(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Sargentia ?a continuation of the contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University."

SARGENTIA 



A CONTINUATION OF THE 

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 

Botanical Results of the 1940-41 Cruise of the "Cheng Ho" 

BY 

A. C. SMITH (and collaborators) 

WITH FIVE TEXT-FIGURES 




PUBLISHED BY 
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

JAMAICA PLAIN, MASS., U. S. A. 
1 942 



no. /-^ 



SARGRXTIA 

A Continuation of the 

Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum 

OF Harvard University 

N(i. I, pp. i-iv, 1-148, with tivc text-ti.mires 
Issued lulv 20tli. 1942 



This first number of Sarckxtia is dedicated to Mrs. Anne Archbold, 

of Washington, D. C, in appreciation of her interest in and support 

of botanical investigations througli the PhiHppine-Moluccas and tlie 

Pacific cruises of the "Cheng Ho," 19.^^9-1941. 



Pkintei) bv the Lancaster Press, Inc. 
Lancaster, Pa. 



J 



?^ 



SARGENTIA: A WORD OF EXPLANATION 

E. D. Merrill 

In 1932 there was established at the Arnold Arboretum a series of pviblications 
under the general title of "Contributions from the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard 
University," planned to accommodate larger papers that were too extensive for 
publication in ordinary serial literature. Between 1932 and 1938 eleven numbers 
of this series appeared, varying in size from 91 to 230 pages each, as listed on the 
third page of the cover of the present publication. This new series, under the 
one-word title Sargentia. is planned to take similar future papers, and it is 
expected that future numbers will be issued at irregular intervals as material 
becomes ready for publication "and as funds may be available to cover printing 
costs. 

From long bibliographic experience, I have become more and more impressed 
with the desirability of simple one-word titles for periodicals. The principle of 
one-word titles was established, in the botanical field, early in the past century, 
with such serials as Linnaea (1826-1882), Flora (1818-1942), and numerous 
others, but for the most part the titles of scientific periodicals, in botany as in 
other branches of science, have been composed of several words. Not infre- 
quently these titles are unduly long and cumbersome, causing considerable diffi- 
culties to bibliographers who must cite them in some intelligible abbreviated form. 
Generally speaking, individuals connected with sponsoring institutions have felt 
impelled to use in their titles the name of the institution or organization that sup- 
ports the publication, without much regard for convenience, descriptiveness. or 
brevity. My personal feeling is that there is little need of glorifying the name 
of the sponsoring unit when a short and appropriate title may be evolved from 
the name of some individual prominent in the history and development of the 
institution itself. 

Thus, in 1925, while serving as Dean of the College of Agricultvn'e of the 
University of California, dissatisfied with a very long and cumbersome title for 
one series of technical papers that had been established in 1923, I discontinued 
this series and established in its place the technical periodical Hilgardl\. with 
a descriptive subtitle "A Journal of Agricultural Science published by the Cali- 
fornia Agricultural Experiment Station." This, the first real serial in the history 
of the vast American Agricultural Experiment Station literature, other than the 
"Experiment Station Record" published by the United States Department of 
Agriculture, is now in its fourteenth volume and is still the only periodical in this 
field with a one- word title. It was named in honor of an outstanding pioneer in 
agricultural education and research. Dr. Eugene Woldemar Hilgard (1833-1916), 
who organized the agricultural department of the University of California and 
who founded the California Agricultural Experiment Station in 1875. In 1931, 
while serving as Director of the New York Botanical Garden, I established the 
technical periodical Brittonia, named in honor of Dr. Nathaniel Lord Britton, 
who organized the Garden and served as its first Director, from 1896 to 1929; 
the descriptive subtitle in this case was "A series of botanical papers." This is 
now in its fourth volume. Finally, in 1941, the name of the Arnold Arboretum's 



IV SARCENTIA [1 

"Bulletin of Popular Information" (1911-1940) was chanj^a-d to /Vrnoldta, with 
an explanatory subtitle "A continuation of the Bulletin of Popular Information 
of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University." This title honors James Arnold 
(1781-1868), whose bequest of $100,000 in 1868 led to the establisliment of 
the institution that bears his name. 

The selection of the name Sargenti.\ for this new series of technical ]\-iixm-s 
needs little explanation. It is dedicated to Dr. Charles Si)rague Sargent (1841- 
1927), who organized the Arnold Arboretum and served as its first Director from 
1872 until his death in 1927. It was due to Dr. Sargent's vision, ability, initia- 
tive, and support that, from the small beginnings of 1872, there was built up 
during his lifetime an institution national and international in character, widclv 
and favorably known not only as a garden famed for the beauty of its landscape 
and for the vast number of living plants that make up its collections, but also as 
an outstanding research institution with its unsurpassed librarv, its great her- 
barium, and its laboratories, and as a publishing institution ranking high in its 
lield. It seems to be eminently fitting that this .series of ])apers, s]ionsorcd by 
the institution that essentially re])resents the life-work of Charles Si)rague 
Sargent, should bear his name. 



FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II' 

BOTANICAL RESULTS OF THE 1940-41 CRUISE OF THE 

"CHENG HO" 

A. C. Smith (and collaborators) 

7t';7/; fiir text-figures 

The greater part of the material wliich forms the hasis of this treatment was 
collected in Fiji in 1940-41 by Mr. Otto Degener. a member of the Pacific cruise 
of the "Cheng Ho," sponsored by Mrs. Anne Archbold. The botanical collections 
were made with the cooperation of the Arnold Arboretum and the New York 
Botanical Garden. Mr. Degener obtained about 2100 field numbers, mostly 
represented by many duplicates. After the conclusion of his field work in June, 
1941, additional specimens were collected and forwarded by one of his Fijian 
assistants. 

The area covered by members of the expedition centered on the largest island, 
Viti Levu, where numerous regions near the coasts were visited. Mr. Degener 
also spent several weeks in the mountains of Tholo North Province, and addi- 
tional work was done in the Savu Savu Bay region of Vanua Levu. A few 
smaller islands were briefly visited. Much of the credit for the success of Mr. 
Degener's work, he informs me. should be given to his several assistants, and 
especially to Emilio Ordonez of Honolulu and Aloisio Tabualewa and Timoci 
Bebe of Viti Levu. The collection was made possible primarily by the generosity 
of Mrs. Archbold, and to her the writer is especially grateful, as the material 
assembled during the cruise of the "Cheng Ho" proves to be of great importance 
in a study of the Pacific flora. It has been a pleasure for the writer and his 
associates to name several species in honor of Mrs. Archbold. 

While working on the Degener material, I have taken the opportunity to re- 
examine many of the older collections, of which some specimens remained un- 
determined or only provisionally named. Material so studied, collected chiefly 
l)y John W. Gillespie and the writer, is cited in this treatment. I have also been 
fortunate in receiving recent sliipments of Fijian plants from Mr. William 
Greenwood of Lautoka and Miss Lorna Reay of Nandarivatu, whom I wish to 
thank for their kind collaboration. 

I have been privileged to examine material deposited in several institutions 
other than the Arnold Arboretum (A), namely the Bernice P. Bishop Museum 
(Bish), Gray Herbarium (GH), New York Botanical Garden (NY), University 
of California (UC), U. S. National Herbarium (US), and U. S. National 
Arboretum [Bureau of Plant Industry] (USNA). For the loan of certain 
groups from these institutions I am indebted to their respective Directors and 
Curators. Place of deposit, in the following citations, is indicated by the above 
parenthetical letters. 

Several specialists consented to examine the material of selected families, and 
some of them have kindly permitted the incorporation of their discoveries in this 

iSee Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 1-166. /. 1-83. 1936. 



2 SARGENT I A [1 

paper. Tlie author greatly appreciates the cooperation of the following students: 
Caroline K. Allen (Lauraceae). Agnes Chase (Gramineae). E. B. Copeland 
(Pteridophyta), Leon Croizat (Euphorbiaceae), F. R. Fosberg (Ebenaceae, 
Rubiaceae), Charles Gilly (Sapotaceae), R. A. Howard (Icacinaceae), E. P. 
Killip (Passifloraceae), C. E. Kobuski (Theaceae, Oleaceae), E. D. Merrill and 
L. M. Perry (Pandanaceae, Myrtaceae), H. N. Moldenke (Verbenaceae), Hugh 
O'Neill (Cyperaceae), W. T. Swingle (Citrus), L. O. Williams (Orchidaceae), 
and T. G. Yuncker {Pcpcrouiia, Cuscuto). Especial thanks are due Dr. E. D. 
Merrill, for his aid in making jireliminary determinations, and Prof. I. W. 
Bailey, for suggestions concerning certain puzzling specimens. The extensive 
card-catalogue of Polynesian references compiled by Dr. Merrill, now being 
kept up to date at the Arnold Arboretum, has been of the greatest value in 
bibliographic work, as has also his Polynesian Botanical Bibliography. 1773-1935 
(Bishop Mus. Bull. 144. 1937) and its manuscript supplement. The text- 
figures have been prepared by Mr. Gordon W. Dillon, with the exception of 
one made by Dr. Howard. 

In this treatment only new and unusual plants are discussed, in the hoj^e that 
further study of the Fijian flora will permit re-description of all the plants known 
from the archipelago. Ninety-one species, eight varieties, and two forms are 
described as new ; 63 of these entities are based on the collections of Mr. Degener 
and his assistants (at least as regards the type .specimen), while the remaining 
38 are based on earlier collections. In addition it has been found necessary to 
propose 43 new combinations and six new names. An additional 53 species or 
varieties are reported from Fiji for the fir.st time (at least in strictly botanical 
literature) ; of these, 17 are apparently indigenous while 36 are weeds or other- 
wise introduced plants. 

Of particular interest are several families which have not ])reviously been 
reported from Fiji ; these are the Balanopsidaceae and Lobeliaceae (represented 
by indigeous plants), and the Bromeliaceae, Crassulaceae, Polygalaceae, Bixaceae, 
Turneraceae, Lythraceae, and Onagraceae (represented by non-indigenous 
plants). The following genera, containing indigenous species, are first reported 
from Fiji: Heliconia, Trilocidaria, Pscudomorus, Decringia, Dcsuios, Xylof^ia, 
Pucraria, Drypetcs, Trigonostenion, Citronclla, HarpitUia, Gonysfylus, PcnipJiis, 
Dyschorisfc, and Lobelia. Non-indigenous species represent the following gen- 
era which appear to be otherwise unrecorded from Fiji in botanical literature: 
Ananas, Bryophyllum, CJirysohalamis, Schrankia, Polygala, Koclrcutcria, Bixa, 
Turncra, Ciiphca, Lazcso)iia, Clidcuiia, Jussiaea. Catliarauflius, OpciruUna, 
Oiiamoclit, Lantana, Pogostcuion, TJiunhergia, Coccinca, Mikania, Spilanti'cs, 
Syncdrclla, and Yoiingia. Doubtless some of the introduced species and genera 
which I here presume to record as new to Fiji have already been reported from 
the grou]:). Members of the very active Department of Agriculture in Fiji have 
long been occupied with a study of weed-control, as indicated by numerous papers 
in the Agricultural Journal of tlie Dejxu'tment of Agriculture, Fiji, now in its 
thirteenth volume. As publications of this sort are often not available to botani- 
cal students, I take the liberty of listing certain "new records" which actually are 
new only to the specialized taxonomic literature. 

From the viewpoint of phytogeography, probably the most interesting species 
discussed in this paper are Trilociilaria viticnsis (Balanopsidaceae), Dcsmos in- 
sularis (Annonaceae), and Gonystyliis piDictatus (Thymeliaceae), which repre- 
sent substantial extensions of generic ranges. In the Orchidaceae, Aca)ithophip- 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 3 

piiim vificnsc L. O. Williams (in Am. Orch. Soc. Bull. 10: 169. 1941). based 
on the Degener collection, represents a notable generic range-extension. The 
following genera are revised for the region and keys to the Fijian species pro- 
posed : Elafosfciiia, Procris, Piptiints, Homalinui, Phalcria, Medinilla, Astro- 
nidimn, CoutJiovia, and Hoya. 

Families and genera are discussed in the order established in Dalla Torre and 
Harms. Genera Siphonogamarum. 

POLYPODIACEAE 
By E. B. Copkland 

Tectaria Degeneri Coi)t'lan(l, sp. nov. 

Inter T. latifoliam et 7\ Godeffroyi; stipite et rhachibus ebeneis nitidis; lamina 
ovata. 60 cm. lata, bipinnata. pinnis suboppositis inferioribus pedicellatis ; jMnnis 
inhmis 45 cm. longis, pinnulis infimis sessilibus, usque ad 20 cm. longis et 2 cm. 
latis sinuato-lobatis. sequentibus 1-2-paribus adnatis conformibus. pinnis pleris- 
que ad alam 2-10 mm. latam pinnatifidis segmentis linearibus sinuatis, obscuris. 
tenuiter herbaceis, glabris ; venis laxe anastomosantibus cum liberis ramosis vel 
hamatis inclusis ; soris sparsis, dorsalibus, indusio plerumque carente, hie illuc 
vestigiale fusco. 

ViTi Lkvu : Tholo North: Nauwanga, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., 
Dcycncr 14478 (GH, Herb. E. B. Copeland, type), Feb. 24, 1941 (in rich forest; native 
name: turalo), Dcgcncr 14873 (GH, Herb. \\. B. Copeland) (in dense forest; native name: 
titralo; fronds edible when boiled). 

One of the group of 7\ latifolia; more particularly related to T. Godeffroyi, 
and apparently representing a stage in the evolution of the latter species. The 
pinnules, respectively the segments of pinnatifid pinnae or parts of pinnae, are 
remarkably slender. 

Tectaria clegans Copeland, sp. nov. 

Adesse videtur pars medialis profunde bipinnatifida f rondis ; rhachi 3 mm. 
crassa, brunnea, minutissime velutina ; pinnis contiguis, subsessilibus, horizon- 
talibus. 40-45 cm. longis, 10-12 cm. latis, acutis, basi rotundatis, ad alam latam 
])innatifKlis ; segmentis permultis contiguis, ca. 7 cm. longis. 18 mm. latis, acutis, 
inciso-serratis dentibus 2 mm. longis et latis, herbaceis, glabris ; venis areolas 
perlongas costas secus includentibus, alibi laxe anastomosantibus venulis inclusis 
nullis; soris ad venas anastomosantes dorsalibus, inferioribus interdum oblongis 
caeteris ])ermultis orbicularibus, indusiis ferrugineis reniformibus caducis. 

Vanua Levu : Thakaun drove : Savuthuru Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, alt. about 
300 m., Dc(jcncr &■ Ordonca 15544 (GH, Herb. E. B. Copeland, type), Dec. 1940 or Jan. 1941. 

In spite of the relatively well developed reticulation of the veins, the affinity 
seems to be to Plcooicmia. 

Arthropteris Archboldiae C()i)eland, sp. nov. 

A. tciicUac affinis, soris indusiatis distincta; rhizomate late scandente, 1 mm. 
crasso, paleis nigris acutis 0.3-0.5 mm. longis plerisque appressis vestito ; pedi- 
cellis ca. 2 mm. longis ; stipitibus ca. 1 cm. longis inconspicue articulatis ; lamina 
20-25 cm. longa, deorsum angustata pinnis remotis, rhachi inferne velutina; 
pinnis sessilibus, superioribus usque ad 4 cm. longis et 8 mm. latis subacutis 
obscure crenulatis, basi acroscopice obsciu'e auriculatis basiscopice anguste cunea- 
tis, herbaceis, glabris; soris inframedialibus, parvis. indusiis fuscis, reniformibus 
vel orbiculari-reniformibus. 



4 SARGENTIA [1 

ViTi Lkvu : R a : Soutlnwest of Rcwasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 1^514 
(GH, Herb. E. B. Copelancl, tvi-k), June 7, 1941 (climbing smootli-barked trees in dense 
forest). 

Arthroptcris tcnella (Forst.) J. Sm. is a reasonably uniform species in New 
Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Australia, its rhizomes bearing squarrose, rusty, 
more ample paleae, and its sori being naked. It has been reported from New 
Caledonia, but two .s])ecimens described below represent an intermediate species, 
suggestive on the one liand of A. tcncUa and on the other of A. Archboldiac. 
Arthroptcris neocaledonica Copeland, sp. nov. 

A. tcncllac affinis, major, paleis nigris acutis appressis. soris nudis e facie 
superiore pinnae punctiforme expressis. 

Rhizome 2 mm. thick; stipe 5 mm. long; lamina 30-40 cm. long; largest pinnae 
6 cm. long, 11 mm. wide, medial (not distal), truncate rather than auricled on 
the upper side at the base. 

NEW CALEDONIA: Mt. KoRhi, alt. 3(X) m., l-ranc S34 (UC, type [no. 3931T5]), 
franc 2001 (UC). 

The new sj^ecies is like A. tcnella in most respects, but like A. Archboldiac in 
its black paleae, and unlike both in having the position of the sorus well marked 
on the upper siu'face. 

PANDANACEAE 
By E. D. Merrill .\nm> L. M. Pkrry 
Freycinetia Degeneri Merr. & Perry, sp. nov. 

Scandens ; ramulis apicem versus ± 6 cm. crassis, internodiis brevissimis 2-3 
mm. longis ; foliis 20-25 cm. longis, ± 9 mm. latis. sensim attenuato-acuminatis 
fere subulatis, margine in parte basilari ct apicali media saepissime breviter et 
inconspicue serrato-denticulatis. costa ultra medium in pagina inferiore remote et 
minute denticulata, auriculis demum ± solutis deciduis ; inflorescentiis termi- 
nalibus circiter 5 cm. longis ; spathis caducis ; ])edicellis fere 3 cm. longis ])ar- 
cissimc et minute spinuloso-setosis tantum ; syncarpiis 3-nis subglobosis, im- 
maturis 1.5 cm. diametro vel 1.5 cm. longis. 1 cm. diametro ; baccis numerosis 
sublinearibus vcl sublageniformibus angulatis, in sicco circiter 4-5 mm. longis 
fere ad basiiu liberis, apice annulo cinctis ; stigmatibus 2-4. 

ViTi Lkvu : S e r n a : Vatuvilakia, vicinity of Ngaloa, in forest, alt. 0-150 m.. Dcf/ciicr 
15128 (A. tyi'k). May 1941 (liana: fresh roots pounded and fibers used in binding grass 
for houses ) . 

This species may be related to Freycinetia Hombronii Martelli of Samoa, but it 
differs in the smaller leaves with deciduous auricles and the practically glabrous 
pedicels of the syncarps. 

Freycinetia intermedia Merr. & Perry, sp. nov. 

Scandens ; ramulis apicem versus 6-10 mm. diametro. internodiis brcvibus cir- 
citer 5 mm. longis ; foliis 30-45 cm. longis, usf|ue 2 ciu. latis, sensim attenuato- 
acuminatis caudatis. cauda 3-3.5 cm. longa. margine in ])arte basilari et apicali 
( Cauda praecipue) serrato-denticulatis. media saepissime integris. costa in pagina 
inferiore (basim versus excepta) mimite et reiuote spinuloso-serrata. auriculis 
demum solutis deciduis; inflorescentiis terminalibus ±6 cm. longis, spathis 
caducis, pedicellis glabris ; syncarjiiis 3-nis immaturis oblongis, 2 cm. longis, ± 1 
cm. latis; baccis parte inferiore exce])ta lil:)eris sul)linearil)tis angulatis, a]iicc an- 
nulo levi cinctis ; stigmatibus saej^issimc 3-4. 

ViTi Lkvu: Serua : Mount Ngamo, vicinity of Ngaloa, in forest, alt. 0-150 m., 
Dcgcncr 15054 (A. type), April 1941 (liana: roots softened and pounded in water and bark 
removed, then used as string for liouse-building ; native name: iva mc). 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 5 

This species is most like Frcycinctia Milnei Seem, and F. Pritchardii Seem. It 
differs from the first in the shorter and narrower leaves and the smaller syncarp; 
from the second it may be distini^^uished by the sha])e of the berries. 

« 

TRIURIDACEAE 

Andruris vitiensis (A. C. Sm.) Gieseii in Pflanzenr. 104 (IV. 18): 28. 1938. 

Sciaphila vitiensis A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141 : 15. /. ,r 1930. 

Vanu.\ Levu: T liakaundro vc : Eastern drainage of Yanawai River, alt. 120 m., 
Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14077 (GH) (in leaf-mould in dense forest; entire plant purplish red)! 

This is the second collection of the species (and family) known to me from 
Fiji, the type having been obtained on Vanua Mbalavu. Mr. William Greenwood 
writes that he has collected a specimen of the family near Lambasa. on the north 
coast of Vanua Levu, but this collection is not available to me. 

(iRAMINEAE 
(determinations by Agnes Chase) 

The only modern comprehensive lists of the grasses known from iMJi were 
published by Summcrhayes and Hubbard (in Kew Bull. 1927: 18-44. 1927; 
1930: 252-265. 1930) ; 71 species were reported by them. The present collection 
includes five species which they did not list and which appear to be unrecorded 
from the group, while five other species were reported by Summerhayes and 
Hubbard under difi^erent names from those in use in the U. S. National Her- 
bariuiu. In order to record these names in the literature dealing with Fijian 
plants, the following ten species are li.sted. 

Microstegium glabratum (Trin.) A. Camus in Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon n. s. 68: 201. 1921. 

ViTi Levu: T h o 1 o W e s t : Lumuka, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa. alt. 240 m,, 
Degener 15222 (GH, US) (forming thick patches on sunny moist slopes; native name: 
omannna) ; Serua : Waimbale near Namboutini, Degener 15472 ((iH, US) (in sunny wet 
clearing in forest) . Vaxua Levu : Thakaundrove: Uluinabathi' Mt., Savu Savu Bay 
region, alt. 60 m., Degener & Ordonez 13932 (GH, US) (gregarious on wet sunny slopes). 

This species, presumably not uncommon in Fiji, was reported as Polliuia 
glahrata Trin. by Summerhayes and Hubbard (p. 28, 254). 
Andropogon annulatus Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 173. 1775. 

ViTi Levu: R e w a : Vicinity of Suva, Degener vr Ordonez 13512 (GH, US) (road- 
side weed, along shore). 

Reported by Summerhayes and Hubbard (]). 29, 255) as Dichanthium aiiun- 
lafum (Forsk.) Stapf. 

Andropogon glaber Ro.xb. Fl. Ind. 1: 271. 1820. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Korovou, east of Tavua, alt. 60-90 m., Degener 14960 
(GH, US) (on dryish grassy plain; native name: othangithangi). 

Mentioned by Summerhayes and Hubbard (p. 29. 254) as Auipliilopliis (/labra 
(Roxb.) Stapf. 

Panicum oxyphyllum Ilochst. ex Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 65. 1854. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o W est : Uluvatu, vicinity of Mbelo. near Vatukarasa, alt. 300 m., 
Degener 15231 (GH, US) (in forest). Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove: Between 
Valanga and Valethi, near sea-level, Degener & Ordones 14037 (GH, US) (edge of forest). 

In mentioning this species as Cyrtococcum oxyphylluui (Hochst.) Stapf, Sum- 
merhayes & Hubbard (p. 38, 259) imply that the plants which Seemann (Fl. Vit. 



6 SARGENT I A [1 

325. 1873) cites as Pauicum trigonum Rctz. belong here. The species is common 

in Fiji. 

Panicum trigonum Rctz. Obs. Bot. 3: 9. 178.1 

Vanua' Levu : Thakaun drove: Waina, Maravu, near Salt Lake, alt. 15 m., 
Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14149 (GH, US) (in shrubby pasture). 

If Siimmerhayes and Huljhard are correct in referring Seemann's specimens 
of "Pauicum trigonmir to P. oxyphyllmn Hochst., as mentioned above, it would 
seem that the true P. fricjoiiuni is here first recorded from Fiji. 

Panicum reptans L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 870. 1759. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o X o r t li : Korovou, east of Tavua. alt. 60 ni., Dcgcncr 14959 (GH, 
US) (on dryish grassy plain). 

Reported by Summerhayes and Htibbard (]). 35. 258) as I'rochloa rcpians 
(L.) Stapf. The name Panicum reptans api)ears in the literature i)crtaining to 
Hawaii and Micronesia. 
Oplismenus undulatitolius (.\rd.) R. & S. Syst. Ve^. 2: 482. 1817. 

ViTi Lkvu : Tholo Xortli : Xandarivatu, alt. about 750 m., Pcgcncr 14384 (GH, 
US) (along forest trail). 

Although mentioned from .Australasia and other parts of the South Pacific, this 
species has been unreported from Fiji. 

Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. I^'ss. Agrost. 51. 1812. 

ViTi Levu: Rewa : Suva, near sea-level, Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13514 (GH. US) 
(roadside weed). 

Previously reported, in the Pacific, only from Hawaii. 

Aristida aspera Swallen in Jcnir. Wash. Acad. Sci. 26: 177. 1936. 

Makondkonga: Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13810 (GH, US) (on dry forested slopes, alt. 
60 m.). 

The cited collection is of es]:)ecial interest as re])re.senting the .second collection 
of the species ; the type is from Rapa. 

Arundo donax L. Sp. PI. 81. 1753. 

ViTi Levu: Serua : Dcgcncr 15170 (GH, US) (in open forest in rainy region, alt. 
about 120 m. ; plant to 3 m. high ; reed used in house-building ; native name : ngasan 
vavalangi) . 

This sj)ecies has been rej^orted, in the Pacific, only from Hawaii. 

BROMELIACKAE 

Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Interpret. Herb. Anib. 133. 1917. 

Ananas sativus Schult. f. Syst. 7(2): 1283. 1830; Christoph. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 47. 
1935. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo West : Uluvatu, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. 300 m., 
Dcgcncr 15238 (CiH) (more or less naturalized in wet forest; native name: vandra) . 

I have not seen any other s])ecimens of the common pineajijile, nor of the 
family, collected in Fiji. Degener reports that the species does not grow in all 
parts of \'iti Levu. btit has been known for years in the cited locality. It is prob- 
abh' more common as an escape tlian the lack of herbarium records implies. 
Christophersen states that it is commonly found in a natural state in Samoa. The 
Fijian common name vandra is tisually referred to Pandanus tcctorius Sol. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 7 

MUSACEAE 

Heliconia Bihai L. Mant. 2: 211. 1771; K. Schuni. in rflanzonr. 1 (IV. 45): 36. 1900; 
Christoi)h. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 54. 1935. 
ViTi Levu : Tholo North: Nauvvanga, near Xandarivatu. ah. 750 m.. Dcfjcncr 
14352 ( GH) (native name : paka; seeds edible when cooked) ; N a i t a s i r i : Suva Pumping 
Station, alt. 90 m., Dcf/rncr & Ordonez 13988 (GH). Vaxua Lkvu : T h a k a u n d r o v e : 
Savu Savu Bay region, Vatunivuamonde Mt., alt. 300 m.. Dct/ntcr & Ordonc:: 14011 (GH). 
Kandavu: Hills above Xamalata and Ngaloa Bays, alt. 200^00 m., Smith 193 (XY). 

Although it i.s said to l^e common in Samoa, New Caledonia, and the Solomons, 
this widespread s])ecies has not previously hcen recorded from Fiji. 

ZIXGIBERACEAE 

The conservation of Alpinia Ivoxb. over Laiujuas Koenig (Kew Bull. 1940: 
95. 1940) makes necessary a new combination for a Fijian si)ecies. 

Alpinia Parksii ((jillespie) comb. nov. 

I.mujuas Parksii Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull, 91: 4. /. /. 1932. 

Vanua Levu: T li a k a u n d r o vc : Savu Savu Bay region, Savuthuru Mt., alt. 90 m., 
Dcgener & Ordonez 13821a (GH) (herb to 3 m. high, in forest; fruit pale yellow) ; Vatuni- 
vuamonde Mt., alt. 300 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14043 (GH) (coarse herb to 3 m. high, in 
open forest; corolla white; fruit pale yellow; native name: lotholotho) ; southern slope of 
Korotini Range, below Navitho Pass, alt. 300-650 m.. Smith 509 (NY) (herb to 2 m. high, 
on edge of forest; inflorescence 60 cm. long; perianth white; native name: lotholotho) . 

This species has previously been re])orted only from the type locality on Viti 
Levu. 

Alpinia purpurata (\'ieill.) K. Scliuni. in j'flanzenr. 20 (IV. 46): 323. 1904. 

Kandavu: Xamalata Isthmus region, near sea-level, Sniith 8 (GH, NY') (lierb, to 2 m. 
high; bracts bright red; edge of mangrove swamp). 

Although this species has been re]X)rted from various other Pacific groui)S, in- 
cluding the Marquesas, Societies, Samoa, Carolines, etc., I believe this to be the 
first record from Fiji. On Kandavu the species was growing near a village and 
may have been an escape from cultivation. 

ORCHIDACEAE 
By L. O. Willian[s 

Habenaria scrotiformis L. O. Williams, sp. nov. 

Herbae terrestres graciles usque ad ca. 6 dm. altae. Folia lineari-elliptica acuta 
vel acuminata. Sepalum dorsale ovato-lanceolatum obtusum. Sepala lateralia 
ovalia obliqua obtusa. Petala ovato-lanceolata obli(|ua. Labellum trilobatum 
tricallosum carnosum ; lobis lateralibus linearibus vel lineari-oblongis, incurvatis, 
obtusis ; lobo medio quam lobis lateralibus breviore, subtriangulari, obtuso ; calcare 
scrotiformi. 

Slender terrestrial herbs up to about 6 dm. tall. Leaves when mature C-16 cm. 
long and 0.8-1.6 cm. broad, linear-elliptic, acute or acuminate, thin, mostly near 
the middle of the stem, the leaf-sheaths and cauline bracts amplexicaul. Inflores- 
cence a strict, many-flowered, lax spike up to about 25 cm. long; bracts 3-15 mm. 
long, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, actite or acuminate, about as long as or ex- 
ceeding the ovary. Mowers small for the genus, greenish. Dorsal sei)al 2-2.5 
mm. long and about 1.25 mm. broad, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, 1-nerved. Lateral 
sepals 2-2.5 mm. long and 1-1.5 mm. broad, obliquely oval, obtuse, 1-nerved, the 



SARGENT I A 



ODONT^OCHILU^ 




Fig. 1. 1-4. OdontocIiUiis Dcgcncri; 1. habit, XI; 2. side view of flower. X 21^ ; 3. 
side view of column and lip, X 5; 4. lip, spread out, X 5. 5-11. Hahcnaria scrotifoniiis; 
5. habit, X y^; 6. side view of flower, X 5; 7. lip, from above, X 10; S. side view of 
lip, X 10; 9. dorsal sepal, X 10; 10. lateral sepal, X 10; 11. petal, X 10. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 9 

base slightly adnate to the lij). Petals 2-2.5 mm. long and 1.5-2 mm. broad, ob- 
liquely ovate-lanceolate, obtuse. 2-nerved. Lip about 4 mm. long and about 1.5 
mm. broad at base, prominently 3-lobed, with three conspicuous luammillate cal- 
luses toward the base, fleshy; lateral lobes linear or linear-oblong, strongly in- 
curved, obtuse; mid-lobe much shorter than the laterals, subtriangular. obtuse; 
spur about 1.5 mm. long and about 1 mm. in diameter, scrotiform, with a short, 
small neck. 

Van LA Lk\ r : T li a k a u n d r o v c : Hills east of Valanga, Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 
about 100 m., f)c(/cucr & Ordonez 13^^17 (tvpf. in Herb. Ames), Dec. 30. 1940 (terrestrial 
in rich woods). 

Habcnaria scrofifoniiis is the smallest flowered species of Habciiaria known to 
occur in Oceania. It is allied to H. physoplcctra Reichb. f., from which it is dis- 
tinguished by the smaller flowers with slightly difi"erent lip and petals and by the 
narrower leaves. 

Odontochilus Degeneri L. O. Williams, si), nov. 

Herbae parvae terrestres usque ad 12 cm. altae. Folia anguste vel late ovata 
acuta. Sepalum dorsale oblongo-lanceolatum obtusum leviter pubescens. Sepala 
lateralia scpalo dorsale conformia sed obliqua. Petala lanceoiata obtusa undulata 
leviter obliqua. Lal)ellum basi saccatum angustum cucullatum, ai)ice reniformi- 
trilobulatum. Columna generis. 

Small terrestrial herbs up to about 12 cm. tall. Stems short, weak, probably 
from a rhizoiue. the leaves mostly at or above the middle, the up])er node usually 
pubescent. Leaves 1-3 cm. long and 0.8-2.3 cm. broad, narrowly to broadly 
ovate, acute, extended into a short semiamplexicaul petiole. Inflorescence a 
1-few-flowered raceme; bracts up to about 1 cm. long, lanceolate, acute, glabrous 
or crisped-pubescent. Dorsal sepal about 10 mm. long and 3 mm. broad, nar- 
rowly oblong-lanceolate, obtuse. 1-nerved, sparingly pubescent dorsally. Lateral 
sepals about 11 mm, long and 3.5 luiu. ])road, narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 1-nerved. 
somewhat oblique, sparingly jnibescent dorsally. Petals about 10 mm. long and 
4 mm. broad, lanceolate, obtuse, undulate, somewhat oblique. 1-nerved. Lip 
about 10 mm. long and about 5 mm. broad at apex, saccate, the terminal portion 
broadest, reniform-trilobulatc. the basal portion saccate at base, with the con- 
necting part narrow, cucullate, fleshy, rugose, the spur 2-A mm. long. Column 
of the genus, about 3 mm. long; anther 3-4 mm. long, surjiassing the column. 
Ovary slightly pubescent. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o N o r t b : Nauwanga, near Nandarivatu, alt. about 750 m., Dcijcncr 
14736 (type in Herb. Ames), March 6, 1941 (terrestrial in swampy forest; perianth pure 
white). 

Odontochilus Dcgcnen seems to be more closely allied to O. klahateusis Schltr. 
from Celebes than it is to the few species of the genus known in the Oceanic 
Islands. The genera Odontochilus, Ancctochilns and Chcirostylis, all described 
by Blume, are separated on rather recondite characters, as are some of the other 
genera of this af^nity. It is possible that a generic study of this group will show 
Odontochilus to ])e the same as Ancctochihis. Odontochilus loncjiflonis (Reichb. 
f.) Benth. & Hook., a Fijian species which I transferred to ChcirostvUs in 1939, 
I now believe to be an Odontochilus. 

Acanthophippium vitiense L. O. Williams (in Am. Orch. Soc. Bull. 10: 169. 
1941) and Liparis orbiculata L. O. Williams (1. c. 201) were also based on the 
Degener Fijian collection. The Acayitliophippiutn is of especial interest, extend- 
ing the known range of the genus eastward from New Guinea. 



10 SARGENTIA [1 

PIPKRACEAI-: 
Piper Timothianum sp. iiov. 

Frutex ad 3 ni. altus, raiiiis raniulisque ad nodos cons]:)icuc incrassatis, ramulis 
ai)icem versus gracilibus, teretilms l)runneo-slrigul<)sis niox glaliris; foliis alter- 
natis, petiolis 8-30 mm. longis fere ad apicem vagiiiantibiis (alls inferno ad 2 mm. 
latis superne ad petiolum attenuatis) ])rimo brunneo-pul)erulis mox glal)ris. lami- 
nis siccitate ])apyraceis fusco-olivaceis ovato-ellipticis, 8-17 cm. longis, 6-12 cm. 
latis, basi aequaliter rotundatis vel truncatis, apice conspicue cuspidatis vel l)reviter 
aciiminatis (acumine ad 15 mm. longo obtuso), margine integro, utrinque glabris 
vel subtus ad nervos basim versus inconspicue cinereo-puberulis. (5-) 7-9-nerviis, 
nervis e basi divergentibus supra leviter elevatis vel subplaiiis sul)tus promi- 
nentibus, rete venularum s])ars() subtus interdum prominulo; inflorescentiis $ 
solis visis in axillis foliorum 3 vel 4 (raro 2) aggregatis, pedunculis gracilibus 
sub anthesi circiter 5 mm. sub fructu ad 35 mm. longis cum rliacbi juventute 
minute brunneo-strigosis mox glabris, spicis crassis demum ad 7 mm. diametro 
sub antbesi 8—12 mm. sub fructu 14—35 mm. longis; bracteis liberis peltatis stipi- 
tatis, stipite brevi obscure glanduloso-strigoso, pelta submembranacea circiter 0.6 
mm. diametro mox evanescente ; ovario sessili pyriformi-ellipsoideo post authesin 
3-3.5 mm. longo et apicem versus 1.5-2 mm. diametro, apice rotundato vel demum 
complanato, stigmatibus 3 vel 4 nigrescentibus .sessilibus divaricatis circiter 0.2 
mm. longis. 

\'iTi Levu : Tholo North : Xaudarivatu, alt. 850 m., Dcfu-iu-r & Ordonez 13570 
(A, type), Nov. 22, 1940 (spreading shrub about 1.5 m. high, in rain-forest): Nauwanga, 
near Nandarivatu. alt. about 750 m., Dcc/oicr 14360 (A) (shrub 3 m. high, in dense rich 
forest; fruiting spikes red, suberect), Dccjcncr 14620 (A) (shrub, in dense forest: native 
name: yatujuoyaniiiiona) ; Nandrau. near Nandarivatu, alt. about 600 m., Dccjciirr 14891 (A). 

Piper lliiiotliiamiDi. a member of tbe Section Macro pi per C. DC, appears to 
be closely related only to tbe common P. latifolium Forst., from wliicb it obvi- 
ously dilTers in its fewer nerves, its rounded or truncate ratber tban conspicuf)Usly 
cordate leaf-bases, and its mucb sborter fruiting spikes. Several species de- 
scribed by De CandoUe were based on material from tbe vicinity of Nandarivatu, 
but none of them seems closely related to the new s])ecies. Piper polystaehyum 
C. DC. is the only one of these which suggests /'. Tiiiwfhiaiiuin, but it differs in 
its cordate leaf-blades, numerous nerves, semi-vaginate petioles, more numerous 
and longer si)ikes. etc. 

The specific name, chosen at Mr. Degencr's request, commemorates Timoci 
Bebe (Timothy jMbembe), a Fijian collector whose assistance was of great value 
during Mr. Degener's work in Tholo North. 

Piper Degeneri sp. nov. 

Frutex 1 m. altus ubicjue glaber, ramulis gracilibus teretibns striatis apicem 
versus 1-2 mm. diametro ; stipulis apice ramulorum lanceolatis ad 1 cm. longis ; 
foliis alternatis, petiolis gracilibus 5-10 mm. longis, laminis chartaceis ellipticis, 
6-9 cm. longis, 2.5-4.2 cm. latis, basi aequaliter obtusis, apice breviter acuminatis 
(acumine 5-8 mm. longo obtuso), margine saepe minute recurvatis, pinnatinerviis, 
costa utrinque pauUo elevata, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 2-4 e costa infra me- 
dium adscendentibus utrinque prominulis marginem versus inconspicue conjunctis, 
rete venularum sj^arso utrinque leviter prominulo ; inflorescentiis $ solis visis 
paucis a])ice ramulorum oi)positifoliis, pedunculis gracilibus 2-4 mm. longis sic- 
citate ut videtnr nutantibns, sjMcis crassis (post anthesin 5-7 mm. diametro) 1-1.5 
cm. longis, basi et apice rotundatis; bracteis liberis stipitatis, stipite 1.5-2 mm. 
longo plerumque 3-angulato apicem versus j^ilis ]iallidis circiter 0.3 mm. longis 
obscure strigoso, pelta submembranacea circiter 1 mm. diametro ; ovario sessili 
]n-riformi ])ost anthesin (in specimino nostro) ad 3 mm. longo et 1.5-2 mm. 



1942) SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 11 

diametro, summo complanato vel centre leviter depresso, stigmatibus 3-5 nigrcs- 
centibus sessilibus radiatis circiter 0.2 mm. longis. 

Vanua Levu: Thakaun drove : East of Naunduna, eastern drainage of Yanawai 
River, alt. 150 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14096 (A, type), Jan. 12, 1941 (shrub 1 m. high, in 
dense forest; fruiting inflorescence erect, orange, becoming bright red when ripe). 

According to the collectors only one plant of this sjiecics was seen ; they men- 
tion that the spikes were erect, but in the dried specimens they appear somewhat 
reflexed. Piper Dcgcncri is characterized by its small pinnate-nerved leaf-blades 
and its very short pistillate spikes with short peduncles. A member of the Sec- 
tion Eupipcr C. DC, the new species is not closely related to P. inscctifugitm 
C. DC, the only previously known indigenous Fijian member of this section. 
According to De Candolle's comprehensive key (in Candollea 1: 67-232. 1923), 
P. Dcgcncri is most closely allied to P. corylistachyon (Miq.) C DC, a common 
Philippine species with larger leaves and much longer spikes. 

BALAXOPSIDACEAE 
Trilocularia vitiensis sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 10 m. alta ubiciue glabra, ramulis ut videtur pauciramosis gracilibus 
juventute viridibus et leviter angulatis demum cinereis et subteretibus ; foliis 
apicem ramulorum versus alternatis, petiolis gracilibus rugulosis 3-12 mm. longis 
supra canaliculatis, laminis tenuiter coriaceis siccitate olivaceo-viridibus oblongo- 
vel obovato-ellipticis, 6-12 cm. longis, 2.5-5 cm. latis, basi attenuatis et in petiolinii 
decurrentibus, apice obtusis vel acutis, margine integris sae])e undulatis et incon- 
spicue recurvatis, costa sujjra i)aull() canaliculata subtus i)romincnte, nervis se- 
cundariis utrinsecus 5-8 adscendentibus supra pauUo prominulis subtus acute 
elevatis marginem versus reticulo conjunctis, rete venularum supra subimmerso 
subtus manifeste prominulo; infiorescentiis ^ axillaribus vel e ramulis infra vel 
inter folia orientibus i:)lerunK|ue solitariis, racemosis vel spicatis, stipite incon- 
spicuo incluso 5-13 mm. longis, rhachi gracili (circiter 0.7 mm. diametro) siccitate 
leviter angulata; floribus 8-15 per inflorescentiam bracteis papyraceis deltoideo- 
ovatis acutis 1-1.5 mm. longis subtentis, inferioribus pedicellis gracilibus ad 1 mm. 
longis praeditis, superioribus sessilibus; bracteolis receptaculorum 2 vel 3 mem- 
branaceis ovatis acutis 0.5-1 nim. longis et latis, toro inconspicuo ; staminibus Z-6, 
filamentis minutis ad 0.2 mm. longis, antheris oblongo-ellipsoidcis, 1.5-2 mm. 
longis, 1-1.2 mm. latis, basi obscure cordatis, apice minute ajnculatis, loculis rimis 
elongatis lateralibus dehiscentibus ; rudimento ovarii nullo ; florilnis $ non visis ; 
fructibus solitariis pedicellatis, ])edicellis 12-15 mm. longis superne gradatim in- 
crassatis saepe paullo curvatis ; bracteis pedicellorum 6-8 dispersis adpressis char- 
taceis suborbicularibus, inferioribus circiter 0.5 mm. longis et 1 mm. latis, su- 
perioribus ad 2 mm. longis et 3 mm. latis ; bracteis involucrantibus circiter 8 im- 
bricatis siccitate stibcoriaceis semiorbicularibus vel late ovatis, apice minute cuspi- 
datis vel rotundatis, margine l)reviter ciliolatis, exterioribus circiter 1.5 mm. longis 
et 3 mm. latis, inferioribus ad 5 mm. longis et 7 mm. latis ; fructibus ellipsoideis 
levibus, 13-15 mm. longis. 9-10 mm. diametro, basi et apice rotundatis, apice 
stylis plus minusve persistentibus coronatis, pericarpio tenui papyraceo ; stylis 3. 
basi in columnam conspicuam circiter 1.5 mm. diametro connatis, superne liberis 
et divergentibus. 2-3 mm. longis, fere ad basim bilobatis ; seminibus 3 angulatis, 
dorso convexis. 11-13 mm. longis, circiter 7 mm. latis, testa tenuiter coriacea. 

ViTi Levu: Ra : Southwest of Rewasa, near Vaileka, ah. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 15519 
(A) (tree, in forest) ; Mataimeravula, vicinity of Rewasa, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 15356 
(A, type). May 28, 1941 (tree 10 m. high, in forest; flowers yeUow) ; Tholo North : 
Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., Dcgcncr 14300 (A) (tree 4 m. high, in open forest 
along stream; fruit orange); Sovutawambu, near Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., Degcncr 
14600 (A), (tree, in open forest). 



12 



SARGENTIA 



[1 



Of the cited collections, numbers 15356 and 755/9 bear staniinate inflores- 
cences, while 14300 and 14600 are in fruit. This species is one of the most re- 
markable discoveries of Mr. Det^ener's recent collection, extending the known 
range of the Balano])sidaceae from New Caledonia, Queensland, and the New- 
Hebrides to Fiji. It is surprising that the plant has not been obtained by an 
earlier collector, and one may antici])ate finding s])ecimens of it in other parts of 
herbaria. 




Fig. 2. Trilocularia 7'ificiisis: a. flowering branchlet. X i^ ; /). fruiting branchlet, X i^ 
c. staminate inflorescence, X 2; d. staniinate flower, X 5; c. fruit, X 2. 



Trilocularia viticnsis is closely related only to 7\ pcdiccUata Guillaumin, the 
single s]iecies of the family known from the New Hebrides. From this the new 
species differs in its more oj)en habit, less congested foliage, and its thinner and 
larger leaf-blades, which are more obviously nerved and have less sharply re- 
curved margins. As the only known collection of T. pediccllafa is in fruit, no 
comparison on the basis of staminate inflorescence is possible. The fruit of the 
New Hebrides plant a])pears to have a slightly more rugulose and perhaps thicker 
pericarp than that of T. z'iticusis. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 13 

MORACEAE 

Pseudomorus Brunoniana (Elndl.) Bur. in Ann. Sci. Nat. V. 11: 2>72. 1869; in DC. 
Prodr. 17: 249. 1873; Guillaumin in Jour. Arnold Arb. 13: 96. 1932. 
ViTi Levu : L a u t o k a : North of Lomolomo, alt. 120 m., Degcncr & Ordonez 13646 
(A) (tree 3 m. high, with many leafy subhorizontal branches, in dry forest of ravine in a 
small jagged range of hills; flowers whitisli; leaves thin-coriaceous, dark green); Ra; 
Mataimeravula, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka. alt. 50-200 m., Degcncr 15419 (A) (on 
dryish forested forehill ; native name : tnasiniasi. a name usually referred to I'icus spp. and 
perhaps incorrectly used liere) ; Tholo North : Korovou, east of Tavua, alt. 60-150 m., 
Degcncr 14956 (A) (shrub or small tree 2-3 m. higli, in isolated dry forested ravine) ; 
Nandala, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750 m., Dcgencr 14852 (A) (tree 2-3 m. high, in dark 
rocky forest below cliffs; trunk 3 cm. diam., with dark bark). 

It is surprising that a plant with the above altitudinal range has not been previ- 
ously recorded froiu Fiji. One may expect to find it among the earlier collec- 
tions, and in fact, Mr. William Greenwood, according to an unpublished list which 
he has kindly made available t(j me, has already obtained it. From the published 
records which I can locate, the genus, with its single species, is not known to 
occur between New Caledonia, the New Hebrides, and Micronesia on one hand 
and Hawaii on the other. Several varieties and subvarieties have been pro])osed. 
Whether or not the Hawaiian material is to be left with the Australasian remains 
to be seen ; as to the present collections, they are doubtless conspecific with the 
New Hebrides specimens known to Guillaumin and also with the type from Nor- 
folk Island. 

URTICACEAE 
Elatostema J. R. & G. Forst. 

Schr5ter and W^inkler (in Rep. Sp. Nov. Beih. 83(1, 2). 1935. 1936). in their 
com])rehensive and very useful monograph of Elatostema, divide the group into 
four subgenera, Euelatosteiua, Pcll'wnia, Elatostematoidcs , and Wcddellia. The 
first three of these occur in Fiji ; the monographic treatment does not include de- 
tailed study of Euelatostema. Althotigh there are doubtless grounds for C. B. 
Robinson's separation (in Phili]x Jour. Sci. Bot. 5: 497-501. 1910) of the group 
into the genera Elatostema, PelUonia, and Elatostematoidcs, it seems probable 
that most students will follow Schroter and Winkler in combining them. This 
course is followed in the present consideration. 

The species of Elatostema appear to be very local in distribution. Of the 13 
species which I am able to recognize from Fiji, only one, E. australe (according 
to Schr5ter & Winkl. in Rep. Sp. Nov. Beih. 83(2) : 123. 1936), is found beyond 
the group. Authentic material of numerous Samoan species has been examined, 
and when this was not available the descriptions were carefully studied ; I con- 
clude that none of the numerous species described from Samoa extend to Fiji. 
Several of the older species have been widely interpreted and the names of three 
of thein have been recorded in the literature pertaining to Fijian plants. 

Gibbs (in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 171. 1909) lists a si)ecimen from Nandari- 
vatu as representing E. sessile J. R. & G. Forst. ; this may be either of the sjiecies 
which I describe as E. palustre and E. tcnellum, both of which superficially re- 
semble E. sessile. Weddell (in DC. Prodr. 16(1): 172. 1869) interpreted E. 
sessile very widely. The type collection was from the Society Islands and has 
been described in a very informative discussion by Setchell (in Univ. Cal. Publ. 
Bot. 12: 168. 1926). It has the upper leaf-surface marked with conspicuous 
linear cvstoliths. In the sense of Setchell, E. sessile is almost certainly lacking 



14 SARGENT I A [1 

from Fiji; amoni;- the Fijian si)cciniens now available to me, the only one of this 
relationship is the plant which I describe as E. f^alitstrc, which diifers from E. 
sessile in numerous details of leaf-size, serration, pubescence, etc. 

The name E. macro phylluui Brongn. has come into the Fijian literature on the 
basis of a ])lant collected by Harvey, so determined by Weddell (in DC. I^rodr. 
16(1) : 174. 1869) ; that specimen is referable to E. Secmannimiuiu. A closer 
relative of E. macrophyllum is described in the ])resent treatment as E. insidare. 
The Fijian specimens often determined as Pellioiiia clatostcnioidcs Gaud, are 
referable to E. australc. 

Inflorescence characters are difficult to use in Elatosteiiia, except in deter- 
mining the subgenus. Characters pertaining to the pubescence are highly variable 
and specific lines cannot be drawn satisfactorily by using them. The leaves show 
a certain degree of stability in their texture, shape, size, and cystolith-markings, 
and such characters have been freely used in the following key. Some of the 
species will admittedly need am])lification when more comjilete material from Fiji 
is available. 

Kky to thk I*'[jian Spkcies 

Inflorescences exinvolucrate ; periantli-scgments of pistillate flowers obvious, subei|nal to the 
ovary or achene. 
Perianth-segments not spurred; staminodes present in pistillate flowers; leaf-blades (of 
Fijian sp.) 11-35 cm. long, (1.5-) 3.5-12.5 cm. broad (§ Elatostcniatoidcs) 

1. /i. a list rale. 
Perianth-segments dorsally spurred, those of pistillate flowers sometimes with tiie spurs 
reduced to mere thickenings: staminodes usually absent; leaf-blades (of Fijian spp.) 
not exceeding 10 cm. in length and 3 cm. in breadth (§ Pcllioma). 
Leaf-blades elliptic-oblong, 3 or 4 times as long as broad, (1.5-) 3-9 (-10) cm. long, 
(5-) 8-25 (-30) mm. broad, obtuse to obtusely acuminate at apex, the marginal 
crenations (4-) 5-15 per side; staminate inflorescence 6-2()-flowered, the perianth- 
segments inconspicuously carinate-spurred 2. /:. viticnsc. 

Leaf -blades narrowly oblong, 3-5 times as long as broad, 0.6-2.5 (-3) cm. long, 2-8 mm. 
broad, obtuse at apex, the marginal crenations 3 or 4 per side ; staminate inflorescence 
2-10-flowered, the perianth-segments conspicuously corniculate 

3. 11. Archbohiianum. 

Leaf -blades linear-lanceolate, about 7 times as long as broad, 4-8 cm. long, 5-11 mm. 

broad, gradually narrowed to an acuminate apex, the marginal crenations 5-10 per 

side; staminate inflorescence 2-4-flowered, the perianth-segments conspicuously 

corniculate A. R. comptonioidcs. 

Inflorescences involucrate ; perianth-segments of pistillate flowers inconspicuous, minute, 
much shorter than the ovary or achene. {% Iluclatostcnia) . 
Leaf-blades without cystoliths on the upper surface, hispid on both surfaces, large (20-40 
cm. long, 8-16 cm. broad) ; receptacles large, 8-22 mm. in diameter; bracteoles 4-7 mm. 

'"'IS S. E. nemoi'osum. 

Leaf-blades with obvious cystoliths on the upper surface. 

Cystoliths of the upper leaf-surface linear, straight, not branched, rarely slightly angled. 
Coarse or sufi^ruticose herbs, usually more than 1 m. high, the cystoliths of the upper 
leaf -surface 0.25-0.5 mm, long. 
Leaf-blades about twice as long as broad, up to 15 cm. long and 7 cm. broad, the 

secondary nerves 3-6 per side 6. /:. fniticosum. 

Leaf-blades about 3 times as long as broad, (11-) 15-26 cm. long, (3-) 4-9.5 cm. 

broad, the secondary nerves 8-12 per side 7. E. insnlarc. 

Low herbs, the stems up to 50 cm. high, often subprostrate toward base, the cystoliths 
of the upper leaf-surface 0.1-0.3 mm. long. 
Leaf-blades obovate, 3-6 cm. broad, subsessile, strongly inaequilateral at base, the 
longer side cordate-subauriculate ; receptacles 8-18 mm. in diameter 

8. E. paltistrc. 

Leaf -blades oblong-lanceolate, less than 2 cm. broad, short-petiolate, attenuate at 

base ; receptacles 2-6 mm. in diameter 13. E. hnmilc. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 15 

Cj-stoliths of the upper leaf-surface stellate (3-5-parted) or punctiform, sometimes 
merely angled, rarely straight and linear. 
Coarse herbs, at least 50 cm. high ; leaf-blades comparatively large, more than 10 cm. 
long and 3 cm. broad. 
Leaf-blades narrowly obovate-oblong, less than 4.5 cm. broad, 4 or 5 times as long 

as broad; staminate receptacles 4-5 mm. in diameter 9. E. Gillcspici. 

Leaf-blades usually more than 4.5 cm. broad, about 3 times as long as broad ; stami- 
nate receptacles more than 5 mm. in diameter. 
Staminate receptacles 10-35 mm. in diameter; leaf-blades large, (15-) 18-40 cm. 
long, 6-15 cm. broad, usually subciitire toward base ..10. /:. Secmannianum. 
Staminate receptacles 5-9 mm. in diameter; leaf-blades smaller, 10-18 cm. long, 
(3.5-) 4.5-7 cm. broad, conspicuously serrate at the entire margin 

11. E. cximium. 
Low herbs, up to SO cm. high, the stem often subprostrate toward base ; leaf-blades 
comparatively small, up to 9.5 cm. long and 2.7 cm. broad. 
Leaf-blades 20-27 mm. broad, about 3 times as long as broad, subsessile, often sub- 

auriculate on one side at base \2. E. tcncUum. 

Leaf-blades 8-18 mm. broad, 4 or 5 timo a^ long as broad, short-petiolate. attenuate 
at base 13. /:. hu»iilc. 

1. Elatostema {^ Elutdsti-inatoidi-s) australe (W'edd.) Hall. f. in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 
13: 316. 1896; Schroter & Winkl. in Rep. Sp. Nov. Beili. 83(2): 122. pL 33. 1936. 

Pcllionia clatostcvwidcs sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 239. 1868; (Jibbs in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 
171, 1909; non Gaud. 

PdUonia anstralis Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16(1): 169. 1869; Seem. Fl. Vit. 432. 1873. 

Pcllionia cJatostciHoidcs var. puhcsccns Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 39. 1915. 

Elatostema australe, the only Fijian representative of the snb<^enus Elatostcma- 
toides, appears to be the most abundant Fijian Elatostema. The type, collected 
on Ovalau by Vieillard, has the nerves pilose on the lower leaf-surface, as do 
many of the available specimens. Other specimens, however, have the leaves 
completely glal)rous. and since there is no definite line between these extremes, 
I doubt if they are worthy of nomenclatural recognition. Some specimens, as 
e.g. SmitJi 83, have I)oth glabrous and pilose leaves on the same individual. The 
range of leaf-size is considerable, the length varying from 11-35 cm. and the 
breadth from (rarely 1.5-) 3.5-12.5 cm. Schroter and Winkler do not account 
for Turrill's varietal combination, although they cite im Thum 286, the type 
collection, without comment as E. australe. In citing the Fijian material available 
to me, I arrange it in (1) i:)lants with the lower leaf-surface pilose, at least on the 
principal nerves, and (2) plants w^ith the leaves completely glabrous. 

(1). ViTi Levu : Ra : Vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, Degcner 15434 (A) ; Tholo 
East: Wainimala River below Matawailevu, St. John 18256 (A, Bish) ; X a mo si : 
Home 817 (GH) ; near Namosi, Gillespie 2522 (A, Bish); Naitasiri : Viria, Parlis 
20422 (A, Bish), Mcebold 16662 (Bish). Ovalau: U. S. Expl. Expcd. (GH, US) 
(narrow-leaved form). Kandavu : Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, Smith 83 
(Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (leaves sometimes glabrous). Without definite locality: 
U. S. Expl. Expcd. (GH, US), Gillespie 2486 (Bish), 2568 (Bish), 2617 (A, Bish). 

(2). Viti Levu: Tholo North: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, Degcner 14839 (A); 
Tholo West : Vicinity of Mbclo, near Vatukarasa, Degcner 15230 (A); Waimbale, 
near Namboutini, Degcner 15483 (A) ; Mbuyombuyo, near Namboutini, Tabulewa 15575 
(A); Namosi : Gillespie 2683 (A, Bish); near Namosi, Gillespie 2686 (Bish); Voma 
Mt., Gillespie 2673 (A, Bish). Kaxpavu : Mt. Mbuke Levu, Smith 227 (Bish, GH, NY, 
UC, US), 280 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US). Vanua Levu: Thakaun drove : Savu 
Savu Bay region, Degcner & Ordonez 13864 (A) (narrow-leaved form). Taveuni : Near 
Waiyevo, Gillespie 4706 (A, Bish). Without definite locality: Seemann 429 (GH), 
Gillespie 2701 (A, Bish). 

The cited specimens, occurring in forest from near sea-level to about 800 m., 
are reported as shrubs or coarse herbs up to 2 m. high ; common native names are 



16 SARGENT I A [1 

ndraindrai and iiibcta. The cited U. S. Exp]orii\t; Expedition sheets are deter- 
mined in Gray's hand as Pcllionia viticnsis n. sp., a broad-leaved and a narrow- 
leaved form being indicated, but these sheets are not to be taken as typifying that 
s]jecies. In describing Pcllionia viticnsis, Weddell. although he accredited the 
s]:)ecies to Gray, cited only a Harvey collection, which thus becomes the type. 
Gray's concept of that species, as rej^resented by the h^xploring Ex]>edition sheets, 
has no nomenclatural status. 

2. Elatostema {% Pcllionia) vitiense (Wedd.) comb. nov. 

Pcllionia viticnsis A. Gray ex Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16(1): 167. 1869. 

Elatostema filicoidcs var. vitiense Schroter in Rep. Sp. Nov. Beih. 83(2): 60. 1936. 

ViTi Lkvu: Tholo North : Gillespie. Nov. 17, 1927 (A, Bish) ; Nandarivatu. alt. 
850 m., Degener & Ordonez 13560 (A) (subprostrate herb, woody at base, in wet forest; 
small-leaved form); Tholo West : Mbulu, near Sovi Bay, alt. about 30 m., Degcner 
15033 (A) (low shrub to 1 m. high, in wet forest) ; Yawe, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatu- 
karasa, ah. 300 m., Degcncr 152SS (A) (slirub 1 m. high, in wet forest; small-leaved form 
with hispid branchlets) ; N a mo si : Vicinity of Namosi. ah. 600 m.. Parks 20212 (Bish) 
(subHgneous herb, in wet forest) ; Naitasiri : Suva Pumping Station, ah. 30 m.. Dcc/encr 
& Ordonez 13754 (A) (subligneous herb, in forest). K.\NnAVU : Mt. Mbuke Levu, ah. 
200-500 m.. Smith 245 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (shrub 1-2 m. high, in dense forest; in- 
florescences white ; form with small crowded leaves). V.^nua Levu : Thakaun drove: 
Vicinity of Maravu, near Salt Lake, alt. about 300 m., Degcncr & Ordonez 14176 (A) (low 
shrub, in dark forest) ; southern slope of Valanga Range, alt. 200-400 m.. Smith 374 (Bish. 
(jH, NY, UC, US) (subHgneous herb, in densely forested valley; inflorescence white to 
pink). 

The type of this species was collected by Harvey ; the several Exploring Ex])e- 
dition sheets marked in Gray's writing Pcllionia viticnsis sp. nov. have been dis- 
cussed under FJatostana australc. In view of the fact that Gray had nothing to 
do with WeddcH's description of Pcllionia viticnsis and even had a different con- 
cept in mind for this naiue, it seems advisable to dro]) his name from the author- 
ship of the species. 

As between this species and the next, I follow Schroter and Winkler in suppos- 
ing that Harvey's type collection of Pcllionia viticnsis represents the larger-leaved 
group. The dimensions of the leaves given by Weddell can fit either species, ])ut 
he mentions the marginal crenations as 4-6 ])er side, which would seem to exclude 
the following s])ecies as I interpret it. Schroter and Winkler remark that the 
Harvey specimen is "schwachliche," referring it to their larger-leaved variety 
with a question. Furthermore, Harvey collected only at low elevations, and the 
smaller-leaved species is very ])robably limited to the mountainous ])arts of Fiji. 

The line between E. vitiense and E. australc is not clear; on the whole the 
leaves of the latter are much larger, while the perianth-segments are not spurred 
and staminodes are apparently always present in ]Mstillate flowers. In the 
former, the perianth-segments are spurred, but pistillate flowers have the spurs 
very inconspicuous, often reduced to mere median distal thickenings or occasion- 
ally entirely lacking, while staminodes are occasionally found in pistillate flowers. 
Sometimes, as in Degcncr 15033 and Degcncr & Ordonec 14176, staminodes are 
quite common, some flowers in a head having from one to five, while other flowers 
lack them. Thus, while the subgenera Pcllionia and Elatostcniatoides are usually 
quite separable, we have a case where the line between them breaks down. I 
believe that the two species may be recognized for convenience ; the intermediate 
forms may be the result of hybridization or they may indicate tliat the differ- 
entiation of a polymorphic species is incomplete. 



'942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLAXT STUDIES, II 17 



nov, 



3. Elatostema ( ?< /'clUonia) Archboldianum sp. 

Frutex parvus inultiramosus, raniulis gracilil)us teretihus glabris vel apicem 
versus minute et pallide strigosis ; stipulis persistentihus binis papyraceis vol suh- 
membranaceis brunneis, oblongo-sulmlatis, 2-5 mm. longis, acumiuatis ; foliis 
alternatis, laminis sessilibus (vel ])etiolis graciHbus ad 0.5 mm. lotigis) cbartaceis 
aiiguste oblongis, 6-25 (-30) mm. longis. 2-8 mm. latis, basi inaequilateraliter 
ol)lusis vcl rotundatis, apice obtusis. margine conspicue crenatis (dentibus obtusis 
utrmsecus 3 vel 4), supra minute scro])iculatis vel Icvibus, subtus saepe disperso- 
brunneo-glandulosis, utrinque cystolitbis inconspicuis 0.3-0.6 mm. longis laxe 
ornatis, costa^supra subplana subtus elevata et saepe strigosa, nervis lateralibus 
utrmsecus .^-7 brevibus obscuris ; inflorescentiis J' solis visis in nodis solitariis 
compactis ])auciramu]()sis, i)erluncul(^ gracili 2-10 mm. longo glabro vel parce 
strigoso. floribus 2-10 ])er inflorescentiam ; bracteis membranaceis f)l)]ongis acutis, 
circiter 1.3 mm. longis et 0.6 mm. latis, glabris vel extus paullo strigosis, brac- 
teolis snnilibus sed minorilnis ; ])edicellis gracilibus sub anthesi 0.3-1.6 mm.' longis 
substrigosis ; periantbii segmentis 5 membranaceis elliptico-oblongis, 1.2-2 mm. 
longis, 0.7-1.6 mm. latis, extus strigoso-puberulis et sub apice calcare conspicuo 
0.5-0.7 mm. longo corniculatis ; staminibus 5, filamentis gracilibus 1-1.6 mm. 
longis, antberis oblongis 0.6-1 mm. longis, loculis inferne conspicue divergentibus.' 

Vm Levu: Gillespie 2608 (Bish) (native name: lara), 3717 (A, Bish) ; Tholo 
North : Mt. Matomba, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750 m., Dcqcncr 14429 (A. type) 
l^^b. 18, 1941 (low shrub, in dense forest) ; vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., Dcgcncr 
& Ordonez 13559 (A) (erect low shrub less than 1 m. high, in dense wet forest),' Dcgcner 
14328 (A) (low shrub, in dark wet forest; flowers white); summit of Mt. Loma Langa 
alt. 1200 m., Gillesfie 3912.5 (Bish). Without definite locality- U S Fvhl Fvhcd 
(GH), Gillespie, Nov. 12, 1927 (Bish). ' ' '^ ^ 

Tbe new species i)rol)ably rc]n-esents the conce])t which Sclirotcr and Winkler 
referred to E. filicoidcs var. ciifilicoidcs, a name which, as discussed following my 
treatment of Elatostema, must be excluded from the genus. 

Elatostema Archboldianum and E. vitiensc, as represented by the cited speci- 
mens, appear s]iecifically distinct on the basis of the much smaller leaves and more 
compact staminate inflorescences of the former. Floral dififerences are scarcely 
apparent, except for a slight tendency toward more conspicuous spurs on the 
staminate perianth-segments in E. Archboldianum. Doubtless intermediate forms 
between the two extremes exist, so that the course selected by Schroter and Wink- 
ler— of referring them to two varieties of one species-^is perhaps justified. 
However, if this is done, one can hardly fail to include E. australc in the same 
species, since the differences between that species and E. %'iticnsc are no greater 
than those between E. vitiensc and E. Archboldianum. If all are combined, the 
resultant species will be entirely unwieldy, including i)lants with leaves varying 
from 0.6 to 35 cm. in length. In short, in this section of Elatostema one mus't 
admit that specific lines are arbitrary; those here suggested for the iMJian spe- 
cies are not sharp, but they seem to serve on the basis of present material. 
4. Elatostema i% Pclliouia) comptonioides sp. nov. 

Frutex gracilis 0.5-2 m. altus, ramulis subteretibus vel apicem versus leviter 
sulcatis dense strigoso-inil)erulis demum glabratis ; stipulis persistentihus binis 
papyraceis castaneis subulato-lanceolatis, 4-9 mm. longis, glabris vel dorso obscure 
strigosis; foliis apicem ramulorum versus confertis alternatis, petiolis subnullis 
vel ad 1 mm. longis et breviter strigosis, laminis cbartaceis lineari-lanceolatis, 4-8 
cm. longis, 5-11 mm. latis, basi inaequilateraliter obtusis vel rotundatis, apicem 
versus gradatim angustatis et apice obtuse acuminatis, margine pro funde' crenatis 
(dentibus utrinsecus 5-10), utrinque cystolithis 0.25-0.4 mm. longis conspicue 
ornatis, costa supra subplana subtus elevata et pallido-strigosa, nervis lateralibus 



18 SARGENTIA [1 

niimerosis brcvilms obscuris interdum stri<(osis ; inflorescentiis (^ solis visis paucis 
ill nodis solilariis subcajMtatis, pedunculo gracili 6-12 mm. longo parce strigoso, 
floribus 2-4 per inflorescentiam subse.ssiHl)us : bracteis membranaceis acutis ol)- 
longis, 1.3-1.8 mm. longis, circiter 0.5 mm. latis, glabris vel extus parce strigosis, 
bracteolis similibus sed minoribus ; ])erianthii segmentis 5 meml)ranaceis elliptico- 
oblongis, circiter 1.3 mm. longis et 1 mm. latis. extus ])arce strigosis. apice olitusis, 
dorso apicem versus calcare conspicuo 0.5-0.8 mm. longo corniculatis ; staminibus 
5, filamentis gracilibus circiter 1 mm. longis, antheris oblongis circiter 0.8 mm. 
longis, loculis inferne consi)icue divergentibus. 

Vanua Levu : Thakaun drove: Natewa Peninsula, Uluingala. alt. 600-820 m., 
Smith 1977 (Bish. GH, type, NY, UC. US), June 15, 1934 (shrub 0.5-2 m. liigli, in dense 
forest ; inflorescence white ) . 

Elatosfciua coniptonioidcs seems ami)ly distinguisbed from its relatives in § Pcl- 
lionia by tbe foliage-cbaracters mentioned in tbe key. The leaves of the new 
species bear a remarkable superficial similarity to those of Coiiipfonia pcrccjrina 
(L.) Couh. 
5. Elatostema (^ Euelatostcma) nemorosum Seem. Fl. Vit. 240. />/. 6i. 1868. 

Coarse herb up to 2 m. high, the stem simple, sparsely hispid, glabrescent ; 
leaves alternate, subsessile, the blades papyraceous, brownish when dried, slightly 
paler beneath, subfalcate-obovate, 20-40 cm. long, (6-) 8-16 cm. broad, gradu- 
ally narrowed toward base and strongly inequilateral (one side attenuate, the 
other cordate-.subauriculate), abruptly short-acuminate at apex, coarsely serrate 
at margin (teeth 2-4 ]:»er centimeter, subacute, 2-5 mm. long), minutely scrobicu- 
late and hispid above with pale hairs 1-2 mm. long, more densely hispid or 
crispate-his]iid beneath (especially on nerves) with slightly shorter hairs, the 
cystoliths none on either surface, the costa stout, slightly raised above and sub- 
prominent beneath, the secondary nerves 10-17 per side, erecto-patent, stibplane 
or slightly raised above, elevated beneath, the veinlet-reticulation immersed above, 
slightly prominulous beneath; stipules pai)yraceous or submembranous, oblong- 
linear, 2-5 cm. long, dorsally short-hispid ; staminate receptacles 17-22 mm. in 
diameter, on slender hisi)idulous or glabrescent jieduncles up to 1 cm. long, the 
outer bracts chartaceous. subreniform, up to 14 mm. long and 24 mm. broad, 
sericeo-hispidulous. glabrescent, carinate or obscurely corniculate dorsally toward 
apex, the inner bracts similar but smaller ; bracteoles membranous, oblong-oboyate, 
5-7 mm. long, 2-4 mm. broad, obscurely his])idulous distally without; pedicels 
slender, to 1 mm. long; perianth-segments 4, membranous, lanceolate, 1-1.6 mm. 
long, acute and sparsely hispid-ciliate at apex; anthers about 0.4 mm. long; pis- 
tillate receptacles pedunculate like the staminate. 8-20 mm. in diameter, the outer 
bracts usually several, connate at base, (jblong. 5-7 mm. long, carinate dorsally and 
acute at apex, sparsely his]-)idulous. the inner bracts gradually smaller ; bracteoles 
membranous, linear 4^6 mm. long, 0.4-1 mm. broad, distally his])idulous ; pedicels 
to 4 mm. long; perianth-segments inconsiiicuous, the achene ovoid, about 1 mm. 
long. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North: Nandarivatu, alt. 1200 m.. Parks 20788 (A, Bish) 
(coarse herb 1 m. high, in wet canyons) ; Nandrau, near Nandarivatu. alt. 600 m., Dcgcner 
14887 (A) (native name: mhcta) ; Namosi: Namosi, alt. 600-900 m., Parks 20273 
(A, Bish) (herb, more than 1 m. high, in dense wet forest). Vanu.'^ Lew: Thakaun - 
drove : Mt. Mariko. alt. 600-866 m., Smith 464 (Bish, NY, US) (coarse herb 2 m. high, 
in dense forest; heads greenish). Taveuni: Sccmaun 422 (GH, type coll.); trail from 
Somosomo, alt. 950 m., Gillespie 4824 (A, Bish) (in dark wet canyon). 

As represented by the cited specimens. E. nemorosum, which is apparently 
limited to higher elevations, is a very well-marked and easily recognized species. 
Probably the following specimen also belongs here: Mcehold 16661 (Bish), from 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN FLA NT STUDIES, II 19 

Mt. Koronil)aniI)a, Xaitasiri. Viti Levu. However, this specimen has slightly 
smaller leaves than those above described, the stiff hairs of the upper surface are 
few or lacking, the hairs of the nerves beneath are subappressed rather than 
spreading, short linear cystoliths are often visible on the lower surface, and the 
bracts and bractoles of staminate heads are minutely glandular. In view of the 
variation which is evident in many species of Elatostciua, I doubt if these char- 
acters denote a departure of nomenclatural value, but further material is desirable. 

6. Elatostema (§: /iuclatostcnta) fruticosum Gibbs in Jour. Liiiu. Soc. Bot. 39: 171 pi 16 

1909. 

Viti Levu: Tholo X o r t ]i : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 800-1200 m., Dcgcucr 
& Ordoncc 12522 (A) (coarse subligneous herb about 2 m. high, in dark wet forest; stems 
succulent: leaves dark green; inflorescence whitish), Parks 20543 (A, Bish) (herb 50 cm. 
high, in forest). 

The cited specimens, from the t}pe locality, agree excellently with the original 
description and plate. Our s])ecimens have the leaf-blades u]i to 15 cm. long 
and 7 cm. broad and the secondary nerves are often 5 or 6 per side. The species 
is only remotely related to /:. sessile Forst. 

7. Elatostema (^ EucUitostctna) insulare sp. nov. 

Herba ad 2 m. alta pauciramosa, ramulis substrigosis vel glabris ; foliis alter- 
natis, petiolis strigosis vel glabris 1-10 mm. longis, laminis ])apyraceis siccitate 
fusco-viridibus vel olivaceis, subtus pallidioribus, inaequilateraliter elliptico- 
oblongis, (11-) 15-26 cm. longis, (3-) 4-9.5 cm. latis, basi su])acutis vel latere 
breviore obtusis, ai)ice gradatim caudato-acuminatis, margine dentibus 1 vel 2 per 
centimctrum grosse crenatis vel undulatis. supra cystoiithis linearibus 0.25-0.5 
mm. longis conspicue ornatis et glabris vel pilis pallidis circiter 1 mm. longis parce 
strigosis, subtus pilis 0.5-1 mm. longis praecipue ad nervos hispido-strigosis vel 
glabris et interdum cystoiithis (nervis solis) ornatis, pinnatinerviis, costa supra 
leviter elevata subtus prominente, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 8-12 adscendenti- 
bus supra paullo subtus conspicue elevatis, venulis obscuris vel subtus prominulis ; 
stipulis jiapyraceis vel membranaceis lineari-oblongis 1.5—4 cm. longis dorso stri- 
gosis caducis ; receptaculis subsessilibus vel breviter pedunculatis, pedimculis ad 5 
mm. longis pubcrulis glabratis ; receptaculis J* 6-22 mm. diametro. bracteis ex- 
terioribus saepe subcarnosis in ])elta suborbiculari connatis. extus minute strigosis 
vel glabris et interdum parce brunneo-glandulosis, apicem versus inconspicue 
carinato-corniculatis, bracteis interioribus i)apyraceis vel sul)membranaceis mi- 
noribus ; bracteolis membranaceis oblongo-spathulatis, 3— 4- mm. longis, 1.5-2 mm. 
latis, apicem versus obscure ])ilosis ; pedicellis ad 1 mm. longis, perianthii seg- 
mentis 4 circiter 1 mm. longis, antheris oblongis circiter 0.8 mm. longis ; recep- 
taculis 2 7-8 mm. diametro, bracteis numerosis ])apyraceis anguste oblongis. 4—5 
mm. longis, basi connatis, dorso strigosis, apice carinato-corniculatis. interiorilnis 
angustioribus ; bracteolis 2-3 mm. longis et 0.4—0.7 mm. latis. ai)icem versus 
strigosis, saepe obscure corniculatis ; pedicellis ad 1 mm. longis, perianthii seg- 
mentis minutis, achenio anguste ellipsoideo circiter 0.5 mm. longo. 

KoRo: Eastern slope of main ridge, alt. 300-500 m., Simfh 1064 (Bish, NY) (herb to 1 
m. high, in forest). Kandavu : Mt. Mbuke Levu, alt. 200-500 m.. Smith 238 (Bish, GH. 
NY, UC, US) (coarse herb 1-2 m. high, in dense forest: heads whitish). Vaxua Levu: 
Thakaundrove : Vatunivuamonde Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 250 m., Degcner 
& Ordonez 14004 (A) (subligneous herb, in dark forest). Tavt.uni: Vicinity of Waiyevo, 
alt. 400 m.. Gillespie 4727 (A, type, Bish), Feb. 27, 1928 (in dark wet stream' bed in woods 
above coconut plantations). 

A represented by the four cited collections, the species shows some variation, 
but I believe that the material is conspecific. The lower leaf-surface is usually 
strigose, but Smith 238 has the leaves quite glabrous ; the margin is generally 



20 5ARGENTIA [1 

crenale, but the Gillespie specimen has the erciiations very inc()ns])icuous. Pis- 
tillate inflorescences are found on Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14004, the others bearing 
staminate heads. 

The new species is suggestive of E. uiacroph\Uuin Brongn. (Hot. Voy. Coquille 
207. pi. 45. 1834), based on a s])ecimen from Amboina. Oiu^ i)lant differs 
from that, however, in its longer cystoliths, which are practically lacking from the 
lower leaf-surfaces, and in details of its staminate inflorescence, such as the 
perianth-segments being obtuse rather than acuminate at a])ex. A closer relative 
of E. insidarc is E. fruticnsniu, which ditTers from it as noted in the key. 

8. Elatostema (§ Euclatostcina) palustre sp. nov. 

Herba ad 50 cm. alta. caule inferne subprostrato superne suberecto ut videtur 
succulento glabro ; foliis alternatis, laminis subsessilibus temiiter ])apyraceis sic- 
citate viridibus inaequilateraliter obovatis, 8-16 cm. longis, 3 6 cm. latis. basim 
versus gradatim angustatis ct valdc inac(|uilateralibus (uno latere attenuatis, altero 
cordato-subauriculatis), ai)ice acutis vel breviter acuminatis. margine dentibus 
subacutis ?>-S mm. longis 2 vel 3 per centimetrum grosse serratis. utrinque cysto- 
lithis linearibus 0.15-0.2 mm. k)ngis inconspicue ornatis, sujira i)ilis jiallidis 1-2 
mm. longis et subtus pilis paullo minoribus praecipue ad nervos hisi^dis, ])innati- 
nerviis, costa supra subplana subtus ])rominente, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 7-9 
adscendentibus supra planis subtus leviter elevatis. rete venularum subtus ])aullo 
prominulo ; stipulis membranaceis anguste elli])ticis 1.5-2 mm. longis dorso 
hispido-strigosis ; recejitaculorum ])edunculis gracilibus 4-13 mm. longis obscure 
strigosis glabratis ; receptaculis J* 10-18 mm. diametro. bracteis cxterioribus papy- 
raceis reniformibus, circiter 7 mm. longis et 12 mm. latis, extus jiallido-strigillosis 
et cystolithis linearibus miinitis circiter 0.1 mm. longis copiose ornatis, ajiicem 
versus breviter carinato-corniculatis, bracteis interioribus similibus sed minoribus ; 
bracteolis membranaceis obovato-oblongis, 2.5-4 mm. longis. 1-2 mm. latis. dorso 
parce strigosis; pedicellis ad 1 mm. longis. perianthii segmentis 4 acutis 1.5-2 mm. 
longis. antheris oblongis circiter 1.5 mm. longis; receptaculis 5 8-10 mm. dia- 
metro, bracteis submembranaceis numerosis deltoideo-oblongis. circiter 5 mm. 
longis, basi connatis. margine hisjiido-ciliatis, dorso ajiicem versus carinato- 
corniculatis, cxterioribus 3-4 mm. latis, interioribus angustioribus ; bracteolis 
lineari-spathulatis, 2.5-3 mm. longis, 0.2-0.5 mm. latis. apicem versus strigosis ; 
pedicellis ad 2 mm. longis. i)erianthii segmentis minutis, achenio anguste ellip- 
soideo circiter 0.8 mm. longo. 

ViTi Lfvu : T h o 1 o E a s t : t'cntral plateau between Wainimala and Sinsatcka Rivers, 
Wainisavulevu-Numbololo divide, Taunaisali, alt. 1150 m.. .S7. .falni 1S337 (A, tvi'K, Bish), 
Aug. 18, 1937 (in swampy rain-forest; native name: mhcta). 

The new species is of the relationship of the Samoan E. cuprco-viridc Rech- 
inger. from which it difl^ers in its much larger stiy^ules, its larger and ])ro])or- 
tionately narrower leaf-blades with narrower base and more numerous serrations, 
and its his])id rather than ai)]iresscd-]^ilose nerves of the lower leaf-surface. 

9. Elatostema (^Euclatostcina) Gillespiei sp. nov. 

Herba succulenta vel basim versus forsan sublignosa, caule gracili glabro con- 
spictie nodoso ; foliis altcrnatis. jx'tiolis leviter canaliculatis 2-7 mm. longis glabris, 
laminis ]:)apyraceis siccitate flavo-viridibus utrinque glabris anguste et leviter in- 
aequilateraliter obovato-oblongis. 14—20 cm. longis, 3—4.5 cm. latis. basi gradatim 
angustatis et acutis vel latere breviore obtusis. apice conspicue caudato-acuminatis. 
margine inferne integris superne inconspicue undulato-crenatis (dentibus 1 vel 2 
per centimetrum). utrinque cystolithis stellatis 3-5-ramulosis circiter 0.15 mm. 
diametro densissime ])a]iillosis, ])innatinerviis, costa supra leviter clevata subttis 
prominente. nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 7-11 valde adscendentibus supra planis 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 21 

subtus elevatis. rcte venularum siqira iinnierso subtus piano ; stipulis papyraceis 
glabris lineari-oblongis 2-2.5 cm. longis ; receptaculis breviter pedunculatis, ]ie- 
dunculo 1-3 mm. longo glal^-o ; receptaculis j' 4—5 mm. diametro, bracteis ex- 
terioribus subcoriaceis connati.s, extus strigoso-puberulis glabratis, apicem versus 
carinato-corniculatis, bracteis interioribus ])apyraceis minoribus ; bracteolis mem- 
branaceis obovatis. 2-3 mm. longis, 1-1.5 mm. latis, ajMcem versus pul^erulis ; 
pedicellis ad 0.5 mm. longis, periantbii segmentis 4 circiter 0.8 mm. longis. antberis 
oblongis minutis ; receptaculis 5 6-8 mm. diametro. bracteis numerosis papyraceis 
3^ mm. longis glabratis. basi connatis. a])iceni versus obscure carinatis ; brac- 
teolis lineari-obovatis, circiter 2 mm. longis, 0.3-0.6 mm. latis. apicem versus 
hispidtilis ; jiedicellis ad 0.7 mm. longis, i)eriarithii segmentis 4 lanceolatis minutis, 
stylis circiter 1 mm. longis, aclienio obovoideo-ellipsoideo ad 1 mm. longo. 

ViTi Levu : Naitasiri : Korombamba Mt., near summit, alt. 500 m., Gillespie 2402 
(A, TYPE, Bisb), AuR. 24, 1927. 

Elatostcuia Gillcspici is clearly related to E. Sccniannianuui, wbicb it resembles 
in leaf -texture and cystolith-marking, \mi from whicb it differs in its mucb nar- 
rower leaf-blades vvitb sbarply ascending veins and in its substantially smaller in- 
florescences. Another collection which is i:)robably referable to E. Gillcspici is 
Parks 20055 (A, Bish). from Lami, alt. 100 m., near Suva, Rewa, Viti Levu. 
This specimen differs from the type only in its smaller leaf -blades (7-14 cm. 
long, 2-4 cm. broad), which are more obviously crenate at margins and hispid 
on the nerves beneath, and in its more obviously pubescent staminate heads. 
Characters of ]nibescence and leaf-margins are of such duliious value in Elato- 
stcuia that I believe the Parks ])lant may be safely referred here. 

10. Elatostema {^ Htielatosteiiut) Seemannianum A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 58. 

/. 27. 1936. 

FJatosteDia macrophyllu)n sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 241, excl. syn. 1868; (jibbs in Jour. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 39: 172^ 1909; non Brongn. 

Viti Li-.vr : T b o 1 o North : Vicinity of Xandarivatu, alt. 600-925 m., (iillcspic 4256 
(A, Bish) (on banks of small stream), Dcgencr & Onioiie:: 13600 (A) (coarse herb less 
than 1 m. high, in forest; staminate heads whitish), Deycner 14923 (A) (in forest; native 
name: mheia) ; T h o 1 o W e s t : Waimbale, near Namboutini, Degener 15470 (A) (coarse 
herb, on partly forested slope; native name: viheia) ; Naitasiri : Viria. Mecbold 16431 
(Bish). OvALAU: U. S. F.xpl. F.xpcd. (GH, US), Bryan 610 (Bish) (succulent herb to 2 
m. high, on stream-bank in rain-forest at 150 m. alt.; receptacle green; staminate flowers 
white). KoRo : Eastern slope of main ridge, alt. 300-500 m., Smith 982 (Bish, type, NY) 
(herb to 2 m. high, in forest; anthers white). Without definite locality: Harvey (GH). 

This well-marked species has large leaf-blades which remain yellowish green 
when dried and which a])pear to have the up])er surfaces closely papillose. Closer 
observation shows that the punctiform papillae are minute stellate 3-5-branched 
cystoliths. The species is not a close relative of E. inacrophylluui Brongn. 

11. Elatostema (^ Fuclatostcma) eximium sp. nov. 

Herba succulenta ut videtur ad 50 cm. alta, caule fusco apicem versus dense 
brimneo-strigoso deinum glabrato ; foliis alternatis, petiolis subnuUis vel ad 4 mm. 
longis ut caule strigosis, laminis pa])yraceis siccitate fusco- vel flavo-viridibus in- 
aequilateraliter obovatis, 10-18 cm. longis, 3.5-7 cm. latis, basi gradatim angustatis 
et actitis vel latere longiore obtusis, apice abrupte et gracile acuminatis, margine 
omnino dentibus subacutis 2 vel 3 per centimetrum conspicue serratis, utrinque 
cystolithis stellatis 3- vel 4-ramulosis 0.13-0.3 mm. diametro (raro tantummodo 
angulatis) manifeste ornatis, supra glabris vel pilis paucis ad 1 mm. longis dis- 
perse strigosis, subtus ad nervos dense strigosis, pinnatinerviis. costa supra sub- 
plana subtus prominente, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 8-12 arcuato-adscendentibus 
stipra i^lanis subtus elevatis, vcinilis immersis vel subtus prominulis ; stipulis papy- 



22 SARGENT I A [1 

raceis bicarinatis dorso hispidulis glabratis lineari-ol)longis 1.5-3 cm. longis ; re- 
ceptaculis (^ solis visis 5-9 mm. diametro sul)sessilibus vel breviter pedunciilatis, 
peduncnlo crasso ad 2 mm. longo strigoso-puberulo ; bracteis exterioribus papy- 
raceis reniformibus. circiter 6 mm. longis et 8 mm. latis, connatis. extus strigoso- 
ptiberulis et minute brunneo-glandiilosis, ])lerumque conspicue corniculatis, brac- 
teis interioribus similibus sed minoribus ; bracteolis membranaceis olx)vato- 
spatbulatis, 3-5 mm. longis, 1^ mm. latis, dense brunneo-glanduloso-lineolatis, 
extus apicem versus pallido-strigosis ; pedicellis ad 2 mm. longis, periantbii scg- 
mentis 4 membranaceis obovatis, 2-2.5 mm. longis, glanduloso-lineolatis. ex- 
terioribus calcaribus 0.3-0.5 mm. longis apicem versus corniculatis. filamentis 1- 
1.5 mm. longis, antheris oblongis 1-1.2 mm. longis. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo West: Mbuyombuyo, near Namboutini, Tabualczva 1557^ (A. 
type), June 17, 1941 (inflorescence red; native name: mhcta). Ovalau : U. S. Rxpl. F.xpcd. 
(GH) (alt. 450 m.). 

This well-marked s])ecies is distinguished not only by the leaf-characters men- 
tioned in the key. but also by the glandular-lineolate bracteoles and staminate 
perianth-segments, the latter l)eing corniculate and comparatively large. 

12. Elatostema {%Euclatostcma) tenellum sp. nov. 

Herba, caule basim versus prostrato et radicoso superne suberecto ad 50 cm. 
alto, apicem versus minute strigoso demum glabro ; foliis alternatis, petiolis sub- 
nullis, laminis papyraceis siccitate viridibus inaequilateraliter obovato-oblongis. 
5-9 cm. longis, 2-2.7 cm. latis, basi latere breviore acutis latere longiore saepe 
cordato-subauriculatis, apice gradatim acuminatis, margine omnino dentibus acutis 
2 vel 3 per centimetrum grosse serratis, supra cystolithis stellatis 3-5 ramulosis 
(raro tantummodo angulatis vel linearibus) 0.08-0.25 mm. diametro inconspicue 
ornatis, sui)tus cystolithis similibus paucioribus praeditis, supra glabris vel pilis 
0.3-0.7 mm. longis disperse strigosis, subtus nervis pilis ad 1 mm. longis dense 
strigosis, pinnatinerviis, costa supra subj^lana subtus elevata, nervis lateralibus 
utrinsecus 6-8 arcuato-adscendentibus su])ra planis subtus valde prominulis, 
venulis subimmersis ; sti])ulis pa])yraceis linearibus 7-10 mm. longis dorso setulosis 
mox glabris ; receptaculis 5 solis visis subsessilibus 2-5 mm. diametro. bracteis 
numerosis in pelta suborbiculari j^apyracea coiuiatis strigoso-puberulis glabratis, 
apice liberis et acutis, apicem versus obscure glanduloso-lineolatis; bracteolis 
membranaceis oblongo-lanceolatis, 1-1.5 mm. longis, 0.15-0.3 mm. latis, apicem 
versus strigosis ; ]iedicellis ad 0.5 mm. longis, periantbii segmentis 3 vel 4 minutis 
ad 0.2 mm. longis, achenio ovoideo-ellipsoideo ad 0.8 mm. longo. 

ViTi Levu: N a mo si : Trail to Namosi, alt. 600 m., Parks 20209 (A. Bish) (herb, 
to 50 cm. higli, in wet forest). Vanua Levu: Thakaun drove : Mt. Mariko, alt. 
600-866 m.. Smith 471 (Bish, GH, type, NY, UC, US), Nov. 14, 1933 (subprostrate lierb. 
in dense undergrowth of forest). 

Both the specimens bear only pistillate inflorescences. Elatostema fcuclluiit is 
characterized by its subprostrate habit, subsessile leaf-blades, large marginal ser- 
rations, and .small inflorescences. Although it bears a superficial resemblance to 
E. sessile J. R. & G. Forst., its only close allies appear to be E. e.viiniuni and E. 
Iiujiiile. 

13. Elatostema (§ Euclntostcnia) humile sp. nov. 

Herba ad 40 cm. alta, caule ut videtur suberecto glabro vel ai)icem versus obscure 
strigoso ; foliis alternatis, petiolis gracilil)us ad 4 mm. longis mox glabris. laminis 
papyraceis siccitate viridibus vel subfuscis oblongo-lanceolatis, 4-9.5 cm. longis. 
8-18 mm. latis, basi inaequilateraliter attenuatis, apice gradatim acuminatis. mar- 
gine dentibus subacutis 1-3 ])er centimetrum conspicue serratis. supra cystolithis 
interdum 3- vel 4-])artitis 0.15-0.25 mm. diametro interdum angulatis vel lineari- 
bus 0.1-0-3 mm. longis nianifeste ornatis, subtus cystolithis similibus inconspicue 



1942) SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 23 

praeditis vel nervis dense ornatis, supra glabris, subtus glabris vel nervis piHs 
0.4-0.7 mm. longis strigosis, pinnatinerviis, costa supra leviter prominula vel in- 
sculpta subtus elevata, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 5-7 valde adscendentiluis 
supra planis subtus ])roniinuHs. venuHs obscuris ; stipulis submembranaceis lanceo- 
latis 7-10 mm. longis dorso sericeis mox glabris ; receptaculis subsessilibus vel 
breviter pedunculatis, pedunculo ad 1.5 mm. longo strigoso-puberulo vel glabro ; 
receptaculis J^ 3-6 mm. diametro, bracteis exterioribus i)apyraceis late ovatis. 4—5 
mm. longis, basi connatis. extus breviter strigosis, apicem versus breviter cornicu- 
latis, bracteis interioribus minoribus ; bracteolis membranaceis oblongo-obovatis, 
3-4 mm. longis. 1-2 mm. latis, obscure glanduloso-lineolatis, dorso parce strigil- 
losis ; pedicellis ad 1 mm. longis, perianthii segmentis 4 oblongis circiter 2 mm. 
longis, apicem versus calcare circiter 0.3 mm. longo plerumque corniculatis, 
antberis oblongis circiter 1 mm. longis ; receptaculis $ 2-4 mm. diametro, bracteis 
numerosis submembranaceis lineari-oblongis connatis, apicem versus strigosis 
liberis obscure corniculatis; bracteolis membranaceis linearibus, 1-1.4 mm. longis, 
0.1-0.15 mm. latis, dense strigosis; pedicellis brevissimis, perianthii segmentis 
obscuris, achenio ellipsoideo ad 0.8 mm. longo. 

ViTi Lfvu : N a i t a s i r i : Korombamba Mt., near summit, alt. 500 m., Gillespie 2403 
(Bish). Taveuni: , Vicinity of Waiyevo, alt. 650 m., Gillespie 4731.5 (A, type, Bish), 
Feb. 27, 1928 (in moist stream-beds in woods above coconut plantations). 

Of the two cited specimens, the type collection bears pistillate heads and no. 
2403 staminate. The two plants are not exactly similar, the type being essen- 
tially glabrous throughout, while the other has a strigose pubescence on the stem, 
lower surface of leaves, etc. Cystoliths of no. 4731.5 are predominantly of the 
short linear type while no. 2403 has them commonly stellate, but intermediate 
forms are found on both specimens. It is possible that additional material w-ill 
indicate that the two are not conspecific, but I believe it more likely, in view of 
their great similarity in leaf-shape, texture, etc., that future collections will dis- 
close intermediate forms. 

Excluded Species 

Pellionia filicoides Seem. Fl. Vit. 239. 1868; Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16(1): 168. 1869. 

Elatostcma filicoides Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 259, nomen. 1861 ; Schriiter & Winkl. in Rep. 
Sp. Nov. Beih. 83(2): 59, quoad typum. 1936. 

Elatostema filicoides var. cufilicoides Scbroter in Rep. Sp. Nov. Beih. 83(2): 59, quoad 
typum. 1936. 

ViTi Levi: Serua : Navua River, Seoiiaini 421 (GH, type coll.). 

In proposing P. filicoides in Flora Vitiensis, Seemann cites his no. 421 and also 
collections by Williams and Harvey, but it is obvious that he considered his own 
collection the type, since his first combination Elatostema filicoides was based en- 
tirely upon it. Seemann 421 bears a remarkable superficial resemblance to a 
Pellionia, btit closer examination shows that the supposed "leaves" lack cystoliths 
and have a closed fern-like venation and that the "hairs" of the "branchlets" and 
costas are actually narrow scales. The type collection represents a sterile frond 
of the fern Lomagramma polyphylla Brack. (1854) and the above cited names 
should be removed to the synonymy of this fern, even though the descriptions 
cited arfe, for the most part, of plants properly referred to Pellionia or Elatostema. 

Elatostema peltatum Henisl. in Kevv Bull. 1901: 143. 1901. 

In order properly to ]:)lace this species, one must see the type collection, made 
on Vanua Levu by Home. From the description, it seems unlikely that a s])ecies 
of Elatostema is represented; at least, no Fijian species with peltate leaves or 
with a petiole 1.5-2 inches long is known to me. 



24 SARGENTIA [1 

Pkckkis Commcr.s. 

In her nion()gra])h of the genus Frocris, Hilde Schroter (in Rep. Sp. Nov. 45: 
179-192, 257-300. 1938) lists Fijian si)eciniens as representing only P. pcdun- 
culata (J. R. & G. Forst.) Wedd. var. eupcdunculata Schroter. this being, in 
fact, the only form which she mentions from the Pacific east of the Solomons 
and Micronesia. Among the Fijian collections available to me. it is obvious 
that several species are represented, three of them belonging to the grouj) with 
pedunculate pistillate inflorescences (of these, two were erroneously referred by 
me in 1936 to the genera Elatostcma and Pcllionia). In this grou]) Schroter 
recognizes only one species, P. Wighfiana Wall., with a range from Africa to 
the Philippines and the Bonin Islands. Since most of the material of this genus 
belonging to American herbaria is still on loan and therefore not available, I 
cannot check the specific lines as proposed in the recent monograph. For the 
purpose of naming the Fijian specimens, I depend upon the monograph and the 
numerous specimens which are still available in the Gray Herbarium. 

Key to the Fijian Species 

Pistillate inflorescence sessile \. F\ pcdunculata. 

Pistillate inflorescences obviously pedunculate. 

Cystoliths of the leaf-blades inconspicuous, very few and scattered on upper surface, absent 
from lower surface ; leaf-blades obscurely pellucid-punctate, the glands copious, often 

faintly depressed above, pale and crowded beneatii 2. P. anfvacta. 

Cystolitbs of the leaf-blades obvious on both surfaces. 

Leaf-blades 4-8 cm. long, thick, not pellucid-punctate, the glands often depressed above, 
obscure beneath; cystoliths 0.1-0.25 mm. long, those of upper surface 8-12 per sq. 

mm., those of lower surface 35-50 per sq. mm 3. P. Archboldiana. 

Leaf-blades (8-) 10-20 cm. long, minutely scrobiculate on upper surface, the lower 
surface often with superficial minute brown scattered glands; cystoliths 0.2-0.5 mm. 
long, those of upper surface 4-12 per sq. mm., those of lower surface 5-14 per 
sq. mm A. P. Gocpdiatia. 

1. Frocris pedunculata (J. R. X: G. Forst.) Wedd. in DC. Trodr. 16(1): 191. 1869; 
Schroter in Rep. Sp. Xov. 45: 259. 1938. 

FJatostciiia pcduncuhitiDii J, R. & G. Forst. Char. tJen. 106. 1776. 

I have not sufficient material available to test Schroter's concept of P. peduncu- 
lata, but on the surface this seems very broad indeed. An examination of ade- 
quate material of this grou]i from the Societies, the type locality, discloses that the 
leaf-blades are usually pellucid-punctate (at least obscurely so) and have the 
cystoliths on both surfaces comparatively scattered in comparison with those of 
the bulk of the Fijian material. The different as])ects of the leaves caused by 
the different spacing of the cystoliths is striking, although it is rather unsatisfac- 
torily ex])ressed in words. While this may not be a character worth\- of sjiecific 
recognition, I believe that it will serve at least to mark varieties; it seems likely 
that Schroter's variety eupcdunculata (based on the tyj^e of the s])ecics) should 
be more narrowly limited and that some of the specific names submerged by her 
should be given at least varietal recognition. Possibly the typical variety will be 
found limited to the Pacific; some of the Fijian material certainly is essentially 
identical with that from the Societies. Samoa, etc. On the basis of the specimens 
at hand I am inclined to doubt whether the bulk of the Malaysian and African 
material should be left in the variety eupcdunculata, if indeed in the s])ecies at all. 
The form with very crowded cystoliths seems limited to Fiji and Tonga and may 
well be recognized as a variety. Thus, in our region, one may readily distinguish 
two varieties of P. pedunculata as follows: 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 25 

Leaf-blades often pellucid-punctate or at least with obvious glands wliich are often depressed 
on the upper surface; cystoliths of the upper leaf-surface 0.13-0.25 mm. long, 8-20 per 
sq. mm., those of the lower leaf-surface 0.2-0.5 mm. long, 5-17 per sq. mm. 

var. cupcduiiculata. 

Leaf-blades thicker, not pellucid-punctate, tlie glands ol)scure ; cystoliths of the upper leaf- 
surface 0.13-0.6 mm. long, 18-45 per sc|. mm., those of the lower leaf-surface 0.16-0.7 
mm. long, 12-35 per. sq. mm var. oniata. 

Var. eupedunculata Schroter in Rep. Sp. Nov. 45: 260. 1938, quoad Hlatostrnia pcduncu- 
latum J. R. & G. Forst. 
KoRo: West coast, near sea-level. Smith 1076 (GH). V'axu.-x Mbalavl- : Southern 
limestone section, alt. 0-100 m., Smith 1441 (GH). Fulanga : Limestone formation, on 
cliff, alt. 0-80 m.. Smith 1140 (GH). 

Some of the other Fijian specimens cited by Schr(')ter (1. c. 264, 265) may 
belong in this concept, btit they are not now available to me for examination. 
This variety seems less ccnnmon in Fiji than the following. 

\ ar. ornata var. no\'. 

Frtttex ])arvus vel herba succtilenta var. eupedunculata Schroter affinis, laminis 
foliorum crassioribus non pellucido-punctatis, cystolithis conspicue confertioribns 
ornatis differt. 

ViTi Lkvu : Tholo North: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-1000 m., Gillespie 
4297 {.\, Bish) (growing on rocks in stream), Parks 20648 (A, Bish) (low epiphytic shrub; 
heads red), Dc(/cncr 14848 (A) (low shrub, on wet rocks in forest); Nauwanga, near 
Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., Dcgencr 14509 (A) (subligneous herb, in forest; fruiting 
receptacle orange; flowers white), Dcycner 14826 (A, type). Mar. 13, 1941 (low shrub, on 
wet rocks in forest; receptacle red); summit of Loma Langa Mt., alt. 1300 m., (rillespic 
3926.5 (Bish) ; Nasukamai, alt. 450 m.. Gillespie 4393 (Bish) (on rocks of river-bank; native 
name: kaii tho) ; Ra : Vatundamu, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., 
Degener 15402 (A) (on rocks in dry forest; native name: ti>kai) ; Tholo W e s t : 
Mbuyombuyo, near Namboutini, Tabualezva 15573 (A); N a mo si : Vicinity of Namosi, 
alt. 400-800 m.. Parks 20179 (A, Bish) (low shrub, in wet canyon), Gillespie 2525 (Bish) 
(seeds white), (^vai.au: Vicinity of Levuka, alt. 350-400 m., Gillespie 4483 (A, Bish), 
4561 (Bish). 

TONCiA : FiA : Parks 16044 (GH) (in pockets of limestone rocks on the Liku side of 
the plateau ) . 

2. Procris anfracta (A. C. Sm.) comb. nov. 

Platflstema anfraetum A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 58. /. 26. 1936. 
Taveuxi: Western slope, between Somosomo and Wairiki, alt. 700-900 m.. Smith 744 
(Bish, TYPE, GH, NY, UC, US) (vine, in forest, the fruiting heads bright red). 

This species and the two following differ from P. Wightiana Wall. (am])l. 
SchrtJter in Rep. S]). Nov. 45: 191, 192, 257-259. 1938) in having the pistillate 
inflorescences with more obvious and more slender peduncles and the leaf-blades 
usually entire rather than obviously crenate (althotigh in P. GoepcUana incon- 
spictious tmdulate crenations are present). The differences among our species 
in leaf-texttire and cystolith-marking are very conspicuous and appear to me of a 
specific nature. The above-cited collection apparently had not come to Schroter's 
attention at the time of her monograph, although a duplicate is in the Berlin 
herbarium. 

3. Procris Archboldiana sp. nov. 

P^rutex scandens ubiqtie glaber, ramulis subteretibtis siccitate striatis brunneis 
apicem versus ramosis ; stipulis oblongo-linearibus acutis 3—6 mm. longis mox 
caducis ; foliis oppositis forsan interdum disparibus, minoribus mox deciduis, 
alteris petiolatis ; petiolis gracilibus 4—8 mm. longis ; laminis subcarnosis opacis 
in sicco fuscis sae])c falcatis elliptico-oblongis, 4-8 cm. longis, 1.5-2.5 ciu. latis, 



26 SARGENTIA [I 

basi iiiaetiuilatcraliter obtusis. a])icc gradatini aciiniinatis vel cusjiidatis, niarp^ine 
integris vel leviter undulatis, ubique cystolithis cons])icuis 0.1-0.25 mm. longis 
ornatis (eis i)aginae inferioris densissime confertioribus), pinnatinerviis, costa 
supra leviter impressa subtus sui)prominente, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 5-7 
adscendentibus supra interdum prominuHs ; inflorcscentiis $ axillaribus solitariis 
vel binis i)edunculatis, peduiiculis rectis gracilibus 4—13 mm. longis, capitulis sub- 
globosis carnosis sub fructu 3-6 mm. diametro multifloris ; bracteolis numerosis 
membranaceis lineari-oblongis, circiler 1 mm. longis et 0.2 mm. latis, apice ob- 
tusis ; ])erianthii segmentis obovatis succulentis, 1-2 mm. longis et latis, basi 
angustatis ; achenio ovoideo-ellipsoideo complanato, 1-1.3 mm. longo, 0.8-1 mm. 
lato, basi et apice obtuso. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North: Nandarivatu, alt. 900 m., Crillcstic 3396 (A. Bish) 
(vine; fruiting heads red, gelatinous; native names: iidnutidrai, stindro) ; Nauvvanga, vicinity 
of Nandarivatu, alt. 750 m., Dcgcner 14354 (A, type), Feb. 13, 1941 (liana, appressed to 
tree-trunks in dark wet forest : peduncle green ; fruiting heads dull red and somewhat 
translucent). 

Procris inoiifana (iCndl.) Sleud. bas l)een mentioned by Gibbs (in Jour. Lmn. 
Soc. Bot. 39: 172. 1909) and Turrill (in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 39. 1915) as 
occurring at Xandarivatu. That s])ecics, originally described from Norfolk Is- 
land, has been referred to Elatostcvia by Schroter (in Rep. Sp. Nov. 45: 290. 
1938) ; its occurrence in Fiji is very dubious. It is ])ossil)le that Gibbs and 
Turrill had s])ecimens of the present species. 

4. Procris Goepeliana (A. C. Sm.) comb. nov. 

PcUionia Goepeliana A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 56. /. 25. 1936. 

ViTi Levu : N a i t a s i r i : Korombamba Mt., alt. about 300 m., Parks 20144 (A, Bish) 
(on wet log; fruiting heads red), Parks 20343 (A, Bish) (vine, on log in forest; fruiting 
heads red). Koro : Kastern slope of main ridge, alt. 300-500 m., Sjiiith 979 (Bish, GH, 
NY, UC, US) (higii-climbing liana, in forest; perianth greenish, the anthers white). 
Vanua Levu : T h a k a u n d r o v e : Korotini Range, southern slope, alt. 300-650 m., 
Smith 519 (Bish, type, GH. NY, UC, US) (subligneous herb 1 m. high, in dense forest; 
flower-buds pale green) ; Mt. Mariko, alt. 600-866 m., Smith 433 (Bish. GH, NY, UC, US) 
(slender shrub 1-2 m. high, in dense forest; flower-buds green). 

The three sj^ecimens upon which the species was originally described bear 
staminate inflorescences, and I erroneously referred the plant to PcUionia. The 
Parks specimens are quite similar, although the leaf-blades are a trifle thicker 
and more nearly entire, but the cystolith-markings are identical. The pistillate 
inflorescences of these Viti Levu specimens are nearly identical with those de- 
scribed for P. Archoldiana. The two species are readily distinguished by the size 
of their leaves and the distribution of their cystoliths. 

BoEHMERi.\ Jacq. 

Boehmeria virgata (Forst. f.) Guillem. in Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 7: 182. 1837. 
IJrtica virgata Forst. f. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 66. 1786. 
Boehmeria piatvphylia var. -.'in/ata Wedd. in Arch. Mus. Paris 9: 366. 1856; in DC. 

Prodr. 16(1)': 210. 1869. 
Boehmeria plat\ph\Ua sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 242. 1868; Gibbs in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 

173. 1909; non D. Don. 

While there are admittedly difficulties in drawing satisfactory specific lines 
among B. platyphyUa D. Don (1825) and its allies, it seems obvious that the 
Pacific material which has been referred to that s]:)ecies dififers specifically from 
the continental and typical material in details of leaf-margins, texture, pubescence, 
etc. Among the abundant Fijian material of the genus which 1 have exaiuined. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 27 

two forms are distinguishable, (1) plants with the leaf -blades glabrous above 
and with the pubescence beneath limited to the nerves and often appressed, and 
(2) plants with the leaf -blades more or less regularly appressed-strigose above 
and uniformly soft-pilose beneath. The first form tends to have slightly larger 
pistillate perianths than the second. Between these extremes are to be found 
intergrading forms, so that no line for nomenclatural separation seems advisable. 
The first of these forms is quite identical with material from the Society Is- 
lands which certainly represents B. vivgata. Even if one prefers to accept Wed- 
dell's broad specific concept, Forster's antedates Don's name by many years. 
However, few modern taxonomists will agree that the Pacific material is con- 
specific with that from the continent. True B. virgata. on the basis of material 
now available to me. seems to occur from the Marquesas and Societies westward 
at least to the Xew Hebrides. Below, in citing the available Fijian specimens. I 
refer them to forms (1) and (2) as outlined above: 

(1). ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Vicinity of Nandarivafu, alt. 800-1300 m., Gillespie 
4036 (A, Bish) (native name: kau lolo). Parks 20587 (A, Bish) (tree 8-10 m. high, in 
forest), Degcner & Ordonca 13536 (A) (shrub 3 ni. high, in forest), Degcner 14327 (A) 
(shrub to 2 m. high, in secondary forest: native name: tautau) ; N a mo si : Near Namosi : 
alt. 450 m., Gillespie 2S33 (Bish). K.^ndavu : Smith 197, 209, 278. 284 (all Bish, GH, 
NY, UC, US) (shrubs or trees to 5 m. high, in forest, alt. 200-840 m.). Vanua Levu: 
Thakaundrove : Valanga Range, alt. 200-400 m., Smith 393 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, 
US) (shrub 3 m. high, in dense forest). Without definite locality: Seemann 433 (GH), 
Gillespie 2753 (A, Bish) (native name: nimbi), 2916 (Bish), 3945 (A, Bisli) (native name: 
kau lolo). 

(2). ViTi Levu: Lautoka : North of Natalau, alt. 15 m., Degener 15008 (A) (tree 
3 m. high, in dry rocky forest) ; Ra : Near Rewasa, alt. 50-200 m., Degener 15337 (A) 
(shrub about 1 m. high, in open forest: native name: ndrendre) ; Naitasiri : Tholo-i- 
suva, alt. 250 m., Parks 20079 (A, Bish) (shrub 4 m. high). Koro : i^astern slope of 
main ridge, alt. 200-300 m., Smith 944 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (slirub 4 m. high, at edge 
of forest; native name: ndongosele). Taveuxi: Waiyevo, alt. 200 m., Gillespie 4696 (A, 
Bish) (shrub with decumbent arched branches, at edge of clearings). Without definite 
locality: U. S. Rxpl. P.xped. (US). Seemann 432 (GH), Home 303 (CIH). 

Pii'TURUS Wedd. 

In examining the Fijian specimens of Piptunis, all of which belong in the 
Section Eupipturus, one meets the same problems of specific limitation so ably 
discussed by Skottsberg (in Acta Hort. Gothoburg. 7: 43-63. /. 1-49. 1932) in 
connection with P. argcuteus and its allies. Although Skottsberg does not dis- 
cuss any Fijian collections in his treatment, some of our i:)lants are obviously 
similar to the specimens he cites from Samoa and Rotuma. He concludes that 
these, together with the mass of Pacific and Papuasian material, may be referred 
to P. argent ens (Forst. f.) Wedd. in the broad sense, and more narrowly to the 
proposed variety lanosiis Skottsb. 

By earlier authors, several other specific names have been used for the Fijian 
material of this complex, namely P. incanus (Bl.) Wedd. (which Skottsberg 
[1. c. 62] believes may possibly be retained as a species of Java and Malacca), 
P. propinquus (Dec.) Wedd. (which Skottsberg [1. c. 47] proposes to retain as 
a variety of P. argcuteus from Timor), and P. velutinus (Dec.) Wedd., which is 
presumably a synonym of P. incanus. 

It is now apparent, in the light of Skottsberg's treatment, that none of these 
names is applicable to the Fijian material. Nevertheless I am able to distinguish 
three well marked forms which seem to me to merit specific status. One of these 



28 SARGE.MIA [1 

is ()b\ioiisly the \vi(les])rca(l /'. ai-(;c)ifcus (var. hniosiis), a second is P. /^laty- 
f^hyllus Wedd., and a tliird is a])ijarently a new s])ecies. with the inanuscri])t name 
P. (/racilipcs A. Gra\- hut never descril)ed. The following- key will ser\e to dis- 
tinj^aiish the species of Piptunis in Fiji : 

Leaf-blades conspicuously disco]< irons, densely white- or grayish-lanate heneath with a closely 
appressed layer of weak tangled hairs, papillose above and sparsely hispid-setose with 
pale hairs ().4-(l.*^ mm. lon.tj ; pistillate perianth minutely sericeous, the hairs 0.05-0.15 
mm. long \. P. aryciitciis var. laiiosus. 

Leaf-blades essentially concolorous, densely pilose beneath (hairs cinereous, subhispid, erect, 
0.25-0.8 mm. long, not tangled, not obscuring the leaf-surface), papillose above and sub- 
similar or strigose-hispid, often glabrescent ; pistillate perianth hispid-strigose, the hairs 
0.15-0.25 mm. long 2. P. [^latypliyllns. 

Leaf-blades concolorous, short-strigillose-puherulent beneath (hairs pale, 0.05-0.15 mm. long, 
scarcely apparent under a hand-lens), papillose above and glabrous or with a few incon- 
spicuous straight appressed pale hairs 0.25-0.35 mm. long ; pistillate perianth inconspicu- 
ously puberulent-sericeous, the hairs 0.03-0.1 mm. long 3. /'. zitiriisis. 

1. Pipturus (^ Eitfyipfunts) argenteus (Forst. f . ) ^\■edd. var. lanosus Skoltsl). in .Vcta 
llort. Gothoberg. 7: 62. 1932. 

ViTi Levi-: Lautoka : North of Lomolomo, alt. *X) m., Dccjcncr & (h-doucc 13654 
(A) (spreading tree 2 m. high, on edge of forest) ; north of Xatalau, alt. 60 m., Dc(/cncr 
15007 (A) (small tree, in dry forest); Tholo North : Korovou, east of Tavua, alt. 
60-150 m., Dcficncr 14947 (A) (tree 3-4 m. high, in isolated dry forested ravine): Mt. 
^latomba, Nandala, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about SdO lu., Dcycncr 14462 (A) (shrub, 
in scrubby forest; native name: fcii) : Naitasiri : W'aindina River basin, alt. 50 m., 
MacPaiiicls 1048 (Bish) (tree 6 m. high, in forest; native name: ron(/(/a). 0\a\.av : (iil- 
h's/^ir 4561.5 (A, Bish). KoRo : Coastal thickets along west coast, Smith ]07S (Bish, (iH, 
W, L'C, US) (shrub 3 m. high; native name: rfljit/a). Witholt dkkinite loc.\lity : ('. .S". 
Hxpl. P.xpcd. ((iH, US), Jlanry (GH), Home 345 (GH). 

The alK)ve-cited specimens certainly fall into the conce])t covered hy Skotts- 
berg in his discussion of s])ecimens from Samoa. Tonija. and Rotuma. The dif- 
ferences hetween this form and the tyi)ical material of /'. argcutcus from the 
Society Islands are found primarily in the indument of the lower surfaces of 
leaf-hlades. I do not Ijelieve that Skottsherg's c()nce])t of either the variet\ or 
the species includes s])ecimens which com])letely lack the matted lanate indument. 
Such specimens I refer to the followinj.^ two s])ecies. 

2. Pipturus {^ Eupiptiinis) platyphyllus Wedd. in DC. Lnnlr. 16(1): 235'''. 1869; Seem. 
1-1. \'it. 433. 1873. 
ViTi Lew : Lautoka : North of Lomolomo, alt. 90 m., Dcticticr vt Ordonez 13653 
(A) (much-branched shrub 1 m. high, on sunny grassy slope). Vant.a Lkvu : V. S. li.vpl. 
Expcd. (GH, US); T h a k a u n d r o v e : Maravu, near Salt Lake, alt. near sea-level, 
Dec/eiier & Ordonec 14230 (A) (shrub or tree 2-3 m. high, on embankment near ocean) ; 
Uluinabathi Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 60 m., Dcgcncr & Ordoue:: 1392H (A) (tree 
3 m. high, on lower sunny slope). Withov r DEi-iNrTK locality: Gillespie, Dec. 29, 1927 (A, 
Bish) (native name: nf/ala). 

The tyi)e is said to have been collected on Ovalau hy Vieillard. .Mthoui^h T 
have not seen this, our s]X'cimens aj^ree well with the description, which states. 
". . . foliis . . . concoloribus su])ra as])erato-his])idis suhtus molliter jnihescentihus 
. . ." Such a descri])tion could scarcely be ai)])lied to the specimens which I have 
cited as P. argenteus var. huiosus. Whether or not P. platyphyllus merits s])e- 
cific status is a question which should be considered in connection with Pacific 
material as a whole. It is to be hoped that Dr. Skottsberg will again treat this 
group, with more ample material than he had in 1932. Christophersen (in Bisho]) 
AIus. Bull. 128: 75. 1935) cites numerous Samoan specimens as Pipturus aff. 
argeutcus, and among them may be forms referable to P. plat\ph\llns. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN FLA XT STUDIES, II 29 

3. Pipturus {^ Hiipiptunts) vitiensis sp. nov. 

Piptunis </i-»cilipcs A. Gray ex Wcdd. in DC. Prodr. 16(1): 235-o, nomen. 1869; Seem. 
]']. Vit. 433, nomen. 1873. 

Frutex vel arbor <^M-acili.s ad 6 ni. alta, ranuilis subteretibu.s saepe flexuo.sis 
juvcntute minutissinie cinerco-pnbcrulis demum ^labratis ; foliis apicem ranni- 
loruiii versus saepe numerosis. petiolis gracilibus ut ramulis puberulis (2-) 3-8.5 
cm. longis, laminis ])apyraceis concoloribus siccitate fusco-viridibus ovato-elHp- 
ticis, (5-) 7-11 cm. longis, (2-) 3-8.5 cm. latis, basi rotundatis vel late obtusis, 
apice gradatim acuminatis (acumine ad 2 cm. longo mucronulato), margine obtuse 
crenato-dentatis (deutibus 1-3 ])er centimetrum), supra miuute pa|)il]osis et glabris 
vel pilis paucis inconspicuis ])allidis sparse strigosis, subtus pilis pallidis 0.05-0.15 
mm. longis inconspicue strigilloso-])uberulis, costa saepe ])allida supra subplana 
vel leviter elevata subtus subprominente, nervis secondariis utrinsecus circitcr 4 
(infimis e basi adscendentibus) supra subplanis subtus leviter elevatis, rete 
venularum intricate subtus manifesto pilis non obscuro, areolis ultimis minutis ; 
stipulis papyraceis oblongo-deltoideis 2.5-3 mm. longis acutis bicostatis sericeo- 
puberulis ; inflorescentiis masculis non visis ; inflorescentiis f emineis simpliciter 
glomerato-s])icatis gracilibus 2-6 cm. longis, rhacbi gracili minute ])uberula saepe 
flexuosa, glomerulis multifloris 3-7 mm. inter se distantibus. rece])taculo puberulo. 
bractcis lineari-oblongis puberulis circiter 0.5 mm. longis ; perigonio submem- 
branaceo ovoideo sub antbesi circiter 0.7 mm. sub fructu circiter 1.3 mm. longo, 
obscure plurinervato. inconspicue puberulo-sericeo, apice minute 4-lobato ; nuce 
ovoidea conipressa circiter 1 mm. longa et 0.7 mm. lata, breviter apiculata. stig- 
mate 1-1.7 mm. longo. 

Fii.a.xga: Xear Moiiothaki, alt. 0-80 m., Smith llOH (Bish, (iH. NY. UC, US) (shrub 
1-2 m. liigh, in thickets on hmcstone formation; native name: ronqa). K..\mb.\r.\: Near 
Tokalau, alt. 0-lUO m., Smith 1233 (Bish, GH, type, NY, UC, US), Mar. 2, 1934 (slender 
tree 6 m. high, on edge of forest on limestone formation; native name: ronya). Without 
DEFINITE locality: U. S. Expl. Expcd. (source of the name Pipturus gracilipes, GH. US). 

On the basis of tbe very short and inconspicuous pubescence of its leaf-blades, 
P. I'iticnsis must be considered specifically distinct from P. platyphyllus and /'. 
arc/c lit cits. The leaves appear to be glabrous until closely examined. It seems 
advisable to ignore Gray's manuscript name and to designate as the type a more 
recent collection which is widely distributed in American and Euro])ean herbaria. 
The possibility that the Exploring Expedition specimen also came from Fulanga 
is suggested by the following note of Pickering (Geogr. Distr. of Animals and 
Plants 2: 365. 1876) : "Boehmeria-like but the leaves alternate (No. 1). Leaves 
petiolcd ; aments consisting of strings of capit. 'Island of Fulari,' Dr. Holmes." 
As the specimens of this collection are not numbered, one cannot too surely tie 
them to Pickering's notes, but the above description fits our plant, and "Fulari" 
may well refer to Fulanga. Thus the species may prove to be limited to the 
Lau group. 

SAXTAI,ACEAE 
Exocarpus vitiensis sp. nov. 

Fnitex vel arbor ad 7 m. alta ubique practer inflorescentiam glabra, ramulis sub- 
teretibus vel juventute leviter angulatis ; petiolis gracilibtis 2-5 mm. longis supra 
leviter canaliculatis ; laminis viridibus vel siccitate fusco-viridibus chartaceis ellip- 
tico-oblongis, 4-9 cm. longis, 2-3.5 cm. latis, basi in j^etiolum attenuatis, apice obtu- 
sis vel inconsjiicue calloso-cus]iidatis. margine integris, nervis ])rimariis 5-9 a basi 
divergentibus supra leviter im]:)ressis vel ]irominulis subtus ])aullo elevatis. venulis 
reticulum inconspictium immersum vel utrinque leviter ])roniinulum formantibus ; 
inflorescentiis ubique minute cinereo-pubcrulis, s])icis axillaribus solitariis sub 
anthesi sti])ite incons])icuo incluso ad 15 mm. sub fructu ad 32 mm. longis. rhacbi 



30 SARGENTIA [1 

1-1.3 mill, dianietro; floribus 30-40 per inflorescentiani in foveolis incoiis])icuis 
sessilibus, bracteis minutis late deltoideis obtusis ; perianthio sub anthesi 1.5-1.7 
mm. dianietro, tubo bemispbaerico, lobis 5 valvatis rotatis tenuiter carnosis del- 
toideis subacutis 0.5-0.7 mm. longis et latis intus obscure puberulis; disco carnoso 
pentaj^ono; staminibus 5. antberis ad marginem disci subsessilibus inflexis trans- 
verse ellipsoideis 0.3-0.4 mm. latis, loculis riiiiis introrso-lateralibus dehiscentibus ; 
ovario in disco semi-immerso, stigmate sessili ; f ructibus minute cinereo-pul)erulis 
glabrescentibus, parte inferiore obconica ad 9 mm. longa et sunimo ad 8 mm. 
dianietro, fructibus i]5sis semi-ovoideis ad 10 mm. longis et basini versus ad 8 mm. 
dianietro, leviter 5-angulatis, apice truncatis et inconspicue emarginatis. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North: Nandarivatu, alt. 800-900 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13557 
(A, type), Nov. 20, 1940 (shrub or small tree about 2 m. high, in rain-forest). Vanua 
Mbal.wu : Northern limestone section, alt. 150 m., Smiih 1502 (GH, NY) (tree 7 m. high, 
in forest on exposed cliff). 

This is the species wbicli I (luestional)ly referred to E. latifoliiis R. Rr. (in 
Bishop Mus. Bulb 141: 49. 1936). The Viti Levu collection bears good flowers 
and a single mature fruit, making desirable a separation of the cited material from 
the well-known Australasian and Malaysian species, which is doubtless its closest 
ally. Exocarpus vitiensis differs from E. latifoUus in having its spikes appar- 
ently always solitary (rather than often several in leaf-axils or branched), its 
flowers comparatively less crowded and larger (1.5-1.7 mm. ratiier than 1-1.3 
mm. in diameter), and its fruits semi-ovoid, lightly 5-angled, and about equal in 
length to the swollen stalk (rather than subglobose, smooth, and conspicuously 
larger than the stalk). 

BALANOPHORACEAE 

Balanophora fungosa J. R. & G. Eorst. Char. (Jen. 100. 1776; G. Eorst. Fl. Ins. Austr. 
I'rodr. 64. 1786; Seem. Fl. Vit. 99. 1865. 
Viti Levu : R a : Vatundaniu, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., 
Dcgcncr 15418 (A) (parasitic on roots of a Citrus and other species, on dry forested forehill; 
entire plant pale yellow except for grayish rootstock, appearing just above surface of ground 
when flowering; native name: tinnbutunthu). 

The only previously cited collection of this family from Fiji was a specimen 
collected by Milne on Moala, which Seemann did not see but which he cites on the 
authority of Milne (in Hook. Jour. Bot. & Kew Misc. 7: 152. 1855). Seemann 
gives no reason for referring Milne's collection to B. fungosa, but he implies this 
to be the common Pacific species, extending from the Society Islands to the New 
Hebrides and Australia. The species of the Society Islands has since been re- 
ferred to B. pallcns (Sol.) Setcbell (in Univ. Cal. Publ. Bot. 12: 173. pi. 29, M). 
1926). Setcbell (1. c.) implies that the Australian plant which J. D. Hooker (in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. 22: 46. pi. 8. 1856) refers to B. fungosa may actually differ 
from that species. As to the Degener collection, however, there seems little doubt 
that it is conspecific with the New Hebrides plant which is the type of the species, 
as this is described and figured by J. R. and G. Forster (Char. Gen. 99, 100. pi. 
50. 1776). Although B. fungosa may be locally common at certain seasons, it is 
definitely rare in herbarium collections. Its rediscovery in Fiji and the collection 
of fine herbarium material are of great interest. 

AMARANTHACFAE 

Deeringia amaranthoides (Lam.) Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. 211. 1917. 

Viti Levu : R a : Vatundamusewa, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. about 200 m., 
Dcgcncr 15463 (A) (liana, in open forest; leaves edible when cooked; native name: tokoi). 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLAXr STUDIES, II 31 

KoRo : Kast coast, near sea-level. Smith 1032 ((jH, XY) (vine, in thickets). Without 
locality: U. S. lixpl. E.rpcd. (GH). 

This common continental and Malaysian plant has not been reported in the 
Pacific east of Papuasia, as far as I can discover, except from Micronesia. The 
genus is new to the Fijian flora. 

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex R. & S. Syst. 5: 554. 1819; Christoph. in Hishop 
Mus. Rull. 128: 83. 1935. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o W e s t : Mbelo, near Vatnkarasa, alt. 120 m., Dcijcner 15216 
(GH) (in shallou- water of marsh). 

Although said to be common in Samoa, this weed has ai:»parently not pre\iously 
been reported from Fiji. 

ANNONACEAE 
Desmos insularis sp. nov. 

Arbor compacta circiter 5 m. alta. ramulis gracilibus teretibns fu.sco-cinereis 
copiose lenticellatis. juventute pilis brunneo-cinereis ad 1 mm. longis simplicibus 
strigosis mox glabratis ; petiolis inconspicuis subteretibus 1-2 mm. longis ut 
ramulis strigosis ; laminis chartaceis vel papyraceis anguste elliptico-oblongis. 4-10 
cm. longis. 1.5^ cm. latis, basi cordatis vel truncato-subcordatis. apice obtusis, 
margine integris et planis, supra glabris vel juventute et intcrdum nervis i)arce 
hispidis, subtus jiilis simplicibus circiter 0.5 mm. longis albo-cinereo-hispidulis, 
costa supra subplana vel leviter elevata subtus valde elevata. nervis secundariis 
utrinsecus 7-12 subpatentibus marginem versus adscendentibus et irregulariter 
conjunctis supra leviter subtus conspicue prominulis. rete venularum intricato 
utrinque paullo prominulo ; inflorescentiis axillaribus breviter paniculatis 1-1.5 
(-3.5) cm. longis, rhachi ramulisque rugulosis parce cinereo-pilosis, bracteis 
lanceolato-deltoideis 1.5-2 mm. longis acutis adpresso-strigulosis ; floribus pluribus 
sed sub anthesi plerumque solitariis, pedicellis crassis strigulosis circiter 2 mm. 
longis bractea orbiculari circiter 0.5 mm. diametro caduca subtcntis ; calvce sub 
anthesi 3-4 mm. diametro extus brunneo-striguloso intus glabrcj fere ad basim 
3(vel 4-)-lobato, lobis deltoideis valvatis acutis circiter 1.5 mm. longis et latis; 
petalis 6 (raro 8) biseriatis ut videtur valvatis subcarnosis subaequalibus ovatis, 
circiter 3.5 mm. longis. 1.3-2 mm. latis. apice breviter acuminatis. extus dense 
brunneo-tomentellis, intus glabris apicem versus tomentellis ; toro leviter concavo 
pilis circiter 0.3 mm. longis brunneo-crisposo-strigoso ; staminibus numerosis 
(70-80) congestis 0.8-1.2 mm. longis, filamentis minutis, connectivo a])icem 
versus incrassato et truncato, loculis lineari-ellipsoideis ; ])istillis paucis (ut videtur 
4 vel 5) sub anthesi circiter 1.5 mm. longis, ovario pallide brunneo-setoso oblongo- 
elli])soideo obscure pellucido-punctato. ovulis circiter 6-8 ut videtur biseriatis, 
stigmate subsessili subgloboso circiter 0.3 mm. diametro ; pedicellis sub f ructu in- 
crassatis glabratis a rhachi baud distinctis, calyce subpersistentc. receptaculo parvo 
dense strigoso ; carpellis plerumque 2-A ellipsoideo-oblongis plerumque 2.5-4 cm. 
longis et 7-10 mm. diametro subtorulosis, basi in stipitem 2-4 mm. longum ab- 
rupte contractis. apice conspicue cuspidatis (apice circiter 2 mm. longo obtuso). 
pericarpio tenui duro i)ilis minutis densissime brunneo-tomentello plerumque con- 
spicue tuberculato. seminibus 6-8 (vel ut videtur raro ad 1 reductis) oblique 
superpositis subglobosis vel complanatis. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Korovou, east of Tavua, alt. 60-120 m., Dcgcncr 14968 
(A, type), Apr. 1, 1941 (compact tree 5 m, high, in isolated dry forested ravine; fruit brown- 
ish gray). 

The generic disjiosition of this plant, which is one of Mr. Degener's most inter- 
esting discoveries, is questionable. The essential characters, however, seem to 
point to the genus Dcsinos Lour., which has not ])reviously been reported cast of 



32 SARGENTIA [1 

the Philippines. Our plant is almost certainly a member of the tribe Unoneae. in 
which its free petals and numerous ovules indicate such s^enera as Caiuuigiuiii 
Baill. and Dcsmos Lour, (the correct genus for the Old World species once re- 
ferred to Unona L.). The new species is characteri/x'd by its comparatively small 
and thin leaf-blades, which are ])ersistently pilose l)eneath and with inconspicuous 
veinlets. Only a sinj^ie mature flower and one bud were found, and so the above 
dimensions are not reliable, although they indicate uiuisually small flowers for 
the genus. Additional flowering material may well indicate the desirability of 
erecting a new genus for this ])lant. The fact that the ovules are biseriate and 
the seeds obliquely rather than strictly sui)erposed would seem to ditferentiate it 
from the species of Dcsmos. In the absence of ample flowering material, how- 
ever, it seems unwise to propose a new geiuis for the Fijian plant at ])resent. The 
fruits of our species are conspicuous for their close ])ersistent ])ubescence, cuspi- 
date apices, and tuberculate surfaces. 

Were the petals of our plant imbricate, the genus Uzvria L. might be consid- 
ered, but Uvaria is excluded by its perianth characters, scandent habit, and the 
])resence of stellate hairs. The New Caledonian re])resentative of Uvaria, U. 
Bailloiiii Guillaumin, seems very dubiously placed in that genus. 

Polyalthia pedicellata A. C. Sni. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 61. fi<j. 29. 1936. 

ViTi Levc : Till) Id X o r t li : Nauwanga, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about 750 m., 
Degencr 14719 (A), 14737 (A) (trees, in forest; bark used for rope; native name: makosoi). 

The two cited collections, both in fruit, agree excellently with the type and 
only ]«xviously known collection, obtained at high elevation on Vanua Levu. 

Xylopia vitiensis nom. nov. 

Fissistiqma scriccuni A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 62. fig. 30. 1936; not Xyhfia 
scrkca St. Hil. (1825). 

ViTi Levu: Rewa : Vicinity of Suva, Tothill F516 (A). 

I erroneously referred this species to Pissistigiiia in 1936. A re-examination 
and due consideration of such characters as the arboreal habit, the narrow ]:)etals. 
and the flattened or slightly concave receptacle indicate the jilace of the species in 
Xylopia L. The genus Fissistignw, therefore, is still unknown from Fiji. X\'- 
lopia has not previously been reported east of Papuasia and New Caledonia. The 
alliance of our species with those of the nearest areas is remote. 

The Tothill specimen agrees perfectly with the type, collected on the lower 
slopes of Mt. Mbatini on Vanua Levu. in vegetative characters. It is accoiu- 
panied by a single detached carpel which is apparently not quite mature. This 
carpel, identical with those of the type in shape and proportions, lacks the lining 
of air-cavities previously descril)cd and figured by me. It may be assuiued that 
these develop only with age or that they do not provide a constant character. 

Xylopia Degeneri sj). nov. 

Arbor circiter 4 m. alta ubique praeter inflorescentiani et raiuulos juveniles 
puberulos glabra, ramulis purpurascentibus cons]ncue flexuosis rugosis co]Mose et 
pallide lenticellatis ; ])etiolis gracilibus (circiter L5 mm. diametro) canaliculatis 
rugulosis 15-20 mm. longis ; laiuinis subcoriaceis siccitate viridi-olivaceis obk^igo- 
ellipticis, 7-10 cm. longis, 3-4.5 cm. latis, basi late obtusis et in petiolum decur- 
rcntibus. apice rotundat'is et interdum inccMispicue callosis. margine integris et 
pauUo incrassatis, subtus inconspicue sed dense pallido-glandulosis, costa supra 
subplana subtus proiuinente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 9-12 patentibus mar- 
ginem versus anastomosantibus cum rete venularum intricato utrinc|ue valde 
prominulis ; inflorescentiis a])icem ramulorum versus axillaribus brevibus ]iauci- 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 33 

floris (sub anthesi floribus pleruniqiie solitariis), rhachi pediccUisque parce paUido- 
aureo-sericeis, pedicelHs crassis sub anthesi 2-3 mm. longis Ijractea suborl)iculari 
sericca 1-1.5 mm. longa sui)tentis ; calyce subrotato sub antbesi 8-9 mm. diametro 
ut pecHcellis pilis 0.2-0.3 mm. longis extus sericeo intus glabro, sepalis 3 ovato- 
deltoidcis circiter 5 mm. longis et latis a]nce acutis vel cuspidatis ; corolla cylindrico- 
urceolata inconspicue hexagona 28-30 mm. longa. basi conspicue dilatata, petalis 
6 crasse carnosis valvatis biseriatis, exterioril)us 3 lanceolatis circiter 3 mm. latis, 
basim versus ad 5-6 mm. dilatatis, extus dense aureo-sericeis, intus minute et pal- 
lide puberulis, interioribus 3 subulatis minute pul)erulis trigonis 1-1.2 mm. latis, 
basim versus ad 4 mm. su])ito incrassatis ; toro leviter convexo vel complanato ; 
staminibus numerosis congestis 2-2.2 mm. longis, filamentis ligulatis brevissimis, 
connectivo in appendiculam subglobo.sam minute papillosam circiter 0.25 mm. 
diametro producto, loculis linearibus septatis ; pistillis paucis ut videtur stamina 
longitudine subaequantibus, ovario ellipsoideo pallide sericeo, ovulis circiter 8 
superi)ositis ; pedicellis sub fructu incrassatis ad 8 mm. longis, receptaculo sul)- 
globoso, car]iellis maturis ut videtur 5-8 coriaceis anguste ellii)soideo-oblongis ple- 
rumque inconspicue torulosis, stipite incluso 2.5-4.5 cm. longis, 6-8 mm. latis, in- 
conspicue circumcarinatis, basi in sti])item crassum ad 1 cm. longum contractis, 
a])ice inae(|uilateraliter obtuse cuspidatis, pericarpio tenui (circiter 0.5 mm. 
crasso), seminibus circiter 6 (vel abortu paucioriinis) superj)ositis obliquis brun- 
neis nitidis ovoideis, 8-9 mm. longis, 3-5 mm. latis. 

ViTi Levu : Serua : Vatutavathe, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 150 m., Dci/ciicr 15204 (A, 
type), May 5, 1941 (tree 4 m. high, in forest; flowers yellowish). 

In vegetative characters. A". Dcgcncri is scarcely distinguishable from X. viti- 
ensis A. C. Sm., having essentially similar leaves; the branchlets of the new spe- 
cies are more cons]Mcuously and regularly flexuose. The flowers of X. Dcgcncri 
resemble those of its relative in such characters as i)ubescence and general api)ear- 
ance. differing in their much longer petals and stamens, the latter being 3^ times 
the length of those of X. vitiensis and having conspicuously septate locules. The 
fruits of the new species differ in shape from those of X. vitiensis, being longer 
and much narrower, with a more conspicuous stipe and with slight dorsal and 
ventral keels. The pericar]) is thinner and lacks air-cavities, while the seeds are 
somewhat smaller. That the described fruits are quite mature is shown bv the 
fully develo]:)ed endosperm. 

Cyathocalyx vitiensis .\. C. .Sni. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 64. /?;/. 31. 1936. 

Vni Levu: Tholo N o r t li : Mt. Matomba, Nandala, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 
750 m., Dcycncr 14638 (A) (tree, in forest; flowers green; bark used for rope; native name: 
makosoi) ; N a i t a s i r i : Suva Pumping Station, alt. 30 m., Dcf/cncr & Ordonez 13744 
(A) (few-branched tree 5 m. high, in open forest; flowers greenisli). 

The species has previously been known only from the tyi)e collection, oljtained 
in the Wainunu River valley on Vanua Levu. The cited specimens agree excel- 
lently with the type. 

Oxymitra monosperma (A. Gray) A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 62. 1936. 

RichcUa monospcrina A. Grav, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 28. pi. 2. 1854; Seem V\ Vit 
5. 1865. 

ViTi Levi- : T h o In North : Xandala, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750 m., Dccjcncr 
14385a (A) (slender few-branclied cauliflorous tree 6 m. high, in dense forest) ; Mt. Ma- 
tomba, Nandala, alt. 750 m.. Dc<icncr 14639 (A) (tree, in forest; bark used for rope; native 
name: makosoi) ; Naitasiri : Vicinity of Nasinu, near Suva, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 3652 
(GH, NY). OvALAU : Near summit of main range west of Levuka, alt. 500 m., Cillcspie 
4440 (GH, NY). 



34 SARGENTIA [1 

At the time I proposed the ahove conihination I had seen only the type collec- 
tion, from Ovalaii. The cited specimens agree very well with this and serve to 
give a better picture of the distribution of the species. 

Annona glabra L. Sp. PI. 537. 1753. 

ViTi Levu : Serua : Xgaloa. near sea-level, Dctjcucr 15069 (A) (tree 2-3 tn. higli. in 
wet coastal meadow ; petals yellow, reddish within toward base ; fruit red, edible wlien ripe ; 
native name: kaitambu) . 

This s])ecies has not previously been reported from Fiji and ai)i)arentl\- has not 
been commonly introduced into the Asiatic tro])ics. 

Annona squamosa L. Sp. I'l. 537. 1753. 

FuLANGA : On limestone formation, alt. near sea-level, Smith 1193 (NY) (tree 10 m. 
high, in clearing; fruit edible; native name: apcli). 

This introduced sj^ecies has not previously been mentioned from Fiji, although 
it has been rejjortcd from several of the neighboring groujxs. 

LAURACF.AE 
By C. K. Allex 

Cinnamomum Degeneri Allen, sp. nov. 

Arbor, ramulis dense fulvo-tomentosis, mox glabrescentibus teretibus striatis 
atro-rubescentibus sat robustis. Folia o])posita vel alternata, ovata, 6.5-8 cm. 
longa, 3.5^.5 cm. lata, subcoriacea, leviter acuminata vel attenuato-acuminata. 
basi rotundata, supra nitida. glabra, subtus dense et pallide ferrugineo-lanuginosa. 
mox glabrescentia, triplinervia, nervis supra leviter subtus conspicue elevatis, 
petiolis gracilibus 1.5 cm. longis glabris atratis. Inflorescentia subterminalis, laxe 
cyniosa, ad 6 cm. longa, dense fulvo-lanuginosa, pauciflora. pedunculis ad 3 cm. 
longis. Flores 4—5 mm. longi. dense fulvo-lanuginosi. perianthii lobis ovatis, 
intus pubescentibus ad 2 mm. longis, tubo circiter 2 mm. longo. ]iedicel]is gracili- 
bus lanuginosis ad 1 cm. longis, suiumis leviter crassis. Fructus ignotus. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo N o r t li : Xauwanga, vicinity of Xandarivatu, alt. 750 m., Pcficncr 
14531 (A, type), Feb. 24, 1941 (tree, in dense forest; native name: mathon). 

The leaf outline of this species is not particularly outstanding, being ovate with 
a more or less attenuately acuminate tip, but the ferrugineous-lanuginose indument 
covering the young leaves and branchlets is distinctive. Unusual also is the 
densely fulvous or greyish woolly inflorescence, with large flowers. This heavy 
indument is reminiscent of that found on C. sulphnrainni Xees of India, in which, 
however, it is not as pronounced and is a yellowish brown in color. A few of 
the flowers are in the post anthesis stage, showing where the line of abscission 
occurs, leaving the rounded lobes that will eventually enlarge to form the cupule 
subtending the expanded fruit. The bark of the dried specimen, when scraped, 
yields a pleasant aromatic fragrance. 

Cryptocarya Degeneri Allen, sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 6 m. alta, ramulis minute i)allide brunneo-pubesccntibus mox atro- 
])ubescentibus denuim glabrescentibus atro-rubescentibus griseis teretibus striatis. 
Folia alternata, ovata vel elliptica, (9-) 10-14.5 cm. longa. 4.5-6 cm. lata, perga- 
mentacea, obtuse acuminata, basi rotundata saepe subcordata vel raro abrujJte 
acuminata, utrinque glabra, novella subtus argenteo-sericea, minute et dense 
glanduloso-punctata. subtriplinervia, nervis brunnescentibus supra leviter et con- 
s])icue subtus cons])icue elevatis. nervis lateralibus 1 vel 2 sat inconspicuis, venis 
transversis subparallelibus, utrinque reticulata, petiolis 1-2 cm. longis atratis 
minute tuberculatis pubescentilxis mox glabris. Inflorescentia immatura. axil- 



1^421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 35 

laris. ad 1 cm. longa, fulvo-puhescens niox glal)ra, peckinculis gracilibus brevibus. 
Flores ignoti. Fructus in sicco nigrescens, glaber, tuberculatus, leviter costatus, 
subglobosus, apice periantliii tubi reliquiis coronatus, 10 X 9 mm., pedicellis levi- 
ter incrassatis 2 mm. longis 1 mm. cra.ssis i)ul)escentibu.s. 

ViTi Levu: Ra : Mataimeravula. vicinity of Rewasa. near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 tn., 
Dcyener 15412 (A, type), June 3, 1941 (tree 5 m. high, in forest; bark added to coconut oil 
for fragrance; native name: motho) ; Tholo North : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750 
m., Dcgcncr 14311 (A) (tree 3-5 m. high, in dark dense forest along stream): Tholo 
West : Lumuka, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. 250 m., Dctjcner 15228 (A) 
(tree 6 m. high, in forest). 

There is no known species from Fiji with which the above may claim relation- 
ship. It is similar in many respects to C. trincrvia Elmer from the [Philippines, 
but the leaves of the latter are elliptic. The fruit and habit resemble those of 
C. exfoUata Allen from New (juinea, but the leaves of the latter are less ])romi- 
nently three-nerved, of thicker texture, and smaller. 

Cryptocarya constricta Allen, sp. nov. 

Arbor, ramulis novellis breviter ferrugineo-tomentosis mox glabrescentibus 
teretjbus jilus minusve striatis griseis. Folia alternata, oblonga, 13-20 cm. longa, 
?).7-7 cm. lata, coriacea, caudata vel acuminata, raro obtusa. basi cuneata. supra 
venis exceptis glabra vel minute pubescentia, subtus glauca, venis utrinque dense 
ferrugineo-tomentosis, penninervia, nervis 6 vel 7 supra inconspicuis brunnescenti- 
pubescentibus subtus conspicue elevatis dense ferrugineo-tomentosis, venis trans- 
versis subparallelibus, subtus laxe reticulata, petiolis ad 2 cm. longis robustis dense 
ferrugineo-tomentosis mox glabrescentibus demum glabris striatis. Inflorescentia 
ignota, probabiliter dense ferrugineo-tomentosa. Fructus in sicco nigrescens, 
glaber. leviter et obscure costatus, ellipsoideus, utrinque attenuatus, apice peri- 
anthii tubi reliquiis coronatus, basi constrictus, 2X1-5 cm., i>edicellis sat incras- 
satis ])revibus pubescentilnis. 

ViTi Levu : N a i t a s i r i : Suva Pumping Station, alt. 30 m., Dajcucr &■ Ordonez 
13761 (A, type), Dec. 15, 1940 (tree, in forest). 

This sjiecies is striking becau.se of the densely ferrtigineous-tomentose venation 
standing out in relief against the pale glaucous grey lower leaf-surface. The 
fruit constricted at the base, simulating a stipe about twice as wide as the pedicel 
and only about 2 mm. in length, presents a unique character. There is no known 
species with which the above has a close affinity, although it bears a superficial 
resemblance in fruit and leaf characters to several recently described species from 
New Guinea. 

Endiandra monticola A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 71. fin. 36. 1936. 

ViTi Lkvu : N a i t a s i r i : Suva Pumping Station, in forest, alt. 30 m., Diu/citcr & 
Ordonez 13775 (A). 

The ty])e, SinitJi 563 from \'anua Levu. is in flower. Degener's number is a]i- 
parently the only fruiting .specimen that has been collected. Unfortunately it is 
a poor specimen and a unicate, and hence description of the fruit must be post- 
poned until better material is available. There can be no doubt, however, that 
the two mnnbers are cons])ecific. 

CRASSULACEAE 
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz in Jour. As. Soc. Benjj:. 40(2): 52. 1871. 

Vrrr Levu: Tholo West: Near Saru, Tabualcwa 1561 S (GH) (native name: 
ihakoniaiia). 

This widespread weed has apparently not otherwise been reported from the 
group ; the family also is new to Fiji. 



36 SARGENTIA 



ROSACEAE 



Chrysobalanus Icaco L. Sj). PI. 513. 175.1 

ViTi Levu : R c w a : Xcar Suva, Parham 20 (A) (shrub, near a creek: fruit yellow). 

This widespread American plant is apparently here first recorded for the Pa- 
cific region. According to Mrs. Parhani's notes, it is jirohably becoming natn- 
ralized in Fiji. 

LECiUMIXOSAIi 

Schrankia distachya DC. Prodr. 2: 443. 1825, vel aff. 

ViTi Levu: Xandronga : Government I^arrn, Singatoka, Crcciiicood S3S (A) (low 
shrub, up to 1.5 m. high, sending out long shoots near ground level). 

Since the specimen hears neither flowers nor frints, the identification is tenta- 
tive ; oiH' plant agrees with Mexican material of ,y. distachya in its pilose stem 
and pubescent leaflets, but has the leaflets smaller on the average. The collector 
notes that the s])ecies is evidently a recent arrival in b^iji. The genus has ai)par- 
ently not been recorded from the Pacific area. 

Maniltoa grandiflora (A. Gray I Scheff. in Ann. Jard. Pot. P)uitenz. 1: 20. 1876. 

Cviiomctra (/ ran di flora A. Grav, Pot. U. S. b^xi)l. b^xped. 1: 470. /'/. 52. 1854; Seem. 1"1. 
'Vit. 71. 1865. 

It seems that the correct authority for the acce])ted binomial for this Fijian 
s]:)ecies is Schefi^er. even though his description (1. c. ) a])plies exclusively to a 
New Guinea siiecies which was later named AI. Scheff cri K. Schum. ( in K. 
Schum. & Hollr. Fl. Kais. Willi. 101. 1889). Ikcause of Schefi^er's misidenti- 
fication of the New Guinea j^lant, Harms apparently thought it desirable to pro- 
pose a new combination for Gray's species, Maniltoa grandi flora (A. Gray) 
Harms (in luigl. & Prantl, Nat. Pfl. Nachtr. HI. 3: 194." 189/'; in Notizbl. Bot. 
Gart. Berlin 3- 191. 1902; in Bot. Jahrb. 55: 48. 1917). This was not neces- 
sary, for the fact that SchefYer misidentified his New Guinea species does not 
afifect the status of his new combination. 

Since the genus Maniltoa received its first description in connection with M . 
grandiflora, the onl}- binomial proposed by Scheffer, the (piestion of the typifica- 
tion of the gentis arises. In this case it is probably advisable to take Schefifer's 
actual descrii)tion (later referred to M. Scheff cri) as the basis of the genus and to 
designate M. Schcffcri as the type-species. Ne\ertheless. the validit)' of Schef- 
fer's combination based on Cynouictra grandiflora A. (}ray seems un(|uestionable. 
Since the two species appear to be congeneric, the selection of the genotype is 
not likely to cause confusion. 

In his original descri])tion, (iray indicates that there are two or three forms 
of this species, and his ])late illustrates specimens which have obviously come 
from three i)lants. Four sheets are available to me. deiK)sited in the Gray Her- 
barium and the U. S. National Herbarium. The floral details of the plate are 
from the specimen illustrated in fig. B, and this specimen (US), which has the 
best inflorescences, is doubtless to be taken as the actual ty])e. The sjiecimen 
upon which fig. A is based is to be found in the (iray Herbarium. Both herbaria 
have s]iecimens from the ])lant which served as the basis for fig. C. Although 
slight foliage dififerences exist among these various specimens, the collections now 
available do not indicate dififerences of nomenclatural value. As I inter] )ret the 
species, it is represented by the following s])ecimens : 

ViTi Lkvu : Xandronga : Singatoka River, Grrcmcood 423B (A) (tree to 23 m. 
high, in forest along creek; bark gray) ; Tbolo West : Xaruku, vicinity of Mbelo, near 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 37 

Vatukarasa, alt. 250 m.. Dccicncr 15317 (A) (tree 8 rri. liigh, in forest; native name: yamo; 
timbers used for house-posts). Vaxua Lkvu : [/. .V. Expl. Rxpcd. (illustr. as fig. B) (US, 
type); U. S. Expl Expcd. (illustr. as /?(/. A) (GH) ; Thakaun drove : Uluinabathi 
Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, Degcner & Ordonez 13949 (A) (tree 3 m. high, in forest). 
OvALAu: (;. .V. Expl Expcd. (illustr. as fig. C) (GH, US). Koro : Eastern slope of 
main ridge, alt. 300-500 m.. Smith 1022 (GH, NY, US) (tree 20 m. high, in dense forest; 
leaf -buds brown-pilose). Without definite locality: Scemann 138, in part (GH) ; Home 
519 (GH). 

Maniltoa minor sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 1,3 m. alta sul) anthesi uhique glabra, ranuilis subteretibus cinercis 
rugulosis inconspicue leiiticellatis ; foliis 2-jugis vel interdiini apiceni ramitlorum 
versus unijugis, pctiolis subteretilnis rugulosis 3-6 mm. longis, petiolulis incon- 
spicuis circiter 1 mm. longis ; laminis foliolorum subcoriaceis m sicco viridi- 
olivaceis inaequilateraliter elli])ticis, 2.5-4 cm. longis, 1.7-2.5 cm. latis, basi latere 
inferiore rotundatis vel late obtusis superiore gradatim angustatis, apice late ob- 
tusis et emarginatis, margine integris et paullo incrassatis, utrinque in sicco rugu- 
losis, costa recta vel leviter curvata utrinc|ue elevata, nervis lateralil)us utrinsecus 
5-8 cum aliis del)ilioriI)us inters]^ersis marginem versus anastomosantibus utrinque 
paullo prominulis vel supra sulDi^lanis, rete venularum intricato subimmerso vel 
subtus prominulo ; inflorescentiis axillaribus racemosis basi multibracteatis, brac- 
teis imbricatis papyraceis concavis, exterioribus late ovatis 1-2 mm. longis, in- 
terioribus caducis non visis sed forsan majoribus, rhachi crassa demum 1.5-2 cm. 
longa basibus florum conspicue incrassata; pedicellis gracilibus teretibus 14-18 
mm. longis, basi bractea decidua et bract eolis 2 oblongis circiter 1.5 mm. longis 
dorsaliter costa sj^arse his])idis subtentis, apice in receptaculum circiter 1.5 mm. 
diametro incrassatis ; floribus numerosis circiter 15-20 per inflorescentiam ; 
sepalis, petalis staminibusque e margine tubi brevis cylindrici orientibus, tul)0 
0.5-1 mm. longo basi cicatricoso demuni e receptaculo circumciso ; sepalis 5 sub 
antbesi reflexis submembranaceis oblongis, 6.5-7 mm. longis, 2^ mm. latis, apice 
obtusis, sparse nervatis ; jietalis 5 submembranaceis anguste obovato-ellipticis, 
7-^ mm. longis, circiter 1.5 mm. latis, apice subacutis, basim versus angustatis; 
staminibus 25-30, 1- vel 2-seriatis, filamentis filiformibus 10-12 mm. longis, 
antheris oblongis circiter 1 mm. longis medio dorsifixis, apice mucronulatis ; 
ovario pallido interdum minute puberulo mox glabro breviter stipitato, ovulo 
unico, stylo filiformi circiter 7 mm. longo, stigmate minute capitato. 

Moala: Near Maloku, alt. 200 m.. Smith 1333 (GH, type, XY, US), Mar. 22. 1934 
(tree 13 m. high; petals and fdaments white; native name: thiiid)ithimhi; wood considered 
good for houses). Without definite locality: Scemann 138, in part (GH). 

Maniltoa minor is related to M. grand i flora (A. Gray) Sclieff., but tbe two 
species differ in many obvious floral characters. The sepals, petals, and stamens 
of M. grandi flora are borne separately on the margin of the receptacle, while in 
M. minor these organs arise from a short cylindric tube. At the base of this 
tube, a ring of scars indicates that bracts were probably present in bud. This 
character may prove to be of generic significance, but until young inflorescences 
of M. minor are available I j^refer to ])lace the species in Maniltoa. The ovules 
of the new species are solitary rather than two per ovary, as in M. grandiflora. 
In addition, the flowers of M . minor are smaller in all details, as indicated by the 
following dimensions for M. grandiflora: sepals 10-15 mm. long and 4-7 mm. 
broad; petals 12-19 mm. long and 3^ mm. broad; filaments 15-25 mm. long; 
style 9-10 mm. long. The leaflet-blades of M. grandiflora are 4.5-10 cm. long 
and 2-5.5 cm. broad, being thus substantially larger than those of the new species. 

Seeniann 138 (GH) consists of collections which api)ear to have come from 
three plants. Two of them are referable to M. grandiflora, but the third, which 



38 SARGENT LA [1 

is sterile, has leaves essential!}" identical with those of Smith 1333, and I refer 
it to the new species with confidence. 

Cynometra falcata A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Expcd. 1: 472. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 71. 
1865. 

ViTi Levu: Mha : L'. S. Expl. Expcd. (US, type). 

This species has been confnsed with Maniltoa grandiflora in herbaria, but it is 
easily distinguished from that species by its fewer stamens, small flowers and 
bracts, and its single pair of leaflets (rather than 2 or 3 pairs as in Maniltoa 
grandiflora, where the leaflets are only rarely reduced to a single pair). I have 
seen no material referable to C. falcata except the type. 

Cynometra insularis sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 15 m. alta inflorescentiis exceptis glabra, ramulis crassis subteretibus 
rugulosis cinereis lenticellatis ; foliis unijugis i:)etiolatis, ])etiolis rectis supra in- 
terdum leviter canaliculatis 12-25 mm. longis, ]ieti()lulis inconspicttis 1-3 mm. 
longis ; laminis foliolorum coriaceis siccitate viridibus vel olivaceis inaequilater- 
aliter oblongis, 6-8 cm. longis, 2.5-4.5 cm. latis, basi latere inferiore rotimdatis 
superiore gradatim angustatis, apice obtuse cuspidatis vel inconspicue emarginatis. 
margine integris et paullo recurvatis, utrinque in sicco rugulosis, costa recta supra 
leviter elevata subtus prominente, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus circiter 10 cum aliis 
debilioribus interspersis supra paullo impressis subtus prominulis vol planis, rete 
venularum intricato immerso supra incons])icuc imj^resso subtus obscuro ; in- 
florescentiis axillaribus racemosis basi multibracteatis, bracteis imbricatis concavis 
])apyraceis vel subcoriaceis leviter striatis demum caducis, exterioribus sub- 
glabris late ovatis circiter 2 mm. longis, interioribus oblongo-ellipticis ad 10 mm. 
longis et 7 mm. latis, extus dense puberulis vel sericeis, apice obtusis vel rotun- 
datis, rhachi crassa demum 1.5-2.5 cm. longa pilis pallidis circiter 0.5 mm. longis 
dense patente-pilosa basibus florum conspicue incrassata; pedicellis gracilibus sub 
anthesi 8-14 mm. longis ut rhachi pilosis, basi bractea decidua ut bracteis basalibus 
interioribus atque bracteolis 2 anguste oblongis circiter 4 mm. longis puberulis 
subtentis. apice in rece])taculum jjarvum conspicue incrassatis ; florilnis numerosis 
circiter 25-30 per inflorescentiam ; sepalis 5 meml^ranaceis sub anthesi reflexis 
oblongis, 5-6 mm. longis, 2~3 mm. latis, sparse reticulato-nervatis, apice rotun- 
datis, extus puberulis ; petalis 5 membranaceis erectis glabris anguste oblongo- 
ellipticis, 7-8 mm. longis, 2-3 mm. latis, apice subacutis, basim versus angustatis, 
incons])icue nervatis ; staminibus 10 glabris, filamentis filiformibus 10-15 mm. 
longis, apicem versus gradatim attenuatis, antheris late oblongis medio dorsifixis 
circiter 1.5 mm. longis, apice mucronulatis, loculis basi divaricatis ; ovario breviter 
stipitato late ellipsoideo com])lanato ut ]:)edicellis piloso, stylo crasso tereti sub 
anthesi 4-7 mm. longo, stigmate minuto cai)ilato, ovulo unico ; fructibus oblongo- 
ellipsoideis, circiter 4.5 cm. longis et 3.5 cm. latis et 3 mm. crassis, pericarpio 
rugoso, suturis leviter impressis. 

ViTi Levu : R a : Mataimeravula, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., 
Dcgcner 15433 (A) (tree 6 m. liigh, in open forest; flowers whitish; native name: movi; 
timbers used for house-posts) ; Vatundamusewa, near Rewasa, Dcgcner 15491 (A, type), 
June 6, 1941 (tree, in open forest) ; Waindawa, near Rewasa, Dcgcner 15494 (A) (tree, in 
open forest; native name: vio^i). Taveixi : Western slope, between Somosomo and 
Wairiki, alt. 500 m., Siiiilli <S7.? ((iH, NV, US) (tree 15 m. liigh, in woods). 

Cynometra iii.udaris is a relative of C. falcata A. Ciray, from which it differs 
in having its leaves with jjetioles 12-25 mm. long, those of C. falcata being sub- 
sessile, on petioles scarcely 3 mm. long. The leaflets of the new si)ecies are 
slightly thicker in texture and have the secondaries lightly impressed rather than 
prominulotis on the upper surface, while in general the venation is less obvious ; 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 39 

the costa is essentially straiijht rather than falcate, and the leaflets average broader. 
The inflorescence of C. iiisuhiris is coarser, longer, and with more numerous 
flowers than that of C. falcata, with more obvious pubescence throughout (the 
rachis in C. falcata being only faintly puberulent). The fully developed in- 
florescence-scales of C. falcata are only about 3 mm. long, and in other respects 
the inflorescence and floral i)arts seem to l)e much smaller than those of the new 
species, but the type of Gray's species is not sufficiently ample to permit detailed 
com])arison. 

The fruits are descriljed frf)m Smith <S4S. the other cited specimens being in 
flower. 

Cassia Tora L. Sp. PI. 376. 1753: Christoph. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 99. 1935. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North : Fatia, west of Tavua, alt. 60 m.. Dciicncv 14981 (A) 
(low shrub to 1 m. high, in drv forested ravine). Without dkfinite locality: Sccniann 
135 (GH) ; Harvey (GH). 

This widely distributed weed has apparently not previously been listed under 
the above name in literature ])ertaining to Fiji. The two early collections cited 
above were mentioned by Seemann (Fl. Vit. 67. 1865; 427. 1873) as C. ohtusi- 
folia L., generally considered synonymous with C. Tora. 

Crotalaria mucronata Desv. in Jour. Bot. Desv. 3: 76. 1814. 

Crotalaria striata DC. Prodr. 2: 131. 1825. 

Crotalaria Saltiana sensu Prain ex King in Jour. As. Soc. Bengal 66(2): 41 (Mater. Fl. 
Malay. Penin. 3: 41). 1897; non Andr. (1811). 

ViTi Lfau : Lautoka : Albckana Island, near sea-level, Dcgcncr & Ordonez 15543 
(A) (naturalized low shrub). Kaxdavu: Namalata Isthmus region, near sea-level. Smith 
12 (NY) (subligneous herb to 2 m. high; petals yellow, purple-striped; weed in clearings; 
native name: nggiringgiri). 

Although said to occur commonly enough in various other South Pacific 
grou])s, this weed has not previously been mentioned from Fiji. It has usually 
been listed in Pacific records as C. Saltiana Andr., which, as pointed out by Senn 
(in Rhodora 41: 356. 1939), belongs to a different section of the genus and is 
apparently limited to Africa. 

Indigofera tinctoria L. Sp. PI. 751. 1753. 

ViTi Lf.vu : Lautoka: Lautoka, Degcner & Ordonez 13626 (A) (shrub to 1 m. 
high; roadside weed). 

This species has not previously been reported from Fiji, although it is found 
in some other Pacific groups. A discussion of /. tinctoria, as compared with /. 
suffniticosa Mill. (/. Anil L.). is found in Merrill, Interpret. Herb. Anib. 264. 
1917. Possibly some of the references in Pacific litei"ature to /. Ayiil actually 
refer to /. tinctoria. 

Erythrina variegata L. var. orientalis (L.) Merr. Interpret. Herb. Amb. 276. 1917; 
Christo])h. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 103. 1935; Krukoff in Jour. Arnold Arb. 20: 
228. 1939. 

Makondroxga: Degcner & Ordonez 13803 (A) (tree about 8 m. high, with roots reach- 
ing into salt water along coast; seeds dark red). 

The correct name for this plant has not previously been recorded in the special 
literature pertaining to Fiji, it having been mentioned by Seemann (Fl. Vit. 60. 
1865) and others as E. indica Lam. 

Pueraria Thunbergiana (Siel). & Zucc.) Benth. in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 9: 122. 1867; 
Guillauniin in Jour. Arnold Arb. 12: 245. 1931; Christoph. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 
128: 104. 1935. 



40 SARGENTIA [1 

ViTi Levu : Tholo Xorth : Korovou. east of Tavua, alt. 60-150 m., Dajcncr 14942 
(A) (vine, climbing over bushes and rocks in an isolated dry ravine; native name: yaka; 
root elongated, edible when cooked; stem used for tying temporary bundles). K.\mbara: 
Smith 1268 (GH, NY) (vine, in thickets on limestone formation; petals rich pink). 

Although it has been reported from the New Hebrides and from Samoa, among 
other Pacific groups, this widely distributed species is apparently new to Fiji. 

OXALIDACEAE 

Oxalis corymbosa DC. Prodr. 1: 696. 1824. 

Oralis Martiaita Zucc. in Denkschr. Akad. Muench. 9: 144. 1824. 

ViTi Levu: Lautoka: Lautoka, Grccmvood 803 (GH) (in damp places about dwell- 
ings; flowers reddish purple). 

This escape has not previously been re])orted from Fiji. 1'he collector notes 
that it has appeared in the vicinity of Lautoka only during the past five years, 
but that he oI)served it in Suva about ten years ago. 

LINACEAE 

Durandea Planch, in Hook. Pond. Jour. Bot. 6: 594. 1847; op. cit. 7: 527. 1848; Stapf in 
Hook. Ic. PI. 29: pi. 2822. 1906; Stapf in Kew Bull. 1908: 11-14. 1908; Winkl. in 
Engl. <fc Prantl, Nat. Pfl. ed. 2. 19a: 108. 1931. Nomcn conscrvaudum propositum. 

Durandea Planch, is herewith ])roposed for conservation over Durandea Delarb. 
(Fl. Auv. ed. 2. 365. 1800), a name which has been used in connection with only 
one binomial and which is apparently referable to Raphanus L. (Cruciferae). 
Sixteen binomials have been referred to Durandea Planch., and in order to pre- 
serve these the generic name should be added to the list of noiuiim gencrica 
conservanda. 

Durandea vitiensis Stapf in Hook. Ic. I'l. 29: sub pi 2822. 1906; in Kew I'ull. 1908: 13. 
1908. 

ViTi Levu: Serua : Near Mt. Ngamo, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 60 m., Degcncr 15075 
(A) (liana, in sunny forest; flowers dark yellow) ; Vatuvilakia. vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 90 m., 
Degcncr 15149 (A) (Hana. in forest) ; Rcwa : Vicinity of Suva, alt. 225 m., MacDanicls 
1161 (Bish) (scandent shrub, in rain-forest). 

The rediscovery of this plant is of considerable interest, since it has previously 
been reported only from Storck 4 (ty]:)e coll., a duplicate being at GH), collected 
without definite locality and lacking fruits. The apjiarently nearly mature fruits 
of the Degener specimens are coriaceous, ellipsoid, up to 10 mm. long and 8 mm. 
broad, conspicuously 15-costate when dried, with 5 one-seeded bony pyrenes. 

MELIACEAE 
Dysoxylum pilosum sp. nov. 

? Draconfomclon pilosum Seem. El. Vit. 52. 1865. 

Arbor ad 8 m. alta, ramis ramulisque crassis subteretibus juventtite densissime 
cinereo-pilosis (pilis simplicibus patentibus circiter 1 mm. longis) demum glabres- 
centibus ; foliis pinnatis alternatis ad 70 cm. longis, petiolo ad 12 cm. longo basi 
incrassato et rhachi leviter canaliculata tit ramulis densissime pilosis ; foliolis 
subojipositis vel basim foliorum versus alternatis (13-) 17-23, petiolulis sub- 
teretibus pilosis 2-5 mm. longis, laminis ]^apyraceis falcato-oblongis, (4-) 9-15 
cm. longis, (2-) 2.5-4.5 cm. latis, basi inaeqtialiter obtusis vel subrotundalis. apice 
obtuse cuspidatis, margine integris, supra praeter nervos interdum pilosos glabris, 
subtus ])ilis 0.4-0.6 mm. longis sim])licibus densissime et persistenter mollitcr 
pilosis, costa supra subplana vel leviter canaliculata subtus valde elevata, nervis 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 41 

secundariis utrinsecus 8-20 ])atentibus margiiieni versus obscure anastomosantibus 
supra sul)planis vel insculptis subtus valde proininulis, rate venularum immerso ; 
inflorescentiis completis sub antbcsi non visis sed ut videtur thyrsoideo-paniculatis, 
ramuHs lateralibus brevibus rugulosis molliter pilosis, bracteis bracteoHsque 
ol)longo-deltoideis acutis 0.5-1 mm. longis ; floribus numerosis sessilibus, calyce 
cu])uliformi, circiter 1.5 mm. longo, 2-2.5 mm. diauietro, extus pilis patentibus 
circiter 0.15 mm. longis dense pallide pilose, intus glabro, ])rofunde lobato, lobis 
4 late ovatis, circiter 1 mm. longis, 1.2-2 mm. latis, apice rotundatis vel obtusis ; 
])etalis 4 extus pallide puberulis intus glabris, 5-6 mm. longis, 1-1.2 mm. latis, 
tubo circiter 1.5 mm. diametro cobaerentibus, apicem versus liberis et apice acutis 
et leviter incurvatis ; filamentis connatis, tubo cylindrico petala subaequante, basim 
versus corollam adnato, apice crenulato, extus dense pilosulo, intus glabro, an- 
tberis 8 sessilibus oblongis circiter 0.8 mm. longis intra tubum apicem versus 
inclusis ; disco glabro cylindrico circiter 2 mm. longo apice crenulato ; gynaecio 
corollam fere aequante, ovario ellipsoideo cum basi styli dense hirsuto, loctdis 4, 
stylo carnoso, stigmate incrassato-capitato ; inflorescentiis stib fructu 8-13 cm. 
longis, ramulis incrassatis longe persistenter molliter pilosis, fructibus coriaceis 
subglobosis ad 15 mm. diametro (vel maturitate majoribus?) demum glabris et 
conspicue rugosis, basi obtusis, apice rotundatis, pericarpio duro tenui, seminibus 
3 vel 4 angulari-ellipsoideis circiter 8 mm. longis et 5-6 mm. latis. 

ViTi Lkvu : Lautoka : Xear Lautoka, Grccmvood 396 (A, type, fl.), Aug. 28, Y)22 
(medium-sized tree) ; north of Lomolomo, alt. 90 m., Degcncr & Ordonez 13715 (A, fr.) 
(coarse tree 8 m. high, on dry slope in a ravine of small jagged range of hills). 

Dracontoniclon pilosum Seem, is based upon a sterile s])ecimen taken from a 
young plant. I remarked (in Bisbop Mus. Bull. 141: 87. 1936) that the two 
leaves of the type {Seciiiann lOO, from Viti Levu) probably belong to a species 
of Dyso.vyluiii. The more recent collections by Greenwood and Degener ap]K'ar 
to bear out this supposition and I am reasonably sure that the plant here described 
as new is conspecific with Dracontoniclon pilosum. This conclusion is based upon 
Seemann's description and my own recollection of the specimen at Kew. Never- 
theless, since the Kew specimen cannot again be consulted at present, I am not 
])repared to say definitely that it is identical with my new species. I have de- 
liberately used for this the same specific epithet w'hich Seemann selected for his 
plant, so that, if future observation should verify my supposition, the transfer 
of the epithet from Dracontoniclon to Dysoxyhim will not be permissible and 
the Greenwood specimen will remain the type of the specific concept. Seemann 
describes his leaflets as being 5 pairs and about 6 cm. broad, but since his leaves 
were juvenile these observations may be of little value. 

A member of the Section Eudisoxyluni, D. pilosum resembles D. Richii (A. 
Gray) C. DC. in its inflorescence characters, difl^ering only in the stouter flowers 
and the slightly denser pubescence of the petals. The new species is readily dis- 
tinguished from D. Richii by the dense and persistent puljescence of the lower 
surfaces of its leaflets. In D. pilosum the pubescence of the inflorescence- 
branches persists in mature fruiting specimens, while in D. Richii the fruiting 
inflorescence is essentially glabrous. Both flowering and fruiting inflorescences 
of D. pilosum now available are considerably shorter than those of D. Richii, but 
this character may l)e of little consequence. 

Dysoxylum myriandrum sp. nov. 

Arbor 6 m. alta, ramulis crassis subteretibus rugosis juventute pilis sim])licibus 
patentibus fuscis circiter 0.3 mm. longis densissime tomentosis demum glabratis ; 
foliis pinnatis alternatis ad 40 cm. (vel ultra?) longis, petiolo ad 15 cm. longo 
supra complanato basi incrassato et rhachi ut r^imulis primo densissime tomento- 



42 SARGENTIA 11 

sis; foliolis suboppositis 9-13, petiolulis gracilibus ])asi incrassatis 5-15 mm. longis 
ut ramulis tomentellis, laminis chartaceis vel subcoriaceis obovato-oblongis, 5.5-11 
cm. longis. 3-5.5 cm. latis, basi inaeqiialiter obtusis. apice obtuse cuspidatis. mar- 
line integris et leviter recurvatis, supra glabris, subtus praeter costam et nervDs 
secundarios primo dense et breviter strigosos glabris, costa sui)ra subplana i)romi- 
luila subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 7-12 patentibus marginem 
versus obscure anastomf)santibus su])ra leviter impressis subtus elcvatis, rete 
venularum subimmerso ; inflorescentiis completis non visis sed ut videtur i)aiucu- 
latis, rbacbi ramulisque densissime et breviter pallido-])ilosis. bracteis bracteo- 
lisque subcoriaceis late ovatis obtusis ad 1 mm. longis et 3 mm. latis extus sericeis 
intus glabris; pedicellis crassis (2.5-3 mm. diametro) 2-3 mm. longis cum calyce 
jmHs circiter 0.2 mm. longis dense pallide sericeis ; sepalis 5 ad basim liberis im- 
bricatis subcarnosis late ovatis, 2-2.5 mm. longis. 3-4 mm. latis, intus glabris. apice 
rotundatis, obscure glandulosis ; i)etalis 5 lilieris carnosis imbricatis elliptico- 
olilongis. 9-11 mm. longis. 5-7 mm. latis, apice obtusis, extus ut sei)alis dense 
sericeis, intus glabris ; filamentis connatis, tubo libero carnoso cylindrico. 6-8 mm. 
longo, circiter 6 mm. diametro, apice crenulato, extus parce sericeo, intus gla])ro. 
antheris circiter 15 sessilibus oblongis circiter 2.5 mm. longis, basi et apice obtusis 
vel leviter emarginatis, intra tubum apicem versus inclusis ; disco subcarnoso cylin- 
drico circiter 2.5 mm. longo et 3 mm. diametro apice crenulato ; gynaecio tubum 
subaequantc, ovario conico pilis circiter 0.5 mm. longis dense stramineo-sericeo, 
loculis 5, stylo crasso carnoso. stigmate cajntato circiter 2 mm. diametro. 

Vanua Levu : T h a k a u n d r o v e - M a t h u a t a boundary : Crest o\ Korotoni 
Range, between Navitho Pass and Mt. Ndelaikoro, alt. 650-900 m.. Smith 36^ (GH, NY. 
type), Nov. 21, 1933 (tree 6 m. high, in dense forest; petals and staminal tube pale green, 
brown-tinged; native name: ivarokaniithi) . 

Tbc cited specimen was originally distributed as 1). IcniiccUarc (lil]es])ie. a spe- 
cies from wbicb it is immediately distinguisbed by the pubescence of its leaf- 
rachis and the nerves of the lower surfaces of leaflets, as well as by its entirely 
diflferent flowers. Dysoxyliivi myriandruin has no close relatives among species 
of the region, being characterized by the above-mentioned pubescence, the stout 
and densely sericeous flowers, and the utuisually large number of stamens. To 
the best of my knowledge more than 10 stamens have not i)reviously been re- 
ported in Dysoxyhan, but on the basis of all its other characters the present spe- 
cies certainly belongs in that genus. In C. De Candolle's treatment of the gentis 
(in DC. Monogr. Phan. 1: 480-528. 1878), D. mynandrum keys to those few 
species of the Section Didymochcton with the staminal tube free, but among them 
it seems to have no close relatives. 

Aglaia vitiensis A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. I5ull. 141: 80. /z;/. 41. 1936. 

Dysoxylnm ohliquum Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 13. /?//. 1^ (cxcl. a-c) . 1931; not 
Aglaia obliqua White & Francis (1927). 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., Gillespie 3757 
(GH), 4316 (GH, type coll. of Dysoxyliiin ohliquum). Dcgcncr 14334 (A), 14666 (A); 
Namosi: Mt. Naitarandamu, alt. 1000 m., Gillespie 3105 (GH). 

Gillespie's species Dysoxylnvi ubliqituiit was based upon a confused concc])t. 
GUlcspic 43 M, indicated as the type, is a specimen with comparatively small leaf- 
lets and narrow curved fruits. I have not seen all the other specimens cited by 
Gillespie, but his cited no. 3757 is clearly ./. vificusis. as is his no. 3105, which he 
does not cite. As to the type itself, I believe that this may be safely considered 
conspecific with the type of A. 'uiticnsis, in spite of its rather smaller leaflets and 
diflferently shaped fruit. Gillespie remarks that the specimen selected as the type 
of Dysoxyluiii ohliquuDi has smaller leaves than the other cited specimens. The 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 43 

specific e]5ithet cannot be used in Aglaia because of tlie earlier A. obliqiia Wbite 
& Francis. 

Among tbe otber specimens cited l)y Gillespie as Dysoxyluui obliqmim, bis no. 
4161 does not belong bere (i.e. to Aglaia vitiensis) and I bave referred it to tbe 
following new sjx'cies. The situation is further complicated by tbe fact that tbe 
flowers which Gillespie described and figured as representing Dysoxylum ob- 
licjiiHiii were taken from Home 316. This specimen was elsewhere and correctly 
referred to Dysoxylum lenticellarc Gillespie. Thus three species in two genera 
were used in drawing up tbe original descrijition of Dysoxylum obliqiium, but the 
name itself need be considered only in connection with the t3'pe. 

Aglaia rificiisis has previously been known from Koro, Vanua Levu, and 
Taveuni. Its occurrence at middle and high elevations on all the larger volcanic 
islands of Fiji is to be anticipated. 

Aglaia axillaris sp. nov. 

Arbor gracilis ad 5 m. alta, partibus juvenilibus dense ferrugineo-lepidotis 
(scjuamulis in ramulis, rhacbibus. petiolulis. et costis saepe persistentibus). ramu- 
lis subteretibus denium cinereis ; foliis pinnatis ad 55 cm. longis, petiolis 4—10 cm. 
longis basi incrassatis cum rhachi leviter canaliculatis ; foliolis suboppositis 9-13, 
inferioribus minimis, petiolulis 4-13 (-22) mm. longis, laminis chartaceis sicci- 
tate fusco-olivaceis oblongis vel elliptico- vel ovato-oblongis, (7-) 10-18 (-25) 
cm. longis, 3.5-8 cm. latis, basi obtusis et interdum inaequalibus, apice obtusis vel 
rotundato-cus])idatis, utrinque praeter costam interdum le])idotam glabris, costa 
su])ra subplana subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 9-15 (-18) 
jiatentibus subrectis supra subplanis subtus valde prominulis. rete venularum im- 
merso ; inflorescentiis axillaribus sub antbesi 1-3 cm. longis anguste jmniculatis 
paucifloris ubique densissime ferrugineo-lepidotis, pedunculo et rhachi crassis, 
bracteis oblongis obtusis 2^ mm. longis, bracteolis similibus sed minoribus, ];edi- 
ccUis subnullis ; calyce sub antbesi circiter 3 mm. longo et summo diametro, tubo 
cu]:iuliformi, lobis oblongo-deltoideis obtusis circiter 1.2 mm. longis et latis; petalis 
subcarnosis concavis elliptico-obovatis, 2.5-3.5 mm. longis, 1.5-2 mm. latis, a]nce 
rotundatis. a])icem versus obscure j)ellucido-punctatis, extus ut calyce lejMdotis ; 
staminibus glabris. tubo textura petalis simili subgloboso-cylindrico circiter 2 mm. 
longo, apice obscure crenulato, antheris intra apicem tul)i sessilibus oblongis 0.8-1 
mm. longis ; ovario breviter cylindrico lepidoto, stigmate carnoso capitato circiter 
1 mm. cliametrc:) ; fructibus dense et arete ferrugineo-lepidotis, ])rimo anguste 
oblongo-ellipsoideis et subfalcatis mox globoso-ellipticis, maturitate ut videtur ad 
3 cm. longis et 2 cm. diametro, j^ericarpio tenui, seminibus 1-3 oblongo-ellipsoideis 
nigrescentibus rugulosis. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North : Mt. Matomba, Nandala. vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 
750 m., Dcgcncr 14505 (A. type), Feb. 18, 1941 (slender tree 5 m. liigh, in dense forest; fruit 
orange-brown; native name: sasazuira) \ Nauwanga, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750 m., 
Dcgcner 14689 (A) (small tree, in forest; native name: mala) ; vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 
900 m., Gillespie 4l6l (GH). 

Aglaia axillaris bears a superficial resemblance to A. Z'itioisis A. C. Sm., the 
two species being distinguished by the following characters : 

Leaflets 9-13 (averaging 11) ; inflorescence short, not exceeding 3 cm. (averaging 1-1.5 cm.) 
in length at anthesis, very compact in fruit and often borne on defoliate branchlets ; 
calyx-lobes oblong-deltoid, about 1.2 mm. long; filament-tube about 2 mm. long, the 
anthers included witliin it A. axillaris. 

Leaflets 5-9 (averaging 7) ; inflorescence loosely paniculate, up to 10 cm. long at anthesis, 
often shorter in fruit due to disarticulation, apparently associated witli the leaves ; calyx- 
lobes broadly ovate, about 0.7 mm. long; filament-tube about 1 mm. long, obviously ex- 
ceeded b\ tlic anthers A. I'itieiisis. 



44 SARGENTIA |1 

In additicm. certain intan<^ible characters can l)c used to separate the two spe- 
cies ; A. axillaris has a tendency toward shorter ])etiohiles and its chstal leaflets 
tend to be narrower and more ol)viously ol)lon!L;. The difference in staniinal ar- 
rangement is such that the twd sjiecies fall into ditTerent scries, as these are gener- 
ally recognized. A. axillaris into Euaglaia and ./. I'itioisis into Hcaniia. Their 
similarity in other aspects indicates that they are more closely allied than this 
would indicate. 

Aglaia Archboldiana sp. nov. 

Arbor, ranuilis crassis teretibus densissime ferrngineo-stellato-tomentosis (pilis 
multirannilosis. ramulis e ])elta parva orientibus. nonnullis 0.7-1.3 mm. longis, 
reli(|uis breA'issimis, omnibus demum saepe descitis, pclta persistente et ut videtur 
multiciliata) ; foliis pinnatis ad 60 cm. longis, |)Ctiolis 12-18 cm. longis basi in- 
crassatis cum rhachi subteretibus ut ramulis dense stellato-tomentosis ; foliolis 
op])Ositis vcl subalternatis ])lerumc[ue 7 raro 5, petiolulis tomentosis leviter cana- 
liculatis crassis, lateralibus 7-1. S mm. longis, laminis chartaceis elliptico- vel 
obovato-oblongis, (10-) 15-25 (-35) cm. longis, 5-10 (-14) cm. latis, basi ob- 
tusis et interdum inaequalibus, apice cuspidatis vel brcviter acuminatis, margine 
integris vel undulatis et leviter recurvatis, supra glabris vel in sulcula costae ob- 
scure tomentellis, subtus pilis ut eis ramulorum densissime tomentosis, costa 
supra leviter canaliculata subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus (12-) 
15-25 rectis patentibus marginem versus abrupte curvatis supra subplanis vel 
leviter insculptis subtus valde elevatis, rete venularum immerso vel subtus promi- 
nulo ; inflorescentiis apicem ramulorum versus axillaribus anguste paniculatis sub 
anthesi ad 4 cm. (vel ultra?) longis ]:)aucifloris ubique dense stellato-tomentellis 
(pilis ut eis ramulorum ad 1 mm. longis plerumque brevioribus), pedunculo brevi 
et rhachi crassis, bracteis lineari-oblongis ad 4 mm. longis ; floribus sessilibus vel 
breviter ]:)edicellatis, pedicellis crassis sub anthesi articulatis. liracteolis sub anthesi 
3 vel 4 lineari-lanceolatis 2-4 mm. longis ; calyce cujnilif ormi sub anthesi circiter 
3.5 mm. longo et summo diametro. lobis ovato-deltoideis subacutis circiter 1.2 
mm. longis et 2 mm. latis intus glabris ; petalis subcarnosis concavis utrinque 
glabris elliptico-oblongis, circiter 2 mm. longis, 1.2-2 mm. latis, forsan maturitate 
majoribus, margine anguste scariosis ; staminibus glabris 1.5-2 mm. longis, fila- 
mentis in tubo crasse carnoso 1-1.5 mm. longo connatis, antheris inflexis in mar- 
gine tubi sessilibus deltoideo-oblongis circiter 0.8 mm. longis ; ovario breviter 
cylindrico dense stellato-tomentello, basi stylorum conico glabro, stylis 2 apice 
distinctis ; inflorescentiis sub fructu ad 10 cm. longis, tomento longe persistente, 
ramulis pedicellisque valde incrassatis, sepalis persistentibus ; fructibus dense et 
arete ferrugineo- vel cinnamomeo-stellato-tomentellis, maturitate elli]:)tico-sub- 
globosis 2-3 cm. diametro, pericarpio tenui, seminibus 2-4 complanato-ellipsoideis 
siccitate valde rugulosis. 

ViTi Lkvu : Serua : Vicinity of Ngaloa, Dcgcncr & Ordoncj: 13705 (A, tyi'e), Nov. 
29, 1940 (tree, in forest) ; Tholo North : Mt. Matomba, Nandala, vicinity of Nandari- 
vatu, alt. 750 m., Dcijoicr 14506 (A) (tree, in dense forest; fruit light brown; native name: 
sasaii'ira ) . 

Aglaia ArcJiholdiana is readily distinguished from other Fijian si)ecies by the 
long stellate tomentum of its leaves, inflorescence-branches, and calyces. In the 
type collection, bearing quite mature fruits, this tomentum persists. The second 
specimen cited is still more matin"e, and here the tomentum is reduced to scattered 
(but still profuse) stellate hairs with frequently broken branches. Other Fijian 
species which have this type of tomentum to a limited extent are A. hasiphylla 
A. Gray, A. Grconvoodii A. C. Sm., and the following new species, but these all 
have small leaflets and small fruits and are only very distantly related to A. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 45 

Archholdiana. A species of the Section Hcaruia, A. Archholdhma resembles 
A. vificiisis A. C. Sin. in its staniinal characters, but otlierwise the two species 
are not closely related. 

Aglaia fragilis sp. nov. 

Arbor t,n-acilis 3 ni. alta, ramulis terctilms juventute pilis circiter 0.5 mm. longis 
densissime ferruo-ineo-stellato-tomentellis demum cincreis glabrescentibns ; foliis 
pinnatis raro unifoliolatis ad 15 cm. longis, petiolis 1-3 cm. lon<j^is cum rhachi 
gracilibus subteretibus ut ramulis tomentellis ; foliolis subo])positis 3 vel 5 (raro 
ad 1 reductis), petiolulis tomentellis subteretibus lateralibus 2-3 mm. longis ter- 
minalibus longioribus, laminis chartaceis vel papyraceis anguste elli])tico-obIongis, 
3-8 (terminalibus ad 11) cm. longis, 1.5-3.3 cm. latis, basi obtusis vel rotundatis, 
apice obtusis. margine integris et leviter recurvatis, supra glabris, subtus pilis ut 
eis ramulorum persistenter pilosis, costa supra leviter canaliculata subtus jiromi- 
nente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 5-8 in foliolis lateralibus (12-16 in foliolis 
terminalibus) rectis marginem versus obscure anastomosantibus su]^ra subjilanis 
subtus prominulis, rete venularum o])scuro; intlorescentiis axillaribus laxis panicu- 
latis sub anthesi ad 7 cm. longis ubicpie dense stellato-tomentellis (pilis ad 0.5 mm. 
longis plerumque minoribus), pedunculo brevi et ramulis gracilibus. bracteis ob- 
longis circiter 1 mm. longis. bracteolis minoribus, pedicellis gracilibus 2-5 mm. 
longis; calycc fere ad basim lobatis, lobis submembranaceis anguste oblongis ob- 
tusis, circiter 1.5 mm. longis et 0.6 mm. latis, intus glabris; corolla subglobosa, 
petalis SLibcarnosis concavis oblongo-ellipticis, 2-2.5 mm. longis, 1-1.5 mtn. latis, 
apice rotundatis, extus dense stellato-i)ilosis vel sublepidotis, intus glabris; stami- 
nibus circiter 1.5 mm. longis glabris, filamentis in tubo crasse carnoso 1-1.2 mm. 
longo connatis. antberis inflexis in margine tubi sessilibus deltoideo-oblongis cir- 
citer 0.7 mm. longis ; ovario ellipsoideo-ovoideo sub anthesi circiter 0.7 mm. longo 
dense stellato-puberulo, columna stylorum glabra ovarium subaequali apicem 
versus incrassata, stigmatibus obscuris. 

ViTi Lk\l- : T h () 1 () X o r t h : Xauwanga, vicinity of Xandarivatii, alt. about 750 in., 
Dcgcncr 146S0 (A. tvi'e), Mar. 6, 1941 (leafy tree about 3 m. high, in forest). 

Aglaia fragilis is very distinct among Fijian species, characterized by the con- 
spicuous and apparently persistent i^ubescence of its inflorescences, lower sur- 
faces of leaflets, etc., by its lax and am])le inflorescences, and bv the fact that its 
few lateral leaflets are conspicuously smaller than the terminal one. A member 
of the Section Hcarnia, it suggests by its pubescence A. Grccmcoodii A. C. Sm., 
but that species has soon glabrescent leaflet-blades, usually 7-9 sul)equal leaflets, 
and a very compact inflorescence with much shorter pedicels. 

POLYGALACEAK 

Polygala paniculata L. Anioen. Acad. 5: 402. 1759; Setchell in CarncRie Inst. Publ. 341: 
79. 1924; Christoph. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 117. 1935. 
ViTi Lkvu: Tholo X o r t ii : Xandarivatu, alt. about 800 m., Dciicncr & Ordonez 
13540 (GH) (garden weed), Rcay 24 (GH) ; Sovutawambu, near Xandarivatu, alt. 750 m., 
Degcner 14591 (GH) (very common among grasses and weeds) ; Nandronga : Singa- 
toka River, Greenwood 461B (GH) (common on dry hillsides) ; Re wa : Suva, Degcner & 
Ordonez 13511 (GH) (in clay near shore, along roadside) ; X a i t a s i r i : Xasinu, alt. 150 
m., GiUesfyJe 3420 (NY) (common weed). Kandavu: Hills above Namalata and Xgaloa 
Bays, alt. 200-400 m.. Smith 103 (NY) (common on edge of forest). 

The lack of older collections indicates that this common weed is probably of 
recent introduction in Fiji. Although the species is known from other Pacific 
groups, I believe this to be the first record of the family from Fiji. 



46 SARGENT I A [1 

KUPHORBIACF.AK 
By L. Croizat 

Phyllanthus urinaria L. Sp. PI. 982. 1753; Muell. Ar^. in DC. Prodr. 15(2): 364. 1866: 

Benth. Fl. Au.str. 6: 102. 1873; Hook. f. Fl. Bnt. Ind. 5: 293. 1887: Merr. in I'hilip. 

Jour. Sci. Bot. 9: 105. 1914; Kaneh. in Jour. Dept. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 4: 354. 1935. 

ViTi Lkvu : T h o 1 () North : Nandarivatu, Greenwood 789 A (A). 

The species, which is here first recorded from Fiji, is prohahly more common 

iti the Pacific than Htcrature indicates. It is easily se])arated from all other her- 

haceous species of Phyllanthus (e..^. P. Niruri L.) hy its muricate or papillose 

capsules, sessile flowers, angled stems, and shar]) primaries. The leaf often has 

a peculiar metallic texture. 

Glochidion amentuligerum (Muell. Arj.,'. ) Croizat, cotnl). nov. 

PhxUauthus amcutuUqcr Muell. Ar^. in Linnaea 48: 390. 1865; in DC. Pnulr. 15(2): 313. 
1866 ; Seem. Fl. Vit. 219. 1867. 

Vaxua Lkvu: Thakaundrove : Fastcrn drainajic of Vanawai River, Dcc/riirr & 
Ordonec 14115 (A) ; Natewa Bay roRioii, Smith 1926 (GH). 

Glochidion anioitiiligcnnn is close to (/". anfracfitositm Gihhs, hut has the lower 
leaf -surface manifestly glaucescent or grayish and the veins fairly thickly puheru- 
lent under a lens ; G. anfractuosuin is not glaucescent and is very sparingl\- hairy 
at the midrib with very short substrigose trichomes. 

Glochidion Gillespiei Croizat, sp. nov. 

Glochidion Maiiotio scnsu Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Hull. 91: 16. f. 17. 1932: non Baill. 

Arbu.scula glabra; foliis 7-11 cm. longis, 3-5.5 cm. latis, cuspidato-lanceolatis 
vel ovato-cuspidatis subtus glaucescentibus, nervis totis conspicuis ; inflorescentiis 
axillaribus cymulosis ; ])erianthio J' ca. 2 mm. longo. 2-4 mm. fauce lato, lobis 6 
late imbricatis ; perianthio $ 3 mm. longo. lobis 6 erectis valde costatis, interdum 
ani.someris ca. 3 mm. longis. pedicello 2-3 mm. longo, stylo valido clavato ad 5 
mm. longo apice subtrifido. stigmatibus baud patentibus; ovario ut videtur 3- 
loculari. 

ViTi Lkvu: Namosi : Naitarandamu Mt., summit, ah. 1200 m., Gillespie 3161 (CiH, 
TVPK), Sept. 1927. 

Gilles|)ie's illustration of this new species, under the name of G. Manono, is 
excellent. Glochidion Manono Baill. (as represented by Lcpinc 210 and (/. .S'. 
Expl. Expcd.) is an altogether different plant, despite the similarity of the de- 
scri])lions. I have seen no authentic Fijian records of G. Manono and believe 
that the record based upon the cited Exploring Expedition collection is an error, 
because Baillon's species, either in its typical form or its varieties, is apparently 
not found west of Samoa. Gillespie (1. c. 16) suggests that the extraordinary 
development of the stylar column of his plant is probably due to the parasitism 
of a fungus. This is not likely to ])rove correct, as many species of Glochidion 
(e.g. G. Daltonii Kurz) have a style fully as well developed as that of G. Gillespiei. 

Glochidion calciphilum Croizat, sp. nov. 

Arbuscula vel frutex contortus 1-metralis, innovationibus fere glabris, i.e. pilis 
perpaucis hie inde ad apiceni obsitis, cortice griseo vel olivaceo-bruimeo levi ; foliis 
totis i)allescentibus firme chartaceis sul)Concoloribus dimorjihicis. aliis eximie ro- 
tundatis vel obovato-rotundatis apice subtruncato-rotundatis ad 2 cm. longis 
latisque, aliis ellipticis vel lanceolato-ellipticis, interdum falcatis basi anisomcris, 
4-7 cm. longis, 2-4 cm. latis, venis j^rimariis utrinque ca. 4— 5-jugis, petiolo rugu- 
loso ca. 0.5 cm. longo; stipulis triangtilaribus ]-)arvis margine stib lente acri iii- 
terdum ciliatulis ; inflorescentiis axillaribus ut videtur paucifloris ; flore J* : peri- 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 47 

anthio ca. 2 mm. loui^o et lato extus pnl)crulo, pedicello oracili ca. 4 mm. Innj^o, 
lobis 6 oblanceolatis vakle costatis ca. 1.5 mm. longis, 0.75 mm. latis. columna 
staminali 3-antherifera ad 1 mm. longa ; flore $: perianthio i)ul)erulo arete eyathi- 
formi ad 2 mm. lot\i,'(). lol)is 5 vel 6 interdum leviter anisomeris ciliatuHs obovato- 
ellipticis, 0.75-1.25 mm. longis, 0.75-0.5 mm. latis ; ovario glaberrimo depresso- 
globuloso ca. 1 mm. magno, columna stylari pro ovarii magnitudine valida ad 1 
mm. longa ellipsoidca. stigmatibus 5 a])ice liberis leviter divaricatis glalierrimis ; 
fructu ca. 2 cm. lato et 1 cm. longo ut videtur 7- vel 8-locuiari glabro. 

Kambara: Smith 1279 (GH) (compact shrub 1 m. higli, on hare limestone: native 
name: molau). Fii.anga: Smith 1217 (GH, tyi'e), Feh. 26, 1934 (snarled tree 1 m. high, 
on lagoon cliff in limestone formation). 

Tbe Structure of the stylar column readily separates this s])ecies from (/. con- 
color Muell. Arg. The long and slender jiedicel of the pistillate flower is unlike 
that of G. aiucniuUgcnim (Muell. Arg.) Croizat and G. aufractiiosnin Gibbs. 
The material at hand is not sufficient to establish the affinities of the new species, 
but it is not related to G. Manono. 

Glochidion concolor Muell. Arg. in Linnaea 32: 62. 1863; Seem. I-'l. \'it. 219. 1867. 

Phylhuithus concolor Muell. Arg. in DC. Prodr. 15(2): 290. 1866. 

This binomial has been disregarded since 1867 and its reinstatement demands 
a brief comment. Harvey s. n. (in 1855), an isotype of G. concolor. is very close 
to Gillespie 4412 and Dccjcner 14298, 14587, and 15164, all from Fiji, and it can- 
not definitely be separated from a specimen of Parks 16030 from Eua, Tonga. 
Some of these specimens have been identified in herbaria as G. rainifloritui Forst. 
f., and the evidence from the literature indicates that they indeed answer the con- 
ce])t of that species held by writers on the Pacific flora. 

Whether these specimens are ultimately to be treated under G. concolor or G. 
rauiifloruni cannot be decided at present, because the ty])e material of Forster's 
species is probably a mixture of two or more species. The later record of the 
species does not include a description, merely referring to the diagnosis and fig- 
ures of the generic description, which is unsatisfactory for specific identification. 
The type localities are two under the technical publication of the binomial, the 
Society Islands and the New Hebrides, but only one, Tanna, is later indicated 
(Forst. f. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 92. 1786). Thus, Tanna should be accepted as 
the locus classic us. 

It is probable tliat (/'. lannacnsc Guillaumin (in Jour. Arnold Arl). 13: 90. 
1932) is actually the same as the Tanna s])ecimen of G. rainiflorum ; Guillaumin 
(1. c.) remarks, "Could this be the Glochidion sp. found on Tanna by Forster?" 
The type collection of G. tannacnsc diflfers but slightly, if at all. from certain 
pubescent forms of the Fijian plant. Mueller Argoviensis typifies G. raniifloruni 
(as Phyllanihus raiuifJorus var. gcnuinus, in DC. Prodr. 15(2) : 289. 1866) with 
reference to the Forster specimen from the Societies and not the one from the 
New Hebrides. To judge by a specimen verified by MueHer himself, it is not 
improbable that he understood as P. ramiflorus var. gcnuinus the entity from 
Raiatea published as G. cniarginatuui bv Aloore (in liishoji Mus. Bull. 102: 30. 
1933). 

In view of the constant confusion of various plants under the name G. ranii- 
floruni, the following outline of distribution is suggested pending a critical studv 
of the entire genus in the Pacific : 

(1). Glochidion raniifloruni is typified by a plant from Tanna, which is ])roi)- 
al:)ly conspecific with that described by Guillaumin as 6\ fa)inacnsc. This s]iecies 



48 SARGENTIA [1 

is very close to that of Fiji and may be conspecific with G. concolor Muell. Arg. 
The complex of G. rainiftorian may extend as far east as Tonga. 

(2). Mueller Argoviensis errs in typifying G. ramiflonwi with reference to a 
plant from the Societies. This plant is apparently close to G. Manono and may 
prove to be the same as G. cinarginatum. 

(3). In the present state of our knowledge, the range of G. rmniflorum cannot 
be extended east of Samoa, and it is doubtful whether Forster's species occurs 
eastward lieyond Tonga. 
Glochidion marquesanum (F. Brown) Croizat, comb. nov. 

Glochidion ramiflonitn var. marquesanum F. Brown in Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 144. /. 
22, a-c. 1935. 

This new combination should not be delayed, in view of the above discussion. 
Brown's entity has certainly little to do wath the Tanna material of Forster, and 
hardly anything in common with the material from the Societies mistakenly used 
by Mueller to typify Forster's concept. 

Breynia disticha Forst f. var. typica Muell. Arg. f. nivosa (W. G. Smith) Croizat, 
comb. nov. 

FhxUanthus nivosus W. G. Smith in Flor. Mag. n. s. 13: pi 120. 1874; Sherff in Field 
Mus. Publ. Bot. 17: 568. 1939. 

Phyllanthus rosco-pictus Hort. ex Reg. in Gartenfl. 28: 19. 1879. 

Brcxnia nivosa Small in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 516. 1910; Setch. in Univ. Cal. Publ. 
Bot. 12: 187. 1926; Wilder in Bishop Mus. Bull. 86: 66. 1931; Christoph. in Bishop 
Mus. Bull. 128: 120. 1935; F. Brown in Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 137. 1935. 

Breynia nivosa var. rosco-picta F. Brown in Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 137. 1935. 

Brcxnia J. R. & G. Forst. is illegitimate on two counts. It is a later homonym 
of Breynia L. (Sp. PI. 503. 1753) and a nouicn confusuui, a mixture of Breynia 
sp. and Phyllanthus distichus L., which was rejected by both A. de Jussieu (Tent. 
Euph. 22. 1824) and Baillon (Et. Gen. Euph. 633. 1858). Consequently Brey- 
nia J. R. & G. Forst. is here retained as a nonicn gencricuui conservandiim propo- 
sitiun. If its conservation is not upheld, the valid name will be Melanthcs Bl. 
(corrected from Melanthesa Bl. in Bl. & Fisch. Fl. Jav. 1: vii, in not. 1828). It 
should be noted that Melanthcs already has legitimate status in nomenclature as 
Breynia Sect. Melanthes [Melanthesa] Baill. (in Adansonia 6: 344. 1866). 

The reduction of Breynia under Phyllanthus as proposed by Sherff hardly de- 
serves mention, as the two genera are distinct and have so been treated for over 
a century. 

Abundant material of B. disticha var. ncocaledonica Muell. Arg. is available for 
comparison (Vicillard 1195, Franc 1645, 1645a, and 2117). The foliage of this 
plant is usually smaller than that of the Snowbush Breynia, but all other char- 
acters are practically the same in the two entities. Thus it appears most probable 
that this well known ornamental belongs to var. genuina, of which it is a form 
verging on the lusus, the variegations of the leaves changing endlessly even on the 
same plant. The possibility that the Tongatabu specimen of B. oblongifolia 
cited by Mueller Argoviensis (in DC. Prodr. 15(2) : 440. 1866) might belong to 
B. disticha is not to be excluded, since a specimen of the Snowbush Breynia, 
Wood 1159 (A), exhibits some long and narrow leaves which appear to match 
the foliage of B. longifolia. 

The plant upon which W. G. Smith described and figured P. nivosus is stated 
in the publication to have come from the New Hebrides and to have been culti- 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 49 

vated by W. Bull of Chelsea, England. The parenthetic anthorshi]) "Bull." or 
"Bnlliard," given by various authors, is an error. 

The new combination is exemplified by the following material : Degcner & 
Ordonez 13667 (A) and Greemvood 727B (A) from Viti Levu, Fiji, Jack 4425 
(A) from Cuba, and Croicat (A). 

Drypetes vitiensis Croizat, sp. nov. 

Arbor 6-metralis. innovationibus adultioribus atro-l)runneis confcrte albido- 
lenticellatis. a]Mce parcius hispidulis glabratisve subtus glabcrrimis ; f oliis more 
generis in sicco olivaceo-discoloribus, firme chartaceis, glaberrimis, integerrimis, 
oblongo-ellipticis vel ovato-ellipticis, apice latissime acuminatis vel subrotundatis, 
basi rotundatis leviter anisomeris, 3-7 cm. longis, 2-5 cm. latis, venis gracilibus 
et subtus perspicuis late patentibus vel adscendentibus saepius furcatim anastomo- 
santibus, ca. 5-7-jugis, venulis irregulariter reticulatis valde delicatis subob- 
scurisve, petiolo ruguloso 10-15 mm. longo ; stipulis obsoletis ; fructu tantum viso : 
pedicello 5-7 mm. longo lenticellato saei:)ius rigidulo porrecto, perianthio sub 
fructu elobato vix 2 mm. lato, fructu immaturo habitu subbaccato olivaceo, pilis 
albidis paucis ad basim induto. caeterum glabro. ad 15 mm. longo et 7 mm. crasso, 
stylis nigro-brunneis 2-3 depressis, more generis vix 1.5 mm. longis latisque. 

Viti LEvr : R a : Vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 15430 (A, 
type), June 3, 1941 (in dry forest; fruit red; native name: mojic). 

I know of no other species with which this may be compared. The genus 
Drypetes is emphatically suggested by the characters of the fruit and the placenta- 
tion. Prof. I. \\\ I^ailey, who has kindly studied the wood of this i)lant, reports 
that its structure in all probability indicates that a species of Drypetes is re]:)re- 
sented. The genus is new to Fiji. A peculiarity worthy of note is the presence 
of a ]:)air of glands near the hilum on the aril of the immature seed. 
Claoxylon parvicoccum Croizat, sjx nov. 

Arlniscula patens 4-10 m. alta ; innovationibus parcius puberulis ; foliis in sicco 
subconcoloribus olivaceis, junioribus interdum hie inde vinosis, ovato- vel obovato- 
ellipticis glabris vel glabratis, apice breviter acuminatis, basi longe cuneatis vel 
cuneato-rotundatis, margine sub lente crenato-denticulatis vel glanduloso-dentatis, 
7-17 cm. longis, 3-9 cm. latis, venis adscendentibus ca. 5-jugis anastomosantibus 
valde obscuris ; petiolo herbaceo puberulo 2-6 cm. longo, saepius vinoso, apice 
glandulis 2 sat inconspicuis ornato ; stipulis glandulosis parvis ; inflorescentiis spi- 
catis vel subracemosis, gracilibus ad 8 cm. longis ; perianthio J* ca. 4 mm. magno, 
pedicello 1 mm. longo, lobis 3 ca. 2 mm. longis et 1 mm. latis, staminibus ca. 
25-35 ; perianthio $ ca. 1 mm. longo et 2 mm. lato, ])edicello articulato vix 0.8 mm. 
longo, petalis 3 ovato-rotundatis ca. 0.3 mm. magnis, sepalis totidem ac petalis ca. 
1 mm. longis et 1.5 mm. latis rotundatis; ovario perianthium longe excedente, 
parte ejus libera 1-1.5 mm. longa, ca. 2 mm. lata, stylis 3 minimis vix 0.25 mm. 
longis. 

KoRo: Eastern slope of main ridge, alt. 200-300 m., Smith 1005 (GH) (tree 10 m. high, 
in forest). Vanua Levu: Mbua : Southern portion of Seatovo Range, alt. 100-350 m., 
Smith 1520 (GH) (spreading tree 4 m. high, at edge of forest; native name: vakatharen- 
davui) ; Thakaun drove : Maravu, vicinity of Salt Lake, Dcgcncr & Ordonea 14172 
(A). Taveuni: Vicinity of Wairiki, alt. 200 m., Gillespie 4641 (GH, type), Feb. 1928. 

TONGA: Kla: Old Parker plantation, Parks 16262 (A). 

Gillespie has pertinently pointed out (in Bishop Mus. Bull. 91: 14. 1932) that 
the characters of the staminate flower used by Mueller and by Pax and Hofifmann 
to key out the sections and species of Claoxylon are not reliable. Not all the 
genera of the Euphorbiaceae can be identified on the basis of pistillate flowers 
(e.g. PhyllanthHS, which usually proves unworkable when staminate flowers are 



50 SARGEN71A [1 

lacking), but Claoxylon, like Croton, is clearly to be worked out first and fore- 
most on tbe pistillate structures. Speciation by alterations taking place m the 
pistillate flower seems to be as widespread and as definite in Claoxylon as it is in 
Croton. 

Claoxylon viticnse Gillespie is an excellent species, with essentially oblong 
leaves that are much longer than broad and with the young parts thickly velu- 
tinous, the indument being generally brownish. The leaves tend to be softly 
pubescent beneath and the styles are well-developed in relation to the size of the 
ovary, pa])illose, and spreading-rccurved. Gillespie's illustration (in Bishop J\Ius. 
Bull. 91 : /. 14. 1932) of the habit fails to convey the impression which is gathered 
from such specimens as Gillespie 2600 (GH), 2999 (GH), and 3280 (GH). 
Degener & Ordonec 13770 (A), and Dcgcncr 15203 (A), all from Viti Levu. 
Claoxylon fallax Muell. Arg. is also a good species, as re])resented by Sceuianu 
394 (GH) and Tabuolewa 15598 (A), with a rather thinly velutinous new growth 
and leaves tending to be ovate to obovate, on the whole perhaps a trifle larger than 
those shown by Gillespie in his illustration of C. viticnse, but otherwise very much 
like them. It appears to be very difficult, if indeed possible, on the basis of 
foliage to distinguish between certain states of the species and of C. fallax. (Gil- 
lespie is probably correct in treating as C. fallax such specimens as (lillcsfic 3477 
and 3565 ; Gillespie 2213, in fruit, seems also to belong here. 

Claoxylon parvicoccum differs from C. fallax, with which it can easily be con- 
fused at a first glance, in the following features: (1) the ovary is about 3 mm. 
broad and the style not less than 2 mm. long in C. fallax (interpreted from Tabu- 
alezva 15598), while the ovary in C. parvicoccuui is only 2 mm. broad and the 
styles barely 0.25 mm. long; (2) the ovary is heavily hispidulous and light yellow 
in C. fallax, sparingly setulose and wine-colored or pink in C. pan'icoceitm ; (3) 
the perianth-lobes (sepals) are broadly ovate to triangular and more or less 
acuminate in C. fallax, nearly transversely oblong and much rounded in C. parvi- 
coeciini; and (4) the petals are much smaller by comparison with the sepals in 
C. fallax than they are in C. parvicoccum. These characters, taken jointly, mani- 
festly separate the pistillate flowers of the two species. The Tonga record cited 
above is established on poor material and requires further confirmation. 

Claoxylon Archboldianum Croizat, sp. nov. 

b'rutex vel arbuscula ; innovationibus valde herbaceis, apice summo glabrcscenti- 
bus vix setulosis ; foliis in sicco olivaceis vel vinoso-olivaceis, 5-10 cm. longis. 
2^.5 cm. latis, lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis vel oblanceolatis, apice acuminatis, 
basi cuneatis, margine plus minusve repandulo-dentatis, su])ra glabris subtus gla- 
bratis glabrisve, venis adscendentibus ca. 5-jugis ; petiolo 1-^ cm. longo, ad laminae 
radicem ipsam glandulis 4 antice instructo ; sti]'julis glandulosis subnullis ; inflores- 
centiis gracilibus sjiicatis ad 4 cm. longis ; floribus (^ ignotis ; floribus 5 : ])erianlhio 
2.5 mm. lato, 1 mm. longo, i)edicello articulato cum pedunculo ca. 2.5 mm. longo. 
lobis 3 late triangularibus ad 2 mm. latis et 1 mm. longis, apice acutato saepius 
subcallosis, petalis nullis at disco hypogyno glanduloso inter lobos petali modo 
incrassato ; ovario pyramidato vix setuloso ca. 1.5 mm. longo, stylis 3 patentibus 
papulosis ad 1 mm. longis integris ; capsula fragili tricocca vinosa glabrata ad 3 
mm. longa et 5 mm. lata, semine subgloboso-compresso ca. 3 mm. magno. arillo 
tenui vinoso, testa valde rugoso-as])erata. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m.. Dcgcncr 14906 
(A, type), Mar. 26, 1941. Vaxu.\ Lkvu : Mbua : Mbiia Bay, U . S. Expl. ILvpcd. (GH, 
probably only in part). 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 51 

At first sij^ht it is easy to mistake C. Archboldianum for C. ccJiinospcrmum, 
but the new species differs from Mueller's entity (based on U. S. Ex pi. Exped. 
from Ovalau) in having leaves which are much more deeply repand-serrate, petals 
which are rei)laced by glands fusing with the disc, a less definitely trigonous fruit 
with blunter keels, and the epicarp practically glabrous (very sparingly setulose 
under a lens) and of a vinous color rather than appressed-velvety-setulose and 
}ell(nv. In addition, the seed of C. Archboldianum is merely rugose, while it is 
definitely asperate in C. echinospcnmim. These diflferences point to entities 
which are not conspecific, showing that Claoxylon, like Crotoii, speciates mainly 
in the pistillate flower and the fruit. 

Claoxylon sitibundum Croizat, sp. nov. 

Arbuscula 3-5 m. alta ; innovationibus parcius setulosis in ramos graciles cica- 
tricosos abeuntibus ; f oliis in sicco brunneis vel olivaceis glabris, costa venisque 
interdum vinosis, 4.5-7 cm. longis, 2-3 cm. latis, lanceolatis vel oblanceolatis, 
habitu vcrticillatis, apice plus minusve acuminatis, basi longe cuneatis, margine 
repando-dentatis, venis sat obscuris adscendentibus ca. 6-jugis; petiolo 1-1.5 cm. 
longo setuloso vel glabrato vinoso canaliculato in laminam confluente, apice antice 
denticulis vel glandulis 2-4 ornato ; stipulis triangularibus minutis ; inflorescentiis 
simplicibus si^catis 4 cm. longis vel brevioribus ; floribus J* ignotis ; floribus $ : 
perianthio 3-loI)ato, ca. 0.75 mm. longo et 1.5 mm. lato. lobis triangulari-ovatis 
costulatis, petalis saturate vinosis subnigris vel nigris, late rotundatis, lobis sub- 
aequilongis; ovario gloluiloso nigricanti ])arcissime setuloso ca. 1.5 mm. magno, 
vix tertio infero in perianthio incluso, stylis 3 nigricantibus revolutis vix 0.5 mm. 
longis ; capsula nigricanti ca. 3.5 mm. lata et 2.5 mm. longa. seminibus com- 
planatis, ambitu rotundatis, arillo nigricanti vel saturato-vinoso. ca. 2.5 mm. latis, 
vermiculato-rugosis. 

ViTi Levu: Ra : Vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka. alt. 50-200 m.. Dc(iencr 15460 (A, 
type), June 6, 1941 (in dry rocky forest). 

This is another species which can easily be confused with C. echinospcrmum 
and C. Archboldianum, of which it suggests a depauperate form with slender 
branchlets and verticillate leaves. It differs from the former in the small blackish 
ca])sule, the short inflorescence bearing usually a single ai)ical pistillate flower, 
the smaller and differently sculptured seed, and in every detail of the perianth. 
It can be separated from C. Archboldianum by the smaller lenticular seed, the 
shape of the ]:)erianth-lobes. the presence of petals rather than glands in the flower, 
the inflorescence, and the leaves, which are broader in relation to their length. 

A group of species of close relationship, with a range extending from the Dutch 
East Indies to Polynesia, contains C. echinospermum Muell. Arg., C. taitense 
Muell. Arg., C. crytJirophyllum Miq., C. affine Zoll., C. samocnsc Pax & Hoffm., 
C Arcliboldianum Croizat, and C. sitibundum Croizat. 

Cleidion Degeneri Croizat, sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbuscula 2-metralis, innovationibus adpresse griseo-setulosis, citis- 
sime glabris, cortice griseo vel griseo-brunneo, cicatricibus foliorum delapsorum 
bene notato ; foliis tenellis subtus praesertim parcius hispido-setulosis mox gla- 
bratis vel glabris, in sicco atro-olivaceis vel olivaceo-discoloribus, lanceolatis vel 
elliptico-lanceolatis chartaceis, apice brevius acuminatis, acumine mucronulato, 
basi plus minusve truncato biauriculatis, margine ratione varia dentato-serratis vel 
obscure serratis. serraturis incurvis glandulosis, 3-10 mm. inter se distantibus, 
6-12 cm. longis. 2-5 cm. latis, venis adscendentibus ca. 7-jugis; inflorescentiis J* 
simplicibus habitu spicatis, ad 7 cm. longis, gracilibus, 5 cymosis vel subpanicu- 



52 SARGENTIA [1 

latis, pedunculo coinniuiii gracillimo axillari ad 4 cm. longo, pediccllis ca. 5-10 
subcapillaceis ad 1.5 cm. longis ; floribus J" in cymis pliirifloris congestis, ])eri- 
anthio ut videtur 3-lo1)ato ad 3 mm. longo et lato, pediccllo 1.5 mm. longo, stami- 
nibus nltra 20 pulvinatim aggregatis; floribus $: periantbio 3-fido in pedicellum 
more generis abennte, lobis subsetaceis 2-3 mm. longis, pnl)erulis glabratisve, 
ovario ut videtur 3-loculari ca. 1.5 mm. magno minute griseo-pul)crnlo levi, styHs 
3 babitu lentis, basi 0.3 mm. coimatis, dein i)artitis. cruribus snbulatis integerrimis, 
puberulo-papillosis, colore plus minusve vinosis, ad 14 mm. longis, fructu imma- 
turo capsulari ad 4 mm. longo et 7 mm. crasso, levi, coccorum dorso plus minusve 
costulato. 

ViTi Ij:vu: Tholo North : Vicinity of Tavua, alt. 30-150 m.. Dajcncr 14962 (A) 
(shrub 1-2 m. liigh, in isolated dry forested ravine; fruit whitish); Ra : Vicinity of Re- 
wasa, near Vailcka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 15505 (A); T li o 1 o West : Mbuyombuyo, 
near Namboutini, Tabualczm 15570 (A, typk), June 17, 1941 (shrub or small tree 2 m. high). 

Of tbis genus, only C. ricillardii V>:u]\. var. 7'iticiisc Aluell. Arg. bas tbus far 
been reported from Fiji. 1 do not know wbetber C. Dccjcucri is tbe same as 
Mueller's variety, but it is certainly not cons])ecitic witb C. Vicillardii. Tbe de- 
scriptions of C. vcrticiUatmn Haill., wbicb Diiniker (in Viert. Nat. Forscb. Gesell. 
Ziiricb 77 (Beibl. Y)) : 224. 1932) reports from tbe Loyalty Islands, and of C. 
Vicillardii var. tnar cense Ouillaumin (in Sarasin cK: Kotix, Nov. Calcd. Hot. 166. 
1920), from New Caledonia, do not suggest the characters of C. Degciicri. Cle- 
idion is abundant in New Caledonia, btit it does not seem to be represented else- 
where in Oceania except by scattered species of restricted range. 

Trigonostemon (?) voratus Croizat, sp. nov. 

Arbor videtur vel frutex validus, innovationibtis j)ube sordide albicanti ])rinitim 
adpresse puberulis mox glabratis insigniter cicatricosis ; foliis obovato-lanceolatis 
firme chartaceis, in sicco olivaceo-griseis, subtus pallidioribus, ca. 25 cm. longis 
et 13 cm. latis, glabris, apice breviter acuminatis vel rotundato-acuminatis fere e 
medio deorsum gradatim cuneatis, margine integerrimis, venis primariis modice 
adscendentibus sub margine i])so anastomosatis ca. 10-12-jugis. venulis supra 
quam subtus magis obviis, gracillimis. crebris, ]ictiolo herbaceo 5-7 cm. longo. 
puberulo ; stipulis valde obscuris ; inflorcscentiis axillaribus 12-14 cm. longis totis 
his])ido-j)ubescentibus subberbaceis vel herbaceis, in apice stib floribus bracteis 
foliaceis, notis totis cum foliis ipsis congruentibus at valde minoribus ornatis, 
bracteis ad 4 cm. longis et 1.5 cm. latis; pedicellis articulatis ad 2-3 mm. longis 
validiusculis, pedunculis ut videtur simplicibus bracteolatis ; periantbio ca. 15 mm. 
lato 5-mero, lobis ovatis vel ovato-lanccolatis nervosis, ad 5 mm. longis et 4 mm. 
latis, margine interdum ]:iarcissime et grosse dentato-lobatis, disco ut videttir 
nullo ; ovarii reliquiis bispido-tomentosis. 

ViTi l^Kvu : Tholo West : Mbuyombuyo, near Xamboutini, Tahualcwa 15569 (A, 
TYPE), June 17, 1941. 

The cited collection is represented by many duplicates, but not a single flower 
bas escaped tbe attacks of insects; tbe young fruit bas all been devoured but for 
traces left at tbe bottom of the j)erianth. Trigoiiosteinoii has not previously been 
reported from Fiji, but the present collection suggests it by the habit of the in- 
florescence, the nature of the pubescence, and the perianth, and is not excluded 
by the foliage-characters. That the new species does not belong in Cleidion is 
indicated by the sha])e of the cal\x-lobes and the ])resence of conspicuous foli- 
aceous bracts on tbe inflorescence. That tbe cited s])ecimen re])resents a species 
new to Fiji seems to be certain. 



1942] SMITH, FIJI AX PLANT STUDIES, II 53 

HIPPOCRATKACKAK 

Salacia vitiensis A. C. Sm. in Am. Jour. I!ot. 28: 440. 1941. 

Vanua Levu : Thakaun drove : Between Valanga and Valethi. Savu Savu Bay 
.region, near sea-level, Dcgcncr & Ordonea 14055 (A) (liana, in open forest; flowers and 
fruit green). 

The cited collection is the third of the s]:)ecies known to me ; it was ohtaincd 
fairly near the tyi)e-locality. Thus far S. z'iticnsis is known only from Vanua 
Levu. 

Salacia pachycarpa sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens suh fructu ul)i(|ue giaher. ramulis crassis (a])icem versus 1.5-3 
mm. diametro) teretihus rugosis fusccj-cinereis lenticellatis ad nodos incrassatis ; 
foliis oppositis vel sul)0])i)ositis. ])etiolis validis canaliculatis 1.5-3 cm. longis, 
laminis chartaceis siccitate viridi-olivaceis ovato-ellipticis, (6-) 8-18.5 cm. longis. 
(3-) 4.5-10 cm. latis, hasi rotundatis vel ohtusis et suhito in petiolum decurrenti- 
bus, apice obtusis, margine integris et leviter recurvatis, costa supra elevata subtus 
prominente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 6-9 curvatis sujM'a jiaullo subtus valde 
elevatis, rete venularum intricate utrinque leviter prominulo ; inflorescentiis axil- 
laribus ut videtur subfasciculatis, pedicellis fructiferis incrassatis lenticellatis cir- 
citer 5 mm. longis. fructibus solitariis subglobosis maturitate 25-30 mm. diametro, 
basi et ajMce rotundatis. i)ericarpio levi lignoso 2-4 mm. crasso, dissepimentis 
evanescentibus, seminibus ut \idetur circiter 4 in ]:iulpo sparso nidulantibus elli])- 
soideis plerumque angulatis. 

ViTi Levu: Ra : Mataiineravula, vicinity of Rewasa. near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., 
Dcgcncr 15437 (A, typk), June 3, 1941 (liana, in dark forest; native name: ivasam). 

Although the cited collection lacks flowers, there seems to be no doubt that it 
represents a new sjiecies related to 6". vitiensis A. C. Smith, from which it diiTers 
in its stouter habit and much larger leaves, which are distinctly broadest below 
the middle (rather than oblong-ellijitic) and have more obvious secondary nerves 
and veinlets. The fruits of the two s]:)ecies are very similar. Another relative 
of S. pachycarpa is S. ancitycnsis Guillaumin of the New Hebrides, based upon a 
collection with only two immature fruits. However, these fruits aj^pear to have 
a thick pericar]) and thus to differentiate the. species from .S". priuoides (Willd.) 
DC. As com])ared with S. pachycarpa, S. ancitycnsis has proportionately broader 
elliptic leaf-blades and the pericarp conspicuously ])ale-verrucose rather than 
smooth. 

ICACIXACEAE 

Bv R. A. Howard 
Citronella vitiensis Howard, sp. nov. 

Arbor parva. ramulis teretihus glaljris; foliis 1-1.5 cm. longe petiolatis, laminis 
subcoriaceis glaberrimis integris late ovatis vel ellipticis, 10-16 cm. longis. 6-12 
cm. latis, apice ad 1 cm. longo acuminatis, basi rotundatis vel subcordatis. costa 
supra vix subtus bene proiuinente, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 4 vel 5 arcuatis 
anastomosantibus ; paniculis terminalibus 8-19 cm. longis. cymulis ad 1 cm. longis 
apice flores ])lures subca]iitato-congestos vel secundo-scor])ioides gerentibus, 
rhachi adi:)resso-flavido-pubescente ; calycis lobis ovatis. 1 tum. longis, 1.5 mm. 
latis, ciliatis ; petalis glabris oblongis, 5 mm. longis, 1.4 mm. latis. costa ])rominula 
ornatis ; staminibus ad 4.5 mm. longis. filamentis crassiusculis. antheris oblongis 
1.2 mm. longis basi cordatis ; ovario ovoideo glabro in stylum attenuato ; stigmate 
capitato rugoso ; fructibus oblongo-ovoideis ad 3 cm. longis et 1.5 cm. latis com- 
planatis, basi truncatis vel subcordatis. apicem versus angustatis, jnitamine lignoso 
conspicue angulari prominenter costato. 



54 



SARGENTIA 



ViTi Levu : N a i t a s i r i : Suva Pumping Station, alt. 30 m.. Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13773 
(A) (tree, in forest; flowers pale greenisli yellow; native name: nunga) ; Nasinu, Gillespie 
3590 (GH, NY, US). Ovalau : Levuka Reservoir, Gillespie 4511 (GH, US), 4527 (GH, 
NY). Vanua Levu: Thakaun drove : Vatunivuamonde Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, 
alt. 300 m., Degcncr & Ordonez 14007 (A, type) (small tree, in forest). 

This species is similar in general appearance to Citrondla samocnsis (A. Gray) 
Howard, but the fruits are strikingly different. The drupe is strongly prismatic, 
with sharp angles due to the rugose putamen, and is flattened or concave on one 
side. The apex is acute and tapers to a point that is centric, not acentric as in 




Fig. 3. Citronella vitiensis (drawings made from type specimen): a. habit, X ^/4 ; b. 
pistil, X 10; c. diagrammatic cross-section of pistil; d. apical view of mature fruit, X %; 
e. diagrammatic cross-section of fruit; /. seed, X %; g. embryo, X 4; h-j. three views 
of a single fruit, X •%• Drawings by R. A. Howard. 



C. sainoensis. This is the first report of the genus Citronella from Fiji, the only 
other member of the family found there being the common Mcdusanthcra vitiensis 
Seem. For the synonymy of this latter species see Howard in Jour. Arnold Arb. 
21 : 469. 1940. 

SAPINDACEAE 
Guioa chrysea sj). nov. 

Arbor, innovationibus chryseo-puberulis. ramulis subteretibtis demum glabris 
fusco-cinereis ; foliis abrupte piimalis. i)etiolo basi incrassato ad 4 cm. longo et 
rhachi subangulata ut ramulis juvenilibus puberulis vel breviter pilosis; foliolis 
5^ o])])ositis vel alternatis, petiolulis subcomplanatis 5-8 mm. longis. laminis 
chartaceis subfalcato-elliptico-oblongis, (6-) 8-13 cm. longis, 2.5-5 cm. latis. basi 
acutis et in petiolum decurrentibus. apice conspicue acuminatis (acumine ad 1.5 
cm. longo obtuso), margine integris et leviter recurvatis, supra glabris vel dis- 
perse pilosis, subtus sparse breviter adpresso-chryseo-pilosis ac etiam brunneo- 
glandulosis. in axillis inter costam ac venas saepe conspictie foveolatis, costa 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 55 

utrinquc prominente, nervis sccundariis utrinsecus 5-8 erecto-palentibus irregu- 
lariter arcuato-anastomosantibus utrinque valde elevatis, rete venularum intricate 
utrinque pauUo prominulo ; inflorescentiis axillaribus vel subterminalibus ad 10 
cm. longis copiose raniosis multifloris ubiqiic dense chryseo-pilosis (pilis sub- 
patentibus 0.1-0.2 mm. longis), bracteis anguste oblongis obtusis circiter 2 mm. 
longis, bracteolis niinoribus ; floribus in ramulis ultimis brevibus solitariis, ])edi- 
cellis 0.7-1 mm. longis ; sepalis 5 imbricatis submembranaceis concavis suborl)icn- 
laribus rotundatis 1.5-2.5 mm. diametro glabris vel exterioribus extus ut ramulis 
inflorescentiae subsericeis ; petalis 5 membranaceis suborbicularibus sub antbesi 
circiter 2.5 mm. diametro (alabastro multo minoribus), glabris vel basim versus 
ciliolatis, margine undulatis, intus basi squamulatis, squamula bifida 0.4-1 mm. 
longa distaliter j^lis albidis 0.1-0.3 mm. longis dense barbellato-ciliolata ; disco an- 
nulari integro creinilato glabro ; staminibus 8, filamentis filiformibus sub anthesi 
ad 3 mm. longis albido-pilosis, antheris oblongis 0.6-0.7 mm. longis glabris vel 
sparse ])ilosis; ovario rudimentario subconico-triquetro sparse cbryseo-sericeo. 
ViTi Levu : Tholo North : Nandala, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about 750 m., 
Degener 14398 (A, type), Feb. 15, 1941 (specimens from fallen tree, in forest). 

Guioa chrysca (Sect. Euguioa) is a species of the relationship of G. subfalcata- 
Radlk., from which it differs in its larger leaflets with more obvious puberulence 
on the lower surfaces, the short golden hairs of its inflorescence-branches, sejmls, 
etc., and its ]Mlose petal-scales. The leaflets of the new species have less regularly 
anastoiuosing secondaries than those of G. subfalcata and also have the veinlet 
reticulation less intricate and not as definitely prominulous. 

Koelreuteria formosana Havata, Ic. PI. Formes. 3: 64. pL 13. 1913; Radlk. in Pflanzenr. 
98 (IV. 165): 1333. 1933. 
ViTi Levi- : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Below Nandarivatu, alt. about 600 m.. Grconcood 450 A 
(A) (tree to 11 m. high, in gullies and on hillsides; flowers yellow, the petal-bases red; fruit 
reddish brown); Ra : Mataimeravula, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., 
Degcncr 15435 (A) (large tree, in open forest; native name: lombolombo; extract of leaves 
used as a black hair-dye). 

Although the collectors' notes do not indicate that this plant is an escape from 
cultivation, this seems certainly to be the case, as the specimens are not to be 
distinguished from Formosan material. The genus has not previously been re- 
ported from the region. Greenwood comments upon the brevity of the flowering 
season and states that he has collected the same species from the vicinity of 
Lautoka. 

HarpuUia mellea Lauterb. in Bot. Jahrb. 41: 229. 1908; Radlk. in Pflanzenr. 98 (lY. 
165): 1453. 1934; Christoph. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 133. 1935. 
Kambara : Smith 1267 (GH, NY) (tree 18 m. high, in forest on limestone formation; 
fruit red; native name: vuvida) . FuLAN(iA : Smith 1153 (GH. NY) (tree 13 m. high, in 
forest on limestone formation; petals pale yellow; fruit red). 

HarpuUia mcllca has previously been reported from Samoa and Tonga. Al- 
though Guillaumin (in Jour. Arnold Arb. 14: 56. 1933) states that H. arbor ca 
(Blanco) Radlk. occurs in Samoa and Fiji, I have not been able to find other 
references to such distribution, nor have I seen specimens of H. arborea from 
these groups. Until specimens are available from Fiji, it seems best to recognize 
the New Hebrides as the eastern limit of H. arborea. I believe that the present 
reference to H. mellea is the first authentic record of the genus in Fiji. 

VITACEAE 
Cayratia Seemanniana sp. nov. 

Vitis sapoiiaria Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 254, nomen. 1861; Seem. Mission to Viti 434, 
nomen. 1862; A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 5: 316, nomen. 1862; A. Oay in Bonplan(Ha 



56 SARGENTIA [1 

10: 35, nonicn. 1862; Seem. Fl. Vit. 44. 1865. Not I'ilis saf^onaria Benth. 1*"1. Austral. 
1: 448. 1863. Not Cissus saponaria Planch, in DC. Monogr. Phan. 5: 574. 1887. Not 
Cayratia saponaria Domin in Rep. Sp. Nov. 11: 264. 1912; (iuillaumin in Jour. Arnold 
Arb. 12: 240, as C. saponacca. 1931. 

Frutex scandens. catilibits gracilibtis striatis juventute alb()-])ul)ertili.s et piir- 
purascentibus demtim glal)ris et citiereis ; foliis petiolatis trifoliolatis, ])etiolis 
gracilil)tis tit ranitiHs i^allide ])ubertiHs ad 12 cm. longis l)a.si iiicrassatis, petioltilis 
siibteretibus decidtie piibertiHs 1-3.5 cm. (teniiiiialil)tis ad 6 cm.) loiigis, laniinis 
teiiuiter ])apyracei,s vel stibcbartaceis ()vatc)-eni])ticis. 7-16 cm. longis. 4-12 cm. 
latis, basi proftuide itiaequilatefabter cordatis (tenninaHbus rotuiidatis), apice 
obtusis et interdum minute apiculatis. marginc cons])icuc crenatis, supra glabris, 
stibtus in nervis puberulis atque in axillis inter venas ac costam persistenter albido- 
barbellatis, costa supra clevata subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 
5-7 erect()-patentil)tis (eis l)asim versits divergentibtis et ramosis) titrinqtte valde 
prominubs, rete venularum intricate immerse vel utrinque piano ; inflorescentiis 
axillaribus divaricato-cymosis sub antbesi ad 7 cm. sub fructu ad 12 cm. (bametro. 
ubi(|tie ( ])eduncubs lirevibus, ramuHs gracibbus. pedicellis, et calycibus) piHs 
]:iatentibtis albo-cinereo-jniberuHs atque interdum dense lirunneo-glandulosis ; 
florilnis in apicibus ramulortim plerumque ternatis, ])ediceUis gracibbus 1-2 mm. 
longis; calyce cupubformi sub antbesi circiter 1.5 mm. longo et 2 mm. diametro, 
margine truncato vel mimite 4-apiculato ; petalis 4 membranaceis minute glandu- 
losis ()1)l()ngis. sub antbesi circiter 3 mm. longis et 2 mm. latis. a])ice subacutis ; 
staminibus 4 in sulcubs mimitis disci insertis. blamentis glat)ris filiformibus 1.4— 
1.7 mm. longis. antberis oblongo-ellipsoideis circiter 0.7 mm. longis; disco carnoso 
leviter crentilato mintite i)allido-glanduloso ; ovario in disco immerso, stylo conico 
circiter 1 mm. longo ol)tuso, ovtilis 4; baccis depresso-globosis rugtilosis 7-8 mm. 
diametro minute luteo-glandulosis columna stylorum persistenter coronatis, peri- 
carpio carnoso, seminibus 3 vel 4 ellipsoideis circiter 5 mm. longis et latis intus 
conspicuc angulatis et fossa plus minusve jirofunda jiraeditis. 

ViTi Lf.vu : Iv a : Saulangitua, vicinity of Rewasa. near Vaileka. alt. 50-200 m., 
Dcgcncr 15503 (.\, tvp?:). June 10, 1941 (liana, in forest). Ov.\i..\r : Vicinity of Levuka, 
alt. 400 m., Gillespie 44S5 (GH). Motukiki: Scciiiann 76 (GH) (native name: zca 
roturotu). Vaniw Lkvu : Mbua : Mbna Bay, [/. S. E.vpl. Expcd. (GH). 

Tbere bas been considerable confusion coitcerning tbe name Viiis; saponaria 
and various combinations based upon it. Although tbe name ai)peared several 
times ]irevious to tbe publication of the first i)art of Flora Vitiensis in 1865, it was 
validly ]Hil)lished only by Bentham (Fl. Austr. 1: 448. 1863). The type of the 
species, therefore, is the plant ttpon which Bentham based his description. The 
only specimens acttially cited by lientham are Atistralian collections of R. Brown 
and MacGillivray. and these are to be considered coty])es. The fact that l^entham 
accredits the name to Seemann, on the sti]^position that the platit listed by See- 
mann in his Mission to Viti (and also in his reprinted Syst. List Vit. PI. 4. 1862) 
is conspecific with the Australian plant, does not give the Fijian collection of 
Seemann the stattis of type. 

Later atithors. including Blanchon and Domin, have accepted the Australian 
and Fijian plants as cons]X'cific and have erroneotisly accredited the name to 
Seemann. The correct modern contbination for the Australian ]ilant would ^.y>- 
])ear to be Cayratia saponaria (Benth.) Domin; even though Domin does not 
cite Bentham's publication, it is obviotis that he is basing his new combination 
upon Bentham's concept, since only the MacGillivray specimen is cited. 

Since it now appears that the Fijian and Australian plants are not conspecific. 
and since the name Fifis sapo)iaria must definitely be taken for the latter, the 
former should receive a new name. The Fijian s])ecimens cited by Seemann and 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 57 

Gray have no status as types and therefore it is not necessary to base the new 
name upon them. I prefer to designate the recent Degener collection as the type, 
since the material is more complete and am])le than that of previous collections. 
As to the identity of the New Hebrides plant which Guillaumin (in Jour. Arnold 
Arb. 12: 240. 1931) cites as Cayratia "saf'onacca." this is clearly not conspecific 
with the Fijian plants cited above. 

Cayratia Sccinanniana differs from the Australian C. saponaria (Benth.) 
Domin in having its leaflets thinner and with persistent tufts of hairs in the axils 
of nerves on the lower surface, its lateral leaflets more conspicuously cordate, 
and the leaflet-margins more deejily crenulate ; whether or not there are good 
floral differences I cannot say at ])resent. The new sj^ecies is also closely related 
to the Papuasian C. grand if olia (Warb.) Merr. & Perry, a species with larger 
and somewhat thicker leaflets with more sharply prominulous veinlets on the 
lower surfaces and without the definite axillary tomentum, and with a more ample 
inflorescence. 

Cayratia acuminata (A. GrajO coml). nov. 

Cissus acuiiiiiiata A. (jray, Bot. U. S. Expl. I'lxped. 1: 273. 1854; Plancli. in DC. Monogr. 
Phan. 5: 564. 1887. 

Fitis acmnimita Seoni. in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861; Fl. Vit. 44. 1865. 

ViTi L?:vi- : T h o 1 (j X o r t h : Nandarivatu, alt. 850 m., Dcycncr & Ordonez 13575 
(A) (liana, in rain-forest). 

The cited specimen, in the texture, shape, and cutting of its leaflets, ver}- closely 
resembles the rather unsatisfactory type collection {U . S. Expl. Expcd.. GH, 
from Ovalau). The lateral leaflets of the older collection are sometimes divided 
and the leaf is thus 5-foliolate; the present collection, which is sterile, has leaves 
always 3-foliolate. The species represents neither Cissus nor Vifis, according to 
the treatment proposed by Gagnepain (in Bull. Soc. Hist. Xat. Autun 24: 1-41. 
1911). Its probable place in Cayratia is suggested by its superficial resemblance 
to such species as C. japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. and C. trip alia (L.) Domin. 

BIXACEAE 

Bixa Orellana L. Sp. PI. 512. 1753; Setch. in Carn. Inst. Publ. 341: 68. 1924; Guillaumin 
in Jour. Arnold Arb. 12: 225. 1931; Christoph. in Bishop Mas. Bull. 128: 149. 1935. 
ViTi Lkvu : T h o 1 <) North : Nandrau, alt. about 600 m., Dciicncr 148Q8 (A) (nat- 
uralized, escape from cultivation; native name: ngcsa; dye from seeds used as facial decora- 
tion). WiTHoiT locality: Home (GH). 

This common species, cultivated in essentially all warm countries, is apparently 
to be included in the naturalized flora of Fiji. The family has not previously 
been reported from the group in taxonomic literature. 

VIOLACEAE i 

Agatea violaris .\. Gray. f. typica f. nov. 

Agatca ziolaris A. (iray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 89. pi. 7. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 6. 
1865. 

Planta foliis glabris, ramulis inflorescentiae sub anthesi arete puberulis. 

Gray originally described two varieties of this species without naming them. 
Var. a was said to have oblong-lanceolate leaves subequal to the panicles, and 
var. jt? larger ovate-oblong leaves exceeding the panicles. Numerous modern col- 
lections of the species indicate that there are all variations between these extremes. 



58 SARGENTIA [1 

While 1 do not believe, therefore, that there is any necessity for the two varieties 
as proposed hv Gray, and while I intend to include both of these varieties in my 
forma t\pica, I nevertheless here designate the type of his var. ji as the type of 
my forma typica, in order to avoid any future confusion. In the present collec- 
tion, the following specimens are referable to A. Z'iolaris i. typica: 

ViTi Levu : Tholo Nortli; Dcgoicr & Ordonez 13576, Dcgcncr 14367 , 14403, 
14679; Ra: Dcgcncr 15507; R e w a : Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13771. Vanua Lkvu : 
Thakaundrove : Dcgcncr & Ordonez 141S2, 14200 (all A). 

Of the cited specimens, no. 14182 is fairly close to the type of Gray's var. a, 
the others more nearly resembling his var. (3. I propose the forma typica to in- 
clude both of Gray's unnamed varieties and all the other material of the si)ecies 
which I have seen, with the exception of two collections referable to the following. 

Agatea violaris A. Gray, f. mollis f. nov. 

IManta laminis foliorum subtus et interdum supra dense et molliter cincrco- 
pilosis, ramulis inflorescentiae sub anthesi conspicue pilosis. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o W e st : Mbulu, near Sovi Bay, alt. 30-60 m.. Dcgcncr 15046 (A) 
(liana, in forest) ; Nariiku, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. about 250 m., Dcgcncr 
15314 (A, type), May 18, 1941 (liana, in forest; native name: zi'a ndrcngandrcnga) . 

Although no floral or other consequential differences are discernible between 
the cited specimens and specimens of the typical form, the conspicuous pubescence 
makes nomenclatural recognition of this form desirable. The fact that Dcgcncr 
14403, cited as the form typica, has a few soft hairs on the lower leaf-surface 
indicates that the diflferences between the two forms are not of great consequence. 

FLACOURTIACEAE 

The Fijian specimens of HouiaUian have been referred in herbaria to two spe- 
cies, H. vitiensc Benth. and H. nitcns Turrill. Among the collections now avail- 
able to me, it seems obvious that more than two species are distinguishable, al- 
though their characters are somewhat intangil)le and difficult to express without 
resorting to measurements. All ap])ear to be endemic and all have the stamens 
in threes (occasionally in fours), being members of the Section Eumyrianthcia, 
according to Gilg's treatment (in E. & I^ Nat. Pfl. ed. 2. 21 : 426. 1925"). Fairly 
de])endable si)ecific characters are apparently to be found in the flower-size, the 
proportions of perianth-segments to stamens and styles, the length of the in- 
florescence and ])edicels, and to a certain extent in foliage. The five sjiecies 
recognized in the following key seem ([uite satisfactory on the basis of present 
material. 

Flowers 2.5-4 mm. long at anthesis, the calyx-tube nearly as broad as long ; perianth-segments 
14-22, 1-2.5 mm. long; glands at base of perianth glabrous; stamens and styles at anthesis 
subequal to or exceeding the perianth-segments. 
Inflorescence 6-12 cm. long, the bracts 0.7-1.6 mm. long, the flowers 2.5-3 mm. long, sub- 
sessile or on pedicels to 1.5 mm. long \. H. •i'itiensc. 

Inflorescence 12-20 cm. long, the bracts 1.5-2 mm. long, the flowers 3.5-4 mm. long, on 

pedicels 2-3 mm. long 2. //. Cillcsf^ici. 

Flowers 4.5-7 mm. long at anthesis, the calyx-tube comparatively narrow, longer tlian broad; 

perianth-segments 3-4.5 mm. long, longer than the calyx-tube. 

Stamens and styles less than one-half as long as the perianth-segments; glands at basf of 

perianth densely hirsute ; leaf-blades cuspidate at apex. 

Inflorescence 8-16 cm. long, the pedicels 1-3 mm. long, the flowers 5-7 mm. long; 

perianth-segments 16-22; leaf-blades 5-8 cm. long, 2.5-5 cm. broad .. ..3. //. nitcns. 

Inflorescence 16-24 cm. long, the pedicels 0.7-1.5 mm. long, the flowers 4.5-6 mm. long: 

perianth-segments 12-16; leaf-blades 8-15 cm. long, 5-9 cm. broad ..4. //. laurifoHiini. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 59 

Stamens and styles 3-4 mm. Ions;, nearly as long as the 16-18 perianth-segments; glands 
at base of perianth subglabrous ; pubescence of inflorescence dense and conspicuous ; 
leaf-blades rounded or obtuse at apex 5. //. paJlid\tm. 

1. Homalium vitiense Benth. in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 36. 1860; Seem. Fl. Vit. 95. 

1865. 
ViTi LF;vr : Tholo North : Fatia, west of Tavua, alt. v^()-60 m., Dcgcncr 14969 
(A) (tree 4 m. high, in dry forested ravine: flowers greenish) : Naitasiri : Tamavua 
woods. 6 miles from Suva. alt. 150 m.. Gillespie 2018 (GH, NY). Vanua Levu : Tha- 
kaundrove : Natewa Peninsula, hills west of Mbutha Bay, alt. 150-350 m., Smith 831 
(GH, NY) (tree 5 m. high, on exposed cliff-head; flowers white). Without locality: 
Home 490 (GH). 

Although I have not seen the type of this species, collected hy Milne on Yiti 
Levu, there seems little douht, from the description, that the sniall-flowered speci- 
mens cited ahove rei)resent the same s]K'cies. 

2. Homalium Gillespiei sp. nov. 

Arhor (?). ramulis gracililnis suhteretihus fusco-cinereis juventute cinereo- 
l)ul)ertilis mox glahris et consjiictie lenticellatis ; jjetiolis gracilihus canalictilatis 
6-9 mm. longis ut ramulis decidue puherulis ; laminis chartaceis siccitate fuscis 
ovato-ellipticis, 5-8 cm. longis, 3^ cm. latis. hasi ohtusis et in ])etiolum deciir- 
rentihus. apice obtttse cuspidatis, margine crenato-serratis ( dentibus ohtusis 2-4 
per centimetrum), utrinque praeter costam interdum inconspicue puberulam 
gla1)ris. costa utrinque paullo elevata, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 5-8 arcuato- 
adscendentibus utrinque valde prominulis. rete venulartim intricato utrinriue 
jironiinulo; inflorescentiis raceiuosis axillaribus solitariis 12-20 cm. longis. ])e- 
dunculo ad 3 cm. longo et rhachi gracilihus dense hirsutis (j)ilis albo-cinereis 0.3- 
0.7 mm. longis), bracteis pilosis ohlongis 1.5-2 mm. longis, ])edicellis sttb anthesi 
strigosis 1-?) mm. longis; florihus sub anthesi 3.5-4 lum. longis cinereo-strigosis, 
tuho calycis turbinate) 1-1.5 mm. longo et lato ; sepalis 7 vel 8 submemhranaceis 
lanceolatis, 2-2.5 mm. longis, circiter 0.3 mm. latis, utrinque strigosis ; petalis 7 
vel 8 se])alis similibus ; glandulis glabris subglobosis circiter 0.2 miu. diametro ; 
staminibus 3 ( raro 4) in fasciculis, filamentis tiliformibtis ])atente-hirsutis ]:)Ctala 
suhaequalibtis. antheris minutis subglobosis circiter 0.15 mm. diametro; ovario 
piloso, stylis plerumqtie 5 hasi connatis distaliter liberis filiformibus stamina 
subaequalibus. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North: Nasukamai, near Wainimbuka River, alt. 400 m., 
Gillespie 3394.6 (GH. type, NY), Dec. 27, 1927. 

The cited specimen has characters suggestive of both H . vitiense and H . nitens, 
but I believe that it cannot be referred to either. Its small flowers, with stamens 
and styles subequalling the perianth, resemble those of H. vitiense, while its long 
bracts and pedicels suggest those of H. nitcns. The inflorescence of the new 
s])ecies is cotispictiously elongate. 

3. Homalium nitens Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 23. 1915. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North : Vicinity of Nandarivatu. im Thurn 132 (NY. type 
COLL.) : alt. about 830 m,, Reay 18 (A) (shrub to 3 m. high; inflorescence brown to pink; 
native name: molaca; infusion of bark used as a tonic); Serua : Vicinity of Ngaloa, 
alt. about 30 m.. Degcuer 15087 (A). 15088 (A) (trees, in forest; inflorescence grayish or 
l)ink ; native name: tarotaro; fresh inflorescences woven into necklaces). 

The young inflorescences appear to be pink, sttbsequently fading to a gray or 
brown color. 

4. Homalium laurifolium sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 3 m. alta. ramulis suhteretihus gracilihus glabris cinereis pallide lenti- 
cellatis; ])etiolis canaliculatis nigrescentibus (5-) 10-18 mm. longis; laminis 
chartaceis ovato-elliiiticis, 8-15 cm. longis, 5-9 cm. latis. hasi rottmdatis vel oh- 



60 SARGENT I A [I 

tusis et in petiolum subito (lecurrcntil)us, ajiice obtuse cuspidatis vel brcviter 
acuminatis, margine leviter recurvatis et undulato-crenatis, utrinque glabris, costa 
supra elevata subtus proniinente, nervis secuiulariis utrinsecus 5-7 arcuato- 
adscendentibus utrinque acute elevatis. rcte venularum intricato utrinque valde 
prominulo ; infloresccntiis axillaribus raceniosis lC)-24 cm. longis, jiedunculo ad 
6 cm. lonii^o et rbachi ,qraciHl)us densissinie et lireviter cinereo-hirsutis. bracteis 
linearibus acutis hirsutis 1.5-2 mm. lont^is. i)edicelHs sub antbcsi ])ilosis 0.7-1.5 
mm. lont^is; floribus sul) antbesi 4.5-6 mm. loiigis, tu1)o calycis obconico, 1.5-2.5 
mm. longo, 1-1.2 mm. lato. dense ])il()su](i ; sepalis 6-8 meml)ranaceis ligulatis, 
3-3.5 mm. longis. 0.3-0.4 mm. latis, sul:)acutis. utrinque pibs 0.4-0.7 mm. longis 
dense cinereo-birsutis ; petalis 6-8 sepalis similil)us ; glandulis dense hirsutis sub- 
globosis circiter 0.3 mm. diamelro ; staminibus 3 in fascicuHs quam petabs nuilto 
l3revioril)us. blamentis fibformibus 0.7-1 mm. longis basim versus sjjarsc hir- 
sutis. antberis circiter 0.25 mm. latis ; ovario dense hirsuto. stybs 5 basi connatis 
superne liberis et fibformibus stamina subaequab1)us. 

ViTi Li:vr : T h o 1 o W est : Naruku. vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. about 
250 m., DcycHcr 15207 (A, typk). May 18, 1941 (tree 3 m. high, in forest; native name: 
sakisakh'uto ; inflorescences used for necklaces; cold-water extract from wood used medici- 
nally) ; Rewa : Suva, Mcchold 8175 (NY). 

The new species is readily distinguished from 77. tiitens. its closest relative, by 
the characters indicated in the key and also by the fact that the stamens and styles 
are proportionately shorter, being only about one-third or less the length of the 
petals. The Meebold s])ecimen differs from the ty])e in its somewhat shorter 
petioles, but in all other cbaracters the cited specimens agree closelv. 
5. Homalium pallidum sp. nov. 

Arbor 15 m. alta. ramulis subteretibus crassis juventute ])allidis et obscure 
puberulis denunn fusco-cinereis glabris conspicue albido-lenticellatis ; petiolis ])al- 
lidis crassis canaliculatis 6-10 mm. longis mox glabris; laminis chartaceis siccitate 
olivaceis late ellipticis vel subrotundatis, 5-9 cm. longis. 4-6.5 cm. latis, basi ro- 
tundatis et in ])etiolum subito decurrentibus. a]:)ice rotundatis vel obtusis, margine 
cons])icue undulato-cretiatis et leviter recurvatis, utrinque glabris. costa sujira 
elevata subtus proniinente. nervis secundariis utrinsecus 5-7 arcuato-adscendenti- 
bus utrincpie valde ])rominulis. rete venularum intricato utrin(|ue prominulo ; in- 
floresccntiis axillaribus et racemosis vel terminalibus et ])aniculatis. racemis (vel 
ramulis ])aucis j^aniculae brevis) 6-9 cm. longis. ])edunculo brevi et rbachi gracili- 
bus densissinie cinereo-])ilosis, bracteis ovato-oblongis circiter 1.5 mm. longis 
extus strigosis. ])edicellis sub antbesi pilosis 1-2 mm. longis ; floril)us sub antbesi 
6.5—7 mm. longis, tubo calycis obconico, 2-2.5 mm. longo. 1.5-2 mm. lato, minute 
et dense cinereo-subsericeo ; se])alis 8 vel 9 niembranaceis obovato-lanceolatis, 3.5- 
4.5 mm, longis, 0.6-0.8 mm. latis. a])ice acutis. utrinque sericeis ; ])etalis 8 vel 9 
sepalis simibbus ; glandulis subglal)ris subglobosis circiter 0.3 mm. diametro ; 
staminibus 3 in fasciculis, filamentis fibformibus basim versus sjiarse pilosis 
petala subaequalibus (3-4 mm. longis), antberis oblongis circiter 0.3 mm. longis; 
ovario hirsuto, stylis 5 basi connatis superne liberis et fibformibus stamina 
subaequalibus. 

Ful.AlNc.a: .S;//(7/i 1221 ((iH, NY, tvpe), In-b. 26, 1934 (tree 15 m. liiKli. in forest on 
limestone tormation; petals white; native name: iiiholtn'otu : wood hard and considered 
useful). 

The long stamens and styles of the large flowers, the densely ])ul)escent in- 
florescences, and the broad subrotund leaves ani])ly differentiate this s])ecies from 
its allies. It bears a close floral resemblance to H. aneitycnsc Guillaumin. of the 
New Hebrides, but that species has the stamens in fives (in several flowers which 
I dissected), while its leaf-blades lack the conspicuous crenations of the new 
species. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 61 

Xylosma Archboldianum sp. nov. 

Arbor j^raeter inflorescentiam t^labra. rainuHs gracilibus siil)terctil)us fusco- 
cinereis conspicue lenticellatis ; i^etiolis levitcr canaliculatis 3-6 mm. longis ; laminis 
chartaceis siccitate viricli-olivaceis su])ra nitidis ovatis. 4—7 cm. longis, 2-3.5 cm. 
latis, basi rotundatis et in petiolum subito decurrentibus, apice obtusis vel leviter 
emarginatis, margine integris ct leviter recurvatis. costa supra subplana vel paullo 
elevata subtus valde elevata, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 4-7 adscendentibus 
utrinque valde ])rominulis, rete venularum intricato acute prominulo ; inflores- 
centiis J* immaturis solis visis axillaribus congestis breviter racemosis vel sub- 
fasciculatis plurifloris, rhachi ])ediccllisque cinereo-puberulis, bracteis obovato 
oblongis obtusis circiter 0.7 mm. longis, pedicellis brevibus ante anthesim 1 mm. 
longis ; se]\alis 4 late ovato-deltoideis ante anthesim circiter 0.7 mm. longis et 1 
mm. latis subacutis ciliolatis ; staminibus circiter .30. filamentis brevibus, antheris 
oblongis circiter 0.4 mm. longis. 

ViTi Levu : R a : Mataimeravula, vicinity of Revvasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 ni., 
Dci/ciicr 15435(1 (A, type). June .i. 1941 (tree, on dry forested forehill). 

Following Sleumer's revision of the Alalaysian-Pacific species of Xylosiua (in 
Notizbl. Hot. Gart. Berlin 14 : 2<ScS-297. 1938), X. Archboldianum is closely related 
only to X. Guillaitiiiiuii Sleumer of the Nev^ Hebrides, differing in its more dis- 
tinctly ovate leaf-blades, which are rounded rather than subacute at base, more 
cons])icuously shining, and with more sharply prominulous veinlet-reticulation. 
The known flowers of both s])ecies-are very immature, but it seems likely that the 
inflorescence of X. Archboldionum will ]:)rove to be more compact. The new 
species is not closely related to X. orbiculatum (Forst.) Forst. f., the only species 
previously known from Fiji. 

Flacourtia ovata Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 27. /. 34 (excl. a. f. </) . 1931. 

Vvn Lkvi- : N ai t a s i r i : Tamavua woods. 6-7.5 miles from Suva, alt. 150 ni., Gil- 
lespie 2175 (GH), 2446 (type coll.. GH, NY) ; Serua : Vatuvilakia, vicinity of Ngaloa, 
alt. 90 m., Dcgener 15152 (A) (few-branched virgate tree or shrub to 3 m. high, in dense 
forest) ; Vatutavathe, near Ngaloa, alt. 150 m., Degencr 15202a (A) (in forest). 

In describing this s])ecies, Gillespie also cites his no. 396.^ and Home 301. 
These specimens differ from the type collection in their smaller and thinner 
leaves, and also in a stylar character which will be pointed out below, as I believe 
them to re])resent an undescribed species. No staminate flowers of P. ovata are 
known, those described by Gillespie having been taken from Home 301. This 
part of his description, therefore, and also figs, a, f, and g of his plate should be 
taken to refer to the following new species. 

Flacourtia subintegra sp. nov. 

Arbor gracilis ad 8 m. aha inflorescentiis minute ])uberulis exce])tis glaln-a, 
ramulis subteretibus gracilibus fusco-cinereis conspicue lenticellatis ; petiolis leviter 
canaliculatis 5-8 mm. longis ; laminis chartaceis vel j^apyraceis siccitate fusco- 
olivaceis ovato-elli])ticis. 6-10 cm. longis, 3-6 cm. latis, basi rotundatis vel late 
obtusis, a])ice obtusis vel obtuse cuspidatis, margine integris vel inconspicue 
undulato-crenulatis. costa su])ra ]:iaullo elevata subtus ]:)rominente, nervis secun- 
dariis utrinsecus 4-6 adscendentibus marginem versus arcuatis et inconspicue 
anastomosantibus utrinque acute elevatis, rete venularum intricato utrinciuc pro- 
minulo ; inflorescentiis ^ axillaribus compactis breviter racemosis vel subfascicu- 
iatis 3-12-floris, pedunculo lirevi, rhachi, et pedicellis minute cinereo-puberulis vel 
subglabris, bracteis ovatis obtusis 0.5-1 mm. longis, ramulis lateralibus (infra 
articulationem pedicelli) 1-1.5 mm. longis, pedicellis gracilibus sub anthesi 2-3 
mm. longis (supra articulationem) ; sepalis 4 submembranaceis deltoideo-ovatis, 
1-1.5 mm. longis, 1.5-1.7 latis, apice rotundatis, sparse puberulis glabrescentibus ; 



62 SARGENTIA [1 

disco glanduloso conspicue crenulato ; staminibus nunierosis (circiter 40-50). 
ftlamentis filiformibus sub anthesi 1.5-2 mm. longis, antheris oblongis circiter 0.5 
mm. diametro ; f ructibus obovato-ellipsoideis maturitate ad 7 mm. diametro apicc 
stylis 5 vcl 6 niinutis et distinctis coronatis, pericarpio subcarnoso. jwrenis ple- 
rumque 8-10 ellipsoideis 3-4 mm. longis. 

ViTi Levu : Tliolo North : Korovoii, east of Tavua, alt. 60-120 m., Dcgcncr J4953 
(A) (tree 2 m. IurIi, in isolated dry forested ravine) ; vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 900 m., 
Gillespie 3963 (GH). Vanua Levu: Mbua : Southern portion of Seatovo Range, alt. 
100-350 m., Smith 1700 (GH, NY) (slender tree 4 m. high, in thickets along stream; fruit 
deep red) ; T ha k a u n d r o v e : Natewa Bay region, hills west of Korotasere, alt. 100-300 
m., Smith 1939 (GH. NY, type), June 8, 1934 (tree 8 m. high, in dense forest; antlicrs pale 
yellow). Without nEFrNiTE locality: Home s. n. (GH), 301 (GH). 

Flacourtia subintcgra differs from F. ovata Gillespie in its conspicuously smaller 
and thinner leaf -blades, those of F. ovata being (9-) 12-28 cm. long and (5.5-) 
7-15 cm. broad. The fruits of the new species are smaller, and even when full\- 
mature do not exceed 7 mm. in diameter ; they are surmounted by 5 or 6 minute 
and quite separate styles, whereas the styles of F. ovata are conspicuous and as- 
scending from an obviously common base. Of the cited specimens, the type and 
Home 301 bear staminate flowers, the others being in fruit. 

Flacourtia Degeneri sp. nov. 

Arbor inflorescentiis exceptis glabra, ramulis crassis teretibus fusco-cinereis 
lenticellatis ; petiolis crassis canaliculatis 5-9 mm. longis ; laminis chartaceis sicci- 
tate fusco-olivaceis ovatis, 9-15 cm. longis, 5-8 cm. latis, basi rotundatis et in peti- 
olum subito decurrentibus, apice obtusis vel obtuse et gradatim angustatis, mar- 
gine conspicue crenulatis (dentibus 2 vel 3 per centimetrum), costa supra paullo 
elevata subtus ])roniinente. nervis secundariis utrinsecus 7-9 adscendentibus mar- 
ginem versus arcuatis et anastomosantibus utrin(|ue acute elevatis, rete venularum 
intricate) supra paullo subtus valde prominulo ; inflorescentiis J* axillaribus breviter 
racemosis vel subfasciculatis plurifloris, rhachi pedicellisque dense puberuhs, brac- 
teis oblongis obtusis 1-2 mm. longis, ramulis lateralibus (infra articulationem 
pedicelli) 3^.5 mm. longis. ]:)edicellis gracilibus sub anthesi 5-7 mm. longis (supra 
articulationem) ; sepalis 4 sul)membranaceis ovatis, circiter 2.5 mm. longis et latis. 
a])ice obtusis, extus glabris. intus pubertilis ; disco glanduloso conspicue crenu- 
lato ; staminibus numerosis (circiter 80). filamentis filiformibus sub anthesi 2-3 
mm. longis. antheris oblongis 0.7-0.9 mm. longis. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North : Nandrau, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about 600 m., 
Dcgencr 14890 (A, type). Mar. 26, 1941 (in forest). 

Flacourtia Dcgcncri differs from the preceding new species [F. suhiutcgra) in 
its conspicuously crenulate rather than subentire leaf-blades, which on the average 
are slightly larger. Staminate flowers of F. Degeneri are larger in all dimen- 
sions, this being especially obvious when the pedicels are examined. As com- 
pared with F. 07'ata GillesjMC, the new sjiecies has the leaf-blades thinner in tex- 
ture, averaging smaller, more conspicuously and more finely crenulate. and with 
more intricate and obvious veinlet-reticulation. When flowers and fruits of both 
species are known, other characters of se])aration may be ajiparent. 

Casearia disticha A. Clray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 81 (excl. syn.). fl- •^■'- 1854; Seem. 
Fl. Vit. 98. 1865; Briquet in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2: 64. 1898. 

Casearia Scemanni Briquet in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2: 65, sphalm. 1898. 

In the cited ptiblication. Briquet proposes a variety minor of C. Melistaiiruin 
Spreng., basing it upon several New Caledonian collections and also citing: "lies 
Fiji (ex A. Gray 1. c.)." Gray, however, had referred no Fijian ])lant to C. Mclis- 
tauriiin, merely indicating the possibility that his C. disticha would prove to be 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 63 

conspecific with the New Caledonian plant. That Briquet did not wish to reduce 
C disticha to C. Mclisfaurum var. minor is indicated by his subsequent redescrip- 
tion of C. disticha. It may be safely assumed, upon the basis of collections up to 
the present, that C. Mclistaurum does not occur in Fiji; it dififers from C. dis- 
ticha in obvious foliage characters. Although Gray, in his choice of a specific 
name, indicated his belief that the Fijian plant might be conspecific with Mclis- 
taurum distichum Forst., his binomial is definitely to be taken as a new species 
and not a new combination. 

Casearia disticha is fairly common in Fiji and appears to be quite variable. 
As I interpret the species, it includes the following collections : 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North : Nandarivatu, alt. 850 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13588 
(A), 13608 (A) ; Loma Langa Mt., alt. 1200 m., Gillespie 3342 (GH). Kandavu : Hills 
above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, alt. 200-400 m., Smith, 93, 100, 165 (all GH, NY). 
OvALAu: Seemann 11 (GH) ; vicinity of Levuka, alt. 500 m., Gillespie 4427 (GH). 
Vanua Levu: Mbua : Mbua Bay, U. S. Expl. Expcd. (GH, type coll.) ; Thakaun- 
drove: Savu Savu Bay region, alt. about 90 m., Dcgencr & Ordonez 13849, 13850, 14184 
(all A); Mt. Ndikeva, alt. 500-700 m., Smith 1889, 1906 (both GH, NY). Without 
DEFINITE locality: Storck 9 (GH) ; Home s. n. (GH). 

The type collection has thin leaf-blades, with prominulous veinlets on the lower 
surface, and comparatively short petioles (2-5 mm. long). Essentially identical 
with this are : Seemann 11, Home s. n., Storck 9, and Gillespie 3342 and 4427. 
A form with leaf-blades similar in texture but with petioles 5-13 mm. long is 
represented by Dccjencr & Ordonez 13588 and 13608 and Smith 1889 and 1906. 
Similar to this, but with the leaf-blades a trifle thicker in texture, are Smith 93, 
100, and 165. A form close to the type, but with the leaf-blades inclined to be 
distinctly ovate, rather than elliptic, is represented by Degcner & Ordonez 13849, 
13850, and 14184. The first of these latter specimens has the leaf-blades unusu- 
ally large, up to 20 cm. long and 9 cm. broad. 

The flowers of the cited specimens are all essentially similar, even in the most 
minute details. In view of this, it seems that the various foliage forms are not 
worthy of nomenclatural recognition. Closely allied to this complex is the speci- 
men described by Gray as C. Richii A. Gray (Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 82. 
pi. 5B. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 98. 1865). This may be merely a form of C. dis- 
ticha with more compact habit and smaller leaves, but for the time being it is 
perhaps best retained as a species. It is represented by Degcner 15073 (A), 
from Mt. Ngamo, near Xgaloa, Serua, Viti Levu. 

Casearia angustifolia sp. nov. 

Frutex ad 4 m. altus, ramulis gracilibus subteretibus glabris f usco-cinereis ; 
petiolis canaliculatis 2-3 mm. longis ; laminis chartaceis siccitate viridi-olivaceis 
anguste oblongis, (S-IO cm. longis, 2-3 cm. latis, basi rotundatis vel late obtusis, 
apice gradatim acuminatis, margine dentibus callosis circiter 3 \i&v centimetrum 
minute serrulatis, ])ellucido-punctatis vel breviter lineolatis, su])ra glabris subtus 
costa et praecipue in axillis nervorum breviter hirsutis et barbellatis demum gla- 
bris, costa supra proiuinula vel subplana subtus elevata, nervis secundariis utrin- 
secus 5 vel 6 adscendentibus curvatis supra subplanis subtus leviter elevatis, rete 
venularum intricate) sui)ra obscuro subtus leviter prominulo ; inflorescentiis axil- 
laribus fasciculatis plurifloris. bracteis numerosis puberulis subacutis deltoideo- 
oblongis 1-1.5 mm. longis. pedicellis gracilibus subglabris sub anthesi circiter 1 
mm. longis obscure articulatis ; sepalis 5 membranaceis imbricatis concavis ellip- 
ticis 1.5-2 mm. longis, conspicue glandulosis (glandulis opacis), evidenter nerva- 
tis, apice rotundatis. exterioribus a])icem versus puberulis ; staminibus 10 alter- 
natim inaequalibus, filamentis filiformibus minute puberulis alternatim circiter 0.6 



64 SARCEXTIA [1 

mm. et 1 mm. lon^is, antheris late oblongis circiter 0.3 mm. l()n<.;is; l()l)is disci 
anguste oblongis circiter 0.5 mm. longis, apice debiliter pilosis ; ovario glabro ellip- 
soideo sub anthesi circiter 1 mm. longo, stylo brevi crasso. stigmate ca])ital() cir- 
citer 0.4 mm. diametro. 

Vanu.\ Levu : Thakaundrovc : Southern slope of Mt. Mariko, alt. 400-600 m., 
Smith 411 (GH, type, NY), Nov. 14, 1933 (shrub 4 m. high; flower-buds green). 

Cascaria angustifolia, a member of tlie Section Pitumha and closely related to 
C. disticha A. Gray, differs from tliat species in baving its leaf-margins mintitely 
but distinctly serrulate witb callose-tipped teetb ratber tban entire or very incon- 
spicuously crenulate-serrulate. Cascaria disticha has its sepals often tbick and 
usually o])aque, witb tbe veins immersed and tbe glands either not obvious or 
pellucid; C. aiu/usti folia, on the other hand, has its sepals meml)ranous and trans- 
lucent, with obvious veins, and conspicuously punctate with o]Ki(|ue glands. The 
leaf-blades of the new species are pro]X)rtionately narrower than those of C. dis- 
ticha and have more ascending secondaries. 
Casearia longifolia sp. nov. 

Arbor circitei" 3 m. alta inflorescentiis et sti])ulis exceptis ubi(|ue glabra, ramulis 
elongatis gracilibus teretibus fusco-cinereis leviter fiexuosis lenticellalis. stipulis 
anguste deltoideis circiter 1.5 mm. longis extus pilosis; petiolis gracilibtis canalicu- 
latis 5-9 mm. longis; laminis chartaceis siccitate viridibus oblongo-lanceolatis, 
10-14 cm. longis. 2-3.5 cm. latis, basi anguste acutis et in ])etiolum gradatim 
decurrentibus, ai)icem versus angustatis et apice i])so obtusis. margine integris vel 
leviter undulato-crenulatis, copiose jiellucido-punctatis, costa su])ra leviter elevata 
subtus ])rominente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 9-13 arcuato-adscendentibus 
utrinque valde ]:)rominulis. rete venularum utrinque leviter ])rominulo ; inflores- 
centiis axillaribus, floribus 1 — pluribus forsan in specimine nostro abnormibus, 
bracteis numerosis ])a])yraceis obtusis oblongo-ellipticis circiter 1 mm. longis extus 
puberulis, ])edicellis sub fructu juvenili glabris crassis 2-3 mm. longis; sei:)alis 5 
sub fructu subcoriaceis rotundatis glabris late ovatis. 1.5-2 mm. longis, circiter 3 
mm. latis; filamentis persistentibus (et staminodiis ac lobis disci?) numerosis 
congestis lanceolatis ad 3 mm. longis i)uberulis basi incrassatis ; fructibus jtivenili- 
bus ellipsoideis, in specimine nostro 3-4 mm. longis et latis, dense tomentellis, 
stylo brevi crasso, stigmate subcapitato. 

Vni Lkvi' : R a : V'atundamu, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vailcka, alt. 50-200 m., 
Dc(/C)U'r }53^W (A, tvi-k), June 2, 1941 (tree 3 ni. high, on dry forested foreliil!). 

It seems likely that the flowers of the cited specimen are not normal, as the ap- 
pendages around the ovary are more numerotis than is to be expected in Cascaria, 
if these are to be construed as old filaments and lobes of the disk. In addition, 
the young fruits ai)])ear to be sterile and unusually thick-walled. However, there 
is no doubt that the s])ecimen represents a Cascaria, and its relationshi]) is ])rol)- 
ably with C. disticha A. Gray and its allies ; it is readily distinguished by its long 
and narrow leaf-blades, numerous secondary nerves, etc. Normal young flowers 
are desired for the satisfactory ]:>lacing of the species. 

TURNERACKAE 
Turnera ulmifolia L. Sp. I'l, 271. 1753. 

V^.wiA Lr.vr : Tbakaundrove : Waina, Maravu, near Salt Lake, near sea-level, 
Dcgcncr & Ordoncc 14193 (A) (very common naturalized weed under coconut palms; shrub 
about 1 m. high ; flowers yellow ) . 

This common American weed may be a recent introduction, as it aj^parentlv has 
not previously been re|X)rted from Fiji. The collectors report it to be \ery local- 
ized. The familv is new to the literature dealing with Fijian jilants. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 65 

PASSIFLORACEAE 
(determinations by E. P. Ki]ii]j) 

Passiflora suberosa L. Sp. 1*1. 958. 1753; Killip in Field Mus. I'ubl. Bot. 19: 88. 1938. 

OvALAu: Near Levuka, alt. 15 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 137SS (A) (vine, in pasture). 

This tropical American species, which has heen widely introduced into the Old 
World tropics, has been reported from Hawaii, New Caledonia, and the Loyalty 
Islands, hut a])parent]y not from other parts of the Pacific. 

Passiflora maliformis L. Sp. PI. 956. 1753; Killip in Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 19: 352. 1938. 

ViTi Levu: Ra ; Nanukuloa, Dcgnicr & Ordoucz 13673 (A) (vine; an escape). 

Previously reported, in the F'acific, only from Rarotonoa. this tropical Ameri- 
can species is prohably hecomitig naturalized in Fiji. 

Passiflora foetida L. var. hispida (DC.) Killip in Bull. Torrcv Bot Club 58- 408 1931- 
in Field Mus. Publ. 15ot. 19: 494. 1938. ' • ■ - 

ViTi Levi- : Lautoka : Lautoka, near sea-level. Dcycncr & Ordonez 136H6 (A, US) 
(roadside weed; fruit yellow). 

This widespread variety has not previously been reported from Fiji, nor has 
the species. However, F. foetida is known as a weed in several other I'acific 
groups, including Samoa and the New Hebrides; probably some reports of the 
species in the Pacific are referable to the variety hispida. 

THYMELIACEAE 
Gonystylus punctatus sp. nov. 

Arlx>r ad 5 m. alta, ramulis subteretibus gracilibus rugulosis brunneo- 
purpurascentibus a])icem versus interdum sparse pilosis mox glabris ; foliis alter- 
natis. petiolis crassis rugulosis sul)teretibus 10-17 mm. longis juventute sparse 
strigoso-])ul)erulis mox glabris. laminis chartaceis vel subcoriaceis glabris siccitate 
vindi-olivaceis oblongis. 9-15 cm. longis, ^-7 cm. latis, basi rotundatis vel late 
obtusis, apice gradatim angustatis et oi)tusis vel subacutis, margine integris et 
leviter recurvatis, copiose et conspicue ])ellucido-punctatis. costa supra Vu^o 
canaliculata vel mterdum prominula subtus prominente. nervis secundariis utrin- 
secus 15-20 i)atentibus cum aliis similibus numerosis interspersis marginem versus 
anastomosantibus utrin(|ue acute prominulis, rete venularum intricato utrinque 
plus nnnusve prominulo ; inflorescentiis apice ramulorum l)revium terminalibus 
sohtarns ad 9 cm. longis ut videtur pauciramosis et anguste i^aniculatis. ])edunculo 
brevi. rhachi ramuhsque j^ilis luteo-cinereis ad 0.3 mm. longis sericeo-tomentellis 
demum glabris, flonbus desideratis ; j^edicello sub fructu incrassato ad S mm 
diametro rugoso glabro 2-2.5 cm. longo. lobis persistentibus calvcis 5 coriaceis 
ddtoideis. circiter 5 mm. longis et latis, extus pallide puberulis vel glabris intus 
pilis strammeis circiter 1 mm. longis dense hispido-sericeis ; fructibus ut videtur 
falcato-elhpsoideis ad 9 cm. longis et 6 cm. latis, basi rotundatis et breviter stipi- 
tatis. 3-valvatis (valvis 2 quam altera majoribus), siccitate brunneis, pericarpio 
hgnoso crasso. mesocarpio transverse fibroso 6-8 mm. crasso, endocar])io coriaceo 
pallido. semimbus oblongis circiter 4 cm. longis et 2 cm. latis. 

ViTi LEvr: Tholo West: Mbuyombuyo, near Namboutini, Tabualrica 15607 (A 
TYPE), June 18. 1941 (tree 5 m. bigh, in forest; native name: ron,ia). 

The discovery of a species c^f Gonystylus in Fiji is quite unex])ected as the 
genus has i)reviously been thought to have a compact range in Malaysia the 
Philippines, and the western portion of New Guinea. Although our ^naterial 
lacks flowers, there can be no doubt of its place in the genus, as indicated bv the 



66 



SARGENT I A 



[1 



leaf -texture, venation, etc., and the structure of the fruits. The conspicuously 
punctate leaf-hlades distinguish the Fijian species from its allies, although several 
other species have a similar hut less obvious punctation. The fact that the leaf- 




Fig. 4. Gonystylus punctijlus; a. branchlet from fruiting specimen, X Vj; h. fruit, X 14 ; 
c. longitudinal section of dried fruit. X ^z; d. portion of leaf-blade in transmitted light, 
showing distribution of the pellucid glands, X 1. 



blades of the new species are gradually, rather than abruj^tly, narrowed toward 
the apex is also a distinguishing specific feature. 

In referring Gonystylus to the Thymeliaceae, I follow the recent informative 
discussion of the family by Domke (in Bibl. Bot. 27 [Heft 111 | : 1-151. 1934). 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 67 

Phaleria Jack 

Fiji seems to be a center of distribution in Phaleria, nine species being recog- 
nizable there ; two of these species also occur in Samoa and Tonga, but no others 
are known from the Pacific east of the Solomons. Although the genus almost 
certainly occurs in the New Hebrides, no specimens appear to have been col- 
lected there up to the present. Of the two known Micronesian species, one is 
also found in the Philippiiies and the other is a related species. The early de- 
scriptions of the Fijian species were based on rather inadequate material, and 
therefore I am redescribing these and indicating their inter-relationship by a key 
to the species. 

The Fijian species are difficult to separate; one finds that such characters as 
leaf-texture, shape, and size, ])osition of inflorescence, length of peduncle, size 
and internal pubescence of perianth, shape of faucial scales, length of filaments, 
and pubescence of ovary are variable within a species and not very dependable. 
The only specific characters which are more or less constant appear to be the 4- 
or 5-merous condition of the flower, the external ])ubescence of the perianth (in 
one species), the degree of i)ersistence of the floral bracts and their size, and, in 
some cases, the length of petioles. 

Kkv to the Fijian species 

Inflorescence spicate or pseudocapitate, the flowers occupying the ultimate 5-15 mm., the 
bracts none or very soon caducous ; perianth 5-merous ; fruit thick-walled, the pericarp 

woody ; seaside plants \. P. dispcrma. 

Inflorescence capitate, the flowers congested on a flattened or convex or subglobose receptacle, 
often enveloped by bracts (these sometimes soon caducous); fruit usually thin-walled, 
tlie pericarp succulent ; forest ])lants. 

Perianth conspicuously pale-pilose witlKJut, 5-merous 2. P. pnbi flora. 

Perianth glabrous without, 4-merous. 

Leaf-blades subsessile (petiole 1-2 mm. long), subcordate at base: inflorescences terminal 

or axillary on foliage-branchlets ; floral bracts conspicuous, persistent past anthesis. 

Perianth 37-43 mm. long; floral bracts (10-) 15-20 mm. long, (8-) 12-20 mm. broad; 

leaf -blades 8-12 cm. long. 2.5-4 cm. broad 3. P. pulchra. 

Perianth 45-60 mm. long; floral bracts 7-10 mm. long, about 9 mm. broad; leaf-blades 

9-20 cm. long, 3-7.5 cm. broad 4. /'. i.vorioidcs. 

Leaf-blades petiolate (petiole at least 3 mm. long, sometimes 2 mm. in P. Uuiccolaia ) , 
sometimes subcordate at base but then obviously petiolate. 
Moral bracts persistent past anthesis, often present in fruiting specimens. 

Flowers often 2 or 3 per inflorescence, sometimes several ; fruits usually solitary ; 
floral bracts 4—6, the inner 3 or 4 subequal in size, oblong-ovate, longer than 

broad S. P. montana. 

Flowers (5-) 10—20 per inflorescence; fruits several per head; floral bracts 2, ovate 

or broadly ovate, usually broader than long. 

Leaf-blades chartaceous or subcoriaceous, elliptic-ovate or oblong-elliptic. 3 or 4 

times as long as broad; floral bracts 6-12 mm. long, 8-16 (-21) mm. broad. 

' 6. P. glabra. 

Leaf-blades submembranous or papyraceous, lanceolate-oblong, 5 or 6 times as 

long as broad; floral bracts 5-8 mm. long and broad 7. P. atujitstifolia. 

Floral bracts caducous before anthesis. 

Perianth 35-55 mm. long; flowers 6-25 (-35) per inflorescence; leaf-blades 7-20 

(-24) cm. long, 2.5-8 (-11.5) cm. broad 8. P. acuminata. 

Perianth 27-30 mm. long; flowers usually 3 or 4 per inflorescence; leaf-blades 4-8.5 
cm. long. 1-2.2 cm. broad 9. P. lanccolaia. 

1. Phaleria disperma ( h'orst. f . ) Baill. in Adansonia 11: 318. 1875; Gilg in E. & P. 
Nat. Pfl. III. 6a: 225. 1894. 
Dais dlspenua Forst. f. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. ii. 1786. 



68 SARGENTIA - [1 

Lciicosmia Hunicttiana Bciitli. in Lond. Jour. Bot. 2; 231. 1<S43; Bentli. But. Voy. Sulphur 
179. pi. 57 (in some co])ies). 1846; Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 603. 1857; Seem, in Bon- 
plandia 9: 258. 1861 ; .\. Gray in Jour. Bot. 3: 306. 1865; Drake, III. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
281. 1892. 

Dryiiiispci-inuiii I'orstcri Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 605. 1857. 

Dryiiuspennuin BiUardicri Dec. Bot. Voy. Wnus 16. pi. 12 (in Atlas). 1864. 

Lcucosiiiia OTV/Za Dec. Bot. Voy. Venus 17. 1864. 

Drytiuspcniniiit Bunicttianum Seem. Fl. Vit. 208. 1867. 

Phalcria Ihinu-ftiana Knutli in Handb. d. Biutcnbiol. 3: 522. 1904; Cln-isto])li. in Bisliop 
Mus. Bull. 154: 19. 1938. 

Seaside slirtih or small tree, U]) to 8 in. hii^h. the branchlets stout. stil)terete. 
rtigtilose when dried; petioles rtigulose, shallowly canalictilate, 7-10 nini. long; 
leaf-blades stihcaniose, dark green and shining when fresh, ])apyraceotts and 
yellowish green when dried, oblong, 8-16 cm. long, 5-9.5 cm. broad, rounded to 
obtuse at base, acute or ctispidate at ajiex. the costa shalknvly canaliculate above, 
prominent beneath, the secondary nerves 6--8 |;er side, spreading, promintilous or 
nearly ])lane above, sharply elevated beneath, the veinlet-reticulation iirominulous 
or ])lane on both surfaces; inflorescences terminal on foliage-branchlets, solitary 
or rarelv ]:)aired. s])icate or pseudoca])itate, the i:)edunclc similar to the branchlets, 
1.5-5 cm. long, usually bearing 2 inconspicuous oblong-lanceolate bracteoles about 
2 mm. long near its base, the floral bracts apparently 2. soon caducous ; flowers 
10-15 ])er inflorescence, congested on a rachis 5-15 mm. long; perianth 40-53 
mm. long, minutely ])ale-i)uberulent within, the lobes 5. elli])tic-oblong. T)-*) mm. 
long, 3-5 mm. broad, obtuse at apex, minutelv puberulent within, the faucial 
scales obscure, membranous, oblong-deltoid, 0.5-0.8 mm. long, obtuse at apex, 
sometimes ap]iarently lacking; stamens 10, the filaments 0.5-4 mm. long, the 
anthers oblong. 1.6-2.7 mm. long; disk membranous, 0.5-1 mm. high, undulate at 
apex; ovary obscurely setose distally with jiale hairs 0..^-0.7 mm. long, the .stigma 
oblong-elliixsoid. about 2.5 mm. long; fruit at maturity ovoid-ellii)soid, 14-22 mm. 
long. 11-20 nun. broad, strongly rugose when dried, rounded at base, often stib- 
acute at apex, the pericarj) woody, 4-6 mm. thick, the seeds 2 or rarely 1. about 
7 mm. long and 6 mm. broad, the testa thin. 

OvALAu: Srcwaun 3S3 (GH) ; north of Levuka, Gillespie 4491 (Bish, GH, XY. UC) 
(on seaside cliffs). Vanta AIbalavt : Northern limestone section. Smith 1495 (Bish, GH. 
NY, UC, US) (shrub 4 m. high, on seaside cliffs; perianth white; native name: sinu) . 
Kambara: Bryan 496 (A, Bish) (tree 5-8 m. high, near beach; bark nearly smooth, light 
brown; sapwood moderately thick, cream; lieartwood yellow-brown ; native name: sinu 
ndina ) . 

In addition to the cited .s])ecimens, 1 have seen material of the [■. S. Exploruuj 
Expedition (GH) and Harvey (XY) froiu Samoa and Tonga; Seemaim also 
mentions the sjiecies from Viti Levu and gives the native names of sinu ndnia 
and sinu ndaniu. 

Gray (in Jour. Bot. 3: 305. 1865) first jxiinted out the fact that Forster's con- 
cept of Dais dispcruia apj^earcd to be based on a mixture. He suggested that 
the specific name be maintained for the seacoast i)lant with 5-merous flowers, 
which had been subsecpiently described by Bentham as Lcncosuiia Hunicttiana. 
Nevertheless. Gray did not formally transfer the specific epithet dispcnna to 
Lcucosniia, which he maintained as a genus while i)ointing out that it should ])rob- 
ably be reduced to Dryniispcrniuin. Gray then proceeded to describe a new spe- 
cies. Lcucosniia acuminata, which he supposed to be the second element in For- 
ster's concejn. This ty])ification of Dais dispcrnia as synonymotis with Lcucosniia 
Bumcttiana has been followed by most subsequent authors. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 69 

Dryiiiispcniiuiii Billardicri is leased on specimens collected in Tonga, Lcucosmia 
ovafa on a ])lant from Ovalau in Fiji; the identity of these plants with Phalcria 
dispcrina has been discussed at some length by Baillon (in Adansonia 11: 317- 
319. 1875). 

The seacoast plant which I have described above is an unmistakable species, 
clearly distinguished from others of the genus by having its flowers loosely ar- 
ranged rather than strictly capitate. Bentham proposed to base his genus Lcu- 
cosmia upon it because of the 5-merous flowers, the presence of faucial scales, 
the shape of the stigma, and the drupaceous fruit. These characters do not dif- 
ferentiate the sjiecics from others of Phalcria (or Dryinispermiim) , since 5- 
merous flowers occur in other s|)ecies and faucial scales are the rule. 

2. Phaleria pubiflora (A. Gray) GiJR in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. III. 6a: 225. 1894. 
Lcucosmia pii'uflora A. Gray in Jour. Bot. 3: 306. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 

281. 1892. 

DryjnispcDiunii piibiflontni Seem. Fl. Vit. 208. 1867. 

Small tree, often cauliflorous, the branchlets slender, subterete. rugulose, cine- 
reous ; petioles shallowly canaliculate, 3-5 mm. long; leaf-blades subcoriaceous or 
chartaceous, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 8—12 cm. long, 2.5^.5 cm. broad, 
rounded or broadly ol)tuse at base, gradually narrowed to an acute or subacumi- 
nate apex, the costa shallowly canaliculate above, prominent beneath, the sec- 
ondary nerves about 6 per side, arcuate, with the veinlet-reticulation prominulous 
on both surfaces ; inflorescences axillary or arising from defoliate branchlets or 
main stem, the peduncles apparently fasciculate, 10-22 mm. long, with several 
inconspicuous deltoid bracteoles 0.5-1 mm. long near base, the floral bracts soon 
deciduous. ])robably 2, the receptacle convex ; flowers 4—6 or perhaps more per 
inflorescence; perianth 35-40 miu. long, very slender toward base, pale-pilose 
without with weak hairs 0.2-0.5 mm. long, pale-tomentellous within, the lobes 5, 
oblong. 5-6 mm. long. 2-3 mm. broad, obtuse, puberulent on both surfaces, the 
faucial scales inconspicuous, deltoid, about 0.5 mm. long, subacute ; stamens 10, 
the filaments 0.5-3 mm. long, the anthers oblong, about 1 mm. long; disk mem- 
branous, about 1.5 mm. high, crenulate at apex; ovary setulose distally with pale 
hairs about 0.7 mm. long, the stigma oblong-ellipsoid, about 2 mm. long; young 
fruit ovoid, 12-15 mm. long, 5-7 mm. broad, obtuse at base, acute at apex, the 
seed apparently solitary. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North : Korovou, east of Tavua, alt. 60-150 m., Dcycncr 14951 
(A) (cauliflorous tree 3 m. high, in dry dark ravine). 

Originally based on a speciiuen of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, which is 
probably deposited in the herbarium of the British Museum, this species was 
reported by Seemann from Kandavu, on the basis of his no. 379. Although I 
have seen neither of the early collections, the Degener ])lant agrees with the de- 
scriptions in its pilose 5-merous perianth and seems certainly to re])resent the 
species. The above description is drawn up from the latter specimen, the original 
descriptions omitting references to dimensions. 

3. Phaleria pulchra Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 91: 21. pi. 23. 1932. 

ViTi Levu: Naitasiri : Tamavua woods, 7 miles from Suva, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 
2141 (A, Bish, TYPE, GH, UC). 

Since no material of this species has been collected since the type, the original 
description is adecjuate. The species is well marked by its very short petioles, 
subcordate leaf-blades, and conspicuous floral bracts. 



70 SARGEXTIA [1 

4. Phaleria ixorioides I'^isber^ in Hull. Idrrcy Hot. Clul) 67: 418. 1940. 

Waya (Yasawa Group) : Nortli of Valomhi, along Olo Creek, St. John 18123 (Bish, 
type) (small tree 5 m. high, in woods t)y stream; flowers fragrant, the perianth white; native 
name: tarutaru) . Viti Levu : Serua : Vatutavathe, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 150 m., 
Dcgcncr 15202 (A) (tree 4-6 m. high, in forest; flowers abundant, in dense clusters, the 
perianth white). 

The original description amply portrays this species, which is closely related 
only to P. pulchra, from which it is distinguished primarily hy the dimensional 
characters mentioned in the key. 

5. Phaleria montana (Seem.) Gilg in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. III. 6a: 225. 1894. 
Drviitispcninmi montaniDu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 258, nomen. 1861 ; Mission to Viti 

440, nomen. 1862; Fl. Vit. 209. pi. 54. 1867. 

Lciicosviia viontanum Benth. & Hook, ex Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 281. 1892. 

Small slender tree, the hranchlets snhterete, nigulose, cincretnis, often swollen 
at nodes ; petioles rugulose, canaliculate, 3-6 mm. long ; leaf-hlades chartaceous, 
olivaceous or dark green when dried, elliptic-ovate, 7-1 1 cm. long, 2.5-5 cm. 
broad, ol^tuse at base, acute or gradually short-acuminate at apex, the costa im- 
pressed or nearly ])lane above, prominent beneath, the secondary nerves 6-8 per 
side, arcuate, prominulous above, acutely elevated beneath, the veinlet-reticulation 
prominulous on both surfaces; inflorescences axillar}- toward apices of hranchlets. 
solitary or aggregated in groups of 2-5, the i)eduncle .^-15 mm. long, with a few 
deltoicl to linear bracteoles 1-2 mm. long near its base, sometimes bibracteolate 
near middle, the bracteoles caducous ; floral bracts 4-6, imbricate, papyraceous or 
submembranous, oblong-ovate, the outer 2 or 3 about 4 mm. long and 3 mm. 
broad, the inner 3 or 4 obscurely nerved, 9-14 mm. long, 5-S mm. broad, rounded 
or obtuse at apex; receptacle convex, the flowers often 2 or 3 per inflorescence, 
sometimes several ; perianth slender, puberulent within, the lobes 4, ovate, acute, 
puberulent on both surfaces, the faucial scales oblong, erose-truncate at ajiex ; 
stamens 8, the anthers oblong ; ovary glabrous or distally s])arsely setose with a 
few pale hairs ; fruit usually 1 per inflorescence at maturity, oblong-ellii:)soid, 8-12 
mm. long, 7-10 mm. broad, rounded at base, obtuse at apex, the seeds 1 or 2. 

Viti Levu: Tholo North : Nandarivatu. alt. 800 m., Gillespie 41S6 (Bish. GH, 
NY, UC) (in wooded ravines at head of escar])ment nortli of Government house) ; Ra : 
Mataimeravula, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 15336 (A) (tree 
3 m. high, in forest; fruit red, shiny), Dcgcncr 15426 (A) (in forest); Tuvavatu, near 
Rewasa, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 15377 (A) (small tree or large shrub, in forest; native 
name: simi matiavi) . 

The cited specimens are the only ones 1 have seen which agree with .Seemann's 
descri])tion and plate in having several, rather than two, floral bracts. Although 
I have not seen the type collection {Sconann 380 from Kandavu), the S])ecies 
seems to be well characterized by these bracts, which differ in proportions from 
those of P. glabra. In other respects the two species are difficult to separate. 
Mature flowers are not available to me, and Seemann did not give their dimensions. 

6. Phaleria glabra (Turrill) Domke in Bibl. Bot. 27(Heft 111): 55. 1934. 
Lcticosinia glabra Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 37. 1915. 

Slender shrub or small tree, the hranchlets subterete, rugulose ; petioles canalicu- 
late, rugulose, 5-12 mm. long; leaf-blades subcoriaceous to papyraceous, usually 
olivaceous when dried, ovate-elliptic or ol)long, 7-21 cm. long, (2-) 3-9 cm. 
broad, obtuse or acute (rarely rounded) at base, gradually acuminate or cuspidate 
at apex, often conspicuously recurved at margin, the costa shallowly impressed 
above, prominent beneath, the secondary nerves 5-10 (-13) per side, arcuate or 
spreading, prominulous above, slightly elevated beneath, the veinlet-reticulation 
prominulous or immersed on both surfaces; inflorescences axillary or on defoliate 



1942] SMITH, FIJI Ay PLANT STUDIES, II 71 

i^ranchlets, solitary, the peduncle 2-8 mm. long, with several papyraceous deltoid- 
linear caducous bracteoles 1-3 mm. long toward its base ; floral bracts 2, per- 
sistent past anthesis, subcoriaceous or papyraceous, broadly ovate, 6-12 mm. long, 
8-16 (-21) mm. broad, rounded or rarely subacute at apex, obscurely nerved; 
receptacle convex or flattened or subcapitate, the flowers (5-) 10-20 per inflores- 
cence ; ]:)erianth 30-55 mm. long, hispid-pilose or tomentellous within with weak 
pale hairs 0.5-1 mm. long, the lobes 4. oblong. 4.5-9 mm. long, 2.5-5 mm. broad, 
obtuse or rounded at apex, puberulent within, the faucial scales oblong or oblong- 
deltoid, 0.5-1.5 mm. long, subacute to erose-truncate at apex; stamens 8, the fila- 
ments slender, 1-3 mm. long, the anthers oblong, 1.2-1.5 mm. long; disk mem- 
branous. 1.2-2 mm. high, crcnulate at a])ex ; ovary glabrous or s])arsely setose 
distally with a few pale hairs about 0.6 mm. long, the stigma oblong-elli]xsoid, 1-3 
mm. long; fruits several ])er inflorescence. oblong-elli])soid or obovoid, 7-15 mm. 
long, 5-11 mm. broad, rounded to subacute at base, obtuse at ajK'x. the pericaqi 
thin, the seed 1 or rarely 2. 

ViTi Lkvi; : T li o 1 o N o r t li : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., Gillespie 3708 
(Bish, GH, UC) (floral bracts green; flowers fragrant, the perianth white), Gillespie 3987 
(Bish, UC), Gillespie 4199 (Bish, UC), Degener 14734 (A) (tree 3 m. high, in forest; fruit 
dark red); Tholo West : Uluvatu, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, Tabualexva 
15562 (A) (native name: mbuimhuita) ; Name si : Naitarandamu Mt., alt. 1100 m., 
Gillespie 3362 (Bish, GH, NY, UC) ; Rewa : Near Lami, alt. 10 m.. Gillespie 4614 (Bish, 
UC) ; Naitasiri: Tamavua woods, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 2420 (Bish, GH, UC) ; 
Nasinu, alt. 150 m.. Gillespie 3583 (Bish, GH, UC) (slender shrub 2 m. high), Gillespie 
3666 (Bish, UC) (fruit briglit red). Vanua Levu : T h a k a u n d r o v e : Vatunivua- 
monde Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 300 m., Degcuer & Ordonez 14032 (A), 14035 (A) 
(shrubs 2 m. higli, in dense forest: fruit red) : Yanawai River region, Mt. Kasi, alt. 300-430 
m.. Smith 1819 (Bish, NY) (slender shrub 3 m. high, in dense forest; fruit red). 

Although I have not seen the ty]:)e collection of this species (/'/;; Thurn 12 from 
Kandavu). the cited speciiuens agree well with the original description; Turrill 
also remarks that the species is common about Nandarivatu. The species is very 
variable in leaf-size and texture, but the broad persistent paired bracts, borne on 
short peduncles arising from the slender branchlets, adequately characterize it. 

7. Phaleria angusUfolia A. C. Sni. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 101. /. 53. 1936. 

V.AXiA Levi: Mbua : Southern slope of Mt. Seatura. alt. 500 m.. Smith 1685 (Bish, 
TYPE. GH, NY, UC, US) (slender tree 4 m. high; flowers borne on trunk and branches; 
Ijerianth white; native name: niimbu). 

Since only one collection of this species is known, the original description is 
adequate. It is a species showing affinities with both P. glabra and P. acuininata, 
but readily recognized by its narrow leaves and small but persistent floral bracts. 

8. Phaleria acuminata (A. Grav) Gilg in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. III. 6a: 225. 1894; Christoph. 

in Bishop Mus. Bull. 154: 18. 1938. 
Lcueosmia acuminata A. (Jrav in Jour. Bot. 3: 306. 1865: Drake. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac 
281. 1892. 

Drymispcrmum suhcordatitm Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 258, nomen. 1861; Mission to Viti 
440, nomen. 1862; Fl. Vit. 209. pi. 53. 1867. 

DrymispermiDu acitiiiiiiatum Seem. Fl. Vit. 209. 1867. 

Leucosmia subcordata Benth. & Hook, ex Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 281. 1892. 

Phaleria subcordata Gilg in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. III. 6a: 225. 1894. 

Slender shrub (jr tree, to 9 m. high, often cauliflorous, the branchlets slender, 
subterete; petioles rugulose. canaliculate, 4-17 mm. long; leaf-blades chartaceous 
or papyraceous or submembranaceous, ustially olivaceous when dried, ovate-elliptic 
or oblong, 7-20 (-24) cm. long, 2.5-8 (-11.5) cm. broad, subacute to subcordate 
at base, acute or gradually acuminate or cuspidate at apex, the costa slightly im- 



72 SARGENT I A [1 

pressed above, prominent beneath, the secondary nerves 7-12 ])er side, arcuate, 
spreading or ascending, prominulous or conspicuously elevated on both surfaces, 
the veinlet-reticulation prominulous on both surfaces ; inflorescences axillary or 
sul)terminal, often on defoliate branches or trunk, solitary or paired, the peduncle 
3-10 (-30) mm. long, with several inconspicuous oblong-linear or deltoid brae- 
teoles 0.5-2 mm. long toward its base ; floral bracts 2, papyraceous, orbicular- 
ovate, about 3 mm. long and broad, rounded at apex, caducous before anthesis ; 
receptacle convex or subglobose, the flowers 6-25 (--35) per inflorescence; peri- 
anth 35-55 mm. long, sparsely pilose within with weak hairs 0.5-1 mm. long, the 
lobes 4, oblong or elliptic-oblong, 6-9 mm. long, 2-5 mm. broad, obtuse or 
rounded at apex, puberulent within and sometimes without, the faucial scales 
membranous, oblong, 0.7-1.3 mm. long, erose-truncate to subacute at apex; 
stamens 8, the filaments 0.5-4.5 mm. long, the anthers oblong, 1-1.7 mm. long; 
disk membranous, 0.7-1.5 mm. high, undulate at apex; ovary distally pilose with 
weak pale hairs 0.5-0.8 mm. long, sometimes essentially glabrous, the stigma 
oblong-ellipsoid, 1^.5 mm. long; fruits at maturity usually 3-6 per inflorescence, 
obovoid or subglobose-ellipsoid, usually 2-seeded and slightly flattened, sometimes 
1-seeded and slightly falcate, (7-) 16-28 mm. long, (6-) 10-20 mm. broad, 
rounded or obtuse at base, obtuse or subacute at apex, the ])ericarp thin, fleshy. 
Wakaya : Beck (Bish) . Vanua Levu : T h a k a u n d r o v e : Eastern drainage of 
Yanawai River, alt. 90 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14121 (A) (cauliflorous shrub to 3 m. high, 
in open forest; perianth white) ; southern slopes of Korotini Range, alt. 300-650 ni.. Smith 
488 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (tree 5 m. high; flowers fragrant, the perianth pure white; 
native name: songo ni zvai) , Smith 494 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (shrub 4 m. high; native 
name: toafoa) ; southwestern slope of Mt. Mbatini, alt. 300-700 m.. Smith 621 (Bish, NY) 
(slender cauliflorous shrub 1-2 m. high; perianth white). Smith 672 (Bish, NY) (slender 
shrub 1 m. high; perianth white; anthers yellow; fruit red) ; Mt. Mariko, alt. 600-800 m.. 
Smith 450 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (slender tree 9 m. high; fruit deep red) ; hills south 
of Nakula Valley, alt. 10-30 m., Smith 336 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (slender tree 3 m. 
high; fruit red); Uluinabathi Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 90-180 m., Degencr Sr 
Ordonca 13930 (A) (slender cauliflorous tree 4 m. high, in dense forest), Degencr & Ordonez 
14198 (A) (tree or shrub 2 m. high, in open forest; fruit red, shiny) ; Maravu, near Salt 
Lake, alt. 75 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14235 (A). Taveuni : Borders of lake east of 
Somosomo, alt. 700-900 m., Smith 928 (Bish, NY) (shrub 3 m. high, in dense forest; 
perianth white). Moala : Near Maloku, alt. 300 m.. Smith 1338 (Bish, NY) (slender 
tree 7 m. high, in forest; fruit deep red; native name: kau ndaniit) . Yangasa Clusteu : 
Navutu i loma, Bryan 456 (A, Bish) 457 (A, Bish) (shrubs or small trees 3-4 m. high; 
fruit red to purple) ; Navutu i ra, Bryan 467 (A, Bish) (scandent tree 4-5 m. high; fruit 
green to red-purple). Without definite locality: Tothill 546 (Bish). 

Seemann has reported this species from Viti Levu, from which the Tothill 
specimen presumably comes, l)ut it is noteworthy that the species appears to be 
abundant on Vanua Levu and rare on the larger island. The cited specimens 
have been compared with Samoan and Tongan material, including a U. S. Expl. 
Expcd. (NY, US) sheet from Samoa which is presumably from the type collec- 
tion, although Gray reports the species from "Samoan and Fijian Islands." Al- 
though the type collections of Dryiiiispenmtm subcordatum {Sccmann 381 and 
383 [in part, presumably] from Rewa, Viti Levu, and Taveuni) have not been 
seen, several of the cited specimens precisely agree with Seemann's plate. 

I have attempted in vain to find characters which would serve to distinguish 
P. siihcordata from P. aciiininata. The leaf-base is variable, even on the same 
individual ; the degree of pubescence inside the perianth and on the ovary is also 
variable, the ovary being from glabrous to distally setose on plants whicli are other- 
wise quite identical. Number of flowers per inflorescence is not dependable since 
the inflorescences associated with the apical leaves generally have (i-lO flowers, 
whereas those farther down on the branchlets or on the main stems commonlv 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 73 

have 20-35 flowers. The fruits of most Fijian specimens are very large and 
generally 2-scecled, hut the specimens collected by Bryan in the Yangasa Cluster 
have fairly small fruits, which are usually 1-seeded and not more than 10 mm. long 
at maturity. However, in all other respects these Bryan collections are similar 
to others from Fiji. Leaf -texture is variable and is apparently due to shade 
conditions ; however, the leaves are never as thick as those of P. glabra. 

Plialcria acuminata, when non-essential characters are excluded from consid- 
eration, is rather weakly characterized by its quickly caducous floral bracts, usu- 
ally large fruits, and large comparatively thin and usually acuminate leaf-blades. 
The common names of sinu luatiavi and uiatiavi are listed by Seemann. 

9. Phaleria lanceolata (A. Gray) Gilg in E. & P. Nat. Pfl, III. 6a: 225. 1894. 

Drymispcrvium lanccolatum A. Gray in Jour. Bot. 3: 304. 1865; Seem. Fl. Vit. 208. 1867. 

Lcucosm'ia lanceolata Benth. & Hook, ex Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 281. 1892. 

Slender shrub, the branchlets rugulose, slightly swollen at nodes ; petioles slen- 
der, shallowly canaliculate, 2-5 mm. long; leaf-blades chartaceous or papyraceous, 
oblong-lanceolate, 4—8.5 cm. long, 1-2.2 cm. broad, obtuse at base, gradually nar- 
rowed to an acute or subacute apex, the costa slightly impressed above, con- 
spicuous beneath, the secondary nerves 5-8 per side, ascending, with the veinlet- 
reticulation prominulous on both surfaces ; inflorescences terminal or axillary or 
arising from defoliate branchlets, solitary, the peduncle 2-15 mm. long, with 
several inconspicuous deltoid-lanceolate bracteoles about 1 mm. long near its base 
and others to 4 mm. long near middle ; floral bracts 2, papyraceous, ovate, 5-6 mm. 
long and broad, subacute at apex, obscurely nerved, caducous before anthesis ; 
receptacle convex, the flowers usually 3 or 4 per inflorescence ; perianth 27-30 
mm. long, faintly pale-puberulent within with hairs about 0.5 mm. long, the lobes 
4, ovate-oblong, 5-6 mm. long, 3^ mm. broad, subacute at apex, puberulent 
within, the faucial scales very inconspicuous or apparently none; stamens 8, the 
filaments 0.6-1 mm. long, the anthers oblong, 1-1.2 mm. long; disk submem- 
branous, about 0.6 mm. high, faintly crenulate at apex ; ovary faintly hispid dis- 
tally with a few pale hairs about 0.5 mm. long, the stigma oblong-ellipsoid, about 
2 mm. long. 

Vanua Levu : Mathuata : "Mountains behind Mathuata" [presumably the main- 
land opposite the islet of that name], U. S. Expl. Exped. (US, type) ; M bua : Ruku Ruku 
Bay, Parhavi 11 (A) (rambling shrub). 

This attractive and apparently rare shrub is readily distinguished from P. 
acuiiiinata by the characters mentioned in the key. 

LYTHRACEAE 

Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) Macbr. in F'eld Mus. Publ. Bot. 8: 124. 1930. 

ViTi Levu: Nandronga: Government Farm, Singatoka, Greenzvood 786B (A) 
(in wet places in fields). 

This American weed has not i)reviously been reported from Fiji, although it is 
known from Samoa and other Pacific groups, having usually been reported as 
C. balsamona Cham. & Schlecht. The present determination is by Dr. R. C. 
Foster. 

The family Lythraceae, to the best of my knowledge, has not previously been 
recorded from Fiji. 

Pemphis acidula Forst. Char. Gen. 68. pi. 34. 1776; Guillaumin in Jour. Arnold Arb. 12: 
261. 1931; Christoph. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 154. 1935. 
Va.ma Lk\u: T li ak a u n d r o V e : Waina, Maravu, near Salt Lake, Dcfjciier & 
Ordonez 14165 (A), 14189 (A) (small trees, along coast; native name: sauygalc). Koro : 



74 5ARGENTIA [1 

East coast, Smith 1033 (GH, NY) (slirub 4 m. higli, anions rocks alon^; shore; native name: 
sanggali). Milanga: Smith 1202 (GH, NY) (gnarled tree 1-2 ni. high, on limestone 
clifif in lagoon; native name: ngingia) . 

Although P. acidula is reported as conimoii in many Pacific groups, this is 
apparently the first record of it from Fiji. 

Lawsonia inermis L. Sp. PI. 349. 1753; Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9: 306. 1905. 
ViTi Lkvu : R e \v a : Vicinity of Suva, Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13627 (A) (cultivated 
tree). 

It seems advisable to record this widely cultivated plant from Fiji, as it may 
become naturalized ; it has doubtless been introduced from India. 

COMBRETACEAE 
Terminalia vitiensis sp. nov. 

Arbor multiramosa ad 8 m. alta floribus intus exceptis glabra, ramulis sub- 
teretibtis cincreis rugosis; foliis apicem ramulorum versus confertis, petiolis 
gracilibus 8-15 mm. longis superne anguste alatis, laminis chartaceis in sicco 
viridibus elli])ticis vel sulxjbovato-ellipticis, A-7 cm. longis, 1.5-3.2 ciu. latis, basi 
attenuatis et in petiolum decurrentibus, apice rotundatis vel leviter eiuarginatis 
vel obtusis, margine integris et ])aullo incrassatis, supra minute pustulatis, costa 
stipra jiaullo stibttis valde elevata, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 4-7 marginem 
versus ctu"vatis utrinque prominulis, rete venularum laxo utrinque subimmerso vel 
leviter prominulo ; inflorescentiis axillaribus racemosis 6-10 cm. longis, pedunculo 
brevi et rhachi gracilibus, floribus numerosis ])edicellatis, pedicellis gracilibus 2-4 
mm. longis apicem versus incrassatis; calyce infundibuliformi 3-4 lum. longo 
tenuiter carnoso intus pallide tomentello, lobis 5 acutis deltoideis 1.5-2 mm. longis 
et latis; lobis disci 5 carnosis hirsutis ; staminibus 8-11. filamentis filiformibus 
glabris sub anthesi circiter 7 mm. demum ad 10 mm. longis. antheris oblongis 
0.8-1 mm. longis, loctiHs a])icem versus distinctis ; ovarii rudimento nullo vel 
subfiliformi glabro ad 7 mm. longo. 

ViTi Levt : Serua : Near Mt. Ngamo, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. about 75 m., Dcgcncr 
15081 (A, tvi'k), Apr. 25, 1941 (densely branched tree about 8 m. high, in forest; flowers 
pale yellow). 

Terminalia vitiensis is of the relationship of the Samoan 7". RieJiii A. Gray, 
from which it dififers in its essentially rounded rather than actiniinate leaf-apex, 
its glabrous rather than tomentellous rachis, and its pedicellate rather than sessile 
flowers. 

MYRTACEAE 

By E. D. Merrill and L. M. Pkrry 

.SvzvGiuM Gaertncr 

Many generic concei)ts, both limited and coni])rehensive. have been ])ublished 
for the fleshy-fruited Myrtaccae. Of these the largest Old World genus is 
Sycygiu}ii (iaertner. In our study of the Borncan material, we did not accept the 
traditional limits of the genus. After trying to evaluate the characters and varia- 
tions in the group, we adopted a broadened concept for Sycygiuiii based on Gaert- 
iier's original description of the fruit rather than on the more fickle floral char- 
acters which had been most influential in determining the traditional status of the 
gentis. A{ that time Pareugenia Turrill came to our attention. Apart from the 
united filaments, the material looked so much like Syzygiuui fastigiafuiii (Bl.) 
Merr. X: Perry in all its other characters that we were dubious of its generic dis- 
tinction. However, since we had found no other instance of the coalescence or 



1942] SMITH, FIJI AX FLA XT STL DIES, II 75 

connate condition of the filaments, we decided to let it wait for future considera- 
tion. In our study of Syzygiuui in I'apuasia we found more than one species 
\\\\h filaments united in varying degrees. Sycygium Schuuiannianu)n (Nied.) 
Diels {Eugenia ncurocalyx K. Schuni.) is described as having stamens connate 
in four ])halanges ; we have seen no flowering material. In Eugoiia coaJita 
Greves, Jour. Bot. 61: Suppl. 15. 1923. according to the description, the outer 
filaments have coalesced and are subpetaloid. We found a similar situation in 
S. spcctahile Merr. & Perry ; the outer filaments are united in varying degrees 
more or less half their length, the inner stamens are single or in tiny phalanges 
of 2 or 3. It must he admitted that in these larger flowers the stamens appear 
for the most i)art cu masse rather than broken up into phalanges ; nevertheless, 
this is a condition of coalescence of the filaments whether the stamens a])pear as 
a mass or whether they ap])ear to be broken up into from four to sixteen pha- 
langes, or are both single and in phalanges as in Paretigenia oUgadelpha Chris- 
to]ihersen. That is to say. we consider this a highly variable character and for 
this reason scarcely worthy in generic consideration. Until further collections 
offer some more stable character we believe the species ascribed to Pareugenia 
Turrill belong in our concept o\ the genus Sycygiimi Gaertner. 
Syzygium Brackenridgei (A. Gray) C. Muell. in Walp. Ann. 4: 838. 1857. 

EiKjcnia Brackcuridgci A. Gray. Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 521. pi. 61A. 1854. 

Jambosa Brackenridgei Brongn. & Gris in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 12: 181. 1865. 

Pareugenia Brackenridgei A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 109. 1936. 

OvALAiT : U . S. Expl. Exped. (GH). Kandavu : Mount Mbuke Levu. dense forest, 
alt. 200-500 m., Smith 239 (GH). Witholt defixite locality: Home 6cS9, 843, 867, 936 
(all GH). 

Syzygium oblongifolium (Gilles])ie) Merr. & Perry, comb. nov. 

Pareugenia oblongifolia Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 23. /. 29. 1931. 

Vaxua Levu: Mbua : Lower Wainunu River valley, thin forest, alt. 0-200 m., 
Smith 1723 (GH). Without definite locality: Home (GH). 

Syzygium Imthurnii (Turrill) Merr. & Perry, comb. nov. 

Pareugenia Imthurnii Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 21. 1915; in Hook. Ic. PI. 31: 
pl. 3004. 1915. 

ViTi Levu: Lautoka : Mountains near Lautoka. Grcemvood 36 (A). 
Syzygium oligadelphum (Christoph.) Merr. & Perry, comb. nov. 

Pareugenia oligadelpha Christo])h. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 154: 20. /. 6. 1938. 

SAMOA : Upolu. Specimen not seen. 

Syzygium nomoa Guillaumin in Jour. Arnold Arb. 12: 258. 1931, of the New 
Hebrides, also belongs in this group with stamens more or less united into pha- 
langes, although this fact is overlooked in the original description. 

Syzygium Wolfii (Gillespie) Merr. & Perry, comb. nov. 

Eugenia Wolfii Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 22. /. 2<S'. 1931 ; A. C. Sm. op. cit. 141: 
106. 1936. 

Vanua Levu: Mathuata : Wainunu-Ndreketi Divide, alt. 200-300 m., Smith 1854 
(GH) (slender tree 20 m. high) ; Mbua : Home 1100 (GH). 

Syzygium curvistylum (Gillespie) Merr. & Perry, comb. nov. 

Eugenia eurznstyla Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 21. /. 26. 1931. 

Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove : Southwestern slope of Mount Mbatini. dense 
forest, alt. 300-700 m.. Smith 609 (GH) (tree 18 m. high) ; Mbua : Upper Ndama River 
valley, dense forest, 100-v300 m.. Smith 1598 (GH) (tree 10 m. high; flower-buds pale green). 
Taveuni : Western slope, between Somosomo and Wairiki, woods along stream, alt. 300 m., 
Smith 839 (GH) (tree 9 m. high; flowers white; fruit deep i)urple). 



76 SARGENT I A [1 

Syzygium Seemannianum Merr. & I'crry, nom. nov. 

Eugenia rk'ularis Seem. Fl. Vit. 80. 1865; non SY,':V(liinii rh-ularc Vieill. tx Guillauniin in 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 85: 645. 1938. 

Vrri Lkvu : Tholo N o r t li : Vicinity of Nandarivatu. along streams, occasionally on 
flooded land, Dcgcncr 14272a (A) (shrub or small tree 1-3 m. high; flowers white with 
greenish yellow tinge; fruit black) ; Serua : Navua River, Sconatui 162 (GH, isotvpe). 
Wrriioi"r nEFixiTE i.oc.m.itv : Home 920 (GH). 

Syzygium durifolium (A. C. Sm.) Merr. <!<: Perry, comb. nov. 

Eugenia durifolia A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 105. /. 56. 1936. 

T.WEU.M : Borders of lake east of Somosomo, dense forest, alt. 700-900 m.. Smith 919 
(GH, isotvpe). 

Syzygium diffusum (Turrill) Merr. & Perry, comb. nov. 

Eugenia diffusa Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 20. 1915; A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. 
Bull. 141: 107. 1936. 

Sycygium a)ieityense Guillauniin in Jour. Arnold Arb. 12: 256. 1931. 

Kandavu : Mount Mbuke Levu, dense forest, alt. 200-500 m., Smith 224 (GH) (tree 20 
m. high; fruit on trunk, orange-colored). T.weum : Western slope, between Somosomo 
and Wairiki, forest, alt. 500-900 m.. Smith 755, 769, 797 (all GH) (tree 13-20 m. high ; 
flower-buds yellowish; fruit red). Koro : Eastern slope of main ridge, dense forest, alt. 
300-500 m., Smith 994 (GH) (tree 18 m. high; stamens white; fruit red; lumber valued lor 
underwater uses). Without definite locality: Home 443 (GH). 

Superficially the species closely resembles Sy::ygiifm corynocarpum (A. Gray) 
C. Muell. On comparing the flowers, however, it will be found that the lower 
part of the calyx in the latter species is much longer and tends to be fusiform- 
clavate in bud, crowned by a globose apex. On the other hand, in .S". diffusum 
the base of the calyx is relatively short above the articulation with the pedicel, 
the bud being much nearer pyriform. We have been unable to distinguish the 
Fijian collections of this from an isotype of S. auciiycnsc Guillauniin of the 
New Hebrides. 

Syzygium Grayi (Seem."! Merr. & Perry, coml>. nov. 

Eugenia Grayi Seem. Fl. Vit. 79. pi. 16. 1865. 

Viti Levu: Tholo North : Nakutu, Navai, alt. 750-900 m.. Degener 15028 (A); 
Mataivisai, Navai, alt. 750-900 m., Degener 15029a (A) ; Nandrau, vicinity of Nandarivatu, 
in forest, alt. 750-900 m., Degener 14092 (A) ; Mount Matomba, Nandala, vicinity of Nanda- 
rivatu, in rich forest, alt. 750-900 m., Degener 14455 (A). Kandavu: Seemann 163 (GH, 
isotype) . Vanua Levu : T h a k a u n d r o v e : Between Valanga and Valethi, Savu 
Savu Bay region, alt. 0-400 m., Degener & Ordonez 14039 (A) ; Maravu, near Salt Lake, 
forest, alt. 0-450 m., Degener & Ordonez 14161 (A) ; Yanawai River region, Mount Kasi, 
dense forest, alt. 300-430 m.. Smith 1803 (GH) (slender tree 5 m. high; calyx and petals 
pinkish; stamens white, fruit rich pink); hills between Vatukawa and Wainingio Rivers, 
Ndrekeniwai Valley, forest, alt. 200-500 m.. Smith 592 (GH). Without definite locality : 
Home 742. 758 (both GH). 

The collections from Vanua Levu show considerable variation in the length 
of the petiole, one collection having practically sessile leaves, the others with 
petioles up to 1.5 or almost 2 cm. long, with the leaf-base varying from cordate 
to cuneate. These are wide differences to allow in one specific concept, but the 
inflorescences seem to be similar and we believe that further material is needed 
before we can be sure of the limits of species variation here. 

Syzygium simillimum Merr. & Perry, sp. nov. 

Arbor jiarva 3 m. alta ; ranuilis teretibus l)runnescentibus ; foliis coriaceis im- 
pellucidis pallide viridescentibus sessilibus oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, 12-17 
cm. longis, 3-5 cm. latis, basi cordatis, apice obtuse acuminatis vel acutiusculis, 
costa su])ra leviter canaliculata subtus elevata, nervis primariis utrinque incon- 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 77 

spicuis patenti1)us circitcr 5-10 mm. inter sc distantibus paullo irregularibus in 
venam intramarginalem inconspicuani 2-3 mm. a margine confluentibus ; petiolo 
brevissimo ; inflorescentiis terminalibus fere a basi raniosis vel breviter pedun- 
culatis. ± 2.5 cm. longis, paucifloris, ramis ± 5 mm. longis ; floribus breviter 
pedicellatis, crebre et minute glanduloso-pustulatis ; alabaslris pyriformil)us 6 
mm. longis in parte superiore 3-4 mm. diametro ; calycis lobis 1.5 mm. longis ob- 
tusiusculis; petalis .staminibusque non visis ; stylo ± 1.5 cm. longo ; fructibiis 
circiter 8 mm. longi.s subgloboso-ovoideis calycis lobis coronatis. 

Vani'a Levt : T li a k a u n d r o v e : Eastern drainage of Yanawai River, in dark 
forest, alt. 20-160 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14093 (A, type), Jan. 12, 1941 (sparingly branched 
tree 3 m. high; sepals pink; ])eta]s pale green; fruit dark red). 

The s]X'cies shows a remarkal)ly strong resemblance to Syzygium Bcccarii 
(Ridl.) Merr. & Perry, of Sarawak, Borneo. It difTers in that the leaves show 
no glandular ])unctatif)ns, the venation is less ol)vious, and the primarv veins are 
somewhat more remote. The flower-buds are slightly narrower and the calyx- 
lobes a little longer than in the Bornean collection. 

Syzygium nidie Guillauniin in Jour. Arnold Arb. 12: 257. 1931. 

ViTi Levi- : T h o 1 o N o r t h ; Vicinity of Nandarivatu, dense forest, alt. 750-900 m., 
Dcgcncr 14550 (A) ; Sovutawambu, near Nandarivatu, alt. 750-800 m., Dcgcncr 14665 (A). 

The flowers are very slightly smaller, and the inflorescences are scarcely as long 
and a little more com])act than those of the type-collection from Aneityum in the 
New Hebrides. The specimens, however, do not show any specific differences. 
Syzygium Richii (A. Gray) Merr. & Perry, comb. nov. 

Eugenia Richii A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 510. />/. 58. 1854; Seem FI Vit 77 
1865. 

Jambosa Richii C. Muell. in Walp. Ann. 4: 849. 1857. 

ViTi Levu: Ra : Vicinity of Rewasa. near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 15490 
(A); Namosi : Between Namosi and Navua River, Scemann 164, 165 (both GH). 
Moala: Forest near Maloku, alt. 200 m.. Smith UHO (GH) (tree 10 m. high; petals white; 
filaments bright yellow). Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove : Savu Savu Bay region, 
alt. 0-150 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13884 (A) ; Mbua : Upper Ndama River valley, dense 
forest, near streams, alt. 100-300 m.. Smith 1693 (GH). Vanua Mbalavu : Northern lime- 
stone section, alt. 0-200 m., Smith 1498 (GH) (tree 9 m. high; petals cream-white; filaments 
yellow). Kambara: Limestone formation, forest, alt. 0-100 m., Smith 1255 (GH) (tree 
17 m. high; petals and filaments cream-white). Without definite locality: U. S. Expl. 
E.xped. (GH. isotypes) ; Home 914, 1081 (botli GH). 

There is considerable variation in the foliage of this material, but we still do 
not have a sufficient number of collections to determine whether the narrower 
leaved material is a distinct species or not. We have seen no material of Eu- 
genia nandarivatcnsis Gillespie (in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 22. f. 27. 1931), but 
from the figure we sus])cct it to I)e a segregate of Sycygiuiii Richii. We do not 
care to try to evaluate it without authentic material for examination. It should 
be noted that Eugenia Su::ukii Kaneh., of Palau, is remarkably like Syzygium 
Richii; further material is necessary to determine whether Kanehira's species is 
specifically different or not. 

Syzygium quadrangulatum (A. Gray) Merr. & Terry, comb. nov. 

Eugenia qnadrangnhUa A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 511. 1854; Seem Fl Vit 
78. 1865. 

Jambosa qiiadrangidaia C. Muell. in Walp. Ann. 4: 849. 1857. 

ViTi Levu : R a : Tuvavatu, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 
15382 (A). OvALAu: U. S. Expl. Exped. (GH, isotype). Without definite loc\lity- 
Home 340 (GH). 



78 SARGENT I A [1 

Syzygium gracilipes (A. Gray) Merr. & Perrj^ comb. nov. 

Hiiffcnia gracilipes A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Kxpl. Kxped. 1: 513. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 78. pi. 
15. 1865. 

Jambosa gracilipes C. Muell. in Walp. Ann. 4: 849. 1857. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North : Mount Matomba, Nandala, vicinity of Nandarivatu, in 
dense rich forest, alt. 750-900 ni., Dcgcncr 14433 (A) ; Nauwanga, vicinity of Nandarivatu, 
in dense forest, alt. 750-900 m., Dcgcncr 1480S (A) (tree 2 m. high; fruit red, globose- 
pyriform, about 4 cm. diameter and 3- or 4-seeded ; seeds about 1.5 cm. diameter) ; Tholo 
West: Alhuyombuyo, forest, Tahualcwa 15591, 15606 (both A) (fruit bright red); 
Lautoka : North of Lomolomo, dense forest, alt. 0-150 m., Dcgcncr &• Ordonc:: 13638 
(A) (shrub 2 feet high, spreading; fruit pink) ; Serua : Vatuvilakia. vicinity of Ngaloa. 
alt. ISO m., Degencr 15142 (A). Without definite locality: Sccwann 158 (GH), U. S. 
Expl. E.vpcd. (GH, isotype). 

Possibly Smith 236 (GH) from Kandavu also belongs bere. In tbis s])ecimen 
the fruit is sei^aratc from a young sboot, but the vegetative characters agree fairly 
well with those of the species. 

Syzygium vitiense (Turrill) Merr. & Perry, comb. nov. 

Eugenia 7'itiensis Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 21. 1915. 

We have seen no material that conforms to the characters of Turrill's species. 
The type was from Kandavu, on the way up Mt. Mbuke Levu. 

Syzygium Gillespiei Merr. & Perry, sp. nov. 

Probabiliter arl)uscula vel f rutex ; ramulis novellis 4-angulatis vel com])ressis 
brunnescentibus ; foliis coriaceis impellucidis oj)acis supra olivaceis minute punc- 
tatis subtus brunnescentibus lanceolatis vel ellipticis, 20-28 cm. longis, 4—10 
cm. latis, basi cuneatis vel acutis apice acutiusculis (saepissime fractis), costa 
supra plana vel prominula subtus prominente, nervis primariis zh 13 ])atenti- 
adscendentibus in venam intramarginalem crenulatam 2^ mm. a margine con- 
fluentibus, supra leviter insculptis subtus prominulis, reticulo inconspicuo ; ])etiolo 
± 3.5 cm. longo. supra subplano ; inflorescentiis terminalibus ± 6 cm. longis la- 
tisque. pedunculo 2.5 cm. longo, ramis ramulis(|ue divaricatis ; floribus non visis ; 
fructibus irregulariter olxivoideis apice ]iaullo constrictis calycis lobis coronatis, 
± 2.5 cm. longis et 1.5 cm. diametro. umbilico 5-7 mm. diametro et alto, calycis 
lobis 4 circiter 3-4 mm. longis. 

ViTi Levu: Naitasiri: Tamavua woods, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 2269 (A, type), 
Aug. 15, 1927, and Gillespie 2463 (A). 

We cannot suggest any ai:)parently close relative of this species. The fruit ap- 
proaches that of Sycygiuiii Ricliii (A. Gray) Merr. & Perry, but the dried peri- 
carp is thinner and nK)re easily broken. The smaller leaves in outline are some- 
what like those of .S". Jaiubos (L.) Alston, but the petiole is more than twice as 
long. 
Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & Perry in Jour. Arnold .Arb. 19: 215. 1938. 

Eugenia iitalaccciisis L. Sp. PI. 470. 1753. 

ViTi Levu: Ra : Vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 15501 (A). 
Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove : Vatunivuamonde Mountain, Savu Savu Bay region, 
alt. 0-400 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonec 14030 (A). Kandavu: Western end of island, near 
Cape Washington, open woods, 0-20 m.. Smith 305 (GH). 

In looking over our Polynesian material we note that, in this region as well as 
in the Solomon Islands, this species grows wild. Furthermore. Ciuillaumin (in 
Jour. Arnold Arb. 12: 255. 1931) cites some sylvan New Hebrides collections 
under "Eugenia (^ Jaiubosa) Richii . . . var. vel spec, distincta?" These col- 
lections, as we interpret the s]:)ecies, belong to .V. jiialaccciisc. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 79 

MELASTOMATACEAE 
Medinilla Gaud. 

Six species of Medinilla have been described from Fiji, l)ut a re-examitiation 
of the genus indicates that two (M. anioena Seem, and M. parvifolia Seem.) 
should be combined, while three more appear to be undescribed. In view of the 
inadequacy of earher descriptions, all the species are here described and a key is 
proposed. Important specific characters are found in the color, shape, and size of 
the bracts (at nodes of inflorescence) and bracteoles (at or near apex of pedicels), 
the size of flowers, and to a certain extent in the shape and size of leaves, their 
bases, venation, etc. 

Three of the Fijian species have been also recorded from Samoa, namely M. 
amociia, M. hctcrophylla, and M. rhodochlaena. It seems probable that M. 
amocna does not occur in Samoa and that the specimens so reported are referable 
to M. samocnsis (Hochr.) Christoph. It is quite likely that the other two species 
do occur in Samoa; a specimen collected by Powell (GH) may represent M. 
rJwdochlaena. The remaining Fijian species, on the basis of material now avail- 
able, apjiear to be endemic. They are not closely related to species known from 
the New Hebrides. 

Key to the Fijian species 

Moral bracteoles large, 12-35 mm. long; flowers large, the petals 13-26 mm. long, 8-25 mm. 
broad, the antliers 6-8 mm. long, the style 13-22 mm. long; leaves isomorphic, the blades 
attenuate to acute at base ; montane species, local in distribution, occurring above 700 m. 
Young branchlets and inflorescence-])arts brown-furfuraceous or farinose; pedicel articu- 
late 5-8 mm. below calyx, the bracteoles elliptic, 12-20 mm. long, 5-10 (-18) mm. 
broad, stipitate at base, soon caducous ; bracts and bracteoles brown when dried. 

1. M. longicymosa. 

Young branchlets and inflorescence-parts glabrous; pedicel articulate 2-4 mm. below calyx, 

the bracteoles ovate, 23-35 mm. long, 15-30 mm. broad, rounded or subcordate at base, 

sessile, closely enveloping the flower, persistent ; inflorescence-branches, bracts, and 

bracteoles persistently bright red 2. M. IVaferhousei. 

Moral l)racteoles smaller, less than 12 mm. long ; flowers smaller, the petals 6-13 mm. long, 
5-11 mm. broad, or less, tiie anthers less than 5 mm. long, the style less than 13 mm. long; 
leaves often dimorphic. 
Bracts and bracteoles similar or dissimilar, die bracteoles elliptic or obovate to reniform, 
4-14 mm. broad, often clasping and concealing the calyx, persistent and conspicuous. 
Blades of larger leaves subcordate or rounded at base, rarely obtuse; dimorphism of 
leaves usually pronounced; bracts (at least those of distal nodes) 4-14 mm. broad, 
essentially similar to the bracteoles. 
Inflorescence amply paniculate, with long raceme-like branches, often on stems (if 
associated with leaves often compactly cymose, not conspicuously divaricate) ; 
bracts usually 3 or 4 at nodes, rarely only 2, obovate, longer than broad, white; 
bracteoles similar to bracts, paired; anthers trilobulate at base, the posterior lobe 

obvious 3. M. hctcrophylla. 

Inflorescence divaricate-cymose ; bracts paired at nodes and reniform or suborbicular 
(at least on distal portions of inflorescence), usually broader than long, pink; 
bracteoles similar to bracts ; anthers bilobulate at base, the posterior lobe lacking. 

4. M. Archboldiana. 

Blacks of larger leaves rounded to attenuate at base; bracts (even those of distal nodes) 

less than 3 mm. broad, conspicuously smaller than the bracteoles. 

I'lowers large, the petals 12-13 mm. long, 10-11 mm. broad, the anthers 4-5 mm. long, 

the posterior basal lobe larger than the two anterior lobes, the style 12-13 mm. 

long: bracteoles longer than broad; leaf-blades consi)icuously attenuate at base, 

the nerves oriented from base S. M. kandavucnsis. 



80 SARGENT I A [1 

Flowers smaller, the petals 7-8 mm. long, 5-7 mm. broad, the anthers 2-2.5 mm. long, 
the posterior basal lobe smaller than the two anterior lobes, the style about 5 mm. 
long ; bracteoles broader than long or suborbicular ; bracts and bracteoles rich 
pink; leaf-blades rounded to acute at base, the nerves often joined for the basal 

5-15 mm 6. M. rhodochlacna. 

Bracts and bracteoles more or less similar, obovate- or elliptic-oblong or oblong-ligulate, 
small, 3 mm. broad or less, the bracteoles inconspicuous, not concealing the calyx. 
Leaves often dimorphic, the larger blades 5-7-nerved, 7-15 cm. long, 4.5-10 cm. broad, 

subcordate to broadly obtuse at base, rarely subacute 7. .1/. Kambikamhi. 

Leaves essentially isomorphic, the blades 3-5-nerved, 2.5-9 cm. long, 1.5-5.5 cm. broad, 
attenuate to acute at base, rarely obtuse 8. A/, aiiwoia. 

1. Medinilla longicymosa Gibbs in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 147. pi. 14. 1909; Turrill in 

Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 22. 1915. 

Compact epiphytic liana, the young parts brown-furftu'accous or farinose, the 
branchlets subterete, cinereous, the internodes 5-15 mm. long; leaves crowded, 
isomorphic, the petioles slender, shallowly canaliculate, 10-25 mm. long, the blades 
chartaceous or subcoriaceous, brown-farinose on both surfaces, soon glal)rous, 
brownish when dried, elliptic, 3-7.5 cm. long, 1.5^ cm. broad, attenuate to acute 
at base, obtu.se to rounded and often slightly retuse at apex, 3 (or 5-) -nerved 
from base, the nerves sometimes joined for 7 mm., impressed or nearly plane 
above, raised beneath, the veinlets immersed ; inflorescence axillary, solitary, 
closely Ijrown-furfuraceous on all young parts, slenderly racemose-cymose, (3-) 
5-9 cm. long, few-flowered, short-pedunculate, the branches slender, the bracts, 
bracteoles, and pedicels pink to crimson ; bracts usually paired at nodes, papy- 
raceous, often foliaceous, obovate, 4—10 mm. long, 2-4 mm. broad, rounded at 
apex, tapering to a short stipe at base ; flowers 3 or 4 at distal nodes, the i:)edicel 
13-20 mm. long, articulate and bibracteolate 5-8 mm. below calyx, gradually 
swollen distally; bracteoles resembling bracts but larger, elliptic, 12-20 mm. long, 
5-10 (-18) mm. broad, subacute to rounded at a])ex, acute to obtuse or rarely 
subcordate at base, stipitate, the stipe 2-4 mm. long ; calyx-ttibe subcylindric, 
about 5 mm. long and in diameter, gradually narrowed and stipitate at base, the 
limb suberect, papyraceous or membranous, 2.5-3 mm. long, entire, the teeth 4, 
inconspicuous ; petals 4, white, waxy, membranous, often incons])icuously glandu- 
lar, obovate, 13-20 mm. long, 8-12 mm. broad, rounded or slightly retuse at apex, 
gradtially narrowed at base ; stamens 8, inflexed at anthesis, the lilaments ligulate, 
0.8-1.2 mm. broad, 7-9 mm. long, the anthers yellow, oblong. 6-7 mm. long, 
trilobulate at base (anterior lobes inconspicuous, the posterior lobe larger, sub- 
globose, 1-1.5 mm. in diameter), subacute at apex, dehiscing by a single extrorse- 
terminal pore; style white, 13-20 mm. long, the stigma minute. 

ViTi Levu : Parks 20917 (UC) ; Tholo North: Nandarivatu, im Thuni 2S4 
(NY) ; Mt. Victoria, alt. 1350 m., Gillespie 4125 (Bish, NY) ; Mt. Loma Langa, alt. 1200 
m., Gillespie 3777 (Bish, NY, UC) (epiphyte; native name: ten vntu) ; Namosi : Naita- 
randamu Mt., alt. 1150-1300 m., Gillespie 31 5H (Bish, UC), 5102 (Bish, UC). Without 
DEFINITE locality: Home 1039 (GH). 

Although 1 have not seen the type collection {Gihhs <V(V-/) of this si)ecies, there 
seems no doubt that the cited specimens are correctly placed. Tiu'rill states that 
the plant is a tall tree, 40 ft. high, but this is surely due to an error in im Thurn's 
field notes; all indications ])oint to the species as a liana, which eventually may 
appear to be a compact epiphyte. 

2. Medinilla Waterhousei Seem. Fl. Vit. 89. 1865; Triana in Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 87. 

1871; Cogn. in DC. Monogr. I'han. 7: 590. 1891; A. C. Sni. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 
141: 111. 1936. 
High-climbing liana, often epiphytic, glabrous throughout, the branches slender, 
rooting at nodes, the branchlets subterete or quadrangular, the internodes 15-25 



19-i^] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT ST.UDIES, II 81 

mm. long; leaves isomorphic, tlie petioles slender, shallowlv canaliculate 5-''0 
mm long, the mature blades ]mpyraceous or chartaceous. elliptic, 4-8 cm' lono- 
Z.5^ cm. broad, attenuate to acute at base, obtuse at apex, 3- or 5-nerved from 
base, the nerves sometimes joined for 5 mm., nearly plane above, raised beneath 
the vemlets usually mimersed ; juvenile leaf-blades ovate, u]) to 9 cm. lon^^ and 
5.5 cm. broad, conspicuously acuminate at apex (acumen to 2 cm. long) ; inflores- 
cence axillary or from defoliate branchlets, drooping, few-branched 'narrowly 
racemose-cymose, 8-25 cm. long, the branches, bracts, bracteoles, aiid pedicels 
persistently bright red, the branches slender, soft, sometimes appearing winged 
when dried ; bracts 2 or 3 at nodes, membranaceous or papyraceous oblong 9-V 
mm. long 4-10 mm. broad, rounded or obtuse at base and apex, sessile; flmve^rs 
1-3 at nodes, the pedicel slender, 15-25 mm. long, articulate 2^ mm below calvx • 
bracteoles resembling bracts but larger, ovate. 23-35 mm. long, 15-30 mm l)r6ad' 
obtuse or rounded at apex, rounded or subcordate and stri'ctly sessile at base ' 
calyx white, subcarnose, the tube cupuliform, {>-? mm. long and in diameter ob- 
tuse and short-stipitate at base, the limb suberect, membranous, about 3 mm ion<^ 
entire the teeth 4, obscure; petals 4, white, membranous, obovate, 23-26 mm' 
long, 20-25 mm. broad, rounded at apex, obtuse at base ; stamens 8, the filaments 
white, hgulate, 1.2-1.:) mm. broad, 8-10 mm. long, the anthers rich purple yellow 
at base, oblong-subulate, 7-8 mm. long, obscurely 3-lobulate at base subacute at 
apex, dehiscing by a single introrse-terminal pore ; style white. 20-22 mm ]on<^ 
the stigma minute ; fruit subglobose, 10-12 mm. in diameter, the calvx-Iim'b sub- 
persistent, the pericarp thin, the seeds numerous. 

/D^^f^ATA ^^^^'^- ^I*^"^ : Navotuvotu, summit of Mt. Seatura, alt. 830 m. Smith 1653 
(Bish, N\) (m crest thickets: native name: tckitcki viiiua Jiwfhcarva) . Tavkuxi ■ Above 
Somosomo. toward the lake. alt. 700-900 m., Gillespie 4848.5 (Bish. UC) (on trunks of 
trees m dark mountain canyons), Gillespie 4781 (Bish, NY, UC), Smith 8% (Bish GH 

i^?^n ^'^'c^'??Poi"/o"r/°x?'^- "^^'''^ "^"'^- f<^^'Oimauthia) ; summit of Uluingalaii. alt! 
1220 m., Smah 899 (Bish, GH, NY. UC. US) (in dense forest: native name: tangimauthia) . 

The type of this striking species, Sccmann 175, is also from Taveuni and was 

examined at Kew by the writer. Like M. longkymosa, the present species is 

very distinct and is apparently localized in a different series of mountains. The 

cited GillesjMe specimens are sterile and apparently juvenile, but I have little doubt 

that they belong here, in spite of minor foliage differences. Notes on the color 

of the inflorescence parts, which are spectacularly brilliant, are incorporated in 

the above description. 

3. Medinilla heterophylla A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 598 pi 7i 1854- Seem 

l\' ^'^^^li^fo'n?'^^-,''. '•\'^^?"-'^- Linn. Soc. 28: 87. 1871: Coru. in DC. MonoK^n 
Phan. 7: 598. 1891: Gihl)s m Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 147. 1909. 

High-climbing liana, the young parts inconspicuously brown- fur furaceous- 
puberulent, soon glabrescent, the branches subterete, stout,^ften rooting at nodes 
the branchlets slender, terete; leaves conspicuously dimorphic (rarely those of a 
pair subsimilar) ; larger leaves: petioles slender, shallowly canaliculate, 12-30 
mm. long, the blades chartaceous, ovate-oblong or elliptic, 6-16 cm. long' 4-10 5 
cm. broad, subcordate or rounded at base, acufe or short-acuminate at ape'x 5- or 
7-pli-nerved, the nerves often united to 12 mm. above base, slightly raised or 
nearly plane above, prominent beneath, the tertiaries prominulous on both sur- 
faces or subimmersed; smaller leaves: petioles none or up to 2 mm lon^ the 
blades suborl)icular, up to 4 cm. in diameter, cordate and often subamplexicaul at 
base, inconspicuously 3- or 5-pli-nerved ; inflorescence from main stems or ter- 
minal or axillary on branchlets, amply paniculate or cymose (when associated with 
leaves more compact and often only 5 cm. long), up to 50 cm. long the branches 
often puberulent when young, soon glabrescent, few, raceme-like, with internodes 
^23 mm. long and swollen nodes ; bracts white, (2 or) 3 or 4 in whorls at nodes 



82 SARGEMIA [I 

persistent, papyraceous, obovate, 7-14 nini. loiij;-. 4-10 mm. broad, rounded at 
apex, obtuse at base; flowers 2-4 ])er node, abundant, the pedicel slender. 7-17 
mm. long, with 2 apical bracteoles ; bracteoles similar to bracts or suborbicular, 
clasping the calyx ; calyx white, the tube cupuliform, 4—5 mm. long and in diameter 
at anthesis, obtuse or subacute at base, often minutely brovvnish-glandular- 
puberulent, the limb suberect. membranous, 1.5-2 mm. long, truncate at margin, 
the teeth 4, minute; petals 4, pale to rich ])ink. membranous, ol)ovate. 9-10 mm. 
long, 8-9 mm. broad, rounded and sometimes emarginatc at apex ; stamens 8. the 
filaments slender, 4—5 mm. long at anthesis, the anthers usually yellow, oblong- 
subulate, about 3 mm. long, trilobulate at base (two anterior and one ])osterior 
lobes similar, rounded, about 0.5 mm. in diameter), subacute at ai)ex, dehiscing 
by a single introrse-terminal pore ; style 7-9 mm. long, the stigma minute ; fruit 
glol)ose-ovoid, purjile to black, 6-8 mm. in diameter, the calyx-limb subpersistent. 
the ])ericarp thin, the seeds numerous, semi-obovoid, about 1 mm. long. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North : Nauwanga, near Nandarivatu, alt. 750 m., Pcgcncr 
14358 (A), 14528 (A) ; Mt. Matoniha, near Nandarivatu. alt. 750 m.. Dcgoicr 14641 (A) ; 
Ra : Vicinity of Rewasa, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgoicr 15372 (A) (native name: tiyi iiduauUulu ; 
stems used for tying house frames), 15524 (A) ; Tholo East : Matawailevu, Wainamo 
Creek, alt. 500 m., .S7. John IS 181 (A. Bish) (native name: iiiimiolo) ; Serua : Vicinity 
of Navua, Seciiianti 176 (GH) ; Namosi : Vicinity of Namosi, alt. 400-800 m., GiUcspic 
2648 (Bish. UC), Parks 20266 (Bish, UC): near Namuamua, alt. 350 m., Gillespie 3038 
(Bish); Naitarandamu Mt., alt. 900 m., Gillespie 3098 (Bish); Naitasiri : Mt. Kom- 
balevu, alt. 350-400 m., Parks 20310 (Bish, UC) : Tholo-i-suva, alt. 250 m.. Parks 20077 
(Bish, UC) ; Tamavua-Sawani road, alt. 200 m., Sefchell & Parks 15044 (UC). 15053 (UC). 
Ovai.au: U. S. Expl. Exped. (GH. NY, US, tvi>h) ; hills above Levuka, alt. 250-600 m.. 
Gillespie 4532 (Bish. NY. UC). Kandavu : Mt. Mbuke Levu, alt. 200-500 m.. Smith 249 
(Bish, GH, NY, UC. US). Vanta Lkvu : Mbua: Upper Ndama River valley, alt. 
100-300 m., Smith 1582 (Bish, GH, NY, UC. US) (native name: kaiiihikaiiihi) : Seatovo 
Range, alt. 100-350 m.. Smith 1561 (Bish, NY) (native name: kamhikanihi) ; Thakaun- 
drove : Valanga Range, alt. 200-400 m.. Smith 383 (Bish, GH, NY, UC. US) (native 
name: titoko ni kalou) ; near Valethi, alt. 90 m., Degeuer cr Ordonez 13847 (A). Tavf.vxi : 
Western slope, between Somosomo and Wairiki, alt. 700-900 m.. Smith 747 (Bish, CiH. NY. 
UC, US). Without definitk locality: Home 191 (GH). 

The abundant color notes accompanying some of the cited s]X"ciinens are incor- 
])orated in the description. Mcdinilla hctcrophyUa, occurring most often in the 
forests of middle elevations, is the commonest Fijian s])ecies of the genus. Its 
ample inflorescences, white bracts, bracteoles, and calyces, and strongly dimorjihic 
leaves amply distinguish it. In addition to the cited specimens, I refer several 
others to M. hctcrophyUa. although they do not represent the typical form ; 

(1) A form with slightly smaller and less consjiicuously dimor])hic leaves, in- 
florescences apparently restricted to the apices of branchlets, and liracts con- 
spicuously narrower than the bracteoles is represented by the following specimens 
from Nandarivatu, Tholo North, Viti Levu; Dcgcncv & Ordonc:: 1?574 (A). 
Rcay 11 (A), Gillespie 3173 (Bish, NY). 

(2) A form with both bracts and bracteoles much narrower than usual is 
represented by a specimen from Koro ; eastern sloi)e of main ridge, alt. 300-500 
m.. Smith loh (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (native name: kamhikamhi). This 
form ap])ears to be transitional toward M. Kamhikauihi. which, howe\er. has 
colored bracts, etc. 

Neither of these forms seems worthy of nomenclatural recognition, since the 
species ap]iears to be comparatively unstable ; in addition it may possibh' hybridize 
with two of its relatives, namely M . ArchhoJdiaua and M . Kaudukaiiihi. both of 
which are here described as new. Although the two mentioned s]:>ecies are prob- 
ably recent derivatives from M. hctcropJtyila, they ai)pear ami)ly distinguished on 
the basis of characters mentioned in the kev. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 83 

4. Medinilla Archboldiana sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens ubique inflorescentiis juvenilibus interdum brunneo-puberulis 
exceptis glaber, ramuHs siibteretibus, internodiis 3-9 cm. longis ; foliis plerumque 
disparibus interdum similibus ; foliis majoribus: petiolis gracibbus leviter canalicu- 
latis 9-32 mm. longis, laminis chartaceis ovato-oblongis vel elHpticis, (7-) 9-16 
cm. longis, (3.5-) 4.5-8 cm. latis, basi rotundatis vel subcordatis, apice obtusis vel 
obtuse et breviter acuminatis, 5- vel 7-pli-nerviis, nervis saejie ad 15 mm. con- 
junctis supra leviter impressis vel prominulis subtus prominentibus, venulis im- 
mersis vel utrinque inconspicue prominulis; foliis minoribus : petiolis 1-3 mm. 
longis, laminis suborbicularibus ad 3 cm. diametro, basi rotundatis vel subcordatis, 
5-nerviis ; inflorescentiis axillaribus vel e ramulis defoliatis orientibus, divaricato- 
cymosis, 5-13 cm. longis et latis, ramulis gracilibus patentibus, internodiis 12-25 
mm. longis; bracteis roseis oppositis membranaceis vel papyraceis, reniformibus 
vel late suborbicularibus, 10-12 mm. longis, 10-14 mm. latis, valde concavis, copi- 
ose nervatis. apice rotundatis, basi rotundatis et subamplexicaulibus (inferioribus 
interdum oblongis et 4 X 2 mm.) ; floribus 2 vel 3 e nodis superioribus, pedicellis 
gracilibus 12-17 mm. longis ; bracteolis apicalibus bracteis similibus, 6-12 mm. 
longis, 7-14 mm. latis ; calycis tubo cupuliformi circiter 3 mm. longo et 2.5 mm. 
diametro, basi obtuso vel rotundato et breviter stipitato, limbo erecto-patente 
membranaceo circiter 1.5 mm. kjngo margine integro, dentibus 4 obscuris ; petalis 
4 membranaceis roseis obovatis circiter 7 mm. longis et latis, apice rotundatis et 
sae]ie retusis ; staminibus 8. filamentis ligulatis gracilibus 2.5-3 mm. longis, 
antberis oblongis circiter 1.8 mm. longis, basi introrse bilobulatis (lobis obtusis 
circiter 0.3 mm. longis, lobo posteriore nuUo), apice subacutis, i)oro unico introrso- 
terminali debiscentibus ; stylo filiformi, stigmate minuto ; fructibus subglobosis 
6-7 mm. diametro, calycis limbo persistente, pericarpio tenui, seminibus numerosis 
semi-obovoideis circiter 1 mm. longis minute papillosis. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, Nandrau, alt. about 600 m., 
Degcncr 14884 (A) (in forest; native name: iva inilolo) ; Nauwanga, alt. 750 m., Dcgener 
14366 (A, type), Feb. 13, 1941 (shrubby liana, in dense forest; petals pink) ; Sovutawambu, 
alt. 750 m., Dcgener 14601 (A), 14655 (A) ; Nandarivatu, alt. 900 m., Gillespie 3164 (Bish) 
(liana, the stem 5 cm. in diameter; flowers [bracts, etc.?] crimson) ; 4 miles down Vunindawa 
trail, alt. 800 m., Gillespie 4278 (Bish) (flowers pink). 

This apparently well localized species is distinguishable from M. Jieterophylla 
by the characters mentioned in the key; the color and shape of the bracts may not 
be too stable, and it is to be hoped that future collectors w\\\ note the constancy 
of color in this genus. Among the cited specimens, only the type bears flowers, 
and the anthers of these lack the basal posterior lobe ; this character may prove 
to be quite dependable, as no flowers of M. Jieterophylla which I have dissected 
lack this lobe. 

5. Medinilla kandavuensis sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens ubique partibus juvenilibus minute et decidue bruimeo- 
furfuraceis exceptis glaber, ramulis subteretibus cinereis, internodiis 1.5-4 cm. 
longis ; foliis subsimilibus, petiolis gracilibus leviter canaliculatis 7—25 mm. longis, 
laminis chartaceis vel papyraceis obovato-ellipticis, (4-) 7-12 cm. longis, (2.5-) 
4—7 cm. latis, basi conspicue attenuatis et in petiolum decurrentibus, apice obtusis 
vel obtuse cuspidatis, e basi 5-nerviis, nervis adscendentibus baud conjunctis supra 
prominulis (vel co.sta leviter insculpta) subtus valde elevatis, venulis immersis ; 
inflorescentiis axillaribus vel e ramulis defoliatis orientibus solitariis vel binis 
racemoso-cymosis pauciramosis 5-7 cm. longis, ramulis gracilibus ; bracteis 
papyraceis 2-4 e nodis obovatis vel spathulato-obovatis, 5-7 mm. longis, 1.5-3 
mm. latis, apice rotundatis vel obtusis, basi obtusis vel subattenuatis ; floribus 2 
vel 3 e nodis superioribus. i)edicellis gracilibus 5-8 mm. longis ; bracteolis apice 
])edicellorum binis membranaceis ellipticis, 9-10 mm. longis, 5-6 mm. latis, longi- 



84 SARGENT I A [1 

tudinaliter nervatis, apice rotundatis vel ol)tusis. basi gradatini angustatis et nh- 
tusis ; calycis tubo ciqniUformi, 6-7 mm. longo, 5-6 mm. diametro, basi obtuso ct 
breviter stipitato. bmbu suberccto membranaceo circiter 2 mm. longo margine 
integro, dentibus 4 minutis ; petalis 4 paUide roseis membranaceis obovatis, 12-13 
mm. longis, 10-11 mm. latis, apice rotundatis vel retusis interdum minute niucro- 
nulatis ; staminibus 8. filamentis albis meml^ranaceis ligulatis 4-5 mm. longis, 
antberis oblongis 4—5 mm. longis, basi triloliulatis (lobis 2 interioribus circiter 
0.5 mm. diametro, lol)o posteriore paullo majorc), apice gradatim angustatis et 
ol)tusis poro unico terminali dehisccntibus ; stylo albo filiformi 12-13 mm. longo, 
stigmate minuto. 

Kandavi- : Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, alt. 200-400 m., Smith 201 (Bish, 
GH, TYPK. NY, UC. US), Oct. 18, 1933 (liana, in forest; petals pale pink; filaments and 
style white; anther-lobes yellow). 

Tbe new species sbows points of similarity with l)Oth M. rJwdochlacna and 
M. aniocna, but it seems to be amply characterized by its large flowers, leaf-shape, 
proi)ortions of bracts and bractcoles, etc. Unfortunately I neglected to note the 
color of the bracts, bracteoles, and calyx, but from the appearance of the dried 
specimens I judge that these ])arts were jiale jnnk. 

6. Medinilla rhodochlaena A. Gray. Bot. U. S. ILxpl. Exped. 1: 600. 1854; Triana in 
Trans. Linn. .Sue. 28: 88. 1871; Co^n. in DC. Mono^'r. Phan. 7: 602. 1891; Gibbs 
in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 147. 1909; Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 21. 1915. 

Liana or subscandent shrub, the young parts brown- furfuraceous, often gla- 
brescent, the branchlets slender, the internodes 1-5 cm. long; leaves dimorphic or 
isomorphic ; larger leaves : petioles slender, shallowly canaliculate, often brown- 
])uberulent, 8-20 mm. long, the blades chartaceous or subcoriaceous, often sub- 
])ersistently brown- furfuraceous beneath, ellii)tic-oblong, 6-15 cm. long, (2-) 
3.5-7 cm. broad, acute to rounded at base, obtusely acuminate at apex, (3- or) 
5-pli-nerved, the inner nerves joined for 5-15 mm., impressed above, prominent 
beneath, the veinlets immersed or jiromintilous beneath ; smaller leaves : petioles 
1-4 mm. long, the blades oblong, to 4 cm. long and 2 cm. broad or smaller, 
rounded at base, obtuse at apex, 3-5-nerved ; inflorescence axillary, solitary, 
CN'mose-racemose (often reduced to a single whorl of flowers on a short peduncle), 
1-5 cm. long, the branches slender, brown-furfuraceous, often glabrescent; bracts 
(2 or) 3 or 4, whorled at nodes, rich pink, pajnraceous, brown-furfuraceous, 
glal)rescent, oblong, (1.5-) 2-5 mm. long, 1-3 mm. broad, obtuse at base and ajiex ; 
flowers 3 or 4 per node, the pedicel slender, often furfuraceous, 2-8 mm. long; 
bracteoles paired, apical, clasping the calyx, rich pink, papyraceous or submem- 
branous, orbicular or reniform, 4-10 mm. long, 5-11 mm. broad, rounded at base 
and apex, broad at base; calyx rich pink, the ttibe cu])ulif()rni, about 2 mm. long 
and 3.5 mm. in diameter, rounded at base, often puberulent. the limb suberect, 
membranous, about 1.5 mm. long, entire, the teeth 4, minute; petals 4. pink to pale 
pur])le, membranous, oblong-obovate, 7—8 mm. long, 5-7 mm. broad, rounded or 
subretuse at apex ; stamens 8, the filaments slender, ligulate, about 3 mm. long, the 
anthers oblong, 2-2.5 mm. long, trilobulate at base (two anterior lobes about 0.5 
mm. in diameter, the posterior lobe calcarate, slightly smaller), obtuse at apex, 
dehiscing by two often confluent terminal pores ; style about 5 mm. long, the 
stigma minute ; fruit subglobose, black at maturity, 6-7 mm. in diameter, the 
calyx-limb persistent, the pericarp thin, the seeds numerous, semi-obovoid, 1-1.2 
mm. long, minutely papillose. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o North: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 900 m., Gillespie 4277 
(Bish) ; Rewa : Vicinity of Suva, Mcchold 8174 (Bish) ; Naitasiri : Suva Pumping 
Station, alt. 30 m., Dcgcncr & Ordoncc 13748 (A) (in forest) ; Tamavua woods, alt. 150 m., 
Gillespie 2088 (Bish)'; Nasinu, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 3600 (Bish, NY, UC) ; Central Road, 
alt. 230 m., MacDaniels 1154 (Bish) ; Naikorokoro, Mecbold 21945 (Bish). Ovalau : U. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLAXT STUDIES, II 85 

S. E.vpl. E.vprd. (GH, US. tvi-i-:). Sermaini 177 (GH) ; upper ridge, alt. 250 m., Bryan 598 
(Bish). Without definite eocalitv : Home 6S7 (GH). 

Medinilla rhodochlaena is readily distingui-slied by its coni])aratively narrow 
and thick leaves, short and richly colored inflorescences, dissimilar bracts and 
bracteoles, etc. Seemann reports the native name thavathava rcsingo. Color 
notes accompanying the cited specimens are incorj^orated in the descrij^tion. 

7. Medinilla Kambikambi sp. nov. 

Frntex scandens ubicjne glaber vel ])artibus novellis inconspicue brunneo- 
farinosis, ramulis teretibus cinereis, internodiis 2.5-5 cm. longis ; foliis saepe dis- 
paribus interdum subsimilibus ; foliis majoribus : petiolis plerumque gracilibus 
leviter canaliculatis 15-50 mm. longis, laminis chartaceis ovato-oblongis. 7-15 
cm. longis, 4.5-10 cm. latis, basi snbcordatis vel obtiisis raro subacutis, apice ob- 
tuse CLispidatis vel obtusis, 5- vel 7-pli-ncrviis, nervis ad 20 mm. interdum con- 
junctis supra prominulis vel subplanis subtus elevatis vel leviter prominulis, 
venulis immersis vel paullo prominulis ; foliis minoribus : petiolis 2-?> mm. longis, 
laminis suborbicularibus ad 4.5 cm. diametro, basi et apice rotundatis. 5-pli- 
nerviis ; inflorescentiis axillari])us et solitariis vel e ramulis dcfoliatis orientibus 
et saepe 2 vel 3 aggregatis, c\-mosis, 5-9 cm. longis, pcdunculo ad 4 cm. longo, 
ramulis gracilibus interdum cum partibus juvenilibus minute brunneo-furfuraceis ; 
bracteis 2-4 e nodis roseis membranaceis obovato-oblongis, 3-8 mm. longis, 1-3 
mm. latis, a])ice obtusis, basi obtusis vel gradatim angustatis ; floribus 2^ e nodis, 
pedicellis gracilibus interdum ad 3 mm. infra calycem articulatis sub anthesi 4-7 
mm. longis ; bracteolis ut bracteis vel paullo minoribus ; calyce roseo. tubo cupuli- 
formi, 2-5 mm. longo, 3-5 mm. diametro, basi rotundato vel obtuso, interdum 
minute ])uberulo, limbo subcrecto membranaceo 1-2 mm. longo integro. dentibus 
4 minutis ; petalis 4 roseis membranaceis late obovatis, 5-10 mm. longis et latis, 
ajMCC rotundatis vel subretusis ; staminibus 8, filamentis ligulatis 1.5-3 mm. 
longis, antheris luteis oblongis 1.5-3.5 mm. longis, basi trilobulatis (lobis sub- 
aequalibus circiter 0.5 mm. diametro), ajiice obtusis poro unico subterminali de- 
hi.scentibus ; stylo filiformi 4—5 mm. longo, stigmate miiuito. 

Vanua Levu: M b ii a ; Lower W'ainunu River valley, alt. 0-200 m., Smith H47 (Bish, 
GH. NY, UC, US); Thakaun drove : Yanawai River region, Mt. Kasi, alt. 300-430 
m.. Smith 1782 (Bish, NY) ; southern slope of Korotini Range, alt. 300—650 m.. Smith 503 
(Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) ; Mt. Mariko, southern slope, alt. 300-600 m., Smith 404 (Bish, 
GH, NY, UC. US) ; Natewa Peninsula, hills south of Natewa, alt. 400-600 m.. Smith 1959 
(Bish, GH, NY, type, UC, US), June 12, 1934. 

The cited specimens were all collected in fairly dense foothill forest and the 
native name kauihikamhi was ap]:)lied to all of them. While this is often used 
as a more or less generic term for the lowland s])ecies of Medinilla in Fiji, it is 
perhaps more strictly referred to the forms with colored bracts, at least on Vanua 
Levu. Color notes are incorporated in the description. While M. Kambikambi 
shows a similarity to M. auiocna in its reduced bracts and bracteoles, foliage dif- 
ferences seem to differentiate it. 

8. Medinilla amoena Seem. Fl. Vit. 88. 1865; Triana in Trans. Linn. See. 28: 87. 1871; 

Cogn. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 7: 590. 1891. 
Medinilla parvifolia Seem. Fl. Vit. 89. 1865; Triana in Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 89, as M. 
paruiflora. 1871; Cogn. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 7: 603, as M. pani flora. 1891; (jillespie 
in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 26. /. 33. 1931. 

Liana or shrub, probably subscandent. the .stem often ap])ressed to tree-trunks, 
the young parts brown-furfuraceous, glabrescent, the branchlets terete, the inter- 
nodes 8-30 mm. long; leaves essentially isomorphic, the petioles slender, shal- 
lowly canaliculate, 5-25 mm. long, the blades chartaceous, glabrous (or sparsely 



86 SARGENT I A [1 

brown- fur furaccous wlien young), elliptic, 2.5-9 cm. long, 1.5-5.5 cm. broad, at- 
tenuate to acute at base (rarely obtuse), obtusely cuspidate at ai)ex, 3- or 5-pli- 
nerved, the nerves often joined slightly above base, ])rominulous or plane above, 
prominent or shar])ly elevated beneath, the veinlets immersed ; inflorescences axil- 
lary, usually solitary, racemose- or paniculate-cymose. 2-7 cm. long, the branches 
slender, brown-puberulent or stellate-furfuraceous, glabrescent, often reddish; 
bracts (2-) 4, whorled at nodes, submcmbranous or papyraceous, oblong-ligulate, 
usually 2-4 mm. long and 0.7-1.5 mm. broad (the lower ones sometimes to 10 
mm. long and 3 mm. broad), obtuse at a])ex, obtuse or gradually narrowed to a 
short sti])e at base ; flowers 2 or 3 ]xn- node, the pedicel slender, ])uberulent or 
furfnraceous, glabrescent. often reddish. 2.5-5 (-15 in fruit) mm. long; brac- 
teoles ])aired (jiedicellary articulation sometimes to 2 mm. below calyx), similar 
to bracts, elliptic-oblong or oblong-obovate, at length caducous ; calyx-tube cupuli- 
form, 2.5-4 mm. long and in diameter at anthesis. obtuse at base and sometimes 
abru])tly narrowed to a short stii)e. often puberulent. the limb suberect, mem- 
branous. 1-1.5 mm. long, entire, the teeth 4, minute; j^etals 4. pink to purple, 
membranous, obovate-oblong to ohovate-spatulate, (3-) 6-7.5 mm. long and 
broad, obtuse or rounded at apex ; stamens 8. the filaments slender, ligulate. 
1.5-3.5 mm. long, the anthers yellow, oblong-subulate, 1.5-2 mm. long, trilobulate 
at base (two anterior lobes about 0.5 mm. in diameter, the posterior lobe slightlv 
larger), obtuse at apex, dehiscing by a single terminal pore; style filiform, to 6 
mm. long, the stigma minute; fruit subglol)ose, black at maturity, 6-7 mm. in 
diameter, the calyx-limb persistent, the pericarp thin, the seeds numerous, semi- 
obovoid. 1-1.2 mm. long, minutely pa]iillose. 

ViTi LEvr : T h o I o North : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 8()0-9()() m.. Dcgcncr & 
Ordonez 13571 (A). GiUcspic 4183 (Bish), 4234 (Bish, NY) ; Nandrau, near Nandarivatu, 
alt. about 600 m., Dcgcncr 14883 (A) (native name: Ini'andomondomo) \ Mt. Matomba, 
near Nandarivatu, alt. 790 m.. Dcgcncr 14461 (A) (native name: matlwu) ; Namosi : 
Vicinity of Namosi. alt. about 450 m., Gillespie 287? (Bish, UC) (native name: mimiloro), 
Sccmann 182 (GH, type ct)i.i..) ; slopes of Mt. Voma, alt. 550 m., Gillespie 2895 (Bish, NY, 
UC) ; Serua : N^aloa, alt. near sea-level, Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13616 (A). Ov.\lau : 
Hills above Levuka. alt. 300-350 m., Gillespie 4486 (Bish), 4551 (Bish, NY. UC). Vanua 
Levu : Mbua : Navotuvotu, summit of Mt. Seatura, alt. 830 m., .S";»(7/i 1666 (Bi.sh, GH, 
NY, UC. US), 1671 (Bish, NY, US) ; T h a k a u n d r o v c : Uluinabathi Mt.. Savu Savu 
Bay region, alt. 150 m.. Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13939 (A). 

The cited specimens were collected in forest or in upland thickets; the color 
of bracts and bracteoles has not been noted but apparently they are ])ale ])ink. 
While I have not directly com])ared the type of M. pari'ifolia with most f)f the 
above-cited specimens, I examined it at Kew in 1935 and concluded that it was 
identical with Smith 1666, a specimen with unusually small leaves and with 
bracts and bracteoles larger than average. This ])lant was growing in an exposed 
position in crest-thickets, and it may l)e assumed that Sccmann 178, the ty])e of 
M. parvifolia, collected on the summit of Mt. \'oma in Namosi Province, was 
taken from a similarly exposed plant. In view of the gradations ]iresent in the 
specimens now available, I do not believe that Seemann's two species can be main- 
tained. The four Gillesiiie s])ecimens, upon which his redescription of M . parvi- 
folia was based, are precisely similar to the type collection of M. amocna. 

CIJDE^^A D. Don 

Clidcmia has a]:)i)arently not been previously re])orte(l from the Pacific in 
strictly botanical literature, a rather surprising fact, since one species has become 
the most pernicious weed in Fiji and is to be looked for in other groups. 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 87 

Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don in Mem. VVern. Soc. 4: 309. 1823; in DC. Prodr. 3: 157. 
1828; Cogn. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 7: 986. 1891. 
ViTi Levu : TholoNorth: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750 m., Dcycncr 14266 (A) 
(naturalized shrub to 2 m. high, in open forest; petals white) ; R e w a : Suva Bay, near 
sea-level, Bryan 187 (A, Bish) (low shrub along roadsides; petals white; fruit purple; local 
name: Kostcr's curse); Naitasiri : Tamavua, Gillespie 2015 (Bish, NY). Kandavu : 
Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, alt. 200-400 m., Smith 119 (Bish, GH, NY) (low 
slirub, to 1 m. high, on edge of forest; petals white to pink). Vanua Levu: Mbua : 
Southern portion of Scatovo Range, alt. 100-350 m.. Smith 1703 (Bish, NY) (shrub 1-3 m. 
high, forming dense thickets in dry forest; petals white; fruit deep pur])le; a common per- 
nicious weed; native name: kanrasinga) . 

This extremely abundant shrul) often forms impenetrable masses in dryish 
forest, spreading with great rapidity in areas which are subject to the depredations 
of wild cattle. Its control, and if possible its eradication, are major problems 
for agriculturists in h'iji. Discussions of the species in Fiji have appeared in 
agricultural journals, the record being given here merely to introduce the name 
into the more specialized literature. 

AsTROXimuM A. Gray 

In proposing the genus Astroiiidinm for a single Fijian species. Gray (in Proc. 
Am. Acad. 3 : 53. 1853; Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 581. 1854) differentiated 
it from Astronia Bl. on the basis of its tetramerous flowers, calcarate anthers, and 
minute stigma. The genus was maintained by Seemann. who added a second 
species, but the monographers of the family, Triana and Cogniaux. submerged 
it in Astronia. Markgraf (in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 12: 47-50. 1934) 
pointed out that the genus should be maintained, on the basis of much stronger 
characters than those mentioned by Gray, and enlarged to include all the Poly- 
nesian species, some of the Pa])uasian ones, and one species from Borneo. Some 
recent students including Christophersen (in Bishop Mus. Bull. 154: 31-34. 
1938) have accepted this separation, and on re-examination of the group the 
present writer finds that the two genera are sharply distinct. 

The species of Astronia, as first pointed out by Merrill (in Philip. Jour. Sci. 
Bot. 8: 337. 1913), are polygamo-dioecious (very frequently if not always), 
while Astronidiuni always has perfect flowers. The calyx-lobes of Astronia are 
isomerous and apparent in the bud. while the calyces of Astronidiuni remain 
closed much later and then ustially rupture irregularly. Staminal differences 
between the two genera are pronounced. A difference which I have not seen 
elsewhere emphasized and which is very constant is to be found in the ovulation. 
The ovary-cells of Astronia are 2 (in all the specimens which I have examined, 
although 4 are mentioned in some descriptions) and the ])lacentas are flat or pul- 
vinate, with erect seeds. In Astronidiuni the ovary-cells are 4 to several (rarely 
2 or 3), and the placentas are erect and clavate, with radiating seeds. The ])la- 
cental character is especially obvious in fruits after the wall has split and the 
seeds fallen. Differences between the two genera are thus expressed in a key : 

Plants polygamo-dioecious, some with i)erfect and others with staminate flowers ; calyx-lobes 
apparent in bud, marked by radiating lines on the summit, the limb usually isomerously 
dentate ; anthers about as broad as long, the connective conspicuously enlarged dorsally, 
the locules short, the basal spur none; ovary 2 (-4 ?) -celled, the placentas inconspicuous, 
flattened or jjulvinate, the seeds erect Astronia Bl. 

Plants always with perfect flowers ; calyx-bud closed, without indication of lobes, at length 
irregularly (or usually so) rupturing; anthers mucli longer than broad, the connective 
not dorsally enlarged, the locules elongate, occupying the entire long inner face of the 



88 SARGENTIA [1 

connective, tlie basal spur straiglit, slender, rarely lacking (always present in Fijian 
species) ; ovary 4-several-celled (rarely 1- or 3-celle(l), the placentas cons])icuous, erect, 
clavate, the seeds divergent Astronidium A. Gray. 

Many Pacific species originally described in .-Istroiiia have already been trans- 
ferred to Astronidimu. However, the following combinations, based on the only 
two species of the group thus far described from the New Hebrides, are neces- 
sary: Astronidium aneityense (Guillaumin) comb. nov. (Astronia ancityoisis 
Guillaumin in Jour. Arnold Arb. 12: 261. 1931); Astronidium banksianum 
(Guillaumin) comb. nov. {Astronia banksiana Guillaumin in Jour. Arnold Arb. 
12: 261. 1931). Neither of these species has very close relatives among the 
F'ij'ian species of Astronidimu. 

I am able to distinguish 12 species of the genus in Fiji. Astronia fraterna 
A. Gray was reported from Fiji by Seemann (Fl. Vit. 85. 1865) on the basis of 
a sterile branch collected by Milne on Viti Levu. One may be sure that this 
is a misidentification. The type of Astronia fraterna, from the Societies, is most 
similar, among Fijian species, to Astronidium parviflonun, but it has 5-merous 
flowers, a larger calyx-limb, a more compact inflorescence, and smaller leaves. 

Two Fijian species have been reported from Samoa, one of them being Astro- 
nidium parz'iflorum, Samoan records of which I have not personally verified. 
Astronia confcrtiflora was re])orted from Samoa by Reinecke, but Christophersen 
(in Bishop Mus. Bull. 154: 34. 1938) expresses doubt of the determination. 
As to the only other species believed to occur in both Samoa and Fiji, Astro- 
nidium Pickeringii A. Gray (with two varieties), I have concluded that Gray's 
concept includes two species; these are discussed below under Astronidium 
victoriac. 

Kky to thk Fiiiax spfxies 

Leaf -blades glabrous beneath (sometimes brown-furfuraceous on nerves and sparsely so on 
surface, but not persistently so). 
Flowers comparatively small, the calyx 1-6 mm. long and in diameter at anthesis, the lobes 
inconspicuous, less tlian 1 mm. long, the petals -1-6, less than 7 mm. long and 4 mm. 
broad, the anthers 2-5 mm. long ; mature fruit 3-S mm. in diameter. 
Pedicels less than 1 mm. long, the flowers and fruits essentially sessile; tomentum or 
])uberulence of inflorescence-branciies and calyx often persistent in fruiting speci- 
mens \. A. confcrtiflormn. 

Pedicels at least 1.5 mm. long, obvious. 

Calyx splitting into 4-6 lobes (these rarely to 8 in fruiting calyces). 

Leaf-blades more than twice as long as broad; petals 4, small, 2.5-3 mm. long; calyx 

at anthesis l-i mm. long : antiiers 2-2.5 mm. long 2. . /. j^arviflorum. 

I^eaf-blades less than twice as long as broad; petals 5 or 6, larger, 5-7 mm. long; 
calyx at anthesis 4-4.5 mm. long; anthers 3.5-4.5 mm. long ..3. ./. floribundum. 
Calyx splitting into 8-11 lobes or more or essentially truncate. 

Leaf-blades elliptic or oblong or ovate, the outer collecting nerves usually more than 
1 mm. from margin ; calyx about as broad as long, minutely f urf uraceous- 
lepidote when young, often persistently so, the limb erect and with small but 

obvious lobes ; anthers 3.5 mm. long or less 4. A. victoriac. 

Leaf-blades elliptic to obovate, the outer collecting nerves less than 1 mm. from 
margin; calyx broader than long, glabrous, the limb incurved and essentially 

truncate at apex ; anthers 4—5 mm. long 5. A. inflatnm. 

Flowers comparatively large, the calyx 7-12 mm. long and in diameter at anthesis, the 

lobes large, 1-5 mm. long, the petals 6-10, large, 7-12 mm. long, ?)-7 mm. broad, the 

anthers 5-9 mm. long; mature fruit 10-15 mm. in diameter. 

Leaf-blades large. 11-27 cm. long, 5-17 cm. broad, 5-nerved, the 4tli and 5th nerves 2-7 

mm. within margin, paralleled by a fainter collecting-nerve. 

Leaves petiolate, the 3 principal nerves joined less than 2.5 cm. above base, the i)etioles 

1.2-6 cm. long 6. A. rohustum. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 89 

Leaves sessile, the 3 principal nerves joined 3-4 cm. above base 7. A. sessile. 

Leaf-blades smaller, 7-14 cm. long, 3-6.5 cm. broad, 3-nerved, the 4th and 5th nerves 
inconspicuous, 1 mm. or less from margin. 
Inflorescence compact, few-flowered, not more than 9 cm. broad even in fruit ; pedicels 
3-8 mm. long ; petals about 12 mm. long and 7 mm. broad ; anthers about 7 mm. 

long 8. A. macranthmn. 

Inflorescence ani])le, many-flowered, 9-17 cm. broad; pedicels 1 mm. long or less; 

petals 7-8 mm. long, 3-4 mm. broad; anthers 5-5.5 mm. long 9. A. Dcgcncri. 

Leaf-blades densely and persistently brown-pubescent beneatli. 

Leaves small, the blades 5-9 cm. long, 2-4.5 cm. broad, the lower surfaces, inflorescence- 
branches, calyces, etc., completely obscured by a layer of minute ciliolate or substellate 

scales less than 0.1 mm. in diameter 10. ./. tomcntosum. 

Leaves larger, the blades 10-22 cm. long, 4-12 cm. broad, the lower surfaces, inflorescence- 
branches, calyces, etc., less closely pubescent than the preceding, the hairs simple, 
spreading. 
Inflorescences, leaf-blades beneath, etc., subhispid witli subulate hairs 1-2.5 mm. long. 

11. A. Sforckii. 

Inflorescences, leaf-blades beneath, etc., tomentellous or puberulent witli often clavate 

hairs 0.2-0.5 mm. long 12. ./. kasiciisc. 

1. Astronidium confertiflorum (A. Gray) Markgraf in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 12: 49 
1934. 

Astronia confcrtiflora A. Gray. Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 579. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 86. 
1865; Triana in Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 152, as A. conscrtiflora. 1871; Cogn. in DC 
Monogr. Phan. 7: 1097. 1891. 

Tree or .slirtil) to 10 m. high, the young parts ustially densely brown- 
furfuraceous-ptiberulent, at length glahrescent, the branchlets subterete or distally 
quadrangular; petioles slender, canaliculate, 2-5 (-7) cm. long; leaf-blades papy- 
raceous to subcoriaceous, elliptic, 9-18 cm. long, 3-10 cm. broad, obtuse to ob- 
scurely subcordate at base, gradually narrowed to an acute or cuspidate apex, 
sHghtly recurved at margin, the principal nerves 3 or 5, sometimes united for 1 
cm., impressed or nearly plane above, prominent and often conspicuously puberu- 
lent beneath, the marginal collecting nerves inconspicuous, the cross-veins faintly 
impressed or plane above and prominulous beneath ; inflorescence terminal, tri- 
chotomously cymose, many-flowered, often persistently furfuraceous-])uberulent, 
5-9 cm. long, 8-15 cm. broad, the branchlets often flattened, the bracts subfoli- 
aceous, al)OUt 7 by 3 mm. or larger, caducous, the bracteoles similar or linear, 
4-5 mm. long, acute ; flowers crowded at ends of ultimate branchlets. the ])edicels 
1 mm. long or less ; calyx coriaceous, obscurely furfuraceous-jieltate with minute 
scales, glahrescent, cupuliform, about 4 mm. long and 3.5 mm. in diameter, the 
limb erect and about 1.5 mm. long at anthesis, irregularly splitting into 8-10 
oblong obtuse lobes 0.7-1 mm. long and 0.7-1.5 mm. broad; petals 4 or 5, oblong, 
about 3.5 mm. long. 2-2.5 mm. broad, rounded at apex; stamens 8 or 10, the 
filaments carnose, ligulate, about 2.5 mm. long, the anthers oblong, about 2.5 mm. 
long, recurved at a]iex, the basal spur acute, al^out 0.7 mm. long; style carnose, 
about as long as ])etals ; locules 4 or 5 ; fruit depressed-globose, 3.5-6 mm. in diam- 
eter, often ]Hiberulent, the calyx-limb with 8-16 lobes, the inature placentas usu- 
ally 5, rarely 4, clavate, 1-2 mm. long, retuse or truncate at apex, the seeds obo- 
void, 0.7-1 mm. long. 

ViTi Levu: Rewa : Near Suva, alt. about 200 m., Bryan 365 (Bish) (tree 4-5 m. 
high, in rain-forest near stream, the bark gray-brown, nearly smooth); Naitasiri: 
Central Road, alt. 230 m., MacDanicls 1139 (Bish) (tree 10 m. high, in rain-forest) ; Mt. 
Korombamba, alt. 500-600 m., Gillespie 2348 (Bish, UC) (woods near summit), Gillespie 
2389 (Bish, UC) (summit). Parks 20338 (Bish, UC) (tree 4 m. high, on cliflf near summit). 
Vanua Levu: AI b u a : Mbua Bay region, U. S. Expl. Exped. (GH, US, type) ; upper 
Ndama River valley, alt. 100-300 m.. Smith 1600 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (shrub 4 m. 
high, in dense forest; native name: ndava) . Taveuni : Mountain slopes above Somosomo, 
alt. 650 m., Gillespie 4833 (Bish, NY, UC) (common small tree). 



90 SARGENTIA |1 

The first five s])ecies of my key are closely related and not always easy to dis- 
tinguish, hut A. coiifcrtiflontiii is quite distinct on the hasis of its subsessile 
flowers and fruits. Presence of tomentum on the inflorescence-branches or its 
persistence is not an entirely dependable character in this grouji of species, but 
in A. confcrtifloru)u it seems more ])ersistent than in its relatives. 

2. Astronidium parviflorum A. Gray in I'roc. Am. Acad. 3: 53. 1853; Bot. U. S. Expl. 

Kxpcd. 1: 582. />/. 72C. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 87. 1865; Markgraf in Notizbl. Bot. 
Gart. Berlin 12: 49. 1934. 
Astronia parfiflora Triana in Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 152. 1871 ; Cogn. in DC. Alonogr. 
Phan. 7: 1099. 1891. 

Small tree, up to 7 m. high, the young ])arts glabrous or occasionally brown- 
furfuraceous-puberulent and soon glabrescent, the branchlets subterete or distally 
quadrangular; petioles slender, 13-40 mm. long; leaf-blades chartaceous. elliptic. 
6-18 cm. long, 2.5-8 cm. broad, obtuse to subattenuate at base, obtuse or acute 
at apex, slightly recurved at margin, the principal nerves 3, sometimes united for 

1 cm., lightly imjiressed above and subjirominent beneath, the marginal collecting- 
nerve inc()ns])icuous, ])rominulous beneath, the cross-veins ])lanc above and pro- 
minulous beneath ; inflorescence terminal, trichotomously cymose, usually gla- 
brous, 6-12 cm. long, 7-15 cm. broad, the branchlets somewhat flattened, the 
bracts elliptic, short-stipitate, 7-9 mm. long, soon deciduous, the bracteoles cadu- 
cous ; flowers usually in threes at apices of ultimate branchlets, the i)edicels slender. 
1.5-4 mm. long; calyx le]Mdote with scattered minute reddish peltate scales, gla- 
brescent, cupuliform, 2-3 mm. long and in diameter, the limb erect, 0.7-1.5 mm. 
long, splitting into 4 or 5 (rarely 8) lobes, the lobes broadly ovate, 0..3-1 mm. 
long, 1-2 mm. broad, obtuse or apiculate at a])ex ; petals 4, submembranous. 
oblong, 2.5-3 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. broad, obtuse or subacute at apex; stamens 8 
(rarely 6), the filaments thin-carnose, ligulate, 1.5-2.5 mm. long, the anthers 
oblong, 2-2.5 mm. long, recurved or obtuse at apex, the basal spur acute. 0.5-1 
mm. long; style 2-3.5 mm. long, the locules usually 4 (rarely 2 or 3) ; fruit 
depressed-subglobose, 3-5 mm. in diameter, the mature i^lacentas usually 4 (rarely 

2 or 3). clavate. 1-1.5 mm. long, flattened or .slightly retuse at apex, the seeds 
obovoid or dolabriform, 0.8-1.2 mm. long. 

ViTi Levu : Namosi : Vcima Mt., Sccmauu 173 (GH); Vakarongasiu Mt.. alt. 90(1 
m., GUlcspic 3257 (Bisli) ; Naitarandamu Mt., alt. 1100-1250 m.. Gillespie 3240 (Bish. NY. 
\JC),3347 (Bish, NY, UC), 3373 (Bish, UC). Ovai.au (or Mbau?) : U. S. Expl. Expcd. 
(GH, NY, US, type) . Vanua Levu : Thakaundrove: Mt. Uluingala. Natcwa 
Peninsula, alt. 600-820 m., Smith 1987 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (shrub 4 m. high, in dense 
forest). Taveuni : Western slope, between Wairiki and Somosomo, ah. 400 m.. Smith 
725 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (shrub 5 m. high, in forest; petals, stamens, and style white: 
native name: mothc lutu). Without definite locality: Home 1038 (GH). 

Astronidhiui parvifionmi, the genotype, is readily enough distinguished by its 
small 4-merous flowers ; this and the next are the only species of the geiuis in 
which 1 have noted fewer than 4 ovary-cells. When flowers are lacking, A. 
parz'iflondii is difficult to distinguish from its allies. However, it may be distin- 
guished from A. fioribuudnui by its leaf-shape and from A. victoriac by the fewer 
lobes of its usually smaller calyx in fruit. 

3. Astronidium floribundum (Gillespie) comb. nov. 

Astronia ftorihunda Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 24. /. 30. 1931. 

ViTi Levu: Naitasiri : Southeastern slopes of Korombamba Mt., alt. 400 m.. 
Gillespie 2246 (Bish, type, GH, UC). 

The original descri])tion, based on the only known cf)llection of the species, 
is adequate. The relationship of A. floribundum to A. parviflorum is indicated 
by the lepidote calyx with comparatively few lobes. The two s])ecies are amj)ly 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 91 

distinguished by floral and foliage characters. Gillespie reports the type-locality 
as being in the province of Revva, but Korombaniba Mt. is on the boundary of that 
province and Naitasiri, and the southeastern slopes presumably lie in Naitasiri. 
I note that the petals are often 6 and somewhat larger than the original descrip- 
tion implies, being up to 7 by 4 mm. ; the stamens are 10 or 12, the anthers up to 
4.5 mm. long ; the ovary-cells a]:)pear to be usually 3 as noted by Gillespie but 
some variation is to be anticipated in this character. 

4. Astronidium victoriae (Gillespie) comb. nov. 

Astronia Pickcringii A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 577, in part. 1854; Triana in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 152. 1871. 

Astronia Pickeringii var. vitiensis A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 578. pi. 72B (excl. 
/. 1-8). 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 86. 1865; Cogn. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 7: 1095. 1891. 

Astronia victoriae Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 25. /. 32. 1931. 

Tree or shrub 2)-7 m. high, the young parts brown-furfuraceous-puberulent, 
glabrescent, the branchlets subterete or distally quadrangular; petioles slender, 
canaliculate, 1-4.5 (-6.5) cm. long; leaf-blades thin-coriaceous or chartaceous. 
elliptic or oblong or ovate, 6-14 (-17) cm. long, 2-7.5 (-10) cm. broad, rounded 
or obtuse at base, obtuse at apex, slightly recurved at margin, the principal nerves 
3, from base or joined up to 5 mm., impressed above, prominent beneath, the 
marginal collecting-nerves 2 (sometimes faintly 4), the cross-veins slightly im- 
pressed or plane above, prominulous beneath ; inflorescence terminal, trichoto- 
mously cymose, sometimes puberulent and soon glabrescent, 5-15 cm. long, 8-17 
cm. broad, the branchlets slightly flattened, the bracts foliaceous, about 15 by 
3 mm. or larger, the bracteoles linear, about 5 mm. long, soon deciduous ; 
flowers usually in threes, the pedicels 2-5 mm. long; calyx coriaceous, minutely 
ferruginous-furfuraceous-lepiclote, glabrescent, cupuliform, 4-6 mm. long and 
in diameter, the limb erect, about 2 mm. long, irregularly splitting into 8-11 
lobes, the lobes subdeltoid, 0.3-1 mm. long, 0.5-2 mm. broad, obtuse at apex ; 
petals 5 or 6, submembranous to thin-carnose, oblong or broadly obovate, at 
anthesis 4—5 mm. long and 3-3.5 mm. broad, rounded at apex ; stamens 10 or 12, 
the filaments carnose, ligulate, at anthesis 3-4 mm. long, the anthers oblong, 3-3.5 
mm. long, obtuse or conspicuously recurved at apex, the basal spur acute, 0.5-1 
mm. long ; style carnose, about as long as petals, the locules 5 or 6 (rarely 7) ; fruit 
depressed-subglobose. usually glabrescent, 4-8 mm. in diameter, the calyx-lobes 
sometimes up to 20, the mature placentas 5 or 6 (rarely 7), clavate, 2-3 mm. 
long, retuse at a])ex, the seeds oblong-clavate, 0.8-1.5 mm. kmg. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North : Mt. Victoria, near summit, alt. 1200 m., Gillespie 4101 
(Bish. TYPE, GH, UC) : Loma Langa Mt.. near summit, alt. 1200 m., Gillespie 3936 (UC) ; 
vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-830 m., Dcgcncr 14798 (A) (tree 3 m. high, in open forest), 
Grecmvood 849 (A) (tree about 6 m. high; flowers white) ; vicinity of Nasukamai, alt. 480 
m., Gillespie 4396.1 (Bish, UC) (native name: tava) ; Tholo East: South of Mata- 
wailevu, alt. about 500 m., St. John 18230 (A, Bish) (tree 10 m. high, on steep bank over- 
hanging river; native nam'e : ndiriniu) \ Namosi : Southeast of Namosi, alt. 500 m., 
Gillespie 2870 (Bish) ; Voma Mt., alt. 500 m., Gillespie 2495 (Bish, GH. UC) (native name: 
tava) ; Naitasiri : Upper Waindina River, alt. 50 m., MacDaniels 1025 (Bish) (tree 10 
m. high; native name: tavo). Ovalau : Alt. 300 m., (/. S. Expl. E.vped. (GH, US, type 
of Astronia Pickeringii var. vitiensis). Vanua Levu: Mbua : Upper Ndama River 
valley, alt. 100-300 m.. Smith 1586 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (tree 5 m. high; native name: 
ifai susu). Taveuni : Vicinity of Waiyevo, alt. 600 m., Gillespie 4726 (Bish, NY, UC) 
(in woods) ; mountain ridges above Somosomo, alt. 800 m., Gillespie 4777 (Bish) (common 
small tree). Moala : Bryan 314 (Bish) (tree 5-6 m. high, in rain-forest on ridge-slopes, 
alt. about 200 m.) ; Ndelaimoala, alt. 400 m.. Smith 1363 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (shrub 
3 m. high, at edge of forest). 



92 SARGENTIA [1 

Gray based his Astroiiia Pickcringii ii])()n two varieties, saiiwcusis and 7'itic)isis. 
In examining type material and a series of specimens referable to the variety 
vitiensis, I have come to the conclusion that the ditiferences are of a specific na- 
ture. The only Samoan material of this complex available to me is the type 
collection, which bears immature flowers. Therefore a discussion of flowering 
and fruiting ditTerences, if any exist, cannot be given at present. A very obvious 
foliage difference, concerning the crystal-bearing cells, serves to separate the two 
forms readily, as follows : 

Upptr surface of leaf-blades smooth, with numerous conspicuous crystal-bearing cells 0.2-0.3 
mm. long lying just beneath the epidermis: leaf-blades acute to subattenuate at base, 

brownisli green when dried tstronidiuiii Pickcrinnu (A. Gray) C'hristoph. 

( .Istronia Fickcr'nuiii var. sainociisis A. (Iray). 

Upper surface of leaf-blades papillose, the crystal-bearing cells obscure, scarcely visible 
under magnification; leaf-blades obtu.se or rounded at ba.se, often yellowish green when 
flried ■IslroiiidiiDii victoriac {Astronia Fickcr'nuiii var. viticnsis A. Gray). 

Tt seems desirable to designate the variety saiiioensis as the actual tviie of 
Astronia Pickcringii. since Gray clearly s])ecifies that the floral characters of his 
description refer to the Samoan plant ; also, the correct combination of this S])e- 
cific name with Astronidium was first made by Christo]:)hersen (in Bi.shop Mus. 
Bull. 154: ?)2. 1938) in connection with the variety satuocusc (A. Gray) Chris- 
toph. This varietal combination of Christo]ihersen now seems unnecessarv. if 
m\- view that the Fijian variety is specifically distinct is acce])ted. 

Xo con.sequential differences are to be found between the types of Astronia 
victoriac and Astronia Pickcringii var. viticnsis, those i)ointed out \)\ Gillespie 
being hardly important. Even on the tyi)e of .i. victoriac the calyx-lobes are 
often (S-11 rather than regularly 8. Inflorescence-])ubescence is an inconstant 
character and is found in varying phases of persistence on the above-cited 
specimens. 

5. Astronidium inflatum (.\. C. Sm.) comb. nov. 

Astronia iuflata A. C. Sm. in Bishop Alus. Bull. 141: 114. /. 60. 19.36. 

V.XNU.v Lkvu : fforiir 6l6 (GH); Mbua : Navotuvotu. summit of Aft. .Statura. alt. 
700-^830 m., Smith 1645 ( liish, GH, NY. UC, US) (slender tree 4 m. high, in dense forest; 
calyx pink); T h a k a u n d r o v e : Alt. Mbatini, summit, alt. 1030 m.. Smith 707 (Bish, 
GH, NY, UC, US) (shrul) 1 m. high, in dense thickets) ; Mt. Ndikeva, eastern buttress, alt. 
800 m., Smith 1H75 (Bish, tvpk, GH, NY, UC, US) (tree 4 m. higli, hi crest tliickets). 

Since no material of the species has been obtained since the original description, 
this is not repeated. Although closely related to the more common A. victoriac, 
the jiresent species may l)e readily distinguished on the basis of characters men- 
tioned in the key. 

6. Astronidium robustum (.Seem.) comb. nov. 

Astronia robnsta Seem. Fl. Vit. 86. 1865; Triana in Trans. Uinn. Soc. 28: 152. 1871 ; Cogn. 
in DC. Alonogr. Phan. 7: 1096. 1891 ; Gillespie in Bishop Alus. Bull. 83: 25. /. 31. 1931. 

Tree to 20 m. high, the young parts glabrous or faintly ])uberulent and soon 
glabrescent, the branchlets stout, distally quadrangular, otherwise terete ; petioles 
stout, shallowly canaliculate, 1.2-6 cm. long; leaf-blades chartaceous to sub- 
coriaceous, elliptic, 11-27 cm. long, 5-17 cm. broad, subacute to attenuate at base, 
subacute or obtuse or obtusely cuspidate at apex, slightly recurved at margin, the 
princi])al nerves 5, arising from base or united up to 2.5 cm., impressed or plane 
above. ])rominent beneath, the marginal collecting-nerves faint, the cross-veins 
prominulous to faintly imi)ressed above, sharply raised or prominulous beneath; 
inflorescence terminal, trichotomously cymose, often faintly puberulent, soon gla- 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 93 

brcscent, 5-10 cm. long and broad, the braiichlets slightly flattened or quad- 
rangular, the bracts papyraceous, obovate, about 15 by 8 mm. or larger, soon 
deciduous, the bracteoles 7 mm. long or more, caducous; flowers usually in 
threes, the pedicels 3^ mm. long; calyx coriaceous, glabrous, often slightly 
verrucose or rugulose, cupuliform, 9-12 mm. long and in diameter at anthesis, 
the limb erect, about 5 mm. long at anthesis, irregularly splitting into 4—7 lobes, 
the lobes deltoid to broadly ovate. 2-5 mm. long, 3-8 mm. broad, acute or obtuse 
at apex; petals 6-9. usually 8, subcarnose, oblong, 10-12 mm. long, 4-6 mm. 
broad, rounded at apex; stamens 12-18, usually 16, the filaments carnose, ligulate, 
8—12 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. broad, the anthers oblong, 5-9 mm. long, stout, 
sharply recurved in the distal 3-4 mm., the 1)asal spur obtuse, 1.5-2.5 mm. long; 
style carnose, columnar, 12-16 mm. long, the locules 6-9; fruit depressed-globose, 
10-15 mm. in diameter at maturity, the mature ]:)lacentas 6-9, clavate, 4-6 mm. 
long, conspicuously rctuse at apex, the seeds oblong-clavate, slender, angled, 
1-2.5 mm. long. 

ViTi Lkvu : Namosi : Vicinity of Namosi, alt. 400-500 m., Gillespie 2869 (Bisli, 
NY, UC) (native name: thava) , Gillespie 2974 (Bisli, UC) : R e w a : Hill forests, alt. 
500 m., Parks 20396 (Bish. UC) (tree 20 m. high) ; Virea-Nasongo trail, alt. 400 m.. Parks 
20456 (Bish, UC) (tree 6-8 m. high, in thick forest); Naitasiri : Korombamba Mt., 
Mccbold 16669 (Bish, NY) ; vicinity of Nasinu, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 3403 (Bish, UC) (tree 
8 m. high, in woods). Taveuni: Borders of lake east of Somosomo. alt. 700-900 m.. 
Smith 859 (Bish, GH. NY, UC, US) (spreading tree 6 m. high, in dense forest). Without 
DEKixiTE i.oc.AMTY : Ilomc 200 (GH). 

Although I have not examined the type {Sccuiann hSl , from Namosi) in con- 
nection with all the cited specimens, I saw it at Kew in 1935 and noted that 
Smith 859 was a good match. The species is very distinct in the large size of 
all its parts, as noted in the key. 

7. Astronidium sessile (A. C. Sm.) comb. nov. 

Astronia sessilis A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 111. /. 58. 1936. 

Vanua Levu : T h a k a u n d r o v e - M a t h u a t a boundary: Crest of Korotini 
Range, between Navitho Pass and Mt. Ndelaikoro, alt. 650-900 m., Smith 533 (Bish, type, 
NY) (shrub 2 m. high, in dry forest). 

Since only the type collection is known, the original description is adecpiate. 

8. Astronidium macranthum (A. C. Sm.) comb. nov. 

Astronia macrantha A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 113. /. 59. 1936. 

ViTi Levi: : Tholo North: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, on edge of forest near Vatu- 
there, alt. 900 m., Gillespie 4270 (Bish, GH, UC). Vanua Levu: Mbua: Southern 
portion of Seatovo Range, alt. 100-350 m., Smith 1525 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (tree 7 
m. high, in forest). Smith 1706 (Bish, tyi'e, GH, NY, UC, US) (small spreading tree 3-6 
m. high, common in dry forest: petals white). 

The original description of this species does not need amplification, except to 
note that the Gillesjne specimen ha.s leaf-blades up to 14 cm. long and 6.5 cm. 
broad. Astronidium iiiacranthiim is readily distinguished from A. robustum 
by foliage characters, but the two sj^ecies are closely allied. 

9. Astronidium Degeneri sp. nov. 

Arbor j)arva ubique calyce obscure lepidoto excepto glabra, ramulis crassis 
subteretibus vel a])icem versus quadrangulatis, internodiis brevibus ; petiolis 
gracilibus obscure canaliculatis 2-4 cm. longis, laminis chartaceis vel subcoriaceis 
siccitate viridibus oblongo-ellipticis, 8-14 cm. longis, 3-6.5 cm. latis, basi ol)tusis, 
apice rotundatis vel obtusis, margine leviter recurvatis, 3-pli-nerviis, nervis ad 1 
cm. interdum conjuncfis supra subplanis vel leviter insculptis subtus promi- 
nentibus, nervis marginalibus 0.5-1 mm. intra marginem inconspicuis, venulis 
transversis supra subplanis subtus prominulis, rete venularum immerso ; in- 



94 SARGENTIA (1 

florescentia terminali trichotome cymosa, 7-12 cm. longa. 9-17 cm. lata, ramulis 
complanatis, bracteis bracteolisque mox caducis, floribus ])lerumque ternatis sub- 
sessilibus, ]:)edicellis inconspicuis ad 1 mm. longis ; calyce coriaceo inconsjiicuc 
ferrugineo-lepidoto cu])iilif()rmi, 8-9 mm. longo. circiter 7 mm. diametro, liml)() 
sul) antbesi erecto circiter 3.5 mm. longo in lobis 5 vel 6 ovato-deltoideis sul)aciitis 
2-3 mm. longis et 2-4 mm. latis rupto; petalis circiter 7 albis stibmembranaceis 
obovato-oblongis, 7-8 mm. longis, 3-4 mm. latis, ap\ce rotundatis vel apicnlatis, 
basim versus leviter angustatis ; staminibus j^lerumque 14, filamentis carnosis 
ligulatis circiter 7 mm. longis, antheris oblongis 5-5.5 mm. longis apice conspicue 
reciirvatis, calcare basilari subacnto circiter 1.5 mm. longo; stylo carnoso petalis 
subaeqnali, stigmate rotundato-truncato, loculis plerumque 7, placentis snberectis, 
ovulis numerosis. 

ViTi Levu : T h n 1 o W est: Yawe, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. 300 in., 
Dcc/oicr 15279 (A, type), May 15, 1941 (small tree, in forest; petals white). 

Compared witb its nearest relatives, A. luacraiitJtuiii and .-/. robitstuiii, tbe new- 
species has fairly small flowers, whicb, however, are larger than those of such 
species as A. vicforiae and its allies. In addition, the nearly sessile flowers 
readily distinguish A. Dcgcncri. 

10. Astronidium tomentosum (Seem.) comb. nov. 

Astronia tomcntosa Seem. Fl. Vit. '^6. 1865; Triana in Trans. T.inn. Soc. 28: 152. 1871; 
Cogn. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 7: 1099. 1891. 

Small tree or shrub, the young branchlets. petioles, lower surfaces of leaf- 
blades, inflorescence-branches, bracts, bracteoles, pedicels, and calyces densely 
and persistently lepidote with minute ciliolate or substellate scales less than 0.1 
mm. in diameter, the branchlets stout, subterete ; petioles shallowly canaliculate, 
1.5-4 cm. long; leaf-blades coriaceous or subcoriaceous. glabrous above, elli])tic- 
or ovate-oblong, 5-9 cm. long, 2-4.5 cm. broad, rounded or faintly cordate at 
base, obtuse at a])ex, narrowly rectirved at margin, the nerves 3 or 5, ascending 
from base, slightly impressed above and prominent beneath, the marginal nerves 
obscure, the cross-veins subimmersed or slightly impressed above and promiiui- 
lotis beneath ; inflorescence terminal, trichotomously cymose, 3-10 cm. long and 
slightly broader, the branchlets angled, the bracts chartaceous, obovate-linear, 
4-7 mm. long, the bracteoles similar but 2^ mm. long ; flowers crow^ded, usually 
in threes, the pedicels incons]Mcuous, less than 1 mm. long ; calyx subglobose in 
bud, 2.5-3 mm. in diameter before dehiscence ; ])etals 5, broadly ovate and minute 
in bud; stamens 10 (very immature in our material); ovary-locules 5; fruit 
depressed-globose, 6-7 mm. in diameter at maturity, the mature placentas 5. 
suberect, clavate, about 2 mm. long, retuse or flattened at apex. 

ViTi Levu: Namosi : Voma Mt., on or near summit, alt. 900-1000 m., Sccmann 174 
(GH, TYPE COLL.), CUlrspic 2725 (Bish), 2796 (Bish, UC) ; Vakarongasiu Mt., summit, 
alt. 950 m., Gillespie 3281 (Bish). 

This apparently very local species is not well named, the indument being essen- 
tially lepidote rather than tomentose. Although mature flowers are not yet avail- 
able, the species is quite unmistakable. 

11. Astronidium Storckii Seem. F\. Vit. 87. 1865; Markj,'raf in Xotizhl. Bot. Gard. 
, Berlin 12: 49. 1934. 

Astronia Storckii Seem, in Bon])landia 10: 296, nomen. 1862; Triana in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
28: 152. 1871; Cogn. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 7: 1099. 189L 

Small tree, to 5 m. high (or more?), the young branchlets, petioles, lower sur- 
faces of leaf-blades, inflorescence-parts, and calyx subhispid w'ith persistent 
simple subulate brow^n hairs 1-2.5 mm. long, the branchlets stout, subterete or 
distally quadrangular; ]ietioles shallowly canaliculate, 3.5-6.5 cm. long; leaf- 
blades subcoriaceous, sparsely hispid above and glabrescent except on nerves, 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAX PLAXT STUDIES, II 95 

elliptic, 10-22 cm. lont(. 4-11 cm. broad, obtuse or rounded at base, gradually 
short-acuminate at apex, slightly recurved at margin, the ]:)rincipal nerves 5, 
oriented from base, slightly impressed above and prominent beneath, the marginal 
collecting-nerves faint, the cross-veins slightly imjiressed above and sharply 
raised beneath; inflorescence terminal, trichotomously cymose. 8-10 cm. long, 
10-17 cm. broad, the branchlets lightly quadrangular, the bracts chartaceous, 
obovate-oblong, 7-12 mm. long, the bracteoles similar but smaller; flowers 
crowded, the pedicels 1 mm. long or less ; calyx ovoid and closed in bud ; petals 
4 or 5 (or 6?), deltoid-ovate in bud ; stamens apparently 8 or 10 (or 12?) ; ovary 
4-celled (ex Seemann) or 5- or 6-celled ; mature fruit 7-10 mm. in diameter, 
the mature placentas often 6 (in our material), suberect, clavate, about 2.5 mm. 
long, lightly retuse at apex. 

ViTi Levu: Namosi : Naitarandamu Mt.. summit, alt. 1200 m., Gillespie 3133 (Bish, 
UC) ; Naitasiri : Suva Pumping Station, alt. 30 m., Degcncr f-r Ordoiiea 13745 (A) 
(tree 5 m. high, in forest). 

The type of this s])ecies is Storck SQO, from Ovalau. for which Seemann re- 
ports the native name fhavathava. 

12. Astronidium kasiense sp. nov. 

Astronidium Storckii scnsu A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 115. 1936; non Seem. 

Arbor ad 7 m. alta. ramulis novellis, ]:)etiolis, foliis subtus, ramulis inflores- 
centiae, bracteis, bracteolis, et calycibus dense et arete tomentellis vel puberulis 
(pilis ferrugineis ])ersistentibus simplicibus saepe clavatis 0.2-0.5 mm. longis) ; 
ramulis crassis apicem versus quadrangulatis ; petiolis crassis obscure canaliculatis 
2)-7 cm. longis, laminis chartaceis ovato-ellipticis, 13-23 cm. longis, 7-12 cm. latis, 
supra olivaceis glabris saepe rugulosis, basi rotundatis vel obscure subcordatis, 
apice gradatim et breviter acuminatis, margine paullo recurvatis, 5-pli-nerviis, 
nervis ad 7 mm. interdum conjunctis su])ra leviter impressis subtus prominentibus, 
nervis marginalibus circiter 1 mm. intra marginem subtus iirominulis, venulis 
transversis numerosis su]:)ra planis vel insculi)tis subtus valde j^rominulis, rete 
venularum intricato sul)tus prominulo ; inflorescentia terminali trichotome cymosa, 
ad 15 cm. longa et lata, ramulis crassis leviter angulatis, bracteis oblongis ad 6 
mm. longis et 3 mm. latis, bracteolis similibus sed minoribus, floribus juvenilibus 
subsessilibus dense aggregatis ; calyce in alabastro clause ellipsoideo ; petalis 4 in 
alabastro late ovatis ; staminibus 8 ; stylo crasso, stigmate rotundato-truncato ; 
ovario 4-loculare, placentis immaturis clavatis quam longis latioribus. 

Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove : Yanawai River region, Mt. Kasi, alt. 300-430 m., 
Smith 1799 (Bish, GH, NY, type, UC, US), May 10, 1934 (tree 7 m. high, in dense forest; 
native name : rusila ) . 

In comparing this specimen with the type of A. Storckii at Kew, I was inclined 
in 1935 to consider them conspecific, but more careful comparison with the recent 
collections of A. Storckii indicates that dependable characters of pubescence make 
advisable the description of this new species. The two species are quite similar 
in shape, texture, and venation of leaf-blades. 

ONAGRACEAE 

Jussiaea erecta L. Sp. PI. 388. 1753; Setchell in Carn. Inst. Puhl. 341: 61. 1924; Christoph. 
in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 160. 1935. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Korovou, east of Tavua, alt. 30-75 m., Degcncr 14963 
(A) (along stream in dry meadow; native name: naingisa). 

This species and the following are naturalized weeds \vhich apparently have 
previously escaped collection in Fiji. The family, as far as I can ascertain, is 
not otherwise represented by Fijian herbariimi material. 



96 SARGENTIA [1 

Jussiaea suffruticosa L. Sp. IM. 388. 1753. 

Vixr Levu : T li o 1 o N o r t h : Nandarivatu, alt. about 800 ni., Dcgcncr & Orcioncc 
13545 (A) (shrub 1-2 m. high, along stream in sun). 

The cited specimen is apparently a very pubescent form of the widespread 
species. 

UAIBELLIFERAE 

Hydrocotyle javanica Tlninb. Diss. Hydrocot. 6. pi. 1. 1798. 

Taveuni : Western slope, between Somosomo and Wairiki, alt. 300-600 m., Smith 915 
(GH. NY) (in dense mats in forest). 

The cited sj^ecimen closely matches material from India. Sumatra. Java. 
New Guinea, etc., hut I believe that the species has not otherwise been re])orted 
from our rei^ion. Nothinj^ in its habitat causes me to believe that the plant was 
introduced or escaped in Taveuni, bitt of course this may have been the case. 
The determination is by Dr. B. H. Danser. 

MYRSINACEAE 

Embelia gracilis Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 30. 1915. 

Virr Lkvii: Tholo North : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about 750 m., Dcijcncr 
14307 (A) (liana, .scrambling over bushes in forest; flowers whitish; fruit red, .succulent) ; 
Sovutawambu, near Nandarivatu, alt. about 750 m., Dcgcncr 14662 (A) (liana, in forest) ; 
Ra : Vatundamusewa, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 ni., Dcgcncr 15453 (A) 
(liana, in ])artly sunny forest; fruit red; native name: wandrciiga) : Tholo W e s t : 
Uluvatu, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. 300 m., Dcgcncr 15259 (A) (liana, in 
forest) ; Yawe, near Mbelo, Dcgcncr 15268 (A) (liana, in forest; fruit red; native name: 
zvakai) ; Serua : Vatuvilakia, near Ngaloa, alt. 90 m., Dcgcncr 15163 (A) (liana, in 
forest). 

It is remarkable that the present collection contains six numbers of Eiubclia, 
which up to the ])resent seems to have been represented from Fiji only by the 
type of IL (jracilis. Although I ha\-e not seen this type, De,<;cner's numbers 
14307 and 14662 match the original descri])tion in all details; these ntnnbers. 
from essentially the type-locality, have the leaves punctate with abundant jiel- 
lucid glands. The remaining cited numbers were collected at much lower eleva- 
tions and have the leaves with comparatively few and sul)o])a(|ue glands. In 
other respects I can find no essential dififerences among the specimens. Numbers 
14307, 14662, and 15163 bear inflorescences, which are ideutical in all respects. 
The remaining s])ecimens, and also 14307, are in fruit, showing no characters of 
difiference. The lowland collections show considerable variation in leaf-size, 
15453 having blades \\\^ to 5 cm. long and 3.5 cm. l)road, but various leaf-sizes 
may be found on the same specimens. I assume that the variation in leaf- 
punctation depends \\\h)u whether or not the plant grows in dee]) shade, but it is 
conceivable that the collection of additional material will permit the recognition 
of two forms or even species. 

OLEACEAE 

By C. E. Kobuski 

Jasminum Smithianum Kobuski, sp. nov. 

Frutex subscandens, ramulis griseis, hornotinis viridibus puberulis. Folia op- 
posita, trifoliolata, coriacea vel chartacea, glabrescentia, petiolis ])uberulis. 1.0-1.5 
cm. longis, foliolis ovatis parvis 1-3 cm. longis et 0.8-1.5 cm. latis basi rotundatis 
vel tnmcatis, ai)ice actitis. supra atrovirentibus, nitidis, subtus pallidioribtis, 
juventnte margine et costa subtus puberulis, venis su])ra impressis, subtus elevatis, 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II i 97 

infiniis longe adscendentibus, ceteris 2-3 (paribus) arcuatis intramarginale con- 
junctis. petioluHs puberuHs ad 0.5 cm. longis. Infloresccntia axillaris cymosa. 
Bracteoli 2, lineari-acuminati, pubescentes, ca. 2 mm. longi. Calyx dense pu- 
berulus. tubo ca. 2 mm. longo, fauce ca. 1.5 mm. diametro, lobis 5 minutissime 
siil)ulatis vel baud manifestis. Corolla parva, alba, tubo 5.0-5.5 mm. longo, 
fauce ca. l.S mm. diametro. lobis 5, ovatis vel obovatis. ca. 3 mm. longis et 2.5 
mm. latis. Stamina 2, exserta, filamentis 3 mm. longis basi corollam' 2.5 mm. 
adnatis, antheris linearibus 3 mm. longis. Fructus ignotus. 

ViTi Levu : N a n d i : Korovou, near Nandi. among rocks along arid coast, Dcgcncr 
15321 (A, type), May 27, 1941 (subscandent shrub with white flowers). 

Tbis Species is characterized by very small, shining, dark green, trifoliolate 
leaves, pubescent when young, especially on the lower midrib, in the angles of 
the veins and along the margin. The flowers are correspondingly small with 
pubescent calyx-lobes, bracteoles and ])edicels. The stamens are exserted. The 
closest relative is /. Dcgencri, which has similar flower structure and ])ubescence 
but much larger. o])aque, membranaceous leaves and a distinctly climbing habit. 
Also somewhat closely allied is /. didymitiii Forst., which can be se])arated, how- 
ever, by the strictly glabrous, larger leaves. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. A. C. Smith, the author of this paper, 
whose interest in and work on the h^ijian flora are well known. 
Jasminum Degeneri Kobuski, sp. nov. 

Scandens, ramulis brunncis. hornotinis aureo-viridibus puberulis. Folia op- 
posita, trifoliolata, membranacea vel chartacea, glabrescentia, petiolis ]niljcrulis 
0.8-1. 5_cm. longis, foliolis ovatis (2.5-) 3-5 (-6) cm. longis et (1.5-) 2-3 (-4) 
cm. latis, basi truncatis vel rotundatis, apice acuminatis, juventute costa subtus 
subpuberulis, venis undique elevatis, 3-4 paribus adscendentibus, petiolulis pu- 
berulis 0.6-1.0 cm. longis. Infloresccntia axillaris, cymosa. Bracteoli lineari- 
lanceolati, pubescentes, 1 mm. vel minus longi. Calyx dense jmberulus, tubo ca. 
2 mm. longo, lobis 5, minutissime setaceis vel baud manifestis. Corolla alba, 
parva, tubo 7-9 mm. longo et fauce ca. 1 mm. diametro, lobis 5, ovatis vel obo- 
vatis, ca. 3 mm. longis et 2.0-2.5 mm. latis. Stamina 2, inclusa. filamentis ca. 3 
mm. longis, corollam totis vel intcrdum partim adnatis, antheris linearibus 3 mm. 
longis. Fructus ignotus. 

ViTi Liar: Tholo North : Fatia, west of Tavua, alt. 30-15(1 m., Dcgcncr 14980 
(A, TYi'K), April 2. 1941 (liana with white flowers). Pufxisf. locality lackixg- [/ S 
Ex pi. Expcd. (GH). 

As stated under the previous species, a close relationship exists between /. 
Siiiifhianiiin and /. Dcgcncri. Both are trifoliolate, small-flowered and pubescent 
on the flowers as well as on the very young growth. In this species, the leaves 
are opaque, membranaceous, and considerably larger, with the veins raised on 
both surfaces and not anastomosing into a second margin. The stamens, al- 
though possessing a])proximately the same measurements, are included, and the 
corolla is about 2 mm. longer. 

LOGANIACEAE 
Geniostoma vitiense Gilg & Benedict in Bot. Jahrb. 56: 542. 1921. 

Gcuiosfoiiui nipcstrc var. puhcndum A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 321, nomen. 1859. 

Vanua Levu: Mbua: Rukuruku Bay, Parham 5 (GH) ; Thakaundrove: 
Eastern drainage of Yanawai River, alt. 60 m., Degcner & Ordoncc 14104 (A) (shrub, in 
open forest) ; hills south of Nakula Valley, alt. 10-30 m., Smith 326 (GH, NY) (shrub 3 
m. high, in woods) ; Maravu, near Salt Lake, alt. 90 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14233 (A) 
(tree 5 m. high, on reed-covered forehill). Without definite locality: Seemann 301 
(GH, TYi'E COLL.) ; U. S. Expl. Expcd. (GH, as G. rupcstrc var. piibcridnm). 



^^8 .SARGEXTJA [1 

Previously reported onl}- from the type collection, G. z'ificiisc appears to occur 
fairly commonly, being distinguishable from G. rupcstrc by its pubescence and 
floral characters. The leaves of the tyi)e are somewhat smaller than the average 
of the other cited specimens; leaf-blades sometimes attain a size up to 12 cm. 
long and 6.5 cm. broad. 

Geniostoma stenocarpum sp. nov. 

h'rutex vel arljor parva ad 3 m. alta, ramulis subteretibus fusco-cinereis juven- 
tute interdum f errugineo-puberulis mox glabris ; stipulis parvis rotundato-ovatis 
mox glabris ; petiolis gracilibus leviter canaliculatis 2-5 mm. longis. laminis char- 
taceis glabris in sicco fuscis anguste elliptico-oblongis. 4—7 cm. longis. 1.2-2.5 
cm. latis, basi acutis vel attenuatis et in ])etiolum decurrentibus. apice subacutis 
et sae])e mucronulatis. margine integris et leviter recurvatis, costa supra insculpta 
stibtus jirominente. nervis secundariis utrinsecus 4—6 adscendentibus supra planis 
vel leviter insculptis subtus pauUo elevatis, venulis inimersis ; inflorescentiis 1-3 
in axillis foliorum cymosis gracilibus sub anthesi 7-15 mm. longis paucifloris, 
pedunculo et ramulis secundariis paucis l^revibus glabris, bracteis acutis ovato- 
deltoideis 0.5-1 mm. longis; pedicellis gracilibus sul) anthesi 2-3 mm. sub fructu 
ad 6 mm. longis, decidue 2- vel 4-bracteolatis, bracteolis o])]iositis vel subop])ositis 
ad])ressis oblongis circiter 0.8 mm. longis margine ciliolatis ; lobis calycis sub- 
membranaceis anguste imbricatis ovato-lanceolatis, 0.7-1 mm. longis, apice acutis, 
extus puberulis, intus glabris ; corolla membranacea breviter tubulosa sub anthesi 
2.5-3 mm. longa et 3 mm. diametro. extus obscure puberula vel basim versus 
glalira, tubo pilis brevibus albidis intus distaliter retrorso-piloso, lobis 5 ovato- 
oblongis circiter 1.6 mm. longis et 1.4 mm. latis subacutis margine ciliolatis uni- 
nervatis. nervo distaliter pauciramoso ; staminibus fauce insertis, filamentis 
deltoideo-ligulatis circiter 0.6 mm. longis intus pilis circiter 0.4 mm. longis retrorse 
barbato-hirsutis, antheris oblongis circiter 0.8 mm. longis, apice obtusis. basi 
cordatis ; ovario glabro depresso-globoso sub anthesi circiter 1 mm. diametro. stylo 
gracili circiter 0.7 mm. longo. stigmatc subgloboso circiter 0.5 mm. diametro 
papillose) ; fructibus angu.ste elli])soideis, 7-10 mm. longis, 2.5-3 mm. latis, basi 
obtusis, apice attenuatis et stylo persistente coronatis, valvis maturis ajxM-tis, 
placentis ])ersistentibus semina numerosa gerentibus. 

ViTi Lkvu : T h o 1 o N () r t h : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-850 m., Pcucncr & 
Ordonez 13591 (A, type), Nov. 22, 1940 (slirub, in rain-forest; flowers whitisli), Dciicncr 
& Ordonez 13592 (A) (shrub about 1 m. hij^di ; flowers yellowish white), Dec/eiier 14314 
(A) (small tree to 3 m. hish, in open forest). 

Goiiostonia stenocarpuiu is characterized by its glabrous comparatively small 
and narrow leaf-blades, which are acute at the base, its short corollas and con- 
spicuously barbate filaments, and its comjiaratively long and narrow fruits. In 
floral characters it resembles G. vitiensc Gilg & Benedict, but that species has more 
persistently inibescent branchlets and leaf-blades, which are rounded at the base, 
pilose on the lower surface (i)ersistently so on the costa), and generally larger. 

Gciiiustoiiia riipcstrc Forst. has doubtless been too broadly interpreted, as sug- 
gested by Gilg and Benedict (in Bot. Jahrb. 56: 542. 1921). However, if I 
correctly understand their analysis, based on a duplicate of the type, it is the 
common lowland species in Fiji, characterized by its strictly glabrous habit and 
shining leaves. Its corolla-tube at anthesis is longer than the lobes and its throat 
is uniformly pilose with short spreading hairs ; each lobe is supplied by 3 nerves 
which separate at the base of the corolla and then ascend without further branch- 
ing. On the other hand, both G. vitiensc and G. stenocarpum have the corolla- 
tube about equal to the lobes and its throat pilose with reflexed hairs; each lobe 
is supplied by a single nerve, which divides into 3 only at the summit of the tube, 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 99 

each branch usually being further divided distally. Some of Gray's varieties 
( uoiuina nuda in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 321. 1859) of G. rupcstrc should be referred 
to other species. 

Geniostoma calcicola sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens ad 50 cm. altus, ramulis gracilibus subteretibus fusco-cinereis 
juventute breviter et densissime i)allido-setosis demum glal^ris ; stipulis parvis 
late ovatis ; petiolis gracilibus 3-5 mm. longis ut ramulis hirsutis, laminis charta- 
ceis in sicco fuscis vel olivaceis oblongo-ellipticis, 3.5-5 cm. longis, 1.5-2.5 cm. 
latis. basi obtusis, apice rotundatis vel leviter emarginatis et interdum inconspicue 
mucronulatis, margine integris et leviter recurvatis, utrinque pilis pallidis circiter 
0.3 mm. longis erectis pilosis, costa supra leviter impressa subtus elevata, nervis 
lateralil)us utrinsecus 4—6 brevibus supra immersis subtus leviter prominulis. 
venulis immersis ; inflorescentiis axillaribus ]jlerurnque solitariis gracilibus cymosis 
sub anthesi 8—12 mm. longis paucifloris, |)edunculo brevi et ramulis paucis pallide 
]niberulis, bracteis ovatis minutis ; pedicellis gracilil)us sub anthesi 2-5 mm. longis 
decidue 2-4-bracteolatis, bracteolis meml)ranaceis ad])ressis oblongo-lanceolatis 
acutis ciliolatis circiter 1 mm. longis ; calyce cupuliformi fere ad basim 5-lobato, 
lobis membranaceis acutis ovato-deltoideis, 1.2-1.5 mm. longis et latis, sparse 
glanduloso-punctatis, margine ciliolatis ; corolla membranacea breviter tubulosa 
sub anthesi 3.5-4 mm. longa extus glabra, tubo circiter 2.5 mm. diametro pilis 
laxis patentibus pallidis circiter 0.8 mm. longis intus dense piloso, lobis 5 sub 
anthesi reflexis oblongo-ovatis, circiter 1.5 mm. longis et 2 mm. latis, apice obtusis, 
uninervatis, nervo distaliter ])auciramoso ; staminibus fauce insertis, filamentis 
ligulatis circiter 0.4 mm. longis ])arce pilosis, antheris oblongis circiter 1 mm. 
longis, apice obtusis, basi cordatis ; ovario glabro dej^resso-globoso sub anthesi 
circiter 1.3 mm. diametro, stylo circiter 1 mm. longo, stigmate subgloboso circiter 
0.8 mm. diametro papilloso. 

Imi..\\(;.\ : Near Monotliaki, Smith 1116 (GH, type, NY), Feb. 22, 1934 (scandent 
sliruh, to 50 cm. liigb, on cliff face in limestone formation; corolla white). 

Geniostoma calcicola is ty])ified by a specimen to which T referred (in Bisho]) 
Mus. Bull. 141 : 125. 1936) as a relative of G. crassifoliuiii Benth. It diflfers 
sharjily from that New Caledonian species, however, in its low habit and much 
smaller leaves. In floral characters, G. calcicola is allied to G. viticnse Gilg & 
Benedict and the type specimen has a very similar indument, but in habit and 
foliage the two species are easily distinguished. 

1 have seen three specimens which are very similar in habit and flowers to the 
ty])e of (/. calcicola: Smith 1203 (GH, NY), from Fulanga, Secmann 300 
(GH), from Fiji but without definite locality, and U. S. Expl. Exped. (GH), 
from Tonga, determined b}- Gray as G. riipcstre var. cllipticum. However, these 
three specimens have the l)ranchlets and leaves entirely glabrous or only obscurely 
]Hiberulent. and their corollas lack the conspicuous lax hairs described above, being 
merely puberulent within. I am at a loss to know how much value to attach to 
characters of pubescence in this case, especially since one of the specimens is from 
Fulanga. Before deciding whether the concept of G. calcicola should be ex- 
tended to include this glabrous form, I should like to see additional material of 
the complex from southern Lau and Tonga. 

CouTiioviA A. Gray 

It has been customary to place the Fijian specimens of Conthovia in two spe- 
cies, C. corynocarpa A. Gray and C. Sccmanni A. Gray. The first of these, 
which is the genoty])e, was based on a fruiting specimen collected by the U. S. 



100 SARGENT I A [1 

Exploring' Expedition, the second on Scciiuddi 305, a flowcrinji; s])ecinien. Tn 
proposing C. Sccnuunii, Gray (in Proc. Am. Acad. 5: 320. 1862) expressed doubt 
of its distinctness from C. corynocarpa. In order to decide whether or not these 
plants are conspecific, I have compared type material of each and have examined 
an extensive series of more recently collected Eijian specimens of the genus. 
The two type collections agree very closely in all essential details ; some of the 
leaves of C. coryuocarpa appear to he slightly smaller, hut it is to l)e noted that 
these small leaves are accompanied hy others on the same hranchlets which arc 
as large as those of the type of C. Scciuanni. It appears to be a characteristic of 
this species to bear occasional sliort hranchlets, near the apices of branches, which 
have a ])air of small and presumably juvenile leaves. Seeinaun S<)5 (GH) also 
shows these small apical leaves. In spite of the lack of flowers from the ty])e 
collection of C. coryiiocarpa, I liaxe no doulit that the two plants under considera- 
tion are conspecific. 

Gray, in ])roposing C. Scciihiinii as a distinct s])ecies. was prol)abK- influenced 
by Seemann's field notes, which remark upon the difl^erence in hal)it between 
Sccmann 305 and Sccmann 30.\ the latter of which Gray (in Proc. Am. Acad. 
5: 320. 1862) had identified as C. corynocavpa. While Seemann was certainly 
correct in referring his numbers 3(15 and 303 to dififerent species. I cannot agree 
with either him (Fl. Vit. 165. 1866) or Gray that no. 303 represents C. coryno- 
carpa. Seemann apparently saw only these two specimens of Couthovia. To 
revise his treatment : no. 305, the type of C. Sccmanni. is referable to C. coryno- 
carpa, while no. 303, determined as C. corynocarpa, re])resents an undescril)ed 
species. I refer the latter specimen to C. uiacrocarpa. 

Gillespie's treatment of the genus (in Bishop Mus. Bulb 83: 28-29. fig. 35, 36. 
1931) further complicates the situation. He states that the subject of Seemann's 
pi. 32 "can not be other than" Sccmann 305. This is certainly not the case. Scc- 
mann 305 has the pubescence of the corolla limited to the throat, while Seemann's 
pi. 32 shows the tube also pubescent below the throat. Furthermore, there is 
nothing in Seemann's text to indicate that his no. 305 was accom])anied by fruits, 
and a fruit is illustrated on pi. 32. The only number which Seemann cites as 
C. corynocarpa is his no. 303, and this surely is the basis of his pi. 32. This 
specimen, like the ])late, shows the corolla-tube to be uniformly pilose within and 
is accomjianied by a large woody fruit identical w^ith that illustrated. Further- 
more, Seemann says that C. corynocarpa (i.e. no. 303) has "dark-green foliage 
(made rather too light b\- our colom'ist)."' The specimen of Sccn\an)i 303 bears 
out this observation. 

In referring a series of several small-leaved specimens to C. corynocarpa, (jil- 
lespie appears to have depended upon a photograph of the type collection in the 
Gray Herbarium. He remarks that "the leaves of the Gray specimen are about 
11 cm. long and 5 cm. broad, somewhat larger than those of our collections." 
While this is true, it must be further remarked that other sheets of the Exploring 
Expedition type collection of C. corynocarpa (at NY, US) have the leaf-blades 
up to 13.5 by 10 cm. It is noteworthy that the small-leaved specimens referred 
by Gillespie to C. corynocarpa occur at elevations of 500-1300 meters, while the 
type doubtless came from a low elevation. From a re-examination of the material, 
I must conclude that Gilles])ie's description and illustration of "C. corynocarpa" 
refer to an unnamed species, which I shall call C. collina. His descri])tion and 
illustration of C. Sccmanni are referable to C. corynocarpa. but the specimens 
cited are referable only in part to C. corynocarpa. Three of them {Parks 20869, 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 101 

Gillespie 2095 and 2433) re])resent the new species which I shall call C. alata, 
while one other (Gillespie 2590) represents my C. niacrocarpa. 

I have discussed past interpretations of this complex in some detail, since it now 
appears that six well-marked species of Coidhovia are distinguishable in Fiji. 
Therefore, the proper placing of Gray's two names is essential. It seems unfor- 
tunate that these names are synonyms, but on the basis of the extensive material 
at hand I find it necessary to make this reduction and to propose the other five 
species as new. All of the six Fijian species appear to be endemic; they have 
been carefully compared with the other species of the genus thus far described 
from the Pacific (i.e. C. neo-ebudica Guillaumin from the New Hebrides. C. 
novocaledonica Gilg and Benedict from New Caledonia, and C. calophylla Gilg 
& Benedict and C. Toiia Kanehira from Micronesia). An interesting discussion 
of the genus and a treatment of nine Papuasian species w^as published hv Gilg & 
Benedict (in Bot. Jahrb. 54: 174-183. fig. 8, 9. 1916). 

Of the Fijian species, C. corynocarpa is the most abundant, at least at low 
elevations ; it is characterized by its smooth stipules, large petiolate leaves, and 
glabrous corolla-tube. With essentially similar flowers are C. collina, C. alata, 
and C. macroloba, but each is easily recognized by one or more oljvious characters. 
The two remaining Fijian species, C. niacrocarpa and C. pachyantha, have the 
corolla-tube pilose within as well as barbate at its apex, and they are further dis- 
tinguished by their large fruits. It seems likely that all of these species have been 
derived from C. corynocarpa and therefore are more closely related to each other 
than to any of the non-Fijian species. 

Key to the Fijian species 

Corolla barbate at tbroat witliin, otberwisc glabrous; style less than 1 mm. long; mature 
fruit obovoid, clavate, comparatively slender, not more than 13 mm. in diameter. 
Stipules forming a sheath 2-5 mm. high ; leaf-blades obovate-oblong, 4.5-9 cm. long, 2-5 

cm. broad ; occurring above 500 m 1. C. collina. 

Stipules forming a sheath 4-15 mm. high; leaf-blades (9-) 11-25 cm. long and 5-12 cm. 
broad or larger. 
Petioles 4-10 mm. long or more, sometimes angled but scarcely winged ; leaf-blades 
broadly elliptic, the secondaries usually spreading ; corolla 4-6 mm. long, the lobes 

2-2.5 mm. long, thin-carnose ; anthers 1.3-1.5 mm. long 2. C. corynocarpa. 

Petioles very short, conspicuously winged, the wings 1-3 mm. broad, confluent with 
those of the opposite petiole (i. e. the stipule-sheaths horizontally winged) ; leaf- 
blades oblong-obovate, the secondaries ascending ; flowers as in the preceding. 

3. C. alata. 
Petioles essentially none; leaf-blades obovate-elliptic, the secondaries ascending; corolla 
6.5-7 mm. long, the lobes 3-4 mm. long, thick-carnose ; anthers 1.8-2 mm. long. 

4. C. macroloba. 

Corolla barbate at throat within and also pubescent toward base of tube within; style 1.5-2.5 

mm. long ; mature fruit elli])tic-obovoid, gradually narrowed or rounded toward base, 

often somewhat flattened, 18-28 mm. broad; leaf -blades broadly elliptic, the secondaries 

spreading. 

Corolla thin-carnose, the tube 2.5-3 mm. in diameter, the lobes 1.5-2 mm. broad; hairs at 

base of lobes la.x, 0.5-0.7 mm. long; corolla-tube tomentellous within, the hairs lax, 

tangled 5. C. macrocarpa. 

Corolla thick-carnose, the tube 4-5 mm. in diameter, the lobes 2.5-3 mm. broad ; hairs at 
base of lobes stifiF, about 1.3 mm. long; corolla-tube strigose within, the hairs stiff. 

6. C. pachyanfha. 

1. Couthovia collina sp. nov. 

Conthovia corynocarpa sensu (Jillcspie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 28 (quoad descr.). fig. 35. 
1931 ; non A. Gray. 



102 SARGENT I A (1 

CoHtlun'ia Si-ciiunniii sensu Gibbs in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 157. 1909; non C. Sccniauni 
A. Gray. 

Frutex vcl arbor ad 5 m. alta (vel ultra?) corolla intus barbata exce])la glal)ra, 
ramulis fuscis siibteretibus saepe striatis, iuternodiis junloribus 0.5-3 cm. longis ; 
stipvdis intcrpetiolaribiLs subcoriaceis, apice rotundatis, inter sese et cum petiolis 
conuatis et cupulam 2-5 mm. altam formantibus, non longitudinaliter fissis ; pe- 
tiolis gracilibus supra complanati.s vel leviter canaliculatis 2-9 mm. longis (.supra 
stipulas) ; laminis plerumque subcoriaceis et obovato-oblongis, 4.5-9 cm. longis, 
2-5 cm. latis, basi attenuatis vel raro obtusis, apice rotundatis vel late obtusis, 
margine saepe paullo revolutis, utrinque subnitidis, costa supra leviter elevata 
subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 5-10 patentibus subrectis supra 
paullo subtus manifeste elevatis, rete venularum laxe reticulato imnierso vel in- 
conspicue ])rominulo ; floribus in apice ramulorum in corymbos 1-3 (cymosos, 
cymis 2- vel 3-plo divisis) dispositis, pedunculis ad 4 cm. longis gracilibus, cymae 
ramulis iM-imariis 2-10 mm. longis, pedicellis subnullis bracteis inconspicuis ovatis 
acutis circiter 1 mm. longis; calyce papyraceo cupuliformi fere ad basim 5-lobato, 
lobis anguste imljricatis orbiculari-oblongis, 1.2-1.5 mm. longis, 1.5-2 mm. latis, 
apice rotundatis, margine minute ciliolatis ; corolla subcarnosa obscure luteo- 
glandulosa 4-5.5 mm. longa, lobis oblongis, 2-2.5 mm. longis, 1.2-1.5 mm. latis, 
apice subacutis et saepe incrassatis, tubo 2-3 mm. cliametro apice pilis rectis 1-1.3 
mm. longis dense barbato cetera glabro ; staminibus 5 tubo insertis, filamentis 
gracilibus 0.5-0.7 mm. longis, antberis oblongis 1.3-1.6 mm. longis giabris vel basi 
minute puberulis ; ovario ellipsoideo luteo-glanduloso minute puberulo mox glabro. 
stylo 0.4-0.8 mm. longo, stigmate subcapitato miiuite papilloso ; fructibus obo- 
voideis clavatis, 16-22 mm. longis, 7-10 mm, diametro, infra medium vel basim 
versus abrupte contractis, apice rotundatis et mucronulatis. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo N o r t li : Lonia Langa Mt., alt. 1050 m., Ciillcspic 3913 ( Bish, 
TYPE, NY, UC), Nov. I\, 1927 (in forest on slopes) ; summit of Loma Langa Mt., alt. 1200 
m., Gillespie yw-) (Bish) ; vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-1200 m., Degcncr 14370 (A) 
(shrub, in forest; fruit whitish; native name: ngingila), Gillespie 3969 (Bish, UC) (latex 
milky; flowers and fruit white; native name: ndiiva). Parks 20740 (Bish, UC) (shrub 2-4 
m. high, in dense forest; flowers waxy-white; fruit white); Namosi : Slope of Voma 
Mt., alt. 500 m., Gillespie 2908 (Bish, NY) (native name: kau toi) ; Naitarandamu Mt., alt. 
800 m.. Gillespie 3100 (Bish, UC) (Howers white, odorless). Vanu.v Levu: Thakaun- 
drove- M a t h u a t a b o u n d a r y : Crest of Korotini Range, between Navitho Pass and 
Mt. Ndelaikoro, alt. 650-900 m., Smith 552 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (tree 5 m. high, in 
dry forest; corolla and anthers white; fruit white at maturity; native name: theketheke) . 

Tbus far this small-leaved species has been found only at comparatively high 
elevations on the two larger islands. Although its floral characters and its fruits 
are essentially similar to those of C. corynocarpa A. Gray, it is readily distin- 
guished by its smaller and more compact habit, small leaves and stipules, and 
compact inflorescences. 
2. Couthovia corynocarpa A. (jray in TVoc. Am. Acad. 4: 324. 1859. 

Conthovia Scemanni A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 5: 320. 1862; A. Gray in Bonplandia 10: 
37. 1862; Seem, in Bonplandia 10: 296. 1862; Seem. Fl. Vit. 166. 1866; Gillespie in 
Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 29, in part (as C. sccmannii) . fig. 36. 1931. 

Gacrtncra barbata Seem, ex A. Gray in Bonplandia 10: 37, nomen. 1862. 

Spreading shrub or tree up to 15 m. high, glabrous throughout except for the 
barbate corolla-tube, the branchlets stout, dark brown or stramineous, often obvi- 
ously lenticellate, subterete or distally quadrangular, the distal internodes 1.5-8 
cm. loiig; stipules interpetiolar, often coriaceous, subtruncate or rounded at a])ex, 
connate with the jietiole-bases and forming a cupuliform tube 4-15 mm. high 
which occasionally splits longitudinally; petioles stout, shallowly canaliculate, the 
free portion 4-10 (-30) mm. long, often angled but not winged; leaf-blades 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 103 

chartaceous or subcoriaceous, broadly elliptic, (9-) 11-25 (^0) cm. long, (4-) 
6-17 {-2^) cm. broad, acute or subatteiiuate at base, obtuse at apex, often slightly 
recurved at margin, usually dull on both surfaces, the costa stout, usually slightly 
raised above and prominent beneath, the secondary nerves 5-10 per side, spread- 
ing, nearly straight, raised on both surfaces, the veinlet-reticulation lax, often 
immersed, sometimes slightly prominulous especially beneath ; flowers arranged 
in 1-4 corymbs at the apices of branchlets. the common peduncle, if present, short 
and stout, the secondary peduncles to 7 cm. long, the corymbs cymose, 3 or 4 
times divided, the primary branchlets of the cymes 6-30 mm. long, the flowers 
sessile, often paired at ends of short ultimate branchlets. the bracteoles deltoid, 
about 0.7 mm. long; calyx papyraceous, cupuliform, minutely yellow-glandular, 
deeply 5-lobed, the lobes narrowly imbricate, orbicular-oblong, 0.7-1.5 mm. long, 
1.2-2 mm. broad, rounded at apex, glabrous or minutely ciliolate at margin; 
corolla submembranous at base, thin-carnose distally, 4—6 mm. long, the lobes 
oblong-deltoid, 2-2.5 mm. long. 1.2-1.7 mm. broad, subacute and often slightly 
thickened at apex, the tube 2-Z mm. in diameter, barbate at apex with straight 
hairs 0.8-1.3 mm. long, otherwise glabrous; stamens 5, inserted on the tube, the 
filaments slender, 0.8-1.3 mm. long, the anthers oblong, 1.3-1.5 mm. long, puberu- 
lent at base or glabrous ; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous, sparsely yellow-glandular, the 
style 0.5-1 mm. long, the stigma minutely capitate; fruits obovoid, clavate. 15-30 
mm. long, 8-11 mm. broad, sharply contracted slightly below middle or nearer 
base, acute to rounded at apex and often conspicuously mucronulate. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo West : Mbuyombuyo, near Namboutini, Talnialczva 15597 (A) 
(tree 10 m. high, in forest) ; Serua : Thulanuku, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 30 m., Dcgcner 
15118 (A) (tree 4-5 m. high, in forest; flowers white); N a mo si : Naitarandamu Mt., 
alt. 1000 m., Gillespie 3344 (Bish, UC) ; Re wa : Vicinity of Suva Bay, alt. near sea-level. 
Parks 20030 (Bish, UC) (tree 5 m. high, in dense bush on edge of swamp; fruit green), 
Bryan 381 (A, Bish) (tree 5-6 m. high; fruit light green to white), Mecbold 16440 (Bish) ; 
Naitasiri : Vicinity of Nasinu, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 3521 (Bish, UC), 3534 (Bish. 
UC) ; near Tamavua, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 2195 (Bish, UC) ; Waindina River basin, alt. 50 
m., MacDaniels 1037 (Bish) (tree 15 m. high, in rain-forest). Ovai.au : U. S. E.vpl. 
Exped. (GH, NY, US, type) ; Secmann 305 (GH, type coll. of C. Sccmanni and source 
of the name Gaertncra barbata) ; mountains south of Levuka, alt. 350 m., Gillespie 4537 
(Bish, NY, UC) (fruit white) ; near summit of main range west of Levuka, alt. 500 m., 
Gillespie 4426 (Bish, UC). Kanravu : Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, alt. 200- 
400 m., Smith 200 (Bish, GH, NY, US, UC) (tree or shrub 5 m. high, in forest; fruit 
white). Vanua Levu: Mbua : Lower Wainunu River Valley, alt. 0-200 m.. Smith 
1726 (Bish, GH, NY, US, UC) (tree 4-10 m. high, in thin forest; corolla pale yellow; fruit 
white; native name: mbidei) \ Thakaundrove : Eastern drainage of Yanawai River, 
alt. 120 m., Degener & Ordone:: 14082 (A) (small tree, in forest; fruit white) ; Vatuni- 
vuamonde Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 300 m., Degener & Ordonez 14024 (A) (small 
tree, in dense forest) ; southern slope of Mt. Mariko, alt. 400-600 m., Smith 408 (Bish, NY, 
US) (shrub 3 m. high; flowers white; native name: thekethekc) . 

As indicated by the above citations, this species has a wide range throughout 
Fiji at low elevations; its occurrence above 500 meters is indicated only by Gil- 
lespie 3344 and must be unusual. That the type collection was obtained on 
Ovalau is evident from the following notes of Pickering (Geogr. Distr. of Ani- 
mals and Plants, pt. 2: 358. 1876) : "Gen. incert. ; (Couthovia of Gray?, No. 1). 
A tree, forty feet high ; leaves opposite, 4 inches by 2%, entire, sheathing at base ; 
terminal corymbs ; calyx minute, 5-fid ; drupe elongate, contracted or stipitate at 
base, apiculate with the style. Ovolau." Seemann (Fl. Vit. 166. 1866) remarks 
that C. Seemanni ". . . inhabits the virgin forests of Ovalau. and has a light 
green foliage, and spreading, not tapering, mode of branching." 



104 SARGENT I A ,l 

3. Couthovia alata sp. nov. 

l^Vutex vcl arbor corolla intus barbata exccpta glabra, rannilis crassis fuscis 
subteretibus vel apicem versus lon.i,ntiKlinaliter sulcalis, internodiis junioribus 
1-3 cm. longis ; stipulis interpetiolaribus siccitate coriaccis. apice late obtusis. inter 
sese et cum jjetiolis connatis et cupulam 5-10 mm. altam formantibus. cu]Mila 
petiolorum alis cons]Mcuis transverse ornata ; petiolis validis brevibus conspicue 
alatis, alis 1-3 mm. latis cum eis petioli o])positi confluentibus ; laminis in sicco 
coriaccis et i;)lerum(|ue viridi-olivaceis obovato-oblongis. (11-) 14-24 cm. longis, 
(4-) 5-12 (-16) cm. latis, basi gradatim angustatis vel subobtusis, apice obtusis, 
margine revolutis, costa valida utrinque prominente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 
6-10 adscendentibus leviter curvatis utrinque manifeste elevatis, rete venularum 
immerso vel utrinque paullo i)rominulo ; floribus in ai)ice ramulorum in coryuibos 
(cymosos, cymis 3-5-plo divisis) dis])ositis, pedunculo primario crasso ad 3 cm. 
longo saepe subnullo, pedunculis secundariis 2-4 ad 7 cm. longis rectis, cymae 
rannilis primariis 8-30 mm. longis, pedicellis subnullis, bracteis deltoideis circiter 

1 mm. longis ciliolatis ; calyce papyraceo minute luteo-glanduloso cupuliformi fere 
ad basim 5-l()bato, lobis imbricatis orbiculari-oblongis, circiter 1.5 mm. longis et 

2 mm. latis, apice rotundatis, margine ciliolatis; corolla subcarnosa obscure luteo- 
glaudulosa circiter 5 mm. longa, lobis deltoideo-oblongis, circiter 2 mm. longis et 
1.5 mm. latis, a])ice acutis et saepe leviter incrassatis, tubo circiter 2.5 mm. di- 
ametro a})ice ])ilis rectis circiter 1.2 mm. longis liarbato cetera glabro ; staminibus 
5 tubo insertis, fdamentis gracilibus circiter 1 mm. longis, antberis oblongis glabris 
circiter 1.5 mm. longis: ovario ellipsoideo sub anthesi glabro, stylo inconspicuo 
circiter 1 mm. longo. stigmate minute subcajMtato ; fructibus anguste obovoideis 
clavatis, 15-25 mm. longis. 6-10 mm. diametro, paullo infra medium abrupte 
contractis, a])ice subacutis et mucronulatis. 

ViTi Lkvu: Parks 20869 (Bish, type, UC), May-July, 1927; R o w a : Vicinity of Suva 
Bay, near sea-level, Sctchcll & Parks 15160 (UC) (shrub 4 m. high, in dense forest), 
Mcchold 17012 (Bish); Naitasiri : Vicinity of Tamavna. alt. 150 m., Gillespie 2095 
(Bish), 2433 (Bish, NY, UC) ; Tamavua-Sawani road, alt. 2(10 ni.. Srtclirll & Parks 15086 
(UC) (tree, in rain-forest). 

b'rom tbe available material, this s])ecies appears to be limited to tbe lowland 
fcn'est ol southeastern V'iti Levu ; tbe only good flowering s])ecimen, designated 
as the type, is lui fortunately without detailed data, but it doubtless comes from 
the same region. The cited specimens have l)een referred to C. Sccmanni and 
C. corynocarpa. They agree with C. corynocarpa in characters of the inflores- 
cence and fruit, but they very obviously differ in having the short ])etioles con- 
s]Mcuously winged, the wings confluent with those of the o])])osite ])etiole and 
forming a transverse wing across the stipule-sheath. Furthermore, the leaf- 
blades are proportionately narrower, stiffer, and more noticeably rcvolute at 
margins, while the secondary nerves are more defmitely ascending. 

4. Couthovia macroloba sp. nov. 

Frutex 5 m. altus corolla intus barbata excepta glaber, rannilis crassis stramineis 
subteretibus vel apicem versus leviter angulatis, internodiis junioribus 2^ cm. 
longis ; stipulis inter]ietiolaribus coriaccis, apice truncatis vel inconspicue rotun- 
datis, inter sese et cum jietiolis connatis et cu])ulam 8-11 mm. altam formantibus, 
demum forsan longitudinaliter fissis ; petiolis liberis subnullis; laminis chartaccis 
obovato-elli]iticis, 12-20 cm. longis, (5-) 7-11 cm. latis. basi gradatim angustatis, 
apice obtusis vel obtuse cuspidatis, utrinque in sicco viridi-fuscis, costa valida 
su])ra subjilana subtus prominente, nervis secundariis 6-8 subrectis adscendenti- 
bus supra sub]ilanis subtus conspicue elevatis. rete venularum laxe reticulato im- 
merso vel sujira insculj^to et subtus leviter i)rominuIo; floribus in apice ramulorum 
in corymbos 2-4 (cymosos. cymis 3- vel 4-i)l() divisis) dis])ositis. ])edunculo pri- 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 105 

mario crasso l)revi, pedunculis secundariis 4-6 cm. longis. cvmae raniulis pri- 
mariis j,^racililnis 1-4 cm. longis. pedicclli.s subnullis. l)racteis'minutis deltoideis 
circiler 0.5 mm. longis; calyce i)apvracco cupuliformi profunde S-lobato, lobis 
imbncati.s orbiculari-oblongis, 1.5-2 mm. longis, 2-2.5 mm. latis. apice rotundatis 
vel obtusis, margine ciliolatis ; corolla distaliter crasse carnosa 6.5-7 mm. longa, 
lobis oblongis. 3-4 mm. longis. 1.5-2 mm. latis, apice subacutis, tubo 3-3.5 mm! 
diametro apice pilis rectis 1.5-2 mm. longis dense barbato cetera glabro ; stamini- 
bus 5 tubo insertis, filamentis gracilibus 1-1.5 mm. longis, antheris oblongis 
1.8-2 mm. longis glabris apice mucronulatis ; ovario ellipsoideo glabro sparse 
luteo-glanduloso. stylo circiter 1 mm. longo. stigmate minute capitato ; fructibus 
obovoideis clavatis, 30-40 mm. longis. 10-13 mm. diametro, l)asim versus gradatim 
angustatis, apice obtusis et luucronulatis. 

^ Tavkuni:^ Borders of lake cast of Somosomo, alt. 700-900 m., Smith 917 (Bisli, GH, 
NY, Tvi'K. UC, US). Jan. 8. 1934 (siirub 5 in. high, in dense forest; corolla-lobes white; 
anthers yellow; fruit white). 

This upland species is related to C. covynocarpa, differing in its lack of a free 
petiole, its proportionately narrower and more obovate leaf-blades, its ascending 
secondary nerves, and its larger flowers, particularly as regards the corolla-lobes 
and anthers. Floral proportions in ContJwvia appear to be cpiite consistent for 
each species, and when the corollas of C. macroloba and C. corynocarpa are com- 
pared side by side the differences are very noticeable. Duplicates of the type are 
de])osited in several Euro])ean herbaria. 

5. Couthovia macrocarpa sp. nov. 

Cnuthovia corynocart>a sensn A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 5: 321). (|noad Sccmann 303. 
1862; A. (iray in Bonplandia 10: ?,7 . 1862; Seem. Fl. Vit. 165. pi. 32. 1866; non A 
Gray, 1859. 

Gacrtncra pyramtda}i.<; Seem, ex A. Gray in Bonplandia 10: i7 , nomcn. 1862. 

Arbor ad 12 m. alta corolla intus pilosa excepta glabra, ramulis crassis fuscis 
juventute saepe conspicue cjuadrangulatis demum subteretil)us inconspicue lenti- 
cellatis, internodiis junioribus plerumque 1.5-3 cm. longis; stiinilis interpetiolari- 
bus conaceis, apice truncatis vel rotundatis, inter sese et cum petiolis connatis ec 
cupulam 5-10 mm. altam formantibus. demum longitudinaliter fissis et caducis • 
petiolis crassis leviter canaliculatis 5-15 (-25) mm. longis (supra stiinilas) ' 
lammis chartaceis siccitate viridi-fuscis late ellipticis, 9-15 (-20) cm. longis, C^li 
(-20) cm. latis, Imsi obtusis vel raro subcordatis et in petiolum decurt-entibus, 
apice rotundatis vel late obtusis. margine planis vel inconspicue recurvatis, costa 
vahda su])ra paullo elevata et saepe canaliculata subtus prominente, nervis "secun- 
dariis utrinsecus (^9 patentibus utrinque leviter elevatis, rete venularum laxe 
reticulato immerso vel interdum utrinque prominulo ; floribus in apice ramulorum 
in corymbos _ saepe solitarios (cymosos, cymis 3- vel 4-])lo divisis) dis])ositis, 
pedunculo primario crasso brevi ad 15 mm. longo, jx'dunculis secundariis 2^ cm' 
longis. cymae ramulis primariis 7-20 mm. longis, pedicellis saei)e 1-3 mm. longis 
bracteas deltoideas circiter 0.7 mm. longas inconspicuas gerentibus ; calyce papy- 
raceo cupuliformi prohmde 5-lobato, lobis saepe subcarnosis anguste imbricatis 
ovato-oblongis. 1.8-2.5 mm. longis et latis. margine ciliolatis; corolla distaliter 
carnosa in alabastro angulata 6-6.5 mm. longa, lobis oblongo-deltoideis, circiter 4 
mm. longis, 1.5-2 mm. latis. a])ice subacutis et saepe leviter incrassatis, tubo 2.5-3 
mm. diametro a])ice ])ilis 0.5-0.7 mm. longis tomentello-barbato etiam intus i^ilis 
similibus laxis pallido-tomentello ; staminibus 5 tubo insertis, filamentis gracilibus 
circiter 1 mm. longis, antheris crassis oblongis 1.8-2 mm. longis glabris apice 
obtusis; ovario ellipsoideo glabro. stylo gracili 1.5-2.5 mm. longo, stigmate capi- 
tato ; fructibus maturis sublignosis elliptico-obovoideis plerumque conspicue com- 
planatis, 30-43 mm. longis. 18-28 mm. latis. 10-18 mm. crassis, basi gradatim 
angustatis vel obtusis. a])ice rotundatis et mucronulatis. 



106 SARGENTIA [1 

ViTi Levu : Namosi : Vicinity of Namuamua. alt. 300 m., Gillespie 2951 (Bish, 
TYPE, UC), Sept. 22, 1927 (flowers faintly fragrant, the corolla greenish white, the anthers 
pale yellow; fruit hard, dull creamy white; native name: mboa) ; vicinity of Namosi, alt. 
400 m., Gillespie 2590 (Bish, UC) (bushy-topped tree 12 m. high, near stream; native names : 
nibo, viboloa) ; Namosi Valley, Scenianii 303 (source of the name Gacrtnera pyraitudalis, 
GH) (native name : mboloa ; fruit eaten by pigeons) ; Namosi or Naitasiri : Upper 
Waindina River, alt. 65 m., MacDaniels 1038 (Bish) (tree 10 m. high, in rain-forest: fruit 
white; native name: mbola). Without definite locality: Home 589 (GH). 

Of the cited specimens, the best flowers are present on tlie type collection; 
younger and less satisfactory flowers accompany Gillespie 2590, Sccinann 30^, 
and Home 589. All of the flowers dissected show the characteristic lax tangled 
tomentum within the tube. The type collection and MacDaniels U)38 bear good 
mature fruits, while Secmann 303 has a fruit similar to that illustrated in Seem. 
Fl. Vit. pi. 32. 1866. While this fruit appears to be not fully mature, it shows 
the characteristic flattening and woody texture. The limited distribution of this 
species is noteworthy, as is also the fact that its local naiues have not been referred 
to C. corynocarpa or other species, as far as can be ascertained from collectors' 
notes. Concerning the habit of his no. 303, Seemann (Fl. Vit. 166. 1(S66) re- 
marks that the species (which he took for C. corynocarpa) forms "... ])yra- 
midal trees, with dark-green foliage . . . , and they constitute a peculiar feature 
in the landscape of the Namosi Valley of Viti Levu ; moreover they grow quite 
in the open country." Whether or not the habits of C . maerocarpa and the trtie 
C. corynocarpa consistently differ must be left for future observers to ascertain. 

U]X)n receiving Seemann's collections of Conthovia, Gray (in IVoc. Am. Acad. 
5: 320. 1862) modified his concept to point out that he observed indications of 
dimorphism, or inci]Ment difiference in sex, in the flowers examined. These dif- 
ferences pertained to the greater or lesser development of the pubescence of the 
corolla-throat and the length of the filaments and style. In the numerous flowers 
which I have examined I have found no such noteworthy variations, the char- 
acters a]ipearing very constant ; therefore I believe that Gray's conclusions were 
based u])on inadequate material. 

6. Couthovia pachyantha sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 8 m. alta corolla intus strigosa excejita glabra, ramulis crassis fuscis 
juventute plertimqtie complanato-qtiadrangulatis demum subteretibus, internodiis 
junioribus 1.5-3 cm. longis ; stipulis interpetiolaribus coriaceis, ai)ice truncatis 
vel rotundatis, inter sese et cum petiolis connatis et cupulam 5-13 mm. altam 
formantibus, mox caducis ; petiolis crassis 5-20 mm. longis (suj^-a sti])ulas) 
com])lanatis margine angulatis ; laminis chartaceis vel subcoriaceis siccitatc viridi- 
fuscis late ellipticis, 9-20 cm. longis, 5-18 cm. latis, basi obtusis saepe subcordatis 
et in jietiolum decurrentibus. apice rotundatis, margine planis vel inconsjiicue re- 
curvatis, costa valida suj)ra subplana vel leviter elevata subtus prominente, nervis 
secundariis utrinsecus 5^10 jmtentibus utrinque leviter elevatis, rete venularum 
laxe reticulato plerumque utrinque prominulo ; floribus in apice ramulorum sae])e 
brevium et defoliatorum in corymbos plerumque solitarios (cymosos, cymis 2- 
vel 3-plo divisis) dispositis, pedunculo crasso 8-16 mm. longo. cymae ramis ]^ri- 
mariis 10-20 mm. longis saejie com]:)lanatis et transverse rugosis, ]:)edicellis stib- 
nullis, bracteis stibcarnosis late ovatis circiter 1 mm. longis ; calyce tenuiter car- 
noso cupuliformi profunde 5-lobato, lobis imbricatis orbiculari-ovatis. 2.5-3 mm. 
longis, 3-4 mm. latis, apice rotundatis, margine ciliolatis ; corolla crasse carnosa 
6-7 mm. longa, lobis oblongo-deltoideis, 4-4.5 mm. longis, 2.5-3 mm. latis, a])ice 
subacutis et saepe incrassatis. ttibo 4-5 mm. diametro apice jmHs rectis circiter 1.3 
mm. longis strigoso-barbato etiam intus pilis similibus strigoso ; stannnibus 5 tubo 
insertis, filamentis gracilibus 1.5-2 mm. longis, antheris crassis oblongis circiter 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN FLA XT STUDIES, II 107 

2 mm. Ioni,ns glal)ris a]iice ohtusis ; ovario ovoidef) glahro. stvlo crasso 2-2.5 mm. 
lont^rQ^ stigmate cajjitato ; fructilms matiiri.s sul)ligiK)si,s fibrosis elliptico-obovoideis 
subcomplanatis, 25-40 mm. longis. 20-28 mm. latis. 12-20 mm. crassis, l)asi gra- 
datim angustatis vel sae])e rotiindatis, apice rotundatis et mucronulatis. 

Vakua Lkvu : T h a k a u n d r o v e : Between Valanga and Valethi, Savu Savu Bay 
region, alt. near sea-level, Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14125 (A, tvpe). Jan. 10, 1941 (tree 8 m. 
high, in sunny jungle; fruit white). 

Ill foliage and fruit this species is scarcely distinguishable from the preceding, 
but I believe that the large flowers, with thick-carnose corollas and a different 
type of corolla-pubescence, amply characterize it. Additional collections of both 
species are desirable. It is noteworthy that only the mature fruits of C. pachy- 
antlia and C. tnacrocarpa have the characteristic shape and texture ; the younger 
fruits are obovoid and slightly asymmetrical, although not as conspicuously clavate 
as those of the first four species of this treatment. 

APOCYNACEAE 

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 95. 1838. 

I'inca rosea L. Syst. ed. 10. 944. 1759. 

Lochncra rosea Reichenb. Consp. 134. 1828; Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9: 310. 
1905; Christoph. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 180. 1935; non Lochneria Scop. (1777). 

Ammocallis rosea Small, Fl. Southeast. U. S. 936. 1903. 

Vanua Levi-: T h a k a u n d r o v e : Waina, Maravu, near Salt Lake, Dcgener & 
Ordonez 141S8 (A) (low shrub, naturalized in coconut plantation). KoRO : Eastern slope 
of main ridge, alt. 100 m., Sniith 1029 (NY) (subligneous herb to 1 m. high, a weed in 
clearings) . 

This widespread plant is probably becoming commonly naturalized in Fiji ; it 
has a])])arently not previously been reported from the group. It has been re- 
ported from several other Pacific groups, generally under the name Lochnera 
rosea. However, Lochncra Reichenb. (1828) must be considered a later homo- 
nym of Lochneria Scop. (Introd. 271. 1777) ; even though no binomial has ever 
been used in connection with Scojioli's genus, this is properly ])ublished and is 
presumably named after the same individual as Lochncra Reichenb. 
Alyxia linearifolia sp. nov. 

b^rutex scandens multiramosus ubique ]mrtibus florum exceptis glaber, ramulis 
gracilibus fusco-cinereis juventute quadrangulatis demum subteretibus, inter- 
nodiis apicem ramulorum versus 2-5 mm. longis ; foliis congestis plerumque 
quaternatis, petiolis minutis ad 1 mm. longis, laminis chartaceis in sicco viridibus 
oblongo-linearibus, 2-4.5 cm. longis, 1.5-2 mm. latis, basi acutis, apice ohtusis, 
marginibus parallelis integris et leviter revolutis, costa supra immersa vel leviter 
impressa subtus conspicue elevata, nervis lateralibus brevibus immersis ; inflores- 
centiis axillaribus cymosis ( 1-) 4-6-floris, pedunculo 3-8 mm. longo gracili 
leviter angulato, bracteis subacutis anguste oblongis 0.5-0.7 mm. longis, pedicellis 
gracilibus leviter angulatis 1-3 mm. longis, bracteolis nullis ; calyce sub anthesi 
1-1.2 mm. longo, lobis erectis membranaceis subacutis oblongo-deltoideis, circiter 
0.7 mm. longis et 0.5 mm. latis, margine ciliolatis ; corolla submembranacea, tubo 
urceolato-cylindrico, 3-3.5 mm. longo, paullo supra medium circiter 1.5 mm. 
diametro, basim et apicem versus contracto, intus distaliter pallide villoso, lobis 
imbricatis orbiculari-ovatis circiter 2 mm. diametro, apice rotundatis ; staniinibus 
circiter 1 mm. infra a]iicem tubi insertis, filamentis glabris anguste ligulatis cir- 
citer 0.3 mm. longis, antheris oblongo-deltoideis circiter 0.7 mm. longis, apice 
acutis, basi leviter cordatis ; disco parvo pilis pallidis circiter 0.3 mm. longis 
setoso ; car]:)ellis distinctis glabris ovoideis, stylo gracili 1.4—1.7 mm. longo, stig- 



108 



SA KG E NT I A 



[1 



mate ])arv() ca])itato, oviilis in (juoque carpello 4 vel 5 ; fructilms pk'niniquc 1 per 
inflorescenliam. calyce ])ersi.stente, sti])ite ^racili circiter-2 mm. lon^o ; drupa soli- 
taria elli])S(ii(lea subfalcata, 8-11 mm. longa. 6-7 mm. diametro, stylo incrassato 
persistente coronata, pericarpio tenui (circitcr 0.5 mm. crasso) extu.s levi vel 
ruguloso intus siccitate ritjj^oso, semine elliiisoideo circitcr 7 mm. lonijo cons]Mcne 
rug^oso. 

ViTi Levi' : R a : VatuiKlamu, vicinity of Rowasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcficncr 
15396 (A, tvpe), June 2. 1941 (liana, in patcli of arid forest on forehill ; corolla white: 
native name : vouo ) . 

Aly.via liiicarifolia is characterized by its conj^estcd and very narrow leaves, 
its small flowers, and its ]on<^-stipitate fruits with a conspicuous i)ersistent style. 
It is prohahly a derivative of A. stcllata (Forst.) R. & S., hut. although that 




Fig. 5. .^ly.ria liucayifoHa ; a. fruiting branclilct. XI; b. flowering hranclilct, X 1; 
c. flowers, X 4; d. opened corolla, X 4; c. gynaecium, X 4; /. stamen, X 10. 

Species is generally taken to he very variable, the ])resent i)lant can hardly be 
forced into it. Possibly some of the specimens which have been referred to A. 
stcllata (e.g. Gillespie 4568 | GH | from Ovalau, with leaf-blades 3-6 mm. broad) 
will prove to l)e more closely related to A. lincarifolia. 



ascli<:piadacfae 

Il()v.\ R. Br. 

The difficulties connected with this genus arise not so much from the lack of 
good specific characters as from the fact that early descrijjtions omitted those 
points which make accurate identification ])ossihle. Floral characters, especially 
those ])ertaining to the sha])e and pubescence of calyx-lol)es, size, texture, color, 
and pubescence of corolla, and shape of corona-lobes, seem to be quite constant, 
but such characters as the length of ])eduncles and pedicels and their pubescence 
are not very reliable. Intangible foliage characters are discernible, and at least 
the direction of the secondary nerves appears reliable. 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLAXT STUDIES, II 109 

Five species are a|)])arent in Fiji, only one of which. H. aiistralls Iv. Br., has 
a range outside the group. Altitudinal range seems pecuharly without signifi- 
cance in this group, at least in Fiji, as some species are found near the sea and 
also toward the higher elevations in the forest. Only H. megalantha Turrill 
seems to be restricted to high elevations. As earlier descriptions are often based 
on inadequate material, I here redescribe four sj:>ecies and add a description of 
a fifth which appears to be new. 

Key to the Fijian species 

Corolla 25-45 mm. in diamtttT, rich pink or i)ur])lc, the lohcs 10-14 mm. broad, the sinuses 
obtuse or flattened ; lobes of corona 4.5-6 mm. long, shallow ly concave above : occurring 

at elevations of 700 m. or higher 1. //. iiuu/alantha. 

Corolla 11-20 mm. in diameter, the lobes 4-8 mm. broad: lobes of corona 2.5-5 mm. long. 
Lobes of corona 2.5-3.5 mm. long, concave above, inconspicuously bicarinate beneath : calyx- 
lobes 1.5-3 mm. long, dorsally strigillose or conspicuously puberulent ; corolla submem- 
branous, white with colored center, minutely puberulent within, the sinuses acute; leaf- 
blades usually broadly elliptic, subcordate or rounded at base 2. H. austral is. 

Lobes of corona 3-5 mm. long, thick, flattened above, rounded beneath ; corolla conspicu- 
ously ])uberulent within. 
Calyx-lobes deltoid-lanceolate, 3-3.5 mm. long, dorsally cons])icuously strigillose; corolla 

subcarnose, white, the sinuses acute 3. //. intermedia. 

Calyx-lobes deltoid or ovate-deltoid, incons])icuous, 0.7-1.7 mm. long, glabrous except for 
the ciliolate margin. 
Corolla subcarnose, purplish or reddish, the sinuses obtuse ; secondary nerves 5-7 per 

side, spreading 4. //. -iticnsis. 

Corolla submembranous, yellow, the sinuses acute; secondary nerves 3 or 4 jjer side, 
ascending, oriented from costa toward base 5. //. diptera. 

1. Hoya megalantha Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 3^. 1915. 

Vine with slender terete glabrous or obscurely puberulent branchlets ; petioles 
slender, rugulose, 10-16 mm. long; leaf-blades subcoriaceous to ])apyraceous, 
elliptic-ovate, 4-10 cm. long, 1.8-4 cm. broad, rounded or obtuse at base, acumi- 
nate or acute at a|)ex, jiinnate-nerved, the costa slightly impressed above, sulv 
prominent beneath, the secondary nerves 4 or 5 per side, inconspicuous, spread- 
ing, anastomosing toward margins, slightly impressed or prominulous above, 
prominulous beneath, the vcinlet-reticulation immersed or prominulous on both 
surfaces; inflorescences axillary, umbellate, glabrous throughout except corolla, 
the jieduncle slender, 25-33 mm. long, swollen and ellipsoid-capitulate at apex, 
the bracts minute, scariose-margined ; flowers 5-20 per inflorescence, the jicdicels 
slender, 28-35 mm. long; calyx-lobes membranous, ovate-deltoid, 1.5-2.5 mm. 
long, 1.3-1.8 mm. broad, obtuse at apex, gla!)rous excej^t at the sometimes cililo- 
late margin; corolla subcarnose, rotate or broadly cyathiform, copiously but 
faintly reticulate-veined, rich pink or deep jnirple, 25-45 mm. in diameter, verv 
minutely and densely papillose-])uberulent within, the lobes broadly deltoid, 7-13 
mm. long, 10-14 mm. broad, acute at apex, the sinuses obtuse or flattened ; lobes 
of corona thick, oblong, 4.5-6 mm. long, 2-3.5 mm. broad, obtuse at apex, cuspi- 
date or acuminate at base, shallowly concave above, rounded and deeply sulcate 
beneath; ])ollinia 0.8-1.2 mm. long; carpels glabrous. 

Vanua Levu : M b u a : Navotuvotu, summit of Alt. Seatura, alt. 700-830 m., Stnitli 1649 
(Bish, NY) (vine, in crest thickets; corolla rich pink). Taveuni : Borders of lake east 
of Somosomo, alt. 700-900 m.. Smith 863 (Bish, NY) (vine, in dense forest; sepals purple; 
corolla rich pink; native name: ndranmbimbi) ; trail above Somosomo. alt. 750 m., Gillespie 
4815 (Bish). 

The species was originally described from specimens collected by im Thurn on 
Mt. Victoria, Tholo North, Viti Levu, and Mt. Mbuke Levu, Kandavu. Al- 



no SARGENTIA [1 

though I have not seen these, the cited material is referred to the species with 
confidence, agreeing precisely with the earlier description. It is noteworthy that 
H. megalantha has thus far heen collected only in four widely sejjarated montane 
areas. Although having no foliage features which distinguish it from such 
species as //. viticnsis, II. uicgalantha is very distinct on the hasis of floral char- 
acters mentioned in the key. 

2. Hoya australis R. Br. ex Traill in Trans. Hort. Soc. 7: 28. 1827; Gihbs in Jour. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 39: 157. 1909; Turrill in Jonr. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: Z2>. 1915. 

Uo\a bicar'mata A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 5: 335. 1862; in Bonplandia 10: 37. 1862; 
Seem. Fl. Vit. 163. 1866. 

Hoya Billardicri sensu Seem, ex A. Gray in Bonplandia 10: 37, as synonym. 1862; non 
Decaisne. 

Vine with terete and glahrous or sparingly puherulent hranchlets ; petioles 
rugulose, puherulent or glahrous, 6-22 mm. long; leaf-hlades chartaceous or suh- 
carnose, glahrous, hroadly elliptic or oblong or suhorbicular. (3-) 5-13 cm. long, 
3^ cm', broad, subcorda'te or rounded at base, short-acuminate or cuspidate at 
apex, pinnate-nerved, the costa nearly plane or slightly canaliculate above, sub- 
prominent beneath, the secondary nerves 4-6 per side, spreading, anastomosing 
toward margins. pr(Mninulous on both surfaces, the veinlet-reticulation i)rominn- 
lous on both surfaces or immersed; inflorescences axillary, umbellate, the pe- 
duncle stout, 4-30 mm. long, glabrous or puherulent. ellipsoid-ca])itulate at ai)ex. 
the bracts inconspicuous ; flowers 20-35 per umbel at anthesis. the pedicels slender. 
]niberulent. 12-40 mm. long; calyx-lobes oblong-deltoid or lanceolate-oblong, 
1.5-3 mm. long, 0.8-2 mm. broad.' subacute at apex, dorsally strigillose or con- 
spicuouslv ])uberulent ; corolla submembranous. 13-17 mm. in diameter, white, 
puri)lish or reddish at base within, densely but minutely puherulent within, the 
lobes deltoid. 6-7 mm. long, 4-5.5 mm. broad, the sinuses acute; lobes of corona 
ovoid. 2.5-3.5 mm. long. 1.8-2 mm. broad, obtuse at apex, acuminate at base, 
concave above, inconsj^icuously bicarinate beneath; j^oUinia 0.6-0.8 mm. long; 
carpels usually jiale-puberulent. sometimes apparently glabrous; fruits hnear. 
about 14 cm. long and 7 mm. broad, striate and usually puherulent at maturity. 

W.vY.\. Yasavva Group: Nangua, alt. 330-460 m., St. John 18100 (A, Bish) (vine on 
trees at edge of cliff; corolla white; native name: nambctiambcte) . St. John 18164 (A, Bish) 
(vine over bu.she.s, in woods; flowers fragrant, the corolla white with pur])lish center). 
ViTi Levi- : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Slopes of Mt. Victoria, alt. 1200 m., Gillespie 4096.1 
(Bish) ■ Namosi : Wooded hills east of Namosi. alt. 475 m.. Gillespie 2523 (Bush, NY, 
UC) ; slopes of Mt. Voma, alt. 500 m., Gillespie 2494 (Bish) (native name: wa tanibua). 
Kandavu; Namalata Isthmus region, near sea-level, S7nith 4 (Bish, NY) (vine, on edge 
of mangrove swamp; corolla white; native name: vibitiwbiti) . Tavf,uxi : Vicinity of 
Waiyevo, alt. 600 m., Gillespie 4747 (Bish) (in woods above coconut plantations). Vanua 
MBAi-.wr : Southern limestone section, near sea-level, Smith 1460 (Bish. NY) (vine, on 
sea-cliff; corolla white). Sovu, near Vanua Mbalavu : Bryan 590 (Bish) (vine, climbing 
over rocks and trees in forest; flowers very fragrant; corolla white and deep red, alt. 5-60 
m.). Fulanga: Smith 1214 (Bish, GH, NY, UC, US) (vine, on limestone cliff in lagoon; 
corolla white, rich purple at base; corona white; native name: mbitambita). Without 
DEFINITE locality: SeemonH 319 (GH) ; U. S. E.vpl. Exped. (US). 

As re]:)resented by the cited si)ecimens. the present species is very coherent, be- 
ing readily distinguished by its elongate strigillose calyx-lobes, its concave corona- 
lobes, and its thin corollas which are only minutely puherulent within. Among 
Fijian species it is further distinguished by its comi:)aratively broad leaf-blades 
which are usually subcordate at base. The above description is taken only from 
the Fijian specimens and may rec[uire amplification when the species as a whole is 
considered. 



1942] SMITH, FIJI AX PLANT STUDIES, II 111 

Hoya pilosa Seem, (ex A. Gray in Bonplandia 10: 37, nomcn. 1862; Seem. Fl. 
Vit. 163, nomen. 1866; Britten in Jour. Hot. 36: 417, 418, nomen. 1898), which 
has never lieen adequately described, is founded on Sceuiann 321, a sterile duj^ili- 
cate of which is at GH. It has been referred to H. australis (or H. bicariiiafa), 
but its leaf-blades are pilose l^eneath and I am dubious of its jilace here. In 
sha]:)e and texture of leaf-blades it sugt^ests the following new species, but because 
of its pubescence it cannot definitely be ])laced there. 

In referring the cited Fijian specimens to H. australis, I am following the ma- 
jority of authors who have worked on this group. Bentham (Fl. Austral. 4: 
346. 1868) apparently had no doubt that H. bicarinata and H. australis were 
synonyms, and his description fits the Pacific specimens fairly well. Britten (in 
Jour. Bot. 36: 414. 1898) also ])laces H. bicarinata in synonymy, remarking that 
Asclepias volubilis Forst. (Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 21. excl. syn. 1786), from the 
New Hebrides, is also the same species. This position is followed by Setchell 
(in Carn. Inst. Publ. 341 : 57. 1924) and several other authors and is generally 
accepted in herbaria. 

Christophersen (in Bishop Alus. Bull. 128: 188. 1935) expresses the opinion 
that H. bicarinata may be upheld for the Samoan specimens, at least for the time. 
Basing his conce])t of H. australis upon Bentham's description, Christophersen 
points out several respects in which the Samoan material differs ; these characters 
concern the degree of pubescence of the young stem, the proportions of the 
peduncle and the pedicels and their pubescence, and the color and pubescence of 
the corolla. On the basis of a series of material from Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, and 
the New Hebrides, I am convinced that characters concerning the length and 
degree of pubescence of the ]ieduncle and pedicels are of little consequence. 
Specimens with adequate notes, from these regions, are said to have the corolla 
purple to red or reddish brown at base within, while the inner surface is densely 
and obviously puberulent. Australian specimens, on the other hand, are said to 
have the corolla ])ink-tinged at the base within, while its inner surface is glabrous, 
according to Bentham. However, the Australian specimens which are available 
to me show that the corolla is obscurely but densely puberulent. As to its color, 
it seems probable that the notes on Bentham's specimens were not very comj)lete, 
and one may question the validity of this character. 

In short, on the basis of Australian and Pacific material now available to me, 
I find no reliable characters on which the specimens can be divided into H. aus- 
tralis on the one hand and H. bicarinata on the other. Future observations and 
monographic work on the genus may modify this opinion. 

3. Hoya intermedia sp. nov. 

Liana, ramis crassis teretibus glabris vel apicem versus ])allide puberulis, 
ramulis lateralibus brevibus 1-5 cm. longis dense foliatis ; petiolis crassis (circiter 
3 mm. diametro) in sicco valde rugosis 10-20 mm. longis; laminis carnosis ob- 
longis. 8-12 cm. longis. 2-4.5 cm. latis, basi obtusis, apice subacutis, pinnatinerviis, 
costa supra leviter imj^ressa subtus ])roniinente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 5-7 
adscendentibus sae])e immersis interdum utrinque prominulis, rete venularum im- 
merso interdum utrinque jirominulo ; inflorescentiis axillaribus umbellatis, ]:)edun- 
culo crasso 10-15 mm. longo dense pallido-puberulo glabrescente, apice ellipsoideo- 
capitulato interdum elongato-verrucoso ; bracteis deUoideis circiter 1 mm. longis 
acutis puberulis: floribus sub anthesi 12-25 per inflorescentiam, pedicellis gra- 
cilibus 17-30 mm. longis strigillosis (pilis albidis circher 0.5 mm. longis) ; calycis 
lobis membranaceis deltoideo-lanceolatis, 3-3.5 mm. longis, 1.8-2 mm. latis, dorso 



112 SARGENT I A [1 

conspiciie strigillosis ; corolla subcarnosa rotata 16-17 mm. diamctro intus copiose 
et conspicue sericeo-puberula, lobis deltoideis 6-7 mm. longis et latis, apice acutis 
et sacpe recurvatis. sinibiis acutis ; coronae loi)is crassis obloiii^is. 4.5-5 mm. 
longis, 2-2.5 mm latis. apice obtusis, basi acutis vel cuspidatis, supra comi)lanatis, 
subtus rotundatis et profunde sulcatis; polliniis circitcr 0.7 mm. longis; carpellis 
glabris. 

Vanua Levu : T h a k a u n d r « v e : Valethi, Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 10 m.. Smith 
399 (Bish, GH, NY, tvi'K, UC, US) (vine, in thickets; corolla white; corona pink -tinged; 
native name: ndraumbimbi) . 

In its elongate strigillose calyx-lobes, H. intermedia resembles //. aiisfralis, 
while in characters of its corolla and corona it seems more closely related to H. 
vitiensis. The new s])ecies is further distinguished from both of its allies by its 
habit, having short lateral foliaceous i)ranchlets, its stout ])etioles. proportionately 
narrower leaf-blades, and larger bracts. 
4. Hoya vitiensis Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Rot. 43: 34. 1915. 

\'ine with slender terete glabrous branchlets ; petioles stout, shallowly canalicu- 
late, 5-19 mm. long; leaf-blades carnose or chartaceous, elliptic-ovate or oblong- 
elli])tic, 6-11 cm. long. (1.5-) 3-7 cm. broad, rounded or obtuse or subcordate 
at base, acuminate or cuspidate at apex, ])innate-nerved, the costa slightly im- 
pressed or elevated above, sub])rominent beneath, the secondary nerves 5-7 per 
side, spreading, anastomosing toward margins, slightly raised on both surfaces, 
the veinlet-reticulation prominulous on both surfaces or sometimes immersed; 
inflorescences axillary, umbellate, glabrous throughout except corolla, the pe- 
duncle slender, 30-55 mm. long, ellipsoid-capitulate at apex and occasionally 
verrucose for the distal 15 mm., the bracts minute; flowers 12-20 per umbel at 
anthesis, the pedicels slender, 22-40 mm. long ; calyx-lobes membranous, incon- 
spicuous, ovate-deltoid, 1-1.7 mm. long, 1.2-1.5 mm. broad, obtuse at ajiex, gla- 
brous except at the ciliolate margin; corolla subcarnose, 16-20 mm. in diameter, 
copiously and cons])icuously sericeo-puberulent within, the lobes deltoid, 5-7 mm. 
long, 6-8 mm. broad, often recurved at margin, the sinuses obtuse; lobes of 
corona thick, oblong, 4-5 mm. long, 1.5-2.7 mm. broad, obtuse at apex, acuminate 
at base, flattened above, rounded and deeply sulcate beneath ; poUinia 0.6-1 mm. 
long; cari)els glabrous; fruits about 3 i^er mature inflorescence, the calyx per- 
sistent, the carpel linear, 16-21 cm. long, 7-9 mm. in diameter, striate when dried, 
glabrous. 

ViTi l.EVC : Tliolo N orth : Vicinity of Nandarivatu. alt. 750-1000 m.. Parks 20732 
(Bish. UC) (vino, on trees in forest; flowers maroon or waxy-purple-white). Dcgnicr J4304 
(A) (vine, in forest; corolla pale purplish red, velvety; corona pale claret) ; Mt. Matomba, 
near Nandarivatu. alt. 750-900 m.. Dcycncr 14627a (A) (native name: u-andra ; used for 
garlands); Namosi: Vicinity of Namosi. alt. 450 m., Gillespie 2599 (Bish) (native 
name: wa tambua ndamundaiuu) ; Mt. Naitarandamu, alt. 900 m.. Gillespie 3095 (Bish); 
Rewa : Vicinity of Suva, alt. 150 m.. Gillespie 2180 (Bish, UC) (in woods) ;_ N a i t a - 
siri: Mt. Koromhamha, southeastern slopes, alt. 300 m., Gillespie 2305 (Bish, UC). 
Without dk.finitk i.ocaijiv : llonie (GH). 

Although I have not seen the tyi)e, collected at Nandarivatu by im Thurn, the 
original description leaves no doubt as to identification of the species. Note- 
worthy characters are found in the densely pubescent thick corolla, the lobes of 
which are separated by obtuse sinuses, the inconspicuous calyx-lobes, and the 
spreading secondary nerves of the leaf -blades. Specimens with adequate notes 
apjmrently have the corollas richly colored, a character which ccMitrasts with such 
s]iecies as //. australis, H. infeniiedia, and H. diptcra. 

The identity of H. Barraeki Home (A Year in Fiji. 263. nomen. 1881) is 
dubious, although Baker (in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 20: 369. 1883) refers it to H. 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, 11 113 

australis. If the above-cited Home specimen at GH represents a duplicate of 
H. Barracki, the name should be referred to H. I'iticnsis. 

5. Hoya diptera Seem, ex A. firay in Proc. Am. Acad. 5: .336. nomen. 1862; A. Gray in 
Bonplandia 10: 37, nomen. 1862; Seem. Fl. \'it. 163. 1866; Turrill in Tour Linn 
Soc. Bot. 43: 33. 1915. 

Vine with slender glabrous or distally iniberulent branchlets. sometimes the 
branchlets short, lateral, densely foliaceous ; petioles rugulose, 5-15 mm. long, 
pale puberulent or glabrous; leaf-l)]ades subcarnose, elH])tic or ovate-elli]:)tic or 
narrowly oblong, 3.5-8 cm. long, ( 1-) 2-3.2 cm. broad, obtuse at base, cuspidate 
or obtusely short-acuminate at apex, pinnate-nerved, the costa slightly imj^ressed 
or plane above, subprominent beneath, the secondary nerves 3 or 4 per side, as- 
cending, oriented from costa toward base, ])rominurous on both surfaces or sub- 
immersed, the veinlet-reticulation immersed; inflorescences axillary, umbellate, 
the peduncle 10-45 mm. long, glabrous or obscurely puberulent, elli])soid- 
capitulate at a])ex. sometimes A-errucose for the distal 5 mm., the bracts incon- 
spicuous; flowers 5-10 ])er umbel at anthesis, the pedicels slender, 8-20 mm. long, 
glabrous (n- sjiarsely pale puberulent; calyx-lobes membranous, inconspicuous, 
deltoid, 0.7-1.1 mm. long and broad, glabrous except at the ciliolate margin; 
corolla submembranous, 11 16 mm. in diameter, yellow, copiously and conspicu- 
ously puberulent within, the lobes deltoid or ovate-deltoid, 4-6 mm. long and 
broad, often recurved at margin, the sinuses acute ; lobes of corona thick, oblong, 
3-4.2 mm. long. 1.6-1.8 mm. broad, obtuse at apex, acuminate at base, flattened 
above, rounded beneath; poUinia 0.5-0.6 mm. long; carpels glabrous. 

ViTi Lkvu : Tholo N o r t li : Nauwanga, near Nandarivatu, alt. about 750 m.. 
Dc(icncr 14333 (A) (vine, in open forest; corolla yellow, reddish toward center), Dcgcncr 
14755 (A) (liana, in forest; corolla yellow); Naitasiri : Vicinity of Nasinu, alt. 150 
m., G!llcsf>ic 3556 (Bish, UC) (liana with pendent inflorescences, in woods). Vanua Levu : 
T h a k a u n d r o v e : Savuthuru Mt., near Valethi, alt. 90 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13832 
(A) (vine, in forest; corolla yellow) ; Vatunivuamonde Mt., alt. 240 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 
14014 (A) (vine, in open forest: corolla yellow). Without definite i.ocautv : Sccmann 
320 (TYi'E COLL.. GH) (Viti Levu and Taveuni) ; U. S. Expl. Expcd. (US). 

As represented by the cited specimens, this species is characterized by incon- 
spicuous calyx-lobes, a comparatively thin corolla which is yellow and ])erhaps 
reddish tinged at base within, and by the ascending secondary nerves of its leaf- 
blades. The cited type du])licate does not show the flattened subalate peduncles 
mentioned by Seemann, and I am inclined to believe that this character, apparently 
the source of the specific name, was due merely to the degree of pressing of the 
actual type. In foliage the ty])e duplicate is an excellent match for the other cited 
specimens. 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

Merremia nymphaeifolia (Bl.) Hall. f. in Versl. 'S Lands I'lantent. 1895: 127. 1896; 
Reinecke in Bot. Jahrh. 25: 671. 1898. 

Kandavu: Namalata Lsthmus region, alt. 0-30 m., Smith 191 (GH, NY) (vine, in 
thickets; corolla white). 

This s])ecies, which Reinecke re])orts from Samoa, is here first mentioned 
from Fiji; the determination is by Dr. S. J. van Ooststroom. 

Operculina Turpethum (L.) S. Alanso, Enum. Subst. Braz. 16. 1836; Christoph in 
Bishop Mus. Bull. 154: 39. 1938. 

Viti Lkvt ; R a : Vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m.. Dcgcncr 15404 
(A) (weed in garden and along roadsides, uncommon; native name: zva ndamundamu) . 

This siiecies. mentioned from Samoa by Christophersen, has not previously 
been reported from Fiji. 



114 SARGENTIA [1 

Quamoclit pennata (Dcsr.) Boj. Hort. Maurit. 224, as Q. pinnata. 1837; Voigt. Hort. 
Suburb. Calcut. 353. 1845. 

Vanua Mbai.avu : Central volcanic section, near Lonialoma, alt. 100-200 m., Smith 
1421 (GH, NY) (vine; corolla brigbt red; weed in clearings). 

This tropical American ])lant, now widely naturalized, has not previously been 
reported from Fiji. The genus is thus far unreported from the group. 

Quamoclit coccinea (L.) Moench, var. hederifolia (L.) House in Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 
18: 262. 1908. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo West : Viro, near Saru, Tabualciva 15615 (GH). 

This widely naturalized plant has ap|)arently not previously been rejiorted from 
Fiji or nearby groups. 

VERBENACEAE 

By H. N. Moldenke 

Lantana Camara L. var. aculeata (L.) Moldenke in Torreya 34: 9. 1934. 

Lantana aculeata L. Sp. PI. 627. 1753. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo North: Nandala, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about 750 m., 
Dcgencr 15026 (A, NY) (shrub about 3 m. high; native name: tokalau). Vanua Levu: 
Thakaundrove : Hills south of Nakula Valley, ah. 10-30 m., Smith 241 (NY) (sub- 
scandent shrub 1-4 m. high, common; corolla white to ])ink ; fruit black; native name: 
zvaiivai) . 

From our records it appears that neither the species nor the variety has previ- 
ously been recorded from Fiji in taxonomic literature, although the latter is abun- 
dantly naturalized there. The Degener collection has the involucral bractlets 
remarkably large and conspicuous, somewhat approaching those seen in the mate- 
rial now passing as L. Moritsiana Otto & Dietr. from tropical America. 

Stachytarpheta mutabilis (Jacq.) Vahl, Enum. 1: 209. 1804. 

ViTi Levu : N a n d i : Vicinity of Nandi, Dcgencr 15327 (A, NY) (common in a large 
field- flowers red) ; Tholo North : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 900 m., Gillespie 4418 
(NY). 

The species has not previously been reported froiu Fiji. 

Stachytarpheta urticaefolia (Salisb.) Sims in Curtis, Bot. Mag. 43: pi. 184S, as S. urti- 
cifolia. 1816. 

Cymburus urticacf alius Salisb. Parad. Lond. pi. 53. 1806. 

ViTi Levu: Rewa : Suva, Meebold S161 (NY), Degener & Ordonez 13505 (A, NY) 
(roadside weed, to 1 m. high; corolla dark purplish blue). Kandavu : Namalata Isthmus 
region, near sea-level, Smith 11 (NY) (herb to 1 m. high, a weed in clearing: corolla deep 
blue; native name: tumbutumbu) . Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove: Maravu, near 
Salt Lake, near sea-level, Degener & Ordonez 14212 (A, NY) (naturalized in coconut grove; 
corolla dark blue). 

This widespread weed has not previously been reported from Fiji under the 
above name, having been widely confused with i". indica (L.) Vahl and S. 
jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. 

Premna taitensis Schau. var. marchionica 1". H. Br. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 248. as 
P. tahitensis var. m. 1935. 

ViTi Levu: Ra : Nanukuloa, Dcgencr &- Ordonez 136/4 (A); near coast on Viti 
Levu Bay, Dcgencr & Ordonez 13693 (A). 

These collections are the first of the variety to be recorded from Fiji; it was 
originally reported from the Marquesas and Tuamotus. 

Premna taitensis Schau. var. rimatarensis F. H. Br. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 248, as 
P. tahitensis var. r. 1935. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 115 

ViTi Levu : Lautoka : Nortli of Loinolomo, Dcgcncr & Ordoncs 13641 (A. NY) 
(large tree, in a ravine in small jagged hills) ; Tholo North : Korovou, east of Tavua, 
alt. 60-150 m., Dcgcner 14949 (A, NY) (tree, in isolated dry forested ravine). Ovalau : 
Near Levuka, alt. 30 m., Dcgcner & Ordonez 13793 (A, NY) (tree 5 m. high, in shrubhy 
])asture; native name: rauvula) . Vanua Levu : Thakaundrove: Maravu, near 
Salt Lake, Dcgcner & Ordonez 14183 (A, NY) (tree, in forest; timber used in house- 
building; native names: yaro, tavotavo) . 

The variety, originally descril)ed from the Austral Islands, is here first re- 
corded from Fiji. 

Vitex quinata (Lour.) F. N. Will, in Bull. Herb. Boiss. IL 5: 431. 1905. 

Vitex hcfcrophylla Roxb. Hort. Beng. 46, hyponym. 1814. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North : Nauwanga, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about 750 m., 
Dcgcner 14481 (A, NY) (small tree, in forest; native name: lubo). 

The cited specimen is the first of the species known from Fiji. 

Vitex trifolia L. var. bicolor (Willd.) Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distr. A^erb. 79. 1942. 

ntc.v bicolor Willd. luium. Hort. Berol. 660. 1809. 

Vitex Ncgundo L. var. bicolor H. J. Lam, Verb. Malay. Arch. 191. 1919. 

ViTi Levu: Ra : Shore of Viti Levu Bay, Dcgcner & Ordonez 13691 (A, NY) 
(slirub) ; Serua : Ngaloa, near shore, Dcgcner & Ordonez 13620 (A, NY) (shrub about 
1.5 m. high). Makondroxga : Dcgcner & Ordonez 13815 (A) (shrub 2 m. high, on 
coast). Kandavu : Western end of island, near Cape Washington, Smith 314 (GH, NY) 
(spreading tree 4 m. high, on sandy coast; corolla deep blue, paler without; native name: 
ndmla). Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove : Maravu, near Salt Lake, Dcgcner & 
Ordonez 14058 (A, NY) (shrub 1-2 m. high, on strand; corolla blue). Fulanga : Smith 
1200 (NY) (tree 10 m. high, on beach; corolla blue; native name: ndrala) . 

I cannot agree with Dr. Lam that the closest affinity of this plant is with the 
Indian V. Ncgundo L. It always grows in a habitat similar to that of V. trifolia 
L. and, indeed, often in close association with the typical form of this species 
(with three leaflets) and the imifoliolate form {V. trifolia var. siiiiplicifolia 
Cham.). Its inflorescence characters all point unmistakably to a very close af- 
finity with V. trifolia, rather than with V. Ncgundo. The confusion has doubt- 
less arisen from the fact that many Asiatic specimens of V. trifolia and its varie- 
ties have been identified as V. Negundo in herbaria. 

Clerodendrum fragrans (Vent.) R. Br. var. pleniflorum Schau. in DC. Prodr. 11: 666, as 

Clcrodcndron fragrans /3 plcniflora. 1847; Lam, Verb. Malay. Arch. 260, as Clero- 

dcndron flagrans var. plcniflora. 1919. 

Viti Levu: Ra : Nanukuloa, Dcgcner & Ordonez 13672 (A) (shrub, along roadside). 

This appears io be the first record from Fiji of either the species or the variety. 

Clerodendrum speciosissimum \'an Geert ex Morren in Hort. Belg. 3: 322. pi. 68, as 
Clcrodcndron s. 1836; Paxt. in Mag. Bot. 3: 217, 271. 1837. 

Clcrodcndron fallax Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 30: 19. 1844. 

Vrri Levu: Lautoka: North of Natalau, alt. 30 m., Dcgcner 14987 (A, NY) 
(slu-ub, naturalized in dry rocky forest); Tholo West : Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. 
150 m., Dcgcner 15168 (A) (shrub, sparingly naturalized in pasture among guavas). 
Kaxdavu: Namalata Isthmus region, near sea-level. Smith 188 (NY) (herb 1 m. high; 
floral parts bright red; in clearing). 

This species has not previously been recorded from Fiji. 

LABIATAE 

Pogostemon Cablin (Blanco) Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12: 156. 1848. 

Viti Levu: T h o 1 o W e s t : VatukarRsa., ah. \2Q-300 m., Dcgcner 15326 (A) (leaves 
used to scent coconut oil ; native name : tukilamlam) . Vanua Levu : Thakaundrove: 



116 SARGENTIA [1 

Vatuniviiamondc Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, alt. about 400 ni., Dcgcncr Ir Ordonez 1401S 
(A) (sprawling shrub to 1 m. high, in clearing near summit). 

Pogostemon Cablin appears not to have been previously re])orted from this 
part of the Pacific; it is apparently becoming naturalized in Fiji. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 

Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Mcrr. Interpret. Herb. Ainb. 466. 1917. 

Vanua Levu : Thakaun drove: Valanga, Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 30 m., 
Degener & Ordones 13910 (GH) (subprostratc, in springy clearing; flowers pale blue). 

Although the species has not previously been reported from Fiji under this 
name, Hemsley (in Rep. Voy. Challenger 1(3) : 243. 1885) implies that Sccmann 
352 (cited as Adenosma tri flora (Roxb.) Nees in Seem. Fl. Vit. 185. 1866) is 
identical with LimnupJiila RoxbnnjJiii G. r3on, a synonym of L. rugosa. 

GESNERIACEAE 
Cyrtandra tomentosa sp. nov. 

Frutex, ramulis crassis rectis suhterelihiis apiccm versus pilis castaneis multi- 
septatis ad 4 mm. longis densissime strigoso-tomentosis demum glabrescentibus 
cinereis striatis ; foliis oppositis, petiolis crassis ad 4.5 cm. longis tit ramulis pilosis, 
laminis pa])yraceis oblongo-lanceolatis, 15-23 cm. longis, 2.5-5.5 cm. latis, basi 
gradatini attenuatis et in petiolum decurrentilnis, ajMce angustatis et acuminatis, 
margine dentibus curvatis callosis 1-4 per centimetrum inconspicue serratis vel 
basim versus integris, supra minute scrobiculatis et pilis castaneis ad 3 mm. longis 
multiseptatis basi bulbosis hispidis demum glabrescentibus et scabris, subtus pilis 
tenuioribus brevioribus ferrugineis densissime et persistenter tomentosis et costa 
hispidis, costa supra subplana subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utrinsccus 
9-12 arcuato-adscendentibus supra stibplanis subtus paullo elevatis, rete venu- 
larum immerso vel subtus leviter prominulo ; inflorescentiis axillaribus cymosis 
congeslis ut videttir 3- vel 4-floris, pedunculo .subnullo, bracteis paucis parvis 
deltoidco-ol)longis ad 4 mm. longis setosis; i:)edicellis 1-5 mm. longis cum calyce 
dense fulvo-strigoso-tomentellis (pilis multiseptatis 2^ mm. longis) ; calyce sub 
fructu juvenili papyraceo campanulato circiter 10 mm. longo pilis pallidis multi- 
septatis circiter 4 mm. longis basi intus dense sericco-strigoso, lol)is 5 subaequalibus 
attenuatis deltoideo-lanceolatis 4—5 mm. longis ; disco teiuiiter carnoso breviter 
tubuloso circiter 1 mm. alto integro ; gynaecio glabro, ovario ellipsoideo, stylo 
circiter 6 mm. longo, stigmate ca]Mtato circiter 1.5 mm. diametro ; fructibus 
juvcnilibus ad 10 mm. longis et 6 mm. latis ellipsoideis apicem versus angustatis, 
pericarpio ruguloso circiter 0.7 mm. crasso, calyce ut videtur persistentc. 

ViTi Eevu : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Nandrau, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about 600 m., 
Dcgcncr 14889 (A, type), Alar. 26, 1941 (shrub, in forest: native name: mbeta). 

A member of the Section Canipajudaceae, C. tomentosa bears a close resem- 
blance in its pubescence to C. CJiippcndalci Home, but dififers in its oblong- 
lanceolate and much narrower leaf-blades, which are long-attenuate rather than 
cuneate or obtuse at base, and its somewhat shorter pedicels and calyx, the latter 
with proportionately longer and narrower lobes. 

Cyrtandra Aloisiana .sp. nov. 

Frutex circiter 1 m. altus, ramulis gracilibus juventute pilis multiseptatis 2-4 
mm. longis densissime ferrugineo-villosis demum glabris cinereis ol)scure qtiad- 
rangularibus ; foliis oppositis, petiolis gracilibus 1.5-3 cm. longis leviter canalicu- 
latis ut ramulis villosis glabrescentibus, laminis pa])yraceis elliptico-oblongis, 10-21 
cm. longis, 4—8 cm. latis, basi atteiuiatis et in petiolum decurrentibus, apice sub- 
acutis vel gradatim acuminatis, margine inconspicue serratis (dentibus 1^ per 



1942] SMITH, FIJI AX FLA XT STUDIES, II \ 117 

centimetrum mucronulatis), supra sparse hispidis (pilis circiter 2 mm. longis 
basi bulbosis), suljtus praecipue costa nervisque longe ferrugineo-pilosis, costa 
supra subplana vel Icviter impressa subtus prominente. nervis secundariis utrin- 
secus 6-8 adscendentilms supra planis vel insculptis su])tus leviter elevatis, venulis 
subtus prominulis ; inflorescentiis cymosis axillaribus, pedunculo 3-6 (sub fructu 
ad 15) mm. longo pilis ferrugineis patentibus multiseptatis 1.5-2 mm. longis dense 
villoso ; bracteis exterioribus 2 papyraceis lanceolato-ovatis, 15-17 mm. longis, 6-7 
mm. latis, longe acuminalis, utrinque ut pedunculo dense villosis. bracteis inte- 
rioribus pluribus submembranaceis ovatis, 7-8 mm. longis, 4—5 mm. latis, acumi- 
natis, utrinque sericeo-villosis ; floribus 4—8 per inflorescentiam congestis, ])edi- 
cellis gracilibus sub antbesi 5-6 mm. sub fructu ad 12 mm. longis ut pedunculo 
villosis ; calyce submembranaceo 7-9 mm. longo fere ad basim 5-lobato, lobis 
lanceolatis, 5-7 mm. longis, circiter 2 mm. latis, acuminatis, extus ut bracteis 
pilosis, intus glabris ; corolla membranacea cylindrica, sub antbesi 15-16 mm. 
longa, circiter 4 mm. diametro, extus glabra vel distaliter sparse pilosa, intus 
glabra, lobis 5 aequalibus suborbiculari-ovatis circiter 4 mm. diametro rotundatis ; 
staminibus fauce insertis glabris, filamentis filiformil)us circiter 2 mm. longis, 
antheris deltoideo-oblongis, 1.5-2.5 mm. longis, apice mucronulatis, basi cordatis ; 
disco subcarnoso annulari glabro circiter 0.7 mm. alto ; gynaecio glabro ; ovario 
ellipsoideo, stylo gracili ad 5 mm. longo, stigmate capitato circiter 2 mm. diametro ; 
fructibus juvenilibus anguste oblongo-clliixsoideis apiccm versus angustatis, calyce 
demum deciduo. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o W e s t : Uluvatii. vicinity of Mbelo. near Vatukarasa. Tahualc^^'a 
15619 (A); Serua : Thulanuku, vicinity of Nsaloa, near sea-level, Dcgcncr 1510? (A, 
type), Apr. 29, 1941 (shrub about 1 m. liiRh, on wet forested slope near ocean; corolla 
yellowish; stems used medicinally; native name: makamakandora) . 

A species of the Section Polyncsicac, C. Aloisiana seems most closely related 
to C. anthropophagorum Seem., with which it agrees fairly well in foliage, dif- 
fering in its more compact and short-pedunculate inflorescence, short pedicels, 
and essentially glabrous rather than villose corollas. The new species has the 
pubescence of the yoimg ])arts and the nerves of the lower surfaces of leaf-blades 
conspicuously longer. 

At Mr. Degener's suggestion, the si)ecies is named for Aloisio Tabualewa. a 
Fijian collector who was of great assistance to him, especially in the Serua region. 

ACANTHACEAE 

Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. Hort. Beng. 45. 1814; Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 3: 34. 1832. 

ViTi Levu : R a : Vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgcncr 154'^3 
(A) (sparingly ])ersistent on low land). 

This native of India, previously unreported from the islands near Fiji, is 
apparently becoming naturalized. 

Dyschoriste repanda (A. Gray) comb. nov. 

Chactacanthus rcpandns A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 5: 349, excl. syn. 1862; Seem. Fl. 
Vit. 185. 1866. 

Calophanes rcpandns Benth. & Hook. f. ex Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 257. 1892; 
Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 91: 27. /. 30. 1932. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo West : Viro, near Saru, Tabualewa 15616 (A) (low shrub). 
OvALAU : U. S. Expl. Expcd. (GH, type coll.), Graeffe (GH). Vanua Levu; Tha- 
kaundrove : Southern slope of Valanga Range, alt. 200-400 m., Smith 3S8 (GH, NV) 
(shrub 1 m. high, in dense forest; corolla white) ; between Valanga and Urata, Savu Savu 
Bay region, near sea-level, Dcgener & Ordonez 13861 (A) (shrub 1 m. high, in rocky 
forest; corolla white). Without definite locality: Home 238 ((JH). 



118 SARGENTIA [1 

Although the corolla-lobos are scarcely contorted, tiie flowers of our species 
nevertheless agree with those of many other species wliich fall into Lindau's con- 
cept (in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. IV. 3b: 302. 1895) of Dysclwrisfc Nees. The generic 
name has not previously been noted in the literature i)ertaining to Fijian plants. 
Graptophyllum insularum {A. Gray) conil). nov. 

liranthcmtDu insitlaruiii A. (Iray in Proc. Am. Acad. 5: 349. 1862; in Bonplandia 10: ?i7. 
1862; Seem. Fl. Vit. 186. 1866; Drake. III. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 257. 1892; Hemsl. in 
Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 187. 1894. 

Graptophyllum siphotiostcna V . v. Mucll. l-'ragiii. Phyt. Austr. 6: d,7 , nonien. 1868; Henisl. 

in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 187, nonicn. 1894; Stapf c.x Ik-nisl. in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 

30: 214. 1894; Lindau in F. & P. Nat. Pfl. IV. 3b: 2,27. 1895; Burkiil in Jour. Linn. Soc. 

Bot. 35: 49. 1901 ; (iibbs in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 159. 1909. 
ViTi Levu : Lautoka : North of Lomolomo, alt. 60 m., Dcycncr & Ordonez 13724 
(A) (shrub 1 m. hiffh, on shaded ledge; corolla pale purplisii pink) ; north of Natalau, alt. 
60 m., Degcncr 14999 (A) (shrub to 3 m. higb, in dry rocky forest; corolla red) ; T ho I o 
North : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 600-900 m.. Degcncr & Ordonez 13562 (A) (tree 
3 ni. liigh, in rain-forest; corolla dark red), Degcncr 148.23 (A) (tree 4 m. high, in open 
forest; corolla purplish red), Degcncr 14S96 (A) (in forest; leaves bronzed beneath); 
Rewa : Visari R., Prince (GH). Ovai.au: Seonaini 351. in part (GH, type coll. of 
G. siplwnostcna). Kandavu : Namalata Isthmus region, near sea-level. Smith 44 (GH. 
NY) (shrub 8 m. high, in low forest; fruit green ) . Vam a Levu: T h a k a u n d r o v c - 
Mathuata boundary : Korotini Range, alt. 650-900 m., Smith 562 (GH. NY) (tree 
5 m. high, in dry forest ; corolla rich pink ) ; T h a k a u n d r o v e : Maravu. near Salt Lake, 
alt. 90 m., Degcncr & Ordonez 14202 (A) (scraggly shrub I m. higii. on forested slo])e : 
corolla red). Fulanga : Smith 1120 (GH, NY) (slender shrub 1 m. high, in forest on 
limestone formation, alt. 0-80 m. ; corolla rich pink). Withoit definite locality: U. S. 
Expl. Exped. (GH, type coll.). 

TONCJA: "Vavau and Lifuka," Harvey (GH). 
There seems no doubt that the two .synonyms cited above refer to the same 
concept. Although both Mueller and Stapf, in their discussions of Graptu- 
phylhim stplwitostciia. cite the Seemann collection without number, thev doubtless 
had ]^art of his number 351. Under this number, as Gray noted (in i^)()n])landia 
10: ^7. 1862), Seemann had combined his specimens of the present s])ecies and 
Eranthcuiuiii laxiflorum [^=^ Pseudcranthemuin laxiflorum (A. (h-ay) Hubbard]. 
That Mueller's name does not refer to the latter s])ecies is obvious from Stajif's 
description and his citation of the Harvey specimen from Tonga. This same 
Tongan collection was cited in Gray's original description of liranthcmuui insu- 
larum. The species clearly falls into Graptophyllum Nees in Lindau's system. 

RUIUACFA1-: 

Bn" V. R. I-'OSUKKC 

DoLiCHOLoiiiL>[ A. (iray 

The Fijian species of DoJicholobium are not especially well understood and 
are not se]jarated by very clear distinguishing characters. Four species have 
been described, of which D. Macgrcgori Home seems to be the most distinct, but 
chiefly on the basis of the nnich greater size of all of its parts. It may, however, 
have to be associated with D. latifoUum A. Gray when the latter is better known. 
D. latifoliitm has ap])arently not been found since the original collection, and 
cannot be satisfactorily treated at i)resent. It seems to diflfer chiefly in leaf- 
sha])e from D. oblongifolium A. Gray. From this latter species D. longissimnm 
Seem, differs principally in the spreading rather than apprcssed ptibescence. 
These two I would associate as varieties, along with a third variety (lescribed to 



1942] SMlllI, FIJIAN PLAXr Sri'DIES, II 119 

accommodate much of what has l)ecn referred to D. ohlougifoVnini, but which 
dififers somewhat from the tyi)e. An arrans^ement of these varieties is f^iven 
below under D. ohlonyifoUnin, the oldest name. X'arying characters, in addition 
to those on wliich the varieties are founded, occur in the length of the fruit and 
in the pistillate calyx, which in certain s])ecimens is somewhat lobed. These cor- 
relate with nothing else and are. at least for the ])resent. disregarded. 

Dolicholobium oblongifolium A. (iray in I'roc. Am. Acad. 4: 309. 1860. 

This species must be considered the ty])e of the genus, since Gray says that 
flowering s])ecimens of it collected b}- Milne afforded the materials necessary for 
characterizing the genus. 

Dolicholobium oblongifolium var. oblongifolium ( \. (iray) I•"osl)t'rJ,^ nom. iiov. 

DoUcholobiuin ohlongifoliuin A. (Iray, 1. c. (s. str.). 

Leaves thin, 12-17 cm. long, obovate-oblanceolate, acuminate at ai)ex, cuneate 
at base, the midrib, ])eti(jles. stipules, inflorescence and fruit loosely appressed- 
or subappressed-])ilose. 

VAy;v\ Levi': M b ii a : Sandalwood Bay, T. S. Exp!. Expcd. (US. tvi-k). T.wkcxi : 
Gillespie 4721 (US. NY). 

I have seen three other U. S. I'lxploring lv\])editi()n sheets (1 GH, 2 XY) 
which are identical with tlie one cited ab()\e, but which are without locality. 
The National Herbarium sheet is designated as the type, since it has a definite 
locality and is more complete. 

Dolicholobium oblongifolium var. Degeneri l^Ksljcrg. var. nov. 

Folia crassa chartacea, basi obtusa, vix strigosa. 

Leaves short, obovate or oblong, the a])ex scarcel\- acuminate, the base obtuse, 
the pubescence thin, strigose. the veins 10 or 1 1 on a side. 

Vanua Levu : Mbua : Navotuvotn. summit of Mt. Seatura. alt. 7()0-8.^() m.. Apr. 27, 
1934, Sviith 1643 (GH, NY, US, type). Other collections, which it seems unnecessary to 
cite in detail, are as follows: Viti Levi- Gillespie 2017, 4225, 2559 (all US), 3618, 4284, 
2646, 3618, 3614 (all NY); Def/eiier 14423, 14747, 14816 (all USNA, A); Degener fi- 
Ordonez 13769 (USNA, A) ; Tahualewa 15590 (USNA. A). Vanua Levu: .S");n7// 1573, 
1871 (both GH, NY, US). Koro : Smith 1053 (GH, NY, US), approaching var. ohhnnji- 
foliiiin. Without locality: Ilonie 518, 868 (both GH). 

Dolicholobium oblongifolium var. longissimum (Seem.) l-'oshcrg. comb. nov. 

DoUcholohiuiii loujjissiiiniin Seem, in Honplandia 9: 256, nomen. 1861 ; Fl. Vit. 121. pi. 25. 
1866. 

Leaves obovate, slightly acmninate, the veins usually 10 or 11 ])er side, the 
pubescence dense, rusty, velutinous-tomentose. 

Viti Levu: Sccmann 215 ((jH, type com..). Vaniia Levu: T h a k a u n d r o v e : 
Mt. Mariko, alt. 600-866 m., Smith 426 (GH, NY, US). 

Gillespie 3488 (NY), from Vanua Levu, with stipules obovate rather than 
oblong and with veins 12-14 ]ier side, must also belong here. 

Neon'auclea Alerr. 

Neonauclea Forsteri (Seem.) Merr. in Jour. Wash. Acad. 5: 540. 1915. 

Nauclea Forsteri Seem. Fl. Vit. 121. 1866. 

Neonauclea vitiensis Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 74: IS. 1930. 

Viti Levu: Tholo North : Near Nandarivatu, Gillespie 4188 (NY, isotype of N. 
vitiensis) ; Tholo West : Naruku, vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. 120-300 m., 
Degener 15232 (USNA, A) ; Uluvatu, same general locality, Degener 15312 (USNA, A) ; 
Tholo East : Wainimala Valley, south of Matawailevu, St. John 18375 (Bish). 



120 SARGENT I A [1 

I can now see no essential difference l)et\veen A', viticnsis and N. Forsteri. 
When I noted the St. John collection as N. viticnsis (in Bnll. Torrey Clnh 67: 
419. 1940) I thought that the Fijian plant had thicker and differently shaped 
leaves, but the cited Degener collections coni]>letely break down these differences. 
The supposed pedicels to which I referred in that publication are merely the per- 
sistent axes of the fruits. N. viticnsis, when originally published, was not com- 
pared with A''. Forsteri, but Sarcoccphalus pacificus Rein, was mentioned as con- 
generic. The latter is now referred to the genus Sarcopygiuc. 

R.\xDiA [Hi)ust.] L. 

Randia [Houst.j L. Sp. PI. 1192. 1753; Gen. PI. cd. 5. 74. 1754. 

Pchuiodcndron Seem. Fl. Vit. 124. 1866. 

Canthiopsis Seem. FL Vit. 166. 1866. 

Tile two monotypic genera, Pclagodcndrun and Canthiopsis, described by See- 
mann in Flora Viticnsis in Rubiaceae and Loganiaceae respectively, seem to be 
identical. Examination of an isotype of Pelagodcndron viticnsc, Sccinann 240 
(NY), shows that it belongs to the same species as his Canthiopsis odorata, which 
has long since been transferred to Randia, where it certainly belongs. Specimens 
which have been referred to Pelagodcndron have somewhat larger leaves, but are 
otherwise identical with Randia odorata. Hie separation of these into different 
families by Seemann was apparently due to faulty observation of the ovary and 
ovules of Canthiopsis, as otherwise his descriptions of the two do not differ sig- 
nificantly. His illustration shows an almost superior ovary with one ovule in a 
cell. Bentham and Hooker, Drake, Gillespie, and A. C. Smith have all agreed in 
referring Canthiopsis to Randia. Of these at least Bentham and Hooker and 
Smith had access to the type. Smith also compared his no. 143^ with the tvjie of 
Pchigodcndron viticnsc and noted that it does not differ es.sentially. The sheet of 
Sccuiann 240 at New York is labelled "Randia? teste Seem.." showing that 
Seemann was aware that at least fruiting material showed a resemblance to 
Randia. On this sheet there is a condensed inflorescence having the appearance 
of a "witches' broom," which may have been what Seemann meant in his descrip- 
tion by "floribus axillaribus fasciculatis." This looks to me like an abnormal 
inflorescence. 

Randia viticnsis (Seem.) Fosberg, comb. nov. 

Pchiijodoidron viticnsc Seem. Fl. Vit. 124. Ai)ril 2, 1866. 

Canthiopsis odorata Seem. Fl. Vit. 166. Oct. 1, 1866. 

Raudia odorata B. & H. ex Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 191. 1890. 

ViTi Lkvu: Serua : Vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 0-150 m., Dcgener 151S6 (USX.\, A) ; 
Naitasiri: Korombamba Mt., Giltcspie 2220 (NY, US); Tamavua woods, Gillespie 
20i9 (NY, US). Ovai.au: Seemann 240 {"i^iY, isotyvk). Vanua Lkvu : Thakaun- 
drove: Yanawai River region, Smith 1832 (NY, US), Degcncr & Ordonez 14118 
(USXA, A). Vanua Mbalavu: Malatta islet, Smith 1438 (NY). 

Since the fascicle in which Pchgodcndron is published is dated earlier than 
that in which Canthiopsis a]:)peared, the epithet viticnsis must take precedence. 

DoRisiA Gillespie 

Dorisia flavida (Seem.) A. C. Sni. in Bishop Afus. Bull. 141: 140. 19,36. 

ViTi Li:vr: T h o 1 o North : Xandarivatu, alt. 800-9(10 m., Daicucr & Ordonez 
1357V (USNA, A). 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 121 

This collection extends the range of the species to Viti Levu. It has heen 
previously reported from Ramhi and Vanua Levu, where, judging by the number 
of collections, it must be rather common. 

This species shows considerable variation. The Degener specimen is glabrous, 
has small, ovate to broadly elliptic coriaceous leaves, with the veins close together 
and prominently reticulate. Smith's specimens from Vanua Levu (nos. 430, 
1790, 1932) have the leaves larger, thinner, elliptic to narrowly obovate, with less 
prominent veins, and are all perfectly glabrous. Another specimen from Vanua 
Levu (Mbua: between Mbua and Devoka, Mrs. H. B. R. Parhain III f A] ), with 
large leaves similar to those of the Smith material, has the under surface of the 
leaves, the branchlets, the midrib of the stipules, and the inflorescence closely 
papillate-hirtellous. The fruits of this fragmentary specimen are rather small, 
but not significantly different. When better material of this plant is available it 
may well prove to be a distinct species, or at least a variety. 

TiMoxics DC. 

Timonius affinis var. sapotaefolius (A. Gray) Fosberg, comb. uov. 

Timouius sapotaefolius A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 35. 1860. 

Differs from T. affinis A. Gray only in the less prominent and more numerous 
secondary veins, and in the more prominent areolation between them. 

Without definite locality: U. S. ExpL Expcd. (US, type, GH). 

Two sheets, both sterile, but ])robably belonging here, from Samoa ( Savaii : 
Tuata, Reinecke 3S8 [US]), have the stems more fleshy and the leaves larger 
than on the type. 

The sheet at Washington is designated as the type, as the one at Gray is only 
a fragment with drawings. 

Timonius Smithii Fosberg, sp. uov. 

Arbor subglabra ; folia late elliptica acuta petiolata ; stipulae strigosac ; cymae 
masculae graciles dichotomae pauciflorae secundae ; f ructus solitarius peduncu- 
latus subcompressus, 10-costatus, apice vix retusus tenuiter carnosus, pyrenis 7, 
rectis, in putamen oblongum connatis. 

Tree up to 18 m. tall, essentially glabrous, or the young parts somewhat stri- 
gose, the bark of branchlets gray ; leaf-blades broadly elliptic, acute or acutish at 
both ends, up to 14 cm. long and 7 cm. wide, with 5-7 veins on a side ; petioles 
up to 2 cm. long ; stipules 3-4 mm. long, ovate-triangular, ventricose, free, strigose, 
ciliate at margin, persistent on only 1 or 2 nodes from the apex of branchlet; 
staminate cymes axillary, slender, thinly appressed-tomentulose or puberulent, 
the peduncle 13-25 mm. long, once dichotomous, the branches 5-10 mm. long, 
the cyme with 1 terminal flower and 3—5 on each branch, these secund, subsessile, 
subtended by vestigial bracts ; calyx subtruncate or very shallowly lobed, thinly 
tomentose ; corolla densely tomentulose externally, especially below, "whitish," 
only buds available, the longest of these about 5 mm. ; pistillode glabrous, 2 mm. 
long; ])istillate flowers unavailable, probably solitary; fruiting peduncles 1—3.5 
cm. long, with a single fruit subtended by two minute bracts ; fruit red, thinly 
carnose, cylindro-ellipsoid, slightly compressed, 1.5—2.5 cm. long, 1.2-1.8 cm. 
wide, rounded at both ends, slightly retuse at apex around the persistent cup- 
shaped calyx, this about 1 mm. high and 2 mm. wide, subtruncate to shallowly and 
irregularly 6-lobed ; pyrenes straight, about 7, fused into an oblong, somewhat 
compressed, shallowly ribbed stone, the ribs about 10, the sclerification in two 
layers, the outer of firmly packed coherent granules, with a number of more or 
less open longitudinal cavities, the inner, surrounding the cells, hard and bony, 
the cells circular in transverse section, arranged in 2 parallel rows. 



122 SARGENTIA [1 

ViTi Lkvu: Naitasiri : Suva Pumping Station, alt. 30-80 m., Dcgcncr & Ordones 
13760 (USNA, A) (leaves smaller than type). Vanua Levu : Thakaundrove: 
Natewa Bay region, hills west of Korotasere, alt. 100-300 m., Smith 1930 (GH, NY, US) ; 
Mbua : Lower Wainunu River Valley, alt. 0-200 m., Smith 1724 (GH, NY, US) (leaves 
smaller and with less veins than type). Moala : Forest above Maloku, alt. 400 m., Mar. 
22, 1934, Smith 1347 (GH, NY, US, type). 

This species is close to the plant known as Gucttarda Kajeivskii Guillaumin of 
the New Hebrides, which has not been transferred to Timonius, but of which a 
discussion is to be published elsewhere. T. Sniithii differs in its few-fiowered 
once-dichotonious cymes, and in its fruit, which is fewer-celled and rounded at 
both ends, with the pyrenes more firmly united. 

MORIXDA L. 

The Fijian sj^ecies of Morinda have been rather puzzling to me, and, judging 
from misidentifications in herl)aria. also to others. In connection with identi- 
fication of the Degener collections of this genus T have had occasion to study 
rather carefully not only what material I could get of the Fijian species of the 
genus, but of related plants from the Indo-Pacific area. While no treatment for 
this area is yet attempted, certain observations on the Fijian members may be 
recorded. The widespread M. citrifolia, common in Fiji as well as the whole 
Indo-Pacific region, is omitted from the discussion. 

Morinda Grayi Seem. l-'l. \it. 130. 1866. 

Morinda htcida A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 41. 1860; not Benth. (1849). 

ViTi Levu: Tholo West : Uluvatu. vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, alt. 120- 
300 m., Dci/cncr 15261 (USNA, A) ; Serua : Vatutavathe, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 0-150 
m., Dcgcncr 15197 (USNA, A) ; Thulanuku, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 0-150 m., Dcgcncr 
15116 (USNA, A). Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove : Hills south of Nakula Valley, 
alt. 40 m.. Smith 348 (GH, NY, US) ; Mbua : Southern portion of Seatovo Range, alt. 
100-350 m., Smith 1521 (GH, NY, US). Without definite locality: U. S. E.vpl. Expcd. 
(US, type. GH), Sccmann 223 (GH). 

This species seems amply distinct and rather uniform. It is a liana most easily 
recognized by its large, ovate, acuminate, usually curved, glossy leaves, conspicu- 
ously pointed buds, and large fruits, about 2 cm. across. It is known from a 
number of collections from both Vanua Levu and Viti Levu. The type speci- 
mens at Washington and at Gray Herbarium are practically identical, and have 
no locality other than "Feejee Islands." The U. S. National Herbarium sheet 
contains more ample material and bears the original dissections, and so it is here 
designated as the type. Since the original material was in fruit only, a descrip- 
tion of the flowering heads is presented here. 

Heads borne 2 or 3 (rarely 4) at the terminal nodes of short lateral branchlcts. 
on peduncles about 1 cm. long (rarely much longer), the peduncles sometimes 
shortly united at base, the heads glabrous. 10-20-flowered ; buds acute ; calyx a 
fleshy truncate cup; corolla 6-8 mm. long, divided halfway to base into 5 (rarely 
4) reflexed lobes, glabrous externally, exceedingly woolly internally, "pale or- 
ange" or "white within, yellow without"; anthers linear, just less than 2 mm. long. 

Morinda umbellata L. Sp. PI. 176. 1753. 

This species is known, in its typical form, from Ceylon, and j^robably from 
much of southeastern Asia. In southeastern Asia, the Malayan region, and New 
Guinea, it breaks up into a number of closely related species or varieties, whose 
interrelationships have not been well worked out. The problem presented is 
similar to that of a number of other vast, variable species, whose subdivisions are 



19421 SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 123 

mostly too cIoscI\- related to merit specific rank but have commonly been de- 
scribed as species on the basis of a few scattered specimens. A final disposition 
of these, in the Indo-Pacific area, must await a great amount of further collecting 
and field study. Several Pacific forms in this complex, most of which have been 
considered species in the past, are dealt with below. With the exception of M. 
Diollis A. Gray, they are considered to be varieties of M. unihcllata L., as the 
differences are rather slight, mostly of degree, and tend to break down when a 
large series of specimens is examined. I have not seen material of M . nandari- 
vatcnsis Gilles])ie, but it is of this relationship. 

Morinda umbellata var. Forsteri (Seem.) l'"osl)erg, comb. nov. 

Morinda Torstcri .Scorn. Fl. Vit. 129. 1866. 

Morinda iiiyrtifi>!ia A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 41. 1860. 

This is distinguishable from Asiatic material chiefly by its somewhat thicker, 
glabrous, less venulose leaves with veins anastomosing somewhat farther from 
the margins, larger flowers, often glaljrous or almost so within, and pur[)le fruits. 
It is almost indistinguishable from M. imibcllata var. glaudulosa (Merr.) Fos- 
berg of Guam, but has somewiiat smaller flowers. glal)rous. or at least less woolly 
within. M. myrtifoUa A. Gray is ap])arently only a rather narrow-leaved form 
of this. The corolla-tubes on the sheet of the type collection {U . S. Expl. Ex- 
pcd . ) at Washington are rather shorter than usual for the variety. I do not 
think that it is worth recognition, at least until further collections demonstrate 
some correlation of the differences. 

This variety is found from Pitcairn and Henderson Islands as far west as the 
New Hebrides, and perhaps to New Caledonia. I am transferring the epithet 
Forsteri to M . itiiibcllata rather than the earlier iiiyrtifolia, as the former is well 
known and there is no doubt as to its application, while the latter still has a some- 
what doubtful status. 

Morinda umbellata var. bucidaefolia (.\. Gray) I'osberg, comb. nov. 

Morinda bucidaefolia A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 41. 1860. 

This ]:ilant has been distinguished chiefly by its obovate, usually cuneate. coria- 
ceous, strongly reticulate leaves, and slender, somewhat funnel form corollas. 
The variety described below is intermediate between this and M. nmbellata in its 
vegetative characters and has flowers similar to those of M . bucidaefolia. Since 
in Asiatic material corollas may frequently be found almost as slender as in these 
plants, and since the slenderness is largely due to a somewhat longer corolla tube, 
an extremely unstable character in this group, the reduction to varietal status 
seems justified. 

\'.\.\r.\ Lkvu : T li a k a u n d r o v c : Natewa Peninsula, Uluingala. alt. 600-820 m., 
Smith 1W9 (GH. NY, US): Mbua : Sandalwood Bay. T. .V. Hxpl. E.vpcd. (GH, US, 
Tvri: ). 

1 think that the two U. S. Ex])loring Expedition specimens are without doubt 
from the same collection, and the W'ashington specimen, being the more amj^le, 
is designated as the type. 

Morinda umbellata var. Archboldiana Fosberg, var. nov. 

Folia chartacea vix reticulata basi rotundata. 

This variety differs from var. bucidaefolia, to which it is closest, in its usually 
larger chartaceous leaves which are u]^ to 12 cm. long and 6.5 cm. wide, more 
rounded at base, and less j^rominently reticidate. 



124 ■ SARGENT! A |1 

ViTi Lkvu : S e r u a : Thulanuku, vicinity of Ngaloa, Apr. 29, 1941, alt. 30 m., Dcgcncr 
15115 (USNA, TYPE, A); Naitasiri : Woods near road beyond Tamavua Village, 7 
miles from Suva, alt. 150 m., Gillespie 2194 (NY) ; Tholo North : Nauwanga, vicinity 
of Nandarivatu. alt. 750-900 m., Dcgcner 14814 (USNA, A) ; Nandarivatu, alt. 800-900 m., 
Degcncr & Ordonez 13535 (USNA, A), Grccmvood 850 (USNA, A). 

The Greenwood s])ecimen represents a delicate small-leaved form which tiiay 
merit ftnlher sttidy when additional collections are availahle. 
Morinda mollis A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 41. 1860. 

This liana, with all parts exce])t the old stems densely and finely puhcscent, 
and with niembranotis sharply acuminate leaves, presenting a verv characteristic 
appearance, is closely allied to M. unibcllata, btit for the present is maintained 
as a species. No intermediates are known, and jtidging by the few collections 
available, the species is very uniform. It is known only from Viti Levu and 
Ovalau (fide Seemann). The type, U. S. Expl. Exped. (US), is without a 
definite locality. 

IXORA L. 
Ixora Sect. Vitixora Fo.sberg. sect. nov. 

Cyma capitata terminalis, f oliis 2 sufifulta ; bractae lobique calycis lineares. 

Shrtths or small trees, the young internodes decussately flattened, their edges 
rounded ; leaves shortly petiolate to subsessile ; stipitles forming a short ttibe or 
sheath, but with lobes drawn out into long aristae; inflorescence sessile between 
a terminal pair of leaves (rarely between smaller axillary ones), a strongly con- 
gested head-like cyme with linear or filiform bracts crowded among the flowers; 
calyx-lobes linear or lanceolate ; corolla with lobes only slightly sinistrorse in bud. 
oblong, obtuse, reflexed at anthesis ; anthers on short filaments inserted in the 
sinuses, attached near base, linear-sagittate; style filiform, exceeding corolla-tube, 
the stigma fusiform, bifid, the lobes coherent at first, later divergent and reflexed; 
fruit fleshy, globose. 

This group is, so far as known, confined to the Fiji Islands. ]t is probably 
closest to Sect. PhyllcUcma A. Gray, from which it diflters in the character of 
the leaves sttbtending the heads (in J If ixora similar to foliage leaves, in Pliyl- 
Icilcnia broad and ustially cordate), in the presence of linear bracts among the 
more closely crowded flowers of the larger heads, and in the elongate linear calyx- 
lobes. 

J^itixora seems coordinate with what are regarded by l^remekami) as subgenera. 
To me Ixora seems such a coherent group, in spite of its size, that it may not 
readily he divided into convincing sitbgenera. The natural groups of species 
w^ithin the genus are mainly se])arated by characters of the inflorescence, with few- 
other differences that correlate with these. In flower and fruit structure there 
is a striking uniformit\-. Therefore I regard the major species-grou])s at present 
as sections. 

Four s])ecies of Sect. Vitixora are known (/. Storckii Seem., which I have not 
seen, may go here, but is too l)riefly described to be placed) ; they may be separated 
by the following key : 

Leaves glabrous beneath. 

Leaves subsessile, with about 16-18 pairs of prominent veins, the calyx-lobes and bracts 

4-5 mm. long ( Vanua Levu ) /. coronata A. C. Sm. 

Leaves sliortly petioled, with 12-14 pairs of inconspicuous veins, tlie bracts filiform, the 
calyx-lobes ligulate (Viti Levu. vicinity of Nandarivatu) .../. anifilexicaulis (jillespie. 
Leaves shortly pubescent beneath. 

Leaves cordate at base (Viti Levu. Kandavu) /. pclagica Seem. 

Leaves cuneate or acute at base (Vanua Levu. Taveuni) /. somosomacnsis Gillespie. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II \ 125 

Abramsia Gillespie 

Abramsia trichotoma Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 91: 29. 1932. 

Vaxua Levu : M a t h u a t a : Wainunu-Ndreketi divide, alt. 200-300 m., Smith 1849 
(GH, NY, US) ; Thakaundrove : Vatunivuamonde Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, alt. 
300 m., Dcgcner & Ordonez 13964 (USNA, A). Taveuni : Western slope between Somo- 
somo and Wairiki, alt. 600-830 m.. Smith 796 (GH, NY, US). 

This species has heretofore been reported only from Viti Levu. Smith 1S49 
has the corolla-tube several times the length of the lobes, which is much longer 
than that of other flowering material known. 

PsYCnOTRIA L. 

Psychotria L. Syst. ed. 10. 929. 1759. 

Calycodcndron A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 154. 1936. 

Eunwrphaiithus A. C. Sni. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 157. 1936. 

The genus Psychotria is one of the most complex and difficult of all the groups 
of flowering plants in Fiji, and for that matter, in the whole Indo- Pacific area. 
In the Degener collection most of the i>reviously described valid species are repre- 
sented, as well as eight new ones, to which are added three new ones collected by 
Smith. There is little doubt that some of the described species will run together 
when more thorough collecting has been done and all of the types examined. 
Also, some of the supposedly endemic Fijian ones may prove to be identical with 
unsuspected ones from other island groups. At present, I would not attempt a 
revision, even of the Fijian ones, without an opportunity to study them in the 
field. 

A number of presumably natural groups within the genus are apparent, some 
of which have been described as separate genera. Several of these may be con- 
fined to Fiji, while others are more widespread. It does not seem possible to 
determine the category to which they belong from the material available of the 
species known. The plants of the other parts of Melanesia will have to enter 
into any such evaluation, and especially those of New Guinea. Consequently, 
I am not assigning any definite status to the groups here reduced to Psychotria. 

Calycodcndron and Euinorphanthus are both chiefly characterized by an en- 
larged showy calyx and peculiar corolla forms. The types of corolla involved 
in these genera are to be found in Psychotria, excei)t that they are there much 
smaller, and not usually associated with a particularly showy calyx. The corolla 
of P. Z'iticnsis Fosberg (Calycosia nionticola Gillespie) is certainlv not signifi- 
cantly dififerent from that of Calycodcndron, and both the corolla and fruit of 
P. confcrtiloba A. C Sm. are scarcely significantly different from those of 
Eumorphanthits fragrans. The tendency toward an enlarged, membranous, 
showy calyx is manifest in various species of Psychotria in Fiji (cf. P. carnea, 
P. calycosa. P. macrocalyx, P. ncurocalyx, P. St.-johnii, etc.). and the groups 
that have been set ofif principally on this character seem to me to be merely the 
culminations of some of these lines of development, and, as such, cannot, in my 
opinion, be maintained as genera, although they may represent closely related 
groups of species. When a comprehensive knowledge of this vast genus is ac- 
quired, it may well be found that some of the entire lines of evolution within it 
are not properly associated together, and that they will have to be separated, 
but so far I see no basis for this. At present I think that Calycodcndron and 
Eumorphanthits (including Psychotria confcrtiloba A. C. Sm.) represent natural 



126 SARGEXTTA [1 

species-groups within the genus Psycliotria, to which I cannot, as yet. assign a 
definite rank. 

Another such group, which may well be connected with Eninorphanthus, is that 
described as the subgenus Piptilcuia A. Gray. This seems to re])rcsent an ini- 
l)ortant evolutionary ])lexus among the Fijian species of the genus, although it 
probably does not merit the rank of subgenus. Of the characters assigned to it 
by Gray, "stipulac scjuamaceae" does not apply, as the stipules seem to be of the 
calyptrate type, ordinarily with forked free apices, common to the majority of 
PsycJwtria s]iecies of Fiji and Polynesia ; "caducissimae" is correct ; "flores ses- 
siles, capitellati. ebracteolati" is true only of some of the s])ecics that must go 
here. "Capitulo terminali primum bracteis squamaceis caducis involucrato" re- 
fers, of course, to the habit, common to the species with the type of stipules men- 
tioned above, of bearing the inflorescences at the terminal node, surrounded by 
a pair of enlarged stipules which are shed as the inflorescences develop. 

The description of the pyrenes and seeds is the part that seems to characterize 
a group of related sj^ecies, including those referred by Gray to his subgenus. 
The fruit of this group is, in gross appearance, ovoid, oval, or even rotund, but 
dries to a very characteristic form, broad and compressed basally, then abruptly 
contracted, even hastate, with the distal portion prolonged, with a ridge or keel 
on each face. The pyrenes are broad, thin, and hastate basally. abruptly nar- 
rowed above, then gradually narrowed to a subtruncate or toothed apex. The 
dorsal faces have a prominent keel or wing, at least on the apical part, sometimes 
extending to the base. In some s]:)ecies there are subsidiary keels beside the 
main central one. Other modifications are introduced by interruptions in the 
keels, esjiecially in the secondary ones. I do not know, as yet, what the relation- 
ship of similar species with the keels on the pyrenes arranged diflferently is to this 
group, whether one of derivation or merely evolution from similar ancestors. 
The nucleus of the group is composed of P. Pickcriiigii, P. monocarpa, P. aurantio- 
carpa, P. cordata, P. platycocca, P. taz'iuiicnsis. P. griscifolia. and, j^erhaps, /'. fil- 
ipcs. These species are variable. esi)ecially P. Pickcrhujii (cf. Gillespie in l>isho]) 
Mus. Bull. 74: 34. 1*^30). and seem to intergrade in various directions. Only 
extensive collections and much careful field study will clarify their interrelation- 
shi])s and their connections with other s])ecies and species-groups. 1 susi>ect that 
P. ucurocalyx and /'. fur cans may be related here, and that if P. fitrcaiis is cor- 
rectly so interpreted, then also probabl}' P. cdcntata and P. pachyautJia. of which 
the fruits are not known. P. Caldi^'cUii seems ob\iously close to this group, 
but has the lateral fiat i)arts of the i)yrenes ])rol()nge(l almost to the ai)cx. 

Psychotria pubiflora (A. (Iray) FosherK. comb. iiov. 

i'lilyrnsiii j^uhifloni A. (iray in Proc. Am. x-Ycad. 4: 306. 1<S60. 

Calycodciidroii piihifhintiii A. C". Sm. in Bislici) ^flls. Bull. 141: 155. 1936. 
Psychotria magnifica ((lillcspic) l^ishorjj;, coml). uov. 

(.'iilyfosui iihi!/)iifu-a ( nlk'spic in Bisho]) Mus. Bull. 74: 39. 1930. 

Calycodcndroii iiui(/)ujU-uiii A. C". Sni. in liisliop Mus. Bull. 141: 156. 1936. 
Psychotria glabra (Turrill) l-oshcrK, coinh. nov. 

C'alycDsia (/lahra Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 26. 1915. 

Ciilyrodciidro)! (ihd'nuii A. C. Sni. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 155. 1936. 
Psychotria fragrans (Gillfspic) l\)sl)c-rj.,\ comb. nov. 

Calycosia fratiranx GillfS])ie in Bislioj) Mus. Bull. 74: 38. 1930. 

Calyrodoidro)! frafiraiis A. C. Sm. in 15isliop Mus. Bull. 141: 155. 1936. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN FLA XT STUDIES, II 127 

Psychotria rufocalyx Fcisberg, noni. nov. 

Calycodendron rufcscciis A. C. Sm. in Bisliop Mus. Bull. 141: 156. 1936; not Psychotria 
rufcscens H. B. K. 

Psychotria Gibbsiae var. velutina Fosbcrp, var. nov. 

Planta velutino-i)ilo.sa ; cyma compacta. 

Differs from Psychotria Gibbsiae AIoDre in the more compact inflorescence 
with thicker branches and very short pedicels, and in having the young parts, 
petioles, cymes, hypanthia. and calyces veIutinous-]>ilose, with the nndersides of 
the leaves sparsely so. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo West : Mbuvombuvo, near Naniboutini, June 18, 1941. Tabiia- 
Iczva 15605 (USNA. tvi-k, A). 

The specimen is ratlicr inade(|uate, htit this dis])osition of it seems correct. 
Psychotria Eumorphanthus I'osberg, noni. nov. 

liumorphanthus fracirans A. C. Sm. in Bisliop Mus. Bull. 141: 158. 1936; not Psychotria 
fragrans (Gillespie) Fosberg. 

Psychotria vitiensis Fosberg, noni. nov. 

Psychotria vitiensis Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 257, iionien. 1861; Fl. Vit. 136. as svnonvni. 

1866. 
Calycosia iiioiiticohi Gillespie in Bisliop Mus. Bull. 74: 39. /. 55. 19.30; not Psychotria 

monticola Hiern in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. 3: 199. 1877. 

Although this species has been reduced to P. colycosa A. (jra\- by Gray, See- 
mann, and A. C. Smith, T am of the opinion that it is distinct. It differs from 
the type of that species in size and texture of leaves, size of cyme, and especially 
in the calyx, which is fusiform, not shari)ly distinct from the hyj^anthium, con- 
tracted somewhat above, then flaring at apex, rather than broadly campanulate 
and abruptly dilated above the hypanthium. It is very well illustrated by 
Gillespie. 

Since Seemann's name was published first as a nomen nudum, then in syn- 
onymy, and Gillespie's sj^ecific epithet is preoccupied in Psychotria, P. vitiensis 
must be regarded as a new name, starting with the present publication. 

Psychotria calycosa A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 45. 1860. 

I have studied three sheets of the U. S. Exploring Expedition material that 
formed the basis of this species, as well as three that Gray subsequently referred 
to it and quite a mimber that have been so identified by subsequent workers. Of 
the three original .sheets, only the one at the U. S. National Herbarium is in such 
a state of preservation as to be readily identifiable. It is here designated as the 
type. It is from Ovalau. The following description is drawn from it. 

Glabrous ; leaves olilong-oblanceolate, the lilades 7-9 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, 
somewhat acuminate at aj^ex, contracted to an acute base, chartaceous, with 9-11 
rather spreading secondary veins on a side, which anastomose near the margin, 
the petiole 6-10 mm. long ; well developed stipules not available ; cyme solitary 
at terminal node, but with a small bud beside it which suggests that it will be- 
come lateral, the j^eduncle 2.5 cm. long, pentachotomous, the branches about 12 
mm. long, each 2-3-branched at apex, the branchlets short, bearing single flowers 
or clusters of 3 flowers on pedicels 2-3 mm. long (if the sheets at NY and GH 
belong here, the branching of the inflorescence is somewhat variable) ; calyces 
campanulate, about 3.5 miu. long, 5-6 mm. wide, deeply 4-lobed, the lobes ovate, 
rounded, somewhat 3-5-nerved, spreading to reflexed; corolla in bud only, gla- 
brous externally except that the sutures are somewhat hirtellous, the whole at 
least 12 mm. long, the tube membranous, glabrous within, the throat and lobes 
thickened and densely woolly within, the wool longest in throat, the anthers at- 



128 SARGENTIA [1 

tachcd basally on short filaments, with 2 basal lobes projecting well below the 
attachment, inserted well below the sinuses; style filiform, glabrous, somewhat 
bifid and fleshy at apex ; fruits not available ; some buds not yet full-sized tending 
to open when dried. 

The Gray Herbarium sheet seems substantially the same thing, l)ut the cyme is 
only trichotomous, and the calyces are rather poorly developed, with the lobes 
tending to be unequal and the buds more hirtellous along the sutures. 

The New York sheet has two twigs, one much like those described above, but 
with little left of the cyme, the other a different looking plant, too young to be 
identified with certainty at present. 

All other material that I have seen referred to this species either belongs some- 
where else or is not in condition to be positively identified. The three sheets 
that Gray referred here subsequent to his original description belong to P. 
viticnsis Fosberg. 
Psychotria platycocca A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 47. 1860. 

This species seems not uncommon, judging l)y the number of collections, but 
most of the material that has in the past been referred here seems to belong else- 
where. As apparent from an examination of the original material {U. S. Expl. 
Expcd., US, GH), the species is glabrous, with obovate, subacuminate, cuneate, 
chartaceous leaves, which are variable in size but rather small, slender trichoto- 
mous cymes bearing on each branch a cluster of about 3 sessile or subsessile 
flowers, ovoid fruits with broad, flat, subhastate pyrcnes, widest near base, and 
with a high thin dorsal keel in the distal two-thirds. 

Of the two sheets of the type material seen, the U. S. National Herbarium 
sheet is definitely from Ovalau, while the Gray sheet is merely labeled "Feejee 
Islands," the former is more ample and has, in addition to immature flowering 
cymes, dissections of fruits. Therefore the U. S. sheet is designated as the type. 
It represents an unusually large-leaved robust form. The species is also known 
from Viti Levu {Dcgener 14900, 1467S, 14395, Gillespie 4093, 3184) and from 
Vanua Levu {Dcgener 14241). 

The species is highly variable, even with the completely discrepant material 
excluded, approaching P. filipes through plants with slender cymes {Degcner 
14900) and P. Pickeringii var. solanoides through specimens with very short, 
poorly developed cymes (Degcner 14395). Plants from Ovalau have the leaf- 
bases cuneate, Dcgener 14241 from Vanua I.evu has them subcordate. and the 
material from Viti Levu has them, in general, attenuate. 

Psychotria Pickeringii var. solanoides (Turrill) l-'dsbcrfj;. comb. luiv. 

Psyclii'Iria solmioidcs Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Hot. 43: 2A. 1915. 

This plant differs from the variable P. Pickeringii \. Gray only in the rusty 
puberulence on most of its parts and in the shortly pedicellate flowers and fruits. 

Viti Levu: Tholo North: Nandarivatu, Gillespie 4376 (NY), Dcgener 14522 
(USNA, A) (type locality) . Vanu.\ Levu : T li a k a u n d r o v e : South slope of Koro- 
tini Range, below Navitho Pass, Smith 495 (GH, NY, US) (compared with type by A. C. 
Smith). 

Some specimens, such as Degcner 13582, from Nandarivatu, are intermediate, 
in that they have the puberulence but have sessile flowers. 

Psychotria taviunensis Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 74: 34. /. 48. 1930. 

Vanua Levu: T h ak a u n d r o ve : Savu Savu Bay region, Vatunivuanionde Mt., 
Degener & Ordoiiea 13999 (USNA, A) : eastern buttress of Mt. Ndikeva, Smith 1892 (GH, 
NY, US). Tavkuxi: Gillespie 4722 (NY, isotvpe). Smith 752 (GH, NY, US). 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 129 

The Vanua Levu collections represent an extension of the range of this species 
from Taveuni. It is closest to P. griscifolia S. Aloore, known as yet only from 
Viti Levu, but has more robust, more closely branched and more floriferous 
cymes, acuminate leaves, and rusty jiubescence. The cymes are about 4-times 
branched. 

Psychotria griseifolia S. Mot^re in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 153. 1909. 

ViT[ Levi-: Tholo North : Nauwanga, vicinity of Nandarivatu. alt. 750-900 m., 
Dcgcncr 14524 (USNA, A) ; vicinity of Nandarivatu, Dcgcncr 14336, 14461 (both USNA, 
A) ; Mt. Matomba, near Nandarivatu, Dcgener 15632 (USNA, A). 

The specimens which I have seen that seem referable to this species are all in 
fruit, while the type (Gibbs 706) was in flower, and so it is not positive that 
they belong here. However, since the description seems to fit otherwise, I feel 
safe in adding a description of the fruit from these sjiecimens. This shows defi- 
nitely tliat the species belongs to the Piptilcma group. 

Fruit, when dry, strongly hastate, usually about as broad as long, 7~10 mm. 
long and broad, compressed but with strong keels, the base acute, the apex pro- 
duced, blunt, variable ; pyrenes slightly smaller, flat, acute or slightly acuminate 
at base, prominently hastate, the lobes rounded, abruptly contracted distally, the 
apical lobe rounded, variable in degree of elongation, with dorsal keel high in 
middle, low and somewhat grooved or doubled a]:)ically, tapering off toward base. 

Moore does not mention the fact that the leaves of this species, when dry, 
are conspicuously white-reticulate-veined. 

The following variety seems somewhat distinct. I 

Psychotria griseifolia var. unicarinata Fosberp, var. nov. 

Ramidi dense f errugineo-puberulentes ; folia obovata acuminata basi cuneata, 
valde albo-reticulata, infra vix ])uberuli ; petioli cymaeque puberulentes. 

Branchlets densely rusty-puberulent ; leaves large, chartaceous, obovate, acumi- 
nate at apex, cuneate at base, conspicuously white-reticulate-veined and thinly 
puberulent beneath, tlie jietiole 1-2.5 cm. long, puberulent ; cymes puberulent ; 
otherwise as in P. griseifolia. 

Vni Lkvl- : Tholo North : Mt. Matomba, Nandala, vicinity of Nandarivatu, Feb. 
28, 1941, Dcf/nicr 14640 (A, type), 14510 (A), 14730 (A) ; Nauwanga, same general locality, 
Degencr 14624 (USNA, A); N a m o s i : Naitarandamu Mt., Gillespie 3093 (NY). 

Gillespie had indicated his specimen as a new species. Vegetatively this variety 
resembles P. St.-johnii and P. Dcgcncr i so much as to be mistaken for them, but 
the fruits are quite different. 

Psychotria filipes A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 46. 1860. 

Glabrous ; leaves oljovate, long-acuminate, cordate at base, up to 10 cm. long 
and 5 cm. wide, the petiole 1.5-3 cm, long; stipules calyptrate, up to 2 cm. long, 
with very short free tips ; cymes 4 at a node, terminal, about 8 cm. long, very 
slender, pendent, the peduncle 4-6 cm. long, the branches 4, these twice trichoto- 
mous, the branchlets ending in single flowers or slightly irregular clusters of 2 
or 3 flowers ; flowers with calyx about 0.5 mm. long, acutely 4-dentate, the corolla 
with tube 2 mm. long, 1 mm. thick, the lobes 1 mm. long, ovate, spreading, the 
tips of anthers exserted. 

Without definite i.oc.m.itv : U . S. E.rpl. Expcd. (US, type). 

Other than the type, all of the material that I have seen referred to this species 
differs in being noticeably pubescent and in having more robust erect cvmes, as 
well as much more i)rominently reticulate-veined leaves. Gillespie's description 
(in Bishop Mus. Bull. 74: ?>?>. 1930) says "a glabrous .shrub" but his plate (op. 



130 SARCEXTIA [1 

cit. /. 46) shows a plant niucli more like the otiier specimens mentioned rather 
than the type. I have not seen his s]K'cimen. These ])lants fit fairly well the 
(lescri])tion of P. (/riscifolia S. Moore. 

Psychotria aurantiocarpa I'osberg, sp. nov. 

Frutex g'laber j^raciiis ; folia anguste ohovala vel ohlanceolata \al(le acnmi- 
nata ; stipiilae calyptratae valde biaristatae ; cymae geminatae pedunculatae ca])itn- 
latae ; fructus subsolitarius ovatus subhastatus 15-18 mm. longus, pyrenis valde 
alato-carinatis. 

Shrub up to 4 m. tall, glabrous, with rather slender branchlets ; leaves thinly 
coriaceous, narrowly obovate or oblanceolate, up to 10 cm. long and about 3 cm. 
wide, strongly acuminate at ai)ex, acute to al)ruptly contracted at base, the sec- 
ondary veins 8-10 on a side, rather obscure, the network very obscure, the ]:)etiole 
u]) to 1 cm. long, rather thick, very narrowl}' winged ; stipules calyptrate, ovate, 
each with 2 long aristate free tips, about 12 mm. long, of which 7 mm. is free tip; 
inflorescences terminal, in pairs, the peduncle 2-2.5 cm. long, apparently bearing 
several sessile or subsessile flowers (but known only in fruit) ; oidy 1 or 2 fruits 
maturing on a ])eduncle, these ovate, flattened, subhastate. rounded at base, sub- 
truncate at apex, 15-18 mm. long, about 10 mm. wide, the pyrenes slightly smaller, 
abruptly slightly narrowed (subhastate) about V-. the way u]). the lower ]>art flat, 
the median dorsal keel very thin, wing-like, extending from just above base to 
near apex. 

Vanua Lkvu : T li a k a ii n cl r o v e : Mt. Mariko, denso forest, alt. 600-866 in., Nov. 
14. 1933, Smith 449 (GH. NV, tvi>k. US). 

A])]K>ars to be closest to P. I'ickcriiitjii var. solaiioidcs (Turrill) Fosberg, but 
differs in being glabrous and in having much longer ])e(luncles and larger fruits. 

Psychotria monocarpa I-osherg. sji. nov. 

Frutex glaber gracilis; folia obovata obtusa chartacea ; stipulae angustatae aris- 
tatae ; fructus hastulatus sessilis terminalis solitarius aurantiacus 6-7 mm. longus, 
])yrenis valde carinatis. 

Shrub 3-4 m. tall, glabrous, with slender branchlets; leaves chartaceous, obo- 
vate, uj) to 6 cm. long and 3 cm. wide, the apex obtuse, the base cuneate-attenuate, 
the veins not very prominent, 6-8 on a side, the petiole slender, up to 12 mm. 
long; sti])ules calyptrate, very narrow, about 5 mm. long, the free tips short, aris- 
tate; flowers unavailable; fruits bright orange, sessile, terminal, solitary (flowers 
possiblv more numerous), ovoid. 6-7 mm. long. 3-4 mm. wide, abruptly narrowed 
about half-way up (hastulate). the pyrenes only slightly smaller, flat but with a 
very high dorsal keel almost as long as body of jjyrene. 

V'.^NU.A Lew: T h a k a ii n d r o v c : Natcwa Peninsula, hills south of Natcwa, alt. 
400-600 m., June 12, 1934, Smith 1951 (GH, NY. tvi>k, US). 

This is ])robably closest to P. Pickcringii A. (jray, but difi^ers from that variable 
species in the obovate obtuse leaves and in the solitary slightly smaller fruits. 

Psychotria cordata A. Gray in Proc. .\m. Acad. 4: 46. 1860. 

Glabrous ; leaves slightly obovate, l(Mig-acuminate, cordate at base, the blade 
6 cm. long, the veins not especially prominent, the j^etiole 2.5 cm. long ; inflores- 
cence capitate, sessile, terminal ; fruit 7-9 mm. long. 

WixnouT OEFiNiTE i.ocAiJTY : U. S. Expl. lixpcd. (US. TYI'e). 
Psychotria cordata A. Gray var. podantha I'oshcrg. var. nov. 

Folia breviter acuminata, nervis infra albis ; fructus jiedicellatus 10-13 mm. 
longus. 

Differs from the U. S. Fxi)l()ring b^xjiedition material in having the leaves 
more shortly actiminate. more often obovate. the veins white beneath, the frtiit 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 131 

(and ])r()bal)ly flowers) on ])ediccl.s 1-2 cm. lout;', and tlie fruit itself 10-13 mm. 
long. 

Virr Levu : T h o 1 o N o r t h : Nauwanga, vicinity of Nandarivatu. Dcgcncr 14S31 
(USNA, TYPE, A) (Mar. 31, 1941), ]4827 (USNA, A)", 14S29 (USNA, A). 

A small tree, u]) to 5 ni. tall, with orange fruit. 

Psychotria serpens L. var. parvula (A. Cjray) i-'o.sbcr^, comb. nov. 

Fsycliotria pari'ula \. (iray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 45. 1858. 

Psychotria minor Turrill in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 27. 1915. 

This form does not differ constantly in any respect from all Asiatic s])ecimens 
of P. serpens, although the small leaves, short internodes, and resulting crowded 
leaves give it an aspect different from the greater ]Kirt of the Asiatic material. 
Good flowering specimens are not available, but if /''. minor is correctly placed 
here the non-barbate corolla-throat may jirove to be a good character. However, 
even the Fijian plants vary so much that no more than varietal separation is 
possible. 

V'lTi Lev;- : T li o 1 o N o r t li : Vicinity of Nandarivatu, Dcycncr 1437H (USNA, A). 
V.WLA Levl- : T h a k a u n d r () V c : Mt. Mbatini. Smith 692. 693 (both GH. NY. US ) ; 
Yanawai River region, Mt. Kasi, Siiiilh 1760 (GH, NY, US). Wrriiorr deeimte i.or.\i.iT"i : 
U. S. Expl. Expcd. (NY, isotvpe). 

The type of P. minor, which 1 have not seen, is /';;/ I'liuni 21 , from the top of 
Mt. \^ictoria, V'iti Levu. 

Psychotria macroserpens Fosberg, sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens glaber ; folia ovalia obtusa ; stipnlae cadncae triangulares; 
cyma hemispherica ramis crassis trichotomis ; frnctus globosus 8 mm. longus, 
pyrenis rugosis 3-4-carinatis. 

Olabrous liana; leaves oval to almost rotund, up to about 6 cm. long and 4.5 
cm. wide, obtuse or rounded at apex, strongly contracted at base, subcoriaceous. 
with 6 or 7 secondary veins on a side, the petioles 8—15 mm. long; stipules cadu- 
cous, low-triangular, obtuse, about 2 mm. long ; cyme 4—8 cm. long, 3-6-times 
trichotomous, hemispheric, the branches thick, densely papillose, the internodes 
short ; flowers not seen, said by collector to be white ; fruit white, spherical to 
slightly elongate, about 8 mm. long, crowned by a short, obtusely and irregularly 
dentate, puberulent calyx-ring, the rest of fruit g]al)rate, the inrenes orbicular, 
with 3 or 4 blunt rugose keels. 

Kamb.xr.a. : In forest on limestone formation, alt. (1-1(1(1 m., March 2, 1934, Smith 1246 
(GH, NY, Tvi'E, US). 

This species seems, like P. tcphrosaiitlia A. Cira}-, to be a h^ijian derivative 
of the wides]iread P. serpens L. It differs from both P. serpens and P. tepJiro- 
santlia in its broad, almost orbicular leaves, heavy inflorescence, and much larger 
fruits. 
Psychotria Archboldiana Fo.'^berg, sj). nov. 

Arbor parva; folia elliptica ; stipulae subj)ersistentes striatae; cyma capitata 
vel subcapitata vel tricapitata terminalis ; calyx viridis jiatens ; corolla glabra ; 
fructus obovoideus subtruncatus, pyrenis basi obtusis ajMce valde emarginatis 
dorso tul)erculatis. 

Small tree, up to 3 m. tall, slender, glabrous ; leaves elliptic, up to 10 cm. long 
and 4 cm. wide, usually smaller, acute or slightly acuminate at apex, acute or 
slightly attenuate at base, chartaceous, the secondary veins (3-8 on a side, not very 
prominent, the petiole 5-10 mm. long; stipules triangular, about 5-6 mm. long, 
becoming free, more or less striate longitudinally, subpersistent, breaking trans- 
versely, the basal i)ortions remaining on the nodes for some time; cymes terminal. 



132 SARGENTIA [1 

about 2 cm. long, cajiitate or subcapitate. or tricbotonious, tben bearing 3 ca])itate 
clusters; calyx green, spreading, about 3-5 mm. wide, obtusely lobed ; corolla 
glabrous, apparently salverform (buds only availa1)le), the limb in bud much 
thicker than tube, rounded at aj)ex ; fruit obovoid, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, sub- 
truncate at ajiex, crowned with slirivelled remains of calyx, the pyrenes obtuse at 
base, deeply cmarginate at apex with a ])rojection in the sinus, dorsally strongly 
and irregularly tuberculate, 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide. 

ViTi Levu : T h o 1 o W e s t : Naruku, vicinity of MI)elo, near Vatirkarasa, alt. 250 
m.. May 18, 1941, Dcgcncr 15316 (USNA, type, A) ; Yawe, same general locality, Dcticncr 
15291 (USNA, A) ; Uluvatu, same general locality. Dc</nirr 15258 (USNA, A) ; Mbuhi. 
near Sovi Bay, alt. 0-60 ni., Dcf/oirr 15049 (USN.\, A) 

This species is a]:)])arently closest to P. pacifica K. Schum., of Samoa, from 
which it differs in its much smaller leaves with fewer nerves, smaller stipules, 
simpler and much smaller inflorescence, and glabrous flowers. It is vegetatively 
much like P. Gillcspicaua A. C. Sm.. but differs in its condensed inflorescences 
and expanded green calyces. The fruits and flowers are much like those of P. 
carnca (Forst.) A. C. Sm., but smaller, and it also differs in its much smaller 
and thinner leaves with fewer veins, and in its condensed cymes. It jirobably 
belongs to the same group of s])ecies (Sect. PuinacJiia (DC.) :\. C. Sm.). It 
lacks the anthocyanin ])igment commonly found in members of the genus. The 
native name (Serua dialect) is viinga, and a tea made from the leaves is said to 
be used medicinally. 

Psychotria brevicalyx Fosljer^, sp. nov. 

Arbor ])arva P. furbinatac A. Gray aftinis, sed foliis crassioribus infra jHibes- 
centibus, cyma pauciflora conspicue ])ubesceiUe, pednncnlo longiore et crassiore, 
fructu pubescente calyce brevissimo coronato. 

Small tree, up to 3 m. tall, the young parts ])ul)esceiit, glabrate ; leaves ample, 
elliptic to obovate, up to 20 cm. long and ^) cm. wide, bluntly acute at a])ex, 
cuneate at base, chartaceous, pubescent beneatli, es])ecially on midrib, the sec- 
ondary veins 11-15 on a side, moderately prominent, the network more or less 
obscure, the i)etioles up to 3 cm. long; stipules calyjitrate, caducous, densely pubes- 
cent, 1-1.5 cm. long, with well develo]ied free tips which are glabrous on inner 
surface; cymes 2-4 in falsely terminal clusters, (y-\0 cm. long, long-pedunculate, 
stiff, branched 2-4 times, pilose with dirty-whitish hairs, the peduncle up to 8 cm. 
long ; fruits on ])edicels 3-7 mm. long. red. turbinate, 7-8 mm. long, 5-6 mm. 
wide, pilose, crowned with the exceedingly short 5-denticulate calyx-ring, the 
pyrenes 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, truncate above, acute below, the lower part flat, 
the upper part strongly tricarinate. with a deep ventral groove at distal end ; 
corollas not available except for one jxirsisting on a fruit of Dcgcncr 15154, which 
may not be normal, but is about 1 cm. long, salverform, with a thick densely 
tomentose tube and broad orbicular lobes about 5 mm. long, said to be white. 

ViTi Levu : T h ol o W e s t : Yawe, vicinity of Mbelo, near VaUikarasa, alt. 300 m., 
May 15, 1941, Dcgoxcr 15292 (USNA, type. A) ; Uluvatu, same general locality, Dcgcncr 
15256 (USNA, A); Tabualciva 15620 (USNA, A); Serua: Vatuvilakia. vicinity of 
Ngaloa, alt. 0-150 m., Dcgcncr 15154 (USNA, A). 

Close to P. turhinata A. Gray, but differing in the pubescent under surface of 
the thicker leaves, and in the stiff, heavier, fewer-flowered, conspicuously pubes- 
cent cymes and pubescent fruit. The cymes of P. turhinata are minutely puberu- 
lent. with a much shorter jieduncle. 
Psychotria crassiflora Fosberg, sp. nov. 

Arbor parva P. turbiuatac A. Gray afifinis, sed foliis amplis obovatis, apicibus 
liberis stipulorum duris linearibus, cyma i)auciflora, floribus valde carnosis, tubo 
corollae intus solido. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLAXT STUDIES, II 133 

Small tree, the vegetative parts glabrous, the branchlets rather thick and some- 
what fistulose; leaves ample, obovate, up to 21 cm. long and 10 cm. wide, the 
apex slightly bluntly acuminate, the base cuneate, the secondary veins 15 or 16 
on a side, rather prominent, widely spreading, anastomosing near margin, the 
petiole 1-3 cm. long; stipules caducous, rather variable in si/.e. uj) to 2 cm. long, 
the lower parts united, the upper part prolonged into 2 stiff linear aristae about' 1 
cm. long; cymes 3 at a node (often 1 or 2 broken off), about 10 cm. long, heavy, 
stiff, erect, 2- or 3-times trichotomous, thinly hirtellous, glabrate, the pedicels 6-12 
mm. long, thickened upward, thinly hirtellous ; flowers fleshy ; calyx campanulate, 
5-6 mm. long and wide, truncate, thick and fleshy-coriaceous, the free portion 3 
mm. long, with upper edge calloused and appearing like a scar, bearing inside 
around the base a single circle of long delicate hairs, otherwise smooth internally, 
externally slightly hirtellous, glabrate; corolla cylindric or slightly swollen near 
base, contracted at base to a small attachment, very thick and fleshy-coriaceous in 
texture, densely sericeous-hirtellous externally, the lobes 5 or 6, erect, about 4 
mm. long and 2 mm. wide, oblong, cons]:iicuously hooked at apex, finely puberu- 
lent within except inside of hook which is hirtellous with the hairs pointing down- 
ward, the throat somewhat bearded with longer hairs pointing upward, the some- 
what swollen tube filled solidly with tissue except at extreme base, closely invest- 
ing style, a cavity at extreme base about 1 mm. wide and high containing the small 
hemispheric disk ; anthers linear-oblong, 3 mm. long, on very short filaments, at- 
tached near base, inserted in corolla-throat ; style glabrous, filiform, 8 mm. long, 
deeply bifid at apex, the lobes not thickened, about 2 mm. long ; ovary 2-celled, 
with a single erect basal ovule in each cell ; only one fruit available, probably not 
mature, turbinate, about 1 cm. long and broad. 

ViTi Levi: : Scrua : Vatutavathe, vicinity of Ngaloa. alt. ISO m.. May 5, 1941, 
Dciicncr 1517S (USNA. type, A). 

This species is apparently related to P. turhinata A. Gray, but differs from it 
in the larger, more obovate leaves, in the stipules with stiff, linear, free tips in- 
stead of exj^anded foliaceous ones, in the much fewer-flowered cymes, and, if 
Gillespie's interpretation (in Bishop Mus. Bull. 91: 36. /. 41. 1932) of P. tur- 
hinata is correct, in the entirely different flowers. 

The fleshy corolla with the tube filled with tissue is unknown in Psychotria, 
but in every other respect the plant matches this genus. The possibility is, of 
course, not excluded that the corolla character is the result of an insect sting, 
but it was uniform in all flowers dissected, and no evidence was found of insect 
activity. 

Psychotria furcans 1^'osberg, sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor parva ; folia elliptica petiolata; stipulae supra furcantcs in 
laminas lanceolatas ;- cyma terniinalis solitaria laxa pentachotoma dura, ramulis 
elongatis, corollis extra glabris intus dense barbatis ; f ructus late ellipsoideus, in 
sicco tuberculatus calyce persistente coronatus, pyrenis subhastatis dorso multi- 
carinatis, carinis tenuibus eroso-incisis. 

Shrub or small tree with slender branches, the vegetative parts glabrous ; leaves 
elliptic or oblong, acute at both ends, subcoriaceous, about 8 cm. long, 2.5-3.5 
cm. wide, on petioles 1-1.5 cm. long, the veins 10 or 11 on a side, not especiallv 
prominent ; stipules al)Out 1 cm. long, united below, forked above into 2 lanceolate 
free blades sometimes over half total length of stipules; cyme solitary, terminal, 
glabrous, 7-10 cm. long, loosely branched, the branches with a stiff appearance, 
the peduncle 2-5 cm. long, with a tendency to be reflexed, the primary branches 
4 or 5, each branching 2 or 3 times ; flowers shortly pedicellate ; open flowers un- 
available, the buds with calyx hemispheric to somewhat spreading, 1-1.5 mm. 
long, the margin subentire to irregularly obtusely dentate, the corolla glabrous 



134 SARGENTIA [I 

but a]>ix'ariiig somewhat scurfy in liud, densely hearded within at to]) nf tube; 
style glabrous, filiform, about 12 mm. lonf,^ shortly bifid at ai)ex ; fruit broadly 
and irregularly elli]«oid, 12 mm. long including the ])ersistent somewhat enlarged 
calyx, 7-8 mm. wide, red, the pyrenes 9 mm. long, 6.5 lum. wide, ovate, rather flat 
and ex])andcd into a thin wing-like portion below, the ajiical ])ortion contracted 
and protruding, producing a subhastate outline, subtruncate at ajjex, shortly tri- 
dcntate. the whole with a very ])rominent thin median dorsal keel and several 
secondary keels on each side, these broken or erose-incised, giving a more or less 
spinose appearance, and causing the fruit to be strongly tuberculate when dry. 
Vrn I^Kvi- : Tholo North : Mt. Matoniba, Nandala, vicinitv of Nandarivatu, alt. 
750-900 m., I<\>b. 18, 1941, Dc(/cncr U450 (USNA, tvpk. A) ( rtoweriiiK ) . V.akua Levu : 
T h a k a n n d r o V e : Eastern drainage of \'ana\\a; River, alt. 20-160 in.. Dcqntcr & 
Ordonez N0Q2 (USNA, A) (fruiting). 

Differs from its relatives, P. edcutata A. C. Sm. and P. pachyantlia A. C. Sm.. 
in its smaller, elli])tic, longer jjctiolate leaves, conspicuously forked stipules, and 
slender, rather stiff, usually pentachotomous cymes with elongate branches. It 
is entirely possible that the two collections associated here do not l^elong together, 
since the localities are so far a])art and at different altitudes, and one is known 
only in flower and the other in fruit, but no differences of much conseqtiencc are 
evident between them. 

Psychotria pittosporifolia f'osberjj;, sp. nov. 

Arbor ])arva glabra; folia sjiathulato-obovata flavo-\ irides ; sti])ulae connatae 
apice liberae et bifidae ; cyma terminalis multiflora viridi-jniberulenta ; flores ses- 
siles, calyce brevi dense puberulo, corolla hypocraterimorpha sparse puberula intus 
barbata, antheris exsertis. 

Small tree about 3 m. tall, the vegetati\e ])arts glabrous: leaves si)atulate- 
obovate, up to about 10 cm. long and 4.5 cm. wide, usually abru])tly short- 
acuminate at apex, cuneate-attenuate at base into a petiole 1-2 cm. long, the blade 
subcoriaceous with margin slightly revolute, drying greenish-yellow above, paler 
beneath; stipules 8-10 mm. long, caKptrate, with 4 ])rominent free tips resulting 
from bifid apices; cymes solitary or rarel\' 2, terminal, many-flowered, U]) to 7 
cm. long, greenish-])uberulent, the ])cduncles up to 4 cm. long, the primary 
branches usually 5, these branched 3 or 4 times, ending in a cluster of 2-4 sessile 
flowers; calyx less than 1 mm. long, shallowly 5-dentate, densely jniberulent : 
corf)lla white, salverform, 8-9 mm. long, the tube about 5 mm. long, very sparsely 
puberulent without, glal^rous wnthin below, densely bearded in u])])er part, the 
lobes oblong, about 4 mm. long, densely puberulent without, tomentose within; 
anthers about 1 mm. long, exserted on filaments about 2 mm. long; st_\'le glabrous, 
filiform, bifid above. 

ViTi Levi- : Scrua : Vatutavathc, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 150 m., May 5, 1941, 
Dcqcncr 15180 (USNA, type, A); near Mt. Nganio, vicinitv of Ngaloa, Dcqcncr 150?'^) 
(USNA, A). 

Perhaixs there are two types of flowers in this s[)ecies, as the anthers are less 
exserted in some. However, this ma\' be a matter of age. The corolla-tube is 
also rather variable. 

This plant differs from the closely related P. chrysophyUa, also of Viti T^evu 
but from Tholo l^^ast, in its spatulate-obovate leaves, attenuate to the base, smaller 
calyx, and corolla ])tibescent within the longer lobes. The similarity in aspect to 
certain s])ecies of P\tio.s(^oruin suggests the name. 

Psychotria Degeneri l'\isberg, sp. nov. 

Arbor parva ; folia am])la ellijitica acI angtiste obovata acuminata albo-reticulata 
pilosa ; stipulae cahptratae pilosae ; cymae 3-10 lerminales pallide ])ilosae ; flores 



1942) SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 135 

albi, calyce l)revitcr canipanulato non vcnuk^so, corolla infuiuHbiilifonni extra 
sparse pilosa ; f ructus clavatus. 

Small tree up to 5 m. tall, the branchlcts glabrous or very early glabrate ; leaves 
chartaceous, elliptic to narrowly obovate. up to 25 cm. long and 10 cm. wide, 
acuminate at apex, cuneate at base, more or less pilose on both sides, especially 
beneath, densely so on midrib and veins, sometimes somewhat glabrate ; strongly 
and conspicuously venulose, the veins white in dried specimens, the secondaries 
13-20 on a side, connected by a strong network, the jK'tiole up to 6 cm. long, 
pilose; stipules calyptrate, early caducous, pilose, al)Out 1 cm. long, the free lips 
small ; cymes loose, slender, or somewhat shortened and contracted, 2-6 cm. long, 
whitish- to brownish-pilose, borne 3-10 together terminally, perhaps representing 
a single ample cymose ]ianiclc of which the peduncle has been suppressed, each 
branched 2 or 3 times, each branchlet bearing 2 or 3 shortly pedicellate white 
flowers ; calyx and hypanthium pilose, the calyx shortly campanulate, about 1 mm. 
long, shallowly 5-lobed to subtruncate, not veiny; buds club-sha]ied. rounded at 
apex, the corolla funnel form. 8 (-11) mm. long, glabrous within, sparsely pilose 
externally, especially toward a])ex, 5-lobed. the lobes ovate, 2 mm. long ; anthers 
oblong, 1.5 mm. long, attached subbasally on free filaments of about the same 
length, inserted below sinuses, the anthers exserted almost their length; disk 
hemispherical, the style glabrous, filiform, 5 mm. long, bifid 1.5 mm. at apex, 
the lobes flattened ; fruit clavate, 7 mm. long, the pyrenes acute at base, truncate 
at apex, tricarinate dorsally, the keels somewhat irregular. 

ViTi Levu : R a : Tuvavatu. vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m.. May 30, 
1941. Degnicr 15374 (USNA, tvpe, A); Tholo North : Nandarivatu, Grccim'ood 848 
(USNA, A) ; Mt. Matomba. Nandala. vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., Dcgcncr 
14447 (A) ; Serua : Vatutavathc. vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 0-150 m.. Dcgcncr 15214 (A) 
(inflorescence condensed). 

This is close to P. St.-johnii Fosberg, but differs in its usually glabrous branch- 
lets, generally whitish or light brown pubescence, non-venulose calyces, longer, 
funnelform corollas which are sparsely pilose externally, and clavate rather than 
ovoid fruit. 
Psychotria tetragonoides Fosberfj. sp. nov. 

Arbor ])arva ; folia elli])tica infra ])ilosa ; stipulae f errugineo-tomentosae ; cyma 
terminalis sessilis, floribus albis, calyce truncato, corolla infundibuliformi valde 
lobata extra sparse pubescentc intus glabra, antheris exsertis : fructus turbinatus 
vix ]iedicellatus. 

Small tree, the branchlets rusty-tomentose when young, glabrate; leaves elli])tic. 
up to 17 cm. long and 5.5 cm. wide, chartaceous, the apex acuminate, the base 
cuneate to attenuate, the margin somewhat revolute, the u])per surface glabrous, 
the lower surface pilose, especially on midrib, the jK'tiole 2-3 cm. long; stijniles 
1-1.5 cm. long, densely rusty-tomentose, the pair surrounding the inflorescence 
forming a more or less globose terminal bud, the free a])ices not well develoi^ed ; 
inflorescence terminal, capitate, sessile (pedicels slightly developed in fruiting 
plant) ; flowers white; calyx very short, truncate; corolla funnelform to salver- 
form, 15 mm. long, thinly pubescent without, glabrous within, the tube 9-10 mm. 
long, the lobes 6 mm. long, ovate; anthers oblong, 1.5 mm. long, exserted on 
short filaments ; style filiform, glabrous, slightly enlarged upward, bifid at ajK'x 
into 2 flattened lobes 2 mm. long : disk hemispheric ; fruit red. turbinate. 8 mm. 
long, 5-6 mm. wide, quite fleshy, the pyrenes roughly triangular, 6 mm. long. 4 
mm. wide, truncate at a])ex, acute at base, with a constriction near apex, 3 blunt 
dorsal keels in apical part, and a sinus or groove ventrally at ajiex. 

ViTi Levu: Serua : Vatutavathe, vicinity of Ngaloa, alt. 150 m., May 5, 1941. 
Dcgcncr 15213 (USNA, tyte. A); Tholo North : Nandrau, vicinity of Nandarivatu. 
alt. 750-900 m.. Dcgcncr 14919 (USNA. A). 



136 SARGENT lA [1 

Very similar lu P. tctragona Seem. l)iit differing in the broader leaves which 
are pubescent beneath, the stipules without long curved apices, the jnibescent 
corollas, and the more turbinate fruits with smaller pyrenes with much shorter 
keels. Easily told from P. Icvucnsis Gillespie by the capitate inflorescence. 

Psychotria timonioides Fosherg, sp. nov. 

Ramuli ferrugineo-tomentosi ; folia coriacea, oblanceolata vel anguste obovata, 
supra aurea glabra, infra pallida sparse pilosa ; stipulae dense ferrugineo- 
tomentosae ; cymae laxae dense glandulari-pubescentes, primo quadrichotome 
deinde trichotome deinde dichotome ramosae, quoque nodo 1-floro ( flore terminali 
sessili), ramulis ultimis 3-floris floribus sessilibus ; hypanthiuiu basi articulatum; 
calyx disci formis integer. 

Branchlcts terete. 3-4 miu. thick, densely rustN-tomentose ; leaves oblanceolate 
to narrowly ol)ovate. up to 12 cm. long and 4.5 cm. wide, acute at apex, cuneate 
at base, coriaceous, above glabrous, lustrous, golden-yellow (when dry), beneath 
pale and sparsely pilose, the midrib densely so. the margins revolute, the petiole 
thick, 1.5-2 cm. long, densely rusty-tomentose ; stipules densely rusty-tomentose, 
well-developed ones not available; cymes loose, 3 at a node, becoming lateral, 
densely glandular-pubescent, 6 cm. long (peduncle about 4 cm.), branched quad- 
richotomously, then trichotomously, then dichotomously, at each node, in addition 
to the branches, with a sessile terminal flower, each ultimate branchlet liearing a 
cluster of 3 sessile flowers, the flowers with an articulation at base of hypanthium ; 
calyx pubescent without, glabrous within, thick-chartaceous, spreading to form 
a disk about 5 mm. across, the margin entire ; disk hemispheric ; corollas and 
mature fruit unavailable. 

Virr Lkvu : Scrua : Vatutavathe, vicinity of Nsaloa. in forest, alt. 150 m., May 5, 
1941, Dcgcncr ISlHOa (A, type, USNA). 

Two twigs of this remarkable species were found mixed with the tyj^e collec- 
tion of P. pittosporifolia Fosberg, which it resembles in the yellow upj^ier surface 
of the leaves. Vcgetatively P. tiiiionioides resembles /'. hiitliuniii Turrill. but 
the longer, looser, peculiarly branched inflorescence and disk-like calyx do not 
much resemble any species of Psychotria familiar to me. The su])erficial resem- 
blance of the inflorescence to that of Tiinoiiius suggests the specific name. 

Readea Gillespie 

The genus Rcadca has been considered to be monotypic since it was described 
by Gilles])ie in 1930. The original species, R. iiieuibranacca, has been collected 
a number of times and. although it is close to Psychotria, the ]>eculiar calyx, the 
disk gradually attenuate into the style rather than surrounding it. and the large 
subcylindric fruits seem to set it off sufficiently. Two other plants have been 
collected in fruit which seem to be more correctly placed here than in Psychotria. 
They are described below. Of course, when they are collected in flower, if the 
flowers do not show the peculiar structure of Rcadca, some other disposition 
will have to be made of them. 

Readea membranacea Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 74: 35. /. 49. 1930. 

Vanua Levu : Albua : Southern portion of Seatovo Range, alt. 100-360 m., Siuitli 
504 (US, GH, NY); Thakaundrovc : Vatunivuamondc Mt., Savu Savu Bay region, 
alt. 250 m., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 14005 (USNA, A). 

This species has previously been known from Taveuni and Viti T.e\u. 
Readea roseata Fosberg, sp. nov. 

Arbor parva glaber; folia late oblanceolata vel obovata obtusa chartacea ; stipu- 
lae ovatae caducae ; cvmae in f ructu axillares trichotomae ; f ructus cvlindricus vel 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 137 

fusifonnis roseus 12 mm. longus 3-4 mm. latus, pyrenis dorso vix costatis apice 
subtruncatis. 

Small tree 3 m. tall, glabrous ; leaves broadly oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, 
\.\\) to 9 cm. long and 3.5 cm. wide, obtuse to acutish at apex, gradually, then 
abruptly, contracted at base to a petiole about 1 cm. or less long, the secondary 
veins 11 or 12 on a side, widely spreading, not very prominent; stipules ovate, 
early caducous ; flowers not available ; fruiting cymes axillary, borne in threes in 
the axil of one leaf, 3-fruited, the peduncle 1-1.5 cm. long, the pedicels 0.5-1 
cm. long; fruits cylindric to fusiform, "deep pink," up to 12 mm. long, 3-4 mm. 
thick, appearing subtruncate at apex, Init with a somewhat raised disk, the calyx 
mostly lost, but several damaged persistent ones 7-8 mm. long, tubular, lobed ; 
pyrenes 8 mm. long, very shallowly ridged dorsally. subtruncate at apex. 

ViTi Levi-: Tholo North : Nauwanga, vicinity of Nandarivatu. alt. 750-900 m., 
Mar. 13, 1941, partly open rocky forest, Dcgcncr 14818 (USNA, type, A). 

This plant seems related to R. meinbranacca, although it is known only in fruit. 
The leaves are smaller, thicker, and more obtuse. The cymes are much shorter 
and only once-branched, while the fruit is also much smaller. Flowering speci- 
mens are very much desired to confirm the generic position. 

Readea prismoclavata I'osbcrj^, sp. nov. 

Planta glabra nodosa; folia obovata subcoriacea ; stipulae bifidae infra petiolem 
adnatae ; fructus terminalis solitarius ])rismoclavatus quadrangularis truncatus. 

Plants glabrous, the branchlets with prominent nodes ; leaves obovate, about 5 
cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide, rounded to subacuminate at apex, cuneate at base, 
subcoriaceous, with about 8 veins on a side, the petioles 6-10 mm. long; stipules 
fused with petioles at base, about 5 mm. long, bifid at apex into lanceolate lobes ; 
flowers unavailable ; fruit solitary, terminal, on a pedicel 10-12 mm. long, the 
body of fruit clavate-prismatic, 16-18 mm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, roughly 4-sided, 
truncate at apex, with a prominent calyx-scar surrounding a dejiressed disk, with 
a prominent style-base, attenuate at base. 

ViTi Levu: Name si : Vakarongasiu Mt., alt. 800 m., Gillespie 2272 (GH, type). 

This specimen, judging by the similarity of the fruit to that of R. meinbranacca, 
and of the leaves to those of R. roscata, should go into this genus, rather than 
into Psychotria, where Gilles])ie referred the specimen. 

C.\LYCosiA A. Gray 

Of the two original species in the genus Calycosia, A. C. Smith (in Bishop 
Mus. Bull. 141 : 153. 1936) has selected C. petiolata A. Gray of Fiji as the type. 
For several reasons the genus is not at all well understood. Considerable confu- 
sion has resulted from Gray's later inclusion in the genus of species of Psychotria 
which have an enlarged and flaring or reflexed calyx-limb. In this he was fol- 
lowed by Turrill and by Gillespie. The latter, however, aware of the discrepancy, 
placed the original elements of Calycosia in the genus Uragoga L. and used Caly- 
cosia for the discrepant ones. This confusion was cleared up by Smith (1. c), 
who restored Calycosia to its original sense and erected the genus Calycodcndron 
to accommodate most of the later accretions to Calycosia. 

Gillespie, basing his judgment on the extremely inadequate fragment of the 
U. S. Exploring Expedition material in the Gray Herbarium, interpreted C. petio- 
lata as the species described below as C. macrocyatha, or at least as including this 
species. Smith (1. c), with some doubt, followed this disposition, as did I in 
working up St. John's Fijian Rubiaceae in 1939. A careful comparison with 
the U. S. Exploring Expedition specimens in Washington and New York shows 



138 .SARGEX'J-JA [1 

that C. pciiohita is (juite a distinct tiling fi\)ni most of the material that has hecn 
referred to it. 

The i)rinci])al difficuhy with this genus hes in the inadequate or poorly pre- 
served material usually ohtained of it. The large water-soaked heads of flowers 
do not press particularly well, and are very likely to hcconie moldv. Extra heads 
seldoiu acconijiany collections, and one hesitates to damage a s])ecimen Ijy dis- 
secting the infloresence from it. Consequently, the mor])hology of the inflores- 
cence is not well understood, and it must he admitted that the jM'esent treatment 
does not ])articularly hel]) in this direction. Yet, the ])eculiar inflorescence with 
its involucrate hracts at each ramification seems to he the ])rinci])al feattire that 
keeps the species concerned out of Psychotria. The large funnel form and de- 
ciduf)us calyx, hy itself, would scarcely set the grouj:) off genericall}-. 

Judging from the material at present availahle to me, there are at least three 
Fijian s])ecies in Calycosia. Of these, one is complex and may he suhdivided 
into two varieties which may later he found to he species. 1 am not familiar 
enough with the Samoan and Tahitian sjiecies referred to this genus to decide 
whether they helong here or not. The following key will se]iarate, hy superficial 
characters not re(juiring dissection of the inflorescence, the three species and two 
varieties recognized in Fiji. 

Heads relatively numerous, cyniose-paniculate. tlie outer hracts 2 cm. or less U)iig, open on 

one side, not united into a cup-like or flask-like structure C. pctiolata. 

Heads few (1 or 3), the outer bracts usually 2.5 cm. long or longer. comi)letely united except 
at apex. 
Heads solitary. 1-1.6 cm. wide at anthesis (wider in fruit), the a])ical opening strongly 

contracted at anthesis C. lagciiifoniiis. 

Heads in threes, at least 2 cm. wide and with a wide oi)ening at anthesis . . .C. macrocyatha. 

Heads borne in a sessile involucre ( . iinirrnryatlui var. macrocyatha. 

Heads borne in a i)edunculatc involucre C. ni. var. kanda^'ucasis. 

A si)ecimen collected on Koro (Siiiifh 9/0, C^H. XY, US) is not ])laced, as 
the material at hand is inadequate. It has the hroad glahrous leaves of C. iiiacro- 
cxatlia hut has a cymose-paniculate fruiting inflorescence similar to that of C. 
pctiolata. My notes taken from the sheet of this numher at New York suggest 
that it should prohahly he associated with C. pctiolata. 

Calycosia petiolata A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 48. 1860. 

rra</(Hia pctiolata Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 74: ,37. 1930. 

Shrul) or small tree; leaves thick-chartaceous to suhcoriaceous, narrowly el- 
liptic to elliptic-ohlanceolate, up to 30 cm. long and 10 cm. wide, usually sharply 
acuminate at a])ex, attenuate to a jx^tiole at hase, sparsely pilose beneath, at least 
near midrih ; stipules united near hase, hifid at ixp^x, the margins fimhriate-ciliate ; 
heads several to many, in a small hemispherical cymose panicle, each head al)out 
15 mm. high and hroad, the l)racts at ramifications of ])anicle and those closely 
investing heads whitish, open on one side, densely fimhriate-ciliate; calyx just 
under 1 cm. long, cut at a])ex into oblong lobes about 3 mm. long, fimhriate-ciliate ; 
corolla about twice as long as calyx, the lobes hirtellous toward apex, the throat 
densely woolly; bracts deciduous from the somewhat enlarged fruiting inflores- 
cence ; fruits oblong, abotit 7 mm. long, truncate at apex, crowned by subper- 
sistent calyx, acutish at base, the ])yrenes not keeled, but at most slightly ridged 
dorsally. 

ViTi Lkvt : R a : Tuvavatu. vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 m., Dcgencr 
15379 (USNA. A) ; same general locality, Dcgencr l.''.^22 (USNA, A) ; Tholo North : 
Nandarivatu, alt. 8()0-9()0 m.. Dci/ciicr & Ordonez 7.?677 (USNA, A) ; same general locality, 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II i 139 

near summit of Lonui Langa Mt., Gillespie 4288 (US). Ovalau: U. S. Expl. Expcd. 
(NY). Without ukfixitk locality: U . S. Expl. Expcd. (US. tvpf.). 

Calycosia lageniformis (Gillespie) A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mas. I5ull. 141: 154. 1936. 

I'rayoija taf/cuifoniiis CJillespie in Bisliop Mus. Bull. 74: 36. /. 50. 1930. 

To Gillespie'.s description may be added that, prior to anthesis at lea.st, the 
involucre has, at apex, two l)ifid lol)es about 1 cm. long. The involucre is really 
sessile but the two subtending leaves soon drop off. When in fruit the involucre 
becomes much broader and open at the apex. The fruit is about 14 mm. long, 
red, and quite fleshy, with the pyrenes just over 1 cm. long, slightly ridged on the 
back, acute at base and subtruncate or slightly dentate at apex. The calyx per- 
sists for some time, but is absent at maturity. 

ViTi Levu : Tholo N o r t Ii : Nandarivatu, Dcgcncr 14540 (USNA, A), Dcqcncr & 
Ordoucc 13607 (i:SN A, A). 

I have not seen Gilles])ie"s material of this species, but Degener's specimens are 
from the type locality. 

Calycosia macrocyatha Fosherj^, sp. nov. 

Frutex glaber ; folia elliptica vel elliptico-lanceolata, subcoriacea, petiolata ; 
stipulae ovato-lanceolatae, 3-4 cm. longae, infra connatae, suj^ra bifidae, caducae ; 
inflorescentia trica])itata involucrata, involucro cyathiformi lobato quam floribus 
longiore ; calyx tubularis, dentatus ; corolla infunclibuliformis glabra valde exserta. 

Slender shrub, up to 4 m. tall, glabrous, with fistulose branchlets, the internodes 
short (1-2 cm.), at least above; leaves ample, petiolate, the blade elliptic to ob- 
lanceolate, slightly acuminate at a\yex, attenuate to cuneate at base, subcoriaceous, 
the secondary veins numerous, prominent ; stii)ules caducous, coriaceous, ovate- 
lanceolate, 3-4 cm. long, the basal 1 cm. connate, the apex deeply bifid ; inflores- 
cence of 3 ])edunculate heads within a large funnel-sha])ed or cyathiform lobed 
involucral bract, this either sessile or ])edunculate, axillary (or to begin with, 
terminal), split on one side to base, up to 6.5 cm. long, "white," the peduncles of 
individual heads uj:) to 5 cm. long, the heads up to 3 cm. wide and 4 cm. long, 
tending to be truncate at base, surrounded by a cup-shaped white involucral bract, 
this usually exceeding the bracts and calyces within and open and flaring at to]), 
coriaceous when dry; within this are smaller bracts crowded together, apparently 
at the nodes or ramifications of the condensed vestigial cyme, each bract sur- 
rtninding a cluster of flowers, each flower surrounded by a smaller bract, the mar- 
gins of these inner bracts densely fimbriate-ciliate ; calyx about 15 mm. long, 
gradually dilated u])ward, with 5 unequal triangular teeth, these densely fimbriate- 
ciliate ; corolla glabrous, about 4 cm. long, curved (at least when dr\). funnelform 
with slender tube gradually dilated upward, the lobes 5, oblong-ovate, about 8 mm. 
long and 3 mm. wide, somewhat spreading, acute, slightly cucullate at apex ; 
anthers linear, the apices slightly cxserted from throat of corolla; style filiform, 
somewhat shorter than corolla, deeply bifid at apex ; fruit unavailable. 

Found, so far. on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, and Kandavu. 

Two varieties are a])parent in the material available. The portion of the de- 
scription above concerning the flowers was drawn from var. kaiidavuensis. 

Calycosia macrocyatha var. macrocyatha Fosberg, var. nov. 

Involucrum sessile, in fundibuli forme, valde lobatum, caducum. 

The typical form of the species, with sessile, funnelform involucral bract 6 cm. 
long, cut halfway into 5 unequal obtuse lobes, early caducous. 

Viti Levu : Tholo North: Nandrau, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. 750-900 m., 
D eg ener 14914 (USNA, A). Vanua Levu: Thakaundrove : Mt. Mariko, in dense 
forest, alt. 600-866 m., Nov. 14, 1933. Smith 472 (US, type, NY). 



140 SARGENTIA [1 

Calycosia macrocyatha var. kandavuensis b\^slicrg. var. nov. 

Tiivolucruni ]iedunculatiim cam])anulatiiin persistcnte. 

Involucral bract caiiij)anulate, up to 4 cm. lont;', persistent l)Ut l)CComin^ l)adly 
frayed, on a thick peduncle u]) to 6 cm. lonj^. 

Kanpavu: Ml. Mbukc Levu. dense forest, alt. 750-840 m., Oct. 25, 1933, Sinifh 273 
(GH, NY, TYPE, US). 

CoPROSMA J. R. (S; G. Forst. 
Coprosma persicaefolia A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. 4: 50. 1860. 

V'lTi Lkvi- : Ra : Vicinity of Revvasa, near Vaileka, alt. 50-200 ni., Dcqcncr 15353 
(USNA, A); Tholo North : Nandarivatu, alt. 800-900 m., Dcficucr 13533 (USNA, 
A). WiTiioiT iiKKiNJTK i.oiALiTY : [/. S. Expl. Expcd. (US, isotvpe). 

The s]}ecinieus cited above show certain characters not brought out by Ohver 
in his monograi^h (Bisho]:) Mus. Bull. 132: 138. 1935). The leaves of all three 
collections are considerably smaller than indicated by Oliver, so that they would 
key to C. 1107'achebridac rather than to C . persicaefolia. No. 7555.-' has the leaves 
narrowed gradually at base, rather than a])ruptly, which, in the key, would take 
it to C. strigulosa of Samoa. All of the collections have a jicculiar ty])e of 
domatia on the under surface of the leaves. These are superficial, not embedded 
in the blade, and seem tt) be lunate or hook-like outgrowths from the midrib, 
open toward the apex of the leaf. The vein appears to emerge from the outer 
curve of this structure, but an examination of the upper leaf-surface shows that 
the vein is really normally branched from the midrib. The leaf-margins are 
slightly cris])ed when dry. I should scarcely describe the ]:)etioles as "rather long 
and slender," since the\- are only 3-5 mm. long in these specimens. The stipules 
are definiteh' glandular-denticulate as well as conspicuously ciliate. The fruits 
of the U. S. Ex]:)loring Exjjedition specimen are somewhat ovoid, as described 
by Oliver, l)ut those of no. 15353 are very small and globose. They are appar- 
ently abortive. Those of no. 15533 are well develoj^ed, 4-5 mm. k^ig, and nar- 
rowly ellipsoid rather than ovoid. Two out of the three sectioned were 3-celled, 
rather than 2-celled with the third cell sterile. The pubescence, in general, is 
strigose, except on the margins. 

No. 15353 is said to have the native name tiiito and to lie used externally for 
aches. 

CUCURBITACEAK 

Coccinea cordifolia (L.) Co^n. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 3: 529. 1881. 

Vni Levu: Lautoka : Lautoka, Grccnivood 825A (GH) (creeper, in open sunny 
places; corolla pure white). 

Apparently not previously reported from the Pacific, this Asiatic plant is prob- 
ably a recent introduction to Fiji. 

LOBELIACEAE 

Lobelia zeylanica L. Sp. PI. 932. 1753; Merr. & Perry in Jour, .\rnold Arb, 22: 386. 
1941. 
ViTi I.Evu: Tholo North : Loma Langa Trail, vicinity of Nandarivatu, alt. about 
850 m., Dccjcncr & Ordoiica 13683 (GH) (along trail in rain-forest) ; Nandarivatu, alt. 
about 830 m., (irccmi:<ood 811 (GH) (in damp grassland in open, but most common on wet 
shady paths in forest). Vanua Levit : Thakaundrove : Valanga, Savu Savu Bay 
region, alt. 30 ni., Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13911 (GH) (in springy clearing). 

The cited collections are of especial interest as representing the first record of 
the species, as far as I can ascertain, from east of New Guinea, and the first occur- 
rence of the family in Fiji. 



1942] SMITH, FIJIAN PLANT STUDIES, II 141 

COMPOSITAE 

Mikania micrantha II. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 4: 134. 1820; Chri.stoph. in Bishop Mus 
Bull. 128: 209. 1935. 

ViTi Levu: Serua : Ngaloa, near sea-level, Dcgcncr 15084 (GH) (in wet meadow; 
native name: mhosuthu) . Ovai..\u : Near Levuka, alt. 150 m., Bryan 605 (GH). Kan- 
DAVU: Xamalata Istlimus region, near sea-level, Smith 13 (GH, NY) (in clearings and 
thickets; native name: zva mbidako) . Vanua Levu: Mbua: Lower Wainunu River 
valley, alt. 0-200 m.. Smith 1733 (NY) (pernicious weed, in clearings; native name: zva 
vibosuvu) ; Thakaundrove : Southern slope of Valanga Range, alt. 200-400 m Smith 
391 (NY) (at edge of forest). 

The fact that this vigorous and ahundant weed ha.s not previously been re- 
ported from Fiji in taxonomic Hteratnre indicates that it is probably of recent 
introduction. 

Spilanthes acmella (L.) Alurr. Syst. 610. 1774. 

Vanua Levu : Thakaundrove: Valanga, Savu Savu Bay region, near sea-level, 
Dc(icncr & Ordonez 13827 (GH) (in swampy pasture). 

I believe that this widespread weed has not previously been recorded from 
Fiji; the nearest record I can locate is from New Caledonia. 

Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gacrtn. Fruct. 2: 456. pi. 171, fig. 7. 1791; Setch. in Carn. Inst. 
Puhl. 341: 41. 1924; Christoph. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 210. 1935. 

ViTi Levu: Rewa : Suva, near sea-level, Dcgcncr & Ordonez 13518 (GH) (common 
roadside weed). 

Although reported as common in many other Pacific groups, this weed has 
apparently not previously been reported from Fiji. 

Youngia japonica (L.) DC. Prodr. 7: 194. 1838. 

ViTi Levu: Tholo North : Nandarivatu, alt. about 830 m., Grecnzvood 801 (GH) 
(in damp places; flower-heads yellow). 

This species, apparently becoming naturalized, has not previously been recorded 
from Fiji or any of the adjacent groups. I follow the recent treatment of Bab- 
cock and Stebbins (in Carn. Inst. Publ. 484: 94. 1937) in referring the species 
to Youngia rather than to Crcpis. 



INDEX 



Xcw names arc printed in bold-face type. 



Abramsia tricliotoiiia. 125 
Acanthaceae, 117 
Acanthophippium vitiense, 9 
Adenosma triflora. 116 
Agatea violaris, 57 
f. mollis, 58 
f. typica, 57, 58 
Aglaia Archboldiana, 44 
axillaris, 43 
basiphj'lla, 44 
fragilis, 45 
Greenwoodii. 44, 45 
obliqua, 42 
vitiensis, 42-45 
Alpinia Parksii, 7 

purpurata, 7 
Alternanthera sessilis. 31 
Alj'xia linearifolia, 107 

stellata, 108 
Amaranthaceae, 30 
Ammocallis rosea, 107 
Amphilophis glabra, 5 
Ananas comosus, 6 

sativus, 6 
Andropogon aiinulatus, 5 

glaber, 5 
Andruris vitiensis, 5 
Annona glabra. 34 

squamosa, 34 
Annonaceae, 31 
Apocynaceae, 107 
Aristida aspera, 6 
Arthropteris Archboldiae, 3 
neocaledonica, 4 
tenella. 3, 4 
Arundo donax, 6 
Asclepiadaceae, 108 
Asclepias volubilis, 111 
Astronia, 87 
aneitycnsis, 88 
banksiana, 88 
confertifiora, 88, 89 
consertiflora, 89 
floribunda, 90 
fraterna, 88 
inflata. 92 
macrantha, 93 
parviflora, 90 
Pickeringii, 91, 92 
var. samoensis, 92 
var. vitiensis, 91. 92 
robusta, 92 
sessilis, 93 



AstrtMiia Storckii, 94 
tomentosa, 94 
victoriae, 91 
Astronidivmi, 87 
aneityense, 88 
banksianum, 88 
confertifloruni, 89 
Degeneri, 93 
floribundum, 90 
inflatum, 92 
kasiense, 95 
macranthum, 93, 94 
parviflorum, 88. 90 
Pickeringii, 88, 92 

var. samoense, 92 
robustum, 92-94 
sessile, 93 
Storckii, 94, 95 
tomentosum, 94 
victoriae, 88. 90, 91. 94 
Balanophora fungosa, 30 

pallens, 30 
Balanophoraceae, 30 
Balanopsidaceae. 11 
Bixa Orellana, 57 
Bixaceae, 57 
Boehmeria, 26 
platyphylla, 26 

var. virgata, 26 
virgata, 26 
Breynia, 48 
disticha, 48 

var. genuina, 48 
var. neocaledonica, 48 
var. typica, f. nivosa, 48 
longifolia, 48 
nivosa, 48 

var. roseo-picta, 48 
oblongifolia, 48 
Bromeliaceae, 6 
Bryophyllum pinnatuni, 35 
Calophanes repandus, 117 
Calycodendron, 125 
fragrans, 126 
glabrum, 12f) 
magnificum, 126 
pubiflorum, 12() 
rufescens, 127 
Calycosia, 137 
fragrans, 126 
glabra, 126 
lageniformis, 139 
macrocyatha, 137-139 



143 



144 



SARGENT I A 



Calvcosia macrocyatha var. kandavuensis, 
139, 140 
var. macrocyatha, 139 

magnifica, 126 

monticola, 125, 127 

petiolata, 137, 138 

pubiflora, 126 
Canthiopsis odorata, 120 
Casearia angustifolia, 63 

disticha, 62, 64 

longifolia, 64 

Melistaurum, 62, 63 
var. minor, 62, 6i 

Richii. 63 

Seemanni, 62 
Cassia obtusifolia, 39 

Tora. 39 
Catliaranthus roseus, 107 
Cayratia acuminata, 57 

grandifolia, 57 

japonica, 57 

saponacea, 56, 57 

saponaria, 56, 57 

Seemanniana, 55 

trifolia, 57 
Chaetacanthus repandiis, 117 
Chrysobalanus Icaco, 36 
Ciiinamomuiii Degeneri, 34 

sulphuratum, 34 
Cissus acuminata, 57 

saponaria, 56 
Citronella samoensis, 54 

vitiensis, 53 
Claoxylon afiine, 51 

Archboldianum, 50, 51 

cchinospernuun, 51 

crythrophyllum, 51 

fallax, 50 

parvicoccum, 49 

samoense, 51 

sitibundum, 51 

taitense, 51 

vitiensc, 50 
Cleidion Degeneri, 51 

verticillatum, 52 

Vieillardii, 52 

var. mareense, 52 
var. vitiense, 52 
Clerodendron fallax, 115 

flagrans, var. pleniflora, 115 

fragrans, var. pleniflora, 115 

speciosissimum, 115 
Clerodendrinn fragrans, var. pleniflorum, 
115 

speciosissimum, 115 
Clidemia, 86 

hirta, 87 
Coccinea cordifolia, 140 
Cotnbretaceae, 74 
Compositae, 141 
Comptonia peregrina, 18 



Convolvulaceae, 113 
Coprosma novaehebridae. 140 

persicaefolia, 140 

strigulosa, 140 
Couthovia, 99 

alata, 101. 104 

calophylla, 101 

coUina, 100, 101 

corvnocarpa, 99-102, 104-106 

macrocarpa, 100. 101, 105, 107 

macroloba, 101, 104 

neo-ebudica, 101 

novocaledonica, 101 

pachyantha, 101, 106 

Seemanni, 99, 100, 102-104 

Seemannii, 102 

Toua, 101 
Crassulaceae, 35 
Crotalaria mucronata, 39 

Saltiana, 39 

striata, 39 
Cryptocarya constricta, 35 

Degeneri, 34 

exfoliata, 35 

trinervia, 35 
Cucurbitaceae, 140 
Cuphea balsamona, 7?> 

carthagenensis. 7?) 
Cyathocalyx vitiensis. ii 
Cymburus urticaefolius, 114 
Cynometra falcata, 38, 39 

grandiflora, 36 

insularis, 38 
Cyrtandra Aloisiana, 116 

anthropopbagorum, 117 

Chippendalei, 116 

tomentosa, 116 
Cyrtococcum oxypbyllum, 5 
Dais disperma, 67, 68 
Deeringia amaranthoidcs, 30 
Desmos insularis, 31 
Dichanthium annulatum, 5 
Dolicholobium, 118 

latifolium, 118 

longissimum, 118, 119 

Macgregori, 118 

oblongifolium, 118, 119 
var. Degeneri, 119 
var. longissimum, 119 
var. oblongifolium, 119 
Dorisia flavida, 120 
Dracontomelon pilosum, 40, 41 
Drvniispermum acuminatum, 71 

Billardieri, 68, 69 

Burnettianum, 68 

Forsteri, 68 

lanceolatum, 7?> 

montanum, 70 

pubiflorum, 69 

subcordatum, 71, 72 
Dry petes vitiensis, 49 



1942] 



INDEX 



145 



Durandea, 40 

vitiensis, 40 
Dyschoriste repanda, 117 
Dysoxyluni leiiticellare, 42, 43 

myriandrum, 41 

t)bli(|uum, 42 

pilosum, 40 

Richii, 41 
FLIatostema, 13 

anfractum, 25 

Archboldianum, 17 

australe, 13-17 

comptonioides, 1 7 

cupreo-viride, 20 

eximium, 21, 22 

filicoides, 23 

var. eufilicoides, 17, 23 
var. vitiense, 16 

fruticosum, 19, 20 

Gillespiei, 20 

humile, 22 

insulare, 19 

macrophylluni. 14, 20, 21 

nemorosum, 18 

palustre, 13, 14, 20 

pedunculatum, 24 

peltatum, 23 

Seemannianuni, 14, 21 

sessile. 13, 14, 19, 22 

tenellum, 13, 22 

vitiense, 16, 17 
Kmbelia gracilis, 96 
Kiidiaiidra nionticola, 35 
Erantliemuni insularum, 118 

laxiflorum, 118 
Erythrina indica, 39 

variegata, var. orientalis, 39 
Eugenia Brackenridgei, 75 

coalita, 75 

curvistyla, 75 

diffusa. 76 

durifolia, 76 

gracilipes, 78 

Grayi, 76 

malaccensis, 78 

nandarivatensis, 77 

neurocalyx, 75 

quadrangulata, 77 

Richii, 77, 78 

rivularis, 76 

Suzukii, 77 

vitiensis. 78 

Wolfii, 75 
Eumorphanthus, 125 

fragrans, 125, 127 
Euphorbiaceae, 46 
l^^xocarpus latifolius, 30 

vitiensis, 29 
Fissistignia sericeuin, 32 
Flacourtia Degeneri, 62 

ovata, 61. 62 



Flacourtia subintegra, 61. 62 
Flacourtiaceae, 58 
Freycinetia Degeneri, 4 

Hombronii, 4 

intermedia, 4 

Miinei, 5 

Pritchardii, 5 
Gaertnera barbata. 102 

pyramidalis, 105 
Geniostoma calcicola, 99 

crassifolium, 99 

rupestre, 98. 99 
var. ellipticum, 99 
var. puberuUini, 97 

stenocarpum, 98 

vitiense, 97-99 
Gesneriaceae. 116 
Glochidion amentuligerum, 46, 47 

anfractuosuni, 46, 47 

calciphilum, 46 

concolor, 47, 48 

Daltonii, 46 

emarginatuni, 47. 48 

Gillespiei, 46 

Manono, 46-48 

marquesanum, 48 

ramifloruni, 47, 48 

var. marquesanum, 48 

tannaense. 47 
Gonystylus punctatus, 65 
Gramineae, 5 
Graptophyllum insularum, 118 

siphonostena. 118 
Guettarda Kajewskii, 122 
Guioa chrysea, 54 i 

subfalcata, 55 ' 

Habenaria physoplectra. 9 

scrotiformis, 7 
Harpullia arborea. 55 

mellea, 55 
Heliconia Bihai. 7 
Hippocrateaceae, 53 
Homalium, 58 

aneityense, 60 

Gillespiei, 59 

laurifolium, 59 

nitens, 58-60 

pallidum, 60 

vitiense, 58, 59 
Hoy a, 108 

australis, 109, 110, 112, 113 

Barracki, 112, 113 

bicarinata, 110. Ill 

Billardieri, 110 

diptera. 112. 113 

intermedia, 111, 112 

megalantha, 109 

pilosa, 111 

vitiensis, 110, 112 
Hydrocotyle javanica, 96 
Icacinaceae, 53 



146 



SARGEXTIA 



IiuliKofera Anil, 39 

suffruticosa, 39 

tinctoria, 39 
Ixora amplexicaulis, 124 

coronata, 124 

pelagica. 124 

Sect. Pylleilenia, 124 

Sect. Vitixora, 124 

somosoinacnsis, 124 

Storckii. 124 
Jambosa Brackenridj^ci. 75 

gracilipes, 7H 

ciuadrangiikita. 77 

Richii, 77 
Jasiiiiiumi Degeneri, 97 

clidyinuiii, 97 

Smithianum, 96. 97 
Jussiaea erecta, 95 

siiiTrnticosa, 96 
Koelreuteria forinosaiia, 55 
Labiatae, 115 
Laiignas Parksii, 7 
Lantana aculeata, 114 

Caiiiara, var. aculeata. 114 

Moritziaiia, 114 
Lauraceae, 34 
Lawsonia inennis, 74 
Leguminosae, 36 
Leucosniia acuminata. 68, 71 

Burncttiana, 68 

glabra, 70 

lanceolata, 7^ 

niontanuni, 70 

ovata, 68, 69 

pubiflora, 69 

subcordata, 71 
Limiiophila Koxburghii, 116 

rugiisa, 116 
Linaceae, 40 
Liparis orbiculata, 9 
Lobelia zeylanica, 140 
Lobeliaceae, 140 
Locbnera, 107 

rosea, 107 
Lochneria, 107 
Loganiaceac, 97 
Lomagramnia polyphylla, 23 
Lytbraceae, 73 
Maniltoa grandiflora. 36-38 

minor, 37 

ScbefFeri, 36 
Medinilla. 79 

amocna. 79, 84, 85 

Archboldiana. 82, 83 

hctorophylla. 79, 81, 83 

Kambikambi, 82, 85 

kandavuensis, 83 

longicyniosa. 80. 81 

parviHora, 85 

parvifolia. 79, 85, 86 

rhodocblacna, 79, 84 



Medinilla saiuoensi.s, 79 

Waterhousei, 80 
Medusanthera vitiensis, 54 
Melanthes, 48 
Melanthesa, 48 
Melastoniataceae, 79 
Meliaceae, 40 

Melistauruni disticlnnn, 63 
Merreniia nyniphaeifc^lia, 113 
Microstegiuni glabratum, 5 
Mikauia inicrantha, 141 
Moraceae. 13 
Morinda, 122 

bucidaofolia, 123 

citrifolia, 122 

Forsteri, 123 

Grayi. 122 

lucida, 122 

mollis, 123, 124 

myrtifolia, 123 

nandarivatensis, 123 

umbellata, 122-124 

var. Archboldiana, 123 
var. bucidaefolia, 123 
var. Forsteri, 123 
var. glandulosa. 123 
Musaceae, 7 
Myrsinaceae, 96 
Myrtaceae, 74 
Nauclea Forsteri, 119 
Neonauclca Forsteri, 119 

vitiensis, 119, 120 
Odontochilus Degeneri, 9 

klabatensis, 9 

longiflorus, 9 
Oleaceae, 96 
Onagraceac, 95 
Operculina Turpethum, 113 
Oplismenus undulatifolius, 6 
Orchidaceae, 7 
Oxalidaceae, 40 
Oxalis corymbosa, 40 

Martiana. 40 
Oxymitra monospernia, 33 
Pandanaceae, 4 
Pandanus tectorius, 6 
Panicum oxyphylluni, 5, 6 

reptans, 6 

trigonum, 6 
Pareugenia, 74 

Brackenridgci. 75 

Imthurnii, 75 

oblongifolia, 75 

oligadelpha, 75 
Passiflora foetida, 65 
var. hispida, 65 

maliformis, 65 

suberosa, 65 
Passifloraceae, 65 
Pelagodendron, 120 

vitiense, 120 



19421 



INDEX 



147 



Pellionia australis, 15 

elatostenioides, 14, 15 
var. pubescens, 15 

filicoides, 23 

Goepeliana, 26 

vitiensis, 16 
Peniphis acidula, 73 
Phaleria. 67 

acuminata, 71, 73 

angustifolia, 71 

Burnettiana, 68 

disperma, 67 

glabra, 70, 71, 73 

ixorioides, 70 

laiiceolata, 73 

ni on tana, 70 

pubiflora, 69 

pulchra. 69, 70 

subcordata, 71, 72 
Phyllanthus amentulif^er, 46 

concolor, 47 

distichus, 48 

Niruri, 46 

nivosus, 48 

raniiflorus, var. genuinus, 47 

roseo-pictus, 48 

urinaria, 46 
Piper corylistachyon, 11 

Degeneri, 10 

insectifuf^uni, II 

latitoliuni, 10 

polystachyuni, 10 

Timothianum, 10 
Piperaceae, 10 
Pipturus, 27 

argenteus, 27-29 
var. lanosus, 27, 28 

gracilipes, 28, 29 

incanus, 27 

platyphyllus, 28, 29 

propinquus, 27 

velutinus, 27 

vitiensis, 29 
Pogostemon Cal)liii, 115 
Pollinia glal)rata, 5 
Polyalthia i)ediccllata. 32 
Poiygala paniculata, 45 
Polygalaceae, 45 
Polypodiaceae, 3 

Preinna tahitensis, var. marchionica, 114 
var. rimatarensis, 114 

taitensis, var. marcbionica, 114 
var. rimatarensis. 114 
Procris, 24 

anfracta, 25 

Archboldiana, 25, 26 • 

Goepeliana, 25, 26 

montana, 26 

pedunculata, 24 

var. eupedunculata, 24, 25 
var. ornata, 25 



I'rocris Wightiana, 24, 25 
Pseudcrantbemum laxiflorum, 118 
Pseudomorus Brunoniana, 13 
Psycb(->tria, 125 

Archboldiana, 131 

aurantiocarpa, 126. 130 

brevicalyx, 132 

Caldwellii. 126 

calycosa, 125, 127 

carnea, 125, 132 

cbrysophylla, 134 

confertiloba, 125 

cordata, 126, 130 
var. podantha, 130 

crassiflora, 132 

Degeneri, 129. 134 

edentata, 126, 134 

Eumorphanthus, 127 

filipes, 126, 128, 129 

fragrans, 126, 127 

furcans, 126, 133 

Gibbsiae, 127 

var. velutina, 127 

Gillespieana, 132 

glabra, 126 

griseifolia, 126. 129, 130 
var. unicarinata, 129 

Imthurnii, 136 I 

levuensis, 136 

macrocalyx, 125 

macroserpens, 131 

magnifica, 126 

minor, 131 

monocarpa, 126. 130 

monticola, 127 

neurocalyx, 125. 126 

pacbyantba, 126, 134 

pacifica, 132 

parvula, 131 

Pickeringii, 126, 128, 130 
var. solanoides, 128, 130 

pittosporifolia, 134, 136 

platycocca. 126. 128 

pubiflora, 126 

rufescens, 127 !' 

rufocalyx, 127 

serpens, 131 .; 

var. parvula, 131 

solanoides, 128 I 

St.-johnii, 125, 129. 135 .' 1 

taviunensis, 126, 128 

tepbrosantha, 131 

tetragona, 136 

tetragonoides, 135 

timonioides, 136 

turbinata, 132, 133 

vitiensis, 125, 127 
Pueraria Tbunbergiana, 39 
Quamoclit coccinea, var. hederifolia, 114 

pennata, 114 

pinnata, 114 



148 



SARGENTIA 



Randia, 120 

inlorata, 120 

vitiensis, 120 
Readea. 136 

nienil)raiiacea, 13(), 137 

prismoclavata, 137 

roseata, 136, 137 
Richella nionospernia. ?)3 
Rosaceae, 36 
Riibiaceae, 118 
Salacia aneityensis, S?) 

pachycarpa, 53 

prinoidcs, 53 

vitiensis, 53 
Santalaceae, 29 
Sapiiidaccae, 54 
Sarcocephalus pacificus, 120 
Sarcopy^mc, 120 
Schrankia distachya, 36 
Sciaphila vitiensis, 5 
Scrophulariaceae. 116 
Setaria geniculata, 6 
Spilanthes acmella, 141 
Stachytarplieta indica. 114 

jamaicensis, 114 

nnitabilis, 114 

urticaefolia, 114 

urticifolia, 114 
Synedrella nodiflora, 141 
Syzygium, 74 

aneityense, 76 

Beccarii, 77 

Brackenridgei, 75 

corynocarpum, 76 

curvistylum, 75 

diffusum, 76 

durifolium, 76 

fastigiatuni, 74 

Gillespiei, 78 

gracilipes, 78 

Grayi, 76 

Imthurnii, 75 

Jambos, 78 

malaccense, 78 

nidie, 77 

nonioa. 75 

oblongifolium, 75 

oligadelphum, 75 

quadrangulatum, 77 

Richii, 77, 78 

rivulare, 76 

Scbumannianum, 75 



Syzygium Seemannianum, 76 

simillimum, 76 

spectal)ile, 75 

vitiense, 78 

Wolfii, 75 
I cctaria Degeneri, 3 

elegans, 3 

Godeffroyi, 3 

latifolia, 3 
Terniinalia Ricliii, 74 

vitiensis, 74 
Thunbergia grandiflora, 117 
Thjmeliaceae, 65 
Timonius affinis, 121 

var. sapotaefolius, 121 

sapotaefolius. 121 

Smithii, 121 
'Prigonostemon voratus, 52 
'I'rilociilaria pedicellata, 12 

vitiensis, 1 1 
Triuridaceae, 5 
Turnera ulmifolia, 64 
Turneraceae, 64 
Umbelliferae, 96 
Uragoga, 137 

lageniformis, 139 

petiolata, 138 
Urochloa reptans, 6 
Urtica virgata, 26 
Urticaceae, 13 
Uvaria Baillonii, 32 
Verbenaceae, 1 14 
Vinca rosea, 107 
Violaceae, 57 
Vitaceae, 55 
Vitex beteropbylla, 115 

Negundo, 115 
var. bicolor, 115 

c|uinata, 115 

trifolia, 115 

var. bicolor, 115 
var. simplicifolia, 115 
Vitis acvnninata, 57 

saponaria, 55, 56 
Xylopia Degeneri, 32 

sericea, 32 

vitiensis, 32, 33 
Xylostna Archboldianum, 61 

Guillauminii, 61 

orbiculatum, 61 
Youngia japonica, 141 
Zingiberaceae, 7 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 
OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

No. 1. The Hypodermataceae of Conifers. By Grant Dooks Darker. 
131 pp. 27 pi. June 15, 1932. Price $3.00 

No. 2. Taxonomy and Geographical Distribution of the Genus Milesia. By 
Joseph Horace Faull. 138 pp. 2 figs., 9 pi. Oct. 1, 1932. Price $3.00 

No. 3. Studies in the Boraginaceae, IX. By Ivan M. Johnston. 102 pp. 
Dec. 15, 1932. Price $2.00 

No. 4. Ligneous Plants Collected in North Queensland for the Arnold 
Arboretum by S.F.Kajewski in 1929. By C.T.White. 113 pp. 9 pi. April 1, 
1933. Price $2.75 

No. 5. Flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. By Paul C. Standley. 
178 pp. 21 pi. and map. Oct. 1, 1933. Price $3.50 

No. 6. Phytogeographic Studies in the Peace and Upper Liard River Regions, 
Canada. With a Catalogue of the Vascular Plants. By Hugh M. Rauf. 
230 pp. 9 pi. and map. Feb. 15, 1934. Price $2.50 

No. 7. The Beech Bark Disease ; a Nectria Disease of Fagus following Crypto- 
coccus Fagi (Baer.). By John Ehrlich. 104 pp. 9 pi. Sept. 29, 1934. 

Price $2.00 

No. 8. An Enumeration of Plants Collected in Sumatra by W. N. and C. M. 
Bangham. By E. D. Merrill. 178 pp. 14 pi. Aug. 25, 1934. Price %2.SQ 

No. 9. The Species of Tradescantia Indigenous to the United States. By 
Edgar Anderson and Robert E. Woodson. 132 pp. 12 pi. Aug. 30, 1935. 

Price $2.25 

No. 10. The Cephalosporium Disease of Elms. By Don Baker Creager. 
91 pp. 16 pi. July 1937. Price $2.00 

No. 11. Taxonomy and Geographical Distribution of the Genus Uredinopsis. 
By Joseph Horace Faull. 120 pp. 6 pi. Sept. 30, 1938. Price $2.00 



List of other publications issued by the Arnold Arboretum 
will be sent on request.