Skip to main content

Full text of "Journal of the Arnold Arboretum."

See other formats





:. SMITH, Editor 












Reprinted with the permission of the 

Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 


New York 


DEC 121968 

I 144. 4 pi.) issued January 15, 1<M7. 
145 260, .^ pi.) issued April 15, 1<M7. 
201 574. 1 pi.) issued July 15. 1<>47. 
575 46S) issued October 15. 1047. 

Printed in U.S.A. 


• Clarence E. Kohuski. 

> of Cuba. With two plates. By Richard A. Howard 117 
onomy of Tin; Ckm s Bra.mhsi \. Bv Hui-Lin Li. . 127 

'he Cytogenetics of Generic Hybrids ok Sorhi s. With one plate. Bv 
Halh J. Sax and Karl Sax 

Fijian Acmopyi.k. With one plate. Bv John 1 . Hiuhlwh 

and Netta E. 

Monograph of the Genus Streblosa Kortiiai.s (Rcbiac 
two text ti-ures. Bv C. E. H. Bnmekamp 

eae). With 

M<)nik;kapu of the Genus I'oma/ota Ridley (Rubiaceae). 


5ARUM. By 

he Cyperaceae Collected in New Guinea by L. J. Bras 
two plates ami one text-figure. By S. T. Blake 

;s, II. With 

ew and Noteworthy Chinese Fauaceae. By Woon-Vomi^ ( 

By Woon \'oiuix I hun and 

' Alfred Rehder 

•;a and a Proposed 


UAi'K.-u:. By Wixni )'onuv Clan: ami lls'unn: H<'< 

By Ivan M. Johnsto, 

B,U \Mk\." By II ////,;;„ /. \/,w/,; 

.S7r/>//r,/ .V. 117/i/r . 
Kloha. By llui Lin 





Clarence E. Kobuski 

The genus Adhuindra was described by William Jack in Malay Misc. 
2(7): 50. 1822. At that time two Malaysian species. .!. dumosa and .1. 
sylvcstris, were described. Today the type-species, A. dumosa, has the 
widest distribution and is probably the best known of all the species in the 

Eighteen years later ( 1 S4U ) . V. Korthals added five new species to the 
genus and described at the same time Sarosanthcra, a new genus closely 
related to Adhuindra. This later genus was short-lived. It was reduced 
to a synonym of Adinandra and the single species, S. cxcdsa Korthals, was 
given the name. 1. Sarosanthcra by Miquel (Fl. Ind. Bat. 1(2): 477. 1859). 
who used the specific name Sarosanthcra since Korthals (1840) had 
described earlier a species named A. cxcdsa. 

The generic synonymy of Adinandra is very simple. The only described 
generic synonym is Sarosanthera, mentioned in the preceding paragraph. 
However, both Szyszylowicz ( I S93 ) and Melchior ( I "25) in their respec- 
tive treatments of the Theaceae in Nat. Pflanzenfam. listed Haenkaea 
Usteri, Ann. Bot. 6: 117. 179/1. as a synonym of Adinandra without any 
explanation. In Index Kewensis (vol. 1), under Adinandra Jack, is cited 
the synonym Haenkaea Usteri. This is merely a mechanical error which 
occurred in the compilation of the material for Index Kewensis. It is 
strange that the earlier date 1793 caused neither Szyszylowicz nor Melchior 
to investigate the generic status and the possible species described under 
Haenkaea. Haenkaea Usteri, in the alphabetical arrangement of Index 
Kewensis, is referred not to Adinandra Jack of the Theaceae, but to 
Adcnandra YYilld. of the Rutaceae, where it truly belongs. 

By 1868 nearly twenty species, all from the Malay Peninsula or Nether- 
lands East Indies, had been added to the genus by various authors. As a 
result the genus was considered to be localized to these areas. In 1868 
Oliver (Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 170) described A. Mannii from the island of St. 
Thomas in the Bay of Guinea off the west coast of Africa. This species 


is quite different from the majority of species in the genus and several 
workers have suggested the possibility of generic segregation. A close 
study of the entire genus shows that the variations in .1. Mannii are not 
sufficient for generic limitation. 

In 1S74 Dyer described A. Griffithii from East Bengal and in 1878 
Clcycra MiUcttii Hook. & Arm, of China, was transferred to the genus. 
thus extending the range to its northern limits. In 1905 the genus was 
first recorded from the Philippines, when Merrill introduced .1. Iiizotiica. 
It received its southernmost range in 1025 when Baker described .1. 
Forbesii from New Guinea. 

From 1S22 until 1893 there had been no attempt on the part of any 
worker to treat all the species of the genus in a group. Frequently the 
genus was listed in local floras, but further than that little was offered as 
a composite study. 

In 1893 Szyszylowicz, in his treatment of the Theaceae for \';i1. 
Pllanzenfam.. although in very abbreviated form, listed the species of 
Adiuaitdra and offered a key for their identification. 

He introduced three new sections and separated them as follows: 

Sect. I. Fleutheraudra: Stamens free. 

Sect. II. Euadinandra: Stamens in bundles. 

Sect. III. Symphiandra: Stamens joined and disposed in a tube. 

It is difficult to understand, considering the material available at the 
time, how Szyszylowic/ could separate the species into Sections II and 
III. He lists . 1. Sarosanthcra Miquel in Sect. Ill and .1. lamponga Miquel 
and A. macrantha Teijsm. & Binn. in Sect. II. I consider all three con- 
specific. I have studied an isotype of A. Griffithii Dyer and know only 
on the word of the author that the stamens are uniseriate. He lists A. 
Miquclii King, a combination never made by King, under Sect. III. 
Adintuidra Miqudii is a synonym of Trrns/ronuia bancana Miq. 

Melchior (1925). in the second edition of the same publication, accepted 
the treatment of Szyszylowicz and added a fourth section as follows: 

Sect. T. Eleutherandra Szyszy.: Style entire. Filaments free. 

Sect. II. Euadinandra Szyszy.: Style entire. Filaments in bundles. 

Sect. III. Symphiandra Szyszy.: Style entire. Filaments joined and 
disposed in a tube. 

Sett. IV. Fleutherostyla Melch.: Styles free. 

As noted. Melchior added a second character, the entire style, which 
combined the fust three sections and separated them from his new section, 
I'JruthcrastyUi, which was created to include ,1. caloscricca Diels (1 ( >22). 
described three years earlier. In 1940 this new section was eliminated by 
the creation of a new genus. Archboldiodcndron, to which Adinandra 
calosrricca was transferred. The entire style cannot be attributed to all 
members of the other three sections created by Szyszylowicz because a few 
species are known to have styles that are three-, four-, or five-parted. 
Adinandra Griffithii Dyer (Bengal). .1. lasio[>ctala (Wight) Choisy (Cey- 


Ion). .1. filipcs Merrill and .1. nit/da Merrill (China), and A. Macgregorii 
Merrill (Philippine Isl.) are known to have parted styles, whereas in 
.1. qmnqm-partita Kobuski ( Borneo), in which the floral parts are described 
from a bud, the stigmas are distinctly five in number and the style, though 
apparently entire, is deeply five-sulcate. 

However, in his treatment Melchior states that the knowledge of the 
stamens is too incomplete to group the species by sections, especially in 
Sections II and III. and so he groups them in geographical regions, namely 
Ceylon, Indo-Malaya, East Asia, and Papua. This proved to be an 
excellent method of treatment. 

After a study of all the species described to date. 1 find that the majority 
of species, save perhaps .1. duniosa Jack and A. Millet ti! (Hook. & Arn.) 
Benth. & Hook., are of rather limited range. These two mentioned species, 
although of more extensive geographical distribution, remain in their 
respective areas. 

Although whenever possible the stamens are described in detail. I find it 
unfeasible to treat the species under the sections as outlined by S/.yszylowicz 
and Melchior. Kight out of every ten herbarium specimens, and this is a 
conservative estimate, have been collected in the fruiting stage, and. as a 
result, many spirits have been described from the fruit alone. Further- 
more, it is difficult, in working with herbarium material, to place a species 
definitely in its respective section even with the stamens present. 

In this study I have employed the same method of treatment as used by 
Melchior and feel that in this m 
easily. In preparing the keys, 
characters when possible. 

Adinandra Jack in M:ilav. Misc. 2 (7): 50. 1822 [rcpr. in Hooker, Com]). Bot. Map. 
I: 15,}. 1855; in Calcutta Jour. Nat. Hist. I: 207. 1S45, et in Misccl. Papers Inrio- 
China II. 2:271. 1887 I. — Korthals, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Bot. cd. Temminck 103. 
1840. — Choisv in Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 1: 111 (Mem. Ternstr. 
?.V). 1855. Miquel, Ft. \'ed. Inei. 1 (2): 477. 1859; Fl. \ed. Ind. Suppl. 1 : 47S. 
1862.-Bentham & Hooker, Gen. PI. 1:182. 1802. — Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. 
Lujjd.-Bat. 1:103. 1808. — Deer in Hooker f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1:281. 1874. — 
Kin- in Jour. As. Sor. Bengal 53) (2): 187 (Mater. Fl. Malay Penin. 1:127). 
1890. — Szvszvlowic/ in Nat. Pllanzenlam. III. 6:18'). 1 893. - - Koorders & 
Valclon, Me.le.l. 'S Lands PI. 16:219 (Hijdr. Moomsoort. Java 3:219). 1896.— 
Ridley, Fl. Malay Penin. 1:195. 1922. Melchior in Nat. Ptlan/enl'am. ed 2, 
21:145. 1925. — Craib. Fl. Siam. Enum. 1:124. 1925. Melcalt in Liminan 
Sci. Jour. 11:18. 1932. — Melchior in N'oti/hl. Mot. Gart. Mus. Merlin 11:1076, 
1097. 1934. — Gatmepain in Not. Syst. Mus. Hist. Nat. Pari- 10:112. 1941; in 
Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1:282. 1943. 
Sarosanthera Korthals, Verb. Nat. Gcsch. Bot. ed. Temminck 103. 1840. 

Flowers hermaphroditic. Sepals 5. imbricate, persistent, thick, concave, 
accrescent, unequal, gradually increasing in size from the outer lobes to 
the inner lobes. Petals 5, imbricate, connate at the base, glabrous or 
sericeous on the outer surface, the inner surface glabrous. Stamens oo, 
15-60, one- to five-seriate, adnate to the base of the corolla; filaments 
usually united, rarely free, unequal when 2- or more-seriate, pubescent or 
glabrous; anthers oblong, erect, basifixed, extrorse. hispid, very rarely 

4 JOI KWL OF TIIK \H\01.I) \I:H()HI.HM |v« P i..x«ih 

glabrous; connective projected into an apicule. Ovary pubescent or 
glabrous. 3- or 5-loculate. rarely 2- or 4-loculate. the ovules usually x 
(20 100) in each locule. rarely few (4), at'lixed with prominent placentae. 
Style I, persistent, entire, rarely 3-5 -fid; stigma 1. rarely 3-5, entire or 
lobed. Fruit indehiscent. Seeds x to leu, usually minute, dark, shining, 
m Tobi< ulate. the embryo inllexed. the cotyledons semi-terete. 

Evergreen trees or shrubs, alternately branched. Leaves alternate, 
coriaceous, occasionally chartaceous. Flowers axillary, solitary, frequently 
in pairs; peduncles 1 -flowered, recurved, seldom erect. 2-bracteolate, the 
bracteoles at the apex of the pedicel, opposite or alternate, persistent or 

Tm-i si'Kcihs: Adinandni dumosa Jack. 

An amplification of the foregoing formal description, with observations 
on the characters used in specific delimitation throughout the genus, 

Leaves: Throughout the genus the leaves seldom furnish sound specific 
characters. Ordinarily the leaf is coriaceous. A very few species are 
known to possess chartaceous or subcoriaceous leaves. In size and shape 
one may find considerable variation on a single specimen. In most in- 
stances the leaves are obtuse, bluntly acuminate at the apex and tapering 
at the base. Occasionally there are consistent variations from this pattern, 
as found in the long-acuminate leaves of ,1 . acuminata korthals and .1. 
Bockiana Pritzel and its variety, the cordate leaf-base of A. cordifolia 
Ridley and its variety, and the subsessile leaf-base of .1. subscssilis Airy- 
Shaw. In these few instances specific delimitation may be based on the 

The terminal leaf-buds and very young unfolding leaves possess charac- 
teristics helpful in indicating the degree of pubescence on the leaves. In 
any group of plants with coriaceous and evergreen leaves there is apt to 
be a question concerning the interpretation of the degree of pubescence 
of the leaves. The mature leaves may have been glabrous in the juvenile 
stage or they may have been extremely pubescent, later becoming glabres- 
cent or even glabrous. In Adinandra, observation of the terminal leaf-bud 
offers an accurate means of determining the actual degree of pubescence 
or glabrosity of a given species. There are only a very few glabrous 
species, and in these cases only are the terminal leaf-buds strictly glabrous. 
The veining as a whole is not an outstanding character, nor is it con- 
sistent. The majority of species fall into a group where the veins vary 
from S to 15 pairs. Very often the veins are obscure and of little use in 
identification. Fxceptions may be found in .1. luzon'ua Merrill, where 
even the veins of lesser degrees are of the same prominence as the primary 
veins, and in .1. myr'wnvura Kob., A. polynvwa Lob., A. dasyantha 
Korthals, and .1. phlebophylla I lance, where the veins exceed more than 
twenty pairs in number, thereby presenting a conspicuous feature. The 
midrib is usually flattened or plane on the upper surface and semi-terete 
on the lower surface. In two species, A. verrucosa Stapf and .1. coUina 
Kob., the midrib on the lower surface is bisulcate. 

19471 KOBUSKI, S'l'l 1)1 KS IN THE THKACEAE, XV 5 

Pedicels: The pedicel length is 1-2.5 cm. for the majority of species. 
Unless the pedicel is less than 0.5 cm. or more than 3 cm. long it can hardly 
be used as a delimiting factor. The pedicel is seldom erect, usually being 
recurved. Pubescence on the pedicel plays the same role as pubescence 

Bracteoles: The persistence of the bracteoles is important. The 
greater number of species have persistent bracteoles, while in a smaller 
group of species the bracteoles are caducous. In the latter species the 
bracteoles may fall so early that their presence is recognized only by the 
scars, or the bracteoles may remain until anthesis before dropping away 
from the flower. Only in the persistent bracteoles and those remaining 
until anthesis can one find characters to be used for identification. Their 
position, shape and texture are of importance. In the majority of species, 
the bracteoles are opposite, at the apex of the pedicel, immediately below 
the calyx-lobes. When they are alternate, and alternate here means a 
variation up to 5 mm. in their positions, it is in the outer bracteole where 
the variation in position may be found. The inner bracteole arises imme- 
diately below the calyx-lobes, whereas the outer one is placed lower on the 
pedicel. In shape the bracteoles usually simulate the calyx-lobes. Often 
the two bracteoles vary considerably in size. 

Calyx: Always persistent, the calyx-lobes vary considerably from the 
period of anthesis to that of mature fruit. Hence size, unless very small 
or exceedingly large, is of lit lie importance. There is a marked variation 
in size in the lobes of a single calyx. The outer lobes are smaller, often 
more pubescent, and of heavier texture. In many species there is a grada- 
tion in size starting with the outer or smaller lobes and increasing in size 
to the largest or inner lobe. The margin of the inner lobes often is 
considerably more scarious than that of the outer lobes. The texture is 
of diagnostic importance. In the Eastern Asiatic spec ies and those of the 
Philippine Islands, the texture of the calyx-lobes is of a decidedly thinner 
quality than can be found in the other groups or more tropical regions 
where the lobes are definitely thicker, often subligneous. 

Corolla: The corolla remains as part of the flower for only a very 
short period. While still present it offers good characters in color, shape, 
length and pubescence. The lobes are always connate at the base; hence 
when dropping off the corolla falls in its entirety. White or cream is the 
color for the majority of species. Occasionally the corolla may be tinged 
with pink, and in British North Borneo and New Guinea a few species 
have purple lobes. In length the corolla may vary from a measurement 
equalling or slightly exceeding that of the calyx to three times the length 
of the calyx, as found in the two African species. ,1. Mannii Oliver and 
A. Schlie'benii Melchior. Pubescence is an excellent character in the 
corolla. The species can be divided almosl equally by this character. 
When present, the pubescence is usually of the appressed type and is 
concentrated on the median portion of the external surface. Occasionally 
one may find species where the pubescence extends over the complete 

6 .!<>( RWI, OF T1IK \ll\()! [) \i;i;ni;i II \1 |voi..xxviii 

external surface. Unlike that in Gtmionia, the pubescence is never found 

Stamens The stamens offer many excellent characteristics, when 
present, to aid in identification. However, being adnate to the base of 
the corolla, they usually fall away with the corolla. They are arranged 
in the flower in series which vary in number from one to five. When in 
series, one finds that the filaments vary in length according to the number of 
series. The filaments are rarely tree, but are connate for at least part of 
their length, usually that of the shortest filaments. Extreme difficulty is 
experienced working with dried material to determine the exact number of 
series. Stamens in a single series may averaue as low as fifteen in number 
(.1. Mumiii Oliver and .1. Sr/ilichrnii Melchior). while those in several series 
will number as high as 55-(>0. as found in .1. lirussii Kob. and .1. Forbcs'ri 
Bak. f. Variation in pubescence is considerable. In some species the 
filaments are glabrous, in others they are densely pubescent, and in still 
others one may find them pubescent on the upper portion adjacent to the 
anthers or on the dorsal surface only. The anthers are oblong, and with 
the exception of ,1. Maiuiii and .1. ScMicbcnii are always extrorse-hispid. 
In only the two above-mentioned species are the anthers glabrous. In 
some instances an elongated apicule may be of diagnostic importance. 

Pistil: Some of the best delimiting characters are found in the pistil. 
The style is persistent and either the ovary or fruit is present in every 
fertile specimen. The number of cells of the ovary has been little used 
even in descriptions. In immature flowers a cross-section is often difficult 
to obtain. In all spe< ies studied for this treatment the number of cells in 
the ovary and fruit are recorded. In a very few instances there is a 
variation within the species of number of cells in the ovary, and in such 
rare instances it is sometimes difficult to ascertain which is the usual 
number and which is the variation. The cells are for the most part quite 
clearly defined as to number. In several instances the placentae are of 
such length and consistency that they may be mistaken for cell-walls and 
as such they have obviously been interpreted in the past. Also, in a few 
species the cell-wall opposite the placentae may project so far into the cell 
that the branches of the placentae extend beyond the resulting indentation 
of the wall. A cursory study of such a dissection may very easily be 
misinterpreted. The fact that the ovary and the fruit are so filled with 
either ovules or seeds may very well lead to erroneous conclusions. Also, 
in rare instances the seeds may crowd the cells to such an extent that the 
walls are broken down and the seeds tend to displace the central axis or 
push into adjoining cells. However, these variations arc 1 exceptional. 

The number of cells in the ovary and fruit of the majority of species is 
five. In all species where the ovary is live-celled the- ovules are small and 
very many in number. The seeds, correspondingly, in the fruit are minute 
and usually number over a hundred. On the other hand, when the ovary 
and fruit are three-celled, the number of ovules and seeds is fewer and the 
seeds are larger than those in the five-celled species. The seeds here 


measure up to 8 mm. long and seldom exceed ten in number for the entire 
fruit. Exceptions to this are rare but are found in A . javanica Choisy and 
A. lasiopetala (Wight) Choisy, where the fruit is three-celled but the seeds 
are minute and for all practical purposes countless. A few species have 
four-celled or two-celled ovaries. Of the two-celled group, A. subsessilis 
Airy-Shaw is interesting in that a single large seed is developed in each 
cell of the fruit. 

Pubescence of the ovary plays an important role in identification. 
When pubescent, the ovary is usually densely so. This pubescence may 
be evanescent and the resultant fruit may be glabrescent. However, in 
such instances one may always find a few stray evidences of pubescence 
at the apex of the fruit just below its juncture with the style. 

The style may be glabrous or pubescent. If the ovary is glabrous the 
style is also always glabrous. However, with a pubescent ovary one may 
find either a pubescent or glabrous style, depending upon the species. In 
any given species, however, the styles are usually consistent. In the 
majority of species the style is entire. However, in a few instances the 
style is divided into three or four parts, in accordance with the number of 
cells in the ovary. When the style is parted the number of stigmas is the 
same as the number of parts to the style. In a few species the style may 
be entire and the stigma lobed, in accordance with the number of cells in 
the ovary. In other species the style may be entire and the stigma 
distinctly five-parted. 

The following review of species has been divided into five geographical 
groups, namely: (1) Eastern Asia; (2) Indo-Malaysia; (3) Philippine 
Islands; (4) New Guinea; and (5) Africa. Material has been borrowed 
from most of the leading American herbaria where the genus Adinandra 
has been deposited in abundance. Added material on critical specimens 
was obtained later from the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The author 
is deeply grateful to the curators of these institutions for the privilege of 
examining their material. In the citations of specimens throughout this 
paper these institutions are abbreviated as follows: 

(A) Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 

(C) Chicago Museum of Natural History. 

(G) Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. 

(K) Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 

(M) Missouri Botanical Garden. 
(NY) New York Botanical Garden. 
(PBS) Philippine Bureau of Science, Manila, P.I. 
(US) United States National Herbarium. 

In reviewing the species of Eastern Asia and comparing them with those 
of the other geographical regions, as arranged in this study, one is im- 
pressed by the close relationship of all the species of this area and the 
basic similarity of their characters. Specific differentiation is not as clear 

8 JOl KWI, OF TIIK \li\OID AKHOHK'U M Ivor, xxvin 

cut in this area as in the Indo-Malavsian area. Many species have been 
described on the basis of rather feeble variations. The focal species is 
.1. Millettii (Hook. & Arn.) Benth. & Hook. Herbarium material has 
been rather plentiful for the Chinese .species, and further material may 
show that the number of species listed below, although conservative, is not 
conservative enough. 

The species described from Formosa and the Liu Kin islands are very 
closely related to .1. Millettii and its varieties. However, little could be 
done with these species, since the descriptions are often too meagre, and 
sufficient material for study lacking. 

Almost equally sparse have been herbarium specimens from Indo-China. 
During the course of this study, there appeared a belated (although pub- 
lished in 1942) study of the Theaceae of lndo-China bv (kignepain (Not. 
Syst. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 112-131. 1942). In this paper seven new 
species have been described. Fortunately, types of four of Cagnepain's 
species were found in the material gathered tor this study and are treated 
in this section of the review. The remaining three, .1. annamensk, A. 
caudata, and ,1. donnairnsis, are quoted at the end of this section. The 
original descriptions and citations are inserted in this paper in order to 
make these records as complete as possible. Material is essential before 
an attempt be made to relate them to better known species. 

Immediately following is a chart of the characters used in separating the 
majority of the species of Adinandra. I'nder each element are listed the 
differences, and the species are recorded, whenever possible, under these 
differences. This chart has been helpful to me in the present study and 
it is hoped that it may be of assistance to other workers. Accompanying 
(harts will be found in the two following groups. 


U. t hvolo»i,i 

tf-.s, Id clown 

lis, lnol«»hi 

l;//m Id i'Ii> iii,i 

Corolla-lobes Filaments 




m Hint a 






.;, , / <olo»:a 


acnti folia 



li<ii>m>u K.r. 

(V/'/M,' *',',/ 

>>;,■■■„ t>'u xllu 




I). Leaves usually entire; pedicels up to 2 cm. hum. (Eastern China) .... 

1. A. Millrttii. 

DD. Leaves usualh serrulate; pedicels up to .1 cm. long. (Formosa) 

la. ,1. Millrttii var. iormosana. 

CC. Calyx-lobes rounded or broadh obtuse, usualh blunt, occasionalh roundtd 
and sharply apiculate, not Ion- acuminate, widest portion remote from the 
base, corolla dobes pubescent. 

I). Terminal buds, the under surface of the leaves, the current season's 
growth of branchlets, and the flower parts covered with a loose, 
spreading pubescence in varying decrees ol density, not appressed. 
K. Pubescence dense, persistent on the above mentioned parts. 

(Kwanu'si, Kweichow, Szechuan) 2. A. Bockiana. 

I'dv Pubescence dense only in the voting staues with a distinct tendency 

K. Leaves loim acuminate, the margins entire. (Fukien, Hunan, 

K wan-si, Kweichow) 2a. .1. Bockiana var. acutifolia. 

VY. heaves obtuse at the apex, the mar-ins serrulate. (Liu Kiu 

growth of branchlets, and the flower parts covered with a short ap- 

BB. Style pubescent. 

always finely pubescent >,. ,1. ,nr K u /<li vlla. 

CV. Leaves seldom 15 era Ion-, the midrib on upper surface always •dubious. 
I). Flowers axillary, in twos a nd threes, onh occasionally solitary; pubes- 

dense, projecting; beyond the mar-in, noticeable from the upper surface. 


i. Bracteoles caducous; style densely pubescent two-thirds the entire 

F. Pubescence on under surface of the older leaves tending toward 
glabrescence alone the midrib am! blade, maintaining den-etiess 
alone the margin. 
<".. Calvx lobes 0-7 mm. lone, occasionally up to 10 mm. lorn: in 

fruit. (Kwanetune, Kwangsi) 4. A. ^lisrhrohniui. 

GG. Calyx-lobes 11-14 mm. lone. (Chekiane, Kukien) 

FF. Pubescence on the under surtace ot the older as well as the 

so as to be noticeable 

!■:. Style 3 parted; pedicel ca. 4 cm. lor 

KK. St % It- entire; pedit el 25 cm. lone oi 

F. Leaves distinclb .lark punctat. 

ovary and fruit 5-cclled. (Hair 

FF Leave- without dark punctate dot- ,,: 
and fruit 3 -celled. 

G. Bracteoles caducous. (Formosa).. 
GG. Bracteoles persistent. 

H. Pedicels short, seldom over 
pubescent ; fruit small (ca. 5 mi 
in size (2-3 mm. lone), bill 


HH. Pedicels up to 2.5 cm. lone; 
many-seeded (100 or more). 

he branchlet erowtl 

C. Ovary and fruit 

CC. Ovary and fruit 

D. Style 3-partei 

I'nder surface of the leaves, pedicels, and cah \ lobe- 
burls and branchlets pubescent. (Liu Kin Islands). 

dinandra Millettii (Hooker & Arnott) Bentham & Hooker i. ex Hance in Jo 
Bot. Id: ( >. 1S7S.- Maximowicz in Bull. Acad. Imp. Sri. St. I'etersb. 31: 17. l: 
(excl. Ltukiu ins. -pec... S/vs/ylowicz in Nat. I'tlan/eniam III. 0: lS'J. 1 :- 
-Melchior in Nat. I'llan/en tarn. ed. 2, 21:144. 1025.- Render X Wilson 
lour. Arnold Ark H: 177. 1 927. — Mctcalf in Lin-nan Sci. Jour. 11:30. 1032 
Merrill in Jour. Arnold Arb. 19: 55. 1938. 

/eve;,/ WllUttii Ibioke; \ Arnott. Bot. Beechev Vov. 171, t. M. 1841. 

dhnmJ}* Drakvann tranche: in Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, si'-r. 2. f> : 208 (PI. Da^ 
56). 1882. — Szyszylowicz in Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 6: 189. 1893. 

12 JOFKNAF OF TIIK AFNOl 1> \ K IK )|{ I Tl \1 [vol. xxvm 

Adinandra Hemsleyi Handel Ma//ctti c\ Metcalt in Fingnan Sri. Jour. 11: 19. 1932, 

DisiKim Hon: China ( Ku :in.t;t lint:. Fukien. Anhwei. Ohckiang, Kiangsi. Kwangsi). 

KwAN-cn \<;: Summit of Pakwan .Ml., above Canton, T. Sampson 1550S (G), 
May 1870. — White Cloud Hills, Canton, at summit, /'. Sampson C.w (C), May 25, 
1 S 7 l » . Canton and vicinity. C. 0. I.evine o I 3 {(', G, M, CM, April 24, 1917, 1230 
(M), Aug. 30, 1917. — Loh Fan Shan, C. <). I.evine 2000 (A, M), May S, mis. 
I'oon Yue Distr., C. 0. Levine 31ou (A, G, Ml, Sept. 4, 191S. — ■ San-on Distr., 
Ng-Tung Shan, mountain forest, alt. 900 m.. T. M. Tsui 210 (M. NY, CS), April 
1932 (woody, 1 m. high with white flowers). — Lo Chong, C. L. Tso 20446 (A), May 
11, 1929 (small tree). Near Yiu-shan, in woods, alt. S0O m„ A'. Mel! 7m (isotype 
ot .1. Hemsleyi, A), Sept. 5, 1917.- Tapu Distr., Tai Mo Shan, Wong Fan Ch'a, dry 
steep slope in sand> soil It / Tsang '10 o (A. NY) July S 1932 (shrub 2 m with 
edible Mark fruit) Mel (Raying) Distr.. Yam \a Shan (Yit Nga Shan), Wong 

Fan Ch'a Shue, along roadside of dry, clay meadow, IF. T. Tsang 21353 (A, NY), Aug. 
4 31, 1932 (erect, woody, 3 m. with edible black fruit). Wung Yuen Distr.. Tsing 
Wan Shan, Wong chuck I and vicinity, clay thickets on steep dry slopes, S. A. Lan 
202> (A), Aug. 1(» 31, 1931 (woody, S m.). Hongkong, New Terr., Wu kau tin. in 
open woods, Y. Tsiang 2965 (A, C, NY, CS), Aug. 13, 1920 (low shrub with dee]) 
purple fruit). Sin lung Distr., I.o lo ha village, Sha Fo Shan, abundant in forest, 
Y. IF. Taam 02s (A), July 1938 (7 m. high; fruit black, edible). Hongkong, C. Ford 
s. «., (A, NY). Ft kikn: I.ui Sang, Kuliang and vicinity, rich woods, alt. S00 m„ 
//. ( . Chen 10o5 (A), July 20, 1925. Kutien, //. //. Chung 4021 (A, NY), May 2o, 
192S. Ne Fan San. Diongloh and vicinilv, wooded hillside, F. T. Lin 11720 (M), 
Aug. (., 1920 Yeiiping. Feh Men Wei, near north gate, rocky hillside, A. If. Chou 

S74H (M), Aug. 13, 1920. Pehling, Minhow Hsien, in thickets, //. II. Chung 2074 
(A), Aug. 3, 1923 (shrub 1 m.).- Foochow, I-Su-Shan, //. //. Chung 2S14 (A, M). 
Aug. 13, p)24 (shrub 2 m. ) . — Yenping, Cha-ping, on slope-, alt 750 m„ //. //. Chung 
2S4n (A), July 50, 1924 (shrub 1 m I Minhow Hsien, Kushan Monastery, in shady 

woods, //. //. Chung 220- (A), Aug. 17. 1925 (tree or shrub 5 4 m.l. Chuanchow, 
//. //. Chung 3007 (M), April 23, 1925 (shrub). Foochow. Kushan, //. //. Chung 
3S10 (A), \ug. IS, 1925 (shrub). lnghok, Fang Rwang Yen, //. //. Chung 4047 
(A), May 10, 1925. Kuliang, // // ( hung ^445 (A). July 7, 192c, (shrub with while 

Fi Kan, along banks ot partially wooded stream, alt. 100 m., R. C. ( king 3153 (A), 
Aug. 7. 1925 (shrub 5 m. with smooth, gray bark). Kimen, A". A'. //> 7o7 1 (CS), 
Aug. 19, 1924. Chi.kiwc: Tsing Tsien, on hill neat rocks. F. L. Keng 7o (A), July 

21, 1920 (low shrub with the fruit solitary in the axils).- Tsing Tsien. on mountain 
near roadside. 1'. /.. Krng 144 (A), July 20, 1926 (1 m. high).- S. Yentang,' shady 
woods, all. 200 m., //. //. llu 227 (A), Aug 20, 1920 (shrub 2 5 m. with edible black 
fruit). 150 li south of Ping Yung, alt. 70 m.. R. C. ( hing lost (A, (i. CS), July 4. 

li northeast ot Tai Suan, open bushy slope, alt. 500 in., R C. Clang 2207 (A, OS), July 

22, 1924 (big shrub 7 m.l. Yung Hsien, Ta Tso Shan, on hillside and in 
forest, all. 5S0 ,v mo m., .1. X. Steward ,'5- //. C. ( heo Sio, 005 (A. NY), Aug. 1955 
(shrub or tree o 10 m. with whitish grav bark).- Van Shan, Ping Nan, thin woods 
near ridge, ('. Wang 30171 (A), May 17, 1»5<, (shrub with whit, flowers). Riancsi: 
Eastern Riangsi, A. [hivid s. n. (photo of type of A. Drakrana, A), 1S75 ("petit arbre, 
a lleurs blanches, sans odeur") . — Fungnan Distr.. On Chi Shan, near Cam Fk Tung 
village, dry steep slope in clay forest, S. A. 4424 (A, CS), Sept. 1934 (5 m. high). 
- Kiennan Distr,, Sal Hang Cheung, near Tung Fei y Mage. N. A. Lau 3<J5S (A. CS), 
July 1951. On trail between Kit-shan and Hong San, bushy hillside, alt. 5S0 m„ ./. 
L. Cressitt 142- (A, M), June 21, 195(, (shrub 1 m. high with pink flowers).-- Hsin 
Feng Hsien, shady hillside, alt.. 650 m., //. //. llu 1012 (A), Mav 51, 1921 (shrub 1 m. 
high with white flowers I. Ling Chuan, near Siang ton ton, in small woodland, alt. 
100 m„ F. Tsiang OS51 (NY). June 17, 1952 (shrub 1-2 m. high). 


Shrub or small tree. Branchlets glabrous, terete, grayish brown, the 
very young branchlets and terminal buds pilose in varying degrees. 
Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, 4.5-9 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, acuminate, 
bluntly acuminate to nearly obtuse at the apex, acute at the base, the very 
young unfolding leaves densely pubescent, the mature leaves showing 
green, glabrous above, lighter green, glabrous or glabrescent, occasionally 
with light scattered appressed pubescence beneath, the margin generally 
entire, occasionally (on the same specimen) lightly denticulate along the 
upper half, the veins obvious on both surfaces but not conspicuous, the 
petiole short, ca. 3 mm. long, usually glabrous, rarely slightly pubescent. 
Flowers axillary, solitary: pedicels up to 2 cm. long, slender, glabrous; 
bracteoles 2, quickly caducous, alternate, near the apex of the pedicel 
when (rarely) present in the young buds, similar to the calyx lobes, ca. 
2 mm. long; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, subequal, ovate-deltoid, 7-8.5 mm. 
long, 4-6 mm. wide, quite sharply pointed at the apex, widest at the base, 
glabrous or glabrescent. rarely slightly appressed-pubesc ent on the exterior 
surface, the margin subscarious. both glandular-denticulate and ciliolate; 
comlla lobes 5, connate at the base, glabrous, white, similar to the calyx- 
lobes in size and shape, barely exceeding the latter in length, oblong-ovate, 
up to 8.5 mm. long. ca. 4-5 mm. wide, slightly apiculate, widest at the 
base; stamens ca. 25, seemingly uniseriate. rather uniform in size. 7 8 
mm. long, the filaments ca. 3 mm. long, glabrous, somewhat dilated, 
measuring nearly 0.5 mm. across, quite free from each other, adnate to the 
base of the corolla, the anthers 2 3 mm. long, broadly linear, up to 1 mm. 
across, covered with a dense white pubescence, the apicule 1-1.5 mm. long; 
ovarv nearlv globose, tapering slightly at the apex, white-pubescent, 
3-cel'led, multi-ovulate. the style glabrous, entire, ca. 9 mm. long, the 
stigma obtuse, simple. Fruit glabrescent. with evidence of some straggling 
pubescence, subglobose, ca. 7-8 mm. diameter, many-seeded, the seeds 
minute, black, shining. 

Adinandra Millcttii is the earliest described species of the genus from 
China. It has been most often collected, shows the widest distribution, 
and probably is the oldest Chinese species phylogenetically. In these 
respects it compares very favorably with the type. .1. dumosa Jack, from 

The species itself is confined, according to the material available for this 
study, to the mainland of China; it ranges along the southeastern coast 
including the provinces of Chekiang. Kiangsi. Fukien and Kwangtung, and 
extends inland and westward to include Kwangsi and Anhwei. 

Two varieties are found in Formosa, A. Millcttii var. jormosana 
(Havata) Kob. (the erstwhile .1. jormosana Hayata) and ,1. Millcttii var. 
obtusissima Kob. Closely allied to ,1. Millcttii is the species A. Bockiana 
Pritzel and its two varieties A. Bockiana var. acutijolm ( Hand.-Mazz.) 
Kob. (,1. acuti folia Hand.-Mazz.) and A. Bockiana var. tonkinensis Kob. 
All these entities have many diagnostic characters in common, i. e. the small 

(lowers, the calyx-lobe- 

lilar in number, 

shape and arrangement, the filaments showing a definite and charac- 
teristic dilation toward the anthers, and the 3-celled ovary with a distinct 
spreading grayish pubescence which becomes glabrescent in the fruit. 

It Jul liWI, OF TIIK AHNOI.I) \KI!()IIKTl \| | v <»i.. wvni 

The corolla-lobes are similar in size, hardly extending beyond the 

The characters separating the two species are the shape of the calyx- 
lobes, the pubescence on the corolla-lobes, and the leaf-shape. These 
characters, none too strong, are consistent, however, in the two species. 
Whereas, in .1. Millrttii and its varieties the calyx-lobes are always long- 
acuminate with the attenuation starting near the base, in .1. Borkiana and 
its varieties the calyx-lobes are more rounded, occasionally abruptly 
apiculate but not long-tapering. In .1. Millrttii the corolla lobes are 
always glabrous on the external surface whereas in ,1. Bockiami the corolla- 
lobes are always pubescent on the median portion of the external surface. 
In the latter species the leaves art' larger and usually long-ai uncinate 

As might be expected, from the extensive range of the species, there is 
considerable variation in .!. Millrttii, especially in the leaves. One of the 
earliest collected specimens and perhaps the most cited (Sampson 1.55'IS, 
I'ak-wan. Kwangtung) shows, on the same sheet, branchlcts in which the 
leaves vary from obtuse to long-acuminate. This same variation can be 
found on several other specimens. Pubescence is another variable char- 
acter. Generally speaking, except for the current year's growth, .!. 
Millrttii may be considered quite glabrous, quickly losing its early 
pubescence. However, in some instances this glabrescence is less exten- 
sive, hence scattered hairs may be found on the undersurface of the leaves. 
the pedicels, and the calyx-lobes. 

In describing the stamens. Hooker and Arnott refer to the filaments as 
hairs and the anthers glabrous. The illustration accompanying the 
description portrays them thus. In the dissections made for this study, 
the filaments were always glabrous and the anthers pubescent. The 
reverse condition, as given by Hooker and Arnott. would be very unusual 
for this genus. 

A photograph and fragment of the type of . I. Drakrana Franchet, col- 
lected by A. David in Kwangsi in 1S73 and deposited in the Museum 
d'Histoire Xaturelle. Paris, show clearly that I. Drakrana is synonymous 
with .1. Millrttii. Probably Franchet was unaware of the existence of 
.1. Millrttii when he proposed he new species, because his suggested rela- 
tionships are with the Indo-Malaysian species .1. dumosa Jack and J. 
intrgcrrima T. Am lei son rather than with A. Millrttii. 

Another name, found on herbarium specimens but never adequately 
published, is .1. Ilrmslryi Handel- Mazzett i .Men all. evidently with some 
authority, stated thai Handel Ma/zetti had abandoned this name and never 
published the species because he felt the relationship was loo close to 
.1. Millrttii. Mrll 769 from Kwangtung is a representative of this 
la \(lin;milra Millrttii (Hooker X Arnott) Bentham & Hooker f. ex Hance var. 

Sri. Tokyo M) (Art. 1):A2. mil. Kanehira, Formosan 'trees 51, ti-. 1 <»1 7 ; 
revised ed. 45.', ii». 40'). 1<U<>. - Melehior in Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed, 2, 21: 149. 
l')Jv — Sasaki, Cat. Uovernm Herb. 340. 1030. 


dinandra hypochlora Hayata, ho: 
Trees 52. 1917. — Melchior in : 
Cat. Govcrnm. Herb. 347. 1930 

3 (A), June 1924. — Bankinsing, A. Henry 
US). — Taitun, U. Faurie 1861 (A), April 1915. — Mt. Tikusi, 

kami & Y. Simadu If v (A), Mav 1915. Taihoku, Alt. So/an. S. Situtti 
. Aim. 26, 1931. — Yicinin of Kiirun (Kurun?), 7\ Tanaka 340 (A, NY, US), 
102').- Taihoku-shu, Shinten, T. Tanaka 11178 (C, NY, US), July 24, 1932. 

This variety differs from the species in several characteristics, none of 
them sufficiently consistent to warrant specific status. The leaves of the 
variety are usually distinctly serrate along the upper half of the margin. 
Generally speaking, the leaves of the species proper are quite entire. 
However, throughout all the material of the species examined one may 
occasionally find serration along the margin. The specimen of this variety 
most closely resembling typical . I. Millcttii from Formosa is Oldham 37. 
Here the margin of the leaves is more nearly entire with slight evidence of 
serration. The shape of the leaf is extremely varied. However, this same 
variation is found in the species. In Sasaki 21627 one may note, on a 
single branch, leaves which are obtuse, bluntly acuminate, or acuminate 
at the apex. 

The pedicels are generally longer, in rare instances attaining 3 cm. 
{Henry 514) in length. However. 2 cm. is the average length. Both the 
species and the variety have the same type of thin scattered pubescence 
on the ovary and fruit. Occasionally there is a slight evidence of pubes- 
cence at the very base of the style. This variation is not unusual in any 
species of Adinandra where there is a pubescent ovary and glabrous style. 
However, seldom is this variation found within the species. Hayata 
describes the stamens as ; 'x, saepius 15-17" in number. I found the 
number to be about 25, the same as in the species. 

Authentic specimens of I. hypochlora Hayata and A. pedunculata 
Hayata have not been examined. Kanehira, in his revised edition of 
Formosan Trees ( 1936), lists the two as synonyms of A. jormosana. The 
early descriptions, such as they are, seem to bear out this transfer by 

lb. Adinamlra Milli-nii (Hooker X Atnott) Bentham & Hooker f. var. ohlusis-sima. 

A typo differt bracteolis persistentibus. oppositis (linearibus, circiter 
2 X 1mm.); foliis obovatis. basi longo-attenuatis; stylo pubescente. 
Distribution: Formosa. 
Formosa: South Cape, A. Henry 1985 (NY). 
This variety differs from the species in (1) the obovate leaves tapering 

L6 .101 K\AF OF TIIK \RNOLD ARBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

from the middle to the hase; (2) the linear bracteoles (ea. 2 X 1 mm.), 
persistent even on the fruiting specimen; (3) the pubescent style. 

Matsumura and Hayata in P>()<> listed an unnamed var. of .1. Millcttii 
collected by Henry on South Cape. The more definite locality of "Tamsui" 
was added in the citation. Probably these specimens are the same. 
Tamsui is not truly on South Cape bm in the southern portion of Formosa, 
close to Ariko-banti, Ako, and Mt. Daizyurin. Takao. the type docalities 
of Adinandra obtusissima. As mentioned under A. obtusissima in this 
paper. 1 feel that a very close relationship exists between this variety and 
the species of the same name. The varietal name obtusissima was selected 
deliberately with this in mind. 

2. Adinandra Bockiana Pritzel ex Diels in Hot. Jahrb. 29:474 (Fl. Centr. -China). 
1900. — Melchior in Nat. Pflan/entam. ed. 2, 21: 145. 1025.- Metcalf in Lin-- 
nan Sci. Jour. 11:20. 1952.- Chun in Sunyatsenia 4: ISO. 1040. 

Distribution: China (Kwaim-i, Kueii how, S/echuan) . San Chiang Hsien. I. in- Wan- Shan, vallev roadside, alt. 2100 m.. .!. .V. 
Steward ,'r //. C. Cliro or,4 (A, NV), Sept. 17, 1055 (shrub 2.5 m. hi-h with hlark 
tniit >. \ l.uchen, Chu Shan, SO li southwest of Shan Fang, in open woods, alt. 
1000 m.. A'. C. China SSJS (NV). June S, 102S. Kwi.icnow: kiensi, Lung-kai-ching, 
open hillside, V. Tsitma S77S (A, NV), An-. 20, 1050 (small tree 5 in. high; leaves 
green above, light green below). Van Shan, in mixed woods, ('. l\ „u K 10107 (A), Oct. 
14, 1050 (tree 20 m hi-h, fruit bla< k when ripe). Tsiinvi IFien, Fian- Fen- Vah, 
.shaded lores! slope, .1. X. Steward. C. V. China i'-r //. C. Clin, 1C> (A, C. NV. FS), 
Auk. ■''I, 19.n1 (shrub 2 m. high with leaves dark glossv -rcen above). S/irin an: 
Nan chuen, Tu ma ton, C. /*<><■* c'r ,1 . von Rosthorn 317 ( i mm., ;ra-mcnt and phoio, 

Shrub or small tree; branchlets terete, brown, glabrous or glabrescent. 
the very young branchlets densely reddish lawny-sericeous. Leaves coria- 
ceous, oblong-ovate, 10-14 cm. long, 3-4.5 cm. wide, acuminate at the 
apex, the acumen 1 2 cm. long, acute at the base, the terminal buds and 
very young leaves densely reddish tawny-sericeous, the mature leaves (kv\) 
dark glossy green, glabrous above, paler beneath covered with a soft 
tawny pubescence of varying density concentrated on midrib and the 
margin, the margin entire, lightly revolute, the veins ca. 12 pairs, obvious 
but not conspicuous, the petiole 5-7 mm. long, densely sericeous. Flowers 
axillary, solitary; pedicel slender, arching. 1 2 cm. long, densely spreading- 
pilose; bracteoles 2, opposite, immediately below I he calyx-lobes, quickly 
caducous, when (rarely) present linear, ca. 4 nun. long, 1.5 mm. wide, 
densely pilose; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, thin with little differentiation 
between the middle portion and the margin, subequal, ca. 0-6.5 mm. long, 
3.5-4 mm. wide, the outer lobes broadly ovate, occasionally apiculate at 
the apex, the inner lobes more rounded at the apex, the margin glandular- 
denticulate and ciliate; mature corolla and stamens not seen; ovary globose, 
sparsely sericeous-pubescent, 3-celled, multi-ovulate, the style entire, 
glabrous, ca. <■) mm. long (post anthesis). Fruit globose, glabrescent, 
black, ea. I cm. in diameter; seeds many, reddish brown, shining. 

In all the specimens examined, none had fully developed (lowers for 
dissection. However. Cf/iu« ;>~,V.>,\, in bud. upon dissection showed the 
corolla to be pubescent on the exterior surface. Otherwise, it appeared 
very similar to that of .1. Millcttii. The stamens, although minute, were 
25 in number, uniseriate, lightly adnate to the base of the corolla; the 


Adinandra Bockiana (lifters from I. Milicttii in: (1) the pubescent 
exterior surface of the corolla; (2) the calyx-lobes of .1. Bockiana are 
more rotund at the apex with the maximum li considerably above the 
base; and (3) the dense, tawny pubescence of the branchlets, leaves and 
floral parts. 

Further collections may prove this species to be worthy of varietal status 
only. It is confined to the provinces of western China, only one collection 
of .1. Milicttii having been made so far from Kwangsi. 
2a. Adinandra Bockiana Pritzcl ex Diets var. acutifolia (Hand. -Mazz.) , comb. nov. 

Adinandra acutilolia Handel-Mazzetti in Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 59: 105 (PI. Nov. 
Sin. Forts. 16, p. 5). 1922.-- Uehhior in Nat. I'tlanzeniam. ed. 2, 21: 144. 1925. 
— Metcalf in Lingnan Sci. Jour. 11:20. 1932. — Chun in Sunyatscnia 1:297. 

Distribution: China (Fukien, Hunan, Kweichow, Kwangsi). 

Fukien: Yenping, Buong Kane, in bamboo forest, alt. 1000 m„ //. //. Chung 3640 
(A, M), July 2, 1925 (tree 10 mj. Hi-nan: Near city of Wukang, on Yun-shan Mt. 
in deep forest, alt. 1170 m., //. Handel Mazzelti 12550 (iso-syntype, A), July 29, 
1918 (shrub 2 m. with vellow flowers). — Sinning Hsien, Ma-Ling Tung, under shade 
on slope, alt. 640 m., C. S. Fan & Y. Y. Li 516 (A), Sept. 21, 1935 (tree 10 m. high 
with dark purple fruit). Kweichow: In dumetis ad pagum Hadschai, alt. 950 m., 
//. Handel-Mazzctti 10759 (iso-syntype, A), July 14, 1917 (irutex elatus, fl. albis). 
— Tan ling, Tuhshan, in light shade, Y. Tsiang 6803 (A, XV), Sept. 5, 1930 (tree 4 
m. high; leaves deep lustrous green above, lighter below). — Kvveiting, along river, in 
open, alt. 400-550 m„ Y. Tsian K 5464 (A, NY), June 30, 1930 (shrub; leaves deep 
green above, lighter below ). - Yao ren-shan, San hoa, in light woods, alt. 400-700 

lustrous green above, lighter below). Shang sze Distr., Shap Man Cha 
Muk, near Hoh Lung village, southeast of Shang sze (Kwangtung border), Wong Pan 
Cha Muk, in dry, clay thickets, W. T. Tsang 22486 (A), July 17, 1933 (tree 3 m. tall 
with edible black fruit). — Shang-sze Distr. (Kwangtung border), southeast of Shang- 
sze, Shap Man Taai Shan, Tang Lung village. Wong Pan Cha Shoe, in swamp thickets, 
W. T. Tsang 24013 (A, M, NY), Aug. II. 1934 (common, 2 m. high; fruit black, 
edible). — Shang-sze Distr., southeast of Shang-sze (Kwangtung border), near Iu 
Shan village, Wong Pan Cha Shoe, in dr\ silt, sandy soil, W . T. Tsang 22167 (A), 

Hsi-chang village and v 
steep slope, W . T. Tsang 
fruit edible, black). 

Added Description: Flowers axillary, solitary or rarely in twos; 
pedicel usually recurved, ca. 1 cm. long, lightly strigillose or glabrescent; 
bracteoles 2, quickly caducous, when present linear-oblong, ca. 2 mm. long 
and 1 mm. wide, slightly pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, broadly 
ovate, subequal, 4-5 mm. long. 3-3.5 mm. wide, glabrescent or glabrous, 
the outer lobes somewhat acuminate, the inner lobes more rounded at the 
apex, the margin glandular and ciliate-fimbriate; corolla-lobes 5, connate 
at the base, ca. 7 mm. long, 4.5-5 mm. wide, rounded at the apex, pubescent 
on the median portion of the exterior surface; stamens ca. 25, uniseriate, 
ca. 5 mm. long, the filaments lightly adnate to the base of the corolla, free 
from each other, glabrous, ca. 2 mm. long, somewhat dilated in the middle, 

18 .101 RNAL OF TIIK \HNOLI) \RBORKTl\l [voi..xxvm 

the anthers ca. 2 mm. long, quite wide at the base, somewhat sagittate. 
densely hirsute, the apicule ca. 1 mm. long; ovary subglobnse. white- 
sericeous, 3-celled, multi-ovulate, the style ca. S mm. long, glabrous, entire. 
Fruit globose, dark purple when ripe, soft, thin-walled, ovoid, ca. 1 cm. or 
more in diameter, many-seeded; the seeds dark, shining. 

This variety agrees with the species in most characters. The chief 
feature of separation is the glabrescent or glabrous character of most of 
its parts. 

21). A<liiiaiulr:i Itm-kiunu I'rit/cl ex DieN var. tonkimmsis. var. nov. 

Oen. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1 : 2S4. 1<>45. Non (Hooker & Arnott) Bentham & 

A typo differt gemmis, juventutibus ramulis. pedicellis. bracteolis, calyci- 
bus pubescentibus adpressis. 

Disiruh'tion: Indo-China (Tonkin). 

Tonkin: Chapa, on hanks of brooks and ravines, alt. 1500 m., ,1. Pelrlot 3751 
(type, XV, I'S), July 1930 (tree 10 m. hi-li with very pale salmon-colored corolla).- 
Station (in Tarn I)a<>, alt. 9CO m.. .1. I'clclot .^70 (NY, I'S). Mav l«31. Chapa, 
alt. 1500 m., A. Petrtot 4M)S (NY. I'S), July 1931. 

Both Merrill and Gagnepain associated the specimens cited above with 
. 1. Mill rt tii. However, the acuminate leaves, the broadly ovate calyx-lobes 
and the pubescent corolla lobes show it to be a variation of .!. Bockiana 
and closely allied to .1. Bockiana var. acntijolia. The real difference lies 
in the pubescence. Whereas, in .1. Bockiana and ,1. Bockiana var. 
acutijolia the pubescence is spreading, in this variety the pubescence is 
short and closely appressed. 

3. A.linamlra m.^apliv I la I In in Hull. Fan. Mem. Inst. Biol. 6: 172. 1935; in ham. PL 
Sin. 5: I, t. 201. 1937. 

k wan-si) ; liuio China ( 
sien, in ravine, alt. 1200 i 

Iniki-Ciiina: Tonkin: near Chapa. all. IS00 m., ,1 . Pctelot 57SS (isotyim of 
.1. Petelotii, A), Aug, 1930. 

Small tree (6 m. ) ; branchlets terete, ferrugineou.s-pilnse; terminal buds 
elongate-conical up to 2 cm. long, densely appressed ten ugineons-sericeous. 
Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, 16 24 cm. long. 4-7 cm. wide, 
acuminate at the apex, rounded to broadly cuneate at the base, the very 
young unfolding leaves densely ferrugineous-pubescent, the mature leaves 
glabrous on the upper surface except within the channelled midrib, 
scattered-appres.sed -pilose beneath in varying degrees, occasionally quite 
glabrescent. the margin serrulate with occasional apiculate glands varying 
according to the age of the leaf, the veins ca. 20 24 pairs, slightly curved, 
arching, more prominent beneath, the reticulations obvious, the petiole 


stout, ca. 12-15 cm. long, appressed-ferrugineous-pilose above and beneath. 
Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicel up to 3 cm. long, thickened at the apex, 
recurved, appressed-pilose; bracteoles 2, quickly caducous, alternate, when 
present oblong, acute at the apex, 5-6 mm. long, ca. 3 mm. wide, pilose; 
calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, thick, unequal, broadly ovate, outer lobes 11-13 
cm. long, 10-11 cm. wide, sericeous on the median portion of the dorsal 
surface, the inner lobes pubescent, smaller, less thick, the margins more 
scarious; corolla-lobes (fide Hu) "5, unequal, broadly ovate-oblong, to 
13 mm. long, 7 mm. broad, slightly grey-ferrugineous-sericeous outside, 
glabrous inside serrulate along the margins;" stamens 40-45, seemingly 
uniseriate, rather uniform in size, the filaments short, thickened, ca. 2 mm. 
long, glabrous, the anthers ca. 4 mm. long, densely sericeous on the dorsal 
surface, apiculate: ovary conical, densely sericeous, 5-celled, multi-ovulate, 
tapering at the apex into the short blunt style which is appressed-pubescent, 
the pubescence thinning out towards the glabrous apex. Mature fruit not 
seen, maturing fruit very thick-walled. 

There are several very obvious characteristics which aid in easily dis- 
tinguishing this species. First, the large, oblong-lanceolate leaves 20-24 
cm. long and definitely serrate; second, the large almost velvety calyx-lobes, 
similar in size and appearance to those of A. glischroloma var. macroscpala 
(Metcalf) Kob.; and third, the pubescence along the midrib of the upper 
surface of the leaf. 

Gagnepain described the same species under the name A. Petelotii. 
There is no need for discussion because the two arc obviously the same. 
Li's species, A. serrulata, was described from specimens with leaves some- 
what smaller (16-20 X 4-5 cm.), but otherwise matching those of A. 
megaphylla perfectly. 

Hu's original description is excellent and very detailed. He states, 
however, that the stamens are glabrous. Although only buds were available 
for dissection in this study, it is clear from these dissections that the stamens 
are very hirsute along the dorsal surface of the anther. Also Hu gives the 
impression from his description and later drawings in Icon. PI. Sin. that the 
bracteoles are persistent, whereas in the two specimens examined they are 
obviously quickly caducous. He fails to mention that the ovary and style 
are pubescent and that the ovary is five-celled. His later illustration, 
however, depicts pubescence on these parts. 

4. AdinaiMlra glixl.roh.n.a Handcl-Ma/zetti in An/. Ak.ul Wi-. Wien 60:96 (PI. 
Nov. Sin. Forts. 16. p. 5). 1923. — Melchior in Nat. Pflanzenfam. cd. 2, 21: 145. 
1925. — Merrill in Linnnan Sci. Jour. 7:315. [1929] 1931. — Metcalf in Lingnan 
Sci. Jour. 11:20. 1932. 

Adinandra clunnisi, M< rrili c\ Metcalt, loc. cat., nomen. 

Kwaxgtttnc: Lo.h.u._' Distr., Sci Ilsien, ( L. 2032S (A. NY), May 9, 1929. 
- -Canton, mar town of Lien pin-, alt. 500-900 m., K. Mell 670 (iso-syntype, A), 
Aug. 11, 1920 (verv abundant ).— Lung T'au Mt, near village of Iu, in ravine on side 
of mountain, K. P. To & V. K. Ts'ang 12041 (M, US), May 23, 1924 (tree 2 m. 
high; flowers red and white) . — Sing-fung Distr., Hau T'ong Shan, Fuk Lung Mon- 
astery, in thickets, V. W. Taam 75S (A). May June 193.S (mattered shrubs with black 
edible fruit). — Mei Distr. (Raying), Yam Na Shan (Yit Nga Shan), in dry silt, 
W. T. Tsang 21387 (A, NY), Aug. 1932 (scattered shrubs ca. 3 m. tall; fruit black). 

.101 RNAL OF TIIK \l!\OI 1) MiHOHKTl M [vol. xxvm 

west of Shan Fane, N. Luchen, in forest, alt. 600 
(A. NY), June- 6. 192S (shrub 2 m. high; leaves dark green 
above, paler below). — Yao Shan, in mixed woods, ('. Wang 39479 (A), 40155 (A), 
•/0/<5/ (A), June-Oet. 1936 (tree 10-15 m. hi-h ; fruit black). 

Shrub or small tree; branchlets thick. Icicle, villous pubescent, the 
young branchlets and terminal buds covered with a brown, more 
dense villous pubescence. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, S 14 cm. 
long, 3-5 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base, usually 
cuneate, occasionally somewhal rounded, glabrous above, tawny-hirsute 
beneath, more densely concentrated along the margin and the midrib, the 
margin revolute, usually entire with occasional apiculate glands, the con- 
centrated pubescence (extending from beneath) appearing as a halo along 
the edge of the upper surface, the veins 10 12 pairs, conspicuous on both 
surfaces, the petiole S 10 nun. long, densely hirsute. Flowers axillary, in 
twos or threes, rarely solitary; pedicel d-l.S mm. long, erect or recurved, 
tawny-brown-hirtellous; bracteoles 2. caducous, opposite or alternate; 
calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, btoadh ovate, o 7 mm. long, hirtellous; corolla 
and stamens not seen; immature capsule 5 (died, hirtellous. the style ca. 
1 cm. long, the lower two-thirds hirtellous. the upper third glabrous. 

The tawny-hirtellous pubescence of the young branchlets. the under 
surface of the leaves and the flowering parts make this species and its 
varieties easily distinguishable. Concentrated along the margin, even when 
the leaf has become glabrescent. this pubescence projects beyond the edge 
of the lower surface in such quantity and to such an extent that when 
viewed from the upper surface it presents the appearance of a tawny halo. 
The species is unique in this character. Another unusual feature, for 
Chinese species, is the occurrence of the axillary flowers in twos and threes; 
only occasionally does one find solitary flowers. All material cited above 
is either in bud or in the post anthesis stage. Dissections of very young 
buds do show, even so. that the corolla-lobes are pubescent on the median 
portion of the external surface and are somewhat ovate in shape. The 
stamens, although they appear to be in series and over SO in number, are 
quite uniform in size. The filaments are glabrous and the anthers hirsute. 

In Tsang 213S7, the only specimen with developing fruit, the calyx-lobes 
measure close to 10 mm. in length and 5-6 mm. in width. 

Cited here as a synonym is the herbarium name . I. ch/iioisis Merrill. 
Metcalf (Lingnan Sci. Jour. 11:20. 1932) mentioned this unpublished 
species and listed it as a synonym of his own .1. macroscpala. Examina- 
tion of Merrill's specimens shows that Merrill had designated as the type 
of his unpublished species Wulsin's (Canton Christian College 12041) 
specimen and not I'/norj, .my/, which belongs to the variety macroscpala. 

4a. Adinanclra gliscln oh. ma Handel Ma/./.eUi var. macrosepala t Metcalf ), comb. nov. 
Distribution: China (Fukien, Chekiang). 

Chung an Hsien, open hillside, alt. HOC m., //. //. Hit 1322 (swivel-: of ,1. macrose- 


Chekiang: 80 li northeast of Tai Suan, in open thickets, alt. 800 m., R. C. Ching 
2183 (A, NY, US), Julv 20, 1924 (shrub 5 m. high with brownish bark). — Taishun 
Hsien, on mountain slope, Y. L. Keng 312 (A), Auk. 5, 1926 (shrub 1-2 m.). 

The chief difference of this variety from the species is found in the size 
of the calyx-lobes. Whereas, in the species, in bud, the lobes measure 6-7 
mm. in length and in a single early fruiting specimen the calyx-lobes 
measure 9-10 mm. X 5-6 mm., in the variety, the calyx-lobes in bud 
measure 11-14 mm. in length. Their full development is not known. 

Dissections of flowers in bud, more nearly mature than those in the 
species, show that, like the species, their corolla-lobes are ovate, acute at 
the apex, and pubescent on the dorsal surface. The stamens, many in 
number, appear -to be seriate. The anthers are quite uniform and measure 
ca. 3 mm. in length. The filaments are very short and glabrous, while 
the apicule varies considerably in length, from 1-2-3 mm. 

One may assume that, when mature flowers of the species and variety 
are collected, all the floral parts of the variety will be uniformly larger 
than those of the species. 
4b. Adinandra glischroloma Handel-Mazzetti var. jubata (Li), comb. nov. 

Distribution: China (Kwangtung). 

This variety is characterized by a beautiful, dense, ferrugineous, 
iridescent tomentum (sometimes as much as 5 mm. long) on the terminal 
buds, young branchlets, under surface of the leaves, and flowering parts. 
Li separated it from A. glischroloma Handel-Mazzetti but it appears to 
be nearer the variety var. macrosepala and except for degree of pubescence 
is a perfect match for Chung 7369 collected in Fukien. 

In reality, except for pubescence, this variety seems to be midway 
between the species and the variety macrosepala. In the two latter entities 
the pubescence is very similar. However, they both agree with var. jubata 
in type of pubescence differing only in density. 


. Gen 

a pliM-hroloma 
hirta Gagnepair 
. Indo-Chine, Su 


ion: Indo-Chin; 

Ton i 

Chapa, alt. 1S0C 

Syst. Mm 

m., A. Petelot i 

This variety agrees with A. glischroloma Handel-Mazzetti in most 
characteristics. The flowers are axillary and like the species are in pairs, 
or in threes, rather than solitary. The buds are small and very hirsute. 
The pubescence of the leaves, although of the same type, is less dense. 
However, in the very young leaves, the pubescence appears more dense and 
typical of the species. 

The characteristics which separate var. hirta from the species, although 

JOI IPNAL OK 'I'lli: \K\ MJI'.nlil II M 

5. AdiiKiiidra (ilip.-s Merrill in herb., sp. nov. 

Frutex 4 m. alt lis. subglaber ( iloribus ignotis). ramis ramulisque tereti- 
bus, ramulis ultimis 2 nun. diametro. adpresso-pubescentibus; gem mis 
leviter adpresso-pubescentibus; foliis coriaceis, oblongo-ellipticis, 7 10 cm. 
longis, 2-2.5 cm. latis, apice graciliter acuminalis, hasi cuneatis. glabris, 
baud punctatis. margine minute apiculato serrulatis. dentibus inter se 2 3 
mm. distantibus, deor-aim tvmot ioribus, margine in partibus inferioribus 
integris vol subintegris, nervis primariis utrinque 12-15, gracilibus baud 
perspicuis, arcuato-anastomosantibus; petiolo crasso. circiter 2 mm. longo; 
fructibus solitariis. axillaribus. longe (4 cm.) graciliterque pedicellatis, 
ovoideis, circiter 1 cm. longis (immaturis) consperse pubescent ibus, stylis 
gracilibus, circiter 1 cm. longis, breviter eiliato-piibeseenl ibus, apice breve 
tripartitis; bracteolis 2. oadueis; sepalis 5. imbricalis. persistentibus. re- 
tlexis, oblongo-ovatis, circiter S mm. longis, acutis. ubscurissime adpresso- 
pubescentibus. Yeo Mor Shan, N. Lin Von, rare in forest, alt. 1400 m., R. C. Citing 

7/33' (ivpk, NY, tracing A), Au, 2C 1928 (shrub ,5 m. high with -ray hark; leaves 

This species, considered rare by the collector, is characterized by the 
slender, elongated pedicels which in fruit are 4 cm. in length, by the 
relieved sepals, and the three parted, pubescent style. 

6. AiIiikiihIim liaiiianeiiMs Havata, Iron. PI. Kormos. ,'f:4v 1913. Mclehior in Nat. 

Pllan/enfam. ed. 2, 21:144. 1925. — Men ill in Lin-nan S. i. Jour. <>:2S5. toSO. 
I'anaka & Odashima in Jour. Soe. Trop. Agric. 10:375. 1W1. Metcalf in 
Lingnan Sri. lour. II : 20. 1932. 
Adnnuuln, huhmnmsh Men, I! in Philip. Jour. Sei. 2:i:25<>. PL'S. 
Adnuindra Madurti Merrill in Lin-nan Sei. Jour. , > : 129. 1927. 

Adinandra rubropunctata Merrill & Chun in Sunvat-cnia 1: 70. 1950.- Metcalf in 
Lin-nan Sei. Jour. 11:20. 1<C2. Merrill & Chun in Sunxatsenia 2:41. 1934.— 
Chun, Iron. PI. Sin. 5:3, t. 203. 1937; in Sunyatsenia 4: 1SS. 1940. 
(Hainan, Kwangtung). 
; Distr., Ka Chik Shan and vicinity, in thickets on dry cliffs, 

diam.). Lam Ko Distr., Ku Hoi and vicinity, II. /'. T«in K 201 (A, M, NY, PS), 
Julv 29, 1927 (4 m. high). Taani Chau Distr., Sha I'o Shan, in forest, IV. T. Tsang 
h< (A. NY. PS), Max 27, PUS ((lowers white). Lam Ko-Chuim Mai Districts 
Taai Won- Shan, summit of mountain, IV. T. Tsang 711 (A, PS), June l\ 192S (2 
m. high; llnwcr- white). Dun- Ka to Wen Ka Shi, in thicket-, alt. 5 50 in.. A". A'. 
Chun eV C. I.. Tso 4J77S (A. NY). Sept. 1, 1952 (tree (. m. high, 10 cm. diam. with 
smooth -ray branches and brow nidi -ra\ hranchlets, leave- dark green glabrous above, 
paler pubescent beneath). Dung Ka, in forested ravine, alt. S00 m„ .V. A. Chun & 
C I.. Tso 4MJ.^ (A, N\ ), Sept. 2-, 1952 (tree S m. high with gray bark and branch- 
lets; leaves lustrous dark green above, paler beneath). Ng Chi Ling, Kan Yah, in 
thin forest, alt. 500 m.. A. A'. Chun fr C. L. Tso 44012 (A, C, NY), Oct. 5, 1932 (tree 

forest ravine, alt. 500 m., F. C. II tm 720S1 (A), April 2.\ 1955 (tree 7 m. high with 


(A), June 21, 1935 (tree 10 m. high, 15 cm. diam.). — Five Finger Mt., in wooded 

Ching Mai Distr., Tai Wong Ling and vicinity, Tung Pin Tin village, dry sandy slope 
in thicket, C. J. Lei 916 (A, NY, T S), Ink 5, 1 )33 Hung Mo Shan and vicinity, 

b> stream, Tang & Fung 202 (A, NY, US), June U, 1929 (fruit black). — Seven 
Finger Mt., in thicket on slope, //. Y. Liang 61760 (A, NY, US), May 6, 1930 (tree 
7 m. high with gray bark and branches). — Ngai Distr., Yeung Ling Shan, in thickets 
on moist clay slope. S. K. lor> (A. M, NY, US), July 2, 1932. — Bak Sa, in 
thickets, 5. A'. Lau 2613S (A), April ,S, 103ft.- - Loklung, in dense woods, S. K. Lau 
27209 (A), June 20, 1936. — Po-ting, in forested ravine, alt. 400 m, F. C. How 72471, 
73514 (A), May-Aug. 1935 (tree 9 25 m. high; flowers while). Exact locality lack- 
Aug. 12, 1933 (tree 10 m. high). 
, Sup Man Ta Sh 

Sunyi, in li-ht shade, alt. <)30 m., V. Tiling 2713 (type of A. rubropunctata, NY)| 

Shrub or small tree up to 10 m., rarely up to 25 m.; branches brown or 
grayish brown, terete, the very young branchlets and terminal buds 
appressed-pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic to oblong-obovate, 
6-8 X' 2-3 cm. and 10-13 X 5-6 cm., shortly acuminate at the apex, 
acute at the base, shining green above, paler beneath, glabrous on both 
surfaces, conspicuously dark-punctate beneath, the margin distinctly 
glandular-denticulate, the veins ca. 12 pairs, distinct on both surfaces, 
reticulate, the petiole ca. 5 mm. long, on larger leaves up to 10 mm. 
Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicel ca. 7 mm. long, strongly recurved, 
generally glabrous or glabrescent, those of the very young flowers 
appressed-pubescent especially at the very tip of the branchlets; bracteoles 
2, opposite, quickly caducous, when present pubescent, unequal, ca. 3 X 
1.5 mm. and 5X3 mm.; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, densely tawny-seri- 
ceous-pubescent, subequal, 6-8 mm. long, ca. 6 mm. wide, ovate, sometimes 
subrotund at the apex, outer lobes thicker, glandular-denticulate along the 
scarious margin, the inner lobes thinner, the margin usually entire; corolla- 
lobes 5, connate at the base, white, pubescent on the median portion of 
the exterior surface, oblong-subelliptic, 7-8 mm. long, ca. 4 mm. wide, 
somewhat obtuse at the apex; stamens 30-35, seemingly uniseriate, rather 
uniform in size, 5.5-7 mm. long, the filaments 2-3 mm. long, glabrous, 
quite free from each other, adnate to the base of the corolla, projected at 
the apex into an apicule ca. 1 mm. long, the anthers ca. 3 mm. long, linear, 
pubescent; ovary minute, densely covered with whitish or tawny pubes- 
cence, 5-celled, multi-ovulate, tapering into a densely pubescent style 
6-7 mm. long. Fruit globose, black, pubescent, 5-celled, many-seeded, 
1-2 cm. diameter. 

The outstanding characteristics of this species are: (1) the 5-celled 
ovary; (2) the dense tawny pubescence on the floral parts; (3) the distinct 
reticulate veining obvious on both surfaces and the dark-punctate dots on 
the lower surface of the leaves; (4) the short, recurved pedicel; and (5) 
the glandular-denticulate margin of the leaves. 

Its closest relative is A. lasiostyla Hayata, which can be separated by 
the 3 -celled ovary, the obscure veining, the usually entire margin, and the 
scattered pubescence on the lower half of the style. 

Several synonyms are cited above, only one of which, A. rubropunctata 

24 .101 KWI. OF TIIK \K\OI.l) \KBORFTl \I Ivor, xxvm 

Merrill & Chun, needs comment. In 1940, Chun (Sunyatsenia 4: 188) 
listed seven specimens from Hainan as belonging to .1. rubropunctata. 
Of these, I have examined S. K. Lau 196, If. V. Liang 61760, F. C. How 
72471 and 73514. I can find no characters in these specimens that would 
warrant separation from the above species. Metcalf (1932) separates 
A. rubropunctata from .1. hainancnsis on the presence o\ red-punctate dots 
on the lower surface of the leaf, and the apiculate dent iculat ions along the 
margin. The original description stressed these two characters. Examin- 
ing considerable material, one finds great variation in the color of the 
punctate dots which range from black through brown to reddish brown, 
even to a lighter yellowish shade. This color variation is undoubtedly 
due to the age of the leaf. The apiculate dent iculat ions may he found on 
nearly even- leaf, varying in size and number. Age probably governs this 
characteristic also, as these apiculat ions are very fragile and are easily 
broken off. 

The type specimen of .!. rubropunctata, Tsiang 2713, offers the only 

cited above the pubescence is tawny or straw-colored, in the above-men- 
tioned type the pubescence is inure dense and ferrugineous. The pedicels 
of Tsiang 2713 are densely pubescent. As it happens, all the (lowers of 
Tsiang 2713 are concentrated at or near the apex of the young branchlets. 
so near as still to possess the pubescence found on the early growing parts. 
In the other specimens examined the flowers are scattered along the stems, 
and the pedicels are usually glabrous or onl\ slightb pubescent. In Tsiang 
2713, the bracteoles are consistently persistent. In the other specimens 
of .1. hainancnsis. the bracteoles are quickh caducous, but when present. 
are of the same size and shape as those found on the above-mentioned 
Tsiang specimen. 

7. lasiostyla Hayata in Jour. Coll. Sri. Tokyo 30 (Art 1) : 42. toil.— 
Kanehira, Formosan Trees 5s. I'm. I'M 7: revised eel. 45s, hue 410. 1936. — Mel- 
chior in Nat. Pflanzenfam. eel. 2. 21: 145. 1925. Sasaki. Cat. Covrrnm. Herb. 

Distribution: Formosa. 

Formosa: Arisan, R. Kanchira 2S42 (XV, IS), Dec. 1, 19.U.— Arisan Prow, 
Kagi, in forest, alt. 1600-2800 m., E. H. Wilson 9667, 9770, 10819 (A, US), Jan. 29, 
Feb. 4, Oct. IS, 1918 (tree 10 15 m. high). 

Trees S 15 m. high, 1-1.5 m. circumference' : branches terete, brown to 
grayish brown, the branchlets and terminal buds tawny-pubescent. 
Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, S-15 cm. long 2 4 cm. wide-, acuminate 
at the apex, acute at the base, shining glabrous above, pubescent beneath, 
the margin entire or obscurely crenulate. the veins ca. 12 pairs, obscure 
above, somewhat conspicuous beneath, the petiole short, 3-5 mm. long, 
pubescent beneath. Flowers axillary, solitary: pedicels pubescent, short, 
recurved, ca. 5 mm. long; bracteoles 2. quickly caducous; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, subequal, rounded, ca. 6 mm. long, 5 mm. wide, pubescent, 
glandular-denticulate along the margin: corolla-lobes 5. lightly connate at 
the base, ca. c > mm. long, 5 mm. wide, broadly acute or obtuse at the apex, 
pubescent along the median portion of the exterior surface; stamens 20-25, 


seemingly uniseriate, rather uniform in size. 5 5.5 mm. long, the filaments 
glabrous, 1.5-2 mm. long, quite free from each other but adnate to the 
base of the corolla, the anthers ca. 2.5 mm. long with dense tawny pubes- 
cence, the apicule distinct 1-1.5 mm. long; ovary subglobose, tapering 
slightly at the apex, scattered pubescent, 3-celled, mult i ovulate; style 
entire, up to 10 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. in diameter near the base, sparingly 
pubescent along the lower half; stigma obtuse. Fruit immature. 

This species is closely related to ,1 . Millrttii (Hooker & Arnott) Benth. 
& Hook. f. and perhaps belongs to the same alliance of species. Certain 
consistently uniform characteristics, however, are present to warrant 
specific separation. The large pubescent acuminate leaves resemble those 
of . I. Bockiami Pritzel and its variety acutijolia (Hand.-Ma/z. ) Kob. 

A dense pubescence covers the young branchlets, lower leaf-surface, 
pedicels and calyx-lobes. Oddly enough, the style (whence the specific 
name) is only slightly pubescent with the scattered pubescence extending 
only along the lower half. 

The pedicel is very brief, not more than 5 mm. long, and always 
recurved. The calyx-lobes are rounded rather than acute and the exterior 
surface of the corolla-lobes is pubescent. 

Whereas A. Millcttii is considered a shrub and rarely a small tree, this 
species is definitely a tree of considerable magnitude according to Wilson, 
measuring "30-50 ft. X 2-5 ft." I presume the latter measure is cir- 
cumference. Wilson states that the species is very common at Arisan. 
All specimens examined by the author were collected from this locality or 
nearby Mt. Morrison. All other specimens cited in literature have been 
collected in the same general limited locality. 

8. Adinandra epunctata Merrill & Chun v\ Tanaka it (Maxima in Jour. Soc. Trop. 
Agric. 10:374. 1931, nomen; Merrill & Chun in Sunyatscnia 5: 132, fig. 14. 1940. 

Distribution: China (Hainan). 

Hainan: Mo San Leng, in forest, alt. 1300 m., N. K. Chun & C. L. Tso 44280 
(A, C, NY, US), Nov. 20, 1032 (tree 12 m. high with grayish brown bark and gray 

In mixed forest, C. Wang 36007 (A, NY, US), Dec. 30, 1933 (tree 12 m. high with 
white flowers). — In shaded forest on mountain side. //. Y. Uan R 64384 (NY), Jan. 

Small tree 12-18 m. high; branches terete, glabrous, gray or brown-gray, 
the branchlets terete, gray or gray-brown, finely appressed-pale- to ferru- 
gineous-pubescent, the terminal buds conical, covered with a very dense 
tawny to ferrugineous velvety pilose pubescence. Leaves coriaceous, 
elliptic-oblong, 5-11 cm. long. 2-4 cm. wide, acute at both the apex and 
the base, lustrous, deep green, glabrous above, paler, at first densely 
appressed-pubescent beneath, later glabrescent or nearly so. entire along 
the margin, the veins 12-15 pairs, arching upward near the margin, quite 
prominent above, less so beneath, the petiole 8-15 mm. long, appressed- 
pubescent. Flower- axillary, solitary, occasionally in twos; pedicels up 
to 7 mm. long, densely pubescent, usually somewhat recurved; bracteoles 
2, opposite, persistent, sepaloid, long-triangular, ca. 3 mm. long, 1.75-2 

26 JOl KN \I- OF THE ARNOLD AKBOKKTl \1 hoi. wun 

mm. wide, acute at the apex, densely pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, 
ovate, acute at the apex, ca. 5 mm. long, 2.5-3 mm. wide, entire, densely 
appressed-pale-pubescent; corolla-lobes 5. white, lightly connate at the 
base, oblong, obtuse at the apex. 6 7 mm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, pubescent 
on the external surface, glabrous within; stamens 25, unequal, 4-6 mm. 
long (in the same flower), the filaments 2 4 nun. lung, pubescent on the 
external surface except at the base where joined to the corolla, for the 
same distance joined to each other, the anthers lanceolate, nearly equal, 
1.5-2.0 mm. long, pubescent; the apicule short, 0.5 mm. or less; ovary 
somewhat conic-ovoid, densely gray-pubescent, 3-celled, tapering at the 
apex into an entire, pubescent style ca. 3-4 mm. long. Fruit small, ovoid, 
ca. 5 mm. long, 4 mm. diam., densely pubescent. 3-celled. few-seeded, seeds 
9-10, brown, scrobicular, ca. 2 mm. long. 

A few of the outstanding characteristics of this species are the small 
flowers and fruit, the persistent and comparatively large bracteoles. the 
very short pedicels, the pubescent filaments of the anthers, the entire 
leaves, and the small number of seeds developing in the fruit. 

Although not described until I "10. this species was mentioned in a list 
of the Hainan plants by Tanaka and Odashima in 1931, the name 
probably recorded from an herbarium sheet. 

Merrill and Chun, in their description, do not mention the number of 
cells in the ovary and fruit but in the accompanying illustration the ovary 
is pictured as six-celled. Because of the minute size and dense pubescence, 
dissections of the ovary are very difficult and quite unsatisfactory. On 
the other hand, the fruit, when mature, is so crowded with the few seeds 
which are normal in size, even though the fruit is small, that dissections 
again are rather unsatisfactory. After several dissections, none of which 
showed clear-cut cell-structure, my conclusions are that the fruit is three- 
celled rather than six-celled. It may be that in the original drawing the 
placentae, which often extend nearly across the cell, were mistaken for 
cell walls. 

«. Ailiiiandra laotiru Gamiepain in Not. Syst. Mil*. Hist. Nat. Paris 10:114. 1042 ; 
in Ft. Gen. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1:283. 1943. 

Distribution: Indo-China (Laos). 

Laos: Hui-Muanc An. Xirn- -khuansi. by stream anion- on-nrih, alt. up to 
1100 ni., ,1. F. G. Kerr 21172 (isotvi-k. K), April 21, 1<>32 (live 15 m. liijjh). 

Tree 15 m. high; branchlets tawny brown, terete, glabrous; terminal 
buds large, glabrous. Leaves thick-coriaceous, glabrous, oblong-lanceolate, 
15 20 cm. long. 5.5 <>.5 cm. wide, shortly acuminate at the apex, tapering 
at the base, the margin entire, lightly revolule, the primary veins 12-15 
pairs, anastomosing and arching upward neat the margin, somewhat pro- 
nounced above, obscure beneath, frequent secondary veins interspersed 
between the primary veins, the petiole 15-20 mm. long, glabrous. Flowers 
axillary, in pairs; pedicel 2-2.5 cm. long, glabrous, thickening towards the 
apex; bracteoles 2, opposite or nearly so. quickly caducous; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, broadly ovate, =t 8 mm. long. 0-7 mm. wide, glabrous, the 
margin ciliolate: corolla-lobes (in bud) 5. connate at the base, ca. 6 mm. 
long, glabrous; stamens (bud) ca. 25, 3?-seriate, 2-6 mm. long, the filaments 


glabrous, the anthers pilose; ovary glabrous, quite flat in bud, 5-celled. 
multi-ovulate, the style entire, glabrous. 

Adinandra laotka is in many respects a very close relative of A. angulata 
Ridley. Both species have thick branches and branchlets, terete in the 
former and decidedly angled in the latter. The leaves of both are stiff 
and heavy-coriaceous. The flowers are axillary and in pairs. In A. 
angulata the two pedicels remain attached at the base when removed from 
the stem and it appears that such may be the case in A. laotka. Both 
species are very glabrous, even to the terminal bud. 

In A. angulata, the ovary and fruit are ^-celled with few ovules and later 
with only a few large seeds developing, (iagnepain describes the ovary of 
A. laotka as 4-celled. My single dissection showed i he ovary to be clearly 
5-celled. Only buds were available to both ( Iagnepain and myself, and in 
the bud, the ovary is very Hat. thin and difficult to section. The bracteoles 
of A. laotka are caducous while in .1. angulata they are persistent. Also, 
the veins of the leaves of . I. angulata are less in number and much more 

10. Adinandra nilida Merrill ex Li in Jour. Arnold Arb. 25:422. 1944. 

Distribution': China (Kwangsi, Kwangtung). 

KwAXGsr: Shan--sze Distr.. Shap Atari J aai Shan, mar lu Shan villain-, southeast 
of Shanz-sze. near the Kwanntuim border, in <lr\ >and\ tnickcts. \\ . /. I sans. 22322 
(type, A), May IS, 1933 (4 m. hi-h ; flowers Ira-rant, white) . — Shang-sze Distr., 
Shap Man Taai Shan, near Hoh I. mi- villa-e, southeast of Shan--s/e, near Kwangtung 
border, in thickets on dr> steep rocky slope, W. T. Tsang 22571 (A), June 26, 1933 
(fruit black). — Shan--s/e Distr., Shap Man Taai Shan, Tang Lung villain-, southeast 
of Shang-sze, near Kwangtung border, If. T. Tsang 21-131 (A, NY), Oct. 1934 
(scattered shrubs 2 in. high: fruit vellow, edible). N. 1. m Inn. t"hu Fen- Shan, 30 
li southwest of Shan Fen-, in fore-t, alt. Si)0 in., A'. C. Chins. 5S2r, (XV), June S, 1928 
(tree 15 m. high, 30 cm. diam., with grav bark). Kan-tun-, Miu Shan, in forest, 
alt. 1000 m., R. C. Ching 6130 (NY), June IS, 192,8 (tree 10 m. high, 15 cm. diam., 
with gray bark: leaves -lo.-sv -n en above, paler beneath; flowers creamy white, 
scented, nodding). — N. Luchen, In-tung, Miu Shan, near border of Kweichow, in 
woods, alt. 1000 m., R. C. China 6238 (NY), June 21, 192S (shrub 6 m. high, 15 cm. 
diam.; leaves glossv dark green above, paler beneath, llowers creamy white, nodding). 
— South of Nanning, R. C. China 8-151 (NY), Nov. 5, 192S (tree 20 m. high).— 
Yao Shan, along stream in mixed woods, C. Wans, 30213 (A), 40030 (A), May-Oct. 

(small tree with white flowers). Kwanctixc: Hwei-yan- Distr., Ling Fa Shan, 
Lin Fung Monastery, W. T. Tsang 25656 (A), Aug. 11-31, 1035 (tree 7 m. high; fruit 
black, edible). 

•Shrub or small tree up to 20 m. high; branches terete, glabrous, gray- 
brown, the branchlets usually purplish brown, terete, glabrous, the terminal 
bud obscurely appressed-pubi'scent near the apex, otherwise glabrous. 
Leaves coriaceous, ovate-oblong. 7 12 cm. long. 2.5-4 cm. wide, acuminate 
or obtusely acuminate at the apex, acute at the base, glabrous on both 
surfaces, dark glossy green above, paler beneath, the margin serrulate, 
varying in degree, the veins 12 16 pairs, somewhat conspicuous on both 
surfaces, the petiole glabrous, 1-1.5 cm. long. Flowers axillary, solitary; 
pedicel 1-2 cm. long, glabrous; bracteoles 2, persistent, opposite, unequal, 
subsepaloid, glabrous. 9-11 mm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, ovate, acute at the 


apex, the smaller bracteole usually keeled along the center of the external 
surface; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, glabrous, unequal, ovate, ca. 15 mm. 
long, 7-9.5 mm. wide, sharply acute at the apex, often subapiculate; 
corolla-lobes 5, connate at the base, glabrous, unequal, 17-19 mm. long, 
9-12 mm. wide, obtuse to rounded at the apex; stamens ca. 25, unequal, 
6-11 mm. long, the filaments joined .it the hase. adnate to the base of the 
corolla, glabrous. 2-5 nun. long (in the same flower), the anthers linear. 
4-6 mm. long, hirsute on the exterior surface; ovary glabrous, ovoid, ca. 
4 mm. diam., .welled, multi-ovulate, tapering into the glabrous style 10 
mm. long, the style 3-parted ai the apex tor as much as 3 mm. Fruit 
globose, ca. 1.5 cm. in diameter. 

l(/imin(/r<i nit'ulti, as the name signifies, is characterized by dark green 
leaves, extremely lustrous on the upper surface and dr\ ing to a dark brown 
or near black. The whole plant, except for a slight and almost unnotice- 
able pubescence on the terminal bud and anthers, is glabrous, an unusual 
feature in the genus. Large flowers and dowering parts, including the 
persistent almost sepalnid bracteoles, are features of distinction. The 
style, glabrous and three-parted up to 3 mm. is still another character of 

Except for a single specimen, Tsdiit^ 'ww from kwangtung, the species 
seems to be confined to the province of Kwangsi. However, since several 
specimens were collected on or near the Kwangtung border, one may 
expect to find this species in future Kwangtung collections. 
11. Adinandru Houii Merrill & Chun in Sunyatsonia f> : l.U. 1«M0. 

Distribution: China (Hainan). 

Hainan: Po-tinu Distr., Hinu-Lunp:, Shcon-Kai-Na, in forest, alt. SOU m„ /•'. C. Htnv 

Small tree, 7 m. high; branches terete, glabrous, brownish red, the 
branchlets terete, grayish brown, glabrous except for a very fine appressed 
pubescence at the extreme tip of the new growth, the terminal bud densely 
sericeous. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, 6-11 cm. long. 2.5 4 cm. 
wide, acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base, lustrous green, glabrous 
above, paler green, glabrous beneath, the margin serrulate, minutely 
glandular-apiculate, the veins 15-20 pairs, barely conspicuous on both 
surfaces, the petiole short, 3-5 mm. long, glabrous Mowers not seen. 
Fruit axillary, solitary; pedicel glabrous. 1.5-2 cm. long; bracteoles 2, 
caducous, alternate; fruiting calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, glabrous, broadly 
ovate, ca. 8 mm. long. 5 mm. wide, the outer lobes larger with the margins 
entire, the inner lobes often glandular-margined. Fruit ovoid, glabrous, 
ca. 1 cm. diam.. .welled, many-seeded; the placentae extending nearly 
completely across the cell giving the appearance o\ six cells: style glabrous, 

Except for the terminal buds and the current year's growth of branchlets, 
this species is entirely glabrous. Its closest relative is A. hainanensis 
Hayata, and it might be considered a glabrous variety of this species were 
it not for the three-celled ovary. The type specimen, the only specimen 
examined in this study, was gathered in the immature fruiting stage, hence 


a description of flowers or mature fruit must wait for further collections. 

12. Adinandra ryukyuensis Masamune in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 24: 210. 1934. 
Distribution: Liu Kiu Islands. 

Tree?; branches brown, the branchlets appressed-pilose at the ends, the 
buds densely ferrugineous-pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, obovate, obovate- 
elliptic or elliptic, 3-6 cm. long. 1-2 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, 
cuneate at the base, glabrous above, ferrugineous-pubescent beneath, the 
margin entire, the petiole short, hirsute, flowers axillary, solitary; pedicel 
ca. 2 cm. long, recurved, ferrugineous-pubescent; bracteoles 2, deltoid- 
lanceolate; fruiting calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, ovale, ca. 10 mm. long, 6 mm. 
wide, acuminate at the apex, sericeous-pubescent. Fruit glabrous. 

Adinandra ryukyuensis and .1. /ru-'I 'asiroi , the following species, must be 
linked together in this treatment. Both are from the Liu Kiu Island chain 
and may be identical. Translated descriptions are given here in an 
attempt to bring together as complete knowledge of the genus as possible. 
Although the description of the former is very incomplete, one cannot 
help but be impressed by the very close similarity between the two, even 
though varying terms have been used. Both have persistent bracteoles. 
In .1. ryukyuensis the size is lacking and in A. Zen-Tasiroi the shape is not 
recorded. The calyx-lobes are almosl identical in size, shape and pubes- 
cence. The fruit in both species is glabrous, a character which separates 
these two species from most others within their geographical range. In 
both species, the corolla and stamens are undescribed. 

13. Adinandra Zen-Tasiroi Hatusima in Jour. Jap. Bot. 15: 133. 138, fig. 2. 1939. 
"Adinandra Millettii Bentham et Hooker f. scnsu Maximowirz in Mel. Biol. 12 

(1886) 421, pro parte (plantas ex insl. Amami -ohsima ) . -■ Ito et Matumura, 
Tent, Fl. Lutch. 1 (1809) 324, pro parte. — Hayata, Iron. PI Fornios. 2 (1911) 
852. — Yamamoto et Mori in Sylvia 5 (1934) 31, pi. 1, fig. 4." 

Distribution: Liu Kiu Islands. 

Trees; branches ibrous, the branchlets slender, densely 

appressed gray-hirsute. Leaves alternate, subcoriaceous, shortly petiolate, 
oblong-lanceolate, oblong or lanceolate, long-acuminate at the apex, cuneate 
at the base, 5-8 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. wide, shining glabrous above, 
appressed-hirsute beneath, the margin entire or obscurely crenulate, the 
petiole 3-6 mm. long, densely hirsute. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels 
1.5-2.2 cm. long, densely hirsute; bracteoles 2, opposite, immediately 
below the calyx-lobes, ca. S mm. long, 2 mm. wide, hirsute; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, oblong-ovate or narrowly ovate-triangular, ca. 1 cm. long. 5 mm. 
wide, acuminate at the apex, appressed gray- villous; petals and stamens 
unknown; ovary glabrous, the style glabrous, ca. 6 mm. long. 

A discussion of the close relationship between ,1. Zen-Tasiroi and the 
preceding species, A. ryukyuensis Masamune may be found under the 
latter named entity. Adinandra Zen-Tasiroi has the more complete 

According to the synonymy as recorded by Hatusima, this species has 


been examined by several workers ( Maximowicz. I to and Matsumura, 
Hayata, and Yamamoto and Mori) and erroneously placed under A. 
MUlcttii. This synonymy is quoted above merely for a record. 

14. Adinandra yacyamensis Ohwi in Art. Phytotax. Geobot. 7: 130. l'MS. 
DisiKimi io\: Liu Kiu Islands. 

Same island, ((,'. Koidzumi ; S. Souoluini) . - Iriomote 1st., ((,'. Koidzumi) ." 

Branches and branchlets terete, dark brown, the current year's branchlets 
terete, ascending, densely gray-brown-pilose. Leaves coriaceous, narrow 
oblong to narrow obovate, 5-10 cm. long. 2 3 cm. wide, glabrous, shining 
dark green above, paler, pilose at first beneath, later subglabrescent. 
obtuse at the apex, contracted or abruptly narrowed at the base, the margin 
lightly serrate, the veins somewhat conspicuous beneath, the midrib and 
petiole (4-5 mm. long) pubescent, blowers axillary, solitary; pedicel 
slender, terete, 1.5-3 cm. long, recurved, pilose; bracteoles 2, at the apex 
of the pedicel, caducous: calyx-lobes 5. broadly elliptic or subrotund. 3 5 
mm. long, finally up to 7 mm. long, very obtuse at the apex, sparsely pilose 
on the external surface, ciliolate along the margin; ovary globose, sparsely 
long-pilose, the style ca. 10 mm. long, narrowed from the base, glabrous 
or nearly so, the seeds shining, ca. 1.5 mm. long, dark brown, punctulate. 
This species, like the others from the Liu Kiu chain of islands, is little 
known. \'<> material was available for this study. The above description 
is merely a literal translation of Ohwi's Latin and. along with the citation 
of specimens, is included here in order to bring together in one place all 
the literature of the genus to date. 

Ohwi states that the species can be separated from .1. MUlcttii var. 
jormosana (Hayata) kob. by the longer pubescence, hardly appressed. the 
calyx-lobes obtuse at the apex, and the style, for the most part glabrous. 

15. Adinaridra ol)lnsi>Mma Hayata in Sasaki, Cat. Covernm. Herb. M7 , 1<)S0, nom. 

nud. V. Yamainoto in Jour. So, . Iron. Auric. 5:347, tiu. '). l<)S.v - Kanehira, 
Formosan Trees, revised ed. 453, Ik. 411. I'MO. 
Distribi riots : Formosa. 

Branches and branchlets brown-gray, the branchlets of the current year 
pubescent. Leaves alternate, petiolate. obovate, 4-7 cm. long, 2-3.5 cm. 
wide, very obtuse, rounded or mucronate at the apex, rarely reluse. cuneate 
or acute at the base, the margin entire or rarely lightly 'serrate near the 
apex, in the dried state strongly revolute. shining green above, pale, minutely 
pubescent beneath, the midrib sulfate above, prominent, minutely pubes- 
cent beneath, the primary nerves 10 12 pairs, elevated on both surfaces, 
extending from the midrib at an angle of (>0 -70 ", the petiole 5-7 mm. 
long, sulfate above, pubescent beneath. Fruit axillary, solitary, the pedi- 
cel slender, 2.5 cm. long, glabrous, swollen at the apex. Sepals 5. subequal, 
ovate. S min. long. 5 mm. wide, obtuse at the apex, pubescent on the 
external surface. Fruit globose, ca. 11 12 mm. diam., sericeous-pubescent, 
3-celled, the style persistent, 12 mm. long. 

Originally, in 1930. the name Adinandra obtnsissima was listed as a 
nomen nudum by Sasaki, and attributed to Hayata. Later, in 1933, 


Yamamoto gave a detailed description. He states that the leaves are very 
obtuse or rounded at the apex, 4-7 cm. long, 2-3.5 cm. wide, pubescent on 
the under surface. Both by Yamamoto and Kanehira the leaves are 
illustrated as nearly rotund at the apex and rather broad. The calyx- 
lobes are subequal, ovate, 8 mm. long, 5 mm. wide, obtuse at the apex, and 
pubescent. The pedicel is listed as 2.5 cm. long. The fruit is described 
as globose, 3-celled, ca. 11-12 mm. in diameter, sericeous-pubescent with 
a persistent style 12 mm. long. Although not mentioned in the description, 
evidence of pubescence on the style is depicted in the illustrations. 

Only three specimens of this species have been cited in literature, all of 
them collected by Matuda. The localities of collection are in southern 
Formosa near South Cape. They are Ariko-banti, Ako, Matuda 25443 
and Mt. Daizyurin, Takao, Matuda 15544, 25545. 

I feel that this species is probably merely a variety of .1. Millcttii and 
may possibly be the same as .1. Millcttii var. obtusissima Kob., but since 
no opportunity has been available to compare the two entities, it is best to 
retain the specific status, even though dubious at the present time. 

Material for the following three species recently published by Gagnepain 
has not been available for this study. Except for the added citations of 
literature the descriptions are quoted as originally published. 
16. Adinandra annamensis Gapnep., n. sp. [in Not. Syst. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 112. 
1942; in Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1:285. 19431. 

Arbor ± 12-15 m. alta. Ramuli floriferi 2 mm. crassi. pilosi, pills runs, 
appressis. dein glabrescentes. Folia oblongo-lanceolata, breviter acumi- 
nata, obtusiuscula, basi cuneata, infra pilosa, pilis appressis, supra viridiora 
glaberrima, 5-8.5 cm. longa, 2-3.5 lata, tenuia. tirma. infra punctis sparsis 
notata. margine tenuiter serrata; ncrvi secundarii 12 in utroque latere, 
subtus magis conspicui, cum intermedin vi\ prominenie; venulae reticula- 
tim dispositae. ad marginem cmispieuore.s; petiolus 3-5 mm. longus, rufo 
pilosus, pilis appressis. Inflorescentiae pedicelli axillares, solitarii, arcuato- 
dependentes, dense et appresso-pilosi, ante anthesin 8 10 mm. longi; 
alabastra g!ol)osa. S mm. diam.; bracteae e calyce haud remotae, caducae, 
4 mm. longae. — - Sepala ovato-triangula, ± 6 mm. longa lataqne, dorso 
appresso-pilosa. lYtala (haud evoluta) 5 mm. longa. dorso late sericeo. 
Staminum antherae connectivo acuminalae, dorso ventreque sericeae. 
Ovarium dense piloso sericeum; stylus sericcus, apice glabra, latitudine 
ovarii ' .; longior. Fructus. . . . 

Annam: Dent du Tigre, prov. QuanR-tri, n° 10.382 (Poilane) . Tonkin: reserve 
forestiere de Phonp-du, prov. Tien-yen (,1. Chevalier). 

Cette espece a ovairc velu, a style 2-3> fois plus long que l'ovaire se place 
aupres de A. rubropitnctata Merrill et Chun. File en d iff ere principale- 
ment: 1° par le connect if <\cs etamines velu; 2° par le filet glabre. 

laevi ruliescensque. Ramuli 
bri. Folia lanceolata, apice 
longa, 3-5 lata, supra, glabra 

17. Adina 

rnlra .a 

; in Fl. 


i Gapnep., n. sp. [in Not. 
. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1 : 2; 


Arbor elata, trui 
floriferi 2-i mm. 


15 m. alto, corti< 
si, sericei mox { 
cuneata, 8-17 cr 

:e 1 
n. 1< 

32 JOl'UNAL OK TIIK \H\iH.I) \U li< Hi K I I \1 [ vol. xxviii 

viridiaque, infra pilosa, pilis brevibus appressis. margine tenuiter serrata; 
nervi secundarii 7 S utrinque, rum intermedio subaequale; venulae retem 
laxuni margine magis conspicuum efformantes; petiolus 7-12 mm. longus, dcin glabrescens. Intloresrent iae pedicelli axillares, 25-27 
mm. post anthesin longi, ad calycem gradalim incrassati, pilosi, pilis 
appressis; braeteae mux caducae vel nullae. Sepala 5. appresso-pilosa, 
ovato-triangula. 15 mm. longa lataque, intus glabra. Fctala . . . Sta- 
mina . . . Ovarium post anthesin subglobosum, sericeo-pilosum, 15 mm. 
latum. 12 altum. stylo apieulal urn ; stylus eolumnari.s, acuminatus, integer. 
12 mm. longus. serieeus; semina immatura brunnea. nitida, tenuissimc 
granulata. lenticulari-polyedra, 1.5-2 mm. diam.; embryo semiorbiculari. 
Vnnam: Ij.iK kiet, prov. Thanh hoa, n 1.840 {Poilanr) ; Nui Haiti ma. pro Hue, 

hi les petales. les etamines sont inconnus. Hien que les caracteres im- 
portants fournis par ces organes manquent. nuns eroyons que cette espece 
poiirra assez facilement etre distinguee de tout autre. 

IS. Adinaiidia doiniaieiiMs (.aunep.. n. sp. [in Not. Sy-t. Mil- Hist. Nat. I'aris 
10:113. 1<>42; in Ft. Gen. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1 : 2S.y 1W|. 

Arbor 8 15 m. alta. trunco 15-25 cm. crasso. Ramuli floriferi 1-1.5 
mm. diam., glabcrrimi, grisei. Folia laneeolata. basi euneata. apiee 
aeuminato-obtusiuscula, 6 10 em. longa. 2.5 8 lata, utrinque glabra, mar- 
gine leviter serrata: nervi seeundarii S- -10 utroque latere, ad marginem 
areuati. contluentesque; venulae tenues. reticulatim dispositae; petiolus 
gracilis. 7 mm. longus. glaber. supra eanalieulatus. Intlorescentia ad 
ramulos 1 2-ennos inserta; pedieelli axillares. solitarii vel geminati vel 
terni, graciles, 15 mm. longi, ad apicem gradatim incrassati; alabastra 
eoniea, 9 10 mm. longa; braeteae oppositae, e ealyce vix remotae. ovato- 
obtusae, 2-5 mm. lungae. ciliolatae. Sepala 5. reniformia. * 2 mm. 
longa. 8 4 mm. lata, margine eiliolata, supra sericea. Petala 5. triangula. 
8 mm. longa. supra basin 5 mm. lata, glaberrima. Stamina numerosa; 
iilamento piano, brevi (1.5 mm.), breviter piloso; anthera triangulo- 
mucronata, 3 mm. longa. muerone 1 mm. longo inciuso; loculi praesertim 
ad marginem serieei. Ovarium globoso-depressum, 3-5 mm. latum, gla- 
berrimum; stylus longe conicus, 4 5 mm. longus. glaberrimus; loculi 3, 
pluriovulati, placentariis ad parietes radiantibus. Fructus immaturus 
globosus, glaber, 7 8 mm. diam., mat urns niger (Poilane). 

Ann.wi: mas>ii ,l u Ri doup. prov. 1 taut -Donnai, n us SO. 724 v\ S0..S4X (FoilancK 
Cwnunioi.: I'u-chom, pn>\ . koniponmlmani:, n 2.S.7').* (Poilanr). 

I) iff ere de A. laotica Gagnep.: 1 ramules plus greles; 2 feuilles 2 fois 
plus courtes et etroites; 3 marge du limbe denticulee el veinules visibles; 
4° pedicelles un tiers plus courts; 5° bractees opposees; 6° sepales 

reniformes; 7° connectif dcs antheres egalant la moitie <\vs loges. glabre. 


Although no material of the species has been available for this study, 
feel very dubious of its placement in the genus Adinandra. The descrip- 
an of the species leads one to believe that it belongs to the genus Cleyera. 


Hu states in his description, "arbor ad 4 m. alta, omnino glabra; folia . . . 
margine integra leviter revolutaque . . . petioli robusti ... 1.5 cm. longi; 
. . . fructi 1-3, . . . sepala 5 ovata 5 mm. longa, marginibus ciliata; stylus 
tenuis 5 mm. longus; bacca globosa 8 mm. diametro; semina pauca, magna 
compressa ... 3 mm. longa, 2.5 mm. lata." 

The completely glabrous plant, the entire margin of the leaves, the 
petiole, robust and 1.5 cm. long, the margin of the sepals ciliate, the globose 
fruit 8 mm. in diameter and finally the few seeds are all features of 
Cleyera japonica Thunb. The only variations, in my opinion, are the 
sepals (5 mm. long) and the style (5 mm. long). In Cleyera the sepals 
are seldom longer than 3 mm. and rounded and the style is usually, not 
always, two- or three-parted. 

Adinandra bracteata Li in Jour. Arnold Arb. 26:65. lQ45 = Ternstroeniia : j insipnis 
Wu in Bot. Jahrb. 71: 195. 1940. 

Although no flowers or fruit remain on the specimen, Wang 39626, 
designated by Li as the type of A. bracteata, from the fragments of his 
dissection showing the many glabrous stamens arranged in series, the 
leaf-buds, and the sub- or pseudo-verticillate arrangement of leaves and 
branchlets, there seems little doubt that the species does not belong to the 
genus Adinandra, but probably to Terns troemia. 

There is a close relationship between Li's species and Tcrnstrocmia 
insignis Wu, collected at the same locality Lao Shan in Kwangsi. How- 
ever, from the descriptions there can be no certainty that they are identical. 
There is variation in leaf-size and stamen measurements. Li stated that 
the stamens of A. bracteata were "1.1-1.3 cm." long. The fragments of 
his dissections show stamens measuring 5-6 mm. in length, which compare 
favorably with those (5 mm. long) found in T. insignis. However, these 
stamens may have been taken from an unopened flower-bud, since the 
fdaments appear very short and undeveloped. 

Adinandra Chingtt Metcali in Lineman Sri. Jour. 11:19. 1932 = Cleyera japonica 

Thunberg emend. Sieb. & Zucc. Fl. Jap. 153. 1941. 
Adinandra obscurinervia Merrill & Chun in Sunyatsenia 2:283, fig. 35. 1935 = 

Cleyera japonica Thunberg emend. Sieb. & Zucc. var. lipingensis (Handel- 

Mazzetti) Kobuski in Jour. Arnold Arb. 18:127. 1937. 
Adinandra stenosepala Hu in Bull. Fan. Mem. Inst. Bot. Ser. 8: 146. 1938 = 

Sideroxylon (Planchonella ) stem^epala Hu in Bull. Fan. Mem. Inst. Biol. Ser. 

Fifteen species have been described from the Philippine Islands under 
the genus Adinandra. The present study recognizes eight. Of these eight 
species six have been described by Merrill and one each by A. D. E. Elmer 
and C. B. Robinson. Three of the earlier described species have been 
transferred to other genera: A.coriacea Elmer to Ternstroemia gymnanthera 

34 JOIKWI. OF TUF. AKNOI.I) AKBORKTl M [vol. xxvm 

(W. & A.) Sprague, A. urdanetensis Elmer to T. urdanetcnsis (Elmer) 
Kobuski, and A. montaua Merrill to Clrycra japoutca Thunb. var. montana 
(Merrill) Kobuski. This last-named variety is the first representative of 
the genus Clvyrra in the Philippine Islands. 

The Philippine species of Adinandra form a distinct group among them- 
selves. Their relationships are more clearly with the Eastern Asiatic 
species than with the [ndo-Malaysian group. 

Below are listed the characters helpful in specific identification. Under 
these characters are recorded the species as far as present-day knowledge 



A. Ovary and fruit pubescent; bracteoles caducous. 

B. Ovary and fruit 5 -celled; calyx-lobes, ovary and fruit covered with a dense 
canescent pubescence; filaments pubescent; leaves conspicuously reticulate- 

veined on the under surface 20. A. luzonica. 

BB. Ovary and fruit usually 3-celled (rarely 4-ceIIed) ; pubescence when present 
-tniLiL-lin-.i or apprcsscd. not canescent; filaments glabrous; leaves not con- 
spicuously reticulate-veined on the under surface. 

C. Leaves membranaceous or submembranaceous, narrowly elliptic, the apex 
Ions, taperiniz; pedicels distinctly slender, up to 3.5 cm. long; style always 

entire, glabrous 21. A. elliptic.a. 

CC. Leaves coriaceous; pedicels robust, seldom over 2 2.S . m. long; style entire 

D. Style straggling-pubescent, at least the lower halt; bracteoles caducous 
(when present broadly ovate, ca. 2 X 2 mm.) ; calyx-lobes broadly 

ovate ca. 10 X 7 mm 22. A. Macgregorii. 

DD. Style glabrous; bracteoles caducous (when present oblong-obovate ca. 

A A. Ova rv and fruit glabrous; bracteoles persistent. 
B. Ovary and fruit 3 -celled. 

C. Ovules and seeds lew; seeds up to 5 mm. long, flat, seldom more than 20 

' (often more than 100).. .'...?!... .25. .1. leytensis. 

BB. Ovary and fruit 5-celled. 

C. Bracteoles rounded, ca. 3 X 3-4 mm.; ovary ovoid or conical, tapering into 

VC. Bracteoles smaller, broader than Ions, 1.5-2 X 2.5 3 nun.; ovary distinctly 
globose, quite flattened at the apex with the style rising abruptly; stamens 

20. Adinandra luzonica Merrill in Philipp. Govt. Lab. Bur. Bull. 29:29. 1905; in 
Philipp. Jour. Sci. 1 (Suppl.):95. 1906; Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pits. 3:73. 1923. — 

Distribution: Luzon (Bataan, Bontoc, Tayabas, Zambales), Negros (Negros 

Luzon: Bataan: Lamao River, Mt. Mariveles, T. E. Borden [P.B.F.l 1360 
(NY, US), July 1904.- Lamao River, Mt. Mariveles, on exposed windswept ridges, 
alt. 1200 m., //. N. Whit ford 446 (isotypes C, NY, US), July 21, 1904. — Lamao 
River, Mt. Mariveles, //. N. Whitford 1184 (iso-paratypes, NY, US), March 1905.— 
Mt. Mariveles, A. D. E. Elmer 6006 (NY). Nov. 1004. Bontoc: Mt. Pukis, M. 
Ramos & G. Edafio (P. H.S.I 37819 (A), March 1920. Tayabas: Mt. Dingalan, 
M. Ramos & G. Edano | I'.U S I 26630 (A, NY, US), Aug. -Sept. 1916. Zambales: 
H. M. Curran & M. L. Merritt [P.B.S.l 8255 (NY, US). Negros: Prov. Negros 
Oriental, Dumaguete, Mt. Cuernos, A. D. E. Elmer 9812 (A, C, M, NY, US), April 

Tree up to 15 m. high, branching near the top; branches numerous, 
suberect, giving bushy appearance, the branchlets grayish brown, glabrous, 
striate, the very young branchlets, terminal bud, and very young leaves 
densely canescent. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, 7 12 cm. long, 2.5-5 
cm. wide, acute, occasionally somewhat acuminate at the apex, cuneate at 
the base, usually glabrous on both surfaces, occasionally slightly pubescent 
with few scattered hairs along the midrib on the under surface, the margin 
subrevolute, lightly and obscurely denticulate, the veins (ca. 15 pairs) 


conspicuous beneath but not more prominent than the outstanding network 
of secondary and lesser veins, the petiole ca. 5 mm. long, usually glabrous 
or becoming so. Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicel appressed-pubescent 
at first, later becoming glabrous, 10-15 cm. long; bracteoles 2, opposite or 
slightly alternate, quickly caducous, when present unequal, triangular, 
3-3.5 mm. long, ca. 2.5 mm. wide at the base, pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, unequal, broadly ovate, obtuse or subrotund at the apex, ca. 8 
mm. long. S 9 mm. wide, densely appressed-hoary-pubescent on the external 
surface, glabrous within, the outer lobes thicker with over-all pubescence, 
the inner lobes pubescent only at the center with the margins scarious and 
less pubescent; corolla-lobes 5, connate at the base, 10-12 mm. long. ca. 
9 mm. wide, appressed-hoary-pubescent on the median portion of the 
external surface; stamens 40 45, seriate. (> S mm. long, the filaments 
unequal, 3-4.5 mm. long, joined at the base and adnate to the base of the 
corolla, villous, the anthers nearly equal, ca. 3 mm. long, villous, tapering 
into a short apicule; ovary ovoid-conical, densely canescent, 5-celled, 
multi-ovulate, tapering at the apex into the style, the style glabrous except 
at the very base. 5-parted or tending to split into 5 parts. Fruit subconical- 
globose. ca. 1 cm. diam.. hoary-pubescent, 5 -celled, many-seeded; seeds 
brown, shining, ca. 1.5 mm. long. 

This species was the first of the genus described from the Philippines. 
One of the most outstanding characters is the reticulate appearance of the 
veins, especially on the lower surface. All veins, from the primary to the 
finer reticulations are of almost uniform prominence. The canescent 
pubescence of the calyx, corolla, ovary and that persisting through the 
fruiting stage on the calyx and fruit present another character excellent 
for distinguishing the species. 

Two specimens cited present considerable variation in leaf-size. Ramos 
c'r Edafio 2S736 collected in Tayabas I'rov. of Luzon has leaves over 15 
cm. long and, in some instances more than S cm. wide. The flowers are 
immature and appear smaller than those of the typical specimen. How- 
ever, the distinct veining and pubescence are the same. On the other hand, 
Ramos <*r Edafw 26630, from the same province, has leaves 8-15 cm. long 
and only 2-3 cm. wide. The calvx-lobes are smaller also. ca. 6 mm. long. 
However, like the specimen mentioned immediately above, in other respects, 
it agrees with the typical specimen. 

Vernacular name: Kami'm (Sambali). 

21. Ariiiiiinrira elliptic;. C. H. Robinson in Philipp. Jour. Sci. Bot. 3:206. 1908.— 
Merrill, Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pits. 3:72. 1923. Molchior in Nat. Puanzcnfam. 

Adinandra niir^rrima Yidal, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 5o. ISSo. Non T. Anderson. 
Adinandm dumosa Yidal, Sinopsis Fam. C.n. l'l. Filip., Atlas 14, t. 13, f. A. 1883. 

\diwiudui Robinsonii I 
Philipp. Fl. Pits. 3: 


Nov. 18, 1904 (flowers whitish). — Bagnio, A'. S. Williams 1115 (NY, US), June 29, 
1904. — M. S. Clemens 17106 (NY), Dec. 1920. — E. D. Merrill 1766 (G, M), May 
1914. Nueva Ecija Prov.: Mt. I mmuan. M. Ramos & G. Edano [P. B.S.I 26470 
(A, US). Nueva Viscaya Prov.: M. Ramos or G. Edano [P. B.S.I 45507 
(A, NY), May-June 1925. Prov. Sorsogon: M. Ramos [P.B.S.l 23359 (A, NY, 
US), July-Aug. 1915. Mindanao: Davao Distr. : Mt. Apo, Todaya, A. D. E. El- 
mer 11461 (isotypes of .1. Robinsonii, A, C, G. M, NY, US), Aug. 1909. Bukidnon 
Subprov.: Mt. Lipa, M. Ramos t 'V G. Edano [P.B.S.l 3*#><5 (A, US), [P.B.S.l 
JWW (A), June-July 1920. — ,1. I. Onrtfrrr [P.B.F.I 20624 (A, NY), June 1024. 
Mindoro: M. L. 4/Ym7/ [P.B.F.I S720 (NY, US). Jan. 1928. — Mt. Calavite, 4/. 
flawoj [P.B.S.l J9-//5 (A), [PBS | .^.\7 (A). April 1921. Nkckos: Prov. Negros 
Oriental, Dumaguete, Cuernos Mts., A. D. E. Elmer 101S5A (M, NY, US), May 1908. 
Paxay: Prov. Antique. R. C. MacCregor [P.B.S.l 32537 (A), May-Aug. 1918. 

Small tree; branchlets terete, brownish, glabrescent, the very young 
branchlets and terminal buds lernigineons-tomentose. Leaves submem- 
branaceous, oblong-elliptic, (3.5-) 6-10.5 cm. long, (1.5-) 2.5-3.5 cm. 
wide, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, usually glabrous above, 
straggling to densely pubescent beneath, glabrescenl at maturity except 
along the midrib and margin, the margin glandular-serrate, sometimes 
ciliolate, the veins ca. 15 pairs, somewhat prominent beneath with all the 
orders of veins equally conspicuous, the petiole 2.5-6 mm. long, usually 
pubescent. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels up to 3.5 cm. long, slender, 
usually somewhat recurved, thinly pubescent; bracteoles 2, caducous, 
opposite and immediately below calyx; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, broadly 
ovate, unequal, 6-7 mm. long. ca. 5" mm. wide; not as thick as in most 
species with less conspicuous variation at the margin, glandular-denticulate, 
the two outer lobes straggling-pubescent, the inner lobes quite glabrous; 
corolla-lobes 5, connate at the base, ovate, quite acute at the apex, densely 
pubescent in the middle of the exterior surface, ca. 10 mm. long;, 4-5 mm. 
wide; stamens ca. 30, appearing as a single series, the filaments glabrous, 
2-3 mm. long, adnate to the base of the corolla, joined inconspicuously, 
appearing almost free, the anthers 2-4 mm. long, densely pubescent, with 
an apicule ca. 1 mm. long: ovary subcorneal. 3-celled. densely pubescent, 
tapering at the apex into a glabrous style ca. 1 cm. long, the ovules many. 
Fruit ca. 1 cm. diam.. 3-celled, straggling-pubescent, multi-ovulate, the 
seeds minute, dark brown-black. 

The outstanding characters of this species are: (1) the submembrana- 
ceous elliptic leaves; (2) the generally long slender pedicels; (3) the 
3-celled ovary and fruit; (4) the 1 cm. long entire glabrous style; (5) the 
thin calyx-lobes; (6) the glabrous, nearly free filaments and pubescent 
anthers; (7) the seemingly always caducous bracteoles; and (8) the rather 
straggling pubescence. 

Adinandra Robinsonii Rimer is included here as a synonym. After 
studying the species. T can find no characters suitable for separating them. 
Elmer, in introducing A. Robinsonii, remarked that it was very close to 
A. elliptica and offered no basis for separation. Later. Merrill suggested 
that the relationship seemed too close for separation, although he continued 
to list them as distinct entities. 

Questionably cited here is Ramos & Edano 45597. The style is glabrous 
and entire, but the leaves are thicker, more coriaceous than most specimens 
of A. elliptica and the base is less acute. Williams 2533 from Mindanao 

38 JOl UNAI. OKTIIK AHNDU) UiBOKKTl \l [vol. xxvm 

and Mcrritt SSJ-t from Mindoro have leaves large for the species. How- 
ever, in Williams 2533. the dissections of the ilowers showed no differences 
from typical .1. clliptica. My dissections of the ovary of the Williams 
number were unsatisfactory. Mcrritt SS34 is a fruiting specimen. Several 
dissections showed the fruit to be typically 3-celled. However, on the 
same specimen were fruits incompletely 3-celled appearing 5- or 6-celled. 

'ITie leaves of Elmer 101 S3, 101 S3 A from the island of Xegros are smaller 
and the pubescence generally more dense, but typical of the species. This 
latter character is true especially of the pedicel and calyx-lobes. 

Vernacular name: Puyaka (Mangyan). 

22. Aclinaiuha Mac^r.^.irii Merrill in Philipp. Jour. Sci. Hot. 9:319. 1914; Enum. 
Philipp. Kl. Pits. 3: 72.. 1923. Melchior in Nat. IMlanzenfam. ed. 2, 21: 144. 1925. 

Distribution: Luzon (Benguet, Lepanto). 

Li/ox: Koi'Mirl Sul.prov.: Pauai, J. K. Santos (P. H.S.I 31024 (US), April- 
June 101S. Ml. I'uIol', .1/. Ramos fr (1 . Edano | P. B.S.I 40*ox (A), Sept. 1921.— 
Ml. Pauai. /«;. OHisiimhhm .'•■ U. Sulil IP.BS I XJM.v, (A. NV), March 193.1.— Pauai, 
in forest, alt. 2100 m.. A'. C. ,UflrC>f^»r [P.H.S.] S4JS (isoim-ks, NY, US), June 
1900. -Pauai, .1/. N. C/.-wrH.v yJ?.U (A, G, US), Jan. 1915. — /?. 7. /1/wres [P.H.S.l 
;^?7J (PS), Jan. 1909. Lepanto Suhprov.: Mt. Data, .1/. Ramos fr C. Edano 
[P.H.S.l -M-Vrt (A, t'S), Sept. 1921. — Halili (Mt. Data), K. I). Merrill 4650 (NY, 
US), Nov. 1905. 

Tree 15 m.; brain hlets terete, graj ish, glabrous, the very young branch- 
lets invested with a dense, tawny, appressed-villous pubescence. Leaves 
coriaceous, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 5-10 cm. long. 2-4 cm. wide, apex 
usually acuminate, acute to somewhat rounded at the base, the margins 
minutely but distinclb glandular-denticulate, the upper surface glabrous 
except occasionally near the very base, the lower surface with scattered, 
appressed tawny pubescence becoming glabrescent, the veins ca. 15 pairs, 
anastomosing, about equally conspicuous on both surfaces, the petiole 3-5 
mm. long, densely pubescent beneath, less so above. Mowers axillary, 
solitary; pedicels stout, recurved, up to 2.5 cm. long, measuring as much 
as ,5 mm. diam. near the calyx, pubescent; bracteoles 2. caducous; calyx- 
lobes 5, imbricate, unequal, up to 10 nun. long. ca. 7 nun. wide, ovate, 
acute at the apex, the outer lobes straggling-pubescent over the entire 
external surface, the inner lobes pubescent except along the margin, 
glandular-denticulate; corolla-lobes 5. unequal, connate al the base, obovate, 
up to 14 mm. long. 7-10 nun. wide, tawny-pubescent on the median portion 
of the external surface; stamens ca. 30. unequal in length, 8-10 mm. long, 
probably seriate, the filaments firmly adnate to the base of the corolla, 
glabrous, 3-5 mm. long, the anthers noticeably large, ca. 5 mm. long, 
usually equal or subequal, hirsute, prolonged at the apex into an apicule; 
ovary pubescent, 3- or 4-celled, tapering gradually at the apex into a broad 
gradually narrowed style (in type especially) which is split into 3 or 4 
parts at the apex, pubescent except near the tip, the 3 or 4 stigmas 
appearing oblique. Fruit not seen. 

From the material examined, this species seems to be localized in the 
Pauai area of Benguet Subprovince. All the material cited above, save 
two sheets from the adjoining Subprovince of Lepanto, are from Benguet. 
These Lepanto sheets are Merrill ■k)50 and Ramos & Edano 40276, 
collected at Mt. Data. 


The ovary is generally three-celled and the style three-parted, three- 
ridged or entire. The type specimen seems to be the exception. Only 
two dissections were possible from the type and both showed a four-celled 
ovary. This was to be expected as the style, in both cases, was four-parted. 
On the same specimen were styles that were three-parted. In the type, 
the style is very thick at the base, and although tapering somewhat towards 
the apex remains quite bulky. In other cases, where the style is three- 
parted, the tapering is more finely drawn out. There is variation in the 
extent of pubescence of the style. It may be present on the lower half 
only or may extend up to the divided portion. Never is the style 
completely pubescent. 

The leaves are coriaceous, resembling in shape those of A. elliptica C. B. 
Robinson, the closest relative, the base, however, usually being more 

In A. elliptica, the floral parts are generally smaller. The calyx-lobes 
measure 6-7 mm. and the corolla-lobes 10 mm. in length. The style is 
glabrous and always entire. The leaves are membranaceous or submem- 
branaceous and taper at both ends. 

These two species are very difficult to separate, especially in the early 
stages of leaves and flower. 

Vernacular name: Batinai (Igorot). 

Uinandra maquilin-.-n-i- AEmiI! in l'hilipp. Jour. Sri. Hot. 9:317. 19 
Philipp. Fl. Pits. 3:73. 1923. — Melchior in Nat. Pflan/u.iam. ed. 
1925. — Sasaki, Cat. Governm. Herb. 347. 1930. 

2, 21: 144. 

[STRIBUTION: Luzon (Laguna, Tayabas). 

uzon: Laguna: Mt. Maquiling, M. Ramos |P. B.S.I 13650 (isotypes, C, US), 
. i9ii. _Los Banos. Mt. Maquiling, .1. I). E. Elmer 17687 (A, C, G, M, NY, 
18200 (A, C, G, M, NY, US), June-July 1917. Tayabas: Umiray, A. Loher 

Small tree ca. 12 m. high; branchlets terete, brownish, generally glabrous, 
except "at the very tips where finely appressed-pubescent. Leaves coria- 
ceous, oblong-elliptic to oblong-obovate, 3.5-6 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. wide, 
acuminate at the apex, acute at the base, glabrous above, sparsely 
straggling-pubescent or glabrous beneath (pubescent when very young), 
the margins crenulate-denticulate along the upper half, the lower half quite 
entire, the veins ca. 12 pairs, distinct but not prominent, the petioles 3-5 
mm. long, occasionally pubescent on the lower surface. Flowers axillary," 
solitary; pedicels stout, recurved, straggling-pubescent at first, later 
glabrous, 1.5-2 cm. long; bracteoles 2, caducous, elongate-oboyate when 
present, ca. 6 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, straggling-pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, narrow-ovate, apiculate, unequal, the outer lobes ca. 8 mm. long, 
4.5-5 mm. wide, pubescent over all, the inner 3 lobes somewhat broader, 
ca. 8 mm. long, 6-6.5 mm. wide, pubescent in the center, glabrous at the 
membranous margin; corolla-lobes 5, connate at the base, unequal, obovate, 
tapering quickly and abruptly at the base, obtuse at the apex, 11.5-12 mm. 
long, 5-7 mm. wide, pubescent on the median portion of the exterior sur- 
face; stamens ca. 35, 7-9 mm. long, unequal, the filaments 4-6 mm. long, 
generally glabrous, pubescent only where joined to the anthers, the anthers 

i.i) \i;i'>oi;i 1 1 


From the material examined, it appears thai this species is localized 
in the Mount Maquiling area in the Province of Lacuna on the Island of 

The bracteoles although caducous do not fall as <|uirkly as those in the 
majority of species. When present, they are unusual in character, being 
long-ohovate (6 X 3 mm.) and nearly equalling the calyx in length. The 
calyx-lobes themselves are characteristic, long and quite narrowly ovate, 
tapering to a distinct apicule. and covered with a straggling pubescence. 
The anthers are, as usual, hirsute with the pubescence extending down the 
filaments for a short distance which are glabrous for most of their length. 
The ovary is pilose 3 celled and multi ovulate, tapering into a style hirsute 
for almost its entire length, glabrous only at the very apex which is 

24. Adinandra Loheri Merrill in Philipp. Jour Sri. Hot. 9:318. 1914; Enum. Philipp. 
Fl. Pits. 3: 72. 1923.- Melchior in \'a!. l'tlan/cntam. ed. 2, 21: 144. 1925. 
idinandra rostrata Merrill, in op. eit. 3h>. Melchior, loc. cit. 

Adnnunlia !ori,uca .Merrill, in op. cit. .'117. Melchior, loc. rit 

DisiKiiu i ion : l.u/on (Ri/al, Lamina) . 

Lc/on: Ri/al: Oriud, in primary forests at medium altitudes, A. Loker 5604 
(isoiviT., K). Dee. 1405. Montalban, A. Loiter 12642 (A). Oct. l'H2.- A. Lolur 
144S6 (A), Oct. 1913. La-una: Dahiean River. M Ramos IP.B.S] 1567 (iso- 
typic of ,1. rostrata, M. NY). Sept. 15. 1912.- F. L. Amanitas [P.B.F.] 24663 (NY, 
US), Nov. 1915. 

Tree, generally glabrous except the terminal vegetative buds and very 
young branchlets; brain hlets terete, grayish, the terminal buds tawny- 
villous. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, glabrous or glabrescent, 8 14 
cm. long. 3.5-6.5 cm. wide, broadly rounded to broadly or shortly acumi- 
nate at the apex, acute at the base tapering into the petiole, the margin 
crenulate to crenulate-denticulate, the veins 11-15 pairs, anastomosing 
near the margin, the petiole 5 7 mm. long. Flowers axillary, solitary; 
pedicels glabrous, curved, 2-4 cm. long; bracteoles 2. opposite, immediately 
below the calyx, persistent, unequal, broadly triangular to suborbicular, 
2.5 X 3 mm. and 2.5 X 2.5 mm., scattered appressed-pubescent, the 
margins ciliolate; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, thickened, glabrous, decidedly 
rounded (often splitting i at the apex, unequal, wider than long. ca. 5.5 6 
mm. long, 6-7 mm. wide; corolla-lobes 5. connate at the base, obovate to 
broadly obovate, ca. 1.5 cm. long, 1.2 cm. wide, pubescent on the median 
portion of the dorsal surface; stamens 40-50, adnate to the base of the 
corolla, unequal. 7-1 1 mm. long, the filaments 4 S mm. long, joined nearly 
their entire length, hirsute on the external sulfate, the anthers ca. 3 mm. 
long, oblong, acute, hirsute; ovary glabrous, conical-ovoid, 3-celled. multi- 
ovulate. tapering at the apex into a glabrous, entire style ca. 6 mm. long. 
Fruit glabrous, globose, ca. 1.5 mm. diam., 3-celled; seeds ca. 25, dark, 
shining, scrobiculate, 5-6 mm. long. 

The nearly glabrous character of this species is one of its unusual 
features. The terminal buds and verv voung branchlets, the dorsal suit ace 


of the corolla-lobes and the stamens appear to be the only exceptions. 
The anthers are always hirsute, even in the most glabrous species. Another 
feature of note is the persistent, opposite bracteoles. 

Merrill, in his original description of this species, records the ovary as 
5-celled. In all the material examined the ovary and fruit are consistently 
3-celled. Undoubtedly Merrill had poor material at his disposal when 
he devised this species, since the fruit is not described and the ovary is 
recorded as 5-celled. An isotype in the Kew herbarium which has been 
available for this study possesses both fruit and flowers. Had Merrill had 
such a specimen he would have seen the relationship between A. rostrata 
and A. Loheri at the time of publication, since they were published simul- 
taneously. Adinandra rostrata was published from the fruit alone. The 
type material of this latter entity shows the very large 3-celled fruit with 
large (5-6 mm. long) seeds which are few (10-20) in number. The 
pedicel is unusually long, measuring up to 4 cm. Adinatidra Loheri was 
described from flowering material in which the pedicels measured 2 cm. in 
length. Unfortunately the two specimens used as types of these two 
species represented the extremes in pedicel length, and since one was 
described from flowers and the other from the fruit they appeared to be 
different. Since then material has been collected which includes this 
variation in pedicel-length. In Loher 12^12, a flowering specimen, the 
pedicels vary from 2-3.5 cm. in length on the same specimen. 

Although several Philippine species are known to have 3-celled fruit, 
this is the only species in which the fruit has been described. It agrees 
with those Indo-Malayan species with 3-celled fruit in having fewer but 
larger seeds than the species in which the fruit is 5-celled. 

Vernacular name: Malambot (Tagalog). 

Li.yii:: Miisimanap. near Jam, in forests, alt. 600 m., C. A. Wenzcl 760 
(isotypes, A, C, M, US), May 2 7, 1914. 

Tree 17 m. high; branchlets terete, glabrous, brown, the terminal buds 
appressed-tawny-pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, subelliptic, 5-8 cm. long, 
2.5-4 cm. wide, obtuse to rounded at the apex, narrowly acute at the base, 
glabrous, somewhat shining, greenish above, roughened, darker, appressed- 
pubescent beneath, the margin obscurely denticulate, the veins ca. 12 pairs, 
prominent on both surfaces, anastomosing near the margin, the reticulations 
very distinct on both surfaces, the petioles ca. 5 mm. long. Flowers 
axillary, solitary; pedicels recurved, stout, ca. 1.3 cm. long, scattered- 
pubescent; bracteoles 2, opposite, immediately below the calyx, persistent, 
unequal, ca. 2X3 and 3 X 4 mm., broadly rounded, closely appressed- 
pubescent, the surface rough, thick, the margins ciliolate; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, rounded, finely appressed-pubescent, unequal, the outer two ca. 
5 mm. long, 6-6.5 mm. wide, thick with little or no scarious margin. 
eciliate, the inner three gradually thinner toward the margin becoming 
scarious, somewhat ciliolate; corolla-lobes 5, connate at the base, obovate, 

42 .101 i;\\l. <)!• TIIK \R\Ol.I) \KBORKTt \l [vol. xxvm 

ca. 13 mm. long. N.5- 10 mm. wide, rounded at the apex, tapering rapidly 
and thickened at the base, finely appressed-pubescent on the external 
surface except along the scarious margin; stamens ca. 40, unequal. 6-10 
mm. long; filaments extremely variable in length. 2-6 mm. long, joined 
the entire length of the shortest filaments, densely hirsute except for ca. 
1 mm. at the base of the external sulfate where they are adnate to corolla, 
the anthers ca. 4 mm. long, approximately equal in length, hirsute, lanceo- 
late; ovary glabrous, conical ovoid, 3 celled, multi ovulate, tapering at the 
apex into an entire glabrous style ca. 7 mm. long. bruit not seen. 

The characters helpful in distinguishing this species are: (1) the 
unequal persistent bracleoles; (2) the roughened, thick, pubescent calyx- 
lobes; (3) the long stamens with the filaments joined their entire length 
forming a tube and sufficiently adnate to the base of the corolla (1 mm.) 
to fall off intact with the corolla; (4) the glabrous 3 iclled ovary; and (5) 
the glabrous entire style. 

The veining of the leaves of the species resembles very much that found 
in those of A. luzonicti Merrill. However, the apex of the leaf of the 
present species is rounded and the pubescence of the under surface less 
distinct. The midrib also is more roughened. 

20. AWinamlra ni^ro-pmictata Morrill in Fhilipp. Jour. Sri. Hot. 9:320. 1914; Enum. 
I'luiipp. Fl. Fits. \\: 73. 1<)23.— Mclehior in Nat. Pnanzcnlam. ed. 2, 21:144. 

I Iistribu i [on: Leyte. 

\.\:\ ri- Da^ami, in forests. M. Ramos [V. H.S.I /.vv.i (isotyi'K, I'S), Aug. 13, 1912. 

Tree ca. 10 m. high; brain -hlels numerous, terete, glabrous, grayish 
brown, pubescent at very tip only and reddish brown when very young, the 
terminal buds pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, glabrous ex< ept when unfold- 
ing, elliptic-oblong. 4-7 cm. long. 1.5-3 cm. wide, the apex broadly blunt- 
acuminate, minutely ret use, the base acute, the margin obscurely 
glandular-denticulate, the veins 7-8 pairs, equally evident on both surfaces, 
the petiole ca. 5 mm. long, blowers axillary, solitary: pedicels glabrous. 
stout, ca. 2 cm. long; brat teoles 2, persistent, opposite, immediately below 
the calyx, glabrous, unequal, suborbicular to obovate, ca. 3 mm. long, 3-4 
nun. wide; calyx lobes 3, imbricate, glabrous, subequal, rounded at the 
apex, the 2 outer lobes smaller, ca. 7-S mm. long and broad, the margin 
lightly ciliolate. the inner 3 lobes longer, ca. 10 mm. long, 7 S mm. wide, 
the margin more noticeably ciliolate; corolla-lobes [descrip. tide Merrill j 
5, broadly rounded, slightly ret use. the median exposed parts (dorsal 
surface) very densely hirsute, otherwise glabrous; stamens (tide Merrill) 
about 50, the filaments 5 mm. long, densely hirsute, the anthers ovate- 
lanceolate, somewhat acuminate. 4 mm. long, densely hirsute; ovarv 
glabrous, ovoid, 5-celled. the ovules very numerous in each cell; style 
glabrous, 12 mm. long, the stigma minute, subcapitate. 

The only authentic material available tor this study is a sterile represent- 
ative of the type, deposited in the Tinted States National Herbarium. It 
has been necessary to rely, to a great extent, upon the original description 
by Merrill. 

Features of distinction appear to be: (1) the five-celled ovary: (2) 
the glabrous style, 12 mm. long; (3) the pubescent filaments, 4 mm. long; 


(4) the large corolla-lobes, 18 mm. long, pubescent on the external sur- 
faces; and (5) the glabrous, subequal calyx-lobes, 7-10 mm. long, 7-8 

Very closely allied, and perhaps conspecific with it, is A. a porn sis Flmer 
from Mindanao. However, until more material is available for study, I 
prefer to retain them both as species. 

The five-celled ovary is found only in two other species, namely .1. 
luzoniea Merrill and A. apoensis. In the former species, the ovary, style, 
calyx-lobes, bracteoles and pedicel are covered with a dense, canescent 
pubescence which makes separation quite easy. 

27. Adinandra apoensis Klmer, Lcall. Philipp. Bot. 8:2833. 1915, "apoense." — 
Mdchior in Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 21:144. 1925. 

Adinaudra Merrillii Elmer, in op. cit. 2S34.- Melchior, loc. cii. 

Distribution: Mindanao (Davao, Agusan). 

Mindanao: Davao: Todaya, Mt. Apo, A, D. E. Elmer 11265 (isotypes, A, C, 
G, M, NY, US), Aug. 1909. — Mt. McKinlcy, K. Kanekira 2704 (NY), Aug. 1930. 
Agusan: Cabadbaran, Mt. Urdaneta, .4. D. E. Elmer lloss (isotypes of A. 
Mcrrillii, A, C, G, M, NY, US), Oct. 1912. 

Tree ca. 15 m. high; branchlets terete, relatively short and numerous, 
grayish, the terminal bud appressed-pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, gla- 
brous, elliptic-oblong. 5-9 cm. long, 2.5-4 cm. wide, broadly rounded or 
obtuse at the apex, occasionally slightly emarginate, cuneate at the base, 
the margin crenately serrate towards the apex, entire towards the base, 
the veins 7-8 pairs. "the primary veins evident on both surfaces, the retic- 
ulations prominent on the lower surface only, the petiole glabrous, ca. 
5 mm. long. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicel 1-1.5 cm. long, stout, 
glabrous, recurved; bracteoles 2, persistent, glabrous, opposite, immediately 
below the calyx, unequal, 1.5-2 mm. long. 2.5-3 mm. wide, broadly 
rounded, lightly glandular-denticulate along the margin; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, glabrous, unequal, thickened at the base, broadly ovate to 
rounded, 8 9 mm. long, 7-8 mm. wide, the margins quite entire; corolla- 
lobes 5, connate at the base, obtuse at the apex. ca. 13 mm. long, 8-10 mm. 
wide, pubescent on the median portion of the external surface; stamens 
ca. 35, unequal in length, 6-11 mm. long, probably seriate, the filaments 
2-7 mm. long, joined at the base only and adnate to the corolla, very 
hirsute, the anthers usually ca. 4 mm. long, occasional!} shorter, apiculate, 
equally hirsute; ovary glabrous, globose (not conical), 5-celled, multi- 
ovulate, the style terete, entire, glabrous. 1.5 cm. long, rising abruptly from 
the ovary, not tapering. Fruit not seen. 

This species appears very distinct from A. Icytensis Merrill, with which 
it formerly was considered synonymous. In A. apoensis, the style is easily 
1.5 cm. long, and rises abruptly from a globose, 5-celled glabrous ovary. 
In A. Icytensis the style is only 7 nun. long, approximately one-half as long 
as that found in A. apoensis, and it tapers gradual])* from a conical 3-celled 

The leaves in A. Icytensis have ca. 12 pairs of veins and the reticulations 
on the under surface are very distinct. Also the calyx-lobes are wider 
than long, very rounded at the apex and measure 5 X 6-6.5 mm. In 
.1. apoensis there are only ca. 7 or 8 pairs of veins and the reticulations, 


although obvious, are less conspicuous. The calyx-lobes are broadly 
ovule, longer than broad, and measure S-° \ 7-8 mm. 

Cited here as a synonym is .1. Merrill ii Klmer. Having studied the types 
of both species, I can see no differences separating the two. Klmer men- 
tions in the original description of I. McrriUti that the ovary was "very 
lightly woolly." The material was very sparse, hence only a single ovary 
was studied. This appears to be glabrous and five-celled. Xo mention 
of the number of ovary-cells was made in the original description. Klmer 
also refers to the number of stamens as L 'S". This undoubtedly is a 
typographical error. An accurate count could not be made from the very 
poor specimen I examined. However, the number appears to be 30 or 

The closest relative appears to be .1. m^r a- punctata Merrill. So far, 
material of A. apoensis has been collected only from Mindanao. Adinandra 

nigra- punctata seems to have been collected only once, from the type 
locality in Luzon. Future collections may show additional distinguishing 

Ykknaculak na.mks: Malagsam ( Bagobo ), Sauguauan (Monobo). 


Adinandra molilalia Merrill in l'hilipp. Jour. Sri. Hot. a:5ro. 1010; Knum. Philipp. 
Fl. Pits. ,1: 75. 1025.- Melehior in Wit Pllan/enlam. ed. 2, 21: 144. 1925. Not 
I. molilalia Ridley (1915). 

Distribution: Luzon (Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines, llocos Norte, Lacuna, Nueva 
Kcija, Nueva Viseaya, Rizal, Tavabas). Mindanao ( Pukidnon, Davao, Misamis). 

Luzon: Prov. Benguet: Mt. Pulog, //. M. Cumin, M. L. Merritt & T. C. 
Zse.hokke I P. H.F.I 1S140 (PS), Jan. \<)0'>. "Haights in the Oaks," alt. 2.500 m, 
/<;. .1. M varus I P. H.S.I 4420 (PS). July 1907. Pauai, J. K. Santos [P.H.S.I 319.12 
(NV), April-June 1018.— Mt. Haudan, M. Ramos <<r G. F.daiio [P.H.S.] 40314 (A, 
PS), Sept. 1921. Mt. Pulog. M. Ramos fr G. Edano [P.H.S.I 44906 (A, NY), Feb.- 
March 1925. Prov, Cagayan: Mt. Dos Cuernos, along streams near the foot of 
the mt., alt. 10C0 n... .1/. Ramos [P.H.S.I 76W5 (A), April 2o, 1920, (.< m . high).- - 
Mt. Tabuan, on ridges of slopes, alt. 2000 m., .1/. Ramos IP. H.S.I 77107 (A), Mav 19, 

(M, NV), Dec. 101S. Prov. llocos .Norte: Mt. Palimbin, .1/. Ramus IPHS.l 
3331S (A, PS), Aug. PUS. Prov. Paguna: Mt. Cristobal. /•'. Canieosa IP. H.F.] 
2SVS0 (A), Mareh 1022. M t . Honahm. moist ridge, alt 1550 m . T. Famtin [P. P.P. I 
31116 (XV), April -I, 1020 (tree 10 m. high; (lowers white). Prov. Nueva Kcija: 
A'. ./. Alvarez IP. H.F.I 22101 (PS), Dee. 1910. -Mt. Umingan, M. Ramos & (,'. Edano 
IP. H.S.I 26233 (A, PS), Aug. Sept. I01o. Prov. Nueva Viscava: Mt. Al/apan, 
,1/. Ramos i'V (,'. Edano | P.H.S. I 45623 (NV), Mav-June 1025. Prov. Ri/al:, .1. l.olicr 12346 (A). Oct. 1000. Mt. Lumutan, M. Ramos | P.H.S.I 
422QS (M), April 1022,. Prov. Tax abas: Mt. Camalis, Ahasir & G. Edano 4313 
(A), 44S7 (A), Mav 19.59. — F. Canicosa [P.B.F.] 30017 (PS). April 1025. //. M. 
Curran ir M /.. Merrill [P. H.F.I 7S4n (PS), Nov. 1007. 

Mindanao: Prov. Bukidnon: Ml. Pipa, .1/. Ramos & G. Edano IPHS.l 
3S4V3 (A), June-Julv 1920. Mt. Candoon, .1/. Ramos c'r (,'. Edano [P.H.S.I 3S033 
(A, PS), June-July l'>20. Vieinitv of Taneulan. E. Eeni.x IP.H.S.] 26063 (A, US), 
Ju!> P'ln. Prov. Davao: Mt. Colelan, torested ridge, alt. 1900 m., .1. /). E. 
Elmer 10620 (A, V, G, M. NV, PS), May looo. Todaya. Mt. Apo, wooded ridge, 


alt. 2300 m., A. D. E. Elmer 11465 (A, C, M, NY, US), Aug. 1900. Pro v. Misamis: 
Mt. Matindang, E. A. Mearns & W. I. Hutchinson [P.B.F.] 4558 (isotypes of A. 
montana, M, NY, US), May 1906. 

Small tree 4-10 m. high; branchlets terete, reddish hrown, glabrous even 
to the very young growth, including the terminal buds. Leaves coriaceous, 
glabrous, elliptic-ovate to elliptic-oblong, 5-8 (-10) cm. long, 2-3.5 (-4) 
cm. wide, usually more or less acuminate at the apex, sometimes blunt and 
shortly so, acute at the base, the margin entire, somewhat revolute in 
drying, the veins generally obscure, occasionally faintly visible on the upper 
surface, the petiole 5-10 mm. long, glabrous. Flowers axillary, up to 5 
in an axil, sometimes solitary; pedicel stout, usually 1-2 cm. long, occasion- 
ally slightly shorter, glabrous; bracteoles 2, opposite or alternate, quickly 
caducous, when present minute, quite scale-like, deltoid, ca. 1-1.5 mm. 
long; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, glabrous, unequal ca. 3 mm. long, sometimes 
shorter, ca. 3 mm. wide, fimbriate-ciliolate along the margin, the outer lobes 
abruptly apiculate, the inner lobes more rounded; corolla-lobes 5, glabrous, 
obovate to narrowly obovate, 9-12 mm. long, 4-5 mm. wide; stamens ca. 
25, unequal in length, 4-7 mm. long, the filaments glabrous, adnate to the 
base of the corolla, sometimes appearing free, the anthers ca. 1 mm. long, 
very slightly retrorse-pilose; ovary glabrous, 3-celled, tapering into a 
glabrous style which is usually 3-parted, sometimes slightly so, occasionally 
incompletely so, topped by three stigmas. Fruit ovoid to globose, glabrous, 
three-celled, sometimes incompletely so, ca. 1 cm. diam.; the seeds minute, 
brown, varying in number. 

This is the first record of the genus Cleyera from the Philippine Islands. 
Described originally under Adinandra, this new variety of Cleyera japonica 
Thunb. has been collected profusely in many provinces of Luzon and 

The axial placentation of the ovary, the retrorse pubescence of the 
anthers, the entire leaves and glabrous terminal buds, the 3-parted style 
and 3-celled ovary, and the very small, subrotund, conspicuously ciliolate 
calyx-lobes are characteristics of Cleyera rather than Adinandra. 

There is considerable variation in the parts of the flower but none appear 
consistent enough for specific delimitation. Ordinarily the calyx-lobes are 
approximately 3 mm. long and about as wide. In Curran & Merritt 7846 
and Canicosa 30017 from Tayabas, Loher 12346 from Benguet and Cani- 
cosa 28980 from Laguna Province in Luzon the calyx-lobes are smaller, 
measuring only 2 mm. in length and width. However, in Mearns 4420 
and Ramos & Edano 44906 from Mt. Pulog, Benguet Province, the calyx- 
lobes measure 2.7 mm. and 3.5-4 mm. respectively. 

There is also variation in the pedicel-length and the size of the leaf. 
Ordinarily, the pedicel measures 1.5-2 cm. long. In the first two specimens 
mentioned above, namely Curran & Merritt 7846 and Canicosa 30017, the 
pedicel measures only 7 mm. These two specimens are generally smaller 
in most characters. In Ramos & Edano 40314 from Mt. Baudan, Benguet 
Prov., the calyx-lobes are 2 mm. long but the pedicel measures 2 cm. 
Ramos & Edano 44906 from Mt. Pulog has pedicels measuring 2 cm. in 


In the original description, no mention 
and the fact that more than one tlower i 
degree of splitting in the style is" variable. Entire styles and three-parted 
styles in varied stages may he found on the same specimen. However, 
the tendency to split is evident in all specimens. Also, the presence of 
more than one tlower (up to five) is more prevalent than the solitary flower 
in the axil. These are all characters of typical Clryrra. 

Vernacular names: Abu-abu, paniasan. 

Ternstroemia urdanet.Misis (Elmer), comb, now 

.Ulinamtra urdanvtvnsh Klnu-r, Leail. IMiilipp. Hot. 8:2837. 1915 "urdanetense." - 

Men ill, Knum Philipp. Fl. Pits. 3: 73. 1023. 
T,rnstronnia rf,iph\tini Flmcr ex Merrill, Knum. Philipp. Fl. Pits. 3:73. 1923, in 

This species of Ternstrocmia was firsl described as Adinnndni urdanc- 
tensis by Elmer. Later, Elmer gave it the herbarium name / . cpiphytna, 
which name Merrill, probably not realizing the relationship with A. 
urthuirtt -hsis, published in his F.numerat ion. 


In this group are classified the species found in East Bengal, Ceylon, 
Siam, the Malay Peninsula, the Netherlands East Indies, Sarawak, and 
British North Borneo. Including the thirteen new species proposed here, 
there have been fifty-two species describe. I under Adinnndra which fall in 
this geographical group. Of these, twenty four are recognized below, two 
are excluded from the genus, two are recorded as doubtful species and 
three are listed as little known. 

It is with regret that I list species as "doubtful'' or "little known." 
Material of these species tan surely be found in the herbaria of Malaya 
and the Netherlands Fast Indies, pet haps in abundance — but at present, 
under the strict shipping conditions in the Pacific area, the material is not 
available for this study. As a result of the war some of the material may 
never be available. 

Because of the lack of this material, my interpretations of some of the 
species of this group may be open to question. In too many instances it 
has been necessary to draw conclusions from a single specimen, often 
incomplete at that. In other cases decisions have been reached and the 
original descriptions only recorded when no material has been available at 
all. This information has been gathered, often very laboriously, from 
literature which appears annoyingly incomplete according to our present 
standards and which could apply easily to almost any species previously 
described. However precarious as it may be, I have attempted to bring 


together the species of this geographical group which are presented below. 

In this geographical area is found the true center of distribution of the 
genus. Species are much more varied in form than those of the Philippine 
Islands and Eastern Asia. Also, the number of species is considerably 

As in the two former groups, I am recording a chart, compiled during this 
study, which brings together the characters most used in identification, and 
under these headings have listed the respective species. 

Bracteoles Calyx-lobes 

colli na oblonga cordifc 

cor di folia phlebophylla slrig 

r.ordi folia plagiobasis Cornet 


ollu-lolxs (Continued) Filaments (Continued) 


la •<•[>< ! da 

■ : . 

m< >tl hrnsi 

(,;."' tin: 

■ ■ . 


Hull in; 

; . ■ ; la! . 

. , / :'!>, ! i 




< V* mrnsitif 


t olomlwnensi> 




, aiditolia 

,!,:■•. van! ha 


< ;,,!>, tin, 

:>■!: v, xnna 

. >.,;■■ 



Zi!' P 2l,: 

ma, nlc\,i 

m, ::;>;.' <U<r, i 



<;uin<;u< partita 

■.:■.>!•■ ... 



\ulru iiiln 


ma gni flora 
;':.: ■ ,■! : ; 

-. ;il<>i,i 

A. Ovary and fruit glabrous. 

C. Ovary and fruit 5-celled; stigma and style 5-parted or sulcate. 

D. Bracteoles caducous or vestigial. (Bengal) 28. A. Griffithii. 

DD. Bracteoles persistent. 

E. Leaves 9-17 cm. long, 4.5-7.5 cm. wide; veins of mature leaves 

(British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu) 29. A. quinque partita. 

pressed above; anthers glabrous except for rare isolated setae. 

(British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu) 30. A. impressa. 

CC. Ovary and fruit 3-celled; Stigma and style 3-parted. (Ceylon) 

31. .1. liisiopctnla. 

BB. Stigma and stvle entire. 

C. Ovary and fruit 5-celled; ovules many; seeds small (2 3 mm. long), many 
D. Terminal buds glabrous. 

E. Pedicels slender, up to 20 mm. long; leaves with midrib smooth 
beneath, the blade not punctate-dotted (Malay Peninsula; East 

Indies) 32. A. dumosa. 

EE. Pedicels short and thick, 5 mm. long and ca. 3 mm. thick; leaves 
with midrib bisulcate beneath, the blade dark punctate dotted. 

(British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu) 33. A. verrucosa. 

DD. Terminal buds appressed-pubescent. 

E. Corolla-lobes glabrous; veins conspicuous up to 1/ pairs, arcuate- 
ascending near the margin. 
]•'. Calyx-lobes pubescent; filaments pubescent 

(British North Borneo: 


IV. Calyx-lobes glabrous; filannnK glabrous; leav 


. Ovary and fruit 3-celled; ovules few ir 
Ions)', few (6-8) developing. 
]). Leaves heavily coriaceous, the veins 
surfaces with equally conspicuous 

auioici, apu.ui.ue, u,c 



apex ; young branchlct 

branches always terete. 

veins inconspicuous above, mo 
s reticulations; bracteoles small, i 
usually terete, rarely winged 
(Malav Peninsula ; Sumatra, Ja 

■ pronounced 

r anuled, the 
a, Borneo)... 

)vary pubescent ; fruit pubescent or glabrescen 

. Bracteoles persistent through Iruiling static. 
C. Leaves cordate at the base. 

usually with a ft 

British North 
.1. amliioliu. 

1)1). Mature leaves scabrous 
Borneo: Mt. Kinabal 
CC. Leaves cuneatc, obtuse or 
I). Style glabrous. 

K. Corolla pubescent. 

rounded at th 
the petiole 1 

u- lower surface. (British North 

2) seeds developing, seeds large up to S mm. long. (S 

I'V. Leaves petiolate, the petiole 5 7 mm. long; pedicel < 

seeds developing, seeds small (2 3 mm.). (Malay Pi 

F. Ovary 3-celled, pauci-ovulale ; fruit 3 celled, few (10 or less) 
seeded, the seeds large, up to S mm. long. (Malav Peninsula; 

Sumatra. Java, Borneo) iS. ,1 Sarn^in! iirni. 

VV. Ovarx 5 celled, multi-ovulate ; fruit 5-celled, many (over 100) 
seeded, the seeds small (2-3 mm. long). 

O. Bracteoles densely pubescent, broadly ovate or deltoid, un- 
equal (5 X 5 mm. and 3 X 3 mm.); branchlets rusty tomen 

buds denselv tawnv sericeous. (Ma 
42. ,1. Hull, 

ires.-ed-pubesient, subrotund, unecjual (2 ai 
iranchlets appressed pubescent near the a 
apprcssed pubescent. (Malav Peninsula) 

Corolla pubescent. 

GG. Pedicels usually over 10 mm. long, up t< 

H. Branchlets, lower surface 

of leaves, p 

edicels, and bracteoles 

densely ferrugmeous-scriceous; fruit 

with single seed to 

(Malax' IVnii 

, . .45. A. Corne.riana. 

HH. Branchlets 

! of the lea\ 

appressed-pubescent; fruit with 

each cell. 

I. Leaves 

chartaceous, 5 

g, 2.5-3.5 mm. wide, 

r i i. ii ipc<l, long-caudate 

at the apex; seeds 

dark, shining. (Britis! 

neo: Mt. Kinabalu). 

. .46. A. caudatijolia. 

II. Leave, 

coriaceous, up 

long, 4-6 cm. wide, 

:; seeds ligh 

t buff, dull. (Malay 


FF. Ovary 5 -celled, r 

linute; fruit 5-celled, 

many (100 or mc 

(Malay Peninsul; 

..48. A. integerrima. 

S. Corolla glabrous. 

F. Terminal buds gl 

er surface of the leaf 

bisulcale; ealv.\-l« 

British North Borneo, 


49. A. collina. 

G. Small leaves, 3-5 cm. long, 2-2.5 cm. wide, occasional!-, larger: 
bracteoles ca. 2 mm. long; corolla-lobes always five; seeds 
minute, ca. 2 mm. long, dark, shining. (British North Borneo: 
Mt. Kinabalu) SO. A. Clemensiae. 

B. Bracteoles quickly caducous, seldom lasting to anthesi 

C. Leaves obliquely cordate at base. (Sarawak) 

CC. Leaves acute or subrotund, never cordate. 

E. Bracteoles persistent. (Southeast Borneo).. 
EE. Bracteoles caducous. 

F. Filaments glabrous; veins up to 20 pai 

midrib. (British North Borneo).. 
DD. Style pubescent. 

E. Ovary and fruit 3-ceIled. 

F. Bracteoles alternate (evident by si 
fallen) with the lower bracteole ; 
calyx; apicule on the stamen m 

• 4-celled in A. oblonga ). 

; ovary and fruit 4-celled. (Siam) 

58. A . oblonga. 


GG. Pedicels 10-50 mm. long. 

H. Filaments glabrous; calvx-lobes distinctly acute at the 

apex. (Indo-China) 60. A. phlebophylla. 

HH. Filaments sericeous, ial\\ lobes rounded at the apex. 

Disi'Kiisr no\: Fast Hernial. 

Fasi U . Crifnth 7S? (isotypk, G). 

Tree 15-20 m. with slightly angled branchlets, the branchlets glabrous 
even to the younger growth, the terminal buds glabrous. Leaves coria- 
ceous, oblong-elliptic to oblong-oblanceolate. 12 15 cm. long, 4-5 cm. wide, 
acuminate at the apex, tapering at the base, glabrous on both surfaces, even 
in the very young leaves, the margin quite entire, the veins rather incon- 
spicuous, the petioles sturdy, glabrous, semi-terete, flattened above. 
Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels ca. 2 cm. long, glabrous; bracteoles 2, 
caducous or vestigial; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, glabrous, rounded, ca. 8 
mm. long; corolla lobes (fide Dyer) equalling the calyx-lobes in length; 
stamens (fide Dyer) sparingly setose. 1 -seriate, adnale to the base of the 
corolla; ovary glabrous, tapering into the style, the style glabrous, distinctly 
5-fid, the divisions of the style cylindrical, hardly ev ceding the calyx-lobes. 
Fruit not seen. 

The above description of this species is not as complete as one might 
desire. Although an isotype of the species has been available for this 
study, little additional information can be given at present. 

The outstanding feature of the species is the deeply five-parted style. 
In the majority of species of Adinaiidni the style is entire for the whole 
length. The only other known exception is . I . lasiopvtala (Wight) (noisy 
in which the style is three-parted. In .1. imprcssa Kob. and .1. quinquc- 
partita Kob. dissections made from buds show the style to be five-sulcate. 

The ovary of .1. Critfi/I/ii is undoubtedly live-celled, although not men- 
tioned as such by Dyer. Also one may assume that the corolla-lobes are 
glabrous on the external surface, because, were they pubescent, Dyer 
would have drawn attention to the fact, since he does describe the corolla. 
Dyer states that the bracteoles are vestigial. Observing them, I cannot 
be certain whether the\ are vestigial or caducous. I am inclined toward 
the latter. 

A specimen deposited in the U. S. National Herbarium at Washington 
may be mentioned here. This specimen, collected by Dr. Kind's Collector, 
no. 114, is incomplete. However, in an accompanying packet is material 
from previous dissections of buds showing the style definitely five-parted. 
The leaves are glabrous, as in the terminal bud. and the branchlets are 
slightly angled. The leaves are larger and less coriaceous than those of 
the type, measuring up to 20 cm. in length and 6.5 cm. in width. 

This additional specimen collected in the "Akha Hills" is recorded from 


Duffla Hill as a "tree 50 to 60 ft. high, 3 to 4 ft. in dt.; leaves green, flowers 
white." It was collected in Feb. 1890. The actual collector's name is not 
clear but appears to be "Khan." This locality, Akla Hills, or Aka Hills, 
as it is recorded in some gazetteers, is on the northeastern frontier of India, 
northeast of the Darrang District of Eastern Bengal. Duffla Hill is also 
recorded as Daffla Hill. Aka and Daffla are names of independent tribes. 
This locality agrees very well with that of the type, Griffith 755, which was 
collected in East Bengal. 

Arbor parva; ramis glabris, teretibus, flavo-brunneis, subrugulosis, 
ramulis glabris. teretibus brunneis, gemmis terminalibus conicis, glabris. 
Folia crasso-coriacea, elliptico-oblonga vel ovata, 9-17 cm. longa, 4.5-7.5 
cm. lata, apice acuta vel late acuminata, minute emarginata, basi late 
cuneata vel subrotundata, undique glabra, subtus fusco-punctata, margine 
subintegra vel minute glandulosa. venis lateralibus primariis 8-10 paribus, 
marginem versus inconspicuis. venis secundariis inter primarias frequenti- 
bus, petiolis crassis, glabris, 6-10 mm. longis, ad 4 mm. diametro. Flores 
axillares, solitarii; pedicellis 2-3.5 cm. longis. glabris. recurvatis; bracteolis 
2, oppositis, persistentibus, glabris, ca. 3 mm. longis, margine ciliolatis; 
sepalis 5, imbricatis, glabris, late ovatis vel subrotundatis, ca. 8 mm. longis, 
margine scariosis; petalis glabris; staminibus in numero ordinariis, 
?-seriatis. filamentis exteriore leviter pubescentibus, antheris oblongis, 
leviter hirsutis; ovario glabra, conico, 5-loculari, multi-ovulato; stylo 
insigno, glabra, apice leviter 5-sulcato; stigmatibus 5-partitis. Fructus 

Distribution: British North Borneo. 

British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu, Gurulau spur, in an open place, alt. 
210O-2700 m, J. & M. S. Clemens 50781 (type, A), Dec. 6, 1933 (small tree; flowers 
white, the stigma 5-parted). 

Unfortunately, complete material was unavailable for the study of this 
new species. In fact the material is so incomplete that, were it not for the 
unusually distinctive character of the pistil, I would have refrained from 
describing it as new. 

The ovary is 5-celled, glabrous, and after swelling at the base tapers 
conically into an ill-defined style similar to those found in species of 
Gordonia. The style in the bud, which I examined, was undivided. 
However, the collectors, /. & M. S. Clemens, draw attention to the five 
divisions of the stigma and it is possible that, like A. Griffithii of India and 
A. lasiopetala of Ceylon the style fn open flower and fruit may be divided. 
The stamens, although no accurate count could be obtained, were typically 
those of Adinandra in number and character. The anthers were oblong, 
elongated, and bore the characteristic pubescence of the genus. The 
filaments also were lightly pubescent, in series, and joined for part of their 
length. The corolla-lobes, very tightly folded in the bud, could not be 
separated. However, they were glabrous and of a more thickened nature 
than those found in Gordonia. The ovules were attached to a slight 

54 J(H KNAI. (>!• TIIK \K\OU) \KliOKlTl\l [vol. xxvm 

The specific name .1. qiiinqurpartita refers to the vparted stigma. 

30. Ailinuiidra impressa, sp. nov. 

Arbor ?; ramis griseis, teretibus. glabris. ramulis teretibus brunneis, 
glabris, innovationibus glabris vel rare leviter pubeseentibus, gemmis 
terminalibus conicis glabris vel rarissime leviter adpresso-pubescentibus. 
Folia coriacea, glabra, obloimo-elliptica vel late elli|)tica. 4-7 cm. longa, 
2.5-4 cm. lata, apice late acuminata, basi obtusa vel late cuneata, 
margine integra, supra nitida, subtus pallidiora, fusco punctata, venis supra 
impressis, subtus subobscuris. primariis 5-S paribus, intra marginem 
anastomosantibus areuant il.uscpu'. venis secundariis inter primarias I're- 
quentibus, petiolis circiter 5 mm. longis. glabris. Mores axillares, solitarii; 
pedicellis glabris, teretibus, 1.5-2.5 cm. longis; bracteolis 2, oppositis, 
glabris, subrotundatis, circiter 2 mm. longis et latis. margine glandulosis; 
sepalis 5, imbricatis. glabris. margine glandulosis. exterioribus duobus late 
deltoideis, 4 mm. longis, 6 mm. latis, interioribus tribus 1 subrotundatis, 
circiter 5 mm. longis, 6 mm. latis; petalis 5, basi connatis. glabris. purpureis, 
circiter 12 mm. longis. apice acutis; staminibus circiter 25, 3-seriatis, 
glabris. filamentis pallidis, connatis. ad basi corollam adnatis, 3-5 mm. 
longis, antheris 2 ?> mm. longis. glabris. rarissime setis isolatis, ovario 
glabro, semi-globoso. circiter 4 mm. diamelro. 5-loculari. multi-ovulato, 
stylo glabro. circiter 5 mm. longo, apice 5-sulcato, stigmatibus 5. Fructus 
elongato-globosus, glaber, circiter 12 mm. longus. S mm. latus, 5-locularis, 
multi-seminatus, seminibus minutis, 1 mm. vel minus diametro, rubris. 

DisiKiiu -nos: British North Borneo. 

British North Borneo: Upper Ml. Kinabalu, alt 2000 50C0 in., ./. i'r .1/. S. 
Clemens JOJOJ (rvi'K, A), April 1«>32 (flowers dark with purple petals and jireen calyx). 
-Upper Mt. Kinabalu, /. & M. S. Clemens 2007S (A), April S, 1932 ( flower-buds 
dark, the petals purple, the calyx green). 

Like .1. quinquepartita Kob. this species has distinctly five stigmas. 
The style near the apex is sulcate with five distinct ridges. Dissections 
were made from the bud. It is possible that in maturing the style may 
become five-parted. The corolla is dark purple in color, and in the bud it 
is very elongate-conical, extending considerably beyond the calyx. The 
stamens, except for a rare evidence of pubescence on the anthers, are 
glabrous throughout. The leaves are thick-coriaceous with impressed 
nerves on the upper surface. The terminal buds are generally glabrous. 
However, there are rare instances of pubescence on the buds and very 
young branchlets. In glabrosity this species rivals I. dumosa Jack. The 
mature seeds are minute, measuring a single millimeter or less in diameter, 
and are red in color rather than the traditional dark brown. 

31. Adinandra lasiopetala (Wi-ht) (hoisv in Mem. Soc Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 

1:112 (Mem. Ternstr. 24). 1855. — Dyer in Hooker f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1:283. 

1874. — Beddome, Fl. Sylv. 2: (Forester's Man. Bol. xxiv, t. iii, f. 3). 1874.— 

Szyszylovvicz in Nat. Ptlan/enfam. III. (>: IS'). 1893. Tnmen, Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 

1:108, pi. 9. 1893. — Melchior in Nat. 
Cleyera lasiopetala Wi^ht, 111. Ind. Bot. 1:99. 
Eurxa lasiopetala (Widit) Gardner in Calcutt 
Sarosanthera lasiopetala (VViKht) Thwaites, E 
Distribution: Ceylon. 
Ceylon: G. II. K. Thwaites 775 (('.}. 


Small tree ca. 10 m. high; branchlets terete, grayish brown, glabrous 
except when very young. Leaves coriaceous, oblanceolate, glabrous except 
when very young," 7-9 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, the margin serrulate, con- 
spicuously recurved especially along the lower half of the leaf, the petiole 
semi-terete, flat on the upper surface, ca. 5 mm. long. Flowers axillary, 
solitarv; pedicels somewhat recurved, ca. 1.5 cm. long, appressed-pubescent, 
thickened towards the apex; bracteoles 2, unequal, opposite, immediately 
beneath the calyx, persistent, somewhat rotund, 3-5 mm. long, finely 
appressed-pubescent; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, thickened, unequal, some- 
what rotund, ca. 8 mm. long, the outer lobes finely appressed-pubescent, 
the inner lobes sericeous on the central portion of the outer surface, the 
margin glabrous, membranaceous; corolla-lobes 5, white, obtuse, ca. 2 cm. 
long, covered on the back with dense sericeous pubescence; stamens (fide 
Trimen et al.) monadelphous, 18-25, filaments unequal, sparsely hairy, 
joined at the base, the anthers sparsely pubescent; ovary 3-celled, glabrous, 
attenuate at the apex into a filiform, glabrous style which, on the maturing 
of the fruit, becomes 3-parted, the stigma 3-parted. Fruit globose, 3-celled, 
fide auct., many-, small-seeded; seeds hippocrepiform. 

This species is exceptional in the genus in having a 3-parted style (in 
the maturing fruit), and small seeds. These characteristics are similar to 
those found in Cleycra. The persistent bracteoles, the single, axillary 
flowers and the pubescent filaments separate it, on the other hand, from 

The only specimen available for this study is Thwaitcs (C. P. 775), quite 
an authentic specimen since it was used by Thwaites in his treatment. It 
agrees perfectly, as far as the available characters are concerned, with the 
illustrations of Trimen. The stamens were not seen by the present author, 
but the statement by Dyer that they are unequal leads one to believe that 
some form of seriate arrangement exists. Only in a single series are the 
stamens usually of equal length. 

32. Adinandra dumosa Jack in Malav Misc. 2 (7): SO. 1822 [repr. in Hooker. Comp. 
Hot. Ma K . 1: 153. 1835; in Calcutta Jour. Nat. Hist. 4: 207. 1843; ct in Misccl. 
Papers lndo-China, II. 2:271. 1S87J. - Choisy in Zollinger, Syst. Yerz. Ind. 
Archip. 143. 1854; in Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve. 1: 112 (.Mem. Ternslr. 
24). 1855. — Miquel, FI. Ned. Ind. 1 (2) : 477. 1859; Ann. Mus. Hot. Lugd.-Bat. 4: 
103. 1868. — Dyer in Hooker !., FI. Brit. Ind. 1:282. 1874.- King in Jour. As. 
Soc. Hernial, 59 (2): INS (Mater. FI. Malav Penin. 1: 128). 1890. — S/ys/ylowicz 
in Nat. Pilan/enlam. III. 6: 189. 1893. — Koorders & Valeton, Meded. 'S Lands. 
PI. 16:223 (Bijdr. Hoonisoort Java 3 : 223). 1896. — Merrill, Enum. Born. Pits. 
391. 1921.— Hurkill & Holttum in Gard. Bull. Straits Sett!. 3:36. 1923. — Mel- 
cliior in Nat. Pflanzenlam. ed. 2, 21: 144. 1925. 
Adinandra Jarkiana Korthals, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Bot. ed. Temminck, 106. 1840. 
Adinandra tri, lux orvna Korthals. Verb. Nat. Gesch. Hot. ed. Temminck, 107. 1840. 
— Miquel, FI. Ned. Ind. I (2): 477. 1859; Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4:103. 
1868. — Merrill, Enum. Born. Pits. 391. 1921. 
Adinandra ryrlnfoda Miquel, FI. Ned. Ind. Suppl. 1:478. 1862. 
Adinandra stylosa Miquel, FI. Ned. Ind. Suppl. 1:478. 1862. 
Adinandra vlalna Miquel, FI. Ned. Ind. Suppl. 1:479. 1862. 
Adinandra tricli<uoryna Korthals a parvifolia Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 

ocoryna Korthals § glabra Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 


Adinandra triclwcoryna Korthals 7 stylosa Miqucl, Ann. Mus. Hot. Lupd.-Bat. 
\dimimlra ir'ichocorxna Korthals 5 cyrtopoda Miqucl, Ann. Mus. Hot. Lupd.-Bat. 
Distriih tiox: Malay Peninsula, Netherlands East Indies, Sarawak, British North 

°MaL Peninsula: Singapore, Hot. Garden, /. <fr ,1/. S. Cfefuiu 2JW (NY), 

Nov 7, 1920 (tree 10 in. hiidi; flowers white). Singapore Bot. (lard. [Cult.], lawn 
1 M Nur *410 (\>, Oct. 1-', 1025, 2W5 (A), May 17, 1030.- Simiapore. //. .»/. 
Cmw/m s » (US) \iiii 1010; Kuntzc olOS (NY), Oct. 1 S 7 5 . Malacca, IU O;/- 
fj,/, v „ ((;, M).- -Perak, K. Seortechini s. n. (US).- Perak, near I'lu Selammre, 
open bamboo forot, hillv locale, all. 150 200 m.. />r. A'/^\ Collector SWS (A), March 
1886 (tree 15 m. hmh with spreading branches leaves dark metallic preen; tlowers 
white). — Penang, Penan* Hill, G. King s. n. (US), Aim 1S7<). Pahanp, Tasek Bera, 
at low altitude, M. R. /Ionic, sou 240r>5 (NYU Oct. 10, 1030. Exact locality lacking, 
B. Griffith 756 (O) ; ,1 ('. Mainly 154 (O). 

Si matra: East Coast: .Whan. Masihi Eorest Reserve, m primary forests, on 
"red" soil, B. A. Krukoff 4255 (A, M, NY, US), Nov. 5, 1032 (tree 20 m. hiph).-- 
Asahan, between Socnppapa and Pai pambiran, all. 270 5n() in., //. //. /*«W/«-/f <M0rt 
(C. NY. US), Feb. 11, P>27. Koealoe, old jungle near the Aek Kanopan, Locndoet 
Concession. //. //. Hartlctt ooso ((', \Y, US), March P), P)27. Asahan, between 
Socnppapa and Parpambiran, all. 270 5(,0 m., //. //. Hartlctt SOnl (NY, US), May 22. 
1027. Asahan. Bandar Poeloeh, //. ,S. F^o M.S'.s' (A), 1017 (NY).- Kast southeast 
of Toba Lake, ./. ,1. LorzbiR fi.W (A), May 11, 1010. - Bilah, general rcp.on ot 
Morbau, near Bilah Pertama ( Parbasiram > . A"-////;, ,;/ Si Tor,,,, <S>J (N\ ). 1-eb. -March 
1928. — Koealoe, Si Toenppir, km. from Damoeli. Rahmat Si Tonus 1504 (NY), 
Sept. 20, 192S. — Bilah, vicinity of Rantau Parapat. Rahmat Si Tomes 1577 (A), 
220/ (\), March-Mav 1032 (tree). Bilah, Aer Kandis (formerly Radja Mas), near 
Rantau Parapat, Rahmat S, Torocs 2666 (A, US). May 2X-June 2(,, 1032 (tree).- 
Bilah. Sipamata, near Rantau Parapat, Rahmat St Torocs 5125 (A, NY), June 27-July 
25, 10.*?.— Bilah, Subdivision I.abuehan Batoe, DLtrut km:, Pimm;;, Fannpa Pajoenp, 
Rahmat Si Torocs 5454 (NY, US), March 7 50, 1033. Subdivision Laboehan Batoe, 
District Rota Pinanp. Si Mandi Anpm (on the Soenpei Kanan), Rahmat Si Torocs 
4058 (A, NY, US), ApriLMa\ 1033. Subdivision Laboehan Batoe, District Bilah, 
Hitean Haloban (South of Concession Rantau Parapat), Rahmat Si Toroes 4305 
(US), May 17 24, 1933. Riouw en Onderh : Indrapii ischcbovenlanden, Batanp 
Peranap, alt. 75 m„ Ncth. I ml. Tor. Scrv. b.b. 50002 (A). Sept. 19, 1939. Tapa- 
noeli: Habinsaran, Panapparan to Maranti, //. //. liartlrtt SV57 (NY, US), May 
16-19, 1927. — Road from Kast Coast to Tapanoeli, northeast of Toba Lake, new 
road near Peso Peso, virgin junple, alt. 1350 1500 m„ IV. X .'V (\ .1/. Hangham llo2 
(A, NY), Feb. 22, 1032 (tree S m. hiph ; tlowers white). Division Padanp Si 
Dimpoean, Subdivision Padanp Lawas, Sosopan on Aek Si (Hip, Rahmat Si Torocs 
551S (A, NY), Sept. 1033. West Coast: " PSankor," J. E. Tcxsmann s. n. (G). 

"PSibopne," J. E. Tcxsmann s. n. (G). Exact locality missing: P. W. 
Korthals s. n. (probable isotype of ,1. Jackiana, G, NY). //. O. Forbes s. n. (CO. 

Java: J. E. Tcxsmann s. n. (probable isotypes ot A. cyrtopoda, G, NY), 1868.— 
Herb. Hort. Huitmzorx ICult.l 137 (V I-c-203, 205, 205A) (US). 

Borneo: J. E. Tcxsmann s. n. (probable isotype of A. stylosa, G). — P. W. 
Korthals s. n. (probable isotype of .1. trichocoryna, G, NY). 

British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu, Ml. Nunkok, alt. K.50 m., J. & M. S. 
Clemens 52724 (A), April 15. 1033. — Mt. Kinabalu, Colombon River, alt. 1350 m., 
./. c'r .1/. .S". Clemens 54005 (A), July 21, 1035.— Sandakan and vicinity, /). /). Wood 
Sin (A, PUS). SS7 (A, PBS), March-June 1020. — Sandakan and vicinity, M. Ramos 
1540 (A, G, US), Sept. -Dec. 1020. 

Sarawak: Mount Matanp, alt. 200 m„ ./. & M. S. ( lemem 22521 (A, M). — Mt. 


Dulit, moss-forest, alt. ca. 1000 m., P. W. Richards 1*20 (A), Sept. 8, 1932 (shrub 3 
m. hi^h; petals white, the calyx pinki>li ; lt'a\cs thick and leathery). 

Small trees with dark brown bark; branchlets terete, glabrous even to 
the current year's growth, the terminal buds glabrous, only very rarely 
sparsely pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, 6-10 cm. long, ca. 
4 cm. wide, usually obtuse at the apex with an obtuse acumen, tapering at 
the base into a short petiole, the mature leaves glabrous on both surfaces, 
very rarely the under surfaee of the very young leaves lightly pubescent 
along the midrib, the margin entire or obsoletely .serrulate, the veins obscure, 
the petiole ca. 5 mm. long, glabrous. Flowers axillary, solitary, rarely in 
twos; pedicel up to 1.5 cm. long, glabrous, accrescent towards the apex; 
bracteoles 2, persistent, opposite, immediately below the calyx, coriaceous, 
glabrous, subrotund, unequal. 5-4 mm. long. ca. 3 mm. wide, the margin 
entire or slightly fimbriate; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, glabrous, broadly 
ovate, unequal, 7-8 mm. long, 0-7 mm. wide, thickened at the center, the 
margin scarious. usually entire, occasionally slightly fimbriate; corolla-lobes 
5, connate at the base for 5-5 mm., glabrous, white, obovate, up to 16 mm. 
long, 6-7 mm. wide, bluntly acuminate at the apex; stamens ca. 40, seriate, 
9-12 mm. long, the filaments 5-8 mm. long, adnate to the base of the 
corolla, accrescent towards the apex, densely pubescent, the anthers ca. 4 
mm. long, hirsute, the apicule 0.5-1 mm. long, densely pubescent; ovary 
glabrous, subcorneal, ca. 4 mm. long, 5 mm. diam.. occasionally furrowed, 
tapering at the apex into a glabrous style. 5-ceIled, mult i-ovulate. Fruit 
globose, glabrous, 5-celled, many-seeded. 

Adinandra dumosa, described by Jack in 1X22. is the original species of 
the genus and possesses the widest range of distribution of any of the 
Indo-Malayan species. It holds the same position in the Indo-Malayan 
distribution that ,1. Mitlcttii holds in the [•'.astern Asiatic distribution. The 
center of distribution for the species appears to be the island of Sumatra, 
the range extending northward into Malaya and down through the East 
Indian Islands into Java and Borneo. 

It is probably the most nearly glabrous species in the genus. Even the 
terminal buds and current year's growth of the branchlets are glabrous. 
Species of Adinandra are often termed glabrous when close observation 
shows that the terminal buds and current year's growth of branchlets are 
quite pubescent. As is usual in species of this family, one will find 
exceptions to the general rule. Specimens collected on the east coast of 
Sumatra near Bilah have a tendency toward pubescence. A fine scattered 
spreading pubescence, not too noticeable but enough to be exceptional, 
may be found along the midrib on the under surface of the leaves. How- 
ever, the unfolding buds are still quite glabrous since the dorsal surface of 
the leaf is exposed while unfolding. In the pubescent bud the obvious 
pubescence is on the dorsal surface of the leaf, which character is quickly 
dissipated and entirely lost in maturity. 

The leaves vary considerably in size and shape. Generally they are 
bluntly acuminate. Occasionally one finds leaves tapering into a fine 
acumen. The stamens are numerous with both the anthers and filaments 
densely pubescent. In the latter case, the pubescence is so dense that it 


is difficult to separate the filaments in dissection. This dense pubescence 
on the filaments in so glabrous a species is surprising. The style develops 
considerably in fruit, rivaling, at times, the pedicel in length. The 
bracteoles, always persistent, are small, rounded and spreading. Occasion- 
ally, in the very young flower-buds, the bracteoles are lightly appressed- 

In this study, I have had opportunity to examine authentic material, 
perhaps isotypes, of .1. Jackiana, A. trkhocoryna, A. cyrtopoda, A. stylosa 
and .1. glabra, and find no suitable characters worthy of specific separation. 
All these names have been listed above as synonyms of A. dumosa. 

Vi KNAcri.AK namks: Kajoc tiling, kajor si mar apiapi, kajoc apiapi, 
apiupi, daun saribu. 

U A.liiiimilru verrucosa Slant in Honker's Iron. PI. 23: t. 2266. 1893; in Trans. Linn. 
Soc Hot II 4: US <F1. Mt. Kinahalu). 1NQ4. — Merrill, Enum. Horn. Pits. 

SMI. 1921. Mehhior m Nat. I'llan/entam. ed. 2, 21:144. l l »25. 

DisTRiiii tkin: Hritish North Borneo. 

Hiarisii North Hornko: Mt. Kinahalu: Paka Cave to Lohan-, .1/. ,S\ Clemens 
107.15 (topotypks, A. PBS), Nov. 15, 1015 (flowers pink) . — Upper Kinahalu. alt. 
j,,i:,) unit! m.. /. & M. S. Clemen 20115 (A), March 27, 1932 (flower-, pale pink 
suit used with white). Head Kinatak. alone, mar-in ol open place, alt. ca. MHO in.. 
J. e> .1/. .V Clemens 55121 (A). Feh. 27, 19.U (small tree S m. hitrh ; flowers -reen and 
pink . Iruil purplisli L'tven). 

Tree ca. 10 m. (fide Clemens) high; branchlets terete, glabrous, sturdy, 
noticeably thicker than those of most other species, verrucose-lenticellate, 
the terminal buds glabrous except for very light pubescence at the apex, 
the margin ciliate, otherwise glabrous. Leaves thick-coriaceous, oblong- 
elliptic, 12-15 cm. long. 5-6 cm. wide, obtusely emarginate at the apex, 
somewhat rounded at the base, glabrous on both surfaces, dark-punctate 
beneath, the midrib conspicuous beneath, bisulcate (in dried specimens). 
the veins inconspii nous on both surfaces, the margin quite entire with only 
occasional sharp dent inflations, the petiole thick, sturdy, glabrous, usually 
7-8 mm. long, sometimes only 1 mm. long. Flowers axillary, solitary or 
in twos or threes; pedicel sturdy, glabrous, seldom over 5 mm. long, often 
as thick as long; bracteoles 2, persistent, glabrous, opposite, immediately 
below the calyx, rounded, 3 4 mm. long and wide; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, 
glabrous, rounded. 6-8 mm. long; corolla-lobes 5, glabrous, pale rose or 
pink suffused with white (Clemens), broadly ovate-elliptic, contracted no- 
ticeably at the base. 16-20 mm. long. 10 12 mm. wide; stamens apparently 
4- or even 5-seriate, 20-24, apiculate. the filaments joined nearly their 
entire length, varying in length from the shorter or inner series, 7-8 mm. 
long, to the longer or outer series, ca. 13 mm. long, densely appressed- 
sericeous (silvery white) pubescent on the upper half of the dorsal surface, 
sparsely or occasionally pubescent on the lower half, the anthers oblong. 
uniformly ca. 5 mm. long, densely sericeous on the dorsal surface; ovary 
somewhat ovoid, ca. 4-5 mm. diam., glabrous, 5-celled, multi-ovulate, 
tapering rather abruptly into a thickened glabrous style, ca. 1.5 cm. long. 
Fruit globose, glabrous, ca. 1 cm. or more diam. Seeds many, minute, 
.shining subreniform. 

From the specimens examined and from the literature concerning A. 


verrucosa, it appears that this species is confined to the "Upper Mountain- 
Zone" of Mt. Kinabalu, North Borneo. According to Stapf the altitude 
range of this zone is "6000-10000" feet. 

Except for the pubescence on the stamens, this species is entirely glabrous. 
The sturdy character of all parts of the plant is the first feature which 
impresses one. However, the verrucose-lenticellate character of the young 
branchlets, the very short and thick pedicels, the bisulcate midrib (lower 
leaf surface) and the thick leaves and petioles are other features which 
tend to distinguish the species from most of the other near relatives. 

Arbor ?; ramis griseis vel griseo-bnmneis. glabris, teretibus, ramulis 
brunneis, glabris, teretibus, innovationibus adpresso-pubescentibus. Folia 
subcoriacea vel chartacea. elliptica. 6-10 cm. longa. 3-4 cm. lata, apice 
gradatim attenuata vel rare abrupte acuminata, basi gradatim cuneata, 
supra glabra, subtus glabra vel leviter adpresso-pubescentia, margine 
integra vel undulata. venis supra obsruris. subtus ]iriniariis 8-10 paribus 
juxta marginem arcuantibus, venis secundaria inter primarias frequentibus, 
petiolis 2-3 mm. longis, glabris vel leviter pubescentibus. Flores axillares, 
solitarii; pedicellis teretibus, 2 cm. longis. adpresso-pubescentibus; bracteo- 
lis 2, oppositis, persistent il.uis, leviter adpresso-pubescentibus, subdeltoideis, 
circiter 1.5 mm. longis; sepalis 5. imbricatis. adpresso-pubescentibus, 
margine ciliolatis, exterioribus duobus late ovatis circiter 5 mm. longis, 6 
mm. latis, interioribus tribus ovatis. 5-7 mm. longis, 4-5 mm. latis, margine 
scariosis; petalis 5, albidis, glabris, basi 5 mm. connatis, circiter 15 mm. 
longis, 5-6 mm. latis, apice subrotundalis; staminibus circiter 40. 8- 13 
mm. longis, 4 seriatis. filamentis hirsutis, liberis. basi ad corollam adnatis. 
5-9 mm. longis. antheris brunneis, elongatis, 3-5 mm. longis, hirsutis, 
ovario glabra, subgloboso, 5-sulcato, 5-loculari, multi-ovulato, stylo glabra, 
circiter 12 mm. longo. Fructus non visi. 

Distribution: British North Borneo. 

British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu, Colomhon basin, all. 1500 m„ /. & M. S. 
Clemens 342.17 (type, A), Aucr. 2, 1953 (flowers white with brown anthers). — Mt. 
Kinabalu, Colombon River, alt. 2000 m., J. & M. S. Clemens 33770 (A), June 28, 
1955 (flower-buds cream-colored). 

This species is closely related to ,1. caudatijolia Kob., but is separated 
by the 5-celled ovary and many ovules. It is safe to assume that in fruit 
A. colombonensis will produce many seeds. This assumption can be drawn 
from the size and number of ovules in the ovary. 

35. Adinandra excelsa Korthals, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Bot. ed. Temminck, 109. 1840.— 
Miquel, Fl. Ned. lnd. I (2) : 477. 1859; Ann. Mus. Hot. Lu K d.-Bat. 4:103. 
1868. — Szyszylowicz in Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 6:189. 1895. Stapf in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. London 1: 15,; (Fl. Ml Kinabalu). 1894 Merrill, Knum. Born. Pits. 
391. 1921. — Melchior in Nat. I'llan/enlani. ed. 2, 21:144. 1925. 
DisiRim n<>\: Horneo, British North Borneo. 

Borneo: Exact locality lacking /'. W. Korthals s. n. (probable isotype, G, NY). 
British North Borneo: Mt. Kalawal. trail, M. S. Clemens 11168 (P.B.S.), Dec. 
10-11, 1915 (small tree with white flowers and green fruit). 

Tree ca. 10 m. high; branches and branchlets brownish, terete, glabrous, 
the terminal buds elongate-conical, densely sericeous-pubescent. Leaves 

.MM i;\\i. OF THE ARNOLD VRBORETUM [vol. xxvih 

oblong-ovate, 9-15 cm. long, 4-6.5 cm. wide, somewhat acute 
or shortly oblong-acuminate at the apex, roundel or obtuse at the base, 
glabrous on both surfaces, punctate-dotted beneath, obsoletely serrulate at 
the margin, the veins (up to 12 pairs) conspicuous on both surfaces, arching 
upward near the margin, the petiole semi-terete. Hat above, glabrous, 0.5-1 
cm. long. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels thin, 2-3 cm. long, glabrous, 
swelling noticeably above the longer bracteole into the calyx; bracteoles 2, 
persistent, alternate below the calyx, unequal, deltoid to subrotund, minute, 
1.5-2 mm. long, glabrous; calyx lobes 5. imbricate, coriaceous, subequal, 
subrotund, ca. 7 mm. long and wide, glabrous; corolla-lobes 5, connate at 
the base, oblong, obtuse at the apex, fleshy, glabrous, ca. 12 mm. long, 6 
mm. wide, white; stamens many, several-seriate, the filaments linear. 
glabrous, joined at the base, the anthers oblong, densely hirsute; ovary 
glabrous, somewhat conical. 5-celled. mull emulate, tapering at the apex 
into a glabrous style. Fruit globose, glabrous, 5-celled, many-seeded, 
attenuate at the apex into a persistent style. 

According to Stapf, this species may be found in Sumatra. Only 
material from Borneo was available for study and this material contained 
little more than four probable isotypes. 

Adinandra excel so appears very closely allied to the type-species 
.1. dmnosa, but can be distinguished by the sericeous buds, the alternate 
bracteoles, glabrous and subdeltoid, and the glabrous filaments. 

Distinguishing characters are: (1) the glabrous ovary and fruit; (2) 
leaves glabrous on both surfaces but sericeous in bud; (3) glabrous calyx- 
lobes and corolla-lobes; (4) glabrous, deltoid, alternate persistent 
bracteoles; and (5) glabrous filaments. 

Koorders describes the ovary as single-celled. However, dissections 
have shown it to be distinctly five-celled and multi-ovulate. The fruit is 
clearly five-celled also. 

Arbor ?; ramis teretibus, glabris, griseo-brunneis; ramulis teretibus, 
glabris, rubro-brunneis; gemmis terminalibus elongatis, luteo-adpresso- 
pubescentibus. Folia coriacea. oblongo-elliptic a vel oblongo-obovata. apice 
gracili-acuminata. basi attenuata, supra glabra, subtus glabra vel glabres- 
centia, rariter leviter adpresso-pubescentia. fusco-punctata, margine subin- 
tegra vel crenulata, veins lateralibns primariis 20-f paribus, ad marginem 
non arcuantibus sed reticulatis, petiolis glabris, ut videtur circiter 1 cm. 
longis. Flores axillares. solitarii; pedicellis glabris, 1-1.5 cm. longis 
subcostatis; bracteolis 2. persistent ibus. suboppositis, subdeltoideis vel late 
ovatis, glabris, circiter 3 mm. longis. 4 mm. latis, costatis; sepalis 5, 
imbricatis, glabris. subaequalibus. subrotundatis vel late ovatis, 8-9 mm. 
longis et latis, margine ciliolatis vel glandulosis; petalis 5, basi connatis, 
oblongo-obovatis, 17-20 mm. longis, 9-10 mm. latis, apice rotundatis, 
exteriore adpresso-pubescentibus. margine scariosis; staminibus 30 35, 
3-seriatis, 10-14 mm. longis. filamentis 5-S mm. longis, basi connatis, ad 
corollam adnatis, dense hirsutis, antheris elongatis, 5-6 mm. longis, dense 
hirsutis; ovario subgloboso, glabra, 5-6 mm. diametro, 5-loculari, multi- 
ovulato, stylo glabro. circiter 13 mm. longo, basi circiter 3 mm. diametro. 

Disikim Hon Ncthfilanils Ka-1 Iniiics ( r.i ) . 


Sumatra: West Coast, Pajacombo Oeloe Air, alt. ca. 1100 m., 

The leaves of this new species resemble 
Kob., and A. borneensis Kob. both of Bo 
In A. myrioneura, however, the corolla is glabrous, the bracteoles caducous, 
and the calyx, ovary and style pubescent. In A. polyneura the corolla is 
pubescent, the bracteoles persistent, and the calyx, ovary and style glabrous. 
In A. borneensis the bracteoles are caducous and the calyx is pubescent. 

The petioles of the leaves of A. polyneura appear to be rather outstand- 
ing in that they seem to measure over a centimeter in length. This 
apparent length is caused by the gradual tapering of the blade along the 
petiole in a slight wing-formation. The actual petiole hardly exceeds in 
length that of the majority of species in this genus. 

Another interesting feature is the slight keel on the dorsal surface of the 
bracteole. Also, the pedicel appears 2-ridged, caused by the decurrence 
of the bracteole to the base, very much as a stem with decurrent leaves. 

Vernacular name: Madam; hwhe. 
37. Adinandra angulata Ridley in Jour. Linn. Soc. Rot. 38:304. 1908; Fl. Malay 
Penin. 1:105. 1022. — Mclchior in Nat. Pilunzenfam. ed. 2, 21:144. 1925. 

Distribution: Malay Peninsula (Pahang). 

Malay Peninsula: Pahang: (iunong Talian, alt. 1700-1800 m., L. Wray & 
II. ( . Robinson 551S (type, K), July 12, 1005 (tree 12-16 m. high). 

Tree 12-18 m. high; branches rough, sturdy, grayish brown, glabrous, 
4-angled, lightly winged, the young branchlets conspicuously winged, gla- 
brous, thick, as much as 5 mm. in diameter, the terminal buds sericeous. 
Leaves thick-coriaceous, elliptic, 10-15 cm. long, 5-7 cm. wide, obtusely 
acuminate to subrotund at the apex, acute at the base, glandular-apiculate 
along the margin from the base to the apex, less conspicuously so near the 
base, glabrous on both surfaces, the veins conspicuous on both surfaces 
even to the fine reticulations, 8-9 pairs arcuate-ascending near the margin, 
interspersed with an equal number of secondary veins, nearly as conspic- 
uous but not as long, the petiole thick, glabrous, ca. 1 cm. long, ca. 4 mm. 
in diameter. Flowers in pairs, presumably axillary (none attached); 
pedicels in pairs, sturdy, up to 5 cm. long, glabrous, flattened, ca. 1 mm. 
in diameter at the base, accrescent to 5 mm. in diameter at the apex, the 
narrow edges terminating in the bracteoles; bracteoles 2, small, almost 
vestigial, persistent, unequal, subdeltoid, subopposite, the lower bracteole 
1+ mm. long, the upper bracteole 2 I mm. long; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, 
rounded, glabrous, ca. 7 mm. long. 8 mm. wide; corolla-lobes (bud) 5, 
glabrous, ca. 12 mm. long. 6 mm. wide, thick, almost woody in texture; 
stamens (bud) ca. 35, seemingly 4-seriate, 6-7 mm. long, the filaments, 
joined at the base, glabrous, the longer filaments equalling the anthers in 
length, the anthers hirsute; ovary glabrous, hemispherical, tapering at the 
apex into a glabrous style, 3-celled, two cells normal, one cell compressed, 
ovules few. Fruit globose, glabrous, ca. 1.5 cm. in diameter, 3-celled, few- 
seeded, 1-2 seeds per cell. Seeds few, large, 8-9 mm. long, 6-7 mm. 
across, flattened, dark, lustrous. 

The branches and branchlets in this species are angled and winged. 
This character, along with the thick, conspicuously veined leaves, the long 

62 .101 KYU. OF TIIK \K\Ol.I) \UI!()lilllM [vol. xxvm 

thick pedicels (5 cm. long) in pairs, and the large seeds makes this species 
one of the most outstanding in the genus. 

Ridley, in his original description, referred to the (lowers as "Flores non 
visi." However, buds were available for dissection. Considering the size 
of the seeds, so few in number, and the irregularity in the cells of the fruit, 
I felt compelled to dissect one of the few buds accompanying the type to 
prove to myself that this species belonged to the genus Adinandra. 

In the fruit, I found three cells, two of which were larger than the third 
and occupied most of the fruit. The third cell was compressed along the 
wall of the fruit aiid was seedless. The two large cells contained only 
three seeds between them. These seeds were three times the size normally 
found in the genus, very uniformly scrobiculate and typical of Adinandra. 
In the ovary of the llowerdnid. the same condition existed, namely two 
large cells and one smaller cell. The ovules, few in number, in the bud- 
stage were as large or larger than the mature seeds in most other species 
of the genus. 

Otherwise, characters in the !lower-bud appeared to be typical for the 
genus. The stamens numbered about S5, possessed hirsute anthers which 
were quite uniform in size and equalled the longest filaments in length. 
The corolla-lobes seemed thick in texture. 

On paper, this species is difficult to separate from A. Sarosanthcra. In 
most instances, .1. Sarosanthcra has terete branchlets. However, in rare 
cases in the species, one finds definitely angled branchlets. but not as 
pronounced as in .1. an^ulata where it appears to be the dominant character, 
extending to the branches themselves. 

Both species have .welled ovaries, not so well defined in ,1. angulata, 
and both have few but large seed- developing in the fruit. In both species 
the pedicels are elongated, somewhat flattened, and the bracteoles are quite 
minute. In A.angulata the veins are very prominent on both surfaces with 
almost equally pronounced reticulations. The bracteoles are quite deltoid 
and occasionally apiculate. In .1. Sarosanthcra the veins arc' obscure on 
the upper surface, only lightly conspicuous beneath, and the bracteoles are 

A second related species is A. laotica Gagnepain from Laos, Indo-China. 
In the latter species the ovary and fruit are 5-celled and the bracteoles are 

Horn. Pits. 391. I'>.'1 ; in I'niv. ("iilil. Piil.l. Hot. 1 .1 : 

Mi'lchior in Nat. Pilan/rnlam. ed. J. 21: 144. 1 

KmiliaN. Wrh. Nat. Gcsch. Hot. <■<!. Tcmminck 104 Ft. W.I. Ind. Suppl. 1:47'). ISO.'; Ann. : 

andra macvanth>i Teiismann ,v Kinnrndrk in Tiid-thv. Ned. Ind. 2."i:4Jl. is 
Kin- in Jour. As. Sor. Bcnjial 52 (2): l'Jl (Mati-r. Fl. Malay IYnin 1: IS 
WO. S/vs/vlmvie/ in Nat. Pnan/rnlam. III. <> : IS'). IS'IS. R.dlcv, Fl. Mai 


Adinandra Iriopetala Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4:104. 1868. — Melchior 
in Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 21: 144. 1925. 

Distribution: British North Borneo, Netherlands East Indies (Borneo, Java, 
Sumatra), Malay Peninsula (Johore, Perak, Pahang). 

British North Borneo: Elphingtone Prov., Tawao, A. D. E. Elmer 21629 (A, 
C, M), 21727 (C, G, M, NY), Oct. 1922-March 1923. 

Borneo- Exact loralin larkm-. /' \Y . Kortluih s. n. (probable isotypk, G). 
Java: 'cult. Bot. Card. Buitenzorg, no. VI. e. 6. (G, NY, US), 1903. Sumatra: 
Atjeh en Ond. Gajo Loeeus. IVnosan ((in. Bohgane & Rangoet Galang), alt. ca. 
1800-1900 m., Neth. Ind. For. Serv. b.b. 223S1, 223^1, 22400 (A) Feb. 1-3, 1937.— 
East Coast, vicinitv of Aek Moente (Aer Moette). Asahan (northeast of Tomoean 
Dolok and west of Salabat), alt. ca. 500 in.. Ralnnat Sr Horn, 'J 132 (A), Jan.-July 
1936. — Palemtrang, Banjoesin en Koeboestreken. A. Thorenaar 111 (A), Ju'y 14, 1911. 
— Palembang, Lementang Ilir, Semangoes, / 
27, 1940. — Lampong, /. E. Teysmann s. 

Malay Pkxixsci.a: Perak: Sungei Krian Estate, at sea level, G. H. Spare 
36003 (A). Johore: Bagan Liman, Sedili River, at low alt., E. J. II. Corner 25SW 
(NY) Feb 18, 1931.— Sungai Sedili, E. J. II. Corner 25992 (NY), Aug. 28. W2 
(large tree 17 m. high). — Kangka Sedili Kechil, at low alt., E. J. II. Corner 28581 
(A NY), June 18, 1954. - -- Sumrai Kavu, Mawai-Jemuluang Rd., in swampy forest, 
at low alt.. E. J. U i Jv. w \>. Feb v 19- Pahang: Sungai Bcra, near 
Tasek Bera, at low alt.. M. R. Henderson 24113 (NY). 

Tree 25-30 m. high; branchlets brown, glabrous, appressed-pubescent 
when very voung, the buds densely sericeous. Leaves coriaceous, oblong- 
elliptic, 9-12 cm. long, 4-5 cm. wide (often much larger, 15-18 cm. long, 
6.5-7 cm. wide), obtusely acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, the 
lower portion of the margin entire, the upper part finely serrulate, glabrous 
when mature (thinly appressed-pubescent beneath when immature), the 
midrib conspicuous, the primary veins numerous, evenly spaced, con- 
spicuous on both surfaces, the petiole short, 5 mm. or less, somewhat 
winged on the upper surface, lower surface semi-terete. Flowers axillary, 
usually solitary, occasionally in twos: pedicel long, 3-4.5 cm., glabrous, 
quite 'erect, often nodding at the apex, the braeteoles 2, minute, quite 
rounded, opposite or slightly alternate below the calyx; calyx-lobes 5, 
somewhat coriaceous, imbricate, glabrous, varying from 5 X 6 mm. (outer 
lobes) to 8 X 12 mm. (inner lobes), the outer lobes weakly glandular- 
denticulate along the margin, the inner lubes with a membranous margin 
but no denticulations: corolla-lobes 5, obovate. 1.5-1.7 cm. long, glabrous 
or thinly pubescent on the external surface near the apex; stamens 30-50, 
up to 4-seriate. adnate to the base of the corolla, the filaments unequal in 
length, united, glabrous or nearly so, short (1-3 mm.), the anthers oblong, 
brownish, pubescent; ovary variable in pubescence, sometimes quite 
glabrous, pubescent at the apex, just below the style, or pubescent through- 
out, tapering at the apex into the style. 3-cclled. several-ovuled. Fruit 
globose, up to 2 cm. in diameter, glabrous or glabrescent, with a few 
straggling hairs at the apex, 3-celled. seldom over (> seeds in a single locule, 
sometimes only 6 in the entire fruit. Seeds fiat, hippocrepiform, up to 8 
mm. long. 

This species was originally described by Korthals (1S40) under the 
genus Sarosanthcra as S. execha. Later, Miquel rightfully transferred the 
genus to Adinandra. Since the species .1. excelsa Korthals already existed 
Miquel selected the name A. Sarosanthcra as most suitable. 

64 JOl K\ \l. OF THE ARNOLD 

The distinguishing characters of this species are: ( 1 ) 3-celled pubescent 
ovary (usually completely pubescent, occasionally pubescent near the apex 
only and rarely completely glabrous); (2) large globose fruit (up to 2 
cm. diam.). glabrescent. 3-celled or incompletely so, with large seeds up to 
cS mm. in diameter (2 or 3 to a cell); (3) filaments glabrous or nearly so 
with occasional appressed hairs on the exterior surface; (4) styles glabrous; 
(5) calyx-lobes glabrous; (6) corolla-lobes glabrous; (7) primary veins 
many (ca. 20 pairs) evenly spaced and quite scalariform in appearance; 
and (S) pedicel 3-4.5 cm. long. 

This species is nearly as widespread as A. dumosa Jack, extending from 
Borneo through Sumatra and some of the smaller Kast Indian islands up 
into the Malayan Peninsula. 

In Borneo it has been referred to as .1. Sarosanthera (and rightly so) 
by students of that island flora. In Sumatra, workers have called it 
A. lamponga and on the Malayan Peninsula it has been known as A. 
mat -rant ha. The last two names have been combined before. Koorders 
and Valeton ( 1896) suggested the very close relationship among the three 
and felt that they should be combined under a single species. 

In a species as widespread as this, and especially in this family, one must 
expect considerable variation. The ovary, in authentic material from 
Sumatra, is extremely variable. Material collected by J. E. Tcysmami 
s. n. from Pampong in southern Sumatra, the type-locality of .1. lamponga, 
presents a pubescent ovary. Rahmat Si Bona 0152 collected on the east 
coa>t of Sumatra near Asahan also has a pubescent ovary. Thorcnaar 111 
and AY///. I ml. For. Serv. b.b. 32125 collected miir Palembang, Sumatra, 
both in fruit, show the ovary to have been pubescent because, although 
glabrescent in maturity, there are vestiges of pubescence at the apex. 
Forbes 3191 collected in Sumatra (the localit) unknown to me), has a 
glabrous ovary. Cultivated in the Botanical (iarden at Buitenzorg, Java, 
under the number (VI-c 6), is a specimen with a distinctly glabrous 
ovary. Prom British North Borneo Elmer 2lr>2Q in mature fruit seems 
to be quite glabrous and one may assume that the ovary was glabrous or 
nearly so in the (lowering stage. • A Korthals specimen from Borneo labeled 
.1. Sarosanthera has ilowers with the ovary distinctly glabrous. 

Apropos of this discussion of pubescence, Koorders & Valeton in their 
discussion of A. lamponga (see reference above), stated that their descrip- 
tion was drawn up according to specimens in the herbarium of Koorders. 
They stated further that the living authentic specimen of .1. maerantha 
|Hort. Bog. VI-c 6 1 examined by them was identical with A. lamponga 
and they united the two species under . I. lamponga after comparison of 
A. maerantha with an authentic specimen \A.lamponga\ in "Herb. Bogor." 
and with the description b\ Micjiiel with which it appeared to them to 
agree fully. Only in the Sumatran specimen was the ovary truly pubes- 
cent. In Koorders' specimen the ovary was pubescent only at the apex. 
Koorders & Valeton stated that some specimens from Djampang-Koelon 
{Herb. Kds. 8159/3) differed through an entirely glabrous ovary and much 


larger fruit 2.5 cm. X 2 cm. with the fruit walls 4 mm. thick. As for the 
leaves, the description of A. leiopetala Miquel agreed better with their 
specimen than that of A. lamponga. In the specimen of Teysmann in 
Herb. Hort. Bog., however, the leaves agree with the description of A. 
leiopetala in the projecting base. Koorders & Yaleton also feel that both 
species are very nearly related to J. Sarosanthcra Miq. 

I have vacillated considerably in my attitude concerning this species, 
going so far as to attempt to write them up separately. However, my 
final conclusion is that the whole group should be combined under a single 
species, ,1. Sarosanthcra Miq.. even though the variation, especially in the 
pubescence of the ovary, is considerable. 

In a few of the specimens, particularly those collected by E. J. H. Corner 
in Johore, the young branchlets are quite noticeably angled. From the 
size of the leaves and branchlets, especially Corner 2H581, I feel further 
that the specimens must have been collected from very vigorous young 

39. Adinandra rordifolia Ridley in Kew Hull. Misc. Inform. 1938:173. 1938. 

Distribution: Sarawak, British North Borneo. 

Sarawak: Kuchinn, G. D. Haviland (= b. p. r. c.) K. S. = 23 (isotype, G), 
Sept. 19, 1892. BRITISH North B«>k\m>: Ml. Kinabalu: Tenompak, alt. IroO 
m., /. & M. S. Clemens 20929 (A), June 8 11, 1932 (flower-buds opening white, the 
flowers with pure white petals and l.rmvn stamens). Marai I'arai, Upper Kinataki 
Gonie alt. 1SO0 m.. ./. & M. S. t It- mats 32-1 31 (A), March 2<>, 1933 (tree 20 m. hijih ; 
flowers cream-colored).- -Marai I'arai. head of the Sadikan River, alt. 2000 m., J. & 
M S. Clemens 32S63 (A), April 22, 1933 (tree 7 m. hrdi ; buds pray). 

Tree up to 20 m. high; branchlets terete, brown, glabrous, the very 
young branchlets appressed-puhesi cut . I lie 1 erminal buds conical, appressed- 
pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, 11-20 cm. long, 5-8 cm. 
wide, acuminate or obtuselv acuminate at the ape\, unequally cordate at 
the base, glabrous (the lower surface of the very young leaves pubescent), 
the margin recurved, entire or nearly so, the veins 10-12 pairs, conspicuous 
on the lower surface, the petiole thick, very brief. 2 3 mm. long, occasionally 
subsessile. Flowers axillary, solitary or in pairs; pedicel thick, sericeous. 
ca. 5 mm. long; bracteoles 2, persistent, coriaceous, opposite, immediately 
below the calvx, sericeous, unequal, the smaller one ca. 3 mm. long, 4 mm. 
wide, rounded, the larger one ca. 6 mm. long, S mm. wide: calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, sericeous, unequal, broader than long, the outer lobes larger, ca. 
12 mm. long, 18 mm. wide, ca. 2 mm. thick at the base, the inner lobes 
ca 8 mm. long. 9 mm. wide, the margin scarious; corolla-lobes 5, connate 
at the base, oblong, glabrous, ca. 20 mm. long. 10 mm. wide, rounded at 
the apex; stamens ca. 40, 2- or 3-seriate, 11-17 mm. long (in a single 
flower), the filaments 7-11 mm. long, connate at the base, adnate to the 
base of the corolla, lightly pubescent, at least on the upper half, the anthers 
oblong, ca. 5 mm. long, merely lightly pubescent, some appearing glabrous; 
ovary sericeous, subglobose, ca. 4 mm. diam., 5-celled, multi-ovulate, the 
style ca. 13 mm. long, sericeous at the base, otherwise glabrous. Fruit 

66 .|ori!\ \I. OF TIIK \RNOLD ARBORETUM [vol. xxvin 

possible very essential additions to Ridley's original description. The 
ovary is 5-celled and multi-ovulate; the style 13 mm. long and glabrous 
except at the base; the stamens are unusually long with the anthers only 
slightly and intermittently lightly pubescent ; the corolla-lobes are glabrous 
and up to 20 mm. long; the calyx-lobes are broader than long, sericeous. 
the outer larger than the inner. Ordinarily, the inner lobes are the larger. 

Mki. Adinamlra conlilolia var. Mimosa, var. nov. 

Arlutr; ramis teretibus. brunneis dense adpresso-pubescentibus. ramulis 
juventute dense riavo-sericeis. gemmis teniiinalibus, nmieis, dense llavo- 
sericeis. Folia crasso-coriacea, elliptico-oblonga vel elliptica. 18-21 cm. 
longa, 11-12 cm. lata, apice abrupte acuminata, basi inae<|uilateralia. sub- 
cordata, supra nilida. glabra, subtus dense pallido-pubescentia, margine 
ut videtur integra. veuis primariis IS 20 paribus, subtus conspicuissimis. 
intra marginem anaslomosantibiis. venis soeundariis inter primarias Ire- 
(|uentil)iis, petiolis minutis. ca. 1 2 mm. longis, dense pubescentibus, vel 
rariter subsessilibus. Flores non visi. Fructus juvenes axillares. solitarii; 
pedicellis ca. 1 cm. longis. teretibus. den.-e fulvo-pubeseentibiis. recurvatis; 
bracteolis. 2, oppusitis. persistentibus. pubescentibus, subrotundatis. in- 
aequalibus, circiter 3 \ 4 mm. et 5 • 6 mm.: sepalis 5. imbricatis. 
subrotundatis. dense adpresso-fulvo-pubescenl ibus. inaetpial ibus. circiter 
S It) mm. longis. 7 I 1 mm. latis; ovario elongato globoso, sericeo, 5-sulcato, 
5-loeulari. multi-ovulato; stylo circiter 1 cm. longo. glabro basi excepto. 

Disikihi thin: BritMi North Ronuo. 

British North Borneo: Mi. Kinabalu: Dallas alt. 1000 m.. ./. & M. S. 
Clemnts 2t>22v Cimm. A). Aim. :i, l'Ml. 1'ppcr Mt. Kinabalu. IVnibukan, w. ■>: 
riil.^e, jungle, alt. U50 in., J. t'- M. S. ( Icmats 40774 (A), Oct. IS, l<).v< (tr.v). 

The main difference between .1. corrtijolia and its variety . f. conlifolia 
var. strigosa lies in the permanence of the pubescence. Both entities are 
pubescent in the terminal bud. the very young unfolding leaves, and the 
young branchlets. In the species this pubescence appears to be very 
evanescent, the leaves and older brani hlets .shortly becoming quite glabrous 
or glabrescent. In the variety. I he disappearance of the pubescence is less 
rapid. In branchlets showing growth of over a single year and in the 
mature leaves a dense- strigose pubescence, perhaps permanent, is found. 

Because of this very apparent difference one is inclined at first to 
consider the two as separate species. However, when an accurate appraisal 
of all parts has been made-, the persistence of litis pubescence seems to be 
the single basis of separation. 

In the type. J. <*r .1/. S. Clemens 26229, the young fruits are subtended 
by calyces similar in size to those of the species. However, in /. & M. S. 
Clemens 40771, the second specimen cited, the calyx-lobes are somewhat 
smaller, measuring ca. S mm. in length. 
40. Aclinanelia >iih-c>sili-. Airy Shaw in Kcw Hull. Misc. Inform. 19:59:505. V)M). 

Distribution: Sarawak. 


• II ' 


branchlets terete, brownish, later glabrescent. the very young 

Leaves chartaceous or subcoriaceous 

branchlets pilose, the buds senceou 

Hliptic-oblong to oblong-ovate. 5-11 cm. long. 1.5-3.J cm. wide, distinctly 
acuminate at the apex with the acumen nearly 2 cm. long, narrowed at the 
ba^e. occasionally siibrotund. the margin subentire. minutely glandular- 
serrulate, glabrous on the upper surface. appressed-pubescent beneath, 
later glabrescent. the midrib lightly impressed above, prominent beneath, 
pubescent, the veins 12-14 pairs prominent on both surfaces, arching 
upward and anastomosing, the petiole 2 mm. long, pubescent. Mowers 
axillary, solitary; pedicel very short, 1-2 mm. long, densely sericeous; 
bracteoles 2, persistent, sepaloid. ovate opposite, immediately below the 
calyx about as long as the pedicel, densely sericeous; calyx-lobes x im- 
bricate, uneuual. thickened, deltoid-ovate, acute, sericeous on the exterior 
surface, glabrous within, the two outer lobes 8-5 mm. long. 2 8 mm. wale. 
1 inner lobes larger. 4-7 mm. long. 3 3.5 mm. wide; corolla-lobes 5. whne. 
broadlv obovate. 8 9 mm. long. 7-8 mm. wide, rounded at the apex, 
sericeous along the median portion of the exterior surtace. otherwise gla- 
brous; stamens (tide Airy-Shaw) about 80. uni-seriate 4-6 mm. long. 
joined at the base and adnate to the base of the corolla, the lilaments hairy 
along the upper portion, the lower part glabrous, the anthers lanceolate, 
2-3 mm long, sericeous on lower portion of dorsal surtace. otherwise 
glabrous; ovary depressed-globose, 2.5 cm. diam., densely sericeous. 
2-celled, pauci-ovulate, the style 5 f. mm. long, glabrous or slightly pubes- 
cent at the base. Fruit ( Airv-Shaw'i subglobose. ca. 8 mm. diam., 
long-pilose. 2-celled. each cell one-seeded. Seeds discoid. 6-7 mm. diam., 
1-2 mm. thick, shining. 

According to Airv-Shaw's findings, the developed fruit of this species is 
two-celled with a single large seed in each cell. I have not had an oppor- 
tunity to observe this unusual feature but have examined an ovary from a 
bud of an isotype. A dissection showed the two cells in the ovary with a 
small number (approximately four) of ovules in each cell. This was the 
first species described with a two-celled ovary and fruit. The seeds are 
6-7 mm. long, adding another species to the small group in which the 
seeds are few in number and develop to a size at least twice that which is 
found in the majority of species in this genus. Tn this paper a second 
species with a two-celled ovarv. .1. nunkoknisis, is presented. This latter 
species has been collected on Alt. Xunkok. Mt. Kinabalu. in British North 
Borneo. The only evidence of relationship between these two entities 
appears to be the two-celled ovary. 

Besides the ovary, the features which are helpful in identification are: 
(1) nearlv sessile leaves with the petiole not more than 2 mm. long, and 
the apex long-acuminate: (2) pedicels very brief (1-2 mm. long), or the 
llowers subsessile; and (3) ovary and fruit long-pilose, the style glabrous 
except at the base. 
41. Adinandra parvifolia Ridley in Jour. As. Sor. Straits Sett], ",4: 23. 1910; Fl. Malay 

Malax Peninsula (Pahan-, Per; 


Pahang: Gunong Tahan, alt. 1650-1800 r 
July 12, 1905 (tree 10 15 m. high with wh 

Tree 10-15 in. high; branches grayish brown, terete, glabrous, the 
branehlets brown, glabrous, the terminal buds sericeous. Leaves coria- 
ceous, glabrous, elliptic. 6-S cm. long. 3-4 cm. wide, obtuse at the apex, 
acute at the base, the margin somewhat recurved, lightly glandular- 
serrulate, the veins ca. 6 S pairs, usually rather inconspicuous, occasionally 
conspicuous, dark glandular-dotted on the lower surface, the petiole 5-7 
mm. long. Flowers axillary, solitary, large, ca. 2 cm. in diameter; pedicel 
ca. 1 cm. long, glabrous; l.racteoles 2. persistent, opposite, immediately 
below the calyx, glabrous, broadly ovate, unequal, ca. 2X2 mm. and 3 X 
3 mm.; 5. imbricate, ca. I cm. long ami wide, unequal, the 
outer lobes broadly ovate, finely pubescent over all the external surface, the 
inner lobes more nearly rounded pubescent on the (antral portion of the 
external surface only, the margin scarious, glabrous; corolla-lobes 5, lightly 
connate at the very base, obovate. 15-16 mm. long. 9-12 mm. wide, 
pubescent on the upper hall of the median portion of the external surface; 
stamens 40 45, ?-seriate, unequal S-12 nun. long, the filaments variable 
in length 3-6.5 mm. long, pubescent on the upper third, joined at the base, 
adnate to the base of the corolla, the anthers oblong, ca. 5 mm. long, 
hirsute; ovary ca. 5 mm. across, densely pubescent, longitudinally fur- 
rowed. 5-celled. multi-ovulate, tapering at the apex into a style ca. 1 cm. 
long. Fruit not seen. 

The outstanding characters of this species to be used in determination 
are: ( 1 ) small oblong elliptic leaves up to 8 cm. long, lightly veined with 
6-S pairs of veins; (2) glabrous pedicels (ca. 1 cm. long) and bracteoles, 
the latter persistent, unequal, and broadly ovate; (3) broadly spreading 
flowers, up to 2 cm. in diameter with long ( 15-ln mm.) pubescent corolla- 
lobes; (4) stamens long (up to 12 mm.), the anthers hirsute, ca. 5 mm. 
long, the filaments up to 6.5 mm. long and pubescent along the upper 
third, otherwise glabrous; and (5) ovary pubescent, longitudinally 
furrowed, 5-celled. 

Ridley himself listed .1. wont ana Ridley as a synonym of this species. 
Adinandra montana Ridley (1915) should not be confused with the earlier 
.1. montana Merrill ( 1910) from the Philippine Islands. The latter species 
has been transferred to Clryrra japonica Thunberg emend. Sieb. & Zucc. 
var. montana (Merrill) Kobuski. 

42 Adinandra Hult.-tlii Kin- in Jour. As. Soc. Henga] 59 (2): 191 (Mater. Fl Malay 
lVnin. I:U1I. 1S90. Szyszvlou ir/ in Nat. IMlanzenfam. III. 6:189. 1895. — 
Ridley, Fl. Malav lVnin. 1:196. 1922. - Melchior in Nat. IMlanzenfam. ed. 2, 
21: 144. 1925. 

Distkiiution: Malav Peninsula (Singapore). 

SiM.M-oKi.: Kntrance to Hot, inn Oarden, A'. IF. Hidlctt W.i (tvpk, K), July 1885. 

'Free; branches terete, pubescent, furrowed, light brown, the young 
branehlets densely and minutely rusty-tomentose, t he terminal buds densely 
tawny-sericeous. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, 9-14 cm. long. 4-5.5 
cm. wide, shortly and bluntly acuminate at the apex, acute at the base, the 


margin denticulate, slightly recurved when dry, the upper surface smooth, 
shining, glabrous, the lowei surl'an opaque, denseh and minutely tomen- 
tose, the midrib prominent, the nerves spreading, obscure, ca. 10 pairs, the 
petiole ca. 5 mm. long. Flowers axillary, solitary or in twos; pedicel 
tomentose, ca. 1 cm. long; bracteoles 2, opposite, persistent, close to the 
calvx, broadly ovate or deltoid, ca. 5 X 5 mm. and 3 X 3 mm., densely 
pubescent; calvx-lobes 5. imbricate, fleshy, spreading, broadly ovate, 
unequal, the two outer lobes joined at the base appearing as though 
coalesced, ca. 10 mm. long, 8-9 mm. wide, pubescent over the entire exterior 
surface, the three inner lobes broader than long, ca. S mm. long, 9 mm. 
wide, pubescent on the central portion of the exterior surface, the margin 
deeplv scarious; corolla-lobes 5. ca. 12 mm. long, 5 mm. wide, connate for 
ca. 5' mm. from the base, rounded and recurved at the apex, glabrous; 
stamens ca. 45, seemingly 3-seriate. the outer stamens erect, the second 
and third rows somewhat geniculate with the third or innermost row more 
geniculate, quite equal in length, the filaments ca. 4 mm. long, geniculate 
near the anthers, the outer row glabrous, the inner rows occasionally 
pubescent at the point of geniculation, otherwise glabrous, the anthers 
oblong, ca. 5 mm. long, densely hirsute, tapering into long, quite blunt 
apicules, the apicules glabrous; ovary conical-hemispherical appressed- 
sericeous, ca. 4 mm. diameter, 5-celled, multi-ovulate. tapering into an 
entire style ca. 6 mm. long, glabrous except at the juncture with the ovary. 

Some of the outstanding features of this species are: (1) 5-celled 
sericeous ovary; (2) crowded stamens (ca. 45), with filaments glabrous, 
the inner two rows geniculate towards the apex, the anthers oblong hirsute, 
and the apicule long, blunt, glabrous; (3) corolla lobes glabrous, recurved, 
connate for nearly one-half their length; (4) style glabrous; (5) bracteoles 
persistent, opposite', unequal, densely pubescent: and (6) both branches 
and branchlets densely pubescent. 

Melchior, in his key to the species, refers to the filaments as pubescent. 
My dissections show the filaments to be glabrous, and since King did not 
mention pubescence in describing the filaments one must assume that he 
also considered them glabrous. His description proved to be most detailed 

43. Adinandra maculosa T. Anderson ex Dyer in Honker 1.. Fl. Mrit. Ind. 1: 282. IS 74. 

— Kin- in Jour. As. Soc. Beimal .V> (2): l.s'i (Mater. Fl. Malay Penin. 1: 120). 

1S00. — S/vs/vlovvicz in Nat. Pilanzenlam. III. 6: 189. 1893. Ridley. Fl. Malax 

Penin. 1 : 195." \<>22. Melchior in Nat. Pfianzenfam. ed. 2, 21 : 144. 1925. 

Ternstroemui ? inte^errima Wallich, Cat. no. 1452 (in Herb. Keu, not in Herb. Linn. 

Soc). Non T. Anderson. 
Distribution: Malay Peninsula (Pahang, Penang, Perak). 

Pahang: Eraser's Hill, E. J. H. Corner 33170 (A). Aug. 4, 193 7. — Fraser's Hill, 
upon the Selan-or border, alt. 1250 1350 m., M. Nur 11320 (A), Sept. 1, 1923. 
Pknaxc: A. Wallich 14*2 (type. K). Perak: Larut, rocky locality, rich soil, alt. 
800-1000 m. Dr. Ki>r-\ Collector 0331 (A), July 1884 (tree 15 50 m. high; (lowers 

70 .|()l i;\\l. OF Till. \K\OLI) AKIiOKKTl M |\o... xxvni 

small. appressed-pubesccnt. Leaves heavily coriaceous, elliptic to subro- 
tund. 10 15 cm. long. 4-5 cm. wide, shortly and abruptly acuminate at the 
apex, tapering at the base, glabrous, shining above, paler, dull, opaque, 
minutely roughened, generally glabrous beneath, occasionally lightly 
pubescent along the lower midrib, the margin entire, the veins wry indis- 
tinct on both surfaces, the petiole ca. 5 mm. long. Mowers axillary, 
solitary; pedicels ca. 1 cm. long, generally ap| tressed-pubescent ; bracteoles 
2. persistent, opposite or subopposite, immediately below the calyx-lobes, 
subrotund. unequal. 2 5 mm. long, appressed pubescent ; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, appressec I -pubescent , unequal, ca. 7 mm. long, the inner lobes 
pubescent on the central portion of the external surface, thinner and 
glabrous at the margin; corolla lobes (tide King) ■■membranous, ovate, 
acute, glabrous, coimivent"; stamens (fide King) "about 50; filaments 
attached to the petals, short, glabrous: anthers narrow, the cells elongate, 
lateral; the connect iw sericeous with short glabrous apiculus"; ovary 
depressed-hemispheric, pubescent, 5 celled, mult i ovulate, the style gla- 
brous. Fruit ca. 1 cm. in diameter, globular, at first pubescent, later 
glabivscent. the seeds numerous, small, shining, dark. 

Anderson describes the leaves of this species as "finely mottled beneath 
with reddish-brown remotely denticulate glabrous." The leaves of the 
type are finely but obscurely mottled beneath with reddish brown patches. 
However, on no other specimen examined did I find the coloration. King 
(and I depended much on his excellent description) refers to the under 
surface of the leaf as "pale brown, dull, opaque, minutely rugulose when 
dry." This species seems most closely related to .1. intent rrima T. Anders. 
which has silky pubescent terminal buds and thinner leaves. In A. 
maculosa, the leaves are unusually thick, with the veins obscure, if at all 
obvious, on both surfaces. 

Characters which are helpful in determination are: (1) thick glabrous 
leaves, opaque beneath and very abruptly acuminate; (2) corolla-lobes 
glabrous; (5) bracteoles persistent, subrotund and pubescent; (4) ovary 
densely pubescent, 5-celled with the style glabrous; and (5) filaments 

Hamuli tereti. brunnei. pube>i elites, gemmis terininalihus. conicis. dense 
sericeis. Folia coriacea. elliptic o-obovata. S 14 cm. longa, 2.5-4.5 cm. 
lata, apice acuminata, basi acuta, supra glabra nitida. subtus leviter 
adpresso-pubescentia, margine leviter denticulata. nervis lateralibus pri- 
mariis S parilms. gracilibus intra marginem anastomosant ibus. venis 
secundariis inter primarias frec|uentibus. petiolis 4-7 mm. longis, supra 
plain's glabris. subtus setni-terelibus. dense pubescentibus. Flores axillares, 
solitarii vel bini; pedicellis rugulosis. brevioribus crassioribusque. ca. 5 
mm. longis. 4 mm. crassis. recurvatis. leviter adpresso-pubescentibus: 
bracteolis 2. alternatis. persistentibus. late ovatis. subaequalibus. ca. 2.S-$ 
mm. longis et 5 mm. latis. leviter adpresso-pubescentibus; sepalis 5, 
imbricatis. rugulosis mbrotundatis, ca. 7 nun. longis, 5-6 mm. latis, 
pubescentibus. margine snbscariosis glandulosis; pelalis 5, basi connatis, 
cremeis. oblongis. 12-14 mm. longis. 5 7 mm. latis. medio dorso sericeis; 
staminibus 30-55. 4-seriatis, inaequalibus. S 11 mm. longis; filamentis 


4-7 mm. longis, in toto connatis, basi ad corollam adnatis, inferne nudis, 
superne hirsutis, antheris ca. 4 mm. longis, dense hirsutis, vix apiculatis, 
ovario subgloboso dense sericeo, ca. 4-5 mm. diametro, 2-loculari. pauci- 
ovulato, ovulis magnis, stylo gracile, ca. 11 mm. longo, basi hirsute), superne 
glabro. Fructus non visus. 

British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu, Mt. Nunkok, alt. SCO m, J. & M. S. 

Clemens .WOO (type, A), April 22, 1933. 

This species is related to Airy-Shaw's .1. snhsr.ssilis of Sarawak. Both 
have two-celled ovaries. Although no fruiting specimen was available for 
this study, I feel from the small number and the large size of the ovules, 
that A. nunkokensis will probably have very few seeds. Adinandra sub- 
sessilis produces two seeds in fruit, one in each cell. The flowers in A. 
subsrssilis are nearly sessile, with pedicels only 1-2 mm. long, the bracteoles 
sepaloid, the distinctly acute, the stamens uni-seriate and only 
4-6 mm. long, and the style 5-6 mm. long. The leaves are more finely 
acuminate at the apex, the petiole but 2 mm. long, and there are 12-14 
pairs of veins, prominent on both surfaces. 

In A. nunkokensis the flowers are briefly pedicellate, but the pedicels are 
longer (ca. 5 mm.) than those in .1. subsrssi/is and much thicker, the 
bracteoles are more rounded, the calyx-lobes subrotund. the stamens 
4-seriate and 7-11 mm. long, the style 11 mm. long. The leaves are 
acuminate but not as finely attenuate as in A. subscssilis, the petiole 6-8 
mm. long and there are only 6 8 pairs of veins. 

Arbor?; ramis teretibus, brunneis, pubescentibus, ramulis crassis, tereti- 
bus, brunneis, dense luteo-ferrugineo-pube reiitibus, gemmis terminalibus 
crasso-conicis dense ferrugineo-sericeis. Folia chartacea vel subcoriacea, 
oblongo-elliptica vel obovata, 14-20 cm. longa, 6-9 cm. lata, apice acuta 
vel obtusa, leviter acuminata, basi cuneata vel obovata, supra glabra, subtus 
dense pubescentia, praecipuc secundum eostam, margine glanduloso- 
serrata, venis lateralibus 10-12 primariis paribus, leviter conspicuis, gracili- 
bus ad marginem anastomosantibus arcuantibusque, venis seeimdariis inter 
primarias frequentibus, petiolis pubescentibus, 4-7 mm. longis. Flores 
axillares. ut videtur solitarii, pedicellis teretibus. recurvatis, 8-10 mm. 
longis, dense ferrugineo-sericeis; bracteolis oppositis, persistentibus, late 
ovatis vel subtriangularihiis. inaequalibus, dense ferrugineo-sericeis; sepabs 
5, imbricatis, exteriore omnino dense adprosso-pubescentibus, interiore 
glabris binis exterioribus subdeltoideis, 6 S mm. longis et latis, tribus 
Interioribus maioribus, S 10 cm. longis. 10-11 mm. latis; petalis basi 
connatis, apice acutis, exteriore luteo-pubescentibus; stamina 30-35, 3- vel 
4-seriatis. lilamentis connatis. basi corollam adnatis. exteriore dense hirsutis, 
antheris oblongis. dense hirsutis. ovario semigloboso, hirsuto, 3-loculari, 
pauci-ovulato, stylo gla!)ro. circiter 5 mm. longo. Fructus globosi, hirsuti. 
circiter 8 mm. diametro. 3-loculares, uno semine in quoque loculo, semini- 
bus subplanis, hippocrepiformibus, magnis. nitidis, circiter 5 mm. longis et 
3 mm. latis. 

72 JOI K\ \l. OK Till: \K\OI.I) \lii:ol!ITI M [\oi.. wvm 

tude, /•.' ./. //. Corner 20010 (typi: K, fragment A), Feb. S. 1935. Mawai Jrmaluang 
road (13.5 miles), at low altitude, E. J. II Comer 20426 (K), May 13, 1Q35.- S. 
Kavu Ara, Mawai Jemaliiang road, in dn Dryohalanops forest, at low altitude, K. 
J. 11. Corner 2o_i7o (K>. May 5, 1935. 

Although three excellent specimens have been collected of this species, 
the material appears rather sparse. As a result few dissections were made. 
Since no open flowers were available, the buds were used. Hence 1 have 
refrained from recording measurements of such parts as corolla-lobes and 
stamens which were obviously not fully developed. However, the charac- 
ters which might be used in a key. other than size, have been recorded 

The three-celled ovary and fruit, with few ovules and seeds are important 
characters. The ovary of the bud (Corner 20010 type) exhibited few 
large ovules, hence one might anticipate fewer and larger seeds in the fruit. 
For the study of the fruit Comer 29376 was used. Here, in both fruits 
examined, it was found that a single large seed developed in each of the 
three cells of the fruit. Si/e is the distinctive element. Otherwise, the 
seeds were typical of the genus. 

All three specimens were collected by \\. J. H. Corner in Johore at 
varying dates during the year 1935. It is a pleasure to name this species 
A. Corneriuiia in his honor. 
40. A.linan.lra eau.latifolia. sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 35 m. alta: ramis teretibus glabris. griseo brunneis. ramulis 
teretibus, glabris. brunneis. tamiilb juventut issimis adpresso-pubescentibus, 
gemmis terminalibus gracilibus. adpresso-sericeis. Folia chartacea, ellip- 
tica. 5 S cm. longa, 2.5-3.5 cm. lata, apice abrupte caudata. basi acuta, 
obtusa vel subrot undata. supra nitida, glabra, subtus pallidiora glabra. 
rariter leviter pubescentibus. margine integra vel leviter crenulata. venis 
primariis ca. S paribus, intra marginem anastomosant ibus arcuant ibusque, 
petiolis minutis circiter 4 mm. longis, glabris. Flores non visi. Fructus 
axillares. ut videtur solitarii: pedicellis teretibus. glabris. ca. 2 cm. longis, 
verruculosis subferrugineis; bracleolis 2, oppositis, persistentibus. minutis 
circiter 1 mm. longis; sepal is 5. imhricat is. subrot undat is. recurvatis, gla- 
brescentibus. circiter 5 mm. longis. 4-5 mm. lalis. Fructus globosus, 
glabrescens, circiter 1.5 can. longus. 1 cm. latus. 3-loc ularis. semiuibus 
circiter 9, magnis, subplanis, nitidis, circiter 7 ■ 5 mm. 

Dimkiio l iiin Hi it ish \,n Ih Morneo. 

Hkiiisii North Borm.o: 1'pper Ml. Kinalialu. Penibukan, west ridge, iungle, alt. 
1700 in , ./. iS- .1/. S. Clemens 50377 (ivn. A), Nov. 4, 1933 (tree 20 m. ; fruit preen). 
- I'pper Mt Kinahalu, Penibukan. east ridge, jungle, all. 1S50 m.. J. & M. S. Clemens 
• \'. Nov. 13, 1933 (tree 30 m.; fruit brown-purple). 

The species. .1. , audeitijoHa, as the name signifies, is characterized by 
the tail-like apex of the leaf. Furthermore, the leaf is chartaceous, rather 
than coriaceous, as is the case in most species. 

The material lacks flowers. The fruit, with its evidence of pubescence 
both at the apex and base-, shows that the ovary had been quite densely 
pubescent. This pubescence extends up the style. To what extent is not 
known, since all styles were broken near the base. The fruit is distinctly 
three-celled and the seeds large (ca. 7X5 mm.) and few in number (ca. 


3 to each cell). The pedicels are verruculose with subferrugin 

47. Adinandra acuminata Kortlials, Verb. Nat. Gesch. Bot. ed. Tcmminck 109. 
— Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (2): 478. 1850; Ann. Mus. Hot. Lugd.-Bat. I 


— Dyer in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 


i. 1873; in Hooker f., F 

1. Hi 

•it, Ind. 

. 1874. — Kin K in Jour. As. So 

c. Bengal 59 (2 



. 1: 12S). 1890. — Szyszylowicz 

Ptlan/etilam. III. 6: 189. 1 

Rullev. Fl. Malay Lenin. 1: 194. 192; 

Nat. Ltlan/u 

21:144. 1925. 

Gordonia acuminata Wallich, Cat. no. 36 

64 in H 

erb. Lint 

i. Soc. 


cmia ? coriacea Wallich, Cat. m 

axillaris Wallich, Cat., p. 158 ( 

not of 

: Bot. Reg. 349, se 

e Jour. 

Soc. Bot. 13:330. 1873). 


,/ axillaris Chnisy in Mem. Soc 

Hist, N 

at. Geneve 1: 




tr. 91) 1855. Non Don. 


tion: Malay Peninsula, Sumat 

Mai ay 

Peninsula: Johore: Gunone. Pulai, 

m.. .1/. A'. 


1514 (K). 

flowers white ) 

>vfst Ran 

ger (Abdul Rahim) 5918 (K), 

May . 

5, 1925. - 

-Sedanah, //. 




11504 (K), Nov. 24, 1908. Perak: Larut, open top of mountain, alt. 1000-1300 
m., Dr. King's Collector 6289 (K), July 1SS4 (tree 12 15 m. high ; leaves dark glossy 
green). — B. Scortechini 345 (K). - Gunong Hutu, Hutch, Lower Camp, alt. 1130 m., 
L. Wrax 115S (K). — Exact locality larking, /.. IFn/v 2S04 (CS). Larut, high 
mountains, alt. 1200-1300 m., Dr. King's Collector M52 (CS), July 1884 (tree 20 30 

along path. alt. 800 900 m., .1/. R. Henderson 2155S (K), Sept. 21, 1934 (small slender 
tree). — Government Hill. .1. C. Maingav 2267 (1*5) (G, CS), Feb. 1867. — Open 
jungle, hilly locale, alt. 300-600 m„ Dr. King s Collector 4S42 (1 S), Aug. 1883 (tree 
20-30 m. high; leaves dark glossy green; flowers white). Malacca: Garden jungle, 
H. N. Ridlev 1952 (A), 11534 (K), 1892 and 1893. Singapore: Bukit Timah, 
E. J. H. Corner 34932 (A, K), April 12, 1938. — Common, //. ./. Murton 111 (G. K), 
Dec. 1878. Pahang: Endcn, F. G. Mohamad 1551S (K), Aug. 31, 1929. 

Sumatra: Exact locality lacking, /'. IF. Kortlials s. n. (probable ism vers, G, CS), 

Small tree up to 25 m. high; branches brown-gray, terete, glabrous, the 
branchlets glabrous except for the appressed pubescence on the current 
year's growth, the terminal buds elongated, densely sericeous. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong-elliptic to broadly ovate, 8-15 cm. long. 4-5 (-6) cm. 
wide, generally sharply and finely acuminate (up to 3 cm. long) at the 
apex, occasionally less prominent, acute at the base, glossy, dark green, 
glabrous above, somewhat paler, glabrous or scattered pubescent beneath, 
the margin entire or obsoletely denticulate, the veins ca. 12 pairs, usually 
with double arching, not always, the petiole ca. 5 mm. long. Flowers 
axillary, solitary or in twos; pedicels terete, ca. 1 cm. long, finely appressed- 
pubescent at first, later glal.res. cut. smooth at anthesis. later developing 
wart-like protuberances becoming very rough and pronounced at the 
fruiting stage; bracteoles 2. persistent, alternate along the pedicel, the 
upper one not close to the calyx, small triangular, ca. 1 mm. long, usually 
appressed-pubescent ; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, finely appressed-pubescent, 
unequal, ca. 6-7 mm. long, the outer two lobes narrower, ca. 3 mm. wide, 
the inner three lobes more rounded ca. 5.5 mm. wide; corolla-lobes 5, 
connate at the base, rounded at the apex, ca. 10 mm. long, 7 mm. wide, 

74 Jul K\ \L OF NIK \i;\()I.D \i;i:oi;i I I M hoc xxviii 

lightly appressed-sericeous on the median portion of the external surface; 
stamens smilingly 4-seriate, unequal in length, up to 10 mm. long, the 
filaments adnate to the base of the corolla, connate the length of the 
shortest stamen, free from that point, lightly pubescent on the inner surface, 
the anthers elongate, short-hirsute; ovary conical, densely pubescent, ca. 
3 mm. across. S-celled. pauci-ovulate, tapering .it l he apex into an entire 
style 7 S mm. long, pubescent nearly to the apex, ITuit quite globose, up 
to 1 cm. diameter, glabrescent with evidence of pubescence near the apex, 
few-seeded, the pedicel at this stage rugged and warty, the seeds light in 
color, m. () mm. long. 

I'ntil borrowed material from Kew was obtained this species presented 
considerable difficulty. In the original description. Korthals stated that 
the sepals were glabrous and the fruit 4- or 2-celled. My study revealed 
the sepals to be distinctly appressed-pubescent and the ovary definitely 
Tcelled. However, these conclusions were drawn from Malayan material 
rather than Sumatran. Dyer, in Hooker f.. IT Brit. India, 1: 2*2. 1874, 
stated also that the sepals and the leaves were glabrous. Later King (Jour. 
As. Soe. Bengal 59 (2): 190 | Mater. IT Malay IVnin. 1: 128]. 1890) 
remarked that the species was glabrous in all parts except the stamens, and 
Ridley (Id. Malay IVnin. 1: 194. 1Q22) gave the same impression. 

from all the material examined I find the species to be quite pubescent. 
Korthals gave this impression in his description, and authentic Korthals 
specimens from Sumatra, although lacking both tlovvers and fruit, show 
the young branchlets, buds and leaves to be pubescent. 

At first I felt that the British botanists were misinterpreting Korthals' 
species and perhaps were working with an entirely different species. 
However, the material from the Kew herbarium agreed with our own 
specimens in all instances, some actually being duplicates. The young 
branchlets, buds, under surface of leaves, pedicels, bracteoles, calyx-lobes. 
corolla-lobes, stamens, ovary and st\ le are all pubescent in varying degrees. 
The leaves, calyx-lobes, pedicels, bracteoles and fruit tend to become 

The apex of the leaves of the Sumatran material is much more tine- and 
long-acuminate than the apex of those of the Malayan material. In some 
of the Korthals specimens the acumen is drawn out to as much as 3 cm. 
and appears somewhat caudate. In the Malayan material, although 
definitely acuminate, the leaves are seldom as distinctive. Some workers 
have placed stress on the double arching of the veins of the leaves. This 
character varies considerably and is hardly stable. Also the wart-like 
condition of the fruiting pedicel has been stressed. As striking as this 
character happens to be. it is not found in the llowering material, for some 
reason not appearing until the developing fruit stage. 

Other characters which may be used in determination are (1) the 
alternate, small, persistent, triangular bracteoles; (2) the pubescent calyx- 
lobes and corolla-lobes; (3) the pubescent filaments joined the length of 
the shortest filament in series; (4) the pubescent, Tcelled ovary, pauci- 
ovulate. and the 3-celIed fruit, few and large seeded; and (5) the entire 
style pubescent almost to the apex. 


The synonymy cited above is merely quoted from Dyer in Hooker f. Fl. 
irit. India, 1: 282. 1874. It has not been possible for me to verify these 
ames. However, I wish to have I hem quoted here as a record. 
Vernacular names: Kclat, Mcmbasah. 
i. Adinandra int.-rriinia T. Anderson c\ iKer in Hooker t„ 1-1. Brit. Ind. 1 : 2S2. 
1S74. — Kiim in Jour. As. Soc. Hernial .V) (2) : 100 (Mater. Fl. Malay Penin. 
1:130). 1800. ■Szvszvlmvk:/ in Nat. Ptlanzenlam. III. : ISO. 1N0S. Ridley, 
Fl. Malay Penin. 1: 196. 1022.- Melehior in Nat. Pflanzenlam. ed. 2, 21: 144. 
1025.-- ("rail), Fl. Siam. Fnum. 1:125. 1025. 
Adinandra dasyanlha Choisy in Mem. Soc. Phys. Nat. Geneve, 1:112 (Mem. 

Ternstr. 24). 1855. — Non Korthals. 
Temstroemia intc :< erri,na Wallich, Cat. no. 1452, in Herb. Linn. Soc. 

C.ordoma reticulata Wallirh. Cat. no. ooo.i. 

Camellia japonira Wallirh. Cat. no. S6<>7, in herb. Kew, not in Herb. Linn. Soc. 

Pi.xAxe: A. Wallich 3663 (type, K). Joiioke: //. A. Ridley 63 V> ( K ) . Pamaxc: 
Sun-ei Vet., Biikit Eraser, alt. 1250 in., .Xative Collector 1114V (A), Sept. 20, nJS. 
Exact locality lacking, A. Wallich 3667 (K). 

Small tree; branches terete, brown-gray, the branchlets appressed- 
fulvous-pubescent, the very young branchlets of current year's growth 
densely so, the terminal bud densely fulvous pubescent. Leaves stibcoria- 
ceous or coriaceous, ovate to oblong-ovate to oblong-elliptic, S— 13 cm. long, 
4-5 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, usually acute at the base, occasionally 
somewhat rounded, the upper surface shining, glabrous, lower surface paler 
in color, sparsely pubescent (especially on the midrib) and covered with 
minute dark dots, the margin glandular-denticulate, the veins 10-12 pairs, 
slightly conspicuous on both surfaces, the petiole 5-7 mm. long, flat above, 
rounded beneath, pubescent. Flowers axillary, solitary: pedicel up to 1 
cm. long, appressed-pilose; bracteoles 2. persistent, opposite, immediately 
below the calyx, pubescent, unequal, the smaller ca. 2 mm. long, acute, 
the larger more rounded; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, densely sericeous, un- 
equal, the two outer lobes larger ca. 7-8 mm. long at anthesis, broadly 
ovate, thick, the margin thin, denticulate, accrescent, it]) to 1 cm. long in 
fruit; corolla-lobes 5. connate at the base. ca. 1 cm. long, lightly sericeous 
on the upper median portion of the external surface, otherwise glabrous; 
stamens seriate, ca. 40, adnate to the base of the corolla, the filaments 
united for the most part, ca. 2 mm. long, glabrous, the anthers ca. 3 mm. 
long, hirsute, the apicule 1+ mm. long; ovary depressed-hemispheric, 
appressed-sericeous, 5-celled. multi-ovulate. the style sericeous. Fruit 
appressed-pubescent, 1.75 cm. diam. (fide Dyer), the seeds small, many. 

Authentic material. Wallich 3663, 3667, original collet lions of the species 
loaned from Kew. were used in drawing up the above description. The 
synonymy cited above is borrowed from Anderson in Hooker f., Fl. British 
India. No opportunity has been afforded me to actually study the speci- 
mens cited as synonyms. They are listed here in compilation. 

Characters helpful in determination are: (1) fulvous-pubescent 
branchlets; (2) short, recurved pedicels, seldom over 1 cm. long: (3) 

76 .|()l |;\\|. 01' II 1 1 \KN0U) AKBOKKTl M [vui.. xxvui 

persistent bracteoles. unequal and opposite; (4) calyx-lobes densely seri- 
ceous, the two outer lobes often appearing as a single huge bract; (5) 
short corolla-lobes, sericeous near the apex of the median portion of the 
external surface; ((0 glabrous filaments and oblong short-hirsute anthers, 
the apicule over 1 cm. long; and (7) ovary and fruit 5-celled, densely 

4"). Atliriandra collina. sp. now 

Arbor parva; ramulis teretibns. glabris. griseo-brunneis. gemmis termin- 
alibus elongatis, glabris (costis marginibus(|iie exceptis). Folia coriacea, 
elliptico-oblonga, S-10 cm. longa, 3-4.5 cm. lata, apice subrotundata 
abrupte acuminata, basi cuneata, supra glabra, subtus glabra costa excepta, 
costa su|>ra plana, subtus elevata. glabra vel leviter pubescente, ut videtur 
bisulcata. margine subintegra, minutissime serrulato-crenulata, nervis 
undi(|ue obscurissimis, petiolis glabris, 6-8 mm. longis. Flores axillares. 
solitarii vel bini; pedicellis glabris, circa I cm. long's, apice recurvatis; 
bracteolis 2. persistentibus. glabris rare leviter pubescent ibus ciliolatisque, 
inae(|ualibus, alternatis, inferiore minoreque late ovata, circa 2 mm. longa 
et 2.5 mm. lata, superiore maioivque subrotundata. circa 3 mm. longa et 
2.5 mm. lata: sepalis 5, imbricatis, glabris. ciliolatis. inae(|iialibus, exteriori- 
bus 2 late ovatis. circa 4 mm. longis et 5 nun. latis. interioribus 3 subro- 
tundatis, 5-6 nun. longis et 5 7 mm. latis; petalis 5, basi connatis, 
oblongo-obovatis. glabris. inae(|ualibus, I (. IS mm. longis, 5 7 mm. latis, 
apice rotundatis. abrupte apiculalis. apiculis circa 2 mm. longis; staminibus 
circa 30. ?-seriatis. inaequalibus. 12 15 mm. longis, tilamentis 7-9 mm. 
longis, basi breviter connatis et petalis brevissime vel vix adnatis, ad apicem 
accrescentibus, interne nudis, superne pubescentibus. antheris oblongis, 
albido-hirsutis, 4-5 mm. longis, apiculis glabris, circa 0.5 1 mm. longis; 
ovario subgloboso. glabro, circa 4 mm. diametro, apice abrupte attenuato. 
5-loculari, multi-ovulato. stylo glabro. clongato, i irca 1 mm. longo, stigmate 
minuto. Capsula subglobosa, glabra, circa 1 cm. diametro. 5-locularis, 
multi-seminata; seniina discoidea. castanea. nitidula. circa 2 mm. diametro. 

Distribution: Sarawak, British North Borneo, Borneo 

Sarawak Kmliinu, G. P. i'r C. Haviland S52 (typk. 0), Dec. 1892. — Mount 
Matan-, near lum-alow, J. t 'V .!/. ,S\ Clemens 2(WSt> (7447) (A), Oct. 2 1. 1<)29 (tree 12 
m. hii;h; tlower-buds cream-colored).— Sarawak Museum (Satire Collector) 1M> 
(A. O, I'S), 17ns (A. fS), 1957 (A, (1), */.?5 (A, \V. I'S). British North Bornko: 
Ml. Bun-al, M. S. Clemens 11209 (A), Dec. 9 10, 1915.- Kil.ayo to Keun-, Keun- 
trail. .1/. ,S\ Clemens -WJ i A, BBS), Oct. 29, 1915. • Sunsuron, Taml.oenan, hilltop, alt. 
450 m., Puasa Angian (British .V. Borneo For. Pept. no. ,^,W) (A. k). l'Vh 10, 
19S4 (tree 10 in. hiirh ; fruit pwiil. //. Low s. n. ((]). — Mt. Kinal.alu, Dallas, alt. 
1000 m„ J. & M. S. Clemens 2r>S?.l (A). Oct. 2a, 19.U (flowers cream-colored; fruit 

Borneo), West Koetai, alt. SO m„ Ac///, hid. Lor. Sen: b.b. 1*15.1 (A). Nov. Dec. 

In many characteristics. . I. , olUna resembles I. vrrrn, osa Stapf, to which 
it is closely related. both have bisulcate midribs on the under surface of 
the leaf, the more noticeable in .1. verrucosa. Roth species are quite 
glabrous and resemble .1. <lit»ios<i Jack in this respect. However, the two 
Bornean species have pubescence on the young terminal buds whereas in 
A. dutnosa the terminal bud is always strictly glabrous. 


In A. verrucosa the leaves are larger, coarser, obtuse and bluntly emar- 
ginate at the apex, the midrib beneath is always glabrous. In A. collina 
the leaves are acuminate at the apex and a fine pubescence is found along 
the midrib on the under surface. The branchlets in the former species 
are very thick, measuring up to 4 and 5 mm. in diameter near the apex. In 
A. collina the branchlets are smooth, terete and measure only 1-2 mm. in 
diameter. The petiole in I. verrucosa is short and sturdy and when break- 
ing off from the branchlets leaves a large scar. The pedicels are very 
short and thick, seldom measuring over 5 mm. long, and often measuring 
the same in thickness. In ,1. collina the- pedicels measure up to 2 cm. or 
more (1 cm. in type), and are comparatively slender. The corolla-lobes 
of A. verrucosa measure 10-12 mm. in width while in those of A. collina 
the measurement is 6-8 mm. in width. Adiuandra verrucosa, to date, has 
been found only in the "upper-mountain" zone (6000-10500 ft.), of Mt. 
Kinabalu, as defined by Stapf, whereas .1. collina is found at low altitudes 
of less than 1000 ft. in the "hill-zone:' In the latter species, the majority 
of specimens cited were collected in Sarawak. 

In A. dutnosa, as far as I have seen, there is no tendency toward pubes- 
cence. The terminal bud is strictly glabrous. The terminal bud seems 
to be a criterion of this variable tendency toward pubescence. In species 
where the terminal bud is pubescent, especially when the pubescence is of 
the appressed nature, there is a distinct tendency toward glabrescence. 
As a result, one may find varying degrees of pubescence on the leaves and 
floral parts, making it quite difficult to use the character of pubescence in 
a key or as a delimiting factor. 

This same situation occurs in A. collina. The terminal leaf-bud is quite 
glabrous, yet one can find pubescence along the bisulcate midrib (which 
character is very obvious in the unfolding leaves) and along the margin. 
In the type cited above the specimen is quite glabrous and one must look 
most carefully to see evidences of pubescence. In other collections of the 
species, one may find distinct pubescence on the lower surface of the leaves 
and on the pedicels, bracteoles and calyx-lobes. 

Vernacular name: Bangkao (Dusun). 
50. Adinandra Clemensiae, sp. nov. 

Arbor magna; ramis ramulisque teretibus, glabris brunneis vel griseo- 
brunneis, gemmis terminalibus minutis. conicis, sericeis. Folia chartacea 
vel subcoriacea, subrotundata, obovata vel elliptico-oblonga, 3.5-5 X 
2-2.5 cm. (6-7 X 3-4.5 cm.), apice subrotundata, obtusata vel late 
obovata, basi late cuneata vel acuta, glabra, subtus fusco-punctata. margine 
subintegra, subrevoluta, venis supra obscuris, subtus 6 S lateralibus pri- 
mariis paribus intra marginem anastomosantibus, petiolis glabris, 6-9 mm. 
longis. Flores axillares. solitarii; pedicellis glabris. ca. 1 cm. longis, recur- 
vatis; bracteolis 2, oppositis, persistentibus, glabris, juventute dense 
pubescentibus. inaequalibus, minore ca. 2 X 2.S mm., apice rotundato, 
majore ca. 2 X 5 mm., apice rotundato; sepalis 5, imbricatis, pubescenti- 
bus, inaequalibus. tribus exterioribus crassioribus, pubescentioribus, 7-9 
mm. longis, 6-8 mm. latis, subrotundatis, margine non scariosis, duobus 
interioribus, subellipticis, ca. 7 mm. longis, 5-6 mm. latis, margine 

78 joi i;\ \l. OF 'I'lli: \RNOLD \i;i:oi;i I I M [vol. xxvni 

scariosis. ciliolatis; petalis 5. albis. hasi ad 5 mm. connatis, glabris, obovato- 
oblongis, 15-16 mm. longis, ca. 5 mm. lalis. apii e obovatis vel subrotunda- 
tis; staminibus ca. 25. 5-seriatis. ( )-l 1 mm. longis, filamentis 5-7 mm. 
Ionics, hasi ad corollam adnatis. integre connatis. hirsutis. interioribuj 
geniculatis. antheris oblongis. ca. 4 mm. longis. hirsutis. mm apiculatis; 
ovarii subgloboso. dense sericeo. eirciter 5 mm. diametn). 5- (vel 4-) 
loculari, Ioculis multi-ovulatis, stylo eirciter 14 mm. longo. glabro. hasi 
sericeo. Fructus (/. fr .1/. N. Clemens 313S5) subglobosus, sericeus, ca. 
10 mm. longus et S mm. diametro. 5-locularis. multi-seminatus; semina 
typica, nitida. ca. 2.5 mm. diametro. 

From the collections made on Mt. Kinabalu in British North Borneo 
by J. & .M. S. Clemens, this species seems to be the most widespread in that 
area. Collections were obtained from Dallas, at 3000 ft. altitude. 
Tenompak. Fenibukan, Marai Parai and Colombon River at 5000 ft. 
altitude and (birulau spur at 5000 and S000 ft. altitude. All specimens 
were collected at approximately 5000 ft. altitude with the exception of two 
from Dallas at 5000 ft. and one from Gurulau spur at 8000 ft. In most 
species of the genus the flower is white. In this species is found consid- 
erable variation in color ranging from a purple tinge through salmon and 
pink to pure white. Color in the stamens is also mentioned. 

The name .1. Clemensiae is selected in honor of Mrs. M. S\ Clemens who 
not only collected all the specimens cited for this species but many more 
spe< imens representative of various other >pecies in this genus. 

The ovary in the type-specimen. /. Cr M. S. Clemens 344S0 is more often 
four-celled than five-celled. At least, this was the case in the several 
dissections made for this study. However, a single dissection from 
Clemens -10122, collected in the same general locality, showed a five-celled 


ovary. These two specimens, of all those cited above, are the only two 
in the flowering stage. The majority of specimens, obviously the same 
species, are in the bud stage. These buds, although sufficient for specific 
determination, are verv unsatisfactory for ovary-dissections. Two speci- 
mens /. & M. S. Clemens 50156 and 50979 are in the fruiting stage. From 
no. 50156, three fruits have been laboriously sectioned from apex to base. 
Although to all appearances these fruits are normal, they proved to be 
solid and woody throughout with only occasional slits where cells might 
have been expected. In /. & M. S. Clemens 50979 the fruit is found to be 
distinctly three-celled with few developed seeds. In this specimen the 
walls between the cells are very thick. Considering the fact that in most 
fruits the cell-walls are so fragile that it is often difficult to observe them 
with certainty, this thick-walled condition is most unusual. One may 
assume from these observations that .1. Clemensiae may have an ovary with 
the number of cells varying from three to five. 

The third fruiting specimen (7. & HI. S. Clemens 313S5) shows clearly 
a five-celled fruit with many seeds developed typical of the genus. In this 
specimen the cell-walls are thinner than those found in /. & M . S. Clemens 

The small, thin, somewhat rounded leave- with long petioles present a 
character which makes this species easily recognizable. 
51. Adiiiandra magniflora, sp. nov. 

Arbor parva; ramis et ramulis teretibus, glabris. brunneis. innovationibus 
glabrescentibus vel leviter pubescentibus, gemmis terminalibus conicis. 
adpresso-pubescentibus. Folia coriacca. elliptica, 6-13 cm. longa. 4-7 cm. 
lata, apice abrupte lateque acuminata, basi late cuneata vel subrotundata, 
supra glabra, subtus fusco-punctata. glabra \ el leviter pubescentia, margine 
integra, venis supra obscuris, subtus lalendibus primariis 8-10 paribus 
prominentibus, margine anastomosantibus arcuantibusque. venis secun- 
dariis inter primarias frequentibus, petiolis crassis. 2 4 mm. longis, glabris. 
Mores axillares, solitarii; pedicellis teretibus. crassis, 1-15 cm. longis, 
adpresso-pubescentibus; bracteolis 2. oppositis, subrotundatis, adpresso- 
pubescentibus. inaequalibus, circiter 5X6 mm. et 6 X 8 mm.; sepal is 5, 
imbricatis, subrotundatis. inaequalibus. 10 mm. longis. 0-11 mm. latis. 
interioribus margine scariosis; petalis 6, albidis, imbricatis, basi connatis, 
glabris. circiter 20 mm. longis. 8-10 mm. latis. apice obtusis vel subro- 
tundatis; staminibus circiter 45, ut videtur 4-seriatis. 10 17 mm. longis. 
filamentis ad basim liberis. basi ad corollam adnatis, pubescentibus, 6-10 
mm. longis, interioribus ad apicem accrescentibus, exterioribus gracilibus 
nun accrescentibus, antheris linearibus. 4-5 mm. longis. hirsutis; ovario 
subgloboso. sericeo. 5-sulcato, 5-loculari. multi-ovulato, stylo gracile, 
glabro, circiter 15 mm. longo. Fructus elungalo-globosus. sericeus, circiter 
12 mm. longus, t S mm. diametro, 5-locularis, multi-seminatus; semina 
rubra, minuta, 1.5 mm. vel minus longa et 1 mm. diametro. 

Distribution: British North Borneo. 

British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu: Tenompak, alt. 1650 m„ J. & M. S. 
Clemens 20506 (A), May 7, 1 ( >3 2 (flowers cream-colored, the buds preen). — Peni- 
bukan, canvon west of jungle, alt. 1350 m., ./. & M. S. Clemens 32040 (A), March 10, 
1933. — Head of Dahobang, alt 2000-2 ^C0 m / & \T S Clemen 2931 (typi \), 
April 23, 1933 (flowers white) . — Colombon River, all. 1S50 m., J. & M. S. Clemens 
334S2 (A), Aug. 10, 1033 (flowers whin- with bright pink stamens). 


When present, the open flowers of this species furnish the most outstand- 
ing character. The corolla is large, measuring 3 cm. across, white in color, 
glabrous, and the six individual lobes are 2 cm. in length. This is the only 
instance of a corolla with six lobes. Only two flowers were observed in 
detail, one each from J. & M. S. Clemens 32931, the type, and /. & M. S. 
Clemens 34482. In both cases six lobes were observed. Whether this 
number is uniform is questionable! According to the collectors, the stamens 

In this species and in A. impressa it is difficult to ascertain the number 
of cells in the fruit. In both species there is a similarity in the minute 
red seeds, which are so crowded in the fruit that they have penetrated the 
central axis, and the cell-walls appear to have been broken from the sides 
of the fruit. Also, in both cases, the placentae of the ovary (where it is 
easy to distinguish the five cells) appear blunt, with the many ovules 
nearly completely encircling the placentae. 

In keeping with the size of the other parts of the flower, the stamens 
are long. The filaments are free from each other their entire length, 
except at their base where they are adnate to the base of the corolla. The 
filaments of the inner or shorter stamens are somewhat geniculate and 
enlarged at their juncture with the anthers. However, in the longer or 
outer stamens, the filaments are very straight and uniform in width. 

Cited here dubiously are /. & M. S. Clemens 32610 and 51673 collected 
on JVIt. Kinabalu. Both specimens appear to belong to this species. 
However, both are specimens with smaller leaves ami both are incomplete, 

I Iisikiiu i id\ : S:ir;iw:ik. 

Sarawak : Mt. Ihilit (Liu Tin.jar), near Long Kapa, on .skit- of sleep rid K e in 
primary rain-forest, alt. 500 m., P. W . Richards 1101 (isoivim;. A) Aur. 10, 19.52 (tree 
90 m. high, circumference 1.7 m. at 1.5 m. from ground, no buttresses, hark about 6 

wood pale yellow; leaves gland-dotted). 

Tree 27 m. high; branchlets terete, somewhat rugulose, brown, with a 
thin but dense pubescence, the individual hairs measuring up to 1.5 mm. 
in length, the terminal bud with the same pubescence. Leaves subcoria- 
ceous, oblong-elliptic or sublanceolate, 8-12 (-16. fide Airy-Shaw) cm. 
long, 2-3.5 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, oblique-cordate at the base, 
always glabrous above, spreading pubescent beneath, densely pubescent 
on the younger leaves (as on the young branchlets). concentrated on the 
midrib, punctate-dotted, the midrib impressed above, prominent beneath, 
the veins inconspicuous above, more obvious beneath, ca. 15 pairs, the 
margin finely serrulate (evident on the lower surface only), the petiole very 
brief, 3 mm. or less long, the pubescence continued from the midrib. 
Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels usually curved, 1.5-2 cm. long, 
thickened toward the apex, the pubescence similar to that of the branchlets; 
bracteoles 2, caducous, alternate, 3 5 mm. distant from calyx; calyx-lobes 
5, imbricate, ovate, ca. 10 mm. long, 6-7 mm. wide, the outer sepals laxly 
pubescent, the inner sepals more densely so; corolla-lobes 5, connate at the 
base, obovate, ca. 13 mm. long (2 cm., fide Airy-Shaw), ca. 10 mm. wide. 


sericeous on the middle portion of the external surface, glabrous within; 
stamens nearly 50, in series, the filaments varying in length, 2-3 mm. long, 
sericeous on the external surface except on the lower portion where they 
are adnate to the corolla-lobes, the anthers 4-6 mm. long, sericeous; ovary 
at first truncate then tapering at the apex rather than conical, sericeous, 
ca. 3 mm. diam.. 5-celled. mult i-ovulate, I lie style 8-9 mm. long, sericeous 
at the base, otherwise glabrous. Fruit not seen. 

The oblique, cordate base of the leaves is an unusual character in this 
genus and the most distinguishing feature (if the species. In this character 
and in the leaf-texture is found a striking resemblance to the species of 
the American genus Frcziera. The leaves of A. cordijolia Ridley, from 
Sarawak and British North Borneo, also have a cordate base. However, 
as Airy-Shaw states in his presentation, the true relationship of A. plagio- 
basis is rather with ,1. villosa Choisy and .1. coarctata Craib, which agree 
in indumentum and general leaf-outline. The indumentum in this species 
is unusual in that it is longer and more lax than the usual appressed type 
of pubescence found in the majority of species of the genus. 

My material of Richards 1191 is probably less copious than that from 
which Airy-Shaw drew his description. In the material examined here, 
the corolla-lobes measured only 13 mm. in length. Those described from 
the same number by Airy-Shaw measured 20 mm. long. I depended on a 
single flower for dissection, which, however, was in excellent condition. 

Ykrnacular name: Piui«o (Laban). 

S3. Atlinamlra borneensis, sp. now 

Arbor ?; ramis teretibus, verrucosis, glabrescentibus, rubro-brunneis, 
ramulis teretibus. verrucosis, luteo-adpresso-pubescentibus, gemmis ter- 
minal ibus dense luteo-adpresso-pubescentibus. Folia coriacea, elliptica vel 
obovata, 10-16 cm. longa, 4.5-6 cm. lata, apice abrupte acuminata vel 
subrotundata, basi cuneata, supra glabra, subtus adpresso-pubescentia, 
fusco-punctata, margine integra, venis supra obscura, subtus lateralibus 
primariis 20+ paribus, vix distinctis vel obscuris, petiolis 3-5 mm. longis, 
subtus pubescentibus. Flores axillares, solitarii; pedicellis circiter 2 mm. 
longis, adpresso-pubescentibus; bracteolis 2, alternatis, cito caducis; sepal is 
5, imbricatis, circiter 10 mm. longis. inaequalibus. exterioribus duobus 
subrotundatis, 9-10 mm. latis, omnino -adpresso-pubescentibus, interioribus 
tribus ovatioribus. apice subrotundatis. S-9 mm. latis, adpresso-pubescenti- 
bus margine scariosis glabris; petalis 5. basi connatis, circiter 13 mm. 
longis, 9 mm. latis, omnino dense sericeis, apice rotundatis; staminibus 
45-50, 4- vel 5-seriatis, 7-11 mm. longis, filamentis connatis, basi ad 
corollam adnatis, hirsutis, interioribus ad apicem geniculars vel accrescen- 
tibus, exterioribus gracilibus, antheris elongatis, hirsutis, apiculatis, ovario 
sericeo, subgloboso, 5-loculari. multi-ovulato, stylo 5 mm. longo, glabra, 
stigmatibus 5-lobis. Fructus non visi. 

Distribution: Netherlands KaU Indies (Southeast Borneo). 

Southeast Borneo: Above Mahakam Hitaia, at sea level, Xrth. Ind. For. Serv. 
b.b. 20641 (type, K), Feb. 1, 1936. — Above Makaham [sic], Lon K LoeboenR, alt. 
35 m„ Neth. Ind. For. Serv. b.b. 20601 (A), Jan. 23, 1936. 

This species is most closely related to another Bornean species, A. 

H2 JOFKNAF OF THE \RNOLl) \RBOKFTl M [vol. xxvm 

myr'wncura Kob., which has been collected from an approximate locality. 
Both have leaves with more than twenty pairs of primary veins. In the 
leaves of .1. myr'wncura the veins are very distinct on the under surface 
and rise at nearly right angles from the midrib. In ,1. bomcensis the veins 
are quite indistinct on both surfaces and rise at a less erect angle from the 

Also, .1. myrioncura has a four-celled ovary, the style is pubescent, the 
corolla glabrous and the leaves are more chartaceous. In J. bomcensis, 
the ovary is five-celled, the style glabrous, the corolla pubescent, and the 

In the ovary of both species the placentae arc split. In .1. hornet nsis 
the outer cell-wall projects in between the brain lied placentae and extends 
nearly to the central axis giving the appearance of ten cells, in some 

Cited above is a sterile specimen collected by tin- Xeth. lnd. For. Serv. 
(20601). The leaves are larger than those of the type. From general 
appearances this specimen agrees with the type and is mentioned in this 
paper for herbaria where perhaps the specimen may be in the dowering or 
fruiting stage. 

54. Adinamlra dasvantlia Korthals, Will Nat. Gesch. lint id Temnfnck, HIS IS 10. 

Choisv in Mem. Soc. l'hvs. Hist. Nat. Geneve. 1:11.' (Mem. Ternstr. 24). 

is.vv Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (2): 477. 1S50; Ann. Mus. Hot. Luizd Hat. 

I: 105. IShS. — S/\>/ylowii-z in Nat. I'tlan/entam. III. (>: IS'-. I.SO.v Melchior 

in Nat. Ptlanzenlam. ed. 2. 21: 144. 1025. 

Disikiiu ■tio\: Netherlands I-'.ast Indies (Sumatra). 

Simaika: Kxael Ideality lacking,/'. 11' Korlhtih \. //. (probable isoimms. ('., \N '). 
--Tapanoeli, Angola in Sipirok, I'anoban, alt. 500 m., Xeth. hid. For. Srrv. h.h. 
2SW4 (A), June 21, 1<>5<). Kast Coast, Asahan, vieinitv of Loemban Ria, Kahmat 
Si Hoira 7*07 (US), Feb. -April 1455. 

'Free S m. high; branches erect, open, terete, pale gray, glabrous; 
branchlets terete, densely pubescent, terminal bud densely sericeous. 
Leaves coriaceous, usually oblong-ovate, occasionally obovate. somewhat 
acute at the apex, acute at the base. ca. 10 IS cm. long. ,v-4 cm. wide, the 
margin entire or obsolete!) crenulate. glabrous above, densely pubescent 
along the midrib beneath, the young leaves pubescent beneath, the petiole 
ca. 5 mm. long, somewhat terete, flattened above, pubescent. Flowers 
axillary, solitary; peduncles terete, ca. 1 cm. long, thickened near the apex, 
pubescent ; bracteoles 2, alternate near top of pedicel, caducous, pubescent ; 
calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, subequal, rotund, ca. 6 mm. long and wide, 
pubescent on the external surface, membranaceous and glabrous at the 
margin, ciliolate: corolla-lobes 5, obovate. obi use. densely sericeous on the 
external surface, glabrous within, fleshy, white, ca. 14 mm. long, 10 mm. 
wide; stamens in series, numerous; filaments joined at the base, partlv 
free, linear, glabrous, the anthers oblong, acute, densely hirsute; ovary 
hemispherical-conical, pubescent, attenuate at the apex into a glabrous 
terete style; stigma truncate. Fruit globose attenuate 
at the apex into the persistent glabrous style. 5-celled. many-seeded. 

Judging from the material available for study, this species appears very 


rare and seems confined to the island of Sumatra. Three probable isotypes 
collected by Korthals in Sumatra, in addition to a single specimen collected 
by Rahmat Si Boeea in the Kast Coast region of Sumatra constitute the 
total material for this study. 

Characters helpful in determination of the species are: (1) glabrous 
ovary and style; (2) glabrous filaments; (3) dense sericeous pubescence 
of the corolla-lobes; (4) caducous bracteoles; and (5) pubescent terminal 
buds, branchlets and midrib of the under surface of the leaves. 

Vernacular name: Kajoe api-api. 

Arbor 12 m. alta; ramis teretibus. lenticellatis, griseo-brunneis. glabres- 
centibus. ramulfs juventutibus teretibus. scriceis. lenticellatis, gemmis 
terminalibus dense luteo-ferrugineis. Folia chartacea, oblongo-ovata vel 
oblongo-elliptica, 10-13 cm. longa. 3.5-5 cm. lata, apice late acuta, abrupte 
obtuseque acuminata, basi late cuneata vel subrotundata, supra glabra, 
subtus leviter pubescentia vel glabrescentia. margine integra vel subintegra, 
venis supra subobscuris, subtus prominent ibus. lateralibus primariis circiter 
25 paribus, a costa subperpendiculare extendentibus, ad marginem evanes- 
centibus, petiolis pubescent ibus. circiter 5 mm. longis. Flores axillares, 
solitarii; pedicellis 7 mm. longis, adpresso-pubescentibus; bracteolis 2, 
alternatis, cito caducis; sepalis 5, imbricatis, subrotundatis, subaequalibus, 
exteriore adpresso-sericeis. interiore glabris. exlerioribus 5-6 mm. longis, 
6-7 mm. latis, interioribus leviter latioribus, circiter 6 mm. longis, 8-9 mm. 
latis. margine scariosis; petalis 5, basi connatis, albidis, late obovatis, 
circiter 10 mm. longis, o mm. latis. apice rotundatis, exteriore omnino 
adpivsso-sen'ceis: stamimbus circiter 45. 4- vel 5-seriatis. linearibus, 6-10 
mm. longis. filament is basi ad corollam adnatis. omnino connatis, 3-6 mm. 
longis. dense hirsul is. medio aecrescentibus. antheris exteriore dense 
hirsutis, oblongis. circiter 4 mm. longis. ovario subgloboso, sulcato, sericeo, 
circiter 4 mm. diametro. 4-loculari. multi-ovulato, placentis ramificatis, 
stylo circiter 5 mm. longo. glabro basi except o. Fructus non visi. 

Distribution: British North Borneo. 

British North Borneo: Tambato, Tambunan, plain, alt. 400 m., Piiasa-An^ian 
(Brit. North Borneo Forestry Dept. no. 3S85) (type, A, K), Feb. 28, 1934 (tree 12 

Adimuulra inyrionriiru is outstanding because of the many primary 
veins on the under surface of the leaf extending nearly at right angles 
from the. midrib, at first very distinct but gradually fading towards the 
margin until nearly obscure. The bracteoles are alternate and quickly 
caducous, dropping before anthesis. The corolla-lobes are distinct in that 
the sericeous pubescence is found over the entire exterior surface rather 
than confined to a median portion as in the majority of the species in this 
genus. The stamens are many, the filaments closely joined for their entire 
length, densely pubescent on the exterior surface, and swollen to the width 
of the anther at the apex. The four-celled ovary is also an unusual feature. 
Only three dissections were made, but all showed true 4-celled ovaries, in 
which the placentae were clearly branched close to the axis. The cell-wall 
was deeply indented "opposite the point of branching. 

Vernacular name: Bangkau (Dusun). 


Miqiu-l, !•! Ned. Ind. 1 (2): 477. 1S5<>. Szvszvlmvirz in Nat. I'll; 
6: ISO. ISO.v koorders & Yaleton, Mcded. 'S Lands. PI. 16: 224 
sonrt. Java 3:224). 1S0O. — Melchior in Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 

nzenfam. 11 1 
Kiidr. KiHini 
21: 144. 1925. 

niSI'KllH 1 ION 

Java: Besook 

Netherlands East 
Jang Plateau Wes 

, Tainan Hidoep.. all 

a Island 

X) m., C. 

.. I), 

i : ,w"!i 


Small tree 10-12 in., branching low, near the ground (fide Koorders); 
branehlets terete, sericeous, becoming glabrous; the terminal buds densely 
sericeous. Leaves coriaceous, elliptical to obovate 7-10 cm. long, 3.5-5 
cm. wide, usually acute at both ends, often obtusely acuminate at the apex, 
the margin of the upper hall" serrulate, pubescent when young on lower 
surface, along the midrib when mature, often glabrous, the petiole semi- 
terete, 4-5 mm. long. Hat on the upper surface, pubescent beneath. 
Flowers axillary; pedicels up to 2 cm. long, recurved, pubescent, often 
lightly so and near the calyx-lobes; bracteoles 2. caducous, ovate-lanceolate, 
4-5 linn, long when present (fide Koorders). alternate, the lower bracteole 
as much as 5 mm. below the calyx-lobes; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, subequal, 
very obtuse. S- n mm. long, densely appressed-sericeous. the narrow margin 
membranaceous; corolla-lobes not seen, densely sericeous on the outer 
surface (fide Koorders); stamens (not seen) ca. 40, connate at the base, 
the filaments glabrous, the anthers sericeous; ovary densely sericeous, 
somewhat conical, .vcelled, tapering into a densely sericeous style. Mature 
fruit not seen, immature fruit (ca. 1 cm. diam.) densely sericeous. 3-eelled, 
multi-ovulate, the style densely sericeous, neither style nor fruit showing 
evidence of glabrescence. 

The closest relative to .1. java/iica (noisy is .1. dasyantha Korthals. 
Both are characterized by pubescent calyx-lobes, corolla-lobes and ovary. 
Also both have alternate, deciduous bradeoles. However. .1. javanica has 
a densely sericeous style, and the ovary and fruit are distinctly three-celled. 
On the other hand. .1. dasyantha differs in the glabrous style, the five-celled 
ovary and fruit. 

In most Malayan and Netherlands Last Indian species the presence of 
a three-celled ovary and fruit presages few ovules and even fewer seeds. 
Adinandra javanica appears to be one of the exceptions. The immature 
fruit examined shows that the developing seeds are minute and apparently 
many in number. 
57. Adinandra lutesi-fiis ('rail, in Kew Bull. Misc. Inform. P>2. r >: 1°. 1025; Fl. Siam. 

•'. (,'. Krrr 7274 (K), July 22, l')2S (>mall tree, S m. hijilO. 

Ledaii: Gunong Jerai, M. Nur 9044 (K), Dec. 1925. 

Ihrub or small tree 5-8 m. high; branches terete, gray brown, glabrous, 

young branehlets appressed-pubescent, the terminal buds fulvous 
ceous. Leaves coriaceous or subcoriaceous, oblong-oblanceolate, 5-11 

long, 2.5-4 cm. wide, occasionally asymmetrical, obtusely acuminate 


at the apex, cuneate at the base, glabrous, darker above, paler, lightly 
pubescent beneath, eventually glabrous, the margin lightly denticulate, the 
veins 10-12 pairs, anastomosing near the margin, the petiole 3-5 mm. long, 
pubescent beneath, eventually glabrescent. Flowers axillary, solitary; 
pedicel slender, recurved, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, thickened towards the apex, 
appressed-pubescent ; brae holes 2, quickly caducous, opposite, immediately 
below the calyx; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, ovate, ca. 1 cm. long, 7 mm. 
wide, unequal, appressed-pubescent, the outer lobes broadly acute, 
glandular-denticulate along the margin, the inner lobes more nearly 
rounded, the margin membranaceous, entire; corolla-lobes 5, connate at 
the base, lanceolate, ca. 1.5 cm. long, 0.5 cm. wide, long-attenuate, tapering 
into an acuminate apex, sericeous on the median portion of the exterior 
surface; stamens in series, the filaments ca. 3 mm. long, adnate to the base 
of the corolla, joined at the base, sericeous on the apical half, the basal half 
glabrous, the anthers ea. 3 nun. long, densely hirsute, the apicule glabrous, 
2-3 mm. long, equalling the anther-cells in length; ovary sericeous, 
3-celled. multi-ovulate, tapering into the style, the style entire, sericeous 
diminishing in density toward the apex. .Mature fruit not seen. Imma- 
ture fruit somewhat globose, densely sericeous. 3-celled. 

The outstanding characters of this species are: (1) long-attenuate 
corolla-lobes, 1.5 cm. long, 0.5 cm. wide, tapering from near the base to an 
acuminate apex, the sericeous area tapering also; (2) stamens ca. 9 mm. 
long, with the filament, anther and apicule of about equal length, the 
apicule unusually long for the genus; (3) bracteoles quickly caducous; 
and (4) ovary 3-celled. sericeous. 

The closest relative is .1. />///< hophylla Hance. In the latter species the 
corolla-lobes are only 7 9 nun. long and, although they are acute at the 
apex, they do not taper gradually and continuously from the base to the 
apex; the stamens measure only 4 5 mm. long; the filaments are glabrous 
and less than a millimeter in length, the apicule rather inconspicuous; and 
the veins on the lower surface of the leaves tend to branch midway between 
the midrib and the margin. 

Craib records the ovary as two-celled. Only a single dissection was 
made in this study on a partially developed fruit. The results showed the 
young fruit to be clearly three-celled. 

Vernacular name: Kandis Burong. 
58. Adinandra oblonga Craib in Kew Hull. Misc. Inf. 1924: 88. 1924; FI. Siam. Enum. 
1:125. 1925.- -(Jacnepain in Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1:284. 1943. 

Distribution: Siam. 

Siam: Pitsanulok, Sukotai, Kao-luaniz, open grassy ground, alt. 1100 m., A. F. G. 
Kerr 5923 (type, K), May 2, 1922 (small tree about 4 m. high). 

Small tree ca. 4 m. high; young branchlets terete, grayish brown, lightly 
and finely appressed-pubescent, the terminal bud short, conical, appressed- 
pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 5 9 cm. long, 
2.5-4.5 cm. wide, obtuse or abruptly acuminate at the apex, rounded or 
cuneate at the base, glabrous above, finely appressed-pubescent beneath, 
especially along the midrib, the margin lightly revolute when dried, 
glandular-denticulate, the veins 15-20 pairs, prominent on both surfaces, 
anastomosing freely, the petiole ca. 5 mm. long, lightly appressed-pubescent. 

86 J()l KNAL OF TIM. \KN()U> AKBOKKTl M [\oi.. \x\iu 

Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels ca. 2 cm. long, recurved, lightly 
appressed-pubescent; bracteoles 2, alternate or subopposite, quickly 
caducous; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate. 7-S mm. long. 5 S mm. wide. iinely 
appressed-pubescent, unequal, the outer lobes smaller, ovate, the inner 
lobes more obovate, wider; corolla-lubes 5. connate at the base, ovate, 
acute at the apex. 10-11 mm. long. 5 (V mm. wide, pubescent over the 
entire exterior surface except along the margin: stamens ca. 35, seriate. 6-7 
mm. long, the filaments adnate to the base of the corolla and joined to each 
other, unequal, 1-2 mm. long, pubescent on the upper third, otherwise 
glabrous, the anthers ca. 4-5 mm. long, oblong, hirsute, the apicule ca. 1 
mm. long, often as long as the shorter filaments; ovary densely appressed- 
pubescent. tapering into a style densely pubescent at the base, less so near 
the apex, the stigma 4-parted, oblique, bruit globose, ca. 1 cm. in 
diameter, appressed-pubescent. 4-celled. many-seeded. 

The distinguishing characters of this species useful in determination are: 
(1) ovary appressed-pubescent, 4-celled; (2) style densely pubescent at 
the base, less so towards the apex; (3) stigma 4-parted. oblique; (4) 
corolla-lobes ca. 1 cm. long, ovate, acute at the apex, pubescent over the 
entire exterior surface except along the margin; (5) stamens 6-7 mm. 
long, the filaments very short, 1-2 mm. long; and (o) leaves elliptic, small 
(up to 8 cm. long), the veins 15-20 pairs, conspicuous on both surfaces. 

This species, along with .1. myrioncura Kob. of Borneo, has a 4-celled 
ovary. Just how consistent this character may prove to be will depend 
upon the examination of future collections. In other species, such as 
.1. Macgrcgorii Merrill from the Philippine Islands and .1. Clcmcnsiac Kob. 
from British North Borneo, where a 4-celled ovary has been noted, the 
character was found to be inconsistent. In .1. Clemensiae, where a 4-celled 
ovary occurred quite consistently in the type-specimen, more material was 
available for study, and the prevailing number of cells for the ovary 
appeared to be five. 

In .1. oblonga the Stigma is 4-parted and oblique. In .1. Mac^rr^orii 
the style was also 4-parted. Still, on the same specimen were found 
tlowers in wliii h the ovary was .S-celled. 

In its gross characters, this species resembles I. pari'ijolia Ridley very 
closely, the leaves appearing almost identical. However, it can be separated 
by the longer pedicels, the smaller acute corolla-lobes which are pubescent 
over the entire external sulfate, the very short filaments of the stamens, and 
the 4-celled fruit and 4-parted stigma. 

5<>. A.linan.lra roarclata Craib in Kov Bull. Misc. Inform. 192a: IS 1025; Kl. Si:: 

Si.wi: Hi-ton^, (lunoni; Ina, cvcr-i vcn fores!, alt. 1200 ni., .1. /•'. G. Kerr 7: 
(type, K), Aug. 10, 1923 (small tiro ca. 4 m. high). 

Small tree ca. 4 m. high; branchlets gray brown, terete, eventually g 
brous, younger branchlets toment ulose. very young branchlets of cum 
year's growth fulvous-pilose, the terminal buds densely fulvous-pilo 
Leaves coriaceous, oblong-elliptic. 7-10 cm. long. 3-4 cm. wide. obtus< 
or abruptly acuminate at the apex, cuneate to somewhat rounded at t 


base, glabrous above, lightly pubescent beneath, the pubescence more 
densely concentrated on the midrib and along the margin, conspicuously 
dark-dotted beneath, the margin revolute, lightly glandular-apiculate, this 
condition obscured by the pubescence, the veins 10-12 pairs, conspicuous 
on both surfaces, anastomosing near the margin, the petiole thick, 5-7 mm. 
long, densely pubescent on both surfaces. Flowers axillary, solitary; 
pedicels stout, recurved, ca. 5 mm. long, fulvous-pilose; bracteoles 2, 
opposite, immediately below the calyx, quickly caducous, when present 
ovate, ca. 3.5 mm. long, 8 mm. wide, pilose, ciliolate; calyx-lobes 5, imbri- 
cate, unequal, the outer lobes broadly ovate, 9-10 mm. long, 8-9 mm. wide, 
obtuse, pilose, the inner lobes ca. 13 mm. long, pilose, the margins dentic- 
ulate; the ovary subconical, ca. 4 mm. long, densely sericeous. 5-celled, 
multi-ovulate, tapering at the apex into a sericeous style glabrous only at 
the apex. 

Craib in his excellent description of A. coarctata mentions the ovary as 
being four-celled. I felt dubious about this character and sacrificed a 
developing fruit on the type-specimen to verify his finding. My single 
dissection showed four large well-developed cells with a fifth smaller, almost 
abortive cell, this latter containing developing ovules, however. 

Outstanding characters in this species are: (1) bracteoles quickly 
caducous, when present ovate, pilose, ciliolate, ca. 3.5 mm. long and 3 mm. 
wide; (2) inner calyx-lobes larger (ca. 13 mm. long) than the outer lobes, 
pilose, denticulate along the margin; (3) ovary densely sericeous, 5-celled, 
with one cell smaller than the others, multi-ovulate; (4) style entire, gen- 
erally sericeous, glabrous at Ihe ape\: (5) terminal buds densely fulvous- 
pilose; and (6) leaves with a generally thin pubescence on Ihe under 
surface, the pubescence densely concentrated on the midrib and margin 
obscuring the glandular-apiculations along the margin. 

Although the corolla-lobes and stamens have not been described for this 
species, from the type and distribution of the pubescence one may expect 
the former to be pubescent. 

This species is so closely associated with .1. glischrotoma Handel- 
Mazzetti and its varieties of China and Indo-China that later collections 
may prove it to be no more than another variety in this complex. How- 
ever, until these further collections are made, it is best to continue the 
species in its present status. 

60. Adinandra phlebophvlla Haute in Jour. Rot. 14:240. 1876. — Szyszylowicz in 
Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 6:18'). 1S«M. — Craib, Fl. Siam. Enum. 1:124. 1925.— 
Gajinepain in Fl. Gen. Indo-Chinc, Suppl. 1:286. 1943. 

Adinandra inte^errima Pierre, Fl. For. Cochinchine 2: t. 125. 1887. Non T. An- 
derson. — Pitard in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 1:3.U. 1910. 

Adhiandra iuto-rmma T. Anderson ■> phlebophvlla (Hance) Pierre, Fl. For. 
Cochinchine 2: t. 125. 1887. 

Distribution': Indo-China (Cambodia). 

Cambodia: Prov. TponR, Knans Repoeu, alt. 1500 m., L. Pierre 60S (isotypes, 
A, M, NY), May 1870 (tree 8-15 m. high). 

Tree 8-15 m. high; branchlets terete, grayish brown, appressed-pubes- 
cent when very youniz. later glabrous, the terminal buds sericeous. Leaves 
coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, 8-12 cm. long, 3-4 cm. wide, obtusely acuminate 


at the apex, acute at the base, glabrous above, sparsely appressed- 
pubescent beneath, especially along the midrib, the margin serrulate, the 
veins raised on both surfaces, branching midway between the midrib and 
the margin, the petiole ca. 5 mm. long, rounded, pubescent beneath, flat, 
glabrous above. Mowers axillary, solitary: pedicels 1 5 cm. long, slender, 
graceful, swelling in diameter near the apex, appressed-pubescent at first, 
later glabrescent ; bracteoles 2. caducous, oblong lanceolate when present, 
4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, densely sericeous, usually close to the calyx; 
calyx-lobe 5. imbricate, minute at anthesis. unequal, ca. 7-8 mm. long. 
5-0 mm. wide, appressed-sericeous. especially the inner lobes, increasing 
at maturation of fruit to ca. 12 mm. long. 7 mm. wide, ovate, distinctly 
acute at the apex; corolla-lobes 5, ovate, unequal, 7 mm. long. 2-5 mm. 
wide, densely sericeous, acute at the apex; stamens ca. 50, 2- or 5-seriate. 
minute, 4-5 mm. long, the filaments only ca. 0.5-0.S mm. long, joined at 
the base, glabrous, the anthers oblong, very densely sericeous; ovary and 
style elongated, only 5 mm. long over all. densely sericeous at anthesis. 
Fruit globose, ca. 1 cm. diameter, densely sericeous, topped by a persistent 
sericeous style 1.5 cm. long. Seeds minute, dark brown. 

The outstanding characters of this species are: ( 1 ) corolla-lobes lightly 
sericeous, shorter (6-8 mm. long) than the calyx-lobes (7-9 mm. long); 
(2) stamens minute, ca. 5 4 mm. long, the filaments glabrous, very short 
(0.5-0.8 mm. long), the anthers so densely sericeous that their outline is 
difficult to discern; (5) pedicels sturdy, up to 5 cm. long in fruit: (4) 
bracteoles caducous, when present 4 mm. long; and (5) ovary, fruit and 
style densely sericeous. 

From 1887 to l')25, this species had been considered synonymous with 
A. intc£crrima T. Anders. Pierre felt the two entities were identical and 
in his treatment of .!. intc^crrima probably used the type of A. phlcbophylla 
(Pierre 60S) in describing and illustrating .1. in/c^crrioia for his Fl. For. 
Cochinchine (2: t. 125. 1887). It is safe to assume that this specimen 
provided the material for both his description and illustrations, since they 
agree perfectly. Craib (1025). was the first to draw attention again to 
.1. phlebophylla and he returned it to its specific status. 

Adiuamira phlcbophylla is more closely allied to A. lutcscens Craib than 
to .1. intc\>crrima. In leaf-characters these two species are almost iden- 
tical. However, Craib's species has a much longer corolla (1.7 cm. long) 
and the filaments are approximately lour times longer and more in propor- 
tion with the anthers than those in .1. phlcbophylla. 

The number of cells of the ovary is not known. Even though isotypes 
of the species were available for this study, the- material was so poor that 
I was not able to make dissections which would add to this knowledge'. 

The species is treated in this portion of the- study rather than with the 
Chinese species since its relationships are with this group and also because 
of the former confusion of its association with A. integcrrima. 

].»;. Choisv in Mem. Sec. Phys. Hist Nat. Oeneve 1:112 ( 
1855. — Dyer in Hooker f., Fl. Brit. In,]. 1:28.?. 1874.- 
Burma 1: 100. 1877 Kin- in Jour As. Soc. Bengal 59 (2 
Malav IYnin. 1:180). 1800. — S/vs/vlovvicz in Nat. Pflanze 
:.X08. Ridley in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 38:304. 1908; Fl. 1 

'] KOBUSKI, STl Dll> IN Till, I HKACEAE, XV 89 

Penin. 1: 196. 1922. — Melchior in Nat. Pilanzenfam. ed. 2, 21: 144. 1925. 
mislronnia J yrricvu Wallicb. Cat. no. 1454. 
■him.i WaUirhii Choisy in Mem. Sc.r. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 1:179 (Mem. 91). 1855. 
dnnuulra intc^rrima T. Anderson •> w// ( cs,i (Choisy) Pierre. I-'l. For. Corhiiu hine 

., E. J. II . Cornrr .*/.^' (A. 
K), July 21, - Perak, Larut, rock\ localities in dense junizle. Dr. King's Collator 
6256 (K), July 1884 (tree 12 K, m. hmh ; leaves -lossy deep green; flowers light 
greenish white with a silver'.' doss; unit silvery white). — Selangor, Sempang Mines, 
//. X. Ridley 155*4 (K), April 1894. 

Burma: Tenasserim, Tavoy, X. W (illicit 1454 (K). 

Tree 12-15 m. high; branchlets pilose, pale brown, the leaf-buds 
sericeous. Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic. 10-14 cm. long, 
3-5 cm. wide, shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded or broadly cuneate 
at the base, rarely acute, glabrous above, sparsely pubescent beneath, the 
margin entire or faintly crenulate, the nerves 7-9 pairs, ascending, arching 
within the margin, not prominent, the petiole ca. 5 mm. long, pilose. 
Flowers axillary, usually solitary; pedicel pilose ca. 1 cm. long, recurved, 
pilose; bracteoles 2. caducous, ovale, when present occurring from the 
middle of the pedicel upward; calyx lobes 5. imbricate, nearly equal, 
broadly ovate to somewhat rounded, up to 10 mm. long and 8 mm. wide, 
pilose on the external surface; corolla-lobes 5. connate at the base, ovate, 
obtuse or rounded at the apex, densely sericeous on median portion of 
the external surface, glabrous at the margins; stamens ca. 30, adnate to 
the base of the corolla, the filaments short, sericeous; ovary depressed- 
hemispherical, densely sericeous. 5-celled. tapering at the apex into a 
densely sericeous style. Fruit 10-12 mm. diam., densely sericeous, 
5-celled. Seeds numerous, minute, shiny, dark brown, ca. 1.5 mm. long. 

This species has been little understood and frequently misinterpreted. 
My early conclusions were based on a single specimen, Corner 31595, in 
the Arnold Arboretum. However. I found myself unwilling to accept my 
own interpretation and made a late appeal to Kew for a secondary loan 
of representative authentic material of this species. To my surprise and 
satisfaction Corner 31595 was included in the loan along with Wallich 
1454, the latter specimen probably the most renowned in this species. 

I was embarrassed when I realized that a psychological element had 
played an important part in my reluctance to accept the species at first. 
I mention this unscientific incident, since it may help to explain the dubious 
position the species has held in the past. Considering some of the very 
pubescent species such as A. glischroloma Handel-Mazzetti, I was very 
disappointed in the amount of pubescence on .1. villosa when confronted 
with the actual type. I had expected a much more pubescent species. 
Although the name is appropriate, the species is hardly more villous than 
many other species in the same geographical locality. 

All the above cited specimens arc- in the fruiting .stage; hence complete 
descriptions of corolla-lobes and stamens are still wanting. King in his 
"Material for a Malayan Flora" gives rather a complete description of the 

90 J(H K\ \I. OF TI1K \K\(»I.I) \RBOKF.iT\] Iwn.. xxvm 

species and this was used in my own description of corolla-lobes and 

Pierre, in his Fl. For. Cochinchine 2: t. 125. 1887, reduced this species 
to svnonvmy under .1. intvscrr'nna T. Anders, along with .1. phlcbophylla 
Hance. Pitard. in Lecomte, Fl. (Jen. Indo-Chine 1:334. 1910, followed 
Pierre in his treatment. However, (/rail). Fl. Siam. Fnum. I: 125. 1931 
retained all as separate entities. 
\.lin null. i bicuspidata, sp. nov. 

Arbor parva ad 10 m. alta; ramulis teretibus. brunneis. leviter lenticella- 
tis. glabrescentibus, hornotinis pubescentibus adpressis, gemmis dense 
ferrugineo-sericeis. Folia chartacea, subrotundata vel ovata, 7-12 cm. 
longa. 3 (> cm. lata, apice abnipte acuminata, basi late cuneata vel cuneata, 
supra glabra, subtus glabrescentia el leviter punctata, margine integerrima, 
venis undique prominentibus reticulatisque, primariis 10-12 paribus, intra 
marginem anastomosaniibus arcuaiitibus(|ue, venis sec undariis brevioribus 
inter primarios frequent ibus, petiolis ca. 1 cm. longis. supra planis 
glabrisque, subtus semi-teretibus, pubescentibus vel glabrescentibus. 
Flores axillares. solitarii; pedicellis aclpi esso-pubescentibus, 1-1.5 cm. 
longis, apice subrecurvatis; bracteolis 2, oppositis. ])robabiliter post 
anlhesin ca.lucis. ovatis. 0-7 mm. longis, 3-4 mm. latis, sericeis; scpalis 
5. imbricatis. inaequalibus. late ovatis, exterioribus ca. 9 mm. longis et S 
mm. latis, apice subapiculatb. dense sericeis, interioribus minoribus: 
[H'talis (immaturis) 5. ad basim liberis vel subliberis, oblongo-ovatis, ca. 
5 mm. longis et 2.5 mm. latis, dense sericeis margine except is: staminibus 
(immaturis) ca. 35. uniseriatis. ca. 2.5 mm. longis. filament is ad basim 
liberis, ca. 0.75 mm. longis. glabra's, antheris dense ferrugineo-sericeis. ob- 
longis, apice bicuspidatis, loculis thecarum ultra connectivum projectis: 
ovario (immaturo) subplano. densissime ferrugineo-sericeo, loculorum 
numero ignoto. stylo (immaturo) integro. ca. 4 mm. longo, densissime 
omnino apice incluso ferrugineo-sericeo. Fructus ignotus. 

Disikim Hon : Malay Peninsula (IVnang). 

IM.nav.:: Oovernmcnt Hill, all. (.50 TOO m.. C. Curtis 2241 (K. typk). March ISQ0 
(small tree 25 ft. high). 

because of the incomplete material in the type specimen 1 was at first 
unwilling to describe this new species. However, after careful study it 
appears to be distinct from the other species in its geographical area. The 
material, even though incomplete, is sufficient to permit a technical 
description, and hence I finally have decided to include it in this study. 

The name .1. bicuspidata is derived from the bicuspidate appearance of 
the anthers. In some species studied, the connective projects beyond the 
anther cells, causing anthers to appear apiculate. In other species, the 
anther cells are Hush with the connective, causing the ant tiers to appear 
truncate. In this new species, the anther cells project sharply above the 
connective, giving a bicuspidate appearance to the anthers. 

Other characteristics which lend distinction to this species are: ( 1 ) the 
chartaceous leaves with the veins distinctly reticulate- on both surfaces; 
and (2) the long ferrugineous pubescence o\ the anthers, ovary and style. 
The pubescence of the style is further unusual in that it extends the entire 
length of the style, obscuring the stigma. 

1947] KOIHSKI. STl DIES I\ THE Til KACEAE. \\ 91 

In the type specimen the flowers were immature, and hence the measure- 
ments of most iloral parts cited above are subject to change when more 
complete material is available. It appears that this species may be very 
rare, since it has been collected only once, and that nearly sixty years ago. 

Unfortunately, the true number of cells in the ovary could not be 
ascertained. Although two dissections had been made, in both cases the 
cell-walls of the ovary were too indistinct to permit one to say with 
assurance just what their number might be. I am inclined to feel that 
the ovary is five-celled, but of that I am not certain. Because of the 
uncertainty of the cell number in the ovary, this species cannot be included 
in the key and is placed at the end of the Indo-Malaysian species. 

At Kew, this species had been associated with .1. villosa (noisy. How- 
ever, the chartaceous, reticulate leaves, the bicuspidate anthers, the glabrous 
filaments and the opposite bracteoles all distinguish .1. bicuspidata from 
the elder species. 


Melchior in Nat. Pflanzeniam. eci. 2, 21: 144. 1925. 
Distkiih tio.v: Netherlands East Indies ( (\K. II( .o 

Ckikhes: [Cited here dubiously] En Ond. Makale-Rantepao. I'aniki, alt. S00 m., 
Xcth. hid. For. Srrv. b.b. 20271 (A), Feb. 12, 1938. 

Tree 43 m. high, the trunk 105 cm. in diameter, the bark brown-gray. 
Leaves elliptic-oblong, decurrent at the base into a petiole 2 cm. long, the 
lower ';, of the margin entire, the remainder eremite-serrate, acute at the 
apex, glabrous on both surfaces, ca. 14 cm. long. 6 cm. wide (the leaves 
of the young shoots SO em. long and 11.5 cm. wide). Young parts minute 
appressed-puberulent. Branchlets glabrous. Peduncles 2.5-3.5 cm. long. 
glabrous, bibracteolate. Sepals glabrous, the margin subciliate, semi- 
orbicular, 5 mm. long. Fruit depressed-globose, 2.5 cm. diam. glabrous. 

Ad'niandra Brrfr/d/i and the following species. .1. crlrbiru, were offered 
by Koorders as new species with accompanying descriptions far too brief 
for satisfactory study without type-specimens. It may be that the types 
were also incomplete. Although both species appear to have been described 
from fruiting material, very little information concerning the fruit is 

The interesting feature in the above description (which is merely a 
translation of the original), is the petiole of the leaf. Koorders mentions 
the leaf as being decurrent into the petiole 2 cm. long. In the above-cited 
sterile specimen, the petiole is hardly much over 1 cm. long but the leaf- 
blade is decurrent into the petiole and this decurrent condition persists 
along the branchlet. The specimen, although sterile, evidently has been 
collected from a vigorous young shoot, the leaves being of considerable size. 
63. Adina.iclra vAvWu-x Koorders in Mcded. 'S Lands Plant. 19:350, 642. 1898.— 

92 JOIKNAI. OK Till'. \KNOU) AKBOHKTIM Ivoi.. xxvm 

Tree up to 25 m. high, the trunk 45 cm. in diameter; branches and 
branchlets terete, glabrous, gray-brown, the terminal buds appressed- 
pubescent Leaves coriaceous or subcoriaceous, obovate to obovate- 
elliptic 10-12 cm long. 3-5 cm. wide, occasionally considerably smaller, 

obtuse at the apex. < uneate at the base, glabrous on both surfac es. punctate- 
dotted beneath, the margin lightly denticulate to entire, the veins 10-12 
pairs arching upward and anastomosing near the margin, rather incon- 
spicuous the petiole ca. 5 mm. long, glabrous, occasionally lightly 
appressed-pubescent (on newly unfolded leaves). Fruit axillary, solitary; 
pedicel 2-2.5 cm. long (3-4 cm., Koorders). glabrous, terete, recurved 
near the apex; bracteoles 2. persistent, alternate below the calyx, glabrous, 
almost vestigial, scale-like, subdeltoid, ca. 1.5 mm. long; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, quite glabrous. subrotund. ca. 5 o mm. long. 6-7 mm. wide, 
rugulose. Young fruit glabrous, subglobose, tapering at the apex into a 
glabrous, entire style, 5-celled, many developing seeds. 

The information offered by Koorders in his description of this species 
is too brief, and offers no details that might not be applied to any but the 
most exceptional species in the genus. He does state, however, that in 
the Kew Herbarium there is a specimen collected by Beccari in central 
Celebes which is supposedly identical with his type. From the Kew 
Herbarium was obtained a specimen collected by Beccari which may or 
may not be the specimen in question; hence it is cited here dubiously. 
The pedicels in the Beccari specimen measure not more than 2.5 cm., 
whereas Koorders records the measurements as 3-4 cm. He also states 
that the leaves are glabrous to the naked eye but laxly pilose under the 
hand-lens. The Beccari specimen is quite glabrous. However, the ter- 
minal leaf-buds are appressed-pubescent which would indicate that the 
very young leaves are pubescent, on the under surface at least. Only by 
an examination of the actual type can one expect to gain a concept of 
this spec ies. 
64. Aclir.amlra cremilala T. Anderson ex Dyer in Hooker f., Fl. Brit. Ind I : 2M. 

1874. — Szyszylowicz in Nat. IMlan/entam III 0: ISO. lS'l.v- Melchior in op. 

(it., vi\. 2, 21: 144. 1925. 

A discussion of this species is quite difficult since the only available 
reference is the sketchy original description by T. Anderson. A note, 
perhaps the original manuscript of Anderson, on an otherwise blank her- 
barium sheet in Kew states, •possibly a native of the Malayan peninsula. 
Wallich's specimen is the only one that exists and was obtained from the 
Madras Herbarium and bears no locality. It is probably one of those 
plants collected by Konig during his visit to the settlements in the 
Malayan peninsula." Considerable doubt as to the origin of the type 
existed at the time of the description, and, from the literature examined, 
it appears that no worker has associated any material collected later with 
the species A. cremdata. 

Both Szyszylowicz and Melchior in their treatments of the Theaceae in 
"Die Naturliche Ptlanzenfamilien" incorporated this species in their work. 

Unfortunately, the original description of the species is such that it 


might be applied to any number of species in the Malayan region. Because 
of this lack of a single distinctive feature, and the fact that the type is in 
Madras rather than in one of the Malayan herbaria, its true identity has 
been lost and will continue to be until opportunity can be afforded some 
worker to study the type. 

Ridley 4801, deposited in the U. S. National Herbarium and collected in 
the Singapore Garden Jungle, may belong to this species. The distinguish- 
ing feature of this specimen is the decided crenulation of the leaf-margin. 
It is not a good specimen. There are no terminal buds and the partially 
It was originally identified 


65. Adinandra cordata Choisy in Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 1: 112 (Mem. 

Ternstr. 24). 1855. 
This species, mentioned only once and then doubtfully by Choisy, is 
based upon a reported species by Gaudichaud from the Hawaiian Islands. 
There has been no other record of Adinandra from the Hawaiian Islands 
since that time, hence one is led to believe that Choisy erred in his generic 
designation. The subsessile cordate leaves lead one to believe that Choisy 
may have had in mind Eurya sandwicensis A. Gray. This is merely a 
supposition, since no material has been available for this study. However, 
Choisy 's brief description does apply for the most part to specimens 
examined of E. sandwicensis. 

66. Adinandra sylvestris Jack in Malay Misc. 2 ( 7 ) : ,v 1822 [repr. in Calcutta Jour. 

Nat. Hist. 4:208. 1843; et in Miscel. Papers tndo-China II. 2:295, 302. 18871. 
The knowledge of this species is very limited. In Misc. Papers Indo- 
China is reproduced the original description. There, on p. 295, Adinandra 
sylvestris is described as "Bacca trilocularibus. Suka beranak. Malay. 
A large forest tree at Moco Moco." On p. 302 of the same volume. Sir 
J. D. Hooker, in a note to the editor states. "Adinandra sylvestris. Not 
taken up by later authors. — Suka beranak — i. e., fond of having 


& Emend. II) : 401. 1906 = Ternstroemia bancana Miquel, EI. Ned. Ind. Suppl. 

1:477. 1862. 
This species was originally described as Tcmstrocniia bancana by Miquel 
in 1862. In 1890, King, thinking the species an Adinandra, transferred 
it to the latter genus under the name A. Miquelii. Later, Ridley (Fl. 
Malay Penin. 1 : 197. 1922) treated the species under its original genus and 
name, Ternstrocmia bancana Miquel. In the meantime, Durand and 


Two species of Adimuidra have been described from Africa. The first 
species, .1. Mamiii Oliver (1868). was collected on St. Thomas Island off 
the west coast of Africa in the Hay of Guinea, and the second species. .1. 
Sc/tlirbniii Melchior (1934). was collected in Tanganyika Territory in 
eastern Africa, a span of nearly the whole African continent separating 
the two entities. It appears from the literature that both species have 
been collected only once. Although these two species differ considerably 
in many features from the Indo-.Malaysian and Papuan groups, on the 
other hand they possess many interesting characteristics in common with 
the latter and are closely related. Among the outstanding characters in 
which they differ from the other groups are: (1) stamens in a single 
series, the filaments glabrous, free except at the very base, the anthers 
glabrous, subsagittate; and (2) corolla lobes three times longer (85-50 
mm.) than the calyx-lobes, connate at the base only, otherwise free. 
disposed in a pseudo-tube, the apices of the lobes arching over the pistil 

Szys/ylowicz (1898) created a section, Kleutherandra, for A. Mannii 
based on the free filament- ami supposedly separating this species from all 
other specie's of Adinandra. Melchior (1925) continued this section of 
Szys/ylowicz and in 1084 added to the section the species .1. Scfilicbrnii. 
This character, if meant to separate these two species from all others, is not 
well chosen, since nearly every species in China must be included. The 
most outstanding characters to my mind are the glabrous subsagittate 
anthers and the corolla-lobes arranged in a tube. 

Xo formal key is necessary to separate here these two species, '['heir 
differences are mentioned in detail in the discussion following the 

07. A.linamlra Man-tii Oliver in Fl. Trop. Afr I: 170. 1S6S. Hooker, [con. PI. 11:29, 

i I ' is. 7 S/w\l..wiiv ni Xat. I'tlan/enlani. III. (> : IS'), isn.v M.hhior 
in Xotizbl. Hot. Cart. Mus. Berlin ii:(o7. m.M; 11:1 UK!, 1<)S4; in Nat. 
I'tl.m/rntam. e.l. 2, 21 : 144. 1 ' > J 5 . 

IMsikhu nu\ : West Africa ( Island ol St. Thomas). 

Tree 10 m. high: branches <r,- av , terete, glabrous, the young branchlets 
retbbrown. glabrous, terete, minuteh tuberculate-punctate, the terminal 
buds glabrous. Leaves charlaceous to subcoriaceous. oblong-elliptic to 
oblong-obovate. quite uniform in size. 6-7 (-9) cm. long. 2 8 cm. wide, 
acuminate at the apex, asymmetrical, subrotund at the base, glabrous on 
both surfaces, the midrib reddish near the base, tuberculate-punctate on 
the lower surface, the margin glandulai denticulate, the veins 15-18 pairs, 
conspicuous but not prominent, anastomosing midway to the margin, the 
petiole 1-2 mm. long. Flowers axillary. ? solitary: pedicel ca. 2 cm. long 


(fide Oliver), glabrous; bracteoles 2, persistent, glabrous, opposite, imme- 
diately below the calyx, broadly ovate. 7-S mm. long. 5-6 mm. wide, acute 
at the apex, carinate; calyx-lobes 5, imbricate, glabrous on the exterior 
surface, very lightly appressed-pubescent (with binocular) on the interior 
surface, broadly ovate, acute at the apex, unequal, the two outer lobes 
12-14 mm. long, ca. 10 mm. wide, the three inner lobes 17-19 mm. long, 
ca. 10 mm. wide, their inner margins scarious, entire; corolla-lobes 5, 
slightly connate only at the very base, not spreading, somewhat tubuli- 
form. oblong, ca. 25 (35-45 ) mm. long. 7-10 mm. wide, obtuse to subrotund 
at the apex; stamens ca. 30 in a single series, equal, ca. « mm. long, the 
filaments glabrous, ca. 4 mm. long, aclnate to the base of the corolla, 
otherwise free, the anthers oblong-linear, equalling the filaments in length, 
strictly glabrous, the apicule less than 0.5 mm. long, truncate to emarginate; 
ovary conical-ovoid, glabrous, ca. 4 mm. diam., tapering into the style, 
4-cefled, multi-ovulate, the placentae bifid, the style glabrous, entire, ca. 
22 mm. long, the stigma 4-lobed. Fruit not seen. 

The outstanding characters which separate this and the following species. 
A. Schlicbenii Melchior, from the rest of the genus are: (1) anthers gla- 
brous; (2) filaments glabrous, free their entire length except at the very 
base, at which point they are joined together as well as adnate to the base 
of the corolla; and (3) corolla-lobes linear-oblong, connate at the base 
only, but connivent their entire length presenting a tube like appearance. 

The characters which separate A. Mannii from .1. Schlicbenii are: (1) 
inner calyx-lobes glabrous and entire; (2) corolla-lobes subrotund at the 
apex; (3) bracteoles longer, measuring 7-8 mm. in length; (4) ovary and 
style glabrous; and (5) stamens only about half as long (8 mm.) and more 
numerous (30). 

68. Adinandra Sohliebenii Melchior in Notizht. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 11:1076, 
1097. 1934. 
Distribution: East Africa (Tanganyika Territory). 

Tree 20-30 m. high; very young branchlets smooth, compressed, gla- 
brous, red to gray-brown. Leaves chartaccous to coriaceous, obovate- 
Oblong, 5-10 cm. long. 2-3.5 cm. wade, acute at the apex or shortly and 
obtusely acuminate, cuneate at the base, glabrous on both surfaces, the 
midrib red beneath, the margin serrulate-dentate, glandular, the veins 
conspicuous beneath because of the red color, the petiole ca. 5 mm. long. 
Flowers axillary, solitary, ca. 3 cm. long; pedicels 2.5-3.5 cm. long, 
recurved, glabrous; bracteoles 2, persistent, opposite, immediately below 
the calyx, glabrous, broadly ovate, acute at the apex, carinate. the outer 
3 mm. long and wide, the inner 5 mm. long and wide; calyx-lobes 5, 
imbricate, ovate, acute at the apex, unequal, varying in length from 10 
mm. (outer lobe) to 17 mm. (inner lobe), ca. 12 mm. wide, the two outer 
lobes glabrous on the exterior surface, the three inner lobes sericeous on 
the exterior surface except along the scarious margin-, ciliolate; corolla- 
lobes 5. free, twice as long as the innermost calyx-lobe, linear-oblong, 32-45 
mm. long. 5 7 mm. wide, acute at the apex, somewhat narrowed and 
connate at the base, not spreading, somewhat tubuliform; stamens 15-20, 
uni-seriate, ca. 15 mm. long, glabrous, the filaments free (inter se), adnate 

% JOt IIWL OF TIIK \KN()U> AKMORKTl M l\oi„ xxv.n 

to the base of the corolla, filiform, S-° nun. long, the anthers linear, ca. 
5 nun. long, cordate-sagittate at the base, the connective projected at the 
apex into a small subulate-lanceolate apicule 1 mm. long; ovary conical, 
ca. () mm. long, 4 mm. wide, sericeous-tomentose. imperfectly 5-celled, 
niulli-ovulate. attenuate at the apex into a filiform style 24-30 mm. long. 
sericeous along the lower portion, glabrous along the upper portion, lightly 
5-sulcate. the stigma minute, lightly 5-sulcate. I'm i I indehiscent, conical- 
ovoid, ca. 2 cm. long. 1 cm. wide, the seeds many, small, reniform. 1.2-1.5 
mm. diam., brown, shining, reticulate. 

This species has been described so minutely that it can be separated 
easily from the preceding species, even though the type has not been seen. 
It is fortunate, since the type may not be in existence any longer. 

Ad'niandra St hl'u h< mi Melchior was collected by H. J. Schlieben in 
Tanganyika Territory in eastern Africa, far removed Horn the Island of St. 
Thomas in the Hay of Guinea where J. Maitnii was collected. 

According to Melchior, the type specimen is numbered 3175 and was 
found growing on the northwest side of the I luguru Forest in Morogoro 
(Tanganyika Terr.), at an altitude of 1900 m. The flowers are orange 
and red in color. On December 2S, 1932. the plant was in both ilower and 

The characters separating this species from .1. Mannii are: (1) inner 
calyx-lobes pubescent and ciliolate; (2) corolla-lobes acute at the apex; 
(3) bracteoles unequal and shorter, measuring 3 and 5 nun. in length; (4) 
ovary and lower half of the style sericeous; and (5) stamens twice as long. 
measuring 15 mm. in length, and less in number (15-20). 

YikvuTLAk \amk: Msungu (Kiliguru). 


To date, three species have been described from New Guinea. .1. Forbcsii 
Baker. .1. Bru.ssii Kobuski, and .1. caloscricca I dels. The last named 
species has been transferred to the new genus Anhholdiodoidron, which 
is midway between Cordonia and Ad'nuuidra in characters. The styles in 
An hholdiod* ndroii are free, very short, and recurved, resembling those of 
Cordonia. In wood-structure the genus resembles Adinandra. It is not 
known as yet whether the fruit is dehiscent or indehiscent. From the 
appearance of the ovules one would not expect the seeds to be winged. 

The first two species mentioned above belong, according to the collector, 
L. J. brass, among the very large trees of New Guinea. They are closely 
related to each other and are separated from the Indo-Malaysian species 
by their large, fleshy purple corolla-lobes and their very numerous (50-60). 
long, densely pubescent stamens, in very definite series. The character- 
istics separating the two species from each other are noted in the discussions 
following their descriptions. 
09. Ailinnmlra Foil. .Mi U;iker I. in Jour. Hot f.hSunpl. 4. 1<>2.<.- Kobuski in four 


Large tree; branchlets gray, terete, glabrous, the terminal buds 
appressed-pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, ovate-oblong, 5-8 cm. long, 
2.8-3.5 cm. wide, acute or broadly acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, 
glabrous on both surfaces, the margin flat, lightly serrulate, the veins 8-10 
pairs, conspicuous on the lower surface, less so on the upper surface, 
anastomosing and arching upward near the margin, the reticulations quite 
conspicuous, the petiole up to 10 mm. long, glabrous. Flowers axillary, 
solitary; pedicel up to 4.5 cm. long, glabrous, conspicuously lenticellate; 
bracteoles 2, persistent, opposite, immediately below the calyx, broadly 
ovate or deltoid, ca. 1.5 mm. long, lightly appressed-pubescent; calyx-lobes 
5, imbricate, recurved even in the bud, semi-orbicular, ca. 5 mm. long and 
wide, lightly appressed-pubescent or glabrescent; corolla-lobes 5, connate 
at the base, fleshy, glabrous, 15-20 mm. long, 12-14 mm. wide, scarious at 
the margin; stamens ca. 56. 5-seriate, 10-14 mm. long, filaments only 
lightly adnate to the base of the corolla, connate, densely sericeous on the 
exterior surface, and the upper half of the interior surface, the anthers 
lightly hirsute, oblong, subequal, 4-5 mm. long; ovary globose, glabrous, 
ca. 5 mm. long. 6 mm. wide, attenuate at the apex into an entire style, 
5-celled, multi-ovulate. Fruit not seen. 

Adinandra Forbesii can be separated from A. Brassii by the following 
characters: (1) leaves oblong-elliptic, acute at both ends, conspicuously 
veined on the under surface; (2) pedicels up to 4.5 cm. long, glabrous, 
covered with many conspicuous lenticels; (3) bracteoles opposite; (4) 
corolla-lobes glabrous; and (5) calyx-lobes recurved, even in the bud. 

This species is closely related to A . Brassii and has many characteristics 
in common with it, especially in the floral parts. In both species the 
corolla-lobes are fleshy, the calyx-lobes hardly more than 5 mm. long and 
thinner than the corolla-lobes, the stamens are conspicuously 5-seriate, long 
(up to 15 mm.), and densely sericeous. 

According to Baker, Szyszylowicz, and later, Melchior, the stamens are 
described as "pentadelphous" or in "five-bundles." True, they vary in 
length according to the series but are not distinctly in bundle formation. 
They appear joined in a single tube. Perhaps, in drying or in boiling 
they may be broken up into groups, but my study showed them more 
characteristically in an unbroken tube-formation. 
70. Adinandra Brassii Kobuski in Jour. Arnold Arb. 21: 150. 1940. 

Distribution: New Guinea. 

British New Guinea: Lake Daviumbu, Middle Fly River, rain-forest, L. J. Brass 
7856 (type, A), Sept. 1936 (very large tree with thick scaly bark; flowers purple).— 
Wuroi, Oriomo River, Western Division, riverine rain-forest, alt. 5-10 m., L. J. Brass 
5874 (A, NY), Feb. 2, 1934 (large hcavy-boled, spreading tree with flaky-scaly brown 
bark and tough brown wood; leaf apex subretuse and margin much recurved, 
especially near the base; flowers purple, pendent beneath leaves). Netherlands New 

of primary rain forest, alt. 850 m., L. J. Brass & C. Yrrstn^h 13176 (A), March 19, 
1939 (tree 29 m. high, diam. 43 cm., (he crown not wide-spreading, the bark 13 mm. 
thick, black, scaly, fairly rough, the sap-wood red-brown, the heart-wood violet). — 
Six kilometers s. w. of Bernhard Camp, Idenburg River, frequent tree of primary 
forest, on slope of ridge, alt. 1200 m., L. J. Brass & C. Versteegh 12519 (A), Feb. 15, 

98 JOI IJW1. OF TI1K ARNOLD AKBOKKTl M [vol. xxviii 

dark red; fruit green when young, red when mature). 

Very large trees up to 30 m. high; branchlets gray, terete, glabrous, 
appressed-pubescent at the very tip, the terminal bud appressed-pubescent. 
Leaves thick-coriaceous, obovate to subrotund, (4 ) 7-11 cm. long, (2.5--) 
4-0 em. wide, subrotund and subemarginatc al the apex, euneate to 
rounded at the base, the upper Mirfaee glabrous, shining, the lower surface 
glabrescent, the margin subrevolute with a few inconspicuous glands, the 
veins 15-20 pairs, inconspicuous on the lower surface, the petiole glabrous, 
5-7 mm. long. Flowers axillary, solitary or in pairs; pedicel appressed- 
pubescent or glabrescent, free from lenticels, 3-3.5 cm. long; bracteoles 2, 
persistent, below the calyx, subopposile or alternate, broadly deltoid, ca. 
1.5 mm. long. 2.5 mm. wide, puberulent ; calyx-lobes 5. imbricate, broadly 
ovate to subrotund. 4-5 mm. long. 5 (> mm. wide, obtuse or rounded at the 
apex, lightly appressed-pubescent; corolla-lobes 5. lightlv connate at the 
base, purple, fleshy. 15 20 mm. long. 14-1 o nun. wide, appressed-pubescent 
on the external surface, scariose at the margin; stamens 55-60, 5-seriate, 
10 15 mm. long; tilaments only lightly adnate to the base of the corolla. 
6-11 mm. long, connate, densely sericeous on the exterior surface, the 
anthers hirsute, oblong, subequal, 3 4 nun. long; ovary globose, glabrous. 
ca. () mm. long. 7 mm. wide, gradually attenuate into the entire style. 
5-celled. the placentae prominently 2-branched. recurved with many ovules 
attached. Fruit globose, red. glabrous, up to 3 cm. long. 

Adinamlni Hrassii is listed by brass as one of the large trees of New 
Guinea. It is a very distinctive' species characterized by thick, dark, scaly 
bark, light brown or red-brown sap-wood and purple heart-wood. The 
corolla-lobes are purple, and much more fleshy than the Malayan and 
Chinese species; the calvx-lobes. on the other hand, are smaller and 

Adinandra Brassii can be separated from .1. Forhr.sii, its closest relative 
and the only other species known at present from New Guinea, by its 
obovate or subrotund leaves which are not oblong, the much less con- 
spicuous veining, and the fine appressed-pubescent corolla-lobes. 

When first described this species appeared very outstanding because of 
the densely hirsute anthers and filaments. Since baker, in describing A. 
Forbcsii, did not mention pubescence on either the corolla-lobes or the 
stamens. I assumed them both to he glabrous. An examination of the type 
of .1. Forbcsii showed, as far as the corolla-lobes were concerned, this 
assumption to be correct. However, the stamens (both anthers and 
filaments) are so densely sericeous that they appear to be the most 
noticeable characteristic of the flower. 



With jour text-figures 

This is the first contribution to an account of the spe ■mens of Cypera- 
ceae collected in New Guinea chiefly by Mr. L. J. Bras- during the Arch- 
bold [expeditions between and 1939. Included abo in the treatment 
are some other specimens from New Guinea and the Solomon Islands from 
various collections. I am particularly grateful to Prof. Klmer D. Merrill, 
of the Arnold Arboretum, tor the opportunity to stud) the brass collection, 
and to Dr. Lily M. Perry for copies of much literature unavailable to me. 
To Mr. A. J. Jessep and Mr. J. H. Willis I am indebted for the loan of 
specimens and literature from the National Herbarium of Victoria, Mel- 
bourne (cited as herb. .Melbourne), and to Mr. W. Hartley for the loan of 
a set of the specimens collected by Mr. C. E. Carr, now in the herbarium 
of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Canberra (cited as 
herb. Canberra). 

Unless otherwise indicated, the type-specimens of new species are in the 
Queensland Herbarium. Brisbane (herb. Brisbane) and duplicate-types in 
the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

The present paper deals with the genus Ctirrx, and in this genus I have 
received valuable help from Mr. E. Nelmes, of the Herbarium, Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, who has been studying the Malaysian and 
Australasian species of the genus for some years. The arrangement of 
species here follows that in Kukenthal's well-known monograph in Das 
Pflanzenreich IV.20. 1909, but some variations of his treatment have been 
found necessary at this later date. The specimens have been critically 
compared with copious Australian material, but the comparison with 
Malaysian material has been much less extensive and considerable reliance 
has had to be placed on descriptions alone. 

C.nvx .•r.-mostaclna sp. nov. (Sect. Ci, 

Rhizoma repens circiter 1.5 m 
opacis tenuiter striatis obtectum. 

* Botanical Results of the Richard Arc 


JOl RNAL OK THK \K\OI I) \ !!]!< >K K I I ^ 

circiter 20-25 cm. all i, graciles llaceiduli<|uc, acute triquetri admodum 
compressi, scabri. Folia pauca culmum superantia, inferiora ad vaginas 
brunneas integras redacta. S 4 superiora laminifera; laminae acutae, usque 
ad 20 cm. longae, 2-2.5 mm. latae, planae. glabrae, interne laeves sursum 
nervis marginibusque scahrae, carinatae ceterum obscure nervosae. Spica 
unica, erecta, androgynaecea, ebracteata, 10-12 mm. longa, 5 mm. crassa, 
oblonga, pluri- et densillora, variegata. pars mascula linearis circiter 4-5 

glabrae, dorso obtuse carinato S-nerves, lateribus rubro-brunneae. Utriculi 
suberecti, 4.5 mm. longi, 1.2 mm. kit i, membranacei, pallide viridescentes, 
elliptici, rostrati, acutiuscule triquetri. glabri laevesque, ])rominule circiter 
15-nerves, basin versus angustati brevissime stipitati, sursum in rostrum 
circiter 1.5 mm. longum gracile lineare triquelrum glabrum laeve ore firmo 
bidentatum (dentibus striilis aaitis) subsensim contracti. Nux utriculo 


brevior et subaequilata, 1.8 mm. longa, 1.2 mm. lata, oblonga subobovoidea, 
obtusissima sed brevissime acuminato-apiculata, basi subacuta, valde tri- 
quetra angulis prominulis, lateribus fere plana. Stylus basi haud in- 
crassatus; stigmata 3. 

Netherlands New Guinea- 9 km. northeast of Lake Habbema, Brass 10255 
(type), October 1038, alt. 2800 m„ massed on open beaches of small stream in forest. 

This species is most nearly allied to C. rhizopoda Maxim., from Japan, 
differing in the more densely-flowered female part of the spike with broader 
reddish brown (not green) glumes, the nut more obtuse at each end, and 
perhaps also in the shorter male part of the spike. Ohwi, in Mem. Coll. 
Sci. Kyoto Imper. Univ. ser. B, 11(5) : 443. 1936, has erected a new section 
Rhizopodae Ohwi for C. rhizopoda, but C. eremostachya appears to agree 
better with the characters of the Circinatae, under which Kukenthal 
arranged C. rhizopoda in I'tlanzenr. 1V.20: 98. 1909. C. eremostachya 
also appears to be closely allied to C. Petelotii Gross, but to judge from 
the description the latter has a narrower spike but longer utricles (5-6 
mm.). No mention is made of a rhizome. 

Carex capillacea Boott, Illustr. 1:44, t. 110. 1858. 

Carexrara Boott subsp. aipillau-u (Boott) Kukenth. in Pilan/enr. IV.20: 102. 1900. 

Netherlands New Guinea: Lake Habbema, Brass 9085, August 1938, alt. 3225 m., 
scattered along grassy shores of lake; 11 km. northeast of top of Mt. Wilhelmina, 
Brass & Myrr-Drees 9751, Sept. 1938, alt. 3400 m., in wet grassy valley. 

Not previously recorded from New Guinea; known to extend as far 
north as Sakhalin and Manchuria and west to Sikkim, and known to occur 
in southeastern Australia. Brass 9085 has a short setaceous bract half as 
long as the spike. 

Subgen. Vignea (Beauv.) Nees 
Carex appressa R. Br. Prodr. 242. 1810; Kukenth. in Bot. Jahrb. 69:261. 1938; 
Ohwi in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 56: 214. 1942. 

m., gregarious on wet low shores of lake, erect in clumps to 1.5 m. high. 

Previously recorded for Netherlands New Guinea by Ohwi, 1. c, and 
for Northeast New Guinea by Kukenthal, 1. c; elsewhere known from 
Australia, New Zealand and its dependencies, and New Caledonia. 
Carex curta Gooden. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 2:145. 1794. 

m., common on marsln Hats; Lake Habbema, Brass 9119, August 1938, alt. 3225 m., 
moist burnt-over ground in a native camp; Lake Habbema, Brass 9559, August 1938, 
alt. 3225 m., open grassland, plentiful on wet sandy soil. 

Not previously recorded for New Guinea, but widely spread in Europe, 
Asia, North and South America, and southeastern Australia. 

This species has commonly been called C. cancsccns L., but E. S. Mar- 
shall has shown, in Jour. Bot. 45: 365. 1907, that the type of Linnaeus is 
a specimen of quite a different plant, commonly known as C. Buxbaumii 
Wahlenb., and that the present plant has to be called C. curta Gooden. 
This view is followed by Nelmes in Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 155 sess.: 284. 

102 .101 K\AL OK THK AKNOI.l) \KHOK KTl \l I vol. xxyiii 

1944. 'I he confusion seems to have arisen with the misidentification by 
Fight foot. Fl. Scotica 550. 1777. and has been perpetuated by such authori- 
ties as Bentham (e.g. in Handb. Brit. Fl. 2: 618. 1865. and in Fl. Austral. i,s7S). Boeckeler (in Linnaea 89: 122. 1S75). C. B. Clarke (in 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 700. 1894). Kukenthal (in Fllan/.enr. IY.20: 216. 
1900), Olnvi (in Men.. (',,11. Sci. Kyoto Imper. I'niv. ser. B. 11(5): 268. 
0)80). Mackenzie (in X. Am. Fl. 1J5: 874. 168.5), and Duman (in Catholic 
I'niv. Am. Biol. Ser. 86: 44. 1941). F. X. Williams, when discussing the 
Furopean varieties of Canx canrscms in Jour. Bot. 16:8(><) 876. 1609, 
agreed with Marshall's interpretation, but continued to use the name 
C. caiicscnis in the traditional sense with the remark that "I think that all 
doubt is cleared away by citing Lightfoot as the authority." But this 
practice is contrary to the International Rules of Nomenclature, partic- 
ularly Arts. 16. IS. 46 and 4 7. 
C.irrN p-Tilci.i -p now (Sal. Klon^itur Kunlh). Fie. 1, H. 

Khi/oma stoloniforme tenue. Culmi caespitosi. gracillimi. compresse 
trigmii. striati. glabri. laeves. usque ad medium foliati. quoad visi 20 cm. 
alti. Folia pauca culmum sii[)erantia. Ilexuosa. angustissima. conduplicata 
(explanata circiter 1 mm. lata), marginibus superioribus -caberula. ima ad 
vaginas persistentes pallidas redacta. Intlorescentia suhcapitata, ovata, 
densa, brunnea. circa 1.5 cm. longa lataque; bracteae squamiforines. ima 
hreviter aristata. Spicar 8 (quoad visae) approximatae. sessiles. gynaecan- 
drae parte masculina perbrevi. obovatai- vel ohlongae. s<|uarrosae, 7 10 
mm. longae. 7 8 mm. latae. Chimae femineae ovatae. acutae. muticae vel 
fere muticae, carina angusta 1 8-nervi virides, lateribus enervibus brun- 
neae vel rufo-brunneae nitidae. marginibus august, ■ albae subscariosae, 
8-8.5 mm. longae. Ctriculi patuli, 5 mm. longi, 1.4 mm. lati. fulvescentes 
viridi-marginati. omnino glabri laevcsque. epimctulati, elliptici, membrana- 
cei. basi rotundata incrassali. plano-( subconcavo- ) convexi, nervis 2 mar- 
ginalibus conspicuis. nervis tenuioribus latere piano circiter 7 latere convexo 
circiter 10 notati. sursum in rostrum laliusculum (omplanatum leviter 
incurvum breviter bidentatum omnino laeve glabrumque ]uirpureo-tinctum 
cetero utriculo subaeqiiilongum dorso anguste sulca to ])rofunde fissum 
subsensim contractu Xux utriculum nnplens, 2 mm. longa, 1.2 mm. lata, 
oblongo-ovata, plano-convexa. Stigmata 2. 

\. iiuioani.s Xiw Ciima: Lake Hablaana. Hruss <W.? (type), \ugust 1938, 
alt. 3225 m., marshy shores of lake. 

The specimen seen has a single fruiting culm. The species is very close 
to some forms of C. nhinata Murr. ( ('. stdhihita Good.), but has narrower 
leaves and longer utricles with a relatively longer beak deeply .split on the 
back and with entirely smooth margins. The split on the back usually 
appears as a narrow brown furrow, as the result of the overlapping of the 

Subgen. Indocarex Baill. 

Carrx Di.-tricliiae Boirk. in Flora f>8 : 122. 1S75. 


Previously known to me with certainty only from Queensland. Kiiken- 
thal, in Pflanzenr. 1V.20: 264. 1909. regards C. Dietrkhiae Boeck., C. 
fissilis Boott. and C. indica L. var. Mihici C. B. Clarke as synonymous, 
treating the group as C. indica var. fissilis (Boott) Kukenth. Car ex 
Dietrkhiae differs from C. indica L. in having shorter awns to the brac- 
teoles. bright brown (not pallid) male glumes, and less spreading, le.v* 
turgid utricles less abruptly constricted into their beaks. Mr. Xelmes 
informs me that C. fissilis has much longer pistillate glumes than C. 

I have not seen the specimens referred to C. indica var. Mihici by Ridley 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. II. Hot. «>: 247. 1916, nor those referred to C. indica 

104 .101 KNAL 01- Till'. \K.\OI.I) AKHOHKTl M Ivor, xwm 

var. fissilis by Kukenthal in Bot. Jahrb. 59: 59. 1924. The specimen from 
New Guinea referred to C. fissilis by F. Mueller in Trans. Rov. Soc. Vict. 
1(2): 36. 18S9 belongs to C. continua C. B. Clarke. 

Car.-x lamprorlilamys sp. now (Sect. Imitate Tuckerm.). Fie. 2, A. 

Herba robusta circa 75 cm. aha. Culmi subvalidi, acute triquetri, 
uninodes, glabri laevesque. Folia summain inlloresi entiam hand attin- 
gentia, in apicem filiformem longe attenuata, acuta. 7-10 mm. lata, crebre 
striata, carinata, marginibus revoluta, supra scaberrima, subtus scabra, 

omnia laminifera. inl'enora vaginis sangumeo fuscis plus minusve persis- 
tentibus. Panicula plus quam dimidium culmum occupans, 7-8-nodis. 
composita. linearis, fere continua. Bracteae longe vaginantes vaginis pal- 
lid is ampliatis prope ns antic ptiberulis, inllorescentiam superantes. folii- 
formes. summae tiliformes. Paniculae secundariae 12. singulae vel binae, 
oblongo-ovatae laxiusculae. erectae. exserte pedunculatae. ])lerumque 5 9 
cm. longae et 2 3.5 cm. latae. Pedunculi erecti. exserti. graciles, rigidi. 
striati, scaberuli. Rhachis scaberrima. Bracteolae emarginatae, arista 
scabra longe aristatae. Spicae pallidae terrugineo-t inctae. androgynaeceae. 
oblongae vel ovoideae. plerunu|Ui' 6-8 (ram 5) mm. longae, circa 5 mm. 
latae. parte mascula partem femineam adaequante vel ea breviore. Glumae 
femineae fulvae. ovatae, acutae admodum acuminalae, aristulatae. pluris- 
triatae, circiter 2 mm. longae. Ftriculi pallidi, nitidi, membranacei, 3-3.5 
mm. longi, 1 mm. lati, trigoni hand intlati. nervis prominulis circiter 15 
notati, inferne elliptici vel obovali basi contracli. glabri laevesque, sursum 
in rostrum gracile planum fere rectum vel leviter excurvum ore integrum 
obli(jue sectum marginibus- admodum scabrmn cetero utriculo aequilongum 
subabrupte contracti. Xux 2 nun. longa, U." mm. lata, brunnea, ellipsoidea 
utrinque acuta. tri(|uetra, a[)ice indistincte annulata. lateribus concava, 
basi breviter stipitata. Stylus basi incrassatus; stigmata 3. 

I'aima: Central Division: Mafulu. Rrass .\Oi (ivi-i), Si-pt.-Nov. l<>.v<, all. 
1«J.<5. alt. ca. 4700 ft., yminu secondary lores! (herb, ca. 2 ft. tall) (herb. Canberra). 

Kukenthal cited brass's collection under ('. Rafflcsiana Boott var. con- 
tinua (C. H. Clarke) Kiikenth., in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. III. 16: 315. 
HMO, and Carr's collection under ('. indka L.. in Bot. Jahrb. 69: 262. 1938. 
The species differs from C. indka L. and its immediate allies (subsect. 
Tnr-itiular Kiikenth.) in that the utricle is not olivaceous, is by no means 
inflated, and is gradually attenuated into its beak, and differs further from 
C. indka itself in that the pistillate glumes are only shortly aristate. From 
C. Rafflcsiana and its allies (subsect. Ilispidnlac Kiikenth.) it differs in the 
stouter more rigid panicle and in that the utricle is but sparsely scabrous 
and then only on the narrow beak. By reason of the non-inflated utricle 
not abruptly narrowed into its slender only slightly scabrous beak, this 
species seems best placed in subsect. Gnu ilirostres Kiikenth., but it is 
readily distinguished by its pallid shining mature utricle. Carr's specimen 
is a somewhat immature plant with a culm about 50 cm. high and leaves 
about 7 mm. wide. 

Car.-x continua C. H. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 717. 1894. 

Carex Ratllesiana Knott var. continua (('. B. Clarke) Kiikmth. in Philip. Jour. Sci. 


Netherlands New Guinea: 4 km. southwest of Bernhard Camp, Idenburg River, 

southwest of Bernhard Camp, Idenburg River, Brass 13722, March 1939, alt. 850 m., 
occasional tufts on open banks of rain- torest stream; 15 km. southwest of Bernhard 
Camp, Idenburg River. Bras* 12371, Jan. 1930. alt. 1500 m., rain-forest, one clump in 
sandy stream-bed; 18 km. northeast of Lake Habbema, Bele River, Brass 11225, Nov. 
1938, alt. 2300 m., Fagaceae forest, common in moist hollows, clumps 50 cm. high. 
Papua: Central Division: Near summit of Owen Stanley Range at 9200 ft., W. 
MacGrcgor (herb. Melbourne) ; Mt. Tata, Brass 4S42, Ma> -September 1933, alt. 2400 
m., plentiful on roadside in forest; Mt. Tafa, Brass 5007, May-September 1933, alt. 
2400 m., common roadside species, also found occasionally on torest floor, Mt. Tafa, 
Brass 5088, alt. 2400 m., May-September 1933, scattered on thinly vegetated face of 
an old landslip. 

Not previously recorded for Netherlands New Guinea. Brass 5007 was 
cited by Kiikenthal, in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. III. 16: 315. 1940, under 
C. Rafflcsiana Boot! var. cmitinua (C. B. Clarke) Kiikenth. Kiikenthal 
also cites Brass 5323, 4391, and 4623 as belonging to this form; of these 
Brass 5323 serves as the type of the abundantly distinct C. lamprochlamys 
S. T. Blake, while nos. 4391 and 4623 arc referred below to C. neoguineen- 
sis C. B. Clarke. MacGregor's specimen was referred to C. fissilis Boott 
by F. Mueller, in Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict. 1(2) : 36. 1889. 

Kiikenthal's earlier opinion that C. continua C. B. Clarke is specifically 
distinct from C. Rafflesiana Boott seems preferable to treating it as a 
variety of the latter. The specimens seen from New Guinea and the 
Philippine Islands seem to form a homogeneous series. The species extends 
to the eastern Himalayas. 

Carex neoguincensis C. B. Clarke in Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot. 37: 12. 1904, in Kew Bull. 
-\dd. Ser. 8:73. 1908; Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. IV.20:280. 1009, in Bot. Jahrb. 
59:59. 1924; Suring. in Nova Guinea Bot. K:713. 1912; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. II. Bot. 9: 246. 1916. 

Nf.tmkri.ands New Guinea: Lake Habbema, Brass v21(), August 1938, alt. 3225 
m., associated with Sphagnum and passes in shrubb\ edges ol lorest; 9 km. northeast 
of Lake Habbema, Brass 10882, October 1938, alt. 2650 in., wet bank of an open stream 
in forest; 9 km. northeast of Lake Habbema. Brass IW23, October 1938, all. 2S00 m„ 
common on wet sandy soil of openings in forest. I'aim'a: Central Division: Mt. 
Albert Edward, Brass 4391, May-July 1933, alt. 3600 m., small colony on an open 
grassland slope (inflorescence brown); Mt. \ictona, 11'. Ua<(,ntov in 1889 (herb. 
Melbourne); Murray Pass, Wharton Range, Brass 4n23, June September 1933, alt. 
2840 m., common on grasslands and recently burnt areas (leave, pale green, innorescnce 


The specimens cited show some variation between one another, par- 
ticularly as to the size of the utricle. Brass 9210 and 4623 have small 
utricles 2.5-2.8 mm. long, while on Brass 108S2 and MacGregor's specimens 
the utricles are 2.7-3.5 mm. long with longer more slender beaks. The 
type-specimen is described as having utricles 3 mm. long with the beak 
prominently toothed at the tip. All our specimens have an entire or 
emarginate tip of the utricle. Mr. E. Nelmes does not mention this 
character, but tells me that apart from the size and rather stouter beak the 
utricle of Brass 9210 is rather similar to that of the type and that the 
glumes are much alike. In view of the variation on Brass's specimens I 

106 J()l |{\\|, OK TIIK \K\Ol.l) \ i; IK »H I I I \l [vol. xxvm 

now have no hesitation in referring all the above-cited specimens to Clarke's 

MacCregor's specimens have coarser leaves up to 10 mm. wide and the 
partial panicles sometimes paired, but the material is rather scrappy. 

As mentioned in the discussion following C. continua above. Brass -1623 
and 7.W/ were determined by Kiikenthal as ( '. Rafflesiana Boott var. con- 
tiuna (('. H. Clarke) Kukenth. Carcx >iro»i<iucc>isis is undoubtedly 
closely allied to C. continua, but it has more loosely (lowered spikes with 
the utricles more abruptly contracted into a more slender trigonous promi- 
nently decurved beak, while the shorter stiffer leaves and bracts (the 
former usually not exceeding the base of the inflorescence, the latter only 
about as long as the partial panicles) and the shortly aristulate to muticous 
braiteoles give a different jacks to the species. 

Carcx iiit'liinoplioru sp. nov. (Sort. Indirav Turkerm. Miliar. I. Ilispidulae Kukenth). 
Fig. 2, B. 
Herba stolonifera usque ad 4 dm. alta; stolones graciles usque ad 2.5 
turn, crassi. squamis brunneis vel fuse is persistent ibus obtecti. Culmi 
solitarii vel caespitosi, graciles. enodes. obtuse trigoni, striati ceterum laeves 
vel fere laeves. glabri. Folia prope basin culmi conferta. numerosa, recta, 
summam inflorescentiam fere attingentia, 2 S mm. lata, apicem tri(jiietrnm 
versus longe attenuata. pro majore parte plana vel marginibus recurvula, 
couspii ue carinata. crebre nervosa, costa supra appresse scabro-pubescentia 
ceterum glabra, m.; rm'n il ui- ( mediis except is) scaberula, carina sursum 
scabra. emortua persistent ia : vaginae atropurpureae vel iusc-av tandem in 
tibras dissoiutae. I'anicula composita. . ', plantae occupans. linearis, 
tlensa, basi interrupta. I'aniculae secundariae 14. plerumque binae. fuscae, 
oblongae vel anguste oblongae, dense spiciformes, plerum(|iie 1 2.5 cm. 
longae, 5 7 mm. latae. superiores subses.siles approximate, inferiores 
prominule peduncnlatae, ima plus minusve distans solitaria. Bracteae 
paniculas secundarias suas (interdum etiam inflorescentiam totam) super- 
antes, superiores setaceae, inferiores foliiformes longiuscule vaginantes 
vaginis art tis antice tenuiter breviterque pubescent ibus. Kraeteolae 
squamiformes. aristatae, plus minusve hispidae. IVdunculi filiformes, 
erect i, scabri, imus usque ad S cm. longus. Rhachis scabra. Spicae 
androg\ mac. stibapproximatae. appressae. oblongae. 4-d mm. longae. 2-2.5 
mm. latae; pars mascula partem femineam circa adaetjiians sed (utriculis 
circumdata) inconspicua. Clumae femineae sanguineo-fuscae, ovatae. 
acutae, muticae vel plus minusve cuspidatae, 2.5-3 mm. longae. tenuiter 
5-nerves, carina tenui straminea. Ctriculi fusci vel sanguineo-fusci, erecti, 
,v5-5.N mm. longi. 0.0-1 mm. lati. elliptici. utrinque angustati. subaeque 
subacuteque trigoni. nervis 6 S tenuibus (quorum interdum 2 solis con- 
spicuis) notati. appresse scabro-pubescentes, marginibus hispiduli, in ros- 
trum sensim abeuntes; rostrum rectum cetero utriculo aequilonuum vel 
fere aequilongum. subgracile. enmpressum. ore albo-marginato profunde 
bidentalum ((lentil)iis strict is), marginibus scabrum. Xu.x arcta. elliptica, 
stipitata. conspicue apit ulata. acute tri(|iietra lateribus concava 
brunnea, 1 .0 mm. longa, 0.S mm. lata. Stylus basi hand 
stigmata 3. 

NiiiiiMwns \iu (,ii\ii \oilh slopes oi Ml Wilhelinina /Ws ,'~ M \, , 
Drrrs HHUfy, Sept. IO.vS, alt. M)-{) m., wet in alpine grassland, eommon; northern 


Carcx melanophora is evidently close to ('. sanncakctnisis kukenth., but 
differs in the nodeless smoolh stems, smaller partial panicles, smaller 
spikes, longer and perhaps more distinctly nerved utricles which are scab- 
rous rather than hispid except on the margins of the beak, and perhaps 
also in the development of stolons. The three collections cited above are 
unlike each other at first glance, but they are indistinguishable as to their 
spikelets and appear to reflect differences of habitat. All specimens show 
at least a piece of a stolon. The type-sheet consists of two pieces 3 and 4 
dm. high with narrow partial panicles the lower of which are distant and 
long-peduncled. Brass & Myrr-Drrcs 100S0 consists of tiny plants up to 
5 cm. high; they are immature but evidently represent starved plants. 
The third collection is intermediate with plants 7-13 cm. high, not quite 
mature, with fairly dense inflorescences with the lower partial panicles 
shortly pedunculate and thicker than in the type. The utricles are some- 
what "larger than in the type. 4-4.5 mm. long and 1.1 1.2 mm. wide. It 
would appear that the usual length of the utricle of the species varies from 
3.5 to 4.2 mm. 

Carex riiizomatnsa Stoud. in Zoll. Yerz. Ind. Archip. 6(1: 1S54 ; Kukenth. in Bot. 

Jahrb. 59: 60. 1924, 69: 264. 1938, in Bull. Jard. Hot. Buitenz. III. Id: 31(,. 1910. 

Papua: Central Division: Mafulu, Brass ?MS, Sept. -Nov. 1933, alt. 12v) in.. 

This collection differs from the general run of the species in the somewhat 
smaller nearly smooth utricles 2.5 mm. long. It was previously cited by 
Kukenthal in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz.. 1. c. The species ranges from 
Assam and Burma to New Guinea. 

Subgen. Eucarex Loss. & Germ. 

Carex Gaudiehaudiana Kunth, Enum. 2:417. 1837; Ohwi in Bot. Mace Tokyo 
56:215. 1942. 

in., common on marsh v hanks of streams; Mt. Wilhelmina, 7 km. northeast of top, 
Brass & Myer-Drees 9923, Sept. 1938, alt. 3700 m., few plants on boirpy grasslands. 

The specimens are small and immature, corresponding to var. humilior- 
Kukenth. in Pllanzenr. IV.20: 313. 1909. which was recorded for Northeast 
New Guinea in Bot. Jahrb. 69: 264. 1938. To judge from the range of 
variation seen in Australian plants this small state is not worth taxonomic 
recognition. The species occurs in southeastern Australia (including 
Tasmania) and New Zealand and was recently recorded for Netherlands 
New Guinea by Ohwi. 1. c. 
Carex phacota Spreng. Syst. 3:826. 1826; Ohwi in Bot. Mat!. Tokyo 56: 214. 1942. 

Papca: Eastern Division: Summit of Mt. Dayman (herb. Melbourne, without 

New for Papua; recorded by Ohwi, 1. c, for Netherlands New Guinea, 
otherwise known from Nepal and Japan to Java. The sheet carries an old 

K)K ,|Ol KWF OF Till'. \K\Oll. \RB0RFTl\1 [vol. xxvm 

herbarium label marked in the handwriting of F. Mueller "Carex Summit 

of Mt. Davman,'- to which J. H. Willis has added "New Guinea (ca. 


Carex euphlebia sp. nov. (Sect. Acutae Fries). Fig. 3, C. 

Herba dense caespitosa rhi/omate brevi. Culmi caespitosi, cum 
intlorescentia 30-65 cm. alti. graciles. acute triquetri. sursum scabridi, 
usque ad medium foliati, basi vaginis nigricantibus nitidulis obtecti. Folia 
coriacea, inflorescentiam longe superantia. 2.S 5.5 (pro more 3-5.5) mm. 
lata, in apicem acutum fere planum scabrum longe attenuata. plcrumque 
plana sed marginibus scaberrimis plus minusve recurva vel revoluta, nervis 
primariis scabra; vagina summa pcrlonga, inferiores persistentes, inter- 
tnediae tandem in fibras { > h 1 s minusve ret iculatas fissae. Bracteae 
evaginantes, 2-3 inferiores foliiformes inllorescentiam superantes, ceterae 
breviores. summae squamiformes. Pedum uli capillares. tenaci-flexiles. 
angulis scabri, imus usque ad 5 cm. lemgus. Spicae 10-14, singulatim 
dispositae. vix distanles. lineari-c vlindricae. alro-fuscae. densillorae. inferi- 
ores |)eduncula1ae plus minusve nulantes. superiores subsessiles patulae; 
terminalis mascula, interdum basi breviter feminea. 5 12 mm. longa; 
ceterae androgynae, 2 6 (plerum(]iie 3-5.5) cm. longae, 4.5-5 mm. crassae. 
in '.i- 1 j |>artem superiorem masculam, circiter 1.5 mm. crassam, abrupte 
angustatae. femineae \ iolaceo-nigrae, dorso viridulo 3-nerves, 
margine august issime albo-hyalinae. 1.5 1.8 mm. longae. oblongo-ovatae, 
plus minusve obtusae, cuspide plana scabra glumam fere adaequante vel 
ea breviore praeditae. Ftriculi pallide brunnei. glumam superantes vel 
multo superantes, 1.8 2.2 mm. longi, 0.9-1 mm. lati, tandem divaricati, 
biconvexi, elliptici utrinque acuti vel apice breviter subacuminati, ore 
minute truncati vel emarginati. 14 16-costati. sursum punctulati ceterum 
laeves. glabri. Xux utriculo brevior aequilata. elliptica, biconvexa, 
brunnea, circiter 1.4 mm. longa. Stylus exsertus; stigmata 2. 

.Xiiimkiam.s New (Iiunka: 9 km. northeast of Lake Habbema, Brass 10877 
imon on oi>en banks of a stream; 9 km. north- 
ctober l ( ).vX, alt. 2S00 111.. few scattered clumps 
: of Lake Habbema, Brass 107.14, October 1Q38, 
alt. 2800 m., common about native huts on open banks of stream, etc., clumps 50-60 
cm. hiuh. Paima: Central Division: Mt. Albert Fdvvani, Brass 4JS6, May July 
1933, alt. 3800 m.. amongst coarse tussock mass ,m deforested slope (stiff scdtie in 
broad spreading tussocks'). 

Brass 7.»-SY> was determined by Kiikenthal. in Hot. Jahrh. 69: 264. 1938, 
as C. Grarjlrana Hoott, from which it differs in the narrower leaves, fewer 
shorter coarser spikes, and rather longer utricles acute at the base and with 
more numerous nerves. It appears to be closely allied to (". Pandanus 
Ohwi. in Hot. Mag. Tokyo 56: 214. 1942. from Netherlands New Guinea, 
but has much longer leaves with more persistent sheaths, commonly cuspi- 
date glumes, and darker coloured, rather smaller, elliptical (not obovate) 
utricles punctulate in the upper part. It is also close to C. phUipp'mcnsis 
Xelmes. in Kew Hull. 1938: 109. 1988. differing in that the terminal 
spike is usually male, in the rather more slender spikes, in the ovate rather 
than obovate glumes, and in the smaller elliptic (not obovate) smooth 
paler coloured utricle which is less obtuse at the base. 

On the type specimen, selected as such because of its full maturity, 


there are 13 spikes and the glumes are muticous or shortly pointed. Brass 
10734 measures 22 cm. to the top of the inflorescence and has 10 spikes 
rather shorter than those on the type (up to 3.5 cm. long), with which 
it otherwise agrees. Brass 4386 is similar to the type in 
is not quite so mature; it carries 10 spikes and the gl 
prominently awned. Brass 10559, also with 10 spikes, i: 
the uppermost spike has a few female flowers at the base. 
Carex montivaga nom. nov. 

Carex bultiostylh, Kiikenth. in Bot. Jahrb. 69:264. 1938; non 

Lake Habbema, Brass 9032, August l'MN, alt. 3225 
of open ridges; Like Habbema, Brass 'JJ.«J, August 
;andy patches on wet grassy slopes; Lake Habbema, 

25 m., alpine grassland, lulled in a sandy pool; 11 

Fig. 3. A. Carex tricholoma S. T. Blake: a. apex of culm 

Blake: portion of plant, x 1 ; b. pistillate glume, flattened i 
dorsal view, X 10. C. Carex euphlebia S. T. Blake: a. port 
inflorescence, x 1 ; b. pistillate glume, flattened out, x 10; 

HO JOl KNAL OF THK \K\<>|,|> \ li iU H! I I I \! [vol. xxvm 

km. northeast of top of Mt. Wilhelmina, Brass & Uycr-Drccs >->7S<J, Si-pt . 10SS. alt. 

Kiikenthal based his species on part of Clemens 6060, from Sarawaket 
in Northeast New Guinea. I have not seen the material, but the specimens 
cited above, particularly firass 9330, agree so well with the description that 
there seems no doubt they are conspecitic. The following notes on these 
specimens may be regarded as an ampliticat ion of the original description: 
Culms IS 42 cm. hi^li; spikes 3-4. the terminal one male and 8-12 mm. 
long, the others female and up to 12 mm. long (S-12 mm. on Brass's 
specimens. 6 10 mm. on the type): the lowermost bract occasionally has 
a very short sheath; and the utricles vary from 3 to 3.0 mm. long. 
Carex trirliolnmu sp. now (Sect. Mitratar Kiikcnth.). Fie. S, A. 

Carex bulbostxlis Kiikcnth. var. ciliato mur^inata Kiikcnth. in Hull. Jard. Hot. 
Huilcn/. Ill' 16: SIS. 1<)40, in Hot. Jahrli. 7(1: 4<>4. 1940; non C. nliato-mar R imita 

Rhizuna breve. ( iilini caespitosi. circa 1 ,S 30 cm. alii, graciles, trigoni. 
striati, prope apieem subtiliter scabri vel laeves. prope basin foliati. Folia 
omnia laminifera. culmo multo breviora. rigida, suberecta. sursum gradatim 
angustata sed apice ipsa anguste praemorsa. conspicue < irinata, marginibus 
recurva ceterum plana, prope apieem triquetra. carina et marginibus et 
facie stiperiore scabra; vaginae brunneae. hirlellae. emortuae in libras 
reticulatas dissolutae. Hractea ima intloreseentiam ;idae(|tians, angusta 
si'd vix setacea, breviter vaginalis, ceterae breves vel squamiformes. Spicae 
3 4. brunneae, contiguae vel ima breviter distans. sessiles vel breviter 
peduiu tilatae. interdum etiam spit a basali longissime pedunculata addita; 
terminalis gvnaecandra, clavata. circiter 10 12 mm. longa. interne circiter 
1.5 mm. sursum 3-4 mm. crassa; laterales femineae, oblongo-rvlindi it ae. 
7-10 mm. longae, circiter 3 mm. crassae, densitlorae. Glumae femineae 
2 2..\ mm. longae. late ovatae. obtusae vel fere obtusae. muticae vel 
cuspidulatae. brunneae dor>o pallidae subtiliter 1 -nerves, marginibus 
anguste hvalinae. I'triculi glumam brevissime superantes, 2.3-2.5 mm. 
longi, 0.05 mm. lati, membranacei, straminei nervis valde obscuris, mar- 
ginibus lateralibus manileste ciliati. facieluis glabri laevesque, elliptici, 
trigoni angulis lateralibus conspicuis. in rostrum breve conicum brunneum 
ore fulvescente minute bidentulum marginibus ciliatum sensim contracti. 
Nux cinerea. 1.5 mm. longa. 0.0 mm. lata, oblongo-ovalis obtuse trigona, 
anguste tricostulata. l.iteribus convexa. sub apice annulata constricta. 
Stylus brevissimus, basi pyramidalis; stigmata 3. 

Paiua: Central Division: Mt. Albert Kdward, Brass 4274, May July 1<)SS, alt. 
3680 m., tew plants amongst grass on hank- of a grassland pond; Mt. Albert Kdward, 
Brass l<io Inn), May July loss, SoSO in., sporadic in iorest glades, not common. 

Carcx truholoma differs from C. wontiva^a S. T. Blake ( ('. bulbostxlis 
Kukenth. non Mackenzie) in the broader more scabrous leaves, prominently 
sheathing lowermost bract, gynaecandrous terminal spike, and in the 
smaller very shortly beaked utricle prominently ciliate on the lateral 
margins nearly throughout its length. Kiikenthal founded his variety 
solely on />/77.v.v I 3 In and 1 have accepted a specimen of this number as the 
type of the species described above, but the excellent specimen Brass 327 I 
was found useful in elucidating some of the details. 


A small plant in herb. Brisbane collected by M. S. Clemens on Mt. 
Sarawaket, at 9-13000 ft. in April 1937, may belong to this species, but 
the specimen is not sufficiently satisfactory for definite determination. 
Carex brevis sp. nov. (Scut. Mitratae Kukenth.). Fie;. 3, B. 

Cmrx bulbostyUs Kiikentli v:ir hi\j>i»tulu Kukenth. in Mull. Jnrd. Mot. Buitcnz. 
III. 16:318. 1940. in Mot. Jahrl). 70:464. 1940; non C. hispidula Gaud. 

Herba humilis caespitosa; rhizoma oblique descendens lignosum. Culmi 

(infiorescentia inclusa) circiter 2-5 cm. alti. sub inflorescentia vaginis 
foliorum obtecti, basi admodum incrassati. Folia nuilta. rigida. patula 
vel admodum decurva, stricta vel plus minusve curva culmis multo longiora, 
sensim acutata. transversim secta plerumque V-formia, apice triquetra 
angustissime obtusa. 2 5.5 cm. longa. 3-4 mm. lata, valde striata, interne 
carina marginibusque dense subtiliterque scabra, sursum undique scabra; 
vaginae brunneae tandem in libras plus minusve reticulatas dissolutae. 
Bracteae foliiformes intlorescentiam superantes, conspicue vaginantes, 
vaginis antice admodum pubescentes, superiores angustiores. Spicae 4 
approximatae, breviter peduneulatae, erectae, pallide brunneae vel fulves- 
centes; terminalis mascula linearis 7 S nun. longa. 1.5 mm. lata; laterales 
femineae. singulae. oblongae. 5.5-S nun. longae. circiter 3 mm. latae, 
subdensiflorae, interdum spicis basalibus lungepedunculatis additis. 
IVdunculi graciles scaberuli. (dumae femineae tenuiter membranaceae. 
2.4-2.5 mm. longae, 1.8 mm. latae. ovatae. obtusae vel acutae, muticae, 
concavae. dorso lutescenti tenuiter 5-nerves vix carinatae, lateribus hyalinae 
fulvo-tinctae; glumae masculae plus minusve acutae. inferiores carina 
scabrae. Utriculi fulvi, coriacei. 2.5-2.6 mm. longi, 1.15 mm. lati, obscure 
nervati (nervis lateralibus saepe etiam 2 alioribus promimilis), apice basique 
exceptis undique dense hispiduli. elliptici, obtuse trigoni, basi leviter 
rotundati, sursum in rostrum brevissimum conicum ore hyalinum sensim 
contracti. Xux straminea, 1.5 mm. longa. 0.9 mm. lata, ovoidea, obtusa, 
sub apice annulata abrupte constricta. subtiliter 3-costata, lateribus fere 
plana. Stylus basi pyramidalis; stigmata 3. 

Papua: Central Division: Mt. Albert Edward, Brass 441 S (type), May-July 

Described by Kiikenthal as a variety of ('. bulbostyUs Kiikenth. non 
Mackenzie (C. montivaga S. T. Blake), but it differs greatly from that 
species in appearance, in I he stiffer broad leaves, included culms, sheathing 
bracts, pedunculate female spikes with muticous glumes (usually not 
muticous in C. montivaga), and rather shorter very shortly beaked densely 
hispidulous yellowish utricles. The rhachilla is well developed and is 
sometimes so long as to be ex.serted from the utricle when it bears another 
utricle, sometimes well developed, sometimes rudimentary. At times the 
glumes appear cuspidate due to the inrolling of their upper margins. 

In Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. III. 16:318. 1940, Kiikenthal cites three 
collections under his C. bulbostyUs var. hispidula. namely J. & M. S. 
Clemens 29005 and Clemens 32344 from Borneo and Brass 4418, without, 
designating the type. In the same year, in Bot. Jahrb. 70: 464, the same 
description is given, but the collections are cited as follows: 

"Sudostl. Neu-Guinea: Mt. Albert Edward (Brass n. 4418'). 

Area: Mrit. Nordborneo, Mt. Kinabalu (Clemens n. 29005!; 32S44!)." 


Under these circumstances we may consider that in the latter publication 
Kiikenthal emphasised that Brass 441S represented his variety, so that this 
may be regarded as the type of his trinomial. I have not seen the Clemens 
specimens. In any case the type of the binomial C. brcvis is the sheet of 
specimens of Brass 4418 in herb. Brisbane. 

Carc-x breviculmis R. Rr. Prodr. 242. 1810; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II. Rot. 9: 247. 

Carry breviculmis R. Rr. subsp. Roylrana N'ees ex Wi'-'ht scnsu Kiikenth. in Hull. 

Jard. Rot. Ruitenz. III. 16: MS. 1940, in Hot. Jalirb. 70:464. 1940. 
Raima: Central Division: Murray Pass, Wharton Ranire, Fruss 4607, Junc-Scpt. 

I do not see how these specimens differ from the general trend of the 
species in Kastern Australia, unless the utricles are somewhat less pubescent. 
The length of culm varies considerably, sometimes even on the same plant, 
and evidently has no taxonomic importance in this species. I have seen 
no authentic specimen of subsp. Roylrana, which is said to have somewhat 
scabrous culms; the other characters described are to be found in 
characteristic C. breviculmis. 

Car<>\ constiicta sp. now (Sect. Frigidae Fries subsect. Decorae Kiikenth.). Fig. 
4, A. 

Herba pygmaea caes|>itosa stolonifera phyllopoda. Ctilmus 4 cm. altus, 
intra folia abscondittis et horum vaginis obtectus. Folia numerosa, 
culmum superantia, usque ad 5 cm. longa, 2-3 mm. lata, plana, sensim 
acuta, perrigida, carinata, sursum carina marginibusque scabra; vaginae 
purpurascentes din integrae sed tandem in tibras hssae. Inflorescentia e 
spicis 6 erectis constructa; spica terminalis mascula linearis circiter 7 mm. 
longa et 1.2 mm. crassa, breviter pedunculata; spicae laterales femineae, 
ima excepta geminatae. oblongae. subdensitlorae, 5-11 mm. longae, sub 
fructu 3.5-4 mm. crassae, breviter pedunculatae pedunculis e vaginis haud 
vel vix exsertis. Bracteae inflorescentiam superantes, foliiformes. promi- 
nule vaginantes. Glumae femineae oblongo-ovatae, truncatae vel bilobae, 
aristulatae, carina angusta basi 3-nervi virides. lateribus rufescentes aut 
ferrugineae, marginibus anguste hyalinae, 2.2-2.5 mm. longae (aristula 
usque ad 0.3 mm. longa inclusa). Utriculi oblique patentes, 2.3-2.6 mm. 
longi, circiter 1 mm. lati, membranacei, acute triquetri, leviter compressi, 
lateribus fere plani, 2-nerves, glabri, minute rugulosi nitidule fusco-olivacei, 
inferne elliptic! basin versus attenuati, sursum in rostrum obliquum circiter 
0.7 mm. longum marginibus scabrum ore hyalinum obliquum integrum vel 
bidentulum subabrupte contracti. Nun ante inclusa. fere atra, ellipsoideo- 
ovoidea, tricostata, lateribus convexa, sub apicem ipsum dilatatum 
amudatiim const ricta. Stylus basi incrassatus; stigmata 3. 

Paita: Central Division: Mt. Victoria, Owen Stanley Ran^e, IV. MacGrczor 
in herbs. Cray, Rrisbane, and Kevv). 

A single piece seen with one fruiting culm. In habit it appears to be 
close to C. eclebica Kiikenth., differing (so far as can be judged from the 
description) in the truncate mucronale (not acute) glumes and coarser 
spikes with more spreading utricles. Kiikenthal describes the spike of 
C. eclebica as V/ 2 mm. thick, but it is not clear whether this refers to the 


flowering or the fruiting spike. The nut of C. 

of the Mitratae, but the geminate spikes and shape of the glu 

accord with this section. 

Carex tricuspidata Kiikenth. in Bot. Jahrb. 70:466. 1940. 

Netherlands New Giinea: Alt. Wilhelmina, 4 km. northeast of t 

, Sc-pt . 

, ,'" .l/v.V 

1U JOl K\ \1. OK TIIK \K\Ol.U MJIlitKl I I M [vol.xxvih 

differ from the description in that the spikes are up to 6 cm. long, sometimes 
all distinct from one another (not up to 4 cm. Ions with the two uppermost 
female ones fastigiate). in that the utricle is only about 3.5 mm. (3.3-3.6 
mm.) and not 4 mm. long, and in thai the basal leaf-sheaths ultimately 
break up into fibres, while an elongated rhizome appears sometimes to be 
present. The inflorescence of Brass & Mycr-Dras 0070 agrees pretty 
well with kiikenthaks description, but on this specimen the basal sheaths 
are broken up into fibres. In the other collection the plants are more 
elongated with longer and more distant spikes. The basal leal-sheaths are 
but little disintegrated and evidence of an elongated rhizome is present. 
Cur.-x I.i-iiiiium Thunh. Fl. Japon. .vS. 17S4; Kukenth. in Hot. Jahrh. 39:60. 1924, 
69: 265. 1938. 
Nkii.kri.ands \i:\v Gcinka: 9 km. northeast of Lake Habbema, Brass 10Q24, 
October 19,vS, alt. 2S00 m., shrubby cd^cs of a land-slip, rare; Hide River. IS km. 
northeast of Lake Habbema, Brass U?v2, Nov. 192.S, alt. 2200 m.. occasional law 

New for Netherlands New Guinea, previously recorded from Northeast 
New Guinea. Known from .he Mascarene Islands, Ceylon, K. Asia and 
Japan, Indo-Malaya, Queensland, X. S. Wales, and New Caledonia. 

Carex acrophila sp. m.v. (Sect. II vmruo, hlacnar Drejer subsect. Cradles Tuckerm.). 

Fig. 4, B. 
Rhizoma brevissimum. Culmi caespitosi. erect i. cum inflorescentia 
25-60 cm. alti, gracillimi (usque ad 0.9 mm. crassi). obtuse trigoni. sursum 
angulis admodum scaberuli. glabri. enodes, basi solum iobati. Folia prope 
basin culmi stipata, inflorescentiam superantia, rigida. stricta vel prope 
apicem tlexuosa, |)lenun«|ue laxe coiuluplirala. valde carinata, explanata 
usque ad 1.6 mm. lata, in apicem longe lilitonnein sciisim attenuata, ad 
superficiem superam atque ad margines atque ad carinam superam debiliter 
laxiusculeque scabro-pilosula; vaginae fusco-brunneae vel fuscae, lucidulae, 
plerumque integrae. itnae elaminatae. l'anicula simplex. 7-15 cm. longa. 
Bracteae setaceae. breves, summam inflorescentiam raro attingentes, longe 
vaginantes, vaginis clare brunneis. Spicae 12-20, saturate brunneae. 
plerumque teniae vel binae (interdum singula), breviter pedunculatae, 
androgynae (pars mascula parte feminea brevior angustiorque) , lineari- 
cvlindricae, pleruni(|ue 1.5-3.5 cm. longae. 3 mm. crassae, subdensiflorae. 
Glumae femineae 4.5-5.5 mm. longae. elliptico-oblongae. acutae. muticae 
vel aristulatae, ferrugineae marginibus anguste hyalinae, dorso crebre 
3-nerves anguste carinatae, lateribus striatae. I'triculi suberecti glumas 
superantes, saturate rufo-brunnei, 5 5.5 mm. longi, 1-1.2 mm. lati. mem- 
branacei, nervis cinder 15 notali. praecipue parte snperiore marginibusque 
hispidi, angustius ovoidei, plano-convexi. interne m slipitem graciliorem 
1 1.4 mm. longum conspicue angustati. sursum in rostrum gracile fuscum 
bidentulum circiter 1.3 mm. longum subsensim contracti. Nux utriculo 
multo brevior, late elliptico-oblonga. plano-convexa, 1.75 2 mm. longa, 
1.2 mm. lata, brunnea. Stylus tenuis, basi admodum im rassatus; stigmata 
2, circiter 5 mm. longa. 


Wilhelmina, 7 km. northeast of top, Brass & Myer-Drees 9829, Sept. 1038, alt. 3560 
m„ alpine grassland, occasional erect lulls on wet ground; Mt. Wilhelmina. 7 km. 
northeast of top, Brass Cr Mxrr-Drrrs w_Y>, Sept. IQ.vS, alt. 3560 m., plentiful amongst 
long grasses of a marshy slope, slender tufts 70 -90 cm. high; Mt. Wilhelmina, 5 miles 
east of top, Brass WW. August 193S. alt. 3440 m„ common in marshy hollows. 

This may be the form described by K liken thai as C. brunnca Thumb, var. 
subteiogyna Kukenth., in Rep. Sp. Nov. 8: 8. 1910, from the Philippine 
Islands (not C. subteinogyna Ohwi in .Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imper. Univ. 
ser. B, 11(5) : 469, pi. 15, text-fig. 17. 1936), but it differs from C. brunnca 
in the nearly smooth rigid less flattened narrower leaves, the short 
peduncles, the longer glumes, the longer long-stipitate utricles less suddenly 
contracted into the beak and in the nut much shorter than the utricle. 
Currx acrophila is closely allied to C. teinogyna Boott, from India and 
Burma, but differs in the denser iniloresrrnce, the shorter peduncles, the 
utricles with a longer stipe and more gradually narrowed to a shorter beak 
with shorter teeth, the shorter nut and rather shorter stigmas. It is also 
evidently close to C. spathaceo-bracteata Kukenth. , in Bot. Jahrb. 70: 466. 
1940, from Northeast New Guinea, differing in the less rough stems and 
leaves, 2-3-nate (not 3-5-nate) -pikes, longer not conspicuously dilated 
sheaths to the bracts, paler glumes, and larger utricles hispid on the sides 
as well as on the margins. 

The cited collections form a very homogeneous series, varying from one 
another almost exclusively in the height of the plant. The nut is 
occasionally subtrigonous. 
Carex Brownii Tuckerm. Enum. Meth. 21. 1843. 

Netherlaot>s New Guinea: Balim River, Brass 11791, Dec. 1938, alt. 1600 m., 

New for New Guinea; known elsewhere from Japan, Korea, New South 
Wales, and New Zealand. 

Carex suhlraiisversa C. B. Clarke in Philip. Jour. Sci. 2(C): 108. 1907. 

Papua: Central Division: Murray Pass. Wharton Range, Brass 4676, June-Sept. 
1933, alt. 2840 m., a few plants at edge of forest (leaves pale, inflorescence erect). 

New for New Guinea; previously known from the Philippine Islands 
and Japan. 

Carex Doniana Spreng. Syst. 3:825. 1826. 

Papua: Central Division: The Gap, Carr 13731, Dec. 1935, alt. 7200 ft., open 
ridge top (herb, 1 ft. tall) (herb. Canberra). 

New for New Guinea. This collection was cited along with Clemens 
4451 and Clemens 5551 under the original description of C. japonica Thunb. 
var. mesogyna Kukenth. , in Bot. Jahrb. 69: 265. 1938, but it differs from 
the description in that the terminal spike is wholly male, not female in the 
middle. It matches one piece of Ramos & Edaho in Philip. Bur. Sci. 
40359. There are two pieces under this number in herb. Brisbane, appar- 
ently representing the same form, the larger one agreeing with Kukenthal's 
description of C. japonica Thunb. var. chlorostachys Kukenth. , the second 
piece, matched by the Carr sheet, being smaller and with narrower leaves. 
Carex Doniana appears to be sufficiently distinct from C. japonica Thunb. 


by reason of the longer cylindrical more shortly pedunculate always erect 
spikes and usually broader leaves. 

Carex subtransvcrsa C. B. Clarke is very similar in appearance to C. 
Doniana, but has less spreading rather broader less distinctly nerved 
utricles with rather longer beaks, and the style is oblique and scarcely 
swollen at the base. 

Carex fascimlaris Soland. ex Hook. 1. Fl. Nov. Zel. 1: 283. 1853. 
Ni.iiiiki.wDs Nkw OriM.A: Lake Habbema, I 

There remain three collections of which the specimens are not sufficiently 
complete for satisfactory determination. Brass 9235, from sunny bogs, 
Lake Habbema, 3225 m., consists of small plants evidently allied to C. 
st run ph xlla Wahlenb., of the Northern Hemisphere, but the utricles are 
far too undeveloped for certain determination. Brass 11540, from the open 
banks of the Hele River, 2200 m.. is an Indocarcx allied to C. filicina Nees 
and C. saturata C. B. Clarke. It almost certainly represents an unde- 
scribed species, but as the most advanced utricles are not quite mature it 
seems inadvisable to attempt to describe it until more mature material is 
available. And finally, Brass -\-\07 , from a broken cliff face on Mt. Albert 
Edward at 3680 m., appears to represent ; 
Mitratae, but only very i 
present on the specimen. 



Richard A. Howard 
With two plates 

The plants described in this paper were collected in Cuba in the sum- 
mer of 1941 by .the author. Headquarters during this collecting trip was 
the Atkins Institution of the Arnold Arboretum, at Soledad in southern 
Las Villas province. I am grateful to Mr. David Sturrock and the admin- 
istration of the Soledad gardens for their many courtesies and for the 
privileges of using the facilities of the station. 

Most of my collections during that summer were made in the San Juan 
and Trinidad Mountains and in southern Las Villas province. One short 
trip was made to the Oriente province with Brother Leon, of the Colegio 
de la Salle of Havana, and many of the new entities described in this paper 
were collected then. The trip to the Oriente and the territories in which 
collections were made were described by Brother Leon under the title, 
"Excursion Botanica a las Tierras de Moa" (De La Salle No. 225: 23-29. 
1941). The collection numbers cited are my own. I am grateful to 
Brother Leon for the pleasure of accompanying him on that trip and also 
to Mr. George Bucher and Mr. J. R. Grist for the hospitality and assistance 
offered during our stay at Moa. 

The description of a new species of Neobracea was supplied by Dr. 
Robert E. Woodson, Jr., of the Missouri Botanical Garden, and I am 
grateful to him for examining this material and supplying the name. 

Planta volubilis glabra; foliis 5-7 cm. inter se remotis; petiolis 3-4 cm. 
longis, teretibus; laminis late triangularibus vel ovato-triquetris vel trilobis, 
6 cm. longis, 5-6 cm. latis, basi rotundatis vel truncatis, lobo medio lineari- 
attenuato, e basi 4 cm. longo, 1 cm. lato, 3-nervio, nervis lateralibus medio 
parallelibus margine supra medium confluentibus; lobis lateralibus oblongis 
vel rotundis, cum nervis 2 (3) arcuatis; inflorescentiis 2 vel 3 axillaribus, 
racemosis vel spicatis, 2.5-3.5 cm. longis; floribus congestis, cymis brevibus 
0.5 mm. longis, 1-3-floris; perianthii segment is ovatis, 6; staminibus 6, 
usque 0.3 mm. longis, antheris ovatis, introrse dehiscentibus. 

Oriente: Siena de Nipe near Woodfred, in flower July 28 29, 1941, Howard 
6136a (OH, type). 

l\tijan?ti nij>t iisi\ is similar to A', prrstonit nsis Knuth. It differs in hav- 
ing leaves which are rounded or truncate at the base and without a sinus. 
In addition, the middle lobe is 3-nerved and attenuate, not mucronate as 
in R. prestoniensis. 

In the collection cited above is a single pistillate specimen tangled with 


the staminate shoots selected as the type. This pistillate specimen has 
the mature leaves elongate-ovate, with the basal lobes rounded or poorly 
defined. The size and venation are approximately the same as in the type 
specimen. The pistillate inflorescences are fascicled in the leaf-axils, 5-5 
being present per axil. The branches are racemose and 7-10 cm. long, 
although one or two measure 1°- cm. in length. The individual flowers 
are solitary on pedicels nearly 1 mm. long which bear a lanceolate bract 
near the base. The flowers are 1-1.5 mm. high, with a 6-parted perianth. 
The perianth-segments are ovate and average 0.5 mm. in length. There 
are 6 staminodes present in the flower and these are minute and bifid at the 
apex. The three styles are well developed and also bifid. The ovary is 
strongly 6-lobed. the alternate lobes being large and small. Dissection of 
the small lobes reveals the locules, which are almost lost in the mass of 
sterile tissue. One locule is usually larger than the others and the ovules 
in this appear turgid The other locules also have two superposed ovules 
but these are shrunken. Only a faint indication of a lateral gibbosity is 
developed in the specimen at hand; however, the condition of the ovules 
indicates that but one locule will develop and that the specimen is a true 
Raja nia. 

The young leaves are distinctly punctate-glandular, but the glands are 
fairly well masked in the mature lamina. 
Rajania linearis (Oriseb.) I Uline in msc. ex Knuth in syn.] Howard, comb. nov. 

Dioscorca linearis Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 251. lSot>. 

Okikntk: Sierra de Nipc, 15 km. south of Woodtred, Howard 6006 £. Collected 

The specimens cited above are staminate. but they appear to be identical 
with a pistillate specimen collected by Wright (.>J>/. type number of I). 
linearis Griseb.) in the (nay Herbarium. 

Wright's specimen bears an annotation. '■Rajania I'm, tins (Griseb.) Uline 
(let. nine." In Knuth's monograph of the Dioscoreaceae ( Pflanzenreich 
IV. 43: 168. 1924) this Wright number is divided. One pistillate portion 
is cited as Dioscorca linearis Griseb. and another pistillate specimen is 
referred to Rajania wit rop/iv/la Knuth. The species of Rajania, however. 
is typified by staminate material collected by Poeppig, and no description 
of the cited pistillate specimen is given. 1 have not seen the Poeppig 
specimen nor any fragments of the Wright material that could possibly be 
referred to the description of that staminate plant. 

The specimen of Wright 3254 at the Gray Herbarium consists of a shoot 
with a series of female flowers and young fruits attached. These are 
definitely Rajania fruits, having one carpel developed into a wing, with the 
stylar portions asymmetrically placed. On the same sheet are two infruc- 
tescences bearing fruits that are Dioscorca fruits and which have been 
annotated by Uline as D. tamoidca Griseb. These agree with the 
description given by Knuth for the fruits of D. linearis. 

The specimen selected by Knuth as the type of D. linearis was in the 

19171 HOWARD. MlMK I>1. WIS OF CUBA 119 

Berlin herbarium and is presumably destroyed. It seems necessary to 
conclude that his description of mature fruits of I), linearis was based on 
the unattached fragments of this Wright collection, which are fruits of 
D. tamoidea Griseb., as Uline noted. 

The pistillate inflorescence of Rajania linearis is short and bears few 
flowers. Mature inflorescences of the specimen on hand are 1-1.5 cm. 
long and bear 3-5 flowers, of which 2 or 3 mature on the average. The 
one-winged samaras are smaller than those of the majority of species, 
being about 4-5 nun. wide and S- 10 nun. long. A solitary small seed is 
Dioscorea nipensis sp. nov. (Sect. Lychnostemon Uline). Plate II, fig. 1. 

Planta volubflis, 4 o in. alia, glabra; caulibus 1 mm. crassis, striatis; 
foliis 8-10 cm. inter se remotis, alternis; petiolis teretibus 3 cm. longis; 
laminis circumscriptione angusto-ovatis, veriter elongato-triquetris, 6-7 cm. 
longis. 2.5-3 cm. latis, apice attenuatis, basi rotundatis, sinu nullo, auriculis 
rotundatis, nervis 5, arcuatis; inflorescentiis ' 23 21 cm. longis, spicatis, 
floribus in capitulis dispositis. 2-4-glomerulal is. glomerulis 0.5-1 cm. inter 
se remotiusculis, bracteis 0.7 nun. longis. lanceolatis. perianthio 1.5 mm. 
diametro, lobis ovalis; staminibus fertilibus 3, usque 0.7 mm. longis, fila- 
mentis carnosis, antheris oblongis. thecis late dist metis, extrorse dehiscenti- 
bus; antheris sterilibus 3, usque 0.1 nun. longis. (|iiam fertilibus brevioribus, 
perianthii lobis interioiibus oppositis. antheris apice acutis, basi hastatis; 
rudimento stylino 3-lobato. 

Oriente: 15 km. southwesl of Compania dc Moa mill, Moa, in flower July 25, 

This species is similar to I), tamoidea Griseb. It may be distinguished 
from that species by the leaves, which have rounded bases without sinuses, 
and by the longer narrow blades. 

Like those of most specimens of Dioseorea, the leaves turn black on 
drying. The outer pair of lateral veins frequently fork very close to the 

Planta volubilis glabra: petiolis teretibus. gracilibus. 1.5-2 cm. longis; 
laminis elongato-triquetris. 5.5-7 cm. longis, 3.3-4 cm. latis. apice attenu- 
atis, basi truncatis, sinu nullo, lobis obtusis, exs. papyraceis, nervis 3, medio 
a lateralibus parum distincto. lateralibus arcuatis margine confluentibus; 
inflorescentiis solitariis vel binis axillaribus, 2.5-4 cm. longis, leviter flex- 
uosis, cymis lateralibus 3-4 mm. longis, 4-9-floris, floribus minutis, 
perianthio 1 mm. diametro, lobis 0.4-0.5 mm. longis, staminibus 6, usque 
0.2 mm. longis, introrse deliis. ent ibus; rudimento stylino subnullo. 

Oriente: Sierra tie \ipe south of Woodfred, in dense woods, with yellow flowers, 
July 28-29, 1041, Howard 6134 (GH, type). 

Rajania tenella is similar to R. theresensis Uline and R. prestonicnsis 
Knuth, which I know only from the descriptions. It differs from R. 
prestonicnsis in the shape of the blade, the mature leaves being without 
sinuses and attenuate rather than mucronate. It is unlike R. theresensis 
in having the leaves 3-nerved, the inflorescence much shorter than the 


leaves, and the flowers smaller. It is easily distinguished from R. nipcnsis 
by the truncate base of the mature leaves. 

Considerable variation occurs between the juvenile leaves and the mature 
leaves in most species of Ra junta {Plate I/, //>. 2). For example, the 
juvenile leaves of the present species are elongate-ovate with the basal 
lobes more or less developed. The laminae are 2.5-3 cm. long and 0.3-1 
cm. wide. There are 3 primary veins, with the lateral veins arcuate. 
The apex is long attenuate and the base is truncate or rounded. The 
petioles are terete and from 0.6 1.2 cm. long. 

Because of this variation with age. care must be taken to collect and 
describe only mature specimens. Frequently the basal portion of a vine 
may be mature, but near the apex long axillary shoots, perhaps 4-9 feet 
long, may appear with only juvenile leaves. It is very easy to snatch 
immature material when such plants grow commonly in dense thickets. 
Platytiyno volubilis sp. now Plate II, l'li.s. S 5. 

Frutex monoicus scandens; ramis molliter ferrugineo-pubescentibus; 
folds alternis, petiolatis (petiolis teretibus 4-6 mm. longis ferrugineo- 
pubescentibus) stipulates ovatis. pubescent ibus; laminis obovatis vel ob- 
lanceolatis, 5 6.5 cm. longis. 1.5-2.5 cm. latis. rigide membranaceis. basi 
cuneatis, apice acutis vel rotundatis. inargine sinuatis, sparse dentatis, 
supra et margine urenti-pilosis. suhtus sparse hispidis, nervis lateralibus 
5, arcuatis. anastomosantibus; inllorescentiis foliis oppositis. ,' racemosis, 
ramis usque 5 4 mm. longis, 3 5-tloris. pedieellis 4-5 mm. longis; sepalis 
4, usque 3.5 mm. longis. triangularibus \ el lanceolalo-ovatis, reflexis, extus 
dense strigosis, intus sparse strigosis; corollis nullis; staminibus 5-8. tila- 
mentis crassis, usque 1.5 mm. longis; rudimento pistilli nullo; inllorescentiis 
? glomeratis vel breviter racemosis. ramis ad 2 mm. longis 3-5-floris, 
pedieellis brevibus, 2 mm. longis; perianthiis (, O-lobatis. lobis variabilibus. 
lanceolatis vel ovato-oblongis, 4 5 mm. longis. urenti ciliatis, extus strigo- 
sis; staminium rudimentis nullis; st \ lis 3, usque 5 mm. longis. oblongis 
apice bifidis carnosis, ferrugineo-strigosis; ovario globoso trilobato, sparse 
urenti-piloso; fructu tricocco 5 mm. longo. apice sparse piloso. pedunculo 
usque 4 mm. longo; columella 3 mm. alta; seminibus rotundis, 3 mm. 

Okiente: 20 km. west of Moa, in open pin, woods, in (lower and fruit, July 26, 
I'M I, Howard 5W1 (GH, type). 

Most of the plants of Platygync that I had seen growing in the central 
and western provinces of Cuba had been low shrubs, semi-scrambling over 
low bushes and in fence rows. It was quite a surprise, therefore, to find 
in the pine woods west of Moa ;i specimen of Platygyne climbing in the 
branches of the tall pine trees. The specimen also had distinctive obovate 
leaves with cuneate bases, short inflorescences, and the fruits were almost 
without the stinging hairs so common in the only other species of Platygyne 
recognized at present, P. hexandra (Jacq.) Muell. Arg. 

The indument in specimens of Platygyuc is of interest because of the 
several types of hairs found on different parts of the plant. Of most 
interest to the collector are the short white stinging hairs found only on the 
leaves, perianth, and on the mature fruits of /'. hexandra. This is quite 


in contrast to the other common "ortiga" of Cuba, Tragia spp., in which 
stinging hairs are abundant on the stems as well as the leaves and inflores- 
cences. In Platygyne volubilis the stinging pubescence is found only 
on the upper surface of the leaves and along the margins as cilia. The 
hairs on the surface of the leaf are usually single, while the ciliate margin 
consists of clusters of hairs. The pistillate perianth also has a ciliate 
margin of stinging hairs, but this is lacking on the staminate perianth, 
finally, the fruits of P. hexandra are usually densely covered with the 
white pubescence of stinging hairs. In contrast the fruits of P. volubilis 
have only a few, if any, apical stinging hairs, and the rest of the capsule is 
covered with a very short ferrugineous indument. 

The pubescence on the rest of the plant, including the perianth, staminal 
disk, and styles, consists of ferrugineous short pointed stiff hairs, best 
described as strigose. 

The pistillate perianth is extremely variable. Baillon, Euphor. 453. 
1858, believed the perianth consisted of two whorls, while Mueller, in DC. 
Prodr. 15: 913. 1864, called them all calyx-segments of one whorl. The 
outer segments are usually linear-lanceolate and uniform. The inner 
segments vary greatly in size and shape and are frequently fused and 
3-4-lobed at the apex. 

The seeds are 3 mm. in diameter and almost spheroid. Mature seeds 
of P. volubilis are gray and are lightly mottled with a dark brown color. 
The seeds of P. hexandra in all the fruiting specimens I have seen are tan, 
mottled with dark brown. The seeds of Platygyne do not have an aril, 
although a linear protuberance or hilum is present for about one-third the 
circumference of the seed. 

Phyllanthus chryseus sp. nov. 

Frutex parvus monoicus; ramis paenultimis teretibus robustis usque 5 
mm. crassis; bracteis late triangularibus, apice acuminatis. 3 mm. longis, 
2.5-3 mm. latis, castaneis, nitidis: ramulis foliigeris 20-28 cm. longis 
teretibus, 2 mm. crassis, 16-2cVphyllis; stipulis minutis usque 1 mm. longis, 
triangularibus vel lanceolato-subulatis; foliis distichis, petiolis 2.5-3 mm. 
longis, laminis orbicularibus, basi rotundatis, apice rotundatis vel emar- 
ginatis, 2.5-3.5 cm. diametro, crasse coriaceis, chryseis exsiccate viridibus, 
nervis lateralibus inconspicuis, marginibus revolutis; floribus $ axillaribus 
1-2, pedicellis 3 mm. longis; sepalis 4, late ovatis vel oblongis, 3.5 mm. 
longis, 5 mm. latis, carnosis, staminibus coalescentibus vel 1 mm. longis, 
sporangiis 4, antheris late ovatis, 0.7 mm. longis, extrorse et transverse 
dehiscentibus; floribus 9 solitariis axillaribus, pedicellis 1.3 cm. longis, 
sepalis 4, ellipticis, 5 mm. latis, 4 mm. longis, apice rotundis; disco obscuro, 
ovario 5 mm. longo, stylis 3. fimbriato-laceratis, 4-9 partitis; fructibus 
tricoccis usque 5 mm. longis; seminibus oblongis, hebeti-nigris, profunde 
et crasse reticulatis, 4 mm. longis. 

Oriente: 2' shrub, common in woods along ravine 15 km. southwest of Moa, 
leaves golden color, in flower and fruit July 26, 1941, Howard 5S2Q (GH, type) ; Moa, 
Bucher 75 (NY); Rio Cabanas, Moa. May 27-31, 1943, Marie -Victorin & Clement 

This was a very striking plant in the field, for the brilliant golden leaves 


were in contrast with the red iron soil on which it was growing. On drying 
the leaves turn light green above and pale brown beneath. This species 
is distinct from others in the Orb'n idaria section of Phyllunthus by its large 
orbicular leaves, which are numerous for their size. The bright golden 
color and strongly revolwte margins of the leaves, the small stipules, and 
the short triangular bracts distinguish this species from others of the /'. 
ductus group as established by Carabia, in Kcological Monographs l.">: 551. 

In gross appearance I'hyllaiit hits chrysnts appears similar to P. sub- 
cuniosHS (iriseb., which is based on fragmentary material. An isotype of 
the latter species at the (hay Herbarium has a single fruit with unusually 
heavy capsules for 1'hyllant hits, and the seeds are smooth and brown. The 
dull black, coarsely and deeply reticulated seeds of the present species are 
distinct from any 1 have seen in this genus, but so few seeds have been 
described that 1 can not evaluate this character. 

Frutex glaber; ramis hornotinis teretibus vel subcompressis. ferrugineis; 
petiolis 2-4 mm. longis, 1.5 mm. crassis, sulcatis; laminis lanceolato-ovatis 
vel ellipticis, 5.5-0.5 cm. longis. 2 2.^ cm. latis, basi et a|)ice acutis. apice 
emarginatis, coriaceis. nervo medio supra leviter impresso, subtus promi- 
nente. nervis lateralibus anaslonio>antibus. margine revoluto; inflorescentiis 
axillaribus. pedicellis solitariis vel 2-5-fasciculatis. o 10 mm. longis, brac- 
teis minutis, 2, ciliatis; calycis lobis 4. ovatis. 2 mm. longis et latis, ciliatis; 
petalis 4, oblongis, 4 mm. longis. 1 1.2 mm. latis. ciliatis; staminibus 
numerosis 2 mm. longis; stylo 5 mm. longo; ovario 5-loculato. ovulis 
numerosis; baccis 5-7 mm. diametro, pericarpio crasso succulento, dense 
glanduloso; seminibus 1 vel 2, rotundatis vel subreniformibus 5 5 mm. 
longis, testa brunnea membranacea nitida. 

Okikntk: V shrub, (lowers vellmv, lruit.s i'nvn. ahum creek hank at Moa, Howard 
5866 Kill. iw'i). 

The leaves of the present species are thick and coriaceous. The upper 
surface is shiny when dry and darker in color than the lower surface. 
Punctate glands are present in the lamina but are well hidden in the tissues 
of the leaf. Approximately <> strong lateral veins are revealed on the 
upper leaf-surface, and these anastomose near the margin. The veins 
are obscure below. 

Eugenia monnisis appears to be similar to E. ( .' j Ossacana I'rb.. which 
was described on very incomplete material collected by Shafer in the same 
locality as the present specimen. It is different in being completely 
glabrous, except for a ciliate perianth, and the venation of the leaves does 
not agree with the description as given by Urban. The pedicels of the 
present species are much longer than those of E. I') cupuVtgcra I'rb., to 
which this plant is also similar, h'.it^rnia moai nsis may also be related to E. 
cristnlnisis Urb.; however, it differs from this in the leaf-characters and 
the leaf -size. 
Cal\ptr;milit's ublongifolia sp. nov. 

Frutex; ramis hornotinis comprcssis. sub interstitiis foliorum plus 

19 17 I HOW \ K I ). S( )M [•] I'L A N TS OF CUBA 1 23 

minusve sulcatis, pilis dibrachiatis adpressis ferrugineis vel pallescentibus 
vestitis. annotinis glabrescentibus teretibus vel linealo-striatis, dichotomis; 
petiolis 4-5 mm. longis subteretibus supra sulcatis; laminis oblongis vel 
nbhmgo-lanceolatis. 4.5 7 cm. Ion-is, 1.5 2 cm. latis. basi rotundatis. antice 
acutis vel rotundatis. nervo medio supra per totam longitudinem anguste 
impresso, nervis lateralibus ca. 15 inconspicuis; inflorescentiis ad basin 
raniorum honiotin,.rum binis. subcapitatis; pedunculis 2-4. 2 5 mm. longis, 
capitulis 3-5-floris; baccis nigro-purpurascentibus, depresse sphaeroideis, 
5-7 mm. diametro. loculis 2; seminibus reniformibus 2 in quoque loculo, 
3 mm. longis. 

O.ukxtk: Alone south coast of Baliia clc Moa near Moa, 4' shrub, fruits -rem 
becoming purple on maturity, Howard .^-}s (GH, type). 

Calyptranthcs obloHgijolia is characterized by the oblong or lanceolate- 
oblong leaves and the few-flowered, very short peduncles of the seemingly 
capitate, axillary inflorescence. In general appearance this species is 
similar to ('. rupkola Urb. and C. hctcrochroa Urb. 

The occurrence of malpighiaceous or two-armed hairs on the plant is 
characteristic of several species of Calyptranthes. In the present species 
these hairs are very dense on the young leaves, the stems, peduncles, 
flowers and fruits, giving the appearance of a ferrugineous tomentum. In 
the older leaves the hairs are broken off even with the epidermis and leave 
the sunken hair-bases commonly found in the other species and which 
frequently seem to be mistaken for epidermal glands. The upper surface 
of the mature leaves of C. oblongifolia is glabrous except for the impressed 
midrib, while the hairs on the lower surface persist. These hairs usually 
remain ferrugineous in color, although many turn gray or white. 

The inflorescence consists of short axillary peduncles with a very few 
flowers and appears to be capitate. The bracts subtending the flowers are 
minute and fall away very early, none appearing in the mature infruc- 
tescences. The flowers had matured on the specimens studied, but several 
young fruits still possessed 3 or 4 stamens attached to the hypanthium at 
the line of dehiscence of the calyptra. The style was 2 mm. long and 
bifid at the apex. The calyptra was conical and about 1.2 mm. in 

The drupes are a dark purple color when fresh, drying black or brown. 
Because of the dense pubescence, many appear to be silvery in reflected 
light. There are 2 cells to the ovary, each containing 2 seeds. The seeds 
are reniform and tan on the convex surface and black or dark brown on 
the sides and in the concave surface. The embryo is curved. 
Psidium confertum sp. nov. 

Frutcx vel arbor parva; ramis hornotinis plus minusve compressis tenui- 
bus vix 1.5 mm. latis. tomentosis. pilis crispis. vetustioribus ferrugineis; 
petiolis 2-2.5 mm. longis. laminis ovatis vel ellipticis. 2-2.S cm. longis, 
1.4-1.6 cm. latis. basi rotundatis. apice rotundis vel parce emarginatis. 
margine recurvo. nervo medio supra impresso, subtus prominente, nervis 
lateralibus obsoletis; cymis axillaribus dense tomentosis. 3-5-floris, rhachi 
4-6 mm. longa. pedunculis 0.8-1.1 cm. longis; calycibus 4-Iobatis, leviter 
imbricatis, tomentosis, lobis ovatis 1 2 mm. longis; petalis 4 vel 5, ovatis, 

124 JOURNAL or llll \K\(»I.I) ARBORETl M 

extus sparse pubescentibus, dense glandulosis; stamini 
stylis 2 mm. longis; ovario 2 loculari. ovulis in quoque loculo ca. 10; 
seminibus reniformibus 2 mm. longis; fructibus immaturis, stylis usque 
9 mm. longis. 

Okiiaii.: Wet hillside near the airfield at Moa, 12' shrub collected in flower and 
young fruit July 26, 1941, Howard 5901 (GH, type). 

Psidium < onjertum is characterized by the small ovate to elliptic leaves, 
the persistent ferrugineous tomentum, the cymose inilorescence, and the 
2-celled ovary. In these characters il diners from /'. hidlatum Brit., P. 
ophiticola Brit, h Wils., and P. laophlovum Urb., to which it is related. 

The species is named for the crowded condition of the (lowering shoots. 
The internodes are from 1-1.5 cm. long with the leaves opposite or in 
whorls of three at the nodes. The compact inilorescence adds to the 
density of the shoots. 

The leaves are densely glandular; however, the glands are hidden by the 
persistent tomentum on the lower surface and are not visible from the 
dorsal surface. The very young leaves are densely pubescent on both 
surfaces. The lower surface remains persistently pubescent, while the 
upper surface is glabrous and becomes a bright yellow-green color on 

ids are globose above the 
and the numerous seeds 
are reniform. about 2 mm. long. On the concave surface of each seed 
extending over the sides arc' areas which are dark brown to black in color. 
The remaining surface of the seed is a yellow-brown. The embryo is only 
slightly curved. 

Arbor parva vel frutex, glaber; ramis hornotinis compressis, sub inter- 
stitiis foliorum plus minusve sulcatis; petiolis S 4 mm. longis, subteretibus 
supra sulcatis; laminis anguste lanceolatis 4.5 5 cm. longis. 0.8-1 cm. latis. 
basi et apice acuminatis, coriaceis glabris, supra nitidis, marginibus revo- 
lutis, nervis lateralibus inconspicuis; inllorescentiis avillaribus, racemosis, 
racemis usque 2 mm. longis. bracteis ovato-lanceolatis. minulis; 4 5-tloris, 
pedunculis 5-7 mm. longis; sepal is 4, ovatis, usque I mm. longis, glabris: 
petalis non visis; staminibus numerosis, subaequalibus; stylo 2 mm. longo; 
baccis 4 mm. diametro, loculis 2, seminibus reniformibus vel ovalibus, 1 in 
quoque loculo, 2.5 mm. longis, testa membranacea. levi. brunnea, nitida. 

("ompania de Moa mill, Moa. collected July 2d, 1U41. Howard M14 (GH. tvpi.). 

This species is named in honor of Mr. David Siurnuk. who was Super- 
intendent of the Atkins Institution of the Arnold Arboretum at Soledad. 
Cuba, for many years and who was so very helpful in arranging my trip 
to the Oriente. 

This species at first glance is similar in appearance to E. psiloclada Urb. 
However, the leaves of the new species are coriaceous, the veins obscure, 
the upper surface shiny, and the margin strongly recurved. Eugenia 
psiloclada, by contrast, has thin leaves with veins and glands prominent, 


dull surfaces, and perfectly flat margins. The leaves of E. Sturrockii have 
the characteristic glands, but these are buried in the leaf-tissue and are 
visible only when the leaf is held to the light. 

Several of the fruits examined had only one mature seed. Closer 
examination revealed an aborted cell and ovule at the apex of the fruit. 
The flowers are articulated to the pedicel, the fruits dehisce at this point 
very readily, and the peduncles persist even on the old shoots. 
Neobracea Howardii Woodson, sp. nov. 

Frutex ramosus ca. 2 m. altus, ramis teretibus cortice luteo, ramulis 
puberulis tandem glabratis. Folia opposita petiolata, lamina late elliptica 
apice obtusa basi latiuscule acuta 4-7 cm. longa 2-3.5 cm. lata firmiter 
membranacea supra nitidula subtus dense puberula, petiolo 0.4-0.8 cm. 
longo puberulo. Inflorescentia racemosa subcorymbiformis terminalis vel 
subterminalis pluriflora, pedunculo tenui ca. 3-4 cm. longo puberulo, 
pedicellis ca. 0.5 cm. longis puberulis, bracteis lineari-oblanceolatis usque 
0.5 cm. longis subfoliaceis. Flores albi. calycis laciniis anguste lanceolatis 
acuminatis 0.5 cm. longis subfoliaceis ut in pedicelln vest it is intus in sinibus 
0-2-glandulosis, corollae subinfundibuliformis tubo ca. 0.9 cm. longo basi 
ca. 0.1 cm. diam. faucibus usque 0.25 cm. diam. ampliatis extus sparse 
irregulariterque pilosulo intus prope basim staminigero, lobis late oblongo- 
dolabriformibus ca. 0.8 cm. longis. Antherac subscssilcs lineari-lanceolatae 
basi anguste sagittatae ca. 0.3 cm. longae dorso dense puberulae. Ovaria 
oblongoidea glabra ca. 0.15 cm. longa, nectaria 5 compresse subquadrata 
ca. 0.05 cm. longa, stylo crassiusculo ca. 0.2 cm. longo, stigmate capitato 
5-maniculato ca. 0.05 cm. longo apice papillate Folliculi immaturi tenues 
remote moniliformes. 

Las Villas: Limestone Loma Ventana, Trinidad Mountains, San Bias-Buenos 
Aires, Aug., 1941, Howard 6495 (Herb. Missouri Bot. Card., type). 

This species is very well marked by its abundant pubescence and broad, 
elliptic foliage, as well as the several-flowered inflorescence. 

Since the publication of my revision of Neobracea (in Ann. Missouri 
Bot. Gard. 23: 169. 1936), I have examined a flowering specimen of A 7 . 
Ekmanii Urb., the type and heretofore the only known specimen of which 
was in fruit, and that apparently mislaid when I visited the herbarium at 
Dahlem in 1930. The flowering specimen was collected by Mrs. G. C. 
Bucher during the summer of 1939 near Moa, Oriente, Cuba. The corolla, 
apparently pink, is very broadly infundibuliform, the proper tube 6 mm. 
long, 1 mm. in diameter at the orifice, the lobes 10 mm. long. The calyx- 
lobes are linear-lanceolate, 2 mm. long. 
Bonnetia cubensis (Brit.) comb. nov. 

Kirseria cubensis Brit, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 41: 19. 1914. 

Bonnetia Mart. & Zucc. has been conserved (Kew Bull. 1940: 113. 
1940) and Kieseria Nees has been rejected. A new combination is needed 
for this Cuban species. 

The species is apparently endemic along the coast of Bahia de Moa on 
serpentine soil. The type collection was made in 1914 and only two more 
recent collections are known, Howard 5842, a 15' tree with pink flowers 

126 J<U K\\|. or TMK ARNOLD ARB0RKT1 M I vol. \xvin 

collected July 26. PM1, in dense woods 15 km. southwest of Compania de 
Moa mill, and Maric-Yictorhi, Clement cr Main 21436. collected in flower 
April 1043 at the mouth of the Punta Gorda River at Moa. 
Buxus flaviramea (Brit.) comb. nov. 

Triara ilaviranua lirit. in Hull. Torr. Hot. Club 12 : 400 1<)15. 

A second record of this species is Howard 5/00, collected June 15, 1 04 1 , 
in open grassy savannah 10 km. west of Santa Clara city. Las Villas l'rov. 
Xyris Jupicai Rich, in Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 106. 1792. 

This is a very widely distributed species through the Antilles, but the 
present collection (Howard 6011, in flower, July 26, 1941, airfield at Moa, 
Oriente) is of interest since it is the first representative of the genus known 
to me from the Oriente. The many species of Xyris in Cuba are centered 
in Pinar del Rio province, with two species reaching the Cienaga swamps 
in southwestern Las Villas province. The present collection consists of 
larger and more tuberculate plants than the average, but the specimens 
still fit within the limits of the species as defined by Malme in N Am F] 
19: 11. 1937. 

Cassia darensis (Brit.) comb. nov. 

Chamaccrista darensis Brit, in N. Am. Fl. 2.3:278. 1930. 
Cassia insularis (Brit. & Rose) comb. nov. 

Chamarhslida insularis Brit. \ Rose, in \. Am. Fl. 2.3:239. 1930. 

In addition to those from the type localities, specimens of these two 
species are known from the Castillo de Jagua and the coast of Cienfuegos 


Figs. 1-8. Rajania nipensis Howard (Howard 6136a): 1. habit, 9 x ; 

the 3 bifid styles and 2 ol the hi lid staminodes. ■ 15: 4. cross-section of the 
showing the six lobes and the 3 loeules, one ol which has fertile ovules, x section of flower showing two superposed fertile ovules ■ 8; 6. habit, 
escence, X 3 ; 8. $ flower showing pistil rudiment 
15. Fie. 9. Rannua Inirans (Oiiseb ) Howard I//. 

Pi.mi 11 
■nsis Howard (Howard 5873): habit, X ft. Fir,. 2. 
(Howard 6154): habit, x V>. Figs. 3-5. Platygyne 

Jour. Arnold Arb. Vol. XXVIII 

ii. mi; (,i:m s i;i; \m>im \ 


Hui-Lin Li 

The genus Brandisia is confined to the wanner parts of continental 
eastern Asia from eastern India. Burma, and Indo-China to southwestern 
and southern China. It has been included in the Scrophulariaceae, usually 
in the tribe Cheloneae, together with other anomalous genera like Paulownia 
and Wightia. Its taxonomic position has been doubted ever since it was 
first described, but no extensive and intensive studies have ever been made 
on the genus. 

The following study, based on the Chinese species of the genus, is made 
on materials assembled from various herbaria in America. To the curators 
of these herbaria I am indebted for their kindness in furnishing material 
for the study. This study was made at the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia during the tenure of a Harrison Fellowship for Research 
of the University of Pennsylvania. To Mr. Charles M. B. Cadwalader, 
President of the Academy. I wish to express my thanks lor permitting me 
access to the splendid library and herbarium facilities. To Dr. Francis 
W. Pennell, Curator of Plants, my thanks are due for his suggestions and 
his kindness in reading the manuscript. 

Abbreviations for the various herbaria cited are as follows: 

AA Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 

ANSP Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

B Bonati Herbarium, to be deposited at the herbarium of the 

University of California at Los Angeles 

MBG Missouri Botanical Garden 

NYBG New York Botanical Garden 

RBGE Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh 

UC University of California 

USNH United States National Herbarium 


The tribe Cheloneae of the Scrophulariaceae is very artificial and 
heterogenous. To this tribe have been referred several of the woody 
genera of various localities, while the family Scrophulariaceae as a whole 
is herbaceous. The anomalous positions of Panlownia and Wightia have 
been questioned by some authors. Hallier (in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 
3: 181-207. 1903), in making a review of the taxonomic relationships of 
the various genera of the Scrophulariaceae, concluded that these two genera 
should be assigned to the Bignoniaceae. Campbell (in Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club 57:47-50. 1930) reached the same conclusion for Paulownia. He 

128 JOI KWI. OK TIIK \KN01.1) MtHOK Kit \1 [vor.xxui. 

indicated that the small amount of endosperm present in the seed is not 
sufficient reason to exclude it from the Nignoniaceae. with which it agrees 
in many other characters. Ilallier. however, still considered Brandisia as 
belonging to the Cheloneae and evidently had not made any special study 
of the genus. 

When Hooker . •tn. 1 Thomson first described the genus no fruiting material 
was available. They noted the genera! appearance of the plant to be very 
different from the Scrophulariaceae. and rather verbenaceous. However, 
they placed it in the Scrophulariaceae because of the many-ovuled capsule. 
They remarked: 'The order can, in fact, only be approximately determined, 
as the dehiscence of the fruit and the stria hire ol (he seed are unknown. 
If the seeds be exalbuminous. it will go to Bignoniaceae; but the ovary 
and plaeentation are so much like Scrophulariaceae. that in all probability 
albumen will be found in the seeds." 

With regard to its position in the Scrophulariaceae. they said: "The 
position of Brandisia among Scrophularineae. as Mr. Bentham has kindly 
pointed out. is probably among Cheloneae. the only tribe in which large 
woody climbing plants occur. The tlowers though solitary, have two 
opposite bracteoles on the pedicel, and the curiously elongate ovules 
probably become winged seeds like those of Wig/i/ia." In the Genera 
Plantarum, the fruits and seeds were described and the genus was placed 
in the tribe Cheloneae together with Wight ia and Baulownia. This has 
been followed subsequently bv other authors. 

In 1873, Kurz (in Jour. As. Soc. Beng. 12(2): 39 141. 1874). in listing 
Brandisia discolor for the Burmese flora, considered the status of the genus 
and made the following statement: "Wightia, Walk, arete affmis. Ktiam 
Buddlciar generi affmis, sed differ! corolla irregulari. etc. et certissime inter 
Sesameas recipienda est. Cardneria, a el. Henthamio Loganiaceis adnu- 
merata, Solanea esse videtur." He placed the genus under "iVdalineae." 
In 1877 Kur/. (For. Id. Brit. Burma) listed Gclsrwium and Bndd/ria under 
"IVdalineae." in addition to Brandisia. Both these genera belong to the 

Hance (in Jour. Not. 18: 299. 1SS0) mentioned that Brandisia "has a 
curious resemblance to the genus Kremophila, in .Myoporaceae." This is 
an Australian genus. The Myoporaceae is a small family, with the genus 
Myoporum extending from the tropics of the Old World to India and 

Thus we have suggested relationship for the genus Brandisia to the 
following families: Loganiaceae, Solan, iceae. Scrophulariaceae, Bignoni- 
aceae. IVdaliaceae. Myoporaceae. and Yerbenaceae. 

Neing strongly /ygomorphic in its corolla. Brandisia cannot be associated 
with either Loganiaceae or Solanaceae. in which the. orolla is act inoinorphic. 
The place of the genus is evidently with the other families which have 
distinct zygomorphy. In spite of the general resemblance of the plant in 
appearance to some genera of the Myoporaceae and the Yerbenaceae, its 
many-ovuled ovaries and capsular fruits will not permit it to be included 


in either of these two. Being a shrubby genus and without staminodes, 
it is not referable to the Pedaliaceae. 

The families Scrophulariaceae, Bignoniaceae, Gesneriaceae, and Oroban- 
chaceae are closely related and it is sometimes difficult to draw sharp 
distinctions between them. The Gesneriaceae and Orobanchaceao are 
predominantly herbaceous families, with unilocular ovaries, the latter being 
also parasitic. The choice for placing Brandisia is therefore left to the 
Scrophulariaceae and the Bignoniaceae. 

The Bignoniaceae are nearly all woody plants, many of them climbers. 
The Scrophulariaceae are predominantly herbaceous. The chief distinction 
between the two families is the presence of endosperm in the seeds in the 
Scrophulariaceae and the absence of the same in the Bignoniaceae. The 
fruit of the Scrophulariaceae is usually a capsule or sometimes a berry. 
The seeds are usually numerous and small. In the Bignoniaceae, the fruit 
is most often a two-valved capsule, usually very long and silique-like. The 
seeds are numerous, large, flattened, and membranaceous-winged. 

In the Scrophulariaceae, the tribe Cheloneae is one of the few that 
contains woody genera. In this tribe, which is artificial and ill-defined, 
there have been included some anomalous genera including Pauhncnia, 
Wightia, and Brandish!, Paulnwnia has been included in this family 
instead of the Bignoniaceae because of the presence of endosperm in the 
seeds. Hallier (1. c.) has shown that endosperm is only scantily present 
in Paulownia and is absent in II ightia, and that the seeds of both are 
winged. He concluded that both genera, in which all species are trees, 
should be transferred to the Bignoniaceae. 

The ovoid loculicidal capsular fruit of Brandisin is very similar to those 
of the Scrophulariaceae, but the seeds, although very small, are winged 
and are without endosperm. They are small, numerous, linear, with an 
elongated membranaceous winged testa which is reticulated. The fruit 
of Wightia is an oblong or ovoid capsule, but is septicidal, and the seeds 
are membranaceous and t 
is a woody capsule 

There is an apparent relationship between the three genera mentioned. 
The transference of Paulownia and Wightia to the Bignoniaceae, although 
they still appear somewhat anomalous in that family, seems to be a better 
arrangement than to have retained them in the Scrophulariaceae. 
Brandisia, although seeming even more isolated if placed in the Bignoni- 
aceae, certainly should be associated with Wightia, whatever the latter's 
disposition. Here we have a situation in which there must be additional 
knowledge in anatomy, pollen structure, cytology, etc., before a satisfactory 
disposition can be made of these genera as to their taxonomic position, as 
well as delimitation of the various families concerned. 

To the eight species recognized in this study, there should be added 


three more from Annam, described by Bonati, of which no material is 
available. The genus ranges from Assam (India) and southern Burma to 
western China, north to western Hupeh, and southern China, east to 
Kwangtung. It is also found in Annam. Indo-China. So far it has not 
been recorded from Formosa, Hainan, or Tonkin. 

The species are found mostly on mountains up to an altitude of 3000 
meters, those in the south ascending usually to higher levels than those in 
the north. Most of the species are local in distribution and rare in 
occurrence. The most common and most widely distributed species is 
Brandisia Hancei, which is found in Yunnan, Szechuan. Hupeh. Kweichow, 
and Kwangsi. Brandisia rosea is found in northwestern Yunnan, Assam, 
and Bhutan. Brandisia discolor is found in southern Burma and southern 
Yunnan. Brandisia Swinglei occurs in Kwangtung and eastern Kwangsi. 
while B. hoan^siensis is known only from Kwangsi; the two species B. 
lactcvirens and B. ^labrcsccns are confined to southern Yunnan. Brandisia 
racemosa is found in Yunnan from the south to the northeast. Three 
species. B. Chcvalicri, B. annamitica, and B. scandens, are known from 
Annam only. 

The genus is primarily of the subtropical regions of eastern continental 
Asia, particularly of the mountains at medium levels. The center of 
distribution is apparently in Yunnan, where six of the eleven species occur. 
Only two, B. Hanoi and B. rosea, occur in the Sinn-Himalayan region in 
northwestern Yunnan, and these are not endemic. More species, although 
mostly of rather limited distribution, are found in the warmer regions of 
the province in the south as well as in the east. 


Brandisia Hooker f. & Thomson in Jour. Finn. Soc. Hot. 8:11. 1865. 
Shrubs, erect, scandent. or straggling, sometimes parasitk 

stellate tomentum; leaves opposite or rarely subopposile. oblong lanceolate 
to ovate, entire to slightly serrate, usually densely tomentose especially 
below, short-petiolate; flowers axillary, solitary or rarely in pairs, some- 
times several together or short- or long-racemose, pedicellate, the pedicels 
bibracteolate; calyx campanulate. with or without distinct veins, subequallv 
5-dentate or sometimes 4-7-dentate. rarely bilobed; corolla infundibular, 
bilabiate, usually densely tomentose. the tube usually incurved, the lips 
spreading, the upper lip larger and longer, concave. 2-lobed, the lobes 
broad, obtuse, the lower lip shorter. S-lobed. the lobes smaller, subequal 
or unequal, acute, attached at the same level or in the middle and much 
lower; stamens 4. didynamous, ascending, subexserted or included, attached 
near the base of the corolla-tube; staminodes absent; filaments glabrous; 
anthers rounded, bilocular, the cells continent above long-pilose especially 
at the tip and the margins; ovary ovoid, hairy, bilocular, many-ovuled ; 
styles elongate, filiform, glabrous, the stigma simple, entire; ovules numer- 
ous, linear-oblong; fruits capsular, chartaceous. ovoid, acute, loculicidally 
dehiscent into 2 valves; seeds small, numerous, linear, with thin winged 
membranaceous elongated testa, reticulated. 
Type species: B. discolor Hook. f. & Thorns. 


With the addition of many other species to the original, it is necessary 
to redefine the generic concept of the genus and to form three subgenera, 
of which the last two contain each hut a single species. In addition to 
the eight species recognized for China. India, and Burma, there are three 
species described by Bonati from Annam. of which no material is available 
to me. Two of these, B. Chevalicri Bonati and B. scandcns Bonati, 
evidently belong to Rubra ndisia. Bmndisin unnamitica Bonati, described 
as having the flowers in groups of 3-5 and having two staminodes, may 
require the erection of another subgeneric group. 

Subgenus I. Eubrandisia, subgen. nov. 

Frutex erectus vel scandens; foliis oppositis, basi acutis vel cordatis; 
floribus axillaribus, solitariis vel binis; corolla tlava vel rosea, labio antico 
breviore, lobis subaequalibus; calyce campanulato, plerumque 5-dentato. II. Rhodobrandisia, subgen. nov. 

Frutex erectus; foliis oppositis vel suboppositis, basi longe attenuatis; 
floribus axillaribus, solitariis vel binis; corolla rosea vel raro flava, labio 
antico fere breviore, lobis subaequalibus; calyce bilobato. lobis integris vel 
leviter bifidis. 
Subgenus III. Coccineabotrys, subgen. nov. 

Frutex scandens, parasiticus; foliis oppositis, basi rotundatis; tloribus 
corolla rubra, labio antico valde breviore, lobis inaequalibus; 
ampanulato, 5-dentato. 

A. Flowers axillary, single, rarely 2 together, scattered throughout the whole length 
of the stems; calyx usually long-pilose within, sometimes tomeiitose; lower lip of 
corolla about as long as or slightly shorter than the upper lip, the lobes subequal 
and attached at about the same level; capsules densely tomentose to rarely 

B. Calyx more or less prominently S-costate, S-dentate, usually lone pilose within; 

C. Calyx broadly campanulate, about as long as broad, much enlarged above, 
the teeth divided for I to i the length. 

leaf-bases strongly cordate 1. K. Hanoi. 

1)1). Leaves distinctly and slenderly petiolate, the petioles 5 mm. or more long; 
leaf-bases acute to rounded or subcordate. 

K. Petioles short, about 5 mm. long; calyx large, 10 mm. long, 8-9 mm. 

F. Leaves strongly discolored on the two surfaces, the upper dark 

C. Leaves broadly ovate, to 4 cm. wide and 9 cm. long; 
indumentum gravish ; calyx-teeth long-acute, 7 mm. long. 

2. H. S'U'hinlri. 

GG. Leaves narrowly ovate, to 3 cm. wide and 9 cm. long; 

3. B. laetevircns. 

132 J()l i;\\l. OK TMK \R\OFI) AKHOMKTI M Ivor, xxvm 

the dried stale; leal liases acute to submunded. .1. H. kwauxsiensis. 
ECK. Petioles lorm, 1 em. or more in length; calyx small, 6-7 mm. long and 

wide 5. B. discolor. 

('(". Calw cylin.lrie-campanulate, ] I to 2 times as Inn- as wide, narrowed or 
very slightly expanded above, the teeth divided to about a quarter ol the 

len-th of the calyx 6. B. glabrescens. 

BR. Calyx without prominent nerves, 2 lobed, tomenlose to glabrous within, the 
lobes entire or slightly bind; leaves opposite to Miboppodte, the bases lomr- 
attenuate (Snuaixi s 11. Rliodobrandisia) ' 7. H. rosea. 

than the upper lip. the middle lobe smaller than and attached half as low as the 
lateral ones m a deep notch; capsules -labrous (Si bums III. Coccincalxd rvs) . 

1. Urandisia llane.d Honk, l"., Fl. licit Ind. I: 257. 18S4, in nota; Forbes & Hemsl. in 
Jour. Linn. Soc. Hot. 1U : 17". I.soo; Diels in Hot. Jahrb. 2<>: s(»5. 1900; Rehder in 
Sargent, PI. VVils. I : 5 7.F 1 <M s ; Limpricht in Rep. Sp. Nov. Heih. 12:4SO. 1022, 
EIu in Jour. Arnold Arb. ."> : 235. 1<)21; Pai in Contr. Inst. Hot. Nat. Acad. Peipine: 
2: ISO. ]<>M; Hand, Ma/., Svmb. Sin. 7:. SSI. F).U>. 
Hrandisia discolor sensu Hance in Jour. Hot. 1!!: 290. I.sso, ,/„,/ Hook. f. & Thorns. No precise localities. Hairy 1000 (NYHG), 5007 (FSNH); western 
Hupeh, Wilson 147 (NYBG, FSNH), 147a (NYBG); Ichamz, Wilson 2404 (AA, 
FSNH); Lianu Sunn Kou, W. Y. Chun 5540 (AA). 41S5 (FSNH); En-shih District, 
//. C. Chow 1885 (AA, USNH) ; Yangtze Gor-es. A. ('. Xclson s. n. (CO. S/kcimax: 
Tchen keou tin, Faroes s. n. (ANSI', H); .Mount Omei, China & Can 562 (AA). T. T. 
Yu 2S0 (AA); Nan-chuan District. IF. /'. Fa,n< 5o75 (AA, ANSI', NYBG), 5676 (AA, 
ANSI'. NYH(i); Rwan-yun District. /•'. /'. Wan^ 22olo (AA); Wanhsien, Yen-chin«- 
kou, Mrs. W. Grander 5 (YC). Vinnan: No precise localities, K. F. Maire 1544 
(DC), Forrest 0370 (AA), 0672 (AA), T. T. Yu 14812 (AA) ; Hee-chan-men, Delavav 
103: (ANSI 1 . H, WHb) ; Mo so-ui, Delavav ln2r, (ANSI'. H) ; Kiao-kia, /•'. Ducloux 
1237 (DC); Yunnan sen, /• . Ihielonx 150 (ANSI'), 1027 (NYBG, DC); Siao-ou-Iong, 
/•:. A'. Mane 1S5 (AA); Pe-yen-tsin, .S'. Ten 2? (AA), 34 (AA): Yunnpi-. .V. Ten 401 
(YC): Meimtze, I. Henry 001 ; (AA, ANSI'. MUG, NYBG, FSNH) ; between Muang 
Him,' and Szemao, J F. Rock 2S2! (AA, YC. FSNH) : between Tenirvueh and Likiane,, 
/. /•'. Roeh S115 (AA. YC. FSNH); Run none, ('. Schneider 55 (AA), 227 (AA), //. 
Handel Mazzetli 13053 (AA), ('. IF. Wan K 62024 (AA), 62050 (AA), /•'. ('. How 
74244 (AA), 74217 (AA) ; Tsann-slian, near Tali, C. Schneider 534" (AA) ; Kien-shuei 
District, //. T. Tsai 55027 (AA) ; Fikian-, ('. IF. Wanu 71414 (AA), A'. M. Fen K 2547 
\ \ \ \ . R. ('. China 20075 (AA), 216S7 (AA) ; Hua-ninu. F. Tsian K & //. 

II..-,. i\\); Monhua, T. T. Yu 1S260 (AA). R winnow: Kian--kou Dis- 

trict. Steward, Chiao, Cr Cheo 048 (AA, NYBG, FSNH) : Yin--kian- District, Steward, 
Chiao, ,'V Cheo 803 (FSNH). F. Tsian K 7703 (NYHC); (Tenet'em:. Y. Tsianif 4456 
(AA, NYBG. FSNH); Tumrtze, Y. Tsiane. 4044 (NYBG). 5154 (NYHG, YC) ; 
An-lunn. Y. Tsian K 7416 (NYHG, YC). 0321 (NYHG); Ghen-lin-shan, KwciyanR, 
.V. IF. Tent oooio (AA). Rwaxosi: Fine yun District, Steward .'■> Cheo •/<•> (AA) 
This .species was first identified as Brandisia dis< <>/,»■ Hook f. & Thorns. 
by Hance. Hooker (1. c), however, under that Burmese species simply 
mentioned: "The Chinese plant referred to B. </is< <>/<»■ l>y Hance, differs in 
the broad calyx-lobes and corolla; it is B. Haneei, H. f." Hance's type is 
a Mesney collection from Kweiyang, Kweichow Province. Forbes and 
Hemsley cited Henry s. n. front Hupeh, Mesney s. n. from Kweichow, and 
also Maire s. n. and Bourne s. n. of unclaritied locations. Rehder cited 
Henry 1150 and 5i>0~ from western Hupeh. and Henry 9013 from Mengtze, 


Yunnan. He said: "No good description of this species has been published 
so far, but according to Dr. A. B. Rendle of the British Museum who 
kindly compared Wilson's No. 3404 with the type of B. Hancei Hook. f. 
from Kweichou, there is no difference between the two specimens. Wilson's 
specimen also agrees perfectly with Henry's specimen from Hupeh referred 
by Hemsley to B. Hancei. Henry's No. 9013 from Yunnan differs slightly 
in its smaller and narrower leaves." IIu gave a detailed description for 
the species but cited no specimens. 

Brandisia I/uiu n is apparently a common shrub at medium levels 
(500-2600 meters) in the mountains of western China. It is readily 
distinguished from related species by its smaller, very compactly arranged 
leaves, which are nearly sessile and strongly cordate at base. The leaves 
are densely stellate-ferruginmis-tomentose on the lower surfaces and are 
not strongly discolored on the two surfaces as in some other species. The 
flowers (March-November) are red or yellow on the inside. 

2. Brandisia Swinglri Merrill in Philip. Jour. Sri. Hot. 13:157. 1918. 

Kwangtunc: Lofaushan, E. I). Merrill 10S51 (type coll., NYBG, UC) ; Lung- 
men District, Nan Kwan Shan, \Y T. 7\au K ^4'U (\\,, j^<\ (AA). 
Waitsap District, Ton- Shan, IV. T. Tsang 22S62 (AA) ; Yao Shan, C. Wang 39502 

Scattered shrubs, on mountain slopes at altitudes of about 500-1000 
meters, in Kwangtung and adjacent parts of Kwangsi. Flowers pale 
yellow. Flowering from June to September. 

The type of the species was from: "Kwangtung Province, Loh Fau Mountain 
(Lofaushan), Merrill 1085 1 < August 22. 1017, in thickets along small streams, altitude 
about 950 meters; very rare, a single plant observed." Isotypes in the herbaria of 
the New York Botanical Garden and the University of California have been seen. 

This species is characterized by its large broad leaves with grayish 
indumentum on the lower surface and the relatively longer and more 
acuminate calyx-teeth. It has the easternmost range of any species of 
the genus. 

3 laelrv ireris Render in Sargent, PI. Wils. 1:573. 1913. 

Yunnan: Szemao, A. Henry 12t>05 (AA type, MBG) : Wen-shan District, H. T. 
Tsai 51495 (AA) ; Sliili -ping District, //. T. Tsai 53434 (AA). 

A shrub in forests on mountains at altitudes of 1300 to 1800 meters, in 
southern Yunnan. Flowers yellow. Flowering in January. 

m., A. Henry (No. 12005)." The holotype in the herbarium of the Arnold Arboretum 

This species is a close relative of B. Hancei and B. discolor. It is dis- 
tinguished from the former by its large, less cordate, and more distinctly 
petiolate leaves. It differs from the latter notably in the larger calyx and 
shorter petioles. The corolla of B. discolor is also narrower and more 
densely tomentose and the leaves are darker on the upper surfaces, which 
become almost black in dried specimens. 

im jornwr, of tiik \i;\ \i;i;m;i 1 1 \i i v <>... xxun 

ovato-lanceolatis vcl oblongis. longe ;n uniinat is. basi acutis vel subrotun- 
datis, ()-S cm. longis, 2 3.7 cm. latis, margine integris. supra initio sparse 
stellato-tomentosis, mox glabrescentibus et glabris, in sicco luten-viridibus, 
subtus dense fiavescentibus stellato-tomentosis. reticulatis. nervis lateralibus 
utrinsecus 5-7, adscendentibus conjunctis, supra cost a impressa subtus 
elevata; petiolis 4 S mm. longis. f'ulvo-tomentosis; lloribus axillaribus, 
solitariis. pedicellis gracilibus. I'ulvo tomentosis, 8-9 mm. longis, medio 
bibracteolatis. bracteolis subulatis. i adu< is: calyce campanulato. 10-costato, 
circiter 1 cm. longo. exlus dense tomentoso, intus dense piloso, lobis S, late 
triangularibus, acutis, 2-1 mm. longis: corolla late campanulata, leviter 
curvata, bilabiata, circiter 2.4 cm. longa. rubra, extus dense stellato-tomen- 
tosa, limbo intus tomentoso. tubo intus glabro, la bio postico magno truncate) 
emarginato, lobo antico 3-lobatn. fere dimidio breviore, lobis ovatis acutis; 
staminibus stylisque corolla subaequilongis; antheris dense pilosis; capsulis 
ovoideis. dense tomentosis. calyce incluso circiter 1 cm. longis. 

Kwangsi: Ling wun District, in dense woods, .V. K. Lau 28688 (type AA) ; Pin 
Lam, 5. /'. Ko 55685 (AA). 

This species is strongly characterized by its relatively narrow leaves 
with acute to subrounded bases. From other related species, such as 
B. Szvin^/ri, B. Lutccirois, and /■>'. discolor, this new species is also readily 
distinguished by the nearly concolorous leaves. The upper surfaces of 
the leaves are only slightly more brownish than the lower, while in the 
other species mentioned the upper surfaces are much darker and often 
turn blackish in the dried state. The reddish llowers appear in January. 

besides the two collections mentioned above, another specimen, R. C. 
Chin- fiM) (NYBG). collected from Xee Bai. Kwangsi, may be referable 
to this- species. On it the leaf-bases are more rounded. The specimen 
bears only incomplete fruits. 

5. Brandisia discolor Hook, f & Thorns, in Jour. Linn. Soc. Hot. 8: 11. /. 4. 1865; 
Kurz in Jour. As. Soc. Hen-. 42: J.U,. 1X7.1 For. H. Brit. Ind. 2: 250. 1877; Hook. 
f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4:257. 1S65; Brandis, Ind. Trees l»l i<ip„; Rehder in Sargent. 
l'l. Wils. 1: 573. l'M.v 

Vinnan: Szemao, .1 Henr\ 12605B (AA, ANSI', MHO, WHO), J. F. Rock 
27 m (\A, I'SNH), C. \\ . Uan^ S00S7 (AA, USNH). 

A shrub on ridges in bushes at an altitude of about 1300 meters, from 
lower Burma to southern Yunnan. Flowers yellow. Flowering in March. 

The type ol the species is ;l collection made by Hrandis in Martaban, Burma, 

This species was originally found in lower Burma and the southern 
Yunnan plants are apparently referable to it. The species is characterized 
by the slender distinct petioles, strongly darkened upper leaf-surfaces, and 
the relatively small calyces and narrow corollas. 
(>. Brandish, ^lalnv-een- Rehder in Sar-rent. l'l. Wils 1:574. 1013. 

Vinnan: Men-t/e, .1. Henry ^71C (AA, USNH). <J71f>A (AA type); Pinjr-pien 
District, //. T. Tsui 02410 (AA), 627QS (AA). 

A slender shrub, in forests at altitudes of about 2000-2300 meters, in 
southern Yunnan. Flowers yellow. Flowering in July and August. 

Rehder cited two collections: "Yunnan: Mermt/e. lores), alt. 2000 m., ,1 Henry 


This species is characterized by the long calyx. Besides this distinct 
calyx-character, it can also be readily distinguished from the related B. 
discolor, B. Hancei, etc., by the sparsely pubescent leaves, which are 
rounded to broadly truncal <• a I the base. 

r l!i-;iinli«i:i r ;i \V. \V. Smith in Notes Hot. Card. Fdinh. 10: 10. 1918. 

Sikaxg: Tsaronu. Sahveen Chm-kian- Divide, C, . Forrest 20320 ( A -\ CSNH). 
Vi-xxax: Western Hank of the Tali Range, G. Forrest 115*5 (AA, RBCF type, VC) ; 
Shang-pa District, //. T. Tsai 54774 (AA). 545^ (AA), 56644 (AA); Che-tse-lo, 
//. T. Tsai 54172 (AA), 58548 (AA); Chungtien, Wu-tso on the Yangtze hank. 

In woods or open thickets on mountain slopes at altitudes of 2100 to 
3000 meters, in northwestern Yunnan and adjacent Sikang and also in 
eastern India. Flowers deep rose to reddish orange. Flowering from July 
to September. 

The tvpe of the species is from western Yunnan": "China, western Hank of the Tali 
Range, Yunnan. Tat. 25° 40' N. Alt. 10,000 ft. Shrub of 3-5 tt. Flowers deep 
rose! Open dry situations amongst scrub. July 1913. G. Forrest. No. 11,565." 
The holotype in the Edinburgh Herbarium has been seen. 

Brandisia rosea is distinctly characterized by the bilobed calyx. In this 
respect, it deviates from the original generic limits. It also differs from 
other species in its general appearance, especially in the relatively narrow 
long-attenuate leaves which are sometimes oppositely arranged. In view 
of these differences, it is here segregated as representing a different 
subgenus. The fruit and seed characters are the same as in the other 

A varietv with vellow flowers was described by Fischer, from Assam, 
India, as Brandisia rosea W. W. Smith var. flava C. E. C. Fischer, in Kew 
Bull. 1934: 93. 1934. In the Genera Plantarum, it is stated that, besides 
the original B. discolor, there is another species in India. Hooker, in the 
Flora of British India, said: u The supposed second species of Brandisia, 
alluded to in the 'Genera Plantarum' as a native of Bhotan, has stellate 
tomentum, lanceolate leaves and a 2 -lipped calyx, and cannot be con- 
generic." Fischer identified this plant as belonging to B. rosea. He said: 
"Griffith's specimen [Kew Dist. 3748] from Bhutan, referred to in the Gen. 
PI. and in the Fl. Brit. Ind., and a sheet collected by Nuttall also in Bhutan 
(both in the Kew Herb.) are this species, but being in fruit only it cannot 
be determined whether they represent the typical species or the colour 

8 Brandisia racemosii Hemsl. in Kew Bull. 1B«»."">: 114 18'C. Oliver in Hook. Ic. PI. 

21: /. 2385. 1895; Schneider, 111. Handb. Laubholzk. 2:618. fig. 399, c-h. 1911; 

Rehder in Sargent, PI. Wils. 1: 574. 1915; Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7:851. 19.56. 

Yunnan: Mengtze, Hancock s. n. (UC), Henry w73 (AA, M HO, NYBG. CSNH ), 

1/ l.nim s ». (ANS1M; Siao-ho, E. E. Maire 3986 (ANSP, B) ; Mongkou, E. E. 

Maire 10199 (NYBG, UC) ; Kiang pirn, /:.'. /•'. Maire s. n. (ANSP); Kiao Km, F. 

Ducloux 9S0 (NVBC, CO; near Kun-ming. //. Handrt-UazzvtU 5051 (AA, USNH). 

136 .]()[ H\ \L OF TIIK \R\OI.D AKHOKFTl U [vol. xxvm 

A spreading shrub, at altitudes of 800 to 2800 meters, in Yunnan. 
Flowers scarlet. Flowering in September. 

Hcmsley's t\pe was trom "Western China, in shady copses, Mon^tze, Yunnan, 
Hancock, H.v" It has not been seen. The description and original illustration by 
Oliver are distinctive. Two specimens collected by Hancock in the type locality in 
IS' 1 ' tre in the herbarium of the (Diversity of California. 

Brandisia racanosa is a most unique species of the genus, distinguished 
not only by the peculiar corolla-structure but also by the inflorescence. 
The tlowers are arranged in short or long racemes. The calyx is shortly 
and inconspicuously 5-dentate. The corolla is strongly bilobed, the upper 
lip being much longer than the lower. The lower lip'is 3-Iobed, with the 
two lateral lobes adnate to the sides of the upper lip midway in the corolla 
and the middle lobe attached much lower in a deep notch between the two 
lateral lobes. 

The plant also differs from other species of the genus in general appear- 
ance, with its long straggling branches and relatively smaller and more 
distinctly serrate leaves. The whole plant is blackened in the dried state, 
indicating its possible parasitic or semi-parasitic habit. Rehder mentioned 
that: "It was introduced by Mr. Wilson into cultivation, but it could not 
be. grown successfully, as it is apparently parasitic and its proper host 
plant is not known." 

Although the plant differs radically from other species of the genus in 
many respects, its basic characters in the stamens, fruits, and seeds agree 
with the genus in general. It is thought best to retain it in the genus but 
to designate a subgenus for its sole accommodation. 

Dociii'Ki i. ami v\r\ roKn sri.eir.s 
Brandhia praticola \\ . \\ . Smith in Notes Hot. Card. Edinb. 10:10. 1918. 

This species is based on Forrest 13350 from northwestern Yunnan. The 
type, in the Edinburgh Herbarium, is available for study. It proves to be 

rtirvo'ulla uj preset- us Oliver. 

Brandisia Soulici Bonati in Hull. Soc. Hot. France 56:467. 1Q00. 

This species is based on Soulic 5199 from Yargong. Sikang Province. 
It has not been seen. According to the description, this species is dis- 
tinguished by the 3-verticillate leaves, which are concolorous on the two 
surfaces, the tlowers in axillary cymes, the membranaceous ealvx with its 
5 lobes subulate and splitting at the tips, etc. It does not represent the 
genus Brandhia but belongs in the Labiatae. A short discussion of this 
misplaced species will be issued in this Journal in the near future by Prof 
E. I). Merrill. 



With one plate 

The pomoideae constitute a group of rather closely related genera of 
common origin (Sax. 1933). All genera have a basic < hromosome number 
of 17 and generic hybrids arc relatively common. Natural hybridization 
is most frequent between Sorbus and the related genera Aronia, Amclan- 
chicr, and Pyrus. Rehder (1940, 1947) has described or enumerated 
seven hybrids between Sorbus and Aronia species, three hybrids of Sorbus 
and Amclanchier, and one hybrid between Sorbus and Pyrus. These genera 
are closely related and have been included in a single genus Pyrus by some 

The nomenclature in the fi lis is thai of Rehder (1940). 

The cytological analysis is based upon acetocarmine smear preparations, 
following fixation in alcohol-acetic acid. 

Hybrids between Sorbus and Aronia include Sorbaronia Jackii, S. 
Arsenii, S. hybrida, S. jallax, S. heterophylla, S. alpina, and S. Dippelii. 
Both the pinnate- and entire-leaved species of Sorbus have produced 
hybrids with Aronia speck s, all of which have entire leaves. Sorbaronia 
Dippelii has been crossed with Sorbus ahiiiolia in the Arnold Arboretum. 
Three of the Sorbaronia hybrids, 5. Jackii, S. alpina, and S. Dippelii, have 
been examined cytologically and attempts have been made to grow F 2 

Sorbaronia Jackii is a naturally recurring hybrid between Sorbus ameri- 
cana and Aronia prunijolia. Specimens of the Sorbus parent in the 
Arboretum, both mature trees and 2-year old seedlings, have from 5 to 8 
pairs of leaflets with an average number of slightly less than 7. The F t 
hybrid has variable leaves, ranging from entire, as in Aronia. to pinnate 
leaves with as many as 3 pairs of leaflets in addition to the terminal 
leaflet. Often the leaves are partially pinnale or lobed. The average 
number of leaflets is 1.4. 

The open pollinated progeny of 5. Jackii are extremely variable in size 
and viability. Of 50 seedlings selected from the survivors grown in the 
greenhouse, seven have died in the nursery at the end of the second year, 
seven are extreme dwarfs, and 36 have made more or less normal growth. 
All surviving seedlings have at least partially pinnate leaves, ranging from 
3 to 7 leaflets with an average of 4.5. No segregates had any entire leaves. 
but these progeny may be back cross hybrids with adjacent pinnate-leaved 
species of Sorbus. Seedlings of Sorbus americana grown in the nursery 
showed much greater uniformity than those of the hybrid. Of 50 seed- 


lilies, only one had died at the end of the second year. 

Sorbaronia Jackii produces abundant fruits, but much of the seed is 
defective or produces weak seedlings pollen sterility is variable, ranging 
from in sonic anthers to about 50 per cent in others. 

The meiotic divisions were generally irregular, but in some pollen mother 
cells the divisions appeared to be relatively normal. At first meiotic 
metaphase there were from 13 to 15 bivalents and from 4 to 8 univalents 
in most of the figures examined, although the number of univalents ranged 
from to 12. Lagging univalents were generally found at both first and 
second anaphase (lb.. I, fig. 1). The tetrads resulting from the two 
meiotic divisions were often irregular with some micronuclei. but as a rule 
nearly 50 per cent of the pollen appeared to lie morphologically normal. 

Sorbaronia alpina is a cross between Sorbus Aria, a species with simple 
leaves, and Arouia arbutijolia. This hybrid, as represented by the variety 
super-aria, is more sterile than Sorbaronia Jackii. Occasionally there 
appeared to be 17 bivalent chromosomes at the first meiotic metaphase, but 
the divisions were generally quite irregular, with as many as 14 lagging 
univalents at anaphase. For some anaphase figures the lagging chromo- 
somes appeared to include an occasional bivalent (Pl. I, fig. 2). The 
second meiotic divisions also were irregular and the pollen fertility ranged 
from to 24 per cent. For both of these Sorbaronia hybrids the pollen 
sterility varied greatly in different (lowers and some anthers contained no 
good pollen. Some fruits are produced by .S'. alpina, but we have not been 
able to germinate the seeds. 

Sorbaronia Dippelii is a hybrid between Sorbus Aria and Arouia mclano- 
carpa. This hybrid is relatively fertile, as indicated by both pollen 
sterility and by fruit development. Yet some anthers produce no good 
pollen and we have not been able to germinate open pollinated seed. 
Seventeen bivalent chromosomes were found at meiotic metaphase ( Pl. I, 
fig. 3), and there was little irregularity at meiotic anaphase. Pollen 
development was variable, but some counts showed as high as 58 per cent 
normal pollen. The pollen fertility oi the Arouia parent was only 76 per 
cent and that of the Sorbus parent about the same. 

We have succeeded in crossing Sorbaronia Dippelii with the distinct 
Sorbus species \. alnijolia. This hybrid has the characteristic foliage of 
N. alnijolia, the male parent. It is a slow growing shrub and has not yet 

Several hybrids between Sorbus and Amclanchicr have been described. 
The three known hybrids are growing in the Arnold Arboretum, but only 
Anic/asorbus Jackii is large enough to provide meiotic material. This 
hybrid was found among seedlings grown from seeds collected in the 
Moscow mountains of Idaho by Professor J. (i. Jack. It is described by 
Rehder as a hybrid between Sorbus scopulina and Amclanchicr jiorida. 
According to Professor Jack there were two types of the hybrid, one with 
partially pinnate leaves and one with only an occasional cleft or lobed leaf. 
Only the latter type is now available in our collections. 


Amelasorbus has been difficult to analyse cytologically. The microspore 
mother cells appear to disintegrate at any stage of development from 
prophase to microspores. In favorable prophase preparations 32-34 
chromosomes were counted at diakinesis, indicating a very loose association 
of paired chromosomes. At meiotic metaphase there were from 12 to 15 
bivalents and from 4 to 10 univalents (Pl. I, fig. 4). At anaphase the 
number of lagging univalents are variable, but as many as ten have been 
observed (Pl. I, fig. 5). Although the meiotic behavior of the chromo- 
somes of Amelasorbus is similar to that of two of the Sorbaronia hybrids, 
the sterility is much greater. Practically no normal pollen is formed and 
very little fruit is produced. Over a period of years only two viable seeds 
have been obtained and the resulting seedlings, which have now flowered 
for several years, are very similar to the parental hybrid in both appear- 
ance and sterility. Apparently they are of parthenogenetic origin. 

Two other forms of Amelasorbus are listed by Rehder (1947). Amela- 
sorbus Hoseri is thought to be a hybrid between Sorbus hxhrida and 
Amelanchier sp. It has partially pinnate leaves. Amelasorbus Racibor- 
skiana is listed as a cross between Sorbus sp, and Amelanchier asiatica. 
It too has partially pinnate leaves. Both of these hybrids were raised at 
the Kornik Botanical Garden in Poland and named by Wroblewski. Our 
specimens of these hybrids are not sufficiently mature lor meiotic analysis. 

The known crosses between Sorbus and Pyrus are limited to Sorbopyrus 
auricularis, a natural hybrid between 5. Aria and /'. ion/munis. We have 
in the Arnold Arboretum only the variety bulbiformis, a form which re- 
sembles Pyrus in most characters. This hybrid is a triploid with pre- 
sumably two sets of pear chromosomes. Its cytological behavior has been 
described earlier (Sax 1932). We have obtained some progeny from open 
pollinated seeds of Sorbopyrus. The seedlings are variable but tend to 
segregate into two groups — some which are vigorous and resemble the 
mother tree, and a series of dwarf segregates which survived for one to 
three years. 

In all of these generic hybrids involving Sorbus there is considerable 
sterility, and when segregates are obtained many are weak and do not 
survive. The genera Sorbus, Aronia, Amelanchier, and Pyrus can be 
crossed only in certain combinations. One might suppose that Aronia and 
Amelanchier could be crossed, since both have produced at least several 
hybrids with Sorbus, but repeated attempts to cross these genera have 
failed. However, we also have been unable to produce any artificial hy- 
brids between Aronia and Sorbus, and yet seven such spontaneous hybrids 
are known and some are recurrent in nature. 

The fact that Sorbus, Aronia, Amelanchier, and Pyrus can be crossed in 
certain combination indicates a certain degree of similarity. The behavior 
of the hybrids does indicate cytogenetic differentiation usually found in 
diverse species. Whether such incompatibility merits more than specific 

J ID .JOl K\ \], ()| I 111. \i;\OM) Mil'.OIJI I I \1 |\ih. WMll 

Natural hybrids between Sorbiis and Aroiiia and between Amrhwchicr 
and Pyrus arc partially sterile and show considerable nieiotic irregularity. 
Sorbaronia produces a variable progeny both in morphological characters 
and viability. Amelasorbus produces iVw viable seeds and the progeny 
appear to be of parthenogenetic origin. Sorbopynts sets few seeds and the 
progeny include many dwarf segregates which survive for only a few 
years. The cytogenetic analysis indicates a common origin of these 
genera, but a degree of differentiation sufficient to maintain generic 


Sax, K. (V)M) Chromosome relationships i n the Pommdeae. Jour. Arm 
Sax, K. (1W) The origin of the Pomoideae. Proe. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sri. ;{(l: 

Drawn from acetocarmine preparations. Magnific 

Jour. Arnold Arb. Vol. XXVIII 

Generic Hybrids of Sor 

Ml CIIIIOI / \ CM \Y. 11.11 \\ \C\lon 1 1 


With one plate 

Among the collections of John W. Gillespie from the Fiji Islands is a 
single specimen (no. 3273, from Namosi Province, Viti Levu) which rep- 
resents a species of Acmopyle. This specimen had been included in a loan 
of material of Podocarpus from the herbarium of the Arnold Arboretum and 
had been inadvertently identified as Podocarpus vitiensis Seem. It differs 
in many important features, both externally and internally, from P. vitien- 
sis, and it agrees so generally in the anatomy of the leaves with Acmopyle 
Pilger that there can be no doubt about the generic identity. Specifically 
it differs somewhat I nun A< mnpyh Pan, furi (Brongn. & Gris) Pilger in 
several details, such as the external shape of the leaves and their texture, 
width, and apex. 

This is not the first report of Acmopyle in the Fiji Islands. Sahni (in 
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B, 210: 253-310. 1920), in his treatise 
on the structure and affinities of Acmopyle, mentions an earlier collection 
by J. Home in 1877-78, found in the herbarium of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, which he examined in considerable detail. Sahni concluded 
that this specimen represents a species of Acmopyle. He also records the 
opinion of Dr. Stapf, who examined this material and who "does not con- 
sider it likely that the Fiji specimen is specifically identical with Acmopyle 
Pancheri, but he agrees to the generic identity." 

We have examined the leaves of the Gillespie specimen histologically, 
and also those of Acmopyle Pancheri, numerous specimens of Dacrydium 
jalcijorme (Pari.) Pilger, and some of Dacrydium taxoides Brongn. and 
Gris. Details given by Sahni concerning the flattening of the leaf in these 
species in the vertical plane, with the vascular bundle remaining in an un- 
changed orientation, can be substantiated in all essentials. The vascular 
bundles therefore appear as if turned sidewise through 90° with reference 
to the leaf surface. The above mentioned two species of Dacrydium, 
representing a special section of that genus, and the two species of 
Acmopyle share in this unusual type of leaf. Leaves of the Dacrydium 
spp. possess hypoderm and are bifacial, having palisade tissue and stomates 
on both sides, while the leaves of Acmopyle found on the pectinate twigs 
of the last order of branching have very little or no hypoderm, palisade 
tissue only on the upper side which is exposed to light, and the stomates 
confined almost entirely to the lower surface of the leaf. The unique 
type of leaf anatomy therefore serves to segregate Acmopyle from other 
genera of the Podocarpaceae. 

L42 JOURNAL OF THK AKN'OI .!) MiBOKKTl M [vol. xxviii 

Acmopyle Sahniana sp. nov.i 

Arbor parva; foliis spiraliter insert is. in ramulis ultimis hiseriatim in una 
planitie expansis. hasi in ranuilutn lon^e decurrentibns; laminis falcatis, 
16-19 mm. longis, 3.5-4 nun. latis, supra nitido-viridibus, marginibus 
foliorum subparallelibus sed in apicem oblique acutum terminantibus, costa 
supra mill conspicua; floribus masculis seminihtisqiie ignotis. 

Leaves with two bands of stomates in 14-18 irregular rows each beneath, 
interrupted only slightly at midvein and leaving wide non-stomatiferous 
bands at borders; single vascular bundle within leaf turned through 90", 
the xylem toward the adaxial margin, the phloem and single resin canal 
toward the abaxial margin of the leaf. 

FIJI ISLANDS: Viti Levu: Namosi: Mt. Yakarongasiu, alt. 900 m.. on an 
exposed ridge, John W. Gillespie 1273 (type in herb. Arnold Arh.), Oct. 2, 1927. 

. I, )no[)ylr Sahniana may be distinguished from .1. Pamhcri ( Hrongn. cv 
Gris) Pilger by the wider leaves, the more nearly parallel leaf-margins, and 
the obliquely acute apex. The leaves of .1. Pamhcri are usually 2.5-3.5 
mm. wide, are gradually narrowed toward the tip, have a narrow rounded 
apex, and are thicker. Both species have the vascular bundle turned 
through 90° and are without hypoderm or have only scattered fibers of 
hypodermal tissue near the midvein of the leaves. The midvein is not 
centrally placed in 1. Sahniana. The wider margin is in the adaxial posi- 
tion and this convex adaxial edge near the base of leaf is much thinner 
than in A. Pancheri. 

Other specimens examined for comparison^ 
Acmopyle Pancheri (Brongn. & Gris) Pilger 

NEW CALEDONIA: Mt. Mou, /. Franc 170 (A, US), Le Rat 2594 (A), Louisa 
Clark Williams 149 (Bish). 
Dacrydium taxoides Brongn. & Gris 

NEW CALEDONIA: Cougui, Puncher 379 (NY). 
Dacrydium falciforme (Pari.) Pilger vel aff. 

Group A. Specimens resembling the original descriptions: MALAY PENINSULA: 
R. F. Holt turn (Singapore field no. 20626) (UC) ; Pahang: Fraser Hill, 4000 ft., 
Aug. 25, 1923, M. Nur 10507 (A). BORNEO: British North Borneo: Mt. Kina- 
balu, Marai Parai, M. S. Clemens 10962 with seed (CC), J. & M. S. Clemens 33078 
(A, UC); Mt. Kinabalu, Penibukan, /. C- M. S. Clemens s. n. (A); Sarawak: Mt. 
Poi, J. & M. S. Clemens 20263 (A); Netherlands Borneo: Res. W'ester-Afdeeling, 
Beimkajanu, Banan, Seth. hut. For. Service 2477S (A); (locality?), Batu Gajah 
Lugga, B. W. Hullett 5695 (A). CELEBES: Res. Manado, Paleo, 1400 m., Neth. 
Ind. For. Service 17544 (A). PHILIPPINES: Minihiro: Mt. Halcon, F. 1). 

l Named in honor of Professor Birbal Sahni, F. R. S., of Lucknow, India, in 
recognition of his comprehensive study of the morphologv ot this genus. Prof. Sahni, 
also distinguished through his researches in paleobotan.v, was bom in India in 1891 
and was educated at Punjab and at Cambridge (Eng.) Universities. He is now 
Professor of Botany and Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Lucknow. 

-Place of deposit of specimens is shown by the parenthetical letters, as follows: 
(A) Arnold Arboretum; (Bish) Bernice P. Bishop Museum; (NY) New York Botani- 
cal Garden; (VC) University of California; (IS) United States National Herbarium. 


; Luzon: Mt. Umin K an, M. Ramos & G. Edan 
Mat. Herb. no. 4508 (A). 

Group B. Specimens with leaves smaller than those of Group A: N 
DONIA: Mt. Mou, C. J. Pitard 2001 (A, NY). British New Gui: 
Lane-Poole J07 (smallest leaves) (A). 




C. E. 

117/// , 

koRTMAi.s in scriui:ii in his "(herzichl der Rubiaceen van de Neder- 
landsch-Oostindische Kolonien" (in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2): 245. 1851) 
i.a. a new genus Streblosa, to which he referred Blume's Psychotria tortilis 
and two species based on specimens which he had collected himself in 
Sumatra and Borneo. Although he gave no explanation of the name, we 
may safely assume that it refers to the peculiar arrangement of the flowers 
along the branchlets of the inflorescence which they encircle in the same 
way in which the shoot of a winding plant twines round its support. 
Blume's epithet tortilis too was apparently inspired by the arrangement 
of the flowers. 

Korthals' generic description contains several inaccuracies; the calyx 
is not 5-dentate but 5-lid or. more rarely. 5-partite. the corolla-tube is not 
infundibuliform but cylindrical or, sometimes, in the upper half narrowly 
campanulate, and it is not glabrous inside but provided with a ring of 
hairs or with five hair-bundles, the aestivation of the lobes is not subvalvate 
but quite simply valvate, the ovules are neither peltate nor attached to 
the centre of the septum but ascending from the inner angle of the ovary- 
cells, the pyrenes are not plane on the inside but provided with two quite 
conspicuous contiguous excavations, and the embryo is not amphitropous 
but straight; the plants moreover are not fruticose but herbaceous, and 
their inflorescences are not axillary but at first terminal and subsequently 

The generic description is followed by a note in which he gives an 
exposition of the reasons which induced him to separate this genus from 
Psychotria. It is reproduced here in English translation: ''On account of 

146 IOI liWI. ()!• Ill l. \K\OLl) \i;l!()KKTl \1 l\oi.. xxMii 

their habit it seemed to me that the generic identity of the species here 
referred to Strcblosa with species belonging either to Psychotria or to 
Grit I already looked dubious, for they differ from them in their 
membranous, reticulately veined leaves and in the peculiar corymbose 
inflorescence. The analysis of the flower revealed, in addition to a number 
of identical features, in the structure of the ovary a diagnostic character 
of sufficient importance: whereas in Psychotria the ovules arise from the 
bottom ui the cells, they are in Strcblosa attached to the centre of the 
septum and peltate." The argument derived from the position of the 
ovules, by which Korthals apparently set great store, and which he thought 
would justify the creation of the new genus before the tribunal of his 
fellow botanists, unfortunately was based on inaccurate observation: in 
reality the ovules of Strcblosa arise just like those of the other l'sychotrieae 
from the inner angle of the ovary-cells. 

Miquel already had some doubts with regard to Korthals' description 
of the position of'the ovules. In his "Mora Indiae Batavae'' (2: 2o4. 1SS7) 
he reduced the genus to a subdivision of Psychotria for which he retained 
the name Strcblosa and which he characterized with the aid of the data 
provided by Korthals. An interrogation mark, however, is put behind 
the words with which the attachment of the ovules to the middle oi the 
septum is described. Afterwards Miguel's valuation of the distinguishing 
characters underwent a change, for in his "Fxloge Rubiacearuni Archipelagi 
Indici" (in Ann. Mus. Hot. Lugd.-Bat. 4:211. 1S69) the genus is 
reestablished. As no generic description is given, and as no comment is 
made on this change of attitude, it is impossible to say how the latter was 
brought about. It is noteworthy that Mi<|iiel corrected in this work 
Korthals' assertion with regard to the habit of Str. torli/is (HI.) Khs: he 
himself describes it as an herbaceous plant. Of the two new species 
described by Korthals only one, the Sumatran Str. polyantha, was found 
by Miquel in the Leiden herbarium (I.e. 262): it seems that the specimen 
on which the other species, the Bornean Str. iindu/a/a, was based, had 
disappeared already, and the type of Str. tortilis var. p. collected by 
Korthals on G. Singalang in West Sumatra, which is said to differ from 
the form described by Blume in its sessile inflorescences and elliptic leaves, 
was not met with either: in contradistinction with Sir. undulata (v. infra) 
it has never again been mentioned in literature. It may have have been 
conspecilic with one of the Sumatran species dealt with below, but nothing 
definite can be said with regard to its identity. 

Hooker f. reduced Strcblosa in Benth. et Hook. f.. ('.en. PI. 2: 124. 125. 
1N7.V to Psychotria: as tin- author attached great importance to the 
position of the ovules, it is unlikely that he would have made this reduction 
if he had not convinced himself of the inaccuracy of Korthals' description. 
The type-species was referred by Hooker to the section Mapouria (a 
ebracteatae). where it occupies on account of the persistent bifid stipules, 
the cincinnate arrangement of the dowers, the small green fruits and the 
two contiguous excavations on the ventral side of the pvrenes, a most 


anomalous position. Korthals' other species are not mentioned, but a 
plant collected in Penang and in the Wallich herbarium, inserted under 
the provisional name Psychotria microcarpa Wall., is declared conspecific 
with Ps. tort Ms Bl., an error which was repeated by King and Gamble in 
their 'Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula" (in Jour. As. Soc. 
Beng. 72 (2): 11. 1906) and by Ridley in his short survey of the genus 
Strcblosa in Jour. As. Soc. Straits 57: 62. 1911. It was corrected by the 
latter in his "Flora of the Malay Peninsula" (2: 148. 1923). 

Baillon referred Strcblosa in Adansonia 12:325. 1879 and in his 
"Histoire des Plantes" (7:285. 1880) to Uragoga L., which in his 
delimitation is an even more unwieldy genus than Psychotria L. in that 
of Hooker, and it is therefore not necessary to discuss this reduction. It 
is noteworthy, however, that he corrected Korthals" assertion with regard 
to the aestivation of the corolla-lobes. Writing of Sir. tortilis he stated in 
Adansonia: "Sur les echantillons que nous avons pu examiner, toutes les 
corolles etaient simplement valvaires." 

Schumann made no mention of the genu- Strcblosa in his monograph of 
the family in Nat. Ptlanzenfam. 4:4. 1891; and in the "Nachtriige" to 
this work too I have vainly looked for any reference to it. In Dalla Torre 
& Harms. Genera Siphonogamarum. 503, 1905, however, it is included 
among the synonyms of Psychotria. 

Stapf was, after Miquel. the first to recognize the generic distinctness 
of Korthals' genus. In his paper on the flora of Mt. Kinabalu (in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. Bat., II. 4: 182. 1894) he described a new species. Str. urtkina. 
and expressed himself with regard to its generic position in the following 
terms: "I think Strcblosa should be kept up as a distinct genus on account 
of its peculiar habit, which is produced chiefly by the herbaceous growth, 
by the very thin leaves, the axillary inflorescences (which in the present 
species resemble very much those of a common nettle), and by the minute 
flowers and fruits. Miquel says of Strcblosa Trutices'; but the specimens 
of S. tortilis (Bl.) Korth., the only species seen by him. are decidedly 
herbs. The genus Strcblosa is limited to Malaya." The statement that 
the inflorescences are axillary, is incorrect: in reality they are terminal 
but soon pushed aside by an axillary branch developing in the axil of one 
of the two highest leaves. The reference to Miquel is incomplete: in the 
'•Flora Indiae Batavae" the latter merely repeated Korthals' statement, 
but in his paper in the "Annales" he described Str. tortilis correctly as 
"herba basi radicans." 

The next author who recognized Strcblosa as a distinct genus, was 
Valeton. In Bot. Jahrb. 44: 568. 1910, he described a new species, Str. 
glabra, based on a specimen collected by Winkler ( Breslau ) in South-east 
Borneo; it appears very close to Str. urtkina Stapf. At the same time he 
gave a more detailed description of Str. undulata Khs.. based on some other 
specimens collected by Winkler in the same region as Str. glabra and as 
Korthals' type. Whether these specimens really are conspecific with the 
latter, is difficult to say, because of Korthals' incomplete description, but 

148 .101 KNAL OF TI1K ARNOLD ARBORETUM [vol. xxviii 

it should be noted that the leaves are elliptic according to Korthals, 
whereas Valeton states that they are 90-120-150 mm. X 35-50 mm., 
which means that they arc lanceolate in his specimens. However, as 
there is little chance that Korthals' type will ever be recovered, and as 
there is otherwise nothing in his description which positively excludes the 
possibility that his type was conspeciuc with the specimens described by 
Valeton. the latter's interpretation may perhaps be accepted. 

At about the same time Ridley (in Jour. As. Soc. Straits 57: 62. 1911) 
devoted a few pages to Strcblosa. He agreed with Stapf that the genus 
should be restored, bul no new arguments were brought forward to support 
this view. He recognized seven species, i.e. apart from the three for which 
the genus was created and the one described by Stapf. three new ones. Of 
these three the first, Str. hirta, is probably identical with Str. polyantha 
Khs., of which Ridley had seen no material. The only difference which I 
can find in comparing Korthals' specimens with Ridley's description, lies 
in the slightly narrower leaves ( 10-15 cm. X 3.7-5.0 cm. instead of ( > 12 
cm. X 4.5-5.7 cm.). In the description of Str. pubescens Ridl. there are 
a few points which make the position of this species altogether dubious: 
the stipules are said to be lanceolate-acuminate, whereas in this genus they 
are always two-lobed ; the stamens should be inserted near the base of the 
tube instead of in the ring of hairs in the middle or somewhat above the 
middle, the stamens as well as the style should be included, whereas Ihe 
flowers of Strcblosa are always heterostylous with either the stamens or 
the style exserted. and the disc is .aid to be composed of 5 renjform bodies. 
whereas I found it in Strcblosa always semi-globose or annular with a 
single, more or less distinct, transverse impression on the top. For the 
time being, therefore, 1 consider Str. pubescens a "species incertae sedis." 
The third species, Str. bractcata, on the other hand, is a true representative 
of the genus, probably nearly related to the plan! afterwards described 
by Merrill under the name Str. in vriot arpa. hike the latter it is found in 
West Borneo. Ridley remarked with regard to Str. urticina Stapf that 
he saw in the herbarium of the botanic (iardens, Singapore, a specimen 
collected by Haviland and bearing the number of the type, which was 
"decidedly woody," whereas Stapf described it as 'herbaceous and 
scandent." Ridley was right in so far that the plant is certainly no 
(limber, and that it is woody at the base: as secondary thickening, how- 
ever, is by no means uncommon in the basal parts of the stems of 
dicotyledonous herbs, this is no valuable argument .mains! its herbaceous 

In the following year Elmer (Leatl. I'hilipp. Hot. 4: 1356. 1912) 
published some remarks on a plant which he had collected in the island 
Palawan, and which he referred to Str. glabra Val. It differs, however, 
conspicuously from the latter by the nature of the stipules, whose lobes 
are separated from each other by a rather wide gap instead of being 
contiguous. His remarks contain several mistakes: the valvate corolla- 
lobes are described as imbricate and slightly twisted from left to right; 


the stamens are said to be inserted in the basal part of the corolla-tube, 
and the anthers should be more or less united, the stigma "submitraform," 
the ovary "superior or nearly so, surrounded by 5 lobular disk append- 
ages," and the ovules should be pendulous. That the genus is said to be 
monotypic and previously known from Borneo only, may be regarded as a 
slip of the pen. 

In the same year Valeton (in Icones Bogorienses 4: 139, t. 343. 1912) 
published a detailed description of Str. tort ilk (Bl.) Khs.. accompanied by 
a plate which unfortunately is not entirely satisfactory. His ideas on the 
generic characters are summarized in the following sentence: "Le port 
de la plante, les inflorescences axillaires, Tinsertion scorpioide des fleurs 
sur les rameaux (voir la figure 2 dans la table citee de Stapf) et la structure 
du fruit sont autant de caracteres de valeur generique et qui separent la 
Streblosa du genre Psychotria:' Valeton therefore was the first to 
recognize the taxonomic importance of the monochasial structure shown 
by the ultimate ramifications of the inflorescence, and although he calls 
the latter here for sake of convenience axillary, the remarks in his paper 
in Bot. Jahrb. 44: 568. 1910, show that he knew very well that they are in 
reality at first terminal and afterwards pseudo-axillary. 

A few years later Merrill (in Philipp. Jour. Sci. Bot. 10: 141. 1915) 
described under the name Str. axitti flora, a new species from the Philippines. 
In a short note attached to the description he remarks: "I am in agree- 
ment with Valeton and with Ridley in considering Streblosa Korthals to 
be a valid genus. In aspect the plants are entirely different from 
Psychotria and Grumilea, and the differential characters appear to be 
constant. From all our representatives of Psychotria and Grumilea the 
present species is distinguished by its minute fruits and axillary inflores- 
cences; surely, if Grumilea is to be separated from Psychotria, there are 
as great or greater reasons for distinguishing Streblosa as a valid genus." 
Merrill afterwards (Enum. Philipp. Fl. PL 3:564. 1923) identified the 
Philippine species with Str. glabra Val., but this was an error: it differs 
from the Bornean species in the same way as the plant collected by Elmer 
in Palawan, the stipular lobes namely are not contiguous but separated 
from each other by a rather wide gap. and the internodes are ecostate. 

Since then one new species was described from the .Malay Peninsula by 
Ridley and eight from Sumatra and Borneo by Merrill. With regard to 
our knowledge of the generic characters however, no further progress was 
made. In this paper a detailed analysis of the generic characters is given. 
Twenty-five species are described, and an attempt is made to arrange them 
in a more or less natural sequence. Pleven of the twenty-live species are 
new, whereas three of the old ones, namely Str. hirta Ridl., Str. platyphylla 
Merr. and Str. puberula Merr. are reduced to synonymy, and one. Str. 
pubescens Ridl., set apart as a "species incertae sedis." Of Str. urticina 
Stapf and of Str. palawanensis Brem. two varieties are recognized, and of 
Str. axilliflora Merr. three. 


\irh 2 

(2): 245 

1851; Miq. 

n Ann. Mus. Bot. 




Linn. Soc. Bot. II, 4: 182. 1894; 

Jahrb. 4 

)10; Rid 

. in jour. As. 

Soc. Straits 57: 62. 


Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. 


5, Knuni. Philipp. Fl. IM. 3: 5o4. 

1 I> 


1; Mm 
h. Acad 

in Unh Calii 

Mi-rr. in M 
Sci. 22: 104. 1 
>; DC, Prodr 

Publ. Bot. 15: 
4: 520. 1830; Miq., 

,ok. t. in Ren 

h. el Hook i, Gen. 

$; 1 

<1 \Y<1. 

nd. 2(1): 139 

1899; Dalla Torre 

rnii;<>K<i >/><■, . Raill. in Adansonia 12:325. 1870; Ki>t PI. 7:285. 1S80. 

Genus Psychntiuunim caule sympodiali plerumque simplici, inilores- 
centiis primum terminalibus, deinde pseudo-axillaribus et ergo semper 
solitariis ad nodos. ramulis ultimis inflorescentiae quoque nodo floribus 
duobus instructis, tlorum paribus rim innaliter disposilis. fructibus parvis 
et viridibus, globosis vel didymis, in mericarpia dun discindentibus, meri- 
carpiis drupaceis, pyrenis dorso 3-costatis. t'arie ventrali excavati.s et 
excavatione a carina mediana plus minusve distincta in partes duas divisa 
a generibus aliis ad tribum banc pertinentibus distinguendum. 

Herliae plerumque simphees. ran. seinel vel bis pseudo-dirbotome 
furcatae. erectae vel saepius ascendentes, easu quo park" decumbente hand 

sympodialis. Folia opposita, (|uoque pari aequalia. petiolata; petiolus 
foliorum inferiorum plerumque satis longa el foliorum aliorum gradatim 
longitudine decrescens; lamina magna. plerum(|iie tenuis, discolor, supra 
semper idioblastis in appendieem lenl icularem vel eonicam productis vix 
conspicue et interdnm cellulis resinilVris valde conspicue punctata, subtus 
baud raro protuberantiis stomatiferis albido-lepidota, venulis paucis, laxe 
reticulatis. Stipulae interpetiolares in lobos dims exeuntes. Inflorescen- 
tiae plerumque plnres quarum una terminalis ct ,diae solitariae ad nodos, 
i.e. primum terminales sed mox a ramulo axillari qui folia bina et 
inflorescentiam novam prodet in posit ionem pseudo-axillarem coactae, 
breviter vel rarius longe pedunculatae, ramulis plerumque 3 vel 5, sub- 
umbellatis, intimis interdnm iterum in ramulos S divisis, easu <juo ramuli 
9 paniculatim dispositi. ramulis cctenim hand rani semel dichasialibus, 
ramiticationibus inonochasialibus. raro inllorescent ia tota semel vel bis 
dichasialis, ramification ib us inonochasialibus. vel tota monochasialis. 
Monochasia quoque nodo floribus duobus instructa, tlorum paribus cincin- 
naliter dis|)ositis. Bracteae forma et magnitudine diversae sed semper 
evolutae. interdnm ad anthesin deciduae. Mores pedicellati vel subsessiles, 
semper 5-meri et heterostyli. Ovarium biloculare. loculis ovulo singulo 
ex angulo interiore ascendente instructis. Calyx plerumque 5-tidus. lobis 
triangularibus. ovalo triangularibus vel rolundatis. rarius 5-partitus, easu 
quo lobis interdnm imbricatis. Corolla alba, maxime 8 mm. longa sed 
plerumque multo brevior, breviter hypnerateriformis. tubo interdnm dimi- 
dio superiorc paulum inllato. lobis valvatis. tubo intus ad medium vel supra 
medium annulo vel fasciculis 5 pilorum instruclo. Stamina in annulo vel 


inter fasciculos pilorum inserta, in ilore longistylo subinclusa, in flore 
brevistylo exserta; filamenta glabra; antherae oblongae, dorsifixae. 
Granula pollinis globosa, minute reticulata, 3-pora. Discus semi-globosus 
vel annularis, apice interdum sulco instruct us. glaber. Stylus glaber, in 
Ilore brevistylo inelusus. in ilore longistylo exsertus: stigmata filiformia 
vel linearia, patent ia. in tlore longistylo apice recurvata. Fructus parvus, 
minus quam 3 mm. diam., viridis. globosus vel didymu.v calyce persistente 
ct disco plus minusve exsiccato coronatus, in mericarpia duo discindens; 
mericarpia drupacea; pyrenae dorso 3-costatae, facie ventrali excavatae, 
excavatione a carina mediana plus minusve distincta in partes duas divisa, 
endocarpio tenui. Semen endocarpio eonforme. testa rubra vel rubro- 
maculata. albumine uniformi corneo. embrvone recto parvo, radicula 

Species adhuc notae 25. disti 
Java, Borneo, Insulis Filippinis, 

Species typica: Str. tortilis (Bl.) Khs. 

The stems are either erect or. more often, ascending, and there is doubt- 
less a certain amount of vegetative propagation, young plants developing 
sometimes from the axils of the fallen leaves in the decumbent and rooting 
basal part. Even in those species that are provided with erect stems, for 
instance in Str. Johamiis-Winkieri Mere, in which this kind of growth is 
perhaps most pronounced. I have sometimes found remains of old shoots 
at the base of the young ones. T suppose that in these plants the whole 
stem sinks down after the last fruits have ripened, and that here too new 
stems develop from axillary buds. That these innovations are but rarely 
met with in herbarium specimen-, probably means that they are not 
regularly formed. In some of the species with ascending stems, especially 
in those in which the leaves do not show much difference in shape and 
size, e.g. in Str. tortilis (Bl.) Khs. and in Str. bullata Merr., development 
might even be continuous, the oldest part of the stem gradually decaying 
and the bent at the same time shifting in the direction of the younger 
parts: in such species innovations are perhaps formed only when the 
normal development in some way or other is checked. 

Ramification is extremely rare: so far it has been observed in three 
species only, in Str. lampongensis Brem., Str. chl.inivtlautha Brem. and 
Str. loii^israpa brem. It is always brought about in the same way, namely 
by the development of two axillary shoots instead of one at the base of 
an inflorescence. This is rather interesting from a morphological point of 
view, for it definitely proves the terminal nature of the inflorescence: 
without the evidence of the forked plants the latter would always remain 
somewhat dubious, for the terminal position of the young inflorescence 
might be spurious, and the presence of but one inflorescence at each node 
is in itself no sufficient proof. 

In habit the Stnblosa species therefore are not unlike those belonging 
to the genus Notoplvura Brem. (Psychotria L. sect. Xoto pleura Hook f. in 
Benth. & Hook, f.. Gen. PL 2: 124. 1873, cf. Brem. in Kec. d. trav. hot. 
Need. 31: 289. 1934), for the species of that genus too are herbaceous and 

l5 2 JOl KNAF OF TI1F AKNOFI) UiBOKFTFM I vol. xxviii 

provided with usually simple, sympodial stems, the terminal inflorescence 
being pushed aside by an axillary shoot developing from the axil of one 
of the leaves at its base. In other respects, however, there are important 
differences. In Xotoplatra the leaves are succulent, the stipules undivided, 
the inflorescences paniculate or corymbose, the flowers ebracteate, the 
corolla-lobes imbricate, and the pyrenes dorsivent rally compressed and on 
the inner side flat or provided with a prominent keel; the genus, moreover. 
is confined to Tropical America. The affinity between Strcbhsa and 
Xoto pleura, therefore, must be regarded as rather remote. 

Although the stems probably do not last for more than a few months, 
there is often a considerable amount of secondary thickening in their basal 
parts. As a rule the increase is almost entirely due to the formation of 
secondary xylem, but in the species described below under the numbers 
1-11, there is also a considerable development of secondary bast. The 
formation of cork is. as a rule, but weak, and in most species the stem, 
therefore, remains green. 

As in most of the plants belonging to the undergrowth of the forest, the 
leaves are. as a rule, large, flat, thin and discolorous. In the majority of 
the species belonging to the subgenus l.ii-streblosa (Sir. tortilis, Str. 
myriocarpa, Str. maxima, Str. Johannis-Winkleri, Str. bullata, Str. brae- 
tcolata, Str. anamhasu a, Str. potvan/ha, and to some extent in Str. ddiensis 
and ,S7/\ scabridida) the underside of the leaves is covered with greyish 
scales, which under the microscope prove to be dome-shaped excrescences 
crowned by a stoma, an arrangement which apparently is not uncommon 
in shade plants. Taxonomically of more importance is the structure of 
the epidermis on the upper side. As in I'sy< hotria the latter consists of 
straight-walled cells, but in the midst of these some much smaller ones are 
found which are produced above the common surface into lenticular or 
conical excrescences (fig. 1). The latter are often difficult to detect with 
the naked eye. but appear to he present in all species. In the other genera 
of the 1'sychotrieae I have looked, so far. in vain for them. Far more 
conspicuous are the reddish or blai k dots with which the upper side of the 
leaves of .S7/\ tortilis, Str. miennarpa, Str. polvantha, and probably those 
of Str. multi^landiilosa, which I could not investigate myself, are marked. 
These dots are caused by the presence of a dark-coloured resin in some of 
the epidermis cells. As a rule they are in these species a very conspicuous 
feature, but as a differential character they are of little value, for their 
development varies considerably, even in leaves of the same specimen; in 
some instances the cells contain little or no resin, and as the cells themselves 
are indistinguishable from the rest of the epidermis cells in shape and size, 
microscopical investigation too is in such cases of no avail. Of Str. tortilis 
and Str. mitromrpa I have seen specimens in which the dots appeared to 
be completely absent. 

Resin may also be present in some of the cells of the mesophyll and in 
the mesocarp of the fruit, and even in other parts of the plant, for instance 
in the cortex and in the secondary bast of the shoots; in the latter these 




cells are arranged in short longitudinal rows. Their number varies con- 
siderably, and they are not always easy to detect, but it is almost certain 
that they are nowhere completely absent. One of the most suitable places 
to look for them, is the connective. In the species 1-6 they are a con- 
spicuous feature of the secondary bast. When they are present in the 
mesophyll, the leaves are, as a rule, more or less distinctly marbled. It 
is noteworthy that such marbled leaves occur also in some related plants, 
e.g. in the Madagascar species of Psychotria. 

Raphide-cells are in some species a conspicuous feature, whereas in 
others they are difficult to detect. This depends apparently on the 
consistency of the leaves, for microscopical investigation reveals that they 
are nowhere absent. As a matter of lad. they are a general feature of 
the whole tribe, and are also found in some of the latter's allies, for instance 
in the Hedyotideae, whereas they are constantly absent in the Ixoreae and 
their allies, which, as I have pointed out in my -'Monograph of the genus 

i.-,4 joi i;\ \i ok nil', \k\oi n \i;i;oi;ih m h«u.. xxvm 

I'avclia" (in Fedde's Report. 37: 11. 12. 1934), form another circle of 

The nervation of the leaves is very uniform; the meshes formed by the 
lateral nerves and the venules are large and more or less irregular in 
outline. Aearidomatia are always absent. 

Tin' stipules are always interpet iolar and produced into two lobes, but 
they vary considerably in size and shape. In the species belonging to the 
subgenus Eu-strchlosa they are much larger than in the subgenus Para- 
streblosa, and in the first-named subgenus the basal part is stronger 
dexcloped than the lobes, whereas in the species belonging to the latter 
the lobes are better developed than the basal part; in Eu-strrMosa they 
are moreover more or less persistently filiate or ciliolate. whereas in 
I'dm-stri'Mosti they are eciliate. In part of the species belonging to the 
latter the basal part shows a prominent midrib which runs down to the 
preceding node. In these species, which form the series Costatac, the 
lobes are moreover contiguous, whereas in the two other species, which 
are brought together in the series Ecostatar, the midrib is invisible and the 
int. 'modes accordingly ecostate. and the lobes are separated from each 
other by a wide gap. Costate stipules are found also in some of the 
species belonging to the subgenus En-stn hlosa, but only in one of them. 
Sir. JohaiDns-Winkhri Mere, the rib runs down along the stem. In the 
other species all the nerves arise from the angles of the stipule and converge 
towards the top of tin 1 undivided part, where they enter the lobes. As in 
many other genera belonging to this family, a fairly large number of 
colleters is found in the axils of the stipules. They are in this genus 
rather large. 

The inflorescences are always of terminal origin, but by the development 
of a branch from the axil of one of the leaves at their base, they are, as 
stated above, soon pushed aside. They are, as a rule, shortly pedunculate, 
but in Str. tortUis the peduncle is about as long as the petiole of the leaf 
at its base, and in Str. longisaipu it is even about as long as the whole leaf. 
In these two species the peduncles are moreover erect, whereas they are 
in the other species of the subgenus Eu-strchlosa recurved, and in those 
belonging to Para-streblosa patent. 

The inflorescences themselves show various degrees of complexity. The 
simplest form is that found in Sir. hractcolata Merr.: it consists of a 
single axis bearing at each node a sterile brail and a pair of flowers, one 
provided with a bract and the other ebracteate. The ebracteate flower 
might be regarded as a superposed one. and the whole inflorescence as a 
raceme, but it seems more plausible to regard the ebracteate flower as a 
terminal one. and the bracteate flower as representing one of the branchlets 
of a dichasium, the other branchlet forming the continuation of the axis 
(fig. 2). This interpretation is supported by two weighty arguments: 
( 1 ) the ultimate ramifications of the inflorescences of the Psychotrieae 
are everywhere of the dichasial typo, and there is therefore every reason 
to assume that those of Strchlosa will be ni the same or at least of a 


related kind; (2) in almost all the other species of Stirhlosa the branchlets 
are at least partly arranged in pairs with a single tlower in the fork between 
them, which means that Ihey themselves are parts of a dichasinm, and 
it is a well-known fart that the branchlets of a dichasium often develop 

into monochasia. whereas the 
dichasia developing into raceme 
in such a way that a line coi 
round the axis like the shoot 
the flower-pairs, therefore, is c 

node. For the 


illy authorized examples of 
The flower-pairs are arranged 
ig the successive pairs would twine 

vinding plant. The arrangement of 
ate. The inflorescence, however, is 
nnus we find but one tlower at each 
exactly a monochasium, although we 



itermediate between the latter and the dichasium. 

In Str. bullata Merr. the inllorescence is twice dichasially branched i 
ather long-pedicellate (lowers in the forks, but after the second bifurca 

156 JOl HNM. OK T1IK AKNOI D \l!l!«»|{l- II M [\<>i.. xxvm 

the branchlets develop in the same way as the inflorescence of Str. 

In the other species we find three or five subumbellately or, rarely, 
racemosely arranged branchlets, of which the lowest pair are sometimes in 
their turn provided with a pair of lateral branchlets; the main branchlets 
as well as those of the second order may be once dichasially ramified, but 
the prongs of these dichasia, or the branchlets themselves if they are 
unforked, are monochasial. 

The monochasial structure of at least a part of the inflorescence, is a 
character of great taxonomic importance, for this arrangement is found 
nowhere else in the I'sychotrieae. 

It is in cymous inllorescences always somewhat difficult to make out 
how the terms bract, bracteole and pedicel should be used, but if we stick 
to the principle that the bud in the axil of a bracteole remains rudimentary, 
we may find a way mil of the difficulty, lor in this case the only hypsophylls 
to which the name could be applied, would be the ultimate ones in whose 
axils the flowers remain rudimentary, but as these hypsophylls are indubi- 
tably homologous with the other ones, there is obviously no reason to give 
them another name: in the cymous inflorescences there are therefore no 
bracteoles. When this is conceded, the determination of what should be 
called pedicel, offers no difficulty: in a dichasium it is obviously the axis 
which begins at the insertion of the dichasial prongs or at the insertion of 
the bracts in whose axils the latter develop. In a monochasium the base 
of the pedicel is accordingly recognizable at the insertion of the bract or 
of the bract-pair. In Strcblosa the matter is somewhat complicated by 
the circumstance that the two bracts which one would expect to find at 
tin- same height, are in reality often inserted at different heights. This 
means that between the two of them an extra internode has developed, 
which we will call the interbracteal internode. The shoot which forms 
the continuation of the axis of the monochasium develops always from the 
lower bract, which, as a rule, is somewhat larger than the other one, in 
whose axil the lateral tlower develops. In the subgenus Eu-strcblosa the 
interbracteal internode is always easily recognizable, whereas in J'ara- 
strcblosa it is either absent or indistinct. In Para-streblosa the flowers, 
moreover, are always Mil»c»ilc. whereas in /•.'// strcblosa subsessile flowers 
are met with in .S7/\ tortilis and in Str. microcarpa only; in the other 
species they are distinctly pedicellate. Because of the presence of the 
interbracteate internode the flower-pairs of /•.'// strcblosa give one the 
impression of being stipitate. and for the sake of convenience, this term 
has been used in the descriptions of the various species. 

The flowers are always 5-merous and heterostylous. It is true that 
those of ,S7/\ urtichia were described by Stapf as 4-merous, but this is a 
mistake: in the drawings on the plate accompanying his description they 
are correctly shown as 5-merous. They are as a rule very small. The 
largest ones which I could investigate, are those of Str. bracteolata. which 
reach a length of 9 mm.; in several other species they vary between 2.5 


and 3.5 mm. Heterostyly is very often met with in the I'sychotrieae and 
their allies; it occurs, for instance, also in the Hedyotideae. It is. 
however, no general feature of these tribes. The ovary is always bilocular 
and, as everywhere else in the I'sychotrieae. each cell contains a single 
ovule ascending from the angle between the bottom of the cell and the 

The calyx consists of a short lube and live usually short, broadly 
triangular, ovate-triangular or suborbi. ulai . rarely somewhat longer and 
then oblong, lobes, alternating with baculiform glands. The latter are 
like the previously mentioned raphides and the tendency to heterostyly 
a general feature of the I'sychotrieae and of some of the related tribes, 
e.g. of the Hedyotideae. The aestivation of the calyx-lobes is usually 
more or less open or subvalvate; the large calyx-lobes of Str. chlamydantha 
Brem.. however, are distinctly imbricate. 

The corolla is always white, and consists of a short cylindrical or, in 
the upper half, above the insertion of the stamens, slightly widened tube 
and five spreading lobes, valvate in the bud. In the middle or somewhat 
above the middle the tube is provided with fairly long hairs. In 
Eu-strchlosa the latter form a complete ring, whereas in l'ara-strcblosa 
they are arranged in five bundles alternating with the stamens. 

The stamens are inserted at the same height as the hairs. In the 
long-styled flower they are more or less included, and in the short-styled 
one exserted. The filaments are always glabrous, and the anthers oblong 
and dorsifixed. The pollen grains are small, globose. 3-porous and 
minutely reticulated. 

The disk is. as a rule, fairly large, semi-globose or annular, and glabrous. 
At the top it shows a transverse impression corresponding in position with 
the septum in the ovary. 

The style is thin and glabrous, and ends in two filiform or narrowly 
linear stigma-lobes. In the short-styled flower it is included, and the 
stigma-lobes are but slightly spreading, whereas in the long-styled flower 
it is exserted, and the stigma lobes are more distinctly spreading and at 
the top sometimes recurved. 

The fruits are very small, smaller, in fact, than anywhere else in this 
tribe, and in size and shape more like those of Ilrdyotis, Lrrchca or 
Xanthophytum than like the drupes of the other I'sychotrieae. They 
are either globose or, more often, didymous, crowned by the persistent 
calyx and the somewhat shrunken disk, and they remain always green. 
When fully ripe, they split into two drupaceous mericarps. which in the 
herbarium are distinctly costate, but in the fresh condition smooth. The 
mesocarp is but weakly developed, and the endocarp too is thin. The 
pyrenes vary in colour between yellowish, red and almost black, and t hex- 
are usually 5-ribbed, three of the ribs ornamenting the convex side, and 
the two others marking the border of the latter; the flat inner side shows 
in the centre an excavation, which a more or less distinct keel divides into 
two parallel or upwards somewhat divergent hollows. The keels may be 

158 ,)0l li\ \I. OF Till'. \K\()1.I) \KBOKFTl \1 I vol.. xxvm 

acute or obtuse, and the excavation on the tlal side varies in the various 
species somewhat in size and shape, but the differences are difficult to 
describe, and they are therefore not mentioned in the descriptions. The 
seed shows exactly the same sculpture as the pyrene, and consists of a thin, 
red or red-dotted testa and a uniform horny endosperm. The embryo is 
small and nearly straight, and the radicle points downwards. 

'I'he shape and sculpture of the pyrene. and the way in which the testa 
surrounds and eventually penetrates the endosperm, are important diag- 
nostics for the genera belonging to the Psyrhotria group. Strrblosa is for 
instance easily distinguishable from Maponr/a Aubl., to which the type- 
species was referred by Hooker in IJenth. & Hook, f.. Gen. PI., by the 
presence of the two contiguous hollows on the ventral side of the pyrene. 
and from Psvrhotria I., in the delimitation in which it is taken by me (cf. 
Brem. in Jour. Bot. 71: 273. Oct. 1933, and in I'ulles "Flora of Suriname" 
4: 261. 1934) by the absence of the median groove on the ventral side of 
the pyrene and the corresponding intrusion of the testa into the seed. 
Apart from the difference in si/e. the pyrenes of Strrblosa, however, are 
very similar to those of Grophila Don; the fruits of the latter, on the other 
hand, are not only larger but also more fleshy, and coloured instead of 
green. The pyrenes of Xotoplrura, the genus which resembles Strrblosa 
in habit, are dorsiventrally compressed, and their ventral side is either 
entirely Hat or provided with a protruding ridge, but the latter does not 
arise from the bottom of a cavity. Of these plants too the fruits are 
coloured and larger and more fleshy than those of Strrblosa. 

Within the genus Strrblosa itself two slightly different kinds of fruit 
are met with. In the subgenus Eu-strrblosa and in ,S7/\ ciilamydautha 
and Sir. longisrapa the mericarps are nearly globose, and the fruits there- 
fore didymous. but in the other species of Para-streblosa the mericarps 
are semi-globose, and the fruits accordingly globose: in herbarium material 
the latter are S-ribbed. whereas the dubmous fruits are either o- or 
10-ribbed. In the species which are normally provided with didymous 
fruits, occasionally some globose ones are found; the latter are 5-ribbed 
and owe their aberrant shape to the abortion of one of the mericarps. 

The genus has here been divided into two subgenera. In Eu-strrblosa 
the stipules are wider than the stem, and their basal part is more strongly 
developed than the lobes, the flower-pairs are distinctly stipitate, i.e. the 
interbracteate inteniode is always developed, the hairs in the corolla-tube 
form a complete ring, and the fruits are always didymous. In Para- 
strrblosa, on the contrary, the stipules are not wider than the stem, and 
their lobes are better developed than the basal part, the flower-pairs are 

follows: A A Arnold Arl.on-tum; HZ Huiti-n/ori: Botanic Garden; HBO 

Royal Botanic Gardens Kcw ; NY = New 
t. Mus. Utrecht. 


subsessile, i.e. the interbracteate internode is either absent or but indis- 
tinctly developed, the hairs in the corolla-tube are arranged in five bundles, 
and the fruits are usually globose; didymous fruits, however, are found 
in Str. chlamydantha and in Str. longiscapa. 

A further subdivision of En-sfnblosa does not lead to results which are 
of practical value, the groups becoming too small. The first two species, 
Str. tort His (Bl.) Khs. and Str. microcnrpa Ridley with their subsessile 
flowers, are doubtless nearly related, but Str. lampongcnsis Brem., a 
species with distinctly pedicellate flowers, shows in the structure of its 
stipules with their comparatively long lobes, an unmistakable likeness with 
these two species. The next three species. Str. bract rata Ridl., Str. 
myriocarpa Merr. and Str. maxima Brem., form another natural group, 
characterized by large leaves and very large, oblong or obovate stipules. 
Ovate or ovate-lanceolate stipules provided with a prominulous or promi- 
nent midrib characterize a group of Bornean species, to wit Str. Johannis- 
Winklcri Merr.. Str. bulla t a Merr. and Str. bract colata Merr., to which 
the less known species Str. mnltiglandidosa Merr. and Str. undulata Khs. 
interpr. Val. probably also belong. A somewhat isolated position is 
occupied by Str. anambasica Brem.; in the small size of the (lowers it 
resembles the Sumatran species which form the next group, but it differs 
conspicuously from this group by the more strongly ramified inflorescences. 
The five Sumatran species, Str. dcticnsis Brem.. Str. kypomalaca Brem.. 
Str. Iciophvlla Brem.. Str. polyantha Khs. and Str. scahridula Brem.. are 
provided with ecostale stipules, and possess inflorescences with three 
undivided branchlets and very small flowers. 

In Para-strcblosa two series may be distinguished: the Costatac with 
conspicuously cost ate stipules and bicostate internodes. and the Ecostatac 
with ecostate stipules and smooth internodes; in the first series the stipular 
lobes are contiguous, whereas in the second they are separated from each 
other by a wide gap. The first are confined to Borneo, whereas the 
second group is found in Palawan and other islands of the Philippines. 
The latter comprises at present but two species, one consisting of two, and 
the other of three varieties, but it is not impossible that further study will 
show that these varieties are sufficiently distinct to be regarded as species. 
Among the Costatac, Str. chlamydantha Brem. and Str. longiscapa Brem. 
occupy a more or less isolated position. They are provided with didymous 
fruits" and their calyx-lobes are larger than in the other species. 


a. The undivided part of the stipules wider than the stem and at least 2 mm. high, but, 
as a rule, much higher. Hairs in the corolla-tube in a complete ring. Fruits always 
didymniis Species from the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra. Java and Borneo. 

1). Stipules with an ovate base and two slightly spreading lobe... which are longer 
than the base. Flowers either sessile or pedicellate, but the pedicels never more 

.|()l i;\\l. OK TIIK ARNOLD \KBOKLTl \1 

(I. Leaves ovate or ovate-elliptic, less than H 
more than 10 nn. loin;; on tin- underside I 
as the petiole of the preceding leaf. The 
loniz- J »va and West Sumatra 

■arly always 

3. Str. lamponxoisis. 

Stipules ovate, obovatc or obloni; in outline: the illusion between the two lobes 
not ivachiin; beyond the centre. Mowers always pedicellate, and the pedicels 
always more than O.o mm. long. 

e. Leaves at least IS em. Ion-. Stipules oblont; or ohovate.- Bomean species, 
f. Stem glabrous. Leaves shuhth pubescenl on the midrib heaneath. West 

f: Stem densely rufous-pubescent. Leaves on the underside on midrib, nerves 

and venules densely pubescent. 

,u. I'etioK-s 1 2 cm. loim; blade 15 26 cm. X 7 13 cm., subobtuse, provided 
with about 20 pairs of nerves. Midrib of the stipules indistinct. West 
Borneo 5. Str. myriocarpa. 

provided with 11 15 pairs of nerves. Midrib of the stipules prominent 

h. Stipules provided with a prominulous or prominent midrib. Bornean 


i: Leaves not doited with resin cells 

k: Internodes eeostate. Leaves with about 12 pairs of nerves; on the 
underside, especially on the nerves, sparsely villosulous. Stipules 

ovate lanceolate, mm. wide. South-east Borneo 

9. Str. undulata. 

1. Inflorescence twice dichasiallv ramiiicd. Leaves obtuse or subobtuse 

and conspicuously bullate.- West Borneo 10. Str. bullata. 

1: Inflorescence unbranched. Leaves shortly acuminate, plane. West 

Stipules not provided with a distincl midrib. Species from the Anambas 

Islands and Sumatra. 

m. Inflorescence with live main branchlcts, the lower pair once forked; in 
the fruiting sta^e increasing to about twice the original si/e. - Anambas 
Islands 12. Str. anambasica. 

r than betore. Sumatran species, 
divided nearly to the middle. Last 

1947] I1KKMKKWII'. Till ■'. i.EM -> STREBLOSA 161 

n: Stipules ovate-nrbic ular , divided lor not more than one-third. 

o. Stipules less than 5 mm. wide. None of the petioles more than 

2 cm. lon«. — Mentawci Mauds 14. Str. Iixpomnlaai. 

o: Stipules more than H) mm. wide. The lower petioles more than 

p. Stems and leaves completely glabrous.- Mentauei Mauds. 

15. Str. Iriophvlla. 

p: Stems and both sides ot the leaves villous or hirsute. 

q. Leaves on the upper side dotted with milmiiL; and in her- 
barium material blackened resin cells, and on both sides 
sparsely villous, provided with ( i-10 nerve pairs. Pyrcnes 
black. — West Sumatra 16. Str. polyantha. 

— East Sumatra 17. Str. scabridula. 

a: The undivided part of the stipules ot the same width as the stem and less than 
2 mm. high. Hairs in the corolla tube m bundle.-. Emits either didynious or 
globose. — Species from Borneo and the Philippines. 

18. Str. < lilum ydantha 

Bracts ovate, lanceolate or linear, shorter than the flowers. Calyx at the most 

t. Peduncle as long as or nearb. a- long ;i- the preceding leal. Calyx divided 
nearly to the base; lobes ovate, O.b mm. long. Fruits didymous. — East 

Borneo 19. Str. Um^istupa. 

t: Peduncle much shorter than the preceding leal. Calyx looes triangular, not 
more than 0.4 mm. long. Fruits globose. 

u. Leaves linear-lanceolate, lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong; raphides at the 
underside in herbarium material easily distinguishable. Bracts early 

than 4 mm. long. — - West Borneo 20. Str. lanicolata. 

Peduncle 1.2-1.5 cm. long. North Borneo 21. Sir. urticina. 

«. Stem, petiole- and, in \ oung leaves, midrib a. d nerves puberulous; 

peduncle den-eb puberulous. North Borneo var. Stapfii. 

a; All parts glabrous. — North Borneo var. ^labrrs,rn.s. 

u: Leaves elliptic; raphides never easily distinguishable. Bracts subper- 

vv. Basal part of the stern about x mm. thick. Leaves 14-17 cm. X 8-10 
cm., with about 10 pairs of nerves. Corolla 3.2 mm. long. — North 
and East Borneo 22. Str. glabra. 

Stipules ecostate and the separated from 
Internodes ecostate. Species Irom Palawan and I 

rectangular. Corolla 3.5 mm. long. — Palawan.. 


var. Merri 

ti: Leaves in herbarium material brown, on both sides dull; rawhides now li 

distinuuishable. Palawan var. Elm 

Intemodes with two longitudinal grooves. Stipular lobes semi trianmi 

Corolla 2 mm. Ion-. Luzon, t'atanduanes and ?Samar 

25. Sir. axilliflt 

',. inlloreseences even in the fruitirm stage not more than 1.5 em. in di; 
<~\ Leaves lam rotate -elliptic, 10-14 cm. X 4.2 5.4 cm. Luzon 

Subgenus Ku-Mreblosa 

Stipulae magnae; pars hasalis caule latior. Bractcae cuiusque paris 

diversa altitudine insertae. Corollae tubus intus annulo completo pilorum 

instructus. Fructus semper ilidymus. Species 1 17, in Peninsula 

Malayana, Sumatra. Java et terra Borneensi endemicae. 

1. Strrl.losa lortiiis (HI.) Khs. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (21 : 240. 1S5I, var. /S cxcl.; 

Mi(|. in Ann. Mus. Hot. Lu-d.-Bat. 4:211. ISO'); Val. in Ic. Hop. 4:139, t. 

M. 1 -. 1912; Koorders-Sclmhmacher. Syst. Ycrz. 1 ( 1 ) : 105. 1912. 

Psyclwtria iortilh HI., Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 05s l,S2o; Mi.)., Id. Ind. Hat. 2:2<M. 

1S57, Suppl. 22S. 1SO0; Hook. I. in Henth. & Hook, f., Gen. PI, 2:124, 125. 

Psyrhotriu microcarpu Wall. excl. ; Hoerb, Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (11:12*9. IS'U; 
Koorders, Fxkursionstl. Java l]-.2bS. 1912. Non Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 169. 
l.XSO; nee King & Gamble in Jour. As. So.. Hen-. 72 (2): 11. 190b; nee Ridl. 
in Jour. As. Soc. Straits 5.7: (,2. 1911, quae est Sir. microcarpa Ridl. 

Caulis ascendens, 10-20 cm. altus. ad apicem 2-2.5 mm. diam.. basi 
plerumque usque ad 3 mm. incrassatus. primum pilis rutis puberulo- 
pubescens, deinde glabresccns. internodiis primum hisulcatis. deinde teres, 
cortice rubro-striatulo vestitus, basin versus bgnescens et ibi libero cras- 
siore rubro-slrial ulo minibus; pars deeiunbens radicans. Folia petiolo 
supra glabro et subtus puberulo-pubescenle. pleninique conspicue rubro- 
striatulo, 1-3.5 cm. loner., instructa; lamina ovata vel ovato-elbptica. 
3.5-11 cm. longa et 2.5 7.2 cm. lata, apice acuta vel subacuta, basin 
versus rotundata. prupe petiolum tamen subito contracta, opaca. supra 
primum dense scabridula. mux glabres. ente et plerum(|iie cellulis resiniferis 
rubris, sice, nigrescent ibus dense punctata, sice, saturate brunnea vel 
badia, subtus casta nervis venulis primum pilis rtil'is dense puberulo- 
pubescens. deinde pan ins substrigosa. inler venulas albido-lepidota. sice. 
dilute brunnea vel raphidibus distincte line.. lata, costa subtus 
pleruni(|ue distincte rubn.-sl rial ula. mesophyllo plentm.|iie cellulis resini- 
feris marmorato. nervis utroque latere costae S vel utrimque prominulis, 
venulis utrimque distinguendis. Stipulae e basi ovata. 5-S mm. lata in 
lobos duos angustos et acutissime exeuntes. plus minusve divergentes. 3 5 
mm. longos contractae. ad basin pubescentes e| margin.- fugaciter ciliolatae. 
ceterum glabrae. Intlorescentiae pedunculo erecto. petiolo folii praece- 
dentis subaequilongo, gracili. pubescente instructae; ramuli 5 subumbellati, 


primum breves, post anthesin usque ad 3 cm. elongati, plerumque semel 

diehasiales, pubescentes. Uracteae ramulorum triangulares, 3-5 mm. 
longae, rubro-striatulae, margine cilialae, subliberae; l.racteae tlorales 
inaequales. cuiusque paris inferior late ovata. 1 mm. longa, superior 
angustior, 0.8 mm. longa, ceterum ut bracteae ramuloruni. Flores furcis 
dichasiorum inserti pedicello 0.6 mm. longo instrucli; aliorum pedicelli 
0.1 mm. longi; florum pares stipite 0.2 0.3 mm. longo elati. Calyx 1 mm. 
altus, lobis ovato-triangularibus tubo duplo longioribus. rubro -striatulis. 
Corolla 3.7 mm. longa. tubo dimidio superior.' subcampanulato. Fruclus 
rubro-maculatus. primum pubescens. deinde glabrescens; pyrenae rubro- 

Habitat silvas Javae praesertim partis occidentalis et Sumatrae 

Java: Bantam Res.: Nando Badak, Blume s.n. (L), f. longistyla, ct G. Seribu, 
Blume 893 (L), f. brevistyla (in eodem folio fi\ae ) . i vn. dupl I l!uit enzor<: Re>.: 
G. Djambu near Leweliant:, alt. 250 m., Bakhuizni v. d. Brink -2^S ( BZ, L) ; ibidem, 
Bakliuizen v. d. Brink Jr. S?S (V ) ; G. Tjibodas near Tjampea, alt. 200 m., Hallier 
461 (BZ. L); G. Burun-j (G. Hundri i, alt. 200 M)() in., S< hitinrr J7()<J (L); I'aMi" Ipis 
near G. Parunm.un-, alt. 750 m., Kakhuizrn v. d. Brink 7293 (BZ, 10. 

Sumatra: Galangankwo near GinteriL', Korthah s.n. (I.): leave, m.iih-wIi.h 

The exact locality of the plant collected by Korthals in Sumatra, is 
unknown to me: that quoted above, is the one given by Korthals in his 
paper in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2): 246. but a label attached to the 
specimen in the Leiden herbarium and written by Korthals himself, is 
inscribed: P. Genting. 

A specimen collected by Koorders in Hanjumas (Central Java), has 
leaves which are much larger than those of the type (up to 14.5 cm. X 
9 cm.), and are not dotted with resin cells, but are like those of the type 
provided with 8 or 9 pairs of nerves. The position of this specimen is 
somewhat uncertain: provisionally I refer it to the species described above. 
but more material from the same region will have to be investigated before 
a definite conclusion can be drawn. Koorders-Schuhmacher I.e. quotes 
a specimen (Koorders 23565 BZ) collected in the Making Resiliency at 
Sumber Tangkil. Tt remains to be seen whether this really is conspecific. 

In some of the specimens, e.g. in Blume 893, anomalous inflorescences 
are seen in which the branchlets are replaced by somewhat impoverished, 
but otherwise normal inflorescences. 

The roots on the decumbent part of the stem are not confined to the 
nodes, but spread over the whole length of the internodes. S< filthier 2700 
shows young plants springing from the decumbent part : one of them is 
already rooting at the base. 

Streblosa tortilis comes very near to Sir. mkrocarpa, with which it was 
confused by Hooker In the shape of the stipules and in the structure 
of the inflorescence with its live forked branchlets and subsessile flowers 
and in the usually conspicuously dotted upper side of the leaves there is 
a close resemblance, but .S7;\ tortilis is a much smaller plant, the stem 

164 JOl'KNAI. OF T1IK AKVM.I) \l!l!OHI Tl M I vol.. xwiu 

rarely exceeding 20 cm. in height and the leave- rarely 10 cm. in length; 
the leaves, moreover, are ovate or ovate-elliptic and acute or subacute 
instead of elliptic and more or less distinctly acuminate, and they are 
lepidote on the lower side, and the peduncle is erect and about as long as 
the petiole of the leaf at its base, instead of much shorter and recurved. 
With Str. lamponu,t usis too it shows an unmistakable affinity, for instance 
in the shape of the stipules and in the development of a rather thick 
secondary bast streaked with red resin cells in the basal part of the stem, 
but this specie- ha- distinctly pedicellate (lowers and its leaves are not 
dotted with resin cells on the upper side. Groups of resin cells in the 
secondary bast are not confined to these three species, but are found also 
in Str. myriocarpa and in ,S7/\ maxima, and perhaps in the related species 
Str. bractcata and Str. mitlti^lamlulosa, but of these I had no material at 
my disposition, and the original descriptions make no mention of this 
character. An epidermis dotted with resin cells on the upper side of the 
leaves, is a much less common feature than the presence of resin cells in 
the cortex and in the secondary bast. In this respect Str. tortilis is 
matched only by Str. mit rocarpa and probably by Str. multi'jlandnlosa , 
and further by the but distantly related Str. polyantha. These resin 
cells are not always easily distinguishable, probably because the production 
of resin varies according to circumstances, and as the cells, in which the 
resin is deposited, are in shape and si/e indistinguishable from the ordinary 
epidermis cells, it is easily conceivable that they are not always conspicuous. 
J. Sin-hlosa mit-rorurpu Ridl., Fl. Mai. Pen. 2:148. 192.*. Nun Ridl. in Kcw Hull. 
1926: 70. 192o, quae est Str. leiophyll-i Brem. 

Strcblosa Wallirhii Men in Papers Mich. Acad. Sri. T.\: I'M. 19.48, n. nom. illet:. 

Pwchotria tortilis HI. in enure apud Hook. f„ Fl. Brit. Ind. i : 16'). 1SS0; Kinu & 
C.aml.le in Jour. As. Sue. Heng. 72 (2): 11. 1906; Ridl. in Jour. As. Soc. Straits 
57:62. 1911. 

Stnhlosa puhnula Men. in Papers Midi. Acad. Sci. 23: 105. 19.58. 

Caulis ascendens, 20-60 cm. altus. ad apicem 1.5-2 mm. diam., basi 
usque ad 5 mm. accrescens, internodiis primum bisulcatis, deinde teres, 
cortice rubro-striatulo vestitus, basin versus lignescens et ibi libero cras- 
siore rubro-striatulo munitus. Folia petiolo supra glabro, subtus primum 
densius, deinde .sparsius puberulo-pubescente, 1.5-5 cm. longo instructa; 
lamina elliptica, 10-23 cm. longa et 4.5-9.5 cm. lata, apice acuta vel 
acuminata, basi contracta, supra nitidula. primum minute scabridulo- 
papillosa, deinde glahrescens, plerumque cellulis resiniferis rubris, sice, 
nigrescent ibus dense punctata, sice, olivaceo-brunnea. subtus praesertim 
costa nervis venulis primum pilis rulis dense puberulo-pubescens, deinde 
sparsius pubescens et inter venulas glabrescens. hand lepidota. sice, pallirle 
viridis vel interdum dilute rubro-brunnea. raphidibus inconspicuis. nervis 
utroque latere costae 10 15, venulis utrimque distinguendis. Stipulae e 
basi ovata 4-6 mm. lata in lobos duos angustos et acutissime exeuntes, 
plus minusve divergentes, 3.5 7 mm. longos contractae, margine scabri- 
dulae, ceterum glabrae Inflorescentiae pedunculo recurvato, puberulo- 
pubescente, 4-5 mm. vel raro uscpie ad 10 mm. longo instructae; ramuli 5 
subumbellati. primum breves, post anthesin ustiue ad 1.5 cm. elongati, 

1947] BREMER A MP. Till <;i M S STREBLOSA 165 

pubescentes, infimi iterum ramulis duobus lateralibus instructi, alii semel 
dichasiales. Bracleae ramuloriim triangulares. 3-5 mm. longae, rubro- 
striatulae, margine ciliatae. hasi late connatae; bracleae ilorales inaequales, 
cuiusque paris inferior 1.5-2..S mm., superior 1.2-1.7 mm. longa, ceterum 
ut bracteae ramulorum. Flores furcis dichasiorum inserti distincte pedi- 
cellati, alii subsessiles; ilorum pares stipile 0.1-0.3 mm. longo elati. 
Calyx 0.7-1 mm. altus. lobis ovato-orbicularibus tubo fere duplo longiori- 
bus" rubro-striatulis. Corolla 2.4-3 mm. longa, tubo dimidio .vaperiore 
subcampanulato. Fructus plerumque rubro-maculatus, primum pubescens, 
deinde glabrescens; pyrenae rubrae vel nigrescentes. 

llabital Peuinsulam Malayanam et Sumalram. 

Malay ' Peninsvla. Prnami, Wallirh Herb. no. 8344, typi s (cxemplum vidi in 
Herb. Gray.); Perak (cf. Ridl. 

Sumatra. Djambi Res.: S Menuopih, h'nttm Kooistm 3 (I ) "\vr> common. 
East Coast Govt.: Asahan, Silo Maradja, alt. 40- 00 m.. Bartlett 8686 (NY). 
H. Pasasan. Rahmat 642Q et 0543 (AA). Tapianuli Res.: Parian- si Dimpuan, 
alt. 30-250 m„ H. Imbaru, Rahmat 4^5^ (XV); Aek Roppak, Rahmat 467?, 477? 
(NY); Si Harehare Diae, Rahmat M'OO (NY, iypi: ot Sir. pubenda Merr., AA i ; 
Sopsopan an Aek si Olip, Rahmat 5101 (NY). Govt. Atjeh and Dependencies: 
Country of the Gajo, between Aer Panas and Reoma Bundar, near milestone f><>/<>7. 
alt. 1000 m, v. Strniis 10070 (11/). West Coast Res.: G. Malintanp, NAV. 
slope, alt. 1150 m., Biinnemeyer 3529 (BZ). 

The specimens collected by liiiimcmcyrr on the V,. Malintang in West 
Sumatra, differ from the type in the absence of the dots caused by the resin 
cells in the epidermis of ihe leaves, the slightly longer peduncles (up to 
10 mm. long), the nearly estipitate (lower-pairs, the slightly larger size 
of the flowers and the nearly black pyrenes. The material is. owing to 
the development of mould during the process of drying, in a very bad 

King & Gamble I.e., cite under their Psychotria tortilis a specimen 
collected in South Sumatra by Forbes (1495), which I have not seen, and 
whose position, therefore, remains uncertain: it may have belonged to the 
real Strcblosa tortilis or to Str. lampongensis. 

Merrill, I.e., rejected Ridley's name for this species because the specific 
epithet was adopted from Psychotria wienxarpa Wall., which he regards 
as an illegitimate name because there exists an earlier homonym. In 
reality, however, it is a manuscript name, which means that it is to be 
regarded as non-existent. As the plant, therefore, had no legitimate name, 
Ridley was free to choose whatever name he wished. 

The differences between Str. microairpa and Str. tortilis have been given 
above. In general aspect it is perhaps more like Str. lampongensis, which 
it resembles in height and in the shape and size of the leaves, but from 
which it is easily distinguishable by the subsessile flowers. 

■ Slrrbliihii lamporigoiisis Brem. n. spec ; typis: that 20 (I.). 

Caulis probabiliter circ. 40 cm. altus, sed pars basalis speciminum 
investigatorum non conservata et habitus inde non bene notus; interdum 
pseudo-dichotome furcatiis; ad apicem 1.5 mm. diam., basi usque ad 5 
mm. incrassatus, internodiis primum bisulcatis, sice, longitudinaliter 

166 .101 RNAL OF THK \K\Ol 1) \\\ It) )l! 1 II M [vol. xxvm 

rugosis. deinde teres, cortice fusco, rubro-striatulo vestitus. basin versus 
lignescens et ihi lihero crassiore sed hand rubm-slriat ulo munitus. Folia 
petiolo subtus primum pilis nihris puherulo, mox glabrescente, 1.5 5 cm. 
longo instructa; lamina I'olionim superionim ovato-elliptica. 10-16 cm. 
longa et 5.5 6.5 cm. lata, apice acuta vel subat uminata. basi rotundata 
sv(\ prope petiolum subito contracta. foliorum inferiorum lanceolato- 
oblonga, IS- -15 cm. longa et 5 5.5 cm. lata, apice basique attenuata. 
omnium supra nitiilula vel opaca, sice, supra saturate et subtus dilute 
rubro-brunnea, primum subtus costa nervis(|iie pilis rubris crispatis dense 
puberulo-pubescens, deinde plus minusve glabrescens. haud lepidota, 
raphidibus inconspicuis, nervis utro(|iie latere costae 11-14, venulis 
utrimque distinguendis. Stipulae e basi ovata, 5 6 mm. lata in lobos duos 
angustos et acut issime exeuntes. plus minusve divergentes, 4 mm. longOS 
eontractae. Intlorescentiae pedum ulo recurvato. sparse hirtello. 5 -S mm. 
longo instructae; ramuli 5 subumbellati, intmu iterum ramulis duobus 
lateralibus instructi et postea ut ramuli alii semel <\u hasiales, sparse hirtelli, 
primum breves, post anthesin usque ad 2 cm. elongati. Hracteae ranui- 
lorum triangulares, uno latere lobo stipulari triangulari instructae. 4-5 
mm. longae, costa carinatae, subglabrae; l)racteae florales ovatae. inae- 
quales, cuiusque paris inferior 1.5 mm. longa. superior minor, hirtellae. 
Florum pares stipite sparse hirtello 0.0 mm. longo elati; flores pedicellati: 
pedicelli sparse hirtelli. 0.5-0.6 mm. longi. Calyx 0.7 mm. altus, lobis 
ovato-lriangularibus tubo aequilongis. Corolla 2.2 mm. longa. tubo 
dimidio superiore subcampanulato. Fructus subglaber; pyrenae rubrae. 

Habitat Sumatram Australem. 

Si MATRA. Lampon- Districts: slope of O. Rate Telan^aran, alt. 400 m., 
Ibut 29 (I., rvpus), (0, dupl. typi). 

It is n-.t impossible that Forbes I-W5, which was collected in the same 
region, will prove to belong to this species. As stated above, it was 
referred by King ov Camble to their I'syehntria tortilis. 

A noteworthy feature of the specimens described above is that they are 
partly pseudo-dichotomously forked. This means that in this species 
occasionally both the axillary buds at the base of the peduncle develop 
into a shoot. The same phenomenon has been observed in Sir. ehlamy- 
tlaiitha and in Sir. lnn«iseapa. 

Streblosa lanipnn^eiisis resembles the two preceding species in the shape 
of the stipules, the thick layer of secondary bast and the five main 
branchlets of the inflorescence, but it differs conspicuously from them in 
its distinctly pedicellate flowers. In this respect it resembles the following 
species, in which the pedicels, however, are much longer and the bracts 
much larger, and whose stipules are provided with a larger undivided part 
and shorter, not diverging lobes. 
I Sm-I»l..s;i l.racl.-ala in Jour As. Sue. Straits 57: 64. 1911. 

Caulis plus quam 45 cm. altus, glaber, basin versus lignescens et ibi 
usque ad 6 mm. incrassatus. Folia petiolo 2.5-S.2 cm. longo instructa; 
lamina ovatodanceolata, 15-17.5 cm. longa et circ. 10 cm. lata, apice 
subacuta, basi contracta, supra glabra, subtus costa pilis crispatis parce 
pubescens, nervis utroque latere costae 20. Stipulae magnae ambitu 
oblongae, bifidae, lobis acuminatis 12 mm. longis. glabrae. Intlorescentiae 


pedunculo 12 mm. longo, pilis crispatis pubescente instructae; ramuli 
pauci. Bracteae llorales oblongae, obtusae, glabrae. flore longiores. 
Flores pedicellati; pedicelli (lore longiores. pubescentes. Calyx lobis 
breviter ovatis. Corolla nonduni nota. Fructus glaber. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem occidentalem. 

Borneo. Sarawak, Ridley 124.17 n.v.; Han, Ridley 11741 n.v. 

The description given above has been adapted from the original. 
Ridley ascribes to the midrib of the leaves and to the peduncle a "scurfy" 
pubescence, which, as scales are unknown in this genus. I have interpreted 
as a pubescence caused by curled hairs. This is in accordance with what 
in other species is found. On account of the large oblong stipules and the 
numerous lateral nerves I have placed it in the neighbourhood of Str. 
myriocarpa, from which it should be easily distinguishable by the glabrous 
stem, the nearly glabrous leaves, and glabrous stipules and by the somewhat 
longer peduncle. Unfortunately no material was available to me for 

5. Sln-blosa myriocarpa Merr. in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7:296. 1937. 

Caulis circ. 30 cm. altus; pars basalis speciminum invest igatorum mm 
conservata et habitus inde non bene notus: ad apicem 4 mm. diam.. basi 
usque ad 9 mm. incrassatus, primum pilis runs crispatis dense pubescens. 
internodiis primum complanatis et bisulcatis, deinde teres, basin versus 
lignescens et ibi libero crassiore dvn^v ferrugineo-striatulo vestitus. Folia 
petiolo subtus primum pilis rubs dense, deinde sparsius puberulo- 
pubescente, 1-2 cm. longo instructa: lamina oblongo-elliptica, 15-26 cm. 
longa et 7-13 cm. lata, apice subobtusa. basi contract,!, opaca, sice, supra 
olivaceo-brunnea, subtus dilute brunnea, supra glabra, subtus costa nervis 
venulis pilis primum rubro-brunneis, deinde ferrugineis dense puberulo- 
pubescens, lepidota, raphidibus distinguendis. nervis utroque latere costae 
circ. 20. nervis venulis(|iie pro genere densius ret iculat is subtus prominenti- 
bus. Stipulae ambitu obovatae, 2.r> cm. longae et latae. bifidae, lobis late 
et oblique triangularibus 1.2 cm. longis contiguis. margine ciliolatae, extus 
ubique sparse puberulae, sice, saturate rubro-brunneae, costa indistincta. 
Inflorescentiae pedunculo rec urvato, ferrugineo-puberulo, circ. 7 mm. longo 
instructae; ramuli 5 subunibellat i, plerumque omnes semel dichasiales, 
pilis ferrugineis puberulo-hirtelli, primum circ. 1.1 cm., deinde usque ad 
1.6 cm. longi. Bracteae ramulorum phis minusve involucrantes, ovatae 
acuminatae, 7-12 mm. longae et 3.5 3 mm. latae, subglabrae; bracteae 
llorales ovato-triangulares, inaequales, cuius(|iie paris inferior 2 mm., 
superior 1.5 mm. longa. Florum pares stipite 1 mm. longo. sparse 
puberulo-hirtello instructi. Flores pedicellati; pedicelli 2.7-3 mm. longi. 
Calyx 0.8 mm. altus, lobis ovato-triangularibus tubo aequilongis. Corolla 
nondum nota. Fructus vix distincte puberulus; pyrenae luteo-rubrae. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem austro-occidentalem. 

Bornko. Western Division: Scbwaner Mis., Bukil Mulu, alt. 700 m, Winkler 
452 (HBG, typus) ; Upper Kapuas Mis., Bukit Obat, Winkler 1334 (HBG), n.v. 

The affinity which I suppose to exist between this species and Str. 
bractcata has been discussed already. From the doubtless nearly related 
Str. maxima it differs in the shortness of the petioles, the subobtuse, on 

168 JOURNAL OK TMK MiNOLD MiBOliKTI \l [vol. xxmii 

the underside ferrugineous-puberulous leaves with their more numerous 
nerves and denser reticulation, and the larger size of the bracts subtending 
the branchlets of the inflorescence. 

6. Str.-I.losa maxima Brum. n. spec; rvrcs: Amdjuh, Kxpcd. v. Gnulnrn Stort 

283 (BZ). 

Caulis circ. v.) cm. aim-: par- ba.-ali- specimiiutm invest i.u r at<>rum non 
conservata et habitus inde non bene notus: ad apicem 4 mm. diam., basi 
usque ad ( ) mm. incrassatus, pnnuim pilis rutis crispatis dense pubescens, 
intemodiis primum complanatis et bisulcalis, deinde teres, basin versus 
lignescens et ibi libero crassiore dense rubro-striatulo vestitus. Folia 
petiolo subtus pilis rutis primum dense, deinde sparsius puberulo-pubes- 
cente, 2 S cm. longo instructa: lamina elliptic a. 2.S-.U) cm. longa et 1 I- 12 
cm. lata, apice caudato-acuminata. basi contracla. supra nitidula, sice, 
supra saturate et subtus dilute rubro-brunnea, supra glaberrima. subtus 
primum ubique pilis rutis densius puberulo pubescens, deinde costa nervis 
venulis satis dense, ceterum sparse puberula. Icpidota, raphidibus incon- 
spicuis, nervis utro<iue latere costae II 15. nervis venulis(|iie subtus 
prominulis. Stipulae ambitu obovatae, 2.7 cm. longae et 2.2 cm. latae. 
bitidae, lobis late et oblique triangularibus 1.2 cm. longis. margine ciliatae, 
costa pilis rutis dense, ceterum sparsissime puberulo-pubescentes, sice. 
saturate rubro-bi iinneae. lntlorescent iae pedum ulo ret urvato, puberulo. 
circ. 10 mm. longo instructae; ramuli 5 subumbellati, infimi semel 
dichasiales. onmes pilis rutis piiherulo hirtelli. primum circ'. 1.1 cm., deinde 
us<|ue ad 2 cm. longi. Hracteae ramulorum triangulares, intimae 8 mm. 
longae, carinatae; bracteae tlorales inae(|iiales, cuiusque paris inferior 
2 -2.5 mm. longa, superior dimidio brevior. Klorum pares stipite 2 mm. 
longo, hirtello instrucii. l-'lores pedieellati. Uedicelli cuiusque paris 
paulum inaequales. 2.5 vel 3 mm. longi. Calyx 0.8 mm. alius, lobis 
ovato-triangularibus tubo ae(|uilongis. Corolla C5 mm. longa, tubo tereti. 
Kructus pilis rutis puberulodiirtellus; pyrenae rubro-brunneae. 

Habitat terrae Uorneensis partem septentrionalem. 

Borneo. Southern and Eastern Division: Tidung, G. Labang, Amdjak, 

Strcb/osa maxima and Sir. myriocarpa are very similar: both are 
provided with stout, densely pubescent shoots, large, on the upper side 
completely glabrous and on the underside. espe< ially on the midrib and on 
the network of the nerves and venules, densely puberulous-pubescent 
leaves, large, slightly puberulous pubescent stipule- and many-flowered 
inflorescences with live main branchlets and pedicellate (lowers. Streblosa 
bractcaia is apparently a less robust plant provided with a less conspicuous 
indumentum, but with leaves and stipules of a similar shape and size. 
Sfnb/osa maxima differs from Sir. myriocarpa m the greater length of the 
petioles, the larger, caudate-acuminate leaves with their smaller number 
of nerves and more lax reticulation, the reddish brown colour of the 
indumentum, the inconspicuousness of the raphides. and the smaller size 
of the bracts at the base of the branchlets. 

7. Slr.-l.losa nniliigl;iiitliilo>:i Mm. in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. IS: 288. 1929. 
Caulis circ. 30 cm. altus. primum pilis rubro brunneis crispatulis dense 


villosus. deinde glabrescens, usque ad 5 mm. diam. accrescens. Folia 
petiolo 1-1.5 cm. longo, dense crispatulo-villoso instructa: lamina oblongo- 
ovata vel oblongo-obovata, 9-14 cm. longa ct 4-6 cm. lata, apice acumi- 
nata, basi cuneata. subcoriacea, supra sice, olivacea, glabra, cellulis resini- 
feris rubris vel brunneis punctata, subtus praesertim costa nervisque pilis 
rubro-brunneis vel ferrugineis conspicue crispatulo-villosa, nervis utroque 
latere costae circ. 13, venulis subtus prominulis. Stipulae ambitu ovatae. 
bifidae, 1 1.4 cm. longae. Inflorescentiac subsessiles, multillorae, densae; 
ramuli circ. 1 cm. longi. Bracteae llorales lineari-lanc eolatae, 8 12 mm. 
longae c-t 1-1.5 mm. latae. acuminatae. rubro-striatulae, pilis rubro- 
brunneis pubescentes. Flores pedicellati: pedicelli 1 4 mm. longi. 
Fructus rubro-striatulus. plus minusvc tVrrugineo-villosus. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem septentrionalem. 

Borneo. British North Borneo, near T.m.m, Elmrr 210QQ. typi s, n.v. 

The position of this species is difficult to determine. The presence of 
resin cells not only in the mesophyll of the bracts and in the mesocarp but 
also in the epidermis on the upper side of the leaves is a diagnostic 
character of great importance, but as these cells are found in such distantly 
related species as 5/r. tortUis and Str. polyantha, the taxonomic value of 
this character is small. Of more importance are the ovate stipules, the 
long iloral bracts and the pedicellate flowers, for on account of these 
characters it is to be assigned a place between or next to the species 9-18, 
of which the first four occur, like Str. nudti^aiididosa, in Borneo and the 
remaining ones in the Anambas Islands and in Sumatra. The presence 
of curled hairs on the stem and on the underside of the leaves suggest a 
nearer affinity with the Bornean Str. bullata and Str. bractcolata. On 
account of this presumed affinity it has been assumed in the key that it 
belongs to the same group of bornean species as the latter (species 8-11), 
and that its stipules are, like those of the other species of this group, 
provided with a prominent midrib. It differs from the species 8-11 in the 
presence of resin cells in the epidermis on the upper side of the leaves. 
In this respect it resembles the Sumatran Str. polyantha. from which it 
is easily distinguishable by the entirely glabrous upper side of the leaves. 
In the "rather rigid" leaves it resembles Str. bractcolata. 
S. Sir.-hlos:, Joliannia-Winkleri Merr. in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7: 297. 1927. 

Caulis usque ad 60 cm. altus, erectus, ultimo tamen prostratus et ex 
axillis innovationes emittens. ad apicem 1.2 mm. diam. et pilis paucis 
sparsus. mox glabrescens tamen et basi usque ad 3 mm. diam. incrassatus, 
internodiis leviter bicostatis, primum vix conspicue complanatis sed haud 
sulcalis, basi lignescente cortice I'usco et libero crassiore sed haud distincte 
strialulo vestitus. Folia petiolo subtus primum pilis runs dense vestito, 
deinde glabrescente. 1.5-2.5 cm. longo instructa; lamina lanceolata, 12-14 
cm. longa et 4.2-5 cm. lata. utro(|ue extremo contracta. opaca, supra sice. 
nigro-brunnea, subtus dilute brunnea. supra glabra, subtus ubique pilis 
runs sparsa, lepidota, raphidibus minime in foliis novellis distinguendis, 
nervis utroque latere costae 8-10, venulis subtus prominulis. Stipulae 
ambitu ovatae, 10-15 mm. longae et 7 9 mm. latae, acuminatae, bifidae, 
lobis 5 mm. longis, contiguis. margine et costa prominente ciliatae, ceterum 

170 JOl K\ \k OF Till'. \K\OI I) \RBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

glabrae. Inflorescentiae pedunculo rcnirv.'ihi. sparse hirtello, 4 mm. longo 
instructae; ramuli 5 subumbellati, simplices, primum circ. 0.5 cm., deinde 
usque ail 1 cm. longi, .sparse hirtclli. Bracteae ramulorum lineari- 
lanceolaiac 7 mm. longae et 1.5 mm. laiac. subglabrae; bracteae florales 
margine ciliatac. in;u-< jualt-s, cuiusque paris inferior linearis, 3-4.5 mm. 
longa et 0.3 0.4 mm. lata, superior linearidanceolata. 1.2 mm. longa ct 
0.3-0.4 mm. lata, 0.5 mm. in pcdicellum tgrediens. Florum pares stipite 
0.5 mm. longo instructi. Flores pedicellali; pedicelli 2.5 mm. longi, parce 
hirtelli. Calyx 0.7 mm. alt lis, lobis ovato-triangularibus tubo subaequi- 
longis. Corolla 3 mm. longa. tubo tereti. Fructus pane hirtellus; 
pyrenae rubrae. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem austro-oi cidentalem. 

Borneo: Western Division: Schvvancr Mts., Bukit Mulu, alt. 450 m., 
Winkler 111 (IIIU;, ivims); Hani, alt. 150-180 m„ Winkler 352, 356 

The stipules of this species are not only like those of Str. maxima, Str. 
hullata and Str. braitcolata, provided with a distinct midrib, but its inter- 
nodes, moreover, are distinctly bicostatc, the midribs of the stipules 
detuning to the preceding node, whereas the shoots of the other species 
are ecostate. bicostatc internodes, however, are a constant feature of the 
Bornean representatives of the subgenus Para-strcblosa. Among the 
species belonging to the subgenus h'.u-strcblosa. to which Str. Johannis- 
Wink/rri. on account of the ovate stipules, unequal floral bracts and the 
complete ring of hairs in the corolla-tube doubtless belongs, it comes nearest 
to ,S7r. undulata, Sir. bulbil a and Str. brat i -obit a. which it resembles in the 
shape and si/e of the stipules and in the nature of the indumentum. From 
.S7r. bullata and Str. braitco/ata it differs conspicuously in the narrow 
leaves, and from Str. undulata in the smaller number of nerves; from all 
three moreover in the bieostate internodes. 
9. Streldosa undulata Khs. interpr. Yak in Kiml .. Hot. Jahrb. tt: 5<>S. 1010; an Khs. 

in Wd. kruidk. Arch. II, 2:247. 1851 Vs\dw\ria undulata iKhvi Mi,,.. M. 

In,l. Hat. 2:291. 1S57 ct Hocrl., Hand!. Fl. \c,l. Ind. 2 (1): I.O. I so l . inccrtuni. 
Caulis 50 cm. altus, ad apicem fuliginoso-villosus. basin versus lignes- 
cens. Folia petiolata; lamina lanceolata, 9 15 cm. longa et 3.5-5 cm. 
lata, apice sensim acuminata vel attenuata, basi attenuata. margine saepe 
leviter undulata. supra glabra, sice, fusca vel olivaeea. subtus ubique ^\ 
imprimis ad nervos sparse fuliginoso-villosula, sice, pallide olivaeea. nervis 
utroque latere costae circ. 12, subtus prominulis et colore fusco conspicuis. 
Stipulae late ovato lanceolatae, bifulae, lobis acuminatis villosulis, 12 mm. 
longae et basi 6 mm. latae. Inflorescentiae subsessiles. densiflorae. 
Bracteae florales lineares. tloribus ae(|uilongae. crassiusc ulae. pilosae. 
Mores pedicellate Pedicelli tloribus aeqnik-tmi. 2 4 mm. longi. Mucins 


with those collected by Korthals on Mt. Sakumbang, seems dubious, for 
Korthals described the leaves as elliptic and hirsute on the nerves beneath, 
the stipules as ovate and the bracts as oblong, whereas the leaves of 
Winkler's specimens are, according to Valeton's description, lanceolate 
and sparsely villosulous on the nerves beneath, the stipules ovate-lanceolate 
and the bracts linear. It is quite possible that in the future, when the 
flora of the south-eastern part of Borneo becomes better known, a species 
may be found which fits Korthals' description better than that described 
by Valeton. In my opinion it would have been belter if Valeton had 
described Winkler's specimens under a new name: in the absence of the 
type-specimen, Korthals' species doubtless can not be regarded as 
sufficiently recognizable. Provisionally, however, I have accepted Valeton's 

The species described above apparently comes near to Str. Johannis- 
W'mklcri, from which it differ- in a somewhat more conspicuous indumen- 
tum, a larger number of nerves in the leaves, narrower stipules, and 
probably also by the absence of the ribs on the internodes: the latter, at 
any rate, are not mentioned in Valeton's description. 
10. Strehlosa bullata Merr. in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7:296. 1937. 

Caulis ascendens, circ. 15 cm. altus. ad apicem 1.5 mm. diam.. basi 
usque ad 2.5 mm. incrassatus. primum pilis rut'is dense pubescens, deinde 
plus minusve glabrescens, intemodiis hand distincte sulcatis, basi libero 
crassiore sed baud distincte striatulo vest it us; pars decumbens radicans. 
Folia petiolo subtus pilis runs primum dense, deinde sparse pubescente, 
0.5-1.5 cm. longo instrueta: lamina elliptic,!, elliptic o-oblonga vel elliptico- 
ovata, 4.5 7.5 cm. longa et 2.7-0.2 cm. lata, apice subobtusa vel obtusa. 
basi ad petiolum snbito contracta, opaca. sice, supra olivacea, ad costam 
nervos venulos tamen pallida, subtus dilute olivacea, costa nervisque 
brunneis, inter nervos et venulos conspicue bullata. supra glabra, subtus 
costa nervis venulis a pilis primum rubro-brunneis. deinde ferrugineis 
dense pubescens. lepidota. raphidibus inconspic mis, nervis utroque latere 
costae 8-10, venulis subtus prominulis. Stipulae ambit u ovatae, 7.5-8.5 
mm. longae et 8-10 mm. latae. bilobae. lobis 2.5 mm. longis, contiguis, 
margine ciliatae, costa densius puberulo-pubeseentes. ceterum glabrae. 
Intlorescentiae pedunculo recurvalo. sparse pubescente, 5 mm. longo 
instructae; bis dichasiales, 2 cm. diam. bracleae intimae lanceolatae. 
12.5 mm. longae et 4.5 mm. latae. margine ciliatae; bracteae florales 
lineares, margine et costa ciliatae. mae<|iiales, cuius(|ue pan's inferior circ. 
8 mm. longa et 2 mm. lata, superior circ. 5 mm. longa et 0.8 mm. lata, in 
pedicellum usque ad 0.5 mm. egrediens. Flores pedicellati; pedicelli 
sparse hirtelli, tlorum in furcis dichasiorum insertorum circ. 7 mm. longi, 
aliorum circ. 3 mm. longi; tlorum pairs stipite 1 mm. longo elati. Calyx 

1.4 mm. altus, lobis ovato-triangularibus tubo subaequilongis. Corolla 

5.5 mm. longa. tubo tereti. Fructus sparse hirtellus; pyrenae luteolae. 
Habitat terrae Borneensis partem austro-occidentalem. 

Borneo. Western Division: Upper Kapuas Mts., Nanga Era, alt. 150 m., 
Winkler 1560 (HBG, typus). 

This species is easily distinguishable by its conspicuously bullate leaves. 

172 JOIKWI. OF TIIK \K\Ol.l) \ KIU .K I Tl M [vol. xxvm 

Its most important character, however, is the twice dichasially branched 
inflorescence. In this respect it conies nearest to Str. bract colata, for in 
both species the inflorescences are entirely e\ annus, whereas elsewhere the 
main axis bears a number of racemosely at ranged branehlets. In the 
length of the bracts and in the comparatively large si/.e of the flowers too. 
these two species resemble each other. In the nature of the stipules and 
in the hairiness of the nerves and venules on the underside of the leaves 
they resemble the other bornean speeies of the subgenus Eu-strcblosa. 
11. Slrt-Mosu brartoohita Mi-rr. in Mitt Inst. All- Hot. Hamburg 7:2<>5. HM7. 

Caulis ascendens. circ. 30 cm. altus. ad apicem 1.6 mm. diam.. basi 
usque ad 3 mm. incrassatus. priinuni pilis I use is dense pubescens, dcinde 
plus minusve glabrescens, internodiis prinuun [this minusve complanatis 
sed vix sulcatis, basi libero crassiore. baud distincte striatulo vestitus; pars 
decumbens radicans. Folia petiolo subtus dense pubescente, 1-2 cm. 
longo instruct.! ; lamina obovata vcl ellipt ieo-obovata. 6 9.5 cm. longa et 
3.8-5 cm. lata, apice breviter acuminata, basi contracta. pro genere rigi- 
dior, opaca, sice, supra olivacea, subtus dilute brunnea. supra glabra, 
subtus pilis fuscis ubi(|iie sed eosta nervis venulis densius pubescens, 
lepidota, raphidibus im onspicuis. nervis utro(|iie latere costae S vel ( >, 
venulis subtus prominulis. Stipulae ambit u late ovatae. 9.5 mm. longae 
et 12 mm. latae. bilobae, lobis 2.5 mm. longis. margine ciliatae. costa 
pubescentes sed ceterum glabrae. Intlorescentiae pedum ulo recurvato. 
pubescente, 3 mm. lung., instructae; simplices. Kracteae llorales inhmae 
subaequales, lanceolatae. 12 mm. longae et 4 mm. latae. margine ciliatae; 
abac lineares. extus sparse hirtellae. margine ciliatae. iiiatM pi.ilcs. cuiusque 
pans inferior 10 mm. longa et 1.7 mm. lata, superior (> mm. longa et 0.9 
mm. lata. Florum pares stipite 1 mm. longo elati. Klores pedicellat i ; 
pedicelli subglabri, circ. 3 mm. longi. Calyx 2 mm. altus, lobis ovato- 
triangularibus tubo ae(|uilongis. Corolla S mm. longa. tubo tereti. 
Fructus sparse hirtellus; pyrenae rubro-brunneae. 

Habitat terrae Hoi -neensis partem austro on identalem. 

Hhkm.ii Western Division: Sehuaner Mts.. Bukit Mulu. alt. 300 m., Winkler 
11VS (HIU;, tvits); Bidan- Menahei, Winkhr SM (HBdl. 

As stated above, this species tomes nearest to Str. hullata, from which 
it is. however, easily distinguishable: its leave- are plane, the inflorescences 
unbranched, the bracts longer and the flowers larger. The relations of 
these two species with .S7r. Johannis W'hiklcri and .S7; . umhtlata have been 
discussed alreadv in the note at the end of the description of .S7/\ Johamiis- 

Merrill, I.e., compares this species with Str. pubescens Ridl.. of which I 
have seen no material, but whose position in the genus Strcblosa seems to 
me very dubious. Its stipules are said to be lanceolate-acuminate, which 
would mean that they are entire, its stamens should be inserted at the 
base of the corolla-tube, and both the stamens and the style should be 
included. It is possible thai my objections against its position are based 
on inaccuracies in the description, and that it is in reality a true Strcblosa. 
On account of its stibsessile flowers, it is, at any rate, not probable that it 
would belong to the nearest allies of the species described above. 


12. Sin>l)lo>;i ;m;iitil»;i>ic;t Rrem. n. spec; typcs: v. Stccnis 703 (L). 

Caulis ascendens, circ. 40 cm. altus, ad apicem 1.5 mm. diam., basi 
usque ad 4 mm. incrassatus. primum pilis paucis sparsus, mox totus 
glabrescens, internodiis primum bisulcatis. basin versus lignescens et ibi 
libero tenui, baud striatulo vestitus. Folia petiolo marginibus primum 
parce ciliato, 1-3.5 cm. longo itistructa: lamina lanceolata, 11-14 cm. 
longa et 4.2-4.8 cm. lata, apice acuta vel subacuminata, basi cuneata vel 
subcontracta, opaca, sice, supra saturate et subtus dilute brunnea, utrimque 
glabra, subtus lepidota, raphidil)iis ineoiispicuis, nervis utroque latere 
costae 9 vel 10. venulis siee. colore sal ural iore subtus conspieuis sed vix 
prominulis. Stipulae ambit u ovatae, 7 mm. altae et. 6 mm. latae, acutae, 
bifidae. lobis contains S nun. loimis, eiliatae, ceterum glabrae. Inflores- 
centiae pedunculo reeurvato, primum pilis rubs puberulo-pubescente, 
deinde glabrescente. circ. 5 mm. longo instruct ae; ramuli 5 subumbellati, 
primum pubescentes, deinde glabrescentes, primum circ. 7 mm., deinde 
usque ad 13 mm. longi, intimi semel dichasiales. Bracteae ramulorum 
lineari-lanceolatae. primum subtus parce pubescentes, deinde glabrescentes, 
deciduae. infimae usque ad o mm. lnngae; bracteae florales lineares, paulum 
inaequales, cuiusque paris inferior 4-5 mm., superior 3-3.5 mm. longa, 
praesertim margine plus minusve distincte hirtello-pubescentes. Florum 
pares stipite 1 mm. longo instructi. Flores pedicellati; pedicelli circ. 1.5 
mm. longi. parce hirtello-pubescentes. Calyx 0.S mm. altus, lobis ovato- 
triangubiribus lubo aequilongis. Corolla 1.5 mm. longa, tubo tereti. 
Fructus hirtellus; pyrenae luteolae. 

Habitat Archipelagum Anambasicum. 

Anambas Islands; Siantan: east of Terampa, alt. 200 m., v. Stccnis 703 (L, 

This species occupies a rather isolated position in the genus. By the 
shortness of the pedicels it resembles Str. lampongcnsis, from which it 
differs, however, conspicuously in the shape of the stipules and in the 
thinness of the secondary bast. In the shape of the stipules it resembles 
the Bornean species 8-11 and the Sumatran species 13-17, especially the 
latter, for from the Bornean species it differs by the inevidence of the 
midrib. The Sumatran species it resembles also in the thinness of the 
secondary bast, but it differs from them in the larger number of branchlets 
in the inflorescence. 

Habitually Str, anambaska is easily distinguishable from the other 
species of the subgenus Eu-streblosu by its glabrous leaves. The only 
other species with entirely glabrous leaves is Str. Iciophylla, a plant from 
the Mentawei Islands, which is provided with much smaller, more compact 
inflorescences with three simple branchlets, larger stipules with shorter 
lobes, and nitidulous, in dried material olivaceous leaves. 

13. Streblosa deliensis Brcm. n. spec; typus: Loerzing 4o60 (L). 

Caulis ascendens, circ. 30 cm. altus, ad apicem 1.8 mm. diam., basi 
usque ad 3.5 cm. incrassatus, glaber, parte novella sice, nigrescente, 
internodiis primum bisulcatis, basin versus lignescens et ibi libero tenui, 
haud striatulo vestitus. Folia petiolo glabro, 2-5 cm. longo instructa; 
lanceolato-elliptica, 12-15 cm. longa et 

174 JOl K\\l. OK TIIK \K\(>I l> \KBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

4-6.5 cm. lata, apice acuminata vel attenuata, basi ctiueata vel contracta, 
opaca, sice, supra saturate olivacea. subtus dilute olivaceo-brunnea, subtus 
costa nervisque primum puberulo-pubescens, mox ubique glabrescens. vix 
conspicue lepidota. raphidibus inconspicuis. nervis utrotjiif latere costae 
9-11, venulis subtus prominulis. Stipulae ambitu ovato-lancenlatae. 10 
mm. altae et 7 mm. latae, acutae, bitidae. lobis omtiguis 5 mm. longis. 
margine ciliatae. ceterum glabrae, lullorescentiae pedimculo recurvato, 
3 mm. lougo instructae; ramuli 3. simpliccs. u 10 mm. longi. post anthesin 
vix elongati. Bracteae ramulorum ovatae, 5 mm. longae et 3 mm. latae. 
ciliolatae; bracteae llorales lineares. inaequales. cuius(|ue paris inferior 5 
mm. longa et 1 mm. lata, superior 2.5 mm. longa et 0.5 mm. lata. Florum 
pares stipite 1-1.5 mm. longo instructi. Flores pedicellati; pedicelli 
glabri. circ. 3 mm. longi. Calyx 0.7 mm. altus. lobis ovato-triangularibus 
tubo ae(|uilongis. Corolla 1.9 mm. longa, tubo tereti. Fructus puberulus; 
pyrexiae rubrae. 

Habitat Sumatram < ). i identalem. 

Si mai'KA. K;ist Coast Covt.: Deli. Siliolanuit. on the tirounds of I he Botanic 
Garden, alt. 450 in., Locrzing 4660 (L, TYPUS). 

Strrblosa drlirnsis, Str. hypomahn a, Str. Iriophvlla, Str. polyantha and 
Str. scabriduia resemble each other in the thinness of the secondary bast 
in the basal part of the stem, the ecostate stipules, and the very shortly 
pedunculate inflorescences with their three simple branchlets, which do 
not markedly elongate when the fruits ripen. They are all five endemic 
in Sumatra and the neighbouring Mentawei Islands. Stnhlosa drlirnsis 
differs from the four others in the narrower, bifid, not bilobate. stipules 
and in the ovate shape of the bracts at the base of the inflorescence. It 
is a nearly glabrous plant, and in this respect it comes nearest to Str. 
leiophylla, whose leaves, however, are completely glabrous and nitidulous. 
14. Slr.-hl.iMi hvponuiliiiM Bn-m. n. spec; [but 445 (L). 

Strrblosa hirta Ridl. in errore apud Ridl in Kru Bull. \<>2(r. 70. 1926, non Ridl. 
in jour. As. Sue. Straits f.Trft.v UM 1 . 

Caulis us(|ue ad 50 cm. altus, parte basali non visa, ad apicem 1.2 nun. 
diam., basin versus us(|tte ad 4.5 nun. incrassatus. primum dense pubescens. 
deinde glabrescens, internodiis bisulcatis, basin versus lignescens et ibi 
libero tenui, baud striatulo vestitus. Folia petiolo primum dense, deinde 
sparse pubescente. 0.5— 1 .S cm. longo instructa: lamina lanceolata. S.5-13 
cm. longa et 2.~> 5 cm. lata, utroque extremo attenuata, supra nitidula. 
sice, supra saturate, subtus dilute olivaceo-brunnea. costa canaliculata 
supra pilis paucis sparsa, subtus primum <\v\\<v. deinde sparsius pubescente. 
hand lepidota, raphidibus inconspi. uis. nervis utroque latere costae 10 
vel 11. venulis subtus vix prominulis. Stipulae ambitu ovato-orbiculares. 
3.7 4.7 mm. altae et 4-5 mm. latae. acutae. bilobae. lobis contiguis 1.2 
mm. longis. margine ciliatae. ceterum glabrae. lullorescentiae pedunculo 
recurvato. puberulo-hirtello, 3 mm. longo instructae: ramuli 3, simplices. 
9 mm. longi, post anthesin vix elongati, pubei ulo-hil telli. Bracteae 
ramulorum lineares, 7 mm. longae, apice puberulo-hirtellae; bracteae 
florales etiam lineares, inaequales, cuiusque paris inferior 5 mm. longa et 
1.3 mm. lata, superior 2.5 mm. longa el 0.7 mm. lata. Florum pares 
stipite 1 mm. longo instructi. Flores pedicellati; pedicelli apicem versus 


sparse hirtelli. 23 mm. longi. Calyx 0.6 mm. alius, lobis ovatis tubo 
paulo longioribus. Corolla nondum aperta 1.8 mm. longa, tubo tereti. 
Fructus hirtellus; pyrenae rubrae. 

Habitat insulam Siporam in Archipelago Mentaweiensi. 

Mentawei Islands. Sipora: near Sioban, Ibut 445 (L, typus). 

Ibut accompanied Boden Kloss on his visit to the Mentawei Islands as 
collector for the Botanical Gardens, Buitenzorg, and the types of this 
species and the next were collected on the same dates as the specimens 
quoted by Ridley, I.e., under the names Str. hirta and Str. mkrocarpa. 
It can therefore hardly be doubted that they are identical with the latter. 

The stipules of Str. hypomalaca are of the same shape as those of Str. 
leiophylla, Str. polyantha and Str. scabridula, but they are much smaller. 
A remarkable feature of this species is the comparatively short petioles: 
in this respect it resembles the Bornean Str. bullata and Str. bracteolata. 
15. Streblosa leiophylla Brcm. n. spec; typus: Ibut 98 (L). 

Streblosa mkrocarpa Rid!, in errore apud Ridl. in Kew Bull. 1926: 70. 1926, non, Fl. Mai. Pen. 2: 148. 1923. 

Caulis ascendens. circ. 40 cm. altus. ad apicem 1 .6 mm. diam., basi usque 
ad 5 mm. incrassatus. glaber. parte novella site, t'uscescente, internodiis 
primum complanalis >ed baud distincte sulcatis. basin versus lignescens 
et ibi libero tenui. baud striatulo vestitus. Folia petiolo glabro, 1-3.5 cm. 
longo instructa; lamina elliptico-oblonga. "-15 em. l.»nga et 5.5-7.5 cm. 
lata, apice acuta vel subacuminata, basi contracta, supra nitidula, sice, 
supra saturate et subtus dilute olivaceo-brunnea, utrimque glaberrima, 
subtus haud lepidota. raphidibus inconspicuis, nervis utroque latere costae 
12 vel 13, ven ul is subtus prominulis. Stipulae ambitu ovato-orbiculares, 
11 mm. altae et 10 mm. latae. acutae, bilobae, lobis contiguis 3 mm. longis, 
margine fugaciter eiliatae. ceterum glabrae. Inlloresc.entiae pedunculo 
reeurvato. suhglabn), 1 nun. longo instruetae; ramuli 3 simplices, circ. 9 
mm. longi, post anthesin vix elongati. lbaeteae ramulorum lineari- 
lanceolatae. 6.5 mm. longae. subglabrae; bract eae lie. rales lineares, extus 
dimidio superiore puberulae. inaequales, cuiusque paris inferior 4.5-5 mm. 
longa. superior 3 3.5 mm. longa. Florum pares slipite 1 mm. longo in- 
structi. Flores pedieellati: pedieelli sparse hirtelli. 1.5 nun. longi. Calyx 
0.S mm. longus, lobis ovatis tubo paulo longioribus. Corolla matura 
nondum visa. Fructus apice puberulo-hirtellus: pyrenae luteolae. 

Habitat insulam Archipclagi Mentaweiensis Siberut dictam. 

This species is easily recognizable by the completely glabrous stem and 
leaves. In the size of the stipules it resembles Str. polyantha and Str. 
scabridula, but in other respects it is more like Str. hypomalaca, the other 
species from the Mentawei Islands; its leaves are like those of the latter, 
on the underside smooth, not lepidote as in Str. polyantha and Str. scabri- 
dula, i.e. they lack the pallid protuberances by which in the latter the 
stomata are raised above the general level of the epidermis, and the flower- 
pairs are provided with a stipe of the same length as that of Str. 

176 JOURNAL OF THE ARNOLD USROllKTl M |\oi. xxyiii 

hypomahua, and longer than that found in Str. polyantha and in Str. 

lo. Sir.-Uosa pnKantlia Khs. in Ned Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2): 246. 1851; Miq. in Ann. 

Mus. Hot. Iawl. Hat. 4:262. I860. 
Psvi-hotria sinnalvnsh Mi<|.. LI. Intl. Hal. 2:204. 1S5S. n. mmi., Suppl. 22,v 1860; 

Hocrl., Handl. LI. Ned. Ind. 2 (1): 1S<). 1891. 
Slrrblosa hirta Ridl. in Jour. As. Sue. Straits r>7:6.v 1<M1, cuius folia aniaistiora 

Caulis protKihiliter circ. 25 tin. alta. sed parte basali in speciminibus 
invest igat is mm conservata, ad apicem 1.5 nun. diain.. hasin versus us(|ue 
ad 3 nun. incrassatus, primum dense villosus, ultimo plus niinusve 
glabrescens, internodiis primum bisulcatis, basin versus ligneseens et ibi 
hbero tenui. hand stnatulo vestittis. Folia petiolo primum dense, deinde 
minus dense villoso. 1-3 cm. longo instructa; lamina elliptiea vel oblongo- 
elliptica, 9-12 cm. longa et 4.5 5.7 cm. lata, apice acuta vel acuminata, 
basi contracta, opaca. sice, supra olivacea et cellulis resiniferis nigro- 
punctata, utrini(|ue sparse villosa, costa nervis(|tie subtus tamen densius 
villosa. subtus lepidota. raphidibus supra ad coxtam distinguendis. ceterum 
inconspicuis. nervis utroque latere costae 9 vel 10. venulis subtus vix 
prominulis. Stiptilae ambitu ovalo-orbiculares, 12 mm. altae l;it;te(|iie. 
acutae. breviter bilobae. lobis cont ignis 3 nun. longis. margine ciliatae, 
ceterum glabrae. Inllorescent iae pedum ulu recurvato. circ. 3 mm. longo 
instructae; ramuli 3 simplices, circ. 9 nun. longi. post anthesin vix elongati. 
Hracteae o nines lineares. margine ciliatae, ranuilonun 5 nun. longae, 
florales inaequales. cuiusque paris inferior 3.5 mm., superior 2.5 mm. 
longa. Florum pares stipite 0.5 mm. longo elati. Flores pedicellati; 
pedicelli glabri, circ. 1.5 mm. longi. Calyx 0.8 mm. altus. lobis ovato- 
triangularibus tubo aequilongis. Corolla 1.5 nun. longa. tubo tereti. 
Fructus ad apiceni hirlellus; pyrenae nigrae. 

Habitat Sumatrani Occidentalem et forsilan IViu'iistilam Malayanam. 

Mai \v I'i.nin'S! i a. Penan*: et Pcrak (Str. hirta Ridl.) n.v. 

The leaves of Str. hirta Ridl. have been described as slightly narrower 
than those of Str. polyantha (10-15 cm. X 3.7 5 cm. instead of 9-12 cm. 
X 4.5-5.7 cm.), but as the description reveal- no other points of difference, 
I am, for the moment, unwilling to accept it as specifically distinct. 
Ridley had seen no material of Korthals' species, and the existing descrip- 
tions were too incomplete to be of much use It is. of course, not 
impossible that a renewed investigation will reveal the presence of more 
important differences. 

Strvblosa polyantha resembles the next species in many respects, but is 
easily distinguishable by the softness of the indumentum, by the somewhat 
broader leaves, which are provided with a smaller number of nerves and 
with resin cells in the epidermis of the upper side, and further, by the 
black pyrenes. 

17. Str<-l>los;i sciil.ridula Riem. n. spec.; tyims: Porters v. Leeuwen 3104 (L). 

Caulis ascendens, circ. 40 cm. altus. ad apicem 1.5 mm. diam., basi 
primum dense, deinde sparse hirsutus. 


internodiis primum vix distincte bisulcatis, basin versus lignescens et ibi 
libero tenui, haud striatulo vestitus. Folia pctiolo primum dense, deinde 
sparsius hirsuto, 1-3 cm. loimo instructa; lamina lanceolato-oblonga, 
9-14.5 cm. longa et 3-5 cm. lata, apice acuminata, basi contracta, supra 
nitidula, sice, supra saturate et subtus dilute olivaceo-brunnea, utrimque 
sed praesertim subtus costa nervisque scabrido-hirsuta, subtus vix distincte 
lepidota, raphidibus inconspicuis, nervis utroque latere costae 12 vel 13, 
venulis subtus prominulis. Stipulae ambitu ovato-orbiculares, 17 mm. 
altae et 13 mm.iatae, acutae. bilobae, lobis eontiguis 4 mm. longis, margine 
ciliatae, ceterum glabrae. Inflorescentiae pedunculo recurvato, 4 mm. 
longo instructae; ramuli 3 simplices, circ. 9 mm. longi, post anthesin vix 
elongati. Bracteae omnes lineares, margine dense ciliatae; florales inae- 
quales, cuiusque paris inferior 4 mm., superior 3 mm. longa. Florum 
pares stipite 0.5 mm. longo instructi. Flores pedicellati; pedicelli sparse 
hirtelli, circ. 2 mm. longi. Calyx 0.8 mm. altus. lobis ovato-triangularibus 
tubo aequilongis. Corolla 3 mm. longa, tubo tereti. Fructus apice 
hirtellus; pvrenae rubrae. 

Habitat Sumatram Orientalem. 

Sumatra. East Coast Govt.: Asahan, Haboko, Docters v. Leeuwen 3194 (L, 

The differences between this species and the nearly related Str. polyantha 
have already been discussed. From the other species belonging to this 
genus they differ in the presence of fairly long hairs on the upper side of 
the leaves. 

Subgenus Para-streblosa. 

Folia subtus numquam lepidota. Stipulae parvae, parte basali indivisa 
brevi. Bracteae cuiusque paris suboppositae et subaequales. _ Flores 
semper subsessiles. Corollae tubus teres, intus fasciculis 5 pilorum instruc- 
tus. Fructus nunc didymus. nunc globosus. — Species 18-25, in terra 
Borneensi et insulis Filippinis endemicae. 

Series Costatae. 

Stipulae costa prominente et usque ad nodum praecedentem decurrente 
instructae; lobi stipulares contigui. — Species 18-23, omnes Borneenses. 
18. Streblosa chlamydantha Brem. n. spec; typus: Endert 2414 (BZ). 

Caulis ascendens, circ. 1 m. altus, interdum pseudo-dichotome furcatus, 
ad apicem 2 mm. diam., basi usque ad 9 mm. incrassatus, primum puberu- 
lus, internodiis primum bisulcatis, sulcis tamen mox expletis, basin versus 
lignescens et ibi libero tenui. hand striatulo vestitus. Folia petiolo 
primum puberulo, deinde glabrescente, 0.8-6 cm. longo instructa; lamina 
oblanceolata vel elliptica, foliorum supremorum 12-13 cm. longa et 5.5-6.5 
cm. lata, inferiorum usque ad 19 cm. longa et 9 cm. lata, omnium apice 
caudato-acuminata, basi contracta, opaca, sice, supra saturate brunnea, 
subtus dilute olivaceo-brunnea, supra glabra, subtus primum costa nervis 
venulis dense puberula, ultimo plus minusve glabrescens, subtus raphidibus 
dense lineolata, nervis utroque latere costae plerumque 14-15, venulis 
subtus vix prominulis. Stipulae fugaces, parte indivisa 1 mm. alta, lobis 
e basi triangulari filiformibus, 3-4 mm. longis. Inflorescentiae pedunculo 
que ad 5 mm. longo instructae; ramuli 5, subumbellati, pri- 

178 JOURNAL OF THK MiNul.U \ li li< >i; I Tl \1 [vol. xxvm 

mum circ. 7 mm. longi el tot i l.tailt'is imbricatis obtecti. deinde bractcis 
exutis usque ad 3.5 cm. elongati, puberulo-pubescentes. Bracteae ramu- 
lorum oblanceolatae; bracteae florales obovatae, 3.7 mm. longae et 2.8 mm. 
latae, margine vi\ conspicuc ciliolatae, ceteruni glabrae, raphidibus con- 
spicuc linoolatae. Florum pares estipitati. Calyx subglaber. circ. 1.2 
mm. altus, fere usque ad basin in lobos ovato-ohlongos. imbricatos. distincte 
inaequales, margine vix conspicuc ciliolatos partitus. Corolla 2 mm. 
louga. Fructus didymus. puberulus; pyrenae luteo-brunneae. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem centro-orientalem. 

Borneo. Southern and Kastern Division: Wt-st Kntai. near H. I'lihus, alt. 
70 m„ Endcrt 2414 (HZ, typcs). 

Strcblosa chlamydantha and .S7r. lon^iscapa, both inhabitants of the 
central part of Hast Borneo, are the tallest plants of this genus, for both 
reach a height of about one meter. 'Fhey are. moreover, not rarely pseudo- 
dichotomously branched, but this peculiarity has also been observed in 
Str. lampon^cHsis. From the other species of Para-streblosa they differ 
conspicuously in the didymous fruits. Strcblosa chlamydantha, moreover. 
is easily recognizable by the large size of the bracts and by the large, 
distinctly unequal, imbricate calyx-lobes. 
VC Str.-I.losa longiM-iipa Brcm. n. spec; typcs: Endert 3479 (BZ), 

Caulis circ. 1 m. altus. interdum pseudo-dichotome furcatus, parte 
basali in speciminibus investigatis non conservata, ad apicem 2 mm. diam., 
basin versus usque ad 5 mm. incrassatus. glaber. internodiis primum 
bisulcatis. sulcis tamen niox expletis. basin versus lignescens et ibi libero 
tenui, hand striatulo vestitus. Folia petiolo prinumi puberulo, niox 
glabrescente, O.S 4 cm. longo instructa; lamina lanceolata. rhomboidea 
vel elliptica. foliorum superiorum (> cm. louga et 2..S cm. lata, inferiorum 
us(|ue ad 10 cm. longa et <).5 cm. lata, omnium apice caudato-acuminata. 
basi contracta. opaca, sice, supra saturate brunnea. subtus dilute olivaceo- 
brunnea, supra glabra, subtus primum cost a nervis venulis dense puberula. 
ultimo plus minusve glabrescens, subtus raphidibus dense lineolata, nervis 
utro(|ue latere costae in foliis supremis S. in folds aliis usque ad 17, venulis 
subtus vix conspicuis. Stipulae fugaces. parte indivisa circ. 2 mm. alta. 
lobis e basi triangulari lilifonmbus 4 6 mm. longis. Intlorescentiae 
pedunculo erecto, folio pniecedenti subae(|uilongo vel eo paulo breviore. 
bicostato, glabrescente instructae; ramuli " paint ulatini tlispositi. semel 
dicha.siales. puberulo-pubescentes; laterales centrali multo longiores. 
Bracteae ramulorum anguste triangulares. 2 3 mm. longae; bracteae 
llorales lineares. 1.3-1.5 mm. longae. puberulo pubeM cntes. Florum pares 
stipite 0.4 mm. longo instrueti. Calyx iuil)erulo-|)iibescens. 0.6 nun. altus. 
fere usque ad basin in lobos ovatos subobtusos partitus. Corolla matura 
nondum visa. Fructus didvmus. subglaber; pvrenae luteolae. 

Habitat terrae Bomeensis partem centro-orientalem. 

Kiai, all. 7(10 in., Endcrt 4.^2 (HZ) ; H. Prtak, all. 500 m , Endcrt 4470 (HZ, tvpis.. 
This species is easily distinguishable by its long-pedunculate, paniculate 
inflorescences. As stated above, it is doubtless closely related to Str. 


20. Streblosa lanceolata Merr. in Mitt. Inst. Allp. Bot. Hamburg 7:297. 1937. 
Caulis ascendens, circ. 50 cm. altus, arl apicem 1.2 mm. diam., basi usque 

ad 3 mm. incrassatus. glaber. intemodiis primum bisuleatis sed sulcts mox 
expletis, basi lignescens et ibi libero tenui. baud striatulo vestitus. Folia 
petiolo primum puberulo, mox glabrescente. 0.7-1.5 cm. longo instructa; 
lamina anguste lanceolata, 10-16 cm. longa et 2.0-3.3 cm. lata, apice 
eaudato-attenuata. basi cuneata. opaca, sice, supra saturate obvacea. 
subtus griseo-viridis, primum utrimque puberula, mox glabrescens, subtus 
rapbidibus dense lineolata. nervis utroque latere costae <) vel 10, venubs 
paucis vix conspicuis. Stipulae fugaees. parte indivisa 1 mm. alta, lobis 
c basi triangular! t.liformibus 2 mm. longis. Intloreseentiae peduneulo 
palente. subglabro. us<|iie ad 4 mm. longo instructae; ranuib plerumque .•> 
subumbellati, primum circ. 5 mm., deinde usque ad 15 mm. longi, intmu 
semel dichasiales. subglabri. Bracteae onmes triangulares, puberula.'. (in . 
1 mm. longae; bracteae florales quam ramulorum paulo latiores tamen, 
margine vix conspicue ciliolatae, deciduac. Calyx puberulus, 0.7 mm. 
longus. lobis ovato-triangularibus tubo subaequilongis. Corolla nondum 
nota. Fruetus globosus. glaber; pyrenae luteolae. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem austro-occidentalem. 

Bokxko. Western Division: Upper Kapuas Mts., Hukit Obat, alt. 90 m„ 
U'iuklrr 1^2 (HlUi, imhs); ibidem, Liant: Gat:anti, Hatlirr 2.™] (L). 

Strcblosa lanceolata, Str. urticina, Sir. glabra and Str. assimilis resemble 
each other in the globose fruits, the short calyx-lobes and the shortly 
pedunculate inflorescences. Strcblosa lanceolata and Sir. wticina resemble 
each other also in other respects, for instance in the shape and size of the 
leaves and in the ronspieuousness of the raphides on the underside, and 
also in the early deciduous bracts. The leaves of Str. lanceolata, however, 
are slightly narrower and shorter petiolate. The peduncles of this species 
too, are distinctly shorter. The leaves of Str. glabra and Str. assimilis are 
much wider, and the raphides are invisible; their bracts persist for a longer 

21. Slr«blosa urticina Stapf in Trans. Linn. Sue. Bot. II. 4:182, t. 13A, f. 1-10. 

1894; Ridl. in Jour. As. Soc. Straits 57:01. 1'Ul, sprciminiUis in Sarawak lectis 

probability exdusis of. Str. assimilis Brcm.). 

>0 cm. altus, ad apicem 1.2 mm. 
tus, internodiis primum bisulcatis 
lignescens el ibi libero tenui, haud striatulo 
vestitus. Folia petiolo 0.7-3 cm. longo instructa: lamina lanceolata vel 
oblongo-lanceolata, 11-16 cm. longa et 4 6 cm. lata, apice caudato- 
acuminata basi eontraela. opaca, siee. supra saturate, subtus dilute 
obvacea. subtus raphidibus lineolata, nervis utroque latere costae 10-12. 
venubs subtus vix conspicuis. Stipulae e parte indivisa, 0.8 mm. alta. 
subpersistente et lobis e basi triangulari filiformibus, fugacibus compositae. 
Infiorescentiae peduneulo patente, 1.2 1.5 cm. longo instructae; ramuh 
plerumque 3. simplices vel semel dichasiales, primum 5-10 mm. longi, 
postea usque ad 25 mm. accrescentes. Bracteae onmes triangulares, 0.6 
mm. longae, mox deciduae. Calyx 0.4 mm. altus, lobis rotundatis tubo 
aequilongis. Corolla matura nondum nota. Fruetus globosus; pyrenae 

]«0 JOURNAL OF TI1K AKNOI.I) \UI1( )K1 II \l [\<>i.. xxvm 

Habitat terrae Borneensis part em septentrionalem. 

Species haec solvenda est in varietates duas; forma typica a me vocatur: 

Streblosa urticina Stapf var. Stapf.i Brem. n. num. 

Caulis primum puberulus, deinde glabrescens. Folia petiolo primum 
dense, deinde sparsius ]ui!htu1o instruct;! ; lamina primum utrimque sed 
praesertim subtus costa nervisque puberula. deinde plus minusve glabres- 
cens, raphidibus supra inomspicuis. Inllorescenliae dense puberulae. 
Fructus puberulo-hirtellus. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem septentrionalem. 

Borneo: British North Borneo: Ml. Kinabalu. IVnokok, alt. 1000 m., 
Ilaviland 132S (K, tvpis), n.v.; Pi-nibukan, rid-e cast of l)ahoban<i Ridm\ alt. 
1200-1500 m., J. & .1/. S. Clemens MMS (L) ; IVnataran River, alt. 1000 m., J. & M. 
S. Clemens 34020 (L). 

The habit was described by Stapf as climbing, but it was pointed out 
already by Ridley lc that this is a mistake 1 he flowers arc according 
to Stapf 4-merous, but as the plate accompanying his description clearly 
shows, they are in reality, as elsewhere in this genus. 5-merous. 
Streblosa urlicina Stapl var. glahrescens Brem. n. var.; tvims var.; Amdjah, 
Kxped. v. Genderen Start, 371 (BZ). 

Caulis glaberrimus. Folia mo\ tota glabrescentia, raphidibus utrimque 
lineolata. [nflorescentiae pedunculo glabro instructae. ceterum parce 
puberulae. Fructus subglaber. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem septentrionalem. 

Borneo. Southern and Eastern Division; Tidung, G. Labang, Amdjah 
(Kxped. v. Genderen Start) 371 ( BZ, tvims varietatis). 

The G. Labang, where this specimen was collected, lies near the British- 
North- Bornean frontier. 

Streblosa urticina and .S7>\ lanccolata are doubtless closely related. As 
stated above, the leaves of Str. urtkhia are slightly wider and longer 
petiolate. and the peduncles arc much longer. Streblosa urticina, more- 
over, appears to be a plant occurring at a higher altitude: the specimens 
of the var. Stop fit at least were all collected between 1000 and 1500 m., 
whereas Str. lanccolata was found at a height of 90 m. Streblosa urticina, 
Str. mkrocarpa and Str. axiili flora are the only species found above 1000 
m. altitude, but the two latter have also been collected in localities less high. 
22. Slreblosa glabra Val. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 44:567. 1910; non Elm., Lean*. 
I'hilipp. Hot. t: M5n. 1<H_\ quae es! Str. p„Lr..;niensis Brem.; nee Merr, Knum. 
Philipp. Fl. PI. 3:5M. V)2\, quae est p.p. Str. axMiflora Merr. et p.p. Str. 
pnhnjiinensis Hrem. 

Streblosa platvphvlla Merr. in t'niv. Calif. Puhl. Hot. 1.1: 2SS. lQ2<i. 

Caulis ascendens. circ. 30 cm. altus, ad apicem circ. 2 mm. diam.. basi 
us(|ue ad /> mm. incrassatus, primum vi.x conspicue puberulus, mox 
glabrescens, internodiis primum bisulcatis scd sulcis mox expletis, basin 
versus lignescens et ibi libero tenth, hand striatulo vest it us. Folia petiolo 
primum puberulo. deinde plus minusve glabrescente, 1.2-5 cm. longo 
instructa; lamina elliptica, 14-17 cm. longa et 8-10 cm. lata, apice 
breviter caudato-acuminata, basi contracta. opaca. sice, supra saturate, 


subtus dilute olivaceo-brunnea, primum utrimque sed praesertim subtus 
costa nervisque puberula, deinde glabrescens. raphidibus mconspn ins, ner- 
vis utroque latere costae circ. 10. venulis subius vix prnminulis. Stipulae 
subpersistentes, parte indivisa 2 mm. aha. lobis e basi triangulari filiformi- 
bus, 2.5 mm. longis. costa decurrenie pro serie debili. Inflorescentiae 
pedunculo patente, primum dense, deinde sparse puberulo, 7-12 mm. longo 
instructae 1 ramuli plerumque .v simplires vel seme! dichasiales, subumbel- 
lati, dense puberuli, 5-10 mm. longi. post anthesin vix accrescentes. 
Bracteae omnes 2 mm. longae et sparse puberulae, ramulorum hneares, 
flurales oblongae. Calvx puberulus, 0.4 mm. longus, lobis rotundatis tubo 
subaequilongis Corolla 3.2 mm. longa, tubo tereti. Fructus globosus, 
puberulo-hirtellus; pyrenae luteolae. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem occidentalem. 

Borneo: Southern and Eastern Division: between Kondim Baru and Batu 
Babi H Winkler 2751 (L, dupl. typi). British North Borneo: Elphinstone 
Prow, Tawao, Elmer 21140 (U, AA. exempla tvpi Str. platy phylla Mm.). 

The name of this species is somewhat misleading, for it is by no means 
completely glabrous. It may have influenced Merrill when he investigated 
the plants collected by Elmer at Tawao. Merrill described the leaves of 
the latter as "praesertim ad costam nervosque plus minusve sordide 
villosis," and a detached leaf added to one of the specimens in the her- 
barium of the Arnold Arboretum, indeed answers this description, but this 
leaf, which differs from the others not only in the nature of the indumentum 
but also in the colour it assumed in the press, and in the conspicuousness 
of the raphides, is either teratologics! or. more probably, part of another 
species. It is possible that the type-specimen consists of stems provided 
with this kind of leaves, but in view of the fact that the rest of the 
descripion agrees with that given above, this seems less probable than the 
supposition that the tvpe too consists of leaves of both kinds. Acting on 
this supposition, I have reduced Str. platy phylla to Str. glabra. Whether 
the aberrant leaf belongs to a Streblosa species, is, of course, difficult to 
decide, but in view of the great similarity in the nervation, this does not 
look improbable to me. 

Streblosa glabra differs from the two preceding species in the greater 
width of the leaves and in the inconspit uotisness of the raphides, and also 
in the subpersistent stipules and bracts. From the next species it differs 
in the smaller size of the leaves, which, moreover, are provided with a 
smaller number of nerves, and in the smaller size of the flowers. The 
internodes of Str. glabra are less distinctly bicostate than those of the 
other species belonging to this series, but the ribs are nevertheless plainly 

23. Streblosa assiniilis Brem. n. spec; typus: Hallier 2725 (L). 
vpecimina in Sarawak lota, adhur incertum. 

Caulis probabiliter ascendens, sed parte basali in speciminibus investi- 
gatis non conservata. ad apicem 1 mm. diam.. basin versus usque ad 7 mm. 
incrassatus, glaber, internodiis primum bisulcatis sed sulcis mox expletis, 
basin versus lignescens et ibi libero tenui, haud striatulo vestitus. Folia 


petiolo glabro, 1.5-8 cm. long.) instruct;!; lamina elliptica. 17-27 cm. longa 
et 8.5 12 cm. lata, apice breviter caudato acuminata, basi acuta vol 
rotundata sed prope pctiolum semper contract:!, opaca, sice, supra saturate 
et subtus dilute (ilivaceo-brumiea. primum vix conspicue puberula. mox 
glaberrima, raphidibus inconspicuis. nervis utroque latere costae circ. 13. 
venulis subtus vix prominulis. Stipulae subpersi.stentes, parte indivisa 2 
mm. alta. lobis e basi triangulari hliformibus. I ntloresi entiae pedunculo 
patente, parce puberulo. 4 mm. longo instructae; ramuli 8 vel 5. subum- 
bellati, simplices vel semel dichasiales. primum 5-7 mm. longi, post 
antbesin paulum elongati. Hracteae omnes ovatae, 2 mm. longae. sub- 
glabrae. Calyx pubenilus, O.o mm. altus. lobis rotundatis tubo aequilongis. 
Corolla o mm. longa. tubo tereti. Fructus globosus. siibglaber, maturus 
nondum notus. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem austro-occidentalem. 

Hornko. Western Division: Upper Kapuas Mis., Liani; (">aganu r , Hallirr 

Very similar to the preceding spe< ies and by Valeton regarded as a mere 
variety of the latter (Sir. glabra Yal. var. brevipes Yal. in sched.), but 
differing in several points: the stem is glabrous, more strongly bicostate 
and more robust, the leaves are larger, provided with a larger number of 
nerves and almost completely glabrous, the peduncle is shorter and the 
flowers are nearly twice as large. 

It is not impossible that Ridley 12430 from Puak and 12432 from 
Lundu in Sarawak. whi< h Ridley referred to ,S7/\ intieina, but of which he 
says: -'They are more robust with larger leaves, the stems quite woody 
and erect," may prove to belong to the species described above. 

Series Ecostatae. 

Stipulae et internodia ecostatae; lobi stipulares simi latiore separati. 
Species 24-25, in Palawan et insulis Filippinis endemicae. 

1\. Sti-.-l»lo*a palawan.-nsis Brem. n. spec: typvs: Merrill 11586 (L). 

Caulis suberectus. circ. 40 cm. altus, ad apicem circ. 1.5 mm. diam.. basi 
usque ad 4 mm. incrassalus, internodiis hand sulcatis, basin versus 
lignescens et ibi libero tenui, hand striatulo vestitus. Folia petiolo primum 
subtus fusco-puberulo. mox glabrescente, 1 5 cm. longo instructa; lamina 
ellipticodanceolata, 9.5-17 cm. longa et 3.8-6.2 cm. lata, apice caudato- 
acuminata, basi contracta, primum subtus costa nervis(|iie plus minusve 
puberula, nervis utroque latere costae 9 12, venulis subtus vix prominulis. 
Stipulae fugaces. parte indivisa 0.5-1 mm. alta. lobis linearibus, 1.5-1.8 
mm. longis, sinu rectangulari 1.5 mm. lato separatis. Inilorescentiae 
pedunculo patente. fusco-puberulo. 5-9 mm. Iongo instructae; ramuli 
plerumque 3, semel dichasiales. subumbellati, fusco puberuli, primum 0.5-1 
cm. longi, deinde usque ad 2.5 cm. elongati. Hracteae omnes triangu- 
lares, fusco-puberulae. ramulorum usque ad 2 mm., llorales 1-1.5 mm. 
longae. Calyx fu.s, o-puberulus. 0.5 mm. altus, lobis late triangularibus 
tubo paulo longioribus. Corolla nondum matura 3.5 mm. longa, tubo 
tereti. Fructus globosus; pyrenae luteolae. 

1 labitat insulam Palawan dit tarn. 

1947] BREMEKAMP, THE CF.M S Sill! I'.I.OS \ 

Species haec in varietates duas solvenda; forma typic; 

Lamina foliorum nitidula, sice, utrimque olivacea, su 
lineolata. Fructus vix conspicue hirtello puberulus. 

Habitat insulam Palawan dictani. 

Palawan: Malampayan Ray. Mrmll 115S6 (L, typcs, AA, duj 
Streblosa palaw anniM- Uivm. \ar l.lnnri liruii. n. var.; typcs ^ 

itrimque brunnea, raphidibus inconspicuis. 

» Napsan, alt. 750 m., Elmer 12285 

(L, TYi'i's var, AA, dupl.). 

Elmer, I.e., describes the leaves of this plant as nitiduloiis. but in dried 
condition they are dull. A few inaccuracies of his description have already 
been pointed out in the introduction to this paper. 

Streblosa paliruwirnsis resembles Sir. axil/iflora in the ecostate inter- 
nodes and in the wide gap between the two stipular lobes, but differs from 
that species in the absence of grooves in the young internodes, in the size 
and shape of the stipular lobes and in the shape of the gap by which the 
latter are separated from each other, and also in the somewhat larger size 
of the flowers. 

25. Si.vl,lo>a axilliflora Mt-rr in Philipp. Jour. Sci. Rot. 10: 144. 1915. 

Streblosa glabra Val. in crrorc apu.l Mrrr., Enum. Philipp. EI. PI. 3:564. 1923, 
quoad speeimina in Euzon ct Catanduani'.s lecta. 

Caulis ascendens, plerumque 15-30 cm. altus, ad apicem circ. 1.5 mm. 
diam., basi usque ad 3 mm. incrassatus, internodii.s. hand profunde scd 
latius sulcatis, basin versus lignesrens et ibi libero tenui. baud striatulo 
vestitus. Folia petiolo glabro vel primum fuscoqiuberulo. 1.5-5 cm. longo 
instructa; lamina nunc elliptico-lanceolata. 10 14 cm. longa et 4.2-5.4 cm. 
lata, nunc elliptica. circ. <S cm. longa et 5.5 cm. lata, apice acuta vel vix 
conspicue acuminata, basi contracta, opaca vel nitidula, sice, supra saturate 
et subtus dilute olivacea, primum subtus costa nervis(|iie fusco-puberula, 
deinde plus minusve glabrescens, raphidibus subtus interdum distinguendis, 
nervis utroque latere costae 9 vel 10, venulis subtus vix prominulis. 
Stipulae fugaces. parte indivisa 1.5 mm. alta, lobis e basi circ. 3 mm. lata 
sensim attenuatis. 0-7 mm. longis, sinu 1 1.5 mm. lato. basi rotundato 
separatis. Inlloresi-entiae pedunculo patente. fusco-puberulo, circ. 3 mm. 
longo instructae; ramuli plerumque 3, semel dichasiales. subumbellati, 
fusco-puberuli. Hracteae ramulorum triangulares. 3 4 mm. longae; 
bracteae Ilorales multo minores, plerumque circ. 1 mm. longae, margine 
parce ciliolatae. Calyx fusco-puberulus, 0.6 mm. altus, lobis triangulari- 
bus tubo paulo longioribus. Corolla circ. 2 mm. longa. Fructus globosus, 
hirtello-puberulus; pyrenae luteolae. 

Habitat partem insulae I.uzoniae australem et insulam Catanduanes 

184 JOURNAL OK TIIK AK\OI I* \li!U)lil Tl \l [v..... w 

Species haec in varietates probability plures solvenda est quarum ti 
ibi descriptae sunt; forma typica a me vocatur: 

C'aulis glaher vel primum fusco-puberulus. Lamina foliorum elliptic 
lameolata. 10-14 em. longa et 4.2-5.4 cm. lata. Hamuli inflorescentian. 
post anthesin vix elongati, circ. S mm. longi. 

Habitat partem hiMilae Lu/oniae australem. 

Luzon. Camarines Sur: Pana^an River, alt. 700 m., Edano IB. Sc. I 76: 
(NY) ; Kamu-onu River, alt. 100 m., Edano \ H. Sc. I 75<W (NY) ; Sorso K on: Iros 
Ml. Hulusan. Wmcr /.WK ( L, I', NY); s.l. Ramos IB. Sc] 23500 (N\ ). 

t'aulis (lensius puberulus. Lamina foliorum elliptiea. circ. 8 cm. ', 
et 5.5 cm. lata. Hamuli intlorescent iarum post anthesin vix elongati, 

Habitat partem lnsulae Lu/oniae australem. 

Sln-hl«)>a axilliflora Mm. var. laxiflora 

( 'aulis glaber. Lamina 
et 5 cm. lata. Hamuli ii 
elongati., tt insulam ( 'atanduanes dictam. 

Cvumh'ams: Ml. Abucay, alt. 1400 m„ Ramos & Edano | B. Sc. ] 7>M)X (NY, 
tvpus var.); ibid., alt t.00 m„ A\n»m & Edano | H Sc. I 7>,W> (NY); Halo trail to 
Vina, alt. 250 m„ fti»i ( -j & Edano 7HSH7 (NY). 

It is not impossible that this variety, when more material becomes 
available, will prove to be sufficiently distinct to be raised to specific rank. 

Merrill. I.e., quotes specimens collected in Samar. but as 1 did not see 
them. I am unable to express an opinion with regard to their 

Index Specierum 

anambasita Hrem. n spec- - Anambas Island--. 

assimilis Brem. n. spec- West Borneo. 

tixillitorti Mcrr. in Philip]). Jour. Sci., Bot. 10:141. 1915 — Philippines. 

var. anzustifolia Hrem. n. nom. — Luzon. 

var. latiioli,, litem, n. var. — Luzon. 

var. laxiflora Brem. n. var. Catanduanes. 
bracteata Ridl. in Jour. As. Soc. Straits 57:64. 1911- West Borneo. 
bractcolata Merr. in Mitt. Inst. All-. Bot. Hamburg 7:295. 1937 — West 
bullata Merr. op. c it . 20(> West Borneo. 
chlamydantlia Hrem. n. spec. — East Borneo. 
drlinisis Hrem n. spec. — Last Sumatra. 
lilabra \'al. in Hot. Jahrb. U:5o7. 1910— East Borneo. 


8. Johannis-Winkleri Merr. in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7:297. 1937. — We: 

3. lampongensis Brem. n. spec. — South Sumatra. 

20. lanceolata Merr. in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7: 297. 1937— West Borneo. 

15. leiophylla Brem. n. spec. — Mentawei Islands. 
li. longiscapa Brem. n. spec. — East Borneo. 

6. maxima Brem. n. spec. — North Borneo. 

2. microcarpa Ridl., Fl. Mai. Pen. 2: 148. 1923 — Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 

7. multitfandulosa Merr. in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. If,: 288. 1929 — North Borneo. 
5. myriocarpa Merr. in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7: 296. 1937— West Borne< 

24. pala-i'am-nsis Brem. n. spec. — Palawan, 
var. Elmeri Brem. n. var. — Palawan. 
var. Mrrrillii Brem. n. nom. — Palawan, 
platyphylla Merr. in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. lf>: 288. 1929 = glabra. 

16. polyantha Khs. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2) : 246. 1851— West Sumatra an 

perhaps Malay Peninsula (hirta Ridl.). 
puberula Merr. in Papers Mich. Acad. Sci. 2.!: 1<>5. 1938 - microcarpa. 
pubeMens Ridl. in Jour. As. Soc. Straits 57:03. 1911— Malay Peninsula — speck 

17. scabridula Brem. n. spec. — East Sumatra. 

I* tortilis (Bl.) Khs. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2): 246. 1851 (Psychotria Bl. 
Java, West Sumatra, 
var. /3 Khs. I.e. — West Sumatra — incertae sedis. 

9. undulata Khs. op. cit. 247; interpr. Val. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 44:568. 191 

— South-east Borneo. 

21. urticina Stapf in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. 2, Bot. 4:182. 1894 — North Bornec 

var. glabrescens Brem. n. var. — North Borneo. 

Wallichii Merr. in Papers Mich. Acad. Sci. 23:194. \ 1 ):^, n. nom. illeg. - 

Strrhlosti species ctiam sub nomine generico I'sycholria rognitae. 
Psychotria singalensis Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2:294. 1857, n. nom. = Streblos 

polxantlia Khs. 
Psvchotr'ia tortilis Bl., Biidr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 958. 1826 =_ Strcblosa tortilis (Bl.) Kh 
Psychotria undulata (Khs.) Miq.. Fl. Ind. Bat. 2:294. 1S57, n. comb, (non Poir 

Encycl. Suppl. 4:591. 1816. sphalm. = P. undata Jacq., Hort. Schoenb 

3:t. 260. 1798) = Strcblosa undulata Khs. 



i\ ikoni i i -|()\ 

Pomazota Ridl. was based on a planl collected in the Malay Peninsula. 
The valvate aestivation of its eorolla lobes, the dehiscent fruit and numer- 
ous angular and alveolate seeds prove that it belongs to the Hedyotideae. 
Ridley's plant shows a striking resemblance to the species of the genus 
Coptophyllum khs., but Ridley was of opinion that H differs from them in 
the nature of its fruits. Those of Pomazota are stated to open by a lid. 
whereas those of Coptophyllum are assumed to be indehiscenl . Ridley's 
idea of the fruits of the latter, however, was apparently based on a some- 
what superficial study of the literature. It is true that both in Rentham 
& Hooker's "(ienera Plantarum" and in Schumann's monograph of the 
family in Fngler & Prantl's "NaUirliche Ptlanzenfamilien" the genus is 
reckoned to the M ussaendeae. i.e. to a tribe in which the fruits are said to 
be indehiscent. but korthals himself had been less positive, for he had 
described the fruit (in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2): 161. 1851) as "capsula 
membranacea indehiscens (?) bilocularis." Thai the interrogation mark 
in this sentence belongs to "indehiscens" and not to "bilocularis" need not 
be doubted. Whether the septum of a bilocular ovary persists or disap- 
pears in the ripening fruit is taxonomically, as a rule, but of little 
importance, and if Korthals had fell the slightest uiu erlainty on this point, 
he certainly would have preferred to pass on without mentioning the 
number of fruit-cells. Moreover, Hentham & Hooker, as well as 
Schumann, and Ridley also, had apparently overlooked Miguel's descrip- 
tion of Coptophxllum' c a pit at urn ( PI. Ind. Hat. 2: .*4S. 1S57), the species 
quoted by Ridley in his "Flora of the Malay Peninsula." for Miquel 
described the fruits- of this plant as "capsulae vertice apertae." 

As the fruits of ('. pilosum, the second species described by Miquel (in 
Ann. Mus. Hot. Lugd.-Hat. 4: 2S0. I860), open in the same way as those 
of C. capitation, and as up to now no further species of this genus have 
been made known, we may safely conclude that the difference in the 
nature of the fruits on which Ridley had based his generic distinction, is 
in reality non-existent. Moreover, as the real differences existing between 
the species of Coptop//yltnm and Pomazota are all found to be of minor 
importance, it is clear that the two genera must be considered identical. 

A difficult}' to the view here brought forward lies in the fact that 


Korthals' generic description deviates in two points from that given below, 
the corolla being described as naked inside and the calyx-lobes as oblong. 
Another objection might be found in the obtuse stipules mentioned in the 
description of the type-species, but these incongruities should not be 
taken too seriously. The oblong calyx-lobes offer no difficulty at all, for 
calyx-lobes of this shape really occur in some of the species, but as they 
can not be considered a general feature of the genus, they could, of course, 
find no place in my description. A corolla naked inside and obtuse 
stipules, however, occur in none of the species below referred to Pomazota, 
and their presence in the type-species of Coptophyllum, therefore, would 
form a serious obstacle to my view of the identity of the two genera. This 
obstacle can only be overcome by assuming that the observations of 
Korthals were incorrect. Mistakes of this kind may easily come about 
when the material is incomplete and in a bad condition. The ring of 
spreading hairs in the upper part of the corolla-tube, although a very 
striking feature in the fully developed flower, is easily overlooked when 
the flowers are still in bud. for these hairs are at first firmly pressed against 
the wall. The sharp points of the stipules may pass unnoticed, because 
they are easily broken off: it is quite conceivable that they may have been 
absent in Korthals' specimens. As the latter are lost, the question of 
their generic position can not be settled with absolute certainty, but as the 
rest of Korthals' description agrees well with that given below, e.g., in 
the very characteristic shape of the stigmata, and as we know no other 
genus which fits the description equally well, there is apparently no reason 
to regard Coptophyllum as a "genus clubium" or to doubt its identity with 
Pomazota. However, as the name Coptophyllum Khs. (in Ned. Kruidk. 
Arch. 2 (2): 161. 1851) is a later homonvm of Coptophyllum Gardner (in 
Hook., Ic. PI. 5: t. 477, 478. 1842), it can not be retained, and is to be 
replaced by Pomazota Ridl. (in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. II 3: 308. 1893). 

When an older generic name is rejected in favour of a more recent one, 
the question arises as to which species should be regarded as the type. It 
can obviously be solved in either of two ways, for our choice depends on 
what we consider more important: the connection will) the name which is 
to be retained or that with the taxonomic conception which found its first 
expression in the rejected name. The '-International Rules of Botanical 
Nomenclature" give us no guidance. It is true that Art. 5 says: "In the 
absence of a relevant rule or where the consequences of rules are doubtful, 
established custom must be followed," but as the type-method is still 
comparatively young, one can in this case hardly speak of '-established 
custom." On an earlier occasion (in Jour. Arnold Arb. 21:34. 1940), 
when the type of the genus Urophyllum Wall, had to be fixed, I chose the 
second alternative, because it appeared to me that the taxonomic concep- 
tion should be considered more important that a mere name. As type of 
the genus Urophyllum Wall. I therefore chose U. arboreum (Reinw. ex 
Bl.) Khs. This species namely is the type of the genus Wallichia Reinw. 
ex BL, and Wallichia Reinw. ex Bl. is the name under which 

188 JOl'RNAL OF THK AHNOI.I) UJKOlllTl \1 [vol. xxvm 

conception now known as I'rophyllum Wall, was first put forward. If the 
same rule is to he applied in the present case, the type will have to he 
looked for among the species originally referred to Coptophyllum Khs. 
This, however, offers a new difficulty. 

The genus Coptophyllum Khs. was based on a plant collected on Alt. 
Singalang in Western Sumatra. It was described binder the name ('. 
bractcatum Khs. Under ordinary < ircumstances this species, of course, 
should he regarded as the type, but unfortunately its identity is not fully 
certain. As stated above, the specimens on which il was based are lost. 
and the description is not sufficiently detailed to allow its identification. 
Apart from its occurrence in the Uplands of I'adang. there are but two 
points in the description which might give us a clue: the oblong calyx-lobes 
and the presence of stiff hairs on the upper side of the leaves. More or 
less oblong calyx-lobes are found in I'omazota assimilis Brem. n. spec., a 
near ally of Coptophyllum capitatum Miq., and also in Pomazota rivularis 
Hend. and the nearly related /'. scabiosiflora Brem. n. spec, and /'. 
batuvnsis Brem. n. spec. The two last-named species need not be taken 
into consideration, for in /'. scabiosiflora the leaves are glabrous on the 
upper side and /'. batuvnsis has not yet been found outside the Batu 
Islands. Pomazota assimilis and /'. rivularis lit Korthals' description 
almost equally well, and as both are known to occur in the mountains of 
Sumatra, it is impossible to make a choice: moreover, Korthals' species 
may have been different from both. Therefore, as Coptophyllum bract la- 
tum Khs. can not be identified with certainty, it can not he accepted as 
the type of the genus, and we will have to fix our choice on the species 
which conies next in age. This is C. capitatum Miq. Miquel was 
apparently at first not fully convinced that this species belonged to 
Coptophyllum Khs.. for in the original description he put an interrogation 
mark behind the generic name, but this was dropped in his paper on the 
Kubiaceae of the Malay Archipelago in Ann. AIus. Hot. Lugd.-Bat. 
I: 1869. 

It is a rather curious coincidence that the genus had also drawn Blume's 
attention. Among the unclassified Kubiaceae of the Utrecht Herbarium 
I found a specimen of I'omazota pi/osa (Miq.) Brem. n. tomb. {Copto- 
phyllum pilosum Miq.) which had been collected by Kiihl and van Hasselt 
at the Tji Djralang in S. \Y. Bantam. The collectors, who regarded it as 
an Argostcma, had provided it with a short diagnosis, but the really 
interesting point of the specimen is that it also bore a label in Blume's 
handwriting with the name "Lasiagatkis humilis Bl." The genus 
Lasiagathis, however, has never been published. 

the tribes Hedyotideae, 


as they are called by Schumann, and Mussaendeae. which rests merely on 
the dehiscence or indehiscence of the fruits, can not he kept up. "if the 
two tribes, Hedyotideae and Mussaendeae," I wrote. I.e., "are united, the 
bulk of the genera at present included in them, form a natural group, 
characterized not only by the pluri-ovular ovary cells and the valvate 
aestivation of the corolla lobes, but also by the axile or nearly axile, 
peltate or subpeltate placentation and by the ovoid or angular, yellowish, 
reddish or brown, more or less distinctly alveolate, striate or punctate 
seeds. Genera in which some of these characters are wanting, for instance 
those with a clavate or columnar placenta and smooth seeds, should be 
excluded." With these misplaced genera I reckon, among others, 
Schradera Vahl, the twin genera Coccocypselum [P. Br.] Sw. and 
Lipostoma D. Don. "I'ammsia Karst., which probably belongs to another 
family, Carphalea Juss.. Dirkhlrtia Klot/sch. Placopoda Baill., Payera 
BailL Jtukia Wall.. Cntikshankia Hook, and the two genera Carlemannia 
Benth. and Sylvianthus Hook. f.. which do not belong to the Rubiaceae 
but should find a place in the vicinity of the ( 'aprifoliaceae. 

Among the genera which are left in the tribe two smaller groups have 
already been recognized. One comprises / 'roph v/Iiim \\ all. and the nearly 
allied genera Anthcrostclt Brem.. Pidymopo^oii Brem.. \I aschalocorymhus 
Brem., Pravinaria Brem. . Praravinia khs., Rhuphidura Brem., Lcucoloph us 
Brem., Lrpidostoma Brem.. VU'nx nrphiia K.Sch. and Stirhiaiithus Yah, 
characterized by the axillary position of the inflorescences, dioecious 
flowers, a pluri-locular ovary, paired, at first nearly axile placentas, which, 
when the fruit begins to swell, shift towards the middle of the radiating 
septa, stamens or staminodes inserted at or near the mouth of the tube and 
more or less distinctly spreading stigmata. Another group consisting of 
Sabicea Aubl. and its allies: Pauridiantha Hook, f., Pamplethantha 
Brem., Stelccttantha Brem.. Commit heca Brem.. Pot cilocalyx Brem., 
Rhipidantha Brem.. Tcmiioptcryx Hook. f. and I'cntaloncha Hook, f., all 
provided with heterostylous flowers, a 2-, 4- or 5-locular ovary whose cells 
are in the upper half divided by false septa, axile placentas which, as the 
false septa penetrate in them for some distance, are more or less obcordate, 
stamens which at least in the long-styled flowers are inserted in the middle 
of the tube, and more or less cohering stigmata. A third group, formed 
by Miissanida L. and some other genera, is characterized by a curious form 
of heterostyly, the long-styled flowers being female and the short-styled 
ones male; the genera belonging to this group, however, have not yet been 
sufficiently studied. Still less is known of the remaining ones, and for 
this reason the position of the genus Pomazota Ridl. can not yet be 
satisfactorily ascertained. 

The most important characters of Pomazota appear to be the stiff hairs 
present on all the young parts but especially conspicuous along the margin 
of the leaves, stipules, bracts and calyx-lobes and also on the midrib of 
the corolla-lobes, the terminal capituliform inflorescence with its 4, 5 or 
8 involucral bracts, the presence of a hair-ring in the upper part of the 

190 .MM 1!\\1. OK Till \K\ni.l> MIBOKKTI M I vol. xxviii 

corolla-tube, the insertion of the stamens at or below the middle of the 
tube, the short and thick, rectangularly spreading stigma-lobes, always 
protruding beyond the anthers and the ring of hairs in the corolla-tube, 
and finally the globose capsule which in the end opens by the disintegration 
of a cell-zone at the base of the calyx, after which the upper part including 
the calyx and the rather conspicuous disk is thrown oil in the form of a lid. 

The nearest approach to these characters is found in the genus Klossia 
Ridl. Its only species is a nearly glabrous, thin leaved plant, which at 
first sight looks rather unlike the hirsute Pomazota species. In reality, 
however, it differs from the latter in minor points only. Its inflorescences 
are somewhat less strongly condensed, the brads being smaller and the 
flowers distinctly pedicellate, the bracts and the rather large, in the bud 
overlapping, calyx-lobes are eciliate. the stamens inserted a little wax- 
above the middle of the tube and provided with papillate instead of 
glabrous filaments, and the stigmata are obovate and flattened and remain 
attached to each other. The corolla-tube, however, is provided at the 
upper end with a ring of hairs, and the fruits open with a lid. The 
disintegration-zone on the other hand, lies inside, not outside the calyx, 
so that the latter persists on the open fruit. 

Some other genera belonging lo this tribe resemble Pomazota in the 
nature of the inflorescence. They are Sid, robomhyx Brem.. a new genus 
to be described hereafter, Knnania Hook, f., Campanocalyx Yah. 
Myrioiicuron R.Br., Polysolcnia Hook. !".. I .cptomisclius Drake, Mourctia 
I'itard and Luc'nuua DC. None of them, however, appears to be a close 

The only species of Sidcrobombyx shows a strong resemblance to 
Pomazota. Its large ovate acuminate stipule- are indistinguishable from 
those of the latter; its inflorescences are terminal and capituliform. and, 
in the same way as in some of the Pomazota species, soon pushed aside by 
a branch arising from the axil of one of the two highest leaves: the capitula 
moreover are surrounded by large bracts, and the calyx-lobes are. like 
those of /'. ca pit at a and /'. assitnilis, densely hairy. The hairs themselves, 
however, are of a different kind; the young leaves are not covered with 
stiff rust-brown hairs like those of the Pomazota species, but with the 
same silky reddish brown pubescence which gives the young leaves in the 
genus Xantlio[)hvtiim Reinw. ex BI. and in the nearly related and perhaps 
not sufficiently distinct uenera l'a<di<a/y.\ Pierre ex I'itard and Xantho- 
phytopsis I'itard their peculiar lustre. The hairs on the bracts and 
calyx-lobes too are soft and thin like those covering the young leaves and 
not stiff like those of the Pomazota species. This, however, is by no 
means the only difference. The capitula are not surrounded by 4, 5 or 8 
ovate, oblong or spathulate brads, but by two very large reniform ones; 
the corolla-tube is not provided with a ring of hairs near its upper end. 
but the whole upper halt is densely villous on the inside, and the fruit is 
not a capsule opening by a lid, but a dipyrenous drupe. In the only 
specimen which could be studied the filaments, moreover, proved to be 


much shorter than in the Pomazota spec ies. whereas the elavate style was 
longer; the latter proved to be shortly two-lobed. The shortness of the 
filaments and the comparatively great length of the style suggest that the 
specimen represents the long-styled form of a dimorphic species. 

In the genera Krmama and M vrionrnron too the flowers are apparently 
heterostylous, but the heterostyly is here probably combined with dioecism. 
The tvpe-species of the genus Kniuniia at least was based on a specimen 
with sterile anthers, and of the flowers of K. ophioglossoides Drake and 
A", tonkinensis Drake figured by Pitard in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Tndo-Chine 
3: f. 16 (8, 9), the first are long-styled and maybe female, whereas the 
second are short-styled and, as the stigmata seem to be rudimentary, 
probably male. As the description of the vegetative parts of these two 
species do not reveal appreciable differences, it is not impossible that they 
are conspecific. Similarly the description of Myr'umcuron tonkincmc 
Pitard (op. cit. 193) appears to be based on a male specimen and that of 
a/, pubiflorum Pitard (ibid.) on a female one. The fruits of Myrionrwou 
are exsuccous dipyrenous drupes whose pyrenes open ultimately on the 
inner side; the fruits of Kcenania arc unknown. Campaiwcalyx ap- 
parently comes very near to Kroiania, from which it differs, however. 
conspicuously by its campanulate calyx: its floral mechanism being as yet 
incompletely known. 

Polysplenia is very imperfectly described, but it seems to me that this 
genus'too is heterostylous. the type-specimen representing the short-styled 
form. At any rate, as its stamens arc inserted in the upper part of the 
tube and overtop the stvle, the genus is apparently no near ally of 
Pomazota. Its fruits are unknown. The description of Lcptomischus 
Drake, whose fruits open in the same way as those of Pomazota and 
Klossia, does not differ very much from that of Poly sol ruia, and I therefore 
consider these two genera closely related. In Mount la Pitard too the 
stamens are inserted in the upper part of the tube. As the floral mech- 
anism of all these genera is quite different from that found in Pomazota 
and Klossia, they are apparently not very nearly allied to them. 

The capitula of Liu ma, a are naked and therefore not readily comparable 
to those of Pomazota and Klossia. In its truncate calyx and thick, smooth 
testa the genus differs moreover so considerably from the other members 
of the tribe that its inclusion in it seems hardly justified. 

Capsules opening in the same way as those of Pomazota and Klossia are 
found in Argostcma Wall. Tn the shortness of the corolla-tube and in the 
syngenesious anther, this genus, however, possesses characters which give 
it a rather isolated position in the tribe. Perhaps of more importance are 
the points of resemblance between Pomazota and Klossia and the genus 
Ophiorrhiza L.. whose capsules are also apically dehiscent. The partial 
inflorescences are cymose like those of the two first-named genera; the 
stamens are inserted in the lower half of the tube and the style overtops 
the anthers. However, as none of these characters are confined to these 
genera, their value should not be overrated. 

IIII si i;Dl\ isiON ()!■ I ill CIA1 - 
Pomazota n plans backer ex Hrem. seems at first sight to differ essen- 
tially from the oilier species by its decumbent and creeping shoots and the 
small size of its leaves and capitula. A more detailed analysis, however, 
does not corroborate this view, for important points of difference are not 
brought to light. The resemblance in the vegetative parts of the other 
species is very strong indeed. Pomazota YanUnncaii Hrem. is recogniz- 
able by its small size and by the scabridity of the upper side of the leaves, 
P. scabiosijoPia Hrem. by its leaves, glabrous on the upper side, and 
P. simalumisis Hrem. by its pseudo-dichotomy, but the vegetative parts 
of the six remaining species are almost indistinguishable. The ovate- 
acuminate stipules end in an undivided tip in eight of the ten species 
recognized in this paper, in P. simalumisis and /'. scabiosijlora in two 
fairly long, parallel teeth. 

With regard to the position of the inflorescences the ten species form 
two easily distinguishable groups. In the first there is never more ;han 
a single inflorescence at a node, whereas in the second the majority are 
found in pairs. In the second group the peduncles are moreover always 
provided with a pair of scales at the base, whose median position proves 
them to be the stipules belonging to a pair of suppressed leaves; in the 
first group these scales arc always wanting. Their presence proves that 
the inflorescences in the second group are not really axillary, as they might 
seem at first sight, but that they are borne by axillary brachyblasts con- 
sisting of a single, very short internode; in reality they are terminal. In 
the first group too the inflorescences are terminal, but here they are found 
at the end of an ordinal) leafy shoot. They are. however, soon overtopped 
by one or, rarely, two innovation-shoots developing from the axil of one 
of tin- two highest leaves or of both of them. If a single shoot develops, 
the inflorescence becomes pseudo-axillary, the innovation-shoot forming 
the continuation of the main shoot. The stems of these plants, therefore, 
are sympodia. If two innovation-shoots develop {P. simalurcnsis), the 
[Wants become pseudo-dichutomously branched. Another difference be- 
tween the two groups is found in the structure of the capitula. In the first 
group the (lowers are. at least in the axils of the outer bracts, arranged 
in triads or in several (lowered cymes, whereas in the second group they 
are always solitary. 

The involucre consists of 4, 5 or 8 bracts, which differ but slightly from 
the inner ones. Tetramerous and pentamerous involucres occur in both 
groups, but the octamerous ones are confined to the first. In the first 
group the bracts of the tetramerous involucres are decussate, but those of 
/'. rivularis, the only species of the second group in which the involucre is 
tetramerous. form a whorl, and are found to alternate with the four 
immediately following inner ones; in the pentamerous involucres the 
)ks at first sight to be quincunxial, but here too the 
; alternate with the adjoining inner ones. The octamerous 

1947] BREMEKWH". Till. (.KM S POMAZOTA 193 

involucres consist of 4 larger bracts alternating with 4 smaller ones, but 
the morphological value of the latter is not always the same. In P. 
simalurensis the four larger bracts arc decussate, and each of them subtends 
a cyme. The bracts subtending the branchlets of the two lower cymes 
are conduplicate and twisted at the base so that the upper part lies more 
or less in the same plane as the main bract: these two pairs of lateral 
bracts form the smaller bracts of the involucre. In P. assimilis Brem. and 
P. capitata (Miq.) Hrem. the eight involucral bracts are united at the 
base, and thev all subtend cymes. Those subtended by the four larger 
ones' form an outer circle, those belonging to the four smaller ones recede 
a little towards the centre. All the cymes, however, are strongly dorsi- 
ventral, some of the bracts being larger than the others and shifted to the 
outside.' The involucral bracts themselves may therefore easily be taken 
for sterile, for when they are removed, a complete circle of smaller bracts 
is revealed behind which the (lowers are hidden. There is, therefore, an 
important difference between these species and P. simalurensis in the 
arrangement of the involucral bracts. Whereas the arrangement in the 
latter is strictly decussate, that of the involucral bracts of P. assimilis 
and P. capitata is to be regarded either as quaternate or as a somewhat 
modified form of the g-phyllotaxis. The occurrence in the same genus of 
a somewhat modified quincunxial arrangement forms an argument in 
favour of the latter supposition. 

The capitula of P. reptans, P. Vanleeuweni and /'. simalurensis contain 
inside the involucre but one or two pairs of main bracts; the number of 
flowers in these capitula is accordingly but small. In P. assimilis and 
P. capitata the number of main bracts inside the involucre is difficult to 
determine, but it is probably not larger than in the species just mentioned. 
Owing to the large number of flowers in each of the cymes, the total 
number is nevertheless very considerable, larger in fact than in any other 
species of this genus. In the five remaining species the inner bracts form 
a dense rosette. In P. assimilis the first lateral bracts of the outer cymes 
are at the base on each side provided with a patent lobe. In the nearly 
related P. capitata these lobes are usually absent; occasionally, however, 
a single one may be present. The involucral bracts of P. sylvestris Ridl. 
and P. pilosa (Miq.) brem. are car'mate. the five keels forming a prominent 
feature of the involucre. 

In P. assimilis, P. capitata and /'. sylvestris all bracts subtend cymes. 
In the other species belonging to the first group the outer bracts subtend 
pentads or triads, whereas in the axils of the inner ones the cymes are 
reduced to paired or single flowers; in P. reptans the cymes are occasion- 
ally all reduced in this way. In the second group the flowers are always 
solitary in the axils of the bracts, but the presence of a pair of bracteoles 
at the base of each flower proves that the latter represents a cyme. 

In the first group the cymes are sometimes shortly stipitate, the stipe 
being partly or entirely fused with the 1 tei 1 g 1 ict; the flowers, on 
the other hand, are always sessile. In the second group, where the cymes 

194 JOt KWI. OF TIIK \R\Ol •) \KBOKI Tl M |\oi.. xwni 

are reduced to single flowers, the stipe is always fused with the stalk-like 
base of the bract; in /'. rivularis the flowers themselves are shortly pedi- 
cellate, i.e. in this species there is a distinct internode between the 
bracteoles and the base of the ovary. 

The calyx-lobes are ovate-orbicular in /'. pilosa, ovate-lanceolate in 
/'. rcptans, P. Vanlccmcoii, /'. svlvcstris and /'. simaluri usis, oblong in /'. 
rivularis, P. scabiosijlora and /'. hatuensis, linear-oblong in P. assimilis, and 
linear in /'. capitata. In the two latter species they are inside and outside 
densely hirsute; in the other ones filiate. 

In the species of the second group and in P. rcptans the ovary and 
capsule are glabrous: in the other species of the first group they are always 


1. Inflorescences either solitary at the nodes or in the forks of a pseudo-dichotomouslv 

branched stem; the youngest inflorescence at the end of the shoot. Base ol 1 he 

: Intlorescenres Usually opposite and a!wa\s lateral. Base of the peduncle always 
provided with a pair ol stipular stales. Mowers always solitary in the axils 

2. Involucral bracts either 4 or S J. 

: Involucral bracts 5 7. 

on the upper side sparsely hirsute and not more than 4 cm. hum. 
esvile. ()\ar> and capsule glabrous.- South Sumatra and 

1. /'. rcptans Hacker ex Brcm. 

Small, not more than 7 cm. hieh herb. Leaves lanceolate elliptic. 

pedunculate Ovarx and capsule pilose.- Kast Sumatra 

->./'. Vaiihrincrni Brcm. 

5. I'seudo branched plant. Tip ol the stipule bipartite. Involucral 
bracts free, the 4 lamer ones decussate, each ol them subtending a cyme; the 
two pairs ol smaller ones representing the first pairs of bracts ot the rune 
subtended b\ the lower pair of involucral bracts. Simalur ( Sinn ulowc ) 

: Sympodial plants. Tip ol the stipule undivided. Involucral bracts united at the 

base in a Hat receptacle, all subtending cymes . 

(>. Bracts subtending the branchlets ol the cymes at the base' on each side' with a 
patent lobe. C'aly\ lobe-, not more than S mm. lone, covered with ten tmineous 
hairs. Sumatra and the islands to the west of it — 4. /'. assimilis Brcm. 

: Bracts never with two and rarely with a single lateral lobe. Calyx lobes at least 

5. /'. capital,! (JVlic,.) Brem. 

7. All (lowers cvmosc. Bracts all ovate; those ol the inner tlowers shorter than the 

corolla. Malax IVniiwila and Sumatra- o. /'. sxlvc^tns Ridl. 

: Flowers in the axils of the outer bracts in triads; in the axils ot the inner ones 

than the corolla. West Java 7. P. pilosa (Miq.) Brem. 

8. Involucral bracts 4. Flowers pedicellate. -- Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo- 



glabrous. Tip 





ii ;;, i . 

rselv hirsute. Tir 

) of 





llul5lan ,- 


in Trans. Lit 


Soc. II, 3:308. IS 





m Khs. in Ned. Kruidk. A 

1857, Suppl. 226. 1860, in mm. ;»nn. 
ok f.. C;rn. PI. 2:68. 1871 ; Boerl., 

»JS; Kemee, Diet. PI. Phan. 2: 297. 

,uppl. 226. 1860, in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lupd.-Bat. 
Gen. PI. 2:68. II 

„„n CoptPphyllum Gardner in Hook., Ic. PI. 5: t. 477, 478. 1842. 

Genus Rubiacearum Hedvotidearum. corollae tubo intus paulum intra 
orem annulo pilorum instrucio. stvlo anthems excedente. capstila globosa 
cum operculo dehiscente ad Klossiam Ridl. accedens, indumento hirsuto, 
staminibus dimidio inferiors tubi insert is. hlamentis glabris, stigmatibus 
patentissimis. calvee dim operculo deciduo all eo facibter distinguendum. 

Herbae e basi breviter repente ascendentes. simplices vol parce ramosae, 
raro post anthesin decumbenles et radicanles. semper pilis septatis plus 
mituisve liiiMitae. Caulis nunc monopodialis, easti quo inflorescentiae 
ramulos oppositos breves, ex internodic 
stipulas redactis instructos terminantes. 
sympodialis, casu quo irJorescentiis \ 
positionem lateralem coactis et inde ad nodns sohtarns. l-olia petiolata. 
superiora tamen interdum subsessilia; lamina tenuis vel raro ngidula. 
penninervia. Stipulae interpetiolares, ovatae, acuminatae, apice interdum 
bipartito, margine ciliato, persistentes. Inflorescentiae plerumque longius 
pedunculatae. ram subsessiles. mine primum terminales el deinde a ramo 
axillari in positioner laleralem eoaetae vel. (tun duo rami evolvuntur, in 
furcis ramorum remanentes. nunc ramulos al.l.reviatos axillares termi- 
nantes. casu quo plerumque oppositae et basi pedunculi semper squamis 
(lualnis stipulaceis instructae. capituliformes. Bracteae ciliatae. esti- 
pulatae, axilla glandulis aliquibus baculilormibus instructae: exteriores 
4 S vel 8 aliis latiores, capitulum involuerantes; omnes tertiles el nunc 
cvmas hi- vel uniparas vel Iriades, nun* limes singulos bibracteolatos 
suffulcientes. Flores sessiles vel breviter pedicellati. hermaphroditi, 
mam interdum turn aliquibus tetramens vel hexamens 
biloeulare. placentis medio se])to afttxis. peltatis. ovulis 
numerosis. Calvx tubo plerumque brevi, lobis ovatis, ovam-lanccolatis. 
oblong'is vel linearibus. margine ciliatis. alternantibus cum glandulis bacub- 
formibus. fructu diu persistens. ultimo tamen cum operculo deciduus. 
Corolla alba, luteola vel carneola. hvpnerateriformis. parva. tubo interdum 
paulum inflate infra orem plus minusve annulatim constneto et ibidem 
intus annulo pilorum patent ium instructo. ceterum glabro. lobis ovatis 
acutis, flore aperto palentibus, rosta exlus ciliatis. Stamina ad medium 

I „■; 1 , : 

196 JOIKWI OF IIIK \HMII.II \KI!(>KITl\l |\oi.. xwm 

vel infra medium tubum inserta, filamentis glabris, antheris lineari- 
oblongis, subbasifixis, apiculatis. plerumque inclusis. Discus annularis, 
amicus vel cylindricus, glaber vel farinosus. Stylus apicem versus vix 
conspicue papillosus. ceterum glaber, tubo subaequilongus vel eo paulo 
longior; stigmata crassa et brevia. basi patentissima, apice paulum re- 
curvata. Fructus eapsula globosa, disco conspicue rostrata et calyce 
coronata, pariete tenui, ultimo dimidio superiore tabescens et partem 
apicalem cum calyce et disco opereuli instar rejectans. Semina numerosa. 
rubro-bnmnea. angulosa. alveolata. alveolis fundo granulatis. 

Distributum speciebus adhuc notis 10 in Peninsula Malayana, Sumatra. 
Java, terra Borneensi. 

Lkctotvits: P.caphata (Miq.) Hrem. n. comb. {Coptophyllum Micp). 

lnlloreMcntiae primum terminates, plerumque mox a ramo axillari in 
[)ositionem lateralem coactae. interdum, cum rami axillares duo evolvuntur, 
in furca ramorum remanentes. lYdunculus basi numquam s<|uamis 
stipulaceis instructus. Flores axillis bractearum pro parte minime in 
cynias vel triades dispositi (in I'. reptante interdum n nines singuli). 

a. Bracteae involucrantes 4. 

a. Herba decumbens. foliis nvatu-ellipticis vel ellipticis parvis. in- 
tlorescentia subsessili parva, ovario capsulaque glabris. 

1. Poma/.ota r.ptans Hacker in sched. : tvits: Backer 31142 (HZ). 

Herba ramosa, partibus apicalibus prinuim a^cendentibus, usque ad 12 
cm. altis, post anthesin decumbentibus et radicantibus. ( aules 1.2 mm. 
diam., densius fusco-pubescentes, vivo rubri. Folia petiolo pubescente. 

.5-15 mm. longo. vivo rubro instructa; lamina elliptic a vel ovato-elliptica, 
2.5-4 cm. longa et 1.3-2.2 cm. lata, apice acuta vel breviter acuminata, 
basi acuta vel rotumlata, casii quo prope petiolmn contracta, sice, supra 
saturate, subtus dilute brunnea, supra sparse fusco hirsuta, subtus Costa 
nervis venulis dense fusco-pubescens, margine ciliata. nervis utro(|ue latere 
costae 7 vel 8, venulis paucis. Stipnlae 4 5 mm, longae et 3-4 mm. latae, 
apice indivisae, margine ciliatae. ceterum glabrae. Intlorescentia sub- 
sessilis, a ramo axillari mox in posit ionem lateralem coacta, 8-12 mm. 
diam. Bracteae involucrantes 4. decussatae. elliplicae vel obovatae. 6-9 
mm. longae et 4-6 mm. latae. margine ciliatae; bracteae interiores 2 vel 
4, spathulatae, exterioribus aequilongae; omnes extus intusque fusco- 
hirsutae. Bracteae involucranti's plrrumque pemptades vel triades, raro 
cynias ad (lores duos vel singulos redactas suff ulcientes, tloribus ultimis 
pemptadum tamen |>lerum(|iie nidimenlariis; cymae in axillis bractearum 
interiorum semper ad ilores duos vel ad tlorem singulum redactae. 
Bracteae lloruni lateralium pemptadum vel triadum spathulatae, basi 
conduplicatae, 4 mm. longae; bracteae llorum se(|iient iuni et bracteolae 
florum singulorum eis angustiores, 2-2.5 mm. longae. Flores 5-meri. 
Ovarium glabrum. Calyx lobis ovatis, 0.7-1.3 mm. longis et 0.4-0.5 mm. 
latis, subobtusis. margine c iliatis <r<\ ceterum glabris. Corolla alba tubo 
3.5 mm. longo, 1.2 mm. infra orem annulo pilonnn instructo. lobis 1-1.5 
mm. longis. Stamina 0.5 mm. supra basin tubi inserta. filamentis 2.,^ mm.. 


antheris 0.8 mm. longis. Discus cylindricus, 0.5 mm. altus. Stylus 4 mm. 
longus. Capsula glabra, 1.5 mm. diam. 

Hab. Sumatram Australem et Javani Occidentalem. 

Sumatra: Lampongs: G. Rate 'IVIan-aian. Ibut 24 (RZ) : G. Tan.unanuis. all. 
700 m., de V ootid 161 (HZ). Java: Res. Ruitcnzorsz: Lewiliang, alt. 500 m„ v. 
Steenis 2717 (HZ): G. Parunppuivj near Tjampea, alt. 750 m., Bakhuizcn v. d. Brink 
4174 (RZ); ibid., Bakhuizen v. d. think Jr. 610 (D; Kalapa Nunppal. alt. 200 m.. 
Barker 233S1 (HZ); ibid., alt. 400 m.. Barker 5M2 (HZ); ibid., alt. 500 m.. Backer 
J 1142 (HZ. tyits). 

p. Herba erecta, foliis lanceolato-ellipticis, supra scabridis, inflores- 
centia pedunculata. ovario capsulaque pilosis. 

2. Pomazota Yanleemveni Brem. n. spec; typis: Docters v. Leeuicen 3276 (BZ). 

Herba erecta. simplex. 5-7 cm. alta. t'aulis densius pubescens, 2-2.5 
mm diam. Folia in petiolum < pubesccntcm, 2 5 mm. longum con- 
tracta; lamina lanceolato-elliptica. 1 cm. longa et 1.6-2.7 cm. lata, apice 
acuta, basi contracta et plus minusve conduplicata, rigidula, sice, supra 
saturate et subtus dilute brunnea. supra senilis minimis scabrida, subtus 
molliter pubescens, costa utrimque et nervis subtus dense pubescentibus. 
margine ciliolata. nervis utroque latere costae 10- IS. venulis inn>iispicui>. 
Stipulae 8 mm. longae et 7 mm. latae. apice indivisac, extus dense pilosae. 
margine ciliatae. Inilorescentia distincte pedunculata: pedunculus dense 
pubescens, post anthesin usc|ue ad 3.5 cm. accresccns. Bracteae extus 
dense, intus sparse pubescentes. margine pilis similibus ciliatae; bracteae 
involucrantes 4, decussatae. jugi primi ovatae. 12 mm. longae et 11 mm. 
latae. jugi secundo angustiores, omnes cymas 5-floras stiff ulcientes; 
bracteae interiores duae, triades suff ulcientes; bracteae florum lateralium 
conduplicatae, bracteis involucrantibus paulo breviores; bracteae ultimae 
praecedentibus dimidio breviores. Flores 5-meri. Ovarium pilosum. 
Calyx lobis ovatis, 0.5 mm. longis et 0.7 mm. latis, subacutis, extus pilosis, 
margine pilis similibus ciliatis. Corolla alba dicta a me non visa. Discus 
cylindricus, 1 mm. altus. Capsula pilosa, 2 mm. diam. 
' Hab. Sumatram Orientalem. 

of a stream, Dorters v. Leeinven 3276 (HZ, tyits, dupl. L.). 

b. Bracteae involucrantes 8. liberae. Cymae decussatae. 

3. Pomazota gimalnrensis Brem. n. spec.; tyits: Achtnad 316 (BZ). 

Herba e basi breviter repente ascendens, p.seudo-<li< liotome ramificata, 
15-40 cm. alta. Caulis primtmi densius pubescens, internodiis bisulcatis, 
deinde plus minusve glabrescens et subteres. 2.5-4 mm. diam. Folia in 
petiolum pubescentem. uscjiie ad 4 cm. longum contracta; petiolus foliorum 
superiorum tamen usque ad 8 mm. redactus; lamina lanceolata vel 
oblanceolata, 6-12 cm. longa et 2.5-4.5 cm. lata, apice acuminata, basi 
cuneata. supra sparse hirsula, costa tamen densius pubescens, subtus costa 
nervis venulis pubescens, margine ciliata, sice, supra saturate, subtus 
dilute brunnea, nervis utroque latere costae circ. 13, venulis paucis. 
Stipulae 14-16 mm. longae et 6-7 mm. latae. apice plerumque in dentes 
duas parallelas, usque ad 4 mm. longas exeuntes, margine ciliatae, ceterum 
glabrae. Inflorescentiae pedunculatae; pedunculus dense hirsutus, ad 
anthesin circ. 1 cm. longus, postea usque ad 3 cm. accrescens; capitulum 


2.5 cm. (ham., post anthesin usque ad 3.5 cm. d 
involucrantes 8. (|uarum 4 majores triades breviter stipitatas sut'fulciunt ; 
bracteae laterales triadum inriniarum basi conduplicalae el torsae et hide 
in planum idem ul bractea triadem sulTulciens expansac involucrum sup- 
plentes, bracteae involucrantes mimes liberae, spat hulatae, ad medium 
plerumque contradae, extus basin versus pubeseentes, margine ciliatae, 
majores 12 mm. longae et 5 (> mm. latae; bracteae inleiiores 4, ut bracteae 
involucrantes majores decussatae, llores singulns bibraeleolalos sufful- 
cientes; brae teniae ovatae. ovario [iaulo longiores. Flores 5-meri. 
Ovarium pilosum. Calyx lobis ovatodanceolatis. 1.1 mm. longis et 0.5 
mm. hit is, extus sparse pilosis, margine abatis. Corolla matura nondum 
visa, colore ignoto. Stamina prope basin tubi inserta. Discus conicus, 
0.5 mm. altus. Capsula pilosa. 

Hab. insulam a Sumatra ad occasum Simalur sive Simeulowe dictam. 

Simam k: s.l.. Athmad */rt (HZ, r\ P rs, rlupl. typi L). 

c. Bracteae invohu rantes S, basi connatae. Cymae quaternae. 

a. Bracteae cymarum primigenae basi utrimque lobo palente munitae. 
Oalycis lobi minus quam 3 mm. longi. lerrugineo-hirsut i. 

Voptophxllum capitation Miq. in errors apud Ridl. in Kru Hull. 1<)2(>:(>S. \V2h. 

llerba e basi breviter repente ascendens. 13-20 cm. alta. Caulis 
simplex, primuni dense ferrugineodiirsutus. internodiis bisulcatis. deinde 
glabrescens et teres. 2.5-4 mm. diam. Folia in |)etiolum primum dense, 
deinde sparse hirsutiun. 0.5-3.0 cm. longiun contracta; lamina lanceolala 
vel oblanceolala. 7 15 cm. longa et 5.2-4.3 cm. lata, apice acuminata, basi 
acuta vel cuneata. supra sparse hirsuta. subtus costa nervis venulis princi- 
palibus densius ferrugineodiirsuta. margine ciliata, sice, supra obvaceo- 
brunnea, subtus dilute brunnea, nervis ulro(jiie latere costae 10 12. 
venulis paucis. Stipulae 10 mm. longae et ( ) mm. latae. apice indivisae. 
margine ciliatae. ceierum glabrae. Inflorescentiae pedunculatae ; peduncu- 
lus subglaber, post anthesin cite. 5 cm. longus. Bracteae involucrantes 
S, (juarum 4 majores; omnes oblongae; majores 15 17 mm. longae et 
4-5 mm. latae, ad medium interdum plus minusve constrictae; minores 
10 12 mm. longae sed majoribus subaequilatae; omnes basi in receptacu- 
lum 7-10 mm. diam. connatae. apice subacutae. primum utrim(|ue densius 
pubescentes. Flores omnes in dichasia densa dispusiti; dichasia extus 
bracteis majoribus instructa; bracteae primigenae basi utro(|iie latere lobo 
patente munitae. 15 mm. longae. lobo mediano 4 mm. lato. lobis lateralibus 
5 mm. longis et 5 mm. latis: brat leae sequcntes sensim minores, plerumque 
sine lobis lateralibus; bracteolae riorum ultimorum tlori aequilongae. 
Mores 5-meri. Ovarium dense pilosum. Calyx lobis bneari-oblongis, 2.7 
nun. longis et 0.5 0.4 mm. latis. extus int usque pilis ferrugineis dense 
hirsutis. Corolla alba tubo 5 mm. longo. paulum intlato. 0.3 mm. infra 
orem annulo pilorum instructo, lobis 1 mm. longis. Stamina 0.7 mm. 
supra basin tubi inserta; tilamenta 0. u mm. longa ; antherae 0.9 mm. 
longae. Discus annularis, 0.3 mm. altus. Stylus 5.5 mm. longus. Cap- 
sula 2 mm. diam., pilosa. 

Hab. Sumatram ct insulas a Sumatra ad occasum. 

Si'M.vna: Fast Coast Oouvt: S.K. of Sihnlandt, alt. o50 m., Lorrzin^ SSSfl (I', 
rvi-is); Fan Hciimus, NAY. of Sibolarmit, alt. S50 in.. I.ovrzinv, 531S (F); Hukit 


Pasang near Sibolangit, Mandur Nur 7246 (K) ; Res. Tapanuli. Padang si Dempuan, 

Rahmat 4S54 (XV). Batt Islands: P. Hatu, Raap 655 (HZ); P. Masa, Raap 
169 (BZ). Mentawei Islands. Siberia, Ibui I'M ( BZ ) ; Bodtn Kloss 14517 (K). 
ji. Bracteae cymarum primigcnae basi interdum uno sed numquam 

duobus lobis patentibus instructae. Calycis lobi plus quam 5 mm. 

longi, griseo-hirsuti. 

C,,pt,>plivllnm.' uipihUuiu Mif|„ El. hid. Mat 2:. vl.S. 1.S57, Suppl. 216. 1860. 

Coptnphxllum cnpitutum Mi<|. in Ann. Mils. Hot. Eui^d.-Bat. 4: 230. 1809; Boer]., 
Handl. El. Ned. Ind. 2 (1) : 128. 1SM1; vi\ Ridl. in El. Mai. Pen. 2:43. 1923, 
quae probability est P. rivularis Hend, non in Kew Bull. 1925:80. 1925, 

Herba e basi breviter repente ascendens, circ. 20 cm. alta. Caulis 
simplex, primum dense ferrugineo-hirsuius. internodiis bisulcatis, deinde 
glabrescens et teres. 2.5-5 mm. diam. Folia in petiolum primum dense, 
deinde sparse hirsutum, 1.5-3.5 cm. longum contracta; lamina lanceolata, 
10-16 cm. longa et 3.5-5.5 cm. lata, apice acuminata, basi acuta vel 
cuneata, supra sparse hirsuta. subtus costa nervis venulis principalibus 
densius ferrugineo-pubescens, margine ciliala. sice, supra saturatius, subtus 
dilute brunnea, nervis utroque latere cosiae 11 13. venulis paucis. Sti- 
pulae 12 mm. longae et usque ad 15 mm. latae, apice indivisae, margine 
ciliatae, ceterum glabrae. Inllorescentiae pedunculatae; pedunculus sub- 
glaber. ante anthesin 1.5 cm. longus. postea usque ad 5 cm. accrescens. 
Bracteae involucrantes 8. quarum 4 majores. unities oblongae; majores 20 
mm. longae et 6 7 mm. latae: minutes 15 mm. longae sed majoribus stib- 
aequilatae; omnes basi in receptaculum 10 mm. diam. connatae, apice 
subacutae. primum iilrim«|iie dense, deinde sparsius pubescentes. Mores 
omnes in dichasia densa dispositi: diehasia extus bracteis majoribus in- 
structa; bracteae primigenae basi interdum lobo singulo munitae; bracteae 
sequentes floribus breviores; bracteolae florum ultimorum minimae. 
Mores 5- vel 6-meri. Ovarium dense pilosum. Calyx lobis linearibus, 
5-5.5 mm. longis et 0.6-0.7 mm. latis, suboblusis, extus intusque j)ilis 
griseis dense hirsutis. Corolla colore ignoto, tnbo 3 mm. longo, 0.5 mm. 
infra orem annulo pilorum instructo, lobis 1.5 mm. longis. Stamina 0.3 
mm. supra basin tubi inserta, lilamenlis 1 mm., antheri.s 0.9 mm. longis. 
Discus conicus. 0.S mm. alius. Stylus 3.0 mm. longus. Capsula 2.5 mm. 

Hab. Sumatram Occidentalem. 

(1 liracteae involucrantes 5. 

a. Indumentum luteo-brunneum. Bracteae omnes ovatae; interiores 
floribus breviores. 

6. Pomazota sylvestris Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II. 3:308, f. 61. 1803, Fl. Mai. 
Pen. 2:43. 1923. 

Herba suberecta vel e basi breviter repente ascendens, 8-15 cm. alta. 
Caulis simplex, primum dense, postea sparsius pilis luteo-brunneis hirsutus, 
2.5-4 mm. diam. Folia inferiora in petiolum dense hirsutum, usque ad 
12 mm. longum contracta; superiora brevius petiolata vel subscssiba; 
lamina elliptico-lanceolata, 6-11 cm. longa et 2-4.7 cm. lata, apice acuta 

200 JOl KN \I. OF I 1 1 1 1 \R\<)I .1) \KHOKFTl M [ vol.. xxvm 

vel breviter acuminata. hasi acuta vel cuneala, utrimque wl praesertim 
marline, costa utrimque et nervis subtus pills luteo-brunneis hirsuta, sice, 
supra saturate et subtus dilute olivacco hrunnea, nervis utroque latere 
costae 11-13, venulis paucis. Stipulae 12 nun. longae el 10 nun. latae. 
apice indivisae, extus hirsutae. marline eilialae. Intlorescentiae peduncu- 
latae; pedunculus hirsutus. ad anthesin circ. 1 cm. longus, deinde us(|ue 
ad 5.5 cm. accrescens. Hracteae involucrales 5. ovatae. usque ad 15 mm. 
longae et 11 mm. latae. supra medium contraclae. apice obtusae, sub- 
carinatae. extus dense hirsutae, supra contract ionein tainen costa margine- 
(|iie except is subglabrae; hracteae aliae sensim magnitudine descrescentes, 
ceterum maxime ut hracteae involucrales; interiores iloribus multo 
breviores. Flores in axillis hractearum involucraliuni in cymas biparas, 
in axillis hractearum aliarum in cymas uniparas dispositi. Flores S-meri, 
hasi hracteae insert i. Ovarium dense pilosum. Calyx extus dense pilosus, 
tubo 0.3 mm. longo. lohis ovatis. 1 mm. longis et 0.7 mm. latis. margine 
c ilia t is. Corolla alba, tubo 3.5 mm. longo. 0.5 mm. infra orem annulo 
pilorum munito, lohis 1.2 mm. longis. Stamina 0.S mm. supra basin tuhi 
inserta, filament is 1.7 mm., antheris 1.2 mm. longis. Discus cylindricus. 
1 mm. altus, farinosus. Stylus 3.5 mm. longus. Capsula pilosa. 

Hah. I'eninsulam Malayanam et Sumairani Septenl rionalem. 

Mai.w Pi.\i\sri\: I'ahang: Kota Tongkat, Evans sm. (K, ex Fed Mai States 
Mus), exrmplum t > pi. 

Scmatka: Fast ('nasi C.ouvt: Asahan, between IF I'a.laim and Kopas, Martlet I 
*7v) (\V): near Rantau I'arapat, liila. Rahmat 25S2, 2715, Moo (NY); Tapanuli 
Res : Padani; si Dempuan, S Manaun, Rahmat 1510 (NY); neai IF Imbaru, Rahmat 
4C>S^ (NY); Snsopon on Ark si Olip, Rahmat ?07n (\Y). 

fi. Indumentum nibro-brunneum. Hracteae oblongae vel spathu- 
latae, principals omnes tlorihus longiores. 
7. I'omazola pilosa (Miq.) Hum n. comb. 

Coptophxllum pilosum Mi(|. in Ann. Mus. Hot. Fugd.-Bat. t : 2A0. ISoO; Rocrl., 
Hand!. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2(1): 161. 1801; Koorders. Kxkursionsfl. Java \\ : 2>.\. I'M.'. 

La\ia-athi-> humilis Fl. in srhedula. 

Herba suberecta vel e hasi breviter repente ascendens, 7-21 cm. alta. 
Caulis simplex, raro semel pseudo-dichotome ramificatus, primum dense 
ferrugineo-pubescens, internodiis hisulcatis. deinde glahrescens et teres. 
2-?> mm. diam. Folia in petiolum dense terrugineo-puhescentem. 1.2 5 
cm. longum contracta; lamina lanceolata. 0-14 cm. longa et l.S 4.5 cm. 
lata, apice breviter acuminata, hasi acuta vel cuneata, supra ferrugineo- 
hirsuta, costa utrimque et nervis subtus ferrugineo-pubescens, margine 
ciliata. sice, supra saturatius. subtus dilute hrunnea. interdum supra ruhrn- 
hrunnea. nervis utroque latere costae circ. 11, venulis paucis. Stipulae 
S— 10 mm. longae et 4 mm. latae. apice indivisae, extus pubescentes. 
margine ciliatae. Intlorescentiae pedum ulalae; pedunculus pubescens. ad 
anthesin circ. 0.5 cm. longus. postea us<jiie ad L> cm. accrescens. Hracteae 
involucrales 5, oblongae, 10-15 mm. longae et 6 8 mm. latae. supra 
medium paulum contra* lae. apice suba* ulae. fortiter i ai inatae. exlus sparse 
pubescentes, intus glabrae, margine praesertim apicem versus ciliatae; 
hracteae aliae sensim magnitudine decreseentes. internae spathulatae. 
omnes margine ciliatae. iloribus semper loimiores. in n.sulam densam dis- 
positae. Flores in axillis hractearum involucraliuni in triades dispositi. in 


axillis bractearum aliarum singuli; bracteae florum lateralium triadis 
parvae, calyce plerumque breviores. Flores 5-meri, in bracteam paulum 
egredientes. Ovarium sparse pilosum. Calyx extus sparse pilosus, tubo 
0.5 mm. longo, lobis ovatis 0.7 mm. longis ct I mm. lalis. margine < iliatis. 
Corolla alba, tubo 3.8 mm. longo, 0.5 mm. infra orem annulo pilorum 
instructo lobis 1.2 mm. longis. Stamina 1 mm. supra basin tubi inserta, 
filamentis 1.5 mm., antheris 1 mm. longis. Discus amicus. 0.6 mm. altus. 
Stylus 3.7 mm. longus. Capsula sparse pilosa. 

Habitat Javam Occidentalem. 

Java: Bantam Res.: Tjidjralanp, Kuhl & v. Hasselt s.n. (U) "Lasiapathis 
humilis" Bl. Buitenzor^ Res.: G. Handjawunu near Ruitenzoi- Backer 6051 (BZ); 
(', Hutik Buli-ir near Buitenzor<i. Hacker 10757 (BZ); Estate Nan^un^ near 
Buiten/m- Hacker 105 St) (BZ): Xirmala near Buitenzorg, Hacker 10757 (BZ) ; 
Pasir Kcmpul near Xirmala, Hacker 11075 (BZ) ; Java, s.l., coll. ign. s.n. (L, U, typi). 
Series B. Monopodiales 

Inflorescentiae ramulos axillares abbreviatos (c\ internodio singulo cuius 
folia stipulis exceptis suppressa sunt constitutes) terminantes et mde 
plerumque oppositae. Pedunculus basi .semper s(|uanus stipulaceis mum- 
tus. Flores in axillis bractearum semper solitarii. Species 8-10. 

a. Bracteae involucrantes 4. Flores pedicellati. 

8. Poniazota rivularis Hend. in Card. Bull. Straits Settl. 4:411. f. 1-.*. 1929; Merr. 

in Papers Mich. Acad. Sri. 23: 193. 1938. 
Poniazota involucrata Merr. in Mitt. In>t. But. Hand). 7: 274. 1937. 
Ct'piophxllum bractcalum Khs. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2): 161. 1851; Miq., FI. 

hid. Bat. 2: 175. 1S56, absentia typi haud certe sciendum. 
?Coph>t>hyllmu capitatum Miq. apud Kidl.. Fl. Mai. Pen. 2:43. 1923, non Miq., 

Ind. Bat. 2: 348. 1857. 
Coptophyllum capitatum Miq. in errore apud Ridl. in Ecu Bull. 1925: 84. 1925. 

Herba e basi repente ascendens, 12-20 cm. alta. Caulis simplex, pri- 
mum sparse hirsutus, internodiis bisulcatis. 2 mm. diam., mox glabrescens 
et ad 5 mm. diam. accrescens. Folia in petiolum sparse hirsutum. 2-3 
cm. longum contracta; lamina oblanceolata, 1118 cm. longa et 4-6.5 cm. 
lata, apice acuminala. basi cuneata. sice, supra olivacea, subtus dilute 
brunnea, supra sparse hirsuta. cosia utrimquc, nervis venulisque subtus 
densius pubescens, margine ciliata. nervis utrnque latere costae 14 vel 15. 
venulis paucis. Stipulae 13 mm. longae et 9 mm. latae, apice indivisae. 
margine ciliatae, extus nervis hirsutae. Inilorescentiae pedunculatae; 
pedunculus gracilis, sparse hirlellus, post anlhesm usque ad 8 cm. accres- 
cens, basi squamis sti[.ulariluis 7 mm. longis instruetus; capitulum 3 cm. 
diam. Bracteae involucrales 4 ovato-oblongae, 9-15 mm. longae et 5-12 
mm. latae, subobtusae, margine et cost a ciliatae; bracteae aliae praesertim 
centrum versus multo angustiores, spathulatae; internae 8 mm. longae et 
1.6 mm. latae, utrimque longe et densius hirsutae. Flores in axillis brac- 
tearum semper solitarii, in bractea 0.5 mm. egredientes, pedicellati, basi 
pedicelli bracteolis duabus lineari spathulatis, 3-5 mm. longis et 0.3-0.5 
mm. latis, basi conduplicatis, utrimque hirsutis instructi; pedicellus 0.3-1.8 
mm. longus. Flores 5-meri. aliqui interdum 4-meri. Ovarium glabrum. 
Calyx tubo 0.2 mm. longo. lobis oblongis, 2.0 mm. longis et 0.4 mm. latis. 
ciliatis et utrimque sed praesertim intus sparse hirsutis. Corolla alba vel 
carneola, tubo 3.4-4.0 mm. longo, 0.6 mm. infra orem annulo pilorum 


instructo, lobis 1 nun. longis. Stamina 0.5 mm. supra basin tuhi inserta. 
filament is 0.5 0.7 mm., antheris 0.7-1.0 mm. longis. Discus 0.5 mm. 
altus, post anthesin usque ad I mm. accrescens. Stylus 5.S mm. longus. 
Capsula 2 mm. diam.. glabra. 

Hab. Peninsulam Malayanam. Sum;itram. Icrrac Borneensis partem 

Malay Pkninscia: Johore: G. Muntahok, alt. 200 m.. Holttum 10022 (HZ) 
(ex herb. Sing.); Ulu Kaban^, alt. 75 m„ Holttum lOSoO (HZ) (ex herb. Sins.); S. 
Susur Rotan, Corner s.n. (HZ) (ex herb. Sinp.). 

Sumatra: East Coast C.ouvt: Asahan, Aek Munle, alt. 500 m., Rahmat 0505 
(AA) ; Tomuan Dolok, alt. 1000 id., Rahmat <AVv (AA); H. Rauasan. Rahmat o74S. 
nSOO (AA); West Coast Res.: I'adaim, S. Huln, Heeeari 022 ( K. ) ; Henkulen Res.: 
s.l. Brooks s.n. (K, C. eapitatum Miq. apnd Ridf). Boknko: Sarawak: Mt. 
MatanK, Ridley 11754 (K); Hidi, Ridley 11752 (K); Western Division: upper S. 
Serawai, alt. 450 m„ //. Winkler S5S (HHC,, mi: of /'. involuerata Merr.). 

As one of the specimens collected in the Malay Peninsula was distributed 
by the Singapore Herbarium under the name Coptophyllum capitation, it 
seems probable that the ('. eapitatum of Ridley's "Flora of the Malay 
Peninsula" represents the species dealt with above. 

Henderson, I.e.. described the (lowers as 4-merous, but the large majority 
is 5-merous. As Merrill separated hi- /'. Involuerata from P. rivularis, of 
which he had apparently seen no specimens, mainly on account of the 
5-merous flowers, this species can not be kept up. 

b. Bracteae involucrantes 5. Flores sessiles. 

•i. Folia supra glabra.' Slipulae apice bipartito. Bracteae interiores 

l J. Fomazota sealiio-iflora Hrem. n. spec.; tvits: Bunnemeyer 405 (HZ) 

Herba e basi breviter repent e ascendens. circ. 20 cm. alia. Caulis 
simplex, primum sparse ferrugineo-pubescens, internodiis bisulcatis, 2.2 
mm. diam.. deinde glabrescens et teres. Folia in petiolum primum brevi- 
ter ciliatum. 1 2 cm. longum contracta; lamina oblanceolata vel anguste 
oblonga, 12-18 cm. longa et 3.5-5.5 cm. lata, apice acuta vel acuminata. 
basi cuneata, sice, supra saturate, sub! us dilute brunnea, supra glabra, 
subtus cost a nervis venulis pilis ferrugineis primum dense, deinde s[)arse 
pubescens. margine primum ciliolata. postea subglabra. nervis utroque 
latere costae 13 vel 14, venulis [)aucis. Stipulae 15 nun. longae et 7 mm. 
latae, apice bipartito. margine primum ciliolatae. deinde glabrescentes. 
Inllorescentiae peduiu ulatae; peihmculus glaber. ante anthesin circ. 1 cm. 
longus, postea usque ad 0.5 cm. accrescens, basi squamis stipularibus 0.S 
mm. longis instructus; capitulum usque ad 4 cm. diam. Bracteae involu- 
crales 5, oblongae. 15-20 mm. longae et 5.5— S mm. latae. subobtusae. basi 
vix conspicue et apicein versus distincte ciliatae; bracteae aliae spathulatae, 
magnitudine sensim decrescentes; centrales 6 mm. longae et 2 mm. latae. 
margine ciliatae. ceterum glabrae. Flores in axillis bractearum semper 
solitarii, in bracteam circ. 1 mm. egredientes, sessiles, basi bracteolis 
duabus oblanceolatis, 3 mm. longis et 1 mm. latis. basi conduplicatis. 
ciliatis instructi. Flores 5-meri. Ovarium glabrum. Calyx tubo 0.3 mm. 
longo, lobis oblongis, 2.2 mm. longis et 0.4 mm. latis, ciliatis. Corolla 
luteola, tubo 2.5 mm. longo, 0.2 mm. infra orem annulo pilorum instructo, 


lobis 1.5 mm. longis. Stamina 0.5 mm. supra basin tubi inserta, filamentis 
1.5 mm., antheris 1 nun. longis. maxima parte e.xsertis. Discus conicus, 
0.6 mm. altus. Stylus 3.5 mm. longus. Capsula 1.7 mm. diam.. glabra. 

Hab. Sumatram Occidentalem. 

Sumatra: West Coast Rev: \AV. slopes of G. Talamau, alt. 750 m., Kunnemeyer 
493 (BZ, typus). 

/3. Folia supra sparse hirsuta. Stipulae apice indivisae. Bracteae 

10. Pomazota batuensis Brem. n. spec.; typus: Raap 701 (BZ). 

Herba e basi breviter repente ascendens. S-l.S cm. alta. Caulis simplex, 
primum densius hirsutus. internodiis bisulcatis, fleinde sparse hirsutus et 
subteres. Folia in petiolum densius hirsutum. 8-15 mm. longum con- 
tracta; lamina bblanceolata, 4.5-11.5 cm. longa et 2.0-4.5 cm. lata, apice 
acuminata, basi cuneata, sice, utrimque dilute brunnea, supra sparse 
hirsuta, subtus sparse pubescens, costa utrimque nervis venulisque subtus 
densius pubescens, margine ciliata. nervis utroque latere costae 10-12, 
venulis paucis. Stipulae 10 mm. longae et 6 mm. latae, apice indivisae, 
margine ciliatae, ceterum glabrae. Inflorescentiae pedunculatae; pe- 
dunculus primum densius. postea sparsius hirtellus, post anthesin usque 
ad 3 cm. accrescens, basi squamis stipularibus instructus; capitulum usque 
ad 2.7 cm. diam. bracteae involut rales 5, oblongae, 12-15 mm. longae 
et 4-6 mm. latae. subacutae. margine ciliatae, ceterum glabrae; bracteae 
aliae magnitudine sensim decrescentes; centrales lineares, 5-9 mm. longae 
et 0.5-0.9 mm. latae. Flores in axillis bractearum semper solitarii. in 
bracteam circ. 1 mm. egredientes, sessiles, basi bracteolis duabus linearibus, 
4.5 mm. longis et 0.4 mm. Litis, ciliatis instructi. Flores 5-meri. 
Ovarium glabrum. Calyx tubo 0.1 mm. longo, lobis oblongis 2-3 mm. 
longis et 0.3-0.4 mm. latis, ciliatis. Corolla colore ignoto, matura nondum 
visa. Stamina prope basin tubi inserta. Capsula 1.8 mm. diam., glabra. 

Hab. insulas a Sumatra ad occasum, Batu dictas. 

Batu Isi \m)s: P. Hatu, Raap 701 BZ„ typus. 

bracteata (Khs.) Brem. n. comb. (Coptophyllum Khs.), spec, non sa 

capitala (Miq.) Brem. n. comb. (Coptophyllum Miq.) — Sumatra. 
pilosa (Miq.) Brem. n. comb. (Coptophyllum Miq.) —Java Occidental;. 
reptans Backer ex Brem. n. spec. — Sumatra Austrah et Java Occidentali 
rivularis Hem] Peninsula Malavana, Sumatra, lerra Borneensi. 
scabiosiftora Brem. n. spec- Sumatra Occidentali. 

simalurensis Brem n spec. — insula a Sumatra ad occasum Simalur dicta 
sylvestris Ridl. — Peninsula Malavana, Sumatra. 


The Bornean plant to be described below as the type of a new gehus, 
resembles in general aspect the species of Vomazota Ridl., series Sympo- 
diales Brem., but has the silky reddish brown pubescence, the subcapitate 
didymous stigma and exsuccous dipyrenous drupes of Xanthophytum 
Reinw. ex Bl. It differs from the latter and from the nearly related and 
perhaps not sufficiently distinct genera Paedicalyx Pierre ex Pitard and 
Xanthophytopsis Pitard in the position of the inflorescences, which are not 
opposite, but at first terminal and afterwards solitary at the nodes, the 
presence of two large involucral bracts, and also in the iloral structure: 
in the only specimen known so far the style is exserted and the stamens 
included, whereas in Xanthophytum the anthers are apparently always 
exserted and the style included. From Pomazota ii differs not only in 
the nature of the indumentum, in the subcapitate didymous stigma and 
exsuccous dipyrenous drupes, but also in the nature of the involucre, which 
consists of two very wide reniform bracts instead of 4, 5 or 8 much 
narrower ones, and in the inside villous upper half of the corolla-tube. 

The resemblance with Keenania Hook, f., Campanocalyx Val., Myri- 
oncuron R.Br., Polysolcnia Hook. f. and I ,e ptomischus Drake is perhaps 
of greater importance than that with Pomazota Ridl. or Xanthophytum 
Reinw. ex Bl. In all these genera the inflorescences are terminal and 
capituliform, the corolla-tube is villous inside in the upper half, and the 
flowers are apparently everywhere dimorphic. As the new genus is based 
on a single specimen, the conclusion that the latter represents the long- 
styled form of a heterostylous species rests on the resemblance between its 
flowers and the long-styled ones found in the other genera. At first I was 
inclined to regard the flowers of the type specimen of my new genus not 
only as long-styled but also, like those of Keenania, as female, because the 
pollen grains are uncommonly small and thin-walled, but since I have 
found similar pollen in short-styled flowers of Myrioneuron and also in 
Xanthophytum, I have dropped this supposition. 

The new genus differs from Myrioneuron in the presence of two large 
involucral bracts and in the nature of the pyrenes. which are apparently 
indehiscent, from Keenania and Campanocalyx in the narrowness of the 
calyx-lobes, from Polysolcnia in the entire stipules and from Le ptomischus 
in the dipyrenous drupes. 

Siderobombyx Brem. n. gen. 
Rubiacearum Hedyotidearum sensu meo. inflorescentiis primum ter- 


minalibus, capituliformibus, corollae tubo intus dimidio superiore villoso, 
et probabiliter floribus heterostylis ad genera Keenaniam Hook, f., 
Campanocalycem Val., Myrioncurum R. Br., Polysolcniam Hook. f.. 
Leptomischum Drake accedens, sed ad eis stigmate subcapital didymo, 
insuper a Kcenania calycis lobis hand imbricatis, a Campanocalycc calyce 
non campanulato. a \I yr'mnntro pyrenis non deliist enlibus et bracteis 
involucralibus magnis, a Polysolenia stipulis indivisis, a Lcptomischo fructu 
non opercule dehiscente sed dipyreno distinguendum. 

Herba caule sympodiali simplici erassiore. Folia in petiolum satis 
longum contracta; lamina satis magna, tenuis, subtus primum indumento 
rubro-brunneo sericeo vestita. penninervia. Stipulae interpetiolares, 
ovatae acuminatae, indivisae, magnae, persistentes. Inflorescentiae pri- 
mum terminales; deinde a ramo axillari in positionem lateralem coactae et 
solitariae ad nodes, pedum ulatac capituliformes. involucratae. Involu- 
crum e bracteis duabus externis magnis, reniformibus et pluribus bracteis 
internis brevioribus et forma ovatis, oblongis vel oblanceolatis compositum. 
Flores centro capituli dichasialiter dispositi, bracteis corolla brevioribus 
suffulti, sessiles, 5-meri, hermaphroditi, probabiliter heterostyli. Ovarium 
biloculare, placentis peltatis oblongis medio septo stipite brevi affixis, 
ovulis numerosis. Calyx tubo brevi, lobis lanceolatis acutis, extus dense 
rubro-brunneo villosis 'alternant ibus cum glandulis baculiformibus. Co- 
rolla alba, hypocrateriformis, tubo intus dimidio superiore dense villoso, 
lobis ovatis acutis. tlore aperto patentibus, extus costa sparse pilosis. 
Stamina in flore longistylo fere ad medium tubum inserta, filamentis glabris 
brevissimis, antheris subbasinxis, lineari-oblongis, in apiculum longum 
productis, inclusis. Discus annularis. Stylus glaber in flore longistylo, 
parte superiore impressionibus antherarum striatus, stigmate capitato 
didymo. Fructus drupa exsucca dipyrena, calyce persistente coronata, 
pyrenae ambitu oblongae, osseae, non dehiscentes. Semina rubro-brunnea, 
angulata, alveolata, alveolis fundo granulatis. 

Genus adhuc monotypicum parte septentrionali terrae Borneensis 

Species unica: 5. kinabalucnsis Brem. n. spec. 

31540 (BZ). 
Herba circ. 45 cm. alta. Caul is primum pilis tenuibus rubro-brunneo- 
villosus, internodiis bisulcatis, deinde glabrescens et teres, 4 mm. diam. 
Folia in petiolum primum pilis rubro-brunneis densius villosum, deinde 
glabrescentem, usque ad 4.5 cm. longum contracta; lamina obovata, 22-27 
cm. longa et 8-11 cm. lata, apice acuminata, basi sensim contracta, supra 
primum sparse pilosa, deinde glabrescens. subtus pilis rubro-brunneis 
primum dense sericeo-villosus, deinde sparse et vix conspicue pubescens, 
sice, supra saturate et subtus dilute brunnea, nervis utroque latere costae 
12-13, venulis paucis. stipulae usque ad I S cm. longae et 1.3 cm. latae, 
apice indivisae, extus sparse pubescentes, margine densius ciliatae. In- 
florescentiae breviter pedunculatae; pedunculus circ. 1.3 cm. longus. 
Bracteae involucrantes externae 2.'^ cm. latae et 1.8 cm. longae, acumi- 
natae; bracteae involucrantes internae satis numerosae, breviores et multo 
angustiores, ovatae, oblongae et oblanceolatae, ciliatae, omnes steriles. 
Bracteae fertiles bracteis in i s. Flores later- 


ales dichasiorum bracteis lanceolatis quam floribus brevioribus, extus et 
praesertim margine pilis rubro-brunneis dense villosis suffulti. Ovarium 
pilis rubro-brunneis dense villosum. 2 nun longum et 1 mm. diam. Calyx 
pilis rubro-brunneis extus dense villosus. intus subglaber, tubo 1 mm. alto, 
lobis lanceolatis 4 mm. longis et 1.3 nun. latis. acutis. Corolla tubo 5 nun. 
longo, extus pilis rubro-brunneis sparse villoso. intus dimidio superiore 
dense albo-villoso. lobis 1 mm. luiuiis. eosta pane villosis. Stamina in 
flore longistylo 2 mm. supra basin tubi inserta. filament is glabris 0.6 mm. 
longis, antheris longe apiculatis 1.2 mm. longis. Discus 0.3 mm. altus, 1 
mm. diam. Stylus in flore longistylo (> mm. longus. Drupa 3 mm. alta, 
2 mm. lata, 1 mm. crassa. didyma. pilis rubro-brunneis sparse villosa. 

Hab. terrae Borneensis partem septentrionalem. 

Borneo. British North Borneo, Mt. Kinabalu. Penibukan, alt. 1200 1500 m., 
J. & M. S. Clemens 31540 (BZ). 

On one of the two labels attached to the specimen the height is given 
as 18 feet, but on the other, which is apparently the original one. as 18 
inches (18"). As its nearest allies are all comparatively low plants with, 
as a rule, unbranched stems, I have assumed that the latter is right, and 
that the preserved shoot represents the whole plant, the roots only excepted. 


L. J. BRASS, II.* 

viously been 

This paper deals with the genera f the Mapanioide; 
those of the Scirpoideae. Several collections had p 
examined by Kukenthal, Uittien or Svenson and reference to their deter- 
minations is made in the citation of specimens. The treatment of Cyperus 
follows that of Kukenthal in Pflanzenr. 10L (IV. 20) : 1935-6. 
Hypolytrum L. C. Richard 

Hypolytrum compartum Nees in Linnaca 9:2,SS. 1SS5, nomen, in Nov. Act. Acad. 
Caes Leop Natur Cur Id. suppl. 2 : 73. 1SH; Kukenth. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
59-=^ 102S ; 69:201. 1938; I'itt. in Rec. Trav. Hot. Need. 33:155. 1936, in 
Mcded. Hot. Mus. Hurl). I'niv. Ctrecht 26: 155. 1036; Ohwi in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 
56: 209. 1942. 
Papua: Western Division: Lake Daviumhu. Middle Ely R . Brass 7457, August 

New for Papua; previously known from Netherlands New Guinea, 
North-East New Guinea, Am Islands. Celebes, Borneo, Philippine Islands 
and Imlo-China. 

Papca: Western Division: Oroville Camp, Fly R., Brass 7398 (type coll.), Aug. 
l<J3o. common plant sporadic in tufts on forest door. Central Division: Mekeo 
District, C. '/'. White 81)6, July-August 1918. 

White 806 is in rather young flower only; it has a more ample in- 
florescence than the type-collection, the colour throughout is paler and 
the mottling on the leaves is very indistinct. A similar indistinct mottling 
has been noticed on some specimens of //. latifolium. 
Hypolytrum latifolium L. C. Rich, in Pcrs. Syn. 1:70. 1805; F. Muell. Pap. PI. 

2:34. 1SS0; K. Sclium. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgt'b. Sudsee I'M. 1900; 

Valck. Surinu. in Nova Guin. Hot. 8: 709. 1912; Kukenth. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 

59:53. 1924; 69: 260. 1938. 
Nktheklands \i.\v Ccinka: Hernhard Camp, [denburg R., Brass 13074, April 
1939, alt. 50 m., common in semi swampv rain-forest of river plains (clumps ± 1 
m. high). Paima: Western Division: Lake Daviumhu. Middle Fly R., Brass 7553, 

Central Division: Kanosia, Carr 11302, Feb. P>35, sea level, marshy forest (ca. 3 ft. 
tall) (herb. Canberra) definite locality, W. E. Armit, Barton. 

Solomon Islands: Bougainville: Marmaromino, Kajewski 2188, Sept. 1930, alt. 
50 m., rain-forest, common (a rush -rowing in swampy places up to l3 m. high, 

* Botanical Results of the Richard Archbold Expeditions. See Jour. Arnold Arb. 


leaves bright green. San Cristobal: Hinuahaoro, Brass M44, Sept. 1932, alt. 900 m., 
forest floor. Common name: Ti-pi-rekio). 

The species ranges from India through Malaysia to (Queensland, though 
the above appears to be the first definite record from Netherlands New 
Guinea (unless //. amplectcns Valck. Suring., op. tit., 70S, t. 115. be 
couspecific) and Bougainville. 

Kukenthal in D)SS. I.e.. cites Can 12010 as belonging to this species. 
but I am doubtful of this determination. The specimen seen is very 
slender with narrow leaves and the lower glumes are longer, narrow, and 
acute; the spikelets are verv young. 

Concerning the legitimacy of the name, see S. T. Hlake in hoc. Roy. 
Soc. Queens!. 54: 71. 1943. 

kIimiiii bam inum ( Mii|. 1 
. Ctrccht 2ft : 186. l<)3o, 

Paima: Western Division: Palmer R.. 2 miles below junction with Mack R., 
Brass 70<J6, June 1936, alt. 100 m., forming open lulled -round cover in special swamp 
forests on ridges; same place and dale, Brass 7(^7, plcniilul as ground cover in swamp 

Rather widely spread through Malaya. Sumatra and Borneo. In New 
Guinea it was previously known only from Netherlands New Guinea. 

Of the two collections cited above Brass 7096 is in young dower and his 
7097 has mature fruit. Both were determined by Uittien. 

Thoraeostaclivum patulanophvllum (V. Muell.) Domin in Biblioth. Hot. 85:484. 
1015; r'itt. in Roc. Trav Hot. Neerl. 33: 188. I-Uo, in Meded. Hot. Mus. Herb. 
Cm. I'trecht 2d: 138. 193o, with synonymy. 
Uvpolxhum lHindanopli\llum F Muell Franm. Phvtogr. Austr. 9:10. 1875. 
Maf.mia pandaaophxllum ( F. Muell.) K. Schum in k. Schum. & Hollr. Fl. Kaiser 
Wilhelmsl. 25. 1889; in K. Schum. & l.auterb. Kb Deutsch. Schut/geb. Sudsee 
189. 1900. 
Tkorarostachvum hv polxt, outrs (F. Muell.) C. H. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 
6:081. 1894; Valck. Suring. in Nova Guin. Hot. ii : 710. 1912; Rendle in O.bbs. 
Fl. Arfak Mts. 250. 1917; kukenth. in Fngl. Hot. Jahrb. 59:54. lo.'-l. 
Paima: Western Divi.-ion: Strickland R„ 11'. Baurrlni in 1885; Lake Daviumbu, 
Middle Fly R., Brass 7nM, Sept. 103o, one of the principal plants of the floating 
islands in lake; same locality Brass 7017, Sept. 193o, abundant on floating islands of 
lake and forming characteristic undergrowth of sago and Melaleuca swamp forests 
(leaves erect to 3 m. ; inllorescence pale pink, shortei than the loaves); Lower Fly R, 
east bank opposite Sturt Island, Brass .si IS, October 193o, terming characteristic 
undergrowth of Erythrina swamp forests (clumps l.> 8 m. high, leaves erect). 

New for Papua: previously known from Malaya. Sumatra, Borneo, 
Celebes, I'alau Islands, Netherlands and North-East New Guinea, and 
NE. Queensland. All Brass's specimens had been previously determined 
by Uittien. 


Paramapania Uittien 
Paramapania simplex (Ridl.) Uitt. in Rcc. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 32: 190. 1935, in Meded. 
Hot. Mus. Hit!). I'niv. Utrecht 16:190. 1935. 
Thoracostachxum simplex Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II, Bot. 9: 244. 1916. 

rain-f'orest; 4 km. SW. of Bern'hard Camp, Idenburg R., Brass 13601, March 1939. 
alt. 850 m., occasional tufts, slopes ol rain-forest ravines. Papua: Western Division: 

plant scattered through the ridge forests (det. Uittien). 

New for Papua; previously known only from the type collection from 
the Snow Range, Netherlands New Guinea. Brass 6647 is much smaller 
than the others. (the largest leaf seen being only 13 cm. long and 1 cm. 
wide) with small spikelets about 6X4 mm., and somewhat smaller nuts. 
Paramapania parvibractea (C. B. Clarke) Uitt. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 33: 143. 
1936, in Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Univ. Utrecht 26: 143. 1936. 
Hxpolvtrum parvibractea C. H Clark, in Kew Bull. 1899:114. 1899. 
Hxpolxtrum parvibracteatum C. B. Clarke in Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8:51. 1908; 
Yalck. Suring. in Nova Guin. Bot. 8:709. 1912; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
II, Bot. 9:243. 1916. 
Hxpolxtntm parvibracteatum var. quadriglumatum Yalck. Suring., I.e., and t. 116. 

Hxpolxtrum quadriglumatum Suring., I.e., 70«. 1912 (nomen invalidum?). 
Mapania montana Lautcrb. & K. Sebum, in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. 

Schutzgeb. Siidsee 189. 1900. 
Thoracostachxum montanum (Lauterb. & K. Sebum.) Yalck Sunns, in Nova Guin. 

Bot. 8:710. 1912; Kukenth. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 59:54. 1924; Ohwi in Bot. 

Mas. Tokyo 56: 209. 1942. 
Thoracostachxum parvibractea (C. B. Clarke) Kukenth. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 

Paramapania amboinensis Uitt. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 32: 191. 1935, in Meded. 

Hot. Mus. Herb. Univ. Utrecht 16: 191, fig. 4. 1935. 
Paramapania montana (Lauterb. & K. Schum.) Uitt. in Rec. Trav. Bot. Neerl. 

32:200. 1935, in Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Univ. Utrecht 17:200. 1935 (nomen 

Netherlands New (Iiixi.a: East slopes ol Cyclops Mountains, Brass 8Q44, 
1938, alt. 575 m., occasional floor plant in tall forest (inflorescence purple); Bernhard 
Camp, Idenburg R., Brass 13842, April 1939, alt. 150 m., frequent tufts in rain-forest 
of lower mountain slopes. a Central Division: Dieni, Ononge Road, Brass 
3<JM, April-May 1933, alt. 500 m., sporadic occurrence on rain forest floor. 

Evidently widely spread in New Guinea and has been found in the 
Moluccas and Celebes (Uittien, 

Some of the names cited in the synonymy have doubtful nomenclatural 
status. Hxpolvtrum quadriglumatum Yalck. Suring. was published as 

'Hypolytrum parvibracteatum Clarke var. quadriglumatum; nov. 
var., nisi H. quadriglumatum species nova." 

"Tab. CXVI" 

In the explanation of the plate only the ternary combination appears. 

The binomial II night be taken as an alternative name. 


hut because of the use of the word nisi (as well as the absence of the 
binomial from the explanation of the plate) there is at least the possibility 
that the name should be regarded as a provisional name and therefore 

Paramapania Montana (Lauterb. & K. Schum.) L'itt. also seems to be a 
provisional name |"If it (i.e. T/iora, osta< hvuoi montanum) turns out to 
be the same species, the name of the latter (i.e. Paramapania amhoincnsis) 
should be altered in P. Montana Uitt."|. 

And finally the combination Thoraiostut livitm par\'i/>ractra (C. H. 
Clarke) Kiikenth. does not seem to satisfy the requirements of Art. 44. 
The name was published as follows: ' Tli. parvibractea (('. H. Clarke) 
Kiikenth. comb. nov. - 77/. montanum Suringar." 

There is nothing in the citation to show upon what species of Clarke's 
Kukenthal based his new combination, though it may be presumed it was 
II ypolytrnm parvibractea. The citation of '///. montanum Yalckenier 
Suringar and reference to the (much later) work of I'itt ion leads one to 
this presumption, but it is no proof. 

Rhi/oma lignosum obliquum. circa 5 mm. crassum. fibrillis tectum. 
Folia e(|uitantia. anguste linearia. basin versus angustata et complicata, in 
apicem filiforiuem curvum vel tlexuosum longe acutata. 30 us(|ue plus 50 
cm. longa, circa 4 mm. lata. coriacca. pallide viridia, plurinervia nervis 
prominulis mediano subtus dist inctissimo. sursum carina marginihusque 
scabra, apice scaberrima. Scapi 10 20 cm. longi, subtrigono-tiliformes. 
0.3-0. () mm. crassi, flaccidi, laeves. glabri, basi vaginis august is sanguineo- 
fuscis praeiliti, prope medium vaginam unicam breviter laminiferam pro 
more gerentes, 1- vel us(|iie 4-stachyi (|iio in casu raimili usque ad 13 mm. 
longi adsunt. Spii ulae brunneae 8 10 mm. longae, sub anthesi 3.5 et sub 
fructu 5 mm. latae. Clumae 3 mm. longae. suboblongae, apice late ro- 
tundatae. Mores 2.S-2.S mm. longae. S(|uamulae 5. Stigmata 3. Nux 
ambitu lanceolata longe acute(|iie acuminata rostrata, stipitata. trigona. o 
mm. longa. 1 mm. lata, nit ido fusca in rostrum curvum paullo pallidius 
sensim abeuns; stipes alulatus 1 mm. longus. 

12<J3(), (typk), Kcl). V)$<), alt. 1200 ni.. lrc(|Ufnt aloim cn-sts ol ridges in rain-forest. 
This new species is most nearly allied to /'. lon^irostris (Kiikenth.) 
I'itt . but differs in that the glumes are twice as long, the flowers slightly 
smaller than the glume-, in the indistinctly 3-angled (not 6-angled) nut 
passing gradually (not abruptly) into the relatively shorter beak. Of the 
seven scapes on the type material, 3 have each a single spikelet. 1 have 2 
each, and 2 have 4 each. 


Mapania Ai 

Subgenus Pandanosc 

inia papna 

iki Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 

Kir. Tra\ 

. Bot. Need. 33: 151. 1936, 

I'lnrht 2(. 

: 151. 1936. 


Netherlands New Gum \ 4 km SW of Bcrnhard Camp, Idenburg R, Brass 
13007, March 1939, alt. TOO m., abundant in mossy-forest undergrowth (stem up to 
40 cm. long and plant .*- 1.5 m. overall; fruits yellow, fleshy). 

As yet known only from Netherlands New Guinea. 
Mapania baccifera C. B. Clarke in Kew Hull. Add. Ser. 8:53. 1908; Uitt. in Rec. 
Tray. Hot. Neerl. 33:279. 1036, in Meded. Hot. Mus. Herb. Univ. Utrecht 
32:279. 1036. 
Solomon Islands: Isabel: Tiratona, Brass ,^;v, Nov. 1032, alt. 600 m., common 

Originally described from an iniloreseenee and a fragment of a leaf 
collected by Guppy on Shoriland Island (Solomon Islands) and somewhat 
tentatively assigned to sect, (subg.) Halostcmma. Uittien records 
it from Xelherlands New Guinea and refers it to subgen. Pandtuioscirpus. 
Brass's specimen is an excellent one with two immature inflorescences and 
four mature infructescences. There is an elongated subhorizontal rhizome 
about 8 mm. thick with a dense tuft of leaves at the end. The leaves are 
up to 1 m. long and about 1-1.5 cm. wide, long attenuate to the Aliform 
very scabrous tip, but not much narrowed to the somewhat conduplicate 
base. The scapes are about 10 cm. long and the inflorescence about 3.5 
cm. long and 2-2.5 cm. wide; the nut is 7-9 mm. long and 3.5-4 mm. wide. 

(achenes black) (type-collection). 

Mapania di. lyophlehia sp. nov. Subgen. Pandanoscirpus Uitt. Plate II. 

Rhizoma lignosum. S nun. erassiini, films tectum. Folia subflaccida 
usque ad circa 60 cm. longa, 10-20 mm. lata, multinervia reticulata nervis 
3 validionbus conspicuis pallidis, basin versus angustata et conduplicata, 
apice in acumen longum subtriquetrum scabcrrimum sensim attenuata, 
marginibus costaque pro majore parte spinuloso-scabra. Scapi 6-10 cm. 
longi monostachyi, subtrigoni. striati eetennn laeves, glabri, basi gracillimi 
circa 0.7 mm. crassi s<|iiamis nonnuliis pallidis laxis breeder obtecti, sur- 
sum admodum incrassati circa 1 nun. crassi. Spicula pallide brunnea, 
13-15 mm. longa, sub anthesi fere oblonga circa 5 mm. lata, sub fructu 
tandem subglobosa usque ad 14 mm. lata. Glumae ovato-oblongae, 
obtusae, 8 mm. longae, mull ineives. maminibus hyalinae sursum minute 
ciliolatae. Flores oblique lineares, 9 mm. longae. \'ux obovato-pyri- 
formis. apiculata, breviter stipitata, hand angulala, indistincte crebreque 
rugulosa, 4.2 mm. longa (stipite 0.S mm. longo incluso), 2.4 mm. lata; 
exocarpium spongiosum; endocarpium durum, nigrum. 

Netherlands New Guinea: 4 km. SW. of Bcrnhard Camp, Idenburg R„ Brass 
13428 (type), March 1030. alt. S'O m. rain-lorest. one clump on the bank of a 

Mapania cuspidata (Miq.) Uitt in Jour. Arnold 
Lepironia cuspidata Miq. Fl. Ind. Hat. Suppl. I: 
Mapania petiolata C. H. Clarke var. cuspidata 

212 J01 K.WI. OK l'lIK ARNOLD ARBORETI M [vol. xxvm 

Neerl. 33:2X2. 193o, in Meded. Hot. Mus. Herb. Univ. Utrecht 32:282. 1936; 
with synonymy. 

Netherlands New Ciinea: Hernhard Camp, Idenbur- R., Brass /.'.s'vrt. April 
1939, alt. 120 m., frequent in ram lorcM ol lower mountain slopes. 

Solomon Islands: San Cristobal: Hinuahaoro, Knits J046, Sept. 1932, alt. 900 
m., forest floor, common (flower yellow). 

The typical form of the species has been recorded from Malaya, 
Sumatra, Java and Borneo. Uittien,, distinguishes three varieties. 
closely connected with one another and the typical form by intermediates; 
he refers (1939, I.e.) Brass 7382 from the Palmer River, Papua (which I 
have not seen) to var. petiolata (C. B. Clarke) Uitt. I.e., which appears to 
be pan-Malaysian. Carr 12772 from Koitaki. Papua, in herb. Canberra, 
also appears to belong to this variety; it was referred to M. petiolata 
C. B. Clarke by Kukenthal in Kngl. Bot. Jahrb. 69: 261. 1938. Brass 
3046 and 13896 agree with one another as to foliage, which approaches 
that of var. augustifolia (Uitt.) Uitt. rather than var. petiolata, but no. 
13896 has the short spikelets about 1.5 cm. long of the typical form on 
short scapes, 4-8 cm. long. 

Subgen. Ophaloscirpus (Kurz) Bentham & Hooker 
Mapania Moseleyi C. B. Clarke in Kew Hull. Add. Ser. 8:55 1<>0X. 

Mapania l.edcrmannn Kukenth. in Find. Hoi. Jahrb. 59:57. 1924; Ohvvi in Hot. 

Mag. Tokyo 56:212. 1042. 
Netherlands New Ciinla: 4 km. S\V. ol Hernhard Camp, Idenburn R ., Brass 
U42'->, March, 1939, all. X50 in., rain forest iiiulimnu t h. Irei|iient on steep slopes; 

tufted terrestrial, occasional in rain-forest. 

Pit lien in Jour. Arnold Arb. 20: 213. 1939, cites the type of Mapania 
Ledermannii under Mapania Moseleyi Clarke f. latijolia forma now 
There appears to be some confusion in the paragraphs concerned and to 
judge from the description of the leaves of f. latijolia and the width of the 
leaves of other specimens cited, it would appear that Uittien's intention 
was to regard the type of .1/. Ledermannii Kukenth. {Ledermann 
12000), Doeters van Leeuwen 10-15 2a and Gyellerup 524 as conspecific 
with .1/. Moseleyi. Mapania Moseleyi I", latijolia is then to be regarded as 
based entirely on Brass 7384 (which I have not seen) which differs from 
the type in having no stem leaves besides the characters given in the Latin 
diagnosis. Brass 12804 and 13420 have each two stem-leaves; the leaves 
on 12804 are 8-10 mm. wide, in 13429 they are 5-7 mm. wide. 

.,|,.,ui.i iiLicrocrpli:.!.. d'.aud ) K Schum in Warb in Fmd Hot Jahrb. 13:. 
I SO 1 ; K. Schum. S Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch Schutz<icb. Sudsec 1X9. 1900; Va 
Surinir. in Nova Coin. Hot. 8:711. 1912; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II, I 
9:245. 19K>; Kukenth. in Fn-1 Hot. Jahrb. 59:56. 1924; Rehd. in J< 
Arnold Arb. 11:65. 1933; Ohvvi in Hot. Mat: Tok\o 56:211. 1942. 

Hypolytrum macrocephahim Caud. in Freycin. Voy. 414. 1826. 

<Y/./;, ; /^,;./v,.. mmm.rphalu* (Caud.) Kurz in Jour. As. Soc. Hernial 38 (2): 


Papua: Western Division: Palmer R., 2 miles below junction with Black R , 
Brass 7241, July 1936, alt. 100 m„ in large clumps in swamps and on banks of streams 
cutting flood plains (leaves +- 4.5 m. long, 6 cm. broad ; infructescence ± 8 cm. long, 
Q cm. diam.) (det. Fittien). Central Division: Upoia, Vailala R., Brass 1158, 
March 1926, in large clumps in swampy soil resembling in appearance a young 

high, 3-angled with one or two long leaf-like brads with sheathing leaves on lower 

Solomon Islands: Bougainville: kiiinimaiu. Hum. Kajcaki 1087, July 1930, 

Previously known from the Moluccas, Admiralty Islands, New Ireland, 
Netherlands New Guinea and the Central Division of Papua {Brass 1158, 
cf. Rehder, I.e.). It also occurs in north-east Queensland (S. T. Blake in 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 58: ined.). 

Lepironia L. C. Richard 
Lepii-oniii articulata (Retz.) Domin in Biblioth. Hot. 85:486. 1915. 
Restio artkulaius Ret/. Observ. I: 14. 1786. 

Jahrb. 39: 58. 1924. 
Papua: Western Division: Lake Daviumbu, Middle Fly R , Brass 7605, August 

Gaima, Lower Fly R. (east bank). Brass 8J55. Nov. 193<>, associated with Scleria 
chincnvK and Ratio s> in extensive open marsho in savannah torest. 

New for Papua. The species is known from Malaysia, Caroline Islands, 
N. and E. Australia. Fiji, Madagascar, and is cultivated in China. In 
New Guinea it was previously known only from a single collection from 
North-East New Guinea. The nomenclature has been discussed by me in 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 54: 71, 72. 1943. 

Cyperus Linnaei 
Subgen. Eueyporus (Griseb.) 
ferns Retz., Observ. 4: 10. 1786; \ 

It was on this collection that Kukenthal founded his C. Carrii which he 
placed in subgenus M arise us seel. Thunbcr»iani. The specimen in herb. 
Canberra has well-developed tubers, is certainly Em v/xrus, and, although 
somewhat immature as to the nuts, is evidently the wide-spread chiefly 
coastal C. stolonifcrus Retz. The specimen seen by Kukenthal apparently 
bore no tubers; otherwise his description accords with the specimen seen 

Queensland, but has not previously been recorded for Papua. 

214 JOURNAL OF THE AK.VH I) \K liOlil I I M [ vol.. xxvin 

Cyperm auric ornns Sieb. sensu K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. 

Sudsee 101. 1900, not C. auricomus Sieb. 
Cvperus racrmosus Ret/ sensu K Schum & Lauterb.. It,, 1°2, not ('. raccmosus 


Cvperus auricomus var. micrustachyus Boeck in K Sebum \ Hollr. Fl. Kaiser 
' Wilhelmsl. 23. 1889. 

Paima: Western Division: IVii/ara, between Morehead and VVassi Kussa Rivers, 
tfr«.v.v .S'/^.l, Dec. 1036, in marshy shallows of waterhole (dot. Rukcnthal). Central 
Division: Haga, Loloki River, Brass 8Q2, Jan. 1926, growing on swam]) borders, 

Kukenthal, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 69: 255. 1938, refers Carr 15532 to 
this species, but the specimen under this number in herb. Canberra belongs 
to C. distans L.f. 

Cvperus malacoensis Lam. lllustr. 1: No. 1791 ; Rukenth. in Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 201 : 

Sb. 1035, and in Engl Hoi. Jahrb. 69:255. 1938. 
Raima: Western Division: Lower Fly R. east bank opposite Sturt Island, Brass 
S0S3, October 1936, on river mud Hats, Caima. Lower Fly R. (east bank), Brass 

community, 1 1.2 m. high, on open sandy foreshores covered by spring tides. Gulf 
Division: Yailala Estuary, Brass 11S5, March lo2o, on tidal mudbanks (3 -1 ft. 
high). Central Division: Arda R., Carr 11427, Feb 1035, sea-level, marshes along 

making sleeping mats, etc.). Eastern Division: Domara R., Brass 1532, Ma> l')2o, 
on muddy river bank (stems used by natives tor mat-making). 

Widely spread in the Eastern Hemisphere, from Mesopotamia to 
Polynesia and Northern Australia. Kukenthal has seen all Brass's col- 
lections and nos. 11S5, 15S2 arc cited in his monograph. 

Cvperus Zollingeri Steud. in Zollinger, Ycrz. lnd. Archip. 2:62. 1854, nomen, Synops. 

Cvp. 17. 1855; Kukenth. in Engl. Hot. Jahrb. 59:44. 1924; 69:255. 1938, in 

Ptlan/enr. 101 (IV. 20): 133. 1935; Ohwi in Hot. Mag. Tokyo 56:200. 1942. 

Nktiikkiam.s \iw Ccim.a: Habm R, Brass 11730, Dec. 1938, alt. 1600 m., 

deforested slopes, abundant on sandy soil. Paita: Western Division: Caima, 

sedge common on hard soils (del Kukenthal). Central Division: Mafulu, Brass 
3407, Sept. -Nov. 1933, alt. 1250 m, rare on rubbly soil ridge-crest in Castanopsis 

The species is widely spread in the Old World tropics. 

Cvperus distans L.I. Suppl. 103. 1781; F. Muell. Pap. PI. 1:73. 1876; Bore, in 

D'Albcrtis New ( 2:300. l.sso, \alek. Slicing. Nova Cuin. Bot. 8:699. 

1912; Kukenth. in End, Hot. Jahrb. 59: It. 1024, in Ptlan/enr. 101 <l\. 20 1 : 

137. 1035; Ohvvi in Hot Mag Tokyo 56:100. 1942. 

Pai'ca: Central Division: Laloki R, C. T. White 172, July-August 1918; 

Mafulu, Brass 3533, Sept. -Nov. 1933, 1250 m., wet ground on roadside in forest, 

Bella Vista, C. T. White 41S, July-August 1918, alt. ca. 5000 ft. 

t osmotropical: Can's collection was referred to ( '. diktat us Roxb. by 
Kukenthal in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 09: 255. 1938. 

Cvperus Iria L. Sp. PI. 1:45. 1753; K. Schum. in Notizbl. Hot. Cart Mils. Merlin 
2:05. 1808; K. Schum, & Lauterb. El. Deutsch. Schut/ueb. Sudsee 102 1000; 
Y.dck Suimj in Nova Cum Hot (Coos 1912; Kukenth. in Engl. Hot. Jahrb. 
59:44. 1924, in Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 20): 150. 1935. 


Papua: Western Division: Daru Island, Brass 60S?, March 1034, road ditches, 

not common (det. Kukenthal). 

New for Papua. The species is widely spread in the tropical and some 
subtropical parts in Asia and Australia, and occurs, apparently as an 
introduction, in parts of the United States and the West Indies. 

Papua: Western Division: Lake Daviumhu, Middle Fly K„ Brass 7631, August 
1936, common on swamp mart-ins and floating islands ot lake (det. Kukenthal). 

New for New Guinea. The species has been recorded from south-east 
Asia (India to Malaya), Java, Borneo, Queensland and New South Wales. 
Cyperus diffusus Vahl, Enum. 2: 321. 1806: F. Muell. Pap. PI. 1: 31. 1876; K. Schum. 

& Hoilr. Fl. Kaiser Wilhelmsl. 34. ISS'J; Warh. in Fngl. Hot. jahrh. 13:264. 

1891; K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. S.hut/ueb. Sudsee 192. 1900; Palla in 

Rcchinecr, Denkschr. Math.-Naturw. Kai-. Akad. Wiss Wien 89:498. 1913; 

Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II, Bot. 9:241. 1916; Ohwi in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 

56: 199. 1942. 
Cyprrus pub, squama Steud. in /.oil. Verz. Ind. Arch. 2:62. 1854; K. Schum. & 

Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Sudsee 192. 1900. 
Cyprrus difusus var. uuurosta, hyus Roeck. in I.mnaea 35:534. 1868; Kukenth. in 

Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 201:209. 1936. 
Cyprrus diffusus var. pubisquama (Steud.) Hook. I. in Trinicn, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 

5:28. 1Q00; Kukenth. in Fiu:l Rot. Jahrh. 59:43. 1924. 
Cyprrus diffusus var. rrlebirus (Miq.) Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 20) : 208. 

Cyprrus diffusus f. macrostarliyus (Roeck.) Valck. Sunng. in Nova Cuin. Bot. 


diffusus f. 

\tii< hxu 

Valck. Suring. I.e. 


;ii<fusu\ t. 

•>.s Valck. 

Suring. I.e. 


diffusus f. 


US (Miq. 

) Kukenth. in Engl. Bot. 

Jahrb. 59:43. 



•, Mrs. H. P. Schlmkrr 

, Sept. 1909. 


Lake Davi 

Middle Fly R., Brass 7690, Sept. 

1950, in semi- 

rgins; Low 

er Fly 

R., east 

bank opposite Sturt Islai 

id, Bmss Ml!. 

iful as scattered ( 

etween Mc 

and W; 

'8445, Dec. 19. 

shade, in < 

rreek at margin ot ram N 

)rest. Central Division: 

Mekeo Distri 

White 810, 


Solomon Islands: 


alt. 1500 f 

t., pathway 

■s and 


in the rain-forests. 

Brass 2705, 8141, White 810, and Schlcnkcr's specimen correspond more 
or less to C. diffusus var. macrostachyus I'.oeck. and Brass 8141 was so 
determined by Kukenthal. But Kukenthal has also determined Brass 
7690 as belonging to this variety, though to me the specimen appears to 
be at least as close to the typical form as is Brass 8445, determined by 
Kukenthal simply as C. diffusus. The species is somewhat variable and 
two entities may indeed be involved but to judge from the series of speci- 
mens seen by me from Malaya, Philippine Islands and Queensland and 
those cited above, var. macrostachyus is too closely connected with the 
typical form by intermediates to warrant nomenclatural recognition. The 
degree of spreading of the glumes, which has been stressed as a distinguish- 

JOURNAL OF Till \li.\OI I) \KIH>KI II \l 

ing character, seems in depend to some extent on variations in conditions 
during the drying of the specimen and to some extent also on the 
physiological state of the plant at the time of gathering. The length and 
the direction of the mucro on the glumes are certainly inconstant. 

Cyprrus pubisquama Steuri. and C. ditlusus var. macrostachyus Hoeck. 
appear to have been founded on the same type, or at least on the same 
collection. The latter ternary combination has priority over ('. dittusus 
var. pubisquama (Steud.) Hook. f. (1900), a combination made inde- 
pendently at a later date by Kukenthal (1924. I.e.). Cyprrus ditjusus f. 
prince ps Valck. Suring. appears |<> be what Suringar takes as the typical 

This wide-spread tropical species seems not to have been recorded 
previously from the Solomon Islands. 

Rhi/oma breve? Culmus (unit us visits ) 43 cm. alt us. apice 2 mm. 
crassus, acute tri(|iieter et leviter compressus. angulis sursum minute 
scaberulus. basi solum foliatus. Folia plura culino multo usque duplo 
longiora. lmeana. longe acuteque attenuata. 3.5-5 mm. lata, carina et 
marginibus plerum<|ue recurvis vel revolutis tenuitet scabra. nervis 3 (jiiam 
ceteris plus conspicuis; vaginae brunneae. Hracteae 4 foliiformes. in- 
llorescentiam superantes. ima culmo longior. Anthela semicomposita; 
radii 5 fere filiformes. subtrigoni. angulis sursum scaberuli, imus 4 cm. 
longus; prophylla pallida brunneotincta. ore obliquissima ; bracteolae fere 
squamiformes; radioli brevissimi. Spiculae 5 5-nim digitatae vel soli- 
tariae, cinereo-brunneae. lineares. acutae, compressae, S -10 mm. longae, 
ca. 2 mm. latae. 12-16-tlorae. Rhachilla recta, vix alata. (ilumae sub- 
coriaceae, 2.3—2. 7 mm. longae. (explanatae) oblongo-ovatae, obtusae, 
mucronatae, crebre circa 15-17-nerves in parte superiore sola distincte 
carinatae. incurvae. basi articulatae, marginibus subhyalinae et sursum 
admodum involutae, 3-4 imae vacuae gradatim breviores. Stamina 5; 
antherae 0.7 mm. longae, apice hand setosae; filamenta linearia ferruginea. 
Stylus 0.7-0.° mm. longus. ima basi excepta pilosulus; stigmata 3 pilosula. 
0.5-0.6 mm. longa. Xux ellipsoidea, acuta, triquetra, lateribus concava, 
circa l glumam adaequans, 1.4-1.5 mm. longa, 0.7-0.8 mm. lata. 

I'ai'ia: Western Division: Orovilk- Camp, Fly R., Brays 7-I1S (imm.i. Aii-um 

'Idle specimen seen consists of a single culm with a very short piece of 
rhizome attached. The label bears the determination 'Cyperus cinereo- 
brunneus Kiikenth. sp. nov." There is no evidence that a description 
has been published or even drawn up. 

The species appears to be most closely allied to ( '. subpapuanus Kiikenth. 
but has narrow leaves, the glumes incurved to the tip with smooth not 
scabrous keel and with more numerous nerves, acute nuts and a longer 
style. The narrow leaves, incurved tips of the glumes and acute nut 
recall C. mcistostylus S. T. Blake, but the leaves are more numerous, the 
spikelets are more distinctly digitate, the nut is relatively shorter and the 
style is longer. It somewhat resembles the Australian C. scmifvrtilis S. T. 



Blake in appearance and in that the lowermost glumes are smaller and 
empty, but it differs in that all the flowers (except perhaps the one 
uppermost in the spikelet) are bisexual, in the longer glumes, and in that 
the nut is much smaller than the glume and has concave sides. 



Herba graminea perennis, rhizomate brevissimo. Culmi caespitosi, 
erecti, acute triquetri, laeves, 26-33 cm. alti, apice usqu " 
Folia pauca prope basin culmi slipata quorum supenora 
vel inflorescentiam valde superantia, linearia, sursum longe 
versus haud vel minime angustata, 5-7 mm. lata, tenuiter : 

Fio. 1. A. Cypmt.s nnnruhruniinc kuLenlh.; B. Cypen 

a. one of the longer rays of the inflorescence with the lower part of its bract, X 1; 

b. upper part of spikeiet with the lower flumes removed to -how rhachilla, X 4; 

plus prominulis, carina marginibusque sursum minute scabra; vaginae 
purpurascentes. Bracteae foliiformes valde inaequales. 3 inflorescentia 
longiores et ima usque ad 30 cm. longa. Anthela semicomposita, con- 
tracta, 3.5-4.5 cm. diam.; radii 4 usque ad 3 cm. longi. rigidi. compressi 
uno latere concavi; radioli. si adsunt, breves; prophylla purpureo-striata. 
ore obliquissima. Spiculae 3-5-nim approximatae. haud digitatae. 
lineares, acutae. compressae, 5-12 (plerumque 7-8) mm. longae, 1.5 mm. 
latae. 8-16-tlorae. Rhachilla recta vi\ alata. Glumae laxiusculae tandem 
subpatulae, fusco-sanguineae, 2-2.4 mm. longae. (explanatae) oblongo- 
ovatae apice late angusteve rotundatae, muticae, basi articulatae, 13-15- 
nerves. carina leviter inctirvae ejus apice minute setulosae, marginibus 
glabrae vix hyalinae. Stamina 3. antherae lineares 
laeves glabrae(|iie: filament a linearia ferruginea. 
triquetra angulis rotundata lateribus concava, bn 
glumae adaequans. circa 1.6 mm. longa et 0.85 mm 
mus minus quam 0.1 mm. longus: stigmata 3, bre 

Papua: Central Division: Dieni, Ononiie Road, Brass Ms (type), May 19.v\ 

The specimen seen consists of a tuft of three culms of which one bears 

i.7 mm. longae apice 

elliptica. acuta. 

punctulata, -, - : , t 

Stylus brevissi- 

i. 0.5 mm. longa. 

218 .MM R.Wb OK Till'. \K\Ol.l) \Kl!Olil.TI M [vol. xxmii 

a young inflorescence, another ;i mature and the third an over-mature 
inflorescence. One culm has the uppermost leaf much shorter than the 
culm; on the others the leaves are very long, up to 42 cm. 

The species is allied to ('. tetraphyllus R.Br., (\ subpapuanus Kukenth.. 
('. papuanus Ridl. and ('. pedum ulosus V. Muell. In appearance it re- 
sembles rather closely the Australian ( '. tetraphyllus, hut differs in the less 
digitate spikelets with longer relatively narrower, less broadly rounded, 
less strongly incurved glumes with more numerous nerves, anthers with 
non-set ulose tips, the nut decidedly shorter than the glumes, rather nar- 
rower and more acute with more deeply concave sides, and in the pilosulose 
stigmas. From the other three species it differs in the narrower leave.-; 
from ('. sub papuanus it is further distinguished by the non-scabrous keel 
of the scarcely mucronate glumes which are scarcely excurved at the tip 
and have more numerous nerves, and by the acute rather than obtuse tip 
of the nut; from ( '. papuanus, of which the ripe nut is unknown, it is 
further distinguished by the spikelets not digitate, the broader loosely 
imbricate glumes and the smooth tips to the anthers; and from C. 
peduneulosus it further differs by its fewer bracts, smaller narrower 
spikelets less digitately arranged, the rather smaller more obtuse less 
coriaceous muticous glumes, much shorter style and stigmas, and (relative 
to the glume) rather larger nut with more deeplv concave sides and more 
acute tip. 

Cyprrus [mm1u.k-.iI,-..- F. Mui-ll. Fra^ni. 8:2(,o. 1874; C. H. Clarke in Kt-w Hull 

1899:11.?. 1899; Yalck. Sunn-, in Nova Cum. Hot. 8:697. 1912; Kukenth. in 

KiuU. Hot. Jahrb. , r >9 : 43. 1024, in I'Han/.nr. 1(11 (IV. 20) : 222.' 1936. 

Cyperus montis-sellae K. Selmm. in Warl>. in Fiml. Rot. Jahrb. 18:186. 1S94; 

K. Si'hum. & I.autrrb. Fl. Dcutsrh. Srhut/^rb. Sudsec 101. nxx); Valck. Surin-. 

Cyperus peduuculosus var. 'loriluoulus Kukenth. in Fnd. Hot |ahrb 59-44 19M 

in Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 20): 22i. 193b. 
Cyperus peduuculosus var. atrot astancus Kukenth. in Fn-I. Hot. [ahrb. 69:250. 

In Pflanzenr., kukenthal (1936) refers Brass 1457 to var. floribundus 
Kukenth. while Can- 15451 is a syntype of var. atrocastancus Kukenth. 
Judged from the material in the Australian herbaria the species varies 
somewhat in size and degree of division of the inflorescence, colour, size 
(2.6-3.5 mm. in length), and degree of inrolling of the glumes and in the 
shape of the nut. The nut varies in outline from obovate to ovate-elliptic 
with the apex obtuse to more or less acute; in length it is about half as 
long as the glume. Mueller's type specimens have elongated rays with 
rather pale coloured glumes; some of the inflorescences are overmature. 


specimens, particularly when immature (as in the case of Carr 

15451), have intensely coloured glumes, sometimes nearly black. Cv perns 
pedum ulosus var. floribundus appears to comprise the 'larger plant's with 

1947J BLAKE. C\ I'll; \( I \l ( ()| I LCI'LI) IN NEW 01 INEA, II 219 

very mature spikelets which keep on lengthening alter the lower glumes 
have fallen away; var. hmgibraeteatus Domin in Biblioth. Bot. 85:425. 
fig. 98. 1915* and var. atrocastancus are young or youngish plants with 
short rays. 

Outside New Guinea the species occurs in rain-forests in Eastern 

OypcM-us Haspan L. Sp. PI. 1:45. 1755 (excl. Herb. Linn.); Valck. Surinii. in Nova 
Guin. Hot. 8:697. 1912; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II, Hot. 9:241. 1910; 
Kukinth in Pllanzenr. 101 (IV. 2(1): 247. 1^0, in Knd Hot. Jahrb. 69:256. 
1938; Ohwi in Bot. Mas. Tokyo 56:200. 1942. 

Papia: Western Division: Lake Daviuml.u, Middle Flv R. Brass 7530. August 
1936, savannahs, occasional on margins oi swamps diet. Kukenthal); Daru Island, 
Brass 6053, March 1934, common in road ditches, stems 3-angled. Central Division: 
Koitaki, Carr 1227*, May 1955. swamps in open savannah land, ca. 1500 ft. (ca. 2 
ft. tall). 

Carr's specimens represent the form with creeping rhizomes; the collec- 
tion was cited by Kukenthal, 1938. Brass ru).\i appears also to represent 
this form, while the tufted form is represented by the other collection. 
These collections are the only ones known from I'apua of this widely spread 
species. It has not been reported from North-Hast New Guinea. 
Cyperus aquatilis R. Br. Prodr. 215. 1810. 

Papua: Western Division: Daru Island, Brass 6056, March 1954, common in 
road ditches, stem 3-angled. 

Previously known only from N. and NH. Australia. The taxonomy 
has been discussed elsewhere in Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 51: 36-40. 1940. 

•Subgen. Juncellus (Griseb.) C. B. Clarke 

Cvperus pvgiiiaeus Rotth. Descr. et Icon. 20, t. 14, tig. 4, 5. 1775; Valck. Surinp. in 
Nova Guin. Hot. 8: o07. 1912. 

Cx perus Mkhelianus (L.) Link subsp. pvgmaeus (Rotth.) Aschers. & Graebn. 
Synops. II. 2:275. 1005; Kukenth. in Kngl. Hot. Jahrb. 59:42. 1924, in 
Pllanzenr. 101 (IV. 20): 312, fig. 35, F-G. 1950. 

Netherlands New Gcixea: Bernhard Camp, Idenburg R.. Brass 140S3, April 
1959, on logs floating in lagoons. Hum a: Western Division: Penzara, between 
Morehead and Was-i kus-a River.-, Brass S43<J, Dec. 195o, abundant along margins 
of waterhole. 

Previously recorded from North-East New Guinea. The species is 
widely spread through Africa, S. and H. Asia to Australia. 

C. B. Glarke in Jour. Linn. Soc. 21 : 29-30. 1884 has set out the evidence 
for treating Scirpus Miehe/ianus H. [Cyperus M it In litmus (L.) Link] as 
generic-ally distinct from Cyperus pygmaeus and. although the differential 
characters are not always so obvious as implied by Clarke, I believe his 
conclusions to be correct. Kukenthal in Pllanzenr. 101 (IV. 20) : 14 and 
311 regards .S'. Mkhelianus as a somewhat anomalous species of Cyperus 
differing only in the spiral, not distichous glumes, and entirely ignores the 
minute differences in style and nut structure discussed by Clarke. But 

220 .101 KNM. OF T1IK AKMH D \K HOK1 '! I M [ voi. xxv.n 

even if the two forms were admitted as congeneric il seems impossible to 
me to treat C. pygmaeus as a subspecies iA ( ". M'n hrliauus as has been done 
by Kiikenthal, I.e., 312. following Aseherson cv Graebner. 

The two collections cited above consist of greatly elongated plants 
answering more or less to kukenthal's ( '. Mit hdhinus subsp. pygmaeus f. 
filijolius (Franch. & Saw) Kiikenth.. I.e.. 314. and Brass $439 was received 
labelled as such. But similarly elongated individuals are quite common 
in numerous annual Cvperaceae and at least in most cases are due to local 
environmental conditions, and it seems unite unnecessary to distinguish 
them taxonomically. 

Subgen. Pycreus (Beauv.) C. B. Clarke 
Cyperus globosus All. FI. Pedem. 40, 1780; K. Schum. & Lautcrb. FI. Deutsch. 

Schut^eb. Siiclsir 101. 1000; Kiikenth. in Knd. Hoi. lahrli. 50:42. 1024, in 
Ptlanzenr. 101 I IV. 201 :.\>2. 1036. \i:\v Omnia: Balim R., Brass 11819, Dec. 1938, alt. 1600 m., 
deforested .slopes, common on moist sandy soil; o km. NE. of Lake Habbema, Brass 

107 ! 4, Oct. 10SS. alt. 2S00 m„ abundant on a native clearing in the forest in large 
weak clumps; Bele R., IS km. NK. of Lake Habbema, Brass 11541, Nov. 103S, alt. 
220<) m., covering a small sandy beach in river. Papua : Western Division: Oaima, 
Lower Fly R. (east bank), Brass S50^>, Nov. lOSo. common on sand\ toreshores. 

A species widely spread in the ( )ld World, but in New Guinea previously 
known from North-Kasl New Guinea only. Valckenier Suringar. in Nova 
C.uin. Hot. 8: 697. 1912 cites "Cyperus globosus forma strietus CI." from 
Netherlands New Guinea. Such a combination was not made by Clarke 
and apparently C. globosus var. strietus C. H. Clarke was intended. 
Kiikenthal in Ptlanzenr. KM (IV. 20) : .S.S.S. 1936 cites as a synonym of 
C. globosus var. nilagir'nus (Hochst.) C. B. Clarke "C. globosus f. stricta 
Suringar, Het gesl. Cyperus in d. Mai. Arch. (189S) 58, t. II, fig. 12; non 
C. B. Clarke"; this appears not to refer to New Guinea specimens. 

Brass's specimens are much closer to the typical form of the species than 
to any of the described varieties. His SMW has the nut broadest at the 
middle and Kiikenthal has in MS. suggested distinguishing it as a variety. 
But from the material of the species in the (Queensland Herbarium there 
seems a perfect intergrading series from such oblong-elliptic nuts to the 
much more usual obovate nuts; in other words the widest part of the nut 
is at or a little above the middle, and in the latter case the nut is sometimes 
narrowed to a greater degree towards the base than towards the apex. 
Cyperus sulcinnx C. B. Clarke in Jour. Linn. Soc. 21:50 1SS4; Kiikenth. in Engl. 
Hot. Jahrb. 50:42. 1024. in Pltan/enr. 101 I IV. 20): 364. fin. 45. 102,6. 

Papi a: Central Division: Soucre, L. S. Smith V. G. 51, -May, 1044. alt. ca. 450 

Cyperus polystachyos Rottb. Descr. et Icon. 50, t. 11, tv A . 1. 1775; K. Schum. in 
KiiKl. Hot. Jahrb. 0: 105. 1SSS; Hoeck. in Kngl. Hot. S.M.S. Gazelle 4 (1): 14. 
1SS0; Valck. Surin-. in Nova Ouin. Hot. 8:606. 1012; Kiikenth. in Knjd. Hot. 
Jahrb. 5,0:42. 1024, in Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 20) : 367. 1036. 


Papca: Western Division: Daru Eland, Brass o2S4, March 1936, mixed with 

Widely spread throughout the warmer parts of the world, but not yet 
found on the main island of New Guinea. 
Cyperus nervulosus (Kukenth.) S. T. Blake in Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 51:41. 1940. 

Cxperus pumilus v;ir. nervulosus Kukenth. in IMlanzenr. 101 ilV. 201:378. 1936. 
Papua: Central Division: Haroka. Mekeo District, Brass .v37, April 1933, alt. 

Previously known only from X. and NE. Australia. 

Subgen. Mariscus (Gaertn.) C. B. Clarke 

59:47. 1924. 
Cxperus ornans Valck. Surinc. I.e., 700, t. 113. 1912; Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. 

101 l IV. 201:418. 1936. in Kn-l. Hot. Jahrb. 09:256. 1938. 
Cxperus stenophxllus Valck. Sunn-, var. ornans (Valck. Suring.) Kukenth. in Kn<d. 

'Hot. Jahrb. 59:47. 1024. 
Cyperus ornans Valck. Surin«. var. stenophxllus (Valck. Suring.) Kukenth. in 

Pllanzenr. 101 I IV. 20) : 419. 1936. 
Papua: Central Division: Kanosia, Carr 11107, Feb. 1935, alt. ca. 100 ft., damp 
places under light shade (herb. ca. 2 ft. tall) and Carr 1U46, Feb. 1935, alt. ca. 50 
ft., river banks in forest (herb. ca. 15 in. tall) (both in herb. Canberra). 

These specimens were cited by Kukenthal in 1938, I.e., as C. ornans. 
The names Cyperus ornans and Cyperus stenophyllus were published 
simultaneously. Under these circumstances, according to Art. 56 of the 
International Rules of Nomenclature, "the author who first adopts one of 
them, definitely treating another as a synonym or referring it to a subor- 
dinate group must be followed." Accordingly, C. stenophyllus must be 
used for the species in its extended sense and Kukenthal erred in changing 
his earlier treatment in 1936. 

T do not think that the two species described by Yalckenier Suringar 
can be distinguished from one another. As here understood C. steno- 
phyllus is very close to the Australian C. Bowmanii V. Muell. ex Benth. 
from which it differs in that the spikelets are slightly thicker, more 
numerous and rather more loosely arranged on the rays, and the base of 
the plant is harder and moderately swollen, with dark-coloured sheaths. 
It appears to be restricted to the islands north of Australia from Java and 
the Philippines to the Solomon Islands and Tonga. 

Cyperus eompaetus Retz. Observ. 5: 10. 1789; Kukenth. in IMlanzenr. 101 (IV. 20): 
423. 1936, in Engl. Hot. Jahrb. 69: 25ti. 193S; Ohwi in Hot. Mag. Tokyo 56: 200. 

Cxperus eompaetus 1. deeoloians (Kukenth.) Kukenth. in IMlanzenr., I.e., 424. 
Cyperus dilutus Vahl, Enum. PI. 2:357. 1806; K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. 

Schutziieb Siidsee 193 1900 Valck Surinu. in Nova C.uin. Hot. 8:700. 1912; 

Kukenth. in Engl. Hot. Jahrb. 59:45. 1924. 
Cxperus dilutus f. deeolorans Kukenth. in Enid. Hot. Jahrb. 59:45. 1924. 
Papua: Western Division: Lake Daviumbu, Middle Fly R., Brass 7671, Sept. 

in the lake (det. Kukenthal) ; Dagwa, Oriomo R., Brass 5921, Feb.-March 1934, alt. 

222 JOl RN\I. OK TI1K AI!V>I l> \K IJOKl II \| Ivoi.. xxmii 

40 m. shallows ol a lagoon on savannah, (tall mv\ -e^se willi striate leaves). 
Central Division: Kanosia, Carr 11704, April 1935, sea-level (herb. Canberra). 

Carr's collection was cited by Kukenthal (193S. I.e.). Brass's speci- 
mens appear to be the only other specimens of this species known from 
Papua. The species has been reported from North Kast and Netherlands 
New Guinea and extends northwards and westwards to South China and 
India and has been introduced into Reunion and Mauritius. The f. 
decolorans covers those (herbarium) specimens with paler coloured or 
faded spikelets and appears to have no real taxonomic significance; see 
below under C. lloloschocuus. 

Cyperus javar.ieus Houtt. Nat. II. Hist. 13: Aanvvyz. l'laat. (1). t. SS, f. 1. 1782; Merr. 
in Jour. Arnold Arb. 19:321. 1'i.VS; non. Kiikenth. 
Cyperus pennatus Lam. Illustr. 1:144. 1701; F. Muell. Pap. PI. 2:34. ISSo: K 
Sebum, in Uarb. m Fmd. Mot |alirb. 13: 2(»4. 1 S«> I ; K. Sebum, in Xotizbl. Hot. 
Cart. Mus. Berlin 2: 'JO. 1X98; K. Sebum. & Lantech. Fl. Deutseh. SchutzRcb. 
Sudsee 1<M. 1000; Vaick. Sunn-, in Nova Cuin. Hot. H : 700. 1012 ; Kukentb. in 
Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 2(1) : 47o, fin. 5S. AC. l'Mf.. 
Cy perns stuppeus Forst. f. Prodr. SO. 17S<> (nomeu nudum); Kukentb. in Fiml. 

Hot. Jahrb. 59:4S. 1024. 
Cy perns eaneseens Yahl, Fnum. PI. 2:555. 1806; Cupp\ in Solomon Islands and 

Natives 304. 18X7. 
Paima: Western Division: Penzara, between Morehead and VVassi Ku.ssa Rivers, 
Brass Sill, Dee. 1030, savanna forests, on Hats ol ereek , Darn Island, Brass e>27 1, 
March 1056, trequcnt on damp soil in warden tallow growths (creel to 70 80 em); 
Daru Island, Brass r>.\*l, Mareb 1056. ot occasional occurrence on littoral sand ridges. 
Cull Division: Maclalchie Point. Brass 11S4, March 102o, a coast plant. Central 
Division: Hula, Brass 57<A October 1025, just above tide mark on sandv foreshores 
(4 ft. high); Hisiu, Carr 11.^0, Feb. 1035, sea-level, open sandv places near sea-shore 
(up to 5 ft. tall) (herb. Canberra); Port Moresby, C. T. White .IS, July 1918, wet 
swampv places by coast (rather -laucous foliage). Fast em Division: Domara 
R., Brass 1.^2, May 1020, sea level, on muddy river bank. 

Solomon Islands: Bougainville: Karuim, Huin, Kajewski 2285, Oct. 1930, 

in very wet swampy place-, leaves with fine serrate edges, light brown llower-heads, 
native name "mala-muk teraugow"), 

This widely spread species has in the literature of New Guinea usually 
been called Cyperus pennatus Lam. 1 am indebted to Dr. E. D. Merrill 
for a copy of the appropriate passages and a tracing of the plate connected 
with Houttyns binomial. To Merrill's discussion of the name. I.e., it may 
be added that : 

1. No name is directly connected with Houttyn's description of a plant 
on [). OS, lull there is a marginal reference toIMaat LXXXVIII, fig. 1. 

2. On ]>. | III | of this volume, in the explanation of the plates, the 
binomial Cyperus Java nicies is definitely applied to l'laat LXXXVIII, 
fig. 1, and reference is made to p. 68. 

3. The plate consists of a very good figure of an inflorescence with an 
enlarged figure (marked a) of a spikelet. Reference to this "a" is 
made in the description. 

The validity of the binomial appears to rest upon the association of the 
name in the explanation of the plate with either the figure or with the 


description or with both. That is, the formal description of the species 
is divided into pails, each occurring in different disjunct places in the 
volume. It is questionable whether this is in strict accord with either the 
letter or the spirit of Art. 44: "The name of a species ... is not validly 
published unless it is accompanied ( I I b\ a description-. . . .or (3) by a 
plate or figure showing essential characters" (italics mine). 

Kiikenthal, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 69: 257. 1938, refers Carr 11390 to 
C. pennatus var. Armstrong} (Henth.) kukenth.. a combination made in 
Ptlanzenr. 101 (IV. 20) : 479. 1936. and based on C. Armstrongii Benth. 
Fl. Austral. 7: 289. 1878. Bentham cites four collections after his 
original description: Port Essington. Armstrong; Port Darwin, Schultz 
731; Percy Islands. .1. Cunningham; Rockingham Hay. Dallachy. 
Dallachy's specimens belong to C. tetracarpus Boeck. I have not cer- 
tainly seen specimens of the other collections cited, though Domin in 
Biblioth. Bot. 85:440. 1915 refers Cunningham's specimens to what is 
here called C. javanictts and Sdmltz 731 to Mariscus Armstrongii C. B. 
Clarke. C. B. Clarke in Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8: 17. 1908, describes 
Mariscus Armstrongii sp. n.. citing "Cv perns Armstrongii, Benth. Fl. 
Austral. 7: p. 289. quoad Armstrong, n. 616." This had best be inter- 
preted as typifying Bentham's species on Armstrong's plant and then 
transferring the species in its emended sense to Mariscus* In any case, 
I do not see how Carr's immature specimen in herb. Canberra can be 
distinguished from C. javanicus. 

Oyprrus Holowliofiuis R. Br. Prodi. 215. 1810; Kukenth. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 

scabrid leaves). 

This collection is an isotype (or at least a haplotype) of Kukenthal's 
variety which is diagnosed with the words "Culmus 70 cm. altus. Squamae 
fuscae." It was also cited merely as ('. lloloschocnus R.Br, by him in the 
same year in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. The material seen by me consists of o„e 
complete culm about SO cm. long beneath the inflorescence with innovation 
shoots at the base and a second inflorescence with the upper part of the 
culm. The glumes appear to be dull brown, but under the microscope 
they are seen to be more or less variegated, varying from straw-brown to 
dull purplish brown. The colour of the glumes varies considerably, partly 

* It 

might be argued thai 

: Clarke left under Cyperus Armstrongii th 

c specimens 

i's description, i.e., Dallachy's specimens, w 

Inch would 

>e regarded as the typ 

e of Cyperus Armstrongii Benth., synonym* 

HIS With C. 

rpus Boeck. He sepai 

-ated the discordant element which to him 

appeared to 

224 lot 1{\ \l. OK Till: \RNOLD ARBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

at least as the result of a.^inu; of the spikelet, as is well illustrated by some 
of my specimens from \. Queensland, while variations in conditions during 
the drying of specimens also produce variations in the colouration of the 
dried specimens. 

Apart from Brass's specimens the species is known only from the far 
northern parts of Australia. 

< > p. rtj- r\|irini(lr- (I..) ( ). Ktze. Rev (It'll. PI. 3 (2):.-oS. 1K9S; kukenth. in 
Pllan/enr. 101 (1\. 201:514. 19.U>; Ohvvi in Hot. Man. Tokyo 56:201. 1942. 
Siirpit.s , \h ion/r\ I. inn. Manl. 2: 181. 1771. 

Cyprrus umbrtlatus (Rottb.) Benth. Fl. Hongk. 386. ISol. quoad svn.; scnsu F. 
Muell. Pap. PI. 2:. 14. lSSO; sensu K. Schum. & Hollr. Fl. Kaiser Wilhelmsl. 24. 
1SS'); scnsu K Srhum. in Warh. in Hot. Jahrh. ]2:2o4. 1S91; non Kyllint-a 
iimbrllatn Rottb. 
Cyprus ,-ylintlrosta< -hys Hoeck. in Linnaea 36:SS.v 1870 (excl. svn.); K. Schum. 
in Fn«l. Hot. Jahrh. 9: 195. 1SSS; Yakk. Surini;. Nova Cuin. Hot. X: 700. 1912. 
Marians Sieberumus Xirs ex C. H. Clarke in Hook. 1. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6:022. ISoS; 
Palla in Reehimzer, IhnUhr. Math X'aluiu. Kais. Akarl. Wiss Wien «9:4W. 

Widely spread in Africa. I topical and temperate Asia and Australia, and 
in the West Indies. In New Guinea previously known from Netherlands 
New Guinea, North-East New Guinea and from "Proclamation Creek" 
(F. Mueller, I.e.). 

This widely spread species has been most commonly known as ( ". 
umbcllatus. The combination is usually attributed to Bentham in Fl. 
Hongk. 386. 1S(»1, though Kukenthal in IMlanzenr. 101 (IV. 20) : 523. 
1936 attributes it to ('. B. Clarke in Jour. Linn. Soc. 20:296. 1883. 
Bentham. I.e., founded the combination on "Matiscus umbcllatus Vahl ; 
Kunth Enum. ii. 118." The name Mariscus umbcllatus Vahl. Enum. IM. 
2: 376. 1806, was based on Kyllinga umbcllata Rottb. Descr. et Icon. 15, 
t. 4, fig. 2. 1773; this name is not cited by Bentham, probably for the 
reason explained on p. 20 of the preface: "With regard to the synonymy. 
I have thought it generally unnecessary to repeat that which is already 
detailed in the general works referred to in the case of each well-known 
species." In El. Austral. 7: 289. 1878, Bentham cites the name C. 
umbcllatus, Benth. El. Hongk. 3S(> with Kvllin-a umbcllata Rottb. in the 
synonymy. There seems little doubt that Bentham, in the last analysis, in 
his own mind definitely based his combination on that of Rottboell's, and 
even excluding the reference in Fl. Austral, the combination would be 
valid according to some recent interpretations of Art. 37 of the Interna- 
tional Rules of Nomenclature, as there is an implied, indirect reference to 
Rottboell (see Airy-Shaw in Kew Bull. 1938: 256, 1938, and Sprague, Kew 
Bull. 1939:322-3. 1939). It is however illegitimate because of the 
earlier C. umbcllatus Burm. f. Fl. Ind. 21. t. 9, fig. 1. 1768, and C. umbcl- 
latus Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1: 205. 1820. Kyllinga umbcllata Rottb. was based 
on an African plant which is nowadays regarded as distinct from the form 
represented by the New Guinea plant. Vahl apparently did not 


distinguish the two and this broadened concept was accepted by Kunth 
and Bentham. Thus Benthams name belongs to the form described by 
Rottboell, but his description, refers to the form described by 
Linnaeus. Mant. 2: 181. 1771. as Scirpus cypcroides, now known as 
Cyperus < yperoides ( L. ) < ). Kt/e. 

Subgen. Kyllinga (Rottb.) Valckenier Suringar 

Cyperus melaiiospermus (Nees) Valck. Surin-.. Hot Gesl. C\ p. in Mai. Archip. 50. 

Kylling'ni melanosper, 

Xithfki wns New Ciinea: Balim R., Brass HSlti. Dec. 1038, alt. lM'U m„ 
deforested slopes, common on moist sandv soil. Papi a: Central Division: Mafulu, 
Brass S3J6, Sept.-Nov., 1056, alt. 1250 m., seepage on roadside. locality; Isuarava, 
Carr 154M, Feb. 1936, alt. c. 4000 ft., open places (up to ft. tall) (herb. Canberra). 

Carr's collection was cited by Kukenthal, I.e., together with one of 
Clemens' from North-East New Guinea, the only other collection known 
from the island. The species ranges from west, central and south Africa 
through India and China eastwards and southwards to New Guinea. 
Brass 11818 is an unusually small individual, the culms being only 15-27 
cm. high. 

Cvperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. Catal. Hort. Bojior. 24. 1844; Valck. Surins. in 
Nova Guin. 8: 090. 1012; Kiikenlh. in Pllanzenr. 101 (IV. 20) : 600. 1956. 
Cvprrus brevifolius (Rottb.) Ila>,k. var ^Idltdal us \ alrk. Sunn-. Bet Gesl. Cyp. 
'in Mai. Archip. 48, t. 2. fip. 5. 1808; Kukenth., I.e., 603. in En R l. Hot. Jahrb. 
69:257. 1938. 

19K>; Kukenth. in Kind. Hot. Jahrb. 59:42. 
II. J. Lam in Nat I'ijdscln Ned KH : J 72 1928. 
Kvllinga brrvifolia Rottb. var. strllulata (Valck. Surinji. > Ohvvi in Bot. 

Tokyo 56: 199. 1942. 
Ni-.thkki.amis New Guinea: 4 km. SW. of Bemhard Camp, Idenburj; R., 
;_\v>. March 1030, alt. 850 m., rain lonM, ure-arious on sandy beaches in n\ 
m. NE. of Lake Habbema. Brass 107 MK Oct. 1058. alt. 2800 n... erect in dense < 
n a native clearing in forest; same locality and date, Brass 107.^, on native el, 
i forest. Fapca: Western Division; Gaima, Lower El\ R 'east bank). 

Almost cosmopolitan, but not previously recorded for Papua. 

Cvprrus brevifolius var. stellulatus (Kyllincji intermedia R.Br.) com- 
prises individuals with smooth, not spinulose keels to the glumes. Neither 
this nor the other characters enumerated by kukenthal. I.e.. are in any- 
way constant and occur in varying combinations. I have found glumes 
with smooth keels and spinulose keels on the same plant. 

Cyperus Kyllingia Endl. Catal. Hort. Acad. Vindob. 1:94. 1842; Kukenth. in 
'"" fit;. 64, CD. 1050; Losber-j in Lloydia 3:111. 

Cyperus Kyllsngia 1 
Cyperus Kyllingia . 
Cyperus monocephi 

26 jol KNAL OK II1L \RNOLD VRBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

Kyllinw monocephala Rottb. Descr. et Icon. 13, t. 4. fig. 3. 1773; F. Muell. Pap. 

I'l. 1:31. 1 S 7 ( . ; Bin', in D'AIbertis, New Guinea 2: MM. 1SS0; Guppy, Solomon 
Islands and .Natives 504. 1SS7 ; K. Schum. in Fngl. Hot. Jahrb. 1:1:265. 1SQ1. 
m Noti/bl. Hot. Cart. Mus. Berlin I : 17. 1895, 2: 96. 1598; K. Schum. & Lauterb. 
Fl. Dcutsch. Schut/geb. Sudsee 104. 1900; l'alla in Rcchinger, Dcnkschr. Math.- 
Naturw. Kais. Akad. Wi». Wicn «<l : 4«>0. 1013; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. II. 
Hot. 9:241. 1916; Kukenth. in Fngl. Hot. lahrb. , r >9 : 41. 1924, Ohwi in Hot. 
Mag. Tokyo 56: 199. 1942. 
Kyllinaa monocephala Rottb. var. nundorensis Hocck. in Linnaca 3.1: 428. 1868: 

K. Schum. & Hollr. Fl. Kaiser Wilhelmsl. 24. 1889. 
Kyllin^a monocephala Rottb. f. subtriceps Kunth, Fnum. PI. 2: 130 1837; 

Kukenth in Fngl. Hot. Jahrb. , r >9:42. 1924. 
Paita: Western Division Darn Island. Bras\ f>-jOI, March 1936, common on 
et -round (inflorescence white) (det. Kukenthal). Central Division: Baroka, 
lekeo District. Brass .v-/o, April 1933, alt. 30 m., lommon, banks ol small creek in 
tin lores! ((lower heads white); Budatobara, Brass 766, Dec. 1925, alt. 300 ft., wet 
Soiomon Islands: San Cristobal: Waimanuira, Brass 2803, Sept. 1932, alt. m., 

Pantropical. It seems superfluous and misleading to distinguish 
nnmenclaturally such states as f. /mini/ is and f. subtriceps. The former 
refers to depauperate specimens and the latter to robust states. Brass 
.1776 shows the "typical" form and f. subtriceps on the same rhizome and 
Brass 6401 is not very different. 

Subgen. Torulinium (Desv.) Kukenthal 

CyiM-nis ft-rax L C. Rich, in Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris I: 106. 1792; Warb. in Fnd. 

Hot. Jahrb. 18: ISn. 1S93; K. Schum. \- Laulerb. Fl. Dcutsch. Schut/geb. Sudsee 

194. toon; Kukenth. in Fngl. Hot. Jahrb. 59:40. 1924, in Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 

2IM : 615. 193o, Ik: 6, K-P. 1935; Ohwi m Hot. Mat: Tokyo 56:201. 1942. 

?Cy perns novae -hannoverae Boeck. in Engl. Hot. lahrb. ">:9i. 1SS4; Valck. Suring. 

in Nova Guin. Hot. I!: 701. 1912. 
H'ypn-us jcrax L. ('. Rich. var. novac-hannovcrac (Hoeck.) Ki.kenth. in Fngl. 

Hot. Jahrb. 5)9:4. 4o. 1924; in Pllanzenr. Ml d\. 201:618. 1956. 
Torulinium jcrax ( L. C. Rich.) Crban, Symb. Antill. 2:165. 1900; Palla in 

Rechinger, Dcnkschr. Math. Naturw. Kais. Akad. Wiss. Wicn 89:499. 1913. 
Niainao \\ns Ni:\v Ci i.\u: Hernhard Camp, Idenburg R„ Brass 137W, April 
1939, alt. 50 m„ on logs floating in oxbow lakes and backwaters. P. mm a Central 
Division: Ihu, Vailala R., Brass 1015, Feb. 1926, alt. m., sago-swamp borders. 

Iii Pflanzenr. 101 (IV. 20) : 618. 1956. Kukenthal cites Brass 1015 
under C. jcrax var. novac-haunovcrac and it is on this authority that I have 
suggested treating ('. novac-hannovcrac Hoeck. as synonymous with ('. 
jcrax. Brass 1015 is a decided])' immature specimen. 

Eleocharis R. Brown 

EI.Mxhatis fistulosa Link in Spring. Jahrb. 3: 78. 1820. 

Pap. a: Western Division: Dagwa. Oriomo R„ Brass oOW. Feb. -March 1954. alt. 
45 m., erect son textured sedge in shallow mar-ins of a lagoon on savannah, 

347] BLAKK, C.YPKK \CI. \K COl I i:Cl I I) !\ NKW GU.NKA, 11 227 

nd the West Indies to Argentina. 

leocharis laxiflora (Thwaites) IT. Pfciff. in Mitt. Inst. Bot. Hamburg 7: It,". 192X. 
Srirpus laxi'lorus Thw Knum. PI. Zeyl. 435. 1864. 

Klrorharis varir^ata (Poir.) Presl var. laxi'hna (Thwaites) C. H. Clarke in Hook. I. 
Fl. Brit. Intl. ft: 626. 1X65; Kiikenth. in Knd. Hot. Jahrb. f> ( J : 47. 1°24; 69:257. 
193S (as Hvleocharis). 
Papua: Western Division: Pake Daviumbu, Middle Fly R. flra.w 7rtJ0, August 
>3o, .Mattered anion- coarse scdizes, etc., ot floating islands (del. Svenson). 

New for Papua. Previously known from North-East New Guinea to 
ndia and from Micronesia and Polynesia. 

leocharis dulcis (Burm. 1.) Trin. ex Henschel. \ ita Rumph. ISO. 1X33; Svenson in 

Rhodora 11: 11. 1939. 

f. Fl. Ind 

set/.) R. i 

v S. Syst. 2: 

Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 2:07. 

1X98; K. Schum. & Lai 

M DelltMli 

Schutzseb. Siidsee 195 

in Nova Guin 

, Bot. 

(all cited as Hfkocharis plantu;, 

Inea R. Br.). 


m: Main] 

and oppodte 

Darn Island, 

nnn-l. March 

. dominant plant in lar 

-e coaxal 

, c\ lindrical, s 

Darn Island, Brass 62SS, 

March P 

pure bri'.dn 

>unding central open v 

r.L'e >wamp (plant ± 60 cm. higr 

i, half below 

Oriomo and Fly Rivers, 

Units rtVrtr, . nlliiv.1 freshwater swamp. 

Cenlral Divr 

a. Cart 

. alt. c. 4000 ft., damp 

place in . 

pie in making skirts 


their women; Biagi n< 

i (herb. Canl 

icrra); Boridi 

, Carr 

12W2. Sepl. 

The species extends from SK. Asia to Madagascar. Australia and Fiji. 
Brass's specimens had been previously determined by Svenson. Can's 
specimens were referred to "Ilclcocharis cquisctina Presl" by Kiikenthal in 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 69: 257. 1938, but well-developed specimens of E. 
equisetina are distinguishable by having firmer culms, firmer, broader, 
shorter, subtruncate (not rounded), more or less sinning glumes which are 
somewhat incurved when dry, hypogynous bristles more slender and quite 
free from one another (not conspicuously connate at the base), long- 
apiculate anthers, and bright-brown nut with acutely costulate margins 
and more regularly arranged external cells. Hut Can's specimens are not 
very satisfactory and arc in tlower only. 
Eleoi-haris spiralis (Rottb.) R. & S Syst. 2: 155. 1X17. 

Srirpus spiralis Rottb. Descr. el Icon. 45. t. 15, f. 1. 1773. 

Papi-a: Western Division: Darn Island, Brass rt2<S'7, March 193o, forms extensive 
practically pure stands 50 on . m Imdi in diallou swamp margins (det. Svenson). 

New for New Guinea; elsewhere known from Mauritius, Madagascar, 
SE. Asia, Borneo, Philippine Islands, NK. Australia and New Caledonia. 

Eleocharis pellurida Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 196. 1830. 

Netherlands New Guinea: 9 km. NK. of Lake Habbema, Brass 1072Q, Oct. 
1938, alt. 2800 m„ abundant in a clearing surrounding a native house in the forest. 
Previously recorded from SK. Asia to Borneo 

228 JOl RNA1, OK TI1K AUISOl H \KBOKKTI M hoi. xvvni 

Bulbostylis Kunth 
Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C. B. Clarke in Hook. I. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6:651. 1894; 

K. Schum. & Lauterb. Nachtr. hi. Deutsch. Srhut/^eb. Sud-ee 59. 1905; Kukenth. 

in Enjil. Hot. lahrk ,">9 : 5 1 . PC4, C9:25S. 19SS. 
/«>/<■/>/*- ^f/j-^df/i (Rottb.) R. Mr. I'rodr. 222. 1S10; F. Mui-ll. Pap. PI. I : 4o. 1870. 
l-imbristvlis barbata (Rottb.) IU nth Fl. Austral. 7:321. 1878; Valrk. Suriim. in 

Nova Guin. Rot. 8: 704. 1912. 
l\\i'i \: WtMmi Division: Dam Island, Brass <VW5, March 193(>. a wet seasonal 

barbata). Central Division: Rmu, Laloki R., AYa.v.v J575, alt. 450 m., April 1933, 

Cosmotropieal. The authorship of tin- combination under Bulbostylis 
is usually credited to Kunth. Knum. 2: 208. 1837, but it was first formally 
made by C. B. Clarke, I.e. 

Specimens of this species were erroneously referred to Scirpus sctaccus 
L. by K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch S< hi it /gel.. Sudsee 195. 1900. 

Bulbostylis barbata f. pauper, uia Kiikenth. in Fngl. But. Jahrb. 70: 463. 
1940, is evidently based on small plants with 1 -2 spikelets. Such reduced 
states are frequently met with in annual members of the family and it . 
seems quite unnecessary to distinguish them nomenelaturally. 

Fuirena Rottboell 

Fiiir.-na umbellata Rottb. Descr. et Icon. 70, I. 19, fig. 3. 1773; F. Muell. Pap. PI. 

2: IS. 1885; K Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Dcutsrh. Schul/ueb. Sudsee 194. 1900; 
Valek. SurinK. in Nova Cum. Rot. 8:700. I')12; Kukenth. in Kngl. Rot. Jahrb. 

Middle Ms R . pba R. Brown 
l.ipocarpha mici ocephala (R Ri ) Kunth, Knum. 2:268. 1887; F. Muell. Pap. PI. 
2:84. lS.Sc; Kukenth. m Rot. Jahrb. 59:51. 1924, Ohwi in Rot. Man. 
Tokyo 56: 204. 1942. 
Hypaelyptum microcephalia, R. Rr. Prodr. 220. 1810. 
P\im a: Western Division; Daru Island. Brass 6246, March 1936, sporadic in 

The species extends from Australia to tropical Asia. This is the first 
definite locality recorded for Papua. F. Mueller, I.e., and Domin in 
Kiblioth. Bot. 85:468. 1915 ascribe the combination Lipocarpha 
microcephala to R. Brown in Tuckey's Xarr. Fxped. Congo 459. 1818; 
but Brown made no such combination. The pertinent passage reads: 
-Hypaelyptum ar^ntmm ... is also in the collection. The name 
Hypaelyptum, under which I have formerly described the genus that 
includes //. ar^cntrum'- ..." with a footnote reference to "Prodr. Flor. 
Nov. Uoll. 1, p. 225 r 


Lipocarpha se.u-palensis (Lam.) Dandy in Jour. Hot. 70: 331. 1932, with full 
svnonvmv; Olnvi in Hot. M;« Tokyo 56:204. 1942. 
.SV/r/w scnciitilcnsis Lam. Tabl. Lnrvcl. 1: 140. 1791. 

lipomrfilKi >irvmU>a (Yahl) R. Br. ex Xecs in Linnaea 9:287. 1835; K. Schum. k 

' Laull ,-|, Fl. Deut.^h. Sdm./L-rl,. Sudsee 197. 1900; Valrk. Suring. m Nova Cum. 

Bot. 8:706. 1912; Kukenth. in End. Bot. Jahrb. 59:51. 1925; 69:259. 1938. 

Nftiuki ui.s Nkw GnNi.v Halim R.. flrn.s.s //7-M. Dec. 1938, alt. lbOO m„ 

occasional on gra^sv long detorested slopes; 9 km. NK. of Lake Hahhema, Brass 

10741, Oct. 1938, alt. 2800 m., plentiful on a native clearing in the forest, pale greenish 

^Ranges over tropical Africa, tropical Asia and tropical Australia. 
Previously recorded bv Yakkrnier Surin-ar and Kukenlhal. for New 
Guinea under the name of /.. oriental. The rather complicated synonymy 
is discussed by Dandy, I.e. 


L'ction of nut. All figures • 
Plate II. 

dit tyophlfbia S. T. 

.,: .1'. I d : 

Fir,. 1. Portion of leaf, X 3. Fig. 2. Glume. Fie. 3. Flower, the st 
away. Fig. 4. Nut. Fir.. 5. Transverse section of nut. Figs. 2 - 5 
Analvtical drawings 1>\ S. T Hlake. Photourapln by VV. J. Sanderso: 

NKW AM) \<>TI \\ DIM in CIIIM-SK I V(,\( i \l 

dense foliosiis; r.iimili Imrmit mi 
.-brunnescentes obscure sublepidoti 
Liu) glaberrimi. vetustiores fuseo-cinerescentes. I-'olia sempervirentia 
tenuiter coriacea integra elliptica ul rinc|iu' atlenuata, 5 7 cm. longa 1.5 2.5 
cm. lata, apicc abrupte caudala acumiuc 1 1.5 cm. longo angusto falcato 
obtuso, basi oblique cuneata. supra glabra atmviridia niticia siccitate 
llavo-brunnescentia costa plana nervis obsoletis, subtus discoloria viridi- 
albescentia costa elevata nervisque primariis latcralibus gracilibus tlaves- 
centihus sub lenle minute larinaceo-tomentellis circiter S sub angulo 50 
egressis intra margincm curvatis evanescentibus: petioli circ. 5 mm. longi 
supra late sulcali parcissime tarinaceo-tomentelli demum glabri. Amenta 
utriusque sexus pauca ad apices innovationum et in axillis foliorum 
supenorum enala tohis breviura, paucillora erecta rhachidibus gracilibus 
angulatis cum alabastris minute pulverulent. .-alhidoqniberulis. tloribus 
singulis remotis. Amenta masculina simplicia slricta; bracteae subulatae 
parvae; llores mmi(|uaiii ultra M) sessiles; perianthium cupuliforme alte 
connatum loins 6 triangulari-ovatis acutis brunneis; 
stamina 12 longe exserta, circ. 2.2 mm. longa; antherae ellipsoideae 
apiculatae; ovarii rudimentum magnum globosum alho-tomentosum. 
Spicae femininae ,^-9-llorae erectae solitariae. interdum spicis nonnullis ex 
axillis hractearum panic ulatim aggregatis patentibus; llores parce lepidutuli 
stipitati stipitibus initio pulviniformibus post antliesin accrescentibus usque 
ad 2 mm. longis; perianthiimi i upulatum dent iculat urn dentibus 6 minutis. 
Spica iructifera in parte superiorem ramuli annotini lateralis uscpie ad 5 
cm. longa. rhachi tenuia cinerea pulverulent. .depid.. tula : fructus biennes 
stipitati solitarii ran. .' S distantes; cupula patellitormis basi truncata. 
crasse conacea fragilis. 14 mm. lata 4 mm. alia, ml us griseo purpurascens 
puberula, extus cmereo-lepidot ula s(|uamis in zonis concentricis obsoletis 
continent ibus a[)icibus minute apiculato-dent iculat is adpressis glabrescenti- 
bus tantum distinctis; glans pro maxima parte exserta ovoideo-turbinata 
apice attenuata breviter apiculata basi truncata. \2 mm. lata umbone 
incluso 14 mm. alta initio pruinosa . ito glabrata lucida atrobrunnea" 
cicatrix alte concava (> S mm. diametro. 

Hainan: Kan-Kn Hsien, Hao-Pi lAn K , shruh 4 m. tall, in dense woods, Aim 7, 

I'M,,, S. K. Lau 27n.U; Chun I'ai !,„,. top ol n,oun,ain, tree < m. .all. i„ lid., u I- 

Oct. 2.\, vm, II V. Liana «171S (tyi-k), 6172*; Krh-Fan K Lin-, top of mountain, 
tree or shruh 4 m. tall, in woods. \ov. 7, l'MS. //. Y. Liang rt.KsY., 0MS7 ; Krh Hnann 
Shan, Hi'n K .|»» I>o, near the peak, tree 20 .,,. tall, in shaded wood., April :,, 1<M4 
//. V. Uang 65268, 60272. 

This species is characterized by small leaves, short flowering and 
fruiting spikes, and small segregated pedicellate fruits with a shallow- 
fragile cup marked by the minutely denticulate apices of the scales. 


Pasania rvrtocarpa (Drake del Castillo) Hickel et A. Camus in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 
Ser. 10, 3:408. 1921, in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 5: 1003. 1930. 

Ad descriptionem addenda: 

Arbor 5-12 metralis cortice cinereo ramis ramulisque satis gracilibus 
teretibus griseo-cinereis crebre lenticellatis primo pane fulvo-tomentosis 
mox glabratis, gemmis nondum satis evolutis 4 mm. longis ovoideis obtusis 
adpresse sericeis. Folia per duos annos persistentia brevipetiolala trnuiter 
coriacea elliptica elliptico-oblonga vel ovato-lanceolata. 5-15 cm. longa 
2-4.5 cm. lata, plerumque leviter inaequilateralia breviter sensim vel 
abruptius acuminata, basi late cuneata vel obtusa. supra costa impressa 
sordide tomentosa except;) glabra laete viridia lucida crebre ^enulosa 
venulis transversis sub lente dense foveolatis, subtus pallidiora in nervis 
et costa elevata densius in facie sparse fasciculato-pilosa pilis minimis 
breviradiatis mox evanescentibus, margine integerrima vel crenulata aut 
apicem versus utrinque denticulis porrectibus distantibus interdum ad 
callos reductis 4-7 instructa. nervis lateralibus plera(|iie 13 sub angulo 40° 
divergentibus .sursum curvatis trabeculis numerosis tenuissimis conjunctis, 
petiolis 5-15 mm. longis tomentosis. Fructus biennis solitaries sessilis 
ramum anni prioris insidens; cupula plano-si utelliformis circiter usque ad 
4 cm. lata crasse lignosa. int us umbilico valde elevato excepta molliter 
fulvo-velutino-sericea, extus dense squamosa squamis perpendiculariter 
ortis e basi lata tumida conico-pyramidatis sursum angustato-curvatis 
intimis majoribus validis ± 3 mm. longis extrinsecus gradatim minoribus 
extimis minimis aculeiformibus omnes fulvo-tomentosis; glans basi cupulae 
solum adnata, discoidea vel globosa, 4-4.5 cm. lata 2 cm. alta, 
atrocastanea apice plana centro paulo depresso conico-umbonata ubique 
fulvo-tomentosa pilis minimis tasciculalis conglutinatis facile detersis; 
cicatrix concava pallida rugulosa. 2.6-3.6 cm. diam. 

Kwaxcsi: S. Nan-Xing, Shi-VYan-Ta Shan, alt. 900 m., tree 10 m. tall, in open 
beneath.' scales l, r ..\vn reHexcd," ( )et . 21, l»2S. R. C. Ching 

i beneath. Iruit 

Yang-Chun Hsien, Chin Shan, tree in mixed woods, hark gray, Nov. 15, 1935, 
C. Wang 3S773. 

l.itluM ■arpus .|ict\ oneura, n. sp. 

Arbor 18 metralis partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque dense fulvo- 
floccoso-pilosis, ramulis angulatis gracilibus cito glabrescentibus, ramis 
teretibus fusco-nigris fere levibus glabratis. Folia persistentia subcoriacea 
vulgo 10-16 cm. longa et 4-6 cm. lata, maxima 16-25 cm. longa 6-9 cm. 
lata, prope verticem abrupte caudata acumine falcato angusto 1-2.5 cm. 
longo. e medio desuper attenuata basi ipsa cuneata, margine subtiliter 
recurva. supra atro-viridia nit ida in sicco atrobrunnea, subtus pallidiora 
siccitate flavescentia glaberrima, costa media utrinque elevata, nervis 
utrinsecus 16-20 adscendentibus ante marginem confluentibus cum trabe- 
culis transversis distinctissimis supra insculptis subtus valde elevatis; 
petioli crassi late sulcati puberuli vix ultra 1 cm. longi; stipulae adpresse 

232 .101 KN \l. OK TNI'. \liMHD \RBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

pilosae inferiores ovalo-lanceolatae superiores august iores. Amenta erecta 
ex axillis folioruni bractearumque in partibus terminalibus ramulorum anni 
paniculatim aggregata, dense crispato-pilosa pilis fulvis fasciculatis. 
superiora nonnulla feminea; <? 9 -15 cm. longa densiilora, rhachidibus 
gracilibus angulatis florum fasciculis 3-!loris in feme dissilis superne 
approximates, bracteis 3 triangulari ovatis aeuminatis majora 2 mm. longa. 
lobis perianthium fere ad basin divisis. staminibus 12 longe exsertis, 
antheris cordato-ovatis minute apiculatis basi (list ret is. pistillo rndimento 
liberi piloso; 9 10-18 cm. longa. pain illnra llorum fasciculis dispersis 
3 5-tloris, bracteis lineari-subulal is 1.5 mm. longis. stylis 5 conico-subulatis 
glabris. Spicae fructiferae in parte snperiore ramulorum annotini 
laterales rhachidibus ramulis aequicrassis 10 16 cm. longis nigris lenti- 
cellatis parce puberulis. Fructus biennes sessiles conferti svd vix 
confluentes glomeruli* llnnim abortivorum interspersi; cupula firme 
coriacea fragilis circiter 10 cm. lata, nunc cupuliformis dimidio glandem 
cincta 5-6 mm. alta, nunc depresse hemisphaerica ore leviter contracto 
glandem (vertice exposito excepto) subinclusa circiter 10-12 mm. alta, 
intus glabra purpurascens, extus furfunu m -lepidot ula s(|tiamis permultis 
parvis spiraliter coutluentibus apicibus triangularibus acutiusculis curvatis 
adpressis tantum distinct is ; glans subglobosa vel conico-hemisphaerica 
initio pruinosa mox nit ida apice slylopodio rotimdato umbonata; cicatrix 
leviter impressa 10 12 mm. diametro. 

Kwangsi: Yao Shan, collected under the direction of S. S. Sin, May 24, 1<)2S, 
No. J!; Lo-Hsiang, Nov. 22 25, l')2S, Nos. 36.W, .1667 (tvpiO ; without data, A'. (. 
Ching 7301. 

This species falls into the group of Lithocarpus fenestrata (Roxb.) 
Render from which it differs in thinner leaves with more numerous and 
unusually prominent, strongly etched lateral veins and veinlets, smaller 
cups with minute scales, and hemispheric, not ovoid acorns. Lithocarpus 
Pavici (Hick, et A. Camus) Chun* is not unlike in certain respects but in 
that species the silky pilose acorn is borne on a pedicellate cup. 
Lithocarpus Elmerrillii. n. sp. 
parte, quoad descr. foliorum. 

Arbor 12-25 metralis fere omnino glabra cortice pallide brunneo 
ramulis gracilibus angulatis sulcatis fulvo-cinereis in anno secundo satis 
incrassatis subteretibus obtuse angulatis; gemmae ellipsoideae obtusae 
brunneae 4-5 mm. longae perulis praesertim interioribus pilosis. Folia 
biennia longipetiolata. modice coriacea elliptica vel elliptico-oblonga, 7 15 
cm. longa 2.5 6 cm. lata. utrin<|ue longe attenuala sursum in caudam 
falcatam acutam 1 1.5 cm. longam plus minusve subito protracta basi 
obli(|ue cuneata in petiolo complanato 1.5 3 cm. longo angusle decurrentia, 
pagina superiora laete viridia nitida inferior,-! glauca, eosta media tenuis 
supra plana subtus elevata nervis utrinsecus S 11 subangulo 45 egressis 
curvatis ante marginem dissolutis subtus moderanter eminentibus venulis 
transversis supra tantum leviter distinctis. Flores non visi. Spica 
femmina (tempore frnctu) 2-7 cm. longa lenticellata in parte snperiore 

♦Lithocarpus Pavici (Hick, cl A. Camus) Chun, comb, now 


ramulorum annotinorum eios validior subterminales superne flores abor- 
tivos dissitos paucos fructum maturum unicum gerens. Fructus biennis 
sessilis; cupula hemisphaerica, 8-10 mm. alta, pro maxima parte corporis 
solida vertice vacuo tenui patelliformi 15-24 mm. lato basin glandis solum 
sustinens, intus sericeo-puberula. extus dense griseo-lepidotula verticellatim 
squamosa squamis circ. 10-serialibus crebris adpressis inferioribus et mediis 
ovatis dorso gibboso-convexis mucronatis vel muticis. superioribus latissime 
deltoideis mucrone brevi-acuminato subglabrn terminantibus; glans pro 
maxima parte exserta ovoidea vel subglobosa castanea glabra nitida, 18-24 
mm. alta, apice attenuata umbonata basi truncata; cicatrix profunde 

Hainan: Pao-Tin- I Fieri, 1 Fire-Fun^ Hsuaim Chi-Na, alt. about 1000 m., tree 
12 m. tall, in forests, hark brown, leaves -laiicous beneath. Sept. 1, 1935, F. C. How 
73585 (type) ; same locality, tree 25 m. tall, Sept. 5, 1955, F. C. How 73637; Five 
Fin-er Mt.. Fan-Va, Dec. lo, 1921. /•'. .1. MrChm- 8506. 

The last named specimen, a duplicate of which was presented to the 
Herbarium of the Botanical Institute, Sun Yatsen University, by Mr. H. 
Green, late Superintendent of the Hongkong Botanical Garden, had been 
misidentified as Qucirus tHv'n olaruni 1 lance, a very different plant with 
a thin, fragile cup described by Hance as 'cupulis cupuliformibus 10 lin. 
diametro squamous brunneis tomentelb's in lamellas 6 indistinctas denti- 
culatas connatis." The description of the leaves accompanying the new 
combination under Lithocarpus, cited above, is unfortunately based on 
McClure's specimen which rightly belongs to the new species now proposed. 
The new species is named after Dr. Elmer D. Merrill, my mentor for over 
twenty years. 
Lithocarpus Haipinii, n. sp. 

Arbor 10-12 m. alta cortice levi obscure cinereo; ramuli valdi, circiter 
8 mm. diametro. dense molliter initio laete cito sordide fulvo-tomentosi, 
in anno tertio glabrati griseo-corticati rugulosi foliorum delapsorum 
cicatricibus magnis deltoideo-ovatis notatis. Folia per duos annos 
persistentia crasse coriacea bullata elliptica vel obovato-elliptica, 8-12 cm. 
longa 3.5-7 cm. lata, apice abrupte acuminata acumine lato acuto falcato 
± 1 cm. longo, basi rotundata vel late obtusa, margine satis recurva. 
supra olivacea lucida praeter costae partem inferiorem sordide tomentosam 
glabra, subtus pallidiora. sicca utrinque brunnescentia, ubique costa 
venisque magis fasciculato-pilosula, costa subtus elevata e basi lata sursum 
gradatim attenuata nervis secundariis ut toque latere 11-12 tenuibus prope 
marginem curvatis trabeculis transversis utrinque prominentibus supra 
quam subtus densioribus conjunct is; petiolus teres 2-3 cm. longus indu- 
menta ut in ramulis. Flores * non satis evoluti ex axillis foliorum 
superiorum anguste paniculati in ramis abbreviatis perpaucis circiter 2-5 
cm. longis densilloris sessiles. omnibus partibus molliter tomentosis, 
bracteis lanceolatis subulatis suffultis. Spicae 9 in parte superiorum 
ramulorum terminates erectae rigidae 6-13 cm. longae dense fulvo- 
tomentosae florum fasciculis interne dispersis superne approximatis; flores 
3-5 fasciculati, juveniles haud visi. Fructus biennes in rhachidibus 
ramulis anni secundi conformibus aequicrassis longitudinaliter striolatis 
12-16 cm. longis 2-7, sessiles congesti sed haud confluentes circa basin 

234 JOURNAL OK Till \K\ni.l) \KBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

fructibus abortivis dense spinuloso-squamosis cupulae adnatis; cupula 
cupuliformis lignosa, 0.6 cm. alta 2.2 cm. lata, glandem basi tantum cincta, 
intus pupurascens circa cicatricem circularem elevatam obscure puberula 
alibi glabra, extus dense fulvo tomentosa squamis annulatim confluentibus 
partibus liberis acicularibus rellexis curvatis intcrdum subtiliter hamatis 
6 mm. longis conspicue ornata; glans pro maxima parte e.xserta turbinata 
raro ovoideo-globosa, apice umbonata. basi truncata. 2.2-2.5 cm. lata, 
atrocastanea glabra nitida initio glaucescent ia ; cicatrix profunde excavata 
pallida impolita. 12 mm. diametro. 

Honc.kiinc: The Peak above Luggard Road in a ravine, tree 10 m. tall, 40 cm. 
diam., bark deep gray, leaves very thick, lustrous, pale green beneath, May 19, 1930, 

C. L. Tso 21M0; July 2, 1930, C. L. Tso 21*33, Sept. <>, l'CO, C. L. Tso 22330 (typi.) ; 
in dense wood on slope, tree (past flowci ing ) , htaru liiim near the base into 5 stems, 
bark gray smooth, branchlets gray, young shoots denseh fulvous pubescent, leaves 
deep lustrous green bullate. Aug. IS, 1<)33, U . }'. Chun UIW; mature fruits, Sept. 5, 
1934, W. V. Chun 10020. Kwant.ti-nc: Viao-Ping, Phoenix Mountain, tree 5 10 
m. tall, in forest, branchlets brownish tomentose, staminate inflorescence in bud 
paniculate, April 16-21, 1931. N. K. Chun 42030, 42743; Hsin-I District, Ho-Sui, 

1931, C. Want 31171, S. P. Ko H7v4; same district Viang thai, Hon Shan. alt. 1200 
m., tree 1 m., young inflorescence, April '). 1932, C Wong 32033; Nov. 22, 1934, 
C. Wang 37V3S; Vu-Vuen District. Ti-Hsia Shan, tree (> m. tall, in mixed woods, 
young inflorescence, April 23, 1934, .S'. /'. A'<) 333^3; Tai-Pu District, Tung Ku Shan, 
Sept. 8-29, 1932, W. T. Tsang 21627. Ping-Nan, Nao Shan, Pai-Niu, 
large tree, on peak in mixed I, nests, flowers while. May 20, 1930, ('. Wang 30133. 

The acicular reflexed squamae on the fruiting involucre approximate 
those of Lithocarpus Garrett hi mi (Craib) Chun* and Lithocarpus 
Skanniana ( Dunn) Rehd.. but in other respects, this new species is totally 
different from the plants mentioned. 

This truly remarkable large handsome tree was first discovered by the 
writer, when he was about to embark for England in 1930, in Hongkong 
near the Peak in a small wood behind a residence above Luggard Road. 
Messrs. C. L. Tso and Li Yiu were put on the alert for ripe fruits which 
were subsequently collected in abundance and sown in the nurseries of 
the Botanical Institute and the Hongkong Botanical Garden. 

If, as early as 1875. Hance in describing Ca.stanopsis Lamontii** should 
regard it "strange that this fine tree which grows in a locality which must 
have been many times visited by former collectors, should have so long 
remained undetected." how much more true is the remark quoted when 
applied to a companion which openly defied detection for a further period 
of over half a century. 

This new species is respectfully dedicated to the former Chancellor of 
Sun Yatsen University, Chow-Lu. L.L.I)., Leipzig, under whose adminis- 
tration the Experimental Garden of the Botanical Institute became an 

* Lithocarpus Carrettiana (Craib) Chun, comb. nov. 

Quercus Garrettiana Craib in Kew Hull. 1911:474. 1911. 

I'asama liarrrttiuna (Craib) llnkel et V Camus in Ann. Sci. Nat. Hot. Ser. 


important scientific adjunct of the Univers 
of living plants in the Experimental Gai 
destroyed by Japanese vandalism. 

l,iili.M;npu- Howii, n. sp. 

Arbor 6-12 metralis cortice fusco-cinereo ; rami annotini defoliati patuli 
sparsi rigidi cinereo-corticati rugosi lenticellis elevatis foliorum delapsorum 
cicatricibusque magnis submtiindati.s conspicue asperati; ramuli juniores 
cum petiolis dense moll iter llavo-sericeo-tomentosi in anno secundo 
glabrescenti; gemmae late ovoideae, 4 mm. longae, obtusae perulis ovatis 
obtusis dense sericeo-tomentosis laxiuscule tectae. Folia per duos annos 
persistentia in apice ramulorum conferta longipetiolata subcoriacea 
obovato-oblonga, 9 12 cm. longa 2.5-5 cm. lata, apice subito acuta basi 
oblique cuneata. stibnmcolnria utrinque in sicco llavescentia, supra 
nitidula laete viridia. subtus opaca in costa elevata venisque breviter 
albido-strigillosa margine august issime cartilaginea revoluta praeter basin 
dentato-crenata dentibus incurvis hand apiculatis, nervis primariis laterali- 
bus utrinque 16-20 erga costam 6-8 mm. inter se distantibus sub angulo 
50° egressis fere rectis supra leviter impressis subtus cum trabeculis 
transversis crebris prominenter elevatis, petiolis gracilibus superne late 
sulcatis puberulis, 3.5-4 cm. longis, stipulis lanceolatis acutis, 15 mm. 
longis 2 mm. latis, caducis. cxlus dense pilis longis adpressis flavido-sericeis. 
Flores feminei (emarcidi) in spicis • Luciflori ad axem 

validam erectam puberulam verisimiliter tortuosam bini ternive glomerati 
sessiles, bracteis crassis turgidis dense tomentosis, stigmatibus divaricatis 
glabris. Fructus maturus stipitatus, stipite lenticellato 1.5-2.5 cm. longo 
8 mm. crasso, durus permagnus turbinato-obpyriformis apice truncatus. 
basi attenuatus. circiter 5 cm. latus parte attenuato circ. 1 cm. longo 
incluso 5-6 cm. longus, pericarpio subcoriaceo superne circ. 2 mm. crasso 
a glande facile soluto pulchre sculpturato processibus e squamis mutatis 
rostriformibus validis turgidis recurvis conspicue armato; cupula totam 
glandem obvoluta squamis difformibus inferioribus in zonis indistincte 
annularibus confluentibus arete adpressis reliquis finem fructu superpositis 
liberis confertis, ab infimis ad supremis longitudine variantibus inferioribus 
elongatis inter se distantibus lanceolatis elevato-marginatis mediis brevius- 
culis sparsioribus intervallis planis separatis superioribus brevioribus liberis 
erectis confertis plerumque recurvis supremis multo minoribus tenuiori- 
busque arete incurvis cupulae orem occultis; glans depresse globosa ossea 
intus basi a dissepimentis induratis incompletis irregulariter 5-locularis 
sursum 1-locularis; semen fere totam glandem repletum basi alte lobatum, 

Hainan: Kan-En District, Pai-Ling, tree 8-10 m. tall, 20 cm. diam., on summit of 
wooded hill, bark blackish grav, leaves lustrous deep green, Nov.- 23, 1933, H. Y. 
Liang 63717, 63725; Ting-An District, Mao-Hsiang, tree 20 m. tall, Dec. 23, 1933, 
C. Wang 36005, 36009; Po-Ting District, Hsing-Lung, Tung-Tieh Ling, alt. 300 m., 
tree, leaves lustrous green beneath, fruits pale green, July 12, 1935, F. C. How 
73184 (type); same locality, Hsuang-Chi-Na, alt. 800 m, tree 12 m. tall, in forests, 
bark gray, Sept. I, 1935, F. C II oil- 73f>30; Wan-Ning District, Tung-Tieh Ling, tree 


evidence that the staminai 
Lau 28249 really belong 

This new species is named after the collector. Assistant Professor F. C. 
How, who since joining this Institute as a young graduate has unwaveringly 
kept his voluntary pledge to dedicate his life to botany. 

Fitliocarpus ittvipliylloid.'s. n. sp. 

Arbor 12 IS in. alta praeter inflorescentiam glaberrima cortice 

griseo-vel fusco-brunnco rainis ramulis(|ue gracilibus nitentibus junioribus 
dense foliatis griseis augulatis vetustioribus nigrb teretibus fere levibus. 
Folia biennia subcoriacea lanceolala vel elliplico lanceolata 5 10 cm. longa 
2 3 cm. lata, apice longe obtuseque acuniinala basi attenuata et usque ad 
basin petioli angustissime decurrentia margine integra passim undulata 
supra viridia nit ida subtus pallidiora. costa utrinque elevata nervis 
primariis lateralibus utrinsecus circ. 16-18 gracillimis infra tantum sub- 
tiliter elevatis venulis crebre reticulatis praesertim subtus leviter tantum 
prominentibus; petioli longitudine in eodem ramo satis variabili 5-15 mm. 
longi. Intlorescentia masculina in apicibus ramuloruin et axillis foliorum 
summorum paniculata pedunculis communis angulatis iucano-tomentosis. 
amentis 3-6 cm. longis folio brcviorihus adscendenti-patentibus, rhachis 
tereti incano-tomentosa multiflora, floribus singulis sessilibus extus dense 
incano-tomentosis inferioribus dis<itis superioribus congestis; bracteae 
lanceolatae perianthio paulo longiores; periantlui lobi <> inae(|iiales ovati 
acuti circ. 1 mm. longi; stamina 12 exserta 2.2 mm. longa. tilamentis supra 
basin connectivi elliptici adnatis leviter complanatis obscure puberulis, 
antheris subrotundatis apice distincte api( ulato-umbonatis; ovarii rudi- 
mentum dense incano-pilosum. Spicae frucliferae laterales in parte 
superiore ramulonuu 5 7 cm. longae; I'ructus biennes in rhachidibus 5 mm. 
crassis lenticellat is mgris ternatim aggregati sessiles; cupula cupuliformis 
lignea 3-4 mm. alta 8 mm. lata basin tantum glandis amplectens intus 
sericeo-pilosula extus fulvo-tomentosula. squamis adpressis late rhom- 
boideo-ovatis apiculatis circiter 4-5 serialibus; glans ovoidea sursum 
attenuata apice umbonata glabra graminea bn ida circ. 10 mm. lata umbone 
incluso 12-13 mm. alta; cicatrix concava. circ. 4 mm. diametro. 

Kwangtunc: Hsin I Hsien, Ho Usui, Chai, tree 12 m. tall, in woods, 
woods, bark gray, tlowfrs yellowish white, April <>, V)M. ('. llu>i K .12062; Yen-Fa 

This species differs from L. Hancvi (Benth.) Render in slender blackish 
not grayish branchlets, much thinner smaller leaves and smaller cup with 
less distinct scales arranged in fewer zones. From /.. itrapliylla ( Hance ) 
Rehd., with which this new species seems to be more closely allied, it is 
at once distinguished by the ternately coalescent not solitary acorns. 
LithocarpHS tvrnal'nupula Hayata. of which we have authentic specimens 
from Formosa, differs in having a thicker deeper cup with prominently 
swollen scales and larger acorns. These four species belong to a 
closely related group but seem to be specifically distinct. 

Lithorarpus obovatilimha, n. sp. 

Arbor parva ad 8 m. alta; ramuli teretes hornotini annotiniciue pube 


dense flocculenti-tomentoso initio tlavo mux sordide fusco persistente 
vestiti, vetustiores glabrescentes nigrescentes crebre rimosi. Folia biennia 
ad apicem ramulorum conferta brevipetiolata coriacea obovata, 3.5-5.5 cm. 
longa 2.5-3 cm. lata, apice rotundala vel obtusa vol acumine brevi lato 
obtuso plus minusve abrupte terminantia, basi cuneata asymmetrica mar- 
gine satis revoluta in sicco supra intense brunnescentia nitida subtus 
pallidiora opaca. in vivo e collerlore supra atro- subtus argenteo-viridia, 
utrinque pagina praeter basin costae pain - ndide tomentosam glaberrima, 
nervis lateralibus utrinsecus 5 7 angulo valde obtuso divergentibus tenui- 
bus sursum leviter curvatis intra marginem evanascentibus supra obscure 
impressis subtus leviter tantum distinctis venulis fere obsoletis; petiolus 
robustus, supra complanatus, infra semiteres basi dilatatus dense fulvo- 
tomentosus usque ad ,s nun. louuus >ed saepius brevior. Flores desunt. 
Spicae fructiferae in parte superiore ramulorum solitariae rhachidibus 
ramulis annotini aequicrassis el similiterque indutis circ. 2 cm. longis, 
fructibus paucis confertis sessilibus basi coalitis, cupulis alte patelliformis 
4 mm. altis 12 mm. latis iragilibus intus sericeo-pilosulis extus incano- 
tomentosis. squamis pluri-serialilms imbrieatis laxe adpressis e basi late 
triangularibus abrupte acuminatis acumine libero erecto calloso-apiculato 
subglabro brunnescente, inferioribus dorso convexis mediis et superioribus 
planiusculis supremis cupulam superantibus et earn marginem aliquanto 
fimbriatis, glande cupulam multo superante ovoidea lucida 12 mm. alta 10 
mm. lata, cicatrice concava ' 5 mm. diam. 

Hainan: Ling-Hsui, Ka-She Tu. alt. about 800 m., small tree, in mixed woods, 
hark gray, leaves deep green above, silvery green beneath, Nov. 9, 1935, F. C. How 

In general appearance this species resembles Lithocarpus glabra (Thunb.) 
Nakai but with the leaves much broader in proportion to their length and 
obovate in outline. In addition, in Nakai's species the scales are closely 
appressed to the cup and continent with only their shortly mucronate 
apices evident. 

Lithocarpus podocarpa, n. sp. 

Arbor 20 metralis vel ultra praeter inflorescentiam glaberrima ramulis 
griseis parce lenticellatis obscure rimosi. Folia persistentia tenuiter 
coriacea oblonga vel elliptico-oblonga 8-10 cm. longa 3-4 cm. lata apice 
breviter abrupteque obtuso-acuminata basi cuneata discoloria utrinque 
nitida in sicco supra brunnescentia subtus argentata margine revoluta 
passim undulata costa utrinque elevata nervis lateralibus in utroque latere 
8-10 tenuibus supra impressis subtus elevatis adscendentibus sursum 
arcuatis versus marginem anastomosantibus trabeculis subparallelis 
prominulis connexis petiolis sulcatis circ. 1 cm. longis suftultis. Amenta 
utriusque sexus in parte superiore ramulorum et axillis foliorum summorum 
erecta, masculina saepius paniculatim aggrcgata, femina ex axillis 
bractearum in ramulis aphyllis simplicia pauca. Amenta i 10-15 cm. 
longa densiflora parce pulverulento-puberula tloribus secus axin singulis 
interruptis vel approximates, bractea externa triangulari-subulata perian- 
thio breviore bracteisque lateralibus ovato-acutis stipitatis; perianthium 
cupulatum circ. 1 mm. altum extus furfuraceo-puberulum intus glabrum 
margine breviter 6 lobatum lobis herbaceis deltoideis obtusis vel 

238 JOURNAL OK Till. \i;\Ol I) \II I'.OKITl \1 [vol. xxvm 

acutiusculis; stamina 12 exserta circ. 3 mm. longa filamentis glabris 
antheris cordato-ovatis apice apiculatis hasi discretis; rudimentum ovarii 
depresse globosum obscure angulatum pilosum. Spica 9 7 14 cm. longa 
paucifiora infra medium inula rhachi tloribusquc furfuraceo-puberulis; 
flores singuli dissiti stipitati stipite pulviniformi 11 ore subaequilongo. 
bractea externa subulata minuta: perianthium cupulatum ovario arete 
cinctum extus suleatum margine breviter dentatum denlibus ovalis obtusis: 
styli 3 divergentes recti obtusi basi ])ilosi. Fructus biennes sccus 
pedunculum interne nudum in parte superiore 7-9 aggregati manifeste 
pedicellati; cupula late pateriformis II mm. diametro basi in pedicellum 
validum 3-5 mm. longum abrupte eontracta tenuiter lignosa basi glandem 
tantum amplectens. intus puberula extus tomentosula squamis <> 7-seriali- 
bus a])ice apiculato excepto omnino continent ibus; glans hemisphaerica 
aut depresse globosa. 14 15 mm. lata alla<|ue. basi truncala apice umbone 
conico tomentoso comnala. atrocastanea glabra; cicatrix concava albida 
8 mm. diametro. 

Kwanctuno: Yun-Fou Hsien, Cha-Tung, tree "40 m." tall, hark -ray-black 
.smooth not fissured, Feb. 1, 1928, C. ('. Wang i.v; same district, Yun-W'u Shan, tree 
20 m. tall, flowers white, eup gray, acorn green, Oct. 20, P>34, C. Wang 37550, 
(Bottle No. C/520), (tvi-k) ; Fang-Chang, tree 5 m. tall, in ravine, Nov. 21, 1930. 
H. D. Wong 30; Hsin-I Hsien, Ho-Hsui, tree 15 m. tall, in village wood, hark -ray, 
flowers white, Nov. 22, 1934, C. Wang 37034. Hainan: Ling-Hsui, Tung-Chia, 
Ta-Lan Shan, tree IS m. tall, in wooded ra\ine, bark -ravish white, acorn green with 
whitish umbo, cup grayish white, Sept. 24, 1932, A'. A'. Chun & C. I.. Tso 43016; 
Ting-An Hsien, Mao-Hsiang I. in-, tree 20 in., in mixed woods, hark gray, Dec. 27, 
1933, C. Wang 35S5S (Bottle No. H/MS) ; same locality, ticc S 10 m. tall, flowers 
creamy white, Jan. 9 11. 1934, If. 1'. Liang o4J<J2. 04471, 04472; Bao-Ting Hsien. 
Hsing-Lung, tree 11 m. tall, in mixed forests, bark -ray. leaves silvery gray-green 
beneath, acorns lustrous green. Aug. 5, 1935, /•'. ('. Ho\c 733S0; without data, coll. 
//. Fenzel s.n. (B. I. Herb. No. 17758, 18373). 

This species is at once distinguished from its nearest allies /.. vestita 
(Hick, et A. Camus) Chun* and Lithocarpm Paviei (Hick, el A. Camus) 
Chun by its glabrous wholly exserted acorns. The other Indo-Chinese 
species with pedicellate cups differ from our Chinese species either in 
(inmate fruits or capillar structure or markings. 

The fruits in some of the Hainan specimens show some variation. 
ranging from generally hemispheric to depressed globose in form, otherwise 
all the collections are very uniform. 

I.itlmcni i.u-. It .-nulla, n. sp. 

Arbor parva 5-S metralis praeter ramulos juveniles inllorescenliasque 
glabra; ramuli hornotini initio pane fulvo-tomentosi cito glabrati anno 
secundo tertio(|iie subteretes atro-grisei crebre rimosi. Gemmae ovoideo- 
conicae acutae castaneae squamis oval is obtusis e\tus praeter marginem 
adpresse sericeo-pilosis. I'olia triennia longipet iolala coriacea elliptica vel 
elliptico-lanceolata vulgo 6 9 cm. longa 2-3.5 cm. lata, apice caudato- 
acuminata acumine falcato obtuso. basi cuneata vel acuta in petiolum 
breviter extensa, margine integra plana, supra olivacea nitida in sicco 
flavescentia, subtus pallidiora opaca. eosta utrinque elevata vix conspicua, 

* Billioearpiis vesiila (Hickel et A. Camus) Chun, comb, now 

I'asania vr.Uita Hickel et A Camus in \nn. Sci Nat. Hot. Ser. 10, 3:393. 1921. 


nervis lateralibus primariis utrinsecus 7 8 sub angulo 50° divergentibus 
sursum curvatis tenuibus intra marginem obscure confluentibus, subtus 
tenuiter elevatis prominulis, venulis fere nullis; petioli infra medium 
semiteretes sursum manifeste compressi longitudine satis inaequilongi ei 
foliorum summorum vix ultra 1 cm. longi inferiorum usque ad 3 cm. longi. 
Flores $ non vidi. Spica 9 ad apicem ramuli 2-3 aggregata erecta 
simplicia 8-10 cm. longa. tloribus cum rhachi validi angulati leviter 
tortuosi fulvo-tomentosis paucis ternatim interdum quinatim fasciculatis 
fasciculis dissitis bractea externa ovato-acuminata flore longiore bracteisque 

2 lateralibus ovato-rotundatis brevioribus omnibus extus et basi intus 
pilosis suffultis. perigonio ovario multo breviore breviter 5-6-lobato, stylis 

3 brevibus rectis divaricatis obtusis glabris. Spicae fructiferae 16-26 cm. 
longae moderanter robustae fructibus sessilibus seggregatis juvenilibus 
saepissime ternatim confluentibus sed unico in eodem fasciculos tantum 
maturante; cupula hemisphaeroidea lignosa solida basi truncata in parte 
superiore plano-patelliformis usque ad 12 mm. lata margine leviter curvata 
vel fere plana, intus purpurascens glabra umbilico centrale valde elevato 
6 mm. diametro, extus fulvo-tomentosula concentrice annulata annulis 7-9 
passim denticulatis inferioribus distantibus dorso convexis superioribus 
marginem versus proprioribus planiusculis indistinctis; glandes non satis 
maturae discoideo-hemisphaericae umbonatae fere omnino exsertae 5 mm. 
altae 10 mm. latae pallide castaneae nitidae. cicatrice concava 5 mm. lata. 

lustrous, pale green beneath truiting cups reddish brown. Jan. 18. 1930, A'. A". Chun 

spikes whitish hairy. JuK 26 1W0, A A Chun //.^' saim lo. ilitv, tree'8 m. tail, 
on bank of stream. Aim. IS, 1<><(). .V. K. Chun 41619; Hsin-I, IIo-Hsui, Mu-Lan 
Chai, tree 8 m. tall, in mixed woods, bark gray, leaves light green beneath, cup gray, 
Aug. 16, 1931, C. Wang 31170. 

My nephew, the discoverer of this new species, was attracted to the 
tree from a great distance by the scintillating foliage when the sun shone 
on its crown. The rustling tendency of the leaves is due to the partially 
flattened petioles. 

Quenus eonduplieiins. n. sp. 

Arbor 22 m. alta ramulis subangulatis ramisque teretibus gracilibus 
fusco-nigris initio parce sordideque tomentellis cito glabratis. Folia 
biennia in apicem ramulorum conferta coriacea longe graciliterque 
petiolata coriacea discoloria lanceolata, absque petiolo 9-14 cm. longa 
2-2.5 cm. lata, apice sensim caudato acuminata acumine 1-1.5 cm. longo 
falcato acutiusculo obtusove. deorsum longe attenuata simul inaequilater- 
aliter cuneata. margine cartilaginea subtiliter revoluta supra medium 
crenato-dentata dentibus utroque latere 6-7 calloso-mucronatis. utrinque 
glaberrima in sicco brunnescentia. supra subnitida costa impressa vel 
leviter sulcata nervis primariis tenuissimis cum trabeculis transversis 
crebris pariter prominulis inter se eximie connexis, nervis primariis 
lateralibus utrinque 9 1 1 adscendentibus distantibus fere rectis atque costa 
elevata subtus satis eminent ibus prope marginem dissolutis et haud in 
dentem excurrentibus venulis ultimis tantum leviter perspicuis; petiolus 
supra leviter planus sulcatusque, basi dilatatus, minute puberulus, usque 
ad 2.5 cm. longus interdum brevior. Flores desunt. Fructus ut videtur 

240 JOl RNAI. OF T1IK AUNOU) AKUOKKTl M |v«,i.. xxmii 

biennis solitarius sessilis in ramulo peduncnliformi valido tereti folio 
breviore subterminalis; cupula e basi hemisphaeiica lignosa in limbum 
cirrularem latum crassum coriaceum subito ainpliata ubique (intus basi 
excepla) densissime bninneodanugmoso velutina extus concent rice zonata 
annulis circiter 5 -7 crassis integerrimis supremo a marline remoto; 
cupula propria cupuliformis ore expanso 10 12 mm. lato. intus 6 mm. alta 
quartern partem glandis amplectens; limbus explanatus 5 5.5 cm. kit us 
sursum deorsum untlulatus marline passim c ondupli. atus plicis saepius o 
extrorsim adsurgentibus intervallis plus minusve inlrusis dec aims vel valde 
revolutis separatis; glans cylindrica apice uinhmuta timbone conico incluso 
2.5 S.2 cm. longa. medio 1.2-1.6 cm. lata, atrocastanea apice basique 
saepius plus minusve adpresse fulvo-.sericeo-pilosa : cicatrix plana circ. 

5 mm. diam. 

Species inter Asiaticas tupularum conliguratione diversissima. 

Kwam'.ti \c: Vao I'm- Ilsii-n. Phoenix Mt„ tree 22 m. tall, leaves dark pan 
above, pale screen beneath, acorn dark brown, cup with brownish vi-lvi'tx tomentum, 
April 21, I'»S1, A. K. thiol 42741 (Bottle No. DP 7). 

This remarkable species is unlike any other known to us in the peculiar 
structure of the cupule. The cupule is composed of two parts different 
from each other in texture, a cup proper, hemispheric and woody, and an 
abruptly expanded broad circular limb which, in the living state must 
presumably be fleshy, eventually becomes thickly coriaceous and strongly 
undulate with conduplicate upwardly curving folds alternating with 
decidedly indented and more or less revolute intervals. 

Arbor 15 m. alta trunco 40 m. diametro; trunci cortex crassus extus 
atrod)runneus subtus purpurascens. levis nuni(|uam lissus tantum 
reticulato-striatus; ramuli novelli gracillimi distincte angulati sulcatique 
initio fulvo-tloccoso-toineiitosi cito glabrescentes annotini subteretes fusco- 
nigri lenticellis parvis obscure dispersi. Folia per duos annos persistentia 
longipetiolala teuuiter coriacea adulta glabra lanceolata ellipticodanceolata 
vel -oblanceolata r>- n cm. longa 1..S 5 cm. lata, apice acute breviter 
acuminata acumine tenui intenlum curvato circ. (> mm. longo, deorsum 
longe attenuata basi oblique cuneata margine cartilagiuea anguste revoluta 
.supra medium crenato-dent iculata dentibus grai ilibus calloso-apiculatis. 
supra atro-viridia nitidissima in sicco laete luteo-viridia subtus opaca 
siccitate ilavescentia, nervis lateralibus tenuibus utrinque 12- -In sub angulo 
55° a COSta divergentibus fere rectis sed apiccm versus leviter curvatis 
supra planis subtus elevatis reticulo venularum ulriii(|ue prominulo. petiolis 
gracilibus basim versus fulvo-floccoso tomentosis 1.5 2 cm. longis. Flores 
' non visi. S[)ica feminea axillaris erecta 12 mm. longa ramulis 
aequicrassa, ubique fulvo-floccoso-tomentosa floribus 5 4 sessilibus singulis 
versus apicem pedunculi teretis approximatis. stylis 4 brevibus divaricatis 
apice peltatis bilobulatis. Fructus biennis solitarius sessilis; cupula 
campanulata crassa 2.X cm. longa 2.4 cm. diam., extus intusquc dense 
fulvo-velutino-tomentosa concent rice zonata annulis ° 1 1 subaequidistanti- 
bus arete adpressis integris marginem lex iter incrassatis; glans pro maxima 
parte inclusa obturbinato-cylindrica medio umbonata 5 cm. longa 1.5 tin. 
lata initio teuuiter fulvo-tomentosa mux glabrescentia ; cicatrix plana 

6 7 mm. diam. 


Kw'AM.i tn<;: Kianpsi border, Lunp-Chuen, San-Ghi Kou, tree 15 m. tall, on 
roadside, leaves lustrous deep preen above, dull pale preen beneath, pistillate flowers 
and fruits brown tomentose, April 29. 1950, C. L. Tso 21629. 

This new species differs from Qucrcus pachyloma Seem, in the thin 
elliptic leaves with the upper part of the margin sharply crenate-dentate 
from or below the middle, in the more numerous close lateral veins very 
distinct on the upper surface, as well as in the larger acorns. In (). 
pachyloma the leaves are thicker, not distinctly veined on the upper 
surface with fewer veins ending in callose not apiculate teeth. 

Arbor 15 metralis partibus juvenilibus pilis fasciculatis densis brevibus 
arete adpressis initio llavescentibus deinde incanis diu persistentibus tectis, 
ramulis gracilibus obtuse pentagonis 5-sulcatis anno secundo tertioque 
valde incrassatis alro-corticatis lenticellis minutis conspersis tarde glabres- 
centibus. Folia biennia crasse coriacea rigida longipetiolata oblonga raro 
oblanceolato-oblonga sufsum in acumen falcatum obtusiusculum subito 
attenuata basi oblique producta, 10-16 cm. longa 3.5-5 cm. lata, margine 
infra medium usque ad apicem remote crenato-dentata dentibus calloso- 
mucronatis. supra lacle viridia m sicco pallide llavo-viridia adulta glabrata 
costa plana pulverulento-tomentosa. subtus dauca siccitate albescentia vel 
canescentia praecipue seen- c-ostam elevatam nervosque lasciculato-pilosa. 
nervis lateralibus eminent ibus utroque latere IS adscendentibus fere 
rectis tantum |)aululum curvatis ad serraturas excurrentibus; petioli 
graciles teretes 2-4 cm. longi, basi dilatati. Flores A desunt. Spicae 
9 (post anthesin) in axillis folioruni superiorum solitariae tit videtur 
1 -florae vix ultra 1 cm. longae fructibus nascentibus sessilibus; bracteae 
fugaceae; ovarium ovoideum tenuiter tomentosum penanthio 2-annulato 
(\ensv tomentoso integro pro maxima parte circumdatum; styli 5 divaricati 
subulati sursum glabrati apice peltate expansi. Ftucius verisimiliter sem- 
per solitarius pedunculo ramo anni crassiore petiolis breviore suffultus; 
cupula hemisphaerica, l.asi truncata, circiter 2.5 cm. lata, intus adpresse 

9-11 inferioribus crassis distant ibus grosse eroso-dentat is vel -denticulatis 
superiorilms minimis propioribus inteuerrimis supremis incurvis; glans 
semi-exserta cylindrica rubro-brunnea umbo conico 5 mm. longo incluso 
4-5 cm. longa 2.5 cm. diam.. adpresse fulvo-pilosa pilis derasis 
evanescentibus, cicatrice convexa pallida 1.2 cm. lata. 

Hainan: Tinp-An Hsien, Lunp-Wan, tree 15 m. tall, with pray bark, in mixed 
woods, Jan. 25, 1954, C Want 3W3 (tvpi.- Po-Tnm Hsien. ICinp-Lunp, Hsuanp- 
Chi-Na, alt. about 800 m., tree 14 m. tall, with brown bark, Aug. 27. 1955, 

> {>. zanthodada Hick, et A. Camus from 
ly distinguished by the dense yellowish 
to grayish indumentum on the branchlets petioles and lower surface of the 
leaves, and by the hemispheric cup with many more concentric zones 
which are erose, at least the lower ones. 
Quercus patelliformis, n sp. 

Arbor 12 m. alta ramulis fuscis striatis anno secundo griseo-nigris 
lenticellis parvis conspersis. Gemmae obovoideo-oblongae obtusae 5 mm. 


longae perulis inferioribus late triangulari-ovatis superioribus oblongis 

obtusis glabris castaneis marginibus purpurascentibus minute ciliolatis. 
Folia biennia 1'irme coriacea longipetiolata elliptico oblonga 5 12 cm. longa 
2.5-0 cm. lata, apice in acumen gra< ilem eaudatum falcatum 1.5 us(jue ad 
3 cm. longum gradatim contracta. liasi rotundata obtusave interdum late 
acuta, margine parce incrassata revoluta supra basin crenato-dentata 
dentibus remotis mucrone calloso lato obtuso incurvo terminanlibus, 
supra obscure viridia glabra costa plana, subtus pallidiora in sicco 
brunnescentia costa elevata nervis utrinsecus ( > ! I sub angulo 45 
divergentibus leviter curvatis elevatis trabeculis transversis utrinque leviter 
tantum distinctis venulis ultimis dense reticulatis subfoveolatis; petiolus 
tenuis semiteres supra planus 2-4 cm. longus. Mores masculinus ignotus. 
Spicae femineae e medio rami anni axillares 2 2.5 cm. longae erectae, 
rhachis tenuis angulata glabra pauciflora floribus singulis alternis sessilibus, 
praeter involucri hemisphaerici apicem tenuiter pilosum glabrescent ibus, 
perianthio breviter h-dentatn dentibus triangularibus acutis. stylis alle 
connatis erect is apice triloba! is lobis i apitato-dilat is ineurvis. Fructus 
biennis singulus sessilis pedunculo valido lent icellato vix ultra 1 cm. longo 
suffultus; cupula patelliformis 2 cm. lata 4 mm. alta exigue marginata, 
intus adpresse sericea umbilico lato convexo prominenle notata. extus 
adpresse tenuilen(ue llavido-tomentosa annulatim /onata /onis S n inferi- 
oribus 5-6 erosis superioribus integris vix manifesto propioribus; glans 
depresse hemisphaerica apice submtundala vel planiuscula medio umbonata 
umbone conico incluso 2-2.2 cm. alta 2.5-2.S cm. lata, dense fulvido- 
stellato-tDinentosa: cicatrix convexa • 2 cm. lata. 

Hainan: Yai Hsien, tree 15 m. tall, Oct. 1, 19.U, C. Warts' 34414; Kuci-Kai Shan, 
Nan-Lin, tree 12 m. tall, in mixed woods, Oct. 10, 1'J.vC C. Wan?. .Ufi5s (im'k); 
Kan Kn Hsien, Shan-Man Ton, tree 12 in. tall, hark blackLh urav, fruit brown, Sept. 
S, l').CC //. V. Liang rt.W.v Chuaim-Kou Lin-, tree 12 in tall, brown tomentosc, Oct. 
S, 19M, II. V. Liang f>J421; Linir-Hsui Hsien, Seven Khmer Mts., Jan. 14, l').U, 
C. Wang 36696. 

This species is characterized by highly connate columnar styles, and a 
somewhat depressed hemispheric acorn borne on a shallow cup with a 
narrow rim. It may be compared with the Indo-Chinese O. c/irysoctily.w 
{). asywmt trica and {). Dussandii Hick, et A. Camus., differing from the 
former two in the coriaceous leaves and the non turbinate acorns, from 
the last-named in the dentate leaves and the smaller shallower cup, and 
from all three in the stvlar structure. 

Arbor ultra 10 m. alta (fide Liang) fere undique glabra cortice rami 
ramuhque nigrescent i ramulis Icnuibus angulatis foliosis in anno secundo 
moderanter incrassat is verruculosis. (iemmae ovoideo-oblongae obtusae 
angulatae castaneae nitidae b mm. longae 3 mm. latae. perulis pluris 
imbricatis ova t is obtusis dorso parce pilosis margine ciliatis alibi glabris. 
Folia perennia rigide coriacea oblanceolato-elliptica 3.5 7 cm. longa 1.5-3 
cm. lata apice abrupte brevilei ijiie acuta hasi cuneata plus minusve in 
petiolum anguste decurrentia. supra atroviridia nitidissima subtus palli- 
diora. margine cartilaginea valde revoluta e medio vel versus apicem 
irregulariter crenato-denl iculala denticulis baud apiculatis interdum ad 
crenulas indistinctas reductis, costa supra plana subtus elevata. nervis 


lateralibus primariis utrinsecus plerumque 9 adscendentibus curvatis infra 
marginem evanescentibus subtus valde elevatis cum venulis subparallelis 
subtransversis numerosissimis eminentibus insigniter connexis, petiolis vix 
ultra 1 cm. longis. Flores ignoti. Pedunculus fructiferus circ. 1 cm. 
longus teres validus lenticellatus in axillis foliorum prope apicem ramuli 
annotini solitarius; fructus biennis subterminalis singulus sessilis; cupula 
conico-hemisphaerica tenuiter lignosa 1.8 cm. alta 2 cm. lata quartern par- 
tem glandis amplectens ore leviter constricto, intus adpresse fulvo-sericeo- 
pilosa extus tenuiter flavescenti-tomentosula concentrice zonata zonis 11-12 
levibus tenuibus inferioribus 6 latis fere aequidistantibus grosse erosis 
intermediis 2 angustioribiis pn.pioribus erosulis, reliquiis proximis integris; 
glans cylindrica vertice truncata crasse umbonata basi leviter attenuata 

t i 1 [1 1[ re 1 eiceis diu persistentibus, usque ad 4 cm. 

longa 2 cm. lata umbone conico 4 mm. alto concentrice 7-9 annulato; 
cicatrix convexa alte extrusa circ. 10 nun. diametro. 

Haixax: Hen^-Po-Po, vicinity of Loy villain, tree over 10 m. tall, in dense 
woods alon- trail, hark may black, leave.-, deep lustrous ureen, acorn hairy, Feb. 21, 
1934, H. Y. Liang 650V5. 

A species in the alliance of {). Edithac Skan and Q. cambodicnsis Hick, 
et A. Camus, differing from both in the glabrous vegetative parts, the 
strongly reticulate leaves, the more numerous annular rings on the cup, 
and the much larger cylindric acorns. 
Quercus Si mi. n. sp. 

Arbores vel frutices fructibus juvenilibus exceptis fere undique glabri. 
Ramuli juniores graciles angulati cani lenticellis paucis parvis ellipticis 
conspersi, vetustiores subteretes atro-cinerei verruculosi. Folia ut videtur 
per hiemen haud persistentia tenuiter coriacea longipetiolata siccitate 
atro-brunnea fere concoloria in eodem ramulo satis variabilia. hunc. e basi 
rotundato-ovata vel ovato-oblonga, nunc basi obtusa cuneatave ovato- 
lanceolata, minora 5-6 cm. longa 1.8-2 cm. lata, majora usque ad 10 cm. 
longa et 4 cm. lata, apice sensim acuteque acuminata acumine magis quam 
vulgo lato plus minusve 1.5 cm. longo falcato raro fere recto, basi 
plerumque inaequilateralia plerumque rotunda rarius obtusa vel breviter 
acuta in petiolum abrupte breviterque contracta, margine subcartilaginea 
anguste revoluta supra basin dentato-serrulata serraturis sparsis antrorsum 
adsurgentibus e basi lata sursum attenuatis apice crasse mucronatis vel 
spinulosis mucronis spinulisve usque ad 5 mm. long c rv nterdun 
porrecto-adscendentibus, supra glabra subtus erga costam mediam 
praesertim in axillis nervorum stellato-tomentosa, costa tenuis supra plana 
subtus elevata neryis lateralibus primariis 10-12 adscendentibus sursum 
leviter curvatis et in dentem excurrentibus cum secundariis subtransversis 
crebris tertiariisque dense reticulatis eximie conjunct is supra subtusque 
pariter distinctis; petiolus 8-20 mm. longus gracilis semiteres, supra 
sulcatus, sordide fasciculato-tomentosus pube facile detersibili. Flores 
desunt. Fructus annuus (in specimine unicus tantum satis maturus) 
foliorum superiorum axillis singuli vel bini breviter spicati, pedunculo 8-12 
mm. longo ramis anni crassiore tereti glabra crebre rimoso; cupula sessilis 
tenuis alte cupuliformis 14 mm. lata 8 mm. alta fere totam glandem 
amplectans, basi attenuata ore leviter constricta, intus argenteo-pilosa, 
extus fulvo-mcano-tomentosa imbricatim squamosa squamis 7-9-serialibus 

244 JOURNAL OF THK AKNOl M UiHOKlTl \1 [vol. xxmii 

arete adpressis parvis dorso plus minusve lumidis imis oblongo-ovatis 
obtusiusculis aliis ovatis obtusis; glans graminea late ovoideo-conica apice 
graciliter umbonata praeter apicem stylopodii pilosum glabra, circ. 9 mm. 

lata, absque umbone S mm. alta; cicatrix convexa circ. 4 mm. lata. 

Kwancti'n'c: Yunfou, alt. 130 m„ on rocky hill, small troc about o m. high, hark 
gray, Sept. 21, 1928, S. S. Sin 5240. 

The nearest ally seems to be Q. setulosa Hick, et A. Camus, an 
inadequately described Annamese plant known only in very young fruit, 
from which the Chinese tree differs in longer petiolate generally ovate 
leaves, dentate from mar the base and terminated by an unusually broad 
acumen. The fruits, though not exactly comparable in stage of growth, 
in our species have less distinct but more tumid cup-scales and are borne 
on a much shorter and stouter peduncle. 

This new species is named after Professor S. S. Sin, former Head of the 
Biology Department of Sun Yatsen University, under whose able and 
energetic direction several expeditions despatched to little known regions 
in Kwangsi and Hunan procured much new phytogeographic data of great 
scientific interest and value. The collections, as yet only partially studied, 
are proving to be unusually rich in undescribed species. 


('anion, China. 

I \( II! I KOI S IM.\,\T 


Frutex ramosus scandens usque ad 13 m. altus (e collectore), praeter 
lobos corollae cinereo- vel rufo-tomentellus. ramis ramulisque teretibus 
robustis irregulariter el longitudinaliter striolatis 2-3 mm. crassis lenti- 
cellatis. internodiis 2-5 cm. longis. Glandulae inter- et intrapetiolares 
complures caducissimae nigrescentes subulato-lineares 1 mm. longae. 
Folia ad apicem ramulorum disposita tenuiter chartacea vel adulta 
crassiuscula utrinque molliter pubescent ia. subtus pilis ad nervos densiori- 
bus, ovato- vel oblongo-elliptiea margine leviter revoluta apice acuta vel 
breviter acuminata basi anguste rotundata rani late cuneata superne 
intense viridia subtus pallidiora 2.5-7.5 cm. longa et 1.5-3.5 cm. lata, in 
speciminibus fructiferis maxima 11 X 4.5 cm., costa nervisque superne 
planiusculis et subtus conspicue elevatis, lateralibus utrinsecus usque ad 
10 arcuato-adscendentibus ante marginem anastomosantibus, petiolo 
tomentoso usque ad 5 mm. longo. Pleiochasia subterminalia vel raro 
axillaria congesta corymbiformia confertiflora 4-6 cm. alia, bracteis 
foliaceis 1-3 cm. longis et 0.5-1 cm. latis, pedicellis filiformibus, 1-2 mm. 
longis. Gemmae obtusae. Flores fragrantes (e collectore). Calyx 
subcampanulatus extus tomentellus quincuncialiter partitus, segmentis 
oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis 2 mm. longis et 1 mm. latis, squamulis intra- 
calycularibus 5 minutis; corolla flavescens urceolato-rotata extus puberula 
intus basi dense pubescens excepta glabra, tubo 2 mm. alto, fauce ruida et 
ampliata basi constricia. loin's dextrorsum obtegentibus et sinistrorsum 
contortis in aestivatione apicibus ovatis obtusis abrupte inflexis, post 
anthesin patentibus et valvatis 2 mm. longis et basi 1 mm. latis; stamina 
prope basim tubi inserta filament is perbrevibus antheris lanceolato- 
sagittatis; discus tenuiter 5-lohalns; carpella ovarii 2. pilosa utrumque 
circiter 10-ovulatas; stylus perbrevis; caput stigmatis turbiniforme apice 
obscure bindurn. Folliculi gemini vel abortu singuli ovato-lanceolati basi 
dilatati et apicem versus attenuati 6-7 cm. longi et basi 1.5-2 mm. 
diametro, epicarpio basi rugoso et supra medium striolato; semina lineari- 
oblonga atrofulva pubescentia basi acuta et apice fere truncata 10-15 mm. 
longa et 2-3 mm. lata, comis albo-sericeis ve. ticillat is rhr iter 3 cm. longis; 
embryo longiusculo, cotyledonibus radicula subaequalibus; cotyledones 
albae oblanceolatae utrinque obtusiusculae 7 mm. longae et 2 mm. latae; 

it sen Univ.) ; 
\WS; Vurm 

radicula cylindric 

:a ultra 6 

. mm. longa. 

Kwanrsi: Shih-\Van-Ta S 

han, Hsiang Tze, 

7, 1944, S. II. Chun 

fragrant, April 30, 

[044, ,S'. // 

. Chun 5027 (ty 

Nan-Ning, roadside, 


shrub 6 m., Jun 


Hsien, Ta-Tseh-Tsuen, vine climliins: on tars, fruit -reenish, Auj:. 12, 1933, .4. A'. 
SteuW <&■ //. C. C //«•(» Mid; same lo.alitx, on open slope, scandenl shrub 4 m., Nov. 
18, 19,38, H. C. Holt ,V252/; without data, r>;/v. K:c<iti£si ,v ^2, vjofij. Kwancitnc: 
Yang-Shan, along stream, fruit green, July 30, 193ft, A. Fang 225; Lun Hsien, in 
ravine, Oct. 1, 1<)45, S. If. Chun 5547. 

The genus Parabarium Pierre is characterized by compact, corymbose 
cymes with the apices of the corolla-lobes abruptly inflexed in aestivation. 
and by follicles which are prominently dilated at the base and somewhat 
abruptly attenuate! upwards into a long, slender beak. In indumentum, 
P. Iluaitin^l approaches P. vdiitimtm Pitard, but the Indo-Chinese 
species, in addition to other morphological characters, is at once dis- 
tinguished by much larger leaves of a different form, larger inflorescence 
and fruits. On account of the densely flowered inflorescence and the 
form of the fruit, our plant seems to be more closely allied to /'. mkranthum 
(Wall.) Pierre, but that species, like all other species hitherto ascribed to 
the Chinese flora and enumerated by the junior author in 1934,* are 
totally glabrous. 

In the spring of 1944, the governments of Kwangtung and Kwangsi 
jointly dispatched a botanical party into the interior of the Shi-\Yan-Ta 
Shan. KwangtunK-Kwangsi border, in search of gummiferous plants 
furnishing possible substitutes for rubber. The survey and identification 
of the plants collected were entrusted to this institute. Our collector, 
S. H. Chun, succeeded in gathering over thirty species belonging to various 
families and orders, all producing more or less abundant latex, those of 
the Apocynales including Chounnorpha macrophylla (Roxb.) G. Don, 
Parabarium mkranthum (Wall.) Pierre, and the newly proposed species 
described above being the most promising. The latex was first coagulated 
by acetic acid in the field, and upon refining by government laboratories. 
has been found, at least in some cases, to be serviceable in the electrical 
and automobile industries. 

This new species, which undoubtedly will become economically 
important, is named after and dedicated to Professor Tang Tsic Yee, 
Dean of the College of Agriculture, Sun Yatsen University, to whose 
support our Institute owes much of its progress, and through whose 
life-long devotion to his chosen field, scientific agriculture in South China 
is beginning to benefit the daily life of the people. 

Botanical Institute, 



Volume one of this short-lived periodical is dated 1808, it being made 
up of six numbers, 64 pages each, for the months of October. November. 
and December, 1808 (pp. 1-192), and January, February, and March. 
1809 (pp. 193-384). Volume two is dated 1809, and its six parts, also of 
64 pages each, are indicated as April, May, June, July, August, and 
September, 1809; these dates appear on the fascicle covers of the set in 
the Arnold Arboretum library. It is evident from certain corroborative 
data recently located that Desvaux was able to conform to his announced 
plan of publication, fascicle covers p. 4: "Ce Journal paroit dans le 
premiere huitaine de chaque mois, a compter du mois d'octobre 1808." 

An 'Avis aux souscripteurs" pasted on the fascicle cover of volume two, 
no. 6, and repeated on page 4 of the fascicle cover of this number reads in 
part: "Des mutations arrivees dans la Maison de commerce qui s'etoit 
chargee d'abord de faire paroitre le Journal de Botanique, obligent les 
auteurs de suspendre cet ouvrage. jusqirau mois Janvier prochain . . . ." 
Desvaux's plan was then to issue a new periodical commencing in 1810 
under the title Annales de Botanique; this plan was never consummated, 
but beginning in 1813 he did issue several volumes of another run of the 
Journal de Botanique, the remainder of the title considerably modified. 
The full title of the first two volumes (1808-1809) was: Journal de 
Botanique, redigee par une societe de botanistes; that of the second run 
(1813-1816) was: Journal de Botanique, appliquee a 1'agriculture, a la 
pharmacie, a la medicine, et aux arts. It is not surprising that some 
botanical authors have confused these two runs of what were different 
periodicals under the same leading name, one in 1808-09, the other 

The correctness of the indicated dates of issue of various parts of these 
two periodicals have been questioned, but certain contemporaneous reviews 
have recently been located which clearly prove that the years and months 
indicated for the first two volumes of the first Journal de Botanique are 
correct in spite of a statement by Desvaux (see below) that would seem 
to indicate that a later date (1810), was involved. From these reviews it 
is clear that there was at least some distribution of all of the individual 
numbers within the month indicated for each number, or in some cases 
actually in the preceding month. 

The first statement that I noticed in reference to this periodical was by 
Rafinesque, Atl. Jour. 1: 207. 1833, where he indicated the date of certain 

248 JOl'RNAL <>!•' Till. AIINOI.D AKIiOKITl M 

reprints of his papers as 1809; it is barely possible that on 
out in 1808, however. Later I noticed Ferna' "" 
34: 26. 1932, which is: 

"The title page of Desvaux's Journal de liolanique, tome 1, is dated 
1S0S. but Rafinesque himself stated in Atlantic Journal, i. 207 ("Winter 
of 1888") in his Cronological Index of his own botanical writings, that the 
paper was 'reprinted in Desvaux' Journal of Iiotany. Paris, ISO .' 
Desvaux complicated the (|uestion by himself staling in a volume dated 
1814 that 'Nous avons public en 1810, deux Volumes de 384 pages chacun 
et de 12 gravures' (see Fernald. Rhodora. xxix. 227 ( 1927). Since Vol. 1 
(dati'd 180S) is the only one of the two volumes with 384 pages and 12 
plates (Vol, 2 having 384 and 18 plates), we have Desvaux's word that it 
did not come out until 1810." 

One suspects that Desvaux perhaps meant to say that by 1810 he had 
published two volume-, or perhaps there was not much distribution of the 
various issues before that date. Suspecting that the Journal general de 
la Litterature de France might throw some light on the actual dates of 
publication of Desvaux's periodical, and also on other botanical works 
issued in France between the years 1 7°S and 1841, a somewhat systematic 
examination of that serial was initiated. The data noted in reference to 
the two volume set of the Desvaux Journal de Botanique are summarized 
in the next paragraph. 

Volume 1. no. 1. pp. 1 64 October. 1808 was reviewed Jour. Gen. Lilt. 
France 11:258 | September | 1808*; no. 2, pp. 65-128, apparently not 
recorded, but the fascicle over date is November. 1808; no. 3, pp. 129-192, 
December, 1808. is reviewed in the November-December number of the 
Jour. (urn. Fit). France 11:323. 1808. The next three numbers were 
apparently not recorded, but the fascicle cover dates are: no. 4. pp. 
193 256, January. 1809. but the date at the bottom of the cover is 1808, 
so this part may actually have been printed in 1808; no. 5, pp. 257-320, 
February, 1809; no. 6, pp. 321-384, March, 1809. 

Volume 2. no. 1, pp. 1-64, April, 1809. is reviewed op. cit. 12: 100. 1809, 
this being in the April issue; nos. 2 and 8, pp. 65-192, May and June, are 
reviewed op. cit. 12: 180, May, 180°; no. 4, pp. 193-256, July, is reviewed 
op. cit. 12: 194, the July number; and no. 5, pp. 25 7-320, August, is 
reviewed op. . it. 12: 227. August. 1806. No entry was noticed for No. 6, 
this including pp. 821 884; its fascicle cover date is September. 1809. 

The evidence here is that the editors of the Journal general de la 
Litterature de Fiance actually received copies of the various issues of 

s planned for twelve iiuml 

>ers annually, the 

On the fascicle 

seen in untiound copies u 

1 nth ml 

r appear thus: 

1947] MKRRII.I, I)KS\ \l \S JOl l!\\l. I)K IJOTAMOl K 249 

Desvaux's Journal de Botanique as they were issued. There would 
therefore appear to he no cause for doubting the correctness of the dates 
of issue as originally published, for Desvaux apparent]) was able to live 
up to his plan of issuing a number each month and in the first eight days of 
each month; in fact some of the numbers actually were printed in the 
month preceding the one indicated on the fascicle covers. 

The record as to the dates of issue of the "second series'" is unfortunately 
not so clear and doubts have been cast on the correctness of some of them. 
It was Desvaux's original plan to start an entirely new periodical in 1 S 10 
as noted above, but apparently the times were not propitious. Three 
years later he did initiate another serial but used the same general title 
that he had for the first attempt, i.e.. Journal de Botanique. Of this new 
serial four volumes were issued, the third volume apparently never 

bernald, Rhodora 20: 227. 1927. in his discussion of Dcndrium Desv. 
and Loisr/ruria Desv., for which he correctly accepts the date of publica- 
tion as 1813, says: •Nevertheless. Furopean bibliographers apparently 
have recent information (its source as yet unknown to me) that the part 
of vol. iii, or Ser. 2: 1, containing Dnuinum (p. 36) and Loisr/ruria (p. 
35) was not issued until 1314." However, Xo. 1, pp. 1-43, although 
neither the number nor the pagination is indicated, is clearly the part 
reviewed in the Jour. Gen. Litt. France 16: 30. 1813. as determinable from 
the titles of the papers cited. This would be the January number for the 
year 1818 and the entry proves that number one of this new Desvaux 
Journal de Botanique was actually issued in 1813 and not delayed until 
1814. My attention had been called to an item in Bertolini's Flora 
Italica 2: 377. 1835. in his discussion of Primula suavrolrns R. & S. in 
which he refers to an entry in Desvaux's Journal de Botanique '•torn. 4. 
p. 76. anno 1813," which seemed to confuse the issue. Checking the 
reference, however, indicated an error on Bertolini's part, for the Primula 
suavrolrns entry is in Desvaux's Jour. Bot. 2: 76. 1813, not in volume 
four, again confirmation that volume two was issued in 1813. 

As Fernald notes, the signatures (every 16 pages) are dated at the 
bottom of the first page of cadi beginning with p. 49. February. 1813, and 
continuing to June, 1813 (p. 273). It is not claimed that these monthly 
dates are actually the dates of issue, but this might well be the case. 
This system of dating the signatures was continued through volume 2, p. 
1, July, 1813, to p. 257. December, 1813, but was abandoned in volumes 
three and four. Volumes three and four are dated 1814. On page 285 
of volume four Desvaux says: "Les trois derniers Xumeros du 3." 
volume pour 1814. paraitront avec les premiers Xumeros du 5." volume 
commengant V annee 1815." This explains, in part, the incomplete volume 
three but throws no light on the difficulties that the editor may have had 
with the printers. In all but one of the sets of this periodical that 1 have 
seen, volume three closes abruptly with page 192. and I judge that it was 

250 IOI KIWI. OK TIIK AllNOl.l) \li I'.OK KTl M [mil xxviii 

Desvaux's plan to issue four numbers of 48 pages each. It is worthy of 
note that the set in the library of the New York Botanical Garden contains 
pages ] OS to 240 of the volume under discussion, this indicated as no. 5. 
Maw 1814. But a footnote on page 197 clearly indicates that it could 
not* have been published before February. lSlo; see Hazcn, Bull. Torr. 
Bot. Club 56: 531. 1929. The fifth volume promised by Desvaux for 
1X15 never appeared, and apparently also only certain fugitive issues of 
the last part or parts of volume three for 1814 were actually distributed. 
I know of only the New York copy of vol. 3. no. 5. never having seen a 
reference to an existing copy of no. 0. I have seen no fascicle covers of 
any of the numbers of this second run of Desvaux's Journal de Botanique. 
Apparently the unsettled conditions in Paris associated with the fall of 
the lust empire in 1S14, and the first year or two of the restoration were 
not conducive to regularity in publication of technical periodicals. 


On examining the proofs of Dr. Li's paper on brandisia, this Journal, 
p. 136 his correct elimination of Bonati'> species as a representative of this 
gei \i te 1 U the time Li's paper was prepared it was impossible 
to secure special information from Furopean centers. With the improve- 
ment in communications following the termination of hostilities it im- 
pressed me as desirable to see if the excluded bunaii species of Brandisia 
could be more definitely placed. Suspecting thai the type was preserved 
in the Paris herbarium I appealed to Dr. H. Humbert of the Museum 
d'histoire naturelle, who courteously sent me an excellent photograph of 
the holotype. An examination of this rather clearly indicated that the 
family Scrophulariaceae was nol involved but that probably Brandisia 
Soulici Bonati actually belonged in the Labiatae. 

Turning to Bonati's description it is evident that he did not examine the 
structure of the ovary, for all that he says regarding the innermost set of 
floral organs is "stigmate bifido. lobis brevissimis. Capsula ac semina?" 
Feeling that it was essential that the structure of the ovary be checked T 
appealed to Dr. F. Gagnepain who reexamined the type and reported: 
■Je me hate de vous informer: Que cette espece est une Fabiacee; I 
parce quelle a le stigmate particulier a cette famille; 2 parce que j'ai vu 
tres nettement au moins 2 nucules sur le podogyne au fond du calice. La 
chose est done jugee; ce nest pas une Scrophularicee. Je n'ai pas eu le 
temps de faire de plus amples rccherchcs et de trouver le genre de 
Labiacees auquel apparlient cette espece litigieuse." 

On the basis of the additional information courteously supplied by Dr. 
Gagnepain, the conclusion was reached thai the genus Chdotwpsis Miquel 
(Labiatae), as currently interpreted, was tvpresenlcd by Bonati's species, 
and after a consideration of the published descriptions of the proposed 
species that further Brandisia Souliei bonati (1909) was identical with 
Chclonopsis a/bi flora Fax & K. Hoffm. (1922). So convinced am I as to 
the specific identity of the two, one erroneously placed in the Scro- 
phulariaceae, the other correctly in the Labiatae. that on the basis of the 
original descriptions and without having seen specimens representing either 
of the species, the Fax and Hoffman one is reduced to synonymy and the 
following adjustment in nomenclature is made: 

joi iiwl ok tiik \i;noi i) \!;ijoi;i:ti ■ 

Cli<-lono!>v\ ulbiilora l'a\ X K. Hoffmann r\ l.impn, hi in K.prrt. Sp. Nov. Bcih. 

The species is apparently known only from the collections on which the 
two descriptions were based, and all three of the cited specimens came 
from Batang |l'a-an|. Province. Kastern I iliet | Sikang Province, China ] , 
Soulie 5199, "Yargong," collected in 1904 and Limprkht 2221. 2230 
'Bejti-Batang'' and "Batang-Litang," collected in 1914, the last two 
numbers being the basis of Chelonopsis alhijlorii Pax & K. Hoffm. 
'Batang" is I'a-an. ami what Soulie and lampricht designated as eastern 
Tibet, at least as to the "Hatang'' plants, is now Sikang Province, China. 
The published descriptions agree with each other < losely. One of the 
striking characters even in C/n lonopsis, is that most of the leaves are in 
whorls of threes. The three collections came from the same general 
region, but unless duplicates of the lampricht collect inns were distributed 
to other centers previous to the destruction of the Berlin herbarium, 
perhaps the Bonati collection is the sole extant representative of the 

Naturally a botanist studying the Labiatae as did Dunn* in his consid- 
eration of the Labiatae of China cannot be censured for having overlooked 
a species erroneously described some years earlier and misplaced in the 
system not only as to the genus but also as to the family; Dunn recognized 
four species of Chclonopsis as occurring in China. \'or can Pax and 
Hoffman be blamed for overlooking an ample earlier description of a 
species that they described as new and for the same reason. This is an 
excellent illustration of the fact thai to describe a new species is a very 
simple procedure, but to place a suspected new species in its proper group 
and to determine whether or not a proposed species is actually "new," 
(i.e., previously unnamed and undescribed ) is another matter. 




Alfred Rehder 

ChamaecyparL- ol.lnsa f. Sanderi (Sander), comb, nov. 

Junipvno Sanderi Sander c\ MaMcr- in Card. Chron. ser. .1, 23: 2 S 7 (1889), nom. 
subnud. — Beissner in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ces. I!199| s ) : 1 to (1899). pro 
syn. — Unger in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Cos. 190(1(9 ): 69 (1900), pro syn. 
-Anon, in Moller's Deutsch. Cartn.-Zeit. 15:589, !m. (1900), nom. subnud.; 
cf. p. 246, 428. 

Cliamtitryparis ohlusa erieoides hnrt. Jap. cn H.irlmu r. Cat li',99 19(10 (suppl.): 
2 (1899), nom. nud.--Hcis.MHr in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ces. 190 1 ( 10) : 77 
(1901), nom. subnud.; 1903(12): 51 (190.1, Dec); in Moller's Deutsch. 
Cartn.-Zeit. 18:291, tk. (190.1, func 20); Hand!.. Nadelh. ed. 2, 556, fig. 142 
(1909). — Hornibrook, Dwarf Conif. 41. fm. (1923) "car." Rehder in Bailee, 
Cult. Evergr. 216, lis,'. 41 (192.1). — Non Rctinispora oblusa var. cricoids 

Retinispora Sanderi (Hurt.) Sander in (lard. Chron. ser. .1, 33: 260, fig. Ill (190,1) ; 

no. 852 (Suppl.), fig. 107 (p. ii) (190.1, April 2S), nom. subnud. 
Citpirssiis pisijera var. Sanderi Dallimore ,Y Jackson, HandV Conif. 219 (1923), 

Juniperus sabma I'n^eri Anon, in Cartemvelt. .'13:290, fig. (1929). 

This juvenile form has been listed by most recent authors as 
Chamaccy parts obtusa cricoides Boehmer. a nomen nudum first validated 
in 1909 by Beissner (I.e.). This name, however, should be considered a 
later homonym of Rctinispora obtusa var. cricoides Hoopes (1868), since 
Rctinispora obtusa Sieb. cv Zucc. and C. obtusa Endl. are synonymous. 
Retinispora obtusa var. cricoides Hoopes is based chiefly on Chamaecyp- 
aris cricoides Carr. (1855); there can, however, be no doubt that C. 
ericoides Carr. does not belong to C. obtusa, but represents a juvenile form 
of C. pisijera, namely C. pisijera f. squarrosa |Znrc.| Heiss. and partly 
C. thyoides f. cricoides (Carr.) Rehd. As the epithet cricoides has been 
applied to forms under three different species in the genus Chamaecy parts, 
and may therefore cause contusion, its rejection in favor of Sanderi, about 
which there can be no doubt as to the plant meant by it. is in accordance 
with the spirit of the Rules of Botanical Nomenclature (see Art. 4), even 
if Retinispora obtusa var. ericoides Hoopes and Chamaccy paris obtusa var. 
ericoides Beissner are not homonyms in the strict sense of the word; 
moreover, the first two figures of this plant were published under the 
names Juniperus Sanderi and Retinispora Sanderi. 

In the note in Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 25: 287 (1899) on Juniperus Sanderi, 
it is stated that /. Sanderi, a Japanese species, was introduced by F. Sander 
& Co., about 1896, but I have not been able to verify this s 

.mm i:\\i or mi-: \u\oi d \i;i;oi;iti ■ 


Hiroria subgen. Drimocarya RanncM|ue, I.e. (1838), p.p. 

Carya sect. II. ,l^™rv<i (\ t\v Candolle in I)i- Candolle, Prodr. 16,2: 144 (1864). 

Hiroria sect. Apohicoria Dippcl. Handb. I.auhh. 2:33(, (LS'C) 

///V f »r/<i [si-rt.l. Aporarya Sar-rnl, Silva \ Am. 7:135 (1KQ5). 

The oldest subdivisional name for this section has been generally over- 
looked, hut as it was validly published with a description and reference 
to the species belonging to it. it must replace the name Aporarya C. de 
Candolle. For the second group. 1 have retained the name Eucarya C. de 
Candolle. since its circumscription agrees exactly with that adopted here, 
while it seems doubtful which of the names of the three subgenera into 
which this group was split by Rat'ine«|iie should have preference. 
•Mains purpura (Barbior) Render t. p.-nchila (Bran) Rehder, com!), nov. 

- Vyrus purpurea var. pnuiuUi Bran. Trees Shrubs Brit. Isl. 3:327 (l')33). 

This is a pendulous form of \ M. purpurea i Mariner) Rehder (in Jour. 
Arnold Arb. 1: 57. 1920). a hybrid between >< .17. atrosanguinea \M. 
flalliaiia Koehne • Sicboldii (Kegel) Rehder] and M. pumila var. 
Xicdzu'ftzkvana (I)ieck) Schneider. Xo mention is made by Mean, who 
published the first reference to it, when and where this form originated. 
album, l. nova. 

The specimen collected by J. F. Mario bears on the label the varietal 
epithet album which agrees with the fact that its tlowers are white even 
in bud. This is the only specimen with white tlowers in the herbarium of 
the Arnold Arboretum and there is none at all in the Cray Herbarium; 
all other specimens collected in (lower have the corolla more or less 
rose-colored to rose-carmine. In none of the floras of the West Coast is 
any mention made of a white-flowered form, although the original descrip- 
tion of R. macrophyllum G. Don (Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PI. 3: 843. 1834) 
says: "corolla alba"; only those later authors who keep A', macrcphyllum 
and R. calijorfiicuw as distinct species describe the flowers of the former 
as smaller and white. This separation is apparently only based on the 
color as given in C. Don's description, ll appears, however, that G. Don 
was in error when he ascribed white flowers to this Rhododendron collected 
by .Men/ies at Fort Townsend. for in his journal edited by C. F. Xewcombe 
in 1923, under the title "Journal of Vancouver's Voyage, April to October, 
1792" Menzies refers twice to this Rhododendron, on p. 20* as A\ politician 
and on p. 49 as "that beautiful native of the Levant, the purple Rhodo- 
dendron"; apparently he identified the Rhododendron of the Vancouver 
region which is in general appearance similar to R. ponticum L., with that 
species he knew from Furope and probably from plants cultivated in 
England, whence it was introduced in 1763 from Gibraltar. As there 


occurs no other species of the subgenus Eurhododcndron on the West 
Coast of North America but R. macrophyllum G. Don (R. californicum 
Hook.), the specimens collected by Menzies and compared by him with the 
purple flowered A', ponticum could not have been the apparently extremely 
rare white-flowered form; the explanation seems to be that the flowers of 
the specimens were faded and discolored and looked as if they might have 
been white, as they do in some of the mure recently collected specimens 
before me.* Don also describes the filaments as glabrous, which 
they are not. not even in the white-flowered form; they are densly 
pubescent al least at the lower third. A specimen from the type-locality. 
Port Townsend, Jefferson Co., coll. J. Wm. Thompson, no. 10639, June 9, 
1934, has pink flowers up to 6 cm. across and rather large leaves, 9-15 cm. 
long. Size and color of the (lowers are not concomitant characters, nor 
have they any connection with the geographical distribution; a specimen 
from Monterey has one of the smallest (lowers that I have seen, about 
3 cm. across and they are pink. 
Ligustrum sect. Euligustrum, nom. now 

Ligustrum sect. III. Baccatar Mansfeld in Hot. Jahrb. 59. Heidi. 132:42 (1924). 

Decaisne was the first to subdivide the genus into groups of which he 
distinguished four without, however, giving names to his sections | in Id. 
des Series. 22:4-11 (1S77) and in Xouv. Arch. -Mils. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
ser. 2. 2: 17-37 (Alonog. Ligustrum Syringa.) (1879) |. Of the first of 
these sections characterized by 'Tlores hypocrateriformes" Koehne pub- 
lished in 1904 as sect. Ibota a monographic treatment in Festschr. 70 
Geburtst. Ascherson, 1S9-20S, 4 fig. (Abstract in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. 
Ges. 1904 (13): 68-76, 6 fig. [1905]). In 1924 Mansfeld divided the 
genus into three sections and the second section into two subsections, using 
for his section III, a form of name contrary to usage and, moreover, the 
adjectives in plural are treated as of feminine gender which is grammati- 
cally incorrect (see also my proposal ol changes of Art. 26 of the Rules 
of Botanical Nomenclature in Jour. Arnold Arb. 20: 269. 1939). I pro- 
pose, therefore, to change the name sect. Baccatar to sect. Euligustrum, 
since it contains the type-species of the genus. 
Ligustrum vulgare I. nanum (Kohankie), grad. now 

"Privet Lodense" {l.i^istrum nanum compaction) Jackson \ Perkins, Fall-Price- 
List, 1021: 15 (1924), cum descr. 

Ligustrum lodense (ilogau in Gartenwelt, 32:058 (1928), nom. subnud. — Henry 
Kohankie & Son, Price List, Fall 1930:54 (1930).- Rehder, Man. Cult. Trees 
Shrubs, ed. 2, 784 (1940) "Lodense." 

Ligustrum vulture nanum Henry Kohankie & Son, Price List, 1915 10:70 

A typo speciei recedit habitu compacto nano, 0.75 m. vix excedente, 

* Of an original specimen of A', macrophyllum collected by Mcnzies and preserved 
in the herbarium of the British Museum of Natural History, Mr. J. Ramsbottom 
kindly sent me a photograph recently taken by Dr. Bernice Schubert, and informed 


This form of Li^ustrum vul^arc differs from the typical form in its 
dwarf and compact habit, with upright and ascending branches. It 
originated in the nursery of Henry kohankie & Son at Painesville, Ohio, 
some time before 1^24 and was first offered for sale in I "24 by Jackson & 
Perkins under the name 'Privet Lodense" with the descriptive synonym 
Ligustrmn uauum com pactum added in parenthesis. The word "Lodense" 
does not represent, as seems to have been assumed by some, a Latin 
adjective, but is formed by contracting the two words "low" and 'dense." 
descriptive of the habit of the plant; it is intended as the Knglish or 
horticultural name ol this plant and should not be considered a botanical 

Trees Shrubs Brit. I>1. 1: 27 (1014! "" 
Liaustrmn ovalifolium varir-atum Hull ex T. Moore in Proc. Hort. Sor. I.ond. 

5: 138, 144 (1X65). 
?Li^ustrum japonicum var. tricolor Jaeob-Makov, Cat. no. 114 (1S70) ex E. 

Morren & C. de Yos, Index Biblioizr. Hort. Belli. 555 (1SS7), none Meehan 

in Median's Monthly, 2:42, fiji. (. 1 S02 ) "tricolored" ; num. subnud. 
Li K ustrum califomicum rotootum vanc^atum Carriere in Rev. Hort. 1877:352 

LiKustrum ovalifolium robustitm aurco marginatum hort. ex Dippel, Handle 
Laubh. I: 135 (1889). 

Kt'w Hand-List Trees Shrubs, 2:03 (lXOb), pro svn. 
L^ustrum ovali folium var aurco-mar^iuat urn Hort. ex Rehder in Bailey, (/yd. Am. 

Hort. [2]: 913 (1900); Man. Cult. Trees Shrubs, ed. 2, 786 (1940). 
LiKustrum ovalifolium var. rohu^tum varii^atum Hort. ex Rehder, I.e. (1000), 

LiKustrum ovalifolium anno variegation hort. ex Sehelle in Beissner et al., Handb. 
Laubh. -Ben. 41S (1003), nom. 

There can be but little doubt that all the names cited above belong to 
Limits/rum ovalifolium f. an/cum, except perhaps the doubtful L. japonicum 
var. tricolor Jacob-Makoy, of which I have seen no specimen; certainly 
Median's figure of it does not represent a form of L. japonicum Thunb. 
which has coriaceous evergreen leaves and would not be hardy near 
Philadelphia. Moreover, the name /.. japonicum has often been applied 
in garden and horticultural literature to L. ovalifolium. 


minora 1.5-2 cm. longa et interdum obtusiuscula, basi late cuneata, glabra, 
partim lutea, petiolis 2-4 mm. longis. Panicula 3-6 cm. longa, axi et 
ramulis sparse et minute puberulis; pedicello et calyce glabro; corolla tubo 
3 mm. longo, longitudinem liniln dimidio excedente; staminibus limbum 
paullo excedentibus vel subaequilongis. Fructus subglobosus, 4 mm. diam. 

Cultivated specimens: Arnold Arboretum, no. 332 36 (from New York Botanic 
Garden as L. ciliatum Vicaryi). .1. Kehder, July 1 and October 5. 1946, (type); no. 
668-33 and 500-36 (from Boyce Thompson Inst., \ onkers, \. Y., as /,. almtum 
Vicaryi), E. J. Palmer, July S and October 17, 1938; Hoi t. Vilmorin, Verrieres, 
France, Roger L. de Vilmorin, 1927; Coolidge Coll., San Diego County, Calif., July 
1919 and May, 1920, F. G. W. (as Ligiistrum sp.). 

This Ligustrum apparently originated some time before 1920 in the 
garden of Vicary Gibbs of Al'denham, Middlesex, England, famous for his 
collection of rare trees and shrubs. Its characters suggest a cross between 
Ligustrum ovali folium f. aurcum and L. vulgar x. In its general appear- 
ance it resembles very much L. ovali jolinm f. aurcum, but the influence of 
L. vulgarc is indicated by the more compact and smaller inflorescence with 
its axis and branchlets puberulous, and particularly by the shorter corolla- 
tube which is only about U times as long as the corolla-lobes, while in 
L. ova/iio/ium it is two to three times as long as the lobes, and in L. vulgare 
shorter than the lobes. The shape of the leaves is much like that of 
L. ovalifolium, but the variegation is more irregular than in its f. aurcum 
and the leaves of the weaker branches are often entirely green. Since 
writing the preceding description proposing this plant as a hybrid of 
L. vulgarc and L. ovali folium, my attention has been drawn to a note by 
J. W. Besant in Gardeners' Chronicle (I.e.) in which he calls L. Ibota var. 
Vicaryi u a variant from the common and oval-leafed Privets" which 
apparently means a hybrid between L. vulgarc and L. ovali folium. Il 
may be considered a confirmation of the correctness of calling this plant 
a hybrid between these two species, that the same explanation of its origin 
is based on two entirely different and independent sources. The fact that 
the pollen of this plant is normal can not be considered a proof against its 
hybrid origin, for pollen sterility, though prevalent in hybrids, cannot be 
considered an infallible character of hybridity. for there are hybrids with 
normal pollen, as X Platoons accrifolia (Ait.) W'illd. (P. Occident alls > 
orient alls). 

Ugii-trum T-rlniii(»kii Derne. var macnxai pom (Koehne), comb. nov. 

Ligustrum macrocarpum Koehne in Festschr. 70. GeburtM Ascherson, 201, fin. 

3, B (1904); in Mitteil. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 1904 (13): 76, fig. 6 119051; in 

Repert. Sp. Nov. Reg. Veg. 1: 10 (1905). 
Ligustrum medium hurt, ex Koehne, op. cit. 203 (1904), pro syn.; non Franchet & 

Ligustrum acuminatum var. macroairpum Schneider. III. Handb. Laubh. 2:807, 

258 .101 KY\1. OF TIIK ARNOLD AKHOKF.Tl \l [vol.. xxvin 

Vitex Negimdo L. var. heteropln lla (Franch). comb. now 

Firrv chinensis Miller, Card. Did. ed. S, F. no. 5 (17o8). — Nakai, Fl. Sylv. Kor. 

14: ^8, t. 12 (1923). 
Vitex incisa Lamarck, Encycl. Meth. Bot. 2:612 [1788]. — Bunge in Mem. Div. 

Sav. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 2:126 (Enum. PI. Chin.-Bor. 52. 1833) 

(1835). Merrill in Sci. Jour 5:158 (1927). 
Vitex Xc K undo >cnsu Curtis in Hot. Mag. 11: t. 364 (1797), non Linnaeus (1753). 
Vitex luriiihitus Hort ex Schaue, in 1 >e C.mdollc, Prodr I I : t.S 1 ( 1847 ), pro svn. 
A K nus castus incisa Carriere in Rev Hort. 1870:415 (1871). 
Vitex incisa var. hettrophxlla Franchet in Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, ser. 

2. 6:112 (PI. David. 1:232. 1884) ( 1883). — Rehder in Sargent, PI. Wilson. 

Vitex Xe^undo var. incisa (Lam.) C. B. Clarke in Hooker f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4:584 
(1885). Rehder in Sargent, PI. Wilson. 3:373 ( 1916) . -- P'ei in Mem. Sci. 
So.. China, 1.3: 100 (Verhenac. China.) (1032). 

'['lie above new combination was necessary since according to Art. 58 
of the Rules of Botanical Nomenclature the oldest varietal name has to 
be used for the new ternary combination. 

As I stated in the discussion under I'itcx Xcgundo var. incisa (in 
Sargent, PI. Wilson. 3: 374. 1916) Franchet's V. incisa var. hetcrophylla 
can hardly be separated as a distinct variety or form from V. Xcgundo 
var. incisa (Lam.) ('. B. Clarke, and if united, Franchet's varietal name 
has priority over V. Xcgundo var. incisa (Lam.) C. B. Clarke. 
Vitex Negundo var. heterophylla f. muhifida (Carr.), comb. nov. 

A^nus cast us incisa var multihda Carrier,' in Rev. Hurt. 1870:416 [18711. 

Vitex incisa var. mull, n, la Schneider, 111. Handb, Laul.h. 2: 5<)4. fig. 384m-n (1911). 

Vitex Xe K undo var. incisa i. multifida (Carr.) Rehder in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 
6:3481, 3574 (1917) "F. .V. t. multifida," p. 3574. 

A form of V. Xc»nndo var. hetcrophylla with deeply pinnatifid leaflets 
and narrow remote segments. 



C. T. White 

On my way back to Australia from the Solomon Islands in November, 
1945, I was delayed at Lae in New Guinea, awaiting transport, and 
decided to visit the Bulolo Valley at Wau for the purpose of seeing the 
fine Araucaria forests of that region. 

Before the war, Wau was the centre of the gold-mining industry of the 
Mandated Territory of New Guinea, and the town and surrounding district 
carried a white population of approximately 2000. Lack of transport had 
fortunately prevented the exploitation of the magnificent forests of 
Araucaria Klinkii Lauterb. and A. Cunninghamii Ait. These two species 
grow intermingled and dominate the rain-forest on the ridges and hillsides. 
The former is an especially magnificent tree and Mr. J. B. McAdam, Chief 
of the New Guinea Forest Service, informs me that he still hopes to find 
a specimen 300 ft. high. By actual measurement he has found trees 
approaching this height, but not quite attaining it. The following notes 
on their systematica and their distribution in New Guinea are offered. 
Araucaria Gumiinghuiiiii Ait. in Sweet, Hort. Brit. 475. 1827; F. Muell. Vict. 
Nat. 4:121. 1887, Descript. Notes Pap. PI. 9 (2): 65. 1S90; Lauterb. in Engl. 
Hot. Jahrh. ."><): 51. 1015; C. F. Lane-Poole, Forest Resources Papua and New- 
Guinea 73. 1925; C. T. White in Jour. Arnold Arb. 10:200. 1929. 

New Guinea: Mt. Obree, Saver (ex Lauterb. I.e.), C. R. Lane-Poole 376, Feb. 

2000 4000 ft. alt., C. K. Lane-Poole 63Q, Feb. V)2A (immature rones); Owen Stanley- 
Range, between Mts. Brown and Clarence. /.. ./. />Y</^, Mas 1<>26 (leaves only) ; Wau, 
alt. 3000 ft., common on ridge rain-forest above the Bulolo River, C. T. White, 

bark thick rough, dark brown almost blackish). 

Lauterbach. I.e., mentions that he could find no difference between 
Sayer's specimen and the type from E. Australia. The species is abundant 
in Eastern New Guinea on the Owen Stanley Range and ranges north of it. 
The trees in the field are very similar to those of Australia, where the 
species is very common from sea-level to an altitude of 3000 ft. and shows 
considerable variation in form. I have compared the New Guinea speci- 
mens available to me with much Australian material and can find no 
essential differences. The closely allied A. Beccarii Warb. from north-west 
New Guinea, judging from figures published by Miss Gibbs in the 
Phytogeography and Flora of the Arfak Mts., p. 84, fig. 5, seems to differ 
chiefly in the very much larger cone and cone-scales, the latter measuring 
4 cm. X 8 cm. (exclusive of the indurated point) whereas in A. Cunning- 
hamii Ait. they only average half this size. 

260 JOl KWI. OF TIIK \i;\()ID AHBOKFTl \I |\m.. xxmii 

Arauearia klinkii Lauterb. in Fnul. Hot. Jahrh. a(l:4S. 1913; C. F. Lane-Poole, 

Forest Resources F.ipna and New Guinea 12. 1925. 

Ni.w Ci'inka: Mountains ot the Upper Waria River, 2000 m. and more ahove 

sea-level, Klink, tvpi:, Nov. 1010 (ripe runes); mountains In-hind Finsehha ten, alt. 

2000 3000 ft., on the hills of the Upper Ramu River, ('. /•:. hint' I'oolr n-12 (leaves 

Hulolo Valley, ( . 7. White, \ OF. !hl, Nov. 10-15 u:reen male amenta and fallen 
cones; lar-e tree 200 ft., hark very dark brown thick and rou-h). 

As is well known, the species of Aram aria fall naturally into two 
well-defined sections: 

(1) Colymbea Endl. in which the leaves in adult trees are large and 
more or less spreading, the tones large, the seeds heavy and not adapted 
to wind-distribution, cotyledons hypogeal, endosperm transferred in 
germination into the underground swollen hypocotyl. 

(2) Eit.uta Endl. in which the juvenile leaves are acicular and 
spreading, the adult ones small and imbricate, the seeds comparatively 
light and with the accompanying winged scale, adapted to wind-distribu- 
tion, cotyledons cpigeal and spreading in germination like those of Finns, 
hypocotyl slender. 

Lauterbach (I.e.) placed .1. Klink ii Lauterb. in the section En acta. 
where I feel that its true affinities lie. However, Ih'lger in the second 
edition of Die NaUuiichen Fllaiizentamilicn transferred it to the section 
Coi.ymhka. The only affinity with this section is the large size and more 
or less spreading character of the leaves. He also includes here the closely 
allied .1. Hunsteinii K. Sch. and A. Schumanniana YYarb. Warburg 
(Monsunia 1: t. 10) figures both these species and shows their leaves to 
be more spreading than in .1. Klinkii Lauterb. In the field, on the general 
appearance of the branchlets. these three trees certainly resemble members 
of the section Colymbka more than Eutacta, but in the more essential 
features, the character of the seed and scale, and the method of germina- 
tion, they definitely agree with the section Eutacta. The description of 
Eutacta could be amended to include these New Guinea species, but it 
seems preferable to propose a new section to include them. 

Folia juvenilis acicnlaria, patentia. parva. adnlta magna (5-10 cm. 
longa) patentia vel levitet imbricata; semina cum squamis alatis a ventis 
disseminata, cotyledonibus 2 in germinatione patentibus supra terrain 

Three species in North-east New Guinea, .1. Hunsteinii K. Sch., A. 
Schumanniana Warb. and .1. Klinkii Lauterb. though it is possible that all 
three represent forms of one rather variable species. The two former are 
unfortunately known only from the type localities. 






Jack described in 1822 i Mai. Mi-i\ 2: St) a new genus Psilobium 
based on two species discovered by him during his travels in Benkulen. 
The specimens which served for the descriptions have been lost. As the 
descriptions are rather short and give no measurements, it appears almost 
impossible to identify these plants. At least, as long as we are not 
absolutely sure that in this region not more than two species belonging 
to this genus occur, there can be little hope. 

The genus was characterized in this way: 

■■1'sUohinm i\Y. J.): Pcntamlria Monogynia; \. C). Rub iac ea c Jus s. 

Calyx patens, 5-partitus. Corolla tubo brevi, limbo 5-partito. Stamina 
basi corollae inserta. Stigma clavatum. 10-alatum. exsertum. Fructus 
cylindricus, siliquaeformis. foliolis calycinis persistentibus coronatus, 
bilocularis, polyspermus. Semina duplici serie axi affixa. 

Fruticosa. pedunculis axillaribus paucifloris, aestivatione valvata." 

For the determination of its position the following points are of special 
importance: the many-seeded fruit, the valvate aestivation of the corolla- 
lobes, the insertion of the stamens at the base of the corolla-tube, the 
clavate "stigma" (in reality that part of the style is meant on which the 
pollen is temporarily deposited, and from which it is afterwards removed 
by visiting insects), and the presence in each of the ovary-cells of two 
parallel axial placentas. The many-seeded fruit and the valvate aestiva- 
tion of the corolla-lobes, it is true, appear in a large number of genera. 
but the other characters are much more exclusive; in fact, there are but 


two other genera in wliit h the whole set lias been observed. These genera 
are: Arranthrra Am. e\ Meisn. and the very imperfectly known Gonyanrra 
Khs.. the first based on a Ceylonese plant, the latter, like Psilohium. on a 
Sumatran plant. 

It may be that Arnolt when he described his new genus Arranthrra, was 
not aware of the existence of Psilohium Jac k. but il is also possible that he 
overrated the importance of the differences between the species on which 
his own and Jack's generic diagnoses have been based. The latter concern 
the position of the inllorescences. the presence or absence of a disk, and 
the structure of the ovary and fruit. The inflorescence of the Ceylon 
plant is found between the upper leaves, its disk is large and bulbous, and 
its ovary and fruit are according to Arnolt "pseudo-bilocular," i.e. pro- 
vided with an incomplete septum. In the Sumatran plants, on the other 
hand, the inllorescences have been described as axillary. The presence of 
a disk is not mentioned in Jack's description, and we may therefore assume 
that this organ is either absent or inconspicuous, and the ovary and fruit 
apparently are completely bilocular. The difference in the structure of 
the ovary and fruit afterwards proved to be untrue, for the median rent 
observed by Arnott in the septum, was, as Stapf fin Trans. Linn. Soc. 
II. 4: 173. 1894) pointed out, due to rough handling. All the same, it 
does not appear that Arnott attached much value to this character, for 
the supposed incompleteness of the septum did not withhold him from 
considering Acranthcra a near ally of Mussarnda L.. in which the septum 
certainly can not be regarded as imperfect. The two other points of 
difference are, as 1 will show further on. real enough, and might be con- 
sidered a sufficient base for generic distinction. The authors, however, who 
subsequently occupied themselves either with Psilohium or Arrant firm, did 
not see them in this light, for they indiscriminately referred to each of 
these genera species with or without a disk and with the inllorescences at 
the end of the stem as well as with opposite inllorescences. The Suma- 
tran species of Arrant htm described by Merrill (in Papers Mich. Acad. 
Sci. I<> : 194. 1934) e.g. are, exactly like the Psilohiuw species of Jack. 
provided with opposite inllorescences, whereas Psilohium siamrnsr Ken- 
produces its inflorescence exactly like Arnott's Arranthrra species, at the 
top of the stem, and is also, like the latter, provided with a large bulbous 
disk. The explanation of this anomaly lies therein that those who occupied 
themselves with Psilohium. were insufficiently acquainted with Arranthrra. 
whereas those who described new species of the latter, gave no heed to 
the existence of Psilohium. 

As long as no specimens were available which could be referred to 
Psilohium. the position of this genus remained uncertain. It is true that 
already in 1872 a plant occurring in I'egu and denasserim had been 
described by Ivurz (in Jour. As. Soc. Bengal 41(2): 313) as Psilohium 
rapillarr. but as the aestivation of its corolla-lobes is contorted, its flowers 
dioecious, its style provided with two erec t hairy arms, and its placentation 
peltate, this obviously was a mistake; the plant can not even be considered 


a near ally. Two years later Kurz himself (in Jour. As. Soc. Bengal 
46: 189. 1874) recognized it as conspecific with the unnamed plants on 
which Hooker f. had based his genus Morindopsis. 

In 1925, i.e. more than a century after the publication of Jack's paper, 
for the first time a plant was referred to 1'silobium. of which there is no 
doubt that it fits Jack's generic description. It is a specimen discovered 
bv Ridley among" the plants collected by Brooks in Benkulen. Ridley 
refers to "it in the following terms (in Kew Hull. 1925: 84. 1925): 

"Psilobium nutans Jack. Lubok Tandai, herb, in shade, common, flowers 
w hit*' green, 6681. 

I take this to be the long-lost Psilobium of Jack, obtained at Bencoolen. 
It agrees in almost all points with the description, but the calyx-lobes are 
described by him as -very large - ' which though they are fair size, hardly 
agrees with this." 

I have not been able to study this specimen, and the data given by 
Ridley certainly do not prove that it really belongs to Psilobium. The 
lacking evidence, however, has been supplied by Kerr in the description 
of his Ps. siammsc (in Hooker's Ic. PI. 34: t. 3M2. 1937). This species 
namely is said to differ from the plant collected by Brooks in the larger 
size of the flowers, the narrower calyx-lobes, the included sexual organs 
and the terminal position of the inflorescence, and must be assumed, there- 
fore, to resemble the latter in all other points mentioned in his description. 
As the fruits of Ps. siamcnsr are described as many-seeded, the aestivation 
of its corolla-lobes as valvate, the stamens as inserted at the base of the 
corolla-tube, the style as clavate, and the placentas as paired and axial, 
the set of characters by winch the taxonomic position of the genus is 
determined, must be present in Brook's specimen too. 

Although it can. therefore, hardly be doubted thai the plant collected by 
Brooks fits Jack's generic description, it can not be admitted that it is 
conspecific with Ps. nutans, the type-species of Jack's genus. According 
to Ridley's own remarks it does not fully agree with the description but 
merely "in almost all points," its calyx-lobes notably not being "very 
large" but of "fair size" only. Ridley's identification, therefore, can not 
be accepted. The specimen collected by Brooks probably represents a 
different, although doubtless nearly related, species. 

The taxonomic position of Ps. siammsc Kerr is clearly indicated by the 
lengthened internodes, the terminal inflorescence, the halfway united fila- 
ments and the large disk, for there is but one other species known so far 
in which these characters appear. This is Acranthera tomentosa R.Br, ex 
Hook.f., a plant occurring in Assam. 

The preceding expose shows thai the genera Psilobium Jack and 
Acranthera Am. ex Mei>n. are undoubtedly identical, and as the first dates 
from 1822, and the latter from 1S.>S. the name Acranthera should, accord- 
ing to the priority rule, be rejected in favour of Psilobium. This change, 
however, could hardly be welcomed. Tn the first place, as neither of the 
species described by Jack could be rediscovered, there is as yet no type 


to which the name Psilobium can be attached, and now that the importance 
of immutable types for the stabilisation of our nomenclature is generally 
recognized, this will doubtless be felt as a serious drawback. In the 
second place the change would cause a considerable amount of renaming, 
for 24 species of Acranthera would have to be transferred to Psilobium. 
If, on the other hand, the name Acranthera is conserved, but one species, 
namely Psilobium Kerr, has to change its name, for, as stated 
above, there is very little chance that, for a long time to come, the two 
species described by Jack will be identified. There is, therefore, in my 
opinion, sufficient reason for conserving the name Acranthera. 

In a paper published in 1851 Korthals (in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2(2): 
183) proposed a new genus Gonyanera. which is described as follows: 

"Calycis tubus cum ovario connatus, elongatus, subpentagonus; limbus 
patens, quinquepartitus, partes ovatae acutae. Corollae tubus brevis. 
limbus 5-partitus, partes aestivatione valvata. Stamina 5, exserta, tubo 
corollae affixa; fdamenta brevia; antherae conniventes, lineares, acutae. 
Stigma elongato-clavatum; stylus teres, glaber. Ovarium elongatum, 
angulatum, biloculare. Ovula numerosa, in platen t is cylindricis laminae 
ope dissepimento affixis. Fructus haccatus. I.ilocularis; semina numerosa. 
minuta, compressa. 

Arbuscula, ramulis teretibus. Folia opposita. longe petiolata, elliptica. 
Stipulae vaginantes. Flores axillares, bracteati." 

In a remark added to the description Korthals declares that his new 
genus accedes to Psilobium in the form of the fruit, but that it differs from 
the latter in the flower-characters. A comparison of the two generic 
descriptions, however, fails to hear this out; they agree, in fact, even in 
minor details. That no mention is made of the genus Acranthera. prob- 
ably finds its explanation in the circumstance that the description of the 
latter was unknown to him; his paper, namely, although printed in 1851, 
was written at about the same time- at which the latter was published. 

Although the description of the flower contains nothing which could 
stand in the way of an identification of Korthals's minis with Acranthera, 
some doubt might be raised by the description of its habit. It is said to 
be a small tree provided with terete branches. This is rather inconvenient, 
for the species of Acranthera are all unhranched plants with obtusely 
quadrangular stems. It is possible, however, that Korthals possessed no 
field-notes with regard to the habit of the plant, and as several years will 
have passed between the date of collection (Korthals visited Sumatra, 
where the plant was collected, in the years 1833-1835) and the date of 
description, his memory may have deceived him. He may accordingly 
have mistaken the stem for a branch. It is, of course, not impossible 
that the latter may have been somewhat more rounded than is usual in 
this genus, but as his specimens are lost, this supposition can not be 

The generic name itself might also offer some difficulty. It would mean 
(cf. Backer, Verkl. Woordenb. Wei. I'lantennamen, (iron. 240. 1937) "pro- 


vided with geniculate anthers"; in Acranthera, however, the stamens are 
perfectly straight. To account for this difficulty, I think that the name 
is misspelt, and that it should be "Gonianrra": in that case it might be 
translated as "provided with an angular androecium." As the connective 
in the Sumatran species of Acranthera is strongly keeled, that would be 
verv appropriate. 

An entirely different view of the taxonomic position of Gotiyanrra was 
brought forward by Miquel (in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4: 262. 1869). 
He suggested that it might be identical with his own genus Gardeniopsis 
(I.e. 250), but this obviously is a wild shot, for Gardeniopsis with its 
axillary flowers, imbricate aestivation of the corolla-lobes and uni-ovular 
ovary-cells, clearly belongs to an entirely different circle of affinity. Its 
position is uncertain; it is even by no means sure that it is a Rubiacea. 
Miquel says that Blume regarded it as a Rhizophoracea, an opinion which 
deserves more attention than it has received so far. As our specimens are 
not provided with flowers, I have not been able to solve this problem. 

As the specimens on which the description of Gonyanera was based are 
lost, and as the tvpe-species. G. glauca Khs.. itself has not been described, 
there is little hope that the identity of this species will ever be recognized. 
In the exsertion of the sexual organs it resembles the two species described 
bv Jack and the plant collected by Brooks. In Acranthera longipes Merr., 
the only Sumatran species of which flowers were available to me, I found 
the sexual organs included. 

The description of Acranthera was sent in January 1838 by Arnott to 
Meisner, who used it in the compilation of his survey of the Rubiaceae. 
The latter appeared in the same year in his "Plantarum Vascularum 
Genera" (1: 162). From a note on the genus Acranthera on p. 115 of the 
second volume, whose successive parts were probably issued simultaneously 
with the corresponding parts of the first volume, on which they form a 
running commentary. 1 infer that the name of the species had already been 
published as a "nomen nudum" in Wight's "Catalogus." The note reads: 
"72. (16.) Acranthera. Arnott mss. in litt. d. 30 Jan. 1838. ad nos dat. 
— Sp. 1: A. Ceylanica. Am. in Wight cat. n. 2472. — Genus Mussaendae 
proximum, sed chanu teribus pluribus et tota facie diversum, ex auct." 
The number 72 indicates the place assigned to Acranthera among the 
genera belonging to the Rubiaceae; (16.) that among those referred by 
Meisner to the tribe "Gardeniaceae." The spelling of the specific epithet 
with a c instead of a z, as subsequently became customary, deserves our 
attention, as it evidently has precedence. The remark on the affinity of 
the new genus with Mu'ssacnda L. is noteworthy, because it shows that the 
idea of a very close relation between these two genera, which up to this 
moment has never been questioned, originated with Arnott himself. In 
the following year Arnott's description appeared in the "Annals of Natural 

266 JOURNAL OF THF. AKMH I) \lilU)KI Tl M hoc xxviii 

History" (3: 20). and was repeated by Kndlicher in his '-Genera 
Plantarum" (p. 1394). 

Arnotfs description is excellent. Apart from the fact that he mistook 
the papuliferous upper portion of the style on which the pollen is only 
temporarily deposited, for the stigma, an error which had also been com- 
mitted by Jack, and which at that time was comprehensible enough, it 
contains but a single objectionable statement. This concerns the descrip- 
tion of the ovary and fruit. Meisner (I'l. Vase. (Jen. 1: 162) says of the 
latter that it is "sicut germen pseudo-2 -loc. septo medio interr.upto 
utrinque placentam divaricato-2-lamellatam gerente," and the first is 
described in his own words (in Ann. Nat, Hist. 3: 20. 1839) as "pseudo- 
biloculare, dissepiment is duohus oppositis. vix ad medium attingentibus, 
placentam bilamellatam divaricatam ferentibus." Beddome ( Ic. PI. Ind. 
Or. 1: 5. 1874) and Hooker f. (in Benth. et Hook.!'.. Gen. PI. 2: 04. 1S73 
et Fl. Brit. Ind. 3:92. 1880) accepted this statement as essentially cor- 
rect, and described the ovary accordingly as unilocular and the placenta- 
tion as parietal, but Stapf (in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. II. 1: 172. 1894) 
pointed out that both ovary and fruit are perfectly bilocular. They may, 
however, easily be mistaken for unilocular, because the dissepiment is 
rather thin in the middle and. therefore, is easily torn when the razor. 
with which the sections are made, is not sufficiently sharp. 

The (Vylonese plant on which the genus was founded, shows, as Arnott 
already had noticed, a rather remarkable resemblance, especially in habit 
but also in the aspect of the fruits, to some species belonging to the 
Cyrtandreae (Gesneriaceae). This applies also to most of the species 
which since then have been discovered. As a matter of fact, I myself 
found two of my new ones (.1. Ruttrnii Brem. and .!. mc^ap/tvlla Brem.) 
among the unnamed species of Cyrtandra preserved in the I'trecht and 
Leiden herbaria, and some of those described by Valeton too had pro- 
visionally been referred to that genus. The resemblance, nevertheless, is 
but superficial, and even without looking at the (lowers, the two genera 
are always easily distinguishable, for the leaves of Acranthcra are never, 
like those of Cyrtandra, dentate, and they are always surrounded by a thin 
margin covered with stiff hairs; stipules or their cicatrices are always 
present in Acranthera and in Cyrtandra as constantly absent; and the 
fruits of Arrant/irra are always crowned b\ the persistent calyx, whereas 
in those of Cyrtandra the calyx, of course, is found at the base. 

Up to 1872 the genus remained monotypic, but in that year Kurz (in 
Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, 41(2): 312) referred to it a Tenasserim plant 
which had been described by Don (Gen. Syst. 3:401. 1S34) under the 
name Mussarnda nniflora Wall. As it differs from the typical representa- 
tives of the genus Mussarnda L. in its small size and in the absence of the 
enlarged calyx-lobes Kurz transferred it to Acranthera, which lie regarded, 
on the authority of Arnott, as a nearly related genus. This transfer was 
doubtless a change for the worse, for the Tenasserim plant has many more 
characters in common with Mussarnda than with Acranthcra: its stipules, 


exactly as in Mussaenda, are deeply bind, the flowers show the same form 
of heterostyly combined with dioecism which is found in that genus, the 
inside of the corolla-tube is not entirely glabrous but in the upper half 
covered with the same kind of yellow hairs as that of Mussaenda, the 
stamens are not inserted at the base of the corolla-tube but in or somewhat 
above the middle, the style ends in two filiform stigmas, and the placentas 
are peltate. The absence of the enlarged calyx-lobes, of course, can not 
be adduced as an argument in favour of a near affinity with Acranthera, 
as the latter is certainly not the only genus in which none of the calyx- 
lobes is enlarged, and as its mode of vegetative propagation by means of 
stolons is never met with in Acranthera, there is no appreciable similarity 
in habit Hooker f. (Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 86. 1880) referred this species back 
to Mussaenda, but I could show (in Blumea, Suppl. 1: 118. 1937) that it 
is conspecific with the type-species of Aphaenandra Miq., a genus which 
deserves to be kept up. 

Two years after Kurz's abortive attempt to widen the scope of the genus, 
the generic isolation of the type-species was definitely broken by the 
description of two new species by Beddome (Ic. PI. Ind. Or. 1: 5. 1874). 
Both had been collected in the Western Ghats. At the same time of all 
three species figures were given (I.e. t. 23-25), but the details of the 
latter are, unfortunately, of rather doubtful value. 

Hooker f. (Fl. Brit. Ind. 3: 92. 1880) brought the number of species 
to six, but of the three new ones, A. tomentosa R.Br, ex Hook.f. alone may 
be considered congeneric; the two others. .1. Griffithii Hook.f. and A. 
Maingayi Hook.f., show the same kind of stipules, the same form of 
heterostyly combined with dioecism, the same covering with yellow hairs 
in the upper part of the corolla-tube, the same insertion of the stamens 
midway in the corolla-tube, the same kind of stigmas and the same form 
of placentation as the Tenasserim plant which Kurz had referred to this 
genus, but which Hooker himself had excluded: they belong, like the latter, 
to the circle of affinity of Mussaenda. From the typical representatives 
of that genus they differ in habit, in the complete absence of the enlarged 
calyx-lobes, and in the large size and brilliant orange or scarlet colour of 
the corolla. Stapf (I.e. 173) referred them to a subgenus Asemanthia, 
which Ridley (in Kew Bull. 1939: 600. 1939) rightly raised to generic 
rank. Acranthera tomentosa R.Br, ex Hook.f. (Androtropis tomentosa 
R.Br, in Wall., Cat. n. S39S. nomen), on the other hand, is a true represen- 
tative of the genus, although apparently no near ally of the species found 
in Ceylon and in the Indian Peninsula, from which it differs conspicuously 
in the greater length of the internodes, the larger size of the flowers and 
the halfway united filaments. The flower-colour and details of the struc- 
ture of the fruit and seeds are still wanting. A near ally was recently 
discovered in Peninsular Siam: it is the plant described by Kerr under the 
name !'si/obii<in siamcuse (see above). 

The attitude taken up by Baillon (Hist. PI. 7:319, 449. 1880) was 
logically more consistent than that of Hooker, for recognizing that the 

268 .MM liWL OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

genus Acranthcra in the hitter's delimitation contained species which 
showed a nearer affinity to Mitssacnda than to those for which the genus 
originally was created. He transferred the whole group to Mitssacnda. 
The other way out of the difficulty, the purging of the genus of the ex- 
traneous elements, however, would have deserved preference. As I will 
show further on, the true representatives of the genus are by no means 
nearly related to Mitssacnda. 

Hooker I.e. had already mentioned the presence of species of Acranthcra 
in Borneo, but as the genus in his delimitation included Ascmanthia Ridl.. 
and as both genera have since been found in Borneo, it is impossible to 
say whether the species he had in mind really belonged to Acranthcra. 

Stapf I.e. was the first to describe a Bornean species, and he too 
mentions the presence of undescribed Bornean species in the collection of 
the Kew Herbarium. After pointing out that the ovary of Acranthcra is 
always bilocular. he proceeds: "Nevertheless, I think, Acranthera must 
be retained as a well-marked genus alter excluding 1. Maingayi and .1. 
Griffithii. It may be characterized by the herbaceous growth, the gener- 
ally elongated ovary and fruit, the blue or reddish, upwards widened and 
funnel-shaped or campanulate corolla and the club-shaped, entire style. 
It is known from Ceylon, the Tinnevelly and Anamally Hills, the Khasia 
Hills, Cachar and Manipur, and there are several species, still undescribed. 
in the Kew Herbarium, from Borneo. " Although the really important 
characters, the absence of hairs on the inside of the corolla, the insertion 
of the stamens at the hitter's base, the way in which the anthers enclose 
the style and in which they are connected with it by means of the tips 
of their connectives, the way in which the upper part of the style functions 
as a temporary depository for the pollen, the subulate or semi-conical, 
often totally cohering stigmata, and the peculiar structure of the testa with 
its minutely punctate cells, have all been overlooked. The characters as 
they are given are not all of them general, for the corolla is by no means 
always blue or reddish, and the style not always club-shaped, the existence 
of a difference between Acranthcra and Mitssacnda is. nevertheless, clearly 
indicated. Which species Stapf meant when he said that the corolla might 
be reddish, is difficult to say. it is possible that the colour was described 
in this way on the label of one or more of the unnamed Bornean species, 
for instance on that of the plant afterwards described by Valeton under 
the name .!. invohicrata. At any rate, the flowers of the Ceylon and 
Peninsular species are blue, and those of A. tomentosa will probably, like 
those of the related A. siamensis (Kerr) Brem. n. comb. (Psilobium 
siamense Kerr), prove to be white or nearly white. The corolla of Stapf s 
own ,1. atropcl/a, a species collected on the slopes of Mt. Kinabalu, has 
been described as "obscure cyanea." However, as the flowers of the 
Bornean species, which since then have come to light, are all either white, 
yellow, orange or red, 1 suppose that with regard to the dower-colour of 
A. atropclla some error has been committed; maybe they assume a dark 
hue in drying. 


In 1910 and 1912 Valeton (in Bot. Jahrb. 44: 550. 1910 et op. cit. 
48: 111. 1912) described three more species from Borneo, of which one, 
A. axilliflora, is said to be provided with axillary flowers. Further on I 
will show that these flowers are in reality uniflorous inflorescences, and 
that the latter are not really axillary but borne on axillary brachyblasts 
provided with a pair of rudimentary leaves. All the same this plant 
represents a type which is quite distinct from that of the other species 
which up to that time had been recognized as belonging to this genus. In 
fact, it would probably have been more consistent if Valeton had referred 
it to Psilobium. The Acr anther a species, which at that time were known, 
produce their inflorescences at the end of the stem. Later these inflores- 
cences are forced into a lateral position by the development of the bud 
which forms the continuation of the stem. It is rather remarkable that 
the same two structural types occur side by side in another genus belonging 
to the Rubiaceae, namely in Pomazota Ridl, where some of the species 
are provided with sympodial stems and inflorescences which are at first 
terminal and afterwards solitary at the nodes, whereas in other species the 
stems are monopodial with the inflorescences opposite at the nodes, while 
a pair of scale-like leaves at the base of the peduncle prove that they are 
in reality borne on axillary brachyblasts. As stated above, it is inflores- 
cences of this kind that are found in the Sumatran group of species of 
Acranthera to which, most probably, Jack's Psilobium nutans and Ps. 
tomentosum and Korthals's Gonyanera glauca too should be referred. 

The next year Merrill described a species from the Philippines, which 
so far has remained the only representative of the genus occurring east of 
Borneo. Acranthera philippincnsis Merr. appears to be confined to the 
western part of Mindanao, i.e. to that part which by means of the Sulu 
Islands is connected with North Borneo. In this respect it is noteworthy 
that it differs in minor points only from some of the Bornean species. 

At about the same time Valeton described and figured in the "Icones 
Bogorienses" (4: 181. t. 355, 356. 1913; 4:275. t. 391-399. 1914) a 
fairly considerable number of new Bornean species. The last plate figures 
a species described under the name A. strigosa, which differs from the 
others in the shape of the stipules and in the flower-structure. The stipules 
are united in a fringed sheath, and the style is longer than the stamens and, 
if the figure is to be trusted, not provided with an apparatus serving as a 
temporary depository for the pollen. It seems, therefore, better to exclude 
this species. The form of the stipules suggests affinity with Polysolenia 
Hook.f., but as neither of Valeton's nor Hooker's species-material was 
available to me, I am unable to express a definite opinion. Acranthera 
multi flora Val. (I.e. 255, t. 396) is probably identical with A. frutcscens 
Val. (in Bot. Jahrb. 44: 551. 1910), at least the descriptions of the two 
species do not reveal differences of any importance. 

In 1934, Merrill described two apparently nearly related species from 
Sumatra. As no flowers were present, the descriptions are not entirely 
satisfactory. Of one of them, however, flowers have subsequently been 

270 JOl KNU. OF TIIF ARNOLD \RRORLTl \I [vol.xxv.ii 

collected, so that its posilion could definitely lie ascertained. The rela- 
tions between these plants and Jack s species o| Psilohium and Cionyaiura 
'^Uuttii Khs. have already been discussed. 

Three years later Merrill (in Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7: 284. 
\9M) reverted once more to this genus, describing four new species from 
Southwest Borneo. One of these proved to be provided with red. another 
with orange-red flowers. 

The preceding notes show that twenty-live of the species which up to 
now have heen referred to Acnint/icni. may confidenth he regarded as true 
representatives of this genus, hut as two of them. .1. jrutcscais Yal. and 
.1. multijlora Yal., are probably conspecihc, only twenty-four are here 
admitted. To this number should be added the plant described by Ken- 
under the name Psttobium shnncnsc, the species on which the genera 
Psilobium Jack and Conynncra Khs. were based, but which, on account of 
the insufficiently detailed descriptions, arc now unidentifiable, and further 
the ten species described below. 

The specimens which I could study, belong almost all to the following 
four institutes: the "Rijksherbarium" at Leiden, the University Herbarium 
at Utrecht, the "Arnold Arboretum" and the "lnstitut fiir allgemeine 
Botanik, Hamburg." As 1 have seen but a small part of the Buitenzorg 
material and nothing at all from the collections of the Kew Herbarium and 
of the Sarawak Museum, my survey does not claim to be exhaustive. 

In the descriptive part of this paper special attention has been paid to 
the species occurring in the Malay Archipelago, all those of which material 
was available, being fully described. No exception has been made for 
species of which good descriptions were already extant, because the descrip- 
tions in a monograph should, in my opinion, all be made after the same 
pattern; this is the only way to ensure an easy comparability. 


In the ''Introduction" to this paper I have already pointed out that 
Amott's assumption of a very close affinity between Acranthera and 
Mussanuia has up to now never been questioned. In Baillon's mind this 
belief had grown to such a firm conviction that he thought that the two 
genera might better be united. The common characters on which this 
assumption rests, are: the pluri-ovular ovary-cells, the valvate aestivation 
of the corolla-lobes, the tleshy pericarp, the a.xile placentas, the reddish 
brown seeds, and the terminal posilion and. at least partly, cymose 
.structure of the inflorescence. 

The bulk of the genera now referred to the tribes Lledyotideae and 
Mussaendeae are provided with pluri-ovular ovary-cells, show a valvate 
aestivation of the corolla-lobes, and have a.xile or nearly axile, peltate or 
.subpeltate placentas and ovoid or angular, yellowish, reddish or brown, 
more 1 or less distinctly alveolate, striate or punctate seeds. As the dis- 
tinction between these two tribes rests on the entirely artificial antithesis: 

1947] BREMEKAMP. \CR\NTHKR\ 271 

fruits dry or fruits fleshy. I have argued in my paper "On Urophyllum 
Wall. (Rubiaceae) and its nearest allies'" (in Rec. d. Lrav. hot. Neerl. 
38: 171. 1940) that it would be advisable to unite them, under the proviso, 
however, that those genera in which one or more of the characters enumer- 
ated above are missing, should be excluded. As instances of such genera 
I referred to those provided with a i la\ ate or i oh miliar placenta and smooth 
seeds. In my recently published (jour. Arnold Arb. 28: 186-203. 1947) 
''Monograph of the genus Pomazota Ridl." I give a short survey of the 
genera which for some reason or other should be excluded. Acranthera is 
not mentioned in this list, because its aberrant character is not so strongly 
marked as in the others. It is all the same by no means insignificant: its 
placentas, namely, are not peltate or subpcltate. but attached along their 
whole length to the dissepiment. It is. therefore, extremely questionable 
whether this genus may be reckoned to this circle of affinity. If it should 
be excluded, it can, of course, not be considered a near ally of Mussanula. 
which is a quite typical representative. The other points of resemblance 
between Acranthera and Mussaeiida. the fleshy fruits, the terminal posi- 
tion and. at least partially, cymose structure of the inflorescences, do not 
belong to the general characters of this large tribe, and as they appear in 
almost all the larger groups, are of little importance. The resemblance 
between the two genera, therefore, is not sufficiently comprehensive to be 
regarded as proof of their near affinity. 

A survey of the points of difference between the two genera may be 
expected to throw more light on this question. The principal ones are 
found in: the structure of the stipules, the floral mechanism, the presence 
or absence of hairs on the inside of the corolla-tube, the insertion of the 
stamens, the relation between the latter and the style, the nature of the 
stigmata, the attachment of the placentas and the structure of the testa. 
In Acranthera the stipules are simple; the flowers homostylous and herma- 
phrodite: the corolla is completely glabrous inside; the stamens are in- 
serted at the base of the tube; the anthers form a sheath around the style, 
and are connected by means of the projecting tips of the connectives with 
the top of the latter; the pollen is temporarily deposited on the upper part 
of the style, which, to that end. is covered by rows of papillae (for the 
sake of convenience this part of the style will from now on be designated 
as the "receptaculum pollinis"): from here it is removed by the visiting 
insects; the stigmata are subulate or semi conical, and do not spread, not 
rarely remaining permanently attached to each other; the placentas, as 
stated above, are attached along their whole length to the dissepiment, and 
the testa-cells are minutely but very densely pitted (Fig. 1). In Mus- 
saenda, on the other hand, the stipules are always bifid or bipartite; the 
tlowers heterostylous, the short styled ones being male and the long-styled 
ones female; the upper part of the corolla-tube is inside covered with 
yellow hairs; the stamens are inserted at or somewhat above the middle 
of the tube; there is no connection whatever between the anthers and the 
style, and the pollen is directly removed from the anthers to the stigmata; 


■fly of t he strongly lliii kcned 

the latter are, at least in the female llowcrs. alway> linear and spreading; 
the placentas are peltate, and the testa-cells provided with a few very large 
pits (Fig. 2). 

These differences are. of course, not all equally important. The value 
of the difference in the attachment of the placentas to the dissepiment, has 
already been discussed; il certainly justifies some doubt with regard to 
the propriety of leaving the genus At rant In > a in this tribe. The peculiar 



■ i 

kind of floral mechanism is an even more weighty argument against the 
view that it should belong to this group, for in none of the general related 
either to Hcdyotis L., Urophyllum Wall., Sabicca Aubl. or Mussacnda L.. 
a style functioning as a temporary depository for the pollen is found. As 
I have pointed out in my "Monograph of the genus 1'avetta L." ( in Fedde's 
Repert. 38: 11. 1934) a style of this nature characterizes one of the main 


groups of the family, comprising the tribes Ixoreae, Gardenieae, Alberteae. 
Vanguerieae, the isolated genera Crossoptcryx Fenzl and Coptosapclta 
Khs., and perhaps part of the present tribe Naucleae. In all these plants, 
however, the anthers wither after the pollen has been deposited on the 
style, whereas the receptaculum pollinis of Acranthera remains included 
between the empty anthers, and can be reached only through the windows 
between the projecting tips of the connectives. For this reason, and also 
because the stamens are not. as in the Ixoreae and their allies, inserted 
in the corolla-throat, but at the base of the tube, it seems to me that 
Acranthera can not be related to this group either. Moreover, the connec- 
tion of the stamens by means of the projecting tips of the connectives 
with the top of the style is a feature so entirely unparalleled in the 
Rubiaceae, that one might feel inclined to regard the position of the genus 
with regard to the rest of the family, as similar to that of the Asclepiadaceae 
with regard to the Apocynaceae, although in this way the importance of the 
connection between the anthers and the style, is doubtles: \tr emj h i /c 1 
It is perhaps more readily comparable to the way in which in the genera 
Ceropegia L. and Dichaelia Harv. (Asclepiadaceae) the corolla-tips cohere. 


There is one point more on which I should like to expatiate a little, 
although it does not concern a difference between Acranthcra and 
Mussacnda, for in the point I mean, the absence of raphide-cells, there is 
complete agreement between the two genera. 

With regard to the presence or absence of raphide-cells there is no 
conformity between the various groups included in my enlarged tribe 
Hedyotideae. and as all other large groups are in this respect entirely 
consistent, this is doubtless a weak point. It might be argued that 
Hcdyotis L. and its nearest allies, which are all provided with raphide- 
cells, are perhaps more closely related to the Spermacoceae and Psycho 
trieae, which they resemble in the aestivation o\ the corolla-lobes, but from 
which they differ in the pluri-ovular ovary cells, than to Sahicca Aubl., 
Urophyllum Wall, and Mussacnda L. and then respective allies, which they 
resemble, apart from the aestivation of the corolla-lobes, to some extent in 
the nature of the placentation, but in which raphides are apparently always 
wanting. A satisfactory solution of this question can not yet be given. 
For the determination of the position to be assigned to Acranthcra. this is 
not ot paramount importance, as the relations between this genus and the 
various groups in which raphides are wanting, are hardly more pronounced 
than those with I/cdvotis. 

i in m i;di\ ision ot tin: ckms 

Up to now no attempt has been made to arrange the species of 
Acranthcra in natural groups. Yaleton, who at one time (in Ic. Hog. 
■I: fasc. 4. 1914) described no less than nine new species, contented himself 
with an alphabetical arrangement! This apparently means that he had 
not been able to distinguish well-defined groups, and was of opinion that 
the best way to make the species distinguishable, was to figure them, which 
he accordingly did with as many as he could lay hands on. The result is 
that of no other rubia. eons genus of any extent has such a large percentage 
of the species been figured (of the 20 species known in 1914 e.g. no less 
than 14, i.e. 70 per cent). These efforts, however, were, I am afraid, of 
little avail, for even with the aid of the pictures the species are by no 
means easily recognizable. It was to be expected, therefore, that a more 
thorough analysis would lead to better results. On account of the fact that 
not all species were available, and also because on some points, for instance 
on the habit and on the [lower-colour, reliable information could not always 
be obtained, the results are not yet fully satisfactory; but 1 have no doubt 
that as soon as more material is forthcoming, the defects of my classifica- 
tion will easily be amended. 

It is here perhaps the most suitable place to make a few remarks on the 
two points just mentioned, the habit and the tlower-colour. 

A good deal of misapprehension has existed up to now with regard to 
the habit of these plants. On the labels they are not rarely described as 
shrubs and in one case even as a small tree (A. longipes Merr.), but these 


indications should not be taken at their face value. It is a well-known 
fact that European collectors, accustomed to the soft shoots of the herbs 
of their native countries, often take tropical herbs for shrubs, even though 
there is no sign of branching, because they arc misled by the woodiness of 
the stems. The indication '•small tree" on the label of some of the 
specimens of A. lov^ipcs Men., on the other hand, is doubtless a faulty 
translation of the "pohon ketjil" of the Malay collector. It is often 
overlooked that in Malay each plant provided with an erect stem is called 
"pohon," no matter whether it is an herb a few centimeters high and 
without a singe branch or a tree with a large crown. 

Stapf was doubtless right when he described the habit of the Acranthcra 
species as herbaceous. Among all the specimens investigated by me, but 
very few were branched, and in these few exceptions the ramification was 
always of the pseudo-dichotomous kind. They belong to species in which 
the stems normally are sympodiah This means that occasionally at the 
base of the inflorescence instead of one bud both buds develop. Even 
those species which, like A. jrutescens Val., reach a fairly considerable 
height (1.5-2 m.), apparently remain unbranched. It is not impossible 
that the larger plants require more time to complete their life-cycle than 
those that remain lower, but no reliable information with regard to this 
point seems to be available. In some species there are indications that 
the stems in the end sink down, and that innovations are produced from 
their basal parts. 

Our information with regard to the flower-colour ton is far Irom complete. 
This is all the more unfortunate as it looks as if this might be of real 
taxonomic importance. 

The three western species are blue-flowered. The flower-colour is un- 
known to me, of the Assam ,1. tonuntosa R.Br, ex Hook.f. but in the 
nearly related A. siawcnsi.s ( Kerr) litem, the (lowers are white. The first 
of the species described from Borneo, .1. atroptila Stapf, was said to be 
provided with a dark blue corolla, but, as staled above, this is probably a 
mistake. The majority of the Bornean species and the only Philippine 
one possess white or slightly tinted (lowers; in the rest of the Bornean 
species the corolla is yellow, orange or red. In these plants the calyx too 
is often coloured, not rarely in a different shade. With regard to the 
flower-colour of the Sumatran species we are insufficiently informed, but 
those of Brooks's Benkulen species, the <>ne that was identified by Ridley 
as I'silobium nutans Jack, are elated to be -reenish white. 

The characters with which we will mainly have to be content, are: the 
shape and size of the stipule-, the position and form of the inflorescences, 
the shape of the corolla-tube, the fusion or complete freedom of the basal 
parts of the stamens, the presence or absence of a fringe of cilia between 
the outer rim of the thecae and the connective, the shape of the latter, 
the presence or absence of a disk, the form of the rcccptaculum pollinis, 
the structure of the fruit and that of the testa. By the aid of these 
characters I have divided the genus in nine subgenera, of which the first, 

■21h JObKNAI. OF T1IK AKNOI.I) \ K H< >K III M fvoi.. xxvm 

Eu-acranthcra, is confined to Ceylon and the Indian IVninsula, the second, 
Androtropis, to Assam and Peninsular Siam, the fourth. Am photcrosanthns, 
to Sumatra, and the others to Borneo, except the eighth. Mitracmc, which 
contains, besides some Hornean species, the only representative of the 
genus found in the Philippines. 

Eu-acranthcra and Androtropis differ from all the other subgenera by 
the presence of a well developed disk. In Eu-acranthera, moreover, the 
corolla is blue and its tube begins with a cylindrical part, which widens in 
the upper half to funnel-shape, whereas in the other subgenera the corolla 
is presumably never blue, and its tube is either entirely funnel-shaped or. 
more often, narrowly campanulate. Androtropis differs from the other 
subgenera in the presence of a staminal tube formed by the basal hakes 
of the filaments; in all other subgenera the filaments are entirely free. 

The third subgenus. Clromoi arpus. differs from the other subgenera in 
the structure of the fruits, which are narrowly cylindrical and marginate, 
the hardened margin remaining after the seeds have been shed, in the form 
of a "replum." The latter, however, is morphologically not equivalent to 
the replum of the herbaceous Capparidaceae, the Cruciferae and Chcli- 
donium, for in these plants the rim is formed by the fused margins of the 
carpels, whereas in the subgenus ( 'Iconnn urpits of the genus Acranthcra 
it represents the midribs of the carpels. The dissepiment, accordingly, 
is not. as in the Cruciferae. attached to the nm, but stands at right angles 
with it; in the end the dissepiment disappears with the valves. The 
stipules of Cleomocarpus are smaller than those found in any other sub- 
genus; in shape, however, they are not unlike those of the subgenera 
Eu-acranthcra, Androtropis and Am phot crosant hits. Its two species are 
nearly glabrous plants with densely reticulated leaves. 

The fourth subgenus. Am photi rosant hus, is confined to Sumatra and 
the neighbouring island Simalur. It resembles the three preceding sub- 
genera in the triangular shape of the stipules, but differs from them in the 
position of the inflorescences, which are borne on opposite brachyblasts 
provided with a pair <>\ rudimentary leaves. The inflorescences themselves 
are few-flowered. In position and structure they are similar to those 
found in some species belonging to the subgenus Pi< hroanthes and to 
those of Ablepharidesma. The seeds are reticulate, whereas in almost all 
other species of which ripe fruits were available, the seeds were found to 
be either distinctly carunculate or nearly smooth. There is. however, no 
difference of importance between the various kinds of seed. 
The two species of I'silobium. described In Jack, and (ionyancra "lanca 
Khs. belong probably to this subgenus. As no specimens are extant, and 
as the plants are not identifiable from the descriptions, it did not seem 
advisable to retain either of these names for the denomination of the 

In \he other subgenera the stipules are wider and longer than in the 
preceding ones, and of an entirely different shape, namely ovate, elliptic or 
oblong. The differences between these subgenera are not so striking as 

i"i: I 

|!i;i Ml k\MI\ \CR\NTIIF.H 

those between the former. They are mainly confined to the position and 
structure of the inflorescence, the shape of the rcceptaculum pollinis and 
the presence or absence of a fringe of cilia between the thecae and the 
connective. Athroophlcps, however, is well characterized by the peculiar 
nature of the reticulation. It is noteworthy that with regard to the shape 
of the rcceptaculum pollinis and to the presence or absence of a fringe of 
cilia along the connective, the first four subgenera. Eu-acranthera. 
Androtropis, Clcomocarpus and Amphoterosauthus. show a uniform char- 
acter: their anthers are always eciliolate, and the rcceptaculum pollnm is 
everywhere fusiform, and of about the same length as the thecae. 

In the three subgenera 1'hanero, hi/on. Pit hroanthes and Ahlephandcsma 
too the rcceptaculum pollinis is of about the same length as the thecae. 
and either fusiform or cylindrical. In Phanerochiton and Dichroanthes 
the anthers are ciliolate. in Ahlepharidcsma eciliolate. The monotypic 
subgenus Phanerochiton differs from the two others in the long, scarious 
stipules, the trichotomous inflorescence with its large bracts and the 
thick-walled fruit, and from all other representatives of the genus in the 
presence of dark-coloured resin-cells on the upper side of the leaves. In 
Dichroanthes the filament, are about as long as the anthers, the rccepta- 
culum pollinis cylindrical, and the flowers often, perhaps even always, 
gaily coloured, the corolla yellow, orange or red. and the calyx white or m 
a different shade of orange or red. In the other Bornean species the 
filaments are alwavs much shorter than the anthers, and the corolla is 
apparently everywhere either white or but slightly tinted. Dichroanthes 
is divided in two series, one with terminal inflorescences and cohering 
stigmata, the other with inflorescences borne on opposite brachyblasts and 
with free stigmata. In Ablepharidesma the inflorescences are few-flowered 
and borne on opposite brachyblasts. the anthers eciliolate. the shoots thin, 
and the leaves and stipules small. 

In the subgenus Mitracmc the reccpta, ulum pollinis is much shorter 
than the thecae and mitriform, i.e. the papillae arc reclinate and increase 
from the top towards the base of the rcceptaculum gradually in length. 
In this subgenus I distinguish four series. In the first series the anthers 
are ciliolate, whereas in the other three they are always eciliolate; the 
species belonging to this series are robust plants with large trichotomous 
inflorescences provided with large brads. The second scries is monotypic. 
the only species being the Philippine I. philippiuensis Men.; it is a low 
plant with a trichotomous inflorescence provided with well-developed 
bracts. The third series is also monotypic, the only species being a 
narrow-leaved plant with few-flowered inflorescence and small bracts. 
The fourth series comprises plants with umbelliform inflorescence, in 
habit not unlike some of the species belonging to the subgenus 

The last subgenus. Athroophleps, is a small but very natural group. 
confined to North Borneo and easily recognizable by the peculiar arrange- 
ment of the thick-set prominulous venules, which form narrow meshes. 

278 jot K\ \l. OF TIIF \RNOLD VRBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

stretched in a transverse direction. In A. capitata Val. this curious 

arrangement was noticed already h\ Valeton (cf. Ic. Hog. 4: 27(> (line 6). 
t. S°l. tig. 12. h'U). In none of the other subgenera are the meshes 
stretched in this direct ion. and except in C/romocarpus, where the reticula- 
tion, however, is very faint, their number is always much smaller. Other 
peculiarities of this subgenus are the annular shape of the rcccptaculuni 
pollinis and the great length of the points in which the connectives are 


Mussaenda spi-. . Hull . Hm PI 7: <m. I io lsso 
rsilobium Jack, Mai Misc. 2: S4. 1SJJ (ctiam in Talc. Jour. Nat 
DC, Prodr. 4:618. 1830; Roxb., Fl. Ind. eel. Wall. 2:520. 1 
Hal. 2: l'W. 1S57; Hook.f. in Benth. & Hook.f., On. PI. 
Handl. Fl. Ned. Ind. 2:o4. IS'M; K. Sell, in Fn-I & Prantl 
IV. 1:70. l.S'JI; l.cmcc, Dirt. PI. IMian. . r >:62<). 1054, nomei 
perdito hand facile detiniendum, i-itur melius rejectandiim ; 

Hnok.f. pertinet; Ridl. in Kew Hull. 1<>25: 
SSM. V)M, nomine f:enerico reete usi sunt. 
Cionyanrra Khs in Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2): 185. ISM; Miq., Fl. Ind. Hat. 2:200. 
1X57; Hook.f. in Henth & Hook 1., Cen. PI. 2: 75. 1S75; Hoerk, Handl. Fl. Ned. 
Ind. 2:04. lS'Jt; K. Sch. in Kn»l. & Prantl, Nat. Pllan/enfam. IV. 4:70. 1S91 ; 

et initur neiileetanduni. 
Ib'rbae plerum<|iie simplices. rarius pseudo-dichotome ramil'icatae. sub- 
rosulares. ascendentes vel suberectae. basi lignescentes. Caulis plerumque 
sympodialis, obtuse quadrangularis, internodiis bisulcatis. Folia opposita 
et aecjualia. petiolala; lamina plerumque oblanceolata vel obovata. apice 
acuminata, margine anguste membranacea ciliata, substrigosa vel strigosa. 
facie ventrali sub lente albido-granulata. costa nervis(|ue subtus plerumque 
pilosis, raphidibus et acaridomatiis nullis. Stipulae interpetiolares. sim- 
plices. evtus baud raro colletris subulatis sparsae, intus glabrae. In- 

follows: AA = Arnold Arboretum; HI) Hoi. Mus., Merlin- I >ahlem ; HZ Huilenzor^ 
Botanic darden; HOB InM. All-. Hot.. Hamburg; I. Rijksherbarium Leiden- 
U-Hot. Mus., Utrecht. 


florescentiae plerumque apice caulis evolutae, casu quo a ramulo axillari 
mox in positionem lateralem coactae, cuius ramulos abbreviatos (brachy- 
blastos) oppositos, foliis duobus rudimentariis instructos terminantes; 
flores paniculati. cvmosi vol cymoso-umbellati, rarius sobtaru, pedicellati 
vel subsessiles; bracteae variae. Flores bermaphroditi, plerumque 5-, raro 
4-meri, aliqui interdum 6-meri. Ovarium plerumque elongatum, rarius 
turbinatum, triloculare, dissepimento plerumque temii el faciliter dis- 
cindente; placentae utroque loculo duae. prope axcm orientes et ei paral- 
lelae, rarius confluentes, per lotam longitudinem dissepimento atlixae; 
ovula numerosissima. Calyx usque ad basin paribus, corollae tubo 
plerumque subaequilongus; lobi baud raro paulum inaequilati: glandulae 
interlobulares plerumque conspicuae. Corolla colore variabili, extus 
plerumque pilosa, intus semper glaberrima; tubus nunc e basi cylindrica 
inl'undibuliformis, nunc lotus infimdibuliformis vel anguste campanulatus; 
lobi patentes, aestivations' reduplicato-valvata. Stamina basi corollae in- 
serta, tubo plerumque inclusa, rarius breviter exserta; iilamenta glabra vol 
rarius papillosa. pleruiii(|ue libera, raro usque ad medium connata; antherae 
lineares. conjuncte stylum includentes. inlrorsae, thecis facie ventrali 
contiguis, connectivo faciem dorsalem lotam complente, haud raro gibboso 
vel carinato, margine interdum ciliolaio. apice in apiculam vel aristam 
apici styli incumbentem et cum e<> cobaerentem producto. Discus nunc 
broviter cylindricus vel semi-globosus. nunc inconspicuus. Stylus staniini- 
lms acquilougus, parte superiore papillis plerumque 10-seriatim dispositis 
obtecta pro receptaculo pollinis agente, apice in stigmata subulata vel 
semi-conica parallela vel confluentes exeuns. Fructus ovoideus, turbinatus 
vel cylindricus, plerumque baccatus. raro [)lus minusve capsularis, semper 
calyce coronatus. Scinina parva et numerosissima, rubro-brunnea vel 
subnigra, paulum compressa. carunculata vel reticulata, testae cellulis 
semper densissime punctatis, albumine carnoso, embryone recto et parvo. 

Distributum speciebus adhuc certe nobs CS in umbra nemorum Cey- 
laniae, Peninsulae Indicae, Assamiae, Siamiae Peninsularis, Sumatrae, 
terrae Borneensis, insulae Filippinae Mindanao dictae. 

Species typica: .1. ccylanira Am. ex Meisn. 


Disk shortly cylindrical or semi idobose. Inflorescences always at the end of the 
stem -Species from Ceylon, the Western Chats. Assam and Peninsular Siani. 
Corolla blue; basal part of the tube cylindrical, upper part infundibuliform. 
Filaments tree.- Species from Ceylon and the Western Chats.. A. Hit at rant It era 
Corolla (always?) greenish; tube entirely inlundibulilorm. Filaments in the 
lower half connate. Species from Assam and Peninsular Siam...B. Androtropis 
Disk inconspicuous. Inflorescence.-, either at the end of the stem or borne on 

Malay Archipelago (Sumatra, Borneo, Mindanao). 

Stipules triangular, at the most 1 s cm. Ion-, usually much shorter. 

Stipules not more thai. S mm. Ion-. Inflorescences at the end of the stem. 
Fruits Inc., Male; the ribs after the shedding of the seeds remaining behind in 
the form of a replum. Seeds carunculate. - Bornean species 

Stipules 7-15 mm. long. Inflorescences at the end of opposite brachyblasts 

provided with rudimentary leaves, few-flowered. Fruits 5- or O-costate. 

.101 II.WI. OF 1111 \KNOI.I) ARBOR! T( M 

Stipules ovate, elliptic or oblonc, usi;al!\ morr than 1.5 cm. Ion 

Rvccptacitlum pollims as Ion- a- or hut sli-htly shorter than I 
either cylindrical or fusiform. 

Connective ciliolate. 

Leaves on the upper side dotted with dark -coloured i 
florescences cither trichotomous with fairly Ion- prim 

Bracts lar-c. Corolla reddish.- A single Hornean species 

E. Phancrochitou 

Inflorescences either umbclliform or reduced to a sinde flower. always 
siihsessile. Hracts small. Corolla yellow, orange or red. — Bornean 

species F. DU hroanthei 

Connective eciliolate Inflorescences borne on opposite brachyblasts pro 
vi.led with rudimentary leaves, few flowered. Corolla white. Hornean 

Species C>. Ahlcpharitlcsma 

'cce ptaculum pollhih much shorter than the thecae, either mitrilorm or an- 
ular. Inflorescences always at the end of the stem. 

Rt'repttic ulum polling mitrilorm Specie- from Borneo and Mindanao 

nil, AY, 

Si hckm-s A. Kl \CRA\T1IF.RA Hkim. schckx. nov. 

Herbae humiles, caulc petiolisque pilosis. Kolia laxe reticulata, 
tipulae ovato-triangulares. inU-t ti« •< liis breviores. Intlorescentia tennina- 
s. trichotome corymbosa. Corolla coerulea vel violacea, tttbo e basi 
ylindrica infundibuliformi, quaiii calyce tiiullo lonm'ore. Stamina fila- 
U'ntis papillosis, liberis, quam antheris lonidoribus, anlhcris eciliolat is. 
Hscus breviter cylindricus. Keceptaculum pollinis fusiforme. Fructus 
voideus. Setnina carunculata. 

Species tres, Ceylaniam et IVninsulam Indicant habitantes, ubi in 
Uitndine 900 1500 in. crescunt. Subgeneris typus: .1. ccylamca Am. ex 

KKY TO Till- MM (lis 
■ or narrowly triangular, crec 


.<: W. is: 
tern Oha 

....... .11 ,. , 

s-0; (iambic 

Bedd , Ic. PI, Ind 
. Fl. Pres. Madi 

. Oi 

Ind 3:0 




amble''' Vl' VrJ. 


RRKMKk W1P. \< R Wl Mill \ 

" Itnu.tlura -rvl.inim \m. in Ann. Nat. Hi>t 3 : 2 1 . 1S<9; Walprrs. Rupert. 6:77. 

' ,s-W, Thu.ut^. Knun, PI. Zcyl. 13S. 1S.0; Bedd.. k. PI. Ind. Or. 1:5, t. 24. 

1.X74; Hook.f., Fl. Bril. Ind. 3:92. 18S0; Trimen, llandh. H. ot Ceylon 2:^-4. 

As no material of ,1. anamallka and of .1. ;< randi flora was available to 
me, the key was based on data gathered from the literature. 

Srur.ENUS B. ANDROTROPIS (R.Br, in Wall. Cat. n. 8398, pen. incdit.) 
Herbae altiores. Folia laxe reticulata. Stipulae ovato-triangulares, 
intrrnodiis nmllo l.reviores. Inilorescentia terminalis. corymbosa. Cor- 
olla ubi color notus viridula, tubo infundibuliformi. quam calyce longmre. 
Stamina filament is glabris. usque ad medium connatis. quam antheris 
]omMonbus. antheris eciliolatis. Discus breviter cvlindricus vel semiglo- 
bosus. Receptaculum pollinis fusiforme. Fructus cylmdncus. 5-costatus. 
Semina carunculata. . 

Species duae. Assamiam et Siamiam Penmsularem habitantes. Sub- 
generis typus: .1. tomentosa R.Br, ex Hook.f. 

• side. Corolla more 1 

R.Br, ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3:92. 1880 {Anthotn 
Vail. Cat. n. 8398, nomen) .- Assam. 

5. Aerantliera sianiensis (Ken) Brem. n. comb. ^ ^ 

I'silobium siamoise Kerr in Hook., Ic. PI. t. 3332. 1937. — Peninsular Siam. 

Of 1 tomentosa 1 had but a single, not very good, specimen, whose 
(lowers were much larger than those of the specimens described by Hooker. 
Fruits of this species were not available to me. 

For I siamensis 1 relied on the detailed description given by Kerr and 
on the excellent plate bv which the latter is accompanied. Kerr referred 
this species to Psjlohium lack, because it rcseml.le> the specimen collected 
by Brooks in Benkulen. which Ridley (in Kew Hull. 1925: 84. 1925) had 
identified as I's. nutans Jack, but which is probably a different species 
(see above). The near affinity between the Siamese plant and A. tomen- 
tosa R.B'r. ex Hook.f. was overlooked by the author. 

Kerr ends his description with the following remark: "It seems 
probable, judging from a cursory examination, thai some plants assigned 
to Gardenia Section Gardeniella. should rather be referred to I'silobium. 

The section Gardeniella was created by Ridley (Fl. Mai. Pen. 2: 80. 
1923), who referred to it four species from the Malay Peninsula, which 
show but little resemblance to the typical representatives of the genus 
Gardenia. The possibility that they might belong to Aeranthera. of which 
representatives are found both to the North and to the South of the Malay 
Peninsula, certainly deserves our attention. Judging from the somewhat 

282 JOUtXAI. OK INK \B.\OI.I) \K BOKITI M |\ni..x\\ni 

meagre descriptions, 1 do not believe however that anyone of them ran be 
transferred to this genus. The first, G. taitaculata Hook.f. is described 
by Ridley as a "bush," a habit which is entirely unknown in Acranthcra; 
its stipules, apparently, arc similar to those of .1. stri^osa Yah, a species 
which in my opinion does not belong to this genus. The three other ones 
seem to be unbranched, but they differ from all species of Acranthcra 
known so far in the position of the inflorescences: the latter, namely, are 
found on the defoliated part of the stem. In two of them, G. vircsccn.s 
Ridl. and G. pulchella Rid]., the stipules, moreover, are like those of G. 
tentaculata "fringed with long points." The last one, G. didymocarpus 
Ridl., had provisionally been referred by H. H. \Y. Pearson to Acranthcra. 
Its removal by Ridley to Gardenia evidently means that it does not fit the 
description of Acranthcra. It is possible, however, that Ridley was in- 
fluenced by the lateral position of the inflorescences. 

Si-HCKM-s C. CLEOMOCARPUS Bkkm. scbun. n,»v. 

ie. Folia dense sed vix 
triangulares, in cupulam 
brevem connatae. apiculatae. usque ad $ mm. altae, persistentes. In- 
florescentia terminalis. Corolla alba, extus glabra, tubo campanulato. 
Stamina tilamentis glabris et liberis. quam antheris multo brevioribus, 
antheris conned ivo carinato. eciliolato. Discus inconspicuus. Recep- 
taculum pollinis fusiforme. Fructus cylindricus. bicostatus, glaber, cost is 
maturitate repli instar remanent ibus. Semina carunculata. 

Species duae terrae Horneensis partes septentrionalem et orientalem 
habitantes. Subgeneris typus: .1. siliquosa Hrem. n. spec. v. infra. 

Leaves w it h 10 M pairs of nerves. Inflorescence laxly paniculate, many-flowered. 

Leaves with 6-<S pairs of nerves. Inflorescence cymose, 2- to 7-flovverecl. North 

Borneo 7. A. ophiorrhizoidts 

<> A. r.n.lli. r.. sili.piosa Brem. n. spec; typus: Kndcrt 3.^S (BZ). 

Herba suberecta, usque ad 2.S m. alta. Caulis sympodialis. diametro 
ad apicem 2 mm. basin versus uscjue ad 5 mm. aucto, glaberrimus, sice. 
fuscescens, internodiis 2 7.5 cm. longis. Folia peiiolo 2 6 cm. longo, 
glaberrimo instructa; lamina oblonga vcl obovata, 12 24 cm. longa et 
5-S.5 cm. lata, apice caudato-acuminata, liasi cuneata vel contracta, mar- 
gine pilis brevibus sparse vi vix conspicue strigosa, ceterum glaberrima. 
membranacea, utrimque opaca, sice, supra saturate olivacea. subtus dilute 
olivacea vel olivaceo-brunnea, nervis pleruni(|ue saturate olivaceo-brunneis 
distincte notata. nervis utro(|ue latere costae 10-12. Stipulae apiculo 
incluso 3 mm. altae, costa el basi iiu rassatae. totae glabrae. Inflorescentia 
breviter pedunculata, laxe paniculiformis, glabra: pedunculitis 5 15 mm. 
longus; rachis 7 12 cm. longa: ramuli ultimi moiioc hasiales, post anthesin 
maxime 1 cm. longi et cit at ricibus maxime 5 notati; brat teae ramulorum 
primariorum subulatae, 5 mm. longae, abac minores, ultimae vix I mm. 
longae, omnes subpersistentes. Flores subsessiles [ledicelli post anthesin 


tamen usque ad 5 mm. elongantes. Ovarium cylindricum, circ. 10 mm. 
longum et vix 0.5 nun. diam., tdabrum. Calycis lobi lincares, 7 mm. longi 
et 0.5 mm. lati. acuti, glabri. Corollae tubus 10 mm. longus et 4 mm. 
diam.; lobi 2.5 mm. longi latique, mucronati. Stamina 0.5 mm. longa; 
filamenta 1 mm.; antherae 5.5 mm. longae. connect ivo in appendicem 
rectam 0.5 mm. longam exeunte. Stylus in stigmata subulata, 0.7 mm. 
longa exeuns. Fructus 4 cm. longus et. 1.5 mm. diam.. viridis. 
Habitat terrae Borneensis partem orientalem. 

Borneo: Eastern and Southern Division. West Kutai: Liak Petak, alt. 450 m.. 

7. Acranthera ophiorrhizoides Val. in Ic. Bor. I: 2S7, t. 397. 1014. — North Romeo. 
I am not fully certain that this species, of which no material was 
available, really belongs to Cl< ouwcarpns. It resembles .1. siliquosa in 
the nature of the stipules, the nearly glabrous leaves, the terminal in- 
florescence and the small size and white colour of the flowers. The fruits 
are imperfectly known; in Yaletoids specimens they were apparently 
immature, and with regard to the presence or absence of a replum there is, 
therefore, no certainty. The anthers have been described as bearded, and 
figured as ciliolafe. but I suppose they are neither. Yaleton's specimens 
were apparently badly preserved, and it is. therefore, quite possible that 
the presence of cilia was simulated by the mycelium of a fungus with which 
the anthers were overgrown. 

Subgenus D. AMPHOTEROSANTHIS Brum, siiuax. now 
Herbae altiores. Folia supra glaberrima, laxe reticulata. Stipulae 
triangulares, in cupulam brevem co.nnatae, apice appendiculatae, interno- 
diis multo breviores, persistentes. Inilorescent iae hracln blastos oppositos. 
folds rudimentariis instructos terminantes, paucillorae. Calycis lobi 
lanceolati vel ovati. Corolla in specie sola ubi color notus est viridula; 
tubus campanulatus. Stamina tilamentis tabids et liberis, quam antheris 
brevioribus, antheris ecilolatis, connectivo carinato mstructis. Discus 
inconspicuus. Receptaculum pollinis fusi forme. Fructus cylindricus, 5- 
vel 6-costatus. Semina reticulata. 

Species adhuc certe notae tres Sumatram et insulas ad occasum 
habitantes. Subgeneris typus: .1. lon^ipcs Merr. 

As the two Psilohiuiii species of Jack and Korthals's (ionyanrra glama 
are provided with "axillary" iniloreseences or tlowers and elongated ovaries 
and fruits, there can be little doubt that they belong to this subgenus. The 
exserted sexual organs distinguish them from .1. longi pes Merr., the only 
species of which dowers were available. The description of Psilobhim 
nutans Jack says that the leaves are lanceolate and smooth, and that the 
peduncles bear three to six tlowers. whereas in J's. tomeutosum Jack the 
inflorescences are apparently unitlorous and the leaves tomentose. The 
leaves of Gonyaneni glauea Khs. are said to be elliptic and the calyx-lobes 
ovate, and the iniloreseences of this species too appear to be unitlorous. 
That these meagre indications would suffice for the identification of these 
species, seems excluded. 


>rous. Petioles 4.5 9 cm.; lamina 

i)!s petioles and truits >tri.u'osc. Petioles i 

Inn.. Calyx 

10. .1. simalurensis 

S. Wrantlieia lon^ip.s Merr in Papers Midi. Acad. Sri. I 1 ):! 1 ).!. PJ.U ; mm Merr. 

in Mitt. Inst Alln. Hot. Hamburg 7: 2S4. V)M, homon. ille-. (it. .1. lon^ipetiolata 

Merr. ex Hrem. n. nom.). 
Herha robust a sed altitudine ignota. Caulis mox totus ^laher. diametro 
ad apiccm 2.5 mm., basin versus usque ad S mm. aucto. internodiis 1-2.5 
cm. longis. Folia petiolo 4.5-9 cm. longo. glabro instructa; lamina ob- 
lanceolata, 25-32 cm. longa et 7.5 10 cm. lata, apice breviter vel longius 
acuminata, basi acuta vel cuneata. mariiine pilis brevibus vix conspicue 
strigosa. subtus primum costa nervisque densius, inter nervos sparse, deinde 
costa nervisque sparse strigosa, ulriinque opaca, sice, supra olivaceo- 
brunnea, subtus fusca, nervis utroque latere costac plerumque 11. 
Stipulae 5-7 mm. longae et 6-7 mm. latae. apice colletris pluribus et infra 
apicem fasciculo pilonim instructae. Inllorescentiae basi foliis rudimen- 
tariis 2.5 mm. longis instructae, .vflorae; bracteae llorum lateralium 
lanceolatae, 5 mm. longae. Flores pedicello strigoso, 2.5 mm. longo elati. 
Ovarium cylindricum. 10 mm. longum el 1 mm. diam., strigosum. Calycis 
lobi oblanceolati, 7.5 mm. longi et 1.8 mm. lati, acuti. utrimque glabri, 
7-nervii. Corolla colore ignoto. 14.5 mm. longa: cxtus glabra; tubus 12 
mm. limgus et 7 mm. diam.; lobi late ovati, 5 mm. lati et 2.5 mm. longi. 
Stamina S.5 mm. longa; tilamenta . } mm.; antherae 0.5 mm. longae, con- 
nective in apiculam brevem producto. Rceeptaculum pollinis 5.5 mm. 
longum. apice acuto bitido. Fructus 4-4.5 cm. longus et 3 mm. diam., 
glaber. pericarpio tenui. 

Habitat Sumatram Orientalem. 

Scmatka: Past Coast C.ouvt: Asahan, Merbau. Hila. near Hila Pertama (Perharian), 
ibidem, near IP Hau'asan, id. fiS.iJ (AA), 72.11 (AA, co-typus mens Horifer). 

Vernacular name-: kaju lambok, kaju si martumbus. 

9. Aeranlli.-ia Yate-ii Merr. in Paper- Mich. Acad. Sci. P): l').v l').v|. Past Sumatra. 

This species, which 1 could not investigate myself, differs from .1. 
Inu^iprs in the much shorter petioles, the smaller si/e of the leaves and 
their more conspicuously pilose underside, in the up to 1.5 cm. long 
stipules, the ovate oblong calyx-lobes and the hairy fruits. From .1. 
siiiiii/nmisis it differs in the larger size of the stipules and in the shorter 
and wider calyx-lobes. It was collected in the same region as A. longipes, 
namely in the Fast Coast Gouvernment (District I'ematang Siantar, I)k 
Tinggi Radja. alt. 500 m., Yates 2153). The flowers are still unknown. 


Herba robusta sed altitudine ignota. Caulis pilis ferrugineis primum 
dense, deinde sparse hirsuto-strigosus. diametro ad apicem 2.5 mm., basin 
versus usque ad 8 mm. aucto. internodiis 1.2 5.5 cm. longis. Folia petiolo 
15-3 cm longo. dense hirsuto-strigo.o instruct:! : lamina lanceolata vel 
oblanceolata, 11-18 cm. longa et 4 7.5 cm. lata, breviter vel longius 
acuminata, basi acuta vel cuneata. margine pilis brevibus strigosa, subtus 
costa nervi'sque pilis stramineis dense, inter nervos sparse strigosa, utrimque 
opaca, sice, supra olivaceo-brnnnea vel nigrescens. subtus fusca, nervis 
utroque latere costae 10 vel 11. Stipulae 7-10 mm. longae et 5-7 mm. 
latae. apice colletris pluribus instructae, costa praesertim apicem versus 
hirsuto-strigosa. Inilorescentiae basi foliis rudimentariis 3 mm. longis 
instructae, 1- usque ad 3-llorae; bracteae llorum lateralium lanceolatae, 
5 mm. longae. Flores nondum visi. [ductus pedicello strigoso, 5 mm. 
longo elatus, 3 cm. longus et 2.5 mm. diam.. strigosus, calycis lobis lineari- 
lanceolatis, 12 mm. longis et 2.5 mm. latis. acutis coronatus, pericarpio 

Habitat insulam a Sumatra ad occasum Simalur dictam. 

Vernacular name: gulamang gadjah. 

Valeton had recognized in Achmad's specimen a new Amint/irra species. 
for which he proposed the specific epithet -mutira." but a description was 
never published. The name "mutka' has probably been used in opposi- 
tion to -Acranthera." and would mean that the anthers are blunt, but as 
this can hardly be right, I have chosen another epithet. If the name really 
referred to the shape of the anthers, it would prove that Valeton had seen 
flowers, which in the Leiden specimens were not present; the Buitenzorg 
material, therefore, would be more complete. 

Herba robusta. suberecta. folia supra cellulis resinileris sice, sub lente 
nigro-punctata, laxe reticulata. Stipulae oblonga*'. apice acuto longe 
apiculatae. maximae, extus bis hide colletris instructae. laxe reticulatae. 
intlorescentia lerminalis, nunc trichotome corymbosa et subsessilis, nunc 
ramulis lateralibus suppressis longius pedunculata; ramuli ulteriores 
braeteis magnis imbricatis instructi. Corolla rubella, tubo infundibuli- 
formi. Stamina filamentis (juam antheris multo brevioribus, antheris 
connectivo carinato. granulato et ciliolato. Discus inconspicuus. Recep- 
taculum pollinis thecis paulo brevius, fusiforme. Fructus ovoideus, 
pericarpio et dissepimento crassis. Semina reticulata. 

Subgenus adhuc monotypieuni terrae bornee'nsis partem occidentalem 
habitans. Subgeneris typus: .1. involmrata Val. 

11. Arrantlicra involucrata Val. in Ic. Hog. 4:279, t. 393. 1914. 

Herba robusta sed altitudine ignota. Caulis dense velutino-hirsutus, 
diametro 6-9 mm., internodiis 1.5-5 cm. longis. infenoribus tamen non 
visis. Folia petiolo 2-4 cm.Jongo, dense velutino-hirsuto instructa; lamina 
obovata, 12.5-35 cm. longa et 5.2-12 cm. lata, apice caudato-acuminata, 

286 JOI KWI. OK T11K \K\OI.I) \ \l l!i >[{ I I I \1 |\oi.. xxvm 

basi sensim in pet iolum contracta. margine primum dense, deinde sparsius 
velutino-hirsuta, supra costa per totam longitudinem volutino-hirsuta ex- 
cept a glaberrima. suhlus costa nervisque densissime velutino-hirsuta, 
venulis sparsius velutinis, inter venulos primum dense, deinde sparse 
villosa, supra nitidula. sice, supra saturate 1 ubro-bi unnea, suhlus fusca. 
nervis utroque latere costae 12 20. Stipulae us(|ue ad 0.5 cm. longae et 
1.7 cm. latae. hasi eirc. 1 cm. connatae. extus costa prominente sicut mar- 
line dense velut ino-hirsutae. ceterum sparse villosae, scariosae. sice, hrun- 
neae. |>ersistentes. Intlorescent iae ramuli primarii et rat his aut. si ramuli 
suppressi, pseudo pedunculus S-5 cm. longi. dense velut ino-hirsuti; ramuli 
alii breves et llores igitur sub braeteis magnis lateutes; bracteae ramulorum 
primariorum deciduae. nondum visae. ramulorum -eeundariorum ovatae, 
,v5 cm. longae et 2.5 cm. latae. aliae gradatim minores et praesertim 
angustiores, dense imbricatae, minime usque ad anthesin persistentes; 
omnes ubi(|ue sed praesertim marline et costa pubescentes. Flores pedi- 
cellati. IVdicellus 5 mm. longus, dense velutinus. Ovarium breviter 
cylindricum, 6 mm. Ionium et 2 mm. diam., dense velutinum. Calycis 
lobi oblanceolati, 10 mm. longi et ,S.5 4 mm. lati, acuti, extus intusque 
sparse, margine et costa densius pubescentes. Corolla ( forsitan nondum 
plene matura) 11 mm. longa, extus sparse, margine densius villosa; tubus 
o mm. longus et ad orem 7 mm. diam.; lold ovati. 5 mm. longi et basi 4.5 
mm. lati, acuti. Stamina S.5 mm. longa; lilamenta 1.5 mm.; antherae 7 
mm. longae, connect ivo in appendicem vix 0.5 mm. longam producto. 
Stylus apice conica vix divisus. Fructus circ. 10 mm. diam. 
Habitat terrae Borneensis partem occidentalem. 

Sak.wvak: near Kuchinn, Ilaviland &. Hose, S. IX. 1S<>2 (AA); Ilavilmul, 15. IX. 
1892; s.l. //<//. coll. 2018 (AA). Bokm.o: Western Division: I'pper Ka]>uas Mts.. 
base ol (1. Damns. Hallkr !Sn (L). 

This species is, apart from the much denser indumentum and the 
persistent bracts, habitually not unlike .1. frutrsrens \'al.. from which it 
differs, however, in the following important points: the presence of resin- 
cells in the epidermis of the upper side of the leaf, the infundibuliform 
corolla-tube, the greater length and fusiform shape of the ncrptaatlioii 
polliuis. and the thick-walled fruit. The thick dissepiment distinguishes 
this plant from all other species of this genus of which tin- fruits are known. 
The wide range of variability in the number of nerve pairs is rather 
remarkable: it may be, observed even in one and the same specimen. 

! I'hIIKnw I HIS I!,,-, „ 

Herbae humiles, ascendentes vel subrosulares. Folia laxe reticulata. 
Stipulae oblongae, lanceolato-oblongae, ellipticae vel ovatae. internodiis 
longiores. extus hie hide collet lis sparsae. laxe reticulatae. Intlorescentiae 
nunc terminales. nunc brachyblastos oppositos. basi folds rudimentariis 
instructos terminanles, umbelliformes vel ad llorem singulum redactae. 
Calycis lobi inlerdum colorati. Corolla, ubi color notus, rubra, aurantiaca 
vel lutea. tubo infundibuliformi vel anguste campanulato. Stamina fila- 
mentis glabris et liberis, quam antherae nunc paulo brevioribus. nunc 
paulo longioribus, antheris connect ivo nunc carinato, nunc convexo, ^v<\ 
semper minime basi ciliolato, in appendieem brevem producto. Discus 


inconspicuus. Rcaptaculum pollinis thecis paulo brevius 
turn. Fructus adhuc imperfect r nntu.s. pmkibilitcr cylindrii 
Species adhuc notae duodecim terrain Borneensem hal; 
generis typus: A. salmonea Brem. n. spec. v. infra. 


nfiorescence at the enrl of the stem. Stigmata c i>lu-t i 
Calyx-lobes 17-18 mm. Ion-. Corolla-tube infunr 
nate ami granulate. 

Eeaves bullate and provided with U 15 pairs 
several ilowers. Calyx and corolla both red.- 

Leaves without blisters and provided 

with ft 8 pair 

S of nerves onl 

florescence with 1 or 2 flowers only. 

Leaves mostly less than IS em. Ion- a 

ml S cm. wide. 

entirely glabrous 

Bracts 7 mm. long. Pedicel up to 1 


-West Borneo... 
8. .1. Jvhannis-U 

side stri-ose. Bracts 2 8 mm. Ion-. Pedicel more than 2 cm. long. 

'alyvlobes 10-12 mm. Ion-. Corolla-tube narrowly campanulate. Connective 
either carinate nor granulate. 

Leaves variegated, entirely glabrous on the upper side. In Iloivs* ence with 

ft 12 tiowers. Corolla sulphur-x ellow. Anthers 0.5 mm. long. - West liorneo. 

15. ,1. varirvata 

Leaves entirely green. 

Inflorescence with 4- 

Inlloreseenees at the end ot opposite bracln blasts provided with a pair ol rudmien 

tary leaves. Stigmata free Series b. Monopodia^- 

Inlloreseence umbelliform. 

Leaves less than 20 cm. Ion- and provided with 5-s pairs „f nerves. Calyx- 
lobes 12 mm. long. - East Borneo 17. ,1. salmonea 

Leaves about ^0 cm. long and provided with 18 pairs of nerves. Calyx-lobes 

20 mm. long. — Bornt 
florescence usually red 

.iced to 

a'singie flower! 


. .1. vii K"!>ii\ila 


Calyx-lobes ovate- 

Midrib and ner 

the underside densely 

ite-pubescent. — South- 

east Borneo.. . . 

20. A. axillitiora 

Midrib and ner 

the underside densely lei 

1. .1. abbnvialn 

Calvx-lobes linear- 


icrves. Stipules 


,1. Iiirtistipitla 

Leaves varicgat. 


Stipules 12-20 

mm. long. Coi 

■olla 8- 

4.5 cm. long. — Central 

Boi neo 

>3" A" macuiata 



)rescentiae caulem 


nantes. Stigmata 


tia. — Species 

288 101 RNAL OF THE . 

12. Acramhern bullata Mcrr. in Mitt. In 

Herba asccndens. tin. 
licata Caulis pnimmi pilis curvis breviter et pane substrigosus. deinde 
glabrescens. diametro ad apicem 5 mm., basin versus usque ad 7 mm. 
aucto, intern. xliis raro plus (|uam 1 cm. longis. Folia petiole 1-4 cm. 
longo, pilis curvis breviter fulvo-strigoso instnu'ta; lamina obovata. 11 IS 
crm longa et h V cm. lata, apice breviter acuminata, basi plerumque sub- 
truncata sed prope petiolum subito contracta, interdum tamen acuta, 
marline pilis pin parte longiorihus primuin albidis, deinde tulvis, primum 
dense, deinde sparsius substrigosa. supra glaherrima. subtus costa nervis 
venulis pilis brevibus curvis lulvis dense substrigosa, utrimque opaca. 
supra vivo olivacea, sice, olivaeeo-brunnea, subtus vivo laete rubra, sice, 
fuscescens. inter venulos principales conspicue bullata, nervis utroque 
latere costae IS 15, venulis [liituipal il uis nervos transverse connectent ibus. 
remotioribus, aliis pancis et vix conspicuis. Stipulae ellipticae. 1.5-2.5 
cm. longae et 1.2 2 cm. latae. acutae vel subacutae, sed costa semper in 
mueronem satis longam produela, extus sparse et breviter strigosae, costa 
prominente. subpatentes. persistentes. Inllorescentia subsessilis. umbelli- 
formis, multillora; bracteae lineares, 6 mm. longae et 0.7 mm. latae, 
marline densius, alibi pilis brevibus pane strigosae. Flores pedicello pilis 
brevissimis dense griseo-strigoso. us(|tie ad 10 mm. longo instruct i. 
Ovarium cylindricum, 10 mm. longum et 0.S mm. diam., ut pedicellus 
dense griseo-strigosum. Calycis lobi rubri. lanceolati. 1 <S mm. longi et 
4.5-d mm. lati. acuti, margine densius, ceterum extus intusque s])arse 
puberulo-strigosi. 7-nervii. Corolla rubra, 2.9 cm. longa, margine dense, 
ceterum extus sparse puberulo-strigosa ; inbus infundibuliformis, 1.7 cm. 
lnngus et ad orem 1.0 cm. diam.; lobi ova to- triangulares 9 mm. longi et 
basi 5.5 mm. lati. Stamina l.S cm. longa; filamenta X mm.; antherae 10 
mm. longae, connectivo carinato et granulato in appendicem circ. 0.5 mm. 
longam producto. Fructus nondum notus. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem occidentalem. 

70 m., Winklrr 1.'<JS (HHC, tvpus); ibidem. S. Culu, 112" 25' K.Ionj,'., 0" lf>', 
alt. 150 m., id. 1S1 (HHC), n.v. 

A specimen collected by the Kxpedition Xiaavenhuis near the S. Blu-u 
{541 |F|, .1. multinervia Val. in sched.) comes very near to the plant 
described above, and may be conspecitic. Its leaves, however, are less 
distinctly bullate. the hairs on the nerves are more patent, and the pedicels 
and ovaries less densely grey-strigose; that the thecae seem to be less 
distinctly ciliolate and the connective but indistinctly granulate, may lie 
due to the immaturity of the buds and their bad state of preservation. 

The inflorescence of .1. bullata ha- three main branches, but the latter 
are so short that their existence is easih overlooked. From a morphologi- 
cal point of view their presence, nevertheless, is of importance, because it 
shows that the umbelliform inflorescence of this subgenus is to be derived 
from the trichotomouslv corymbose one found in several other subgenera. 

Acranthrra bullata is easily .list inguishable by its bullate leaves. It 
comes nearest to .1. J oluuuiis-W'hiklcri Mcrr. and .1. movant ha Yal., which 
it resembles in the great lenglh ol the calyx-lobes and the infundibuliform 


corolla, but from which it differs in the many-nerved leaves and the several- 
flowered inflorescences. 
13. Panther* Johannis-Winkleri Merr. in Mitt. Inst. All,. Bot. Hamburg 7:235. 

Herba ascendens, usque ad 25 cm. alia, ad anthesin inlenlum decumbens 
el e hasi enovationes emittens. Caulis primum vill<»su>. deinde glabrescenx 
diametro ad apicem 2 mm., basin versus usque ad 4 mm. aucto, internodiis 
0.5-2.5 cm. longis. Folia petiolo 1 4 cm. longo, primum dense, deinde 
sparse villoso instrucla; lamina elliptiea vel obovata. 4-13.5 cm. longa et 
1.8-5.2 cm. lata, apiee subacuminata, hasi cuneata. marline pilis strammeis 
longis primum dense, deinde sparsius substrigosa. supra glaberrima. subtus 
sparse sed costa nervisque density villosa. utrim<|iie opaca. supra sice. 
olivacea. subtus fusca, nervis utroque latere costac 6 vel 7. Stipulae 
oblongae. 1-2 cm. longae et 3-7 mm. latae. obtusae vel aeutae sed semper 
mucronatae, extus sparse villosae, costa prominula. anie folia deciduae. 
lnllorescentia subsessilis. 1- vel 2-ilora. mox a ranuilo axillari in positionem 
lateralem coacta; l.raeteae oblongae. 7 mm. longae el 3 mm. latae. Mores 
pedicello densius griseo-villoso. usque ad 10 mm. longo elati. Ovarium 
rubellum, cylindricum, 9 mm. longum et 0.7 mm. diam.. densius griseo- 
villosum. Calycis lobi laete virides. lanceolati. 1 7 mm. longi et 3.5-4 mm. 
lati, acuti, extus intusque sparse, margine densius pubescentes. 7-nervn. 
nervis lateralibus a venulis interdum vix distinguendis. Corolla auran- 
tiaca, 3.7 cm. longa, 5- vel 6-mera. evtus praeseriim basin versus pihs 
brevibus pubescens; tubus inlundibulilormis, 2 cm. longus et ad orem 1 
cm. diam.; lobi triangulares 17 mm. longi et basi (. mm. lati. Stamina 
1.7 cm. longa; filamenta 7.5 mm.; antherae 9.5 mm. longae, connective 
carinato et granulato in appendicem circ. 0.5 mm. longam producto. 
Fructus cylindricus. nondum plene maturus 16 mm. longus et 2.3 mm. 
diam.. 6-costatus. sparse griseo-pubescens. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem occidentalem. 

Borxko Western Division Sintaim S Raun 1 IS " 1 5' K.lmiK.. 0° 40' alt. 
200 m„ Winklrr /5*> (HBC, typus); S.Obat, 113° 20' K.lon-., 0" 55', alt. SO 

If we may assume that the form and structure of the fruit of this species 
is typical for the whole subgenus, the difference between the latter and the 
subgenus I'/ianerochiton becomes still more prominent. 

Acranthcra JohainiisAY inklcri resembles A. bulhita in the long calyx- 
lobes, the infundibuliform corolla-tube and the carinate and granulate 
connective, but is easily distinguishable by the smooth leaves, the smaller 
stipules, 1- or 2-llowered inflorescence, the greenish colour of the calyx- 
lobes and the orange colour of the corolla, and the greater length of the 
hitter's lobes. Acranthcra monantha Yal. is probably even more closely 
allied, but comparison is made difficult by the circumstance that we have 
no information with regard to the connective and with regard to the colour 
of calyx and corolla. On account of the very close resemblance in other 
respects, the connective will probably prove to be carinate and granulate: 
in the key to the species use has already been made oi this character. 

From .1. varkgata Merr. and A. aurantiaca Val. ex Brem. both A. 

290 |oi K,\\F OF THF \H\ol l> \KB0RFTl M [vol.xxviii 

JohannisAYinklrri and .1. buUata differ in the shape of the corolla-tube, 
the greater length of the calyx-lobes, the longer filaments and the distinctly 
carinate and granulate connective. 
14. Acranllura moiianilia Val. in Hot. Jahrb. 18:111. 1012. North ? Borneo. 

Of this species I have seen no specimens, but judging from the descrip- 
tion there can be little doubt that it is nearly related to .1. Jo/iannis- 
Winklrri Merr. Xo information, however, is available with regard to the 
(lower-colour, tin- shape of the connective and that of the rcrrptaculum 
pollinis. The plant, moreover, is described as unisexual, but this is doubt- 
less a mistake. The type. Brrrari 31.5-1, was, according to Yaleton I.e.. 
collected in North Borneo, but as some other specimens whose numbers 
differ but slightly from that of this plant, are known to have been col- 
lected in Sarawak, 1 suppose that this is a mistake. 
IV Wranlliera vari.^ata Mr it. in Mitt. Inst. Allii. Bot. Hamburg 7 : 285. V)M. 

llerba subrosularis. Caulis ad apicem pilis brevibus satis dense griseo- 
strigosus, basin versus plus minusve glabrescens, diametro ad apicem 1.2 
mm., basin versus usque ad 4 mm. am to, internodiis 5 10 mm. longis. 
Folia petiolo 0.4 2 cm. longo, pilis brevibus satis dense griseo- vel fulvo- 
strigoso instructa; lamina obovata, 7 10 cm. longa et 8 (>.7 can. lata, apice 
breviter acuminata, basi acuta vel saepius subtruncata et prope petiolum 
subito contracta, margine dense fulvo-strigosa. supra glaberrima, subtus 
costa nervis(|ue pilis brevibus dense fulvo-strigosa, venulis pilis brevibus 
minus dense strigosis. utrimque opaca. maculis irregularibus albo-variegata, 
sic o. supra olivacea. subtus fusca. nervis utroc|iie latere costae 4 vel 5. 
Slipulae ovato-oblongae. cite. 1 cm. longae et 4 mm. latae. subacutae, extus 
sparse strigosae, costa prominente. subpersistentes. Intlorescentia subses- 
silis, umbelliformis, tloribus 6-12; bracteae lineari filiformes, circ. 4 mm. 
longae. Flores pedicello |>ilis brevissimis dense griseo strigoso usque ad 1.5 
cm. longo elati. < harium c \ lindric aim, 5 mm. longum et 0.8 mm. diam.. ut 
pediccllus dense griseo-strigosum. (alvcis lobi laete virides, lanceolati, 
10 mm. longi et 1.8-2.2 mm. lati, acuti, extus costa et margine pilis 
brevibus densius, ceterum sparse strigosi. 5-nervii. Corolla laete sul- 
phurea, 18.5 mm. longa. margine densius. ceterum extus sparse et brevis- 
sime griseo-strigosa; tubus anguste campanulatus, 10 mm. longus et 4 mm. 
diam.; lobi oblongi, 8.5 mm. longi et 2.5 mm. lati. Stamina S.5 mm. 
longa; filamenta 2 mm.; antherae 0.5 mm. longae. thecis basi solum 
ciliolatis, connective) nee granulato nee carinato in appendicem vix con- 
spicaiam ])roducto. Fructum notidum vidi; fide Merrill I.e. subteres vel 
rolundato-angulatus. I can. longus et 2-2.5 mm. diam. 

Habitat terrae borneensis partem occidentalem. 

liiiKM-:ii: \Vcs| lln Division: Sintanu. S. Malanu, US 20' F lorn:., 1, 
Winkler 1294 (HBO. typus). 

So far three species of Arrant hera are known to be provided with 
variegated leaves. The two others are: .1. marulata Val. and .1. IlaUierii 
Val. Aerantltera marulata also belongs to the subgenus Dirhroanthrs, 
but to the series Monopodiales; it is moreover easily distinguishable from 
.1. varirgata by its solitary dowers. Arranthrra llalliirii has a mitriform 
rrrcpiarulum pollinis, and belongs therefore to the subgenus Mitrarmr. 


It differs further from .1. variegata in the presence of 6-7 pairs of nerves in 
the leaves, the deciduous >t ipult-s. ;ind the position of the inflorescences, 
which are not found at the end of the stem, but at the end of opposite 

The nearest ally of this species is doubtless .1. aurantiaca Val. ex Brem., 
whose leaves are longer and narrower, on the upper side strewn with a 
few hairs, and entirely green, and whose inflorescences consist of fewer 
but larger flowers. 

A peculiarity of A. varicgata not mentioned in the description, is the 
presence of a ring of cohering colleters on the inside of the calyx; it is 
produced in triangular slips between the calyx-lobes. In all other species 
the number of colleters is so much smaller that they are unable to form 
a complete ring; sometimes, however, they cohere in groups, especially in 
the gap- between the calyx-lobes. 

16. Acnnitliera auranliara Val. in sclicd.; tvpus: Tcysmann II. B. 8031 (L). 

Herba subrosularis. Caulis ad apicem satis dense griseo-strigosus, basin 
versus plus minusve glabrescens. diametro ad apicem 2.5 mm., basin versus 
usque ad 5 mm. aucto. internodib 5 10 mm. longis. Folia petiolo 0.5-2.5 
cm. longo, satis dense fulvo-strigoso instructa; lamina obovata vel saepius 
oblanceolata, 9-16 cm. longa et 4 -5 cm. lata, apice acuta vel subacuminata, 
basi acuta vel cuneata, margine densius strigosa, supra pilis pcrpaucis sed 
satis longis strigosa. subtus costa nervisque dense, venulis sparsius fulvo- 
strigosa, utrini(|ue opaca. hand variegata. sice, supra olivacea, subtus fusca. 
nervis utroque latere costae 5 vel 6. Stipulae ovatae. circ. 1 cm. longae 
et S mm. latae, subacutae. extus sparse strigosae. costa prominula. sub- 
persistentes. Inflorescentia subsessilis. umbelliformis. floribus 4-6; brac- 
teae lineares, circ. 5 mm. longae. Flore- pedicello pilis brevibus dense 
griseo-strigoso. usque ad 1.5 cm. longo elati. Ovarium cylindricum, 5 mm. 
longum et 1 mm. diani.. ut pedicellus dense griseo-strigosum. Calycis lobi 
lineares, 12 mm. longi et 1 .8-2.2 mm. lati. acuti. margine et costa pilis 
brevibus densius, ceterum utrimque sparse strigosi, 3- vel 5-nervii. Corolla 
aurantiaca. in exemplo solo praeservato apice ab insectis destructa, extus 
pilis brevibus sparse strigosa; tubus anguste campanulatus minime 15 mm. 
longus et 4 mm. diam. Stamina lo mm. longa; fllamenta 5 mm.; antherae 
11 mm. longae, thecis basi solum et vi\ conspicue ciliolatis, connectivo nee 
carinato nee granulato in appendicem brevbsimam producto. Fructus 
nondum notus. 

Habitat terrae Bornrensis partem occidentalem. 

Bokxko: Western Division: SinRkawanji, Passi (circ. 109° E.lonji., 1 °, 

and the preceding one have been 
attached to the latter. 



Herba ascendens, circ. 30 cm. alta. Caulis primum pilis fulvis breviter 
substrigosus, deinde plus minusve glabrescens. diamctro ad apicem 2.5 
mm., basin versus usque ad 4 mm. auclo. inlernodiis 2.2-6.5 cm. longis. 
Folia petiolo 2.5 4.5 cm. longo. pilis brevibus fulvis primum dense, deinde 
sparsius substrigoso instructa; lamina obovata, 10.5-17 cm. longa et 
4.2-0.2 cm. lata, apice acuta vcl breviter acuminata, basi cuneata. margine 
primum densissime, deinde minus dense strigosa. supra glaberrima. subtus 
costa nervisque pilis longioribus densissime fulvo-strigosa, venulis pilis 
brevibus densissime. inter venulos sparse strigosa. utrimque opaca, sice, su- 
pra olivaceo-brunnea vel subnigra. subtus fusca. nervis utroque latere costae 
5 S. Stipulae oblongae vel ovato-oblongae. 2.2 em. longae et 8-13 mm. 
latae. subacutae, c\t u^ sparse, margine densius slrigosae, costa basin versus 
prominula. ante folia deeiduae. Iniloreseentiae b;isi folds duobus ovatis. 
15 mm. longis et 7.5 mm. latis instruetae. seniles, umbelliformes. 5-usque 
ad °-llorae; bracleae lineari-lanceolatae, 5 mm. longae et 1 mm. latae. 
Flores pedicello pilis brevibus densius griseo strigoso, usque ad 1.5 cm. 
longo elati. Ovarium cylindricum, 12 mm. longum et 1 mm. diam.. ut 
pedicellus dense griseo-st rigosum. Calveis lobi lineari-lanceolati vel 
lanceolati, 12 mm. longi et 2.5 5 mm. lati, acuti et mucronati. rubri. 
utriiiiquc- pilis brevissimis sparse, margine densius strigosi, 5-nervii. 
Corolla salmonea, 3 cm. longa. e\tus pilis brevissimis sparse, margine 
densius strigosa; tubus anguste campanulatus, 2.5 cm. longus et 8 mm. 
diam.; lobi ovati, 5.5 mm. longi latique, acuti. Stamina 2.2 cm. longa; 
nlamentu 13 mm.; antherae 9 mm. longae. connect ivo carinato et granu- 
lato. basin versus valde gibboso. apice in appendieem crassiusculam. vix 
0.5 mm. longam producto. Receptaculum poll mis squanus fungiformibus 
obtectum. Fructus nondum notus. 

Habitat terrae borneensis partem orientalem. 

Hoknko: Southern and Kastern Division: Samarinda, above Pamahian, IK, 
K.lonuv, 1 Slat., Ruttnt 1 !<■> (l\ tvpus), "nn the river hank in primary lore-t": the 

The papillae by which the rccrptaculum f>ollinis of this and the two next 
species is covered, are somewhat different from those of the species pre- 
viously dealt with; they are united to fungiform scales, i.e. at the base they 
form a rather thick stipe and spread at the top. In the species 20 22-> 
their structure is unknown; Yaleton's tig. 7 on t. 395 of 1c. Hog. 4: 
suggests that they may be of a similar nature in .1. macuhita. 

Acranthcra .salmon, „ resembles the next species, .1. mr^aphylla I'.rem.. 
in the umbelliform inflorescence, but is easily distinguishable by the 
smaller size of the leaves and stipules and by the shorter calyx-lobes. 

18. Acranthera megaphylla Brcm. n. spec.: typus: Coll. i^n. -Hw (L). 

I'robabiliter planta ascendens. Caulis glaber. diametro ad apicem S 
mm., basin versus aucto, internodiis paueis preservatis circ. 1 cm. longis. 
Folia petiolo 12 12.5 cm. longo, breviter et sparse strigoso instructa: 
lamina obovata. circ. 30 cm. longa et 12 cm. lata, apice caudato-acuminata. 
basi acuta vel subcontract;}, margine satis dense sed vix conspicue strigosa. 


supra costa quae basin versus est breviter et satis dense strigosa excepta 
glaberrima, subtus costa nervisque pilis brevibus densissime fulvo-strigosa, 
inter nervos pilis brevissimis parce strigosa, utrimque opaca, sice, supra 
rubro-brunnea. .subtus fusca. nervis utroque latere costae 13. Stipulae 
lanceolato-oblongae, 3.5 4.5 cm. longae et 10-13 mm. latae, acutae, extus 
pilis brevibus satis dense, margine densius strigosae, costa prominente, 
subpersistentes. Inflorescentiae basi foliis duobus ovato-lanceolatis, 13 
mm. longis et 5.5 mm. latis instructae, sessiles, umbelliformes, 5-florae; 
bracteae lineari-lanceolatae, 12 mm. longae el 3 mm. latae. Flores pedi- 
cello pilis brevissimis densissime griseo-strigoso, circ. 5 mm. longo elati. 
Ovarium cylindricum, 10 mm. longum el I mm. diam., ut pedicellus 
densissime griseo-strigosum. Calycis lobi lineares, 20 mm. longi et 4-5 
mm. lati, acuti, pilis brevissimis extus densius. intus sparsius strigosi, costa 
prominula, 5-nervii. Corolla colore ignoto, in exemplo examinato nondum 
plene matura 15 mm. longa. extus pilis brevissimis densissime strigosa; 
tubus anguste campanulatus 10 mm. longus et 4 mm. diam.; lobi ovati, 
5 mm. longi et 4 mm. lati, acuti. Stamina filamentis nondum elongatis; 
antherae 10 mm. longae, connectivo carinato et granulato, basin versus 
gibboso, in appendicem 0.6 mm. longam producto. Receptaculum pollinis 
squamis fungiformibus obtectum. Fructus nondum notus. 

Habitat terram Borneensem, probabiliter partem centralem. 

Borneo: s.l., Collector ignotus H.B. 409 (L, typus). 

The Leiden herbarium received this specimen from Buitenzorg, but 
neither the name of the collector nor the exact locality is given. It may 
have been one of the plants collected by the Fxpedition Memvcnhuis; in 
that case it will probably have been collected in the central part. 

In its umbelliform inflorescences it resembles .1. suhiioiica ; in the length 
of the petioles, the large size of the leaf blade and the long stipules, A. 
tottgipctiolata Merr. ex Brem. The flower buds investigated by me, were 
apparently very immature: judging from the size of the anthers, I suppose 
that they will probably reach about the same size as those of A. salmonca 
and . I. longi pet wlata. 

19. Arranthera longipetiolata Merr. n. nom. in sched., 7. XII. 1937. 

Acranthera longipcs Mrrr. in Mitt. Inst. Allu. Hot. Hamburg 7:284. 1937, homon. 
ilh- nam nun Merr. in Papers Midi. Aiad. Sri 19: 104. 19.U (if. specit-s S). 

Herba ascendens, probabiliter circ. 25 cm. alta. Caulis primum sparse 
et vix conspicue strigosus, deinde glabrescens, diametro ad apicem 7 mm., 
basin versus usque ad 12 mm. aucto, internodiis 1-2 cm. longis. Folia 
petiolo 6-12 cm. longo, pilis brevissimis primum dense griseo-strigoso, 
deinde sparsius fusco-strigoso instructa; lamina oblonga vel oblongo- 
obovata, 20-25 cm. longa et 9-10 cm. lata, apice acuminata, basi acuta 
vel saepius subobtusa sed prope petiolum subito contracta, margine dense 
griseo-strigosa, supra glaberrima. subtus costa nervisque pilis brevissimis 
densissime griseo-strigosa, inter nervos pilis brevissimis vix conspicue sed 
satis dense strigosa, utrimque opaca, sice, supra saturate rubro-brunnea, 
subtus fusca, nervis utroque latere costae 10. Stipulae oblongae, 3.5-4.5 
cm. longae et 13-16 mm. latae. obtusae. extus pilis brevibus satis dense 
griseo-strigosae, costa basin versus prominente. persistentes. Inflorescen- 


tiae hasi foliis duobus rudimentariis ovato-lanceolatis, 15 mm. longis et 
6 mm. latis instructae, sessiles, uniflorae. Flos suhsessilis. Ovarium 
cylindricum, 13 mm. longum et 1.5 mm. diam.. pilis brevissimis densissime 
griseo-strigosum. Calycis lobi purpurei, lanceolati, 25 mm. longi et 4 o 
mm. lati. acuti, extus intusque pilis brevissimis sparse, margine densins 
griseo-strigosi. 5-nervii. Corolla rubro-aurantiaca, 3 cm. longa. extus pilis 
brevissimis sparse, margine densius griseo-st rigosa ; tubus anguste cam- 
panulatus 24 mm. longus et. 7 mm. diam.; lobi ovati, mm. longi et basi 
5 mm. lati, acuti. Stamina 2.2 cm. longa; iilamenta 12 mm.; antherae 
10 mm. longae. connectivo carinato et granulato, basin versus gibboso, 
apice in appendicem crassiusculam, circ. 0.5 mm. longam producto. 
Receptaculum pollinis squamis fungifnrinibus ohtectum. Fructus nondum 

Habitat terrae Horneensis partem occidentalem. 

li(»KM-;o: Western Division: Sintan^. Upper K:i|)iias Rlt.s., Rt Ohal, 115 JO' 
E.lonn., 1°, alt. 150 m„ Winkler IMi (IIRO, typusl. 

Acrauthcra longipctiolata differs from the two preceding species in the 
unillorous inilorescences, and from the other species belonging to this 
series in the great length of the petioles and the large size of the leaves 
and stipules. 

An apparently nearly related species is represented by a specimen 
collected in Sarawak (Nat. coll. 10 jo | A A | ). Its leaves are much smaller 
(15 IS cm. X 4.5 6 cm.) attenuate at both ends, and provided with six 
instead of ten pairs of nerves; the petioles are shorter and very sparsely 
strigose, and the stipules are nearly glabrous. As flowers and fruits are 
wanting, it does not seem advisable to name it. 

The type of this species, of which no material wa< available to me. was 
collected by Hub. Winkler between Balu Labi and Lumowia in South-east 
Borneo. The description is in some important points incomplete, but in a 
note attached to the description of .1. maculaia Yal. it is stated that it 
agrees with the latter in the structure of its inllorescence and flowers, and 
that it differs from that species in the same way as .1. abbreviata Yak, viz. 
in the ovate-lanceolate instead of linear calyx lobes and in the larger size 
of the leaves with their 6 or 7 instead of 4 or 5 pairs of nerves. Although 
in the description of .1. abbreviata itself no mention is made of .1. axilH- 
flora, the affinity between these two species is apparently closer than that 
existing between .1. axilli flora and .1. maculate In fact, the only differ- 
ence between .1. axUliflora and .1. abbrcviata which could be detected by 
a comparison of the descriptions, lies in the nature of the indumentum. 

21. Acnmthera abbreviata Yal. in Ir. Ro- 1: 1S1. t. 555. 1915; Merr. in Mitt. Inst. 
All-. Hot. Hamburg 7:285. 1<>57. WY-.I Rome,,. 

I found a duplicate of the typo of this species in the Leiden herbarium, 
but as it has no tlowers, it is not worthwhile describing it. 

The details o\ the ilouer are badly represented m the figures accompany- 

19 47] BREMKKW1P. \CI{ \ VI HKI! \ 

ing Valeton's descriptii 
brai hvbl.tsts. the fdam 
doubl that it belongs t 

The tvpe was collected by Ilallier at Liang Agang in the Miiller Mts. 
(113 20' F.long., 0° 40' Another specimen was found by 
Winkler on the Bt. Raja (112 40' K.long., 40' at an altitude 
of 1250 m. (cf. Merrill I.e.). 

22. A.ranthera hirtistipula Val. in Ic lio«. 1:277, t. 392. 1914. — Central Borneo. 

Of this species too no material was available to me. Valeton I.e. states 
that it shows a "superficial" resemblance to .1. macidata Val., from which 
it should differ in the small size and deciduousness of the stipules, the 
number of pairs of nerves, the larger size of the leaf-tip and the stamens. 
The filaments, namely, are said to be slightly shorter than the anthers, but 
as the figures show that the flowers investigated by Valeton were not yet 
fully mature, this is by no means certain. It is quite possible that in the 
open flower the filaments will prove to be longer. The connective is 
described as broad and flat, but in fig. 3 it is shown as carinate, and I have 
little doubt that this is right, and that the resemblance between .1. 
hirtistipula and .1. macidata. therefore, is not merely -.superficial;' but that 
the two species are nearly allied. By the aid of the characters given in 
the key they will, nevertheless, prove easily distinguishable. 

2S. Arn.iitli.-ra ...a.ulata Val. in Ic. Hor. 4:284, t. .V)>. 1914. — Central Horn,,,. 

Of this species too I have seen no material. The Buitenzorg herbarium 

apparentlv possesses a large number of specimens, all collected during the 
Expedition Xieuwenhuis in Central Borneo. Of one of the specimens the 
flowers are said to be white, but the colour of the others is not mentioned. 
The white colour, however, may be a mistake. Figure 8 represents a 
fruit which is said to belong to this species, but this apparently is wrong, 
for it is more or less rostrate and lacks the persistent calyx: it might 
pertain to a Cvrtandra. It is possible, therefore, that one of Valeton's 
specimens was mis-identified, and the white flowers might belong to this 

Valeton's figure gives the impression that the uppermost flower is 
terminal, and the others solitary at the nodes: if this were so, this species 
could not belong to the series Monopodiales. As the description, however, 
makes no mention of a terminal flower, and as the bifid stigma points in 
the direction of the species with opposite inflorescences, the impression 
created by the figure is probably wrong. 

Subgenus G. ABLEPHARIDKSMA Bkkm. sib<,i n. Nov. 

Ilerbae ascendentes. Caul is pro genere tenuis. Folia pro genere parva, 
supra glaberrima. paucinervia. venulis pant is laxe reticularis. Stipulae 
oblongae, apice acutae. costa prominente, usque ad 1 cm. longae. In- 
florescentiae brachyblastos opposilos, foliis rudimenlariis munitos ter- 


minantes, subsessiles, uniflorae. Flos 4- vel 5-merus, subsessilis. Corolla 
in specie ubi color notus albida, tubo anguste campanulato. Stamina 
filamentis glabris et liberis, quam antheris multo brevioribus, antheris haud 
ciliolatis. connectivo baud carinato, in appendicem brevem producto. 
Discus inconspicuus. Receptaculum pollinis thecis subaequilongum, fusi- 
forme; stigmata brevia. Fructus cylindricus, fori iter 5- vel 6-costatus. 
Semina carunculata. 

Species adhuc notae duae terram Borneensem habitantes. Subgeneris 
typus: A. Endcrtii Brem. n. spec. v. infra. 


Shoots, petioles and underside of the leaver pubescent. Leaves mostly obovatc 
and shortly acuminate. Stipules more or less persistent. Flowers 5-merous. 

Corolla 17 mm. long. — East Borneo 24. ,1. Endertu 

Shoots, petioles and underside of the leaves stri^ose. Leaves lanceolate-elliptic, 
caudate-acuminate. Stipules early deciduous. Mowers 4-merous. Corolla 12 mm. 

long. — West Borneo 25. .1. parvijlora 

24. Acranthera Kmli-rtii Brem. n. spec; typus: F.udrrt 2605 (HZ). 

Herba ascendens, 13-20 cm. alta. Caulis |irinuini pilis fulvis, satis 
longis dense hirto-pubeseens, deinde plus ininusvc glabresccns, diametro 
ad apicem 2 mm., basin versus usque ad 4 nun. am to. internodiis 0.6-2 cm. 
longis. Folia petiolo 1.2-3 cm. longo, pilis fulvis dense hirto-pubesccnte 
instructa; lamina plerumque obovala, foliorutn ali(|tiorum tamen oblonga 
vel lanceolato-elliptica, 5 10.5 cm. longa et 2.S 5 cm. lata, apice brevitcr 
acuminata, basi acuta vel prope petiolum subito contracta, margine dense 
ciliata, subtus costa nervisque pilis fulvis dense hirto-pubescens, venulis 
principalibus pilis brevioribus dense obtectis, inter venulos primum sparse 
pubescens, utrimque opaca, sice, supra olivacea, subtus dilute viridis. 
nervis utroque latere costae 3 vel 4. Stipulae 6-10 mm. longae et 3.5 4.5 
mm. lalae, apiee et costa hie inde eolletris longis sparsae. ubique dense sed 
costa densissime strigosae, subpersistentes. Inllotesc entiae basi foliis 
duobus ovatis, 3 mm. longis instructae; bracteae duae lineares, vix 2 mm. 
longae. Flos subsessilis, 5-merus. Ovarium eylindrieum. 5.5 mm. longum 
et 1 mm. diam., brevitcr sed densissime griseo-sti igosum. Calycis lobi 
lineares, 8 mm. longi et 0.6-0.9 mm. lati, acuti, extus intusque pilis 
brevissimis dense, margine et costa densissime griseo-strigosi, 3-nervii. 
Corolla albida, 17 mm. longa. extus pilis brevissimis dense strigosa; tubus 
12 mm. longus et 3.5 mm. diam.; lobi ovati, 5 mm. longi et 3.5 mm. lati, 
acuti. Stamina 8 mm. longa; filamenta 2.5 mm.; antlierae 6.5 mm. longae. 
Fructus 2.5 cm. longus et 3 mm. diam.. pilis brevibns sparse strigosus. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem orientalem. 

Bokm.o: Eastern and Southern Division: Samarinda, West Kutai H Ibut, alt 
l.*0 m., Endert 200-1 ( BZ, typus). 

The points of resemblance between this species and A. parvijlora Val. 
are sufficiently expressed in the description of the subgenus, the points of 
difference in the key to the species. 


Herba ascendens, 25-50 cm. alta. Caulis primum pilis brevissimis 
dense fulvo-strigosus, deinde plus minusve glabrescens, diametro ad apicem 
1.5 mm., basin versus usque ad 4 mm. aucto. internodiis 0.8-5 cm. longis. 
Folia petiolo 1.5-3 cm. longn, pilis brevissimis strigoso instructa; lamina 
lanceolato-elliptica. 6.5-9 cm. longa et 2.5-3.8 cm. lata, apice caudato- 
acuminata, basi acuta, margine pilis brevibus satis dense substrigosa, 
subtus primum praesertim costa nervisque densissime albido-strigosa, 
deinde costa nervisque densius, inter nervos ubique sparse et pilorum brevi- 
tate et colore fuso> vi\ cnnspicue strigosa, utrimque opaca, sice, supra 
saturate olivaceo-brunnea. subtus brunnea. nervis utroque latere costae 
4 vel 5. Stipulae 9-11 mm. longae et 3 mm. latae, in colletrum satis 
longum exeuns." extus sparse et breviter strigosae, mox deciduae. In- 
florescentiae basi foliis duobus oval is. 2.S mm. longis instructae; bracteae 
filiformes breviores vel nullae. Flos subsessilis, 4-merus. Ovarium cylin- 
dricum. 4 mm. longum et 0.S mm. diam., breviter sed dense griseo-strigo- 
sum. Calycis lobi lineares. 7 9 mm. longi et 1.2-1.5 mm. lati. acuti, pilis 
brevibus utrimque sed extus densius griseo-strigosi. Corolla colore ignoto, 
1.2 cm. longa, extus breviter sed densissime griseo-strigosa; tubus 7 mm. 
longus et 3 mm. diam.; lobi ovati, 5 mm. longi et 3.5 mm. lati, acuti. 
Stamina 6 mm. longa; nlamenta 1 mm.; antherae 5 mm. longae. Fructus 
forsitan nondum plene maturus fide Valeton 1.5-2 cm. longus et 2-2.5 mm. 
diam., dense sed breviter strigosus. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem occidentalem. 

I.iarm Aaamr, lir 20' E.lont:.. 40', id. 2S17 b. n.v.; Bt. Tilling, 113° 20' 
E.long., 0° 45', alt. SCO m.. Winkler 1460 (HHG), n.v. 

Subgenus H. MITRACME Brem. subgen. nov. 

Herbae subrosulares, ascendentes vel suberectae. Folia laxe reticulatae. 
Stipulae ovatae vel oblongae, apice plerumque obtusae, internodiis plurimis 
longiores. extus plerumque hie inde colletris instructae. reticulatae. In- 
florescentia terminalis, nunc bis vel semel trichotoma, floribus ad apices 
ramulorum fasciculatis, nunc umbelliformis. Corolla alba vel dilute tincta, 
tubo anguste campanulato. Stamina filamentis glabris et liberis, quam 
antheris multo brevioribus. antheris connectivo nunc ciliolato nunc 
eciliolato, hand carinato. in appendicem plerumque brevem producto. 
Discus inconspicuus. Stylus cylindricus; receptaculum pollinis thecis 
multo brevius, mitriforme. Fructus cylindricus. Semina reticulata vel 

Species adhuc notae septem terram Borneensem et insulam Filippinam 
Mindanao dictam habitantes. Subgeneris typus: A. velutinervia Brem. n. 

;e plants with t* 

velutinous. Calyx lobes lanceol; 
.8 mm. diam. — North Borneo.. 
. lonn. provided with 11 or 12 pa. 


am. Widespread in Homer,, hut not in the 
th trichotomou- or umhellilorm inllorex enees ; 

ts, e\i ept in I 
illoresrences Hi. hotomous 
I. raves ohovate, velutinous 

owanU tlu- leal I 

varie-ated Stipules ovale ;in< 
51. I HaUieri 


Herbae robustiores. Inlloresccntia bis trichotomy iloribus 2 5 ad 
apices ramulorum fasciculatis; bractcae maniac ad anthesm deciduae. 
Connect ivum ciliolatum. Species 26 et 27. 
26. Acranthera velutinervia Brem. n. spec; typus: 7. & M. S. Clemens 32093 (L). 

Herb i suberecta. minime 50 cm. alta. ( aulis primum breviter sed 
densissime. deinde minus dense fulvo-strigosus. diametro ad apicem 3 mm., 
basin versus usque ad 7 mm. auclo. internodiis 1.5 7 cm. longis. Folia 
petiolo 4.5 5.5 cm. longo, densissime fulvo strignso el insuper parce villoso 
instructa; lamina elliptica, 14-20 cm. longa et 6.5-10.5 cm. lata, apice 
acuta vel acuminata, basi contracta, marline ciliata. supra basin versus 
sparsissime strigosa. subtus costa nervisque densissime. inter nervos pri- 
mum dense, deinde sparsius velutina, utrimquc opaca. sice, supra saturate 
rubro-brunnea, subtus brumiea, costa nervisque tamen pilorum praesentia 
fulvo-griseis, nervis utro<iue latere costae 6 vel 7. Stipulae oblongae, 3 4 
cm. longae et 1.2 1.0 cm. latae. obtusae. extus ubique sed costa pronnnente 
et marline densius pubescentes. mux deciduae. Intlorescentia subscssibs; 
ramuli breviter sed densissime fulvo-strigosi, primarii 3 5.5 cm., secundaru 
1.5 2 cm. longi; bracteae ramulorum primanorum nondum visae, ramulo- 
rum secundariorum lineari oblongae, 2.5 cm. longae et 5-6 mm. latae, 
acutae, extus intusque satis dense, marline densius pubescentes, COSta 
prominula, a stipulis parvis connatae. mox deciduae; bractcae abac 
gradatim breviores et pro rati) latiorcs: bractcae lloralcs calycis lobis 
similiores; onmes ad anthesin deciduae. Mores sessiles. Ovarium cybn- 
dricum, S mm. longum et 1 mm. diam.. breviter sed densissime gnseo- 
strignsum. Calycis lobi lanceolato-oblongi. 13 mm. longi et 4 mm. lati, 


acuti, extus intusque satis dense, margine densius pubesccntcs, 7-nervii. 
Corolla citrina, 18 mm. longa, extus puberulo-pubescens, margine densius 
pubescente; tubus 13 mm. longus ct 3..S mm. diam.; lobi rotundati 5 mm. 
longi latique. Stamina 8 mm. longa; filamenta 2 mm.; antherae 6 mm. 
longae, connectivo in appendicem 0.5 mm. longam producto. Recepta- 
culum pollinis 2 mm. longum ct basi 1.4 mm. diam.; stigmata subulata 
1 mm. longa. Fructus (Clrmrns 26S12) 3 cm. longus ct 1.8 mm. diam.. 
sparse pubescens. Scmina carunculata. 

Habitat tcrrac Ilorneensis partem septentrionalem. 

British North Borxko: Mt. kinal-alu: Pcnibukan, alt. 1200 m., /. & M. S. 
Clemens 32095 (L, typus, AA, dupl. typi); Dallas, alt. 900 m.; id. 26S12 (L, AA, 

This species is. in habit and in the structure of the inflorescence very 
similar to .1. jrutcsu >is Val. but differs conspicuously from that species in 
the smaller size of the leaves, the fewer nerves, on the underside velutinous, 
the longer and narrower cab \-lobes and the longer and narrower ovaries 
and fruits. 

' 4: 2S6. 1914 in adimt. ad .1. midliioram Val ; nun Merr. in Univ. Calif. I'ubl. 
Bat. 15:280. 1929, quae est species alYmis nondum descripta ; - - anne A. multi- 
flora Val. in Ic. Bo-. 4: 286, t. 396. 1914, adhuc incertum, sed hand improbable 

Herba suberecta, 1.5-2 in. alta. Caul is primum villosus vel hirsuto- 
villosus, deinde glabrescens, diametro ad apicem 8 mm., basin versus usque 
ad 11 mm. aucto, internodiis 1.2-3 cm. longis. Folia petiolo 3-8 cm. 
longo. primum villoso vel hirsuto-villoso, deinde plus minusve glabrescente 
instructa; lamina obovata. 30 35 cm. longa et 10-12 cm. lata, apice 
caudato-acuminata, basi cuneata vel contractu, margine primum dense, 
deinde sparse substrigosa, primum insuper sparse ciliata, supra primum 
praesertim basin versus sparse sirigosa, ultimo phis minusve glabrescens, 
subtus primum costa nervisque dense villosa vel hirsuto-villosa et inter 
nervos breviter sed satis dense strigosa, deinde costa nervisque sparsius 
villosa vel hirsuto-villosa el inter nervos vix conspicue strigosa, utrimque 
opaca, sice, supra nigrescens et subtus fuscescens, nervis utroque latere 
costae 11 vel 12. Stipulae oblongae, 2,5 cm. longae et 1 cm. latae, obtusae, 
extus satis dense villosae vel hirsuto-villosae, costa vix prominula, mox 
deciduae. Inflorescentia subsessilis: ramuli dense fulvo-villosi, primarii 
ad anthesin circ. 1 cm., secundarii 7 mm. longi. post anthesin primarii 
usque ad 2.5 cm. et secundarii usque ad 1.5 cm. elongati; bracteae ovatae, 
6-10 mm. longae et 3.5-6 mm. latae, extus et praesertim margine pubes- 
centes, mox deciduae. Mores pedicello 0-2.5 mm. longo elati. Ovarium 
ovoideum, 2.5 mm. longum et 1.5 mm. diam.. dense griseo-villosulum. 
Calycis lobi ovati. 6 mm. longi et 3 3.5 mm. lati, acuti, extus ubique sed 
margine densius pubescenlcs. 5-nervii. post anthesin ustpie ad 7 mm. longi 
et 5 mm. lati. Corolla viridula. extus griseo-villosula, fide Valeton 14-16 
mm. longa; tubus 10-12 mm. longus; lobi late ovati. 4 mm. longi. acuti. 
Stamina 7 mm. longa, connectivo in appendicem ftliformem 3 mm. (?) 
longam contracto. Fructus late cylindricus, 10 mm. longus et 4.5 mm. 
diam., villosus. Semina carunculata. 


B0KM.0: Southern and Eastern Divisi 
Pasir) and S. Tank. Hub. Winkler 1032 (HI), typus), n.v.; West Kutai, near h. 
Puhus, alt. 90 m„ Endert 2301 (HZ). Western Divisi. in: Sin-kawann, district 
Liiml.ik. Nualiang. rrvsmann II.H. 11220 (L). 

Sarawak: Mt Raven, alt. ISO m., A,;/, «'//. .SYr. Mns. 303<J (AA) ; Mt. Matang, 
alt. 450 m„ 7. & M. S. Clemens 22300 (AA). 

The description given above has mainly been based on Kndert's specimen. 
It deviates in the following points from the original one. given by Valeton: 
the number of pairs of nerves is 11 or 12. not 16; the bracts are slightly 
smaller (6-10 mm. X 3.5-6 mm. instead of 13 mm. X 8 mm.) and the 
calyx-lobes too are smaller (6 mm. X 3-3.5 mm. instead of 8 mm. X 5 
mm.). The difference in the number of pairs of nerves is probably uncer- 
tain. As a comparison of Yaleton's descriptions with the accompanying 
figures in the Icones Bogorienses prove, all nerves springing from the 
midrib were counted by him as primary ones, whereas 1 rest rid the term 
to those which art' readily comparable, leaving out the weaker nerves 
inserted in the intervals between the stronger ones. The differences in 
size of the bracts and the calyx-lobes offer a more serious difficulty, but 
these dimensions are probably rather variable. 

Acranthera multipara Val. in Ic. Hog. 1: 286, t. 396. 1914, is probably 
conspecific. The details of the flower-structure given by Valeton. are not 
to be trusted. I have little doubt that his flowers were both too young 
and badly preserved, and Valeton himself, as the remarks at the end of his 
description prove, attached no value to these details. In the Sarawak 
specimens quoted above, which agree well with Yaleton's figure, the thecae 
are ciliolate and the rcccptaculum pollinh milriform. The most important 
difference lies in the greater length of the fruits, which are said to be 
2 cm. long. It is, of course, possible that a comparison of the authentic 
specimens will reveal the presence of differences not mentioned in the 
description, and that more than one species will have to be recognized, but. 
for the present I prefer to consider them conspecific. 

Elmer 20S3S, collected near Tawao in British North Borneo, and re- 
ferred by Merrill I.e. to .1. jrutcscens. differs in the size of the leaves and 
in the fewer nerves. It resembles in these characters .1. vclutincrvia, from 
which it differs in the nature of the indumentum and above all by the 
short fruits, which are more like those of .1. jrutcscens. It is doubtless 
an undescribed species, but as there were no flowers in the specimens which 
I could investigate, I am unwilling to describe it. As the flowers are 
described by Elmer as pale green, it is very probable that they will have 
been preserved at least in some of his specimens. 


Herba ascendens, valde pilosa. Stipulae extus sine colletris. Inflores- 

centia trichotoma. Corolla extus tomentosa. Connectivum eciliolatum. 

Placentae utroque loCulo ovarii confluentes. Semina reticulata. — 
Species 28. 


28. Acranthera philippinensis Merr. in Philip Jour. Sci. 8: Bot. 32. 1913, Enum 
Philip. Fl. PI. 3:517. 1923. 

Herba ascendens, circ. 60 cm. alta. Caulis dense pubescens, diametro 
ad apicem 6 mm., basin versus usque ad 8 mm. aucto, internodiis 0.5-2.5 
cm. longis. Folia petiolo 2-7 cm. longo, dense pubescente instructa; 
lamina obovata vel oblanceolata, 9-25 cm. longa et 3-10 cm. lata, apice 
acuta vel brevissime acuminata, basi cuneata vel contracta, margine 
densissime pubescens, supra primum velutina, deinde sparse pilosa vel 
subglabra, a basibus pilorum scabridula, subtus costa nervisque densissime, 
venulis dense velutina, ceterum sparse pubescens, utrimque opaca, sice, 
supra olivacea. subtus fusca, nervis utroque latere costae 8-11. Stipulae 
ovato-oblongae, 2-2.5 cm. longae et 1.2 cm. latae, subacutae, extus sparse 
villosae, subpersistentes. Inflorescentia subsessilis; bracteae oblongae, 
villosae; inferiores 2.5 cm. longae et 1 cm. latae; aliae gradatim minores. 
Flores subsessiles. Ovarium cylindricum, 8 mm. longum et 1.4 mm. diam., 
griseo-tomentosum. Calycis lobi ad anthesin lanceolati, 8 mm. longi et 
2.8 mm. lati, fructu spathulati, 14 mm. longi et 3 mm. lati, extus intusque 
satis dense, margine densius pubescentes. Corolla alba vel rosea, extus 
tomentosa, margine longius ciliata; tubus 7 mm. longus et 3.5 mm. diam.; 
lobi rotundati, 2.S mm. longi latique. Stamina 6.5 mm. longa; filamenta 
1 mm.; antherae 5.5 mm. longae, connectivo apiculato. Receptaculum 
pollinis 1 mm. longum et basi 1 mm. diam. Fructus 2.5 cm. longus et 
4 mm. diam. Semina reticulata. 

Habitat insulam Filippinam Mindanao dictam. 

Mindanao: Zamboanga, Merrill 8309 (L, exemplum typi) ; Ramos & Edano B.Sc. 
36647 (L) ; also near lake Lanao. 

This species appears to be confined to the western part of Mindanao. 
As its nearest allies are found in Borneo, it would be interesting to know 
whether the genus is perhaps represented in the Sulu Islands too. 


Herba ascendens. Folia anguste lanceolata, supra glaberrima. Stipulae 
scariosae. Inflorescentia semel trichotoma, floribus 3-5 ad apices ramu- 
lorum fasciculatis; bracteae parvae, mox deciduae. Connectivum 
eciliolatum. Discus squamis parvis cum filamentis alternantibus substi- 
tute. — Species 29. 
2u. Arrantliera lanceolata Val. in Ic. Bog. 4:282, t. 394. 1914; Merr. in Mitt. Inst. 

Herba ascendens, circ. 30 cm. alta, interdum pseudo-dichotome rami- 
ficata. Caulis pilis brevissimis primum densissime, deinde sparsius fulvo- 
strigosus, diametro ad apicem 2 mm., basin versus usque ad 4 mm. aucto, 
internodiis 0.5-3 cm. longis. Folia petiolo 1.5-2.5 cm. longo, pilis brevibus 
densissime fulvo-strigoso instructa; lamina lineari-lanceolata vel lanceolata, 
6-10.5 cm. longa et 1.3-2.0 cm. lata, ter usque ad sexies longior quam 
latior, apice caudato-acuminata, basi acuta vel cuneata, margine dense 
strigosa, supra glaberrima, subtus costa nervis necnon venulis principalibus 
a pilis brevibus primum albidis. deinde fulvis, primum densissime, deinde 
sparsius strigosa, primum supra nitidula, deinde utrimque opaca, sice, 
supra nigrescens, subtus fuscescens, nervis utroque latere costae 7-11, 

-M)2 JOl H X \ I OK T1IK \K\OI.I) VKI'.ORKTl \1 hm.xxwii 

venulis suhtus colore saturation' conspicuis. Stipulae oblongae, 18 nun. 
longae et 7 mm. latae, apice obtusae. extus pilis brevissimis sparsae. 
scariosae. sice, brunnescentes. eosta basin versus prominente, mox deeiduae. 
[nflorescentia subsessilis; rachis et ramuli pilis brevissimis densissime 
fulvo-strigosi; rachis 1.5 2.5 cm., ramuli 0.6-1.0 cm. longi; braeteae 
ovato lanceolatae, eire. 2 mm. longae, extus sparse, marline densius 
pubescentes, mox deeiduae. Flores breviter pedicellati. I'edicellus 0.5 2 
mm. lonmis. Ovarium cylindricum, 6 mm. longum et 1.2 mm. diam.. 
pilis bre\'issimis densissime fulvo-strigosum. Calycis lobi ovatodanceolati. 
6.5 mm. longi et 2.7 -3.5 mm. lati. subobtusi. extus intusque pilis brevibus 
sparse, margine densius strigosi. 5-nervii. Corolla alba vol luteola, 10.5 
mm. longa, extus pilis brevibus Mib.striuosa; tubus 8 mm. longus et 3 mm. 
diam.; lobi 2.5 mm. longi lati<|ue. subobtusi. Stamina 7 mm. longa; 
fdamenta 1 .X mm.; antherae S.2 mm. longae. connect ivo in appendieem 
anguste triangularem. 1.2 mm. longam producto. Keceptaculum pollinis 
1.3 mm. longum. basi 1.2 mm. diam. Fructus pedicello usque ad 3 mm. 
elongato olatus, l.S cm. longus et 2.2 mm. diam., sparse pubescens. 
Semina carunculata. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partes centralem et orientalem. 

Ci.mka! Hhknkd: TadjuU, Mfii^rulinis 20n (lS'>i,<)7); S. Harasch, id. 214 
(lX'Ki <)7); S. Sermon, id. *0 (IK')M, .mines fide Yalcttm I.e. Western Dividoii: S 
Ser.tu.ii near Djotta, 112' SO' K.lonn.. 0" SO'!., alt. 100 m„ Winkler .'-'.', tide 
Merill I.e. 

Sarawak: Sarihas, Paku, llavilaud \ Hvsr /.v. J (I.). 

The description given above has been based on the specimen collected 
by llavilaud <r llnsr. but agrees in all essential points with that given by 
Yaleton. The latter saws of the inilorescences "vulgo tres in apice caulis 
umbellatae," but this is doubtless a mistake, lor inilorescences arranged in 
this way are entirely unknown in this genus; the short common peduncle 
has apparently been overlooked. The rrcrptarulum pollinis, which he in 
the usual way takes for the stigma, is accurately described as "eonicum 
acutum." but badly represented in fig. (>, where it shows an ovoid shape. 

This species is easily recognizable among all its allies by the narrowly 
lanceolate leaves. A rather curious feature are the five small disk-scales 
alternating with the stamens. 


Herbae ascendentes vol subrosulares. Inllorescentia umbelliformis; 
braeteae parvae. Conncctivum eciliolatum. Species 30-32. 

I I . i 
Ilerba ascendens, circ. 15 cm. alta. Caulis primum breviter sod densis- 
sime. deinde sparsius fulvo-strigosus, diametro ad apicem 1.7 mm., basin 
versus us(|ue ad 2.5 mm. aucto. internodiis S 12 mm. longis. Folia petiolo 
7 10 mm. longo, breviter sal densissime fulvo-strigoso instrueta; lamina 
lanceolata, 7 1 I em. longa et 2-.^.^ cm. lata, apice acuta vel acuminata, 
basi acuta vel subacuta. mamme dense strigosa, supra eosta quae basin 
versus est dense fulvo-slrigosa oxcepta glabet rima, suhtus costa nervisque 


densissime, venulis principalibus sparsius strigosa, utrimque opaca, sice, 
supra saturate brunnea. subtus fusca. nervis utroque latere costae 5 vel 6. 
Stipulae oblongae, 1.7 cm. longae ct 5.5 mm. latae, apice acutae, extus 
pilis brevibus sparsae, margine ciliatae, sice, brunneae, costa praesertim 
basin versus prominente. ante folia deciduae. Inflorescentia subsessilis, 
circ. 6-flora. basi bracteis linearibus 5 mm. longis el 0.5 mm. latis instructa. 
Flores pedicello circ. 10 mm. longo, breviter sed densissime fulvo-strigoso 
elati. Ovarium cylindricum, cS mm. longum et 1 mm. diam., ut pedicellus 
densissime fulvo-strigosum. Calycis lobi Iineares, 1 1 mm. longi et 1.5-1.8 
mm. lati. caudato-acuminati. extus intusque pilis brevibus sparse, margine 
dense strigosi, 3- vel 5-nervii. Corolla colore ignoto, 2 cm. longa, extus 
breviter strigosa; tubus 14 mm. longus et 4.5 mm. diam.; lobi ovati, 5.5 
mm. longi et 3.5 mm. lati, acuti. Stamina ') mm. longa; filamenta 3 mm.; 
antherae 6 mm. longae, connect ivo in appendicem anguste triangularem, 
1.3 mm. longam exeunte. Stylus basi paulum incrassatus; receptaculum 
pollinis 2.5 mm. longum et basi O.S mm. diam.; stigmata subulata 1.5 mm. 
longa. Kructus nondum notus. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem centralem. 

Central Hiikm'.o: s.l., Jahrri (Exped. Meuwenhuis) 754 (L, typus). 

Acranthcra X ianc< nhuisii comes very near to .1. Ilallicrii Val., from 
which it differs in the greater length of the internodes, the lanceolate, 
entirely green, less conspicuously ciliated leaves, the oblong stipules, the 
linear calyx-lobes and the greater length of the points in which the con- 
nectives are drawn out. Both species are in general aspect not unlike 
some species belonging to the subgenus Dichroanthes, namely A . varicgata 
Merr. and A. aurantiaca Yal. ex Brem., from which they are, of course, 
easily distinguishable by the eciliolate anthers and the mitriform recep- 
taculum pollinis, and probably also by the colour of the corolla. It is true 
that the colour of the corolla in I. Xicuia uhuisii is unknown, but as that 
of A. Ilallicrii is said to be white, there is good reason to assume that the 
flowers of A. Nieuwenhuisii too will be white. 
31. Acranlliora Ilallicrii Val. in Ic. Bog. 4: 183, t. 356. 1913. 

Herba subrosularis. Caulis ad apicem pilis satis longis strigosus, basin 
versus glabrescens, diametro ad apicem 2 mm., basin versus usque ad 3.5 
mm. aucto, internodiis circ. 5 mm. longis. Folia petiolo 0.5-2.5 cm. longo, 
primum dense, deinde sparsius stri^oso instrucia; lamina elliptico-lanceo- 
lata vel obovata. 6.5-1 1 cm. longa et 2.5 4.5 cm. lata, apice acuta vel 
subacuminata, basi acuta vel subtruncata et prope petiolum subito con- 
tracta, margine densissime et -aiK lonue -niuosa. supra costa quae basin 
versus est sparse strigosa excepta glaberrima, subtus costa nervisque 
densissime, venulis sparsius et brevius strigosa, utrimque opaca, variegata, 
sice, supra saturate brunnea, subtus fusca, nervis utroque latere costae 6 
vel 7. Stipulae ovatae, 13 mm. longae et 6 mm. latae, obtusae, extus 
sparse strigosae, costa prominula, deciduae. Inflorescentia subsessilis, e 
floribus 2-6 composita; bracteae angustae, vix conspicuae. Flores pedi- 
cello usque ad 1.5 cm. longo, pilis brevibus dense griseo-strigoso elati. 
Ovarium cylindricum. 5 mm. longum et 1 mm. diam.. ut pedicellus dense 
griseo-strigosum. Calycis lobi lanceolati, 8.5 mm. longi et 1.7-2 mm. lati. 


acuti, extus .sparse, costa ft marline densius strigosi. Corolla alba. 1 7 inn 
longa, extus pilis brevibus dense strigosa; tubus 11 mm. longus et 5 mrr 
diam.; lobi ovato-triangulares, (> 7 mm. longi et 3 mm. lati. Stamin 
10 mm. longa; filamenta 3 mm.; antherae 7 mm. longae, connective) i 
appendicem vix 0.5 mm. longam producto. Receptaculum pollinis 2 mrr 
l.mgum et basi 0.S mm. diam.; stigmata subulata 0.5 mm. longa. Fructn 
nondum notUS. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem centralem. 

Ci.mkai lioRNio: s.l., Amdjali (Kxpcd. Sinwnhuis) MO (L, excmplum typi 
The figure and description given by Valeton of the receptaculum pollin, 
are wrong, and the white patches of the leaves are neither mentioned nc 

Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. II, 4: 173. 1894. — Britis 

Specimens of this species were collected by Low & Ilaviland on tin- 
slopes of ML Kinabalu at an altitude of 1500-1800 m. It reaches, there- 
fore, a greater height than any of its allies. Its position in the subgenus 
Mitracme is not yet fully assured, for Stapf describes the receptaculum 
pollinis, which he too confuses with the stigma, as capitate, but as his 
description in other respects closely resembles those given above of .1. 
Xiciavcnhuisii and .1. I/allicrii. 1 have little doubt that its receptaculum 
pollinis is in reality mitriform. The corolla has been described as "obscure 
cyaneum," but this may be the colour it assumes in the herbarium: the 
flowers of the other Bornean species are, at least in the living state, never 
blue. The similarity between this species and .1. Hal/ierii has been noticed 
already by Valeton, who. however, gave an erroneous interpretation of the 
structure of their inllorescences (cf. Ic. Bog. 4: 182. 1913). He thought 
that the flowers were in reality axillary, the umbellate arrangement being 
simulated by the shortness of the upper internodes. but in .1. Uallierii the 
flowers are by no means subtended by ordinary leaves, but by minute 
bracts, and the inflorescence is doubtless cymoso-umbellate. Stapf de- 
scribes the flowers of A. atropella as ■pseudo-umbellate," but this means 
probably that the flowers do not open centripetally. as in a true umbel, 
but centrifugally. As he says that the inflorescence is sessile and at the 
base surrounded by the two upper pairs of leaves with their stipules, the 
possibility that the flowers might be axillary, seems excluded. True um- 
bels are probably unknown in the whole family; when the flowers are 
fascicled at the top of a common peduncle, the arrangement always seems 
to lie entirely or partly cymose. 

Stapf mentions a minute white punctation of the upper side of the 
leaves caused by collapsed cells. This punctation has also been observed 
in .1. .Xiciavcnhuisii and in the I luce spec ies belonging to the next subgenus. 

Subgenus I. ATHROOPHLEPS Hki m. nov. 


et valde approximatis utrimque transverse striata. Stipulae oblongae ^\ 
obovatae, obtusae, internodiis superioribus subaequilongae, dense retic 
latae, plerumque deciduae. [nflorescentia terminalis. Flores sessiles \ 
subsessiles. Ovarium turbinatum. Corolla alba, tubo anguste campan 
lato. Stamina filamentis glabris el liberis, quam antheris multo brevio: 
bus, antheris eciliolatis, connectivo in appendicem filiformem product 
Discus inconspicuus. Stylus cylindriais: receptaculum pollinis annulai 
Fructus cylindricus. 


Flowers laxly paniculate; bracts deciduous. Leaves, calyx and corolla, 

the ciliate margin, entireh glabrous. North Borneo vL .1. at) 

Flowers subcapitate ; bract;, persistent. Leaves on the underside, at le 
lies and outside of the corolla, pubescent. 

underside. Stipules earl 
Leaves with 4-5 pairs 
Stipuk- -ubpersistent. -North Borneo.. 

33. Airanthera athroophlebia Hrem. n. spec; Ivpu-: /. & M. S. ( Inncns 30616 (I.). 

Herba suberecta, usque ad 90 cm. alta. Caulis sulcis interdum primum 
pulverulentus, mox lot us glabrescens, diametro ad apicem 5 mm., basin 
versus usque ad 10 mm. aucto, internodiis superioribus 3-7 cm. longis, 
sice, nigrescens. Folia petiolo 4 5 tin. longo. glabro, sice, nigrescente 
instructa; lamina oblanceolata vel obovata. Id 29 cm. longa et 4.7-10 
cm. lata, apice acuta vel sensim et vix conspicue acuminata, basi cuneata, 
margine parce sed longius ciliata, ceterum glabra, utrimque opaca, sice, 
supra nigrescens. stibtus fuse es ( c-ns. nervis utroque latere costae 6-8. 
Stipulae oblongae. 2 3 cm. longae et 1 — 1.5 cm. latae. apice rotundatae, 
interdum tamen breviter mucronatae, costa prominente, extus glabrae, 
deciduae. Inflorescentia nunc subsessilis mine pedunculo usque ad 3 cm. 
longo elata, laxe paniculiformis; rat his ad anthesin circ. 7 cm. longa, 
postea usque ad 18 cm. elongata; rachis ramulique glabri. sice, nigres- 
centes; ramuli ultimi monochasiales, post anthesin usque ad 5 cm. elongati. 
multitlori; bracteae ovatae. omcavao et basi saccatae, plerumque circ. 1 
cm. longae, margine dense ciliatae, ceterum glabrae, sice, fuscescentes, ad 
anthesin deciduae. Flores subsessiles. Ovarium 5 mm. longum et 2.7 
mm. diam., glabrum. Calycis lobi oblongi, 7.5 mm. long] et 2.5 mm. lati. 
acuti, margine ciliati, ceterum glabri, nervis circ. 7 quorum 3 fortiores 
instruct! Corolla margine ciliata. ceterum glabra; tubus 9 mm. longus 
et 4 mm. diam.; lobi ovati. 4 mm. longi et 3 mm. lati, acuti, dimidio 
superiore refiexo et reduplicato. Stamina 7 mm. longa; filamenta 1.8 mm.; 
anthrrae 5.2 mm. longae, connectivo carinato in appendicem 
1.7 mm. longam producto. Stylus supra receptaculum pollinis 
Fructus late cylindricus, 15 mm. longus et 4 mm. diam., glaber. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem septentrionalem. 

306 |()l |{\.\|. OK Till-. \KMH.I) \KbORKTt M [voi.xxmm 

[n the colour which it assumes in drying, and in the presence of 

collapsed cells on the upper side of the leaves, this species resembles 
.!. atropclla Stapf, from which it differs, however, conspicuously in its 
almost complete glabrescence. in the larger size of the leaves and stipules, 
and above all in the paniculately arranged, subsessile llowers. As Stapf 
states that in his species the venules are indistinct, the possibility that it 
might belong to the subgenus At/iroof>Mrps. need not be taken seriously. 

Tin- differences between this species and the two next ones have been 
summarized in the key. 
34. Acranthera capitata Val. in Ic. Bog. 4:275, t. 391. 1914. 

Herba ascendens, circ. 30 cm. alta. post anthesin decumbens et ex axillis 
inferioribus innovationes emittens. Caulis primum pilis rufo-fuscis brev- 
iter pubescens, deinde glabrescens. diametro ad apicem 2.5 mm., basin 
versus usque ad 7 mm. auclo. internodus superioribus 0.5-3 cm. longis, 
inferioribus usque ad 7 cm. longis, sice, fuscescens. Folia petiolo 2.5 7 cm. 
longo, dense pubescente. sice, olivaceod.runneo instructa; lamina elliptic;! 
vel saepius obovata, 13 25 cm. longa et o.5 o cm. lata, subobtusa vel vix 
ennspicue acuminata, basi acuta vel saepius omeata. margine dense ciliata. 
supra primum pubescens. mox glabrescens', subtus costa nervis nee non 
venulis fortioribus dense hirto pubescens. ceterum subglabra. iitrmi(|ue 
opaca, sice, supra saturate olivacea. subtus fusca. nervis utro(|ue latere 
costae 6 10. Stipulae ellipticae vel obovatae, 12 15 mm. longae et S 12 
mm. latae, apice rotundatae, costa basin versus prominente. extus primum 
satis dense, costa densius pubesceutes. margine dense ciliatae. deciduae. 
lnllorescentia breviter pedum ulata. plus inmusve capitulifoi mis. re vera 
pentachotome corymbosa, ramulis brevissimis; pe.hmculus dense hirto- 
pubescens, 1 2 cm. longus, recurvatus; bracteae exteriores ovatae, 12 mm. 
longae et 7 mm. latae; aliae gradatim minores et praesertim august iores; 
onmes sice, fuscescentes. e<tus sparse, inttis densius pubesceutes. margine 
dense ciliatae, ad anthesin persistentes. Flores sessiles. Ovarium 3 mm. 
longum et 1.2 mm. diam.. dens,- griseo pubescens. C'alycis lobi lanceolati, 
5 mm. longi et l.S mm. lati, acuti, margine ciliati, extus intusque pubes- 
ceutes, nervis 3 vel 5 quorum 3 fort iores instructi. Corolla extus pane 
pubescens, margine ciliata; tubus 7 mm. longus et 4 mm. diam.; lobi 2.S 
mm. longi et 1.0 mm. lati, acuti. Stamina (..7 mm. longa; lilamenta 1 .f> 
mm.; antherae 5.2 mm. longae, connective) vix conspicue carinato in 
appendicem rectam, 0.0 mm. longam producto. Fructus glaber dictus, 
nondum plene mat urns 10 mm. longus et 2 mm. diam. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem septentrionalem. 

Hok\i:c>: Kasti-m and Southern Division, Tidoon^: Flu Sebulu, Anuijah fi*4 
(I., dupl. typi) ; S. Tulit, id. fit>4 (I.). 

According to Yaleton I.e. the llowers of Anuijah oo / should be violet, 
those of the other specimens white; maybe the colour changes before the 
corolla is shed. 

The differences between this species and .1. Rutlrnii limn, are given in 
the kev. Although rather different in aspect, they are doubtless nearly 


Herba suberecta, circ. 60 cm. alta, post anthesin decumbens et ex axillis 
inferioribus innovationes emittens. Caulis primum pilis longis strigosus, 
deinde glabrescens, diametro ad apicem 1.5 mm., basin versus usque ad 
3 mm. aucto, internodiis superioribus 0.8-1.5 cm. longis, inferioribus usque 
ad 11.5 cm. longis, sice, saturate olivaceus. Folia petiolo 1.5-2.5 cm. 
longo, dense strigoso-villoso, sice, olivaceo instructa; lamina lanceolata vel 
obovata, 8-11 cm. longa et 4-5 cm. lata, apice acuminata, basi contracta, 
margine dense ciliata, supra primum sparse villosa, deinde glabrescens, 
subtus costa nervis nee non venuhs fortioribus dense strigosa, ceterum 
glabra, utrimque opaca, sice, supra olivacea, subtus dilute fusca, nervis 
utroque latere costae 4 vel 5. Stipulae oblongo-ellipticae, 13-15 mm. 
longae et 8-9 mm. latae, apice truncatao, costa basin versus prominente, 
extus primum praesertim costa parce villosac, margine primum densius 
ciliatae, subpersistentes. Intiorescentia pedunculata, capituliformis; pe- 
dunculus dense griseo-pubescens, circ. 1 cm. longus, patens; bracteae 
exteriores ovatae, 13 mm. longae et 7.5 mm. ialae; aliae angustiores; 
omnes sice, fuscescentcs. extus sparse el intus do. sins pubescentes, margine 
dense ciliatae, ad anthesin persistentes. Flores sessiles. Ovarium 4 mm. 
longum et 2.2 mm. diam., dense griseo-pubescens. Calycis lobi lineari- 
lanceolati vel lineari-oblongi, 7.5 mm. longi et 1.8-2.2 mm. lati, acuti, 
margine cilia.ti, extus vix conspicue, intus densius pubescentes, nervis circ. 
5 quorum 3 fortiores instructi. Corolla extus sericeo-villosa, margine 
ciliata; tubus 7 mm. longus et 3 mm. diam.; lobi 2.7 mm. longi et 2 mm. 
lati, acuti. Stamina 6.5 mm. longa; filamenta 1 mm.; antherae 5.5 mm. 
longae, connectivo vix conspicue carinato in appendicem rectam, 0.7 mm. 
longam pnulucto. Fructus nondum notus. 

Habitat terrae Borneensis partem septentrianalem. 

Borneo: Eastern and Southern Division: Bulongan. S. Sadiau. 117" -\C' E.Ioiil'., 
2° 40', Rutten 642 (U, typus). 


1. anamallica Bed. I., Ic. PI. Ind. Or. 1:5, t. 23. 1S74 — Indian Peninsula. 
2o. athroophlrhia Hrem. n. spec. — North Borneo. 

S2. atrnprlla Stapl in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. II, 4: 173. 1894 — North Borneo. 

20. axilliflora Val. in Bot. Jahrb. 44:550. 1910 — South-east Borneo. 
12. bnllata Merr. in Mitt. Inst. All,-. Bot. Hamburg 7:284. 1937 — West Born 
34. ca pit at a Val. in Ic. Bog. 4:275, t. 391. 1914 — North Boner. 
3. *ceylanica Am. ex Mcisn., PI. Vase. Gen. 2: 115. 1838 — Cevlon. 

didymocarpus H. II. \\ . l'e.r>,m ex Ridl. it. Jour. Bed. Mai. States Mus. 
1909, in syn.: Gardenia didymocarpus Ridl. 

27. jrutescens Val. in Bot. Jahrb. 44:551. 1910— Borneo, North Borneo exeep 

2. K rand,tlora Bedd, Ic. PI. Ind. Or. 1:5, t. 25, 1874— Indian Peninsula. 
Griffithii Hook. I.. M Brit. Ind. 3:92. 1SS0 Asrmunthia GriMhii (Ho 


. involucrata Val. i 

Ic. Bog. 4: 279 

t. 393. 1914 

-West Borneo 

. Johannis-Winkleri 

Merr. in Mitt. I 

ist. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7: 


). lanceolata Val. in 

Ic. Bog. 1: 281, 

394. 1914- 

- Central and W 

3. longipes Merr. in 

Paper. Mieh. Acad. Sci. 19: 1 

J4. 1934 — East 

lon.^ipcs Merr. in 

Mitt. Inst. All-. 

ot. Hamburg 7: 2S4. 1937, 1 

). longipetiolata Me 

Merr. 1937, n 


. maculata Val. in 

c. Bog. 1: 283, 1 

395. 1914- 

-Central Borne 

Maingayi Hook.f 

Fl. Brit. Ind. 

:92. 1S.S0:- 

4semanthia Ma 

Ridl. in Kew Bull. 1939: 600. 1939. 

3. megaphylla Brem 

n. spec — Bornt 

t. mo mm! ha Val. in 

Bot. Jahrb. 48: 

11. 1912 — North (?) Born 

Ic. Bog. 4:285, 

probabililer // 

multinervia Val. i 

sched. cl. hullata. 

imitahilis Hemsl. 

in Jour. Bot. 25 

Muvsaenda mil 

Hook., Ic. PL 

•.f man! hid Mdiii^iyi (Hook 

Bull. 1939: 60 

mutica Val. in sched. cl. simaliarns 

■). Meuivcnliui.m Val 

ex Brem. n. spt 

c — Central 


". ophiorrhizoidfs V 

1. in Ic. Bog. 4: 

2X7, t. 397. 

914 — North B 

. parviflora Val. in 

Ic. Bog. 4: 2S9, 

. 398. 1914- 

-West Borneo. 

3. philippinensis Mer 

r. in Philip. Jour 

Sei. Bo!. »: 

U. 1913 — Min 

. A' u//r ;,//• Brum. n. 

spec. — North Borneo. 

7. salmonea Brem. n 

spec. — East Bo 


. *;«»»■««.* (Kerr) 

Psilobium si 

mense Kerr in 

>eninsular Siam. 

). siliquosa Brem. n. 

spec. — Easl Bo 


3. simalurensis Brem 

strigosa Val. in Ic 

Central Borneo 

*. tomentosa R.Br. 

x Hook.f., Fl. B 

it. Ind. 3: 9 

2. 1880 — Assan 

uniflora (Wall, e 

in jour. As 

Soc. Bengal 4 

(Mussaenda un 

Don) Brem. in 

Blumea, Suppl. 1 

: 121. 1937. 

. variegata Merr. in 

Mitt. Inst. Alls. 

Bot. Hamburg 7: 285. 1937- 


J. r«/i\sH Merr. in Papers Mieh. Aca 

. Sci. 19: 194. 1934 — East S 

/evlanica Arn. in 

\nn. Nat. Hist. 3 

21. 1839=c 


i\i ( I. ri;on<:\ 

J. H. Faull 

Rusts on ferns are referred in current literature on mycology and 
plant pathology to the definitive genera Ilyalopsora, Milcsia, Urcdinopsis. 
Dcsmella and Puccinia and in a few instances to the imperfect genus 
Uredo. The complete life-histories of many species of the first three have 
already been determined experimentally; in all cases they have proved to 
be heteroecious, with species of Abies serving exclusively as their aecial 
hosts. So it may quite safely he assumed thai the same pattern is poten- 
tially true of all the other species of II yalopsora. Milesia and Urcdinopsis. 
Regarding Dcsmella. uredia and telia only are known; and as they are so 
unlike those of the three foregoing genera, the identities of hosts that can 
carry the aecial stages of Dcsmella rusts are not even conjectured. It is 
a strange genus, taxonomically standing quite apart from the other fern- 
restricted genera. Thus far it has been reported from the American 
tropics only. Among the remaining fern rusts, a single species of Puccinia 
has been described, though solely with respect to its uredia and telia. 
Finally, as to the [/redo fern rusts, they can with reasonable certainty be 
recognized as uredo stages of one or other of the five definitive genera. 
Indeed, not a few of the named species of these genera have been described 
from the uredo stage and without knowledge of telia. All hough technically 
open to some objections, this practice does offer advantages if used with 

With possible exceptions of Australia and Tasmania, fern rusts are 
world-wide in distribution. Of course, locally within any extensive region 
there may be limiting factors, such, for example, as continuously high day 
and night temperatures. Otherwise they are likely to be found wherever 
ferns grow and on a surprisingly large number of specific hosts. Natur- 
ally, where those that are . I/; /V.v-in feeling occur beyond the ranges of 
Abies, they can be perpetuated solely by seasonal transmission from affected 
ferns to plants of identical hind or of species that are likewise susceptible. 
Indeed, as the southern distributional limits of Abies are approached, this 
method becomes increasingly frequent, even in those rust species that lack 
amphispores. Of course this melhod is possible for amphispore-producing 
rusts in any latitude, but otherwise only wherever there is a sufficiently 
close overlapping of successive seasonal crops of fronds, that is, a succession 
within the vital life-span of ordinary urediospores. It may not be super- 
fluous to recall to mind here thai the most southerly ranges of existing 
Abies, though well within the tropics in the western hemisphere and 
reaching to the tropics in the eastern, fall far short of the equator. 


Fern \\>»\- Rusts Regional origii 

1 Adiantum andicola Liebm. Vredinopsis investita FauII Gualemalat 

2. Annui„ iulva (Cav.) S\v. Deswella Aneimiae (Hcnn.) Syd. Brazil 

v Annum Phyllitidis (L ) S\v. Pesrnclla Brazil 

1. .1;»-i;;/,j tommtosa (Saw) Svv. De, nulla Aneimiae (Hcnn.) Syd. Brazilt 

5. An'.rophyumlanceolatum (L.) Hyalopsora Polytaniii (KCT) Dominican 

Kaulf. Cummins Republict; 

Porto Rico 
(.. Bleehnum oeeidentale L. .VZ/cs/,, « H .v/r«/;.v Arthur Colombia*; 

Costa Rica; 

I'oltn Rho 

7. Pleehnuni unilaterale S\w Vredinopsis Maxoriana Diet. Colombiat 

|«. bleehnoides (La.ucrh.) 

S. Pleehnum volubile Kaulf. Desrnrlla (I 'redo blechnkola Brazilf 


<). Chedanthes pyramidalis Fee Vredinopsis glabra FauII Mexico 

10. Conio^ramme jraxinea (Don) .l/,7o/',; Coniozrammrs (Hirats. Formosa 

gramme Hirats. f.) 


Vredinopsis glabra Faull 

(Kaulf.) Moore 

De -nulla 

(Kaulf.) Moore 


[Close to D. oligocarpa 

A/tfewa andmfl Faull 

hyopteris Clarkei (Bak.) 

Milesia Miyabei (Kamei) 

>; vopteris drutata ( Forsk ) 
C. Chr. 
1/). »i,.///\ (Jar.|.) Hieron. 


Faull Formosa 

Porto Run 

Dryopteris Poitean, 

TABLE I (Continued) 

nsis C.Chr. 


23. Elaphoglossum sp. 

J 1. Elapho^lo^um liliuilinm 

(Sw.) J. Sm. 
25. Ly podium mir,ins Sturm 

(Cav.) HBK 

. (Milesina Lygodii Syd.) 

wa Avj;0<//7 (Hariot) 

Lygodium volubile Sw. 



\ephrolepi> eordijtdia ( I. 1 

,U/7ow philip pinensis (Syd.) 


Xcphrolrpis pendula (Raddi) 
J. Sm. 

.U,7o7<i eolumbiensis (Diet.) 


\cphndrpis rivularis (Yah!) 

A/i7m/« m^tt/am Faull 

Porto R 

Onychium japonicum 

(TliimlO Kunze (Crypto- 
gram me japonica Prantli 

Afi/ciia Cryptogratnmes (Diet.) 
n. comb. I A/i7r.««a Cry^/o- 
grammcs (Diet.) Hirats. f . ] 


r«a (von Thu- Ma. 

{I'l-lLu-a hustata ( Thun! >. i 

E v;',u. 

s///,.A-^' (limits. 
(Milesina Hash 



isanensis (Hira 

ts . f.: 

1 Formo: 

I i;\\i. of Tin \iimh i) \i;i;oi;i n > 

F.rnho... R.H. R«gi„„.l „ri,in. 




►ke) Brazil; 





\ ciKVUi-la 

Not much collecting of fern rusts has been done in the tropics. Yet 
there is a considerable accumulation from mainly incidental collecting 
over the years. These are listed above in Table I, and it is quite an 
impressive compilation, but m\ own limited, yet intensive collectings in 
the tropics of North America, supplemented by occasional contributions 
from correspondents and a lew gleanings from fern collections in the Gray 
Herbarium of Harvard I'niversity. are sufficient to show that the number 
of known fern hosts is probably a small representation of fern species that. 
in one region or another, carry rust fungi. Table II presents new acquisi- 
tions obtained by me in the ways indicated above. Among these are 
unpublished collecting records of a few species listed in Table I; they are 
marked with an asterisk (*). 

One of the reasons for publishing these lists before detailed studies have 
been completed on them is to call I he attention of toilet tors in the tropics 
to a seemingly passed-by group of rust hosts. They will also serve to 
indicate that our knowledge of fern and fir rusts is far from complete. 
Hut now at least enough materials and sources of supply are available to 
justify more adequate taxonomic review and a wider range of other 




D. Fam. Cyatheaceae 

6. Cyathea sp. 


7. Cvfl/Ara /«/wa (M. & G.) Fee 


S. Cyathea Harrisii I'nderw. 


<). Cyathea mexicana St hi. & 




Fam. Polypodiaceae 

10. Adiantum CapMus-veneris L 


1 1. Adiantum latijoliitm Lam. 


12. Adiantum subcordatum Sw. 


l.L Am^ramma , hai rophylla 


(Desv.) Link 


(Desv.) Link 

15. Asplenium malaxo -ulpinum 



16. T.v/>/f>mm, mo««»<A« L. 


17. ,l.v /,/,•,„■„,« MJ0 «««/A« var. 


G^fo//i (Fee) Hieron. 

18. Athyrium sp. 


19. Athyrium Dombei Desv. 


20. Athyrium paucifrons C. Chr 


21. ,L/n™ 5*«nncri Moore 


22. Blechnum sp. 

Milesia or Hyalopsora 

23. Blechnum jraxineum Willd. 


TABLE II (Continued) 

27. CheUanthes membranacea 
(Davenp.) Maxon 


28. CheUanthes microphyUa Sw. 


29. CheUanthes pyramidalis Fee 


30. CheUanthes tenui folia 
(Burm.) Sw. 


.11. Ct>tiiot>rammr iraxinea (Don) 


32. Cydopeltis semieordata (Sw.) 

He, well a 

.U. Cystopteris jra^ilis (L.) 


SI Denustaedlia adiantaides (H. 
S; IU Mooiv 


,vv Ih-nnslai'dtm eieutaria (Sw.) 




.<'). Peiinstaedlia tul'i^nit'Mi 


(Kaulf.) Moore* 

•10 Pe>ui\tae,/tia mhi-iiu^a 

(Kaulf.) Moore* 

41. /M^m sp. (?) 

11 \alo psora 

42. Diplazium sp. (?) 


■I.v Diplazium nenulatum 

Mil: :hl 

0. Licbm. 

-14. Diplazium expansum Willd. 


45. Dryopteris sp. 


4ti. Dryopteris, n. sp. ( ?) air. to 



Fi uador 

TABLE II (Continued) 

Drynptrrh dmtat.i ( Forsk ) 

C. Chr. 

C. Chr. 

C. Chr. 

AVw,7 C. Chr. 
nlosula (Kl. & 

( ion. (;ip|iro;ictH'- 


. ok tiik \i;\o! i) \i;i; 

Elaph opossum Prh 

venp.) C. Chr. 
Hemionitis palmata 
Odontosoria Jenma\ 

K lri (Da- A/ilrs 

nuiaaa HHK 

Pol\hoh v,i 
. Pol v podium 

Polxpodium H.\sidrn.\ Ma\on 

Poly Podium JissidcHS Maxon 

I'olx podium loriccum L. 

. Polypodium Martensii Mutt. 


Polvpodiam Yatchii Bak. var. 
;;/.//(< <>/).w'.s ( I'Yani li ) ( 'Inn.', 
Polxstirhum rachirhlarna I-ue 
/'/cm longifolia L. 
/'/rm lon^ifolia L. 

/», w^7/„ 


92. Tectaria irregulari. 


< lualfinala ; 

( ,11 m 


1. Rusts are recorded for the first time as occurring in the Ophioglos- 
saceae and Cyatheaeeae. To these may possibly be added the 

2. II yalo psora rusts arc recorded for the first time as occurring in the 
()|>liiogIossaceae and Cyatheaeeae. 


3. Milesia rusts are correctly recorded for the first time as occurring 
in the Schizaeaceae and Cyatheaceae. To these may possibly be added 
the Gleicheniaceae. 

4. Species of the following fern genera, found growing within the 
tropics, are recorded in this paper as: 

(a) hosts for Desmella rusts: Adiantum (1), Anemia (4), Blechnum 
(1), Cyclopeltis (1), Dennstacdtia ( 1 ), Diplazium (1), Dryopteris (5), 
Pityrogramma (2), "Polypodiacea" (1). Polvpodium (2), Pteris (2); 

(b) hosts for Hyalopsora rusts: Adiantum (2), Anogramma (1), 
Antrophyum (1), Asplenium (1), Athyrium (2), Blechnum (1), Botry- 
chium (1), Cheilanthes (1), Coniogrammr ( 1 ». Cvathea (1), Cystop- 
teris (1), Diplazium (2), Dryopteris (1), Elaphoglossum (2), Pellaea 
(2), Polypodium (4), Woodsia (1); 

(c) hosts for Milisia rusts: Anemia (1). V-plmimn (1), Athyrium 
(1), Blechnum (4), Cheilanthes (2), Coniogramme (1), Cyathea (3), 
Dennstaedtia (6), Diplazium (1), Dryopteris (26), Elaphoglossum (1), 
Gleichenia ? (1), Hemionitis (1). Xephrolepis (3). Onychium (1), 
Odontosoria (1), Pellaea (1), Polybotryum (1), Polypodium (2), 
Poly stic hum (2), Pteris (2), Tcctaria (1); 

(d) hosts for Uredinopsis rusts: Adiantum (1), Anogramma (1), 
Asplenium (1), Athyrium ( 1 ). Blechnum ( 1 ). Cheilanthes (2), Cystop- 
teris (1), Pellaea (1), Polypodium (1), Pteridium (including under P. 
aqudinum its varieties and marginal species). 

The names in black face are genera within the tropics recorded for the 
first time as hosts for rust fungi. The numbers of species reported for 
each genus are indicated in parentheses. 

5. Desmella is reported in this paper on 21 fern host species collected 
within the tropics, Hyalopsora on 24 species, Milesia on 63 species, 
Uredinopsis on 10 species, Puccinia on one species, and Uredo on 4 species. 
The paper lists a total of 109 tropical fern species (exclusive of varieties, 
etc.) known to be hosts of rust fungi; of these 73 are recorded for the 
first time. 

6. I have found 25 rusted fern host species in Guatemala, 27 in 
Jamaica, 27 in tropical Mexico and 9 in Panama. Hashioka, in collections 
made both north and south of the Tropic of Cancer, reported 16 from 
Formosa (as published by Hiratsuka & Hashioka in their "Uredinales 
collected in Formosa"). Varieties are not included in any of these num- 
bers, nor are the submarginal species of I'tendium aquilinum. 

7. According to my experience, rusted ferns in the tropics are rarely 
found below an elevation of about 2000 feet above sea level. Uredo rust 
on Lygodium is exceptional; I collected it at sea level around Puerto 
Barrios in Guatemala. I could find no fern rusts on Barro Colorado 
Island, Panama Canal Zone; the greatest elevation on that island is said 
to be under 550 feet. 

8. Much is to be expected from the vast mountainous regions extend- 
ing eastward from Iran (Persia) to the South China Sea, from which have 

318 JOURNAL OF TilK ARNOLD \KROKhTl M [vol. xxviii 

come scant collections only, and these from very limited northern areas, 
probably in reality extralropical. such as around Kunming. Yunnan, China. 
9. Comprehensive data based on old and new records embodied in fern 
rust collections from the tropics are summarized in Table 111. This table 
designates all the relevant fern genera hosts, the numbers of their affected 
species, the involved rust genera lor each fern genus, and the regions in 
whit h the collections were made. 

Milesia Vn 



1 - 

Porto Rico 1 



C.uatemala !; 
Mexico 1 

ew Gum, 


Mexico 2; 

New Guinea ] 


Trop. An 


1 — .Mexico 1 




(, Jamaica I ; ■ 

Porto Rico 1 

Colombia 1 ; Cuba 

1 ; C.uatemala 1 ; 

Mexico 2;' 
Panama 1 


4 Cuba 1 New Guinea 


C.uatemala 1 

•The numerals 

. involved. Those ii 

, bla 

"This might be a Hyalopsora. 

' Colombia 2, Costa Rica 1, Cuba 1, Kcuador 1 
Panama 1. Porto Rico 1, Venezuela 2. 

, Gi 

latemala I, Jamaica 

I, M 

TABLE III (Continued) 
Desmella Hyalopsora Milesia Vredino, 

Mexico 1 ; Formosa 2 ; 

Porto Rico 3; Guatemala 8; 

Porto Rico 
Jamaica 1 
Phil. Islands 1 

"Polypodiacea" 1 Ecuador 1 

Poly podium 7 Jamaica 1; Guatemala 3; Formosa 

Panama 1 Mexico 2 

. Guiana 1 ; Guatemala 


i i) \iiiun;i.n ' 

Woon-Young Chun and Ying Tsiang 

I'm m ah rial on which this paper is based is part of an extensive 
collection made between the winter of 1942 and the summer of 1945 
under the direction of the junior author. When the situation in Hong- 
kong, where the botanical Institute was temporarily stationed, became 
critical. Professor Tsiang led a part of our staff to northern Kwangtung 
to contact the main body of the University. The attack on Hongkong 
commenced while the party was enroute. In the winter of 1942 a Branch 
Institute was established at Li Yuan Po in southern Hunan, and from this 
new center, botanical explorations in southern Hunan, northern Kwang- 
tung, and the Shih-Wan-Ta Shan region bordering Kwangtung and 
Kwangsi continued throughout the four years of the Pacific War. 

As a result of unrcmittent labor under difficulties needless to detail, 
nearly 10.000 numbers totalling over 100.000 specimens, have been col- 
lected. This large collection is now available to specialists and botanical 
institutions throughout the world. 

Pending the reissue of our Journal Sunyatseniti, this paper is submitted 
to the Journal of the Arnold Arboretum for publication to mark the re- 
sumption of normal relations between our two institutions. 

The types of the new species here-in described arc preserved in the 
herbarium of the Botanical Institute, Sun Y at. sen University; duplicate 
types in the herbarium of the Arnold Arboretum. 
I.ilho.arpiis Chifiij Chun ct Tsiang, sp. now 

Arbor 12 in. alta ct trunco (e notis collectors) ad 75 cm. diametro; 
ramuli mediocriter robust i teretes glabra! i. in sicco lusco-nigri lenticellis 
paucis magnis discoloribus notati anno secundo vix dissimiles; gemmae 
terminales solitariae vel aggregatae. proportione parvae, 3-4 mm. longae, 
subglobosae vel ovoideo-obtusae perulis ovatis breviter acuminatis rubes- 
centibus lucidis dorso carinatis margine ciliolatis obtectae. Folia ut 
videtur per duos annus persistent ia, fir me coriacea glaberrima oblongo- 
lanceolata vel oblongo-oblanceolata. apice late acuta, basi saepe oblique 
cuneata in petiolum robustum paulo producta rarius fere rotunda et in 
petiolum abrupte contracta. supra atro viridia subtus cinereo-viridia (teste 
collectore) siccitate llavescentia. margine integra saepe late undulata, 
magnitudine in eodem rainulo satis variabilia. minora plerumque ad 15 m. 
longa et 5 cm. lata, majora 25 cm. longa et 12 cm. lata, costa media 
supra valde elevata infra medium canaliculata. basin versus circiter 1.2 
mm. lata, costa nervisquc subtus distincte elevatis lateralibus a costa 
angulo 25 -30 ab ilia divergent ibus utrinsecus 10 vel 11 inter se satis 
distant ibus patent i-curvat is ante marginem vix prominente arcuato-ana- 
ibus trabeculis transversis subparallelis sparsis sub lente crebre 


foveolato- reticulars conjunctis; petiolus basi turgidus supra late sulcatus 
glaber, vix ultra 1.5 cm. longus. Flores S desunt. Flores 9 (post 
anthesin) quini-aggregati, unicus tantum nialurans. 4 alii abortivi, 
glomeris inter se distantibus plerisque hand maturatis; lamellae 4-5 con- 
centrices tenues erosae obscure griseo-puberulae. Fructus biennes secus 
pedunculum validum erectum nigrum parce lenticellatum ad 17 cm. 
longum proventu in cxamplo viso 7-8 seniles contigui unilaterales bifariam 
divergentes; cupula globosa circiter 2 cm. diametro, stylopodin excepto 
totam glandem includcns. tenuis extus undi()ue griseo-lepidotis. zonis 3-4 
concentricis inaequaliter distantibus sinuato-undulatis inferioribus subin- 
tegris superioribus lacerato-dentatis triangularibus tenuibus ornata. 
Glans apice excepta cum cupula concrescens depresse globosa vertice 
complanata basi rotundata glabra pallida subnitida. longitudinalitei 
rugulosa pericarpio lignoso 2-2.5 mm. crasso; intus eseptata, semen 

Kvvaxgtung: Yu Yuen Hsien, Mo-Fung Shan, tree 12 m. tall, 3 m. in diameter, 
leaves dull preen above, pray tziven beneath, Nov. 19, 1933, 5. P. Ko 53679. 

This new species may be compared with Lithocarpus ni< ^astachya Hick, 
et A. Camus from which it is amply distinct by isolated, not ternately 
coalescent acorns. The pistillate inflorescence of our new species, as 
deduced from the fruiting state, shows some interesting features. The 
flowers are clustered in 5's in more or less pentagonal groups, but all those 
on the under side of the rhachis remain abortive, and of those more 
advantageously placed in relation to light, only one in each cluster reaches 
maturity. The individual flowers are contiguous but not continent. The 
ripe acorns are alternately juxtaposed in two ranks all facing one direction. 

This outstanding species is named after Dr. \Y. 1\ Fang. Professor of 
Botany in the National University of Szechuan in recognition of his 
exhaustive researches on the flora of Omei Shan, and in appreciation of 
the cooperative spirit dominating his associations with the authors. 
Lithoearpus ohrysocoma Chun et Tsiang, sp. nov. 

Arbor usque ad 12 m. alia, trunco 50 cm. diameiro coma late ovoidea. 
partibus juvenilibus iniloreM entiisque ;ic fruclibus dense et molliter to- 
mentosis. cortice in lamella- irregulares profunde h-so. ramis vix patentibus 
ramulis robustis angulatis junioribus molliter fulvido-tomentosis cito sor- 
dide llavescenti-tomentosis vet ustioribus glabrescent ibus. Gemmae ovoi- 
deae vel rotundatae obtusae. circiter 2 mm. longae, perulis ovalis rubro- 
brunneis lucidis dorso glabris ceterum pilosis. Folia triennia coriacea. 
supra olivacea nitida annotina opaca praeter costae partem inferiorem 
sordide puberulam glaberrima, subtus densissime aureo- in sicco ochraceo- 
farinosa vel pulverulenti-lepidotula. elliptico- vel lanceolato-oblonga apice 
abrupte falcatim breviter caudato-acuminata, basi inae(jualiter cuneata. 
margine integerrima subtiliter revoluta, 7 10 cm. longa et 3-4 cm. lata, 
maxima 16 X 6.5 cm., costa nervisque supra subimpressis subtus elevatis 
lateralibus in utroque latere 0-10 interdum 12 sursum leviter curvatis ante 
marginem evanescentibus venulis obliterans, petiolis molliter sordide to- 
mentosis, supra leviter sulcatis, 1-1.5 mm. longis. Amenta mascula in 
apicibus ramulorum hornotinorum conspersa et ex axillis foliorum sum- 

>,22 JOI i;\\I, OF TIIK \KNOLD ARBORETUM [vol. xxviii 

morum panieulata rhaehidibus angulatis dense fulvido-tnmentosis 3-9 cm. 
longis, tloribus fasciculat is, periantlhi lobis membranaceis i ubrn-purpuras- 
centibus extus tomentosis ovatis concavis circiter 1 mm. longis, staminibus 
longe exsertis 1.5-2 mm. longis. filamentis glabris ftliformibus, antheris 
globosis; spicae femineae solitariae in axillis foliorum superiorum aggre- 
gatae, ,-b.S cm. longae; ilorum fasciculi ail axcni crassiusculam dense to- 
mentosam eonspersi sessiles 3 (Hlori; llores (juvenales non visi) perulis 
numerosis arete imbricatis tomentosis; styli 3 glabri divaricati. Fructus 
biennes 2 5 aggregali interne cnnlluentes sessiles tntbinato-subglobosi ; 
cupula tenuiter lignosa, circiter 1.5 cm. alta et 2 cm. diametro, extus 
fulvido-tomentosa intu.s adpresse sericeo-pilosa: s(juainae multiseriatae 
deorsum amtluentes apicibus acuminatis liberis falcatis; glans praeter 
apicem planam vel leviter curvatam medio umbonatam inclusa depresse 
globosa vel hrmispbaerica serireo pubenila. basi eupula solum concrescens, 
periearpio usque I.S cm. crasso; stigmatibiis de< iduis; i i< atrix alta convexa 

KwAMiii \c: V:i Yuen linen. Chin-Chi Tun-, tree 6-8 m. tall, Julv 19.U, S. P. 

■. -ame .liMri.-l, Shan- \iirn Shan, July 19.U, S. V. Ko 
.\<i)f>0; Mil Fun-. \c\ !'■-. .V /' A",> s" -•.^. ; Vu Yuen Hsien, Chine Chi Tun-, An-. 

This new species is easily distinguished from its nearest allies. /.. 
amyztialijolia (Skan) Schottky and /.. dcalbata (Hook.f. pi Th \ Rfhd. 
by the golden to reddish yellow pulverulent indumentum ..;. u.e mnier- 
surface of the leaves. 

I.itho. at (.u- I'aih.'.^ii Chun it Tsian-, sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 12 m. alta trunco 22 cm. diametro cortice cinereo-bi unnei in 
lamellas irregulares fisso; ranuili annotini validi angulati profunde sulcati 

in sicco nigrescenh s hurnotiui crassissimi cylindrici snrdide nigrescentes 
lenticellis satis conspicuis discoloribus eonspersi; gemmae magnae obtuse 
ovatae, 10 12 mm. longae, perulis exterioribus late ovato-rotundatis 
flavido- vel fulvo brunneis glabris interioribus albo-sericeis obtectae. 
Folia persistent i;i valde coriacea rigid, i plana oblongo-lanceolata, IS 20 
cm. longti, 5 S cm. lata, apice subito in acumen latum falcalum acutum 
breviter acuminata, basi late cuneata plerumque in petiolum quasi-alatum 
decurrentia, supra intense viridia lucida sublus pallidiora vel albescentia 
(e collectore) initio dense indtmtento fulvo- furfuraceo-pulverulento anno 
secundu saepe plus minus evanescente obtecta, costa media utrin(|tie elevata 
supra dimidio inferiore sulcata sublus et nervi ochrascentes, nervis utrinse- 
cus S 10 sub angulo 50 divergent ibus obli(|uis (nivalis nonnulla furcalis 
versus marginem indistincte anastomosant ibus; trabecular transversae 
SUbtus tantum tenuiter prominulae; petiolus i mnplanat us. 2.5 3 cm. longus. 
Fructus biennes in rhachidibus validis nigris lenticellatis 2.5 5 cm. longis 
2-vel 3-ni is <d<>merulis interne coalescent ibus sessilibus; cupula 
depresse globosa, tenuiter lignosa. 2 2.5 cm. diametro. ore 10 14 mm. 
diam., fere totam glandem obvoiuta sed basin tantum glandem adhaerens. 
intus densissime et brevissime albo-tomentosa. squamis conspicuis crassis 
imbricatis deltoideis apicibus liberis. interne flavo-cinereo-tomentosis 


superne glabrescentibus; glans depresse globosa, 18 mm. lata, 15 mm. alta, 
castanea nitida minute albido-furfuracea parte superiore detergente plana 
vel subrotundata apiculata; cicatrix basilaris valde convexa albida rugu- 
losa, 15 mm. diametro; nucula subpentagona, obtuse 5-costata. 

Hunan: I-Chang Hsien, Chin-Chuan Village, Cha Shan, alt. 930 m, tree 6 m. tall, 
on slope of sparseh wooded ruin, leavt whitish green beneath Sept 2S 1942 
P. H. Liang 63608; same locality, lire 12 m. 1.-.U, r — 

1942, P. H. Liang 

This new species is most closely related to Lit Inn arpits dristnairpn 
(Seemen) Rehd. et Wilson from which it differs in thicker coriaceous 
leaves with a fulvous furfuraceous indumentum on the undersurface which 
persists more or less into the second year, and especially in the very 
different fruits. In L. cleistoairpa the acorn is completely adnate to the 
cupule excepting the exposed apex, while in this new species, it adheres to 
the involucre only at the base. 

The wood is hard and durable and is highly valued at least locally for 
making carrying poles. 

It affords us unusual pleasure to associate this handsome and useful 
tree with the name of Professor W. C. Cheng, a dendrologist of outstanding 

Arbor 8-16 m. alta partibus juvenilibus dense griseo-flavido tomentosis; 
ramuli tenuisculi teretes grisei serius glabrescentes lenticellis sparsis vix 
conspicue notati. Folia persistentia biennia tenuiter coriacea elliptico- 
oblonga vel obovato-lanceolata, absque petiolo 8-10 cm. longa ± 3 cm. 
lata, apice breviter lateque falcato-acuminata vel -acuta, basi obtusa vel 
cuneata, margine e tertio infero ran. e medio crenato-dentata dentibus 
calloso mucronatis, supra intense viridia praeter costam mediam planam 
sordide puberulam glabra, subtus maturitate fulvex entia ubique sparse 
in costa nervisque dense lasciculato pilosula. costa tenui nervis laterahbus 
utrinsecus 10-13 porrecto-ascendentibus inferioribus procul a margine 
dissolutis ceterum ad serratulas procurrentibus omnes cum venulis sub- 

mm. longus sordide fusco-pilosulus; stipulae chartaceae ellipticae acutae, 
5 mm. longae, 1.5 mm. lalae. extus puberulae. [nfloresccntiae non satis 
evolutae. Fructus sessiles solitarii in autumn.) secundo maturi. Cupula 
pateriformis, basi plana, tertiam partem glandis amplectens, ad 3 cm. 
diametro, 0.8 cm. alto, intus minute sericeo-pilosula extus ilavido-gnseo 
tomentosa, concentrice zonata annulis circiter 10 tenmbus infimis grosse 
erosis supremis integris. Glans depresse globosa vel disciformi-subhemi- 
sphaerica, 2.8-3 cm. lata 1.2-1.5 cm. alta, plus minusve dense puberula, 
apice plana umbonata, basi truncata; cicatrix plana rugulosa, 16 mm. 

Kwangsi: Shani:-Si ll«, Shih Wan-Ta Shan. I-\ng-Hwang Hsiang, shrub 8 m. 

deeji green above, pale green beneath, young inflorescences white. March 3, 1944, 

324 .MM |{\ \l. OF THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [vol. xxvm 

This species is related to ()nc>rns vrstita Rehder el Wilson from which 
it differs in indumentum, smaller differently shaped leaves with much 
more regular venations, and sessile deeper cup with more numerous 
annular rings. ()nc>rus Dussaudii Hick, et A. Camus which has similar 
fruits, besides being glabrous, differs in having an acorn with a deeply 
intruded basal scar. 
Quercus delicatula Chun et Tsiang, sp. nov. 

Arbor 13 m. alta fructu excepto glaberrima, cortice ramulorum fere 
laevi pallido-brunneo ( e collectore ) mux purpureo- vel fusco-nigro; ramuli 
annotini tenerrimi obscure angulati sulcati<iue vetustiores teretes omnes 
lenticellis parvis sparsis obtecti. Cenunae ovatae obtusae brunneae, vix 
ultra 2 mm. longae. Folia chartacea, per duos annos persistentia petiolata 
elliptica vel elliptico-lanceolata. apice breviter c audato-acuminata, basi 
inaequaliter cuneata, toto margine mtegerrima exsiccando tantum leviter 
undulata. 4 6.5 cm. longa. 2-2.5 cm. lata, fere concoloria, supra atroviridia 
nitidula. subtus leviter tantum pallidiora opaca, costa nervisque tenuibus 
supra cum trabecules crebre reticulatis planiust ul is vix conspicuis inferne 
manifeste elevatis hand venulosis nervis utrinsecus 7 S patenti-ascendenti- 
bus ad marginem arcuatis obscure contluentibus; petioli graciles superne 
sulcati, circiter 1 cm. longi. Flores ignoti. Fructus biennes in axillis 
foliorum superiorum solitarii pedicellis cum pedunculis 1 — 1.5 cm. longis 
stipitati; cupula cupuliformis, S I 1 mm. alta, 14-18 mm. diamotro, tenuis 
sed tirma, intus adpresse fulvo-senceo -pilosa ; annulis o 7 tenuibus erosulis 
sursum atrobrunneis striatis glabrescentibus deorsum dense griseo-tomen- 
tosis; glans pro maxima parte exserla elliptico-oblonga apiculata, sym- 
metrica vel saepe sursum plus minusve oblicjue curvata. atrocastanea 
luiida, 2 2.5 cm. longa et 1 1.5 cm. diametro, apice basique adpresse 
puberula; cicatrix plana, 5 6 mm. diam. 

Kwancti-nc: Clii'iiK Hsien, ShiliAVan-Ta Shan, tree U m. tall, scattered in mixed 
forot in dense shade, fruits li.uht yellow, Dee. 1'). 104.^, S. //. Chun JWfl. 

This new species is characterized by delicate, glabrous vegetative {tarts. 
thin, relatively small, entire, caudate-acuminate subconcolorous leaves, and 
a small cupule with the upper half of the annular rings glabrescent and 
the lower half densely tomentose. It is not likely to be confused with any 
of the described Chinese ,,r Indo-Chinese species. 
Quercus disciformis Chun et Tsianu, sp. nov. 

Arbor vulgo 10-14 m. alta (usque ad 40 m. alta et 1 m. diametro fide 
Wang), cortice irregulariter lisso, ramulis hornolinis sordide llavescenti- 
pubescentibus annotinis vetust i(iiibus(|ue glabrescentibus atro-corticatis 
minute striatis. Folia ut videtur per duos annos persistentia subcoriacea 
in ambitu magnitudineque satis variabilia elliptico-oblonga obovato-ob- 
longa. vel plus miriusvr oblanceolata, minima 6 cm. longa et 2.5 cm. lata, 
maxima 15 cm. longa et 4.5 cm. lata, basi obtusa late cuneata vel subro- 
tunda, apice in caudam angustam falcatam acutam 1-1.5 cm. longam ± 
subito attenuata margine supra basin vel dimidio superiore sinuato-dentata 
dentibus gross is incurvis calloso-apiculatis, supra olivacea subtus pallidiora 
in sicco utriiHjue brunnescent ia. costa supra leviter impressa subtus elevata 


nervis utrinsecus 11-13 tenuibus sensim curvatis in dentes excurrentibus 
venis subtransversis crebris subtus tantum prominulis. petiolis teretibus 
gracilibus calvis circiter 2 cm. longis. Gemmae oblongo-ovoideae acutae, 
5-8 mm. longae, perulis oval is obtusis rubro-brunneis. interioribus ad- 
pressis puberulis. Flores masculi desunt: feminei (juvenihbus ignotis) 
foliorum superiorum axillis 2-5 breviter spicati sessiles, pedunculo erecto 
!.5 cm. longo. ovario ovoideo. stigmatibus alte 3-fidis divari- 
Fructus biennes sessiles, in rhachidibus abbrevialis singuli 
vel raro gemini et inter se aversi cupula basi glandem tantum sustinens 
nullo modo amplectens plano-disciformis, 3-4 cm. diametro margine piano 
vel passim decurvo, intus dense molliter fulvo-sericeo-velutina, extus 
lamellis concentricis 8-9 tenuibus fulvo-tomentosis argute eroso-dentatis 
supremis integerrimis ornata; glans (e typo) O.S cm. aha, 3 cm. diametro, 
discoidea, apice impressa dense adpresse sericeo-tomentosa stylopodio 
valido conico truncato coronata; cicatrix concava glabra, circiter 2 cm. 

Hsien, Ling Tun- Pao, ('hunp-Tun,<:, tree in mixed woods. 
, C. Wang 310S7 (ty 

?. Hainan: 

Pai Sha Hsien, Fon-Ta Chuen, tree 9 m. tall, in dense woods, April 19, 1936, 
S. K. Lau 26333. Kwaxcsi: Shan-Hsi Hsien. Shi Wan Ta Slum. Tunp-An Hsianp. 

pale brown, Feb. 3, 1944, S. H. Chun 4492. 

This new species is distinguished from all other species known to us 
by the thin flat broad involucre, velvet) tomentose inside (excepting the 
basal scar) supporting, but not at all embracing, a slightly narrower more 
or less depressed acorn. The acorns as described are evidently immature, 
those collected later in the season are fully 1.5 cm. long and uniformly 
hemispheric. In most specimens the fruits are solitary but in others they 
are borne, back to back, in pairs from the same level on opposite sides of 
a short spike. 
Quercus Paohanii Chun et Tsianp, sp. nov. 

Arbor ramosissima usque ad 15 m. aha fructu et partibus junioribus 
floribusque exceptis glaberrima, coma umbraculiformi, ramis ramulisque 
gracilibus; cortex griseus profunde et irregulariter fissus: ramuli hornotini 
angulati atrobrunnei sparse pilosi annotini vetustioresque teretes palli- 
diores glabrescentes conspicue lenticellati. Gemmae oblongo-ovoideae 
compressae acuminatisissimae perulis ovatis obtusis biserialibus ciliatis. 
Folia tenuiter coriacea per duos annos persistentia elliptico- vel lanceolato- 
ovata raro lanceolata in caudam angustam acuminatisissimam 1.5-2 cm. 
longam sensim attenuata. basi late inaequaliter cuneata vel in maxima 
fere rotundata, margine subtiliter revoluta integerrima vel saepe in adulta 
remote serrulata dentibus obtusis recurvis, supra nitidula subtus pallidiora. 
5-8 cm. longa et 1.5-2 cm. lata (maxima 10 X 3 cm.), costa nervisque 
supra applanatis vel paulo impressis subtus costa prominenti et lateralibus 
utrinsecus 10-12 ante marginem furcatis petioli 4-6 mm. raro usque 10 
mm. longi. Stipulae caducissimae subulatae longe pilosae circiter 1 cm. 


longae. Amenta mascula subpendula in axillis folionim vol bractearum 
solitaria 5-6 raro-7 cm. longa rhachis pane pilosa angulata: (lores singuli 
sessiles, perianthii lobis 5 mcmbranaceis brunneis oval is albo-pilosis 
ciliatis 1 mm. longis; stamina exserta antheris ovoideis tilamenta sub- 
aequilongis circiter 0.5 mm. longis. Mores feminei spii ali in axillis 
folionim solitarii. pednnculo 3 7 mm. longo, stigmata ad 1 mm. longa 
crassiuscula divaricata. Fructus biennes sessiles subglobosi vel oblongo- 
ovoidei; cupula semiglobosa 1 cm. diametro intus dense c inereo-tomentosa, 
s(|iiamis permultis imbricatis ovatis cinereo-tomentosis apieibus glandulo- 
sis; glans subglobosa 1 cm. longa et 6 mm. diametro apice pubernla, 
stigmatibus subcapitals deciduis. 

KwAXTi-xc: Yu-Yuen, Hsien, Wu-Yani? Shih, tree in woods, Nov. l<). i«;.|ji. 
/'. //. Liang 532 (tvpi:) ; Tun- Shui Ts'iinp, tree 5 m. tall, Jan. 8, l')41, P. //. l.nnv- 
83015. Hunan: I chant; Hsicn, Li-Yuan Tao. in li-ht woods, April S, 1U42, .S'. //. 
Chun 2099; same locality, Nov. 10, 1<)4.<, S. H. Chun 29-16; tree 12 m. tall, flowers 
greenish, March 25, 194.4, .V. //. Chun 2977. Kiancsi: Without precise locality, April- 
May 1942, S. M. Mu 21138. 

This evergreen oak with unusually small acorns is very common in the 
vicinity of Li-Yuan Pao, I-chang Hsicn, S. Hunan where a branch of the 
Botanical Institute was established throughout the war. It thrives from 
levebland up to an altitude of 1000 m., intermixed with deciduous species 
and conifers. Its range extends from the northern part of Yu-Yuan 
District in Kwangtung province to the foot of Mang Shan, the famous 
region in southern Hunan where virgin forests still exist. The edible acorns 
of this tree, colloquially called t'hui-li, are sold in local markets. The 
wood is fine and durable, much used by the natives for making furniture 
and handles of various kinds of tools. It is especially good for preparing 

This graceful oak which no doubt will become a common ornament in 
local and foreign gardens is named after the collector, Mr. Pao-Han 
Liang, Lecturer in Botany of this Institute. 
Quercus bella Chun et Tsiang, sp. nov. 

Arbor 9 m. alia dense ramosa confertifolia (e collectore) fere omnino 
glabra ramis ramulis<|iie gracillimis minute lenticellatis ultimis angulatis 
fuscis vetustioribus subteretibus nigro-corticatis. Folia per duos annus 
persistentia crasse membranacea lanceolata absque petiolo 7 -13 cm. longa 
2.5-3.5 cm. lata, apice sensim acuteque acuminata, basi attenuata e medio 
sursum crenato-dentata dentibus utroque latere plerumque u calloso- 
apiculatis, supra atroviridia nitidissima crista nervis venulisque planis 
leviter tantum prominulis subtus laete viridia opaca nervis lateralibus 
primariis 14-1 o ;im endentibus fere red is inferioribus versus marginem 
curvatis superioribus in dentibus atque cost;, elevata prominen- 
tibus venulis transversis tenui>simis crebre connexis, petiolis tenuibus 5-10 
mm. longis. Flos maseulinus ignotus. Flores feminei ad apicem pedunculi 
gemini sessiles pednnculo in axillas folionim superiorum solitario erecto 
(|uam petiolo breviore circ. 12 mm. longo; bracteae sub (lore 3 valde 
inaequales, majora semi-circularis, omnes dorso pilosulae; perianthium 
urceolatnm extus deorsum glabrum vertice annulatim adpresse denseque 
sericeo-pilosum; styli 4 robust i apice in stigmatem crassum capitatum 


lobulatum abrupte dilatati. Fructus ut videtur triennis solitarius scssilis; 
cupula pateriformis fere plana tantum tenuiter marginata 5 mm alta 3 cm. 
lata glande paulo latior, intus adpresse fulvo-pilosa centra umbilico con- 
vexo circ. 16 mm. lato conspicue notata, extus at nil a glabreseens concen- 
trice annulata annulis 7 laxis levibus planis inferioribus latis grosse irregu- 
lariter erosis marginalibus 2 vel 3 angustissimis multo proprioribus 
integris; glans depresse hemisphaerica basi cupulae solum adnata, 1.6-1.8 
cm. alta 2.5-2.S cm. lata. atmr:Maiu-n adulta glabra ta apice umbone 
conico circumcirca annulato obscure puberulo coronata; cicatrix margine 
gradatim curvata concava usque ad 16 mm. lata. 

Kwangtung: Fan-Chen- Hsien, Shi-Wan-Ta Shan, alt. 200-250 m., shrubby tree 

jtMiwIum li-ht Uun Ik n. Uh fin fruits brown Mai 24,1044 S H.Chun 4772. 

Differs from Q. Ihissaiuiii Hick, et A. Camus in the dentate leaves with 
more numerous lateral veins and the shallow cup only supporting, not 
at all enclosing the acorn. According to the collector, this oak is suitable 
for carpentry. The felled logs left in situ are used for the culture of 
edible mushrooms. This tree has ornamental qualities which recommend 
it for landscape planting. 



Woon- Young Chun and Hsiang-Hao Hsue 

Sterculia subracemosa Chun et Hsue, sp. nov. 

Frutex parvus ramulis juvenilibus gracilibus sparse stellate 
sicco striatis rubro-brunneis. Folia subcoriacea obovato-oblon 
cm. longa, 4-6.5 cm. lata, apice obtusa vel acutiuscula, basi 
cuneata, utraque pagina glabra, nervis primariis lateralibus i 
aseendentibus inter se anastomosantibus rum venulis utrinque valde 
prominentibus; petiolus 1.5-2.5 cm. longus, apice basique incrassatus, 
initio dense stellato-tomentosus deinde glabrescens. Intlorescentia sub- 
racemosa, plus minusve pendula, gracillima. usque ad 10 cm. longa, dense 
rufn-stellato-tomentosa. pedicellis ullimis s 10 mm. longis. articulatis, 
bracteolis lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, 2 mm. longis, lomentosis. Flores ,1 
ignoti; perfecti albi, roseo-tincti; calyx IS mm. longus 5-lobatus extus 
pubescens intus praeter partem superiorem loborum glaber, lobis ovato- 
lanceolatis tubo campanulato subaequantibus vel leviter longioribus, 
margine ciliolatis; antherae 17 (an semper? ) prope basin ovarii aggregatae, 
biloculares, connectivo incrassato; ovarium globo.xiim circiter 1.5 mm. 
diam. dense pubescens gynophoro 2.5 nun. longo puberulo; stylus 1 mm, 
longus pubescens, stigma 5-lobata. Fructus ignotus. 

Kwangtunc: Hsin I District, Tung Kan«, small stinih ul.nii; stream, flowers white, 
tinged pink, March 21, 1'J.sJ. ('. Wang 3171S*. 

This species is allied to Sterculia lanccacfoUa Roxb.. differing in the 
obovate leaves and pale flowers. In certain characters it approaches 
S. hainanensis Merr. et Chun, but the obovate-oblong leaves and larger 
flowers are obviously different from those of the latter species. 
Sterculia micrantha Chun et Hsue, sp. nov. 

Arbor 7 metralis, ramis ramulisque medulla ampla alba spongiosa 
repletis; ramuli validi teretes foliorum delapsoruni cicatricibus magnis 
lenticellisque sparsis brunneis notati. siecitate rubro-brunnei valde striati. 
Folia non satis matura elliptico-oblonga, tenuiter chartacea, 7 14 cm. 
longa, 3.5-6.5 cm. lata, apice obtusa vel abruple acuta, basi late cuneata, 
supra glabresceulia, subtus ad eostam vrnasque .sparse stellato-tomentosa, 
costa valida nervis primariis lateralibus utrinque 12. patenti-ascendentibus 
subtus prominentibus; petiolus 3-8 cm. longus, sparsissime stellato- 
tomentosus; stipulae lineari-lanceolatae, 10-12 mm. longae. tomentosae. 
Inflorescentia paniculata, gracilis, usque ad 26 cm. longa. multitlora; 
pedicelli ultimi filiformes 3 4 mm. longi, articulati. leviter tomentosi; 
calyx albus, tenuis, campanulatus, S 6 mm. longus, 5-lobatus, extus parce 
puberulus intus praeter lobos glaber sed manifeste papillosus lobis tri- 

* Type specimens listed in this paper are deposited in the Herbarium of the Botanical 
Institute, Sun Yatsen I'niverMlv, Canlmi, China, dupli.ate 1 \ pes will be sent abroad 


angulari-lanceolati.s tubn aequantibus. margine dense ciliolatis. Flores ^ : 
androphorum 3 mm. longum gracile. glabrum; antherae 10, ad apicem 
androphori sessiles. biloculares. nmmrtivo crasso. Flores 5 : antherae 
circiter 15, circa basin ovarii aggregatae; ovarium cum gynophoro 1.2 mm. 
longo dense tomentosum, globosum, S-loculare; stylus gynophoro 
aequilongus pubescens; stigma 5. globosa. Fructus ignoti. 

Ycnxan: Kins-Tun- District, Tsu-Kai, alt. 1400 m., tree 7 m. tall, in light woods, 

Slerculia Il.-nryi Hemsley var. cuneata Chun et Hsue, var. nov. 

Planta habitu omnino typi et 

deorsum nianifeste attenuatis ba: 
iloribus minoribus. 

Arbor vel arbuscula 3-5 m. al 
longa, 4.5-6.5 cm. lata, apice plu 
infra iridium versus basin (list ine tr attenuata. basi cuneata vel acuta; 
petiolus 4-8 cm. longus. Racenii usque ad 7 cm. longi. Flores (e nota 
ad vivum) pallide rosei; calycis segmenta vix ultra 10 mm. longa. 

Ycxxax: Ma-Kuan Hsien, N. W. of Ta-Wei Shan, alt. about 1000 m., in dense 
wooded ravine along stream, shrub S-5 m. tall, flowers pale red, March 15, 1940, 
Wang, Ko and Lau 10032; same locality, Ching-ya, alt. 800 m., tree on sparsely wooded 
slope, flowers pink, April 4, 1940. Wang, Ko and Lau 10496 (type). 
l,Vr\,- M lol'om-iiMs Chun et Hsue, sp. nov. 

Arbor vel frutex. 4 IS m. alta, ramulis novellis dense stellato-tomentosis, 
fere levibus, siccitate albo-ilavidis. Folia coriacea elliptico-oblonga 10-15 
cm. longa, 3.5-6 cm. lata, apice in acumen latum obtusum vel acutiusculum 
basi inaequilateraliter cuneata, utrinque glabra, margine undu- 
. subtus elevata, nervis primariis 
, subtus tantum elevatis. venulis 
cm. longus "ere- utrinque vix dilatatus, 
ivellus stellat"-'. tmentosus. mox glabrescens. Inflorescentia non satis 
,-oluta paniculdiii, terniinalia, eirciter 4 cm. longa lataque. multiflora, 
snse fulvido-steilato-tomentosa. Gemmae llorales obovoideo-globosae, 
re. 2 mm. di"... Capsula oblongo-pyriformis, 5-angulata, rugosa. dense 
ellato-puberula; pedicellus circ. 2 cm. longus; semina 12 mm. longa 6 mm. 
ta, elongato- ..ipsoidea. glabra, alis oblongis oblusis hyalinis nitidis 

Kwaxch'nc: Lo-Fou Shan, Hua-Hsou Tai, tree 13 m. tall in woods, branchlets 
een, leaves deep green above, pale green beneath. May 3, 1930, flowers in bud, 
. A". Chun 4082- , same locahfv. shrub 4 m. tall, fruit green, brownish tinged, July 
1, 1930, N. K. Chun 41342 (type). 

This species is related to Rovrsia thyrsoidea Lindley and Reevesia 
■Hgipctioluta Alerr. et Chun, but differing from both in its densely stellate- 
imentose brancnlets and peduncles, thicker, fewer veined, cuneate leaves, 
; petiole not dilated at both ends. 


R.vvrsia tuiuuiiensis Chun et Hsue. num. nov. 

Keevesia jormosana Hayata Ic PI. F.irmos. «>:S. I'M*). n,,n Spra-uc in Kew Bull. 
L914: 325. 1914. 

Formosa: Hiiranzan, leg. //ay«/tf <■/ .S'«.v«*» .v. «., July 1012. 

Although the two specimens are not exactly comparable, the one collected 
by A. Henry on which Sprague's species is based is in flower, and the 
other, described by Hayata. is in fruit, we are confident that two distinct 
species are involved judging by vegetative characters alone. Rccvcsia 
jormosana Sprague is easily distinguished by the rounded to cordatulate 

Helirtrres vis.ida Blume Bijdr. I: 70. 1S25, Kurz Fl. Brit Burma 1: 145. IS"; Pierre 
Fl. Cochinch. pi. 200A. 1S88 91; Ca^nep. in Becomte Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 1: 489. 
1911; Ridley Fl. Malay Peninsula 1:2S1. 1922; Chung in Mem. Sri. Soc. China 
1: 168. 1924; Craib Fl. Siam. Enum. 1: 175. 1925. 

Hainan: I'm Tim; District, vicinity ol Tung Chiah, in ravine, subshrub, flowers 
white. Dec. I, 1C(>, I. Tunn C'C same locality, Oct. 10, 1956, S. K. I.uu JttMJ; 
Tint; An District, Dec. 4, 1C5, ('. IVan* CCV/ ; Ling-Shui District, Seven-Finger 
Mountain, |an. 11, 1954, ('. H'n»? C h'2 ; I. in- Sluii District, TungChiah, Nov. IS, 
1932, Tso & Chun 44283. 

Distribution: Java, Malav Peninsula, Burma, Indo China. Siam, China: Yunnan 
(fide Gagnepain, I.e.). New to Hainan. 
Eriolaena sp«ctabilis (DC.) 1'lanchon ex Mast in Hook. I". Fl. Brit. Ind. 1:371. 1874. 

Walliehia ^rftuNlis DC. Mem. Mils. Ill: 104. t.fl. 1825. 

UitroUmi.i sprrlabilis Wall. List No. 1175, 1S2S. 

Cumsia tiliarea Wall. List No. 11751). IS2S. 

(,\ ehloroxylon Ham. in Wall. List p. 157. 1 17.sK. 1S28. 

Eriolaena sp. Chung in Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1: 1(>7. 1024. 

Yunnan: S/cmao, .1. Henry 1250c,, ex Herb. Kew ; Mi-Be Hsien, Dec. 2, 1952, 
//. '/'. Tsai 51J0J. RwANosi: Hsi-Lin District, alt. about 800 m., tree 7 m. high, 

Disiriiic i ion : India. Central Himalaya; China: Yunnan, Kwangsi. 

Henry's 12506 which the senior author examined at Kew undoubtedly 
belongs to this species. Presumably this is the first authentic record of 
the species for China. 

Botanical Institi ik. 



With one plate 


Calycis tubus cylindricus, gracilis; linihi cupularis lnbi 5, lineares, 
elongati, persistentes. Corolla tubularis, in alabastro oblongo-clavata, 
extus dense villosa, tubo inlus glabro; limbi lobi 5, erecti, valvati. 
Stamina 5, basin paullo supra tubi corollae inserta, filamentis compressis, 
glabris; antherae dorso aflixae, mm versatiles, paullo exsertae, lineares, 
obtusae. Discus annularis. Ovarium 2-loculare; stylus teres, exsertus, 
stigmate punctiformi; ovula numerosa. placentis septo adnatis inserta. 
Capsula erecta, teres, siliquaeformis. septicide 2-valvis, vetusta epicarpio 
(demum saepe fibroso) ab endocarpio cartilagineo margine placentifero 
vel nudo secedente. polysperma. Semina numerosa, adscendentia, minuta, 
in sicco angulata. testa reticulato-punctata, albumine carnoso; embryo 
clavato-oblongus. Frutices ramosi, pubescentes. Folia opposita, petio- 
lata, membranacea, lanceolata vel elliptico-lanceolata. Stipulae inter- 
petiolares, triangulari-ovatae, subpersistentes. Racemi simplices, axillares, 
paucillori, sub anlhesin abbreviati, in. fructu longissime pedunculati. 
Mores majusculi, pubescentes. 

compressis. villosulis; foliis membranaceis, lanceolatis vel elliptico-lanceo- 
latis, 12-25 cm. longis, 3.5-8 cm. Litis, utrinque sensim angustatis, basi 

cm. longo, margine integris, supra costa villosula lamina consperse et 
sparsim pilosa, subtus novellis dense adpresse ferrugineo-villosis vetustiori- 
bus costa venisque dense et lamina sparsim adpresse villosis, nervis 
lateralibus utrinsecus 15 20 oblique arcuatis prope marginem adscendenti- 
bus, utrinque perspicuis, venulis manifestis vel inconspicuis; petiolo 
1.5-5.5 cm. longo. gracili, villoso; stipulis triangulari-ovatis, 1-1.5 cm. 
longis, 5-7 mm. latis. longiuscule acuminatis, costa et basin versus ± 
adpresse villosulis, marginem versus glabratis, subpersistentibus; racemis 
axillaribus, ad anthesin 5 7 em. longis (tloribus inclusis), in fructu 6-17 
cm. longis, omnino villosulis; tloribus S 7, pedii ellatis. pedicellis brevibus 
basi bracteatis; calycis limbo cupulari, 2.5 mm. longo, lobis linearibus, 
acutiusculis. 5 7 mm. longis. 1 mm. latis; corolla tubulari vel in alabastro 
oblongo-clavata. tubo 2..S-S cm. longo, 6 7 mm. diametro, intus glabro, 
lobis circiter 7 mm. longis, acutis, erectis vel adscendentibus, intus glabris; 
staminibus ± 5-7 mm. supra basin corollae tubi insertis. paullo exsertis. 

332 JOURNAL OF THK AK.MM l> VKIWiKI II \1 [voi..xxviii 

filamentis compressis, glabris, antheris linearibus, 4 mm. longis, dorso 
affixis, non versatilibus, rimis introrsum dehiscentibus; disco annulari; 
stylo tereti, 3.9 cm. longo, stigmate punctiformi. non papilloso; ovario 
tuhulari. 6 7 mm. longo. vix 1.5 mm. diametro. biloculare; capsula vix 
3 cm. longa. 2 mm. diamctro. calyce persistente coronata; seminibus 
numerosis, minntis, reticulato-punctatis. 

Solomon Islands: Kou.uaim ille: kupei Cold Field, Kuicwski 1650, 1667, April 
V)M), all. 050 and 900 m., rain forest (plant up to 5 m. high, but often found inueh 
smaller; buds 4.5 cm. loni:. 1< cm. diameter, lieautilul pink, -emi transparent); same 
locality, Kajfivski 1754 (iypf), April \')M), alt 1000 m., rain forest (flowers pink, 

While working over the Rubiaceae of Papuasia as represented in the 
Richard Archbold Expeditions collections from New Guinea, and the 
Brass and Kajewski collections from the Solomon Islands, we found the 
above cited specimens which we were unable to name to genus, although 
they clearly belong in the family. For this material we here propose the 
new genus Kajewskidla. At present we are unable to suggest an affinity 
for it. According to the classification of the family in Kngler and Prantl, 
Pfianzenfam. IV. 4: 16. 1891, it seems to belong to the Oldenlandieae. In 
its ferrugineous-villous indumentum, in its stipules, in the form and texture 
of the leaves as well as in the venation, and in the minute reticulate- 
punctate seeds, Kajiicsk'nlla strongly suggests. X aiitknphytum Reinw., but 
in its technical characters it is not allied to that genus. The very slender 
terete capsule is somewhat like an abbreviated fruit of Dolicholobium A. 
Gray; both have septicidal dehiscence, and the exocarp becomes more or 
less shredded in age as in that genus, and in Hikkia Reinw.; the valves of 
the fruit persist as in the latter genus, and the placentae are either broken 
free or attached along the margins of the valves. The similarity of these 
characters, however, is probably only superficial. The fairly large tubular 
or very narrowly elongate obconical corolla entirely glabrous within, the 
glabrous stamens attached a little above the base of the corolla (about 
where it emerges from the calyx), the non-papillate stigma, and the short 
slender terete capsule seem to offer a combination of characters which we 
believe worthy of generic recognition. 

Fie. a. Flowering branchlet, x \ ; b. Flower. \ l; <-. Flower laid open, x 1; d. 

Jour. Arnold Are. Vol. XXV 



i specimens which Dr. John S. Beard, formerly 
, Trinidad, has sent to the Arnold Arboretum in 

recent years, the two species from St. Lucia discussed below appear to be 

hitherto undescribed. 


Licania oligantha A. C. Smith, sp. nov. 

Arbor 5-15 m. alta. ramulis gracilibus. hornotinis complanatis sericeo- 
puberulis, annotinis teretibus glabrescentibus lenticellatis; stipulis lineari- 
lanceolatis 4-8 mm: longis sericeis mox caducis; petiolis subteretibus 
rugulosis 2-5 mm. longis primo pallide sericeis' mox glabris; laminis 
chartaceis utrinque in sicco olivaceis oblongo-ellipticis, (3.5-) 5-10.5 cm. 
longis, (1.8-) 2.5-4.5 cm. latis, basi obtusis vel acutis et in petiolum 
breviter decurrentibus, in apicem calloso-apiculatum cuspidatis, margine 
integris et leviter recurvatis, juventute subtus et costa supra sparse 
strigillosis mox glabrescentibus, costa supra leviter elevata subtus promi- 
nente, nervis secundariis utrinsecus 6-10 erecto-patentibus leviter curvatis 
anastomosantibus et rete venularum copinso utrinque prominulis; in- 
florescentiis plerumque axillaribus interdum terminalibus compacte cy- 
moso-paniculatis sub anthesi 1-2.5 cm. longis et plerumque 1-5-floris, 
pedunculo leviter complanato brevissimo et ramulis sericeo-puberulis, 
bracteis oblongis puberulis 3-3.5 mm. longis, ramulis lateralibus paucis 
2-5 mm. longis plerumque unifloris raro 2- vel 3-floris, bracteolis 2 oppo- 
sitis membranaceis ovatis 2-2.5 mm. longis minute sericeis; floribus 
subsessilibus, pedicellis ad 1.5 mm. longis; calyce cupuliformi sub anthesi 
5-6 mm. longo et apice diametro, extus arete sericeo, tubo 2-2.5 mm. longo 
basi subacuto intus copiose et breviter sericeo, limbo erecto-patente pro- 
funde 5-lobato, lobis papyraceis deltoideis 3-3.5 X 2-3 mm. apice acutis 
intus puberulis basi anguste imbricatis; petalis 5 membranaceis obovato- 
vel ovato-ellipticis, 2-3 mm. longis, 1.3-1.5 mm. latis, basi rotundatis, 
apice obtusis, intus hispidulis extus puberulis mox glabrescentibus et 
caducis; staminibus 15-20 sub anthesi leviter exsertis, filamentis ligulatis 
2.5-3.5 mm. longis utrinque copiose pallido-hispidulis superne angustatis 
glabrisque, antheris ellipsoideis 0.5-0.6 mm. longis; ovario ellipsoideo 
copiose hispidulo, stylo tereti circiter 5 mm. longo praeter apicem glabrum 
copiose hispidulo, stigmate minute peltato. 

St. Lucia: Quilcssc, alt. 300 m., J. S. Beard 492 (type, Arnold Arb.), Tune 5, 

334 JOl l!\\l. OK THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM [\«>i.. xxvm 

l.ieania oli^antha is characterized by its very compact few-flowered in- 
florescences and its concolorous essentially glabrous leaf-blades. From 
/.. leueosepala Griseb., originally described from Guadeloupe but also 
recorded from Dominica. Si. Vincent, and St. Lucia (by R. 0. Williams. 
Fl. Trinidad & Tobago I: 315. 1932, as Moquilca leueosepala) , the n?w 
species differs not only in its inflorescence, but also in its slightly smaller 
leaf-blades with fewer secondaries and its obscurely sericeous rather than 
cano-tomentose calyx. In referring plants of this alliance to Lie an hi 
rather than Moquilca, I follow the generally accepted reduction of the 
latter genus. 

Concerning this species Dr. Beard writes: "It is a small tree with a 
trunk up to 30 cm. in diameter; the wood is hard and of no economic 
value. It is almost confined to the exposure sub-type of the rain-forest 
in the interior of St. Lucia, occurring on the crests of all but the highest 
ridges and I'itons. I have noted it on La Sorciere, I'iton Flore, Piton St. 
Esprit, Grand Magazin, Morne Tabac. and the slopes of Morne Gimie, at 
elevations of 1600 to 2200 ft. [Note: The type-collection was found at 
a lower elevation]. 'The species is not found in the elfin woodland at 
the top of Morne Gimie (3000 ft.), and it is very rare in the normal 
rain-forest of lower elevations. In its particular association it is one of 
the principal dominants, forming approximately 30% of the stand. The 
associate dominants arc 1/: /■<.'/>//,.■/.'.■, < In ■■!>/': ; nirftw, Myrcia sp. [Beard 
no. 7/\V), and Tovomita I'lumieri. Together with a number of species of 
lesser abundance, these plants form a low forest of small trees some 30 ft. 
high, a reduced type due to exposure to wind. In the other islands the 
principal dominants of the equivalent forest type are Rieheria grandis, 
Micropholis, and Podocarpus eoriaeeus. The first of 
these has not been found by me on St. Lucia, and the last is very rare, 
found only on Morne Tabac. The Lieauia olii^antha-Mieropholis 
chrysop/iv/loidc.s association of St. Lucia is, therefore, an interesting 
special type." 

MinmLi luciana Oleason, sp. now Sect. Oclomrris. 

Arbor S m. alia, rami's juvenilibus sparsissime furfuraceis mux glabris. 
Petioli usque 7.5 cm. longi. sparse furfuracei praesertim supra atque sparse 
glanduloso-hirtelli. Laminae tenues virides, ovato-lanceolatae vel fere 
ellipticae. maxima qua suppetit 20 cm. longa 10 cm. lata, acuminatae, 
crenato-serratae, subcordatae, 5-nerviae. utrin(|iie glabrae. Inllorescentia 
pedunculata, late pyramidalis, ca. 1 dm. longa. trichotoma. Flores 5-meri, 
omnes sessiles, saepe solitarii ad apices ramulorum. Hypanthium obconi- 
cum. 2.7 mm. longum ad torum, minutissime furfurai cum. Calycis tubus 
0.8 0.9 mm. longus, truncatus, ad matginem fere scariosus; sepala ob- 
soleta; dentes exteriores conici, ad tulnim adnati, ultra tubum 0.3 mm. 
projecti. Petala rosea, obovato-oblonga, 5.5 <> mm. longa, 3-5.5 mm. 
lata, fere equilatera. vix retusa. Stamina isomorpha; filamenta glabra, 
i.i mm. longa; antherae lineares, .^J mm. longae, 2-loculares, poro 


terminali dehiscentes; connectivum infra thecas 0.2 mm. productum, 
simplex, leviter dilatatum. Ovarium fere inferum, 4-loculare; stylus 
rectus, glaber, 6.7 mm. longus, inferne dilatatus; stigma truncatum. 

St. Lucia: Quilesse, alt. 300 m., /. S. Beard -'77 (ivpf. in herb. X. V. Hot. Card.; 
dupl. Arnold Arb.), May 2,\ 1945 (tree S m. Iii-li. in understorey of rain-forest; trunk 

From its general aspect and from the nature of the inflorescence and the 
structure of the flowers. .1/. luriami appears related to the Puerto Rican 
.1/. Thomasiana IH\ It (\\\\vv> from that species in its thinner leaves and 
various other structural characters. 

Of Miconia luciana Dr. Heard writes: 'It is a small tree, frequently 
only 3 m. high, with rather conspicuous pinkish flowers. I have found it 
occasionally in the understorey of the Dacryodes-Sloanea rain-forest 
throughout St. Lucia." 

III! \i;\n! I 


Ivan M. Johnston 

Only in Soith Amkrica does the great genus Astragalus have an 
extensive development in the southern hemisphere. There are ten species 
reported from the mountains and plateaus of tropical Africa. In the 
temperate southern parts of that continent the genus is represented only 
by one species in Natal. In South America, however, there are nearly 
ninety species. The genus is represented along the Cordilleras from 
F.cuador to the Straits of Magellan, and has two important centers of 
speciation, one in the high count r\ of northwestern Argentina and adjacent 
Bolivia and another in adjoining Chile and Argentina along the Cordilleras 
south of the peak of Aconcagua. 

Though the present paper treats the species known from south of Peru, 
all the South American species of Astragalus were studied during its 
preparation. Accounts of the two Ecuadorean species, and of seven of 
the Peruvian species have already been published. Jour. Arnold Arb. 
19: 88-96 (19.CS). The present paper treats the remaining seventy-seven 
species of the genus known to me from South America. 

In general structure and appearance the South American Astragali are 
rather similar to those found in North America. Their relations are with 
the North American and not with the Old World members of the genus. 
They are probably the products of an ancient southern migration and 
subsequent differentiation of various types originating in North America 
where the genus has one of its major evolutionary centers. In North 
America, Astragalus is represented from Alaska and Baffinland south to 
northern Guatemala, with most of its more than three hundred species 
concentrated in western United States. The areas occupied by North and 
South American species are, accordingly, separated by Colombia and nearly 
all of Central America, and their major areas of speciation by the great 
distance between Argentina and the Cnited States. 

The close relationship between North American species and others in 
Argentina and Chile is frequently very clear. Indeed, some of the 
southern plants seem to be more closely related to the northern ones than 
they are to any found on their own continent. None, however, seems to 
be specifically identical with North American plants. Though there are 
many close similarities between northern and southern species, evolution 
in South America has not closely paralleled that in North America. This 
becomes very clear if an attempt is made to apply to the South American 
species the system of segregate genera set up for the North American 
species by Rydberg, No. Am. IT 24: 251 462 (1929), and Am. Jour. Hot. 
15:584-595 (1928), 16:197-206 (1929), and 17:231-238 (1930). 
Some of the South American species fall readilv into the Rvdbergian 


segregates, but many straddle the arbitrary lines between these so-called 
genera, and others simply do not hi into any of them. 

No satisfactory subgeneric classification of (he South American species 
has been worked out. Rydberg's classification seems artificial at many 
places and furthermore is to be condemned as provincial, since it is based 
almost exclusively on species of one region and without full consideration 
of those in other parts of the world. It would have to he modified con- 
siderably, as well as amplified by the addition of comparable new groups, 
before it could accommodate the South American species satisfactorily. 
That, however, is a task that should be left to a monographer with a wide 
acquaintance of the genus as developed in all [tarts of the world. 
Astragalus has only one clean line of cleavage in South America. This 
breaks the genus into two natural groups probably worthy of generic- 
recognition. One, the section Phaca, with fifteen species, is readily 
distinguished by its well separated, distinct, herbaceous stipules. The 
other, the section Euastragalus, has more or less united, membranous, 
ochraceous stipules and includes over seventy species. 

In the present paper the synonymy given for the species is complete 
except for certain names published by Otto Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 940-949 
(1891), and 3 2 : 73 (1898). Substituting the name Tragacantha for 
Astragalus, Kuntze published hundreds of new combinations under the 
former invalid name. It has seemed a waste of space to reprint the scores 
and scores of useless binomials he applied to South American species. 
Only when he coined new specific epithets for South American species, are 
Kuntze's names of any taxonomic significance and only the latter are listed 
in the synonymy given in this paper. 

Among the large number of specimens studied, only about half are cited. 
Under well understood species, of which I have seen numerous specimens. 
I have cited only selected collections to show geographic range. Only 
under new, rare, or poorly understood species has all the examined material 
been cited. The particular herbaria in which the examined specimens are 
located are indicated by abbreviations, in parentheses, following the 
collector's name. 

During the preparation of this paper the specimens in many herbaria 
have been examined. The basic herbarium and library work was carried 
on at the Gray Herbarium. During a visit to Europe the genus was 
studied at Kew, London. Hamburg. Berlin. Munich. Geneva, and Paris, 
and loans of selected material from these botanical centers were later 
studied at the Gray Herbarium in conjunction with loans of South 
American Astragali from Stockholm. I'psala, New York. Washington, and 
Chicago. From South America much interesting material has been 
received on loan and for identification. Dr. Angel Cabrera of La 
Plata, sent specimens and arranged the loan of Spegazzini's Astragalus. 
To Prof. L. R. Parodi, Dr. Arturo Burkart. Prof. Alberto Castellanos, Sr. 
A. Ruiz Leal, and Sr. Juan Y. Monticelli I am indebted for many interest- 
ing specimens. Prof. Marcial R. Espinosa sent me some of the collections 


and very obligingly loaned me fragments of certain critical specimens in 
the Philippi Herbarium. Other very interesting and useful Chilean collec- 
tions have been received from Sr. Gualterio Looser, Sr. Ciilberto Montero. 
and Dr. C. Grandjot. I have had help from many sources and I am 
grateful to the many botanical friends in Kurope and America who have 
aided in this work on the genus Astragalus. 

The abbreviations for the herbaria cited in this paper are as follows: 
HI) Herb. Hot. Mus., Herlin-Dahlem, Germany; Hehn=Herb. Dr. K. 
Helm, Valparaiso, Chile; HM Herb. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London. 
Fngland; Boiss -Boissier Herb., Geneva. Switzerland; Hurkart Herb. 
Inst. Hot. Darwinion. Buenos Aires, Argentina; Calif— Herb. I'niv. Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley. California; Del Delessert Herb., Geneva, Switzerland; 
FM=Herb. Chicago Nat. Hist. Mus. | Field Mus.|, Chicago, Illinois; 
G^Gray Herb., Harvard Cniv., Cambridge, .Massachusetts; Gottenburg 
Herb. Hort. Hot. Gottenburg, Gottenburg. Sweden; ( h andjot = Herb. Dr. 
C. Grand jot, Santiago. Chile; Hamb Herb. Inst. Allg. Bot., Hamburg. 
Germany; K Herb. Roy. Hot. Gard.. Kew-Surrey, Fngland; LP=Herb. 
Mus. La Plata, La Plata, Argentina; Munich Herb. Bot. Mus.. Munich. 
Germany; NY Herb. New York Bot. Gard., New York, New York; 
Paris=Herb. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, France; Parodi -.Herb. Dr. L. R. 
Parodi, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Santiago Herb. Mus. Nac, Santiago. 
Chile; Speg Herb. Mus. La Plata, La Plata, Argentina; Stock Herb. 
Riksmus., Stockholm, Sweden; US United States Nat. Herb., Washing- 
ton. I). C; Cpsala— Herb. Cpsala Univ., Upsala. Sweden. 


Legumes ouiiproMMl, scarcely if at all inflated, rather eloscly investing the 1 5 
seeds, 5 IS mm. long 1. ,1. Chaniissoiiis 

Pods evidenth stipitate, I he stipe S 10 mm. lonu ; pedicels becoming 5 -7 mm. 
Ion-, standard yellow. 
Fruit distinctly pendulous 2. A. Pissisi 

Pods broadest above middle; leaves flat; flowering inflorescence 

short and dense <,. A. Edmonton,, 

Pods broadest below middle; leaves conduplicate ; floueiing inflores 

cence becoming loose and elongate 4. .1. limarirnus 

Pods sessile or with a stipe less than S mm. long. 

I ..-nines -mall, S 15 mm. long, usually strict or ascending. 

Pedicels S 5 rum. long at anthesis, becoming 5 7 mm . \ onii [ n f ru j t ; 

standard \ellou; leaflets frei|iientl> verticillate 

5. A. verticillatus 

Pedicels 0.5-1.5 mm. long at anthesis. becoming 1-2.5 mm. long in 
fruit; standard purple or violet; leaflets in simple pairs. 
Herbage glabrous, leaflets thickish; plant montane 

Herbage hairy; leaflets not very thick nor fleshy, plants ot low 


Plants annual or at least short-lived; corolla pinkish; arid coastal 
regions of northern Chile. 
Herbage pallid with a dense vehety indument .. . X .1. papo\anus 
Herbage green or somewhat cinereous, strigose 

Plant strongly perennial, montane. 

Legumes strictly cod, lancoid, tough and rigid, opaque, lustrous 

Legumes spreading and becoming pendulous, ovoid nr ellipsoid, 
paperv, translucent, pale or mottled at maturity. 
Ovary and truit glabrous. 

Leaves glabrous or with the hairs confined to the mar- 
gins and midrib ot the leaflets. ... 1 1 . .1. prhuenches 
Leaves sparsely but evidently strigose 

Ovary distinctly strigose and fruit at least sparingly so. 
Corolla pinkish; flowers dense, 15-30; pods 15-20 
(-25) mm. long, numerous and congested in globose 

clusters; northern Chile 13. A. vagus 

Corolla with at least the standard conspicuously purple 
or violet; pods not in dense clusters. 
Leaflets smooth, strigose with closely apprised 

silky hairs; pods 2-4.5 mm. long 

14. A. Darumbium 

Leaflets somewhat shaggy with short ascending to 
spreading hairs; pods 2-3 cm. long 

inent than the upper. 

Ies 2-15 cm. long, equalling or surpassing the subtending leaf; flowei 

icrous; Patagonia and the amies ol middle and southern Chile an 

nil compressed at least about 
leathery, the sutures prominei 

Pod flattened laterally, linear t 
equal!;-, piominent; corolla 


Leaflets elliptic to oblanceolate, apex rounded or emarginatc. 

21. A. Cruckshanksii 

Leaflets oblanceolate to linear, apex acute. 

Stems elongate, 1 5 dm. long, intcrnodes well developed. 
bearing scattered leaves; peduncles obviouslx axil 

ing leaf, 1-7-flowered ; high altitudes in Rolivia and northern Chile and 

Ovary glabrous; fruit glabrous, 10-15 mm. long; plant caespitose with 
green 2-6-jugate leaflets; peduncles J 1 flowered, becoming 1-5 mm. 

Ovary strigose ; fruit pallid, strigose, 4 7 mm. long ; plants with dense 
appressed pale indument; leaflets 5-9-jugate. 

Plant densely caespitose, the leaf lulls usual!) springing from an 
evident collar ol tough llavescent stipules; 1 1 n it sub-essile, soli 
tarx, remaining hidden among slipular sheaths, 3 4 mm. long, 
valves 2-3 mm. broad, northern Argentina 25. A. crypticus 

Plant with elongating leafy stems, 1-15 cm. long; fruit becoming 
evident, 0-7 mm. long, valves 5-6 mm. wide. 
fruit u-ualh M.litan in the leal axils bediming exposed along 

Una and adjacent Chile 

broadest below middle, 

Plant slender; leaflets oblong or elliptic, 3-4 mm. long, apex 
and San Juan 28. A. bellus 

Leaflets eunoate to deltoid, broadest at apex and very deeply and 
edge convex in outline 29. A. /< -built lit \ 

uppe. edge straig 

Plant prevailing!) slimt strigose. cinereous to green, sterr 
elongated and slender, loosely brain lied . pods elongate. 

valves distinctly convex, lower suture depressed in 

Valves swollen on eithe 

leathery or somewha 

Valve- not swollen on either side of the dorsal SUt 

tough and more elongate; northern Patagonia.. 

-ruit angular and more or less laterally compressed, in C 
section more or less sagittate or cordate to triangi 

Plant annual; fruit more than 6 times as lonj 
broad ; Rio Negro 33. A. Spegaz'. 

Corolla 4-7 mm. long, coloring pale. 

...35. A. Farodn 

flowers; stems elongate, 1-4 

im. long; north- 

Inflorescence with few (2-7) distinctly scattered 

flowers; stems 1.5 dm. long o 

r less. 

concave in lateral outline 

leaflets glabrous 

above; Rio Negro and Chubut 

Ovary striimse ; fruit falcate, 

Plants of Chile. 

Wings much shorter than the keel. 

Fruit and ovary glabrous; plant prostrate, gr 

.39. A. Monteroi 

Fruit and ovary strigose; plant prostrate or er 

jugate; Concepcion north to Coquimbo.. . 

Win- much surpassing the keel. 

Leaflets 3; plant densely silky strigose.. . .41. 

Leaflets 12-31. 

subtending leaf; 

'. I in, hinahnsis 


lower cl-r stron-k i oil' 
y attenuate, Co(|uiml)o 

nil loosely and abundantly ton 
perennial, stems 1 (> dm. Ion-; 

:ose to suhtdahious; p], m i pirvailmek 
, stems 1 1 dm. Ion-; leaflets 5 10- 
A'.u am. i and \ntofagasta 

edge straight or i 

aterally much compressed, the lower suture 
rovvlv and deepk intlcxcd, the sides oi the 
I nearly parallel; ovary usually hairy; leaflets 
ally rounded to acute at apex; coastal areas 
; to base of Cordilleras 45. .1. Bcrtrri 

lower suture medial on the flattish lower side; 
ovary glabrous; leaflets usually obtuse or ret use 

at apex; Cordilleras 46. .1. Cermaini 

(V. Fruit strict or ascending, not pendulous. 

L Plants with elon-atin- stems, not caespitose nor pulvinate. 

Plant coarse; stipules ver\ lar-e and loosely sheathing, 5-10 mm. 

Ion-; leaflets usualk Hat; tniit with well developed false septum. 

l-'ruil evidently villous stri-ose; corolla over 1 em. lone; plant 

usually erect; flowers usually projected beyond the leaves... 

1'iuit incoiispieuousK stri-ose or -lahrous; corolla (> ') mm. Ion-, 
plant spreading; flowers and Iruit much surpassed by leaves. 
Plant -ray--reen, evidently; widely distributed.. 

48. A. arequipensis 

Plant hri-hl -recii, neark id a broils, rare, .-pi .1 . , rv pi, nit ln<\ 
Plant slender; stipules small and not very conspicuous, usually less 
than 5 mm. long; leaflets usually folded or revolute. 
Plants ,,] Palaeonia and the Cordilleras south ol Cerro \concaeua 

nil short and stout, 5 Is mm. Ion-, about halt as wide as 
lon<r, 1 -celled, the septum absent or weakly 

Leaves linear lanceolate to narrow lv oblonii, apex acute 
to rounded; fruit be.omme -b and n-id; U.ile 

Leaves obcordate, stron-ly retu 

bans alone, the mi<lrib; so, it 
Talca 52. .1. Domcykc, 



Mendoza 5 .*._.•!. com plica 

\concamia; with the- exception 
,al of Peru and no. Chile, all in 

mm. long of more, 4-12-seeded; 
soon deciduous. 

Flowers small, standard .*-5 m 

only sparsely strigose; 

ant caespitose or decidedly pulvii 
and not much elongating, us! 
longer then compacted into \ 
alpine forms of .1. mit ranlhdh 

owers pedicellate, the pedicels 1 4 mm. Ion-, at anthesi 
vatiiiL' the llower above its subtending bract; ped 
iiMiallx evident at anthesis, up to 4 cm. long. 
Herbage glabrous or practically so; llower solitary; 

Hero.-t'je evidently hairy; flowers clustered; fruit 1 

the ialse septum membranous and incomplete or . 

Plant yellowish green; calyx-lobes with black 

leaflets 3 4-iugate; peduncles ! -3 -flowered ; 


Plant, pallid, frequently somewhat silvt 
usiialh with onh pallid hairs. 

Leaflets lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 2-3 mm. 
broad, 4 6-jugate; fruit somewhat lunate, 
10-15 mm. long and 3 S mm. high ; talse 

septum completely absent 

64. A. hypsogenus 

Leaflets linear, 1 2 mm. broad, 2-3-jugate; 
fruit oblong, 6-8 mm. long and 2-4 mm. 

isters m 

the leaf-axils. 

intermixed with large bracts. 

Leatlets elliptic to suborbicular, 

clothed with 

non-lustrous hairs, usually glabrescent 

very broad and loose, usually 

(>. ,L "pusihu's 

Leatlets ovate to lanceolate, densely am 

1 peinianenth 

I lei bane strigose, the hairs ca 

loim . corolla 

ca. (> mm long , Bolivia ai 

..67. A 

1. Vrbanianus 

Herbage appressed villous, tin 

corolla ca. 8 mm. long; ( 


r firm and tough, 
silvery. abundantU appressed 
age, not glabrescent ; stipules 

Leatlets orbicular to c 


lite penicillate tuft; stei 

protrude beyond 

the leaflet-apex; stems 

elongating, lorming prostrate mats.. . . 

Plant d 

stinctly pulvinate. the leaves strongly mar- 

nt and persisting on 

even the oldest stems; 

d elongate, internodes 


mm. long; stipules 

. .73. A. pulvinijormis 

Plant < 

"annual' erowth^of 


; stipular sheaths lm- 

te and clothing the 

stem; pods usually 2 

long and 1-2-seede 



gins, back glabrous or 

Caudex dense, 'a n 

ass of crowded strict 

stems and branches intermixed with 

persistent leaf- 

'74. A. Reickei 

Caudex a loose m 

ss of spreading stems 

with tightly sheathing 

ules, old leaves rather 

prompth deciduous 

. . .75. A. fiavocreatus 


>ules broader and more loosely sheathing, 

tube cylindric, densely 

appressed villous. 

Herbage with non-lustrous indument; 

stipules paper> 

albescent; standard 


^ blade; Bolivia and 

. ..76. A. deminutivus 

Herbage with lustrous indument ; stipules 

a suborbicular blade; 

Central Peru.. . 

77. A. Dielsii 



s (Vogel) Reiche, Anal. Univ. Chile 

91: 553 (1897), and Fl. 

C Mi U 1. 

olntui Hoo 
so, Cuming 

). — Type collected at 



.1 W/;,. •:;,',/', 

(H. & A.) Graj 

, Bot. U. S. Explor 

Not liil 

belt (1782) 

( (ill, clfd 


i Tal 

id Linnaea 10: Li 


1 (1897), 

and Fl. 


Type ( 



16 JOl li\\l. OF Fill. ARNOLD ARRORLTI M 

I'h tun ( luimiwonis Vouel, Linnaea 10:502 (LSSo). 

eahuano and Conception, Chamisso. 
Phaca chilexsis Nees, Del. Sem. Hort. Vratislav. ( 1 S.s 

(1S.<0). Di'm iil.e.1 troni garden material; pcrhaj 

to Furope from Chile by Rertero. 
lstiai;alus thilcnsis (Nees) Ken he. Anal. Univ. Chile « 

l5*raga/«i placeus Clos in (lay, Fl. Chile 2 : 1(.) (1 

C//,/0///n amucimn I F. Phil.) Re, eh,-. Anal. Cniv. Chile «)7:.v" (1X07), and Fl 

Chili- 2: 101 (1S0X). 
Astragalus monospermus Philippi, Anal. Cniv. Chile 81:27 (1X0.O; Reiehe, Anal. 

Cniv. Chile <)7:552 (1X07), and Fl. Chile 2:05 (1XQX). Tvpe from Las 

Trancas near Anpol, 1881. 
Astragalus laetcvircns Philippi. Anal. Cniv. Chile K I : .W (1X0S) . Reiehe. Anal. Cniv. 

Chile 97:55.> (1X07). and Fl. Chile 2:% ( 1XOX ) . - - Type eulleeted at Laja, 

Bio Bio, Rahmer. 
Ram. i : Widely distributed in central Chile, extending from the southern parts of 


CHILL: Ataeama: Camarones. herb. Reed as ,1. Yolckmanni (K). Co- 
quimbo: Co,|uimbo, r< Philippi as /'. ochrolcuca (IS. K); La Serena, 10S0. C/u/«/f 
7».vr^A .W-M (ITS) ; Fl Molle, SO km. west of Vicuna, marsh land ahum Co,| U imbo 
River, 400 m. alt.. 10 W. dm. tall. 11. white-yellow or pink. Wa^enknecht 1S4V5 (()) ; 
Oui'b. Arrayan, 25 km. south of Fstacinn Pelieana, 5 dm. tall, tl. \cllow-w bite and 
violet, Wa K enknccht IS-lOo ( C, ) ; ravines of the dept. Ovalle, (7,n 
o'callcnsis, Paris). Aconcagua: Valparaiso. Cuming SSu (tvpe of /'. ochrolcuta, 
R. HMi; Valparaiso, Wilkes Kxped. (I*); hills near Valparaiso. Pertero <S24 (G, Del, 
Paris); Popaico near Valparaiso, Feb. 1X20, day 4o7 (type of A. platens, Paris). 
Santiago: Cord, de Santiago, ex Philippi as /'. ochrolcuca (HI), Boiss). Col- 
cliauua: Cord, de Tin-uiririca, 2S00 m. alt., 1020, Virion 7A (C). Curieo: 
del 'I'eno, Feb. ISO,,, Philippi (G). Maule: Ratios de Loniravi. Jan. 
Valle del Maule superior. Cord. Linares, Jan. 1X07, Reiehe 
as .1. lactcvirens (FM, HI)). Nuble: trail to Volcan Antuio, herb. Reed as /'. 
ochrolcuca (K); Cord, de Chilian. Germain (K, HM, Del, Boiss); Yalle del Rene-ado, 
Jan, 1X77, rx /'/«///>/>/ as A. Chamissonis (Spi-). Coneepeion: La de Con- 
eepeion, /'nr^ <J7 70 (RD); Coneepeion. DTrville (RD), and ('hot/;,*; <V/tf (K); 
between Talcha^uano and Coneepeion, Chamisso (tvpe of .1. Chamissonis, RD); 
Colonel, 1800. Och\enins 444 (RD); Lata, Jan. 1S7S, rv /'//;//>/;/ as />. <-/i;7f«.v;,v 
(Spe.u). Rio-Rio: \alle Renaieo, 1S07, AVeo- (Munich); San Imiacio de Peme- 
hue, Jan. 1894, Philippi (G) ; Freilla, Feb. 1S02, Runtzc as 7'. ,-.jh«-.v, v,/, (NV). 
Cautin: Rudi, Jan. 102S, Claude Joseph 1S7^ ( CS, NY). 

This slender erecl growing fruticose species varies I'nun glahrescent to 
very densely strigose. The plants with the densest indument come from 
the province of Coneepeion and are the typical form of .1. Chamissonis. 
Philippics A. nioiiosprrnuts appears to he this densely strigose form. 
Plants from beyond the province of Coneepeion are much more sparingly 
strigose and some of these Income glabrescent in age. I do not believe 


that practicable segregates of this species can be found upon degree of 
pubescence. The older writers often used greek letters to distinguish this 
variation. Phaca ochroleuca var. fS of Hooker & Arnott, I.e., is based upon 
Cuming s!( > lrnm Concepcion. It is typical .1. Chamissonis. At Paris 
Clos has labeled Gay 586 h. Ch., from "Chile," as the var. j3 and has 
appended a note which probably indicates the source of his var. 8. "Les 
deux echantillons de Phaca ochroleuca H. et Arn. dans Uherbier Webb sont 
differents en ce qu'un est glabre et l'autre est tomenteus." The var. £ 
of .1. platens, Clos. I.e. 109, is based upon Bert era 824 from Valparaiso. 

The inadequately described /'. ehilensis Nees. appears to belong to the 
present species. At Munich there is a good specimen of our present plant 
associated with a label reading "Phaca ehilensis — hort Monoc. — 1838/' 
A similar specimen at Berlin has a label, in three different scripts, which 
may be indicated as follows. "714 — Dalea? e Chile — var. dubia OK 
— HORT. BOT. BEROL. — 31." 

2. Astragalus Pissisi (Phil.), comb, now 

Phaca Pissisi Philippi, Anal. Univ. Chile 18: 46 (1861), and Linnaea 33 : 45 (1864).— 
(liven as based upon material from "Chancre! in prow Coquimbo, Volckmann, 
radix borealis montis de Chacabuea, ipse." 

Astragalus cancsccns var. Pissisi (Phil.) Rciche, Anal. Univ. Chile 97:555 (18<)7), 
and FI. Chile 2:98 (1898). 

Range: Hills south of the Rio Aconcagua and north of Santiago; reported from 

CHILE. Coquimbo: Chanaral, herb Reed as P. Pissisi (K). Aconcagua: 

Philippi as P. Pissisi (HI). Del, Hoi- Slock); Cuesta de Chacabuea, 1500 m. alt., 
1935-36, Grandjot (G) ; near Colina, tl. uhite, Sept. 1801, ex Philippi as P. Pissisi 
(BD, Del). 

One of the collection upon which Philippi originally based this very 
distinct species is labeled as having come from Chanaral. in northwestern 
Coquimbo. Subsequently, however, the species has been found only in the 
region about Chacabuea Pass, to the north of Santiago. I suspect that the 
specimen said to have come from Coquimbo may have been mislabeled. 

The coarse flower, the elongate pedicels, and the large papery long- 
stiped pendulous pods are outstanding characteristics of this species. It is 
very distinct but probably has its closest relative in C. limariensis from 
which it differs in its coarser flowers, more papery pendulous pods and 
broader flat closely strigose leaflets. 

3. Astragalus Edmonstonei (Hook.) Robinson, Proc. Am, Acad. 38:148 (1902). 
Phaca flava Hooker & Arnott. Hot. Misc. 3: 186 (Aug. 1832). — Type collected at 

Valparaiso, Cuming 611. 
Astragalus flavus (11. & A.) Sheldon, Minn. Hot. Studies 1: 158 (1894); Rciche, 
Anal. Univ. Chile 97:5ol (l.so7), and Fl. Chile 2:107 (1898). Not Nuttall 

plants cultivated a! Turin, evidently grown from seed collected by Rertero. 
Astragalus chrvsaiit lius (Mori-) Rciche, Anal. Univ. Chile 97:5o5 (1897), and Fl. 
Chile 2:108 (1898). Not Boiss. & Hohen. (1849). 


Astragalus athnis Steudel, Nom. ed, 2, 1: 15') (1840), nomcn. Based upon material 

Phara Edmon\ionri Hooker, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 20:227 ( 1847) . — Rased 

upon collections inrorrcctK labeled as Iroin the Galapagos I -Kind-, Edmonstonr 
Phara podocarpa Philippi, Anal. I'niv. Chile 80 22 (1893). nom. provis.; Reiehe. 

Anal. Lniv. Chile 97:364 ( 1897), and Fl. Chile 2:107 ( 1898 ). — Based upon 

material from Concon. Not Meyer (1831). 
Phara acutidcns Philippi. Anal. I'niv. Chile 81:16 (1883); Reiehe, Anal. Lniv 

Chile 97: 564 (1897), and Fl. Chile 2: 107 ( 1898) .-- Type from near mouth of 

the Rio Maule, P. Ortega. 
Astragalus Ho henacheri Spegazzini, Vnal. Mus Na< Buenos \ires II, 1: 2<>5 (19C2) 

R.wci,: Central Chile alon- the eoast. 

CHILE. Aconcagua: in paseuis an-nosis maritimis, Ouintero. fl. tlavi, "Verba 
loca," Jan. 1830, Ecrtcro 32/ (Paris, type of .1. ath,us; NV); (h.intero, HYr ( /,T/„„„„ 
/5 (C., I'S, HM, BIJ); in arenosis maritimis ad Ouintero et Concon, Porppig 1W lnl 
(KM, HI). C.eneva, Paris) ; Concon, Oct. 1884, Phdippi as /'. podocarpa ((',) ; Renaea. 
March 1910, ./nff/«-/ oor, (G); Valparaiso, Buchtiai (HI), CS) ; Valparaiso, 18S1, 
Cuminx- nil (K, tvpe of /'. flcrcci). Maule: Constitucion, Oct. 1892, AY/V/ic