitlum, Bevonianum, Farmeri, etc.), amongst which 

^ I 

it grows, it exceeds any of these in its singularity, and its chaste elegant appearance. Living specimens 
which I sent to Calcutta flowered in the Botanical Gardens there, but did not survive the voyage to 
England. 



Plate XXIII. Kg. 1. Ovary, column, and labellum 

7. Capsule ; 



2. Front view of cc 

but Jiff. 7 magnified. 



PoUinia 



Anther 




- + p 



_.rio' 




V 



k 

1 



J.DHorjkcr anal.W.Rtd^. liti 



YmccBt Brooks Imp. 



_^^ 



© '^ 



tf 



Jk 



mw Ik 




^TfS^ 



11 



Q) 




TT- \? 



ila 





H ¥ IL IL 



CIV 



C ,0 



^ L 



i^. 



9 






PLATE XXIV. 



PARIS 



POLYPHYLLA, Sm 



J h 



Nat. Ord. Smilace^e. 



Eoliis 4 



pedicellato, sepalis 4-6 foliaceis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis trinerviis, petalis 4 



basi 



b 



stammibus 



terminatis, ovario 4-6-locnlari 4-6-aiimilato, stigmatib 



aiitheris linearibus filamentis longioribus obtusis v. connectivo subulato product 



rubris testa aquosa. 

Paris polyphylla, Sm?M in Bees Cycl. ; Don, 

Plant. V. 5./;. 118. 

Hab. In sylvis temperatis Himalayas occideiitalis 



divergentibus revolutis, capsula 4-6-valvi, seminib 



Fl. Nep 



Wall. Plant. 



Kiinth. En 



10,000 pcd. Fl. Maio 



v/' 



./^^^^ 



'V' v>Xy * 



I 

This very singular plant has been long known to botanists, though never hitherto introduced into this 



country. It has been supposed to be the same with 



Dahurian plant, P. verticillata, Bieb 



cannot ascertain, for want of sufficient specimens of the latte 



point I 



The characters by which they have been 



distinguished depend upon the number of parts of the flower and the relative length of the sepals and petals, 
characters which vary in every specimen of P. polyphylla. In those I have examined of R verticillata and 
P. incompleta, which hardly appears different, the petioles are much shorter. 



The specimen I have figured here is by no means the largest I have 



individuals scarcely three inches high 



The parts of the flower are 



;en, though I have also found 
vely variable in number, size. 



shape, and relative dimension, especially the sepals and petals ; the anthers are, moreover, sometimes blunt 
and at others have the connective produced into a terminal spur, which invalidates the division of the genus 
into Paris and Demidovia, to which latter P. polyphylla has been referred, on account of the 



acuminate 



anthers 



Mr. Cathcart's drawing differs in the seeds from WaHich's figure, the latter having? been drawn from 



dried specimens, in which the brilliant scarlet pulp had shrunk 



sweet, but mawkish 



The seeds are eaten by the Lepchas : they 



; 




Plate XIV, Fig. 1. Petal. 2, 3. Stamens of different varieties. 4. Tissue of anther-cell. 5. Pollen-grains. G. Ovary. 



7. Transvers 

embryo-sac. 
seed. 15. 1^ 



:ion of ovary 
Ripe fruit. 
I of albumen. 



Ovule 



Vertical 



of 



10. Section of 



The 



viewed from behind 



Embry 



13. Ripe seed. 



o 



Vertical 



//y. 11 and 12) magnified. 



m. 




D. HOOKER, F.E.S 



^ « 



^y>/XX^>' 



POETEAIT of DE. HOOKEE in the Ehododendron Eeglon of the Himalaya 



Mountains 



■ * 



plants gathered during the day's march. 



Franh Stone, AM. A. 



Two officers of his ISrepaiilese Guard are in attendance, and their Ghoorka Sepoys 
are seated round a fire in the distance. The scene represents a view taken on tlie 
skirts of a pine-forest, at 9000 feet elevation ; Kinchin Junga, the loftiest moun- 
tain in the world, elevation 28,lV8 feet, is seen in the distance. The trunk of a 
tree on the right is covered with Ehododendron Dalhoimm, and other epiphytes. 

Tlxtractfrom Catalogue offJie Exhibition of the Royal Academy for 1852 



Mb 



Picture, in his possession, has been executed in mezzotint at the suggestion of the 
friends of Dr. Hooker, at a cost of two hundred guineas for 100 Proof Impressions, 
of which 60 have been subscribed for at the cost price of £2. 25. each, and that he 
will be happy to receive the names of Subscribers for the remainder. The favour 
of an early application is requested. > 



yf Subscribers, 



1. Sir T. Dyke Acland, Bart., M.P., F.E.S 

2. John Allcard, Esq., F.L.S. 

3. Professor J. H. Balfoue, F.E.S. 

4. A. X. Barclay, Esq., F.E.S. & G.S. 

5. James Bateman, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 

6. Thomas Bell, Esq., F.E.S. & Pres. L.S. 

7. E. Benham, Esq. 

8. John J. Bennett, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 

9. Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

10. W. BoREER, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 

11. J. S. BowEEBANK, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 

12. John BEianxwEN, Esq. 

13. Thomas Beightwen, Esq., F.L.S. 

14. John Brown, Esq., F.Q-.S. 

15. C. J. F. BuNBtTRY, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 

16. EiCHAED Clapham, Esq. 

17. Miss CUREER. 

18. Charles Daewin, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 

19. Dr. J. F. Datis. 

20. a. E. Dennes, Esq., F.L.S. & G.S. 

21. L. L. DiLLWYN, Esq., F.L.S. 

22. Dr. J. Dickinson, F.E.S. & L.S. 

23. Joseph Feilden, Esq. 

24. Daniel Feequson, Esq. 

25. Professor Ebw. Forbes, F.E.S. & G.S. 

26. James Oadesden, Esq., F.L.S. & H.S. 

27. William Gourlie, Esq. 

28. a. B. Geeenottgh, Esq., F.E.S. & G.S. 

29. J. H. GuRNEY, Esq. 

30. A. Hambeoitgh, Esq. 



31. Eev. James Heyworth. ■ 

32. S. H. Haslam, Esq., F.L.S. 

33 & 34. Professor Haryey {two copies). 

35. Professor Henslow, F.L.S. & G,S. 

36. Sir W. J. Hooker, F.E.S. & L.S. 

37. Egbert Hudson, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 



38. 



William 



39. Professor Lindlet, F.E.S. & L.S. 

40. J. D. Llewelyn, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 

41. Sir Charles Lyell, F.E.S. & L.S. 

42. J. Macmillan, Esq., F.L.S. 

43. THE0i)0EE Maetin, Esq. 

44. Alexander Milne, Esq. 

45. Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., F.L.S. & H.S. 

46. Major Munro, F.L.S. 

47. Dr. Edward Phillips, F.L.S. 

48. Sir John Eichaedson, F.E.S. & L.S. 

49. H. Cadogan Eotheey, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 



^ 



50. 



Wilson 



51. Professor Sedgwick, F.E.S. & G.S. 

52. P. J. Selby, Esq., F.L.S. & G.S. 

53. Heney Shepheed, Esq. 

54. E. J. Shuttlewoeth, Esq, 

55. William Spence, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 



56. 



Wm 



57. John E. Taylor, Esq. 

58. Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.L.S. 

59. ^. B. Ward, Esq., F.E.S. & L.S. 

60. John C. Whiteman, Esq. 



/ 



LOVELL REEVE, HENRIETTA STREET, COVEXT GARDEN.