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Full text of "Journal of botany, British and foreign."




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THE 



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JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



5 




BRITISH AND FOKEIGN. 



EDITED ET 



HENEY TRIMEN, M.B., F.L.S., 



BEITISn MUSEUM 



ASSISTED BY 



J. G. BAKER, F.L.S., 



EOXAX HEKBARIUM, KEW; 



NEW SEMES. yOLTTME II. 

(vol. XI. OF THE ENTIRE WORK.) Q 



3EUu^tratclf toitlj J^Utti antJ eaffnUctttjS* 




^ 



LONDON : 



RANKEN & CO., DRUEY HOUSE, ST, MAEY-LE-STEAND 

Akdsew Elliot, 15, rrinces Street^ Edinburgh; J. Eotiischild, Paris; 

Asheh & Co, Berlin; Westermann, N(w York 

1873. 



roNDox : 



-KANIvEN AND CO., rKIKTEES, DHURY HOFSE, 

ST. MATtT-LE-STRANI). 



/ 



OONTEIBUTOES 



TO 



THE "JOURNAL OF BOTANl' 



r tf 



NEW SERIES. 



Rev. T. Allin. 

F. W. C. Areschoug. 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S., 
F.L.S. 

J. Bagnall. 
C. Eailey. 

J. G. Eaker, F.L.S. 
Mrs. Baker. 

J. Ball, F.ll.S., F.L.S. 
Prof. J. H. Balfour, M.D., 
F.R.S. 

H. M. Barrington. 

llev. M. J. Barrington- Ward, 

M.A., F.L.S. 
W. H. Beeby. 

A. W. Bennett, M.A., RSc, 
F.L.S. 

G. Bennett, M.D., F.L.S. 
G. Bentham, F.ll.S., F.L.S. 
H. Boswell. 

11. Braithwaite, M.D., F.L.S. 

Mrs. BramwcU. 

D. Brandis, M.D., F.L.S. 

T. R. Archer Briggs, F.L.S. 

J, Britten, F.L 8. 
M. M. Bull, M.D. 

^Y. Carruthers, F.R.S, F.L.S. 
Prof. T. Caruel. 
J. Collins. 
T. Comber. 

M. C. Cooke, Ph.D. 

Prof. F. Crepin. 

Rev. J. 



F.L.S. 



M. Crombie, M.A., 



J. Cunnack. 

F. Currey, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
J. F. Duthie, B.A. 
Prof. W. T. Thiselton 



B.A., B.Sc, F.L.S. 



Dyer, 



A. Ernst, Ph D. 

T. B. Flower, F.L.S. 

E. Fournier. 
Rev. J. Eraser. 

E. Fries, M.D, F.L S. 
A. Gray, M.D, F.L S. 

J. E. Gray, Ph.D , F.L.S. 
L. H. Grindon. 

D. Hanbury, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

F. J. Hanbury, F.L.S. 

H. F. Hance, Ph.D , F.L.S. 
H. C. Hart. 
W. E. Hart. 
tW. A. Hayne, M.A . 
W. B. Hemsley. 

W. P. Hiem, M.A , F.L.S. 
Rev. W. M. Hind, LL.D. 
C. P. Hobkirk. 
R. Holland. 

E. M. Holmes. 

J. D. Hooker, C.B., M.D., 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
T. Howse, F.L.S. 
J. Hussey. 
f A. Irvine. 
J. R. Jackson, A.L.S. 

F. E. Kitchener, F.L.S. 
8. Kurz. 

Rev. J. E. Leefe, M.A., F.L.S. 

E. Lees, F.L.S. 

F. A. Lees, F.L.S. 

Prof. S. 0. Lindberg, M.D. 
Mrs. Lomax. 
C. Longfield- 
Prof. W. 



x.Ij»8, 



R. McXab, M.D., 



J. C. Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. 
J. Miers, F.R.S , F.L.S. 
D. Moore, Ph.D., F.L.S. 



IV 



CONTET"nT:TORS 



A. G. More, F.L.S- 

Prof. J, Morris, F.G S. 

Baron F. von Mueller, Ph.D., 

C. J. Miiller. 

A. Nathorst. 

F. Naylor. 

Prof. D. Oliver, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Eev, E. O'Meara, M.A.. 

C. F. Peck. 

W. Phillips. 

C. Prentice. 

H, Prestoe. 

R. A. Pry or. 

W. W. Eeevcs. 

W. "Richardson. 

J. F. Rohinson. 

F. C. S. Roper, F.L.S. 
J. Sadler. 



J. Scott, F.L.S. 

W. G. Smith, F.L.S. 

F. Stratton, F.L.S. ' 

Rev. G. S. Streatfeild, M. .i. 

J. T. Boswell Syme, LL.D., 

F.L.S. 
F. Towneend, M.A. 

H. Trimcn, M.B , F.L.S. 
R. Trimen, F.L.S. 
R. Tucker, M.A. . 
F. J. Warner, F.L.S. 
Hon. J. L. Warren, M.A. 
Rev. R. H. Webb. M.A. 
fF. Wclwitsch, M.D., F.L S. 
F. Puchanan White, M.D., 

F.L.S. 
J. Willis, Ph.D. 
W. Wise. 
Rev. R. Wood, M.A. 






DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

The portrait of Dr. Welwitseh to front the title-page. 7W. 128 to 
face p. 35. Tabs. 129 and 130 to face p. 65. Tab, 131 to face p. 132. 
Tab, 132 to face p. 162. Tab. 133 to face p. 196. Tab. 13i to face p. 246- 
Tab. 135 to face p. 258. Tab. 136 to face p. 290. Tab. 137 to face p. 
327. Tab. 138 to face p. 358. X)r all the plates may be placed in their 
order after the Index at the end of the volume. 

Pp. 191, 192, at end of June number, are cancelled ; the leaf to he sub- 
stituted is given with the July number. 



THE 



JOURNAL OF BOTANY 



? 



BKITISH AIS-D FOEEIGI^. 



FRIEDRIOH WEL WITS OIL 

_ A STEiKiKfi and familiar figure for some years past in the scientific 
circles of London has passed off the stage in the person of Dr 
Welwitsph. Tall and strongly built, but bearing evident traces of 
the continued attacks of tropical diseases, and supporting his rather 
halting steps with a thick stick, he had much the look of some old 
military veteran, with which character hia countenance was quite in 
keeping. And truly he had fought a good fight in the tropics of 
Ainca for seven yeai-s against fever, scurvy, and dysentery, when ex- 
ploring as a naturalist the dense steaming forests of the interior, or 
slowly wandering under the vertical sun over the marshy or sandy 
plains of the coast of Angola. 

In London bis life was a very industrious one, and his habits all 
subordinated to his scientific work. He rose at five or six, and after a 
cup of coffee would study till breakfast at about eleven, after which he 
settled down to steady work till the evening, when he went out to 
dine at one of the foreign restaurants, returning to his work again 
which generally continued far into the eariy morning. He took 
little food and very little sleep, and though constantly suffering 
always kept up this routine. Few men ever worked more assiduously, 
and though comparatively little of his labours have seen the light, all 
IS characterised by that precision and completeness which are only found 
in the work of those who, not anxious to write much, are determined 
that what they do shaU require no undoing by those who follow them. 
As a botanist he undoubtedly ranks very high, as his knowledge 
extended over the whole vegetable kingdom, and embraced far more 



than 



untry 



was probably underrated, from his difficulty in expressing his ideas 
clearly in English ; but those who could converse much with him 
■were impressed with the wealth of his memory and the precision and 



intormation 



As a zoologist his attainments were also Tory great, and lie had paid 
especial attention to Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. His scientific 
abilities have been recognised in the bestowal of four or five orders, 
he was made a member of the Leopoldo-Corolinian Academy under 



cognomen 



Lmnean Society, of the Zoologico-Botanical Society of Vienna, &c. 



Welwitsch 



ascertained, but it was in the year 1807. He was one of a large 
family, his father being the owner of an extensive farm, and surveyor 

N.S. VOL. 2. [JANUAKT 1, 1873.1 B 



2 FEIEDRICH WELWITSCH 



Carinthia 



It was from ac- 



companying his father in his -walks over the cotiiitry that, when quite 
a boy, Welwitsch acquired his first taste for Botany. His earliest 
scientific rememhrance was distinguishing a snowdrop from some 
species of Zeucoium in the spring. He carried his taste with him to 
school, and used to bring home with him in the holidays the plants he 
had found. His father encouraged him, and used to help him to 
make out the names of his discoveries by means of an old herbal. On 
one occasion a plant was brought back which puzzled them all — a 
great mass of trefoil uniformly with four leaflets, about which 
their book was quite silent. It was not till years after, that 
Welwitsch knew it as Marstlea quadrifoliata. An apothecary in the 
town ( ? Klagenfurt) also assisted him in his early botanical studies. 

In due course he was sent to the University of Vienna, being 
intended for the legal profession. But the irresistible tendency 
towards Natural Science drew him from the Law, and he made no 
progress. His father in his displeasure withdrew the allowance 
from the young student, who was then left to himself, and is said to 
have for a time supported himself by writing critiques on the theatres. 
With a view to a more congenial living, however, Welwitsch entered 
the Medical Eaculty of the University, and at the same time pursued 
Botany with increased assiduity. His first publication was " Obser- 
vations on the Cryptogamic Flora of Lower Austria," published in 
the ** Beitrage zur Landeskunde," of Vienna for 1834, which obtained 
a prize ofi'ered by the mayor of the city. Somewhere about this 
period he was employed by the Government to report on the cholera 
in Savoy, and this mark of confidence reconciled his father to his 
change of profession. Tor a while Welwitsch travelled with a noble- 
man as tutor, and then returned to Vienna to complete his studies. 
In due course he graduated in Medicine, his thesis being ** A Synopsis 
of the Mstochtnew of Lower Austria," printed in 1836. At this time 
he was intimate with Fenzl and other Austrian botanists, and spent 
much of his time in the Botanical Museum at Vienna. After another 
period of tutorship, his course in life began to shape itself. After 

attending a meeting of the German Naturalists' Association the 

model of our British Association — at which the elder Eeichenbach was 
president, his mind became fixed on foreign travel, and an opportunity 
soon offered itself to put his wishes into execution. 

^ In the year 1839 Dr. Welwitsch was commissioned by the TJnio 
Itineraria of Wiirtemburg, of which he was a member, to explore and 
collect the plants of the Azores and Cap de Verd Islands. He accord- 
ingly left Vienna in the summer of that year, and came to England, 
•whence he sailed at once for his destination. In July he arrived at 
Lisbon, where ^he found himself unavoidably detained ; he therefore 



formed an extensive 
liking for the country 
remaining ' ^ 



^hbourhood, and 
He seems to have taken 



Atlantic islands. In six weeks he acquired a good knowledge of the 

^ ♦ See a letter to Mr. ramph'n, the London a^ont for the Unio Itineraria, 
in Hooker's " London Journal of Botany * ii., p, 119. 



fc 



FRIEDRICH M^ELWITSCH, 3 

Portuguese language, and then more thoroughly devoted himself to 
the investigation of the flora of the country, visiting the Serras de 
Cintra, d'Arrabida, &c. He never returned to Austria, nor indeed 
left^the country of his adoption till 1853, except for short visits to 
Paris and London. ^ During this period he had the care, at different 
times, of the Botanic Gardens of Lisbon and Coimbra, and was super- 
intendent of the Duke of Palmella's gardens at Cintra and in Alemtcjo, 
as well as having the general supervision of the Duke's gardens 
throughout Portugal, He also explored a great part of the kingdom, 
and made very large collections. No less than 56,000 specimens were 
sent to the Fnio Itineraria for distribution, and complete series were 
deposited in the herbaria of the Academy of Sciences at Lisbon and at 
Paris. His own private herbarium of Portuguese plants contains more 
than 9000 species, each represented by a large series of well-preserved 
examples selected to show all stages and conditions of the species, with 
the tickets furnished in many cases with careful descriptions and 
synonymy. In August, 1841, Dr. Welwitsch had the pleasure of 
meeting Robert Brown, who accompanied him for a three days' excur- 
sion to the Valle de Zebro. The remembrance of this was always plea- 
sant to Dr. Welwitsch, who used to show with satisfaction a pocket 
lens which the great English botanist had given him on the occasion. 
In 1847 and 1848 Algarvia, the southernmost province of the kingdom, 
which had been very little known to botanists, was explored. Dr. 

Welwitsch had for his companion in this journey the young Count 
Descayrac. 

The lower plants were always the objects of Dr. Welwitsch's 
special study. In the neighbourhood of Lisbon, in the years 1847-52, 
he added 250 of the larger Fungi to those enumerated in Brotero's 
"Flora"; and in his zeal after Alga?, in which he found the Tagus 
very rich, he was accustomed to spend hours "up to his waist in 
water " day after day. In the second volume of the " Actas " of 
the Lisbon Academy (1850) he published the "Genera Phycearum 
Lusitanse," and other results of his work in the Cryptogamia 
were published in 1853 in an " Enumeration of the Musci 
and Hepaticse collected in Portugal in 1842-50 by Dr. Welwitsch,'^ 
by Mr. Mitten, and in "Notes on the Fungi," by the Eev. M. 
J. Berkeley. He himself published little else on Portuguese plants 



very 



Oaks (Carvalho) of Portugal, 



try ; a paper on 




% 



printed in 1861 (in the Portuguese 
language) ; and some notes on " The Bryology of Portugal," in the 
last volume of this journal (p. 184), which vras also his latest con- 
tribution to science (June, 1872), being all that I can discover. His 
workiugcopy of Brotero*s " Flora Lusitanica" is, however, filled with 
valuable notes and additions, and must form, with his magnificent 
herbarium, the foundation of any national Flora — a work very much 
needed, and which would probably add a number of species to 
the European flora, besides throwing considerable light on the rela- 
tionships of the extreme south-west of Europe with the countries to 
the north, the Atlantic islands, and North Africa respectively. It is 
therefore to be hoped that Dr. AVelwitsch's valuable material will be 
made fuU use of by the author of the contemplated new Flora of 

B 2 



4 FRTEDEICn WELWIXSCir. 

Portugal/ -vvMch has been recently announced. In 1851 a^large 
nnmLer (12,000 Phanerogams and 6,000 Cryptogams) of specimens 
were sent to Mr. Pamplin— who had been Dr. Welwitsch's agent ever 
since his first arrival in Portugal— for sale, and more or less incomplete 
aeries are now to he found in the British Museum and other herbaria. 
Besides his botanical investigations, Dr. Welwitsch devoted con- 
siderable time to the mollusca and insects of Portugal, and formed 

large collections- ^ 

It was in 1850 that the Government of Queen Dona Mana 
first resolved to explore the Portuguese possessions on the^ "West 
Coast of Africa, with the double object of obtaining scientific 
information on the products of the country and of forwarding its mate- 
rial interests. The project was laid before the Cortes in that year, 
and received the Eoyal assent. The next year was that of the Great 
Exhibition in London; and Dr. "Welwitsch, whose abilities and 
scientific acquirements had now become generally known and appre- 
ciated throughout Portugal, was engaged to prepare the contributions 
of that country. King Don Fernando, who in many respects resembled 
his cousin the lamented Prince Consort, was himself a man of con- 
siderable scientific attainments, and was most active in forwarding the 
proposed expedition to Angola. He himself planned a scheme, the 
execution of which he entrusted to one or two of his Ministers who 
cdmprehended and sympathised with his earnest desires for national 
progress and the prosperity of the colonies. The King himself 
arranged all details, prepared instructions, and put the whole in 
motion. For carrying out the scientific part of his scheme, the King 
saw in Dr. Welwitsch the very man required for so difficult and 
dangerous an undertaking. He had been so long in Portugal that his 
feelings were fully enlisted in the welfare and honour of his adopted 
country ; a man of liberal culture and education, and a good linguist, 
he had proved himself a profound naturalist, and yet an admirable 
collector, and his administrative abilities had been shown in his con- 
duct of the gardens under his care. Dr. Welwitsch was accordingly 
selected, and in 1851 proceeded to London to make preparations for hia 
voyage, for which purpose the King gave him an autograph letter of 
introduction to the Prince Consort. After some months spent here, 
during which he received most valuable advice as to botanical 
travelling from Eobert Brown and other botanists, he returned to 
Lisbon, and it was not until August, 1853, that he started on his 
important mission, fully equipped, accredited with full powers by the 
tome Government, and with complete liberty of action. How well 
the King had chosen was abundantly proved in the next seven years, 
during which Dr. Welwitsch showed an amount of enthusiasm, per- 
severance, and endurance of hardships which could scarcely be sur- 
passed. The following account of his travels in Western Tropical 
Africa is mainly derived from Dr. Welwitsch's " Apontamentos," hia 
published letters, and the introduction to Morelet's ** Memoir on the 
Land and Fresh-Water Shells," collected during the expedition 
which had the benefit of Dr. Welwitsch's supervision. 

On the voyage from Lisbon, the traveller had the opportunity of 
seeing Madeira, the Cape Verds, S. Tago, Prince's Island, and Sierra 
Leone ; at Freetown, in the latter district, he stayed nine days in 



PBrEDPiTCH "WEIiAVITSCn. 5 

1 

SeptemLerj and first became acquainted with a thoroughly tropical 
vegetation. He reached Loanda, the capital of Angola, in the 
beginning of October, 1853, and making that town the base of his 
operations, he at once undertook excursions in every direction, collect- 
ing plants especially, but also Hymenoptera, beetles, and other in- 
sects, as well as Mollusca, and the higher animals. His attention was 
naturally first directed to the country near the coast, which he care- 
fully explored from the mouth of the Q.uizembo, a little to the north 
of Ambriz (about 8 deg. S,), to the mouth of the Cuanza (about 9 
deg. 30 min. S.). His first impressions of the flora of this district 
will be found in a letter to Mr* Kippist, dated March 2, 1854, printed 
in the *' Proceedings of the Linn. Soc.,'' vol ii., p. 327. He devoted 
nearly a year to the thorough investigation of this maritime zone, 
and then started for the interior, following the course of the J3cngo. 
Having reached the district of Golungo-Alto, he fixed himself at a 
place in its centre, about 125 miles from the coast, and situated in a 
mountainous region, called Sange, whence he made expeditions, often 
extended to great distances. Two years were spent here in these 
arduous explorations through almost impenetrable forests, during 
which Dr. Welwitsch sufi'ered repeatedly and severely from endemic 
fevers, scurvy, and ulcerated legs, the usual concomitants of African 
travel ; but he never abandoned his work. It was during his resi- 
dence at Sange that Dr. Welwitsch made the acquaintance of Dr, 
Livingstone, then (October, 1854) on his way to Loanda, having 
travelled the whole distance from Cape Town. The two travellers 
lived together for some time, and the meeting had the eff^cct of deter- 
mining Dr. Welwitsch on relincLuishing an idea he had previously 
entertained of endeavouring to make his way across the continent to 
the Portuguese possessions on the East Coast — a task which, as is well 
known, Livingstone successfully accomplished during the two follow- 
ing years. 

In 1856 Dr. "Welwitsch left Golungo-Alto, and travelling south- 
west through the district of Ambaca, which he found full of novelties, 
reached that of Pungo-Andongo in October* Of tliis stage of his ex- 
plorations he has given a graphic stetch in the first number of Mr. 
Andrew Murray- s "Journal of Travel and Natural History,*' in a 
paper on the " Black Rocks" of the district, from which it received 
its old name of the Presidio das Pedras negras. The annual blacken- 
ing after each rainy season of these masses of gneiss, 300 to 600 feet 
in height, he found to be caused by the immense increase and spread 
downwards of a minute filamentous alga {Scytonema chorographicum') 
existing in ponds at the summit. The flora of this " beautiful 
secluded El Dorado " is described in glowing terms by the travellen 
" I should call Pungo-Andongo a botanical garden, in form of an ex- 
tensive park, in which are found the most interesting treasures of 
vegetation, from the various districts of tropical and sub-tropical 
Africa, judiciously grouped together, with a considerable number of 
forms of vegetation quite peculiar to itself." * 

Making this paradise a centre, he passed eight months in travers- 



* It was here that Rhipsalu Cassytha^ Gartn., the only Cactacea hitherto found 
out of America, waa discovered. 



6 FEIEBKICII WELWITSCn. 



iug the district in eveiy direction, crossing the singular range of 
Pedras de Guinga, the banks of the Lombe and the Cuige, and pene- 
trating as far as the charming islands of Calemba, in the Cuanza, and 
the immense forests which stretch from Quisonde to Condo, near the 
cataracts of the river Cuanza, This point, about 250 miles from the 
coast, was the farthest to the east which was reached. On his way 
back to Pungo-Andongo, Dr- Welwitsch visited the salt-lakes of 
Quitage and the magnificent forests on the right banks of the Cuanza, 
and duiing a short stay at Pungo-Andongo explored the woods beyond 
the Rio Luxilloj and in the direction of Cambambe. After this he 
returned to his old station of Golungo-Alto, intending to explore the 
banks of the Eio Lucala and region of Duque de Bragan^a to the 
eastwards; but on the first night of the expedition, he was deserted 
by half his men, and the remainder refused to advance. To his 
great regret he was therefore obliged to abandon the enterprise, and 
return to Sange, where he devoted several weeks to the arrangement 
of his collections. Thence he travelled back to Loanda, reaching 

it in August, 1857, having completed three years of unaided explo- 
rations. 

^ Tip to this time the tcmtory explored by Dr. "Welwitsch com- 
prised a triangle, of which the base, of about 120 geographical miles, 
occupied the coast, whilst the apex was the point already mentioned 
at Quisonde, on the right bank of the Cuanza, During his period of 
illness and forced inaction at Loanda, he corresponded with botanists,* 
and (in June, 1858) drew up a valuable record of his travels, in the 
form ^ of a Mappa Phyto-geographica, or tabular view of his 
botanical collections. This was published at Lisbon, under the title 
of ^^Apontamentos Phyto-geographicoa^obre a Plora da Provincia de 
Angola na Africa Equinocial/^ in the ^VAnnaes do Conselho TJltra- 
marino'' for December, 1858. Prom this paper of sixty-six closely 
printed pages, we learn that he had, during his three years of travel, 
collected and arranged 3227 species of plants (to which 510 were 
afterwards added) in Angola proper, TTnder each family is given the 
whole number of species collected, followed, in columns, by the 
number in each of the three regions, littoral, montane, and high table- 
land, into which for scientific purposes he divided the country. This 
is followed by lists of the cultivated plants in each family, and notes 
on the distribution and most characteristic species found. Many new- 
species are first mentioned or described in the appendix which con- 
cludes this concise but comprehensive treatise. 

Successful as had been the scientific results of these travels, they 
had been attained only at the price of shattered health, and rest was 
absolutely necessary. A short trip to the district of Libongo, north 
of Loanda, was the only journey made till June, 1859, when his 
health having been somewhat restored, though still suffering from 
fever, Dr. AYelwitsch recommenced his explorations in another 
direction. His intention was to investigate the littoral region of 
Benguela and Mossamedcs only, but his travels, fortunately for 
science, extended over a greater extent of country. After a short 

* Two valuable letters on the vegetation of Angola, addressed to Mr. 
W, W., Saunders, are printed in the Linn. Socictv's Journal, vol iii., n. 150. 



PEIEDEICH WELWrrSCH. 7 

time passed at Benguela, in Lat. 12 deg. 30 min. S., he proceeded 
by sea to Mossamedes (Little Fish Bay, Lat- 15 deg. S.), where 
the magnificent climate speedily recovered him, and he gradually ex- 
tended his journeys, first along the coast as far south as Cape Negro, 
the port of Pinda, and the Bay of Tigers (Lat, 17 deg. S.), and 
afterwards as the spring (October) approached, inland to the elevated 
plateau called HuiUa, about 80 miles from the coast, which rises to 
the height of from about 580O to 6000 feet above the sea-leveL A 
short sketch of the vegetation of the coast region is given in a pub- 
lished letter to Dr. Hooker (Journ. Linn. Society, vol.v., p, 182) written 
after Dr. *W"elwitsch*s return to Loanda. The remarkable differences 
between its flora and that of the coast of Angola proper are very 
striking even at Benguela, and at Mossamedes an entirely new littoral 
vegetation appeared. Here he found "a motley mixture of various 
floras, with a prevailing correspondence to those of Senegambia and 
the Cape of Good Hope. .... At a distance of a mile from the coast, 
however, the forms characteristic of the Cape flora are lost ; the 
vegetation becomes with every step richer in purely tropical forms, 
which are especially developed on the banks of the Bero, in a variety 
one would never have imagined in so apparently dry a coast region." 
Parther south this dryness becomes more and more excessive and the 
flora poorer and poorer, chiefly consisting of EuphorhicB, As Cape 
Negro (Lat. 15 deg. 40 min. S.) is approached, the coast rises to form 
a perfectly level plateau, of about 3000 or 4000 feet in height, and ex- 
tending over six miles into the country, composed of a calcareous tufa 
scattered over with loose sandstone-shingle. The vegetation on this arid 
waste is scanty enough, but it was here that Dr. Welwitsch discovered 
that remarkable plant which has rendered his .name familiar to every 
botanist, and has formed the subject of a fine memoir by Dr. Hooker, 
(Linn. Soc. Trans., vol, xxiv,, 1863) — the Welwitschiamirabilis^^ mio^o 
found in very similar country by Baines and Anderson in Damara 
Land, near "Walfiseh Bay, some 500 miles south of Cape Negro. Of 
this plant Dr. Hooker says in the memoir above mentioned, it is "one 
that I do not hesitate to consider the most wonderful, in a botanical 
point of view, that has been brought to light during the present 
century." The sensations of the enthusiastic discoverer when he 
first realised the extraordinary character of the plant he had found 
were, as he has said, so overwhelming that he could do nothiug but 
kneel down on the burning soil and gaze at it, half in fear lest a touch 
should prove it a figment of the imagination. 

But the vegetation of the highlands of HuiUa, though bringing to 
light no such wonder as the WelwitscMa^ produced quite as strong an 
impression on the mind of the traveller. He started from Mossamedes 
at the beginning of October, and following the banks of the Eio 
Mayombo, reached Bumbo, on the slopes of the Serra de Chella, and 
crossing that chain at a height of about 4200 feet, found himself on 
the tableland at the end of the month. "The entire appearance of 
the landscape, the aspect of forest and plain — indeed, the whole 
character of the vegetation, was at once and entirely changed as though 



♦ Eeichanbach'a rolemoniaccoua genus WdwUschia (1837) was reduced to 
Gilia by Bentkam. (See DC. Prod, ix., p. 310.) 



8 FfilEDKICH WELWIXSCH. 

By magic. I fancied myself in a strange world* Everything about 
me would recall the delightful outlying mountains of Switzerland, did 
not numerous Melastofuacece, Apocynece^ Coynlretaeece^ &c., remind me of 
the tropics."— (Letter to Hooker, Lc.) The intermingling of tropical, 
Cape, and European forms is indeed very striking in the extensive and 
"beautiful flora of this mountainous country, watered with innumerable 
streams running to the south to join the Cacolovar, which flows into 
the Cunene, and covered with pasture-lands always green and fresh ; 
and the seven months spent in the district produced a very large addi- 
tion to the flora of West Tropical Africa. A concise and interesting 
account of the botany of Huilla, which— like that of the mountains of 
the Bight of Biafra, since so successfully investigated by G. Mann — 
bears a strong similarity to that of Abyssinia, is given in a letter to 
M. De Candolle, written by Dr. Welwitsch after his return to Portugal, 
and published in the '' Bibliotheque TJniverselle de Geneve " for July, 
1861, with remarks by M. De Candolle. 

Over 2000 species were collected in the province of Benguela by 
Dr. Welwitsch, whose investigations in this attractive country were 
unceremoniously put an end to by a native war. The little colony of 
LopoUo in Huilla, founded about three years previously, was attacked 
by a large force of Munanos to the number of 15,000. They held it 
closely blockaded for two months, during which the little garrison, of 
which Dr. Welwitsch was a member, kept them bravely at bay, until 
they at length gave up the siege and contented themselves with carry- 
ing off all the flocks they could find and dispersing among the moun- 
tains. After this Dr. Welwitsch recrossed the Serra de Chella, and 
returned to Mossamedes and Loanda, whence, wounded and stricken 
with fever and dysentery, he embarket^^for Lisbon with his immense 
collections, arriving in the Tagus in January, 1861. 

His herbarium, with which we have nbioflv f,n (\c\ is im^mi'h^-ornTr 



and 



judgment 



intrinsic 



extent of the collection both in number of species and series of speci- 
mens. The botanists wTio Tirvp Ttorl fTic^ aTM^nr 



Welwitsch 



;uni 



^ 



3 materials universally bear witness to their com- 
pleteness and excellent conservation, added to which he was in the 
habit of (in most cases) carefully describing their essential characters 
when gathered, so that his tickets convey an amount of information 
Bcarcely ever to be found in such collections, which have been usually 
formed by travellers more or less ignorant of botanical science. No 
exploration ever more conclusively proved the importance of entrust- 
ing investigations of new countries to trained botanists and men 
of general and extended culture, instead of, as is usually the case, to 
mere uneducated collectors, than the voyage of Dr. Welwitsch. The 
importance of his herbarium may be judged of from what Professor 
Oliver says m the preface to the Flora of Tropical Africa, " For our 
material from Lower Guinea we are almost wholly indebted to the 
courtesy of Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch, who, with rare liberality, has 
freely granted us the opportunity of inspecting his collections, which, 
m respect of judicious selection and adniiiable preservation, are with- 
out rival. His carefully accurate notes upon the fresh plants have 



FillEDRTCH WELWITSCn, 9 

also been at our service," Of this Flora two volumes have beea 
published, and upon every page the services of Dr. Welwltsch to 
science are conspicuous. In many genera, species after species is 
known from his material only, and in numerous other cases his 
excellent specimens and notes afforded the descriptions and enabled 
inferior specimens from other collectors to be referred to their 
true systematic position. The Natural Orders (some twenty-three 
in number) which were elaborated without the benefit of Dr. Wel- 
witsch's collections have evidently greatly suffered from the want. 

After his return to Portugal, he commenced the more critical 
examination of his African herbarium ; but in the absence of collec- 
tions, books, and qualified men in Lisbon, little could be done towards 
naming and arranging them. It was, indeed, absolutely necessary to 
proceed to one of the great scientific centres, and London was selected. 
After a visit to the International Exhibition of 1862, Dr, Welwitsch 
returned to Lisbon, and commenced the removal of the greater part of 
his collections, with which, in the next year, 1863, he arrived in 
London ; the Portuguese Government having arranged that for the 
superintendence of the work of examining, naming, and publishing the 
plants, and to defray the attendant expenses, Dr. Welwitsch should 
receive a regular grant which he considered sufficient. 

He at once set to his work, and also entered into various arrange- 
ments with societies and individuals for engraving plates and publish- 
ing descriptions ; but hardly had two years passed when, to use his own 
words in the instructions to his executors, " a false and calumnious 
attack was made upon me in the Portuguese House of Parliament. 
Some one asserted that I was selling the Angolan coUections and 
- living in splendour on the pjoceeds," and '* without the slightest 
inquiry, and in the absence not only of all proof, but of any attempt 
to procure proof, on the mere ipse dixit of a reckless accuser, I was 
condemned unheard, and the first and last intimation that I received 
of the matter from them was a curt notice that did not reach mc till 
eix months after the attack, that my subsidiura had been cut off . . . 
I have been left to proceed with my work in London without the 
slightest allowance or remuneration, and have had to pay out of my 
own means the expenses of my various publications, to which on the 
faith of my promised subsidium I had committed myself; and when I 
have sent to the Portuguese Government copies of my works, I have 
never been gratified by the smallest expression of approval, or with 
any recognition of my self-sacrifice and devotion." 

It is only proper to put these facts on record, as they afford a clue 
to much of Dr. Welwitsch's conduct and character during the last few 
years of his life in London, JS'ot that he ever withdrew his hand 
from his work. He worked at his collections without intermission 
from early morning till late at night, in spite of frequent fevers and 
other reminders of his tropical life, and was indefatigable in keeping 
himself au courant with all that was published in botanical and 
entomological science, and naming and arranging his collections in 
accordance ; but he felt deeply the unworthy conduct of the Govern- 
ment of the country in whose service ho had sacrificed the best part of 
his life, and he became suspicious and averse to society. With 
the exception of a visit to Paris in 1867. in connection with the 



10 FEIEBRICH WELWITSCn. 

Exhibition there, for which he prepared the catalogue of the industrial 
products of the Portuguese section (in which will be found a great 
amount of previously unpublished matter), he has lived constantly in 
London, alone and absorbed in his work, in spite of ill-health sufficient 
to have caused most men to seek rest and quiet. It was not, however, 
till the summer of 1872 that there was any reason for anxiety. A fire 
at that time in the house where he lodged, and the narrow escape of 
his collections, which were scorched and blackened by the smoke, pro- 
duced a severe nervous shock, and soon after he became seriously ill. 
It soon became evident that his disease was a fatal one ; nevertheless, 
he continued to work, and the singular strength of his* constitution 
was exceedingly striking, but at last he was obliged to give up, and 
after a painful illness of about six weeks, during which he was cheered 
by the visits of some of his London botanical firiends, he died on the 
evening of the 20th October. The funeral at Kensal Green on the 
24th was attended by a number of scientific men and a representative 
of Portugal. 

Besides the memoirs and papers already mentioned on African 
Botany, Dr. Welwitsch, since his residence in London, published 
Beveral others, the most important of which is the Sertum Angohnse 
in the "Trans. Linn, Soc.,*' vol. xxvii. (1869), with twenty-five plates 
by Fitch. In this elaborate communication a number of the most 
interesting species are carefully and fully described, twelve new 
genera are founded, and forty-eight new species, and in the introduc- 
tion is a succinct account (in Latin) of the geography and climate of 
Angola and Benguela. 

There are also two papers in the "Journal of the Linn. Soc.," " On 
a remarkable Species of Cissud from the South of Benguela, &c., &c/^ 
(viii., p. 75), and " Observations on the Origin and Geographical 
Distribution of Gum Copal in Angola" (ix., p. 287), and a paper on 
Kid'c^^m Loranthacece in the "Gardener's Chronicle" for July 1st, 
1871. In conjunction with Mr. Currey he published the first part of 
Fu7igi Angohfises (Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. xxvi., p. 279), containing a 
number of new species. 

Though he is thus seen to have been himself far from what is 
called a publishing botanist, his collections have been the foundation 
of a number of monographs and memoirs by various authors. The 
"Plora of Tropical xlfrica^' has been already mentioned, as well as 
the account of WelwitscMa by Dr. Hooker. Besides these A. 
De CandoUe has monographed the Campanulacece in the Ann. 
des Sc. Nat. ; and Oliver the Lentihulariacece in the Jo urn. Linn. 
Soc, ix., p. 144. In our pages (vols. ii. and iii,), under the 
title of Welwitschii Iter Angohnse^ the EiiphorhiaceoB^ Hedtracem^ 
Bignoniace<B^ Aroidece, and Lemnaeece^ have formed the subject 
of a series of papers by J. Miiller, Seemann, Schott, and Hegelmaier, 
and there are isolated notices of other Angolan plants scattered 
through botanical literature. In the Cryptogams, Duby has care- 
fully monographed the Mosses in the Memoirs of the Natural History 
Society of Geneva for 1870-71, and Nylander has given an account of 
the Lichens in the " Bull. Soc Linneenne de Normandie " for 1869. 

The great importance of the African collections renders it a 
subject for unmixed satisfaction that the collector's own complete 



FEIEDiaCH WELWITSCH. 11 

series of them will, there' is every reason to believe, he retained in 
this country. Dr. Welwitsch having by will directed it to be offered at 
a fixed price to the British Museum. Of the sets, he directs the first 
two to go to the Portuguese Government, and another to the Academy of 
Lisbon ; the remaining sets are given to Dr. Schweinfurth, of Berlin, 
M. De Candolle, of Geneva, and the Botanical Museums of Berlin, 
Vienna, Paris, Copenhagen, Eio Janeiro, Carinthia, and Kew ; a set 
of the mosses is given to M, Duby, of Geneva. The distribution of 
the plants has been entrusted by the executors to Mr. Hiem, who, if 
necessary, will be assisted by Dr. Schweinfurth, of Berlin ; in connec- 
tion with this it is intended to print for distribution with the sets a 
named list of the whole collection, including such brief descriptions 
of, and notes upon the unpublished species as may be practicable and 
seem necessary. This will also be published in the pages of this 
Journal. The zoological collections will be treated in a similar manner. 

The whole of the general herbarium and the fine Lusitanian collec- 
tion, as well as all books and instruments, and Dr. Welwitsch's own 
series of African insects and mollusca, besides all other zoological 
specimens, are left to the Eoyal Academy of Sciences and Zoological 
Museum of Lisbon. Sets of the insects and mollusca are also 
"bequeathed to Dr. Peters, of Berlin, and to the Museum of Carinthia. 

In thus making his will in favour of Portugal, Dr, Welwitsch was 



form 



Botany 



that country ; and he has directed that all surplus specimens shall be 
sold and the proceeds given to the Portuguese Government for the 
pur])ose of endowing a conservator. Dr. Welwitsch concludes his 
** Instructions'* — and these are almost literally his last words; — "If 
any future Government of Portugal shall feel that they owe me and 
desire to make me any reparation, the way in which they can do so 
that would be most gratifying to me would be by fostering that herba- 
rium and museum of which I wish now to lay the foundation." 

The portrait prefixed to this notice is taken from a photograph 
by Messrs. MauU and Co., of Piccadilly. 

HeNET TjUilEN. 



€>riginai ^Irticlc^* 



THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT-AGENCY ON THE DISTRI- 
BUTION OF PLANTS. 

Br F. BucHAK-A^ White, M.D. 

In urging botanists to study the influence that insect-agency has 
upon the distribution of plants (see vol x., p. 334), Mr, Bennett 
points out a very interesting subject for investigation, and I trust 
that the readers of the Journal "wiU not lose sight of it. 

If Sphinx Cowro/r«/i" is the chief agent in the fertilisation of ConvoU 
vulus sepium^ then the reason why that plant seldom in Britain 



12 THE INPLUENCE OF INSECT -AGET^CT. 

perfects seed (as is said to be the case) is readily explained. The 
moth is rare in Britain, and I do not at present remember any 
record of its haying been seen visiting the flowers of Convolvulus^ 
though it is generally taten in the act of hovering over flowers, 
notably Petunia and honeysuckle. Though SjMnx ConvolvuU occurs 
throughout Britain (even beyond the range of Convolvulus, e.g., 
Orkney), yet it is most especially a southern insect, and perhaps that 
may account in some measure for the rarity in a wild state (at least 
in my experience) of Convolvulus sepium in Scotland. 

I)ianth(^cia (a genus of night-flying moths) must exert a great in- 
fluence upon the fertilisation (and consequent abundance) of Silene 
and Lychiis, In fact, the perpetuation of the race of these moths de- 
pends upon the fertilisation of the plants, since the larvae feed only 
upon the unripe seeds. This is a case somewhat similar to, though 
by no means so extraordinary as, that mentioned by Professor lliley at 
the last meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. Professor Riley showed how the fertilisation of Yucca de- 
pended on the agency of a moth, the female of which collects the 
pollen and places it on the stigma, for the express purpose that the 
larvae, produced from the eggs which she deposits on the ovary of the 
plant, may have a supply of unripe seeds to feed upon. In regard to 
Lychnis and Silene^ it is possible that if there were no Bianthvecm 
the plants might be more numerous, since other moths visit the flowers, 
though the DiantJioecicB are the chief visitors. Silene maritima is the 
most frequented species (it is, perhaps, worth remarking that it has 
also the largest flowers, and is, perhaps, the most numerous in indi- 
viduals — of course, in proportion to its restricted usually maritime 
habitat); Lychnis Flos-cucuU is more especially visited by Lianthmcia 
Cucuhali\ and Silene 0^/Y^s,aplantof the eastern counties, by -Dmw^A^t'z't^ 
irreyuhris. On the Continent this insect frequents Gypsophila pani- 
culata. I know of no insect visitors to Silene acaulis and Lychiis 
alpestris. Possibly, if Lychnis alpestris had more insect visitors, it 
might be more abundant on our mountains, though the peculiarities 
of the locality (in Forfarshire, at least) have doubtless something to do 
with its restricted range. 

It is probable that insects arc the agents in the production of the 
numerous hybrids that occur between species of the genus Cardtms^ 
on the flat horizontal top of whose heads various species of Lepidop- 
tera may often be seen. The downy bodies of these moths would 
readily convey pollen from one plant to another, and, when the plants 
were different species, hybridisation might be the result in a genus 
the species of which seem so liable to that phenomenon. Carduus 
Carolorum, which is supposed to be a hybrid between C, palustris and 
C, heterophyUus, may have been produced by the agency of TVichius 
fasciatus (a beetle belonging to the family Cetoniadce), whose thorax 
and underside are very shaggy, and which loves to bury its head and 
shoulders in the head of a thistle. This beetle is rather rare in Britain, 
but is not uncommon in the district where Carduus Carolorum was 
found. 

The species of Meligeihes (a genus of small beetles) inhabit flowers. 
M. Brisout, in UAheille (vol. viii., January, 1872) points out the 
flowers in which the various species are generally to be found. Amoug 



CAarEIUil AND MEBISTEM. l3 



these are Genista^ Galium^ Prunus sptnosa, Symphytum officinale^ 
Mercurialis perennis^ Trifolmm medkim^ Solamiyn Dulcamara^ MelilofuSj 
Cynoglossrim officinale ^ Lotus and other Leguminosce^ Lamium aJium^ 
GaleopsiSy Mentha^ Marrubium vulgarCj Nepeta Cataria, Ballota nigra, 
Teucrium Scorodonia^ Salvia and other 'Zaliatce, Many species affect 
only one kind of plant each, and in going from flower to flower cannot 
fail to carry pollen with then. Teucrium Scorodonia is a great favonrite 
with many nocturnal Lepidoptera^ and this, perhaps, partly accounts 
for the great number of individuals of this plant. Moths usually 
abound in places where the Teucrium grows. 

Many flower-frequenting night moths have more or less strongly 
developed crests of hairs on the thorax. Many flowers frequented by 
these moths have blossoms with mouths directed to the horizon (/.^., 
neither drooping nor facing the zenith), and stamens more or less 
exserted and ascending ; styles also more or less exserted. When a 
moth visits such a flower it either hovers in front of it and plunges its 
haustcllum into the corolla, or else rests on the flower and does the 
same. In either case it brushes the stamens with its thorax, and 
carries off unwittingly a supply of pollen to the next flower visited. 
Now, it is worth noting that some of the moths which hover (e.g., the 
PlusiidcE* and Cucullia) have very strongly developed thoracic crests, 
and that some flowers which are especially favourites with them have 
long exserted ascending stamens and styles {e.g, £chium vulgare and 
Lonicera Periclymenum). If the stamens in these plants were short, 
the*pollen would have little chance of being brushed off by the thorax 
of the moth, and It does not readily adhere (as the sticky pollen masses 
of the orchids do) to the haustellum, and if the thorax of the moth was 
smooth the pollen would not be so liable to be brushed off, even 
though the stamens are exserted ; whereas with exserted and ascend- 
ing stamens in the flower and crested thorax in the moth, we have 
every condition necessary to insure a greater or less quantity of pollen 
being conveyed from one plant to another. In the Lahiatcc the stamens, 
though so few, seem to be especially arranged in many species, that 
every chance maybe afforded of pollen being carried. In Ajuga repians 
and Teucrium Scorodonia the stamens are exserted and ascending, and 
are four in number — two long and two shorter. An insect therefore 
in plunging its head into the corolla would almost necessarily brush 
aU the four stamens. These plants are much visited by moths. 



CAMBIUM AKD MEEISTEM. 
By W- E. McNab, M.D., 



Ptofi 



In considering the structure of stems, it is of primary importance 
to have definite ideas regarding the tissue which increases by division 
of its cells, and thus adds to the bulk of the whole. Much obscuiity 
seems to exist regarding this matter, and the present paper may be 
taken as an attempt to clear up some of the more doubtful points. 

* Ilave also crested heads. 



14 



CAIIBITIM AKD MEEISTEil. 



All tissue capable of multiplying by division was described by 
bchleiden, Schaebt, and others as camlium. Ifaegeli* perceived that 
there was a marked distinction between the cambium of the fibro- 
vascular bundles and the parenchymatous tissue of which all the 
organs of higher plants at first consist, and which is capable of 
dividing. To this form he gave the name meristem. Meristem and 
cambium, Recording to Iv^aegeli, differ in the form and mode of growth 
ot their ceUs, m the direction in which they divide, and in the nature 
ot the permanent tissue formed by them, megeli, however, called 
the tissue of the young fibro-vascular bundle cambium, as well as the 
cells which remain capable of division between the xylem and 
phloem part^of each fibro-vascular bundle. It was to this latter that 
baniof restricted the term cambium, and in this he is followed by 
foachs.J The latter author distinguishes between the tissue of the 
young fibro-vascular bundle and the cambium of Sanio, giving to the 
termer the name procambium. 

Procambium, then, is the tissue of the young fibro-vascular bundle 
before it beconaes difi-erentiated into the various forms of permanent 
tissue. Cambium, on the other hand, is that zone of tissue between the 
xylem and phloem part of the fibro-vascular bundles of dicotyledons and 
archi(=gymno) sperms on which the circumferential growth of the stems 
mainly depends. The meristem found in the youngest condition of all 
OTgans of higher plants maybe called primitive meristem (urmeristem, 
JNaegeli), to distinguish it from certain portions which remain over 
after the conversion of the majority of the cells into permanent tis'sue. 
Ihis we may simply call meristem (folgemeristem , Nacgeli), the 
menstem beanng to primitive meristem the same relation that cam- 
bium does to procambium. Naegeli distinguished between the meri- 
stem m the cortical region and the meristem in the medullary rays, 
applying to the former the term phellogen. 

If we take Hanstein's § researches on the development of the 
embryo, we find that the embryonic tissues at a very early period 
become distmgui^able into three series ; in other words, the primi- 
tive menstem differentiates into dermatogen, periblem, and plerom. 
J^ rom the dermatogen the permanent epidermal cells are formed the 
tnchome mother cells (hairs), and also the chief portion of the 
pdeorhiza of the root. The cells of the periblem and plerom are 



arran 



hile the plerom form 



«imu lue pierom lorms tHe pericambium, procambium, and pith. The 
pencambium, which is a single layer of ceUs, exists only in roots, and 
separates the penblem from the plerom-being, in fact, the external 
layer ot the plerom. 

The plerom, by further development, gives rise to the fibro- 
vascular bundles and pith, which we may group together as forming 
the plerom tissues. The cortical layers-^'..., all between the plerom 
and epidermis— we may call periblem tissues ; and the epiclermis, 
with Its appendages, we may consider as dermatogen tissues— a very 
convenient and at the sMmfi fimA « fi.^.«„„i.i„ „„:„„i.:£ 7-^ 



• Beithige zur Wiss. Boianik, i., p. 2. 

t Bot. ZeituEg 18C3, p. 362. % Lehrbuch, ed. 2, p. 90 



CAMBrUM AND MEMSTEM. l5 

1 

In considering the different forms of stems, it is of the greatest 
importance to bear in mind the distinctions between meristem and 
cambinm. Thus in a dicotyledon "we have camhium, and two kinds 
of meristem, all containing cells capable of multiplying by division. 
There is the phellogen, or cortical meristem, the meristem forming the 
medullary rays, and the cambium of the fibro-vascular bundles. The 
phellogen is thus the meristem layer of the periblem tissues, the 
meristem of the medullary rays that of the plerom. The cambium 
cylinder of the dicotyledon is thus a compound structure consisting of 
the cambium of the fibro-vascular bundles and the meristem of the 
medullary rays (strahlenmoristem, I^'aegeli), or, in other words, the 
cambium cylinder so called is made up of the cambium of the fibro-vas- 
cular bundles and the plerom meristem. The circumferential growth of 
the dicotyledon and archisperm depends then on the simultaneous 
development of new cells in the cambium and meristem, the whole 
forming a uniform zone, while the bark increases in thickness by the 
formation of new cells (chiefly cork) by the periblem meristem. 

In monocotyledons the procambium does not form cambium, the 
whole of the tissue forming the permanent cells and vessels of the 
bundle. In some stems the plerom meristem layer is well developed, 
as, for example, in Draccena,'^ In monocotyledons the periblem tissues 
are but slightly developed. !N'ear the periphery of the stem of 
Draeccna^ division of the cells of the plerom meristem may be seen, 
thus causing the stem to increase in diameter. As in the dicotyledon 
the plerom meristem forms the procambium strings, from which the 
fibro-vascular bundles develope, so in Bracmna new procambium 
strings form, and thus both plerom parenchyma (pith) and new fibro- 
vascular bundles, with their varied forms of tissue, are produced. 

In Tascular cryptogams no dermatogen forms, the two elements, 
plerom and periblem, alone existing. The plerom tissues seem early 
to pass into permanent tissue, no cambium or meristem remaining. 
The periblem tissues are, however, largely developed. The external 
layer differentiates into an epidermis with its appendages, while the 
periblem meristem may be largely developed, as in Isoefes, in which 
circumferential growth is seen to take place. 

In the gigantic fossil vascular cryptogams of the Coal period it 
seems to me that like the recent forms cambixim and plerom meristem 
are wanting, but the periblem meristem was yery active, and thus 
the stems increased greatly in size. To say that this growth is 
exogenous, meaning that the growth resembles that of a dicotyledon 
or archisperm, seems a mistake, because it is on the periblem 
meristem, and not on the cambium and plerom meristem, that the 
growth depends. In most archisperms, as in the vascular cryptogams, 
no dermatogen is formed, the primitive meristem differentiating into 
periblem and plerom only- 
Sachs f divides the tissues of plants into three groups — epidermal 
tissues, fibro-vascular bundles, and primitive tissue (grundgewcbe). 
The latter form must be abandoned, because it belongs both to 
the periblem and plerom, and I believe the most satisfactory divi- 

I 

* Sachs' Lchrbuoh, ed. 2, p. 103, fig, 90. 
t Lchrbuch, ed, 2, p. 74, et seq. 



16 y-EW PEKXS JTIIOM LORD KOWe's ISEA^^B. 

si on of tissues will be as' I have just indicated into dermatogen, 
periblem, and plerom tissues, all possessing certain forms of cells 
in common, as all arise from an originally similar tissue. 



NEW TEENS FROM LOED HOWE^S ISLAND. 

Ey J. G. Eakee, F.L.S. 

DmrN-G the recent expedition to Lord Howe's Island from 
Australia to study the eclipse, two interesting new ferns were dis- 
covered, of which specimens have been sent to England by Mr. Charles 
Moore, of Sydney. These are — 

ToDEA (Leptopteris) Moorei, Baler: frondibus magnis oblongo- 
deltoideis tripinnatifidis, pinnis imbricatis oblongo-lanceolatis, in- 
ferioribus centralibus paulo minoribus leviter deflexis, pinnulis 
lanceolatis, segmentis late ligulatis vel infimis subcuneato-flabellatis 
apice 3 — 5 crenatis, venulis in segmentis 3 — 5. 

Lord Howe^s Island, summit of Mount Gower.— Eclipse expidetion. 
1871. t t y 

Intermediate in cutting between the Australian T. Fraseri and 
New Zealand T. hymenophylloides^ but larger than either, if the 
specimen be fairly representative, so that it would be a very effective 
addition to our series of Ferns in cultivation if living plants could be 
procured. Caudex and stipe not sent. Frond a foot and a half long 
by a foot broad, oblong-deltoid, quite similar in texture to the already- 
known species,^both surfaces and rachises quite glabrous and naked. 
Pinnae much imbricated, those below the centre of the frond the 
largest, oblong-lanceolate, half-foot long by two inches broad, all ex- 
cept the lowest spreading horizontally, these latter rather shorter 
and a little deflexed, as in liymenophylloides and Fraseriy not distant 
and dwindling down to a very small size very gradually, as in superha. 
Eachis of the pinna) winged in the upper third, wingless lower down. 

lies so close as to be rather imbricated, lanceolate, the most 
aeveioped an inch long, sessile, nearly equally cuneate or subtruncate 
at the base, cut down nearly to the midrib into contiguous erecto- 
patent segments, most of which are strap-shaped, about a line broad, 
but the lowest subcuneato-flabellate, one-eighth of an inch broad, fur- 
nished with 3 — 5 shallow crenations on the outer border. Sori confined 
to the vicinity of the midrib in the lower part of the pinnules. 

Perhaps I can make it most easily understood that the extent of 
cutting is the same as that of the well-known New Zealand 
hjmenophylhides , but that here the whole frond, separate pinn^, and 



mn 



ternary 



seements 



^ __ J ^ — 

In JiymenopJiylloidea 



the pinnse are lanceolate and about half as broad, and the ternary 
segments are about a quarter of a line broad, simple, or the lowest 
rarely forked with a single central vein ; whilst in the new species 
they are from a line to an eighth of an inch broad, containing 3—5 

veins, each ending: in one ofthe little termimil rrr>n.itinn«. 



LOKB 



17 



ft 

AsPLENiUM (Darea) pteridoides, BaJccT : stipitibus nudis com- 
pressis viridibus, frondibus oblongo-deltoideis tripinnatifidis glabris 
nudis^ magnitudine mediocribus viridibus crassiusc ulis, pinnia in- 
ferioribus deltoideis basi ingequilateraliter cuneatis superioribus sensiiu 
brevioribus, pinnulis rhomboideis sessilibus, dimidio inferiore integris 
Bubaequaliter cuneatis, dimidio superiore segmentis paucis brevibus 
■ligulatis obtusis integris ascendentibus instructis, venulis erecto- 
patentibus in segmentis tortiariis solitariis centralibus, soris simplicibus 
elongatis (36 lin. longis) submarginalibus, semper extrorsum apertis. 

With the preceding. 

Caudex not seen. Stipe naked, green, short, compressed. Frond 

oblongo-deltoid, under a foot long by half a foot broad, tripinnatifid, 

green, glabrous, naked, rather fleshy in texture. Main rachis green' 

flattened, naked, winged in the upper half of the frond. Lower 

pinnae deltoid, the lowest slightly shorter and broader than the two 

next, distinctly stipitate, 2\ — 3 inches longby 1^— 2 inches broad, 

unequally deltoid- cuneate at the base, sometimes more produced on 

the lower, sometimes on the upper side, cut down to a narrowly. 

winged midrib, and in the upper half to a broadly-winged midrib. 

"Upper pinnae sessile lanceolate, most of them simple erecto-patent 

ligulate truncate. Lowest pinnules rhomboid ^— f of an inch broad, 

subequally cuneate and quite entire in the lower half, the upper half 

furnished with several short erecto-patent strap-shaped blunt lobes, 

of which the lower are forked at the tip, the upper entire. Veining 

distinct, the erecto-patent venules of the pinnules running up one into 

the centre of each lobe to its apex. Sori linear, placed only on the 

outermost venules of the pinnules and reaching to the edge of the 

lobes,^ never forked or confluent, those of the lowerhalfof the pinnules 

reaching half an inch, those of the lobed upper half one quarter of au 

inch in length. Involucre distinct, persistent, membranous, brownish 
glabrous. < ' 

A very distinct plant, looking at the first glance more like a Fteris 

than an Asplenium. In colour, texture, and cutting it most resembles 

some of the forms of Asplenium lulhtferum, from which it diff^ers 

totally in its long, always submarginal sori. The truncate ligulate 

lobes of the upper part of the major divisions are like those of 

fiaccidum^ but the sori are very different, and the main pinn© are 

deltoid, not lanceolate, growing much more compound in the lower 

half. There is an uncut space of 3—4 lines across the centre of the 

pinnules, which gives it a totally different aspect from that of any 

Darea already known. The sori face outwards, and there is sometimes 

one on each side of a lobe, and sometimes the sori of two different 

lobes are contiguous and open out face to face in a way that shows an 

affinity with Scoloj^endrium^ and giv^s the plant a distinct habit of 
its own. 

L 

r" 

The same collection contains what I believe to be a new Lastrea 
near recedens and velutinum^ but the specimen is scarcely full enough 
to characterise it clearly in a group where the forma approach 
closely to one another. 



c 



18 JSnOKT KOTES AND QTTERIES. 



SHORT NOTES AND QUERIES. 

L 

Jebset Plants. — Mr. Piquet, well known to have an intimate 
knowledge of Sarnian Botany, has sent two plants of great interest 
from the west coast of Jersey. Centaurea panictilata, L., which was 
first discovered by him eighteen years ago in very small quantity, 
he has had the good fortune to rediscover last summer in great 
abundance. Few botanists have seen specimens from Jersey (see the 
Floras of Babington, Boswell Syme, and J. D. Hooker). The locality 
is a very desolate spot north of St. Ouen's Pond, on barren sandy 
hillsides, where it is so abundant as to render the place literally 
purple with its flowers. So unpromising did these hills look, that 
Mr. Piquet had never thought them worth visiting during the many 
years he has botanised in the island, yet the original locality was at the 
foot of the very hills where the plant is now so abundant, so that, as 
he remarks, it is very strange that in the long interval he had never 
again met with it. He adds, '* It appears to me that the plants I 
discovered eighteen years ago must lave come from seeds wafted 
down by the wind, and that the Centaurea has been growing there ever 
since. The district consists of loose sand, and is far from any culti- 
vated ground; the prevailing plants there are Matthiola sinuata, 
Sinapis ineana^ Cahile maritimay JPicrts Meracioides^ Ammophla 
arundinaceaj Eiiphorhia Portlandica^ &c. ; Centaurea Isnardi is also 
common there. With C. paniculata Mr. Piquet has also forwarded 
specimens of a Scaliom^ which was found growing with the Centaurea. 
This appears to be S. maritimay a plant which has not been, so far as 
I know, ever recorded in western France, though it occurs in Portugal 
and throughout the Mediten-anean region. The specimens are about 
three feet high, very upright, and branched, with heads of pale blue 
scentless flowers, resembling S. Coluynlan'a, but smaller. In spite of 
the flowers, the best authors consider S. marithna as specifically 
the same as the S. atro-purpurea so common in gardens, which may 
be considered as a cultivated race, of which S. maritima is the wild 
original. Taking into consideration the known European range of 
this plant, and how commonly cultivated is 8. atro-purpurea^ 
it seems most probable that the Jersey maritime Scabiotis is 
not truly indigenous there. It is right, however, to say that Mr. 
Piquet thinks it native, and his experience must be allowed due 
weight. "With reference to C. paniculataj there is great room for 
difference of opinion as to whether it can be indigenous to the 
Channel Islands, though it is more probably so than 8. maritima^ 
— Henky TjuaiEN". 



Mai^^chesibe Plants (vol. x., p. 376). — I do not see that there ifl 
any ground for surprise that a given plant should be plentiful fifteen 
miles from Manchester, and yet seen nowhere nearer, or so sparingly 
as scarcely ever to be observed. Tliere are plenty of examples of 
plants occurring in a meadow upon one side of a watercourse, and 
being absent from the field on the contrary side, in consequence prob- 
ably of some considerable difference in the soil, liot fur from where 



SirOHT NOTES AND QUERTRS, 19 

I am writing (Manchester), the brook establishes a boundary so com- 
plete along the edge of the clay upon the one hand, and the sandy 
surlace-soil upon the other, that the occupiers of the gardens upon the 
respectiye sides know quite well what to provide for, merely by 
noting upon which side of the water they are situate. Between 
Manchester and Newton intervenes that vast and dreary expanse of 
wet moor known as Chat Moss, and it is quite possible that this may 
operate as some kind of barrier to the community of Florula. Besides 
to be fifteen miles off is scarcely to be "near." By "near," when 
talking of a Florula, I understood much the same area as tha't of the 
London Post-office district, the City "and twelve miles round." A 
piece of country twenty-four miles across from north to south, and from 
east to west, is plenty for a botanist to consider his local estate 
When he travels beyond twelve miles in any direction from home, he is 
almost sure to enter upon something novel both in the geology and 
the vegetation. I may add that not only does MentTia arvensis occur 
abundantly near Manchester, but also Mentha hirsuta ; their names 
were accidentally omitted in my paper.— Leo Geindon. 



Ettehth-chium; pe^longum 
EurJiynchmm prcdongum of th 



Bypnu 



Hypnum 



prcElongtim of DiUenius, xxxv., 15, A; having interruptedly 
pinnate stems, the leaves of the main stems wide-spreading and 
squarrose, triangular-cordate, amplexicaul below, suddenly tapering 
above into narrow points ; the leaves of the branches erecto-patent, 
ovate, or ovato-lanceolate, acuminate ; in aU points exactly as admi- 
""Tl ^f].. ^n? ^*^s«"^ed in Bryologia Europ^a, under the name 
ot ^. btokestt, lumer. At the same time the description and figures 
ot A. pra;longum of that work afford a correct representation of j^ 
^wartzn, Turner, and it would seem that the authors of that great 

.T^'^^r®. ^®^f ^""^^^^ ^°^° ^^ ^™' through non-acquaintance with 
the .UiUenian herbarium. The real S. Stolesii o? Tnmpr nT^r^o«ro 



known 



H. prcelonqnm. Dill 



1 have JJforth of England and Irish specimens that seem halfway steps 
to It, but none that correspond quite to my notions of the real thin^ 



SWELL 



MossEs-Q or Cinchona Babks.— Mr 



Br. Hooker, dated Ootacamund, Oct. 24, 1872, says:— "The mossing 
improves the true bark but slightly on trees that are old enough for 
barking, and the increase of value will probably not pay the expenses. 
±Jy taking the bark and allowing it to renew under moss, a great check. 
18 given to the growth of the. tree, but the bark usually grows again- 
Ihe second time it is taken the renewal is quite uncertain, andaccordt 
mg to my experience the tree is often damaged by the bark no- 



renewing. 



quarter the thickness of that on an untouched tree nine years old. 
ibe analysis compared with the latter I will quote : 

c 2 



20 SHOKT KOTi:S AND QUTEIES. 

I 

Untouched tree. Renewed bark, 

H I 

Total alkaloids 6-36 per cent. 6-39 per cent. 

Quinine ^ 1-36 3-21 

Cinchonidine and Cinchonine 5*00 3" 18 

I have carried the analysis further, hut that will be enough for the 
purpose. The renewed bark can scarcely be removed from the 
tree. It does not differ essentially from bark which renews without 
moss. At present I am averse to the process, and do not think it can 
compare with coppicing. It requires much care, and can only be 
successfully performed in weather when it is too wet to dry the bark 
out of doors. The mossed bark sold at a lower price (28. 3d.) than 
the unmossed (23. lOd.) on account of its inferior appearance, but this 

is not a permanent objection, as it really was slightly better 

I have not reported yet on the matter of mossing, but my opinion is 
adverse to its application to C. sucdrubra.'*^ 



EcHiTJM viOLACrxM. — Under this name Mr. Edward [KTewman, in 
the Fields r^CGT^B the discovery of the Channel Islands plant "in 
some abundance near the Land's End, by Mr. Ralfs, of Penzance." 
He adds that "the high reputation of Mr, Ealfs as a botanist pre- 
cludes the possibility of a mistake in this instance." 



Gladiolits iLLTSxcxrs, Koch. — The re-discovery of this plant in the 
Isle of "Wight cannot faU to possess much interest and weight in the 
question whether or not it is to be considered indigenous there. Erom 



findin 



Linnean 



p. 177, it appears that the only specimen found, which is now in the 
herbarium of the Isle of Wight Philosophical Society at Eydc, was 
gathered in America "Woods, near Shanldin, in 1855, and since that 
date the plant has not been observed in the Isle of Wight. A plant 
was sent to me this summer gathered amongst bracken on Lake 
Common, near the Sandown waterworks,* by a lady who found several 
specimens growing there, which Dr. Boswell Syrae and Mr. A. G. 
More agree with me is Gladiolus illyricus. The habitat agrees well 
with the opinion expressed by Dr. Trimen and Professor Dyer, in 
their note on the New Forest plant (Joum. Bot., ii., p. 280), which, 
according to their observations, ** seems to prefer dry, open, unshel- 
tered spots on a sandy soil to sylvan situations, and this agrees with 
Continental habitats." There is therefore some probability 
plant is really native in the Isle of Wight. — Eeed. Stjiattok". 



that 



^ " BoTAinr"^(vol.Ix.,pp, 114, 303).—W. Coles, in his" Perspicillum 
Microcosmologicum " (1656), uses this word in the modem sense. In 
the address to the reader he says, referring to his "Art of Simpling, 
an Introduction to the Knowledge and Gathering of Plants:" 
" Having already presented thee with one of the Handmaids of Physick, 
which is Botany^ I conceive it not altogether impertinent to propose 
another, and that is Anatomy ^ This word is used in the same sense 
in the preface to his " Art of Simpling."— W. Carrttthers. 



LILIUM THUNBEKGIANTTM. 21 

Lepidium Duaba, Z., in South Hants. — This plant, the intro- 
duction of which has been affirmed to be one of the results of the ill- 
fated Walcheren Expedition (Joum. Bot., iv., 260), appears to have 
become perfectly established in the neighbourhood of Portsmouth and 
Southsea- I found it plentifully last summer close to Southsea Castle, 
also in fields and waste ground at the eastern end of the Common, and 
extending as far as Eastney Barracks. In a list of Hampshire plants 
just^ received from Mr. R, A. Pryor this Lepidium ia mentioned aa 
having been abundant in the same locality in 1868-9. In Watson's 
Compendium of the Cybele Britannica, p, 481, the note as to this 
species should be amended by the addition of Province 2. — Febd. I. 
Waener. 



<ejcttaft^ aiib "m^tx&tt^. 



ENUMERATION OF THE CFLTIYATED VARIETIES OF 

LILIUM THUNBERGIANUM. 

h 

By J. G. Bakeb, F.L.S., and W, T. Thiselton Dtee. B.A.. B.Sc. 



F.L.S. 



There 



first 
and after Z. hulhih 



lulhiferum. They 



In general terms, Z. Thunlergianum admits of being diatingushed 
from the other three subspecies by— 1, its dwarfer habit and fewer 
broader leaves ; 2, the absence of bulbs in the leaf axils ; 3, the 
absence of cotton^ on the pedicels and outside of the flower ; 4, the 

ien solitary flowers, which are much less lamellate and 



papillose. 



following 



nomenclature of the different forms. The descriptions have been 
principally drawn up from plants grown by Messrs Barr and Sngden 
at their grounds at Tooting, and we are indebted to the kindness of 
Mr, Barr for the opportunity of examining them. 

1. Thunhergianum {^xo^eT\ Lindl, Bot. Heg., xxv., 1839, t. 38. 
— The plant figured by Maund, t. 158, and Z. aurantiacum, Paxton's 
Mag., vi., p. 127, are similar forms. Mr, Barr's plant diflfera in its 
shorter leaves, glabrous stem, less widely expanded flower, with fewer 
spots and longer filaments. 

2. Irevifolium, Nob. ; Thunlergianum. Hort. Barr. 



under 



throughout. Leaves about 30, lanceolate 



green, glabrous; the lower 2—2\ inches long, the upper 1 — 1^ inch; 
all f— J inch broad. Flower solitary, 3 inches deep, the divisions 
imbricating, and not so spreading as in typical Thunlergianum (Bot. 
Keg.) when fully expanded: inner, 11 inch, outer 1 inch broad at the 



-> 



22 LILIL'M THUNBEKGlAXtTM. 

middle, rather pale uniform scarlet ; upper three-quarters of each 
plain and concolorous, lower quarter with a few small black raised 
papillose spots, very slightly lamellate, and the groove densely hairy. 
Filaments 2^ inches long ; anthers 4|- — 5 line's ; pollen hright scarlet. 
Ovary clavate, 1 inch long ; style scarlet, 20 — 21 lines. 

3. ItcoIoTf Moore, Flor. Mag., t. 104. — Stem under a foot, quite 
glabrous, purple at the base, green above. Leaves about 40, more 
crowded and narrower than in 2 ; lower linear, 3 inches long, f — J inch 
broad, with generally three distinct nerves on each side of the midrib, 
uppermost lanceolate, f — | inch broad. Flowers 1 — 2, 8^ inches deep, 
divisions imbricating when expanded, inner 18 — 21 lines broad, outer 
14 — 15 lines broad at the middle, crimson or scarlet towards the edge, 
but with a dash of orange-yellow down the middle ; a few faint 
spots, lamellse and concolorous papillae down the lower quarter, groove 
less than 1 inch long, with hairy raised edges. Filaments 2J inches 
long;^ anthers nearly ^ inch. Ovary ^ — 1 inch; style 20 — 21 lines. 
To this form is apparently to be referred Z. auranitaeum, Hort. Krelagc, 
and Z. pictum, Hort. Siebold. 

4. JFilsoni, Leichtlin, pardinum, Moore, Flor. and Pom. 1868, p. 
121, cum tab. — Mr. Moore suspects this to be a hybrid. The general 
character of the flower approaches hicolor in the imbricating divisions 
with a lighter central dash of colour. It differs, however, from all the 
other forms in its height, which is about 3 feet, and its flowers in a 
compound umbel. Something, however, must be allowed for the effect 
of cultivation. 

5. alutaceumy I^ob. ; Thunlergianum aureum mgro-maculattim^ Fl. d. 
Serres, t. 1627. — Stem under a foot. Leaves about 30, lower 2 — 2^ 
inches long, f — | inch broad, upper lanceolate, l^ — 2 inches long, 
I — I inch broad. Flower solitary, 3 inches deep, the divisions not 
imbricating when fully expanded, inner 12—13 lines, outer 9—10 
lines broad at the middle, pale apricot colour throughout, with copious 
small purple black spots in the lower half, nearly obsolete himell® 
and papillae, edges of the groove less raised than in 2 and 3. 

6. armeniactm y IS db . ; vetiustum, Hort. Barr. — Stem 1 foot. Leaves 
30—40; lower linear, 3 inches long, 4 — 5 lines broad, uppermost 
rather shorter and broader. Flowers 1—2, the divisions 2J inches 
long, not imbricating when fully expanded, inner 1 inch, outer f inch 
broad at the middle, face quite destitute of spots, lamellae or papill£e, 
the groove 8—9 lines long, with hairy edges. Filaments 1 J inch, pale 
scarlet ; anthers f inch. Ovary | inch ; style 13—14 lines. 

Z. citrinum, Hort. "Wilson, appears to be a form nearly related to 
this. It was shown at Birmingham, but we have not had the oppor- 
tunity of comparing it side by side with armeniacum. A luxuriant 
groyrth is characteristic of Mr. Wilson's treatment of Lilies ; the fol- 
lowing notes are not, therefore, strictly comparable with those given 

for the other forms.— Stem 2J feet, green. Leaves about 30, 3^ 5 

inches long, i—1 inch wide, 3—5 veined; uppermost rather shorter, 
IJ inch wide, about 7-veined. Bracts lanceolate, 1^ inch long. 
Flowers 3, divisions not overlapping when fully expanded, concolorous, 

destitute of spots. 

7. sanyumeum, Hort. ; hiligulatumy Hort. ; lateritium, Bull Cat.— 
Stem 12 — 16 inches, purple towards the base. Leaves about 40, 



tK 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 23 

i 

lanceolate, 2^—2^ Inches long, f — f incli broad. Flowers. 1 — 2, the 
divisions 4 inches long, not imbricating when fully expanded, inner 
16 — 18 lines, outer 12 — 13 lines broad at the middle, deep scarlet, 
obscurely mottled with reddish-yellow, a few scattered black spots in 
the lower half above the claw ; papillas and lamellae nearly obsolete, 
hairy groove an inch long, the raised edges of the keel visible up to 
the tip. Filaments nearly 3 inches long, deep crimson in the upper 
half; anthers under i inch. Ovary 13 — 14 lines; style 2 inches* 
This does not substantially differ from L. sanguineum^ Bot. Eeg, 

xxxii., t. 50* 

8. atrosanguineum^ Nob. — Stem 15 — 18 inches, green throughout. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, 2 — 2J inches long, \ — f inch broad, upper- 
most ovate, 1 inch broad. Flower solitary, 3 — 3;^ inches deep, divisions 
imbricating when fully expanded, inner 18 — 20 lines, outer 13 — 14 
lines broad at the middle, very dark crimson, rather paler towards the 
tip, lower half with copious scattered small immersed oblong nearly 
black spots and numerous, but not conspicuous, papillae and lamellae, 
hairy groove less than 1 inch. Filaments 1\ inches, deep crimson; 
anthers f inch. Ovary, f inch ; style under 2 inches, deep crimson, 
Z. JuEmatochroumy Lem, 111. Hort., t. 503, appears to be a still darker- 
flowered state of this. 

9. fulgensy Hort. — Stem above a foot, purple near the base. Leaves 
up to 40, linear, 2^—3 inches long, 4 — 5 lines broad, distinctly S- 



nerved- Bracts lanceolate, \l — 2 inches long, f — f inch broad* 



Flowers 4 — 6, the divisions 3 inches deep, not imbricating when fully 
expanded, inner 12 — 14 lines, outer 9 — 10 lines broad at the middle, 
deep crimson spots, papillae and lamellae very nearly obsolete, hairy 
groove I — I inch long. Filaments under 2 inches long, deep crimson ; 
anthers 4 lines. Ovary |- — | inch; style crimson, IJ inch. By its 
taller stem, linear leaves, and numerous flowers, this recedes markedly 
from Z. Thunhergianum in the direction of Z. davurictim. Z. venustum, 
Fl* d. Scrres, t. 657, agrees with this in habit, but the flower is 
orange -scarlet, not so deep in colour. Z.fulgens'^ var. staminosum^ Lem* 
111. Hort., t. 422, is this in a *' double form." 

Mr. Bull's recently introduced marmoratum and punctatum we have 
not seen. The first is probably a variety of licolor^ and the latter 
possibly of atrosanguineum. — [Extracted from Gardener^s Chronicle^ 
Oct. 12, 1872, p. 1356, with corrections.] 



NoticcjEf of ^ooh0. 



Primitta Monographic Rosarum (Materiaux pour aervir a V histoire des 
Roaes). Par F. Crepin. Deuxieme fascicule. Gand. Annoot-Braeckmam 
1872. (8vo., pp. 133.) 

Ik this work M. Crepin pursues his careful and elaborate study of 
the Eoses. The greater part of the present brochure is taken up by 
the investigation of the specimens in the herbarium of Willdenow, 
which he reviews and pronounces upon one by one. The principal 



24 KOTICES OF BOOKS. 



point elicited of interest to us in Britain, is that lie Bhows clearly, 
partly by evidence drawn from specimens and partly from 
published records, that "Willdenow in characterising Rosa 
moUmima had no clear idea of the plant to "which Fries afterwards 
applied the name, which does not exist at all in the neighbourhood of 
Berlin ; and that therefore Smith's specific name of mollis has 
priority, and ought to be adopted. In his "considerations on the 
study of Roses," which follow next, he combats the generally re- 
ceived notion of the excessive polymorphism of the Eose-species. In 
the views which he expresses upon this matter I am not prepared to 
coincide, but his note at the end on the solidarity of characters and 
the existence of parallel variations is so excellent, and shows so well 
the grasp and judgment that govern his researches, that I must ex- 
tract it : — 

" Already in 1861, in the preface to the first edition of the Manual 
of the Belgian Flora, I have said a few words on the solidarity of 
characters. By solidarity of characters I mean the correlation which 
exists between characters that manifest themselves in different organs 
of the same plant. I will cite an example to explain more clearly what 
I mean. Thus in Eoses when glands appear we see them manifested on 
the lower face of the leaves, the stipules and bracts, on the petioles, the 
pedicels, the receptacle, and the sepals ; and if they are more intense 
they reach the upper surface of the foliar organs. Many writers see 
in these different seats of glandulosity a series of distinctive characters, 
whereas there really exists only one- Predominance of glandulosity 
in Eoses is usually linked with double-toothing of the leaves. Yillo- 
sity in the genus offers the same phenomena as glandulosity. On the 
other hand, a certain amount of hypertrophy or atrophy falling short 
of monstrosity, elongation, dwarfness, giantism, are in their turn 'the 
source of modifications which are spread through the different organs 
modifications linked to one another, which some writers look upon as 
several characters instead of one which disappears from all the organs, 
when the causes which produce it cease to exist- It is certainly in 
part from an ignorance of these general facts that we owe the creation 
of a crowd of the minor species which have only a mere book exis- 
tence."— (p. 112.) 

The remainder of the brochure is taken up by a detailed review of 
three recent publications on the genus — Godet's account of the Jurassic 
Eoses in his supplement of 1869 to his "Flore du Jura Suisse et 
Fran^ais"; Scheutis's Studies of the Scandinavian Eoses, Wexio, 1872, 
a valuable monograph, but unfortunately in Swedish ; of the diagnoses 
of the new forms described in which M. Cr^pin here gives translations 
into Latin ; and my own monograph of the British species published 
in 1870, in the eleventh volume of the Journal of the Linnean Society. 
Of my general plan of species-limitation he expresses full approval. 
Most of his criticisms on points of detail are certaiiily well founded. He 
proposes to alter two of my names for primary species — mollis^ Smith, 
instead ofmollhstmay "Willd., for reasons already cited ; and inodora. Fries, 
instead ofpuherulenta, M.B., on the ground that my plant, which is 

certainly the ^wZf^rwZ^w^a of iiindley's monograph, is not identical with 
that described by Bieberstein, from the Caucasus, M. Boissier told 
mc the same thing immediately he saw my paper, and M. Crcpin now 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 25 

confirms tils, and further adds that Lindley after the publication of 
his monograph admitted that such was the case, and that he gave 
our plant (in specimens sent to Martins) the manuscript name of 
R. pruinosa. M. hihernica M. Crepin is disposed to regard as a hybrid 
between spinosissima and canina. Here I do not think he is correct, 
as it 18 well-marked in habit, and does not show any tendency to shade 
off by degrees into either of its suggested parents ; but it is curious 
that it should be so widely spread in Britain, and yet be entirely un- 
known on the Continent. J. g. Bakek. 



.1 



Supplement to the Compendium of Cybeh Britannicaj thoioing the 
dutribution of British Plants through the thirty -eight Sub-provinces. 
Memg also a second supplement to Cyhele Britannica (the original work. 

tnfour volumesj. By Hewett Cottrell Watson, Thames Ditton. 
Printed for private distribution only. 1872. (pp. 213.) 

The title of Mr. Watson's latest contribution to the Botanical 
Geography of Britain is sufficiently exact to prevent any misunder- 
Btandmg as to its scope and the position it bears to his other works 
Two years have elapsed since the completion of the valuable " Com- 
pendium," published in three "Parts," in the years 1868, 1869, 1870 
each of which was duly noticed in these pages. In that work the 
species of British plants were traced simply through the eighteen 
pnmary "provinces " into which the author divides Great Britain. It 
was m fact a condensed and amended edition of the original Cybele. 
?K-r!, , J^PPlf ^^e^V>lllc^ appeared in 1860, the distribution was ex- 
hibited through the thirty-eight " sub-provinces," and in the work be- 
fore us this 13 again done in greater detail and brought up to the end of 
the year 1870. This has been fixed on by the author as " a definite 
date up to which he may deem his works brought in a general view " 
and beyond which "neither in this second supplement nor in any 
ppssible subsequent work of kindred character" will he attempt to 
advance ; except that any special discoveries brought under his notice 
by botanical correspondents wiU be taken into account. This prob- 
ably means that all matter bearing on British topographical botany 
puiltshed during the past two years— which as the pages of this 
Journal show have been veiy prolific both of new species and 
locahties-wiU be left unnoticed unless the facts may have also been 
brought to Mr Watson's knowledge by verbal or written communi- 
cations from other botanists. It seems important to remember tHs in 
using the volume. 

The author's remarkable powers of judicious concentration of his 



very 



In 



,,ine secona portion will be presently aUuded to), the whole space 
allotted to each species is but two lines, so that seventeen are included 
m each page. The first line consists of the 



am 



.o.^ »ci,uuu giY^B tue numoers representing the sub-provinces in which 
It has been ascertained to grow. When these do not occupy the 
Whole line, the space left is often filled by necessarily brief notes or 



26 -KOTICES OF BOOKS. 

references, \\'liicli occasionally overflow into the line atove, occupied 
only by the name. When there is suspicion of the species having 
been introduced into any sab-province by human agency, the number 
is enclosed in round brackets, whilst alleged occurrences for which 
there is ground of distrust, or pretty certain errors, are distinguished by 
being placed between square brackets. The distribution of a number 
of segregates is given on a quite similar formula, two or more 
segregates being occasionally treated in connection. A few well- 
established aliens are also included. 

It appears to have been originally intended by the author that the 
work should have consisted of no more than the list above described, 
Rnd that it should have been immediately followed by a larger work 
tracing each species through the 112 "counties,'' with a citation of 
authorities for the facts given. As this would have been a boon to all 
English botanists, and indeed seems wanting to complete the scheme 
of the connected works, it is a matter for great regret that the in- 
tention has had to be given up, especially when the cause of its 
abandonment is, as is pretty easily to be seen, the failing health of its 
author. Apparently to some extent in the stead of this, a Second 
Part (pp. 112 — 177) has been added to the present book, consisting of 
''a summary of the writer's own personal experiences bearing on the 
details of provincial distribution," chiefly consisting of records of 
y sub-provincial habitats which have come under the writer's own 
individual observation ; but frequently . . » . citing the names 
of botanists who have sent specimens " to the author. 

In this list a single line only is allotted to each species, and the 
whole information given by it is expressed above. It consists of the 
records of the actual experiences of a single botanist conspicuous for 
his careful accuracy in matters relating to plant distribution, though 
in one case ( Wolffia arrhi%a , p. 166) a mere suggestion, unsupported by 
any fact, and to which the person named can give a distinct negative, is 
admitted. The value and utility of this catalogue will perhaps be more 
fally seen hereafter than can be the case at present, if we are to believe 
that its author will carry out the intention expressed in a " Postscript " 
(p. 179, 180) to the volume. This, which is probably unexampled in the 
history of Botany, is to the effect that certain considerations suggest to 
the author "that it will be prudent to destroy his extensive British 
herbarium " ! The reasons given for this frightful resolution, which 
it may be hoped something will prevent ever being carried out, are 
that the chief object in collecting it has been accomplished, and that 
A mischievous use might be made of it after his decease. Eeally, since 
he Cfives us to understand that his own work ia axP'T nnp wi^ni/l 



"Watson 



and 



of 



herbarium. 

There is nothing more of general interest in the volume, but an 
appendix is added of some thirty pages, headed " controversial." With 
reference to this the reviewer feels it necessary to say a few words in 
his own name, which occurs so frequently in it. 

As this may very possibly be the last book of Mr. Watson's I shall be 
called upon to notice, I am anxious to take the opportunity of publicly 
denying in the most emphatic manner that I have ever been actuated 



IINNEAN SOCIETT. 27 

towards the author of the "Cybele " by other feelings than those of 
friendship and regard. Whatever anger or bitterness there may be, it is 
■wholly on his side, as is clearly seen by the letters which he 
has thought it fit to reprint in the appendix above mentioned, 
and one of which he has rewritten and intensified. That this 
animosity was conceived towards me personally y and antedated my 
** acknowledging myself the anonymous reviewer," and indeed that 
any such acknowledgment on my part was unnecessary, is evident 
from this fact, which — to complete the history here given by Mr. 
Watson — may as well be placed on record. ' Immediately on the 
receipt of his printed letter (January 12, 1871), though greatly pained 
by its tone, I wrote a short and friendly note, ofiering to give it the 
same circulation, by printing it in. this Journal, that the review to 
which it objected had had. To this note I received a reply so 



Wats 



us 



these pages, I have always treated them as the productions of a botanist 
of acknowledged standing in his special department, and have never 
written a word intended to wound the pride or hurt the sensibilities 
of their author. That he should have felt aggrieved at the slight 
criticisms I have on one or two occasions felt it necessary to make, has 
caused me regret, and I protest against the imputation to me, by an 
angry author, of unworthy motives which I never felt. 

I have no desire to go into the '* tedious explanations " which 
Mr. Watson has made about a matter which, so far as I am con- 
cerned, shall not again be publicly alluded to. I have nothing to 
alter and no word to retract in the letter which occupies pp. 196 — 198 
of the above-mentioned appendix. My review, from which Mr. 
Watson has taken the passages — carefully isolated from their context — 
to which he objects, will be found in vol. viii. (1870), pp. 394 — 397, 
and ought to hare been printed entire in Mr. Watson's appendix. 

HEmar Trimen. 



Iprocecbing^ of ^odttia^. 



LoNEAK SociETx. Mv. 1th, 1872.— G. Bentham, Esq., F.E.S., 
rresident, in the chair. The Eev. C. W. Pennv was elected a Fellow. 



100th year) were read offering to the Society seventy-four letters 
addressed to her husband by A. McLeay, between 1788 and 1825. 
The president exhibited for Mr. M. Alford a **Hen and Chicken" 
Daisy found apparently wild near Bridgewater. The following papers 
were read : " Note on the Buds developed on the leaves of Malaxis,^^ 
by G. Dickie, M.D. These are often described as forming a fringe 
to the leaves, but the specimens examined had only a few on the 
margin near the tips, though they were rather numerous and crowded 



28 EASTBOTTItNE JTATTIKAL HISXOEY SOCIETY. 



t 

on the upper surface, in some cases two being coherent. They con- 
sisted of a flask-like cellular green sac, with a narrow opening at the 
apex, and having within it at its base a yellowish-green nucleus-like 
body. A close resemblance was to be traced between these buds and 
the ovules of some of our native orchids — e,g. Sabenaria viridis. In 
Irmisch^s "Beitrage zur Biologie and Morphologic der Orchideen," 
young axillary buds of Microstyles monophylla Bxe'G.gaTedy which some- 
what resemble those of Malaxis^ as there is a central nucleus and a rudi- 
mentary sheathing leaf looking like an ovular coat. The case of 
Malaxis indicates the ovule to be homologous with the bud, the nucleus- 
like body corresponding with the axis and the cellular open-mouthed 
sac to an embracing leaf. "On a Menispermaceous Plant called by 
Vellozo Cu8ampelo$ Vitis^ and figured in his Flora Fluminensis, vol. 
X,," by J. C. de Mello, translated by John Miers, Esq. ; considered to 
belong to the tribe Tino8pore(2j and placed in the genus Burassaia. 

November 2\8t. — G. Benthamj Esq., F.R.S,, President, in the chair. 
C. C. Grundy, Esq., and E, Harris, Esq., were elected Fellows. The 
following papers were read: — '* Catalogue of the Compositae of 
Bengal," by C, B. Clarke. " On IlyArotrophuSj a new genus of 
Hydrocharidese,'^ by the same. A stemless annual found growing in 
still water in Eastern Bengal ; it has narrow linear leaves 2 — A feet 
long and small solitary white flowers extruded from the spathe 
during expansion. S, echinosperma is the only known species. " On 
diversity of Evolution under one set of external conditions," by the 
Eev. J. T. GuUick. 



EASTBOtmNE Nattteal Histoex Societx. October 18^A, 1872. 
" Notes on the Genus Lemna^'^ by F. C. S, Eoper, F.L.S. — Anatomical 
and Physiological remarks were made on all ^the British species. 
Lemna gihha had been specially studied. The author said : — " From 
the observations I have made on this species, I believe that it is only 
during its fully mature state, and when about to produce blossom, 
that it assumes the characteristic gibbous form, and that on the 
approach of winter the cell contents contract considerably, so as to 
make it assume the form of Z, minor. But the structure of the carpel 
is sufficient to show that the species are distinct. Mr. Syme, in the 
new edition of English Botany, states^that he has never seen the flower. 
Mr, Borrer is reported to have been the first who discovered the fructifi.- 
cation in England, his specimens being obtained in June, 1804, from 
the neighbourhood of Lewes. I had in vain looked for the inflores- 
cence in this tribe of plants for many years, and only observed it for 
the first time in this species, in a gathering made in July last ; when 
I met with it abundantly, in blossom, in the ditch running by the 
side of the Pevensey road, not far beyond Christ Church. Having 
kept the plants to the present time, I have had a good opportunity of 
observing both the structure of the flowers and pollen, as also the ger- 
mination of the seeds, and I propose, therefore, to describe it rather 
more in detail. The inflorescence — flower it can hardly be called— 
having neither calyx nor corolla, springs from the under side of the 
frond, at the notch where the new frond is given ofi"; it is said by 
previous writers, and copied in most botanical works, to be enclosed 



EASTBOURITE NATIJIIAL DISTORy SOCIETY, 29 

* 

in a membranous 6ase or spathe, but though occasionally I found 
small pieces of the cellular tissue partly surrounding the stamens and 
pistil, I failed in any case to find them attached to it, as the spathe 
is in the Arum tribe ; and I believe that the inflorescence simply 
springs from a narrow opening in the cuticle of the frond, and that 
the portion raised by the protrusion of the flower has been mis- 
taten for the spathe ; at all events, I invariably found that the pistil 
and stamens came off by the slightest touch of a needle, perfectly free. 
The inflorescence is quite unique in its structure, and consists solely 
of two stamens and a pistil, the extreme breadth of the whole when 
in bloom being about one-tlxirtieth of an inch- The filaments of the 
stamens, of which there are two, are formed of cellular tissue and 
remarkably thick in comparison with the size of the flower, being 
about one-seventieth of an inch in diameter, or nearly one-third of 
the breadth of the flower ; they have also this peculiarity, that when 
the first is fully grown and the anthers are discharging pollen, 
the second is immature, and does not come to perfection until the 
first is decaying. This has given rise to the idea entertained by some 
botanists, that they should be considered as separate flowers : in fact 
that the plant is monoecious, each stamen being a flower, and the pistil 
another. The true interpretation being, as far as my observation 
goes, that this peculiarity is provided simply for the preservation of 
the species, the plant floating on the surface of the water and being 
thus exposed to every vicissitude of weather, it is so planned that 
should wind or rain disperse the pollen from one stamen, the ovule 
may be fertilised by the other when it becomes mature. The anthers, 
of which there are two to each stamen, are slightly oval or pyriform, 
and about one-hundredth of an inch in diameter, and open by a tra- 
verse slit to discharge the pollen, which is muricate or slightly spinous 
and about one-thousandth of an inch in diameter. A remarkable fact 
in so minute a flower is, that the pollen tubes are plainly visible and 
are so well developed that I have observed them continue intact on 
breaking the pistil, uniting the two parts by minute threads. The 
pistil, or what might perhaps be more properly termed the carpel, 
rises between the two stamens ; and is formed of loose cellular tissue, 
cylindrical or slightly nmshaped, rather shorter than the stamens 
when fully grown, and contains generally two ovaries at the base, 
with a thickened style, of about the same diameter as the filaments of 
the stamens, but without any apparent stigma; the surface of the 
cylindiical style ending abruptly and enclosing a depressed cavity, like 
a small cup, into which the pollen tubes can plainly be seen to enter. 
The capsule, when ripe, contains four seeds, which form segments of 
a sphere, or resemble a quarter of an orange : when ripe and dry they 
are of a brownish grey colour, strongly marked with about three pro- 
minent rounded ribs on each side, and fixed by one extremity to the 
base of the capsule, the seed itself being enclosed in a brown case or 
testa, and surrounded by a thin semi-transparent cellular covering, 
which can be separated from the true seed, and maybe designed simply 
to aff'ord means of its more readily floating on the surface of the water. 
At the upper end of the seed is a small circular cap, which is raised 
by the swelling cellular tissue as the seed germinates, and in all 
the cases I have examined remains attached to the young fronds, even 



30 



BOTANICAL NKWS. 



when the rootlets are far advanced. In a paper by L. C. Richard, 
in the Archives de Botanique, vol. i., t. 6, fig. OE., a very good re- 
presentation is given of the young frond, showing the seed vessel, the 
frond, the sprouting radical, and the lid of the seed attached, as in 
the drawing I have made from an actual specimen. The blunt end of 
the radical is here well shown. The seeds appear to germinate 
equally well on the surface of the water, or on the damp sides of the 
vessel in which the specimens were contained, and probably the species 
are preserved more frequently by these germinating seeds than by 
buds, as stated in most botanical works, the fact being that the seeds 
have not been noticed. I have brought the description of this plant 
BO fully before the Society, because as far as I am aware, no details 
of its anatomy can be found in any English botanical work, and I wish 
to place on record the facts here stated." 



25otanical ^c\i}0. 



ARTICLES m JOUEKALS, 



fnnah^ 3es Sciences mturelles (ser. 5., torn, xv., nos. 1-4, August, 
1872.)— M. Comu, " Monocranh of SaTirnlpp-TiTr*. r.n^f i «..' „i t?„ 



production" (PI. i_7).— E. de Glin 



furfi 



MM. Tulasne, 



and their Allies " (P1.9— 12).* 



S;ssIs-(K.^?ri4)^'''*""''''^ Observations on the Cotyledon of 

,-. tl^V ^ T^ 6-September 1872.)-G. de Saporta, '' Researches 
n the Vegetation of the South-east of France in the Tertiary Epoch " 

lm;.t!;i »'~Tq-'''' ^^ ^' S- ^^^^°°' "Prodromus Flor* Novo- 
OladlZ) (^^'"^^^^^^^ Zygophylle^, Meliacece, Chailletiacece , 



November 



6[m7Z/.«.-M J Berkeley, "Notices of K American Fungi" 
(continued).-M. C. Cooke, "British Fungi " (continued).-Engfish 
Translation of Grunow's ' T^ovora » Diatoms (continued) ■ "" 

Science Gossip.-^. Garner, "A Curious British Plant " (figg. 174. 
175). _ A supposed hybrid between raccinium Mj/rfillus (time of 
flowering, flower, fi-uit) and V. Viti, Td^a (.^.^ aJ i„„^.„n\ „ ii„„ 



t 



^2^r emn Naturahs t- J Ovton, ' ' Plants of the VaUey of Quito. » 

# D TI; ?^'' n *^' Vegetation of the Lower wiash Yallej . 

S ShnW^uW^' Geological Age of the Coal of Wyoming. "-1^. 

». bhaler, " Effect of Extraord nnrv Snn=nT,» ?,, +T,. tT-^-vA-,- ^x 



and 






t See also Journ. Bot. ix., p. 122. 



BOTANICAL M"EWS* 31 



Notiser 



Lett 



E. Zetterstedt '^ (On the Botany of the North of Russia).— S. 0- 
Lindberg, "Yarious I^otes on Scandinavian Mosses" (Z^si-^a.^i?rt^i7i 

losa^ n,sp.) 

]Iedicigia,—\^niuTi, "On OrtJiofnchumy—A. Gehceb, " Bryo- 

logical notes."— R. Euthe, "A Kew SpScies of Fontinalk'' {F, 
androgynd). 

BotaniscJie Zeitung, — F- Hegelmaier, *' On the Morphology of the 
genus Lycopodium^^ (tabs. x. — xii.) — G- Winter, '*Some Remarks on 
Niessl's Contributions to the Knowledge of Fungi." 



Flora, — J. Miiller, ** Lichenum species et varietates novae " (con- 
tinued). — A. Geheeb, "Bryologicalremarks." — G. Winter, "Diagnoses 
and Notes on Rebm's Ascomycetes." — H. Wawra, "Remarks on the 
Flora of the Hawaii Islands/' 

Btdh de la Soc, Roy. de Bot. de Belgique. (torn, xi,, no. 1, 7th 
Nov.) — E. Marchal, " ReliquisD Libertiana3." — F. Crepin, "Primitiui 
Monographiae Rosarum. Fasc, ii. Revision of the Roses in the Herbarium 

of WiUdenow " (see p. 23), 

(No. 2., 21st Nov.)— J. Chalon, "Notes of a Touiist,"— A. De 

Vos, " On the Naturalization of some Exotics at the Montague St. 

Pierre lez Maastricht." 



ITew Booh. — E. Strasburger, "Die Coniferen und die Gnetaceen, 

eine Morphologische Studie." (H. Davis, Jena. 8vo., with a 4to. 
atlas of 26 plates, 14 thaler 20 6grs.=£2 4s. Od.)— E. Meyer, " Ex- 
cursions — flora des Grossherzogthums Oldenburg," — F. Crepin and 
others, " Catalogue de la flore de Belgique.*' — J. Grunland, M. Cornu, 
and G- Rivet, "Des preparations microscopiqucs tirdes du Regno 
Vegetal, &c." — "Catalogue of Scientific Papers " (Royal Society), 
vol. vi-, completing the alphabetical list of authors. 

Dr. A. Braun has given in the Monatsbericht of the Royal Berlin 
Academy of Sciences for August, 1872, a synoptical revision of the 
genera Marsilea and Pilularia, 51 species of the former and 5 of the 
latter being enumerated. 

In the " Verhandlungen '' for 1872 of the Zoologico-Botanical 
Society of Vienna, is a list of all the Phanerogamic plants hitherto 
found in the kingdom of Poland, under the title of Florae Polonicse 
Prodromus, by J. Rostafinski. The catalogue, to which is prefixed 
a short historical account of previous publications, contains 1325 
species. 

Dr. 0. Nordstedt describes in the 6tli part of the " Ofversigt " of 
the Stockholm Academy of Sciences for 1872 the Besmidiaceis col- 
lected by the Swedish Expeditions in 1868 and 1870 to Spitsbergen and 
Bear Island. Fifty species are enumerated, nine being described as 
new, and carefully figured. 

The " Verhandlungen dee Bot, Verein fur die Provinz Branden- 
burg '* for 1871, just published, contains numerous communications on 
the local Botany of Germany, a paper by Sadebeck on Asplemum 

adtdferinum, Milde, a memoir of the late August Neilreich, and other 
papers. 



^^ BOTANICAL NEWS. 

A sixth centmy of M. C. Cooke's " Pungi Britannici Exslccati " 
has appeared. Several new species are included, TTromvces Salt- 

miohumpuhrulumFckU and Capnodtum sdicinum, P., two species 
not preTTOusly found in Britain, are also included ^ 

by Mr" j'v %* V ^'^' '^^r '^ i' ^^^^^^^^ to he in preparation, 
by Mr. J. P Eobmson of Frodsham, Cheshire. The pric^ of the 

volume to subscribers is not expected to exceed 2s. 6d^ Consider! 

ing the yery varied contents promised in the prospectus, including 

beautiful engravings of the principal Island sceLyVaterfaTl l^f 
an actual snenimPTi c^^ +>,q i^^^J: i? / ji^ . ^ *^ ^"^ .,, ^^' ^^-^ 



fe™ and trees, an intrkncMon .t^^^!Zl2iC, Z fTC:Z 
w,ld-flo«r8, a hfe of Professor E. Forbes, F.E.S, ^nd an appends 
'espeeiaUy adapted for ladies," describing a new method ofTature 

prmting, making skeleton leaves, &c., with "a verv inferestinffoolo,,^! 
botamco-geological n,ap of the island, drawn and SS b^Pr" 

exclSve " "l""' " ^'"'"'' ""°™ i"> tie price eannot be ^considrd 



A second; volume of Boissier's «' Flora Orientoi;<j " ,•<= c^ ^ 

nearly ready for publication. Unentalis is announced as 

rnTl:.*^;kiVc^ri;«oXreuL:ttn^t%''ff^^^^ 



wiU 
and 



^^1 t^^:^t^-^^i£i^^'^ on 



-Lynn Hospital. He had col- 






Botany, De Notaris, of Geneva. 



secured, 



W. Holmes, author of a Catalogu 



"Opvoti nn/i r«,^^ 11 T --^'"". wx tt vaiaiogue 01 tue Uryptoffamia of 

^clrty^Muse™ '' ""^ '"" ^^ ^°"'^* '^"'^ °"^^ Ph^aceuticd 

A 'l^'^ ^ . ^ . * 



A Botanical Society has been formed 
lijombach is secretary, and has enrolled 
It is intended to form a herbarium of the 
and MM. Fischer and Kolz are compilinj 

The herbarium of Pmf TTnr.no \^<,. \.2 
of Salzburg. 



talogui 






« 



33 



<0ri0inal ^Crticlcsf. 



JUXCUS PYGilJiUS, Rich., AS A EKITISH PLAXT. 

Er Henry Trime.y, M.B., F.L.S. 

(Tab. 128.) 

I HAVE great satisfaction in being able to fulfil my promise 
of giving a descnption of one of the most interesting additions to 
our flora in recent years. The discovery of this pretty little Rush by 
Mr. W. H. Beeby was recorded in this Journal (vol. x. (1872), p. 337), 
where I also briefly indicated the grounds upon which I considered it 
to be Jtmciis jn/gmceiis ; the necessarily more minute examination 
since made, whilst it has left no doubt as to the cori-ect name of the 
plant, has also fully confirmed the opinion of continental authors, 
who consider it quite distinct from the allied species, 

J". PYCx:\r^T7s, Richard.— Xunuol, ca^spitose, 1 to 2 ins. high. Moot 
fibrous J stems slender, erect, smooth, terete, with a single leaf or 
leafless, simple or with a single branch ; radical haves .rather rigid, 
linear, sheathing at the base, channelled, with faint distant articula- 
tions, acute; stem-leaf single, with anauricled sheath; floircrs nearly 



sessile, with a membranous ovate bract at the base of each, 
1 to 4 (usually 3) in small clusters, often with a leaf at the base which 
scarcely exceeds them, at the extremities of the stems and brandies ■ 
perianth-leaves rather less than \ inch long, equal, linear-lanceolate,' 
the three outer very slightly broader almost completely covering the 
three inner, thin, papery, the marginal portion transparent, 3-nerved, 
the central neiye slightly stronger, gradually and equally attenuated to 
the (non-cuspidate) apex; stamens 6 (or by abortion 4 or 5) or 3, 
attached to the base of the perianth-leaves and about i or | their 
length, anther not half as long as the filament; ovary tapering, longer 
than the stamens; capsule | (or a little more) the length of the 
perianth-leaves and concealed by them, subtrigonous, acute, oblong- 
lanceolate in outline, pale brown, valves linear ; seeds numerous, fusi- 
form pear-shaped, with strongly marked longitudinal ribs,' dai'k 
orange-brown. The plant is tinged with a rather bright pink. 

The above description is mode from a very few Cornish specimens ; 
a larger series from that county might show the plant to vary in cer- 
tain particulars in the same way as continental examples. These 
are sometimes 5 inches high, with longer leaves and more distinct 
aiticulations, and the stems with two, three, or even more branches- 
the fascicles, too, olten contain as many as 9 or 10 flowers, which 
are sometimes shortly stalked. In the essential characters of the 
flower, however, there is complete agreement between English and 
foreign specimens. Grenier and Godion, and other authors state that 
the stamens arc always 3, and this character has been considered one 
of very great importance in distinguishing the species; but I find, in 



■'m. 



sruese 



N.S. VOL. 2. [FEBRUARY 1, 1873,] D 



34 JTJNCrS PTGM^US AS A BKITISH PLANT- 



3 to 6, just as in the plants from Cornwall* This variahility in 
nnmber of stamens occurs also in other species, e,g,^ J. supinus. 
Par more constant characters are, however, presented "by the 
perianth, the capsule, and the seeds, hy any of which the plant is 
readily recognised. The only two Eritish Rushes with which confu- 
sion is possible are J. capitatus and the fasciculate variety of J. hu- 



f< 



/ 



/ 



tatus^ it diflfers by its much longer flowers, its equal perianth-leaves 
. which are not aristate and recurved at the tips, and the oblong acute 
capsule ; whilst it is distinguished from all states of the variable 
J. t}isulanushj its much smaller capsule, which is even when quite ripe 
very nearly or entii^ely hidden by the perianth, and by its ribbed 
seeds. These, as shown by Buchenau in his useful paper (Journ. Bot. 
vi., p. 142), give often excellent characters in this genus; in J. insti- 
I anus they are orange-coloured, barrel-shaped, and very minutely 
reticulate, instead of being pear-shaped, strongly costate, and brown as 
in J, pygm<BU8. But even in the absence of fruit and seed there is no 
difficulty in recognising the two species, J. pi/gmcem and J", hufonim 
(in all its forms) by the perianth-leaves alone, which in the latter are 
always more or less (often exceedingly) unequal, and are provided with 
a single broad strong green midrib produced at the apex into a stout 
apiculus; whilst /. pygmmus^ as above described, has delicate 
papery equal segments with three slender veins ; moreover the seg- 



huj 



« 



whilst those of J, pygnmus are parallel and approximated or conni- 
vent at their ends even in ripe fruit. 

In every edition of Professor Babington s Manual this species 
has been entered between brackets, with the remark that it *' will 
perhaps be found in sandy places near the sea " ; after nearly thirty 
years this expectation has been fulfilled. The Cornwall locality is 
**in a damp hollow on the downs near Kynance Cove not more than 
12 or 15 feet square,'' where the plants were growing pretty 
thickly. It was not noticed elsewhere, but no doubt grows in similar 



places near. It should be looked for early in the year; Mr. Beeby's 
specimens were collected in June, and are in fruit 

J. pygmoius has an extensive range in Europe, including the 
Mediterranean region at intervals from Greece to Spain, and the 
whole western coast ; extending also in a north-east direction as far 
U8 Holstein and (formerly) the south of Sweden. Damp sandy 
ground is the usual habitat, and nearly all the localities are within 
the influence of the sea, though there are localities in France at some 
distance from the coast. The following list of countries gives a good 
idea of its distribution -.—Greece, Nyman ; /. of Milo, Kunth ; Sicily y 
Todaro!, Huet de Pavilion!; Mrta, Tommasini; Italy, Pisa, Van 
Heurck ! ; Elba^ Caruel ; Corsica, Soleirol ! ; Portugal, Welwitsch ! 
(see. vol. X., p. 135); Spain, Lange, Cjv^qW^I^ France, Toulon, 
Muller!, Lyons, Billot!, Montbrison, Schultz!, Paris, Stephan ! 
(especially frequent in the west, but not yet noticed in the Channel 
Islands); Belginm, near Antwerp, Crepin ; IMland, Nyman ; iV- 
Frieslandls,, Buchenan (see vol. vi., p. 149) ; Hohtein^ Rcichenbach ! ; 
SuecJen, formerly found in Scania (st^e Pries' Xovitire, p. 92). 



\ 



f ON ROSA APEXXiyi. 35 

The synonymy of the species Is as follows : 

Junctis pygmceus, Rich, in ThuilL Fl. Par., eJ. il., p.l78 (1799). 

J. nami'i, Dubois, Orleans, p. 290 (1803). 

J, Jiyhridus, Brot. Fl. Lusit. i., p. 413, pro maxima parte (1804) • 
non auct. plur. \ / ? 

J. triandrus, Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ, ix., p. 17; non Gouan.* 

J. hupleuroides^ Pourr. Herb*, fide Lan;:e. 

J, fasciculatus, Huet de Pav. in schcd. FL Sic; non Schousb. 

*/. bicephalus^ BertoL, fide Caruel ; non Viv. ? 

The Jmicus mutahilis of La Marok's Diet. Encycl. iii. p. 270 
probably includes this species as well as forms of </. hufoniml The 
capsule is described as a little longer than the perianth, which will 
not do for our plant, and prevents one accepting the name, though 
older by ten years (1789) than Thuillier's. J, Sorrentmii of Parla- 
tore (FL Ital. ii., p. 356) from Corsica and Sicily ouglit also prob- 
ably to be added to the synonyms, but I have not seen specimens. 
J. licephalus of Viviani (FL Cors. diagn., p. 5) is said to be different, 
but must from the description be closely allied. 

Figures will be found in Flora Danica xL, t. 1871, and Relchen- 
bach, I.e. ix., t. 391, f. 864 ; but neither are satisfactory in details. 

Specimens have been published in Billot's Exsiccata, n. 674; 
Schultz Herb, norm., n. 734, 1152 ; Fries Herb, norm., f. 11, n. 69 ; 
Van Hcurck Exs., n. 341 ; Reichenb. FL Germ., n. 1127; Todaro, 
n. 457 ; and other collections. 



pESCRii.Ti<).v OF Tab. 12^,— Vi^ I, Juncus pjfgmmus. Rich., from specimens 
collected in Cornwall, June, 1872, by W. H. Beeby. 2, A fiuwer wiih three; 
and 3, one with six stamens, with the perianth-leaves spread open x 4 
4, Flower when fruit is ripe. 6, Outer, and 6, inner perianth-leaf, all x 7 
7, Capsule x 8. 8, Seeds x 40. 



ON ROSA ArENNi:NA, Woods. 
Et J, G, Bakee, F.L.S. 

Wood 



lines and a half a new rose of the RuliginoscE group, from the Apen- 
nines, which he names Rom apennina. The plant was described so 
briefly that no one lias been able to identify it, and I was asked some 
time ago by M. Crepin to examine specimens and report upon them. 
This, through the kindness of Mr. Townsend, who has been so good 



Wood 



and compaiison at home,* I have now done, so as to be able to 
draw up a detailed description. 
. E. Apiu\3sriNA, Wood^, Tourisfs Flora, page 123.— Bush small, 
compact, with the habit of spinosimma. Prickles numerous, rather un- 
equal, but not dwindling down into aciculi as in the spinoshsima group ; 
the largest decidedly falcate, a quarter of an inch loni^, with a hook 
deflexed beyond opposite where the dilated base reaches, the weaker 



Weig. 
B 2 



/ 



36 



COIJTEIB'D'XIONS TO THE FLOEA OF ^^ORTH CORNWALL. 



/ 



ones nearly straight. Branclies quite glandless, like the petioles and 
stipules sujBFused with vinous red. Stipules under a line broad, 
with deltoid free tips, naked or the faces densely gland-ciliated. 
Leaves not more than half an inch long; petioles densely glandular, 
not at all hairy, either with or without 1 — 2 minute prickles; leaflets 
not more than five, the end one oblong, quarter of an inch long at the 
uttermost, rounded at both ends ; toothing moderately open and deep, 
moderately compound ; upper face quite naked, or with a few very 
obscure scattered glands; lower face covered with copious large con- 
spicuous glands, not at all hairy unless very minutely on the midrib- 
Flowers always solitary. Peduncle very short and naked. Bracts 
lanceolate, naked on the faces, densely glandular on the edges. 
Calyx-tube ovoid or globose-urceolate, not more than an eighth of an 
inch long, at the flowering stage quite naked. Sepals J — f of an inch 
long, naked on the back ; the minor ones simple, the major ones 
cuspidate, not dilated at the tip, furnished with 1 — 2 minute linear 



gland-ciliated pinnae ; the blade itself not gland-ciliated. 

inch across. Disk broad. 



flower three-quarters of 
protruded, glabrous. 




Birigazza, Apennines, July, 1826, 
I 



urceolate. 
—J, Woods 



Expanded 
Styles free, 



do not remember to have seen any named rose among conti- 
nental specimens that matches it exactly. In a broad sense it is one 
of the innumerable varieties of R. sepium^ the common briar of 
exposed places throughout the Mediterranean region, next to which 
Woods places it. Of named forms with which I am acquainted, it 
comes nearest to i?. agrestia, Savi (Deseglise Essai, p. 104), of which 
specimens will be found in Billot, Exsicc. 2263, and Deseglise, Exsicc. 
33, difi'ering by its compact habit of growth carried out into each 
detail, as for instance, the extremely short peduncles and leaflets 
rounded instead of gradually narrowed at each end. 



COENW 



By the Eev, W. M. Hind, LI.D. 



The following list of plants, observed during the past summer in 
North Cornwall, is submitted for the information of the readers of the 
Journal of Botany. The district examined is that portion of the 
county which lies north of a line drawn from the Tamar at Bridge- 
rule to Tintagel Head on the coast. When no locality is given, the 
plant is frequent or common. 

Clematis Vitalba, L. Poughill. 
Eanunculus hederaceus, L. 

Elammula, L- 

acris, L. 

repens, L. 
Caltha palustris, L. 
Delphinium Consolida, L. 
Papaver Rhaeas, L. 






>j 



r Papaver soraniferum, L. 
j Corydalis lutea,'DC. 

Fumaria capreolata, L, 
H officinalis, L. 

Cheiranthus Cheiri. L. 



Bude 

Bude. 



Nasturtium officinale, R. Br. 
Barbarea vulgaris, R. Br. 
Cardamine sylvatica, Link. 



/ 



xm 



37 



Cardamme pratensis, L. Bude. 
Sisymbrium officinale, Scop. 
AUiaria officinalis, Andr. 
Brassica campestris, L. Bude. 

„ ^ Napus, L. Norcot Mouth. 
Sinapis nigra, L. 

„ arvensis, L» 

Diplotaxis muralis, DC. Bude- 

Cochlearia officinalis. L. 



Hypericum quadrangulum, L. 



>> 



peiforatum, L. 



>f 



danica, L, 



Armoracia rusticana, Bupp. 

Lepidium campestre, R. Br. Poug- 
hiU. 

Lepidium sativum, L. 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris, DC. 
Senebiera Coronopus, Poiret. 

,, didyma, Pars. Strattou. 
Cakile maritima, Scop. Bude. 
Eeseda Luteola, L. Slarham- 
Chur ch . 

Viola odorata, L. Pougbill. 



17 



sylvatica, Fries. 

canina, L. Sandhills, 



Bude. 



„ tricolor, 0. arvensis, Murr. 
Polygala vulgaris, L. Bude, &c. 
Saponaria officinalis, L. Intro- 
duced, Bude. 
Silene inflata, Sm, 



„ maritima. With. 
Lychnis Flos-cuculi, L. 

diurna, Sibth. 



f 



it 

Sagina procumbens, L. 
„ apetala, L. Stratton. 
„ nodosa, E. ilcyer, Bude. 
Moehringia trinervis, Clairv. 
Arenaria serpyllifolia, L. 
Stellaria media. With. 
„ Holostea, L. 
„ graminea, L. 
Cerastium glomeratum, Thuill. 
Ashton. 

„ triviale. Link. 

„ semidecandrum, L. 

Poughill. 

„ tetrandrum, 

Coast — Bude. 
Malva moschata, L. 



,, dubium, Leers. Kilk- 

hampton. 

Hypericum pulchrum, L. Ashton, 
&c. 

% 

Hypericum Elodes, L. Week St. 

Mary, 

Acer campestre, L. Marham- 
Church. 

,, Pseudo-platanus, L. Strat- 
ton, &c. 

Geranium dissectum, L. 
,, molle, L. 
,, Eobertianum, L. 
Erodium cicutarium, Sm. Bude. 
,, maritimum, Sm. Bos- ' 
castle. 
Linum angustifolium, Huds. 
,, catharticum, L. 

Oxalis Acetosella, L. Lansells. 

Euonymus europseus, L. Mar- 
ham-Church. 

Ehamnus catharticus, L. Lan- 
sells. 

XJlex europaeus, L. 
„ nanus, Forst 
Genista anglica, L. Week St. 

Mary. 
Ononis arvensis, L, 
Medicago lupulina, L. 

,, sativa, L. Poughill 
and Bude. 
Melilotus officinalis, Willd. Strat- 



ton. 



yy 



arvensis, Willd. Kilk- 



hampton, 
Trifolium pratense, L. 



,, medium, L. 

„ arvense, L. Tintagel 



Curt. 



9t 



sylvcstris, L. 



ft 



Lavatera arborea, L. Tintagel. 
Tilia grandiflora, Ehrh. Planted 
Hypericum Androsscmum, L, 



Head. 
,, scabrum, L. Bude. 
„ ropens, L. 

fragiferum, L. Bude. 
„ procumbens, L. 

„ minus, Sm. 
Lotus corniculatus, L. 

„ major. Scop. 
Anthyllis Vulneraria, L. 

„ var. Dillenii. Downs, 

Bude. 
Vicia hirsuta, Koch. 



V 



* 



38 



COKTRTBTJTIOJfS TO THE FLORA OF NORTH CORNWALL, 




/■■■'- 



Vicia tetrasperma, Moench. 



Ponghill. 
„ Cracca, L. 
sepmm, L. 



J? 



jj 



sativa, L. 



Lathyus pratensls, L, 

,, macrorhizup, Wimm. 
Ashton, &c. 
Trunus com munis, Hiids. 

domestica, L. Binliamy, 
CerasuSj L. 
Spiia^a TJlmaria, L, 
Agriinonia Eupatoria, L.. 

Alchemilla arvensis, L. Marham- 

Church. 
Potentilla anporina, L. 



Spergula arvensis, L. 
Sedum Telephium, L. Boscaslle. 
„ anglicum, Huds. 

rellexum, L. Marham- 



;> 



Church. 



j» 



jj 



J) 



reptans, L. 



j> 



jj 



« 



Tormentilla, Nest. 
Fragariastrum, Ehrh. 
I'ragaria vesca, L. Poughill. 
Rubus, from 12 to 20 of fruti- 

cosus group, 
Geum urbanum, L- 
Eosa spinosissima, L. 
„ canina, L. 

,, ca}sia, Sm. ? Poughill. 
„ arvensis, Huds. 
Crataegus Oxyacanthaj L. 
Pyims Malus, L. Poughill. 

,, Aucuparia, Ga^rt. Poughill. 
Lythrum yulicaria, L. 
Peplis Portuln, L. Kilkhampton. 
Tamarix aiiglica, Webb. Bude, 

'&c. 
Epilobium angustifolium, L. 

Boscastle. 

r 

5, hirsutum, L. 
,, parviflorum, Schreb. 
„ montanum, L. Poug- 
hill. 

,, palustre, L. Moorwin- 
stow. 

„ virgatum, Pries. 
Ashton. 



}9 



tetragoTium, L. Kilk 



hampton. 



Circasa lutetiana, L. Kilkhamp- 
ton, &c. 

Myriophyllum spicatum, L. 
Bude Canal, &c* 

Lepigonum roarinum, Wahlb. 
Coast. Bade. 



Sempervivum tectorum, L. 

Cotyledon Umbilicus, L. Poug- 
hill, Boscastle. 

Kibes Grossularia, L. Prom 
stray seeds. 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. 

Sanicula europsea, L. Lansells, 
&c. 

Eryngium maritimum, L. Bude. 

Apium graveolens, L. Bude, &c. 

Petroselinum sativum, Hofl'm. 



Bude, &c. 



if 



Poughill. 



segetum, Koch. 



Helosciadiutn nodiflorum, Koch. 

,, repens, Koch. Bude. 

Sison Amomum, L. 

Carum verticillatuni, Koch. 

St, Mary. 

Pimpinella iSaxifraga, L. 

(EnautheLachenalii. Gmel. 



Week 



?j 



^th 



crocata, L. 



Crithmum maritimum, L. Plenti- 
ful on rocky coast. 

Angelica sylveslris, L. 

Pastinaca sativa, L. Near Norcot 
Mouth. 

neracleum Sphondylium, L. 
Daucus Carota, L. i 

„ ^ gummiler, Lam. Prequent 
on coast, 
Torilis Anthriscus, Gsertn. 

,, nodosa, Gsertn. 
Scandix Pecten-veneris, L. 
Anthriscus sylvestris, Hotfm. 
Chairophyllum temulum, L. 
Conium maculatum, L. Bude. 
Hedera Helix, L. 
Sambucus nigra, L. 
Viburnum Opulus, L. Kilk- 
hampton, &c. 
Lonicera Periclymenum, L. 
yherardia arvensis, L. 



Galium Aparine, L. 

„ Mollugo, L. Marham- 
Church, &c. 



N« 



CONTEIBtTTIONS TO THE FLORA OF XOKTH COEXVVALL. 



39 



s 



Moor- 



Gallum verum, L, 

,, saxatile, L. Bude, 
,, palustre, L. Bude. 
„ „ 0. Witheringii, Sm. 
Bude canal. 
Eubia peregrina, L. PoughilL 
Centranthus ruber, DC. Strat- 

- ton and Boscastle ? 
Valeriana officinalis, L. Bude, &c, 
Valerianella dentata, Deitr. 

Bude, &c. 
Dipsacus sylvestris, L. 

winstow. 
Knautia arvensis, Coult. 
Scabiosa succisa, L, 
Eupatorium cannabinum, L, 
Tussilago Farfara, L. 
Bellis perennis, L. 
Solidago Virgaurea, L. 
Inula critbmoides, L. Picked up 
at Tintagel, recently gathered. 
Pulicaria dysenterica, Gaertn. 
Bidens tripartita, L. Bude. 
Anthemis Cotula, L. Bude. 
,, nobilis, L. Wainhouse 

Corner, 
Achillea Ptarmica, L. 

„ Millefolium, L. 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum, 

Chrysanthemum segetum, L. Bos- 
castle. 
Matricaria Parthenium, L. 

inodora, L. 
maritima, L. Bude. 
Artemisia Absinthium, L. Bude 

and Trevenna. 
Artemisia vulgaris, L. 
Tanacetum vulgare, L. Moor- 

winstow and Trevenna. 
Pilago germanica, L. Poughill, 
&c, 

Gnaphalium sylvaticum, L. 
Senecio vulgaris, L. 

n Bylvaticus, L. Bude, &c. 

9y Jacoba^a, L. 

n aquaticu?, Huds. Strat- 
ton, &e. 

Carlina vulgaris, L. Bude. 
Arctium mnjus, Schkuhr. Poug- 
hill, &c. 



»> 



jj 



erucifolius, L. 



Lange. 



Arctium minus, Schkuhr. Kilk- 

hampton* 
,, intermedium, 

Bude, &c. 
,, pubens, Bab. Bude, &c. 
Serratula tinctoria, L. 
Centaurea nigra, L. 

,, nigrescens, "Willd. 

,, Scabiosa, L. 

Carduus nutans, L. 

,, tenuiflorus, Curt. Near 
the coast. 



M 



>J 



JJ 



>? 



lanceolatus, L, 
arvensis, Curt* 
palustris, L. 
pratensis, Huds, Week 



St. Mary. 



)> 



acaulisj L. Bude. 



Lapsana communis, L, 
Cichorium lutybus, L. 
Hypochseris radicata, L. 

Thrincia hirta, DC. 

Apargia hispida, "Willd. Poug- 



hill. 



?» 



autumnalis, 



Willd. 



Kilkhampton. 

„ Taraxaci, Sm. Kilk- 
hampton. 

Helminthia echioides, Gaertn. 

Leontodon Taraxacum, L. 

Sonchus oleraceus, L. 



n 



f> 



asper, Hoffm. 
arvensis, L. 



}f 



n 



Crepis virens, L. 
Hieracium Pilosella, L. 

corymbosum, Pr. ? 

Kilkhampton. 

boreale, Fr. ? Kilk.; 

hampton. 
Jasione montana, L. 
Calluna vulgaris, Salisb. 
Erica Tetralix, L. Week St. 

Mary. 
Erica cinerea, L. Kilkhampton, 

&c. 

Vaccinium Myrtillus, L. Week 

St. Mary. 
Ilex Atpifolium, L. 
Ligfustrum vulgare, L, 



Fraxinus excelsior, L. 

Chlora perfoliata, L. 

Erythra>a pulchella, Fr. Bude. 



^fr 



t 



40 



CONTEIBUXIOWS TO THE FLORA OF ^'OKTH CORNWALL. 



I 



Erythrsea Centaurium, Pcrs. 

Gentiana campcstris, L. Bos- 
castle. • 

Menj-anthea trifoliata, L. Moor- 
winstow- 

Convolvulus arvensis, L, Bude. 
,) sepium, L. 

„ Soldanella, L. Bude. 

Cuscuta Epithymum, Murr. 
Bude, &c. 

Lycopsis arvensis, L. Bude, &c. 

Echium vulgare, L. Bude, &c. 

Litliospermum officinale, L. 

Bude, &c. 

Myosotis caespitosa, Schultz. 

Bude, &c. 
„ arvensis, Hoifm. 
Solanum nigrum, L, Bude. 



99 



Dulcamara, L, 



Hyoscyamus niger, L. Bude, &c. 
Verbasum Thapsus, L. Bude, &c. 
,, ^ Blattaria, L. Tintagel. 
Digitalis purpurea, L. 

Antirrhinum majus, L. Stratton, 

&c. 

„ Orontium, L. Bude. 

Linaria Cymbalaria, Mill. Strat- 
ton. 

„^ Elatme, Mill. 

,/ vulgaris, Mill. 
Scrophularia nodosa, L. 

aquatica, L. 

Melampyrumsylvaticum,L. Kilk- 
hampton. 

Pedicularis palustris, L. Kilk- 
hampton, 

Ehinanthus Cristagalli, L. 
Euphrasia officinalis, L. 

„ Odontites, L. 

Veronica Anagallis, L. Bude. 

jy Beccabunga, L. 

„ Chamaedrys, L. 

yy officinalis, L. Lansells, 
&c. 



>j 



Si 



77 



M 



79 



serpyllifolia, L. 
■arvensis, L. 
agrestis, L. 
polita, Fr. 



Mentha rotundifoUa,L. Tintagel. 
„ piperita, L. Bude Canal! 

» -^ »' eylvcstris, Sol. 

Bude. 



Mentha aquatica, L. 

,, - sativa, L., «. vulgaris. 

g Poughill. 

,, arvensis, L., «. vulgai'is. 
,, „ ^. agrestis, Sm. 

Bude. 

Lycopus europseus, L. 

Salvia Verbenaca, L. Bude and 

Boscastle. 
Thymus Cliamsedrys, Fr. 
Calamintha officinalis, Moench. 
Scutellaria galericulata, L. Bude 

and Marham-Church. 
Scutellaria minor, L. Week St, 

Mary. 
Prunella vulgaris, L. 
Nepeta Cataria, L, Bude. 
,, Glechoma, Benth. 
Lamium purpureum, L. 
Leonurus Cardiaca, L. Bude. 
Galeopsis Tetrahit, L, Poughill. 
Stachys Betonica, Benth. 

,, sylvatica, L. Poughill, 
&c. 

Stachys palustris, L. Bude. 

„ arvensis, L. Poughill, 
&c. 

m 

Ballota fcetida, Lam. Bude. 
Teucrium Scorodonia, L. 
Ajuga reptans, L. Bude. 

Verbena officinalis, L. Bude, &c. 
Primula vulgaris, Huds. 

Lysimachia nemorum, L. Lan- 
sells. 

Anagallis arvensis, L. 

„ tenella, t. Bude, &c. 
Glaux maritima, L. Bude, &c. 
Samolus Valerandi, L. Bude, &c. 
Statice Dodartii, Gir. Tintagel 

and Bude. 
Armeria maritima, Willd. 
Plantago Coronopus, L. 

99 



JJ 



}3 



maritima, L. 

lanceolata, L. 

major, L. 
Salsola Kali, L. Bude. 
Chenopodium album, L. 
Beta maritima, L. Bude. 
Atriplex angustifolia, Sm. 



99 



n 



ercctu, Huds. Bude, &c. 
deltoidea, Bab. J[ar- 



ham-Church. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF NORTH CORNWALL, 



41 



Atriplex BaLingtonil, Woods. 

Bude. 
Bumex sanguineus, L. 
jf obtusifolius, L. 
„ crispus, L, 
„ acetosa, L. 
,, Acetosella, L. Poughill. 
Polygonum lapathifolium, L. 

Strutton. 



>> 



3J 



J? 



M 



)) 



J? 



Persicaria, L. 
mite, Schrad, 
Hydropiper, L. 
aviculare, L. 
Kaii, Bab. Bude. 
Convolvulus, L. 



Pagopyrum esculentum, Moench, 

Stratton. 
Euphorbia Helioscopia, L. 

Paralias, L. Bude. 



n 



jj 



M 



Peplus, L. 
exigua, L. 



Mercurialis pcrennisj L, 

Caltitnche verna, L. 

, , platycarpa, Kiitz. 

Poughill. 
Parietaria officinalis, Sm, Bos- 
castle. 
XIrtica urens, L. Bude. 

„ dioica, L* 
Humulus Ltipulus, L. Poug- 
hill, &c. 
Ulmus suberosa, Ehrh. 
Salix fragilis, L. Bude. 
>y alba, L* Bude. 
n 77 7. vitellina, Sm. Poug- 
hill. 



99 



Smithiana, Willd. 



„ acuminata, Sm. Poughill. 



}f 



n 



cinerea, L. 



77 



i3, acjuatica, Sm. 
7. oleilblia, Sm. 



„ auiita, L. Kilkhampton. 

„ Caprea, L. Lansells. 

,, laurina, j3, tenuifolia? L. 

Week St. Mary. 
7j fusca, L. (Sm.) vai\ ^. "Week 

St, Mary. 
>j „ 7. prostrata, Sm. 

Near Red Post. 
ropulus alba, L. Trevalga. 






Betula glutinosa, Fr. Stratton, &c, 
Alnus glutinosa, Gaertn. Strat- 
ton, &c. 
Pagus sylvatica, L. Poughill, 
Castanea vulgaris, Lam, 
Quercus Eobur, L. 
Corylus Avellana, L. 
Tamus communis, L. 

Orchis maculata, L. 

stow. 
Iris Pseud-acorup, L. 

Convallaria majalis, L. 

castle. 
Allium Schoenoprasum, L* Tin- 



iloormn- 



Bos- 



tagel. 

Narthecium 
Week! 



ossifragum, Huds. 



Juncus maritimus, Sm. Bude. 

effusus, L. 

conglomeratus, L. 

glaucus, Sibth. 

lamprocarpus, Ehrh. 

nigritellus, D. Don, 

bufonius, L. 

pilosa, Willd. Poughill. 
„ multiflora, Lej. Poughill. 
Alisma Plantago, L. 

Triglochin palustre, L. 

Bude Canal 



77 



« 



Bude. 



Typha latifolia, L, 
Spargamum ramosum, Huds. 

Arum maculatum, L. 
Lemua minor, L. 

I'otamogeton natans, L. Canal. • 

oblongus,Viv. Kilk- 



9) 

hampton. 






crispus, L. 
pusillus, L. 

Bude. 



77 



tremula, L. Bude. 



J, nigra, L. Stratton, &c. 



Zostera marina, L. 

Cladium Mariscus, R. Br. Moor- 

winstow. 
Eleocharis palustris, R. Br. 
Scii'pus maiitimus, L. Bude 

Canal. 
Scirpus lacustris, L. Bude, &c. 

setaceus, L. Bude, &c. 
Savii, S. &M. Bude,&c. 
Eriophorum angustilblium, Roth, 
Moorvvinstow. 






Car 




II 



79 



77 



arenaria, 
vulpina, L. 
muricata, I 
remota, L* 



L. Bude. 



Poughill. 



42 



CONTRIRUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF JTORTH COEXWALL. 



Carcx strllulata. Good. Moor- 



winstow, 
,, vulgaris, Fr. 
Mary, 
panicea, L. 



Week St. 



,, glauca, Scop. 

,, (Ederi, Ehrh. Moorwinstow, 

„ fulva, 0. Hornschuchiana, 

Hoppe. Moorwinstow. 
,, sylvatica, Huds. Bude, &c. 
Phalaris canariensis, L. Bude, &c. 

„ arundinacea, L. Bude, &c. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum, L. 
Fhleum arenarium, L, Bude. 

„ prateuse, L. 
Gastridium lendigcruin, Gaud, 

Marham-Church. 
Agrostis canina, L, Boscastle. 



Broraus aspor, L. 

,, sterili^, L. Bade. 
Serrafalcus commutatus, Bab. 

,, mollis, Pari. 

&, velutinus. 



?? 



»j 



4 



n 



97 



vulgaris^ With 
alba, L. 



Psainma arenaria, R. and S. Bude. 
Phragmites communis, Trin. 
Aira caispitosa, L, 

„ caryophyllea, L. 
,, pra^cox, L. 

Avena fatua, L. Poughill. 
Arrhenatherum avenaceum, Beau. 



avenaceum 



bulbosum, LindL Stratton. 
Holcus lariatus, L. 



tj 



mollis, L. 



Triodia decumbens, Beauv. 
Molinia caerulea, Moench. Week 
St. Mary. 

Poa annua, L. 

,, pratensis, L. 
Glyceria fluitans, IL Br. 



yi 



plicata, Fr. Bude. 



Sclerochloa rigida, Link. Mar- 
bam-Church. 

„ loliacea, Woods. Bude, 

Brlza media, L. ' 

Cynosurus cristatus, L. 
Dactylis glomerata, L. 
Festuca bromoides, L, Bude. 



„ ovina, L. 
,, rubra, L. 

„ sylvatica, Vill. ? 

sella. 

>t gigantea, Vill 
Church. 



Lan- 



Marh 



Bude, Tintagel. 

Bracbypodium sylvaticum, R. 
and S. 

Triticum repens, L. 



>j 



Bude. 



,, 3. littorale, Bab- 



Triticum junceum, L. Bude. 
Lolium perenne, L. 

„ italicum, A, Braun. Bude, 

&c. 

,, temulentura, L., ^. ar-. 
vense, With. Kilkbampton. 
Nardus stricta, L. Week St. 
Mary. 

Equisetum arvense, L, 

Telmateia, Ehrh. 



Bude. 






Poughill. 

. ,, lioiosum, L. 

,, palustre, L. 

it ,, 7. nudum, DC- 

Bude;~ 

Polypodium vulgare, L. ' 
Lastrea Filix-mas, Presl. 

„ „ Borreri. Poiigbill. 

,, spinulosa, PresL Kilk- 
bampton. 

,, glandulosa. Pougbill. 

„ dilatata, Presl. 

„ Fa3uisecii, Wats. 
Polystichum angulare, Newm. 
Athyrium Filix-foemina, Roth. 
Asplenium lanceolatum, Huds. 
Boscastle, &c. 

„ Adiantum nigrum, L. 

„ marinum, L. Tin- 

tagel, Bude. 

„ Ruta-muraria, L. Mar- 

ham-Church. 
Scolopendrium vulgare, Sym. 

Blecbnum boreale, Sw. 
Pteris aquilina, L. 
Osmunda regalis, L. Side of 
Tamar. 

Adiantum Capill us- Veneris, L. 

Boscastle. 
Cbara vulgaris, L. ^ PougbilL 
„ fragilis, Dcsv. Bude. 



0^' THK BLUE RT:ACTI0K GITIN BT lOLJIfE IN CEKTAI^' FUNGI. 43 

I 

It is not necessary to particularise the plants in the above list 
which occur through cultivation or as agricultural weeds, A few, / 
however, occur in localities so open to suspicion, that their appearance 
is more probably owing to intentional planting than to accident, 
e,g^ Corydalis lutea^ Saponaria officinalis, Convallaria majalis, and in 
the Boscastle station, Centranihus ruler. Petroselifium sativum occurs in 
several neighbourhoods ; not as usual on old walls, but on hedge-banks. 
Many plants of common occurrence elsewhere have rot been observed; 
of these not a few will reward the search of future investigators. To 
any one able to visit the neighbourhood in spring and early summer 
an opportunity will be afforded of enlarging the above list. Allium 
Schcenoprastim has been inserted on the authority of Babington's 
Manual, It is as well to correct two mistakes in one of the local 
guide books, which gives Trifolium stellatum for T. arvensc at Tintagel, 
and Asplenium Trichomanes for A. Adiantum nigrum in the porch of 
iVIoorwinstow Church. A very few species have been set down in 
doubt, which are of course open to correction. 



0^ THE BLUE EE-ACTIOJf GIVEN BY IODINE IN 

CERTAIiX FUNGI. 

By AYiLLiA^ti Phillips. 

The great advantages derived fronj chemical tests in the cLissifica- 
tion and study of Lichens, first noticed by Dr. Nylander, of Paris, and 
subsequently adopted by the Rev, W. A. Leighton in his '^ Lichen 
Flora of Great Britain," has led to the idea that a simihu- use of 
chemical tests may be made in the study of Fungi ; but up to the pre- 
sent time nothing, as far as I am aware, has been recorded in the way 
of a systematic application of any test, nor does there exist much 
evidence from actual experiment to show that help can be looked for 
from this source. The opinion prevalent amongst botanists up to a com- 
paratively recent date that Fungi are totally devoid of starch may 
have tended to check the use of iodine as a test ; yet there can be little 
doubt that a blue reaction can be obtained in many species of Fungi 
with this re-agent, which have never been supposed capable of giving 
a^y, owing either to the presence of starch in solution, or to the sub- 
stance known as cellulose. Schacht indeed has observed that '* the 
mycelium of a small mould fungus became clear blue under the action 
of iodine,'' and Mr. F, Carrey in the Proceedings of the Royal Society 
(Jan. 28, 1858) has recorded his observations on a blue reaction 
with iodine in a Tuher^ which he in conseq^uencc named Amylocarpus 
cncephaloides. In the same paper he refers to the fact of il. Tulasne 
having stated that "in several species of JErysiphe the tips of the 



radicular appendages are tinged blue by a solution of iodine and that 
the same effect is produced in the matter contained in the summits of 
the asci and upon the mucous envelope of the sporidia of several species 
of Sphmria:' Dr. Nylander also points out the fact ('* Flora," Oct. 
10, 1865) that certain species of Fezizm are affected by iodine in a 
similar manner, viz.j P. Pohjlrichiiy Schum.^ P, cockleata, Huds., 



44 ON IHE BLTTE E:^iCTION GIVEN 



P. violacea^ Pers., in which the '^ gelatina hpnema^^ becomes blue, 



/ 



Wahlenb 



alone, especially the apices, turn blue. It appears, therefore, that 
there is hope of some useful results in the determination of certain 
species of fungi from a more continuous and systematic application of 
this test ; but should we be disappointed in this expectation enough 
of interest attaches to the subject to warrant further inyestigation. 



hym 



during 



passed through my hands in a fresh state, for when dry no reaction 
is obtained, and I give the result below."^ 

The common tincture of iodine as obtained at tlie shops, diluted to 
one-half with spirits of wine, appears to be the most suitable strength. 
A drop of this being placed on a glass slide with a thin section of the 
hymenium and subjected to light pressure under a magnifying power 
of 300 to 400 diameters will at once show ii* there be any reaction. 
The shade of blue obtained varies very much, from a light cerulean to 
a dark Prussian blue. The parts of the hymenium affected also vary ; 
in^ some species the tips of the paraphyses only, in others the summits 
of the asci only, assume the blue colour, while in a few instances the 
mucous matter enveloping the asci and paraphyses is alone affected. 
I have taken no notice of a vinous brown tint which is occasionally 
observed, because it appears to me to arise from a greater or less 
readiness of the parts to imbibe the lir^uid, and hence to become of ' 
different degrees of density. 

Peziza ladia, P. Summits of asci pale blue. 
P. sticcosa^^ Berk. Summit of asci blue. 
jP, aurantia, Pr. Ko reaction. 

P. re-panda, Wahl. Apices of asci and '' gelatim hymenia " blue. 
. P. trachycarpa, Curr. The '' gelatina hymenia'' faint blue. 
P. cupularis, L. No reaction. 

P. rutilansy Pr. Tips of paraphyses deep purple blue. 

P. melaioma^ A. and S. Ko reaction, 

P. suUirstda, Schum. Tips of paraphyses blue. 

P. hemisplKericay Wigg. No reaction. 

P. hirta^ Sch. No reaction. 

P. trechispora, B. and Br. Tips of pamphyses deep purple blue. 

-^. vitellina, lers. Tips of paraphyses deep purple black. 

P. scutellata^ L. Tips of paraphyses deep purple black. 

P. livida^ Sch, No reaction. 

P. ctliaris, Schrad. No reaction. 

P. virgineay Batsch. No reaction, 

P. calycinay Schum. No reaction. 

P. hicolor, Bull. No reaction. 

P. cmna^ P. No reaction. 

P. apala, B and Br. No reaction. 



.>.f • f I r^.^^^ "i^^jH^",^ l^'^ m vestigatio^ on everv species of Peziza I can 
obtain fresh I shall feel indebted to any reader of this Journal ^.ho will do me 
\t ^^l''^^ f ^""'^^'^fS to p^ any species not named in my 

list. Address— Canonbury, Kmgsland, e^hrewsbury. ^^^^ ^^ u^y 



^ 



XOTE ON EEANTHEMUM ELATUM» 45 

/ 

P.firma^ Pers. No reaction, (Dr. Xylander obtained a reaction 
in this species.) 

P. echinophila^ Bull, !N"o reaction. 

P, coronatUy Bull. No reaction. 

P. inflexay Bolt. No reaction. 

P.cinerea, Batsch. No reaction. 

P. resincBj Fr. Asci beautiful cobalt blue. 



NOTE ON EEANTHEMr:M ELATUM. 



By S. KuHz. 



In a letter 



(./. 



1872, p. 46.) I have remarked on dimorphism in Eranthemum ehtunij 
a plant which has puzzled me for a long time in a similar way to the 
dimorphic-flowering, and at the same time dimorphocarpous, Gardenia 



rf 



part iv., 1872). I 



.unfortunately overlooked a short note on dimorphism in Erafithemum 
cmnalarimon in a list of cultivated AcanthacecE, published by Dr. 
Anderson in the Journal of the Agri-horticultural Society of Bengal for 
the use of horticulturists. This omission was pointed out by Jlr, 
John Scott in this Journal (1872, p. 161). Mr. Scott expresses his 
surprise that I should have for such a long time overlooked these **by 
no means inconspicuous phenomena" in ErantKemum : the surprise 
is at present rather on my side in learning that he — although long 
enough resident in Sikkim, where E. cremilahim is by no means un- 
frequent — should have overlooked the whole plant, and thus have re- 
mained quite in darkness as to its habits in indigenous habitats {I.e. 
162.) In my letter I stated that '* I saw only fruits," and a few lines 
further on, " Again I saw nothing but fruits.'* However, in spite of 
these remarks, Mr. Scott thought it desirable to introduce a supposi- 
tion to which I shall refer in the sequel. 

Thus so far from my remarks on the generic question— in absence 
of flowers then — standing in any connection with dimorphism, it was 
the very ample long-peduncled panicle as alluded to by me (more that 
of an Aaystasia) which misled Dr. Anderson; while I, relying - 



upon general structure, thought it ErantJtemumy but giving way to 
Dr. Anderson's arguments, I put it in the genus Asystasia, without, 
however, describing it. It so happens that what deterred Dr. 
Anderson, and subsequently also me, from accepting the plant as an 
Eranthemum, has now quasi-identified it with E. cremilatum^E. 
latifoUum fJtisticia latifoHa^Yhl, J?. ^^Z^/Z/mm, NE., &c.), probably 
because I myself indicated its too near aflinity with E. erenulatum. 
However, some good often accrues from a misconception, and Mr. 
Scott — although unknowingly — has given me the key to physiological 
differences. I have stated that I found the large flowers once only, 
and I may now add that this was at an unusual hour. In the last days 
of March (hot season) I had pitched my camp at one of the feeders 
of the headwaters of the Swachoung (eastern slopes of the Pegu 
Yomah), and early the next morning I rambled about and found there 

m 



^" NOTi: ox l^RAXTHEMUM ELATUit. 

r. 

a group o^K eJafum, of which nearly all had cast their lar so corollas 
(thf'n lymg on the ground), and only a single specimen remained just 
in the act of shedding them ; indeed in plucking the plant only a very 
tew of them stood the shock. This of course has nothing to do with 
l\ a™""'"^! movements, and still less so with atmospheric conditions,* 
as Mr Scott supposes, but with the deciduousness of the corollas 
themselves. Mr. Scott declares that the large sterile flowers of 
^ranthemum retain their beauty for two or three days even when 
lertiJised ; such can hardly be the case in K elatum. It reads strange, 
indeed, that the large flowers and their buds, but not the long styles 
• ^■/fr'"* ^^"^^^d regularly have escaped my notice, while T never 
missed those ot the small-sized F. crenulatum, which often enough 
grovys m company with it, and in Martaban it seemed to be the only 
species However, in arguing thus I state only what happened to 
nje ; others may be more fortunate in their observations 

l^now return to Mr. Scott's supposition, and will examine how far 
his views agree with those of a systematic botanist. He says : " He 
(Dr. Anderson) might well have discarded it from Eranthemum, and 

^!.r/ "''"'; i!l*\' ^^P[^«e°tative of a new genus, one which 
auuredly would thus have had comideraUy better claim to acceptance 

FvTr » tT°' ^"'" '■^''"P^^' ^"^ ^^^ suggested transposition of 

Jl. Ecbolmm" This assertion is taken up by Mr. Scott in his nre- 

iminary record of/a.A.. Not to increase synonymy we sbdlaul 

bat" W.'?>'P"T.'i^-'ir'^.'^^^ i:rantLuI^.^ its alii "as a 
pZla Z ^"^ ^^ mo^mz essential points for estimation :- 

Eranthemum: Shape of corolla ; capsules four-rarely by abortion two- 
or one-seeded ; bracts small or minute ; dimorphism. 

FlanthfnZ, '^ ''''^^'''^ ^"P^^^^^'^ non-dimorphism ; rest as in 

EM-n^' 1^^' «f/^^«"f ; non-dimoi-phism ; rest as in Eranthemum. 

Echolmm : Shape of corolla ; non-dimorphism ; capsules permanently 

two-seededf ; bracts large and leafy. ^ ^ timanenuy 

owrsTvfrmosTV" ^^^''^*^•? it ^^ evident, or to speak in Mr. Scott's 
own style, most decidedly evident, that the genus X in its intrir.sin 
value=.^.,;./«..^, a generally-adopted genus; wMe the m Med 
Ecbohum, ^^th Its additional characters, must have in the eves of a 

Z^'lT^KlT:'^'''^^^ ^'^"^^ ^^^^"^ to acceptance" than Mr John 
Scott thought It possess. It has happened to a leading botanist o 

reel sure it would not be easy to have it put in Ecbolhm. Add to this 
that the gi eat Nees von Esenbeck is the true originator of th lenus 
and I believe that Mr. Scott will find few partisans for his asseS' 
til ^f "%^^««^i^««f ^« revised by Dr. Anderson in h enumera: 

viz mFfb7- "^'Z^T'' r"P"^^^ ^^"'^^ ^'^y '^iff^^-^^ eWnts 
VIZ. {I) Echohum, (2 J Eranthemum proper, (3) Minacanfhus rEran- 



— <■ fc 






40, p. 75.) to be one-«eedcJ. 



■.J- 



fl 



r- 



SHOKT NOTES AND QUERIES, 47 

themum payiiculatum^ T. And., Identical with Rhinatanthm calcarafus, 

NK) 

I now append the description of ERANTHEiiTJii elatttm, Kurz, m 
Journ. Bot. 1872, p. 46. — Herba perennis, 2 — 3| pedalis glaberrima 
V. caulibus apice parce tomentellis ; folia larga, elliptico-adlato-lanceo- 
lata, basi in petiolura 1—2 pollicarem decurrentia, breve acuminata, 
crasse membranacea, glabra v. subtus in nervis sparse pubernla, 
siccando subglaucescentia, 3 — 5 polL longa ; flores brevissime pedicel- 
lati, pentamorphi, secundo-racemosi, in paniculam terminalem amp- 
1am 1 ^ — 1^ pedalem laxam glabram dispositi ; calicis glabri lobi lineares 
2 lin. longi; corollas florura sterilium conspicuas ; majores cyanese 
tubo 1 — IJ poll, longo, lobis i poll, circitor longis; minores 
dimidio breviores caeterum prioribiis conformcs ; coroUae florum 
fertilium trimorpha^ ; alise minimae clansse alabastriformes cum tubo 
basi inflato; alire paullo majores apertse uti in hocce' diario I.e. 
descriptae ; aliae 3 lin. longse v. paullo lonpjiores apertae limbo tubi 
non efflati longitndino; capsala et seraina JS. latifohi. 

Hah,: Pegu Yomah, on siliceous permeable sandstone, especially in 

evergreen tropical and in damp deciduous forests (upper mixed 
forests) along torrents. FL during dry season. 



SHOKT NOTES AND QUEEIES. 

Carex ruKC'iA^A, Gaud., ik Scotland.— May I request the favour 
of your making known a discovery -which will doubtless interest 
many of your readers ? In the couise of a botanical ramble with my 
friend the Rev. Mr. Farquharson, of Selkirk, in my parish, Colvend, 
during the autumn of 1872, we had the good fortune conjointly to 
discover what turns out to be Carex punctata. Colvend lies along 
the nortliern shore of the Solway Firth, immediately opposite Maiy- 
port and Whitehaven, and in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbriglit. The 
parish contains many interesting and rare plants,* but the only ones 
whicli, as having relation to C. punctata, I would mention are 
C. dUans and C. externa, both of which grow abundantly along the 
muddy shores of our coast. On first noticing C. punctata we both 
agreed at once that it resembled, but was distinct from, C. dutans. 
And a careful examination satisfied Mr. Farquharson and myself that 
it was in truth C. punctata, even before we submitted specimens to 
those who had more knowledge and larger means of compaiison than 
we had^to yourself among others. The plant grows m sandy and 
muddy soil, where it is reached by the spray of the pea, but not, so 
far as we observed, where it is overflowed at any time by the tide. 
The other two Carices, V. disfansSJiA G. externa, on the other baud, 
often grow where the tide at times reaches and even ovei flows them. It 
is true that C. punctata is found at no great distance from C. distans to 
which it is most nearly allied ; but whether or not it grows in close 

See a paper by Mr. P. Gray in the *' rhjto'o^ist" for 184^ p. 348.— [Ed. 

Journ, Biff A 



48 SHORT XOTES AND QUEKIJ^S. 

proximity to it I have not yet Lacl time to observe, I may further 
add that after having discovered it once, we found it again in two or 
three places along the coast, some miles distant from the place of first 
discovery. The perigynia in their fresh state were beautifully dotted 
all over, thus supplying to the plant its specific name, punctata.— 
Jajtes Feaser. 

Mr. Eraser's specimens are clearly identical with Irish 
C. punctata collected by Mr. A. G. More, and with Professor Babing- 
ton's Guernsey plant (in the British Museum) from Yazon Bay. As 
this latter station has been called in question, it is satisfactory to 
be able to speak with certainty about it, though, as in the Scotch 
Jocahties, C. dtstans is its companion, and has been mislabelled C. pmic- 
tata. The species has been recorded in three localities in England- 
Cornwall, Anglcsea, and Cumberland. Mr. Baker informs me that 



are m Boott s herbarium, is the right thing, and that there is a 

good specimen from Beaumaris, collected by Wilson, in Herb Kew 

In this station also C. distans grows along with it. The Cumberland 



Whiteh 



demed ; but it would be worth re-investigation, being just opposite 

Great Britain from three counties at considerable distances from each 
tocTcT^fJ'''^^'''^ Kirkcudbright ; besides the Irish stations 
he wS'l'll kTi' ' v^ *5- ^'^' '^ Guernsey. Other localities in 
d^ffioTlfl^- l-P f ^ be discovered for this plant, which Is not 
Si ^ I'hf^'^'.f^'f.^^^^tainedasa species even' by Mr. 
Dr BoSf" II^",^book.- An exhaustive illustration is given in 

I)r. Boo t s great work on Carex, vol. iv., t. 500 ; the plant is also 
figged in Syme's '' English Botany," vd. ix., 't. Ig'h ISkS: 



direct atterontr;v".^^ ^T^^-}^ seems desirable again to 
airect attention to this plant, which was first announced as a native 
of Scot and m the " Prospectus of the (unpublished) Flora PertheiTsis" 

pCt isrnSinSnTh'e tmt^^ 'l^r^^^^f^r'X '' T 
Mr RobertcjoTi <,avQ . '< Ti ■ ,.™^ ^^^ ^"S the specific character 

Zix nS of 111^7' aV' ^^"^ ^^■^'"''^ 'P'"^'' hitterto only known 
as a natue ot the Swiss Alps, we discovered in 1845 while sPRrrbin.- 

for the rare Bartsm alpina, on the most inaccessibk rSs that ove/ 
hang the,Tarf, a wild mountain stream in Glen Tilt Athol Tf T; 
be readily overlooked, from the frequent nibbling of sheen ^nd 
other animals that with avidity here brow.^ r^ ^ I P, , 

It has also been observed in on^r L Sio" bt'the tT"^ T""' 
doubtless, it has been carried, \i^^ ElermTi^,^\}j7^^^ ^^T' 
and some of the alpine Veronic J, to IT^ertZ^f^^^^^ 
of the mountain torrents — T "R " m!- I • ' ^ r i°^Petuosity 

of the Tay, and weif gath.ed by^S^RXXr 'l ™ otl^ d" tb"^ 
p ant in my pa^er upon ^;,.7.i.a (A^nn. Nat H^^^^^^^^ 2 ^4 Im 
and said that the late Mr. Borrer concurred w/fK ^ •' i ^- V ^^V' 
statement nf Af,- P.i.„... ' _ ,.? /^"^"""^^^ ^^^h me m believing the 



t..o,.,„ ,y Moss.. Hoov.. a„a IS ;„ Th: .SwXa..T/™!:; 



SHOET NOTES AND QUERIES. 49 

considered by others in Scotland as a truthful man. I am inforined 
by Professor Ealfour that his papers cannot now be found. In all 
probability no person has hunted for it by the Tarf of late years, but 

surely it is desirable to do so ; and may we not look for this work 

from some Edinburgh botanist ?— C. C. Babington. 

Plants OF Co. ConK,—Carex punctafa.—This rare species has been 
fotind m a new station at Ardgroom by Mr, A. G. More recently. 
This locality, like those on the shores of Bantry B;iy, at Glengariffe, 
and Castletown, Bearhaven, is in the extreme west of the County 
Cork, Last summer, when botanising by the shore at Oysterhaven, 
I found a considerable tuft of the same species growing near the edge 
of the water. This station is interesting as extendinoj the ran":e of a 



very rare species to a point quite forty miles east of the previously 
recorded localities. As a new station for another rare plant, I may 
name this for Cicendia Jiliformts — damp and waste ground near the 
shore at Durrus, at the head of Dunmanns Bay.— T. Allin. 

Ipecact7a:^ha Cfltiyatiois- m Iis^dia. — Mr. J. Gammie writes 
(N'ov. 17, 1872) to Dr. Hooker, from Darjeeling :—'' The Cinchona and 
Ipecacuanha plants are still in a thriving state. Of the latter we have 
about 3000, so that as far as the propagation is concerned there is no 
hitch ; but I fear we shall have to try many experiments yet before we 
can finally decide on the best place for its cultivation. We have 
planted out about forty plants at different elevations and under 
different conditions; but vre must get over a dry season before ati 
opinion as to the best place for them can be hazarded. In the mean- 
time I think that it will succeed best on well-drained slopes on which 
there is a good coating of vegetable soil and dense natural shade.'' 

Brns OF Malaxis. — Professor Dickie, in his note on the buds • 
developed on the leaves of Malaxis read at the Linnean Society and 
noticed in your Inst number, states ''that a close resemblance is to be 
traced between these buds and the ovules of some of our native 
orchids, e.ff, Halenaria rtridis^^^ and further, ^*the case of Malaxis 
indicates the ovule to be homologous with the bud, the nucleus-like 
body corresponding with the axis and the cellular open-mouthed sac 
to an embracing leaf." If by the study of their development Prof. 
Dickie has decided that the ovule and the bud are homologous, then 
he will enable us to solve the disputed question whether the ovules of 
orchids are Trichome or Phyllome structures. Hofmeister in his 
**Neue Beitraege zur kenntniss der Embryobildung der Phanero- 
gamen, II. Monokotyledonen," p. 653, ef seq.^ states that the ovules of 
orchids develope from single epidermal cells, and are therefore 
Trichomes or modified hairs. Sachs seems to give a qualified adherence 
to this statement in his '' Lehrbuch," ed. ii., p. 475 ; while Strasburger, 
"Die Coniferen und die Gnetaceen,*' p. 421, combats the view of 
Hofmeister, and states that from his own observations he has found 
^^^. .^^'^'^les to arise not from epidermal cells, but by transverse 
division of a cell lying under the epidermis, and as development pro- 
ceeds the epidermis is pushed up, forming theextem:il cells, while tht? 
original cell ^rom under the epidermis forms the central row of cells of 

E 



> 



50 



SHORT NOTES AND QUERIES. 



the young ovule. If the huds and OTules are homologous structures 
they must have the same mode of origin, and vrill develope either from 
single epidermal cells (which is in the highest degree improbable) or 
from deeper cells. I suspect that there is only an analogy between the 
buds and ovules, the buds being ordinary adventitious buds, while the 
ovules are either leaf structures or normal (not adventitious) buds. 

W. R. McNab. 

On Djmoephic Flowers oeCephaelis Ipecacuanha. — I have already 
stated that the plants in the "botanic Garden (Edinburgh) have been 
derived from two sources — onelrom a plant sent by Sir William Hooker 
more than forty years ago, and which he had procured from Mr. M'Koy 
of Liege ; the other from plants sent from Eio Janeiro by Dr. Gunning. 
There is an apparent difference in the characters of the plants from 
these two sources, but not such as to amount to a specific distinction. 
Hooker's plant has flowered pretty freely, but never produced fruit 
until last year, when the pollen was artificially applied from one 
flower to another. 'All the plants from this source have long stamens 
and short styles. The plants sent by Dr. Gunning have grown well, but 
it is only recently that they have flowered, and now there are several 
specimens in flower, and some are fruiting after artificial impregnation. 
In this series of plants there are evident dimorphic flowers. In some 
the stamens are long and the style is short ; while in others the style 
is long, projecting much beyond the corolla, while the stamens are 
short. It would appear that successful fertilisation may be effected 
by applying the pollen from the long stamens to the stigma of the long 
styles. The partial fruiting which took place in the heads of flowers 
in the Hookerian plants may have depended on the fact that there 
were only produced flowers with long stamens and short styles, and 
although when pollen was applied from one flower to another fertilisa- 
'^ition was effected, still it was by no means fully successful, only two 
or three of the flowers in the head producing fruit. The flowers are 
Bweet- scented with a delicate odour. — ^J. H. BalfouRj in Proc. Roy, 
Soc. Edinburgh* 

**Ttiose3" (vol. X,, p. 377).— The origin of the word Tyloses is 
not far to seek. It should, however, be written Tylosis : tuXti and ruxof 
both mean any swelling or enlargement, and rvxutais " a making or be- 
coming swollen or protruded,^' The enlarged and protruded cells 
referred to by Professor Dyer and Dr. McNab cannot with any pro- 
priety be called Tyloses, although Tylosis is a very good word to ex- 
press their abnormal condition. With regard to the three German 
words mentioned by Dr. McNab, it is difficult to speculate as to the 
origin of '* thyllen," It may have been manufactured frooi tuXti, but 
the resemblance is somewhat remote. *' Tiille '' means, as Dr. MclTab 
has remarked, a "socket," but I very much doubt whether it can be 
used in the sense of a " nozzle " or projection. " Fullzellen " would 
mean simply *' cells filling a cavity," which is exactly what the cells 
in question do. It is to be hoped that this word may be adopted to 
the exclusion of the other two.— FREn. Cuebjey. 

The following is an extract from a note which I received 
to-day from one of my pupils, which may explain the term : 



» 



*■ 



XXATOMICAL OBSERVAI^IOKS ON THE COTYLEDON OK GRAMlNEiK, 51 



^^Tixos is tlie Greek for a ^knot*; the verb from it (tuXo«) 
*to make callous,' theii=to ^grow hard' or ^ callous/ and also 
to get * knotted ' or * knobbed.' Your word Tyloses is pure Greek, 
Tvx«(rif, used by Galen for ^ a becoming callous.* As to the derivation, 
the whole thing is from tvXti, which, means, first, a lump, and is 
connected with the Sanskrit tu^ idumi (to grow, increase), and Latin 
tubery tumeOy tumulus. By some freaks of Grimm's law this word 
gets mixed up with another Greek set of words, *tox(x)yo/A3K, to get 
hardened (a similar meaning), and then with /aux>i, which yeans 
(1) a hard thing, (2) a millstone, (3) a mill (Latin wo/^; English, 
mill). The * tye ' form of the root does not exist in Latin. The mean- 
ing appears to be either the filling up and hardening of the vessel by 
the cells, or the cells coming through the vessel ' like iron knots on a 
club ' (which is a Greek use of the word rvui),'^ Since my attention 
was directed to Tyloses by Mr. Dyer's paper in the Journal for 
November, I have seen it in the stems of many plants, especially in 
those' having an open structure, such as the BignoniacecBy &c, — JoHX 
Sadler. 



<iJjCtractjS antJ 3tBi?tract^- 



ANATOiriCAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE COTYLEDON OF 

Br Ph. van TiEonKit. 

The author in endeuvouring to trace the anatomical passage from 
the main root to the stem in Monocotyledons was forced to study the 
mode of insertion of the first leaf in Grasses, and here gives the 
results of his investigations. 

The anatomical details are prefaced by a full account of the 
opinions held by different writers as to the nature of the parts of the 
embryo in Grasses. For these parts the author purposely employs terms 
which do not convey any opinion of their nature. He calls that portion 
of the embryo applied to the albumen, and having for its function its 
liquefaction and absoi-ption, tlie scutellum (ecusson), a term used by 
Gaeitner and subsequent authors, and derived from the form of the 
organ. With Mirbel the little tongue opposite to the scutellum 
is called the lobule, and the covering of the gemmule the pileola. 
The views of various botanists are summed up as follows :— 

' ' In the first view the scutellum is the whole cotyledon ; the 
■ opposite lobule is a second independent leaf ; the pileola a third leaf 
at 180 degrees to the second ; and so the first green leaf of the plant 
is its fourth appendage (Malpighi, Mirbel, Poiteau, Turpm, &c.) 

" In the second, the scutellum is still the cotyledon, but the 
lobule is a portio4 of it ; the pileola is the second leaf of the embryo ; 
and the first green leaf is the third leaf of the plantlet (Schleiden, 

Schacht, Decaisne, &c.) 

" In the third, it is the pileola which represents the whole coty- 
ledon, the scutellum and lobule being merely expansions of the caulicle 
or radicle : the first green leaf is here the second appendage of the plant 

1K4 I'- 



A 1 



i 



52 ANITOMICIL OBSERVATION'S OIV THE COTYLEDON OF GRAMINE^ 



(L. CI- Richard, A. de Jussieu, Lestiboudois, Hofmeister, Sachs, 
&c.) 

*' The fourth view refers to the cotyledon all those parts which 
the three former give it singly. The scutellum is the middle part 
of the cotyledon, the lohule an opposite appendage to it, and the pileola 
its ascending sheath : these three organs together forming a single 
cotyledonary leaf. The first green leaf is thus the second appendage 
. of the plant (Gaertner, Mirhel at one time). 

**To each of the first three solutions a radical objection may be 
made. 1. The lobule opposite the scutellum can scarcely be con- 
sidered as an independent leaf unless it receives from the axis a vas- 
cular bundle, and it is easy to satisfy oneself that this is not the case. 
Besides, the lobule is wanting in many cases. 2. The scutellum 
with its opposite ligule ^(when it exists) being considered to be 
the cotyledon or first leaf, if the pileola is a second independent 
leaf, it should follow, in accordance with all known cases, 
that there should be a certain divergence between the two leaves ; 
but the sheath is exactly superposed to the scutellum. 3. It can 
only be correct to call the scutellum a lateral outgrowth of the 
caulicle or radicle in one of these cases— either the excrescence is purely 
parenchymatous and results from a mere local excess of the cortical 
parenchyma, or it is vascular, the bundles which it receives forming a 
loop (' anse*), and after proceeding upwards in it, bending down to 
the base to pass back into the stem or root and continue their vertical 
course. But it is easy to determine that the scutellum possesses a 
vascular system^ which after it has once entered is distributed without, 
afterwards making any return to the stem or root." 

Struck by these objections, the author determined to seek a new 
basis for the solution of the problem by the investigation of the vas- 
cular system m germinating plantlets, and details the results of his 
dissections of those of Stipa pennafa. Wheat, Barley, Lolium italmm, 

Zea Mayn, Sorghmvulgare, Coix Lacryma, &c. The following are his " 
conclusions : — "" 

;' The cotyledon of Grasses presents in all the plants of the 



* 



family the same fuudumental characteristics and the same essential 
relationship to the stem. It is always formed of— 1. A hYpo..eal 
hmb, more or less sheathing and one-nerved (scutellum, hypoblast), 
the opposite side of the sheath of which often forms a little ton -ue or 
' coUerette,' free and entirely cellular (lobule, epiblast) • "2 A 
double stipule, united edge to ed-e in front and behind, to' form a 
white epigeal sheath, which protects the plumule (pileola) This 
bistipular sheath possesses two fibro-vascular bundles, which are in fact 
the lateralbranches of the hilndle to the whole cotyledon, of which 
the nerve in the scutellum is the central branch. Usually barren 
the cotyledon so formed bears in certain cases, like the subsequent 
leaves an axillary bud, more or less displaced, situated in the axil of 
Its bistipular sheath, or even two collateral buds 

" With regard to its mode of insertion, the 'cotyledon of Grasses 
presents three anatomical modifications. Either the cotyledonary 

^.'^fttlh/'Tr ? ^'''^o?-' '^^^^^ ^* "'^^'^^'J immediately 'above thi 
scuteUum {J)-iti<nim, Shpa, Secale, Sordeum, ^gihps, L), or the 

cotyledonary node is Qongated by an interposed growth. Of this 



\ 



^ 

^ 



COTYLEDON 



53 



\^ 



( 



condition there are two varieties. First, the growth may occur in the 
lower part of the anatomical connection : the sheath is then separated 
from the scutellum, but remains connected with it, through the cor- 
tical parenchyma of the node, by a fibro-vascular bundle with external 
vessels which we may regard as formed by the union of the two 
lateral branches of the cotyledonary bundle^ {Zoltum, Bromus, Ai/rodis, 
^lopecurus, Phalaris, Gnjza, &c.). Or, second, the interposed growth 
tnay take place in a part of the connection situated higher up : the 
sheath is then still separated from the seutellum bv a lonir interval. 



ough 



the 



but without preserving its vascular connection with it thr„„^ 

cortical tissue, and one may readily believe that it has an independent 
insertion on the stem {Zea, Panicum, Elemine, Sorghum, Coix, ^c.) 

''Such is the resulf of anatomical Investigation of grasVplantlets* 
If we look at the matter historically we see that it is nearly the way 
in which Gaertner seems to have understood the complex nature of 
the cotyledon, though he has not given any definite explanation, and 
his useless idea of a 177^//m5 throws such a confusion over the subject 
that one has some difficulty in extracting his real views. Other ob- 
servers seem to have detected only a portion of the truth. The scu- 
tellum^ is certainly the cotyledon, as Malpighi, Mirbel, &c., admit ; 
but it is not the whole cotyledon, even if one unites with it, as do 
Schleiden, Schacht, &c., the little opposite tongue. The pileola is 
also the cotyledon, as is held by L. 0, Richard and his followers, but 
neither is it the whole cotyjedon. The scutellum with its opposite 
lobule (when it exists) and the pileola are two portions of the same 
leat, the cotyledon of the plant. Thus vanish those objections which 
rendered all partial solutions inadmissible, ' 

Comparison of the cotyledonary leaf ivith the other leaves of the 
plant. — The composition of the cotyledonary leaf in Grasses being 
now well understood, let us endeavour to correlate it with the other 
appendages of the plant, especially with the ordinary vegetative 
leaf, and with the leaf of origin of the flower branch (^ feuille m^re du 
rameau floral '). 

*' The ordinary vegetative leaf of a Grass is made up of a sheath, a 
Dlade, and a ligule inserted at the point of junction of the sheath and 
blade. This last part is usually little developed, without chlorophyll 
or stomata, and entirely parenchymatous ; but in some cases, as M. 
Duval-Jouve has recently shown in Pmmma arenaria^ it attains 4 
centimetres (about 1^ inches) in length, and possesses lateral nerves 
alongside of which are found chlorophyll and stomata. Here tlie 
ligule well represents a double axillary sheathing stipule. Of these 
three constituent parts the sheath is lormed last, and it is produced 
by an interposed growth which elevates the blade and ligule. 



** Compared with the vegetative leaf, the cotyledonary one is seen 

to be deprived of sheath 
by 



that is, of that part which is produced latest 



a rapid multiplication of cells at the very base of the organ- 
It undergoes an arrest of development. Its sessile blade elongates 
itself but little, and is modified to form the scutellum ; but on the 
other hand, its ligule, also sessile, attains dimensions greater than 



t This mode is elsewhere stated to ho that found in the majority of Grasees, 
idsu in Cjptufccfe and some other Monocotyledons. — [Ed. Jom^i, BotJ\ 



i 



I 



54 AJTATOMICAL OEStRVATIO^'S OX THE COTTLT.DOy OP GUAMINEyE, 



those in^ the vegetative leaves of most Grasses, and of a kind similar 
to the ligule of Psamma arenaria ; it is provided with two lateral 
nerves, alongside of which it acqxiires chlorophyll and stomata ; it is 
the pileola. 

*' The leaf of origin of the flower branch, or, as it is generally callecf, 
the flowering glume* (* glumelle inferieure de lafleur*), is composed 
in its turn of three distinct pai-ts, of which the recent paper of M. 
Duval-Jouvef has elucidated the structure, mode of development, and 
morphological value. The part of the organ helow the point of inser- 
tion of the awn has three nerves, and corresponds to the sheath of the 
vegetative leaf; the awn, which receives the median bundle of the 
I'heath, answers to the blade of the vegetative leaf; lastly, the portion 
of the organ above the point of attachment of the awn, often bifid 
always deprived of a median nerve, but in which the two lateral nerves 
of the sheath are prolonged, is the ligule, more developed than that of 
the vegetative leaf, but simihir in its structure to that of Psamma 
arenaria. Of these three constituent parts, the relative devefopment 
of which is very unequal in diff*ercnt plants, the two last, the awn 
and the ligule, appear at the same time ; the region below tlie inser- 
tion of the awn is formed more tardily, and in certain plants elonn'ates 
but very little or not at all, so that the awn and the upper region of the 
flowering glume remain sessile. In this last case^the identity of 
composition between the cotyledonaiy leaf and the flowerinn^ glumo 
IS complete. The scutellum of the one corresponds to the*' awn of 
the other, and the pileola of the former, with a still greater develop- 
ment, to the bi-nerved ligule of the latter. 

'' From the vegetative leaf, then, we pass to the flowering glume by 
a transformation of the blade, a greater development of the ligule 
and a lesser elongation of the sheath, and it only requires to take 
another step m the same direction to reach from the flowering o-lume 
to the cotyledon of the embryo. There is a unity of construction 
^ '• It must nevertheless be allowed that the cotyk denary leaf presents 
in a great number of Grasses a remarkable condition of which I 
know no example in the other leaves of the plants in this family. 
Ihis 18 the separation of the blade (scutellum) from its bistipular 
ligule (pileola), brought about by the interposed growth of the stem 
or elongation of the cotyledonaiy node of which the blade occupies 
the lower and the Lgule the upper boundary.'* t 

Ecmarks follow upon the mode of origination of the embryo in 
relation to the mother plant, considered on the view of its bein<> an 
axillary production of the flowering glume. The author then Sou- 
nders the cotyledon m Cyperaceee, and then in some other Monocotyle- 
dons. He concludes :-- The Grasses and Cyperacea arc distinguished 



t 



1 

• The " loyer pale " of many English lotanists, who adopt R. Brown's in- 
terpretation of the flowers of Grasses. -[Ed. Joum. £01.] 

I .^ ■^j"t^!"";^•"'=^fa-'^f^^'^;■''^^'^'^^'■"*"''""* (^^""- ^' i'^^"d. des Sciences et 
let re. de Montpellur, 1871). M. Duval- Jouve in thi. memoir further distinguishes 

in the awn of Grasses when complete two parts- a lower twisted portion, the 

wW, of en absent, and a terminal part not twisted, the *«*«/.; corresponding 

resppctively to the petiole and ti ue Hade of the complete foliage leaf.- f Ed 



Joiiiiu Bo(.~\ 






CnriS EMENDATA MARSILEAErM ET PILULARIARUM. 55 

4 I 

from other Monocotyledons, at least from all those which we have 
passed in review, by a greater specialisation, a more thorough separa- 
tion between the limb and the superior sheath. Each of these parts 
of the cotyledon has in fact its own vascular bundles, which never pass 
back to another organ, whilst in other Monocotyledons, even when 
the upper sheath is in its most highly developed state and provided 
with bundles, these always return to the limb. It is, however, not 
the less true that there exists a complete transition series between 
the two extreme states presented by the cotyledons of Monocotyledons, 
viz., that in which the superior sheath does not exist, as in the 
onion and lily, and that where this upper sheath acquires, in relation 
. to the limb, not only a great predominance, but even a nearly complete 
independence, as in Grasses and Q^perace^J^ — [From the Annales des 
Sc. NatureUes, ser. 5, torn, xv. (1872), pp. 236—276.] 



CLA.VIS EMENDATA MAESILEAEUM ET PIUTLARIAEUM. 

' AUCTORE A. BKATJifr. 

Abbreviationes . — Spcp.=Sporocarpium (receptaculum, Auct.). Cpd.^Carpo- 
podium (vulgo stipes). F,=folium, foliolum. 

MAESILEA. — Sori in sporocarpio zygomorpho transversales, pin- 
natim dispositi. Eolia lamina quadrifoliata instructa. 
A. Spcpii nervi laterales prope bifurcationem anastomosantes (Monatsb. 

1870, s, 703, f. 5—7). 
a* Spcp. raphe et dentibus carens. 

Spcpia numerosa (6 — 25) supra basin petioli seriatim disposita, 

cpdiis brevioribus cemuis insidentia. 
f Spcp. subglobosum angulis carens. Sori utrlnque 3. 

* Spcp. 10 — 25, serie alte supra basin petioli incipiente 

disposita, 

1. 3f. polycarpa, H. et G, (Amer, austral. 



«. 



« ^ 



et centr., Cub., Ins. Societ.) 
Spcp. 8 — 12, serie prope basin petioli incipiente 

Yar. mext'cana, A.Br. (Mexico). 



t t Spcp. obovatura obtuse pentagonum. Sort utrinque 5. 
Spcp. 6 — 10, serie prope basin p. incipiente. 

2. M. suhanffulata, A.Br* (Caracas, 

Jamaica). 
&. Spcp. pauca (2—3) a basi petioli paullo remota, cpdiis deflexis. 
Spcp. oblongum pentagonum. Sori 6—8. (Pili spcpii Iseves.) 

3. M, dtfiexa, A.Er. (Brazil, Columb.) 

i. Spcp. raphe et dentibus instnictum compressum marginatum, in 
basi petioli solitarium. Cpd. elongatum descendens. (Pili 

spcpii Iseves.). 

4. M. mlUrranea^ A.Br.f (Senegamb.)^ 

B. Spcpii nervi laterales ad marginem ventralem nsque distincti. 
(Monatsb. 1870, s. 702, f. 1—3.) 



Var. M, pohjearpm f 
t An hnjns Hectionis ? Conf. Monatsb. 1870, p. 724 



« 



^6 CLAVIS EMENDATA MAKSILEARUM ET PILULAItrAEUM, # 

a. Spcp plura_(2— 5) in eodem petiolo, compressa, "bidentata. 
a. Cpdia basi plus mmusve inter se concata, erecta vel adscen- 



t 



t 



^i,^. a urtbi peiiou remota, ad medium feje connata, spcpio 
mox depilato duplo longiora. Dentes spcp. subajquales, 

5. M. qiiadrifoliata, L. (Eur. et As. med., 
Amer. sept.) 
1 1 Cpd sublasilaria, breviter connata, spcpio hirsutissimo 
tnplo-quadruplo longiora. Dens superior brevissimus, 
pill verrucoso-punctati. 

+ + i n IV •■> . ^' ■?■ ^^^roptis, Engelm. (Texas). 
T 1 1 t.pd. basilana. Dentes spcpii vix conspicni. 

„ p , ,. ,. , 7. Jf. Brownii, A.Br.* (Australia). 

^. tpd distmcta vel basi vix cohaerentia, erecta vel adscendentia. 
+ tpd. longitudme spcpii vel sesqui- (rarius duplo-) longioia. 
fepcp. matura citius depilata. 
I. Spcp. saepissime 3. 

1. Spcp. medio costata margine tumida. Cpd. subbasilaria. 
; basi subconnata. 

t Dens superior longior. F. eroso-crenata. 

8. i»f. erosa, W. (Ind. or.) 
T t -Lfentes breviores subaequales. F. integerrima. 

var. Zollingeri, A.Br. (Java). 
^. bpcp. ecostata, baud niarginata. 
t Cpdia distantia. P. crenata vel subcrenata 
iJens superior paullo longior. 

' 9. M diffusa, Lepr. (Canar., Alger., Sen eg., 

Atric. cent.) . 

* * Dens snp. duplo fere longior. 

X X n J ^^^- ^^^^f<^^ A.Br. (Angola), 

t t *-pd. approximata. F. integerrima. 

TT Sr^.r. • • ^f- ^r.'";""''^''' ^-^f- (Madagascar). 

ii. Spcp. saepissime 2. Cpd. basilana. ^ 

1 . Spcp. ecostata hand marginata. F. crenata. 
T Opcp. oblonsra, horizontalia. 



tt 



M. 



Var. inciirva, A.Br. (Senegamb.) 
2. Spcp. ecos ata, marginata utrinque medio tumida 
suborbiculana. F. crenata. xumiaa, 

+ +Pr^.i • , ^^•. ^^- ^^'^^'V^^pfl!, A.Br. (Pegu). 

t t Cpd. spcpio breviora. Spcp. plerumque bin! basilaria 

pihs longis patentibus ad matiiitatemVu^v^stita ' 
1. Spcp. leviter costata. ^ vesuta. 

II. Spcp. ecostata'- ^- *""^^^"'' ^■='- tP™'°»- I'd. or.) 

13. JT. aracilpnin A "R*. x /n 



• Species non ,«tis cognita, J/, .mdr.foli.i^ rimilis. 
T Varietas prseccdentis ? 






CLAVIS EilEXDATA MAESILEAEUM ET PIXULAKIARUM. 57 

h. Spcpia ad basin petioli normaliter solitaria (rarius bina). 

«. Epidermis spcpii persistens (aeque ac in praecedentibus). 

f !F< sclerenchymate carentia ((juod " item de praecedentibus 

valet). 

I. Spcp. dentibus binis sub^equalibus. 

1. Cpd. spcpio brevius. Epidermis foliorum tuberculis 

carens. 
a. Dentes spcpii brevissimi obtiisi^ Cpd. brevissimum 
cum spcpio inseqnilatero lateraliter declinatum, 
J Spcp. disticbe conferta, pilis longioribus patulis. 

14. J/, pubescens, Ten. (Elor. mediterr.) 

I X Spcp. minus regulariter cont'ertum, pilis breyioribus 
udpressis. 

15. M. strtffosa, "W.* (Eossia mer.) 

h. Dentes magis conspicui. Cpd. spcpio dimidio circiter 
brevius erectura. 
J Spcp. ventre exaratum. 

16. M, exarata^ A.Br. (Austral, or.) 
J J Spcp. ventre obtuse carinatum. 

17. M. hirstda^ K.Br. (Austral, septentn 
et or.) 

2. Cpd. spcpio longius. Epidermis foliorum tuberculis 

ornata. 
a. Spcp. horizontale parvulum (4 — 5 mm. longum), Cpd. 
spcpio duplo, rarius triplo longius. 
J Spcp. ventre non exaratum. Epidermis nonnisi in 
pagina superiore fol. tuberculosa. 
§ F. integerriraa, valde pilosa. 

18. Jf. JSoioitUana^ A.Br.f (Austral, centr.) 
§ § F. crenata, sericeo-pilosa. 

19. M. sericeiiy A. Br. (Austral, merid.) 
§ § § E. inciso-crenata, parce pilosa. 

20. M. Mutlerij A.Br, (Austral, merid.) 

t t Spcp. ventre leviter exaratum. Epidermis ia 
utraque pagina folior. tuberculosa. (F. subinteg- 
errima vel crenulata, inconspicue pilosa.) 

21. JT. macra, A.Br. (Austral.) 

I. Spcp. oblique adscendens aut omnino erectum 
magnum (5 — 10 mm. longum). 
1 Spcp. ventre non exaratum. Epid. nonnisi in 
pagina superiore tbl. tuberculosa. 
§ Spcp. ovale, leviter inclinatum aut erectum. 
Cpd. spcpio duplo longius. 

* F. integerrima, parce pilosa. Pili spcpii breves 

adpressi. 

22. M. oxaloidesy A.Br. (Austral, occ.) 

* * F. crenata, valde pilosa. Pili spcpii elongati 

patuli. 



Aut BubspecieB, aut varietas tantum prtBcedentis. 
t No. 18—26 inter se maxime affinoSj subspecies M. DrummoHdii didant. 



58 CIWIS EMENDATA MAESILEAKr:M: ET PILULAErARUM. 



23. M. Jiirsutissima^ A.Br. (Austral, cent.) 
§ § Spcp. ovatum obliq[ue truncatum adscendens. 

Cpd, strictum spcpio duplo-triplo longius. 

* F. integerrima-Talde pilosa pills verrucosis. 

24. M, Nardu^ A.Br. (Austral, or.) 

* * F. crenata pilis laevibus, 

25. J/l Brummondii^ A.Br. (Austral, occ.) 
§ § § Spcp. ovale (antice rotundatum) valde incli- 

natum. Cpd. leviter curvatum spcpio triplo- 
quadiTiplo longius. F. margine crenata et 
undulata. 

26. M, SakatriXy Hanst. (Austral, cent.) 

t X Spcp, ventre exaratum. Epid. in utraque pagina 



§ 



fol. tuberculosa, (Spcp. erectum in cpdio longis- 
simo.) 



§§ 



27. M. elata^ A.Br. (Austral, centr.) 
crenata. 

Tar. crenata^ A.Br, (ibidem.) 



II. Spcpii dens superior longior aculei instar productus 
erectus aut uncinatus. (Epid. fol. Ifevis). 
L Dentes valde approximati, sinu acute disjunct!. Cpd. 
'- spcpio brevius. (Spcp. pilis longis patulis vestitum. 
F. lata integerrima.) 



if. 



2. Dentes sinu obtuse sejuncti. 



X 



ingum 



lata. 



\x 



M. tenuift 






M. 



M. 



b, Cpd. spcpio 1^—2 longius. (Dens superior valde 
elongatus uncinatus. Pili ut in pra^cedente.) 

32. Jf. uncinata, A.Br. (Am. sept, calid.) 
111. Spcpu dens^ superior tantum evolutus, inferior plus 
minusve obliteratus aut omnino deficiens. 
1. Cpd. strictum modice elongatura. Spcp. horizontale 
aut oblique adscendens. Fol. epid. leevis. 
u. Spcp. obtusum vel subacutum, fronte neque trunca- 
tum, neque exaratum. 
1 Spcpii dens superior brevis obtusus. inforinr minua 



§ 



distinctus. 

Spcp. suborbiculare subhorizontale. Cpd. spcpio 
2 — 3 longius. 

33. M, rotundata. A "Rr ( kr^<rf^€i\ 



' x%v. i^ ei 01 m.mueronatmy quap mednitn tenet, Bubspecierxun 
BandfP sunt ; M. Unm/olia paullo magis distat. 



#■ 



CLA.V1S EMEND ATA MAESILEAEUM ET PILTTLARIARUM. 59 



§ § Spcp. oblongum oblique adsccndcns. Cpd. 
spcpio duplo longius. 

34. M. macrocarpa^ Presl (Cap. b. sp ) 
X X Spcpii dens superior acutius prominens, inl'ericr 
omnino fere obliteratus. 
§ Dens sup. brevis conicus. 

* Spcp. longius quam latum, margice Tentrali 
obtusangulo adscendente. (Pili spcp* ad- 



pressi. P. emarginata vel biloba.) 



M. 



# ♦ 



Spcp. perminutum non longius quara latum. 

(Pili adpressi, P. integerrima.) 

36. M. Burchellii. A. Br.* (Cap. b.sp.) ^ ^ 

Dens superior aculei instar prolongatus. (Pih 

spcpii patentes. P. biloba vel dichotome quad- 

riloba.) 

37/i/: Mola, W. (Cap. b. sp.) - 
h Spcp. fronte truncatum et longitudinaliter exaratum, 
'l Spcp minus compressum, fronte late exaratum, 

dorfo sellffi instar curvatum latere transverse 
impressum, dente brevissimo rotundato. 

38. M. myptiaca, W. (Afr. bor., Eossia 



I 



+ 



% 



' merid.) 
Spcp. suliqufidratum, valde compressum 
an"-iiste exaiatum, dente dongato conico. 



2 Cpd a tasi dcclinata arcuatim adscendens valde elon- 
eatum. Spcp. inclinatum vel ^Lerectum. Epider- 
Biis cellule' in utraque fol. pagma glbboso-tuberculi- 



ferse. 



lY. Spcpii dens inferior conspicuus (brevis obtusus), superior 
' plus minusve obliteratus. 

1 Cod brevissimum erectum. (Spcp. honzontale, ventre 
' exaratum. Pili spcpii Iteves. F. auguste lanceolata.) 



4.1. M. angustifi 



2 Cpd modice elongatum, decumbcns aut descendens. 
■ a Kapbe spcpii brevissima. Dentis superions rudi- 

mentum satis conspicuum. (Cpd|-U spcpu sequans 
arcuatum v. flexuosum. Spcp. oblongum tumidum 
pilorum lanugine densa vestitum. Pili verracosi.) 

42 M. Ernesti, A.Br. (Caracas). 
I. Eaphe paullo longior, dens superior obliteratus. 
t Cpd strictum decumbens v. descendens. bpcp. 
inclinatum v. subhorizontale compressum, pUia 



X 



adpressis Isevibus dense vestitum. ^ 



JT. Mexi 



\ 



Subspecies pra3cedenti8 videtur. 
t Propter dentium mdolem in hac BecUonc enumerata, sed affimtate proxima 
cum M. hinuta ct exarata (No. 16 et 17) coDjuncta. 



I 



IT 



^■- 



tt 



60 CLAVrs BMENDATA MARSILEAKUH ET PILULARTARrM. 

X X Cpd. flexuosum decumbens, spcpii J--2 3eq[uans, 
reclinatum, pilis adpressis laxius vestitura . 
44 Jf. JBerteroi^ A.Br. (St. Domingo). 

XXX Cpd. descendens uncinato recurvutum. (F. 
canescentia subsericea.) 

45. M. ancyhpoda, A.Br.* (Gruayaquil). 

V. Spcp. rapbe et dentibus carens. (Loco dentis superioris 
macula oblonga.) (Cpd. varie diiectum, adscendens vel 
descendens, spcpio 1^—2 longius. Spcp. oblongum 
teres, pilis Isevibus vestituni.) ' 

46. 11. mutica^ Mett. (K'ov. Caledon.) \ 
Folia striis sclerenchymaticig instructa. (Conf. Monatsb, 

1870, p. 692) (Cpd. tenue erectum, spcpii 2^—5 
sequans. Spcp. bidentatutu marginatum costatura. 
Pili adpressi mos evanidi verrucoso-punctulati. F. nuda). 
a. Spcp. erectum elongatum. Sori 4 — 6 

47. M, Coromandelia?ia, W. (Ind. or.) 
b Spcp, inclinatum abbreviatum. Sori 3 —4. 

43. M. trichopiiSy Lepr. (Senegamb.) 
c. Spcp. suborbiculare perminutum. Sori 2 — 3. 

49. M, museoides, Lepr.f (Senegamb.) 
P. Epidermis spcpii cito di-pilata sponte solubilis, testam atram 
nitidum spcpu nucleum laxe involventem constituens. (Conf. 
Monatsb. 1870, p. 7C9.) (Spcp. compressum, raphe elougata, 
dentibus obliteratis. Cpd. breve antrosum inclinatum.) 
f Testa conspicue punctata. " " " 



tt 



Spcp. horizontale. 

Jf. nuhica, A.Br. (Nubia). 

ictata. Spcp. declinatum. 

Jf. at/mnocrirna. T.pnr fS^t^t 



riLULAEIA.— Sori in sporocarpio globoso longitudinales. Folia 
petiolaria, lamina carentia. 

A. Sori 2 (hinc spcp. biloculare) Cpd. elongatum descendens. Spcp. 
anatropum. Macrosporae 2 non constrict®. 

P. minula, But. (Flor. mediterr.) 

T "1 ' ^^P^ ^' ^^P^P ^^■*^'^" ^'^^ quadriloculare.) Cpd. breve 
descendens, raphe brevi cum spcpio conjunctum. Macrospor^ 
80 — 50 non constnctse. ' 

P. amencana, A.Br. (Amer. sept et. austr. 
extratrop.) 
C. Sori constanter 4 (spcp. quadriloculare), 

«. Cpd brevissimum erectum. Eaphe nulla. Macrospor^ 50 
— 100 supra medium constrictse. 

0. Lpd. elongatum, ^ 



t 



r. descendens. Eaphe nulla. 
Mandoni. A.Br. r"R^^i^7l•o^ 



* Species fructu maturo deficiente non satia cognita. Cnrvatura amenlaris 
cpdu forsan tranmtona demum in directioiiem Btrictam abicii svnsnl^ns 

conianSndi^*^'"'''^'"""""^'^"'*"^' «ub nomine M. Irkhopodu (senBU latior.) 



BOTANICAL NEWS. 61 

f f Cpd. descendens, raphe elongata cum spcpio horizontale 

conjunctum. Macrosporse nximerosissimpe (ultra 100) 
Eon constrictae. 

F. Novcc SoUandice^ A, Br, (Australia). 
[From the *' Monatsbericht d. Kon Preuss. Akad. dcr Wisscnsch. z. 

Berlin/* August, 1872, pp. 668—679.] 



f 



A 



25otamcaI ijJctD^* 



Articles in Jouhn.' 



J 



^ 



Linn(Ba (October, 1872).— F. Komicke, "ilonograpli of the 
Rapateacem (tab. i).— F. \V. Klatt, '^ Contributions to a Knowledge of 
X\\^rrimulac€fB''^ — Ibid., "Plants from Madagascar collected by A. Gar- 
Bier," — E. Humpe, '* Mu?ci novi Australia? ex herb. Melbouruio a 
Doct. F. V. Mueller missi."— 0. Bockeler, '' Cyperaceae of the Royal 
Berlin Herbarium." 

DfcCEMBKK, 1872. 

Orevillea.—}^. C. Cooke, ''British Fungi'' (contd.).— M. J. 
Berkeley, "On Three New Species of Agaricwixom a Stove'' (4. 
{Collybid) Dorofhece^ A. {CoUyhid) caldarU, .4. {Omphalia) NeviUm),-^ 
M. C. Cooke, ** Blights on Tea and Cotton" {^Bendersonia tlievecola^ 
sp. nov., Torula mcarcerata^ sp. nov.), — ^* ^ISTovara ' Diatoms" 
(contd.) (tab. vi.). 

Jotirn. Zinneftn Soc, No. 68 (Dec. 4).— M. T. Masters, **0n 
the Developuieut of the Androecium in Cochlmtema.''' — J. G, 
Buker, '* Revision of the Genera and Species of Scilletd and 

Chlorogalet^,* 

BotaniHche Zeihing. — F, Hildebrand, "On the Means of Distri- , 
bution of Fruits of Grasses."— Ibid., " On Modes of Distribution of 
the Fruits of Plants by Grappling Organs" (tab. xiii.). 

Flora, — H. Wawra, " Notes on the Flora of the Hawaii Islands " , 
(contd.) {^Labiatm: F/igllostegta^ throe new species ; Stenr>gyne, four 
Dew species. , Cyrtandieae : Cgrtandra, six new species). — J. Miiller, 
** Lichenum species et varietates novse " (contd.). — G. AYinter, 
''Diagnoses and Notes on Rehm's Ascomycetes'* (contd.). — W. 
^ylander, • ' Observata lichenologica in Pyrena^is oiientalibus " 
(contd.).— F. Arnold, " Lichens of the French Jura. 

-American Katuralist. — A. Ridgway, ** Notes on the Vegetation of 
the Lower AVabasb Valley " (contd.).— E. L. Greene, "The Alpine 
Flora of Colorado." 

N'tcovo Giornah Bot. Italiano (lOth Dec), — P. A. Saccardo, 
"Notes on certain Amyloid Corpuscles (Somatiu) existin^^ in the 
?ollen-fovilla " (tab. iii.A).— P. Suvi (the late), " Virescence 
(pbyllody)in BMs perennu'' (UK iii.B),— F, Cazzuola, ^* Records 
.of the Effects of the Cold of the Winter 1871-72 on certain Plants 
m the Botanic Garden, Pisa," — T. Camel, '' Notes on certain Botanic 



J' 



62 ' BOTANICAL NEWS. 

Gardens and Museums " (In Belgium, Holland, Germany, Austria, 
England, and France in 1872). — D. Hanbury, '^'On the Manna 
of Calabria." — E., Hampe, " Musci frondosi in insulia Ceylon 
and Borneo a Dr, 0. Beccari lecti." (Ceylon, 29 sp., 6 new. 
Solmsia gen, nov. {^=Dicramim scarmurriy Wils) — Borneo, 53 sp., 
15 new). • 

Bedwigia, — A. Geheeb, " Bryological Journey (Brotherus') to 

Lapland,"— G. Limpricht, '' Supplement to the Bryologia Silesiaca of 
Milde." 

Botanisha Nottser (16th Dec.).— S. 0. Lindberg, " Short Notes on 
rare Scandinavian Mosses " (contd.) {Cephalozia ohlusilola, sp. nov. 
C' rtgida, sp. nov.).— F. W. C. Areschoug, '' On Buhus Idmis, ita 
Affinities and Origin. "'^" 



New Bools.~E. Strasburger, "Ueber Azolla" (seven plates. 
Jena, 12s.).— E. Bolssier, "Flora Orientalis," vol. ii. Calyciflorffi 
(Geneva, £1 5s.).— J. E. Kobson, '''Botanical Labels for Herbaria" 
(Hardwicke, 5a.).— F. Schmitz, "Die Bluthen-Entwickelun- der 
Piperaceen" (five plates).— A. S. Oersted, "On Recent CupulTferffi, 
chiefly m relation to Fossil Species " (eight plates and map and has 
a French resume at the end).— F. ab Herder, " Plant® Severzovianffi 
et Borszcovianae, fasc iii." 

i 

> 

A memorial has been addressed to Mr. Gladstone urging on the 
Government the importance of maintaining the Kew Herbarium and 
Library in close connection with the Botanical Garden, and recom- 
mending that, for the future, the British Museum Hei-barium (to he 
placed m the new Natural" History Museum at South Kensington) 
shall be such an one as is fitted for students and casual visitors, and 
that the two herbaria shall be in intimate relation with each other The 
memorial is signed by fifty-four botanists and horticulturists, Jnd is 
pnnted m full m the "Gardeners' Chronicle " and "Nature " As 
the editor of this Journal, whilst heartily desiring to see the Kew 
collections maintained in their present situation, is opposed to the 
design of depriving London of an herbarium for higher scientific 
work, and to any subordination of one establishment to the other, he 
decJmes to give further publicity to this document 

In the first part of a new quarto publication, " Journal des 
Museum Godefi-roy'' (Hamburg), Dr. Chr. Luerssen has published a 
hst of Fenis of the Palaos or Pelew Islands, collected by Capt. 
retens, forty-tw^o m number, and of those brought from Cook's or 
Hen-ey Islands by A Garrett, twenty-five species ; none in either list 
^e new to science In the same periodical is a contribution by O. K. 
Witt to our knowledge of the Diatomaces of the South Seas, in 
which twelve new species are described and figured 

Prof. E. Morren has published an interesting account of the work 



,.,:r?^^^%:-^^\flJ^tt^^, ^''^ - ^"o"^-^ translation of thi. 



BOTANICAL NEWS. 63 



done in Botany by the Eoyal Belgian Academy of Sciences, Literature, 
and the Arts during the first century of its existence, 1772 to 1871, 
which is, in fact, an outline of the history of Botany in Belgium for 
that period. The great impulse given to the study of science by the 
independence of Belgium is evidenced by the great increase in botanical 
papers after 1830 (the commencement of M. Morren's '*Periode 
nationale"). From that date a short abstract or notice of all the 
more important communications is given, arranged under sub- 
jects, whilst a complete bibliography under authors' names is 

appended. 

The Newbury District Field Club has published an elegant 
first volume of "Transactions," bearing date 187L The botanical 
papers are two — Mr. Britten's contributions to a Flora of Beikshire, 
already noticed in our pages (vol. x., p. 58) ; and a list of Phanero- 
gams, Ferns,' and Mosses in the parish of East Woodhay, by H. 

Eeeks. 

In the '^Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy," Mr. A. G. 
More has published a catalogue of the additions to the Flora of 
Ireland since the publication in 1866 of the *'Cybele Hibernica." 
This important paper occupies forty pages, so that it would be quite 
too long to reproduce in our pages, especially as to do so would be to 
print over again many things which were first published in this 
Journal ; but it is our intention to give copious extracts in an early 

number. 

Mr. J. Ball has given in the Journal of the Alpine Club an ac- 
count of the Botany of the district of Bcrmio in the Lombardy Alps, 
a rich locality producing Ahine aretioides, Primula glutinosa, Carda- 
mime gelida, Willemetia aparpoides, rotentilla nivea, Dianthus 
glacialis, Se.sleria microcephda, Creph pijgmma, and Valeriana supina 
amongst other rarities. Tlie district is specially interesting from 
the fact that some eastern and western alpine types meet here, where 
they appear to find their extreme limits. ^^ 

Pringsheim's " Jahrbiicher fur Wissenschaftliche Botamk 
for 1872 is occupied by two papers:— Pf offer's "Kesearches 
on Protein-corpuscles and Asparagin," with two Pj^tes; and 
AViesner's ^'Observations on certain Colouring Matters," with one 

plate. 

A useful list of the species contained in the published Fasciculi 
of Dr. Kubeuhorst's IIeputico9 and Bryotheca has been recently 

issued. ' • -n i 

"We are glad to make it known that Mr. F. J. Hanbury is collect- 
ing material for a complete Flora of the county of Kent, ^o county 
Flora is more wanted than this, and we are happy to give pubhcity to 
his request that all who have any notes or, memoranda, however 
apparently txifling, bearing on Kentish Botany, will send them without 
delay. In cases ot doubt it is very desirable that a specimen should 
accompany the record. Mr. Hanbury will be glad to forward to any 
resident in the county wlio is willing to work up the flora in hia 
di.strlct a copy of the '* London Catalogue,^' in which to mark off 
the jdants which occur. Address :— F. J. Hanbury, Stoke Newing- 
ton, N. 

The .Council of the Eoyal Society have resolved to continue 



\ 



-^ 



t 



64 



BOTANICAL NEWS. 



the "Catalogue of Scientific Papers," cariTing on the list tip 
to 1873. 

The following are among the appropriations of the Government 
grant of £1000 for the advancement of science to the Royal Society 
for 1872:— £50 to T. E. Eraser for investigation of the antagonism 



W 



Williamson for 



researches on organisation of fossil plants of the coal measures ; £50 
to C. R. A. Wright for history of opium alkaloids. 

Dr. C. C. Parry has heen continuing his explorations in the Rocky 
Mountains during 1872, and has made large collections. 

Mr. A. W. Bennett, M.A., &e., has heen appointed Lecturer on 
■ Botany to St. Thomas's Hospital Medical School. 

Dr. G. Henderson, the Yarkand traveller, is acting for Dr. King 
as director of the Calcutta Botanic Garden, during the latter's absence 
in Europe. 

Prof. Willkomm of Dorpat has gone for scientific purposes to 
the Balearic Islands and the South of Spain, and will remain there 
till August. 

As an appendix to the last published part of the " Revue Biblio- 
grapliique" of the Soc.Bot. de Trance (J an .—April, 1872) are obituary 
notices of the late A. Gris and S. R. Lenormand. 

The great European Moss herbarium of Milde has been acquired 
by the Academy of Nat. Scieoce at Stockholm, and the herbarium 
of exotic Ferns, &c., has been bought by Herr A. Metzler of Frank- 
fort-a-M. 

_ Herbarium for Sale. —Mr. Kuessner, Councillor of the Upper 
Tribunal at Berlin, died 5th September, 1872, and left a well-kept 
herbanum arranged according to the system of De Candolle. The 
herbarium contams 1570 species of plants, chiefly of the north-east 
part ot Germany, pnncipally from the botanically little known pro- 
vince of Posen (Bromberg), a few only of the South of Germany 
( Reichenh;dl), and of Switzerland. Most of the plants were collected 
by Mr. Ivuessner himself, and are preserved in twenty-eight fascicles. 
Offers not under 63. the century received by Dr. Robert Caspary, 
Prof. Bot., Konigsberg, Prussia. ' 

With_ reference to a paragraph about Hooker and Baker's 
Synopsis Filicum '' m our last number, we are requested by the 
pubhsher to state that the stock of that work is not yet quite ex- 
hausted. "^ ^ 

We have been asked by the solicitors to the Portuguese Govern- 
ment to request our readers to reserve their judgment on the conduct 
ot that Government reflected upon in the memoir of Dr. Welwitsch 
(bottom of p. 9) until a judicial investigation of and decision upon 
the whole matter-which they say will shortly be the subject of 
proceedings before the tribunals of this country-shall have been 

The herbarium of Wimmer, author of «' Salices Europjete," has 
become the property of Herr R. Fritze, of Rybnick, Silesia. 



65 



(Drifiinal %ttick^* 



NEW HYMENOMYCETOUS FJJl^Gl FEOM STOVES. 

Br AYoRTHrjTGTON Gr, Smith, F.L,S. 

(Tab,. 129, 130.) 

The conditions necessary for a fine crop of Fungi and an equally 
good display of flowering plants in a stove are diametrically opposed. 
Horticulturists know this better than anyone else ; therefore Fungi 
generally have a poor time of it in such localities. A good nursery- 
man or gardener considers it his first duty to utterly destroy all 
Fungi the instant he sees them ; therefore, though doubtless many 
foreign species of interest appear on imported exotic stems and 
native earth, yet so eagerly are they searched for and so ruthlessly 
are they destroyed by gardeners, that these Fungi seldom meet the eyes 
of botanists able to determine their characters. 

Repeated visits, however, to the London nurseries at Chelsea and 
elsewhere have enabled me to detect many interesting species of Fungi 
in the stoves and cool houses. One of these, a Lepiota {Agaricus 
Georginm\ which instantly turns blood-red on being touched, I have 
already described in these pages (vol. ix., p. 1), The majority of the 
tender species, however, appear to be at present undescribed, though 
occasionally we get well-known plants, such ^sAgaricus acufesquamosusy 
Wm., which, though uncommon in this country, is a perfect pest in some 
greenhouses ; and as for A. cepcestipes, Sow., a rare plant in Britain, it is 
everywhere in greenhouses and stoves — no amount of supervision can 
possibly keep it down. Grandinm granulosa, Fr., is common on stems, 
' I have freouentlv met with Merulius Carium, Fr. Several species 



and 



fil 



appear, with such woody species as Pdhjporm lucidus, Fr. At rarer 
intervals one meets with A, vohaceus, Bull., Merulius himantrndes, 
Fr,, and Pistillaria furcata, Sm. Out of a large number of exotic 
sptjcies I select the following for illustration and description :— 

1. Agahiccs (Plkurotus) GAniNioiDEs, nov. [sp. — Whole plant 
white; pileus rather fleshy, tender, dimidiate, clothed with fine 
adpressed flocci, hygrophanous, with no gelatinous upper stratum ; 
stem minute, lateral, or none; gills somewhat "crowded, and slightly 
branched ; spores white, -00027" X '0001". Allied to A. mitts, P. 

On Tree-Fern stems, Yeitch's iN'ursery, Chelsea, 7th May, 1872. 

Tab 129 —Fig I. Agaricus (Pleuroius) gadinioides. Fig. 2. Under surface 
of ditto. Fig. 8. Section of ditto. Fig. 4. Spores enlarged 700 diameters. 

2. Agakicus (N'aiicoria) echikospoeus, nov. sp.— Pileus at first 
slightly furfuraceous, moist, greasy, hygroplianous, citrine, margined 
with dtill green becoming pale, margin slightly striate ; stem 
reddish brown, stuffed or obscurely fistulose, gristly, externally clothed 
with white scales ; gills citron yellow, rather distant ; spores red, 
cchinulate, -0003" X -00025". 

X.S. VOL. 2. fMARCH 1, 1873.] *' 



66 JTEW HYMEXOMYCETOUS FTJN'GI fROM STOVES. 

Bull's Orchid House, Chelsea, temperature 75^ to 80^, 20th 
August, 1863. 

A striking and most distinct species, nearly allied to A. Cucumts, P,, 
and A, furfuraeem^ P. The echinulate red spores are most un- 
common amongst the Bermini^ hut I have observed similar spores in 
A^JlocculenttiSy Poll. 

Tab. 129. — Fig. 5, 6, 7. Agaricus (Nmicoria) echinosporus. Fig. 8. Section 

of ditto. Fig. 9. Spores enlarged 700 diameters. 

3. HxiiASiiius suBULATus, HOT. sp. — Pilous moist, at first huff, 
becoming striate at margin; gills rather thick, ventrieose, somewhat 
branched or connected by veins, faintly stained, at first adnate, 
rather thick, distant, or very distant ; stem horny, subulate, elastic, 
white at apex, deep brown at base from the first, tapering downwards 
and minutely pulverulent throughout ; odour strong, like M. Oreadefty 
Fr.; spores -0003" X '0001". Allied to M. rotuhy Pr., and M. 
androsaceus^ Fr. 

Growing in dense patches on Tree-Fern stems, Veitch's Nursery, 
Chelsea, 9th May, 1870. 

Tab. 129.— Fig. 10, 11, 12, 13. Marasmius suhulatus. Fig. 14. Section of 
ditto. Fig. 15. Spores enlarged 700 diameters. 

4. Mauasmifs aratus, nov. sp. — Pileus rich brown, smooth, rugose ; 
stem stuffed, densely but minutely pruinose in every part ; gills brown, 
rather thick, sometimes forming an obsolete collar round top of stem 
as in M. rotula^ Fr. ; odour strong, fungoid ; spores smaller than last, 
•00027" X -0001". A\ViQ^ to M.ftiscO'purpurens, Fr. 

Tree-Fern stems^ Veitch's IS'ursery, Chelsea, 10th May, 1872. 

Tab. 129.— Fig. IC, 17, 18, Marasius aramius. Fig. 19. Section of ditto. 
Fig. 20. Spores x 700 diameters. 

PoLYPORxrs xANTHOPtrs, Fr.— Pileus very thin, like paper, infundi- 
buliform, sub-oblique, zoned, yellowish brown; stem short, very 
smooth, shining yellow, enlarged at apex and base ; pores decurrent, 
very minute, round, pallid. On old wood, Bull's Nursery, 1872. 

Tab. 130.— Fig. 1, 2. Tolyporus xanlJiopus, Fr. Fig. 3. Section of ditto 
rig 4. Pores enlarged, 

5. Radulu-m Cyathe^e, nov. sp.— Crustaceous, pallid, ochraceous, 
tubercles at first rounded, obtuse, floccoso-villose at the apex, then 
somewhat cylindrical, irregular, scattered, terete, and becoming jagged 
at the margins; spores somewhat irregular in shape, ■00025" X 
■00017". Allied to li, quercinum, Fr. 

Tree-Fern stems, Veitch's Nursery, Chelsea, 19th May, 1870. 

Tab 130.— Fip-. 5. Hadiirum Cyathfm. Fig. 6. Tuberclea, ic., enlarged, 
i^ig. 7. teection. Fig. 8. Spores enlarged 700 diameters, 

6. Clvvaria cekvina, tiov. sp.— Slender, slightly branched, 
branchlets obtuse, tan colour, base brown, stuffed ; spores ochraceous. 
Allied to C. crhpula^ Fi\ 

On and about Tree-Fern stems, Royal Horticultural Society, 
South Kensington, September, ISfiO. 

Ta3:. 130.— Fig. 9. Clataria crhpula. 

7. PisTiLLARiA puRptTHEA, nov. sp.— Ovato -olavate, clubs obtuse 



PECULTAETTIES OF Pt^XT-DrSTRtBUTIOX IX THE LEEDS DISTRICT. G7 



n 



or acute, glabrous, purple ; stem stuffed, distinct, sometimes spotted 
with crimson ; mycelium sometimes blood-red ; spores small, nearly- 
round, -0001" long. 

A most distinct species ; the blood-red mycelium and crimson spots 
on stem are characteristic. 

Tab. 130.— Fi^. 10. Plstillaria purpurea. Fig. 11, Section of ditto. Fig. 12. 
Sporea enlarged 700 diameters, 

[Tab. 130 will be given in the next number.] 



THE PECULIARITIES OF PLA:N"T-DISTRIBUTI0:N" IN THE 

LEEDS DISTRICT. 

Br F, Arnold Lees, F.L.S. 

It is thought some detailed account of the more striking facts iu 
connection with the distribution of plants in the suburban districts 
surrounding our larger provincial towns, more especially as to the 
comparative abundance or absolute non-occurrence of certain genera 
or species, when taken in connection with the geological (and some 
say even the entomological) peculiarities which the tracts ^present, 
may lead to something in the way of generalisation, by pointing to 
the causes for the otherwise inexplicable absence of some widely 

diffused species. 

Such an account in respect to the town of Leeds may be possibly 
useful to those interested in this question if, whilst sketching such 
peculiarities as I am acquainted with, the flora be contrasted with 
that of Manchester, as described in the last volume of this Journal 
(p. 305). A resident near Leeds until very recently, I have^for 
many years given special attention to the local botany, with a view 
towards a Flora of the Riding ; and I may, therefore, claim with 
confidence a somewhat thorough familiarity with its salient features 

at least. 

What I have called the Leeds district I shall consider as restricted 
to the area within a circle having a radius of some seven miles from 
the heart of the town. 'Were I to extend this to ten miles, I could 
fairly claim admission for between 700 and 800 species, the flora^of 
the country to the north and east of Leeds being as much _ab( 
average as the Mamchester traqt would seem to be below it. 
are several reasons for this. Fourth in size of provincial towns 
(population 300,000), Leeds appears to have in some respects an ad- 
vantage over other large ones, Bristol excepted, in that its popula- 
tion is closely massed, and its outlying districts not over-run so equally 
on all sides by manufacturing excrescences. 

Lying on the north-east edge of the great Yorkshire coalfield, the 
thickly inhabited suburbs, with their outgrowth of mills and collienes, 
spread farthest and are chiefly found to the south and south-west. 
Here, certainly, taking up the southern third of our district circle, a 

F 2 



There 



68 PECULIARITIES OF PLANT-DISTRIBUTION IN THE LEKDS DISTRICT. 

+ 

country lane is a coal-road or a tramway ; and nearly all but the com- 
monest plants are ■vrell-nigh wanting in consequence of smoke and 
shaly clay soil. Yet even here, in close proximity to huge ironworks 
(Kiikstall), one of the plants most characteristic of the district still 
survives — Geranium pratense growing in stony pasture-land by an 
inky river, as it formerly grew all along the valley, flourishing inera- 
dicably until actually buried under smoking mounds of slag ! In this 
most barren district Convolvulus arvends is not, however, uncommon* 
It seems rather to prefer, I have thought, the broken shelving edges 
of a flagstone quarry, or the grey shale bank of an old coal-road, 
so luxuriant is it in such places here and there; whilst festoon- 
ing cinders and sand on railway embankments it is very frequent. 
Irrespective, too, of the district, I find Papaver Mceas and 

duhum, with Chrysanthemum segetum^ infesting cornfields not un- 
commonly, 

A great contrast to this obtains in other directions. On the north, 
north-west, and north-east sides of the town, lying away as they do 
from the manufacturing quarter, pretty lanes with real country 
hedges oi Acer campestre and Coriius sa^iguinea, accordinrr as the tract 
be sandstone or limestone, trailed over by Tamus and Solanum Bulea- 
mara, Bryonia, and not unfrequently /?Wffiw/2i5— country banks glad in 
places with Helianthemtm vulgare and Galhm rerum, Viola hirta, and 
Thymus, may all be reached easily in an hour's walk. 
^ Another reason which may be given in explanation of the compara- 
tively richer flora, apart from the agricultural districts 'coming in so 
• closely to tlie town, is to be found in a greater variation of surface 
and underlying strata than occurs near Manchester. In the south of 
our area alone does the coal formation approach the surface; and 
though the greater part of the north-west portion is gritstone, the 
diversity of surface is great, and the usual inft^tility not very appa- 
rent with us. The liver valleys are fertile, and moorlands, with a bog 
at Adel foi-merly extremely and still considerably rich botanically, 
lie withm four miles' distance of busy streets, the new red sand- 
stone, with its light soil, is unknown; and though chalk, oolite, and 
lias are also absent, yi^t the magnesian limeston*^ rrops up within six 
miles of the town on the east, and at Roundhay may be found 
much nearer— rich in each place in the commoner xerophilous 
species such as Helianthemum, Anthyllis, Carlina ruJgari^^ m/ve- 
rtcumhrstifum fM^^ montanum, Atropa Belladonna, ricris hieracioides, 
Genttana Amarella, Plantago media, Orchs pyramidalis, Braehy 
podtum finnatum, &c,, whilst Colchicum autumnale forms a 



o 

brushwood. 



# 



Gomg more into detail with regard only, in this place, to the 
presence or absence of the Manchester non-occurrences, an examina- 
tion ot the Leeds flora affords many contrasts and a few agreements. 
uut ot the twenty-five species classed absenlces by Mr. Grindon, 
twenty are found pretty commonly with us, and five are altogether 



absent. 



■ Those which I claim are as follow :—Clemafis has gained a firm 
footing jn two or three localities, and though no doubt foi-merlv in- 
troduced, has found a congenial soil and climate on the limestone in 



PKCULIAiaxiJ-S OF PLANT BISTIUBUTIOX IX THE LEKDS DISTRICT. 69 



such places as old quarries, and will have to he regarded as a denizen. 
Even on the millstone grit I have known it in one spot for many years 
spreading and thriving well. Papaver Rhceas and diihium are both 
frequent, the former oftenest in cornfields, the latter more sporadic 
but perhaps more generally distributed. Papaver Argemone, from its 
preference for light sandy soil, is almost unknown with us. The 
common Selianthemum is restricted within our district to the calca- 
reous tracts, hut is there common ; the same may be said of Viola 
hirta, Viola odorata is soniewliat rarer, "but occurs on warm hedge- 
banks in several places, not confined to one soiL Arenaria serpylh'folia 
may he found in almost every cultivated field, but by the wayside is 
not so frequent as in the south. The Stellarm are universally 
common, even 5. nemorum is rather frequent, and Alchemilla arvensts, 
ScleranthuH a?inuus, &c,, by no means scarce. None of the Mallows 
are very abundant, though all occur both on and off the limestone, 
M. rotimdifolia always near farmhouses,' Jf, moschata in hedges or on 
sandy river-banks, and M. sylvestris on waste ground. Acer campestre 
is frequent as a small hedgerow tree loving the sandstone, in com- 
pany with the broom, the wild cherry, and Viburnum Opulus ; 
whilst in Cornus sanguinea we have a sub-xerophilous shrub common 
in our magnesian districts, with the privet and Emnymus europcEus 
for associates; the latter, however, rarely ripening its fruit. ^ Of the 
yellow-flowered UmbelliferEe, Silaus is frequent in connection with 
Agrimonia and both the Pimpinellas ; and Padinaca occasional with 
Carduus eriophorus on the limesto'^e. Conimn, without showing any 
preference for soil, is still local, though not rare. Galium yerum is 
tolerably frequent, though nowhere abundant within our limits ; it 
approaches within two miles of the town on the sandstone. Convol- 
vulus arvensis is plentiful on the limestone with C. sepium, and with- 
out the latter scarcely less common even in the coal districts. Of the 
Labiates, Mentha aquafica ami sativa, Thymus, Staclujs syhattca, 
palustris, and Betonica, JSfepeta Oleehoma and Lycopus, are all of fre- 
quent occurrence. Three others, Ballota, Origanum, and CaJamtntha 
Clinopodium are confined to the limestone, but common there ; and 
Nepeta Cataria, CalaniintJia ofcinalis, and Acinos occur in one or two 
spots on the same tract. Lamium a/^Mm is not to be called common, 
stiU scarcely to be written rare, though I can call to mind far more 
stations for Z. Oaleohdolon. The cowslip is plentiful, and the pnm- 
rose abundant on the Umestone, though on the sandstone it occurs 
only sparingly, and then in bushy boggy places mostly. On the lime- 
stone hybrids with the cowslip are exceedingly frequent, i lantaga 
media follows the magnesian stratum with us almost as closely as 
Brachjpodium piimatum : within the district circle I never law one 
without the other close by. Eordeum mu^nnimx^ local- I know of 
one station only (Knostrop) in which it is plentiful, and this, too, off 
the limestone. Of the mural ferns, A. Ruta-muraria occurs occa- 
sionally, but A. Trichomanes is scarce. On the magnesian limestone m 
one district we lose nearly all the ferns we have except Scolopendrium, 
and A. Trichomanes loves best the slate walls and the scar limestone. 

. The remaining five Manchester absentees are likewise unknown 
about Leeds in a wild state. They include one mural species 
Cotyledon, occurring nowhere on gritstone walls I think ; one Uedge^ 



70 PBCULIAKITIES OF PLANT-DI3TliLBUTI0K IJT TWE LEEDS BISXUJCT. 

■ 

row shrub — Vihurnum Lantana^ rare eyen as a planted ornament of 
our shrubberies ; two sand-loving and one damp-loTing species — 



officinale^ ffordeum 



officinale 



Symphytum occurs, indeed, in two localities within three miles of 
Leeds, but is, I am led to think, not truly wild in either, Near 
"Wakefield and farther south in the Eiding it has all the appearance of 
a true native. I am not surprised at the absence of Cynoglossum from 
Manchester, Birmingham, and Leeds. Except in the vicinity of the 
sea and its sand, C. officinale is, I fancy, not the common plant it is 
often considered. It is very widely distributed, and sporadically is 
occasional in most counties, but inland occurs nowhere in the ex- 
cessive abundance in which I have found it on the sand-hills at Ireleth 
near Barrow-in-Furness, at Saltfleet in Lincoln, and Southport in 
Lancashire. Eordeum fraiense, too, prefers the sandy pastures we 
find near the sea, but in 1870 I noticed it on the saline drift below 
Clent in "Worcestershire in some plenty. 

In coming now to an analysis of the Leeds district flora, without 
regard to that of other towns, the more remartable absentees amongst 
common species claim attention first. In considering these, however, 
I shall not confine myself to the narrow limit close to the town I 
have adopted in the case of the occurrences ; but my remarks are to be 
understood as applying to a much wider area, since it is desirable such 
species only should be dignified by the title of characteristic absentees 
as are conspicuously wanting over a tract so wide as to include several 
localities apparently suitable for them. I should lose more than 
could be gained, and convey a general impression far from the true 
one, by needlessly restricting myself here to too limited an area, 
many species bemg accidental absentees within an inner circle which 
have nevertheless a claim not only to admission for an outer one, but a 
claim to be one of the species characteristic of the district as a whole. 

Wall plants generally, not only the mural ferns and Cotyledon be- 
fore mentioned, but also many others, such as Sedum acre, Saxifraga 
mdaetyhtes, Braba verna, and in a lesser degree Aralis Thaliana, are 
either altogether wanting or singularly rare with us, in comparison 
with their abundance in other districts, for a distance of ten or more 
nales around Leeds. 

Aquatic and palustral plants as a rule arc plentiful and well 
represented. The only commoner damp-loving species I can call to 
mind as ahnost or altogether absent are litdens cernua, Eupatoriuvi 
cannahmm, and Veromca AnagalliB. Nymphaa alha is, ' however, 
V ery rare. Eanunculus sceleraius, too, in this class seems unaccounta- 
bly scarce ; within a radius of a dozen miles I could only name one 
locality, and even there it appears to be dying out. Years ago it waa 
much commoner, for I can remember its characteristic head of achenes, 
noticed and gathered when a small boy, and such things had lust 
^^^A^.lT f '^^l^^'^tion for me, by a dozen brick-pond plashes and 
rural ditch-banks where, though still country, not a trace of it now 
survives. 

7?.«t!'''?^'V*^^ '"'''"^ ^r"'°'' inhabitants of dry banks and fields, 
Ranunculus Atrmf us and Trillium arveme are noticeable as quite un- 
known, m^Lepidmn campeslre rare. Cerastium semidecandrum and 
Lotonopus Ruelht I never met with in the West Yorkshire district. 



* * 



PKCUUAKITIES OF rLAXT-DISTEIBUTIOy IN THB LEEDS DISTRICT. 71 

Of the dry sand-loving species, Erodium cicutarium and Geranium 
columlinum are absentees, wtilst Spergularia rubra may be met with, 
very frequently on the millstone grit. Geranium pusillum is not un- 
common. It would be a very difl3.cult matter to gather the common 
mugwort within six or seven miles of Leeds, though beyond that dis- 
tance, alike on sandstone and limestone, it seems almost ubiquitous in 
the hedgerows. Solamim nigrum, Lamium amphxicaule, and Cheno- 
f odium ruhrum are the most conspicuous non-occurrences amongst the 
weeds. From our comfieMs Thlaspi arvense, Lycopsis arvensis, and 
Lithospermum arvense are markedly wanting ; and Ervum tetraspervixim 
is quite rare. Our rivers and canals with their banks and osier-beds 
supply plenty of Nasturtium syhestre and amphilium, Sagittaria, 
Lysimachia vulgaris and Nummularia, Sanguisorla officinalis^ and 
Tansy : vet scarcely a trace of Sinapis nigra, Sium angusti folium, and 



Glyceria aquatica. 



allowed 



possible some few of what I consider the species characteristic of our 
district ; species which will, I apprehend, be absent from the southern 
and western large towns, and which in a great measure compensate us 
for the foregoing somewhat long list of non-occurrences. 

Of the short list of more striking Manchester plants given by Mr. 
Grindon, I do not know any that we lack. With us too the stately 
and soldier-like "foxglove sentinels" guard our gritstone glens and 
quarries in exceeding abundance. On the limestone tracts Digitalis 
becomes much scarcer. Campanula latifoUa shakes its splendid bella 
freely in our hedgerows, replaced in the calcareous district by Cam- 
panula glomerata, G. Trachelium not reaching us at all. Myosofis 
syhatica is frequent, associated in our woods with Geum rivals and 
Lysimachia nemorum. Lychnis diurna is mostly abundant, though 
here and there absent from tracts of woodland apparently suitable 
for it in every way, yet unaccountably given over to the too trequent 
Bamsons and groves of Lamium Galcohdolon. . , .. . , • 

Amongst the choicer denizens of our district is Jqmlegia vulgaris, 
which, xerophilous as it ordinarily is, occurs with every appearance 
of beiJig native on the rocky wooded banks of streams, m several 
places on the millstone grit, as at Adel, three mJes north-west of 
Leeds, in a wood to which an aqueduct known as the " Seven Arches 
gives its name. Here the blooms are invariably a pale dehcate pmk— 
on the limestone, where it is plentiful, always purple. Ranunculus 
auricomus, sub-xerophilous too, furnishes another anomaly, t^ommon 
on the limestone, in some woods on the gritstone it ^ouxi^^e^ m even 
greater abundance, in company with Circm, Samcula ^dAdoxa 

Geranium prateme, again, is a charactenstxc weed in ^illyjtony 
pastures, comkig down the valleys of Aire and Wharfe and occurnn^ 
on the land between, to within a short distance of the town. Myrrh, 
odorata, carried down by the streams, may be foundjm the low nver- 



banks to a 



abundant 



town, as at Weetwood and other places. _ , . , 

Actcca spicata, too. though only surviving m one spot -^ff^J^^ 
strict limits of th^ Leeds district, is abundant on the I*^^'^^^^"^^^™/ " 
tion in very many places some twelve miles only from the town pre- 
ferrinjr the shade of beech woods, along with ConvaUaria majalis and 



72 ON IHE Cn'lNQ Mxni 



Hellelorits viridis. Corydalu . claviculata is a common but charming 
ornament of the bushy thickets and hedge-banks in the moory upland 
tracts less than four miles away from machinery and smoke, whilst 
Adel with its bog and artificial lake, at a no greater distance, produces 
amongst other not very common plants the following species worthy 
of special record: — Hypericum Elodes, Epilobium roseum^ Jasionemon- 
tanUy Littorella lacustrtSj Scutellaria minor^ Myosotis repens^ Liviosella 
aquatica, and Polygonum mite. 

On the entomological peculiarities of the district I am scarcely 
competent to pronounce. It is not considered a good one for butter- 



planta forming 



occur m any numbers. The 



for the want of the perfect insects; but I hardly thick it 
will be found that any of the species I have enumerated as absent 
from the Leeds district are so because of the non- occurrence of insects 
whose particular mission it is to fertilise them. 



ON THE CH'ING MUH HSIANG, OR *"^ GREEN PUTCHUK," 

OP THE CHINESE. 



With some Remarks 



AiiisxoLOCHi.i;. 



By H. F. Hance, Ph.D., &c. 



i.e., (^reen Putchuk," or '' NatiTe Greeu Putchuk." * derived from 

Trade of Ningpo for 1869 t> fifif^laf ^\ ^'^^ ^'''^^^ spates (Rep. on 

E^ Br are boT J:o^S/solVed V^STtSo "^^T^J^ ^''^ '^"''''^' 
said to have orii^inallv Dertainf^d t^ fho f^„i t^- t .^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ame ^s 

^-^mnenily ..luSV^^lTolTl'^Z^^^ ^0 have been 

pressly states that the T^m ch'inn m«A Z- ^"^""^- The same authority ex- 
is of no use as a medicine to tW ?t *T^' .T^f '' ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ Cheang hwai, 
two. As to theMalao' llw%BT.^T^/i'^''f,.^ distinction between the 
Schultefl ^Noms indig. S'un chokfe nl 1 T ^'"' >. ^'^''«- Hoffmann and 
identified U with AfllTcktKatpiJwt^r '' ft ^}'^^'' V- 19) hare 
been accepted by both Mr Ha^W Tvn '„- ..'d- ^""V^'^ determination has 
PorterSmith(cUrib.Xt SdThS 22^'\^^^ '^'^■' ^0) and Dr. 

there is no decisive eyidence I believe thilV;? *• " t^ ^^^* doubtful. For 
China, though I have a poS specimen 'whinV? '^'V ^f ^'^ ^^^^ ^^''''^ '"^ 
Chinkiang; and, moreover tCS ^«^ «'-^'^;°'^ ^"^ ^^^^' to it from 

^'ci^^k Stir X"S^ - ^^^'^- 

• fampanul, equina • ei .LfiS'J "•"' "„ •'"P»"»» " Jr<>»« ». 



smu — ».«., 

But Miquel 



to^. Kaempf>ri, whikt Tatarlnov TcJZT'^' *^^ '"'"'^ «^ -*'"«'« "« «"« 
riddles : Davus sum, non tt^ipvis. ^""^ ^^^^""^ ultra-8phingcan 



ox THE ch'ing muh hsiaxo. 7;i 



some fancied resemblance to the rhizome of Aiceklandia Costus^ Falc. 
which latter is largely imported into Southern China, for the purpose 
of making incense-sticks, &c. It consists of pieces of rhizome of a 
light brittle texture, varying in thickness from the diameter of the 
thumb to that of a crow-quill, white internally, and covered with an 
ash-grey epidermis ; and which, when fresh, has a hot camphoraceous 
peppery odour, and a powerful camphoraceous and bitter taste.* The 
'' Chih Wu Ming Shih T^u K'ao," or ''Illustrated Nomenclature and 
Description of Plants," published only twenty-five years ago, gives a 
really excellent outline drawing of the plant (here reproduced), and 
speaks of it in the following terms (cap. 21), for the translation of 
which I am indebted to Mr. Sampson's kindness : — ** The T^u chHng 
muh hsiang grows on the slopes of hills in Hu peh province. It 
is a trailing plant, the small branches, leaves, and fruit like those of 
Ma tao ling ; the roots are yellow, small, and fragrant. In medicine 
it is employed to cure burns and indigestion. It produces flowers in 
the form of a tube (hollow cylinder, bamboo measure), at first small, 
afterwaids larger, curved like a buffalo's horn, the sharp end being 
raised, and of a rather deep purple-black hue. The sexual organs 
are visible within." Dr. Tatarinov was, I believe, the first to refer 
this product to an Aristolochia ;f and, subsequently, Dr. Porter Smith. 
who remarks that ^' it is a powerful purgative, emetic, and anthel- 
mintic remedy, principally used for snake-bites, being employed both 
externally and internally," erroneously supposed it to be referable to 
A. contoria, Bunge.]: Mr. E. C. Bowru, in his Eeport on the Trade 



* Mr. Hanbury (Notes on Chin. Mat. med., 32) speaks of it in a dried state 
a^ having a slightly aromatic taste, with but little smell. Bliizoiiies dried by 
myself lost their scent almost entirely, but retained their flavour for the most 
part. 

+ Catalog, medicam. sinena., p. 12, n. 93. 

t Contrib. to Mat. med. of China, p. 22. A work which contains a great 
variety of information on the real therapeutic properties of Chinese drugs, as well 
as the fancied virtues ascribed to them by native practitioners ; but the scientific 
determinations are frequently very untrustworthy, and generally to be received 
with the utmost caution. This arises from several causes : from the use of 
various authorities more or less unrehable ; from trusting to Hofimann and 
Schultea' determinations of the Chinese names in Japanese books, which my 
learned friend Dr. Bretschaeider (On the Study and Value of Chin. Bot. Worts, 
p. 23) has conclusively shown to be a very fallacious guide— similar names in 
the two countries often representing only allied species, or even quite different 
genera ; from imperfect practical botanical knowledge, and especially an in- 
auflacient critical acquaintance with the Asiatic Flora. When I mention that 
paudurifonn leaves are assigned to Erioboirya japonlca^ that Elsholtzia (misspelt 
Esch&choltzia) is referred to Verdenaceee, that Daphnidium Myrrha (misspelt 
Bapfinis Myrrhm, the identification professed to be taken from Tatarinov, who 
writes clearly *' Mad. Daphnidu Myrrkie ") to Amcardiacea^^ and that Fumaria 
officinalis and F. racemosa, Bomhax Cdba^ Eubus Jdmts and H, fruticosus^ Eosa 
canina, Sedum acre, Arttmisia Abrotanum, Matricaria Chamomilla^ Azalea ponticn, 
Lysimachia Kumimdaria, Gentiana aselepiadea, Emicx Eydrolapathum^ R, alpinus, 
Quercus Ilex^ Agave chinmsis, Iris Jlorentina^ are all given as Chinese plants, it will 
be manifest that there ia no hyptrcriticism in these remarks. But I wish to add 
that they have been written in no unfriendly spirit, but simply because I think 
it most mischievous to assign distinct sources to medicinal or economical pro- 
ductions without adequate grounds for so doing; and that this mischief is 
aggravated where, as in the present case, the reputation of the author, as an 



74 



ON THE CEDING MUH HSTANG. 




ON THE CH'iNG MUH HSLING, 75 

of Ningpo for 1868, states that, in the neighbourhood of that port, 
whence the drug is very largely exported, the plant yielding it is a 
common garden creeper ; and he was so obliging as to procure, at my 
request, several living plants, one of which has flowered lavishly, and 
set a single fruit, affording me the opportunity of examining it very 
satisfactorily. There can be no doubt of its identity with the plant 
figured in the Chinese work just referred to ; and I believe it to be a 
hitherto undescribed species, of which I subjoin a diagnosis. 

ArISXOLOCHIA (DlPtOLOBtlS § SESSILES) EECXJEVILABBA ; sp, 710V. 

rhizocarpica, glaberrima, rhizomate horizontali epidennide fusco obtecto 
ramulos descendentes fibrasque emittente, caule sinistrorsum volubili 
ramosissimo leviter angulato-sulcato glaucescenti nodis incrassatis 
pallidis, foliis anguste deltoideo-cordatis obtusis mucronulatia sinu 
latiusculo truncato auriculas rotundatas divergentes superante supra 
saturate viridibus infra glaucescentibus crebre tenuiter reticulatis 
pedatim 7-nerviis nervis albidis 3 mediis subparallelis exterioribus 

divergentibus omnibus infra prominulis lamina 1^ — 2-| poll, longa e 
medio sinu in petiolum | — 1 pollicarem cuneatim attenuata, floribus 
axillaribus solitariis cernuis inodoris pedunculo tubum perigonialem 
subaequanti fultis, perigonii ptyxi valvati extus glaberrimi nervis 
6 tenuibus longitrorsus percursi luteo-viridis intus pilis pluriseptatis 
obsiti ore livide purpureo maculisque luteolis picto utriculo 3 lin. 
diametro globoso supra juxta tubi basin gibbis 2 hemisphjericis notato 
tubo semicirculariter arcuato sursum parum ampliato 8 — 9 lin. longo 
limbi subbilabiati labio inferiore parvulo rotundato subemarginato 
superiore triangulato-ligulato acuto arete recurve 6 — 7 lin. longo, 
columnae depressae lobis brevibus semiovoideis obtusis dorso medio 
sulcatis, capsula obovoideo-spha^rica apice depressa lineis tenuibus 
12 suturalibus baud elevatis alternis (e pedunculo partibili ortis) vix 
prominulis, seminibus tenuibus compressis concavo-convexis transverse 
oblongis utraque extremitate emarginatis 2 lin. longis 3 lin. latis 
margine atro-cinereo ruguloso nucleum paulo pallidiorem triangulari- 
cordatum cingcnte- (Exsicc. n. 17612.) 

Though some writers would probably describe the flower as one- 
hpped, the lower lip is evidently developed, being about IJline deep : 
it is quite conspicuous in the uncxpanded flower. The upper lip, as 
soon as the perigone is fully open, becomes abruptly refracted, 
usually, but not always, with a certain amount of torsion, to right 
or left indifferently, the apex or side touching the upper part of the 
tube. But after the pollen is shed, and before the flower falls from 
the ovary, the lip loses its rigidity, uncurls, and bends upwards into 
an erect position. The hairs on the lip and in the throat and upper 
part of the tube are purple ; those towards the lower part of the tube, 
^vhich they completely close, are colourless. All are in structure 
exactly like those of A. GoUiemia, Hook, fil., as shown in JMr. Fitch's 
beautiful plate,* and resemble the filaments of Conferva ; but as Th. 

accomplished physician and student of a foreign materia medica, is likely to 
le*d to his citation as an authority, eren in instances where he has committed 
undoubted errors, and in some ca'ses apparently given mere crude guesses, more 
or less wide of the truth. A determination which is not perfectly precise is 
worse than valueless. 

* Trans. Linn. Soc. xxv., t. 14. 



nn 



76 ox THE CH^IXG MTTH HSIANa. 

F. N'ecs represents those of A, hcetim as much the same,* I suspect 
these closely -^septate hairs are common to all the species of the genus. 
The immediate allies of the Chinese plant just described are to he 
found in those species which inhabit the region of the Mediterranean 
basin, and the adjacent territories; and, amongst these it is, I 
believe, nearest to J(. alttssma, Desf.j A. Pistolochia^ Linn., and espe- 
cially^, h^tica, Linn., and A. parvifoUa, Sibth, et Sm. Amongst 
East Asiatic species, there are only two with which it is likely to be 
confounded : A. deUIis^ ^i^h, et Zucc— very imperfectly described by 
Zuccarini ;| at first placed by Duchurtre]: between A. rotunda, Linn., 

together 
witntne very amerent^. Kaempferi, Willd., inlni^QQtionPodmthemum; 
and of which the true position was only recently ascertained by the 
late Professor Miquel||— and A. Sinarum^ LindL The former is de- 
scribed as having a merely slightly curved and quite smooth perigone, 
and a capsule and seeds exactly like those of A. Eoxhirghianay KL— 
that is to say, the former angular, and with conspicuous thick ribs, 
and the latter differently shaped, and with a pale wing.^ As to the 
second, the diagnosis given is so very brief aud imperfect that even 
the section to which it belongs is quite uncertain. It may be the 
same as my species ; but the perigone-limb is described as straight, and 
the plant is said to be fetid, whereas I find the Ningpo one quite 
scentless, whether exposed to the direct ravs of a bright sun or 
during or after rain. A. ^ow^o/'/a, Bunge, of which I possess speci- 
mens from the river Sungari, and from the neighbourhood of Peking, 
differs abundantly, by its leaves much wider in proportion to their 
length, and smaller only slightly curved flowers, with the lip pro- 
duced into a long thread-like process, 

TJndoubtedly no genus comprising 'a large number of species, 



widely diffused oyer both hemispheres, has been so universally 



credited with _ alexitenc properties as Aristohchia, and this, too, in 
all ages, and m every condition of society, alike by the wandering 
savage and the polislied citizen or learned phyaician of a highly civi- 
lised commonwealth. In the forcihle language of Endlicher,** "Species 
plunmae yasoram, imprimis secerncntium, nervorum et cutis vitam 
sol] icitantes, in elimmandis e corpore potentiis morbificis, veneno potis- 
simum animali, efflcaccs, adversus serpentum morsus unanimi gentium 
^r^.o«e« celchrantur." As regards those species which are natives 
of the Mediterranean hasm, Theophrastus praises A. paUida, Willd., 
a s a remedy for the bites of snakes, when infused in wine and drunk, 

♦ Gen. Plant. Fl. Germ. Dicof. Monochlam., t. 50, ^g, 26. 

t Abhaudl. d. math.-phy«. Kl d. Miinch. Akad. iv. Abth.V, 197. 

X Ann. sc. nat. Par. 4^ ser. ii., 32, 

V^i^:^S:tS.^- ^^^^-^-^-. - Monat^ber d. k. Berl. Akad. d. 
II Ann. Mus. tot Lugd.-Bat. ii., 135 



1 

ON THE CH^ING UVR nSlAXG. 77 



and used also as a topical application;* and this oi* other species, pro- 
bably A. h<Bticay Linn,, A, parvifolia^ Sibth. et Sni., and A. Pisto- 
lochiay Linn., entered as ingredients into the wonderfully complex 
alexipharmaca of the Greek physicians. f Cicero alludes to the virtues 
of Aristolochia in cases of snake-bites as a universally recognised fact, J 
and Pliny notes the employment of A. pallida in such cases. § The 

pseudonymous Mat*er, in his poem ''De viribus herbanim," written 
during the tenth century, and wliich for more than five hundred years 
was the recognised authority on vegetable materia medica, holding in 
this respect an equal rank to that conceded to the renowned *' Kegi- 
men Salernitanum "1| in all cases of diet, exercise, and the daily con- 
duct of life, thus refers to A, rotunda^ Linn :- - 

I 

" Pestiferos morsus, cum vino sumpta, rotunda 
Curat, et assumptis prodest sic hausta venenis."*j[ 

And this belief was universal during the middle ages. Nor can the 
dull green foliage, twining habit, lurid tubular flowers, and heavy 
scent of these plants have led to such u belief,** founded on an attach- 
ment to the '* doctrine of signatures " ; not only because it seems clear 
that it was inherited from antiquity, but also because, remarkably 
enough, one of the most curious works devoted to the exposition of 
this fanciful theory, the ** Phytognomonica" of Gianibatista Porta — a 
contemporary of our Gerarde — first published at Naples in 1588, 
though several times alluding to the presumed virtues of An'stoIocJiie^, 



Hist Plant, ix., 13, 3 ; ix., 20, 4, ed. Wimmer. One hundred and forty 
years later, Nicander extols the same specific in verbe, thua : 

'^ ^' —Theme. 517^19. 

t E.c. Andromachi Theriaca Tranquillitatis, 160 ; Servilii Damocratis 
Theriaca, 148 ; Ejusdem ad venenosorum morsus Antidotus. 11 ; Ejusdem Antidot. 
alt. (qua utimtur Psylli), 10. As to the opinions of modern writt-rs on the deter- 
miuation of the species, cfr, Sprengel, Hist, rci herb. i. passim ; Billerbeck, Fl. 
class 225; Fraas, Synops, fl. class 267. 

X De Divinatione i?, 10. 

I 

f Nftt. Hist. XXV., 8, 

II A very pretty little edition of this (and which would have been still more 
interesting >Hd it been illustrated by parallel references to the writingsof 
medieval physicians), with a remarkably well-executed translation into Enghsh 
verse, has been recently published by Professor Ordronaux, of Columbia College, 
New York. 

f De viribus herb., vers. 1402-3. I quote from the excellent edition of 
Choulant (Lips. 1832), who well defends the utility and interest of the book, 
as affording an insight into medieval life and thought. Sprengel (Hist rei 
herb, i., 225) speaks of the author most contemptuously, as " misernmus 
monachus." 

* ♦ Dr. Alexander Trior, however, asserts (Popular Names of Brit. PL, 
ed. 2, p, 22) that the fancied virtues ot Aristolochia Clematatxs, Linn., in assisting 
difficult parturition were ascribed to it ob formam oris perigonu adhuc mex- 
pansi feminali hand absimilem ; and it is notewortliy that the Jamaica negroes 
bave £?iven a coarse popular name to A, ^randijlora, Sw., from a similar 
resemblance. 



7^ ox THE CH'iNG mVU HSIANG. 

never once attributes to them antidotal power.* The Arabs are re- 
ported to use the leaves of A. semper vir ens, Linn., when bitten by 
poisonous snalies,f and A. indica, Linn., is similarly employed in 
India.j The early settlers on the Atlantic sea-board of North 
America found A. serpeutaria, Linn., held in high esteem by the 
Indians as a remedy for wounds inflicted by the rattle-snake and other 
venemous reptiles, § a reputation perpetuated both by the trivial name 
and the popular designation " Snake-root." A very large number of 
species enjoy an equal fame in the Caribbean Islands, and throughout 
the entire South American continent, amongst which maybe mentioned 
A trilobata Lmn., A. pandurata, Linn, (the ''Raizde Mato " of the 
Venezuelans), A. odorati8sima,Unn., A.cordiflora, Viutis,A.angmcida, 
-4"°-' ^■fragrantissima, Ruiz (the celebrated " Bejuco de la Estrella " 
of the Peruvians),|| A. macroura, Gomez, A. cymlifera. Mart, et 
Zucc J. ringens \vAi\., A. galeata, Mart, et Zucc, &c. Dr. 
WeddcU was assured by the Bolivians in the province of Yungas that 
the crushed leaves of the - Yejuco," A. IrasUiensis, Mart, et Zucc, 
used topical y, are an infallible cure for snake-bites.^ and Senor Triaiia 
T tenZ^V^,^ .mvest gator of the flora of NoV Granada, found 
A. fenera, Poh m daily nse in similar cases, as a never-failing 
remedy, under the name of " Mates." ^t^i^s 

Modem physicians seem with one accord to regard these plants as 
diaphoretics, stimulant tonics, and emmenagogues only ; but the ™ 
of testimony from aU quarters of the globe, and e^x end ng over I 
period of more than two thousand years, in favour of their afexiteric 

tTafttTe virtLrrYdT--' ''''''''' ^ W judgmtuncTedibi: 

' mimate ef nrl ft . ^-^ ^"^f^^^^T- In the words of Cicero, 

Utililate et ars est et inventor probatus,"** and the subject 

butes tHe power of -V^'tTk^St^^^^^^^ f "' 

«eous, for A. *^r,.^eVmTL not to T t ^^J^^'^f^tion is probably erro- 
Duchartre, indeedfX examined th«n^^- Tn^'f.^"' ^""° f°"°<i '° Arabia, 
paration of his monrgraph Teeo,i it SZ^^ ^^'^"^"^ ^° t^^^ For- 

gathered it in Cyprfs (Se Insel rL?r J •of^ ^^^^a ' ^''*. ^"S^'* «^<i Kotschy 
Syria, whilst NySan (Syli fl eL ^ S\ll% vif .^'^S^. '> *« ^ "^"ve oV 

the later probably froKantription SeTv sT^^^^^^^^ ^^'^ "T'^' '''^' 

neaus and the islands of the ^iean fnd TTlnS t ■ ^''^'^^1° t^e Pelopon- 

t Royle lUustr. Himal. Bot., 330. 

§ EndHcher Enchirid. bot.. 219 ; E. E. Griffith Med. Bot.. 532 

t Weddell Voyage dans le nord de la Bolivie 535 
* • De Divinat. i., 7. 



EdUISETXJMS AJTD CALAMITES. 79 



seems to me to demand a very careful and dispassionate investiga- 
tion. 

\^Note ly Mr. D. JIanhury. — To the very interesting article of my 
friend Dr. Hance on Green Patchuh may be added a few lines show- 
ing how large a trade there is in this drug. Mr. Bowra, in the report 
referred to "by Dr. Hance, estimates the total value of the export trade 
of Ningpo in 1868 at 6,073,709 taels, or about £2,026,903, of which 
amount 239,559 taels (£80,274) represent drugs; and of these latter 
fully one-third (or to the value of, say, £26,700) is Green Piitchnk. 
The drug, he says, is worth from 10 dols. to 15 dels, per picul, equal 
to, say, 4d, to 6d. per lb. Eut the Chinese have several qualities, 
some of which are far dearer. The supplies are chiefly derived from 
the plant which is cultivated, but the root of the wild plant is also 
collected, though to a very small extent. — D. H.] 



0^ THE ORGANISATION^ OF EQIJISETUMS AXD CALA- 

MITES. 
By W. E. Mc^b, M.D. 

[Read at the Meeting of the Botanical Society of Hdinhurgh^ 

Decemher, \2th, 1872.] 

Thr study of the organisation of the older fossil plants is svJ' 
rounded with so much difficulty and obscurity, that any opinio^ 
advanced as to the interpretation of their observed structure ought 
only to be brought forward after the most careful investigation of the 
fossils themselves, and also after a critical examination of the^etruc- 
ture of their nearest living allies. The imperfect preservation of 
much of the material the botanist is called on to examine in order 
to elucidate the nature of these fossil plants, and the impossibility of 
adopting the only safe method of ascertaining definitely the value^of 
tlubious structures by observing their development, enables us easily 
to^ understand how so much difference of opinion has existed and does 
still exist among pala)ontological botanists. In approaching ^ the 
subject I do so with much hesitation, and put forward my viewa 
Kierely as thoughts which may be worthy of some little attention by 
those who are carefully and laboriously working at the subject. 
These opinions are at variance with those expressed by able investi- 
gators such as Prof. W. C. Williamson,* and I come forward only with 
a sincere desire to help, if possible, in the difficult investigation : to 
try and elicit the truth, and not to detract from the fine work done 
^Y talented and careful observers. My views may also be of further 
value because I approach the subject from, I venture to believe, a 
ditferent point of view— namely, that of a botanist who wishes to apply 
what is known of recent forms to the elucidation of the fossil, because 
it is to the recent forms I have given most attention. I shall, there- 
fore, make ample use of the figures and descriptions given by Prof. 

4 



Phil. Trans., 1R71, p. 477 



80 EQUISKXUMS AKD CALAMITKS. 

L 

Williamson, and shall try and point out that some of his observations 
will bear a second interpretation ; and further, I believe that the 
Calamites do not differ so much in their essential characters from the 
living Equisetums as Prof. Williamson thinks. In discussing the 
subject it will.be convenient first to consider the structure of the recent 
Equisetums, and then examine briefly the fossil forms. 

Gejteeai Chakactees of Equisetums.* — The Eq^uisetums are vas- 
cular Cryptogams, and are more or less intimately associated with the 
Ferns, Ophioglossaceae, Ehizocarps, and Lycopods. In all these plants 
we have^ the reproductive organs, consisting of antheridia and 
archegonia, produced by a more or less developed prothallus. By 
the presence of well-defined vascular tissue in the stems, roots, and 
leaves, and by the reproductive organs being produced on the prothal- 
lus, they are readily separated from the Mosses and Liverworts, while 
the presence of antheridia and archegonia and absence of seed servo 
to define them sharply from the Archisperms and Mctasperms. The 
vascular Cryptogams can be readily separated into two groups by 
the spores. Unfortunately the reproduction is unknown in certain 
of the furms {Lycopodium, Phylloglossum, Psilotum, Tmcsipteriis), so 
that_ the remarks here made do not apply to them. In the Ferns, 
Equisetums, and Ophioglossaceae only one kind of spore exists, while 
m thePthizocarps and Lycopods (except the four genera just mentioned) 
two kmds are formed, the macrospores forming a more or less rudi- 
mentary prothallus with one or more archegonia, while the microspores 
form a very minute or imperfect prothallus with an antheridial cell 
which forms numerous spermatozoids. Leaving out of view the 
second division, or heterosporous vascular Cryptogams, we take the 
Ferns, Equisetums, and Ophioglossaceae, which produce spores of one 
size only, and in which the prothallus is capable of a lengthened inde- 
pendent existence separate from the spore, a condition not observed 
in the heterosporous division. In the isosporous division the Ferns are 
distinguished by the character of the prothallus and the nature of 
tlieir sporangia. The prothallus is green and produced always on 
the surlace of the ground, bearing both antheridia and archegonia ; 
while the sporangia are always modified hairs arising from a single 
^pidexmal cell of the stalked leaves so characteristic of these plants. 
Ihe Equisetums have a prothallus which, like that of the Fern, is 
green, and produced above-ground, but difi-ers in bring nearly always 
dioecious,! one small prothallus forming antheridia; a larger one 
producing the ai'chegonia. The branching of the stem is very peculiar. 
\V hile in the Ferns the branching of the stem (when it occurs) is 
always dichotomous, in the Equisetums the branches arise from deeply- 
seated lateral buds. The leaves are remarkably small and form the 
peculiar sheaths on the stem. The sporangia are produced on the 
«a^es ot modified leaves, and grouped together to form the peculiar 
cone-hke terminal fructification. The Ophioglossacea) must be sepa- 
rated from the Ferns, as they possess very definite characters. In all 
the known cases the prothallus is not green and is produced under- 



* See SacW " Lehrbuch" (2 ed.), p. 345, et seq. 
f Monoecious prothalliaro only exceptior,al, according to UofmcisKr. 



< 



"EQiriSETUMS AND CALiMITES. 81 

ground, bearing both antlioridla and archegonia. Branching of the 
stem is unknown. The leaves are sheathing at the base, the lamina 
stalked, and the leaf branches, one portion forming the sporangia, 
which are not modified hairs like the sporangia of the Ferns, but are 
actually produced in the mesophyll of the leaf. Having thus indi- 
cated their systematic position, we may now examine the Equisetums 
more closely. 

^The Equisetums produce an underground stem from which erect 
aerial branches are sent up yearly. The plants inhabit wet places, 
the stem generally running at a depth of from two to four or 
even more feet from the surface, and spreading over a space from 10 to 
50 feet across * The underground stem is perennial, varying in dia- 
meter from 1 or 2 lines to hall-an-inch or more. From the underground 
stem the erect aerial branches are produced, which in general are only 
annual, but in some species they remain for more than one year. 
In E, giganUum of South America the aerial stem is about 36 feet high 
and about an inch in diy meter. The largest British species, E, maximum^ 
has the sterile branch about 4 or 5 feet in height and about half-an-inch 
thick. The small branches which are produced in whorls from the 
stem in some species are very peculiar. Hofmeister has shown that 
they arise from a single cell in the interior of the tissues at the base of 
the sheath-leaves, this endogenous formation of branches being peculiar 
to the Equisetums, These endogenous buds can be readily seen in a 
young branch of the rhizome of E. arvense taken late in autumn or 
early in spring by making a longitudinal section right through it. 
When fully formed the buds break through the base of the sheath- 
leaf, or they may remain for a long time dormant. As many buds 
should be formed as there are teeth on the sheath-leaves, and in E. 



form 



becom 



dormant 



On 



the underground stems the buds are not produced in complete 
verticils. Two or three strong ones are formed which may either be 
developed into new underground stems or form the erect aerial 
branch. 

The roots form in verticil^:, one immediately underneath each bud, 
but they are seldom all developed. In structure they resemble much 
the roots of Ferns, and branch like them in a racemose (monopodial) 
manner. 

The first leaf-bearing branch developed by the embryo produces 
from 10 to 15 internodes, the sheath-leaves having only three teeth. 
A new and much stronger branch is soon formed at the base of the 
first, with four-teethed sheath-leaves. This in its turn produces a new 
branch, the new branches being always thicker and having more 
numerous teeth on the sheath-leaves. The stem of the Equisetum 
consists of a series of generally hollow internodes, with a transverse 
diaphragm at the base and a sheath-leaf at the upper end. The 
diaphragms are absent in the cone-like fruit. The base of each inter- 
node is surrounded by the sheath-leaf of the intcrnode next below. 
The outer surface of each internode presents a regular series of ridges 



V 



• Sachs' ** Lehrhuch" {2 ed.), p. 357- • 



82 EQUISETUirS A2^D CALAUITES. 

and furrows which alternate in succeeding inteniodes, tie fiLro-vaa- 
cular bxindles being always superposed to the ridges, and thus alter- 
nating with the furrows on the surface of the stem. At the node each 
bundle forks and unites with that of the next interncde, thus forming 
a regular reticulated hollow cylinder in the stem not unlike that in 
the Ferns. A bundle also runs from each of the teeth of the sheath-' 
leaf and joins that in the internode. Each fibro- vascular bundle con- 
tains a lacuna or air canal, which will also be superposed to the 
ridges, while the lacunse in the cortical portion of the stem^ when 
present, are supei:po8ed to the furrows. The points of the sheath- 
leaves correspond to the ridges, and a fibro-vascular bundle runs up into 
each. The buds and roots produced at the base of the sheath-leaves 

form between the fibro-vascular bundles running to the apices of 

these leaves. 

The cone-like fruit of the Equisetum consists of a series 
of modified leaves. At first there is a modified sheath-leaf, 
the ring, a bract-like structure beneath the cone. Then come 
-whorls of modified leaves, which, by the peculiar growth of the outer 
part, form more or less hexagonal shields supported on a narrow stalk. 
The shield gives rise to from 5 to 10 sporangia, each developed, 
according to Hofmeister, from a single superficial cell. 

This rapid description of the general characters of Equisetum will 
sufBce for our purpose, and we shall now direct our attention specially 
to the minute anatomy of the various parts. 

Minute Anatomt of Eqtjisexum.— -When viewed with a low 
power the stem exhibits a more or less large central lacuna or air 
space. Surrounding this are the separate fibro-vascular bundles, 
arranged in a circle,. and separated from the fistular central cavity 
by a few cells, mostly parenchymatous, the remains of the pith. Each 
fibro-vascular bundle is supplied with a lacuna towards its inner side. 
Sometimes there is a well-defined layer of cells, as in E. syhaticum, 
E. maximum, and E. arvense, surrounding the ring of fibro-vascular 
bundles, the sheath of the fibro-vascular bundles, and separating the 
tissues composing the pith and fibro-vascular bundles sharply from the 
cortical tissues lying outside. In E. limosum and a few others the 
sheath surrounds each bundle separately. The cortical tissues are in 
general chiefly parenchymatous, with lacunse ; but in many cases 
bundles of elongated thick-walled cells occur. These sometimes 
lorm a continuous layer, but more generally they are best developed 
under the epidermis of the ridges on the stem. Outside them is the 

hard epidermis with stomata, and remarkable for the silica in the walb 
01 the cells. 

As the fibro-vascular bundles correspond in position to the ridges 
on the stem, their lacunae wHl be in the same radius. The cortical 
lacunae which are often not developed in the smallest aerial branches, 
aitei-nate with those in the bundles, and are, therefore, in the same 

T f .? • T""^^ .'''' *^^ °"*'^^^ «^ ^^^ «t«™- The central lacuna 
exists both m the aerial stems and in the rhizomes. The use of the 

lacunae IS evident. The plants grow in wet, frequently stiff and clayey 
soil whjch contains very little air; and as oxygen is iecessary for the 
metamorphosiB of tne assimilated materials stored up in the under- 
ground portions of the plant, it readily reaches the reserve materials 



KQUISETUilS ANT) C.VLAMITES. 83 

r 

through the lacunjB. Plants living in wet places present the 
well-known peculiarity, in common with water plants in general, of 
having the ligneous portion of the fibro-vascular bundles only slightly 
developed. The necessary strength and firmness in the stem and 
rhizomes are obtained by the development of peculiar, long, fibre-like, 
thickened cells under the epidermis, in the cortical portion of the stem. 
These cells (sclerenchyma of Mettenius) form a continuous brown- 
coloured zone of some thickness in the rhizomes, while in the aerial 
stems they are colourless and chiefly developed under the ridges. 

Stkm or Eqtjisettjm— The epidermis consists of a single row of 
cells, generally much thickened, and containing silica in the walls, the 
stomata forming in the furrows between the ridges. The outer cortical 
(hypoderma) layer consists generally of elongated thick- walled cells (scle- 
renchyma, Mettenius), more or less dark brown in colour in the under- 
ground stems and colourless in the aerial ones. Those thickened elongated 
cells are not found in the fertile stems of H. arvense and U. maximum. 
They either occur only at the ridges in large bundles, or form also in 
many rows under the epidermis of the furrows. The inner cortical layer 
consists of similar thickened cells or soft- walled parenchyma, and con- 
tains large lacunae with bands of parenchyma between them. The 
j^eparate fibro-vascular bundles form a ring round the pith, the number 
of bundles corresponding to the ridges on the stem. The ring of fibro- 
vascular bundles is often separated from the cortical layers by a single 
layer of cells running continuously round the stem in a regular circle, 
the sheath of the fibro-vascular bundles. In other cases each separate 
fibro-vascular bundle is surrounded by a special sheath of its own. 
The cells of the sheath are often more or less thickened, and in 
rhizomes the walls are generally brownish or yellow. When each 
bundle is surrounded by a separate sheath, then the tissue of the cor- 
tical portion passes into that of the pith without a break. In general 
a series of thickened cells exists on the inner side of the fibro- 
vascular bundles in the rhizome, the walls of the cells being deeply 
coloured. 

The fibro-vascular bundles of Equisetum form a circle round the 
central lacuna, and are separated from each other by a layer of large 
parenchymatous cells, sometimes having thickened walls and coloured 
yellow or brown. The woody part of the fibro-vascular bundle, 
or that nearest the pith, is occupied by a large lacuna (see 
figure)^ which is produced by the absorption of a series of 
thin-walled parenchymatous cells, often with single vessels 
among them. At the margin of the cavity often one or more spiral, 
annular, or reticulated vessels are to be seen, the rest of the periphery 
of the lacuna being formed of tolerably regular, narrow, thick- 
Walled parenchymatous cells, which are enclosed by the thick - 
walled cells round the central lacuna. Two other groups of 
cells are found at the sides of the bundle towards the periphery. 
The bast-portion of the bundle is also well developed, between 
the lacuna and sheath of the fibro-vascular bundle. The woody 
part (xylem, Xaegeli) consists of only two forms of cells. The 
annular, spiral, or reticulated cells which by tusion form the 
vessels, and elongated parenchymatous cells containing starch 
which sometimes form the bounding cells of the lacuna, at other timvs 

e 2 



84 



IQnSETVMS A XT) CALAMTTES 



lie between the groups of vessels. The hast portion (phloem, Kaegcli) 
of the bundle consists of three series of cells. The greater portion 
consists of bast-parenchyma of thin-walled narrow cells containing 
Btarch. Between these parenchymatous cells, either in small groups 
or scattered, are cells which are wider and contain either granular 
contents or air. At the outer side of the bundle a more or less 




S. V Sm Jl 3!; Tb l^Tf^"^^' containing starch. L V. Large vessels. 
ren vZlrl ' ^' Vt.^^t>'^ parenchyma. C. V. Cribriform vessel! (Siebroh- 
ren. Vaea propria). R F. Bast fibres. L. Lacuna, 



regul 



found 



ua3i-,jbiis wiin inicK walls and small central cavity 
♦1, V ^1 . , T longitudinal section shows the phloem portion of 
the bundle with the bast-parenchyma ; the wide cells with granular 
contents; the cribriform cells, forming a sort of vessel by the partial 
absorption of the transverse wall, a sieve-like arrangement being thui 
produced ; and lastly, two or three bast-fibres, which lie to the outside 
of the bundle. 

f , , ^ - The epidermis consists of thin-walled cella 

of a brown colour, and produces numerous brown-coloured root-hairs. 
Under the epidermis, which is often destrnxr^,! in ^u ..^fo ,t,o„^ 



Equisetum 



EQiriS£Xr3IS A^'D CALAiUTES. 85 



rows of thickened dark-brown parenchymatous cells are found, the 
outer cells being empty, while the inner are filled with starch, and 
passing into thin-walled, colourless, starch-bearing parenchyma more 
internally. The fibro-vascular bundle occupies the centre of the 
root, and consists of one or more spiral vessels, the central one, when 
several are present, being largest. Surrounding the vessels, soft- 
walled cells fill up the space. These cells form the phloem 
part of the bundle, and consist of parenchymatous cells (bast- 
parenchyma) and cribriform cells. The fibro-vascular bundle is sepa- 
rated from the cortical tissues by the sheath of the fibro-vascular 
bundles. 

STRucrtTRE OF Calamites, — The resemblance between the vege- 
tative parts of Equisetums and Calamites is no mere superficial one. In 
the Calamites there existed a large underground stem running for a 
considerable distance and giving off aerial shoots. Such being the 
case, it is evident that it is these underground stems which would run 
the best chance of preservation if a new deposit of sediment formed 
above the place where they were growing. It is also evident that 
they would remain nearly in situ. If we assume that the branches of 
the Calamite, like those of our Equisetum, were produced by endoge- 
nous (t.<9., having a deep-seated origin) buds arising from a single 
cell in the tissue at the base of the (apparently) undeveloped leaves, 
then we can easily see how they became detached, the attachment 
being so slight : not as in Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons by a direct 
passage of the stem tissues into those of the branch, or by true dichotomy 
as in Ferns and Lycopods. The erect aerial stems would be more 
likely to be destroyed, and there seems no evidence to prove that they 
were of much longer duration than the aerial stems of our present 
Equisetums. The subterranean stems, on the other hand, were prob- 
ably like those of the Equisetums of the present day of some duration, 
and constantly increasing by branching. As in the Equisetums, the 
underground stems seem only to have produced a few— one or two- 
strong branches, and not to have formed numerous or verticiUate 
branches as the aerial stems are supposed to have done. 

The Calamite stem, both aerial and subterranean, possessed a central 
lacuna or fistular cavity similar to that in the Equisetums of the present 
day,* and around this central lacuna the fibro-vascular bundles are 
placed in a circle resembling those in the stem of a young Dicotyledon. 
It is to the structure of these fibro-vascular bundles that I wish to 
direct special attention. Each contains a lacuna at its inner portion, 
and these serve at once to identify the fibro-vascular bundles and their 
lacunse in Equisetums with those in Calamites,^ These bundles are 
separated by a little mass of parenchyma, while the bundle is ap- 
parently prolonged externally, and forms a wedge-shaped mass, the 
masses uniting externally and forming a continuous layer exactly like 
the wood of a one-year old Dicotyledon, In this mass the cells have 
a more or less radiating linear arrangement, with smaller cells between 
the larger ones. Here in nearly all known specimens the tissue ends, 



♦ Prof. Will 

terranean rhizon 



fist alar, 



85 



EQtriSETtTMS ISD CALAMITKS. 



and the stems are generally assumed to have been decorticated. Com- 
paring the stem of the Calamite with that, say, of E. maximum, we 
find that the external cortical layer with its lacunae is wanting, the 
rest of ^ the stem corresponding tolerably exactly. 

It is quite unnecessary for me to enter into any details as to the 
structure of Calamites, as the splendid memoir of Prof. Williamson* 
leaves little to be desired. But there are three points which seem to 
me well worthy of attention, viz. : — 1, Is it necessary to assume that 
the fibro-vascular bundles in Calamites are differently constructed 
from those of all recent vascular Cryptogams ? 2. How can we account 
for the stems of Calamites being so frequently decorticated ? and, 3. 
What part does the sclerenchyma (of Mettenius), which forms so im- 
portant a constituent of the stem of other vascular Cryptogams, play in 
the construction of Calamites ? 

1. Is it necessary to assume that the fibro-vascular bundles in 
Calamites are differently constructed from those of all recent vascular 
Cryptogams ? 

If the description of the fibro-vascular bundles (" woody- wedo-ea ") 
in Calamites given by Prof. WiUiamsonf be assumed to be correct, 
then we find that their structure is essentially different from that of 
the corresponding parts in Equisetums. Nay, more, not only do they 
differ from those of Equisetums, but from those of all our recent vas- 
cular Cryptogams. In all recent vascular Cryptogams the bundles 
are dosed and definite, the tissues soon become completely differen- 
tiated, and after this'occurs no further growth can take place. If then 
Prof. Wil lamson's description be correct, the bundles of the 



Calamites differ as much from those of the Equisetums as the bundles 



wx ^.w.j.cuu^a uu, uecauBc, accoraing to him, m Calamites and Dicoty- 
ledons circumferential growth takes place ; the luridU, not leing closed 



layer. 



In £. hyemah (see figure) the lacuna of the fibro-vascular bundle 



forming 



!f £'°^!.Pl'*- }^ *\'. C^lamltet the lacuna is also bounded on the 



very 



n the Equisetum. The lacuna itself f^rms in' the Ty rport ^n of 
the bundle, and external to t is the phloem portion. Looking at 
the figure just a hided to it is evident that theJ-e the lacuna cannot 
tL Si 1 ^Y ' Equisetum. if the wood (xylem) portion of 

t^^!l f fl, ? '"^'"^""^ *? '* ' ^""^ ^y "^^^^^'^S that the iylem is ex- 
ternal to the lacuna, we immediately come to ask, Where is the rest of 

'l.^^ir^±}'lftl-:^'^^\^ l^*¥ Wp^rtion? 



answer 



^itf th^t of Et" 't '''^''%''''- '('^' «t;m^^ t^cVml eTg^^^^^ 

wld ^rfio. nf .1^ ^^ '""^'"l^ accurately where the xylem or 
wood-portion of the fibro-vascular bundle ends and the phloem or 
bast-portion begins. Further, it would point at once to the inclusion 



* Phil. Trans., 1871, p. 477. 
t Loc. cit., p. 480. 

"J Williamson, op. cit., fig. 14, pi. xxiv 



\ 



EQUISKTUAI.S AKD CALAMITES. 87 

that these curious elongated cells external to the cells near the lacuna 
do not form a component part of the fibro-vascular bundle. In -E 
hyemale the fibro-vascular bundles have superposed to them a series 
of these sclerenchyma cells of Mettenius, which seems to me to indi- 
cate that the so-called bundle in Calamites as described by Prof. 
"Williamson is the fibro-vascular bundle plus the superposed scleren- 
chyma. As the sclerenchyma frequently forms a continuous zone, 
especially in rhizomes, such an appearance as that presented in fig. 
20* would be produced. 

There is a specimen in the collection of microscopical preparations 
in the Koyal College of Science for Ireland which throws much light 
on the structure of Calamites. It is a transverse section of an Equi- 
setum from South America prepared by Norman. It presents the 
ordinary appearance of an Equisetum stem, with the bundles and 
lacuna arranged in the ordinary way; but the sclerenchyma bundles 
are remarkably developed, and run from the epidermis to the fibro- 
vascular bundles. The preparation has been put up in Canada balsam, 
which has rendered the phloem portion of the bundle very indistinct, 
the delicate tissue being quite ucresolvable into its individual cells. 
The large sclerenchyma band runs from the bundle direct to the epi- 
dermis. No sheath of the fibro-vascular bundle exists, and the pith 
cells internal to the bundles are observed to be slightly selerenchy- 
matous and dark in colour. This is exactly what we find in Calamites, 
the only diff^erence being that in this South American Equisetum the 
sclerenchyma bundles are separated by the lacunae of thecoiiex, which 

are wanting in Calamites. 

If we consider that outer portion which Prof. Williamson believes to 
be part of the fibro-vascular bundles to represent the sclerenchyma of 
the Equisetum, most of the difficulties brought forward by that 
observer will disappear. The bundles, like those of vascular Crypto- 
gams, would be closed and of small size, while we should not violate all 
natural affinity in adopting the idea of circumferential growth occurring 

in them. . , . t 

2. How can we account for the stems of Calamites bemg so fre- 
quently decorticated ? 

If we believe the fibro-vascular bundles to be largely developed, as 
Prof. WiUiamson considers them, and no tissue being found estemaUy, 
are forced to the conclusion that the bark (using that term in the 
sense that it is ordinarUy and incorrectly applied in Dicotyledons) has 
been removed. All the tissues outside the woody part of the fibro- 
vascular bundles— namely, the cambium, bast, and proper cortical 
layers— must have been stripped off or decayed, or m some way have 
not been preserved. In the Equisetums we find a weU-developed 
cortical layer both in the stem and root. In E, syhaticum the sheath 
of the fibro-vascular bundle bounds it internally, the epidermis 
externally, and between the two numerous cells containing chlorophyll 
are arranged. In others, as E. hyemale. most of the cortical tissue la 
sclerenchymatous, and in other species the hard elongated sclerenchy- 
matous cells under the epidermis are very conspicuous especially at 
the ridge of the stem. If then we consider the peculiar tissue in 

Op. cit., plate XXT4. 



we 



88 EQtriS£TtIMS AJTB CALAMITES. 



Calamites wlilcli I hare described as sclerenchymatous, but apparently 
forming part of the fibro-vascular bundle, to be sclerenchyma, the 
necessity for considering the stems decorticated at once disappears, 
and the stems would thus resemble those of our recent Eqnisetums, 
But in certain specimens of Calamites a series of cells has been 
observed outside, which Williamson has described as forming the cortex. 
The stem exhibiting this structure I believe to have been a young aerial 
one, and that the tissue which is external to the sclerenchyma was 
composed of the green chlorphyll-bearing cells. These would be 

wanting in the underground stems, hence the decorticated appeaiance 
usually ascribed to them. 

3- What part does the sclerenchyma, which forms so important a 
constituent of the stems of other vascular Cryptogams, play in the 
construction of Calamites ? 

In Ferns the sclerenchyma is largely developed. In Pteria aquilina 
it forms two well-marked dark-coloured plates between the fibro- 
vascular bundles, and also forms a thick zone under the epidermis, not 
complete, but defective along two lateral lines. Other small scleren- 
chymatous bands are scattered between the bundles. In Tree Ferna 
the sclerenchyma forms a sheath to the fibro-vascular bundles, as was 
long ago pointed out by Yan Mohl.* In Lycopods this sclerenchyma 



part 



It also exists 



in the roots of Ferns, and in Equisetums it is largely developed in 
some species, while in others it is but poorly represented. The 
sclerenchyma in Ferns is generally incorrectly considered to be part of 
the fibro-vascular bundles, and is described as such. If Prof. 
Williamson's interpretation of the Calamite stem be correct, then no 
sclerenchyma exists, or if it did exist it has been lost with the missing 
cortex. This supposition, however, can hardly hold good, because 
the sclerenchyma was as likely to be preserved as any other part, and 
as it forms a more or less complete investing cylinder in most cases, 
would be certain to have remained surrounding the fibro-vascular 
bundles, unless removed by force sufficient to have destroyed the more 
delicate internal tissues. The conclusion that forces itself on me is 
that the sclerenchyma has not been distinguished from the fibro- 
vascular bundles. I further believe that Prof. Williamson's paper 
affords proof of this mistake. In Ferns and Equisetums a branch of 
small size passes from the outside of the network of fibro-vascular 
bundles m the stem, into the leaf or branch of the stem. In fic^ 1 St 
Prof Williamson figures a branch passing through between the 
vessels of the woody-wedge. This structure 13 quite inexplicable, 
unless we believe the so-called vessels either to be part of the scleren- 
chyma, which must be perforated by the tissues running to a branch or 
leat;orthat circumferential growth has taken place in the bundle 
after the branch was formed. 

That the sclerenchyma also exists in large quantity in Lepido- 
dendxa I have no doubt, and I believe it forms the whole of the so- 
ca led woody-cylmder in that plant, and in which Prof. Williamson 
believes he has discovered circumferential growth. The pointed base 



♦ Vermischte Schriften, p. 113. 
t Phil. Trans., plate, xxiv. 



EatriSETCMS AXD CAIAMITES. 89 



of the Calamlte stem indicates clearly that, like the stem of most 
vascular Cryptogams, the embryonic parts do not enlarge, a condition 
quite incompatible with the presence of circumferential growths. 

If my view of the sclerenchymatoas nature of the chief part of the 
so-called vascular bundles be correct, then no notice need be taken of 
Prof, Williamson's medullary rays, primary and secondary. It may, 
however, be as well to point out that these supposed medullary rays 
pass to the periphery of the stem through the meshes in the fibro- 
vascular bundles, and therefore iu a constantly interrupted and alter- 
nating series, while in Dicotyledons the rays are continuous, and do 
not alter their position at each node. As to the infranodal canals, I 
would beg to suggest that they were the spots at which the extremely 
delicate tissue is formed which gives rise to the endogenously formed 
buds of Equisetums, and from which the branches and roots originate. 
In Equisetums the branches and roots arise close together at the upper 
end of the internode, but in Calamites the roots apparently spring 

from the lower end. 

As the structure of our recent Equisetums is so varied, it seems 
necessary to be very guarded in describing new genera or species from 
characters derived from the structure of the stems of Calamites. As 
to the fruits, too little seems to be known about them j but if Mr. 
Carruther's figures in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., vol. viii., be correct, then 
the Calamite cone differs from all Equisetums in having alternating 
verticils of sterile and fertile leaves. The sterile leaves^ are all 
regularly superposed, while the fertile leaves, each bearing four 
sporangia, form an alternating verticil of fewer leaves than the sterile 
one. Should this character be found to hold, it would be an admirable 
one by which to separate Calamites and Equisetums. The class Equise- 
tese is separable into two orders:—!, Equisetese ; and 2. Calarai- 
tege. The Equiseteae distinguished by having all the leaves of the cone 
modified and bearing sporangia, while the Calamite© have only every 

alternate verticil bearing sporangia. 

I think I have said enough to direct attention to the presence of 
Bclerenchyma in these plants, and also to point out to observers who 
may take up this most interesting subject that the greatest care 
must be taken in the identification of the various tissues. Further, 
I trust that those who have worked at the subject will find that I 
have not misrepresented them, and have only attempted honestly to 
expound what I believe to be the truth, while at the same time I do 
not wish to dogmatise or put forward the slightest claim to infallibility. 

Genkhal Conclusions. 

1 . That the stem of Equisetum differs but little in construction from 

that of Calamites. 

2. Thaf in hnfh Emiisptums and Calamitesthc fibrp-vascular bundles 



are but poorly developed. 
3. That the 




/ 



Williamson) forming 
e small fibro-vascular 
hickened parenchyma 



«^*^v«.x^^Oj Y* IWl LAIC aU.UJ.i(i.VJLl v/i t* JCfcAfev' ^- — j - X 

and prosenchyma (sclerenchyma, Mettenius). 

4. That the sclerenchyma (Mettenius) is part of the cortical tissues 
and not a portion of the fitro-vascular bundles. 



90 SHOKT NOTES AND QUERIES. 

5. That there is no evideace of any growth having taken pla cq 
in the fibro-vascular bundles comparable to that observed in Dicoty- 
ledons ; but that if the steins of Calauiltes increased in diameter it was 
by additions to the (?or^/^a/ tissues, and not to those of the tibro-vascular 
bundles. 

6, That the pointed ends of the Calamite stem (indicating that the 
embryonic parts did not enlarge) lead to the conclusion that circum- 
ferential growth did not take place, but that the stem, when it attained 
its maximum dia r close to the base, remained cylindrical. 



4 

-f 



SHOET NOTES AND QUERIES. 

GonwiNiA GiGAS, Seem. — This wonderful Aroideous plant, brought 
from Nicaragua by the late Dr. Seemann, and described by him in this 
Journal, vii, (1869), p. 313 and tab. 96, has flowered in Mr. Bull's 
nursery at Chelsea, and so we are enabled to confirm the description 
given by its discoverer. The spathe on December 20th, not q^uite full- 
grown, was two feet long and eighteen inches in circumference, of a 
dark reddish-purple colour, hooded at the top, and supported on a 



thick peduncle eighteen inches long, which was minutely spiny and 
of a yellow colour mottled with purple. The small figure in our 
plate of this remarkable object is very faulty, being done entirely from 
memory. The drawing of Mr. Bull's specimen, of about quarter 
the natural size, given in the Gardener^ % Chronicle for the 18th of 
January, gives a very fair idea of its appearance. The spadix was quite 
concealed at the date above-mentioned ; but on January 20th, when 
I again had the opportunity of seeing the plant, the upper part of the 
spathe having become withered had been cut off, and the spadix was 
exposed. This is small compared with the spathe, a little over five 
inches long (Dr. Seemann's "nine inches'* (^.^., p. 313) may have 
been an error) and about one broad, entirely covered with the closely- 
set hermaphrodite fiowers- I was not able to dissect one of these, 
but an examination in situ appeared to confirm the characters I had 
previously made out in Dr. Seemann' s wild specimens now in the 
British Museum, — Henry Tkimejit. 



CCLTIVATION 



Dr. Moore, of Glasnevin, 



Dublin, in a paper read before the Royal ^ ,_^ 

has announced the successful establishment of the parasite Loranthus 
europcms on oaks (Q. Rolur and Q. Cerri8)m the Botanic Garden 
there. The seeds were obtained from Dr. Tenzl, of Vienna (the 
plant is common in Austria), and after many unsuccessful attempts to 
get them to germinate, by treating them in the same way as the 
Mistletoe, which is readily propagated by merely placing the seeds on 
the bark of a healthy branch, success was obtained in two cases by 
inserting the seed in the centre of a gently bruised bud on a young 
shoot of the previous year. This was in January and February, 1 870 ; 
a few leaves of the Loranthis appeared in April, 1871, up to which 



m 



SHORT KOTES AND aUEfilES. 91 



time the seeds had remained covered with a substance lite transparent 
glue. Last year, 1872, more leaves were developed, so that there ia 
no doubt that the parasite has taken a firm hold. Though the 
Loranthus europceus has been artificially grown, we believe, in Austria, 
this is the first time that it has been propagated in this country. Its 
mode of parasitism appears to be difi'erent from that of our Viscum^ 
the wood of the parasite not penetrating into that of the supporting 
stem, but merely spreading out between the inner bark and the newly- 
formed wood, and probably not producing the sucker-like branches 
which in the Mistletoe originate from a lateral extension of the wood 
of the parasite, and bursting through the bark of the support, appear 
like new individuals. 

PwTJS BujTGEAKA, Zucc, — In a paper on some Northern Chinese 
plants, published in the 13th vol. of the Journal of the Linnean 
Society, I described the fruit of this tree, and remarked that, whilst 
Endlicher gave one native name, Dr. Wells Williams had noted that 
it is habitually called by another at Peking. In a letter just received 
from my friend Dr. Bretschneider, physician to the Russian Legation 
in that capital, he points out an inaccuracy in Dr. Williams's state- 
ment, and adds some interesting particulars regarding this remarkable 
Conifer, which I think worthy of being placed on record. I tran- 
scribe his own words: — "Dans vos notes sur les plantes de la Chine 
septentrionale, vous dites, a propos de Pinus Bungeana : — Endlicher 
gives ' the tree of the nine dragons ' as the Chinese name, but the 
characters attached to Dr. Williams's specimens signify * white-fruited 
pine.' — Je me permets de reus expliquer cette difference. Fmis 
Bungeana^ connu aux Europeens de Peking sous le nom de Pin k 
ecorce blanche, est appele par les Chinois pai hwo stmgy ce qui veut 
dire 'pin enveloppe deblanc' Dr. Williams a probablementremplace 
erronement le second hieroglyphe par un autre prononce egalement 
iwo, mais signifiant fruit. Vous savez que P. Bungeana n'a pas de 
fruits blancs. Le nom hu lung sung, cite par Endlicher et mentionne 
probablement par Bunge, ne se rapporte qu'a un seul arbre de cette 
espece, dans le celSbre temple de Tsie-tai-sze, pre3 de Peking, ^ II 
est caractenstique pour P. Bungeana, dont vous ne faites pas mention, 
un fait cependant^qui a ^te deja signale par Fortune (*' Journey to the 
capitals of China'and Japan,'' si je ne me trompe), qu'& un ou deux 
pieds du sol le tronc se divise toujours en plusieurs tiges. L arbre a 
Tsie-tai-sze en presente neuf, ce qui lui a valu le nom de Am lung 
iung (pin des neuf dragons), nom donne par Pempereur E-ien-lung, 
qui, frapp^ parPaspect de ce noble arbre seculaire, Pa meme celebr e 
pas des vers, qui se trouvent graves sur une tablette en marbre. — 
H. F. Hajtce. 

Acer nigeum with Stipitles.— Mr. J. F. MiUs sends a branch of a 
Black Maple in which well-formed foliaceous stipules are developed, 
their bases adnata to the petiole. The peculiarity is confined to a 
single tree, and the like has not been seen before ia Maples, so far a» 
we know. Mr. Mills should inform us if the peculiarity is reproduced 
next year.— A. Grat in Amer. Nat.^DectxahQV, 1872. 



92 NOTICES OF BOOKS, 

The Iodine Test fob Fungi.— I rather think that Mr. Phillips 
has fallen into an error in your last numler (p. 43) in supposing that 
little or nothing has been done in testing the hynienium of diflferent 
species of Feziza with iodine. "Will you permit me to refer him to 
the four most recent works in which Pezkm are described in order to 
convince him that far more has been done than he seems to suspect ? 
Karsten's ''Monographia Pezizse Fennicas," Nylander's " Observa- 
tiones," Fuckel's /' Symbolae," and the third part of Gonnermann 
and llabenhorst'a ^'Mycologia Europaea." In these works he will 
discover a large number of species, new and old, with the results of 
the iodine test incorporated in the descriptions, — M. C. Cooke. 



Notice^ of 5B>oofe^. 



of Botanical Laheh, ft 



names m the London Catalogue of [British] Plants and the Manuals 
ot l-roi. Eabmgton and Dr, Hooker ; with extra labels for all new 
species and varieties recorded in the recent volumes of the Journal 



Botany 



oi liotaiiy and the Exchange Club Eeports. By John E. Robson. 
London: E. Hardwicke, 1873. (Pp.256.) 



advantage 



.Sr.? l"" ^^"X '* P''°*r ^^^'^'' T^^ «°"^Pil^^ «f tlie present 
senesthmks that their employment may have the effect of making 

collectors more systematic m mounting and arranging their specimens 
and more careful in their records, as well as stimulate inquiry into 
the differences of the numerous subspecies and varieties, for which 
separate tickets are provided ; but against these rather pr'oUemltical 
anticipations may he set some weighty objections. Of course no 

Llvest tt ""' T''^ r'" r^ ^'^'''' '' '^^t ^^ ^ay iTmit our- 
selves to the consideration of comparative beginners Such should 

matter nr"-""^''-'° ''^"^ that 1 uniform m'ethod;f labemngTs a 
^r^f /d /J]""^"^ ' ^^^Pf tf ^^. ^°^ it is this tendency that reSders 
printed labels injunous to them. All collectors should endeavour to 

wMcl Wdtt h" '"'' «^ jf -r tion as possible : mucruseful d taU 

W hamneJeS I if T^f ^^'° ^^ ^^"^^ ^^'l *^« <^o^l^'^tor not 
Sfch aKni'l.! '^ ^^"''}^ ^r^f °°^y " '"^"-^^ «P^<^^ P^o^ided into 
kad to haT IV'^-^T'^- ,,T'^\ desire for imiformity may also 
specimens a^d f ffl °f l'^ '' ^\^ ^^ifner is anxious tS ticket his 
nearest aid the !!r' ' -"^ ""'t ^^'. °"^^ "^ ^^« «P«"^« ^e thinks 
tTcket he would Sr'V' IT^'J'^- ^'""^ ^^^^- ^^^ he no printed 
pencl anTsi th. 1^- ''^ description or suggest several names in 
?ommrison and t P^ •°''.'^ '""^l'^ ^" subsequently returned to for 
ff thev mav lead T°l^'' ■ ' ^T*^^^ drawback to such labels is 

single spiS of e 't' ^'^- "^ •' ^' ""'^^''^ ^^^^^^^ting more than a 
ti«n J^ iT 1 \.^^^ ^P®"^« ^^ consequence of havine no more 
than^one label, when otherwise he woufd preserve rL^ruSive 



PT.OCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 93 

F B 

'a 

h 

Leaving, however, tlie question of their utility, it is certainly to be 
regretted that a better model was not followed in this series, or that 
their author should have been influenced by any previous publication. 
With the exception of the use of a bolder type and the omission of the 
linnsean class and order, these labels differ in no respect from the 
set published twenty-three years ago by Mr. Pamplin. Each label 
consists of the scientific name, above which is placed the natural order, 
occasional synonyms, the English same, and the general habitat. 
Spaces are left for writing in the special locality, time when and by 
whom collected. As labels the objection to them is that space is 
occupied by quite unnecessary printed matter, whilst the room left 
for filling in the important particulars is, as all who have attempted 
to use the old labels must have found, far too small. The space for 
the collector's name is a little over three-quarters of an inch long by 
one-quarter high. A very unmeaning feature of the old labels has 
been reproduced in giving definite localities for segregates and 
introductions. Such plants may be, and most have been, observed in 
many other places besides those given; but the printing of definite 
localities is very likely to mislead the beginner into supposing they 
are only to be found there. 

Though, therefore, praise can scarcely be given to this publication 
as a series of labels, in another aspect it is of some usefulness. The 
volume forms a comprehensive and generally accurate catalogue of the 
British Flora, with all the latest discoveries duly entered, and the 
whole arranged according to the usual sequence followed in this 
country. No less than 3544 labels are included in the volume, this 
large number being partly the result of duplicates being given when- 
ever the authorities followed differ as to the natural order, but partly 
to the large number of casuals and aliens admitted. Asa very full 
list of British species brought up to the end of the year 1872, the 
booh possesses an independent value. It may be added that the whole 
is very well printed and remarkably free from misprints or errors. 

H. T. 



^rotcctiing^ of M>otktk0. 



Botanical Society of EdinbtjbctH. — Novemhr lAth, 1872. Prof. 
"Wyville Thompson, President, in the chair, — The President delivered 
an address upon Fermentation and Putrefaction. Mr. John Sim 
noticed the occurrence of Bupleurum rotundifolium as a weed in a 
cottage garden near Pei-th. Mr. Sadler exhibited specimens of a 
species of Lupinus^ rescmbKng LJuteus^ which he found growing in 
a turnip-field near Blackshields, about sixteen miles from Edinburgh, 



fiUfc 



guano. Dr. John 



abundance on Roydon Common, near Lynn, Norfolk, where it was 



94 BOTAN^ICAL I^EWS. 

first dlscovei-ed by Mr. Bray.* Mr. I. B. Balfour exliibited and pre- 
sented to the University Herbarium specimens of Gentiana nivalis^ 
which he had collected this autumn on Mael-an-Tarmachan, a moun- 
tain 3400 feet high, midway between Killin and Ben Lawers (see 
Tol. X., p. 338). 

December 12th, 1872. — Mr. J. McNab took the chair as President, 
in the room of Prof. Wy ville Thompson. The following communica- 
tious were read : — '* On the Organisation of -£tfwmiw/>i and Calamtfes,^^ 



W 



Prof, A. Dickson showed some 



beautiful sections of Calamite stems, of different ages, sent by 
Prof. Williamson, of Manchester, lor exhibition on the occasion. 
The cross sections showed the great increase in size undergone 
by the wedge-like masses forming the woody-cylinder; while 
the radial and tangential sections showed the thin plates of smaller 
cells (" medullary rays*' of Williamson) intercalated between the 
radiating plates of elongated tubes of which the wedge-like 
masses are composed. These tubes Prof. Williamson considers 
as analogous to vessels rather than to wood-cells ; while they 
are viewed by Prof. McNab as corresponding to the sub-epi- 
dermal "sclerenchyma'* found in many JEquiseta, or to the scleren- 
chyma surrounding the vascular bundles in some Ferns — this view, in 
Prof. McKab's opinion, explaining the so-called decorticated condition 
of most, if not all Calarnite stems, the bark of which has, he 
believes, been mistaken for wood. Prof. Dickson was disposed to 
agree with Prof. Williamson in considering these woody-wedges as 
integral portions of thefibro-vascular bundles. " On the Disfiguration 
of Trees along Eoadsides to suit Telegraph Wires,*' by Mr. McNab, 
President. " IS'otice of the Occurrence of Psamma haltica, E. et S., in 
England," by Philip Maclagan, M.D. (see Joum. Bot., vol. x., 
p. 353). H. C, Baildon presented to the museum leaves of Ficus lasto- 
phylla from Singapore, the hairs of which are used as a styptic. 
W. Evans exhibited and presented specimens of Tetraplodon mnioides 
collected at the source of the Medwyn in July last, also specimens of 
Aulaeomnion androgynum from Habbies Howe, Pentland Hills. Dr. 
John Kirk, Zanzibar, presented to the Tniversity Herbarium a col- 
lection of dried plants from the highest zone of vegetation in the 
Kilima-njaro, below the line of perpetual snow that croTsns the sum- 
mit. The KiUma-njaro is.about 20,000 feet high, in the country of 
Jagga, East Africa. Dr. P. Maclagan noticed the occurrence of Foa 
audetica near Kelso in a naturalised condition. 



25otanical |Jctojsf» 



AUTICES IK JoURXALS. JaKUART. 

GreviUea:-^^^ ^'Ifotices of North American 

Fungi" (contd.).-E. Pariitt, '^ Botr ydium granuJatum, Desv."— W. 

• Additional Province (4) to " Comp. Cyb. Brit." Greatly extending the 
north eaal liirnta of this spmes in Britain.-[7;.f. Joum. Hot.'] 



BOXANICAT. XEWS. 95 

Archer, " Notes on the same." — K. Braithwaite, " Dicranum tindu' 
latum, Ehrh." (Has been found in Yorkshire by Mr. Spruce and Mr. 
Anderson.) — M. C. Cooke, " British Fungi" (contd.). 

Journ. R. Horticultural Soc. (vol. iii., pts. 11 and 12). — J.Anderson- 
Henry, "On Imperfect Hybridity."— A. Murray, "On Mimetic 
Analogy."— Ibid., " On Grafting and Budding."— F. Welwitsch (the 
late), " On the Loranthacece of Angola." — M. T. Masters, " Second 
Report of Experiments on the Influence of Various Manures on 

Different Species of Plants." 

Monthly MicroscopicalJournal. — R. Braithwaite, "On Sphagnum 

sulsecundutn, Nees " (tabs. 3 and 4). 

Qua/rterly Journ. Microsc. Scienee.—'W.'R. McNab, "Notes on 
Han stein's Researches on the Development of the Embryo in Mono- 
cotyledons and Dicotyledons" (tab. 4). 

Botanische Zeitung.—'S. Fankhauser, " On the Germination of 
Lycopodium" (tabs.' 1 and 2).— E. Fournier, "New Ferns from 
Nicaragua" (9 new species described*).— A. B. Frank, "On Trans- 
verse Geotropism and Heliotropism."— P. Majewsky, " Short Notes 
on Plant- Tissues."— H. G. Reichenbach, " On the Geographical Dis- 
tribution of the Plants of Dr.' Spruce's American Travels."— L. Cela- 
kovsky, "On Caucalis orientalis, L." 

Flora— H de Tries, "Report on the Chief Botanical Publica- 
tions in Holland in 1871."— H. Wawra, "Notes on the flora of the 
Hawaii Islands" (contd.) {Delissea, 6 new sp. ; Bolland^a, 4 new sp. ; 
Vyanea hu,nilis, n.s.).— W. Nyknder, " Addenda nova ad Licheno- 
graphiam europ^am" (17 new species, 3 from Britain).— E. langl, 
•'Descriptionof an accurate Drawing Apparatus." ^^ -d ^.v 

mdwigia.—Yentmi, "On Orthotrichum'' (contd.).--E. Euthe, 
♦' Remarks on Hybridisation between Orthotrichum anomahm and V. 

itramineumy . <- t t * i 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift .—^l^xnoii , with portrait, of J. Juratzta.— 

J. Pantocsek, "Plants nova anni 1872 Hercegovinam et Monte- 
negro coll." (Viola Nicolai, n.s., Potentilla montenegrina, n.s., ^. 
Jankaeana, n.8.).-A. Kerner, " On the flora of Dalmatia, Croatia, 
and Hungary."— P. Ascherson, "Remarks on AchUm Bumastam, 
Vatke."— A. Val de Li^vre, "Notes on certain Ranunculacese of the 
Flora Tridentina " (contd.).— A. Kerner, " On the Distribution of the 
Plants of Middle and East Hungary and Siebenbiirgen (ontd.).— 
J. Dedecek, " Note on Vegetation at Pisek in November 1872. 



World 



Buk 



R. von Uechtritz, 



Pfianzen 



owina. 



57 



r 

NewBooks.-B. Seemanu, "Flora Vitlensis," part x., completing 
the work (4to, L. Reeve, £l 5s.).-P. Kummer, "Der Fuhrer m 

Mooskunde " (Svo, 4 plates, 3s.) , , , x o* i 

The following is the answer of the Treasury, dated January 2cd 
1873, and addressed to the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, to the memorial 
alluded to in our last number :-" Si r,-The Lords Commissio ners^^ 

~~^f these, Amph.ble.tva simplex is Dicfyoxiphn.m i'«"'"«^:'.»'; "°J.^f ±'''" 
viorffinuta no doubt U. Stenf^nni, Prentice m Journ. Bot. vii. (lSb»), p. -c»u.— 

'•r. Gv B.) 



96 BOXANrCAL XEWS. 

Her Majesty's Ti^asury have had before them your letter of the 3rd 
inst-, and the memorial enclosed in it from various gentlemen engaged 
in the pursuit of Botany or in instruction therein, with respect to the 
transfer to the branch of the British Museum about to be constructed 
at ^ South Kensington, of the scientific collections and library now 
existing at the Royal Gardens at Kew, Their Lordships desire me to 
request that you will inform the memorialists that Her Majesty's 



formed 



to South Kensington, and that should anything lead them hereafter 
to entertain the idea, they will take care that ample notice shall be 
given, and that the judgment of the persons most accomplished in 
Botany shall be fairly weighed in the first instance. — I am, sir, your 



We are p-lad h 



of Dorsetshire is in the press. 

Dr. H. C. C. Scheflfer has published a third instalment of his 
'' Observationes Phytograpbicfe," notes on the plants of the Malayan 
Archipelago, illustrated with eighteen plates very carefully drawn, in 
the thirty-second part of the " ISTatuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Neder- 
landsch-Indie." He describes fourteen new species of various 



Menisp 



species of which are enumerated as found in these islands fifteen 



fierured 



to two species of Enfada, 



Watson 



— — £ '^"^ ^^ ^-^ V -l^ \j \J^ 1. J J 1- i 1 IF III Lj 1 I t~ ill J^ I \. I I rX I T 

collected in years past to show the distribution of British Plants 
through the counties, and has issued a circular to English Eotanists 
requesting them to send any facts additional to those recorded in the 
Compendium of the Cybele Britannica" and its Supplement, so as to 
render the enumeration as complete as possible. We cordially second 
his appeal, and congratulate British Botanists on the prospect of so 



^xJ^l' ^;^J^^^' ?''''^T ""l ^'^ G^rA,u^, has been elected a 

JU ember of the Belgian Academy of Science 

.f.v?''f ?''\''-^r ^i''''- ""^ *^^ ^^^^'^ of 'Botany of Prague and 
stays at Innsbruck He is now working up the hybrids among the 
dpine species of Pedtculans, Saxifraga, and Primull 

P. ^V'i: • '^^^'' has been appointed second assistant in the 
ff S ?'5'''^"^' -^^"^ ' ^""^ ^^- ^- Nicholson clerk to the Curator 



of the Gardens. 



,^" iT> .if Hl^'^f^ A^i i'?"" °--? ^l the Government of 



Tenezuela to fill the Chair of B7t;;yi; the "*n ^^rsit; ofT ra^^^^^^^ 
^here Natural History has hitherto never been taught. He is like- 
rotanic'°rr"'^ ft '^' ^<^--^-^^on and management of a small 
harden he wtl\ '""l.^^t correspondent botanic museum. For the 
both f..Pt W YZl ^^' ^""^ ^''^" ^""'^^ ^^ the University building, 
soiare metre, ^^^^J'l^^^^ ^^^res large, which wiU give^about 800 
square metres available ground for planting. 

5tb If W 'f ^l T^'''''^ *^" ^'"^^ ^t C'^tania, Sicily, on 
\t:l I;.t^1i^!!:5^ ^^:i i'^ ^^ twenty-s&h y 



January 
vear. Mr. 



Kajne contributed an interesting and valuable paper on the Flora of 
Moab to our volume for lust year. 



37 



<0n0inal %ttit\e0. 



SUPPLEMENTARY COKTRIBIJTION'S TO THE FLORA 

OF NORTH CORNWALL. 
By J, G. Biker, F.L.S. 

I HATE been much interested in studying the list of plants gathered 
by Dr. Hind in North Cornwall, printed at page 36 of the present 
volume of the Journal. So far as botanical records go he has entered 
upon almost untrodden ground, for from Turner and Dillwyn down 
to the recent Devon and Cornwall Flora of Keys and Holmes, there 
are extremely few stations reported from the tract to which hia 
notes refer. And yet it is a district almost as large as the county of 
Middlesex in area, and one which I believe, when the flora of 
the Peninsula comes to be fully worked out, will be found to have 
a distinct and decided character of its own, though marked by nega- 
tive, scarcely at all by positive, characteristics. In a sentence, this 
tract may be described by saying that it is that part of the county 
of Cornwall to which Cowper's definition 

" AVTiere England, strcfcbed towards the setfinp- sun, 
Narrow and long, '^'erlooks the western wave," 

■ \ 

does not apply- This is a right-angled triangle added to the north of the 
'* narrow and long *' portion of the county at its eastern extremity, with 
a line twenty miles long from Tintagel east to Launceston for its base, 
the county boundary running out due north from Launceston along 
the Tamarfor twenty miles towards Hartland Point and Clovelly for 
its perpendicular, and a magnificent sweep of craggy coast facing the 
north-west for the hypothenuse. The cliffs rise as we pass along from 
north-east to south-west, but the country falls rather than rises inland 
towards the Tamar, and nowhere within the triangle do we reach a 
height of 1000 feet. This triangle of comparatively low-lying 
country, populated very thinly, cultivated imperfectly, with wide 
sweeps of low undulated swells, with little actual heather-land still 
remaining, and quite destitute of the thick hedgerows, and deep 
lanes, and wooded brooks with deep sylvan banks which we com- 
monly associate with the idea of Devonshire scenety, is completely 
bounded on the south by the great granite mass of Dartmoor and the 
ridge of high bare hill that forms the backbone of Cornwall ; and thus 
shut in on the south and exposed to the sea on the north, with very 
little variety in station within its area, looks in physical character 
and botany like a slice out of the poorer part of Cumberland or Lan- 



** 



an 



type 



ym 



the county yields, and the rarity of many others of a bouthem type 
of character which we are accustomed to see commonly even about 
liondon and in the Midland counties. So that I believe Dr, Hiud'a 

N.s. VOL. 2. [apeil 1, 1873.] H 



98 CONTRIBt'TIONS TO THE FLOEA OF NOKTH COENWALL, 

list will be found to be a mucli fuller representation of the total flora 
than anyone who looks through it with Watson's Compendium or 
Keys' Flora, without understanding the actual character and pecu- 
liarities of the tract, will be likely to suppose. I paid a visit to the 
district for three days in the autumn of 1871, and made notes on the 
spot of all the interesting plants I saw, and I find that Dr, Hind has 
fallen upon them nearly all. Like him I found Bude to be much the 
most interesting locality from a botanical point of view. Here there 
is a break in the line of coast crag, with a stream breaking through a 
sandy beach bordered by low sandhills. Although the cliffs along the 
coast are carboniferous, there are very few of the characteristically 
limestone plants- In fact, as I have hinted already, all the three 
elements likely in this part of the world to bring in rare plants, the 
Southern tendency, the Montane-sylvan tendency, and the Xerophi- 
lous tendency, are either absent or negatived by circumstances, and 
it is these combined negations that constitute the interest of the dis- 
trict, and make me glad to see such a good basis for its flora now 
laid. 

Eunning through my notes, I find mention of a few additional 
species, and offer also a few suggestions with regard to some critical 
plants already mentioned in Dr. Hind's list : — • 

Barlarea prcBcox^ Roadsides near Launceston and Yealm Bridge. 
Doubtless a garden escape. 

Pohjgala depressa. Heaths near the coast south of Bude. 

Lepidium Smithii, l^ear Stratton and Tealm Bridge. 

Sagina maritima. Shore at Bude. 

Erodium moscliatum. Shore at Bude, apparently truly wild. 

Ulex Gallii. In several places, in moory pieces of ground. This 
is no doubt what Dr. Hind intends by U. nanus^ and is extremely 
common through the province. 

Frunus Cerasus. Plentiful in the lane between Yealm Bridge and 
Whitestone. 

Hosa toineniosa. Lane near Whitestone, not far from the last. 

R. obiusifolia. Hedge a little north of Launceston. 

jRuhi, The frequent forms of fruticose liuhi of the district are 
cordifoliusy Hadula, villicaulu^ discolor ^ and corylifoliuH. I saw also 
rudis^ pyramidalis^ and Zmrf/^/aww5 near Launceston, (?<rsm5 v^ni^L altJiei- 
foUus near the coast at Bude, umlrosus in hedges between White 
stone and Red Post, end ^ssus and dumetorum wi 
a heath north of Tealm Bridge. 

Lepigonum. I saw neglectum sparingly near the mouth of the 
stream at Bude, and rupestre abundantly with Crithmum and Armeria 
on the cliffs to the south, but not marinum^ which Dr, Hind mentions. 

Pastinaca sativa. Near the coast at Bude. 

Peplis Portula, Roadside near Whitestone. 

Carduus enspus. Roadside near "Whitestone. 

Mieracium umhellahm I saw by the roadside near Tealm Bridge, 
and in other places. Probably Dr. Hind's doubtful corymlosum is this, as 
the true plant is quite unlikely to occur, and perhaps also his doubted 
horeale. 



Aster TripoUum. Plentiful by the stream at Bi 
AntJiemis nohtlis. Roadside near Tealm Bridge. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF NORTH CORNWALL, 99 

" Bidens tripartita. Ditches in two places near Whitestone. 

Melampyrum syhatimm of Dr. Hind's list should SMTeljh^ pratense. 
I saw the latter, which he does not mention, more than once, and 
sylmtimm is quite unlikely to be found here. 

Bartsia viscosa. Eoadside near "Whitestone. 

Veronica Btixlattmii. Cultivated ground at Bude. 

Ligustrum vidgare. Looks like a wild plant, in the lane between 
Red Post and Stratton. 

Airiplex Jiastaia, Bude, &c. 

Salix ambigua. Heath between Yealm Bridge and Whitestono, 
with its two parents, aurita and repens. 

Qiiercus sessiltjfora. Whitestone and Bude. 

JJlmus stricta. Roadside a little out of Launceston northwards. 

Euphorbia portlandica, ' On the beach at Bude. 

Spiranthes autumnalis. High carboniferous cliffs south of Bade. 

Irisfostidissima^ Ditches between "Whitestone and Red Post- 

Snrpus glaums. Salt-water ditches at Bude. 

Glyceria maritima. Bude. 

IViticum aeutum. Bude. 

Lolium temulentum, Bude. 

Ceteraeh officinarum. Walls of the bridge at Yealm Bridge. 



■ ? 



KE5IAEKS ON SOME PLANTS NAMED IN DK.. HIND'S 
" CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE ELOEA OF NOETH COEN- 

WALL." 

By T. E. Aechee Beiggs, E.L.S. 



porti 



Cornwall 



a matter of great interest to me to go carefuUy over the Eev. Dr. Hind's 
list of North Cornwall plants inserted in the Eehruary number (pp. 
36-43) of this Journal, and note the species in it which have not beeii 
seen by me in the neighbourhood of Plymouth. I purpose now making 
a few remarks on some of the plants named by Dr. Hind in this inte- 
resting communication, and shaU as I proceed venture to insert a 

few queries. 

Delphinium ConsoUda, L. This I have never seen near Plymouth, 
either as a " casual" in waste spots about gardens or as a cornfield 
plant. The list is prefaced by the remark, " When no locality is given, 
the plant is frequent or common," so we must conclude this to have 
been found in some quantity. It would be interesting, at least to 
Cornish botanists, to hear under what circumstances, whether as an 
agrarian weed or on rubbish heaps about gardens. Similar particulars 
respecting Papaver somniferum, L., would also be of value. 

Brassica campestris, L. Bude; and B. JVapus, L., Norcot Mouth. 
The mention of these names affords me an opportunity for correcting 
an error into which I fell when writing last year of a Brassica form 

u 2 



100 .CO^^TRII!T;TI0NS TO THE FLORA OF NOKXH CORNWALL. 

from potato-fields near Torpoint in Journ. Bot., N.S, vol. i., p. ^65, 
.and specimens of which I have since forwarded to the Bot. Ex. Club 
for distribution. In the article referred to I spoke of it as something 
different from the truly annual form of "Watson's B, cam^estris (ap- 
pearing in his Supp. Comp. Cyb. Brit., p. 22, as the second entry under 
No. 114. " B. campestris, Eng. Bot. ISTo. 2234, An annual plant in 
turnip-fields ; Archer Briggs !''), but cultivation of it has since shown 
me that it is identical with this other, and I have now young plants, pro- 
duced from seed sown a few months ago, with the decidedly grass-green 
root leaves of it. When I collected the Torpoint examples last summer, 
hntfew, and those small, specimens had escaped the labourer's hoe out 
of the lines of potatoes, and on them alone were all the leaves perfect ; 
but they had run up so c[uickly into flower that the grass-green rosette 
was absent, and hence arose my mistake in supposing them to be a 
new form. On the larger plants the lower leaves had rotted away, 
partly from earth having been drawn up around their stems as well 
as about those of the crop. The only forms growing about Plymouth 
that I now know coming under Syme's Brassica polpnorpha are this 
truly annual Brassica and the plant given by Watson immediately 
after it in his Supp. Comp. Cyb. Brit, as " 116. J5, campesfris ?, or 
* jRapa sylvestriSj* a biennial plentiful along the Thames.'* I suppose 

the Bude B. campestris to be one of these two ; but what is the Norcot 
Mouth B. JVapus ? 

Viola odorafa^ L. Poughill. I have seen this in Cornwall only 
where the suspicion of its having escaped from cultivation attaches to 
it, although it is clearly indigenous on some of the limestone beds to 
the east of Plymouth, only a few miles from the eastern boundary line 
of the county. It seems important to have particulars respecting this 
Poughill station, as it is given by Watson as introduced under Corn- 
wall in his Supp. Comp. Cyb. Brit., p. 23. 

Rhamnus cathartieus, L. Lansells. A very interesting addition to 
the county list, though I must confess the possibility of Dr. Hind's 
having inadvertently written " catharticus " for Frangula occurs to me, 
from the fact of the latter shrub not being named at all by him, 

though so common in many parts of Devon and Coi-nwall. 

Epilolium angustifoUtim^ L. Boscastle. Is this «. macrocarpumj 
Steph., or &, Ir achy car pum^ Leight, ? I have never seen either in 
any part of Cornwall, though the first occurs as a doubtful native in 
one spot near Plymouth, and the latter in another, where it is mani- 
festly only an ** escape" from an adjoining garden and shrubbery. 
Watson does not regard E. angustifolium as indigenous beyond Somer- 
set and Dorset (vide Supp. Comp. Cyb. Brit., p. 41V 

Epilolium virgatum^ Fries. Ashton. Is this the E. ohscurum of 

JBabington's Manual, ed. 6; and the next, from Kilkhampton, Syme'a 

eu-teiragontm ? In the neighbourhood of Plymouth JE. ohscurum is 

much more widely distributed than E. eu-tetragonum, though this latter 
is rather local than rare. 

Sempermvum tectorum, L. This is only to be seen about Plymouth 
in spots where it has been planted, and really ought to have no place 
in our list. 

Carum verticiilatum, Koch. Week St. Mary. An important ad- 
dition to the flora of the county. I have reason to believe that further 



ON CKOSS PEKTILISATION. 101 

particulars respecting it as a I^ortli Cornwall species will be shortly 
communicated to tlie Journal by a botanist of Launceston. I have 
never seen it anywhere either in Cornwall or Devon. 

Pastinaca sativa^ L. Near Norcot Mouth. I have found this 
but very sparingly in Cornwall, and only where there is a proba- 
bility of its having been derived from gardens; but it is indigenous on 
limestone to the east of Plymouth, whence it is frequently conveyed in 
rubble from the quarries to other spots about the town. 

GnaphaUum sylvaticumy L. Hitherto unrecorded for Cornwall and 
very rare in Devon, though I have seen it in two spots near Plymouth. 
Is not the common G. uligiyiosum^ L., a Bude plant ? 

Arctium mqjuSy Schkuhr, Poughill, &c. Not previously given for 
the county. In the neighbourhood of Plymouth I have found quite 
a series of forms ranging from this to eu-?mnusj Syme ; but A. inter- 
medium, Lange, or A. pube?is, Bab. Man., ed, 6., and A. nemorosum, 
Lange, are so ill understood by me that I am at a loss as regards 
arranging the several intermediate examples under these names. 

Cardans pratensis, Huds. Week St. Mary ; and C. acaulis, L. Bude. 
Both these thistles are new to Cornwall, and I have never seen either 
near Plymouth. 

Verlascum Blattaria, L. Tintagel, I have only seen this as an 
alien or casual, generally with cream-coloured flowers. V, virgattm 
is much more frequent, and is always to be found in certain localities 
near Plymouth. 

Cladium Mariscus, K. Br. Moorwinstow. In Cornwall I have seen 
this only at the well-known Kynance station, and all the other pre- 
viously recorded ones seem like it to lie in the southern portion of the 
county, so the Moorwinstow one is an important addition to them^. 

Carex (EJeri, Ehrh, Moorwinstow. All the plants from the neigh- 
bourhood of Plymouth that have been so named I believe to have been 

only (7, lepidocarpa^ Tausch. 

Carex fulva, 0. Horns chucTiiana, Hoppe. Moorwinstow. Last 
summer I found C. falva on Viverdon Down, in the south-cast ot 
Cornwall, and have sent specimens thence in my last parcel to the 
Bot. Ex. Club. Previous to that I had never seen it in this county, 

nor have I yet found it in Devon, 

I can add two plants to Dr. Hind's list that were noticed by me 
when in the neighbourhood of Bude for a day or two several years ago. 
They are :—£rodium moschatum, Sm. Between Stratton and Bude. 
Rom micrmitha, Sm. Between Dalstone and Marham-Church. 



h 

ON CROSS FERTILISATION AS AIDED BY SENSITIVE 

MOTION IN MUSK AND ACHIMENES. 

By F. E. Kitchener, F.L.S. 

r 

The sensitive motion of Mimuhs hasbccn ^^eU known f^.^^y'"^'^ 
since the time of Sprcngd, .^ho curiously enough mclucles ths proper 

motion among those to account for which he says - wc oseohhscd 
to suppose an iuternul impulse, a force independent of external 



102 OTJ- CEOSS FERTrLISATIO>\ 



influences."*. In 

Mimuliis, Martynia 



Farnmsza and other plants. The object of the movements of the stamens 
in Parnassta was already connected in his mind with that of insect 



and 

t 



I am not aware that a like connection has been noticed between 
the stigmatic movements of Musk, and the necessity of insect ferti- 



M. 



iffecundatton M. 



touch. The sensitiveness will be seen to play a useful part in this 
fecundation. 

I will take the commonest species, M. moschatus, as a type. 
The flowers vary from erect in the bud to horizontal in the fiUl- 
blown flower, but never hang downwards. Of the four stamens the 
anterior, Ipwer, and larger pair ripen after the posterior, upper, and 
shorter pair. Both pairs of anthers are held together by hairs, and the 
longitudinal slits of the anther open towards the lower lip, and away 
fiom the base of the flower. The style is closely pressed against the 
upper lip of the corolla, and its stigma has two large flat fan-shaped 
lobes. In a very young bud these lobes are closed. In a hardly- 
opened bud the lobes are beginning to open, the lower one bending 
back against the style ; at this time it is that the shorter stamens 
burst, but as they are much shorter than the style the pollen cannot 
reach the stigma, and its course down the tube is facilitated by the, 
at that time, slanting position of the flower. In a just-opened flower 
the stigmas are fully open, parallel, and opposite to the lower lip of the 
coroJla, Its viscous surfaces being therefore both downwards ; the shorter 
anthers are nearly empty, and the longer ones only just beginning to 
spht ; the pistil IS therefore synacmic with the shorter, and almost 
protogynous with respect to the longer stamens. 

In a flower almost beginning to fade the longer stamens are still 
shedding their pollen, the shorter ones are withered, and the stigma 

1^^:^:ZLT'ZT^L'TJ±'1^^^ TMs dosing naay, moreover, be 



surface 

will close in j^hmif fhiTH-Tr o/^n^ 



have closed. 



will 
and 



SmL"^"^ ?,\^f'„^^J?.?J ?2fe«^™ -t reaohL^_ifar a« the 



surfaces 



^^^ «^t,.x ^p, (^; irom ineproDability that the stigma 
have been touched and closed before they burst at all 

Un the other hand, an insect attracted to the flow'er for the honev 

rifstd^i^r v'' ''^r ^^*'r^ ''^' pollenrth: up^er sidi 
toirnodanlTf -in^^f.^'- ^f^ ^"^'^ which hold the anthers 

fe stamens from ^T?^^^ ^'%t' \^'^ ^" ^ M-culans, by keopin 
t^c stamens trom se parati ng. Th e large size of the stigmati- -^'•^■- 

T see A. W. bennett 8 paper m Journ. Liun. Soc, vol. xi . p. 26. 



suriace 



part i., p. 274. 



rSEUDOCAEPS. 103 



will of course increase the chance that any insect with pollen on its 
proboscis or back will not fail to leave some grains attached to it as 
he works his way towards the bottom of the flower. 

But what purpose does the sensitiveness serve ? To prevent the 
stigma being fertilised by its own pollen bj^ insect agency. "Without 
this sensitiveness why should not an insect covered with the pollen of 
the shorter and synacmic stamens leave the pollen on the stigma of the 
same plant as he backs his way out ? Given the sensitiveness, this is 
impossible, for as the insect passes under the stigma the sensitive 
motion is excited, and while he is drinking the honey time is allovycd 
for its completion, or if it be not completed in time, the mechanical 
effect of the backing motion of the insect will be to complete the 
closing. 

A similar use of a quite different movement has been suggested to 
me by Miss S. S. Dowson, one of my Cambridge corresponding class. 
The Achimcnes (Gcsneracese) has a tubular corolla five-cleft with a swell- 
ing just below the top of the throat. There are four perfect stamens, 
not ranch differing in length, and the stigma is ultimately two-cleft. 
hi the bud the pistil is much shorter than the stamens, but by the 
time tlio bud is just opened it has lengthened out between the stamens, 
and its tip is adpressed to the upper lip of the corolla. As yet the 
stigma has its two branches closely folded together. The anthers at 
this time arc all four close beneath the end of the pistil, and open 
downwards. The filaments then begin to contract, and the anthers, 
which adhere together, are drawn lower ; and finally the filaments 
twist themstlvea up to such a degree that the anthers are drawn 
down to the very base of the tube. The object of this is clearly to got 
them out of the way of the stigma, for during the process the pistil 
has arched forwards and downwards, and the two branches of the 




fl 



pt exactl)' 



PSEUDOCARPS . 
W. R. McI^AB, M 



I HAVE taken the liberty of using the word pseudocarps, which 
has not yet been employed in Botany as far as I am aware, to ai6- 
tinguish fruit-like structures from true fruits. Few attempts seem to 
have been made to define accurately many of the terms at picscat 
used in Botany, and this laxity of expression is the source of many 
difficulties. Such ordinary every-day words as flower, ^^^P^f ^^^?f' 
fruit, &c., seem chiefly to be taken as meaning something which 
everybody knows and not needing any accurate definition. A uowtr 
consists of the reproductive organs with the axis bearing them ana is 

at once distinguished from an inflorescence, .wl}^«V\\'^'^' ,n.r the 
bearing the flowers. In describing fmlts it is best to con dtr the 
fruits of Archisperms and Motaspernis separately, ihe 11'''^}=. 
ovary, physiologically changed, arrived at maturity a er fejWisation 

and containing the ripe seeds. The ovary is part of the gyncecium ot 



104 PSEUDOCAEPS. 



a flower (in epigynous flowers part of the ovary consists of the hollow 
receptacle) ; the style and stigma not forming an essential part of the 
fruit. As the gynoecium may consist of many paits, either separate 
or combined — that is, may be apocarpous or syncarpous — it follows that 
when the gynoecium is syncarpous only one fruit can be formed by 



fruits 



many 



After fertilisation not only does the gynoecium become changed, 
but other parts become modified which often do not even belong to 
the flower. When a fruit-like structure is thus produced by changes 
outside the gynoecium of one flower, a pseudocarp is formed. As 



polygynoecial 



our 



such as^ the strawberry, apple, &c. The strawberry is a pseudocai-p, 
the fruit consisting of numerous small achenes, while the enlarged 
fleshy axis forms the chief pai.'t of the pseudocarp. The rose-hip— a 
pseudocarp which was formerly known as the Cynarrhodum — is a 
hollow receptacle modified and enlarged, with achenes. The pome is 
another undoubted pseudocarp, although generally considered to be a 
true fruit ; but its relation to the Cynarrhodum cannot be overlooked. 
It is a hollow receptacle enlarged and modified, with achenes. The 
relation of the drupe to the achene and nut, as is known to many, 
must be very close indeed, there being evidently much natural affinity 
between them, and but for the physiological modification of the 
niesocarp and endocarp they would not be separable—a point which 
hpnnniPR of much significance when we consider the fruits of such a 



natural 



i the Eosacege. In the mulberry 

fiTlits beinsi' small nnd rlrT?- • in fht^ 



1^ 

inflorescence. 



axis 



fruit is a nut, a drv indehiscent fruit 



^v P®"*^^^!* consisting of two carpels. As fruits the cone and 
galbulus must disappear. The cone is a fertile branch of definite growth, 
easily distin guished from the vegetative branches. There is a primary 
axis bearing bracts (the scale-leaves), in the axil of each of which a 
smaU (generally two-flowered) inflorescence is produced. In the 
tupressmeEe this two-flowered inflorescence is replaced by a contracted 
cyme, like that of Lamium. The galbulus, which much resembles a 
berry, consists of three succulent bracts (scale-leaves), in the axil of 
each of which a small inflorescence forms. Only one flower is pro- 
duced laterally, which is reduced to the ovule and two carpels. We 
have thus a pseudocarp formed of three nuts and three succulent 
bracts ihe fruits of the Archisperms hear a very close resemblance 
one to the other ; and as in the Metasperms {e.g., the Eosacea^) we see 
tne close relationship of achene and drupe, so in the Archisperms we 
nave the achene or nut of the yew contrasted with the drupe of 

aaUsburia with the succulent exterior and Hgneous inner part of the 
pericarp. ° ^ 

Having pointed out the relation of the drupe to the achene, it may 
he as well to state that there seems to he a relationship between the 
achene and the folhcle, and from the folUcle by the legume and 
capsule up to the berry. As we have shown that the pome must be 



SHOUT NOTES AND aUERIES. 105 

grouped among the pseudocarps, it is unnecessary to mention it further 
here. By the separation of the pseudocarps from the true fruits I 
believe that the classification of fruits will he considerably simplified. 



A KEW GENUS OF LILIACE^ FEOM 

CAPE COLONY. 
By J. G. Baker, E.L.S. 



ScHizoBAsis, Baker, — Perianthium 6-partitum segmentis ligulatis 
sequalibus dorso uninervatis, flore expanso falcatis, marcescentibus 
post anthesin supra basin circumscissis, apice cohaerentibus spiruliter 
convolutis capsuliim immaturam calyptratim coronantibus. Stamina 6 
inclusa, filamentis hypogynis applanutis suba^qualibus rectis antheris 
oblongis versatilibus- Ovarium globosum sessile ovulis in loculo 2 
geminis collateralibus ascendentibus ; stylus filiformis subrectus ovario 
aBC[uilongu3 ; stigma punctilbrme. Capsula sessilis depresso-globosa 
locullcide trivalvis, seminibus in loculo 2 triquetris, testa nigra mem- 
branacea. Herba bulbosa capensis foliis hysteranthiis (ignotis) caule 
flexuoso suberecto gracillimo floribus parvis anthericoideis copiose 
racemoso-paniculatis. 

S. Macowani, Baker j species sola. 

Inter frutices prope Somerset east, MacOwan^ No. 1847. : 

Bulb globose, 1 — \\ inch thick. Leaves unknown, not developed 
at the time of flowering. Stem slender, wiry, flexuose, 3 — 4 inches 
long before it begins to branch, clothed near the base with short grey 
deflexed hairs. Eacemes 1^ — 2 inches long, producing 12 to 20 
flowers. Pedicels subpatent or ascending, always solitary, the lower 
3—4 inches long. Eachis of the panicle 3 — 4 inches long, the upper 
l>ranches simple, the lower forked. Bracts solitary, membranous, deltoid, 
very minute. Perianth whitish, \ inch long. Capsule roundish, about 
a line long. 

This curious little plant is an interesting addition to the tribe 
Chlorogalec^^ of which only three genera and four species were 
previously known : Chlorogahm^ Califbrnian, with two species ; 
Nolina^ from the Southern United States, with one species; and 
Bomea, Cape, also monotypic. Schizolasis comes nearest the first of the 
three, ditfering considerably in ovai-y and perianth. The spiral 

twisting of the segments of the perianth alter the flowering is 

la similar to what occurs in Cmia^ and the section Streptanthe) 
-^nthericum. 



SHOET NOTES AND QIJEEIES. 

. EcniUM PLANTAGiNEUM IN E^GLAifi) (scc p. 20).— I have pleasure 
J? forwarding a specimen of this plant to you collected at St Just, 
J^ornwall, last September. Mr. Ealfs was the discoverer, and described 
to nie the locality. This is a short mile from the town, chiefly 
^^ a sandy, weedy field on high ground not far from the sea. The 
pi^nt was growing freely, and some straggling plants were seen on waste 



106 8H0KT NOTES AND QUERIES. 



ground and bants around ; how long it may have flourished there it 
is impossible to determine, the spot being little frequented and some 
distance.from any road. — Eliz. A. Lomax. [Mrs, Lomax has also sent 
specimens to the Bot, Exchange Club, and Dr. Boswell-Syme, who 
has examined them, writes : " I think there cannot be any doubt about 
the Echium being E, plantagineum. The Cornwall specimens are 
much less robust than the Jersey ones, and look as if grown in a soil 
and exposure which did not suit them ; the leaves are thin as if grown 
in shade.'* Two young specimens quite like the Cornwall ones are 
contained in the herbarium of the British Museum, labelled ^^ JEehium 
violaceum; Isle of Wight, Mrs. George Gray," having been received 
from the late Mrs, Eobinson in 1847, This is also, I believe, an unre- 
corded locality for E, plantaginetim. — Ed. Journ, BotJ] 



Plants of Penzance. — During a short visit to Penzance lust 
autumn I came across several specimens of two yellow labiate plants 
which my ' ^ Hooker " did not enable me to identify- One of these 
■I find is Stachys annxta^ L, ; with regard to the other I have been 
favoured with the following note from Dr, Boswell-Syme : — "Tour 
labiate is Sideritis romana, L. I never saw the plant alive, so can- 
not say what is the colour of the flower, of which various accounts 
are given. Woods' * Tourist's Flora' says, 'Cor. yellow without 
spot ' ; Koch , * Cor. alba, labium superius quandoque colore roseo 
fucatum * ; Gren, et Godr. !F1. de France, * Corolle blanche.' '* ^ I 
need only say that the plants I saw were yellow (primrose) with 
a dark spot. The locality for both these plants is the well-known 
green, bordering Mount's Bay, which connects Penzance with Mara- 
zion. It may be of interest if I put on record some other plants 
which I found in the vicinity of Penzance. On the green occur 
Delphinium Cofisolida^ L., sparingly; Reseda fruticuhsa^ L., main- 

tainins: its stand in its 1835 habitat, sriven in the New Bot. Guide : Tri- 



1 



lilac 



flowers, however, as given in the !New Bot. Guide, though I expect the 
locality is the same. On the adjacent sandy shore I found, with 
Cj/nodon BactyJon, Pers., Biipleurum rotundifolium^ L., Centaiirea 
Cahitrapa, L., and Panicum miliaeenm, L. Borago officinalis^ L.t is 
somewhat common in the district, and Silene anglka^ L., is to be met 
with occasionally in the fields. I did noj find Hypericum linarii- 
folium^ Vahl., at Cape Cornwall, nov ScropMlaria Scorodonia^J^^y at 
^ewlyn, &c.— E. Tucker. 



Palms of Trinidad.^ — Mr. H. Prestoe writes to Dr. Hooker from 
the Bot. Gardens, Trinidad, January 2oth, 1873 :— " As to the Trini- 
dad Palms, Grisebach is scarcely correct. In some places there seems 
to be confusion, and there is a deficiency of several species. Taking 
the genera as they occur in Grisebach's * West Indian Plora,' I inay 
mention Sahal mauriiiifonnii as not being to my knowledge indige- 
nous. Fine trees are growing in the garden, and these I think must 
have furnished the specimens Crueger sent to Europe. Thrinax parvt- 
fiora, radinta^ argentea^ and excelsa are all found here as indigenous 
plants. Of Mauritia we appear to have both setigera and^^XMo^^— the 



SHOUT NOTES AND QUERIES- 107 



smooth andpricklykinds, as these are known liere- OiJessenia [CEnocar- 
pus) I believe we have two distinct kinds, the second one being pro- 
bably the pohjcarpus ot Karsten. Of Euterpe, besides oleracea^ we have 
a low arundinaceous kind on the hills, and a tall glaucous-leaved kind 
on the sandy flats beyond Arima. This latter kind is now very rare. 
The Oreodoxa oleracea is of course common and very distinct ; but if 
there is much importance in the character as given by Grisebach of 
trunk thickened at the middle, our second species is not 0. regia^ Kth* 
Geonoma is a well-marked and not uncommon species here, but G. oxy- 
carpa I have never met with. Flyospathe puhigera is also a well- 
marked mountain species, so also is Manicaria Jaccifera in the wet 
gravelly flats. I do not regard the entirety of the leaves as a distin- 
^'uishiug character; one finds entire and very much pinnatifid leaves 
on the same plant. 0£ Desmoficus we have two very distinct species, 
say D. major and 7), minor. Of Badriswii have at least three species 
beyond what Grisebach gives to Trinidad, I cannot match our very 
commonest species with either of his descriptions. Those I have 
matched are -5. simplicifronSy Cuesa, and Cruegeriana. Astrocargtim 
aureum is a very distinct and striking species along the south coast in 
poor sandy districts. Of Acrocomia^ sclerocarpa seems our only species. 
OfJTaxmilianawe have both carihcea and regia ; the first quite common, 
the latter rare, but certainly indigenous. In Pandanea we have two 



Pther distinct plants besides Carludovica Plumieri, ^xQbd\Aj gracilis and 
insignis,^^ 



Pine Pollen in Lake Michigan.— At the Dubuque meeting of the 
American Association, Dr. K. H. Ward made a report on a specimen 
of viscid-looking water from Lake Michigan, near Kacine. The 
water of the lake was similarly thickened for miles, and was generally 
Relieved by the neighbouring residents to be of an infusorial character. 
It contained no infusoria worth speaking of, but was almost filled with 
pine pollen, which was interesting from its enormous quantity, and 
from the fact that its source could not have been near by, but must 
have been in the pine forests far to the north, the pollen being brought 
down by the southerly current along the western shore of the lake,— 



Eaelt Flowering of Heracleum.— The accompanpng specimen 
of Seradeum SphonduUum was gathered to-day (Feb 20th) ^^^ a hedge- 
hank by the roadside about half a mile from the village of Hatfaeld, 
Herts.— E, A. Pbyoe. [The plant sent by our correspondent is 
coming into flower, the marginal flowers of the umbels hemg expanded, 
the inner ones in bud. Its flowers are remarkable in having petals 
of a dark reddish-nurDle colour.— -£'^- Journ. Bot.\ 




108 ON RUBirS TB^US. 



exttatt^ anti %Wttact0, 



ON EUBUS IDJEUS, Z. ; ITS AFFINITIES AND 

OEIGIN. 
Br P. "W". C. Aeeschoug. 

Amowg fhe fniticose Huhi now growing in Europe, H. Idceus, L., 
seems to be the most isolated species. All the others are so closely 
connected by intermediate forms, that they may be said to form a 
continuous series ; but this species has no intimate relation with any 
of them. The chief character of R. Idceus, L., lies in its fruit sepa- 
rating from the receptacle ; but there are also many other peculiarities. 
In the first place, I may mention that the bark scales off more or less 
completely from the stem during the second year, which is not the 
case with the other shrubby Brambles growing in Europe. In these 
the fruit is usually dark, of a deep red or blue colour, whilst that 
of R. Idceus IS crimson or amber-coloured. Further, R. Idceus, L., has 
a great tendency to produce shoots from the subterranean parts, and 
very often you may find such shoots at a distance of many feet from 
the shrub from which they derive their origin. According to Prof. 
Bubmgton (Brit. Rubi, p. 42), this species has a creeping rhizome, 
which IS with probability supposed to produce the buds. As I have 
had no opportunity of examining the development of R. Idceus, L., from 
Its germination, I cannot with certainty decide whether the subter- 
ranean parts from which these shoots proceed are rhizomes or true roots. 
Iheir anatomical structure, however, agrees with that of the root, in 



of which are not wanting on the subterranean parts of the shoots. I 
therefore suppose the root to produce the buds, and the same con- 
« 9fi? 'S^K^ T*^^. ^^ ^^"^^"^ (Reform, deutscher Brombeercn, 



Jhw r^Vn P^«^^^«t^«^ of b^<i3 on the root I have never seen in any 
Dr k!wTJ'\?'""''- ?°^T'' ^ ^^^'^t omit to mention that 
n TQ^Tiv '^ F/''/.^'°'^i'^'^°^^ ^^^ Umgegend von Bremen, 
S;SJ ?T°^'.f--^™^''''"'' ^- (^- ^^^■^«^^^> Whe.), as often pro- 
?r« 1^ li ■ '"^ ^^"-'"'^^."^''^"^"^ ^^ ^- ^^^«^» ^-^ though I never 
LdicTd 1,1''' ^T"^^ *^^ "'f ^^^^^- To the peculiarities already 
wSoh 1 ' ''^'r"'^ ^; ^'^^■"^' ^- ^^-^^y others may be added 

£t :?r ott "'-^ i ^^^^TlZ% ^tn 
SlLnt to XT'^A, ^^ begun to be formed, it may be 

tL sXeous m^l. -^n ^^Zt^' -''''^ ^^^ ^^'J gl^^oous stems; 

haL above fhet wT^'' \ *^' ^^ v^"*" ^^^^«« ^^^^^^^ with steUate 

^me &he ax W r'^'^lf ?,^^^^^ P^^<^1^«' the lower of which 
Xow alwavs e It f f ''*.l^ ^'T' ' ^^' Pe^dulous flowers ; the 

rrrds &:ti^::ut^:j A^:, f::"^ f --> -ct or inclined 

close whorl • nnfl /inn^ are au 01 equal height, and arranged m a 

a all or a least wf^TT^ ^t~f^ '""^''^ characters are either not 
all, or at kast veiy seldom, found in the other European species. 



ON RUBTJS IDiEUS. 109 



la some respects, however, one may perhaps compare this species 
with two other natives of Europe, viz., R: sulerectus, Ands., and R. 
ccesiuSj L., or vaiher R. pseudo-Idcxus, "WTie. With R, stiberedus^ Ands., 
it agrees only in its erect stem and small setaceous purple prickles. 
The fact of the leaves of R. siilerectus, Ands. having a disposition to 
become pinnate is, in my opinion, no reason at all for endorsing the 
view of a more intimate relation between that species and R, Idmis, L., 
for the following reason : — When the leaves of this latter are pinnate, 
they are perfectly so, every pair of leaflets being separated from the 
others by the prolongation of tlie petiole ; but in R, suierectus, Ands., 
when its leaves are septenate, the two lowest pairs of leaflets are not 
separated, but inserted at the same spot, and in place of one terminal 
leaflet there are three, of which the lateral ones are sessile and 
approximated to the terminal one. Such a division of the terminal 
leaflet is not very unusual in several others of the European Rubif 
particularly in the group of R, corylifolii {e.g., R. pruinosuSj Arrhen.). 
Conseq^uently the resemblance of these species, when compared with 
the peculiarities characteristic of one of them, R. Idmin^ L., is really 
too insignificant to give us any right to suppose a nearer relation 
existing between them. The opinion that R. sulerecfus^ Ands., is a 
hybrid between R. Idceus^ L., and R. fruticosus^ Ands. {R. pUcatus^ 
Whe.), appears little more correct. If that were the case we should have 
reason to suppose that that form would have some of the peculiarities 
belonging to one of the supposed parents, viz., R, Idmiis^ L. ; biit, as has 
already been mentioned, this is not the case. Besides, hybrid forms 
graduate generally into the parents ; but such intermediate forms 
between R, suberediis and R. Idcms have never, to my knowledge, 
been found. On the other hand, the intimate relation of R. suheredtt^^ 
Ands., to R, fruticosus, L., is evident, and intermediate forms are by 
no means wanting (^,y., R.fissus, LindL). Besides, in the determina- 
tion of this point we must not forget that R. suheredusy^ Ands., grows 
over vast spaces of land where we do not find R./riclicosus^ L, ; for 
instance, the former species is found in the interior provinces of the 
South and the Middle of Sweden, whilst the latter is confined to the 
coast provinces, being very seldom seen in the interior of the country, 
and then only in the southernmost part. 

In the group of fruticose Brambles characterised by thin green 
leaves, and prevalent in the North of Europe, R. suhredus, Ands.,_is 
analogous to R. IdiEUS, L., which, however, belongs to a qmte 
different group. On another occasion I hope to show that R. mberedm, 
Ands,, is the oldest, and consequently also the least variable, 
species of all in the group it represents. It is the very same^ form 
that grrtwR ^r^ ^TTT^Ar^r^ V/.v^oTT "nPTiTTinrTr. Great Britain, andm the 



iermediate forms 



^orth and Middle of Germany. 

The inclination of many authors to suppose all i 
of this genus to be hybrid plants, without any attempt at proof— an 
inclination that culminates in the work of Kuntze— seems to be 

upon ignorance of the laws which regulate the formation ot 
Evpvp fT7T.o T^r^/liiPAG n Tnimherof forms, which are analogous 



species. 



typ 



form 



manner are very often supposed to be hybrids oetwecn ^"^l'^^^^^ 
ch consf.ifiifofi f'hn TT^nof rbnracteristic form of their type, ana 



110 « ON RUBUS ID^US. 



the species which are analogous to them. Thus a great many forms 
have been developed from R, tome7itosuSy Borkh., which is prevalent 
in the South of Europe, and many of these forms are analogous to 
species growing in the Middle of Europe, And therefore they are 
suspected to be hybrids between these species and R. fomentosusj 
Borkh. On the other hand, if the analogy be extended to all the 
essential parts of the plant, we find that authors have combined these 
analogous forms to make up a single species. It has doubtless seemed 

"sing to many that one author believes R. thyrsotdeus, "Wimm., 



be 



Whe. ; and I mvself inclin 



ylifoli 



Sm. All these different opinions are to a certain degree correct, 
but authors have had different though analogous forms in view. 
The R. thyrsoideus of England and France has its origin from R, 
discolor J "Whe. ; that of the South of Europe from R. tome?itosuSy 
Borkh. ; and the North European R. thyrsoideus from R. coryli- 
folius^ Sm. 

I believe, therefore, that I have reason for supposing R. sulerectus, 
Ands., neither to belong to the same type as R. IdceuSy L., nor to be 

en that species and R. fruticosus, L. But the inter- 



forms 



W- 



Id<BU8, are real hybrids, produced by these species. For they have 
the more important characters of both R. cmmSy L., and R, Idceus^ L.^ 
between which they oscillate, if I may so speak, to such an extent 
that they graduate now into one, now into the other, of the parents. 
Usually the fruit is dark, but I have found it on the true R. meudo- 



Whe 



fruit 



' # — ^^^ 

It. ccesius. 

By these remarks I have intended to show that the species in 
question is more isolated than any other of the European Ruli 
fruticoai, and that the species which seem to connect it with these 
are either analogous forms belonging to other groups, or hybrids. 
The circumstance is the more remarkable as this specks has a great 
propensity to vary. It is usually the case that species much isolated 
from other species of the same genus have very little tendency to 
vary. There can, for instance, hardly be any confusion in the nomen- 
clature of the herbaceous Brambles, as their tendency to form varieties 
is very strongly restricted. As I have reason to suppose that these 



Europe 



forms 



nun 



common ancestors. On the other hand, species which very much vary 
are more or less completely connected with each other, iust as with 



fniticose 



Jiut li. IdmuSj L., though greatly variable 

forms connectine' if wifTi fTio n+K^r. VnrrtT^ont 



circimistance 



that I consider it as belonging to another type. Its stem may be 



armed 



near 



ON ETJBXJS IB.EtJS. Ill 



times stronger, deflexed, and almost sufficient to wound {B. Idesus^ L., 
var. maritimus, Arrhen.). Still more do the leaves vary, being pinnate, 
ternate, or even simple and cordate (for instance, on the flowering 
shoots of E. Id(dus, L., var. anomalus, Arrhen.*), while the leaflets are 
either hairy above or covered with stellate hairs, or glabrous, some- 
times even on the under-side (H. IdcEus, var. viridis, fl. Trib.). The 
leaflets are for the most part ovate-lanceolate, but may also, when 
ternate, be roundly ovate, nearly orbicular. A form from Lapland 
[R. IdauSfL., elongatus, La^st.) has elongated lanceolate leaflets. On the 
sea-coast of the East of Sweden there is a remarkable form, nnmed R. 
Idceus maritimtis by Arrhenius, in many respects diflferent from 
the typical form ; its leaflets are thick and plicate, like those of E. 
fruticosus, L. What has now been said is enough to show that R. 
Idceus, L,, is a very variable species, but that its variability is limited 
in this way, that no forms connecting it with the other species now 
living in Europe are produced by its means. 

A glance at the influence which climate exercises on the 
production of forms in the genus Ruhus also appears to show 
that R. Idceus, L., does not belong at all to the same type 
as the other European species. In the North of Europe 
glabrous forms with thin green leaves prevail, in the East 
glandular, and in the South white-felted forms {Ruhi discolores and 
tomentosi). On the shores of Western Europe are also found many 
glandular forms, produced by the influence of the oceanic climate ; but 
these do not appear to be quite identical with the glandular forms of 
the East of Europe (comp. E. Areschoug, " Om de Skandinaviska 
Rulus formerna af gruppen CwylifoliV (" On the Scandinavian forms 
of the group Corylifolii'') in Bot. Notiser, 1871, IS'os. 5 and 6). The 
forms {R. mlerecti and corylifoUi) whose exterior organisation is best 
accommodated to the climate of the North of Europe, and which for 
that reason are prevalent in that region, are marked _ by glabrous 
stems, large, thin, and green leaves, and generally by their disposition 
to be very few-flowered. Only when growing in places exposed to 
the sun do mili corylifoUi become white-felted like the forms from 
southern countries. The Ruhi glandulosi and tomeniost, which 
are to be found, for instance, in Sweden, probably migrated mto 
that country after they had already got their typical form. But 
these species have also in a manner been forced to accommodate them_- 
Belres to the climatic conditions of that country, and appear, even it 
growing on exposed spots, to have undergone the same change as that 
Which in their native countries is the eff-ect of shade. The thm and 
Sreen leaves, which are characteristic of Ruh from the North of 
Europe, promote transpiration, so nccessaiy for nutrition. At a low 
temperature, and in a humid atmosphere, the tiuck white-felted 
leaves would hinder that process. Now E. JdcBUs L., usually has the 
leaves white-felted on the under-side, and covered with stellate hairs 
above, characteristics of the Mhi discolores and tomentosi prevailmg 
m the South of Europe ; but bythejhinn ess and the large surface ot 

• Babintrton (Brit Rubi d 46) does not believe that K. Idceus anomalus 
Of Arrh:ffirtl.?rame ff™ '^ k Z...V. Bab M ^ i?^^^^:^^^^^^^^ 
of seeing specimens of the form named by Arrhenius himself, I can posiUvely 

wsert that these names are synonymous. 



t 



112 ON EUBXJS ID^tJS. 



its leaves it reminds us of the northern forms. Thus, if we were to 
judge from its characters, it should belong to the South of Europe, 
•which, however, is not the case. In the South of Europe we meet 
with this species only in woody mountain tracts, whilst in the North 
it is very common, even in the most northern part of Norway, where, 
as Wahlenberg (Flora Lapponica, p. 146) tells us, it is ** omnium 
vulgatissiraus.'* 

When I had become acquainted with the influence which a 
northern climate exercises on the general character of the fruticose 
Brambles in Europe, it was for a long time an insoluble problem to 
me how H, IdceuSy L., though its whole exterior organisation betrayed 
the traces of the influence of a southern climate, could be most com- 
■ mon in the North of Europe. A more extensive knowledge, however, 
of extra-European forms has solved this seeming contradiction. For 
this species did not originally have its home in Europe, but its origin 
is to be found in the East of Asia, viz., Japan and the adjacent 
countries, or perhaps in North America. The species which are most 
nearly related to it are at present to be found in the last-mentioned 
region of the world. Many of the North American Ruhi are marked 
by their fruit separating from the receptacle, and by their bark scaling 
oflf from the stem, as is the case in R. IdcEus^ L. {e.g. R, odoratus^ L., 
R. JVutkanuSjMoc;,^ R. deh'ciosus, Torr., R, strigosm^ Michx., R. horealis, 
Spach., R.occidentaliSyJj.j R, leucodermis, Dough, R.spedahilisj'PviTsh..). 
This last-mentioned character seems to mark all the North American 
species whose fruit separates from the receptacle, and I believe this to 
be of such importance that I consider all these species to belong to the 
same group, which I call the North American type.* That group in- 
cludes species as well with simple leaves as with pinnate or quinate 
ones, and its species are not only found in the northern part of North 
America, but also in the South— for instance, in Mexico {R. trilohus, 
Mo^ et Serr.).. ^ However, it must not be imagined that all the North 
American Rubi belong to this group, for there are also species of 
some other types, among which one is very closely related to our R^ 
suherectusy Ands., viz., R. 'cilloms, Ait. The resemblance between 
R, IdiBuSy L., and the species of the North American type is not 
limited to the mode of separation of the fruit and the bark. The 
cnmson or amber colour of the fruit which marks R, IdcBUS, L., and 
separates this species from all the other European Ruhi, is also found 
in some North American species. It is true, to be sure, that 
reports about the colour of the fruit in all extra-European Ruhi are 
very unsatisfactory ; but in the Flora of North America by Torrey and 
Gray it is indicated that the fruit of some other North American 
specks besides those of R. Idceus, L., are red or yellowish (R. odaraius, 
L., R. spectahlis, Pursh.). R. Nutkanns, M09., has the fruit red, but 
I do not know whether it is ever yellowish. It is also not very un- 
common m the North American species to find a downy fruit, and 
erect stamens aU of equal heic^ht and arranged in a rlnsP^ vArticillus 



_ — , «^,..,w^ u^ jouicmuereu maii mere is one species in ^ 

America £ ursmus. Cham, et Schl, that has a bark scaling off from 

tJ'h^^^^'^^i'^^ thereceptfcle (Torr. 

Asa Gray, Flora of North America, p. 456). ^^^^y^ v 



ON ET7BTTS ID^US. 113 

w 

{R spectahilts, Pursh.), The barren stem of our species is not seldom 
somewhat flexuous, which is scarcely the case with any of the othe* 
European species (excepting the very different £, Guntheri, Whe.), 
but occurs in some species of the North American type {e.g., R, NuU 
lanm, M05., M, veliitinus, Hook, et Am., R. spectabilis, Pursh.). In 
consequence of this peculiarity and the pale^brown colour of its bark, 
not found in the other European species, the stems of J? Id(BU8yl^\ 
when deprived of their leaves become very like those of some i^orth 
American species {R, Nutlanm, M09., R, spedahilis, Pursh.). 

There are, however, three North American species especially— viz., 
Rstngosus^ Michx.,^. lorealis, Spach., and^. occidentalism L,— which 
have a very strong resemblance to our species. The two first* 
mentioned especially have so close a relationship to R. Umm, L., that 
they may perhaps be considered rather as varieties of it than as distinct 
species; and R. occidentalism L., has many important characters of -ft. 
mmusy L., such as— not to repeat the ^peculiarities characterising the 
Ji^rth American type — the erect stems," glaucous at the base ; the 
often pinnate leaves, white-felted on the'urider-side ; the downy fruit ; 
and lastly, the habit. Some authors have even combined this species 
with R. Idctus^ L. R. occidentalism^ L», is marked by its dark-coloured 
imit ; but according to Arrhenius, the variety maritimus of R: 



The 



fruit 



varii 



NutJcanus^ Mog.). 
There can th 



typ 



Idmis. 



lucre closely related to certain North American species than to any of 
the European ones. It now remains to try to discover whether this 
Bpecies is descended from any form still Hving in North America, or 
^hether it had its origin in some other region of the world. If the 
first supposition had the better foundation, it would be probable that 
our species had developed itself from R.striffosuSy Michx., or jB. borealis, 
Spach., and that during its spread over Asia and Europe it had by 
degrees been changed into R, Idceus^ L. Neither the great distance 
between the old and the new continents, nor the vast territory over 
''^nich that species in such a case had to pass before it reached Europe, 
^ould in the least degree affect the probability of such a supposition. 
^oritis very probable that the Asiatic and North American floras 
have reciprocally mixed with each other by passing Behring's Straits 
^d the islands which in its neighbourhood form a bridge between the 
t^o continents. In confirmation of such an opinion we may 
^efer to the fact that in the Scandinavian peninsula we find a 
great many non-arctic plants which have spread as far as North 
America (comp. F. W. C. Areschoug, " Bidrag till den Skand. 
y.egetationens Historia'* (" Contributions to the History of the Scan- 
^mavian Vegetation"), in " Acta Universitatis Lundensis," 1866^ : and 
^ the other hand, there are many plants growing in Europe 
^ave probably migrated hither from North America by Asia 
S ^2v^ liow in consideration is known to be spread over th( 
J^rth of Europe and Asia, even as far as to Mandschuria and 
JMs no obstacle of that sort to the view of its migration from 

■^«ierica seems to arise. - - 

I 



which 
The 



.-^ 



114 ON KUBUS IB-EUS. 

But, on the other hand, the North American Muli themselves appear 
to trace their origin from Japan and the north-east of !Asia, whence 
North America has received so very large a proportion of its vegeta- 
tion* . Except R. sfngosus.^ Michx», there are, however, in these part* 
of Asia no Utihi quite identical with the North American forms, 
though some growing in Japan have so close a relationship to them 
that they may indeed he considered as modified forms. This is 
particularly the case with the simple-leaved Huhi^ from which forms 
those with divided leaves have heen probably developed (comp, Focke, 
** Die synthetische Methode in der Systematik " in the '* Jenaischen 
Zeitschnft fiir Med. und Naturwiss.,'* v., p. 107). Thus the Japanese 
species, M. trifiduSy Thunb., R. palmatus, Thunb., and R. Wrightii, 
A.Qn, very closely resemble R, odoratus, L., and R. H/utkanus, M09., 
though I have had no opportunity of learning whether their bark 
scales off from the stem and their fruit separates from the receptacle. 
On the other hand, there are in Japan, besides R. IdcBUs^ L., many other 
forms — e.g.y R. Coreanus^ Miq., R. Thunhergii^ Sieb. et Zucc, R- 
Oldhamu, Miq., and particularly R. pTioemcolasius^^^^wGZ.y and JE- 
strtgosusj Michx., which much resemble our species. 

I therefore believe it to be very likely that R. IdcEUS, L., as well as 
the North American forms most closely related to it, have their origin 
from species which primitively grew in Japan and adjacent countries. 
The variety anomalus, Arrhen., appears by its simple leaves either to 
point back to the form from which R. IdmuSj L., is descended, or 
perhaps to be the primitive form itself. At present it is impossible to 
decide which of these hypotheses is the more probable. Not un- 
frequently also in other RuU one may find some leaf or other the 
form of which seems an accidental modification of the normal one, 
and which is probably to be considered as a return to the form of 
leaf which characterised the primitive species. Thus, for example, in 
R. glanduhsus, Bell., I have seen leaves on the flowering shoots which 
were simple and lapped, and very much resembled in form those of 

species from the Himalayas. These Himalayan species, indeed, 
m many other respects so nearly approach R. glandulosus, Bell., that it 
does not seem improbable to me that this species derived its origin 
from some one among them. Perhaps such a return has become con- 
stant m R. Id^eus, L,, var. anomalus ; but it is also possible that this 
vanety is the primitive form, as has already been observed. Focke 
{ Ueber R. Lee%ii, Bab." in Jenaisch. Zeitschr., b. L, p. 127) beUeves 
It somewhat improbable that this form should be the representative of 
a species about to become extinct, because it commonly grows in 
cultivated places where it can sc&rcely be protected. He supposes it 
to be a fom which is developing itself into a species, and which in 
doing so has, with respect to its leaves, returned to the primitive 
lorm. However this may be, the variety seems to prove that iZ- 
l<k£m L., is descended from some older form with simple leaves, and 
such foms are common both in Japan and in North America, 

V ii *t ^f *;^^stance8 now related seem to me to render it very 
probable that the species in question, together with its relations, has 



many 



Joum, 



[^cf. Jaurn, J?o/.] 



Zeitach. 



RECEITP 



115 



growing 



n^iortoTif ^ 1. • "*v" oiixx^xc icavua tttui gruwiug in ti apan or 

sti 1 IMn^r ^'^'•*°'' P^^^P' ^^^ ^^*^°<^<^' t^«»gh related to the forms 



JannS^f^r-^ According to Maximowicz (Diagn. brev. plant, nov. 
fe\ '* ^^^'^l^^"^^ in BuU. del' Acad. im^. des so. de St. 

the latter being by him considered as a variety of R. U%m, L., gro^ 
in Japan and Mandschuria. From these countries R. strigosus, Michx., 

IsJl.? '"'!t-*'''^'^^' *^^ ^^^^ ^' f^^ a« the Altai, has spread 
eastward over the northern part of North America, while R. IdJs. L., 

fnf n "^i^^^^^ *«,^ar<Js the West, over the North and Middle of Asia 

q.lo^- ^T.P^Tf^?'"^°^^^t^<^ an<i '•e^sed by the Author from the 
Swedish "Botaniska Notiser," 1872, pp. 168-181.] 



^ * 



RECENT ADDinONS TO THE FLORA OF IRELAND. 



Jane 



^ 

Br Alex. G. More, F.L.S., M.R I.A. 



the 10 th of 
2 Science, 



^ a paper read before the Royal Irish Academy on t 

DD S^roq^^tPt.""*^^^'^ the " Proceedings" vol. l, set.. o..«uce, 
adriif- i'-\^'^''^ brought together as far as possible the various 
TaSk^^ ^^. ^^^^ ^^^° °^^<^« *" our^no^vledge of the localities and 
distribution of the native plants of Ireland, as drawn from the infor- 
mation which has accumulated in the hands of Dr. Moore and myself 
ince 1866 when our book, the " Contributions towards a Cybele 

JJ-iDernica, was published. The foUowing abridgment embraces 
ne more important plants and localities, as well as some additions 
and corrections : 

SUMMAEY OF ADDITIONS. 

Vhdouhted Natives — 8. 

Trifolium glomeratum. SaKx Grahami. 

1. subterraneum. Draha rupesfris. 

ocirpus parvulua. Galmtn cruciatum. 

Aira uliginosa. Pyrola rotundifolia. 

Iri h t *^r^® ^^®^» printed in italics, have already been recorded as 
w* J , ^ ^^^^ we did not consider that there was sufficient autho- 
rity for their admission. 



« 



Natives^ hid dovhtful as species — 4, 

^alictnim Kochii. Epilobium tetragonum (verura). 

ttieracium tridentatum. Potamogeton Lonchites. 

r 

Plants probably introduced — 3. 

Erysimum cheiranthoides. Mentha sylvestris. 

Tamus communis. 

but w ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^\Q already been admitted by Mackay and others, 
we are now for the first time able to give satisfactory localities. 

I 2 



116 EECENT ADDITIONS TO THE FLOBA OF IRELA:M), 

m 

Plants certainly introduced, hut well established in the wild state — 3. 

F 

Acorus Calamus. Hippophae rliamnoides. 

Cuscuta Trifolii (Colonist). 

Casuals — i.e.j plantslcertainly introduced unintentionally "by man, 
and which cannot be considered permanent additions to the Flora, as 
they have not yet sufficiently established themselves, and some of 
them are likely to disappear from the few localities in which they 
have been observed — 14. 

Cardamine impatiens. Valerianella carinata. 

Brassica adpressa. Crepis setosa. 

Berteroa incana Centaurea paniculata. 

Malva horealis. Carduus setosus. 

Geranium nodosum. Campanula rapunculoides. 

G- phseum. Mentha Eequienii. 

Oxalis stricta. Cynosurus echinatus. 

We have thus 32 plants, which, after deducting Casuals and 
few that have hefore been borne on the Irish List, will leave from 12 
to 15 to he rectoued as genuine additions to the Flora. Still, this 
hardly increases the total number, since on the other hand 10 plants 
must be deducted, viz. : 

Species to he removed from the list. 

BraBsica oleracea. Not native, and nowhere well estahlished. 

Genista tinctoria. iN'ot now to be found at Killiney. Some error- 

Chrysosplenium altemifolium. Thought to have been planted 
near Belfast, and we fear that the other stations are erroneous. 

Campanula latifolia. C. Trachelium mistaken for it, 

Arctium majus. Identification uncertain, as the only specimen 
is imperfect. 

Calamintha Nepeta. "Was C. officinalis. 

Chenopodium intermedium. Was probably C. murale. 

Salix procumhens. Was S. phylieifolia. 

Potamogeton lanceolatus. Was a form of P. polygonifolius. 

Eriophorum alpinum. Some error or change of specimens. 

The following are some of the more important of the localities 
recently discovered. The numbers refer to the districts employed in 

our hook, and it is to he understood that whpuftvpr fhf^ l^tfor 11 /'rJis- 



Province 



an 



Thaltctrum Kochiiy Fries. D. 8. Shores of Lough Conn, Mayo; 
A. G. M. 

T. flexuosum^ Bemh* D. 1. Islands in the lower Lake of Kil- 
lamey; A. G. M. 

Ranunculus pseudo-fluitaM^ Syme. 12. Eiver Bush and Eiver 
Bann ; S. A. Stewart and E. Tate. Mr. W. P. Hiem refers the plant 
from Chapelizod to his form '*-R. penicillatus'^ of Dumortier, this 
differing from the restricted pseudo-fluitans hy producing floating 
leaves. 

R. acrisj L. The mountain form appears to be R. Friesianus^ 
Jordan, and was gathered lately on Ben Bulben, Slieo. bv D. M. and 



J 



IRELAND. ' 117 



w 



Pm 



plant 



>erton, A. G. M. The 
rdan. 

5. On 'sandy banks at 
W. T. Dyer and A. 



Baldoyle, with both white and yellow sap 

Meeonopsts camhrica, Vig. D. 10. Ballyskeagh hill, Tyrone ; Dr. 
Sigerson. 

Obs. Cardamine impatiens, Linn. Dr. E. P. Wright has drawn 
my attention to a specimen gathered by the Rev. W. M. Hind at 
Shane's Castle, and preserved in the British Herbarium at Trinity 
College, from which it appears that Mr. Hind's record of this species 
m the " Phytologist " was quite correct ; but our careful correspon- 
dent, Mr. S. A. Stewart, has not succeeded in discovering the plant, 
and thinks, from the nature of the locality, that it may have been in- 
troduced. Hence we feel compelled for the present to leave its claims 
to a place in the Irish Flora undecided. 

t Sisymbrium Sophia, L. 5. Sandhills by the creek at Donabate, 
and on the south shore of the estuary below Drogheda ; possibly intro- 
duced in all the Irish localities ; A. G. M. 

* Erysimum cheiranthoides, L. D. 7. In cultivated land and waste 

ground along the road for two miles between Parsonstown and 

Portumna, in Galway, and in the adjoining part of Tipperary ; M. 
Dowd. 

[Alyssum calycinum, L. Eediacovered at Portmamock by Mr. H. 
C. Hart in 1867, and observed growing there sparingly in two small 

fields from 1868 to 1872.] 

Drala rupestris, E.Br. D. 9. Verv sparingly on tlie north side 
of Ben Bulben, 1871 ; D. M. and W. T. Dyer (see Journ. Bot. ix., 
P- 299). Eecorded in Withering's Bot. Arr., ed. 8., by Mr. E. 
Murphy as found by him in Leitrim and Sligo ; D. incana having 
probably been gathered. 

D. incana, L. D. 8. In great luxuriance on the southern shores 
of Lough Mask ; F. J. Foot 

CocMearia anglica, L. D. 4. In a salt marsh near Ferrycarnck 
fridge, on the estuary of the Slaney ! J. Morrison. D. 6. ? I^ear Lime- 
rick, leaves only ; I. Carroll. 10. ? At Cloghcor, on the banks of the 
%le, but not in fruit ; Dr. Sigerson. The Irish plant is identical 
^th C. anglica as found in the north-west of England, and differs con- 
siderably from the var. didyma which occurs in the South of England. 
Only C. officinalis grows on Killiney Hill. ^ -r • t c 

_ Helianthemum guttatum, illlL D. 8. Abundant on Innisbofin 
island. Mayo; (W. McMillan) S. A. Stewart. 

, Viola lutea,L. D. 4. On the banks of the Kmg'a Eiver, near 
lackan, Wicklow ! H. W. D. Dunlop. D. 10. In theraountainous 
country near Bealy borough (Bailieborough) ; Annot. m IhrelkcW, 
apud E. I. A. The plant of the sandhills at Eoundstone belongs rather 
to V. Curfisii, and we now include under V. Curfim the sandhiU 
Pansies of the whole coast, except Lahinch and Miltovm in tiare. 

t Acer campestre. L. D. 9. Hodges about Shgo ; D- M. _ 

Oeranium pratense, L. 12. Dunluce Castle, and all the no^h 
part of Antrim: About Ballintoy ; R- Templeton, MS On blown 
^^ at Port Braddon • R. Tate. Mr. Tate has confirmed the accuracy 



Jll 



118 BECENT ABDirrONS TO THE FLOEl OF IBBLAND. 






of Mr. Templeton's observations, and has found Q.pratense mnchmore 
frequent ttan Q. sylvaticum on the north coast. 

I 6. pi/renaicum, L. D. 2. Roadside near Charlerille, and a single 
plant in a pasture-field near Middleton; Eey, T. Allin. 6. Eoadside 
banks near the Hill of Tara, Meath ; A. G. M, 

(7. rotundtfoliumf L. D. 5, Eediscovered in 1867 on some old 
walls at Glasnevin ! D. Orr. 

Linum angustifoUumy Huds. D, 3. Kear Kilkenny ; "W. Archer. 
D- 6. Meadows between Woodford and Lough Derg; M. Dowd. : 

Vlex (nanus) GalUiy Planch. Ascends above 2000 feet on Carn 
Tual, to 1500 or 1600 onMangerton, thus ranging much higher in the 
West of Ireland than in England ; A. G. M. 

Obs. Genista tinctoria^ L. Has not been rediscovered in the only 
locality given by Mackay, and we much fear that a dwarf and pro- 
cumbent state of Sarothamnus scoparius which grows on Killiney Hill 
and Howth has been mistaken for it- 

[Medicagofalcatay L. Portmamoct ; Flor. Hib. , but not seen recently. 
Terminus, York Street, Belfast ; W- Millen, Evidently introduced. 
This was intentionally omitted in our book, as having no claim to be 
considered established.] 

TrifoUum Bcabrum^ L. D. 2. Sands at Fanisk, Toughal ; Bev. T. 
Allin. D. 4. Near Newcastle and Killoughter, Wicklow ; A. G- M. 
Between Kilcool and Grey stones ; H. C. Hart. It is this species rather 
than jT. striatum which has been mistaken for T. maritimum in Ireland. 

T, glomeratum^ L, D, 4. By the riverside near the railway station 
at Wicklow, growing with T. suhterraneum, 1869; D. M. (see Joum* 
Bot. viii., p. 192). 

T. suhterraneumj L. D. 4, By the riverside at Wicklow, June, 
1867 ; A. G. M. (see Joum Bot. vi., p. 208). 

Sayiguisorla officinalis^ L. iN'ear Carnlough, Antrim ; W. Hancock. 

Agrimonia odorata^ Mill. D. 4. Near Enniskerry ; A. G. M. D- 8. 
Tery fine near Clifden, Connemara ; never seen by me on the limestone, 
where A, Eupatoria seems to take its place ; A, G. M. 

Ipilohium tetragonum^ L. (typical). D. 2. On the east side of 
the county of Cork ! (Bev* T. Allin) W. T. Dyer. D. 6. By the 
roadside west of Carrickmines ! Prof. A. Dickson. These are the 
only localities at present known, 

Lepigcnum rulrum, Fries. D, 4. Strand at Ballyconigar ! Wex- 
ford; J. Morrison. On Vinegar Hill! H. Robinson. 12. South-east 
shore of Lough Beg, near Toome ; S. A. Stewart. This seems quite 
rare in Ireland. 

Saxifraga BircuIw^L. D. 3. Bogs near Mountrath, Queen's 
County ; J. Morrison. 

S. aizoidesy L. D. 11. In a gully on the north side of Slieve 
League, Donegal ! H. W. D. Dunlop. 

S. granulata, L. D. 4. On the sandhills south of Mizen Head, 
Wicklow ; D. M. Brittas, 1866 ; J. Morrison. D, H). On the mound 
at Eathtrillick, Armagh; S. A. Stewart. 12. Plentiful in Belvoir 
Park; Belfast Nat. Field Club Report, 1871. 

Eedera Helix, L. The so-called " Irish '^ Ivy has not yet been 
found growing in any place where it can be considered native. The 
Ivy of Kerry and Aran is only typical S. Belix. Our var. Hodgensii 



a 



BECEXT ADDITIOXS TO THE frtOEA OP IBELAin). 119 

agrees so closely with the cultivated ^. digitata of Lodd. Cat. that it is 
probably only a garden escape. 

Galium eruciatum^ L. D. 12. This plant was recorded in the 
" Antient and Present State of the County of Down," 1757, as occur- 
ring then "among the rubbish of the Cathedral of Downpatrick";- 
and the authority ^* Is. Butler," showing the probable author, is 
added as a note in a copy of Threlkeld belonging to the Eoyal 
Irish Academy. It was rediscovered about 1842 by Professor 
J. E. Hodges, at the bottom of a field adjoining the marshes near the 
Cathedral, and on the side of the old Eath ; as we learn from a 
letter addressed to W. Thompson, in June, 1842, and for the know- 
ledge of which we are indebted to our active correspondent, Mr, 
S. A. Stewart. Again gathered in 18C8, by the Eev. W. E. ITul- 
gan, who has observed it for the last few years growing in a field 
near Downpatrick Cathedral (see Journ. Bot. viii., p. 80). D. 10. 
Plentiful in boggy ground by the side of a small lake at Colebrooke, 
Fermanagh, 1869 (found by Mr. T. 0. Smith); H. C. Hart 

G. uliginosum, L, D. 7. On a bog near Multyfamham, West- 
mcath, sparingly, 1871 and 1872; D. M. D. 12. In the county of 
Antrim ; Rev. W. M. Hind (in Herb. Trinity College) ; Dr. E. P, 
Wright. 

[Valertanella carinata, Lois. D. 10. Abundant onhedgebanks for 
mile along a by-road crossing Holy wood Hill, near Dundonald, Co, 
Down; S. A Stewart, 187L If permanent in this locality it will 
deserve to be considered a *' Colonist *' ; for the present it ranks as a 

" Casual" only.] 

Diotis maritima, Casa. D. 4. Near Camsore Point, "Wexford; 
(John Waddy) Syme's Engl. Bot. 

Artemisia maritimaj L. 5. Estuary of the Boyne below Drogheda j 
A. 6. M.' Dundalk! 1868 ; J. Marsden. 

* S. squalidus, L. Mr. Carroll continues to find the supposed, 
liybrid S, sgualido'Vulgaris about Cork, and has no doubt as to the 
parents. 

SenecioJacola^a.L. Var. without rayed florets. SJoscuIosus J ori. 
On several parts of the coast, but local. D. 1. Ferriter's Cave, Kerry ; 
A.G. M. D. 2. Near Tramore, Waterford; J. AVoods in ^'Phytolo- 
gist." D. 4. l^ear Churchtown, Wexford; (J- Waddy) Syme'sEngl. 
-Bot. D. 5. Sandhills between Gormanstown and Maiden Tower, m 
inany places; A. G. M. 6. In Great Aran; D. Oliver. -F^equent^ 
^ Aran, but the ordinary form occurred in one field only ; H. t. 
Sart. B. 8, On several islands off Connemara, and in the MuUet, 
^ayo ; A. G M 

, OhH. Arckum mams, Schk. Mr. AUin has not succeeded in finding 
this plant in the county of Cork, and we have as yet seen no Insh 
epecimens. Prof. C. C. Babington informs me that his specimen is 
too imperfect to be considered quite satisfactory. 
^ ^. m;.m.^mm, Lange. A. mihens, Bah. D. 6. In the Isles of 
^^rx ; H, 0. Hart. 12. Common on the coast of Antrim, where A. 
^^ntis has not been observed; R. Tate- 

L 

( To be concluded in the next number.) 



121) NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



I >^ 






A' 



I 



41 

^ SynopBis of the British Mosses^ containing descriptions of all the 
Genera and Species (with localities of the rarer ones) found in Great 
Britain and Ireland, based npon "Wilson's Bryologia Britanniea, 
Schimper's Synopsis, &c. By Chas, P. Hobkiek. London : Keeve 
and Co. 1872. (Small 8vo, pp. 196.) 

This little book is well printed and elegantly got up, and to . a 
student who is already pretty well acquainted with the subject^ no 
doubt will be useful for ready reference to the essential characters of 
any species that may be under observation. The author in his pre- 
face tells us that though his work is mainly a compilation, yet 
"nearly every species has been carefully examined under the micro- 
scope before being described," and the characters compared with 



published descriptions. 



analysis 



occupying twenty pages, in which, besides the more important cha- 
racters derived from the fruit and its parts, trivial ones — e.ff.^ the 
monoicous or dioicous position of the inflorescence, annual or perennial 
duration, &c. — are also introduced. Following these come the descrip- 
tions of species, but without any indications of the natural groups or 
families under which the genera are now univerally arranged, some of 
which, indeed, are as well marked as natural orders of Phgenogamous 
plants. In these descriptions Wilson's book is closely followed, about 
one hundred additional species being added, the characters of which 
have been taken from various publications. 

A few critical remarks s^em necessary. Gymnostomum is retained 
as a genus, yet the species calca/reum and commutatum are placed in 
Wetseia; these can only be so arranged by those bryologists who regard 
the genus Gymnostomum as a heterogeneous collection of species, more 
naturally referred to other genera vrith which they agree in every 
particular but the presence of a peristome, Dicranella is still retained 
as a section of Bicranum^ though a truly natural genus admitted by 
all modem authors ; on the contrary, Anacalypta s^to^ndi^ as a genus, yet 



MiiUer 



unite 



Pottw,. The species P, latifoUa cannot be considered a B: 
and Bidymodon Jenneri and AncBctangium Hornsehuchianum should also 
have been omitted. Ba/rtramia gracilis, Floerke, cannot take prece- 
dence of £. Oederi, Swartz 1800, Swartz having adopted Gunner's 
name, Bryum Oeder i {SXoia. mi*Vegica, 1772). Fissidens polyphyllus \a 
incorrectly referred to the West Indian F. asphnioides. Leucodon 
Zayurtis, 0., is quite?different from that Moss, and belongs to Schimper'a 
genus, Myurium. Zesha sericea cannot be removed far from its ally, 
Hypmm lutescens, and neitber it nor rufescens nor subrufa have any 
affimty with true Leskeas. Thuyidium, Thamnium, andPlayiotheeium 
certainly deserve a higher position than as sections of Hypnum. 
Bypnum Stohstt is not distinct from IT. prcelongum ; H. sulcatum and 
M. Breadalhanmse are, doubtless, only forms of commutatum ; and If. 
arcuatum, Lmdb., is the same as H. Lindbergii, Mitt. A third species 



i^ 



, PKOCEEDIWQS OP SOCIETIES. l21 

of Fontinalia, F. gracilis^ Lindb., ia omitted* Dichelyma is a very 
doubtful native. 

On the whole, while recogTiieing the usefulness of the present 
contribution to British Muscology, we are inclined to think that 
students of that branch of Botany are likely to feel that it only partially 
fulfils their wants, and will'still look forward to a work where all our 
Mosses shall be fully described and adequately illustrated. A. B, C. 



The Botanist's Pocket-Book, containing in a tabulated form the chief 
characteristics of British Plants. By W. E. Saywaed. London: 
1872. (SmaU 8yo, pp. 198.) 

This, as its name indicates, is intended as a companion for the 
botanical collector in the field, and the author has therefore endea- 
voured to compress his material into the smallest possible space. This 
part of his purpose he has accomplished very satisfactorily, and gives 
us a little volume, less than half an inch thick, which professes 
to contain the diagnostic characters of all the British Phsenogamous 
plants. This is effected by the nse of a small clear type and nume- 
rous contractions. Each spqcies occupies a single line of print across 
the two opposite pages ; the left-hand one contains the names, situa- 
tion, time of flowering, colour, and other similar particulars, whilst 
on the right-hand page we find the distinguishing characters. The 
order and classification followed is that of the "London Catalogue," 
with a few alterations, and most of the segregates are included and 
characters given for their discrimination. So far as can be judged 
from^ a rather superfici^^ examination, the diagnoses seem framed with 
considerable care and jud;;ment, the characteristics having been well 
selected and contrasted. Keys to the orders and genera are prefixed. 
A certain knowledge of British Botany being premised in those who 
consult the book, it is likely to prove useful for reference in the field; 
but of course it is only actual use that can test its value as a trustworthy 
companion. A rather large number of misprints in the spelling of the 
botanical names will require revision if the pocket-book should reach 
a second edition, H. T. 






IiTOEAN Society . —Ifeeemhr 19th, 1872.— Mr. W. G. Smith ex- 
Hbited a specimen of Batarrea phalloides, one of four fouad m 
the Earl of Egmont's grounds near Epsom, and commented on the 
great rarity of the plant.* He gave some details of its structure, 
especially as regards its so-called spiral vessels, and also referred to 
Its position in relation to other Fungi, e.g., Gl 



showing all stages ot 



growth being exhibited. Mr. Currey made some remarks on the spiral - 
fibre ceUs and true wood-cells of Batarrea, and remarked upon the 
long intervals which intervene between the appe arances of the plant , 

^ • This species, hitherto very Uttle, if at all, kno wn out of Engird, has been 
recenUy found near Naples by Prof. H. de Cesati.-[£rf. Journ. Bot.\ 



123 PKOCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

referring them to meteoric causes. The following papers were read: 
" On the Development of the Flowers of Welwitschiay^^ by Prof. 
W. E. McNab, communicated by Dr. Hooker. The male flower con- 
sists of four whorls of decussating parts, two outer perianth-leaves 
alternating with two inner, two primordial stamens each subsequently 
branching into three, and two (anterior and posterior) carpeUary 
leaves, including, and afterwards developed considerably beyond, the 
jpunctum vegetationis. The female flower consists of two (lateral) 
outer parts, at first thought by Dr. McNab to be perianth-leaves, but 
subsequently determined to be carpeUary, and the punctum vegetationis 
(nucleus of ovule) surrounded by a continuous ovular investment, 
Strasburger's recently published observations generally accord with 
these independently worked out details, but he differs in considering 
the stamens^to form two whorls, one of two and the other of four. 
Dr. Masters brought forward for discussion some general principles 
of Morphology ; he proposed to group all the various forms of organs 
in some such manner as the following, under which he thought the 
great majority of cases of variety in growth and development might 
be included ; — Arrest, Exaltation and Perversion ; in relation to Com- 
position, Number, Arrangement, JForm, Time, and Size. In the dis- 
cussion which followed, a general opinion was elicited that it was 
inexpedient to alter existing terminology when well e^ablished, even 
where the terms in common use convey incorrect and generally 
abandoned views. 

I 

January \&th, — The following papers were read: — ''Note 
on the genus Nemocladus of Nuttall," by G. Bentham, Pre- 
sident.—*' Note on Ternstromia Khasyana^ Choisy," by Prof. 
Thiselton Dyer ; shown by examination of the type to be identical 
with Illieium Griffithii, H.f. et T. — *' On the Recent Synonyms of 
Brazilian Ferns," by J. G. Baker. The author considered that a 
large number of the new species in Fee's recent monograph were 
established on very insufficient grounds ; out of about 180 described 
by that author, Mr. Baker could not admit more^than about a tenth part. 
He exhibited a series of authentic specimens from Dr. Glaziou, of 
Rio, where Fee's large herbarium is now located, and gave a list 
showing to which old-established species he referred the proposed 
novelties. — Mr.Grote exhibited drawings of branched specimens of 
Cocoanut-palm and Date-palm, 

F:brmry Uh. — "On the Structure and Affinities of the AristoU- 
cJiiacecB^'^ by Dr. M. T. Masters, The author alluded to the wood 
structure, the false stipules, the so-called gynandrous condition, the 
absence of true styles and stigmas, and the arrangements for fertilisa- 
tion. There are no very near allies, the DioseorecB being among the 
nearest. From its isolation,|and from the fact that each of the warmer 
regions of the globe possess a structurally distinct group, the concl u- 
sion was anived at that it was an ancient order in time, though no 
trace of it has been found in the fossil state. Remarks were also made 
on the alleged value of these plants as remedies for snake-bites : the 
remarkable concurrence of testimony on this matter seems to de- 
mand a naore scientific ecrutiny than it has yet received. Dr. 
Hooker pointed out the Cytmece as a group allied to the Aristohchia. 
He said also that the absence of varieties could not^i^r se be considered 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 123 



antiquity 



ancient order, are highly variable. In reference to the use of Aristoh- 
chue in snake-bites, he stated that they, and indeed all such reputed 
remedies, were really but little used in India. Dr. Trimen alluded to 
a new species about to be described by Dr. Hance, which is largely 
employed in China [since published in this Journal, p. 72]. Remarks 
were also made by Mr. Stratton, Prof. Thiselton Dyer, and others. 
Specimens of Guaco and other products from the Kew Museum bear- 
ing on the subject were exhibited. 

February 2Qth. — Mr. "W. Sowerby exhibited specimens of Poin- 
settia, which had fruited for the first time in the Royal Botanic 
Society's Gardens. — " On a New Genus of FodostemacecB,^' by R. A. 
Weddell. The author, who is preparing a monograph of the order 
for the forthcoming yolume of De Candolle's " Prodromus," gave some 
details of the geographical distribution of the order. Only two 
species have been hitherto known from Tropical Africa, one being the 
recently described Anastrophea from Abyssinia, the other the widely 
diffused Tristicha Tiypnoides. The ;new genus is named Anyolaa, and 
was found in Angola, West Tropical Africa, by M. Montero. Drawings 
of the plant accompanied the paper.— Prof. Thiselton Dyer exhibited a 
flower of Zcelia elegans, which was very nearly regular, and possessed a 
remarkable conformation of the column ; the single anther he considered 
to be one of the inner whorl of the hypothetical andrcecium, instead of 
the outer whorl, as is usually the case in the flowers of Orchids.— Mr, 
W. G. Smith showed a drawing of anew Fungus found on the stem of 
a Cycad in Mr. Bull' s N^ursery at Chelsea. It was quite gelatinous, and 
shortly stipitate. Mr. Currey considered it to be a species of Laschia. 

March 6th.—** On the Homology of the Perigynium in Carex and 
Unctnia." By G. Bentham, president. Two principal viewsof the nature 
of this structure have been given. Robert Brown, relying upon its being 
composed of two squama, considered that it represents a penanth, and 
Payer and Schleiden have adopted the same view, after an examination 
of its appearance at a very early stage. Kunth, on the contrary, believed 
It to be formed of a single scale, and to be an ordinary glume subtend- 
ing the female flower on a secondary axis, of which the seta ol many 
species of Carex, and of all the species of Uncima—Vfhich cannot be 
considered as a genus distinct from Carex— h the continuation. ^ It tne 
perigynium is reaUy formed of a single scale, Kunth's view is very 
plausible, but the two keels or principal nerves, which m most species 
end in two points or lobes, are strong evidences of its double nature. 
Kunth explains that circumstance by the suppression of the central 
nerve or keel owing to pressure, of which, however, there is no appear- 
ance in any species examined. Payer states also positively that the 
two are distinct at an early stage, and unite as they grow up ; but 
implicit reliance is not always to be placed upon his hamg 
c early seen the minute microscopic and obscure protuberances he de- 
lineates. Schleiden delineates the two parts of the pengynmm and 
the seta as forming three parts of one whole ; but his drawing is not 
to be depended upon, as he places them in a wrong position ^th rela- 
faon to the axis a£d the subtending glume. Kunth conhrms his ^ le^ s 
l? a comparison with the palea and occasional seta of P^"^"^^^®' ^^^ 
We the position of the two parts in the two orders is by no means 



124 PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES, 



homologoug. Independently of the relation to the other parts of the 
flower, the seta or prolonged axis in Gramineae ia outside the palese, in 
(7fljr^ar inside the perigynium. Indeed, it is prohable that Gramine® 
and Cyperacese are much less closely related than is generally supposed, 
and may he regarded as reductions of very different types of Endogens. 
A stronger confirmation is taken from two South African species of 
Schmnoxiphium (not generically distinct from Cdrex) in which the seta 
occasionally bears a spike of male flowers. This spike appears to be 
sterile, and may he a case of prolification, but requires further in- 
vestigation. If it be a normal spike, we must conclude the perigynium 
or subtending glume to be formed of one scale ; for two opposite scales 
at the base of an alternate inflorescence is a derangement of the ordinary 
course of change from the alternative vegetative organs to the opposite 
or whorled floral organs, which is believed to have no example at least 
in Monocotyledons. If the perigynium is formed of two scales they 
must belong to the floral whorls. They are not subtending bracts 
analogous to the two free bracts of Dtplacrum, or the united ones of 
Hoppia, for in both those cases the female flowers are terminal without 
any other subtending glume, and in Carex the female flower is lateral, 
and the perigynium is within one outer subtending glume. That they 
are two out of three parts of a real perianth is rendered improbable 
by their great development in one sex in an order where it is in aU other 
genera suppressed or rudimentary, and without any trace of it in the 
other sex. The only remaining supposition is that the perigynium and 
seta represent the stamens of the male flowers, and are therefore in fact 
staminodia. The position with relation to the axis and subtending 
glume is the same, and although they are very different in form and 
texture, that difference is much diminished in Uncinia longifolia^ where 
the dilated filaments of the males assume the aspectnearly of the perigy- 
nium of the females. The lobes of the perigynium in Carex mhulata^ and 
occasionally in some Uminim^ have the look of the seta of Uncinia^ and 
in one instance that seta bore a perfect anther. Brown confirmed his 
view of the perianth-nature of the perigynium by a specimen of Carex 
aimta with stamens within the perigynium. This is figured in Boott's 
plate 551, and an examination of beautiful specimens gathered by Mr. 
Spruce in Yorkshire shows, from the position ind structure of the 
stamen-bearing peri^nia, that they are altered female flowers in 
which more or less imperfect stamens replace the carpeUary leaves 
of which the pistil is formed. If this homology of the perigynium 
with the androecium of the male flower is thought plausible, it is still 
floubtful, and the doubt can only be solved by a careful repetition of 
Payer's observations, and a repeated study of the anomalies oiSchmoxt- 
pJiium^ and of those species of Carex in which the seta is variously 
developed, many of the forms delineated in the late Dn Booths 
splendid illustrations of the genus requiring a special study of the 
specimens themselves, and it is hoped that botanists used to micro- 
scopical investigation wiU turn their attention to these disputed points 
*y an examination of the parts in their earliest stages. — Dr. Hooker 
exhibited a case of Araticaria Bidwilli, one of fourteen produced on a 
tree in the Temperate House at Kew * 

A reduced figure of this cone ia given ia the ** Gur Jouera' Chroaiclo " fi>f 
March 15 th. 



110TA>^ICAL KEWS. 125 



i 



55otamfal |5ctD^. 



Abtices in JotrEXALS. 

^ Annales des So, Nat. (ser. 5, torn, xvi., November, T872). — S. 
Sirodot, " Eesearches in the Freshwater Algse of the Family Lemanea- 
c^^," (pi- i. — viii.). — P. vanTieghem,** Memoir on the Secretory Canals 
of Plants."— A. Erongniart, **Eeport on il. Grand'Eury's Memoir, 
* Flore Carbonifere du Dept. dela Loire. ^ " — P. van Tieghem, '' On the 
Different Modes of Nervation of the Ovule and the Seed" (pi. ix. 
xii-)' — E' Janczewski, " The Parasitism of Nostoc lichenoides^''^ (pL 
xiii.), — M. Woronine, "Researches in the Gonidia of Parmelia puU 
nrulenta^'l (pi. xiv.).— P. Duchartre, "Observations on the Bulbs of 
Lilies" (pi. XV. — xvii,). — P. van Tieghem, " Kemarkson a Memoir of 
Dutrochet's ' Sur la Volubilite des Tigcs/ "— Triana and Planchon, 
**Prodromus Florae Nova) Granatensis" (contd.) (Coriarice^ Sahiaeece, 
Connarace(B, Staphyleace<B^ CelastrinecBj Hippocratete^ llicinem^ Rham- 

Bull, de la Soc. Bot. France (torn, xix,, pt. 1). — A. Brongniart, 
" On Psaronim Irasiliensisy — Germain de St. Pierre, " On the Nature 
of Eoots and Rhizomes." — E. Boreau, " Classification of -ff^ywowm^^^ 
by the Structure of their Stems." — A. Riviere^ " Tropical BromeliacecE 
and Orchidece. Hvbridisation of two Lselias from Brazil." — A. Chatin, 
"On the Truffleand its Naturalisation."— E. Roze, "On the Influence 
of the Study of the Myxomycetes on the Progress of Vegetable Physi- 
ology. "_a. Mehu, "Obituary Notice of Jules Fourreau.''— H. A. 
Weddell, " On the Podosfemaeece^ especially their Geographical 
Distribution." — D. Clos, "Questions about Brazilian Plants."— C. 
Permond, " On Double Flowers."— M. Cornu, "Affinities of Mi/xomy- 
cetes and ChytridinecB.'' — E. Cosson, "Descriptio plantarum novarum in 
itinere Cyrenaico a cl. Rohlfs detectarum" ( Viola scorpiuroides, n.s., 
-^stragalus cyrenaieuSj n.s., Anthenm cyrenaica^ n.s., Festuca 
[Scleropoa) Rohlfsiana, n.s.). 

(Tom. xix., pt. 2.)— D. Clos, " Some Researches in Synonymy."— 
A. Viaud Grand-Marais, " Vendean Plant-names, and Use of Burdock 
for Viper-bites."— E. Roze, " On the Fertilisation of the Higher 
Cryptogams, especially Sphagnum'' (pL i.)— G. Planchon, "On 
^tnate Ipecacuanhas."— J. de Seynes, *^ Physiological Expenmentson 
Bmicillium glaucum'' (pL ii. and iii.)— Ph. van Tieghem, "On the 
^leo-Resinous canals of Umlellifem and Araliacece:'—k. Chatm, " On 
the Culture of Morels."— H. Bonnet, "On a New Species of Truffle 
Wer ptperatum £uoha\—L. Brisout de BameriHe, "Additions to 
^talogue of Plants of St. Germain-en-Laye."- V. Payot, " Note on 
^oodsia ilvensts:'—^. Le Grand, " Popular Plant-names of Forez.*'— 
JS. Boudier, "On a Remarkable Anomaly in Agancus macuktm 
(pi. iv.)._M* Cornu, " On the Zygospores of ifz^(?r /«^?>^r, LL— A. 
J^^ongtnirt mi A. Gris, " Revision of the Cunonias of New Caledonia 
{C. Lenormandi, n.s., Balansa, n. 207; C. 5aJ«w*^, n.s., Bal., 
f- 2305, 1084; C. hullata, n.s., Bal., n. 612, 2304).-E Pn^eux, 
Action of Blue Light on the Fo rmation of Starch.''— Ibxd,," Blue 

See Bot Zeitung 1872, 73. . . 



126 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

Colouration of the Flowers of some Orchids under the Influence oi 
Prost." — C. Royer, ''Remarts on the Underground Organs of Lilies." 
Botanish Tidsshrift (1872, parts 1 and 2).— G. Lund, "The 
Calyx of Composite, an Essay on "Unity of Development in the 
Yegetahle World" (with a French translation). 

Pebruart. 

Grevtllea—'K. C. Cooke, "British Fungi" (contd.),— W. A. 
Leighton, " Notes on Hellbom's Lichens of Lule Lapmart." — E. Fries, 
"Critical Notes onW. G. Smith's Mycolorical Illustrations, part 2," 



Hedwigia. 



(contd.)*^ — J. Juratzka, 



** Bryological Notes," 

Botaniska Notiser.—T. M. Fries, " On the Flora of Nova Zembla." 
—P. Olsson, "On the Flora of Jamtland.'' — Swedish Botanical 

literature in 1871. 

Flora, — H.deVries, "Report on the Principal Publications on Botany 
in Holland m 1872/*— H. Wawra, "Notes on the Flora of the Hawaii 
Islands" (contd.) {Lvpoch(Bta Lahain<Sy n.s.). — W. Nylander, " Ohservata 
lichenologica in Pyrenseis orientalibus," — W. Velten, "Movements 
and Structure of Protoplasm." — 0. Bockeler, "Two New Genera of 
CyperaeecE{Sph<^opu^^ S. pygtncea^ New Holland; LasiolepiB^ L, hrevi- 
folia, India ; Z, pilosa and Z. aquatica^ French Guiana). 

Botanische Zeitung. — J. Baranetzky, " On the Periodicity of Bleed- 
ing in Plants, and its Causes/' — E. Strasburger, "Remarks on Lyco- 
podiacemP — Kobne, "On the Genus Cupheay — H. Hoffmann, "On a 
Remarkable Variation." 



}^rr. Bot Zeitschrift. — J. "Wiesner 
Winter."— W. C.Focke, "On t 



Plants." — A. Kerner, 



Plants " (contd.). 



"Wawra, " Sketches of the Voyage of the Bonau^ (contd.).- — R. von. 
TJechtritz, "Notes on Knapp's Pfl. Galiziens" (contd.). 

Nuovo Giorn. Bot.Italiano. — N. Terracciano, " Enumeratio planta- 
rum vase, in agro Murensi sponte nasc." — A, Mori, " Review of 



Italian Naturalists." 



New Boohs. — W 



and Herbaceous Plants" (Longmans, £l Is.). — C. P. Hobkirk, "A 
Synopsis of the British Mosses" (Reeve and Co.^ 7s. 6d.). — C. Koch, 
" Dendrologie," vol. ii. Monopetalae and Apetalae, except CitpuUfera 
(Erlangen). — W. P. Hiem, "A Monograph of Ehenacem (Trans, 
Camb. Philosophical Soc, vol. xii.) 

The new parts of Baillon^s Monographies contain the orders Bixacese, 
Cistacese, Violaceae, Tiliaceae, Dipterocarpeae, ChlgenacesE, and Tern- 
stromiacese. 



Edinburgh 



Society 



plant 



w^hich has been cultivated in the Botanic Garden for upwards of forty 
years. All the characters, including the microscopic structure of the 
stem and root, are well figured. 

In a paper read before the Royal Society on February 27th, and 



BOTANICAL NEWS. 127 



Dr 



Assaming 



r 

printed ia abstract in No. 142 of its "Proceedings," 

discusses the meaning of Phyllotaxis, or leaf-arrangeme_.. „ 

that all hay 6 been derived from one ancestral leaf-order, the author 
considers the distinctions (i) as nearest to the original, and shows by 
experiment how this arrangement will, under different degrees of con- 
traction, with twist, assume successively all the various spiral 
orders that exist, i, |, f , t% &c. He points out that the period at 
which phyllotaxy is most perfect is when the leaves are yet in the bud, 
the object or use being economy of space and avoidance of injury. 

We have received an important contribution to European Mycology 
in the first part of " Icones Selectse Hymenomycetum Hungaria;," 
published by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The author of the 
text is C. Kalchbrenner, of Wallendorf, and the figures are chiefly by 
S. Schultzes, of Miiggeburg, who has devoted many years to the in- 
vestigation of the Fungi of Southern Hungary and Slavonia, and has 
made a large collection of drawings and descriptions. Only new or 
little-known species are admitted into the work ; the descriptions are 
in Hungarian and Latin, in parallel columns, and the general form of 
the book that of Fries' " Icones sel. Hymenom. Sueciee," to which 
it will form a companion volume or continuation. Eastern Europe 
may;: well be expected to yield a rich harvest of new forms ; the 
following are the species described, all of which are figured m the 
ten excellent plates printed in colours which accompany the text;— 
Agaricus {Amanita) aureola, Kalchbr., A. (Am.) cygnea, Schultzes, 
A. {Lepiota) nympharum, K., A. (Lep ) Schultzen, K,, A. {In- 
chehma) macrocephalus, S., A. {TncTi.) psammopus, K., A. Uricti.) 
argyrem, K., A. (Trich.) Centurio, K., A. (Tnch.) lumulosus K_, A. 
{(.liotcybe) trullcefortnis, Fr., A. {Collyhia) atramentosus, K., vl. (Co« ) 
plumipes, K., A. {Coll.) rancidus, Fr., A. (Mycena) <^^fi^f%^-'f: 
{Omphalia) reclinus, Fr., A. (Ompk) cyanophylm,¥r., A. illeurotus) 
sapidus, S., A, (Pleur.j pardalis, S., A. {Phut.) superbius, S. A, 
{Annularia*) Fenzlii, S, and A, {Pluteusy palnctus, S. The 

price of the part, which is published at Pesth,i8 6 fl. austr. (-lis.) 
It is hoped that a second part will appear before the end of the year. 
The instructive address of Prof. Asa Gray, delivered ^st ^'^S^'J 
at the American Association, and of which we extracted the most 
valuable portion (vol. x., p. 309), has been pnnted in a separate form, 

^^ith the addition of all appendix, in ^J^^^^ t^« ^^"^Pfr'^*^^ ^'jXl 
European plants of the Atlantic United States are ranged ^^.^T^^f ^«^ 
column with those identical or strictly representative specie which 
occur (1) in the Pacific United States ip^'Son ovCaMornm)^ 
(2) in mrth-Eastem Asia (Japan to the Altai and ^^J^^^lf^J^ 
tains). By this means the special relations of the fl^J^// f ^f ^ 
Korth America and Eastern Temperate Asia are P.^^^^^^^^^f ^^Jf ' 
whilst we see also that only a third of the species or ^^^^^^^^ 
less peculiar to those regions are represented m ^f g'^^^^^^Jf^^^^^ 
A second table gives those non-European plants of Temperate Eastern 
Asia (only 45 in number) represented identic^Iy or ^TJ.^^^^ °J^^^^^^^^^^ 
tive in Oregon or California, but not in the Atlantic ^f !f f ^,^^^^^^^^ 
list is also given of the principal plants peculiar to the United btatea 
&ni\ w, r _v- V :t.*.^^A f« Tin'nt in another page. 



Equals the subeenua Chanunota, W: G. Smith in Joum, Bot. 




128 BOTANICAL NETVS. 



Three centuries of the new series of the "Herbarium normale," 
now edited by P, Sehultz and F, Winter, have just appeared, two of 
Phanerogams and one of Cryptogams. They contain a very pjood 
set of species, chiefly from France and Germany, hut also from [Den- 
mark, Hungary, the Pyrenees, &c. "We notice a Batrachian Eanun- 
culus, sent under the name of B, confimim^ named B. Langeiy from 
Copenhagen, and very close to that plant- Seneeio divergens, F, Schultz, 
another new name, seems not worth distinction from P. aquaticus. 
Several interesting Hieracia are given, including H. Fritzeiy which 
was described in the " Flora '* last year by F. Schultz. There are also 
some good Carices of the muricata section — C. contigua^^ Eoppe, 
C. Leersiiy F. Schultz ; and Psamma laltica^ from the Island of Bom- 
holm, Accompanying the plants is an instalment of the ** Archives 
de la Flore d'Europe," with a list of species, and notes on the rarities 
and novelties. The price is 25fr. per century. Address : "Dr. F. 
Schultz, a Weissenburg, Alsace." Dr, Schultz is also desirous of 



with notes on many of the species. 
From Prof. Balfour's Benort 



italogu 

norma 



idin 



the 



r 

Eoyal Botanic Garden of 
that the Botanical Society 
library. A room has been 



publications. We are also informed that a guide to the Garden and 
plan of its arrangement have been prepared and are now in the press. 
The Herbarium is still in need of a salaried curator who could devote 
his time to it. 

< Eichard Deakin, M.D., died at Tunbridge Wells on Feb. 18th. 
He was formerly in practice near Sheffield, and printed there his chief 
work, the *' Florigraphia Britannica,'* which came out in numbers 
during the years 1837—1848, and forms four volumes. This con- 
tained figures of all the species, drawn by the author, and was the first 
cheap iUustrated British Flora. He afterwards settled at Torquay, 
and paid some attention to Lichens, describing some new species of 

Verrucaria and Sagedia in the "Annals of Natural History'* for 1854. 
His professional duties took him frequently to the Mediterranean, and 
he spent some years at Borne. His " Flora of the Colosseum,'' published 
in 1855, enumerates no less than 420 species as growing among 
the vast ruins of the Flavian Amphitheatre. In later life Dr. Deakin 
lived at Tunbridge Wells, and published a Flora of that neighbourhood 
in 1871, which was noticed in our volume for that year (p. 251). 

The Herbarium of Mosses of the late W. Wilson has been pur- 
^chased, along with the whole of his original drawings and MSS., 



very 



Department of the British Museum. The 



from all parts of the world, nearly every species being accompanied 
by copious critical notes and drawings ; and, secondly, of a very large 
British coUection, containing^ it is believed, the type series of the 
*' Brrologia Bntannica" ; the whole illustrated by innumerable notes, 
descnptions, and microscopical preparations and drawings— the work 
of a life-time devoted to Muscology. 



129 



(Original ^rtick^. 



ON ErMEX OBTUSirOLITJS. 

Br Hesky Trimek", M.B., F.L.S. 

(Tab. 131.) 

Though few native plants are more familiar than the broad-leaved 
Dock, ubiquitous throughout the country and common enough iu 
. waste ground and gardens in London itself, yet from its very frequency 
it is liable to he constantly passed by without examination. It is, 
therefore, with the object of calling attention to its characters and 
their modifications that I have put together these notes as an ac- 
companiment to Mr. Blair's excellent drawing. 

H. oUusifolius was very well known to the ante-Linnsean botanists, 
and in this country described bv Johnson, Parkinson, Eay, Morison, 
and Buddie. Morison indeed distinguished the two varieties to be 
presently noticed in his Hist. Oxon. (ii., p. 580), and I believe is the 
only English author who has done so. All the botanical writers in 
this country since the establishment of the Linnean system have 
described onlv the usual form of R. oltusifolhis v-^-- ^^-^ ""--^ 



In 1822, in his ' 



W 



Shortly after, Eries in his "Ifovitia)" (ed. 2, p. 98) gave reasons for 
believing this Ji. sylvestris to be the plant intended by Linnseus under 
his R. oUusifolius, whilst Wallroth's R. oUusifolius was referred by 
Fries to R. divaricatus, L. In this latter determination he has not 
been followed by Meissner, nor by Grenicr and Godron, who m their 
"Flore de France" have considered, with greater probability, Lm- 



diva/ri 



named Fries' R. divaricatus, R. Friesii. Nyman has called the same 

plant it. irdlrothuJ^ ,^ , . . » -r, n 

In some of the more recent British Floras (Bahmston s, Boswell- 
Syme's) attention has been called to this continental R syhestris as a 
plant to be looked for in this conntry. It was, therefore, with great 
c:nf;ofo.f,'.^ n.»4- T ^.. «i^io tA i^PTififv with WallrotVs spccies apiant 



War 



^"1 



Bot. 1872, pp. 308, 332. By the liberality of the same successful 
investigator of obscure plants I am now enabled to give a figure of his 
discovery. 



Warren 



specimens I havJ drawn up a fuU description of the plant As, how- 
ever, most of its characters are those of the usual English R. oUtm- 



f< 



These are 



attention "to those by which it differs from that plant. 

• In Journ. Bot. 1872, p. 308, tiis name was inadvertently referred to 

£n s^Ivesfris instead of to ^. Friesii, 

K.S. TOL-2. fMAT 1,1873.] ^ 



130 ON ETJMKX OBTUSIFOLTUS. 



cliiefly found in the inner perianth-leaTcs, which when the fruit is 
fully ripe present the following contrasted characters in the two plants 
respectively : 



R, Friesiiy Gr. & Godr. 

Fully ripe inner perianth leaves 
hroadly ovate-deltoid, i to ^ inch 
long, ito h or more broad, the 
upper one rather the longest, with 
3 (sometimes 4) sharp subulate 
epieading teeth on either side 
varying in length from \ or less to 
(rarely) as wide as the perianth- 
leaf, the two lower with their 
midribs thickened but scarcely 
calliferous, the upper bearing a 
rather small callus rarely half as 
long as the perianth-leaf. 

Nut about tV inch long by 
scarcely iV broad. 

I have 
form of the 



jK, sylvestris, Wallr, 

Fully ripe inner perianth-leaves 
oblong- or oval- triangular, -|- to tV 
inch Ion g, iV broad, equal in length, 
margins entire or with one or two 
unsymmetrical points or teeth, 
all three calliferous, the upper 
callus very large, some times al- 
most covering the perianth-leaf. 



Ifut A inch long by ,\ broad. 



not been able to trace any satisfactory differences in the 

,. , T^^^r^'- T^^ fig^^G in Hayne's work represents the 
apex ot the leaf of Jl. Frwsii as acute, but this is certainly not always 
the case It is often quite as rounded at the top as in Sturm's and 
Keichenbach s figures ; perhaps, however, the general outline is more 
ovate and gradua ly tapering in this plant than in II. syhestris, 
where the general form is ovate- or oval- oblong, and somewhat 
suddenly contracted into the blunt or subacute apex 

In habit there is an appreciable difference between the plants, but 
It IS not very easily conveyed by description. H. sylvestris suggests 
f.;/n7 r''' ^^^^^^f q^ence of the more erect branches (which 
ascend at a somewhat less angle with the stem than in R. Friesii) 

leave Tt^^^^ l'-"^^ '"'? penanth-leavee; but the absence of 
leaves to the whorls is m great contrast. Th^. «trm .r.r..... f. >.. nic. 



leaves Lu uie wDoris is m great contrast. The stem annears to be also 
7' i "L!i°'^„''^'^ii. ^"^^^^"^^ ^'^"■''- '^^»'^ stern-leaves and infloros- 



cenVe T>rP J^t ^n .ftf- ^"^^""'^'^ "^"^- ^ "^ stein-leaves and infloros- 

inoHnf^fl fn tl,iT,lr fV "'^/%^*;'liiir^'d to determine whether, as I am 

not ?uTar conStf ^"% '^TJ"'"'' '' '^^'^'^ '^ ™^^ «-t they are 
Al:tir rr;*!i' pedfic difference,_ and I therefore follow F. 



occur. 



tennediates 






Lufd las C Llkf ■ t "'^' '^^. ^^i«l» I n^vBelf collected near 

FnmV andTl 'avrseen n ^^"'^"'n '^ ^*' Periarth-leaves to Ji. 

V h re4n to til ° ^ .t '''"'^^' ^"t^'^^'^l^ate from E.sex. 



ON RUMEX OBTUSTFOtlTJs! , ' 131 

may _ have mainly had R. sylvestris in his view, it seems nearly 
certain from his synonyms and localities that he also included 7 



-fc> 



The synonymy of the forms is as follows : 

Itumcx olhmfoh'us, L. Sp. lant. ed. L, p. 335 
Var. a, Friesii. 

It. ohtus^oUus,y^\\T. Sched. crit. i., p. 168, ilcissner in 
DO. Prod. XIV., p, 53, et auct, plur. 

It. divaricatus, Fries, Mant. iii., p. 25, and Summa Ye^r 
Scand., p. 202 (non L.) ^' 

M. Wallrotlm, K'yman, Syll. M. Europ., p. 327(1854-55) 

^. Friedi, Gren. & Godr., Fl. France iii., p. 36(1855-56) 
' •^^^?^.— Lobol Ic. 285, reprod. Parkinson Theat Pot p 1225 

and Petiver Herb. Brit. Cat., t. ii., f. 9. (very rough), Curt! 
±1. Lond., fasc. 3 (bad), Eng. Pot., t 1999, rcprod. Syme 
J.B. mccxv. (very poor), Fl. Danica, t. 1335 (very poor), 
Sturm, Deutschl. Flora, bd. 17, hft. 73, n. 9. (-ood) 
Keichenb. Ic. crit, iy., f. 550 (poor), Hayne Darst. & 
Beschr. Arzneig., bd. xiii., tab. 1, 1st figure (good) — 
Details— Leighton, FL Shropshire, p. 153, F. Areschoug 
ofv. K. vet. akad. Forhandl. 1862, t. iii , f . L 

Exsicc. — Fries, Herb, norm., fasc. vii., n. 57. 
Var. ^. sylvestris. 

LajpatJmm sylvest. fol, subrotundo seminis involucro Icevi seu 
piano, Moriaon, Hist Oxon. ii., p. 580(1680). 

R. sylvestris, Wallr. 1 c, p. 161, Eatzeburg iu Hayne l.c., 
bd. xiii., p. 1, Meissner l.c , p. 50. 

It. cltusifolius^ Fries, Mant. iii., p. 25. 

M. ohtusifolius , var 7., Koch, FL Germ. & Helv., ed. 2, p. 
706, and in Sturm I.e.. 

R. ohtusif alius ^ var. microcar^a^ Crepin, Man. FL Pel"' ed 
2, p 248. °'' * 

R- acutuSy Tausch pL select., fide Koch (non L.) 

Icon, — Sturm Lc, bd. 17, hft. 73, n. 11 (very good), 

Hayne I.e., 2nd figure (good). 
Exsicc. — Reichenb. Exs., n. 18!, Fries, Herb, norm., 

fasc. v., n. 54, Meinshauscn, Herb. FL Ingr., n. 529? 

It has h.een stated by several authors that JR. sylvestris is a plant 
of Northern Europe, and E. Friesii of the South. It -would be 
perhaps more correct to say that the two varieties have Eastern and 
Western proclivities respectively in Europe, but neither are these 
very strongly marked. iZ. sylvestris does not seem to have been 
Tioticrd in France, and has as yet been found in England only in 
Mr. Warren's locality, by the side of the Thames between Putney and 
Hammersmith Bridges, Surrey, where he saw about 1 00 plants, extend- 
ing over about half a mile, and frequently intermixed with R. Friesii. 
The locality is not beyond a suspicion of introduction, but it is prob- 
able that attention being directed to the plant it will be detected in 
other places, though likely to be a scarce plant in this country. From 



igia, TFalb 



K 2 



132 ADDITIONS TO THE BRITISH LICHEN-TLORA. 

Dorpat, Gruner ; Hanau, Clemen^on ; St. Petersburg, Ifnnshatisen 
(doubtful) ; Sweden, AMberg (approaches R: Friesn), It has been 
recorded also on sufficient authority from Berlin, Bohemia, and 
Yolhynia, and Tenore gives Naples as a locality, S. Friesn is 
common throughout the British Islands, and I have seen typical speci- 
mens from France, Switzerland, Belgium, Prussia, Sweden, Spain, 

and the Tyrol, 

The Lapathoid Docks being frequently in descriptive works^ — as 
Meissner's monograpb and Hooker's and Bentham's British Floras 
divided into primary groups on the character of toothed or untoothed 
inner perianth-leaves, the two plants here considered varieties of one 
species would awkwardly fall under different sections, and it is thus 
perhaps from Necessity that ^eissner has been forced to keep them as 
separate species. It would require a profound study of tliis most 
difScult genus before anyone would be justified in pronouncing on the 
value of the toothing as a character ; but so far as the plants now 
under notice are concerned, one can readily find a complete grada- 
tion in this reppect, whilst even from one plant of M. sylvestris 
there may be taken ripe perianth-leaves quite entire or more or less 
furnished with iireguLir teeth of various lengths. It is possible that, 
as ileissner has sugixested, R. sylve&tris may be a hybrid between R. 
Friesii and R, confflomeraftcs ; but there are difficulties in conceiving 






that such crossing would produce our plant, and equally in su"'<^esting 
any more probable parentage. The whole question of the alleged fre- 
quent hybrids in this genus urgently needs a careful examination, with 
experimental culture, without which w^ can scarcely hope to come 
to any satisfactory arrangement of the numerous puzzling forms it 
contains. 

DERCRirxiox OF Tab. 13L— ^//w^^ si/ivestris.WaWr.; root-leaf and portion 
of stem and flowenng branches from specimens collected by the Thames in 
Surrey, by the Hon. J. L. Warren in 1872. Fig. 1. Outer perianth segments : 



2, Inner penanth segment; 3. Enlarged perianth with fully ripe fruit • 4! 

^>.^ '.. ^n °^^^;?^''^^ ^""f ,H^ ^J ""'l^' (2^' ^^' ^*» 5^ The same parts of i2. 
Irtestt, Gr. & Godr.) All the details x 4 diam. 



ADBITTOI^S TO THE BRITISH LICHEN-FLOEA. 
Bt the Key. J. M. Ceombie, F.L.S. ajtb G.S. 

No. III. 

, The publication of Leighton's British Lichen-Plora has 
necessanly interrupted the contimiity of these papers. Taking it 
therefore as a fresh starting-point, there now fall to be enumerated 
the following species and varieties as additions to thd list of our 
British Licheris. Several of them, as usual, are new species, and others 
irom their ranty are very interesting : — 

1. Collema^ st^ium (Del.), Schaer. Spic, p. 544. On stones of 
wall near Higb Force Inn Teesdale, Durham (Mudd),/./. Arnold 

i" Tl"llf^'J^?V^^^'^ *''' calcareous rocks near Kendal, Westmore- 
land (Martindale). ' 



ADBTTIOXS TO THE BKITISH LICHl-IIf-rLOKA. 133 



2. C. polycarpon (Sch-Ter.), Kplhb. Gesc. Lich, ii., p. 577. On 
calcareous rocks, Appin, Argyleshire (Crombie), very sparingly, but 
no doubt to be detected elsewhere. 

3. C, Laureri (Fw.), Krb. S. L. G., p. 414. On stones of wall, 
near High Force Inn, Teesdale {^wM)^ fide Arnold in Flora, 1867 ; 
rid, Mudd Man., p. 44, t. i., f. 6, uji. Synechohlastus complicatm 

(SchL), 

4. C. aurieulatuMy yqt. pinguescey^s^ N^yl- in Flora, 1872, p. 353, 
**thallus thicker, lobes moz^e incised "than in the type. On shady 
walls, Finlarii^, Killin, and calcareous rocks, Craig Tulloch, Llair 
Athole (Crombie), gathered only very sparingly, 

5. Obri/zum dolichoteron, Njl iu Flora, 1872, p. 353, -?/? re. Para- 
sitic on the above var, of C. aurictdatnm^ Hfi'm., on Craig Tulloch 
(Crombie), and apparently very rare. 

6. Leptogium amphineum (Ach.), Nyl- Scand., p. 32. On the 
ground near Penzance, Cornwall (Curnow), but sparingly ; probably 
to be met -with elsewhere. 

7. Calicium hyssaceum, Frs. L. Ref., p. 399. On dead twigs of 
Alders by the banks of the Garry, Blair Athole (Crombie) ; probably not 
uncommon, though only a single specimen was gathered, and that 
accidentally. 

8. Alectoria divergens (Ach.), K'yl Scand., p. 71. On the ground 
amongst Mosses on the summit of Cairngorm, in Braemar, very rare 
(Crombie, 1872) ; a much smaller state than in specimens from Scan- 
dinavia, and at first sight more resembling Cetraria aculeata. 

9. Ramalina intermedia (Del), I^yl- in Flora, 1873, p. 66. On 
heaths, in Annet Island, Scilly, well frulted_ (Curnow, 1872); not 
nnlike some states of R, farinacea, but quite distinct. 

10. Tarmella prolixa * JDelisei (Dub.), Nyl. On rocks, Kymyal 
Cliff, near Penzance (Curnow). Thallus K (Ca CL)-^ From^ the 
same locality there appear also isidiiferous and panniform condrtions. 

11. PannarLcnigra ''psotina (Ach.), Nyl. Scand., p. 126. On cal- 
careous stones of parapet of bridge over the Tay at Hexham, ^o^- 

thumberland (Crombie, 1872). 

12. Lecanora diphyodes, IsyL in Flora, 1872, p. 353. On granitic 
maritime rocks near Portlethen, on the coast of Kincardmeshrre, very 

rare (Crombie, 1872). , , 

13. L lutescens, DC. Fl Fr. ii., p. 668. On old larch pales at 
Durris, near Aberdeen (Crombie) ; abundant, but rarely with apothe- 

; no doubt to be detected elsewhere. 

II. L piniperda, Krb. Par., p. 81. On decaying larch rails, very 
sparingly, near Loch Tummel, Perthshire (Crombie), and like the 

preceding rarely with apothecia. ' ^ -n i 

15 L Hymmictera, Nyl. in Flora, 1872, p. 249. On old pales 
near Mill Hill, Middlesex (Crombie), and probably common through- 
out Great Britain. * ^^ i j 

16. Z. mrcoph * homopis, ^j\. in Flora, 1872, p. 251. On od 
pales near Finchley, Middlesex (Crombie), but with spores rarely 

"Well developed. « «,, -r^ x • i 

17. Z. aubintncata, Kyi. in Flora, 1868, p. 478, Th. Frs. Lich. 
Scand., p. 2(55. On old pules at_ Killin and lilair Athole (Crombie), 
not typical bu!i/ ohseuriorj Kyi. in litt- 



134 ADDITIONS TO THE BRITISH LICHEN-FLOIiA. 



18. Z. varia * leptacim (Smtnrflt.), Th. Frs. Scand., p 260. 
Amongst Mosses on boulders, sparingly, on tlie summits of Ben Lawers 
and Ben-naboord,=Z. mn'a,f. terrestris, Cromb. Enum., p. 52. 

19. L . prcepostera, JN'yl. in Mora, 1873, p. 19. sp.n. On basaltic 
rocts near the sea in the island of Jersey (Lai'balestier) ; similar to 
X. atrynea, but distinguished by the reactions. 

20. Z. coniopta, Nyl. 1 c, sp.n. On gneissic boulders near Port- 
lethen, on the Kincaidineshii-e coast (Crombie, 1872), and on granite 
locks near Penzance (Cumow). 

51. Z. leucopluca, var. congMata, Plot, in Flora, 1828, p. 564. 
On quartzose boulders on the summit of Ben-y-gloe, Blair Athole, 
Tery sparingly (Crombie). 

22. Z. alpim, Smmrflt. SuppI, p. 91. On rocks in maritime 
and subalpine localities— Is^oirmont, Jersey (Larbalestier), Cader 
Idiis, South Wales (L(ightoii),/rfe. Leight. in Grevillea i., p. 125. 

2Z. L. peliscypha (Whlnb.), ,Kyl. in Flora, 1872, p. 364. On 

stones of walls and bouldeis, abundant on the coast of Kincardineshire 

(Crombie), and probably not unfre^uent in maritime and sub-alpine 
tracts. 

24 L. glacocarpa, var. depauperata, Kphlb. On calcareous boulders 
on Craig Tulloch, Blair Athole. Under this var. 1 include /. con- 
spersa (Frs.), Th. Frs. Scand, p. 212, and/, conferta, Cromb Mss. 
both Terj; sparingly in the above locality; also/, cinereo-prumosa, 
Anzi, -which occurs on Craig Guie, Braemar. 

T '^t fff^l,f«*^^^«. Nyl. Lapp. Or., p. 177 ,=Z. melamchroza, 
Leight Lich Fl p. 267. On old fir pales, near Loch Tummel 
leithshire (Ciombie), apparently very rare 
^ 26. Z. metanmrpJiea, Nyl. Prod., p. 113. On stones of a wall 

W?i'^ tv ' ■^^'"' ^^Y^ (Crombie), but very sparingly gathered. 
With K., the spores are distinctly 3-seT)tate. 

27 Z. turgidula x&x. pityophila, Smmrflt. Lapp., p. 154. On old 

fir pales in Blair Athole and Xillin (Crombie) ; probably not nncom- 

' ?r ^ ff V ^fl^ Highlands. From this Z. endopeUa, Leight. Lich. 

colour with iS "^ ^y^^e^t^al gelatine being of a beautiful blue 

^ 28. L. leueophceopm, Nyl. in Flora, 1873, p. 20, sp.n. On 

.«1nf' ^' Tt'f"' ^'^>,^: "^^ P- 169. On the ground amongst 
gathJrT ^^^''^ '^ ^'^'^ ^"^'^ ^'^'^^^ (CronTbie), sparingly 

rock^'of ■fr'"''' ?^P f ^^°'f; ^^^2' P- 356, sp.n. On sandstone 
TatvodTs Nvl ''f "^ff""^ (Larbalestier), rare : approaching Z. 
latypodes Nyl.=Z. sublatgpea, Leight. (mme^i in/orme). 

and thereon^h/?' rT?/" t^^P^ ' P" ^^^' ^^ ^he ground here 
ui^ZS^':^/J^^^h ^^' «P--^'ly (C'oaibie) ; not 



On niica- 



to be confounded with Z. mo7itana, NyL 

32. Z. confiisula *' ' 
coo., stone, of aa oid ,:aU ^-cVafg f ^'CCkSZI (^"jr); 

c Jot t:^t^^^'^^; »=». t»; ^r -/- 

a single specimen gathcied. (Crombie), but only 



ADDITIONS TO THE BRTTrSH LICHEE-FLORA • 135 

34. Z. fnesotropka, 'Njl, in Flora, 1873, p. 20 , sp.w. On mica- 



ceous stones of an old wall, on the hill of Ardo, near Aberdeen, 

/^^ ■■•Nil •» ' 



(Cromhie), bnt very sparingly 

35. Z. deparcula, Nyl. in Flora, 1872, p, 361, sp n. On calca- 
reous stones amongst detritus on the summit of Ben-y-glue, Blair 



Atliole (Crombie), extremely rare. 
36. L mihfi 



On schistose 



stones of old walls in Glen Fender, and on Craig Tulloch, Blair Athole 
(Crombie), frequent, but often sterile. 

37. Z, atrohadia, Nyl. in Flora, 1872, p. 361, sp.n. On 
quartzose boulders on the summit of Ben-y-gloe, Blair Athole 
(Crombie), very sparingly. 

38. L, cenea (Duf ), Frs. L. E., p. 108 On quartzose boulders 
near the summit of Morrone, Braemar (Crombie), very sparingly 
seen. 

39. i. lavata (Ach.), Nyl. Scand , p. 234. On rocks and 
boulders. Ben Nevis, Lochaber (Crombie); a distinct species accord- 
ing to Nyl, in litt from Z. petrcea^ and probably not uncommon in 
Britain: f.ferrata^ Nyl. I.e. j on rocks by streams on Ben Lawers 
(Crombie). 

40. Z. occulta^ Flot. (Zw. Exs. 135),— (Bacidia occulta, Krb. 
Par., p, 186). On rocks, Diganwy, near Conway, and about Bettws-y- 
Coed, Wales, Leight. in Grevillea i., p. 58. According to Nyl. in 
litt. Z. occidfa, Flot.=:Z, UucocIineUa^ JN'yL, Leight. Lich. FL, p. 310 ; 
tid, also Am. Lich. Frag, xv., p 4. 

41. Xylographa parallela, \t\x. palhnSj Ifyl. Scand 
old pales at Pass of Killiecrankie, Blair Athole, along m 
Kyi. in litt. (Crombie), very sparingly. 

42. Opegrapha hapaleoides, Kyi. in Flora, 1869, p. 296. On the 
trunks of trees at Clifton, Somersetshire (Larbalestier, 1869), Jide 
Nyl. 

43. ArtJionia proxmella, Nyh Scand., p. 262. On the bark of 
Holly, in Gwydir Woods, North Wales, rare (Lcighton), vid, GreviUea 

L, p. GO. 

44. A. aspersella, Leight. in Grevillea i., p. GO, sp.n. On the 
bark of Holly, Gwydir Woods, North Wales (Leighton). 

45. rerrucaria analeptella, NyL in Flora, 1872, p. 363. On the 
bark of trees, near Cork, Ireland (Carroll), fxequenty= Sagedia ienea, 

Anzi L. min. r. no.'395. ^-n- iv 

4G. Ksuhmieans, Nyl Lc., sp n. Oa the bark of Hollies, near 

Lyndhurst, New Forest (Crombie), probably not unfrequent. ^ 

47 K splhlola, Nyl. I.e., sp.n. On calcareous stones of Craig 

Tulloch, Blair Athole (Crombie), and apparently very rare. 



On 



th/. 



136 DxscEinioj^'s or three new species of poeana 



DESCEIPTIOKS OP THEEE NEW SPECIES OF POKANA. 

By S. E'uez. 

DuEijJG a visit to the Sikkim-Himalaya in October, 1868, I 
found in the bushes that border the road from Kersiong to Senada a 
blue-flowered Convohulacea which showed great resemblance to 



difi 



ing my specimens, I became aware of having to deal with a new and 
well-marked species. This inquiry naturally led me to examine 
also the remainder of the species of Parana, and in doing so I find two 
other undescribed species from British Barma, which I now take the 
opportunity of describing along with my new Sikkim species : — 

_ \. PoEANA STENOLOBA, fiov . sp. — Herba (annua v. perennis ?) volu- 
bilis, 6—10 pedalis, glabra; folia subcordato-ovata, petiolo J— 1^ pcduli 
gracili, magnitudine valde variantia, majora vulgo 2—3 poll, longa, in 
acumen longissimum angustum lamina fere dimidio brcvius obtus'um 
mucronatum provecta, membranacea, glabra ; flores speciosi, cyanci, 
pedicellis ^ pollicaribus Itevissimis suffulti, secus ramulos supra-axil- 
lares foliaceo-bracteatos racemosi v. in racemos flexuosos terminales 
graciles follatos dispositi ; bracteac foliaceae ovato-lanceolata) ad lineares 
longissime caudato-acuminataj ; bracteolse sub calyce 2, minutse seta- 
cese ; calyx glaber, segmentis linearibus ina^qualibus 3—4 lin longis • 
corolla^ tubuloso-infundibuliformis, poll, in diametro v. major lobis 
brevissimis latrs mucronato-apiculatis ; capsula) adhuc valde immature 
glabrae, lobi calycmi sub fructo inaequales, 3 longiores 1— U poUicares, 
anguste Imeares, 1-2 lin. lati, nervis basi 5, sursum 3 parallelis per- 
cursi, transverse venulosi, rigide chartacei, subnitidi, truncato-obtusi, 
mucronati ; mmores 2 dimidio fere breviores, conformcs 

^„5 Sikkim-Himalaya, not unfrequeiit along the post-road from 
rroXber '"'' '°^ at 5-6000 feet elevation, on metamorphic rocks. 

2. PoEANA SPF.CTABILIS nov. sj^.-Frutcx volubilis, alte scandens 
ochraceo-tomentellus ; foha majora 2-3 poll, longa, ovata, inferiora 
basi subsmuato-cordata, supcnora minora basi rotundata 4. obtusa, 
fl it t,7^^tello i-1 polhcan sufTulta, pra)sertim subtus oehraceo- 
touentella, supra vix glabrescentia, obtusiuscula v. acuta, mucronata, 
crasse membranacea ; flores speciosi, candidi, secus ramulos axillares 

U.^^T i 1-^r? ^- •'^'''' ^^^^^^"' tomentosos racemosi ; corolla 
S r;T^ li^"^'-^'^^ 'VvP'^^- i^^li^^^tro, extus puberula, tubo 
wSn« ^"l-' P^-^if ^\2-3 lin. longi, fulvo-to£entosi ; calyx 
Wi^Hf %''^o° •' f^*^. ^°^1"^libus linearibus obtusiuseulis, 
8ub?hSL ' ^^"■ ^ ^'^' ^^^'' ''^^''''' 2 dimidio brevioribus ; eapsula 

lon4' it- f^'"""" """^ ^'^ """^ ^''' ^'^"^t^' longissimi, c. 1* poll. 

b.n^f i;^if/T^T'^'''f iV^f *™P^'"^ evergreen forests of Marta- 
Fr April! May^^^^'^^^^ ^'^^'^' '"'* "^ Tongu.-FI. March, April ; 

tolucordato-o%ata,basx smuato-cordata, majora 2-3 poll, l^nga, petiolo 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES OE PORAJN'A. 137 

p 

1 — 2pollicari suffulta, longe acuminata, memlDraiiacea, glabra v. subtus 
secus nervos subtiliterpuberula; flores desunt; racemideinpaniculati, 
foliis floralibus cordato-ovatis sessilibua gaudentes ; pedicelli sub 
fructu puberuli, graciles, 3 — 4 lin. loiigi ; calycis fructigeri lobi omnes 
aucti, oblongi v. lineari-oblongij basin versus nonnumquam attenuati, 
J poll, longi, basi 5 — 7-sursuru 3-nervii, obtusi cum mucrone, trans- 
verse venosi, rigide cbartacei, subnitidi, capsula obturbinata v. subob- 
conicapisi minorisraagnitudinis, leevi's, efflataet circa apicem apiculatum 
in cnpulam concavo-depressam producta et quasi circulariter truncata. 

Ilab, — In cleared lands (toungyas) in and around evergreen tropi- 
cal forests of the eastern slopes of the Pegu Tomah, e.ff., the head- 
waters of the Khaboungchoung ; also Martaban (Rev. F. Mason) and 
the Kareni country (O'Eiley).^rr. January. 

There is another species in the Calcutta Herbarium nearly allied 
to the above; but the specimens (Griff. No. 5876, from East Bengal) 
are very incomplete and destitute of flowers and leaves, and therefore 
quite unfit for description. 

Five species of Porana aro described in De Candolle's ^'Prodro- 
mus," to which Dr. F. v. Mueller added an Australian species, making 
now a total of nine species. The Indian ones may be arranged in the 
foUow^ing way: — 

* All the 5 calyx-segments in fruit equally enlarged and stellately 

spreading, several-nerved. Corolla small, 2 — 4 lin. across, 
white. 
f Kacemes or panicles furnished with cordate sessile floral 
leaves. Calyx hardly a line long. 

1. P. triincafa, Kurz. Capsules at apex depressed-concave, 

truncate. (Pegu, Martaban, and Karenee country.) 

2. P. racemosay Eoxb. Capsules rounded with a mucro. 

(Whole Himalaya to Khasya and Martaban; also in 

Hindostan.) 
f f Racemes panicled, without floral leaves. 

3. P. rohbilis, Burm. Leaves at base rounded or hardly 

cordate ; calyx-lobes about 2 lin. long^ broad and blunt, 
often purplish coloured. (From Khasya and Barma 
down to Malacca, the Indian Archipelago, and Philip- 
pines, also in Hindostan.) 
'^*Only 3 of the calyx-lobes in fruit fairly enlarged, erect 
or erect patent, the remaining 2 wholly or partially reduced, 
or at least much smaller, 
t Corolla small, about 1-2 lin. in diameter, white. Calyx-lobes 

in fruit l-nerved. 

4. P. panindata, Roxb. All softer parts more or less tawny 

' puberulous; racemes with flonJ leaves; calyx-lobes 

puberulou*. (Base and lower parts of the Himalaya, 

especially in the terais; Behar and Rajmehal hills, 

Khasya and Sillhet to Ava, also Java.) 

If Corolla large and showy, the limb about an inch 

or more in diameter. Calyx-lobes in fruit several- 

nervcd- 
X Only 3 of the 5 calyx-lobes enlarged pubescent, the others 

entirely suppressed. Flowers white. 



138 ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF BERKSHIEE- 



5. P. spectalilis, Kurz. All parts shortly tawny-tomentose ; 

calyx-lobes pubescent. (Martaban.) 
\ \ All the 5 calyx-lobes in fruit enlarged, but 2 of them, 
much shorter," and usually much narrower, glabrous. 
Flowers steel-blue or purple. 

6. P. grandiflora^ Wall. Young shoots pubescent leaves 

deeply sinuate-cordate; racemes with minute bracts ; 
fruiting calyx-lobes ^ — f inch broad, at base 11 -nerved. 
(Sikkim and !N"epaL) 

7. P. stenoloba, Kurz. Quite glabrous ; leaves slightly cor- 

date ; racemes with leafy very long-caudate bracts; 
calyx-lobes in fruit linear, 1 — 2 lin. broad, at base 5- 
nerved. (Sikkim-Himaia) a.) 



ADDITIOITS TO THE FLORA OF BERKSHIRE. 

Br James Britteit, F.L.S. 

TnE following are the principal additions of species and localities 

to my " Contributions to a Flora of Berkshire," published in the 

" Transactions of the Newbury District Field Club" for 1871-2, and 

carrying the enumeration of Berkshire plants down to the end of 

1871. _ I have since then looked through and extracted various 

localities from Samuel Budge's herbarium, which includes a large 

number of British plants, and is now in the British Museum ; and 

have received additional specimens and notes from the Rev. C. W. 

Penny, of Wellington College ; Mr. F. Walker, of Abingdon ; and 

Mr. A. Bennett, of Croydon. The species in the following list 

■which were not included in my " Contributions " are -.—Camelinafietida, 

UlexGallii, Vicia Bolartii, (Enanthe LacJienalii , Valeriana samlucifolia, 

Doronicum pjantagineum, Mentha ruira, Zemna polyrhiza, and Junms 
acutiflorus. 

I may mention that I have still a few separate copies of my 
Contributions," which are at the service of any who may care to 
possess them. 

The initials before the locaHties refer to the districts adopted in 
my catalogue: — 

Anemone Pulsatilla, L. M. Moulsford Downs: A. Bennett. 
Viola hirta, L. E. Wokingham ; Rev. C. W Penny ' 
V. canina, L. N. Frilford Heath ; F. Walker ' 

Camelinafwtida L. E. " Drawn from a specim'en collected near 
Virginia Water " ; E. Bot., ed. 3, i., 200. 

Cardamtne eu-Mrsuta. M. On a wall between Pai 
Basildon ; A. Bennett. 

Bennett?** ^'''''^''' ^' ^' ^P^^'^^S^^ °^ Streatley Down; A. 

^rosera rotundifolia I. E. BuUmarsh Heath ■ Eb. Rudge I 
Fohjga,la calca^'ea, F Sch. M. Moulsford Downs ; A. Bennett. 
Ceradmm semdecandnm, L. E. Wokingham ; Rev. C. W. Penny ! 
nypencum Modes, J.. E. Bullmarsh Heath ; Hb. Rudge ! 
Geranium phaum, L. E. Sonning; Hb. Eud-o» 



:boume 



ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF BEEKSHIKE. 139 

r 

Ulex Qallii, PL E. Early Common ; Hb. Rudge ! 

V. €U-nanus, Syme. E. Eullmarsh Heath ; Hb. Eudge ! 

Trifolium meditimy L, E. Sonning ; Hb. Eudge ! 

T, arvense^ L. E. Sonning ; Hb. Eudge ! 

T.Jiliforme^ L. E. Sonning; Hb. Eudge! 

Astragalus glycyphyllos, L. E. Near Sonning; Hb. Eudge! 
M. JS^ortli Moreton ; Miss King ! 

Vicia Bolartii, E. Forst. E. Sonning; Hb. Eudge! 

Lathyrtis palustris, L. "Woods, Berkshire ": Dickson, Hort 
Sice. Brit. ! . ■ 

Sangitisorla officinalis^ L. E. Sonning Meadows; Hb. Eudge I 
Feplis Porhila, L. E. BuUmarsh Heath; Hb. Eudge! 
(Eyianthe Laclienalii^ Gmel. N. Moist ground near Frilford Heath, 
very scarce; F. Walker! Mr. Walker's si)ecimen is somewhat 
immature, but I have little doubt that he is correct in referring it to 
this species, 

Valeriana saiiibucifolia.lA-nk, E. Sonning; Hb. Eudge! 

Ilelminthia echioideSy L. E. Sonning; Hb. Eudge! 

tlieracium vulgaUim^ Fr. E, Ij'ear Wellington College ; Eev. C. 
W. Penny ! 

Arctium majus, Sehk. E. Sonning ; Hb. Eudge! 

A, to7ne?itosumy L. N. Bagley Wood? (see Comp. Cyb. Brit., 
530, and Journ. Bot. 1872, p. 332). 

Carduus praterisis, L. N. Near Oakley House, Abingdon ; F. Smith, 

Ceutaurea nigra^ L. /3. decipiens. E. Sonning; Hb. Eudge! 

Cineraria campestris^ Etz. M. Monlsford Downs ; A. Bennett. 

Inula Pulicaria, L. E. Near Wellin^ 
Penny 1 BuUmarsh Heath, nearEeading; Hb. Eudge! 

Chrgmnthemum Parthenium. E. Sonning ;Hb. Eudge! 

Doro7iicim plantagineum. N. ^' Found near BesseUs Leigh" ; Hb. 
Banks ! 

Gentiana campestris^ L. W. White Horse Hill ; Trimen ! 

Verbascum Lyclmitis^ L. E. Sonning Lane ; Hb. Eudge ! 

r, JJlattaria^ L. There is a specimen from the Binfield locality 
in Hb. Eudge. 

Antirrhinum majus^ L. E. Sonning, "on an old wall*'; Hb. 
Eudge! 

A. Orontium^ L. E- Sonning; Hb. Eudge! 
Mentha rubra, Sm. E. Sonning; Hb. Eudge! 

leucriiim Scordiumy L. Berkshire ; Hb. Sowerby ! 

Scutellaria minor, L. E, BuUmarsh Heath and Sonning; Hb. 
Eudge ! 

Myosotis collina, Hoffm. E. Wokingham; Hb. E. Forster! Mr. 
Penny^s plant (Contrib., p. 53) was rightly named. 

Pingnictda vulgaris, L. N. Near Oakley House, Abingdon; F. 
Smith! 

Utricularia vulgaris^ L. E. Dunstan Green, Sonning; Hb. 
l^udge ! 

Anagallis tetiella, L. E. BuUmarsh Heath; Hb. Eudge! 
. Littorellalacustris, L. E. Abundant near Eeading ; M.i, Austin 
ill *^ Science Gossip,'* 1873, p. 17. 

Orchis ndulata, L. M. Moulsford Downs ; A. Bennett. 



140 SHORT NOTES AND aUERIES. 



Narthecium omfragnm, L. E, Bullmarsli Heath ; Hb. Rudge! 

Polijgonatum miiltiflorum^ L* E. ''Abundant in FinchatnpsteacI 
"Woods"; llev. C. W. Penny in litt. S. **In a field adjoyning to 
the Wash at Newberry, and in divers other places in Barkshirc. 
Observed by my worthy friend Mr. Greorge Horsnell, Chirurgiou in 
London"; R. Syn. i., 96. 

Ilydrocharis Morsm-rance^^Jj. E, Sonnin^^; Hb. Radge! 
. Lemna polyrhiza, L. E. Sonning ; Hb. Radge ! 
Juncus acuti/lorus^ "EAiih.^ E- BuUmarsh Heath ; Hb. Rudge! 
Phalaris amndinacea^ L., var. colorata. E. Near Sinning; Hb. 

Rudge ! 



SHORT NOTES AND QIIERIES. 

Materials of Ikdiaw Matting. — Can any of the readers of the 
** Journal of Botany " throw any light on the manufacture of the so- 
called Indian grass matting, very generally used in bedrooms to lay 
over the carpet before toilet-tables and washstands? There is no 
doubt that a good deal of it is really native Indian make, as I learn 
from a resident in Travancore that matting is there made in large 
quantities from the stems of a Cyperus, possibly (7. inundattis^ which 
grows abundantly in marshes and on the banks of rivers. Some other 
species also grow along with it; hut their stems arc never gathered 
for making this matting; indeed, experienced persons are always sent 
to collect the '' grass" as it is called, so that the one kind only may 
be gatliered. The matting is usually made three feet wide, but 
some stems grow to a length of nearly four feet. They are split 
down the middle and dried in the sun, which causes them to curl 
inwards and gives them a cylindrical appearance like whole stems. 
They are sometimes dyed, the colours being chiefly red, black, and 
yellow. The material used for keeping the stems together in the 
process of manufacture is made from the fibre of the Agave ameri- 
Cffw^, which is grown in Travancore, and the fibre prepared from it by 
steeping the leaves for several days and then beating them to remove 
the pulp. I am told that this kind of work has been introduced ia 
the mdustnal schools in Travancore, and large quantities of the 
mattxug are sent to England. It nevertheless seems to me highly 
probable that an article of this description, which could be readilv 
made from the stems of Scirpiis laeustris and such-like plants with 
profit m countries nearer home, is actually so made and sold as 
Indian matting. In the Kew Museum is a specimen of a simihirly- 
made matting from Sweden, which helps to confirm my opinion. Any 
notes on the manufocture of this description of mattinjr and of the 
plants used would be of interest.— Jony R. Jackson 



RuBus Reutehi, Merc— In 1871 the Ruv. W. H. Purchas showed 
me a Bramble from Herefordshire, which I then named provisionally 
H Iteuten, Merc He has now sent several specimens of the same 
plant, from as he beheves the same bush, gathered near Ross ; these I 
beUeve to be the same as the H. Reuteri of Mercicr (in Renter Pi. 



SnOHT XOTES AND QFEIUES, ^ 141 

Vase, (le Geneve, ed. 2, 272). It agrees very well with the descrip- 
tion given at the place quoted, and with a specimen received as the 
authentic plant frora M. Eapin, one of its discoverers near Geneva. 
It also agrees with the description given by Genevier (** Les Rubus du" 
bassinde la Loire," 123). Genevier appears to be quite justified in 
placing it close to R. htrtus, from which alone and 5. saxicohs he 
thinks it necessary to distinguish it. R, saxkolus, Miill. ( Wirtg. Herb, 
liub., ed. l,no. 151, and ed. 2, no. 79) is very near R. Giintheri 
as stated by M. Genevier. He says that he has received R. Reuteri 
from Mr. Baker, gathered at Thirsk, and I have a specimen from the 
locality and collector which I name R. Rmtertwifh some sliglit doubt. 
It was gathered between Thirsk and TopclifF in 1851. I think that 
I have seen R. Reideri near Bettws-y-Coed, in North "Wales, but 
have not ^got a specimen, and so may very probably be wronf' 
in that idea, I place R. Reuteri as a third primary variety 



of R. glandtilosus, defined as follows: — Leaves quinate, coarsely and 
rather doubly dentate-serrate, with a few hairs on the veins beneath; 
terminal leaflet obovate-rhomboidal, acuminate; panicle truncate, its 
branches short, subcorymbose, few-flowered ; upper branches nearly 
simple, 1—3 flowered, very aciculate, setose, and hairy ; rachis nearly 
straight. Some of the prickles on the stem much stronger and de- 
clining or deflexed. Hab. : Near Sellack Marsh, Ross, Herefordshire ; 
Eey. "W. H. Purchas. It is interesting to find that we are by 
degrees adding more and more of the Continental forms to our 
catalogue. — C, C. Babixgtojt. 



Appltcation of Fibee of Agave. — One of the most recent appli- 
cations of Agave fibre seems to be in the manufacture of a kind of 
square bag or basket, which was first seen a year or two since in toy 
shops, principally in the seaside towns. They have now become 
very general, and can be had at almost every hardware and toy shop. 
They are made chiefly of the twisted fibre of Agave americanay the 
principal part being of its natural colour, but a portion is dyed 
black and worked in with it. "Whether the fibre is prepared in this 
country into the fine strong cord of which these bags are made, 
"whether the bags themselves are made here, and whether other 
strong fibres arc used, are questions which some readers may be able to 
answer. There is in the Kew museum a bag made of New Zealand Flax 
Mrhich is similar in shape and size to those usually sold, but the 
material is not so closely worked.— Joujf R. jACKsonf. 

PnAT,AKis PARADOXA. — This hus been noticed near Swanage, 
I^orset, annually since 1847, when I first remarked it and sent it to 
the late Sir W. Hooker. I s£^w it there abundantly in 1872, growing 
amongst Wheat and Oats, and just as I have seen it in the neighbour- 
hood of Florence. — James Husset in litt. to Dr. Hooker. 



PAxicuM CAPiLLAKK i^ EssEx.— ^It fricud Mr. F. Bond has 



Intely shown me some specimens of Faniciim capiUare^ L., which 
^^^ gatliered a few years ago in Essex. This Grass is a native of 
North America, and in Europe has been found introduced near 
Toulon, at Nice, near Vienna, and in Eelgium, so that it will 



142 HECEN-T ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF IRKLAND. 

be Interestinn; to notice it now, in case it should become esta- 
blished m England. Mr. Bond found six or eight plants about 
four years ago, and has since seen a few more. These were growing 
on a piece of ground about a mile from Colchester, on the Lexden 
road, and in the vicinity of several flower-seed farms, to whose 
agency Mr. Bond is inclined to attribute the introduction.— A. G 
MoRE._ [A single plant of this was found by the Thames at Hampton 
Court in 1867 ; see El. Middx., p. 331.—^^. Journ. £ot.] 



extmt^ aiib m^tract^. 



RECENT AT)DITIO.\S TO THE FLOE A OF IRELAND 



Br Alex. G. More, F.L.S., M.R.I.A. 

( Concluded fi 



[ 



[tentaurea pmiculata, Lam. A single plant in a cultivated field 
introduoeT "^' "' ''"^' ' ^' ^*^"^' '^^^' ^^ ^^^^^ accidentally 



Cardmis arvenm, Curt. Var. setosus, M. B. fin In a <,tnbhlp 
field by the River Lennon, near Kilmacrenan, D^neia -Rev T AU n' 

The curious plant gathered by Mr Allin it fir^fJ^Kf i i rV 
bvhnVl K„f if !,.„ Vi, ,.•',,• •^■^"" acnrst sight looks like some 

Ise^fT'cC^Soef '"''""■ Browne', Hill and Carlow ! 
n^mm murorwn L. B..2. Near Middlelon : Kev T Allin 

a. li-identatum, Fries, D. 10 MarHe *r„I, ri ^ A 

Pei^anagh; (found by Rev. S. /.'B^eS ttltZTr^"^'' "'^ 

few plal at tS foot of r ^^^.^^ ^"^roduced ; S. A.'stewart. A 
A G M ] ^ ^^^^ °'^' ^^"^ ^^^bour of Bray, 1872; 

hank?of^rB^tJi£'^;.SriZd^*rr^^^^^^^^^^ 

a mistake was made in the name, espociallv as \^.T ^'"'f *^'' 
C. hfifolia from the same district thp^.^fT, t T^'^^ '''''^^^' ""^^ 
C. TracheliumoBlj ^^''^ ""^^'^ botanists have found 

Multyfarnham, Westmeath, 1870 • ID |M%^''«^ ^f °^^^ 
p. 300). How's locili-fv "Tr,oi, '-k ;> ^^^^ ''^'^^™- ^ot- i^» 

18G7; D. Orr. -^^ '"^ tolerable plenty, October, 



« 



TrifoU 



Fa™, near !,„,, , 1, ^, BarriSol"T'I7'Z, Tlsofw 



KECENT ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF IRELAND. 143 



w 



# 



mg a space of a few square yards only, and here parasitical upon 
Lotus, Daucus, Lmum catharticiim, &c. (Dub. JS'at. Hist. Soc. Proc. 
vol. v., p. 198). Once found near Kilkea^ Mageney; J, Douolas. 

Solanum nigrum, L. D, 4. Shore near Churchtown, AV^exford 
first observed in 1834, and still growing there in 1869 ; also on sands 
at Rostonstown; John Waddy. 5. Once seen in the churchyard at 
Kilkea, Kildare ; John Douglas. 12. Sandy ground near Cushendun 
from 1867 to 1871 ; Eev. S. A. Brenan. 

^ [Orohanche minor, L. D. 4. On clover in two fields at Springhill, 
Enniscorthy, 1868; J. Morrison. A single plant next a Sweet Pea 
in the garden at Bloomfield, and another single plant on clover by the 
avenue at Bloomfield, 1867; Miss E. M. Parmer. Scarcely yet es- 
tablished as a naturalised plant.] 

Lathrma Squamaria^ L. 2. Plentiful f^r a long distance alojig the 
banks of the Blackwater, below Mallow, parasitical on Ulmiis man- 
tana only, avoiding Beech, Horse Chestnut, Alder, and Sycamore ; 
A. G, M. D. 7. In woods at Parsonstown, but rather scarce; M. 
Dowd. D. 9. In County Eoscommon ! Miss Acton. 10. Whitepaik 
Fermanagh ; T. 0. Smith. ' 

\_Mimulus hdetis, Willd. 4.- In the Dargle River, near Enniskerry ; 
A. G-. M. D. 10. On waste ground near the Glemornan Eiver, Tyrone, 
two or three plants only ; Dr. Sigerson. D. 12. Banks of the Bann, 

en the Cuts and Coleraine; S, A. Stewart.] 
Veronica peregrina^ L. D. 9. Demesne at Kockingham, Roscom- 
mon, and in the garden and demesne at Hazlewood, Sligo; D, M. 
D. 11. Salthill Garden, Mount Charles, and Kilderry, Muff, 1870 ; IT. 
C. Hart. Gweedore; Rev. W. M. Hind. Not found in D. 6.] 

\ Mentha sylvestris^ L. D. 2. Eoadside near Timolearae, 1871 ; 
Rev. T. Allin. 

[Jf. RequieniiyHQuih, The Corsican Mint has been observed by the 
Rev. T. Allin growing abundantly in the street of Castle Townsend, 
evidently an escape from cultivation,] 

Obs. Calamintha Nepeta^ Clairv. Must be struck off the Irish 
list, as Professor Babington informs us that his specimen belongs to 

C* officinalis. 

C. Clinopoditim^ Bcnth. D. 9. On the shore of the lake at Rock- 
ingham, Eoscommon, 1871 ; D, M. It is to be feared that many of the 
localities given for this plant, especially those near Dublin, belong to 

C officinalis, 

X Lymnadia Nummtilaria, L. 4. Under a bank outside a boggy 
plantation between Monart House and Mill House, Wexford ; Miss E. 
M. Parmer. 10. Eiver bank, near Ardunshin, Permanagh; Rev. S. 
A. Brenan. Banks of the river three miles above Colebrooke; T. 0. 
Smith. 12. Dunminning, near Ballymena; apparently an escape 
from cultivation ; N. Moore. Z. nemorum has olten been mistaken 
for this species, 

Armrria maritirna^ AVilld. 1. On the shores of Ross Island, Kil- 
Inrncy, growing with Silene ynaritima. Ascends to 3400 feet on Carn 
Tual; A.G.M. 

[^Plantago jnedia, L. Reported by Mr. J. Douglas as found by him 
abundantly in a field n(\ir Malone's (Jravel-pit, about one and a half 



7 



144 HECEXT ADDITION'S TO THE FLORA OF IRELAND. 

r 

miles north of StraffaD, KiUlare ; but not having seen any specimens, 
and not knowing the circumstances under which it occurred, we still 
hesitate to admit it as a native plant A variety of F. lanceolata^ 
"with very broad leaves, occurs about Feltrim Hill, and was, probably 
mistaken by Mr. "White for P. media. This variety has also been sent 
to us from the INorth of Ireland, under the name of P. media.'] 

t)bs, Chenopodmm 2irhi€U?n, L. Has not been rediscovered, and we 
fear that C. murale was the plant gathered in Upper Dominick Street: 

Atriplex UttoraUs, L. D. 6. Great Aran Island ; H. C. Hart, 
U 11. Lighthouse at Panet ; idem. 

Rimex maritimus, L. D. 2. Sparingly on the edge of a bog at 

Kilcoleman! Rev. T. Allin. 

R. puhheTy L. D. 4. On the shore by the harbour at Bray, 
1867-72 ; D. il. 5. Shore near the race-stand at Baldoyle, 1848, very 

sparingly ; A. Gr. il. x\ mi 

* Bip'pophae rJiamnoideSj L, D. 4. Thoroughly established on the 

sandhills at Kiltennel, north of Courtown, "Wexford, where Miss 
Parmer has ascertained that it was planted about thirty years ago (see 
Joum. Bot. vi., pp. 255, 373), Mr. J. Morrison informs us that this 
shrub grows also on the sandy shores at Eaven Point, near Wexford 
Harbour. 5 Planted on the sandhills at Eush, north of Dublin. . 

Miphorhia hyberna, L. D. 8. Plentiful at landing-place on Innis- 
turk, an island off Mayo ; (found by W. McMillan) S. A. Stewart. 
D. 11. Among large rocks and bushes on the south side of the 
Poisoned Glen, Dunlewy, Donegal, in no great quantity; T^. 
Moore, 1867 — thus confirming the accuracy of Eobert Brown's 
observation. This spurge flowers in the early spring, commencing 
often in the middle of April. It frequently grows on open rocky 
banks and among heath on the mountains, ascending to 1500 feet 
or more in the Horse's Glen Mangerton ; A. G. M. 

Ceratophyllum demersttm^ L. 2. Blarney Lake (found by R. Mills) ; 
Rev. T. AUin. 12. In the Quoile river, Downpatrick ; S. A. Stewart. 
Not found in Lough Neagh, wliich was given in mistake for Lough 
Leagh, near Killaleagh, Down, where the plant was discovered byTem- 
pleton in 1804. 

Callitriche aidumnalis^ L. D. 1. By the shore of Boss Island, 
Lower Lake of Killarney, 186G ; A, G. M. This will alter the lati- 
tude from 53*^ to 52^, and is the most southern locality in the British 
Islands. 12. Carrickmannan Lake, near Salntfield, Down; S, A 
Stewart. * 

Salix pJiylicifoIia, L. D. 9. iN'orth side of BenBulben ; D. M. This 

is the Willow given in our '' Contributions," under the name of 5. 
procumbens^ which must now be expunged. 

8. Grahmm, Borr. D. 11. Among moss on the top of Muckish 
Mountain, Donegal, 1868 (see Joum. Bot. viii., p. 209 ; ix., p. 300) ; 
D. M. Mr. Leefe considers this little Willow closely allied to the 
Continental S. retusa (see Journ. Bot." ix , 36). 

8. herlacea, L. The height of 1000 feet at which this plant 
grows on the top of Clontygearagh Mountain, Derry, is lower than 
any elevation at which it has been observed anywhere else in Great 
Britain. 

, I Tamis €ommum\ L. D. 9. On a bushy hill rising from Lough 



RECEXX ADDITIOXS TO THE FLORA OF IRELA^^D. 145 

Gill^ looking eastwards, and within the demesne of Hazlewood- Dr 
n'n V ?^^' ^^^^' Abundantly in a wood on the shore of Lough 
(xiU far from any house or garden; W. Heron, 1868. Seen in this 
loea ity by D. M. in 1871, but was very probably planted there by 
the later owner of Hazlewood, who was very fond of introducing new 
plants m his demesne. Ta?nus is not mentioned in the late Mr 
Wynne's own list of the plants seen by him in Sligo, and yet it could 
hardly have escaped his observation at Lough Gill. 
. Neotinea intacta, Eeich. 6. Has been gathered every year since 
1864 in the original locality, but has not yet been found anywhere else 
near Castle Taylor, except in the one large pasture-iield in which it 
was first discovered. D. 9. On the north-east shore of Lough Corrib 
not far from Cong, April, 1872 ; D. IT, Flowers early, commencing 
4it the end of ApriL ^ 

Spiranthes Romamovianay Cham. This is the name now adopted 
by Prof. Asa Gray and Dr. Hooker in preference to S. gemmipara. 
The plant still grows in many of the meadows and pastures near 
Castletown, commencing to flower in the middle of July, 

Neottia Nidus-avis, Rich, D. 7. Woods at Kockingham, Roscom- 
nion; D. M. D. 9. Hazlewood, Sligo ; D. M. D. 11. Woods Ards, at 
Donegal ! M. Murphy. 

t Sisyrinchium anceps, Lam. B. Bermudiana, L. 6. Abundant in 
marshy meadows and pastures along the river on both sides for four 
miles, from Woodford to Kossmore, forming conspicuous blue patches 
among the grass, and with every appearance of a native. Also in 
fields by the road from Woodford to Portumna, and on a hill half a 
mile N.E. from Woodford; M. Dowd, and Prof. E. P. Wright, 1870. 
The plant grows here in such profuse abundance that it seems hyper- 
critical to challenge its indigenous origin ; still when we see how in- 
explicably it has originated, how abundant it has become within a few 
years, and what a strong hold it has taken of the ground at Brisbane, 
Queensland, as recorded by Mr. C. Prentice, in Journ. Bot., ser. 2,' 
!•> p. 22 (1872) ; and considering that in England also it has lately 
become well established in Hampshire, we may well hesitate to accept 
the *' Blue-eyed Grass '' of Canada as an indubitable native of Ireland. 
if the locality in which it occurs is nearly as restricted as that of 
the Spiranthes at Berehaven, at least the Orchid lies, like all the 
other American and Iberian plants, quite close to the shore, and is a 
species of whose introduction or rapid extension we have not any 
experience. 

X Iris /(jetidissimay L. A very doubtful native of Ireland, where it 
seems to have been formerly much cultivated, nor are we acquainted 
With any locality where it grows in a really natural manner. 

Allium Bahingtonii, Borr. 6. In all three of the Islands of Aran ; 
Wright. 8. South side of Clew Bay, between Croagh Patrick 
and the sea, but always near ruins or cottages ; A. G. M. 

Simethis hicoloTy Kunth, 1. Certainly indigenous at Derrynane, 
Tk^^^ ^t grows on boggy, heathy, and turfy slopes, far away from the 
Abbey ruins, amidst heather and CariceSy &c. 

Eriocaulon s^tangnhre, With. L Bog-holes at north end of 
I'ough Carra, Kerry ; Dr. Battersby. First found by Dr. Wade in 
^801, as shown by a letter from him to Smith, in the Library of tlie 

I, 



t 



146 EECENT ADDITIONS TO THK FLOKA OF IRELAND. 

Linnean Society. In the Clonee (not Cromeen) Lakes, Kerry. 8, In 
a small lake, north side of Achill Island ; A G. M. 

Jiincus ohttcsifonis, Ehrh. L ISTear Dingle, Kerry ; D. M.- D. 8. 
Boggy slopes at foot of Ilrrisbeg Mountain, Conneraara ; A. G M. 

Sparganium apne, Schn. D. 2. In Eallyscanlon Lake, near 
Tramore, Waterfbrd, growing with S, minimum ! R. M. Barrington. 
This extends the range to south of Ireland. 

* Acorus Calamus^ L. D. 12. Lakes at Hillsborough and Ballina- 
hinch, Down, but most probably planted there ; Templeton. Pro- 
fusely on both sides of the Lagan for six or seven miles between Lis- 
burn and Moira, Down; S. A. Stewart, 1866. This is an artificial 
cut, and the plant does not grow in Lough Neagh, nor in the river 
whence the Lagan Canal is drawn. Dr. Patrick Browne, in 1788, was 
aware of its occurrence in the county of Down, but does not give any • 
special locality. According to the best authorities, A, Calamtis is 
nowhere native in the West of Europe.^* 

Potamogetonpolygonifolim^ Poarr. Var. with long, thin, narrowly- 
lanceolate submerged leaves ; \dir. pseudo-fluitans, Syme. 8. Plentiful 
in lakes and streams at Ballinahiuch, Connemara ; A. G. M. This is 
the plant doubtfully given in our book as P. lanceolatuSj and is very 
characteristic of streams connected with lakes in mountainous districts. 
The long submerged leaves are very like those of P. spar ganiif alius. 

P. Zonchites, '*Tuck.,'' Syme in Engl. Bot. D. 5. In the Boyne 
below Iffavan. By this name Dr Syme designates the Potamogeton 
from the Boyne, which we have doubtfully referred to P.'hetero- 

phyllm. 

P. lucem^ "Wulf. D. 7. In the Brosna, near Parsonstown; M. 
Dowd. Var. decipiens^ itfolte, D. 5. In the Canal at Navan; 
Charies Bailey, 1868. 

Naiasflexilis^ Rostk. 8. In 1869 I found it only in Lough Creg- 
duff, three-quarters of a mile west of Eoundstone, and it is probable 
that this i^the same lake in which Prof. Oliver discovered it, and the 
only locality yet found in Ireland ; A. 6. M, 

Eleocharis unigJumis, Link, 4. On the sandhills near Arklow ; A. 
G. M. D. 5. On the shore east of Dollymount, opposite the North 
Bull, Dublin; M. Dowd. D. 12, Shore half a mile below Bangor, 
Down ; S A, Stewart. 

Scirptis parvulus, R, et S. D. 4. Abundant at Arklow, on soft 
mud, overflowed at high tide on the north side of the River Ovoca; 
A. G. M., July 1868 (Journ. Bot. vi., pp. 254, 321). 

Eriophorum latifolium^ Hoppe. D. 8. Bog on the north-west side 
of Urrisbeg Mountain, near Roundstone, growing with Erica mediter' 
ranea, 1869; A. G. M. 

Obs. Eriophorum alpinum, L. "Was announced in 1866 as having 
been gathered by Mr. Ryder on the north shore of Gurthaveha Lake, 
near Millstreet, County Cork (Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc Proc. v.,p. 112), 
but it is now believed that some mistake was made, as the plant cannot 
be found in the alleged locality. (See Brit. Association Rep. 1871, 
Bee. D, p. 129 ; and Journ. Bot. ix., p. 279.) 

Carex divisa, Huds, 5. Nearly extinct in the station discovered 



r 

J 

• SeeJonrn. Bot. vol. ix. (1871), pp. 1C3, 264.— [Kn.] 



IIT^CENT ADDinONS TO XHJE JLOEl OP IKKLAND. 1 47 

byD. M., but two large and flourishing patches were found (1871) in 
a damp meadow close to the Glass Works on the north bank of the 

Liffey ; A. G. M- 

C, axt'IIans, Good. D. 1. Salt Marsh, near Kinsale ! L Carroll, 

1866. This is the only locality in Ireland from which we have seen 

authentic specimens. C. divuha has more than once been miscalled 
axillaris. 

C. rigida, Good. D. 4» Top of Lugnaquillia, Wieklow; A. 

G. M. 

C. punctata^ Gaud. 1. Plentiful in boggy or marshy meadows near 

the chapel at Ardgroom, at some little distance from the sea ; A. G. M. 

.Calamagrostis Epigejos^ Roth. D, 6. Between the road and the 

sea, near Killeauy, Great Aran Island, in two places only; H. C. 

Hart, 1869. 

C striday Nutt. 10. Scawdy Island, near Maghery, is in Tyrone, 
not Armagh; S. A. Stewart. Hence Armagh nmst be erased from 
the list of counties. 12, Shores of Lough Beg, one mile south of 
Church Island ; R, Tate. 

Aira nliginosa^ Weihe. D. 8. Found in July, 1869, growing 
plentifully on the swampy borders of Lough Creg-duff, near Round- 
stone; and afterwards traced by me in many localities through the 
district extending from Clifden to Kilkieran, Connemara; A, G, M. 
(see Journ. Bot. vii., p. 265). 

Poa cowpressa^ L. D. 10. On thp bank by roadside, half a mile 
from Portadown towards Lurgan! "W. M'Millen. D, 12. Roadside 
between Ballycastle and Ballintoy ; D. M. 

SclerocJiIoa Borreri^ Bab. The suggestion as to the possible 
parentage of this Grass must be retracted, or at least qualified, since 
only S, distans and S. maritima grow along with it in the ITorth Lots, 
Dublin. 

X 8. procianlensy Beauv. D. 12. On Albert Quay, Belfast! in small 
quantity, and in one place only ; S. A. Stewart. This Grass has not 
lately been gathered near Dublin, and it is believed that S. Borreri 
was mistaken for it in the metropolitan district. S. procumhem 



seems very rare, and is open to some suspicion of having been 
introduced both at Cork and Belfast, which are the only two Irish 
localities, 

Festtica jVgtcrus^ L. D. 1. T^^alls at Dingle and Milltown, Kerry; 
A. G- M. 2. Common at Avoncore, and occurs in both East and West 
Cork ; Rev, T. Allin (see Journ. Bot. ix., p. 18) D. 4. Springhill, 
Enniscorthy ; J. Morrison. Walls at Arklowand Wieklow; A. G. M. 
D. 6. Kear Ballyvaughan, Clare ; Rev. T. Allin. Probably not un- 
frequent in the middle and south of Ireland., 

Tnttcum piingem^ Pers. D. 4 and 5. Frequen^ on the Murrough 
of Wieklow, and on banks and along ditches on the coast of probably 
all Ireland. A large form found on the shore near Rush has for many 
years been cultivated in the Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, under the 
name of T. Moorei. 

Equisefum hyeynaU, L. D. 6. At Lough Atalia, in the Great 
Island of Aran; H. C. Hart. D. 10. Banks of the Colebrooke River, 
Fermanagh; ,T. 0. Smith. D. 11. Little Bins, Fanet; H. C. ITart 
The plant of the Dundrura sandhills probably will be found to belong 



Moo) 



L 2 



148 XEW SPECIES OF PHANEHOGAMOrs PLANT3. 



U. Mooreiy Jfewman (1853). Milde, thehipjhest recent authority, 
places this plant under E. hyemah as var. Sddeicheri (Milde, 1858) ; 
but, as already observed in Journ. Bot. vi., E, Moorei is the older 
Bame, and should be retained, in preference also to var. paleaceum^ 
Schleicher, adopted by Dr. Hooker in his "Student's Flora," but 
which has been rejected by Milde as anabiguous. 4. Sandhills north 
of Courtown, Wexford. Sandhills near Arklow, and thence north- 
wards in many places along the coast, extending to near Seapark 
House, three miles south of Wicklow. 



-F. tracTiyodon, A. Braun. E. Machtii^ IN'ewm. I). 2. Near St. 
Ann's, Blarney ! (11. Mills) ; Eev. T. Allin, 1871. This will extend 
the range to South of Ireland. 

E. JFihoni, Newm. D. 7. Canal near Mullingar; R. "W, Raw- 
pon. D. 8. Shores of Lough Bulard, near Roundstono ; A. G. M. 
1). 6? Shore of Lough Carra, Mayo; J. Ball. Probably this, rather 
than E. trachyodon. 

Polypodium Phegopteris^ L. D. 2. Rocks above Gurthaveha 
Lake, neaf Millstreet, with Asplenmm viride and Polyst. actdeafum] 
AG. M. 

Aftplenium Adictntian-niynim, L. ; var. amtum^ Bory. D. 6. By the 
Shannon, near Corgrig, Foynes ! Miss C. G. O'Brien. D. 8. Erequent 
in Counemara and south-west Mayo ; G. H. Kinahan. 

Adtantum CapiIIus- Veneris, L. 1, Sea-wall under Mount Tren- 
chard, near Foynes ; Rev. L. O'Brien. 8. Hill north-north-east of 
Shetfey, five miles from Killery Harbour; G. H. Kinahan. Cliff 
on north-west side of Achill Island! Mrs. Boycott. D. 11. In 
one place on the cliffs of Slieve League (found by Rev. L, O'Brien). 

Rev. R. J. Gabbett. 

Isoetes lacusHs^ L. D. 2. In. Gurthaveha Lake, near Millstreet; 
A, G: M. 4. A long slender form, some of whose fronds measured 
26 inches, is in autumn washed ashore from deep water at Vpper 
Lough Bray. Milde gives this lake as a station for /. echinospora^ 
which, however, I have not succeeded in finding there ; A. G .M. In 
Lough Luggelaw ; D. Orr. 



NEW SPECIES OE PHANEROGAMOUS PLANTS IN 
PERIODICALS PUBLISHED IN GREAT BRITAIN DURING 
THE YEAR 1872. 

The following alphabetical list includes the new genera and species 

published during 1872 in the ** Botanical Magazine,'' '' Gardener's 

Chronicle," ** Icones Plantarum," "Journal of Botany,'' ** Journal of 

Linnean Society," and '* Refugium Botanicum.'* In the ** Transactions 

of the Linnean Society," vol. xxviii., pp. 319-432 published during 

the year, is a monograph of the South American species of Ripvo- 

crateacete by Mr. Miers ; the new species in this have not been in- 
cluded, 

AcKosTicuuM (ELAraoGLossTTM) Prestoki, Bahv (Filice.s).— Rio 

Janeiro. (Gard. Chron., p. 1555.) 



1. 



NEW SPECIES OF rHiNEROGAllOUS PLANTS. 



149 



AcKOSTiCHUM (Chrysodium) Wallii, Baker (Fillces). — Ceylon. 

(Journ. Bot. X., p. 146.) 

^KiDEs HouLLKfiANUjr, Rclih, /. (Orchidesc).— Brazil. (Gard. 

Chron., p. 1194.) 

Albtca angolexsis, JFelw. (Liliaceae). — Angola. ^(Ref. Bot., 336 

and Gard. Chron., p. 392 — by error A. ahjssinica,) 
A. TEjTuiyoLiA, Baker. — Cape. (Ref, Bot., 335.) 
Alpinia sxachyodes, Eance (Scitamineae). — Hongliong. (Journ 

Linn. Soc. xiii.,p. 126.) 

Anaglypha ACICULAEI9, BmH, (CompositaB, Inuloideae).— Cape 

Burchcll, n. 5159. (Ic. Plant., 1109.) 

Anguo^cum AETICULATUM, Rcfib.f. (Orcljidese).— Madagascar. (Gard 

Chron., p. 73.) 

AxxHERicuM BuRKEi, BukeT (Liliaceoe)-— Cape of Good Hope 

(Journ. Bot. x., p. 140.) 

A. FLAGELLiFOEME, Baker,— Qdi]yQ of Good Hope. (Journ. Bot 

X., p. 140.) 

A. Gerrardi, 5ai:^i\— Cape of Good Hope. (Journ. Bot. x., p 

137.) 

A. lifXRicATUM, Baker.— Cix^Q of Good Hope. (Journ. Bot. x., p 

140.) 

A- THYRsoiDEUiT, Baker. — Cape of Good Hope. (Journ Bot. x., p 



139.) 



A. Zeyheri, Baker — Cape of Good Hope. 



Journ. Bot. x., p 



140.) 

Aphelaxdra sttlphurea, Eook.f. (Acanthaceee).— Guyaquil, (Bot 

Mag., 5951.) 

Atylosia geminiflora, Bak. (Leguminosae). — W. India. (Jouru 

Linn. Soc. xiii.,p. 185.) ... 

A. GLANDCL09A, i^aZ^.— Bouibay. (Jqurn. Linn. Soc. xiu., p. 186.) 
AxiNiPHYLLiJit, Benlh. (Coinpositse, Helianthoideie).— ^i. corym 

hommy Benth,— Mexico. (Ic. Plant., 1118.)— ^4. tomentosum, Beuth 

• — Mexico. (Ic riant, xii., p. 17.) 

BiTHMANTA BuRTK, Endr. etRchhf. (Orchidoce).— Costa Bica 

(Gard. Chron., p. 1099.) 

BALurNiA (Pileostigma) taveolata, Bah. (Leguminosoc).— \V. 

India. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., p. 188.) 

BoLBornYLLUM LEMXI6CATUM, Parish (Orchidaceae),— Moulmein. 

(Bot. Mag,, 5961.) , 

BHACHYAcns ME2^TH0D0RA, Beyitk (CompositaB, Asteroideie).— 

Sikkim. (Ic. Plant, 1106.) 

B. OBOVATA, ^^tt^^A.— Mesopotamia or Kurdistan, Kotschy,n. 546a 

(Ic. Plant, xii., p. 7.) 

B. ROBUSTA, ^^;i/A,— Himalaya. (Ic. Plant, xii., p. 6.) 
BRow.xEABiRscuELLir, I£ooLJ\ (Leguminosae, Caesalpineae).— Cura- 

cas. (Bot. Mag., 5998.) 

Brotstigia CooPERr, Baker (Amaryllidaceae),— Cape. (Bef. Bot., 

330.) 

BuLBijjfE Mackbnii, TTook. / (Liliaceae).— yataL (Bot. Mag., 
5955.) 

Blxus Harlakdi, Hance=:^B, semperviWns, Benth. non L. (Buxa- 
cese), — Hongkong. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., p. 123.) 



■ 

150 NEW SPECIES OF PHANEROGAMOUS PLANTS. 

^ 

Caiuhea testita, Bahr (Marantacese). — Bahla. (Eef. Bot., 
311.) 



Caiostephane, Jienth. (Compositse, Inuloideae). — C. dharicata, 
Bentk— South-east Tropical Africa. (Ic. Plant, 1111.) 

Camptosteitox, Mast. (Malvaceae, Bombaceffi). — C. SchuUiii, Mast 
Kortli Australia. (Ic. Plant., 1119.) 

Caeex Fabei, JSance (Cyperaceae). — i^orth China. (Journ. Linn. 
Soc. xiii., p. 90.) 

C. siDERosTicTA, Hance.—Eovth. China. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., 
p. 89.) 

Caxasetum scuEHA, i?c/iJ./. (Orchideai) 
p. 1003.) ^ ' 

Celosia Htjttoxi, Mast. (AmarantaceaD)— Java. (Gard. Chron., p. 
215, fig. 84.) 

Cehatoptxis, mole. f. {^•ab\Sice2d)=Rondehtia ? verUnacea, 
Griseb.— Cuba, Wright, n. 2G25. (Ic. Plant., 1195.) 

Chrtsanthemum (Pyhethettm) K.iwii, Hook. / (Compositce).— 
Morocco. (Bot. Mag., 5997.) 

Chusquea SPE.XCEI, Ernst. (Gramine^).— Nai^iata. Caracas. 
(Journ. Bot. x., p. 262.) 

CiENKo-n'SKTA KiEKii, Eook. f. (Scitamiuea;).— Zanzibar. (Bot. 
Mag., 5994.) ^ ^ 



AURAN 



(Ic. Plant., 1104.) 



— Antigua. 



CcELiopsis Rchh.f. (Orchideae).— C. hyacinthosma.—'2a.nQ.m&. (Gard. 

Chron., p. 9.) ^ 

^ CoEYJOTLA, Rooh f. (Ruhiacex)=Mttchella pilosa, Benth.— Peru, 
Spruce, n. 5505. (Ic. Plant., 1123.) 

CoEYSANTHES CHEESEMAjfi, iZboi. / (Orchide^).— Is^ew Zealand. 
(Ic. Plant., 1120.) , 



Cape. (Bef. Bot 



I.EASSULA QTTADEIFIDA, Bat 
298.) 

Dasylieion laxifloetjm. Baker (Liliace^). -Mexico. (Journ. Bo 

BENDEOBltM (PEniLOKrM) AMETHXSTOGLOSSLil, RcM. f. (OrchidcJE 

■Philippine Islands. (Gard. Chron., p. 109 ) 
600?) ''^'''°''^^''' ^^'^'^ 'i ^'^'^h. f. Jfs.-Moulmein. (Bot. Mag 

D. EHODOCENTErM, Mchh. f. 

(GaS X^TSP' "'"'"' <^"'"^»)-I-* Howe's fsland,. 

Mexico. (Ic. riant, xu., p. 15.) 

GranX^^rn^^f fi^ ^^^^-, Hoot.f.-New 

_^^^DoEsiExiA BowmZxxiaxa, Baker (Moreffi).~Brazil. (Eef. Bot., 
p. 194'P'^^^^ ^^"^^'^^^ ^'^^-f- (Orchide^).-Bra.il. (Gard. Chron.. 
ChrS^'V-^e'ee'^.f ^^^^^*^'^^*'^^^^^'^' ^<^^^-/- (Orchide^)._IIort. (Gard. 



I 



t 



NEW SPECIES OF PHANEE0G.1M0US PLANTS- 151 

t 

EuANXHEMUM ELATiTM, -ffwrs (Acanthacese). — (Journ. Bot. x., p. 
46.) 

FEEGrsoNiA, UooL /, (Ruhmeex). = Borreria tetracoccay Thwaites 
Eaum., p. 442.— Ceylon. (Ic. Plant., 1124.) 

Ebesej^ta PAsciCTjLATA, Bohi$ (Compositie, Asteroidese). — Cape. (Ic. 
Plant., 1103.) 

Gladiolus PUBPUEEO-AUEATUS, SooJcf, (Iridacese). — Natal. (Bot. 
Majr., 5944.) 

Gtmn-ogeakma (Eugtmxogram:u:a) decoiiposita, Baker (Eilices). — 
Andes. (Gard. Chron., p. 1587.) 

Hem:ixelia(A:«:phicosmia) Mooeei, _5tfXvr (Eilices). — Lord Howe's 

Islands. (Gard. Chron., p. 252.) 

IIeeman:nia fascicttlata, ^^Z-^r(Sterculiaceae). — Cape. (Ref, Bot., 
289.) 

HoaiocK^TE, Beyith. (Compositse, Inuloideae). — H. conferta^ Benth. 
Cape. (Ic. Plant., 1110.) 

Ieis Eobinson-iana, F, MillL (Iridacese). — Lord Howe's Islands, 
(Gard. Chron., p. 393, fig. 123, 124.) 

I. tomiolopha, Hance. — China. (Journ. Bot. x., p. 229.) 

Kniphofia CATJLEscEys, Balcev (Liliaceae). — Cape. (Bot. Mag., 
5946.) 

L^LiA Jongheana, Rclib.f. (OrcMdeae). — Brazil. (Gard. Chron., 
p. 425, fip:. 128 ) 

Letjcopholis LATiFOLiA, _g^w^A. (Compositse, Inuloidea?), — Eio do 
Janeiro. (Ic. Plant, xii., p 14.) 

LiNAEiA JTAEOCCAXA, Hooh, (Scropliulai'iacea}). — Morocco. (Bot. 
Mag., 5983.) 

LiPAEis Saitndeesiaxa, RM. /- (Orchidea^).— Jamaica. (Gard. 
Chron,, p. 1{;03.) 

LisTEOSTACHYS CEPHAXOTEs, Rohl, /. (OrchideEe). — West Tropical 
Africa. (Gard. Chron., p. 1687) 

LocKHAETiA AM<ENA, Endt. et Rchl.f, (Orchideae). — Costa Eica., 
(Gard. Chron , p. &m.) 

LoPHOLiENA PLATYpnrLLA, Beiitli. (CompositEe, Senecionidese). 

Cape. (Ic. Plant, 1113.) 

Maceozamia coeallipes, HoqI, f. (Cycadese). — New South Wales. 
(Bot. Mag., 5943.) 

MASDP^YALLrA CniMiEEA, Rckh, /. (Orchidese).— South America. 
(Gard. Chron., p. 463.) 

Mesospikimum vulcanicttm, Rehh,f. (Orchldere)— Tropical Amenca 

Spruce, n. 6243. (Gard. Chron , p. 393.) 

Millettia pallida, i?iz?2r. (Leguminosfls) . —Bombay. (Journ. Linn. 

Soc. xiii., p, 187.) 

MoEMODEs FErcTiFLExrH, Rclib. / (Orchidcse). — Costa Eica. 
(Gard. Chron, p. 141.) 

MusA SANGT7UCEA, BooJc. f, (Musese).— Assam. (Bot. Maf?., 5975.) 

NoiniANDiA, Hooh f, (Eubiacese). — N> Ifeo-caMonica^ Hook. f. — 
New Caledonia. (Ic, Plant, 1121.) 

OcTo:!iLLiiiA TEicoLOE, Rehl\ f. (Orchidea?).— Brazil, (Gard. Chron., 



p. 1035 ) 

OnoNTOGLo^sTTM 1X1^01.^^^ RM. / (Orchidefc).— Peru. (Gard. 
Chron., p. 1035.) 



f 



152 IfEW SPECIES OF PHANEHOGAMOTJS PLANTS. 

r 

t 

0. STENOCHILUM, Ztnd. et Rchh.f. (Gard, Chron., p. 969.) 
Olivia, Schultz ^/^.(Coinpositse, Heleaioideae). — O.tricus^i'SySch. 

Bip. Mexico, (Ic. Plant., UOS.) 

Oncidium alcicorne, Rchh.f. (Orchidese). New Grenada. (Gard. 

Ctron., p. 969.) 

0. (Cyetochilum) in-sctjlptum, Rclih, f. (Gard. Chron,, p. 1035.) 
OjfcoBA STiPULATA, OUv. (Bixineae). — Tropical Africa. (Trans. 
Linn. Soc. xxix., p. 31.) • . 

O.vBrriA, Benth, (Compositse, Inuloideae). — OJinearis^ Benth. 
Cape. (Ic. Plant., 1112.) 

Orobajn'che ombeochakes, Eance (Orobanchaceae). — ^N'ortli China. 
(Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., p. 84.) 

0. PYCxosTACHrA, J7a?i(?^.— IS^orth China. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., 
p. 84.) ^ - ' 

OxYTBOPTS PSAMMocHARis, Hance (Leguminosae).— North China. 
(Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., p. 78.) 

0. SUBPAXCAIA, Hance.— ^Qxt\x China. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., 
p. 78.) ^ 



Pentach^ta 
(Ic. Plant., 1101.) 



■Mexico. 



Pepeeomia ptjbeeula, Baker (Piperace^),— Vera Cruz. (Ref. 
PicscATOEEA Daxaxa, McU. f. (Orchideae).—New Grenada. (Gard. 

Chron., p. 1618.) ^ 

PniLAGEiuA (genus hybrldum inter Pkilesiam luxifoliam (mas.) et 
Lapagenamroseam{S^m.)-P. F^tMu, Mast. Hort. Yeitch. (Gard. 
Chrou., p. 358, fig. 119, 120.) 

/■D ^^^V^'^^^^so^^ RUBKo-PuifCTAXUM, Hooh. / (Aroidcje).— Brazil. 
(Bot. Mag., 5947.) ^ 

Bot^™)"^ r.NiLATEEALE, Bahv ^Marantacc^).— Madagascar. (Ref. 

Bot^332T^ MACLEA^xicA, BaJcer (AmaryUidaceiE).— Chili. (Eef. 

TT,,lS^^7r''^ MoxLissiMA, Dalz. (Leguminosie).-E:ande8h, West 
India. (Journ. Lmn. Soc. xiii., p. 187.) 

(Bof.M^.,^6oT4T™"'^ ™™*' ^'"''■■^- (I-aMato,.-Morocco. 



Linn. Soc. xiii., p. 85.) 



JIance. —l^ovth China. (Journ. 



S. XAfiAXAciroLiA, Coss. ^55.— Morocco. 

SAECA2n:HU 



) 



Chroa™555.)''''^''''''' ^' ^^''^^^''')-^^^^^^- (Gard. 

xiii.^p'^2470''''^'^' ^"^f" (^^^^^^^)— Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. 

S' rZ? Vf '"-"^^.T'^Vr (^''^^°- ^^°"- Soc. xiii., p. 249.) 
S Hfv. ' ^t'^— ^atal. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., p. 247.) 

8 KiiS?"^ t^"'-7^°l^^^^^""^- (•^°"^^- 1^-^- Soc xiii., p.^235.) 
S K?l?ssiT 1'i~^T^.^f • ^^°"^'^- I-^^^- Soc. xiii., p 254.) 



■ 

r 

1 



•NOTICES OF BOOKS. 153 

StachycephalijM — Schultz — Bip, (Compositse, Helianthoideae).— aS. 
Mexicanum^ Sch. Bip. Mexico. (Ic. Plant, 1102.) 

SiELis CAXALICTTLATA, RcJil. / (Orchidcse). — Bogota. (GanL 
Chron., p. 1718.) 

SiENOMESisoN Pearcei, Baher (Amaryllidacefe). — Andes of Bolivia. 
(Kef. Bot., 308.) 

Tephrosia eeiosemoides, OUv, (Leguminosse). — Tropical Africa. 
(Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix., p. 57, tab 32.) 

Teichoglottis easciata, Rchb. /. (Orchideae), — East Tropical Asia ? 

(Gard. Chron., p. 699.) 

Trichopilia eostrata, Bchh. /. (Orchidese). — [New Grenada. (Gard. 
Chron., p. 798.) 

Tropidia geak-dis, Hance (Ovohidie^), — Hongtong, (Journ. Linn. 
Soc, xiii., p. 126.) 

Urgikea Beccaeii, Baker (Liliacese). — Abyssinia. (Journ. Linn. 
Soc. xiiL, p. 223.) 

U, oranmflora, Baker, — Hor Tamanib, Eed Sea. (Journ. Liun. 
Soc. xiii, p. 224.) 

UvARiA KiExir, Oliv, (Anonaceae).- -Zanzibar. (Bot. Mag., 
6006.) 

YrccA Ellacombu, Baker (Liliacese). — Southern United States ?. 
(Ref. Bot., 3170 

Y, ExsiFOLiAj Baker, — Mexico? (Eef. Bot., 318.) 

Y. EXiGUA, ^^^^r.— Southern United States? (Eef. Bot., 314.) 

Y. GUATEMALE^^sis, Baker. — Mexico and Guatemala. (Ref. Bot., 
313.) ' 

Zygopetalum (Kefeesteixia) lactew, Bchh. /. (Orchidea^). — 
Chiriqui. (Gard. Chron., p. 1290.) 



l^mtt^ of 23ooR^. 



A General System of Botany^ descriptive and analytical. By E. Le 
Maout and J. Decaiske, With 5500 figures by L. Steikheil and 
A, RiocRETTX. Translated from the original by Mrs. Hooxee. The 
Orders arranged after the Method followed in the Universities and 
Schools in Great Britain, its Colonies, America, and India ; with 
Additions, an Appendix on the Natural Method, and a Synopsis of 
the Orders ; by J. D. Hookek, C.B., &c., &c. London : Longmans 
and Co. 1873. (Pp.1066.) 

Just a century has passed since Antoine Laurent de Jussieu read 
tefore the Academic des Sciences his celebrated paper on thei?a?iw«- 
mlacece^ which gave its author the clue to that philosophical grouping 
of genera under natural orders published the next year, 1774, upon 
which as a foundation the ''Natural System'' as it at present exists 
has been laboriously constnicted by many builders. 

To afford a comprehensive knowledge of this system the original 
" Traite General de Botanique " of MM. Le Maout and Deci * 



\ 



154 NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

r 

publiated m 1868, has no doubt greatly contributed. Clearly written, 
illustrated far more accurately and copiously than any previous book 
of its class, and published at a very cheap price, its circulation ex- 
tended much beyond Trance, and in this country the work was found 
to supply to a great extent a want much felt — a well-illustrated general 
account of the vegetable kingdom, of scientific merit, and on a level 
with the great progress made of late years in the department of syste- 
matic Botany. The chief drawback toits general use in England, besides 
the use of the Erench language, lay in the sequence of the natural 
families, which is that of A. de Jussieu, still used in the lectures at 
the Jardin des Plantes, but little familiar to English students. 

In this En;;lish translation the natural orders have been re- 



ged in accordance with the sequence — a modification of De Can- 
dolle's — in general use in this country, and adopted in the latest 
general view of the whole subject, Bentham and Hooker's ** Genera 
Plantarum,'' so far as that important work has yet reached. The editor 
has in addition inserted in their proper position twenty-four orders 
omitted in the original work, and has added under the larger orders out- 
lines of the latest classification of the genera under tribes and sub-tribes. 
The book is divided into two parts. The first, ** Organography 
and Glossology," has been condensed from the original, and now con- 
sists of little more than 100 pages, into which it has been essayed to 
compress a succinct but comprehensive introduction to Botany. It 
is preceded by a bald introductory chapter. The book would have 
lost little of value if this first part had been altogether omitted ; it is 
by no means on an equality with the body of the work, and there are 
several better short elementary treatises of similar scope already exist- 
ing in the Engish language. Many of the figures, too, in this part 

f are the old familiar ones of the text-books, and therefore do not 
possess the value of those in the systematic portion, which, as we are 
told by the editor, were largely prepared from ^' M. Decaisne's unique 
collection of analytical drawings, the fruits of his life-long botanical 
labours.'' The account of Phyllotaxy is good and well illustrated. 
One is sorry to see that the editor did not correct the misleading use 
of the terms right- and left- handed rotation as applied to twining 
organs, which are here defined to mean exactly the reverse of their 
signification in all English text-books. 

The second part, the body of the work, consists of Illustrations 
and Descriptions of the IS'atural Families. The original work is here 
closely followed, the only alteration being as above noticed in sequence 
and the intercalation of some additions by the editor. The mode in 
which each family is treated is very simple— a short diagnosis con- 
sisting of its most essential characters, followed by a full description 
illustrated by a profusion of figures of singular'excellence both from 
a botanist's and an artist's point of view, a selection of illustrative 
genera (to which the editor has often largely added), and a sketch of 
the affinities, geographical distribution, and properties of the order- 
In comparing it with Lindley's *' Vegetable Kingdom," the only 
work of equal authority in our language, it is impossible to deny 

^ to the older treatise several advantages over its more recent rival. The 
copious citation of other authors, a very useful feature in Lindley's 
work, is almoiit absolutely wanting In the present volume, and the 



NOTICES OP BOOKS. 155 

account of the uses of - plants is far less complete ; nor must we 
forget that Lindley gave a full list of all known genera under each 
oi-der, instead of a selection. On the other hand, we have here greater 
clearness and simplicity of description, and far more copious pictorial 
illustration, besides the benefit of having been written seventeen years 
later, and, in this Enj^lish edition, of the editor's critical revision up to 
the present year. Thus under Ruliacem and Comj>ositce we find 
sketches of the arrangement of these vast families adopted in the 
volume just published of the '' Genera Plantanim," and in the large 
Monopetalous and Apetalous orders outlines of the most recent classi- 
fication. At p. 644 will be found a sketch of the arrangement of the 
ParonychiecB prepared for the '' Genera Plantarum," The Monocoty- 
ledons are very fully treated, and the Glumaceous orders are described 
and illustrated with much greater fulness than is usual ; the same re- 
mark applies with greater force to the Cryptogams, the account of 
which is admirably clear. 

A point which affords room for a good deal of speculation is upon 
what principle the terminations of the natural orders have been de- 
cided. We have in this book, for instance, Malvacem^ ParomjcMem^ 
Bixinem, Jlypericinem^^ Chenopochce^ Lytlirariem^ and other forms. The 
simple rule upon which the first was made might be as well applied 
to the rest, and indeed two or three modifications would cover all pos- 
sible cases. The matter is not of the greatest importance, but sim- 
plicity and uniformity of treatment would be more in accordance with 
the general spirit of classification, and be practically more conve- 
nient, especially iii a text-book for students. 

It is to the appendix, by the editor, in which the orders of the body 
of the work are arranged under groups, or ^^ cohorts," in accordance 
with their natural affinities, that the botanist will turn with most 
interest, as it embodies a sketch of the probable arrangement to be 
followed in future parts of the great work already alluded to, the 
'^ Genera Plantarum " of TJentham and Hooker, at present only com- 
pleted to the end of the Compositce, The Monopetalce in tliis arrange- 
nient are divided into two series with inferior and superior ovary 
respectively, and conclude with the ^' anomalous order '' Flantagin€(B ; 
and the Apetalm into two subdivisions, characterised in the same way, 
the petaloid iVy(?^fl^^m^^ leading ofi^, and the Santalal cohort (containing 
Loranthacece^ Santalacecej and BalanopJioracece) closing the series (with 
the exception of the anomalous Podostemacem, which are '*of very 
dubious affinity "). The GymnospermsioWo'^. In the Monocotyledons 
''^e again find the adhesion of the perianth to the ovary made to afford 
the character of leading importance, separating the first division from 
the second with a superior ovary containing the bulk of the class. 
The Cryptogams are grouped in the usual manner. 

Prefixed to this conspectus is a short introduction on the Classifica- 
tion of Plants, which will be read with great pleasure by all interested 
in the perplexing difficulties which beset all attempts to express 
affinities by a lineal series. The plain and decisive manner in which 
these questions arc here treated shows a mind long accustomed to deal 
"With such puzzles, and presents a singularly clear view of the points 
at issue, and their practical solution by the author. As a sample the 
following may be quoted : — ** 1 am disposed to approve of the sequence 



156 NOTICES OF BOOKS 



adopted "by De Candolle, which places Monopetalm in the centre of 
the series, flanked on either hand by Polypetalm and Incomplelce^ 
which two latter, as remarked above, have many cross aflinities, but 
have few affinities of consequence with Monopetalce. The cohorts 
may thus he fancifully likened to the parti-coloured beads of a neck- 
lace joined by a clasp, the beads touching at similarly coloured points 
of their surfaces. The position of each bead in the necklace is deter- 
mined hy the predominance of colours common to itself and those 
nearest to it, whilst the number and proportion of the other colours 
which each bead presents indicate its claims to he placed elsewhere" 
in the necklace — in other words, such colours represent the cross 
affinities which the cohorts display with others remote from the posi- 
tion they occupy." H. T, 

Eandlook of Hardy Trees^ Shrubs^ and Herlaceoiis Plants, Containing 
Descriptions, Native Countries, &c., of a Selection of the Best Species 
in Cultivation, &c. Based on the Trench Work of MM. Decaisne 
and Kaudin, entitled '* Manuel de 1' Amateur des Jardins," and in- 
cluding the original woodcuts by Riocreux and Leblane. By W. B. 
HEirsLEY; London: Longmans. 1873. (Pp. xliv,, 688. Fig. 264.) 
This is a hook intended for amateurs and gardeners who have 
some acquaintance, though not an extensive one, with the science of 
Botany. The great part of the work consists of descriptive garden 
Botany — that is, of brief description in plain language of a large selection 
of cultivated species hardy in English gardens. These are arranged in 
accordance with the natural system, in the order usually followed hy 
botanists in this country, and short diagnoses of the natural families 




Eranthis hyemalis (| nat. size). 



and genera are given. An artificial key to the natural orders is pre- 
fixed (a modilication of that in Lindley's " Yegetahle Kingdom ''). by 
which It IS hoped that an unknown plant may he referred to its family, 
lechmcal language IS, as far as possible, avoided, and the more ob- 
scure characters, such as those derived from the ovule and ovary, are 
altogether omitted ;_ a glossary is also given, and the Latin names are 
all accented and their derivation traced. 

In addition to the descriptive part, the hook contains a short trea- 
tise on practical gardening, with a very hrief outline of vegetable 



physiolo 



Those who are acquainted Tvith MM. De'caisne and Nandin's 
extensive work will not need to be told that tlie book before lis is prac- 



BOTANICAL NEWS. 157 



tically a new treatise, though Mr, Hemsley has no doubt been consi- 
derablv indebted to the eminent botanists and horticulturists named. 

V 

The arrangement of the material is entirely different ; many plants 
admitted in the French book as being hardy in France are omitted, 
whilst on the contrary many others have been added ; the descriptions, 
too, are Mr. Hemsley's own. The former connection of the author with 
Kew Herbarium, where he showed himself a careful and accurate bota- 
nist, affords a reasonable expectation, which is not disappointed on in- 
vestigation, that such work has been well done. So far as they go, the 




Primula sinensis (J nat. sizel. 

accounts of the species, remarks on their history, native countries, &c., 
may be confidently accepted as correct ; their fault lies in their brevity, 
a matter doubtless unavoidable if the book was to be kept to the limit 
of a volume. 

But it is no doubt the illustrations which are the attractive 
feature. For delicacy and truthfulness these can scarcely be sur- 
passed, and are certainly far ahead in these respects of any woodcuts 
of plants hitherto produced in this country. The wish to possess such 
beautiful and lifelike portraits of garden favourites will doubtless cause 
niany to purchase the Handbook who are less able to appreciate the 
careful and concise descriptions which accompany them. By the 
kindness of the publishers specimens of the illustrations are inserted 
in this notice. H. T. 



25otaiiical |5cto^* 



Articles i^' Joukxals. — Mahch. 

Grevillea.—^L C. Cooke, *' British Fungi'' (contd.).— AV. A 
Leighton, '' Notes on Hellbom's Lichens of Lule Lapmaik " (coutd.). 



158 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

W. G. Smith, "K'ew Ascorayoetous Fungi" {Mitnila alia, Pe%iza 
{Aleuria) IsaheUina, P. {A.) tmdata) (tab. 9 and 10^.— M. C, Cooke, 
" A Parasite on Peziza.'" 

JTedwi^ia.-^Yenturi, "On Ortlwtrichum^' (cont'd.). 

Botarmche Zeitung.—V. Sorauer, " Influence of Irrigation on Culti- 
vation of Barley."— P. Ascherson, " Tunica Saxif rag am Silesia."— A. 
W. Eichler, " On tlie Structure of the Flower of Canna'' (tab. 2). 

i^/t>ra.— W. Velten, "Movements and Structure of Protoplasr- " 
(contd.).— E. Warming, "Review of Danish Botanical Literature.'^ 
H. Wawra, " Notes on Flora of Hawai Islands " {Pelea TFaiahalm, 
n.8., P. Hawaiensis, n.s , P. Kaalce, n.s.).— A. Engler, "Notes on S. 
American Olacinece and IcacinemP 

Oesferr. Pot Zeltsclirifi.—K. Kerner, ' ' The Hybrid Yarrows of 
the Alps {Achillea Thomaslana, A. hehetica, A. Vallesiaca, A. 
Pummiann, A^montana, A. impunctata, A. Laggeri, A. hybrida, A. 
Jfomm««).— J. Pantocsek, " Plantae nov. ann. 1872 Hercegovinam et 
MontenegTo coll." ( Viola speciosa, n s., Vicia serrata, n.s., PwguicuJa 
te^fl, n.s.).— A. Eehmann, "Diagnoses of the Known Hieracia of 
Galici_aandBukowina''-E. yon Halacsy, " New Localities for Lower 
^"^f,^^!^^^- -S-Wavvra, "Sketches of the Voyage of the i)o W 
(contd.).— R.yonllechtritz, "Notes onKnapp'sPfl. Galiziens" (contd.). 
_ Journ Lmnean Soc, no. 69 (March 2lst).-J. G. Baker, " Ke- 
visiou of the Genera and Species of Scille^ and Chlorosalea^ " 



•W. Mitten, "I 
(plate 5V— W 



fh. n T,r •• ^, • -^eig^ton, "On Two New Species of 

the Genus Mycoponum, Flotow " (pi. 6).-W. Thiselton-Dyer, " On 
the Determmatmn of Three Imperfectly Known Species of Indian 

Sriw' rn1- ;T^- '""^^' "^^ ^ ^^- ^-- °^ t^^ Order 



m 



m 

G. Bentham and J. D Hooker, " Genera Pkntaruni 



S d;; ^."^"■^tT'^n''' Compcnt<,^^ (Reeve and Co, 248.)-Le Maout 

Hooker Tf'll l\^T^^ ^^ytr'" «^" ^"t^^y " ; translated by Mrs. 
^ooker, edited by J. D. Hooker Longmans and Co 52s 6d 'i -G. 

Henderson and A 0. Hume " Lihore^o Yarkand '' "(pfeeve aVd' Co 

(t:'Z^\: 1 r \ T?'*'l'»"' ^^^^°""^ ^^^ pi- ^a^c. du Dauphine " 
(Grtnoble, 108.).-A. Pansch, T. Buchenau, W Focke &c "Die 

(Wn)"'"'' ^^ordpolarfahrt in den J. 1869 u. 1870.' St^nik/' 

KruTdk.l';? ^"f f • l^- '• ^^ ^^' "^^ ^^^^^'^ 0^ the " Nederlandsch 
HoUand bv Pri^/'n 1 '"^''^°' ' ^^^' ^^ ^""^^ ^^^^"tly discovered in 
T^^aullf^^^^ ^v^P'P'" °^ the geographical distribution 

be^ri^fotthtitlK^^^^ ' ""' ^°' ^"-^^^^^^ -^- -^ 1-^i^^^^ 

his ^nvesSr ^^^ •'"' "\ ^'^^^^^^^ has published the results of 
" Die Bef uc Z ? ^^f ct-fertil,sation of plants, under the title 
Anpasfung n Sic^^^ ^^""^" ^^^'^^ ^^-^^ten und 'die gegenseitigen 



mon?4'apW 'thf r ^r der Naturforsh. Ges. zu Halle " contains a 
mono^rapn 01 the CentrolepxAaceee, by Herr HieronvnmiiR 

^.n„al, Mr. !,, Kurz ha, published ctacriptlons of 105 new plants 



BOTANICAL NEWS. 159 

from Barraa, Pegu, Tenasserim, and the Andamans. Three are (7o?;n 
positce, and the remainder belong to the orders which are in English 
descriptive works placed before that group. Two new genera° are 
described — Apteron {Rhamnem) and Zollingeria {Sapindacem). Part 2 
is in the press. Further particulars of these plants will be given in 
the author's forthcoming ** Contributions towards a Knowledge of the 
Barmes^e Flora." 

A translated abstract of Hildebrand's paper on the fertihsation of 
Grasses appears in the '' Gardener's Chronicle" for March 15 and 22, 

In reference to the announcement made in our number for December 

last of a projected English translation of Sachs' ''Lehrbuch der 

Botanik," we are enabled to state that the translation will be made from 

the 3rd edition, which has just been published in Germany, and contains 

a large amount of new matter. The publisliers will be the Clarendon 

Press of Oxford, who have secured the use of reproductions from the 

460 woodcuts with which the original work is illustrated. The 

translation has been entrusted to Mr. A. W. Bennett, who will also 

annotate the English edition, and will be assisted in this by Prof. 

Thiselton-Dyer. It is expected to be ready by about the end of the 
year. 

Mr. S, Kurz's report on the flora and forests of Pegu is in the 
press, and will be shortly published by the Indian Government. 

Mr. C. B. Plowright, of King's Lynn, proposes to issue, under the 
title of SphcBnacei Britannici^ a few sets of 100 specimens of British 
Spha^rlas. The price of each set will be £l, 

^ M. E. Cosson has been elected a member of the Academic des 
Sciences. 

Mr E. M.Holmes, Curator of the Pharmaceutical Society's Museum, 
has been appointed lecturer on Botany at the TTestminster Hospital. 

By the death from pneumonia of Dr. John Torrey, on March 
10th, the United States lose the oldest and one of the most 
eminent botanists in the country. Born at Ifevr York in 1796, he 
resided constantly in that city, where, besides holding several public 
appointments, he practised as a physician.' He took his degree ia 
1818, and in the following year published a catalogue of the plants 
growing in the neighbourhood of New York. This was followed in 
1824 by the first volume of the '* Floraof the J^orthern and Middle Sec- 
tions of the United States," and since that date Dr. Torrey has been 
perhaps the foremost botanist in opening up the floras of new districts 
of North America. Many of his papers are in Eeports and Trans- 
actions ; his '' Flora of the State of New York " (1843), and the un- 
finished '* Flora of North America," written in conjunction with Dr. 
A. Gray, are works of great importance. Besides his botanical fame, 
he was also distinguished as a chemist, and at the time of his 
death held the office of Superintendent of the Government Assay 
Office. Some years ago he presented his vast herbarium and library to 
the Columbia College of New York. Dr. Torrey's name is comme- 
morated in the Coniferous genus Torreya of Walker Amott. 

The death is announced, on March 13th, at Yienna, of J. G. Beer, 
at the a^e of sixty-nine. He was the author of papers and monographs 
on the Bromeliacem and other Monocotyledons. 

>Ve have received a circular proposing the formation of a society, 



160 . BOTANICAL NEWS. 

under the somewhat uncouth title of the *' Botanical Locality Record 
Club/* the objects of which are to be the verification and re-record, 



I 



or expunging, of all old stations for rare plants, the publication of 
an annual record of the exact localities, and the formation of a herba- 
rium. Members are desired, three or four in each county, who will 
assist to carry out these objects in their respective districts by sending 
specimens to Dr. F, A. Lees, of Hartlepool, who after authenti- 
cation will forward them to Mr. T. B. Blow, of Welwyn, Herts, who 
will act as keeper of the herbarium. A subscription of five shillings 
is required to defray publishing expenses. It appears to ua that the 
objects aimed at by the proposed organisation, so far as they are 
desirable, are already sufficiently accomplished by the existing machi- 
nery provided by the Botanical Exchange Club — which has the 
advantage of Dr. Boswell-Syme as curator — Mr. H. C. Watson's 
series of invaluable works, the numerous county Floras, and the 
pages of this and other journals; whilst the public herbarium of 
British plants in the British Museum is being constantly kept up, and 
forms a history of local botany extending over a long period. With 
reference to the extinction of species, it is not per se a matter of 
much importance whether a given plant has or has not been 
destroyed in a given spot, unless the causes of its destruction are care- 
fully investigated ; over and over again have plants pronounced by 
some too hasty collector to be ''extinct " been ''rediscovered " by 
a more practised or fortunate botanist. Though it is probably a 
rare event for a species to be exterminated by the direct action of 
rarity-hunters, yet the publication in so wholesale a manner as pro- 
posed of the " exact localities of all the rarer British plants " is likely 
in some instances to lead to such a result, in which case the Re- 
cord Club might unhappily find itself obliged to "expunge" more 
stations than are ever likely to be destroyed by the more indirect 
operation of ordinary causes. We trust that in the interest of British 
Botany the promoters of the scheme will reconsider its plan, and if 
need be direct their energies into some channel — such as an inquiry 
into the causes of extinction, the action of drainage, of railways, 
cultivation, &c., on our flora — which would be at once of greater use 
to science, and less likely to do harm. 

'Botanical Prizes. — The Botanical Society of Edinburgh offers a 
prize of ten guineas for the best and approved essay on the repro- 
duction of Lycopodiacemj to be competed for by students who have 
attended the Botanical Class at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 
during at least one of the three years preceding the award, and has 
gained honours in the class examinations. The author is expected to 
give results of practical observations and experiments made by him- 
self on the subject, illustrated by microscopical specimens. The 
essay and specimens to be given in on or before 1st May, 1876, with 
a sealed note containing the author's name, and a motto outside, 
facilities will be given for carrying on observations and experiments 
at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. — A prize of ten guineas is 
offered, through the Council of the Botanical Society, by Charles 
Jenner, Esq., for the best and approved essay on the structure and 
reproduction of the Frondose and Foliaceous Jungermanniacem. This 
prize is stibject to all the conditions specified in the case of No. 1. 



\ 



161 



Original %ttitW, 



ON PHYSOTEICHIA, A NEW GENUS OF JimUtlFEiiM 

FEOM ANGOLA. 
By W. p. Hieen, M.A. 

^ 

(Tab. 132.; 

PHYSOTEICHIA, Z?i>m.-^Calycis dentes actiti, siib'elorigato-subulati 
quidpiam majquales, erectiusculi, in fructif vix vel parum aucti 
persistentes Petala ob'cordata ob laciflulairf inflexairi, uninervia non 
radiantia, albida, glabra. Sfylopodia crassa, sublobulata ; stigmata 
magna, ^tropurpurea. Fructus elHpsoideo-oblongus, subteres, com- 
miBsura lata j carpeUa facie* subplatfa ; jugs pritoaria pfomineatia 
oDtusa, subaeaualia, papillia densis cylindrlcis vesiciflatira turgidis 
munita? jrfga secundaria 0; vittae' ad vaUecdas g-olitarisB (vel ad 
valleculas latetales gemina^ ?). Carpophoriinr bipartxtiiiri. Semen 
tacie coticavum.- 

-BEerba perennis, rigida, erecta, subglabra: Folia radicaKa, durius- 
cuia ternatim vel pinnatirti composita' ; foliolis ovaKbuS vel ovatia 
simplicibus vel aublobatis vel trifoliolatis. "Fnibtelte compositfe, pluri- 
radiataj.. Invdlucri et involucellorum br^ctc®' »,■ submembranacefe. 

P.- Welwitsc^ii, S^ierrr, specter nm'da. 

-EjABiTiiT in Angola, Prov. Pungo Ando6"(5'; in duraetis apricis 
sab^ilosis ad sinistram fluiriinia Cuize inter Quibinda ef Banza de 
•^uitage. Dr. Welwitsch ! Iter Ai 

PWt 2^3 feet higb, rather arofrtatiC, drying bro^. iiloot-stock 
tnick, with several stems, branched below the Surface of £he ground 
-lowering stems 6cap6-like, ^labroila, undivided and naled below, 
miiutf'lt ptibe^ccrilt and slightly bra^nched above, teaves radical, 

16 iiches long: 



ne 

#1- 



biculate 



the base,- coarsely seiTate-dentate, rather fleshy and almost coriaceous, 
}l-~^\ inches long by ^—1 inch wide; primary p'etiol^s 3—12 
inches lofig. Fmbels 1 — 2 inches in diameter ; priniary and secondary 
^v^i^ — ^^ I. .bracts of the involucre and involucels fTumerous, linear- 

subulaite.- Fruit aboTrf. i in/>>. Trrticr >^-ir i inrli \h.\Ar 



The compqund umbels, the solitary vittae situated in the intervals 



t 



ana the nearly ter6te fruit with a wide commissure, readily place the 
plant in the neighbourhood 6f Beseli, to which genus its" affinity i* 
closest, and from which it is separated by the distinct character of the 
armature of the fruit (from' wHch the n'ame is tafcsn), associated with 
a peculiar habit and foliage. There is no of^er genus representative 

N.s. vor,. 2. [.rrxK 2, 1873.] m 



162 MOKPnOLOGY OF CAEEX A'M) OTHEK MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

/ 

L 

of the tribe Seselinece in Angola ; and Diplolophitim^ -which occurs in 
Abyssinia and in Butoka Country, is the only one throughout the 
whole of Tropical Africa. 

Debcription of Tab, 132. — PJiysoirlchia Weltvitschii^ Hiern, from speci- 
mens collected in Angola by the late Dr. Welwitsch, Fig. 1, Flower x 6. 
2, timbel of ripe fruit, 3, A single ripe fruit x 4. 4, Section of fruit x 12, 



ON SOME POINTS EELATING TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF 

CAEEX AND OTHER MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

• By Feed^ TowNSExn, M.A. 

In many families of the Monocotyledons^ e.g., in Aroidece^ Iride^e, 
HestiacecSj Juncacece^ Desvauxiacece, Ilydrocltaridem^ &c., the presence 
of one bract, or more usually of two, at the branching of the stem, 
indicates the commencement of an inflorescence, and indeed it may 
be assumed that in these families the stem which bears the inflores- 
cence is the first axis of the latter, and all its branches are branches 
of the inflorescence. 

"Where there is a branching of the axis the normal position of 
the second bract is on the secondary axis, alternate with and opposite 
to the first bract, which represents the leaf in the axil of which the 
branch springs ; but when to all appearance there is no branching of 
the axis, the second bract is situate a little higher than the first. 

At the base of any branch of the inflorescence in Cyperus, Carex^ 
ScirpiiSj Cladium, Zzizula, &c,, will be found the second bract spoken 
of above. In Car ex the first bract is usually foliaceous, but the 
second is frequently membranous and sheathing, and has been desig- 
nated " ochrea*'* by Duval Jouve, who has proposed the presence or 
non-presence of this bract as a character by which to separate the 



form and 



very 



therefore not recognised as correlative to that of the sheathing 
form. In Carex depauperata, digitaia, Uvigata^ cedipostyla^ &c., 
this bract is sheathing, very long, slender, membranous, and 
nerveless, and is often represented by a sheath of so great 
delicacy and fitting so close to the stem that it may easily 



Hardly a good term here, since it usually signifies the appendage to a leaf, 
^vhereas the sheath in Carex is itself a modified leaf or bract. The sheathing 
bract m Carex h probably of a similar nature to the ochrea in Polyrjonum, and if 
ttus be so the tracing of this organ through Monocotyledons to Dicotyledons 
becomes exceedingly interesting. Schleiden in his " Principleu of Scientific 
Botany,"^ English ed., p. 271, complaining of the loose terminology 
of botanists, illustrates his remarks thus:— •* Here [e.g!, in Foihos) it 
not unfrequently occurs that the leaves are developed quite difFerently. 
alternating regularly ; one consiBting of lamina, petiole, vaginal portion, and 
fitxpnlarBheath ; the succeeding one appearing as a mere membranous sheath, 
which 18 neither Btipular sheath nor a vaginal portion, but an exceedingly 

aberrant form of the whole leaf," &c. The membranous j^heath here spoken of 
exactly correffnonda tn tlmf i^f n^^..^ jb,^ 



MORPHOLOGY OF CAREX AT^D OTHER MOXOCOTrLEDONS. 163 

F 

escape observation. It is very short in Carex glauca, paniculata, 
rtgida, pendula, montana, remota, &c. In Carex glauca it becomes 
firmer in texture, and frequently possesses nerves, and by studying 
this plant alone the true nature of the utriculus may be learnt,* for 
if a sufficient number of specimens be examined the passage of the 
second bract from an ochreous-like sheath to the urceolute two-nerved 
^ utriculus may be gradually traced. 

I have said that the normal position of the second bract is at the 
very base of the branch, on which it represents Its first leaf; but fre- 
quently it has its origin higher up the branch, and it then begins to 
assume the form of the true utriculus, becoming more urceolate, being 
furnished with two prominent lateral veins which frequently extend 
beyond the lamina of the bract, which thus becomes bidentate, a form 
which the utriculus takes more or leas in so many species ; and when 
this second bract has its insertion thus higher it frequently bears in 
its axil an ovary usually more or less imperfect. 

The normal form of the female flower of Carex consists of an 
outer bract, apparently within the axil of which is the fruit, consisting 
of utriculus and nut; but this outer bract is never present, if the 
axillary sheathing bract rises from its normal position and has its in- 
sertion higher up on the axis ; in this case the outer and usually folia- 
ceous bract at the base of the spike is correlative to the smaller bract 
always present in front of the utriculus, and the axillary sheathing 
bract itself takes more or less the form of the utriculus, and bears in 
its axil a more or less imperfect nut. 

Now if we suppose that the growth of the stalk which bears 
the female spike (of, say, Carex glauca) be arrested, we should 
have, first, the foliaceous bract situate on the main axis ; secondly, the 
arrested axis ; thirdly, the axillary bract, or so-called ochrea ; 
fourthly, the ovary (often present, as I have observed above), 
which several organs are in their character and position exactly those 
of every female flower of Carex ; and that this is the true nature of 
the flowers can be made evident 

It is now many years since I first observed a swelling at the base 
of and within the utriculus of several species of Carex, It is situate 
m front of the ovary, but it is often so minute as to be with difficulty 
observed, and its presence is only indicated by a raised portion of the 
tissue. This growth may be well seen in Carex riparia, pseudo-Cypencsy 
^nd glauca^ and in glauca and pseudo-Cyperus it very frequently becomes 
nascent in the form of a branch which in its growth forces it^ way 
through the mouth of the utriculus, and becomes the axis on which 
are situate several flowers, each of the female ones furnished with outer 
hract, utriculus, ovary, and in front of the latter the peculiar growth 
alluded to above. Under this view the spike of female flowers 
becomes compound and its inflorescence indeterminate 



i^y^ 



The nature of the seta (usually so termed) in Carex viicroglochin^ 

Uncinia^ is similarly 



• 

* The transformation may also be well traced in Carex riparia^ where at the 
base of, I believe, every male spiko will be found a fertile flower, with an open 
glume or utricuhis next the main axis, alternate with and opposite to the outer 
hract. 



M 2 



164 ilORPHOLOGY OF CAKEX AND OTOER MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

explained as the prolongation or continuation of a secondary axis, and 
in all these instances the latter takes the form of a seta. But one of 
the most remarkable forms of the secondary axis within the utriculus 
is that which occurs in Carex cedipostyla^ Duval Jouve (C ambigua. 
Link,), and which must have escaped the notice of that most carefal 
observer^ for he does not describe or allude to it in his elaborate paper 
on the plant given in the Bulletin de la Soc. Bat. de France in 1871, 
and I believe it has hitherto escaped the observation of all botanists. 
In this instance the secondary axis exists as a delicate, flattened, 
linear^oblong, smooth, bract-like scale, with one central slightly 
excurrent nerve. The position of this axis is similar to that in other 
species of the genus, but it lies closely adpressed to the nut, than 
which it is both narrower and shorter, and therefore easily escapes 
observation. I coueeive the axis to be represented by the central 
nerve, and the lamina on each side of this to be of a similar nature 
to the wing-like process which exists in the main axis of the inflo- 
rescence^ and which is peculiar to this species, though something 
similar occurs in several Grasses. 

The structure of the genera Blyna and Kohresia most remarkably 
and satisfactorily supports the present view of the nature of the seta 
In Elyna the inflorescence is reduced apparently to a simple spike : 
the outer bract (bract of the primary axis) is amplexicaul, and 
envelopes the axillary bract (first bract or leaf of the secondary axis), 
which is opposite and alternate to the outer bract. In the axil of the 
last is the ovary, and in front of this the secondary axis, continued 
and besiring at its apex a second bract (alternate with and opposite to 
the axillary bract), within the axil of which are produced the three 
stamens in one row. In Kohresia the spike is compound^ but there is 
a similar structure of the female flowers, though the axillary growth 
rarely bears stamens. The upper bracts bear stamens only^ as in the 
genus Carex, The flower of Elyna is therefore really "monoecious, 
consisting of a lower fetoale flower and an upper male, and is an 
early example of a monoecious assuming the form of an androgynous 
flower. It is very remarkable thaet no instance that I am aware of 
is known in Carex^ Uncmia, or Elyna of a male flower supported 
by two alternate and opposite bracts like the female flowers. 

If the above reasoning be considered conclusive as regards 
the position of the several parts of the flowers of Carex^ the 
single nature of the utriculus, or of the bract which forms 
it, naturally follows ; but an examination of the sheathing bract 
on the secondary axis of different species of Carex, Uneinia^ of 
Scirpusj luzula, Juncus, &c., and of the correlative parts in 
Elyna, Kohresia, &c., will place the question beyond a doubt. 
These conclusions are further remarkably borne out by the presence 
of the axillary bracts in: some genera of the order Graminea), e.g^, 
m Crypsis acxiUatU and Andropogon puhescens. In these Grasses the 
branches of the inflorescence, at their insertion, are furnished with a 
bifid, claspmg, two-nerved bract; iu Andropogon puhescens only the 
pnmary braiiches are furnished with precisely similar bracts. ITo doubt 
can for a moment be entertained as to the single nature of the bracts in 
these instances, for the position of each bract is invariably alternate and 
opposite to the leaf below, from the axil of which the branch springs, 



MOBPHOLOGr OF CAKEX AND OTHER MOXOCOTrLEDOJTS. 165 

\ 

to the sheathing bract abovej which is the second bract on the 
same axis. Kunth seems to have been led to consider the utriculua 
of Carex as consisting of one bract, and to recognise its position on a 
secondary axis, by examination of the frequent development of the 
latter in some species of Oarex and in Uficinia ; but I do not find 
that he understood the whole nature of the inflorescence as attempted 
to be explained above, Eobert Brown held a different view, as do 
many botanists of the present day ; but if the foregoing reasoning be 
correct the single nature of the utriculus necessarily follows. I 
hope on a future occasion to show that the secondary axis of the 
inflorescence of Carex is entirely difi'erent from the seta contained 
within the spikelets of several Grasses; but that there is a great 
similarity in the construction of Grasses and Sedges, and that the cor- 
relative position of their parts leads to the conclusion that the two- 
nerved or keeled inner pales of Grasses are single floral bracts. 

If such be the construction of the female flower of Carex^ what 
is that of the niale flower? Here there is unifornjly but one outer 
bract, in the axil of which the stamens are situate, without the 
presence of any axillary or subtending bract. . It seems unlikely that 
the construction should be on a different plan in the two flowers ; but 
I know no instatjce in which there exists, in the barren spike, a 
male flower with subtending brapt, or any evidence of the suppression 
of a secondary axis, I think it very prpbable that^ as in LoUum and 
other genera of Gramineoe, the ipiner bract is suppressed, its presence 
not being pecessary as a protection to the stamens as it is to the ovary 
or nut of Careop, This view would appear to be borne out by the 
instances recorded by Robert Brown and others of the utriculus con- 
taining stamens instead of aij ovary.* 

In the lower flowers of the male spike of Ctire^p the stamens are 
placed side by side, and it i3 only in the yery uppermost flo\7er9 that 
there is ^ny appearance of their being placed in a triaqgle. Their 
collateral position may be due to pressure, but it also suggests the 
probability of their beiog n^ere braaphps of a singje organ, but I by 
no means iiisist on this view. 

As regards the structure of other genera of the order Cyperacene, 
there exist much greater difficulties ip conning to a right conclusion 
respecting it. If the stamens in such genera ?i8 Scirpvs^ Eleocharis, 
Eriophorum^ &c., be considered ^s consisting of one or more floral whorls, 
the structure would bp so different as to necessitate the removal of 
Carex from the order ; whilst on tjie other hand we must first be 
certain that we interpret rightly the construction of these genera, and 
^ feel that I have not studied the extra-European species sufficiently 
to arrive at satisfactory copclusions. I hare long considered tlie 
liypogynous bristles surrounding the germen f^s ^the modification of 
one or more floral bracts, and the intimate division of the parts of 
this whorl in EriopJiQrtun, Ty^ha^ &c., to be of a sipiilar nature ; the 
hairs in Erianthns Mavennm ujidi in I^^eratq are an evidept modifi- 

* Prod. Flor. Nov. Holl., p. 242, This and other instances we mentioned 
in '* Vegetable Teratology/' by Maxwell T. MaBters, M.D., F.K.S., p. 199. 
Dr. Masters also, at page 143 of the sajne work, records the occurrence of axil- 
lary prolification in Curtx, observed hy M. Wesmaeland by ilr. Wigand,— [See 
p. 24 of this vohime.] 



*■ 



166 PROBAEILITY OF OCCITEKENCE OF CHENOLEA HIRSITTA IN BUITAIX. 

I 

cation of a bract; again the ligula of some Grasses, as Spartina 
versicolor^ is represented by a row of hairs ; so that a single 
amplexicaul bract may be represented by an intimate division 
of its parts, the divisions springing from the very point of in- 
sertion, and it is possible to consider that a single bract should be 
represented by a whorl of bristles, and such is probably the case with 
the bristles present at the base of the florets of several Grasses. Let 
us for a moment consider the stamens in some of the genera last 
mentioned also as a modified whorled single bract ; yet the position of 
the germen would not be that of Carex^ for the stamens are in that 
genus situate on the secondary axis, and cannot surround the ovary. 



PROBABILITY OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CRENOLEA 

L 

RIRSTJTA IN GREAT BRITAIN. 

Br Baron Feed, voif Mueller, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S. 

Not many months ago I expressed surprise to a great writer on 
British plants that as yet Junciis pygmcBUS of Richard had notbeen found 
in any of the British Islands. It was thus with particular interest that 
I soon afterwards noticed in the number of the ^'Journal of Botany" 
for November, 1872, that this very characteristic plant had just been 
discovered on the mainland opposite the Scilly Islands by Mr, W- H. 
Beeby. In the year 1846 I collected J. pygmmus on the Island of 
Sytt, off the west coast of Schleswig, in spots precisely similar to 
those in which in Jersey and Guernsey J. capitattcs is found. Indeed 
in Sytt the latter occurs in company with J". fygm(BU8^ though it is by 
far the more gregarious of the two. The occurrence therefore of 
J. pygnwus in the Channel Islands may now be anticipated, and we 
may look forward to its discovery also on the sandy coasts of Ireland. 
To Professor, E. F. Nolte, of Kiel, is due the credit of having dis- 
covered, so long back as 1825 (" Novitiae Floras Holsaticre," p. 39), this 
very rare species in Northern Europe. 

The remembrance of Prof. Nolte's researches on the coast both of 
the Baltic and North Seas brings me to another rare plant, for which 
a search should be instituted along the British coasts. I allude to 



(Kochia 



27: 



EcJiinopsilon hirsutum, Moq., in Ann. des Sciences Kat., ser. ii., vol. ii., 
p. 217). 

By its extreme external similarity to Su^da maritima tlie Chenolea 
must have managed to have hitherto in England avoided recognition ; 
but if once recognised this plant will doubtless be discriminated with 
ease among the far more widely-distributed Suada, intermixed with 
which itoccurs. There is at tab. 187 of the " Flora Danica," issued in 
1765, a fair figure of the downy form, and Prof. Nolte has lucidly demon- 
strated its synonymy. The embryo, horseshoe-shaped in Chendea and 
circmate in Sumda, affords an unerring mark of distinction in cases 
where the pubescence of Chenolea Urmta has become lost, or rather 
reduced to a slight beard in the axils. Moreover the Chenolea has 



LYSIMACHIAM X0VA3I CHINEKTSEH. 167 

a tendency to twist its fruit-bearing branches in a spiral manner, by 
whicb means the plant becomes apparent, even at a distance, as very 
diflFerent from Sumda maritima. Sometimes there is no trace of 
pubescence, when distinction at a glance is more difScult before the 
fruits are developed ; the latter, however, with their short angular or 
even horn -like expansions, are very characteristic. A close search 
among dried plants of Suceda marifima in British collections would 
probably demonstrate the existence of Chenolea hirmta without any 
special investigation along the shores for the purpose. 

But another question was raised by Nolte nearly half a century 
ago, whether more than one species passes as Linne's Bahola Mrsuta — 
that is, whether the Mediterranean Chenopodium hirsutum of the first 
edition of the '* Species Plantarum " is really the same as the iN'orthern 
plant included under Salsola Mrsida in the second edition. This 
might readily be ascertained in London from an inspection of the 
original specimens in the Linnean collection. Prof. Nolte thought 
the Southern plant distinct ; if so it may possibly belong to Chmolea 
sedoides (lochia sedoides, Schrader Journ. 1809, 86). In such a case 
it would be best to retain the specific names as they stand, not only 
because they have been in use for such a long time, but also because 
no change could now tend to any real advantage, but would render 
the confused synonymy of these plants still more perplexing. The 
mdument of ChenoUa sedoidea is much denser, the flowers are more 
copious, and generally more than one are developed in each axil, 
while the spiral twisting of the fruit branches seems never to occur, 
and the lobes of the old calyx are always narrower and more pointed. 
Besides, the flowers of Chenolea Jiirsida are larger and almost con- 
stantly solitary ; indeed the habit of the two plants is very difi'erent, 
so much so that ChenoUa Mrsuta far more resembles Suceda maritima 
in external appearance than its own closely allied congener. Should, 
however, Linnets first plant be different as well from Chejiolea sedoides 
as from the T^orthern Chenolea hirsutaj then the name of the latter 
might be changed to Chenolea villosa^ inasmuch as Peter Kylliug^s 
^ali minus villosum (Viridar. Danic, p. 77, anno 1688), on the autho- 
rity of Prof. Nolte, is referable to his Kochia Mrsuta. Perhaps the 
specific name has tended much to prevent the recognition of the 
Northern plant, it being, as already observed, freq[uently glabrous. 



LYSIMACHIAM NOVAM CHIXENSEM. 

pROPojfiT H. F. HAifCE, Ph.D. 

^\^ Ltsimachia (Ltsimastbitm) CHEisim-aE, n,sp. — Glaberrima, caui 
prostrato longe repente ad nodes radicante, foliis oppositis petiole 
laminae plerumque sequilongo nixis ovatis obtusis basi cordatis vel 
rotundatis subtus pallidis lineolis minutis glandulosis nigris crebria 
conspcrsis, pedunculis axillaribus solitariis folio circiter sequilongis, 
calycis laciniis lineari-oblongis obtusis corolla subduplo brevioribus, 
corollas aureae diametro f-poUicaris lobis oblongis obtusis cum sepalis 
lineolis nigris crebre notatis, staminum 5 duas tertias corollte longitu- 



168 ON A CHINESE MAPLE. 

dinis attingentium filamentis sparse glanduloso-pilosis ad medium 
usque in tubum cylindraceum edenticulatum coalitis, stylo glabro 
etamina paulo superante, stigmate parvo capitate. 

In montosis ditionis Ningpoensis, yere a. 1872, obvenit dominse 
Swinho.e, cui sacravi. (Exsicc. n. 17673.) ' 

l^ostrati L. Nummp,tari(B, Linn, admodum afSnis, et aspectu quidem 
Bimillxma; egregie vero differt foliis longe petiolatis ovatis v. cor- 
dato-ovatis, laciniarum calycinarum forma, lobis corollinis multo 
angustioribus magis elandulbso-nunctatis. stnTninihua nlfins Pntinsitis 



PN A CHINESE MAPLE. 

r 
W 

£r JI. F. Hahce, Ph.D., ^c. 

_ In a small collectioja of plants gathered ^n the hilly region around 
JNmgpo by Mr. E. Swinhoe ^ijring the spring of 1872, J found 
specimens of a Maple which, though probably referable" to Thun- 
berg B Acer trifidum, yet differs sufficiently from the Japanese plant 
to render it desirable to characterise it as a djstiijct variety. 

Ater trifidum, Thunb., var. ningpoense, njihi : ' " innovationibus 
(.etiam fructu jam mature) densissime cinereo-pannosis, foliis adultis 
subtus glaucissimis secjis nervos pilosis, samaris angulo ciVciter 55° 
divergentibus nucularum margbibus inferioribus cum pedicello 
angulum rectum efformantibus aKs semitrapeziformibus nempe infra 
medium lationbus inde utrinque sensim cuneato-angustatis apice 
rotundatis maiginibus sibi baud mvicem impositis. _ 

C6«.— In lorma typica japonei^si innovationes primqi juventute 
tantum pilosae ; foHa matura glau.cedinis fere omnino expertia; 
samarae erectae. aneulum 8°— 10° ad summum includentes, nucularum 



mleriores 



oDiong^, a basi scilicet aplcem rotunc 
mar^mbus arete se invicem obtegentes. 



the 



differetice in th. 



/?;«4^:« 4. , v^f^vAyuv^p Lu. tijic iiuii give tnis a vuiv 

if^Zf appearance ; but, though the twg forms sem'as well charac- 
tengpd as A. Mono Maxim., and A. trUncatum, Bge., I do not think 
they are specifically separable. According to C. Koch,* Siebold 
r\Al -Liiunberg s species to have been introduced into Japan from 

^./nina, and It is mention pfl-nrlt>./l«„V4-v^Tr„„% j *__ i....*^ 



Axnottt 



^f Hnf T.V ^.^'^^ ' ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^«t until now seen any Chinese 
TStri"";. •? ^^' *^^ P^^'^'* ^^^ity ^it^ the L,ebanon A. syriacum, 
botani^f \ \ t,^^^^,^°°^^^P ^ot adverted to by the distinguished 
anl n t^f **^^'^^''^ *^^^ "P^^^^'t ^or, so far as I am aware, by 
Zl iLrf ^-.iT^ "^t^. -^ -- -riaceous leaves, and 



proa^lJent 



Miguel Ann 



♦V,;Ht tL^*^-^^^'* Voy., J73. Can Liquidambar have been ojistakea for 
Diction Jry? "^"^^ "^^ *^*^ ^^^^ '^ rendered Sycamore \n Medhursfs 

X Boiesier Diagn. pi. orient., ser. 2, v., 72 ; Fl. orient, i., 352. 



ON A CHINESE MAPLE. 



169 



tuberance on the nucule, I see nothing to separate the two. The 
Syrian species has the fruit- wing in shape like that of the typical 
A. trifidum, though less narrowed at the base; but in the divergence 
of the samarse, and the straight line formed by the base or lower 
margin of the nucule, i]t agrejes with my yarietv, and I doubt if it 
possesses a highey claim to q-utonomy. 

We have he?*e a fresh illustration of the singular and unexpected 
connection between the arboreous and frutescent vegetation of North- 
Eastern China and the conterminous regions of Manchuria, on the one 
hand, and the widely-separated West Asiatic or South European 
countries lying bjetween and around the Mediterranean, Elack, and 
Caspian Seas, on the other ; a very remarkable geographico-botanical 
phenomenon well worthy of the most attentive study and considera- 
tion. It is not my Intention to enter here into an examination or 
discussion of this curious fact ; but the following brief list, from 
which trees and shrubs generally distributed throughout the Northern 
temperate zone are purposiely excluded^ and which is, indeed, 
expressly restricted to closely representative pr even identical species, 

The first 



exhibits several instances of very intimate relationship, 
column contains the North Chinese or Manchurian 



the 



second their West Asiatic or South European kindred. 



species ; 

I have added 



a few elucidatory notes, numbered to correspond with the list. 
1. Tilia mandshurica, Eupr. Tilia argeptea, ^esf. 



& Maxim* 

2. Ehus Cotinus, Linn. 

3. Plstacla chinensis, Bge. 

4. Acer Mono, Maxim. " 

5. Acer truncatum, Bge. 

6. Acer trifidum, Thunb. 

7. Crataegus pinnatifida, Bge. 

8. LIquidambar formosana, 

Hance. 

9. Traxlnus Bungcana, DC. 



Ehus Cotinus, Linn. 
Pistacia palsestina, Boiss, 

y Acer laotum, C.A.M. 

Acer syriacupa, Boiss & Gaill. 
Pratopgus jnonogyna, Jacq. 
Liquidampar orientalis, Mil}. 

Fraxinus Omus, Linn. 



10. Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Fraxinus oxyphylla, Bieb, 



Hance. 

1 1 . Diospyros Lotus, Jjinn. 

12. Plan era Davidii, Hanpp. 



Diospyros Lotus, Linn. 
Pianera Elchardi, M?. 



13. TJlmus macrocarpa, Hance. TJlmus peduncijlata, Fong. 



14. Quercus Fabri, Hance. 

15. Quercus mongolica, Fisch. 

16. Quercus alieua, Bl. 

17. Quercus dentata, T}iun|). 

18. Quergus chinei^sis, Bge. 

19. Quercus serrata, Thunb. 

20. Carpinus 

Hance. 

21. rterocarya stcnoptera, Cas. 

DC. 




Quercus sessiliflora, Sm., pt aff. 



Quercus Cerris, Linii. 
Quercus LibanI, OUv. 
Quercus castaneifolia, C.A.M. 



Turczanlnovi}, Carpinus duinepsis, Scop, 

ytprocarya caucasica, Kth. 



Eegel.^ 



1. The Amur species is unhesitatingly reduced to T. argentea by 



• Tent^FI. Ussur. 30. 






170 ON A CHINESE MAPLE. 

^ 

3. Mr. Hanbury writes me that in his opinion P. atlantica, Desf., 
P. palastina, Boiss., and P. cahuUca, Stocks, are neither of them 
specifically distinct from P. Terehinfhus, Linn. If this be so, doubt- 
less the North Chinese tree must be added to the list. 

4, 5. When describing the Japanese Maples in Slebold's col- 
lections, Zuccarmi observed* that A. truncatum and A. Icetum, both 
of which he had compared, scarcely differ from A. pictum, Thunb. 
On the discovery of A. Mono, the late Dr. Buprecht remarkedf on 
its affinity with A. truncatum and A. cuUratum, Wall. ; and he sub- 
sequently + (although possessing but imperfect materials for compari- 
son) regarded A. truncatum, A. Icetum, and A. Mono as all different, 
but hesitated as to the identity of the latter with Siebold an d 
Zuccanni s A ptctum, which he believed different from that of 
Ihunberg. M. Maximowicz endeavoured§ to discriminate A. Icetum, 
A truncatum, ^nd. A. Mono by good characters, derived mainly from 
the fruit ; and with the value and constancy of these Dr. Eegelll 
expresses himself fully satisfied. Prof. Cari Kochff reduces A. cut 
tratum, A. truncatum ami A. Icetum to A. pictum, Thunb. (and of 
Zuccarmi) and m this he is followed by Miquel.** Finally, Schmldtft 
suspects A. Mono to be the same as A. pictum. I may observe that 

Dotn occur m J apan. "^ 



rZtt ^ 'V^^]<^^.!'omJm variety k^/riostyla, which is the plant 
TpSbn,T. I *^"J^^-)«"*y ?f European botanists^-Xoch, Bertoloni, 
J 1) Sv ?^°''' ^'T'' . "^"^ ^"'^^'^'"' ^"e«. Boreau Schlosser 
Bnt T r 'l f r^'^w"' ''^'"^^'^ with Jacquin's C. Lnogyna.i 
^rnd,L ? -f ' ''-^'t^^^'S^ ^''' ^^^^^ i^ its natural wild staS 

diameter i'nT''' T^ f ^'"^^^' "°^ ^^^^'^^ ^« ^^^^ in tranverse 
diameter, enclosing five free nutlets, and with a very powerful and 

St t^rttfin r ' ' -T^'"' --beamereformof oJr^Hrwfhorn.llII 
It IS tme that m a special memoir on a species belonging to a closely! 



t Bnllet^Acad. Petersb. xv.. 416. j ^jusd. op. xv., 523 

§ Pnm. Fl. Amur. 68. y To + r-i tt «. 

_ T 7.T- 1 . „ » ■^^"t- ^1- Ussur, 34. 

ir In Miquel Ann. Mus. bot. Lugd.-Bat J 251 

* Ejusd. op. ii 87 ' n Fl. SachaHn, 120. 

Rulatan) t ns" '' ^^ ''^^- ^^'^ ^"^^ '' ^t. Petersburg " (the titla is in 

«un..a ve,.;C4rnI • v'V^utt/n ^l^r.?^f^-- l^" ?E*'l^« 
l^f.T. r^ ^t i£T-A^^- I-^rica i., 349. 



Tirol i. , 287 : Visia 



211) has a C. -^-..^""'^y^t^eTw Cw^^^^ Tramsilv. ezcurs. , 

commonest kind in Transsilvanm tV u ■ ''®*y[^«^, t^e two, and says is the 
which it should be r^feied bui iih.rr?'^^^ ^'^ ^'^ diagnosis to say to 
Eeichenhach (Fl. Gem «cur8 62^ "nH« \v ^^^ ^^^t"^ P^^^' ^^"^'^^ ^^ 
remark " H^i; ansamfecrcrWendi.'' "^"^^ °^ ^' '•^•'^''^''^' ^''^ ^^' 

mi See my note on this species (Seem. Journ. Bot. viu., 313). 



» 



I 



s 



, ON A CHINESE MAPLE. 17 1 

allied genus M. Decaisue* has shown the prevalence of extraordinary 
variability in the volume and shape of the fruit, as well as in other 
characters ; but it must be borne in mind that this refers to a fruit-tree 
cultivated from a very remote antiq^uity,f and of which a large 
number of varieties were already known to the Romans^J with whom 
pomology, so far as we can judge, had made but inconsiderable 
progress. ]^o one since the publication of Mrl Darwin's great work 
on variation is ignorant of the *' plasticity of the whole organi- 
sation " — to use his own words — of our domesticated productions. , 
So far as known at present, C, pinnatifida only occurs in North China 
and Manchuria, for the plant found in the Alatau Mountains by 
Seraenow, and referred hither by Kegel and v. Herder, § is now 
regarded by the former as a variety of C. sanguinea^ Pall. 

8. Both the species here named — most beautifully figured by Mr. 
Fitch — have been characterised afresh by Prof. Oliver, || who has con- 
clusively shown that my suspicion of the identity of the Chinese 
species with the iN'orth American L. dyrmifiua^ Linn., is groundless, 
A most interesting notice of this tree, celebrated in Chinese literature 
under the name of Fung^ has been given by Mr. T. Sampson.*^ 

9. Mr. Hanbury, who on examining young specimens of F. 
Bungeana had been impressed by its wonderful closeness to the Manna 
Ash of Europe, wrote to me on receiving a scrap with one or two 
samaras of the Chinese plant: — ^*I can exactly match it from my 
specimens of F, Ornus, Linn.*' 

12. Since describing the Chinese species,** I have received from 
my friend Dr. Bretschneider specimens with perfectly ripened fruit, 
though in all I have examined the seeds are unfortunately atrophied. 
It may be thus described: — Utriculus corapressissimus, obliquus, 2 J 
lin. longus, loculo transverse, curvulo, obreniformi, hinc latere late 
alato, disci emarginaturae faciebus internis stigmatosis ; semen pendu- 
lum. In carpical structure it differs so much from its Caucasian, 
Cretan, and Japanese congeners — all of which I have examined— that 
it must form the type of a new subgenus at least, if not rather a 
genus, for which I propose the name of Hemiptelea, 

14 — 16, Q. mongolica IS TCT J much like Q. sessilijiora, to^ which 
Pallas erroneously referred it. The vexafa qucsstio of the distinctness 
of our two commonest European Oaks has perhaps been settled by the 



♦ "Do la variabilite dans Tespece du Poirier " (Ann. bc. nat, 4* 8^r., xx., 
188. 

t '^DieBimbaum ist einer der altesten Bewohner der Garten " (Dierbach 
FL Mytholog., 100,) 

X Pliny. (Hist. nat. xv., 16, 1.) enumerates by nama thirty-eight different 
kinds of Pear; and Columella (De re rust- v., 10.) eighteen, besides others, 
** quorum enumeratio nunc longa est," 

§ Enum. pi. in reg. cia- et transiliensibus a Semenovio coll., 102. 

I Hook. Icon, plant., Srdser., i., tt. 1019-20. 

^ *' Notes and Queries on China and Japan '' iii., 4. Another correspondent, 
at page 47 of the same volume, states that in the neighbourhood of Amoy, where 
the tree abounds, a large green caterpillar is found on it, from which a strong 
»ort of gut is made by aunply drawing out the entrails of the inseijt as far as 
possible. 

** Seem. Journ. Bot, vi., 333. 



172 SHOKT NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



late Prof. Oersted,* who asserts that the leaf-buds are alone sufficient 
to establish their specific difference. 

17. I believe I am correct in my idea of the affinity of these two 
species. I have examined a Georgian specimen, collected by Szovits, 
of Q. macranthera, Fisch. & Mey., said by Bluraef to be scarcely 
distinct from Q. dentata { = Q. obovata, Bge. !), and placed next it by 
A. De CandoUe. The cupule and glans are quite different, and its 
relationship is certainly rather with the Eohores, Both are omitted 
from the list of species given by Oersted. Young trees of Q. dentata 
have extremely large leaves ; one now before me measures twenty-one 
inches in length. These leaves, as I learnt from Mr. Mayers, are a 
common object of traffic in the North of China, being brought in from 
Manchuria, and sold, at the rate of about a halfpenny per pound, for 
the purpose of wrapping up the flour dumplings so largely consumed 
by the natives. • 

18. Carl Koch regards Q. Lilani and Q. serrata, Thunb., y3. 

Roxburghii, A. DC,, as identical. 

19. MiquelJ considers the Georgian tree ^s a "forma parum 
diversa of Thunberg's species ; but the two are placed by Oersted 
in different sections of his subgenus Cerris. ' 

20. Mr. J G. Baker belieyes my plant and that from AVestern Asia 
to be conspecific ; an opinion ip which I cannot concur. 

21. The Chinese tree is the type of" a ne^ subgenus. 



SHORT NOTES ANP QUERIES. 

Caekx MO^TAijA, ^e«;j., IN DEVojf.-I am much plowed at being 
able to report Vm^ montana, Limi., as ^ Devonian species ; one 
which I thmk wiU be considered a very interestipg addition to the 
flora of the county.. On May 13th I fliscpvered it in considerable 
quantity, and at hrpe spots, on Bipkleigli Down, a heathy piece of 

no^w'vf^ ^^Iv^^'^^^r'^^- V^^'^'^ ^^ ^^^^"^' l3i^o five niL^so the 
north of Plymouth, on the ngjit of the turnpike road a^ you -o thence 

tr'^;J Yift \ ^'"^ ?^' f^ ""'^^'^^ ^- bec^iL 'direct 
tln^dy^ '^- probable that 1 shall shortly be able to record 

It from other places m this neighbourhood, as we have mucli ground 

l-.^^T't""' '^^'^'^''^' that of Bickleigh Down. It i, associated 



UGam r-""- ^'""^p'^T 'T'^ ^^ «^^ commons-^/;. Zrop^s 
V S' ^"%'"'''fl ^f^'^f. G^i^P^ ^-^^tile, Viola c,mna, Linn., 
C P ulli^^^^ Agrostis setacea, &c., &c., and with is allies 

has drefdv t if ' ^TT <, ^^ ^^'' i"^'*^' ^^« "^^^^^^ «f May, it 
?,'l. ri^y., P^^'^^ «"t of flower, and so is an earlier flowering 



lifera having young fr]j 



and 



to aistinguiah it ftjuhejl^-^^jv^^-:^-,-^^:^-^;^ 



* ii 



Aper^u 8ur la classification des Chcaes " 6 
t Mua.bot. Lugd.^Rat. i., 298. 
1 Ann. MuH. "hnf. l.^^,*A n«* : ■•«- 



% 



SHOKT NOTES AND QTJEKIES. 173 



on the common the very light yellowish-green of its leavefi contrasts 
strikingly with the dingy tints of much of the surrounding vegetation. 
It has been supposed to have a preference for limestone, but on Bick- 
leigh Down occurs just where an el van vein traverses slates of the 
Devonian series. The elevation is from 510 to 540 feet, so is con- 
siderably within the limit of Watson's Inferagrarian zone. Its 
occurrence in Devon considerably extends its area, as the only counties 
from which it has previously been recorded are Gloucester, Mon- 
mouth, Hereford, Worcester, and Sussex. — T. R. Aechek Beiggs. 



Flora of- Berkshiee (pp. 138— 140).— The Rev. C. W. Penny 
informs me that the locality given for Viola hirta (p. 138) is in 
Surrey, and the Wellington College one for Imda Pulicaria (p. 139) 
in Hants. — James BrIitteh'. 



Plants of United States and Eueope. — The following are the 
principal species or ^ovms, peculiar to the IJnited States and Europe, 
excluding Arctic-alpine species: — Anemone nemorosdy of which there 
is a peculiar Pacific form perhaps reaching the eastern borders of Asia. 
Myosurus minimus^ which may be a recently introduced plant. ^ Calile^ 
a maritime genus. Saxifraga aizoides. Bellis integrifdia, which may- 
be compared with the European B, annua, Lolelia Dortmanna,^ Pri- 
mula Mistassmica. Centunculus lanceolatuSy a mere form of C. minimus. 
Ilotfonia insula, which represents JT. palmtris. Wricularia minor. 
Salicornia virginica, the S. mucronata of Bigelow, and probably of 
Lagasca also. Corema Conradi, representing the Portuguese C. alia. 
Vallisneria spiralis, which appears to be absent from Northern Asia. 
Spiranihes Romanzoviana, with its single station on the Irish coast ; 
it extends across the American continent well northward, but seem- 
ingly not into the adjacent parts of Asia. Eriocauhn septangulare^ 
restricted in the Old 'World to a few stations on West British coasts. 
Carex extensa, C.flacca (or Barratii), and one or two others. ^ Cmna 
anmdinacca, var. pendula. Leersia oryzoides. Spartina stricta and 
S, jimcea, Equisetum Telmateia. Lycopodium inundatum. Calluna 
vulgaris, which holds as small and precarious a tenure on this 
continent as Spirdnthes Romansoviana does in Europe,— Barely 
two do^en ; and three or four of these are more or less maritime. 
Only t\^o or three of them extend west of the Mississippi valley. 
N'arihecium is not in the list, a form 6r near ally of the 
European and Atlantic American species having been ^detected m 
Japan ; the genfts is unknown on the Pacific side of our Continent— 
[From the Appendix to Prof. A. Gray's Address to the American 



1 



4 * 



Mistletoe 



149, 382; x., 174, 377).— The following localities inay be added ttf 
those which have been already recorded for the occurrence of Vumm 
allmm on the Oak. Specimens from each are in the Herbarium of the 
British Museum. " On an Oak in lord Bolton's Park at Hackwood, 
Hampshire. Kev. P. Roberts, 1808."-" Kay 28, 1S18. Found m 
company with Mr. Rishon the Misseltoe growing upon the Oak about 



I 



174 SHORT NOTES AXD QUEHIES. 

four mills from Maidstone, Kent, by the side of the Med way. James 
Dickson." — James Beitten. 



Plants of Co. Cobk. — CallUriche hamulata, Kiitz. — This species, 

Tery rare in this county, was found by me growing in a lake (Long Boy) 

near the top of Priest Leap Mountain. I believe it has never been • 

observed in Cork, except once sparingly by Mr. Carroll, in a well at 

Glanseskin, Fermoy. — Callitriche pedunculata, DC. — This species, ' 

which is certainly very near hamulata, I have observed in both East 

and "West Cork — as, near Midleton and Mallow in East Cork, and near 

Dunmanway in West. I think It has onlv been hitherto recorded 

from one station— viz., at Clonakilty, by Mr. C. C. Babington.— T. 
Alltn. 

Floea op Nohth Coenwaxl.— Carwrn verticillatum, Koch.— This 
plant, recorded In Dr. Hind's list (p. 38), being quite new to ComwaU, 
It may interest some of the readers of the Journal to know that, in 
addition to the Week St. Mary station given by him, it occurs in two 
other places— at Trewen, where I discovered it in June last year, and 
at Eglaskerry. I sent a specimen from Trewen to Mr. H. C. Watson, 
m July, who in acknowledging the receipt says :— " There Is an old 
record for it * near Moreton ' in Devon, but I believe no living botanist 
has either verified that locality or added a second in Devon." At 
Trewen the specimens are very few, not more than a dozen occurring 
m a large field. But near Eglaskerry (where I was fortunate enough 
ta meet with it again in July) it grows in abundance. From this 
station I sent about a dozen roots to Kew, at the request of Dr. 
Hooker ; and should any readers wish to have a specimen, I shall be 
glad to supply them, as they are here so abundant that there is no fear of 
eradication. Prof. Babington gives as the habitat " damp and hilly 
pastures In both places where I have seen it, it grows in a marsh. 
1 have also met with the foUo wing plants In this district not given 
by either Dr. Hind or Mr. Baker : 

Geranium columbinum. Plentiful. 

G. lucidum. Plentiful. 

Geum rivale. Banks of the KInsey above Launceston. 

Adoxa MosschatelUna. Hedges near the above. 

Samhucus Mulus. Underlane, Launceston. 

Btdem eemua. Common in several places. 

Myosotis collina. Hedge-bank near Dutson. 

M. versicolor. Common. 

Veronica scutellata. Near Dutson. 

Pinguicula lusitanica. Week St. Mary. 

LynimacUa vulgaris. Banks of the Tamar. 

Primula veris. South Pitherwin.— W. Wise. 

IreW W^it.*^'?'' .f •' '^ ^ViCKXow.-As the alpine flora of 
Ireland is scanty, and on the eastern coast remarkable for the absence 

to r3 ICl- ''^''^ "^r ^] /^ ^'''^ ^^^''' it ^^y ^- intei^sting 
feet above If 'T'-^f ^^^'^'^i^^<^ "b^a on cliffs about 2000 
the side of ?«; J ' '%^^^\^ouuij of Wicklow. The locality is on 
hitherto hern ?n ?^'i .Mountain, above Lough Dukr. This plant has 
hitherto been noticed in two places only in Ireland, viz., on Mount 



SHOKT KOXES AXD QUEItirS. 175 



Kerry 



and on Ben Bulben m Sligo. It occurs in its nearly- 
discovered site in some profusion. As another contribution to 



MuUaghclevaun 



occurrence 



2000 feet, not far from Clevaun Lake, where it grows in a small and 
stunted form; the highest point hitherto observed in the British 
Isles being 900 feet, as given in Mr. Watson's *^ Compendium of the 
Cybele Britannica," Symeiiophjllum WiUoni grows on cliffs above 
Clevaun Lake, on the side of MuUaghclevaun Mountain, at an altitude 
of over 2400 feet.— H. C. Haet. 

Ojt thk perennial dxtration of Sxellaeia ttligikosx. Mum — 



For some time past I have suspected our leading British botanists to 
be in error in describing this species as an annual, and careful exami- 
nation of fresh specimens this spring has proved the suspicion to 
have been well-founded, since this Stellaria is certainly of perennial 
duration, notwithstanding that Boswell Syme in *' English Botany," 
Hooker in his " Student's Flora," Bentham in his " Handbook," Babing- 
ton in the *^ Manual," and Lindley in his ** Sjniopsis,'' all speak of it as 
an annual. The fresh green masses to be met with at this season n our 
ditches will, if carefully examined, show the young shoots to have 
originated from the ends of the old stems now buried in the mud 
below and fast decaying, since all the nutriment required can be 
obtained by the roots that have sprung out from the lowest joints of 
the younger portion beyond, — T, K. Aechee Beiggs. 

On the Peott of Galangal. — "Whilst engaged lately in looking 
over herbarium duplicates for distribution, I found, amongst Mr, 
Taintor's original specimens of my Alpinia officinarum^ a plant with 
two perfectly ripe capsules attached, which enables me to complete 
my diagnosis of the species, thus: — Fructu brevissirae pedicellato 
semlpollicari subgloboso apice cicatrice notato tomentoso obscure 
tenuiter longitrorsus lineolato pericarpio fusco coriaceo, seminibua 
plurimis mucoso-arillatis obtuse angulatis arete inter se cohserentibus 
testa atrofusca lucida. The seeds have very much the flavour of the 
ordinary Malabar Cardamom, but in a less degree. The fruit of 
Alpinia calearata^ Rose, is, if I mistake not, still undescribed; the 
plant is, however, cultivated in many gardens, and I should feel 
obliged to any botanist who would communicate to me a few capsules 
for the purpose of comparing them with those of their very near rela- 
tive. It will be clear from the above description that Mr. Swinhoe's 
opinion, recorded by me,* that A. officinamm furnishes the Bitter- 
seeded Cardamom of Hanbury,f is unfounded. That fruit, of which 
I have examined specimens from the Canton drug-shops, is larger, 
destitute of pubescence, more pointed, and readily known by the 
oblong, flat tubercles, arranged in interrupted longitudinal ridges, by 
which it is marked. Its seeds are excessively bitter, and their myrrh- 
like flavour is very peculiar. Hanbury's Hairy China CardamomyX of 

* Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xiu,, 3. 
+ Pharm. Joura. liv,, 418, fig. 8. 



X Op. cifc. 354, fig. 4-5. 



* 



176 OK THE STLPHIVir OF THE ANCIENTS. 

which I have also compared druggists' specimens, is still larger, and 
when soaked in water to restore its size and form, is somewhat trigas- 
trous (to use a convenient term, coined, I believe byKunth), entirely 
devoid of hair, hut thicMy clothed with squarrose, conical, papillose 
protuberances. It looks, in fact, not unlike the capsule of a Canna. 
The arillus is pleasantly acid, but the seeds themselves taste to me 
strongly of turpentine rather than of tar, to which Mr. Hanbury likens 
their flavour.— H. F. Hance, 



Cjctract^ anil ^fi&^tractj^. 



ON THE SILPHIUM OF THE ANCIENTS 



Br A. &. Oebsted. 



paper 



yid. selsk. Forh." for 186£^, of which a German abstract appeared 
lately m the '* Zeitachrift fur Ethnologic" (1871, pp. 197— 203) the 
author gives a history of our knowledge' of the Silphium plant of 
antiquity, aiid the results of modern researches directed to the deter- 

minatinn of if « Ti*rfni-o 



•■ 1 ^^ ^Yrr^^^^^ °^ ^^® seventh century b.c. some Greeks from the 
island of Thera settled on the north coast of Africa, in the district then 
called Cyrenaica, and now known as Barka. The state which was 



conrmercial 



• \ . ■." ^ 1 . '^ W.-, \ : — &*<-"<- i-uuiuxcxuiai uiuspeniy very 

largely to its trade in Silphmm, and thfe numerous coins found in the 
distriQt hear on one side the head of Jupiter Ammon, and the 
bilphmm on the reterse. This plant grew wild in the uncultivated 
southern part of the country, and did Hot succeed under cultivation. 
±rom Its root when sliced a milky juice exuded, which, when 

S ''' r'f V ^:'^ T'^\ ^^^''^ ^^^^ '^^^tly spice which was so 
highly valued by the Greek and Roman gourMeU, and was also in 

high repute as a medicine. Silphium fetched its weight in silver, and 



-n„ •„„ 4.V J T « ^ -"fa-^'A t'xic atuiuaii 8LUCC treasuries. 

?^2t I '^'°/ ?l Cyrenaica the production of Silphium 
P^nS .t'o '"'"^ ' ^^! -T"^^^ ^''^ ^^'11 i^t^ the hands of the 
6ltr ?n f ?• «^' v?^ ^^^^^^^S became a Romaft province. In 
l^Jnl'J ""■ ^'^P^/'^f ^f re broT^ght to Rome, and the Emperor 

still known in the fifth centurv A -n<Svnp«i„a .^i,a^v.„ v„ j- t • ^o. 



mentions 



1 

a 



to hive Ll • '"*^: ^i' ''"'"^ "^ '^' ^^^'^^^^ ^^« «^id ^>y Strabo 
wastJ TW r ''""''"T ?^ ''r^^''' barbarians who laid the country 
i^\ JC^ f '■™^''' ^^''' ^^* t^eir cattle feed upon it * 

which from'tbr^^ 7"^^\"-^ "' ^".^l' ^i^^''^ «^ ^^^ remarkable plant, 

w hich,, from thej eacnption and the figures on the coins, has always 



■ 

ON THE SILPHnJM OF THE AN-CTENTS. 777 

been known to be an Umbellifer. Modern travellers who have visited 
Barka (now an altogether desolate land, with nnmerous ru ns of 
towns and temples) snch as Delia Cella, Pacho, Earth, the brXrs 
Beechey,_ and more lately Rohlfs, have considered a common Umbel! 
lifer which the natives call Drias {Thapnia SiJpJdum, Viv, La.er- 
pttnmDerias Pacho ; according to Cosson (Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 1865 



form 



feilphium plant ; but neither its appearance nor its properties bear any 
resemblance to those of that plant. The celebrated plant of antiquity- 
^as wholesome to cattle ; the Drias is poisonous, and has frenuently 
proved fatal to camels. Various other species have been suggested by 



gummifi 



-uest., by Lmk Ferula Assaf<^ma by the Diet. d'Hist Nat, and 
-Laser pitnm Sder, L. 



Prof. 

Cyrenaica 



L. Muller, when engaged in his work on Xh 
L (Nuraismat, de rancienno Afrique, vol. i. " Les i 



e coins of 
monnaies de 



;f ^^^iT-'^^^' 1^60)' ^s^*'*^ the aid of the author on the question of 
tue hiiphium ; and it was then discovered that a figure on the coins 
vsHich had been supposed to represent a heart (Dujalais in 1850 (Rev. 
^umism p. 256—264) had correctly explained its nature) was the 
iruit ot the Silphiura. A close examination showed that this figure 
presented with considerable clearness the characters of the genus 
J'erufa, or a dosely-allied genus. 

The foetid gum-resin called Assafoetida was also known to the 

anpients and considered by them as closely allied to the Silphium, 

being called medicinal Silphium. Theplantyielding this drug was first 

ascertained by Kaempfer, who in his " Amcenitates exotic®" (1712), 

wlueh contains the results of his travels in Asia from 1683—1693, 

gives (p. 536) an account of it, which, though remarkable for its 

precision and accui-acy, has no exact description of the fruit. This 

was only supplied a few years ago, when Lehmann, Bungc, and 

-Korszczow again discovered the plant, which was described by Bunge* 

as the type of a new genus, under the name of Scorodosma fcctidum. 

-oesides Kaempfcr's plant, we know now, however, a second plant 

yielding Assafcetida, discovered in 18 38 by Palconerin North Cashmere, 

antl described by him in 1846 as a new genus, Narthex. This 

flowered m the Botanic Garden at Edinburgh, and Sir. "W. Hooker 

published an exeeUent figure of it in Bot Mag., t. 5168. The plant is 

7 leet high, the leaves grow in pairs close together, and the sheaths 

ClOSelv nnvpr fTin +1,,"«V ,,^™-„T,<. „4.„~ X^ „„ 1 - TT_-i _ii; 



ferae. 



very 
cure recalled 



author the Silphium plant on the coins, and a closei- examination 

confirmed liiTn in n^T,c;;irv^,v™ 3^^^..^7„™ a^ r„/,"j« x'„i„ i_ \ 



nearly allied to it. 



ifcetida. 



In the determination of their affinity it is important to insist upon 



animals 



horse, sheep, gazelle, and 
cannot doubt tliat in t.l 



accuracy would be employed. A minute comparison of the figures of 
the two plants will stre] ' '" 



Mem. de I'Acad. Imp. des Sc S. Petersb., 1860—61, 



Jf 



_^ 



178 ON THE SILPHITM OF THE AKCIENTS. 

If "we reduce the picture of Narthex to the size of the representa- 
tion of the Silphiiim on the coins, and place the one by the other, we 
shall remark a surprising likeness in the appearance of the two plants. 
The stem, and form and arrangement of the leaves and flower-stalks, 
are quite the same, and a comparison of each distinct organ brings 
out still more clearly this resemblance. The root, or rather the 
root-stock, of both plants is of the same form and ramification. The 
erect, thick stem, longitudinallyfurrowed, which characterises iV^ar^A^x, 
is also found in the Silphium ; these furrows are very clearly depicted 
on the coins. There is also, particularly if one examines the best 
representations on the coins, a remarkable resemblance in the arrange- 
ment of the leaves ; we can see that these are not truly opposite, but 
only approximate in pairs ; the sheaths are very large, with con- 
spicuous longitudinal nerves ; the blade is divided into three to five 
segments, on which again subdivisions are indicated. That these 
notches should not be represented on the common coins in so small a 
space is quite natural; if, however, we compare the outline of the 
Narthex leaves with the representation of the leaf- surface of the Sil- 
phium, there is a great resemblance. The form and size of the flower- 
stalks agree entirely in both plants. As to the fruit, we see from the 
coins that the Silphium quite agrees with Narthex and Ferula. In 
these Umbelliferse the fruit is very closely compressed, and furnished 
with a thin membranous border, for which reason Theophrastus cha- 
racterises it as foliaceous. The small differences in the structure of 
the vittffi, by which these genera have been separated, we need not of 
course expect to find drawn on the coins. On the other hand, there 
may be usually observed at the bottom and top of the fruit of Sil- 
phium small globular bodies, of which the first represents the base of 
the fruit-stalk, and the second the stylopode. On one coin the carpo- 
phore is represented between two mericarps, with their apices turned 
towards each other. So far as the coins go the Silphium plant might 
be referred equally well to Ferula or to Narthex. As, however, it so 
entirely agrees with the only known species of Narthex in habit, it is 
in every way more probable that it should belong to that genus.* As 
a species it is not of course to be identified specifically with Narthex 
Assafietida ; not only does the obcordate form of the fruit forbid this, 
but the properties of the gum-resin. That obtained from the Indian 
plant entirely agrees with the Persian Assafcctida. The author pro- 
poses to call it Narthex Silphium, 

According to Pliny (Nat, Hist, xvli., 2) there were three distinct 
zones of vegetation to be distinguished in Cyrenaica — the wooded coast 
zone, an intermediate zone in which agriculture was carried on, and 
a hilly and desert zone where the Silphium grew. This description 
is equally applicable at the present day. The slope of the plateaux 
from Barka towards the coast is still covered with a luxurious growth 
of wood, amongst which is especially noteworthy the occurrence of the 
Cypress, of which Eohlfs brought with him fruiting specimens. As 
soon, however, as the heights are attained, the appearance of the land- 
scape changes ; only low stunted bushes, Artemisias, and Thistles 

T.,*^"^^^ genera Narthex and Scorodosma are both' reduced to Ferula by BoiBsier 
(Fl. Orient, vol. n., p. 994) and Bentham (Gen. Plant, l, p. 918).— [£J. Journ.BoL] 



i 



ON aiO^^OTIlOPA HYPOPITYS. I7g 

clothe the ground, whilst splendid ruined towns attest the density of 
the earlier population. Farther on towards the south the land takes 
a wilder character, and it was here that the Silphium grew in the 
past. As Barka has not yet been thorou-hly explored (since the col- 
lection of Delia Cella, which laid the foundation for Viviani's " Flor» 
Libycae Specimen/' and Pacho's small collection, we have only the 
very considerable colleotion of Gerhard Rohlfs), the hope need not be 
given up that the Silphlum plants may still be found either there or 
tarther into Africa. Other plants which have disappeared from the 
places in which they were known to the ancients are often refound 
m distant regions ; for instance, the African Papyrus, which was 
formerly very common in Egypt, is now no longer to be found there 
but occurs again in the distant swampy regions of the White ISTilo. 
[Translated from a Gorman abstract in the ^*Zeitsohrift fur Echc 
logic" for 1871. 



ON MONOTROPA HYPOPITYS. 
By S, 0, Ld«-bberg, M D. 



Wish 



Monotropa Hypop 



<T 



question 



some other plant, I have for several autumns dug up masses of indi- 
viduals in the neighbourhood of Stockholm, and have come to the 
firm conclusion that Monotropa^ at least in its fully-grown state, is not 
indebted to any other plant for its nourishment. It seems very prob- 
able that in its young condition, before its underground parts are 
perfectly developed, it is in some way parasitic, bat that it separates 
itself when the subterranean position is largo enough for the direct 
nourishment of the plant. 

About six or eight inches under the surface of the earth, the thick 
moss-cover included, we find the masses of rhizomes. These rhizomes 
are 6-^10 cm. long and 2— 3 mm. thick, very entangled, irregularly 
ramified, andflpxuous, semi-hyaline, yellowish, and extremely fragile, 
so that it is quite impossible to get a rhizome out from the lump un- 
broken. Like the whole plant they are very juicy, and the sap is 
uncoloured and watery. During desiccation, however, it gradually 
assumes a black-blue colour, and shows under the microscope very 
numerous and extremely small dark-blue* granules, imbedded in a 
more hyaline hardened mucilage. From the sides of the rhizome 
spring rather numerous peduncles and branches, which latter almost 
immediately break up into extremely copious, slender, and inextri- 
cably entangled branchlets, all of which are quite free from surround- 
ing plants, as is also the case with the somewhat blunt apex of the 
rhizome, and also with its opposite extremity, which is quite black, 



^^ 



Can this be indigo ? And is the blue of some BijUti^ which is immediately 
Drought out by. exposure to the air, of the same kind? The oause of some 
Mosses, as Mmu?n stellare and Blyttii^ Btyum pallens, <5«^m;m &o., ©specially in 
water, assuming a dark-tlue colour, is also quite unknown. 



S 2 



180 



ON MONOTBOPA HTPOPIXYS. 



dead, and sLrivelled, often for a length of an inch or more.^ All the 
yonnger parts of the rhizome and its ramifications are whitish on the 
surface, which is the result of a close felt of hjpJi(B with very small, 
globular, and uncoloured spores ; this covering is especially con- 
spicuous in places where the branches of the rhizome have been 
lying against some hard object, as stones, .&c.* 

Microscopical investigation shows that the rhizome is for the most 
part built up of rounded cells, without any thickening, and containing 
no starch, but filled with a watery and somewhat viscous juice, sur- 
rounding a very conspicuous nucleus and nucleolus. Many of these 
cells, especially those surrounding the central fibro-vascular fascicle 
made up of reticulated and dotted vessels, contain a pale orange- 
coloured oil. The bark is comparatively very thick, and the epidermis 
is constructed of distinctly smaller cells, without any thickening, and 
shows no trace of corky tissue. I was also unable to find anywhere 
root-fibrils or a terminal root-cap. The fully-developed plant thus 
peems to want all roots, and to absorb its food by the whole surface of 
the rhizome, an absorption which is the easier as on no part of the 
underground organs can any corky layer be observed ; but on the con- 
trary the whole surface, as also the greatest part of the interior, is 
composed of living cells with both nucleus and nucleolus : this cir- 
cumstance also gives evidence both of the rapid growth of the 
anterior extremity, and of the quick decay of the posterior end of the 
rhizome. The peduncle agrees with the rhizome in all essential points 
of structure, and it is impossible to detect any stomata on it or its 
bracts, or on the calyx ; their absence explains the total absence of 
chlorophyll in the whole plant. 

In the fresh state Monotropa smells very much like the Tonca- 
bean, the MeIiIofi\ &c. ; its taste is that of raw peapods, mingled with 
a slightly aromatic flavour. 

Any part of the plant from which by pressure in the living state 
most of the juice has been squeezed assumes very slowly and im- 
perfectly the dark-blue colour. In Monotropa this blackening, which 
is found in many more or less true parasites, seems to be occasioned 
by the contents of the cells during desiccation depositing the above- 
mentioned small dark granules on the inside of (also in ?) the cell- 
membrane. But we find this blackening in other plants not at all 
parasitic, as in Salix nigricans^ &c. — [Translated by the Author from 
the "Ofversigt" of the Swedish Academy of Natural Sciences, for 
1865.] 



./ 



* See Mr. Stratton*s notes in Jouru. Bot. ix., p. SOO, on thia subject.— [-^^.] 



^ 






-J 



Ifl'OTICES OF BOOKS. Jgl 



Noticci? of 25ooh^, 



Flora Vitiensis : a Description of the Plants of the Viti or Fiji 
Islands, with an Account of their History, Uses, and Properties 
By Beethold SEEM.ufif, Ph.D., &c., &c. With 100 plates by 
Waltee Pitch, F.L.S. London: Eeeve and Co. 1865—73, 
(Pp. xxxiv., 454.) 

In part X., published early in the present year, we have at length 
the completion of this work, which, as the brief biography comprised 
in it fitly states, " will be a lasting monument to the eminent scien- 
tific attainments of its lamented author.'' Dr. Seemann's own 
collection was not a large one, but he has made the most of it, as 
well as of the few other collections known and accessible ; and he 
supplemented the whole by a faithful study of all other Polynesian 
materials, especially the oldest ones preserved at the British Museum, 
and those of the Hawaiian Islands, which he had himself transiently 
visited during the cruise of the Herald. His notes upon these early, 
and some of them long-neglected, collections add much to the import- 
ance of the present volume. Another element in this Flora elfiims 



mention and commendation, riz., his accounts of the useful plants ' 






described, and of native usages in connection with them — such, for 
example, as the articles on Solanum anthropophagortim of horrid 
memory, Piper methystimm or Kava^ and of the Fiji and Hawaiian 
Sandal- woods. Dr. Seemannhad a happy faculty for this kind ofwritin^ 
as his more popular works attest Nor are his critical investigations 
and notes of botanical affinities to be undervalued. If never of the 
very highest order, they are acute, often ingenious, seldom fanciful 
or vague, and, like all his botanical knowledge, truly remarkable 
under his circumstances and training. 

It may be said that he was over-ambitious in undertaking this Flora 
npon such an expensive plan, after he had been informed that, not- 
withstanding the favourable disposition of the Colonial Office, the 
Treasury did not see fit to assist him in the bringing out of such a work. 
In fact the Government all along evidently "fought shy" of the Fiji 
Islands. But Seemann, "thinking that what had been collected at so 
luch expense, under great difficulties, dangers, and privations, in a 
juntry only partially reclaimed from cannibalism, was worthbeingmade 
known, and moreover having made it a point in life never to relinquish 
an idea which [he had] once made up [his] mind to carry out, resolved 
on the present volume/' One may greatly admire the brave spirit 
without approving the principle, which, indeed, in this case brought 
ill consequences in its train, and probably cut short a valuable life. 
For, overweighted from the start, the demands it made upon his 
time and purse were far greater than he had calculated upon, and at 
length he had to supply himself with funds for the purpose by a 
partial exchange of botanical for business pursuits, involving several 



I 



f 



182 NOTICES OF BOOKS. ^ 

visits to Tropical America, -vrhere at length he fell a victim to the 
climate. Hence the delay of the later parts of the work, and espe- 
cially of the posthumous 1 0th fasciculus, which is only now issued. 
Yet the author seems to have done his part long before he left England 
for the last time. His preface bears the date of October, 1869, and 
the interesting historical notice and introduction appear to have been 
as early written. 

The Cryptogamic orders were assigned to collaborators, who, it 
would appear, were not very much in arrear ; for the earlier sheets 
of this part of the volume bear the same date as the preface, and 
even the last are dated June, 1871. The real date of publication of 
all after page 324, notwithstanding, is in 1873. 

The Filices are carefully elaborated by Mr. Carruthers. "We note 
with interest that Brackenridge's genus Biclidopteris is maintained; 
his Diellia falls into Lindsma^ The Musci 3,nH{epatiece u.re contributed 



by Mr. Mitten, who has carried out to the full Dr. Seemann's plan of 



taking account of all known Polynesian species. Indeed his presenta- 
tion of the extra-Fijian Mosses, &c., is almost as ample as that of the 
Flora in hand. The Lichens and the Fungi were very sparingly 
collected, and are of small account in the work. 

The Additions and Corrections represent, we may presume, some of 
the author's last botanical work, in which a new genus, Trimenia^ is 
appropriately dedicated to his friend, the editor of this Journal. 
Unfortunately it is founded on male flowers only. Another, Thacom- 
hma, as described from incomplete materials, commemorates a native 
dignitary, Thacomlau {^Cacohau), "King of Viti." 

As to the discrepancy noted between the length of the filaments 
of Ilex Fitiensis^ A. Gray, as figured and in Dr. Harvey's specimen, 
it is no doubt explicable in the fact that most species of the genus 
manifest a dioecio- dimorphism in this very way, even when it does not 
proceed to unisexuality as in the common Holly. 

After all that has been done both by Dr. Seemann, and before him 
by the American expedition under Wilkes, it remains true that the 
botany of these islands is most imperfectly known. " Little more than 
the coast of the larger islands has been skimmed ; and the interior 
of Yiti Levu and its numerous peaks and mountain ridges still off'er 
a rich field for botanical discovery." The obstacles to exploration, 
which at first were insuperable, are fast diminishing. Whoever at 
length enters the field, and reaps the harvest, will no doubt appreciate 
his great obligations to the lamented author of the ^* Flora Yitiensis.^* 

A. Gray. 

A Monograph of MemcecB. By W. P. HiEsjf, M.A. (From the Trans- 
actions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. xii., pt. 1.) 
Cambndge, 1873. (Pp, 274, tab. 11.) 

SxuDEjfTS of systematic botany have reason to be thankful to the 
author for this very complete monograph. The natural order treated 
of IS one of the least attractive, being neither distinguished for beauty 
of flowers or fohage, nor for utility. It is a great gain when such 
obscure groups are taken in hand and faithfully worked up by com- 
petent persons, since in all large herbaria andcollecUons there wiU be 



NOTICES OF BOOKS, 183 

found numerous undetermined specimena, and considerable confusion 
in nomenclature. It is thirty years since De Candolle's monograph 
was published in. the eighth Tolume of the ^' Prodromus/'and 160 
species are there enumerated under eight genera. Mr. Hiern reduces 
these genera to four, and adds a new one ; whilst the great increase in 
our knowledge of the group is shown by the addition of about 100 
new or previously uudescribed species. The genera maintained are 
Royena (13 species) ; Euclea (19 species) ; Maha^ including Macreightia^ 
Solochilus^ and Rhiptdostigma (59 species) ; DiospyroSy including 
Cargillia and Rospidios (about 170 species) ; and Tetraclis, a new 
monotypic genus from Madagascar, which differs from the rest of the 
order in its strictly valvate corolla-aestivation. 

With the majority of botanists the author prefers to keep Ehenace<B 
among the gamopetalous orders; its closest affinities are considered to 
Le with Olacinecd, Styracec^f Anonacece^ Ternstrcefntacece, Sapofacece^ and 
Ilicinece. 

r 

The species in each genus are very fully described, the diagnosis 
being in Latin and a longer description in English. Full synonymy 
and references are given, and the geographical distribution and other 
particulars concisely stated. A synoptic key to the species is also in 
each genus prefixed to the monographic descriptions. Besides 
the descriptive portion, we have an account of the economic 
products of the order; its geographical distribution, traced through 
Grisebach's Eegions, with lists of species in each; and — a great 
onvenience to keepers of herbaria — lists of numbered collections of 
Ehenace(B made by various travellers, with the determinations attached. 
The very complete manner in which the subject has been treated is 
further shown by the enumeration and description of dl the fossil 
species, about sixty of which have been published in various memoirs. 
In reference to thesn the author savs: "With regard to many the 



can 



is a favourable suggestion of Ehenaceceiox the family^ to which the 
specimens may probably belong" ; and adds : *'I wish in no way to 
confirm them in their present places ; but since they have been 
published as Ebenaceous, I quote them as they stand." The 
geological formation and locality are given for each species. Ko 
mention is made of histological characters, nor has the study of develop- 



formed 



multijli 



Hiern, Maha punctata^ Hiern, Diospyros tricolor, Hiern, D. Heude- 

''otiij Hiern, I), tetrandra, Hiern, D. polyalthioidesy Korth., J). 

'nrucei, Hiern, B. emarginata, Hiern, B, Bendo, Welw., TetracHs 

'imiccfoliay Hiern. 

Few botanists would be competent to criticise this laborious 
monograph, the author of which is probably far better acquainted 
with the rather unattractive plants of which it treats than any 
other person. 

^ H. T. 






184 KonCES OF BOOKS. 



Le Calice des Composees. Essai sur Tunite du devcloppement 
histologlr[ue dans le Regne Vegetal. Par Samsoe Lu:^!), Cand. 
Phil. (From the "Botanlsk Tidsskrift," 1872, pp. 140.) 

The object of this essay is to establish the foliaceous nature of the 
pappus of Compositse. The author has specially examined the 
development of the pappus of Cirsium arvense, and from the study 
of it concludes that the pappus consists of leaves, each leaf containing 
a true fibro-vascular bundle, generally consisting of cambiform cells, 
but under certain circumstances developing spiral vessels. Unfor- 
tunately we do not think that the pappus can be thus easily disposed 
of. What are we to make of the two scales in Melianthus, or the 
numerous whorled scales of Centaurea ? Juddn^ from the structure 



o^'^o 



o 



of the flower of the Compositse with five petals and five stamens, wc 
should naturally expect five parts of the calyx opposite the stamens 
and alternating with the petals. Now it is only in a few very rare 
cases that we find the pappus developing from these five spots 
{Taraxacum officinale and Carduus). Those who know anything of 
the development of leaves will at once recall to memory their well- 
known acropetul mode of development, the youngest always bein 
nearest the growing point. In the Compositfe, however, it is after 
the formation of th^ petals that a more or less marked contraction forms 
which indicates the place of origin of the pappus. It is not till after 
the formation of the stamens that the bodies of which the pappus 
consists first appear. As already mentioned, the parts of the pappus 
rarely develope at the five places where we would a priori expect 
calyx leaves to form. In Bidens with a pappus consisting of from 
2—4 bristles, or in Helianthus with 2 scales, the parts are developed 
either in the middle plane or laterally. When many parts are 
present, then they occupy the whole periphery of the flower and 
develope simultaneously. In Centaurea, where many whorls of scales 
exist, the inner whorls develope first, the outer last. It seems pro- 
bable that the morphological value of the pappus may not always be 
the same. Thus in some (as in Cirsium arvense) the so-called pappus 
18 _a calyx consisting of leaves, while in the majority the scales, 
.bnstles, or hairs of the pappus are undoubted trichome structures. 

.Lund seems to have studied an exceptional form, and thus been led 
into error. 

A part of the essay is devoted to the consideration of Hanstein's 
dermatogen,_penblem, and plerom. Lund does not agree with the 
definitions given by Hanstein, and substitutes the terms pycnome and 
penpycnome (contracted perinome) for those of Hanstein. The 
pycnome of Lund is exactly equivalent to the plerom of Hanstein, 
while his dermatogen and periblem are equivalent to Lund's perinome. 
Although Hanstem s definitions may perhaps require a little modifi- 
cation, stiU we do not think that Lund has in any way improved upon 

Those who wish for fuller information on the development of the 

?'Tf" .°^,^°,?P°«^t*,s^oiiW consult the papers of Buchenau in the 
" Botamsche Zoitung," 1872, p. 305, ef seq. 

W. R. McNab. 



PKOCEEDIJS'GS OF SOCIETIKS. 185 



r p 



^tomhm^ of ^ocietietf. 



Botanical Society of Edu'buegh.— J«». 9;^.—^' On Zolmm temu- 
W'fwi, By A. S. Wilson, communicated by Prof. Dickie. 

VVith the object of ascertaining by experiment whether the seeds of 
the Darnel were poisonous, the author ate on different occasions 2 
grains (8 ripe fruits), 4 grains, 25 grains, 50 grains, 100 grains 
ot the powdered fruits separated from the husk, without any iU 
effect^ or symptoms of any kind; and afterwards he ate this meal 
mixed with the husk and with wheat-flour in different proportions and 
in large quantities, with the same result. The poisonous qualities attri- 
buted to Darnel may be due to the presence of Ergot in the grain.— 
On the Effects produced by Stem-Prunmg small phmts of the Kid- 
path Castle Yew." By J. McNab.— '^ On the Occurrence of Pnlotum 
trtquetrnm, Sw., on the decayed tubs in the Palm-house at i\i^ Royal 
Botanic Garden," By the same.—*' JS'otcs on the Flora of Helvellyn, 
Cumberland." By J. P. Eobinson. A full list of the species noted was 
given. ** Just beneath the summit is a small lake called Bed Tarn, shut 
in except on the north by overhanging cliffs ; on the southern side a 
rich alpine flora is met with. Peeping out from beneath the loose rock 
are Cerastium alpimim, Silene acaulis, with abundance of Ehodiola 
rosea, and here and there small patches of Veronica saxatiUs and 
Sazifraga oppositifolia. A small tuft only of Saxifraga hypnoiden^ var. 
platypetala^ or it may be S. pahnata, was observed. S. }i%jpnoide% 
was more plentiful. Several patches of Carex rigida and Jimciis tri- 
glumu were seen, together with abundance of Oxyria reniformh and 
•Salix herlacea. Amongst the more common species seen about the 
summit were Vaccinium Fitis-Id^aj Ar7n€naalpinaj Veronica serpyJU- 
jokay var, Jmmifusa^ Arenaria verna^ Solidago Virgaurea, Arbutus Uva- 
Ursiy Hieracium alpmum^ H. Lawsoni^ Sihlaldla proctmihens^ Lyco- 
podium clavatum^ L, Selago, and Z. alpinum, Thalictrum alpmum, and 
£^tihis saxatilis. The object of the vi:iit was to ascertain if the same 
flora existed near the summit as was reported nearly fifty years ago 
from^ thence, I missed several species, such as Saxifraga nivalis, As- 
plemum germanicKm, Sedum das^phyllum, and Woodsia ilvemis. It is 

tie mountain, and I 
Saxif) 



Woodsia 



1 have, however, seen a specimen of Asplenium germaiiiciim said to 
have been collected on the Striding Edge, but after a most careful 
search I failed to find it. I think some error has been committed with 
respect to Sedum dasyphjllum.^^—^^ Notes on some British Fungi," with 
drawings by F. M. Caird. By J, Sadler.—" Stations for New and 
Bare Plants near Edinburgh." By J. Brown and T. Drummond. — 
'On British Plants peculiar to Scotland, and their Geographical Dis- 
tribution in other Countiies." By J. Sim. 



4 



186 PfiOCEEDIKGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Feh, \Zth, — "On the Flowers of Conifer cb Bud Onetacem^^ (ab- 
stract of Strasburger's obserrations). By "W. E. McNab, M.I). 
"Notes on the Recent Transmission of Ipecacuan plants to India." 
By J. McNab. — '* I^otes on Carex punctata and other Plants found in 
the Parish of Colvend, Kirtcudbright." By Rev. J. Farquharson 
(see p. 47). — " I^otes on Forms of Pyrus Aria, Sm.'* By J. F. Robin- 
son. — "Remarks on Chlorococcum vulgare, Grev," By J. McNab. 
** Report on Open-air Vegetation of the Royal Bot. Garden.*' By the 
same. 

March IZth. — " Notes on the Monte Generoso and its Flora, 1872,'* 
By J. F, Duthie. The mountain is about 5700 feet above the sea, 
being the highest peak in the tract lying between the Lakes of Como 
and Lugano ; the larger portion, lying towards the Lake of Lugano 
on the west, is in Switzerland, the remainder to the east belongs to 
Italy. It is a limestone mountain of Jurassic age overlying schist ; 
the rock is very porous, which partly explains the scarcity of surface 
streams. Lists of the species found were given, and specimens presented 
to the University herbarium, — "Remarks on the Characters of Fossil 
Plants, and on a new Fossil Fern/' By Principal Dawson, Montreal. 
The Fern is from the Devonian of Virginia, and has affinities with 
Sphenopteris and Archceopteris ; it will be described by Mr. Meek, 
of Washington, The author considers that **pal9eontological botanists 
are disposed too much to apply the methods of recent Botany to fossil 
plants, especially Palseozoic ones." — "Additions to the Lichen-Flora 
of jS'ew Zealand." By J. Stirton, M.D. Thirteen undescribed species 
were defined ; they were collected by Mr. J. Buchanan, of the Colonial 
Museum, Wellington. — "Report on the Open-air Vegetation of the 
Royal Botanic Garden," and "Remarks on the Colour of certain 
Cupressinece.^' By J. McNab. — "Notes on the Cultivation of Cinchona 
and Rhea in India." By W. Jameson, M.D., Saharunpofe; communicated 
by Prof, Balibur. Writing on July 8th, 1872, Dr. Jameson says*: 
" We are now carrying on extensive operations with Cinchona in 
the Himalayas ; our success, however, is most doubtful. We have 
had plants 8 and 10 feet in height, but all have been cut down by the 
frost. The result, therefore, will, I fear, be a failure. A private 
company have spent upwards of £4000, and have at last abandoned 
the undertaking. Government operations have been conducted on a 
small scale, but sufficiently large for experimental purposes ; the loss 
■will therefore not be great. In the Lower Himalayas, in Kumaon 
Gurhwal and Kohistan of Punjab, the thermometer frequently marks 
6 to 8 deg. Fahrenheit below freezing-point at altitudes of 2500 and 
3000 feet- This cold we have to contend with. At Rani Khali, the 
new military station in Kumaon, altitude about 6000 feet, there were 
sorne^ plants of the Cinchona succiruhra 4 to 5 feet in height, when 
I visited the station in October last In January a heavy fall of snow 
took place, and all the plants, though covered with matting, perished. 
In the Kangra Valley, Deyrah Dhoon, and Missouri, most of the 
plants there have met with a similar fate. In the Neilgherries, 
Sikkim, &c., several species of Cinchona are doing well, and in Sikkim 
alone the plantations are supposed to contain half a million of plants. 
Land, tx)o, fitted for their cultivation abounds. For the Kohistan and 
Dhoons of the North- West Proviaces and Punjab tea will be the great 



■S" 



PEOCEEDracS OF SOCIETIES. 187 

export staple. Most of the plantations in Kumaon Gurhwal Deyrah 
Dhoon, and Kangra are progressing in a satisfactory manner, parti- 
cularly those that have been prudently conducted, and a large export 
trade of tea is springing up between British India and Central Asia 
The demand, however, is chiefly confined to green teas, for which 
fair prices are realised ; Is. 6d. per lb. is paid at the factory 
by traders who visit the plantations and purchase the teas The 
experiments connected with the Ehea plant {Boehmeria nivea) pro- 
gress. A most ingenious machine, patented by Mr. J. Greig of 
Edinburgh, is now here, and about to be tested ; Colonel Hyer, mint- 
master, and Mr. Prince, superintendent Eoorkee workshops, having 
been appointed judges to report on it and any other machines that 
may be presented to compete for the £5000 prize. From my Ehea 
plantation I have already cut down about 100 tons of stems, i.e. 
about 3 tons per acre, and in another month I expect to get another 
and heavier crop. It is a wonderful plant, and will, I am confident 
be more valuable to the North- West Provinces than Jute is to Bengal! 
As soon as we get a complete machine, the fibre will become one of 
the great staples of the North- West Provinces, Among other machines, 
we have been experimenting with a Eoezls machine, which though 
simple is dangerous in working. By it a poor young Mohammedan 
lad had both his hands smashed, rendering amputation above the 
wrists necessary." 

April lO^A,— James McNab, Esq., President, in the chair.— 
The following communications were read: — ''Note on Tylosis." 
By Mr. P. M.Caird* The author had found very good illustra- 
tions of Tylosis in various species of CastaneOj Carya, Juglam^ 
QuercuSj Uhmis, &c. In Jtiglans ctnerea the cells are in many 
instances distinctly dotted. TJbnmfuha and U. campestrisy Quercua 
alba (a Canadian species), Q. liohur, and Q. rnlra furnish fine 
examples. In woods having a close structure, as Betula^ Fagns^ and 
Pyrtis^ the cells are not readily visible. Tylosis is extremely common 
in matured exogenous stems, but he had met with no instance of it in 
endogenous stems. — ** Notes on some recent Eesearchcs regarding 
Dichogamy, and Allied Subjects." Communicated by Dr. R. Brown. — 
" On the Perns in the Valley of the Derwent." By Dr. T. W. Mawson ; 
communicated by Mr. Sadler. — ** Ecport on the Open-air Yegetation 
at the Eoyal^ Botanic Garden (No. 3, 1873).'' By Mr. McNab.— Mr. 
Peach exhibited a series of^ microscopic specimens of fossil plants 
"which he^ had got from the ash-beds near Petticur, Burntisland. 
Ihcy consisted of portions of Stigmaria, Lepidodendron^ Dictyoxyhn 
Grteviij &c., and well showed the structure of most of them. The 
most interesting was a mass in which two specimens of Lepido&trohis 
were imbedded, both showing macrospores in the lower part and 
inicrospores in the upper part of each one. The microspores are of 
a bright orange colour, the macrospores whitish, the walls of the 
sporangia, &c., and the stem on which they are supported darkish- 
brown, all enclosed in a reddish-brown matrix. The division between 
the two spores is so marked both by colour and form that it can be 
seen at a glance, whilst both spores may be distinctly seen under the 
naicroscope in the prepared specimens. Although cones bearing both 
spores have been described bv Broncniart and others, they are so rare 



« 



188 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

that he thought it right to lay themhefore the Society, he never having 
seen one ; and as they were only discovered hy him last week, he 
hoped he would he excused for the imperfect manner in which they 
were exhihited. — Prof. Balfour stated that, while lecturing lately iu 
the Science and Art Museum, he had observed there a specimen of a 
Fern, without a label, having a strong resemblance to an undescribed 
species of S^henopterhy from the Devonian, recently noticed by Prin- 
cipal Dawson, of Montreal. He had obtained a drawing of the specimen 
and transmitted it to Principal Dawson, who had written as follows : — 
"The Pern of which you enclosed a sketch I take to be Sphenopteris 
artemisicefolia of Brongt., from the Coal formation, which that botanist 
compares to the modern Asplenium erosum^ but which Schimper has 
made the type of a new genus, Uremoptert's, so named from its apparent 
want of analogy with any living Fern, The resemblance of this to 
the Devonian Fern I sent you occurred also to me, and in notes on it 
which I gave to Mr. Meek, of Washington, who is to describe these 
Virginian Ferns, I mentioned it, and pointed out that the Devonian 
species helps to connect this with the genus Archaiopteris — Palreopteris 
of Schimper, but that name is preocupied by a genus of Geinitz — so 
characteristic of the Devonian.'* Mr, Dawson concludes: — *'I am 
now preparing a report on the plants of the lower Carboniferous of 
Kova Scotia, which will interest you, as they are very like those of 
the lower Coals in Scotland ; and I propose to give in it as precise 
diagnoses as I can for the different genera and species of Si^iUaria, 
Lepidodendron, &c., derived from the structure and markings of the 
stems and branches.*' 



23otamcal ^cW* 



Aeticles in JotmNALS. — ApfilL. 

Grevillea, — M.J. Berkeley, "Notices of N. American Fungi '^ 
(contd.).— M. C. Cooke, " British Fungi " (contd.). 

Scottish Naturalist. — A. Davidson, ** Contributions to a Flora of 
Eoss-shire.'' 

Quart. Journ. Microsc, Science. — V. Archer, ** Abstract, with Notes, 
of "Wittrock's Freshwater Algse of Gotland and Oland."— W. T. T. 
Dyer, *^ On Stem Structure of the Carboniferous Zijcopodiacece.^' 

Monthly Microsc. Journal, — R, L. Maddox, "Eemarks on a 

minute Plant Found in an Incrustation of CaxK Lime" (tab. 12, 
Botrydium minutum), 

Botaniska Notiser.—T. M. Fries, *' On the Flora of Nova Zembla." 
— F. Scheutz, ''New Localities for Plants" (Sweden). 

Botanische Zeitung.~k. AV. Eichler, " On the Structure of the 

Flower of Crtwwa" (contd.).— L. "Wittmack, "Catalogue of Brazilian 

Woods." - ^ 

ITedwiyia.—T. Magnus, '' Mycological Observations'" 



BOTAIs^ICAL NEWS. 189 

I 

Flora. — J, Reinke, '* On the Ehizomes of Carallorhiza and Epipo- 
gony — A. Engler, '' Notes on the S. American Olacinem and Icacinem " 
(contd,). — H. Wawra, *' Kotes on the Flora of the Hawai Is." <^contd.) 
{Tetraplasandra TFaimece^ n.s., ITeptapIezirum (?) Waimece, n.s., 
Xylosma Millehrandii^ n.s., Schiedea Oahuensts, n.s., 8. Kaalm^ n.s.). 

ester r, Bot, Zeitsch. — A. Rehmann, ** Diagnoses of the known 
Hieracia of Galicia and Bukowina" (contd.). — Kerner, *' Distribution 
of Hungarian Plants" (contd.). — A, Val de Lievre, ^^ Notes on 
certain Ranunmlacem of the Flora Tridentina" (contd.). — E. Huter, 
'* Botanical Notes" (from Sexten, Tyrol). — C, Haussknecht, *' On 
8cleranthus^'* — H. von Uechtritz, *' Notes on Knapp's Pflanzen 
Galiciens " (contd.). 

Bull. Bot, Soc, France (vol. xix., p. 3). — G. Bentham and E, 

Cosson, '^ Compositarum genus novum algeriense '* ( ^^-r/ow^'flf ; W. 

Saharce, Oran and Marocco). — Eenault and Sagot, "Note on the 

Colouring Matter of the Green Ebony of Guiana.^' — J. Duval-Jouve, 

^^OnJiincus sfriafuSj Schonsb., and/. lagenariuSy Gdcj,^^ — A. Perard, 

'^Anatomical Researches in the Menthoidece,^^ — P. Duchartre, **0n 

Germination of Delphinium nudieaule,^^ — C, Eoyer, *'New Plants for 

theDep, C6te-d*0r." — P. Duchartre, " Structure and Multiplication of 

the Bulb of Lilium Thomsonianumy Lindl." — il. Comu, " On the 

Development of Agariciis (Coprinus) stercorariusj Bull., and its 

Sclerotium (S. stereorarium^ DC.)." — A. Franchet, " On an Adventive 

Flora observed in the Dep. Loire and Cher in 1871 " (neighbourhood 

of Yendome, Blois, and Cheverny : 199 species observed, brought with 

fodder for the French Army*). — H. Loret, "Plants in Herbaria of 

Montpellier, i&c." — E. Cosson, " Biscutellm species esplanatae et 

dispositai " (species reduced to 7). — lb., ** Dcscriptio Biscutellm novoe 

algeriensis" {B, radicata^ Coss. & DR.^^. virgata^ Coss. & DR. 

in herb, olim, non Jord.).— A. Brongniart, *' On an Arborescent Fern 

■ of the Genus Lastrea (Z. arhorea, n.s,, Luzon).— E. Prillieux, "On 

the ' Cloque ' (disease) of the Peach."— G. de S. Pierre, "Answer to 

M. Cauvet." — lb., "Fertilisation of Orchids by Hymenoptera."— E. 

Malinvaud, "Plants observed in Environs of Gramat, &c." — E. 

Foumier, " On the Rymenophyllece coll. in Central America by C. 

Wright, Fendler, and Husnot" (Bidymoghsstm ovale^ n.s., Fendl. 

n. 25). 

Bull Soc. BoL Belgiqiie {30th A.pril).— B. C. Dumortier, "Critical 
Examination of the Flatine(B'' (F. ITardyana, n.s.).— C. J. Lecoyer, 
'' NoteonFlora of Wavre and Environs."— A. Thielens, "Account of 
Excursion to the Laacher-see."— lb., " Report of the General Herbori- 
sation of the Society, 1872 " (to the Eifel). 

NmvoGiorn. Bat. Ital. (25th April).— N. Terraciano, "Enum. 
plant vase, in agro Murensi sponte nasc." (contd.). — A. Mori, 
*' Review of Botanical Communications to the Congress of Italian 
Naturalists " (contd.).— F. von. Mueller, " List of Plants collected in 
Central Australia by Giles."— S. Venzo, "Account of an Alpine 
Excursion." 



This list may be compared with the similar one made in the environB of 
Paris in the same year (see Jonrn. Bot. 1872, pp. 339—344). Ninety-one 
species are common to both lists. 



190 BOTANICAL NEWS. 



^Neto BooJcB. — Parlatore, "Flora Italiano," vol. v., pt. 1 (Florence), 
F. Hoefer, " Histoire de la Botanique, de la Mineralogie et de la 
Geologie" (Paris, 4s.).— B. Verlot, " Les Plantes Alpines" (Paris, 30s). 

The plates of the last published part of Hooker's '* Icones Plant- 
arum " (tt. 1 126 — 50) are chiefly devoted to new plants of the orders 
Itiibiacem and Compositce, 



Well: 



History Society, we regret to find that, in spite of the efforts of the 
energetic President, the Eev. C. W. Penny, Natural Science is not in 
a flourishing state in the school. The Eeport contains a list of the 
plants ohserved by Mr. Penny in the neighbourhood of the College, 
the gaps in which, especially in the less attractive natural families, 
show how much yet remains to be done in this direction. 

We are informed that Mr. P. Townsend is collecting materials for 
a Plora of Hampshire with a view to future publication, and that 
Mr. P. I. "Warner, of Winchester, has kindly placed his materials at 
the disposal of Mr. Townsend. As much more still remains to he 
done, Mr. Townsend will be glad to receive lists of plants for the 
county from those who already possess them, and iavites the assistance 
of those who may be disposed to form lists during the ensuing season. 
The value of the lists will he greatly increased if accompanied by 
specimens, except in the case of the very common and generally 
distributed plants ; exact localities and dates should always be given. 
The county will be divided into river basin districts. Communica- 
tions may beaddressed to F. Townsend, Esq., Shedfield Lodge, Pareham, 



W 



Shedfield 



Mr. P. van Horen has been appointed Conservator of the Eoyal 
Museum of I^atural History of Belgium. 

On the 12th of May, at Lowestoft, Suffolk, lady Smith (the widow 
of Su- James E. Smith, the eminent botanist, founder and first presi- 
dent of the Linnean Society, who died in 1828) celebrated her 100th 
birthday by a dinner to 107 persons of both sexes, whose united ages 
amounted to 8228 years, giving an average of about seventy-seven' 
years to each. Lady Smith has always taken the greatest interest in 
the Linnean Society, and has recently presented to it a series of 
letters forming the correspondence between her husband and Mr. 
Mucleay, ^the first secretary of the Society. At the recent anniver- 
sary meeting an address to Lady Smith was unanimously voted by 
the Society, and signed by the President, congratulating her on the 
completion of her 1 00th year in health and mental activity. 

At the same meeting of the Linnean Society on the 24th of May, 
the President, Mr. Bentham, delivered his customary annual address. 
1 he subject chosen was the recent progress of researches connected 
with vegetable morphology, development, and physiology, the works 
of Strasburger on the Comferce and Cycadecs and H. Miiller on 
insect fertilisation being especially dwelt upon. This is probably 
the last annual meeting which will be held in the rooms of old Bur- 
lington House, the apartments in the new building facing Piccadilly 
intended tor the Society being now far advanced towards completion. 

\V e are very sorry to have to announce the death of one of our 



^ BOTANICAL ITEWS. 191 

most promising English botanists of the rising generation— Mr. G. E. 
Hunt, of Eowdon, near Manchester— which took place on the 26th of 
April, at the age of thirty-two. From his schooldays he took a great 
interest in Botany, and by the time that he was twenty had 
thoroughly explored the Manchester district, and added several new 
species to its flora. At that time he was one of the most active 
members of the Botanical Exchange Club, and the* judgment with 
which his parcels were selected and the care with which his specimens 
were dried made him one of its most valuable supporters. Many 
years ago he became intimately acquainted with Wilson, and devoted 
himself especially to the Mosses. He held a responsible situation in a 
bank in Manchester, so that his leisure for botanical work was not 
great ; but in spite of these disadvantages he formed one of the finest 
collections of British Mosses in existence, a large proportion of which 
were gathered with his own hands during his holiday tours amongst 
the Scotch, Lake, Irish, and Welsh mountains. In all questions con- 
nected with his favourite department his eminent characteristics 
were thoroughnesa and soundness of judgment. Before deciding upon 
any doubtful question he took great pains to study all available sources 
■of information, and his naturally clear mind made him an excellent 
judge of the value of his facts when accumulated. As a correspon- 
■dent he was most kind and liberal both with his specimens and time. 
He was one of the principal English correspondents both of Schimper 
and Lindberg, and gathered together an excellent collection of 
authentically-named Continental and extra-European Mosses and of 
the best bryological books. To him as much as to anyone else is due 
the great advance in Bryology that has taken place in Britain since 
the publication of AVilson's magnum opus ; and upon the death of 
his friend it was hoped that he would have undertaken, with the 
help of Wilson's specimens, tlie editing of the new edition of the 
"Bryologia,*' which the latter did not live to accomplish. This, unfor- 
tunately, his business engagements and the state of his health at the 
time would not allow. It took a strong impulse to get him to wiite 
anything for printing, and his only published papers are his notes on 
new and critical Mosses contributed at different times to the Memoirs 
of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. He died 
of congestion of the lungs, after a fortnight's illness, and was interred 
on the Spth of April, at St. Saviour's Church, Plymouth Grove, 
Manchester. 

John Stuart Mill, the celebrated logician and metaphysician, died 
3t Avignon on May 10th, In his early life he was an enthusiastic 
field botanist, and contributed numerous short notes and papers to 
the early volumes of the '* Phytologist" on Surrey and Hampshire 
botany. In the ''Flora of Surrey" his name stands as voucher for 
very numerous localities. So far back as 1822 he noticed the 
American Impatiensfulva^ now so abundant along the lower tribu- 
taries of the Thames, by the Tillingboume at Albury. He also con- 
tributed to the new series of the " Phytologist," edited by his 
friend, Mr. A. Irvine, who, it is remarkable, has survived him but 
three days. His chief paper here is one on Spring Flowers in the 
South of Europe. During his recently prolonged residence at 
Avignon, Mr. Mill returned with pleasure to his botanical pursuits, 



192 BOTANICAL NEAVS. 

and it is said had made large collections towards a Flora of the district. 
Though chiefly followed as an outdoor amusement, traces of Mr. 
Mill's botanical pursuits can be readily traced in his writings._ He 
did not, howevor, ever go deeply into the philosophy of the science, 
or contribute anything which entitles him to rank among those who 
hare advanced Botany by original work. 

We can now only*^ allude to the death on May 13th, at an advanced 
age, of Alexander Irvine, whose name has been familiar to British 
botanists for the last forty years. "We hope to give a sketch of his 
botanical work, which covers so long a period, and has had considerable 
influence in spreading a more general knowledge of the science, in 
our next number. 

By the kindness of Prof. A. Gray, we have had the opportunity 
of reading his biographical notice (which appears in iSilliman's 
Journal for June) of the late Dr. John Torrey, whose death we re- 
corded in the last number. Space will not permit us to quote more 
than a small portion of the latter part of this interesting memoir. 
After an account of his long series of important contributions his 
biographer goes on: — **Even at the last, when he rallied transiently 
from the fatal attack, he took in hand the manuscript of an elabo- 
rate report on the plants collected along our Pacific coast in Admiral 
Wilkes's celebrated expedition, which he had prepared fully a dozen 
years ago, and which (except as to the plates) remains still unpub- 
lished through no fault of his. There would have been more to 
add, perhaps of equal importance, if Dr. Torrey had been as ready 
to complete and publish, as he was to investigate, annotate, and 
sketch. Through undue diflS-dence and a constant desire for a greater 
peri'ection than was at the time attainable, many interesting ob- 
servations have from time to time been anticipated by other bota- 
nists. All this botanical work, it may be observed, has reference 
to the Plora of North America, in which, it was hoped, the diverse 
and separate materials and component parts, which he and others 
had wrought upon, might some day be brought together in a com- 
pleted system of American" Botany. It remains to be seen whether 
his surviving associate of nearly forty years will be able to complete 
the edifice. To do this will be to supply the most pressing want of 
the science, and to raise the fittest monument to Dr. Torrey' s memory. 
In the estimate of Dr. Torrey's botanical work, it must not be 
forgotten that it was nearly all done in the intervals of a 

busy professional life Eight years ago he was sent 

by the Treasury Department to California by way of the Isthmus ; 
and last summer he went again across the continent, and in both 
cases enjoyed the rare pleasure of viewing in their native soil, and 
plucking with his own hands, many a flower which he had himself 
named and described from dried specimens in the herbarium, and in 
which he felt a kind of paternal interest. Perhaps this interest cul- 
minated last summer, when he stood on the flank of the lofty and 
beautiful snow-clad peak to which a grateful former pupil and ardent 
explorer ten years before gave his name, and gathered charming alpine 
plants which he had himself named fifty years before, when the botany 
of the Colorado Eocky Mountains was first opened." 



193 



Original 511 r tit If ^sf . 



ON A FEW NEW PLANTS FRO .,...,. 

Bt S. Kuez. ' i 

(Tab. 133.) 

♦« *?^' ^' ^^?^^so^' who was attached as medical officer and naturalist 
to the expedition under Major Sladen to Yunan, made a collection of 
plants (about 800 sp.), which he liberally presented to the Herbarium 
ot the Ualcutta Botanical Gardens, and entrusted me with the drawing 
lip ol a rough list of its contents. This collection was made under 
great difficulties, and therefore it is no wonder that some of the 
specimens are not in a condition sufficiently good for accurate determi- 
nation. I have, for this reason, preferred to notice in the present 
communication only the more interesting new foims, instead of eiving 
the complete ist of the species. It may suffice to say that the plants 
irom the Khakyen Hills, east of Ehamo, are decidedly Khasvan and for 
a great part well-known species. The Javanese Easamala (^i/^/pw/tf 
^^eelsa) 18 found here, thus giving for this gigantic tree a range from 
West Java, Sumatra, Tenasscrim to Upper Ava and Mishmi. Tea 
( Camelha Tkea), too, is found wild on these hills, but is also cultivated. 
TT-n ^v^" arriving in Yunan, on the other side of the Khakyen 
Jluls, Chinese plants make a scanty appearance ; but I fear that 
several of these are only cultivated in the gardens of Momicn. At 
17 I rn ^'^"^P^^atively numerous Conifers (amongst them Ginffh 
bUoba, C^amacyparispisifera, Cryptomeria, and Jtmiperus) are so, while 
I inm Khasya forms forests. Of other notewoithy Yunan plants 
(chiefly collected in the environs of Momien and Hotha) may be named 
nere :~ Cafalpa Bungei, Solantm lyratum, Actinodaphne Chinensis, 
i^tcrcus glanJuh'yeraf, Broussonetia Kmmpferi, Anemone Japonica, 
J^mma all (flora?, CorydaJU decumhens, Sterculia platan if olia, Pyrus 
'^<^I>omca,irydranyea Japonica and another sp., Rhododendron Indicum, 
f-lernaUs florida (with double flowers, certainly from a garden), Funhia 
<>ieboldiana and another species, Aristaria Chinensis, Buxm, Cardamine 
pratensis, var. ?, Coriaria Nepale^wis, Astragalus lotoides, Lesppdeza 
^Meff/«, Cratcegus sp., Parnam'a, Sarcopyramis knceolata, Savilucus 
J^ouhis &n6. S. Thunlergiamts, Vihurnnm foetidnm vmA V. cylindricumf, 
■Lomcera Japonica, Leycederia formosa, Lnculia Pinceana, Gardenia 
nwida, Lappa major, Tjysimachia Japonica, Justicia mollissinia, Wall. ?, 
lantago major, Acroglochin persicarioides, Fagopyrum escuUntum and 
J'- cymosum, Euphorbia Jolkinii, £oiss.? and K Lathyrisf or a species 
^^i^n^''^ to it, Juglana rfgia, Alnus Nepalensis, Podocarpus cupressina 
^d P. macrophylla, Taxm haccata, Chamdropn Kha»yana, Acorus 
^alamuSf Coslogyne rial a, a BendroUum, F,pathoglottis puhescem, Bur- 



ejfmsif^ and J. Leschenaul 
K.s. TOL. 2. [juir, 1873.1 



sagittift 



194 



TU 



^> 



(8u"btus floccoso-) breve tomentella et magis minusve^ 
flores parvi, albi, graciliter pedicellati, in cymis aichotomi 



) 



^ulvuSj Arundinaria sp., Lycopodium clavatum, Osmunda regalis^ 

Bavallia memlranulosa^ and D. tenuifolia^ Oiiyehium Japonicum^ &c. 

Of the new forms (about 12 species) I shall at present describe 

only the following : — 

1 . Stellaria vestita, nov. sp. — Eami ascendentes, elongati,^ 
teretes, tomentelli glabrescentes ; folia ovato-lanceolata, sessilia, basi 
subcordata, poll, circiterlonga, pungenti-acuminata, chartacea, utrinque 

canescentia ; 

parvi, aiDi, gracuiter peuicuiiuuj m u^miHuiuiiuLumis filiformibxis 
pilosis axillaribus v. terminalibns ; bractese oblongo-lanceolatoc, 
puberulae ; sepala liineari-lanceolata, acuminata, 3-nervia, dense 
puberula ; semina hispida, atrobrunnea. Momien (28 May fl. fr.). — In 
general habit perfectly agreeing with Malayan specimens of S. 
saxatilisj Ham., as described by Prof. Miquel, but distinguished at 
once by the inflorescence. Occurs also in Sikkim Himalaya (C. B. 

Clarke). 

Sladenia, nov, gen. 

Sepala 5, persist entia, scariosa, imbricata. Petal a 5 (passim 6), 
elliptico-oblonga, sessilia, crassiuscula, sepalorum longitudine et cumiis 
altemantia, imbricata. Stamina ssepissime 11 v. 10, raro 12 — 13, 
disco inconspicuo annulari ? inserta ; filamenta brevia, dilatata ; 
antherse lineari-oblongae, apice bifidse, 2-loculares, basi emarginatae, 
basifixse, marginibus et basi antice strigillosse, loculis poro apicali 
dehiscentibus. Ovarium elongato-conicum, cum stylo crasso apice 
brevissime 3-Jobo contiguum, 3-loculare, loculis biovulatis; oTula ex 
apice axis centralis pendula. Fructus . , . . — Arbor? ramulis 
novellis sparse pubescentibus. Folia exstipulata, altema, crenato- 
serrata, glauca. Flores parviusculi, dichotomo-cymosi. 

This new genus apparently comes near Cleyera or Ternstrcemia ; 
the fruit, howeyer, is not yet known. I have called it after Major 
Sladen, the energetic head of the Yunan expedition. 

2. S. CELASTEiroLiA, n.sp, — Arbor? v. frutex ? ramulis junioribus 
sparse pubescentibus ; folia elliptico-oblonga, 3 — 4 poll, longi, longius- 
cule petiolata, acuminata, basi acuta, a medio crenato-serrata, 
chartacea, in sicco glaucescentia, glabra ; cymae axillares, folio multo 
brcTiores, iterato dichotomse, parce puberulae, glabrescentes; flores 
parvuli, laterales longe pedicellati, centrales in pedunculi furcationibus 
subsessiles ; sepala c. 2 lin. longa, obtusa, laevia, rigide chartacea ; 
petala obtusa; ovarium glabrum. — Khakyen Hills, Muangla (15 
August fl.). (Tab. 133, fig. i.) 

DiCHOTOMAin^HES, tiov. gen. 

Calyx fructiger ovalis, teres, basi bracteolis 2 subulatis sustentus, 
coriaceus, 5-dentatus, lobis erectls cum denticulis totidem alternantibus. 

Petala Stamina 10, annulo perigyno inserta, altematim 

breviora; filamenta longiuscula, planiuscula, basi dilatata; antherae 
didym^. Ovarium . . . . ; stylus reflexus, brevis, pubenilus, 
Bublateralis ; stigma incrassato-bilobulatum. Capsula obovata, semi- 
exserta, sublignosa, nitida, indehiscens ?, 1-locularis, semiiiibus 
(adhuc nimis immaturis) duobus, altero frequeutius abortivo, basilari- 
bus, erectis-— Arbor? novellis lanuginoso-pubescentibus, foliis alternis 

serratis, cymis terminalibus subcorymbosis dichotomo-raraosis. 



KEW 



195 



t 3. D. TRrsTANr.5^.CARPA, 7Z0V. sp.—AvhoTY.fiutex? partibus novellis 

ramulisque puhesceatibus; folia obovata v. obovato-oblonga, U— 2 
poll, longa, breve petiolata, petiolis tomentosis, acuta, mucronata, 
argute serrata, supra glabra, nitida, subtus lanuginoso-pubescentia ; 
cyma3 termmales, longiuscule pedunculate), pubescentes, dichotomo- 
ramosae, floribus in furcationibas sitis sessilibus, lateralibus brevissime 

pedicellatisjcaIyxfructiferlJlin.longus,fugaci-pubescens,intusglaber; 
capsula nitida, castanea, indehiscens.— Ynnan, Hotha (12 Aug. un- 
ripe fruits).— Apparently an ally of Lagerstrcemia, partaking somewhat 
of the habit of certain species of Tristania. The fruits are l-celled, 
but it is possible that the ovary may be 2-celled. I am also uucertain 
about the petals, of which I cannot find any scars left. (Tab. 133, 
fig- ii.) 

^ 4. CopoNopsis cojfvoLVdLACEA, noi\ 5;?.— Yolubilis, debilis, glaber- 
^ rima; folia lanceolata v. oblique lanceolata v. linearia, acuminata v. 
acuta, glaberrima, integra, membranacea, 1—2 poll, longa, breve 
petioluta ; flpres parruli, solitarii, axillares, longissirae pedunculati ; 
^ pedunculi 3—4 poll, longi, cauliformes, volubiles et tortuosi, teretes, 
glabri; calycis lobi c. 5 lin. longi, lanceolati, acuminati; corolla 
lilacina ? calycis loborum longitudine? — Tunan, Hotha (15 Aug. fl.). 
— A ^ curious plant, on account of the long twisted peduncles, which 
occasionally reach the length of 6 to 7 inches, looking quite similar to 

the stems. A little bract or two may occasionally be observed on 
them. 

5, Gaitltherea ceentjlata, nov, sp. — Frutex? ramulis teretibus 
parce hirsutis, folia ovata v. ovato-lanceolata, breve petiolata, 2 — 2^ 
poll, longa, basi subcordata v. rotundata, setaceo-crenulata, acuminata, 
ngide chartacea, costa subtus pubescente glabrescente excepta glabra, 
uerWs venulisque subtus valde conspicuis ; floresparvi, albi ?, racemosi, 
pedunculo pedicellisquc parce glandule so-hirtis glabrescentibus ; 
bracteoB oblongo-lanceolatse, acuminata) ; bracteola? sub calyce 2, lato- 
cordata), acutiusculae, obsolete ciliolata) ; calycis lacinise lato-oblongas, 
acutae, coriacea3, glabra); corollas lacinife oblonga^, obtusiusculse ; 



antheras corollas tubi longitudine, apice 3-aristatsB, arista media 
longiore ; ovarium 5-loculare, depresao-globosum, 5-sulcatum 
Benceum ; capsulae adhuc immaturoB calyce vix longiores, sericei, stylo 
longo glabro abrupte terminate.— Yunan, Hotha (15 Aug. fl. fr.).— 
-Nearly allied to G. leueocarpa, but at once distinguished by the different 
serrature of the leaves. 

6. Chieita speciosa, woi\ *j?. — Herba subacaulis circiter pedalis et 

altior ; folia oblique obloDga, longe-petiolata, acuta, grosse dentata, 

8 — 10 poll, longa, membranacea, utrinque pubescentia; petioli 6 — 7 

poll, longi, ferrugineo-pubescentes ; pedunculi petiolorum longitudine 

V. longiores, ferrugineo-pubescentes ; flores subpaniculati, speciosi, 

bipollicares, purpurei ?, longipedicellati ; pedicelli pollicem circiter longi, 

ferruginea tomentosi ; bracteae lanceolatae, acuta?, breves, puberulae ; 

calyx fusco-tomentellus, usque ad | part. 5-fidus, laciniis linearibus, 

poll, fere longis; corollaB lobi rotundati, stylus ct filamenta glabra; 

antherarum connectivum densissime lanuginosum. — Khakyen Hills, at 

Ponline (5 March fl.) and Ponsee (10 March fl.).— Also" in the 

Khasya Hills (a more stunted form). Allied to Ch. urlicmfolia^ Ham. and 

Ch, macrophylla. Wall. A figure of this snecies will be found in Mr. 

o2 



19G NOTES ON THE FLORA OF CO. COEK. 

+ 

C. B. Clarke's monographs of Bengal Commelynacece and Cyrtandracem^ 
still in the press. 

Calocedktjs, nov. gen, 

Strobili subpniniformis sqnamse 6, valde inaequalcs, decnssatim 
oppositse : 2 inferiores minutse, seqiientes 2 longissima), fertiles, 
intimsB 2 sequilonga^, poll, fere longa?, in septum connatse. Nnculae 
binse, in alam oblique obovato-oblongam septi longitudinis productae.^ — 
Folia decussatim opposita et quadrifariam imbricata, difformia. — 
Habitu Thuyopsidis generi Lilocedro quam maxime afflne, seminibus 
autem differt. 

7. C, MACEOLEPiSj nov. sp. — Arbor?, ramulis complanatis; folia 

coriacea, disticha, decussatim opposita et quadrifariam imbricata, 

tenuia, opaca, difformia : facialia acute trigona, unicostata ; marginalia 

complicato-naTicularia, lanceolata, acuta, apiee libera et supra articulis 

paullo producta, subtus concaviuscula ; strobili in ramulis lateralibus 

solitarii, elliptico- v. ovato-oblongi, teretiusculi, e squamis lignosis 6 

decussatim oppositis sese arete tegentibus compositi; squamse 2 infima? 

minimse, reflexiusculge ; sequentes 2 elongatse, c. poll, longac^, intimis 

2 in septum connatis aequilongis contrariaB ; nuculse ad basin squam- 

arum majorum geminatse, in alam oblique obovato-oblongam magnam 

products, coUaterales. — Yunan, Hotha (19 Aug. fr.). (Tab. 133, 
fig iii.) 



Description of Tab, 133. 

Fig. I. Sladeniaeelastrifolia,—!. Floweringbranch, natural size. 2. A flower 
laid out. 3. Transverse section of ovary. 4. Vertical section of ditto. 5. 
Stamen. 6. Porose apex of anther. Figg. 2—6 all somewhat magnified. 

Fig. II. Bichotomanthes tristanio'carpa. — 1. Fruiting brancHet, natural size. 
2. A fruit somewhat magnified, as all the following figs. 3. Transverse section 
of flowering calyx, showing the ovary. 4. Ditto, showing insertion of stamens. 
5. Segment of calyx-border, showing the interjected toothluts. 6, A^ertical 
section of young fruit. 

Fig. III. Calocedrusmacrolepis.—l.YTmiiughvHiich.. 2. Leaf-branch, some- 
what magnified. 3. Fruit seen parallel with the septum. 4. The same, with some 
of the median scales removed, showing the pair of seeds, 6. The two seeds. 
All figurea natural size except 2. , ' 



IfOTES ON THE FLORA OF CO. COItK. 

By the Rev. T. Allis. 

The following paper does not aim at anything like a complete 
treatment of the subj ect, but comprises merely a few notes th at rc ay 
help to indicate the leading features of the flora of this extensive 
county I may premise here that the area of the county is not far from 
two million acres, and that the whole number of flowering plants 
on record IS about 730, or something like half the entire number of 
British plants as given in the "London Catalogue," and upwards of 
Beven-tenths of all occurring in Ireland. 

First then may be noted here the poverty of our alpine flora—a 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF CO. CORK. 



197 



poverty unusually great even for Ireland. Of 113 plants of Watson's 
Highland type, Cork can hardly claim more than the following six :— 
Sedum Rhodiola, Saxifraga stellaris^ Sieracium iricum, Salix heriacea, 
Juniperus nana^ Asplemum viride. I exclude from this list the fol- 
lowing, because they occur at or near sea-level with us : — Kieracium 
pallidum, M, anglicum^ Galium horeale^ Arlutus Uva-iirsi^ Tsoetes lacus- 
tris. This almost entire absence of an alpine flora, although the county 
is mountainous over a considerable extent of its surface, is certainly 
a striking feature in the vegetation of Cork, Further to illustrate 
this, it may be added that of the six plants enumerated above the 

second, third, and fourth are recorded each from a single station 
only^ 

IS'ext may be remarked the absence or rarity of many of the 
commoner British species, I designate commoner all those plants marked 
in the ''London Catalogue" as occurring in at least fifty counties. 
Thus Thalictriim mimes is found in a single station only in this 
county, and T, Jlavum nowh^x^. Of the QommonGv RammcuUy H, auri- 
€07nu8 is very rare ; during several years' collecting I have never once 
met with it* Passing to the Cruciferm^ Thlaspi arvensehtxs only been 
tound in a single station, Lepidium campestre is very rare, and Carda- 
mine amara wanting (as also in aU the middle and south of Ireland), 
Vtola odorata is not native here, and V. hirta altogether wanting. 
Among the commoner Caryophyllacece^ S. anglica is very rare, so is 
Spergularia ruira, so are Cerastium arvense and C. semidecandrum. 
Both species of Rhamnus seem to be absent. Of the commoner Trefoils, 
T. medium is a scarce plant, and T, striatum extremely so. T. fragi- 
ferum and T,filiforme arewanting, so too is Ornithopits perptisillus. Vicia 
^Ivatica and V. tetrasperma are very rarely found, and so, too, is 
Poterium Sanguisorha. The beautiful Grass of Parnassus is absent 
from our flora, as well as Adoxa Moschatellina. The Galiums are 
poorly represented here, G. cruciaium, G. Mollago^ and G. uliginosum 
being absent. Still more scarce are Campanulas, but a single 
species being native, (7. rotundifoUa^ and that a scarce plant. Of the 
Gentians none are common; G. campesfris is rare, and our only other 
species, G, Amarella, is recorded from a single station only. 

Taking next the commoner Labiates, Salvia Verie^iaca is quite rare, 
Calamintha Acinosi^vfuntm^y and C. <7/^V^o/?f?(f^w»^ is recorded (probably 
doubtfully) from a single station. Of the Lamiums, Z. amplexicaule 
is extremely rare, and Z. album and Z. Galeobdolon wanting ; so is 
Stachys Betonica. Of commoner Boraginacem^ Mgosotis eoUina is absent, 
Lycopsis arvensis a casual and very scarce plant, and Cynoglossum offici- 
nale and Echiicm vulgare very rare. For Empetrum nigrum we have 
only a single station, as also for the Wood Spurge, U. amygdaloides^ 
which is the sole Irish station probably. 

Among the Orchidacem may be noted as wanting Neottia Nidm^ 
(IV is, Listera cordata, Epipactis palustris^ and Orchis Morio. O.pyrami- 
dalis is very rare, and 0. conop^ea recorded from but one station. Of 



the many commoner Carices we have, 'as might be expected in our 



dump soil and climate, nearly all. 
C. carta and C. acuta. 



Two only seem to be absent, 



On the other hand, the Ferns are poorly re- 
Thus Pohjpodium Phegopteris is quite rare here, and 
P, Bryopleris wanting. Cgstopfcris fragilis is extremely rare, Poly- 



presented. 



198 EECENT ADDITIONS TO OXTR MOSS FLOHA. 



stichum aculeatum rare, Lastrea Oreopteris found in one station only, and 
Botrychium Lunaria and Ojphioglossum vulgattim very scarce. Next 
may be noted, as very characteristic of our flora, the following few 
but highly interesting species : two found only in Cork in the 
British Isles — the Berehaven Orchis, Spiranthes Romantoviana^ and the 
spotted Cistus, Helianthemum guttatum — and three found only in Cork 
of all the Irish counties — Rosa micrantJia and R, systyla^ and JSuphorhia 
amygdalot'des (?). There is besides a larger group that may be fairly 
termed characteristic of Cork, though not absolutely in Ireland confined 
to It, e.g,j Asplenium laneeolatumy Sedum dasyphyllum (very possibly 
native), Linaria repens^ Lepidium latifolmm^ Ckendia JUiformis^ Gera- 
nium rotundifolium^ Eufragia viscosa^ Wahlenlergia Tiederacea, Carex 
punctata^ Asplenium acufum (not found in England or Scotland), Rumex 
mantimusj Allium Scorodoprasum^ Carum verttciUatum, and J uncus 
acutus. 

Again, highly characteristic of our flora are the following South and 
"West European species : eight out of fifteen in alllreland—^^tow^^^- 
mum guttatum (named above), Saxifraga Geum^ S. umlrosa and S. 
hirsuta (if distinct, which is very doubtful), Arkifus ZTnedo, Pingiii- 
cula grandijlora^ TricJiomanes radicanSy and Euphorhia hyherna. Of 
these S. umlrosa and Pinguicula grandifiora are so abundant in the 
west of the county as to arrest by their beauty the attention of the 
most careless traveller. 

Summing up biiefly, we find the Highland type hardly repre- 
sented at all, viz., about 6 out of 113 British; the Germanic type 
still^more poorly represented, not more than 2 being native out of 127 
British, viz., Orchis pyramidalisdxA Rromus erectus ; and the Atlantic 
type presenting a fair proportion, about 30 out of 70 British 
species. In addition we possess several characteristic species (chiefly 
of the English type), some peculiar to our own county, and some 
which we have in common with one or more neighbouring counties, 
while we want not a few commoner British plants. Lastly must 
be noted that we possess the sole European station for the rare 
Spiranthes Romanzoviana, 



RECENT ADDITIONS TO OUR MOSS FLORA.-Pari YI. 

By R. BuAimwAiTE, M.D., F.L.S. 

OETHOXfilCnACE^. 

Pam. 1. Zygodontem. 

Zugodon gracilis, Wils. MS.— Hobk. Synop., p. 98 (1873). Amphm- 
dium gracile, De Not. Epil. Bri. Ital., p. 278 (1869). Didymodon 
gracilis, Schimper MS. r \ , ^ 

Dioicous, in dense loosely cohering tufts, 1—3 in. high, ferrugi- 
nous-brown, tlie apex ytllow-giccn. Stem with repeated innovations, 
dichotomous or altcrnulely branched, producing Irom the axils of the 



UECENT ADDITIO^TS TO OUE MOSS FLORA. 199 

I 

leaves numerous braGched brown radicles. Leaves semi-amplexicaul 
at base, oblong-lanceolate, squarroso-patulous when moist, appressed 
. and variously curved wlien dry, strongly papillose, keeled with the 
stout nerve, which vanishes abruptly just below the acute apex; 
margin undulate, slightly recurved, narrowly hyaline and erosely 
denticulate towards apex. Cells at base narrow oblong, hyaline or 
yellowish, upper smaU opaque, rounded quadrate, papillose, Male 
inflorescence terminal, its bracts broadly ovate, apiculate, almost 
nerveless. 

Sah. — Old walls at Malham, Yorkshire, in fruit (J. K'owell, 
1866); Lancashire (Mr. Hunt). 

Zygodon viridissinms y ^, rupestris^ Lindberg in Hartm. Exsicc. (1861) ; 
Hartm. Skand. PL, p. 52 (1864). Z. viridissimuSy ^, saoricola 
Molendo in Lorentz Moosstudien, p. 95 (1864). Zygodon Stirtoni^ 
Schimper MS. 

Much more robust than the ordinary form. Leaves longer and 
narrower, with shorter points, and more opaque. Capsules rather 
more elongated. 

Sal. — Rocks, principally on the Scotch coast; near Arbroath, 
Troup Head (Mr. Fergusson) ; Menmuir, Forfar, in fruit (Mr. Ander- 
son) ; near Ben Lawers Inn, in fruit (Dr. Stirton). 



Fam. 2. OrtJiotrichece. 



difficulty 



the numerous closely allied species of this group may perhaps be 
lessened by a full description of all of them. The perfect fruit is 
necessary for their study, as well with the lid attached as after it 
has fallen, since the capsule in these two states often presents con- 
siderable alteration in form, while the leaves (contrary to what obtains 
in most other large genera of Mosses) offer but slight diagnostic 
characters. The two kinds of stomata found on the neck of the cap- 
sule in the genus Ortliotnehum have recently been adopted by several 
writers as an aid to the discrimination of species, though it is to be 
feared these organs are too minute to be readily available in practice. 
Prof. Lindberg in 1866 applied them to an arrangement of the Euro- 
pean species, and as he has kindly placed this at my service, I give 
it here, the species not found in Britain being enclosed in brackets. 
The superficial stomata are cuticular only, and resemble those seen in 
Funaria, being also termed phaneropores by Milde, stomata normalia 
by De Notaris, stomata nuda by Yenturi ; the immersed stomata lie 
in a recess sunk in the wall of the capsule, the small orifice being 
surrounded by a ring of elegant converging cells ; these also are the 
cryptopores of Milde, stomata sphincteriformia of Be Fotaris, 

stomata periphrasta of Yenturi. 

" ' ■ JHU8 Ulota (which seems to be as 

Axu,^^^^^ «^ I.-V- V,. D h Macromitrium and Schlotheimia) 

had already been w*ell characterised and named WeisHia by Ehrhart 
in 1779, a name appUed by Hedwig three years afterwards to a totally 
different genus; Lindberg, true to the correct principle of mamtammg 
priority in nomenclature, upholds Ehrhart's name, and the Wetma of 
Hedwig he changes to Simophylhm. 



200 



EECKNX ADBIXIOJJfS 10 OUR MOSS FLOKA 



9f European Orthotrichecey according to Prof. 



Weissia, 

1. W. Tilopliylla, Ehrh. 

2. W. phyllantha (Brid.)- 

3. W. crispula (Bruch.). 

4. W. Bruchii (flornsch.). 
[5. W, curvifolia (AVahl.) ] 



6. W. vittata (Mitten). 

7. "W. Drummondii (Hook.). 



8. W. 



9. W- coaretata (P. Beau.). 



) 



Orthotrichum, Hedw, 



I. Stomata immersed. 
A. Peristome double. 
* Cilia 16. 

f Seta emersed. 

1. 0. pulcliellumj Smith, 
f f Seta immersed. 

2. 0. rivulare, Turner. 

[3. 0. urnigerum, Myrin., incl. 

0. Schubartianam, Lo- 
rentz.] 

4. 0. Sprucei, Mont. 

5. 0. Rogeri, Brid. 

[6. 0. leucomitrium, Brid.] 
7. 0. diapbanum, Schrad. 
[8. 0. polare, Lindb.] 

9. 0. stramineum, Hornsch. 
*^- Cilia 8 . 

f Seta emersed. 

10. 0. anomalum, Hed., 

9 



II. Stomata superficial. 
A. Peristome double. 
* Cilia 1 6. 

1. 0. Lyellii, Hook, ife T. 

2. 0. striatum (L.), Smith. 
** Cilia 8. 

t Seta emersed. 



[3 



] 



[4. 0. l3evigatum,;Zetterst.] 
5. 0. speciosum, N, Esen. 




] 



1 



] 



] 



] 



Wood 



tt 



11. 0. patens, Bruch. 



] 



13. 0. scopulorum, Lindb.] 

14. 0. Braunii, Br. & Sch.J 

15. 0, tenellum, Bmcb. 

16. 0. pumilum, Swartz. 

17. 0. Schimperi, Hammar. 
[18. 0. Venturii, ©0:^^01.] 
B. Peristome simple. 

19, 0. cupulatum, Hoff. 
[20. 0. pellucidum, Lindb.] 

Weissia. EhrhL { 



ft Seta immersed. 

11-0. affine, Schrad. 
[12. 0. appendiculatum, Schpr.] 

13. 0. faatigiatum, Bruch. 
[14. 0. microcarpum, De Not.] 

15. 0. obtusifolium, Schrad. 

16. 0. rupestre, Schleich., 
0- Sturmii, Hornsch. 

B. Peristome simple, 

■"17. 0. flaccum, De I^ot.] 

18. 0. iEtnense, De Ifot.J 

19. O.Shawii, Wilson. 
C. Peristome none. 

[20. 0. gymnostomum, Bruch.] 



806) 



Calyptra obtusely costate, more or less covorod by ions flexuose 
rameata. Capsule elavate or pyriform, with a long neck gradually 
tapormg downward into the peduncle. Leaves curied and twisted 
1^ the Jddk hyaline at margin, linear and chloropbyllose 

whole kngth! '^'"''^'^' "'^'*' ^^'"^ '^''■' ""'^^ ^ ""'^^^ extending its 



RECENT ADDITIOI^S TO OUR MOSS PLORA. 201 



1. JF, 



^. ulophylla, Ehrh. Hannov. Mag., pt. 63 (1779). Orthotrichum 
erispum, Hed. Stirp. ii., p. 96 (1788). Ulota crispa, Brid. Br. 
Un.i., p. 299(1826), ^ ' 

Monoicous, _fasciculato-c8espitose, in dense cushions, or rather lax 
and irregular in outline, the innovations yellow-green, ferruginous 
below, usually bearing both old and new capsules at the same 
time. Stem erect or ascending, subdichotomous, with crowded 
branches. Leaves densely crowded, strongly curled and 
twisted when dry, patulous when moist ; lower ovato-lanceolate, 
acute, upper from an ovate base, longly linear-lanceolate, all with 
patulous wings, which are diaphanous at basal angles, so as almost 
to appear auricled, carinate ; nerve reddish or yellowish, reaching 
nearly to apex. Cells at base rectangular, brown, the alar hyaline 
with incrassate transverse walls, those towards the nerve elongated, in 
oblique rows, upper rounded, thick-walled. Capsule quite exserted, 
the neck gradually attenuated into a strong non-twisting peduncle, 
stoutly elongato-clavate pachydermous, pale brown, obsoletely 8-ribbed, 
when dry contracted below the mouth, ovate, deeply sulcate, plicate 
to the right at the neck, finally nan^owed and twisting, and becoming 
wide-mouthed when old. Epicarpic cells of the vittse in four rows, 
forming a thick sinuous rufous stratum, those of the sulci paler and 
thinner. Lid from a hemispherical base, rather longly mucronate. 
Teeth^ broadly linear and pointed, pale, 8 bigeminate, united beyond. 
the middle; cilia of endostome shorter, subulate, of 2 rows of cells, 
8 or sometimes 16. Calyptra conic, very rough with yellowish 
ramenta. Male flower lateral. Spores rufous. 

Hal. — Common on Larch and Birch trees. Fr. July, August. 

2. 7F, phyllantha^ Lindb. Ulota pJiyllantha^ Bridel Mantissa, p. 113 
(1819). 



below, resembling the last species, but sparingly dichotomous, with 
longish flaccid branches. Leaves less spreading, softer, long, linear, 
much acuminated, not dilated at base, twisting and circinate 
when dry. Cells at base pale, rectangular, the lowest rufescent, a 
single row diaphanous at the recurved plicate margin, above rounded 
incrassate, more densely arranged; papillae smaller; nerve paler, pro- 
longed to apex, and there incrassate, and bearing a cluster of brown 
jointed cylindric gemmje. 

Hah. — Not uncommon on rocks round the coasts, also on trees. 

4 

3- TT, cnspula^ Lindb. XTlota crispula, Bruch, Bridel Bry. Un. i., 



p. 289 (1826), 



TT. 



tilophylla^ but smaller and more slender. Stem subdichotomously 
innovating, with brown radicles at base. Leaves veiy densely 
crowded, lower ferruginous, upper yellowish, soft and thin, erect or 
flexuose when moist, when dry cirrhato-contorted ; the base ovate, 
concave apprcssed, and somewhat recurved at margins, then lint 



1-1 1*„ 



lanceolate, acute, ratlier narrower than in W. ulophylla^ carinate, 
wings patulous, nerve rufescent, vanishing below apex. Cells at 
basal anglt's rtctangular, hyaline, with incrassate transverse walls, 






202 RECENT ADDITIONS TO OUR MOSS PXORA, 

narrow and yellowish towards tlie nerve, rounded and incrassate above, 
Comal leaves lotiger and broader. Capsule in tbe. moist plant exserted 
for all length of sporangium, passing gradually into the pale peduncle, 
which equals the capsule in length, long-necked, elongate-pyriform, 
very pale, obscurely vittate, leptodermous, when dry with the neck 
suddenly much contracted and plicate, ovato-urceolate, scarcely con- 
tracted below the mouth, strongly 8-costate, finally in decay narrowly 
trumpet-shaped. Cells of vitt^e quadrate, thickened in their longitu- 
dinal walls by a sinuous pale stratum, those of sulci larger, irregular, 
thin-walled. Lid hemispherical, mucronate. Teeth triangular, elon- 
gate, often bifid at apex, united in pairs but sometimes separated 
here and there at the suture, pale. Cilia rather shorter, filiform. 

Calyptra short conic, very rough with yellowish ramenta. Spores 
pale green. 

Hah, — On Beech and Birch trees in subalpine districts. Fr. May. 

4. W. Bruchiiy Lindb. Ulota Sruchn, Homsch. Bridel Bry. TJn. i., 

p. 794 (1826). OrtJiotricJium coarofatum, Bry. Eur. — C. Miill. 

Monoicous, pulvinate, resembling TF, nhphjlla, bright yellow- 
green above, ferruginous below. Stem erect or ascending from a de- 
cumbent naked base, repeatedly dichotomous. Leaves from an ovate 
base, long, linear-lanceolate, subflexuose, twisted and contorted when 
dry, margin plane above, recurved below, more gradually pointed 
than in W. uhphylU^ and with a paler uerve, the perichoetial erect, 
longitudinally sulcate at base. Cells at basal wings quadrate, hyaline, 
with incrassate transverse walls, those next the nerve larger, rect- 
angular in straight rows, the upper with smaller papillae. Calyptra 
straw-coloured, deeply cleft, with abundant ramenta. Capsule much 
exserted, gradually attenuated into a long neck, cylindric-oval, pachy- 
dermous, yellow-brown, 8-costate, when dry and empty much elon- 
gated, fusiform, contracted at mouth, fuscous. Cells of vittje in 5 
rows, quadrate, thickened in their longitudinal walls by a rufous 
stratum ; those of the sulci laxer. Lid pale, convex at base, rostel- 
late. Teeth bigeminate, finally cleft, longer, reflexed when dry, pale ; 
cilia 8 long as teeth, or sometimes 16 alternately longer and shorter, 
composed of 2 rows of cells. Spores green. 

Hah. — On trees, not uncommon. Fr. July, August. 

5. W. nttata, Braithw. Uhtavittata^ Mitten Joum. Lin. Soc. viii., 

p. 3 (1865). Or^7i(>^^i£?7i^i»^ £?fl7d?^S6'e?25, Wils. MS.---Hobkirk Syn., 
p. 95 (1873). Ulota calvescens, Schpr. Muse. Eur. Nov., fasc. 
3-4 (1866). • 

Monoicous, resembling JT. BrucJiti, in small yellow-green cushioned 
tufts. Leaves densely crowded, patent, cirrhate when dry, shorter, 
from a broader oval base, lineal-lanceolate, carinate, nerve vanishing 
l^low the more obtusely pointed apex. Areolation narrower and 
more solid, cells at base linear and subvermicular in the middle, 
quadrate and hyaline at margin, above which and extending along 
the margin for half the length of the leaf, but separated from it by a 
single row of round cells, are about 6 rows of narrow elongated cells 
forming a band, those at apex very small and rounded. Male inflo- 
rescence iremmiform. on vt^rv shnrf Vimnr-lmc 4l.n ..i.f^i. v.T-onf« nTilnnir- 



KECE:N-T ADDITIOPfS TO OUR MOSS FLOEA. 203 

lanceolate mutlcous, innermost ovate, obtuse. Vaginula naked. Calyp- 
tra glossy, straw-coloured, with only a few short appressed ramenta. 
Capsule with a very long neck, attenuated into a slender longish 
pedicel twisted to the left, oval-oblong, straw-coloured, with narrow 
orange costse, when diy sulcate, not contracted at mouth. Cells of 
the vittae in 5 rows, rectangular, the longitudinal walls incrassate 
sinuous, rufescent ; those of the sulci paler and thinner. Lid convex 
conical, rufous, with a slender beak of equal length. Teeth longer, 
bigeminate, reflexed when dry, connivent when moist, pale yellow, 
reddish towards base, densely papillose externally. Cilia 8, nearly as 
long as teeth, pale yellow. Spores rufescent. 

Hah. — Killarney, on branches of Hawthorn and Mountain Ash, 
along with W, Bruchii (Dr. Carrington) ; near Dailly, Ayrshire, acd 

Loch Doon (Mr. Shaw). Fr. June. Pii^st found in Madeira by Mr. 
Johnson, 

J 

6. W, Brimimondii^ Lindb. OrthotricJium Brummondii^ Hook. & Grev. 

Grev. Scot. Cr. FL, t. 115 (1824). Ulofa Drummondn, Erid. 

Monoicous, crowded in depressed pale yellowish-green tufts. Stem 
creeping, rooting in its whole length, with short, thick dense-leaved 
branches. Leaves from an ovate concave base, short, lineal-lanceolate, 
obtusely pointed, the comal longer, the perichgetial broader at base, 
all slightly curled when dry, margin a little revolute below ; cells at 
base next to nerve narrow, elliptic, at wing quadrate, hyaline, above 
minute, rounded incrassate. Nerve red, vanishing below apex. Cap- 
sule exserted on a short pedicel, obovate-clavate, when dry 8-sulcate 
to base, pale brown, when old fusiform, gradually narrowed towards 
orifice, small-mouthed, furrows deeper, turned to right. Cells of vitta) 
rectangular, leptodermous. Calyptra conico-campanulate, straw- 
coloured, sparingly ramentaceous. Lid pale, conical, acicular. Teeth 



at apex. 



dry^ 



jEfab, — On Birch and Mountain Ash, Scotland, Ireland, North of 



England. Fr. August. 

7. W. americafmy Lindb. Orthotriehum americamim^ P, Beauvois, 
Prodr., p. 80 (1805). Orthotriehum Hutchinsice^ Smith, Eng. 
Bot, 2532 (1813). Ulota Hutchimi^^ Schpr. 

Monoicous, densely fasciculate-pulvinate, interwoven at base, or 
coating rocks in wide strata ; the innovations deep green, the rest dark 
brown, rigid and fragile when dry. Stem at first erect, nearly 
simple or dichotomous, by age defoliate at base, decumbent and 
tomentose. Leaves very densely imbricated, erect, rigid, from a more 
or less dilated base, ovato-lanceolate, carinate, the wings patulous 
or recurved, when diy appressed, scarcely flexuose, nerve nearly 
reaching apex. Cells at base rectangular, very narrow, fulvous, the 
marginal quadrate, hyaline, upper small, rounded. Peduncle far 
ceeding the comal leaves, when dry sulcate, twisting to the right. 
Capsule when moist stoutly pyriform, pale grccnish-yellow, obscurely 
8-vittato, when dry contracted, oblong strongly 8-sulcate, brown; 
cells at vittaB pachydermous, quadrate, the longitudinal walls incras- 



^^Y — 



204 DUO AGARICI NO VI AN-GLICI. 

sate with a strong sinuous layer, those of the sulci rectangular ; 
stomata a few on the neck. Lid hemispherical at base, rather longly 
rostrate. Teeth 8, bigeminate, or sometimes distinct, reflexed when 
dry, pale, rugulose ; cilia rather short, subulate, articulated, some- 
times abortive. Calyptra canico-campanulate, very rough Avith 

golden-yellow ramenta. Male inflorescence axillary or terminal, 
reddish. 

Hab, — Bock and stones in subalpine districts. Fr. July. 



* 



below the mouth. 



very 



8. W. coarctata, Lindb. Orthotrichum coar datum, P. Beauvois, 
Proclr., p. 80 (1805). Orthotrichum Ludwigii, Bridel, Muse. rec. 
Sup , p. 6 (1812). Ulota Ludwigii, Erid. 

Monoicous, in small yello w -brown tufts. Stem erect, or creeping 
at base sparingly fastigiate-branched. Leaves densely imbricated, 
patulous, appressed when dry, the younger yellowish, the old ferru- 
ginous, lower small, lanceolate-subulate, or as well as the upper rather 
wider ones, from a narrowly ovate ventrieose base, elongato-lanceolate, 
acute, wmgs generally recurved, carinate, nerve vanishing below apex. 
Cells at basal margin rectangular, small, the rest very narrow, upper 
rounded and oval, incrassate. Peduncle far exceeding the comal 
leaves, straight, when dry sulcate or twisting. Capsule clavato- 
pyrilorm, leptodermous, smooth when moist, pale brown ; when dry 
long-necked, pynform, fuscous, much contracted at mouth, and with 
8 short plaits, the rest scai-cely sulcate. Cells of vitt£E quadrate, 
strongly mcrassate at sides, reddish, the rest quadrate or rectangular, 
btomata numerous on the neck. Lid hemispherical at base, rosteUate. 
1 eeth 8 bigemmate, whitish, erect when dry; cilia 8, very short, 
brownish, rugulose, sometimes obsolete. Calyptra straw-coloured, 
brown at apex, densely ramentaceous. 

ITah.— On trees in subalpine districts. Scotland and Ireland. 
±r. August. 



I 



DUO AGARICI :N^0VI A^GLICI. 

Auctoej: E. 'Fries. 

Agakiois WoKTHiNGTONi-4. (Stropharia) albo-cyaneus, Saund. 
tloro'JZ: ^^^'■^^^■'^- ^9, f. 1-5, non Desm.-Psalli^ta pileo 
fi'I bso r,o 1 •' '^"T/^^l^^t^ ^"«^«^o. ^i«eido (?), l^vi, aureo ; stipite 
fi^tuloso, gracili, subflexuoso, cyaneo ; lamoUis adnatis fusco-ferrigi- 

bre.tr.'^^tir^"'''"' ^'^''^ "^'I"*^ "^^"5' ^^^^'«' 3-4 liu. cra.so ot 



\ 



LACTARIUS MINIML'S. 205 

Agaricus SArNDKESTT.— ^. {Entoloma) mo^alis, Saund. & "V^f. G. 

Sm. Myc. Ill,, t. 46, non Fr. — Entoloma pilco carnoso, marginem 
versus tenui, convexo, glabro, viscirlo (?), albicante ; stipite solido, 
firmo, sequali, glabro, albo ; lamellis leviter adncxls latis, distantibus, 
incarnatis. 

A.^ majalis singulim ab A, Saundersii differt prsecipue statura 
gracili, stipite fistuloso, pileo membraDaceo, scissili campanulato, 
cinnamomeo ; lamellis liberis confertis crenatis. 

[The names only of both these species have been already published 
in Grevillea for February last, pp. 127, \2%,— Ed. Journ. Bot.'] 



LACTARIUS MINIMUS, Sp. Nov. 
By WoPiTnixGTON G. SiiixH, F.L-S, 

It is difficult to decide whether this plant should be published as a 
hond fide new species, or be considered a mere depauperised form of 
some other Lactarius. As far as my knowledge goes, no species or 
variety coming under this genus has hitherto been observed possessing 
such insignificant dimensions as the plant here figured, which I 
found in tolerable plenty in a small wood by Coldbrook Park, Aber- 
gavenny, on Oct. 16, 187 L Its general characters, excepting of course 
its minute dimensions (here figured the exact size of nature), accord 
tolerably well with Lactarius pallidus^ Fr., but it differs in having a 
semi-umbonatc pileus in place of the depressed cap of that species ; 
moreover it is hardly conceivable that such a fine Agaric as Lactarius 
paUidus, Fr., with a pileus generally averaging from three to six inches 
in diameter, could ever, under any circumstances, dwindle into such a 
dwarfish object as our Abergavenny plant- It seems more reasonable 
to look upon it as a new species, which from its minute dimensions, and 
perhaps its rarity, has been liitherto overlooked_._ The fruit is quite 
normal, and very similar to that of other Zadan'L 




\ 










F ^ 

Lacxaeits Momnis, sp. mo^?.— Minute ; pallid clay-colour through- 
out ; pileus from one-quarter to five-eighths of an inch in diameter, 
fleshy, pulvinate, rounded or plightly umhonate, margin incurved ; gills 
subdecurrent, arcuate, branched, moderately distant ; stem very short, 
generally excentric ; milk abundant, white, mild ; spores echinulate, 
•0003 in. diameter. 



206 SHORT NOTES AXD QUEKTKS 



Phtscia 



SHORT JJfOTES A'SB QrEEIES. 

It may "be Interesting to some of the readers 
of this Journal to know that the rare and singular Lichen, Fhyscia 
intricata, Schaer., still grows in the locality in which it was found by 
Mr. Borrer, near Hastings, in tolerable abundance. It is to be seen 
on the perpendicular sides of blocks of sandstone, near the top of the 
cliffs, and is generally partially covered with the earthy detritus 
washed down by the rain. It appears to prefer those portions of the 
cliff which from their firmer nature have resisted the action of the 
ram and frost, and are consequently somewhat weatherboaten. 
Fortunately it is not Hkely to be exterminated by over- zealous botanists 
or ranty hunters, for the places in which it is most luxuriant are so 
inaccessible, on account of the friable nature of the cliff and the 
insecure foothold which the water- worn ledges of sandstone afford, and 
trom the frequent landslips which take place, that no one but a 
professional robber of sea-birds' nests would attempt to reach them. 
This Lichen is also stated to occur at Selsey Bill, but I searched for it 

aZ^ 'f"^^'^; ^^^ ^?'l appears to be somewhat similar to that of the 
clifls at Hastings, consisting of a mixture of sand and stiff clay ; but there 
are no cliffs for several miles around Selsey, and I suspect that the 
two localities given m that neighbourhood are identical, as I have a 
specimen obtained from Bracklesham near Selsey. The only other 
British locality given m " Leighton's Lichen-Plork of Great Britain " 

ff 1? -1^^ '.''' Devonshire ; but the geological formation there is 
totally different, and I have reason to believe that that locality should 
have been appended to Fhyscia leucomela, Mich., which does occur 
there sparingly.— E. M. Holmes. 



A.ft. > ™;«^^™— On Friday, May 30, I visited a plantation at 
Antron about two miles west of Helston, in search oiAUiumtriquetrum, 

vet .1? 1^5"^^^^ ^*^^ ^''^^ Pl^^ty. I found it several 

S[™, ■ t' ^^/^°-^1««' ^^^^ the Loe pool, and it is undoubtedly 
maigenous. — James Ctoi(acb:. 

i 

Y'^M^^^^t ^'^"^^^ ^« completely established on a bank at 
whpr,S ? ; 1,^^^^^ ^ 'l^^''*"^ «f » °ii^e «ff is the garden of a house, 
w?th ?f /n T I'-^^'^f' ^ts escape ; but as the hedge-bank is covered 
with It for two hundred yards, it is quite naturalised there.-C. W. 



el^oMlTf .^^^^^^f^^^os, Z.-I have met with Famnculus 
BiSeftv :>.'\r'" .f ^°*ity, in a second locality, west of St. 
with i h.^l ""^ *""" r^"' ^^""^ ^^^ °t^^^^ ^^^itat. It was growing 
uLJ^^'T' '°'°°^? P*'' '^^ uncultivated ground covered ^vith 
~cf of Zf- ''. ^^^t^'^^ 200 feet above the sea. There is no 
h's been i&^ T^ ^^ '^'^^^ ^^^^^^^^ this year, as the season 
are dried un ^ T/?' ^^'^ Promising plants which I had noted 
I'nwS S'nf . ff "P' ^r. ''"'^ y°^ ^^^it from plants in cultivation, 
m which state they grow freely, and produce numerous offsets. A 



SHOKT NOTES AND QTTEKIES. 207 

Single plant in a pot has Leen the parent of sixteen such, three of 
which are now flowering. At present the heads of fruit are almost 
spindle-shaped, not cylindrical and truncated, as in the French 
specimens figured in the '' Journal of Botany " for August last. I am 
looking for Juncus pygmmus. — Marti:n" M. Bull. 



\ 



^ Plants op Co. Coek.— During a trip last summer made to the 
neighbourhood of Kinsale, I noted the following plants, all of which 
possess some local if not general interest i— Car ex punctata, which, as 
already noted in the Journal, was found by me growing by the shore 
at Oysterhaven, close to Kinsale, a station which greatly extends the 
range of this rare species in this county. Asplemum lanceolattm I saw 
growing near the old fort, opposite the town of Kinsale, a new station 
for this interesting species. jN'ear the same locality grows Lepidium 
latifolnm by the water, and one or two plants rarein the county (Cork), 
though not generally so, viz., Salvia Verhenaca, Tor His nodosa, and very 
abundant (growing in the short grass), Linaria Elatine. In culti- 
vated fields I found Valerianella Auricula, a species apparently not 
very rare in this county, and no doubt often confounded with V. 
deniata, Sclerochloa distans, a grass noted as rare in the "Cybele," 
though perhaps not so in South Cork, grows freely in one spot by 
the road to Scilly (Kinsale).— H. F. Alllt. 



Ox THE FfiuiT or Ltsidice RnonosTEGiA. — Having been so fortunate, 
in July last year, as to gather on the banks of the West River, in the 
Sam yeung Pass, opposite the village of Tai seung, about ninety miles 
above Canton, specimens witli nearly ripe fruit of this very interesting 
plant, described by me six years ago (Seem. Journ. Bot. v., 298), I 
am now enabled to complete the generic character, thus : — Legumen 
stipitatum, rectum, plano-compressum, coriaceo-lignosum, bivalve, 
apice rigide uncinato-acuminatum, sutura inferiore vix, superiore 
paululum incrassata. Semina 9 — 12, transversa, isthmis incompletis 
spongioso-cellulosis separata, oblique ovalia, valde compressa, margine 
incrassato angusto cincta, exarillata ; albumen nullum ; cotyledones 
planae, tenues, carnosae ; radicula brevissima, recta, inclusa. The pod 
xs eight inches long, and one and-a-half inch wide. Its nearest 
affinity, as before stated by me, seems undoubtedly with the South 
American erenus Heterostemon, Desf. — H. P. Hance. 



l^OTE oif Glochimon? ciJfERAscKNs, Mtq.^ — This plant passed 



ninfir mv Burmese 



and 



very 



Its fruits only confirmed my view. Dr. J. Mueller, in the second part 
of the XV. vol. of DC. Prodromus, p. 314, takes in the species as 
-Phyllanthis ctnerascens, Miillbrg., but he had no fruits at command. 
I myself feel a little doubtful, having only two fruits at disposal, 
'whether to place the plant in IlicinetB or in Khamnace<B ; but I am 



208 SUOKT NOTES AND QTTEKrES. 

inclined to consider it an Ilex^ with which the structure of the leaves 
and the whole habit correspond. The fruits are said to be 3-coccour, 
but I should call them 3-spermous ; unfortunately the contents are all 
eaten up by insects. The epicarp is fleshy, and the '* disk " under the 
fruit resembles more that of Ilex than 'Rhamnacem, There are only 
two genera in Rhamnacem (provided this shouU not be a new genus) 
with which the plant can be compared, viz., Rhamnus and Scutia, the 
former containing more temperate forms, the latter differing greatly in 
habit Whilst drawing up these remarks I have come upon an 
AJphitonta hom the Moluccas, cultivated in the Buitenzorg Garden in 
Java, named Alphitonia incana, Teysm. et Binnend. I can find no 
description of this species, nor can I find the name, in Teysmann's 
and Binnendyk's catalogue of the plants of the Buitenzo^*^ notion 
There is an Alphitonia Moluccana, T. et B., and I suspect l..v. ..^...^.^ 
have afterwards changed their own name, and, if so, very unfortunately 
so, as will be seen from the sequel, A comparison with Roxburgh's 
descnption and exceUent MS. figures has clearly shown me that 
Mamnus tneanus, Eoxb. PI. Ind. I., 603, and AlpL incana, T. et B., 
are one and the same plant.— S. Ktjez, 



CAiAMiNTnASTLVATxcA,J9ro?/i/,ixDEvoN— lately, whilst turningover 
someunarranged plants, two specimens of Calamintha gatheredby myself 
at Torquay m 1864 attracted my attention, and on handing the plants 
to my friend the Eev. W. W. Newbould, he immediately recognised 
them as Calamintha syhatica, Bromfield. In Eng. Bot, Sup., pi. 2897, 

f. -fr''^^^?^^^ ^^ *^^ P^^°* ^^ ^^^^^ ^^<5 I>r. Bromfield writes that 



Woods 



tical with the present ; and as far as can be judged of from the single 
and not very good specimen seen by us, we are disposed to coincide 
with that gentleman and our kind friend Mr. Borrcr in thinking them 



the same." 



Wood 



but only one plant of Calamintha is kbelled from Kent, and this is 



menthifi 



6. sylvatica has not hitherto been recorded from any other station 



Wi^ 



lorquay leads one to expect its existence elsewhere in the South and 
bouth-Wcst, and it should be carefullv Innkp^l fnr iW.. =«n.„r, —i? 



West 

TOWASEND. 



Middlesex Plants. 



Q* <■• • rC T-.'^"t J ■'"'^ v;aiiai siue, leaving west JJrayton 

btation m the direction of Uxbridge, I obserycd Smyrnium Olusatrum 
Z:^^ \ "^^ ''^ the towmg-path, near, however, to a farmyard. This 
3/1 n^^ lialf-a-mile from the station ; a little nearer Carex 
iZiZlL ^'"'^'^-^yP'^rus, and C. paniculata grew by the margin of 
trie stream. (Enanthefluviatilis, 3fyriophyllum verticillatum, and Ranun- 

wl!rw ^? T ?"^y ^^^^°*^"°* i« the canal. In a brickfield 



gathered 



ft.Hnr^n -F IP I f^T^'"" '"^''- '^^^^^ ^^« nothing suspicious in the 
station m ^t^elf, tut of course this occurrence alone must not establish 
this as a native Middlesex plant. At a place called Colham Green, in 



SHOHT XOTES AND QirFKTES. 209 

the same nei^hbourho^ occurred Carex dmdm, Emmjmm curopmi. 
tlematu Vitalha, and m several places on walls abont Dawleylsaw 
±estum pseuclo^^^^ and the IravJiycarpa variety of Draha verna. 

ihe lriffo?ieUa near Hillingdon Place Lodge was in nice flower -J 

li. VV AKREN. 



lo^ 1^^^ ^-'^^^^'^^^^» ^^^?-' -t^ GiTERXSET.— Towards the end of May 
1871, having written to Dr. E. Collenette, of Guernsey, for some 
specimens of 0. laxiflora, I received from his son, Dr. A. Collenette a 
very few specimens which agreed fairly well with that species, though 
dittermg as to nervation of petal and some minor particulars, and m 
physiognomy receding in the directiou of 0. mmcuU, though much 
laxer of spike. Singularly enough, in June last (1872) I collected a 
\^^ specimeas of an Orchid precisely identical with the Guernsey 
plant upon dampish debru on the extensive mounds and flats north 
ot Hartlepool, known as the BiUast Hills, This ballast was evidently 
of recent origin, third or fourth year's ballast, and obviously iatro- 
duced from France or the Channel Islands, for here the Orchid j^-rew 
along with Sinapu Cheiranthus, Bromm maximuSy Cymsurus ecMmtm, 
Lagurus, and such like aliens. (I may say that several Orchids 
occur occasionally in this way upon the ballast, and a few have 
obtained a permaaent footing.) I sent specimens of the Guernsey 
plant to Dr. Syme for the Bot. Exch. Club, having previously 
distributed examples to several other botanists. Dr. Syme identifies 
my plant with Orchis palustris^ Jacq., a distinct species according to 
Koch and Woods, and one not unlikely from its Continental distribution 
to be found in the Channel Isles. I have written to Dr. A. Collenette 
for fuller particulars as to the locality, &c., of the plant he gathered for 
me, and fresh specimens from the same spot. He wrote at the time 
that^it was ** common in certain marshy meadows." Dr. Syme adds 
to his note giving me the name of my find here, that it is " 

laxijlora of Jersey and Guernsey,*' which seems to imply that _ 

7'? has not been recognised hitherto as a native of those islands. I send 

you half of the specimens I originally received from Guernsey for 

your opinion. — P. Aknold Lees. — [The plants sent are intermediate 

in their characters between typical 0. palustris, Jacq., and 0. laxijlora, 

and are one of a chain of forms which connect the two plants, which 

can therefore be scarcely separated even as varieties. The points relied 

^pon for their discrimination are the length of the central lobe of the 

labellum relatively to the lateral lobes, and of the bracts relatively to 

the ovary. Extreme 0. pahistris^ such as is published in Billot's 

iiXsicc, n. 1069, possesses a very large labellum, with its central lobe 

J^nger than the lateral, and the bracts greatly exceeding the ovary. 

vxrenierand Godron remark that, in drying, the flowers of O.palustris 

remain rose-coloured, whilst those of 0. laxijlora become of a dark 

purple. This test wonldpntDr. CoUenette's Guernsey phmt into the 

latter form. Probably the forms grow intermixed there. — Ed.Journ. 



7iot the 
it 



f 



210 BEPORT OP THE HERBARIt^^ A?fD LrBRARV, 



\ 



€jctractisf anti 311B^tract^, 



RErORT FOR THE YEAR 1872 OF THE HERBARIUM AIs"l> 

LIBRARY OF THE ROYAL GARDEl^S AT KEW. 

rf 

By J. D. HooKEE, C.B., M.D., F.R.S. 

Herbarium- 

The accessions to the Herbarium are of exceptional importance as 
re«-ards noYclties. The number of specimens acquired during 
1872 has been about 17,500, of which 1500 were purchased, and 
the rest procured by gift or exchange. Among the most valuable 
presentations are the Eev. C. New's plants, collected on the Alpine 
zone of "Kilima-njaro, the only hitherto visited snow-clad mountain 
in equatorial Africa, which possesses a remarkable interest, as the 
flora of the Alpine zone of Africa was previously wholly unknown. 
A notice of it is being prepared for immediate publication. A fine 
collection of 2000 Brazilian plants from M. Glaziou, Director of 
Public Parks, &c., at llio de Janeiro. A beautiful collection of 
Appalachian Mosses has been received with many other plants from 
Dr. Gray, of Cambridge, U.S., and of Mexican and New Caledonian 
plants from the museum of the Jardin des PI antes, Paris, The 
very valuable Herbarium of Dr. Pettier, made by himself and the 
early missionaries in India, has been presented by the authorities 
of King's College. As containing the types of many species im- 
perfectly described by the first Indian botanists, and representing 
the state of the botany of the Peninsula at the beginning of the 
century, it is of great interest and importance both in a scientifac 
and historical point of view. 

A beautiful collection of Burmese Orchids has been presented 
by the Kev. C. Parish. Dr. Brandis, P.L.S, Conservator of Forests 
for India, has placed his herbarium, formed in many parts of India, 
at the disposal of this establishment, to be selected from ; together 
with a collection of Tibetan plants, made by the Pev. Mr. Heyde. 
■Mr. Kurz, Curator of the Herbarium of the Calcutta Eotauic 
Gardens, has transmitted large Burmese .collections made during ^ 
late mission to that country. 

Por novelty as well as interest no contributions are of greater 
value than Beccari's Bornean plants, amounting to 1850 species, com- 
municated by Professor Parlatore, of Florence ; M, Maximowicii s 
Japan plants, a splendid series ; Dr. Hendcrson^s collections, made 
during Forsyth's mission to Yarkand; and Dr. J.Anderson's, made 
during the expedition to Yunan, the botany of the two latter 
countries having previously been wholly unknown to science. 

The other principal contributions to the Herbarium have been 
the following: — ^ 

Europe, &c. — Andersson, Dr. (Academy of Science at Stockholrn;, 
Arctic plants. Ball, J. ; Alpine plants. Braun, Prof ; a collection 
of Marsileas. Cooke, M. C. ; British Fungi (purchased). I'l'i^^' 



f 



s, 



RErOET OP THE HERBARIUM AND LTBRART, KEW. 211 

■ 

Prof. T^; Arctic plaats, Licheus, &c. Geheeb, A. ; Rhine Mosse 
Janka, Victor von; Turkey and Banat plants (purchased) 

Asia.— Aitcheson, Dr. ; Panjab plants. Beddome, Major : Penin- 

Ti ""^ I^^n'^ ^^^'' ^'■^^- T- ; ^^'''^'^ V^^^ts. Perguson, W. : 
AlgfB of Ceyloa. Main gay, Dr ; a large collection of Malayan 

and other Lichens (purchased). Parish, Her. C ; Burmese Orchids. 
M John Major; Persian plants. Stewart, Dr.; W.W. Indian and 
iibetan plants. Thomson, Dr. ; Plants of Aden, Canara, &c. 

Afeica and its IsLAXDa.— Baines, T. ; a valuable herbarium of 
plants from the interior of Tropical S. Africa. Baker, Miss • 
Madagascar plants. Blackmore, T. _; Marocco plants. Barber, Mrs! 
M. E. ; plants from the S. African diamond-fields. Bolus, H. ; plants 
^ora the interior of the Cape district. Buchanan, Bey. J. ; jS'atal 
Ferns. Home, J. ; Seychelle Islands plants. Hutton, H. ; collections 
made on the Orange river. Kirk, Dr., Vice-Consul; plants from 
Zanzibar and the opposite coast. Lange. Prof. (Copenhagen); 
bchousboe's Marocco plants. Masters, Dr. ; Stewart's Mozambique 
plants. _ Melliss, J. ; St. Helena Lichens andAlgce. McLea, J. H. ; 
S. African Mosses. McOwan, Principal, Somerset East ; S. African 
plants. Pike, Col. (U.S. Consul) ; Mauritian Algaj. 

America.— Bebb, S. ; N. American Willows. Bernouilli, Dr. ; 
Guatemala plants. Cunningham, Dr. ; Patagonia and Brazil plants. 
Gilbert, M. ; Monte Yideo plants. Horticultural Society, Royal, of 
London ; Weir's tropical American collections. Jardin des Plantes, 
Paris ; Mexican plants. Jameson, Dr. ; Argentine Republic. Lefroy, 
Gen. ; Bermuda plants. Levy, P. ; Nicaragua plants (purchased). 
Longman, W. ; Rio de Janeiro plants. O'lney, S. T. ; American 
Carices. Patin, C. ; New Granada, &c., plants. Veitch, Messrs. ; 
Endress' Costa Rica collection. White, R. B ; JSTew Grenada plants. 
AtrsiEALiA, New Ztialand, aud Pacific Islands. — Cheeseman, 
T. F. ; New Zealand plants. Dickie, Prof. (Aberdeen) ; Pacific 
Algoe. Hillebrand, Dr. ; Sandwich Islands collections. Horticul- 
tural Society, Royal, of London; a large collection of Gunn's 
Tasmanian plants. Jardin des Plantes, Paris; New Caledonian 
collection. Moore, C. ; Lord Howe's Island Palms, Ferns, &c. 
Mueller, Baron von ; many Australian novelties. Powell, Rev. 
T. ; Samoan Islands collection. 

Libeaet. 

By order of Hia Grace the Secretary of State for India, a 
complete sot of the Trigonometric Survey, Eevenue, and other 
maps of India, consisting of 174 sheets, mounted and enclosed in 
lettered cases, has heen presented to this estahlishuient. This is of 
the utmost value in reference, not only to the vast Indian herbarium 
no\v collected at Kew, but to the agricultural statistics, and distri- 
bution of Indian forests, and many other matters which engage the 
attention of the Indian botanists habitually working here, whether in 
the preparation of Floras, or of reports on botanical, agricultural, 
""^'^ forest subjects, for the supreme and local governments of India. 

The classified collection of <lni wings of plants has been largely 
increased by donations, including a valuable set of drawings of 
Burmese Orchids from the Rev. C. Parish. The collection is of great 



and 



p2 



212 KEPORT or THE DEPARTMEXX OF BOTANY, BRITISH MUSEUM. 

value for facilitating the naming of the living plants in the garden, 
and those sent by horticulturists, which arrive in large numhera, 
throa^hout the summer months especially. 



OFFICIAL REPOET FOE 1872 OF THE DEPARTMENT OF 

BOTANY IN THE BEITISH MUSEUM. 

Br William Caretjthers, F.E.S. 

During the past year the work of incorporating in the General 
Herbarinm the plants that had been mounted and named, but from 
want of cabinet space had not been inserted in their places, has 
been actively carried on. Notwithstanding the great additions made for 
the accommodation of the Herbarium little more than a year ago, the 
cabinets have already become so crowded as seriously to interrupt 
tliis important work. The necessity is becoming more and mure 
pressing of increasing the accommodation for the arranged Herbarium, 
in order that there may be space not only for the current additions 
to the collections, but sufficient also for the valuable sets of plants 
which still remain only partially arranged in the store cabinets of the 

Department, 

The work of incorporating the extensive additions to the Herba- 
rium which has been carried on during the past year has necessitated 
the re-arrangement of many of the Natural Orders, and the follow- 
ing have accordingly been revised : — Mahacece^ Saxifragaeece^ Erica- 
cem^ Epacridem^ Gentianacem^ Polemoniacem^ Solanacece, Orolancltaeea, 
Gloliilariece^ Graminece^ Lycopodiacem^ and Fungi. 

The following collections have been either entirely or in part 
incorporated in the General Herbarium: — The plants of Corsica, 
collected by Mabille ; of the neighbourhood of Odessa, by Eehmann ; 
of Lebanon, by Captain Burton ; of Persia, by Loftus ; of the Mnlay 
Peninsula, by Maingay ; of North Africa, by Paris; of Abyssinia, by 
Schimper ; of New Caledonia, by Pancher ; of Oregon, by Hall ; of 
California, by Hartweg; of Mexico, by Sello; of Martmiiiue, by 
Sieber ; of Demerara, by Appun ; and of Brazil, by Weir. In addition 
to these, extensive selections have been made from Nuttall's Herba- 
rium of North American plants, from Wallich's, and from Hooker and 
Thomson's Indian collections. 

Important contributions having been made during recent years by 
purchase or presentation to the British Herbarium, the arrangement 
and critical naming of this valuable collection of British plants have 
been continued. The following Natural Orders have been carefully 
examined and re-arranged: — ^ViolacecB^ PolygalecBj Hypericacem^ Mnl- 
vacem^ Linem^ Geraniacem^ Euyhorhiacem^ Leguminoscey Rosacemy J)ij>' 
mcece^ CompoHitce, Campamdace^, Geniianacm, Borragmecey Scrophu^ 
larinem^ Plantaginem^ Zahiatcs, Plumhaginem^ Polygonacem^ LUacea^ij 
and Lichenes, 

The following are the prineipil additions to the collections of the 
Department during the year 1872 : 



EEPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, BRITISH MUSEUM. 213 

I. — To the Serlartum, 



General Serbarium. 

Phaneroga 



mta. 



h. \^^A ^P^^^f.^^f t^e farer plants of France; collected and named 
Dy Jordan, Kralik, Gremer, &c. 

650 Species of plants from Castile, Spain ; collected by Graells. 
"^^^ " M from Northern Italy; collected and named 



34 



by Cesati, Caruel, Savi, &c. 

" » collected in Italy, and presented by Dr. 

Trimen. 

?J^ jj >» from Corsica ; collected by P. Mabille, 

Y^ " » froui Crete; collected by Sieber. 

^^' - ^* J7 from Malta and Italy; collected and pre- 

sented by J. F. Duthie, Esq. 

^^^ » » from the Tyrol and Central Europe; 

collected and named by Huter and others. 

^^^ M n from Cherson, Eussia ; collected and named 



100 



»f 



by Rehmann. 



^^^ » of Comj)osit^; chiefly from the collection of the 

late Dr. Schultz-Bipontinus. 
A very extensive Herbarium of the species and varieties of 



l^uropean Roses ; collected and named by Chabert, Gandoger, Puget, &c. 



40 Species of plants from Lebanon ; collected and presented by 

Captain Burton. 
^'^ ^ »» yj from the Province of Agow, Abyssinia; 

collected by Schimper. 
100 9f „ from l^Torth Africa ; collected by Col Paris. 

^^0 „ ^^ from New Caledonia ; collected by Pancher. 

100 ,, ^^ from Tasmania, 

^0 J, jj from Martinique; collected by Sieber. 

110 ,, ,^ from Cuba ; collected by Ramon de la Sagra. 

^^ M n from Costa Rica ; presented by H. J. 

Veitch, Esq., F.L.S. 
^^3 ,, ^^ from Oregon ; collected by E. Hall. 

131 jf M from Demerara; collected by the late C. 

_ Appun. 

'4 „ ,^ from Kew Granada ; and 

51 n ,, from Brazil ; collected by J. "VYeir. 

225 ,, j^ Cordova, La Plata ; collected by E. Fielding. 

A large collection of plants forming the principal part of the Her- 
barium of J, A. Murray, formerly Professor of Botany at Gottingen, 

and editor of the fourteenth edition of Linnseus* *'Systema Vege- 
tabiliura." 



a. 



Cryptogamia, 



A collection of Ferns from Natal ; collected by CoL Bolton, and 
presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

600 Species of Cryptogamic plants from Switzerland; collected 

and named by Wartmann and Schenck. 

100 „ Cryptogamic jdants from Italy, being two fascicles 

of the ** Erbario Crittosramico Italiuno." 



/ 



214 REPORT OF THE DEPAKTMEXX OF BOTANT, BRITISH MrSEXTM. 

50 ,, European Hepaticse; named by Eabenhorst. 

150 „ Mosses from Scandinavia; collected and named by 

Hellbom. 
100 J, „ of Europe'; prepared by Rabenhorst. 

280 ,, H and Hepaticse from Australia. 

200 „ Lichens from Scandinavia; named byTh. Fries, 

100 „ '„ from Lapland; collected and named by 

Hellbom. 
550 J, „ from Lapland, forming Nerike's ** Laf- 

Vegetation." 
25 „ European Licheng ; prepared by Kabenliorst. 

21 ,, Lichens from Australia. 

64 „ „ from 'New Granada ; collected by J, Weir. 

40 „ ,, from Uruguay. 

300 ,, Pungi from Austria; collected and named by 

Thiimen. 
207 ,, „ from America, &c. 

100 ,, European Fungi; prepared by llabenhorst. 

Specimens of Pachyma Cocos ; presented by Daniel Hanbury, Esq., 
F.E.S. 

250 Species of Algse from Scandinavia ; collected and named by 

Arcschoug. 

80 Species and varieties of CTiaracecB from Scandinavia; collected 
and named by Kordstedt and Wahlstedt. 

50 Species of European Algse ; prepared by Eabenhorst, 
6 „ Algse from.Barbadoes ; presented by Professor Dickie 

British Herharium. 

Phanerogamia. 

20 Species of rare plants; collected and presented by the Rev. 

J- E, Leefe. 
30 „ of plants ; collected and presented by Mr. J. Britten. 
■ 25 „ of critical plants ; presented by Dr. Trimon. 

25 „ of Salices ; forming the third fascicle of Leefe's 

** Salices Exsiccatse." 

Cryptogamia. 

100 Species of Lichens; collGcted and named by the Eev. J. M. 

Crombie, M.A. 
350 „ Fungi ; being the complete series of Berkeley's 

^-'British Fungi." 
200 n M being the fourth and fifth fascicles of 



100 



Cooke's *' Fungi Britannici/' 

" and 



f }) i^uAxi^i^tcu. uiLu ixumuu uy in.. \j, vuuivu. 

41 „ Alga3 ; collected by the late Jonathan Couch, F.Z.S. 

II.— 7b the Structural Series, 

Fruit Collection, 

3000 Species of Seeds and Fruits from Australia. 

Male and female Cones of species oi Macrozamia and EncephaUrtos ; 

sented by William Bull, Esq., F.L.8. 

Female Cone of Hoircnia ; presented by H, J. Veitch, Esq., F.L S . 

Fruit of a Lecytkia from Demerai'a. 



REPORT OF THE BEPAKTMEiS"!, OF BOTANT, BRITISH MUSEUM. 215 

27 Species of Fruits from Tucuma, Argentine Eepublic. 
2 Pine Cones and 8 different Fruita from Costa Eica. 
19 different Fruits from Cordova; collected by E. Fielding, Esq. 
Cones of 12 Species of Coniferse, from Japan and California ; pre- 
sented by H. J. Yeitchj Esq., F.L S. 

General Collection. 

276 different Woods from Java; presented by Dr. R. H. A. Scheffer, 
of Buitenzorg. 

A fine stem of Encephalartos ; presented byThos. Moore, Esq., F.L.S. 
Stems of nine arborescent Ferns ; presented by H. J, Veitch, Esq., 

F.L.S. 

L 

Stems of Cyatliea Serra and Bichsonia squarrosa. 
Stem of Dendrohium taurinum. 

Sterna of Borassiis, Cocos, and Areca from India. 

A large rhizome of Nuphar lutea, 20 feet in length ; presented by 

Joseph Beck, Esq. 

Stems of two species of Cactus ; presented by Captain Tyler, F.L.S. 

Specimens of a very large stem of Ivy ; pre3ente<i by Mr. J. Corke. 

Specimens of germinating seeds of Lernna gihla ; presented by 
F. C. S. Eoper, Esq., F.L.S. 

III. — To the Fossil Series. 

18 Specimens of mesozoic plants, and one specimen of a palaeozoic 
plant ; collected and presented by Dr. W. G. Atherstone. 

1 2 preparations of plants from the carboniferous rocks at Burnt- 
island, Scotland. 

A specimen of Cycadeoidca pi/gmea. 

Specimens of 1 dicotyledonous woods, and o f a Palm from the Red 

Crag of Woodbridge. 

24 specimens of secondary plants from Hastings; collected and 

presented by Professor Eupert Jones, F.E.S. 

76 specimens of plants from the carboniferous rocks at Slamannoa 
Bathgate, and Falkirk ; collected by C. W. Peach, Esq. 

Nine microscopic sections oi Ilalonia regulans. 

55 preparations of plants from the carboniferous rocks of Yorkshire. 



The number of visits paid during the year to the Herbarium for 
the purpose of scientific research was 1352. The following foreign 
botanists may be specified as having used the Herbarmm in prose- 
cuting their various studies :— Wittrock, of XJpsala, for_ his Aigalo- 
gical researches ; Kanitz, of Klausenburg, for his investigations into 
the Ualoragece and allied plants; Reichenbach, of Hamburg, tor hia 
work on Orchidem ; De CandoUe, of Geneva, for his memoir^ on 
MeliacecB ; and Nathorst, of Lund, in his investigations into Tertiary 
and Post-Tertiary Plants. Of botanists residing m Britain who hava 
made use of the Herbarium, the following may be specified : -ihe 
late Dr. Welwitsch, for his work on the Flora of Angola; Mr. 
J. Miers, for his memoir on Lecythidea ; Mr. G. Benthara, for his 
-Flora Australiensis " ; Mr. W. P. Hiern, for his monograph of 
the Ehenaceoi, and his memoirs on the Scrophulartnece for the^ tape 
Flora, and on the Umhellifene for the " Flora of Tropical Afnca ; 
Prof. Dyer, in hia examination of the Ternttramiaceai and Bipterocwrvea! 
for the Indian Flora ; Dr. Masters, for his memoir on Anmoclme ; 



?- 



216 NOi'ICES OF JiOOES. 

Mr. A. W. BtiiEett, for his woik on Tohjgalacecb ; Mr. J. G. Baker, 
for his nitmoirs on Liliacece ; Mr- D. Hanbury, for his investigation 
of oflScinal plants; Mr. J. Collins, for his report on Caoutchouc; Mr. 
M. C. Cooke, for his work on Tunpi ; the Eev. J. M. Crombie, for his 
publications on British Lichens; Dr. Braithwaite, for his memoirs on 
British Mosses; Mr. W. G. Smith, for his researches in eonuection 
with the ^'Mycological Illustiations " ; and Mr. H. G. Glasspoole, 
for his intended 'Tlora of Norfolk." 



KoticejS of 25ooIt^. 



Mishion Scientijiq 



la direction de M. Decaisne ; premiere partie, Cryptogamie, par 



OUEN 



ct_ Bescheeelle. Paris: Imprimerie I^Tationale. (4to, pp. 166, 
with six plates.) 



This is the first part of a Flora of Mexico which is intended to be 
published by the French Government, and which has been planned for 
the purpose of making known the collections brought home by Bour- 
geau and other botanists who accompanied the Maximilian Expedition, 
and of incorporating with them the material previously accumulated 
at Parisjor to which the authors of the monographs which it contains 
can obtain access. This first part includes, we piesume, all that the 
work is intended to embrace of the Cryptogamia. The plan followed 
IS to give a complete catalogue of species, with synonyms and localities, 
mere names only for those known already, but of course full descrip- 
tions of novelties. Of the Algse and Fungi next to nothing was 
gathered, and they are quite passed over. The Lichens also have 
been very Httle worked. Nylander contributes a list of fifty species, 
nearly aU fruticulose or large foliaceous k'inds. The paper on the 
Mosses, which was entrusted to M. Bescherelle, is much fuller. It 
contains a notice of 400 species, of which a considernble proportion are 
endemic, and a great many here described for the first time. Unfor- 
tunately this paitof the work was printed before the author had seen 
Mitten s " Mu£ciAustro-Americani"(Linncan Joum.,vol. xii.), so that 
his new species and names will need a thorough revision. The great 
bulk of the present part and all the six illustrations are devoted to 
Ur. Fournier's paper on the Mexican Ferns. This is a very valuable 
contribution to Fern-literature. Mexico is extremely rich in Ferns, 
yielding f=ome four or five hundred species, or perhaps even six hundred, 
li we take in the I-ycopodiaceae, as is done here. The French collections 
are much ncherthan what we have in this country, and Dr. Fournier 
has studied them all careiuUy, and indeed has taken great pains to 
obtain access to all the sets of Mexican Ferns that have been sent to 

-T^"^*"' ^■. ^^^^^^^ Feins have been up till now the opprobrium 
of Fein-literature. The three works especially devoted to the sub- 
ject those of_ Martens and Galeotti, Liebmann and Fee, were all 



worked up without the opportunity of reference to standard named 
collections, so that a great many of the common American species 



f 
f 




JfOTICES OF BOOXS. 217 

were described in them under new names, and real novelties were 
very often incompletely characterised, and the synonymy had in c on- 
sequence become extremely complicated. Dr. Fournier has not 
made many new species, but he has done what is far better— got 
together type specimens of the plants described in these three bool^a 
and carefully compared and studied them ; and although he admits 
as species a large number which we in England should regard as 
mere yaiieties, yet he has carefully collated the synonyms, and 
arranged the species in systematic order in such a way that what 
was before a perplexing chaos is now in such a state that it is not 
difficult to form a tolerably clear understanding of what is intended 
by any particular name, and in doing this he has conferred a boon 
upon Fern-students which no one can appreciate without actually 
looking at the paper and seeing what a long list of species which 
have been proposed he has reduced to the rank of synonyms. His 
jnonograph is a great clearing up of a dark subject, and will take 
it« place amongst the standard and indispensable works that treat 
upon the Ferns of the richest Fern-region in the woild. J. G. B. 

Lahore to Yarhand. Incidents of the Route and Natural History of 
the Countries traversed by the Expedition of 1870, under T. 
D. Forsyth, C.B. By George Hknderson, M.D., F.L.S., 
F.R.G.S., and Allan O. Hume, C.B., F.Z.S. 

This handsome volume, the result of ** a friendly visit to the 
Atalik Ghazi, King of Yarkand, to be regarded in no sense as a 
mission, and to have no political objects,'^ is one of general iuteie^t 
to the naturalist and geographer. From the fact that the ground 
covered by it had been hitherto unexplored, much new material 
might reasonably have been expected ; nor is this expectation 
unfulfilled. The number of new birds (all adniiraldy figured by 
Keulemans) is very considerable ; while the floni, with wliich we :ire 



principally concerned, although " extremely scanty/' nevertheless 
furnishes some new species, as well as some important aJditions to 
our knowledge of plant-distribution. 

The number of plants collected on the expedition (exclusive of 
Algas, and including some cultivated species) was 412, of which 215 
were found in Ylirkand. Of these the following are described as new 
to science, and figured by Mr. Fitch : — Hplolachne Shawianaj Hook, f., 
Iphiona (Vartkewiia) radiata^ Houih.^ Saussurea ovata^ Benth,, Apocy^ 
man Hendersonii ^ Hook, f., Dcyeuxia anthoxanthoides^ Munro; and 
indications of others, probably new, but undesoribed, are given. The 
Hololachne has supplied evidence of the near relationship existing be 
ween that genus and Beaumuria in tlieudnate lamellae : '' these lamellie, 
which equally exist in //. soongarica [the only species previouj^ly 
known], have hitherto been overlooked by authors ; they, however, 
reduce the technical difference between Hololachne and Reaumuria to 
little more than the more numerous stamens and st)'les of the latter. 
The mature seeds and embryo, which are hitherto undesoribed, agree 
with those of ReaumuriaJ' Tlie Iphiona *' differs from the other specif\s 
of the genus in its radiate capitula," as well as in the involucre. As 
a fact of geographical imponance, we may note the occurrence of 



218 NOTICES OP BOOKS. 

Cynomoriam coccbmiin.hhh^vio only known in the Mediterranean region 
and North Africa. This '' was abundant at one spot on the banks of 
the Arpalak river, fifteen miles above Sanju, where the Yarkand 
plains begin. At an altitude of about 9000 feet it was found under 
a dense thicket oi Myricaria and Tamarix^ on the roots of which it 

was probably parasitic." 

It is impossible to commend too highly the zeal of Dr. Hen- 
derson, who devoted himself throughout the expedition to collecting 
animals and plants, taking photographs (many of which are here re- 
produced by heliotype), and making meteorological observations : to 
his collection the scientific portion of the volume is due. 

AVe must, however, take exception to the statement (p. 2) that 
** all [the] notes and specimens [of Schlaglntweit] were lost to science,'* 
after his. murder by Wall Khan. His Labiate, Scrophulariacem, 
Frimutacemy Pittosporecc^ o^ndL^idece have been enumerated, and the new 
species described, in this Journal (vol. v'u, pp. 116 — 127, and 225 
250j ; where also will be found references to other scientific periodi- 
cals in which the plants of some other orders have been enumerated. 

J. B. 



Report on the Caoutchouc of Commerce^ being Information on the 
Plants yielding it, their Geographical Distribution, Climatic 
Conditions, and the possibility of their Cultivation and Acclima- 
tisation in India. By Ja3ies Collins, RB.S- Edin. (With 
two maps, four plates, and woodcuts*) 

The importance to which India-rubber or Caoutchouc has 
attained as aii article of commerce during the past few years, and the 
fact of its increasing applications, and consequent probable diminu- 
tion of the supplies, are sufficient reasons why the perpetuation of 
the plants yielding it should be carefully considered, and if possible 
their growth and extension encouraged in soils and climates suited 
to them. Owing to the extent of our possessions in India, attention 
is of course first directed to that country aa being likely to realise 
satisfactory results in the acclimatisation of the South American 
rubber-yielding species; and in the report before us, which has 
been drawn up at the instigation of the Secretary of State for India, 
attention is likewise directed to the importance of a more careful 
conservation of the Ficus elasticUj the source of the bulk of our East 
Indian supplies. From the attention which the author has pre- 
viously bestowed on the origin and commercial aspects of the India- 
rubber supply no one is better qualified to deal with the subject, and 
he has succeeded in producing a very carefully prepared and elabo- 
rate report, the value of which is much increased by liberal quota- 
tions and references to the works of Wallace, Bates, Spruce, and 
others, and by the advantages which the author has had 
of the opinions of the last-named traveller, and of the late 
Drs. Welwitsch and Seemann, A few extracts from the book itselt 
will give a better notion of the plan and contents than any words ot 
our own. After a slight sketch of the early history of Caoutchouc, 
and a description of the laticifcrous tissue in which the milky g"^^ 
is stored, a list showing the general geographical distribution of 



BOTANICAL NKWS. 219 

the India-rubber-producing species is given. The plants are then 
treated in the natural orders, those of the Euphorbiace^e containing 
the Heveas or Siphonias being first, producing as they do the best 
kinds of American rubber, known as Para rubber. Then follow 
the Castilloas, Artocarpeous trees, of which two species — G, elastica, 
Cerv., and C. Markhamiana^ a new species of the author's— furnish the 
next best quality. They are known as Ule trees, and are found in 
Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Isthmus of 
Panama, on the west coast of America, down to Guayaquil, and the 
slopes of Chimborazo. 

Ficus elastica, Eoxb., belonging to the same natural order, fur- 
nishes Indian or Assam Caoutchouc ; and in the Apocyne^ we have 
. Pernamubuco Caoutchouc from Hancoi^ia 5/>ec/o5a,Muell.arg., Borneo 
and Sumatran from Urceola elastica, Roxb., Madao:ascar from Vafiea 



gummifera. Lam,, F. madagascariensiSy Boj., F. comorensis^'Bo].^ and 
F. senegaknsisy A.DC. Other African Apocyneas, as Landolphia 
owariensis, P. de Beauv., Z, HeudeloUi, DC, L.florida, Bth., and some 
undetermined species are shown to yield Caoutchouc, also several 
species of Willughbeia, notably IF. edulis, Roxb., in Chittagong, 
Silhet, Madagascar, and Mauritius, and TF mai^tahaniccty Wall., in 
Martaban and Chittao^ona:. 

PartlLis devoted to "TheCultivationandAccliniatisationof Trees 
yielding Caoutchouc/' in which the aspects of the rubber forests, the 
present precarious manner of collecting, and the necessity of cultiva- 
tion and conservation are treated. " The Cultivation of Ficus elastica 
and the Improvement of its Caoutchouc," is next considered. In 



the matter of acclimatisation of Caoutchouc-yielding plants, the 



Heveas are pointed out as of primary importance. " Seeds of the 
llevem^^ we are told, " could easily be procured from the Amazon 
districts, and their germination ensured on the spot, as probably 
from the quantity of oil they contain they would rapidly lose this 
power, oily seeds losing their germinating power quicker than non- 
oily seeds, owing to oxidation of the oil soon setting in." Tlie re- 
port concludes with some practical instructions on the collection and 
preservation of specimens of Caoutchouc-yielding plants, and a 
memorandum is added by Dr. Brandis on the Indian aspects of the 
acclimatisation question. 

The tAvo maps show, first, an approximate sketch of the geogra- 
phical distribution of Caoutchouc-yielding trees, and, secondly the 
distribution of Ficus elastica in Assam. The plates illustrate Hevea 



Ma 



lensts. 



J. R. J. 



55otamcal ^tW^ 



Articles in" Journals. 



AnnaUs des Se, Nat. (t. xvii., n. 1 — 3, April). — G. de Saporta, 
''Revision of the (Fossil) Flora of the Aix Gypsums" (pi. 1— 5)-— E. 
Borriet, '* Researches on the Gonidia of Lichens'* (pi. 6 — 16). 



220 BOTANICAL IfEAVS. 

Tiiana and J. E. Plauclion, ^*Pro(lromus Florae novo-granatensis'' 
(Geraniaceee, Oxalideae, Tropaeolese, Passiflareae, Turneracese, Papay- 
acese). 

Ma?. 
Sf Mag. Nat. Eist. — M. J. Berkeley and C. E. Broome, 



" Notices of British Fungi " (tab. 7—10). 

Grevillea. — M. J." Berkeley, " Notices of N. American Fungi " 
(contd.) — M. J. Crombie, " On the rarer Lichens of Ben Lawers." — 
M. C. Cooke, " British Fungi " (contd.). 

Monthly Microsc. Journal. — E. Braithwaite, " Sphagfium papil- 
losum, Lindb., and S. Austini, Sullivant" (pi. IG & 17). 

Science Gossip. — G. Gulliver, *' Raphides, Sphaeraphides, and 
Crystal Prisms." 

American Naturalist. — T. 3). Briscoe, " The Winter State of our 
Duckweeds" (pi. 3). — S. "Watson, "New Plants of N. Arizona 

and Region Adjacent" (28 species; Chcttadeliyha, Gray ms., gen. nor. 
C ichor acearum). 

Botani&ka Notiser (loth May). — S. A. TuUberg, "Review of the 
Scandinavian Species of Batrachitm." — A. L. Gronvall, " Bryological 
Notes." — V. F. Brotherus, " Excursions round Ponoj " (Lapmark). 

Botanische Zeitung.—V. Tomaschek, " On the Law of Develop- 
ment of Diatoms."— E. de la Rue, " On the Histology of the Medullary 
Sheath of Conifera3."— B. Hartig, "Note on the Parasitism of J^flnVw* 
melkus."~G. Briosi, "On the general occurrence of Starch in the 
Dotted Vessels-"'— A. Geheeh, "On Neclera Menziesiiand N. furgida, 
Jur."— Scharlock, " On the Seeds of Atrij)lex nitetis, Schk." 

^ Flora. — W. Nylander, " Observata Lichen ologica in Pyrcnajis 
orient."— J. Reinke, " On the Rhizomes of Corall&rhiza and Epipogon " 
(contd.).— S. Kui:z, " Note on Veratronia, Miq."— E. Askenasy, " On a 
New Method of Observing the Growth of Plants."— F. Schultz, 
"Notes on the Flora of the Palatinate" {Mentha Scrihce, n.s.).— C. 
Hasskarl, "Report on the Government Cinchona Cultivation in Java." 

IIedwigia.—\ e^imi, "On Orthotrichum Shawii." 
_ Oesterr. Bot. Zeitsch.—W . 0. Focke, " On the formation of Species 
m the Vegetable World" (contd.).— Heidenreich, "The right to 
specific rank of Ruhis mherectus, And."— A. Rebmann, "Diagnoses 
ot the known Eicracia of Galicia and Bukowina " (contd.).— L 
Dedecek, "Notes on the Flora of the Environs of Prag."— R. v. 
Uechtritz, "Remarks on Knapp's Pflanzen Galiciens" (contd.).— A. 
Jierner, "Distribution of Hungarian Plants" (contd.). 

^ The parts of the " Flora Brasiliensis " lately issued are pt. 60, con- 
taining the Olacmew, Icacineoi, and ZygophgllecB, by A. Engler, and 
pt. 61 containing the first part of the Euphorliacecc, by J. Mueller. 

i he local botany of the neighbourhood of the English watering- 
places has usually a few pages of the " guide-books " devoted to it. 
As a rule these are the work of quite incompetent persons, but an 
exception must be made in the case of the well-arranged and compre- 
hensive ' Flora of Purbeck," written by a well-known Dorset botanist 
and published in the " Swanage Guide." The district is a very rich 
one and of considerable interest botanically. 



BOTANICAL NENVS. , 221 

We are glad to see that the Rugby School K'atural History Society 

is in a flourishing condition. There is notmuch botany in the Report for 

m^ 1872, which contains, however, some additions to the Flora, and a paper 

by the President, Mr. Kitchener, on Pelorianisin in Linaria vidgaris. 

Mr. Kurz, of Calcutta, gives a second instalment of iN'ew Burmese 
plants in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (part 2, 1873), 
comprising descriptions of about 120 species. Two new genera, 
AriUaria (Leguminosae ; = Sophora roiusta, Roxb.) and Hemiorchis 
(Scitaminere), are defined in the paper, which is ilhistrated by three 
plates representing TlemiorcJds Burmannica, Hapaline Benthamtanaj 
and Sttmona Griffitliiana. 

Mr, Geo. AVull, of Ceylon, who is now in England, has printed for 
private circulation a revised list of the Ferns of that island, adapted to 
the nomenclature of Hooker and Baker's Synopsis, and incorporating 
all the recent discoveries. 235 species are now known in the island, 
of wliich 28 are confined to it. The catalogue is in folio form, and 
gives in parallel columns the names of the species and references to 
the places where they are described and figured in the '' Synopsis 
Filicum," Hooker's '* Species Filicum," the two illustrated works on 
Indian Ferns of Beddome, the *' Enumeratio" of Thwaites, and the 
numbers under which they have been distributed by the latter. This 
is followed by an account of the local habitats and stations, and a 
series of remarks on critical and doubtful species. 

The forthcoming part of the Proceedings of the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society will contain a catalogue by Mr. Baker of all the known 
species and varieties of Lilium^ with their synonyms and references to 
published figures, intended to be checked by growers as a stock list, 
and in making exchanges and purchases. 

We understand that Prof. E. Fries, of TJpsala, is preparing a second 
edition of the "Epicrisis systematis Mycologici," published in 

1836—38. 

A Flora of the county of Chester, which has occupied the attention 
of Mr. Warren for many years past, is likely soon to appear. With 



the object of 
has printed a 



obtaining assistance from local botanists, Mr. Warren 
list of Desiderata and. Queries about the plants of 
Chesliire, which he will be glad to forward on application, and he will 
be grateful to receive any answers or additional information. — Address 
Hon. J, L. Warren, 67, Onslow Square, Brorapton, S.W. 

The publication of the (I7th) concluding volume of De CandoUe's 
" Prodromus " is daily expected. We are informed that there will be 
issued at the same time with the volume the concluding (4th) part of 
Dr. Buck's Index, an almost indispensable companion to the ready 
consultation of this great systematic work. 

The Botanical Society of France will hold its annual "session 
extraordinaire '' at Brussels this year, under the auspices of the Eoyai 
Belgian Botanical Society, The first meeting will be held in the 
Botanical Gardens on July 9th, at 9 a.m., and the programme mclmlcs 
a visit to the celebrated Hans Grotto and the swamps round Hasselt (of 
the very rich flora of which M. Crepiu has recently published an 
account), several scientific meetings, and visits to the botanical estab- 
lishments of Ghent, Liege, Antwerp, &c. English botanists are 
specially invited to attend, and one can scarcely imagine a more profit- 



222 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

r 

able mode of speeding a holiday. It is to be hoped many of our local 
botanists will put in an appearance at the hospitable Belgian 
capital. 
We n 

one of the oldest and most experienced botanists in the North of 



England 



W 



his study, and fevr of his contemporaries were more accurately 
acc[uainted with them, or more devoted to the investigation of the most 
intricate and difficult tribes. Up to the last, though afflicted with a 
very painful and crippling disorder, his mind was clear and his love of 
plants unabated, and he took the liveliest interest in any new discovery, 
and few things gave him more pleasure, even when suffering from 
illness, than to receive a specimen of something he had not seen before. 
Mr. Ward was one of the earliest members of the Botanical Society 
of Edinburgh ; he was also an active promoter of the Eichmond 
Naturalists' Field Club, and of late years a member of the Tyneside 
Naturalists' Club. He did not often appear in print, which from his 
accurate and extensive knowledge of plants is to be regretted ; but a 
valuable herbarium belonging to the Eichmond Club was mainly 
formed through his exertions, and to Mr. Ward belongs the principal 
merit of the " Salietum Britannicum Exsicc," which was edited by the 
Kev. J. E. Leefe in 1842 and 1843. Mr. Ward's remarks on Dr. 

Anderson's observations on this work will be found, in conjunction with 
those of Mr. Leefe, in vol. viii., page 305, of this Journal. Mr. Waid 
was remarkable for keenness of observation, and rarely failed to find what 
he was m search of, and never was backward in imparting to his friends 
a share of his Bpoils. At diiferent periods in his life he visited S witzer- 
land and Ireland m search of plants, and delighted in cultivating in his 
garden some of the varieties he had met with during his excursions both 
athome and abroad. Eor many years he resided at Eichmond, in York- 
shire, where he was engaged in business ; but after his retirement from 
business, for family reasons he removed to Redciiffe House, near 
Manchester, where, after a long and painful illness, which latterly 
assumed the form of carditis, he died on the 7th March last, in his 
seventieth year _ It is to Mr. Ward and such quiet, unassuming, 
but most industrious and persevering life-long students that we owe 
the materials which in the skilful hands of our great botanical leaders 

Sm?th Ld wTtherinc. ' ""^ ^"^''^ ^'^^"^ '^"'^ ^^'' ^^^^^ ^^'' ""^ 
We last month noted the death of Alexander Irvine. He was 
born m or about 1792 at Daviot, in Aberdeenshire, and studied at 
Manschal College, Aberdeen. Early in life he was attracted towards 
the pursuit of Botany, and when soon after 1820 he came to London 
he devo ed much of his leisure to examining the country round the 
metropolis. Hampstead Heath, tb^n « ,-nraf/i,-.4.„;„4- ^^l.-.u ^;^u^.l 



h ™' • • ^P^^^^«'.«.f Y^^*^^ te prepared a cataloguo^ which with 
■ oiZ^ir'' 7 IrV^,^.''*^ "^^^y J-ears after (in 1869) by the authors 
o the Flora of Middlesex." His chief botanical companions were 

we^^t^oT Taik^' ^''^%^'- J- ^- ^^"- Mr. Irvine afterwards 
JarT 1 W T ! f ^'"■^^ m Surrey, and subsequently removed to Guild- 
tb. Vr. ' ^'? ^""^^r'^ H'^ occupation of a Schoolmaster. Whilst at 



the former place he published, in 1838, his "London Flora." The 



4' 



BOTANICAL NEWS. 223 

title of this was somewhat ill-chosen, astheplants of the whole south-east »• 
of England are included in the first part, whilst the second is a com- 
plete Eritish Flora ; the hook contains a great number of original 
localities, especially in Surrey, and was arranged upon the natural 
system, at that time by no means in general use. Several papers on 
local botany were contributed to the " Phytologlst " about this period 
by Mr. Irvine. In 1851 he took up his abode at Chelsea, where he 
continued to live till his death, making every year a long country 
excursion. After the cessation of the old series of the " Phytologist," 
consequent on the death of Mr. Luxford, a new series of that periodical 
was started, which commenced in May, 1855, with Mr. Irvine as editor. 
This was maintained, at a pecuniary loss, till July, 1863, when the 
publislier, Mr. Pamplin, retired from business. With the earlier 
numbers were given some sheets of a descriptive work on British 
Botany, which did not proceed far ; the material, collected during many 
years, was however used in the " Illustrated Handbook of British 
Plants," printed in 1858, in five parts. This was Mr. Irvine's 
most extensive work, 'and as a popular text-book possesses many 
excellent points, and contains a great amount of information in plain 
language. The order followed is that of Cosson and Germain's " Flore 
des environs de Paris" reversed; a large number of exotic casual* 
are included, and the book concludes with a most comprehensive Index, 
in which a great amount of miscellaneous information is curiously • 
incorporated. Mr. Irvine was always desirous of bringing scientific 
reading within the reach of all, and in Is^ovember, 1863, he started a 
penny monthly journal called the " Botanist's Chronicle," vrith which 
was issued also a trade catalogue of second-hand books ; this htcraiy 
curiosity expired after an existence of seventeen months. Only last 
year a^ circular announced a new work on British Botany from Mr. 
Irvine to be in preparation ; but the Infirmities of age were increasing 
rapidly, and on May 13th he died, somewhat suddenly, at ttie age of 
eighty-one. It is difficult to estimate aright his influence on British 
Botany. Greatly respected by all, a good scholar, an original writer, 
and a 'singularly 'simple, kind, and tTuthful character, his zeal for his 
favourite pursuit may he estimated from his starting one ma^zine 
when sixty-three years old and a new one when seventy-one. lo all 
young enquirers and beginners he was unvaryingly kind, and many 
were helped on at the commencement by him. As a botanist, "O^eyer, 
he did not take a high rank ; his style was too discursive, and the 
absence of arrangement evident in aU his writings often led_ to inaccu- 
racies. He possessed an extensive knowledge of the old botanical authors 
and of plant-distribution. The new series of the '; Phytologist never 
reached the position of its predecessor, though it perhaps occupied 
that at which it aimed ; for it must be remembered that Mr Irvine 
always wrote for the non-scientific, and his efi-orts to spread among 
them such a knowledge of British Botany as that which was the great 
delight and solace of his long life were to a great extent successful. 
His later excursions were chiefly into Essex, and it is believed that he 
had made considerable additions to the pubhshed Flora of that 

'""b/ the death from pneumonia of W. S. Sullivant at Columbus, 
Ohio; on the 30th April, the United States lose their most accom- 



224 



BOT-VyiCAL NEWS. 



i 



pUshcd bryologlsfc. He was bora at Fnmklinton, a little villngft noar 
the site of the present city of Coluoibus, Ohio, in 1803. He gradnated 
at Yale College In 1823, In 1840 he published '^A Catalogue of 
Plants in the Vicinity of Columbus/' and tvsro years aftervrards de- 
scribed three new species of Phanerogams in the " Ami'rican Journal 
of Science and Art.*^ He then turned his attention to the Mosses, 
and in 1843 issued, In two quarto vols., the ^' Musci Alleghanienses," 
actual specimens with descriptions of the Mosses of the Alleghany 
Mountains. This wag followed by the *^ Contributions to the Bryology 
of North America," in the Memoirs of the American Academy for 
1846 and 1849. The second edition of Gray's '' Manual of the Botany 
of the North United States " was enriched by a compendious account 
of the Mosses from Mr. SuUivant, illustrated by eight plates ; this was 
omitted from subsequent editions of the Manual, on the understanding 
that a separate account should replace it. The published sets of 
Mosses named by Sallivant comprehend the Musci B)realt Americani 
of Sulllrant and Lesqueraux, issued in 1856; Bolander's Californlan 
species, in 1865; Austin's Musci Aopalachiaai, VVright's Musci 
Cubenses, in 1861 , and several others. The ''Icones Muscorum" appeared 
in 1864, with 129^ unrivalled copper-platens of species peculiar to 
Eastern North America. A supplementary volume was in prepara- 
tion at the time of the author's death, the plates for which were 
completed. Mr. SuUivant's extensive bryological herbarium and 
library are left to the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, and his 
name is commemorated in the Saxifragaceous genus Sullivantia, which 
he himself discovered in his native State of Ohio. A full memoir, 
from which we have taken these particulars, will be found in the 
Annual Report by the Council to the American Academy, May, 1873. 
Dr. Rabenhorst, of Dresden, has for disposal some sets of Chinese 
Lichens collected in the neighbourhood of Saigon, Hongkong, Wham- 
poa, and Shanghai by his son Rudolf, and deternuued by Dr. Krem- 
pelhuber, of Munich. The following is a list :— Arthonia linearis, 
Xrphb., spec, nov.; A, Antillarum, Fee, f. spermogonifera ; A, 
astropica, Krphb., spec, nov.; A. cinnabarina, form. & var. adspersii, 



(Mont.) T^yl. ; Graphis striatula, Ach., f. minor ; G. tenella, Ach. , 
(x. hypoglauca, Krphb., spec, nov.; Verrucarla ochraceo-flava, Nyl. ; 
y. tropica, Ach.; Pyxiue Cocoes, (S\v.) Tackerm. ; Lecidea lygea, 
Ach.; L coQspersa, Fde, sorodiifera; L. internigrang, Krphb., nov. 
spec; Buelha nigritula, (I^yl.) ; B. discolor, Hepp. ; Trypethelium, 
Sprengehi, Ach. ; Pertusaria diducta. Krphb., spec. nov. ; P. leiicop- 
sara, Krphb., spec. nov. ; Physcia hirtuosa, Krphb., spec. nov. ; P. 
picta, (Ssv.) E-yl.; P. crispa, (Pers.) Nyl. ; Lseanora flavo-viridls, 
Krphb., spec. nov. ; L. subfasca. Ach., var. & f. intertn-jdia, & var. 
chlarona, Ach., f. microcarpa, Krphb. : Gyrostomum scyphuliferura, 
(Ach ) Nyl. ; Parmelia perlata, Ach. ; P. conspersa, (Ehrh.) Ach. ; 
P. Mougeotu, Schaer. ; P. mutabilis, Tayl. ; Callopisma aurantiacum, 
Tar. flavovirescens, (Wulf.) ; Aspicilia Acharii. var. ochraceoferruginea, 
(bchaer); Limboria actiaostoma, Fr.,; Bottaria sinensis, Hpe. et 
Rabenh., spec. nov. The price is 5 thalers (15s.). 

Wanted to piiroha.se good specimens of between 300 and 400 of 
the rarer British plants, to complete a collection. Apply to J.. G. 
Baker, Kew TTerharium. 



# 



225 



Original %ttit\e^. 



ON THE DISTEIBUTION- OF ARCTIC PLANTS DURING 

THE POST-aLACIAL EPOCH, 

Br Alfred Naxhorst, or the Geological SxTEVEr op Sweden".* 

Mr first researches into the Arctic plants found in the post-ter- 
tiary deposits were made in 1870, when I ohtained in fresh-water 
beds in the South of Sweden leaves oi Salix polaris, Wahlb., S. her- 
hicea,lAnn.,S, reticulata, Lijxn.yDnjas octoj}etaIa, Linn., Bet ula nana, 
Linn,, and some others, I prosecuted my researches in the summer of 
1871, and was so fortunate gs to find the same leaves in similar deposits 
throughout the whole south-western part of Scania, Sometimes 
they occurred in such quantities as to form beds of peat in the 
freshwater sands and clays entirely made up of the leaves and 
branches of the plants; and here I found also fruits o? Be tula nana, 
Linn., and pLants of Bryas with the leaves still attached to the stem. 
I also made a large collection of Mosses, which have been determined 
by Dr. Berggren, of Lund, to belong to the following species: 
Bypnum scorpioides, Dili., E, jluitans, Dill, E, cupremforme. Dill., 
S. callichroum, Brid., 77. examiuhtum, Gumh., E. cuspidatmn, Dill,, 
E. erymphilum, E. Eeufleri, H. stellutum, Schreb., //. Wilsoni, 
E. giganteum, Schinip,, H, ochraceum, Turn., Thuidium alietinum, 
Schimp., Aulacomnion palustre, Schw., Tor tula muralis, Timm., 
Camptothecium nitens, Schreb., Leptotrichum flexicaule^ Schwgr., 



* The results of Mr. Nathorst's investig:ations into the vegetable remains in 
the glacial beds of< Europe were communicated to the Koyal Academy of 
bcienceg of Stockholm in April last by Prof. Torell. We are indebted to Mr. 
Nathorst for the valuable summary of the important results of hia labours 
prmted here. The author had already communicated some of the facts to Sir 
Charles Lvell, who, in the last edition, just published, of his " Antiquity of Man," 
refers to them in tracing the gradual changes in the climate of Britain from the 
^armth of the Coralline Crag to the intense cold of the Glacial period. It had 
been noticed that the lignite beds which cover the Cromer Forest-bed gradually 
passed into the overlying boulder clay which represents the period of greatest 
cold in that district. Keasoning from this, Sir Charles Lyell says, **It occurred 
to Mr. Nathorst, a skilful Swedish geologist, who visited Cromer section in the 
autumn of 1872, that the lignite beds of the laminated sands and clays onght 
to exhibit in their vegetable remains a transition from the comparatively mild 
climate of the forest-bed to the severe cold indicated by the till ; and he waa 
iortunate enough to find the remains of plants becoming more stunted as they 
occurred higher in the beds, until within half a foot of the boulder clay he found 
^dlix polar is, now only known within the Arctic circle, together with a Moss 
'Which has been referred by the eminent bryologist Berggren to Ilypnum turges' 
cens^ an Arctic INToss only found living in temperate latitndps on the extreme 

lieights of the Alpa.^— Antiq. of Man, 1873, pp. 261, 262.— [£<;?. Joum. Bot."] 

N.s. VOL. 3. {ArorsT, 1873.] a 



226 ARCTIC PLANTS DTmiNG THE POST-GLACIAL EPOCH. 

PhilonotiH fontana, Brid., Bryum pattens, Svvartz., S. pseudo-trtque- 
irum, Schw., AmUystegimi serpens^ Scliimp., A. filicmum, Lmdb., 
Timmia megapolitanay Hedw., ^. noriegica, and CUmamm 
dendroides, Web. etMohr. The Liverwort Metzgeria furcata, Nees ab 
Esenb., was also found with the Mosses; and the following animal 
T&mdhxi^'.— Ctjtheridea forosa, Jones, Pisidhm pzdchellum, J)' Orh.j P. 
Eemhwianium^ Shepp., Limnea Umosa, and Anodonta. Some leaves 
and seeds besides those recorded were al&o found, but I have not yet 

determined them. - 

The deposit containing the plant-remains rested on the till or 
boulder clay {moraine prof onde)^ and was therefore formed as the ice- 
sheet melted away. It is generally covered by beds pf peat-moss, from 
which there have been obtained a constant series of different trees like 
- those which Steenstrup has observed and described in Denmart. It 
was therefore very important to investigate the beds underlying the 
peat-mosses in Denmark, and this I was enabled to do, and happily 
with the assistance of Prof. J, Steenstrup. The results here were 
the same as in Scania- These will be better understood by the fol- 
lowing table, which at the same time shows the changes of climate 
which followed the glacial epoch : — , 

AInus ahdmosa, Wahl. 



Quercm. 




Peat with ( Pinus sylvedrisy Linn. 

JPopulus tremula, Linn. 



on 
O 



Betula nanay Linn. I ^g 




C9 

03 



Bettila nana^ Linn., 8&li:e . ^ 

herlaceay Linn., S, reticu- I ^ 

Clay with I lata^ Linn., S. sp. Bryas | ^ 

Qctopetahy Linn.", ^flf?/x^o- 

lartSf Wahlb. 



Boulder clay* Glacial deposit. 



The 



line 



clays and those which are properly post-glacial, I have called all 
the deposits resting on or above the boulder clay ** post-glacial. 

In the summer of 1872' I visited Mecklenburg, in Germany, and 
found leaves of Befula nana^ Linn., in a peat-moss there. In a peat- 
moss at Kolbermoor, in the lowland of Bavaria, south from Munich, i 
found the same leaves at a depth of 8 feet, along with the leaves ot 
MyrtiUus uliginosay Drej., Andromeda polifoUay Linn., &c. -^^^ 
formed a distinct layer in the moss at this locality, which could be 
traced throughout the whole of the peat-moss, showing that at one 
time a surface vegetation covered the ground here similar to that 
which is found at the present day in Lapland, and Tinmark. 

In Switzerland I found a great quantity of Arctic plants in a 
locality on the low ground between Zurich and Bodensee, at Schwerzeu- 
bach. The condition of things here was precisely what I had seen 




AECTIC TLAKTS DUEING THE POST-GLACLVX EPOCH, 227 

r 
W 

in Sweden and Denmark. A peat-moss with stems and leaves of Oak, 
Scotch Fir, and Birch covered a fresh-water clay, which rested on the 
boulder clay. In the clay I found leaves of Betula nana^ Linn., 
Dryas octopetala^ Linn., Salix reticulata, Linn., S, retusa, Fr,, S. 
myrtilloides^ Linn., 8. polarisy "Wahlb., Ardostapliylos Uva-Ursi^ 
Linn., Polygonum viviparum^ Linn., Azalea procumbens, Linn., and 
some others. On a second visit I was accompanied by Dr. Keller, of 
Zurich, and Prof. Heer was so good as to determine the leaves. I hope 
that he may give a lengthened description of them. I ought to say 
that I am not quite satisfied that the leaves referred to Salix 
polaris are indeed that species. The specimens of those leaves which 
I have found in Sweden and Denmark, and also at Cromer in IS'orfolk, 
are generally (though not always) closed together, while the leaves at 
Schwerzenbach were flattened out. It is a singular contrast to the 
condition of things which prevailed when these plants were growing 
in this district, to find as I did the hills now covered with the Vine 
and the Chestnut ! 

. I continued my investigations to England, and there first visited 
Bovey Tracey, where Mr, Pengelly had in 1861 found leaves which 
Prof. Heer had determined to belong to Betula nana, Linn.* Mr. 
Pengelly was so good as to* accompany me to Bovey Tracey, and show 
me the locality, and I have to acknowledge the kindness of Mr. 
Divett, the owner of the coal-mines, in assisting me in my work in 
every way possible. We found Betula 7tana, Linn., in the original 
locality, and along with it some fragments of Sdli^ cinerea, Linn., 
but our operations were stopped by heavy rains. In a new locality 
not far from the other, and within two feet from the surface, we found 
the Betula again, with leaves of different species of Salix which have 
not yet been determined. I have heard from Prof. Heer that he now 
thinks the Salix repens, Linn., of his Bovey Tracey memoir most 
probably belongs to S, myrtilloides, Linn. In this second locality wo 
found also a leaf of Betttla aiha, Linn., a Potamogeton, and some seeds 
and leaves of ^rt;^05/a/?7/yZ(?5 Uva-Ursi, Linn., which at the present 
day is not found in Britain to the south of York and Cumberland. 

When in England I also visited the Cromer beds between Cromer 
and Happisburgh, and here I investigated in two localities the beds 
between the "forest-bed" and the *' boulder clay," and in both 
places I found some leaves. In the first locality, situated between 
Mundesley and Cromer, I obtained specimens of Salix polaris, Wahlb. 
together with Bypnum turgescens, Jens., immediately above the 
boulder clay. The other locality was between Mundesley and 
Happisburgh, where somewhat higher up in the beds, and nearer the 
"forest-bed," I obtained a large collection of the leaves of Salices, 
and seeds. The Willows appear to belong to S. hadata, Linn.?, S. 
phylicifolia^ Linn, ?, and -S'. 7iigriean8, Smith ? ; but before determining 
with certainty these materials it will be necessary to make further 
comparisons and examinations. The Ecv. J. Gunn, of Norwich, was 
so good as to give me some valuable specimens from the Cromer bed?, 
and he pointed out to me some leaves of Salix cinerea, Linn., which 



* Heer and Tengelly on the Lignites and Clays of Bovey Tracey. Philo 

flophical TranBactions, 1862. 

q2 



228 EECENT BESEARCHES IX THE DIATOMACEJE 



Mr. Carrutliers had already shown me in the British Museum collec- 
tions. It seems, therefore, that we have here a series corresponding 
to the post-glacial deposits which I hare observed elsewhere, and 
exhibiting in the contained plants the gradual changes of climate 
from the forest-bed down to the boulder clay. 



EECEKT EESEARCHES IN THE DIATOMACE^, 

r 

By Eev. E. O'Meaea, A.M. 

VI. 

In tlie family AcJinantliece the valves are symmetrical 'in the 
longitudinal axis, but unsymmetrical in the plane of separation ; the 
frustules are more or less geniculate, so that of the valves one is 
concave while the other is convex ; the former only possesses a 
central nodule. The genera Achnanthidium and Cocconeu agree ia 
these general characteristics, but are separated into a distinct family, 
the Cocconeidece, for reasons that shall be hereafter assigned, so that 
the family Achnantlica embraces the solitary genus Achnanthes. The 
twp species of this genus which have been observed abundantly in a 
living state, A. Irevipes and A. suhessllis, correspond with the 
KaviculecB in the structure of the cell-contents, inasmuch as they 
possess a middle granular plasm-mass and two endochrome-plates 
lying on the girdle-bands, and thence passing cnrer the valves. The 
endochrome-plates exhibit a slit in the middle, and separate by an 
incision proceeding from the ends. The well-defined cell-kernel lies 
always nearer to the concave than to convex valve. In the few 
specimens of A. longipes which came under Dr. Pfitzer''s notice, the 
endochrome-plates were split up into numerous small pieces ; but 
whether thisbe the normal condition or not remains to be determined. 

The marine A. longipes was observed by Smith in the act of 
forming auxosporcs, the same form, as well as A. suhessilis, by 
Luders. In respect to the former Smith maintained that a single 
cell forms two auxospores, Luders supposed that two cells co-ope- 
rate to produce the same result ; while in the case of A. 8uhses.itlis 
a single mother-cell gives birth to a single auxospore. In both cases, 
according to Luders, the cell-contents divide and afterwards re-unite, 
alternately in the case of A. longipes, directly in that of ^. suhessilis. 
According to Luders, there is alwavs found a gelatinous sheath 

surrounding the infant cells, which force themselves out by an opening 
at the end. '' 

It appears confusing that two species so nearly related should 
exhibit such different conditions in the formation of their spores, 
and therefore the author expresses a wish that observers residing 
near the sea-shore will carefully examine fresh specimens with a 
Tiew to ascertain satisfactorily the process of spore-formation. 

After the Achnanthidem Tfitzer ranges the group CoccoMt'dea, in 
which are embraced the two genera, Aclmanfhidium and Cocconels. 
Achnanthtdmm has been distinguished from Achnanfhes by the fact 



&ECENT RESEARCHES IN THE DTATOMACE^. 229 

that while the latter is stipitate the former is free. To this Pfitzer 
«i^ adds another mark of distinction founded on the character of the 

endochrome-plates. Achnanthes has two endochrome-plat^s, while 
in AchnantJiidium lanceolatum there is but one, which lies upon the 
convex valve. This peculiarity places AeJmantMdium in intimate 
relationship with the next genus, Cocconeis. Cocconeis Pedieulus at 
least possesses a single endochrome-plate, occupying a position similar 
to that of AchnuntJiidmm lanceolatum^ split up on the edge, and with its 
scallops reaching the girdle-band. It exhibits also a strong slit on one 
eidoj a circumstance which in the author's opinion shows that the 
Cocconeidece are not decidedly symmetrical in the longitudinal plane. 
This feature discovers itself in AchnantJiidium likewise, in the 
structure of the concave valve, by a stronger development of the 
central nodule on one side than on the other. The endochrome-plate 
is more deeply scalloped in proportion as the valve is large. The 
central incision sometimes extends so far as to effect a complete 
division of the plate- A cell-kernel is clearly seen in Cocconeis 
Pediculusy as is also a central accumulation of plasm. So the 



Nav 



* ■ • 



decided analogy to the similarly epiphytic AmphorecB^ inasmuch aa in 
neither does the occurrence of the longitudinal line exhibit anythin 



or 



to correspond with it in the structure of the primordial cell. In the 
Amphorem and Cocconeidem the endochrome-plate stands related to the 



surface of attachment. 



girdL 



and upon this plane Kes the middle of the plate ; the latter are fixed 
to foreign bodies by one valve, on which the middle of the plates lies. 
As respects the formation of auxospores, Achnanihtdium has never 
been discovered in the act, but Cocconeis has frequently. Carter first 
found that two cells secrete a gelatinous envelope, open, and by a 
true act of copulation construct a single spore, which is first globular, 
then becomes ellipsoid, and finally separates into two longitudinal 
portions, each of which is an auxospore. On the contrary. Smith 
maintained that a single cell pours out its contents, and therefrom 
developes a single spore ; but the author adds that while Carter^s 
observations refer to Cocco7ieis Pedieulus^ Smith refers to what he 
calls the nearly allied species, Cocconeis Placentida, Lliders agrees in 
this point with Carter, and Dr. Pfitzer confirms their position in 
regard to C, Pedicidus. The following differences ^ are noticeable. 
One supposes the separation has been completed within the envelope, 
the other not till it has been thrown off. According to Carter the 
firstling-colls turn the concave sides one to the other; according to 
Luders they are parallel. Dr. Pfitzer observes that the material at 
his command was too young to enable him to decide this q^uestion, 

Gomphonemece, 

In this are included three genera— 1. Sphenella; 2. Gam- 
phonema; 3. Rhoicosphenia. They are distinguishable by the fact 
that in the general structure of the valves they resemble the 
Navicxdem. Like the latter, the frustules possess three nodules 
on each side, and two median-lines divided into two parts by the 
central nodule. Still they are unsymmetrically constructed, as the 
upper end is broader than the lower. As the Achnanthes exhibit a 



230 EECENT EESEAECHES IN THE DIATOMACEiE. 



•want of symmetry in the axis of separation, and the CymbelhcB in the 
longitudinal axis, the Gomplionemece are unsymmetrical in the 
transverse axis. The two last-named groups are more closely related 
than has heen hitherto helieved both in respect to the structure of 
their valves and also of their cell-contents. On the one side the 
CymlelJece so far as they are stipitate show a distinction between the 
upper and under ends, which is not noticeable in the case of valves 
exposed to the action of heat or in the free-living forms ; and on the 
other side the Gomphonemece are unsymmetrical not only in the 
Iransverse axis, as was before stated, but also in the longitudinal axis. 
In all, this feature manifests itself in the structure of the primordial 
cell; in some, in the structure of the valve itself. In 




vulgaris, Kiitz,, the valves are noticeably more decidedly convex on 
one side than on the other j and in other cases in which the margin 
of the valve appears symmetrical, the sculpture on the two sides of 
the longitudinal line is different. Tuffen West's description of 
Gomphonema geminatum in Smith exhibits on one side of the 
central nodule a group of four or five separate depressions which 
do not occur on the other side; and this is a regular occurrence. 
Besides, the median lines at the central nodule and the under end- 
nodule bend towards the same side— namely, that in which the above- 
mentioned depressions occur, and which are situated in a well-defined 
area. At the upper end-nodule the median line at first takes the 
same bend as at the other nodules, but afterwards changes round to 
the opposite side, towards a small space in which no depressions 
occur. These peculiarities render manifest the unsymmetrical character 
of the valves. In many specimens the median line is bowed, how- 
ever, slightly, so as to present its concave side to the group of 
depressions. In addition it is important to observe that where these 
depressions lie to the right on the upper valve, they are found also 
on the right in the underlying valve. So that the GoynpUnemea are 
not diagonally constructed as the J^inmlaria are, but unsymmctricaUy 
on the homologous sides, like Anomoeoneis and the Cymhellea. The 
structure of the primordial cell corresponds : there is but one plasm- 
band situated on the cell wall ; only one endochrorae-plate occurs ; but 
while the former and the middle of the latter in the CymheJlece lie 
on the more strongly-arched, we find them in the somewhat unsym- 
mcitncal Gomplionemece {e.g., in Sphnella vulgaris) on the less 
convex girdle-band. The central plasm-mass is not so broad on 
the one side as it is on the other, on which lie the cell-kernel 
and the tumed-up edges of the endochrome-plate, as is the case in 
the greater number of the Cymlellem. The endochrome-plate has the 
same structure as in the last-named, although its position differs to 
the extent of 180 degrees. The division of the endochrome-plate 
proceeds by an incision from the ends. The free edge grows across 
the valve until the original position has been reached. A transverse 
section ot the Gomphonema cell would more clearly represent the 
relative position of the parts. 

The genera Gomphonema and SpJienella are distinguished from one 
another only by the circumstance that the frustules in the former are 
Btipitate, and non-stipitatc in the latter, which Pfitzer, following 
lirunow and Eabenhnrsf r>r\r^e^Ac^a «r, :^..a 1„ • j:„4.;««f;,.Ti 



EECENT EESEAECHES IN IHE DIATOMACE^. 231 

for this reason, tliat the stipitate forms occur free and with actiye 
motion. As resp.ects the substance of the stipes, it appears m this 
instance, as in the case of Cocconema and Brebissonia, In its early stage 
as a simple, colourless, well-defined gelatinous hand ; but m its more 
advanced stage of growth It presents a brownish central thread, sur- 
rounded by a broad, colourless Investment. . • <■ 

As regards the construction of auxospores, Thwaites informs us 
that in this genus, as well as that of Cijmhella, two mother-cells 



develops 



Thwaites made this 



observation in the case of a species related to Gomphoneim dicliotomum, 
Sm., in G. dichofomtm, G. tenellum, G. oUvaceum; Pfitzer m the last- 
named species. An actual union of the two primordial mother-cells does 
not occur, but only a diffusing of the contents through the gclati- 



nous investment. When the auxospores have nearly reached their 
definitive length they develope a fine membrane, withm which the 
valves are formed one after the other. They are_ at first strongly 
arched and bent on the longitudinal axis ; the stnation developes itself 
clearly in a direction proceeding from the centre towards the ends. 
The firstling-cells at first have girdle-bands as narrow as those m 
Nmimla, the outer larger valve, even in its earliest stage embracing 
the smaller inner valve. After the second division, out of the bent- 
valved firstllng-ccUs spring normal cells with two straight valves just 
as in the case of MvicuU. The plane of separation in the_ firstlmg- 
cell is at a right angle to that of the mother-cell from which it has 
sprung— the valves of the former being seen when the girdle-band ot 



the latter is turned 



Iihoicosj)7ienia. 



This may he regarded as a Gom^Jionema unsymmetrical in its 
three dimensions. In addition to the want of symmetry m the longi- 
tudinal and transverse axis, there occurs mth,s genus a ben du^^^ m 



unsimilai 



which one only-namely, the concave- possesses a central nodule ; be- 
sTdes,the ml which occur on the upper end of Oomphonemaav,h^^^^ 
most strongly developed. In the primordial ^^U no remarkable dstinc- 
tion is found compared with GompJwnema .' hut it is far otherwise 

now and Babenh^rst attachedit. ^^'^'^''^i'^^«;^^"7l^,^"jie middle 
and iJ. marina (Kiitz.), possess a single ^°f ^^^^''^^f "P^f;;. ^^^e two 
line of which lies on the plane of one ^'"^1^.^^^^^.;;,^;^^^^^^^ \^?,^^J 
valves and even folding itself over upon the other girdle-band. V le wed 
i3 a^pe^t 1? appeafs broken into four ^arts the ^^^^on^^-^- 
two of t&se parts l>^j;^^ol^^^^^ on he FT. ^^^o-^^^^^^^^^^^ 

':;;:: and' u'^r:^ r ^Ih^^drportlon of the valves is for the 
most mrt covered with endochrome, which is not the case in 
7^ljonLa 1 sHght indentation is observable at the ends 
«^,. in ^^h there J an ^^h to^«^e^^^^ 

:i£^ J!^:;i!^^«Sf c ca^ of ^;^^^. towards 



232 ON THE COMPOSITIOJT OF ITCOPEEDOS- GIGANTETJM. 

the case of H. curvata so early as 1847. This process goes on pre- 
cisely as m Gomphonema, only the plasm-sac, according to Thwaites,' 
does not emerge at the side, but from an opening at the end of the cell. 
EsmitH tound the same species and E. marina in copulation. In the 
case ot the form last-named, Liideis has added the remark that the 
auxospores before they have attained the length of the older cells are 
invested with a very fine silicious coating, which exhibits broad 
transverse stn® This investment is. at first cylindrical, but becomes 
bent in the firstling-cells, which issue from it. 



ON THE COMPOSITION^ OF LTCOPEKDON GIGANTEUM. 

By a. H. Chxtech, M.A. 

T> iv fji® autumn of 1871 some very large specimens of the Giant 
rutt- baU, Ly coper don giganteum, were obtained from a field in the 
neighbourhood of Cirencester. Several of these weighed more than 
2 lbs. avoirdupois apiece, while others were over 1 lb. The observa- 
tions by Dr. McNab and myself on the high temperature of these 
Fungi .- ^ere made upon one of the plants now referred to. Afterwards 
a chemical investigation as to their constituents was undertaken by 
myself with the striking results recorded further on-results which 
are quite m accordance with the earlier analyses performed upon other 
species of this order. ^ f a 

Previous to analysing the Lycoperdon it was dried in a current 
of warm air. Dunng this process it underwent a curious change. 
Although the temperature to which it was submitted scarcely exceeded 
to .W w^-i^^f n ^^^^ *^^ ^^^^ of the Fungus was observed 

into 7 J V \ ^^^ ^^ ^'^*' ^°*^^ t^^ ^^«1« l^ad become converted 

,S;UJSumtaT?nr2 J'^ '^^^ ^^^^^ -^ -^^^^^^^ ^ ^ 
The ash thus prepared had the following composition : 

TV, - In 100 parts. 

Phosphors pentoxide (PA) ... 46-19 

i°^^t W) ■ • . • 35-48 

f^^fr.^^^} 6-95 

-Lime (CaO) . . o..4t 

p.mc oria; (FeA) . : : ; ; ; : VI . 



Silica (SiOa) \ \ ' -66 

Other substanpes and loss , \ \ ', '. 1-Yi 



100-00 



Fun^urp?mTi?J' • f '''.*^^* *^^ "^^°^^^1 °^ as^ constituents of this 
fh?pwr l^^^^^^^^^^ We know that both 




ery small 



* Gardeners' Chronicle, 1871, page 1256. 



ON THE APFINITY AI^D POSITIOIf OF RYPAEIA. 



233 



quantity in ordinary soils, but are accumulated by plants in consider- 
able quantity, notably in tbeir seeds and most actively growing parts. 
From what we have learnt of the mode of nutrition of Fungi, they may 
be regarded as amongst the carnivora of the Vegetable kingdom. They 
probably obtain their food from the stores already accumulated by 
higher plants, and in this way their extraordinary richness in such 
elements as phosphorus and potassium may he accounted for. 
Thus, too, we can understand the increased fertility of the soil inside 
the ''fairy rings "^of our pastures, where the last decaying remains of 
the fungoid mycelium contribute their stores of concentrated and most 
assimilable nutriment to enrich an extending zone of surface soil. 
Nor is such enrichment confined to the ash constituents of the plant 
only,^ The analysis of the fresh Puflf-ball reveals an enormous amount 
of nitrogenous matter amongst its constituents, and nitrogenous 
substances have a most marked effect upon the growth of meadow 
Grasses. I am inclined to think that some of the nitrogen of the 
Lycoperdon exists in the form of nitrates, and that in this Avay their 
spontaneous inflammability and high temperature may be explained. 
But in the following analyses the nitrogen is wholly calculated as 
albuminoid or proteid matter, since no special determination of the 
amount of nitrates present had been made. 



Composition' op Zy coper don giganteum* 



Water ...... 

Fat, oil and resinous matter 
Albuminoids .... 



Cellulose or fungin, &c. 
Ash or mineral matter 



In the fresh 
state* 

90-89 . 

•90 . 

5-48 . 

2-10 . 

'63 . 



When per- 
fectly dry, 



11-00 

66-78 

14-78 

7-44 



100-00 



100-00 



ON THE AFFINITY AND POSITION OF EYPAEIA, Bl 



Br S. KrEz. 



BLinrE 



under the name of Ryparosa (later, in the preface to his " Flora Javse," 
corrected Ryparia)^ and placed it in EuphorliacecBy where it remained 
until Dr. J. Mueller, in his monograph of that order, ejected it as a 
foreign element, but without indicating its affinities. "VYhile in Java I 
fortunately collected specimens of the plant in question, and an 
examination of these, with a consultation of the literature bearing on 
the history of the genus, has brought out facts which I hope may be 

interesting to systematists. 

The presence of petals, the scales, and the parietal placentation 



234 oy THE APrrNiTT and position op kypaei 



were data of importance, and could not but lead to the suggestion of 
the plant being a Pangiacea. Of this I soon felt sure, and a compari- 
son with Blume's genus Bergsmia showed so many characters in 
common that I was led to refer to Eumphia iy., t. 178, C, where I 
found a good figure of my very plant, which is therefore not the 
true Eyparia cmsia of Blume (which has the leaves sparingly 
adpressed strigose), but what I took at Buitenzorg to be a 
glabrous long-racemed form of it, and which I now find is Blume's 
Bergsmia Javanica. The differences in character of Blume's 
Ryparia and Bergsmia are either based upon erroneous views or relate 
to variable parts, such as the number of parts in the floral whorls. 
The filaments are said in Bergsmia to be only partially connate, but 
in this Blume misunderstood v. Hasselt altogether, for he says, "JFila- 
mentum centrale, crassum, apice antheras 5 v. 4 biloculares gerens," 
which is just as in Ryparia. 

Blume has a Ryparia €<Bsia and a R. duhia, and I fear that one of 
these may represent Bergsmia Javanica.' 

The female racemes are short in both Ryparia cmsia and-ff. {Bergs- 
mia) Javanica; hut the male racemes are in the former only a foot 
long, while in the latter they elongate to 2 feet and more. The 
staminodes are subulate in R. Javanica^ while those of Ryparia cmsia 
(of which I do not possess the female) are said to be stipitate. The 
ovary of the one is 1 -celled, while that of R. ccesia is said to have 
it 2-celled, a statement which req[uires to be verified ; at least it is 
not so in my glabrous specimens. The pubescence is a matter of less 
importance, R, e<esia having the branchlets and leaves beneath 
sparingly covered with adpressed stiff hairs, while R. Javanica has 



only the leaf-buds similarly clothed, the leaves being quite glabrous 
I now give a revised character of Ryparia^ connecting it with 



Bergsmia. 



Ryparia^ BL 



riores dioici, racemosi. Calyx in alabastro globosus, in scgmenta de- 
cidua 3—4 rumpens. Petala 4 — 5, oblongo-lanceolata, extus tomcntella, 
coriacea, intus squamulis totidem villosis inatructa. Masc. : Stamina 
4 — 5, in columnam.tubulosam ovarii rudimcntum includentem connata ; 
antherce 2-ccllulares, ovales v. elliptico): Fern, : Ovarium stauilnodiis 
4 — 5 subulatis v. pedicellatis cum petalis altcrnantibus cinctum,,! (v. 
2?) loculare, placentis 1—3 parietalibus 2-pluriovulatis; stigmata 1—3, 
sessilia, lata et emarginata v. subhypocrepiformia, Fructus (ex BL) 
corticatus, exsuccus, subtomentosus punctatus, monospcrmus rarius 
bilocularisdispermus. Arbores v. arbusculae foliis alternis longiuscule 
petiolatis (petiolis apice incrassato-geniculatis, subtus vulgo glauces- 
centibus). Plores parviusculi, pedicellati, in racemos simplices (mas- 
culos femineis multo longiores) axillares v. supra cicatricibus secus 
ramos solitarie v. binatim ortos dispositi. 

l^.B. Bergsmia Simatrana, Miq. in Suppl. FL Sumatr,, 389, is 
really a Pangiacea, and I suspect Tlydnocarpus. I have no specimens- 
Bergsmiaf acuminata^ Miq. I.e., has cylindrically oblong rtminate 
seeds, and is in my opinion an Anonacea^ with which also the whole 
habit corresponds. 



NEW GENrS OF PEBKS OF THE XKIBE ASPLEXIE-^. 235 



, A NEW GENUS OF FEENS OF THE TEIBE ASPLENIEJ2 

h 

FROil THE S0L0M0:N' ISLAj^DS. 



Br J. G. Bakee, F.L.S. 

Genus Dipiora. Sorus sausagc-shapecl, ranning up the erccto- 
patent simple yein from the midrib of the frond to its margin, the two 
equal narrowly strap-shaped yalves of the superior membranous indu- 
sium meeting in the middle over the raised vein, and bursting open 
as the sorus matures. 




D. rMKGKiroLiA, JBahr.— Rhizome wide-creeping, green, angular, 
woody, naked, under a line thick. Stipe articulated on the rhizome, 
quite resembling it in colour and texture, under an inch long._ Frond 
membranous, glabrous, naked, green on both sides, entire, linear-ligulate, 
9—10 inches long, half-an-inch broad at the middle, obscurely cre- 
nato-repand especially near the subacute apex, narrowed gradually 
at the base ; veins distinct, erecto-patcnt, usually simple, rarely once 
forked. Sori 100 to 120 to a frond, beginning a short distance from 
both base and tip, |— » inch long, ^ inch broad, usually with a space 
equal to their own breadth between them, rarely crowded.— Solomon 
Isles, Mrs. Burnett, in the herbarium of the late W. S. Macleay, Esq., 
of Sydney, which has lately been added to the Kew collection, and 
contains several other interesting novelties from the same group. 

Amongst familiar European types it is most like Scolopendnum ; but 
here the sori reach uniformly from the midrib of the frond to its 
margin, and the pair of involucres, instead of springing from two con- 
tiguous veins and meeting in the interspace, spring from two sides of 
a single vein, and quite hide ittiU they burst open. In its Eremobryoid 
plan of growth Diplora differs from the great mass of Asplenmms, 
and agrees with A. vittcoforme, Cav., a phmt from the sanie region 
very similar in habit, upon which Mettenius has founded his genua 
Microjmdimn, which is precisely Asplenhm in fructification, but 
falls into the other of J. Smith's two great divisions of ioly- 
podiacese. 



236 ABjroilMAL FIOWEES OF CEPHAIA^THEIIA GEAKDIFLOBA 



ABjN'OHMAL flowers of CEPHALA.ITTHEIIA GRAl^DI- 

FLORA. 



By F. I. WAEjfEB, F.L.S. 



'tie: 



in the latter part of June, I gathered several specimens of Ce^hal- 
anthera grandiflora exhibiting very interesting deviations from the 
usual number and arrangement of the floral organs. 

In one instance the three lower flowers in a spike of eight had 
three sepals of normal size and shape, two lateral petals also quite 
normal, but instead of one there were three lips or labella. In one 
flower, the lowest on the spike, one of the additional labella was for 
about half the length of its lower lobe adherent to the column ; tut in 
all other respects all three labella were precisely similar to that in an 
ordinary flower ._ The columns were of the ordinary size and shape. 

In another instance, of which I found two examples, the two or 
three lower flowers had in place of the ordinary labellum a petal 
shaped precisely the same as the two lateral petals, and an additional 
labellum of the ordinary shape on each side, aU other parts of the 
flowers being as usual. A similarly formed flower of Catasetum is 
figured m Masters' " Vegetable Teratology," page 291. 

In a third case the labellum was apparently in an intermediate 
state— the upper part being erect and shaped like the lateral petals, 
while the lower part was shaped as in an ordinary labellum. 
^ Adopting the generaUy received theory of Orchidaceous flowers, it 
IS to be observed that the two additional labella in the flowers I have 
described occupy precisely the place of the two undeveloped stamens 
^he outer whorl, and a comparison of these flowers with others 
exHibitmg a similar structure will, I think, leave no room for doubt 
that these organs are in fact abnormally developed stamens.* It is 
difficult to explain, however, how it is that they appear in this form, 
and without giving rise to greater alterations in other parts of the 
flower. If the theory of E. Brown, adopted by Lindlcy and Darwin,! 
is correct, which regards the labellum as a compound organ formed 
01 one petal and two petaloid stamens, we should have expected that 
wnen the three organs appeared separately they would have taken 
the torm either of three simple petals or of a petal and two stamens. 



If on the other hand 



theory- 



regards the labellum as a simple organ, it would seem very unlikely 
that these additional organs could have been developed without affect- 
ing the size or shape of the column. In all the flowers, however, 
which I examined I particularly noticed that the pseudo-labella were 



« 



of 0^hrirarZ7fJ A "^"^V'V^^™^^ instance ot aumlar development in a flowe] 
Of Oj^hri/s aram/era descnbed by Dr. Masters. Journ. Lin. Soc. Bot. viii., 207. 

t '' Fertilization of Orcluds," p. 292. 
1 Journ. Lin. Soc. Bof vni I'^o 



- SHORT NOTES X^B QUERIES, 237 

precisely the same "both in size, colour, and number of crests or folds 
as an ordinary labellum, and the columns were exactly the same as in 
ordinary flowers. 



SHOET NOTES AND QUERIES. 

EcTMEX EtiONGATus, Gussoue, IN" E]^j"GLiND. — On July 7th, when 
examining the vegetation, with especial reference to Docks, of 
the Thames shore, on the Surrey side, between Putney and 
Hammersmith Bridges, I gathered two examples of a Rumex which 
was new to me. I have not been able to match them with any 
specimens in the large series of British and European Docks in the 
British Museum ; but judging from the figure and description of 
Gussone in his *^Plantse rariores," they seem referable to Rumex 
elongatus of Calabria and Sicily. The Thames plant has many of the 
characters of R, crts^us, but diflFers altogether in its root-leaves, 
which are smaller (8 to 12 inches long, by 1 inch broad), perfectly 
flat without a trace of crisping, entire, linear-lanceolate, and much 
attenuated at the base into the long petiole. The inner perianth- 
leaves, too, are more elongated than in R, crisjpuSj and the plant 
differs conspicuously in its tall, lax habit and more distant whorls. 
It will be well worth while for botanists to keep a look-out for a plant 
having these characters — probably enough elsewhere passed by for 
R, erispus — so that it may be more completely examined (the fruit 
especially req^uires it), and its claims to recognition as British — at 
present scarcely sufficient— established beyond a doubt.^ On the same 
day Rumex syhestrisj Wallr., was found abundantly in the ^locality 
where it was first found by Mr. Warren near Putney, occurring with 
R. Friesii and R. conglomeratuSj (Enanthe crocata. Nasturtium 
paludrey and other Thames-side species.— Henry Trimen. 



A SECOND station FOR CaREX MONTANA, Zi«., IN DeyON. — It 

may be remembered that when I reported this Carex as a Devonian 
species in the June number of the ** Journal," through my ha\'ing 
discovered it in May last on Bickleigh Down, I spoke of having the 
expectation of being shortly able to record it from elsewhere near 
Plymouth. This has been realised, for I have since found it on 
Eoborough Down, a very extensive common, which, commencing 
about a mile north of Bickleigh Down, extends thence for over four 
miles in a northerly direction. Here it occurs in numerous spots, on 
both sides of the Plymouth and Tavistock turnpike-road, from near 
the old camp, about 6| miles from Plymouth, onto a little beyond the 
7-mile stone*. It is, I believe, without exception, the earliest of our 
Carices to flower, for by the third week m June I found the seeds all 
shed and the spikes withered ; but the large patches formed by its 
tufts of light-green leaves and its thick shaggy rhizome served then to 
amimQuish it tvomptMifer a mdpmco^ here, as on Bickleigh Down, 
its associates. It ascends to the highest part of the common, about 
650 feet above sea-level. The soil is very similar to that of Bickleigh, 



238 SHORT NOTES AND QUERIES. 

being Devonian slate traversed by elvan veins, which latter furnish 

a stone that is much quarried, and is locally well-known as 

" Eoborough-stone." Since I wrote my first notice of this Carex 

I have found that it occurs more plentifully at Bickleigh than I then 

supposed, being scattered over a considerable part of the common and 

not confined to the three spots where first discovered.— T. R. Aecheh 
Bkiggs. 

r 

CiNEKAWA CAMPEsTKis uf LixcoijfSHTEi^.— I send a specimen 
of this species from Ancaster, in this county, gathered on June 7th 
ihis locality extends its north-eastern range, Cambridgeshire being 
the highest point recorded on this side of England. I see it is not 
given m Mr. Britten's list of Lincolnshire plants, compiled last year — 
h. S. Steeatfeild.— [Additional to Province 8, Trent, of " Cvbele 

CiAXTONiA ALsmoiDES.-This spccios is growing in tolerable 
abundance m a small plantation at Ince, Cheshire. The wood is about 
one hundred yards from the river MeVsey. A stran^T to Brit sh 
botany, going suddenly into the wood, and observing it growin<^ s de 
by side with our common Stdlaria media, would find it difficult to 

LTot ofToie nf f T r ^?"^ \^^*"-^ ^' thrB^^isSndt^ 
It 18 one of those plants which mature their seeds under almost any 

St'rn'o'r Vaf '^^.f "."^^ l'^'''^ ^'^^^^^^ ^-P^^^ «f "h so { 
situation, or state of the atmosphere. Its near ally, C virainica 



M 

C„Us80, Cirencester, Mr. Ha^ry mUetrte . ^ ■^' It IZ nea" 

" Th^ lnr„„ »;„ 4 i , "■"«" » letter was acothcr, as follows :— 

otto a^pfc:m?rof ',Kr f ' '""=•' "" '?"=''<^= '™'° tl'" ™rface TI,e 
surface SSw "><= Pla»t, now just in bloom, gathered from the 



wlieat. The owner is a mHlp^. T V. "^ "'"""^^/-^""^ «"me loreigu 
forei-n wheit Tt L if , ' dealing constantly in aU kinds of 

from^6 To 9 Inches below'?h.^''l '"''' 'i P'^"^^^' ^^' ^^^^^ «^ 
formed about t wfpnf^ .7 5^ '''^^^T' '° *^^^ ^ «Pe«es of crown is 
as illustra?ed in fb?^ """^T"^ Ploughing, and throws up from it, 
depodt atd'o^^^^^^^^ Soil, a very stilf alluvial 

were found bnf ^S / . } ^ ^"""^ ^''^'^^^^ of small fibrous roots 

has been constructed ?b?^ f^l^f ' f *^ ^^ «°^ P^^^ where a railroad 

and baLt and frol f ^'''^ ^'' ^"'^''^ ^^^ ^^^ "P th^o^gl^ ^^^ll^ 
to knorthe botanTcTl r ^*^^^°/«/^"y^l^ere. The oiner would like 

growinff land " ThM . ' otherwise it is very valuable corn- 
t1.ers?r?ption.-W ft ??:r ^''^''^^' '' i-chesf answers well to 



ON TKAPA NAlANS. 239 



€ji*ttact^ anti %Wttatt^. 



ON TRAPA NATATIS, Z., ESPECIALLY THE FORM NOW 
LIYING IN THE SOUTHERNMOST PART OE SWEDEN. 

By F. AY- C. Aeeschoug. 



(Tab, 134.) 

Both in respect to its morpliology, its history, and its geographical 
distribution, Trapa naiam^ L., is deserving of special attention. The 
morphologist has studied in particular the singular capillary organs 
growing from the submerged parts of the stems, which organs have 

been considered by some as leaves, corresponding to the well-tnown 
submerged leaves of many Batrachiums, by others as adventitious 
roots. All doubts,, however, as to their being truly roots appear 
now to have been removed by the very exact inf^uiries of Reinke 
C^TJntersuchungen iiber Wachsthums-geschichte und Morphologie der 
Phanerogamen-Wurzel," in Hanstein's Bot. Abhandlungen). The 
intercellular system, so greatly developed in aquatic plants for the 
purpose of keeping their tender and weak stems upright in the water 
or floating on its surface, seems not to be sufficient for the purpose in 
this plant* Its large and ponderous fruits, which appear to have need 
of resting on the surface of the water in order to become ripe, would 
very soon drag the whole plant down to the bottom, if the petioles and 
peduncles were not distended into swellings which act as a sort of 
buoy. The swelling at these parts does not begin till the flowering 
season, and increases in proportion as the fruit grows : so that these 
organs attain their full size when the fruit is completely grown. Tho 
larger the fruit the larger are they also ; on the forms with small and 
light fruits they are nearly imperceptible. Consetiucntly, this plant 
adds a new example to the many which organic nature exhibits of 
the physiological dependence of parts of an organism which seem to 
have very little connection with one another. The fruit is described 
as a nut in almost all the works to which I have had access, but 
authors have overlooked the fact that the brown coriaceous endocarp 
is not the outermost covering of the fruit. On the ripe fruit this is 
more succulent and opaque, and is readily stripped off, when the fruit 
has for some time been in the water, and so the hard and woody 
endocarp at last forms the outermost covering. This circumstance 
has beenalreadynotedinthe ' 'Botanical Eegister," iii., 259, though not 
noticed by later authors ; the fruit should rather be called a drupe 
than a nut. Further, it deserves mention that the spines of the fruit 
are armed with strong deflexed barbs at the edge of their points (fig. 
7^.). By these barbs the empty fruit is able more completely to 
fulfil its use as an anchor for keeping the plant itself in the mud, 
after the seed has germinated. For the same reason the fruit adheres 
to the end of the young plant. These barbs are also foundon the fruit- 



240 ON TRAPA NATAN-S. 

T 

■ ■ 

spines of some other species (viz., T. quadrispimsa, Roxb., and T. 
lisjpinosa, Eoxb.). . ' 

In regard also to its geographical distribution, Trapa natans shows 
some remartable peculiarities. At the present time it seems to have 
its chief distribution in Europe, in the south but not in the southern- 
most part of the continent. It is found in France, the north of Spain 
and Italy, Austria, , Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Dalmatia, 
Turkey, the north of Greece, and the whole south and south-east of 
Eussia In middle Europe it is less frequent ; it grows, however, in 
a few localities m the north of Germany. Two years ago it was found 
m Lake Immeln m Scania, the southernmost part of Sweden. In the 
Caucasian provinces it is frequent, and it has also been found in some 
places m Siberia as far as Amur (according to specimens in the 
Herbarium of the Koyal Swedish Academy of Sciences, collected by 
Maximowicz). Walpers also states that it is represented in ''Icon. 
pi. m China nasc/' tab. 21, as growing in that country. It is not easy, 
howeTer,_ to decide whether it is originally wild everywhere, or 
whether it has been cultivated, or in other ways protected by man. 
Inthe/' ilanuel de la Elore de Belgique," by Crepin, p. 105 fed. 2), 
It is said to be sometimes cultivated in ponds in Belgium, but I have 
seen no reports of this kind from other countries. However this may 
be. It seems to me to be very probable that Trapa natans, L., has 
primitively had its origin m the Caucasian provinces, a supposition 
which seems to_ me the more probable, as all the other species of this 
genus have their domicile in Asia, principally, however, in the south 
and east part of it. But what seems to be of the greatest interest in 
respect to the geographical distribution of this plant is the fact that 
by degrees, almost withm our sight, it has disappeared from tracts 
where it seems formerly to have been frequent. Thus, for instance, 
1 18 nearly exterminated m Switzerland, where, according to Heer 
L5r ^^^"f ^i^/£r I^li'^ banten "), it grows only in one locality, a 
small pond at St. Tlrban in Luzern, and M. Crepin {I.e.) tells us it 

LTf" TVZttl f. if ^i^-' -^- it wo^ild^e iow vain to 



growing 



2ft^: • f •' '' «^^^t^%?«se i° Sweden, where it was found at 
the same period m sorne localities in two of the southern provinces, 

J>KnfIn 'f'^ '^ and Smoland. That the disappearance of this 
fw f^.f. • '?T'°''v t ^. "'^'^t P^"^'^ ^« "i^^ifest from this fact, 
W.KH./ i. \V^ a half-fossil state has been found in the turf ii 

HvW fn. • T ^^' ?n°n' '' ^"^ ^"^^ ^' ^' ^"«^» has not been 

nl f f ^!T Jv'/' ^* ^^l^'T''^ i^ Holland, a Danish island, accord- 
Ti^R i [?? (^^f.^^^^Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening, 
A a ^^^ \l , I'J""^ ^"^ ^"""^ ^* Nasbyholm in Scania, according to 
1872 pm) ^^'''^^•^'^''''^^^' Academieng Forhandlingar, 

extemLh-oT^V'^.v T' ^^'"^^^ ^^ ^'^'^ ^^^ the causes of the 
same^n nl . /^'' ^\r^' ^'""^^^^^ ^hey are various, and not the 
Sateba b r "t- /« .^^^^^ the supposition that a change of 
W b nd thni""'/ 1 '^'"'^""^ ^t once suggests itself But on the 
f"mtt north ^J% "^"'V ^''' ^^^P^^tely disappeared, not only 
mrhtW.il i"i°^'' ''^''' ' diminution in mean temperature 
might ha.e produced the ^^reatcst influence on its occurrence, but also 



ON TRAPA I5^ATANS, 241 

in some other countries, where the climatic conditions are prohably 
nearly analogous with those prevailing in the countries where it is still 
living. If lowering of the temperature were the only reason, it would 
he impossible to explain why the plant has disappeared from Switzer- 
land or Belgium, but remained in the north of Scania, where the 
mean temperature is lower than in Belgium or in the low parts of 
Helvetia. Perhaps its eradication can be explained by the circum- 
stance that the population in some countries have used tlie fruit for 
food ; the plant, being annual, might thus very easily have been 
destroyed, as has really happened to many other plants, when 
they have been of any use to man. It is also not impossible that 
the extinction of our plant is connected with the dryiug up of the 
lakes and ponds where it once had its home, and this is assigned by 
Crepin {Le,) to be in some measure the case with its localities in 
Belgium. ^ Perhaps its destruction may also have been forwarded by 
fishing with the drag. But though it is very probable that the plant 
has by such^ means been exterminated in many localities, its almost 
complete disappearance from the north of Europe cannot be so 
explained. For in this region the causes just mentioned, except the 
sinking of the mean temperature, must have exercised much less 
influence than in the middle of Europe ; whilst some of them do not 
exist. In Sweden, as well as in Denmark, there are plenty of lakes, 
and no want of fitting localities can have arisen. Ifor is it known 
that the fruit of this plant, at least during the historical period, has 
been used for food by the population in these countries. Its employ- 
ment in this respect is at least unknown to the people in the part of 
Scania where this plant continues to gi'ow. Neither is it probable 
that fishing with the drag has been practised more frequently in 
Sweden and Denmark than in the middle of Europe, where in 
consequence of the more numerous population it would be likely that 
naore assiduous search would be made for substances fit for food. 

It is, however, an uncontested fact that Trapa natans has more 
completely disappeared from the north of Europe than from the 
middle and south, and I think that a change of tlie external conditions 
of itfs life has acted in the former case, but in the latter the above- 
named circumstances, connected perhaps also with a change of 
climate. Steenstnip (** Smaa ndflygter paa Natur- og Kultur his- 
toriens Faelleder, I., Kartoffel "), it is true, presutnes that Trapa 
natans has been cultivated by an earlier population, and thus extended 
its primitive limits, within which it retired when the cultivation of 
it ceased and it was deprived of protection from man. It may, 



however, be objected to this, that in such a case the plant ought first 
to be destroyed in countries where the external conditions have been 
more disadvantageous, as is the case in tlie north of Europe. But we 
find that it has during tlie same period become extinct in countries in 
the middle of Europe, where the physical conditions can scarcely he 
more unfavourable to it than in the north of Germany, where it still 
grows without being cultivated. If, therefore, the supposition of 
Steenstrup's be well founded, we are forced to suppose other causes 
of extinction also for the middle of Europe. Regarding this plant 
only, then, it is impossible to find out the real cause of its disappear- 
iiuce. Uut bearing in mind that some other plants and animals of a 



242 OK TEAPA KATAKS. 

more southern origin, e.g,^ Emys lutaria^ Bon., Stis Scrqfa^ L., have 
entirely disappeared from the north of Europe, or at least are to be 
considered only as residues of an earlier Flora and Pauna, which must 
depend on climatic alterations, it must be considered probable that the 
extermination of Trapa natans in these countries has been caused by 
a change of climate. An indirect proof of this view I find in the 
circumstance that Trapa natans has gradually disappeared. If the 
cessation of its cultivation were the true reason of its extinction, it 
would probably vanish quiclily, almost as soon as its cultivation was 
stopped. The variety of this plant, which now grows in Scania in one 
locality, also seems to point to an existence becoming feeble and 
weakened by unfavourable physical conditions. 

The influence which a change of physical conditions acting during 
a long time has had on the composition of the existing vegetation of 
a country does not appear yet to have been fully recognised by 
botanists ; nor do they seem to have realised that to exercise its 
influence such change need not be so great as to immediately cause 
the death of a less or greater number of species. Experience 
teaches us that the plant itself is a very sensitive indicator of 
changes of climate ; so much so that many slight modifications, even 
■when so imperceptible as to nearly escape attention, have an influence 
upon vegetative life and its various operations. Consequently every 
change of climate must be advantageous to some species and pernicious 
to others, and will so disturb the equilibrium which before existed 
in the statistical proportions between the species as to cause those 
species which have been favoured by the change to more or less 
completely expel the species on which the change has exercised an 
unfavourable influence (comp. F. Areschoug, '* Om den Europeislca 
vegetationens ursprung,"in Forhandlinger vcd de Skand. Naturfor- 
skannes, lOde Mode, 1868). In any large area there will be found 
a greater or less number of species which have their northern or 
southern limits there, and consequently you find only at a few locali- 
ties all the physical conditions for their growth combined. Such 
plants must more than others be very susceptible to climatic changes, 
and a slight diminution of the mean temperature will have a favour- 
able influence on the spread of those which have their southern 
, limit in the district, but a pernicious one on the plants of a 
southern^ origin growing there. Trapa natans^ L., in the Scandina- 
vian peninsula is such a plant. As already mentioned, it seems to 
have its original home in the "Caucasian provinces, and its northern 
limit in Sweden ; nor does the fact that it still exists in Lake Immcln 
in the north-east of Scania go against the view of its extermination 
in other localities of the Scandinavian peninsula by the influence of 
physical conditions. This seeming contradiction can be solved in two 
diflferent ways — either the plant has not in Immcln had to struggle for 
its existence against so dangerous rivals as in other localities whence 
it has disappeared, or some circumstances especially favourable to the 
plant have in that locality been able to, in some way, neutralise the 
unfavourable physical conditions. 

The Trapa natans which grow in Sweden in the last century was 
Dot quite identical with the form now living in the middle and south 
of Europe, and was described by Wahlenberg (Fl. Suecica, i., p. 100) 



ON TE-iTl NATAJ^S, 243 



as a variety, and named glaherrima. According' to this author it 
differed from the typical form hy greater tenderness, hy the nearly 
glabrous leaves, petioles, and sepals, by the very small swellings of 
the petioles and peduncles, and by the nearly sessile fruit- Moreover, 
to judge from the specimens in the Herbarium of the University of 
Upsala and the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, the flowers also 
appear to be smaller, and the leaves for the most part to have a form 
differing from the typical one, in being more gradually narrowed 
to their base, and in which their greatest breadth coincides with the 
middle of the leaf. It must not, however, be omitted, that in the 
Herbarium of IJpsala there is a specimen labelled " e Smolandise aquis, 
Thunberg," which as to size, hairiness, the form of the leaves, and 
the swellings at the petioles, quite agrees with the typical form. But 
I believe I can assert decidedly that this specimen is not from Sweden. 
It has a more southern character even than specimens from the north 
of Germany, and resembles very much the form of Trapa natans 
which grows in the west of France, 

The characters of "Wahlenberg's variety seem very inconstant, and 
this is also the case with the form of the leaves. There is, to be sure, 
a very great difference between this form and that from the south of 
Europe, the latter being characterised by shorter, larger, and more 
swollen petioles, much greater size, and more dense hairiness, larger 
flowers, and by the form of the lamina, which has a nearly truncate 
base, and is almost semicircular, its greatest breadth being nearer to 
the base. But towards the north and east this form graduates into 
the above-mentioned variety, without, however, even in the north 
of Germany becoming quite identical with it. The lamina, even if 
it is more prolonged, has its greatest breadth near the base, this being 
almost truncate. Forms graduating into the yarietj ffhherrtma,'Wg.y 
I have seen from the country about the Amur, the Ukraine, Silesia, 
and East Prussia. With respect to the length of the peduncles 
there seems to be very little difference between the Swedish and 

Continental forms. 

The form of Trapa natans^ L., which was found in Lake 
Immeln, Scania, in the summer of 1871, agrees very ^ well with 
Wahlenberg's variety. It has the form of leaf characteristic of this 
variety even much more pronounced, notwithstanding that some leaf or 
other on the more vigorous specimens may agree with those of the 
iN'orth German form. With respect to its glabrosity it is more 
inconstant than the variety glaherrima. The leaves are very seldom 
qnite glabrous, the petioles often being slightly hairy, which may 
also be the case with the whole leaf. Sometimes its hairiness is as 
dense even as on the South European form. But in other respects, as, 
for instance, tenderness, length of the petioles and their small swellings, 
smoothness of the sepals, and small flowers, the form from Scania 
agrees with the variety glaherrima. 

The point, however, which distinguishes the Scanian form from 
that growing on the European continent, and which possesses a 
special interest, is the insertion of the floral whorls. Not only Trapa 
natam^ but all the other species of this genus (^.^., T bieorm\L.j T. 
hispinosa^ Roxb,, and T. quadrispinosa^ Roxb.), have the fruit situated 
below the sepals, so that only a very little part of it is entirely free. A 

K 2 



244 ON TEAPA NATA^"S. 

fossil species found in the mioceme strata of the peninsula of Alaska 
and named by Heer ("Plora fossilis Alastana," in Vet. Akadeniiens 
Handlingar, 1869, p. 38, tab. viii., figs. 3—14), T. loreaUs, has the 
greater part of the fruit placed below the sepals. But the fruit of 
the form from Scania is in great part free, the portion situated above 
the upper pair of spines being as long as that below them, or even 
longer (figs. 7— 9), and the part of the fruit superior to the lower 
pair of spines twice as long as that below thera. Already on the 
young ovary this peculiarity is very apparent, the greater part of it 
being free (fig. 10). The free part of the ripe fruit is much furrowed 
and nearly conical, but much compressed at the two sides, on which 
the lower spines are inserted (fig. 1h). Thus the fruit has an oval 
form (fig. la)), when the spines are not paid attention to. Moreover, the 
spines are much longer and thinner than those of thR tvnir.al form. 



fruit 



very 



Even 



th ere extends from their top a long filamentous organ, which at 
the first glance might be taken for the style. This organ, however, is 
the persistent petiole of the larger cotyledon, which at the period 
oi germination remains within the fruit rr.nmn ■Rnr-Ti^mi/I "Mi„-,n;ro 



of germination remains within the fruit (comp. Barndoud "Memoire 
sur 1 Anatomie et I'Organogcnie du Trapa natans, L.," in Ann. 
des Sc. Kat., 3eme ser., 9, p. 223, pi. 12, figs. 1-6), though the 
length of It exceeds by far that figured by this author, and it is to be 
seen on iruits so very small that they seem to be only half- grown. 

It is a pity that ripe fruits are so very rare in botanical collec- 
nons, so that I have seen them only from a few localities, viz., 
JBresIau Leipsic (theBot. Garden), Altenburg, and Munich (the Bot. 
trarden), m Germany : Versailles, Angers, and Rouen (Bot. Gurd.), in 
* ranee ; and from the Ukraine. But generally the fruits from all 
these localities agree very well with one another, and also with the 
ngures 1 have seen, and therefore I believe it to be probable that 
their form IS that typical for tlie T. natans oi the Continent. Their 
size, their thick periparp, and short and strong spines seem to indi- 
cate a much more vigorous life ; their colour is a more shining dark 
ZZ^:^ Seen from on e of the sides on which the lower spines are 
mserted, the fruit has almost the form of a triangle, one angle of 
iwL5' '^"■f ^d d^^v^wards (fig. la). The two upper spines are 
inserted nearly at the same level as the superior pait of the limit, 
and this part is so short that it is seven or eight times shorter than the 
nftnor part, and its section has a rectangular form (fig. U). The 
iZ!*-'^""? ''■'' 'f ''^'*^ sometimes at the same level as the others, 
tCfr^TJ down-at least one of them ; so that half or more of 

TcnTlrT^ '""^r^"- '^^'^ *^^^^y ^l«^i« ^c^T ^^iff^rent from that 

cure .n^f^ -rl'"/ '"^-"^^ endeavours, I have not been able to pro- 
thrBo?n^mVoT Tir ''"^''^ "^^^^ '^^t^^^^y to y^T . glaherrima. Trom 

which ^ethn^^ ^P^"^^' '''^'^^' I have seen some fruits 

seems trbl?'- \y\^^''' ^^gin from this variety. Their exterior 
time he !.^Lf;f 'r "^ '^"^ ^=^^^^8 ^^"^ i« the mud for a long 
mSninl .nd H '^^ '^^''^i'^^* '^''^'^^^"S ^^ t« «"'"e extent still re- 
?u sW^hn ^ -1 ""'^^^^^P ^^ ^^'^ ^^^h corroded and uneven. 
lu shnpe they are. intermediate between the fruit of the form from 



ON TRAPA NAXANS. 245 

Scania and tliat of the Continental form, the two upper spines not 
heing on a level with the superior part of tlfe fruit (figs. 4, 5). With 
respect to the thin pericarp and the narrow acute spines they agree 
with the fruits of the Scanian form. But this has a much larger part 
of the fruit placed above the spines, and on the other hand, to judge 
from a specimen in the Hcrharium of the Eoyal Academy of Stock- 
holm, collected last century in the north of Smoland by Liljeblad, 
the young fruits of the variety glalerrma are nearly free (fig. 6), 
and agree in this respect with those of the Scanian form. Therefore 
- if the above-mentioned fruits belong to the variety glalerrma, it is 
probable that they have lain a very long time in the mud, and are 
of an earlier period, when the form which characterised the fruit of 
this variety was not as yet quite attained. For, as has akeady been 
remarked, the young fruit of the variety ghherrimay such as they 
"were last century, appear to make it probable that this variety 
also, with respect to the full-grown fruit, was identical with the 
form of T, nutans still growing in Scania. 

But the form now living here is not, so far as its fruit goes, the 
same as that the fruit of which has been found by Mr. Nathorst in a 
half-fossil state in a turf at Kasbyholm in Scania. This fruit (fig. 3) 
• in every respect agrees with the fruit of the Continental form, and 
this is also the case with the fruit of the half-fossil form from Den- 
mark, according to specimens which Prof. Steenstrup has been so kind 
as to lend me, and as shown in the figure given by Eostrup {Lc). 
And finally the half-fossil fruits of the same plant, found in the Swiss 
pile-buildings, according to the figures by Heer (I.e.) quite agree with 
the half-fossil fruits from Scania and Denmark. 

It results from these inquiries that the form of Trapa natans, Z., 
tthich is now living in Scania nearly agrees^ as to its leaves and flowers^ 
ivith the form which greto tn the last century in Smoland^ though the 
peculiarities ly which it is disiing wished from the typical form which is 
found on the Continent are unessential^ and somewhat changcahle. With 
respect to its frnit the Scanian form prohahly agrees ivith that from 
Smolandyiut is 'very distinct from the Continental form, which on the 
contrary in this respect agrees with the half-fossil form from the turfs of 
Scania and DenmarJc, and from the pile-luildiiigs in Switzerland, The 
supposition, therefore, seems very reasonable that the plant now 
living in Scania is, as it were, a degenerated form of that which for- 
merly grew in the same province- And the same seems to have been 
the case with the Trapa in Smoland during last century, even if, at 
an earlier period, it approached nearer to the typical form, as seems 
to be the case if the above-mentioned fruits in the Botanical iluseum 
of Upsala are from Smoland, It is evident that the fruit and also the 
pistil of the Scanian form show that the plant was the product of a 
plant labouring under the influence of unfavourable physical condi- 
tions. Experience teaches us that it is the organs of reproduction 
that in the first place suffer by change in the external conditions of 
life. Accordingly we find that the organs of vegetation of this form are 
nearly unchanged, but that its pistil and still more its fruit are 
greatly modified. The former of these organs is not very well de- 
fined, often oblique, or nearly deformed (comp. the figs, 7^, 8, 9). It 
almost seems as if the plant wanted sufficient vital power to cause 



246 ON TRAP A NATANS. 



the excavation in the receptacle, by which the fruit of the typical 
form becomes so nearly inferior. Its fruit has also a thinner endocarp, 
and is smaller than that of the Continental form. Even on fruits 
which are much less than the smallest of those figured (fig, 9), there 
is found a filamentous prolongation from the top, which shows that 
they have germinated in spite of their small size. The most ancient 
species of this genus known, T. lorealis^ Hcer. has also a fruit for 
the greater part superior, and consequently one is tempted to sup- 
pose that, as the physical conditions at the period when the type 
of Trapa first appeared on the earth could not produce the form of 
the fruit characteristic of the genus in its complete development, so 
this typical fruit will return under the influence of unfavouniLle ex- 
ternal conditions to the form which characterised the first represen- 
tation of the Trapa type. 

It is, however, to be hoped that positive proofs of the truth or 
untruth of this supposition will be afi'orded. Probably there are turfs 
in the vicinity of Lake Immeln where half-fossil fruits of T. natans 
may still be found. If such fruits belong to the typical form, it 
may certainly be assumed that the species now living there has 
degenerated in the manner above mentioned. 

As the name glalerrima^ given by Wahlenberg, d.oes not denote 

any character essential to the form, and moreover involves an error, 

the plant being by no means quite glabrous, and as also it is not yet fully 

decided that the Scanian form is identical with that variety, I have 

given this form another name, and characterise it in the following 
manner ; — 

Trapa natans^ L., var. conocarpa^ fructu e lateribus duobus ambitu 
ovali, maximam partem supero, parte supcra conica compressa. 

Hab. — In lacu Immeln, Scania? borealis, olim etiam in lacubus 
Smolandise borealis (?) & Yestrogothia) (?). 

Description op Tab. 134. -^Fig. 1. Trapa naians, L., from the Bot. Garden 
at Leipsic : a, the fruit (nat. size); 5, section of the free part of it. Fig. 2. 
ihe ovary (nat. size) of a specimen from Altenburg, Fig. 3. A half- fossil fruit 
(nat. size) of T. natam from a turf at J^asbyholm. in Scania. Figs. 4, 5. Fruits 
(nat. size) supposed to belong to the variety glaberrima, Wg., from an earlier 
penoa. hig. 6. Young fruit (nat, size) of T. natans, var. glabtrrima. Fig. 7. 
£. natarts, var com carp a, from Scania : a, a ripe fruit (nat. size) ; b, section of the 
tree part ; c, the pomt of a spine. Figs. 8, 9. Fruits (nat. size) of T. natans, var. 
conocarpa, from Scania. Fig. 10. Ovary of the same (nat. size). 

[Translated and revised by the author from the "Eevicw of the 
Transactions of the Eoyal Swedish Academy of Sciences" for 1873.] 



SrECIES OF OEASTER SEW TO BKITAIN 



247 



SrECIES OF GEASTER NEW TO BRITAIN. 

Mr. W. G. Smith has contributed an illustrated monograpli of 
the species ^f Gcaster found in Great Britain to the pages of the 
" Gardeners' Chronicle." Eleven are described, and we extract the 
descriptions of two not before published as British plants. By the 
kindness of the Editor of the *^ Gardeners' Chronicle" we are able also 
to give the illustrative figures, 

** Geasteb, MicnELiAxus, nov. sp. — This is undoubtedly the finest 




Geaster Michelianus. 



Half actual size ; section of inner periJium real size ; sporca X 700 diam 



48 SPECIES 



Geaster in our flora, and at present has only been found in one locality, 
viz., amongst Ehododendrons at Castle Ashby, by Mr. Beech, the 
Marquis of Northampton's gardener ; it has several times been sent to 
the meetings of the Eoyal Horticultural Society, and has been referred 
to under the name of G. tunicatus, Yitt., by Berkeley, in the ' Annals 
of Natural History ' (No. 1306), and under that of G. lagmmformis, 
Vitt., by Cooke in his ' Handbook.' The latter plant is now'known 
to be British, and is quite different from G. Michelianus, a cut of which 
(taken from a hasty sketch by Mr. Fitch) accompanies the description 
of G. lageiiceformis, Vitt., in Cooke's « Handbook.' We are indebted 
to the constant kindness of Mr. Berkeley for being at last able to 
identify the Castle Ashby Geaster as the first plant of Micheli, and to 
publish it under a correct name, viz., G. Michelianus. Dried specimens 
have been issued with the^Erbario Crittogamico Italiano" (343 and 
9/9), gathered in 1862 and 1869, and published under the numQ oi G easter 
tumcatus Michelianus, and from a careful examination of these plants 
and their fruit we can find no characters of moment to separate them 
from ours. ur plant is undoubtedly the Geaster figured by Micheli 
in tie " ^ova Plantarum Genera," t. TOO, f. 1, under the name oWeasier 
major umhlico fimhnato (though Fries erroneously refers this plant 

<^ \!'-n • ''^t"'-^' ^^'^ ^^ ^^® ^^™^ ^'*^ ^^^ ^' i^micatus Michelianus oi 
i.rb. Cntt. Ital. There is, however, such an endless confusion of 

names, synonyms, poor figures, and imperfect descriptions of this and 

one or two allied plants, that we publish Geaster Michelianus as a new 

species and consider our British plant as the same with Michcli's 

hgnre (t. 100, f. 1), the same with the dried specimens in the • Erb. 

I. riff Ifol ' Q,IQ„«^1 r»*7r\ ;i t_* j- t ■% ,-» ^ ^ ^. - . 



and G. timicatus, Vitt. 



cfi 



1 fie following description is prepared from fresh British speci- 
mens:- Outer pendium pale buff, thick, fleshy, generally splitting 
into five or six sub-equal lacinije, clothed on the outside with a thin 
dark brown bark, which again splits into elegant honeycombed 
patterns; mner pendium pale slatey buff, spherical ; mouth prominent, 
obtuse, dentate, paler in colour than the body of the inner peridium ; 
spores slightly tuberculoso-echinulate, -00014" diameter (in which 
measurement the English and Italian specimens exactly agree). 
When mature, and when the outer peridium bursts, this pla^it throws 
Itself sometimes 9 inches away from its place of growth. The way 
in which the base of the inner peridium is seated on the centre of the 
stellate outer pendium is very extraordinary 

P '^S^^rf^ ^vGEN^.FOEiris, Vitt. -We are indebted to Mr. Edward 
larfitt, of the Devon and Exeter Institution, for the materials where- 
witli to figure and describe this elegant and distinct species. Hitherto 
It fias not been pubhshed as British, though we believe we recently 
had the same plant sent us from Norfolk through Mr. Charles B. 



Plowrisrht. 



Wood 



rr;T' 'r. •''Ti'f ' l^^^ ' ^'"^ «^ *^^« ^^'■^ afterwards seen in the 
from the s (ft '"^ ' ''°'' ^^^* ^'"'' *^'y '^PP"^." ^° ^'^^'"^ ^'^^^'^''^ 

.t.i;fh-n5%f4l'"''"?Jf Vittadini's description :^' Outer peridium 
Kf,l" the middle, m nearly equal acuminate lacinijc, inner 
stratum very thick, evanescent. Inner peridium sessile, flaccid; 



J^ 



SPECIES OF GEASXEE NEW TO BJilTAIN. 249 

mouth determinate, piano-conic, ciliato-fimbriate, columella rather 
long, clavate.' Mr. Parfitt adds to this:— 'Outer peridium white, 
with furfuraceous hrown scales towards the base, at length expandin*^ 
into six rigidly recurved lacinije; these sometimes again dividing so 
as to make six or eight more lesser segments ; inner stratum very thick 
and brittle, cracking on the least pressure being applied. When the 
lacmise first expand, the inner stratum is a beautiful rosy-white 
colour. Inner peridium about two shades darker in tint than the 
inner stratum, and appearing under a lens to be finely felted together j 








GeASTER LAGEXuliFOEMlS. 

Half actual size ; section real size ; spores X 700 diam. 



round the mouth a depressed ring, in which the felted appearance is 
more strongly developed, directed upwards and f<5nnmg the mouth, 
■which is conic, nearly smooth, and very finely fimbricatcd,' The 
Exeter plants exactly accord with Yittadinrs published figure. 

**In infancy the plant strongly resembles an antique jar with narrow 
mouth, hence the specific name. The spores are perfectly round and 
smooth, thus differing from the majority of Geastcrs, and measure 
'00012" diameter, 

" Mr, Parfitt has kindly furnished sufficient dried materials for 
recognition to the Eoyal Herbarium at Kew and the herbarium at the 
British Museum. 

^ * ' The Kew herbarium now possesses nine of the eleven British species, 
being deficient of G. col (for mis j F.^ and G. 7nammosu8y Cher. The 
British Museum has one more plant than Kew in a capital specimen 
of G. coliformisj P. (the Bloomsbury G* mammosus not being Sowerby'a 
plant). Out of the nine British species at Kew, and the ten at the 
British Museum, six each have been indirectly furnished through 
correspondents of the * Gardeners' Chronicle.' " 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



JDroccctimg^ of ^metit^. 



EoTAJsiCAL Society of EDiWBiniGir. — Ma^ Sth. — '* Notes on the 
Fertilisation of the Cereals/' By A. S. Wilson. ^The cereals to 
which the ohservations refer embrace about fifteen varieties of Wheat, 
two varieties of Rye, five varieties of Barley, and about twenty varieties 
of Oats. In all of these, except one variety of Barley, the flowers open 
during the act of fertilisation. This variety is the two-rowed Barloy, 
called Italian or Golden Barley. It is allied to ^the Sprat or Battle- 
dore, the Fluckwheat, and some others, the peculiarity of which is, a 
short ear with the grains closely packed together, at half the distance 
apart of the common two-rowed and Chevalier Barleys. Probably in 
none of these close-flowered, two-rowed Barleys do the flowers ever 
open. The cereal flowers are open for only about twenty minutes or 
half an hour. Even in the calmest days, the whole of the pollen is 
discharged in one or two minutes. It is generally during the act of 
opening that fertilisation seems to take place. It is very true, as Dr. 
Syme says, that when the anthers of AVheat are extended they 
are empty ; but they do not empty themselves within the closed 
pales, but in falling from one side to another of the flower-cup as it 
opens ; for if an anther is seized the moment it begins to appear on 
the opening of the flower, it is found to contain all its pollen. But 
why do the flowers open at all? What force causes them to open? 
The cereal flowers are not like some others, which open many times 
and at stated hours of the day ; they open only once, and at all hours, 
shady as well as sunny. The principal facts are best seen in Rye. 
If a Eye flower is opened a moment before the natural time of flower- 
ing, the filaments of the anthers will be found to measure about one- 
sixteenth of an inch in length. In the course of five minutes, or less, 
from the instant the pales begin to open, the filaments will, in many 
cases, have grown or extended to twelve-sixteenths, while the whole 
of the pollen will have fallen out. In the Oat tbe filaments, originally 
one-twentieth of an inch, extend to about one-third of an inch in 
length. This rapid extension of the filaments is not a mere straight- 
ening out of a doubled-up thread, but an actual growth or erection, 
which remains unretracted. And in the Wheats, which have light 
anthers, the filaments are frequently so rigid as to support the anthers 
for a time in a vertical position without any support, turning them 
spontaneously into new positions. In a very short time the flower 
begins again to close, but much more slowly than it opened. In the 
natural position the spikelet of Darnel lies closely against a hollow 
in the rachis ; but the opening of the lowermost inner flower will 
for a time push the whole spikelet out of its natural place ; and in the 
Fly Oat {Avena sterilis) and Canadian Out {Avem sativa), which have 
very stiff pales, the force which separates them would be qnite 
measurable. What, then, is the initiative act in opening the flower ? 
Does the maturity of the pollen stimulate the sudden extension of 
the filaments ? If in a field of flowering Rye an ear which has not 
yet blossomed be gently drawn through the hand, in a minute perhaps 



PEOCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 251 

three or four of its flowers will begin to open, and the anthers to show 
themselves. The stroke of the morning sun, an abrupt eddy of wind, 
the collision of one ear against another, is enough to bring the force 
into play by w^hich the ripe flower is opened, and the filaments ex- 
tended. So long as the anthers are kept by the half-opened pales in 
a more or less vertical position in upright ears no pollen is dis- 
charged. The discharge seems to follow from purely mechanical 
causes. There does not seem to be any inherent projectile force in 
the anther. If an ear of llye ready to blossom is placed under a glass 
shade, and the flowering watched, it will be seen that no dehiscence 
takes place until the anther is at least in a horizontal position, or 
falls into that or a lower inclination with a jerk. The rapid exten- 
sion of the filament throws the discharging pores of the anther into 
various positions, until at last the anther is pushed out of the flower- 
cup altogether, and hangs with the opening lowermost. But even in 
this position the adhesion of the pollen-grains to the inner sides of the 
lobes, prevents complete discharge where there is no mechanical dis- 
turbance. It is probable that fertilisation usually results from the 
few pollen-grains which fall out on the inside of the pales as the 
anthers are being tumbled out of the flower-cup. These, however, 
may not come into contact with the stigma until after the flower 
has again closed. This result is more probable in "Wheat, Barley, 
and Oats, than in Eye. The anthers of Eye are very much larger 
than those of the other cereals, and contain a far larger number 
of pollen-grains — about 40,000 each. But notwithstanding 
this large provision, there are always in Eye far more 
barren ovaries than in "Wheat, Barley, and Oats ; which seems to 
result from the fact that the filaments of Eye extend to a much 
greater length than those of the three other grasses, and so carry the 
pollen further beyond the reach of the feathers of the stigma. Be- 
sides, the discharging pores of the anthers in Eye are generally 
outside before any discharge takes place, so that fertilisation must bo 
either cross, or due to little eddies of air carrying back a hw grains 
to the enclosed stigma. In most cases the anthers, of Eye Cijpecially, 
are speedily pushed into what appears the worst possible position for 
ensuring self-fecundation, as if there was a danger of over-fecundation to 
be avoided. And yet this conjecture is scarcely warranted in view of the 
Italian Barley, the pollen of which is discharged inside the unopened 
pales — whether wholly or but partly is yet questionable. The asser- 
tion made lately, that the majority of the flowers in Barley never 
open, is certainly not consistent with the phenomena as exhibited in 
Scotland. The Italian variety alone fertilises in an unopened flower. 
^ovr the cause of this does not seem to be the closeness and pressure 
of one floret upon another, because in the six-rowed Barley, Hordeum 
hexmtichon^ the florets, while equally close, open in the same way as in 
the long-eared tw^o-rowed varieties. The secret remains to be dis- 
covered. It is also a question in what way the pollen gets itself dig- 
charged within the close flowers. But, however it is done, whether 
by a proper ejecting force in the anther, or by the filament pushing 
the lower end of the anther uppermost, and so letting the pollen nm 
out mechanically from the weaving of the ear, fecundation is more 
successfully accomplished in the close flower than in the open ; for 



252 PROCEEDINGS OP SOCIETIES 



while in tlie Earleys which open their flowers barren floi^eta are fre- 
quent, defects of this kind in the Italian are very rare. ^Neither is it 
the case in this country that Oat flowers do not open in wet weather. 
They do not open so freely in gloomy wet weather as in warm sunny 
weather; but a floret may remain shut during a day or a week of 
damp weather without discharging its pollen, and open for fecunda- 
tion afterwards. The upper flowers of the Oat panicle are often in 
blossom before the lower are out of the sheath. One floret arrives at 
puberty, so to speak, before another on the same ear, and even in 
the same spikclet. With the exception of the Barley referred to, the 
circumstances attending the flowering of Wheat, Rye, Barley, and 
Oats are closely similar. In a field of any of these grasses, especially 
Rye, on a good flowering day, clouds of pollen may be seen passing 
over the slightly waving spikes. That grains from one flower may 
alight on the stigmas of other flowers is certainly possible and probable, 
but that cross fertilisation takes place in this way, or takes place at 
all, is perhaps not yet rigorously proved. Unquestionably insects are 
no part of the agency of fertilising the cereals, neither is it perhaps 
correct to say that the wind is an agency in tlie same sense as it is in 
dioecious plants. The essential agency is probably the sudden exten- 
sion of the filaments causing a few grains of pollen to be emptied out 
of the anthers before they are entirely ejected from the flower-cup. — 
<* Notices of Botanical Excursions made in 1872 and 1873 (No. 1)." 
By Prof. Balfour. On the 2nd October a party ascended Ben Lawers ; 
although it was late in the season they saw a number of alpine plants 
during the ascent. Among these may be mentioned Saxifraga aizoidesy 
stellaris, opposiftfolia^ hi/pnotdes, nivalis^ Alchemilla alpiria, Epilohium 
alpimim and ahinifolium, Thalietrum alpinum^ Mubus Cham^morus^ 
Cornus stiecica^ Cherleria sedo ides, Lycopodium clavatuMy alp iniim^ 
Selar/Oj and selaginoides, abundance of Sagina nivalis^ various forms of 
Spergula, Juncus tnglmms, and Juncus trijidtis. At the summit 
Saxifraga ccrnua in leaf, and Brala rupestris in fruit. On 3rd October, 
at the summit of a lofty hill, which was supposed to be Macl-nan- 
Tarmachan, which on the survey map is stated to be 3421 feet above 
the level of the sea, Mr. I. B. Balfour was eo. fortunate as to discover 
an abundance of Gmtiana nivalis in fruit. Among other plants of 
notice gathered were Saussurea alpina, Hicracium alpinum, Carex 
atrata, and Saxifraga nivalis. In the woods were a number of inte- 
resting Funjii, Agaricus saccatus, A. <eruginoms, Craterellm cornuco- 
pioidesj Cantharellus cinereay C. cilarius^ Leotia luhrica, Hydnum 
repanduMf Clavariafusiformis, and C. crisfata. In April, l873yJ£gpnum 
Halleri was gathered on Cam-a-Craig, the second station for the plant in 
Scotland. — '* On an Extraordinary Case of Bleeding in a Hornbeam 
Tree." By Sir John Don Wauchope, Bart. Communicated by Prof- 
Balfour. — *' Open-Air Yegetation at the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 
1873." ByJ. McNab. 

LiNKKAjr Society.— Jjyr// Zrd, Mr. Bentham made some further 
remarks on the Perigynium of Carex (see p. 123), and read a letter 
from Prof. McNab, of Dublin, who after studying C. pulicaris and 
C. paludosa^ confirms Kunth's view, and not "^at all Mr. Bentham's 
fitaminal theoiy. The following botanical paper was read: — "An 
Enumeration of the Fungi of Ceylon. Part ii. Containing the 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCTKTIES. 253 

remainder of the Hymenomycetes, "with the other tribes of Fungi." By 
Kev. M. J. Berkeley and C. E. Broome, Esq. 

April 17a.— ''Notes on the Development of the rerigynlum in 
Carex pulicarh.'' By W. R. Mc ■S'ab.— '* On the Morphology of the 
Perigynium and Seta in Carex.'^ By W. T. Thisclton Dyer.— '' On 
Burmese Orchideae from the Eev. C. P. Parish." By Prof. Eclch- 
enbach; communicated by George Bentham, Esq. 

Ifa?/ 1st. — Mr. D. Hanbury exhibited a head of fruit of a species 
of Bmihia produced in his garden at Clapham. — Mr. J, E. Howard 
read^ a paper on the genus Cinchona. He reviewed the recent pub- 
lications of Weddell and Triana on the subject, and gave a revised 
arrangement in which a number of the described species were reduced 
to races and varieties of a few well-marked super-species, l^uraerous 
growing plants of C. officinalis, C. Calisaya, and C. Pahudiana were 
exhibited, which showed great variation in the foliage in the case even 
of plants produced from the seeds of a single capsule. The author 
insisted on the necessity of propagating the best sorts entirely by 
cuttings. 

June 5th,—'' On the Lecythidacece:' By J. MIers, The paper 
began with a history of the Myrtacea^ in which botanists in 
general have included the Lccythidem as a tribe, Lindley alone treat- 
ing it as a distinct natural order, in which view the author thoroughly 
accorded-^ The group under consideration differs from the Myrtacem^ 
not only in its alternate and impunctate leaves, but in the very im- 
portant distinction of an epigynous disk ; while in Myrtacem the disk 
isporigynous, with numerous stamens upon long filaments articulated 
upon it. On the other hand, in Lecythidacem the very numerous 
stamens, consisting of very short filaments and generally yqyj small 
anthers, are each borne upon a distinct linear appendage forming 
parts of a very peculiar process — the androphorum — which is the 
leading characteristic, and to which we find no parallel in any other 
family. In Giistavia this takes the shape of a depressed globe or 
broad cup, the margin of which is deeply laciniated into numerous 
linear appendages ; and the interior of this cup is densely imbricated 
with similar appendages, gradually shortening towards the centre, and 
all staminifcrous at their apex, and all curving gradually and converging 
over the style. These appendages have generally been re,^rded as fila- 
ments, but they are of a different nature. The bottom of this cup is open 
in the centre ^over the vertex of the ovary, which forms the space 
within the epigynous disk. The inner rim of this cup-shaped portion 
IS agglutinated to the disk by the intervention of the fleshy claws of 
the large petals ; so that on the withering of the flower the petals, 
still agglutinated to the androphorum, all fall off together, leaving 
the disk bare. The androphorum varies in shape in the several 
genera. In Giistavia it is large, equally expanded all round, with long 
appendages, as above described ; that of Grins approaches it in form, 
put it is much smaller, with fewer shortish appendages ; in Cariyiiana 
It is urceolate, slightly gibbous on the margin, which is deeply cleft 
into many staminifcrous appendages, as in Giistavia^ the inside being 
bristled with similar appendages, growing in descending series, gra- 
dually smaller towards the centre. But in all the other genera the 
andiuphorum assumes quite another appearance. In these the central 



254 PKOCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES, 

portion of tlie cup Is greatly contracted into a narrow, flattish ring, 
overlying the disk, and is there furnished inside with numerous erect, 
very short, staminiferous appendages ; and then it assumes a very 
notable expansion on one side only, where it is called the ligula, in 
the form of a fleshy, broad, upcurving strap, bare of appendages, and 



then becomes further expanded into a concave hood, inverted over 
the disk, and densely echinated Inside with long appendages, like 
those of Gustavia^ all Incurving in many series, and converging over 
the style, some of which are sometimes staminiferous, but often bare 
of stamens. Such form of the androphorum is seen in Couroiipita^ 
Bertholletia^ Lecythis^ EschiveUera^ Chijtroma^ Jtigastrum^ Couratari^ 
and Allantoma ; but in Cercophora the hood is pouch-shaped and quite 
bare of appendages. The inferior ovary is 4 — 6-cclled in Gustavia^ 
Couroiiptta, BertJiolletia^ Lecythis^ and Chytroma; 3-celled in Courafariy 
Carmiana^ and Allantoma ; and only 2-celled in JEschweilera and Jiigas- 
trum. The fruit is generally large, often very large, thick, and woody, 
opening by a deciduous operculum, which is an expansion of the 
vertex of the ovary, the main body of which grows into a large, ovate, 
turbinate, or cylindrical pyxidium, and about the middle or above it 
is a transverse line called a calycary zone, formed by the vestiges of 
^the limb of the calyx, sometimes enlarged into conspicuous knobs* 

Above this, and below the opercular zone, is a broad, somewhat erect 
or conical band, rarely narrow, formed always by the expansion of the 
disk. Sometimes this fruit is filled with pulp generated by the 
softening of the dissepiment and placenta), as in Gustavia^ Courotipita, 
and Lecythk] it is void of pulp in the others. The seeds, often 
very large, are suspended by fleshy funicles as large as them- 
selves, In the three last-mentioned genera. The occurrence of this cir- 
cumstance in LecytMs was unknown to botanists until now, when 
the aathor exhibited proof of it by specimens preserved in alcohol ; 
and it is on this account, and because they are so suspended, that 
he has separated from the genus more than half of the species 
hitherto placed there. ^In Bertliolletia the large trir[uetrous seeds, 
with a woody testa, are dry, erectly affixed by a nearly basal hilum 
to the columella. In Chytroma^ a genus 4-cellcd as in LeeytMs^ there 
is no columella, no pulp, and few erect seeds fixed in the bottom of 
the cells. In Eschweilera and Jugastrum^ with a thin coriaceous pericarp, 
which is 2-celled, without columella or pulp, the seeds are erect as 
in Chytroma^ all with a much thinner testa. In Couratari and Card- 
niana the seeds have a broad membranaceous wing, surrounding a 
small embryoniferous scutcheon, and are erect, fixed near the bottom 
of a large hard columella. In Allantoma they arc long, narrow, com- 
pressed, rugous, erectly fixed in a similar manner. The embryo in 
all cases is without albumen. In Gustavm it consists of two plano- 
convex cotyledons, with a minute terminal radicle. In Couroiipita^ 
Couratari^ and Carinimia it is hippocrepiform, with a long terete 
radicle and two large foliaceous cotyledons, crumpled up into a small 
space. In BertkolUtia, and LecytJds it is very large, white, fleshy, and 
edible. In Chytromay Eschweilera, and Jugastrum it is of a lurid green 
and very bitter, all equally macropodous or of one homogeneous tex- 
ture. In these macropodous embryos we recognise a gigantic radicle, 
consisting of two portions, agglutinated together, one enveloping the 



BOTANICAL NEWS, / 255 

other. The outer one, the exorhiza, is thinner, terminatinp: in two 
cotyledons, so extremely minute as to be scarcely discernible ; and 
beneath these is seen the plumule, forming the termination of the 
neorhiza. In germination the neorhiza expands, the plumule forces 
its way through the cotyledons to form the ascending stem of the new 
plant, while the opposite extremity protrudes downwards to form the 
root. Of this peculiar mode of germination we find parallel examples in 



author exemplified in the Linnean Transactions nearly twenty years 
ago. He divided the family into twelve genera, and described numerous 
interesting points of structure, hitherto quite unrecorded, showing a 
varied development of great peculiarity. He considreed thatit offers 
no single feature that bears an approach to MyrtacecB^ and that it is 
impossible to regard the Lecythidacem in any other light than as a 
very remarkable and distinct natural order. 



23otamcaI l^ctD^* 



Articles in Jouekals, — June. 

Journ. Linn. Soc. (June 20tli). — G. Bcntham, " Notes on tlic Classi- 
fication and Geographical Distribution of the Compositie" (tab. 

8—11). 

Grevillea. — M, J. Berkeley, "Notices of N. American Fungi" 
(contd.)— M. C. Cooke, "Two British Moulds" {VerticilUim agarici- 
num, Bon., (Edocephdum roseicm, Cooke). 

Botanische Z&Hung.—^. Hartig, " Preliminary Notes on the Para- 
sites of Forest Trees."— H. Hoffmann, " On Geader colifonnis, P." 
(tab. 4).— H. G. Reichenbach, fil, "Three IfasdevaUm from New 
Grenada." — G. Kraus, " Ecmarks on Summer Withering of Leaves of 

Trees." 

Flora.— A. W. Eichler, " Are the Conifem Gymnospcmious ?"— 
F. Schultz, "Remarks on the Flora of the Palatinate" (contd.) 
A. Ernst, "On Elateriopsis, a New Genus of Cucurbitaceae from 
Caracas" (tab. 2).— GibeUi, "The 'Quebracho Colorado' Tijuana 

speciosa, Benth." (tab. 3). 

Oesterr. Hot. Zeitsch.—'^. yon Tommasini, "The Flora of bouthem 

Istria." L. Cclakovsky, "On Mieracium coIUnum, Gochnat." — A. 

Kerner, " Distribution of Hungarian Plants" (contd.).— A. Rehmann, 

loses ofJIieracia of Galicia" (contd.)— W. 0. Focke, " On the 
Formation of Species" (contd.)— Y. de Janka, "Plant, nov. Tur- 
cicarum breviarium " {Mcehrwgia GrheiacJm, n.s., Jf. Jankm, Gns. ms., 
I)ianthusnardiformis,-a.^., D.aridiis, Gns. 

Botanhk Tidsshrift (1873, pts. 1 & 2).— C. Gronlund, "Contribu- 
tions to the Flora of Iceland " {Rcpatica and Miisci).—G. Hansen, 
" List of Diatoms found in Slcsvig."— R. Pcdersen, " What part docs 



256 . HOTANICAL NEWS. 

Bifurcation of the vegetative cone ta"ke in the Ramification of Phane- 
rogams?" (tabs, 1 & 2). — P, Nielsen, *' Vegetation of South-west 
Zeeland" (with botanical map). 



New Booh, — H. Christ, ^*Die Eosen den Schweiz" (Basel). — E- 
Hampe, ^' Flora Hercynica" (Halle, 7s ).— F. C. Schiibeler, '^ Pflan- 
zen-geographischen Karte iiber das Konigreich Norwegen" (Chris- 
tiania). — Gr, Hieronymus, ** Beitrage znv Kentniss der Centrolepideen" 
(Halle, 8s.). — A. Keyserling, " Polypodiacea; et Cyatheaceae Herbarii 
Bungeani" (Leipzig, 3s.). 

The Botanical Exchange Club has printed and distributed its list 
of desiderata for 1873. The Curator's Eeport has not yet however 
been issued. 

The death of the Dean of "Winchester, the very Ecv. Thomas Gar- 
nier, D.D., at the great age of 98, must not be allowed to pass with- 
out notice. For many years past he had occupied the position of being 
the oldest Fellow of the Linnean Society, having been elected in the 
last^ century, in 1798, only ten years after tlie foundation of the 
Society. He was a contemporary of Sir J. E. Smith, Sir Joseph 
Banks, Curtis, Pulteney, and others of a past generation of botanists, 
Tnder the signature 'L. S. S.' he, with Mr. Poulter, contributed to 
vol. i. of the '* Hampshire Eepository " (1798) a list of some of the 
rarer plants of Hants — " hereafter to be continued, and to be finally 
extended to a complete Flora Hantoniensis'' — occupying six pages, 
and illustrated with a coloured figure of the white-flowered variety of 
0. ajnfera from Bordean HilL The magazine also contains, with the 
same signature, a description with a coloured plate of a " nondescript 
OpJmjs,''^ which flowered " for the first time it is believed in this king- 
dom October, 1796, and the two succeeding autumns at Meonstoke 
Parsonage," and seems to be Spiranthes cernua. He also contributed 
a paper on the culture of the Strawberry to the Horticultural Society's 
Proceedings. 

It is thought desirable by the Council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society to extend the small herbarium of medicinal plants at present 
in their possession, so as to include specimens of medicinal plants from 
every quarter of the globe, whether officinal or non-ofiicinal, and thus 
render it available for reference to those who are interested in the 
identification of medicinal plants, or in the determination of the 
sources of the Materia medica of foreign countries. Pharmaceutists 
living abroad are especially requested to assist in carrying out this 
project; and Mr. Holmes, the Curator of the Pharmaceutical Society's 
Museum, will be happy to correspond with all who are willing to help. 
We trust this appeal will be cordially responded to in all quarters. 
Such a herbarium is really much wanted in London for the use of 
students of Pharmacy, who are at present frequently obliged to turn 
over the long scries of species, very few of which are of medicinal in- 
terest, contained in the great herbaria of the British Museum or Kew 
m search of the specimens they wish to consult, at a great cost of time 
and trouble. 



-( 



257 



«^E^ 



r 



ON HYDNORA AMERICANA, R.Br. 

By John Miees, F.ll.S. 

(Tab. 135a.) 

The species of Hydnora here described was first made known In 1844, 
by Mr. Rob. Brown, under a brief diagnosis in the supplement to 
bis celebrated memoir on Raffiesia^ published in the Linnean Trans- 
actions. It was established upon a solitary specimen in the possession 
of Sir "Wra. Hooker, collected most probably ty Dr. Gillies in the 
desert plains of the province of Mendoza ; but it was evidently incom- 
plete, because Mr, Brown described it as being dioecious. I had pre- 



cr 

O 



viously collected the same plant in the year 1826, making a drawin_ 
of it on the spot ; and on my arrival in Buenos Ayres shortly after- 
wards, I made a coloured drawing from the specimen I had preserved. 
Upon the publication of Mr. Brown^s memoir in 1844, I took the 
specimen and drawing to him, with which he was, of course, greatly 
pleased. They were left with him for examination, and were not re- 
turned. Subsequently to his death in 1859, I applied to Mr. Bennett, 
but after a diligent search in Mr, Brown's collections,^ neither the 
specimen nor drawing could be found. A considerable time after Sir 
Wm. Hooker's death in 1865, I received from Dr. Hooker my mislaid 
drawing, which he had found among his father's papers; but as the 
specimen did not turn up, I concluded it had been lost. A short time 
ago, in couversation with Dr. Reichenbach on this subject, it occurred 
to me that it would be desirable to place on record my remembrance 



curious 



given : 

Hydnora Americana, E.Br., Linn. Trans, v. xix., p. 245 : herm- 
aphrodita, parasitica ; perianihio tubuloso, superne mflato et pyn- 
formi, crassiuscule coriaceo, extus leviter verniculoso, Lepatice rubi- 
ginoso, intus paUide carneo, fere ad basin in segmentis 3 sequalibus 
valvatis paullo apertis fisso. >Stemtm5MS numerosissimis in massas 
seu connectivos 3 magnos carnosos segmentis oppositos insessis, con- 
nectivis imo in annulum epigynum nexis : antheris Imeanbus, extror- 
sis, parallelis, creberrime adnatis, rima longitudmali dehiscentibus : 
stigmate lato, magno, supra aiscum crassum epigynum sessile, stami- 
nibus abscondito: ovario infero, 1-loculari, ovuhs numerosissimis, 
niveis, ad placentas sub-globosas per paria apice suspcnsas creberrime 
insitis: fructu adhue inviso: v. v. in prov. Mendoza, ad Coro-corto 
(mihi lecta) : v. s. in Mus. Kew (specim. immat.), prov. Tucuman, 

prdpe Santiago del Estero (Tweedie). , . , . i. x 

Coro-corto is a small village in the desert plnin lying between 

N.S. VOL. 2. [SEPTEMRFR, 1873.] ^ 



258 ON maeupA, a new genus of snrARrBACEiE. 

Mendoza and San Luiz, 780 miles west of Buenos Ayres and 103 
miles east of Mendoza. I cannot remember the plant upon the root 
of which it grew- 

Tweedie*s specimen is smaller, and less developed ; but it shows 
its long root, and confirms all that is related above. It came from a 
similar saline district, which may be considered a far extension of the 
Travesia of Mendoza. 

Descriptiox of Plate 135a. 
Fig. 1. The flower of Hydnora americana, opening by its 3-valved perianth. 
Fig. 2. The same more expanded, showing the mass of stamens. Fig. 3, The 
same seen obliquely, showing in a cross section of the ovary the three pairs of 
ovnliferous placentso, suspended from the summit of the cell. Fig. 4, The same, 
with half of the perianth removed, to show the masses of stamens, and the sus- 
pended placentae : all natural size. 



ON MARTJPA, a new genus of SIMARIIBACE^. 

By John Miees, F.R.S. 

(Tab. 135b.) 

_ Among the products from Para, exhibited in the Paris Expositioa 
m 1867, I found a small branch and fruits only, preserved in alcohol, 
named '' Marupd, ou Simaroula" (Cat. p. 75, No. 438), and among 
the woods from the same province I saw a sample called ''Marupd, ou 
Pao Pomho." These I recognised immediately as belonging to a plant, 
m flower only, described in the " Annales dcs Sciences Naturelles," 
by ben. Netto, a Brazilian botanist, and named by him Odi'na Fran- 
coana,aTii bearing the vernacular name of Pdo Pomlo. My analysis of 



zihan contributor shrewdly concluded. The specimen of the fruit be- 
longs either to the same oy a kindred species ; but as it is not accom- 
panied by the leaves it is impossible to determine this, and I have 
therefore assumed they belong to the same species. The fruit was 
not known to Sen. Netto, and it is to be regretted that his description 
and drawing of the floral structure are not sufiiciently clear ; hisfig. 6, 
the ^ flower, shows 5 distinct sterile ovaries, standing erect upon a 
10-iobed gynophoi-us, while 10 fertUe stamens, with long simple 
slender hlaments, are placed outside the latter: his /y. 7 shows a 
section of the female flower: his/y. 9 gives a magnified view of the 
solitary lertile ovary seated on the gynophonis, and surmounted by 5 
remote short styles and stigmata, the gynophorus being surrounded 
at Its base by the sterile stamens. There must bo a great mistake 



gnified view of the ovary) 



the latter figure (a 



gynophonis, only a sinde ovarv. surm' 



ON MARUPA, A NEW GENUS OF SIMARUBACE.«. 259 

remote short styles and stigmata, the inference is clear that it was 
intended to represent a compound pistil, formed of 5 united carpels, 
of which only one is fertilised, as seen in the section, fg. 7 : hence, if 
this were true, we ought infallibly to find in the fruit the vestiges of 
the central axis and of the ahortive cells, hut no such indication exists. 
It IS acknowledged that the $ flower has 5 distinct erect carpels, each 
with its own style and stigma, and therefore we ought to find in the 
S flower 5 similar carpels : accordingly we have evidence of this, as 
shown in the fruit, where 4 of the carpels are atrophied at an early 
stage, only one of thera becoming fertilised, as often happens in 8ima- 
rulacea. The fruit is ohovate, seated on the persistent gynophorus, 
at the hase of which are the unchanged sepals, and on one side, and 
at the hase of the fruit outside, are plainly seen the vestiges of tlie 
ahortive carpels within the hollow formed by the creniform lobes 
of the gynophorus. The epicarp is obovate, quite smooth, thin, and 
flaccid, deeply umbilicated on the ventral upper angle, and in this 
hollow is seen the punctiform stigma, where it is attached to the 
mucronate apex of the putamen ; it is filled with a copious, thickish, 
mucilaginous mcsocarp. The endocarp is an osseous putamen, shorter 
than it, dolahriform, compressed, and corrugated, erect on the ventral 
side, and there mucronated at its apex, where it is attached tothe 
epicarp at the stigmatic point : on that side the putamen is thick- 
ened by a hollow channel, in which a thick cord of nourishing vessels 
ascends from the gynophorus to near the summit, when it is suddenly 
retroflected, and enters the cell at the hilar point of suspension of the 
seed. It contains only a single seed, of a reniform-oblong shape, 
shorter than the cell, and it is suspended at its superior angleby a 
small hilum : it has a very thin chartaceous testa, furnished with a 
short raphe descending from the hilum to a little below the middle of 
the ventral edge, terminating there in a chalaza placed^ in its sinus : 
the embryo fills the testa, is exalbnminous, and consists of 2 com- 
pressed, reniform-oblong, plano-convex, fleshy cotyledons, with a small 
superior radicle placed in a verticle recess, inclined so that it turns 
away from the hilum, though not far removed from it. 

These details show that Manifh is ftir remote from Odma, that it 
does not belong to AnacardiacecBf but to &marubacece, where it will 
form a distinct genus, not according with any known one of the order. 
It cannot be referred to the ^schnjon of Velloz (wrongly placed in 
Picrasma bv Planchon), and which is considered m the (xen fl. ot 
Benth. and Hook, (i, 311) as identical with ^/M»^m«^, Walp. {Picmna 
Lindl.): this diff'ers ivom Marup^ in its 4 sepals and petals, 4 sta- 
mens fixed inside the free ciliated lobes of the disk placed round a 
solitary sessile ovary, with a sessile stigma ; so that, ha^ng no gyno- 
phorus, it must belong to Anaeardiacea:- P««-«m« differs from our 
genus in its 4 free fertile ovaries, seated upon a raised gynophorus, 
which carries in its centre between thera a 4-grooved style, equal to 
them in length, supporting 4 long reflected stigmata, all free from 
the ovaries, in having ascending ovules in each carpel, and m having 
albuminous seeds, IFarupd comes nearer to the PtcroUmma ol Dr. 
Hooker, which differs from it in having 4-merous parts m the 5* , and 
5-merous in the S> ; in its 5-partite fertile ovary, consisting ot 5 tree 
oarpels, united at their base by a gland, which bears a single style ana 



W' 



260 OK maeitpX 



-j-^' 



capitate stigma; and in the thin crustaceous putamen in the fruits. 
The genus greatly resembles Samadera in the size and structure of its 
fruit, but it differs in its sepals not glandular outside, its stamens not 
squamulose at base, in its styles not united and elongated in the 
middle of the free ovaries, in the drupe not being alately carinated, 
in its pinnated leaves, and its much smaller flowers. I have not seen 
the flowers of MarupA, the characters of which, as sketched below, 
are chiefly derived from Sen. Netto's description : — 

MaeupA, nob. : Odina Ifetto (non Koxb.) Flores polygami, parvi : 

Sepala 5, parva, acuta, concava, persistcntia, glabra. Petala 5, sepalis 

multo majora, ovalia, concava, carnosa, patentia, decidua. Stamina 

m utroque sexu 10, petalis breviora, circa basin gynophori affixa, 

erecta : jilmnenta teretia, simplicia, glabra, distincta : antherce ovoida), 

2-lob8e, in J eff'setae. Gynophorus cylindricus, apice crenato-10- 

lobatus, concavus, immutato-persistens. Ocaria in (;^ 5, staminibns 

breviora, teretia, supra gynophorum in centro erecto-conniventia, 

stigmatibus minutis apiculata, omnino sterilia : in ? 5, eodem loco 

insita, quorum 4 semper minuta et abortiva, nnico fertili, ovoideo, 

(stigmate sessili apiculato?) 1-loculari, ovulo unico reniformi appenso. 

Frudus majuseulus, drupaccus, gynophoro pcrsistente stipitatus, gib- 

boso-ovatus, apice rotundatus et ibi sub-lateraliter profundc umbili- 

catus et stigmate mmuto notatus : pericarpio tenuiter chartaceo, flac- 

cido; mesocarpto amplo, mucilaginoso ; endocarpio (seu putamme) 

nuciformi: putamen dolabriformi-obovatum, valde compressum, ad 

margmem ventralem rectum apice mucroDatum, osseum, faciebus 

bullatim corrugulatum ad marginem ventralem crassius chorda gyno- 

basica pereursum, ista intra canalem fere ad apicem adscendente et 

subito ad punctum placentiferum reversa, 1-loculare, monospermum. 

^emen loculo brevius, reniformi-oblongum, compressum, paullo sub 

angulum ventralem suspensum ; testa mombranacea, raphe brevi ab 

Hilo apicah et ad chalazam sub-niedinnam descendente notata : emhryo 

contormis, esalbuminosus ; radmila minima, teres, in sinu apicali 

occlusa, hilo oblique efi-ugiens ; cotyJcdones 2, aqualcs, reniformi- ob- 

longa, pluno-convexa, camosula, commissura chalazam ventralem 
spectante. 

Arbor Brasiliemu: folia impari-pinnata : inflorescentia pamcu- 

i x^^ '"r^"**' ''^^''^'' 9^o'>*ierato-xpicati. 

1. MaetjpA Feakcoaita, nob. : Odina Francoanal^eiio, in Ann. So. 
£iax. b ser. V. 85 :— undique glaberrima : foliis bijugatim impari- 
pinnatis, sub-lase patentibus, breviter petiolatis, foliolis obovatis, 
imo cuneatis, apioe subacuminatis, integris, supra viridibus, subtus 
Tutnle diseolonbus, petiolulis brevibus ; petalis albidis : ovario pube- 
Bcente ; stylis glabris. In prov. Minas Geraes, in campis prope Kio 
ban Francisco et m prov. Par^ : non vidi. i- i- ^ 



A tree 20 



^ -^ '-^c« ^yj—z6 leet High, with leaves 6 inches long, and leal 

?.S! ? ^^°g' .10 Jifes broad, on petiolules 4f lines long; fruit 
inches lone. 1 moh bmo^ ,s„ „ — .'i. , i- -, - ■, ^ • i. • . 



1 



Zw 4. -I' u . ^''''^'^' ^^ ^ gynophorus 1 line high, whic 
nished at its base by 5 persistent sepals i line long The ^ 

^, i ,lf ? '^f P'" ?^ "^^ ^^"« Exposition, is of a whitisl 
M'lth darker streaks, with a fine crain. and ens Iv wn,k..l. T 



The wood, of 



hitish colour, 



ri ^'^ '*''''^^'' "^'^^' '•" fi"« g^ai^. a°d easily worked. The fruits 

f» .nn^f ^''^^n^H^^ f^^^'^"'^' ^^« ^^"^ o« thrm, and hence the tree 
IS called luo Pomlo. This must not be confounded with tl»e Friifa 



SYNOPSIS OF EAST INDIAJT DRACAENA AND COUDYLINE. 261 



de Pomla from the province of S. CatLarina, which affords a fiiio 
wood, and of the fruits of which pigeons are extremely fond. This is 
the Erythroxylon anguifugum^ Mart. : others bearing the same name 
are JF. siibrotundum^ St. HiL, from Cape Fiio, E. Pelleterianum^ from 
Minas Geraes, &c. 

f 

Description of Plate 135b. 

F 

Fig. 1. A fruit on its floweriag Lrancli : witural size. Fig. 2. P.irt of the 
pedicel, the persiatent sepals, the elevated gynophorus with a '5-lobed margin, 
showing within its hollow summit the cicatrix of attachment of the fruit and 4 
abortive ovaries : magnified. Fig, 3. A fruit, with half of the pericarp removed, 
showing the points of attachment of the putamen : nat. size. Fig. 4. The puta- 
men. Fig, 5. The same, seen on its edge. Fig. 6. A longitudinal section of 
the same, showing the ascending cord of nourishing vessels retroflected at its 
summit, the seed attached to the same, with its chalaza. Fi^. 7. The seed 
detached, showing the short raphe and the chalaza placed a little below the 
sinus. Fig. 8. The exalbuminous embryo, with the testa removed, showing 
the apical small radicle, turned away from the hilum. Fig. 9. The same seen 
edgeways : all natural iize^ 



DllACJS:^ 



AND CORDYLINE. 



By J. G. Bakee, F.L.S. 

Deacjena, Vand., Kunth Enum. v., 2. 

Flowers usually fascicled on the rachis, irregularly bracteated; 
cells of the ovary uniovulate ; stigma capitate, with three minute 

lobes ^ 

1.* D. FiNLAYsoxi, Bahr—D. graminifolia, Finlay. & Wall, in 
Wall. Cat., 5149, non Linn. Flower-bearing branches not more than 
i inch thick. Leaves ascending, the bases about \ inch apart, narrow 
ensiform, 15—18 inches long, i— f inch broad at the middle, narrowed 
gradually to an acute point, very slightly narrowed above the dilated 
base, which clasps all round the stem and quite hides the mternodes ; 
the texture firm, arundinaceo-coriaceous ; the colour green j the midrib 
obscure on the upper surface, distinct on the lower side in the lower 
half of the leaf only ; the veins very fine, immersed, not oblique ; the 
edge concolorous. Inflorescence a distinctly-stalked, lax, simple spike 
or deltoid panicle reaching to more than a foot long, with a tew long 
simple ascending racemose branches. Flowers in distant fascicles, 
from three to as many as half-a-dozcn in a cluster. Bracts minute, 
deltoid. Pedicels not more than a line long, jointed near the apex. 
Perianth slender, cylindrical, 8-9 lines long, the nairow divisions 
about as long as the tube, the anthers included and stigma finally 



^ The character of the absence of stolons, relied upon hy Kegel to separate 
flowerless Dracienas from Uordylines, does not invariably hold good. 



262 SJNOPSIS OF EAST INDIAN DKAC^NA AND CORDYLINE. 

r 

exserted. — Pulo Dinding, Straits of Malacca— Finlayson ; Borneo 
Barber, 248. _ The garden B. stemphylla, K. Kocli. (Kegel Re vis., 
p. 42), of whicli the native country and flowers are unknown, may 
possibly be a form of this with variegated leaves. 

2. D. ANGirsTiroLiA, Eoxb. Fl. Ind, ii., 155 ; Wall. Cat., 5141.; 
Kunth Enum. v., 4 ; Eegel Rev., p. 36— Z>. ensifoUa, Wall. Cat., 
5143 ; Kunth Enum. v., 5, non Eegel Eevis., p. 39 (" Gartenflora," t. 
^51)—TermmaUa angustifoUa, Eump. Amboin. iv., t. 35 — B.fruticosa, 
Eegel Eevis., p. 2>1—Cordyline Rmnphii, Hook Bot. Mag., t. 4279, in 
greater part as regards synonyms cited, but excluding the plant figured— 
D. lancea, Thunb. in Dalm. Diss., p. 3 ?. Elower-bearing branches i— 
t inch thick. Leaves ascending, t^e centre of the bases i— i inch 
apart, sessile, ensiform, 12—18 inches long, an inch broad at the 
middle, narrowed gradually to an acute point, and to 3 — 4 lines above 
an amplexicaul base that clasps the stem all round and quite hides 
the internodes ; colour plain green ; texture arundinaceo-coriaceous ; 
the midrib obscure on the upper side, distinct on the lower side, 
except near the tip ; lateral veins very fine, close, immersed, not 
at all oblicL^e. Panicle terminal, short-stalked, reaching a foot 
or more in length, with few or many spreading or ascending 
branches, the lower sometimes again compound, bracteated by 
reduced leaves 3—4 inches long. Racemes las, not more than half 
a foot long, li— 2 inches broad when expanded. Flowers 1—4- 
nate, the clusters distant on the rachis. Bracts deltoid, scariose, 1—2 
lines. Pedicels 3—4 lines long, jointed above the middle. Perianth 
greenish- white, 8—9 lines long, the divisions about equalling the 
cylindrical tube. Stamens as long as the divisions, the stigma at last 
slightly exerted._ Berry from one to three-lobed, pulpy deep orange, 
each lobe the size of a marrow-fat pea, containing one large round 
horny seed.— East Himalayas (Assam, Khasia and Sillet), ascending 
from the base of the hills to 6000 feet— Wallich, 5143 ! Griffith, 5871 ! 
Hooker fil. & Thomson!; Burmah— Wallich, 514 IC I McClelland!; 
Java— Spanoghe ! W. Lobb ! ; North Australia-— Darnel ! Schultz ! &c. 
If the plant cultivated at Kcw under the name ensifoUa be the same, 
as seems most likely, this forms when full-grown a trunk half-a-foot 
thick, with several dichotomous forks, each crowned with a dense coma of 
from 50_ to 100 much reflexing leaves, which reach 1^—2 feet in length 
and 1 ^ inch broad at the middle, and clasp the stem for a couple of 
inches. Most likely it will prove to be Thunberg's lancea, and if so 
that IS the oldest name. Most likely, also, it is the ensifoUa briefly 
characterised by Haworth, Synopsis, p. 67. There is a very good 
(unpublished) plate amongst Roxburgh's drawings. 

3. D. PoRTEEi, Baker— B. maculata, Wall. Cat., 5148A, non 
Roxburgh. Flower-bearing branches under ^ inch thick. Leaves 
ascending, their bases i inch apart, clasping the stem all round, not 
completely hiding the internodes, oblanceolate-ensiforra, i— 1 foot 
long, 1^ inch broad at the middle, narrowed gradually to an acute 
point and downwards to 3—4 lines above the dilated base, firmer and 
more coriaceous than those of the last ; the midrib invisible from above 
and only obscurely seen near the base on the lower side ; the veins very 
fine, copious, and immersed. Flowers in a long-stalked simple 
raceme half-a-foot long, the peduncle bracteated with reduced leaves. 



STXOPSIS OF EAST IMDIAN DRAC^NA AND COKDYLINE, 263 

Flowers 2 to as many as 5 together in distant fascicles. Bracts 
minute, deltoid. Pedicels not more than a line long, jointed at the 
middle. Perianth very slender, 8 — 9 lines long, greenish- white, the 
divisions ahout as long as the cylindrical tube. Style finally exserted. 
Penang, "A small plant from the hills " — Porter in AVall.Herb., No. 
5148A! This may prove a mere variety of s])icata^ but appears so 
different in the leaves that with our present material we do not seem 
justified in combining them. 

4. D. spiCATA, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii., 157 ; Kunth Enum. v., p. 10 ; 
Wall, Cat., 5146; Eegel Kevis.,. p. 44— i). Wallichii, Kunth Enum., 
p. 11 ; i). terniflora, Roxb. El. Ind, ii,, 159, non Wall.. 5147A, B— A 
Hemxeana. Wall. Cat, 5154 — Z). terminalis. 



Wt 



Lam. Flower-bearing branches 3—4 lines thick. Bases of the 
ascending leaves near the top of the shoots about \ inch apart, quite 
hiding the internodes. Leaf oblanceolate, 6—9 inches long by 1^—2 
or rarely 3 inches broad at the middle, narrowed gradually to an acute 
point and very gradually to a distinct petiole 1 — 3 inches long, which 
enlarges again at the base to clasp all round the branch ; colour 
uniform green; midrib obscure throughout on the upper side, distinct 
on the lower side in the lower half of the leaf only; veins fine, 
immersed, distinctly oblique. Flowers in a short-stalked, simple, or 
little compound raceme, which is moderately close, I J — 2 inches broad 
when expanded. Flowers often 2 — 4 in a cluster. Bract deltoid, 
scariose, those subtending the pedicels 1^—2 lines long. Pedicels 
2 — 3 lines, articulated at the middle. Perianth greenish- white, 6—9 
lines long, the divisions about as long as the slender cylindrical tube 
''Berry with from one to three distinct round and smooth lobes; 
whilst immature a deep olive-green; when ripe deep reddish-orange, 
each lobe containing a single large smooth round white horny seed." — 
Eastern Himalayas: Sillet— Wallich Cat., 5146A ! ; Chittagong— 
Roxburgh, Hk. fil & Thomson!; Khasia, 0-3000ft.— Hk, fil. & 
Thomson ; Assam— Masters ! Griffith, 5378 I ; Poneshie— Anderson ! 
(Junan expedition); Bombay— Dalzell! Stocks! Law!; Neilgherries— 
Wight! G. Thomson I ; Andamans— Kurz ! ; Tenasserim— Griffith, 5878 ! ; 
Penang, Singapore, and Malacca— Porter ! Griffith, 587G! Maingay, 

1684! Walker. 

Var. aueantiaca— D. mirmtiaca, Wall. Cat., 5149— i). Jackiana, 
Wall. Cat., 5145, ex parte— B. ternifora, Kegel Kevis., p. 46. 
More robust, with larger, more coriaceous leaves, the same shape as in 
the type, reaching 2^ — 3 inches broad in the middle, and a panicle 
sometimes more than a foot long, with several distant divaricating 
tranches, and a very large orange-red berry.— Assam— Griffith, 5880 ! ; 
Penang, Singapore, and Malacca— Wallich! Walker! Griffith, 5873 I 
Maingay, 1685 ! 1688 ! This is the most widely-spread species of all 
in India, and will be found faithfully drawn in Wight's Icones under 

the name of -D. fenmnalis. . . 

5. D. Thwaitesii, Eegel Eevi%, p. 44— i?. elliphca, Thwaites, 
Enum., p. 338. General habit just that of spicata. Petioles 
ascending, nearly or quite hiding the internodes. Blade oblong- 



lanceolate, 6—8 inches long, 18—21 lines broad at middle, narrowed 
to a long point and downwards to a distant petiole 2—3 inches long ; 
texture arundinaceo-subcoriaceous ; colour green ; midrib distinct in 



_v 



264 



DRAC^NA 



the lower half on the lower surface only. Flowers in a short-stalked 
close, oblong, or deltoid panicle not more than 2^3 inches Ions 
solitary or fascicled on the branches in twos or threes. Bracts minutl' 
deltoid. Pedicels 1^-2 lines long, jointed above the middle. Perianth 
4—5 Imes long the divisions rather exceeding the tube.— Ceylon 
Walker! Gardner, 893 ! Thwaites, 2293! This appears to be the 
only wild Ceylonese form, and can scarcely be regarded as more than 
an insular variety of spicata. 

6. D. ELLiPiicA Thunb. in Dalm. Diss., p. 3 ? ; Kunth Enum. v., 

*.num. v., 12 ; Eegel Eevis., p. A5-CordyUne Sieboldii, Planch. PI. 
des Serres yi., p. 132.-i). terniflora, Wall. Cat,, 5147A (Kunth 
±.num. v., 11), non Eoxb. Branchleta not more than 2 lines thick 
Inteniodes near their summit i-J inch long, not hidden by the 
petioes Blade oblong-lanceolate, 5-6 inches long, li_2 inches 
broad at the middle cuspidate, narrowed rather suddenly at the base 

^L/^r- ^^^*^°^^P^tfl^ which clasps all round the branchlct; 

^r, ^T ^-fn '"".^^^ *^P^' t^^<^^^« ^«re coriaceous than in 
^...^. ; the midrib only visible towards the base on the lower side ; 

deltoS n.Tlf 1 r^^' "^^^n"' ^^^^^^^ ^° ^ «^««il*^ «^ short-stalked 
^Z^T^t-i^"'^ "^"^ tHan half-a-foot long, with ascending or 

at the mid5 ^' S'" f^^'S^^n' ^^^^''^' ^'^^''^' 2-3 lines, jointed 
tL LS. .K f"'''*^r~^^'""' ^'^^^ stouter than m spicata, 
£rrv Soh2 '^"f ""^ ?" *^^^' *^^ stigma finally exferted 

^S^feh T^^^^^^^^ °^'-^°^^^' ^^«"t half-an-inch thick! 

stl^a- v'Wte T^c'^ '^^^' Andaman-Xurz ! ; Java and 

^num v., 13-Zi. elhptica, Hook. Bot. Mag, t. 4787Vthe ficure^- 

vttir pt'oh^'r^ ^^---•' P 132^^'Sk 

Z'vtTti\ \ ^-^ ^%^ ^'^''' *■ 569. BifFers from the type 

grldwork ^^%t. ''""^ ^r^' irregular pale blotches on a green 



a 



fblanceoSn sh.i\ ^''''' J"? ^^' «^^° ^^ texture, but more 
(6-9 Inches bvf' 5^^°S somewhat longer in proportion to breadth 
more iriadua Iv .t i^l '°'^'' ^^"^*^ ^*^ ^he middle), and narrowed 
Srus^Burt)W^^ 5^' form uniformly suffused with dark 

lavas f St ' S -""^''V^^.^ ^^« also tinged.-East Hima- 

TLmin 't ''"' ^''^ Chittagong)-Boxburgh, Hook. fil. & 
Ihomson ! ; Tenassenm-Griffith, 5877 .' Parish, 161 

Wall C^t Th"^"^! ^'^'^' ^'^'^ ^^^i^-' P- 47~i?. termyiora, 

smaUerC 1-6 inches W W 9' ^^ ^'T ^^ ^^ *^^ ''''' ^"' 
tinged with r,u^l7 f\ S^ \ ^^~^^ ^''''' ^^^''^^ , and green, not 

panlcfe I rnder^lr:^ ^'T^'' ^°"" '^'''^^'' ^^^ branches of the 

and cL^pTdong-ter""^ '''''■•' ^^^^^^ 

MaineavI68fir. p ^'''^•' ^ergm— Griffith, 5877!; Malacca— 

oClj^r^Z' Li^^^^ ^02 ! ; and a 

Tar GEArTTT^ )f -r- 5^ ^''"t^ Andamans by Kurz. 

var. GEAciLis_i). ^,a.,/,,, Wall. Cat, 5150. Branchlets very 



INDIAN 



265 



slender, not more than | Inch thick. Leaves oblanceolate, green, 
narrowed to the base, 3—4 inches long, |— | inch broad at the middle. 
■Penang — Porter!, ^^ A small plant from the hills/' 

I cannot discorer any safe ground for including D. reflexa and 
D. Rumphi^ both of which are admitted by Kegel, amongst East 
Indian species. The specimens of the former distributed by 
Wallich are from the Calcutta garden, and the garden plant named 
by Sir V^. Hooker is evidently quite distinct from B. angustifolia^ 
and most likely, like its near ally D. latifoUa of Kegel, South 
African. 



CoKDYLixE, Commers, 

Flowers placed one by one on the axis, each subtended by an 

involucre of three bracteoles, of which the two upper are more or less 

connate. Cells of the ovary multiovulate. Style tricuspidate at the 
stigmatose apex. 

1. C. TERMiNALis, Kuuth Enum. v., 25 — Bramna terminalis^ 
Eoxb, EL Ind. ii., 157, non Wt. Icones, t. 2054— i). ferrea. 
Wall, Cat., 5150B, D—B. JacMana, Wall. Cat., 5145, ex parte, 
Floriferous branches \—\ inch thick. Leaves placed upon them 
i — ^ inch apart. Petioles half-a-foot long, erecto-patent, \ inch 
broad at the middle, dilated to J inch at the amplexicaul base, which 
conceals the branches. Blade oblanceolate, arundinaceo-coriaceous 
in texture, green in the typical form, 15—18 inches" long, 
3 — 3^ inches broad above the middle, rather rounded through 
the lower half to the base, the midrib distinct on both 
sides nearly to the tip, the veins very distinct and very 
oblir^ue, all through leaving the midrib at the angle of 20 to 25. 
Inflorescence a distinctly stalked, very compound deltoid, terminal 
panicle, the lower branches subtended by reduced leaves 4 — 6 
inches long, spreading at a right angle from the axis, and often again 
branched. Separate racemes reaching half-a-foot long, not very dense, 
under an inch broad when expanded, the flowers always solitary, 
subtended by an involucre of three scariose persistent deltoid brac- 
teoles about a line long, of which the two upper are more or less 
connate. Pedicel not exceeding the bracteoles, articulated at the 
apex. Perianth J — J inch long, the ligulate divisions twice as long 
as the cylindrical tube. Stamens and style not exserted. — Penang 
and Singapore — Wallich ! Walker, 286 ! and cultivated in the Botanic 
Gardens. 

Var. 1. EscHCHOLZiANA — Cordi/Ime ^schseliohianay Mart, in Schult. 
Syst. vii., 347 — C, heliconmfolia^ Otto and Dictr. Kuuth Enum, 
v., 28 — Braccena termhiaUsy Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1749. Differs from 
the type only by its larger leaves, which are 5 — 6 inches broad above 
the middle. — Griffith, 5881 ! from the Calcutta garden. A native of 
Polynesia. 

Var. 2. FESREA — Bracmia ferrea, Willd. Eoxb. TL Ind. ii., 
156; Wall. Cat., 5140A, C, E— i), termindis, Jacq. Ic, t- 448— 
Cordyline Jae^uinii^ Kunth Enum. v., 23 Petiole shorter. Blade of 
the leaf not more than 2 — 2J inches broad above the middle, green or 
often more or less saturated with dark crimson, more acute and more 



266 ERYTHKOSXAPHYLE. 

cuneately narrowed to the base. Panicle less compound, with less 
spreading branches. Perianth not more than 3 — 4 lines long. 
Pedicel shorter than the bracteoles- — Sillet— Gomez ! Hook. fil. & 
Thomson!; Malacca— Maingay, 1689!; Ceylon— Col. Walker! (pro- 
bably not wild there, as it is omitted by Thwaites). ^ Commonly cul- 
tivated, and covering a large number of forms now circulating in the 
gardens under specific names. There is a beautiful plate amongst 

Roxburgh's drawings. 

Var. 3. Si^B^m— Cordi/Une Sieberi^ Kunth Enum. v., 23 — Dra- 
ccena terminalis, Herb. Bottler. Only differs from the last by the 
pedicels, which exceed the bracteoles, but do not reach more ^ inch 
in length. — llalacca— Griffith, 5872 bis ! Bottler's specimen is from 

Java. 



ERYTHBOSTAPHYLE : 

GENUS NOVUM, VERBENACEIS AFFINE, 

ADUMBEAVIT H. E. HaNCE, Ph.D. 

DioiCA? monoica? vel polygama? Elor. masc. — calyx parvus, 
5-partitu3, laciniis lanceolatis. Corolla rotato-campanulata, ad 
medium sequalitcr S-loba, lobis ovatis mucronatis, symptyxi leviter 
imbricatis. Staminum 5 antheroe introrsse, biloculares, inter lobos 
corolla) juxta basin sessiles. Ovarii rudimentum minutum. Elores 
feminei ignoti. Drupa calyci baud accrescent! 5-partito insidens, 
Buccosa, stigmate discoideo, sessili, lateraliter affixo coronata, putamine 
grosse lacunoso, uniloculari, monospermo. Semen ovoideum, apice 
acutiusculum, albumine copioso, camoso. Embryo in albuminis axi 
rectus, ejusdem fere longitudinis, teres; radicula supera ; cotyledonibus 
oblongis, tenuissimis, foliaceis, Eruticulus sarmentosus, foliis oppositis, 
exstipulatis, floribus parvis, cymoso-paniculatis. 
iVt- jB. vitiginea ; sarmentosa, longe diflfusa, caulibus subangulatis 
strigoso-tomcntellis, foliis oppositis ovatis acuminatis basi subcordatis 
infra dense ochraceo-strigoso-velutiuis supra nervis strigosis exceptis 
glabratis penniveniis membranaceis 2\ — 4^ poll, longis incluso petiolo 
semipollicari \\ — 2£- poll, latis, cymis paniculatis longe pedunculatis 
foliis circiter sequilongia ssepe supra-axillaribus nunc ad cirrhos 
sterlles reductis ochraceo-strigillosis, floribus strigosis ochraceo- 
flaventibus, calyce parvo, coroUse 2-lin. tantum diamctro lobis 
antheras stramineas duplo superantibus, fructibus in cymas nudas 
digestis subpoUicaribus vivide coccineis tomentosis, stigmate albido 
sessili circumscription e orbiculari-reniformi oblique affixo (plane 
indusium Aspidii cujusdam referentc), putamine nigricante lacunis 
acute marginatis insculpto, seminis putamen implentis testa fusco- 
grisea. ^ 

Inter fructices et super saxa, ad ingentcm rupcm calcaream Kai- 



kun-shek (h.e. "petra crista-galli "), secus fluvium Si-kiang seu 



« 



31R. BALL OX PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOROCCO. - 267 



"West Eiver, provincice Cantonensis,* specimina <? florifera primus 
detexit clar. Sampson, d. 14 Julii 1870; eodemque loco specimina 
J fructibus maturis onusta, me comite, invenimus, d. 20 Julii 1872. 
(Exsicc. n. 16858.) 

Planta singularis, habitu facieque Vitt cuidam tarn similis ut, 
exemplaribus masculis floriferis tantum obviis, bisque nimis negli- 
genter inspectis, eam huic generi adscripsissem, suadente amico 
Thwaites, cui yero fructus baud innotuit, inter Verlenaceas juxta 
Premnam collocanda. A plerisque tamen Verhenaceis stigmate 
sessili,f drupfe putamine unilocular!, et albumine copioso'j — ab 
omnibus, Phryma solummodo excepta, radicula supera discrepat, 
quo cbaractere Myoporacearum ordini accedit, a quibus profecto 
habitu omnino aliena. Stirps vcrisimiliter dioica, nam flores femi- 
neos vel ovaria evoluta in cymis masculis amplifloris frustra quaesivi ; 
sed specimina fructifera in eodem loco lecta fuerunt. De structura 
carpica ne minimum superest dubium ; plures enim dissecui fructus, 
embryonemque, cotyledonibus magnia foliaceis plumula radiculaque 
minimis instructum, ex albumine copioso integrum extraxi. Genus 
anomalum, ut videtur, ad calcem Verbenacearum rejiciendum. 



DESCRIPTIOIJ^S OF SOME NEW SPECIES, SUBSPECIES, 
A]\"D VARIETIES OF PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOEOCCO 
BY J. D. HOOKER, G. MAW, AJv^D J. BALL. 



By J. Ball, F.R.S. 

r 

The numerous engagements of Dr. Hooker having prerented him 
from undertaking the examination and description of the plants 
collected in Morocco in an excursion made by us in 1871, it has 
fallen to my lot to perform that task. I have found it impossible to 
publish a descriptive catalogue of the flora of that country in a 
manner satisfactory to myself, without undertaking at the sametime 
a revision of existing materials, and an examination of the published 
descriptions of such Mediterranean species as arc included in the 
Morocco flora, as well as those of allied forms which have been 
found in the adjoining regions. 

As the completion of this work may suffer some further delay, 
I have thought it desirable to off'er to the *' Journal of Botany 
an account of some of the more interesting plants, hitherto 
undescribed, that were collected by Dr. Hooker and myself.^ Our 
companion, Mr. Maw, occupied himself chiefly in the collection of 



) hnguso nonnam 
ferme 



t Nee in el. Bocquillonii libello qui inscribitnr "Revue du groupe des 
Verbenaceea" nenae in Bentharaii "Flora Auatraliensi," ubi omnia fere genera 



stigmate 



268 MR. BALL ON PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOROCCO, 

living plants, and some of these have already been published and 
figured in the ** Botanical Magazine." 

As might be anticipated by those acquainted with what has 
hitherto been published in illustration of the little-known flora of 
Morocco, the large majority of the new forms of vegetation observed 
by us come from the southern portion of the empire, and especially 
from the range of the Great Atlas. It is true that many of the most 
remarkable plants of the lower region of that great range were found 
in 1867 by M. Balansa, well-known for his successful botanical 
explorations in Algeria and Asia Minor, whose enforced departure 
from S. Morocco after a few days' stay at the northern base of the 
Atlas prevented him from making any considerable collections. 

M. Balansa's plants were examined by M, Cosson, the botanist 
most thoroughly acquainted with the flora of iN'orthern Africa, and 
the undescribed species received from him names which have not yet 
been given to the public. Through the kindness of M. Cosson we 
were furnished on leaving England in 1871 with a MS. catalogue of 
the species known to him as having up to that date been found within 
the boundaries of Morocco, and in that list appear the new 
acquisitions due to M. Balansa, with the names assigned to them by 
M. Cosson, Although no descriptions are affixed, there can be no 
doubt as to most of the plants thus designated. A few of them were 
received at the Kew Herbarium, and also by myself, in the distribu- 
tion of the small set of duplicates brought back to Europe by M. 
Balansa ; others are sufficiently identified by the localities where they 
were foand, and some, have been seen by me in the herbarium of M. 
Cosson. I^early all the plants in question were subsequently found 
by Dr. Hooker and myself; but under the circumstances here 
mentioned, it will be understood that I have been unwilling to 
publish, as new, plants already in the hands of an eminent botanist 
especially qualified to deal with them, and I have been the more 
willing to abstain from so doing as I am led to hope that they may be 
very soon published by him. 

The_only remark that I desire to add regards the use of the terra 
subspecies in the following pages. By some writers of authority, and 
especially M. Alphonse De Candolle, the term subspecies has been used 
as equivalent to the English and French term race — ^in other words, for 
a permanent variety, maintaining certain obvious characters that 
distinguish it from the parent species with a certain fixity for many 
successive generations. This was the only sense in which the term 
could have been used by naturalists who regarded the species as the 
fixed and permanent element in the classification of organised beings, 
susceptible of variation within certain narrow limits, but always 
capable of reverting to the original type. 

Since the majority of modern naturalists have accepted a different 
fundamental view as to the relations of the varied forms of the 
organised world, it is obvious that the language of the systematist 
may require to be altered so as to correspond with the conceptions 
which he seeks to embody. 

Until recently the term species was used to designate a group of 
organisms believed to be descended from the same original stock, 
susceptible of variation within certain limits, but restrained within 



MR. BALL ON PLANTS COLLECTED IJf MOEOCCO. 269 

those limits, and separated from all others by impassable boundaries' 
which the classifier sought to ascertain and to define. Difi'erences 
naturally arose among naturalists in regard to the limits of particular 
species. Some were disposed to believe in a wider range of variation 
than others were willing to admit, and hence the same form might be 
classed as a variety by one systeraatist and as a distinct species by 
another;^ but there was a general agreement as to the criterion which 
should, if practicable, be applied. All the forms that had sprung 
from^ the same common stock were to be ranked as varieties. Distinct 
species were races that had descended from an ancestor, or pair of 
ancestors originally distinct. So long as this view prevailed there 
was nothing to be gained by attempting to distinguish between 
varieties more or less widely differing from the form which was 
regarded as the type, and the term subspecies had no recognised place 
in systematic works. 

^ A radically different conception of the relations of organised 
beings has now been accepted by the majority of naturalists. It is 
believed that the tendency to variation which undoubtedly exists 
among the descendants of the same original is not restrained within 
fixed limits, and that in the lapse of long periods of time, and under 
the influence of varying external conditions, the descendants from a 
common stock may exhibit the differences that characterise distinct 
species, not to speak of the wider differences of structure that mark 
the groups which we call genus, tribe, or natural order. Tor those 
who have admitted this fundamental conception it is clear that the 
absolute distinction hitherto supposed to lie between species and 
variety no longer exists. Allied species, as well as allied varieties, are 
linked together by the tie of genetic relation, and although the 
differences may be far wider, it is impossible to assign a distinctive 
criterion, or to draw a line at which the variety ends and the species 
begins. One such criterion has, indeed, been suggested. The 
capability of producing fertile offspring by the union of individuals 
belonging to the same group may be an adequate test of identity of 
Bpecies among animals ; but when applied to the vegetable kingdom it 
appears to be subject to such considerable exceptions as to render it 
Bcientifically invalid, even if it were generally applicable as a practical 
test. It appears certain that the union of forms as distinct as most of 
those ranked as separate species sometimes gives rise to fertile 
offspring, while there is reason to believe that undoubted varieties of 
the same stock occasionally produce none but infertile descendants. 

It cannot be denied that the prevalence of the theory of 
evolution — mainly due to the genius and industry of Mr. Darwin — 
has rendered the task of the systematic naturalist far more difficult 
than it previously was. In classifying the forms of organised nature 
his work is not merely to embody facts— he must also interpret their 
significance ; and for this, in the absence of positive criteria, he must 
rely on his own sagacity. 

Speaking exclusively of the vegetable world, we find that most 
widely diffused plants give rise to numerous varieties which reproduce 
themselves by hereditary descent, forming what are called races. In 
the case of wild plants we have, in most cases, no positive proof that 
such races are descended from the parent stock ; but we draw that 



270 MB. BALL OX PLANTS COLLECTED IN -MOROCCO. 

inference from observing that the differences by which they are 
distingnished are not greater than what we observe among the 
descendants of plants submitted to cultivation — with one important 
difference : that the wild races, having been for a long period subject 
to the same external conditions, usually show greater constancy in 
their characters than cultivated varieties, developed under conditions 
of a less permanent kind. 

The varieties enumerated in works of systematic botany are 
almost invariably races, such as those above referred to, and under 
this head many botanists are disposed to rank a large portion of the 
so-called species described of late years by painstaking observers in 
France and Germany, who start from the assumption that differences 
which are preserved in cultivation, when a plant is raised from seed, 
are evidence of specific distinctness. 

The great practical difficulty for the systematic botanist arises 
from the existence of forms more widely different from recognised 
species than varieties usually are, distinguished by well-marked 
characters affecting several organs, and occupying a definite geo- 
graphical area, yet whose distinguishing marks are of such a nature 
that he is led to the con\dction that they have sprung from other 
more widely diffused species/ This conviction may arise either from 
remarking that the differences affect organs habitually subject to much 
variation in the same group, or that at some place or places within the 
area common to both they are connected by intermediate forms, 
suggesting the probability that the doubtful plant has originated 
there, but has been able to diffuse itself through a larger area 
without exhibiting connecting links. It is for such forms ^ as 
these that the term subspecies appears to be desirable in descriptive 
botany, and has recently been adopted by some eminent autho- 
rities. The term has been used by others however, and notably 
by M, Alphonse De Candolle as above observed, in a different sense, 
and the adoption of the term in this sense would result in the 
substitution of subspecies for varieties in ordinary botanical language. 
The use of the subspecies as a distinct unit in classification in Dr. 
Boswell-Syme's *' English Botany," and its adoption in Dr, Hooker's 
'* Student's Flora of the British Islands," have given the sanction of 

high authority to the view here advocated ; but there are two slight 
modifications which appear to me desirable, and which I trust may 
obtain the acquiescence of those entitled to rank as legislators in 
natural science. 

Jnasmuch as no plants deserre to be classed as subspecies 
which ^ do not present obvious differential characters, easily 
recognisable by the practised eye, and inasmuch as a sub- 
species ^ should inhabit a definite geographical area, autho- 
rising inferences as to conditions of distribution somewhat 
similar to those derived from facts relating to true species, it seems to 
me desirable that in systematic works they should be enumerated 
under a distinct heading, and it would probably answer every useful 
purpose if, in works of a general character (Floras or Monographs of 
genera or orders), the subspecies were made to follow the species from 
which we believe them to be derived, merely being distinguished by a 
difference of type. Still more desirable, I think, it is that the rules 



MB. BALL OX PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOROCCO. 271 

now generally recognised as to the nomenclature of species should he 
extended to subspecies. There can he no ohjection to repeating some 
descriptive epithet, such as glabra^ Jiirsiita^ and the like, to indicate 
marked varieties of many different species in the same genus ; hut a 
suhspecies should be recognised hy a distinct name, such as will 
admit of no confusion with other forms of the same group, and allow 
us to refer to it without the cumbrous addition of the name of the 

(assumed) parent species. 

Although, as I have already intimated, I do not believe that it 
will ever be possible to give categorical definitions of the terras 
species^ suhpeciesy and variety/, and still less that a positive test can be 
devised by which to decide on the rank that should be assigned to a 
given form, it seems to me probable that we may hereafter approach 
more nearly to such a result than our present limited knowledge of 
facts enables us to do. It may, perhaps, be found that the relation- 
ship of the forms ranked as distinct species is ordinarily that of 
common descent from an ancestral stock now extinct, while subspecies 
are derived forms, descended from a still existing species, whose 
diiferences have become so great and so fixed that they do not readily 
unite to produce fertile ofi'spring, and varieties are separated hy less 
marked and less permanent differences which do not generally afford 
any check to intercrossing. 

To illustrate the views here advocated I will take as an example 
a widely- diffused and very variable plant, the common Euphrasia 
officinalis. In our islands the forms included under this name^differ 
so slightly that, as I believe, no botanist has proposed to designate 
them by distinct specific names ; but on the continent of Europe, to 
speak only of the region with which I am somewhat acquainted, we 
find a large number of such forms presenting wide differences of shape 
and aspect. The floral organs, indeed, vary little except in size, but 
the leaves are so dissimilar that if only a few be selected for 
comparison most botanists would at once refer them to different 
species. In some forms the leaves have few and blunt teeth, m 
others these are numerous and sharp, while in a common mountain 
form ( K salislurgensis) the narrow leaves have very few prominent 
teeth, each prolonged into a setaceous point. Along with these wc 
find differences of habit, and every condition of the surface from quite 
glabrous to densely pubescent. Many of these forms have been 
described as distinct species. The careful observer will, 
however, find that all the differences which mark these so-called 
species are no more than exaggerations of the slighter sanations 
which the common plant everywhere exhibits, and further, that the 
groups of forms belonging to one region do not exactly correspond 
with those inhabiting a different region of the same continent, so that 
if each of them were described and registered, works of descriptiye 
botany would contain an unmanageable number of plants so closely 
resembling each other that even close study and observation would 
scarcely suffice to distinguish them. If it were true, as M. Jordan, 
the most careful and consistent representative of his own school, 
contends, that each of these forms is really a permanently distinct 
organic unit, neither derived fromVother form nor capable of giving 
birth to a different one, the student of Nature would have no choice 



272 MR. BALL ON PIAKTS COLLECTED IN MOROCCO 



"but to devote himself to the interminable task of observing and 
registering the minute differences by which they are distinguished. 
"But most botanists who have not confined their observations within 
a single small region have arrived at an opposite conviction, and, with 
more or less doubt as to one or two of the more widely divergent forms, 
they would rank the remainder as undonhted varieties of E, officinalis. 
There is one among the forms closely allied to our common 
Euphrasy that shows differences more marked and more constant than 
the others. This is the E, minima of Schleicher, a plant inhabiting 
the higher regions of the Alps, Pyrenees, and Carpathians, distin- 
gtjished by its dwarf stature, very small, usually yellow flowers, and 
shortly oval crenate leaves, much smaller than in any other plant of 
the same group. The mere fact of the presence of this form on 
several widely dissevered mountain masses, while it is absent from 
the intervening low country, is strong evidence of its high antiquity, 
while a comparison between it and several of the forms that we 
refer to E. officinalis leaves little doubt that it is related to the latter 
by genetic descent. This I am inclined to cite as a typica 
a subspecies. 

The same group affords another instance, no less useful as an 
illustration. In the South-Eastern Alps, through the zone of crystal- 
line and dolomitic limestone extending from the district north-east of 
the lake^ of Garda to Camiola and Southern Styria, a plant known as 
Euphrasia trieuspidata is widely spread throughout the warmer 



instance 



valleys. 



fficinalis 



by their larger size, the leaves are so peculiar and so constant in form 
that since the time of Linnseus this has always been admitted as a 
distinct species. Amongst all the modifications of E. officinalis the 
leaves vary between broadly ovate and narrowly lanceolate — having 
the broadest part in the lower half of the leaf, and thence tending to 
a blunt or sharp apex. In E. trieuspidata the leaves are strap- 
shaped, with parallel uncut sides, and have at the summit three short 
teeth, one in the middle and one at each angle. A further mark of 
distinction is that E. trieuspidata flowers considerably later than any 
of the neighbouring forms of E. officinalis. During many successive 
years I had traversed the region which is the home of this plant, and 
had never seen any notable variation in its characters. At length in 
an unfrequented valley of Friuli I came upon a series of intermediate 
forms between this and the variety of E. officinalis known as E. 
salislurgensis. The first impression was that this was a case of 
hybridity, but, in the first place, the intermediate plants seemed to 
have produced seed abundantly, and, further, these forms were not 
confined to a single spot, but extended at intervals over a space of 
several miles. I do not pretend that the evidence was conclusive, 



E. 



Western 



form of E, 



conditions^ of the surrounding region as to be able to spread and 
maintain itself for a considerable distance east and west of its original 
home. If further observation should confirm that made by me 



officinalis 



ranked 



-/ 



i 

SHOIiT Is^OTES AXB QTJElilES, 273 



it is scarcely necessaiy to remark that as regards districts 
imperfectly explored, such as the range of the Great Atlas, the 
difficulty of deciding oa the rank to be assigned to new forms, 
differing more or less widely from those already known, is very much 
greater than it is in a region more fully explored by naturalists. 
Beyond some general acquaintance with the Mediterranean flora, of 
which that of Morocco is an outlying division, I can pretend to no 
special qualification for arriving at correct conclusions. I am aware 
that many botanists would be disposed to rank as distinct species 
forms which I have described as varieties or subspecies, while others 
may regard some subspecies proposed by me as mere varieties. 

A fuller acquaintance with the vegetable population of the region 
which we traversed in haste will be needed to determine how far 
the rank here conjecturally given to each form is entitled to perma- 
nent recognition. 

^ ■ (To he continued.) 



SHOIIT NOTES AISB aiTERIES. 

Note on Planeea Davidix. — In an article forwarded to the '* Journal 
of Botany '* some time since, and which will, in all likelihood, be in 
print* before the present note reaches England, I stated that the plant 
described by me under the name of Planera Bavidii differs so much 
from the true species of that genus in carpical structure, that it must 
form the type of a subgenus — if not rather a genus — for which I pro- 
posed the name Semipteha. I have just received tlie first part of the 
ninth volume of the " Melanges biologiques," extracted from the 
Bulletin of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, and 
only printed in January of the present year, where I find, from a re- 
vision of the East Asiatic TJhnacem^ given by my friend M. Maximo- 
wicz, that Dr. Planchon had not only previously recognised the 
Chinese tree as the type of a genus, but that he had, by a remarkable 
coincidence, selected the very name I myself subsequently suggested. 
The latter circumstance is so singular that I think it well, for my own 
credit, to state explicitly that, at the time of writing, I was totally 
unaware of M. Planchon's views ; and that at present even I have 
no further knowledge of them than that derived from M. Maximo- 
wicz's paper.— H. F. Haxce. 



Caxaminttta sylvatica, Bromf.y i^ E-v?fTs.— Some tliree or four 
years ago the late Mr. R. S. Hill, of Basingstoke, showed me a speci- 
inen of this plant, which he had received from Mr. H. Eceks, ^of 
Thruxton, near Andover. In reply to my enquiries, Mr- Eeeks in- 
forms me that a few years since the plant occurred abundantly in old 
iieglected shrubberies and on waste ground in the neighbourhood of 
Thruxton, but that it is almost extinct there now, owing to altera- 
tions. He suggests that it may ha\p originally escaped from cultiva- 

* Sec p. 171 -of this volume.— (K/. Joura, BoL) 

i 



"274 snouT notes a'sv QtiEiaEs 



txon. I do not, hoTVCVcr, think this probablcj as the plant is not a 
likely one to be grown in gardens; and there appears no reason, in 
the absence of evidence to the contrary, why it should not be con- 
sidered indigenous in the locality mentioned. — Ejrei). I. Wakker. 



AMTSHIRE 



w. w 



and other members of the "Winchester and Hampshire Scientific and 
Literary Society, I paid a visit on the 4tli July to Miller's Pond, be- 
tween Southampton and Netley, and succeeded in collecting, among 
others, the following more or less rare and interesting plants : — Spf^r- 
gida arvensis^ var. ^ vulgaris^ Syme, E. B. ed. iii., and Valerianella 
atiriculay DC, on the railway embankment near Sholing Station ; 
Pwgiiicnla lusitaniea^ Linn , in abundance ; Utricularia intermedia, 
Hayne, and Mdaxis paludosa, Sw., in boggy ground at one end of 
Millor^s Pond ; and Cochlearia anglica, Linn., Spartina strieta^ Eoth., 
and S.alterniflora^ LoiseL, on the mud flats at the mouth of the Itchcn- 
r, I. Warnek, 



ff 
» 



JuNCUS PYGM-^us. — I havc found this in great abundance dunn 
the present year in several parts of Lizard Down, extending over a 
great many acres. I send specimens. — James Cuj^nack. 

A New ScoTcn Sphagnum. — I enclose specimens of Splicignum^ Aus- 
tinty Sullivant, which Dr. Lindberg recognised among a collection of 
Mosses which I made in the Island of Lewis in 1S68. I had sup- 
posed the plant to be a remarkable variety of S. eymUfolium, differing 
so widely from the typical form of the species as to warrant me m 
making a diagnosis of its characters. It is geographically interesting 
to find a species not rare in North America inhabiting the "Western 
Isles of Scotland. It grew on extensive flat boggy moors, and forma 
largo hummocks sometimes 18 inches to 2 feet above the surrounding 
level.— D. Moore.— [Grows also in Sweden. The species has been 
exhaustively illustrated by Dr. Braithwaite in the <* Monthly Micro- 
scopical Journal" for May last, tab. 17, — Ed, Journ. Bot.~\ 



Aktuo 



During a visit in July to' the 
south-west of Ireland with Dr, Lindberg, we found this rare species, 
not before known to grow in Ireland, in one place only near Ventry 
Co. Kerry. — D. Mookb, 



> 



EcHiKosPERMFM Lappula. — I found a specimen of this plant last 
month near the Horton railway-station, near Northampton. I had 
not time to examine the locality carefully, but did not see more than 
one example, which I have placed in the herbarium of the British 
Museum. Near it was Silene noctijlora, which I did not observe 
elsewhere in the neighhourhood.- — James Biuxtkn, 



IIyperkum ncBiiTM IX CAMBKinoKSHiRE. — I enclosc specimens oi 
Ilypericum t/2^imm collected at Kirtling, near Newmarket, Canibnagc- 
shirc . It has not, I believe, been before recorded for this county, 
and is unmontioned in Professor Babiniitou^s "Flora. — 11. A. ruvoR. 



ON THE SXKUCTFIIE OF THE IJEET-ROOT. 275 



€xttatt^ anb %h^ttact0. 



ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE BEET-ROOT. 

By T. Lestiboudois. 

« 

The root of Beta vulgaris, on account of its importance in agri- 
cultural and industrial economy, has often been studied. Its struc- 
ture, however, never seems to have been properly understood. 

The part which bears the so-called radical leaves, the ** neck," 
although short, is a true stem, and terminates in a bud which does 
not usually elongate except during the second year of growth. If 
a vertical section is made through this abbreviated stem, it is seen 
to contain a medullary centre, which is large but irregular, because 
it is bounded by fibres which curve to form the closely approximate 
leaves. Below the insertion of the cotyledons the medullary centre 
diminishes and speedily disappears altogether, because the bundles 
contract irregular fibrous unions and finally consolidate into a cen- 
tral axis. Outside the central axis are fibro-vascular bundles 
separated by medullary spaces, which are narrower as they are more 
external ; their thickness also diminishes from above downwards. 
The longitudinal bundles furnish transverse fibres to the rootlets, 
which originate primarily as small tubercular buds. Some of the 
fibres merely take a curve without actually leaving the bundles. Be- 
yond the most external bundles there is nothing but a zone of tissue 
which is entirely cellular. Such are the parts which are met with 
in a longitudinal section of a fully-grown Beet. A transverse section 
niahes their relative dispositions apparent. If it is made imme- 
diately below the leaves, it shows the enlarged central medulla ; 
lower down, the medulla contracted by the fibres which pass from one 
bundle to another ; lower down still, the fibres which occupy the 
centre and obliterate the medulla by their fusion. 

Sometimes, however, the medullary spaces which separate the 
two primitive bundles, and which correspond to the cotyledons and 
to the -depressions in which the numerous rootlets originate, persist ; 
and the centre of the root remains medullary even to its base. 

Round the central bundle is a pale zone becoming more coloured 
and more areolar on its outer side. Externally to this are circles of 
bundles separated from one another by medullary zones. These 
bundles are composed of an internal or woody portion formed of 
opaque vessels surrounded with slightly transparent fibrous tipsucj 
and of an external transparent portion sometimes separated from the 
woody portion by a less consistent trace of tissue ; it represents, 
therefore, the cortical element. Between the bundles are rays or 
medullary prolongations, distinguished by their colour and their 
want of transparence, extending from one medullary zone to 
another, or appearing (o be interrupted, because they are transparent 

t2 



r 

r 

276 ON TnE STRUCTURE OF THE BEET-EOOT. 

in the region where the external portion of the bundles is united 
■with the woody portion. The fibro-yascular bundles are smaller 
and smaller the more exterior they are; at the periphery they are 
scarcely more than a barely perceptible vascular point ; they may 
even be destitute of vessels, and form by their union only very re- 
stricted traces of vascular tissue. The medullary zones are also 
narrower and narrower as they are more external. Outside the last 
transparent trace nothing; is met with but a uniform succulent zone, 
in which one meets w^ith neither fibrous bundles, nor distinct layers, 
nor medullary prolongations. In short, it contains none of the 
elements of a true cortex. 

These details recall the arrangements which are met with in 
Dicotyledons which are termed heterogeneous (for example, some 
species of Banhima^ Mtrnspermnm^ Glycine^ Gnetum^ Zamia^ Cycas^ 
Avicennia, the roots of Cain(^n, of some ConvolvulacecF.^ &c.) — that is 
to say, of plants which, instead of possessing a single zone of growth 
in which ligneous and cortical elements develope themselves, form 
new bundles in the midst of the parenchyma of the cortex, so that 
their axis consists of concentric formations which are separated by a 
medullary zone, and each preserve their own cortical element and. 
special growth ; consequently there is no external system uniting all 
the cortical elements, but only a zone uniformly cellular. 

If the development of the Beet is followed, it is seen that the new 
bundles make their appearance in the parenchyma external to the old 
ones ; that the different circles of bundles are separated from those 
preceding by a medullary layer; that they preserve their proper 
cortical element; and that they continue to increase, so that the 
internal or the most ancient bundles have the vascular element most 
developed; finally, on the exterior of the bundles there is merely a 
simple parenchymatous zone. 

If a vertical section is made through the young plant, the 
vascular bundles are seen to be Siiparate beneath the cotyledons ; 
then they approach so insensibly that it is difficult to say where 
the medullary centre terminates ; a centimetre below the cotyledons 
the bundles are fused at the centre. A transverse section made at 
this point exhibits a central bundle incompletely divided into two 
parts ; at the.higher level the two bundles are distinct, and beneath 
the cotyledons there are four bundles, two being formed between the 
two primary ones for the formation of the cotyledonary expansions. 
The vascular bundles are surrounded by a white transparent zone ; 
externally is a parenchyma composed of two zones : the inner is dense, 
succulent, red, pink, or white, according to the varieties ; it has its 
inner circle obscure ; the outer circle is lax, composed of large empty 



cells, tinged with pink towards the epid 

The transverse section of a young plant which has two leaves more 
than the preceding exhibits the appearance of a trace of transparent 
tissue in the inner zone of the cortical parenchyma. By successive 
developments this trace enlarges, and finishes by forming a complete 
circle, which separates the most internal portion of the cortical zone 
from the rest, and which soon produces vessels- This new formation 
is composed, then, of a vascular cylinder, and of a transparent zoue 



ON THE STRUCTUEE OF THE BEET-KOOT, 277 



placed exfernally ; it is separated from the central formation by a 
coloured' or "obscure" medullary zone, which was the inner circle 
of the cortical parenchyma ; outside the central formation there aro 
two zones of cortical parenchyma. 

In examining a young plant which had four leaves more than 
the preceding, we found 4.he hypocotyledonary axis destitute of the 
external zone of cortical parenchyma, and only preserving shreds of 
it adherent to the neck. Its transverse section shows that in the 
persistent cortical zone a new transparent circle made its appear- 
ance, provided with scarcely visible vascular elements, and separated 
from the second formation by a coloured zone (red var.) which 
formed originally the inner circle of cortical parench3'ma. 

In young plants which have the leaves still more numerous, 
there are medullary prolongations which divide the transparent 
zone of each formation into bundles corresponding with the woody 
bundles ; new formations appear in the external parenchyma, and the 
older ones take a more considerable development. 

Lastly, in a Beet arrived at the termination of its year's growth, 
we reckoned seven circular formations besides the central. The 
bundles of this last, separate at a little distance from the leaves, 
united in their lower portion, are elongated from within outwards, 
divided by medullary rays which penetrate irregularly into their 
thickness, and which are sometimes coloured, and preserve some 
bundles separate from the rest. These bundles are surrounded by a 
zone entirely white (white var.), or red in its external half (red 
var. J. ^ Round the central formation are circles of bundles formed 
successively, and separated the one from the other by medullary 
zones becoming narrower and narrower towards the periphery. Be- 
tween these bundles are rays or medullary prolongations more 
apparent in the older portions, contracted in their iniddle part 
because the bundles are enlarged, appearing sometimes interrupted 
because this middle part remains transparent. 

Each bundle is composed of an inner or woody portion formed 
of a vascular group bordered internally by transparent tissue, orange 
(red var.) or white (white var.), and of an external or cortical 
portion, which is marked out from the medullary prolongations or 
rays by the transparency of its boundaries. It may also be dis- 
tinguished by its colour; sometimes it is orange, when the medullary 

zone is of an intense red. 

The part of this tissue nearest the vascular group is often more 
transparent than the rest, and when the rays are interrupted it seems 
to unite with that of neighbouring bundles so as to indicate a circle of 
continuous increase. The tissue which is developed near the 
vascular group takes sometimes another tint, that of rose for 
example, so that the external portion of transparent tissue seems 
separated from the inner. Sometimes this coloured portion occupies 
only the centre of the inner border of the transparent tissue ; then 
the border is a little crescent-shaped, as in many of. the cortical 

bundles. 

The cortical and ligneous parts of the bundles arc more enlarged 
in tlie direction of the diameter of the root and more divided in 



w 

278 ON THE sxKUCTxmE of the beet-boot. 

L J- 

proportion as they are older. Thus the vascular groups of the 
first circular formation, which originally were only rounded points, 
are greatly enlarged subsequently, and are bi-tri-furcate. In the 
outer circles the vascular groups are in simple series less and less 
developed ; in the antepenultimate circle the vessels only form a 
rounded group ; in the penultimate they are only an obscure point, 
and the bundles are so approximated that they seem united, but 



from space to space there are rays of considerable size^ extending 



from the external medullary circumference to the internal. In the 
last circle the bundles are very small, very approximate, almost 
united; some have a vascular point apparent, others are destitute 
even qf this. The last circle is frequently interrupted; sometimes 
the portions which compose it are attached by an extremity to the 
inner transparent circle; sometimes they are only traces of extreme 
tenuity appearing in the cortical zone. This remains narrow aad 
homogeneous, and has not the appearance of a complete cortex. 

The Beet which developes during the second year (June), and of 
which the stems elongate to become seminiferous, has a structure 
similar to what has been described ; the vascular formations are 
merely more numerous — on the fragment which we examined we 
counted ten vascular formations. Those which are the most external 
have the same characters as those which occupied the peripliery 
previously, and these last have acquired their development. 

The microscopical examination of the different parts which 
compose the Beet fully justify the terms which we have employed. 
The medulla which exists in the upper part of the hypocotyledooary 
stem is formed of cells at first transparent, then areolated, dilated, dis- 
posed without order. The woody bundles are formed of large vessels, 
flexuous, with spiral fibres more or less anastomosing, united by 
vascular or by fibrous tissue, white, sometimes a little orange (red 
var.), slightly transparent, composed of elongated cells, rounded or 
quadrangular, narrow, with rounded, slightly acute extremities, united 
end to end, or placed in the interval between two cells with very 
delicate walls, scarcely apparent in a longitudinal section, often 
covered with very finely granular matter. The medullary rays are 
formed of cells disposed in transverse rows; they arc cubical, some- 
times a little higher than wide, rarely a little elongated transversely; 
their walls are opaque. The transparent parts, which represent the 
cortical bundles, and are placed externally and opposite the woody 
bundles, are formed of elongated cells like those of fibrous tissue ; but 
these cells enlarge towards the exterior, and become more dilated as 
they are nearer the medullary zone. Long tubes, attenuated at the 
extremities, are not met with in these transparent bundles as in some 
cortical fibres; but many fleshy roots have the cortical bundles 
formed of rather short cells rounded at the extremities. We have 
fcccn also that the cells of the fibrous tissue of the woody bundles do 
not take the form of tubes or of clusters. The medullary prolonga- 
tions which separate the cortical parts of the bundles are formed of 
cells, similar to those of the medullary rays opposite which they arc 
placed and with which they are blended. The medullary zones 
which separate the circular formations which succeed are formed of 



ON THE STfiTJCTUBE OF THE BEET-KOOT. 279 

opaque cells, rountlcd, dilated, distributed without order, red, j^ink, 
or white according to the varieties. 

The cortical zone, in which the vascular circles devclope 
successively, is homogeueous, rather dense, succulent, becoiniug pale in 
the interior in the coloured varieties, opaque in the white variety. 
It is composed of elongated cells, often w^ith four angles, with rounded 
extremities united end to end ; their walls are thick, obscure at the 
Hues of union, covered with a granular matter exhibiting a nucleus 
in a transverse section. 

The transparent traces which occur in the cortical zone not far 
from its inner border, and in which the vessels would be developed, 
are formed of elongated cells a little rounded at the extremities, with 
very thin partitions covered with a mucilaginous substance, having 
in the centre a very small cavity filled with more opaque matter, 
which in the transverse section represents a scarcely visible nucleus ; 
in a word, the cells are similar to those of the fibrous tissue of the 
woody bundles, and of those of the cortical bundle of which it is the 
origin. The zone of coloured or opaque tissue, which is separated 
from th€ corti';al zone by the transparent tissue which occurs in this 
last, has the same organisation as the cortical zone itself: but its 
cells enlarge {se dilatent) by the development of the medullary zone 
of which it is the commencement. The external zone of conical 
parenchyma, which is quite transitory, is formed of large cells, dilated, 
sometimes provided with a granular nucleus confusedly distributed, 
red or uncoloured, separated by lacunar. The epidermis is formed of 
delicate cells flattened, quadrangular, or hexagonal, coloured or 
uncoloured. 

Thus the opinion which we have stated as to the nature of each 
of the parts of the Beet is confirmed by their anatomical consti- 
tution, and one may consider as conformable to the facts the manner 
in which we have regarded the general structure of the roots of this 



plant. It produces in a continuous manner new fibro-vascular 
bundles in the cortical parenchyma outside the interstice cTac- 
croissement; the external zone is uniformly cellular and does not 
contain the elements of a complete cortex. The new bundles 
surround the old ones, and are separated from them by the part 
of the cortical parenchyma placed within tiie new formation. All 
the old bundles preserve their cortical element and increase in size 
after they are enclosed by the external bundles. The circular for- 
mations acquire thus a size which is greater as they are more 
interior, and all contain '' recent'' tissue ; it is without doubt due^ to 
this circumstance that the root contains so large a proportion 
of sugar and is difficult to preserve. All the characters which we 
have described are those which distinguish the '^heterogens "; one 
difference only exists between the Beet and the heterogens best 
knowu^it is that they are wootly and have a prolonged existence, 

while the Beet is biennial. , . , 

The Beet is distinguished at first sight from fleshy roots winch, 
like the Carrot, have a bark separated from the central system by a 
«iunbium, and formed of large parenchyma, of very distinct medul- 
1«U7 prolongations, and of transparent bundles of largo diametral 







280 NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

dimensions. But all fleshy roots have not a cortex so characterised. 
In the Radish (red van), for example, it is thin, and its bundles are 
scarcely apparent ; it remains altogether separated from the central 
system by a cambium, well marked when the vegetation is active, and 
■when it is separated it is seen to have bundles not well limited, but 
still distinct. Besides the woody bundles do not increase after they 
are surrounded by more recent tissues. In the black variety of 
the Radish the woody fibres, disposed in circles sufficiently regular, 
imitate the circular formations of the Beet, but it has a bark of 
which the bundles are perfectly distinct when a fresh root is 

d ; they correspond to the woody bundles, and all their 
divisions correspond exactly to the divisions of these. The internal 
vascular groups are not accompanied by a cortical element, and 
there is no other increase than that which takes place in the single 
zone of increase placed between the two systems. 

In the variety of the Beet called Bette or Poiree, of which the 
root is only some centimetres in diameter, it is difficult though 
possible to recognise the organisation which has been describeth 

The structure which is observed in the hypocotyledonary 
caudex of Beet does not continue at least exactly in its hypocotyle- 
donary stem. When in the second year, or by precocious development 
in the first, it *'bolts/^ it constitutes a strong blanching stem pro- 
vided with five projecting cdtes with a very large medulla, white, 
areolar, and a little fistular at the centre, succulent, green, and 
tending to pink in its external portion. Its woody system is com- 
posed of five isolated bundles corresponding to the deep sinuses 
which separate the angles of the stem, and more externally of a 
circle of woody bundles, compact^ narrow, greenish, or slightly pink. 
In some points this circle is interrupted; it is separated from the 
cortex by an incompletely transparent and badly defined zone en- 
larged at some points. These enlarged parts are sometimes divided 
by series of small woody bundles arranged in lines, holding by one 
extremity to the principal ligneous circle, or entirely separated, and 
seeming to indicate a commencement of the heterogenous increase 
observed in the root— [Translated from the " Comptes Rendus," 
1871, pp. 307—314.1 



Wotitcjsf of 25ooft^. 



Internationales TTorterluch der Pfanzennamen in Lateimseher, JDeid- 
scher, Engluclier, unci Franzimsch&r Sprache. Yon Dr. Wilhelm 
Ulktch. Leipzig: 1872. (Pp. 342.) 

Catalogo Polightto delh Piante ; compilato dalla Contessa di Satt 
Giorgio. Firenzc: 1870. (Pp.747.) 

Deutsche Pflanze^mamen. Von Hersiaxjt GKASSirAKX. Stettin : 1870. 
(Pp, 288.) 



K"OTICES OF BOOKS. 281 

A GOOD polyglot dictionaiy of plant-names has long been a deside- 
ratum, and although many works have heen put forward in the attempt 
to supply itj such a hook is still a thing of the future. As long ago as 
1682, Mentzelius published a folio "Index nominum plantarum 
universalis," which is pretty satisfactory as far as it goes, though of 
comparatively little practical use on account of its ante-Linnean 
nomenclature* So far as I know, Nemnich's *' Allgemeines Poly- 
glotten-Lexicon der Natur-Geschichte " is still the most comprehensive 
dictionary of the kind which we possess, although published as long 
ago as 1793; and this notwithstanding the appearance of numerous 
others of more recent date, three of which are named above. 

It is, however, somewhat remarkable that at least three botanists 
of note have at different times occupied themselves in collecting plant- 
names, and that the results of their labours in each case remain un- 
published. Gaertncr, during his residence at St. Petersburg, com- 
piled a dictionary of them, of which we have been unable to 
discover any details. A '* Dictionnaire des Koms vulgaires des 
riantes," compiled by Moritz, with the assistance and under the 
direction of the elder De Candolle, is in the library of the De Candolles 
at Geneva, and is probably the most complete in existence so far as 
arrangement and convenience of reference are concerned. This was 
arranged for publication, and a prospectus and specimen of the work 
were issued.* Unfortunately its magnitude, embracing as it did 
"the names of plants in sixty different languages or dialects, from 
French, English, and other European languages, to Chinese, Sanskrit, 
Mexican, &c.,"t prevented the publishers to whom it was offered 
from undertaking its production. Something of its value and com- 
pleteness may be gathered from the description given of it in the 
memoir already cited : — " It is an immense work, executed with great 
care, and of which the publication would have an interest at once 
botanical, philological, and geographical. Botanists would avail 
themselves of it in utilising the descriptions of travellers. Philolo- 
gists would delight to trace the origin and filiation of the names of 
plants from one language to another, Eeaders of travels, agricultu- 
rists, traders who receive the products of foreign countries, would find 
here the explanation of many of the names which puzzle them. 
This '' Dictionnaire " is frequently quoted in De Candolle _3 
" Geographic Botanique." Lastly, the late Dr. Seemann had, as is 
Avcll known, devoted much time and care to the collection of these 



admirably 



t 



to carry out the task which he unfortunately ma noi; u%e w cuu-i^icto-. 
It is to he hoped that his large MS collection -will be acquired hy 
some scientific estahlishment where it will he available to luture 

"Workers in the same field. , -i - i j 

It is no disparagement to Dr. Ulrich's work to say that he does 
not attempt anything so extensive as t he collections of Aloritz or 

* See Pritzel^ " Thesaurus Botanicum," p. 202, No. 7204. 
t Alph. De CandoUe, " Biographie de M. Moritzi," Arrh. des Sciences 
Physiques and Naturelles de Genfeve, xv., p. 6. 

t See Jonrn. Hot. vii., 333— S36. 



282 NOTICES or booit, 

Seemann, It is inteniled '^for botanists, and especially horticultu- 
rists, agriculturists, students of forestry, and pharmaceutists,*' and 
thus takes in only the names by which trees or plants are known 
in horticulture or agriculture in Latin, English, German, and French. 
• Even this, if well done, would have been very useful, especially to 
gardenei-s ; hut we find many omissions. Thus in the English index 
we look in vain for such well-known names as Aaron* s-beard, Abele, 
Aconite, Alkanet, and AUgood ; while we are surprised to find Abelia, 
Aca^na, Acetabularia, Acanthophippium, Acanthospermum, and a host 
of similar titles, given as English names. The French index seems 
rather better; but we miss Absinthe, Aigle-imperial {Pterh 
aquilina)j Aigrelier {Pyrus torminalts). Aiguille de Berger {Seandix 
Feclen), all common enough in French books ; while the names which 
we have already cited as English appear in a gallicised form as 
Abelie, Acena, Acetabulaire, Acanthophippie, and Acanthospermum. 
In the list of German names the book seems pretty complete, and in 
this respect it may be useful. 

But the notion that every plant must have a name in every 
language, which has introduced so many absurdities to our Floras as 
"English names'* (such as *'Keichenbach's Yellow Eocket" for 
Barlarca arcuata, ** Small Jagged "Water-Radish" for Nasturthm 
palustrej '* Twisted-podded Whitlow-grass " for Drala incana, all given 
in Syme's '* English Botany *'), has led Dr. TJlrich to adapt or translate 
the Latin names so as to suit each language. Thus Callistacliys is the 
same in English, ^' die Callistachys " in German, and * * la Callistachide'* 
in French ; and this in spite of the prefatory announcement that '^ plants 
which keep the Latin expression in all other languages are not 
mentioned here.'^ Such pseudo-popular names are of no value what- 
ever, ^ and their insertion is merely a waste of space. Some of the 
English names, too, are most puzzling : thus on the first two or three 
pages we have Peadly Wale for Ac7iistu8 arborescens, Marshy ililfoil 
for Achillea Ptarmica^ Inglorious for Adoxay Lady-root for 
Adenanthera pavomna^ and so on. Aconitu7n Hapellushas one of the 
English titles of Arum bestowed upon it ; while Artifn itself, which 
has many French names, is only represented in that language by 
VArum mactilL JS^or is the Latin synonymy always satisfiictory ; 
e.g.^ Achillea millefolium is not synonymous with Ptarmica 
vulgaris. 

^ Dr. Ulrich's ** Wortcrbuch " is on the whole tolerably free from 
misprints ; but this is more than can be said for the second work on 
our list. Some of these typographical errors are very puzzling : thus 

MedicQQO arlorea is ane-licist^d ns *<Trpf> IVToTifrr.fml nf Viro-il " : M. 



[ 



us is the " Sea Egg-Medick Plant" ; M. 
1] shell." In some respects, however, t] 



Worterbuch 



plant is indicated; Italian, Spanish, Indian, and American synonyms, 

besides French, Gennan, and English, are cited; and names adapted 
from the T"*'-- -^^ - ^^ ^ /. -i. . ., . . -. -.^ nr^ 

Bentham 

Some of the so-called ''English names" have, however, small ""claim 
to that title ' — " " ' .-- - - 



a urea 



Latin, after the plan familiar to those acquainted with Mr, 
's ** Handbook of the British Flora," are not very frequent, 
the so-called ''English names" have, however, small claim 
title : such as " Barton's flower, golden yellow," for Parlonia 
" Bugloss officinalis," iox Anchma officinalis; " Man's beard- 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. * 283 

grass, woolly," for Andropogon Ischmmum ; and so on. Much of the 
unsatisfactoriness of this and the preceding work is to be attributed to 
the fact that the authors have in neither case consulted the books 
most suitable for their purpose. Dr. Prior's *' Popular Names of 
British Plants," for example, which is our chief authority for 
English names, is not cited by either ; the English works referred to 
in the ''Catalogo" including such as Johnson's "Chemistry of 
Common Life " (!), Archer's '* Economic Eotany," &c. It would have 
been more to the purpose had Nemnich's Lexicon been cited ; and 
Lindley and Moore's '' Treasury of Eotany," which is singularly good 
in English and French vernacular names, should not have been over- 
looked. 

Prof. Grassmann's ''Pflanzennamen " well exemplifies the useless- 
ness of manufactured names. The German name of some one species 
is applied to the genus, and all the other species are made to conform 
to it. Thus Cytisus Laburnum is known in German as Gold-regcn : 
regen is taken for the genus, and adapted to the various species, 
thus : — C. alpinusy Alpen-regen ; C, argenteus^ Silber-regen ; C. 
eapitatus^ Kopf-regen; and so on. By this means the idea of rain, 
which is not inappropriate when applied to the Laburnum (which the 
Swedish call Guld-regn and the French Pluie d'or), loses all its signifi- 
cance, and in the case of C. capitatus is singularly inappropriate. 
The notes prefixed to each genus are, however, extremely good, as are 
also the references to other authors, such as Grimm and Diefenbach, 
The Scandinavian names, too, which are omitted from the two works 
already noticed, are from time to time cited. We note that Prof. 
Grassmann follows the natural system in the arrangement of^ his 
plants ; Ulrich and the Contessa di San Giorgio prefer the alphabetical, 
which is certainly more convenient for ready reference, and their 
indices are more copious. Each of the three will, however, doubtless be 
of service to the future author of a comprehensive polyglot dictionary 
of plant-names. ' J^^^s Biuxtex. 



The Art of Botanical Drawing. By F. W. Bumsidge, With Twenty 
Engravinys dosigued by the Author. London : Winsor and ISTcwton. 
1873 (8vo, 63 pages). 

The young botanical artist will find this little book of consider- 
able service to him, particularly as it is the only treatise of the kind m 
print, if we except a series of papers in the " Gardener's Chronicle 
by Mr. Fitch, and a few remarks by Schleiden in " The Plant." 

The ordinary artist is too apt to overlook the fact that the beauty 
of the drawing must be secondary to its botanical correctness, and 
that the flower must be so placed as best to show its botanical 
peculiarities, not its most graceful contour ; also that softness must 
often give way to distinctness, or what might be called hardness. _ 

This book coutains, first, an elementary chapter on drawing 
materials ; secondly, a chapter which the student will find practically 
very useful on the drawing of leaves ; then come two on regular and 
irregular flowers, followed by one on the drawing of fruits and seeds, 
all copiously illustrated. Two pages are devoted to microscopic 



284 rjiocEEBijfGs or societies. 

drawing, which forms no unimportant part of the work of a hotanical 
artist. 

Some useful hints are contained in the concluding chapters, but we 
do not understand why we are to wait till the paper is " quite dry " 
hefore laying on the colours. We imagined the purpose of wetting it 
was that, after being pressed by the blotting-sheet, it might retain 
some moisture which would soften the edges and assist in blending 
the colours ; and if our memory is right, Ruskin, in place of our 



to the young painter. 



very 



H. B. 



S^rocecbins^ of ^ocictic^* 



LiNNEAN SoctEiY.— Jim<? I9th. 



iry 



plant in fruit otAmomum Melaqueta, " Grains of P 

in his hothouse.— Mr. Joad sent for exhibition a specimen^of Medicago 

trihuloides collected in Algeria, remarkable for the alteration effected 

in its legumes by the attacks of a UstUago. The affected pods, instead 

of presenting the usual spiny and many-turned spirals, were much 

reduced in size, and possessed but a single turn, having the appearance 

of those of M. ohscura or M. elegans. — " On the Development of 

theGyncccium and the Method of Impregnation in Primula vulgaris:' 

By Dr. Martin Duncan. The author found reason to entirely dissent 

from the observations detailed by Duchartre on the development of 

the pistil in P. veris, and by Pay en. He believed that the former had 

before him a monstrosity. The ovarian wall does not grow up over 

the free placenta (or, as the author prefers to call it, the stroma), as 

has been described, but the two are in organic connection at the base; 

the stroma never has any other connection with the ovarian walls or 

with the style or stigma, but terminates in a point at the top just 

beneath the funnel-shaped arched dome of the interior of the ovary, 

which is lined by a layer of dense cells. The style is not hollow but 

solid. The ovules originate from the stroma, and are exceedingly 

simple, consistmg merely of an external coat and the embryo-sac ; 

the micropyleis placed close to the hCum, and so is in close proximity 

to the stroma. Running up the centre of the stroma is a vascular 

column from which radiates numerous branches in all directions. 

The course of the pollen-tubes was described in detail. They push 

their way through the conducting tissue of the style, and are then 

directed by the layer of dense cells lining the ovary down the ovarian 

walls to their base; here longitudinal dissepiments prevent their 

lateral passage, and they are compelled to pass into the stroma and 

pass upwards ; in so doing they must at last impinge upon one of the 

branching vessels, by which they are directed outwards and reach the 

micropyle of th^ ovule. The changes in the ovule after impregnation 

■were minutely described up to the foimation of the embryo and 



rROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES, 285 



endosperm. The whole ovule rapidly enlarges ; some ot the floating 
granules arrange themselves into elongated masses, others into 
globular masses, which acquire delicate cell-walls and become the 
endosperm, the elongated masses forming the commencement of the 
embryo. — An interesting discussion ensued. Dr. Cobbold gave some 
details of his own examination of the fecundation of the ovules in 
Datura {Brugmansia), where the ovules, also an atr opal, are on stalks, and 
the micropyle at a little distance from the surface of the placenta ; he 
believed that he had seen pollen-tubes passing out from the placenta to 
reach the micropyle. Dr. Hooker called attention to the mode of origin of 
the ovarian walls and stroma as given in the paper, which indicated 
that they were developments of the disk. Prof. Dyer pointed 
out the strongly-marked axial characters of such a placenta, and 
made some remarks on the anomalous nature of the origin of the 
ovules as described by Dr. Duncan, which drew from the latter some 
further details.— " On thePlants of Kilima-njaro." By Dr. Hooker, ihis 
mountain-peak lies close to the Ec^uator, in lat. 3° 5' S., m Zanzibar, 
E. Africa, andreaches over 20, 000 feet in height ; the snow limitis about 
16,400 feet. Seven regions of vegetation may be distmgaished, a 
lowest cultivated district, then a belt of scrub, followed by a forest 
region, a district of pasture-land, a heathy zone, and lastly a region 
of bare rocks up to the snow-line. The plants, about fifty m number, 



were collected by Mr. Xew, a missionary.* The S. African character 
of the flora is very remarkable, and although twenty species were 
collected just below the snow-line, there are no alpine forms. Adeno- 
rnr^.u. ar«.->,«.V «Ur^ Pnllpoifid ill the Cameroous, on the west coast. 



belongs to a Mediterranean genus. ^, . 

. Botanical Society op Edinbubgh. — /««« 12^A.— iNouee 

of Botanical Excursions made in 1872 and 1873 (r^o. I). J^y 
Prof. Balfour.-" On the Be-tubbing of Pahns and other 
large exotics in the Eoyal Botanic Garden " By Mr. Mc^ab. 
-Mr. John Sadler exhibited a growing plant of Acer pseudo- 
platanus, on which he had made an experiment as to the 
healing of a wound. In March, 1871, a ring of bark, ™;>r« ^^an 1 
inch in breadth, was removed from the mam stem, and the wood 
nudcrneath rubbed perfectly dry. In a few weejs a s^vellmg was 
visible on both the upper and under edges ot the ^^^.^^f^^J^^ 
development of woody matter to heal the wound. The swelling on the 

upper edge seemed to be formed of a ring «f J^^^^^t^tj<^^%7;^ ViS 
from the under edge a circle of buds was ^.^^f P^^^;"^;;,^^;^^- 
exhibited some specimens of the Irish Yew, with large tuberous sweU 

ings of wood formed between the stem and the P^°Pf . 5^*^!^- . ^ ^^^ 
tubers measured 8 to 12 inches in circumference and the plan spos 
sessing them, though healthy-looking, wei^ smaller "^ "=« /^^'^ ^^^ 
of similar age which had no such growths. The plants had been 
sent by Mr. Anderson, of the Perth Nursenea. 



« 



These have heeu already, so far as coulJ then be done, noticed ia thU Journal 



(vol. X., p. 235). 



286 BOTANICAL NEWS 



25otamcaI |5ctDj^* 



Articles in Jottrnals. 

J(9?<rw. R. U.orticuUural Soc.(Jur\Q 16tli). — J. Eoswcll-Syme, "On 

Fertilisation of Grasses" (see Joum. Bot. 1872, p. 153)! W. 

Thisclton Dyer, "On Eecent Progress in the Scientific Aspects of 
Horticulture."— lb., Abstract of Translation of Boussingault on Honey- 
dew.— J. Denny, " The Eelative Influence of Parentage in Plowerin"- 
Plants."— A. W. Bennett, "Do Flies eat Pollen?"— J. G. BaW^ 
"On Dramnaixn^ C or dy line. "—lb., " Classified Synonymic List of all 
known Lilies."— T. Moore, "On Ften's scrrulato-tremula" (with 
plate). 

Jttlt. 

Grevillea.—^. M. Holmes, " New British Alga) " {Calithammon 
Jwrmocarpum (tab. 11), Nitophyllum ihysamrhizans (tab. 12).)— M. J. 
Berkeley, " I^^otices of ^. American Fungi " (contd.).— J". M. Crombie, 
"JS'ote on Lecanora Ralfsii, Salwey." 

Quart. Joum. Microsc. Science.— \[. Archer, "A Eesume of 
Recent Yiews respecting the Nature of Lichens " (tab. 9 & 10).— 
G. Gulliver, "On the Crystals in the Testa of the Elm; on the 
Character of the Epidermis in the Tway blade." 

Monthly Microscopical Journ.—F. Kitton, " Remarks on Aula- 
codiscus formosus, OmphahpeUa versicolor, with Description of a New 
Species of i\^fli'2Wa " {N. Perryana from Callas).— E. Eraithwaite, 
"On Sphagnum Angstromii, C. Hartm." (tab. 22). 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr.~y. de Janka, "Plant, nov. Turcic. 
brevianum (contd.)— ^i^c-^a po7itiea, Lotus alius, Ferulago athoa, Peii- 
cedanum macedomcum, Seseli filifoUum, Ackillwa depressa, Primula 
frondosa {=P. fannosa, Griseb. non L.).— A. Kerncr, "Distribution 
of Hungarian Plants'" (contd.)-A. Eehmann, "Diagnoses of 
Ilieracia m Galicia and Bukowina." (contd.).— M. von Tommasini, 
" Flora of S. Istria " (contd.). 

_ Bot. Zeitung.~G. Kraus, " Eemarks on summer withering of 

Leaves of Trees" (contd.).— Kurz, "On the Floridem; on the 

Leaves of Conifer(e.''~0;. Winter, "Eemarks on tlie Genus Sor- 
daria. 

Flora.— W. Nylander, "Addenda nova ad Lichenographiam 



Europaeam (31 new species, 15 from Britain and Channel Islands). 




Un the Cause of Colouration of the Epidermis of the" Vegetative 

Organs of Pants."- J. Sachs, "On the Growth and Gootropism of 

crec^ stems.' ~0. Brefeld, "Notes on Penicilllum crustaceum {yha- 
cum). 



BOTANICAL NEWS, 287 



Bull. Bot. 8oc. Belg. (12 July).— C. Bamps, ^'Rare Plants of the 
Environs of Ilassclt." — A. Thielens, ** The Orchids of Belgium and 
Luxembourg." 

Bidh Bot. SoV, France (torn, xix., pt. 4). — E. Fournier, '* Ser- 
tum Nicaraguense '^ (Levy's collection; Ferns; nine new species.). 
— A, Chatin, " llysanthes gratioloides in Environs of Angers," — 
Gaudcfroy and Mouillefarine, '* The * Florula obsidionalis' of Paris 
in 1872 '' (see previous list in Joum. Bot., 1872, p. 339 : 72 addi- 
tional species, 56 no longer found). — Triana, '' On RcezUa grayiadensis^ 
Rgl," — E. Prillieux, '^On Formation of ^ Bourrelets ^ on the 
margin of cuts in stem of Wigandia caracamna^'^ — C. Eoumeguere, 
'* On a Monstrosity of Agaricm {Pleurotus) conchaius, Bull." — M. 
Cornu, *' Note on a Fungus parasitic on an Insect." — P. Duchartre, 
" Observations on Anatomical Characters of Zodera and Cymodocea^ 
with reference to a plant found at Montpellier" (C. mquorea^ Kon.). 
— Triana, *' Sertum I^icaraguense " {Melmiomacem). — B. Balansa, 
''Ascent of Mt. Humboldt (' Cando' of the New Caledonians)."— 
lb., '^Catalogue oi Gramineoi of N. Caledonia" {Greslama.n. gen. 
3 spp. Eleven new species). — E. Mer, *' On origin and development 
of dormant buds in Woody Dicotyledons." — J. Duval-Jouve, ''Syno- 
nymy of certain CyperacemP 

Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Italiano (24 July).— N. Terraciano, ** Enumc- 
ratio Plant, in agro Murensi sponte nasc." (contd.). — A. Todaro, "Ad- 
en Flora of the Balkan."— T. Caruel, " On Thelygonum CynocramW 
notationes ad indicem seminum hort.Panormitani." — V. Cesati, "Notes 
(tab. 1).— -G. ■ Archangeli, "On the regular forms of Vegetable 
Cells."— Tchistiakoff, "Notes on development of sporangia and 
Spores in Isoetes Dunem, Bory."— lb., " Note on Cell-Division in 
Algas" (tab. 2).— V. Cesati, "Further Notes explanatory of the 
' Comp. Fl. Itnliana,' "— " Kcviow of Botanical Work at Congresses of 
Italian Naturalists" (contd,). 



A very interesting resume of the present position of the Lichen- 
gonidia question, with a translation of Schuendener's last paper on 
the subject, is contained in the July number of the "Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science." The l)otanical side of this 
periodical has been greatly strengthened by the addition to the 
editorial staff of Prof. Thiselton-Dyer. The short abstracts of recent 
foreign memoirs on various points in microscopical botany are a useful 



feature. 



The Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturahsts Society 
for 1872-73 contains a full list of all the Fungi at present known to 
inhabit the country, compiled by Mr. C. B. Plownght. It contains 
upwards of 800 species, and appears to be a very carefully-prepared 

contribution to local botany. , r, • i n-n- iji 

In the Annual Eeport for 1872-3 of the Glasgow Society of Field 
Naturalists we find a list of additions to the flora of the neighbourhood, 
and a record of the exotics found on the rubbish heaps about the city. 
Dr. J. Stirton, the President, contributes a paper on some JSew 
Zealand tichons, sent by Mr. J. Buchanan, of Wellington, in wluch 



288 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

eighteen new species are described. He also defines a ne^ species of 
Lecidea — Z. didymospora — collected on Ben Lawers in 1871. 

Dr. Moore, of Grlasnevin, has published in the "Proceedings of 
the Eoyal Irish Academy" (vol. i., series 2, Science), a complete 
diagnostic catalogue of all the Mosses known to inhabit Ireland. The 
total number of species is 378, of which 37 are additional to those 
previously published. "We shall take an early opportunity of giving 
a fuller accoimt of this synopsis, which occupies 146 pages and gives a 
full list of synonyms and localities for each species. 

The East-Bourne (Sussex) Ifatural History Society has issued a 
new edition of its list of the natural history of the district, corrected 
to Julie, 1873. The catalogue includes all departments of Nature, 
and is evidently compiled with unusual care and accuracy. *' The flora 
of the district, from the variety of soil and elevation, is peculiarly 
interesting, and the present list of 631 flowering plants and Ferns, 
though by no means complete, embraces three-fifths of the entire 

recorded flora of Sussex With respect to the Cryptogamia, 

the list is more incomplete ; but the list of Lichens and Fungi has 
been more than doubled since 1871, whilst several interesting 
additions have been made to the catalogue of marine Algxe, and by the 
kind assistance of Dr. Capron the list of Mosses has been much 



increased. 



kii' 



work on Asia, has undertaken a French translation of Grisebach's new 
Handbook of Geographical Botany. The first volume will appear in 
Paris in the spring of 1875, or perhaps earlier, under the title of " La 
vegetation du globe, d'apres sa disposition suivant les Climats ; 
ebauche d'une Geographie Comparee des Plantes : par A. Giisebach, 
traduitde TAllemand et annote par P. de Tchihatchef." The 
annotations are expected to be copious, and the manuscript will pass 
under the revision of Dr. Grisebach himself. 

The death is announced at Vienna, on July 1st, of Dr. Franz 
Pokomy at sixty-four years of age. He occupied a high legal 

position m the capital, but was an enthusiastic student of Austrian 
botany. 

Dr. Beccari, the Italian traveller and collector, when last heard 
from was at the Island of Wokam, off the south-west coast of N'ew 
Gumea ; he was to go on to Amboina, and had made large collections 
of plants and animals. 

The prizemen in Botany for this year at the annual competition at 
Apothecaries' Hall are first Mr. J. Todd, University College, a gold 
medal J second, Mr. C. H. Cuming, University CoUege, a sQver medal 
and books. j o j 

_ The British Herbarium of the British Museum has lately been 
increased by the addition of Dr. Trimen's collection, chiefly consist- 
ing ot the plants of the neighbourhood of London. 



289 



ODriginal %vtit\e0. 



ON AN UNDESCRIBED SPECIES OP 
MESEMBRYANTHEMUM FROM THE SOUTH OF PORTUGAL. 

By the late Fkiedrich AVelwitsch, M.D,, F.L.S. 

(Tab. 136.) 

[The following short paper, left in my hands hy its lamented 
author, was intended by him to have formed the introduction to a 
more extensive article comprehending general ohscryations on the 
flora of Algarvia. Dr. Welwitseh had been struck with some 
remarkable instances of connection between the vegetation of the 
southern province of Portugal and the Cape of Good Hope, and had 
selected the plant forming the subject of this article as the most 
striking example. Unfortunately the notes relating to the general 
subject are fragmentary and unconnected, and not such as could be 
got into form for publication by anyone but their writer; the paper, 
however, here printed, with this explanatory note, is complete as it 
stands,— ^f?. Journ. Bof] 

It was m the year 1847 that I commenced a botanical exploration 

along the coast of Algarvia, the most southern province of Portugal. 

Besides many rare and severid new European species, I collected a 

shrubby Mesemlnjanthemum-. This grew in tolerable plenty about 

four miles inland from Faro, on dry sandy banks, among bushes of 

Cistm^ Ulex, Erica, and the beautiful palm, Chamwrops hamilis, 

which is abundant in such spots everywhere in Algarvia. Though 

the plant grew in places far removed from any dwellings, I yet 

thought it possible that it might be found in gardens in some of the 

coast towns ; but in spite of a diligent search and extensive inquiry, I 

could find no trace of its occurrence anywhere in gardens in Algarvia. 

Neither was it among the numerous species of Cape Mesembryantlie- 

Diums which I had formerly had under cultivation when superintendent 

of the botanical gardens at Lisbon. On a careful comparison of the 

specimens collected with the species described in De Candolles 

''Prodromus" (vol, iii., p. 415, et seq,), itfarthcr appeared they could 

Dot be identified with any. I therefore felt myself justified m con- 

sidering it a new species indigenous to Algarvia,* and accordingly m 

the year 1851 I distributed specimens to several public herbaria 

(British Museum, Kew, Jardin des Plantes), and to a few private 



^ * The plant is alluded to in a short note by Dr. Welwitseh, printed m the 
■l^egenbLurg '* Flora " for 18i9, p. 528, but no name is there given to vt,—{hu. 
^oiifn, Mot} 

N.S, VOL. 9. [OCTOBKII, 1873.] ^ 



290 ON AN UNDESCRITiEB SPECIES OF MESEMBRYANTKEMDM. 

collections, under the name of Mes&mhnj antJiemum hrachjphjllum 

(Plantse Lusitanicse exsicc, n. 307). 

My departure from Portugal soon afterwards, and a residence ot 



when I was carefully examining and describing the species found by 
me in Angola * that my attention was directed anew to the plant 
collected in Algai-ria, which I had considered to be new, and which 



I now endeavoured to identify by means of the most recent revision 
of Mesembryanthmum—ivi Harvey and Sender's "Mora ^Capensis, 
vol. ii , p. 386—460, where 295 species of this elegant genus are 

UtJSCT'luGQ. ' 

The difficulty of determining isolated species, especially when 
dried, is however very great, though much assisted by the synoptical 
table of species, arranged under two main groups and sixty-five sections, 
proposed by Salm-Dyck and retained in the " Flora Capcnsis.' It is 
often very hard to decide in dried specimens to which of the main 
groups, Papulosa or Upapulosce, any particular specimen is to be 
referred, and it is always necessary to examine the form of the leaves 
and colour of the flowers, as well as the presence or absence ot 
papiHce, before determining the point. Partly by negative and partly 
by positive characters, one can generally make out the sub-group ot 

the plant under examination. 

The Portuguese plant comes under the Epapulom, and falls under 
§ 25 aurea, Haw. There are only two species with which it ia very 
closely connected, M. glaucum, L.,t and M. aurantiacum,^ ^^^-^ 
between which it is intermediate. The following is a description of 

the plant. _ ,. 

MESEMBKYANinEMUM BEACHTPHTLLUM, Welw.^ n.Sp. OaullS 

erectus f— 1 ped. altus (vel basi ascendens), suffruticosus, cylm- 
dricus, Isevigato-nitens, rubens vel glauco-roseus, parce _e medio 
ramosuB, ramis brevibus alternis compressiusculis, subarticulis ad 
interstitia i— 1 poll, gregato foliosis. Folia subconnata, patula 
crassa, 4 v. 5 lin, longa, abbreviata, obtuse acuminata,^ tnquetra, 
glauca vel glauco-pruinosa, alia minora gregata in axillis foventia. 
Floras solitarii, e majoribus, Qavi, circiter I J poll, diamctri, pcdunculo 
ebracteato 1—1^ poll, longo sursum incrassato recto suflfulti. Calycis 
turbinati (v. hemisphjerico-turbinati) 5 lobi Isevigati, lobis e latabasi 
ovatis interioribus oblique ovatis latioribus marginequc late scanoso- 
membfanaceis. Petala plana, basi connata, 2- (vel etiam_ 3- aut 4-; 
seriata, horizontaliter patentia, vix linea lata, 8 lin. longa. 
Ovarium 5-loculare ; styli 5 (vel 4, duobus nempe connatis) crassius- 
culi e lata basi acuminati apice reourvi. 

Dbscbiptios of Tab. 136, 

Mesemhryanthemim Iraehyphyllum, Welw. From a specimen collected in 
Algarvia in 1848 by the late Dr. Welwitsch. 



> 




* See " Flora of Trop. Africa," vol. ii., pp. 582-3— [£r?. Jowm. Bot.] 

t Jf. glaucum, E. & Z., is altogether diflferent from the species of ^^i?"^"^: 
and is a member of a different section (crocea. Haw.). It is distinguisDoa 
once by its 4 -fid calyx, and is also separated by its S'-O (not 5) stigmas. 



RECENT HESEARCnES IN IDE DiATOMACEiE. 291 



RECENT RESEAECHES IN THE DIATOMACE^. 

By Eev. E. O'Meaea, A.M. 

VII. 

i 

The forms embraced in the four groups to "be now considered are 
placed by Dr. Pfitzcr, in reference to themselves and to other groups, 
in a relationship very diifcrent from that assigned to them by most 
writers of authority on the subject. The groups referred to are 
AmpJiipJcurecej Plapofroptdecs, Amphitropidem^ and Nitznclmm. Hei- 
berg indeed places the genus AmpMphura under that of NitzscMa^ 
and that because the species of the former family, which he had 
specially examined, was that named by Smith A, sigmoidea — 
a form which I believe to be identical with NUzsehia sigmoidea. So 
under the supposition that the form named is to be properly regarded 
as really belonging to the genus AmpMpletira, he was quite right in 
the position he assigned to it: but regarding Amphipleura pellucida as 
a genuine type of the family, its position, according to Heiberg's 
system of classification, is widely apart. Grunow at first placed 
Amphipleura among the Surirellece, but afterwards made it the type of 
a distinct group, in which he included BerJcleya. Pfitzer agrees with 
Grunow as to the comprehension of BerUeya in the group, though he 
places the group itself in a very difi'erent relation. The position of 
Amphipleura^ according to Ralfs, is between the Nitzschiem and 
Surirene(B. Rabenhorst placed it under the Nmimlacem in his Siissw. 
Diat., but subsequently, in PL Eur. Alg., ranges it between the 
Synedrice and Nitzschie^. According to Kiitzing, "Wm. Smith, and 
Prof. H. L. Smith, Amphipleura is assigned to a position more or less 
intimately associated with the Naviculacem. ^ . 

The two next groups, Plagiotropidem and Amphitropidm^ are 
intimately associated with the genus Amphiprora^ Ehr., which has 
been regarded as nearly related to the Naviculacece^ but the allied 
forms are by Pfitzer associated with the Nitzschiem, The character 
which these four groups possess in common, and in consequence of 
which they are so intimately associated by that author, is the develop- 
ment of certain longitudinal lines into more or less prominent keels. 
Whether this characteristic should be deemed a sufficient reason to 
justify the arrangement referred to may be considered as liable to 
doubt ; it is, however, important to keep this common feature in view. 

Let the author now speak for himself. 

Amphipleurecs, Grun* 
This embraces two genera, Amphipleura^ Kxitz , and BerUeya^ 
Grev. The only European fresh-water form of this group, distin- 
guished from the Naviculem by the development of the central 
nodule on one longitudinal line, and the three keels of the valve— 
namely, Amphipleura pellucida, (Ehr.) Kiitz,— possesses twoendo- 
chrome-plates lying on the girdle-bands. A central plasm-mass is also 
observable. In the process of constructing auxospores, only BerUeya 
BiUwynitj (Ag.) Grun , has been observed by Liiders. For this 

V 2 



292 RECENT UESEARCHES IN THE DIATOilACE^. 



purpose many cells unite in a common gelatinous envelopment on tlie 
extremities of the tubes, or smaller expansions arise on the sides and 
middle of the tubes ; two mother-cells then develope two auxospores. 

The structures described by Kiitzingj Bac, p. 112., t. 23, f. ii., 2, 
a b c, as the fruit of Berhleya teams, (Kiitz.), appear to me, adds Pfitzer, 
not to belong to the Bacillariacem at all. It appears then that, so far 
as the internal structure of the cell is concerned, Amphipleura bears a 
strong resemblance to Kavicula. 

In case the character noted by Pfitzer — namely, the development of 
a central nodule on one median line, by which I understand its occur- 
rence on one valve and not on the other — be sustained by fact, the 
position of Amphipleura will be seriously affected. In special reference 
to this subject I have examined very many specimens of Amphiphttra 
pelhccida, and could observe no trace in any of a central nodule. 

Plagiotropideoe. 

This embraces only one genus, Plagiotropis^ gen. nov. The 
development of the median lines into prominent keels, which in the 
preceding group occurred to a slight extent, is more strongly 
marked in the two to be next treated, in which the six nodules 
appear again in the normal manner. The only species to be here 
assigned which occurred to the author in a living state was found in 
brackish water 'in the harbour of Pillau, and is distinguished from 
the next related genus, Amphiprora^ (Ehr.), by the position of the- 
keel, which, instead of being central, is strongly excentric ; and also 
by the disappearance of the prominent longitudinal striae, which 
along with the same occur in all the AmphiprorecB. The valve of P. 
laltica is sharply lanceolate in outline, resembling Navicula sen'ans, 
(Kutz.), in^breadth from one-fifth to one-sixth of its length; the 
keel describing a gentle curve, not sigmoid, but, as in the Amphtprorem, 
sinking down at the central nodule to the plane of the valve, which 
it divides into two parts in the proportion of one to four, so that it is 
very excentric. Supposing the Plagiotropis to lie so as to present its 
valve-surface to the observer, on the upper valve the keel deviates 
towards the right, on the under valve towards the left, so that Plagio- 
tropu, like Pimiulana, is diagonally constructed. The valves exhibit 
a very fine striation, and when dry are nearly colourless. The 
girdle-band view strongly resembles that of an Amphiprora, pretty 
much that of Amphiprora indica, (Grun.), only that the two keels 
obviously lie in different planes. The inner structure is similar to 
that of NavimJa. Two endochrome-plates lie upon the girdle-bands, 
and thence with their edges stretch to some extent over the valves. 
Each plate covers the greater part of the valve from the keel of 
■which it has extended, the opposite margin going a shorter distance 
towards the other keel. The structure of the soft parts corresponds 
w^ith the diagonal construction of the cell-cover. 

Amphitropidem, 
In this group we have only a single form, Amphitropis paludosa 
(RabO, quere Amphicampa paludosa, Rab. Fl. Eur. Alg., p. 257. The 
AmpJiilropidece, says Pfitzer, are related to the Plagiotropidece some- 
what as the CumMlece. still svmmotrieal in mitlinp. arft to the JVavmka. 



EECENT KESEAECHES IN THE BIATOMACE^E. 293 

The form of the cell-cover differs little, but the inner structure is 



quite different. 



(W 



tinguished by means of its sigmoid keels constructed in relation to ono 
another, as in the case of Seoliopkura, as also] by the two accompany- 
ing longitudinal strife. It has only a single endochrome-plate, lying 
on one girdle-band, and with its margins reaching to the valves ; fission 
takes place from the ends thronghont. A central plasm-mass is 
obvious. "Whether the similarly keeled genera, AmpTiiprora^ (Ehr.), 
and DonJcinia, (Pritch.), belong to this_ or to the preceding group re- 
mains to be determined. Auxospores in all these forms are still 
unknown. The conclu4ing observation of our author suggests the 
propriety of subjecting the various related forms to a careful exami- 
nation -with a view to a satisfactory arrangement. 

Nit%8cMe(B^ (Grun.). 

Tlie forms hitherto treated of agree in this particular, that, with 
the exception of the Efithemim^ which have a very indistinct median 
line, they exhibit nodules and distinct median lines; and that the 
transverse section is rectangular or trapezoid, except Encxjonema^ 
in which case it is slightly rhomboid. The Nitzschiem^ on the contrary, 
possess neither nodules nor median lines, and besides, their transverse 
section is ever distinctly rhomboid. This group embraces three 
genera, Nitzschia^ CerafoneiSj and Bacillaria. 

Nitzschia. 

r 

In which we have species of a twofold structure, which may be 
distinguished as similarly striate (gleichriefige) and alternately striate 
(wechselriefige). The valves of every Nitzschi-i exhibit on one margin 
a row of nodulated thickenings, called keelpuncta, which are situated 
in the two valves either on the same or on opposite sides, _ All the 
Nitzschice examined possess a central granular plasm-mass, in which 
a larger cell-kernel may be distinguished, as also a single endochrome- 
plate, either completely interrupted in the middle or nearly so by an 
elliptical opening. 

The endochrome-plate in the case of the similarly striate Nitzschia, 
so far as the author has been able to investigate (/V. elongata, (Hansch.), 
J\^.flexa, (Schum.)), lies on one girdle-band, and that the one which 
stands more remote from the keelpuncta ; it then covers the valve, 
and with small folds extends to i\\e opposite girdle-band. Some of 
the alternately striate Nitzschic&—iov example, N. palea, (Kutz.) 
W. Sm., A^. sic/moidea, W. Sm., A^. claiisii, Hantzsch— present 
the same position of the endochrome-plate, while JV. dubia, 
Hantzsch, and N. linearis, (Ag.) W. Sm., differ widely in the inner 
structure. In them the endochrome-plate passes freely across the cell, 
reaching from one row of keelpuncta to the other. When the frus- 
tule so stands as that the keels are to the eye of the observer super- 
imposed one on the other, a narrow dark brown longitudmal band 
appears between two broad colourless ones. If, again, the frustulc 
lies on one obtuse-angled edge, it appears entirely light yellow-brown. 
And again, if the frustule or one girdle-band lie parallel to the slip 
on which the object lies, the colouring of the cell, which would natu- 
rally be white, is of a somewhat darker hue, because tlic cndochrnuL- 



294 KECENT EESEAECHES IN THE BIATOMACE^. 



plate will he projected in a direction inclined to the plane of its acute- 
angled side. 

We have consequently among the Nitzschim species with the inner 
&nd outer structure symmetrically diagonal, some having the silicious 
envelope and the soft inner parts unsymmetrical to one another on the 
homologous sides ; and lastly, intermediate forms in which the 
silicious envelope is diagonal, and the inner structure unsymmetrical 
to it on the homologous sides. The cell-division has been followed out 
in Nitzschia elongata and N, sigmoidea. It commences with a longi- 
tudinal division of the endochrome-plate from the ends throughout, 
then the cell-kernel separates into two, and the division of the plasm 
ensues. The daughter-cells at first lie in the longitudinal axis of the 
cell, and then after a time assume their natural position, 

Ceraioneisy Ehr. 

The minute forms, C. acicular is, (Kutz,)'PTitGh., and C.reversa, (W. 
Sm.) Pritch., as regards their inner structure difi*cr in no respect from 
the normal M'tzscMcEj with a single endochrome-plate lying on one 
girdle-band ; but on the contrary C. longissima. fBrib.') Pritch., exhibits 
numerous minute plates. 



Bacillaria. 



The single cells of Bacillaria paradoxa^ Gmel., have likewise a 
single endochrome-plate covering one girdle-band ; nevertheless in the 
greater number of the cells of a colony the endochrome-plate appears 
separated into two through means of division. As respects the 
development of auxospores in the Nitzschiem, we know only this, that 
Schuman found a form belonging to Nitzschia with zone-covers 
(zonenkleide). In addition to the coarse dark zones, there was 
present also a system of fine longitunal lines on the sheath. 

It is to be ^regretted that Dr. Pfitzer should have given the 
authority of his justly-distinguished name to the revival of the 
Ehrenbergian genus, Ceratoneis, for the purpose of separating the 
forms embraced under it from the genus Nitzschia, to which they 
belong. Grunow has well described Ehrenberg's genus, Ceratoneis, as 
a medley of heterogeneous forms, and retained the generic name to 
receive the single species = JEunotia arcus, W. Sm., in which he is 
followed by Prof. H. L. Smith. There may indeed be good reason 
for retaining the generic name so limited, but strong objections may be 
urged against the genus as Ehrenberg and Kutzing left it. Too 
much praise cannot be given to Dr. Pfitzer for his observations on 
the genus Nitzschia. No doubt the forms investigated by him 
constitute but a small proportion of those comprehended under this 
extensive family; but the structural characters he has illustrated, in 
such as he has examined, may serve as a clue to further investigations, 
and can scarcely fail to lead to satisfactory results. 



ON LIXDS^A LINEARIS 



295 



ON LINDS^A LINEARIS, 5«;. : WITH" DESCKIPTIONS 

OF TWO NEW SPECIES. 

By Charles Prentice. 

As some confusion exists as to the differentiation of three small 
species of Lindsaa, which, though undoubtedly distinct, have not 
been discriminated in any printed memoir, and are confounded 
together under the old and well-known species, Lindscsa linearis, Sw., 
by more than one English pteridologist, I send the accompaajing 
diagnosis (with illustrative specimens), which I hope may contribute 
to define these species satisfactorily. L. linearis, Sw., is so generally 
known, and so well described by Swartz, and by Sir W. J. Hooker m 
the " Species Filicum," that it is not easy to understand how any 
difficulty has occurred in acknowledging the specific difference of the 
Other two allied species, from which it is separated by decisive 
characters and by geographical distribution— i. linearis being found 
in every part of Australia, from Tasmania to Rockingham Bay, in 
the North of Queensland ; while the other two are evidently much 
more circumscribed, if not confined to the latter colony. 

L. INCISA, n.sp.— Rhizome creeping, but more slender than that 
of the older species ; stipites slender, pale green, smooth, 
from three or four inches to a foot high; pinnae numerous, 
deeply incised, flabellate, the larger often three-lobed, bearing short 
interrupted sori on each division, the pinniE smaller above and l)e!ow 
than in the middle of the frond. Matures in June, as does L. 
linearis, growing in damp shaded places. It differs, therefore, from 
the typical species in its uniformly pale green hue, in the deeply- 
lobed, smaller pinnse, in the interrupted sori, in the colour, and m 

being raucli less robust in every part. 

L. HETEROPHVLLA, n.^^J.-Stipites tufted, sendujg down a 
cluster of rather slender radicles, and with no tendency 
to develope a rhizome; lower fronds uniformly shorter, 
bearing deeply-lobed flabellate pinnae, which are oUen but 
not always barren, sometimes bt-aring interrupted son on the 
divisions of the pinncc. Th.'se fronds form a rosette, from wh.ch 
several simple, slender, pale green, elongated fronds emerge, from tour 
to eight inches high, bearing on the upper half several small semi- 
linear, nearly enttre pinna., which are always fertile ; the who e 
plant smooth, rather pale green, the stipites tinged f ^he very ba.e 
only with pale purple. Matures in July, a month later than eUher 
L. linearis ov I Lisa, and generally found in drur and more 



in the absence of a rhizome, in me uui«u la^.v^x^o " "^ - 
length of the barren and fertile fronds, in the deeply-lobed barren 
pinnae, in the colour, and in being later in developing. 



J(P 



296 ON TLAKTS COLLECTED IN MOEOeCO. 



DESCEiniOJ^S OF SOME NEW SPECIES, SUBSPECIES, 
AND VARIETIES OF PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOEOCCO 
BY J. D. HOOKER, G. MAW, AND J. BALL. 

X ■ 

Br J. Ball, F.R.S. 

{Continued from page 273.) 

. Ranunculus Charophyllos,!,.; subsp. R. leueotJirix, ■aob.—D'iWQnt 
a typo grumis cylindricis, nee ovatis, indumento ex pilis longis villosis 
inferno patulis superne adprcssis, nee brevi adpresso sericeo, pedicellis 
fructifcris rigidioribns subincrassatis, foliorum tripartitoium segmento 
medio longiori scepe tripartito, calyce fructifero persistente reflexo.— 
Eah. In regione iuferiori Atlantis (Distr. Eeraya) circa 1000""! 

A R. ChoirophyUo facie valde diversus et forsan melius pro specie 
distincta habuerim, si specimlna florentia adfuissent. Calyx sub 
anthesi reflexus est in hoc genere nota specifica gravis momenti. 

Ranunculus acris, L. ; subsp. R. atlaniicus, nob.— Inter subspecies 
et varietatea R. acris distinguitur imprimis statura maxima 3, 5, 
pedali, corolla (pro grege) maxima, rhizomate crasso horizontali fibres 
vahdos emittente, foliis magnis pentagonis profunde 3- vel 5-fidis, 
segmentis mcisis, indumento scriceo-piloso adpresso, pra^sertim in 
foliorum pagma mferiori (folia igitur bicoloria) ; carpella parva 
numerosa rostrata, rostro subrecto longiuscnlo .—Jlab . Frequens in 
convaUibus septentnonalibus Atlantis Majoris— Urika ! Eeraya! 
AitMesan! Arasmiz I a 1000° ad. 1900™. 

^ Huic proximus est R. Frtesianus, Jord. Obs. vi., p. 17 =i2. nemo- 
rivagus, Jord. Diagn, i., p. 74. 

Papaver^ tenue, nob.— Annuum (seu bienne ?) ; planta tota pilis 
longis setosis vestita (folia inferiora et sepala interdum glabrescentia) ; 
toha pnmana pmnata, pinnis inciso-lobatis segmentis rotundatis, 
cauhna circuitu late triangulari-ovata, bipinnatifida, segmentis 
linean-oblongis acutis ; caulis subsimplicis seta3 inferiores putula), 
superiores adpressa) ; petala obovato-oblonga ; discus convcxlusculus 
capsaltc^ glabra) obovato-turbinat^ latitudine vix lequalis, crenatus, 
crenis vix incumbentibus ; stigmata 6-7 —ITai 



ugo Tag- 



superiori Atlantis Majoris, in convalle Ait Mesan ! et in j 

herot ! a 1800™ ad 3000- in convalle Amsmiz ! et in montc" Djebcl 

Tezah! a 1600" ad 2500"". 

ProximumP. arenario, M.B., at diffcrt pctalis angustis nee sub- 
rotundatis sctis caulmis adpressis nee patulis, ca^terisque notls. Cap- 
suia lere 1 . Uecaisnei sed in hoc discus complanatus, crenaj magis 



discrcta;. 



Rapaver ruptfrayum, Boiss. et Eeut. ; var. athntkum, nob. 
lerenne cJEspitosum ; rhizoma multicaule ; folia (fere omnia 
radicaha) setis lon^s albidis dense obtecta, circuitu obverse lanceolata, 
grosse dentata vel pinnatipartita, segmentis ina)nualibu3 plus 
frTlZ ^!!^i _T^'' scaplformis, 8-20-pollicaris, simplex vol 

flores ante anthesia nutantes, 
capsula clavata, glabra, imo 



imo basi furcatus, adprcsse setosus; fl 
petala late obovata, sordidc aurantiaca : 



ON PLANTS COLLECTED IK MOliOCCO. 297 

basi (ad pctalorum insertioneni) annulo glandulifero instructa ; discus 
convexus, cienatus, capsulae latitudinera superans. — Hah, In Atlante 
Majori, Ait Mesan! DjebelTezah! a 2000™ ad 2600™. 

Aspectu a planta Boissieriana (in Hispania admodum rara) diver- 
sissimum ; hsec enim obscure virens subglaberrima, nostra canescens 
undique pilosissima. Forsan melius pro subspecie habendum. 

Ftimaria agraria^ Lag. ; Bubsp. F, tenuisecfa, nob. — DifFert a 
typo sepalis angustis minimis acutis dentatis diametrum fructus non 
attingentibus ; a F, judaica, Boiss., petalis multo majoribus, et ab 
omnibus hujus gregis valde ludibundi foliis tripinnatisectis in lacinias 
lin cares planas mucronatas dissectis.- — Uab. Ait Mesan ! circa 1400*". 
Specimen unicum legi. 

Nasturtium atlantieumj nob. — Bienne(?), ccespitosum, glaberrimum, 
ex collo radicis longi verticalis caules breves debiles emittens ; folia 
(fere omnia basilaria) profunde pinnatipartita, lobo termfnali anguloso 
rotundato, lateralibus ina^qnalibus, spathulatis vel oblongo-ellipticis 
angulutis ; pcdicelli breves graciles, non incrassati; petala parva, 
ochroleuca ; siliqua (immatura) Ipevis, subtorulosa, enervis ; stylus 
apiee subclavatus. — Hah. In regione superiori Atlantis Majoris — 



Prod.) et 



Ait Mesan supra Arround ! Tagherot! a 2200™ ad 2800™. 

Abaffinibus {N. ^ 
N Boissieriy Coss.) differt imprimis ha'bitu et foliis divcrsissimis, 
floribus minoribns, ochroleiicis (fere albidis) nee flavis, pedicellis 
gracilibus nee incrassatis, siliqua enervi, nee ut in illis valva) basi 
nervo notatse. Stylus longitudine variabilis. 

Arahis eruhescenSy nob. — A proxima A. alpina differt insigniter 
sepalis basi sequalibus coloratis, petalis dimidio minoribus erubescen- 
tibus, eorum lamina angustiori, pilis caulinis' simplicibus vel apico 
furcatis, nee stellato-ramosis,— ^^ri- In jugo Tagherot, ultra 3000*, 
specimen unicum immaturum et incompletum legi, 

Aralis conringioides, nob. — Radix lignosus perennis, caules 
plurimos erectos, subsimplices, foliates emittens ; herba tota glaberrima, 
glaucovirens ; folia infcriora orbiculata, in petiolumlimbo^oequilongum 
sensim attenuata, caulina elliptica, basi auriculata, auriculis acutis, 
superiora ovato-cordata, semiamploxicaulia, omnia integerrima ; pedi- 
celli numerosi, conferti, filiformes, erecto-patuli, siliquae i vel i; par- 
tem ffiquantes ; calyx basi suba^qualis, sepalis purpurascentibus ; 
petala alba, spathulata, subcrecta ; siliqua erecta, elongate, Icevis, 
subcylindrica, nervo dorsali subobsoleto notata, in stylum brevem^ 
truncatum attenuata; semina 1-seriata.— ^^5. In regione supenon 
Atlantis Majoris— in jugo Tagherot! a 3000™ ad 3500™ ; in monte 
Djebel Tezah ! a 2100™ ad 2800™. 

Species distinctissima, nulli proxima, facie Conrmgiee orienfalis 

sive C. clavatcSj Boiss. 

Arah's puhescens, Poir.— Dsf. FL Atl., tab. 163 (sub Turritis,)\ 
subsp. A. (lecumhens, nob.— Perennis, e collo radicis caules pluii, 
mos debiles decumbentes emittens ; folia radicalia obverse lanceolata- 
acute repando-dentata, in petiolum attenuata, caulina ovato-lanceolata-, 
profunde dontata, suprema lincaria subintegra ; pedicelli filiformes, 
patentes, siliqucc i partem a^quantes; petala alba seu dilute carnea ; 
siliqua) subtorulosa? erecto-patentes valvar dorso obsolete ncrvosse ; 



298 ON PLANTS COLLECIEB IN MOROCCO. 



stylus filiformis, glaber, pro gencrc longiusculus ; stigma vix (aut nc 
vix) bifidum. — Sah. In regione superiori Atlantis Majoris — Ait 
Mesan, supra Arround I a 2100"" ad 2600™. Bjebel Tezah! a 
2400m"^ ad 2500"^. 

Differt a typo habitu omnino diverso, pediceilis patentibus nee ad- 
pressis, siliq[uis magis torulosis, stylo lougiori basi discreto. Tabula 
Fontanesiana A. puhescentis habet siliquas truncatas, stylo subnuUo 
prffiditas ; in speciminibus nostris prope Tetuan lectis video siliquas 
semper in stylum attenuatas. 

Alyssum alpestre^ L. ; var. macrosepalunty nob. — Differt a typo sepalis 
majoribus subpersistentibus siliculam semimaturam a^quantibus, 
siliculis basi ellipticis nee cuneatis, stylo siliculam subaequante. 
Hah. In regione media Atlantis majoris, in convalle Amsmiz! 

Ahjssum maritimuMy Lam. {Koniga maritimay E.Br); var. lepi- 
dioidesy nob. — Differt a typo raceme denso sub3eqiiali, nee basi laxo. 
Hah, In regione inferiori ad radices Atlantis Majoris — supra Sek- 
saoual prope Mtouga legit J. D. H. circa 1000 

Brassica elafa, nob. — Perennis ; caulis erectus, . simplex, 3-6- 
pedalis,^ superne glaberrimus subaphyUus; folia radicalia (10-14- 
poUicaria) et caullna inferiora lyrato pinnatifida, lobo terminali 
maximo, rhomboideo, insequaliter crenato-dentato, lateralibus oppositis 
altemisve, ovato-cuneatis, dentatis, rachi lata cum nervis lateralibus 
albo-rubentia, omnia hispldo-incana ; inflorescentia pyramidalis 
eramis brevibus patulis subsequalibus ; pedicelli breves, stricti ; sepala 
erecta, obtusa, pilosiuscula ; petala saturate lutea, limbo subrotundo ; 
siliqua subtorulosa, superne nervosa, in rostrum conicum monosper- 
mum trinerve attenuata. — Hah. In regione inferiori Atlantis Majoris 

in rupibus solo arsis prope Seksaoua! et Milhain! circa 1000°^. 

■ Species inslgnis, ab aflanibus omnino disslmilis. Proxima est 
B. hceticafBoiss.j sed in hac rami laterales distantes erecti, nee velut 
in nostra planta versus apicem caulis approximati patuli, siliquse 
rostrum biovulatum, pedicelli erccto-patentes. Ill, Boissier calycem 
patentern B. ha^tiea tribuit, et sepala ohtusa, dum in tabula (Boiss. 



m 



Voy. en Esp., pl.^ 9) pictor sepalum actctum perperam delincavit. In 
speciminibus siccis mihi obviis sepala erecta nee patentia videntur. 
In eadem tabula siliquas rostrum ovulis 2 abortivis ostenditur. Ubi 
oyulum unum alternmve fertile adest rostrum fit longius et siliquae 
dimidiam longitudinem attingit. In specie nostra et in sequentc- 
siliqua quam in B. hcetica multo minor. 

Brassica rerayensis, nob. — Eadix perecnis ; cauHs e basi adscen- 
dente erectus, 1-2 furcatus, glaberrimus, subaphyllus ; folia radicalia 
parva, incano-hirsuta, runcinato-lyrata, basin versus alterna, caulina 
pauca demum linearia ; racemus brevis, pauciflorus ; pedicelli erccto 
patuli, tenues, siliquam | aequantes ; rostrum tenue, aspermum (?), 
siliqua) \ sen \ partem attingens; sepala elliptico-oblongn, pilosa ; 
petala saturate lutea.— ^^^5. In regione superiori Atlantis Majoris iu 
convalle Ait Mesan, a 2000"* ad 2700"*. 

Fructus in speciminibus nostris omnino immaturus, melius explo- 
ratus forsan ovulum in rostro detcctum fuerit. Quocun(iue fit a Bras- 
stcis planta nostra nuUomodo divcllenda. Brassica hcitica, Boiss., 
proxime affinis, differt foliis glubris vel ex sotis brevibus sparsis scab- 



ON PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOEOCCO. 299 



rida, racemo elongate et prsesertim siliculse rostro crasso disperrao, ncc 
tenui aspermo. 

Brassiea nervosa, nob.— Annua (?), ramosa; folia radicalia lyrata 
inciso-dentata, caulina pauca lanceolata, omnia in petiolo &t nervia 
liirta ; petala (pro grege) magna, la^te lutea ; 8ili{iu£e brevis inslgniter 
nervosEe ex pube brevi velutinoe, rostrum glabrum, aspermum (?). 
Ilah, Specimen unicum mancum legi in Prov. Mtouga ! 

Planta e grege JB. geniculaU, certe Brassiea (cotyledones condupli- 
catae), sed descriptio incompleta. 

Lepidium nehrodense, Eaf. (sub Ifasiurtw)—G-as3. Fl. Sic. ii., 
p. 154=Z. puhescens, Tin. Cat. H. R. Panorm., p. \bO=Lepia 
Bonamiiana, Psl. PL Sic, p. M=Zejptdium Bofianm'anum, Guss. Prod. 
PI. Sic, p. 211.; var. atlanticum, nob.— Folia radicalia spathulata 
longe petiolata, Integra vel lyrata, caulina Bcssilia vix auriculata, 
omnia velutina ; sepala glabra, purpurascentia ; silicula glabra, matura 
interdum pubescens, breviter emarginata ; stylus brevissimus.— 77«5. 
In regione superior! Atlantis Majoris, vail. Ait Mesan! a 2500" ad 



3000 . 

Species per rcgionem mediterran earn late diffusa et valde ludibunda. 

Huic valde proximura est L. calycotrichum, Kze.^Z. granatense, Coss. 
=L, Bhayense, Munby, quocum forsan jungendum est L. viicrostylum, 
Boisa. & Held. Diag., ser. ii., fasc. vi., p. 21, et Boiss. Fl. Or. i., 
p. 355. L. nelrodensis forma aberrans est (ni fallor) Z. petrophilum, 
Coss. Yalde afflnis est species EuropJB occidentalis Z. hirtum,^ L._, 
(luocum adnumcranda sunt Z heterophjllum, Bentb., L. Smithii, 
Hook., et Z. Vitlarsii, G. et G., dum inter has formas charactercs 
firmos adbuc frustra quterunt botanici. Z. oxyohm, DC. Syst. 
L. humifusum, Req., est species insulae Corsica propria, erronee __^ 
DC. Prod., vol i., p. 204, ad Floram Syriacam relata. Specmuna 
enim in Herb. Labillardiere loci nataUs indicatione carent, sed spec 
Corsicis omnino conformia. Hoc tamen, etsi siliculoe forma sat _ ben e 
distincta, est spec, nostra) forsan nimis proxima ; vidi inter specmuna 
Siciliana Z. nehrodensis formam intermediam. 

Reseda Guyana, Boiss, Voy. enEsp., pi. 21 ; subsp i?. attenuata. 
nob.— Radix percnnia; caules 2-3 exiles 8-12 poUicares; folia 
imeoualiter pinnatifida, caulina abbreviata, 2-4 juga; spica gracil- 
llma, pauciflora : bracte^e lineares, pedicellos breyissimos bis terve 
supcrantes; sepala ovato-lanceolata, supenqra _3 interdum coalita ; 
petala brevissima calycem vix supcrantia, staminibus breviora, 2 supe- 
riora gaudent appendicula (pro grege) magna, papiUoso-ciliolata, 
concava, et lamina appendiculam ^<iuante, profunde trifida, lobis 
soqualibus; capsula (immatura) dentibus qnatuor brevibus erectis 
eoronata, pube rara brevissima adspersa.-M. In regione sizpenori 
Atlantis Majoris- Ait Mesan ! et in jugo Tagherot! a 2100 ad 



3000 



m 



A R. Gayana differt praesertim petalis minimis lamma fere ad 
basin trifidis, appendicula majori, capsular dentibus magis prommen- 
tibus. Facile sicut species distincta adnumeranda. Capsula matura 
charactercs ccrtiores suppetebit. 

Reseda Phyteuma, L. ; subsp. ii?. diffma nob.-Radix biennis ; 
cauUs e basi ramosi^sima, diffusa; folia mtegra (rarms tnfida), 



* 



300 



on- PLANTS COLXECTED IN MOROCCO. 



oblongo-lmearia, obtusa ; bracteffi filiformes (pro grege) longiuscula; • 
sepala ut m li. macrosperma, Ecbh. ; petalorum superiorum lamina 
Wis antheria vix longior, 3-partita, laciniis lateralibus profunde 
d-5-lidis lacmuhs apice abrupte spathulatis (fere coclileariformibus) • 
capsula (nondum matura) insigniter 3-dentata, dentibusdivergentibus' 

r •. i n ^rP'^""' arenaceis ab urbe Marocco septentrionem versus 
legit cl. (j. Ma\7, et mihi benevole communicavit. 

. ^Proximai?. macrosperma^ Kebh., recedit petalorum lamina multo 
mmon, lacmulis cochleanformibus nee obovato-oblongis* apice rotun- 
daUs, capsule dentibus divergentibus, qua nota ad H. modoram, 
Kcbh., melius congruit. Heseda macrosperma et H. inodora ad sub- 
species sub typo E. Phytemna, L., reducendee mihi videntur. Planta 
nostra longius a typo rccedit. 

Fumana arluscuU nob.-Frutex humilis, ramosissimus, intri- 

folia al erna, conacea, inflma ovalia, vix lincam on|a, superiora 
ramS^ -^^^ T" ' .^^°?' attingentia, suprema brefis'sima^ cum 
^P?V n-'' r'Nr' P^^f^l^; flares in quovisramulo pauci (2-4); 
brev a lin?;?"^^"'l''- ?'"'^^ ^^^™^^ ^ Sepala exterio^a (epi alyx 
3 Sb^h / r''^f^^' '^^'"'™. ^e^t'^^^acea, carnea, ex cotti 
fn^u^ex^.? f 1 "^''^^ ^ ^^^'^^^'^^ ^^^ ^^^t^to Hneata ; petala 
n Qua.?. onLT^ calyce ^quilonga, saturate flava ; semina maxima, 

-M w£ ^'•^'•P''"''^'' ^^^'' ^'^^^'^ ^^'"^to Minute granulata! 

Firnl '^T''' -^ ''f 'i'' '^^^^°^i Atlantis Maj oris admodum 
^xemplana duo jam deilorata, legimus in glareosis ad torren- 
mka (cu-ca 1000"*^' pt n f^vurr, ^„„,j, S • 



. .^ ,, X. y. -.. alteram 

Alt Mesan (circa 1300") ! ' ' """' "" w^.c^x.^ 

men^fs .xf.f.- ^?i!^"^ et Hooker, genus Fumana, Dun, fila- 
Se r^id V '^T- ^'''' monil formibus, ovuHs anatrop s, sem nibus 

rS« ^SrnnT ' '^ '""'^P'" ^"^^^'^ P^^P^^^ gaudens-etiLmsi in i^: 
cendum vSi. ""' apparente-ad section em //.//.« ^^,;«/ non redu- 



lineaSrf r"^*' '"'^•~? ^''^e F. ^m.Zo/-, L., diffcrt stipulis integris 
vSurmaiTr ^^,^r'-"''^°?^ ^^°^^^ hirta'notatis, sepalis intense 

bT;Sc sn^s^^^^^^ 



moXDi;ii tS (ctrs^''^'- '^^^^"^^^ ^°^^^- ''^ 



pedit IHs pnrce T^ ^- '^-^^^^^ nob.-Differt a typo 

WvSus fff'''' -^'^ ^^cidulis, calyce fractifero ex nervis 
bngit^d ne su,-- -h'' •'''-' ^^^''to-patentibus capsulam toto 
lam vk suneS h ?' '^''' f ametram a^quantibus, potalis capsu- 

dorso^Tx cafa Slat"' 'T/J T "" ^^-^^b-^^.' ---^- ---^ 
(incolis D-ir piS •,;..■ ^^giinus in arenosis prope Casa Blanca ! 

K Imsmi. f ' '^ '* -'^f '^^ ^- ) ^P^'^i^e^ Di^^i^ incompletum 
piope Amsmiz ! m regione mferiori Atlantis Maj oris. 

Mueller. spathSi^ Conr «-""" *^"^*''"'' ^'''' "*^"'' ''^'''■- •^• 



ON PLANTS COLLECXEB TX MOROCCO. 301 

i 

Planta pumila dcpaupcrata, S. nocttirncBy L., ct 8, scahridce, Soy. 
WilL, facie intermedia. 

Silene eerastoides, L. ; var. anomala^ nob. — Habitu et seminibus 
(dorso sat profunde sed obtuse canaliculatis) est >S'. cerastoidesy sed 
differt calyce subevenio (nervis obscure anastomosantibus), et filamcu- 
tis puberulis. — Uai. In Imp- ilaroccani provincia meridional! 
Mzouda ! 

Si banc formam recte pro rarietate babui eodem pacto S. Giraldti, 
Guss., a S. gallica nonnisi filamentorum glabritie distincta, ad varie- 
tatem reducenda erit. 

Silene corrugata^ nob. — Planta ramosissima, diffusa, glanduloso- 
pilosa ; folia inferiora spatbulato-acumicata, superiora lanceolata ; 
pedicelli calycem demum feqnantes ; bractese 2 incequales, major bcr- 
bacea, minor subsetacea ; flores distantes, ante anthesin nutantes ; calyx 
membranaceus, yiridi-striatus, nervis parallelis, basi truncatus, vix 
umbilicatus ; petala camea, biloba, ungue calyce longiori ; carpopbo- 
rum capsulam sequilongum ; semina fusca, sat profunde cacaliculata, 
dorso corrugata. — Hah In regiono media Atlantis Majoris ; Ait 

Mesan! circa 175 J™. 

Affinis Silene pseudo-Atocion^ Dsf., a pi. nostra differt petalis 
integris, seminibus multo majoribus vix canaliculatis, calycis tubo 
longiori. Habitu propior est S^poidula, structura omnino diversa. 

S. corrugata^ nob. ; subsp. (?) 8. adusta^ nob. — Planta pumila, 
erecta, pauciflora ; differt insuper a S. corrugata foliis angustioribus, 
bracteis subgequalibus setaceis, petalis albidis, magis profunde bilobis, 
seminibus fnon omnino maturis^ nallide luteo-fusois minus profunde 

Hah, Prope Seksaoua ! in 

rupibus calidissimis. 

Arenaria piingens^ Clem. ; var* glahrescens^ nob.— Differt a^ typo 
Hispanico scpalis glabris, nervo medio prominulo basin versus ciljato, 
caulibus subglaberrimis foliis connatis ad basin membranaceis ciliatis, 
antberis fusco-griseis nee rubentibus. — Jlab. In regione superiori 
Atlantis Majoris, — Ait Mesan! versus 2550 

Specimina typo simllla, sc. herba tota pilis brevibus articulatis 
vestita, legit in monte Ljebel Tezah (circa 2800"^) cL J. D. Hooker. 

Folgearponherniartodes,jioh. — Vlantac^s])itosa; rbizoma perenne, 
lignosum, ramosum; caules breves, prostrati; folia lanceolato-spathu- 
lata, acuta, crassiuscula ; bracteffi superiores (pro genere) latas ; sepala 
prorsus ecarinata, exteriora linea media notata, margine anguste 
scariosa; petala integerrima, sepalis {jequalia ; flores in spec, ex Ait 
ileaan triandri, in spec, ex Djebcl Tezah pentandri ; semina , • . — 
—Hab, In regione superiori Atlantis Majoris— Ait Mesan! Djcbel 

Tezah, J. D. H. circa 2400". . . 

Species distinctissima, facie HerniaricB alpinm, ViU. Specimma 

perpauca legiraus. 

Tamariz gallica, L. ; subsp. T. speciosa, nob.— Fratex 8-10 
pedalis; cortex fusco-purpureus, nitidus; racemi coetanei in ramos 
lignoso et in hornotinos subsesslles ; bracteae ovatse, minus quam in 
T. gallica acuta^ ; sepala oblongo-rotundata, rarius ovata, subacuta ; 
petala cito caduca ; flores 5-andri ; capsula (pro grege) longa, pulchre 



m 



^ 



302 ON PLAKIS COLLECXEB IN MOBOCCO. 



rosea. — Hah, Copiose secus torrcntem in Distr. Mesfioua ! circa 
400^". 



fructu 



ih 



Althma hirsuta^ L. ; var. grandiflora^ nob. — Differt imprimis 
corolla subduplo majore, purpureo-rosea, stipulis longioribus, angus- 
- tioribus, subcuneatis, nee ut in typo ovatis, foliis magis divisis, 
laciniis angustioribus, planta tota minus hirsuta, — Hai, Specimina 
manca legimus in Imp. Maroccani meridionalis Prov. Mtonga! et 
Shedma!. Melius explorata forsan sicut species nova distinguenda. 
In Herb, beati J. Gay (nunc Kewensi) adsunt specimina duo prope 
Monspelium lecta, quibus adjecit in scbeda Althaea muticay Gay Mss. 
(1824). In his corolla magna ut in nostra, sed stipulse et folia omnino 
A. hirsute. 

Geranium ttiierosum, L. ; var. dehiley nob. — Differt a typo rbizo- 
mate horizontali, ad nodes incrassato, caule florigero debili humifuso, 
petalis saturate purpureis. — Sah. In regione superiori Atlantis 
Majoris. Legimus nondum florentem in conyalle Ait Mesan ! et in 
Monte Djebel Tezah ! Alt. 2300^—2600"^. Specimen unicum mancum 
florentem invenit cl. G. Maw. 

Lotononis maroccana^ nob. — Planta perennis, ramosa, prostrata ; 

herba tota sericea ; folia petiolata, trifoliolata ; foliola obovata, api- 

culata, basi cuneata, brevissime stipitata ■ stipula^ 1 — 2 foliolata; 

flores saepissime solitarii, brevissime pedicellati, calyx demum cam- 

panulatus, purpurascens, basi striis validis notatus; vexillum ala- 

longiuscule superans extus cum carina insigniter sericeum ; leguminas 

latiuscula, glabra, 8—10 ovulata.— J7ffi. In regione inferiori Atlantis 

Majoris prope Tasseremout ! Ourika 1 Ait Mesan ! Amsmiz ! a 1000"" 
ad 1400"*. 

Species probe distincta, a Z. lupinifolia, Boiss.*(8ub Leohcrdea) 
differt imprimis foliis tri- nee cLuinque- foliolatis— a L, cytisoide 
toto habitu et florum structura recedit ; in hac nempe vexillum 
carinae subcequale, in nostra carinam et alas longo superat. 

Argyrololium Ztnnmnum, Walp. ; subsp, A.fallax, nob.— Differt 
a typo floribus minoribus, foliorum foliolis latioribus obtusioribus, et 
praBsertim calycis labio inferiori injequaliter trifido, lacinia media 
lateralibus multo angustiori, nee sub^quali, fere ut in -4. calycino 
M.B. (sub Cytiso). Semina in quovis legumine 6 — 10, ssepissime 8. 
—Hab.^ In regione media Atlantis Superioris a 1500^ ad 2100". 

Pacies a typo diversa, sed forsan variettem tantum sistit. 



annmaifmm 



pnmana 



llores brevissime pedicellati, solitarii seu geminati in yertiee ramulo- 
rum ; stipulae et bracteolae ad basin calycis majoresetlatiores quam in 
A. Linnaano; cito marcescentos ; calyx basi laxus, labii inferioris 
supenori longiores laciniis anguste lanceolatis subajqualibus ; legumen 
Bubtorulosum, 5—6 spennum ; semina flava.— ZTaJ. In regione 
infenon Atlantis Majoris. Prope Seksaoua ! ct verosimiliter eadem 
forma ex convalle Amsmiz et prope Tasseremout. 
_ Forsan pro specie distincta vindicanda erit, sed charactercs citati 
m hoc genere inatabiles vidontur. 



ON PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOEOCCO. 303 

Argyrolohmm microphyllumy nob. — Perenne 3-6-pollicare; herba 
tota pul3e brevi rigida incana ; pedunculi uniflori, axillares et termi- 
na]es, folia parva breviter petiolata superantes, stipulse minima^ ; 
calyx coloratus, ad basin usque bisectus, labio superiori profunde 
bifido, inferiori ad quartam partem tridentato, dente medio subulato 
lateralibus lanceolatis quidquam breviori ; flores parri, calycem parum 
excedentes, bicolores (vexillo fulvo, carina citrina) ; legumen 4-5- 



spermum. — Z^ 
saoua circa 11 00"". 



Supra Sek- 



Argyrolohio nullo, nisi forte A, unifloro^ Dene, (sub Cytiso), 
comparandum ; sed ab hoc eximie differt calycis structura et floribus 



duplo majoribus. 



sparsijli 



— Differt floribus sparsis, ramis infortilibus longis tenuibus, foliis 
obverse lanceolatis in petiolum attenuatis. — Hob. Sat frequens in 
prov. meridionalibup Imperii Maroccani. Lcgimus in Distr. Mes- 
fioua ! prope Tasseremout ! Ourika ! et in monte Djebel Hadid ! prope 
Mogador. Hoc specimen in Herb. Kewensi acL Lowe prope Mogador 
lectum cui nomen G. gihraltarica in scboda adjecit. 

Genista myriantlia^ nob. — Frutex 4-6-pedali9, ramosissimus ; 
herba tota subglaberrima ; ramulorum hornotinorum debilium folia 
sessilia, anguste lanceolata, annotinorum obovato-oblonga, omnia par- 
vnla, 1-foliolata, carnosula, obtusa vel interdum mucronulata; 
stipulse minutissimse, bidenticulatsD ; flores numerosissimi yersum 
apicem^ ramulorum conferti; bracteolae 2 marcescentes m quovis 
pedunculo ; calycis dentes superiores triangulares tubo la)vi subajqui- 
longi, tres inferiores aequales, omnes apice ciliolati ; carina vexillo 
scqualis, concolor, pallide flava ; alai saturate lutese.^ Legumen non 
vidimus. — Hal. In regione inferiori Atlantis Majoris, In convalle 

Amsmiz circa 1300"". 

A G. Scorpio, DC, differt habitu, glabritie, floribus bicolorlbus, 
calycis tubo la3vi nee striato. Facie propior G. lucidm, Camb., sed 
in hac carina vexillum valde superat, calyx profundius fissus. 

Genida florida, X, ; subsp. G. maroccana, nob.— Differt a typo 
pubescentia sericea copiosiore, foliis minoribus angustioribusque, 
floribus minoribus et calyce pra) magnit. coroUae minore. Frutex 
erectus, 4-8-pedalis. In regione inferiori Atlantis jU;ajoris. 



1000™ ad 1500™. 



xterum 

polygalcBfoh 



G. leptoelada, J, Gay, mihi videntur nimis variabiles. His etiam vclut 
subspecies G.floridm forsan addenda est G. oretana, Webb. 

Cyfisus BalanstB, Boiss in Diagn. (sub Sarothanmo) ; yar. ? atlantieus, 
nob.— Flores solitarii axillares in ramis hornotmis mermibus, vel 
rariusin ramis annotinis glabris striatis pungentibus paucifoliatis ; 
pedunculi bracteolati ad basin foliolis 2-3 obverse lanceolatis, obtusis, 
eericeis, ex pulvinula incrassata ortis, fulcrati ; calyx parce^pilosus 
campanulatus vix bilabiatus, labio superiori vix emarginato, mfenon 
brevissimo dentlbus 3 subobsoletis ; corolla glabernma; vexiiium 
carinam incurvo-falcatam ct alas paulo superans ; stylus apice non 
incrassatus magis quam in affinibus (C. pnryans et 0. I/mslen) 



+ 

304 ON PLANTS COLLECTKP TX STOEOCCO. 

H 

exscrtus. — Halt. In regione superiori Atlantis Majoris — AitMesan! 
usque in juga Taglierot ! Djebel Tezah ! a 2200™ ad 3000™ et 
ultra. 

mterius inquirenda est ob notas differentials inter Cytisos hujus 
grcgis— a purfjans, L. (sub Genista), B. et H. Gen. PL, C. J/censIeri, 
Boiss. (sub Genista), et C. Balansce, Boiss. (sub Sarothamno)— satis 
constantes siut. Flores in var. nostra magnitudinse C. purgantis, sed 
forma carinte omnino diversa. 

Ononis Mmoeana, nob.— Annua, e basi ramosa, parce glanduloso- 
hirta ; foKa infima et suprema unifoliolata, cfetcra trifoliolata, foliolo 
medio majori stipitato, omnia obovato- vel oblongo- lanceolata, apice 
rotundata (rarius retusa), argute denticulataj stipulte inferiores 
elongatae,^ superiores dilatator ovatse acutjE argute denticulate; 
pedunculi biflori, exaristati, foliis paulo longiores, infra medium' 
furcati, subanthesi erecti, calycis segmenta tubum 2 excedentia, 
angusta, quinquenervia. Nervo medio subobsoleto, lateralibus 
duobus utrmque approximatis, prominulis ; corolla lacinias caly- 
cmas parum excedens, insigniter bicolor, vexillo pallido striate, 
carina (cum alis) apice aurantiaca. Legumen nondum \isum.— Hah. 
In Distr Tmgitano, juxta stagna subsalsa, detexit oculatissimus G. 
Maw, Jiotanices et prassertim floriculture fautor egregius. 

Species ut videtur omnino distincta, nee ulli proxima nisi forte 
0. hehccarp<B, ^ ebb. Ab hac differt imprimis pedunculis infra medium 
nee apice tantum furcatis, stipuHs ter qu^terve majoribus, foliis 
angnstioribus, et cet. 0. hiflora, Dsf., longius distat pedunculo 
aristato, apice tantum furcato, floribus pendulis, statura multo maiori. 
Facie simihores sunt 0. gilraUarica, Boiss., 0. Irachycarpa, DC. 
rrod., O. natncotdes, Duf., qua; omnes pra)ter alias notas pedunculis 
1 -tioris aristatis distmguuntur. 

0. viscosa, _L. I var. ? fruticescens, nob.— Differt insigniter ratlice 
ramisque infenonbus lignosis, legumine et seminibus fere intermediis 
inter O. viscosam et 0. sicuJam. Corolla sat magna calycem subduplo 
excedens._ Vexillum luteura rubrostriatum.— ^«i. Specimen unicum 
legi m Distr. Beraya, m reg. inferior! Atlantis Majoris. 

O. Simla, QuB^., ab affini 0. viscosa differt prsesertim legumine 
angustiori polyspermo, peminibus maturis 12-20, ellipsoideo-reni- 
lormibus, pahdig; dum m 0. viscosa B^mm^ multo" majora sunt, 3-6, 
compressa atiofusca. Nostra planta melius cognita speciem noyam 
torsan sistit, forsan nexum inter species supra memoratas 

Ononis pohjp/>gI!a, noh.— Annua, pumila, e basi ramosa; herba 
tota virens glanduloso-hirta ; folia numerosa, npproxiraata, trifoliolata, 
toliolo medio stipitato, lateralibus basi disjunctis, omnibus angustis 
ST. r 4' -^'^^^"^ elongat^e, demum subscariosa3 vaginantes; 

nS!n i'1-r'i?'' ^'l"^^^' ^P^^^ rubescens ; legumen (immaturum) 

AtSrv •^'•''^t\°IH^^"P^°^^ I^ planitie ad radices 

Atlantis Majoris Distr. Mesfioua ! et versus Tasseremout ! 

fnl," i r 1 i'^^^*^!^^, L., acccdit etsi statura multo minor ; prater 
ohwV^^ f angustiorcs differt pedunculis aristatis et legumine 
oblongo, ncc breviter ovali-rhomboideo. 

Ononis aihntica, nob.-Perennis, basi suffruticosa, ramis erectis ; 



ON PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOEOCCO. . 305 

herba tota pube brevi glandulosa vcstita; foliorum' BubsGBsiImm 
foliola omnia sessilia crassiuscula, obverse cuneata, apice tantum den- 
ticulata ; stipulse brevissimse ; pedunculi rigidi, uniflori, fructiferi 
supra arlstam breyem spinescentcm reflexi ; calycis lacinise sub- 
aequales, tubo brevissimo 3 longiores; petala flava, vesiUo carina 
sescpi-longiori ; legumen brevitcr stipitatum, e basi obliqua oblongum, 
calyce ter longiori ; semina pauca minute granulata, — Hob, Inregione 
inferior! Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Amsmiz legit el, J. D. 
Hooker, circa 1250"". 

Est forsan 0. cenisia^ Coss. Cat. PL Marocc. mss., quoad planta a 
Balansa detecta in monte Djebel Sidi Pars. Ab 0. cenisia^ L., 
recedit berba glandulosa, foliis subsessilibus, pednnculorum 
arista spinescente, calyce profuudius fisso, petalig flavis nee purpuras- 
centibus, et pra^sertim legumine stipitato, angustiori, et seminibus 
minoribus minute et undique granulatis, nee inaequaliter tuberculatis. 

Tropior est forsan 0. rigida^ Kge., sed in hac foKola obovata 
circuitu toto, nee apice tantum, dentata, stipulae longiores insigniter 
dentata^ ; legumen a me non visum nee descripsit cl, auctor. 

Trigonella polyeerata^ L. ; van atlantica, nob. — Differt a typo 
legumine dimidio breviori, rugis transversis arcuatis nee valde elon- 
gatis, stipulis latioribus, seminibus (nondum maturis) nigro-punctatis. 
— Sai. In regione superiori Atlantis Majoris. In convalle Ait 
Mesan a 2100^ ad 2600". 

Porsan melius observata pro specie aut subspecie diversa vindi- 
canda erit. 

Trifolmm Tiumile^ nob. — Perenne, pumilura, cpespitosum; rhizoma 
lignosum, ramosum, pedunculos sub-poUicares petiolis subaequales 
edens ; foliorum foliola obovata, minute denticuluta ; stipuloo basi 
Bcariosai, elongatse, in apicem viridem sensim attenuataD ; capitulum 
ex^ pedicellis ciliatis bracteolatis demum reflexis laxum*; calycis parce 
ciliati dentes insequales tubo 1 ncrvis breviores, nervis intermediis sub 
Binu bifurcatis, unde dentes 3 nervii ; corolla (pro grege) parva ; legu- 
men^ sessile, biovulatum ; .semina comprcssa, suborbicularia, hilo 
breviter emarginata laevissima. — Hab. In regione superiori Atlantis 
Majoris. ^ Legiin jugo Tagherot! circa 3000^ 

Proximum T. ccespifosuniy Eeyn., differt stipulis cuspidato-acumi- 
natis nee apicem versus attenuatis, pedicellis erectis nee reflexis, 
bracteolis brevioribus, calycis dentibus brevioribus. ^Nostra species 
fere media est inter T. ct^spiiostmyJRejn.^ et T.- Famassi Boiss. & 
Sprun., a quo differt praeter alias notas seminibus la^vissimis nee 
minute granulatis. 

Melius observatse h^ formoe ad subspecies forsan reducendge, 
quibus adsocianda erit T. palleseens^ Scbreb. In Alpibus Helveticis, 
Sabaudis, et Pedemontanis characteres differentiales inter T. mspito- 
sum^ et T. pallescens satis stabiles ego semper observavi, sed in Alpibus 
Carinthiae et Carniolia) formse intermedioe mibi obvise sunt. Simili 
Diodo specimina T. Parnassi accuratius explorata inter se discrepant. 
Specimina ex monte Pamasso ostcndunt dentes calycinoa valde 
inaequales; superioribus tubo longioribus; spec, ex monte Taygeto 
gaudent contra dentibus brevissimis; spec, denique 
prioribus intermedia sunt. 



ex 



X 



306 • ON PLANTS COLLECTED IN" MOKOCCO. 

Si pro Bubspeciebus unius ejusdemque speciei has formas 
habemus nomen T. emspitosum^ antiquius et sat congruum, pro typo 
retinendum, 

TrifoUum atJanticum, nob. — Annuum, pumilum, e basi ramosum ; 
herba tota molliter yillosa; folia in ramis prostratis subsequalia, 
longiuscule petiolata, follolis obovato-cuneatis vix denticulatis ; stipulse 
superiores dilatatse, breviter acuminatse insigniter nervosse; capitula 
gemella, cylindracea, sessilia, in ramis terminalia ; ^ calycis dentes 
villosi subiequales, corollam pallide rubentem vix attingentcs ; 
semina minima, orbicularia, subcompressa, radicula non prominula.— 
Hah. In regione media Atlantis Majoris. Legi in convalle Ait 

Mesan! circa 21 OO'^. 

Ab affini T. Boecom, Savi, distingniter imprimis ramis debilibus 
nee strictis, indumento villoso, foliis omnibus longiuscule petiolatis, 
nee inferioribus breviter petiolatis superioribus subsessilibus, calycis 
dentibus moUibus subsequalibus, nee rigidis insequalibus, seminibus 
orbicularibus, nee reniformi ovoideis radicula prominula. 

Zotus (§ Pedrosia) maroceanm^ nob. — Eadix lignosa, e coUo ramo- 
sissima, caules adscendentes vel erecti, subtequales; folia breviter 
petiolataj petiolo compresso insigniter 3 nervi ; foliola sessilia fol. 
inferiorum obovata, superiorum rbombeo-lanceolata, omnia acuminata^; 
stipulse conformes; pedunculi terminales, Tarius laterales, 1-4 ilori, 
folio florali cceteris conformi suffulti; pedicelli reflexi, articulati; 
calycis dentes subsequales, subulati, tubo nervis 5 atrovirentibus 
notato subduplo longiores, sinu rotundato divisi ; stylus dentatus ; 
legumen (pro genere) longum, nitidum, torulosum, ^ incurvum j;^ 
semina viridia, ovoidea, — Hah. In provinciis meridionalibus Impeni 
Maroccani. Tasseremout ! Ourika ! Reraya ! Amsmiz ! Seksaoua . 



Agadir 



molliter villosa* 



insignis, nuUi proxima, tota planta, prteter legumen 



f 



Tia/rlonensis^ L. ; subsp. A, atlanticus^ nob. — Differt a 
typo foKorum superiorum foliolis acutis, inferiorum obtusis, dentibus 
calycinis minus imequalibus et pra^sertim corollis sesquilongionbus, 
carina magis elongata, angustiori, arcuata nee abrupte geniculata, alas 
basi profundius auriculatas paulo superante. — Hah. In regione 
inferiori Atlantis Majoris, In convalle Ait Mesan! circa 1200 



m 



Legumen nondum visum melius docebit affinitatem hujus stirpis 
speciosse. lit mihi videtur simul ac affini A. africanOy Bge., pro 
Bubspecie sub typo A. narhonensis habenda est. 

Astragalus prcefermmtiSy nob. — Annuus, e coUo radicis ratnoa 
prostrates edens ; folia 7-12 juga ; foliola truncata, apice sinu lato 
emarginata; stipul® late ovatse, membranacese, libcrse, seu basi p^iolo 
breviter adnatse ; pedunculi tenues, foliis breviores ; floras 
minuti bracteati ; calycis dentes subsequales tubum asquantes , 
vexillum lilacinum, carinam superans ; legumen (immaturum) rectutUi 
serlceura ; semina .... ? — Hah, In arenosis maritimis Tingitams. 

Huic proximus erit, ni fallor, A. Gryphus, Coss., cujus specimina 

nondum vidi. 

Coronilla jityicea^ L. ; subsp. C. ramosisshnay nob. — Suffrutex 
osissimus, 1-2-pedalis; rami ^substriati; foliorum foliola 5-7, 



ramosissimus 



ON PLANTS COLMCTED IN MOROCCO. 307 

petiolulata, crassiuscula, cuneata, apice truncata plus minusve emar- 
ginata, mucronulata, margine non cartilaginea ; calycis denies breves, 
apice ciliolatij yexilli lutei unguis caljcem aliquid superans; legu- 
men ex sutura prominula biangulata. — Hah. In regione inferiori 
Atlantis Maj oris, Prequens in Distr. Eeraya! et in convalle Ait 
Mesan ! a 1000™ ad 1400™ 

Habitu et foliis a Cjuncea dissimilis, forsan ex legumine diverso 
species omnino distincta ? 

Coronillapulchray nob. — E basi suffruticosa rami tcnucs, herbacei, 
elongati, (inter frutices 9-10-pedales) ; folia 4 — 8 juga; foliola 
petiolulata, ovato-cuneata vel oblongo-ellipticaj apice sa3pins emargi- 
nata, vix mucronulata, inferiora cauli approxiraata, non amplectentia ; 
stipulge parvse, albge, ovales, obtusse ; flores in pedunculis axillaribus 
4-8, magni, colore variabiles, ex albo purpurei, alis saturatioribus ; 
calyx quam in spec, afflnibus multo major, campanulatus, dentibus latis 
brevissimis vel subobsoletis, latere superiori basin versus subinflatus, 
petala subsequalia, omnia latiora quam in affinibus ; legumen longis- 
simum (nondum maturum decimetrum superans), 10 — 15 articulatum ; 
semina subcylindrica compressiuscnla. — Hob, In regione inferiori Imp, 
Maroccani meridional! s, versus radices Atlantis Maj oris. Infra Tassere- 
mout ! inter fructices ; in rupibus solo arsis supra Seksaoua ! et prope 
Milhain! 

Pulehra species nuUse alise valde proxima. C. grandifiora^ Boiss., 
quae floribus semula, est species herbacea calyce diverso, et stipulis 
majoribus ovatis mucronatis, necparvis ovalibus obtusis, a nostra bene 
distincta; C varia^ L., floribus multo minoribus 12-18 nee 4-8 in 
pedunculo gaudens, differt insigniter calycis dentibus triangularibus, 
acuminatis, legumine multp breviori, 4^ — 6 articulato. 

Herb. Gouan (hodie Kewensi) exstat specimen CoroniU^ nostrse 
cuiadjeciturinschedamanu ignota " Coronilla gihr altar ica de Brous- 
sonct. Ex HortoBarcinonensi, 1797. Aflfinis (7or. rari^ an non eadem ? " 
Procul dubio ex Marocco meridionali allata fuit (forsan ex monte 
Djebel Hadid prope Mogador) et cum plantis gibraltaricis commixta, 
a el. Broussonet. Nomen falsum nullibi quoad sciam citatum servare 
nolui. 

Hippocrepis atlantieay nob.— Fruticulus radice et caulibus lignosis, 
ramos prostrates foliaceos edens ; herba tota pilis albis brevibus 
vestita; folia 6 — 10 juga; foliola approximata, petiolulata, obtu- 
sissima, fol. infer, apice retusa; stipulae minutse, membranace^, 
ovatte, obtusaj ; pedunculi terminales, breves, 3-6 flori ; calyx labio 
superiori apice bidenticulato, inferiori 3 dentate, dentes suba^quales ; 
legrumen (Immaturum) arcuatum, scabrum, sinubus profundis orbicu- 

laribus excavatum. — Hah, 

jugo Tagherot ! circa 2700 

Ab affini Zr.'«d^/z5ra, DC, ditfert loius muiujugis loiious peuu- 
lulatis fere obcordatis, pedunculis brevioribus et stipulis obtusis. 



In 



In 



m 



H, scabr^ ? prope Si 
fidunt. et nostra Zf. 



Legumen 



H. 



species perennis, ncc annua sicut in DC. Prod, ii., p. 312 descripta fuit. 



{To he continued.) 



X 2 



308 ■ SHOKT NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



SHORT NOTES AND QUERIES. 

A New Ikish Locality fob Spieanthes RoiiANZOYiANA. — During 
a recent excursion in the west of the county of Cork, while examining 
some marshy ground that sloped gently upward from the edge of a small 
bog, a plant caught my eye, apparently a Spiranthes^ evidently not 
S. atihimnalis. On approaching more closely to examine it, you may 
judge of my surprise and gratification at perceiving that I had lighted 
on the veritable Spiranthes Homanzovtana, supposed ever since its 
discovery (now sixty-three years ago) to be confined to a narrow strip 
of marshy land on the margin of the *' melancholy ocean/' near the 
remote village of Castletown, Bearhaven, A further search showed 
several plants growing on the short damp grass near the edge of the 
marsh ; a few, too, were seen a little higher up where, owing to the 
slope, the ground was dryer. The plant was passing out of flower (it was 
the first week of September), but capable of the most exact verifica- 
tion, as you may judge from the accompanying'specimen. It grew some- 
times singly, and sometimes in little clusters of 3 to 5 plants, resembling 
in this Spiranthes autumnalts. "Unfortunately the time at my disposal was 
limited,|but I traced the plant in the next field, though more sparingly ; 
beyond this the ground ceased to be favourable to its growth. Pro- 
bably fully thirty plants were seen in the two small fields. As nothing 
but its extreme remoteness has prevented the extirpation of this most 
rare and interesting species at Bearhaven, I deem it absolutely neces- 
sary to decline publishing any more exact details of the new 
locality than between Bandon and Dunnanway. It is quite 
inland, at least several miles from the coast in a straight 
line. An interesting question is, has the SpirantTies reached this new 
station — a lonely upland glen — from Bearhaven ? If so, are there no 
intervening stations ? Or has it travelled inland from a point on the 
coast yet undiscovered ? The latter I think improbable, partly from 
the nature of the neighbouring coast, and partly from the fact that no 
trace of it whatever has been seen by any botanist on any part of the 
coast line. But if the Spiranfhes has travelled inward from Bear- 
haven, then, owing to the peculiar conformation of the country, its 
route must have been long and circuitous, and we might fairly expect * 
to find the plant in some intervening station or stations. Now no trace 
of the SpirantJies has been seen by the many accurate observers who 
have searched the wide tract lying between Bearhaven and the new 
locality. — T- Allin. 

A PoisoNOTJS RuDBECKTA. — A plant sent to Dr. Vasey as having 
caused the death of hogs in Oregon, Missouri, proved to be RudhecUa 

?^mia^a.— (Monthly Reports of Agriculture, United States, 1872, 
605.) 

PoxENTiLLA FRriicosA.— lu the Monthly Reports of the American 
Department of Agriculture, 1872, p. 506, Mr. T. S. Gold, of West 
Cornwall, Connecticut, describes this as playing the unexpected part 
of an injurious weed. " It is known here by the name of ' hardback/ 
and it is the worst plant we have. It is vastly more injurious than 
the Canada Thistle or Daisy* Scarcely known fifty years ago, it now 
covers, to the exclusion of everything else, thousands of acres in ITorth- 



CONTfilBrXIONS TO FOSSIL BOTANY PUBLISHED IN 1872. 309 

western Connecticut and "Western Massachusetts. It delights In strong 
damp pasture-land, and is rapidly taking possession of such fields. 
Ploughing destroys it, mowing keeps it under, and it only spreads in 
moist, rough pasture-land. It spreads alone by the seeds, which are 
blown on the surface of our winter ice and snow to great distances, 
and seeding in a settler's yard, it would come up in any damp fence 
corners where the seed would lodge. It is a new-comer here, and is 
twice as abundant as it was twenty-five years ago. Our old men 
remember when it first attracted their attention. Though still un- 
known in some towns, it is decidedly the worst plant we have in Berk- 
shire and Litchfield counties." 



EUMEX 



Mr. Warren to know 



find 



the Thames on the Surrey side, between Kew and Richmond, mixed 
as at Putney with abundance of conghmeratus and the true ohfim^ 
folius. I had previously passed it over as praiensts, and do not find 
that, though both are abundant, it shades off into obtusifoUus by 
gradual stages of transition. I have seen this year again Barharea 



stricta in fine condition on the Middlesex side of the Thames, on the 



wall beneath the ferry, close by Isleworth Church. — J. G, Bakee. 



SCABIOSA ATEOPTJBPTJKEA, Z., NATURALISED IN SoMEHSETSHLRE. — This 

plant, the sweet-scented Scabious of gardens, is growing in an ap- 
parently wild state, and in great abundance, upon Dial Hill, Cleve- 
don. It is to be found on a limestone cliff, beneath which a path 
passes, associated with Cenfranthus ruber y DC, Clematis Vitalba, L., 
and other plants, and has evidently, from the gnarled appearance of 
the roots, been growing there for some time. The finest specimens are 
those quite out of reach. There can be no reason why the claims 
. of this plant as a naturalised subject should be disregarded, when 
Koniga maritimay Antirrhinum majus, and other escapes are admitted 
into our Flora. Both these plants occur in plenty at Clevedon. In 
September, 1862, I found S. atropurpurea plentiful on the sandy 
undcrcliff at Folkestone. It maintained its position there for some 
time, but since the new road has been made has disappeared ; at least 
I failed, after diligent search, to find it last autumn.— J- Cosmo 
Melvill. • ' 



€jctraftiS anti %Htxm^. 



REVIEW OF THE CONTEIBUTIOI^S TO FOSSIL BOTANY 

PUBLISHED IN BEITAIN IN" 1872. 

Br William CAHKuinEBS, F.E.S. 

The following papers have been published : 

Bi^raEV, E. W. On StmiropteriB Oldhamia, sp. nov. Monthly 

Microsc, Journ., vol. vii., March, 1872, pp. 132, 133. 
This name is proposed for a fossil from Oldham resembling -Pm;-o- 



310 CONTBIBUTIONS XO POSSIL BOTANY PUBLISHED IK 1872 



nius Zeidleri, Corda ; the author records the discovery of specimens of 
Zygopteris, and his conviction that Cotta's Medullosa elegam is 
*' merely the rachis of a fern, or a plant allied to one." 



Flora 



Soc, pp. 63-96, pL xiii.-xviii. 



Part III. Palaeont. 



This part is devoted to drawings and descriptions of specimens of 
Zepidodendron Harcourtiiy Sigillaria vascularis^ and Halonia regularis. 
The author considers the last fossil to be the roots of Lejpidodendron. 

Caeetjxhees, W. Notes on some Fossil Plants. Geo!. Mag., vol. 

ix., pp. 49-56, pi. ii. 

The author gives— 1. A restoration of a frond of Palmopteru 
Sihermca^ Schimper, from Kiltorkan, Ireland, and placing it in the 

:^, investigates its relation to existing forms. 2. Figures 
^ ms of Hymenophylleous sporangia from the Coal-mea- 
sures. 3. A short notice of Osmundites Bowheri^ Carr., from the 



Hymenopjiylli 
and descrinti 



An 



Coal-measures 
and 



ana that they were probably the inflorescences of Gymnosperms 
Two species are described. 5. Specimens of Coniferous Wood fron 



and the Wealden 

, , ^ *«v.^x^wtyledonous 

from the Coal-measures, is figured. 



An 



with 



On the Tree-ferns of fhe Coal-measures, and their Affinities 



Abstract. Geol. Mag,, vol. ix., pp 



465-467. Journal of Botany, vol. x., pp, 279-281. 
^ The abstract of paper read to the British Association, in which 
the ±ems are grouped in three divisions, severally represented by 
taulopterts, TuhcauUs, and Stemmatopteris, the stem of the last 
being of a type now extinct, though the fronds and inflorescence were 
probably the same as those of some existing arborescent Pohjpodiaeeee. 

— Notes on Fossil Plants fi-om Queensland, Australia. 
Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxviii., pp, 350-356, pi. xxvi- 



an 



tions of three new species. 



figu 



Daintree, be- 



History, Histological Structure 



NematopJiycus Logani, Carr. {Prototaxites LoqanL Dawson), 



an Alga 



Monthly Microscopical Journal 
rrv \-v — ' ^-^V *-,^, ^^. xuv-172, pi. xxxi. and xxxii. 
Ihe author points out that the same fossil had been described by 

Nematoxyion 



and 



structure. The author shows that the fossil is not made up of wood- 
ceUs, but entirely consists of cellular filaments of two sizes inter- 
woven irregularlv into nfMr^A «,oc= „^^ 4.i,„*. .-i., ^ai-^i ,vt. 



the ceUular Cryptogams. Reasons are given for placing it among 
fte filamentous Chlorosperms, and the name is changed^ because of 



COlTTIMBTrTION 



311 



: On the Structure of the Stems of the Arborescent Lycopo- 

diacese of the Coal-measures.— IV. On a leaf-bearing branch 
of a species of Lepidodendron. Monthly Microsc. Joum., vol. 
vii., February, 1872, pp. 50-54, pi. vii. and viiL 
The minute structure of a small stem and of the leaf bases is 
figured and described, and the bearing the specimen has ou the 
characters which separate Lepidophloios from Lepidodendron is investi- 
gated. 
DrcxiE, GEonGE. ITotice of a Diatomaceous Deposit Trans. Bot. 



An 



Soc. Edinburgh, vol. xi., p. 394. 



at Methlic, AberdeensHre. 

Dtee, W. T. Thiselton. On some Coniferous Kemains from the 

LithograpMc Stone of Solenhofen. Geol. Mag., vol. ix., pp. 

150-153 and 193-196. 
The author describes separate scales of a cone under the name 
Araucanfes Haherlemii, Dyer, and investigates the different Coniferous 
branches found at Solenhofen, referring them to three gencrji—Ftmfes, 
1 species; Afhrofaxites, 5 species; and Condylites, 1 species. 
On some Fossil Wood from the Lower Eocene. Geol. 

Mag., vol. ix., pp. 240-243, pi. vi. ^^. . „ , » 

The author describes the occurrence m this specimen ot wooa ot 

cells in the interior of the ducts, and gives the received explanation 

of their origin. 

Heee, Oswald. On the Carboniferous Flora of Beai 

Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxviii., pp. 161-169. .,. , , 

The author considers that the fossil plants from Bear Island are 

more nearly related to the Carboniferous than to the Devonian, and 

he consequently places them and the fossils of Yellow Sandstones of 
-r 1 -1 ^ T • 1 r- i._i: +„ v« ^f +>ia oQTTio owp as t.hfi fimaamental 



Island. Quart. 



Ireland 



under 



stage. 



Khorria 



kan. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxviu., pp. 169-172, 
pi. iv. Abstract. Geol Mag., vol. ix., p. 134. 
Prof. Heer maintains the specific distinctness of Cyclmtigma 
KiUorTcense, Haught., C. minufum, Haught , Enorrta ^ciculans, 
Giipp., and Lepidodendron VeUheimianum, Sternb., all from Kiltorkan, 
which I had maintained to be fragments of the same species. He 
figures and describes his species. 

HiGGms, Eev. H. H. On some specimens supposed to be Pycnophyl- 

ium in the Eavenshead collection of fossils Tree -Public 
Museum, Liverpool. Proceedings Liverpool Geol. Soc. 1872, 

T)D 71-74, "with plate. , ,_ 

The curious stems figured and described by the author are amor- 
phous casts of Fern-stems of the CavJopteris type. 
Macloskii., Eev. Dr. On the Silicified Wood of Lough Neagh with 
' notes on the Structure of Coniferous \Yood. Abstract. Joum. 

Eot., vol. X., pp. 93-95. ^ .. ^ -,. ^ j • 

The author describes CupresBoxyhn PritcJiardt, Kr., and gives an 

aocount of the conditions under which it occurs. 



1. 

312 COI^TIlIBirilOKS TO FOSSIL BOTANY PXTBLISHEB IN 1872. 

r 

Makeat, p. p. On the Fossil Ferns in the Ravenshead Collections. 

Proceedings Liverpool Geol, Soc. 1872, pp. 4-16, pi. 1-13, 
The author enumerates 62 species, 9 of which he considers unde- 
scribed, and he gives them names. The figures and descriptions are 
scarcely sufficient for independent investigators to determine the 
characters which distinguish them from already described species. 

Peach, C. W. On Fossil Plants from the Coal-fields of Slamannan, 

Falkirk, Dreside, Tillicoultry, &c. Abstract. Trans. Edin- 
Bot. Soc, vol. xi., p. 342. 
An enumeration of some of the more remarkable fossils the author 

collected in the localities specified. 

On a Cone of Flemingites gracilis attached to its stem. 



Abstract. Trans. Edin. Bot. Soc, vol. xi., pp. 356. 
The author describes the specimens he had found. 

Williamson, W. C. On the Structure of the Dictyoxyhm of the 

Coal-measures. Abstract. EeportBrit. Assoc 1871, pp. Ill, 

112. 

Three species are shortly described — Didyoxylon Oldhamium^ D. 
radicanSj and 2), Grievii. 

r 

On the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal- 
measures. Part I. Calamites. Phil. Trans., vol. clxi., pp. 
477-510, pi. xxiii-xxix. 

The author figures and describes in detail the specimens in his 
cabinet, and proposes to divide the Calamites into two generic groups, 
retaining Cdamites for the stems which have no infranodal canals, as 
indicated by the absence of verticils of round or oblong scars, and 
adopting Calamopitus for those which have such canals, 

— On the Organisation of the Tossil Plants of the Coal- 
measures. Part U. LxcoPODiACE^ : Lepidodendra and Sigill- 
arice. Phil. Trans,, vol. clxii., pp. 197-240, pi. xxiv.-xxxi. 
! author ficures and describes in detail sections of Lepidoden- 

He considers 



He 



Anahathra of Witham to he the same as Dijiloxijhn, and among the 
stems described he distinguishes four species to which he gives specific 
names. He considers the whole belong to the same group, and that 
they are Lycopodiaceous. 

Notice of further Researches on the Fossil Plants of the 

Coal-measures, in a Letter to Dr. Sharpev, Sec. R.S. Proc. 

Roy. Soc, Tol. XX., pp. 95, 96. 

The author records the progress of his investigations into the 

nature of a Lepidodendroid plant and its fruit from Burntisland, and 

of an Asterophjllites from Lancashire, which he proposes to submit 

to the Society speedily. 

— On the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal- 
measures. Part III. LYCOPODiACEiE. Abstract. Proc. Roy. 

Soc, vol. XX., pp. 199-203. 

• ^ P^^^t fro°i Burntisland— Z^e<foi?^Zo ios irevi/olmm, Williamson 
IS described at length, and reasons are given for uniting the genera 
Diphzyhn, Anahathra, Zomatophloios, and Leptoxyhn. 



CONTEIBTJTIONS TO FOSSIL BOTANY PtJBLISHED IN 1872. 313 

Notice of further Eesearches among the Plants of the 
Coal-measures. Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. xx., pp. 435-438. 
The author refers to investigations which induce him to propose a 
new genus {AstromyeJon) for Calamite-stems already figured by him, to 
change his Dictyoxyhn radicans into Amyelon radicans^ and which 
show that AsterophylUtes is not the branch of a Calamite, He also 
refers to stems of petioles from Burntisland, on which he proposes to 
found two new genera, Arpexylon and EAraxylon^ as well as to the 
occurrence of Zygopteris Lacattii in Lancashire. 



Synopsis of the Genera and Species described in the foregoing 



papers 



Alqm. 



JVematophycus Loganiy Carr., Month. Jlicro, Joum., 1872, p, 160, 
plate xxxi. and xxxii. Devonian. Canada. 



FiLICES. 



dicanSj Will 
Williamson 



Cyclopteris euneata, Carr. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol, xxviii., 

p. 355, pi. xxvii, f. 5. Oolite. Queensland. 
Hdraxylo7i^ Williamson, Proc. Roy, Soc, vol. xx., p. 438. 
Mediillosa eleganSj Cotta; Binney, Mon. Micro. Joum., vol. vii., 

p. 133. Carloniferous, Oldham. 
Nephropteris dentieulata^ Marrat, Liverpool Geol. Soc. Proc, 

1872, p. 11. Carhomferous, Ravenshead. 
N. triangularis^ Marrat, I.e., p. 11, pi. i., fig. 1. Carboniferous. 

Ravenshead. 
Odontopteris neuropteroides, Marrat, Liverpool Geol. Soc, Proc, 

1872, p, 14, pL vii., f. 1 and 2. Carboniferous. Ravenshead. 
Osmundites Bowheri, Carr., Geol. Mag., vol. ix., p. 52, pi. ii., 

figs. 8 and 9. Tertiary. Kent. 
Falmopteris Eihernica^ Sch. ; Carruthers, Geol. Mag., vol. ix., p. 

49, pi. ii., figs. 1-4. Devonian, Kiltorkan, Ireland. 
Pecopteris odontopteroides^ Morris; Carruthers, Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc, vol. xxviii., p. 355, pi. xxviii., f. 2 and 3. Oolite, 

Queensland. 
Sphenopteris coriacea, Marrat, Liverpool Geol. Soc Proc, 1872, 

p. 5, pi. ix., f. 1 and 2. There are no characters given to 

distinguish this from S. Hihberti, Lindl. & Hutt. Car- 
loniferous. Ravenshead. 
Sphenopteris elongata^ Carr., Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. 

xxviii , p. 355, pL xxvii., f. 1. Oolite. Queensland. 
S. Footneri, Marrat, 1 c, p. 8, pi. viii., f. 2, 3. Carloniferous. 

Ravenshead. 
S. muUifida, Marrat, Lc, p- 9, pi. v., f. 4. Carboniferous. 

Ravenshead. 
S. obliqua, Marrat, Lc, p. 6, pi. ix., f* 3. Carboniferous. 

Ravenshead. 
S. phmula, Marrat, Lc, p. 6 ; pi. v., f. 3. Carboniferous. 

Ravenshead. 



-• 



314 COT^TRIBUIIONS TO FOSSIL BOTAI^ PUBLISHED IN 1872, 

S, pulchra, Marrat, Lc, p. 8, pL viil., f. l^^Pecopteris repanda^ 
Lindl. & Hutt. Carloniferous, Eavensliead. 

Stauropteris Oldhamia^'Bimiej, Month. Micr, Journ., vol. vii., p, 
1 32 . Carboniferoim. Oldham, 

TomiopteriB Daintreei^ M^Coy ; Carruthers, Quart. Journ, GeoL 
Soc, vol. xxviii., p, 355, pi. xxvii., f. 6. Oolite. Queens- 
land. 

Equisetacejg. 

Astromyelon, "Williamson, Proc. Eoyal Soc, vol, xx., p. 435. 
CalamiteSj "Williamson, Phil. Trans., vol. clxi., p. 477-510, pi. 

Calamopttus, "Williamson, Lc. 

LTCOPODIACEiE. 

Cychstigma KiltorTcense^ Haught, ; Heer, Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc, p. 169 ; pi. iv., f. 4, 5. Devonian. Kiltorkan. 
C. minutum, Haught.; Heer, I.e., p. 169, pi. iv., f. 2, 3. Ife- 

vonian, Kiltorkan. 



clxii., p. 239j pi. xxvi. — xxyiii. 

. cyUndricumj "Williamson, Lc, 
. stigmarioideum^ Williamson, 1. 
. vascular Cy Williamson, I.e., pL 

tvularia, Williamson. Phil. Trm 



Williamson 



• # 



and xxviii., fig. 29-32. 
Knorria acicularis^ Gopp., var. Bailyana ; Heer, Quart. Journ. 

GeoL Soc, vol. xxviii., p, 170 ; pL iv., f. 6: Devonian. Kil- 
torkan. 

Lepidodendron^ structure of a leaf-bearing branch ; Mon. Micr. 

Journ., vol. vii., 1872, p. 50, pL vii, and viiL 
Lepidodendron nothum^ Unger ; Carruthers, Quart. Journ. GeoL 

Soc, vol. xxviii., p. 353, pL xxvi. Devonian, Queensland, 
L. Veltheimianum, Stemb. ; Heer, Quart, Jouiti. GeoL Soc, vol. 

xxviii., p. 171, pL iv., f. 1. Devonian. Kiltorkan. 
Z. selaginoides, Stemb. ; Williamson, Phil. Trans., vol, clxii., 

p. 199, pL xxiv. and xxv, 

Lepidophloios hrevifoUum^ Williamson, Proc Roy. Soc, voL xx,, 

p. 203. Carhoniferous. Burntisland, 
Ulodendron. Williamson. Phil Tmna Trf^^ cA^W -n ono 



CoNirEK 



Athrotaxites princeps, TTng. ; Dyer, GeoL Mag., vol. ix., p. 194, 

pL v., fig. 2. Upper Oolite. Solenhofen. 
A, Frischmanni, TJngr, Dyer, GeoL Mag., vol. ix., p. 194, pL 

v., fig. 3. Upper Oolite. Solenhofen. 
A. (?) laxus, Dyer, Lc, p. 195, pL v., fig. 6. Upper Oolite. 

Solenhofen. 

A.longirameu8, Dyer, Lc, p. 195, pi. 5, fig. 5. Upper Oolite. 

Solenhofen. . 

A.lycopodioides, Xing., Lc, p. 194, pi. 5, fig. 4. Upper Oolite. 
Solenhofen. 

Araucarites ffalerhinii, Dyer, Geol. Mag., yol. 9, p. 150, fig. 
1-3. Upper Oolite. Solenhofen. 



NOTICES OP BOOKS 



315 



Condylites squamatuSj Dyer, GeoL Mag., vol. is., p. 195, pi. v, 

fig. 7. Upper Oolite. Solenhofen. 
Cupressoxylon Pritcliardi^ Kr. ; Macloskie, Journ. Bot., vol. x., 

p. 93. Tertiary. Lough Neagh, 
Pinites Soleyihofenensis, Dyer, Geol.Mag., vol. ix., p. 193, pi. v., 

fig. 1. Upper Oolite. Solenhofen. 



Wi 



Carhoniferous. Edinburgh. 
ni. Dawson : see Nematophy cus 



Gymnospekk.^ ? 



Antholithes, Erongn, ; Carruthers, Geol. Mag., vol- ix., p. 52.^ 
Cardiocarpon, Brongn. ; Carruthers, Geol. Mag., vol. ix., 

p. 52, ^ T c 1 

Cardiocarpim australe, Carr., Quart. Journ. Geol. boc, vol. 

xxviii., p. 356, pi. xxvii., f. 4. Oolite. Queensland. 
a Lindleyi, Can., I.e., p. 56, f. 1 and 2. Carhoniferous. 

Falkirk. , .>* n i 

a anomalum, Carr., I.e., p. 57, f. 3. Carhomferous. Coal- 

brook Dale. 

MoNOCOTYLEBONES. 

PotJiocites Grantoni, Paterson ; Carruthers, Geol. Mag., vol. ix., 
p. 58, fig. 6. Carloniferous. Edinburgh. 



Koticc^ of 25ooft^, 



iEgypto ad India) fines, hucusque obsorvatarum ; auctore E. 
HoiLiKK Volumcn secundum. Geneva et Basilese. 1872. 



(Pp. 1159.) 



The present instalment of this most valuable work, ^J^ich extends 
Cornace^-as far as the first volume of Bentham and Hooker s 



to Cornacem 



J^Gerrr"!:juny -Std^s T^; high reputation of its author as an 

able and accomp^shed botanist, with «Vr"'^hlroCrvar^^^^^ 
of the vegetation of Western Asia. A few ^^pf/^^f^^'^.i'fg 

some of the author's views ^^7 J^'^t^l^^^^f .^tbt^ss re^lTto 
of Fistacia are admitted, some of which .f^^^^f "^^^^J.^^^ a^^^^ 
P. Terebinthus, In Rhamms, De Candolle's old ^.^ct ojis are m^^^^^^^ 

tained; but these are so weak tt^VV^'^/.^Th. latter rel^ded 
acknowledge but two, Eurhamms and f «ff ^^1? iodlnuf In 
by E. ErJwn, 4, Gray, and many botatua^^^^^^^ 



Trigonella 



Ula ot wnicn ;-;r-- "^— Eutrig^ella and Pococha. 
seven sections are reduced to two^ ^Z..vZ +. f>,« mithor. The 

Med. 



Medicago is Oiviaea sccuouauj x.u. <* ,."j ^-.— cncciea 

excello^nt arrangement of Koch ^J^T^^T^i^^ ParZZ. 
of Tri folium enumerated, except that rresi s secuou x «, , 



3i6 . NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Trifi 



Mr. 



J^entham has, however, shown that these sections fall under two well- 
marked siihfrpnprn. for wTiipIi fTiQnomQo 77,t//*.VA7/«*v, «^^ t>^^.,j ^T..n.' 



EutrifoUum 



may conveniently be adopted. ' Of the enormous genus Astragalus 
757 species are recorded, being more than 150 above the estimate in 
the "Genera" for the whole world. In grouping these Bunge's 
elaborate _ monograph "Astragali species gerontogeje " has been 
followed in the main, some transpositions and changes being made. 
The subseries, however, of the perennial species are not equivalent in 



evil 



transitus 



^^^^^^j ucsuiit, no less man ninety-one sections, each distinguished 
by a substantive name, should be admitted. To those occupied with 
tiiese plants this volume is indispensable, for unfortunately Prof. 
Uunge gives only the diagnoses of his new species in his laborious 
revision, so that it cannot be made use of without reference to a very 



works — many 



Orobus, 



^ \ ^^^/^gf^tted, 18 still kept distinct (*' quadam pietate " just as 
Koch admitted both Carum and Bunium) from Lathyrm, to which J. 
bay long ago showed the necessity of uniting it ; and appears even 
worse limited than usual. Goehelia and Keyserlmgia, two new genera, 
axe separated from ^.j^^.r^, hut do not leave this genus in a better 



Mi 



Mains 



retrograde step. Of forty-six Eoses described, fifteen are considered 
quite new; but it is just now the fashion to create species in 



this genus. The Oriental Ruhi, however, appear Iiitherto to have got 

Z^^^^!^\' ?'' ^""^ .^'^. ^'^ g^^^°- 2^^^ are fresh fields and pastures 
"^Y- ^^tac 38 regionis opulentia "-for some disciple of P. J. 
Muller Sixty-nine species of Potentilla are enumerated, but they 
9.1?- ^J^ssed according to Lehmann's "Revisio." Poterium and 

cZi T i' '''''^f' ^? ^^""^^^"^ ^^^ Hooker, A. Braun, and Asa 
^ray are here retamod apart. In arranging the Saxifragm, Engler's 

iTb tlS'S'P^ "I n° 'A""'^ *°' *^« ^^^ ^e'^tions being admitted, 
with the add^ion of Gnsebach's Cymbahria. In the classification of 

Sd i€r^^ ^' IS foUowed in the main, but with several changes, 
n^^rlfj'^'S' of genera proposed by Bentham are for the most 
part rejected Much labour and thought have evidently been devoted 

T?nnb ...^'^J' ^'^'^^:, ^i'^^ Poetarum, Bei^ol, and^. colchiea, C. 
^r>t nlS3°^ ^^'Tf 'P^"^' ^'^^^' ^""^ Seemann's investigations are 
LL^^r f • • ^^?'' ^'^^"*' ^y a misprint, both sections are 
Sl^TTr ••.*¥. ^e^o^d *ould be Thelycrania ; the first is Dr. 
?2^^.L-ir-f ^7'''^J ^"^ distinguished from the typical 
Is S .^ Its yellow flowers and small herbaceous bracts, and for 
TWnl^lTT ^V^^"" ^^' suggested the name of Chrysocrania. 

ivstmarboftr,^ r*^/' ^ "'"'* ^^^° ^^ ^^^^^'^e contribution to 
S theipo!^ ^^' the ^gnoses and remarks brief and to the point; 
it i, imfoS! f'"^ distnbution is sometimes imperfectly given, and 

1 t)hras?as st ' ^'^^'^i ^ P^°^^^^ ^^^^ the Latkiity of such 
a phrase as species cunosa.'* H F H 



BOTANICAL NEIVS. 31 7 



- h 

25otanicaI 0tW- 



ARTICLES IN JOITENALS. 

Ann. des Sciences Nat. (ser. 5, torn, xvii., n. 4 — 6, June) — H. 
Emery, *^ On the Action of Foliar Organs on Calorific Kadiation." 
P, Tan Tieghem, " Physiological Kesearches on Germination." — H. 
Philihert, ''Observations on Hybridity in Mosses" (pi. 18).— K 
Janczewski, " On Anatomy of the Porphyras, and on the * Propagules ' 
of Sphacelaria eirrhosa'^ (pi. 19). — P.jan Tieghem and G, Le Monnier, 
" Researches in the Mucorinece " (pi. 20— 25).— E. De la Rue, 
** Development of Sorastrum.^'—G. de Saporta, ''Forests buried 
tinder the Eruptive Ash of the Extinct Yolcano of Cantal." 

F 

August. 

Grevitlea.—'K. J. 'Berkeley, " North American Fungi " (contd.). 
W. PhUlips, " Lichens in North Wales." 

Monthly Microsc. Journal.— J. W. Dawson, "Eemarka on Mr. 
Carruthers' view of Profotaxites " {ISfematophj cus , Carr.). 

American Naturalist.—^. J. Beal, " Phyllotaxis of Cones."— C. 
E. Bessey, " Sensitive Stamens in Portulaca:' 

Bull. Bot. Soc. France (torn, xx., p. 1).— C. Eoumeguere, 
** Singular Eeproduction of a Myxogastre."— 0. Debeaux, " On Two 
Species of A7ittrrhtmm new to France" (^. intermedtum, J)eh.=A. 
maj'us, var. Tiylridum, Benth., and A. ruscinonense, Deb.=^. siculum, 
var., Gussone).— P. Petit and A Larcher, "Plants near Paris in 
January, 1873."— J. Becaisne, " Remarks on Species of Unjngtum 
with parallel- veined leaves" (six new species defined).— A. Chatin, 
"Notes on the Truffle."— A. Boreau, "Description of a new 
rmbellifer" {Thysselinum Cruanorum, Bor., from Fimstere).— C. 
Roume<^uere, "Notes on Cultivation of Stemomtia ohlotiya.'^—J. 
Triana, "The Condurangos."— M. Cornu, "Changes in Vines 
attacked by Phylloxera."— k. Chatin, " On the Andrcecium of 
LaliatcB, Globulariea, and ScrophularinecB. -E. i^nUieux, On 
Potatoes with filiform Germs."-J. Duval-Jouve " Deforrmty of 
Zosfera nana caused' by an Entophyte."-E. Co8son,_ "On the 
Botanical Geography of Marocco."— A. Chatin, " Botanical Excur- 
sion at Chapelle-sur-Erde"(Brittany).-Chaboisseau, ''Origin of 
Name of Woodsia ilvensis .•" —T) . Clos, " Calyx of Genttanacea and 
Porfulace^."— J. Decaisne, "On Three Species oiHydnora{m 

If, 



(Dorlyna) anaolensis, n.s., ff. {B.) abyssmica,^ n.s., ii.^J^i 
cdMofica\ n.8.).-Morelet, "Obituary Notice of Welw 



Zostera 



•lb 



" On a Form of Epidermal Cell which seems peculiar to Cyperacm:' 
.T T?. Pi««/»T,nr. " On t.hfi Fritillaries of France." 



J. E. Planchon, " On the Fritillaries 



318 BOTANICAL NEWS, 

h 

Flora. — A. Kanitz, " Some Problems in General Botany." — H. 
Christ, '* The Eoses of Italy." — A. Minks, " On Leptogium cornicu- 
latuniy (Hflfm.) Mks." (tab. 4). — E. Strasburger, "Are the Conifers 
Gymnospermous or not?" — E. Godlewski, "Dependence of Starch- 
formation in Chlorophyll-granules upon the Carbon of the Atmo- 
sphere." 

Redtvigia. — ^T. von Thumen, " Mycological Notes." — " On 

Hydnum StoJiUi^ Echb., n.s." 

Bot Zettung.—Gf. Winter, "Eemarks on Genus Sordaria^^ 
(contd.).— G. Kraus, "Age and Growth of East Greenland Woody 
Plants."— Fliikiger, "On Rheim officinale:'— 7, Kiihn, "The MHdew 
of the Eed Beet."— lb., "Use of Sulphate of Copperas a Eemedy 
for ' Steinbrand ' in Wheat."— G. Briosi, " Normal Composition of the 
Patty Substance in Chlorophyll." 

Oesferr. Bot. Zeitschr. —Jj. Celakovsky, " On the notion of a 
Species in nature, especially in Botany."— E. de TJechtritz, 
^\HieraciumJanM,n.n:'~Y. de Janka, "Plant, nov. Turc. brevia- 
rium" (contd.) {Verbascum hmmlej Veronica Bungahecca^ Nectaro- 
scordhm hilgaricim, CoMicim ttircieum).~R. Kalbruner, " On the 
Chalk Flora of the Manhartsberge in Lower Austria. "—A. Kemer, 
"Distribution of Hungarian Plants" (contd.).— A. Yal de Lievre 
"Notes on Bamncidacece, iS:c." (contd.).— M. von Tommasmi, 
"Plora of S. Tstria" (contd.).— J. Krzisch, "Eevision of Plant- 
localities near Wiener-Neustadt." 



Watson 



all the Dicoty 



"Topographical Botany," the first part, containing 
ledons, of his summary of the distribution of British plants through 
the 112 counties and vice-counties of Great Britain. Those British 
botanists who are interested in county distribution cannot do 
better than^ send to the author specimens and notes of additional 
species tor insertion in part 2, which wiU also include the Mono- 
cotyledons. 

The second part of vol. xxix of the Linnean Society's Transac- 
tions consists of a continuation of the Botany of the Speke and 
(^rant Expedition in East Africa. The enumeration is carried on to 
the end of the Composttce. Feucedanum Grantii, Lefeburia brachystyla, 
Lora^ithns nsuiensis, Fentas purpurea, Oiomeria madiensis, Oldenlandia 
ejusa, Pledroma venosa, Fadogia fuchsioides, Ixora (Pavetta) ternifolia, 
Spermacoce dibrachiata, S, Kotsehyana, Gutenlerqm cordifolia, 
Vemoma^ turhinata, V. Fetersii, K violacea. V. Karaauensis. V. 



Thomsordana 



HehcJirysum Kirkii, Porphjrostmma Grantii, Fulicaria Graiitn, 



Wedelia 



discifolius 



cmlis,^ rhjUachnia Grantii, Erythrocephahm nutans, E. longifolium, 
-B. minus, and Dicoma Karagumsis^m all thirty-five— are the new 
species described in this fine contribution to African Botany, which 
IS iHustrated with thirty-five plate?. 



BOTANICAL IS^EWS. 319 

Jameson, for forty-four years Professor of Chemistry and Botany in 
the University of that city. He was born in Edinburgh in 
1796, and after taking his diploma, went in 1818 and 1820 
to Baffin's Bay as surgeon in whale-ships, and collected plants on the 
West Coast of Greenland, a catalogue of which was published by Dr. 
Gre villa in the " Memoirs of the Wemerian Society" for 1821, 
pp. 416 — 436, with a figure oiPofentilla Jamesoniana* He afterwards 
voyaged to Lima and Guaya(iuil, and in 1826 arrived at Quito, where 
he resided till 1870, when he paid a visit to England, only 
returning to Quito last year. The " Synopsis Plantarum ^quatorien- 
sium," in two vols., was published at Quito, at Government expense, 
and under great difficulties, iu 1865. Dr. Jameson is the author 
also of several papers in Hooker's "London Journal of Botany," 
&c., and has greatly enriched our herbaria by his extensive collections 
of the plants of Ecuador. A longer notice will be found in the 
" Gardener's Chronicle " for 1872, p. 1622. 

Indian Botany has been deprived of one of its most diligent 
workers by the death of Dr. J. Lindsay Stewart, late Conservator of 
Forests in the Punjab. Dr. Stewart was a native of Forfarshire, and 
obtained his medical education in Glasgow, where he was a pupil of 
the late Professor G. A. Walker Arnott. After graduating he pro- 
ceeded in 1856 to the Presidency of Bengal as assistant-surgeon ; he 
was present at the siege, assault, and capture of Delhi m 1857, and 
in 1858 he joined the expedition to the Yuzufzai country. In 1860-61 
he officiated for Dr. W. Jameson as Superintendent of the Botanic 
Garden, Saharumpore, and of the Government Tea Plantations in the 
North-Western Provinces and the Punjab ; and m 1 864 he was employed 
in arranging a system of forest conservancy m the land of the five 
rivers. His position at Saharumpore gave him_ an excellent oppor- 
tunity of becoming acquainted with the vegetation of the Terai and 
North- West Himalaya, and afterwards at Bijnour he studied the 
Mora of the Rohilkund forests, and of the outer valley between the 
Ganges and Sardah. As Conservator of Forests m the Punjab, his 
duties took him to all parts of that province, and he ^ extended his 
journeys to the adjoining province of SIndh, to Kashmir, and to the 
irid, treeless, but botanically most interesting inner Himalapn 
tracts on the Upper Indus, Chenab, and Sutl^ rivers wh h adj - 



Turkestan and Tibet. 



circumstances, he maintained with great Pe^^^«t^^^,^^^^^^^f^^,?,Ve^^^ 
copious notes 'on the spot, and in this manner Je accumulated au 
immense store of valuable information regarding the natural h^t^^^^^^^ 
the properties, uses, and the vernacular names of ^^^^^^P^^^^^^,™ 
West India The results of these researches are embodied m 
numerous papers published in the Journal of the I^^T f ^e^graP^^^^^ 
Society • the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; the Agri-Horticultural 
So i ? ' of India ; and the Transactions of t?e Botanical Society^^^^^ 
Edinburgh. A most interesting account of ^^^ J^Sf, f .^^ ^^ [^ 
extreme^north-west corner of the Punjab and the hill^^,^^/^?,^^ 



identifi 



320 



BOTANICAL NEWS 



" Memoranda on the Peshawur Yalley, chiefly regarding its Flora " 
(Journ. As. Soc, 1863), and in his " jq'otes on the Flora of Wuzuris- 
fen' (Journ. Roy. Geo. Soc, 1863). In the Journal of the Agri- 
Horticultural Society of India appeared ' ' The Subsiunlik Tract 
-mth special reference to the Bijnour Forest and its Trees '* (vol. xiii 
1865) ; " Journal of a Botanising Tour in Hazara and Khagan " fvoi! 
XIV., 1866) ; and "A Tour in the Punjab Salt Eange " (vol. i , new 
series 1867). His last communication, " Notes of a Botanical Tour 
in Ladak or Western Tibet," appeared in the Transactions of the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh (vol. x., 1869). In addition to 
these and other papers in different journals and reviews, his official 
reports whilp at the head of the Forest Department in the 
Punjab contain the record of a large amount of accurate observations 
on the arborescent vegetation of that province; and in 1869, before 
coming home on furlough, he published a most useful work on the 
trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants of economical value growing in 
the Punjab. This work, entitled "Punjab Plants,'' contains 
systematic and vernacular names and notes on the geographical dis- 
tribution and uses of upwards of 800 species. In another respect also 
Ho; t ^^7^,^ ^^^f ^^5 great service to the cause of forest administra- 
STr,f^Tni^-'%T,T' ""TTT^ ^^' ^^'Se and now flourishing 
S IrZ- f L f f ''''' '^ ^}% ^^^J"^- ^^ 1869, after twelve yearf 



Northern 



dLwslhicbllT t '"""Y: ?" P^^^^^P^^ ^'''' ^^^ «^r^^« «f those 
R^W TT, ^^'"^^'^ ^^^ ^°t visited, a young forest officer, Mr. 

Sd n^tes ^n'nfr' ^!\t ^^' '""^^''^^'^ 'I'p^ted to coUect plants 
whtf " ".21l^l^?!„^-^^^^^ To this great lork, 



history 



arifT Tirlnr^f^oi nV V "" .-^^^,^^^ ^^ tiic iiuLurui mstory oi tne trees 
devotK kL .'^^' ff- '^"'}'''' ^ t^« forests, Dr. Stewart 

completed t fn Itf^f ^"'^°^^^' ^°^ ^' ^0^1^ ^o^t«e«« 1^^^^ 
waT Hewn, f ^^f^^^to^. manner if his health had not given 

tTe^tSr nai ^f''?- ^ "^-^ ^^^^^ ^^™^ temperament, and during 
mends that ht J^L..\\''^^^^^^ ^^ ^"S^^"'^ ^' ^^« ^^i^^^t to his 
apXnt on Ki'f ^f^? 7^''' "^^^^ ^^^P^-^^^d. This was further ■ 
S Sckness ohW . V*' ?^^^' ^^^^' ^^^er a few months of office 
Hm Ctariurn^ a^^^^^^^ 1873) from Lahore to the 

fn the ? h IX L^^^f'T' ""^'"'^^ S^^^^^"y ^^ from paralysis, 
extensive tuW^ forty-one Post-mortem examination revelled 

to alTwho reoSi V ?i''' ^*^' ^^^^°- ^e was kind and generous 
of ?SinTSL « '^ help and his loss is regretted by a large number 
numerous learnS' '^ /? '^'' ^ °try. Dr. Stewart was a member of 
Royd Societv of F? T' "l^ "?\°S others he was a FeUow of the 
linnean SoSy ^^^°^^^g^' ^^ the Royal Geographical, and the 

posaf 6 S^of^Tex'as'^ptl^';'' Illinois, rnited States, has for dis- 
830 species. Price 8 dollt T''"''' "^^^ containing on an average 
y rnce 8 doUars, American currency, per 1 00 species. 



i 



I 



321 



<DrtgtndI %ttk\t^. 



ON SOME LYCOPODIACEOUS PLANTS FEOM THE OLD 
RED SANDSTONE OF THE NOETH OF SCOTLAND. 

By Vm. Caeetjthers, F.R.S, 

(Plate 137.) 

The precise horizon which should separate the Carboniferous 
formation from the Devonian is a subject which has been often dis- 
cussed, and about which considerable differences of opinion have been 
entertained. On the one hand, some German geologists have included 
the lower rocks of the Carboniferous system in the Devonian period, 
and in this way linger, Roemer, Goppert, and Schimper have appa- 
rently greatly increased the number of the plants of these older beds. 
On the other hand, the late Prof. Jukes proposed to exclude the 
Devonians of the South of England from the Old Red Sandstone 
series, and to consider them as only the equivalents of the lower Car- 
boniferous strata of the South of Ireland. And Prof. Heer has gone 
further, for while Jukes held that the yellow sandstones formed the 
newest beds of the Old Red Sandstone, he has proposed to unite these 
yellow sandstones of Ireland and Britain with fossiliferous strata of 
the same age in Bear Island, and thus form a group, distinguished by 
the name of the TJrsa stage, which he considers to be the fundamental 
series of the Carboniferous period. The animal remains found in some 
of the beds of the yellow sandstones, however, establish that these beds 
are of Devonian age, and there is, besides, nothing in the facies of 
the fossil plants found in them to require their being associated with 

the Carboniferous system. i j * 

From the Devonian system then I understand to be excluded 
the so-called transition rocks of the Continent, of which the most 
characteristic fossil is Posidonomya, and to be included the yellow sand- 
stones of Ireland and Scotland, and the rocks containing similar fossils 
in Devonshire. In regard to the Devonian rocks proper, as they con- 
tain no plant remains it is little matter botanically whether we 
adopt the opinions advocated by the late Prof. Jukes, or follow the 
universally received opinion so ably defended by Mr. Etheridge m a 
review of the criticisms of Mr. Jukes, in his elaborate memoir on the 



structure 



aU 



podiace^ described by Goppert in his *' Flora Transitionis ' (1852) ; 
by Roemer in his account of the Harz region (Meyers '^Palaeonto- 
graphica," 1854, vol. iii.) ; by the Sandbergers m their work on the 
geology of Nassau (1856) ; by Unger in his *' Schiefer und Sandstem 
Flora" (Denkschrift. k. Akad. Wissensch. Vienna, 1856, vol. xi 
p. 175) ; by Schimper in his Transition Rocks of the Vosges (1862) ; 
and by Goppert in his Review of the Flora of the Older Rocks 
(Nova Acta Acad- Leop., 1860, p. 425)- 
H.s. VOL. 2. [novembek, 1873.] 



322 LTCOPODIACEOrS PLANTS FROM TTTE NORTH OF SCOTLAND, 

. In the yellow sandstones of Great Britain and Ireland we have a 
species of Lycopod, and perhaps only one. Few plants have been the 
suhject of so much observation or received so many names as this 
fossil. Edward Forbes first drew attention to it in 1852, when he 
■shortly described the fossils found in these rocks in the South of 
Ireland, and characterised it as a species of Lepidodendron. During 
the twenty years that have since elapsed more than a dozen different 
names have been given to the stem of this fossil, the last beinj? 
Kriorria Bailyana, given by Sehimper in his '' Traite de Pal. Veg/' 
(1870). The different parts also of the plant, the roots, the leaves, 
and the fruits, have each been referred to genera established for the 
reception of such fragments. This single species has thus secured an 
unusually large number of names even for a fossil plant. 

The flora of the lower Devonian rocks is very little known. The 
different Continental authors have distinguished seven species, all of 
which have been referred to Algae. These are : — 

1852. Haliserites Dechenianus, Gopp., Flora Transitionis, 

p. 88, pi. 2. 

Confervites acicularis, Gopp., I.e., p. 80, pi. 41, f. 3. 

Sphaerococcites lichenoides, Gopp., I.e., p. 91., pi. 41, f. 2. 
Drepanophycus spinseforrais, Gopp., I.e., p. 92, pi. 41, f. 1. 

1854. Chondrites Andreas, Eoem., Meyer, Palffiont., vol. iii., p. 70, 

pi. 2, f. 2. 

1855. Chondrites foliosus, Eichw., Leth. Koas., vol. i., p. 58, 

pi. 1., f. 4. 
Caulerpites pennatus, Eichw., I.e., p. 47, pi, 1, f. t. 

The vegetation of the middle Devonians of the ]S"orth of Scotland 
had not esQaped the notice of Hugh Miller. In his " Old Red Sand- 
stone," published in 1841, he figures and shortly describes several 
specimens. Six fragments are represented on plate vii. of that work, 
all of which he then thought were sea-weeds (p. 100). They are 
obviously portions of the plants to which Dr. Dawson long after gave 
tlie name Psilophyton. These plants were found in the Old Red 
Flagstones so extensively developed in Caithness, and which owe 
their dark colour to organic matter, mainly, as Hugh Miller suggested, 
of vegetable origin ; so strongly bituminous are some of the beds of 
dingier tint that they flame in the fire like slates steeped in oil 
(" Tt^tiroony of the Rocks," p. 431). In addition to the specimens 
which he referred to Algse, he detected others which exhibited 
roundish mai-kings like those covering the surface of the Stigmarias of 
The Coal Measures. 

In his second great work on the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland— 
"The Asterolepis of Stromness," 1849— Hugh Miller added con- 
siderably to our knowledge of the plants of these rocks, and figured 
several more perfect and instructive specimens. Perhaps the most 
important addition to the flora is that of a Conifer which he found in a 
nodule, and which Prof. McNab has recently described with greater 
precision, and named Palmpitys Milleri (Trans. Edin. Bot. Soc, 
▼ol. X., p. 312 ; Joum. Rot., vol. viii., p. 54). But of more interest 
in connection with our present subject are the accurate figures and 
descriptions of a plant from Orkney, which was also abundant in the 



PLANTS 



323 



rocks at Thurso, and which from the remarkahle difference in the 
aspect of its lower and tipper portions he thus describes as two 
different plants : 

" The one an imperfectly preserved vegetable, more nearly resem- 
bling a Club-moss than aught else which I have seen, but which bore 
on its surface, instead of the well-marked scales of the Lycopodiaceee^ 
irregular rows of tubercles, that, when elongated in the profile, as 
sometimes happens, might be mistaken for minute, ill-defined leaves; 
the other, a smooth-stemmed fucoid, existing on the stone in most 
cases as a mere film, in which, however, thickly-set longitudinal 
fibres are occasionally traceable, and which may be always distin- 
guished from the other by its sharp-edged outline." — p. 186, 

His drawings, the size of nature, of the sharp-edged finely- 
serrated weed, and that roughened by tubercles, are singularly accu- 
rate, and might have been made from either of the large specimens 
figured on my plate (pi. 137, figs. 3 and 4). 

The " Testimony of the Eocks,*' which was posthumously pub- 
lished in the beginning of 1857, includes a valuable exposition of the 



less-known fossil floras of Scotland, containing many important addi- 
tions to knowledge which have not even yet got their place in the 
records of geological science. Miller here recognised the true affinity 
of the plant he had already figtired in his *' Old Eed Sandstone '' and 
his *' Asterolepis of Stromness," and gave a very characteristic wood- 
cut of the lower portion of the stem, with its branches and foliage 
(figs. 12 and 120), He says: — 

** "We find the remains of a terrestrial plant allied to Lepidodcn- 
dron, and which in size and general appearance tiot a littJe resembles 
one of our commonest Club-mosses, LycopodiUm elavatum. It sends 
out its branches in exactly the same style— some short and simple, 
others branched like the parent stem — in an arrangement approxi^ 
mately alternate; and is everywhere covered, stem and branch, by 
thickly-set scale-like leaflets, that suddenly narrowing terminate in 
exceedingly slim points. It has, however, proportionally a stouter 
stem than Lycopodium ; its leaves, when seen in profile, seem more 
rectilinear and thin; and none of its branches yet found bear the 
fructiferous stalk or spike." — p. 432. 

Mr. Salter in 1858 described and figured several plant remains 
from the Caithness flagstones (Quart. Journ. Geol, Soc, vol. xiv.^ 
p. 74, pi. 5). The Lycopodiaceous plant, which had been so frequently 
figured by Miller, he again figured and described under the name 
Lepidodendron nothum of linger, but with a doubt as to its identity. 
The specimen figured is now in the Museum of Practical Geology, 
Jermyn Street, and the counterpart was acquired by the British 
Museum as a portion of the valuable collection of Old Red Sandstone 
plants belonging to the veteran naturalist, Mr. Peach. The frag- 
mentary portion figured lies amid an ahundance of the smooth dicho- 
tomously dividing branches described by Miller as fucoids, but really 
belonging to the same Lepidodendroid plant. These terminal dicho- 
tomous branches, as well as the lateral ones, are also figured by 
Salter, who supposed them to be the rootlets of Coniferous plants, the 
^ood of which he had obtained from the same locality. A less 
perfect specimen of the same plant he figured (I.e., pi. 5, fig. 8) on a 

T 2 



324 LYCOPODIACEOTTS PLANTS FKOM THE NORTH OF SCOTLANP. 

reduced scale, and named Lycopoditen Milleri, Salter. The size of 
the stem and the character of the foliage agree so exactly with Miller's 
figures and with the specimens I have examined, that I have no 



doubt as to its identity ; but I have not seen the specimen itself, 
which Mi:. Salter described as a fragment of which *' not much can 
be said as to its structure." 

" In 1858 Mr. Salter included in a paper on the older rocks of the 
Korth of Scotland, by Sir R. I. Murchison, a drawing and description 
of a branching; stem supposed to belong to a Tern, and named by him 
Caukptens (?) Peachn, after its discoverer (Quart. Journ Geol. Soc, 

vol. XV., p. 408). 

Omitting from this record the notices in Murehison's ^' Siluria," 
which are substantially those published by Salter, and the 
references in general works on geology, these are the whole of the 
published accounts bearing on the Lycopodiacecd of the Old lied Sand- 
stones of the North of Scotland. 

The communication of a remarkable and, as far as I know, 
unique specimen from the plant-bearing flagstones of Skail on the 
Mainland, Orkney, by Sir Ph. deM- GreyEgerton, Bart., has specially 
directed my attention to these plants. I have given a figure of this 
specimen on the plate (tab. 137, figs. 1 and 2), together with two 
singularly perfect stems from the collection of Mr. Peach, now in the 
British Museum. The larger of the two (fig. 4) is drawn half the 
size of nature, and shows the lower part of the stem with its clothin 



o 



of leaves and its approximately alternate branches, organically con- 
nected with the dichotomously branching sharp-edged fucoid, which 
Miller supposed to be a different plant. This specimen further 
establishes that the fragments figured and described by Salter as 
Coniferous rootlets are the upper branches of his Lycopodiaceous 
plant Lepidodeniron nothum, Salt, (non Ting ), and Lycopodites Millerij 
Salt. The second specimen, drawn natural size at fig. 3, shows the 
same characteristics in the stem and its branches. 

From the various drawings and descriptions published by Miller, 
one can see that this plant had stigmarioid roots, a slender Lycopod- 
like stem, with the lower branches short, simple, or compound, and 
with numerous short acuminate leaves, and with the upper branches 
regularly dichotomising, with sharp edges produced by the absence of 
distinct leaves, the ultimate divisions being short and slender, and 
sometimes rolled up in a circinnate manner at the tips. He also 
noticed the slender vascular axis running along the centre of the 
upper branches. 

This plant, figured as a fucoid in 1841, is certainly the same as that 
to which Groppert in 1847 gave the name Haliserites Beehenianus^ 
which he published without description or drawing (Leonhard and 
Bronn's " Jahrbuch,'' 1847, p. 686) ; but in 1852 he supplied these 
desiderata in his Transition Plora (p. 88, t. 2). 

. In 1859 Dr. Dawson published his first memoir on the Devonian 
plants of Canada (Quart, Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xv., p. 477). Here 
he describes and figures a fragment of a Lycopodiaceous plant under 
the name Zepidodendron Gaspianum (I.e., vol. xv., p. 483, fig. 3 ; also 
vol, xviii. (1862), pi. xiv., figs. 26—28, and pi. xv., fig. 58), which 
agrees, as far as the descriptions and figures permit the comparison, 



LYCOPODIACKOUS PLANTS FEOM THE NOKTU OF SCOTLAND, 325 



with those figured and described by Salter in the previous volume of 
the Journal, and by Miller in his various publications. I do not of 
course insist that it is the same species, only that Dr. Dawson has not 
supplied in any of his memoirs characters which justify his separating 
it as a distinct species from the previously described and figured 
fossil referred to Lepidodendron, from the Scottish beds. 

In the same paper Dr. Dawson gives the generic name Psilophyton 
to some small Lycopodiaceous plants, from the same strata as his 
Lepidodendron Gaspianum ; but as he has never given a diagnosis of 
the genus, I am unable to discover, in the published descriptions of the 
four species included in it, the points which he found them to possess 
in common, and which justified their being grouped in one genus. 
The species named P. princeps was apparently a humble Lycopod 
compared with those found in the upper Devonians and the Coal 
Measures. Its stem was covered below with numerous short rigid 
leaves spirally arranged, while the upper branches were almost if 
not altogether leafless, and repeatedly branched dichotomously, with 
tlie tips sometimes rolled up in a circinnate manner. The long, slender, 
simple leaf-bearing branches of this Canadian plant indicate a difi^ereat 
species from the Scottish plant, but in other respects the plants agree. 
And in their vegetative characters as well as in their size they agree 
with several living Lycopodia. Thus Lycopodium densum from Tas- 
mania has an erect stem with short lateral branches, which ultimatley 
divide in a dichotomous manner. This is the character also of the 
European Z. coynplanatum^ of the widely-distributed L, cernuum, and of 
many others. The paucity and in some cases almost absence of leaves 
from the fruit-bearing branches of those species which have their fruit in 
stalked cones is familiar in many species as in the common Z. clavatum. 
The ultimate divisions of L. casuarinoides from the Malaccas are long, 
linear, smooth-sided, and almost leafless, like the upper divisions of 
Psilophyton, The character of the fruit is, however, very different from 
any known in the Order. If this peculiar fruit character were 
common to all the species included under Fsilophyton^ no better generic 
distinction could be found ; but while a fair amount of agreement exists 
in the descriptions of the sporangia of P. princeps and P. rohustiusj 
though in the first they terminate the axis of the ultimate branches, 
while in the second species there appear to be bracts as ^' well as 
sporangia, it is very difforentin P. elegam^ the fructification of which is 
said to occur *' in gi^oups of small, broadly oval scales, borne on 
the main stem below the points of bifurcation." I do not profess to 
understand this description, but whatever it means, it is obviously 
very different from what is known in the other two. I have seen no 
satisfactory remains of fructification in any British specimen, but the 
specimens of P. princeps presented by Dr.^ Dawson to the British 
Museum fully substantiate the accuracy of his description of the fruits 

of that species. 

The genus may be thus characterised: — 
" Psilophyton, Dawson. Sporangia oval, naked, opening by a 
lateral slit, borne in pairs at the termination of ^ the ultimate 
branches; stem erect, low (probably from 2 to 4 feet high), springing 
from a creeping rootstock (or from stigmarioid roots?), branching 
irregularly below, and dichotomously above; leaves lanceolate, acute, 



f 



326 LrCOPODIACEOUS PLANTS PROM THE NOIITH OP SCOTLAND. 

densely covering tte stem and lower brandies, few or entirely absent 
on the upper branches. 

The only British species may be thus characterised : 

Psilophyton Dechenianum, Carr, Lower branches short and 
frequently branching, giving the plant an oblong circumscrip- 
tion. 

1841.— "Fucoid," Hugh Miller. 
1847. — Haliserites Dechenianus, Gopp. 

1857. — Lepidoiendron nothum, Salter (non TJng,). 

Lycopodites Milleri, Salter. 

I have referred to Salter's Caulopteru (?) Peachii : the examina- 
tion of the original specimen, which is at Jermyn Street Museum, 
inclines me to believe that it may be the fragment of a large plant 
allied to P. rolustius of Dawson, with which it agrees in the external 
aspect of the stem and in the manner of branching. 

The interesting specimen communicated by Sir Philip Egerton 
consists of a dichotomously dividing stem, nearly uniform in diameter 
in its different parts, and densely covered with small lanceolate acute 
leaves. On the right of the specimen a compound structure is pre- 
served, the nature of which is not easy to determine. It appears to 
be oroken from the branch immediately below it. The body itself 
looks hke a compound spike. From the opposite sides of the stalk 
spring several erecto-patent, at length incurved, leaf-like bodies. They 
were obviously arranged spirally on the main axis, their opposite 
appearance being due to the manner in which the fossil is preserved, 
bcattered among them are a large quantity of linear organisms, about 
a quarter of an inch long, which are all arranged round special 
centres, just as the much longer leaves of the Larch are arranged 

^r^i • 1 ^ ~P^^ branches which support them. These centres are 
, Btiort thickened processes on the main axis, or on the curved leaf-like 
bodies. About halfway up the inner curve of the lowest of these such 
a process is shown with the Unear bodies radiating from it. A large 
number of such cushions exist, scattered apparently without order on 
both the mam axis and the lanceolate branches, for though leaf-like 
they can be of course neither leaves nor bracts. The whole head must 
nave been a somewhat compact structure, showing externally the 
lanceolate incurved branches partly enclosing the numerous masses of 
small hnear bodies. 

I can see no intelligent interpretation of this interesting specimen. 
J- he hnear bodies are too unlike the leaves to suppose this to be a 
mass of undeveloped leaf-buds. Kor are they like organs of repro- 
duction, although it is more probable this may be their nature. They 

^J^^f / -.1 , .^"-^^ described by Dr. Dawson under the names 
^ntholUhe8d^omcus^nd.A.floridus (Pre-Carb. Floras, p. 63, pi. xix, 
ngs. iJ5, 236) ; but it is far from likely that the linear bodies can be 

statXby Dr^Dawsou^^''' ^ *^'' ''^ ^ ^^^ Canadian specimens, as 

>,..'^^''f °fl '^^y^ ^ ''^^ ^^y interpretation of this curious fossil, I 
nave yet figured it, as any addition to so ancient and little known a 
nora as that of the Caithness flagstones of middle Old Red Sandstone 

afffi IS imr^rirfonf r^^A 4.1,:_ _.i* •• ^ - ., 



age IS important, and this notice and figure may secure further 



MOSSES or THE WEST BIDING 0-F YOKE. 327 

r 

materials for an intelligent estimate of its nature. I leave the name to 
"be given when this is done, being greatly adverse to the too common 
practice of publishing names for imperfect and unexplained fossils. 

Explanation of Plate 137. 

Figs. 1 and 2. Specimen from the Old Red Flagstones of Skail/.Orkney. The 
two figures belong to the same specimen, but it waa not practicable to show 
them in the plate on the one slab ; the natural relation is, however, ahown by 
the small fragment of the stalk of the compound structure on the right side of 
^g' 1, and by the upper portion of the double branch in iig. 2. 

Fig. 3. Specimen oi Fsilophyton Dechenianunij Carr., found at Sheep Skerry, 
in the island of Stroma, off the north coast of Caithness, by Mr. C. W. Peach. 

Fig. 4. Specimen of the same (half the size of nature), from CuUygoe, in 
the same island ; also from the colleotion of Mr. Peach. Both specimens are 
now in the British Museum, 



ON THE MOSSES OF THE ^^EST EIDING OF THE COUNTY 

OF YOEK. 
By C, P. HoBKiKK. 

{Head at the Meeting of the British Association^ Sept. 18<A, 1873.) 
In offering this short resume of the Moss Flora of the West 



Eiding, at the request of Prof. Lawson, and as a small contribution 



towards the flora of my own division of the county, I would have it 
understood that it is merely a sketch of what is at present known 
and recorded on the subject. Although several rare species are to be 
found in various parts of the Eiding, and certain districts have been 
well and thoroughly worked up, yet there are other districts which 
are almost virgin ground to the bryologist, and I have no doubt that 
many more of our rarer species will yet reward the searcher in many 
of the unworked nooks and corners of the county. The district 
around Todmorden has been one of the best explored, chiefly owing to 
the indefatigable labours of my late friend, Mr. John Nowell, of that 
town, with whom I have made several excursions over his favourite 
haunts. His researches were not, however, confined to his own 
immediate neighbourhood, but extended into the districts of Malham, 
Clapham, Bolton Woods, lugleton, and Heptonstall, and his authority 
is the one from which most if not all the species of these districts are 
inserted in the following list. Amongst the other explorers of these 
rich districts, to whom we owe much of our knowledge, may be 
mentioned Mr. S. Gibson, E. Spruce, J. G. Baker, and Louis C, Miall 
along with Dr. Carrington. The north-western portion of the Eiding 
has thus been well worked by these gentlemen, wliilst the south-eastern 
portion southwards from the rivers Calder and Aire, including the 
valley of the Don and the Dearn, the moorlands south of Pemstone, and 
all the districts around Barnsley, Askern, Thorne, Doncaster, Goole, 
Mexbro', Eotherham, and Shefiield, are almost unexplored m a bryo- 
logical sense, or at any rate, if partially explored, the results are 

unpublished in any form. 

The West Eiding may be divided into eight riversheds, viz., the 
T.im^ T^a.l.!^ TTnT^Pv Air*:*. Lower Aire, Wharfe, Nidd, Colne and 



328 MOSSES OF THK WEST EIDING OF TOEK. 

Calder, and the Don. Of these, the first, second, fifth, and seventh 
are pretty well explored, and the list of species at the end of this 
sketcn is chiefly made up of the forms found in these districts. By 
far the richest rivershed is that of the Wharfe, commencing on the 
high moorlands ahove Kettlewell, Malham, and Bumsall, and including 
the deep productive woods around Barden Tower, Bolton Abbey, 
Harewood, Otley, and Cottingham. Airedale and Eibblesdale also 
produce many and rare species, from Yeadon, Bingley, Skipton, 
Clapham, Ingleton, and Giggleswick. As usual, the limestone and 
Silurian formations are richest both in number of species and in 
profusion of specimens; whilst, when we come down to the Car- 
boniferous sandstones and shales, in the country immediately surround- 
ing Bradford, Leeds, Halifax, and Huddersfield, we find a gi-eat 
falling off in this respect. The millstone grits forming the highlands 
from which the Colne and Calder take their rise occupy an intermediate 
position, and produce some rare subalpine species, amongst which 
may be mentioned the minute Brachyodus trichodes, growing in a cleft 

of rock at Holme Moss, at an elevation of 1500 feet above the sea- 
level. 

Of the 561 species now ascertained to be found in the British 
Islands the West Riding possesses close upon 300, and I have no 
doubt that a careful search in the less explored districts of the south 
trould materially mcrease the number. Of these Todmorden alone 
can funush 120, and Bolton Woods quite as many. These 300 species 
are grouped into 69 genera, whilst about 20 genera are altogether 
absent Of the 14 species of Sphagnum we have 12. All the Phascums 
have been found; 14 sp. of Licranum ; 17 of Tortula ; 17 of 
Orthotnchum ; 5 of Polytrichum ; 23 of Bryum; 10 of Mnium ; 7 of 
Bartramta; 8 of Ftmdens ; 7 of Zesha ; and 71 of ffypnum. 
Ihe unrepresented genera are Cynodontium, Stylostegium, Hedwigi- 
dmm, Glyphomxtrium, (Edipodmm, Bmodon, Tayloria, Tetraplodon, 

Bait 



onia. 



West 



.uugiiuue 01 j^eeas and Uewsbury, about 1« 38' W., from whence to 
vlJ 4^ Z south-west it rises rapidly, beyond Hebden Bridge, 
Huddersfield, and Penistone, into high flat ridges, often covered with 



whilst 



west these lower hills gradually increase in height along the borders 

It ^l -t .. J^^I"'^^^^, until they reach their greatest elevation 
m Whemside, 2245 ft. ; Penyghent. 2273 ft. ; and Ingleboro', 2373 ft. 
un tnese ranges we get many subalpine species, such as Andrecea 
^etropMa and alptna, Sphagnum tenellum and ruhellum, Brachyodus 
7.TT' ff'"'^yPj<', ^2*'«^ Grimmia funalis, OrthotricJium rupestre, 
iil^Tn T^''' ^'^y'"'^ >/«^^«w, Cinclidium stygium, Bartramia 
ChlJii 1 f'T^\ Splachnum sphcericum, Tetraplodon mnioides, 
Chmactum dendrozdes, Myurella julacea , and several Ryvna. 

"T^rtnl! • T\ ^^^'■'■^\ ^«^°<i «°ce the publication of Wilson's 
8pSiT/ ^ ^^ words may suffice. Sphagnum pamllosum, Lindb., 

l2Zft '"? ?• '^f'M^^^ ^7 its more papillose and boat-shaped 
leaves, has not been found in the West Riding : hut I have little doubt 



p • 



MOSSES OF THE "WEST BTDESTG OF TOEK. 329 



that before long we shall find that form, as I am informed that it is as 
frequent as cymhifolium in other localities where that species is found. 

Fissidens exilis has been found at Todmorden, aa also TortuLz 
vtnealisj and it is probable that others may yet turn up. AtricJium 
erispum (James) {laxifolium^ Wils. MS.) has been found both at 
Saddleworth and Todmorden. 

Of the new division of the adunca group of Hyfnum we have aa 
yet found only the typical form H. adtmcum of L, & Dill. {H, 
exannulatumy Giimb.) ; but I have little doubt that most if not all the 
others will yet be found. The species which has generally been 
distributed under the name of J/, aduncum^ L., is really only a small 
form of H, Kneiffii ; whilst, according to the most recent researches of 
Dr. Braithwaite, who some months ago examined the original speci- 
men of Dillenius on which the species was founded, the typical form 
is the one named afterwards exannulafumhj Giimbel ; consequently this 
name must now sink to the rank of a synonym, and the original name 
aduncum be retained. This species differs from Kneiffii by its much 
more falcate leaves, which are striate, rather strongly nerved nearly 
to the apex, with the basal cells larger and inflated, and gradually 
passing into the long narrower ones above ; whilst Kneiffii has more 
distant and less crowded leaves, only slightly falcato-secund, not 
striate, only thinly nerved for about two-thirds their length, with the 
basal angles decurrent excavate, of lax subquadrate cells, those 
above being elongate rectangular. The other species of this group 
are B, Sendtnerij Sch., which is var. e, hamaium of K. aduncum of 
Bry, Eur., with its var /3. Wilso7ii] IL vernicosum^ Lindb. = -ST 
pellucidum, Wils. MS., and H, aduncum^ var. tenue^ of Bry. Brit., and 
S. intermedium^ Liudb. ^ IT, Cossoni, Schp. 

These forms are all sufficiently distinct to rank as true species, and 
a little study of the various forms will soon enable any bryologist to 
distinguish them readily. 

[N.B. The sign (!) after any locality signifies that 1 have seen 
authentic specimens from thence ; the sign (! !) that I have specimens 
in my herbarium from that locality.] 

1. Andre^a petrophila, Mr. Ingleboro', Brimham rocks, 

2. A. alpina, Turn. Wet rocks Ingleboro', Brimliam. 

3. A. rupestriB, Twrn. Cliviger, Todmorden ! Wharfedale, Ingle- 
boro'. 

4. Sphagnum cymbifolium, Ehr. Stansfield Moor Todmorden! 

&c. ; frequent. 

5. S. compactum, Brid. Stansfield Moor, Whernside. 

6. S. tenellum, Mr. Swaledale ! Ingleboro', Stansfield Moor. 

7. S. rubellum, Wils. Ingleboro', Stansfield Moor, and Rom- 
balds Moor. 

8. S. acutlfoHura, Ehr. Stansfield Moor ! 

9. S. fimbriatum, Wtls. Stansfield Moor. 

10. S. cuspidatum, Ehr. Malham Moor, Ilkley. 

11. S. contortum, Schulz. Eamsden Clough ! ! and Stansfield 

Moor Todmorden. 

12. S. squarrosum, Fers. Frequent. 

13. Archidium phaacoides, ^n'if. Todmorden! 



330 JilOSSES OF THE WEST EIDIIfG OP YOKK, 



14. Phascum serratum, ScTir. Hareley Wood, Todmorden. 

- 15, P. muticum, Sclir. Esholt, Ilkley, Stoneyroyd, near Tod- 
morden. 

^ 16. P. rectum, Sm. Pontefract! Todmorden!! Esholt, Eawden, 
Ripon. 

17. P. curvicollnm, Hed. Pontefract and Castleford. 

18. P. cuspidatum, ScJirel. Bawden, Bolton, Eipon, Ackworth. 

19. P. bryoides, Bieks. Eipon, moors near Huddersfield, 

20. P. nitidum, Hed. Yeadon Moor. 

.21. P. subulatum, L. I^ot uncommon; Ripon, &c. 

22. P. altemifolium, B. ^ S. Wessenden, near Huddersfield ! ! 
Bolton Abbey. 

23. Gymnostomum tenue, Schrad. Thorparch, Fountains Abbey. 

24. G. rupcstre, Schw.- Ramsden Clough, Todmorden! Bineley, 
Bolton, Malbam. 

25. G. microstomum, Hed. Todmorden! Malham Cove, Hepton- 

26. Weissia controversa, Eed. Todmorden ! Ripon, &c. ; fre- 
quent. ■^ 

n n ?J; H' ^\^^^^a, Hed. Todmorden ! Storthea HaU, near Eudders- 
teld I ! Kawden, Bolton Woods, Pateley Bridge. 

TT 1?^; w • ^^^^"Jl^ta, Brid. Bolton Abbey, Knaresboro', Wentvale, 
Helks' Wood, Ingleton, Gordale. 

29. Ehabdoweissia fugax, B. Sf S. Between Bolton Abbey and 
Barden Tower, Ingleboro'. 



morden ! 



.. denticulata, B. §■ S. Greensclough, Todmorden ! 
ampytosteUum saxicola, B. ^ S. Eamsden Clough, Tod- 

32. Brachyodus trichodes, iV. ^ JI. Todmorden ! Holme Moss ! ! 
. Strifio'trSmoXnt' "^^ ^ ^- '^^^^" ^^^"^ ^^^^^^"^ ^^^^' 



Dent Fells. 



usilla, B. Sj- S. Malham Cove, Ingleboro', HowgiU and 

35. Anodus Donianus, B. ^ S. Heptonstall ! 

36. Bhndia acuta B. Sf S. CHviger, Todmorden ! 

baM:kt:rr^aff bIT ' ^^'' "^^"^'^^ ' ^^^^^ ' ''''' ^^-- 

38. D. Schreberi, I/ed. Langfield Moor, Todmorden ! ! 

39. D. sciuaxrosum, Schrad. Todmorden ! ! Bolton. Halifax. 

ingle?; KombStt:?:' ""''' ""^"^'^^ ^^^"^^ ' ' ^^^^^^^ ' ' ^^^^^ 

41. D. varium, Hed. Kot unfrequent. 

42. D. rufescens, Turn. Not uncommon, Esholt, Idle. 
11' ^' ^'^}'^^^^> ^'^' Todmorden ! ! Hebden Valley ! ! 

44. 1^. heteromallum, Red. Common. 

45. IJ. Scottianum, Turn. Idle Wood 

46. D. fuscescens, Turn. Bingley, Bolton, Heptonstall, Malham. 
4«" S' ^^^'P'^'^""^' ■^^^- Common. 

dale "'^•''''' ^''''"" -^'"^^^y ^°°^^ • ^«^^*^^' Harewood, Clap- 

morden."^' ^'^'''^'"^* ^'''^' ^'''*^' ^°^"^ ' i^o^talds Moor, Tod- 



MOSSES OF THE WEST BIDING OF TOUK. 331 



50. D. spurium, lied. Pilmoor!, near Eipon. 

51. Leucobryum glaucum, Hampt, Heptonstall! Dungeon "Wood, 

Huddersfield I ! 

52. Ceratodon purpareus, Brid. Todmorden ! Marsden Clough ! ! 

53. Campy lopus atrovirens, De Not. (longipilus, p. parte). Aust- 

wick. 

54. C. flexuosua, Brid. Heptonstall! Idle, Eawden, Bingley, 

Ilkley. 

55. C. fragilis, B. ^ S. Todmorden, Otley Cbevin.— 3. densus, 

Malham, 

56. C. pyriformis, Brid. Todmorden! Meauwood, Headingley. 



Tadcaster, &c. 



Sr S. Pontefract, Kawden, Appeiiey, 



58. P. tnincatula, Z, Common. 

59. P. Heimii, B. Sf 8. Thorparch. 

60. Anacalypta lanceolata, i2oAZ. Pontefract! Bolton, Skipton, 

Ackworth, &c. 

61. Disticliium capillaceum, 5. 5^ S. Malham! Bolton, Ilkley, 

Ingleboro'. 

62. Didymodon rubellus, B. ^ S. Todmorden! 

63. Trichostomum tophaceum, Brid. Eamsden Clougb, Tod- 
morden I Gordale, Otley. 

64. T. flexicaule, B. ^ S. Grassington ! 

65. T. bomomallum, B.[^ S. Todmorden! Hebden Yalley!! 

"Wessenden !! 

66. Tortula stellata, Schreh (rigida). Pontefract! Castleford, 

Eipon, &c. 

, 67. T. ambigua, B, ^ S. Pontefract, Knottingley, Castleford. 

68. T. aloides, B. ^ S. Hovingham! Ingleboro', Settle, Eipley, 

WentbiU. , 

69. T. lamellata, Lindh. (Pottia cavifolia, var. gracilis). Pontefract I 

Ackwortb. 

70. T. muralis, Tunm. Common. 

71. T. unguiculata, ZT^rf. Common. 

72. T. convoluta, ITed. Todmorden, Ingleton. 

73. T. vinealis, Brid. E. Eibble, atHorton, Bolton Bridge, Ingle- 

bore*, Ilkley. 

74. T. rigidula, lied, Bolton Woods, Gordale, Helks Wood. 

75. T. fallax, JJed. Frequent. 

76. T. recurvifolia, Mitt Malham, Ingleboro\ 

77. T. ruralis, Bed. Walls, Malham ! Bolton, Skipton, Settle. 
78'. T. l^vipila, B. ^ S. Harewood, Ilkley, Bolton,. Malham. 

79. T. papulosa, TFih. Bolton, Ilkley, Harewood. 

80. T. latifoHa, B. ^ S. A^Tiarfe, near Tadcaster. 

81. T. subulata, Brid. Frequent. * ^ 

82. T. tortuosa, JF. ^ M. Ilkley, Malham, Ingleboro . 

83. Cinclidotus fontinaloides, P.B. E. Wharfe, E. Yore, Malham. 

84. Encalypta vulgaris, tied. Malham. 

85. E. ciliata, Bed. Malham ! ! Gordale, Ingleboro , Whemside. 

86. E. rhabdocarpa, Schv. Ingleboro*. 

87. E. strcptocarpa, Bed. Grassington ! Malham, Bolton, &c. 

[To he continued.) 



A 

332 ON PLAMS COLLi:CTED IK MOROCCO, 



F 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES, SUBSPECIES, 
AND YAEIETIES OP PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOEOCCO 
. BY J. D. HOOKER, G. MAW, AND J. BALL. 

Br J. Ball, F.E.S. 

{Continued from pa^e 307.) 

Vicia glauca, PsL ; var. rerayemis^ nob. — Prime intuitu a typo 
non differt nisi floribus minoribus pallide lilacinis, carina apice atro- 
purpurea.^ If otas diflferentiales graviores video in calyce vulde inacquali, 
dentibus inferioribus subulatis tubo longioribus, superioribus vix 
tubum diraidium sequuntibus.— Zr^5. In regione superiori Atlantis 
Majoris. In couvalle Ait ITesan ! a 2400"" ad 2600"*. 

Legumen iinmaturum pilosiusculum. In spec, ex Sicilia et 
Algeria video suturam leguminis pilosam. 

Lathyrus fissus^ nob.— Annuus, nanus, caule debili ramoso, 4- 
angulato; folia 2-3 juga, cino simplici niunita ; stipule foliola 
dimidium longse, semisagittatse ; pedunculi uniflori, aristati, foliis 
ffiquilongi ; calycia dentea subulati, subiequales, tubo 4-5 
longiores ; flores parvi (jam emarcidi videntur rubelli) ; legumen disper- 
mum, breviter stipitatum, ovatum, acutum, apice obliquo sub-ros- 
tratum.— fiaJ. Ad radices Atlantis Majoris— in rupibus apricis supra 

Huic similis sed non affinis est Z. ciliatus, Gnas. = Orolussaxatilts, 
Vent, et DC. PL Pr. In hoc calyx et legumen omnino diversi. 

Iiuim{^ Dalibarda?) dehilis, noT).— Prostratus, ramosissimus, 
■ ramis debiHbus ; folia ovalia crenata, utrinque viridia, integra vel 
basilobata, vel temata foliolis lateralibus petiolulatis lobo terminali 
multo mmonbus ; stipulse filiformes ; flores in spec, nostris emarcidi, 
achenia (mlertiha) omnino sicca apice acuta stylo caduco.— /J«3. Ad 
radices Atlantis Majoris. Legimus in convalle Ourika ! circa 1100". 

benus Linneanum Balibarda a celebb. Benth. & Hook, ad sec- 
tionem Ruli reductum in America boreali, et meridlonali (ad fretum 
Magellanicum) et Nepalia detectum, etiam Atiica) boreali, ut videtur, 
mdigenum est ; sed specimina nostra manca observatione ulteriori in 
loco natali carent. 

Foterium anceps, nob.— Multicaule, foliaceum ; folia primaria 
radicalia in pagina inferiorl, caulina utrinque sericeo-\-iUosa ; capitula 
rotundata ; achenia pulverulento-tomentosa, compreasa, ancipitia, 
ad angulos laterales alata, ad anteriorem et posteriorem, ala) subobso- 
letse vix prominentes.— Z?ai. In redone """"~"~ **i-^-^i--^ -K^^Xr.^. 



Atlantis 



Alt Mesanj et m monte Djebel Tezah ! circa 2500". 
Invito ammo novam proposui speciem in hoc genera speciebus 



ignit 



speciminibus 



P 

Cotyledon hhpanica, DC. (sub Plsiorinia) ; subsp. C. Cossoniana, 

f\ll^iT'''n ^5^>^''. Ooss. (Cat. PL Marocc. mss.), non Boiss. 
i^u umert a C. hispamca, planta polymorpha a nobis diu observata— 
CUJU8 vanetates sunt P/.^mnm Sakmami, Boiss. Voy. en Esp., pi. 
bi,ii.-^F. brevijiora, Boiss. El, etP. intermedia. Bnt.<,s Pt.Hmit.. corolla 



ON PLANTS COLLECTED IN MOROCCO. 333 

rnulto breviori, fere ad medium tubi fissa, pallide erubescenti, lobis 
lanceolatis mucronatis, calycis segmentis longioribus corolla quartam 
partem sequantibus, statura minore. Haberem pro specie probe 
distincta at yereor ne transeat in typum. Specimina ad Oued Sidi 
el Kebir prope Blidab in Algeria lecta a clar. Cosson P, Sahmanni 
norainata nostra sp. maroccana propriora videntur. — Hal, In provinciis 
occidentalibus Imp. Maroccani. Legimus prope Casa Blanca! 
Mazagan! ad Ain el Hadjar, baud procul Mogador! et in Prov. 
Sbedma ! 

Sedtim modestum, nob.— Annunm, nanum ; caulis inferne nndus, 
glaberrimus ; folia pauca, plana, late spatbulata, approximata, glaber- 



nma 



terminales 



rata, subaphylla ; flores heptameri j sepala cum pedicellis ex pilia 
simplicibus hirtula, ad medium usque coalita ; petala oblongo-lanceo- 
lata, acuminata, pallide alborubentia, nervo prominulo dorso pilifero 
ssipius apiculata ; semina minutissima.— ^«5. In _ fissuris saxorum et 
sub radicibus arborura in regione inferiori et media Atlantis Majoris. 
Legimus in convallibus Ourika! et Ait Mesan ! et in monte Djebel 

TezabI a llOO^ad IGOO-". 

Species distinctissima cui proximum, Bed longo intervallo, toret 

S. ahini folium^ All. 

Sempervkum ieciorum, L. ; subsp. (?) S. atlantieum, nob. (Bot. Mag., 
t. 6055)— Differt a typo notis sequentibue— folia rosularum obovato- 
oblonga, apice breviter mucronata, utrinque (in planta spontanea) bre- 
viter glanduloso-pubescentia, margine ciliata ; folia caulma lanceolato- 
oblonga, superiora glanduloso-pubescentia ; calyx fere ad basm iissus, 
stamina omnia perfecta, virginea obscure viridia (nee rubella) • squamaj 
hypogyn® minutissimse glandulosse; carpella divergentia basi toro 
elevato suffulta, et a verticilUs exterioribus squamis exceptis omnmo 
discreta, staminibus ^qualia petala | longa.— ZTaJ. Rosulas foliorum 
legimus in convalle Ait Mesan, anno 1871 ; ex his post annos u. 
caules floriferi in Horto Kewensi enati sunt. _ ^ ^ • . , v • 

In tanta copia forraarum pro speciebus novis a botanicis bodiernis 
et imprimis a clar. Jordan descriptarum notae differentiales plane 
evadunt. Inter tabulas Jordanianas nuUam video plante nostrae 
omnino conformem. et invito anirao nomen novum proposui. 

•if. muralis, H.f., in Bot. Mag., ser. 
iii., No. 333, tab. 5988. Non Petrophyes muralis Webb m Bourgean 
PI. Canar., No. 269 et 1284, nee C. Bolle in Bonplandia vii., p. 244.- 
Hah. In regione superior! Atlantis Mmons. Legi in monte Djebel 
Tezab alt. circa 2400" loco uliginoso juxta mvea deliquescentes. ^ 

Pace amici celeberrimi stirpem nostram cum planta 9^"^",^,^'' 
supra memorata in unam speciem confundere nequeo. Katio parhum 
flo?alium est omnino diversa; calyx brevior ^^°;^^"^, "^^P ^^^.^^ 
petala late ovato- acuminata, nec Uneari-lanceohta ("Imeana, Bolle 

.c), calycem duplo superanfia, nec pauIo longwra, ya™=^, fT!£.°^ 
(staminodia) paLla. una basi carpellorum adhaerentia et tr femora 
nec mm ^^rgine imhricain, carpelhs paulo brevtora {' coronam 
conspicuam'laxam formantia," BoUe l.c); stamina W^/J P^^^al^ 
opposita, calyce duplo longiora sunt, etp^tahs sub^qualia series altera 
petalis alterna fit demum subxquilonga (ut vxdetur m tabula 



Monanthes 



334 ON PLAiVTS COILKCTED IN MOEOCCO. 

T 

Webblana reiropJiyes agriodaplm, Phyt'Canar., tab. 36, C) ; carpclla 
deniquG omnino niiiia, Lee undique papillosa^ latiora sunt et apice 
stylifero demum divaricata. His addas characteres levioris momenti 
— flores pentameri vel rarius hexameri, folia in ramis florigeris sparsa, 
et in planta spontanea tantum basi rosnlata, calyx semper glahrrimus 
nee glandulis rubris hirtus, pedicelli subglaberrimi sed interdum pilis 



rlandulosis 



Webb 



(nomen barbarum !), species montane, sed ambae a nostra satis superque 
diversae. De speciebus Canariensibus quorum 5 jam descripsit beatus 
P. B. Webb, et 4 addidit clar. C. BoUe, judicent qui eas in loco natali 
rivas videbunt. In sieco extricatu nimis difficiles sunt. In planta 
nostra ovula pauca adscendentia versus basin folliculx) ad suturam 
ventralem affixa sunt, ut jam innotuit celeb. J. D. Hooker loco citato. 
Si eadem_ se habet structura in sp. affinibus foret character genericus 
non parvi momenti. 

Tabula Fitcbeana in Bot. Mag., l.c., mendis nonnullis non caret ; 
Btamina longiora petalis alternantia nee opposita, ct nimis brevia 
ostendit : folia caulina (in planta spontanea) longiora sunt et basin 
versus attenuata, carpella matura in vivo 'sunt magis inflata nee 
superne sub stylo sensim attenuata. 



Eryngiu 



jicanaifi. 



nob.— Differt a typo foliis primariis inermibus "oblongo-orbicularibus 
basi profunde cordatis inciso-crenatis, caulinis minus tenuiter sectis, 



mibus. — Hab 



sustis 



In regions media Atlantis Majoris. Legimus folia 

novella cum caulibus subemarcidis anni prioris in convalle Ait Mesan, 
circa 1800" • 



inennia 



Hryngmm Bourgaii, Gouan ; var. atlanticum, nob.— Differt a 
typo habitu gracihon, capitulis minoribus, involucri phyllis longioribus 
farce ^V}^oBi^.-Hab.^ In regione superiori Atlantis Majoris. In 
ttionte Djebel Tezah circa 2400". 

Galium ^ sijtvesfre, Toll. ; subsp. G. atlanticum, nob.-A grege 
G sylvestrts differt^ imprimis foliis surculoi-um sterilium et caulinis 
infenoribus abbreviatus obovato-acuminatis longiuscule mucronatis, 
interdum m pagma supenon scabris margine aculeolatis. Corolla 
parva gaudet segmentis ^cutis anther* ochrolcuc^. Panicula cymi- 
formis tnchotomo-cyiBfosa. Planta pumila, 3-4-pollicaris laxe 



caespitosa, — Hah 

jugo Tagherot ! circa 2700 

In tanta copia Galiorun 

tnm est nostro conforme • w 



Legi in 



cogni 



r.XfT "'T'^'^'^T.' ^'^^•-li^'Ji^ ligBosa, e collo ramosissima ; 
caules ad angulos scabn, ex pilis brevibus patentibus vel subretrorsis ; 

loha sena, linean-lanceolata. nitida, subcoriacea, nervo medio basin 
versus consnicuo. Tnnrmno ^r.^i^^i^ z^ ^ * • ._ . 



racemiform 



2iim 



iTllo P,^*l\^^llo8 3 reducti, ex axillis foliorum superionim 2-3 enati j 
corolla ochroleuca, segmentis obscure trinervibns, in vivo apiculatis, 
fructus (immaturus) vcrosimiliter demum granulatus.-k^. In 



/ 



>-EAV BRITISH FUNGI. 



335 



reglone media et inferiori Atlantis Majoris. Distr. Reraya ! In con- 

valle Ait Mesan ! a 1200" ad 2100'". 

Species ab omnibus mihi cognitis probe distmcta. Spec, exsiccata 
slA G. puhinahm, Boisa., accedunt sed inflorescentia, et foliis longe 
mucronatis omnino diveraa sunt. Pallor propius ent G. hrunnmm, 
Munby, sed ni fallor vera affinitas in sectione Empanne, DC, cujus 
species omnes annuoe. In apricis planta nostra fit contracta, folns 
approximatis caulibus 2-4-pollicaribus ; in umbrosis occurnt habitu 
laxiori, caule usque pedem longo, foliis obverse lanceolatis verticiUis 
remotiusculis. Herba obscure virens, exsiccata nigrescit. 

Galium Bourgmnum, Coss. ; var. maroecanum,^ nob.— Mix 
lignosa, elongata, inter fissuras rupium serpens ; cauUs cum Mas 
inferioribus obtusis, undique birtus ; folia elliptico- vel obovato- lan- 
ceolata, in verticiUo 6-9, superiora' apice mucronata glabrescentia 
tenuiter ciliolata ; panicula multiflora, ramosa, pyramidata ; corollas 
segmtnta albovirentia, in sicco nigrescentia msigniter trmeryia, acumi- 
nata, extus pilosa ; fructus glaber.— ^«^. Sat frequens in rupibus 
prov. meridionalinm Imper. Maroccani, F«f rtim ad radices 
Atlantis Majoris. Prope Seksaoua I Milhain Mtouga ! Mskala ! 

Galium Bourgmnum, Coss., est species mibi non satis nota. Vidi 
tantum specimina "ex rupibus prope Tle^cen,' in Bourgeau PL 
d'Algerie, 1856, No. 107. Planta nostra differt corolla virescente, 
insigniter trinervia nee alba subenervia, foliis supenonbus vindibus 
glabrescentibus nee omnibus birtis. t j-iie _4. * * 

A proximo G. viridiforo, Boiss. et G. marttimo, L., diftert fructu 
glabro, nee hispido, cseterisque notis. 

Galium NoU-tangere, Dob.— Iladix lignosa. caules herbacei, cum 
foliis et pedicelUs fragiUimi, piUs rigidiusculis basi callosis yestiti ; 
folia cruciata, oyalia, utrinque acuta, ^ breyissime _ mucronata ; 
inflorcscentia depauperata; pedicelli _ pauci tncbotomi terminales 
et axillares in yerticellis superionbus ; corolla alba: oyanum 
apice emarginatum papiUoso-setosum - ^«^. ^^^^g^^^ "^^^'^ 
Atlantis Maforis. In conyalle Amsmiz ! a 1500» ad 1600™. 

Proximum est sed probe distinctum G. musaforme, Boiss. Diagn. 
PL Or. ; differt a nostro imprimis corolla rubra, pedunculis bracteatis, 
supremis solitariis, inferioribus a 3- ad T-flons. 

( To he continued ) 



NEW BRITISH FUNGI. 

BV WOKTHIHGTOIT G. SmITH, T.L.S., &C, 



I. ^laarwus k^cihuiuj yi^.^.-^'-^-'-^-t —-- > . - 

p 18 =vur <'c''-^incarnato-alh-da, Men. Hym. SueciJe, p. 29.- 
On g^ass under old Scotch Firs, Largo, Fifeshire 

2. Agaricus {Clitocybe) gangmnosm, Fr. Epic, p. 06.-A remaik- 



336 KEW BKITISH FUNGI. 

r 

able plant, which at length turns jet black. — Street, Somerset ; J. A. 
Clark. 

3. Agaeicus (Clitoctbe) snBiiTTOLUTTJS, nov. sjp. — Pileus plane, 
fleshy, margin subinvolute; gills broad, decurrent ; stem stuffed, 
sub-bulbous; whole plant cream-coloured, every part at length 
becoming spotted. 

Mr. Berkeley agrees with me in considering this a good species, and 

by no means a mere variety of A. geotrupus, Pr. Epic, p. 70. Our 

plant is always much smaller, with a stem one-third the length of ^. 

• geotrupus ; it is moreover never umbonate, and the fruit of the two 

species is different. 

4. Agaricm {Clitocyhe) Tuha.—Ev. Epic, p. 72.— Epping Forest. 
6. Agaricus {Tricholoma) macroeephdus, Schulzer, Iconea 

Sdectae Kymenomycetum Hungarise, tab. iii.— A remarkable ad- 
dition to our flora. Odour very powerful, like Lilium auratum ; stem 
long, subterranean.— King's Lvnn ; C. B. Plowright. 

6. Agaricus {Omphdia) Fihda, Bull., var. Swartzii, Mon. Hym. 
Sueciae, vol. i., p. 193.— Crystal Palace Grounds and elsewliere. 

7. Agaricus (Pholiota) Arrhenii, Fr. Epic, p. 161.— A totally 
different plant from A. mycenoides.—ln. a wood-yard, amongst chips, 
North Wootton, Norfolk ; C. B. Plowright. 

8. Agaricus {Flammda) astragalinus, Fr. Epic, p. 187.— On Pine 
stumps, Aviemore, N.B., not common; Eev. Jas. Keith.— Taste 
nauseous and disagreeable Hke A. mellem ; odour strong, unpleasant. 
A most beautiful species, resembHng in its briUiant colouring Cor- 
Unarius ctnnaoarittus, Fr. 

^ 9. Agaeicus (FLiinruLi) inatjritos, nov. «j?.— Pileus fleshy, one 
inch or more across, moist, smooth, furnished with a distinct veil ; 
^Jls broad, adnate, with a decurrent tooth, pale yellowish day colour ; 
stem incurved, sub-hollow, clothed with innate scales; taste mild, 
insipid; whole plant sulphury-yellow. Allied to A flavidus and A. 
Junonms.—On willows. North Wootton, Norfolk ; C. B. Plowright. 

10. AGARicrs (Flammula) jukciuus, nov. *j?.— Pileus fleshy, inch 
and half across, hemispherical, sulphury-yellow, with a rich brown 
disc ; veil none ; gills broad, very thin, red-brown ; stem elongated, 
thm, lour inches long, attenuated downwards, clothed with a few 
tbres ; taste nauseous and disagreeable, somewhat bitter. Allied to 
A. mxtus.— On dead bulhTishes in an old clay-pit, North Wootton, 
Iforfolk ; C. B. Plowright. 

U. Coriinarius [Imloma) tragranus, Fr. Epic, p. 281.— Forres; 
K.Q'v- Jas. Keith.— Taste strong, not unpleasant ; odour very potent, 
like that of the larva of the goat-moth. 



12. Corttnarius {Dermocyhe) orellanus, Fr. Epic , p. 288.— Epping 
X orest and elsewhere ; W. G. S. Shown at the South Kensington 
Jbungus Show, October, 1873. 

l^- EygropTiorus pratensis, Fr., var. Meisner iensin, Fr. Mon. 
Hym Sueciae, vol. ii., p. 132.— Largo, Fifeshire. 

14. Lactabius Exsucctrs, nov. sp.— Pileus clothed with adpreesed 
down, fleshy, depressed with an involute margin ; gills decurrent, 
white, shaded with verdigris, connected by veins and forked ; stem 
White, very short, clothed with adpressed down; whole plant rigid 
and brittle, milklesp. 



SHORT NOTES AND QTTEKTES, 337 

This plant can be no longer considered a mere variety of h, 
vellereus^ as first suggested by Fries, Syst. Myc., vol. i., p. 77. Berkeley 
in the Eng. Fl., p, 31, seems disposed to regard it as a species. The 
fruit of the two plants, as well as the general habit and specific charac- 
ters, is moreover very different. 

15. Ettsstxla subfcetens, nov. sp, — Pilous buUate, sub-viscid, disc 
fleshy, margin sub-membranaceous ; gills thick, distant, and branched ; 
stem not stout as in R. fcetensy than which ours is altogether 
smaller; odour somewhat disagreeable ; taste slightly acrid. Yarious 

localities, 

. This is the plant referred to by Fries in his Syst. Myc, vol. i., 
p. 58, as a var. of Russula fragilis ; but E.fragilis has crowded, 
thin, and generally entire gills, whilst those of our plant are thick, 
distant, and branched. Our plant is much nearer ^.y^^^ws, but it 
differs in its margin, &c., and is a good species. 

16. Nyctalis caligikosa, nov, sp, — Pileus very fleshy, when dry 
white, flocculoso-pruinose, when wet marked with colours as in 
Agaricus hutyraceus ; margin involute, slightly exceeding the gills ; 
gills thick, branched, decurrent ; stem solid, flocculoso-pruinose, base 
naked ; odour and taste rank and disagreeable like Pohjporus sqtiamosm. 
Closely allied to 2V. parasitica^ but at once distinguished by its truly 
decurrent gills and other characters. — Amongst earth and dead leaves 
in a dark dense part of Bishop's Wood, Highgate. 

17. CxritEXLA. catilla, nov. sp. — Submembranaceous, expanded, 



margin crisped and undulated ; hymenium veined, three-quarters inch 



broad, grey, often imbricated. Allied to C, galeata. — On moss and 
dead leaves, King's Lynn ; C. B. Plowright. 

18. Boletus sulfureuSy Fn Epic, p. 413, — Amongst sawdust, in 
dense clusters, Aviemore, N.B. ; Ecv. James Keith.— Fries appears 
only to have once met with this rare species (]Mon. Hymen. Suecia>, 
p. 249). Our plant closely resembles B.pachypus, var. amarus^ in 
general aspect, but it is in reality very different. Taste mild and 
pleasant, colour golden sulphur, spores oval. 

19. Boletus radicansy Fr. Epic, p. 415.— Staplchurst, Epping 
Forest, and various other places. 

20. Boletus pacJiypus, var. amarus, Fr. Epic, p. 417. — Various 
places, common; known by its bitter taste and other characters. 
This is the plant published as B. cyaneseens, Bull., by Cooke, Journal 
of Bot., vol. iii., tab. 30, and is the same with Mrs. Hussey's B. 
elephantinus . Boletus cyanescens, Bull, (see Myc Ills.,t 47),i3^uite 

a different plant. 



SHORT NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Cakri pukctata, Gaud., m PEMEEOKEsirmE.— During a short 
stay at Tenby in August of the* present year, I noticed a Carcx growing 
on the damp narrow ledges of some perpendicular rocks near a water- 



TVatcrwinch, 



z 



338 SHOKT NOTES AND QTTEKrES, 

about a mile north of the town It hud the look of Car ex distans, 
but the fruit-spikes were much more lax than in that plant ; and not- 
withstanding that I had Babington's "Manual" and Hooker's 
*' Student's Flora" with me, I failed to identify it as Gaudin's Carex 
punctata until my return to Manchester, when I found it to answer 
well to the description of that species given in the last edition of 
'* English Eotany." Drs. Synie and Triraen have been kind enough to 
examine specimens, and both these botanists pronounce it to be the 
true plant. I may add that I did not notice it in any other locality 
in Pembrokeshire, although I searched for it carefully, looking upon 
it at the time as a form of Carex disfans. Unfortunately the Tenby 
plant was casting its fruit when I met with it, but I brought away 
such plants as seemed fit for dryin^:, and these will be sent to the Ex- 
change Club for distribution to British botanists as far as the speci- 
mens will go. Now that attention has been drawn to this species 
it may lead to the discovery of more British stations,* the more so as 
there are several Irish ones given for it in the *' Cybele Hibernica." 
The Tenby plant agrees pretty well with an Irish specimen of C. 
punctata received last year from the Exchange Club, and collected by 
Mr. A. Gr. Moreat Ard^room, Cork; and it comes very close to Italian 
plants I have from Prof, van Heurck, collected near Pisa, and to 



I' 



Tyrolese specimens from Salzburg. The length of the female spike 
is rather shorter in the British species, although answering exactly in 
this respect to the figure of the French plant drawn on the plate in 
" English Botany" ; but the most striking character of the species — its 
inflated spreading fruit— is very apparent in both the Tenby and Con- 
tinental specimens, much more so than in the Irish specimen referred 
to above. Two papers on the botany of South Pembrokeshire have 
already appeared in the ''Journal of Botany" ; one by Prof. Babington 
^Joum., vol i , p 258), and the other by Dr. Trimcn (Journ., vol. t., 
p. 301). The only additions of apparently native plants which I can 
make to these lists are Baphanus maritimus^ Sm., on "Windmill Hill, 
Tenby (a species included for the county in Mr. Watson's recently 
distributed/' Topographical Botany '^) ; Ceradium quaternellum, Fenzl., 
pastures at Giltar Point; Lathyrus syhestriSy L., on cliffs near 
Saundersfoot, but within the county of Pembroke ; Carex remota^ L., 
Knightston, near Tenby; Alopecurus huIhostiSj L., amongst brambles 
on Penally Burrows ; and Opidoglossum vulgatum^ L., growing with 
Trifolium fragiferum^ L., in marshy ground near the Black Rock, 
Hollo ways Burrows. Carex (Ederi, Ehrh., is given by Prof. Babing- 
ton as growing in Penally Marsh, hut I noticed in this locality only 
Carex eu-Jlava^ ^. lepidocarpa^ E.B. — Chas, Bailey. 

ElJPHOHBIA HTBEKXA, EqUISETUM TRACHYODOIS', i&C., ET Co. GaLWAT, 

During a visit which I recently paid to Gal way, I observed Euphorbia 
hyherna growing abundantly at Chevy Chace, a shooting-lodge belong- 
ing to Mr. Dudley Persse, situated about seven miles south-east from 
Gort. There is here a considerable extent of beautifully- wooded hills, 
and a river winding amongst them, along the banks of which the Spurge 
grows as freely as I have seen it anywhere in Kerry. It also grows 



see 



[Eff^Joitrn. BoL] 



SHORT NOTES A^^D auERIES. 339 



■rye a 



a country empirick gave a dose of it lloiled in milk to a strong clever 
youth, about eight miles from Clonmell, which excited a violent 
hyper-catharsis with, convulsions, upon which death followed that 
night before ten o'clock." In Galway it is known as " makkin-hwee " : 
" makkin " originally meant root, hut is colloquially applied to the 
parsnip; " bwee" means yellow — "makkin-hwee" in English is 
therefore "yellow parsnip." The Galway people consider it a " grand 
physic," and give it to horses and cattle, but think it too strong for human 
patients ; nevertheless it is sometimes given, generally to the un- 
knowing in the way of a practical joke. I was told of one individual 
in Gort who was dosed with it a couple of years ago, and a spectator 
assured me that he " ran up and down the street like a madman, and 
swelled so big that his friends had to bind him round with hay-ropes 
lest he shc^uld hurst." The country people have a quaint notion of the 
way in which this medicine is to be extracted. They take about an inch 
of the root (in which its strongest properties lie), and scrape it into 
some boiling liquid, generally tea, which draws out its essence j but 
they firmly believe that *' if the root be seraped up it will work up* 
wards, but if you scrape it down it will work downwards, and if it is 
scraped both up and down it will work every way and will burst 
you ! " J this latter was probably the case of the victim in Gort. In 
the Aran Islands, in Galway Bay, where the people use herbs to a great 
extent as phvsic, I met with nearly the same theory attached to 
Polypodium vulgare. An old woman informed me that this was an 
excellent physic. " It was to be pulled," she said, " in the full moon, 
and the roots of it buried in porridge and left there for the night ; 
but." she said, " if you do place the root this way (as it grows) it will 
work you downwards, and if you place it upside down it will work you 
upwards, but if you put it both ways it will work you up and down, _ 
and it is the best physic that grows." The poisonous prop^ties of E. 
hyberm are turned to account for poaching purposes m Kerry •, the 
country folks throw a quantity of the bruised, stems and roots into 
the streams, in order to stupefy the fish and render them an easy prey. 
Bv the side of the stream 'at Chevy Chace in two places grows Equt- 
selum tracJiuodon (Mackaii, Ifcwman), and in the woods Carex pen- 
dula, not before observed in the West of Ireland ; C. vulptna and 
e. Utigata, not hitherto found in Galway. At Eoxborough I gathered 
Scirpus setaceus, Sisymbritm officinale, Carex remotajind Veronica 
peregrina, the latter plentiful in the garden, and aU of them plants not 
before reported from the County Galway. I should have mentioned 
before that the geological formation at Chevy Chace is the old red 
sandstone ; this and silurian limestone border one another, Bometuncs 
with an intervening band of the upper devonian yellow sandstone. 
The old red seems to be the favourite of the Euphorha hylerna 
though in Donegal (where it has been lately rediscovered in smaU 
quantities) it grows on granite.^-H. C. Hakt. 

Calla paltisims PiAiJTED IN SuiiKEY.-This plant has recently 
been collected, seemingly wild, in Korth Sairey We axe able to 



the 



z 2 



^A: 



340 SHOET NOTES AND QTJEEIES. 

man who does not wish the exact locality to be made public. It is 
right, however, that the fact should be put on record, 

r 

BuiiEX STXTESTEis, &c. — This occurs on the Middlesex shore, 
hetween Fulham and Hammersmith, also all the -way at intervals 
"between Kew and Mortlake, and on from Mortlake to Hammersmith, 
80 that we have now a continuous distribution along the Thames 
from Eichmond to Putney. Scirpus carinatus was also observed 
in the first locality in considerable plenty. One tuft of Scirpus 
maritimus was seen near the end of the Bishop of London's garden. 
The occurrence of the two latter species in this county seems to require 
recent and definite record. This reach of the river is only accessible 
on this side by hiring a boat.— J. L. Waeeen. 



CITT 



Didiscus austro-caledonicus, Brongn. & Oris, in Ann. Sc. Nat., 5 ser., 
t. iii,, 325, has been lately found also in Tanna, one of the New 
Hebrides, by a young friend of mine— Mr. Campbell, of Geelong— who 
had occasion this year to visit that group and the Solomon Islands. 
Mr. CampbeE brought several other plants of interest, on which I will 
furnish notes.— Peed, von Mukller. 



HUSSTJLA 



In this plant the top is of the most intense and 
viyid carmine. It may be known from all other species by its flesh 
bemg always red under the skin, which readily peels ofi'. By a most 
unfortunate mistranslation by Berkeley, in his "Outlines," of the 
onginal Latin description of this plant, the flesh is by him said to be 
tvhite under the skin , which is contrary to the fact, and in the more 
recent ;' Handbook " by Cooke this error is copied. (See Pries' 
Epicnsis," pp. 557, 360.).— W. G. Smith. 

The Hollyhock Dtseasi.— This is noticed in the September 
number of " Grevillea," and has caused considerable damage to the 
plants on which it has appeared. It is said to be produced by a 
fungus, the Puccima Malvacearum, Mont., which has not previously 
been observed in^ this country. It was originally described by 
Jttontagne as growing on the under surface of the leaves of Althm 
opcimks, and this year has been found on Malva syhestris at 
fealisbury, Chichester, and Exeter. My attention was called to it by 

irr f^?°' ^^^ showed me living specimens of the Fungus on 
Mallow at bhere, m Surrey. Since my return to Eastbourne I have 
lonna It abundantly on the same species at Eastbourne and Pevensey. 
It 13 a cunous fact that an undescribed Pungua should suddenly 
appear in so many localities at so great a distance apart. Probably a 
notice m the " Journal " may lead to its being recorded from many 
more, it appears as small yellow protuberances covering the under 
surface of the leaves of the Mallow, and these are so abundant and 
conspicuous that no one who examines an infected plant can escape 
observing them.— P. C. S. Ropek. ^ • 

M(Jr^^^^^ -^"'" °^ Phaxeeooamic Yegktation. — Captain 
Markhani has most kindly presented to the herbarium of tho Royul 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 341 

Gardens, Kew, a small but very interesting collection of plants 
brouglit back by him from bis recent Arctic voyage. Amongst tbem 
are four specimens which he obtained from Dr. Bezels, who collected 
them in 82^ ^N"., the most northern position from which any phanero- 
gamic vegetation has hitherto been procured. The locality appears 
to^ have been on the east side of Smith's Sound. The species are 
Draba alfina^ L. ; Cerastium" alpintim^ L. ; Taraxacum Bens-Leonis^ 
Desf., var. j Poa fexnosa^ Vahl.— J. D. Hookes, in "ISTature." 

ScrtLA ATTTtrMifALis IK EssEX ? — This plant' is not included in 
Gibson's *' Flora," but there are specimens in the British Museum 
from the Banksian Herbarium labelled '^Muckford, Essex. Mr. 
Liglitfoot.'' I